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Compiled and edited 











First published November i$3 2 
Reprinted December 1932 
January zojj with corrections 
March 1933 with corrections 



THIS volume will serve its purpose if it proves a useful companion to 
ordinary everyday readers of English literature. It is necessarily a work 
of compilation and selection, because the range of the possible subject-matter 
is so great. English literature has a continuous history of over a thousand 
years, it has been produced in many lands, and there is no subject on which 
it does not touch. Completeness in a moderate compass, and the equipment 
of a specialist at all points, are therefore impossible. 

According to the general scheme of the work, as designed by the publishers, 
two main elements are included, in alphabetical arrangement. The one is 
a list of English authors, literary works, and literary societies which have 
historical or present importance. Under an author's name is given a selection 
of facts especially dates bearing on his life and literary activity. Under the 
title of a work there is some indication of its nature, and for the greater works 
of fiction of the past whether poetry, prose, or drama there is usually 
a brief sketch of the plot. American literature is an essential part of the 
literature of our language, and a certain number of American authors and of 
their works, those best known in this country, have been treated on the above 
lines. Original literary appreciation is not attempted, and comments verging 
on aesthetic criticism are intended to give rather a conventional view of the 
importance and distinctive qualities of the author or work under discussion. 
In this part of the volume, where a compiler must often plead for the in- 
dulgence of experts, living authors present the hardest problem. Contem- 
porary judgement is notoriously fickle and tends to be impassioned. I could 
have wished to exclude all living authors ; yet some have established reputa- 
tions that can hardly be ephemeral, and some may claim at least a place beside 
the popular favourites of other days. I have therefore, on advice, given very 
brief entries to a limited number of living authors and recent works; but 
without finding a criterion of choice that satisfies me. I must apologize to 
those whose merits I have unintentionally neglected, and ask readers to pass 
lightly over errors of selection on this difficult borderland. After all, it com- 
prises only one of some fifty generations of English authors. 

The other element is the explanation of allusions commonly met with, or 
likely to be met with, in English literature, in so far as they are not covered by 
the articles on English authors and works. The selection is limited to allusions 
which contain a proper name with a few special exceptions : some literary 
terms, some names of wines, and names of old coins like 'gold moidores* and 
'pieces of eight 5 , which are more than mere common nouns to readers of 
English. Even among proper names the number of possible entries is huge. 
Apart from the characters of English fiction, one must reckon with names 
from several mythologies, with saints, heroes, statesmen, philosophers, men 
of science, artists, musicians, actors, with literary forgers and impostors in 
short, with every kind of celebrity. In order to restrict the field of choice 
I have had to bear in mind that this is not a dictionary of mythology, or 



history, or science, or music, but a companion to English, literature, and 
therefore to look at all such special subjects through the mirror of English 
literature. It is sometimes a distorting mirror. Thus foreign authors are in- 
cluded as matter of allusion in English, not on any scale of merit which would 
satisfy students of those literatures. Eustache Deschamps, for instance, ap- 
pears because of his relations with Chaucer, though many greater figures in 
French literature are passed over. In the selection of place-names, the grounds 
of choice are similar. A volume of this size would not hold all the places 
referred to in English writers of some standing. But Grub Street and Fleet 
Street have associations which greater thoroughfares do not share; Harvard 
and Yale have claims to inclusion over and above their merits as universities ; 
Mount Helicon must be preferred to Everest. 

If these general principles of selection win approval, it still remains true 
that no two persons would agree on their application in detail. But I hope 
I have included a large proportion of entries which would be admitted by 
common consent, and have contrived to provide many signposts that will 
direct the inquirer to fuller knowledge. Some of the entries may appear 
unnecessary from the very familiarity of the subject; but it must be re- 
membered that what is familiar to residents in this country may not always 
be so to readers in other lands which have a common heritage in our 

In a compilation such as this, the debt to previous writers is necessarily 
very great, coextensive in fact with the book itself. I must, to begin with, 
acknowledge my special indebtedness to certain sources of general literary 
information. These are: the Cambridge Histories of English Literature and of 
American Literature; the various works of Prof. Saintsbury (including the 
Periods of European Literature issued under his general editorship); the 
Surveys of Prof. Elton; and A. C. Ward's Twentieth-Century Literature. 
The biographies of British authors in the following pages are mainly, but not 
exclusively, based on the Dictionary of National Biography. Many definitions 
are adapted and much miscellaneous literary information derived from the 
Oxford English Dictionary. I have, in addition, profited by the labours of 
the innumerable editors, biographers, and commentators of authors whose 
works are dealt with herein. It would be impossible to name them all, but 
I should perhaps mention my special debt to such outstanding biographers 
as J. G. Lockhart and Sir E. K. Chambers. 

The articles on classical mythology are based, in the main, on Homer, 
Hesiod's Theogony, the Greek tragedians, Virgil, and Ovid, with much 
guidance and assistance from the Classical Dictionaries of Sir William Smith 
and Lempriere. Those on Scandinavian mythology are founded on the 
Poetic Edda and the Heimskringla; those on Celtic mythology, on the Htbbert 
Lectures of Prof. John Rhys and the Mythology of the British Islands of 
C. Squire; and the few notes on Indian and Moslem theology and mythology 
on W. J. Wilkins's Hindu Mythology, Sale's Koran, and Duncan Forbes's 
Mohammedan Mythology. In matters of archaeology and ancient religion and 


philosophy, I should mention the assistance I have had from the encyclopaedic 
writings of M. Salomon Reinach, and in respect of English philosophy from 
Prof. J. Seth, English Philosophers and Schools of Philosophy. As regards early 
English romances, I am particularly indebted to J. C. Wells, Manual of the 
Writings in Middle English. 

It would be impossible to enumerate within the compass of a short preface 
the works that I have had recourse to when dealing with special subjects 
such as Old London, the history of journalism, London clubs, &c. I have 
endeavoured to draw my information from the authors best qualified to give 
it, and I hope that my acknowledgements in this general form will be accepted. 

I have also consulted on particular points a number of works of reference 
such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica (nth and i4th editions), the Century 
Cyclopaedia of Names, and Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, from which I have 
taken a few facts and dates ; also Notes and Queries, and its French counter- 
part, the Intermediate des Chercheurs; and the invaluable Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable and Reader 9 s Handbook of Dr. Brewer. 

I should not omit to mention the assistance I have had from the ever 
instructive pages of the Times Literary Supplement, from the staff of the 
London Library, and from friends and correspondents in England, Ireland, 
France, and America. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Mr. C. R. L. 
Fletcher, who has read and commented on the whole of the proofs; and to 
the staff of the Oxford University Press for general guidance and detailed help 
in the preparation of the work. Mr. B. R. Redman, who read the proofs 
with that object, has added a number of short articles to fill gaps in the 
treatment of American authors and subjects. The suggestions and corrections 
of these helpers have contributed immensely to whatever standard of com- 
pleteness and accuracy has been achieved. I only regret that considerations of 
space and the limited scope of the work have made it impossible to in- 
corporate all the additions that they proposed. For the blunders that may 
have escaped their scrutiny, I alone am responsible. 

H. P. H. 
Oct. 1932. 



THE names of AUTHORS, at the head of articles, are printed in capitals^ (e.g. 
KEATS, JOHN); the TITLES OF LITERARY WORKS in bold italics (e.g. Lycidas) ; 
other subjects of articles, in ordinary bold type (e.g. Gotham, WISE MEN OF). 

surnames, e.g. 'Samuel Weller' under 'Weller'; John Dryden under 'Dryden'; 
unless the two names form in current use an indissoluble whole, or the surname 
is little known. Thus Teter Pan' appears under Teter', 'Little Nell (Trent)* 
under 'Little Nell*. As regards names such as Thomas of Erceldoune, William 
of Malmesbury, the entry in the D.N.B. has in each case been followed. 

Where the TITLE OF A WORK consists of a Christian name and a surname, it is 
entered under the Christian name, e.g. "Barnaby Rudge' under 'Barnaby*. 

Cross-references have been added where it appeared advisable. In com- 
paratively rare cases, especially when a play or novel is mentioned in connexion 
with some minor character in it, '(q.v.y after the name of the novel or play 
signifies no more than that an article will be found on it; the article may contain 
no reference to the character in question. 


a. = ante, before. 

ad fin. = adfinem, near the end. 

b. born. 

B.M. Cat. = British Mttseum Catalogue. 

c. = circa, about. 

c. or ch. = chapter. 
cent . century. 

cf. = confer, compare. 

C.H.A.L. = Cambridge History of 

American Literature. 
C.H.EX. = Cambridge History of 

English Literature. 

d. died. 

D.N.B. == Dictionary of National Bio- 

E.B. ~ Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

ed. == edition. 

E.E.T.S. = Early English Text Society. 

et seq. et sequentes, and following. 

ft. = flourished. 

Gk. = Greek. 

I.D.C. = Intermediate des Chercheurs 
(the French, counterpart 
of Notes and Queries). 

L. = Latin. 

1., 11. = line, lines. 

LXX = Septuagint. 

ME. = Middle English, 

M.Gk. = Modern Greek. 

MHG. = Middle High German. 

N. & Q. = Notes and Queries. 

N.T. = New Testament. 

OE. = Old English (Anglo-Saxon). 

OED. Oxford English Dictionary. 

Olr. = Old Irish. 

ON. = Old Norse. 

op. cit. = opus citatum, work quoted. 

O.T. = Old Testament. 

P.EX. = Periods of European Litera- 

pron, = pronounced. 

q,v. = quod vide, which see. 

qq.v. == quae vide, both which, or all 
which, see. 

sc. = scilicet, understand or 

S.P.E. = Society for Pure English. 

s.v. = sub verbo, under the word. 

TX.S. = Times Literary Supplement. 

tr. translation or translated by. 



A. E., see Russell (G. W.). 

(1811-56), educated at Westminster School, 
and called , to the bar at Gray's Inn, was the 
first editor of * Figaro in London' and on the 
original staff of 'Punch' (q.v.). He was for 
many years a leader-writer on 'The Times' 
and 'Morning Herald', and was appointed a 
Metropolitan police magistrate in 1849. He 
wrote a large number of plays and humorous 
works, including a ' Comic History of Eng- 
land' (1847-8), a 'Comic History of Rome' 
(1852), and a 'Comic Blackstone' (1846). 

(1837-91), educated at Westminster School 
and Christ Church, Oxford, was, like his 
father, a regular member of the staff of 
'Punch* from 1879. He wrote, in collabora- 
tion with Sir W. S. Gilbert (q.v.), the success- 
ful comedy, 'The Happy Land' (1873). 

A per se, the letter A when standing by 
itself, hence the first, chief, most excellent, 
most distinguished, or unique person or 
thing. 'The floure and A per se of Troie and 
Grece* (Henryson, 'Testament of Cresseid*). 

Abaddon, the Hebrew name of Apollyon, 
the angel of the bottomless pit (Rev. ix. n). 

Abana and Pharpar, the rivers of Damas- 
cus referred to by Naaman as better than all 
the waters of Israel (z Kings v. 12). 

Abaris, a Scythian priest of Apollo, who is 
said to have visited Greece, and to have 
ridden through the air on an arrow, the gift of 
the god. 

Abbasides, a dynasty of Caliphs, descen- 
dants of Abbas (uncle of Mohammed), who 
ruled from A.D. 750, when theUmayyads (q.v.) 
were finally defeated, to 1258. Among them 
the most famous was Haroun-al-Raschid 
(q.v.). The sultans of Turkey derived their 
claim to the Caliphate from this family. 

Abbey of Thelema, see Thelema. 
Abbey Theatre, Dublin, see Yeats. 

ABBO OF FLEURY (945-1004), a French 
theologian, author of an 'Epitome de Vitis 
Romanorum Pontificum* and of lives of the 
saints, one of the sources utilized by .ZElfric 

Abbot, The, a novel by Sir W. Scott (q.v.), 
published in 1820, a sequel to 'The Monas- 
tery* (q.v.). 

The work is concerned with that period of 
the life of Mary Queen of Scots which she 
spent in imprisonment at Lochleven Castle, 
her escape, the rally of her supporters and 
their defeat at the battle of Langside, and her 
withdrawal across the border to England. 
With these historical events is woven the 
romantic story of Roland Graeme, or Roland 

3868 [j] 

Avenel, a spirited but hare-brained youth, 
over whose parentage hangs a certain mystery. 
After being brought up in the castle of 
Avenel as page to the Lady of Avenel, he is 
sent by the Regent Murray to act as page to 
Mary Stuart in her imprisonment, with 
directions to watch and report any attempt 
at escape. These directions he is prevented 
from carrying out both by his own chivalrous 
loyalty, by the influence of his fanatical 
grandmother, Magdalen Graeme, and by his 
love for Catherine Seyton, one of the queen's 
attendant ladies. Instead, he becomes an 
active agent in devising the queen's flight. 
The mystery of his birth is explained and he 
is found to be the heir of the house of 
Avenel. He is pardoned by the Regent and 
marries Catherine Seyton. The novel takes 
its title from the abbot of Kennaquhair, 
Edward Glendinning (Father Ambrose), 
brother of Sir Halbert Glendinning, the 
knight of Avenel (see Monastery)* 

Abbot of Misrule, see Misrule. 

Abbotsford, the name of Sir W. Scott's 
property near Melrose on the Tweed, pur- 
chased in 1812. 

Abbotsford Club, THE, was founded in 
1834, in memory of Sir Walter Scott, for the 
purpose of publishing materials bearing on 
the history or literature of any country dealt 
with in Scott's writings. It ceased its publica- 
tions in 1865. 

Abdera, a Greek city on the coast of Thrace, 
birthplaceof Democritus (q.v.), Protagoras the 
sophist, and Anaxarchus the philosopher; in 
spite of which its inhabitants were proverbial 
for stupidity. 

Abdiel, in Milton's 'Paradise Lost*, v. 805 
and 897, the loyal seraph, who resists Satan's 
proposal to revolt : 'Among the faithless, faith- 
ful only he*. 


(1079-1 142), a brilliant disputant and lecturer 
at the schools of St. Genevieve and Notre 
Dame in Paris, where John of Salisbury (q.v.) 
was among his pupils. He was an advocate of 
rational theological inquiry and the founder 
of scholastic theology. He fell in love with 
Heloise, the niece of an old canon of Notre 
Dame, one Fulbert, in whose house he lodged, 
a woman of much learning to whom he gave 
lessons. Their love ended in a tragic sepa- 
ration, and in a famous correspondence* 
Abelard was much persecuted for alleged 
heresy, in particular by St. Bernard (q.v.), 
but was sought out by students. Heloise 
died in 1 163 and was buried in the same tomb 
as her lover. 

Pope's poem 'Eloisa to Abelard' was pub- 
lished in 1717; G. Moore's 'Hlo5se and 
Abelard' was published in 1921. 


Abencerrages, THE, a legendary Moorish 
family of Granada, at enmity with the Zegris, 
another family of Moors. This feud and the 
destruction of the Abencerrages by Abu 
Hassan, Moorish king of Granada, in the 
Alhambra, have been celebrated by Spanish 
writers, and form the subject of a romance by 
Chateaubriand (q.v.). The Abencerrages and 
Zegris figure in Dryden's 'Conquest of 
Granada' (q.v.). 

), poet and critic. His chief published 
works are: 'Interludes and Poems' (1908), 
'Emblems of Love' (1912), 'Deborah' (1912), 
all poetry; 'Thomas Hardy, a Critical Study' 
(1912), 'The Epic' (1914), 'Theory of Art' 
(1922), all critical; 'Collected Poems' (in the 
'Oxford Poets', 1930). 

Abershaw, Louis JEREMIAH or JERRY (i 773 ?- 
95), highwayman, the terror of the roads 
between London, Kingston, and Wimbledon. 
Hanged on Kennington Common. 
Abessa, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', I. iii, 
the 'daughter of Corceca slow' (blindness of 
heart), and the personification of superstition. 
Abigail, in I Samuel xxv, the wife of Nabal 
and subsequently of David. The name came 
to signify a waiting-woman, from the name 
of the 'waiting gentlewoman' in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's 'The Scornful Lady' (q.v.), so 
called possibly in allusion to the expression 
'thine handmaid*, so frequently applied to 
herself by Abigail in the above chapter. 
Abingdon Law. It is said that Maj.-Gen. 
Brown of Abingdon, during the Common- 
wealth, first hanged his prisoners and then 
tried them. 

