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Full text of "Ovid's Fasti, with intr., notes and excursus by T. Keightley"

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GREEK AND LATIN BOOKS, 

SUITABLE FOR SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE INSTRUCTION. 



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OVID^S FASTI; 



INTRODUCTION, NOTES, 



EXCURSUS,^^^C-r:>.. 






THOMAS KEIGHTLEY. 



REMODELED, AND CONSIDERABIiT IMFROYED. 



LONDON: 
WHITTAKER AND CO. AVE MĂRIA LANK 

1848. 



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LONDON : 

OILRERT AND RIVINOTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. john's SQUARB. 



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PREFACE. 



No one, I should think, who has even done nothing more than 
look into Ovîd's Fasti, will refuse his assent to the folio wing 
words of Hercules Ciofanus, one of the earliest editors of this 
poem : Ex omnibus veterum poetarum monumentia nullum 
hodierno die exstat opus, quod, aut eruditione aut rebus quae 
ad Romanam antiquitatem cognoscendam pertineantf hos Ovidii 
Fastorum libros antecellat. In eiFect we have here ancient 
Roman history, relîgîon, mythology, topography, manners 
and customs, and moreover much Grecîan mythology, and 
that portion of the ancient astronomy which regards the 
rising and settîng of the different constellations. These altOr 
gether form a wide field of knowledge ; and the versîfication 
being, moreover, eminently beautiful, there is not, perhaps, in 
the whole compass of classical literature, a work better calcu- 
lated to be put into the hands of students. 

It is now some years since I most unadvisedly yielded to 
the solicitations, of a publisher, and prepared aq^ edition of this 
poem without the aid of many of the necessary books, and 
in a very short space of time. There is no act of my literary 

a2 



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IV PREFACE. 

life which I so much regret. The book was also very incor- 
rectly printed ; yet, with all its defects, it was, perhaps, the 
best edition of the Fasti that haiT appeared in thîs couDtry, 
and it was adopted in one of our great schools, beside some 
respectable private ones. 

The present edition is a totally different book. Indeed, 
thoiigh called a second edition, it is as different as if it had 
been done by another* person. For in the interval of time 
which lies between thenv I have written my Histories of 
Greece and Rome, prepared the second enlarged and improved 
edition of my classic Mythology, resided for some time in 
Italy, and finaljy commented on the more difficult poems of 
Virgil and Horace. Meantime the only really criticai edition 
of the poem, the leamed and elaborate work of Merkel, had 
appeared, and I have thus been enabled to give a better text. 
When to thîs is added that I have had abnndant leisure for 
preparing it, I am surely justified in hoping that it may be the 
means of causing this most pleaising and valuable poem to be 
more generally read and studied'than is the case at present. 

I have sought to give all necessary aid to the student, but 
I wouM not encourage idleness by giving mythic and historic 
narratives in the notes ; I have always, however, referred to 
accessible works where they may be found, and that I deem 
to be all that could be jusdy required. 

T. K. 

Adbury Lodge, Newburt, 
Jpri/ 21, 1848. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



§ I. RISfNGAND 8ETTING OP THE STAB8. §2, THE ROMAN YEAR. 

— $3. MONTH8 AND DAYS OF THE ROMAN YEAR. § 4. THE 

ROMAN FASTI. — } 5. OVID'S POEM ON THE FA8TI. 



.J 1. — Rinng and Settmg of ihe Stars, 

The attention of a people who, like the andent Greeks, dwelt in a 
region where, during a great part of the year, the night might be 
passed in the open air, and no mists or doods obscured the heaven, 
must have been early drawn to those luminous points which are 
Bcattered over it in such profusion. They must have early leamed 
to difitinguish various clusters of them, and thence to give them 
appropriate names. Accordingly, in the most andent portion of 
Gredan literature, the Homeric and Hesiodic poems, we find vari- 
ous groupes of the stars designated by peculiar names. Such are 
Orion, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Bear or Wain, the Dog and 
the Ploughman or Bear-ward (Bootes or Arctophykue), The case 
was the same in the East : we meet in the book of Job (c. ix. 9. 
XXX viii. 31 .) with names for the Pleiades, the Bear, and Orion, and 
(xzvi. 14.) the constellation named the Great Serpent. The people 
of ancient Italy appear to have done the same : the Latin name of 
the Pleiades was VergiUae, that of the Hyades Sucnlae : the seven 
Btars, which form the constellation of the Great Bear, were named 
by them the Septem Triones, or Seven Oxen ; for, as they go round 

A 3 



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VI INTRODUCTION. 

and round the pole without ever settÎDg, tlie analogy between them 
and the ozen, which trod out the corn by going roand and round 
the area or threshing-floor, was an obvious one. The brilliant con- 
stellatîon Orion was named in Italy Jugula, which probably signi- 
iied a i^ohe or couple ; for such it ia in form : of the others, none but 
Greek appellations occur ^ 

A very short acquaintance with the face of the stellar heaven 
sufficed to'show that it did not always remain the same. During a 
part of the year, Orion flamed in full magnificence on the sky, and, 
to the eye of the Grecîan herdsman and hunter, he and his Dog 
pursued the Bear, who kept wcUching him while the Pleiades 
(Peleiades, pigeons) vrere Jlying before him ; at another season the 
sky was destitute of this brilliant scene. It was soon observed that 
the stars made * their ezits and tfaeir entrances* at regular periods, 
corresponding with the changes which took place in the course of 
nature on earth ; and these coincidences were marked and employed 
for agricultural purposes. A people who have no regular scîentiiic 
calendar, always contrives a natural one, taken from ceicstiat or 
terres trial appearances. Thus the North American Aborigines 
designate tlmes and seasons by the flowering of certain plants ; the 
ancient Greeks appear to have done something of the same kind, 
for one of Hesiod's designations of a particular season is, when the 
thistle is in blossom : we ourselves caii the first season of the year 
the SjMÎng (t. e, of plants) ; our forefathers termed and our Trans- 
atlantic brcthren still term the autumn, the Fall (i. e, of the leaves). 

The Greeks, however, seem early to have seen the superior 
accuracy and determinateness of the celestial phenomena. In the 
didactic poem of Hesiod, this mode of marking the times of naviga- 
tion and of rural labours is frequentty employed, and its use was 
retained by the countryfolk of both Greece and Italy far into the 
time of the Roman empire. Those who wrote on rural subjects or 
natural history employed it ; we meet with it in Aristotie, as well 
as in PHny and Columella. 



1 On this Bubject, see Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy, p. 465, ând 
edition. 



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BISINa AND SBTTINa OF THE STARS. Vil 

When intercouree with Egypt and Phoenîcia had called the 
thoughts of the Greeks to natural science, the rude astronomy of 
their rustic forefathers became the subjoct of improvement. The 
name of Thales îs, as was to be ezpected, to be found at the head 
of the cultivators of tlus science. He is said to have been the 
first who taught to distînguish between the real and apparent rising 
and setting of a constellation, which implies a knowledge of spheric 
astronomy. Qis example was followed and observation eztended 
by others ; and as rain, wind, and other aerial phenomena were held 
to be connected with the rising and setting of various signs, the 
times of their risings and settings, both apparent and real, were 
computed by Meton, Eudozus, and other ancient astronomers. 
The tables thus constructed were cut on brass or marbie, and Jixed 
up (whence they were called irapairriyiiaTa) in the several cities 
of Greece, and the peasant or sailor had only to look on one of 
these parapegmata, to know what sign was about to rise or set, and 
what weather might be ezpected. Without considering the differ* 
ence of latitude and longitude, the Romans borrowed the parapeg^ 
mata, like every thing else, from the Greeks. The countryman^ as 
we leam from Pliny (zviii. 60, 65), now ceased to mark the stellar 
heaven ; for a Kalendar taught him when the signs rose and set, and 
on what days he was to ezpect sacrifices and festivals. 

Before the time of Thales it wiEis, of course, only the visible aud 
apparent risings and settings of the signs that were the subject of 
observation. But astronomers now learned to distinguish these 
phenomena into three kinds. These they termed the cosmic, 
acronych, and hetiac risings and settings. The cosmic rising or 
setting (KofffUKbt ifriToXri, or Sv<nsy was the true one in the morn- 
ing ; the acronych (ăcpSvvxoi '), the true one in the evening ; the 
heliac (r/Xiac^c)* the apparent rising in the moming, or setting in the 
evening. A star was said to rise or set cosmically, when it rose or set 
at sun-rise ; it rose or set acronychally, when it rose or set at sun-set ; 
it rose heliacally, when in the moming it just emerged from the 

* *Airpoyv£, dKpwvxia^ t6 âKpo» Tfî« yvKTOff, prima nox^ is evening, the 
beginning (one end) of the night. 

a4 



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Vm INTRODUCTION. 

solar rayg ; it set in the same manner, when in the evening it sauk 
immediately after the sun. 

Some general observations may be made here. 1. Tbe cosmic 
or true mornii^ nsing, and tbe acronycb or true evening setting of 
a star, were matters of calculation, not of observation. 2. In the 
moming tbe true rising precedes the apparent one, perhaps several 
days. 3. In the evening the apparent setting precedes the real 
otie. To illastmte this, let us with Milton suppose it 'spring 
time when the sun with Taurus rides,* the Hjades which are in the 
head of Taurus will rise vrith the sun, but lost in bis effulgence they 
\iill elude our vision ; at length when in his progress through the 
Tauric portion of the ecliptic, he bas left them a sufficient distance 
behind him, their rising (as his motion in the ecliptic is contrary to 
bis apparent diurnal motion) will precede his by a space of time 
which will allow them to be seen. The real evening setting of a 
star, as we have said, is its sinking at the same moment with the sun 
below the horizon ; its heliac setting is its becoming visible as he is 
setting, and then disappearing, that is, ceasing to be visible after 
8un*set, in the western part of the hemisphere. Tbus tbe Hyades 
will set heliacally, i. e. just appear and drop after the sun for some 
days bcfore he,as it were, comes back to them and they sink together. 

Tliere are tbus three risings and three settings of a star, namely . 

The true moming rbing, i. e. the cosmic. 

The apparent moming rising, i. e. the heliac 
The true evening rising, i. e. the acronycb. 

The true moraing setting» i. e. the cosmic. 

The true evening setting, i. e. the acronycb. 

The apparent evening setting, i. e. the heliac. 

Of these, the one which is mdst apt to engage the attention is 
the acronycb or true evening rising, that is, the rising of the star at 
the eastern verge of tbe horizon, at the moment the sun is sinking 
on the western side. It is of this, we think, that Hesiod always 
speaks. The attention of the constructors of parapegmata does not 



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THE BOMAN TEAR. IX 

seem to bave been directed to the risings of the stars at different 
boursofthe night.^ 

§ 2,-^The Roman Year. 

Nothing seems to be betfer established by competent authority, 
than tbat two kinds of year were in use among the ancient Romans, 
the one of ten, the other of twelve months. In tlie usual spirit 
of referring their ancient institutions to those whom they regarded 
as their first kings, the ten-month year was ascribed by them to 
RoDQulus, the improved one of twelve months to Numa. This was 
the current opinion, such as we find it in the following poem i some 
ancient writers, however, such as Licinius Macer and Fenestella, to 
whom we may perhaps add Plutarcb, rejected the ten-month year 
as a mere fiction. Their opinion has been adopted by the great 
Joseph Scaliger, who asserts that the Roman year always consisted 
of twelve months. Both opinions may, we think, be maintained : the 
Romans may, from the beginning of their state, have had a year of 
twelve months, which we wouid caii the Roman year, and yet have 
used along with it a year of ten months, which, for reasons which 
will presently appear, may be termed the Etruscan or cyclic year. 
We will commence by showing that a year of ten months was in use 
even in the time of the republic. 

Ten months was the term for mourning ; the fortunes of 
daughters, left by will, were to be paid in three instalments of ten 
months each ; on the sale of olives, grapes on the vine, and wine in 
the vessels, ten months' credit was given ; the most ancient rate of 
interest also supposes a year of ten months. These are then strong 
presumptions ; but a nearer approach may be made to certainty. 
There was nothing the ancient inhabitants of Italy more carefully 
shunned, than drawing down the vengeance of the gods, by even an 
involuntary breach of faith. It was also the custom, especially of 
the Etruscans, to make peace, under the form of truces, for a certain 
number of years. Now we find that, in the year 280, a peace was 

^ In the following notes we only notice the risings and settings generally, os 
they occur in the morning or the evening. 

a5 



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X INTRODUCTIOK. 

made with Veii for 40 years. In 316 Fidenae revolted and joined 
Veii, which must then have been at war with Rome ; but SI 6^280 
is only 86, yet the Romans, though highly indîgnant, did not accuse 
the Veientines of breach of faith. Suppose the truce made for 40 
teo-month years, and it had ezpired in the year 814. Agaîn, in 
329, a truce was made for twenty years, and Livy says tfaat it had 
expired in 347, but 347-329 is 18, not 20. Let the year have been 
of ton months, and the truce had ended in the year 846. These are 
Etruscan cases, but we find the same mode of proceeding in trans- 
actions with other natîons : a truce for eight years, for instance, was 
made with the Voiscians in 328, and in 331 they were at wtr %nth 
Rome, without being charged with peijury. 

This ten-month year was that of the Etniscans, who were the 
niost learned and cultivated people of the peninsula. As the civil 
years of the Latin and other peoples were formed on varions prin- 
ciples, and difFered in length, the Romans at least, if not the others, 
dee^ed it expedient to use, in matters of importance, a common 
fixed measuro of time. On all points relating to science and reli- 
gion they looked up to the Etruscans ; it was therefore a matter of 
course that their year should be the one adopted. 

This Etruscan year consisted of 304 days, divided into 88 weeks 
of eight days each. It is not absolutely certain that it was also 
divided into months, but all analogy is in favour of such a divbion. 
Macrobius and Solinus say, that it contained six months of 31, and 
fbur of 80 days ; but this does not seem to agree with weeks of eight 
days ; perhaps there were nine months of four weeks, and one of 
two, or more probably eight of four weeks, and two of three'*. This 
year, which depended on neither the sun nor the moon, was a purely 
scientiBc one, founded on astronomical grounds and the accurate 
measurement of a long portion of time. It served the Etruscans 
^as a correction of their civil lunar year, the one which was in corn- ' 
mon use ; and, from the computations which have beeo made, it 
appears, that, by means of it, it may be ascertained that the Etrus- 
cans had determined the exact length of the tropical or solar year, 

* See the C-ambridge Philologicid Museum, No. V. p. 474. 



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MONTHS AND DATS OF THE KOMAK YEAB. XI 

wîth a greater degree of accuracy than is to be found in the Juliaa 
computation. 

Like the Etruscans, the Romana employed for civil purposea a 
lunar year, which they had probablj borrowed also front that people. 
Tbis year, which of course, like every year of the kind, must havo 
Gonaisted of twelve months, fell short of the solar year by the space 
of 1 1 days and 6 houre ; and the mode adopted for bringing them into 
accordance was to intercalate, as it was termed, a month in erery 
other year, during periods of 22 years, these intercalated months 
conaiating alternately of 22 and 23 days. This month was named 
Meroedonius. In the last biennium of the period no intercalation 
took plaee. As five years made a lustre, so five of these perioda 
made a seele, which thus consisted of 1 10 years or 22 lustres, and 
waa the largest measure of time among the Romana. 

The care of intercalating lay with the pontiSs, and they length- 
ened and shortened the year at their pleasure, in order to serve or 
înjure the consuls and farmers of the revenue, according as they 
were hostile or friendly toward them. In consequence of this, 
Juliua Caesar found the year 67 days in advance of the true time, 
when he undertook to correct it by the aid of foreign science. 
From his time the civil year of the Romans was a solar, not a lunar 
one, and the Juiian year continued in use till the Gregorian reform- 
ation of the Calendar. 

We inay thus see that the civil year of the Romans always con- 
sisted of twelve months, and that a year of ten months was in use 
along with it in the early centuries of the state, which served to 
correct it, and which was used in matters of importance. ' 

5 8. — Months and Dayt of the Roman Yean 

It has been usual with all peoples to begin their year at one of the 
^eat points marked by the course of the Sud in the ecliptic, namely, 
the solstices and the equinoxes. The civil year of the Hebrews 
began at the vernal ; their relîgious year, borrowed probably from 

On the subjects treated of in tbis section, see Niebuhr on the Secular Cycle, 
in bis History of Rome, and Scaliger de Emendatione Temporum. 



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XII INTROBtJOTION. 

the Egyptîans, at the autumnal equiuox. Our own civil year, pre- 
vious to the last century, commenced in Marcb, i. e. was regulated 
by the vernal equinox. The Roman year, during the period known 
to us, was regulated by the winter solstice ; but there are reasons for 
supposing that if may at one tîme have commenced with March. 
Siz montfas of the year, it may be observed, have nuraerical names, 
apparently belonging to a yeâr, of which March was the iirst month, 
while the other siz have names of a difFerent nature. This, no 
doubt, may have arisen from the junction of two years belonging to 
different peoplo, one of which, the cyclic, may have proceeded 
numerically ; yet still it is deserving of notice that the months, 
Quinctîlis, Seztilis, etc, are all apparently reckoned from March. 
But as this may have been caused by the taking of the names of 
the first six months of the one, the last siz of the other year, we 
cannot raise any theory on this foundation. 

The oriental division of tîme into weeks of seven days, though 
resulting so naturally from the phases of the moon, was not known 
at Rome till the time of the emperors. The Etruscan year, as we 
have seen, consisted of weeks of eight days ; and in the Roman 
custom of holding markets on the nundinet, or every ninth day, we 
see traces of its former use ; but a different mode of dividing the 
month seems to have early begun to prevail. 

In the Roman month there were three days with peculiar names, 
from their places with relation to which the other days were de- 
nominated. These were the Kalends (Kaiendae or Calendae), the 
Nones (Nonae), and the Ides (Idut or Eidtu). The Kalends 
(from calare^ to proclaim») were the first day of the month ; the 
Nones (from nonus, ninth) were the nifUh day before the Ides, 
reckoning inclusively ; the Ides (from iduare, to divide,) fell about, 
not ezactly on, the middle of the months. In March, May, Juiy, 
and October, the Ides were the 15th, and consequently the Nones 
the 7th day of the month ; in the remaining months the Ides were 
the I3th, the Nones the 5th. The space, therefore, between the 
Nones and Ides was always the same ; those between the Kalends 
and Nones, and the Ides and Kalends, were subject to variation. 
Originally, however, as it would appear, the latter space also was 



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MONTHS AND DATS OF THE BOMAN TEAR. XIU 

fi ied : thiere were tbus in every monţh, exeept Febriiaiy, 16 days 
from the Ides to the Kalends ; and the months, tberefore, connsted 
of dl and 29 days, February having 28. It was only necessary ihen 
to know how many days there were between tbe Kalenda and 
Nones, as tbe remaiDing portions were constant. Accordingly, on 
the day of new moon, one of the pontiffs cried aloud that number, 
thtis intimating tbe daj of tbe Nones, whicb was quite snfficient for 
the people^ In the Julîan Kalendar, Jannary, Augast, and De* 
cember were raised from 29 to 31 daysywhile their Nones and Ides 
remaiaed uncbanged. 

We thus see that the Roman month was, like the Attic, divided 
into tbree portions : but its dîyision was of a more complex and em- 
barrasmng kind ; for while the Attic month consîsted of tbree de- 
cades of days, and each day was called the fir»t» second, third, or so, 
of the decade, to which it belonged, the days of the Roman month 
were counted with reference to the one of the tbree great days 
whicb was before them. It is not, perhaps, quite correct to say 
that tbe Romans counted backwards ; for, taking the month of 
January for an exaraple, the first day was tbe Kalends, the second 
was tben viewed witb reference to the approaching Nones, and 
was denominated the fourth before the Nona : the day after tbe 
Nones was the eighih hefore the Idei ; the day after the Ides, the 
fâneteenih hefore the Kalendt of February. So that in effect it was 
just as wben one is traveling from tbe country up to London or 
any other capital, and he sees tbe numbers decreasing on the mile* 
stones as he advances. 

* Primi dies mensium noTninatae CaUndae^ ah eo quod his didnta oalantur ejus 
mentiB Nome a pontifiei/nUy quintanae an septimanae sini futurae, in Capiiolio 
in Curia Calahra sic: Dies te quinque calo Juno Covella. Septem dies 
te calo Juno Covella^ Varro L. L. vi. 27. The word covella kere is perhaps 
with reason supposed to be i. q. icoIXti, and to denote the hollowness of the 
moon daring the iint quarter. As this does noi apply to Juno, who wai never 
held to be the moon, we would adopt the opinion of Scaliger (De Em. Temp. 
p. 174), that the original word was Jana, which we know to have been the moon : 
see Mythol. p. 520. The Romans, when their religion had been Hellenised, 
appe^r to hare made freqnent changes of this kind. Thus we are told by Diony- 
sius and Festus (ib. p. 526), that Horatius made offerings to the Juno of his 
sister and the Janus of the Cariaţii, where the last must have been the Crenius, 
for no one ever heard of the Janus of a man. 



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XIV INTRODUCTION. 

The technical phraseology of the Roman Kalendar ran thus. The 
numeral was usually put in the ablative case, and, as the names of 
the months were adjectives, they were made to agree with the Ka- 
lends, etc, or foilowed in the genitive, meruis being underatood. 
Thus, to say that an event occurred on the Ides of March, the term 
would be Idibut Marlus, or IdUfus Marin (mensit), So also of the 
Kalends and Nones i for any othec day the phrase wonld be, for 
ezample, tertio Kalendat, i. e. tertio (die ante) Kalendat or tertio (die) 
JCalendarum, The day before any of the three principal days was 
pridie (i. e. priore die) Kalendat or Kalendarum, Nonas or Komarum, 
Idut or Iduum. 

Another mode of expression was to use a preposition and an 
accusative case. Thus, for tertio Nbnas they would say ante diem 
tertmm Nbnas, which was written a. d, III. Nbn, This form is very 
much employed by Livy ând Cicero. It was even used objectively, 
and governed of the prepositions in and ex, We thus meet in ante 
tertium Nbnat, and ex ante diem Nbnat in these authors. Another 
preposition thus employed is ad; we meet ad pridie Nonas. 

As the Romans reckoned inclusively, we must be careful in 
assigning any particular day to its place in the month, according to 
the modern mode of reckonîng. We must, therefore, always 
diminîsh the given number by one, or we shall be a day behind. 
Thus, the 5thof June being the Nones, the drd is III. Non.; butif 
we subduct 3 from 5, we get the 2nd insteăd of the Srd of the 
month. The rule then is, as we know the days on which the Nones 
and Ides fall in eacfa month, to subduct from that day the Roman 
number minus 1, and we have the day of the month. For days be- 
fore the Kalends, subduct in the same manner from the number of 
days in the month. 

The Romans further divided the days of the year into two classes, 
nAmedfesti and profesti : the first, answering to our Sundays and holi- 
days, conlained all festivals, faolidays, etc. ; the second, answering to 
our week-or working-days, thoseon which ordinary business might be 
transacted, Some days, as we shall see, partook of the character of 
both. Another corresponding division was inio/asti and nefixsU, The 
diesfasti were those on which courts sat and justice was adminîstered ; 



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M0NTH8 AND DAYS OP THB ROMAN YBAR. XV 

and thej were so named, because on them the praetor might pro- 
nounce {fari) the three legal words Do (bonorum poueuionem), 
Di^ (jut), Addico (id de quo quaeritur) : and these were again sub* 
divided into^^ properly so called, on which the courts of justice 
sat, but assemblies (comUia) could not be held, and comiiiales, on 
which all kinds of legal and public business might be transacted. 
The diesnefiuti were in like manner subdivided into nefatti, properly 
so called, on which the courts did not sit, but every other kind of 
business, public or private, might be transacted, and diet reUgjutn or 
alrit on which no public business, unless. of the utmost necessity, 
could be engaged in (Gell. iv. 9). There were, beside these, days 
marked in the Fasti NP. and £N., part of which were^^, and part 
nefoit, The former, like our halfholiday, appear to have been 
nefatt in the morning,^/ during the remainder of the day ; NP. 
signifying nefattui principio or neftutus parte, The days marked 
EN. were named interciti, and they were nefasl in the moming and 
evening, fast in the middle of the day ^ 

In the Fasti which have been discovered ^ we may observe on 
the lefît the letters A — H succeeding each other in regular series. 
These denote the Nundines or weeks. Neit to these, in some, are 
marked alone the Kal. Non. Id. of each month, while others give 
also the intermediate days. The names of festivals, etc, are then 

' Inter eisi dies sunt per quo» mane et vesperi est ne/as^ medio tempore inter 
kostiam caesam et exta porredafas; a quo quod fas turn intercedit cmt eo est 
taterâtum ne/as, intercisum^ Yarro, L. L. vi. 31. That there was a space of 
probably some houra inter caesa et porrecta, as it was proverbially termed, is 
manifest from this place, and from Id. ib. vi. 16. Endo, we maj observe, waş 
an old forai oft», whence the EN. of the Fasti. 

s The principal of these Fasti are the Maffeian, discovered at Rome in 1547 ; 
the Praenestine, or those of Yerrius Flaccus, found at Praeneste in 1774, and 
publisbed by Foggini, Rome, 1779, along with the iragments of the Amiternian, 
Yenusinian, and such other Kalendars as had been discovered. All these and 
others have been again publishi»! by Orelli in his Corpus Inscripţionam. At the 
end of this Introduction we give the first six months of the Tabula Maffeiana, 
which, according to Merkel (p. xvii. seq.), was made A. U. 757-759, and there- 
fore at the very time that Ovid was engaged on his Fasti. The numerals which 
we have placed on the left do not belong to it, neither do the days marked in 
Italics, between the K. N. Io. We have inserted these as they are iu the Prae- 
nestine tables. 



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XVI INTEODUCTION. 

set down, and each has N. F. C. NP. EN., according asit k neCast, 
hst, comttia], etc. After them b aometimes gi?en in eroaller letters 
some public event. * 

§ 4.— 77<tf Roman Fastu 

The Roman patricians derived from theîr Tuscan instructors the 
practice, cotnmon to sacerdotal castes, of maintaining power by 
keepîng tbe people în ignorance of matters which, though simple in 
themselves, were of frequent use, and tbence of importance. One 
of tbe tbings, wbicb sucb bodies are most desirous of enveloping in 
roystery and confining the knowledge of to themselves, is the 
Kalendar, by which religious rites and legal proceedings are regu- 
lated. Accordingly, for a long time, the Roman people had no 
means of learning with certainty what days were fasH and what not, 
but by appiyingto th^e pontifl^in wbose house the tables of the FtuH 
were kept, or by the proclamation, which used to be made by the 
Rez Sacrorum, of tbe festi^als which were shortly to take place. 
As we have seen above, the knowledge of the length of the ensuing 
month could only be obtained in the same manner. This, and the 
power of intercalating, gave a highîy injurious degree of power to 
the pontiffs. 

Accordingly, nothing could exceed the indignation of the senate 
when, in the year 449, Flavius, the clerk or secretary of App. 
Claudius, as a most efFectual mode of gaining the popular favour, 
secretly made tables of the Kalendar, and set them up about the 
Forum '. Thus the diet fasH and ne/asti, the stative festivals, the 
anniversaries of the dedications of temples, etc, came to be known 
to every one. The days of remarkable actions, such as the suc- 
cesses and reverses of the arms of the republic, were also noted. 
Copies for the use of the public and individuals were multiplied : 
the municipia and other towns of Italy, as the fragments which have 
bcen discovered show, followed the example of Rome ; and the 
colonies, in this as in every thing else, presented the mother-city in 
little. The custom was transmitted to modern Europe, and, in the 

» Liv. ix. 40: 



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OVIDS POBM ON THB FASTL XVII 

Kalendar part of our own Almanacks, we may see a copy of those 
Fasti, which once formed a portion of the mysterioas treftiurea of 
Ahe patricians of ancîent Rome. 

These were the Fasti Sacri or Kalendares : but the word Fasti 
wasapplied to another kind of regîster, named the Fasti Histprici 
or Consulares, which contained the names of the mag^tratesof each 
year, especially the consuls ; and the chief events of the year were ' 
set down in them, so that they formed a kind of annals of the state. 
When we read of the name of any consul, as was the case with L. 
and M. Antonius, being erased from the Fasti by a seuatusconsult, 
it is aiways these Fasti that are meant. 

§ 5. — Ovicrt Poem on the FatH, 

Ovid's Fasti, as a poem, is unique : there is nothing similar to it, 
that we can recoUect, in any language. To form an idea of it, we 
may conceive a modern poet to have taken the Kalendar of our 
Almanacks as the gfound of a poetic, work. After an introduction 
reapecting time, the year, and such matters, he would give an 
account of New-y'ear's day and the mode of celebrating it. He would 
then probably reiate the circumcision of our Lord and events con* 
nected with it, and perhaps notice the accomplishment of the legis- 
lative union between England and Ireland. He might then display 
his narrative and descriptive powers in an account of the Epiphany, 
and perhaps then sing Rodney's victory off Cape St. Vincent amid 
darkness and tempest in 1780, and, thus proceeding, conclude the 
month with a poetic view of the death on the scaffold of Charles L, 
just as Ovid concludes his second book with the Regifugium. Such 
then really is the Fasti of Ovid, with the exception of the rising 
and setting of the celestial signs, and the mythic tales connected 
with them, which a modem poet would of course omit. 

Ovid probably derived his historical notices from the various 
annalists, of whom Rome had so many, commencing with Fabius 
Pictor in the sixth century. He may even have read the works of 
Dionysius and Livy : he was certainly familiar with the Annals of 
Ennius. His knowledge of political and religious ceremonios and 



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XVIII INTBODUCTION. 

institutions he may have obtained froin the works of Cincius, Varro, 
and other aotiquaries. His întimacy with Gredan literaturo left 
him at no loss respecting mythic legenda. It has been shown to be. 
highly probable that one of his leamed friends, named Clodius 
Tuscus, compiled for his use a Fasti Astronomici, of which a Greek 
translation is extant, and that his notices of the rising and setting of 
the stars have been taken from that work. As his guide, he may 
have taken one of the ordinary Fasti, which were cut on marble and 
set up in public ; perhaps, the very one of which we have given a 
portion, and which Merkel has shown to be contemporary with his 
poem. Finally, as various parts of it show, he was not negligent in 
making personal inquiry concerning remarkable practices. 

This poem, on which Ovid was engaged at the time of his myste- 
rious relegation in 762 to Tomi on the Euzine, was apparently 
never completed. In the long ezculpatory epistle to Augustus, 
which forms the second book of his Tristia, he speaks of having 
written it in twelve books ; but that may only mean that he had iO'» 
tended it to be of that length : certain it is, that not the sl^htest 
trace of the last six books is to be found. It was originally addressed 
to Augustus ; but in 769, after the death of that prince, when Ger- 
manicus, the adopted son of Tiberius, was going to the East, the 
exiled poet conceived the idea of revbing his Fasti, and dedicating 
it to that amiable and accomplished prince. He had only gone 
through the first book, when death terminated his labours. Hence 
we find that book addressed to Germanicus, but all the reraainder 
to Augustus. 



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TABULA MAFFEIANA 



1 A K. JAN. F. 

2 Bir. F. 

3 C ///. C. 

4 D Pr. C. 

5 £ NON. F. 

6 F VIIL F. 



7 G 

8 H 

9 A 

10 B 

11 C 

12 D 

13 £ 

14 F 

15 6 

16 H 

17 A 

18 B 

19 C 

20 D 

21 £ 

22 F 

23 6 

24 H 

25 A 

26 B 

27 C 



VIL C. 

VI, C. 

V. AGON. 

IV, EN. 

///. CAR. NP. 

Pb.C. 

EID. NP. 
X/XEN.D1B8VI. 

TIOS. BX S. C. 
XVIIL CAR. 

XVII. c. 
XVI, c. 
XF.C. 
XIV, C. 
XI IL C. 
XII. C, 
XI. C, 
X,C, 
IX, C, 
VIII. C. 

VII, C. 

VI. C, 



28 D V, C. 

29 £ IV, F. 

30 F III. N. 

31 G Pr. C. 



H K. FEB. N. 

A IV. N. 
B ///. N. 
C Pr. N. 

D NON. 

£ VIII. N. 



F F//. N. 
G FJ. N. 
HF.N. 
A /F. N. 
B ///. N. 
C Pr,N. 

D EID. NP. 

£ XVI, N. 

F XV. LUPER. NP. 

G XIV. £N. 

H XIII. QuiR. NP. 

A XII. C. 

B XI. C. 

C XC. 

D IX. PERAL. F. 

E VIILC. 

F FI/. TER.NP. 

G F/.REQip.N. 
H V.C. 
A JF. EN. 
B ///. EQ. NP. 



C Pr. C. 



D K. MAR. NP. 

£ VI, F. 

F F. C. 

G IV, C. 

H ///. C. 

A Pr. NP. Hoc DiE 

CAESAR PONTIF. 
MAXIM. FACT. EST. 
B NON. F. 

C VIII.F. 
D VII. C. 
£ VI, C. 
F F.C. 
G IV, C. 
H ///. EN. 
A Pr. Eq. NP» 

B EID. NP. 

C XVII, F. 

D XP'I. LiB. NP. 

fi XV. C. 

F XIV. QuiN. N. 

G XIII. C. 

H XII. C. 

A XL N. 

B X. TUBIL. NP. 
C /X. <i.REX. c. F. 

D VIIL C. 
£ F//. C. 

F VI. NP. HOC DIB 
CAESAR ALEXAND. 
RBCBPIT. 

G F.C. 

H IV, C, 
A ///. C. 
B Pr. C. 



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TABULA MAFFEIANA. 



1 C K. A.... 




...N. 


2 D IV,.. 


VI,.. 


.IV,.. 


3 E ///. C. 


V„. 


III, C. 


4 F Pr. LUD. MAT». MAG. 


IV.,, 


C PR.C. 


6 G NON. LUDI. 


E ///. C. 


D NON. 


6 H VIII, NP. LUDI. 


F PR.C. 


E VIII, N. 


7 A VII. N. LUDI. 


G NON. N. 


F VII. N. 


8 B F/. N.LUDi. 


H VIII, F. 


G VI. N. MENTI. IN 




• 


CAPIT. 


9 C r. N. LUDI. 


A F//.LEM.N. 


H F. VEST. N. FER. 
VESTAE. 


10 D /F.N. LUD. INCIK. 


B VI. C. 


A IV, N. 


11 E ///. N. 


C F. LEM. N. 


B ///. MATR. N. 


12 F Pr. N.LUDI CERERI. 


D IV, NP. LUD. 
MART. IN CIRC. 


C PR.N. 


13 G *EID. NP. LUDT. 


E ///. LEM. N. 


D EID. N. 


14 H JTF///. N.LUDI. 


F Pr. C. 


E XVIII, E, 


16 A Xr//.FORD.NP. 


G EID. NP. 


F XVII, Q. ST. D. F. 


LUDI. 






16 B XVI, N. LUDI. 


HXVILF. 


G XVI, C. 


17 C XV, N.BuDi. 


A XVI, C. 


H XV, C. 


18 D XIV. N. LUDI. 


B XV, C. 


A X/F. C. 


19 E XIII, CBR. N. LUD. 


C XIV. C. 


B XIII. C. 


IN CIR. 






20 F XII, N. 


D XIII, C. 


C XII, C. 


21 G XI, PAR. NP. 


E XII, AGON. NP. 


D X/. C. 


22 H X N. 


F XI, N. 


EXC. 


23 A IX, VIN. NP. 


G X, TUB. NP. 


F IX, C. 


24 B VIII, C. 


H/X<i.R.c.F. 


G VIII, C. 


26 C VII, ROB. NP. 


A VIII. C. 


H F//. C. 


26 D VI, F. 


B VII, C. 


A VI, C. 


27 E V.C, 


C VI. C. 


B F. C. 


28 F JF.NP. LUD.FLOR. 


D F. C. 


C IV. C. 


29 G ///. C. LUDI. 


E IV, C. 




30 H PR.C.LUDI. 


F ///. C. 


D ///. F. 


31 


G Pr. C. 


EPR.C. 



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P. OVIDII NASONIS 
FASTORUM 

LIBER I. 



Tempera cum causis Latium digesta per annum, 

Lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa canam. 
Excipe pacato, Caesar Germanice, vultu 

Hoc opus, et timidae dirige navis iter ; 
Officioque, levem non aversatus honorem, 5 

Huic tibi devoto numine dexter adea 
Sacra recognosces annalibus eruta prîscis, 

Et quo sit merito quaeque notata dies. 
Invenies illic et festa domestica vobis ; 

Saepe tibi pater est, saepe legendus avus. ]0 

Quaeque ferunt illi pictos signantia fastos. 

Tu quoque cum Druso praemia fratre feres. 
Caesans arma canant alii, nos Caesaris aras, 

Et quosciimque sacris addidit iile dies. 
Annue conanti per laudes ire tuorum, 15 

Deque meo pavidos excute corde metus. 
Da mini te placidum, dederis in carmina vires ; 

Ingenium vultu statque caditque tuo. 
Pagina judicium docţi subitura movetur 

jrrincipis, ut Clario missa legenda deo. 20 

Quae sit enisl culţi facundia sensimus oris, 

Civica pro trepidis cum tulit arma reis. 
Scimus et, ad nostras cum se tulit impetus artes, 

Ingenii currant flumina quaţita tui. 
Scilicet ut fas est, vâtes rege vatis habenas, 2$ 

Auspicio felix totus ut annus eat. 

B 



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2 FASTORUM 

Tempora digereret cum condîtor urbis; in anno 

Constituit menses quinque bis esse suo. 
Scilicet arma magis quam sidera, Romule, noras, 

Curaque finitimos vincere major erat. 30 

Est tamen et ratio, Caesar, quae moverit illum, 

Erroremque suum quo tueatur habet 
Quod satis est utero matris dum prodeat infans, 

Hoc anno statuit temporis esse satis ; 
Per totidem menses a funere conjugis uxor 35 

Sustinet in vidua tristia signa domo. 
Haec igitur vidit trabeati cura Quirini 

Cum rudibus populis annua jura daret. 
Martis erat primus mensis, Venerisque secundus, 

Haec generis princeps, ipsius iile pater. 40 

Tertius a senibusjuvenum de nomine quartus, 

Quae sequitur numero turba notata ftiit. 
At Numa nec Janum nec avitas praeterit umbras, 

Mensibus antiquis praeposuitque duos. 

Ne tamen ignores variorum jura dierum ; 45 

Non habet officii Lucifer omnis idem. 
Iile Nefastus erit, per quem tria verba silentur ; 

Fastus erit, per quem lege licebit agL 
Neu toto perstare die sua jura putaris ; 

Qui jam Fastus erit, mane Nefestus erat. 50 

Nam simul exta deo data sunt licet omnia fari, 

Verbaque honoratus libera praetor habet. 
Est quoque quo populum jus est includere septis ; 

Est quoque qui nono semper ab orbe redit. 
Yindicat Ausonias Junonis cura Ealendas ; 55 

Idibus alba Jovi grandior agna cădit ; 
Nonarum tutela deo caret. Omnibus istis 

— Ne faUare cave — prozimus Ater erit. 
Omen ab eventu est, illis nam Roma diebus 

Damna sub adverso tristia Marte tulit. 60 

Haec mihi dicta semel totis haerentia fastis. 

Ne seriem rerum scindere cogar, erunt 

KAL. IsT. 

Ecce tibi faustum, Grermanice, nuntiat annum, 

Inque meo primus carmine Janus adest. 



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UBEB L 3 

Jane biceps, anni tacite labentis origo, 65 

Solus de superis qui tua tei^a vides, 
Dexter ades ducibus, ş[Uonim secura kbore 

Otia terra ferax,. otia pontus agit 
Dexter ades patribusque tuis populoque Quirini, 

Et resera nutu candida templa tuo. 70 

Prospera lux oritur ; linguisque animisque favete : 

Nune dicenda Tx»no sunt bona verba die. 
Lite vacent aures, insanaque protinus absint 

Jurgia ; differ opus, livida turba, tuum. 
Cemis odoratis ut luceat ignibus aether, 76 

Et sonet accensis spica Cilissa focis ? 
Flamma nitore suo templorum verberat aurum, 

Et tremulum summa spargit in aede jubar. 
Vestibus intactis Tarpeias itur in arces, 

Et populus festo ct)ncolor ipse suo est. 80 

Jamque novi praeeunt fasces, nova purpura fiilget, 

Et nova conspicuum pondera sentit ebur. 
CoUa rudes operum praebent ferienda juvenci, 

Quos aluit campis herba Falisca suiş. 
Juppiter, arce sua cum totum spectat in orbem, 85 

Ni\ nisi Romanum quod tueatur habet. 
Salve, laeta dies, meliorque revertere semper, 

A populo rerum digna potente coli ! 



Quem tamen esse deum te dicam, Jane biformis ? 

Nam tibi par nullum Grraecia numen habet. 90 

Ede simul causam cur de caelestibus unus, 

Sitque quod a tergo sitque quod ante, vides. 
Haec ego cum sumptis agitarem mente tabellis, 

Lucidior visa est, quam fiiit ant^, domus. 
Turn sacer ancipiti mirandus imagine Janus 95 

Bina repens oculis obtulit ora meis. 
Extimui, sensique metu riguisse capillos, 

Et gelidum subito frigore pectus erat. 
nie, tenens dextra bacidum clavemque sinistra, 

Edidit hos nobis ore priore sonos : 100 

Disce, metu posito, vates ojperose dierutn, 

Quod petis, et vooes percipe mente meas. 
b2 



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4 FASTORUM 

Me Chaos antiqui — ^nam sum res prisca — vocabant, 

Aspice, quam longi temporis acta canam. 
Lucidus hic aer et quae tria corpora restant, 105 

Ignis, aquae, tellus, unus acervus erant. 
Ut semel haec rerum secessit lite suarum, 

Inque novas abiit massa soluta domos, 
Altum flamma petit ; propior locus aera cepit ; 

Sederunt medio terra fretumque solo. i io 

Tune ego, qui fueram globus et sine imagine moles, 

In faciem redii dignaque membra deo. 
Nune quoque, confusae quondam nota parva figurae, 

Ante quod est in me postque videtur idem. 
Accipe quaesitae quae causa sit altera formae, 115 

Hanc simul ut noris oflSciumque meum. 
Quidquid ubique vides, caelum, mare, nubila, terras, 

Omnia sunt nostra clausa patent'que mânu. 
Me penes est unum vasti custodia mundi, 

Et jus vertendi cardinis omne meum est. 1 20 

Cum libuit Pacem placidis emittere tectis, 
î Libera perpetuas ambidat illa vias. 
Sîinguine letifero totus miscebitur orbis, 

Ni teneant rigidae condita bella serae. 
Praesideo foribus caeli cum mitibus Horis ; 125 

It, redit officio Juppîter ipse meo. 
înde vocor Janus : cui cum Cereale sacerdos 

Imponit libum farraque mixta sale, 
Nomina ridebis ; modo namque Patulcius idem, 

Et modo sacrifice Clusius ore vocor. 130 

Scilicet altemo voluit rudis illa vetustas 

Nomine diversas significare vices. 
Vis mea narrata est : causam nune disce figurae ; 

Jam tamen hane aliqua tu quoque parte vides. 
Omnis habet geminaâ hinc atque hinc janua frontes, 135 

E quibus haec populum spectat, at illa LareuL 
tJtque sedens vester primi {>rope limina tecti 

Janitor egressus introitusque videt ; 
Sic ego prospicio, caelestis janitor aulae, 

Eoas partes Hesj^eriasque simul. 140 

Ora vides Hecates in tres vergentia partes, 

Servat ut in temas compita secta vias ; 



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LIBEB I. 5 

Et mihi, ne flexu cervicis tempora perdam. 

Cernere non moto corpore bina licet. 
Dixerat, et vultu, si plura requirere vellem, 145 

Diffîcilem mihi se non fore &ssus erat. 
Sumpsi animum, gratesque deo non territus egi, 

Yerbaque sum spectans pauca locutus humum : 
Dîc, age, frigoribus quare novus incîpit annus, 

Qui melius per ver incipiendus erat ? 150 

Omnia tune florent, tune est nova temporis aetas, 

Et nova de gravide ţ)almite gemma tumet, 
Et modo formatis operitur frondibus arbos, 

Prodit et in summum seminis herba solum, 
Et tepidum volucres conoentibus aera mulcent, 155 

Ludit et in pratis luxuriatque pecus, 
Tum blandi soles, ignotaque prodit hirundo, 

Et luteum celsa sub trabe figit opus, 
Tum patitur eultus ager et renovatur aratro ; 

HsBC anni novitas jure vocanda fuit. i6o 

Quaesieram multis : non multis iile moratus, 

Contulit in versus sic sua verba duos : 
Bruma novi prima est veterisque novissima solis ; 

Principium capiunt Phoebus et annus idem. 
Post ea mirabar, cur non sine litibus esset 165 

Prima dies. Causam percipe, Janus ait. 
Tempora commisi nascentia rebus agendis, 

Totus ab auspicio ne foret annus iners. 
Quisque suas artes ob idem delibat agende, 

Nec plus quam solitum testificatur opus. 170 

Mox ego : Cur, quamvis aliorum numina plăcem, 

Jane, tibi primo tura merumque fero ? 
Ut per me possis aditum, qui limina servo, 

Ad quoscum^ue voles, inquit, habere deos. 
At cur laeta tms dicuntur verba Kalendis, 175 

Et damus alteiTias accipimusque preces ? 
Tum deus incumbens baculo, quem dextra gerebat, 

Omina principiis, inquit, inesse solent. 
Ad primam vocem timidas advertitis aures, 

Et primum visam consulit augur avem. iso 

Templa patent auresque deum, nec lingua caducas 

Concipit ulla preces, dictaque pondus habent. 
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6 FASTORTTM 

Desierat Janus ; nee longa silentia feci, 

Sed tetigi verbis ultima verba meis : 
Quid vuit palma sibi rugosaque carica, dixi, 185 

Et data sub niVeo candida mella cado ? 
Omen, ait, causa est, ut res sapor iile sequatur, 

£t peragat coeptum dulcis ut annus iter. 
Dulcia cur dentur video ; stipis adjice causam, 

Pars mihi de feste ne labet ulla tuo. 190 

Risit, et, O quam te fallunt tua saecula, dixit, 

Qui stipe mei sumpta dulcius esse putes ! 
Vîx ego Satumo quemquam reghante videbam, 

Cujus non anime duleia lucra forent. 194 

Tempore crevit amor, qui nune est summus, habendi ; 

Vix ultra quo jam progrediatur babet. 
Pluris opes nune sunt quam prisci temporis annis, 

Dum populus pauper, dum nova Roma fuit, 
Dum casa Martigenam capiebat parva Quirinum, 

Et dabat exiguum flummis ulva torum. 200 

Juppiter augusta vix totus stabat in aede, 

Inque Jovis dextra fictile fulmen erat. 
Frondibus ornabant, quae nune Capitolia gemmis, 

Pascebatque suas ipse senator oves ; 
Nec pudor in stipula placidam cepisse quietem, 205 

Et foenum capiti supposuisse fuit. 
Jura dabat populis posito modo praetor aratro, 

Et levis argenti lamina crimen erat. 
At postquam fortima loci caput extulit bujus, 

Et tetigit summos vertice Roma deos ; 210 

Creverunt et opes et opum fîiriosa cupido, 

Et cum possideant plmîma plura volunt. 
Quaerere ut absumant, absumpta requirere certant ; 

Atque ipsae vitiis sunt alimenta vices. 
Sic, quibus intumuit suffusa venter ab unda, 215 

Quo plus sunt potae, plus sitiuntur aquae. 
In pretio preţium nune est ; dat census honores, 

Census amîcitias ; pauper ubique jacet. 
Tu tamen auspicium si sit stipis utile quaeris, 

Curque juvent nostras aera vetusta manus. 220 

Aera dabant olim ; melius nune omen in auro est, 

Victaque concessit prisca moneta novae. 



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LIBEB I. 7 

Nos quoque templa juvant, quamvis antiqua probemus, 

Aurea ; majestas convenit ista deo. 
Laudamus veteres sed noatria utimnr annis ; 225 

Mos tamen est aeqne dignus uterque coli. 
Finierat monitus ; placidis ita rursus, ut ante, 

Clavigenim verbis alloquor ipse deum : 
Multa quidem didici : sed cur navalis in aere 

Altera signata est, altera forma biceps ? 230 

Noscere me duplici posses ut imagine, dixit, 

Ni vetus ipsa dies extenuaret opus. 
Causa ratis superest : Tuscum rate venit in amnem 

Ante pererrato falcifer orbe deus. 
Hac ego Satumum memini tellure receptum ; 235 

Caelitibus regnis ab Jove pulsus erat. 
înde diu genţi mansit Saturnia nomen ; 

Dicta quoque est Latium terra latente deo, 
At bona posteritas puppim formavit in aere, 

Hospitis adventum testificata deL 240 

Ipse solum colui, cujus placidissima laevum 

Badit arenosi Tibridis unda latus. 
Hic, ubi nune Boma est, incaedua silva virebat, 

Tantaque res paucis pascua bubus erat. 
Arx mea collis erat, quem cultrix nomine nostro 245 

Nuncupat haec aetas, Janiculumque vocat. 
Tune ego regnabam, patiens cum terra deorum 

Esset, et bumanis numina mixta locis. 
Nondum Justitiam facinus mortale fugarat, 

— Ultima de superis illa reliquit bumum — 250 

Proque metu populum sine vi pudor ipse regebat ; 

Nullus erat justis reddere jura labor ; 
Nil mihi cum beUo, pacem postesque tuebar ; 

Et clavem ostendens, Haec, ait, arma gero. 
Presserat ora deus : tune sic eşo nostra resolvo, 255 

Voce mea voces eliciente dei : 
Cum tot sint Jani, cur stas sacratus in uno, 

Hic ubi jimcta foris templa duobus habea ? 
Iile mânu mulcens propexam ad pectora barbam, 

Protinus OebaUi rettulit arma Taţi, 260 

Utque levis custos armiUis capta Sabinis 

Ad summae tacitos duxerit arcis iter, 
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8 FASTORUM 

înde, velut nune est, per quem descendîtis, inquit, 

Arduus in valles et fora cUvus erat 
Et jam contigerant portam, Satumia cnjus 265 

'Dempserat oppositas insidiosa seras. 
Cum, tanto ventus committere numine pugnam, 

Ipse meae movi callidus artis opus, 
Oraque, qua poUens ope sum, fontana reclusi, 

Sumque repentinas ejaculatus aquas. 270 

Ante tamen madidis subjeci sulfura venis, 

Clauderet ut Tatio fervidus humor iter. 
Cujus ut utilitas pulsis percepta Sabinis, 

Quae fuerat tuto reddita forma loco est ; 
Ara mihi posita est parvo coi\juncta sacello : 275 

Haec adolet flammis cum strue farra suiş. 
At cur pace lates, motisque recluderis armis ? 

Nec mora, quaesiti reddita causa mihi. 
Ut populo reditus pateant ad bella profecto, 

Tota patet dempta janua nostra sera. sso 

Pace fores obdo, ne qua discedere possit : 

Caesareoque diu nomine clausus ero. 
Dixit et, attoUens oculos diversa tuentes, 

Aspexit toto quidquid in orbe fuit. 
Pax erat, et vestri. Germanice, causa triumphi 285 

Tradiderat famulus jam tibi Rhenus aquas. 
Jane, face aetemos pacem pacisque ministros, 

Neve suum, praesta, deserat auctor opus. 

Quod tamen' ex ipsis licuit mihi discere fastis : 

Sacravere patres hoc duo templa die. 290 

Accepit Phoebo nymphaque Coronide natum 
Insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua. 

Juppiter in parte est ; cepit locus unus utrumque, 
Junctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo. 

Quid vetat et stellas, ut quaeque oriturque caditque, 

Dicere ? promissi pars mit ista mei. 
Felices animos, quibus haec cognoscere primis 

Inque domos superas scandere cura ftiit ! 
Credibile est illos pariter vitiisque locisque 

Altius humanis exseruisse caput, 300 



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LIBER I. 9 

Non Venus et vinum sublimia pectora fregit, 

Officiumve fori, militiaeve labor. 
Nec levis ambitio, perfusaque gloria fuco, 

Magnarumve fames sollicitavit opum. 
Admovere oculis distantia sidera nostris^ 305 

Aetheraque ingenio supposuere suo. 
Sic petitur caelum, non ut ferat Ossan Olympus, 

Summaque Peliacus sidera tangat apex. 
Nos quoque sub ducibus caelum metabimur illis, 

Ponemusque suos ad stata signa dies. 310 

III. NON. 3bd. 

Ergo ubi nox aderit venturis tertia Nonis, 

Sparsaque caelesti rore madebit humus, 
Octipedis frustra quaeruntur brachia Cancri ; 

Praeceps occiduas iile subivit aquas. 

NON. 5th. 

Institerint imbres missi tibi nubibus atris ; sis 

Nonae signa dabunt exoriente Lyra. 

V. ID. 9th. 

Quattuor adde dies ductos ex ordine Nonis, 

Janus Agonali luce piandus erit. 
Nominis esse potest succinctus causa minister, 

Hostia caelitibus quo feriente cădit ; 320 

Qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros, 

Semper Agatne rogat ; nec nisi jussus agit. 
Pars, quia non veniant pecudes sed agantur, ab actu 

Nomen Agonalem credit habere diem. 
Pars putat boc festum priscis Agnalia dictum, 325 

Una sit ut proprio littera dempta loco. 
An, quia praevisos în aqua timet hostia cultros, 

A pecoris lux est ista notata metu ? 
Fas etiam fieri solitis aetate priorum 

Nomina de ludis Grraia tulisse diem. 330 

Et pecus antiquus dicebat Agonia sermo : 

Veraque judicio est ultima causa meo. 
Utque ea nune certa est, ita Rex placare Sacrorum 

Numina lanigerae conjuge debet ovis. 
Victima quae oextra cecidit victrice vocatur ; 335 

Uostibus a domitis hostia nomen habet. 

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10 FASTOEUM 

Ante, deos homini quod conciliare vaJeret, 

Far erat et puri lucida mica salis. 
Nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice myrrhas 

Acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas ; 340 

Thura nec Euphrates, nec miserat India costum, 

Nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 
Ara dabat fumos, herbis contenta Sabinis, 

Et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 
Si quis erat factis prati de flore coronis , 345 

Qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 
Hic, qui nune aperit percussi viscera tauri, 

In sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 
Prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae, 

Uita suas merita caede nocentis opes. 350 

Nam sata, vere novo, teneris lactentia succis, 

Eruta setigerae comperit ore suiş. 
Sus dederat poenas : exemple territus hujus 

Palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 
Quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 355 

Talia non tacite dicta dolore dedit : 
Rode,. caper, vitem : tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 

In tua quod spargi comua possit erit. 
Verba fides sequitur ; noxae tibi deditus hostis 

Spargitur affiiso comua, Bacche, mero. 360 

Culpa sui nocuit : nocuit quoque culpa capellae : 

Quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves ? 
Flebat Aristaeus, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 

Viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 
Caerula quem genitrix, aegre solata dolentem, 365 

Addidit haec dictis ultima verba suiş : 
Siste, puer, lacrim$.s : Proteus tua damna levabit, * 

Quoque modo repareSj quae periere, dabit. 
Decipiat ne te versis tamen iile figuris, 

Impediant geminas vincula firma manus. 370 

Pervenit ad vatem juvenis, resolutaque somno 

Alligat aequorei brachia capta senis. 
Iile sua faciem transformis adulterat arte ; 

Mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 
Oraque caerulea tollens rorantia barba, 375 

Qua, dixit, repares arte requiris apes ? 



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LIBE& I. 11 

Obrue mactati corpus tellure juvenci ; 

Quod jjetis a nobis, obrutus iile dabit. 
Jussa facit pastor ; fervent examina putri 

De bove ; mîlle animas una necata dedit. 380 

Poscit ovem fatum : verbenas improba carpsit 

Quas ţia dis ruris ferre solebat anus. 
Quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 

Lanigerumque peeus ruricolaeque boves ? 
Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 385 

Ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 
Quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 

Nune quoque pro nulla virgine cerva datur. 
Exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapaeos 

Et quicumţiue tuas accolit, Haeme, nives. 390 

Caeditur et rigide custodi ruris asellus : 

Causa pudenda quidem est, sed tamen apta deo. 
Festa corymbiferi celebrabas Graecia Baccni, 

Tertia quae solite tempore bruma refert. 
Di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 395 

Et quicumque joci non alienus erat, 
Panes et in venerem Satyrorum prona juventus, 

Quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 
Venerat et senior pândo Silenus asello, 

Quique rubro pavidas inguine terret aves. 400 

Dulcia qui dighum nemus in convivia nacti 

Gramine vestitis accubuere toris. 
Vina dabat Liber ; tulerat sibi quisque coronam ; 

Miscendas lar^e rivus agebat aquas. 
Naides efiusis abae sine pectinis usu, 405 

Pars aderant positis arte manuque comis, 
lila super surâs timicam coUecta ministrat, 

Altera dissuto peotus aperta sinu. 
Exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit illa per herbas, 

Impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes. 4 10 

Hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent ; 

Pars tibi, qui pinu tempera nexa geris ; 
Te quoque, inexstinctae Silene libidinis, urunt : 

Nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem. 
At ruber hortorum deus et tutela Priapus 415 

Omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat. 
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J 2 FASTOBUM 

Hanc cupit, hanc optat, solam suspirat in illam, 

Signaque dat nutu, sollicitatque notis. 
Fastus inest pulcliris, seqiiiturque superbia formam ; 

Irrisum vmtu despicit illa suo. 420 

Nox erat, et, vino somnum faciente, jacebant 

Corpora diversis victa sopore locis. 
Lotis m herbosa sub acemis ultima ramis, 

Sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit bumo. 
Surgit amans, animamque tenens vestigia fîirtim 425 

Suspenso digitis fert taciturna gradu. 
Ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 

Ipsa sui fiatus ne sonet aura cavet. 
Et jam finitima corpus librabat in herba : 

lila tamen mulţi plena soporis erat. 430 

Graudet, et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 

Ad sua feliei cooperat ire via. 
Ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 

Intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 
Territa consurgit nymphe, manibusque Priapum 435 

R^icit, et Aigiens concitat omne nemus. 
Morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris ; et baec est 

Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 440 

Intactae fueratis aves, solatia ruris, 

Assuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 
Quae facitis nidos, et plumis ova fovetis, 

Et facili dulces editis ore modos. 
Sed nihil ista juvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 445 

Dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 
Nec tamen hoc falsum : nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 

Nune penna veras, nune datis ore notas. 
Tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 

Juveruntque deos indicis exta sm. 450 

Ergo saepe, suo conjunx abducta marito, 

Uritur Idaliis alba columba focis. 
Nec defensa juvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 

Det jecur m lances, Inachi lăuta, tuas. 
Nocte deae noctis cristatus caeditur ales, 455 

Quod tepidum vigili provocat ore diem. 

Interea Delpbin clarum super aequora sidus 
Tollitur^ et patriiâ exsent ora vadis. 



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LIBEB I. 13 

IV. ID. IOth. 

Postera lux hiemen medio discrimine signat, 

Aequaque praeteritae quae superabît erit. 460 

III. ID. llTH. 

Proxîma prospiciet Tithono Aurora relicto 

Arcadiae sacrum pontificale deae. 
Te quoque lux eadem, Tumi soror, aede recepit, 

Hic ubi Virginea campus obitur aqua. 
Unde petam causas horum moremque sacrorum ? 465 

Dirigat in medio quis mea vela freto ? 
Ipsa mone, quae nomeu habes a carmine ductum, 

Propositoque fave, ne tuus erret honos. 
Orta prior luna, — de se si creditur ipsi — 

A magno tellus Arcade nomen habet. 470 

Hic fiiit Evander, qui, quamquam clarus utroque, 

Nobilior sacrae sanguine matris erat, 
Quae, simul aetherios animo conceperat ignes, 

Ore dabat pleno carmina vera dei. 
Dixerat haec nato motus instare sibique 475 

Multaque praeterea ; tempore nacta fidem. 
Nam juvenis vera nimium cum matre fiigatus 

Deserit Arcadium Parrhasiumque larem. 
Cui genitrix flenti. Fortuna viriliter, inquit, 

— Siste, precor, lacrimas — ista ferenda tibi est. 480 
Sic erat in fatis, nec te tua culpa fugavit, 

Sed deus ; offenso pulsus es urbe deo. 
Non meriţi poenam pateris sed numinis iram ; 

Est aliquid magnis crimen abesse malis. 
Conscia mens ut cuique sua est, ita concipit intra 485 

Pectora pro facto spemque metum(]^ue suo. 
Nec tamen ut primus maere mala talia passus ; 

Obruit ingentes ista procella viros. 
Passus idem est Tjnriis qui quondam pulsus ab oris 

Cadmus in Aonia constitit exul humo. 490 

Passus idem Tydeus, et idem Pagasaeus lason, 

Et quos praeterea longa referre mora est. 
Omne solum forti patria est, ut piscibus aequor, 

Ut volucri vacuo quidquid in orbe patet. 
Nec fera tempestas toto tamen horret in anno, 495 

Et tibi— crede mihi — tempera veris erunt. 



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14 FA8T0RUM 

Vocibus Evander firmata mente parentis 

Nave secat fluctua, Hesţeriamque tenet 
Jamque ratem doctae monitu Carmentia in amnem 

Egerat, et Tuscis obvius ibat aquis. 500 

Fluminis illa latus, cui sunt vadă juncta Tarenti, 

Aspicit et sparsas per loca sola casas. 
Utque erat immissis puppim stetit ante capillis, 

Continuitque manum torva regentis iter ; 
Et procul in dextram tendens sua bracliia ripam, 505 

Pinea non sano ter pede texta ferit ; 
Neve daret saltum properans insistere terrae, 

Vix est Evandri vixque retenta mânu ; 
Dîque petitorum, dixit, salvete locorum, 

Tu^ue novos caelo terra datura deos, 510 

Flummaque, et fontes quibus utitur hosţita tellus, 

Et nemorum silvae, Naiadumque chon I 
Este bonis avibus visi natoque mihique, 

Ripaque feliei tacta sit ista pede ! 
Fallor ? an hi fient ingentia moenia colles, 515 

Juraque ab bac terra caetera terra petet ? 
Montibus bis olim totus promittitur orbis. 

Quis tantum &ti credat habere locum ? 
Et jam Dardaniae tangent haec litora pinus. 

Hic quoque causa novi femina Martis erit. 520 

Care nepos, Palia, Ainesta quid induis arma ? 

Indue : non humili vindice caesus eris. 
Victa tamen vinces, eversaque Troja resurges ; 

Obruet hostiles ista ruina domos. 
Urite victrices Neptunia Pergama flammae : 525 

Num minus hic toto est altior orbe cinis ? 
Jam pius ^neas sacra, et sacra altera patrem, 

Aneret : Iliacos excipe. Vesta, deos. 
Tempus erit cum vos orbemque tuebitur idem, 

Et fient ipso sacra colente deo ; 530 

Et penes Augustos patriae tutela manebit. 

Hanc fas imperii &ena tenere domum. 
înde nepos natusque dei — ^licet ipse recuset — 

Pondera caelesti mente paterna ferat. 
Utque ego perpetuis olim sacrabor in aris, 535 

Sic Augusta novum Julia numen erit. 



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LIBBR L 15 

Talibus ut dictis nostros descendit in annos, 
Subştitit in medios praescia lingua sonos. 

Puppibus egressus Latia stetit exul in herba. 

Felix, exilium cui locus iile fuit ! 540 

Nec mora longa fuit ; stabant nova tecta, nec alter 
Montibus Ausoniis Arcade major erat. 

Ecce boves illuc Erytbeidas applicat heroa 

Emensiis longi claviger orbis iter. 
Dumque huic hospitiumdomus est Tegeaea, vagantur 545 

Incustoditae lata per anra boves. 
Mane erat : excussus somno Tirynthius bospes 

De numero tauros sentit abesse duos. 
Nulla videt quaerens taciţi vestîgia furti ; 

Traxerat aversos Cacus in antra feros, 550 

Cacus Aventinae timor atque infamia silvae, 

Non leve finitimis hospitibusque malum. 
Dira viro facies, vires pro corpore, corpus 

Grande, pater monştri Mulciber hujus erat. 
Proque domo longîs spelunca recessibus ingens, 555 

Abdita, vix ipsis inv^enda feris. 
Ora super postes affixaque brachia pendent, 

Squalidaque humanis ossibus albet humus. 
Servata male parte boum Jove natus abibas ; 

Mugitum rauco furta dedere sono. 56o 

Accipio revocamen, ait, vocemque secutus 

Impia per silvas ultor ad antra venit. 
Iile aditum fracti praestruxerat objice montis : 

Vix juşa movissent quinque bis illud opus. 
Nititur hic humeris, — caelum quoque sederat illis — 565 

Et vastum motu coUabefactat onus. 
Quod simul evulsum est, fragor aethera terruit ipsum, 

Ictaque subsedit pondere molis humus. 
Prima movet Cacus collata proelia dextra, 

Remque ferox saxis sţîpitibusque gerit. 570 

Quis ubi nil agitur, patris male fortis ad artes 

Confiigit, et flammas ore sonante vomit. 
Quas quoties proflat, spirare Typho^a credas, 

Et rapidum Aetnaeckfiilgur ab igne jaci. 



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16 FASTOBUM 

Occupat Alcides, adductaque clAva trinodis 575 

Ter quater ad verşi sedit in ore viri. 
Iile cădit, mixtosque vomit cum sanguine fumos, 

Et lato moriens pectore plangit humum. 
Immolat ex illis taurum tibi, Juppiter, imum 

Victor, et Evandrum ruricolasque vocat ; 580 

Constituitque sibi, quae Maxima dicitur, aram, 

Hic ubi pars urbis de bove nomen habet. 
Nec tacet Evandri mater prope tempus adesse, 

Hercule quo tellus sit satis usa suo. 
At felix vates, ut dis gratissima vixit, 585 

Possidet hune Jani sic dea mense diem. 

IDUS. 13th. 

Idibus in magni castus Jovis aede sacerdos 

Semimaris flammis viscera libat ovis ; 
Redditaque est omnis populo provincia nostro, 

Et tuus Augusto nomine dictus avus. 590 

Perlege dispositas generosa per atria ceras j 

Contigerunt nulii nomina tanta yiro. 
Africa victorem de se vocat : alter îsauras. 

Aut Cretum domitas testificatur opes ; 
Hune Numidae faciunt, illum Messana superbum ; 595 
' Iile Numantina traxit ab urbe notam. 
Et mortem et nomen Druso Germania fecit. 

Me miserum, virtus quam brevis illa fuit ! 
Si petat a victis, tot sumat nomina Caesar, 

Quot numero gentes maximus orbis habet. 600 

Ex uno quidam celebres, aut torquis ademptae, 

Aut corvi titulos auxiliaris habent. 
Magne, tuum nomen rerum mensura tuarum est ; 

Sed qui te vicit, nomine major erat. 
Nec gradus est ultra Fabios cognominis ullus ; 605 

Illa domus meritis Maxima dicta suiş. 
Sed tamen humanis celebrantur honoribus omnes ; 

Hic socium summo cum Jove nomen habet. 
Sancta vocant augusta patres : augusta vocantur 

Templa sacerdotum rite dicata mânu. 610 

Hujus et augurium dependet origine verbi, 

Et quodcumque sua Juppiter auget ope. 



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LIBEB I. 17 

Augeat imperium noştri ducis, augeat annos ; 

Protegat et vestras quema corona fores. 
Auspicibusque deis tanti cognominis heres 6i5 

Omine suscipiat, quo pater, orbia onus. 

XVIII. KAL. ] 5th. 

Regpiciet Titan actas ubi tertius Idus, 

Fient Parrhasiae sacra relata deae. 
Nam prius Ausonias matres carpenta vehebant, 

— Haec quoque ab Evandri dieta parente reor — 620 
Mox honor eripitur, matronaque destinat omnis 

Ingratos nulla prole novare viros ; 
Neve daret partus, ictu temeraria caeco 

Visceribus crescens excutiebat onus. 
Corripuisse patres ausas immitia nuptas, 625 

Jus tamen exemptum restituisse, ferunt. 
Binaque nune pariter Tegeaea sacra parenti 

Pro pueris fieri virginibusque jubent 
Scortea non illi fas est inferre sacello, 

Ne violent puros exanimata focos. 630 

Si quis amas veteres ritus assiste precanti ; 

Nomina percipies non tibi nota prius. 
Porrima placantur Postvertaque, sive sorores, 

Sive fugae comites, Maenali diva, tuae. 
Altera quod porro fuerat, cecinisse putatur : 635 

Altera venturum postmodo quidquid erat. 
XVII. KAL. 16th. 

Candida, te niveo posuit lux proxima templo 

Qua fert sublimes alta Moneta gradus, 
Nune bene prospicies Latiam, Concordia, turbam ; 

Nune te sacratae restituere manus. 640 

Furius antiquam populi superator Etrusci 

Voverat, et voti solverat ante fidem. 
Causa, quod a patribus sumptis secesserat armis 

Vulgus, et ipsa suas Borna timebat opes. 
Causa recens melior : passos Germania crines 645 

Porrigit auspiciis, dux venerande, tuis. 
înde triumphatae libasti munera gentis, 

Templaque fecisti, quam colis ipse, deae. 
Haec tua constituit Genitrix et rebus et ara, 

Sola toro magni digna reperta Jovis. 650 



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18 VASTOBUM 

XVI. KAL. 17tH. 

Haec ubi transierint, Capricomo, Phoebe, relicto 
Per juvenis curres signa gereatis aquam. 

X. KAL. 23lU). 

Septimus hiuc Oriens cum se demiserit undis, 

Fulgebit toto jam Lyra nulla pola 

IX. KAL. 24th. 

Sidere ab hoc ignis venienti nocte, Leoniâ .655 

Qui micat in medio pectore, mersus erit. 

Ter quater evolvi signantes tempera fastos^ 

Nec Sementina est ulla reperta dies : 
Cum mihi — sensit enim — Lux haec indicitur, inquit 

Musa : quid a fastis non stata sacra petis ? 660 

Utque dies incerta sacri sic tempera certa, 

Seminibus jactis est ubi fetus ager. 
State coronati plenum ad praesepe juvenci ; 

Cum tepido vestrum vere redibit opus. 
Rusticus emeritum palo suspendat aratrum ; 665 

Omne reformidat frigida vulnus humus. 
Villice, da requiem terrae, semente peracta, 

Da requiem, terram qui coluere, viris ; 
Pagus agat festum ; pagum lustrate, coloni, 

Et date paganis annua liba focis. 670 

Placentur matres frugum, Tellusque Ceresque, 

Farre suo gravidae visceribusque suiş. 
Officium commune Ceres et Terra tuentur ; 

Haec praiebet causam frugibus, illa locum. — 
Consortes operum, per quas correcta vetustas 675 

Quernaque glans victa est utiliore cibo, 
Frugibus immensis avidos satiate oolono% 

ift capiant cultus praemia digna suL 
Vos data perpetuos teneris sementibus auctus, 

Nec nova per gelidas herba sit usta nives. 68O 

Cum serimus, caelum ventis aperite serenis ; 

Cum latet, aetheria spargite semen aqua ; 
Neve graves cultis Cerealia rura, cavete, 

Agmine laesuro depopulentur aves. 
Vos quoque, formicae, subjectis parcite granis ; 685 

Post messem praedae copia major erit. 



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I.IBERI. 19 

Interea crescat scabrae robîginîs expers, 

Nec vitio caeli palleat ulla seges, 
Et neque deficiat maeie, neque pinguior aequo 

Divitiis pereat luxuriosa suiş ; • 690 

Et careant loliis oculos vitiantibus agri, 

Nec sterilis culto surgat avena sdlo. 
Triticeos fetus, passuraque farra bis ignem, 

Hordeaque ingenti fenore reddat ager. — 
Haec ego pro vobis, haec vos optate coloni, 695 

Efficiatque ratas utraque diva preces. 
Bella diu tenuere viros, erat aptior ensis 

Vomere, cedebat taurus arator equo, 
Sârcula cessabant, versique in pila ligones^ 

* Factaque de rastri pondere cassis erat. 700 

Gratia dis domuique tuae ! religata catenis 

Jam pridem vestro sub pede bella jacent 
Sub juga bos veniat, sub terras semen aratas : 

Pax Cererem nutrit, pacis alumna Ceres. 
VI. KAL. 27th. 

At quae venturas praecedit sexta Ealendas, 705 

Hac sunt Ledaeis templa dicata deis. 
Fratribus illa deis fratres de gente deorum 

Circa Jutumae composuere lacus. 

III. KAL. 30th. 

Ipsum nos carmen deducit Pacis ad aram. 

Haec erit a mensis fine secunda dies. 710 

Frondibus Actiacis comptos redimita capillos 

Pax ades, et toto mitis in orbe mane. 
Dum desint hostes, desit quoque causa triumphi ; 

Tu ducibus bello gloria major eris. 
Sola gerat miles, quibus arma coerceat, arma, 7i5 

Canteturque fera, nil nisi pompa, tuba, 
Horreat Aeneadas et primus et ultimus orbis. 

Si qua parum Romam terra timebat, amet. 
Thura, sacerdotes, Pacalibus addite flammis, 

Albaque perfusa victima fronte cadat ; 720 

Utque domus, quae praestat eam, cum pace perennet 

Ad pia propensos vota rogate deos. 
Sed jam prima mei pars est exacta laboris, 

Cumque suo finem mense libellus babet. 



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20 FASTOBUM 



LIBER II. 



Janus habet finem ; cum carmine crescat et annus : 

Alter ut hic mensis, sic liber alter eat. 
Nune primum velis, elegi, majoribus itîs ; 

Exiguum, memini, nuper eratis opus. 
Ipse ego V08 habui facîles in amore roinistros, 5 

Cum lusit numeris prima juventa suiş. 
Idem sacra cano, signataque tempora fastis. 

Ecquis ad haec illinc crederet esse viam ? 
Haec mea miliţia est ; ferimus, quae possumus, arma, 

Dextraque non omni munere nostra vacat. 10 

Si mihi non valide torquentur pila lacerto, 

Nec bellatoris terga premuntur equi, 
Nec galea tegimur, nec acuto cingimur ense : 

— His habilis teKs quilibet esse potest — 
At tua prosequimur studioso pectore, Caesar, 15 

Nomina, per titulos ingredimurque tuos. 
Ergo ades, et placido paulum mea munera vultu 

Respice, pacando si quid ab hoste vacat. 

Februa Romani dixere piamina patres : 

Nune quoque dant verbo plurima signa fidem. 20 

Pontifices ab Rege petunt et Flamine lanas, 

Quis veteri lingua Fdbrua nomen erat ; 
Quaeque capit lictor domibus purgamina certis, 

Torrida cum mica farra, vocantur idem. 
Nomen idem ramo, qui caesus ab arbore pura 25 

Casta sacerdotum tempora fronde tegit. 
Ipse ego Flaminicam poscentem /eftnta vidi : 

Fdyrua poscenti pinea virga data est. 
Denique quodcumque est, quo pectora nostra piantur, 

Hoc apud intonsos nomen habebat avos. 30 

Mensis ab his dictus, secta quia pelle Luperci 

Omne solum lustrant, idque piamen babent ; 
Aut quia placatis sunt tempora pura sepulcris, 
' Tune cum ferales praeteriere dies. 



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LIBER II. 21 

Omne nefas omnemque mali purgamina causam 35 

Credebant noştri toUere posse senes. 
Graecia principium moris dedit: illa nocentes 

Impia lustratos ponere facta putat. 
Actonden Peleus, ipsum quoque Pelea Phoci 

Caede per Haemonias solvit Acastus aquas. 40 

Yectam frenatis per inane draconibus Aegeus 

Credulus immerita Phasida juvit ope, 
Amphiaraides Naupactoo Acheloo, 

Solve nefas, dixiţ : solvit et iile nefas. 
Ah nimium faciles, qni tristia crimina caedis 43 

Fluminea tolli posse putatis aqua ! 

Sed tamen — antiqui ne nescius ordinis erres — 

Primus, ut est, Jani mensis et ante ftiit. 
Qid sequitur Janum veteris fiiit ultimus annî ; 

Tu quoq^ue sacrorum, Termine, finis eras. 50 

Primus enim Jani mensis, quia janua prima est ; 

Qui sacer est imis Manibus, imus erat. 
Postmodo creduntur spatio distantia longo 

Tempera bis quini continuasse virL 

KAL. Ist. 

Principie mensis Phrygiae contermina Matri 55 

Sospita delubris dicitur aucta novis. 
Nune ubi sint illis quae sunt sacrata Ealendis 

Templa deae ? longo procubuere die. 
Caetera ne simili caderent labefacta ruina, 

Cavit sacrati provida cura ducis, 60 

Sub quo delubris sentitur nulla senectus : 

Nec satis est homines, obligat iile deos. 
Templorum positor, templorum sancte repostor, 

Sit superis, opto, mutua cura tui. 
Dent tibi caelestes, quos tu caelesiibus, annos, 65 

Proque tua maneant in statione domo. 

Turn quoque vicini lucus celebratur Helemi, 
Qua petit aequoreas advena Tibris aquaa. 

Ad penetrai e Numae, Capitolinimique Tonantem, 
Inque Jovis summa caeditur arce bidens. 70 



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22 FA8T0BUM 

Saepe graves pluvias adopertus nubibus Auster 

Concitat, aut posita sub nive terra latet. 
IV. NON. 2m>. 

Proxîmus Hesperias Titan abiturus in undas 

Gremmea purpureis cum juşa demet equis, 
lila nocte alic^uis tollens ad sidera vultum 75 

Dicet : Ubi est hodie, quae Lyra fulsit beri ? 
Dumque Lyram <^uaeret, medii quoque terga Ijeonis 

In liquidas subito mersa notabit aquas. 
PBiD. NON. 4th. 

Quem modo caelatum stellis Delpbina videbas, 

îs fugiet visus nocte sequente tuos ; so 

Seu fuit occultis felix in amoribus index, 

Lesbida cum domino seu tulit iile l^ram. 
Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Anona tellus ? 

Carmine currentes iile tenebat aquas. 
Saepe sequens agnam lupus est a voce retentus, 85 

Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum ; 
Saepe canes.leporesque umbra cubuere sub una, 

Et stetit in saxo proxima cerva leae ; 
Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite comix 

Sedit, et accipitri juncta columba fuit. 90 

Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, yocalis Arion, 

Tamquam fraternis obstupuisse modis. 
Nomen Arionium Siculas impleverat urbes, 

Captaque erat lyricis Ausonis ora sonis. 
înde domum repetens puppim conscendit Arion, 95 

Atque ita quaesitas arte ferebat opes. 
Forsitan, infelix, ventos undamque timebas ; 

At tibi nave tua tutius aequor erat. 
Namque gubemator destricto constitit ense, 

Caeteraque armata conscia turba mânu. 100 

Quid tibi cum gladio ? dubiam rege, navita, pinum. 

Non haec sunt digitis arma tenenda tuis. 
Ule metu pavidus, Mortem non deprecor, inquit, 

Sed liceat sumpta pauca referre lyra. 
Dant veniam, ridentque moram ; capit iile coronam, 105 

Quae possit crines, Phoebe, decere tuos. 
Induerat Tyrio bis tinctam murice pallam ; 

Beddidit iota suos poUice cborda sonos, 



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LIBER II. 28 

Flebilibus numeris veluti canentia dura 

Trajectus penna tempora cântat olor. iio 

Protinus în mediaş ornatus desilit undas ; 

Spargitur impulsa caerula puppis aqua. 
înde, fide majus, ter^o delphina recurvo 

Se memorant oneri supposuisse novo; 
Iile sedens citharamque tenet pretiumque vehendi 115 

Cântat, et aequoreas carmine mulcet aquas. 
Di pia facta vident ; astris delphina recepit 

Juppiter, et stellas jussit baoere novem. 
N.ON. 5th. 

Nune mihi miile sonos, quoque est memoaratus Achilles, 

Vellem, Maeonide, pectus inesse tuum. 120 

Dum canimus sacras altemo pectine Nonas, 

Maximus hinc fastis acoumulatur honos. 
Deficit ingenium, majoraque viribus urgent : 

Haec mihi praecipuo est ore canenda dies. 
Quid volui demens elegis imponere tantum 125 

Ponderis ? heroi res erat ista pedis. 
Sancte Pater Patriae, tibi plebs, tibi curia nomen 

Hoc dedit, boc dedimus nos tibi nomen eques. 
Res tamen ante dedit ; sero quoque vera tuUsti 

Nomina ; jam pridem tu pater orbis eras. 130 

Hoc tu per terras, quod in aethere Juppiter alto, 

Nomen habes ; bominum tu pater, iile deuin. 
Romule, conoedes ; facit bic tua magna tuendo 

Moenia : tu dederas transilienda Remo. 
Te Tatius, parvique Cures, Caeninaque sensit ; 135 

Hoc duce Romanum est solis utrumque latus. 
Tu breve nescio quid victae telluris habebas ; 

Quodcumque est alto sub Jove Caesar babet. 
Tu rapis, bic castas duce se jubet esse maritas ; 

Tu recipis luco, reppulit iile nefas. ]40 

Vis tibi grata fuit, florent sub Caesare leges ; 

Tu domini nomen, principis iile tenet. 
Te Remus incusat, veniam dedit hostibus iile ; 

Caelestem fecit te pater, iile patrem. 

Jam puer Idaeus media tenus eminet alvo, 145 

Et liquidas mixto nectare fundit aquas, 



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24 FASTOBUM 

En etiam, si quis Borean horrere solebat, 
Gaudeat : a Zephyris molilor aura venit. 
V. ID. 9th. 

QuiDtus ab aequoreis nitidum jubar extulit undis 
Lucifer, et prima tempora veris erunt, 150 

Ne fallare tamen, restant tibi frigora, restant, 
Magnaque discedens signa reliquit hiems. 