Abora, MOUNT, in Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan*, 
is perhaps to be identified with Milton's Mt. 
Amara (q.v.). See J. L. Lowes, 'The Road 
to Xanadu' (1927), pp. 374~S- 
Abou Ben Adhem, may Ms tribe in- 
crease, the first line of a poem by Leigh 
Hunt (q.v.). Abou Ben Adhem sees a vision 
of an angel writing in a book of gold the 
names of those who love the Lord. His own 
name is not included. He prays that he may 
be written down as one who loves his fellow 
men. The next night the angel returns and 
Abou Ben Adhem's name then heads the list. 
Abou Hassan, in the 'Arabian Nights' (q.v., 
'The Sleeper Awakened'), a merchant of 
Bagdad, carried while intoxicated to the palace 
of Haroun-al-Raschid, and persuaded when 
he woke up that he was the Caliph. Cf . the 
incident of Christopher Sly in the Induction 
of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew'. 
Abracadabra, a cabalistic word intended to 
suggest infinity, which first occurs in a 
poem by Q. Severus Sammonicus, 2nd cent. 
It was used as a charm and believed to 
have the power, when written in a triangular 
arrangement and worn round the neck, to 
cure agues, &c. Fun is made of it in 'A 
Lay of St. Dunstan 5 in Barham's *Ingoldsby 
Legends' (q.v.). 


Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch, figures 
largely in Arabian and Mohammedan legend. 
It is said, for instance, that King Nimrod 
sought to throw him into a fiery furnace, 
whence he was rescued by the grace of God. 
This legend is referred to by Moore in 'Lalla 
Rookh'(q.v., 'Fire- Worshippers'). Again, the 
black stone in the Kaaba (q.v.), which had 
fallen from Paradise, was given by Gabriel to 
Abraham, who built the Kaaba. 
Abraham- man, ABRAM-MAN, one of f a set 
of vagabonds, who wandered about the 
country, soon after the dissolution of the 
religious houses ; the provision of the poor in 
those places being cut off, and no other 
substituted' (Nares). The OED. suggests 
that the name is possibly in allusion to the 
parable of the beggar Lazarus in Luke xvii. 
Brewer states that inmates of Bedlam who 
were not dangerously mad were kept in 
'Abraham Ward', and were allowed out from 
time to time in a distinctive dress and per- 
mitted to beg. The 'Abraham-man* is re- 
ferred to in Awdeley's 'Fraternitye of Vaca- 
bones' (1561) and frequently in the dramatists 
of the i6th-i7th cents. Hence, to sham 
Abram, to feign sickness. 'When Abraham 
Newland was cashier of the Bank of England, 
and signed their notes, it was sung: "I have 
heard people say That sham Abraham you 
may, But you mustn't sham Abraham New- 
land" ' (J. C Hotten, 'Diet. Slang'). 
Absalom, the son of King David, who re- 
belled against his father, and whose ^eath 
occasioned David's lament in 2 Sam. xviii. 33. 

Absalom and Achitophel f a satirical poem, in 
heroic couplets, by Dryden (q.v.), published 
in 1 68 1. The poem deals in allegorical form 
with the attempt by Lord Shaftesbury 's party 
to exclude the Duke of York from the suc- 
cession and to set the Duke of Monmouth in 
his place. It was written at the time when 
Shaftesbury's success or failure hung in the 
balance, and was designed to influence the 
issue by showing, under their scriptural dis- 
guise, the true characters of the various politi- 
cal personages involved. Chief among these 
are: Monmouth (Absalom); Shaftesbury (the 
false tempter Achitophel); the Duke of 
Buckingham (Zimri), who, as responsible for 
the 'Rehearsal' (q.v.), was particularly ob- 
noxious to Dryden; Charles II (David); 
Titus Gates (Corah); and Slingsby Bethel, 
sheriff of London (Shimei). 

The poem, which was immensely popular, 
was followed in 1682 by a second part, which 
was in the main written by Nahum Tate 
(q.v.), but revised by Dryden, who moreover 
contributed 200 lines, entirely his own, con- 
taining, among a number of savagely satirical 
portraits, the famous characters of Og 
(Thomas Shadwell, q.v.) and Doeg (Elkanah 
Settle, q.v.). The lines in question begin 

Next these a troop of busy spirits press, 
and end with 

To talk like Doeg, and to write like thee. 


Absentee, The, a novel by M. Edgeworth 
(q.v.), published in 1809. 

Lord Clonbrony, the absentee landlord of 
Irish estates, lives in London to please his 
extravagant wife, who is ashamed of her 
Irish origin, and is mocked by the society 
into which she forces her way by her lavish 
expenditure. Lord Clonbrony becomes 
heavily indebted and is threatened with 
an execution. Meanwhile his son, Lord 
Colambre, a sensible young man, has gone 
incognito to visit his father's estates, and his 
eyes are opened to the evils of absenteeism. 
He helps his father to discharge his debts on 
condition that he returns to his estates, a 
condition to which Lady Clonbrony is with 
difficulty brought to consent; and the story 
closes with the promise of a happier era. 

Absinthe, a potent liqueur, distilled from 
wine mixed with wormwood. Barnes New- 
come (in *The Newcomes*, q.v.) drank 
absinthe-and-water at Bays's. See also 

Absolute, SIR ANTHONY, and his son CAP- 
TAIN ABSOLUTE, characters in Sheridan's 'The 
Rivals' (q.v.). 

Abt Vogler, a poem by R. Browning (q.v.). 
The Abbe" Vogler (1749-1814), the subject of 
the poem, was court chaplain at Mannheim 
and inventor of improvements in the mechan- 
ism of the organ. Vogler has been extem- 
porizing upon the musical instrument of his 
invention, calling up a vision of pinnacled 
glory. He laments that this palace of beauty 
has disappeared with the music. But presently 
he takes comfort in the thought that there is 
no beauty, nor good, nor power, whose voice 
has gone forth, but survives the melodist. It 
is enough that God has heard it. 

Abu Bakr, the first Caliph elected after the 
death of Mohammed. 

Abu Ibn Sina, commonly known as Avi- 
cenna (q.v.). 

Abus, THE, the Roman name of the river 
Humber, mentioned in Spenser's 'Faerie 
Queene*, n. x. 16. 

Abydos, a city of Asia, on the shores of the 
Hellespont, famous for the loves of Hero and 
Leander. For Byron's poem see Bride of 
Abydos. See also Sestos. 

Abyla, one of the Pillars of Hercules (q.v.). 

Academus, a Greek who revealed to Castor 
(q.v.) and Pollux, when they invaded Attica 
to recover their sister Helen, the place where 
Theseus had concealed her. See Academy. 

Academy or ACADEME, from Academia, a 
grove near Athens, sacred to the hero Acade- 
mus (q.v.), near which Plato (q.v.) had a house 
and garden and in which he opened his school 
of philosophy. The second Academy, where 
a modified Platonic doctrine was taught, was 
founded by Arcesilaus about 250 B.C.; the 
third by Carneades about 213 B.C. Together 


with the School of Athens, the Academy 
was finally closed by Justinian. 

Academy, The, a periodical, was founded in 
1869 as c a monthly record of literature, 
learning, science, and art', by Charles Ed- 
ward Cutts Birch Appleton. In 1871 it was 
converted into a fortnightly, and in 1874 into 
a weekly review. It included Matthew 
Arnold, T. H. Huxley, Mark Pattison, and 
John Conington, among its early contributors. 
*The Academy' came to an end in 1909. 

Academy, THE BRITISH, a society, incorpor- 
ated in 1902, for the promotion of the study 
of the moral and political sciences, including 
history, philosophy, law, political economy, 
archaeology, and philology. It publishes 
Proceedings, administers endowments for a 
number of annual lectures, encourages 
archaeological and oriental research, &c. 
Its first secretary was Sir Israel Gollancz. 

Academy, THE DELLA CRUSCA, see Delia 

Academy, THE FRENCH (Academie Fran- 
faise), was founded by Carolinal Richelieu in 
1635. It is essentially a literary academy. 
One of its principal functions is the compila- 
tion and revision of a dictionary of the French 
language. The first edition of this appeared 
in 1694, and there have been numerous 
subsequent editions. A work that has been 
approved by the Academy is said to be 
'crowned* by it. See Immortals. 

Academy of Arts , THE ROYAL, was founded 
under the patronage of George III in 1768, 
for the annual exhibition of works of con- 
temporary artists and for the establishment 
of a school of art. It was housed at first in 
Somerset House, then in the National Gallery, 
and finally removed to Burlington House in 
1869. Sir Joshua Reynolds was its first presi- 
dent. It is occasionally referred to as 'The 
Forty*, from the number of the Acade- 

Acadia, now known as Nova Scotia, was dis- 
covered by the Cabots (1497) and first settled 
by the French at the end of the i6th cent., 
who gave it the name of Acadia. The French 
inhabitants were attacked by the Virginians 
in 1613, and the country was in 1622 occupied 
by Scotsmen under Sir William Alexander, 
who obtained a grant of it from James I. Its 
possession was finally confirmed to England 
by the Treaty of Utrecht. The sufferings of 
the French Acadians, when expelled in the 
1 8th cent., are recounted in Longfellow's 
'Evangeline* (q.v.). 

Acapulco ship, THE, another name for the 
c Manila ship', one of the Spanish royal ships 
that sailed annually from Manila in the 
Philippines for Acapulco on the coast of 
Mexico, and brought back from that port the 
output of the Mexican mines. They were 
regarded as valuable prizes by the English 
privateers of the I7th-i8th cents. Anson 
(q.v.) is said to have taken the equivalent of 




500,000 in the Acapulco ship that he cap- 
tured (see his 'Voyage round the World', 
a viii). See also, e.g., Woodes Rogers, 
'Cruizing Voyage'. 

Acatalectic, *not catalectic* (q.v.), a term 
applied to a verse whose syllables are com- 
plete, not wanting a syllable in the last foot. 
'Stern daughter of the voice of God !' is an 
iambic dimeter (see Metre) acatalectic. 
Aceldama (pron. Acel'da-mah), a Hebrew 
word, the 'field of blood*, the name given 
to the 'potter's field* purchased with Judas 's 
thirty pieces of silver, to bury strangers in. 
See Matt, xxvii. 8 and Acts i. ig. 

Acestes, in Virgil's 'Aeneid' (v. 525), a 
Sicilian who shot an arrow with such swiftness 
that it caught fire from friction with the air. 

Achates, usually styled 'Fidus Achates', a 
friend of Aeneas (q.v.), whose fidelity was 
so exemplary as to become proverbial. 

AchSron, a river of Hades, interpreted as 
o o#ea peW, the river of woe. See Styx. 

Achffles, son of Peleus and Thetis (qq.v.), 
the bravest of the Greeks in the Trojan War. 
During his infancy Thetis plunged him in the 
Styx, thus making his body invulnerable, 
except the heel, by which she held him. He 
was educated by the centaur Cheiron, who 
taught him the arts of war and of music. To 
prevent him from going to the Trojan War, 
where she knew he would perish, Thetis sent 
him to the court of Lycomedes, where he was 
disguised in female dress among the king's 
daughters. As Troy could not be taken with- 
out the help of Achilles, Ulysses went to the 
court of Lycomedes disguised as a merchant, 
and displayed jewels and arms. Achilles dis- 
covered his sex by showing his preference for 
the arms and went to the war. He was 
deprived by Agamemnon of Briseis, who had 
fallen to his lot in a division of booty. For this 
affront he retired in anger to his tent, and 
refused to appear in the field, until the death 
of his friend Patroclus recalled him to action. 
In armour made for him by Hephaestus, he 
slew Hector, the champion of Troy, and 
dragged his corpse, tied to his chariot, thrice 
round the walls of Troy. He was wounded in 
the heel by Paris as he solicited the hand of 
Polyxena, a daughter of Priarn, in the temple 
of Athena. Of this wound Achilles died. 

The TENDON OF ACHILLES, the tendon by 
which the muscles of the calf of the leg are 
attached to the heel, is so called from the 
above story of the vulnerable heel of Achilles. 

Achilles' spear: Telephus, a son-in-law of 
Priam, and king of Mysia, attempted to pre- 
vent a landing of the Greeks on their way to 
Troy, and was wounded by Achilles. Learn- 
ing from an oracle that he would be cured 
only by the wounder, he sought the camp of 
the Greeks, who had meanwhile learnt that 
they needed the help of Telephus to reach 
Troy. Achilles accordingly cured Telephus 
by applying rust from the point of his spear. 


Shakespeare ('2 Henry VI*, V. i) and Chaucer 
('Squire's Tale', 232) refer to this power of 
the spear of Achilles both to kill and cure. 

The plant ACHILLEA (milfoil) is supposed 
to have curative properties. 
Achilles and the Tortoise, a paradox pro- 
pounded by the philosopher Zeno (q.v.). 
Achilles and a tortoise have a race. Achilles 
runs ten times as fast as the tortoise, which 
has a hundred yards start. Achilles can never 
catch the tortoise, because when Achilles has 
covered the hundred yards, the tortoise has 
covered ten; while Achilles is covering these 
ten, the tortoise has gone another yard; and 

Achitophel, see Absalom and AchitopheL 
Ahitophel (2 Sam. xv xvii, spelt 'AchitopheF 
in the Vulgate and Coverdale's version) con- 
spired with Absalom against David, and his 
advice being disregarded, hanged himself. 
AcidaHa, a surname of Aphrodite, from the 
well Addalius near Orchomenos in Boeotia. 
Acis, see Galatea. 

Acrasia, in Spenser's* Faerie Queene*, II. xii, 
typifies Intemperance. She is captured and 
bound by Sir Guyon, and her Bower of Bliss 

Acre or ST. JEAN D'ACRE, a seaport on the 
coast of Palestine, was captured by the Cru- 
saders of the Third Crusade in 1191, Richard 
Cceur de Lion contributing by his energy to 
its fall. It was the last stronghold held by the 
Christians in the Holy Land. It was success- 
fully defended in 1799 againstBupnaparteby a 
Turkish garrison aided by Sir Sidney Smith. 
It was captured from Mehemet Ali in 1840 by 
the allied fleet under Sir Robert Stopford, 
with Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860) as his 
second in command. 

Acres, BOB, a character in Sheridan's 'The 
Rivals' (q.v.). 
Acrisias, see Danae. 

Actaeon, according to Greek legend a 
famous hunter, who saw Artemis and her 
attendants bathing, or, according to another 
version, boasted himself superior to her in the 
chase. For this he was changed into a stag, 
and devoured by his own dogs. 

Actes and Monuments of these latter 
perilous times touching matters of the Church, 
popularly known as the BOOK OF MARTYRS, by 
Foxe (q.v.), first published at Strasburg in 
Latin in 1559, and printed in English in 1563. 
This enormous work, said to be twice the 
length of Gibbon's 'Decline and Fall', is a 
history of the Christian Church from the 
earliest times, with special reference to the 
sufferings of the Christian martyrs of all ages, 
but more particularly of the protestant 
martyrs of Mary's reign. The book is, in fact, 
a violent indictment of *the persecutors of 
God's truth, commonly called papists*. The 
author is credulous in his acceptance of stories 
of martyrdom and partisan in their selection. 
The work is written in a simple homely style, 


and enlivened by vivid dialogues between the 
persecutors and their victims. The title of 
the Latin version is 'Rerum in Ecclesia 
Gestarurn . . . maximarumque per Europam 
persecutionum, &c.' 

DALBERG, first Baron Acton (1834-1902), 
was born at Naples of a Shropshire Roman 
Catholic family, and educated at Paris, Oscott, 
and privately at Edinburgh. He studied his- 
tory and criticism at Munich under Dollinger 
from 1848 to 1854, and with him visited Italy 
in 1857. He was Whig M.P. for Carlow 
(1859-65) and formed a friendship with Glad- 
stone. In the 'Rambler' (converted under his 
direction to the 'Home and Foreign Review') 
he advocated Ddllinger's proposed reunion of 
Christendom, but stopped the * Review' on 
the threat of a papal veto. He was strenuous 
in his opposition to the definition by the 
Catholic Church of the dogma of papal in- 
fallibility, publishing his views in his 'Letters 
from Rome on the Council* (1870). In 1874, 
in letters to 'The Times', he criticized Glad- 
stone's pamphlet on 'The Vatican Decrees'. 
His literary activity was great, and took the 
form of contributions to the 'North British 
Review*, the 'Quarterly Review', and the 
'English Historical Review* (which he 
founded), besides lectures and addresses. 
Lord Acton was appointed Regius professor 
of modern history at Cambridge in 1895, on 
which occasion he delivered a remarkable 
inaugural lecture on the study of history (re- 
printed in 'Lectures on Modern History*, 
1906). One of his principal works was the 
planning of the 'Cambridge Modern History* 
(18991912), for which he wrote the opening 
chapter. His other published works include 
'Historical Essays and Studies* (1907), 'The 
History of Freedom' (1907), and 'Lectures on 
the French Revolution' (1910). He had 
planned early in life a history of liberty, *the 
marrow of all modern history' in his view, 
and for this he collected much material, 
but only fragments of it, as above, were 

Ada Clare, one of the two wards in Chancery 

in Dickens's 'Bleak House* (q.v.)- 

Adah, in Byron's 'Cain' (q.v.), Cain's wife. 

Adam , the name given in the Bible to the first 
man, the father of the human race, 'the 
goodliest man of men since born* of Milton's 
'Paradise Lost' (iv. 323). Hence the phrase 
the Old Adam, the unregenerate condition or 

Adam, the designation of a i2th-cent. 
Norman-French dramatic representation of 
scriptural history, probably written in Eng- 
land, of which only a part survives, important 
in the evolution of the drama in England from 
its liturgical origins. 

Adam, in Shakespeare's 'As You Like It* 
(q.v.), the faithful old servant who accom- 
panies Orlando in exile. 


Adam, ROBERT (1728-92), architect, the 
most famous of four brothers, John, Robert, 
James, and William, of Maryburgh, Fife. In 
1762, after visiting Italy (including the earlier 
excavations at Pompeii) and Diocletian's 
palace at Spalato, Robert Adam was ap- 
pointed architect to the Board of Works (in 
which post he was succeeded by his brother 
James), and subsequently entered parliament. 
With his three brothers he acquired on a 99 
years' lease the land on the bank of the Thames 
on which was erected the Adelphi, a fine group 
of buildings of Adam's design, so called from 
the Greek dSeX<j>ot ('brothers'), reminiscent 
of the Spalato ruins. Robert Adam also de- 
signed the screen and gate of the Admiralty, 
Portland Place, other buildings in London and 
Edinburgh, and various country mansions, 
e.g. Kenwood, Osterley, Kedleston. He 
influenced English furniture as well as archi- 
tecture, introducing a light simple style, with 
painted and inlaid decorative motives, in 
which the wreath, the honeysuckle, and the 
fan are prominent. He also produced beau- 
tiful ceilings and mantelpieces. 

Adam Bede, a novel by G. Eliot (q.v.), 
published in 1859. 

The plot is founded on a story told to 
George Eliot by her aunt Elizabeth Evans, a 
Methodist preacher and the original of the 
Dinah Morris of the novel, of a confession of 
child-murder, made to her by a girl in prison. 
Hetty Sorrel, pretty, vain, and selfish, is the 
niece of the genial farmer, Martin Poyser. 
She is loved by Adam Bede, a stern high- 
minded village carpenter, but is deluded by 
the prospect of the position which marriage 
with the young squire, Arthur Donnithorne, 
would give her, and is seduced by him, in 
spite of the efforts of Adam Bede to save her. 
Arthur breaks off relations with her, and 
Hetty, broken-hearted, presently consents to 
marry Adam. But before the marriage, 
Hetty discovers that she is pregnant, flies 
from her home to seek Arthur, fails to find 
him, is arrested and convicted of the murder 
of her child, and is transported. After a time 
Adam discovers that he has won the heart of 
Dinah Morris, a deeply religious young 
Methodist preacher, whose serene influence 
pervades the whole story, and whom Adam's 
brother, the gentle Seth, has long loved 
hopelessly, and now with a fine unselfishness 
resigns to him. 

The work is remarkable for the characters 
of the two brothers; of Dinah and Hetty; of 
the garrulous Mrs. Poyser; the kindly vicar, 
Mr. Irwine; and the sharp-tongued school- 
master, Bartle Massey. Also for its pleasant 
descriptions of scenery, and particularly of 
the Poysers* farm. 

Adam Bell, Clym of the dough (or 
CLEUGH), and William of Cloudesley, 

three noted outlaws, as famous for their skill 
in archery in Northern England as Robin 
Hood and his fellows in the Midlands. They 
lived in the forest of Englewood, not far 



from Carlisle, and are supposed to have been 
contemporary with Robin Hood's father. 
Clym of the plough is mentioned in Jon- 
son's 'Alchemist 5 , I. ii; and in D*Avenant's 
'The Wits', II. L There are ballads on the 
three outlaws in Percy's 'Reliques* ('Adam 
BelF) and in Child's collection. In these, 
William of Cloudesley, after having been cap- 
tured by treachery, is rescued by his com- 
rades. They surrender themselves to the 
king and are pardoned on William's shooting 
an apple placed on his little son's head. 

Adam Blair , see Lockkart. 
Adam Cast Forth, a dramatic poem (1908) 
by C. M. Doughty (q.v.), dealing with the 
separation of Adam arid Eve after the ex- 
pulsion, and their reunion. 
Adam Cupid, in Shakespeare's 'Romeo and 
Juliet', ii. i. 13, perhaps alludes to Adam Bell 
(q.v,), the archer. 

Adam, or EDOM, o* Gordon, a Berwick- 
shire freebooter, subject of a Scottish ballad 
included in Percy's 'Reliques'. 

Adam's Ale, a humorous expression for 
water, as the only drink of our first parents. 

Adamastor, in the 'Lusiads* (v. li) of Ca- 
moens (q.v.), the spirit of the Cape of Storms 
(now known as the Cape of Good Hope), who 
appears to Vasco da Gama and threatens all 
who dare venture into his seas. 'Adamastor' 
is the title of a poem by Roy Campbell. 

Adamites, in ecclesiastical history, the name 
of sects who affected to imitate Adam in 
respect of his nakedness. 'An enemy to 
Clothes in the abstract, a new Adamite* 
(Carlyle, 'Sartor Resartus'). 

ADAMNAN, ST. (c. 625-704), abbot of lona 
from 679. The life of St. Columba is generally 
attributed to him. 

Adams, PAHSON ABRAHAM, a character in 
Fielding's 'Joseph Andrews' (q.v.). 

ADAMS, HENRY BROOKS (1838-1918), 
American man of letters and grandson and 
great-grandson of Presidents of the United 
States. His most ambitious work was a his- 
tory of the administrations of Jefferson and 
Madison in nine volumes, but it is probable 
that he will be remembered chiefly by 'Mont- 
Saint-Michel and Chartres' (1904), and 'The 
Education of Henry Adams* (1906), an 


American historian and essayist, born at 
Brooklyn, New York. His chief works are: 
The Founding of New England' (1921), 
'Our Business Civilization' (published in Eng- 
land as 'A Searchlight on America', 1929), 
'The Adams Family' (1930), 'The Epic of 
America* (1931). 

ADAMS, SARAH FLOWER (1805-48), is 
remembered as a writer of hymns, including 
'Nearer, my God, to Thee'. She also wrote 
*Vivia Perpetua', a dramatic poem (1841). 



ADAMSON, ROBERT (1852-1902), edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University, became pro- 
fessor of philosophy and political economy 
at Owens College, Manchester, and subse- 
quently at Aberdeen and Glasgow. His chief 
works, 'On the Philosophy of Kant' (1879), a 
monograph on Fichte (1881), 'The Develop- 
ment of Modern Philosophy' (1903)? and 'A 
Short History of Logic* (191 1, the reprint of 
an earlier article), show a gradual reaction 
from idealism to realism. 

ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719), the son 
of a dean of Lichfield, was educated at the 
Charterhouse with Steele, and at Queen's 
College, Oxford, and Magdalen, of which he 
became fellow. He was distinguished as a 
classical scholar and attracted the notice of 
Dryden by his Latin poems. He travelled on 
the Continent from 1699 to 1703, having been 
granted a pension for the purpose, with a view 
to qualifying for the diplomatic service. His 
'Dialogues upon the usefulness of Ancient 
Medals' (published posthumously) were prob- 
ably written about this time. In 1704 he 
published 'The Campaign', a poem in heroic 
couplets, in celebration of the victory of 
Blenheim. He was appointed under-secre- 
tary of state in 1706, and was M.P. from 1708 
till his death. In 1709 he went to Ireland as 
chief secretary to Lord Wharton, the Lord 
Lieutenant. He formed a close friendship 
with Swift, Steele, and other writers, and 
was a member of the Kit-Cat Club (q.v.). 
Addison lost office on the fall of the Whigs in 
1711. Between 1709 and 1711 he contributed 
a number of papers to Steele's 'Tatler* (q.v.), 
and joined with him in the production of the 
'Spectator* (q.v.) in 1711-12. His tragedy 
'Cato' was produced with great success in 
1713, and during the same year he contributed 
to Steele's periodical, the 'Guardian*, and 
during 1714 to the revived 'Spectator'. His 
prose comedy, 'The Drummer' (q.v., 1715), 
proved a failure. On the return of the Whigs 
to power, Addison was again appointed chief 
secretary for Ireland, and started his political 
newspaper, the 'Freeholder* (1715-16). In 
1716 he became a lord commissioner of trade, 
and married the countess of Warwick. In 
1718 he retired from office with a pension of 
1,500. His last year was marked by in- 
creasing tension in the relations between him 
and Steele, of which several papers by Addi- 
son in the 'Old Whig* are evidence. Addison 
was buried in Westminster Abbey, and 
lamented in a noble elegy by Tickell (q.v.). 
He was satirized by Pope in the character of 
'Atticus* (q.v.). 

Addison of the North, see Mackenzie (H.). 

Addled Parliament, THE, the parliament 
summoned by James I in 1614 in the hope of 
obtaining money. Being met by a demand 
that Impositions (duties raised by the sole 
authority of the king) should be abolished and 
the ejected clergy restored to their livings, 
the king dissolved the parliament, which, 


having passed no act and granted no sup- 
plies, received the above nickname. 

ADE, GEORGE (1866- ), American 
humorist and dramatist, born in Kentland, 
Indiana, educated at Purdue University, 
whose reputation was largely won by several 
volumes of 'Fables in Slang* 'Fables in 
Slang' (1900), 'More Fables' (1900), 'Forty 
Modern Fables' (1901), 'Ade's Fables' (1914), 
'Hand-Made Fables' (1920). 

Adeler, MAX, pseudonym of Charles Heber 

Adeline, LADY, in Byron's 'Don Juan' (q.v.), 
the wife of Lord Henry Amundeville. 
Adelphl, THE, see Adam (R.). 

Adicia, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, v. viii, 
the wife of the Soldan (Philip of Spain), the 
symbol of injustice. 

Aditl, in the Veda (q.v.), the impersonation 
of infinity, or of all-embracing nature. In 
post-Vedic Hindu mythology, the mother of 
the gods. 

Admetus, the husband of Alcestis (q.v.). 
Admirable Grichton, THE, see Crichton. 

Admiral Hosiers Ghost, a party song, 
written by R. Glover (q.v.), on the taking of 
Porto Bello from the Spaniards in 1739* 
Hosier had been sent in 1726 in command of 
a squadron to the West Indies, but was 
reduced by his orders to long inactivity, 
during which his men perished by disease, 
and he himself is said to have died of a broken 
heart. The ballad is in Percy's 'Reliques*. 

Adonai, the Supreme Being, a Hebrew word 
signifying 'my Lords'. It is one of the names 
given in the O.T. to the Deity, and is 
substituted by the Jews, in reading, for the 
'ineffable name', Yahweh or Jehovah. 

AdonaiSt An Elegy on the Death of John 
Keats, a poem in Spenserian stanzas by 
P. B. Shelley (q.v.), published in 1821. 

The death of Keats moved Shelley not 
only to sorrow for one whom he classed 
among the writers of the highest genius of 
the age, but to indignation at the savage cri- 
ticisms on Keats's work which he believed had 
hastened his end. In this elegy (founded on 
Bion's lament for Adonis) the poet pictures 
the throng of mourners, the Muse Urania, 
Dreams and Desires, Sorrow and Pleasure, 
Morning and Spring, and the fellow-poets, all 
bringing their tribute to the bier of Adonais. 
The lament then changes to a triumphant 
declaration of the poet's immortality. 

Adonis, the son of Cin^ras, king of Cyprus, 
and Myrrha; a beautiful youth beloved by 
Aphrodite. He received a mortal wound from 
a wild boar, and the flower anemone was 
said to have sprung from his blood. Proser- 
pine restored him to life, on condition that he 
should spend six months with her and the 
rest of the year with Aphrodite, a symbol of 
winter and summer. His death and revival 


were widely celebrated (in the East under the 
name of his Syrian equivalent, Thamuz; cf. 
'Paradise Lost 9 , i. 446-52). As a feature in 
this worship, the image of Adonis was sur- 
rounded with beds of plants in flower, whose 
rapid withering symbolized the cycle of life 
and death in the vegetable world. These 
'Gardens of Adonis' are referred to in Spen- 
ser, 'Faerie Queene', in. vi. 29, and 'Colin 
Clouts come home againe*, in Shakespeare, 
'i Henry VI*, I. vi, and in Milton, 'Paradise 
Lost', ix. 440. 

An ADONIS in the i8th cent, was a particu- 
lar kind of wig ('a fine flowing adonis'; 
Graves, 'Spiritual Quixote*, ill. xix). 

See also Venus and Adonis. 
Adramelecn, in Milton's 'Paradise Lost', 
vi. 365, one of the rebel angels. 
Adrastus, king of Argos, leader of the ex- 
pedition of the 'Seven against Thebes* (see 
Eteocles), and of the second expedition against 
Thebes, known as the war of the Epigoni. 
Adriana, in Shakespeare's 'Comedy of 
Errors' (q.v.), the jealous wife of Antipholus 
of Ephesus. 

Adriano de Armado, a character in Shake- 
speare's 'Love's Labour 's Lost* (q.v.). 
Adriatic : the annual ceremony of the 
wedding of the Doge of Venice to the Adriatic, 
the Sposalizio del Mar, was symbolical of the 
sea power of Venice. Traces of the ceremony 
are found as early as the nth cent. The Doge, 
in his state barge, the Bucentaur, proceeded 
to sea on Ascension Day and dropped a ring 
into the water. 

Aduilamites, a name applied to a group of 
liberal M.P.'s, including Edward Horsman, 
Robert Lowe, and Earl Grosvenor, who 
seceded from the Reform party in 1866 and 
opposed the Franchise Bin. The name was 
first given by John Bright to Horsman, who, 
he said, 'had retired into what may be called 
his political cave of Adullam, to which he in- 
vited everyone who was in debt, and everyone 
who was discontented*, (i Sam. xxii. 1-2.) 

Advancement of Learning, The, a philo- 
sophical treatise by Francis Bacon (q.v.), 
published in 1605. Unlike most of Bacon's 
philosophical works, it appeared in English 
and not in Latin. After disposing of the 
various objections to learning and enun- 
ciating its advantages, the author considers 
the various methods of advancing knowledge 
and the defects in present practice. After 
which, the divisions of knowledge history, 
poetry, and philosophy are enumerated and 
analysed. This work was later expanded in 
Bacon's 'De Augmentis*. 
Adventurer, The, a periodical conducted 
during 1752-4 by John Hawkesworth (1715?- 
73), to which Samuel Johnson and Joseph 
Warton (qq.v.) contributed many papers. 