III. ID. llTH. 

Tertia nox veniat : Cnstodem protinus Ursae 

Aspicies geminos exeruisse pedes. 
Inter Hamaăiyadas jaculatricemque Dianam 155 

Callisto sacri pars Aiit lina chori. 
lila deae tangens arcuş, Quos tangimus, arcuş. 

Este meae testes virginitatis, ait. 
Cjntliia laudavit, promissaque foedera serva, 

Et comitum princeps tu mihi, dixit, eris. i6o 

Foedera servasset, si non formosa fuisset : 

Cavit mortales ; de Jove crimen habet. 
Miile feras Phoebe silvis venata redibat. 

Aut plus, aut medium sole tenente diem. 
Ut tetigit lucum, — densa niger ilice lucus, 165 

In medio gelidae fons erat altus aquae-^ 
Hic, ait, in silva, virgo Tegeaea, lavemur : 

Erubuit falso virginis illa sono. 
Dixerat et nymphis ; nymphae velamina ponunt : 

Hanc pudet, et tardae dat mala signa morae. 170 

Exuerat tunicas : uteri manifesta tumore 

Proditur indicio ponderis ipsa sui, 
Cui Dea, Virgineos, penura Lycaoni, coetus 

Desere, nec castas pollue, dixit, aquas. 
Luna novum decies implorat comibus orbem ; 175 

Quae fuerat virgo credita, mater erat. 
Laesa furit Jimo, formam mutatque puellae. 

Quid facis ? invito est pectore passa Jovem. 
Utque ferae vidit turpes m pellice vultus, 

Hujus in amplexus Juppiter, inquit, eat. 18O 

Ursa per incultos errabat squalida montes, 

Quae fuerat summo nuper amata JovL 
Jam tria lustra puer furto conceptus agebat, 

Cum mater nato est obvia facta sucr. 



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LIBEB II. 25 

lUa quîdem tamquam cognosceret, adstîtit amens, 185 

Et gemuit : gemitus verba parentis erant. 
Hanc puer ignarus jaculo fixisset âcuto, 

Ni roret in superas raptus uterque domus. 
Signa propinqua micant: prior est, quam dicimus Arcton; 

Arctophylax fonnam terga sequentis habet. 190 

Saevit adhnc canamque rogat Saturnia Tethyn, 

Maenaliam tactis ne lavet Arcton aquis. 

iDus. 13th. 

Idibus agrestis fumant altaria Fauni, 

Hic ubi discretas insula rumpit aquas. 
Haec fuit illa dies, in qua Veientibus arvis 195 

Ter centum Fabii ter cecidere duo. 
Una domus vires et onus susceperat urbis : 

Sumunt gentiles arma professa manus ; 
Egreditur castris miles generosus ab isdem, 

E quîs dux iieri quilibet aptus erat. 200 

Carmentis portae dextro est via proxima Jano ; 

Ire per hanc noii, quisquis es, omen habet. 
[Illa fama refert Fabios exisse trecentos : 

Porta vacat culpa ; sed tamen omen habet.] 
Ut celeri passu Cremerara tetigere rapacem, 205 

— Turbidus hibemis iile fluebat aquis — 
Ca.stra loco ponunt : destrictis ensibus ipsi 

Tyrrhenura valido Marte per agmen eunt, 
Non aliter, quam cum Libyca de rupeleones 

Invadunt sparsos lata per arva greges. 210 

DiiFugiunt hostes, inhonestaque vulnera tergo 

Accipiunt ; Tusco sanguine terra rubet. 
Sic iterum, sic saepe cadunt. Ubi vincere aperte 

Non datur, insidias armaque tecta parant. 
Campus erat, campi claudebant ultima coUes, 215 

Silvaque montanas occulere apta feras. 
In medio paucos armentaque rara relinquunt ; 

Caetera virgultis abdita turba latet. 
Ecce, velut torrens undis pluvialibus auctus 

Aut nive, quae Zephyro victa tepente fluit, 220 

Per sata perque vias fertur, nec, ut ante solebat, 

Riparum clausas margine finit aquas : 

c 



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26 FASTOBUM 

Sic Fabii vallera latis dtscursibiis implent, 

Quodque vident stemunt, nec metus alter inest. 
Quo ruitis, generosa domus ? male creditis hosti. 225 

Simplex nobilitas, perfida tela cave. 
Fraude perit virtus. In apertos undique campos 

Prosiliunt kostes, et latus omne tenent. 
Quid facient pauci contra tot millia fortes ? 

Qiddve, quod in miaero tempore restet, habent ? 230 
Sicut aper silvis longe Laurentibus actus 

Fulmineo celeres dissipat ore canes ; 
Mox tamen ipse perit : io non moriuntur inulti, 

Vulneraque alterna dantque feruntque mânu. 
Una dies Fabios ad bellum miserat omnes ; 235 

Ad bellum missos perdidit una dies. 
Ut tamen Herculeae superessent semina gentis, 

Credibile est ipsos consuluisse deos : 
Nam puer impubes et adhuc non utilis armis 

Unus de Fabia gente relictus erat, 240 

Scilicet, ut posses olim tu, Maxime, nasci, 

Cui res cunctando restituenda foret. 

XVI. KAL. 14th. 

Continuata loco tria sidera, Corvus et Anguis, 

Et medius Crater inter utrumque jacet. 
Idibus illa latent : oriuntur nocte sequenti. 245 

Quae tibi cur tria sint tam sociata, canam. 
Forte Jovi festum Phoebus sollemne parabat : 

— Non faciet longas fabula nostra moras — 
I mea, dixit, avis, ne quid pia sacra moretur, 

Et tenuem vivis fontibus aSer aquam. 250 

Corvus inauratum pedibus cratera recurvis 

ToUit, et aerium pervolat altus iter. 
Stabat adhuc duris ficus densissima pomis ; 

Tentat eam rostro ; non erat apta legi. 
Immemor imperii sedisse sub arbore fertur, 255 

Dum fierent tarda dulcia poma mora. 
Jamque satur nigris longum răpit unguibus hydrum, 

Ad dominumque redit, fictaque verba refert : 
Hic mihi causa morae, viyarum obsessor aquarum : 

Hic tenuit fontes officiumque meum. 260 

Addis, ait, culpae mendacia ? Phoebus, et audes 

Fatidicum verbis fallere velle deum ? 



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LIBER II. 27 

At tibî, dum lactens haerebît in arbore ficus, 

De nuUo gelidae fonte bibentur aquae. 
Dîxit, et antiqui monumenta perennia facti 263 

Anguîs, Avis, Crater, sidera juncta micant. 

XV. KAL. 15th. 

TJprtia post Idus nudos Aurora Lupercos 

Aspicit et Fauni sacra bicomis eunt. 
Dicite, Pierides, sacrorura quae sit origo, 

Attigerint Latias unde petita domos. 270 

Pana deum pecoris veteres coluisse feruntur 

Arcades : Arcadiis plurimus iile jugis. 
Testis erit Pholoe, testes Stymphalides undae, 

Quique citis Ladon in mare currit aquis, 
Cinctaque pinetis nemoris juga Nonacrini, 275 

Altaque Tricrene, Parrhasiaeque nives. 
Pan erat armenti, Pan illic numen equarum ; 

Munus ob incolumes iile ferebat oyes. 
Transtulit Evander silvestria numina secum ; 

— Hic ubi nune urbs est, turn locus urbis erat — 280 
înde deum colimus, devectaque sacra Pelasgis : 

Flamen ad haec prisco more Dialîs erit. 
Cur igitur currant, et cur — sic currere mos est — 

Nuda ferant posita corpora veste, rogas ? 
Ipse deus velox discurrere gaudet in altis 285 

Montibus, et subitas concipit iile fugas. 
Ipse deus nudus nudos jubet ire ministros : 

Nec satis ad cursus commoda vestîs erat. 
Ante Jovem genitum terras habuisse feruntur 

Arcades, et Luna gens prior illa fiiit. 290 

Vita feris similis, nullos agitata per usus ; 

Artis adhuc expers et rude vulgus erat. 
Pro domibus frondes norant, pro fingibus herbas ; 

Nectar erat palmîs hausta duabus aqua* 
NuUus anhelabat sub adunco vomere taurus ; , 295 

Nulla sub imperio terra colentis erat ; 
NuUus adhuc erat usus equi, se quisque ferebat. 

Ibat ovis lâna corpus amicta sua ; 
Sub Jove durabant, et corpora nuda gerebant, 

Docta graves imbres et tolerare Notos. 300 



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28 FASTORUH 

Nune quoque detecti referunt monumenta veţustî 
Moris, et antiquas testificantur opes. 

Sed, cur praecipue fugiat velamîna Faunus, 

Traditur antiqui fabula plena joci. 
Forte comes dominae juvenis Tirynthîus ibat : 305 

Vidit ab excelso Faunus utrumque jugo. ^ 

Vidit, et incaluit, Montanaque numina, dîxit, 

Nil mihi vobiscum est ; baec meus ardor erit. 
Ibat odoratis humeros perfusa capillis 

Maeonis, aurato conspicienda sinu. 310 

Aurea pellebant rapidos umbracula soles, 

Quae tamen Herculeae sustinuere manus. 
Jam Baccbi nemus et Tmoli vineta tenebant, 

Hesperus et fusco roscidus ibat equo. 
Antra subit tophis laqueataque pumice vivo ; 315 

Garrulus in primo limine rivus erat. 
Dumque parant epulas potandaque vina miniştri, 

Cultibus Alciden instruit illa suiş. 
Dat tenues tunicas Graetulo murice tinctas ; 

Dat teretem zonam, qua modo cincta fuit. 320 

Ventre minor zona est ; tunicarum vincla relaxat, 

Ut posset vastas exseruisse manus. 
Fregerat armillas non illa ad bracliia factas ; 

Scindebant magni vincula parva pedes. 
Ipsa capit clavamque gravem spoliumque leonis, 325 

Conditaque in pharetra tela minora sua. 
Sic epulis functi, sic dant sua corpora somno, 

Et positis juxta secubuere toris. 
Causa, repertori vitis pia sacra parabant, 

Quae facerent pure cum foret orta dies. 330 

Noctis erat medium — quid non amor improbus audet ? — 

Roscida per tenebras Faunus ad antra venit 
Utque videt comites somno vinoque solutos, 

Spşm capit in dominis esse soporis idem. 
Intrat, et buc illuc temerarius errat adulter, 335 

Et praefert cautas subsequiturque manus. 
Venerat ad strati captata cubilia lecti, 

Et felix prima forte futurus erat. 
Ut tetigit ful vi setis hirsuta leonis 

Vellera, pertimuit, sustinuitque manum, 340 



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LIBEB II. 29 

Attonîtusque metu rediîfc : ut saepe vîator 

Turbatum viso rettulit angue pedem. 
înde tori, qui junctus erat, velamina tangît 

MoUia, mendaci decipiturque nota. 
Caetera tentantem cubito Tirynthius heros 

Reppulit : e summo decidit iile toro. 350 

Fit sonus ; inclamant comites, et lumina poscit 
" Maeonis : illatis ignibus acta patent. 
lUe gemit lecto graviter dejectus ab alto, 

Membraque de dura vix sua toUit humo. 
Ridet et Alcides, et qui videre jacentem ; 355 

Ridet amatorem Lyda puella suum. 
Veste deus lusus fallentes lumina vestes 

Non amat, et nudos ad sua sacra vocat. 

Adde peregrinis causas, mea Musa, Latinas, 

Inque suo noster pulvere currat equus. 36o 

Comipedi Fauno caesa de more capella, 

Venit ad exiguas turba vocata dapes ; 
Dumque sacerdotes veribus transuta salignis 

Exta parant, mediaş sole tenente vias, 
Romulus et frater pastoralisque juventus 365 

Solibus et campo corpora nuda dabant ; 
Vectibus et jaculis et missi pondere saxi 

Brachia per lusus experienda dabant. 
Pastor ab excelso, Per devia rura juvencos, 

Romule, praedones, et Reme, dixit, agunt. 370 

Longum erat armări ; diversis exit uterque 

Partibus ; accursu praeda recepta Remi. 
Ut rediit veribus -striaentia detrahit exta 

Atque ait : Haec certe non nisi victor edet. 
Dicta facit, Fabiique simul. Venit irritus illuc 375 

Romulus, et mensas ossaque nuda videt. 
Risit, et indoluit Fabios potuisse Remumque 

Vincere, Quintilios non potuisse suos. 
Fama manet facti ; posito velamine currunt, 

Et memorem famam, quod bene cessit, habet. 380 

Forsitan et quaeras, cur sit locus iile Lupercal, 
Quaeve diem tali nomine causa notet, 
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30 rASTOEUM 

Silvia Yestalis caelestia semina partu 

Ediderat, patruo regna tenente suo. 
îs jubet aufeni pueros et in amne necari. 385 

Quid facis ? ex istis Bomulus alter erit. 
Jussa recusantes peragunt lacrimosa miniştri ; 

Flent tamen, et geminos in loca jussa ferunt. 
Albula, quem Tiberin mersus Tiberinus in unda 

Reddidit, hibemîs forte tumebat aquis. 390 

Hic, ubi nune Fora sunt, lintres errare videres, 

Quaque jacent valles, Maxime Circe, tuae. 
Huo ubi venerunt, — neque enim procedere possunt 

Longius— ex illis unus et alter, ait : 
At quam sunt similes ! at quam formosus uterque ! 395 

Plus tamen ex illis iste vigoris habet. 
Si genus arguitur vultu, nisi fallit imago, 

Nescio quem e vobis suspicor esse deum. 
At si quis vestrae deus esset origiîiis auctor, 

In tam praecipiti tempore ferret opem. 400 

Ferret opem certe, si non ope mater egeret, 

Quae lacta est uno mater et orba die. 
Nata simul, montura simul, simul ite sub undas . 

Corpora. Desierat deposuitque sinu ; 
VaQ:ierunt ambo pariter ; sentire putares. 405 

Hi redeunt udis in sua tecta genis ; 
Sustinet împositos summa cavus alveus unda. 

Heu quantum fati parva tabella tulit ! 
Alveus in limo silvis appulsus opacis, 

Paullatim fluvio deficiente, sedet. 410 

Arbor erat ; remanent vestîgîa, quaeque vocatur 

Romula non ficus, Bomula ficus erat. 
Venit ad expositos — minim — ^lupa feta gemellos. 

Quis credat pueris non nocuîsse feram ? 
Nonnocuisse parumest, prodest quoque ; quos lupa nutrit, 

Perdere cognatae sustinuere manus. 
Constitit, et cauda teneris blanditur alumnis, 

Et fingit lingua corpora bina sua. 
Marte satos scires, timor abfuit ; ubera ducunt, 

Nec sibi promissi lactis aluntur ope. 420 

lUa loco nomen fecit ; locus ipse Lupercis. 

Magna daţi nutrix praemia lactis habet. 



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LIBER II. 31 

Quid vetat Arcadio dictos a monte Lupercos ? 
Faunus in Arcadia templa Lycaeus habet. 

Nupta, quid exspectas ? non tu poUentibus herbîs, 425 

Nec prece, nec magico carmine mater eris. 
Excipe fecundae patienter verbera dextrae ; 

Jam socer optatum nomen babebit avi. 
Nam fuit illa dies, dura cum sorte maritae 

Reddebant uteri pignora rara sui. 430 

Quid mihi, clamabat, prodest rapuisse Sabinas ! 

Romulus — ^hoc illo sceptra tenente fiiit — 
Si mea non vires aed bellum injuria fecit, 

Utilius iîierat non habuisse nurus. 
Monte sub Esquilio, multis incaeduus annis 435 

Junonis magnae nomine lucus erat. 
Huc ubi venerunt, pariter nuptaeque virîque 

Suppliciter posito procubuere genu. 
Cum subito motae tremuere cacumina silvae, 

Et dea per lucos mira locuta suos, 440 

Italidas matres, inquit, sacer hircus inito ! 

Obstupuit dubio territa turba sono. 
Augur erat ; nomen longis intercidit annis ; 

Nuper ab Etrusca venerat exul humo. 
Iile caprum mactat ; jussae sua terga puellae 445 

Pellibus exsectis percutienda dabant. 
Luna resumebat decimo nova comua motu, 

Virque pater subito, nuptaque mater erat 
Gratia Lucinae : dedit baec tibi nomina lucus, 

Aut quia principium tu, dea, lucis habes. 450 

Parce, precor, gravîdis, facilis Lucina, puellis, 

Maturumque utero molliter effer onus. 

Orta dies fiierit ; tu desine credere ventis, 

Perdidit illius temporis aura fidem. 
Flamina non constant, et sex reserata diebus 455 

Carceris Aeolii janua laxa patet. 
Jam levis obliqua subsedit Aquarius urna ; 

Proximus aetherios excipe, Piscis, equos. 
Te memorant fratremque tuum — nam juncta micatis 

Signa — duos tergo sustinuisse deos. 460 

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32 FASTORUM 

Terribilem quondam fiigiens Typhona Dic>ne, 

Tune cum pro caelo Juppiter arma tulit, 
Venit ad Euphraten comitata Cupidine parvo, 

Inque Palaestinae margine sedit aquae. 
Poputus et cannae riparum summa tenebant^ 465 

Spemque dabant salices, hos quoque posse tegi. 
Dum latet, insonuit vento nemus. lila timore 

Pallet, et hostiles credit adesse manus ; 
Utque sinu tenuit natum, Succurrite Nymphae, 

Et dis auxilium ferte duobus, ait. 470 

Nec mora, prosiluit : pisces subiere gemelli ; 

Pro quo nune eemi sidera munus habent. 
înde nefas ducunt genus hoc imponere mensis, 

Nec violant timidi piscibus ora Syri. 

XIII. KAL. 17th. 

Proxima lux vacua est : at tertia dicta Quirino. 475 

Qui tenet hoc nomen, Romulus ante fuit ; 
Sive quod hasta cwris priscis est dicta Sabinis ; — • 

Bellicus a telo venit in astra deus — 
Sive suo regi nomen posuere Quirites ; 

Seu quia Romanis junxerat iile Cures. 480 

Nara pater armipotens, postquam nova moenia vidit, 

Multaque Romulea bella peracta mânu, 
Juppiter, inquit, habet Romana potentia vires ; 

Sanguinis officio non eget illa meL - 
Redde patri natum ; quamvis intercidit alter, 485 

Pro se, proque Remo, qui mihi restat, erit. 
Unus erit quem tu toUes in caerula caeli, 

Tu mihi dixisti ; sint rata dicta Jovis. 
Juppiter annuerat ; nutu tremefactus uterque 

Est polus, et caeli pondera movet Atlas. 490 

Est locus ; antiqui Capreae dixere paludem. 

Forte tuis illic, Romule, jura dabas. 
Sol fugit, et removent subeuntia nubila caelum, 

Et gravis effusis decidit imber aquis, 
Hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether. 493 

Fit fuga ; rex patris astra petebat equis. 
Luctus erat, falsaeque Patres in crimine caedis : 

Haesissetque animis forsitan illa ades ; 



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LIBER II. 33 

Sed Proculus Longa venîebat Julius Alba, 

Lunaque surgebat, nec facis usus erat ; 500 

Cum subito motu sepes tremuere sinistrae. 

Rettulit iile gradus, homieruntque comae. 
Pulcher, et humano major, trabeaque deconis 

Romulus in media visus adesse via, 
Et dixisse simul : Prohibe lugere Quirites ; 505 

Nec violent lacrimis numina nostra suiş. 
Thura ferant, placentque novum pia turba Quîrinuni, 

Et patrias artes militiamque colant. 
Jussit, et in tenues oculis evanuit auras. 

Convocat hic populos, jussaque verba refert 510 

Templa deo fiunt ; coUis quoque dictus ab illo est, 

Et referunt cerţi sacra paterna dies. 

Lux quoque cur eadem Stultorum festa vocetur, 

Accipe ; parva quidem causa, sed apta subest. 
Non habuit doctos tellus antiqua colonos ; 515 

Lassabant agiles aspera beDa viros. 
Plus erat in gladio, quam curvo laudis aratro ; 

Neglectus domino pauca ferebat ager. 
Farra tamen veteres jaciebant, farra metebant, 

Primitias Cereri farra resecta dabant. 620 

Usibus admoniti flammis torrenda dederunt, 

Multaque peccato damna tulere suo. 
Nam modo verrebant nigras pro farre favillas ; 

Nune ipsas ignes corripuere casas. 
Facta dea est Fomax : laeti Fomace coloni 525 

Orant, ut firuges temperet illa suas. 
Curio legitimis nune Fomacalia verbis 

Maxiinus indicit, nec stata sacra facit ; 
Inque Foro, multa circum pendente tabella, 

oignatur certa Curia quaegue nota ; 530 

Stultaque pars populi quae sît sua Curia nescit ; 

Sed facit extrema sacra relata die. 

xn — ^ix. KAL. 18th — 21ST. 

Est honor et tumulis : -animas placate patemas, 

Parvaque în exstructas munera ferte pyras. 
Parva petunt Manes : pietas pro divite grata est 535 

Munere ; non avidos Styx habet ima deos. 
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34 FA8T0BUH 

Tegula porrectis satis est velata coronis, 

£t sparsae fruj^es, parvaque mica salis, 
Inque mero moUita Ueres, yiolaeque solutae. 

Haec habeat media testa relicta via. 540 

NcG majora veto : sed et his plaeabilis umbra est. 

Adde preces positis et sua verba focis. 
Hune morem Aeneas, pietatis idoneus auctor, 

Attulit in terras, juste Latine, tuas. 
Iile patris Grenio sollemnia dona ferebat ; 545 

Hinc populi ritus edidicere pios. 
At quondam, dum longa gerunt pugnacibus armis 

Bella, Parentales deseruere dies. 
Non impune fuit ; nam dicitur omine ab isto 

Roma suburbanis incaluisse rogis. 550 

Vix equidem credo : bustis exisse feruntur, 
* Et tacitae questi tempore noctis avi ; 
Perque vias urbis, latosque ululasse per agros 

Deformes animaB, vulgus inane, ferunt. 
Post ea praeteriti tumulis redduntur honores, 555 

Prodigiisque venit funeribusque modus. 
Dum tamen haec fient, viduae cessate puellae ; 

£xspeetet puros pinea taeda dies. 
Nec tibi, quae cupidae matura videbere matri, 

Comat virgineas hasta recurva comas. 560 

Conde tuas, Hymenaee, faces, et ab ignibus atris 

Aufer : habent alias maesta sepulcra faces. 
Di quoque templorum foribus celentur opertis, 

Thure vacent arae, stentque sine igne foci. 
Nune animae tenues et corpora functa sepulcris 565 

Errant ; nune posito pascitur umbra cibo. 
Nec tamen haec ultra, quam tot de mense supersint 

Luciferi, quot habent carmina nostra pedes. 
Hanc, quia justa ferunt, dixere Feralia lucem. 

Ultima placandis Manibus illa dies. 570 



Ecce anus in mediis residens annosa puellis 
Sacra facit Tacitae — vix tamen ipsa tacet- 

Et digitis tria thura tribus sub limine ponit, 
Qua brevis occultUm mus sibi fecit iter. 



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LIBEB II. ;35 

Turn cantata Ugat cum fusco licîa plunibo ; 575 

Et septem nigras versat in ore fabas ; 
Quodque pice astrinxit, quod acu trajecit aena, 

Obsutum maenae torret in igne caput. 
Vina quoque instillat ; vini quodcumque relictum est, 

Aut ipsa, aut comites, plus tamen ipsa, bibit, 580 

Hostiles linguas inimicaque vinximus ora, 

Dicit discedens, ebriaque exit anus. 



Protinus a nobis, quae sit dea Muta, requîres. 

Disce, per antiquos quae xnihi nota senes. 
Juppiter immodico Jutumae captus amore 585 

Multa tulit, tanto non patienda deo. 
lila modo in silvis inter coryleta jacebat ; 

Nune in cognatas desiliebat aquas. 
Convocat bic Nymphas, Latium quaecumque tenebant, 

Et jacit in medio talia verba choro : 590 

Invidet ipsa sibi vitatque, quod expedit illi, 

Vestra soror summo jungere membra deo. 
Consulite ambobus ; nam quae mea magna voluptas, 

Utilitas vestrae magna sororis erit. 
Vos illi in prima fiigienti obsistite ripa, 595 

Ne sua numinea corpora mergat aqua. 
Dixerat : annuerunt udae omnes Tiberinides, 

Quaeque colunt thalamos, Hia diva, tuos. 
Forte fuit Naîs, Lara nomine ; prima sed illi 

I>icta bis antiquum syllaba nomen erat, 600 

Ex Titio positum. Saepe ilU dixerat Almon, 

Nata, tene linguam : nec tamen illa tenet. 
Quae, simul ac tetigit Jutumae stagna sororis, 

Effiige, ait, ripas : dicta refertque Jovis. 
Illa etiam Junonem adiit, miserataque nuptas, 605 

Naida Jutumam vir tuus, inquit, amat. 
Juppiter intumuit ; quaeque est non usa modeste, 

Eripuit linguam, Mercuriumque vocat. 
Duc banc ad Manes : locus iile silentibus aptus. 

Nympha, sed infemae Nvmpha paludis, erit 610 

Jussa Jovis fiunt ; accepit lucus euiites ; 

Dicitur illa duci tuHa placuisse deo. 
06 



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36 FASTOBirir 

Vim parat hic ; vultu pro verbis illa precatur, 

Et frustra muto nititur ore loqui. 
Fitque gravis, geminosque parit, qui compita servant, 6 1 5 

Et vigilant nostra semper in urbe, Lares. 
VIII. KAL. 22nd. 

Proxima cognati dixere Caristia cari, 

Et venit ad socios turba propinqua deos. 
Scilicet a tumulis et qui periere propinquis 

Protinus ad vivos ora referre juvat, 620 

Postque tot amissos, quidquid de sanguine restat, 

Aspicere, et generis dinumerare gradus. 
Innocui veniant : procul hinc, procul impîus esto 

Frater, et in partus mater acerba suos, 
Cui pater est vivax, qui matris digerit annos, 625 

Quae premit invisam socrus iniqua nurum. 
Tantalidae fratres absint, et lasonis uxor, 

Et quae ruricolis semina tosta dedit, 
Et soror, et Procne, Tereusque duabus iniquus, 

Et quicumque suas per scelus auget opes. 630 

Dis generis date thura bonis ; Concordia fertur 

lila praecipue mitis adesse die ; 
Et libate dapes, ut, grati pignus honoris, 

Nutriat incinctos missa patella Lares. 
Jamque ubi suadebit placidos nox bumida somnos, 635 

Parca precaturi sumite vina mânu, 
Et, Bene vos, bene te patriae Pater, optime Caesar ! 

Dicite sufiliso ter bona verba mero. 

VII. KAL. 23rd. 

Nox ubi transierit, solito celebretur honore 

Separat indicio qui deus arva suo. 640 

Termine, sive lapis, sive es defossus in agro 

Stipes ab antiquis, tu quoque numen habes. 
Te duo diversa domini pro parte coronant, 

Binaque serta tibi, binaque liba ferunt. 
Ara fit : buc ignem curto fert rustica testu 645 

Sumptum de tepidis ipsa colona'focis. 
Ligna senex minuit, concisaque construit alte, 

Et solida ramos figere pugnat humo ; 
Tum sicco primas imtat cortice flammas. 

Stat puer, et manibus lata canistra tenet. 650 



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LIBER II. 37 

înde, ubi ter fruges medios immisit in ignes, 

Porrigit incisos filia parva favos. 
Vina tenent alii ; libantur singula flammis. 

Spectant et linguis candida turba favent. 
Spargitur et caeso communis Terminus agno ; 655 

Nec queritur, lactens cum sibi porca datur. 
Conveniunt celebrantque dapes vicinia supplex, 

Et cantant laudes, Termine sancte, tuas. 
Tu populos, urbesque, et regna ingentia finis : 

Omnis erit sine te litigiosus ager. 660 

NuUa tibi ambitio est ; nullo corrumperis auro ; 

Legitima servas credita rura fide. 
Si tu signasses olim Thyreatida terram, 

Corpora non leto missa trecenta forent, 
Nec foret Otbryades congestis lectus in armis. 665 

O quantum patriae sanguinis iile dedit ! 
Quid nova cum fierent Capitolia ? nempe deorum 

Cuncta Jovi cessit turba, locumque dedit. 
Terminus — ut veteres memorant — ^inventus in aede 

Restitit, et magno cum Jove templa tenet. 670 

Nune quoque, se supra ne quid nisi sidera cemat, 

Exiguum templi tecta foramen habent. 
Termine, post illud levitas tibi libera non est, 

Qua positus fueris in statione, mane. 
Nec tu vicino quidquam concede roganti, 675 

Ne videare hominem praeposuisse Jovi ; 
Et seu vomeribus, seu tu pulsabere rastris. 

Clamate, Suus est bic ager, iile tuus. — 
Est via, quae populum Laurentes ducit in agros, 

Quondam Dardanio regna petita duci. 68O 

lUac lanigeri pecoris tibi, Termine, fibris 

Sacra videt fieri sextus ab urbe lapis. 
Gentibus est aliis tellus data limite certo ; 

Romanae spatium est urbis et orbis idem. 

VI. KAL. 24th. 

Nune mihi dicenda est Regis fiiga. Traxit ab illa 685 

Sextus ab extreme nomina mense dies. 
Ultima Tarquinius Romanae gentis habebat 

Regna, vir injustus, fortis ad arma tamen. 



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38 FASTORUX 

Ceperat hic alias, alias everterat urbea, 

Et Gabios turpi fecerat arte suos. 690 

Namque trium minimus, proles manifesta Superbi, 

In medios hostes nocte silente venit. 
Nudarant şladios : Occidite, dixit, inermem ! 

Hoc cupiant fratres, Tarquiniusque pater, 
Qui mea crudeli laceravit verbere terga ! 695 

— Dicere ut hoc posset, verbera passus erat — 
Luna fuit : spectant juvenem, gladiosque recondunt, 

Tergaque, deducta veste, notata vident. 
Flent quoque, et, ut secum tueatur bella, precantur. 

Callidus ignaris annuit iile virîs. 700 

Jamque potens misso genitorem appellat amico, 

Perdendi Grabîos quod sibi monstret iter. 
Hortus odoratis suberat cultissimus herbis, 

Sectus bumum rivo lene sonantis aquae. 
Illic Tarquinius mandata latentia nati 705 

Accipit, et virga lilia summa metit. 
Nuntius ut rediit, decussaque lilia dixit, 

Filius, Agnosco jussa parentis, ait. 
Nec mora : principibus caesis ex urbe Gabina, 

Traduntur ducibus moenia nuda suiş. 710 

Ecce — nefas visu — mediis altaribus anguis 

Exit, et exstinctis ignibus exta răpit. 
Consulitur Phoebus. Sors est ita reddita : Matri 

Qui dederit princeps oscula, victor erit. 
Oscula quisque suae matri properata tulerunt 715 

Non intellecto credula turba deo. 
Brutus erat stulti sapiens imitator, ut esset 

Tutus ab insidiis, dire Superbe, tuis. 
Iile jacens pronus matri dedit oscula Terrae, 

Creditus offenso procubuisse pede. 720 

Cingitur interea Romanis Ardea signis, 

Et patitur lentas obsidione moras. 
Dum vacat, et metuunt hostes committere pugnam, 

Luditur in castris ; otia miles agit. 
Tarquinius juvenis socios dapibusque meroque 725 

Accipit, ex illis rege creatus ait : 
Dum nos soUicitos pigro tenet Ardea bello, 

Nec sinit ad patrios arma referre deos ; 



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LIBER II. 39 

Ecquid in officio torus est socialis ? et ecquid 

Conjugibus nostris mutua cura sumus ? 73o 

Quisque suam lăudat ; studiis certamina crescunt, 

Et fervent multo linguaque corque mero. 
Surgit cui dederat clarum Collatia nomen ; 

Non opus est verbis, credite rebus, ait. 
Nox superest : toUamur equis, urbemque petamus. 735 

Dicta placent ; frenis impediuntur equi ; 
Pertulerant dominos ; regalia protinus lUi 

Tecta petunt ; custos in fore nullus erat. 
Ecce nurum regis fiisis per colla coronis 

Inveniunt posito pervigilare mero. 740 

înde cito passu petitur Lucretia, Nebat ; 

Ante torum calathi lanaque moUis erant. 
Lumen ad exiguum famulae data pensa trahebant, 

Inter quas tenui sic ait ipsa sono : 
Mittenda est domino — nune, nuinc properate, puellae — 

Quamprimum nostra facta lacema mânu. 
Quid tamen auditis ? — nam plura audire potestis — 

Quantum de bello dicitur esse super ? 
Postmodo victa cades, melioribus, Ardea, restas, 

Improba, quae nostros cogis abesse viros, 750 

Sînt tantum reduces. Sed enim temerarius iile 

Est meus, et stricto qualibet ense ruit. 
Mens abit et morior, quotiens pugnantis i&iago. 

Me subit, et gelidum pectora frigus habet. 
Desinit in lacrimas, incoeptaque fila remittit, 755 

In gremio vultum deposuitque suum. 
Hoc ipsum decuit : lacrimae decuere pudicam, 

Et facies animo dignaque parque fuit. 
. Pone metum, venio, conjunx ait. lUa revixit, 

Deque viri coUo dulce pependit onus. 760 

Interea juvenis furiatos regius ignes 

Concipit, et caeco raptus amore furit. 
Forma placet, niveusque color, flavique capilli, 

Quique aderat nuUa factus ab arte decor. 
Verba placent, et vox, et quod corrumpere non est ; 766 

Quoque minor spes est, noc magis iile cupit. 
Jam dederat cantus lucis praenimtius ales, 

Cum referunt juvenes in sua castra pedem. 



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40 FASTOBUM 

Carpitur attonitos absentis imagine sensus 

ifie : recordanti plura magisque placent. 77o 

Sic sedit, sic culta niit, sic stamina nevit, 

Neglectae collo sic jacuere comae, 
Hos habuit voltus, haec illi verba ftierunt, 

Hic decor, haec &cies, hic color oris erat. 
Ut solet a magno fluctua languescere flatu, 775 

Sed tamen a vento, qui fuit, unda tumet : 
Sic, quamvis aberat placitae praesentia formae, 

Quem dederat praesens forma, manebat amor. 
Ardet, et injusti stimulis agitatur amoris ; 

Comţaret indigno vimque dolimique toro. 78O 

Exitus in dubio est. Audebiraus ultima, dixit ; 

Viderit, audentes forsve deusve juvet ; 
Cepimus audendo Grabios quoque. Talia fatus 

Ense latus cinxit, tergaque pressit equi. 
Accipit aerată juvenem Collatia porta, 785 

Condere jam voltus sole parante suos. 
Hostis, ut bospes, init penetralia CoUatini : 

Comiter excipitur ; sanguine junctus erat. 
Quantum animis erroris inest ! parat inscîa rerum 

Infelix epulas hostibus illa suis. 790 

Functus erat dapibus : poscunt sua tempera somnum. 

Nox erat, et tota lumina nuUa domo. 
Surgit, et auratum vagina deripit ensem, 

Et venit in thalamos, nupta pudica, tuos. 
Utque torum pressit, Ferrum, Lucretia, mecum est, 795 

Natus, ait, regis, Tarquiniusque loquor. 
Illa nihil : neque enim vocem viresque loquendi, 

Aut aliquid toto pectore mentis habet. 
Sed tremit, ut quondam stabulis deprensa relictis 

Parva sub infesto cum jacet agna lupo. 800 

Quid faciat ? pugnet ? vincetur femina pugnans. 

Clamet ? at in dextra, qui vetet, ensis adest. 
Effiigiat ? positis urgentur pectora palmis ; 

Tune primum externa pectora tacta mânu. 
Instat amans bostis precibus, pretioque, minisque : 805 

Nec prece, nec pretio, nec movet iile minis. 
Nil affis ; eripiam, dixit, per crimina vitam ; 

Falsus adulterii testis adulter ero. 



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LIBER II. 41 

Interimam famulum, cum quo deprensa fereris, 

Succubuit famae victa puella metu. 8 io 

Quid, victor, gaudes ? haec te victoria perdet. 

Heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis ! 
Jamque erat orta dies : passis sedet illa capillis, 

Ut solet ad nati mater itura rogum ; 
Grandaevumque patrem fido cum conjuge castriş 8 1 5 

Evocat : et posita venit uterque mbra.. 
Utque vident habitum, quae luctus causa, requirunt, 

Cui paret exequias, quove sit icta malo. 
Illa diu reticet, pudibundaque celat amictu 

Ora ; fluunt lacrimae more perennis aquae. 820 

Hînc pater, hinc conjunx lacriraas solantur, et orant, 

Indicet ; et caeco fientque paventque metu. 
Ter conata loqui, ter destitit, ausaque quarto 

Non oculos adeo sustulit illa suos. 
Hoc quoque Tarquinio debebimus ? eloquar, inquit, 825 

Eloquar infelix dedecus ipsa meum ? 
Quaeque potest narrat. Restabant ultima ; flevit, 

Et matronales erubuere genae. 
Dant veniam facto genitor conjunxque coactae. 

Quam dixit, veniam vos datis, ipsa nego. 830 

Nec mora ; celato figit sua pectora ferro, 

Et cădit in patrios sanguinolenta pedes. 
Tune quoque jam moriens, ne non procumbat honeste, 

Respicit, haec etiam cura cadentis erat. 
Ecce super corpus communia damna gementes, '835 

Obliti decoris, virque paterque jacent. 
Brutus adest, tandemque animo sua nomina fallit, 

Fixaque semanimi corpore tela răpit ; 
Stillantemque tenens generoso sanguine cultrum, 

Edidit impavidos ore minante sonos : 840 

Per tibi ego hune juro fortem castumque cruorem, 

Perque tuos Manes, qui mihi numen erunt, 
Tarquinium profuga poenas cum stirpe daturum. 

Jam satis est virtus dissimulata diu. 
Illa jacens ad verba oculos sine lumine movit, 845 

Visaque concussa dicta probare coma. 
Pertur in. exequias animi matrona virilis, 

Et secum lacrimas invidiamque trahit. 



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42 FASTORUM 

Vulnus inane patet. Brutus clamore Quirites 

Concitat, et regis facta nefanda refert. 850 

Tarquinius cum prole fugit ; capit annua Consul 
Jura : dies regnis illa suprema fuit. 

Fallimur ? an veris praenuntia venit hirundo, 

Et metuit, ne qua versa recurrat hiems ? 
Saepe tamen, Procne, nimium properasse quereris, 855 

V irque tuo Tereus frigore laetus erit. 

III. KAL. 27th. 

Jamque duae restant noctes de mense secundo, 

Marsque citos junctis curribus urget equos. 
Ex vero positum permansit Equiria nomen, 

Quae deus in campo prospicit ipse suo. s6o 

Jure venis, Gradive ; locum tua tempora poscunt, 

Signatusque tuo nomine mensis adest. 
Venimus in portum libro cum mense peracto. 

Naviget hmc alia jam mihi linter aqua. 



LIBER III. 

Bellice, depositis clipeo pauUisper et hasta^ 

Marş, ades, et nitidas casside solve comas. 
Forsitan ipse roges, quid sit cum Marte poetae. 

A te, qui canitur, nomina mensis habet. 
Ipse vides peragi manibus fera bella Minervae : 5 

Num minus ingenuis artibus illa vacat ? 
Palladis exemple ponendae tempora sume 

Cuspidis ; invenies et quod inermis agas. 
Turn quoque inermis eras, cum te Romana sacerdos 

Cepit, ut huic urbi semina digna dares. 10 

Silvia Vestalis — quid enim vetat inde moveri ? — 

Sacra lavaturas mane petebat aquas. 
Ventum erat ad molii declivem tramite ripam ; 

Ponitur e summa fictilis urna coma. 
Fessa resedit humo, ventosque accepit aperto 15 

Pectore, turbatas restituitque comas. 



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LIBER III. 43 

Dum sedet, umbrosae saJices volucresque caaiorae 

Fecerunt somnos, et leve murmur aquae. 
Blânda quies victis fiirtim subrepit ocellis, 

Et cădit a mento languida facta manus. 20 

Marş videt hanc, visamque cupit, potiturque cupita, 

Et sua divina furta fefellit ope. 
Somnus abit ; jacet illa gravis ; nam scilicet intra 

Viscera, Romanae conditor urbis, eras. 
Languida consurgit, nec scit, cur languida surgat, 25 

Et peragit tales arbore nixa sonos : 
Utile sit faustumque, precor, quod imagine somni 

Vidimus ! An somno clarius illud erat ? 
Ignibus Iliacis aderam, cum lapsa capillis 

Decidit ante sacros lauea vitta focos. 30 

înde duae pariter — visu mirabile — palmae 

Surgunt. Ex illis altera major erat, 
Et gravibus ramis totum protexerat orbem, 

Contigeratque sua sidera summa coma. 
Ecce meus ferrum patruus molitur in illas ! 35 

Terreor admonitu, corque timore micat. 
Martia picus avis gemino pro stipite pugnant 

Et lupa. Tuta per hos utraque palma fuit. 
Dixerat : et plenant non firmis viribus umam 

Sustulit. — Implerat, dum sua visa refert. — 40 

Interea crescente Remo, crescente Quirino, 

Caelesti tumidus pondere venter erat. 
Quo minus emeritis exiret cursibus annus, 

Restabant nitido jam duo signa deo : 
Silvia fit mater. Vestae simulacra feruntur 45 

Virgineas oculis opposuisse manus. 
Ara deae certe tremuit, pariente ministra, 

Et subiit cineres territa flamma suos. 
Haec ubi cognovit contemptor Amulius aequi, 

— Nam raptas fratri victor habebat opes — 50 

Amne jubet mergi geminos. Scelus unda refugit : 

In sicca pueri destituuntur humo. 
Lacte quis infantes nescit crevisse ferino, 

Et picum expositis saepe tulisse cibos ? 
Non ego te, tantae nutrix Larentia gentis, 55 

Nec tăceam vestras, Faustule pauper, opes. 



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44 FASTOEUM 

Vester honos veniet, cum Larentalia dicam : 

Acceptus Geniiar illa December habet. 
Martia ier senos proles adoleverat annos, 

Et suberat âavae jam nova barba comae : 6o 

Omnibus agricolis armentorumque magistris 

Iliadae fratres jura petita dabant. 
Saepe domum veniunt praedonum sanguine laeti^ 

Et redigunt actos in sua jura boves. 
Ut genus audierunt, animos pater editus auget, 65 

Et pudet in paucis nomen habere casis : 
Romuleoque cădit trajectus Amulius ense, 

Regnaque longaevo restituuntur avo. 
Moenia conduntur, quae, quamvis parva fuerunt, 

Non tamen expediit transiluisse Remo. 70 

Jam, modo qua fiierant silvae pecorumque recessus, 

Urbs erat, aetemae cum pater urbis ait : 
Arbiter armorum, de cujus sanguine natus 

Credor, et ut credar, pignora multa dabo, 
A te principium Romano ducimus anno : 75 

Primus de patrio nomine mensis erit. 
Vox rata fit, patrioque vocat de nomine mensem. 

Dicitur haec pietas grata fiiisse deo. 
Et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores ; 

Hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suiş. 80 

Pallada Cecropidae, Mino'ia Creta Dianam, 

Vulcanum tellus Hypsipylea colit, 
Junonem Sparte Pelopeiadesque Mycenae, 

Pinigerum Fauni Maenalis ora caput. 
Marş Latio venerandus erat, quia praesidet armis : 85 

Arma ferae genţi remque decusque dabant. 
Quod si forte vacas, peregrinos inspice fastos : 

Mensis in bis etiam nomine Martis erit. 
Tertius Albanis, quintus fuit iile Faliscis, 

Sextus apud populos, Hemica terra, tuos. 90 

Inter Aricinos Albanaque tempera constant 

Factaque Telegoni moeniâ celsa mânu. 
Quintum Laurentes, bis quintum iEquicolus asper, 

A tribus hune primum turba Curensis habet. 
Et tibi cum proavis, miles Peligne, Sabinis ys 

Convenit : hic genţi quartus utrique deus. 



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LIBER III. . 45 

Romulus, hos omnes ut vinceret ordine saltem, 

Saiiguinis auctori tempora prima dedit. 
Nec totidem veteres, quot nune, habuere kalendas ; 

Iile minor şeminis mensibus annus erat. loo 

Nondum tradiderat victas victoribus artes 

Grraecia, facundum sed male forte genus. 
Qui bene pugnabat, Romanam noverat artem ; 

Mittere qui poterat pila, disertus erat. 
Quis tune aut Hyadas, aut Pleiad^s Atlanteas io5 

Senserat, aut geminos esse sub axe polos ? 
Esse duas Arctos, quarum Cynosura petatur 

Sidoniis, Helicon Grăia earina notet ? 
Signaque, quae longo frater percenseat anno, 

Ire per haec uno mense sororis equos ? no 

Libera currebant et inobservata per annum 

Sidera ; constabat sed tamen esse deos. 
Non illi caelo labentia signa tenebant, 

Sed sua, quae magnum perdere erimen erat. 
lUa quidem foeno ; sed erat reverentia foeno, 1 1 5 

Quantam nune aquilas cemis habere tuas. 
Pertiea suspensos portabat longa maniplos : 

Unde maniplaris homina miles habet. 
Ergo animi indoeiles et adhuc ratione earentes 

Mensibus egerunt lustra minora deeem. 120 

Annus erat, decimum cum luna reeeperat orbem : 

Hie numerus magno tune in honore fuit. 
Seu quia tot digiti, per quos numerare solemus ; 

Seu quia bis quino femina mense parit ; 
Seu quod adusque decern numero creseente venitur ; 125 

Principium spatiis sumitur inde novis. 
înde Patres eentum denos secrevit in orbes 

Romulos, Hastatos instituitque decern, 
Et totidem Princeps, totidem Piknus habebat 

Corpora, legitime quique merebat equo, 130 

Quin etiam partes totidem Titiensibus idem, 

Quosqr e vocant Ramnes, Luceribusque dedit. 
Assuetos igitur numeros servavit în anno. 

Hoe luget spatio femina maesta virum. 
Neu dubites, primae fuerint quin ante kaJendae 1 35 

Martis, ad haee animum signa referre potes. 



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46 . FASTOBUM 

Laurea Flaminibus, quae toto perstitit anno, 

ToUitur, et frondes sunt în honore novae ; 
Janua tune Regia posita viret arbore Phoebi ; 

Ante tuas fit idem, Curia Prisca, fores ; uo 

Vesta quoque ut folio niteat velata recenţi, 

Cedit ab Iliacis laurea cana focis. 
Adde, quod arcana fieri novus ignis in aede 

Dicitur, et vires flamma refecta capit. 
Nee mihi parva fides, annos hinc isse priores, 145 

Anna quod boc coepta est mense Perenna coli. 
Hinc etiam veteres initi memorantur bonores 

Ad spatium belii, perfide Poene, tui. 
Denique quintus ab boc fuerat Quintiiis, et inde 

Incipit a numero nomina quisquis babet. 150 

Primus olivîferîs Romam deductus ab arvis 

Pompilius menses sensit abesse duos : 
Sive boc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci 

Nos putat, Egeria sive monente sua. 
Sed tamen errabant etiam tune tempera, donec 1 55 

Caesaris in multis baec quoque cura fait. 
Non baec iile deus, tantaeque propaginis auctor, 

Credidit offîciis esse minora suiş ; 
Promissumque sibi voluit praenoscere caelum, 

Nec deus ignotas bospes inire domos. i6u 

Iile moras soUs, quibus in sua signa rediret, 

Traditur exactis disposuisse notis. 
îs decies senos tercentum et quinque diebus 

Junxit, et e pleno tempera quarta die. 
Hic anni modus est. In lustrum accedere debet, 165 

Quae consum'matur partibus, una dies. • 

KAL. MART. ISP. 

Si licet occultos monitus audire deorum 

Vatibus, ut certe fama licere putat, 
Cum sis officiis, Gradive, virilibus aptus, 

Dic mibi, matronae cur tua festa colant. 170 

Sic ego. Sic posita dixit mihi casside Mavors ; 

Sed tamen m dextra missilis basta fuit : 
Nune primum studiis pacis deus utilis armis 

Advocor, et gressus in nova castra fero. 



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LIBEK III. 47 

Nec piget incoepti ; juvat hac quoque parte morari, 176 

Hoc solam ne se posse Minerva putet. 
Disce, Latinorum vates operose dienim, 

Quod petis, et memori pectore dicta nota. 
Parva fiiit, si prima velis elementa referre, 

Roma : sed in parva spes tamen hujus erat. iso 

Moenia jam stabant, populis angusta ftituris, 

Credita sed turbâe tune nimis ampla snae. 
Quae fuerit noştri, si quaeris, regia nati, 

Aspice de canna straminibusque domum. 
In stipula placidi carpebat munera somni, I85 

Et tamen ex illo venit in astra toro. 
Jamque loco majus nomen Romanus habebat, 

Nec conjunx illî, nec socer ullus erat. 
Spemebant generos inopes vicinia dives, 

Et male credebar sanguinis auctor ego. 190 

In stabulis habitasse, et oves pavisse, nocebat, 

Jugeraque inculţi pauca tenere soli. 
Cum pare quaeque suo coeunt volucresque feraeque, 

Atque aliquam, de qua procreet, anguis habet. 
Extremis dantur connubia gentibus ; at, quae 195 

Romano vellet nubere, nuUa fuit. 
Indolui, patriamque dedi tibi, Romule, mentem. 

Toile preces, dixi : quod petis, arma dabunt. 
vFesta para Conso. Consus tibi cetera dicet 

Illo facta die, cum sua sacra canes. , 200 

Intumuere Cures, et quos dolor attigit idem, 

Turn primum generis intulit arma socer. 
Jamque fere raptae mâtrum quoque nomen habebant, 

Tractaque erant longa bella propinqua mora, 
Conveniunt nuptae dictam Junonis in aedem, 205 

Quas inter mea sic est nurus orsa loqui : 
O pariter raptae, quoniam hoc commune tenemus 

Non ultra lente possiimus esse piae. 
Stant acies : sed utra di sint pro parte rogandi, 

Eligite ; hinc conjunx, hinc pater arma tenet ; 210 
Quaerendum est, viduae fieri malimus an orbae. 

Consilium vobis forte piumque dabo. 
Consilium dederat : parent, cnnemque resolvunt, 

Maestaque funerea corpora veste tegunt. 



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48 FASTOBUM 

Jam steterant acies ferro mortique paratae ; 215 

Jam lituus pugnae signa datunis erat ; 
Cum raptae veniunt inter patresque virosque, 

Inque sinu natos, pignora cara ferunt. 
Ut medium cam pi scissis tetigere capillis, 

In terram posito procubuere genu ; 220 

Et, quasi sentirent, blando clamore nepoţes 

Tendebant ad avos brachia parva suos. 
Qui poterat, clamabat avum turn denique visum ; 

Et qui vix poterat, posse coactus erat. 
Tela viris animique cadunt, gladiisque remotis 225 

Dant soceri generis accipiuntque manus ; 
Laudatasque tenent natas, scutoque nepotem 

Fert avus : bic scuti dulcior usus erat. 
înde diem, quae prima, meas celebrare kalendas 

Oebalides matres non leve munus habent. 230 

Aut quia committi strictis mucronibus ausae 

Finierant lacrimis Martia bella suiş ? 
Vel, quod erat de me feliciter Ilia mater, 

Rite colunt matres sacra diemque meum ? 
Quid ? quod hiems adoperta gelu tune denique cedit, 

Et pereunt lapsae sole tepente nives ; 
Arboribus redeunt detonsae frigore frondes, 

Uvidaque e tenero palmite gemma tumet ; 
Quaeque diu latuit, nune se qua tollat in auras 

Fertilis occultas invenit berba vias. 240 

Nune fecundus ager ; pecoris nune hora creandi ; 

Nune avis in ramo tecta laremque parat. 
Tempera jure colunt Latiae fecunda parentes, 

Quarum militiam votaque partus babet. 
Adde, quod, excubias ubi rex Romanus agebat, 245 

Qui nune Esquilias nomina coUis babet, 
Illic a nuribus Junoni templa Latinis 

Hac sunt, si memini, publica facta die. 
Quid moror, et variis onero tua pectora causis ? 

Eminet ante oculos, quod petis, ecce tuos. 250 

Mater amat nuptas ; matrum me turba frequentant. 

Haec nos praecipue tam pia causa decet. 
Ferte deae fiores ; gaudet florentibus herbis 

Haec dea : de tenero cingite flore caput. 



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LIBEB III. 49 



Dicite, Tu lucem nobis, Lucîna, dedisti ; 255 

^ Dicite, Tu voto parturientis ades. 
Si qua tamen gravida est, resoluto crine precetur, 
Ut solvat partus molliter illa suos. 



Quis mihi nune dicet, quare eaelestia Martis 

Arma ferant Sălii, Mamuriumque canant ? 2C0 

Nympha, mone, nemori stagnoque operata Dianae: 

Nympha, Numae eonjunx, ad tua facta veni. 
Vallis Aricinae silva praecinctus opaca 

Est lacus antiqua relligione sacer. 
Hic latet Hippolytus furiis direptus equorum ; 265 

Unde nemus nullis illud aditur equis. 
Licia dependent longas velantia sepes, 

Et posita est meritae multa tabella deae. 
Saepe potens voti, frontem redimita coronis, 

Femina lucentes portat ab urbe faces; 270 

Regna tenent fortesque mânu, pedibusque fugaces ; 

Et perit exemple postmodo quisque suo. 
Defluit incerte lapidosus murmure rivus : 

Saepe, sed exiguis haustibus, inde bibi. 
Egerîa est, quae praebet aquas, dea grata Camenis. 275 

Illa Numae eonjunx consiliumque fuit. 
Principie nimium promptos ad bella Quirites 

Molliri placuit jure deumque metu. 
înde datae leges, ne firmior omnia posset, 

Coeptaque sunt pure tradita sacra coli. 28o 

Exuitur feritas, armisque potentius aequum est, 

Et cum cive pudet conseruisse manus. 
Atque aliquîs, modo trux, visa jam vertitur ara, 

Vinaque dat tepidis salsaque farra focis. 
Ecce deum genitor rutilas per nubila flammas 285 

Spars^it, et effusis aetbera siccat aquis. ^ 
Non alias missi cecidere frequentius ignesT. 

Rex pavet, et vulgi pectora terror habet. 
Cui dea, Ne nimium terrere ! piabile fulmen 

Est, ait, et saevi flectitur ira Jovis. 290 

Sed poterunt ritum Picus Faunusque piandi 

Prodere, Romani numen uterque soli 



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50 FA8T0BUM 

Nec sine vi tradent ; adhibe tu vincula captis. 

Atqu^ ita qua possint edidit arte capi. 
Lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 295 

Quo posses viso dicere, numen inest. 
In medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 

Manabat saxo vena perennis a(ţuae. 
înde fere soli Faunus I'icusque bibebant. 

Huc venit, et fonti rex Numa mactat ovem, 300 

Plenaque odorati disponit pocula Bacchi, 

Cumque suiş antro conditus ipse latet. 
Ad solitos veniunt silvestria numina fontes, 

Et relevant multo pectora sicca mero. 
Vina quies sequitur ; gelido Numa prodit ab antro, 305 

Vinclaque sopitas addit in arta manus. 
Somnus ut abscessit, tentando vincula pugnant 

Rumpere ; pugnantes fortius illa tenent 
Tune Numa Di nemorum, factis ignoscite nostris, 

Si scelus ingenio scitis abesse meo ; 310 

Quoque modo possit fulmen, monstrate, piari. 

Sic Numa. Sic quatiens comua Faunus ait : 
Magna petis, nec quae monitu tibi discere nostro 

Fas sit. Habent fines numina nostra suos. 
Di sumus agrestes, et qui dominemur in altis 315 

Montibus. Arbitrium est in sua tecta Jovi. 
Hune tu non poteris per te deducere caelo ; 

At poteris nostra forsitan usus ope. 
Dixerat haec Faunus : par est sententia PicL 

Deme tamen nobis vincula, Picus ait. 320 

Juppiter huc veniet valida deductus ab arte. 

Nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit. 
Emissi quid agant laqueis, quae carmina dicant, 

Quaque trahant stiperis sedibus arte Jovem, 
Scire nefas homini. Nobis concessa canentur, 325 

QuaeqJ^ pio dici vatis ab ore licet. ^ 

Eliciunt caelo te, Juppiter ; unde minores 

Nune quoque te celebrant, Eliciumque vocant. 
Constat Aventinae tremuisse cacumina silvae, 

Terraque subsedit pondere pressa Jovis. 330 

Corda micant regis, totoque e corpore sanguis 

Fugit, et hirsutae diriguere comae. 



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LIBER III. 51 

Ut rediit animus, Da certa piamina, dixit, 

Fulminis, altorum rexque paterque deum ; 
Si tua contigimus manibus donaria puris, 335 

Hoc quoque, quod petitur, si pia lingua rogat. 
Annuit oranti : aed venim ambage remota 

Abdidit, et dubio temiit ore virum. 
Caede caput dixit. Cui rex, Parebimus, inquit : 

Caedenda est hortis eruta cepa meis. 340 

Addidit hic, Hominis. Sumes, ait iile, capiUos. 

Postulat hic animam. Cui Numa, Piscis, ait. 
Risit, et, His, inquit, facito mea tela procures, 

O vir colloquio non abigende deum ! 
Sed tibi, protulerit cum totum crastinus orbem 345 

Cynthius, imperii pignora certa dabo. 
Dixit, et ingenti tonitru super aethera motum 

Fertur, adorautem destituitque Numam. 
Iile redit laetus, memoratque Quiritibus acta. 

Tarda venit dictis difficilisque iides. 350 

At certe credemur, ait, si verba sequatur 

Exitus. En, audi crastina, quisquis adea 
Protulerit terris cum totum Cynthius orbem, 

Juppiter imperii pignora certa dabit. 
Discedunt dubii, promissaque tarda videntur, 355 

Dependetque fidea a veniente die. 
MoUis erat tellus rorataque mane pruina ; 

Ante sui populus limina regis adest. 
Prodit et in solio medius consedit acemo ; 

Innumeri circa stantque silentque viri. 360 

Ortus erat summo tantummodo margine Phoebus ; 

Sollicitae mentes speque metuque payent. 
Constitit, atque caput niveo velatus amictu 

Jam bene dis notas sustulit iile manus. 
Atque ita, Tempus adest promissi muneris, inquit, 365 

PoUîcitam dictis, Juppiter, adde fidem. 
Dum loquitur, totum jam sol emoverat orbem, 

Et gravis aetherio venit ab axe fragor. 
Ter tonuit sine nube deus, tria fulgura misit. 

Credite dicenti ; mira, sed acta, loquor. 370 

A media caelum regione dehiscere coepit ; 

Submisere oculos cum duce turba suo. 
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52 FASTORUM 

Ecce levi scutum versatum leniter aura 

Decidit. A populo clamor ad astra venit. 
ToUit humo munus caesa prius iile juvenca, 375 

Quae dederat nulii coUa premenda jugo ; 
Atque ancUe vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est, 

Quaque notes oculis angulus omnis abest. 
Turn, memor imperii sortem consistere in illo, 

Consilium multae calliditatis init. 380 

Plura jubet fieri simili caelata figura, 

Error ut ante oculos insidiantes eat. 
Mamurius, morum fabraene exactior artis 

Difiicile est ulii dicere, clausit opus. 
Cui Numa munificus, Facti pete praemia, dixit : 3S5 

Si mea nota fides, irrita nulla petes. 
Jam dederat Saliis a saitu nomina dieta 

Armaque, et ad certos verba eanenda modos. 
Tum sic Mamurius, Merces mihi gloria detur, . 

Nominaque extreme carmine npstra sonent. 390 

înde saceraotes operi promissa vetusto 

Praemia persolvunt, Mamuriumque vocant. 



Nubere si qua voles, quamvis properabitis ambo, 

Differ ; habent parvae commoda magna morae. 
Arma movent pugnam, pugna est aliena măritiş. 395 

Condita cum fuerint, aptius omen erit. 
His etiam conjunx apicati cincta Dialis 

Lucibus impexas debet habere comas. 

V. NON. 3bd. 

Tertia nox demersa suos ubi moverit ignes, 

Conditus e geminis Piscibus alter erit. 400 

Nam duo sunt : Austris hic est, Aquilonibus iile 

Proximus ; a vento nomen uterque tenet. 
III. NON. 5th. 

Cum croceis rorare genis Tithonia conjunx 

Coeperit, et quintae tempera lucis aget ; 
Sive est Arctophylax, sive est piger iile Bootes, 405 

Mergetur, visus efiligietque tuos. 
At non efiugiet Vindemitor. Hoc quoque causam 

Unde trahat sidus, parva docere mora est. 



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LIB^R III. 53 

Ampelon intonsiim satyro nymphaque creatum 

Fertur in Ismariis Bacchus amasse jugis. 4 io 

Tradidit huic vitem pendentem frondibus ulmi, 

Quae nune de pueri nomine nomen habet. ^ 
Dum legii in ramo pictas temerarius uvas, 

Decidit : amissum Liber in astra vehit. 

PB. NON. 6th. 

Sextus ubi Oceano clivosum scandit Olympum 4i5 

Phoebus, et alatis aethera cârpit equis ; 
Quisquis ades, castaeque colis penetraţia Yestae, 

Grătare Hiacis thuraque pone focis. 
Caesaris innumeris, quos maluit iile mereri, 

Accessit titulis pontificaJis honos. 420 

Ignibus aetemis aetemi numina praesunt 

Caesaris. Imperii pignora juncta vides. 
Di veteres Troiae, dignissima praeda ferenti, 

Qua gravis Aeneas tutus ab hoste fiiit ; 
Ortus ab Aenea tangit cognata sacerdos 425 

Numina ; cognatum, Y^sta, tuere caput. 
Quos sancta fovet iile mânu, bene vivitis ignes. 
• Vivite inexstincti, flammaque, duxque ! precor. 

NON. 7th. 

Una nota est Marti Nonis, sacrata quod illis 

Templa putant lucos Vedjovis ante duos. 430 

Romulus ut-saxo lucum circumdedit alto, 

Quilibet huc, inquit, confuge, tutus eria 
O quam de tenui Romanus origine crevit ! 

Turba vetus quam non invidiosa fuit ! 
Ne tamen ignaro novitas tibi nominis obstet, 435 

Disce, quis iste deus, curve vocetur ita. 
Juppiter est juvenis ; juvenales aspice voltus. 

Aspice deinde, mânu fulmina nulla tenet 
Fulmma post ausos caelum affectare Oigantas 

Sumpta Jovi : primo tempore inermis erat. 440 

Ignibus Ossa nons, et Pelion altior Ossa 

Arsit, et in solida fixus Olympus humo. 
Stat quoque capra simul ; Nymphae pavisse feruntur 

Cretides : infanti lac dedit Jovi. 
Nune vocor ad nomen. Vegrandia farra eolonae, 445 

Quae male creverunt, vescaq^ie parva vocant. 
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54 FASTOBUM 

Vis ea si verbi est, cur non ego Ve^ovia aedera, 
• Aedem non magni suspicer esse «fovis ? 

Jamque, ubi caeruleum variabunt sidera caelum, . 

Suspice ; Gorgonei colla videbis eqiiL 460 

Creditur hic caesae gravida cenrice Medusae 

Sanguine respersis prosiluisse jubis. 
Huic supra nubes et subter sidera lapso 

Caelum pro terra, pro pede penna ftiit. 
Jamque indignanti nova frena recepeiut ore, 455 

Cum levis Aonias ungula fodit aquas. 
Nune fruitur caelo, quod pennis ante petebat, 

Et nitidus stellis quinque decemque micat. 
VIII. ID. 8th. 

Protinus adspicies venienti nocte Coronam 

Gnosida : Theseo crimine facta dea est. 460 

Jam bene perjuro mutarat conjuge Bacohum, 

Quae dedit ingrate fila legenda viro. 
Sorte tori gaudens, Quid flebam rustica ? dixit, 

Utiliter nobis perfidus iile fuît. 
Interea Liber depexis crinibus Indos 465- 

Vincit, et Eoo dives ab orbe redit. 
Inter captivas facie praestante puellas 

Grata nimis Baccho filia regis erat. 
Flebat amans conjunx, spatiataque litore curvo 

Edidit inculţis talia verba comis : 470 

En iterum, âuctus, similes audite querelas ! 

En iterum lacrimas accipe, arena, meas ! 
Dicebam, memini, perjure et perfide Thesreu ! 

nie abiit : eadem crimina Bacchus habet. 
Nune quoque, nuUa viro, clamabo, femina credat, 475 

Nomine mutate causa relata mea est. 
O utinam mea sors, qua primum coeperat, isset ! 

Jamque ego praesenti tempore nulla forem ! 
Quid me desertis perituram. Liber, arenis 

Seryabas ? potui dedoluisse semel. 480 

Bacche levis, leviorque tuis, quae tempera cingunt, 

Frondibus, in lacrimas cognite Bacche meas, 
Ausus es ante oculos adducta pellice nostros 

Tam bene compositum soUicitare torum ? 



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LIBER III. 55 

Heu ! ubi pacta fides ? ubi, qiiae jurare solebas ? 485 

Me miseram ! quotiens haec ego verba loquor ? 
Thesea culpabas, fallacemque ipse vocabas : 

Judicio peccas turpius ipse tuo. 
Ne sciat hoc quisquam, tacitisque doloribus urar ! 

Ne toties falii cUgna fiiisse puter ! 490 

Praecipue cupiam celari Thesea, ne te 

Consortem culpae gaudeat esse suae. 
At, puto, praeposita est fuscae mihi candida pellex. 

Eveniat nostris hostibus iile color ! 
Quid tamen hoc refert ? vitio tibi gratior ipso est. 495 

Quid facis ? amplexus inquinat illa tuos. 
Bacche, fidem praesta, nec praefer amoribus ullam 

Conjugis ; assuevi semper amare vinim. 
Ceperunt matrem formosi comua tauri ; 

Me tua : at hic laudi est, iile pudendus amor. 500 

Ne noceat quod amo I neque enim tibi, Bacche, nocebat, 

Quod flammas nobis fassus es ipse tuas ; 
Nec, quod nos urîs, minim facis ; ortus in îgne 

Diceris, et patria raptus ab igne mânu. 
Illa ego sum, cui tu solitus promittere caelum 505 

Hei mihi, pro caelo qualia dona fero ! 
Dixerat : audibat jamdudum verba querentis 

Liber, ut a tergo forte secutus erat. 
Occupat amplexu, lacrimasque per oscula siccat : 

Et, Pariter caeli summa petamus, ait 510 

Tu mihi juncta toro mihi juncta vocabula sumes ; 

Jam tibi mutatae Libera nomen erit ; 
Sintque tuae tecum faciam monumenta coronae, 

Vulcanus Veneri quani dedit, illa tibi. 
Dicta facit, gemmasque novos transformat in ignes. 5I5 

Aurea per stellas nune micat illa novem. 

PR. ID. 14th. 

Sex ubi sustulerit, totidem demiserit orbes, 

Purpureum rapido qui vehit axe diem ; 
Altera gramineo spectabis Equiria campo, 

Quem Tiberis curvis in latus ui^et aquis. 520 

Qui tamen ejecta si forte tenebitur unda, 

Caelius accipiat pulverulentus equos. 
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56 FASTOBUM 

IDUS. 15rH. 

Idibus est Annae festum geniale Perennae, 

Haud procul a ripis, advena Tibri, tuis. 
Plebs venit, ac virides passim disjecta per herbas 525 

Potat, et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
Sub Jove pars durat ; pauci tentoria ponunt ; 

Sunt, (][uibus e ramis frondea facta casa est ; 
Pars, ubi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis, 

Desuper extentas imposuere togas. 530 

Sole tamen vinoque calent, annosque precantur, 

Quot sumant cyathos, ad numerumque bibunt. 
Invenies illic, qui Nestorîs ebibat annos ; 

Quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suoa. 
lUic et cantant, quicquid didicere theatris, 535 

£t jactant faciles ad sua verba manus ; 
Et ducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

Cultaque difiusis săltat amica comis. 
Cum redeunt, tîtubant, et simt spectacula vulgo, 

£t fortunatos obvia turba vocat. 540 

Occurri nuper .... Visa est mihi digna relatu 

Pompa : senem potum pota trahelwtt anua — 
Quae tamen haec Dea sit, quoniam rumoribus errant, 

Fabula proposito nulla tacenda meo. 
Arserat Aeneae Dido miserabilis igne ; 545 

Arserat exstructis in sua fata rogis ; 
Compositusque cinis, tumulicjue in marmore carmen 

Hoc breve, quod moriens ipsa reliquit, erat : 
Profit Aeneas et causam mortis et emem : 

Ipsa sua Dido concidit usa mânu. 550 

Protinus invadunt Numidae sine vindice regnum, 

Et potitur capta Maurus Iarba domo ; ' 

Seque memor spretum, Thalamis tamen, inquit, Elissae 

En ego, quem totiens reppulit illa, fruor ! 
DîfFugiunt Tyrii, quo quemque agit error, ut olim 555 

Amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes. 
Tertia audandas acceperat area messes, 

Inque cavos ierant tertia musta lacus ; 
Pellitur Anna domo, lacrimansque sororia linquit 

Moenia ; germanae justa dat ante suae, 560 



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UBEB III. 57 

Mixta bibunt moUes lacrimis unguenta favillae, 

Vertice libatas accipiuntque comas ; 
Terque, Vale, dixit ; cineres ter ad ora relatos 

Pressit, et est illis visa subesse soror. 
Nacta ratem comitesque fîigae pede labitur aequo, 565 

Moenia respiciens, dulce sororis opus. 
Fertilis est Melite sterili yicina Cosyrae 

Insula, quam Libyci verberat unda freti. 
Hanc petit hospitio regis confisa vetuste ; 

Hospes opum dives rex ibi Battus erat. 570 

Qui postquam didicit casus utriusque sororis, 

Haec, inquit, tellus quantulacumque tua est. 
Et tamen hospitii servasset ad ultima munus, 

Sed timuit magnas Pygmalionis opes. 
Signa recensuerat bis sol sua ; tertius ibat 575 

Annus, et exilio terra petenda novo est. 
Frater adest belloque petit, rex arma perosus, 

Nos sumus imbelles, tu ^ge sospes, ait. 
Jussa fii^t, ventoque ratem committit et undis. 

Aspenor quovis aequore frater erat. 580 

Est prope piscosos lapidosi Crathidis amnes 

Parvus ager : Cameren incola turba vocat. 
lUuc cursus erat ; nec longius ab&it inde, 

Quam quantum novies mittere funda potest. 
Vela cadunt primo, et dubia librantur ab aura. 585 

Findite remigio, navita, dixit, aquas. 
Dumque parant torto subducere carbasa lino, 

Percutitur rapido puppis adunca Noto, 
Inque patens aequor, frustra pugnante magistre, 

Fertur, et ex oculis visa refugit humus. 590 

Assiliunt fluctus, imoque a gurgite pontus 

Vertitur, et canas alveus haurit aquas. 
Vincitur ars vento nec jam moderator habenis 

Utitur, at votis vix quoque poscit opem. 
Jactatur tumidas exul Phoenissa per undas, 595 

Htimidaque opposita lumina veste tegit. 
Tum primuiri Dido felix est dicta sorori, 

Et quaecumque aliquam corpore pressit humum. 
Figitur ad Laurens ingenti flamine litus 

Puppis, et expositis omnibus hausta perit. 600 

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58 FASTOBUH 

Jam pius iEneas regno nataque Latini 

Auctus erat, populos miscueratque duos. 
' Litore dotali solo comitatus Achate 

Secretum nudo dum pede cârpit iter, 
Aspicit errantem, nec credere sustinet Annam 605 

Esse. Quid in Latios illa veniret agros ? 
Dum secum Aeneas, Anna est ! exdamat Achates. 

Ad nomen vultus sustulit illa suos. 
Quo fiigiat ? quid agat 1 quos terrae quaerat hiattts ? 

Ante oculos miserae fata sororis erant. 6 io 

Sensit et alloquitur trepidam Cythereîus heros : 

Flet tamen admonitu motus, Elissa, tuae. 
Anna, per hanc juro, quam quondam audire solebas 

Tellurem fato prosperiore dări ; 
Perque deos comites, hac nuper sede locatos, 6is 

Saepe meas illos increpuisse moras. 
Nec timui de morte tamen : metus abfiiit iste. 

Hei mihi ! credibili fortior illa fiiit. 
Ne refer. Aspexi non illo pectore digna 

Vulnera, Tartareas ausus adire domos. 620 

At tu, seu ratio te nostris appulit oris, 

8ive deus, regni commoda cârpe mei. . 
Multa tibi memores, nil non del^mus Elissae. 

Nomine grata tuo, grata sororis, eris. 
TaEa dicenti, neque enim spes altera restat, 625 

Credidit, errores exposuitque suos. 
Utque domum intravit Tyrios induta paratus, 

Incipit Aeneas : — cetera turba silet. — 
Hanc tibi cur trădam, pia causa, Lavinia conjunx, 

Est mihi : consumpsi nauiragus hujus op^s. 630 

Orta Tyro est regnum Idbyca possedit in ora : 

Quam precor ut carae more sororis ames. 
Omnia promittit, falsumque Lavinia vulnus 

Mente premit tacita, dissimulatque fremens ; 
Donaque cum videat praeter sua lumina ferri 635 

Multa palam, mitti clam quoque multa putat. 
Non habet exactum, quid agat. Furialiter odit, 

Et parat insidias, et cupit uita mori. 
Nox erat : ante torum visa est adstare sororis 

Squalenti Didp sanguinolenta coinia, 640 



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LIBSB IU. 59 

Et, Fuge, ne dubita, maestum fuge, dicere, tectum, 

Sub verbum querulas impidit aura fores. 
Exilit, et velox numili super arva fenestra 

Se jacit, audacem fecerat ipse timor. 
Quaque metu rapitur tunica velata recincta, 645 

Currit, ut auditis territa dama lupis. 
Comiger hanc cupidis rapuisse Numicius undis 

Creditur, et stagnis occuluisse suiş. 
Sidonis interea magno clamore per agros 

Quaeritur. Appar^it signa notaeque pedum. 650 
Ventum erat ad ripas ; inerant vestigia npis. 

Sustinuit tacitas conscius amnîs aquas. 
Ipsa loqui visa est : P]acidi 8um nympha Numici : 

Amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor. 
Protinus erratis laeti vescuntur in agriş, 655 

Et celebrant largo seque diemque mero. — 
SuntquibushaecLunaest,quia mensibus impleat annum ; 

Pars Themin ; Inachiam pars putat esse bovem. 
Invenies, qui te Nymphen Atlantida dioant, 

Teque Jovi primos, Anna, dedisse cibos. 66o 

Haec quoque, quam referam, nostras pervenit ad aures- 

Fama, nec a vera dissidet illa fide. 
Plebs vetus, et nullis etiam tune tuta tribunis, 

Fugit, et in sacri vertice montis abit 
Jam quoque, quem secum tulerant, defecerat illos 665 

Victus et humanis usibus aptu Ceres. 
Orta suburbanis quaedam fîiit Anna Bovillis 

Pauper sed mundae sedulitatis anus. 
Illa, levi mitra canos redimita capillos, 

Fingebat tremula rustica liba mânu. 670 

Atque ita per populum fumantia mane solebat 

Dividere. Haec popule copia grata fuit. 
Pace domi &cta signum posuere Perennae, 

Quod sibi defectis illa tulisset opem. — 
Nune mihi, cur cantent, superest, obscaena puellae, 675 

Dicere : nam coeunt certaque proba canunt. 
Nuper erat dea facta ; venit Grradivu» ad Annam, 

Et cum seducta talia verba facit ; 
Mense meo coleris ; junxi mea tempera tecum ; 

Pendet ab officio spes mihi magna tuo. 680 

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60 PASTOBUU 

Armifer armiferae correptus amore Minervae 

Uror et hoc longo tempore vulnus alo. 
Effîce, di studio similis coeamus in uuum. 

Conveniunt partea hae tibi comis anus. 
Dixerat : illa deum promisso ludit inani, 6S3 

Et stultam dubia spem trahit usque mora. 
Saepius instanti, Mandata peregimus, inquit, 

Et victas precibus vix dedit illa manus. 
Oredit amans thalamosque parat. Deducitur illuc 

Anna tegens vultus, ut nova nupta, suos. 690 

Oscula sumpturus subito Marş aspicit Annam ; 

Nune pudor elusum, nune subit ira deum. 
Ridet amatorem earae nova diva Minervae ; 

Nee res hae Veneri gratior ulla fuit 
înde joei veteres obscaenaque dicta canuntur, 695 

Et juvat hanc magno verba dedisse deo. 



Praeteriturus eram gladios in principe fixos, 

Cum sic a castis Vesta locuta focis : 
Ne dubita meminisse : meus fuit iile aacerdos. : 

Sacrilegae telis me petiere maniis. 700 

Ipsa virum rapui, simulacraque nuda reliqui ; 

Quae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit. 
Iile quidem caelo positus Jovis atria vidit, 

Et tenet in magno templa dicata foro. 
At quicumque nefas ausi, prohibente deorum 705 

Numine, poUuerant pontificale caput, 
Morte jacent merita. Testes estote Philippi, 
' Et quorum spai*sis ossibus albet humus. 
Hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima clementa fuerunt 

Caesaris, ulcisci justa per arma patrem. 710 

XVII. KAL. APR. 16TH. 

Postera cum teneras Aurora refecerit herbas, 

Scorpios a prima parte videndus erit. 

XVI. KAL. 17th. 

Tertia post Idus lux est celeberrima Baceho. 

Bacehe, fave vati, dum tua festa cano. 
Nee referam Semelen ; ad quam nisi fiilmina secum 71 5 

Juppiter afferret, parvus ineirmis eras : 



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LIBER III. 61 

Nec, puer uţ posses maturo tempore nasci, 

Expletum patrio corpore matris opus. 
Sithonas et Scythicos longum est narrare triumphos, 

Et domitas gentes, thurifer înde, tuas. 720 

Tu quoque Thebanae mala praeda tacebere matris, 

Inque tuum ftiriis acte, Lycurge, geniL 
Ecce libet subitos pisces Tyrrhenaque moustra 

Dicere ; sed non est carminis hujus opus. 
Carminis hujus opus, causas expromere, quare 725 

Vilis anus populos ad sua liba vocet. 
Ante tuos ortus arae sine honore fiierunt. 

Liber, et in gelidis herba reporta focis. 
Te memorant. Gange toto^ue Oriente subacto, 

Primitias magno seposmsse JovL 73o 

Cinnama tu primus captivaque thura dedisti, 

Deque triumphato viscera tosta bove. 
Nomine ab auctoris ducunt Libamina nomen, 

Libaque, quod sacris pars datur inde focis. 
Liba deo fiunt, succis quia dulcibus iile 735 

Gaudet, et a Baccho mella reporta ferunt. 
Ibat arenoso satyris comitatus ab Hebro : 

Non habet ingratos fabula nostra jocos. 
Jaraque erat ad Rbiodopen Pangaeaque florida ventum : 

Aeriferae comitum concrepuere manus. 740 

Ecce novae coeunt volucres tinnitibus actae, 

Quosque movent sonitus aera sequuntur apes. 
CoUigit errantes, et in arbore claudit inani 

Liber ; et inventi praemia mellis habet. 
Ut satyri levisque senex tetigere saporem, 745 

Quaerebant navos per nemus omne favos, 
Audit in exesa stridorem examinis uimo, 

Aspicit et ceras dissimulatque senex ; 
Utque piger pândi tergo residebat aselli, 

Applicat hune uimo corticibusque cavis. 750 

Constitit ipse siiper ramoso stipite nixus, 

Atque avide trunco condita mella petit. 
Hilia crabronum coeunt, et vertice nudo 

Spicula defigunt, oraque summa notant. 
lUe cădit praeceps, et calce feritur aselli, 735 

Inclamatque suos, auxiliumque rogat. . 



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62 FASTOBUM 

GoQCurrunt satyri, turgentiaque ora parentis 

Rident. Percusso claudicat iUe genu. 
Ridet et ipse deus, limumque indueere monstrat. 

Hic paret monitis et linii ora Iuta 76o 

Melle pater fruitur, liboque infusa calenti 

Jure repertori candida mella damus. 
Femina cur presset, non est rationis opertae. 

Femineos thyrso concitat iile choros. 
Cur anus hoc fitciat, quaeris ; Vinosior aetas 765 

Haec est, et gravidae munera vitis amat. 
Cur hedera cincta est ; Hedera est gratissima Baccho. 
" Hoc quoque cur ita sit, dicere nulla mora est. 
Nysîadas nymplias, puerum quaerente noverea, 

Hanc frondem cunis opposuisse ferunt. — 770 . 

Restat, ut inveniam, quare toga libera detur 

Luce fere pueris, candide &tcche, tua: 
Sive quod ipse puer semper juvenisque videris, 

Et media est aetas inter utrumque tibi ; 
Seu, quia tu pater es, patres sua pignora natos 775 

Commendant curae numinibusque tuis ; 
Sive, quod es Liber, vestis quoque libera per te 

Sumitur, et vitae liberioris iter ; 
An quia, cum colerent prisci studiosius agros, 

Et patrio faceret rure senator opus, 730 

Et caperet fasces a curvo consul aa-atro, 

Nec crimen duras esset habere manus, 
Rusticus ad ludos populus veniebat in urbem 

Sed dis, non studiis, iile dabatur bonos : 
Luce sua ludos uvae commentor habebat, 7S5 

Quos cum taedifera nune faaJbet iile dea : 
Ergo, ut tironem celebrare frequentia posset, 

Visa dies dandae non aliena togae ? 
Mite, Pater, caput huc placataque comua vertas, 

Et des ingenio vela secunda meo ! 790 

Itur ad Argeos — qui sint sua pagina dicet — 
Hac, si commemini, praetentaque die. 