Adventures of a Guinea, Chrysal, or the t a 
satirical narrative by Charles Johnstone 
(i7i9?-i8oo?), published in 1760-5, in 


which, a guinea is made to describe its various 
owners. Several chapters are given to an 
account of the 'Hellfire Club* (q.v.). 
Adventures of a Younger Son, The, a novel 
by E. J. Trelawny (q.v.), published in 1831. 
The work, which is partly autobiographical, 
is the story of the life of a wild Byronic 
character, a lawless daredevil, warped in 
youth by the harshness of his father^ who 
deserts from the navy and takes to a life of 
piracy in -die Indian Ocean, encountering 
many exciting adventures. These are told 
with much vigour and freshness, and there 
are good descriptions of Eastern scenes. 

Adventures of an Atom t The, see Atom. 
Adventures of Captain Bonneville, by Wash- 
ington Irving (q.v.), published in 1837, and 
based upon Captain Bonneville J s own record 
of his life among the hunters of the Rocky 

Adventures of Philip, The, see Philip. 
Advice to a Painter, see Instructions to a 

Advocates' Library, THE, in Edinburgh, 
founded by Sir George Mackenzie of Rose- 
haugh(i636 91), king's advocate, and opened 
in 1 689. It was presented to the nation by the 
Faculty of Advocates in 1924, and endowed 
by Sir A. Grant with 100,000. It became 
the National Library of Scotland in 1925, and 
is one of the libraries that receive a copy of 
all works published in Great Britain. 
Advocatus Diaboli, or Devil's Advocate, 
the popular name for the Promoter Fidei, who, 
in a proposal for canonization before the 
Sacred Congregation of Rites in the R.C. 
Church, advances what there is to be said 
against the candidate's claim. 

Aedon, see Itylus. 

Aegeon (known to the gods, says Homer, as 
BBIAREUS), a monster with a hundred arms, 
son of Uranus, who with his brothers Gyges 
and Cottus, helped to conquer the Titans 
when they warred with the gods. According 
to other legends they were among the giants 
who attacked Olympus. 

Aegeon, in Shakespeare's 'Comedy of Errors' 
(q.v.), the Syracusan merchant who is father 
of the Antipholus twins. 

Aegeus (two syllables), a mythical king of 
Athens and father of Theseus (q.v.). The 
AEGEAN SEA was named from him. 

Aeginetan Marbles, THE, from the temple 
of Athena in the island of Aegina. They 
represent groups of warriors fighting, and a 
figure now identified as Aphaea (Britomartis) 
standing in the centre. The Marbles were 
bought in 1812 by Crown Prince Louis of 
Bavaria and placed in the Glyptothek at 

Aegir, in Scandinavian mythology, the chief 
of the sea-giants. He represents the peaceful 
ocean. His wife, Ran, draws mariners down 


to her abode in the deep. They have nine 
daughters, the stormy billows. A banquet 
given by Aegir to the gods is a prominent 
incident in this mythology. 
Aegisthus, according to Greek legend, was 
the son of Thyestes (the son of Pelops) and 
his daughter Pelopia. As a result of the feud 
between Thyestes and his brother Atreus 
(q.v.), Aegisthus murdered Atreus. When 
the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon (q.v.), king of 
Argos, and Menelaus, king of Sparta, went to 
the Trojan War, Aegisthus, who had been 
reconciled to them, was left guardian of 
Agamemnon's kingdom and of his wife 
Clytemnestra (q.v,). But he betrayed his 
trust, became the paramour of Clytemnestra, 
and with her murdered Agamemnon on his 
return from Troy. Orestes (q.v.), the son of 
Agamemnon, would have shared his father's 
fate, but was saved by his sister Electra. With 
her assistance Orestes subsequently avenged 
his father by killing Aegisthus and Clytem- 

Aeglamour, the c Sad Shepherd' in Ben 
Jonson's pastoral drama of that name (q.v.). 

Aeglogue, an obsolete spelling of 'Eclogue* 
(q.v.), associated with a fanciful derivation 
from a?f, goat (as if 'discourse of goat- 

Aegyptus, see Danaides. 
Alfred, see Alfred. 

^CLFRIC, called GRAMMATICUS (d. c. 1020), 
was a monk at Winchester and Cerne and 
abbot of Eynsham, His chief works are 
Catholic Homilies {990-2), largely drawn 
from the works of St. "Augustine, St. Jerome, 
St. Gregory, and other Latin writers, and 
'Lives of Saints' (993-6), a series of sermons 
in alliterative rhythms. His Paschal homily 
against transubstantiation was published in 
1566 under ecclesiastical patronage as 'A 
Testimonie of Antiquitie*. Several other 
works of his survive, including a Latin 
grammar; a 'Colloquy* between the teacher, 
the pupil, and various persons, a plough- 
man, a shepherd, a hunter, &c.; a para- 
phrase in the vernacular of the first seven 
books of the Bible (not all of it his own work) ; 
and a treatise, 'De Veteri et de Novo Testa- 
mento', an introduction to the Testaments. 
^Elfric is a most prominent figure in Anglo- 
Saxon literature, and the greatest prose 
writer of his time ; his writings are important 
from their illustration of the belief and prac- 
tice of the early English Church. 

^Elfthryth (ELPRIDA) (c. 945-1000), the 
daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, the 
second wife of King Eadgar, and mother of 
^Ethelred the Unready. She was believed to 
have caused the death of her stepson, Eadward 
the Martyr. According to William of Malmes- 
bury's mainly fabulous account of her life, 
King Eadgar, hearing of her beauty, sent 
^Ethelwald, ealdorman of East Anglia, to see 
her. JEthelwald falling in love with her, 



reported disparagingly on her appearance, 
in order to marry her himself. Eadgar sub- 
sequently discovered the deceit, caused the 
death of JEthelwald, and took ^Ifthryth to 

Mild, Songe to, one of the 'Rowley Poems' of 
Chatterton (q.v.). 

Aeneas, the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, 
and the husband of Creusa, daughter of 
Priam, king of Troy, by whom he had a son, 
Ascanius. When Troy was in flames at the 
end of the Trojan War, he carried away upon 
his shoulders his father Anchises and the 
statues of his household gods, leading his son 
by the hand and leaving his wife to follow 
behind. But she was separated from him in 
the confusion and lost. His subsequent 
adventures are told by Virgil in the 'Aeneid' 
and by other Latin authors, who, in a spirit of 
flattery, traced the descent of the Roman 
emperors to Aeneas. Leaving Troy with a 
fleet of twenty ships, he was shipwrecked near 
Carthage, where he was kindly entertained 
by Dido the queen, who fell in love with 
him. But Aeneas left Carthage by order of 
the gods, and Dido in despair took her own 
life. Coming to Cumae, Aeneas was con- 
ducted by the Sibyl to the nether world, that 
he might hear from his father's shade the 
fates of his posterity. After a voyage of seven 
years, and the loss of thirteen ships, he reached 
the Tiber, where he married Lavinia, the 
daughter of King Latinus, having slain in 
single combat Turnus, his rival for her hand. 
Aeneas succeeded his father-in-law as king of 
the Latins and after a short reign was killed 
in a battle with the Etruscans. He is known as 
'pious Aeneas* for his filial piety and fidelity 
to his mission. 

(1405-64), Pope Pius II from 1458, was a 
patron of letters, and author of a romance, 
'Eurialus and Lucretia*, of treatises on many 
subjects, and of Commentaries on his times. 
Aeneid f The, a poem in Latin hexameters by 
Virgil (q.v.), recounting the adventures of 
Aeneas (q.v.) from the fall of Troy. 

Aedlus, the god of the winds. In the 
'Odyssey' (x. i et seq.), Aeolus was the ruler 
of a floating island in the west, on whom Zeus 
had conferred dominion over the winds. 
When Ulysses was returning to Ithaca, 
Aeolus gave him, confined in a bag, all the 
winds unfavourable to his voyage; but the 
companions of Ulysses out of curiosity untied 
the bag and released the winds. Hence his 

AESCBT$XUS (525-456 B.C.), the great 
Athenian tragic poet, was present in the 
Athenian army at the battles of Marathon, 
Salamis, and Plataea. Much of the latter part 
of his life, after he had been defeated by his 
younger rival Sophocles in 468 B.C., was spent 
in Sicily with Hieron of Syracuse. Legend 
attributes the manner of his death to the 
fall of a tortoise which an eagle let drop, 


mistaking his bald pate for a rock. Of 
the large number of tragedies that he 
wrote only seven have come down to us: 
'The Persians' (on the triumph of Greece 
over the Persian invaders), 'The Seven 
against Thebes* (the story of Eteocles and 
Polyneices), the 'Prometheus Bound*, 'The 
Suppliants ' (i.e. the fifty daughters of Danaus), 
and the great trilogy on the story of Orestes, 
the 'Agamemnon', the 'Choephori 5 , and the 
'Eumenides*. Aeschylus may be regarded as 
the founder of Greek tragedy, having intro- 
duced a second actor (where there had pre- 
viously been only one actor and the chorus), 
and subordinated the chorus to the dialogue. 

Aesculapius (ASCLEPIUS), son of Apollo and 
Coronis, was taught the art of medicine by 
Cheiron (q.v.), the Centaur, and restored 
many to life. Of this Pluto complained to 
Zeus, who struck Aesculapius with lightning. 
After his death he was honoured as the god of 
medicine, and was represented holding in his 
hand a staff, round which is wreathed a ser- 
pent, a creature peculiarly sacred to him. 
Among his children was a daughter, Hygieia 
(q.v.). His principal temple was at Epidaurus ; 
patients who slept in the temple learnt in a 
dream the method of cure. 
Msir, THE, in Scandinavian mythology the 
collective name of the gods, of whom the 
chief are Odin, his wife Frigga, and his sons 
Thor, Balder, Tyr, Vali, Vidar, Bragi, Hodur, 
and Hermod (qq.v.). Loki (q.v.) was also one 
of the JEsir, but an evil spirit. Their dwelling 
was known as Asgard. See also Vanir and 

Aeson, king of lolchus and father of Jason 
(q.v.). He was restored to youth by the arts 
of Medea (q.v.). 

AESOP (c. 570 B.C.), a Phrygian, originally 
a slave, who received his freedom from his 
master ladmon, a Samian. He chiefly resided 
at the court of Croesus, king of Lydia, to 
whom he dedicated his fables. But _ those 
attributed to him are probably a compilation 
of the fables of many authors. They were put 
into Greek verse by Babrius (A.D. 40) and 
translated into Latin by Phaedrus (q.v.). The 
story that Aesop was ugly and deformed 
appears to have originated with Maximus 
Planudes, a i4th-cent. monk. 
Aesthetic Movement, a movement dur- 
ing the eighties of the last century in which 
the adoption of sentimental archaism as the 
ideal of beauty was carried to extravagant 
lengths and accompanied by affectation of 
speech and manner and eccentricity of dress. 
It was much ridiculed, e.g. in 'Punch* and in 
Gilbert and Sullivan's opera 'Patience*. 
JSthefflaed (d. c. 918), the 'Lady of Mercia*, 
daughter of King Alfred, and wife of ^Ethel- 
red, ealdorman of Mercia. She was a great 
warrior, and aided her brother Eadward to 
subdue the Danish parts of England as far 
north as the Humber. 
^Ethelred, king of Wessex, 866-71. 



the Unready, king of England, 
979-1016. 'Unready* is properly 'Rede-less% 
the man without counsel. 

^Ethelstan, king of England, 925-40. In 
his reign considerable progress was made to- 
wards the unification of the English people, 
and his policy tended to bring ^England into 
closer contact with the Continent. Many 
of the cultural changes which are commonly 
attributed to the Norman Conquest can be 
traced back to -Ethelstan's reign. 

^thelwald, see Mlfthryih. 

(908 P-984), born at Winchester, entered the 
monastery of Glastonbury, of which St. 
Dunstan was abbot, and became dean 
thereof. He subsequently re-established a 
monastic house at Abingdon, introducing 
the strict Benedictine rule from Fleury ; and 
when Eadgar became king of England and 
Dunstan primate, was appointed bishop of 
Winchester. He co-operated with Dunstan 
and Oswald (qq.v.) in reforming religion, 
expelling the secular clergy from Winchester, 
Chertsey, Milton, and Ely, and substituting 
monks. He rebuilt the church of Peter- 
borough, and built a new cathedral at Win- 
chester. He exerted his influence also for the 
revival of learning. He was author of a 
treatise on the circle, and of a collection of 
the regulations and customs of Benedictine 
convents entitled 'Regularis Concordia*. He 
is commemorated on i August. 

Aethiopica, a Greek romance by one Helio- 
dorus of Emesa (? 3rd cent., at one time 
thought to have been bishop of Trikka in 
Thessaly). Chariclea is the daughter of Per- 
sine, wife of the king of Ethiopia, and was born 
white owing to the effect of a marble statue on 
her mother while pregnant. The mother in 
fear of the accusations to which this might 
give rise, entrusts the child to Charicles'the 
Pythian priest, and Chariclea becomes 
priestess of Apollo at Delphi. Theagenes, a 
Thessalian, falls in love with her and carries 
her off. After many adventures they reach 
Ethiopia, and Chariclea is about to be immo- 
lated when she is discovered to be the 
daughter of the king of the country. Sidney 
drew on this romance in his 'Arcadia* (q.v.). 
An English version by Thomas Underdowne 
(1569?) is included in the Tudor translations. 

Aetion, in Spenser's 'Colin Clouts come home 
againe', possibly represents Shakespeare. 
Agtius, the Roman general who in 451 A.D., in 
conjunction with Theodoric, defeated Attila 
and the Huns near Chalons. He was mur- 
dered by Valentinian in 454. 

Affectionate Shepherd, The, see Barnfield. 
Affery, see Flintwinch. 
Afrasiab, in the 'Shahnatneh' of Firdusi 
(q.v.), the king of Turan who carries on a long 
warfare with the kings of Iran, and is killed 
by Kaikhosru (q.v.). 


Afreet, EFREET, AFRIT, AFRITE, an evil de- 
mon or monster of Mohammedan mythology. 
Agag, in Dryden's 'Absalom and Achito- 
phel', i. 675, is generally supposed to repre- 
sent Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey, the Middle- 
sex magistrate who took the depositions of 
Titus Gates and was soon after found mur- 
dered in the fields near Primrose Hill. 

'And Corah [Titus Gates] might for Agag's 
murder call 

In terms as coarse as Samuel used to Saul.* 
The reference is to i Sam. xv. 
Agamedes, see Trophonius. 

Agamemnon, king of Argos, the son or 
grandson of Atreus (q.v.). He married Clytem- 
nestra (q.v.) and was elected commander of 
the Greek host that went to Troy to recover 
Helen, the wife of his brother Menelaus, 
carried off by Paris (qq.v.). The Greek fleet 
was detained at Aulis, where Agamemnon 
sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia (q.v.) to 
appease Artemis, whose favourite stag he 
had killed. After the fall of Troy, Cassandra 
(q.v.) fell to his share and foretold that his 
wife would put him to death. On his return 
to Argos, he was murdered by Clytemnestra 
and her paramour Aegisthus (q.v.). See 
Aeschylus and Browning (R.). 

Aganippe, a fountain on Mt. Helicon (q.v.), 
sacred to the Muses. 

Agape, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', rv. ii. 
41, the Fay, mother of Priamond, Diamond, 
and Triamond, who, seeking to obtain for her 
children from the Fates 

'Long life, thereby did more prolong their 

pain 5 . 
The word in Greek means affection, charity. 

Agapemone, meaning 'abode of love*, an 
institution founded in 1845 at Charlinch near 
Bridgwater, Somerset, by one Henry James 
Prince, where he and his followers lived on a 
communist basis, professing certain spiritual 
doctrines. (See Hepworth Dixon, 'Spiritual 
Wives' (1868), c. xxii et seq.) 

Agdistes, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', II. 
xii. 48, the porter of the Bower of Bliss. 

Agdistis, a Phrygian nature-goddess, some- 
times identified with Cybele (q.v.), and con- 
nected with the legend of Attis (q.v.). 

Age of Innocence, The, a novel by Edith 
Wharton, published in 1920. 

Age of Reason, The, by Thomas Paine (q.v.), 
published as a whole in 1795. The first part 
appeared in 1793, but no copies are extant. 