Stella Lycaoniam vergit declinis ad Arcton 
Miluus. Haec illa noote videnda venit. 



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LIBER III. 63 

Quid dederit volucri, si vis comoscere caeluni : 795 

Saturnus regnis ab Jove puLsus erat. 
Concitat iratus validos Titanas in arma, 

Quacque fuit fatis debita tentat opem. 
^ Matre satusi Terra, monstrum mirabue, taurus 

Parte sui serpens posteriore fuit. 800 

Hune triplici muro lucia incluserat atris 

Parcarum monitu Styx violenta trium. 
Viscera qui tauri flammis adolenda dedisset, 

Sors erat, aetemos vincere posse deos. 
Immolat hune Briareus &cta ex adamante securi : sos 

Et jam jam flammis exta daturus erat. 
Juppiter alitibus rapere imperat. Attulit illi 

Miluus, et meritis venit in astra suiş. 

XIV. KAL. 19th. 

Una dies media est, et fiunt sac^a Miiiervae, 

Nominaque a junctis quinque diebus habent. 8 10 

Sanguine prima vacat, nec fas concuirere ferro : 

Causa, quod est illa nata Minerva die. 
Altera tresque super strâta oelebrantur arena : 

Ensibus exertis bellica laeta dea est. 
Pallada nune pueri teneraeque orate puellae : 8 15 

Qui bene placarit Pallada, doctus erit. 
Pallade placată lanam mollire, puellae 

Discitis et plenas exonerare colos, 
nia etiam stantes radio percurrere telas 

Erudit, et rarum pectine denset opus. 820 

Ilanc cole, qui maculas laesis de vestibus aufers : 

Hanc cole velleribus quisqms aena paras. 
Nec quisquam invita faciet bene vincula plaHtae 

Pallade, sit Tychio doctior iile Kcet ; 
Et licet antiquo manibus collatus Ejjeo 825 

Sit prior, irata Pallade mancus erit. 
Vos quoque, Phoebea morbos qui pellitis arte, 

Munera de vestris pauca referte deae. 
Nec vos, turba fere censu fraudată, magistri 

Spemite ; discipulos attrahit illa novoa. 83o 

Quique moves caelum tabulamque coloribus uris, 

Quique facis docta moUia saxa. mânu. 



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64 FASTORUM 

Miile dea est operum ; certe dea carminis illa est. 

Si mereor, studiis adsit amica meis. — 
Caelius ex alto qua mons descendit in aequum, 835 

Hic ubi non plana est sed prope plana via est, 
Parva licet videas Captae delubra Minervae, 

Quae dea natali coepit habere suo. 
Nominis in dubio causa est. Capitale vocanius 

Ingenium soUers ; ingeniosa dea est 8 40 

An, quia de capitis fertur sine matre paterni 

Vertice cum cli^eo prosiluisse suo ? 
An, quia perdomitis ad nos captiva Faliscis 

Venit ? et boc ipsum littera prisca docet. 
An, quod habet legem, capitis quae pondere poenas 845 

Ex illo jubeat furta reporta loco ? 
A quacumque trahis ratione vocabula, Pallas, 

Pro ducibus nostris aegida semper habe. — 
Summa dies e quinque tubas lustrare canoras 

Admonet, et forti sacrificare deae. 850 

XI. KAL. 22nd. 

Nune potes ad solem sublato dicere vultu : 

Hic bere Phrixeae vellera pressit ovis. 
Seminibus tostis sceleratae fraude novercae 

Sustulerat nuUas, ut solet, berba comas. 
Mittitur ad tripodas, certa qui sorte reportet 855 

Quam sterili terrae Delpbicus edat opem. 
Hic quoque corruptus cum semine nuntiat Helles 

Et juvenis Phrixi fanera sorte peti. 
Usque recusantem cives, et tempus, et Ino 

Compulenint regem jussa nefanda pati ; 860 

Et soror, et Phrixus velati tempera vittis 

Stant simul ante aras junctaque fata gemunt. 
Aspicit hos, ut forte pependerat aetbere mater, 

Et ferit attonita pectora nuda mânu ; 
Inque draconigenam nimbis comitantibus urbem 865 

Desilit, et natos eripit inde suos ; 
Utque fugam capiant, aries nitidissimus auro 

Traditur. Hle vehit per freta longa duos. 
Dicitur infirma comu tenuisse sinistra 

Femina^ cum de se nomina fecit aquae. s/o 



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LIBEB lY. 65 

Paene simul periit, dum vuit succurrere lapsae, 

Fraier, et extentas porrigit usque manus. 
Flebat, ut amissa genuni consorte pericli, 

Caeruleo junctam nescius esse deo. 
Litoribus taictis aries fit sidus : at hujus 875 

Pervenît in Colchas aurea lâna domos. 

VIL KAL. 26th. 

TreB ubi Luciferos veniens praemiserit Eos, 

Tempera noctumis aequa diurna feres. 

III. KAL. 30th. 

înde quater pastor saturos ubi clauserit haedos, 

Canuerint herbae rore recente qiiater ; 880 

Janus adorandus, cumque hoc Concordia mitis, 

Et Bomana Salus, araque Pacis erit. 

PB. KAL. 31ST. 

Luna regit menses : hujus quoque tempera mensis 
Finit Aventino Luna colenda jugo. 



LIBER IV. 



Alma, fave, dixi; geminorum mater Amorum. 

Ad vatem vultus rettulit illa suos. 
Quid tibi, ait, mecum ? certe majora canebas. 

Num veţus in molii pectore vulnus babes ? 
Scis dea, respondi, de vtdnere. Risit, et aetber 5 

Protinus ex illa parte serenus erat. 
Saucius, an sanus, numquid tua signa reliqui ? 

Tu mihi propositum, tu mihi semper, opus. 
Quae decuit, primis sine crimine lusimus annis : 

Nune teritur nostris area major equis. io 

Tempera cum causis annalibus eruta priscis, 

Lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa cano. 
Venimus ad quartiun, quo tu celeberrima, mensem 

Et vatem et mensem scis, Venus, esse tuos. 
Moţa CSrtheriaca leviter mea tempera myrto 15 

Contigit, et, Coeptum perfice, oixit, opus. 



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66 FASTORUM 

Sensimus, et causae subito patuere dierum. 

Dum licet, et spirant flamina, navis eat. — 
Si qua tamen pars te de fastis tangere debet, 

Caesar, in Aprili quod tuearis babes. 20 

Hic ad te magna descendit imagine mensis^ 

Et fit adoptiva nobilitate tuns. 
Hoc pater Iliades, cum longum scriberet annum, 

Vidit, et auctores rettulit ipse suos. 
Utque fero Marti primam dedit ordine sortem, 25 

Quod sibi nascenti proxima causa fuit ; 
Sic Venerem gradibus multis in gente repertam 

Alterius voluit mensis habere locum ; 
Principiumque sui generis revolutaque quaerens 

Saecula, cognatos venit ad usque deos. 30 

Dardanon Electra nesciret Atlantide cretum 

SciKcet, Electran concubuisse Jovi ? 
Hujus Erichthonius ; Tros est generatus ab illo ; 

Assaracon creat hic, Assaracusque Capyn. 
Proximus Anchisen, cum quo commune parentis 35 

Non dedignata est nomen habere Venus. 
Hinc satus Aeneas, pietas spectata per ignes, 

Sacra patremque numeris, altera sacra, tulit. 
Venimus ad felix aliquando nomen luli. 

Unde domus Teucros Julia tangit avos. 40 

Postumus hinc, quî, quod silvis fmt ortus in altis, 

Silvius in Latia gente vocatus erat ; 
Isque, Latine, tibi pater est ; subit Alba Latinum ; 

Proximus 6st titulis Epitus, Alba, tuis ; 
Iile dedit Capyi recidiva vocabida Troiae, 45 

Et tuus est idem, Calpete, factus avus. 
Cumque patris regnum post hune Tiberinus haberet, 

Dicitur in Tuscae gurgite mersus aquae. 
Jam tamen Agrippam natum Remulumque nepotem 

Viderat ; in Remulum fulmina missa ferunt 50 

Venit Aventinus post hos, locus unde vocatur, 

Mons quoque. Post illum tradita regna Procae, 
Quem sequitur duri Numitor germanus Amuli ; 

Ilia cum Lauso de Numitore sati 
Ense cădit patrui Lausus ; placet Ilia Marti, 55 

Teque parit gemino juneţe Quirine Rema . 



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LIBER IV. 67 

Iile suos semper Venerem Martemque parentes 

Dixît, et emeruit vocis habere fidem. 
Neve secuturi possent nescire nepotes, 

Tempora dis generis continuata dedit. — 60 

Sed Yeneris mensem Graio sermone notatum 

Auguror : a spumîs est dea dicta maris. 
Nec tibi sit minim Grraeco rem nomine dici ; 

Itala nam tellus Graecia major erat. 
Venerat Evander plena cum classe suorum ; 65 

Venerat Alcides, Graius uterque genus* 
Hospes Aventinis armentum pavit in berbis 

Claviger, et tanto est Albula pota deo. 
Dux quoque Neritius ; testes Laestrygones exstant, 

Et quod adhuc Girces nomina litus habet. 70 

Et jam Telegoni, jam moenia Tiburis udi 

Stabant, Argolicae quod posuere manus. 
Venerat Atridae fatis agitatus Halesus, . 

A quo se dictam terra Falisca putat. 
Adjice Trojanae suasorem Antenora pacis, 75 

Et generum Oeniden, Appule Daune, tuum. 
Serus ab Iliacis, et post Antenora, flammis 

Attulit Aeneas in loca nostra deos. 
Hujus erat Solymus Phrygia comes unus ab Ida : 

A quo Sulmonis moenia nomen habent, 80 

Sulmonis gelidi, patriae^ Germanice, nostrae. 

Me miserum ! Scythico quam procul illa sola est ! 
Ergo age, tam longas sed supprime, Musa, querelas ; 

Non tibi sunt maesta sswra canenda lyra^— 
Quo non livor adît ? Sunt qui tibi mensis honorem 85 

Eripuisse velint invideantque, Venus. 
Nam, quia ver aperit tune omnia, densaque cedit 

Frigoris aspentas, fetaque terra patet ; 
Aprilem memorant ab aperto tempore dictum, 

Quem Venus injecta vendicat alma mânu. 90 

lila quidem totum dignissima temperat orbem ; 

lila tenet nullo rsgna minora deo ; 
Juraque dat caelo, terrae, natalibus undis, 

Perque suos initus continet omne genus. 
lila deos omnes longum est numerare creavit ; 95 

Illa satis causas arboribusque dedit ; 



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fi8 FASTOBUM 

lUa rudes animos hominum contraxit in unum, 

Et docuit jungi cum pare quemque sua. 
Quîd genus omne creat volucrum, nisi blânda voluptas ? 

Nec coeant pecudes, si levis absit amor. loo 

Cum mare trux aries comu decertat ; at idem 

Frontem dilectae laedere parcit ovis. 
Deposita taurus sequitur feritate juvencam, 

Quem toţi saltus, guem nemus omne tremit. 
Vis eadem, lato quodcumque sub aequore vivit, 105 

Servat, et innumeris piscibus implet aquas. 
Prima feros habîtus homini detraxit : ab illa 

Venerunt cultus mundaque cura suL 
Primus amans carmen vigilatum nocte negata 

Dicitur ad clausas concinuisse fores ; i io 

Eloquiumque fuit duram exbrare puellam ; 

Proque sua causa quisque disertus erat. 
Miile per banc /irtes motae, studioque placendi, 

Quae latuere prius, multa reporta ferunt. 
Hanc quisquam titulo mensis spoliare secundo 115 

Audeat ? a nobis sit procul iste furor. — 
Quid ? quod ubique potens, templisquefrequentibus aucta, 

Urbe tamen nostra jus dea majus habet ? 
Pro Troja, Romane, tua Venus arma ferebat ; 

Cum gemuit teneram cuspide laesa manum. 120 

Caelestesque duas Trojano judice vicit ; 

Ah ! nolim victas boc meminîsse deas ! 
Assaracique nurus dicta est, ut scilicet olim 

Magnus luleos Caesar haberet avos. 
Nec Veneri tempus, quam ver, erat aptius ullum. 125 

Vere nitent terrae ; vere remissus ager. 
Nune herbae ruptae tellure cacumina toUunt ; 

Nune tumido gemmas cortice palmes agit. 
Et formosa Venus formoso tempore digna est, 

Utque solet, Marti continuata suo, 130 

Vere monet curvas materna per aequora puppes 

Ire, nec liibemas jam timuisse minas. 

KAL. Ist. 

E/ite deam Latiae colitis matresque nurusque ; 
Et vos, quis vittae longaque vestis abest. 



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LIBER ir. ()9 

Aurea marmoreo redîmicula solvite coUo ; 135 

Demite divitias ; tota lavanda dea est. 
Aurea siccato redimîcula reddite collo ; 

Nune alii flores, nune nova danda roşa est. 
Vos quoque sub viridi myrto jubet ipsa lavari ; 

Causaque cur jubeat, discite, certa subest. 140 

Lîtore siccabat sudantes rora capillos ; 

Viderunt satyri, turba proterva, deam. 
Sensit, et opposita texit sua corpora myrto : 

Tuta fuit facto, vosque referre jubet. — 
Discite nune, quare Portunae thura Virili 145 

Detis eo, geuda qui locus humet aqua. 
Accîpit iile locus posito velamine cunctas, 

Et vitium nudi corporis omne patet. 
Ut tegat hoc, celetque viros, Fortuna Virilis 

Praestat, et hoc, parvo thure rogata facit. 150 

Nec pigeat niveo tritum cum lacte papaver 

Sumere, et expressis mella liquata favis. 
Cum primum cupido Yenus est deducta marito, 

Hoc bibit ; ex illo tempore nupta fuit. 
Supplicibus verbis illam placate ; sub illa 155 

Et forma, et mores, et bona fama maneti 
Borna pudicitia proavorum tempore lapsa est : 

Cumaeam, veteres, consuluistis anum. 
Templa jubet Veneri fieri : quibus ordine factis, 

înde Venus verso nomina corde tenet. 160 

Semper ad Aeneadas placido, pulcherrima, vultu 

Respice, totque tuas, diva, tuere niirus — 
Dum loquor, elatae metuendus acumine caudae 

Scorpios in virides praecipitatur aquas. 

IV. NON. 2nd. 

Nox ubi transierit, caelumque rubescere primo 165 

Coeperit, et tactae rore querentur aves, 
Semiustamque facem vigilata nocte viator 

Ponet, et ad solitum rusticus ibit opus : 
Pleiades incipiunt humeros relevare paternos, 

Quae septem dici, sex tamen esse solent. 170 

Seu, quod in amplexum sex hinc venere deorum : — 

Nam Steropen Marti concubuisse ferunt ; 



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70 FASrOBUM 

Neptuno Halcyonen, et te, formosa Celaeno ; 

Maian, et Electran, Taygetenque Jovi ; — 
Septima mortali Merope tibi, Sisyphe, nupsit ; 175 

roenitet, et facti sola pudore latet : 
Sive, quod Electra Trojae spectare ruinas 

Non tulit, jante oculos opposuitque manum. 

PB. NON. 4th. 

Ter sine perpetue caelum versetur in axe ; 

Ter jungat Titan, terque resolvat equos ; iso 

Protinus inflexo Berecyntia tibia comu 

Flabit, et Idaeae festa Parentis erunt. 
Ibunt semimares et inania tjmpana tundent, 

Aeraque tinnitus aere repulsa dabunt. 
Ipsa sedens molii comitum cervice feretur is5 

Urbis per mediaş exululata vias. 
Scena sonat, ludique vocant. Spectate, Quirites ! 

Et fora Marte suo litigiosa vacent. 
Quaerere multa libet : sed me sonus aeris acuţi 

Terret, et horrendo lotos adunca sono. 190 

Da, dea, quas sciter, doctas, Cybeleîa, neptes. 

Yidit, et has curae jussit adesse meae. 
Pandite mandati memores, Heliconis alumnae, 

Gaudeat assiduo cur dea Magna sono. 
Sic ego. SicErato: mensis Cythereîus illi 195 

Cessit, quod teneri nomen Amoris habet, 
Reddita Satumo sors haec erat : Optime regum. 

A nato sceptris*excutiere tuis. 
Iile suam metuens, ut quaeque erat edita, prolem 

Devorat, immersam visceribusque tenet. . 200 

Saepe Rhea questa est totiens fecunda, nec umquam 

Mater, et indoluit fertilitate sua. 
Juppiter ortus erat. Pro magno teste vetustas 

Creditur ; acceptam parce movere fidem. 
Veste latens saxum caelesti gutture sedit. 205 

Sic genitor fatis decipiendus erat. 
Ardua jam dudum resonat tinnitibus Ide, 

Tutus ut infanti vagiat ore puer. 
Pars clipeos sudibus, galeas pars tundit inanes : 

Hoc Curetes habent, hoc Corybantes opus. 210 



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LIBER IV. 71 

Res latuit patrem ; priscique îmitamina facti 

Aera deae comites raucaque terga movent. 
Cymbala pro galeis, pro scutis tympana pulsant ; 

Tibia dat Phrygios, ut dedit ante, modos. 
Desierat : coepi : Cur huic genus acre leonum 2i5 

Praebeat insolitas ad juga curva jubas ? 
Desîeram : coepit : Feritas moUita per illam 

Creditur. Id curm testificata suo est. 
At cur turrifera caput est omata corona ? 

An primis turres urbibus illa dedit ? 220 

Annuit. Unde venit, dixi, sua membra secandî 

Impetus ? Ut tăcui, Pieris orsa loqui : 
Phiyx puer in silvis facie spectabilis Attis 

Turrigeram casto vinxit amore deam. 
Hune sibi servari voluit, sua templa tueri : 225 

Et dixit, Semper fac puer esse velis. 
Iile fidem jussis dedit ; et, Si mentiar, inquit. 

Ultima, qua fallam, sit Venus illa mihi. 
Fallit, et in Nympha Sagaritide desinit esse, 

Quod fuit. Hinc poenas exigit ira deae. 230 

Naida vulneribus succidit in arbore factis. 

Illa perit : fatum Naidos arbor erat. 
Hic fiirit ; et credens thalami procumbere tectum, 

EiFugit et cursu Dindyma summa petit. 
Et modo. Toile faces ! Bemove, modo, verbera ! clamat. 

Saepe Palaestinas jurat adesse deas. 236 

Iile etiam saxo corpus laniavit acuto, 

Longaque in immundo pulvere tracta coma est ; 
Voxque fuit. Menii : meritas do sanguine poenas : 

Ah pereant partes, quae nocuere mihi ! 240 

Ah pereant ! dicebat adhuc : onus inguinis aufert ; . 

Nullaque sunt subito signa relicta viri. 
Venit in exemplum furor hic, moUesque miniştri 

Caedunt jactatis vilia membra comis. 
Talibus Aoniae facunda voce Camenae 245 

Reddita quaesiti causa faroris erat. 
Hoc quoque, dux operis, moneas, precor, unde petita 

Venerit, an nostra semper in urbe fuit? 
Dindymon, et Cybelen, et amoenam fontibus Iden 

Semper, et Iliacas Mater amavit opes. 250 



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72 PASTOBUM 

Cum Trojam Aeneas Italos portărei in agros, 

Est dea sacriferas paene secuta rates. 
Sed nondum fatis Latio sua numina posci 

Senserat, assuetis substiteratque locîs. 
Post, ut Roma potens opibus jam saecula quinque 255 

Vidit, et edomito sustulit orbe caput ; 
Carminis Euboîci fatalia verba sacerdos 

Inspicit. Inspectum tale fuisse ferunt : 
Mater abest ; Matrem jubeo, Romane, requiras. 

Cum venîet, casta est accipienda raanu. 260 

Obscurae sortis Patres ambagibus errant, 

Quaeve parens absit, quove petenda loco. 
Consolitur Paean, Divumque arcessite Matrem, 

Inquit, in Idaeo est invenienda jugo. 
Mittuntur proceres. Pbrygiae turn sceptra tenebat 265 

Attalus : Ausoniis rem negat iile vins. 
Mira eanam : longo tremuit cum murmure tellus, 

Et sic est adytis diva locuta suiş : 
Ipsa peti volui. Ne sit mora : mitte volentem. 

Dignus Roma locus, quo deus omnis eat. 270 

Iile soni terrore pavens, Proficiscere, dixit : 

Nostra eris ; in Phrygios Roma refertur avos. 
Protinus innumerae caedunt pineta secures 

lUa, quibus fugiens Pbryx pius usus erat. 
Miile manus coeunt : et picta coloribus ustis 275 

Caelestum Matrem concava puppis habet. 
lUa sui per aquas fertur tutissima nati, 

Longaque rhrixeae stagna sororis adit, 
Rhoeteumque capax, Sigeaque litera transit, 

Et Tenedum, et veteres Eetionis opes. 280 

Cyclades excipiunt, Lesbo post terga relicta, 

Quaque Carysteis frangitur unda vadis. 
Transit et Icarium, lapsas ubi perdidit alas 

Icarus, et vastae nomina fecit aquae. 
Turn laeva Creten, dextra Pelopeîdas undas 285 

Deserit, et Veneris sacra Cythera petit. 
Hinc mare Trinacrium, candens ubi tingere ferrum 

Brontes, et Steropes, Acmonidesque solent : 
Aequoraque Afra legit, Sardoaque regna sinistris 

Prospicit a remis, Ausoniamque tenet. 290 



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LIBER IV. 73 

Ostia contigerat, qua se Tiberinus în altum 

Dividit, et campo liberiore natat : 
Omnis eques, mixtaque gravis cum plebe senatus 

Obvîus ad Tusei fluminîs ora venit ; 
Procedunt pariter matres, nataeque, nurusque, 295 

Quaeque colunt sanctos virginitate focos. 
Sedula fiine viri contento brachia lassant ; 

Vix subit adversas hospita navis aquas. 
Sicca diu fuerat tellus ; sitis usserat herbas ; 

Sedit limoso pressa carina vado. 300 

Quisquis adest operi, plus quam pro parte laborat, 

A(ţ|uvat et fortes voce sonante manus. 
lila velut medio stabilis sedet insula ponto. 

Attoniti monstro stantque paventque viri. 
Claudia Quinta genus Clauso referebat ab alto ; 305 

Nec facies impar nobilitate fuît. 
Casta quidem, sed non et credita. Rumor iniquus 

Laeserat, et falşi criminis acta rea est, 
Cultus et omatis varie prodisse capillis 

Obfîiit ad rigidos promptaque lingua senes. 3io 

Conscia mens recti famae mendacia risit ; 

Sed nos in vitium credula turba sumus. 
Haec ubi castarum processit ab agmine matrum, 

Et manibus puram âuminis hausit aquam, 
Ter caput irrorat, ter toUit in aethera palmas ; 3i5 

Quicumque aspiciunt, mente carere putant. 
Submissoque genu vultus in imagine divae 

Figit, et hos edit crine jacente sonos : 
SupjSicis, alma, tuae, genitrix fecunda deorum, 

Accipe sub certa condicione preces. 320 

Casta neffor. Si tu damnas, meruisse fatebor ; 

Morte luam poenas judice victa dea. 
Sed, si crimen abest, tu nostrae pignora vitae 

Re dabis, et castas casta se(|uere manus. 
Dixit, et exiguo funem conamme traxit. 325 

Mira, sed et scena testificata loquar. 
Moţa dea est, sequiturque ducem, laudatque sequendo. 

Index laetitiae fertur in astra sonus. 
Fluminis ad flexum veniunt : Tiberina priores 

Atria dixerunt, unde sinister abit. 330 

B 



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74 FASTOBUM 

Nox aderat : quemo religant a stipite funem, 

Dantque levi somno corpora functa cibo. 
Lux aderat : quemo solvunt a stipite funem ; 

Ante tamen posito thura dedere foco ; 
Ante coronarunt puppim sine labe juvencam 335 

Mactarunt operum conjugiique rudem. 
Est locus, in Tiberin qua lubricus influit Alnio 

Et nomen magno perdit ab amne minor ; 
Illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 

Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquis. 340 

Exululant comites, furiosaque tibia flatur, 

Et feriunt moUes taurea terga manus, 
Claudia praecedit, laeto celeberrima vultu ; 

Credita vix tandem teste pudica dea. 
Ipsa sedens plaustro porta est invecta Capena : 345 

Sparguntur junctae flore recente boves. 
Nasica accepit. Tempji non perstitit auctor ; 

Augustus nune est ; ante Metellus erat. 
Substitit hic Erato. Mora fit, si cetera quaeram. 

Dic, inquam, parva cur stipe quaerat opes ? 350 

Contulit aes populus, de quo delubra Metellus 

Fecit, ait ; dandae mos stipis inde manet. 
Cur vicibus factis ineant convivia, quaero, 

Tum magis, indictas concelebrentque dapes. 
Quod bene mutarit sedem Berecyntia, dixit, 355 

Captant mutatis sedibus omen idem,. 
Institeram, quare primi Megalesia ludi 

Urbe forent nostra, cum dea, — sensit enim — 
Illa deos, inquit, peperit : cessere parenti, 

Principiumque daţi Mater honoris babet. 36o 

Cur igitur Gallos, qui se excidere, vocamus, 

Cum tantum a Phrygia Gallica distet humus ? 
Inter, ait, viridem Cybelen altasque Celaenas, 

Amnis it insana, nomine Gallus, aqua. 
Qui bibit inde, furit. Procul bine discedite, quis est 365 

Cura bonae mentis. Qui bibit inde, furit. 
Non pudet herbosum, dixi, posuisse moretum 

In dominae mensis ? an sua causa subest ? 
Lacte mero veteres usi memorantur et herbis, 

Sponte sua si quas terra ferebat, ait. - 370 



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LIBER IV. 75 

Candidus elisae miscetur caseus lierbae, 

Cognoscat priscos ut dea prisca cibos. 

NON. 5th. 

Postera cum caelo motis Pallantias astris 

Fulserit, et niveos Luna levarît equos, 
Qui dicet, Quondam sacrata est colle Quirini 375 

Hac^ Fortuna die Publica, verus erit. 

VIII. ID. 6th. 

Tertia lux memini ludis erat. At raîlii quîdam 

Spectanti senior contiguusque loco, 
Haec, ait, illa dies, Libycis qua Caesar in oris 

Perfida magnanirai contudit arma Jubae. 380 

Dux mihi Caesar erat, sub quo meruisse tribunus 

Glorior. OflScîo praefiiit lUe meo. 
Hanc ego miliţia sedem, tu pace parastî, 

Inter bis quînos usus honore Viros. 
Plura locuturi subito seducimur îmbre ; 385 

Pendula caelestes Libra movebat aquas. 
V. ID. 9th. 

Ante tamen, quam summa dies spectacula sistat, 

Ensifer Orion aequore mersus erit. 

IV. ID. IOth. 

Proxima victricem cum Romam inspexerit Eos, 

Et dederit Phoebo stella fugata locum ; 390 

Circus erit pompa celeber, numeroque deorum ; 

Primaque ventosis palma petetur equis. 
PR. ID. 12th. 

Hinc Cereris Ludi. Non est opus indice causae ; 

Sponte deae munus promeritumque patet. 
Messis erant primis virides mortalibus herbae, 395 

Quas tellus nullo soUicitante dabat ; 
Et modo carpebant viva de cespite gramen, 

Nune epulae tenera fronde cacumen erant. 
Postmodo glans nata est. Bene erat jam glande reperta, 

Duraque magnificas quercus habebat opes. 400 

Prima Ceres homini ad meliora alimenta vocato 

Mutavit glandes utiliore cibo. 
nia jugo tauros collum praebere coegit ; 

Turn primum aoles erata vidit humus. 
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76 FASTOBUM 

Aes erat in pretio : chalybeîa massa latebat. 405 

Eheu perpetuo debuit illa tegi ! 
Pace Cerea laeta est, et vos optate, coloni, 

Perpetuam pacem, perpetuumque ducem. 
Farra deae, micaeque licet salientis honorem 

Detis, et in veteres tburea grana focos ; 410 

Et, si thura aberunt, unctas accendite taedas. 

Parva bonae Cereri, sint modo casta, placent. 
A bove succincti cultros removete miniştri. 

Bos aret ; ignavam sacrificate suem. 
Apta jugo cervix non est ferienda securi ; 415 

Vivat, et in dura saepe laboret humo. — 
Exigit ipse locus, raptus ut virginis edam : 

Plura recognosces ; pauca docendus eris. 
Terra tribus scopulis vastum procurrit in aequor 

Trinacris, a positu nomen adepta loci. 420 

Grata domus Cereri : multas ea possidet urbes. 

In quibus est culto fertilis Henna solo. 
Frigida caelestum matres Arethusa vocarat ; 

Venerat ad sacras et dea flava dapes. 
Filia consuetis ut erat comitata puellis, 425 

Errabat nudo per sua prata pede. 
Valle sub umbrosa locus est, adspergine multa 

Humidus ex alto desilientis aquae. 
Tot fuerant iilic, quot habet natura, colores, 

Pictaque dissimili flore nitebat humus. 430 

Quam simul aspexit, Comites accedite, dixit, 

Et mecum plenos flore referte sinus. 
Praeda puellares animos proiectat inanis, 

Et non sentitur sedulitate labor. 
Haec implet lento calathos e vimine textos, 435 

Haec gremium, laxos degravat illa sinus, 
Illa legit calthas, huic sunt violarîa curae, I 

Illa papayereas subsecat ungue comas, | 

Has, hyacinthe, tenes, illas, amarante, moraris, j 

Pars thyma, pars rorem, pars melilofion amant. 440 | 

Plurima lecta roşa est, sunt et sine nomine flores. 

Ipsa crocos tenues, liliaque alba legit. 
Carpendi studio pâullatim longius itur, 

Et dominam casu nulla secuta comes. 



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LIBER IV. 77 

Hanc videt, et visam patruus velociter aufert, 445 

Regnaque caeruleis in sua portat equis. 
lila quidem clamabat, Io carissima mater, 

Auferor ! ipsa suos abscideratque sinus. 
Panditur interea Diti via ; namque diumum 

Lumen inassueti vix patiuntur equi. 450 

At chorus aequalis, cumulatae flore rninistrae, . 

Persephone, clamant, ad tua dona veni ! 
Ut clamata silet, montes ululatibus implent, 

Et feriunt maesta pectora nuda mânu. 
Attonita est plangore Ceres, modo venerat Hennam, 455 

Nec mora, Me miseram ! filia, dixit, ubi es ? 
Mentis inops rapitur, quales audire solemus 

Threîcias fusis Maenadas ire comis. 
Ut vitulo mugit sua mater ab ubere rapto, 

Et quaerit fetus per nemus omne suos, 460 

Sic dea nec retinet gemitus, et concita cursu 

Fertur, et e campis incipit, Henna, tuis. 
înde puellaris nacta est vestica plantae, 

Et presgam noto pondere vidit hunram. 
Forsitan illa dies erroris summa fuisset, 465 

Si non turbassent signa reporta sues. 
Jamque Leontinos Amenanaque flumina cursu 

Praeterit et ripas, herbifer Aci, tuas : 
Praeterit et Cyanen et fontem lenis Anapi 

Et te, verticibus non adeunde Gela. 470 

Lîquerat Ortygien Megareaque Pantagienque 

Quaque Symaetheas accipit aequor acj^uas, 
Antraque Cyclopum, positis exusta caminis, 

Quique locus curvae nomina falcis habet, 
Himeraque et Didymen Acragantaque Tauromenenque 

Sacrarum^ue Melan pascua laeta boum. 476 

Hinc Camerman adit T^apsonque et Heloria tempe, 

Quaque patet Zephyro semper apertus Eryx. 
Jamque Peloriaden Liljbaeaque jamque Pachynon 

Lustrarat, terrae comua pnma suae. 480 

Quacumque ingreditur, miseris loca cuncta querelis 

Implet, ut amissum cum gemit ales Ityn ; 
Perque vices modo, Persephone, modo, Filia, clamat, 

ClamAt, et altemis nomen utrumque ciet. 
E 3 



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78 FASTORUM 

Sed neque Persephone Cererem, neque filîa matrem 485 

Audit, et altemis nomen utntmque perit. 
Unaque, pastorem vidisset an arva colentem, 

Vox erat, Hac gressus ecqua puella tulit ? 
Jam color ynus inest rebus, tenebrisque teguntur 

Omnia ; jam vîgiles conticuere canes. 490 

Alta jacet vasti super ora Typhoeos Aetne, 

Cujus anhelatis ignibus ardet humus. 
lUic accendit geminas pro lampade pinus : 

Hinc Cereris sacris nune quo^ue taeda datur. 
Est specus exesi structura pumicis asper ; 495 

Non bomini regio, non adeunda ferrae. 
Quo simul advenit, frenatos curribus angues 

Jungit, et aequoreas sicca pererrat aquas. 
Effugit et Syrtes, et te, Zanclaea Charybdis, 

Et vos, Nisaei naufraga monstra, canes ; 500 

Hadriacumque patens late, bimaremque Corinthon. 

Sic venit ad portus, Attica terra, tuos. 
Hic primum sedit gelido maestissima saxo. 

lUud Cecropidae nune quoque tristB vocant. 
Sub Jove duravit multis immota diebus, 505 

Et lunae patiens, et pluvialis aquae. 
Fors sua cuique loco est. Quo nune Cerealis Eleusîn 

Dicitur, boc Celei rura fiiere senis. 
Iile domum glandes excussaque mora rubetis 

Portat, et arsuris arida ligna focis. 510 

Filia parva duas redigebat rupe capellas, 

Et tener in cunis filius aeger erat. 
Mater, ait virgo, — ^mota est dea ţiomine matris — 

Quid facis in solis incomitata locis ? 
Restitit et senior, quamvis onus urget, et orat, 515 

Tecta suae subeat quantulacumque casae. 
lUa negat : simularat anum, mitraque capillos 

Presserat — instanti talia dicta refert : 
Sospes eas, semperque parens ! Mihi filia rapta est, 

Heu ! melior quanto sors tua sorte mea ! 520 

Dixit et utlacrimae, neque enîm lacrimare deorum est, 

Decidit in tepidos lucida gutta sinus. 
Flent pariter moUes animis, virgoque senexque ; 

E quibus haec justi verba fuere senis : 



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LIBBB IV. 79 

Sic tibi, quam quejneris raptam, sit filia sospes ; ' 525 

Surge, nec exiguae despice tecta casaeL 
Cui dea^ Duc, inquit ; scisti, qua cogere posses ; 

Seque levat saxo, STib8e<]^uitim][ue aenem. 
Dux comiţi narrat, quam sit sibi filius aeger, 

Nec căpiat somnos, invişUetque malis. 530 

lila soporîferum, panros initum penates, 

Colligit agreaţi lene papaver humo. 
Dum legit, oblito fertur gustasse palate, 

Longamque imprudens exaoluisse famem. 
Quae quia principio posuit jejimia noctis, 535 

Tempus babent Mystae sidera visa cibi. 
Limen ut intravit, luctus videt omnia plena : 

Jam spes in puero nulla salutis erat 
Matre salutata, — ^mater Metanira vocatur — 

Jungere dignata est os puerile suo. 54o 

Pallor abit^ subitasque vident in corpore vires. 

Tantus caelesti venit ab ore vigor ! 
Tota domus laeta est, boc est, materque paterque 

Nataque ; tres illi tota fiiere domua 
Mox epulas ponunt, liquefacta coagula lacte, 545 

Pomaque et in cens aurea mella sids. 
Abstinet alma Ceres, somnique papavera causas 

Dat tibi cum tepido lacte bibenda, puer. 
Noctis erat medium, placidique silentia somni ; 

Triptolemum gremio sustidit iUa suo, 550 

Terque mânu peimulsit eum, tria carmina dixit, 

Carmina mortali non referenda sono ; 
Inque foco pueri corpus vivente favilla 

Obruit, humanum purget ut ignis onus. 
Excutitur somno stulte pia mater, et amens, 555 

Quid facis ? exclamat, membraque ab igne răpit. 
Cui Dea, Dum non es, <Uxit, scelerata Aiisti : 

Irrita materno sunt mea dona metu. 
Iste quidem mortalis erit, sed primus arabit, 

£t seret, et culta praemia toUet bumo. 56o 

Dixit, et egredienfi nubem trahit, inque dracones 

Transit, et alifero tollitur axe Ceres. 
Sunion expositum, Piraeaque tuta recessu 

Linquit et in dextrum quae jacet ora latus. 
b4 



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80 FASTOBUM 

Hinc inii Aegaeum, quo Cjcladas adspicit omnes, 565 

loniumque rapax, Icariumque legit ; 
Perque urbes Asiae longum petit Ilellcspontum : 

Diversumaue locis alta pererrat iter. 
Nam modo tnurilegos Arabas, modo despicit Indos : 

Hinc Libjs, hinc Meroe, siccaque terra subest. 570 
Nune aditHesperioSjRhenum Bhodanumque Padumque, 

Teque future parens, Tibri, potentis aquae. 
Quo feror ? immensum est erratas dicere terras : 

Praeteritus Cereri nullus in orbe locus. 
EiTat et in caelo, liquidique immunia ponţi 575 

AUoquitur gelido proxima signa polo : 
Parrhasides stellae, — namque omnia nosse potestis, 

Aequoreas numquam cum subeatis aquas — 
Persephonen miserae natam monstrate parenti. 

Dixerat : huic Helice talia verba refert : 580 

Crimine nox vacua est* Solem de virgine rapta 

Consule, qui late facta diurna videt. 
Sol aditus, Quam quaeris, ait, ne vana labores, 

Nupta Jovis fratri tertia regna tenet. 
Questa diu secum sic est affata Tonantem : 585 

— Maximaque in vultu signa dolentis erant — 
Si memor es de quo mihi sit Proserpina nata, 

Dimidium curae debet habere tuae. 
Orbe pererrato sola est injuria facti 

Cognita : commissi praemia raptor habet. 590 

At neque Persephone digna est praedone marito, 

Nec gener boc nobis more parandus erat. 
Quid gravius victore Gryge captiva tulissem, 

Quam nune, te caeli sceptra tenente, tuli ? 
Verum impune ferat : nos haec patiemur inultae. 595 

Reddat, et emendet &cta priora novis. 
Juppiter hanc lenit, factumque excusat amore ; 

Nec gener est nobis iile pudendus, ait : 
Non ego nobilior ; posita est mihi regia caelo ; 

Possidet alter aquas ; alter inane Chaos. 600 

Sed si forte tibi non est mutabile pectus, 

Statque semel juneţi rumpere vincla tori ; 
Hoc quoque tentemus, siquidem jejuna remansit ; 

Si minus, infemi conjugis uxor erit. 



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LIBER IV. 81 

Tartara jussus adît sumptîs Caducifer alis, 605 

Speque redit citius, visaque certa refert. 
Rapta tribuSy dixit, solvit jejunia granis, 

Punica quae lento cortice poma tegunt. 
Haud secus indoluit, quam si modo rapta fiiisset, 

Maesta parens, longa vixque refecta mora est. 6^0 
Atque itf^ Nec nobis caelum est habitabile, dixit : 

Taenaria recipi me quoque valle jube. 
£t factura fîiit, pactus nisi Juppiter esset, 

Bis tribus ut caelo mensibus illa foret. 
Turn demum vultumque Ceres animumque recepit, 61 5 

Imposuitque suae spicea serta comae ; 
Largaque provenit cessatis messis in arvis ; 

Et vix congestas area cepit opes. 
Alba decent Cererem : vestes Cerealibus albas 

Sumite ; nune pulli velleris usus abest. 620 

m. 13th. 

Occupat Aprilîs Idus cognomine Victor 

Juppiter : hac illi sunt data templa die. 
Hac quoque, ni fallor, populo dignissima nostro 

Atria libertas coepit habere sua. 

XVIII. KAL. MAI. 14tH, 

Luce secutura tutos pete, navita, portus : 625 

Ventus ab occasu grandine inixtus erît 
Scilicet ut fuerit, tamen hac Mutinensia Caesar 

Grrandine miliţia contudit arma sua. 

XVII. KAL. 15th. 

Tertia post Veneris cum lux surrexerit Idus, 

Pontifices, forda saţra litate bove. . 630 

Forda ferens bos est fecundaque, dicta ferendo ; 

Hinc etiam/e^i^ nomen habere putant. 
Nune gravidum pecus est ; gravidae quoque semîne terrae : 

Telluri plenae victima plena datur. 
Pars cădit arce Jovis ; ter denas Curia vaccas 635 

Accipit, et largo sparsa cruore madet. 
Ast ubi visceribus vitulos rapuere miniştri, 

Sectaque fumosis exta dedere focis ; 
Igne cremat vitulos quae natu maxima Virgo est, 

Luce Palis populos purget ut iile cinis. — 640 

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82 FASTORUM • 

Rege Numa, fructu non respondente labori, 

Irrita decepti vota colentiB erant. 
Nam modo siccus erat gelidis aquilombus annus, 

Nune ager assidua luxuriabat aqua ; 
Saepe Ceres primis dominum fallebat in herbis, 645 

£t levis obsesso stabat avena solo ; 
Et pecus ante diem partus edebat acerbos^ 

Agnaque nascendo saepe necabat ovem. 
Silva vetus nuUaque diu violata securi 

Stabat, Maenalio sacra relicta deo. 650 

. Iile dabat taci tis animo responsa quieto 

Noctibus; Hic geminas rex Numa mactat oves. 
Prima cădit Fauno, leni cădit altera Somno ; 

Stemitur in duro vellus utrumque solo. 
Bis eaput intonsum fontana spargitur unda, 655 

Bis sua faginea tempera fronde tegit. 
Usus abest Y eneris ; nec fas animalia mensis 

Ponere, nec digitis anulus ullus inest. 
Veste rudi tectus supra nova vellera corpus 

Ponit, adorate per sua verba deo. 660 

Interea placidam redimita papavere frontem 

Nox venit, et secum somnia nigra trahit. 
Faunus adest, oviumque premens pede viellera duro 

Edidit a dextro talia dicta toro : 
Morte boum tibi, rex, Tellus placanda duarum : 665 

Det sacris animas una necata duas. 
Excutitur terrore quies ; Numa visa revolvit, 

Et secum ambages caecaque jussa refert. 
Expedit errantem nemori gratissima conjunx, 

Et dixit, Grravidae posceris exta bovis. 670 

Exta bovis dantur gravidae ; felicior annus 

Provenit, et fructum terra pecusque ferunt. — 
Hanc quondam Cytherea diem properantius ire 

Jussit, et admissos praecipitavit equos. 
Ut titulum imperii cum primum luce sequenti 675 

Augusto juveni prospera bella dareni 

XVI. kal! . 16th. 

Sed jatn praeteritas quartus tibi Lucifer Idus 

Respicit ; bac Hyades Dorida nocte ţetient. 



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LIBER IV. 83 

xin. KAL. 19th. 

Tertia post Hyadas cum lux erit oria remotas, 

Carcere partitos Circus habebit equos. 680 

Cur igitur missae vinctis ardentia taedis 

Terga ferant vulpes, causa docenda mihi. 
Frigida Carăeoli nec olivis apta fereudis 

Terra, sed ad segetes ingeniosua ager. 
Hac ego Pelignos, natalia nira^ petebam, 685 

Parva, sed assiduis uvida semper aquis. 
Hospitis antiqui solitas intravimus aedes ; 

Dempserat emeritis jam juga Phoebus equis. 
îs mihi multa quidem, sed et haec, narrare solebat, 690 

Unde meum praesens instrueretur opus : 
Hoc, ait, in campo — campumque ostendit — ^habebat 

Rus breve cum duro parca colona viro. 
Iile suam peragebat humum, sive usus aratri, 

Seu curvae falcis, sive bidentis erat. 
Haec modo verrebat stantem tibicine villam, 695 

Nimc matris plumis ova fovenda dabat ; 
Aut virides malvas, aut fangos coUigit albos, 

Aut Kumilem grato calfacit igue Kxmm. 
Et tamen assiduis exercet brachia telis, 

Adversusque minas fngoris arma parat. 7oo 

Filius hujus erat primo lascivus in aevo, 

Addideratque annos ad duo lustra duos. 
îs capit extremi vulpem convalle salicti ; 

Abstulerat multas illa cohortis aves. 
Captivam stipula fenoque involvit, et ignes 705 

. Admovet ; urentes effiigit illa manus. 
Qua fiigit, incendit vestitos messibus agros ; 

Damnosis vires ignibus aura dabat. 
Factum abiit, monimenta manent ; nam vivere captam 

Nimc quoque lex vulpem Carseolana vetat. 710 

Utque luat poenas gens haec, C^^ibus ardet, 

Quoque modo segetes perdidit, ips a perit. 
xiL KAL. 20th. 

Postera cum veniet terras visura patentes 

Memnonis in roseis lutea mater eţ[ui8, 
De duce lanigen pecoris, qui prodidit Hellen, 71 5 

Sol abit ; egresso victima major adest. 
e6 



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84 FASTQRUM 

Yacca sit an taurus, non est cognoscere promptum : 

Pars prior apparet ; posteriora latent. 
Seu tamen est taunis, sive est hoc femina signum, 

Junone invita miiniis amoris habet. 720 

XI. KAL. 21ST. 

Nox abiit oriturque Aurora, Palilia poscor. 

Non poscor frustra, si favet alma rales. 
Alma Pales, faveas păstoria sacra canenti, 

Prosequor offîcio si tua festa pio. 
Certe ego de vitulo cinerem stipulasque fabales, 725 

Saepe tuli plena februa casta mânu. 
Certe ego transilui positas ter in ordine flammas, 

Udaque rorantes laurea misit aquas. 
Moţa dea est, operique favet. Navalibus exit 

Puppis ; habent ventos jam mea vela suos. 730 

I, pete virginea, populus, suffimen ab ara : 

Vesta dabit ; Vestae niunere purus eris. 
Sanguis equi suffimen erit, vitulique.favilla ; 

Tertia res durae culmen inahe fabae. 
Pastor, oves saturas ad pirima crepuscula lustra : 735 

Unda prius sparffăt, virgaque verrat iuinum. 
Frondibus et fixis decorentur ovilia râmis, 

Et te^t omatas longa corona fores. 
Caerulei fiant vivo de sulfure fumi ; 

Tactaque fumanti sulfure balet ovis. 740 

Ure mares oleas taedamque berbasque Sabinas, 

Et crepet in mediis laurus adusta focis ; 
Libaque de milio milii fiscella sequatur : 

Brustica praecipue est hoc dea laeta cibo. 
Adde dapes mulctramque suas ; dapibusque resectis 745 

Silvic(^am tepido lacte precare Palen. 
Consule, dic, pecori pariter pecorisque magistris : 

Efiugiat stabulis noxa repulsa meis. 
Sive sacro pavi, sediye sub arbore sacra, 

Pabula(]^ue e bustis inscia carpsit ovis ; 750 

Si nemus mtravi vetitum, nostrisve fugatae 

Sunt oculis nymphae, semicaperve deus ; 
Si mea falx ramo lucum spolia vit opaco. 

Unde data est aegrae fiscina frondis ovi ; 



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LIBEB IV. 85 

Da vemam culpae : nec, dum degrandinet, obsit 755 

Agresti fano supposuisse pecus ; 
Nec noceat turbasse lacus. Ignoscite, nymphae, 

Moţa quod obscuras ungida fecit aquas. 
Tu, dea, pro nobis fontes fontanaque placa 

Numina ; tu sparsos per nemus omne deos. 760 

Nec Drjadas, nec nos videamus labra Dianae 

Nec Faunum, medio cum premit arva die. 
Pelle procul morbos. Valeant hominesque gregesque ; 

Et valeant vigiles, provida ttirba, canes. 
Neve minus multos redigam, quam mane fuerunt, 765 

Neve gemam referens vellera rapta lupo. 
Absit iniqua fames. Herbae frondesque supersint, 

Quaeque lavent artus, quaeque bibantur, aquae. 
Ubera plena premam ; referat mihi caseus aera, 

Dentque viam liquido vimina rara sero ; 770 

Sitque salax aries, conceptaque semina conjunx 

Reddat, et in stabulo multa sit agna meo ; 
Lanaque proveniat, nullas laesura puellas, 

Mollis, et ad teneras quamlibet apta manus. 
Quae precor, eveniant : et nos faciamus ad annum 775 

Pastorum dominae grandia liba Pali 
His dea placanda est : haec tu conversus ad ortus 

Dic quater, et vivo perlue rore manus. 
Turn licet, apposita, veluti cratere, camelia, 

Lac niveum potes purpureamque săpam ; 780 

Moxque per ardentes stipulae crepitantis acervos 

Trajicias celeri strenua membra pede. — 
Expositus mos est, moris mihi restat origo : 

Turba facit dubium, coeptaque nostra tenet. 
Omnia purgat edax ignis, vitiumque metallis 785 

Excoquit ; idcirco cum duce purgat oves. 
An, quia cunctarum contraria semina rerum 

Sunt duo discordes, ignis et unda, dei, 
Junxerunt clementa patres aptumque putaruot 

Ignibus et sparsa tangere corpus aqua ? 790 

An, quod in his vitae causa est, haec perdidit exul, 

His nova fit conjimx, haec duo magna putant? 
Vix equidem credo. Sunt qui Phaethonta referri 
' Credant et nimias DeucaUonis aquas. 



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86 FASTOBUM 

Pars quoqu^, cum saxis pastores saxa feribant, 795 

Scintillam subito prosiluisse ferunt : 
Prima quidem periit ; stipulis excepta secimda est. 

Hoc argumentum flamma Palilis habet ? 
An magis hune morem pietas Aeneia fecit, 

Innocuum victo cui dedit ignis iter ? 8oo 

Num tamen est vero propius, cum condita Roma est, 

Transferri jussos in nova tecta Lares 
Mutantesque domum tectis agrestibus ignem 

£t cessaturae supposuiâse casae, 
Per flammas saluisse pecus, saluisse colonos ? sos 

Quod fit natali nimc quoque, Roma, tuo. — 
Ipse locum casus vati fadt. ITrbis origo 

Venit : ades factis, magne Quirine, tuis. 
Jam luerat poenas frater Numitoris et omne 

Pastorum gemino sub duce yulgus erat : sio 

Contrahere agrestes et moenia ponere utrique 

Convenit ; ambigitur, moenia ponat uter. 
Nil opus est, dixit, certamine, Romidus, ullo. 

Maşna fides avium est ; experiamur aves. 
Res placet : alter init nemorosi saxa Palati, 8 15 

Alter Aventinum mane cacumen init. 
Sex Remus, bic volucres bis sex yidet ordine : pacto 

Statur et arbitrium Romulus urbis babet. 
Apta dies legitur, qua moenia signet aratro. 

Sacra Palis suberant, inde movetur opus. 820 

Fossa fit ad solidum, fruges jaciuntur in ima, 

Et de vicino terra petita solo. 
Fossa repletur humo, plenaeque imponitur ara, 

Et novus accenso fungitur igne focus. 
înde premens stivam designat moenia sulco ; 825 

Alba jugum niveo cum bove vacca tulit. 
Vox fiiit haec regis : Condenti, Juppiter, urbem, 

Et genitor Mavors, Vestaque mater ades, 
Quosque pium est adbibere deos, advertite cuncti : 

Auspicibus vobis boc mihi surgat opus. 830 

Longa sit buic aetas dominaeque potentia terrae .- 

Sitque sub hac oriens occiduus(ţue dies. 
Ule precabatur ; tonitru dedit omma laevo 

Juppiter, et laevo fulmina missa polo. 



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LIBBE IV. 87 

Augurio laeti jaciunt fîindamina cives, 835 

Et novus exiguo tempore murus erat. 
Hoc Celer urget opus, quem Bomulus ipse vocarat ; 

Sintque, Celer, curae, dixerat, ista tuae, 
Neve quis aut muros, aut fectam vomere fossam 

Transeat ; audentem talia dede neci. 840 

Quod Remus ignorans, humiles contemnere muros 

Coepit, et, His populus, dicere, tutus erit ? 
Nec mora, transiluit. Rutro Celer occupat ausum ; 
*Ille premit duram sanguinolentus humum. 
Haec ubi rex didicit, lacrimas introrsus obortas 845 

Devorat et clausum pectore vulnus habet. 
Fiere palam nou vuit exemplaque fortia servat, 

Sicque meos muros transeat hostis, ait. 
Dat tamen exequias : nec jam suspendere âetum 

Sustinet, et pietas dissimulata patet ; 850 

Osculaque applicuit posito suprema feretro, 

Atque ait, Invito frater adempte, vale ! 
Arsurosque artus unxit. Fecere, quod iile, 

Faustulus, et maestas Acea soluta comas. 
Turn juvenem nondum facti flevere Quirites ; 855 

Ultima plorato subdita flamma rogo est. 
TJrbs oritur — quis tune boc uUi credere posset ? — 

Victorem terris impositura pedem. 
Cuncta regas, et sis magno sub Caesare semper, 

Saepe etiam plures nominis hujus babe ; 86o 

Et quoties steteris domito sublimis in orbe, 

Omnia sint bumeris inferiora tuis. 

IX. KAL. 23rd. 

Dicta Pales nobis ; idem Vinalia dicam : 

Una tamen media est inter utramque dies. 
Numina vulgares Veneris celebrate puellae ; 865 

Midta professarum quaestibus apta Venus. 
Poscite tnure dato formam populique favorem ; 

Poscite blanditias, dignaque verba joco : 
Cumque sua dominae date grata sisymbria mjrto, 

Textaque composita juncea vinpla roşa. 87o 

Templa frequentari Coflinae proxima portae 

Nune decet ; a Siculo nomma coUe tenent. 



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88 FASTOBUM 

Utque Syracusas Arethusîdas abstulit armîs 

Claudius et bello te quoque cepit, Eryx, 
Carmine vivacis Yenus est translata Sibjllae, 875 

Inque suae stîrpis maluit urbe coli. 
Cur igitur Veneris festtim Vinalia dicant, 

Quaeritis, et quare sit Jovis ista dies. 
Tumus an Aeneas Latiae gener esset Amatae, 

Bellum erat : Etniscas Tumus adorat opes. sso 

Clarus erat sumptisque ferox Mezentius armis, 

Et vel equo magnus, vel pede major erat. ' 

Quem Rutuli Tumusque suis adsciscere tentant 

Partibus. Haec contra dux ita Tuscus ait : 
Stat mihi non parvo virtus mea. Vulnera tester, 885 

Armaque, quae sparsi sanguine saepe meo : 
Qui petis auxilium, non grandia divide mecum 

Praemia de lacubus proxima musta tuis. 
Nullamora est operae; vestrum dare,vincere nostrum est. 

Quam velit Aeneas ista negata mihi ! 890 

Annuerant Rutuli : Mezentius induit arma. 

Induit Aeneas, alloquiturcj^ue Jovem : 
Hostica Tyrrheno vota est vmdemia regi ; 

Juppiter, e Latio palmite musta feres. 
Vota valent meliora : cădit Mezentius ingens, 895 

Atque indignanti pectore plangit humum. 
Venerat autiunnus, calcatis sordidus uvis ; 

Redduntur merito debita vina Jovl 
Dicta dies hinc est Vinalia. Juppiter illam 

Vindicat, et festis gaudet inesse suis. 900 

VII. KAL. 25th. 

Sex ubi, (juae restant, luces Aprilis habebit, 

In medio cursu tempera veris erunt, 
Et frustra pecudem quaeres Atbamantidos Helles, 

Signaque dant imbres, exoriturque Caniş. 

Hac mihi Nomento Romam cum luce redirem, 905 

Obstitit in media candida pompa via. 
Flamen in antiquae lucum Robiginis ibat, 

Exta caniş flammis, exta daturus ovis. 
Protinus accessi, ritus ne nescius essem. 

Edidit haec Flamen verba, Quirine, tuus : 910 



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LIBER IV. 89 

Aspera Robigo, parcas Cerealibus herbis, 

Et tremat in sunima leve cacumen humo. 
Tu sata sideribus caeli nutrita secundis 

Crescere, dum fiant falcibus apta, sinas. 
Vis tua non levis est. Quae tu frumenta notasti, 915 

Maestus in amissis illa colonus habet. 
Nec venti tantum Cereri nocuere, nec imbres, 

Nec sic marmoreo pallet adusta gelu, 
Quantum, si culmos Titan incalfacit udos : 

Tune locus est irae, diva timenda, tuae. 920 

Parce, precor, scabrasque manus a messibus aufer, 

Neve noce cultis : posse nocere sat est. 
Neu teneras segetes, sed durum amplectere ferrum, 

Quodque potest alios perdere, perde prior. 
Utilius gladios et tela nocentia carpes. 925 

Nil opus est illis : otia mundus agit. 
Sarcula nune durusque bidens et vomer aduncus, 

Ruris opes, niteant ; inquinet arma situs, 
Conatusque aliquis vagina ducere ferrum, 

Adstrictum longa sentiat esse mora. 930 

At tu ne viola Cererem, semperque colonus 

Absenţi possit solvere vota tibi. 
Dixerat : a dextra villis mantele solutis, 

Cumque meri patera thuris acerra fuit. 
Thura focis vinumque dedit, fibrasque bidentis, 935 

Turpiaque obscaenae vidimus exta caniş. 
Turn mihi. Cur detur sacris nova victima, quaeris ; 

— Quaesieram causam — ^percîpe, Flamen ait : 
Est Caniş, Icarium dicunt, quo sidere moto 

Tosta sitit tellus, praecipiturque seges. 940 

Pro cane sidereo caniş hic imponitur arae, 

Et, quare pereat, nil nisi nomen habet. 

IV. KAI4. 28th. 

Cum Phrygis Assaraci Tithonia fratre relicto 

Sustulit immenso ter jubar orbe suum. 
Miile venit variis florum dea nexa coronis, 945 

Scena joci morem liberioris habet. 
Exit et in Maias sacrum Florale kalendas. 

Tune repetam : nune me grandius urgct opus. 



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90 EASTORUM 

Aufert Vesta diem ; cognati Vesta recepta est 
Limine : sic justi constituere senes. 950 

Phoebus habet partem, Vestae pars altera cessit ; 
Quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet. 

State Palatinae laurus, praetextaque quercu 
Stet domus. Aetemos tres habet una deos. 



LIBER V 



Quaeritiâ unde putem Maio data nomina mensi ; 

Non satis est liquido cognita causa mihi. 
Ut stat et incertus qua sit sibi nescit eundum, 

Cum videt ex omni parte viator iter, 
Sic, quia posse datur diversas reddere causas, 5 

Qua ferar ignoro, copiaque ipsa nocet. 
Dicite, quae fontes Aganippidos Hippocrenes 

Grata Medusaei signa tenetis equi. 
Dissensere deae ; quarum Polyhymnia coepit 

Prima ; silent afiae, dictaque mente notant. 10 

Post chaos, ut primum data sunt tria corpora mundo, 

Inque novas species omne recessit opus, 
Pondere terra suo subsedit, et aequora traxit, 

At caelum levitas in loca summa tulit. 
Sol quoque cum stellis nuila gravitate retentus, 15 

Et vos lunares exsiluistis equi. 
Sed neque terra diu caelo, nec caetera Phoebo 

Sidera cedebant : par erat omnis honos. 
Saepe aliquis solio quod tu, Satume, tenebas, 

Ausus de media plebe şedere deus ; 20 

Et latus Oceano quivis deus advena junxit, 

Et Tethys extreme saepe recepta loco est ; 
Donec Honos, placidoque decens Reverentia vultu 

Corpora legitimis imposuere toris. 
Hinc sata Majestas, quae mundum temperat omnem, 25 

Quaque die partu est edita, magna fuit. 



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LIBEE V. 91 

Nec mora : consedit medio sublimîs Olympo, 

Aurea, purpureo conspicîenda sinu. 
Consedere simul Pudor et Metus. Omne videres 

Numen ad hanc vultus composuisse suob. 30 

Protinus intravit mentes suspectus honorum ; 

Fit pretium dimis, nec sibi quis(|ue placet. 
Hic status in oaelo multos pennansit in annos, 

Dum senior fatis excidit arce deus; 
Terra feros partus, immania monstra, Gigantas 35 

Edidit, ausuros in Jovis ire domum. 
Miile manus illis dedit, et pro cruribus angues, 

Atque ait, In magnos arma movete deos. 
Exstruere bi montes ad sidera summa parabant, 

Et magnum bello soUicitare Jovem. 40 

Fulmina de caeli jaculatus Juppiter arce 

Vertit in auctores pondera vasta suos. 
His bene Majestas armis defensa deorum 

Restat, et ex illo tempore culta manet. 
Assidet inde Jovi : Jovis est fidissima custos, 45 

Et praestat sine vi sceptra tenere Jovi. 
Venit et in terras : coluerunt Romulus illam 

Et Numa, mox alii, tempore quisque suo. 
lila patres in honore pio jnatresque tuetur ; 

Hla comes pueris virginibusque venit ; 50 

lila datos fasc^s commendat, eburque curule ; 

nia coronatis alta triumpbat equis. 
Finierat voces Polyhymnia : dicta probarunt 

Clioque, et curvae scita Thalia lyrae. — 
Excipit Uranie : fecere silentia cunctae, 55 

Et vox audiri nulla, nisi illa, potest. 
Magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia canî, 

Inque suo pretio ruga senilis erat. 
Martis opus juvenes animosaque bella gerebant, 

Et pro dis aderant in statione suiş. 60 

Viribus illa minor, nec habendis utilis armis, 

Consilio patriae saepe ferebat opem. 
Nec nisi post annos patuit tune Curia seros, 

Nomen et aetatis mite Senatus erat. 
Jiira dabat populo senior ; finitaque certis 66 

Legibus est aetas, imde petatur honos. 



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92 FASTORUM 

Et mediug juvenum, non indignantibus ipsis, 

Ibat, et interior, si comes unus erat. 
Verba quis auderet coram sene digna rubore 

Dicere ? censuram longa senecta dabat 70 

Romulus boc vidit, selectaque pectora Patres 

Dixit. Ad hos urbis summa relata novae. 
Hînc sua majores posuisse vocabula Maio 

Tangor, et aetati consuluisse suae. 
Et Numitor dixisse potest, Da, Romule, mensem 75 

Hune senibus ! nec avum sustinuisse nepos. 
Nec leve praepositi pignus successor honoris 

Junius, a juvenum nomine dictus, adest. — 
Tune sic, neglectos bedera redimita capillos, 

Prima sui coepit Calliopea cbori : so 

Duxerat Oceauus quondam Titanida Tethyn, 

Qui terram liquidis, qua patet, ambit aquis. 
Hinc sata Pleione cum caelifero Atlante 

Jungitur, ut fÎEtma est, Pleiadasque parit. 
Quaram Maia suas forma superasse sorores 85 

Traditur, et summo concubuisse Jovi, 
Haec enixa jugo cupressiferae Cyllenes 

Aetherium volucri qui pede cârpit iter. 
Arcades bune, Ladonque rapax, et Maenalon ingens 

Rite colunt. Luna credita terra prior. 90 

Exul ab Arcadia Latios Evander in agros 

Venerat, impositos attuleratque deos. 
Hic, ubi nune Roma est orbis caput, arbor et herbae 

Et paucae pecudes et casa rara fuit. 
Quo postquam ventum est, Consistite ! praescia mater, 

Nam locus imperii rus erit istud, ait 96 

Et matri et vati paret Nonacrius heros, 

Inque peregrina constitit bospes humo. 
Sacraque multa quidem, sed Faimi prima bicomis 

Has docuit gentes, alipedisque deL 100 

Semicaper, coleris cinctutis. Faune, Lupercis, 

Cum lustrant celebres vellera secta vias. 
At tu materno donasti nomine mensem, 

Inventor curvae, furibus apte, fidis. 
Nec pietas haec prima tua est : septena putaris, 105 

Pleîadum numerum, fila dedisse lyrae. 



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LIBBK V. 93 

Haec quoque desierat ; lăudata est voce sororum. 

Quid faciam ? turbae pars habet omnis idem. 
Gratia Pieriduin nobis aequaliter assit, 

Nullaque laudetur plusve minusve mihi. iio 

KAL. Ist. 

Ab Jove surgat opus. Prima mihi nocte videnda 

Stella est in cunas officiosa Jovis. 
Nascitur Oleniae signum pluviale Capellae ; 

lUa daţi caelum praemia lactis habet. 
Nais Amalthea, Cretâea nobilis Ida, 115 

Dicitur in silvis occuluisse Jovem. 
Huic fuit haedorum mater formosa duorum, 

Inter Dictaeos consţicienda greges, 
Comibus aeriis atque in sua terga recurvis, 

Ubere, quod nutrix posset habere Jovis. 120 

Lac dabat illa deo. Sed fregit in arbore comu, 

Truncaque dimidia parte decoris erat. 
Sustulit hoc nymphe, cinxitque decentibus herbis, 

£t plenum pomis ad Jovis ora tulit. 
Iile, ubi res caeli tenuit solioque patemo 125 

Sedit et invicto nil Jove majus erat, 
Sidera nutricem, nutricis fertile comu 

Fecit ; quod dominae nune quoque nomen habet. 

Praestitibus Maiae Laribus videre Ealendae 

Aram constitui signaque parva deum. 130 

Vota erat illa quidem Curibus ; sed multa vetustas 

Destruit, et saxo longa senecta nocet. 
Causa tamen positi fucrat cognominis illis, 

Quod praestant oculis omnia tuta suiş. 
Stant quoque pro nobis et praesunt moenibus urbis, 135 

Et sunt praesentes auxiliumque ferunt. 
At caniş ante pedes, saxo fabricatus eodero, 

Stabat. Quae standi cum Lare causa fiiit ? 
Servat uterque domum ; domino quoque fidus uterque ; 

Compita grata deo, compita grata câni ; uo 

Exagitant et Lar et turba Diania fures ; 

Pervigilantque Lares, pervi^ilantque canes. 
Bina gemellorum quaerebam signa deorum, 

Yiribus anno^ae facta caduca morae : 



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94 FASTOBUM 

Miile Lares, Geniumque ducis, qui tradidît illos, 146 
Urbs habet ; et viei numina trina colunt. 

Quo feror? Augustus mensis mîlii carminis hujus 

Jus habet ; interea Diva canenda Bona est. 
Est moles nativa loco — ^res nomina fecit — 

Appellant Saxum ; pars bona montis ea est. 150 

Huic Remus institerat frustra, quo tempore fraţii 

Prima Palatinae regna dedistis aves. 
Templa Patres illic, oculos exosa viriles, 

Leniter acclivi constituere jugo. 
Dedicat haec veteris Clausorum nominis heres, 155 

Virgineo nuUum corpore passa vinim. 
Livia restituit, ne non imitata maritum 

Esset, et ex omni parte secuta virum. 

VI. NON. 2nD. 

Postera cum roşeam pulsîs Hyperionis astris 

In matutinis lampada tollit equis, i6o 

Frigidus Argestes summas mulcebit aristas, 

Candidaque a capreis vela dabuntur aquis. 
At simul inducunt obscura crepuscula noctem, 

Pars Hyadum toto de grege nulla latet. 
Ora micant Tauri septem radiantia flammis, 165 

Navita quas Hyadas Grraius ab imbre vocat. 
Pars Bacchum nutrisse putat ; pars credidit esse 

Tethyos bas neptes Oceanique senia 
Nondum stabat Atlas humeros oneratus Olympo, 

Cum satus est forma conspiciendus Hyas. 170 

Hune stirps Oceani maturis nixibus Aethra 

Edidit, et nymphas ; sed prior ortus Hyas. 
Dum nova lanugo, pavidos formidine cervos 

Terret et est illi praeda benigna lepus ; 
At postquam virtus annis adolevit, in apros 175 

Audet et hirsutas cominus ire feras. 
Dumque petit latebras fetae catulosque leaenae, 

Ipse fuit Libycae praeda cruenta ferae. 
Mater Hyan, et Hyan maestae flevere sorores, 

Cervicemque polo suppositurus Atlas; I80 

Victus uterque parens tamen est pietate sororum. 

lila dedit caelum ; nomina fecit Hyas. 



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LIBER V. 96 

V. NON. 3RD 

Mâter, ades^ âorum, ludis celebranda jocojsis : 

Distuleram partes mense priore tuas. 
Incipis Aprili, transis in tempora Maii. 185 

Alter te fugiens, cum venit alter habet. 
Cum tua sint cedantque tibi confinia mensum, 

Convenit in laudes iile vel iile tuas. 
Cireus in bune exit, clamataque palma tbeatris : 

Hoc quoque cum Circi munere carmen eat. 190 

Ipsa doce, quae sis. Hominum sententia fallax, 

Optima tu proprii nominis auctor eris. 
Sic ego. Sic nostiis respondit diva rogatis : 

— Dum loquitur vemas efflat ab ore rosas — 
Chloris eram, quae Flora vocor. Corrupta Latino 195 

Nominis est noştri littera Graeca sono. 
Cbloris eram nymphe Campi Felicis, ubi audis 

Rem fortunatis ante fuisse viris. 
Quae fuerit mihi forma, grave est narrare modestae ; 

Sed generum matri repperit illa deum. 200 

Ver erat, errabam ; Zepbyrus conspexit, abibam ; 

Insequitur, fugio ; Fortior iile fuit, 
Et dederat fratri Boreas jus omne rapinae, 

Ausus Erecbthea praemia ferre domo. 
Yim tamen emendat dando mibi nomina nuptae ; 205 

Inque meo non est ulla querela toro. 
Vere firuor semper ; semper nitidissimus annus : 

Arbor babet frondes, pabula semper bumus. 
Est mibi fecundus dotalibus bortus in agriş ; 

Aura fovet, liquidae fonte rigatur aquae. 210 

Hune meus implevit generoso flore maritus, 

Atque ait, Arbitrium tu, dea, floris babe. 
Saepe ego digestos volui numerare colores, 

Nec potui ; numero copia major erat.' 
Roscida cum primum foliis excussa pruina est, 215 

Et variae radiis intepuere comae, 
Conveniunt pictis incinctae vestibus Horae, 

Inque leves calatbos munera nostra legunt. 
Protiniis accedunt Charites, nectuntque coronas, 

Sertaque caelestes implicitura comas. 220 



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96 FASTORUM 

Prima per immensas sparsi nova semina gentes ; 

Unius tellus ante coloris erat. 
Prima Therappaeo feci de sanguine florem ; 

Et manet in folio scripta qnerela suo. 
Tu quoque nomen habes cultos, Narcisse, per hortos, 

Infelix, quod non alter et alter eras l 226 

Quid Crocon, aut Attin referam, Cinyraque creatum, 

De quorum per me vulnere surgit honor ? 
Mare quoque, si nescis, per nostras editus artes. 

Juppiter hoc ut adhuc neseiat, usque precor. 230 

Sancta Jovem Juno, nata sine matre Minerva, 

Officio doluit non eguisse suo. 
Ibat, ut'Oceano quereretur furta mari ti : 

Restitit ad nostras fessa labore fores. 
Quam simul aspexi, Quid te, Satumia, dixi, 235 

Attulit ? Exponit, quem petat illa locum : 
Addidit et causam. Yerbis solabar amicis. 

Non, inquit, verbis cura levanda mea est. 
Si pater est factus neglecto conjugis usu 

Juppiter, et solus nomen utrumque tenet, 240 

Cur ego desperem fieri sine conjuge mater, 

Et părere intacte, dummodo casta, viro ? 
Omnia tentabo latis medicamina terris, 

Et freta Tartareos excutiamque sinus. 
Vox erat in cursu : vultum dubitantis habebam. 245 

Nescio quid, nymphe, posse videris, ait. 
Ter volui promittere opem, ter lingua retenta est : 

Ira Jovis magni causa timoris erat. 
Fer, precor, auxilium, dixit ; celabitur auctor : 

Et Stygiae numen testificatur aquae 250 

Quod petis, Oleniis, inquam, mihi missus ab arvis 

Flos dabit. Est hortis unicus iile meis. 
Qui dabat, Hoc, dixit, sterilem quoque tange juvencam ; 

Mater erit. Tetigi ; nec mora, mater erat. 
Protinus baerentem decerpsi poUice florem. 255 

Tangitur ; et tacto concipit illa sinu. 
Jamque gravis Tbracen et laeva Propontidos intrat, 

Fitque potens voti ; Marsque creatus erat ; 
Qui memor accepţi per me natalis, Habeto 

Tu quoque Romiăea, dixit, in urbe locum. 260 



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LIBER V. 97 

Forsitan in teneris tantum mea rjegna coronis 

Esse putes ; tangit numen et arva meuni. 
Si bene floruerint segetes, erit area dives ; 

Si bene floruerit vinea, Baccbus erit ; 
Si bene floruerint oleae, nitidissimus annus, 265 

Poma quoque eventum temporis bujus habent. 
Flore semel laeso pereunt viciaeque fabaeqne, 

Et pereunt lentes, advena Nîle, tuae. 
Vina quoque in maguis operose condita cellis 

Florent, et nebulae dolia summa tegunt. 270 

Mella meum munus. Yolucres ego mella daturas 

Ad violam, et cytisos, et thyma cana voco. 
Nos quoque idem facimus tune, cum juvenilibus annis 

Luxuriant animi corporaque îpsa vigent. — 
Talia dicentem tacitus mirabar. At illa, 275 

Jus tibi discendi, si qua requiris, ait. 
Dic, dea, respondi, ludorum quae sit origo. 

Vix bene desieram ; rettulit illa mihi. 
Caetera luxuriae nondum insţrunienta vigebant : 

Aut pecus, aut latam dives habebat humum ; 28O 

Hinc etiam locuples, hinc ipsa pecuma dicta est. 

Sed jam de vetito quisque parabat opes : 
Venerat in morem populi depascere saltus ; 

Id(jue diu licuit, poenaque nuUa fiiit. 
Vindice servabat nullo sua publica vulgus ; 285 

Jamque in private pascere inertis erat. 
Plebis ad aediles perducta licenţia talis 

Publicios : animus defuit ante viris. 
Rem populus recipit : mulctam subiere nocentes ; 

Vindicibus laudî publica cura fuit. 290 

Mulcta data est ex parte mihi ; magnoque favore 

Victores ludos institiiere novos. 
Parte locant clivum, qui tune erat ardua rupes. 

Utile nune iter est, Publiciumque vocant. — 
Annua credideram spectacula facta ; negavit : 295 

Addidit et dictis altera verba suiş. 
Nos quoque tangit honor festis gaudemus et aris, 

Turbaque caelestes ambitiosa sumus. 
Saepe deos aliquis peccando fecit iniquos, 

Et pro delictis hostia blânda fiiit. 300 



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98 FASTORUM 

Sâepe Jovem vidi, cum jam sua mittere vellet 

Fulmina, thure dato sustinuisse manum. 
At si negligimur, magnis injuria poenis 

Solvitur et justum praeterit ira modum. 
Kespice Thestiaden ; fiammis absentibus arsit. 305 

Causa est, quod Phoebes ara sine igne fuit. 
Respice Tantaliden ; eadem dea vela tenebat. 

Virgo. est, et spretos bis tamen uita focos. 
Hippolyte infelix, velles coluisse Dionen 

Cum coustematis deripereris equis. 3 io 

Longa referre mora est correcta obli via damnis. 

Me quoque Romani praeteriere patres. 
Quîd âtcerem ? per quod fierem manifesta doloris ? 

Exigerem nostrae qualia damna notae ? 
Excidit officium trişti mihi. Nulla tuebar 315 

Rura, nec in pretio fertilis hortus erat. 
Lilia deciderant ; violas arere videres, 

Filaque punicei languida facta croci 
Saepe mihi Zephyrus, Dotescomimpere noii 

Ipsa tuas, dixit. Dos mihi vilis erat. 320 

Florebant oleae ; venti nocuere protervi. 

Florebant segetes ; grandine laesa Ceres. 
In spe vitis erat ; caelum nigrescit ab Austris, 

Et subita frondes decutiuntur aqua. 
Nec volui fieri, nec sum crudelis in ira : 325 

Cura repellendi sed mihi nulla fuit. 
Convenere Patres, et, si bene âoreat annus, 

Numinibus nostris annua festa vovent. 
Annuimus voto. Consul cum consule ludos 

Postumio Laenas persoluere mihi. — . 330 

Quaerere conabar, quare lascivia major 

His foret in ludis, liberiorque jocus : 
Sed mihi succurrit, numen non esse severum, 

Aptaque deliciis munera ferre deam. 
Tempera sutilibus cinguntur pota coronis, 335 

Et latet injecta splendida mepsa roşa. 
Ebrius incinctis philyra conviva capiUis 

Săltat, et imprudens utitur arte meri. 
Ebrius ad durum formosae limen amicae 

Cântat ; habent unctae mollia serta comae. 340 



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LIBEE V. 99 

Niilla coronata peraguntur seria froute ; 

Nec liquidae viuctis flore bibimtur aquae. 
Donec eras mixtus nullis, Acheloe, racemis, 

Gratia sumendae non erat ulla rosae. 
Bacchus amat flores : Baccho placuisse coronam^ 345 

Ex Ariadnaeo sidere nosse potes. 
Scena levis decet hanc : non est, mihi credite, non est 

lila cotliumatas inter habenda deas. 
Turba quideiîi cur hos celebret meretrieia ludos, 

Non ex difficili causa petita subest. 350 

Non est de tetricis, non est de magna professis : 

Vuit sua plebeio sacra patere choro ; 
Et monet aetatis specie, dum floreat, uti, 

Contemni spinam, cum cecidere rosae. 
Cur tamen, ut dantur vestes Cereali^us albae, 355 

Sic est baec cultu versicolore decens ? 
An quia maturis albescit messis aristis, 

Et color et species floribus omnis inest ? 
Annuit ; et motis flores cecidere capillis, 

Accidere in mensas ut roşa missa solet. 3Co 

Lumina restabant, quorum me causa latebat, 

Cum sic errores abstulit illa meos : 
Vel quia purpureis coUucent floribus agri, 

Lumina sunt nostros visa decere dies ; 
Vel quia nec flos est hebeti, nec flamma, colore, scs 

Atque oculos in se splendor uterque trahit ; 
Vel quia deliciis nocturna licenţia nostris 

Convenit. A vero tertia causa venit. 
Est breve praeterea, de quo mihi quaerere restat, 

Si liceat, dixi. Dixît et illa, Licet. 370 

Cur tibi pro Libycis clauduntur rete leaenis 

Imbelles capreae, soUicitusque lepus ? 
Non sibi, respondit, silvas cessisse, sed liortos, 

Arvaque pugnaci non adeunda ferae. 
Omnia finierat, tenues secessit in auras, 375 

Mansit odor, posses scire fiiisse deam. 
Floreat ut toto carmen Nasonis in aevo. 

Sparge, precor, donis pectora nostra tuis. — 

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100 FASTORUM 

Nocte minus quarta promet sua sidera Chiron 

Semivir et flavi corpore mixtus equi. 380 

Pelion Haemoniae mons est obversus in Austros ; 

Summa virent pinu, cetera quercus habet. 
Phillyrides tenuit. Saxo stant antra vetusto, • 

Quae justum memorant incoluisse senem. 
Iile manns, olim missuras Hectora leto, 365 

Creditur in lyricis detinuisse modis. 
Venerat Alcides exhausta parte laboiiim, 

Jussaque restabant ultima pene viro. 
Stare simul casu Trojae duo fata videres : 

Hinc puer Aeacides, hinc Jove natus erat. 390 

Excipit hospitio juvenem Philyreîus heros ; 

Et causam adventus hie rogat, iile docet. 
Perspicit interea cUvam spoliumque leonis, 

Virque ait, bis armis, armaque digna viro ! 
Nec se, quin horrens auderent tangere setis 395 

Vellus, Acbilleae eontinuere manus. 
Dumque senex tractat squalentia tela venenis, 

Excidit et laevo fixa sagîtta pede est. 
Ingemuit Chiron traxitque e corpore ferrum ; 

Et gemit Alcides, Haemoniusque puer. 400 

Ipse tamen lectas Pagasaeis coUibus herbas 

Temperat et varia vulnera mulcet ope. 
Virus edax superabat opem penitusque recepta 

Ossibus et toto corpore pestis erat. 
Sanguine Centauri Lemaeae sanguis Echidnae 40â 

Mixtus ad auxilium tempera nulla dabat 
Stabat, ut ante patrem, lacrimis perfusus Achilles : 

Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat. 
Saepe manus aegras manibus fingebat amicis ; 

Morum, quos fecit, praemia doctor habet. 410 

Oscula saepe dedit ; dixit quoque saepe jacenti : 

Vive, precor, nec me care relinque pater ! 
Nona dies aderat cum tu, justissime Uhiron, 

Bis septem stellis corpora cinctus eras. 

III. NON. 6th. 

Hune Lyra curva sequi cuperet ; sed idonea nondum 4i5 

Est via. Nox aptum tertia tempus erit. 



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LIBER V. 101 



PR. NON. 6tH. 

Scorpios in caelo, cum cras lucescere Nonas 
Dicimus, a media parte notandus erit. 

VII. iD. 9th. 

Hinc ubi protulerit formosa ter Hesperus ora, 

Ter dederint Phoebo sidera victa locum, 420 

Ritus erit veteris, nocturna Lemuria, sacri : 

Inferias tacitis Manibus illa dabunt. 
Annus erat brevior, nec adhuc pia februa norant 

Nec tu dux mensum, Jane biformis, eras. 
Jam tamen extincto cineri sua dona ferebant, 425 

Compositique nepos busta piabat avi. 
Mensis erat Maius, majorum nomine dictus, 

Qui partem prisci nune quoque moris habet. 
Nox ubi jam media est somno(jue silentia praebet 

Et caniş et variae conticuistis aves ; 430 

Iile memor veteris ritus timidusque deorum 

Surgit — ^habent gemini vincula nulla pedes — 
Signaque dat, digitis medio cum poUice junctis, 

Occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi ; 
Cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda, 435 

Vertitur et nigras accipit ore fabas 
Aversusque jacit ; sed dum jacit, Hac ego mitto ; 

His, inquit, redimo meque meosque fabis. 
Hoc novies dicit, nec respicit. Umbra putatur 

Colligere, et nullo terga vidente sequi. 440 

Rursus aquam tanrit, Temesaeaque concrepat aera, 

Et rogat, ut tectis exeat umbra suiş. . 
Cum dixit novies, Manes exite paterni ! 

Respicit, et pure sacra peracta putat. — 
Dicta sit imde dies, quae nominis exstet origo, 445 

Me fugit. Ex aliquo est invenienda deo. 
Pleiade nate, mone, vii^a venerande potenţi : 

Saepe tibi Stygii regia visa Jovis. 
Venit adoratus Caducifer. Accipe causam 

Nominis ; ex ipso cognita eausa deo est. 450 

Romulus ut tumulo fratemas condidit umbras, 

Et male veloci justa soluta Remo, 
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102 FASTORUM 

Faustulus infelix, et passis Acea capillîs 

Spargebant lacriiuis ossa perusta suiş. 
înde domum redeunt sub prima crepuscula maesti, 455 

Utque erat, in duro procubuere toro. 
Umbra cruenta Remi visa est assistere lecto, 

Atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui : 
En ego dimidium vestri parsque altera voti 

Cernite sim qualis ! qui modo qualis eram ! 460 

Qui modo, si volucres habuissem regna jubentes, 

In populo potui maximus esse meo. 
Nune elapsa rogi flammis et inanis imago. 

Haec est ex illo forma relieta Remo. 
Heu ! ubi Marş pater est I si vos modo vera loeuti, 465 

Uberaque expositis.ille ferina dedit. 
Quem lupa servavit, manus hune temeraria eivis 

Perdidit. O quanto mitior illa fuit ! 
Saeve Celer, crudelem animam per vulnera reddas, 

Utque ego, sub terras sanguinolenius eas ! 470 

Noluit boc frater ; pietas aequalis in illo est. 

Quod potuit, lacrimas manibus iile dedit. 
Hune vos per lacrimas, per vestra alimenta rogate. 

Ut celebrem nostro signet honore diem. 
Mandantem ampleeti cupiunt et brachia tendunt ; 475 

Lubrica prensantes effugit umbra manus. 
Ut secum nigiens somnos abduxit ima^o, 

Ad regem voces fratris uterque ferunt. 
Romulus obsequitur, lucemque Remuria dixit 

Illam, qua positis justa feruntur avis. 480 

Aspera mutata est in levem tempore longo 

Littera, quae toto nomine prima fuit. 
Mox etiam Lemures animas dixere silentum ; 

Hic sensus verbi, vis ea vocis erat. — 
Fana tamen veteres illis elausere diebus, 485 

Ut nune ferali tempore operta vides. 
Nec viduae taedis eadem, nec virginis apta 

Tempera ; quae nupsit, non diutuma fuit. 
Hac quoque de eausa, si te proverbia tangunt, 

Mense malas Maio nubere vulgus ait. 490 

Sed tamen haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa 

Inter se nuUa continuata dia 



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LIBER V. 103 



VI. iD. IOth. 

Quorum si mediis Boeoton Oriona quaeres, 

Falsus eris. Signi causa canenda mihi. 
Juppiter et, lato qui regnat in aequore, fraier 495 

Carpebant socias Mercuriusque vias. 
Tempus erat quo versa jugo referuntur aratra 
« Et pronus saturae. lac bibit agnus ovis. 
Forte senex Hyrieus, angusti cultor agelli, 

Hos videt, exiguam stabat ut ante casam. 500 

Atque ita, Longa via est nec tempera longa supersunt, 

Dixit, et hospitibus janua nostra patet. 
Addidit et vultum verbis, iterumque, rogavit. 

Parent promissis, dissimulantque deos. 
Tecta senis subeunt nigro deformia fiimo ; 505 

Ignis în besterno stipite parvus erat. 
Ipse genu nixus flammas exsuscitat aura, 

Et promit quassas comminuitque faces. 
Stant calices : minor inde fabas, olus alter habebat, 

Et spumant testu pressus utercjue suo. 5 10 

Dumque mora est, tremula dat vina rubentia dextra. 

Accipit aequoreus pocula prima deus. 
Quae simul exbausit, Da, nune bibat ordine, dixit, . 

Juppiter. Audito palluit iile Jove. 
Ut rediit animus, cultorem pauperis agri 515 

Immolat et magno torret in igne bovem ; 
Quaeque puer quondam primis difiuderat annis. 

Promit fumoso condita vina cado. 
Nec mora, flumineam lino celantibus ulvam. 

Sic quoque non altis, incubucre toris. 520 

Nune dape, nune posito mensae nîtuere Lyaeo. 

Terra rubens crater, pocula fâşus erant. 
Verba fiiere Jovis : Si quid fert impetus, ora : 

Omne feres. Placidi verba fiiere senis : 
Cară fuit conjunx, prima mihi cura juventa 525 

Cognita. Nune ubi sit, quaeritis ? urna tegit. 
Huic ego juratus, vobis in verba vocatis, 

Conjugio dixi sola fniere meo. 
Et dixi, et servo, sed enim diversa voluntas 

Est mihi : nec conjunx, sed pater esse volo. 530 

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104i FASTORUM 

Annuerant omnes ; oranes ad terga juvenci 

Constiterant : pudor est ulteriora loquî. 
Tura superinjecta texere madentia terra. 

Jamque decern menses, et puer ortus erat. 
Hune Hyrieus, quia sic genitus, vocat Uriona : 535 

Perdidit antiquum littera prima sonum. 
Creverat immensum ; comitem sibi Delia sumpsit ; 

Iile deae custos, iile satelles erat. • 

Verba movent iras nan circumspecta deorum. 

Quara nequeam, dixit, vincere, nuUa fera est. 540 

Scorpion immisit Tellus. Fuit impetus illi 

Curva gemelliparae spicula ferre deae. 
Obstitit Orion. Latona nitentibus astris 

Addidit, et, Meriţi praemia, dixit, babe. 

IV. ID. 12th. 

Sed quid et Orion et caetera sidera mundo 545 

Cedere festinant, noxque coarctat iter ? 
Quid solito citius liquido jubar aequore toUit 

Candida, lucifero praeveniente, dies ? 
Fallor, an arma sonant ? Non fallimur arma sonabant ; 

Marş venit, et veniens bellica signa dedit. 550 

Ultor ad ipse suos caelo descendit honores, 

Templaque in Augusto conspicienda Foro. 
Et deus est ingens, et opus. Debebat in urbe 

Non aliter nati Marş habitare sui. 
Digna Giganteis haec sunt delubra tropaeis : 555 

Hinc fera Gradivum bella movere decet ; 
Seu quis ab Eoo nos impius orbe lacesset, 

Seu (j^uis ab occiduo sole domandus erit. 
Perspicit armipotens operis fastigia summi, 

Et probat invictos summa tenere deos. 560 

Perspicit in foribus diversae tela figurae, 

Armaque terrarum milite victa suo. 
Hinc videt Aenean oneratum pondere caro, 

Et tot luleae nobilitatis avos. 
Hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma ferentem, 565 

Claraque dispositis acta subesse viris. 
Spectat et Augusto praetextum nomine templum ; 

Et visum, lecto Caesare, majus opus. 



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IIBEB V. 105 

Voverat hoc juvenis tune, cum pia sustullt arma, 

A tantis Princeps incipiendus erat. 570 

Ule manus tendens, hinc stanti milite justo, 

Hinc conjuratis, talia dicta dedit : 
Si mihi bellandi pater est Vestaeque sacerdos 

Auctor, et ulcisci numen utrumque paro, 
Marş, ades, et satia scelerate sanguine ferrum ; 575 

Stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus. 
Templa feres, et me victore vocaberîs Ultor. 

Voverat, et fiiso laetus ab hoste redit. 
Nec satis est meruisse semel cognomina Marti ; 

Persequitur Partbi signa retenta mânu. 580 

Grens fiiit et campis et equis et tuta sagittis, 

Et circumfusis invia fluminibus. 
Addiderant animos Crassorum funera şenti, 

Cum periit miles signaque duxque simul. 
Signa, decus belii, Parthus Romana tenebat, 585 

Romanaeque a(]^uilae signifer hostis erat. 
Isque pudor mansisset adbuc, nisi fortibus armis 

Caesaris Ausoniae protegerentur opes. 
Ule notas veteres, et longi dedecus aevi 

Sustulit : agnorunt signa recepta suos. 590 

Quid tibi nune solitae mitti post terga sagittae, 

Quid loca, quid rapidi proftiit usus equi ? 
Parthe, refers aquilas : victos quoque porrigis arcuş. 

Pîgnora jam noştri nuUa pudoris liabes. 
Rite deo teipaplumque datum nomenque bis ulto, 595 

Et meritus voti debita solvit honor. 
SoUemnes ludos Cireo celebrate, Quirites : 

Non visa est fortem scena decere deum. 
iiL ID. 13th. 

Pleiadas aspicies omnes, totumque sororum 

Agmen, ubi ante Idus nox erit una super. 600 

Tum mihi non dubiis auctoribus incipit aestas, 

Et tepidi finem tempera veris habent. 

PR. ID. 1 4th. 

Idibus ora prior stellantia toUere Taurum 

Indicat : buie signo fabula nota subest. 
Praebuit, ut taurus, Tyriae sua terga puellae 605 

Juppiter, et falsa comua fronte tulit ; * 
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106 F^STORUM 

lila jubam dexlra, laeva retinebat amictus ; 

Et timor ipse novi eausa decoris erat. 
Aura sinus implet ; flavos movet aura capillos : 

Sidoni, sic fueras aspicienda JovL 6io 

Saepe puellares subduxit ab aequore plantas, 

Et metuit tactus assilientis aquae ; 
Saepe deus prudens teigum demittit in undas, • 

Haerjeat ut collo fortius illa suo. 
Litoribus tactis stabat sine comibus ullis 6)5 

Juppiter, inque deum de bove versus erat. 
Taurus init caelum : te, Sidoni, Juppiter implet, 

Parsque tuum terrae tertia nomen habet. 
Hoc alii signiim Phariam dixere juvencam, 

Quae bos ez bomine est, ex bove facta dea. 620 



Tum quoque priscorum virgo simulacra virorum 

Mittere roboreo scirpea ponte solet. 
Corpora post decies senos qui credidit annos 

Missa neci, seeleris crimine damnat avos. 
Fama vetus, tune cum Satumia terra vocata est, 625 

Talia fatidici dicta fiiere senis : 
Falcifero libata seni duo corpora, gentes, 

Mittite, quae Tuscis excipiantur aquis : 
Donec in haec venit Tirynthius arva, quotannis 

Tristia Leucadio sacra peracta modo : . 630 

lUum stramineos in aquam misisse Quirites ; 

Herculis exemple corpora falsa jaci. 
Pars putat, ut ferrent juvenes suffragia soli, 

Pontibus infirmos praecipitasse senes. 
Tibri, doce venim : tua ripa vetustior urbe ; 635 

Principium ritus tu bene nosse potes. 
Tibris arundiferum medio caput extulit alveo, 

B/aucaque dimovit talibus ora sonis : 
Haec loca desertas vidi sine moenibus berbas : 

Pascebat sparsos utraque ripa boves. 640 

Et quem nune gentes Tiberin norimtque timentque, 

Tune etiam pecori despiciendus eram. 
Arcadis Evandri nomen tibi saepe refertur : 

Ule meas rfemis advena torsit aquas. 



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XIBEB V. . 107 

Venit et Alcides, turba comitatus Achiva. 645 

Albula, si memini, tune mihi nomen erat. 
Excipit hospitio juvenem Pallantius lieros : 

Et tandem Caco debita poena venit. 
Victor abit, secumque boves, Erjtbeida praedam, 

Abstrahit. At comites longius ire negant : 650 

Magnaque pars horum desertis venerat Argis. 

Montibus his ponunt spemque Laremque suum ; 
Saepe tamen patriae dulci tanguntur amore, 

Atque aliquis moriens boc breve mandat opus : 
Mittite me Tiberi, Tiberinis vectus ut undis 655 

Litus a Inacbium pulvis inanis eam. 
Displicet heredi mandati cura sepulcri : 

Mortuus Ausonia conditur bospes bumo ; 
Scirpea pro domino Tiberi jactatur imago, 

Ut repetat Graias per freta.longa domos. 66o 

Hactenus, et vivo subiit rorantia saxo 

Antra : leves cursum sustinuistis aquae. 

ID. 15th. 

Clare nepos Atlantis, ades f quem montibus olim 

Edidit Arcadiis Pleias una Jovi. 
Pacis et armorum superis imisque deorum 665 

Arbiter, alato qui pede carpis iter ; 
Lacte lyrae pulsu, nitida quoque laete palaestra, 

Quo didicit culte lingua favente loqui. 
Templa tibi posuere patres spectantia Circum 

Idibus. Ex illo est haec tibi festa dies. 670 

Te, quicumque suaft profitentur vendere merces, 

Tnure dato, tribuas ut sibi lucra rogant. 
Est aqua Mercurii portae vicina Capenae : 

Si juvat expertis credere, numen babet. 
Huc venit incinctus tunicam mercator, et urna 675 

Purus suffita, quam ferat, baurit aquam. 
Ud^ fit bine laurus ; lauro sparguntur ab uda 

Omnia, quae dominos sunt habitura novos. 
Spargit et ipse suos lauro rorante capillos, 

Et peragit solită fallere voce preces. 68O 

Ablue praeteriti perjuria temporis, inquit, 

Ablue praeterita perfida verba die. 
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108 "fastorum 

Sive ego te feci testem, falsove citavi 

Non audîturi numina magna Jovis ; 
Sive deum prudens alium divamve fefelli, 685 

Abstulerint celeres improba verba Noti. 
Et pateant veniente die perjuria nobis, 

Nec curent superi, si qua locutus ero. 
Da modo lucra mihi, da facto gaudia lucro, 

Et 4ace, ut emptori verba d^isse juvet. 690 

Talia Mercurius poscentes ridet ab alto, 

Se memor Ortygias surripuisse boves. 

XIII. KAL. 20th. 

At mihi pânde, precor, tanto meliora petenti, 

In Greminos ex quo tempore Phoebus eat. 
Cum totidem de mense dies superesse videbis, 695 

Quot sunt Herculei facta laboris, ait. 
Dic, ego respondi, causam mihi sideris hujus. 

Causam facundo reddidit ore deus. 
Abstulerant raptas Phoeben Phoebesque sororem 

Tyndaridae fratres, hic eques, iile pugiK 700 

Bella parant, repetuntque suâs et frater et Idas, 

Leucîppo fien pactus uterque gener. 
His amor, ut repetant, illis, ui reddere nolint, ' 

Suadet, et ex causa pugnat uterque pari. 
Effugere Oebalidae cursu potuere sequentes ; 705 

Sed visum celeri vincere turpe fuga. 
Liber ab arboribus Ibcus est, apta area pugnae. 

Constiterant illic : nomen Aphidna loco. 
Pectora trajectus Lynceo Castor ab ehse 

Non exspectato vulnere pressit humum. 710 

Ultor adest PoUux, et Lyncea perforat hasta, 

Qua cervix humeros continuata premit. 
Ibat in hune Idas, vixque est Jovis igne repulsus ; 

Tela tamen dextrae fulmîne rapta negant. 
Jamque tibi caelum, PoUux, sublime patebat, 715 

Cum, Mea, dixisti, percipe verba. Pater. 
Quod mihi das uni caelum, partire duobus ; 

Dimidiura toto munere majus erit. 
Dixit, et alterna fratrem statione redemit : 

Utile soUicitae sidus uterque rati, 720 



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LIBBR VI. 109 

XII. KAL. 21ST. 

Ad Janum redeat, qui quaerit, Agonia quid sint ; 
Quae tamen in fastis hoc quoque tempus habent. 
XL KAL. 22nd. 

Nocte sequente diem caniş Erigoneîus exit ; 
Est alio signi reddita causa loco. 

X. KAL. 23rd. 

Proxima Vulcani lux est, Tubilustria dicunt ; 725 

Lustrantur purae, quas facit iile tubae. 

IX. KAL. 24th. 

Quattuor inde notis locus est quibus ordine lectis 
Vel mos sacrorum, vel Fuga Regis inest. 
vm. KAL. 25th. 

Nec te praetereo, populi Fortuna potentis 

Publica, cui templum luce sequente datum. 730 

Hanc ubi dives aquis acceperit Ampbitrite, 
Grata Jovi ftdvae rostra videbis avis. 

VIL KAL. 26th. 

Auferat ex oculis venîens Aurora Booten, 
Continuaque die sidus Hyantis erît. 



LIBER Vi. 



Hic quoque mensis habet dubias in nomine causas : 

Quae placeant, positis omnibus, i^se leges. 
Facta canam, sed enint qui me finxisse loquantur, 

Nullaque mortali numina visa putent. 
Est deus in.nobis, agitante calescimus illo ; 5 

Impetus bic sacrae semina mentis habet. 
Fas mihi praecipue vultus vidisse deorum ; 

Vel quia sum vates ; vel quia sacra cano. 
Est nemus arbdribus densum, secretus ab omni 

Voce locus, si non obstreperetur aquis. 10 

Hic ego quaerebam, coepti quae mensis origo 

Esset, et in cura nominis nujus eram. 
Ecce deas vidi : non quas praeceptor arandi 

Viderat, Ascraeas cum sQqueretur oves ; 



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110 FASTORUM 

Nec quas Prîamîdes in aquosae vallibus Idae 16 

Contulit ; ex illis aed tamen una fuit. 
Ex illis fuit una, sui gennana mariti : 

Haec erat, agnovi, quae stat in arce Joyis. 
Horrueram tacitoque animum pallore fatebar, 

Cum dea, quos lecit, sustulit ipsa metus : 20 

Namque, ait, O vates, Romani conditor anni, 

Ause per exiguos magna referre modos, 
Jus tibi fecisti numen caeleste videndi, 

Cum placuit numeris condere festa tuis. 
Ne tamen ignores, vulgique errore traharis, 25 

Junius a nostro nomine nomen habet. 
Est aliquid nupsisse Jovi, Jovis esse sororem. 

Fratre magis, dubito, glorier anne viro. 
Si genus aspicitur, Satumum prima parentem 

Feci ; Satumi sors ego prima fui. 30 

A patre dicta meo quondam Satumia Roma est ; 

Haec illi a caelo proxima terra fuit. 
Si torus in pretio est, dicor matrona Tonantis, 

Junctaque Tarpeio sunt mea templa Jovi. 
An potuit Maio pellex dare nomina mensi, 35 

Hic honor in nobîs invidiosus erit ? 
Cur igitur regina vocor, princepsque dearum ? 

Aurea cur dextrae sceptra dedere meae ? 
An facient mensem luces, Lucinaque ab illis 

Dicar, et a nullo nomina mense traham ? 40 

Tum me poeniteat posuisse fideliter iras 

In genus Electrae Dardaniamque domum. 
Causa duplex irae : rapto Ganymede dolebam. 

Forma quoque Idaeo judice victa mea est. 
Poeniteat, quod non foveo Carthaginis arces, 45 

Cum mea sint illo currus et arma loco. 
Poeniteat Sparten Argosque measque Mycenas 

Et veterem Latio supposuisse Samon. 
Adde senem Tatium Junonicolasque Faliscos, 

Quos ego Romanis succubuisse tuli. 50 

Sed neque poeniteat, nec gens mihi carior ulla est ; 

Hic colar, hic teneam cum Jove templa meo. 
Ipse mihi Mavors, Commendo moenia, dixit, 

Haec tibi ; tu poUens urbe nepotis eris. 



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LIBER VI. 111 

Picta fides sequitur : centum celebramur in aris> 55 . 

'Nec levior quovis est mihi mensis honor. 
Nec tamen hune nobis tantummodo praestat honorem 

Roma: suburbani dant mihi munus idem. 
înspice quos habeat nemoralis Aricia fastos 

Et populus Laurens Lanuviumque meum ; 60 

Est illic mensis Junonius. înspice Tibur 

£t Praenestinae moenia sacra deae ; 
Junonale leges tempus. Nec Bomulus illas 

Condidit ; at noştri Roma nepotis enit. — 
Finierat Juno : respeximus ; Herculis uxor 65 

Stabat et in voltu signa dolentis erant. 
Non ego, si toto mater me cedere caelo 

Jusserit, invita matre morabor, ait. 
Nune quoque non luctor de nomine temporis hujus : 

Blandior, et partes paene rogantis ago.; 70 

Remque mei juris malim tenuisse precando ; 

Et faveas causae forsitan ipse meae. 
Aurea possedit posito Capitolia templo 

Mater et, ut debet, cum Jove summa tenet ; 
At decus omne mihi contingit origine mensis : 75 

Unicus est, de quo sollicitamur, honor. 
Quid grave si titulum mensis, Romane, dedisti 

Herculis uxori, posteritasque memor ? 
Haec quoque terra aliquid debet mihi nomine magni 

Conjugis. Huc captas appulit iile boves : 80 

Hic male defensus flammis et dote paterna 

Cacus Aventinam sanguine tinxit humum. 
Ad propiora vocor. Populum digessit ab annis 

Romulus in partes distribuitque duas. 
Haec dare consilium, pugnare paratior illa est ; 85 

Haec aetas bellum suadet, at iUa gerit. 
Sic statuit mensesque nota secrevit eadem. 

Junius est juvenum ; qui fuit ante, senum. — 
Dixit, et in litem studio certaminis issent, 

Atque ira pietas dissimulata foret ; 90 

Venit Apollinea longas Concordia lauro 

Nexa comas, placidi numen opusque ducis. 
Haec ubi narravit Tatium fortemque Quirinum, 

Binaque cum populis regna coisse suiş, 



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112 FA£TORUM 

£t Lare communi soceros gcnerosque receptos ; 9^ 

His nomen junctis Junius, inquit, habet. 

Dicta triplex causa est : at vos ignoscitc, divae ; 
Res est arbitrio non dirimenda meo. 

Ite pares a me. Perienmt judice formae 

Pergama: plus laedunt, quam juvet una, duae. loo 

KAL. Ist. 

Prima dies tibi, Cama, datur. Dea cardinis haec est ; 

Numine clausa aperit elaudit aperta suo. 
Unde datas habeat vires obscurior aevo 

Fama ; sed e nostro carmine certus eris. 
Adjacet antiqui Tiberino lucus' Helemi : io5 

Pontifices illuc nune quoque sacra ferunt. 
înde sata est nymphe, Cranaen dixere priores, 

Nequidquam multis saepe petita procis. 
Rura sequi jaculisque feras agitare solebat, 

Nodosasque cava tendere valle plagas. i io 

Non babuit pharetram, Phoebi tamen esse sororem 

Credebant ; nec erat, Phoebe, pudenda tibi. 
Huic aliquis juvenum dixisset amantia verba, 

Reddebat tales protinus illa sonos : 
Haec loca lucis babent nimis et cum luce pudoris ; 1 15 

Si secreta magis ducis in antra sequor. 
Credulus ante ivit ; frutices haec nacta resistit, 

Et latet et nullo est invenienda modo. 
Viderat banc Janus, visaeque cupidine captus 

Ad duram verbis moUibua usus erat : 120 

Nympba jubet quaeri de more remotius antrum ; 

Utque comes sequitur destituitque ducem. 
Stulta ! videt Janus, quae post sua terga gerantur ; 
• Nil agis, et latebras respicit iile tuas. 
Nil agis, en ! dixi. Nam te sub rupe latentem 125 

Occupat amplexu, speque potitus ait : 
Jus pro concubitu nostro tibi cardinis esto ; 

Hoc pretium positae virginitatis babe. 
Sic fatus, spinam, qua tristes pellere posset 

A foribus noxas, haec erat alba, deait. — 130 

Sunt avidae volucres : non quae Phîneîa mensis 

Guttura fraudabant, sed genus inde ţrahunt. 



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LIBER YI. 113 

Grande caput, stantes oculi, rostra apta rapinae, 

Canities pennis, iinguibus hamus inest. 
Nocte volant, puerosque petunt nutricis egentes 135 

Et vitiaDt cunis corpora rapta suiş. 
Carpere diciintur lactentia viscera rostris, 

Et plenum poto sanguine guttur habent. 
Est illis strigibus nomen : sed nominis hujus 

Causa, quod borrenda stridere nocte solent. uo 

Sive igitur nascuntur aves, seu cannine fiunt 

Naeniaque in volucres falsa figurat anus. 
In thalamos venere Procae. Proca natus in illis 

Praeda recens avium quinque diebus erat ; 
Pectoraque exsorbent avidis mfantia linguis, * 145 

Et puer infelix vagit opemque petit. 
Territa voce sui nutrix accurrit alumni, 

Et rigido sectas invenit ungue genas. 
Quid faceret ? color oris erat qui frondibus olim 

Esse solet sens, quas nova laesit hiems. 150 

Pervenit ad Cranaen, et rem docet. lUa, Timorem 

Pone ! tuus sospes, dixit, alumnus erit. 
Venerat ad cunas ; flebant materque paterque ; 

Sistite vos lacrimas ! ipsa medebor, ait. 
Protinus arbutea postes ter in ordine tangit 155 

Fronde ; ter arbutea limina fronde notat. 
Spargit aquis aditus et aquae medicamen babebant ; 

Extaque de porca cruda bimenstre tenet. 
Atque ita, Noctis aves, extis puerilibus, inquit, 

Parcite ! pro parvo victima parva cădit. i6o 

Cor pro corde, precor, pro fibris sumite fibras. 

Hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus. 
Sic ubi libavit, prosecta sub aethere ponit, 

Quique adsunt sacris respicere illa vetat. 
Virgaque Janalis de spina ponitur alba i63 

Qua lumen thalamis parva fenestra dabat. 
Post illud nec aves cuhas violasse feruntur 

Et rediit puero, qui ftiit ante, color. 



Pinguia cur illis gustentur larda Kalendis, 

jBxtaque cum calido sit faba farre, rogas. 170 



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114 FASTOK.UM 

Prisca dea est, aliturque cibis quibus ante solebat, 

Nec petit ascitas luxuriosa dapes. 
Piscis adhuc illi populo sine fraude natabat, 

Ostreaque in conchis tuta fuere suîs ; 
Nec Latium norat quam praebet lonia dives 175 

Nec, quae Pjgmaeo sanguine gaudet, avem ; 
Et praeter pennas nihil in pavone placebat ; 

Nec tellus captas miserat ante feras. 
Sus erat in pretio ; caesa sue festa colebant : 

Terra fabas tantum duraque farra dabat. iso 

Quae duo mixta simul sextis quicumque Ealendis 

Ederit, buic laedi viscera posse negant. 

Arce quoque in summa Junoni templa Monetae 

Ex voto memorant facta, Camille, tuo. 
Ante domus Manii fuerat, qui Gallica quondam 185 

A Capitolino reppulit arma Jove. 
Quam bene, di magni ! pugna cecidisset in illa 

Defensor solii, Juppiter alte tui ! 
Vixit, ut occideret damnatus crimine regni : 

Hune illi titulum longa senecta dabat. 190 

Lux eadem Marti festa est ; quem prospicit extra 
Appositum Tectae porta Capena viae. 

Te quoque, Tempestas, meritam delubra fatemur ; 

Cum paene est Corsis obruta classis aquis. 
Haec monimenta patent hominum : si quaerimus astra, 

Tune oritur magni praepes adunca Jovis. 196 

IV. NON. 2nd. 

Postera lux Hjades, taurinae comua frontis, 

Evocat ; et multiet terra madescit aqua. 

III. NON. 3bd. 

Mane ubi bis fuerit, Phoebusque iteraverit ortus, 

Factaque erit posito rore bis uda şeges, 200 

Hac sacrata die Tusco Bellona duello 

Dicitur, et Latio prospera semper adest. 
Appius est auctor, Pyrrlio qui pace negata 

Multum animo vidit ; lumine captus erai 



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LIBER VI. 115 

Prospicit a tergo summum brevis area Circum. 205 

Est ibi non parvae parva columna notae. 
Hinc solet liasta mânu, belii praenuntia, rilitti, 

In regem et gentes cum placet arma capi. 
PR. NON. 4th. 

Altera pars Circi Custode sub Hercule tuta est ; 

Quod deus Euboico carmine munus habet. 210 

Muneris est tempus, qui Nonas Lucifer ante est. 

Si titulos quaeris, SuUa probavit opus. 

NON. 5th. 

Quaerebam, Nonas Sanco Fidione referrem, 

An tibi, Semo pater : tum mihi Sancus ait : 
Cuicumque ex illis dederis, ego munus habebo : 215 

Nomina trina fero ; sic voluere Cures. 
Hune igitur veteres donarunt aede Sabini ; 

Inque Quirinali constituere jugo. 

Est mihi sitque, precor, nostris diutumior annis, 

Filia, qua felix sospite semper ero. 220 

Hanc ego cum vellem genero dare, tempera taedis 

Apta requirebam quaeque cavenda forent. 
Tum mihi post sacras monstratur Junius Idus 

Utilis et nuptis, utilis esse viris ; 
Primaque pars hujus thalamis aliena reporta est, 225 

Nam mihi sic conjunx sancta Dialis ait : 
Donec ab Iliaca placidus purgamina Vesta 

Detulerit flavis in mare Tibris aquis, 
Non mihi detonsae crines depectere buxo, 

Non ungues ferro subsecuisse licet, 230 

Non tetigisse virum, quamvis Jovis iile sacerdos, 

Quamvis perpetua sit mihi lege datus. 
Tu quoque ne propera : melius tua filia nubet 

Ignea cum pura Vesta nitebit humo. 

VI. iD. • 6th. 

Tertia post Nonas removere Lycaona Phoebe 235 

Fertur, et a tergo non habet Ursa metum. 
Tune ego me memini ludos in gramine Campi 

Aspicere et dici, lubrice Tibri, tuos. 
Festa dies illis, qui lina madentia ducunt, 

Quique tegunt parvis aera recurva cibis. — 240 



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1 1 6 PASTORUM 

Mens quoque numen habet. Menti delubra videmus 

Vota metu belii, perfide Poene, tui. 
Poene, rebellabas, et leto consulis omnes 

Attoniti Mauras pertimuere manus. 
•Spem metuB expulerat, cum Menti vota Senatus 245 

Suscij)it ; et melior protinus illa venit 
Aspicit instantes mediis sex lucibus Idus 

lila dies, qua sunt vota soluta deae. 

V. ID. 9th. 

Vesta, fave ! tibi nune operata resolvimus ora, 

Ad tua si nobis sacra venire licet. 250 

In prece totus eram ; caelestia numina sensi, 

Laeta(]^ue purpurea luce refulsit humus. 
Non equidem vidi — valeant mendacia vatum — 

Te dea ; nec fueras aspicienda viro. 
Sed quae nescieram, quorum^ue errore tenebar, 255 

Cognita sunt hullo praecipiente mihL 
Dena quater memorant habuisse Palilia Romam, 

Cum fiammae custos aede recepta dea est. 
Regis opus placidi, quo non metuentius uUum 

Nummis ingenium terra Sabina tulit. 260 

Quae nune aere vides, stipula tune tecta videres, 

Et paries lento vimine textus erat. 
Hic locus exiguus, qui sustinet Atria Vestae, 

Tune erat intonsi regia magna Numae. 
Forma tamen templi, quae- nune manet, ante fiiisse 265 

Dicitur ; et formae causa probanda subest. 
Vesta eadem est, et Terra : subest vigil ignis utrique, 

Significant sedem terra focusque suam. 
Terra pilae similis, nullo ftdcîmine nixa, 

Aere subjecto tam grave pendet onus. 270 

[Ipsa volubilitas libratum sustinet orbem : 

Quique premat partes, angulus omnis abest. 
Cumque sit in media rerum regione locata, 

Et tangat nuUum plusve minusve latus ; 
Ni convexa foret, parti vicinior esset, 275 

Nec medium terram mundus haberet onus.] 
Arce Syracosia suspensus in aere clauso 

Stat globus, immensi parva figura poli ; 



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LIBEH VI. 117 

£t quantuin a summis, tantum secessit ab imis * 

Terra. Quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit. 280 

Par facies templi ; nullus procurrit in illo 

Angulus ; a pluvio vindicat imbre tholus. — 
Cur sit virgineis, quaeris, dea culta ministris. 

Inveniam causas hac quoque parte suas. 
Ex Ope Junonem memorant Cereremque creatas 285 

Semine Satumi : tertia Vesta fuit. 
Utraque nupserunt ; ambae peperisse feruntur : 

De tribus impatiens restitit una viri. 
Quid minim, virgo si virgine laeta ministra 

Admittet castas in sua sacra manus ? 290 

Nec tu aliud Vestam, quam vivam intellige flammam ; 

Nataque de flamma corpora nuUa vides. 
Jure igitur virgo est, quae semina nulla remittit, 

Nec capit : et comites virginitatis habet. 
Esse diu stultus Vestae simulacra putavi : 295 

Mox didici curvo nulla subesse tnolo. 
Ignis inexstinctus templo celatur in illo; 

Effigiem nullam Vesta nec ignis habent. 
Stat VI terra sua ; vi stando Vesta vocatur ; 

Cauaaque par Graiî nominis esse potest. 300 

At focus a flammis et quod fovet omnia dictus ; 

Qui tamen in prirais aedibus ante fuit. 
Hinc quoque vestibulum dici reor ; unde precamur 

Et famur : Vesta est quae loca prima tenet. 
Ante focos olim longis considere scamnis 305 

Mos erat, et mensae credere adesse deos. 
Nune quoque, cum fiunt antiquae sacra Vacunae, 

Ante Vacunales stantque sedentque focos.— 
Venit in hbs annos aliquo de more vetustas ; 

Fert missos Vestae pura patella cibos. 310 

Ecce, coronatis panis depehdet asellis 

Bt velant scabras âorea serta molas. 
Sola prius fumis torrebant farra coloni ; 

Et Fomacali sunt sua sacra deae. 
Suppositum cineri panem focus ipse parabat, 3I5 

otrataque erat tepido tegula quassa solo. 
înde focum servat pistor dominamque focorum 

Et quae pumiceas versat asella molas. — 



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118 FASTORUM 

Praeteream referamne tuum, rubîcunde Priape, 

Dedecus ? est mulţi fabula parva joci. 320 

Turrigera frontem Cybele redimita corona 

Convocat aetemos ad sua festa deos. 
Convocat et satyros, et, rustica numina, nymphas. 

Silenus, quamvis nemo vocarat, adest. 
Nec licet, et longum est, epulas narrare deorum : 325 

In multo nox est pervigilata mero. 
Hi temere errabant in opacae vallibus Idae, 

Pars jacet et molii gramine membra levat, 
Hi ludunt, hos somnus habet, pars brachia nectit 

Et vindem celeri ter pede pulsat humum. 330 

Vesta jacet placidamque capit secura quietem, 

Sicut erat positum cespite fulta caput. 
At ruber hortorum custos nymphasque deasque 

Captat et errantes fertque refertque pedes, 
Aspicit et Vestam ; dubium, nymphamne putarit, 335 

An scierit Vestam ; scisse sed ipse negat. 
Spem capit obscaenam furtimque accedere tentat, 

Et fert suspensos, corde micante, gradus. 
Forte senex, quo vectus erat, Silenus asellum 

Liquerat ad ripas lene sonantis aquae. 340 

Ibat, ut inciperet, longi deus Hellesponti, 

Intempestive cum rudit iile sono. 
Territa voce gravi surgit dea ; convolat omnis 

Turba ; per infestas efFiigit iile manus. 
Lampsacos boc animal solită est mactare Priapo : 345 

Apta asini flammis indicis exta damus. 
Quem tu, diva memor, de pane monilibus ornas : 

Cessat opus, vacuae conticuere molae. 



Nomine quam pretio celebratior arce Tonantis 

Dicam Pistoris quid velit ara Jovis. ' 350 

Cincta premebantur trucibus Capitolia Gallis ; 

Fecerat obsidio jam diutuma famem. 
Juppiter, ad solium Superis regale vocatis, 

Incipe, ait MartL Protinus iile refert : 
Scilicet, ignotum est, quae sit fortuna malorum ; 355 

Et dolor hic animi voce querentis eget ? 



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LIBBB VI. 119 

Si tamen, ut referam breviter mala juncta pudori, 

Exigis : Alpino Roma sub hoste jacet. 
Haec est, cui fîierat promissa potentia rerum, 

Juppiter ? hanc terris impositurus eras ? 360 

Jamque suburbanos Etruscaque contudit arma ; 

Spes erat in cursu ; nune Lare pulsa suo est. 
Yidimus omatos aerată per atria picta 

Veste triumphales occubuisse senes ; 
Vidimus Iliacae transferri pignora Vestae 365 

Sede. Putant aliquos scilicet esse deos. 
At si respicerent, qua vos habitatis in arce, 

Totque domos vestras obsidione premi : 
Nil opis in cura scirent superesse deorum, 

£t data soUicita tbura perire mânu. 370 

Atque utinam pugnae pateat locus ! arma capessant ; 

Et, si nou' poterunt exsuperare, cadant. 
Nune inopes victus, ignavaque fata timentes. 

Monte suo clausos barbara turba premit. 
Tum Venus et lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus 375 

Vestaque pro Latio multa locuta suo. 
Publica, respondit, cura est pro moenibus istis, 

Juppiter, et poenas Gallia vîcta dabit. 
Tu modo, quae desunt fruges, superesse putentur, 

Effice nec sedes desere. Vesta, tuas. 380 

Quodcumque est solidae Cereris cava machina frangat, 

MoUitamque mânu duret in igne focus. 
Jusserat : et fratris virgo Satumia jussis 

Annuit, et mediae tempera noctis erant. 
Jam ducibus somnum dederat labor: increpat illos 385 

Juppiter et sacro, quid velit, ore docet : 
Surgite, et in medios de summis arcibus hostes 

Mittite, ^uam minime tradere vultis, opem. 
Somnus abitj quaeruntque novis ambagibus acti, 

Tradere quam nolint et jubeantur, opem. 390 

Esse Ceres visa est. Jaciunt Cerealia dona : 

Jacta super galeas scutaque longa sonant. 
Posse fame vinci spes excidit : hoste repulso 

Candida Pistori ponitur ara JovL 

Forte revertebar festis Vestalibus illac, 395 

Qua Nova Romano nune via juncta Foro est. 



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120 FASTORUM 

Huc pede matronam vidi descendere nudo : 

Obstupui tacitus sustinuique gradum. 
Sensit anus vicina loci jussumque şedere 

AUoquitur, quatiens voce tremente caput. 400 

Hoc, ubi nune fora sunt, udae tenuere paludes ; 

Amne redundatis fossa madebat aquis. 
Curtius iile lacus, siecas qui sustinet aras, 

Nune solida est tellus, sed lacus ante fuit. 
Qua Velabra solent in Circum ducere pompas, 405 

Nil praeter salices cassaquc canna fuit. 
Saepe suburbanas rediens conviva per undas 

Cântat et ad nautas ebria verba jacit. 
Nondum conveniens diversis iste figuris 

Nomen ab averse ceperat amne deus. 410 

Hic quoque lucus erat juncis et arundine densus, 

Et pede velato non adeunda palus. 
Stagna recesserunt et aquas sua ripa coercet, 

Siccaque nune tellus ; mos tamen iile manet. 
Reddiderat causam ; Yaleas, anus optima ! dixi, 415 

Quod superest aevi, molie sit omne, tui ! 



Cetera jam pridem didici puerilibus annîs ; 

Non tamen idcirco praetereunda mihi. 
Moenia Dardanides nuper nova fecerat Hus : 

Ilus adhuc Asiae dives habebat opes. 420 

Creditur armiferae signum caeleste Minervae 

Urbis in Iliacae desiluisse juga. — 
Cura videre fuit : vidi templumque locumque. 

Hoc superest illic : Fallada Roma tenet. — 
Consulitur Smintheus, lucoque obscurus opaco 425 

Hos non mentito reddidit ore sonos : 
Aetheriam servate deam, servabitis urbem ; 

Imperium secum transferet illa loci. 
Servat et inclusam summa tenet Ilus in arce, 

Curaque ad heredem Laomedonta venit. 430 

Sub Priamo servata parum. Sic ipsa volebas, 

Ex quo judicio forma revicta tua est. 
Seu genus Adrasti seu furtis aptus Ulixes 

Seu pius Aeneas eripuisse datur ; 



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LIBER VI. 121 

Auctor in incerto. Res est Romana, tuetur 435 

Vesta, quod assiduo lumine cupcta videt. 
Heu quantum tîmuere patres, quo tempore Vesta 

Arsit et est tectis obruta paene suiş ! 
Flagrabant sancti sceleratis ignibus ignes, 

Mixtaque erat flammae flamma profana piae. 440 

Attonitae flebant, demisso crine, ministrae : 

Abstulerat vîres corporis ipse timor. 
Provolat in medium, et magna, Succurriţe i voce, 

Non est officium fiere, Metellus ait. 
Pignora virgineis fatalia tollite palmis! 445 

Non ea sunt voto, sed rapienda mânu. 
Me miserum ! dubitatis ? ait. Dubitare videbat 

Et pavidas posito procubuisse genu ; 
Haurit aquas, toUensque manus, Ignoscite, dixit, 

Sacra l vir intrabo non adeundă, viro. 450 

Si scelus est, in me commissi poena redundet ; 

Sit capitis damno Roma soluta mei. 
Dixit et irrupit. Factum dea rapta probavit, 

Pontificisque sui munere tuta luit. 
Nune bene lucetis sacrae sub Caesare flammae : 455 

Ignis in Iliacis nune erit, estque, focis ; 
Nullaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacerdos 

Hoc duce, nec viva defodietur humo. 
Sic incesta perit : quia, quam violavit, in illam 

Conditur, et Tellus Vestaque numen idem est. 460 

Turn sibi Callaico Brutus cognomen ab hoste 
Fecit, et Hispanam sanguine tinxit humum. 

Scilicet, interdum miscentur tristia laetis, 

Nec populum toto pectore festa juvant. 
Crassus ad Euphraten aquilas natumque suosque 465 

Perdidit, et leto est ultimus ipse datus. 
Parthe, quid exsultas ? dixit dea. Signa remittes : 

Quique necem Crassi vendicet ultor erit. 

IV. ID. IOth. 

At simul auritis violae demuntur asellîs, 

Et Cereris firuges aspera saxa terunt, 470 



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122 FASTORUH 

Navita puppe sedens, Delphina videbimus, inquit, 
Humida cum pulso nox erit prta die. 

III. ID. ' llTH. 

Jam Phiyx a nupta quereris Tithone relinqui, 

Et vigil Eois Lucifer exit aquis. 
Ite bonae matres, vestrum Matralia festum 475 

Flavaque Thebanae reddite liba deae. 
Pontibus et magno juncta est celeberrima Circo 

Area, quae posito de bove nomen habet. 
Hac ibi luce ferunt Matutae sacra parenti 

Sceptriferas Servi templa dedisse manus. 480 

Quae dea sit, quare famulas a limine templi 

Arceat — ^arcet enim — libaque tosta petat ? 
Bacche, racemiferos hedera redimite capillos, 

Si domus illa tua est, .dirige vatis opus. 
Arserat obsequio Semde Jovis : accipit Ino 485 

Te, puer, et summa sedula nutrit ope. 
Intumuit Juno, rapta quod pellice natum 

Educet. At sanguis iile sororis erat. 
Hinc agitur furiis Athamas, et imagine falsa ; 

Tuque cadis patria, parve Learche, mânu. 490 

Maesta Learcheas mater tumulaverat umbras, 

Et dederat miseris omnia justa rogis : 
Haec quoque, funestos ut erat laniata capillos, 

Prosilit et cunis te, Melicerta, răpit. 
Est spatio contracta brevi, freta bina repellit, 495 

Unaque pulsatur terra duabus aquis. 
Huc venit msanis natum complexa lacertis, 

Et secum e celso mittit in alta jugo. 
Excipit illaesos Panope centumque sorores, 

Et placido lapsu per sua regna ferunt. 500 

Nondum Leucothea, nondum puer iile Palaemon, 

Verticibus densi'Tibridis ora tenent. 
Lucus erat : dubium Semelae Stimulaene vocetur ; 

Maenadas Ausonias incoluisse ferunt. 
Quaerit ab his Ino, quae gens foret ; Arcadas esse 505 

Audit et Evan(irum sceptra tenere loci. 
Dissimulata deam Latias Satumia Bacchas 

Instimulat fictis insidiosa sonis : 
O nimium faciles ! o toto pectore captae ! 

Non venit haec nostris nospes amica choris. 5 io 



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LIBER VI. 123 

Fraude petit, sacrique parat cognoscere ritum ; 

Quo possit poenas pendere, pîgnus habet. 
Vix bene desierat ; complent ululatibus auras 

Tliyades efiusis per sua coUa comis ; 
Injiciuntque manus, puerumque revellere pugnant. 515 

Quos ignorat adhuc, invocat illa deos : 
Dique, virique loci, miserae succurrite matrL 

(Jlamor Aventini saxa propinqua ferit. 
Appulerat ripae vaccas Oetaeus Iberas ; 

Audit et ad vpcem concitus urget iter. 520 

Hercnlis adventu, quae vim modo ferre parabant 

Turpia femineae terga dedere fiigae. 
Quid petis hinc, — cognorat enim — matertera Bacclii ? 

An numen, quod me, te quoque vexat, ait ? 
Illa docet partim, partim praesentia nati 525 

Continet, et Furiis in scelus isse pudet. 
Rumor, ut est velox, agitatis pervolat alis, 

Estque frequens, Ino, nomen in ore tuura. 
Hospita Carmentis fidos intrasse penates 

Diceris et longam deposuisse famem. 530 

liba sua properata mânu Tegeaea sacerdos 

Traditur in subito cocta dedisse foco. 
Nune quoque liba juvant festis Matralibus illam ; 

Rustica sedulitas gratior arte fuit. 
Nune, ait, o vates, venientia fata resigna, 535 

Qua licet ; hospitiis boc, precor, adde meis. 
Parva mora est : caelum vates ac numina sumit 

Fitque sui toto pectore plena dei. 
Vix illam subito posses cognoscere ; tanto 

Sanctior, et tanto, quam modo, major erat. . 540 
Laeta canam ; gaude, defuncta laboribus, Ino ! 

Dixit, et huic populo prospera semper ades ! 
Numen eris pelagi ; natum quoque pontus habebit. 

In nostris aliud sumite nomen aquis. 
Leucothea Graiis, Matuta vocabere nostris ; 545 

In portus nato jus erit omne tuo. 
Quem nos Portunum, sua lingua Palaemona dicet. 

Ite, precor, nostris aequus uterque locis ! 
Annuerat ; promissa fides ; posuere labores ; 

Nomina mutarunt ; hic deus, illa dea est. 550 

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124 FA.STORUM 

Cur vetet ancillas accedere, quaeritis ? Odit, 

Principiumque odii,- si sinat ipsa, canam. 
Una ministrarum solită est, Cadniei, tuarum 

Saepe sub amplexus conjugis ire tui. 
Improbus liane Athamas furtim dilexit : ab illa 555 

Comperit agricolis semina tosta dan. 
Ipsa quidein fecisse negat, sed fama recepit. 

Hoc est, cur odio sit tibi serva manus. 
NonT;amen banc pro stirpe sua pia mater adoret ; 

Ipsa parum felix visa fiiisse parens. 560 

Alterius prolem melius mandabitis illi ; 

Utilior Baccho quam fiiit ipsa suiş. 

Hanc tibi, Quo properas, memorant dixisse, Rutili ? 

Luce mea Marso Consul ab boste cades. 
Exitus accessit verbis ; flumenque Toleni 565 

Purpureum mixtis sanguine fluxit aquis. 
Proximus annus erat : Pallantide caesus eadem 

Didius hostiles ingeminavit opes. 

Lux eadem, Fortuna, tua est, auctorque locusque. 

Sed superinjectis quis latet iste togis ? 570 

Servius est : hoc constat enim ; sed causa latendi 

Discrepat et dubium me quoque mentis habet. 
Dum dea furtivos timide profitetur amores 

Caelestemque homini concubuisse pudet, — 
Arsit enim magna correpta cupidine regis, 575 

Caecaque in boc uno non fuit illa viro — 
Nocte domum parva solită est intrare fenestra : 

Unde Fenestellae nomina porta tenet. 
Nune pudet et voltus velamine celat amatos, 

Oraque sunt multa regia tacta toga. 580 

An magis est venim, post Tulii funera plebem 

Confusam placidi morte ftiisse ducis ? 
Nec modus ullus erat : crescebat imagine luctus, 

Donec eam positis occuluere togis. 
Tertia causa mihi spatio majore canenda est : 585 

Nos tamen adductos intus agemus equos. 
TuUia conjugio, sceleris mercede, peracto 

His solită est dictis exstimulare virum : 



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LIBEB VI. 125 

Quid juvat esse pares, te nostrae caede sororis, 

Meque tui fratris, si pia vita placet ? 690 

Vivere debuerant et vir meus, et tua conjuDx, 

Si nuUum ausuri majus eramus opus. 
Et caput et regiium facio dotale parentis. 

Si vir es, i, dictas exige dotis opes ! 
Regia res scelus est. Socero cape regna necato, 595 

Et nostras patrio sanguine tinse manus. 
Talibus instinctus solio privatus in alto 

Sederat : attonitum vidgus ad arma mit. 
Hinc cruor et caedes : inârmaque vincitur aetas. 

Sceptra gener socero rapta Superbus habet. 600 

Ipse sub Esquiliis, ubi erat sua regia, caesus 

Concidit in dura sanguinolentus humo. 
Filia carpento patrios initura Penates 

Ibat per mediaş alta feroxque vias. 
Corpus ut aspexit, lacrimis auriga profusis 605 

Restitit. Hune tali corripit illa sono : 
Vadis, an exspectas prfitium pietatis amarum ? 

Duc, inquam, invitas ipsa per ora rotaş ! 
Certa fides £acti, dictus Sceleratus ab illa 

Vicus, et aetema res ea pressa nota. ' 610 

Post tamen hoc ausa est templum, monimenta parentis, 

Tangere : mira quidem, sed tamen acta loquar. 
Signum erat in solio residens sub imagine Tulii : 

I)icitur hoc oculis opposuisse manum. 
Et vox audita est, Vultus abscondite nostros, 6:5 

Ne natae videant ora nefanda meae. 
Veste data tegitur ; vetat banc Fortuna moveri, 

Et sic e templo est ipsa locuta suo : 
Ore revelate qua primum luce patebit 

Servius baec positi prima pudoris erit. 620 

Parcite, matronae, vetitas attingere vestes ; 

SoUemnes satis est ore movere preces ; 
Sitque caput semper Romano tectus amictu, 

Qui rex in nostra septimus urbe fuit. — 
Arserat hoc templum, signo tamen iile pepercit 625 

Ignis : opem nato Muîciber ipse tulit. 
Namque pater Tulii Vulcanus, Ocresia mater 

Praesignis facie Comiculana fuit. 



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126 FASTORUM 

Hanc secum Tanaquil sacris de more peractis 

Jussit in omatum fundere vina focum. 630 

Hic inter cineres obscaeni forma virilis 

Aut fiiit, aut visa est : sed fuit illa magis. 
Jussa foco captiva sedet. Conceptus ab illa 

Servius a caelo semina gentis habet. 
Signa dedit genitor tune cum caput igne corusco 635 

Contigit, inque comis flammeus arsit apex. 

Te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat aede 

Livia, quam caro praestitit illa viro. 
Disce tamen, veniens aetas, ubi Livia nune est 

Porticus, immensae tecta fuisse domus. 640 

Urbis opus domus una fuit ; spatiumque tenebat, 

Quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent. 
Haec aequata solo est, nuUo sub crimine regni, 

Sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua. 
Sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles 645 

Totq[ue suas heres perdere Caesar opes. 
Sic agitur censura et sic exempla parantur ; 

Cum vindex, alios quod monet, ipse facit. 
ID. 13th. 

Nulla nota est veniente die, quam discere possim. 

Idibus invicto sunt data templa Jovi 650 

Et jam Quinquatrus jubeor narrare minores. 

Nune ades o coeptis, flava Minerva, meis. 
Cur vagus incedit tota tibicen in urbe ? 

Quid sibi personae, quid toga longa, volunt ? 
Sic ego. Sic posita Tritonia cuspide dixit : — 6S5 

Possem utinam doctae verba referre deae! — 
Temporibus veterum tibicinis usus avorum 

Magnus et in magno semper honore fuit. 
Cantabat fanis, cantabat tibia ludis, 

Cantabat maestis tibia funeribus. 660 

Dulcis erat mercede labor : tempusque secutum, 

Quod subite Graiae frangeret artis opus. ' 
Adde quod aedilis, pompam qui funeris irent, 

Artifices soios jusserat esse decem. 
Exilio mutant urbem Tiburque recedunt : 665 

Exilium quodam tempore Tibur erat. 



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LIBER VI. 127 

Quaeritur în scena cava tibia, quaeritur aris, 

Ducit supremos naenia nuUa toros. 
Servierat quidam, quantolibet ordine dignus, 

Tibure, sed longo tempore liber erat. 67o 

Rure dapes parat iile suo turbamque canoram 

Convocat ; ad festas convenit illa dapes. 
Nox erat, et vinis ocnlique animique natabant, 

Cum praecomposito nuntius ore venit, 
Atque ita, Quid cessas convivia solvere ? dixit, 675 

Auctor vindictae jam venit, ecce, tuae ! 
Nec mora ; convivae valido titubantia vino 

Membra movent, dubii stantque labantque pedes. 
At dominus, Discedite, ait, plaustroque morantes 

Sustulit ; in plaustro sirpea lata fuit. 680 

Alliciunt somnos tempus motusque merumque, 

Potaque se Tibur tiurba redire putat. 
Jamque per Esquilias Bomanam intraverat urbem ; 

Et mane in medio plaustra fuere foro. 
Plautius, ut^posset specie numeroque senatum 685 

Paliere, personis imperat ora tegl 
Admiscetque alios et, ut hune tibicina coetum 

Augeat, in longis vestibus ire jubet. 
Sic reduces bene posse tegi, ne forte notentur 

Contra coUegae jussa redisse suL 690 

Res placuit ; cultuque novo licet Idibus uti, 

Et canere ad veteres verba jocosa modos. — 
Haec ubi perdocuit, Superest mihi discere, dixi, 

Cur sit Quinquatrus illa vocata dies. 
Martius, inquit, agit tali mea nomine festa, 695 

Estque sub inventis haec quoque turba meis. 
Prima terebrato per rara foramina buxo 

Ut daret effeci tibia longa sonos. 
Vox placuit ; faciem liquidis referentibus undis 

Vidi virgineas intumuisse genas. 7oo 

Ars mihi non tanti est ; valeas, mea tibia ! dixi. 

Excipit abjectam cespite ripa suo. 
Inventam satyrus primum miratur ; et usum 

Nescit et inâatam sentit habere sonum ; 
Et modo dimittit digitis, modo concipit auras. 705 

Jamque inter njmphas arte superbus erat : 

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128 ' FASTOEUM 

Provocat et Phoebum ; Phoebo superaate pependit ; 

Caesa recesserunt a cute membra sua. 
Sum tamen inventrix auctorque ego carmînis hujus 

Hoc est, cur nostros ars colat ista dies. 7 io 

XTII. KAL. JUL. 15tH. 

Tertia lux veniet, qua tu, Dodoni Thyene, 

Stabis Agenorei fronte videnda bovis. 
Haec est illa dies, qua tu purgamina Yestae, 

Tibri, per Etruscas in mare mittis aquas. 
XVI. KAL. • 16th. 

Si qua fides ventis, Zephyro date carbasa, nautae : 7i5 

Cras veniet vestris iile secundus aquis. 

XV. KAL. 17th. 

At pater Heliadum radios ubi tinxerit undîs 

Et cinget geminos stella serena polos, 
ToUet bumo validos proles Hyriea lacertos. 

Continua Delpbin nocte videndus erit. 720 

Scilicet hic olim Volscos Aequosque fugatos 

Viderat in campis, Algida terra, tuis. ^ 
Unde suburbane clarus, Tuberte, triumpho 

Vectus es in niveis. Postume, victor, equis. 
xin. KAL. 19th. 

Jam sex et totidem luces de mense supersunt : 725 

Huic imum numere tu tamen adde diem ; 
Sol abit e Geminis, et Cancri signa rubescunt : 

Coepit Aventina Pallas in arce coli. 

XII. KAL. 20th. 

Jam tua, Laomedon, oritur nurus, ortaque noctem 

Pellit, et e pratis uda pruina fugit. 730 

Reddita, quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur, 

Tune, cum Komanis, Pyrrhe, timendus eras. 

Hanc quoque cum patriis Galatea receperit undis, 

Plenaque securae terra quietis erit, 
Surgit bumo juvenis, telis afflatus avitis ; 735 

Et gemino nexas porrigit angue manus. 
Notus amor Phaedrae, nota est injuria Tbesei : 

Devovit natum credulus iile suum. 
[Non impune pius juvenis Troezena petebat : 

Dividit obstantes pectore taurus aquas.] 740 



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LIBBR VI. ' 129 

SoUiciti terrentur equi, frusiraque retenti 

Per scopulos dominum duraque saxa trahunt. 
Exciderat curm, lorîsque morantibus artus 

Hippolytus lacero corpore raptus erat, 
Reddideratque animam, multum indîgnante Diana. 745 

Nulla, Coronides, causa doloris, ait, 
Namque pio juveni vitam sine viilnere reddam ; 

Et cedent artî tristia fata meae. 
* Gramina continuo loculis depromit ebumis ; 

Profiierant Glauci Manibus illa prius : 760 

Tune, cum obscrvatas anguis descendit in herbas, 

Usus et auxilio est augur ab angue dato. 
Peetora ter tetigit, ter verba salubria dixit : 

Depositum terra sustulit iile caput. 
Lucus eum nemorisq^ue sui Dictynna recessu 755 

Celat : Aricino Virbius iile lacu. 
At Clymenus Clothoque dolent, haec, fila reneri, 

Hic, fieri regni jura minora sui. 
Juppiter exemplum veritus direxit in illum 

Fulmina, qui nimiae moverat artis opem. 76o 

Phoebe, querebaris. Deus est, placare parenti ; 

Propter te, fieri quod vetat, ipse facit. 

IX. KAL. 23bd. 

Non ego te, quamvis properabis vincere Caesar, 

Si vetet auspicium, signa movere velim. 
Sint tibi Flammius Thrasimenaque litora testes, 765 

Per volucres aequos multa monere deos. 
Tempera si veteris quseris temeraria damni, 

Quartus ab extremo mense bis iile dies. 
VIII. KAL. 24th. 

Postera lux melior. Superat Masinissa Syphacem ; 

Et cecidit telis Hasdrubal ipse* suiş. 77o 



Teinpora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis, 

Et fiigiunt, freno non remorante, dies. 
Quam cito venerunt Fortunae Fortis honores ! 

Post septem luces Junius actus erit. 
Ite, deam laeti Fortem celebrate, Quirites : 775 

In Tiberis ripa munera regis habet. 
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] 30 FASTORUM LIBBR VI. 

Pars pede, pare etiam celeri decurrite cymba ; 

Nec pudeat potos inde redire domum. 
Ferte coronatae juvenum convivia lintres, 

Multaque per mediaş vina bibantur aquas. 780 

Plebs colit banc, quia, qui posuit, de plebe fuisse 

Fertur, et ex humili sceptra tulisse loco. 
Convenit et servis, serva quia Tullius ortus 

Constituit dubiae templa propinqua deae. 
VI. KAL. 26th. 

Ecce suburbana rediens male sobrius aede 785 

Ad stellas aliquis talia verba jacit : 
Zona latet tua nune, et cras fortasse latebit. 

Dehinc erit, Orion, aspicienda mihL 
At si non esset potus, dixisset eadem 

Venturum tempus solstitiale die. 790 

V. KAL. 27th, 

Lucifero subeunte Lares delubra tulerunt, 

Hic, ubi fit docta multa corona mânu. 
Tempus idem Stator aedis habet, quam Romulus olim 

Ante Palatini condidit ora jugi. 

IV. KAL. 28th. 

Tot restant de mense dies, quot nomina Parcis, 795 

Cum data sunt trabeae templa, Quirine, tuae. 
PR. KAL. 30th. 

Tempus luleis cras est natale Kalendis : 

Pierides, coeptis addite summa meis. 
Dicite, Pierides, quis vos adjunxerit işti. 

Cui dedit invitas victa noverca manus. soo 

Sic ego. Sic Clio, Clari monumenta Philippi 

Aspicis, unde trahit Marcia casta genus ; 
Marcia, sacrifice deductum nomen ab Anco, 

In qua par facies nobilitate sua. 
Par animo quoque forma suo respondet in illa ; 805 

Et genus, et facies ingeniumque simul. 
Nec, quod laudamus formam, tam turpe putarîs ; 

Laudamus ma^nas hac quoque parte deas. 
Niipta fuit quondam matertera Caesaris illi. 

O decus, o sacra femina digna domo ! 8 io 

Sic cecinit Clio : doctae assensere sorores. 

Annuit Alcides, increpuitque lyra. 



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NOTES 



ON 



THE FASTI. 



BOOK I. 



ARGUMENT. 



DeDICATION to Gerroanicus, 1-26. Roman year, 27-44. 
Difference of days, 45-62. Kalends of January, 63-88. Mythology 
of JanuB, 89-288. Temple of Aesculapius and of Jupiter dedî- 
cated, 289-294. Praises of astronomy, 295-310. Setting of 
Cancer and Lyra, 311-^16. Agonalia, 317-334. Origin of 
sacrifice, 335-456. Rising of Delphin, 457, 458. Mid-winter, 459, 
460. Carmentalia, 461-^586. sacrifice to Jupiter. Title of 
Augustus conferred on Caesar, 587-616. Carmentalia repeated, 
617-636. Temple of Concord dedicated, 637-650. Sun enters 
Aquarius ; Lyra and Leo set, 651-656. Sementina, 657-704. 
Temple of Castor and PoUux dedicated, 705-708. Altar of Peace, 
709-724. 

NOTES. 

1-26. Dedication of the poem to Germanicus, son of Drusus, and 
adoptive son of Tiberius, tbe stepson and successor of Augustus : 
see Hbt. Rom. Emp. pp. 16, 22, and Appendix 6. — Tempora se. 
anni, i.e. the festival, and other remarkable days. Lucretius 
(ii. 33, 170 ; iii. 1018) and Yirgil (Geor. i. 258) use tempora anm 
for the seasons. — digesta, arranged, regularly distributed : comp. 
Yirg. Geor. ii. 54. — LaHum, i. q. Lcttmum, In the fragments of the 
old poet Naevius we meet with terrm Latkn and Latiuvi homonum. 
This adj. does not then occur till we find it in Propertîus 
(iii. 3, 6 ; iv. 10, 37), a poet who was rather fond of unusual words, 
and from whom O vid appears to have adopted it. After Ovid's 
time it became the prevalent form. — 2, Lapta, etc. i. e. the rising 
and setting of the constellations : see Introd. $ 1. As labor and orior 

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132 NOTES ON XHB FASTI. 

are deponents, these particîples are i.q. labenHa and orierUia, — 
4. Navit, i. e. poematu. A frequent metaphor. — Qffido, task, act of 
dutj : comp. Hor. £p. îi. 2,21. In some MSS. the reading îs 
OJlciUt with tn for kuic in next verse. — Sacra, etc. : see Introd. § 5. 
— eruta, extracted, dug out as it were. He uses this word on ac- 
count of pmcis* — domestica, belonging to the familj. — vobit, tbe Ju- 
lîau family, into whîch he had been adopted.— ^do^^, i. e. Tiberius. — 
avut, i. e. Augustus. — 11. pictos. In the tablesof the Fasti thenames 
of the festivals, etc. were drawn in red. — praema, bonours : comp. 
Hor. Sat. i. 5, Să.—fratre, se. adoptiva, Drusus, son of Tiberius, and 
cousin of Germanicus. — Caesarit, This is probably Augustus. — 
arat, the altars, i. e. the temples which he built or repaired. — sacrit 
(%Q,diebu9atm),eic,, i. e. thedays of bis victories and other acts which 
were inserted in the Fasti. — 15. Latides, meritorious deeds : see 
Virg. Aen. i. 461.— /ng^um, se. nam meum, — vuUu, as it was en- 
couragingor otherwise. — Pagina, i. e. liber. — docti: see w. 21 seq, — 
Tnovetur, se ,tnetu» — ^20. Clariodeo, i. e. Apollo, who had a temple and 
oracle at Claros, near Colophon, in lonia. Germanicus himseif 
consulted it the year before his deatb, Tac. Ann. ii. 54, but Ovid 
was then no more. Oracles, it may be obseryed,werefrequently 
consulted by letters. — Quae sit, etc. comp. Ex Pont. ii. 5, 49. He 
had pleaded causes in public with suc^ess. Dion Ivi. 26 ; Suet. Cal. 4. 
— ientimut, I have heard of, as Ovid was in esSie,—4mpetus, se. tui 
ingenU : comp. Ex Pont. iv. 8, 69. He wrote Xitebk plays ; Suet. 
ut Slip. The version of Aratus' Phaenomenasiill extant isascribed 
to this prihce. — ^25. SciUcet, therefore. The use of sdlicet ih this 
sense is very rare. Some MSS. read m Ucet etfas ett,-^annus, i. e. 
the poem on the year. 

27--44. The Roman year : see Introd. § 2. — condiior urbis. 
Romul us. — major erat, se. quam notcere tidera, — 3 1 . moverit, This and 
the folio wing tueatvr are potenţial.— jo«* totidem, etc. : see Introd. 
J 2. — a funere, from the time of the death. — suttinet, etc, wears 
mourning. The men did the same, but only for a short time. — 37. 
Trabeaii, The trabea was a purple toga striped with white, worn 
by the kings (Liv. i. 41) and afterwards by the consuls on solemn 
occasions. Ipte Quirinali trabea . . . consid, Virg. Aen. vii» 612.-^ 
cura : comp. cura dei. Met. i. 48. — annua jura daret, i. e. was re- 
gulating the year. — MarOs; etc. The old Roman year began in 
March. For the following origins of the names of the months see 
the beginning of each book. — 40. Princeps, beginnîng or origin, as 
being the mother of Aeneas. — Tertiut, etc. Maius, a majoribtu ; 
Junius, a junioribus. — Quae sequiiur, etc. i.e. Quinctilis, Sextilis, 



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BOOK 1. 4-70. 133 

September, etc. — At Numa^ etc. : see Introd. ^ 2. He oamed 
Januarius â Jano, Februarius âfebruit : see ii. 19. 

45-62. The days of the month : see Introd. § Z.—^jura, the lâws, 
rights ; the nature and character. — ne tamen ignoret, do not then 
(jou should not) be ignorant of. This îs, we think, the best waj to 
understand this place ; ne being i.q. nou : see on Hor. A. P. 176. 
Tamen îs merelj emphatic, like the Italian pure» — Non habet, se. 
nam, — offic» idem, the same kind of duty ; comp. v, 5. — 47-^2. AII 
this is explained in Introd. § 3. — honoratut. The consuls and 
praetors were so styled on bearing the high oflBces of the state 
(htmoret), The praetor's edict was termed jui honorarmm : see 
Theophil. i. 2, 7. — Est quoque (se. diet) etc. ; the diet comkiales, in 
which the people were assembled to pass laws. The place of voting 
was nămed the Sepia, or enclosare ; sometimes OviSa, or folds, înto 
which the tribes successively entered. Its site was at the head of 
the modern Corso, toward the Piazza di Venezia. — qui nono, etc. 
the Nundînae or market-dajs.— 55. Vmdicai, etc. On the Kalends 
a sacrifice was offered to Juno by the Pontifez Minor on the 
Capitol, and by the Regina Sacrorum in the Regia : Macrob. i. 15. 
— grandior, i. e. somewhat grown, as the largest and finest animals 
of every kind were offered to Jupiter. — Nonarum, etc. i. e. the 
Nones have no presiding deity. — OmnUnu, etc. The day foUowing 
each of these (postridie) was termed black or ill-omened, and was 
regarded as unlucky. The reason given is, that the Romans had 
met with defeats on these days. The defeats at the Cremera and 
the AUia were on the posir. Idus, but we hear not of any on the 
day after the Kalends or Nones, and it was only made aler by 
analogy : see Gell. y. 17. Macrob. i. 16. — Haec mihi, etc. I men- 
tion these matters now once for all. 

63-88. New-year*s-day. — iiln. Germanicus was consul, A. U. 
770, the year in which the poet appears to have revised thb book : 
see Introd. § ă.'^taciie iabentis» On account of the noiseless pace 
of time.— iSSo/ttf, etc. As he was biceps. — Dexter, propitious : see on 
Virg. Geor. iv. 7. — 67. ducibut, i.e. Tiberius the Emperor, and 
Germanicus his son, who had lately OTercome the Chattans and 
other German tribes : see ▼. 285 ; Hist. Rom. Emp. p. 44, teq, — 
terraferax, the l^iiZtapoQ ăpovpa of Homer. — pairibut, the Senate. — 
popula Quirim, i. e. QuiiriUbut, i. e. populo Romano : comp. Met. xv. 
572, 756 ; Hor. Carm. i. 2, 46. The whole expresses the S. P. Q. R. 
— 70. candida templa, Not the temple of Janus, but the temples of 
the gods in general, which were resorted to on that day. He terms 
them candida, not from their colour (for few of them were built of 



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134 NOTBS ON THB FASTI. 

whîte marble), bat from the number of worshipers ciad in white 
iogae, V, 79. Janus was the god of openîng and shutting, v. 120. 
—71. lÂnguit, etc. The weU-known ./brmifia enjoining to abstain 
from words of ilUomen. — IAU, etc. Exegetic of what precedes. — 
75. Cemitf etc. The tpica Ci&ua, or saffi*on, and other fragrant 
products were thrown on the fires of the al tara. UratUur pia thura 
focii, urantur odoret, Quos iener e ierra dknte mttit Arabi, Tibull. ii. 2, 3. 
The best safiron came from Cilicia ; see Flora Virgil. v. Crocas. — 
ionet, crackles.-— aurum, i. e. the gilded roof of the temple. At the 
present day the roof of the church of Sta. Măria Maggiore, at Rome, 
is lined witfa plates of gold.— VeiHbtu, etc. On thb day the people 
ciad in new (tWoc^) or at least newly-scoured white togae fol- 
lowed the consuls up to the Capitoline temple, whose site was on 
the Southern portion of the hill, on which also was the Tarpeian 
rock : see Hist. of Rome, p. 484. — 80. Concolor, For the day was 
catuUdui or joyful. — praeeunt (se. cotuulei), etc. The consuls en- 
tered on their office on this day. They were preceded by lictora 
bearing fatcei, were ciad in the toga praetexta, which was edged 
with purple, and sat on the iella curu&i, i^domed with ivory. — rudei 
operum, i. e. that ha^e never been worked.— 84. Quoi, etc. i.e. 
which were bred in the district of Falerii (dvUa CoilelUma). Here 
and on the Clitumnus in the adjacent Umbria, the oxen were 
white, as they are at the present day : comp. Virg. Geor. ii. 146 ; 
Plin. ii. 103. White victima were offered to Jupiter. This vene, 
by the way, b repeated from Amm. iii. 13, 14. — arce ma, the 
Capitol, or rather perhaps the dome of heayen : comp. Met. i. 163 ; 
Virg. Aen. i. 223. — populo rerum patente. Le. Romanoi rerum 
dominoi, Virg. Aen. i. 282. 

89-288. Mythology of Janus: see Mythology. p. 521. 

89-114. Who Janus was. — Nam Obi, etc. The Greeks had no 
god whose attributes were the same as those of Janus. A curious 
but accidental resemblance has been traced between him and the 
Hindoo Ganesa. — tabelUt, his writing-tables. — 94. Lucidior, etc. 
This was the sign of the presence of a deity : comp. Hom Hymn. 
in Cererem, 279 ; Virg. Aen. ii. 590. — lUe tenem, etc. i. e. bearing 
his usual attributes. — operote dierum, full of labour (i. e. employed) 
on the days. — 103. Me Choa, etc. It was one opinion that Janus 
was the Chaos of Greeian cosmogony : comp. Met. i. 5, ieq, — Aaec 
. • . mana, i.e. Chaos. — ieceiiii,departed (i.e. ceased)from. — rerum 
iuarum, i. e. of its component parts. — IU. Tune ego, etc. Chaos 
was all in one globe or lump ; but when its parts separated, it as-^ 
sumed a regular form.— ^Sioem, the general appearance : see.on Hor. 



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BOOK I. 71-164. 135 

Sat. i. 2, 87.— fvdit, i. q. toî. Compounds in re are frequently used 
for the sîmples : see oar Horace, Excurs. IV.— itoto parva, a slîght 
mark or proof. — AnUt etc. Hig front and back were the same, as 
all had been wben he was Chaos. 

115-144. A second cause of hb form. — Hanc (se. căutam), etc. 
so that at the same time you will know this and what my office îs. 
— Me penet, etc, i. e. I am the general jattUor or door-keeper of 
heaven and earth. — 120. Jut, the right or power. — UbuU, se. tne. — 
Pacem, etc. He represents hb temple as being the abode of 
Peace and War, who dwelt in it alternately. It is shut, to keep 
War confined ; bat when it is open, and War is at liberty, Peace 
remains within. It had, as is well-known, been shut only twice 
before the time of Augustus, in whose reign this poem was written. 
— perpetuat, long: comp. Virg. Aen. vii. 176. — Sanguine, etc. comp« 
Yirg. Aen. i. 293.-125. Praetideo, etc. ; see Hom. II. v. 749.— 
Janut, quasi Eanut ab eo, or âjanua,—cui cum, etc. When an ofFer- 
ing was made to Janus, he was addressed by the titles of Opener 
and Closer, in allusion to his of^ce.-^Cereale Ubum. This Bbum, 
which was ofFered to him alone, was named Janual ; Festus t. o. 
For the Ubum, or cake, see on Yirg. Buc. vii. 33. — Imponiţ, se. 
arae.'^Jwrra, etc. the mola talta,r-'\9S, Vtt, i. e. afficmm,'^Jam 
tamen, etc, you must, howeyer, have partly seen that already.— 
harem, i. e. the aJtnuan of the hoose in which stood the image of 
the family Lar.— vr«fer, your, i. e. of you Romans.— jDrîmt tedi, 
the first part or entrance of the house, the vestibule. — 141. Ora 
Met, etc : see Mythology, Plate iii. 2.— jS?nv^ etc that she may 
watch (comp. Virg. Aen. ii. 568 ; Hor. £p. i. 5, 31) or look down 
the three parts of the con^pUum, the point where two or more 
streets met. It is bere i. q. trwkm, rploSo^, the point of junction 
of three ways (like Y). The Greeks, but not the Romans, used to 
place the image of the triple Hecate at the rpioSoi : see Mytho- 
logy, p. 65. — ăina, i. e. duo, i. e. duat viat. The distributive nume«> 
rals are thus frequently used for the cardinala : see Zumpt. $ 1 19. 

145-164. Reason why the year began in January.— /rigortit», 
i. e. kieme, bruma. — Omnia tuncflorent, etc. This is a most lovely 
description of the spring ; for the poet was, like Horace, a true 
lover of the country : comp. iii. 236 ; iv. 87 ; Lucr. i. 6 ; Virg. 
Buc. iii. 56 ; Geor. ii. ^QZ.—temporit, i. e. anm. — 153. Et nova, etc. : 
see Flora Virg. v. Vitis. — operitur. Some MSS., which Heinsius, 
Burmann, and Gierig follow, read amicitur vitibut, as in £x Pont. 
iii. 8, 13 ; comp. Met. x. 100. — 154. teminit herba, i. e. the growing 
corn, which springsfrom the seed. For thissense oî herba, see Vii*g. 



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136 NOTES ON THE FASTI, 

Geor. i. 112. — 155. Et tepidum, etc. : comp. Yirg. Aen. vii. 83. — 
ignota (se. ante), the stranger, as she returns in the spring. — prodif, 
i. e. apparet, comes forth, appears : comp. ii. 853.— ;/%t^. The read- 
ing of manj MSS. and editions îaJingU, — 161. tnuUit, se. verlns, 
rnoratut, i. e. moraru : see on v, 2. — Bruma, the winter*8ol8tice, after 
whieh the days begin to lengthen. The Sun, Phoebus, may then 
be said to begin his course anew. 

165-188. Causes of various usages on New-year*s day. — cur 
non, etc. It was the custom for every one to perform, by way of 
auspice, some little act of bis trade or profession on the first day 
of the year. There was, therefore, a little legal skirmishing in the 
Forum ; the peasants did some rural woik, etc. Per hot diet abtti' 
nent terrenis operibui reUgionorei agricolae, iUt tamen ut iptis Kalendis 
Januariit autpicandi cautsa omne genus operit imtaurent, Colum. 
zi. 2. — Tempora nascentia, i. e. prima diet, — comnusi, I have given 
or appointed. This is rather an unusual sense of this verb. — Totus, 
etc, lest people should be idle the whole year if they were so on 
the first day of it, which was its autpicium. — ob idem, i. e. igitur, — 
de&bat, i. e. leviter atiingii : comp. Virg. Aen. i. 256 ; xii. 434. — tes- 
Hficaţur, gives proof of, exhibits. — 171. Cur guamvis, etc. The 
• reason of this is evidently to be found in the names and offices of 
the god, access as it were being given by him to the other gods : 
Cic. N. D. ii. 27 ; Macrob. i. 9.— 175. Atcurlaeta, etc. The prac- 
tice here noticed has descended to modern times, and we still utter 
good wishes on New-year*s day.-:-Omtna, etc. The whole super- 
stition of omens is founded on this notion. Luck, for ezâmple, is 
often supposed to be indicated by what is first seen in the mom- 
ing, etc. — 181. .Tenyata, etc. se. hac die. As on New-year^s day 
the temples were all open, the gods were supposed to hear all 
prayers and to give them effect. — caductu, se. m terram, falling to 
the ground, unavailing. — 185. Quid vuit palma, etc. The strenae, 
or New-year's gift, consisted of sweets, with pieces of money, 
which are given still, at least on the Continent.— joa/ma, i.e. 
its fruit, the caryota or date. It was covered with gold-leaf. 
Aurea porrigitur Jani caryota Kedendit, Mart. xiii. 27. — cartea, the 
iexăg or dried îiţ^, hence he names it rugota. — candida, clear. — $ub 
niveo cado. The cadus, jar or pot, whose usual colour was red 
(Mart. i. 56, 10), was probably whitened on this occasion, like the 
togae of the citizens. Sub is i. q. in» Nota procul Libycis aberat 
diversa tub oris, Tr. i. 3, 19. 

189-226. The giving of money on that day.— JBdm^ et tirenas 
ineunte anno se recepturum; stetUque in ve$tibulo aetUum, JCalendit 



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BOOK i. 155-226. 137 

Januarus, ad captandas tUpes, qtuu phnis ante eum manibus ac ţinu 
omnis generis turba fundebat, Suet. Calig. 42. Augustus himself used 
to receive itipei in this way on New-year's day : Dion liv. 85 ; 
Suet. Oct. 57. — itipit, The itipt was a small copper coin, appa- 
rentlj the saipe as the as.—^abet, slip away, escape. — casa, a cottage. 
He is here perhaps alluding to the cottage on the Capitol, which 
was preserved down to that time, as that of Romul us and Remus ; 
Dionys. i. 76 ; Val. Maz. iy. 4. — Martigenam, Mars-begotten. He 
made this word, like aurigena, draconigena, etc. — ^200. Et dabat, 
etc. The poor used to make their sofas of flags and sedge : comp. 
V. 519 ; Met. viii. 655. — angusta, etc. The meaning seems to be, 
that if Jupiter, who was placed in a sitting posture, as he always was 
in the Capitoline temple, were to be placed standing, he could not 
stand upright on account of the lowness of the roof. The allusion 
is general, and not, as has been supposed, to the temple of Jupiter 
Feretnua.^^ctile. In those early dajs the images of the gods were 
of baked clay, and made in Etruria : see Plin. xxxv. 12. — mmc^ se. 
ornant. — 205. cepiste, i. q. capere, This and the following inf. are 
used like the Greek infinitives: see on Virg. Buc. ii. 84. — Jurn 
dabat, etc. We hear this both of a dictator (Hist. of Rome, p..89) 
and of a consul (Ib. p. 181). — Etlem, etc. Fabricius, when censor 
(A. U. 478), put out of the senate P. Cornelius Rufinus, who had 
been twice consul and once dictator, for having ten pounds' weight 
of plate in his house, Gell. iv. 8. — lamina. This word, signifying a 
thin plate, is used here, perhaps, in a diminishing sense. — 209. At 
pottguam, etc, i. e. when Rome grew great and powerful. Rome 
and her fortune are personified. — Creverunt, etc. Cretcit amor nummi 
quantum ipsa pecuma cretcit, Juv. xiv. 189. Semper infinita, intatio" 
bilit, neque copia neque inopia mmuitur, Sall. Cat. 11. — 215. Sic 
quibut, etc. Avarice compared with a dropsy : comp. Hor. Carm. 
ii.*2, 18. — In preOo, etc. A play on words. — centut, property, in- 
come : comp. Hor. £p. i. 6, 86. — 7V tamen, etc. You, however, 
want to know if thb receiTing of the copper ttipt be of good omen, 
and why it is still ^yen to me. It might appear from this, that 
ttipet were put into the hand of Janus on this day. — Aera, etc. It is 
a remnant of antiquity when copper was the only money. Gold is 
more prized, however, now.— ^oi, etc. This seems to allude to the 
temple of Janus at the Forum Olitorium, outside of the Carmental 
gate, which Tibefius rebuilt A. U. 770 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 49. In this 
and the following verses, therefore, a compliment may be intended 
for tbat prince. The plur. is used in them for the sing., as it is of 
himself only that the god speaks. 