This work, which sets forth Paine's 
'thoughts on religion', was written in Paris 
at the height of the Terror. 

Agincourt, a village in the north of France 
where, on St. Crispin's day, 25 Oct. 1415, 
Henry V of England defeated a superior force 
of French. 

Aglaia, one of the Graces (q.v.). 



Agnes, ST., the patron saint of virgins, 
martyred in the persecution of Diocletian and 
commemorated on ai January. It was a 
popular belief that by performing certain 
ceremonies on St. Agnes's Eve, one would 
dream of the person whom one was destined 
to marry. Tennyson wrote a poem, 'St. Agnes* 

For Keats 's poem see Eve of St. Agnes. 

Agnes Grey, a novel by Anne Bronte (q.v.), 
published in 1847. It is the story of a 
rector's daughter who takes service as a 
governess, and is ill-treated and lonely. She 
experiences kindness from no one but the 
curate, Mr. Weston, whom she finally marries. 
With her modest demeanour is contrasted 
the conduct of Rosalie Murray, her eldest 
charge, a heartless coquette. 

Agnes Wickfield, a character in Dickens's 
'David Copperfield* (q.v.). 

Agni, in the religion of the Vedas (q.v.), the 
god of fire, an immortal who has taken up his 
abode among men, the lord and protector of 
the household. 

Agramant, in the 'Orlando Innamorato' 
and the 'Orlando Furioso* (qq.v.), the em- 
peror of Africa, supreme ruler of the infidels, 
a descendant of Alexander the Great, who 
leads his hosts against Charlemagne. 

Agravain, SIR, in Malory's 'Morted'Arthur', 
the son of King Lot and brother of Gawain, 
Gaheris, and Gareth, who conspires against 
Launcelot, and discloses to King Arthur 
Launcelot's love for Guinevere. 

Agrican, in the 'Orlando Innamorato' (q.v.), 
the king of Tartary to whom the hand of 
Angelica (q.v.) has been promised. He 
besieges her in Albracca, and is slain by 

Agricola, CNAEUS JULIUS (A.D. 37-93), was 
Roman governor of Britain and subdued the 
whole country with the exception of the high- 
lands of Scotland. Tacitus the historian, his 
son-in-law, wrote his life. 

Agrippa, see Herod. 

of Nettesheim (1486-1535), a scholar and 
writer on the occult sciences. He wrote 'De 
Occulta Philosophia, libri tres' (1529) and 
e De Vanitate Scientiarum* (1530), and argued 
against the persecution of witches. Jacke 
Wilton and the earl of Surrey meet him in 
the course of their travels (Nash, 'The Un- 
fortunate Traveller*, q.v.). He is said to be 
the astrologer, Her Trippa, of Rabelais's 
Third Book. 

Aguecheek, SIR ANDREW, in Shakespeare's 
'Twelfth Night' (q.v.), a ridiculous foppish 

Ahab, CAPTAIN, a character in Herman Mel- 
ville's 'Moby Dick* (q.v.). 


Ahania, in the mystical poems of Blake (q.v.), 
the wife of Urizen, symbolical perhaps of 
physical desire. 

Ahasuerus, see Wandering Jew. 

Ahmed, Prince, and the Fairy Peri-Banou, 
the subject of one of the 'Arabian Nights* 
(q.v.). The three sons of a king were in love 
with his niece, the princess Nur-al-Nihar. 
The king, embarrassed to choose between 
them, promised her to whichever son should 
bring him the greatest marvel. Hussein, the 
eldest, secured a flying carpet which would 
transport whoever sat on it wherever he 
wished ; Ali, the second, a spying-tube which 
permitted one to see whatever one desired; 
and Ahmed, the youngest, a magical apple 
the scent of which cured all disorders. The 
brothers met at an appointed place. The 
spying-tube revealed Nur-al-Nihar dying of 
a disorder; the carpet transported them to 
her presence; and the apple cured her. The 
king, still embarrassed, proposed a shooting 
match, in which Ahmed's arrow travelled so 
far that it could not be found, and Nur-al- 
Nihar was assigned to one of the other 
brothers. But Ahmed, seeking his arrow, 
encountered the beautiful fairy Peri-Banou, 
fell in love with her and married her. 

Aholah and Aholibah, in Ezek. yyiii, per- 
sonifications of Samaria and Jerusalem as 
harlots, whom the prophet reproves for their 
adulterous intercourse with false religions. 
There is a poem entitled 'Aholibah' in Swin- 
burne's 'Poems and Ballads, ist Series' (1866). 

Aholibamah, a character in Byron's 
'Heaven and Earth* (q.v.). For the scriptural 
Aholibamah see Gen. xxxvi. 2. 

Ahrimam or ANGRA MAINYU, in the Zoro- 
astrian system, the principle of evil, in per- 
petual conflict with Ormazd, the god of good- 
ness and light. 

Alrara Mazda, see Ormazd. 

Aidoneus, a name of Pluto or Hades (q.v.). 

Aids to Reflection, a philosophical treatise 
by S. T. Coleridge (q.v.) in the form^of a 
series of aphorisms and comments, published 
in 1825. 

The principal philosophical doctrine ad- 
vanced in this is the distinction between 
Understanding and Reason. Understanding 
is the faculty by which we reflect and general- 
ize from sense-impressions; while Reason 
either predetermines experience or avails 
itself of a past experience to supersede its 
necessity in all future time. The appropriate 
sphere of the Understanding is the natural 
not the spiritual world. By Reason, on the 
other hand, we have knowledge (and herein 
Coleridge parts company with Kant) of 
ultimate spiritual truths. Morality and Pru- 
dence in turn are distinguished by the fact 
that the former flows from the Reason and 
Conscience of man, the latter from the 
Understanding. The above doctrine is to be 



gathered in the main from the part of the work 
entitled 'Aphorisms on Spiritual Religion 

AIKEN, CONRAD (1889- ), American 
critic and poet, born in Georgia but now 
resident in England. His chief works are: 
'Earth Triumphant* (1914), 'Nocturne of 
Remembered Spring' (1917), 'The Charnel 
Rose' (1918), 'Notes on Contemporary Poetry* 
(i9i9),'BlueVoyage*(novel, 1927), 'Costumes 
by Eros* (short stories, 1928). He also edited 
'Modern American Poets' (1922), 'Selected 
Poems of Emily Dickinson* (1924). 

Aimweli, a character in Farquhar's 'The 
Beaux' Stratagem* (q.v.). 

AINGER, ALFRED (1837-1904), educated 
at King's College and at Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, became canon of Bristol (1887-1903) 
and master of the Temple (1894 till his 
death). He was a popular lecturer and 
preacher, and author of a life of Charles 
Lamb (1882), of an edition of Lamb's Works 
(1883-8), of a life of Crabbe (1903), and of 
'Lectures and Essays' (published posthu- 
mously, 1905). 

Aino, in the 'Kalevala* (q.v.), the sister of 
Youkahainen, whom Wainamoinen wins for a 
bride, and who to avoid him drowns herself. 

(1805-82), educated at Manchester Grammar 
School, published his first novel 'Rookwood*, 
which was immediately successful, in 1834. 
He edited 'Bentley's Miscellany', 1840-2, 
and 'Ainsworth's Magazine', 1842-53, and 
then acquired the 'New Monthly Magazine*. 
He wrote thirty-nine novels, chiefly with 
some historical basis, of which the best 
known are 'Jack Sheppard* (1839), 'The 
Tower of London* (1840), 'Old St. Paul's* 
(1841), 'Guy Fawkes* (1841), 'The Miser's 
Daughter* (1842), 'Windsor Castle* (1843), 
'The Lancashire Witches' (1848), and 'The 
South Sea Bubble' (1868). 

Ajax, the son of Telamon, king of Salamis, 
was, after Achilles, the bravest of the Greek 
host that besieged Troy. After the death of 
Achilles, Ajax and Ulysses contended for the 
arms of the dead hero. When they were 
allotted to Ulysses, Ajax, maddened with 
rage, slaughtered a flock of sheep, thinking 
them the sons of Atreus who had given the 
preference to Ulysses, and stabbed himself. 
From his blood sprang a purple flower (per- 
haps the iris or the hyacinth). He was known 
as Telamonian Ajax to distinguish him from 
Ajax son of Oileus, king of Locris, who went 
with forty ships to the Trojan War, having 
been one of the suitors of Helen (q.v.). On 
his return homewards, his ship was wrecked, 
but Poseidon brought him to a rock, and he 
would have been saved if he had not boasted 
that his escape was due to his own efforts. 
Whereupon Poseidon split the rock with his 
trident and Ajax was drowned. According to 
Virgil's account, Ajax was struck by lightning 


after the shipwreck, having incurred the 
anger of Athene. 

Akbar K&an, the great Mogul emperor of 
Hindustan, who reigned 1556-1605. 

AKENSIDE, MARK (1721-70), the son 
of a butcher of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and a 
physician who rose to eminence in his pro- 
fession. He was the author of 'The Pleasures 
of Imagination' (q.v.), published in 1744 (re- 
written and published in 1757 as 'The 
Pleasures of the Imagination'); also of a 
number of odes and minor poems, of which 
the best is the 'Hymn to the Naiads' (q.v.), 
written in 1746 and published in Dodsley's 
'Collection of Poems* (1758). 
Akhnaton, Amenhotep IV, king of Egypt, 
who came to the throne about 1375 B.C., and 
introduced a new religion, in which the sun- 
god Ra (designated as 'Aton') superseded 
Amon. He himself assumed the office of 
high-priest, and left Thebes, which was 
identified with the worship of Amon, for a 
new capital, Tell-el-Amarna. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son-in-law, Tutankhamen 

(1791-1859), Russian author, who drew his 
inspiration from Gogol (q.v.) and depicted 
family life in a rural community, showing a 
passionate sympathy with nature. His chief 
works are : 'Chronicles of a Russian Family* 
(1856), 'Recollections' (1856), 'Years of Child- 
hood' (1858); they are autobiographical. 

Al Asnam, Zayn, the subject of a tale in the 
'Arabian Nights* (q.v.). Zayn was a prodigal 
king of Basra, who wasted his substance 
and ruined his city. When reduced to poverty 
he consulted a sheikh, and by his advice dug 
in the grounds of his palace near his father's 
tomb and there came upon a cavern in which 
were eight female statues made of precious 
stones; the pedestal for a ninth statue was 
vacant. He was told that this missing statue 
was twenty-fold more precious, and that in 
order to secure it he must first find a maiden 
of immaculate purity. For this purpose he 
was given a mirror which revealed any secret 
blemish. After long search he discovered 
the perfect damsel and fell in love with her. 
On proceeding to the cavern, he found that 
the damsel herself was the missing statue and 
occupied the ninth pedestal. 

Al Sirat, in the Mohammedan creed, the 
bridge, 'stretched over the back of Hell, 
sharper than a sword and finer than a hair. 
The feet of the unbelievers slip upon it, by 
the decree of God, and fall with them into the 
fire. But the feet of believers stand firm upon 
it, by the grace of God, and so they pass to the 
Abiding Abode'. (A short creed by Al- 
Ghazzali, in Macdonald, 'Muslim Theology'.) 

Alabama, The, the name of a war-steamer 
built at Birkenhead for the Confederates 
during the American Civil War, which 
wrought much havoc among the Federal 


mercantile shipping^ The British govern- 
ment was charged with breach of neutrality 
in allowing the 'Alabama' to sail (1862) from 
a British port, and heavy damages were 
awarded by arbitration against it. 

Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp, an 
oriental tale generally regarded as belonging 
to the 'Arabian Nights* (q.v.), but not con- 
tained in any MS. of the collected tales. 

Aladdin, the scapegrace son of a poor 
tailor in China, is employed by a Moorish 
sorcerer to obtain for him, from a sub- 
terranean cavern, a lamp possessing magic 
powers, but disappoints the sorcerer by 
retaining the lamp for himself. Discovering 
its power, he acquires great wealth and 
marries Bedr-el-Budur,the Sultan's daughter, 
for whom by means of the lamp he constructs 
a wonderful palace. The sorcerer, disguised 
as an itinerant merchant, recovers the lamp 
by offering 'new lamps for old', and whisks 
palace and princess off to Africa. Aladdin 
pursuing, kills the magician, regains the lamp 
and conveys palace and bride back to China. 

Alaham, a tragedy by Fulke Greville (q.v.), 
Lord Brooke, posthumously published in 

Alaham, second son of the king of Ormus, 
deposes his father, and orders him as well as 
his elder brother Zophi to be blinded. They 
are taken to places of refuge by CaeHca, 
the king's daughter. Alaham causes search to 
be made for them, threatens CaeHca with 
the rack, and finally orders all three to the 
stake. A messenger relates their death and 
the popular discontent that follows. The 
tragedy might, as Charles Lamb remarked, 
with more propriety be termed a political 
treatise than a play. 

Alasfor, or The Spirit of Solitude, a poem by 
P. B. Shelley (q.v.), published in 1816. 
'Alastor* is Greek for 'avenger'. 

This was the poet's first important work. 
It is an allegory in which the idealist is 
depicted happy in the contemplation of high 
"thoughts and visions of beauty. Presently he 
seeks in reality the counterpart of his dreams. 
He meets with frustration, is plunged into 
despair, and dies. The poem is a condemna- 
tion of self-centred idealism, and at the same 
time a lament for a world in which 'many 
worms and beasts and men live on*, while 
'some surpassing spirit' is borne away leaving 
'pale despair and cold tranquillity* behind. 

Alban, ST. (d. ? 304), the first British 
martyr, who is said to have been put to death 
under the edicts of Diocletian. While still 
a pagan, he had sheltered in his house a 
Christian cleric by whom he was converted. 
The cleric was traced to Alban's house, and 
Alban, wrapped in the cleric's mantle, was 
arrested in his place. His identity having 
been discovered, he boldly declared himself 
a Christian and was ordered to immediate 
execution. The prodigies that attended his 
removal so impressed the executioner that he 


too declared himself a Christian, and another 
soldier had to be found to take his place. 
St. Alban was put to death on the hill over- 
looking the town of Verulam (q.v.). He is 
commemorated on 22 June. 

Albany, ALBAINN, ALBIN, ALBANIA, ancient 
poetic names of Gaelic origin for the northern 
part of Britain. 

Albany, DUKE OF, a character in Shake- 
speare's 'King Lear' (q.v.). 
Albany, THE, Piccadilly, originally a single 
mansion, so called from the second title of 
the duke of York who owned it at the end 
of the i8th cent., subsequently divided into 
bachelor chambers. Lord Byron, Macaulay, 
George Canning, 'Monk* Lewis, and Bulwer 
Lytton (qq.v.) Hved there. 
Alberich, in Scandinavian mythology the 
king of the elves. In the 'Nibelungenlied* 
(q.v.) he guards the treasure of the Nibelungs, 
and is robbed of it by Siegfried. In Wagner's 
version of the story he is the Nibelung who 
steals the gold of the Rhine maidens and 
makes it into a ring. 

Albert Memorial, THE, erected in Hyde 
Park in memory of the Prince Consort (d. 
1861), was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, 
whose idea, as quoted by Mr. Lytton Strachey 
('Queen Victoria'), 'was to erect a kind of 
ciboriurn to protect the statue of the Prince 
. . . designed in some degree on the principles 
of the ancient shrines*. It includes a frieze 
containing 170 life-size figures, besides 
statues representing the virtues and sciences, 
and took some seven years to complete (1872). 
The statue of the prince, by J. H. Foley, was 
not finished till some years later. 
ALBERTUS MAGNUS (1193-1280), a na- 
tive of S wabia, a Dominican monk, and a great 
scholastic philosopher. He was an interpreter 
of Aristotle, whose doctrine he expounded at 
Cologne and Paris. Thomas Aquinas was 
among his pupils. His wide learning earned 
for him the name of Doctor Universalis. 
Albigenses, a Christian sect living in Pro- 
vence in the I2th cent., who took their name 
from the town of Albi, and were conspicuous 
in a dissolute age for their piety and virtue. 
They censured the corruptions of the papacy, 
and were accused of holding Manichaean 
(q.v.) doctrines. Pope Innocent III preached 
a crusade against them, which was conducted 
with extreme cruelty by Simon de Montfort 
(1208-13), and resulted in the fall of Count 
Raymond of Toulouse, the ruler of Provence, 
thus beginning the subjection of the Southern 
Provinces of France to the central govern- 
ment in Paris. There is an interesting passage 
on the Albigenses in Bridges, *The Testament 
of Beauty', iii. 680 et seq. 
Albinus, see Alcuin. 