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138 NOTES ON THE FASTL 

227-254. Cause of tbe figures on the old Roman coîn, whîch bore 
on one aide a ship, on the other a Janus. — numUtu, hîs instructions : 
comp. iii. 167. — Ni vetut, etc. The image had been effaced by wear 
and time.^ — ^284. falcifer deut^ Saturn : see Virg. Aen. viii. 315. — 
240. teiUficata, i. e. tesi^icant : see on v, 2,^-§olum, etc. The Jani- 
cular on the right or Tuscan side of the Tiber, wfaose left side was, 
therefore, nezt the river. — arenosi. On account of the great quan- 
titj of sand which it carries in suspension, whence it was named 
Jiavut. — incaedua, uncut, natural wood. — ianta, i. e. what is now so 
great.^— 247. 7\inct i. e. in the Golden Age. — paHens, bearing, i. e. 
inhabited by. — humanis locis, the abodes of men. — Nondum, etc. : 
comp. Met. i. 150.— ^mm^, alSuc, reverence. 

255-288. Reason of the site of his temple : see Excursus I. — 
Janu A Janus was simply a door or gate. Each of the city-gates, 
for instance, had two Jani : see on ii. 201 .'--^Protmus, etc. Tbe 
well-known story of Tarpeia : see IAy. i. 1 1 ; Propert. iv. 4. The 
following legend occurs first, we belieye, in O vid : comp. Met. xiv. 
780. — Oebalu, It was a current opinion that the Sabines were 
descended from the Laconians, one of whose mythic kings was 
named Oebalus. — levis, light-minded. — ^262. iter. Thîs would seem 
to mean the level of the Capitol at the head of the c&vus : but it is 
a very unusual sense of tbe word. It appears to indicate her lead- 
ing them up. — descenditu, se. vot Romani, — Saturma, Juno : comp. 
Virg. Aen. vii. 620. — arHs, se. aperiendi.—ope, by the power or act. 
— 274. tuto, i. q. tuUo, se. a me, — Ara, The conj. is omitted : see 
our Virgil, p. 337. — Haec, etc. This consumes vnth its flames a 
ttrues and a mola taisa, i. e. in honour of Janus, to whom the ttrues 
was apparently appropriated. — $true$. Genera Uborum tunt, digUorum 
conjunctorum non dunmiUa^ gui superjecta pamctda in transver$vm con^ 
tinentur. Festus i . v.: comp. Cato R. R. 134. Merkel (p. xcvi.) 
would prefer to read cum ttrueferta sui», 

277-288. Why the gates were open in war, closed in peace.— * 
pomt, SC. Pax, — Caetareoquej se. nuTic, — nomme, name, influence, 
authority. — Dixit .... aquas, These four verses were added when 
he revised the poem. — ocuhs, etc, i. e. the eyes of both faces.-— 
285. vetiri, of your, i. e. of Tiberius who gave the auspices, and of 
Germanicus who led the army. This triumph for the Chattans» 
Cheruscans, and Angivarians was celebrated by Germanicus on the 
VII. Kal. Jan. A. U. 770 : see Tac. Ann. ii. 41.— TVodWero/, etc, 
i. e. the dominion of the Romans on the Rhine was acknowledg^d. — 
pocit mmistrot, Hberius and Germanicus.-Hiiictor, probably .Tibe- 
rius. — deterat, neglect. 



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BOOK i. 227-327. 139 

289-294. Temples dedicated od the Kalends of January. — Quod, 
etc, SC. hoc ett, — fHtires, the senate, or our sjicestors.'^Accepii, etc. 
In the Insula of the Tiber stood the temple of Aesculapius, built 
A. U. 462 : see Met. zy. 662 ; Hiat. of Rome, p. 159, and a temple 
of Jupiter, dedicated A. U. 558 : see Liv. zxxiv. 57. There was 
also a temple of Faunus in the Island (see ii. 193), dedicated in the 
same year, but not on the same day with that of Jupiter.--m parte 
ett, i. e. is a sharer. From what folio ws, it woald appear that the 
two temples stood close together. 

295-310. Introduction to the astronomic notices. — fnwnissi, se. 
operis, v. 2. — pariter^ equally, alike. — 302. Officiumjbri, the pleading 
of causes : comp. Hor. Ep. i. 7, 47. —gloria, se. vana, vanity : see 
Hor. Sat. i. 6, 23 ; Ep. i. 18, 22.-^co, with false splendour. The 
fucut is a marine plant, with the dye of which the Tyrian purple 
was imitated ; Hor. Ep. i. 10, 27. — 305. Admovere, etc. By their 
study of the stars they brought them, as it were, near oar eyes, i. e. 
became as well acquainted with them as if they were nearer. — iSSc 
petitur (se. vere), etc. He alludes to the Aloeids, Otus and 
Ephialtes : Horn. Od. xi. 304 ; Virg. Geor. i. 280. He had also in 
▼iew. Hor. Carm. i. 3, 38 ; iv. 4, 50. — 309. No$ quoque, etc. I too, 
though so inferior. The langoage here too seems figurative, and 
taken from the eneampment of a Roman army. Of this the mode 
was, that some officers went on before the troops with the metatores, 
who marked out the diiferent quarters for them with vexilla, i. e. 
âgna, at which the soldiers pitched their tents. 

311-314. The morning-setting of Cancer : see Introd. § 1. 

315, 316. The moming-rising of Lyra, which was usually attended 
with rain. — Inttiterint, se. si or cum : see on Hor. Sat. i. 3, 15. — 
signa dabunt, SC. ea. Some MSS. and editors put nonae in v. S\ 5, 
and imbret in f7. 316. 

317-334. The festival of the Agonalia, in honour, as it would 
appear, of Janus. The sacrifice was a ram ofiered in the Regia by 
the Rex Sacrorum : Varro L. L. vi. \2.—succinctut minister, etc, 
i. e. the popa, who killed the victim, and who had nothing on him 
but a Rmus, an apron, or petticoat (like the campestre), fastened 
about his loins : see Virg. Aen. xii. \20.strictos, grasped, held in 
fais hand. It is a plur. for sing. as usual. — agatne. The popa used 
to say agonef i.e. shall I strike the victim ? and the Rex rcplied, 
hoc age, do so. Varro (ut sup.) gtves this derivation of the name. 
— 323. Pars, etc. Others derive it from the leading (actu) of the 
victim to the altar.— Par*, etc. Others thought that Agonalis was 
guasi Agnalis from agna, — 327. An, etc. It was also thought that the 



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140 NOTES ON THE PAŞTI. 

origin might be Greek, from âytavia, on account of the terror of the 
victim. — m aqua, It was the custom to place the sacrificai knîyes in 
a vessel full of water. — 329. Fasetiam, It may also be that the name 
is Greek, and îs derived from the games {âyGves) celebrateci on that 
occasion in the old times. — JSi pecţu, etc. The reason which he 
himself prefen», Agonia was an old name for pecut, or for ^wstia, as 
Festus (*. V,) says. — Rex Sacrcrum, For this and the other niini- 
sters of the Roman religion, see Ezeursus II. — lanigerae, etc, i. e. 
a ram : see on v. 317. 

335, 336. Orîgins of the terms victima and hostia, He derîves 
them both from the same origin, namely, a victory gdned over 
enemies. 

337-348. Original offerings to the gods. Merkel regards what 
follows as an addition made by Ovid to the poem when he was 
revbing it. — Far erat, etc , i. e. the mola salsa, — pertulerat, se. 
ItaUae. — cotium, The cottut was a fragrant root that came from the 
East, most probably from India: see Hor. Carm. iii. 1, 44; Plin. 
xii. 2 ; Stat. Silv. ii. 1, 160. — herbit Sahinis, the sa vine, calledby the 
Greeks Ppâ9v, a species of juniper, common in the South of Europe ; 
Plin. xxiv. 61. — latanu, the bay : see Fior. Virg. * v, It crackle» 
in the flame, and when it gave a loud sound, it was regarded as a 
good omen : comp. o. 76; Tibull. ii. 5, 81. 

349-392. First sacrifices of quadrupeds and their causes. — Uita^ 
i. q. ulcitcens, — lactenHa, sucking, i. e. young ; as if tbey were 
animals. Thus (Met. xv. 201) he terms the spring lactens annus, — 
m vite, SC. nia, — 357. Rode, etc. Kijv ţu ^ygq cTrt pil^av, ^fuag Iti 
Kapvo^oprtffia *'Offffov iiriairutTai trot, rpâyi, Ovdfikvt^, Anthol. Gr. i. 
p. 165, ed. Jacobs. — noxae dedittu^ given up to punishment. Cumlex 
jubet noxae dedere pro peccato, Festus v. Noxa. — 363. Flebat, etc 
He deri?es the sacrifice of oxen from the mode in which Aristaeus 
recoYered his bees. For that legend; see Virg. Geor. iv. 315, seq. 
— cum stirpe, with tbe root, radicitus, i. e. totally. — necatas, se a 
nymphis: see Virg. ib. 532. — Caerula, as being a water-nymph. — 
373. faciem, his form, appearance. — iransformis, changîng. This adj. 
is, we believe, peculiar to Ovid : comp. Met. viii. 871. — adulterat, 
adulterates, i. e. changes.— «na, se. amma, i. e. bos. — 381. Pascit, etc 
Some MSS., foUowed by editors in general, read Poscit ovem fatum. 
— verbenas, plants used for sacred purposes : see Fior. Virg. *. v, 
The legend here alluded to, is not noticed by any other writer. — 
385. Placat equo, etc. The Persians sacrifice a horse to Mithras 
their sun-god, the Greek Helios. Herodotus says of the Massage- 
tans (i. 216), 9t&v 8k ftovvov ijiKioP ffkpovrai, Ttf Ovovm cvxovc. 



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BOOK I. 329-458. 141 

voftoQ Sk ' o^TOc TÎic Svifitic' TiSv Btwv Ttf raximt^ fr&vTiav tQv 
BvfiTfSv rh râxMTov iariovrai : whîch - place Ovid had evidently in 
his mind. — Quod (i e. ob quod), etc. The legend of Iphigenia. — 
tr^Uci IHanae, as being identifîed wîth Hecate : see on v. 141. — 
389. vidi, When he was going into exile at Torni on tlie Eoxine, 
A. U. 763, be landed on tbe coast of Tbrace, and went tbe rest of 
the way by land : see Tr. i. 10, 23. — Sapaeot, a people of Thrace ; 
Herod. vii. llO.—ngirfo, etc. Priapas. 

393-440. Origin of the sacrifice of the ass to Priapiis. This is 
either an Alexandrian fable or the poet*s own invenţion. — Festa, 
etc, the rparifpcc, or festival of Bacchus, celebrated every third 
year. — corymbiferi, copvfi/3o^6pov, ivy-berries-bearing, i. e. crowned 
with ivy. This word is only to be found in this place. — bruma, the 
year which began at the bruma, It was not, bowever, at that sea- 
son that the feast was held. — Di quoque, etc. The deities con- 
nected with Bacchus, also took this opportunity of holding a festival. 
We are not to suppose that they mixed with men on the occasion. — 
Et quicumque,etc., every deity of a sportive character.— patu/o, hol- 
low-backed. — 400. Quique, etc. Priapu^. — vestUU, covered with grass, 
instead of purple or scarlet covers, vestet, — large. This is to be 
joined with agebai, Editors in general read parce, and join it with 
niitcendas, — 405. tine pecUnis fim, without having combed oot and 
arranged them. — minittrat, se. cibos. In the heroic ages the attend- 
ants at meals were feniales.^ttt pinu, etc. Pan. — 414. Nequiiia, 
lust. — htiela, i. e. tutor: see Virg. Excurs. VII. 

441-456. Sacrifices of birds, ascribed to the vengeance of the 
gods, because the birds revealed their will to men. — modot, measures, 
fiongs. — penna, by the wing, the fiight, i. e. the Praepetes. — ore, the 
oscines, as they were styled in the language of augury. — 447. <Ut, 
etc, as each is connected with the gods. Thus the eagle announced 
the will of Jupiter ; the crow, that of Apollo. — drferua, etc. : see 
Hist. of Rome, p. 1 18. — 454. Inachi, i. e. Isis, the Egyptian deity, 
greatly worshiped at that time at Rome, and who had been identi- 
fied with Io the daughter of Inachus : see Mythology, p. 408. — 
lăuta, delicate about food. ei/ovai (se. Isidi) dk xai fiovc Kal 
kXâfovc ol 'Matfiovi&rtpot, 5<ro( H tlaip dvoiiovTic irXo^r^ xal 
X^vac Kal SpviBaQ râc fn\eypiiac' iftrl ik Iq n)v Bvtriav ov voţii^ 
Zovtnv Mk oiffl xp^(rOai gal al^i, Paus. x. 32. Perhaps, however, 
lăuta might be elegant, on account of the pure white linen garments 
of ber woTshipers. — provocat, calls forth. 

457, 458. The morning-rising of Delphin or the Porpoise. — 
ToUUur, raises bimself ; a mid. voice. 



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14?2 NOTBS ON THE FA8TI. 

459, 460. The day of mid-winter (not the bruma), whicb, how- 
eTer, is placed on the pndie Nomu (4th) by Columella (xi. 2) and 
by Ptolemy. — ducrimnUf separating line. — tuperabit, i. e. supererit, 
A frequent sense of this verb : see on Virg. Buc. iz. 27. 

461-468. The Carmentalia and the dedication of the temple of 
Jutnrna. — Turtd soror. So she had been made by Virgil, and the 
Aeneis was now read by erery one. — aede recepU. Huic Fonii (se. 
Juturnae) per Aquatmnum mopum (leg. flanwnem mmorem, Merk.) 
iocr^icari solet, cui Lutatnu Catuhu primui templum m Campo MarHo 
feâty SerT. Aen. zii. 139. — Virginea aqua, the Aqua Virgo brought 
by Agrippa through aqueducts from a marshy place, eight mîles 
fîrom Rome on the Collatine road, for the supply of his Thermae. 
It was conducted below the gardens of Lucullos, which were on the 
Pincian hill, and so compassed the Campus Martius. It still supplies 
the beautiful Fontana Trevi. Its name, Frontinus (De Aquaed. 10) 
says, was owing to its springs having been pointed out by a maiden ; 
but it more probably came from the supposed purity of its waters. — 
sacrorum, se. CarmetUa&um, — Ipsa, i. e. Carmentis, whose name îs 
derived from carmen»— erret, stray, i. e. be unknovtn or wrongly 
related. — honosy festival. 

469-508. Coming of Eyander to Italy.— Orto, etc. The Arca* 
dians were styled by the poets (who probably oniy adopted the 
popular legend) irpoffcXiivovci &s having ezisted before the moon. 
D^erlein, by the way, says that it sîgnifies merely, before the 
Hellenes. — telhu, i. e. geni.-^Arcade. Arcaş, the son of Callisto. — 
utroque, se. sanguine. According to the common account, he was 
the son of the god Hermes by Carmentis. But there seems to have 
been another account (see Serv. Aen. viii. 130), whicb made 
Echemus his father, and this Ovid apparently foUows. It is also 
said, that the cause of Evander's ezile was his having accidentally 
killed his father, Serv. ib. 51. — 478. Quae, etc, i. e. she was a pro- 
phetess.— />/bio dei, inspired. — motust civil commotion ; or, perhaps, 
change of abode. — nada, se. est. For time verified her predictions. 
— nimum, i. q. valde, a common sense of this word. -^fugatus, obliged 
to go into ezile.— 478. Parrhasium, i. e. Arcadktm, part for whole. 
— m fatis, i. e. a decree of destiny : comp. Met. i. 256. — meriţi, se. 
ttâ, — procella, i. e. exiUum, The figure is taken from the sea and 
navigation. — Aonia, Boeotian. — Et, se. o^.— 493. Omnesolum. "Airac 
fUv di/^p cdtTifi VEpâvifioc, "Avatra di x^oiv âvSpi ytwalift varpi^, 
Eurip. fr. incert. 36. — Nec fera, etc. X'iî» Zeirf âWoKa fikv vkXet 
oZOpioCf âXKota ^ fi«i, Theocr. iv. 43 : comp. Hor. Carm. ii. 9, 1. — 
tenet, holds, i. e. reaches : comp. iv. 290. Gierig says, holds his 



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BOOK I. 459-536. 143 

course for. — amnem» se. Tkucum (from next yer&e), tbe Tiber. — 500. 
obvius ibatj was going against, i. e. up the stream. — latw, etc, î* e. 
the left bank of the rirer, before coming to the Campus Martius, 
i. e. the Palatine hill. By the vadă Tarenti must be meant that part 
of the stream that ran by the Tarentum. — Tarenti. This îs the 
reading of, we may say, all the MSS. ; but every other Latin writer 
calls this place Terentum. It was in the Campus Martius, and ^p- 
parently close to the Tiber, but tbe exact spot b unknown. Vale- 
rius Maximus (ii. 4, 5) tells a long legend of the discoTery of this 
place, by the appearance of smoke rising from tbe ground in the 
n%ht, and how, on digging to the depth of twenty feet, an altar 
was found inscribed to Db Pater and Proserpine. lle says, that 
this was the origin of the Saecular games, at which black victima 
were offered for tbree successive nights at this altar : see also Liv. 
Epit. 49 ; Stat. Silv. i. 4, 18 ; iv. l, 38 ; Mart. iv. 1, 8 ; Varro ap, 
Censorin. 17; Zosimus, ii. 1. — Utqtte enU, as she wad, without 
making any change. To express the suddenness of the inspiration. 
— immiuis, loosed. — regenţii iter, the steersman.— </f j^^mm, i. e. on 
her r\^\\X.-—pmea texta, the deck formed of pine-wood : comp. Virg. 
Aen. ii. 258. 

509^536. Prophecy of Carmentis.— «ot;o« deot, i. e. Romulus and 
the Caesars. — nemorum nlvae, the woods with which the hills of 
Rome were then covered.— Âonu avilnu, i. e. bono omme. — 515. 
Foilor f etc. The future greatness of Rome. — tarUumfati, so great 
a dcstiny.— J?/ jam, etc. These are the subjects of the six last 
books of the Aeneis. — hic emis, i. e. Rome, that rose, as it were, from 
the ashes of Troy. — ^527. patrem. Cato (ap. Serv. Aen. iii. 71 J) 
said that Anchîses also reached Italy ; but Ovid would hardly con- 
tradict Virgil, and he probably expressed hiniself somewhat care- 
lessly, supposing every one to be familiar with the Aeneis. — Iliacos, 
etc. The Penates brought from Troy were kept in the temple of 
Vesta ; Tac. Ann. xv. 41. The temple of the Penates was differ- 
ent. — Temput erit, etc. AUuding to Augustus, who was Pontifex 
Maximus, and who had transferred the sacred fire, etc. to bis house 
on the Palatine : see iv. 949. — 533. înde nepot, etc. Tiberius, by 
adoption the son of Augustus, and grandson of Julius Caesar. — 
Ucet, etc. His affected reluctance to accept the imperial dignity : 
see Tac. Ann. i. 1 1 ; Hist. Rom. Emp. p. 39. — Sic Augusta, etc. 
By the last will of Augustus, his wife Li via was adopted into the 
Julian family, and received the title of Augusta. Thb is, perhaps, 
all that the poet means by calling her bere a numen. She was 
deified by her grandson Claudius, Suet. Claud. 11. 



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144 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

537-586. Legend of Hercules and Cacu3: see Virg. Aen'. viîi. 
1:90, seq, ; Hist. of Rome, p. 71. — Fe&Xy etc. AUuding to his own 
ezile at Torni. — Eryth^'das, from the isle of Erytheia, the abode of 
Geryoneus ; see Mythology, p. 359. — appUcat, brings, drives. — 550. 
Traxeratt se. nam, — aversos, hackwards,— facies : see on v, 373. — pro, 
proportioned to. — 559. malet i. e. non : see on Hor. Sat. i. 3, 45. — 
fi^a, i. e. the stolen oxen,^nga qtdnque, se. boum, — nude : see v. 
559. — âpirare, etc. Typhoeus was placed under Aetna in the Giant- 
war. Virgil (Aen.iii. 578) plăcesthere Enceladus. — 575. Occupal, 
attacks. Jussit . . . quatuor admovericanet, quiceleriter occupaverunt 
feram, Curt. ix. 1. — trinodit (def.for indef.), knotty. — CoruiUuit, etc. 
The Ara Maxima, sacred to Hercules, stood at the foot of the 
Palatine hill, and the Forum Boarium lay between it and the river. 
— prope, etc, i. e. the approaching apotheosis of Hercules. — dea, se. 
fada, 

587-616. The conferring of the title of Augustus on Caesar. — 
castus sacerdot, the Flamen Dialis. — Cattus is properly ăyvoQ, pure, 
holj, and incettus, its opposite ; hence a Vestal who committed 
breach of chastitj was termed mcetta, and the offence, incestus, or 
incestum : see Cic. hegg. ii. lO.^-Semimaris ovit, This is plainly a 
vervex or wether, while, v, 56, he calls the victim grandsor agna, a 
ewe-lamb. We confess that we cannot clear this matter. It was a 
nsual rule in the Roman, as in the Mosaic, religion to offer nothing 
mutilated to the deîty. Merkel (p. clxxii) thinks it possible that 
the wether may have been substituted for the sheep, on the Ides of 
Jaiiuarj, on account of iheferiae Jugustales, — Reddita, etc. On the 
Ides of January (Verrius says xvii. Kal. Feb.), A U. 727, Caesar 
arranged the provinces, retaining the administration of some himself, 
and giving that of others to the senate and people. At this time also 
he received the title of Augustus : see Hist. Rom. Emp. pp. 5, 6. 
The poet is not strictly correct in using the adj. ommg, — 591. 
generosa, noble, i. e. belongîng to noble famîlies. — cerat, the hnagmes 
or waxen' busts of their ancestors, at the base of which theîr names 
and deeds were inscribed. — Africa, etc. For these Tarious titles 
see Hist of Rome, pp. 254, 362, 364, 320, 178, 285.-597. Et mortem, 
etc. : see Hist. Rom. Emp. p. 16. — Caetar, i. e. Augustus. Victorios 
had been gained by hîmself or his generals over all the surrounding 
nations, and the recovering of the standards was regarded as a 
victory over the Parthians. — Ex uno (se. victo), etc. : see Hist. of 
Rome, pp. 128,131. — 603. Magne, i. e. Pompeîus. — qtd te, etc. 
Julius Caesar. — Nec gradut, etc: see Hist. of Rome, p. 170. — 
omnet, se hi, — J&, Augustus.— 609. Sanda, etc. Auguttut is i. q. 



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BOOK I. 537-633. 145 

ianctut, hence the Greeks rendered it aefiaffToc, — vocani patra. 
If by patres he means the old Romans, he may have had verses lîke 
thls of Ennius : Augusto augurio postquam incluta condita Roma est, 
and the language of the Annals, etc. in view, and so have been justi- 
jfied in using the present tense : see our Horace, Excurs. I. — rite, 
duly, legitimately. It is the proper term. Negahant Pontifices unam 
cdlam -ampUus quam uni deo rite dedicări, Lîv. xxvii. 25. — mânu, 
Because the person dedicating laîd hîs hands on the door-post : see 
Hîst. of Rome, p. 38. — 611. Hujus, etc, i. e. from the same root 
(i. e. augeo) is also derived augurium. — Et quodcumque, etc. We 
know, however, of no other word that couid be derived from augeo, 
and even these two are very dubious. — avget, The proper meaning 
oî augeo îs, to eniarge, increase, add to. Hence it is used of giving 
honour, dignity, etc, to a person, thing, or place ; comp. ii. 56 : 
hence also, when the senate confirmed a decree of the people, the 
word auctores is used. Ut cum populus regem jussisset, id sic ratum 
esset, si patres auctores Jierent, Liv. i. 17. — Protegat (se semper), 
may it shade. Tliis was one of the honours decreed at that time to 
Augustus : Hîst. Rom. Emp. p. 6. — vestras, your, i. e. the Caesarian 
family. — heres, Tiberius. — suscipiat, sustain. Quid loquar lapideas 
moles .... quUtus porOcus et capacia populorum tecta suscipimus. 
Sen. Ep. 90. 

617-686. The Carmentalia repeated. — actas, î. q. exactas, past. — 
Fient, will be (celebrated). — Nam, etc. The reason of this repeţi- 
tion. — carpenta. The exact form of the carpentum is unknown : 
see Becker, Gallus, p. 263. It was used both by men and women, 
and it came at length to signify a dung-cart, Pallad. x. 1. The de- 
rîvation here given is absurd. — 621. Mos, eic. A. U. 538, in the 
beat of the second Punic war, C. Oppîus, a tribune of the people, 
had a law passed forbidding any woman to possess more than half an 
ounce of gold, to wear a party-coloured garment, or to rîde în a 
carriage (juncto vehiculo), except on occasions of public religious 
Htes. In 557 this law was repealed in spiţe of the strenuous oppo- 
sîtion of Cato the Censor : see Liv. xxxiv. 1-^. There is nothing 
said in Livy of the conduct adopted by the women, but it is noticed 
by Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 56. — Pro pueris, etc, i. e. for chîldren 
of both sexes, the partus of v, 623. — 629. Scortea, things made of 
leather. — Ne violent, etc. Because they prayed for children to bo 
bom, and so it would be of ill omen to use any dead thing. — assiste, 
stand beside. — precanH, se. alicui, — 638. Porrima, etc Varro(flg9. Gell. 
xvi. 16), when speaking of the diffîcult labour of women, says, hujus 
pericuH deprecandi causa arae staiiUae sunt Romae duahus Carmen- 

H 



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146 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

tibust quarum una Poitverta nonunaia est, Prota (Al. Prcrta) altera, 
a recH pervertique partus et potettate et nomine, This foUj explains 
V, 628, and the origin of the rite, and also that of the legend told by 
O vid and Plutarch. Servius (Aen. viii. 386) naines, like our poet, 
one of the Carmentes Porrima. — 634. diva, Most editors read 
fn/mpha : see Virg* Aen. viii. 336, 339.— ^orro, i. e. vpd, pro. 

637-650. Dedication of Temple of Concord. — Candida, se. dea or 
Concordia, v, 639. — ruveo. This cannot mean built of white marble : 
see on v, 70. It rather, like candida in that place, denotes the 
polish of the pillar8,etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. viii. 720. — Quaferty etc. 
The temple of Concord stood at the foot of the Capitoline hill, 
facing the Forum. Its site may be seen exactly behind the arch of 
Severus. On its left, between it and the Carcer, a flight of stepa 
led up to the Arx, where the temple of Juno Moneta stood, on the 
site of Manlius' house : see tL 183. Abeken, however, asserts 
(Mittelitalien, p. 232) that both temples stood on the Arx, to which 
the steps led up from the Intermontium, Of the exbtence of this 
supposed temple of Concord, we have seen no proof, and its site 
hardly accords with v. 639, '^turbam, se. stantem in Foro. — mânut, se. 
TUterii, A. U. 763, according to Verrius Flaccus^ Fast. Praen. Dion 
Ivi. 25. — 641. Furius, etc. The great L. Furius Camillus, the con- 
queror of Veii and Falerii, on the occasion of the Licînian rogation 
(A. U. 383), vowed a temple to Concord, and built this temple in 
performance of hb vov : see Hist. of Rome, p. 124. — catua recent, 
i. e. of the restoration of the temple by Tiberius. In 763 Tiberius 
carried on war in Germany, to avenge the slaughter of Quintilîus 
Varus and his legions in 762. — 646. PorrigU. Merkel reads corrigii, 
with the early editions, and he qnotes an old gloss which explains 
ît by desecat. But corrigo never bas that meaning; its original 
sense is, to stretch out, to straighten : on the other hand, porrigo 
is, to stretch forth, to present, and it vras used of the sur- 
render made by enemies. Parthe, rrfers aquUat: victot quoque 
porrigit arcuş, v. 593. Nune petit Armenius pacem ; nune porrigit 
arcuş Parthus eques ămida signaque capta mânu, Tr. ii. 227. False 
hur was very much worn in Rome at that time, and it chiefly came 
from Germany, as the yellow colour was preferred. Jam tibi cap-- 
thos ntUtet Germania crines ; Culta triumphatae munere gentis eris, says 
our poet in a plece (Am. i. 14, 45) which was probably written 
du ring the campaigns of Drusus in Germany in 741^745, and is ap- 
parently prophetic, for there was no triumph for the Germans before 
that of Germanicus în 770. We think, therefore, that it may have 
been a condition of the peace accorded to the Germans in 764, that 



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BOOK I. 634-704 147 

they should supply, perhaps annually, a certain quantity of hair for 
the Roman market. — înde, eic This is somewhat erroneous ; Tibe- 
rius triumphed in 765 for the Pannonîans and Dalmatians, not for 
the Germans, and the temple of Concord was not merely built, but 
dedicated (Ka9ttp<o9ri), in 763. — Haec, bc. templa, — cotutituU, se. 
tecum. — rebus et ara, i. e. with property and with an altar. It seems 
to mean that Livîa joined in defraying the cost of the building, and 
that she placed an altar there. — magni Jovis, Augustus. 

651, 652. Passage of the Sun into Aquarius. — Haec, se. tempora, 
î. e. XVII. Kal. 

658» 654. Evening-setting of Lyra. — Orient, î. e. Sol. 

655, 656. Morning-setting of Regulus, a star of the first magni- 
tude in the breast oF Leo. Columella (xi. 2) says it sets vi. Kal. 
Feb. — Sidere ab hoc, i.e. after this sign, se Lyra.'^ignis, i. e. 
Regulus. 

657-674. The feast of the Sementina. — Ter quater, three or four 
times, the conj. being omitted in the usual Roman manner. — evolvi. 
For, like other books, they were rolled up.-^dicUur, se. a Pontifice 
(Varro L. L. vi. 26), is given out : see Introd.^ 8. — Utque dies, etc. 
Though the exact day was not known, yet the time of the year was 
when it would be, i. e. aHer seed-sowing. — coronati, It was usual to 
put garlands on the working cattle, on occasions like this : comp. v. 
52; vi. 311; Tibull.ii. 1,8.— 665. i2î«<«?tt*, etc. : comp. Pers. iv. 28. 
The ancient plough was very light : see Virg. Terms Husb. v. aratrum. 
— Pagut, the village. Serv. Tullius, it b said, divided the Roman 
territory into pagi, in each of which there was an altar at which the 
pogani used to hold a feast every year called the Paganalia (Dionys. 
iv. 15).^— /i^.* see on v. 128. Each family brought its libum. — tuo, 
their own, which theygive. — Haec, i. e. Ceres : see Zumpt, } 70. — 
causam, origin. 

675-694. Prayer to Ceres and Tellus. — Consortet operum, se. 
agricuUurae, in which these goddesses hore a part. — utta, nipped, 
withered : see on Virg. Geor. i. 77. — latei, se. temen, i. e. is covered 
in. — 685. iubfectit, se. terrac-^formkae : see on Virg. Geor. î. 186. 
^-pingtnor aequo : see Virg. Geor. i. 111 ; ii. 253. — /b^,darnel : see 
Fior. Virg. s, v, — Nec tterilis, etc. : comp. Virg. Buc. v. 37 ; Geor. 
î. 154. — passura, etc. The /ar was parched or dried with fire before 
it was ground, and H was baked or boiled when in meal. 

695-704. Refiections. — dtu, i. e. during the long period of the 
civil ynix%.^9wrcula, the hoes. This and all other rustic împlements 
are fully explained and described in the Terms of Husbandry in our 
Viml* — tuae, se. Germanice.^^reSgata, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. i. 294. 

h2 



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148 NOTES ON THB FASTI. 

705-708. Dedication of the temple of the Cattors, i. e. Castor and 
Pollux, This temple, whieh was vowed during the battle at the 
lake Regillus(Hist. of Rome, p. 3d), was dedicat ed two ycars after, 
on the Ides of Quinctilis, A. U. 268 (Liv. ii. 42). It is probable 
that it was burat A. U. 747, and it was rebuilt by Tiberius and dedi« 
cated A. U. 759. He inscribed on it his own name, and that of his 
deceased brother Drusus ; Dion Iv. 27. Its site was on the south 
side of the Foram, between the temple of Vesta and the Basilica 
Julia. — de gente deorum, i. e. of the Caesarian familj. 

709-724. The altar of Peace. This goddess had hitherto been 
neglected by the warlike Romans, but Augustus on his retura from 
Gaul, A. U. 741, dedicated an altar to her on the Nones of July, in 
the Campus Martius : see Fast. Amitera. In 745, after his return 
a tfecond time from Gaul (Hist. Rom. Emp. p. 16), he dedicated 
anew an altar to Peace, ui. Kal. Feb. in the same place ; Fast. 
Praenest, It is of this, that the poet now speaks. — Frondilnu Ac- 
tiacit, Actiac bays, because the battle of Actium ended the civil 
wars. — 717. primus, the near. — PacaUbus Jiammis, i. e. the fire on 
the altar of Peace. — propetuos, who incline to. 



BOOK II. 



ARGUMENT. 



Introduction, 1-18. Ori^n of name of February, 19-34. Puri* 
fications, 35-54. Dedication of temple of Juno Sospita, etc, 5^72, 
Setting of Lyra and Leo, 73-78 ; of Delphin ; Story of Arion, 
79-118. Augu3tu8 stvled Pater Patriae, 119-144. Rising of 
Aquarius ; Beginningof Sprîng, 145-152 ; of Arctophylax ; Story of 
Căllisto, 153-192. Fall of the Fabii, 193-242. Rising of Corvus, 
Anguis, and Crater, 243-266. Lupercalia ; Story of Hercules and 
Ompbale, and of Romulus and Remus, 267-452. Sun enters 
Pisces. 453-474. Quirinalia, etc, 475-532. Parentalia, 533-616. 
Caristia, 617-638. Terminalia, 639-684. Regifugium, 685-852. 
Return of the swaliow ; Equiria, 853-864. 

1-18. Introduction. Henceforth we are to recollect, that we 
are reading the poem as it was originally written, aud addressed to 
Augustus before the poet's banishment in A. U. 763, and we are not 
to look in it for any event posterior to that year, — elegi, i. e. pentame- 
ţers, the elegiac measure.:— nt^^. This word, like o&m, quondam, etc. 



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BOOK II. 1-55. 149 

îs used în rather an inde6nite manner by tbe Latin poets. Ovid had 
published his Ars Amatoria in 752, and he had previousiy publîshed 
his Heroides and his Amores, all in elegiac verses. — Ecquis, etc. 
Would any one suppose that idle love-verses would have led to 
such a theme ? — 9. Haec, The constr. îs, Haec mii, est mea, i. e. that 
of celebrating festivals, etc. v, 15. — non vacat, is not without, i. e. it 
does something. — 14. habUu, fit for, capable of. — Caesar, Augustus. 

19-46. Origin of the name of the month. — Februa, etc. Februa 
was the term used bj the old Romans for what were afterwards 
called piamina, Piamen, i. q. piamentum, was whatever was used as 
a KaOapfibg or purification (purgamentum) for removing dyog or 
guilt. — dant fidem, prove its correctness. — rege, se. sacrorum: see 
on i. 587 ,'—Jktmine, se. diaU, — laficu, wool to be used in purifica- 
tîon, which wool was named februa, — Quaeque capii, ete. The 
parched far and salt (mola salsa), which the Flamen's lictor takes in 
the Flamen's house for purposes of purification, are called februa. — 
mica, SC. saHs. — 25. arbore pura, i. e. the pine, v, 28. — Flaminicam, 
the wife of the Flamen Dialis. — poscentem, se. a rmnistris, when she 
was officiatîng. — intonsos, i. e. bearded. The old Romans wore 
their beards till A. U. 454, when barbers were brought from Sicily ; 
the younger Africanus was the first who had himself shaved daily ; 
Plin. vii. 59. — tecta qtda, etc. : see «u 267, teq, — 33. Aut qma, etc, the 
Parentalia : see v, 533, seq, — pwa, i. e.facta pura.'^-nottri senes, our 
ancestors, patres, v, \ 9, avos, v, 30. — 37. Graecia, etc. It was, how- 
ever, common to the whole ancient world. The Mosaic law also had 
its rites of purification. — Actoriden, Menoetius, thefather of Patroclus, 
or rather Patroclus himself: see Horn. II. xxiii. 85. — Phoci, his 
brother: see Mythology, p. 312, whence it will appear that Ovid 
makes a mistake here. — 42. Creduitu, too ready to believe. — tm- 
merita, which she did not deserve. — Amphiaraides, Alcmaeon : see 
Mythology, p. 4S0.-^faciles, se. credere, i. e. creduli, v, 42. 

47-54. Order of the months. The poet is in great confusion 
here, for he maintains that January was always the first month in 
.the year, and at the same time that February was the last in the 
old Roman year : see Introd. § 3. — tamen (i. q. tandem), se. obser» 
vandum est, — Termine, î. e. the Terminalia : see v, 639. — spatiei, se. 
menstruo, — distantia tempora, i. e. prid. Kal. Feb. and Kal. Mart* — bis 
quini viri, the Decemvirs. — continuasse, to have joined. This is 
mentioned no where else, and we know not how they effected it. 
He alludes perhaps to the practice of intercalating. 

55-66. Temple of Juno Sospita, and compliment Io CaesaF. — 
^rincipio, etc. It is related (in the Annals) that a temple was 

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150 UOTES ON THE FASTI. 

dedicated to Juno Soepita (the goddess of Lanuvium ; Mythol. p. 
512), on the Palatine, near that of the Mother of the Gods. — aucta, 
honoured : see on i. 612. — quaeris, u e. si quaerts, — 59. Caetera, se. 
templa in Palatino f Aedem Juvbntutis aedem Matbis Maonae 
IN Palatio fbci ; Marm. Ancyr. tab. i. — ducu, Augostus. — 7Vm- 
plorum, etc. Augiutum Caetarem templorum onrnmm condxtorem 
vel resHtuiorem, Liv. iv. 20. Aedet tacras vetuttate eoUapsas aut in* 
cendio absumptat refecii, Suet. Oct. 30. Of Tîberius we are told 
that he was circa deos et reSgionet negSgentior, Suet. Tib. 69, and 
that he did no more than finish and dedicate three temples corn- 
menced by Augustus ; Tac. Ann. ii. 49. — 65. caelestibus, i. e. to 
their temples. — Proque tua, etc. and may they keep guard on tfaj 
house. We think with Merkel (p. cxziz.) that it may be the 
deities that had temples on the Palatine, where Augostus dwelt, that 
are meant, 

67-72. Other acts on the Kalends. — celebratur, is frequented, ia 
resorted to. — Helemi, This is the conjecture of Heinsius. AJl 
the good MSS. read Avemi; some of the inferior ones Atyli, which 
is altogether absurd, as the Asyliim, beside being closed, was on the 
Capitol, and this grove was on the banks of the Tiber : sce on 
vi. 105. — 69. Ad penetrate, etc. : see on i. 55 J^CapUo&num, etc. 
There was, it would bence appear, beside the sacrifice at the 
Capitoline temple, one at that of Jupiter Tonans, which stood on 
the same hill. — Saepe, se. hoc die, 

73-78. Evoning-setting of Lyra ; morning-setting of Leo. — 
Gemmeajuga, So of the chariot of the Sun, Met. ii. 109. Per 
juga chrysoUtM potitaeqtte ex ordme gemmae, — purpureit, briiliant, 
bright : see on Virg. Bac. ix. 40. — lila uocte, etc. Ovid evidently 
means that Lyra and Leo both set in the evening, while the truth 
is that the latter set in the moming of ni. Non. 

79-118. ETening^setting of Delphin. Story of Arion. — nocte 
iequente, i. e. Pr. Non., as the setting of Leo was on iit. Non. 
The real time of the setting of Delphin is ELaL Fehr.^^caelatum, 
set, embossed, se. with stars. The verb caelo was used for relief as. 
well as for engraving. — amaribut, se. Nieptuni, i. e. when he was 
courting Amphitrite, Eratost. Cat. 31. Hygin. Poet. Astr. i. 17. — 
Letbida, For Arion was a native of Methymna, in the isle of 
Lesbos. The following tale is told by Herodotus (i. 24), who says 
that it happened in the time of Periander, tyrant of Corinth. — 89. 
Palladis a&te, the owl. — contur, the raven : see Virgil, .Excurs. VL 
This enmity of the raven and the owl, which eat each other's eggs, 
is noticed by Aristotle (H. A. ix. 1) and Aelian (de Nat. An. iii. 



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BOOK II. 56-153. 151 

9). — Autohit ora, tho coast of Italy. — înde, î. e. from Tarentum. — 
opes, his wealth. — lOl. Quid tibi, ctc. cries the poet. — referre, to 
repeat, p)ay^. — coronam, The cUharoedut wore a golden crown set 
with gems, with a palia of cloth of gold and a purple chlamys : see 
Auct, ad Herenn. iv. 47. — bis, etc. the dibaphe or double-dyed pur- 
ple. — 4UOS, its own, its proper sounds. He uses this word probably 
toshowhow calm and coUected Arion was. — 109. Flebilibtu,etc, The 
song of the swan in death is a well-known notion of the ancients ; 
but what the meaning of its temples being pierced through is, we 
know not. Burmann sajs that petina is i. q. sagUta, as in Val. Flac. 
▼i. 421. Gierig talks of a hard featber which the swan gets when 
old ; but of this there is no proof, and besides, how could it enter his 
head ? — canentia, seniUa, as if he were a man. — delphina, a porpoise. 
The fondness of this fish for melodj is well known ; he will fol Io w 
. a boat in which there is muaic— 1 15. pretium vehendi, se. carmen, 
^-novem. The number of stars in that sign. 

119-144. Conferring on Augustus of the title of Pater Patriae. 
—•quo, SC. pectore^-^altemo pecHnet i. e. in elegiac verse, v, 3. — Qidd 
vokd, etc. Imitated irom Yirg. Buc. ii. â8, 60. — erat, i.q. esL 
The imperf. is often thus used like the Greek Ifiv : see on Hor. £p. i. 
4, 6. — 127. Sancte, etc. The people first gave him this title, send* 
ing deputies for the purpose to him at Antium. On his refusal 
tjiey repeated it at Rome ; and then in the senate-house, Valerius 
Messâla, at the general deşire, thus addressed him : Quod bonum 
fautiumque sit iUn domuique iuae, Cantor Auguste : tic emrn nos per* 
petuam fekcUatem ReipubUcae et laeta huic precari exisiimamui: 
Senatui te comentient cum Populo Romano contalutat Patrem Patriae. 
Suet. Oct. 58. A fragment of a Tab. Praenest. (ap. Foggini, p. 
xii.) informs usthat this was Non. Febr. 752. — Eques (collective), 
i. e. equUes, Ovid was of this order. — tuendo. He avoided aggres- 
sive wars. — 136. solit, etc. both sides of the Sun, i. e. east and west. 
— hic cattat, etc. Alluding to his laws on the subject of marriage. — 
140. luco, SC. Atyli. — principit, ac. tenalut, Augustus' favourite title. 
— incutatt se. crudeStaiit.—hottibut. Those who bore arms under 
Antonius and others, or perhaps those who conspired against him. 
-^•patrem, Julius Caesar. 

145-148. The morning^rising of Aquarius.— p««r Idaeus, the 
Trojan boj, Ganymedes, the cup-bearer of the gods, supposed to be 
this sign. 

149-152. Beginning of Sprlng. 

153-192. Evening-rising of Arctophylax or Bootes. Story of 
Callisto : see Met. ii, 401, seq. ; Mythology, p. 425. — Hamadrt^* 

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152 NOTES ON THB FASTI. 

adoi, i. e. Nymphat. The poets frequentlj thus use the species foi* 
the genus. — 156. cAort,the train. — \1^, Lycaonu She was daughter 
of Lycaon. — Arcion, "ApKTov, Bear. — Arctophylaz, 'Apcro^vXa^, 
bear-keeper. — Saemt, etc. The Bear never sets. 

193-242. The Faunalia. The fall of the Y^hiu-'-agrestis, He 
was a rural deity : see Mythology, p. 587. — Haec ubi, etc. In the 
Island, beside the templesof Jupiter and Aesculapius (i.291),8tood 
that of Faunus. This temple, which was built with the money 
arising from fines, was dedicated A. U. 558 (Liv. xzzii. 53), in the 
same year with that of Jupiter. Livy speaks of them as distinct 
temples, but Vitruvius wouid seem to make them one, for he says 
(iii. 2, 4, Tauch.) : Hujut exemplar est in insula Tiberina in aede 
Jovis et Fauni. — Haec (se. quoque), etq. The poet makes a 
considerable mistake here ; for though this may have been the day 
on which they set out from Rome, A. U. 275, that of their fall was • 
XV. Kal. Sex. 277 ; Liv. vi. l : see Hbt. of Rome, pp. 75, 76.— TVr 
centura, etc. that b 306, the conj. omitted, dis'mter quater and such 
like expressions. — vires et onus, i. e. the burden of the Veientine 
war. — genliles, i. e. of the gens, — professa, which they had promised. 
—■casiris ab isdem, By this is probably meant the house of the 
consul before which they assembled. Liv. ii. 49 The Fabiî, ît 
wottld appear, dwelt chiefiy on the Quirinal (Hist. of Rome, p. 117, 
noteX)y and we msy therefore suppose the order of their march tp 
have been dowu that hill, along the valley to the temple of Janus, 
over the Forum, along the Vicus Jugarius, out at the Carmental 
gate, over the Campus Martius. They then crossed the Tiber by 
a bridge, probably where the Milvian was afterwards built ; for 
those writers who suppose no bridge over the river at that time 
but the Sublician are, we think, in error. — generasus, noble : comp. 
i. 59 L — 200. E quis, etc. Quorum nenUnem ducem spemerei egregius 
quibusUbet tempcribus senatus, Liv. /. c, — Carmentis (gen. of person), 
etc. We would render this place thus : The ncarest way to go 
out there is by the right-hand Janus of the Carmental gate, do not 
however go that way ; for Livy says : InfeHci via dextro Jano Portae 
CarmentaUs profecti. For the double Roman gates, see on i. 257. 
Merkel gives dexlra, which is the reading of all the good MSS. 
but with Becker we prefer that adopted by Heinsius, as the only 
one agreeing with the fact. There was no temple of Janus in this 
place ; that afterwards built by Duillius was at the theatre of 
Marcellus, and the Forum Olitorium lay between it and the Car- 
mental gate. — omen habet, Dion (fr. 26) says : Kai râg frvXag . . . 
iv ârtfii^ kiroiiiaavTo ăare fiijdiva di avr&v ăpx^^^o, ^«levac— >/2fi9 



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BOOK II. 156-282. 153 

fama^ eit. This dîstîcb is bracketed by Burmann.and omitted bj Mer- 
kel. But it is in most even of the good MSS., is rather Ovidian, and 
seems wanting for the sense. We must recollect that the poem 
was left unfinished. — ^205. rapacem, i. q. rapidum : see Virg. Excurs. 
I. When one recollects what mere rivulets all the streams, ezcept 
the Anio, in the vicinity of Rome are, this epithet must appear 
rather strong.. — hibemu : see v: 152. — loco, se, opporiuno, î.e. onthe 
banks of the stream. We may bere observe that Veii itself was 
only ten miles irom Rome : Hist. of Rome, p. 107. — ^226. simplex, 
guileless, unsuspicious. — silvit, i. e. arujidtnetis : comp. Virg. Aen. x. 
706, seq., a passage he evidently had in view. — lor^e actus, driven 
far out of. — 237. Herculeae gentis, i. e. the Fabii, who claimed 
descent from Hercules by a daughter of Evander's. — Maxime, 
Fabius Cunctator : see on i. 605. — Cui ret, etc. Unus homo nobis 
cunctando restituit rem, Enn. Ann. viii. 27. 

243-266. Evening-rising of the three conjoined sîgns, the 
Crow, the Crater, and the Snake, and their origin ; see Theon on 
Arat. Phaen. 449 ; Eratosth. Catast. 41 ; Hygin. P. A. 40.— Forte 
Jovi, etc. The inferior gods thus honoured the superior : see iv. 
423 ; Aesch. Prom. 526. — tenuem, thin, î. e. lîght and clear.— je)o»i«. 
So aii fruits were called that did not grow in bunches : see on 
Virg. Buc. i. 81. — eam, \. e, ficum, the tree for the fruit. — 257. 
Jamque tcUur, i. e. when the fruit had ripened. — ^260. tenvit, This 
verb is bere used in two senses, in accordance with the words it 
govems. — velle, to want, to try : see on Hor. Sat. i. 4, 109.— fec- 
tens : see on i. 351. The juîce, however, of the unripe fig 
(oKvvQoq) was termed lac, Macrob. ii. 16; Plin. N. H. xv. 21. 
—-De nuUo, etc. Corvi , , , aegrescunt sexagenis diehus, sUi maxime, 
antequamjîci coquantur autumno, Plin. N. H. x. 12. 

267-282. The Lupercalia: see Excursus lU.^nudos, i. e. with- 
out their upper garments : see Hist. of Rome, p. 89, note. They 
wore only a Trept^w/za, or campestre: see PI ut. Q. R. 68. — Fauni 
bicomis, Because they confounded him with the Grecîan Pan, 
who was homed, which the Italian Faunus was not. — plurimus, very 
much, î. e. he frequents. — in mare currit, This is not quîte correct, 
for it falls into the Alpheus,— -277. equarum. Most MSS. read 
aquarum, which Burmann defends, as Pan was âicrtoc. Theocr. v. 
14. — Munus, an offering. — Pelasgis, i. e. the Arcadians, who were 
supposed to be of Pelasgian descent ; see Hist. of Greece, p. 9. — 
Flamen, etc. The Flamen Dialis always offîciated în the Luper- 
calia. — erit, Many MSS. read erat, Burmann conjectured agit, 
which Gierig adopted. ^ 

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164 NOTES ON THB FASTI. 

28&-302. Inqniiy whj the Luperci ran ntked.^-Ipse deus, etc. 
First reason, they imitate the god himaeU.—fiigas. The great 
ins\)ority of MSS., some of the best induded, read feros, — Ante 
Jovem^ etc. Second reason ; they comroemorate the original state 
of man in Arcadia. — luna, etc. : see on i. 469.— ogito/a, i. q. acta,'-^ 
utut, occupation9.--^/rtf,gt6»<, corn. — ^294. Nectarti. e. vmum. — duabus^ 
etc. A well-known mode of drinking water irom atreams in the 
country.— 5tt6 Jove, i. e. tvb dio, in the open air : comp. Hor. 
Carm. i. 1, 25; 22, 20. — detecii, i. e. nudi, ac, Luperci. He says 
detecH because they put off their dothes for the occauon.-— ope«, 
condition. 

303-^58. Reason why Faunus, i. e. Pan, went naked. — dominae, 
i. e. Omphale, queen of Lydia, to whom he had been sold by 
Hermes. Mytbology, p. 365. — ardor. Iove, like ignu, Jlamma, etc. 
— Ibat, etc. He here had Horace, Carm. iii. 20, 14, evidently in 
his mind. — 310. Maeottit, Omphale, the Maeonian or Lydian. — 
aurato smu, her tunic, in which gold threads were interwoven : see 
V, 319. Sinus for tunica^ part for whole, like cârma for navit, etc. 
Auratus includes every way in which gold is united with other sub* 
stances, either by gilding or otherwise. — umbraeula (only used in 
plur.), <fKUL5iiov, umbrella or parasol. It was formed as at present, 
and opened and shut. Ipse tene dittenta suit umbraeula virgis, 
A. A. ii. 209. Tă i* Syra y &v trov vi) Ai* Ucflreravvwro "0<nr€p 
vKiâhiov cai văKiv KvvriytTo^ Aristoph. £q. 1347. See the figure 
in our Mythology, Plate vi. 5. — Hesperus, etc. Hesperus 
is dewy, because the dews begin to &1I while he is shining 
in the summer-evening, and he rides a dark horse because nîght is 
then closing in. This verse of his favourite poet may have been 
in Milton's mind when he wrote ' Hesperus that led The starry 
host rode brightest,* P. L.^iv. 605. — tophis, the tufa RtMes, a vol- 
canic product : see on Virg. Geor. ii. 214.— ^tric^. This is any 
rock with fîssures in it. Virg. Geor. iv. 44. — 321. vincla^ proba* 
bly the arm-bands.— fx«ermf«^, i. q. exserere, — 324. vmcula^ the 
sandals. — 327. sua, their, as it belonged to the arrows.— /anrfi, se. 
sunt, — 333. somno, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. ix, SlG.-'^praefigrt, 
holds before him.— 338. forte, i. q. sorte. — 356. puella, i. e. young 
woman. — lusiis, i. e. elusus or delusus, 

359-380. Domestic origin of the rite. — causas, Plur. for sing. 
— suopulvere, its own (i. e. Italian) arena or course.— cae#a, se. m 
sacrijicio. — veribus, These might, perhaps, have been not spits, but 
a kind of forks, by which the meat was held over the fire, as in the 
heroic ages : see Hom. II. i. 465 ; Od. iii. 33. Transuta, however, 



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BOOK II. 283-411. 155 

accords better with spits. — oria, the meat ; v. 876 : eee on Virg. 
Geor. ii. 895. — 867. Fectibui, pitching the bar* Some of the 
beet MSS. read wiUbui, several others ceiiibus.^munt etc. putting 
the Btone. — 875. Fabu, etc. : see the Excunus. — 880. quod bene 
cestU, tbeir sacceeding, though naked, in recovering the prey. 

881-424. Origin of the words Lupercal and Lupercalia* Ezpo- 
Bure of Romulus and Remu8.<— 4/X? locm, the cavern on the east 
âde of the Palatine, named the Lupercal. — necari, to be put to 
death ; bere, to be drowned.— 866. Quidfacuf scpatrue. An ex- 
clamation in the poet's usual manner.— i2ofif«/«f, i. e. the founder of 
the mightjr Rome. — rectuantei, reluctant, reftising as iar as they 
dared. — Albula, Tbis was said to bare been the original name of 
tbe Tiber : comp. Liv. i. S.-^hibemit, etc, swollen by rain : comp. v, 
206. — The Latina uted hiemi and its derivations as the Greeks did 
Xitfâtfv and its kindred terms. It was not winter, as the wolf does 
not bear at that season : see v, 418.— /ora, the Forum Romanum, 
as the tfoUei in next verse is onlj that of the Circus, or it may in- 
clude the Fora JuUum and AugU8tum.>-4tfi<re#, etc. Because 
before the citj was drained bj the Cloaca Maxima and other 
sewers, and the river banked out by the quay, the low grounds of 
Rome used to be frequently fiooded. — 398. Huc, i. e. into the 
Talley of the Forum, o. 889. According to Fabius Pictor they 
came down from the Palatine, but see Hist. of Rome, p. 11.—* 
Longius, Because the river had overflowed. — tete, i. e. Romulus.— 
quem e vobis, which of jou. Two MSS. of inferior note read 
quem vobis^ which all the editors but Merkel bave adopted. — 401, 
Ferret opem, etc. The gods could not, any more than man, act in 
more than one place at a time, according to the ideas of the an- 
cients* — Vagierunt, This, though the reading of only one MS. of 
note, but that the best, bas been adopted by all the editors. The 
MSS. in general read vagierani, to which, as the pluperf. is so often 
used for the perf., we cannot see any great objection. He had 
already (Her. xi.85) said : FagUus de(bi Ule miier, sensiste puiares.'^ 
alveui, the bole or ark in which they were placed.^U. Arbor 
erat, etc. The Ruminal fig-tree, at the foot of which the babes 
were found by the wolf, was close to the Lupercal (Dionys. i. 79 ; 
Senr. Aen. viii. 90), but it was gone in cur poeţ's time (comp. 
Dionys. /. c), and a tree had been planted in the Comitium, to 
which that name was given. Tac. Ann. xiiî. 58 ; Plin. xv. 18. 
Hence Ovid says 4hat the one which was then so called was not 
the real tree. The editors have from various MSS. made a read- 
ing : Bumina nune ficui Bomula ficw enU^^eta^ that had Just 

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156 NOTBS ON THE FASTI. 

whelped : see on Virg. Buc. i. 50. — ubera ducunt, i. e. suck. — 420. 
promiui, sent down, 8C. by nature, i. e. intended for them. — Ula, se. 
lupa.'—nomen/i.e, Lupercal.— 423. Qittd,eie. The namemaj also 
have a Greek origin and come from Ljcaeus, an epithet of Pan in 
Arcadîa. 

425-452. Origin of tbe practice of barren women throwing 
themaelves in the way of the Luperci, în order to be struck hy 
their goat-skin thongs. — quid extpecUu t why do you wait ? why do 
you not make haste ? — herhis, etc, the three usual modes of trying 
to remove infecundity. The berbs were of course taken in decoc- 
tions.— iSTam, etc The reason whj the blow of the Luperci has 
that power.— 430. Eeddebant, etc. i. e. bore hardij any children. — 
injuria, act contrary to what was right.— niirw, wivea, properly 
daughters-in-law. — 435. Monte, etc. The site of the lucus and 
temple of Juno Lucina, on the Esquiline, îs uncertain. It bas long 
been thought that the temple was close to the present church of 
Sta Măria Maggiore, and that the rows of marble columns in the 
interior of that church had belonged to that ancient temple. But 
there is no proof of this, and from the order of the Argean chapels 
it migbt rather seem that it is to be sougbt on the part of the hill 
over the Subura and the Via Urbana.— ni6. This appears to indi- 
cate that the grove was on the side of the hHl. — nomine, in the name 
of, i. e. sacred to. — lucot, i. e; lucum, v* 436. This and nomina, v, 449, 
leave no doubt of the use of plur. for sing., a practice to which Ovid 
was very parţial. — i49. Gratia, se. redditur.—dedit, etc. Two origins 
of the name of Lucină, of which the latter is the more probable.— 
Aut qma, etc. We would understand this of herbHnging children 
into the light of day. There is no reason for supposing Juno 
Lucina to haye been the moon.— jou^/âr, young women, v. 356. 

453-474. Entrance of the Sun into Pisces. — diet, se. Luperca^ 
Uorum.-^tierit, se. cum, — et tex, etc. i. e. during these six days the 
winds blow as tbey list. — obkqua urna. For that is its position on 
the spbere. — quondam, i. e. in the Gîant war.— 461. Dione, Yenus, 
whom the Alexandrian and the Latin poets confound with her 
mother. — Palaeitinae. This is incorrect, for Palestine never ex- 
tended to the Euphrates, but he niay use it as i. q. Syria. — hos 
quoque, Yenus and Cupid, as well as the banks of the stream. — 
473. înde, etc. He bere confounds Yenus with the Derceto or 
Atergatis of the Syrians, who abstained from fish, as that was the 
form of their goddess. Luc. de Dea Syr. 14. — timdi, se. deorum, 
\, e. superstitious : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 295. 

475-512. The Quirinalia.— oacua, se. nota, i. e. there is notbing 



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BOOK II. 419-536. 157 

linarked in the Fasti on the xiy. Ral. Mart. — tertia, i. e. the next 
day, as tbey reckoned inclusively. — a telo, se. diciut. — nam pater 
armipotens, î. e. Marş. This is to be connected with v. 475. — 487. 
UntUf etc. Tbis is a verse of Ennius : see Varro, L. L. vii. 6. He 
uses it also Met. xiv. 814. Tbey are the words of Jupiter, of 
whicb Marsreminds him. — unu8,sc, JiUorum tuorum. — 491. Capreae 
paiudem, aiybg ^ Z6pK0Q Î\oq. It was in the Campus Martius.^^ 
496. Fit fuga. Hence the day was namtfd Populifugium. — rejp 
pairm, etc. Hac Qidrinus Martis equis JcherorUaJîigit, Hor. Carm. 
iii. 3, 15. Both poets evidently followed Enmua.—patres, se. erant, 
— 500. turgebat. The common reading is fitlgebat.^acii. Tbey 
used, when joumeying by night, to carry a lighted torch ; comp. iv. 
167, ^irabea.i see on i. 37. — decorus, i. e. decorattu: see Virgil p. 
844.^-505. Profâbej etc. He had probably in his mind Ennius' 
epitapb, Nemo me decoret lacrimit, etc. — 511. colUs, se. Qidnna&s, — 
cerţi. Because it was one of the stative festivals : see Introd. } 3. 

513-532. Reason wby the Quirinalia was alao named the Festa 
Stultorum. Origin of the Fornacalia. — Nbn habuit, etc, It would 
seem to be tbe Romans alone that he had in y'iew. -^aciebant, se. 
in terram^ sowed. — Usibus, bj experience. — 521. torrenda: see on 
i. 693. — Nam modo, etc, by leaving it till it was burnt black. — laeti 
'({. e. laetati) Fomace, delighting in Fornax. This deity, who îs 
mcntioned only by O vid, Merkel thinks (p. cxv.) may possibly be 
the same with Statfi Mater, for whoro see Mythology, p. 514.-— 
Orantj se. eam. — temperet, govern, regulate, i. e. keep from burning. 
— 527, Curio, etc. The festival of the Fornacalia, Mrhich was con- 
ceptive, was given out by the Curio Maximus. — Inque Foro, etc. 
We confşss we do not dearly understand this and the following 
verses. The Curiae were an original patrician institution, with 
which the Plebs, who are here meant, never had anylhing to do. It 
would seem, however, that the Fornacalia was kept by the people 
in their tribes, gară ^vXdc, as Pluţarch expressly says (Q. R. 89), 
and that those who did not do so, as he adds, Si ăaxoKiav fi 
âiroSrifiiav ff âyvotav, kept it on the Quirinalia. — extrema die, as 
being the last opportunity of doing it. — relata, brought back, i. e. 
repeated. 

538-570. The Parentalia : see Excursus IV. — est honor, etc. î. e. 
Beside those festivals already mentioned, there is one in honour 
of tbe dead. — exsfructat pyrat^ i. e. tumulos, the places where the 
funeral pyres had been, and which had burned oni.-r'Manei, i. e. 
animae patemae, v. 533. The Dii Manes. — 536. Styx ima, i. e. the 
abode of the Manes. The l<atin religion had no ţerm answering 



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168 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

to the Greek Erebus.— 537. Tegula. Thit îs i. q. testa, v. 540, and 
is either a tile or an eartben platter.^f^ofrec^, ofiered, presented : 
see on i . 646. Projedu, the various reading of one rery inferior M S. 
has been adopted bj Heinsius, Barmano, and Gierig, and they 
underatand garlands that had been tbrown away in the streeta bj 
persous retuming from banquets l'^tpanae, etc. i. e. a Mola ndta,'^ 
ioiuiae, aingle, not made into garlands.-^mMfia via, etc. This may 
either mean that these things were to be put on a piece of broken 
crockery-ware picked up in the street, or that the offering was to 
be left on tbe road. The Roman tombs were in general on the 
road-sides, as that of the Scipios, of Caecilia Metella, and othera 
on the Appian road. — itta, suitable, appropriate.— fii^a^tt, ac. 
tn parentet, — 545. Ilie patris, etc. : see Yirg. Aen. t. 53, 94. 
There appears to be somewhat of an error bere in using Genius 
for Manes» for the Genius belonged only to a living person : see 
Mythology, p. 525. — Parentales. As the name of thb festival was 
Parentalia.— <i^j#r«0re, i. e. neglected.— omtne ab itto, from that 
omen, L e. sign» signal as it were. — suburbamt, Because the dead 
were bumt outside of the walls of the city. — guesti, se. sunt. — avi, 
the ancestors in general.— 554. Defjjpnes, shapeless, indistinct. — 
modus, termination. This sense is frequent in Virgil and Horace. — 
557. cessate, se. a matrimonio.^'^nnea taeda, the nupţial torch, which 
was of pme-wood^'^cupidae, eager to have her married. — comat, 
etc. The well-known Roman custom of dividing the hair of a 
maîden-bride with the caeUbaris hasta, as a small spear-ebaped in- 
strument used for that purpose was nam^d.*-a^Mtt, different, per- 
haps i. q. aHenas, — 664, foci, same as the precedîng arae. — nune ponto. 
It may be doubted if this was a genuine Roman belief, and not 
rather the Grecian idea introduced by the poet : see the vtKvia 
in the Odyssey. — nec tatnen haec, etc. : see the Excursus, adjln.^-- 
uUra, acjiunt. — Hanc, etc. The meanîng is, that this last day of the 
Parentalia b named the Feralia. For the employment of Mc and 
iile with the same object, see on Hor. Ep. i. 6, 23. — Feralia, In 
tbe derivation of this word he foUows Varro, who says (L. L. vi. 
18), Feralia, ab inferis et ferendo, guod ferunt turn epulas ad 
sepulchrum qwbusjus est pareniare.^usta, i. e. epulas. 

571-582. OSering to Muta or Tacita.-*ant» annosa, a very okl 
woman. Anus may come from annus. — Et digitis, etc. With 
three fingers she puts three grains of thus into a mousehole under 
the threshold. Three and seven were the magic numbera. — brevis, 
i. e. parvus, — cantata, charmed, over which she bas murmured magic 
▼erses.-;/wco plumbo, black lead. This is the reading of all the 



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BOOK n. 537-615. 169 

good MSS. ; two of inferior note g^ve rhombo as a various reading, 
and this had been adopted bj all the editors after Heinsius, till 
Kreba restored the reading of the MSS. In like manner in 
Amm. i. 8, 7, we have the two readings plumbo and rhombo^ with the 
preponderanee of authoritj in favour of the former. The rkonUms or 
top, we know, was of great use in magic, but so also was lead ; and 
Neapolis on this place quotes thus from Pselius de Daemonibus : 
Aaifiovia pŞtTra x^^povrai trapă rov fitapov rStv yoririav yivovc 
fuXipStfi Kai Ktipff, Kai XtTcry irpoffdtOkyra fiirtf^ Stă tQv ăBefiiTiav 
a^Kpwţt&v vâOri Tpayucâ KaTtpyâZovrai.^^Quodque pice, etc. 
Another part of tbisjugglingwas to take the head of the choap com- 
mon fish called themaena, to fasten its mouth with pitch and aneedle, 
and then to roast it in the €re. This was plainly symboHcal. The 
silence of fishes is well-known, and it was made still more so if 
poflsible, and then put in the fire, to show, as it were, that no force 
would make it break silence. In the selectîon of the Maenia 
there is an evident allusion to the name of Mania, the same as 
Lara. Maenae b the conjecture of Heinsius, the MSS. reading 
menta or mentae, one mane, another menae. Bergk proposed mrdU» 
— HoUilei, etc. The reasonjof this practice. — ebria, i. e. having 
drunk well. 

583-616. Who this goddess was. — anHquot tenet, the old ancients, 
the forefathers. He means that he had read it in old books or 
learned it from tradition. The legend, which is quite contrary to 
the religious system of the old Romans, was invented in imitation 
of those of Greece.-^cogna/t». Because she was a water-nymph. 
-^598. Quaeque colunt, etc. i. e. the nymphs of the Anio, to the god 
of which river Ilia or Silvia was marrîed ; see Am. iii. 6, 45 ieq, 
'—prima ted ilU, etc, i. e. her name was Lala, from \a\ia. — Almo* 
The god of that river, whom he makes her father. — miserata, i. e. 
migerans, pitying, or rather saying she pitied. — nuptam, i. e. Juno, 
who was married. — ^^607. intummt, se. ira,^monet, i. q. admonet, 
desires, directs. — gemiriot, etc. These are the Lares Praestites, the 
public Lars of Rome, and not the private ones of families : see 
on y. 129. — urbe. Gierig and Krebs ignorantly read aede, with two 
MSS. and the editions anterior to that of Heinsius. 

615-636. The Caristia. This festival does not occur in any of 
the Kalendars but the Fasti rustic. Farnes., and it is only noticed 
by Ovid and Yalerius Mazimus, who says (ii. 1, 8), Convivium 
etiam soUemne majore» irutUuerunt, idque Carigtia appellaverunt, cui 
praeter cognatoi et affines nemo interponebatur ; ut si qua inter neces" 
iorios querela ettet orta apud sacra mensae et inter hilarUatem ammo- 



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160 NOTBS ON THE PAŞTI. 

rum, JmUoribus concordiae adhUntu, toUeretur.'^Proxma, scfetta.—^ 
soâosdtos, i.e. the gods of the family, the Penates. Some inferior 
MSS. (wbich the editors in general have followed) read socias 
dapet, — •propmgua, kindred.— ^itt periere, vho are gone for ever.— 
ora referre, to turn the face,to retum. — 623. impius, unnatural, like 
Atreus and Thyestes, v, 627. — acerba, bitter, cruel, like Medea, ©. 
627. — vivax, se. mmium, — Et quae, etc. Ino: see Mythology, p. 
332. — toror, Fh\\ome\&,-^uabut iniguut. From taevomque ambobtu 
Achillen, Tirg, Aen. î. 458. — 681. DU generit bonit, i.e. the Dii 
Manes. — Ubate, take a small portion from. — mcmctos, i.e. tuccmctos, 
The in b intensive, as in infraciut: comp. v. 217, 675. Incinctus 
cinctu Gabino, Liv. viii. d.—patelia. This is the proper name of 
the plate or dish on which ofierings of food were made to the gods : 
Bee vi. 310 ; Liv. xxvi. 36 ; Val. Maz. iv. 4, 3. Reperiemut atotot iia 
non religiosot, ut edant de patella, Cic. de Fin. ii. 7. Oportet bonum 
cwem părere legibut et deot colere in pateUam dare irncpăv xpiag. 
Yarr. ap. Non. t, v. It was, however, used also of a common 
plate : see Hor. £p. i. 5, 2. — Parca, etc. It was the custom at 
the conclusion of a banquet to pour out a small libation accompa- 
nied with prayers for health and prosperity, the origin of our 
drinking healths. It had now become the custom to unite the 
name of Augustus in the prayer. — oo«, se. vaiere precor, — bona verba, 
SC haec. — ter. This is the conjecture of Heinsius, and it has been 
adopted by Merkel alone. The MSS. read per, or tint, or pott ,- 
as also many of them sacra for bona, 

639-684. The Terminalia. — tive lapis, etc. The Terminus or 
mark of boundary was sometimes a stone, sometimes a stock. The 
poet bere alludes to the old form of prayer, tive deut sive dea^^-^ 
bina, i.q. duo: see Zumpt, § 119. — 645. Curto testu^ in a small 
earthen vessel (see Heins. m loc, and our Horace, Sat. i. 6, 104), 
or, perhaps, on a pot-sherd. " There shall pot be found in the 
bursting of it a shred to take fire from the hearth^ Isaiah xxx. 14. — 
humo, This seems to be the day or.sods of which the altar was 
made.^-trrtto/, excites, blows up. — canistra, i.q. canistrum, the 
basket in which were the corn, etc. — incisos, cut up : see on v, 634. 
^-lUfantur : see v* 636. — candida, white, as wearing white clothes : 
comp. i. 80. — /ac^CT», sucking : see i. 351. — 659. 7\i populos, etc. 
This is the poet's hymn, not that of the peasants. — Si tu, etc. : see 
Herod. i. 82 ; Hist. of Greece, p. 74,— lectus. This is the conjec- 
ture of Barthius, and which has been adopted by all the editors but 
Burmann. The reading of the MSS. is teclus, Barthius was led 
to ît by this verse of Statius (Th. iv. 47), Et Lacedaeniomuni 



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BooK II. 617-729. 161 

Hiyre lectura cruoretn. The ezclamation in the foUowing verse 
seems to confirm this sense ; we also doubt if tectus in armis be 
correct Latin, and this circumstance, though unnoticed by Herodo- 
tus, is mentioned by Valerius Maximus, iii. 4, Extern. — in aede, 
i. e. in the place selected for its site : see Hist. of Rome, p. 27. — 
671. NunCf etc. : see Serv. Aen. iz. 448. Lact. de Fals. Rel.i. 20. 
"--pott illud, etc. i. e. afler resisting Jupiter so effectually, there is 
no reason why you sbould give way to the encroachments of men, 
and allow yourself to be moved for the grratification of unjust 
cupidity. — regna, i. e. Laur, ogro*.— 681. lUae, etc. Mera?^ yovv 
rov irkfiiTTOv xai tov k'icrov \i9ov rwv râ fiîXta hafftjfiaivâvriov riJQ 
*P(tffti}C KoKiiTat r6irog ^tfcroC Tovrov ^ Bpiov ăvo^aivovoi r^c 
r6Ti *PutfiaUjv yrJQf oi 0* UpofivijfiovEQ Ovtriav ivireKovtriv kvravOâ 
rt Kal iv &\kotc roiroiţ ttXcioo'cv &q qpiotg aitSfifiepâv, ijv KaXovfftv 
'Afipapoviav, Strab. v. p. 351. It would hence appear that they 
sacrificed to Terminus at the Ambarvalia. We have met with 
no mention of a place named Festi, and Strabo does not say on 
what road it lay. — urbis, etc. One of those plays on words which 
our poet loved. 

685 — 852. The Reg^fugiam : see Hist. of Rome, p. 27, seq, 

685-710. The taking of Gabii. — manifesta, se. by his treachery 
and cruelty. — Occidite, etc. Jamdudum suimie poenas ; Hoc Ithacus 
veUt et magno mercentur Atridae, Virg. Aen. ii. 103. — lueatur, carry 
on, A curando ac tutela, ut cum dicimus, hellum tueor et tueri 
villam, Varro, L. L. vii. 12. This is a very unusual use of thîs 
verb, for properly a man tuitur what is his own. — appellat, addresses, 
asks. Crebris not Utteris appellato, Cic. ad Fam. xv. 20. — 703. 
odoratis, sweet-smelling, fragrant. The part. past of the deponent 
is used in the ordinary manner for the part. act.- of the active verb 
odoro. — suberat, se. urbi, — Ma tumma, i. e. the tops of the lilies. — 
nuda^ i. q. nudata ; see our Virgil, p. 345. 

711-720. A prodigy.— a/tei-JĂîw. We may here observe that 
good authors never use this noun in the sing. — 713. ContuUtur, se. 
Delphis,—Matri, etc. This answer was given to another question, 
but the poet probably supposed his readers to be familiar with all 
the circumstances. — turba. There were only two of them. — 
720. Creditur, se. ab tw. Several good MSS. read creditwt, — 
offemo, SC. «« terram, in Utpidem. 

721-852. Story of Lucretia. — LudUur, Impers. — Tarquiniusjuve' 
nit, i. e. Sextus. — rege creafus, i. e. Sextus. This is one among 
many proofs of the unfinished state of the poem. — 729. in officio, 
in its duty, i. e. faithful. Fundanos in officio ette, Liv. viii. 19. 



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162 NOTES ON THE PASTL 



i clarum, etc. as being the son of Egerius : see Hîst. of Rome, 
p. 22. — toUamur (a mid. voice), let us mount. — fore : see on Hor. 
Sat. i. 2, 67. — 789. nurum. In Livj it is nunu, but O vid seems to 
have bad Sextus alone in yiew. It maj, however, be a collective. 
— înde, etc. They then went to Collatia, whicb was ten miles 
off. — tentd, low and soft. — 746. lacema^ a military cloak. — eue 
tuper, i. e. supereuc. — Poitmodo^ etc. You will be sure to fall at 
last, since you are resisting better men tban your own. — Resto 
(i. e. resUto) is intensive of tto : see our Horace, Excurs. I Y. Dum 
pugnant Danai, dum re stat barbarut HectWf Prop. iii. 7, 31. Nune 
paucit plures vix ret ta tis, Liv. xxiii. 45. — 780^ tWiigno, whicb did 
not deserve it.^ — 785. aerată, plated with copper. — Hostit, etc. 
This play on words oocurs also in Livy, and it was probably in 
Ennius. — 790. hosiibut, i.e. hosti, in the poet's usual manner. — 812. 
quanto itetit, what a price it cost. — 832. in patriot pedet^ at the feet 
of her father. — 837. tua nonuna, i. e. nomen» Brutus is stupid, — 
843. profuga,i,e. projugata, — 847. Fertur, i.e. effertur, — lăcrimos, 
etc.> tears for herself, hatred for the tyrant. Invidia often occurs 
in this sense. 

853-^6. First appearance of the swallow. Pliny (ii. 47) places 
this on the viii. Kal., Columellaon vii. Kal. — verispraenuniia,''RpoQ 
âyytXoc ifupâifmvoQ ări^iav, Sappho. — qua (i.e. aUqua), SC. parte, 
— tuofrigore, i. e. te frigida, 

857-864. The Equiria or horse-races, in the Campus Marti us» 
in honour of Marş. — citos, roused, excited ; part. of cieo, — ex vero, 
Because they were so named ab equis. 



BOOK III 



ARGUMENT. 



Invocation to Marş, 1-8. Birth and early history of Romulus 
and Remus, 9-70. Origin of month of March, &c., 87-166. 
Matronalia, 167-258. Origin of the Sălii, 259—898. Setting of 
Pisces, 899-402. Setting of Arctophylax, and rising of Vinde- 
roitor, 403-414. Augustus made Pontifex Maximus, 415-428. 
Dedication of temple of Vedjovis, 429-448. Rising of Pegasus, 
449-458. Rising of Crown of Ariadne ; its origin, 459-516. 
Equiria, 517-522. Feast of Anna Perenna ; its origin, 523-696. 
Death of Julius Caesar, 697-710. Setting of Scorpie, 711, 712. 



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BOOK III. 1-78. 163 

Liberalia, 71â-790. Risîng of Milvus; its origin, 791*808. Quin- 
quatrus, 809-850. Sun eoters Aries ; origin of that sign, 851-876. 
Equinox, 877-878.' Worship of Janus, Concordia, Salui?, and Pax, 
879-882. Temple of Luna dedicated, 883, 884. 

1-8. Invocation to Marş. — nitidas, etc, i. e. take off your helmet. 
'^qvid tit, etc, what the poet, whose occupation is so peaceful, can 
have to do with the god of ivar. — fioetae, se. mihi : comp. ii. 9. 

9-78. Birth of Romulus and Remus, and founding of Rome.— 
Romana, The poet, like Horace (Carm. iii. 9, 8), seems to have 
forgotten that the scene was at Alba, and that Rome did not exist 
as yet. — Cepit, This is a usual term. Cifntkia prima suii miterum 
rne cepit ocel&g, Prop. i. 1, 1. But the poet may be plajing on the 
word.— mowrt, se. carmen, Cantutque movete, Virg. Aen. yii. 641.—* 
sacra, etc. She went down to the riVer (but we doubt if there was 
any stream near Aibă) to fetch pure water for washing the sacred 
utensils. — Ventum erai, se. ab ^a.— 14. Ponitur, i. e. deponitwr, It 
has always been the custom in the South to carry the pitcher on 
the head : comp. Am. i. 10, 6 ; Prop. iv. 4, 16. In the East the 
women carried it on one shoulder ; Gen. xxiy. 45. — restituk, settled, 
put in order. It is a natural and a pleasing image, a girl settling 
up her hair which had been disordered.— ^/^e/^, concealed : see on 
Hor. Ep. i. 6, 46. — 22, ope, power.— graw, i. q. gravida, — 27. Utile, 
etc. According to the usual formula, Quod bonum feSx fauttumque 
sit, — ktpsa, etc. When a Vestal was condemned to death for breaeh 
of chastity, the Pontifex Maximus took the sacred fiUet oiF her 
head. Ahrilv fikv Trj^ Kopvifific &<l>i\6fievoi râ crTefiiiara jcrX. says 
Dionysius, of the Vestal Appîa. — înde, thence, i. e. a /ocis,'"palmae, 
emblems of victory. — protexerat, covered over ; pluperf. for perf. — 
35. ferrum moUtur, Ei validam in^vites moUre Inpennem, Virg. Geor, 
iv. 331 . — Terreor .... micat, A parenthesis. — admonitu, se. deorum, 
the intimation, the vision. — Martia (se. at), sacred or belonging 
to Marş. — Quominm, etc, i. e. ten months had elapsed.--emmti». 
It was the year, not the course, that was emeritus ; for such was the 
soldier qid mereri desOt, — 45. nmulacra, î. e. limulacrum : comp. vi. 
295.— J^^ subUt, etc. We are to recoliect that the ancients burned 
nothing but wood. — opes, the regal authority. — 53. L<icte, etc. Be- 
cause it was the common tradition, and was in the Annals of Ennius 
and the other histories and poems. — 55. Larentta, the wife of Faus- 
tulus.— op<'#, wealth, i. e. mode of living. — Acceptus genOt, On 
account of the Saturnalia, when they feasted and vndidgehant Genio, 
— IBadoe, sons of Ilia. — redigunt, drive back. — actes, i, q. abactos,-^ 
editus, told, narrated. 



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164 KOTES ON THE FASTI. 

79-98. General use of a Mensis Martîus. — Et tamen, etc. i. e. 
Romulus was not, however, the first who introduced the worship of 
Marş. — Dianam, i. e. Britomartis or Dictynna, who was identified 
with Artemis and Diana: see Mythology, p. 181. — 82. tellug Hyp- 
npylea. Lemnos, where Hjpsîpyle, the daughter of Thoas, reîgned. 
'^-Junotiem, etc. : see Hom. II. iv. 52. — Fauni, Pan : see on ii. 268. 
'—ora. This is properly the searcoast, as in ii. 94 ; but it was some- 
times used for region, country : comp. Hor. Carm. i. 26, 4. — 87. 
peregrinos, i. e. of other Italian towns and peoples. The following 
are curious instances of the varieties that prevailed in ancient times 
between places within a few miies of each other. The month which 
was named from Marş was the iîrst in the Roman Kalendar ; the 
third in those of Alba, Aricia, Tusculum, and Cures ; the fourth in 
those of the Sabines and Pelignians ; the fifth in those of Laurentum 
and Falerii ; the sixth in that of the Hemicans ; and the tenth in 
that of the Aequians. It does not appear with what month each of 
these people began the year, and whether their March fell or not 
in the same season with that of the Romans. For the peoples and 
places mentioned here, see Hist. of Rome, p. 5, and Geogr. Index. 
— Inter, etc. This is a harsh construction : Arie. se. popidos or fastos, 
tempora and moenia, all signifyîng the same thing. — constat, it accords, 
there is an argnment. — Facta, etc, Tusculum, built by Telegonus, 
the son of Ulysses and Circe. — A tribus, etc, first after three, i. e. 
fourth. Belus et omnes A Belo, Virg. Aen. i. 729. 

99-134. Number of months in the ancient year. — Nec totidem^ 
etc. We may here observe a peculiar feature in the Latin elegiac 
poetry, especially that of Ovid, namely, that the secood verse of 
the couplet frequently merely repeats the sense of the first in other 
words. This strongly resembles what is called the parallelism of the 
Hebrew poetry. — 101. Nondum, etc: comp. Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 156. 
'^male forte, i. e. vmbeUe: see on Hor. Sat. i.S, 45. — mittere, i. e. 
mmittere.''-^ub axe, i. e. in axe, se mundi. — quarum, etc. The Lesser 
or interior Bear was named Cynosura (Kwbg ovpd), and it was by it 
that the Phoenician mariners steered their course, while the less 
experienced Greeks directed theirs by the Greater Bear, named 
Helice («Xck»)) from its revolving motion round the pole : see Arat. 
Phaen. 36, with Theon's note.— Signa, se. Zodiaca. — 109. frater, 
Phoebus, Sol.-- constatat, i. e. it was the general belief. — €sse,8C. 
ea. — tenehant, comprehended, understood. There is the usual play 
on words. Some MSS. of inferior note read movebant.—foeni, se 
erant. A buridle {man^ulus) of hay fastened on a pole ( jiertica) is 
sud to have been the standard of the early Romans. Plutarch 



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BOOK III. 79-151. 165 

« 
(Rom. 6) says that such were the standards of those who aided 
Romulus in his attack oo Amulius. — cemis, se. Auguste, — indocUeSy 
untaught» ignorant.— 120. Mensibut^ etc, i. e. the lustres or periods 
of five years were then ten months short, two for each year. — Hic 
numerus, se. decimus. — spatiit, i. e. the decads. — 127. înde patres, 
etc. The original Roman senate consisted of one hundred mem* 
bers, divided into ten decuries (orbea) : see Hist. of Rome, pp. 15, 
45. Nothing can be plainer than this ; but a vast majority of the 
MSS., which nearly all the editors foUow, read pares, of which no 
satisfac tory sense has been given. — Hastatos, etc. It was the legion 
of the republic, and not the phalani of the regal period that was 
composed of Hastati, Principes, and Pilani or Triarians : see Hist, 
of Rome, p. 171. It is not clear how the decimal division was ap- 
plied to them. — legiHmo, etc, i. e. the Equites of the legion who 
were divided into ten turmae or troops ; legUmo, as being furnished 
by the state, constituţional as it were : see Hist. of Rome, p. 50.—* 
Qum etiam, etc, The three patrician tribes were divided in a 
similar manner. 

135-150. Proofs^of the year having anciently begun in March. 
On the Kalends of this month the bay-branches were renewed at 
the dweUings of the Flamens and of the Rex Sacrorum, at the 
Curia Frişca and the temple of Vesta, and the sacred fire in this 
last was extinguished and rekindled.— JFTlamtntdtii, i. e. at their doors, 
p. 139: see on ii. 21. Perhaps onlythe Flamen Dialis. — Curia 
Pritca. It is difficult to say what is meant by this. The Curia 
Hostilia, the old senate-house, no longer existed ; the poet, however, 
may have been writing from books, as he so constantly did, and not 
have attended to that fact. Or it may be the four veteres Curiae, 
which, -according to Festus {s, v. novae), were still remaining.— 
Vesta, i. e. her temple or its door : comp. v. 137.— /ocw, i. e. templo, 
'^DicUur, because no one couM enter so as to see it. — 145. ,fides, a 
proof or ground of belief.— ^«na, etc. : see v, 528, seq, — veteres, 
etc, i. e. the consulate in the early times. This, however, is a 
complete error. The consuls had no fixed time for entering on 
their office till A. U. 529-31, five years before HaunibaPs invasion 
of Italy, when it became the Ides of March, which continued till 
A. U. 599-601, when it was fixed on the Kalends of January. In 
the early times it had fluctuated Irom July to September : see 
Becker Handb. der Rom. Alt. ii. ii. 95, seq. — 148. perfide Poene, 
Hannibal with the usual Roman slander of him. — Demque, etc 
This is the strongest reason : see Introd. $ 8. 

151-166. Changes of the year.- oâv^/er» ; see Colum, v, 8. 



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166 NOTES OK THB FASTI. 

• 
Ereti mânut omnit olivifirae Mutuscae, Virg. Aen. vii. 71 1 . — deduchu, 

brought down» i. e. from the Sabine hills to tbe plains of Roine ; 

or brought thither in state with namerous attendants.— Âxiiito, etc, 

i. e. Pytbagoras, who taught the doctrine of tbe Metempsychosîsy 

and who was said to bave been tbe instructor of Numa. — Egeria : 

see V. 261. '^Caetaritt etc. For Caesar's reformation of tbe Ka- 

lendar, see Hist. of Rome, p. 443. — deut hatpes, a stranger-god. 

167-258. The Matronalia and its causes. 

167-230. Tbe Râpe of tbe SAbines,—<fccuUo$ monitus, i. q. ad- 
monUtu, tbe secret intimations or Toices: comp. v. 36.— Cum <w, 
etc. Wben the occupations are of a manlj nature (comp. v. 173), 
not, as Gierig understands it, wben you are in general worsbiped 
by men. — iua festa, i. e. Xalendas MarOas. — Nune, on tbis day.— 
gretiut fero, AUuding perbaps to bis name Gradivus. — hujus, se 
Romae magnae, — de canna, etc. Tbis supposed eottage of Romulus, 
whicb was still kept up in our poet*s time, would aeem to bave stood 
on the west side of the Palatine, below tbe cburcb of San Teodoro : 
see Dionys. i. 79. — Romanut, i. q. Romani — 190. maie, hardly, or 
not at all : see f . 102. — Cum pare, etc. A reason wby tbe Romans 
sbouid get wives. — 195. Extremii (se. ItaUae), etc, i. e. tbey gave 
their daugbters in marriage to people at a distance, and would not 
to tbose who were close at bând.— jMtiriam .* see v, 21. — ToUe, 
away with, as toUe moras. Met. xiii. 556 ; ioiie quereku. Hor. £p. i. 
12, 3. — Conso: see Mytbology, p. 529. — iUd, se. poeta. — 200. sua 
$aera. The Consualia were on the xt. Kal. Sept. — Intumuere, se. 
ira: see Hist. of Rome, p. 13. — generit, abl. plur. of gener. He 
may, as Douza supposes, be bere glancing at tbe war between 
Caeaar and Pompeius.— /«re, in general : see v, 218. — nurus, Hersilia, 
tbe wife of Romulus.— ;pfae, dutiful. — ^224. potse^ etc. Taubner 
tbinks tbat tbey pinched the cbildren, and tbat tbeir cries of Ah ! 
Vae I sounded Hke Ave. We see no other way of ezplaining tbe 
passage. — OehaUae: see oa i. 260.— no» lete munut, no sHgbt re- 
ward. 

231-258. Other origins of tbe festival.— ^u/ quia, etc. Ehber 
tbis was the reason, or tbat I was the sire of the founders of tbe 
City. — commttL Tbis is plainly a mid. voice. — ^235. Qim^ etc. A 
further reason. Thb is the time of nature'a fecundity.— p^Mcn/, 
go totally away. — Uvida, Some of tbe beat MSS. read umida: 
several bave vmda.-~-kerba, the young corn. — 244. miUtiam. Tbis 
is appropriate to the speaker. Tbe poet nsea tbis iignre, bowever, 
elsewhere. Et rudis ad partut et nova miies eram, Her. ii. 48. — 
Addet etc. Anotber cause. The temple of Juno Lucina (see on 



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BOOK III. 156-285. . 167 

ii. 435) was dedicated on this day. — excubias, etc. Exquiliae. 
Alii hat scripsere ah excubm Hegis cUctas, atu ab eo quod excuUae a rege 
TtU&o essent, alii ab aesculetis, Varro, L. L. y. 49. By excubias, 
Meikel (p. cxxvii.) understandd the mound or wall of Servius 
TulHus : see Hist. of Rome, p. 54. — 249. Qidd moror, etc. A iinăl 
reason. It is an act of iitial duty on the part of Marş. — Emmet, 
rises up, is plain. — Fer te deae, etc. These are the words of the 
poet in his own person. Flowers were a natural ofTering in the 
sipriag.—florenHbus herbit, î, q, Jloribus : comp. Virg. Buc. ix. 19.-— 
caput, SC. of the statue of the goddess, or rather of the worshîper. 
— 255. Dicite, sing : see on Hon Ep. i. 1,1. — Ut tolvat, etc. The 
Roman religion, as we maj observe, was full of these symbolic acts. 

259-398. On the Kalends of March, the priests named the Sălii, 
began their'sacred dances and songs, which they repeated on stated 
days througbout the month.' The poet here gives the supposed 
origin of this rite : see Excursus on ii. 267. 

259-284. £geria and Numa. — Nympha, etc, i. e. Egeria.-— ojverato, 
employed in.— ^tfa facta, your own deeds, what you yourself were 
concemed in. — Valfy, etc. The Lacus Dianae (Lago di Nemi), a 
short way from Aricia, at the town of Genzano. It is a most beau- 
tiful lake, of a circular form, as being the crater of an extinct volcano. 
— Hic latei, etc. Virbius, who was worshiped here, was identified 
with the Grecian Hippolytus ; see Virg. Aen. vii. 765, seq,; Mytho- 
logy, p. 520. — 267. Licia, etc. This practice may be observed at 
the present day în every country where the Roman Catholic religion 
prevails ; in Ireland, for example : comp. Met. . viii. 744. — sepes, 
Probably the fence of the sacred grove. — Saepe, etc. This mode 
of retuming thanks for the recovery of health to Diana Nemorensis 
is also noticed by Propertius (ii, 23, 39), Cum videt accensis devotam 
currere taedis In nemus et Trmaehnma ferre deae, — Regna tenent, 
etc. The priest named Rex Nemorensis was always a runaway 
slave who had slţdn his predecessor in offîce, and who alwayscarried 
a sword for his own protection : comp. A. A. i. 260 ; Strabo v. 3, 12 ; 
Suefc. Cal. 35. — ^273. D^uU, se. in lacum, Tâs fâiv ovv irriyâc 
opfv ianVf cţ wv if \ifivif wXtipovTcu' ravriav ^ harlv 'Hytpia jcaXov- 
fikvrff SaifiovoQ revoc kviiivvfioQ, Strab. tt/ mp. We most not con* 
found this with the fount and vale of Egeria near the Capene gate 
of Rome: Juv. iii. 17. — comiUum, i. e. conti&atrix: see Virg. £x-> 
curs. VII. 

285-392. The sending down of the ancile. The foUowing legend 
was framed in some measure from that of Proteus in the Odyssey, and 
partly from that of Silenus ; Herod. viii. 138. It is also related by 



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168 . NOTES ON THE FASTT. 

Plutarch, Num. 15. — ignes, se. caelestet, — f)Uibile, i. q. ejcpiabile, — 
polerufU, SC. soU. — ^292. Romani soH, of Roman ground, i. e. Roman 
rural gods. — adhibe, 8C. igUur, — Ua, so then,^'ere, usually. — -soli, 
alone. — SOO.fmti, at the fount ; or perhaps to tbe god or spirit of 
the fount. — 310. ingenio, roind, temper. — monitus: see v, 167. — 
317. deducere, KarâyiiVt draw down. This was the proper magic 
term. Canrnna vel caelo potsunt deducere Lutiam, Virg. Buc. viii. 
69. — 327. E&ciunt, etc. It is the opinion of some modem writers 
that tbe Tuscans possessed the art of conducting the lightning, 
afterwards discovered by Franklin, and they ascribe the death of 
Tullus Hostilius to bis ignorance of the proper mode of doing it. — 
pianma, mode of expiating, i. e. removing. — donaria, altar, or temple : 
comp. Virg. Geor. iii. âSS. — 337. aimbage remota, This is difficult 
to understand, for its apparent meaning b the very reverse of the 
real one. A gloss in one MS. explains remota by obscura. We 
have elsewhere (see our Horace, Excurs. IV.) shown that com* 
pounds in re are frequently used intensively for the simple verbs, 
and the present may be an instance, though we have no where met 
with removeo, i.-q. moveo» We had conjectured remotum, which we 
find to be a various writing in one MS. — Caede caputj etc. We may 
observe in this, and what follows, the ingenuity of Numa in avoiding 
a human sacrifice. — 342. pitcis, the Maena (see ii. 578) : Plut. 
Num. 15. — 352. cratUna, se. eventura, — 359. Prodil, etc. Hence 
we may infer that it was in the Forum the ancile fell, for Numa 
dwelt at the Regia by the temple of Vesta. — 863. velatus. Accord- 
ing to the Roman custom of covering the head wheu praying. — 
369. tine nube: comp. Hor. Carm. i. 34, 6 ; Virg. Aen. vii. 141. — 
Submsere, raised : see on Virg. Buc. x. 74. — 377. Idque anciie, etc. 
An cili a dicta ab ambeâsu, quodeaarma ab utraque parte, ut Thracum, 
incita, Varro, L. L. vii. 4e3i tic est appellatum quia ex utroqtie latere 
erat recisum, ut summum infimumque ejut latut paterei, Festus v. 
Mamurii. JL-OkKoq ovk ianv, oifd* âTrodidunnv, «î»c vikTri, rr^v Trepi- 
^ipiiav, d\\* iKTOfirjv Ixct ypaftfArjg kXiKutnSovQ, tJq al KepaXai KâfX- 
wac ix*^^^^^ *'*^ ovvein<rTpk(lM>v(rai ry WKvârijTi irpoc âXX^Xovc, 
âyKitXov rb trxfjfia irotovvt. Plut. Num. 13. From these passages 
we may collect, that the ancile was oblong, round at top and bottom, 
curved intemally on the sides, the ends or corners also round, so 
that it had no angles, being somewhat like the figure 8. — recitum. 
This is i. q. the simple caetum : see on v. 337. — caelata, formed, 
iâshioned. Atque hănc tpedem Praxiteles caelavU argento, Cic. Div. 
i. 36. — morum, etc, i. e. bis morals were as pure as bis skill was 
great. — 383. fabrae, from faber, an acy. nearly peculiar to Ovid ; 



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BOOK III. 287-422. 169 

comp. Met. viii. 159. — clausit, concluded, completed, executed. 
O vid seems to have been the first to use this verb in this sense : 
see Drak. on Sil. Ital. xiii. 686. — Noffima, etc. In the end of the 
Salian hvmn, was heard the name of Mamurîus Veturius, whence 
this legend. Varro (L. L. vi. 45) says it meant veterem memoriam. 

393-598. Further particular» respecting this rite. — Nubere, etc. 
This is only nottced, we believe, by Ovid in this place. Like what 
foilows, it would seem to apply to the whole month. It was con- 
sidered unluckj to move from the place where one happened to be 
at the time, motis, nec dum condUu, ancUUs, Suet. Otho, 8 : see also 
Liv. xxxvii. 33; Tac. Hist. i. 89. — His etiam, etc. These were ' 
among the days on which the Flaminica was not to comb her hair : 
see Excursus II. 

399-402. Moming-setting of the Southern Fish. MerkeI (Ixxiv.) 
suspects that it was tertia a nonis that was originalLy in the poem, as 
Clodius Tuscus, whom he supposes the poet to folio w, says (ap. Laur. 
Lyd. de Ost.) ry irp6 C tid&v .... xal 6p9pov 6 Ix^vs âwb rov 
voTov âpx^^^^ KpvvTitrBai. 

^ 403-414. Morning-^etting of Arctophylax or Bootes. In this 
there is an error ; for Clodius says, 6 ApKrovpog (a star in that stgn) 
kv 17/ilp^ ăvioxii, and Ptolemy âpKTovpog hvfptoq iirirsXXtu MerkeI 
(Ixxii.) thinks that the poet wrote Emerget vitus effugietgue tuog, 
•• h. e. puncto temporis inter diluculum apparebit.'* — piger, Because 
be is a ploughman, whose usual gait is slow.— 407. At non, etc. Bnt 
the bright star in the right shoulder of Virgo, named 7rporpt;yi|n)p 
or Vindemitor (Eratosth. Cat. 9) will not set. Columella says (xi. 2) 
that it rises vi. Non., so it of course was now vîsible. — mtonsum, 
with long uncut locks, like Apollo and Bacchus ; a mark of youth 
aud beauty. — Quae nune,. etc. VUis is âfiviXoQ in Greek. 

415-428. Augustus, made Pontifex Maximus. This was in A. U. 
742, on the death of Lepidus, his former colleague in the triumvirate : 
see Hist. Rom. Emp. p. 11. — Quuqnig ^tdes, etc. We think it is 
the Vestala he means ; for they alone colehant Vestam, and had the 
right of putting incense on the sacred hearth. Quisguit is used with 
a fem. by Plautus, Cist. ii. 3, 66 ; Pers. iv. 3, 84 ; Rud. iv. 4, 102. 
— IHacis, as having been brought by Aeneas from Uium.— 418. Gra-- 
tare, Three MSS. of inferior note, which editors in general chose 
to foUow, read Cratera, — mereri, se. qttam swniere. — numina, the deity. 
Augustus had been in a manner deified at this time by the worship 
of his Genius with the Lares Praestites. — 422. pignora juncta, To 
the Palladium and the other pignora of the state was now joined a 
further pignui in the person of Augustus. It is quite plain that this 

I 



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170 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

and what follows could only have been written durnig the lifetime 
of that prince.-— 423. Di, etc. In this verse the editora have 
adopted from one or two very inferior MSS. de for di, sjiâ favilla for 
ferenti» — gravit, i. e. gravatut, laden : see on Hor. Sat. i. l, 4. — cog- 
nata numina, The JuHan house deduced its origin from Jupîter, the 
son of Saturn, and brother of Vesta : see My thology, p. 95. 

429-448. Dedication of temple of Vedjovis. — Una nota, se. m 
Kalendario, i. e. F instead of N P. On this Merkel obseryes (p. xli.), 
" Causam yero .... eandem puto atque Feralibus. Nam sacrificii 
utroque die fiacti quandam similitudinem videor mihi deprebendere 
ex Gellii yerbis N. A. v. 12, sacrificări Vedjovi ritu humano capram, 
Atqui humanum ţacrificium Paulus Diac. p. 103, Muell. dicit esse 
quod mortui causa fiebat." — Marti, i. e. Marin, sp. mensi», — lucot 
duot, The space between the Arx and the Capitolium named by 
the modems the Intermontium, was called inter duot lucot, Liv. i. 8» 
fttOdpiov Svoiv Spvfi&v, Dionys. ii. 15, probably because those two 
summits were covered with trees lîke the other hills of Rome. It 
was here that Romulus made the Asylum. — lucian, i. e. one of those 
/uc«.~437. Juppiter, etc, i. e.Vecyovis îs i. q. Jupiter-juvenis. His 
statue; therefore, bears no thunderbult, and a she-goat stands beside 
it, because a she-goat suckled the infant deity. These, we see, are 
Grecian notions, whereas Vedjovb was an Etruscan god, and most 
probably connected with the underworld: see Mythology, p. 531. 
^-445. Nune vocor, etc. That being what he is, my task is now to 
ezplain hb name : see Ezcursus V. 

449-458. The moming-rising of Pegasus. Equui mane oritur^ 
. Colum. zi. 2 ; yet O vid would seem to mean an evening-rising. 
Merkel, however, maintains that he does not, and while in his tezt 
he gives variabunt, in his Prolegomena (p. Izz.) he has wtliabunt^ 
the reading of a few of the inferior MSS. He adds, "siquidem 
Vedjovis festum nocturnum erat, ut omnium nocentium deorum . . . 
Jamgue igitur est, sub ejus noctis finem." — Creditur, etc. : see Hes. 
Th. 280 ieq. 325 ; Ov. Met. iv. 784 ; v. 256 ; Mythology, 253, 419. 
— graoidae, {H*egnant. This is somewhat of a hypallage. — Jamgue, 
etc From Bellerophon : see Mythology, 403. 

459-516. Evening-rising of the Crown of Ariadne ; for her story 
see Met. viii. 175 ; A. A. i. 531 ; Her. 10 ; CatuU. Ixiv. 52 ; Hor. 
Carm. ii. 19 ; Mythology, 390. 457. — dea, 1. e. Ariadne, included in 
the adj. Gnotis, — perjuro mutarat, According to the usage of the 
Latin language, VcUmp amoenum taepe LucreiUem Mutat Lycaeo 
Faunut, Hor. Carm. i. 17, 1. — rustica, simple, like an ignorant 
country-girl.— 465. depexii, combed out, straight, lank^^tpatiata. 



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. BOOK III. 423-524. 171 

• 

i. q. tpatianSf walking slowly backwards and forwarda : comp. Virg. 
Geor. i, 889 ; Aen. iv. 62. — 474. almt. The final syllable îs long, 
as being in arsis.— 476. relata, ia brought back, repeaited ; Bacchua 
being substituted for Theseus. — 480.' dedohtuse, have ended my 
grief, i. e. have died. — Tam bene, etc, to disturb 80 bappy a union. 
-^celari, se. hoc, be kept ignorant of. Nome hoc oeUUot tam diut 
Ter. Hec. iv. Ş, 23. — Ule color, that colonr of bers. — matrem, Paai-' 
phae. — Libera. This was a deityjoined witb Liberând Cerea in 
the Roman religion, but who faad nothing to do with Ariadne : see 
Mythology, p. 517, to which we afterwards made the foUowing ad- 
dition illustrative of the» Roman religion. *' It appears to us to be 
quite erroneouB to suppose that the Cerea, Liber and Libera of the 
Romans were the Demeter, Dionysos and Kora of the Greeks, by 
whom Dionysos does not seem to have been united with the two 
goddesses, as Liber was at Rome. We would propose the foUowing 
hypothesis on the subject. The temple usually cdled that of Ceres 
at Rome was in reality one of the three conjoined deities (Liv. iii. 
55 ; Dionys. vi. 17, 44 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 49). It stood at the foot of 
the Aventine, and belonged to the plebeians, to whom it seems to 
have been what the Capitoline temple was to the patricians. In 
this latter was worshiped a Triad, — Minerva, Jovis, Jovino ( Juno), 
i. e. Wisdom, and the god and goddess kut' i^oxiiv ; in the latter 
there was also adored a Triad, — Ceres, Liber, Libera. May we 
not then suppose, that as the priestly nobles, the patricians, adored 
a triad of celestial or mental deities, so the agricultural plebeians 
worshiped a triad of deities presiding over the iruits and products 
t>f the earth ? From the employment of the plural (va&v, vaois) 
by Dionysius we may further infer that the temple at the Aventine 
eontained three cellae like that on the Capitoline.*'-^16. Wa, i. e. 
eorona, 

517-n522. Second EqninBu—Purpuretm, brigbt: see on ii. 74. — 
Quem Tiberit, etc. The Tiber, as it were, encompassef the Campus 
Martius. — CaeHut, etc. The part of the Câelian hill is unknown. It 
was probably, however, outside of the city, near the Lateran. 

528-710. The festival of Anna Perenna : see Mythology, p. 584. 

523-542. Description of the îesiirel.-^germle. Because indu^e^ 
bont gemo, by drinking. — Haud procul, etc. Via Flam. ad lapi- 
DEM PBiMUM, Kal. Vat. Gierig, we know not on what authority, 
says ** inter Anienis confluentem et pontem Milvium,** a dbtance of 
more than two miles from ancient Rome. The Annae pomifirum 
nemus Perennae, as Marţial (iv. 64, 17) terms it, must have lain not 
fer from the present Porta Pia between the road and the Tiber, 

l2 



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172 IfOTBS ON THE FASTI. 

from which O vid says it was haudproctd, — ^525. advena. As comîng 
from a distance. — venU, se. ab Urbe, — pare tua. Probably an amica, — 
Sub Jove, in the open air : comp. ii. 299. — tamen, even so. — 
ad numerum, i. e. they drink as manj glasses as they wish to live 
years. — ebibat, drinks out. — 535. Il&c, etc. There was a Mime or 
ferce by Laberius (see on Hor. Sat. i. 10, 6) named Anna Perenna, 
which Merkel thinks may be meant here —jactant, etc. They 
roake gesticulations suited to the verses. The acttng and dancing 
of the ancients were very pantomimic, and great use was roade of 
the hands in them.— ^/ârt/!f«, i. q. molles, i. e. mobilet. — posito cratere^ 
i. e. when they have ceased from drinking ; ponto, i. q. deposUo ; 
cratere, i. q. vino or cyaihis, — i/urof , awkward, clownish, as they were 
probably drunk, and were, at all events, common workmen, me« 
chanics, and such like. Atque extra numerum procedere membra mo» 
ventei Duriter, et dmro terram pede pellere matrem, Lucr. v. 1400. — 
sunt spectacula, i. e. are objectsof derision : comp. Hor. Sat. i. 7, 21. 
— 540. fortunatos, happy ; for, as the old saw has it, " He that îs 
drunk, is as great as a king." — Occurri, se. pompam. The constr. here 
îs somewhat unusiial. In prose it would be Occurri pompam quae, 
etc. The MSS in general read Occurrit, It is the opinion of 
Heinsius and Burmann, that some lines have been lost here. The 
latter thinks that they were struck out by the monks on account of 
their impropriety. 

543-654. Enquiry as to who this goddess was. First opinion, 
she was Anna, the sister of Dîdo : see Virg. Aen. iv. We may here 
remark, that both. Dido and Anna, i. e. Hannah, seem to have been 
epithets of Astarte, the goddess of the Phoenicians, the former de-' 
noting Iove, and the latter favour. The Romans, after the manner 
of the Greeks, made mortal women of these attributes, and as 
Hannah was perhaps the Erycinian Venus (see on iv. 872), and was 
worshiped with lascivious rites ; this, together with the similarity 
of the name, may have led to the following legend, which there is 
no reason to regard as being Ovid's invention. — Quae, as to who. — 
proposito, enquiry. — Arserat. He plays on this word in his usual 
manner. — 549. Praebuit, etc. He takes this epitaph from his own 
^istle of Dido to Aeneas ; Her. vii. 195. — mvadunt, enter. — vmdice, 
defender.— JarĂfl ; see Virg. Aen. iv. 196. — ut o&m, etc; comp. 
Virg. Geor. iv. 213. — nudandas, i. e. to be taken out of the huli : 
see on Virg. Geor. i. 298. — 560. justa, rites of the deeid,—favUlae, 
the ashes of Dido. — Ubatas, cut off, and oft'ered. — pede aequo, with 
an even favourable coiirse, the pedes (i. e. the sheets or ropes at the 
comers of the sails) being stretched alike. — labitur, se. mari — 



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BOOK III. 525-667. 173 

Moenia, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. v, 3. — MeUie, Malta. Its fertility 
was only relative, for it is any thing but fertile. — Cosi/rae, Gozzo. — 
570. Batttu. Battus was the founder of the Greek colony of Cyrene, 
and the Greeks never possessed Melite. Silius, wbo also relates this 
legend (viii. 50, seq.^y makeâ Anna come to Cyrene. — guaniulacuni' 
qiiCj whatever it is, small though it be. — tamen, surely. We have 
observed in our notes on Horace, that tamen answers to the Italian 
puŢe, which is oflen merely emphatic. — PygmaUonis: see A'en. î. 
846, seq, — 581. CraHudit. The Crathis is the stream which ran by 
Thurii on the east coast of Southern Italy. The Camera is men- 
tioned no where else, and the supposition of the Phoenician Hannah 
or a similar being having been worshiped there, seems groundless. 
— subducere^ to draw down. — alveus, the hold. — 593. hcibertis, i. e. 
gubemaculb, — vix, He had so little hope of escaping shipwreck. — 
gttaecumque, etc, i. e. whoever died on the land. — 602. AuCcttu : see 
on i. 612. — ^ecum, se. loquitur, included in the foUowing exclamai: 
see on Hor. Sat. i. 4, 32. — 612. Admonitu, the recollection : see on 
V. 167. — mo^i»,moved. — 617. morte, se. EUssae. — credUnU, i. e. qiutm 
credibile erat, quam credebam, — Ne refer, teii not the tale. — ratio, 
your own choice : comp. Hor. Sat. i. 1, 2. — memores, se. sumus 
debere. — errores, wanderings. — 627. paratus, i. q. apparatus, dress : 
comp. Met. vi. 451. — pia, virtuous, as resulting from duty. — 
633. /a/fum,causeless, unreal. — praeter, before. — f.rac/um,decidedon. 
— 689. Noxerat, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. i. S5S.—perenne. The abl. 
in e from adjectives in » or er is peculiar to O vid : see Zumpt, 
§ 63, note. — 656. Et celebrant, etc. The expression celebrant se 
is, we believe, without example. Marsus explained it, '* se reddunt 
celebres ebrietate.** Taubner, ** sua vel genii sui causa frequentes 
adsunt.** Gierig, '* curant ut bene sibi sit." May not se be seipsam, 
i. q. eam f Poma ita disponere ut tcobs inter se călcări possU, Colum. 
xii. 44 : comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 1, 49. Merkel (p. clxxvi.) conjectures 
te or rem. 

657-660. Other opinions. She was the Moon ; Themis, i. e. 
the Mother of the Seasons (Mythology, p. 198); Io, i. e. the 
Moon : all derived from the idea of her being the year. Sume 
thought her a nymph, the daughter of Atlas, who had reared Jupiter, 
apparently confounding her witb Amalthea. The only daughters of 
Atlas were the Pleiades and Hyades, to neithcr of whom does that 
task seem to have fallen. 

661-671. A further opinion, which seems to have derived Anna 
from anus, — Plebs vetus, etc. The secession in A. U. 260 : see 
Hiat. of Rome, p. 62. — tuta, i. e. tuita. — 667. Orta, etc. We are not, 

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174 KOTBS ON THE PAŞTI. 

perhaps, to infer firom this, that she lived at Bovillae, which was at 
least a dozen miles from the Mons Sacer. — mburbanit : see on vi. 
361. — dom, 8C. Romae, 

672-696. Reason why obscene venea were aung at her festivaL 
— nam coeutU, etc, for they do come together, etc. He thus ex» 
presaes hîmself, becauae be had not mentioned it before. — certa. 
This probably means, fized, tradiţional, not extemporised. — dea 
facta, SC. amu a BovilRt: comp. v. 684. — seducta, drawn aside. — 
688. dedU manutt yielded, consented. — înde jod, etc. The reason 
is rather to be sought in the old mode of worshiping deities of 
increase and prodoction in Greece and Italy, as well as in the East 
A curious resemblance bas been traced between this goddess and 
Anna Pooma De vi, a Hindoo goddess of nntrition and abundance. 

697-710. The şssassination of Julius Caesar : see Hist. of Rome, 
p. 447.— jwtncqoe. He is so styled even by Cicero, ad fam. ix, 17. 
^-ioaUa, SC e$t tnihi.'^meiu sacerdos. As being Pontifex Maximus. 
As such, he resided in the Regia, close to the temple of Vesta, 
which makes the language of the goddess more appropriate. — Ipta, 
etc. This was the iîction of the poet Simonides respecting Helena, 
which Eurîpides followed in hîs drama, named from her.— ^»c/i^, bas 
seen. Perhape to intimate hb im mediate assumption. — 704. templa. 
On the spot, at the upper end of the Comitium, where the body of 
Caesar had been bumt (Hist. of Rome, p. 451), a temple to him 
was erect ed by the Triuravirs, in A. U. 710-12.— </ica/a, i. e. dedir 
cota, SC. ei. — Morte jacent merita, AII the conspirators perished by 
violent deaths. The last.was Cassius Parmensis, who was slain at 
Athens, after the battle of Actium. — 707. PhUippi, At which 
Brutus and Cassius fell. — Et quorum, i. e. Et » quorum. — sparsis, se. 
Un, — elementa, se. rerum gerendarum, 

711, 712. Moming^etting of the Nepaor Scorpion. Tov (tkoq- 
wiov ol irptoroi âm^c dvvovfft, Euctemon, ap. Gem. Nepa occidit, 
Colum. xi. 2 : comp. Plin. iv. 163 ; xviii. 65. Ovid*s words would, 
however, seem to express a rising. But he roay mean, that at dawn 
only the anterior part of the Scorpion will be visible, as he is then 
on the point of setting. 

713-790. The Liberalia. The poet only discusses two ques- 
tious ; namely, why old women sold Uba, and why youths assumed 
the toga Ubera on that day. — celeberrhna, distinguished, famed. Cele^ 
herrimus et laetissimus dies, Cic. de Am. 3. — celeberrimum monu" 
metaum, Id. pro Sext. 67. — Nec referam, etc. For the Gredan 
Dionysus (different from the Latin Liber : see on v, 512), to whom 
all these events refer, see Mythology, p. 205, teq.—eroi, se. Bacche. 



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BOOK.iii. 672-785. 175 

A few MSS. read erat, — Expletuniy completed. — mairi» opuf, the 
task of the mother, in gestation. — Sithotuu, etc. Alluding to the 
story of Lycurgus, ». 722. He joins the Scythians with the Thra- 
dans, as they were neighbours ; but it is no where satd that Bacchus 
entered Scythia. — Tu quoque^ etc. Pentheus. — 726. ViUs anus» 
Liberalia dicta, quodper totum oppidum eo dietedent gacerdotes Liberi; 
anut edera coroTiaiae, cum Ulnt et foculo pro emptore sacrificantes* 
Varro L. L. vi. 14. The way it probably was done was thîs : when 
any oue bought a Ubum from the old woman, she burned a part of 
it (o. 734) for him on the foculum, as on an eltar^^Ante, etc. The 
brigin of thîs rite (whose real origin was unknown, but which may 
owe it to the resemblance between the words Ubum and Liber) was, 
according to the poet, Bacchus being the iirst who burned yictims 
and incense in honour of the gods. — honores, sacrifi^es : see ii. 555. — 
728. geHdy, As no fire was eyer on them,-^^unt, Thcy offer. Cum 
pro populo jiereU Cic. ad Att. i. 12. — succis, etc. Because he was 
also the discoverer of'honey. There was always honey in a Ubum^ 
and it was smeared with honey, v. 761. — 740. Aeriferae, etc, i.e. 
they clattered their cymbals. — volucres, winged beings. — actact 
drawn, attracted : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 7,24. — CoUigit^eic,, i. e. hives 
them. — levis senex. Silenus, who was old and bald. — ditdmulat, i. e. 
kceps this knowledge to himself. — 750. ÂppHcai, puts him up to. 
— super, SC. aseUum, — rdxus, holding, supporting himself by. — Jliî^, 
etc. It was a hornet's nest. — nma, This is the conjecture of 
Heinsius. Most MSS. read prima, a few summa» — Umum inducere, 
to daub his head and face with mud, to remove the pain of the stings. 
' — 763. presset, se. presses, i. e. kneads» makes. This is the reading of 
one of the best MSS. ; thâ majority read praeiit, a few of inferior 
note praestet: — noverca. Juno. — oppoiUMte, put before. 

771-790. Why the toga libera was given on this day. — utrumquei 
8C. puerum et juvenem, — pater, AU the gods were so called in the 
Roman theology s see Mythology, p. 507. Liber, however, was 
rarely used without it. — numinibus, i. e. numini, — 777. e$ Liber, i. e. 
your name is Liber. This is the true Teason.—prisci, se. Romani,-^ 
patria, i. e. paterno, inherited from his father : comp. Hor, Epod. 
2, 3. — Ei^ caperet, etc. : see on i. 207. — 782. Nec crimen, etc. se. 
as it is in these days of luzury and effeminacy. — RusOcus, se. et 
cum, — ludos, The Ludi Circehses, Capitoiini, Florales, etc, given in 
honour of the gods.-^^tk/t», se. popuU, their pleasure, gratification, 
not ** arti poeticae et musicae," as Gierig understands it. — honos, i. e. 
ludi, — 785. Luce nta, i. e. hac die, LiberaMu», Hence we see thăt 
there were no ludi to Liber, ezcept the Cerealia, which he shared 

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176 NOTES OJS THB FASTI. 

with Cerea and Libera. — Hronem, The youth, when he assumed 
the toga virilu, was termed tiro, and the period on which he then 
entered, tirocinium, — celebrare^ etc. Frequeniia me usque ad Capito^ 
kum celebravitt Cic. ad Att. vi. 1. — 788. non cUiena^ not unsuitabîe. 
— captU, etc. : comp. Virg. Geor. ii. 392. The horned Bacchus was 
the Phrygian Sabazios : see Mythologj, p. 209. We may observe, 
in fine, that there seems to be no reason whatever for regarding the 
Italian Liber Pater as agod of wine. 

791,. 792. On thb and the preceding day the priests went and 
roade offerings ât the various taeraria Argeorum throughout the city : 
see on v. 621. — sua paginat i*e. the part of the poem assigned to 
them. 

79d--808. Rising of the Milvus or Kite ; but whether moming or 
evening, and whether xvii. or xvi. Kal. we are uninformed by the 
poet. Pliny says (xviii. 65). xv. Kal, April, Ita&ae Milvum ostetuSL 
The foUowing legând is only to be found in this place, and it reminds 
one strongly of the sacrifice of the horse in Hindoo mythology : see 
Southey's Curse of Kehama, book viii. — JMUuus, a trisyllable : see 
on Hor. £p. i. 16, 51. — QuaeqisefuU, etc, i.e. the following aid. — 
violenta^ powerful. — adamante, steel. — AltulU, etc. : comp. Met. ii. 716. 

809-850. The Quinquatrus, or festival of Minerva. — Nomina^ etc. 
This is an error. Hic dies unut ab nonwm errore observatur^ prwnde 
ut tmt quinque, IHctm ut ab Tutculamt post diem $extum Idus simh- 
Uter vocatur Sexatrus, etpost diem tepiimum Septimatrus ; sichic^ 
quod eratpost diem quintum Idus, Quinquatrus, Varro L. L. v'u 14. 
Out of ignorance of the origin of the name,they had madea one-day 
festival to last five days. — Sanguine, etc, i. e. the gladiatorial shows, 
with which it was celebrated, did not begin till the second day.— yî», 
SC gladiatoribus, — Ula nata, etc In the Kal. Praen. it is noted on 
this day, Minervae aedib in Aventino eo die est consecrata, 
aud in Kal. Vindob. there is N. Minervae. — 813. strata, spread, 
smoothed. — arena, se. amphitheatri, or, perhaps. Fort ; for it was in 
the Forum, which was always sanded for the purpose, that the gla- 
diatorial shows were given originally. It may be observed, that this 
usage probably arose from confounding the Grecian war-goddess, 
Pallas-Atbena, with the Tuscan or Roman Minerva, the*patroness 
of the mental powers. — PaUada, etc : see Juv. x. 118. It is of the 
real Italian deity that he now treats, and the boys or girls that were 
learning to read, etc, that he addresses. — 817. PaUada placată, eio^ 
Those who were engaged in spinning or weaving. — stantes, The 
ancient loom was upright : comp. Met. vi. 53, seq, — Hanc cole, etc 
The scourer and the dyer, the shoemaker and the carpenter. — 



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BOOK III. 785-851. . 177 

Ti/chio: see Hom. II. vii. 222.-^Epeo: see Od. viii. 492; Virg. 
Aen. ii. 264. — Fosquoque, etc, the physicians. — vetlris^ se. muneribus, 
fee». — 829. Nec vot, etc, the schoolmasters. — turba, etc. There is 
a great variety of readings here. As^eis found in one of the best 
MSS., and in two of inferior authority (while others hdiveferae,feri, 
ferri), and it alone makes sense, it is to be preferred. Merkel, at 
one time, conjcctured turba Phari; at another, turba vqfra. Fere is, ia 
general. — fraudată ceruu, cheaţed out of their legitimate income by 
the small fees they got. — Quique moves, etc, the carver, the painter, 
the sculptor. — tabulam, etc This alludes to the mode of painting 
witb melted wax named encaustunif of which Pliny (xzxv. 11.) de- 
scribes three kinds. The iirst, which is the one here meant, was 
qtiopmgebant cerii ditcoloribus tabulae ilUtis et, igne admoto, candefactit. 
— 885. Caeliui, etc. He now enquires into the origin of Capta, the 
title by which Minerva was worshiped, in a chapel on the Caelian 
htll. The site is not easy to ascertain. The part about the Lateran 
Church, where it declines into the plain, would seem to answer the 
description best ; but that, it is said, was outside of the city-wall. 
This, however, is no very valid objection ; for the same was the case 
with the temples of Marş, ApoUo, Bellona, and so many others. 
Nardini, whom Beckeif follows, places it near the Colosseum. — 839. 
Capitale, i. e. ingemotus,qui caput babet.—perdomOit, etc. In A. U. 
361 : see Hist. of Rome, p. 112. — Kttera pritca, i. e. the annals, or 
the old name of the goddess. It could not have been an inscription, 
as then he would have had no doubt. — 845. An, quod habet, etc. 
This passage is really almost unintelligible. It would seem to mean 
that stealing any thing from that place was a capital offence : see 
Gell. xi. 18. Me;*kel (xcvi) quotes Paul. Diac, p. 66, 1 : capitalis 
lucus, ubi si quid violatum est caput violatoris expiatur, 

849, 850. The Tubilustrium on the last day of the Quinquatrus. 
IHes appellatur, quod eo die in Atrio Sutorio sacrorum tubae lustrantur, 
Varro, L. L. vi. 14. Verrius and Festus say the same. The Tubae 
were those used by the priests, perhaps the Sallans. KaOapfibg oăX- 
inyyot Kai Kivtifne rwv 8irX«v, «al rifAal'AptbtQ Kai Nepfvijc, Otăc 
o^rto ry ^apivfav yK^dfrg ir^O(rayopivo\ikvfiQ flv ii^iovv ilvai rrjv 
'KBfivâv ^ Koi 'A^podtTiiv' veptvij y&p i} âv^pia kffri, cat vlpoivac roig 
&vfptlov£ ol Sa/3îvot KcîKovfri, Laur. Lyd. de Mens. p. 85. This 
Nerine is, therefore, perhaps theforiis dea. The Atrium Sutorium 
b utterly unknown. 

851-876. Entrance of the Sun into Aries. This, he says, took 
place the day before the Tubilustrium, i. e. xi. Kal. Origin of that 
sign : see Mythology, p. 832. — novercae, Ino. — herba, the corn. — ad 

I 5 



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178 KOTBS OK THB PAŞTI. 

tripodas, se. Delphi». — wrte^ response. In many oracles, but oot in 
that of Delphi, the aotwer was given bj lots. Thîs was particu- 
larly the case in Italy, as at Praeneste and elsewhere : comp. ii. 713. 
— DeifMcut^ SC. d!0ii«.— 857. cum senune, as well as the seed. — regem, 
Atharoas. — nuMter, Nephele (chud), — 865. dracontgenam urbem, 
Tbebes. — cum^ at the time when. — Caeruleo deo, Neptane, as it 
would seem. 

877,878. The yenial eqninoz. — iwiism«, approaching. — Eoi/Hu^Ct 
Aurora. 

879-882. Worship of Janus, Concord, Health, and Peace. — 
Canuermt, ac, et M. — Concordia^ eto. Zonaras (x. 84) says that 
Augustus made statues *Yyiciac Siifioaiac Kal *OfiOvoiat rac Ecp^vqc* 
The temple of Salus Publica (here called Romana), on the Quirinal, 
was dedicated A. U. 450 by the dictator C. Junius Bubulcus. 

883, 884. The temple of Luna, which appears to have.been dis* 
tinct from that of Diana, on the ATontine was dedicated on this 
daj. Fast. Praen. It stood on the side of that hill over the Circus 
Maximus. 



BOOK IV. 

AEOUMENT. 



Address to Yenus, 1-18. Dedicatîon of this month to hei^. by 
Romul us ; its cause, 19-60. Greek origin of its name, 61-84; 
Latin origin, 85-182. Festival of Yenus and of Fortuna Yirilis, 
133-162. Setting of SooriHO, 163, 164 i of the Pieiades, 165-178. 
The Megalesia, 179-^72. Dedicatîon of Temple of Fortuna 
Publica, 878-376. Yictory of Caesar over Juba ; setting of 
Orion, 877-388. Ludi Cereris ; râpe of Proserpine, 389-620. 
Temple of Jupiter Yictor ; Atrium Libertatis, 621-624. Battie of 
Mutina, 625-628. Fordicidia, 629-672. Augustus styled Im- 
perator, 673-676. Setting of the Hyades, 677, 678. Cbariot-races 
in the drcus; buming of fozes, 679-712. Sun enters Taurus, 
713-720. Palilia, 721-806. Origin of Rome ; death of Remus, 
807-862. Yinalia, 863-900. Robîgalia, 901-942. Floralia; moving 
of Yesta to the Palatium, 943-954. 

1-18. Poet^ address to Yenus.— ^amnond» Amorum. Eros and 
Anteros : see Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23 ; from which Ovîd seems to 
have taken this circumstance, which occurs no where else. — majora, 
i. e. the Fasti : comp. iL 3.-4. mUnuB, se. amoris, There is reason 
to suppose that Ovid was a widower when he wrote this part of the 



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BOOK IV. 1-60. 179 

poem.— ^i^a. As they used to compare Iove with war : comp. 
Hor. Carm. iii. 26. — -propotUum. We take this as a part. qualifying 
opust and not as a substantive, as is usually done. — opta, i. e. the sub* 
ject of my verses. — Omoc^ sc. vUa, — nne crimine* The ancients saw 
nothing wrong in sensual Iove, when it did not proceed to râpe, 
adulterj, etc. — Uumus. Every tbing, as we have often observed, 
that was not serious was ludiu. — 10. Nune teriiur, etc. Alluding to 
the races of the Circus. Hic modus-; haee noitro signabUur area 
curru ; Haec erit admissa meta terenda rota, A. A. i. 89 : comp. Am. 
iii. 15, 18. — Tempora, etc, : seei. 1,2, 7. — celeberrima, sc. es, art most 
frequented, i. e. worshiped. — 15. Moţa, sc. mea prece. — ievUer, etc. : 
comp. A. A. iii. 53, and Burns' Vision adjin. — JDum^ sc. ergo, 

19-60. Dedication of this month to Venus by Romulus. — tamen. 
This word, like the Italian pure, is, as we have observed, often 
mereiy emphatic. — Caetdy, i. e. Augustus. — Hic, etc. The ianguage 
bere is taken from the Roman custom of keeping in the airia of their 
houses the imagines or wax-busts of their ancestors. As Venus was 
at the bead of the Julian gens, the «nontb dedicated to her is satd to 
descend in the pedigree down to Angustus, who had been adopted 
into that geru by the vrill of bis uncie the Dictator. — IHadet, i. e. the 
son of Ilia, Romulus. — Mcnberet, i. q. deicriberet : see i. 27. — auctores^ 
SC. ditmos, i. e. tfaose deities that were in bis pedigree. — rettuăt, 
named, made known. — 24. Q,uod M^ etc Because he was bis 
own father. -^ gradUnu, etc. Because she was the motber of 
Aeneas, and therefore there were many steps in the pedigree 
between her and Marş. — Aiteriut, of the second. — 31. Darda^ 
non, sc. napi, — netciret, sc. Romulus. — Electron, i. e. aut Elec» 
tran. — Hufut, Bcjiiius est. — illo, i. e. Erichthonio, — 85. Proximua, sc. 
Mc (Auaracus) creat : see v. 123. Capys is usually said to be the 
father of Anchises. Proxmut is, în the usual way, i. q. proxime, — 
pietoi, i. q. vir phu: see our Virg. Excurs. VIL Piui and its 
kindred terms denote diUy, etc. to tbose to whom it is due, as the 
gods, parents, country, etc« — ipectata, proved. For this account of 
Aeneas, see Virg. Aen. ii. and iii. — aUquando, at length. — luH, the son 
of Aeneas. — 40. Unde, i. e. a quo, or m quo,—domut JuSa, the Julian 
gens, which derived its name from him : see Virg. Aen. i. 288. — 
Postumui, SC. naius est, — subit, goes under, is ruled by; a figure 
taken from going under a load. — tituUs tuis, i. e. in the list of kings. 
— Capyi, BcJUio suo, — 45. recidiva, repeated, renewed : see v, 84. — 
idem, i. e. Epitus,^-'7\ucae aquae, i. e. the Albula, which was named 
Tlberis from him : comp. ii. 889. — 51. loous, i.e. regio. One of the 
fourtecn regions into which Augustus divided the city« — 60. conţinu'^ 

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180 NOTES ON THB FASTI. 

nta, joîned, following in succession. With respect to this catalogoe 
of Alban kings we may observe, tbat our poet bas, in bis Metamor- 
phoses (xiy. 609. seq,) gîven a sligbtly different list : see also tbe 
lists in Liyj and Dionysius, wbicb diifer bat little from it. 

61-84. Greek derivation of April. — Sed, etc. But thougb it was 
Romulus, a native of Italy, tb|it arranged tbe months tbus, tbe name 
of April îs Greek. — Grah sermone, in tbe Greek langoage, i. e. vnth 
a Greek name. — Augwror, I conjecture, or infer.— a spumis (se 
netm)y etc. Aphrodite (derived from &pphg, foam) resembles Aprilis 
în sound. Tbis was tbe derivation of April, given by Fulvius 
Flaccus and Junius Gracchus : see Varro L. L. vi. 33. — 64. Itala, 
etc. Tbe soutb of Italy, wbicb was iilled witb Greek colonîes, 
was named Magna Graecia. — Evander: see i. 471. — Alcidesz see 
i. 543. — Hotpes ciaviger, i. e. Alcides. — 69. Diue NerUhu, Ulysses, 
so named from mount Neritus in Ithaca, Od. ix. 21. — Laestrtf' 
gone* : see Od. x. 120. They were localised at Formiae (Mola 
di'Gaetd) in Campania. — exstant, i. q. sunt. — Et quod, etc* Tbe 
constr. is. Ei lUut quodj etc. Tbe hill of Circeii, on tbe 
coast of Latium, was identified witb Aeaea, tbe fabulous isle of 
Circe. — Teleg<mi, se. moenia, i. e. Tusculum, said to bave been 
founded by Telegonus, tbe son of Ulysses and Circe. — T^nirit udi : 
comp. Hor. Carm. i. 7, 18 ; iii. 29, 6. — Argo&cae^ etc. : comp. Hor. 
Carm. ii. 6, 5 ; Virg. Aen. vii. 670, $eq, Tibur was! said: to owe its 
origin to three brotbers, from Argos, named- Tiburnus, Catillus, and 
Coras. — Âtridoep se. Jilita, Falerii, tbe. capital of tbe Faliscans, in 
Etrurîa, was said to bave been founded by Halesus, a json of . Aga- 
memnon's: comp. Virg. Aen. vii. 723. Tbe name of this isupposed 
founder is plainly derived from Faliscus(/and k are comm'utable), 
and bis Argîve origin is owing to tbe resemblance of tbe worsbipof 
Juno in botb places. — 75. Trojanoe^ etc. : see II. vii. 848 ; Hor. 
£p. i. % 9. Antenor was said to bave settled at Patavium (^Padua) : 
comp. Virg. Aen. i. 242, seq» ; Liv. i. 1 . We see not wby be and 
Aeneas (v. 78) sbould be classed among tbe Greek colonists. — 
Oemden, Diomedes, tbe grandson of Oeneus. He settled in Apulia, 
wbere be married tbe dangbter of Daunus, king of tbe country : see 
Virg. Aen. xi. 246. — 79. Solymus. Tbe imaginary founder of Sulmo, 
the capital of tbe Pelignians, our poet's native place. — Stdmonu 
ge&di, etc. These four lines were evidently written, and inserted 
when be began to revise tbe poem, witb the intention of dedicating 
it to Germanicus. — ge&di, because it was up in tbe Apennines. — 
Ergo age, etc. The editions, in general, following one or two infe- 
rior MSS., read Ergo ego tam Umgef 



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BOOK IV. 61-134- 181 

86-90. Latin orig^o of the name. This was the opinion of Varro, 
who says (ut sup.) : Hujtu mensit nomen ego mtigit ptUo dictum guod 
ver ommă aperit. Against this our poet now argiies. Itiuaybe 
here observed that a diflerent Latio origin of the name has lately 
been given by Goettling (Rom. Statverf. p. 168), tiz.; that the 
original name was Parilts, from the Parilia or Palilia, whence 
Aprilis was formed by transposing the first two letters. — Eripuisse. 
■This may be used in the usual manner for eripere : but it seems to 
haye been the custom to nse this tense after the subj. oîvoh: seeon 
Hor. Sat. ii 3, 187. — cUcfum, se. mentem, — injecta, etc, alluding 
to the mode of clatming property called injeciio maniu, i. e. by seizing 
it when met ; Et dicam Mea sunt ; htjiciamgue nuinus. Am. i. 4, 40 : 
comp. ib. ii. 5, 30 ; Virg. Aen. x. 419 ; Liy. iii. 43. 

91-116. First argument, the dignity and power of Venus : comp. 
Lucr. i. l,teq, — temperat, ruies, governs : comp. Hor. Ep. i. 19, 28. — 
nuUo deo, i. e. to that of no god. For examples of this construction, 
seeon Hor. Sat. i. 1, 3. — nata&bus, because she sprang from them. — 
continet, holds, maintains, keeps up. — 95. lUa deot, etc. According 
to the theogony of Greece, nearly all the gods were begotten and 
born Hke mankind, while Venus had previousiy been produced in a 
different manner. — rudes, etc, i. e. hommei rudium animorum, — unum, 
SC tocum, — 100. nec coeant, i. e. non coirent. — cidtu», dress.-^mumia 
cura, i. e. cura mundUiae. — Primtu amans, etc The meaning is not 
that thefirst lover did so, but that Venus first made it be done. The 
străin of the metre was probably the cause of this unusual construc- 
tion. — carmen vigUatum. This seems to intimate that it was com- 
posed extempore, as he was watching at the door all through the 
night : comp. v, 167 ; A. A. i. 735 ; ii. 285. 

117-124. Second argument ; claims of Venus on the gratitude of 
the Romans.—^ttcto : see on i. 612. — Pro Trcja : see II. v. 335, teq. 
— Caelettes, etc. The well-known judgement of Paris. — Ah ! noUm, 
etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. i. 27. — Assaraci, etc By her union with 
Anchises: see o. 35. — tci&cet. This is merely emphatic in this 
place : comp. Virg. Geor. ii. 534. 

125-134. Third argument ; the beauty of spring is suited to 
Venus: comp. i. \&\,$eq,; iii. 235, seq. — nitent ; expressing the 
fresh lively green of the young grass and corn. — agit, i. e. exagU, — 
materna, se Venerit, like nata&btu, v. 93. — RUe (se ergo), etc. He 
ccncludes triumphantly that the Roman women are right in wor- 
shîping Venus atthistime. — coUHt, se hocdie, — 134. Et vos, etc. i. e. 
the meretrices, who were not permitted to wear the vUta or bandeau, 
or the stoia or long tunic, appropriated to women of character : see 



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182 KOTES ON THE FASTI. 

on Hor. Sat. i. 2, 63. Scnpsknus haec U&t, quarum mc vUta pudicas 
AitmgU crmet nec ttoia hnga pedes^ £x Pont. iii. 3, 64. 

136-162. Wonhip of Venus. — ÂureOf etc. Washing of the 
statoe of tbe goddesa : see the poem of Callimachiis, Ec^ \ovrpa 
r^c UăKkado^, with the notes of Spanheim, for these washings. — 
avrea redhmculaf the gold-adomed strings of the cap which was 
on the statae. Et kabent redhmcula mUrae^ Virg. Aen. ix. 616. — 
marmorw, either Ut. made of marble, or fig. white. — divUitu, i. e. 
the rich ornamenta, earringa, etc. that were on it. — aSi, i. e. mwL — 
iuh tmdi myrto^ i.e. crowned with myrtle. 'Ev if {'AvpiWu^) 
Ovovffi rt ry Otif, koI rtug KctKâvdats iartfavuffuvai ai ywdiKtc 
fnvpolvy XovovTM, Plut. Num. 19. — 141. sudantes rora. Like 
Milton'B : •* Braid your locks with roey twine, Dropping odours, 
dropping wine," Comus, 106. The editions in general read roratOeM 
nudot after some inferior MSS. — oppoiUa, placed between her and 
them. — detit, se hac die^—rcaUda qtd, etc i. e. m balneis, Fre- 

QUSNTSa MVLIXaBg gUPPLICANT FoBTUNAJB VlRILI HUMILIOaSS 
ETtAM IN BALINII8 QUOD IN 118 EA PAETB CO . . . UTIQUE VIUI 
NUDANTUE QUA VBMINAEUM GBATIA DE8IDEBATUR. Tab. Praen. 

ad Kal. Apr. — A*picU, etc The reason.—T^go/, se. mu&er, — 161. 
Necpigeat^ etc This practice, of which he gives a mythie origîn, îs 
not mentioned any where else. — Roma, etc. Origin of the title 
Verticordia* In the year 639, a young Roman lady, named Elvia, 
when riding was struck with lightning, and both herself and the 
horse were killed. As it was foond that both of them were stripped» 
and EWia's dothes thrown up, her Bhoes, rings, and head-attire 
aeattered about, and her tongue foreed ont of her mouth, the 
soothsayers were consulted, who declared that it portended infamy 
to 8ome of the Vestala and the Knights. On enquiry it was found 
that three of thoseyirgins, Aemilia, Licinia,and Marcia had broken 
their yows and intrigued with some members of the equestrian 
order. The Vestals were accordingly buried alive, as also, by 
direction of the Sibylline books, were two Greeks and two Gauls« 
to appease the anger of some strânge deities. It was also direeted 
that a statua should be made of Venus Verticordia, that she might 
turn the hearts of the women from ctU. This statua was dedicated 
by Sulpicia, the wife of Fulyius Flaccus, to whom the palm wairi 
giren for chastity : see Plut« Q. R. 83 ; Val. Maz. viii. 16 ; PUn. 
yii. 36 ; Jul. Obs. 33. — Templa. We haye seen that it was only a 
statue ; but a temple may have been built to receire it. 

163, 164. The-evening-setting of Scorpio ; see Merkel, p. Ixtz. 

166-178. MomingHrattiag of ţhe Pleiades. This setting is 



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. BOOK IV. 135-209. 183 

cosmic. AfffioKplri^ UXtiâSsQ KpWrovrai ăfia i^X^^ âvltrxovri, Gemi<- 
nus,. p. 69. — queruniwr. The verb queror is properly used of the 
warbling of birds : see Hor. Epod. 2, 20. It is also used of the 
^t sweet tones of the pipe or flute. Lucr. iv. 588 ; Hor. Carm. iii. 
7, 30. — Semkutam, etc. : see ii. 500. — patemoSf of their father 
Atias. — relevare, to relieve, lighten, by going oiF the sky. — 170. 
sepieniy etc. «Though only siz couid be seea, they were said to be 
seyen ; (frobably from- the regard for unequal nombers. — SepOma, 
«te. Reasons for her invîsibility. For the Pleiades, see Mythology, 
p. 464. 

179-372. The Megalesia, or festival of the Mother of the Gods, 
introduced into Rome, from Asia, A. U. 547 : see Liv. zxiz. 14 ; 
Lucr. ii. 598, seq .; Virg. Aen. ii. 785. 

179-188. Manner of the festival.—- TVr, etc. : se. post iv. Non. 
— Titan, 1. e. SoL This appellation of the Sun was peculiar to the 
Roman poets. The Greek Helios was not properly one of the 
Titans : see Mythol. p. 53. — inflexo comu, se. cum, — BerecytUhia, 
So named from Mt. Berecynthus, in Phrygia. — Idaeae. From Mt. 
Ida. — semimaret, se. sacerdotet, the Galii or priests of Cybele, vrho 
were eunuchs. — tympmat T6fiirava (a rivrw), drums, not tam- 
borines, as is proved by the epithet tnonio. — Aera, cymbals. — 185. 
Ipsa, the goddess, i. e. her image : see on o. 276. — molU, effeminate, 
or rather i. q. mobiU : see on Virg. Greor. iL 389. — comUum. It was 
carried by a Phrygian man and woman : see Dionys. ii, 19.— eiru/u» 
kOa, SC. a turba tequente. — Scefia, etc Stage-plays were always per* 
formed at this festival : see Liv. ut mp, xxxvi. 36, and the inscrip- 
ţiona in Terence. — Etfora, etc. Theae days were nefast. 

189-214. Causes of the dashing of cymbals, etc. — Quaerere, se. 
a te, dea. — lotos. The wood of this tree^ which grew on the coast 
of Libya, was used for making pipes and flutes : see Theophr« 
H. P. iv. 3 ; Plin. N.H. ziii. 17. — adunca, This seems to indicate 
the ezpansion at the bottom of the tUna or clarionet — Cybelaa, 
From Mt. Cybelus. — nep/ef , grand-daughters, Le. the Muses, as the 
Greeks bad identified the Phrygian goddess with Rhea, the mother 
of Jupiter. — 195. Erato, from âpao», to love.--C«f«t^, se. sorie, bas 
iallen to hw,-^Reddita, se. a Caelo et Terra : see Hes. Theog. 464. 
— nwvere, se a loco, i. e. to disturb.— ^/£d»», the tradition, which is 
gen^nally believed. — Veste, etc. She gave him a stone in swad* 
dling'-clothes instead of Jupiter. — tmnitibut, se. aerit. — ^209. tudibus, 
This b the reading of three inferior MSS. and of Lactant. i. 21« 
AU the good MSS. read manibus ; two inferior ones rwUbui. 
Lobeck ( Aglaoph. p. 1125) proposes tudibut. In the Greek narnh 



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181 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

tivea they are lyx^^^^"*» Ki^^a, iSpara, — ^210. Curetet, These wer« 
sud to have danced the vvpplxfiv or war-dance, about the infiint 
Jupiter, in Crete. They were afterwards confounded with the 
Corybantee or ministera of the Phrygian Mother. — terga^ ac. boum, 
with wfaicfa the drums were covered : comp. v. 342. 

215-220. Enquiry why she was represented in a car, drawn by 
lions, and her head crowned with towers. 

221-246. Why her priests were eunuchs. Story of Attb : see 
CatulU Ixiii. ; .Mythol. p. 224. — wa templatueri, i. e. be the vcuropoc, 
aedUuuSf sexton : see on Hor. £p. ii. 1, 230.— j^uer, a maiden, if we 
may so ezpress it. — 231. Nmda, i. e. Hamadryada, The Latin 
poots thus confounded the various classes of the Grecîan Njrmphs. 
"--procumbere, se. in se. — Ditufyma, 9C,juga, — Pahettintu deas, i.e. 
the Erynnies or Furies. *' Has ezplicandas doctiori alicui et acu- 
tiori relinquo,** says Merkel, p. ccxz. There was a place on the 
coast of Epirus, at which Julius Caesar landed, named Palaestae 
(Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 6 ; Luc. v. 460), where there was a temple of 
these goddesses, if we may credit a literary friend of Marsus, who 
commented on O vid in the 16th century. 

247-290. Corning of the goddess to Rome ; departure and voy- 
age. — amoenam fontUmtt iroXvvUaKa» — opes, i.e. regnum, JVofanat 
opeit Virg. Aen. ii. 4. — Mcriferat, as bearing the Penates, the fire 
of Vesta, etc. — Post, ut, etc. A. U. 547, there were frequent 
showers of stones at Rome, and the Sibylline books, on being con- 
sulted, directed that the Idaean Mother should be fetched firom 
Pessinus. Five men of high rank were therefore sent to request 
the image of the goddess from Attalus, king of Pergamus, who did 
not Tenture to refuse the prayer of the mighty republic. Liv. xxiz. 
10, 11. — ^260. casta, pure, holy : comp. Hor. A. P. 207. — Paean, 
Apollo, i. e. the oracle at Delphi : see Liv. /. c, — Nostra eris, 
8C. etiam, — refertur, is brought back by her pedigree, i.e. the 
Bomans were descended from the Trojans. — lUa qwbus, etc. : see 
Virg. Aen. ix. 85. Livy says that the Romans brought the goddess 
in their own ship, as of course they did. — ^275. coloribus ustis: see 
on iii. 831. — Caelestum Matrem. AUatum ex Phrygia mhil quidem 
aUud scribUur missum rege ab Attalo.tusi lapu quidem non magnus^ 
ferri mânu homims sine ulla hnpressione quiposset, colorisjurviatque 
atri, angelUs prtminentibus vtaequa&s, Arnob. vii. p. 285. It was 
manifestly an aeroUte. — sui naH, i. e. Neptuni, ^Phrixeae sororis, i. e. 
HeUes, — capax, Probably as the Grecian fleet lay there. — -5280. 
veteres, etc. Thebes, near Adramyttium, the realm of Eetion, the 
father of Andromache : see II. vi.. 395. — Quaque, etc. The coast 



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BOOK IV. 210-337. 185 

of Euboea, in which was the town of Carystus, celebrated for its 
marble. — TVantUf passes, goes beyond ; for the ship could not 
have been in this part of the sea, which b off the ooast of Asia. — 
286. Cythera, An island off the south coast of Laconia. — Srontes, 
etc., the Cyclopes: comp. Virg. Aen. yiii. 416, teq, — legU, ue. 
passes along the edge of it. 

291-846. Corning of the goddess to Rome ; arrival. — OtHa, the 
mouth of the river, not the town of that name. — Dmdit, spreads 
itself. — Quaeque coiunt, etc. The Vestals. — contento, strained as they 
were towing up the yessol. — 800. presta, i. q. depressa, — quam pro 
parte, than his share, i. e. than he is able. — Adjuvat, etc. Jast as is 
done at the present day in all oountries. — monttro, prodîgy ; for as 
such they regarded it. — 805. Qidnta, as she was a fifth daughter : 
see Hist. of Rome, p. ziv. — Claiuo, Clausus was the Eponymus 
or mythic head of the Claiidian gem : see Virg. Aen. yii. 706. — 
facies, appearance. — impar, se. generu — et, also. — crinmit, charge. — 
acta rea est, she was held guilty. — cuUut, her style of dress. — MuU' 
diHae ei pmaiu» ei culius, haecfeminarum ingenia surii, Liv. zzziv. 
7. — 810. ad, i.q. apud, with : comp. Tr. ii. 472. — Conscia, etc. 
The whole of this is very like what Livy relates, iy. 44. Eodem 
anno Postuma Firgo Vestalis de incesiu causam dixit, crimine imioxia, 
ob suspidonem propter cui turn anioeniorem ingeniumque liberius 
quam virginem decet, parum abhorrens (i. e. eyitans) famam. Ampli" 
atam, deinde absolutam . . . pontif ex maximus abstinere jocis, colique 
sonete potius quam scite jussit, — Haec ubi, etc. It would appear from 
this that Ovid regarded her as a matrona like Livy, zziz. 14 ; she 
is a virgo in Stat. SiW. i. 11, 245, and Claudian de Laud. Ser. 28 ; 
and a Virgo Vestalis in Herodian i. 11 ; Aur. Vict. de Vir. III. 16, 
and Sid. Apoll. Carm. zziy. 41 : see Drak. on Sil. Ital. zvii. 88. — 
826. scena, etc. It would seem from this that there was some play 
on, or some representation of this act given at the Megalesia.— 
Moţa dea est, etc. * The same thing is told of a bishop named SiU 
vanus, by Socrates Scholast. vii. 87, and of St. Thomas, in India, 
by Camoens, Lusiadas, c. z. st. 1 10, 1 1 \.—Jlexum, a bend. The course 
of the Tiber below Rome is so yery tortuous, that it seems quite 
impossible to say where this place was. — 880. Atria, i. e. domus, the 
residence of the god of the stream ; comp. Virg. Aen. yiii. 65. It 
roay be that the current had worn a hole into the bank there. The 
usual reading is Ostia, given by a few inferior MSS.— ^^co, an altar. 
— coronarunt, as was usual when a ship was coming into port : comp. 
Virg. Geor. i. 804 ; Aen. iy. 418. — 887. Almo, This streamlet 
enters the Tiber a little way below Rome. It was the custom to 



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186 NOTBS ON THE FASTI. 

wash the goddess every year in it. Luc. i. 600 ; Am. Marc. xxiîi. 3. 
— canus sacerdot, 8C. deae. One of the Galii who had come with the 
image. — 34d. celeberrima» . Because the people crowded to look at 
her. — Ipia, se. dea. — ftoria Capena. This gate, from which the 
Appian road ran, was nearest to the place where the goddess was 
lapded. — Natica. P. Cornelius, cousin to Scipio Africanus. and son 
of Cn. Scipio, who fell in Spain. A.U. 540 (Hist. of Rome, p. 228). 
The orade had directed that the goddess should be received ioto 
his house by the best man in Rome (Liv. /. e. ; comp. v. 260.). P. 
Nasica, though too young to be even quaestor, was pronounced to 
be virum botwrum opHmum, and he was sent, the historian says, to 
meet the goddess at the mouth of the river, and deliver bar to the 
niatrons, who were to carry her to Rome. — rum persUiU, i. e. bas 
not remained the same. The poet seems here to assert that one of 
the Caecilii was the person to whom the charge of building tbe 
temple of tbe goddess was giyen. Of this we have no account 
any where else. The contract for building the temple was made 
A* U. 548, by the censors M. Livius, C. Claudius, and it was dedi- 
cated A. U. 561 by M. Junius Brutus, whose colleague in offîce, 
however, Metellus may have been : see Liy. xxxvi. 36. It stood 
on the Palatine, and was rebuilt by Augustos. 

349-872. Other usages at this festival.— f»artMi cur itipe^ etc. The 
begging of her priests, named by the Greeks fifiTpayvpTtXv. To 
fifTâ TVfivâvwv Kai rivmv rotoijTiav vipukvai Kai kiri ry fifITpi 
ăyeipeiv rpo^, Eustath. ad Od. p. 1824.- comp. Dionys. ii. p. 91. 
— ContuUi, etc, Populut frequens dona deae m PaiaHum tulU, Liv. 
ut iup, This however could not have been the origin of a practice 
well-known in Greece. — Cur vkibut, etc. It was the custom of the 
Roman nobles to give dinner-parties during the Megalesia, which 
was termed muHtare, probably from muiuus : see Gell. ii. 24. ; xviii. 
2. The poet's reason is tutWe.-^mdicku dapes, announced, pro- 
claimed, to which people were invited. Burmahn says, " proprie de 
non vocatis, sed qui sponte veniunt ad epulas, Suet. Ner. 27. Vit. 
13.**— jE>mit, the first in dignity and estimation. — 361. Cur igdwr, 
etc, why her priests were caJled Galii.— ^i»a»a aqua, water that 
makes insane. Pliny (xxxi. 5), having named the Gallus among 
the streams whose waters cured the stone, adds, sed ibi in potando 
necessarius modus, ne fymphatos agat, We need not say that no 
water ever had that power. — 367. Non pudet, etc. Why the more- 
turn was placed before the goddess. Thb was a mess composed of 
g^lic, parsley, and other herbs, pounded up with cheese, oii, and 
yinegar ; see the poem named Moretum, ascribed to Virgil. 



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• BOOK IV. 343-440. 187 

d7d-d76. Dedication of temple of Fortuna Publica, on the side of 
tlie Quirinal. — moţi», i. q. amotis. — PallarUias, Aurora. We caonot 
teii why Ovid calls her thus, both here and Met. iz. 420 ; xv. 191. 
In Hesiod, Eoa b the cousin-gennan of Pailas. Poesibly there is 
a secret reference to palleo,-^ levant, se, jugo, Corpora veste levant. 
Met. z. nQ.-^vaUe Qtiirmi. This Jay between the Quirinal and 
Viminal hills : see Juv. ii. 138. Most MSS. read coUe. 

877-388. Victory over Juba.— 7>r/ia lux, i. e. the third day of 
the Megalesia. — ludu, the stage-plays.— j9er/Stia. They were sucb 
oniy in the eyes of a Caesarian. — magnanim, high-minded. — Hanc 
9edem, se. tn orchestra, — Inter bis, etc. The Viginitiviratus was a 
rauk leading to the senate. Of its tweuty members, three presided 
at ezecutions, three were over the mint, four over the roads ; the 
remaining ten presided over the juries in trials. Ovid, as appears 
from this place, had been in this body. — 385. seducimur imbre, we 
are separated by the rain. As the ancient theatres were not roofed, 
people had to seek shelter when rain came on. — Pendula, se. nam. 
Libra was now soon to set, i. e. on vi. Id. (Plin. xviii. 66.) on 
which day Orion also would set. — tamen. This word seems to sig- 
nify here, moreover. — summa dies, se. Megalesium, 

389-392. Last day of the Megalesia. Circensian games. — Prox^ 
inia, SC. ludis. — celeber, frequented, filled.— jctohi/mi, in the Circen- 
sian pomp or procession the principal men of the state, preceded 
by their sons on horseback, and followed by charioteers, musicians, 
and others, proceeded from the Capitol to the Circus. The images 
of the gods, carried on men's shoulders, closed the procession : see 
Amor. iii. 2 ; Dionys. vii. 72. — Prima, etc. the chariot-races in the 
Circus. 

393-416. The Cereris Ludi, or Cerealia, which lasted for eight 
days. — Hinc, i. e. after the Megalesia. One day intervened. — causae, 
dat. — cacumen, se. râmi, — Bene erat, se. Os, they feasted : see on 
Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 120. — Aes erat, etc. x^Xk^ d* kpyâiiovTo, fitXAs d* oiK 
îffKt eidripos, Hes. 'Epy. 151.-405. chalybeia, from the minesof the 
Chalybes, near the £ uzine. — ducem, Augustus. — unctas tedas, i. e. 
resinous pine-wood. — casta, pure, holy. 

417-454. Râpe of Proserpine : see Met. v. 341, seq,, Mythol. 
p. 170. — Plura, etc. Because he had related it already in the Meta- 
morphoses. — 422. Henna, This was situated in an elevated valley, 
nearly in the centre of the island : Cic. Verr.iv.48. — caelestum matres, 
i. e. the goddesses : see Mythology>p.507. — Arethusa,ihe nymph of 
the fount at Syracuse, so named.— ^umttâ, i. e. vario, — gremium, the 
]&p,^sinus, SC. pallae. — 440. rorem, se. marinum, rosemary : see Fior, 



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J88 NOTES ON THE FASTL ' 

Virg. s, v.-^meUloton, a species of trefoii wîth a yellow blossom and a 
fragrant smeli. It grows abundantly in the south of Italy and in 
SicWy.—palruiu, Pluto. 

455-502. Search of Ceres. — Altonita, dismayed. — Ut vUulo, etc. 
had probably in bis mind Lucr. ii. 352, seq, — Si turn, etc. Tbîs 
seems to have been one of the legends invented to account for the 
offering of swine to Ceres : comp. f. 414 ; i. 349. It îs not noticed 
by any other writer.— 467. Jamque Leonimos, etc. He takes this 
opportunity of indulgîng in a favourite practice of the ancient poets, 
that of stringing together a great number of proper names. These 
places which are aii in Sicily, will be best known by consulting a 
good map. It is also to be obserred, that the poets, on these ceea- 
sions, foliowno certain order, but j umble the names together at their 
pleasure. — Amenanajiumina, The river Amenanus runs by Catana : 
Met. XV. 279 ; Strab. v. p. 867. It often ceases to flow for severa! 
years, and then bursts out anew, at times inundating Catana. — 
Ct/anen, A fount near Syracuse. — vertunbut^ etc, as the Gelas, on 
which it was built, was a strong rapid stream. — Quigue locus^ etc. 
either Messana, originally named Zânele (i. e. hook), Thuc. vi. 4 ; 
or Drepanum on the west coast.— 476. Melan, This is said to be 
a river in the district of Messana, where the land was extremely 
fertile : see Theophr. H. P. viii. 3. — Heloria tempe, i. e. the dale or 
glen of the Helorus ; like the TuscanVal d'Elsa, Val di Magra, and our 
own Liddesdale, Annandale, Teesdale, Arupdel, etc. The Greeks 
named wooded glens, through which a river ran, Tl/iirea, TcfiTriy. — 
484. aUernis^ se. vicibus, — 490. ^'am vigiles, etc. OvSk kvvîHv vXaKi^ ir 
Avă rrrokiVf Apoll. Rh.iii. 749. — AUa^ etc. Virgil (Aen. iii. 578) places 
Enceladus, not Typhoeus, under Aetna.— f^umtc». The poets use this 
word for any kind of loose porous stone. — 497. Q»o, etc. It hence 
appears that the goddess kept her ' dragon-yoke' in this cavem. — 
sicca, dryshod, as she drove through the air. — ^500. Nitaei. Ovid, 
like Virgil (Buc. vi. 74.), confounds this Scylla with the daughter of 
Nisus. — TYiste, 'AykXatrrog vkrpa, 

505-560. Ceres at Eleusis. — Sub Jove^ i. e. in the open air : see 
Hor. Carm. i. 1 , 25. — Eleusm, 'EXiwcriv. This, which is the proper 
naroe, is the reading of the best MSS. — morot blackberries. The 
adj. excusia properly refers to glandet, for blackberries cannot be 
shaken down. — 521. neque ^m,etc. *Opâ* icar otroiav S' ov Osfu^ paXetv 
BâKpv, Eur. Hipp. 1396 : comp. Met. ii. 621. — qtta cogere postes, se. 
by naming her.daughter. — 535. Quaeqiuay etc, The mythic reason 
why thoae who were initiated at Eleusis did not taste food tili even- 
ing. — 545. iiquefixcta, etc. We confess we do not quite understand 



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BOOK IV. 440-646. 189 

thîs. Either reniiet, or a kind of chee^e, or ricotta is meant : see 
Virg. Terms of Husb. v. Caseus. — Tryptolemum, i. e. the child. In 
the Homeridîan Hymn to Ceres, he is named Deroophoon. 

561-620. Further search of Ceres.'^trahit, se. circutn te. — in dro" 
conetf i. e. m currum. — expotitum, projecting, lit. placed out. — tuta, 
defended by. — m dextrum, etc, i* e. the south coast of the Saronîc 
Gulf. — lomum, i. e. the sca on the coast of lonia, not that to the 
west of Greece : comp. Met.iv. 584 ; Ex Pontiv. 5, 6 ; Val. Flac. 
i. 24 ; Stat. Th. î. l4,^Parrhcuidet, i. e. Arcadia : see ii. 189.— 580. 
HeUce : see iii. 108. — de guo, etc. He was himself her father.— 
589. sola, SC. et nihil aUud — victore Gyge, i. e. if the Giants had been 
Yictorious in their war with the gods. Gyges, or rather Gyes, 
whom Ovid makes a giant, was one of the hundred-handed, who 
aided Jupiter against the Titans, Hes. Th. 617, teq,— 596', Reddat, 
SC. Pertephonen, — Chaot, i. e. Eredtu, with the usual confusion of the 
Latin poets. — 602. SieU, se. senteniia, — Punica, etc. i. e. of the 
pomegranates. — lento, tough, hard. — 619. Alba, etc. This does not 
seem to have been peculiar to the Cerealia, but to have belonged 
to all festivals. • 

621-624. Temple of Jupiter Victor, and Atrium Libertatis, de- 
dicated. — hac (se. nam), etc. The temple, which was dedieated on 
this day, was vowed by Q. Fabius Rullianus, in a battle with the 
Samnites A. U. 457 : see Liv. x. 29. Its site is unknown. — Airia, 
etc. The Atrium Libertatis appears to have stood on the ridge, 
running irom the Quirinal to the Capitoline hill, afterwards cut down 
by Trajan : see Becker Handbuch Rom. Antiq. i. 462. The date 
of its erection is unknown. It seems to have been originally in« 
tended for the use of the censors. Asinius Pollio rebuilt it and 
placed in it a public library. 

625-628. The battle of Mutina : see Hist. of Rome, p. 455. — 
VentuM, SC. nam, — SciUcet ut fuerit, be that as it may, i. e. be there 
hail or noi.— hac Grandine, in this hail, i. e. on this day. 

629-640. The Fordicidia.— «acra Htate, se. Telluri, v. 634. Lko, 
caXXteploi, is here used simply for, to oiFer. — Forda. He gives the 
meaning of this word in accordance with Varro (L. L. vi. 15) and 
Festus (t. V.). — Telluri, se. igiiur. — 635. Pars, i. e. una. — Curia, 
(collect.), i. q. curiae. Eo die publice immolantur boves praegnantet in 
cura» compluret, Varro, /. c. — Virgo, se. VestaUt. — Luce PaUs,\. e. the 
Palilia, v. 733. 

641-^72. Origin of this festival. — luxuriabat, over-abounded. — 
primi» in herbit, in the very young corn. — 646. Et levis, etc. Instead of 
corn, the light worthless wild oat covered the ground : comp. Virg. 



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190 NOTES ON THB PASTL 

Rttc. vi. 86 ; Geor. i. 154. — acerbot, soor, unripe, i. e. iminature. 
Taken from fruits. — 651. lUe dabat, etc. The incuboHo, iyKoififjvtc, 
or divinÎDg sleep : see Virg. Aen. vii. 81, seq, — ma verba, i.e. tfae 
appropriate words.-— ^69. errantem^ puzzled, perplezed : comp. v. 
2Q\,—conjux, Egeria. 

673-676. Assumption of the praenomen Imperator, by Caesar : 
see Dion Iii. 41. — Hanc quondam, etc. 'HcXioy d' âgâftavrâ fioChrtf 
irSrvta "Bpri Ukft^^iv Iv 'QKfaydio poăq âtKOvra viiirOcu, II. zviiL 239. 
— bella, the war agaiust Antonius. 

677, 678. Evemng-setting of the Hyades. — Dorida, i.e. the Bea. 
Doris was the daughter of Oceanus, and wife of Nereus. 