Albion an ancient poetical name for Britain, 
perhaps derived from its white (Latin, albus) 
cliffs, visible from the coast of GauL 

Albion's England, see Warner. 
Alboin, see Albovine. 

Albovine, a tragedy by D'Avenant (q.v.), 
printed in 1629, the author's first play. 

Albovine (Alboin), king of the Lombards, 
having triumphantly entered Verona, marries 
his captive, Rhodolinda, whose royal father 
he has conquered and killed. In drunken 
exaltation at the marriage feast he requires 
Rhodolinda to drink a health from a cup 
formed of her father's skull. In revenge she 
determines on his death, and is assisted by 
her favourite, Hermegild, to whom she 
promises herself and the kingdom. For this 
purpose they make use of Paradine, the king's 
minion, making him believe that the king 
has dishonoured his bride Valdaura. Para- 
dine kills Valdaura, and then the king. The 
truth being revealed to him, he kills Rhodo- 
linda and Hermegild. The story, drawn from 
the history of the Lombards by Paulus 
Diaconus, is told in a novel by Bandello, 
translated by Belleforest ('Histoires Tragi- 
ques'). The same subject is treated in 
"The Witch* (q.v.) by Middleton, and in 
Swinburne's 'Rosamund, Queen of the 

Albracca, in the 'Orlando Innamorato' 
(q.v.), the capital of Galafron, king of Cathay, 
in which Angelica is besieged by Agrican 


Albranazar, an Arabian astronomer (805- 
85), author of astronomical works. He 
is the subject of a play by Tomkis (q.v.), 
acted in 1615 before James I at Cambridge. 
In this, Albumazar is a rascally wizard, who 
transforms the rustic Trincalo into the person 
of his absent master with absurd conse- 
quences. The play was subsequently (1668) 
revived, and Dryden wrote a prologue for it, 
in which he wrongly charged Ben Jonson 
with adopting it as the model for his 'Al- 
chemist* (q.v.). It was again revived by 

ALCAEUS (fl. c. 611-580 B.C.), a celebrated 
lyric poet of Mitylene in Lesbos, author of 
hymns to the gods, and songs of war and love, 
of which only a few fragments survive in 
Athenaeus. He was the inventor of the 
Alcaic (q.v.) metre. 

Alcaic, the metre invented by Alcaeus (q.v.), 
a stanza of Jour lines, as follows : 

-- v^ | v/w wv-i (twice) 

_ ^ 

Tennyson experimented in this metre: 
O mighty-mouthed inventor of harmonies, 
O skilTd to sing of Time or Eternity, 
God-gifted organ-voice of England, 

Milton, a name to resound for ages. 
Alceste, see Misanthrope. 

Alcestis, one of the daughters of Pelias 
(q.v.), who promised her in marriage to 
Admetus if he came to fetch her in a chariot 



drawn by lions and boars. This feat Admetus 
performed. Alcestis gave her life to redeem 
her husband from death (see under Apollo), 
and was brought back from Hades by Her- 
cules. She is the subject of one of the plays 
of Euripides. See Balaustion's Adventure. 
Alchemist, The, a comedy ^ by Jonson (q.v.), 
first acted in 1610 and printed in 1612, by 
many considered the greatest of his plays. 
Love- wit, during an epidemic of the plague, 
leaves his house in London in charge of his 
servant, Face. The latter, with Subtle, the 
Alchemist, and Dol Common, his consort, 
use the house as a place for deluding and 
cheating gullible people, by holding out to 
them promise of the philosophers* stone. 
Among their victims are Sir Epicure Mam- 
mon, a greedy, voluptuous knight; Tribula- 
tion Wholesome, and Ananias, puritans; 
Dapper and Drugger, a clerk and a tobacco- 
nist; and Kastril, the quarrelsome lad who 
wants a good match for his sister Dame 
Pliant. Surly, the gamester, who sees through 
the fraud, attempts to expose it, by presenting 
himself disguised as a Spaniard; and the 
unexpected return of Love-wit puts Subtle 
and Dol to sudden flight. Face makes peace 
with his master by resourcefully marrying 
him to Dame Pliant. 

Alcldes, a name of Hercules (q.v.), who was 
the stepson of Amphitryon (q.v.), the son of 

Alcina, in the 'Orlando Innamorato* and the 
'Orlando Furioso* (qq.v.), a witch who was 
mistress of an enchanted garden, and changed 
her lovers into beasts, stones, or trees. 
Astolfo and Rogero were among her prisoners. 

Alcinous, the prosperous king of Phaeacia 
and father of Nausicaa (q.v.), who hospitably 
entertained Ulysses when cast upon his coast, 
on his return from Troy. 

ALGIPHRON, a Greek writer of about 
A.D. 1 80, author of letters describing the 
manners and characters of contemporary 

Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher, a 
philosophical treatise in the form of dialogues 
by Berkeley (q.v.), published in 1732. 

There are seven dialogues, in which the 
interlocutors are Euphranor and Crito on 
the one side, and Alciphron and Lysicles, the 
'minute philosophers*, on the other. The 
'minute philosophers' are the free-thinkers, 
who have rejected the ancient methods of 
philosophy and adopted new views of religion 
and morality. In the dialogues the free- 
thinkers are discussed as atheists, libertines, 
metaphysicians, &c. The setting is pleasant, 
and the polemic vigorous, with occasional 
touches of the Socratic method. 

Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus and Eiiphyle. 
His mother, induced by the present of the 
fatal necklace of Harmonia (q.v.), engaged 
her husband, Amphiaraus, to take part in 
the expedition against Thebes. Amphiaraus, 


knowing that he would perish in it, enjoined 
on Alcmaeon to slay his mother. This he did, 
and was punished by the gods with madness. 
Alcmaeon's wife, Callirrhoe, also desired to 
possess the necklace, and his attempt to pro- 
cure it for her was the cause of his own death. 
ALCMAN (fl. 630 B.C.), the principal lyric 
poet of Sparta, by birth a Lydian, was 
brought to Sparta as a slave. He was the first 
to give artistic form to the choral lyric, by 
introducing the strophe and antistrophe (qq.v.). 
His poem 'The Partheneion' exists only as 
a papyrus fragment in the Louvre. Once 
thought to contain disconnected verses illus- 
trating some law of metric, it was later re- 
garded as the only fair specimen of a poem 
by Alcman as well as of a Greek partheneion 
(choral song for maidens). (See W. W. 
Wilson, *The Partheneion of Alcman*, in the 
'American Journal of Philology*, 1913.) 

Alcmena, see Amphitryon. 

ALCQFRIBAS NASIER, the pseudonym 
under which Fran?ois Rabelais (q.v.) pub- 
lished his 'Gargantua* (q.v.); an anagram of 
the authors name. 

Alcor, see Alioth. 

Alcott, AMOS BRONSON, see Transcendental 

ALCOTT, LOUISA M. (1832-88), Ameri- 
can author of books for girls, among which 
'Little Women* (q.v., 1868) enjoyed a very- 
wide popularity. 

ALCUIN or ALBINUS (English name 
EALHWINE) (735-804), theologian, man of 
letters, and coadjutor of Charlemagne in 
educational reforms. He was born at York 
and educated in the cloister school of York 
under Archbishop Egbert. He met Charle- 
magne at Parma in 781, and settled on the 
Continent, becoming finally abbot of Tours. 
He wrote liturgical, grammatical, hagiologi- 
cal, and philosophical works and numerous 
letters and poems, including a Latin elegy on 
the destruction of Lindisfarne by the Danes. 

Alcuin Club, THE, founded to encourage 
and assist in the practical study of ceremonial, 
and the arrangement of churches, their 
furniture, and ornaments, in accordance with 
the rubrics of the Book of Common Prayer, 
strict obedience to which is the guiding 
principle of the Club. The first publication 
of the Club ('English Altars', by W. H. St. 
John Hope), for the years 1897-8, was issued 
in 1899. 

Alcyon, see Halcyon. Alcyon, in Spenser's 
'Daphnaida* and 'Colin Clout', is Sir Arthur 
Gorges, on whose wife's death the *Daph- 
naida* is an elegy. Gorges commanded the 
'Warspite', Ralegh's flagship on the Islands 
Voyage, 1597, and was a poet and translator. 
He died in 1625. 

Aldebaran, the Arabic name of a star of the 
first magnitude in the constellation of Taurus 
(a Tauri). 


Aldersgate, originally EAUDREDESGATE, one 
of the old gates of London. From the old 
gatehouse John Day (q.v.), the printer, issued 
his editions of Ascham's 'The Scholemaster', 
Foxe's 'Book of Martyrs', and some of Tyn- 
dale's works. 

Aldgate, the principal east gate of the 
ancient city of London. Its earlier name was 
ALEGATE or ALGATE, the derivation of which 
is doubtful. The gatehouse was at one time 
occupied by Chaucer. 

ALDHELM, ST. (640 P-7O9), the first titular 
of the bishopric of Sherborne, was edu- 
cated under Theodore (q.v.) at Canterbury 
and was foremost in the intellectual move- 
ment led by him. He was author of a 
number of Latin works (including treatises in 
prose and verse on the merits of virginity, 
with illustrious examples of chaste living), 
which reveal a wide knowledge of classical 
and Christian authors. His ornate and diffi- 
cult vocabulary shows the influence of Irish 
models. He was abbot of Malmesbury and 
built churches at Malmesbury, Bruton, and 
Wareham, and monasteries at Frome and 
Bradford. He is commemorated on 25 May. 
The best edition of his 'Opera* is that by 
Rudolfus Ehwald for the 'Monumenta 
Germaniae Historica* (1913-19). 

Aldiborontipnoscophornio, see Chro- 

Aldine Press, see Aldus Manutius. 

Aldingar, SIR, the subject of a ballad in- 
cluded in Percy's 'ReHques*, the treacherous 
steward of King Henry, who brings a false 
accusation against Queen Eleanor. 
1907), a New England author, born at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, who edited the 
'Atlantic Monthly* from 1881 to 1890. His 
best-known work is 'The Story of a Bad Boy' 
(1870). Other prose works are 'Marjorie 
Daw' (1873), 'Prudence Palfrey* (1874), 'The 
Stillwater Tragedy* (1880). He also wrote 
verse, especially vers de societe. 

Aldus Manutius (Auoo MANUZIO, 1449- 
1515), the celebrated Venetian printer, who 
founded the Aldine Press, whence he issued 
the first printed editions of the works of a 
large number of Greek authors, influenced 
Greek typography, and powerfully assisted the 
advance of classical learning. He popularized 
the octavo in place of the cumbrous folio. 

Alecto, one of the Furies (q.v.). 

Alectryon, a youth set by Ares to watch 
against the approach of the sun, during his 
amour with Aphrodite. But Alectryon fell 
asleep, and Ares and Aphrodite were dis- 
covered. Ares, in his wrath, changed Alec- 
tryon into a cock, who still heralds the dawn 
(Lucian, 'Alectryon*). 

Alessandria, the city founded by the Lom- 
bard League in the I2th cent, to defy Frederic 
Barbarossa, who had destroyed Milan. 



Alexander, a name borne by Paris (q.v.), 
son of Priam, king of Troy. 

Stirling (1567 ? 1640), a courtier, and a friend 
of Drummond of Hawthornden (q.v.). He 
was secretary of state for Scotland from 
1626 till his death. His chief poetical works 
are a collection of sonnets called 'Aurora* 
(1604), along poem on 'Doomsday* (1614) in 
eight-lined stanzas, a 'Paraenesis* to Prince 
Henry, and four tragedies on Darius, Croesus, 
Alexander, and Caesar, similar, but inferior, 
to those of Fulke Greville (q.v.), Lord Brooke. 
Alexander VI, see Borgia (Rodrigo). 

ALEXANDER OF HALES (d. 1245), a 
native of Gloucestershire, held various ecclesi- 
astical appointments and was finally arch- 
deacon. He retired to Paris, where he studied 
metaphysics and theology and lectured to the 
Franciscan order. By direction of Inno- 
cent III he prepared a 'Summa Theologiae*, 
a vast work which he left unfinished and 
which was completed by his pupils. It earned 
for its author the title of the Irrefragable 

Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), son of 
Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, born at 
Pella, and educated by Aristotle, became king 
of Macedon in 336 B.C. He caused the Greek 
states to nominate him to conduct the war 
against Persia and in 334 crossed the Helles- 
pont. He captured Darius and his family and 
extended his conquests to Egypt, where he 
founded Alexandria; and after completely 
defeating the Persians at the battle of Arbela 
in 331, to India. He married Roxana, the 
captive daughter of Oxyartes, a Bactrian 
prince, and a second wife, Barsine, daughter 
of Darius and Statira. He is said to have 
destroyed Persepolis, the capital of the Persian 
empire, at the instance of the courtesan 
Thais (331). His horse was named Buce- 
phalus. See also Clitus, Diogenes, Parmenio, 

Alexander was made the centre of a cluster 
of medieval legends, comparable to those of 
the Carlovingian and Arthurian cycles. The 
chief of the romances concerning him are the 
great French 'Roman d'AIexandre' of the 
1 2th cent., some 20,000 Alexandrines, and 
the English 'King Alisaunder' of the I3th 
cent., 8,000 octosyllabic verses. The story of 
the rivalry of Ms two wives forms the subject 
of Nathaniel Lee's tragedy, 'The Rival 
Queens* (q.v.). 

Alexander and Campaspe, see Campaspe. 

Alexander and Lodowick, 'the Two 
Faithful Friends, who were so like one 
another that none could know them asunder; 
wherein is declared how Lodowick married 
the Princess of Hungaria in Alexander's 
name and each night laid a naked sword be- 
tween him and the princess, because he 
would not wrong his friend', an old ballad in 
Evans's collection. There was also a play 


written by Martin Slaughter, called 'Alexan- 
der and Lodowick* (Dyce). The story is 
referred to in Webster, 'The Duchess of 
Malfi', I. iL 

Alexander's Feast, see Dryden. 
Alexandria, the capital of Egypt under the 
Ptolemies, was founded by order of Alex- 
ander the Great in 332 B.C. 
Alexandrian Library, THE, was formed at 
Alexandria during the reign of the Ptolemies 
(beginning with Ptolemy Soter, 306-285 B.C.). 
It is said to have contained at one time about 
400,000 manuscripts, of which a part were 
accidentally burnt when Julius Caesar was 
besieged in Alexandria. The story that the 
library was destroyed by order of the Caliph 
Omar is without foundation. 
Alexandrian Period, THE, of Hellenistic 
literature is that which existed with Alexan- 
dria as its chief centre, from the end of the 
time of Alexander the Great to the Roman 
conquest of Greece, 300-146 B.C. 

Alexandrine, an iambic line of six feet, 
which is the French heroic verse, and in 
English is used, e.g., as the last line of the 
Spenserian stanza. Some derive the name 
from Alexandre Paris, an old French poet 
who used this verse; others from the fact that 
several poems on Alexander the Great were 
written in it by early poets. 

Alfheim, in Scandinavian mythology, the 
home of the Elves (Alfar), and of the god 
Frey or Freyr (q.v.). 

ALFIERI, VITTORIO (1749-1803), Italian 
dramatist, of a Piedmontese family and 
French in education, so that he subsequently 
had to master the Italian language. He was 
the devoted lover of the countess of Albany, 
wife of the Young Pretender. Between 1777 
and 1789 he wrote nineteen tragedies, most 
of them on classical subjects from the Greek 
(Agamemnon, Antigone, Orestes, Oedipus 
Rex, &c.), others on more romantic themes 
(Saul, Myrrha, Mary Stuart), marked by 
severe conciseness and austerity of form. 
Alfieri also wrote comedies, mostly of a 
satirical turn, a satire on the extremists of the 
French Revolution ('II Misogallo'), and a re- 
markable autobiography. 

ALFRED (ALFRED) (849-901), king of the 
West Saxons (871-901), is important in the 
history of literature for the revival of letters 
that he effected in the west of England. He 
first translated into English the 'Cura Pas- 
toralis* of Pope Gregory, with a view to the 
spiritual education of the clergy. A copy was 
sent to each bishop. The preface to this 
translation refers to the decay of learning in 
Wessex and indicates Alfred's intention of 
restoring it. He then translated the 'Historia 
adversus Paganos* of Orosius (q.v.), inserting 
the latest geographical information at his dis- 
posal, notably accounts of the celebrated 
voyages of Ohthere to the White Sea and of 
Wulfstan in the Baltic, which he received 



direct from the explorers. He had a trans- 
lation made of Bede's 'Historia Ecclesiastica' 
(q.v.), with some omissions, but giving a 
West- Saxon version of the hymn of Cssdmon 
(q.v.). He also translated the ' De Consoiatione 
Philosophiae' of Boethius (q.v.), with some 
original additions. The West-Saxon version 
of Augustine's 'Soliloquia* is also probably 
the work of Alfred. He composed a code of 
laws, drawing on the Mosaic and earlier 
English codes. The 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle* 
(q.v.) may represent in part his work or 

Alfred, a masque, containing 'Rule, Bri- 
tannia', see Thomson (jf. f 1700-48). 

Alfred, Proverbs of, see Proverbs of Alfred. 

Alftruda, a character in C. Kingsley's 'Here- 
ward the Wake* (q.v.). 

Algarsife, one of the two sons of King 
Cambuscan, in Chaucer's 'Squire's Tale* 
(see Canterbury Tales). 

Algrind, in Spenser's 'Shepheards Calender* 
(q.v.), Edmund Grindal, archbishop of 
Canterbury, 1576-83. 

Alhambra, THE, from the Arabic al-Jiamra, 
'the red house', the palace of the Moorish 
kings at Granada, built in the i3th cent. 
'The Alhambra' is the name of a work by 
Washington Irving (q.v.). 

All, the first cousin and son-in-law of 
Mohammed (q.v.). He was the fourth 
Caliph ; but the Shia (q.v.) sect consider him 
the first, regarding his three predecessors as 
interlopers. His descendants, the ALIDS, in- 
clude Aii's sons Hasan and Hoseyn, the 
Fatimid dynasty of Egypt, the sherifs of 
Morocco, and other rulers of parts of the 
Moslem world. Ali was assassinated A.D. 660. 

All Baba and the Forty Thieves, an oriental 
tale generally regarded as one of the f Arabian 
Nights' (q.v.), but not included in any MS. of 
these. The source from which Galland drew 
it is unknown. 

Ali Baba and Kassim were two brothers in 
a town of Persia. Ali Baba one day, while 
collecting wood in the forest, observed forty 
robbers obtain access to a cave by pro- 
nouncing the words, 'Open, Sesame !*, where 
upon a door in the rock opened. Using the 
same password he presently entered the cave, 
found it full of the robbers* treasure, and 
brought home some sacks full of gold. He 
was soon compelled to reveal his discovery to 
Kassim, who in turn went to the cave, but 
forgot the password after entering it, and was 
unable to get out. He was discovered in the 
cave by the robbers, cut in quarters, and 
hungup in the cave. AH Baba, coming to seek 
him, conveyed the body home, and in order 
to simulate a natural death, sent for an old 
cobbler to sew the quarters of the body 
together. Through this cobbler the thieves, 
determined to destroy the person who still 
knew their secret, eventually traced the house 
of AH Baba, though at first their purpose was 


defeated by the ingenuity of Morgiana, Ali 

Baba's servant, who placed chalk-marks on 
the neighbouring doors similar to that by 
which the thieves had sought to recognize her 
master's. At last the captain of the thieves 
brought his men concealed in leather oil-jars 
to the house of Ali Baba, intending to kill him 
in the night, but was again defeated by 
Morgiana, who destroyed them with boiling 
oil, and finally killed the captain himself. 

Alice, or The Mysteries, see Ernest Maltraoers* 

Alice Brand, a ballad in the 4th canto of 

Scott's 'Lady of the Lake* (q.v.), telling how 
Urgan, *a christened man', who has been 
carried off by the Elfin king and changed into 
a dwarf, is re- transformed into 'the fairest 
knight* by Alice Brand and is found to be her 
lost brother. 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, a story 

for children by Lewis Carroll (see Dodgson), 
published in 1865. 

Alice is a little girl who dreams that she 
pursues a White Rabbit down a rabbit-hole, 
and there meets with strange adventures and 
odd characters, the Duchess and the Cheshire 
Cat, the Mad Hatter and the March Hare, 
the King and Queen of Hearts, and the Mock 
Turtle. See also Through the Looking-Glass. 
Alads, see AIL 

Alifanfaron, in medieval romance, the 
pagan emperor of Taprobane (q.v.), in love 

with the daughter of Pentapolin, the Christian 
king of the Garamantes. Don Quixote (q.v.) 
takes two flocks of sheep for their opposing 
armies, and attacks what he supposes to be 
the forces of AHfanfaron. 

Alioth and Alcor, two stars in the constela- 
tion of the Great Bear. 

Alisaunder f King, the legendary story of 

Alexander the Great, a verse romance of the 
early I4th cent., some 8,000 lines in octo- 
syllabic couplets. According to the legend, 
Nectanabus, king of Egypt, had tricked 
Olympias, wife of Philip of Macedon, by 
magic and begotten Alexander. The poem 
deals with the birth and youth of Alexander, 
his succession to Philip's throne, the con- 
quest of Carthage and other cities, and his 
wars with Darius. The latter part of the 
poem relates Alexander's perils and con- 
quests in the Far East (describing the 
geography and wonders of those regions), his 
seduction by Candace, and his death by 

educated at Edinburgh University, and called 
to the Scottish bar, was a frequent contribu- 
tor to 'Biackwood's Magazine*, and the author 
of a 'History of Europe during the French 
Revolution' (1833-42), and its sequel, 
'Europe from the Fall of the First to the 
Accession of the Third Napoleon* (18527$). 
He also wrote a 'History of Scottish Criminal 
Law* (i 833-3) and an 'Autobiography* (edited 
by his daughter, in 1883). 




Alison Wilson, in Scott's 'Old Mortality' 

(q.v.), the housekeeper of Silas Morton of 


Alken, HENRY (fl. 1816-31), a famous 
draughtsman of sporting prints, some of 
which appeared in the 'Life of a Sportsman* 
and 'Memoirs of the Life of John Mytton* 
by C. J. Apperley ('Nimrod'), in ^Surtees^s 
* Analysis of the Hunting Field', and in Alken's 
'National Sports of Great Britain'. 

All Fools, a comedy by George Chapman 
(q.v.) first published in 1605, but probably 
produced in 1599- The plot is adapted from 
the Heautontimoroumenos, and some of the 
characters from the Adelpkt, of Terence. It 
deals with the fooling of Gostanzo, a dicta- 
torial and conceited father, who is made 
instrumental in promoting the love-affairs of 
his son and daughter, 

All Fools' Day, see April Fool's Day. 

All for Love, or The World well lost, an his- 
torical tragedy by Dryden (q.v.), published in 

In this, his finest play, Dryden abandoned 
the use of the rhymed couplet, and adopted 
blank verse. The plot deals with the story of 
Antony and Cleopatra, but, as ^ compared 
with Shakespeare's treatment of it, Dryden 
gains simplicity and concentration by con- 
fining his play to the last phase of Antony's 
career, when he is besieged in Alexandria, and 
to the struggle between Ventidius his general, 
Dolabella his friend, and Octavia his wife, on 
the one hand, and Cleopatra on the other, for 
the soul of Antony. The former are on the 
point of success, and a composition is to be 
made with Caesar (Octavianus, afterwards 
Augustus) involving the separation of Antony 
from Cleopatra, when Antony falls into jealous 
suspicion that Dolabella will supplant him 
in Cleopatra's affections. Meanwhile the 
forces of Caesar are pressing him hard. The 
defection of the Egyptian fleet seems the 
final blow. On a false report that Cleopatra 
has taken her life, Antony falls on his sword. 
Cleopatra finds him dying, and applies the asp 
to her arm. 

All for Love, or A Sinner well saved, a poem 
by Southey (q.v.) published in 1829. The 
story is taken from a life of St. Basil, and tells 
how a freedman, Eleemon, makes a compact 
with Satan to forgo his hope of heaven if he 
may have his master's daughter, the high- 
born Cyra, for his wife. They live happily 
married for twelve years, after which the 
compact is revealed by the ghost of Cyra's 
father. Eleemon in agony of spirit ^flies to St. 
Basil, who imposes a penance on him. When 
Satan claims the fulfilment of his compact, 
Basil meets him in argument and proves the 
bond invalid. 

All-Hallows' Day, All Saints' Day, the ist 
November. ALL-HALLOW EVE, or Hallow- 
e'en, the 3ist October, was in the old Celtic 
calendar the last night of the old year, the 


night of all the witches, the new year be- 
ginning on the ist November. Many super- 
stitious and ancient customs, such as bobbing 
for apples, attached to it. See Burns's 
'Halloween* for Scottish customs. Mary 
Avenel, in Scott's 'The Monastery' (q.v.), 
being born on AH- Hallow Eve, is supposed 
to be gifted with second sight. 

All Saints' Day, the ist November, the 
festival on which there is a general celebration 
of the saints, instituted early in the yth cent., 
when Pope Boniface IV transformed the 
heathen Pantheon at Rome into a church 
dedicated to the Christian martyrs. 

All Souls College, Oxford, was founded 
in 1437 by Archbishop Chicheley (1362?- 
1443), the friend of Henry V, to pray for the 
souls of those who fell in the wars of that 
king and of his son, Henry VI, against 
France. It is a unique foundation, consisting 
of a Warden and forty Fellows, and only 
four undergraduates, called 'Bible Clerks'. 
The college is largely devoted to the study 
of law. 

All Souls* Day, the 2nd November, the 
festival on which prayers are offered for the 
souls of all the faithful deceased. It is said 
to have been instituted at Cluny at the end 
of the loth cent. 

All the Talents Administration, formed 
after the death of Pitt, in 1806, by William, 
Lord GrenvUle, Pitt's cousin. It was saidyto 
contain 'all the talents, wisdom, and ability 
of the country*, and the term was used 
derisively by its opponents. 

All the Year Round, see Dickens. 

All >s Lost by Lust, a tragedy by W. Rowley 

(q.v.), printed in 1633. It has not since been 


This was Rowley's principal play. Accord- 
ing to the argument prefixed to it, Roderigo, 
king of Spain, deeply enamoured of Jacynta, 
daughter of Juliano his principal general, and 
urged on by Lothario, a gentleman of better 
fortunes than condition, sends Juliano to fight 
against Mulymamen, king of Barbary, and in 
his absence ravishes Jacynta. She escapes to 
her father, and he to avenge her induces 
Mulymamen to join him in ousting Roderigo 
from his kingdom. This they do, and Muly- 
mamen now demands the hand of Jacynta, 
but she scorns him. The infuriated barbarian 
and Juliano fight with one another. Muly- 
mamen snatches Jacynta before him as 
Juliano rushes to the attack, so that the fatfier 
slays his own daughter and is presently him- 
self slain by the Moor. Cf. Landor's 'Count 
Julian' and Southey's 'Roderick' (qq.v.). 

AlPs Well that Ends Well, a comedy by 
Shakespeare (q.v.),composed at an uncertain 
date, placed by some as early as about 1 595, by 
others as late as about 1604 (E. K. Chambers, 
1602-3), first printed in the folio of 1623. 

The plot is drawn from Painter's 'Palace of 
Pleasure' (No. xxxviii). Bertram, the young 



count of Rousillon, on the death of his father 
is summoned to the court of the king of 
France, leaving his mother and with her 
Helena, daughter of the famous physician 
Gerard de Narbon, The long is sick of a 
disease said to be incurable. Helena, who 
loves Bertram, conceives the project of going 
to Paris to attempt the king's cure by means 
of a prescription left by her father, and Ber- 
tram's mother, discovering Helena's love for 
her son, furthers its accomplishment. Helena 
effects the cure and as a reward is allowed to 
choose her husband, and names Bertram, 
who unwillingly obeys the king's order to 
wed her. But under the influence of the 
worthless braggart Parolles, he at once takes 
service with the duke of Florence, writing to 
Helena that until she can get the ring from his 
finger 'which never shall come off', and is 
with child by him, she may not call him hus- 
band. Helena, passing through Florence on 
a pilgrimage, finds Bertram courting Diana, 
the daughter of her hostess there. Disclosing 
herself as his wife to these, she obtains per- 
mission to replace Diana at a midnight inter- 
view with Bertram, having that day caused 
him to be informed that Helena is dead. 
Thereby she obtains from Bertram his ring, 
and gives him. one that the king had given her. 
Bertram returns to his mother's house, where 
the king is on a visit. The latter sees on 
Bertram's finger the ring that he had given 
Helena, suspects Bertram of haying destroyed 
her, and demands an explanation on pain of 
death. Helena herself now appears, explains 
what has passed, and claims that the condi- 
tions named in Bertram's letter have been 
fulfilled. Bertram, filled with remorse, accepts 
her as his wife. 

Allegory, a figurative narrative or descrip- 
tion, conveying a veiled moral meaning; an 
extended metaphor. 

Allegro t L\ a poem by Milton (q.v.), written 
in 1632. The Italian title means 'the cheerful 
man', and this idyll is an invocation to the 
goddess Mirth to allow the poet to live with 
her, first amid the delights of rustic scenes, 
then amid those of 'towered cities' and the 
'busy hum of men*. Cf, Penseroso (II). 

Allen, BENJAMIN and ARABELLA, characters 
in Dickens's 'Pickwick Papers' (q.v.). 

Allen, ETHAN (1739-89), a famous soldier in 
the American Revolution, who was born in 
Connecticut, but who removed to New 
Hampshire in 1769. His name is inseparably 
associated with the 'Green Mountain Boys' 
(q.v.), whose leader he was. At the outbreak 
of the Revolution he captured Ticonderoga 
with a small force, demanding the surrender 
of the British garrison, it is said, 'in the name 
of the great Jehovah and the Continental 
Congress', words which have become his- 
toric (though perhaps never spoken). 

ALLEN, JAMES LANE (1849- ) an 
American novelist, born in Kentucky, who 
turned to literature after an early career as a 


teacher. Among his chief works are *A 
Kentucky Cardinal' (1895), 'The Choir In- 
visible' (1897), and 'The Mettle of the Pas- 
ture* (1903). 

Allen, RALPH (1694-1764), of Prior Park, 
Bath, the correspondent of Pope, and bene- 
factor of Fielding. He was deputy post- 
master at Bath, and devised and managed a 
system of cross-posts for England and Wales 
by which he amassed a large fortune. He 
gave large sums in charity and was one of 
the models from whom Fielding drew Squire 
Allworthy in 'Tom Jones* (q.v.). 

Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame, 
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it 

(Pope, Epilogue to 'Satires', Dial. L 135-6.) 

Allen-a~Dale, one of the companions of 
Robin Hood (q.v.). He is the subject of a song 
in the 4th canto of Scott's 'Rokeby* (q.v.). 

Alleyn, EDWARD (1566-1626), an actor 
(Richard Burbage's chief rival) and partner of 
Philip Henslowe, with whom he built the 

Fortune Theatre, Cripplegate. There he 
acted at the head of the Lord Admiral's com- 
pany, playing among other parts the hero in 
Marlowe's 'Tamburlaine*, *Jew of Malta', 
and 'Faustus*. He acquired great wealth, 
bought the Manor of Dulwich, and built and 
endowed Dulwich College. His first wife 
was Henslowe's stepdaughter, his second the 
daughter of Dr. Donne. He was a patron of 
Dekker, John Taylor, and other writers, 

Alliteration, the commencement of two or 
more words in close connexion with the same 
letter or the same sound. Alliteration was the 
basis of versification in OE. poetry, and 
among modems is conspicuous in that of 

AUworth, TOM and LADY, characters in 
Massinger's *A New Way to pay Old Debts* 

AHwortfayv SQUIRE and BRIDGET, characters 
in Fielding's 'Torn Jones* (q.v.). The char- 
acter of Squire Allworthy was drawn from 
Fielding's benefactors Ralph Allen and Lord 
Lyttelton (qq.v.). 