679-712. Last day of the Cerealia. Burning of fozes in the 
Circus. — Carcere, collective. The Cerealia conduded, as vre majr 
see, like the Megalesia, with chariot»race8.-^jMif^itof, separated in 
tbeir carceret, or stalls, before thcy were started : see on Virg. Geor. 
i. 412. — Ctir igiiur, etc. This custom is mentioned by no otber 
writer, and it is unnoticed in the Kalendars. It seems strânge that 
what gave occasion to it, shouid have taken place at Carseoli, high 
up in the Apennines, and which could not even have belonged to 
Rome, when the Cerealia was instituted. — wiuae, i. e. eminae, let 
go, started, like the horses. — mgemonu^ well-adapted. Nune locus 
arvorum ingetim, Virg. Geor. ii. 177. — 685. PeUgrioi, se. agrot. 
Ovid was a native of Salmo in that country. — uvida semper. For it 
was well watered. — emeriHty as having done their day's work, as it 
were. — 690. Und^ meum, etc. Hence it appears that Ovid did not 
write this work merely from books ; but was at pains to collect all 
traditions also.— 694. /alcU, This is here probably the sickle; 
for the vine, we believe, does not grow in that elevated region. — 
hidentit. For this implement, see Virg. Terms of Husb. s. t>.— 695. 
tibicme. The tibicen was a prop set against a wall, to prevent it from 
iaUîng out. — extrem, etc. i. e. in the osiery at the end of a valley. 
There is a kind of hypallage. — 704. cohortit, of the yard. The 
eohoTi, x6pTot, was usually of a round forro. MapaSa vooanlur ubi 
habiiant; ea quati cohortei rotundaenint, Cato ap, Fest. o. Mapalia. 
«-avM, 6^vi9tg^ fowl. — 710. nam vhere, etc. Merkel has placed in 
the text the following conjeetaral reading: nam de cruce cur- 
iam Nune quoque lex vulpem Carşeokma ne cat, — ardet, se. Romae» 

713-720. Entrance of the Sun înto Taurus. — lutea,KpoK6v€^\og, — 
prodidit, gave up, i. e. lost. — victima major, i. e. Taurus : comp. Virg. 
Geor. î. 186. — Part (se. nam), etc. As in representations of the 
Stellar heaven only the fore part of this sign appeared, it could not 
be decided of which sex it was. — Seu tamen, etc. For some said it 



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BOOK IV. 647-733. 191 

was the bull that carrled Europa, others the cow into whicli Io had 
been changed : comp. y. 603. yi. 712. Tbe former seems to have 
been the poet's own opinion. 

721-862. The Palilia. The birthday of Rome. 

721-782. Mode of celebrating the festival.— fl*t»^. The last syl- 
lable is long, on account of the arsis and the following pause : comp. 
iii. 474 ; Hor. Sat. i. 4, 82. — PaUiia, se. ad, We have retained this 
readÎQg, which is that of the great majority of the MSS. Merkel 
reads ParUia, after one of the best, and an erasure in a second. In 
Cicero, the word is always Part&i, as it likewise is in the Greek 
^Titers, Plutarch excepted. On the other hand, Varro (L. L. vi. 
lâ), says, Palilia dicta a Pale,quod ei feriae, and Charisius (i. p. 55), 
Pales dea pastoratit etU cujus diez feitus Palilia dicuntur, nisi quod 
quidam a partu lUae Pariliă dkere maluerunt, It wouid therefore 
seem that those who derived it from the name of the goddess, called 
it PoMa, while those who regarded it as a vernal festival, suited to 
that season, when nature is producing plants and animals, named it 
PariUa, as if derived from pario, — Pales. Dea est pahuU, quam aUi 
Vestam, aUi MtUrem deum volunt. Hanc VirgiHus genere femmino ap* 
pellat, aia, inter quos Varro, nuuculino genere. Serv. on Geor. iii. 1 . 
According to Arnobius (iii. 40), the Etruscans worshiped among 
the Penates, Palem, sed non iUam feramam, quam mdgaritas acdpit, 
sed mascuUid nescio quem generis ministrum Jotns ac vilUcum: see 
Merkel, p. ccviii. — 725. Certe ego, etc. : see v. 79S.—februa : see 
ii. 19. — transilui, etc. PaliUa tam publica quafn privata sunt, Et est 
genus hilaritatis et lusus apud rusiicos, ut congestis cum foeno sHpuUs 
ignem magnum transiUant his Pa&kbus, se e^epiari credentes, Varro ap, 
Schol. Peris. i. 72. Casaubon, in his note on that place, shows how 
this custom was transmitted to the early Chnstians, who only 
changed the time of it to St. John's day (June 2drd). The Scandi- 
navians had a similar custom of lighting purifying fires, in honour of 
their god Baldur, at the time of the summer-solstice, and among 
them also, St. John took the place of the heathen deity. This 
custom has also prevailed among the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, 
down to our own days. — Udaque, etc. A branch of bay was used 
for sprinkling the purifying water : comp. v. 677. — 780. Puppis, i. e. 
carmen, The course of the 'poem is compared to that of a shîp, in 
the usual manner of poets ; ** Now strike your satles yee ioUy ma- 
riners, For we be come unto a quiet rode,** Faerie Queene, ii. xii. 
42. — suffimen, i. q. suffimentum, fumigation, i. e. material for fumi- 
gating. — 738. Sanguis, etc. The suffimen, which they then got from the 
Vestals, was the ashes of the calves, from the Fordicidia (see v, 640), 



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192 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

the blood of a horse, and dry bean-stalks. This horse was what was 
called the October Equus, qui in Campo Martio mense Octobri tînmo- 
latur quotanmt Marii bignrum victricum dexterior .... ejtudemque 
cavda tanta celeritate perfertur in Regiam, ut ex ea sanguit detiillet in 
focum, partiâpandoe ret divinae gratia, Fcstusf.v. Plutarch (Q. R. 97) 
says that this took place on the Idea of December, and that KOfiiZ^i 
Kal rbv Pwfibv aifiâtffftt rr^v fi^v oitpâv âwoKSyf/aQ rig iirl ri^v *P^y€C* 
vav (î. e. Regiam) KoKovfikvriv. By the 'P^yecya, he evidently 
means the Regia, which he regards as the temple of Vesta, to which 
it belonged in his time ; see on v. 949. For the Regia, see on ii. 69. — 
culmen, i. e. culmus, — inane, as the beans were gone. — 735. ad 
prima, etc, ifwb vvKra, at nightfall. — Unda, etc. The dust of the 
place was to be laid with water, and then swept away. — CaeruleL 
The flame of sulphur, as is well-known, is blue. — 740. Tacta, se. 
ruuum, by the strong fume of the Hulphur. We do not think, that 
the sheep were rubbed with it. — mareg, " quae non fisiciunt fructus 
yel grossos, unde alibi mascula thura," Vet. Gl. ap, Merkel. Some 
MSS. read maris rores. — taedam, Sextum genut (pinus) est taeda 
proprie dicta. Plin. xvi. 10. — herbeu, etc. : see on i. 843. — Liba, etc. 
They oflTered cakes of miile t, and also a basket-fuU of that puise. — 
745. dapes, the food that was to be offered to the goddess, aud 
then consumed by the worshipers. It must have consisted of bread 
and cakes ; for Solinus says, Et obtervatum deincept ne qua hagiia 
PariUbus caederetur ut diet ista a caedibut purus estet: which is 
further proved by the use of the milk. — resectis. The liba, for 
ezample, used to be cut into quarters ; see on Hor. £p. i. 17, 49.. — 
Consule, etc. The prayer to Pales : comp. ii. 659. — sacro, se. ioco, 
— 750. in bustis, on a tomb or grave : see on Virg. Buc. iv. 49. — 
Jugatae, It was the belief that the deities fled the view of mortala, 
to whom, as the legends of Tiresias and Actaeon show, the view of 
them was fatal. — Unde, etc. In the South, they give the sheep and 
cattle leaves as well as grass to eat : see on Virg. Buc. ix. 61. — 
755. degrandinat, it is pelting hail. This is a &7raK Xcyofi. and is to 
be explained after the analogy of Desaevio (Virg. Aen. iv. 52), and 
so roany other compounds in de.—fano, The reading of a very few 
MSS. AU the others have Fauno.^-Nec Dryadas, etc: see on 
V. 751. — labra, i. e. lavacra, bathing-place. He alludes to Actaeon : 
see Met. iii. 161. — Faunum, etc, i. e. Pan: comp. Theocr. i. 15. — 
765. referam, se vesperi. — referat, etc : comp. Virg. Buc i. 35. — 
770. Dent, etc. In making cheese, that the whey might run cut 
freely : comp. Tibull. ii. 3, 16. — vivorore, i. e. in running water. Ros, 
like ^^oaoQ, is used for aqua: comp. Met. iii. 164, and see Valk. on 



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BOOK IV. 735-843. 193 

Eur. Hîpp. 121. — camelia. A wooden bowl used by the countryfolk. 
— săpam, FU, mutto tuque ad tertiam partem mensurae decocto. 
Plin. xiv. 9. — Mox^ etc. : see v, 727. For the celebmtion of the 
Palilia, comp. TibuU. ii. 5, 87, teq, 

783-806. Various causes assigned for the origin of the Palilia.— 
Thirba, se. cautarum, — vUtuvn^ etc. Omne per ignem ExcoquUur 
tfUium, Virg. Geor. i. 89. — gue, even. — duce. In the South, the 
shepherd usually walks at the head of bis flock : see on Virg. Buc. 
ii. 23. — An quia, Second cause : comp. Met. i. 432. — 791. An quod, 
etc, Third cause. Aqua et igni tolent interdici damnatu, quam acei- 
piunt nuptae, Festus, v, Aqua. The interdicHo aqua ei igni prevented 
an exul from retuming to Rome ; it was also the custom there for 
the bride and the bridegroom to touch fire aivd water. — iunt, se. sed, 
Fourth cause. — referri, i.e. we are reminded of. — 795. Par*, i. e. 
some people. Fifth cause.— i^n tnagit, or rather. Sizth cause. — 
801. Num tamefiy etc. A seventh cause, and the most probable one 
in the poet's eyes. — cessaturae, that was no longer to be inhabited. 
— natali, i. e. on the day of the Palilia, on which Rome was said to 
have been founded. 

807-862. Building of Rome : see Hist. of Rome, p. 13. — Ipte 
locum, etc. Five inferior MSS., which the editions foUow, read, Ipte 
locui caustas, etc, which would seem to give a better sense than the 
present reading, which Marsus says means, " By chance we are 
come to the place where we are to reiate the origin of Rome." 
Perhaps casus may be the event in the preceding verses, and locum, 
an occasion. — 820. tuberant, were at hand. — ad so&dum, se. solum, i. e. 
deep, till it came to the firm gŢound.—fruges, etc. The hole (fotsa), 
which was dug on occasions like this, was named mundut, Into it 
were cast a portion of all necessary natural productions, and a little 
of the natal eartb of each of the colonists : see Plut. Rom. U.-^ 
Jbcui, i. e. ara, — 825. stivam, the plough-tail. For the aucient 
plough and its parts, see Terms of Husbandry in o6r Virgil.— jmum, 
i. q. /as, the duty of a pious person. — adhibere, to caii, to suniroon, 
to take to council : Cic. Off. ii. 23 ; iii. 20. — 831. Longa, etc, In 
this yerse, que connects aetas and potentia: comp. v. 881. O vid 
raore than once calls Rome Urbs domina, but here, as the city was 
not yet built, he uses terrae, instead of Urbis. Three MSS. read 
domiiae, — 837. Celer, This is merely a personification of the Ce- 
leres : see Hist. of Rome, p. 45.-843. Rutro. Most MSS. read 
retro, some rastro, a few uUro, Rutro is the happy emendation of 
Heinsius, which all have adopted. Dionysius (i. 87) says that he 
struck him rf ^ca^ciy, which is the rutrum, spade, or shovel : see 

K 



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194 NOTES ON THE FASTL 

Virg. Terms of Husb. *. v.^-occupat : see on i. 575. — servat, he 
preserves, i. e. gives. — 850. dissimulata, se. adhuc, restrained. — non- 
dum facti, . They were not called Quirites tîll after their union with 
the Sabines. — lemper, still, i. e. long time. 

86d-900. The Vinalia. There were two festivals of this name ; 
one, the present, celebrated in April ; the other in Aug^ist, whîch 
last was named nuUca, O vid here seems to confound the two : 
see Merkel, p. xlvi. — utramque, se. diem, — vulgares pueliae, u e. me- 
retrices, — Multa, se. nani, very. — profesiorum, When a woman in- 
tended to become a meretrix, she gave the aediles notice of her name 
and her intention (jtrofitebatur), and she was thenceforth entered in 
their books and under their inspection : see Tac. Ann. ii. 85, and 
Lipsius in loc, — 869. mymbria, The ntymbrium or thymbraeum b a 
kind of wild mint. It is aromatic, ezciting and tonic. — texta^ etc, 
bunches of roses, bound with rushes. — Templa, etc. The temple to 
which he directs them to repair, is that of Venus Erycina, outside 
of the CoUine j;ate, which was dedicated A. U. 571, having been 
vowed a few years before In the Ligurian war : Liy. xl. 34. Ovid 
confounds it here with the temple of Venus Erycina, on the Capito- 
line, which was vowed A. U. 535, by the direction of the Sibylline 
books, and was dedicated A. U. 536 : Liv. xxii. 9 ; xxiii. 31. He 
makes a further mistake in connecting it with the taking of Syracose 
in A. U. 540 ; for Claudius Marcellus did not even go to Sicily till 
A. U. 538. — Eryx, On this mountun, which was near Drepanum, 
on the west coast of Sicily, stood a famous temple of the Phoenician 
goddess, whom the Greeks had identiâed with their Aphrodite: 
Strab. vi. p. 418. — 877. Cur igUur, etc. He attempts to answer the 
question, why, if this day is really sacred to Venus, it is called 
Vinalia, and is sacred to Jupiter. The following legend would seem 
to refer properly to the autumnal Vinalia, and we do not think th^ 
place of Varro, L. L. vi. 16. opposed to it, while Festus (v. Rust. 
Vin.) expressly lisserts that it did refer to it. It would seem to 
folio w from Varro (/. c), and from Masurius (ap. Macrob. i. 4), that 
it was only in the Vinalia Rustica that Venus was joined with 
Jupiter. — adorat, suppUcates, prays to. — vel equo, etc, whether on 
horseback or on foot. — 885. non parvoj se. prcHo, — lacuHuit the 
pans, yessels for receiving the juice of the grapes : see Virg. Terms 
of Husb., V, Lacus. — 893. Hottica, an old form, i. q. hostiUs : comp. 
Hor. Sat. i. 9, 31. — autumnus. We need not suppose a personifica- 
tion in this place. — Dicta, etc. It would seem from this also, that 
it was the Rustica Vinalia that were in his mind. 

901-904. These four verses are a tissue of errors. The vemal 



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BOOK IV. 843-942. 195 

equinox, or mlddle of spring, is în March (iii. H77), not in April ; and 
the evening-setting of Aries was on the same day with it, as Ideler 
hasshown ; and finally. Caniş setSt not rises, on iv. Kal. Maias, Plin. 
xviii. 29, or Pr. Kal. Colum. xi. 2. It is the opinion of Merkel 
(p. Ixxiv.) that these verses were originally in L. iii. in their proper 
place, whence they were moved, and vv. 877, 878 substituted for 
then). This he thinks was done after the poet*s death, at which 
time exoriturque Cănit was added by the ignorant person who raade 
the change. — Signa, etc. This may either be, the rains give signs, 
i. e« show themselves ; or, aa Taubner understood it, the constella- 
tions give rain. 

905-942. The Robîgalia. — Nomento, This town (La Mentana) 
was in the Sabine country, twelve miles from Rome. The Via No^ 
mentana ran from the Colline gate, and crossed the Anio at the 
Mons Sacer, just as the present road does. — candida pompa, i. e. a 
procession of persons 19 white iogae, — Flamen, se. Quirinalis. — anti- 
quae, etc. There is considerable difficulty here. O vid plainly says, 
that he was coming to Rome, and, of course, along the Nomentan 
road, while in Fast. Praen. we read Feriae. Robigo. Via. Claudia. 
AD. MiLLiARiUM. v., and in YesiuSjCKT\3i.KB.iK porta Roniae dicta est, 
guta nou longe ab ea ad placandum Caniculae sidta frtig^us inimicum 
rufae canes immolehantur, .The latter difficulty may be removed by 
supposing with Nardini, that Ovid, instead of coming in by the 
Colline gate, had turned to the right, to tâke a shorter way to his 
own house, which was near the Capitol (Tr. i. 8, 30) ; but the former 
has baffled all efforts, as the Via Claudia lay on the other side of the 
Tiber. Possibly, however, the same ceremony may have been per- 
formed at different places on the same day. Verrius, we may ob- 
serve, speaks of a god Robîgus, Ovid of a goddess Robigo, in which 
he is followed by Columella (x. 342) and Lactantius alone. — 
911. Robigo, kpvffipri, fiiXrog, mildew, i. e. meal-dew (mehUhau, 
Germ.). He terms it aspera, because it makes the surface of the 
0talks rough. — ădusta gelu : comp. Virg. Geor. i. 98, — 933. villis, 
etc, î. e. a towel with the nap on it, as opposed to the finer kind, 
tonsis vUUs : see Virg. Geor. iv. 377. — obscaenae, of ill omen ; a usual 
epithet of dogs. — Est caniş, etc. The Canicula was said to have 
been Maera, the dog of Erigone, the daughter of Icarus, who was 
killed by his workmen, who thought he had poisoned them with the 
vrine which Bacchus had given him. Erigone, having found his 
body by means of her dog, put an end to her life, and Bacchus 
placed them all three in the M.eA,—praecipitur, se. aestu, is taken 
away : comp. Virg, Buc. i\j. 98. — 942. Et quare, etc. This is the- 

k2 



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196 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

simple cause of manj a practico, in which the mystics find such deep 
meanings. 

943-954. The Floralia. Removal of Vesta to the house of Au* 
gustus. — THthoma, î. e. Aurora, who was inarried to Tithonus. Two 
MSS. read TUatâa^—Jraire, i. e. Tithonus. Fraier would seem to 
be used here in the sense of kiruman, for Tithonus was grand- 
nephew to Assaracus. — dea, i. e. Flora. — Scena^ etc. : see on v. 831. 
— ^949. Aufert Vetta, etc. When Augustus became Pontifez Maxi- 
mus, as it was requisite that that minister of religion should reside 
near the temple of Vesta, and he did not wish to leave his house on 
the Palatine, he consecrated a portion of it to Vesta, and he gave 
the Vestals the Regia, to enlarge their dwelling. There thus were, 
at least in his time, two temples of Vesta at Rome. — cognato : see 
iii. 425. — iic, etc. There was a senatus-consult roade for the removal. 
— Phoebuty etc. Another portion of the house of Augustus was de- 
voted to the temple of Apollo, with its li^ry : see Met. i. 562 ; 
XV. 864 ; Prop. ii. 23 ; Suet. Oct. 29.~<SSto/e, etc. : see on î. 614. 



BOOK V. 



AROUMEKT. 



Origins of the name of May, l-l 10. Rising of Capella, 1 1 1-128. 
Altars to the Praestites Lares, 129-146. Temple of Bona Dea, 
147-158. RisîngoftheHyades, 159-182. Floralia, 183-378. Rising 
of Centaur, 379-414. Rising of Lyra and Scorpio, 415-418. Le- 
muria, 419-492. Setting of Orion, 493-544. Temple of Marş Illtor, 
545-598. Rising of Pleiades, and beginning of summer, 599-602. 
Rising of Taurus, 603-620. Throwing the Argei into the Tîber, 
621-662. Festival of Mercury. 663-692. Passage of Sun into Ge- 
mini, 693-720. Agonalia ; rising of Caniş, 721-724. Tubilustria, 
726-728. Temple of Fortuna Publica dedicated, 729-732. Bootes 
sets, Hyades rise, 733, 734. 

1-110. Origins of the name of May, 

1-10. Introduction. — QttaerUity se. «*; comp. i. 219 ; îi. 57, 284 ; 

iii. 765 ; iy. 878 ; Met. ii 512; Rem. Ara. 161, 487. In all these 

. places we think it better to suppose an ellipse than to make them 

interrogative ; yet in reading them, the tone should be slightly so. 

— ^tttt/o, SC. modo, clearly. — ex omni parte, on every side. — iter, î. e. 



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BOOK V. 1-74. 197 

vid, a way, a road.--yb*ar, mid. voice. — quae foniei, etc, i. e. Miuae. 
— Âgamppidos. An acţj. like Atuonis, Maenalit, It wouid seem 
from Pausanias (iz. 29, 5 ; 31, 3) that Aganippe and Hippocrene 
were two distinct springs on Mt. Helicon, and Ovid himself 
would also appear to dbtinguish them : Fonie Medusaeo ei Hy» 
arUea Aganippe; Met. ▼. 312, where the former is evidently Hip- 
pocrene, which was produced by the hoof of Pegasus. — Grăia, se. 
vobit, 

1 1-^2. First origin ; from Mtgestas. — ut primum, etc. : comp. i. 
103 ; Met. i. 5 ; zv. 239. He here speaks of oniy three elements, 
earth, water, air. — ^20. plebe, se. deorum, i. e. the inferior deities : 
comp.. Met. ii 173. — Ei iaitu, etc., i. e. placed himself on the same 
sofa with him, as they lay at meals. — JEi Teihys, Merkel, foilowing 
a very few MSS., reads Ei Themit. — Corpora, etc, i. e. married, not 
lay at meals, as Lenz understood it. — 25. Majetias, By thb term the 
Romans seem ori^nally to have meant the dignity and power of 
the Populus Romanus, as distinguished from the Aucioriias of the 
senate. It then was applied to the dignity of mag^trates and 
others, and iinaily was appropriated by the emperors. This birth 
of Majcisty seems to be a fiction of the poet's. own : the original 
companion of Honos at Rome was Virtus. — Quaque die, etc. She 
came forth full-grown, like Minerva, to indicate her immediate power. 
and influence. — «tnu, i. e. ioga. Part for whole. — Pudor, etc. Per* 
haps the AiSiac ^al 'Ssfutrig of Hesiod, 'Epy. 200. — 31. suspecius^ 
looking up to, reverential regard, respect. — n^cnit, etc, i. e. does not 
do as he pleased. — Terra, se ium,—h<more pio^ dutiful respect and 
obedience from their children.— /i!2a comes, etc, i. e. gives the 
respect yielded to their modesty and purity. — coronaiu, etc, i. e. 
attends the general in his triumph. 

53-78. Second origin ; from Majores. — sciia, skilled, The use of 
this part. past in an active sense is remarkable ; it seems to be done 
on the principie applied to those of deponents. — Mariu opus, etc 
IloXaioc aivoQ' ipya ţikv viiorkpiav, BovXai S* ixovei rwv ycpatri- 
pwv Kpâroc, Eur. fr. Melanip. 17. — 60. Ei pro du, etc, i. e. pro 
arit ei focii. — Nomen, etc. Senatus, â sene: see Cic Cat. 6. — 
65. fimtaque, etc. This was always the case at Rome. In A. U. 
574, by the Lez Villia Aunalis, the age for a quaestor was fized at 
31, for an aedile 37, a praetor 40, and a consul 43 years. — interior, 
on the inside, nezt the wall : see Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 17.-~70. centuram, se 
nam, the right of reprimanding. — Paires. The name of the Roman 
senators : see Liy. i. 8 i Sall. Cat. 6. — sua vocabula, their own names. 
-'^majores, se nn/tf.— 74. Tangor, se argumenio, I am led to believe. 

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198 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

— 76. sutHnmue, to have been able to rofuse him : comp. Met. xiv. 
788. Senahu querentes eot turn nuiinuiif Liy. zzxi. 13. — frignus^ 
pledge, voucher, proof. 

79-110. Third origin ; from the Pleîas Maia. — tui chorif î. e. of a 
third of tbe Muses : Bee v, 53. — Qtit terram, eic. For the circum- 
ambient river of Ocean, see Mythol. p. 36. — 89. Arcadet, etc. : see 
i. 469. The Ladon is a rîver, Maenalon a mountain, of Arcadia. — 
Extdt etc. : see i. ut tup. — imposUos, se. navi tuae, — (Mrbor, trees ; a 
collectiye term. Cota is the same. — 101. Semicaper, etc. : see iv 
267. — cinctuiis, wearing the cindut instead of a tnnic : see Hor. 
A. P. 50 ; Hi8t.of Rome, p. 89, sizth edit. — celebrei^ crowded. — apte^ 
suited to, as he himself had stolen ApoUo^s kine, etc. : comp. Hor. 
Carm. i. \0,^-fidu\ v, e. l^rae, v, 106. Prose-writers alwajs use this 
noun in the plaral. — pietas, act of duty. — turbact etc, i.e. each 
opinion was maintained by three Muses. A far more probable 
origin than any of the three is the followîng : Cmcnu metuern nomi^ 
natam puiat a Maia, quam Vulcani dicU uxorem, argumentoque uiitur 
quodflamen Vutcanalu KaL Mamhukdeaeremâmnamfacit, Macrob. 
i. 12. Affirmant quidam, quibut ComeUus Labeo contenţii, hanc Maiam 
. . . terrameste .... Auctor ettComeUut Labeo, huic MakteaedemKal. 
Mcâit dedicatam tvb nomine Bonae Deae, et eandem ette Bonom Deam 
et terram, etc, Id. ib. Maia seems to have been the female of the 
god Maius, who, as Macrobius tells us (/. c), was held to be Jupiter 
by the Tusculans, but who was probably a telluric power, like 
Saturn and others. 

1 1 1-128. Evening-rising of Capella. — Prima nocte, se mentit ; or, 
in the beginning of the night. — offidota, sedulous, actively engaged. 
— Natcitur, i. e. oritur: see on Virg. Buc viii. 17. — Oleniae CapeUae, 
The sign of the goat with her two kids is on the arm of Auriga x 
Arat. 162, teq,; Sery. Aen. îx. 668. Hence, some derived the 
name Olenia from iAkvti* Others, howeyer, deduced it from 'QXcvif 
in Achaia, noar Aegium, at which Jupiter was reared by a goat 
(atyt) : Strab. viii. p. 593. — pluviale, Et ortut ei occatut gravittimas 
iempettatet faciuni. Serv. ut tup, — 115. iVou, i. e. Nympha, — Amal^ 
thea, etc. This legend is told also by Eratosthenes, Cat. 13. — aernt, 
lofty, tall, rising into the air : see on Virg. Buc. i. 58. — Sdera nti- 
tricem, etc He made the goat herself a constellatîon, and caused 
her horn, named from her mistress, to be always full of fruits. 

129-146; Altar raised to the Lares Praestites : see Excursus 
on ii. 533. — Ara erai, etc. This is the reading of all the best MSS. ; 
another, whlch, though of slight authority, bas becn generally 
adopted, b Foverat Ula qmdent Curiut, Merkel gives in the text. 



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BOOK V. 76-162. 199 

from one inferior MS. Vota erat iUa quidem Curibus^ while in bis 
Prolegomena (p. cxxii.) he conjectures Cvra for Ara, There îs no 
account of any member of the Curian gent having vowed an altar 
to the Lares Praestites^ tbough such may have been the case, while 
Varro (L. L. y. 74) reckons the Lares among tbose to whom Tatius 
raised altars.— ^ato, sc. etiam, — 184. praestatU, render, • niake. — 
Habat, 8C, oHm, — CompUa, etc. Compitalia, dies attribuius Larilniâ 
CompUaUbut ; ideo idn viae competunt^ turn in compUu sacrificatur, 
Varro, L. L. vi. 25. — 143. Bina, etc. In bis usualmanner he takes 
occasion to compliment Augustus. I was looking, he says, for the 
two ancient statues of the Lares, which was all that used to be in 
the city, and I found a thousand (def. for indef.). Pliny says (iii. 9) 
that there were 265 of these CompUa Larium at Rome, which give» 
nearly 800 images, the Genius of Augustus forming a third : comp. 
Hor. Carm. iv« 5, 84. — qui tradidU, sc. compiHs : see Suet. Oct. 81. 

147-158. Dedication of temple of Bona Dea. This goddess, 
the same as Maia (see on v. 108), was probably the earth, Tellus ; 
the same yictim, a pregnant sow, being the ofiering to both : Hor. 
£p. ii. 1, 148 ; Fest. v, Damium : see Mytbol. p. 525. — Auguttut, 
etc. Because the emperor was born in that month. — loco, to its 
place. — 150. Saxum, sc. sacrum, Pseud. Cic. pro Dom. 58. It was 
probably on the south-east side of the Aventine, opposite the heights 
of S. Sabba and Sta Balbina: see Becker, Handbuch, etc, i. 
p. 455. — montis, sc. Avenam.-- instiierat, had stood on,—ocidos, etc. : 
as is well known, no man was admitted to the temple or festival 
of Bona Dea^—Leniter, etc. The temple stood on the declivity 
under the Saxum. — 155. Dedicat: comp. vi. 687 ; see our Horace, 
Excursus L It was dedicated by a Yestal of the Claudian getu, 
but her name and the year are alike unknown. — Livia, i. e. the wife 
of Augustus ; comp. i. 649. 

159-182. Rising of the Hyades. Ovid commits an error bere, 
for, as Clodius and Pliny (xviii. 66) rightly state, they rise in the 
moming.— */ţ^mon». Aurora, one of the children of Hyperion 
and Thea: Mytbol. p. 62. — Frigidut, cool. — A^rgestet, 'Apyâcrriic, 
i. e. Caurus, the north-west wind. — mulcelnt, will gently wave. — 
162. a Capreist i. e. from the isle of Capreae, in the bay of Naples. 
We may, perbaps, take aqtds as a dat., for there is no adj. Capreut, 
The ships bound for Egypt probably sailed from Puteoli, in that 
bay, at this time of the year : see Stat. Silr. iii. 2. By looking in 
the map it will be seen that as soon as they had passed Capreae, 
they were in the open sea, and that the north-west wind would carry 
them direct to the strait of Messina. Two very inferior MSS. 

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200 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

read a Calabris, which the edîtors ia general have adopted. — 166. ab 
inibrcj i. e. ăicb. tov ^tiv. The more probable derivation is from i)^c, 
sus: their Lado name is <S^iu?u/!a« : see Mythol. p. 464. — 168. neptes. 
As their mother was an Oceanis, v, 171. — Ailas* He is married to 
Aethra, v. 180. — 178, formidine. For the formido, or cord with 
feathers on it, see ou Virg. Geor. iii. 372. — viriut, âptr^, strength 
and courage. — fnetate, their sisterly afFection and grief. — illa, i. e. 
pieUu, — dedU, se. eis. They were made a constellation. This legend 
is also in Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 13. 

183-378. The ţloralia. This festival, which began iv. KaL Maiaa 
(iv. 945), lasted six days. 

183-194. Address to Flora.— Jlfo^^r, i. e. Dea: see on iv. 423. 
r-ludis jocoMts : see on v. 331. — Circiu, se. Maxhiiu,i,e, lutU Gr" 
ceruest with which the Floralia, like the Megalesia and Cerealia, 
terniinated. The Circus Florae, on the Quirinal, in the present 
Piazza Barberini, b a dream of the antiquaries : «ee Becker, Hand- 
buch, i. p. 673. — palma, reward, applause : see Tr. ii. 506. Not 
victory, for there was no contest. — eat, se. m hune mensem» 

195-274. Name and office of the goddess. — Chloris, XXwpic* 
This, though a proper name, is not the name of any goddes» in 
Greek. But as it resembles Flora in sound, and is a word of the 
same origin, it gave the Romans an opportunity of devising a Greek 
extraction for their ancient goddess of florition. Flora was one of 
the deities to whom Tatius erected altars (Varro, L. L. v. 74), and 
.was consequently an ancient Roman deity. — Campi FeScis, This 
is evidently a proper name, the 'EXvaiov Uediov of Homer, Od. iv. 
564, the Macapwv N^cro» of Hesiod, '£,07. 170, the happy land that 
was conceived to lie at the western extremity of the earth : see 
Mythol. pp. 35, 93, and which was regarded as the abode of the 
Heroes. Hes. ut sup, — remfuitse, i. e. their abode. This b a very 
unusual sense of the phrase. — ante, i. e. olim, It should be joined 
mthfuiste. — ^204. Erechlhea praemia, i. e. Orithyia, the daughter of 
Erechtheus, king of Attica : see Met. vi. 677 ; Mythol. p. 388. — 
îiomina, i. e. nomen, We have before observed the fondness of our 
poet for using the plural of nouns. — querela. Douza observes that 
mxerurU tine querela was a common formula in epitaphs. — tempera sc« 
UUc, — arbor; a collective, as are the foii o wing, ^re, ^om. — 211. 
generoto, u e. of the noble, fine kind : comp. Met. xiii. 818; Virţ^. 
Geor. iii. 75. — digettos, set in regular order : see Virg. Geor. ii. 54. 
— 217. pictu, embroidered. — incinctae, tightly girded. The tn is in- 
tensive, as ininjracius, — Horae, the Seasons. — Charitet, the Graces. — 
tellus, SC, nam, — Tkert^maeo, i.e. of Hyacinthus, who was a native oF 



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BOOK V. 166-293. 201 

Laconia, in which was the town of Therapnae. — quereîa, i. e. al ai* — 
aUer, etc, i. e. that he and his shadow were not diSerent persons : şee 
Met. iii. 407, seq.— 227. Oo/7on,etc. For thechange of Crocus, see 
Met. iv. 283 ; Attis (see iv. 223) was changed by Cybele into a 
pine, Met. z. 103. Adonis, the son of Cinyras, became an anemone, 
ib. 728. — Marş, etc. This legend is no where else to be found. 
Festus, when giving the etymon of Gradivus, says, Fel, ut oB dicunf, 
quia gr amine siinattus but he maj have taken it from O vid. — 
233. Ibat, etc. ; see Hom. II. ziv. 301 ; Met. ii. 509. This proves 
that the Campus Felix was in the West, as the dwelling of Ocean us 
was in that part. — 245. Fox, etc, i. e. she was still speaking : comp. 
vi. 362 : Met. ziii. 508; Am. i. 8, 109 ; Rem. Am. 119, 430 ; Her. 
y. 121 ; \u 39,— celabUur aucior: see Hor. Sat. ii. 4, 11.*— 251. 
Oletms, Olene, as we have seen (v. 113), was a town of Acbaia; 
we know not why this wonderful flower was made to grow there. — 
7%ractffit, etc. Thrace and the regions on the north or lefi of the 
Propontis were consecrated by the poets to Marş, on account of the 
warlike character of the people. — ^261. coronit, i.e. flowers of which 
garlands were made. — nUidissimw, se. oleis erU. He perhaps alludes 
to the nUor of oii. — Ponta, etc, i. e. the Iruit-trees also are affected 
by this season, the spring. — viciae, etc, different kinds of puise : 
see Fior. Virg. s, w. — ^269. Fina quogue, etc The word Jhs was 
used, figuratively, of the light scum on the surface of new wine. 
Flos iMcandidut probatur : rubens triste sigiium est, si non ismm color 
sit. Plin. xiv. 21. — Nbs quoque, etc Another figurative use of 
Jlos, the Jlower of youth. 

275-292. Origin of the Floral games.— /tunirta^ instrumenta. 
Docta psallere, saltare, et multa aSa, quae instrumenta luxuriae 
sunt, Sall. Cat. 25. — Hinc etiam, etc. Hinc et locupletes dicebant 
loci, hoc est, agri, plenos, Pecunia ipsa a pecore appellabatur. 
Plin. zviii. 3. — 283. popuU saUus, i. e. the public pastures for the 
feeding of cattle, on which so much a head should have been paid. 
For the public land, see Hist. of Rome, p. 69.~'depascere (se im- 
pune), to eiftt down, without paying any Uiing. — Jamque, etc He 
was considered a man of no spirit who was content with his 
own land. — 288. PubUcios, L. and M. Publicii Malleoli were 
Plebeian Aediles, A. U. 513.— animt», etc This is not quite 
correct, for persons had been fined on this account, A. U. 457 
and 562 : Liv. x. 23, 47.— Multa, etc. Beside instituting Floral 
games, they built a temple to Flora at the Circus. Tac Ann. ii. 49. — 
293. Parle locant, etc The Clivus Publicius, or carriage*road up the 
AveatiQe, ascendecl the river-front,. near the Porta Trigemina. It. 

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202 KOTES OK THS FASTI. 

Btîll remains. — locani, AII public works were ezecuted ai Rome bjr 
contract. 

295--3d0. Occasîon of tbe games being made annual. — imqnas (se. 
tibi), hostile. — 300. blonda^ soothing, softening. — ThetHaden, Mele- 
ager, so named from Thestias, bis mother's fatber : see Met. Tiii. 
260, teq» — Tantaliden. Agamemnon, as descended from Tantalus, 
tbe iather of Pelops.— 007. tenebai, se Au&de. — Virgo, From 
whom, tberefore, more mildness might bave been ezpected. — Hip' 
pofyte : see iii. 265. — Dionen. Venus, whom tbe Latin poets ealled 
bj ber motber's name. — ob&via, instances of neglect arisîng from 
forgetfulness. — praeieriere, by neglecting to perform tbe Floral 
games. — tiotae, of tbe 'losnlt.-^Jwi, se. Pairibus. — Consul, etc. Io 
the consulate of L. Postumius Albinus and M. Popilius Laenas, 
A U. 579, tbe Floral games were made annual. 

381-378. Various questions relating to tbe Floralia. — quare . . . 
JocuSf SC. quam in aMs, Tbe greatest licentiousness prevdled at the 
games ; the mimae appeared naked on tbe stage, and tbe most lasci- 
vious language and gestures were employed : see Amob. iii. p. 113 ; 
vii. p. 238 ; Lact. î. 20, 6. Tbe story of Cato is well-known, wbose 
pi^esence restrained tbe people from calling on tbe mimae to strip, 
and wbo then retired, not to balk tbem of their amusement : Val. Max. 
ii. 10. There was a tasteless legend tbat Flora bad been a mere- 
irix, wbo left ber wealth to the Roman people on condition of tbeir 
celebrating games in ber bonour, and tbat the Senate pretended 
thatshe was tbe goddess of flowers : see Plut. Q. R. 35. — munera, 
i. e,Jiorea, — tutiUbut coronis, g^lands made bjr sewing tbe petals of 
the rose on strips of phik/ra : see Becker, Gallus, p. 390. — JSt latet, etc. 
It was customary at banquets to sbower roses down on tbe table from 
tbe ceiWng.-^Ebriut, etc. The Romans regarded dancing as so in- 
decorous, tbat no one ever danced unless wben drunk : see Nep. 
£pam. 1. — incmciii : see on v, 217.— j^Ai/yra, tbe bast or inner bark 
of the lime^tree. — imprudetu, not well knowing what be is about.T- 
arte meri, i. e. dancing ; see on v. 337. — €ui durum, etc. At lacru" 
mans exclimus amator fetna Moepe Floribut et seriit operit, postesque 
superbot Ungmt amaricino, Lucr. i¥. 1173. — 340. «nc/n^, se. narcfo. 
— vinctis, i. e. ttf qui vinciuntur. — Acheloe, i. e. water : comp. Virg. 
Geor. i. 9. — Gratia, pleasure.— JS^r Ariadnaeo, etc. ; see iii. 513- — 
347. Scena levis, the light, sportiTe, wanton tbeatre. — cothumatoi, 
tragic, grave, lit. wearing tbe coihumaet as on the tragic stage. — 
celebrei, frequent. — tetricis (from teter), rugged, severe, serious. 
Tetricu» domitor CMmaerae (Belleropbon), Tr. ii. 397. Tetrica et 
trisHs Sabinorum disemina, Liv. i. 18. — magna prqfestit : comp. Hor*. 



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BOOK V. 295-432. 203 

A. P. I4. — Contemni, 8C. et monet, — 355. ui daniur, etc. : see iv. 
619. — cuitu, dress : comp. iv. 309. — Accidere, etc: see v. 336. — 
864. Lumina, etc. The only other mention of this custom that we 
meet with is in Dion Cassius, Iviii. 19, where, however, it is only 
said that light wasgiven to those who were going out of the theatre 
at the Floralia. But this infers that it was night, so that the inte- 
rior of the theatre must have been Hghted: comp. v, 367. — 371. 
pro Libycit, etc. At the usuai ventUiones, as they were named, in 
the Circus the animals hunted were lions, pantbers, and such like, 
obtained Irom Africa or Asia ; but at the Floralia the animals were 
roea or hares, which Marţial therefore (viii. 66, 4) styles Floraliciat 
ferat.^^-rete, abl. of reiit, This net appears to have been for the pro- 
tection of the spectators.— c^«m«e, se. m dominium, — tenueg, etc. s 
comp. Virg. Aen. ii. 791 ; ix. 657. 

37^-414. Evening-rising of the Centaur.-^mmuf quarta, i.e. 
ieriia, se. metitis : comp. Ez Pont. iv. 5, 7. — Ckiron, f/ke ofispring of 
Rronos, by the nymph Philyra : see Mythol. p. 69.— ^^imi, i. e. yel- 
low, i. e. bay. — Haemoniae, i. e. ThessaUae.—jusiumtenem, SueaiâTarog 
Xsvra^pwv, II. xi.8d2. — manus, ac, Achtliu^ — S89, duo fata, Hercules 
took Troy, and Achilles was the chief cause of its being taken and 
destroyed. — venenit, i. e. the blood of the Hydra, v, 405.— j&if 
septemy etc, i. e. he was raised to the skies, and made a constellation, 
in which were fourteen stars : see Eratosth. Cat. 40. 

4)5, 416. Momîng-rising of Lyra. *H X^pa ^cnOcv ăvUrxth Clodius. 

417, 418. Moming-rising of Scorpie. *' If,''says Ideler (p. 160), 
"we regard Antares as the middle of the Scorpion, the 6th of 
May lies half-way between the days of his true and his apparent 
rising for Rome ;" and Clodius says on iv. Non. 6 av^pirioc HmQtv 
dvitrx^ Columella commits a mistake when he says (zi. 2), Prid. 
Nbn, Maias Nepa mediat occidet.-^-cum croi, etc, when we say, 
To-morrow will be the nones. 

419-492. The Lemuria : see Ezcursus on ii. 5dd< 

419-444. Mode of laying disturbed spirits. — veteris sacri, an an- 
cient sacred practice. — tacUit, As ghosts are always silent. — Annut, 
etc, L e. when the year had only ten months : see i. 27.-— 425. 
emerir se majorum. — âua, suited, appropriate. — ComponU, buried, 
entombed.— -nepof. It was not restricted to grandsons ; it is only 
a particular for a general.— ^oto^a^, made offerings at.— jMtr^em. It 
would seem to have been the poet's opinion that the Parentalia 
and the Lemuria were in old times celebrated together.— jorned^/, 
senar.— 430. J?^ corni, etc : see on iv. 490. — lUe (indef.), one who 
11^-^^432. mncula, se pedum, i. e. calceos, It was usual to bare the 

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204 NOTES ON THE FASTL 

feet on occasiona like this : comp. Met. vii. 182 ; Virg. Aen. iv. 
518 ; Hor. Sat. i. 8, 33.— ^ţgna, etc ^fe would ezplain these 
words thus: He locked the fingere of his two hands together, which 
brought hb thumbs into the middle, and then, by opening and closing 
smartly firom the wrista, made a loud sound. Neapolis explains it 
thus : " Est crepitus iile, qai fit nostro aevo in quavis saltatione, sive 
comica sive rustica, digito scilicet medio adeo presse juncto cum 
pollice, ut lapsus in palmam strepitum edat.** This is what we caii 
snappingthefingers. — tacUo,i. e. if he should be sileht.— 436. VeriUur. 
mid. voice. — ore. Nearly all the MSS. read ante : but comp. ii. 576. 
— Aversus, etc, i. e. he throws them«behind his back, without turn- 
ing round : comp. Virg. Buc. viii. 101. — Hit, etc, se. a ie, i.e. that 
you may no longer haunt the house. Quibui temponbus m tacrit 
fabam jactarU noctu ac dicunt se Lemuret domo exira januam eficere, 
Varro ap, Non. v, Lemures. Dacier (on Festus o. fabam) tells us 
that in his timv the chiidren in Gascony used to scatter beans and 
other puise about their bedrooms in order to keep away the g^UMts.^-^ 
Novies, Uneven numbers were thought to have great efficacy : 
comp. Met. xiii. 951.^-440. ColUgere, etc. : comp. Burns* Halloween» 
st. zvi-zx. — Temetaea, This b merely what is called an epUheUm 
omans: see on Virg. Buc. i. 55, Temesa or.Tempsa, in Bnittium, 
was celebrat ed for copper in. the Homeric: age. Od. i. 184. See» 
bowever, Mythol. p. 25%,-^-concrepaii etc. Kvwv fiavKae \ifu 
rd ^âaiutra, &c Kai x^^'^^C '^P<>i^'7^CiC, Sophron. *0 tov. xcîKkov .fîx*^ 
oUtios roit caroixo/Acvoic, Schol. Theocr. ii. 36. "Observa Ula. et 
respice ad hodiemum modum." Neapolis. He was a Sicilitin. — 
Manes paterni, The ghost was, therefore, thought to be that of hb 
father, or some Other of. his ancestors. 

. 445-t492. Origin of the Lemuria. — Pleiade note, i. e. Mercury, the 
son of Jupiter ^d M9Â9i.-T-Saepe, se. nam.— -452. mole veloci, activa 
to hb misfortune : see iv. 841, «e^. — Utque erai, se, tu, as they were. 
— Umbra, etc. comp. Horn. 11. zziii. 65. — 471. ăequaUs, se. meae, — 
— qua pOiitis, etc: see on v, 428.— ^on^, i. q. compotitis, — 483. 
Lemures, etc Lemuret, vvKrtptvol SaifAoveg, Vet. Glossa. — feraii 
tempore,}, e. on the Feralia ; see ii. 569 : or perhaps at the time pf 
the Lemuria. — Mente malat, etc. Burmann tells us that A. Tas- 
soni, in hb Pensieri Diverşi (viii. 2), treats largely of thb supere 
stition, which still prevailed at Ferrara in his time. We have 
never been able to meet with that work, but we believe that thb 
notion still prevails, for we recoUect hearing something of the kind 
at Florence. — Sed tamen, etc, i. e. the three days of the Lemuria 
are not continuous. By looking at the ELalendar it will be seea 
that they are vii. v. ui. lă,^suh, se. quanquam. 



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BOOK V. 433-581, 205 

- 493-544. Setting of Orion. HUtory of his birth. — Quorum, se, 
foitorum, V, 491. -^medUst i. q. medio, i. e. y. Id. Orion therefore set 
the day before.-— ^o vena, etc. : see on Virg. Buc. ii. 66.—prai' 
mtutf, offers. — ^506. Ignii, etc. This process must be familiar to any 
one who bas liyed in a country where wood or peat is the fuel. — 
Jaces, fire-wood. — calices, pipkins, as it would appear, in which the 
vegetables were dressed, as is still done in the South, though this is 
an unusual sense ofcaUx, — inde, of them : comp. iv. 171. — testu tuo,^ 
its \\^,^I>umque, etc, i. e. while they were waiting for the meat to be 
dressed. — ^517. j[72i^,ayoung man : seeon Hor. Sat. ii. 2,87. — d^ffu* 
derai, had racked off : see on Hor. Ep.i. 5, 4,—fumoso cado, Because 
the jars, into which the wine was racked off, were placed where 
the smoke would have access to them, as it was thought to ripen 
the wine : see Colum. i. 6. — 526. quaerUis: comp. v. 1. — 529. enim, 
i. e. enimvero, — Scorpion, se. igUur. — 542. ferre, i. q. inferre.—deae, a 
dat. 

545-^98. Dedication of the temple of Marş Ultor in the Forum 
of Augustus, A. U. 752 : see Dion, tiv. 8 ; Suet. Oct. 29. — mundo, 
from the skies. — Candida, etc. : comp. Virg. Buc. viii. 17. — Falior, 
etc. Milton has a beautiful imitation of this turn; Comus, 221.— 
bel&ca signa, the clash of arms, which he feigns to have been made 
bj the god. — ^555. Gigantei» itopaeis, i. e. those gained by Marş in 
the giant-war. Perhaps there was a representation of this on the 
pediment of the temple. — Hinc, etc. Sanxii ut de belU» triumphuque 
hic conttderetur senatiu, qvique victores redissent, huc insigma irium* 
phorum tnferrent, Suet. ut sup. — Seu quit, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. vii. 
604. It is the Parthians and Germans that he has in iriew. — 560. 
Et probat, etc. Ornant signu ficUHbtu aut aereit inauratis foiiigia 
aedium, Vitruv. iii. 3, 5. It is not known of what gods these were the 
statues.—tn /ori&M, at the doors, in the vestibule, where thejr were 
piled or suspended. — diveraae, of strânge, foreign. — Hinc videt^ etc. 
In the front of the temple were statues of Marş and Venus (Tr. ii. 
396), and in the portico next the latter were the statues of Aeneas 
and the great men of the Juliangeni; in that next the former, those 
of Romulus and other distinguished men of Rome. At the base of 
each statue were inscribed the name and deeds of him whom it re* 
presented, o. 566. — 565. lUadem, etc, i. e. Romulus, the son of Ilia, 
bearing the tpoSa opima, Liv. i. 10. — Spedat, etc. The name of 
the founder was always inscribed on the frieze. That of Agrippa 
may still be seen on the Pantheon. — Voverat, etc, i. e. at the battle 
of Philippi. — 573. Si nM, etc. : see iii. 699. — et satia, etc. At/iari 
i(jM 'Aptia raXavpivov iroXf fti^r^v, Horn. II. y. 289. — 581. iuta, i. e. 



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206 NOTES ON THE tABTl. 

tmtOj defended.— 583. Addiderani, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 407. — 
porrigis arcut :. see on L 646. — SoUemnes^ etc On this occasion they 
were Circensian games, not stage-plays, that were celebrated. 

599-602. Evening-rising of the Pleiades. According to Ideler 
(p. 152) this did not take place till two dajs later. — qw^ even.— * 
TuM, i. e. at the rising of the Pleiades, not on that exact day. 

608-620. Evening-rising of the head of Taurus.-^^E7rfor, se. diet. 
. — kme iigno, etc. : see on iv. 717* — lUa jubam, etc This descrip- 
tion would seem to have been taken from a painting : comp. Mosch. 
ii. l22.'-prudens, on purpose. — Phariam juvencam, Io. 

621-662. Throwing of the Argei from the Sublician bridge : see 
Excursus V.— /Mtfcorttin cirorujT} ; see v, 659.— Ftrgo, se. FestaUt; 
a collective.— ro^orm ponte, the wooden (i. e. Sublician) bridge, 
leading from Rome to the fort on the Janiculum. It is usuaily sup- 
posed that it lay outside of the Porta Trigemina, and.opposite the 
Aventine ; but Becker (i. 692, seg.) hşs shown that opinion to be 
erroneous. It was more probably opposite the Palatine and the 
Forum Boarium. This bridge, which derived its name from the 
wooden piles (ntbScae, tub&ces) on which it was buiit, was con» 
structed entirely of tirober, no iron being employed in it ; its erec- 
tion is ascribed to Ancus Marcius, Kai Tt)v tvKivtiv yk^vpav, ffv 
âvev xoXcov gal ffiiffpov Okfiic vir' aifTiav SujuspareiaOai t<Sv ţ^Xwv, 
Utivoc iirtOtîvat r<p TcjSipa Xkytrat, Dionys. iii. 45. — corpora, etc. 
One opinion respecting the origin of this custom, but which the 
poet rejects, that at one time the Romans used to drown those who 
were past sixty years of age. — 625. Fanta vetw, etc A second opi- 
nion, that it commemorated the time when human sacrifices were 
in use at Rome : see the Ezcursus.— ^/â^Mfict dei, probably Faunus.— 
Falâfero seta. Saturn. ^633. Pars putat, etc* A third opinion; 
that the young men, in order to keep the elections in their own 
hands exclusively, used to drown the old men I This absurd notion 
(if any one held it in earnel^t) arose from the misunderstanding of 
a common saying. As the voters in the tribes entered the Saepta 
by what were called pontes, an(} men who had passed sixty years 
were free from all public duties ; the younger men, at the time 
when this mode of voting was introduced, cried out ut de ponte 
deficerentur sexagenarii, i. e. not be allowed to vote : see Festus v, 
Sexagenarius. — 635. Tibri, etc. He calls on the god of the river 
htmself to solve the difficulty. We cannot help thinking that Gray, 
when he wrote ** Say, fiftther Thames, for thou hast seen," etc had 
this place in his miud, though Mr. Mitford bas pointed out an 
English source whence that maker of beautiful poetic mosaics may 



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BOOK V. 583-728. 207 

liave derived it. * Johnson, who ridicules that apostrophe in Gray's 
ode, seems to have forgotten that he had just such another in his 
own Rasselas. — Haec loca, etc. A fourth opinion ; equally devoid of 
probability. — dimavU, opened. — Patcebat, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. 
▼iii. 960^^-648. refertur, se. m hoc opere.-^Saepe tatnen, etc. : comp. 
Virg. Aen. x. 782. — 661.* Hactenut, se. locutus est. 

663-692. DecUcation of temple of Mercury, A. U. 259 : see Liv. 
ii. 27. — Ciarey etc. ; comp. Hor. Carm. i. 10. — Templa, etc. There 
îs no mention of this temple any where else. Angeloni, in his Vite 
dei Cetarij says that a temple was excavated between the Aventine 
and the Circus, resembling that of Mercury on thecoins of M.Aure- 
Hus. — qtiicumque etc.,'i, e.mercatores, — 673. aquaMercurii, Thispool, 
or well, is not mentioned any where else. — numen, a divine power. 
— mcmcHu : see on ii. 634. — -purtu, i. e. having previousiy purified 
himaelf.-^tt^^, fumigated, probably with sulphur.-^^o/, se. domum. 
— Uda, etc. This he does of course at home.— 679. ŞpargU, etc. Pro- 
bably while at the Aqua. — Non audiiuri, i. e. whom I did not wish to 
hear. — 685. prudens, on purpose, knowing what I was about. — 688. 
qua, i. e. aUqtta, se. perjuria. — verha dedisse, se. pro rebus, i. e. to have 
deceived, taken in. — Ortygias, î. e. of Apollo, who was bdm in 
Ortygia. » 

693-720. Entrance of Sun into Geminî ; origin of that sign.^> 
precor, se. te, Merauri. — eât, proceed, advance. — 699. Abstulerani, 
etc. : see Theocr. zxii. i Pind. Nem. x. ; Mythol. p. 431. — 714. 
dextrae, a dat. — negant, se. homines, i. e. it is not true. — 718. Dtrnt- 
dium, etc. OifSk Uatriv îiffţi irXkov Hfiurv vavrSq, Hes. "Epy. 40. — 
statione. The figure is taken from the mounting guard of the soldiers. 
— sollicUae, i. e. in danger. 

721, 722. The Agonalia : see i. 317. The Fast. Venus. have 
AG vEDJovi, not to Janus, as Ovid would lead us to suppose. 

723, 724. Evening-setting of Canicula. — diem, se. htmc. — cards : 
see on iv. 939. — exit, se. a caelo, seta, Quarum agmina cogU Lucifer, et 
cae& statione notnssimus exit. Met. ii. 114,— Est aUo, etc. He, of 
course, intended to do so ; but the Doem was never finished, and the 
account, therefore, never given. * 

725, 726. Tubilustria : see on iii. 849. 

727, 728. In the Fasti, on the day following the Tubilustria (inde), 
were the four letters, Q. R. C. F., which some explained Quando 
rex eomUiavit Jos ; othen, Quando rex amUio Jîigit, Quando rea 
comitiavit fas, is dictus ab eo, quod eo die rex sacrijlculu» itat 
ad comUium, ad quodtempus est nefas, ab eofas ; itaque post id tempm 
lege actum saepe, Varro, L. L. vi. 31. 'Ecrrc yavv ric iv dyopf Bvaia 



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208 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

wpbt Tif \iyofiiv<i» KofifiTUfi irârpu>c, fjp Ovtrac o patriKiitc xarâ 
râxcQ âirturi ^vytav U âyopăst Plut. Q.R. 63. The two accounts 
are not by any means at variance* 

729, 730. Dedication of temple of Fortuna Publica. In Kal. 
Exquil. it is fortun. public. p&. in coll., and in Kal. Venus. 
FORTUN. F&iM. IN. COL., wheuce it would appear that this is Fortuna 
Primigenia, towhom Servius TuUius raised a temple on the Capitol; 
Plut. de Fort. Rom. 10. It is not unlikely that, as Gesenius sup- 
poses, Ovid may have takenthe pa. in his Ralendar forpo^. Rom., 
aud hence have used the popuU potetUis o( the text. 

731-734. On this same day Aquila sets in the evening. On the 
following momjipg (yi. Kal.) Bootes will set, and thence to the end of 
the month the Hyades, which rise completely on the Ist June, 
will be gradually emei^ging. — continua, i. e»juncta, sequente. 



BOOK VI. 



ARGUMENT. 



Orioins of namo of June, 1-100.. Festival of Cama, 101-182. 
Temple of Juno Moneta dedicated, 183^190. Festival of Marş, 
191, 192. Temple of Tempestas dedicated, 193, 194. Rising of 
Aquila and Hyades, 195-198. Dedication of temple of Bellona, 
199-208. Temple of Hercules Custos dedicated, 209-212. 
. Temple of Sancus dedicated, 213-218. Time far marriage in 
this month, 219-234. Setting of Bootes; Piscatory Games, 
235^240. Temple of Marş dedicated, 241-248. Vestalia ; Altar of 
Jupiter Pistor, 249-460. Defeat of Crassus, 461-468. Rising of 
Delphin, 469-472. Matralia, 473-568. Temple of Fortuna dedi- 
cated, 569-686. Temple of Concord dedicated, 687-648. Quin- 
quâtnis Minores, 649-710. Rising of Hyades, Orion, Delphin, 
711-724. Sun enters Cancer, 725-728. Temple of Summanus 
dedicated, 729-732. Rising of^pbiuchus, 733-762. Defeat at 
Thrasimene - Lake ; vîctory over Syphax, 763-770. Temple of 
Fors Fortuna dedicated, 771-784. Rising of Orion's Belt, 785-790. 
Temples of Lares and of Jupiter Stator dedicated, 791-794. Tem- 
ple of Quirinus dedicated, 795, 796. Temple of Hercules Musarum 
dedicated, 797-812. 

1-20. Introduction.— jCMMt^, i. q. ejepotUis, — leget, chuse. — eruni, 
etc. The Epicureans probably. — Ett, se. vero, — Detu, etc. : comp. 
A. A. iii. 549 ; Ex Pont. iii, 4, 9S. --^ Impetus Jac, se. pocHcut.-^ 



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BOOK VI. 1-90. 209 

iocrae, etc, seeds of a divine mind, i. e. is produced hy, springs (rom 
the inspiration of the deity. — 10. Voce, sound, noise. — -praecepior 
arandi. Hesiod of Ascra, the author of the Works and Days, a 
poem chie% devoted to agriculture. In his Theogony (v. 22) is 
said of the Muses, Ai vv vor *H<yiodov Kaki^p Uida^av doidyvr 
'AppaQ •jrotfiaivovff 'EXicwvoc iÎTro KaOkoto. — Priamides, Paris.— 15. 
CorUulU, compared. — in arce Jovu, i. e. on the Capitol. Ii is doubtful 
whether he means the Capitoline temple, in which Juno was joined 
with Jupiter and Minerva, or the temple of Juno Moneta, which 
reali y did stand on the Arx : see on i. 687. 

20-64. First origin ; the month was named from Juno. Tbis 
was the opinion of Cincius : see Macrob. i. l2.—-perejnguos modot : 
comp. ii. 3, 4. — Satumum prima, etc. Kaî /ne frptffPvrârtiv rs«ro 
Kpovog ăyKv\oiAr\TfiQ, Hom. II. iv. 59. The sense» however, is differ- 
ent : Hesiod (Th. 454) makes Vesta the eldest ofFspring of Kronos. 
— 31. Satumia: comp. Virg. Aen. viii. 355, «e^. Ovid wasevidently 
foUowing this place, and, as Satumia in it was the only town on the 
leA; bank of the Tiber, he makes it the same as Rome. It .was said 
to have lain on the Capitoline ; Varro, L. L. v. 42. — a cado proxima, 
next after the sky : see Virg. tU tup. 319 : comp. i. 233 ; £z Pont. 
ii. 8, 37; A. A. i. 139. — Juncta, etc: see on v. 18. — ^, peUex^ 
Maia : see v. 85. — Cur igUur, etc. : comp Virg. Aen. i. 46. — dederct 
8c. hominet, It is a repetiUon of the idea in the preceding verse.—' 
40. nomina traham, derive a name. It was the month that was named 
from her, so the poet was probably napping.— ^(fc/i/«", honestly, 
with good faith. — In geniu, etc. : see iv. 31. — Forma, etc. ; comp. . 
V. 15 ; Virg. Aen. i. 27. — quod nan, etc. : comp. Virg. ib. 15, 9eq. 
— Taiium, 'Ev airâaatQ toxq Kovpiag "Hpţi rpairs^ae IQiro (Tariof) 
Kovpin^ Xiyofuvy, Dionys. ii. 50. — JunonicoUu ; see iv. 73. — ^50, 
tvM,\.(\*sustulL — CerUum, numerous. Def. for indef. — ^uotw , se. 
aUero honore, — 'mensit konor : comp. iv. 85. — Suburbani: see on iii, 

667.— -4n«a ; see on iii. 263 60. meum, Juno Sospita was wor- 

shiped tbere. — deae,ue. Fortuna. — Nec Romulu», etc, i. e. these 
werc not buiit by my grandson, and yet they honour me ; how 
much more then must the city which he did build I 

65-88. A second origin ; â junioribus. This was the opinion of 
Fulvius Nobilior ; Macrob. ut tup, — HercuHs uxor, Hebe, in Latin 
Juventas. She was the daughter of Jupiter aud Juno. — 70. Blandior, 
I eoax, ask in a mild gentle tone. — omne mihi,i, e. omne meum. — 77f 
tUulum, i. e. nomen, — ab annis, i. q. ab aetate, 

89-100. A third origin ; jungendo. This is not noticed any- 
where else, and may be only a notion of the poet's oyfu,—pietat, i. e< 



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210 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

the filial duty of Hebe to her mother. — ditsimiUata, hiddeo, lost 
sight of. — Venit, 8C. at. — Apol&nea. On account of the temple of 
Apollo in the house of Augustus on the Palatine.— jo^cufi ducis, 
Attgiistns. — opiu, He made and maintained concord in the state. 
— 95. Lare communi, a common abode, i. e. a town. — pares, se. 
kottore» 

101-182. Festiyal of Cama. Who this goddess was îs Tcry un- 
certun. She is named by Macrobius, as here, Carna ; while the 
Fathers of the Church caii her Cardea, to which also Ovid alludes, 
tw. 101, 127. Macrobius says (i. 12), NonnulU putaverunt Junium 
memem a Junio Bruto, gui primus Romae coniulfactut est, nominatum 
quod hoc mense id est Kal, Jun. pulso Tarqttinio sacrum Camae deae 
in CaeUo monte vot* reus fecerit, Hanc deam vUcMbus humams 
praeesse credunt ; ab ea denique petitur ut jednora et corda guaeque 
sunt inirinsecus viscera conservei, Et qida cordis beneficio, cujus dis" 
simulaiione Bnttus habebatur, idoneus ernendationi publici status exHHt, 
hanc deam, quae vitaSbus praeest, tempio sacravit, On the other hand, 
Augustine says (Civ. Dei, iv. 8), Posuerunt Fofculum foribus. Car* 
deam cardini, Limeniinum hnwii, We are inclined to think that 
this last, or perhaps Cardina, is the proper name, and Carna a cor- 
ruption, whose resemblance to caro, comis, gave rise to the notion 
of the office of the goddess mentioned by Macrobius. An offer- 
îng to Cardea on occasion of the expukion of Tarquinius was ap- 
propriate, while the reason given for that to Carna is rather far- 
fetched. 

101-180. Story of Carna. The following legend, in the Grecian 
manner, is probably the poet's own invention. — Helemi : see on ii. 
67. — sacra ferunt, se. Camae, — Cranaen, Kpavâtiv, on account of 
the adjacent Janiculan rock (v, 125). He wishes, we niay see, to 
derive the name from the Greek. — 113. dixisset, se. «. This ellipse 
is common in the poets, particularly in Horace. Dares hanc vim 
M. Crasso; m Foro, crede mihi, săltăreţ, Cic. Off. iii. 19. — 126. 
Occvpat, etc. De Jano quidem non mihi/acile quicquam occurrii quod 
ad probrum pertineat; et forte taUsfuit ui, innocentius vixerit ei a faci* 
noribus eijlagitm remoHus, Aug. Civ. Dei, vii. 4. This tale therefore 
must haveescaped the Father's memory. — spinam, etc. ; see on v, 165. 

181-168. Account of the Striges. The Strix («rrpt? â frrpiZia), 
the Strix Aluco, Linn., is the night-owl. — quae Phineta, etc. The 
Harpies.-^^/en«M, î.e. viciu, — 135. egentes, i. e. non habenies, — 
vitiant, deform, tear. — lactentia, sucking, i. e. of those that are suck- 
lings. — l^ve igitur, etc. Whether they are real birds, or witches in 
their shape. This was. a common notion, and oue that ia not quite 



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BOOK VI. 90-199. 211 

extînct yet in some countries. Hanc ego noctumas vioam voUtare 
per umbros Suspicor etpluma corpus anile iegi, Am. i. 8, 13. Striges 
malefids muHeribus nomen indxtum est, quas volaHcas etiam vocant, 
Festus V. Striges. In Italian the name for a witch is strega or mda- 
ardă, — 143. Frocae, One of the kings of Alba, iv. 52. — natus quiu' 
que diebus, i. e. he was five days old. — 155. arbutea. We do not 
elsewhere read of the arbutus being used for this purpose,' but, as 
the bay was, it may have been because it was an evergreen : see 
Diog. Laert. iv. 7, 10. — medicament etc, i. e. were medicatod, had 
the juice of herbs in them. — 162. Hanc animam, etc. t comp. Virg. 
Aen. V. 483. — Vtrga, etc. : see v. 129. The Alba Spina appears to 
be our whitethorn. Alyerai Sk Kal KX&vag aifrijc Gvpcue îrpoffrg- 
Bkvrac d'7roKpo{fuv râg t&v i^apţiâxiav KOKOVpyiag, Dioscor. i. 119. 

169-182. Peculiar food on this day, bacon, beans, and spelt. Cui 
(Carnae) puUe fabacia et larido sacrificatur, quod his maxime rebus 
wres corporis roborentur ; nam et Kal. Jun. fabariae vulgo vocaniur, 
quod hoc mense adultae/abae divinis rebus adhibentur, Macrob. i. 12. 
Quod Kal, Jan, et publice et privatim fabatam (Jabaciam f) pultem 
dis mactant, Varro ap, Non. v. Mactare. — rogas, se. si : see on y. l , 
— 17S. fraude, danger, injury. — quam, etc, i. e. the Attagen. — Nec 
quae, etc, the crane : see II. iii. 5. — sextis Kalendis, i. e. the 
Kalends of the sixth month. June. — laedi viscera, Probably get no 
bowel-complaint. 

181-190. Dedication pf temple of Juno Moneta, on the Arx :- 
see i. 638. — Ante domus, etc. : see Hist. of Rome, p. 121.— Quam 
bene, etc. : comp. Juv. z. 276, seq. 

191-198. Dedications of temples of Marş and Tempestas. £ven- 
ing-rising of Aquila. Heliac rising of the Hyades. — quem prospicit, 
etc. The temple of Marş stood close to the Appian Road, at a 
short distance from the Capene gate, probably somewhere near 
the church of San Sisto : see Becker, i. p. 512. The Via Tecta 
wouid seem to have been a portico leading to it from the Capene 
gate, like that leading from Bologna to the church on Monte 
Guardia, and which is a mile long. — 193. Te quoque, etc The tem- 
ple of Tempestas also lay outside of the Capene gate. It was 
built A. U. 495 by L. Scipio, the conqueror of Corsica, and is thus 
notiqed in his epitaph : Dedet Tempestatebus aide mereto. 

199-208. Dedication of temple of Bellona. This, according to 
Livy (x. 19), with whom our poet agrees,was vowed în the Tuscan 
war, A. U. 4^6, by Ap. Claudius Caecus. On the other hand, Pliny 
(xxzv. d)tellsus that Ap. Claudius, the first of the family at Rome, and 
who was consul Ar U. 259, posuit m Bellonae aede majores suos, pla^ 



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212 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

cuUgue in excelto spectari ei Htuhs honorum legi. From this ît would 
appear that Claudius Caecus onij rebuilt the original temple. It 
seems, however, somewhat strânge that a man who faad only just 
come to Rome himself should have placed the portrtuts or busts 
(cfypeot) of his Sabine forefathers in a temple there. — Pi/rrko, etc .* 
see Hist. of Rome, p. 165. — Prospicit, etc. The temple was close 
to the Flaminian Circus, which lay uuder the Capitol, in the 
Campus Martius ; and the area in which stood the column was in its 
rear toward the Circus. In the early days of Rome, when her 
contests were all with her near neighbours, the fetial who declared 
war used to cast a spear into the hostile territory ; but when that 
became more difficult, on account of the distance, the sjmbolic act 
here noticed came into use. This custom was observed by Augus* 
tus (Dion 1. 4), and even by M. Aurelius (Id. Ixxi. 33.) 

20&-212. Dedication of .temple of Hercules Custos. Of this 
temple nothing is known beyond what is here told us. Plutarch 
merely says (Sul. 35), 'AiroBviov dk rijc ovaias aTrâtrift 6 SvXXac 
Tff *HpacXct itieârviv, iffriâffsie iirouîro np Sfiiitf) itoXvteXiic K.r.X. 
}t may have been at this time that he built the temple. — Altera 
pan, This may be either. the other side or the other end. — probauU, 
This. word was properly used of the Censors when they approyed 
of a work as ezecuted by the contractor : see Liv. iv. 22. 

213-218. Dedication of the temple of the ancient Sabine deity 
named Sancus, Dius Fidius, and Semo. This temple was dedi- 
cated A. U. 288 : see Dionys. ix. 60 ; but it could only have been a 
reparation or rebuilding, as Sancus was worshiped in the time of 
Tatius (Terţ. ad Nat. ii. 9), and several relics from the times of 
the kings were preserved in it. It stood on the Quirinal, in or 
about the present Piazza di Monte Cavallo and the Quirinal palace : 
Becker i. p. 576. For Sancus, see Mythol. p. 530. 

2197-234. Time for marriage. It would seem as if the unlucky 
season for matrimony, which extended all through the month of May 
(v. 490), reached as far as the Ides of Junc-^/^âa, etc. Of this 
daughter he says elsewhere (Tr. iv. 10, 75), FiUa me mea Ins prima 
fecunda juvetUa^ Sed non ex uno conjuge^ fecU avum. The names of 
her husbands are unknown. Seneca says (De Const. Sap. 17), In 
senatujlentem vidimiu Fidum Comelium^ NoionU generum, etc. ; but 
there b no proof that thb Naso is our poet. — 227. Donec, etc. On 
the XVII. Kal., i. e. two days after the Ides, the Temple of Vesta 
was cleaned out, and the dirt (stercus) was, according to O vid, 
thrown into the Tiber ; but Varro and Festus differ from him on 
this point. Vies qvi vocatur : Quando stercus delatum, /as: 



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BOOK VI. 203-268. 213 

ah eo appe/latv^, quodeodie exaede VestaestercuseverrUur,etper Capi- 
toUnum cHvom in hcum defertur certum, Varro, L. L. vi. 82. Stercus 
€x aede Vestae xvii. KaL Jun. defertur i» angiportum medium fere 
cUvi CapUoUnij qid loctu clauditur porta stercoraria : tantae sanctUatis 
majorei noştri etse judicaverunt, Fest. v, Stercus. The dirt, how- 
ever, was probably afterwards taken out of this place and thrown 
înto the river.— 229. Non mihi, etc. : gee Excursus on î. 888. — nite- 
bit, will shine, i. e. will be clean. 

285-248. Morning-şetting of Arctophylax. Piscatory games. 
Temple of Marş dedicafed. — Tertia, etc. It îs usually supposed 
that this is vii. Id., but Clodius says, ry trpb «r' dSiSv 6 dpicrovpoc 
6p9pov ^{firaiy and it is, in reality, at the end of the third night from 
the Nones, that the sign sets. — Lycaona^ i. e. Lt/caoniden, as he was 
grandson of Lycaon ; like "YTrtpfwv for ^Yiripiovidrj^, *Afi<fnrpv<av for 
'Aft^iTpvtitviSfig, Pind. Nem. iv. 82. — in gramine Campi, Here Ovid 
îs at variance with Verrius, who said that they were celebrated be- 
yond the river. PiscatorU Itidi vocanţur qui quotannis mente Junio 
trans Tiberim fieri soîent a Praetore Urbano pro piscatoribus Tibe^ 
rinitf quorum qtiaestw non in macellum pervenlt ted fere in aream 
Volcani ; qUod id genus pisciculorum vivorum datur ei deo pro animit 
kumanig, Fest. v. Piscatorii. — rebeUahas, were warring again. It was 
the second Punic war. — ConsuUt, Flaminius, who was slain at the 
Thrasimene lake, A. U. 587 : Hist. of Rome, p. 206»— Menii, etc. 
This temple, which stood on the Capitol, was built by direction of 
the Sibyliine books : Liv. xxii. 9 ; xxiii. 81. — medm, etc, i. e. with 
six days between them, that is, inclusive of both, in the usual Roman 
mode of expression ; in reality there are only four. 

249-460. The Vestalia : see Excursus VI. 

249-810. Enquiry into various particulars relating to the goddess. 
-^operata: see on iii. 261. — purpurea, bright, briiliant. — vaieant, fare' 
well, adieu to : see Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 80 ; Ter. And. iv. 2, 13. — mendacia, 
the fictions. The word is often, as here, used in a good sense : 
comp. Hor. A. P. 151. — Necfueras, etc. No men were admitted 
into the temple of Vesta. — nuUo, se. homine, i. e. he learned them 
from the inspiration of the goddess. — ^257. Dena, etc, i* e. in the 
fourth year of Numa's reign. — quo non, etc. : comp. Met. î. 322. — 
Quae nune, etc For a full enquiry respecting the temple of Vesta, 
see the Excursus.^265. Forma, se. rotunda, — subest vigU, etc. Ac- 
cording to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans there was a central 
fire in the universe, and, as the earth was regarded as its middle 
point, the fire must have been within it. In this place Vesta is used 
for her temple, and focus for the sacred flame in it. — ^268. Sign^icanft 



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214 NOTES OK THE FASTI. 

mark out, indicate. — sedem suam, their own, proper seat. — ^269. Terra, 
etc. The earth, like a ball, though bo heavy, bangs suspended in 
the air: comp. Met. i. 13. — 271. Ipsa volubiiitas, etc. The six fol- 
lowing Teraes are wanting in all the good MSS., and are found only 
in seven or eight of thoso of inferior note. Gierîg regarded them 
as spurious, and Merkel has left them out of the text, yet in his 
Prolegomena (p. ci.) he treats them as genuine Ovidian verses. It 
is possible that they are so, and that the monks omitted them, as 
teaching the rotation of the earth, contrary to Scripture as they 
maintained, and for which they aflterwards punished the great 
Galileo. Or they may have been interpolated by those who had 
adopted the notion of the rotation of the earth from the ancients, to 
whom it was not unknown, ex. gr. Jam vâro terram, aUricem nostrom, 
quae trajecto axe iusHnetur, diei noctisque efficatricem, Cic. 
Tim. 10. — orbem,BC,terrarum, the earth. — parH, se. a&cui, — 277. Arte, 
This is the reading of the great body of the MSS., including all the 
best. On this account, and because it best agrees with the fact, we 
have retained it in preference to Arce, the reading adopted by 
Heinsius and all succeeding editors. It is of the celebrated sphere 
of Archimedes he is speaking, which was brought to Rome on the 
taking of Syracuse by M. Marcellus : see Cic de Rep. i. 14. — suspennts, 
etc. It is very difficult to understand what is meant by this. The 
globus, of which he speaks, evidently represented the mundtu or 
vault of heaven ; for all the planets were inside of it, and the earth 
occupied its centre (y. 279) ; and moreover it was of glass, in order 
that the motion of the planets which took place in it mtght be seen. 
Was it then inclosed in a glass^case, to preserve it from injury? 
It may also be asked, how the motions were effected in the inside 
of a globe ? For this purpose, we might suppose that the bottom 
was open ; but this would not agree with the idea of its being su»- 
pended. On the subject of this sphere, see Cic. ut sup. ; Tuse i. 25 ; 
Athen. v. p. 207 ; Claud. Epigr. 18. — stai is like the Italian sta : 
see on Virg. Buc. vii. 53. — poli, i. q. mundi, — Par facies, etc. The 
temple, however, did not exactiy resemble a pila ; for its body was 
a cylinder, and its roof a hemisphere, tholus,^quaeris, se. si, — suas, 
appropriate. — 285. Ex Ope, etc. He bere follows Hesiod. Theog. 
453. — impatiens vni, i. e. single, unmarried : comp. Met. i. 478. — 
Quid, SC. turn, — Ignis, etc, se. solummodo,'^vi stando, etc. This is a 
strânge etymology. Terram nonnulU Vestam esse pronuniiant, quod 
in mundo stet sola, ceteris ejus parttbus mobilitate perpetua constiiutis, 
Amob. iii. p. 119.-300. Catţsa, eic, 'Earia from 'iartifii, — Atfocus, 
etc. An quodfocum dicat ubicumqtte ignis est etfovttur, unde et Varro 



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BOOK VI. 269-319. 215 

focum dici vidt. Serv. Aen. zi. 211. — tamen. In our notes on Horace 
we have more than once had occasion to observe, tbat the Latin 
tamen answers to the Italian pure, and is, therefore, at times simply 
emphatic. Here it seems to be, indeed. — -primis (xeăibufi, the fore- 
part of the house, i. e. the atrium* — ante, in former times. Hence 
it wouid seem, that in Qvid's time there was no longer a foctu kept 
in the atria of the houses at Rome. Perhaps, however, he may 
juerely aliude to the custom of dining in the atrium, which was stiil 
retained in the country : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 66. — Hinc, i. e. a 
focot i. e. a Vesta, — vesiibuliim, the porch out before the atrium. For 
the etymon, see Excursus on iii. 44â. — 303. uiide, etc, whence we 
pray and speak. There is a number of various readings in this 
place. Most MSS. have Quaefamury which gives no good sense. — 
Vesta est, se. nam, The reason of the origin he assigns to vestibtUum, 
— loca prima, se. aedium, i. e. the atrium. — Ante focos, etc. The an- 
cient Romans sat at their meals, and took them in the atrium ; the 
use of the tricUmum with its lecti or sofas came to them from Greece 
and Asia: see Virg. Aen. vii. 176, Serv. m loc, — adesse deos, se. 
Lares. Jpud Romanos etiam coena edita, sublatisque mensis primit 
sileniium fieri solebat quoad ea qixae de coena libata fuerant ad focum 
fsrrentur et igni darentur ac puer deos propitios nunciasset . . . Graeci 
guoque Oi&v vapovtriav dicunt. Serv. Aen. i. 730,— Nune quoque, 
etc. An instance in which the old custom was still retained. — 
Vacunae. For this goddess, about whose nature and character 
ţhere was so much uncertainty, see on Hor. Ep. i. 1 0, 49. She was 
chiefly, as the Scholiast there tells us, worshiped by the Sabines, and 
we do not hear of any temple to her at Rome.^-focos, altars. 

308-348. The Vestalia kept by the bakers.— r<?ni/, etc. Another 
ancient rite is still preserved. On this day oiferings of food (bread 
we may suppose) are sent to the temple of Vesta, and the mili- 
stones and mill-asses are adorned with garlands. — pura, clean ; or, it 
may be, plain, not chased or adorned. — patella : see on ii. 633. — 
coronatis: comp. i. 663; v. 52; TibuU. ii. 1, 8. — panis dependet: 
see on v. 347. — Sola, etc. In the old times they used no other corn 
than /ar for making bread: comp. ii. âl9. — FomicaU, etc. : see ii. 
525. — 315. Suppositum, etc. Panem primo cinis caUdus et fervent 
testa percoxU, Sen. Ep. 90. Placentam imponito, testa caldo operito, 
pruna vnsuper et circum operito, Videto ui bene et otiose percoquaţ. 
Cat. R. R. 16,— focum, se. Vestae. — servat, i. q. observat, pays a relt- 
gious regard to. — 319. Praeteream, etc. This legend, which so 
closely resembles that in i. 391, seq. is probably the poet's own in- 
vention. It is likely that he would have omitted it, had he lived to 



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216 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

revise and publish the poem. — 345. Lampsacot (se. hinc, or ergo), 
etc. : see i. 891. — damus, se. nos homnes. There certainly was do 
sacrifice of this kind at Rome. — monilibus, " Quod attinet ad formam 
panis . . . )n modum coronae fuisse existimo . . . Hae coronae sunt 
quae Valentinianus et Valens, in lege De annonis civicîs ei pane 
gradili, vocant buccellas. Soli Stculi banc vocem hodie retinent, qui 
materna lingua hujusmodi panes dicunt buccellatos, Castellani vocant 
rosquUkur Neap. He illustrates ît further, by the following verses 
of Aristophanes (Plut. 764), Kdyw ^ âPa^^trat PoiiXofiai Eiayyk- 
Xta <T€ Kp pavu>r&v 6pfia9<fl, Totavr âvayytiXavTa, They are evi- 
dently those cakes made in the form of a ring, which may still be 
seen in France and Italy, and of wbich a parcei was bung round 
the necks of the asses. 

849-394. Altar of Jupiter Pistor on the Capitol. For this there 
is hardly any other authority. Servius says (Aen. viii. 652), Hodie 
ara in CapitoRo est Jovis Soteris, in qua UberaU obsidiane coria et solea 
vetera concremaverunt, and as an inscription was found under the 

Capitol with Jovi Conservatori colleg siliginiabiorum 

DEDiT, Merkel (p. ccxxix.) infers that the bakers were under the 
protection of Jupiter Conservator, wbo was thence named Jupiter 
Pistor. The place is a digression bere, as this altar had nothing to 
do with the Vestalia.— ^^uam pretio, The altar was of Httle account. 
— Cincta, etc: see Hist. of Rome, p. 171. — 359. Haec est , etc, : 
comp. Virg. Aen. î. 257. — suhurbanos: see on iii. 667. — contudit, 
i. q. contuderat, by the usual enallage. — erat in cursu : see on v. 245. 
— aerată, adomed with copper. — 366. Putant, etc, whence it ap- 
pears that they believe in the gods. — 367. arce, the Capitol, wbere 
were the temples of Jupiter, Juno, and other deities. — 374. Monte 
suo, on their own sacred hill, the Capitol. — Utuo, the augural staff : 
see Hist. of Rome, p. 16, no/e.— 385. ilios, i. e. the Romans. — 
891. CereSy i. e. the cakes and loaves they had made, v, 382. 

895-416. Barefoot procession of ladies on the Vestalia. This 
also is noticed only by Ovid. It does not appear whence it came, 
or whither it went, but probably to the temple of Vesta, The 
explanation given of it is absurd. — revertebar, se domum» Ovid 
lived near the Capitol (set on iv. 905), and he was evidently going 
down from the Via Nova to the Forum on bis way home. — Qua, 
etc. The Via Nova, commencing at the top of the Velia (at the 
arch of Titus), ran round the Palatine from the Porta Mugionis to 
the Porta Romanula over the Velabrum. It therefore lay above 
the terapie of Vesta, to which and the Forum, it would seem, a 
Street or way led down from it. That this had been lately made, 



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BOOK VI. 345-435. 217 

appears fpom his saying nune. — matronam. This îs probably a col- 
lectÎTe, and is uq,înairotuu.—40\.fora, [,q, forum: see i. 264.— 
fosta, î. e. the valley between the Palatine and Capitoline hills.— 
Curtku, etc. This was a part of the Forum on which there was an 
altar, Three various origins were given of the name, for two of 
which, see Hist. of Rome, p. 127 ; the third is thus given hy Varro, 
L. L. V. 150. Comelius et Lutatius scribunt, eum locum este fulguritum 
et ex Sen. Con. septum esse ; id quod factum estet a Curtio consule , 
quoi M. GenuHtu fuit collega, [i. e. A. U. 309,] CurHum appellatum. — 
Vetabra, i. q. Velabrum. This street joined the Vicus Tuscus, which 
led out of the Forum, and ran on to the Forum' fioarium, which 
was on the river joining the Circus Maximus. The pomps, or reli- 
gious or triumphal processions, used to enter at the Carmental 
gate, go along the Vicus Jug^rius under the Capitol, and thence 
along the south side of the Forum to the Vicus Tuscus, down it and 
the Velabrum, and so into the Circus : see Liv. xxvii. 87. The 
pomps at the Circensian games commenced at the Capitol, and 
went down the Clivus into the Forum, and so on : see on iv. 891. 
^-406. praeter, i. q. praeterquam. — Saepe, etc. At qua Vetabri regia 
patet ire solebat Exiguut pulsa per vadă linter aqua, TibulI. ii. 6, 33. 
Qua Velabra suo stagnabant Jiumvne^ quaque Nauta per urbanas velifi' 
cabat aquas, Prop. iv. 9, 5. Velabrum, a vekendo ; Velaturam 
facere etiam nuncdicuntur qui id mercede faciunt, Varro, L. L. v. 44. — 
Cântat, \. q. cantabat. For this enallage, see our Horace, Excurs. I. 
— conveniens, etc, i. e. Vertumnus whose statue stood in the Vicus 
Tuscus. For this god of change, see Mythoi. p. 534. Propertius 
in the following verses (iv. 2, 7) gives the same origin of his name 
as O vid : Hac quondam THberintis iter Jaeiebat, et aiunt Remorum 
auditos per vadă pulsa sonos. At postquam iile stds tantum concessit 
alumnis, Vertumnus verso dicor ab amne deus. — 412. pede velato, with 
shod foot. This is the only instanco, we believe, of velatus with 
pes. 

417-460. Other particulars relating to Vesta.— pwmfiiw annis, 
when he was a boy, probăbly at school. — Moenia, etc. For this ac- 
count of the origin of the Palladium, see Mythoi. p. 4S^.^desiluisse, 
SC. a caelo. — Cura, etc, se. cum ilUc essem. Ovid had visited Asia 
in his younger days: see Tr. i. 2, 78; Ex Pont. ii. 10, 21. — 
425. Smintheus, se ApoUo.— ^33. genus AdrasH, Diomedes, son of 
Tydeus, by the daughter of Adrastus. It was said that he and 
Uiysses contrived to steal the Palladium, and tîiat he afterwards 
gave it to Aeneas in Italy : see Serv. Aen. ii. 166; iii. 407.^-435. Res 
est Romana, etc. It was the universal belief at Rome that the Pa)- . 

L 



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218 NOTBS ON THE FASTL 

ladium was one of the sacred things preserved ia the temple of 
Vesta : see Dîonys. i. 69 ; ii. 66 ; Cic. Phil. xi. 10 ; Scaur. 2 ; Luc. 
i. A92; iz. 991 ; Herodian, i. 14. — 437. Vegta, i. e. aedes Festae: 
see on Hor. Sat. i. 5, 72. — 444. Metellus, L. Caecilius Metellus, the 
Pontîfex Maximus. This conflagration happened soon after the 
close of the firet Punic war ; Liv. Epit. 19. — HaurU aquas, etc. To 
purify himself : comp. Virg. Aen.ii. 718. — capUis mei, i. q. mei: see 
Hor. Excura. II. — 453. Dijeit, etc. He lost hb eyes in the attempt. 
As a reward, he was thenceforth permitted to ride to the senate- 
hoiise in a carriage ; Plin. vii. 43 : comp. Val. Max. i. 4, 4 ; Dionys. 
and Cic. td sup^ — dea, Minerva. — Nune bene, etc. : see on iv. 949. 

461-468. Victory of Brutus ; Defeat of Cnsaus.'—CaiUaco, of 
Galicia : see Hist. of Rome, p, 285. — Cnunu, etc. Ibid. p. 404. 

469-472. Evening-rising of Delphin. — violae, the flowers, t;. 311. 
Specios for genus. 

473-562. Matralia or festival of Mater Matuta, whom the Romana 
identified with the Greek marine goddess Leucothea or Inc, and 
wonhiped with Grecian rltes. — Flava, etc. '£c rovro rb ^diap iv 
ry hpry Tfjg *lvovs kfifiakXovffiv dX^Tttv fto^ac» Paos. iii. 23. — 
Pontibui (se. duobut : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 32.) etc. A descrip- 
tion of the Forum Boarium, in which stood the temple of Mater 
Matuta, built, as was said, by Servius Tullius : Liv. v. 23 ; Plut. 
Cam. 5. Its site was probably not far from the Janus Quadriirons 
and the church of San Giorgio in Velabro. — ftonto de bove. Bot 
aereus inde (Aegina) captus in Foro Boario est Romae, Plin. xxxiy. 
2. A Foro Boario ubi aereum tauri timulacrutn aspicimus. Tac Ann. 
xii. 24. But it was the ox-market long before the Romans entered 
Greece, and that statue was piaced in it merely on account of the 
name.— j9arfft/t, i e. matri,—quare famulat, etc. : see on v, 551. — 
485.- Arserat, etc. : see Mythol. p. 212. — Est ^latio, etc. ; the 
Isthmus of Corinth. — Nondum, etc. : see v, 545. — 503. Latcus erat, 
etc. This sacred grove, which was close to the Tiber (Liv. xxxix. 
12), probably lay a Httle way beyond the Aventine. — SUimulae, 
Livy (/. c.) calls her Simila, and the name is probably a corruption 
of Semele» and not that of an old Italian deity. — Maenadas. Bac- 
chae. Like Virgil (Aen. vii. 385), he suppo&es the rites of Bacehus 
to have prevailed in ancient times in Italy, eontrary to the fact. — 
507. JDittimulata deam, i. e. by taking the form of a woman : comp. 
Virg. Aen. v. 6l9,->~Instimulat, Alluding to Stimula. — sacrique 
parat, etc. The ancients were very anxious to keep the knowledge 
of their sacred rites from strangers : see Mythol. p. 181. — 612. 
pignus, i. e. her child. — Oetaeui, Hercules, who aflerwards burned 



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BOOK VI. 437-569. * 219 

himself on Mi. Oeta. — numen, etc, i. e. Juno. — conHnet, holds, i. e. 
tells? Gierig says, restrains her from telling. — 531. Liba^etc, A 
cause for tbe usage jiotîced, v. 482. Testuatium (Hbum) quodin 
testu caldo coquebatur, ut etiam nune MatraUbus idfaciunt ntatronae, 
Varro, L. L. v. 106. — resigna, unseal, dbolose. — 545. Leucothea, 
etc. The identification of the Latin deities Matuta and Portunus 
with the Leucothea and Palaemon of the Greeks may have taken 
place in the foUowing manner. Matuta was the goddess of the 
dawn, or of the time immediately preceding it. Tempore Uem certo 
roteam Matuta per xtras AetherU Auroram defert et lumina pandit, 
Lucr. V. 655. Her name is evidentlj connected wîth mane and 
matutinus, and we have endeavoured to show (see on Hor. Sat. ii. 
6. 20.) that there was in the usual Roman manner a male deity Matu- 
tus or Matutinus. Manum dixere clarum, unde etiam mane post 
tenebros dseiprtmapars ; inde Matuia quae Graecis Leucothea, Non. 
If Matuta then was the Clara Dea, how easj was it to identify her 
with the Alba JDea (AevKoBka) of the Greeks, even thoughshe never 
was regarded as a goddess of the sea. The^light resemblance of 
name and office between Palaemon and the Roman harbour-god 
Portunus may have then sufficed to complete the identification. — 
551. Cur vetet, etc. According to Plutarch (Cam. 5 ; Q. R. 16.) 
they did bring in one slave, and having cuffed her well, then tumed 
her out. He adds that no slave was permitted to enter the temple 
of Leucothea, at his native town of Chaeronea.— Co^/mÂ', i. e. Ino. 
— Comperit, etc. : see iii. 853» — 559. Non tamen, etc. Another cus- 
tom, that of praying for their nepfaews and nieces, instead of iheir 
own cbildren. Plutarch (Q. R. 17) mentions this also. Matuta, 
like Lucina, may have been regarded as presiding over birth. 

563-568. Deaths of Rutilius and Didius, on the day of the Ma- 
tralia, in the Marsic war. — BidUi. The consul P. Rutilius Lupus, 
who was slain A. U. 664, in the first year of the war : see Appian, 
Bel. Civ. i. 60; Fior. iii. 18; Vell. ii. 16. From Ovid it appears 
that the battie in which he fell was on the banks of the Tolenus 
{Twrano), a river of the Sabine country, which joins the Velinus 
near Reate. — Purpureum ftuaât, Milton's ran purple. Par. Lost, i. 
451. — Pallantide: see iv. 373. Possibly an allusion to the real 
character of Matuta. — Didius, Among the Roman commanders in 
this war, Velleius mentions T. Didius ; but we only read of his 
death in this place of our poet. 

569-636. Dedication of temple of Fortuna, also built by Servius 
Tullius, and in the Forum Boarium. The site of this temple is not 
exactly known, but it.seems bighly probable that it was the ancient 
l2 



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220 NOTES ON THE FASTT. 

temple» some of whose columns are built into the wall of the old 
cliurch of Sta Măria in Cosmedin. This Fortune has no epithet, 
though from a place in Varro, presently to be quoted, it migfat ap- 
pear tbat she was named Wrgo.—^uis latet, etc. In this temple 
there stood a statue of giit wood, covered with two togat, which 
was, as the poet here says, generalfy regarded as that of Servius, 
while Varro (ap. Nou. v, Undulatum) says : Et a qwbusdam este 
âicUur Virginit Fortunae aimviacrum, ab eo quod duabus undulaiis U^it 
est opertum, proinde ut oUm reges noştri undulatas et praetextas togas 
soim sunt habere. Pliny aiso says (viii. 48), Servii ThtUii praetextae, 
qmbus signum Fortunae ab eo dicatae coopertum erat, duravere ad 
Sejam exHum^ ndrumquefuii nec defluxisse eas nec teredmum injurios 
sensisse annis dlx. — JDum dea, etc. This amour of Fortune with 
Servius is also noticed by Plutarch, Q. R. 36 ; De Fort. Rom. 10. 
— 577. Kocte, etc. By the domus here would seem to be meant the 
house of Servius. But it was rather a chapel of the goddess with 
the little door nwnedfestra, i. e. fenestra (Macrob. iii. 12), whence 
she was called Fenesţplla ; and the gate near which it stood, but of 
whose situation we have no account whatever, was named frora it 
Porta Fenestella, like Porta Carmentalis, Lavemalis, etc. : see 
Merkel, p. cliii. Plutarch says : Stă rtvoc GvpidoQ Kara^aivovva 
iIq rb B(afiârioVy 8 vvv ^tvicrriXXav TcvXtiv KaXovm, — An magis, etc. 
A second reason. — 582. Confusam, grieved : comp. Juv. iii. 1. — 
Tertia, etc. A third reason : see Hist. of Rome, p. 25. — Nos tamen, 

etc, i. e. I will however be brief.— joio wte, se. erga patrem 598. 

captU, the life.— /acio dotale, I bring as my dower. — Sceleratus Vicus. 
This was a street leading out of the Vicus Cyprius, up the Clivus 
Orbius or Urbius, to the Esquiline : Liv. i. 48 ; Dionys. iv.' 39. 
The' topographers have not been able to assign its place : see Becker 
i. p. 525, seq, — ten^lum,ac, Fortunae. — 613. sub imagine, i. e. which 
represented. — Ore, etc. From the address to the matronae, which 
foUows, it would appear that the meaning is, that shamefacedness 
(with an allusion to Tullia) will begin to be departed from as soon 
as the face of Servius is uncovered. — 621. Parcite, se, ergo, It is 
' the poet who speaks. — Septimus, î. e. reckoniug Tatius. — Arserat, 
etc. : see Dionys. iv. 40 ; Val. Max. i. 8, II. — 633. /oco. This is 
the reading of all the best MSS. and of the old editions. Siz have 
loco, which Burmann and the subsequent editors have preferred. 
In like manner, for sedet^ all the editors but Merkel read/ov^/, the 
reading of only three MSS. of inferior jiote. — Signa, etc. : see 
Hist. of Rome, ut sup, ; comp. Viqf. Aen. ii. 682 ; vii. 71. 
636-648. Dedication of the temple of Concord, in the Porticus 



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BOOK VI. 569-663. 221 

Li via, A. U. 747. It stood somewhere on the Escjuiline, probably 
not ffltr from the Subura, but its exact site is not known.;^dedicaty 
bonours, declares, as it were, thy diyinity. Majorum insiUufis MetUf 
Fidest Virttu, Concordia cotuecrătae et publice dedicatae sunt, Cic. 
N. D. ii. 31. Dedico is an intensive of dico. For the use of the 
present tense, see Horace, Excurs. I. — IHtce^ etc. There was at 
Rome, in the time of Augustus, a man named Vedius PoUio, of a 
libertine famiiy, an Eques and extremely wedthy. This man was so 
oriiel, tbat when his slaves committed any oiFence, he used to have 
them thrown into a pond at his villa near Baiae, to feed the 
muraenae, or sea-eels, which he kept in it. As Aug^tus, who was 
on terms of intimacy with him, was one day dining at his house 
there, the attendant happened to let &11 and break a glass cup, and 
his maşter ordered him instantly to the muraenae. The slave tbrew 
himself at the feet of Augustus, and implored his intercession. 
The emperor interceded, but in vain. He then ordered all the 
vessels of that kind in the house tobe brought to him, and instantly 
smashed them all. Thb brought the host to his senses. When 
Pollio died, he left the greater part of his property to the emperor, 
requesting that he would build with it some great public work, 
expecting, of course, that his name would be thereby preserved from 
oblivion. But Augustus levelled the large mansion of Pollio at 
Rome, and on its site built a portico, which he named not from him, 
but from Livia ; see Dion, liv. 24 ; Sen. de Ira, iii. 40 ; Plin. ix. 
23. — iub crimine regnu Alluding to Sp. Cassius, Sp. Maelius, and 
M. Manlius : see Hist. of Rome. 

649-710. Dedication of temple of Jupiter Invictus. The Quin- 
quatrus Minores. — Nidla nota, etc, î. e. there is no festival marked 
in the Fasti on Pr. Id. — Invicto, This title is mentioned by Cicero 
Legg. ii. ] 1, and Augustine De Civ. Dei, v. 11. The temple, whose 
site is unknown, was probably, as Merkel thinks (p. cxli), dedi* 
cated A. U. d60 : see Liv. xxxv. A\,-^Et jam, etc. Quinquatrus 
minut culae dictae Jumae Idtu ab similitudine Majorum, quod tibi- 
cines turn feriati vagantur per urbem et convenhint ad templum 
Minervae. Varro, L. L. vi. 17. — tibicen, A coUective. — 657.. Tem- 
poribus, etc. ; comp. Censorin. De Die Natali, 12. — mercede. This 
may either mean the payment they received, or the honour 
they enjoyed of eating in the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. — 
gue. This must be i. q. at. — Graiae artis oput, i. e. tSAcimum, But 
the cithara, not the tibia, was the proper and original naţional 
instrument of Greece. The tibia had, however, been long in use 
there : see on Hor. A. P. 202. — 663. Adde, etc. Pighius supposes 

l3 



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222 NOTES ON THE FASTI. 

that the aedile bere alluded to was Ap. Claudius, who was corola 
aedile A. U. 440. Bat already by the law of tbe xii. Tables 
(A. U. 803) the number had been lioiîted to ten: see Cic. Legg. 
ii. 23. It ia therefore probable that the poet makes a mistake. 
AccordÎDg to Liry (ix. 30) the cause of their secession was their 
being prohibited by the censora (Ap. Claudius and C. Plautius, 
A. U. 441 ) from eating in the temple of Jupîter.— ^ortfio. For the 
meaning of thia word, see Hist. of Rome, p. 83, note,' There is no 
reason for supposîng that tbis couplet was written, llke iv. 81-84, 
after bis ezile. — toros, the couch or bier on whicb tbe body was car- 
ried to the pyre or tomb.— 669. Servierat, etc, i. e. he was a freed- 
man. Livy gives the following stratagem to the magistrates of 
Tibur, to wbom the Romans had made application. — €Uyi)es, It was 
probably a sacnfîce : see on iv. 745. — Auctor vmtUciae, i. e. bis 
patron or former maşter : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 7. 76. — domtntu, se. 
domut, the freedman. — 680. Sustukt, lifted them up. — skrpea, It is 
tbus correctly described by Schefier (De Re Vehic. i. 7), Oblonga 
guadrata capiOy e virgia contexia, corint iastar, quae impamtur veltrahae 
vel plaustro, rebus vUioributin agro vehertdit, It therefore was not un- 
like what is called a kith in Ireland. — 665. Plauiitu. Tbis is the 
conjecture of Pighius; the reading of nearly all the MSS. is CtiUi' 
dus ; four of inferior note have Claudius, It must bave been a 
proper name, v. 690. — spede, by their appearance. — Hbicina. Tbis îs 
used here adjectively. — augeatygi'^e dignity to : see on î. 612. — jSic 
etc, SC. sperans. — Contra, etc. It would appear from tbis, that în the 
yersion of the story which Qvid foUowed they had been ordered to 
quit the cîty. — Superest, etc. Reason wby tbis festival also is named 
Quinqualius. Story of Marsyas, see Met. vi. 383; Mytbol. p. 123. 

711-714, Evening-rising of the Hyades. — Tkyene, Tbis name 
occurs among the Hyades oniy in Hygin. Astr. ii. 21. In some 
accounts the Hyades are nymphs of Dodona : Mytbol. p. 464. — 
Haec est, etc. : see on v, 227. 

715, 716. Favonius, the West>-wind, beg^ns to blow. — Cras. He îs 
still speaking on xvu. Kal. 

71Z-724. Rising of Orion's shoulder. Of Delpbin. Vietory of 
Postumius. — Atf etc. This would seem evidently to mean rising on 
the evening of the xvi. Kal. ; but the rising is said by tbe critics 
to he in the moming : see on v, 785. — tmxerit, i. q. extmxerU f — 
JEt cinget, etc. Here are some difficulties unbeeded by tbe critics. 
What, for example, is stelia serena f Is it the sun ? or is ît a collec* 
tive, as in iv. 390 ? Is it meant by cinget that the sun, when on the 
verge of the borizon, will illumine both hemispberes ? or that the 



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BOOK VI. 665-'770. 223 

stars will appear when he sets ? In whicb laat case what is the 
meaning of geminos poloi f Or finally, could the $tella be Orion, 
of which Hygînus says (Astr. iii. dd), Orionem a zona et reliquo 
corpore aequmoctialu drcultu dmdit f — ffroUs Hyriea : see v. 499, 
teq,—-C<mtmua nocte, By thîs we think is meant, the foUowing night, 
i. e. XV. Kal. ; comp. v. 734. ConUnuus is i. q. conitmudui^ joined, 
succeeding. — Âtc, se Delphin^ or perhaps dies^ included in nocte»—^ 
oUm, etc. We cannot conceiye on what grounds Niebuhr (ii. 4â2) 
places this victory on xiii. Kal., which he says was the 18th of 
June, the day, he adds, of CoUin (in the Seven Years' war) and of 
Waterloo. — subttrbano : see on iii. 667. 

72d-728. Sun enters Cancer. Temple of Minerva on the Aven- 
tine dedicated. — Jam, etc. Reckoning inclusÎTely, there were now 
XII. (sex et totidem) days to the end of the month, to which number 
adding i, we get xin. Kal., its name in the Fasti. Columella (xi. 2) 
and Fast. Venus. give the same date. — CoepU, etc. The site and date 
of this temple are alike unknown. The Fast. Amit. and Exquil. 
agree with Ovid as to the day of dedication. 

729-732. Dedication of temple of Summanus. This temple, Pliny 
tells us (xxix. 4), was near that of Jnventas, and the Fast. Amit. 
Exquil. and Venus. have all on this day summan. ad circ. max. — 
fiuritf, i. e. Aurora. — quisquii is est. This god, of whose exact cha- 
racter Ovid professes his ignorance, is by Varro (L. L. v. 74) placed 
among those to whom the Sabine Tatius raised altars. He is gene* 
rally regarded as an Etruscan deity : see My thol. p. 530. Merkel 
(p. ccviii) thinks that he was viewed as one of the DU Inferi, who, 
in the usual propitiatory way, were called aqui&if not nigri : and that 
instead of Noctumus, hb proper appellation, he was named Submanus, 
from mane, 

733-762. Evening-risingof Ophiuchus, the stellarised Aesculapius : 
for the following mythic events, see Mythol. pp. 393, 422, 458.— 
Hanc (se. Auroranit v. 729), etc, i. e. in the evening. Merkel, how- 
ever, says (p. Ixxiii), " mane a. d. xi. Kal. Jul. non occidentero, ut 
Clodius, sed surgentem facit.'' — patrUs. As she was one of the 
Nereides. — te&s, etc. : comp. Virg. Aen. ii« 649. — 746. Coronides. 
Aesculapius, the son of Coronia. — 755. LuctiSy etc. : see on iii. 263* 
— Cfymenus, KXvfitvoQ, a title of Pluto. — quod vetat, i. e. to raise the 
dead. 

763-768. Defeat of the Romans at the Trasimene lake : see Hist. 
of Rome, p. 205. — Si tfetet, etc. The defeat of Flaminius was 
ascribed to his neglect of the auspices. 

769, 770. Defeat of.Sypliax and Hasdrubal : see Hist. of Rome, 
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224 KOTES ON THE FASTI. 

p. 246. — mperat, i. q. tuperavU : see Horace, Excurs. I. — sitis, i. q. 
efus, Mathmtae. 

771-784. DedicatîoQ of temple of Fors Fortuna. Tbis temple, 
which ^'88 built by Servius Tullius, was on the furtber bank of the 
Tiber. * Secundum TU}erin exira urbem Eomam, Varro, L. L. vi. ] 7. 
Fors Fortuna est, cujut âkemfesitim colunt, qiti sine arte aUgua vivuni ; 
kujus aedes trans TU}erim est. Donat, on Ter. Phorm. v. 6, 1. — ForOs^ 
Fors, like sors, mens, and uther words of the kind, îs a contractioa 
of the original nom. fitrtis, u q. bonus. ** Fora fortuna, i. e. bona, 
oventus fortunae bonus, ut veteres expHcant, et fortis famiha^ 
Lobeck, Aglaopb. p. 1084. Dionysius (ît. 27) and Plutarch (De 
Fort. Rom. 5), both mistaking the sense of the word, caii the god- 
dess Tvxn 'Avdptla, or 'lex^p^t or 'Aptcrrct/rtcr/. — propmqua, se. 
Urbi, 

785-790. Rising of the centre or Belt of Orion» The summer 
Solstice. From the words of the poet it seems plain that it is an 
evening-rising of Orion's belt that he means ; yet Aetîus says, 
Ml} vi rtp aiiTiţ K€ (zzy.) 'Opicnv iwog ăpx^'''<'^^ ăvaTtXKav' ttei ik 
rpowaî BtpgvaL 

791-794. Dedication of chapel of the Lares and temple of Jupiter 
Stator. Both of these edifices were on the Summa Sacra Via, i. e. 
its highest point, where the arch of Titus stands. The first was re* 
built by Augustus (Mon. Ancyr. 1), the second had been built by 
Romulus(Liv. i. 12). — ubijit, etc. The women who wove garlands 
had, as appears from this place, their shops or stalls on the Summa 
Sacra Via. The fruiterers were also there : see A. A. ii. 265 ; Varro, 
R. R. i. 2. — Ante, etc. At the arch of Titus b a way leading up to 
the Palatine (to S. Bonaventura and the Villa Mills), which, like 
others of the kind, represents the ancient way. At the opening of 
this, on the Sacra Via, was the Porta Mugionis, and close by it the 
temple of Jupiter Stator : see Tr. iii. 1, 31 ; Dionys. ii. 50 ; Liv. 
i. 47. 

795-796. Dedication of temple of Quirinus. This appears to be the 
temple which, being vowedby his father the dictator, was built and 
dedicated by the consul L. Papirius Cursor, at the termination of 
the Samuite war, A. U. 459 : Liv. x. 46 ; Plin. vii. 60. Its site is 
not known. — trabeae tuae, i. e. ^t trabeate, 

797-812. Dedication of temple of Hercules Musarum. This tem- 
ple, which was near the Fiaminian Circus, and close by the Porticus 
Octaviae, was built by M. Fulvius Nobilior, who placed in it the 
statues of the Muses, which he had taken from Ambracia in the war 
«gainst the Aetolians : see Plin. xxxv. 36. Various reasons are 



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BOOK VI. 771-812. 225 

assîgned for this union of Hercules and the Muses, but the simple one 
seems to be, that Fulvius had also brought away a statue of Hercules 
phiying on the lyre ; and he wished to place these works of art all 
together. This temple was repaired, and a portico added to it by 
M. Marcius Philippus, in the time of Aug^stus : Suet. Oct.' 29 ; 
Mart. V. 49. — Marcm. The wife of Fabius Maximus, one of our 
poet's most poweriîil friends, and with whom be was connected by 
marriage : see Ex Pont. i. 2, 138 ; iii. 1, 75 ; Tac. Ann. i. 5. — 808. 
Laudamus, etc, i. e. we the Muses commend, etc, ex. gr. i/jtKOfioQ, 
\tvKw\tvo{, icoXXttr^vpoc, and other epithets used by the poets. — 
Nupta,etc, From this place we learn that Marcius Philippus, the 
repairer of that temple, had been married to the aunt of Augustus. 
Another Marcius Philippus had married his mother Atia : see Suet. 
Oct. 8 ; Cic. ad Att. xv. 12. — mcrepuU, etc. As the statue repre- 
sented him playing on the lyre. 



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226 ExctiHms- 1. 



EXCURSUS I. 

Temple of Jancs. 

Cum iot tint Jani, cur stas sacratus m icfio, 
Hic ubijunctaforis iempla dttobus habesf — ^i. 257. 

This Î8 evidently the celebrated temple of Janus Geminos, or Jedus 
Quirinus, called also Porta Janualis (Varr. L. L. v. 165), which was 
open in time of war, shut in time of peace (o. 277). Ovid bere 
says that it lay between two of tbe Fora of Rome ; and from tbe 
narrative it îs piain that one of them was the Forum Romanum. 
Liyy says (i. 19) that it was ad infimum Argiletum, which Servius 
tells us ( Aen. vii. 607) was Juxta theairum Marcelă, i. e. outside of 
the Carmental Gate, and so not even within the walls of the city. 
Again, Macrobius (i. 9), when relating the legend in tbe text, says, 
j)artam guae sub radicibus colUs FinunaUs irat, quae postea ex eventu 
JanuaUs vocata est, We have thus three different sites given for 
the temple of Janus, and as Ovid could not be mistaken any more 
than Livy, the whole question turns on the site of the place named 
Ai^iletum. 

From Tarious places in Marţial (see i. 3, 1 ; 117, 8) it appears 
that bis bookseller lived in the Argiletum. His shop, he says, was 
contra Caesaris forum, and (i. 2, 8) Limina post Pacis Pailadiumque 
forum. By Pacis bere is evidently meant tbe Templum Pacis, or 
Forum of Vespasian ; and by tbe Palladium Forum, that of Nerva, be- 
gun by Domitian, in which there was a temple of Minerva. This also 
is the Caesaris Forum, which name was never, as some fancy, giyen 
to the Forum Julium. Further, the same poet (iL 17) makes the 
Argiletum extend to the fauces or entrance of the Subura, which 
was the yalley between the Carinae and the Quiriual and Viminal 
hills; and as the Argiletum joined it and those Fora, and also, as ap- 
pears from Livy and Ovid, approached the Roman Forum, it must 
have been the space between the southem point of the Quirinal and 
that Forum, in which space all the imperial Fora, except that of 
Trijan, were buiit ; and in Martial's time the name may have been 
restricted to the space between these Fora and the Quirinal. By 



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sxcuBsus I. 227 

mfimum Argîletum, Livy must have meant its lowest most southern 
part as ODe went from tbe Subura to the Forum. Servtus there- 
fore, who was not pers9Dally acquainted with Rome, fell into error 
in coDsequence of there bein^ a temple of Jaous built by Duilius, 
and repaired by Tiberius (Tac. Ann. ii. 49), near the theatre 
of Marceli us. In his time, also, the name Ai^letum had gone out 
of use ; so that he probably did not know where it had been. The 
origin of this name, by the way,^ was very uncertain. Tbe usual 
derÎTation was that in Virgil (Aen. viii. 345), ArgiletumrhMi some 
derived it from argiUa, Of these, ihe first is, of course, tnadraissi* 
ble ; and against the other may be urged that there does not appear 
to have been argila in that place, at least not more than elsewhere, 
and that the termination etum is properly used only of plants, aar 
quercetwm, mnetumyfmaceium^ etc. 

There only then remains to be considered, the site given to the 
temple of Janus by Macrobius. This, however, must be at oneef 
rejected, as it is at variance with all the bther accounts. Perhaps^ 
indeed, he wrote Quirina&t instead of Vimma&t» 

By the second Forum, Ovid undoubtediy meant the Forum 
Julium, whîch, as Becker has we think demonstrated (Handbuch,i. 
362, <e9.),lay betw^en that of August us and the Forum Romanum ; 
the probable site of the temple of Janus was between the Basilica 
Aemilia and the arch of Severus, at the modem church of S. Adriano. 
Another name for this place, according to Varro (L. L. v. 166), was 
L a ui o la e, a lavando, quod iinadJanum Cremmum aquae caldaefue^ 
runt. From this the critics infer that Lautolae, which is only used 
of this place, and of the pass at Terracina, denotes hot springs ; but 
Ovid, in this part of the Fasti, and still more clearly in Met. ziv. 
785, seq., makes the heating of the water to have been supemotural. 
A» there is a spring in the acyacent Carcer, and the entrance into the 
Forum Augusti is, at the present day, named Arco del Pantano, we 
may infer that in ancient times there were springs in that locality. 

From Orid's descriptions of this Janus, one might suppose that 
it waa one of the gates of the Romulian town. But that it could not 
have been, on account of the dbtance ; neither coald it have been a 
gate of the Arz on the Tarpeian hill, for the cHvtu led down to it. 
In a medal of Augustus the temple of Janus appears to be a square 
or oblong building with foldingwdoors, exactly like those of a house, 
at the right sîde, and not in the centre. Procopius (De Bell. Goth. 
i. 25) describes the temple of Janus in his own time, as being square, 
and covered with copper, and containing a statue of the god five feet 
bigb. It had doors at each end» also covered with oopper« 

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228 EXC0BSUS II. 

EXCURSUS II. 

PONTIFFB, ReX SaCRORUM, FlAUENS. 

Ita Rex placare Sacrorum 
jVfcmtna kaiigerae conjuge debet om, — i. 833. 

Amono no people was what is called the union between Church 
and State, that is, of ecciesiastical and civil affiBdrs, ao dose as among 
the Romaus. AU religious ordinances and regulations ^proceeded 
(rom the Senate, to wbom all the ministere of religion were sub» 
ordinatQ. As, however, this body could not give the constant 
attention that was requisite to the aâaire of religion, there was, be- 
side the Flaroens, or priests of particular deities, a coUege or board 
with a president, namecl Pontifices, to whom the general super- 
intendence of the religion of the state was committed. 

Like almost every thiog connected with religion, the institution 
of the Pontificate was ascribed to the mythic Numa, which only 
means that it had existed at Rome, time out of mind, — was, in fact, 
coeval with the state. The name Pontifez, \arro (L. L. v. 83) 
derives from pontem facere : Nam (says he) ab ut subUcius (pons) 
est Jactu$ prmum, ut resiitutut saepe, cum in eo tacra letiuls et cit 
IHberim non mediocri rituj!unt. But, at the same time,'he informs us 
that Q. Scaevola, the Pontifex Maximus, had derived itîrom poşte, 
facere, as ifit vfMpotifex: and Scaevola must, we may suppose, b'ave- 
had good reason for rejecting an etymon so very obvious, and yet 
so untrue, as that of Varro. A new and not improbable one bas 
been proposed by Gdttling(Rom. Statverf. p. 173) ; namely, that it 
was originally/>om;3f/ejr, indicative of the direction of religious cere- 
monios, of which the pompt, or processions, were a prominent part. 
The difference in orthography would then be like that in Pomptina ' 
or Pontina palut. 

The coUege, or board of Pontiffs, originally consisted of five mem- 
bers; namely, the Pontifex Maximus, or president, and four minor pon- 
tjifs, probably two for each of the two principal ancient patrician tribes, 
the Ramnes and Titienses; but in A. U. 452 the plebeians succeeded 
in gaining admission into this college also, and the number of mem- 
bers was increased to nine. Like the other ministers of religion, 
the pontifts held their office for life : when a member of the college 
died, the remaining members co-opted or chose his successor. On 
the deatK of the Pontifex Maximus the college was first completed 



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EXCURSUS II. 229 

in the iisual manner, and then his successor was chosen from among 
the members (see Liv. zxxix. 46 ; xl. 42). This, however, was onij 
preliminary, for the election was to bo confirmed by the Comitia 
Curiata (Dionys. iî. 212 ; Liv. xxv. 5). 

The pontifii had the direction of all sacred rites and ceremonies, 
both public and private. They had books of ancient origin (Ubri 
Pontificu) containing the IndigUamenta, i. e. the names of the goda 
and mode of worshîping them, and the legal forms. They also 
had the keeping of the Kalendar, and the charge of intercalating the 
year (see Introd. § 4). They summoned and presided in the Comi- 
tia Curiata for the inauguration of priests, the making of wills, 
changes of families, adoptions, etc. They exercised criminal justice 
over the Vestals who broke their vows, and their companions in 
guilt. 

The Pontifex Maximus dwelt in the Regia (said to have been the 
abode of Numa), close by the temple of Vesta. It was necessary 
that he should have borne curule offices. He had the right to 
select the Vestals and the Flamens, and in devotions and consecra- 
tions it was his duty to pronounce the solemn words. It was, finally, 
a part of his office to act as historiographer of the state, by keeping 
the Annales Maximi, in which were inserted the names of the ma^ 
gistrates of each year, and the principal political events, with a 
notice of such portents and prodigies as had occurred. 

The Rex Sacrorum, or Rex Sacrificus, or Sacrificulus, as he was 
variously named, was another minister of religion, not attached to 
the service of any particular deity. During the regal period there 
were, ît is said, some public sacred rites, which could only be per- 
formed by the king in person ; and, as after the abolition of royalty, 
it was deemed necessary to retain the title of Rex for this purpose, 
this office was instituted. The dwelling (Domus) of the Rex was 
at the top of the Sacra Via, probably one of the houses of the kings 
(Becker, i. 2Q6,seq,), His wife was named Regina, and on the 
Kalends* of each month she was to offer a sacrifice at her house 
(see on i. 55). Like the other priests, the Rex was under the au- 
thority of the Pontifex Maximus. Moreover, he could hold no 
office in the state (Liv. xl. 42). He possessed his dignity for life, 
and he had the first place in the Ordo Sacerdotum. 

The word Flamen answers to the Greek Uptig, priest. It is of 
uncertain origin, but is usually supposed to be i. q. Filamen, and to 
be derived ajilo : quod in Latio copite velato erant-semper ac caput 
cinctum htibebantjilo, Varr. L. L. v. 84. In the classic authors we 
meet with the names of fifteen Flamens» viz. : Dialis, Martialis, 



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230 EXGT7BSI7S II. 

Quirinalis, Furinalis, Volcanalis, PalatualU, Carmentalis, Falacer, 
Voltunialis, Floralis, Pomonalis. Of these, the three firet were 
named Miyores, and were patricîans ; the remunder were called 
Minores, and were plebeiană. The Flamen Pomonalis waa the lowest 
in rank. 

The Flamen Dialia, or priest of Jupiter, ranked immediately 
after the Rez Sacrorum. His place was one of high dîgnity ; he 
was by office a member of the senate, and had the right of using 
the curule chur. His house, named the Flaminia, stood on the 
Sacra Via; and if any person in bonds entered it, he was freed from 
thero, and they were thrown into the street. The paternal autho< 
rity Ofer him ceased on his appointment to office, and when giving 
testimony before the praetor he was not required to take an oath. 
At the same time he was subject to yarious restraints and peculiar 
iisages. Thus he might not mount a horse, or behold an army, or 
touch a corpse ; he.was not to toiich, or even name» a she-goat, raw 
flesh, ivy, or beans ; the clippings of his hair, and the parings of his 
naib, were to be buried under a fruit-tree ; his marriage, which 
was performed in the solemn way named confarreatio^ was indisso- 
luble, and if his wife died, he had to lay down his office : see Gell. 
X. 15. 

The wife of the Flamen Dialis was called Flaminica. She aided 
in certain religious offices, and had also some peculiarities of dresa 
and usage. Thus, she was not to comb her hair or cut her nails 
during the time of visiting the Ai^ei or of deaning out the temple, 
of Vesta : see vi. 226 ; Gell. tU sup. 

The distinguifthing mark of the Flamens was their hat or cap, 
named Apex, Galerus, and Tutulus, which Suetonius (ap. Serv. Aen. 
ii. 683) thus distinguished : Apicem, pUeu/u tuUle, circa tnedium virga 
eminente ; tuiulum, pUeum ianatum metae figura ; galemm^ pileum 
expelle hottiae caetae. Yarro says (ap. Gell. x. 15) that it was only 
the Flamen Dialis that was privileged to wear a white galenu» 
He wasalways obliged, when in the open air, to wear his sacerdotal 
hat. 

The Ordo Sacerdotum, at solemn banquets for example,was : Rex, 
Flamen Dialis, Martialis, Quirinalis, Pontifex Maximus (Fest. s. v.) ; 
the rest are not noticed, 

From the earliest times, certain portions of the naţional lands 
were assigned for the support of the yarious sacerdotal colleges, 
the temples, etc. By these means they came to be very lucrative 
offices. We find Caesar bribing enormously when seeking that of 
Pontifex Maximus (Hist. of Rome, p. 889); aud among the objecta 



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BXCURSUS-III. 231 

•of deşire held out by Catilina to his profligate associates were the 
sacerdoiia,Sti\hCai.2\. 



EXCURSUS III. 

Sacred Fraternities. 

Tetiia pott Idtu nudot Aurora Lupercos 
Aspkitt et Fauni sacra btcomit eutU.-^\\, 267. 

Beside the priesthoods the Romans had sacred colleges, or frater- 
nities, instituted for the performance of peculiar rites, the object of 
which was the averting of evil from the state, and obtaining for it 
the divine favour. These were the Luperci, the Sălii, and the 
Fratres Arvales. 

The Luperci were a certain number of young men, of good 
families, divided iuto two bodies named Fabiani and Qaintiliani, 
from the names of their original leaders, it is said, which seems to 
mean that originally they were restricted to two of the patrician 
genteg; and as we know that the Fabii were Sabinei, we may perhaps 
assume that the Quintilii were Romans, and thus see in them 
another proof of the double nature of the institutions of ancîent 
Rome. On the xt. Kal. Mart., i. e. the first day after the middie 
of February, they met at the Lupercal, on the east side of the 
Palatine (by San Teodoro), i. e. the cave of the wolf that had 
reared the Founders of Rome, and there offered goats and dogs 
in sacrifice. Two boys of good family being brought to them, they 
smeared their foreheads with the bloody knife, and the blood was 
then immediately washed away with a piece of wool moistened with 
milk, after which the boys were required to laugh. The Luperci 
then cutting the skins of the goats into thongs, and throwing off all 
their clothes but the half-tunic named cmctus (v. 101),ranabout the 
streets, striking with the thongs every one whom they met. Wo- 
men, who wished to have children, threw themselves in their way 
on purpose, as the stroke of the thong was supposed to cause fe- 
cundity. 

. The origin of the name Lupercus is doubtful. In the Roman 
theology a male deity, with his accompanying female of this name, 
was recognised ; and the derivation from luput and arceo seems a 



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232 ExouBSUs in. 

natural one. Their office would then be that of protectors of the 
âocks from woNes, and then from all other evUs. After the city 
had grown in magnitude, and consequently had no cattle within its 
circuit, the old custom of running about still remaining, its fecun- 
dating effecta niay have been supposed to eztend to human beings. 
This rite was held to be of a purifying nature ; the Lupercalia waa 
called dies februatui, and the women that were struck with the 
thongs were said /?6rtiiirt (Paul. Diac. ff. Februarius), and the thong 
itaelf was naroedjf^^ruitf (Ser^. Aen. yiii. 843). 

A still more celebrated society was that of the Sălii, i. e. Dancers. 
Of these there were twocolleges, each consisting of twelve members : 
the one ascrîbed to Numa, and called Palatini ; the other to TuUua 
Hostilinit, named Agonenses, Agonales, and Collini ; the former 
Irom the Palatine, the latter from the Quirinal hill, on which they 
had their respective chapels. In these, again, we may discern the 
Roman system of duality. 

The dress of the Sălii was a short red tunic, girt round with a 
broad brass belt, over which they wore an embroidered trabea, with 
a brazen apex, like that of the Flamens. Each Salian had an esquire 
or attendant. The ancUe was hung from his neck by a thong, and, 
when performing the sacred dance, he beat on it with a small sword 
or dagger ; when done, he delivered it to his attendant, to carry. 
The Sal ii, when dancing, sang sacred hymns called AgsamerUa, or 
Axamenta, of which Numa was said to have been the author, but 
which in course of time became unintelligible to even the Salians 
themselves ( Varro, L. L. vii. 2). They seem to have contained the 
names of aii the deities anciently worshiped at Rome (Macrobb i. 
12), and Mamurius was probably only a name for Marş, their patron- 
god ; for it is almost solely the Palatini of which we hear any thing. 
The Ck»llini, however, or Sălii of Quirinus, also had anciUa (Liv. v. 
52), and probably, therefore, performed the same dances as the 
others. 

When we recollect that these dances took place in March, the 
first month of the ancient year, and the beginning of the spring, we 
may see that the object of the Salian dancing was the same as that 
of the Lupercan running, the obtaining of the celestial favour for 
the Roman people and their property. 

The Ar val brothers were also a college of twelve. They were 
said to represent the twelve sons of Acea Larentia, on the death of 
one of whom Romulus took his place, out of aifection to his foster- 
mother (Gell. vi. 7). Each year, on the Ides of May, they made a 
progress crowned with ears of corn, and wearing white fillets, round 



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EXCUBSUS IV. 233 

the ancient bouiidary of the Roman territory, praying to the gods» 
especiaily to Marş, to spare the lands of the Romans. 

In these three sacred fraternities then we may recognise a coro- 
mon object, the averting of the divine displeasure irom the Roman 
people and the fhiits of their land. They all, as we may see, per- 
formed their rites in the spring ; and in the numbers of the two last> 
and perhaps that of the first, ^there may have been a reference to 
that of the months in the year. It is only in them, it may be ob* 
served, that the number twelve occurs in Roman institutions of the 
old time.' 



EXCURSUS IV. 

BOMAN IDEA8 ON THE STATE OF THE DEAD. 

JSst honor et tumulii : aninuu placate patemus* — ii. 533. 

Ik consequence of the early adoption of Grecian ideas in the 
Latin literaturo, it has become in şl] cases difficult, in many impos- 
sible, to ascertain what the original ideas of the Romans were on 
religion, and the subjects connected with it. In none is that more 
felt than in the present subject of inquiry — ^their notions on the abode 
and condition of the souls of the departed ; for, like every other 
people, they iirmly believed in a future exbtence. 

The idea of guardian spirits was a prominent feature in the Roman 
religion. Each man at the moment of his birth had a celestial spirit, 
named Genius, each woman a Juno, assigned as a guardian. At 
death the Genius left him, and retumed to his original abode ; and 
the soul of the man at the same time abandoned its companion, the 
body. Whither it went, is the question. We then, when we free 
ourseWes from Grecian ideas, see no reason to suppose that the old 
Romans believed in the ezistence of a region within the earth, the 
Erebus of the Greeks, the Sheol of the Hebrews, as the abode of 
the dead. Their Orcus (see on Hor. £p. ii. 2, 178) was Death, 
not the Hades of Greece ; and there do not appear to be any suffi- 
cient grounds for thinking that they believed iu rewards and punish- 
ments in a future state. The words inferut, infemus, only signified 
lowt under, in position, as opposed to what was higher. Thus the 
Tyrrhene sea was called Mare mferum or mfemum^ as opposed to 
the Adriatic on the East ; and IJmen superum infertmque (Flaut. 
Mere. v. 1, 1) are the lintel and the threshold of the door. Hence 



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234 EXCUBSUS rv. 

when we read of Dii Inferi, we may only regard them as opposed 
to the D» Superi, and not infer at once that they belong to an 
under-world. In like manner, the Latin word deut, dimu seems 
like our tpuit, ghoit, properly to denote an invîsîble intelligence^ 
and not a material being like the Greek OtS^, Hence we tbink that 
the right view of that transference of the Grecian idea of the origin 
of heroes to Italy, the birth of Romulus and Remus, is that giren 
by Ovid (iii. 17, teq.), in which the god is invisible. 

The usoal name for the souls of the departed is, Dii Manes, i. e. 
Good Spirits ; for though manis does not occur except in this ez- 
pression, its meaning js very clearly intimated by its compound 
immam», Hence the D. M. so constantly met with on tombs. It is 
very remarkable, that the soul of man and woman alike became a 
detu, there being no distinction of sexes in the Dii Manes. Thas 
Cornelia, writing to her son C. Gracchus (Nepos, ir.), says, Ubi 
mortua ero, parentahu ntihi et intfocabis deum parentem, The usual 
ezpression for even the single spirit, we may observe, is Dii Manes, 
without any distinction of sex : see Aug. de Civ. Dei, viii. 26 ; ix. 
1 1 . The abode of the Manes is, perhaps, given in this place of 
Servius (Aen. iii. 63): AUi Manes a manando dictos intelSgunt, 
nam manUnu plena sunt loca inter lunarem et terrenum circuhm, unde 
et defluunt, According to Apuleius (e^. Serv. ut sup,), another 
name, co-extensive, it would appear, with Dii Manes, was Lemures, 
which, he says, cum domos incursionibus infestarent, Larvae appelia^ 
bantur; contra si aequi et faventes essent, Lares Favfniiares, We do 
not, however, think that this extensive sense of the word is borne 
out by general usage. The Lemures seem to us rather to be what 
we term disturbed spirits, who haunted in the night the place of their 
abode when in the flesh. This is evidently the view given of them 
by our poet (v. 421, seq,}, where he terms them tadii Manes, Manes 
paterni (v, 443), and animcu silentum (v. 483), without any hint of 
their being malignant ; and we have seen nothing adverse to it else- 
where. The same writer elsewhere gives the following definition 
of the Larvae, in which the ideas, however, do not appear to us to 
be all genuine Roman : qui vero ob adversa vitae merita, ntU&s 
bonis sedibus, incerta vagatione, ceu quodam exiiio punitur, mane terri-' 
culamentum bonis hominibus, ceterum noxium maUs ; id genus plerique 
Larvas perhibent, From Plautus, who frequently mentions the 
Larvae, it would appear that, like the Daemons in the Gospels, they 
were a kind of evil spirits, that possessed people, and rendered them 
insane. Thus ( Amph. ii. 2, 153) when Sosia is asserting the mad- 
ness of Alcumena, he says, larvarum ple^ia est : comp. Aul. iv. 4» 15 ; 



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BXCUBSUS IV. 235 

Capt. iii. 4, 66. We do not find it stated hy any oue but Apuleius 
that the Larva was wbat we caii a ghost, 

A much more general and better known term was Lar. Tbis 
word is said to have been Tuscan, and to answer to our word Lord, 
to wbicb it baa a curious but merely accidental resemblance. That 
the Lares were tbe same beings as the Dii Manes, Dii Inferi, is a 
point about wbicb tbere can be, we believe, no question. Their 
name seems to have been giyen them to denote their proteding 
power ; for it was evidently in tbe light of guardian-spirits that 
tfaey were yiewed, differing as it would appear in tbis from tbe 
Genii, that whiie the latter bad oniy cbai^e of tbe individual man, 
tbe former bad tbe care of families, properties, etc, and also of 
various individuals united, or in succession. Hence, beside the 
Lares Familiares, tbere were tbe Lares Yiales, wbose protection 
men sougbt wben setting out on a joumey (Plaut. Mere. v. 2, 24) ; 
tbe Lares Rurales, wbo extended their care over tbe country $ the 
Lares Marini or Permarini» wbo gave protection atsea (Liv. zi. 52). 
Of the Lares Praestites we shall presently speak. 

Tbe domestic Lars are spoken of sometimes in the singular, 
sonţetimes in tbe plural number. It seems to us that tbis arose 
firom tbe custom of the Ronians of using tbe plural for tbe singular,' 
wbicb, nourished by the poets, was continually on the increase, and 
attained its beigbt in Ovid. Tbere was in fact, as it would appear, 
only tbe one Lar Familiaris, wbose statue, ciad in a tightly-girt toga 
(ii. 684), stood at the foctu or fire-place in the Atrium, and wbicb 
used to be crowned witb garlands of flowers, and have oiferings 
from tbe food at tbe table set before it ; for in tbe old time the 
family took their meals in tbe Atrium : see on Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 56, 
wbore, by tbe way, as the place of Ovid just cited shows, we were 
disposed to restrict tbe sense of Ubo too much. Cato and Plautus, 
the two oldest Latin writers wbom we possess, botb use the word 
only in tbe singular, one single place in tbe latter (Rud. iv. 5, 17) 
ezcepted, wbere, bowever, Weise bis late editor, on otber grounds, 
suspects tbe wbole scene to be supposiiitious. Cato (R. R. 2) says, 
PaieffamiHat vin ad viUam vettU, M harem FamiUarem salutamty etc. ; 
and again, in bis directions to tbe vUUca (c. 143), be says, Kalendit, 
Idihus, Nonii . . . coronam in focum indat ; per eosdemque dies Lari 
FanUSari tuppUcet. In Cato's days, therefore, it would seem that 
tbere was only one Lar in the Atrium, at least, in that of tbe villa, 
At a much later period Columella, wben treating of tbe duty of the 
vUiictu, says (xi. 2), consuescat rusticog circa ktrem domini focumque 
famUarem temper epulari. In tbe prologue to tbe Aulularia of 



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236 BXCUBSUS IV. 

Plautus, the Lar apeaks throughoiit as if he alone had charge of 
the hou&e aod family. It oiay however be said tbat the family was 
poor, and so may have had but one Lar ; but tben io the Miles, 
when (iv. 8, 29) Palaestrio is leaving the house of a rich man, she 
says, Etiam nune scduto te, Lar famiHarit, priutquam eo; in the 
Trinumus (î. 2, 1), Caltides, a wealthy man, says, harem corona 
nottrum decorări volo ; and, in the Mercator, Charinus, the son of a 
wealthy man, says, Di Penatei meum parentum, faum&ai Lar pater, 
where we may observe that the Di Penates and the Lar are men- 
tioned together, ezactly as they are by Yirgil (Aen. viii. 543 ; ix. 
259), who never uses the plural of Lar. CatuUus abo says (3i, 9), 
ac peregrino Labore feui vemrnut larem ad nottrum. Horace always 
uses the singular, except in three places (Carm. iii. 23, 4 ; Epod. 2, 
6G i Sat. i. 5, 65) ; and even Ovid rarely uses the plural. The 
strongest place in favour of the plural is TibuU. i. 10, 15, seq, ; yet 
even from that, when weli considered, it might appear that, in the 
old time at least, there was only the one family Lar. When the 
word is used for the house, it is almost always in the singular. 

Such then are the proofs of there being only a single Lar Fami- 
liaris in each family. This Lar seems to have been the spirit of the 
' Eponymus, or supposed founder of the family. Thus the Lar in 
the Aulularia speaJis of three generations of the family, of which he 
had charge, and lets us suppose that he had seen many precediog 
ones ; and in Yirgil (/. c.) the Lar of Aeneas is called the Lar of 
Assaracus, bis grandfather. It is sud, indeed (Hertzberg, p. 27), 
that this was only the principal Lar, and that while bis statue stood 
at the hearth, those of his descendants were kept in a press {icri" 
nium, Id. p. 16) named Lararium, which was opened only on holi- 
days. The Lararium, however, as described by Lampridius, in 
whom alone (Vit. Alex. Sev. 29 and 31) we meet the word, was a 
room, forming a kind of private chapel or oratory. The foUowing 
rather obscure place in Propertius (iv. 4, 53), raritque adtueta Ka^ 
lendii Vix aperit clautos una puella Lares, might, however, seem to 
intimate something of the kind ; and we are told (Suet. Vit. 2) of 
the father of the emperor Yitellius, that Karcissi quoque et Pallantit 
imagmet aureas inter Lares coluit. But a great change seems to have 
been made during the empire, and we have elsewhere ezpressed 
our opinion that the Jbcus and its Lar had at that time ceased to 
appear in the Atria at Rome. 

Equally celebrated with the family Lars were the public ones, 
named Lares Praestites (v. 129), or guardians of the state. These 
were two in number, with the attributes which our poet (/. c.) has 



t 



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BXCTTRSUS IV. 237 

described. Their aedei or rather tacellum was on the Summa Sacra 
Via ; but there were also în all the compita of the city little wooden 
chapels of them, in which their images. were twice a year crowned 
with flowers (Suet. Oct. 31), and a festival named the Compitalîa 
was held in their honour. 

In antiquity the family and the state mutually represented each 
other. As therefore no house was without its Lar, we shouid 
naturally expect to find a public Lar ; but again, when we recollect 
the double origin of the Roman state, we might expect to find a 
pair of guardian powers ; and so it is precisely, if these are such. 
Moreover, as the family Lar represented the Eponymus of the 
femily, so we may suppose these to be Romulus and Remus, or, as 
seems to us more probable, Romulus and Quirinus, the Eponymi of 
the Roman and Sabine parts of the state. Further, the place of the 
Lar was in the house of the paterfamiiku and near the foctu; and the 
chapel of these Lars was at the top of the Sacra Via, where were 
the houses of the kings (Liv. i. 41 ; Solin. i. 23,24), and under 
which stood the temple of Vesta, the focui of the state. As the 
Lar of the viUa must have been the same with that of the house at 
Rome, so the Lares Compitales were only repetitions of those on 
the Sacra Via. Finally, as the offering to the family Lar was 
usually made by the slaves of the house (see on vi. 306), so the 
Vicorum Magistri, to whom Augustus committed the worship of the 
Lares Compitales, were Libertini : see Ascon. on Cic. in Pis. 4. 
Sch. Hor. Sat. ii. 8,281, 

If the preceding views are correct, we may discern in the genuine 
ancient religious system of the Romans, a system of a very spiritual 
character. Spirits were regarded as in a continued course of ascent 
and descent to and irom the supernal regions of space, as deaths and 
births took place on the surface of earth. At each death also, the 
numerous society of the spirits of the departed, who hovered over 
the earth or higher in the air, received a new member, and, mindful 
of their previous abode in the flesh, they exercised a protecting 
care over their successors in life. We have aiready stated that we 
have seen no proofe of a belief in the rewards and punishments of a 
fulure state among the ancient Romans. This iurnorance they seem 
to have shared with the ancient world in general ; the time when it 
shouid be removed not having yet arrived. 

It will be seen that we have assigned four days (xii-ix. Kal.) 
to the Parentalia. The reason is, that the poet always speaks of 
them in the plural. In v, 548 he calls them Parentalet diet, v» 557 
he intimates that they were more than one, and v. 570 he terms the 



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238 BXCUBSUS V. 

Feraiia the last of them. As this last was ix. Kd. (see Kal. Maff. 
and Farnes.) and it marked F., and as Macrobius tells us (î. 16) 
that aifit (i. e. nefastîs) diebţu nan UcuU parentare, and the three 
preoeding days are marked C, it seems to follow that the Parentalia 
began immediately after the Quîrinalia, which was N.P. thu8,with the 
Caristia, oocupying the whole space between that festival and the 
Terminaţia. 

In the mention of the Feraiia or last dayof the Parentalia by our 
poet (ii. 567), there is a difficulty. That day, as we have seen, was 
IX. Kal. Mart., which, reokoning inclusively of course, gives eight 
days to the end of the month ; and it b not easy to see how that can 
be the number of feet in a pentameter distich. To obviate this 
difficulty, Merkel conjectores vices for pedes, and places it in his 
text. He thus explains it (p. xli.) " i. e. vicissitadines spondei Tel 
dactyii pedis (quod glossema ascriptum fuit), quas distichon sozies, et 
syllaĂ>ae longae brevisTe, quas praeterea bis admittit." By this, we 
suppose, he means that in the hexameter verse two feet (the two 
last) are constant, and four yariable, and in the pentameter also, two 
(the two last) are constant, and twQ Tariable, as also are the two 
half feet (though one of them must be long), thus making a total of 
eight yariable feet. This is so very artificial, that we would sooner 
suppose some error in the place. The MSS. are eqoaliy dîvided 
between the readings pedes and diti, and it is not improbable that 
the original word may have been lost, and that these are only 
attempts of the critica or copyists to supply its place : see on Hor. 
Ep. ii. 2, 199. 

On the subjeets treated on in this Excursus, much information 
will be found in Hertzberg's treatise De Diis Romanorum Patriîs, 
Halae, 1840. 



EXCURSUS V. 

V£ IN COMPOSITION. 

ITitnc vocor ad nomen, Veg r an di a farra colonae, 

Quae male creverunt, vescaque parva vocant. — iii. 445. 

About the meaning of this inseparable partide ve, which occurs 
only in a limited number of words, there are, of course, difieresces 
of opinion. It is generally supposed that its power is that of 



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ExnuBSUS VL 239 

dimîtiîshing, which accords with the sense of moet of the compounds ; 
but Becker (Gallus, p. 189) maintains that it is i. q. wapâ, and 
signiiies .ouUide, beyond, and therefore may either increase or 
dimînish the sense of the word with which it is joined. Our own 
opinion is, that it is simply negative. 

The words in which we mcet it are vecors, veionus, vegrandis, 
ve&emeru, vescut, vepallidut, vettibukim, Fedjovis, In the first two 
there can be no doubt that the sense is negative or diminishîng. 
Vegrandit, Becker says, is that which is of a larger size than iisual. 
Ovid, however, seems to say the very contrary; and when Yarro 
(R. R. ii. 2} says of ewes, or rather df lambs, jHunt vegrandes atque 
imbeciliae, he can hardly mean that they increase in size. Fescut is 
usually aupposed to be compounded of ve and escus, and to signify, 
amaii or consuraing (see on Virg. Geor. iii. 1 7â) ; but may it not be 
oompoaed of ve and secus, i. q. tecattu, and answer to âroţioc, and 
thus signify very small, indivisible as it were ? Fehemens was pro- 
bably vemens, as it may be always pronounced in Plautus and others, 
aod must be in Horace, £p. ii. 2, 120» and the same as ametu, dement^ 
whether the other part be the subst. metu or an obsolete participle. 
We have elsewhere (see on Hor. Sat. i. 2, 129) given it as our 
opînion, that there is no such word as vepal&dus, FesHbulum Becker, 
we think justly, says comes from veglare, as prosHbulum from fMrostare, 
and vestare is ve-^tare, i. e., according to him, to stand out or beyond 
(the house) ; but may it*not be i. q. ne^stare, and the vestibule be 
the place where one was not to stand or remain ? 



EXCURSUS VL 



The Abgei. 

7\im quoque priscorunt virgo smulacra virorum 
MUtere roboreo tcirpea ponte solei. — v. 621. 

On the Ides of May, certain sacrifices having been previonsly 
performed, the Pontifices and the Vestals, followed by the Praetors 
and by such of the citizens as were legaily qualified, proceeded 
(probably from the Regia) to the Sublician bridge, from which the 
Vestala cast into the stream images of men, formed of rushes, and 



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240 EXCUESUS VI. 

named Argei: Dionys. î. 19 and 38 ; Varro, L. L. vH. 44 ; Paul. 
Diac. V. Argei. There îs a difference in the numbers of these 
Argei : Dionysius (l. 88) says it was 30, while Varro (/. c.) makes it 
XXIV. or (in some MSS.) oniy xxiii. ; but that of Dionysius ap- 
pears to have been at least the original nomber, as corresponding 
with that of the curies in Rome. 

Plutarch (Q. R. 86) terms , this ceremony rbv pkyiffrov r&v 
KaOapfi&v, and we think there can be no doubt of its being such, 
and being symbolic in its nature. Rites of this kind, by which the 
guilt of the communiQr was, as it were, laid on individuals, were 
common in antiquity. Such under the Mosaic law was the rite of 
the Scapegoat, which bore the sins of the people away into the 
wildemess (Levit. xvi.). At Athens, every year, in the month 
Thargelion (answering to parts of May and June), two men, or, as 
some say, a man and a woman, who had been kept in hold some time 
previously for this purpose, were, like victims, led outof a gate of 
the city, adorned with fruits and flowers, and their bodies rubbed 
with iVagrant substances, to a rock (probably on the sea-shore), 
and curses being pronounced on them, they were llung down from 
it. They were always criminals who were selected for this pur- 
pose, and they were termed ^apfiaKoi : see Hesych. Suid. Harpocr. 
s. V, Itîs probable that the same means of preserving their lives 
were adopted as we shall find at Leucas. This rite seems to have 
been common to the lonian race. It id said to have exist ed at 
Păros and Miletus^ and in the Phocaean colony at Mas^alia. Of 
this last, Servius ( Aen. iii. 57) tells us from Petronius, that Massi- 
lienset qtiotiet pettUentia laborabant, unut se ex pauperibiu offerehat^ 
alwidut anno integro pub&cis et puriorUmt cibit. Hic postea omalus 
verhenis et vestibus sacris circumducebatur per totam civitatem cum 
exsecratiombttt, vi in ipsum reciderent mctfacwUatis ; et sic (de rupe ?) 
projidebatur. At LeucjBs in Acarnania, as Strabo informs us (x. 
p. 694), it was an annual custom, on the festival of ApoHo, to 6ing 
from the rock, whence lovers used to leap, a criminal selected for 
the purpose, with birds and wings attached to him, to break his falL 
Numerous small boats were waiting below, to pick him up and con- 
vey him away beyond the limits of the country. The Roman rite, 
we see, resembles these with the exception of the employment of 
images, and instead of viewing in these, as has generally been done, 
a substitution for the original human victims, we are inclined to 
suppose the ceremony to have been symbolic from the very com- 
mencement, in accordance with the mild spirit of the religion of 
ancient Latium ; for, though iu the historic period the Romans at 



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BXOUBSUS VII. 241 

times offered human victims, it was done ia conformity to foreîgn 
religions, and not to that of Latium. 

Burmann has the foUowiag rather curious note on this place : 
" Similem fere ritum Lipsiae a meretricibus celebratum scribit 
Pfeiifer, Rerum Lipsiensium I. iii. § 18, illas scilicet solitas olim 
primis jejunii quadragenarii (Lent) diebiis imaginem stramineam 
deformis viri, longa pertica suffixam, sequente omni meretricum 
agmine, tulisse ad Fardam flumen, ibique, cum carminibus in palli- 
dam mortem, praecipitasse ; dicentes se lustrare urbem, ut sequeuti 
anno a pestilentia esaet immunis." Lobeck also says (Aglaoph. 
p. 175), *' Nostra adhuc memoria Thuringi vicani quotannis, cum 
Mortem expelU dicerent, imaginem humanam viminibus contestam, 
postquam in pompa traduxerant, in amnem abjiciebant.** Not having 
the Deutsche Mythologie of Grimm at hand, we cannot pursue 
this subject further. 

The origin of the word Argei (which has the penult vowel long, 
contrary to the Latin usage) is quite uncertain ; but it may proba- 
bly be connected with arceo. 

The word Argei or Argea occurs also in another connezion in 
the Roman antiquities. They were a kind of chapels in different 
parts of the city, at which each year, in the month of March (iii. 
791), offerings were made by the Pontifices. Varro (L. L. v. 45) 
gives their number as 27 ; but it is supposed, with reason, that he 
oroits three belonging to the Capitol, so that the real number was 
thirty. Each of these may have furnished one of the rush-imagea 
for the following rite in May, and hence perhaps the common name. 



EXCURSUS VII. 

Vesta, and the Vestals. 

Vettayfaw ! Hbi nune operata resolvmut ora, 
Ad tua ti tiobis tacra venire licet,^^y\. 249. 

In aucient times, when families lived much together and houses 
were small, their point of union was the fire, the only one in 
the house, which bumed in the apartment in which they prepared 
and ate their meals, and transacted their household affairs, Such 

M 



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242 fiXGUBSVS VII. 

are the mannera portrayed in the Odyssey, and suoh we find them 
among the Romans. This hearth, named by the Greeks iffria 
(Jbcus), wa» snppoaed by them to be under the charge of a goddess 
of the same name. The Latin form of thit word b Vesta, who waa 
always regarded as a protecting goddess. We find mention of her 
from the very dawn of Roman history ; but whether she belonged 
to the anoient religion of the Latins or ^as adopted from the 
Greeks, it is impossible now to determine. 

In Grecian cîties there was a «ommon liall, named Prytaneum, 
in which the members of the govemment had their meais, at the 
ezpense of the state ; and here too was the imla, or public hearth, 
with its fire, by irhich thoae meals were probably prepared. At 
Rome, as the feelings of the people were of a more solemn and 
reverential cast, a temple was appropriated to this fire, into which 
none were permitted to enter but the sacred virgina, io whose care 
it was committed. 

Thb institntion of Vestal Virgins was peculiar to the Romana in 
antiquity. A single virgin was iu Greece sometimes a priestess, 
especîally of the maiden-goddess Artemis, but she only remaîned 
in oifice till she was of a marriageable age, while at Rome the office 
was virtually for life. The nearest resemblance to the Romui in* 
stitution, though with numerous difierences, was that of the Virgins 
of the Sun in the time of the Incaş in Peru. 

Like almost every thing else in religion, this institntion was 
ascribed to Numa. The original number of the Vestala was fonr, 
two for each of the original Roman tribes ; but when the Luceres 
were elevated to an equality with these, the number of Vestals was 
raised to siz, which it never exceeded ; the plebeians, it would seem, 
never having coveted a share in this priesthood. The maiden to be 
selected was not to be under six or over ten years ; her father and 
mother were both to be living. She was selected at first by the king, 
afterwards by the Pontifez Mazimus. He laid his hand on her, and 
took her as it were captive (the proper term was capere), saying, 
Sacerdotem Vestalem quae sacra faciat quaejus net sacerdotem VestO" 
Um facere projpopulo Romano Qmitium tUi quae optima legefiuU^ Ua 
te, Amata, capio (Fab. Pict. ap. Geli. i. 12). By this act she be- 
came completely ireed from the paternal power. Her office lasted 
for thirty years ; in the first ten of which she leamed her duty ; in 
the seeond she exercised it ; in the last she became the instructor 
of otbers. At the ezpiration of thb period she was at liberty to 
resign her office, go into the world, and marry ; bot of this few took 



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szcuRSVS vn. 2*43 

adyantage, it beîng deemed unlucky to do so. Their duties con- 
siited in tending the sacred fire, and preserving the yarious xelics 
in the temple ; they prepared; the mola taUa and the muriet, or 
sacred salt that were used in religious offices ; they aided at the 
tbrowing of the Argei into the Tiber, and. were present at the secret 
rites of the Bona Dea. 

The Vestala enj'oyed high honour and consideration. Far from 
being confîned like modem nuns, they went where they pleased 
through the city. A lictor preceded the Yestal ; magistrates lovrered 
ihelrfasceg when they met her ; the criminal that caught her eyes 
wâs free ; she was nezt in dignity to the Flamen Dialis, coald not be 
required to make oath, had a peculiar place at public spectacles, en- 
joyed the priyileges of the matron who had borne three children, 
and she might make a wilL Her garment was white, edged with 
purple, and she wore an n^ula, or sacred bandeau on her head. 
The Yestals were permitted to be buried within the city, behind 
theîr temple. The eldest of them was termed Maxima. 

When a Vestal neglected any of her duties, or committed any 
minor offence, she was beaten with rods by the Pontifez Mazimus, 
who had the superintendence over the Vestals. But breach of chas- 
t\ty(incettum) being a crime of a deeper dye, and one that brings the 
divine wrath on the state (see on iv. 157), was punished by death in 
both the offending parties. The man was scourged to death ; the 
Vesta! was placed in a close litter, her mouth being secured, to pre- 
Ycnt her from making an outcry. In this manner she was carried 
over the Forum, all shuddering at the sight, up and along the 
Quirinal hill to the Mound of Servius Tullius on the right of the 
CoUine gate. In this had been prepared a small subterraneous 
chamber, in which were a couch, a lighted lamp, some bread, water, 
milk, and oii. Her bonds were then loosed ; the chief pontiff pro- 
nounced some prayers ; after which, while he and the other priests 
averted their faces, she was made to descend by a ladder, which 
was then drawn up; the chamber was covered over, and she was left to 
die. This place was named Campus Sceleratus. The first ezample 
we read of was that of Minucia, A. U. 417 ; Liv. viii. 15 : see Plut* 
Num. 10 ; Dionys. ii. 67. 

The temple of Vesta, being the ^ct» of the state, was naturally. 
placed in a central position, that is, in the valley between the 
Roman town on the Palatine, and the Sabine on the Quirinal and 
Tarpeian. It therefore stood by the Forum, about where the 
Church of Sta. Mana Liberatrice now stands, on itssouth-8ide,ju8t 
where the Sacra Via entered it. The fount or pool of Juturna 

M 2 



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244 EXCURSUS VII. 

lay belween \i aud the temple of Castor on the left, whtle on the 
right, by the Sacra Via, and closely adjoining it, was the Regia, the 
abode of the Pontifex Maximas. What we name the temple, con- 
sisted of two parts ; the temple, properly so called, and the Atrium 
Veatae, the abode of the^vîrgins ; the latter was in front, &cing the 
Forum : see Becker, Handbuch, i. p. 222, seq. 



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INDEX. 



Acea, iv. 854. 

Aeneas, i. 527 > îi* 543 ; iii. 545, 

601 ; iv. 37, 879. 
Agon&lia, i. 325. 
Alba, iv. 43. 
Albula, ii. 389. 
Alino, ii. 801 ; iv. 337. 
Amalthea, y. 115. 
Amores, iv. 1. 
Ampelos, iii. 409. 
Amulius, iii. 49, 67 ; iv. 53. 
AndU, iii. 377' 

Anna PereDna, iii. 146, 523, 654. 
Appius Caecus, vi 203. 
Aprilis, iv. 89. 
Aqua Virgo, i. 464. 
Ar^i,iii.79l. 
Anadnis corona, iii. 459. 
Arion, ii. 83. 
Aristaeus, i. 363. 
Attis, iv. 223 ; v. 227. 
AugfOy i. 612. 
Augusta, i. 536. 
Bellona, vi. 201. 
Briareus, iii. 805. 
Brntus, ii. 717 ; vi. 461, 
Cacus, i. 550. 
Cadmus, i. 490. 
Gaesar, Julius, iii. 156, 702 ; iv. 

379. 
Callaicus, vi. 461. 
Callisto, ii. 156. 
CamilluB, vi. 184. 
Capella,v. 113. 
Capitale, iii. 839. 

Capitolium, i. 453 ; ii. 667 ; vi. 73. 
Caristia, ii. 617. 
Carmentis, i. 467. 
Cama, vi. 101. 



Celer, iv. 837. 

Cerealia,iv. 610. 

Claudia, iv. 305. 

Clusius, L 130. 

Collatinus, ii. 733. 

Concordia, i. 639'*; iii. 881. 

Consus, iii, 199. 

Corona Gnossis, iii. 459. 

Coronia, i. 291. 

Corvus, ii. 243. 

Cranae,vi. 107. 

CrasBUB, vi. 465. 

Crater, ii. 244. 

Cremera,ii. 205. 

Cure8,v. 131. ' 

Curia, ii. 530 ; iii. 140 ; iv. 635. 

Curio, ii. 527. 

Cybela,iv.l91. 

Cynosura, iii. 107. 

Dardanus, iv. 31. 

DaunuB, iv. 76. 

Decemviri, ii. 54 ; iv. 384. 

Delphin, ii. 79. 

Dictynna, vi. 755. 

DidiuB, vi. 568. 

Dido, iii. 545. 

DieB, i. 45. 

DruBUB,i. 12,597. 

Egeria, iii. 154. 

Electra, iv. 31 ; vi. 42. 

Equiria, ii. 859 ; iii. 519. 

Esquiliae, iii. 246. 

Evander,!. 471. 

Fabii, ii. 196, 375. 

Faunu8,ii. 193 ; iii. 291. 

FauBtuluB, iii. 56 ; iv. 854. 

F^rua, ii. 19. 

Fenestella, vi. 578. 

Feralia, iL 569. 

"n 



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246 



IKDEX. 



Feri»e, i. «59. 
Flamen, ii. 21. 
Flaiiiinica,iL 27 ; ri. 226. 
FUminius, vi. j^. 
Flora, ▼. 195. 
Fonia 6ot,iv. 630. 
Fomax, iL 525. 
Fortana Fors, vi. 773. 

Publica, iv. 376. 

Virilis, iv. 145. 

Forum, i. 302 ; iii. 704. 

Augustum, v. 552. 

Boarium, i. 582. 

Furios, L 641. 

Gabii, ii. 690. 

GaUi, iv.631 ; vi. 351. 

Genius, iL 545 ; v. 145. 

Gradivus, ii. 86U 

Helemus, ii. 67 ; vi. 105. 

Helica, iii. 108. 

HefiQules, i. 543 ; vi. 209. 

Hippolytus, iii. 265 ; v. 309. 

Htntoratutf i. 52. 

^oiCia,i.336. 

H7ad68,T. 164. 

HytieuB, v. 499. 

JancUU virga, vL 165. 

Janif l 257. 

Janus, i. 64, 127 ; ▼!. 119. 

Idut, l 56. 

Ilia,u.383; iii 11 ; iv. 54. 

Iliade8,iv. 23 ; v. 565. 

Ino, iii. 859 ; vi. 485. 

lulus, iv. 39. 

Juno, V. 231. 

Lucina, iii. 255. 

Moneta,i. 638 ; vi. 183. 

Sospita, ii. 56. 

Jupiter CapitoUnus, vi. 186. 

Elicius, iii. 328. 

Pistor, vi. 350. 

Stator, vi. 793. 

Tonans, ii. 69. 

Victor, iv. 621. 

Jutuma, ii. 585. 
Kalendae, i. 55. 

Lara, ii. 599. 
LaraQ talia, iiL 57* 

Ltia, iii. 55. 

>, ii. 616, 634 ; v. 129. 

ires, V. 483. 

na, V. 421. 



Leucothea, vi. 501. 
i:^t6a,iii. 734. 
Libarnina, iii. 733. 
Liber, iii. 465, 777. 
Libera, iii. 512. 
Libertas, iv. 624. 
Livia, i. 649. 
LoeupUs, V. 281. 
Luceres, iii. 132. 
Lucina, ii. 449. 
Lucretia, ii. 741. 
Lupercal, iL 381. 
Luperci, ii. 267 ; ▼• 101. 
Lyra, i. 316. 
Maia, iv. 174. 
Majestas, v. 25. 
Mains, v. 73. 
Mamurius, iii. 383. 
Manes, iL 535. 
Klanlius, vL 185. 
Marcia, vL 802. 
Marş, iiL 2, 171 ; v. 229. 

Ultor, V. 577, 695. 

Matralia, vL 475. 
Matuta, vi. 479. 
Megalesia, iv. 357. 
Mens, vi. 241. 
Mercurius, v. 663. 
MeteUus, iv. 348 ; vi. 444. 
Mezentiu8,iv. 881. 
Miluus, iii. 794. 
Minerva, iii. 809 ; vi. 652. 

Capta, iii. 837. 

Narcissus, v. 525. 

Nasica, iv. 347. 

Nanae, L 57. 

Numa, i. 43 ; iii. 152. 

Numitor, iv. 53. 

Ocresia, vi. 627. 

Olenia, v. 113, 25 L 

Ophiuchus, vi. 735. 

Ops, Ti. 285. 

Orion, iv. 388 ; v. 493 ; vi. 787. 

Othryades, ii. 665. 

Palaemon, vi. 501. 

Palaestinae, ii. 564 ; iv. 236. 

Pales, iv. 640, 776. 

Palilia,iv. 721. 

Palladium,vL 421. 

Pallantias, iv. 373. 

Pan, u. 271. 

Potrvr, iii. 127 ; ▼. 71. 



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INDEX. 



247 



Patulcius, i. 129. 
Pax, i. 704. 
Peounia, v. 281. 
Pentheus, iii. 721. 
Persephone, iv. 452. 
Philippi, iii. 707- 
Philippus, vi. 801. 
PhryxuB, iii. 858. 
Piamitia, ii. 19. 
Picus, iii. 291. 
Plautius, vi. 685. 
Pleiades, iv. 169 J v. 84. 
P(di, iii. 106. 
Pollux, V. 710. 
Poriigere, i. 646. 
Porrima, i. 633. 
Porta Capena, iv. 345. 

Carmentis, ii. 201. 

Ck)llina, iv. 871. 

Portanus, vi. 547. 

Posthumius, iv. 41 ; vi. 724. 

Poetverta, i. 633. 

Priapus, i. 415. 

Proca, iv. 52 ; vi. 143. 

Proculus^ ii. 499. 

Proteu8,i.367. 

Publicii, V. 288. 

Pudor, V. 29. 

Purgamina^ ii. 35. 

Purus, ii. 25 ; iii. 582. 

Pyrrhus, vi. 203, 732. 

Quinquatria, iii. 810 ; vi. 651. 

QuirinuB, ii. 475. 

Regis fuga, ii. 685 ; v. 728. 

Remuria, v. 479. 

Reraus, ii. 372 ; iii. 70 ; iv. 56,817, 

841 ; V. 475. 
Reverentia, v. 23. 
Rex Nemorensis, iii. 271. 

Sacrorum, i. 333. 

Robigo, iv. 907. 
Romula ficus, ii. 412. 
Romulus, i. 29 ; iii. 97 ; vi. 84. 



Sălii, iii. 387. 
SaluB, iii. 882. 
Sancus, vi. 213. 
Sceleratus Vicus, vi. 619. 
Secesaio Plebis, i. 643 ; iii. 664. 
Semo, vi. 213. 

Servius Tullius, vi. 480, 571, 783. 
Stimula, vi. 503. 
Stultorum festa, ii. 513. 
Sulla,vi. 212. 
Summanus, vi. 731. 
Syphax, vi. 769. 
Tacita, ii. 572. 
Tanaquil, vi. 629. 
Tarantum, i. 501. 
Tarpeia, i. 261. 
Tarquinius, ii. 687 ; vi. 600. 
Tatiu8,i. 262. 
Tempestas, vi. 193. 
Terminus, ii. 641. 
rt6icen, vi. 653. 
Tiro, iii. 787. 
Tolenum, vi. 565. 
Torquatus,i. 601. 
TVoîeo, ii. 503. 
Trasimena, vi. 785. 
Tubilustria, v. 726. 
Tullia,vi.587. 
Tumus, iv. 879. 
Vacuna, vi. 307. 
Vedjovis, iii. 430. 
Velabra, vi. 405. 
Vesta, vi. 249. 
VegtUmlumf vi. 304. 
Via Nova, vi. 396. 
— Tecta, vi. 192. 
Viaimaj i. 335. 
Vinalia, iv. 863. 
Viudemitor, iii. 407. 
Virbius, vi. 756. 
Urion, v. 535. 
Vulpes combustae, iv. 681. 



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