Alma, a river in the Crimea, scene of the 
first battle in the Crimean War, 1854, *a 
which the allies under Lord Raglan and 
Marshal St. Arnaud defeated the Russians 
under Prince Menschikoff. 

Alma (in Italian meaning 'soul*, e spirit s ), in 
Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, u. DC and 3d s 
represents the virgin soul. She is the Lady 
of the House of Temperance, where she is 
visited by Prince Arthur and Sir Guyon, and 
defended against her enemies by the former. 

Alma, the title of a poem by Matthew Prior 

Alma Mater, 'bounteous motibter*, a title 
given by the Romans to several goddesses, 
especially to Ceres and Cybele, and applied 


in England to universities and schools in 
respect of their relation to their pupils. 

Almack's Assembly Rooms stood in King 
Street, St. James's, and were celebrated in the 
1 8th and early iQth cents, as the scene of 
social functions. They were founded by one 
William Aknack (d. 1781), who appears to 
have come to London as valet to the duke of 
Hamilton. Almack's was replaced as a social 
centre after 1863 by Willis's Rooms, and 
these have now been applied to other pur- 
poses. AJrnack was also founder of a gaming 
club, since converted into Brooks's (q.v.). 
Almagest (from Arabic article al and Greek 
fieyi'an?, greatest), the name applied to the 
great astronomical treatise of Ptolemy (see 
Ptolemy, Claudius), and extended in the 
Middle Ages to other great text-books of 
astrology and alchemy. 

Almansur, 'the victorious*, a title assumed 
by many Mohammedan princes, notably by 
the Amir Mohammed of Cordova (939-1002), 
an enlightened administrator, who became 
king of Andalusia in 996 and greatly ex- 
tended the Moslem power in Spain and 

Mmanzor and Almahtde, see Conquest of 

Almayer's Folly, a novel by Joseph Conrad 
(q.v.), published in 1904. 

Almeria, the heroine of Congreve's "The 
Mourning Bride* (q.v.), 

Almesbury, in the Arthurian legend, is the 
modem Amesbury in Wiltshiie. 
Alnaschar, in the 'Arabian Nights* (q.v., 
'The Barber's Fifth Brother'), a beggar who 
inherited a hundred pieces of silver, invested 
them in a basket of glassware, and then in- 
dulged in visions of the riches and grandeur 
that would come from successive trading 
ventures. These culminated in the dream 
that he had married the daughter of the chief 
Vizier, and haughtily spumed her with his 
foot, 'Thus!' whereupon he kicked the 
basket, and scattered all his wares. 

Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imagine, a 
ballad by M. G. Lewis (q.v.). 

Aloysius, ST., see Eloi. 

Alpfa, in Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan* (q.v.), 
the sacred river in Xanadu. For its connexion 
with the river AJpheus and with the Nile, see 
J. L. Lowes, "The Road to Xanadu* (1927). 

Alphonsine Tables, astronomical tables by 
Arab and Spanish astronomers, collected 
under the direction of Alphonso X of Castile, 
in 1253. Also called TOLETAN TABLES, from 
the fact that they were adapted to the city of 
Toledo. They are referred to under the latter 
name by Chaucer, 'Franklin's Tale*, 545. 

Alsatia, a cant name given to the precinct of 
Whitefriars in London, which, until its privi- 
leges were abolished in 1697, was a sanctuary 
for debtors and lawbreakers. These privi- 


leges, which were confirmed by James I in a 
charter of 1608, had their origin in the 
exemption from the ordinary jurisdiction en- 
joyed by the establishment of Carmelite friars 
that originally occupied the precinct. See 
Shadwell, 'The Squire of Alsatia*, and Scott, 
'The Fortunes of Nigel', where the turbulent 
society of Alsatia is described. The name is 
taken from Alsace, the 'debatable land* be- 
tween France and Germany. 

Altamont, a character in Rowe's 'The Fair 
Penitent* (q.v.). 

Altamont, FREDERICK, in Thackeray's 
'Memoirs of Mr. C. J. Yellowplush' (q.v.), a 
handsome young gentleman who keeps a 
tilbury and disappears during the day on 
some business in the City, which turns out to 
be sweeping a crossing. 

Altamont, COLONEL JACK, alias AMORY, 
alias ARMSTRONG, a character in Thackeray's 
'Pendennis* (q.v.). 

Althaea, in Greek mythology, see Meleager. 
Althea, see Lovelace (Richard). 

Altisidora, in 'Don Quixote* (q.v.), the 
duchess's wanton damsel, who made love to 
the don, and then accused him of stealing 
her garters. She finally admitted that she 
was like the man who searched for the mule 
on which he was riding. 

Alton Locke, Tailor arid Poet, a novel by 
C. Kingsley (q.v.), published in 1850. 

The hero, the son of a small London trades- 
man, educated by a puritanical widowed 
mother, is brought into contact with the 
misery of the working classes by being ap- 
prenticed to a sweating tailor, and becomes 
imbued with Chartist ideas. His poetical gift 
leads to his being befriended first by a 
humorous old Scotch bookseller, Saunders 
Mackaye, and then by a benevolent dean, his 
beautiful daughter Lillian (with whom he 
falls hopelessly in love), and her cousin 
Eleanor Staunton. Under their influence he 
momentarily consents to the emasculation of 
his revolutionary poems before publication, a 
weakness that he bitterly regrets. Roused by 
the taunts of his Chartist comrades, he under- 
takes a mission that involves him in a riot, 
and is sentenced to three years* imprisonment. 
On emerging from this he learns that Lillian 
is engaged to his prosperous time-serving 
cousin, falls ill of typhus, is nursed by 
Eleanor and brought by her to a saner under- 
standing of the grievances of the poor and of 
the teaching of Christianity. He emigrates 
to America and dies on the voyage. 

Altruria, a Utopian land created by William 
Dean Howells (q.v.) in 'A Traveller from 
Altruria*, published in 1894. 

Amadzs of Gaul (Amadis de Gaula), a 
Spanish or Portuguese romance, written in 
the form in which we have it by Garcia de 
Montalvo in the second half of the 1 5th and 
printed early in the i6th cents., but taken 



from 'ancient originals*, now lost, perhaps by 
Joham de Lobeira (1261-1325), or by Vasco 
de Lobeira (d. 1403), the materials of the 
story being of French source. Many continua- 
tions were written relating to the son and 
nephew of Amadis, Esplandian and Flori- 

Perion, king of Gaul (Wales ?), falls in love 
with Elisena, daughter of Garinter, king of 
Lesser Britain; their child Amadis is placed 
in an ark on the river, and until his identity is 
revealed, is known as the Child of the Sea*. 
He becomes the flower of chivalry and 
achieves wonderful feats of arms. He loves 
Oriaria, daughter of Lisuarte, king of Great 
Britain, who is sought in marriage by the 
emperor of Rome and granted to him by her 
father, but rescued by Amadis. Whence 
arises a great conflict. The emperor arrives 
with his fleet, but is defeated and killed. 
Amadis then comes to the succour of Lisuarte, 
reconciliation follows, and all ends happily. 

The romance was translated into French 
by Herberay des Essarts in 1540, and an 
abridged version of it was published (1803) 
by R. Southey (q.v). 'Amadis of Gaul' and 
'Palmerin of England* were the two works 
specially excepted from the holocaust of 
romances of chivalry carried out by the 
curate and the barber in 'Don Quixote* ( 

Amadis of Greece, a Spanish continuation of 
the seventh book of 'Amadis of GauF (q.v.), 
of which Lisuarte of Greece, the grandson of 
Amadis, is the hero . The work is probably by 
Feliciano de Silva (i6th cent.). 
Amaimon, a devil of medieval demonology. 

Amalthea, the nymph who nursed the in- 
fant Zeus (q.v.) in Crete. According to the 
legend, she fed him with the milk of a goat. 
It was a horn of this goat that Zeus endowed 
with, the power of producing whatever the 
possessor wished, and gave to Amalthea and 
her sisters. This horn of Amalthea was the 
'horn of plenty* or cornucopia, the symbol of 
abundance. It is also called the 'Ammonian 
Horn*, from the identification of Zeus with 
Ammon. In another version Amalthea was 
the name of the goat. 

Amara, MT., a place in Abyssinia, where the 
kings of that country secluded their sons, to 
protect themselves from sedition (Milton, 
'Paradise Lost*, iv. 28). It figures as < Amhara' 
in Johnson's 'Rasselas* (q.v.). 
Amarant, a giant slain by Sir Guy of 
Warwick on his way to the Holy Land, the 
subject of a ballad in Percy's 'Reliques', 
which is part of a longer poem by Samuel 
Rowlands (1649). 

Amaryllis, the name given to a shepherdess 
by Theocritus, Virgil, and Ovid. Spenser, in 
his 'Colin Clouts come home againe', uses the 
name to signify Alice, one of the daughters of 
Sir John Spencer of Althorpe. She became 
the countess of Derby for whom Milton wrote 
his 'Arcades* (q.v.). 
Amasis, see Poly crates. 


Amaurote* the capital of Sir Thomas 
More's 'Utopia* (q.v.), Rabelais (n. radii) 
uses the name 'Amaurotes* for an imaginary 
people invaded by the Dipsodes. 

Amazing Marriage, The % a novel by G. Mere- 
dith (q.v.), published in 1895. 

Carinthia Jane and her brother Chilian are 
children of old Captain John Peter Kirby, the 
'Old Buccaneer*, who carried off the countess 
of Cresset under her husband's nose, and 
married her when the earl conveniently died 
a fortnight later. On the old buccaneer's 
death they are left not far from destitute, and 
at the mercy of a miserly old uncle, Lord 
Levellier. Carinthia is a fine elemental 
creature, a 'beautiful Gorgon*, brought up in 
the wilds of the Austrian mountains. Lord 
Fleetwood, spoilt by his immense wealth and 
parasitical companions, tyrannical and im- 
pulsive, proposes to her in the course of a 
quadrille the first day he sees her, and is 
accepted by the artless girl. He soon repents 
of his mad freak, and trusts that the girl has 
done the same. But he is held to his engage- 
ment by Lord Levellier, anxious to be rid of 
the charge of his niece. Fleetwood, priding 
himself on being a man of his word, consents 
to many her, meets her at the church door t 
drives her straight to a prize-fight, which he 
forces her to witness, leaves her indefinitely 
at an inn, and goes on with his ordinary 
avocations, refusing to see her and treating 
her with every circumstance of insult, in order 
to punish her for forcing his hand. The birth 
of her child only increases his resentment. 
Circumstances have brought her for refuge 
to the home in Whitechapel of the Woodseexs, 
the father a minister among the poor, the son 
Gower Woodseer (drawn perhaps from R. L. 
Stevenson), a penniless philosopher, with 
flashes of wit and a 'broad playfulness*. 
While walking in the Alps he has met 
Carinthia and Fleetwood, has become the 
devoted admirer of the first and friend of the 
second, and now strives to bring about a 
change of heart in Fleetwood. This comes at 
last, with the discovery of what a treasure he 
has lost. For Carinthia's heart has changed 
likewise, and when Fleetwood belatedly does 
penance and comes to woo his wife, he finds 
that she is no longer to be won. She accom- 
panies her brother, as an army nurse, to an 
insurrectionary war in Spain, leaving Fleet- 
wood to turn Roman Catholic monk and die 
of his austerities. 
Amazon, RIVER, see Orellana* 
Amazons, a race of female warriors sieged 
by Herodotus to exist in Scythia. They figure 
also in mythology in the legends of Hercules, 
Theseus (qq.v.), &c. 

The word is explained by the Greeks from 
a privative and polos a breast (in connexion 
with the fable that they destroyed the right 
breast so as not to interfere with the use of the 
bow), but this is probably the popular 
etymology of an unknown foreign word, 


Ambassadors, The, a novel by H. James 
(q.v,), published in 1903. 

This is one of the novels in which, with 
much humour and delicacy of perception, the 
author depicts the reaction of different 
American types to the European environ- 
ment. Chadwick Newsome, a young man of 
independent fortune, the son of Mrs. New- 
some of Woollett, Mass., a widow of over- 
powering virtue and perfection, has been 
living in Paris and is reported to have^got 
entangled with a wicked woman. Mrs. New- 
some has decided to send out an ambassador 
to rescue Chad and bring him home. This 
ambassador is the elderly, amiable, guileless 
Strether, dependent on Mrs. Newsome, for 
whom he entertains prodigious respect and to 
whom he has allowed himself to become 
engaged. The story describes Strether's 
evolution in the congenial atmosphere of 
Paris, his desertion to the side of Chad and 
the bewitching comtesse de Vionnet (he is 
convinced that the relation between them 
is virtuous), and his own mild flirtation 
with the pleasant cosmopolitan Maria 
Gostrey. Meanwhile his attitude and the 
disquieting report of Waymarsh, Strether's 
stolid and conscientious American friend, 
have caused dismay at Woollett, and Mrs. 
Newsome sends out a fresh ambassador in 
the person of her daughter, the coldly glit- 
tering Sarah Pocock. The attempts to bam- 
boozle Sarah utterly fail, and she presents her 
ultimatum immediate return to America 
to the delinquents Chad and Strether. Chad, 
exhorted by Strether, refuses to abandon 
the lady ; and poor Mr. Strether is accordingly 
notified that all is over between him and 
Mrs. Newsome. Then, and then only^ an 
accident throws Strether unexpectedly into 
the company of Chad and Mme de Vionnet in 
circumstances which leave no doubt as to the 
nature of their real relations. Sadly dis- 
illusioned, but still insisting on the necessity 
of Chad's loyalty to Mme de Vionnet, Strether 
from a sense of duty turns his back on Paris. 

Amber Witch, Mary Schweidler, The, a novel 
by Meinhold (q.v.), published in 1843 and 
translated from the German by Lady Duff 

It is a story, remarkable for its simplicity 
and realism, told by a pastor of the island of 
Usedom, of the time of the Thirty Years 
War, of the fearful sufferings of the people, 
and of their belief in witchcraft. Mary 
Schweidler, the amiable daughter of the 
pastor, has the misfortune to attract the 
attention of the unscrupulous sheriff of the 
district, who, unable to obtain possession of 
her otherwise, causes her to be suspected of 
witchcraft, arrested, and subjected to a cruel 
trial, without being able to bend her to his 
will. At last, on the way to the stake, the girl 
is rescued by a sensible young nobleman 
who disbelieves in witchcraft, the sheriff 
meets a fearful death, and all ends well. 

Ambree, MARY, a legendary English heroine, 


supposed to have taken part in the siege of 
Ghent in 1584, when that town was held by 
the Spaniards. A ballad about her is included 
in Percy's 'Reliques', and she is referred to by 
Ben Jonson ('Epiccene', iv. ii ; 'Tale of a Tub*, 
i. iv, and "Fortunate Isles') and other Eliza- 
bethan dramatists. 

Ambrose, FATHER, in Scott's 'The Abbot* 
(q.v.), Edward GlencHnning, abbot of Kenna- 

AMBROSE, ST.( c. 340-9?), bornat Treves, 
was a celebrated bishop of Milan (elected 
against his wiU by the people when still a 
catechumen), one of the Fathers of the Church, 
and a vigorous opponent of the Arians. He 
developed the use of music in the services of 
the church, restoring its ancient melodies 
and founding what is known as the Ambrosian 
chant(as opposed to the Gregorian chant intro- 
duced two centuries later by Pope Gregory 
the Great). He composed several ^ hymns, 
including, according to one tradition, the 
'Te Deum'. 

Ambrose Lamela, see Don Raphael 
Ambrose's Tavern, the supposed scene of 
the 'Noctes Ambrosianae' (q.v.). 'The Street 
or Lane in which Ambrose's Tavern is 
situated derives its name of Gabriel's Road 
from a horrible murder which was com- 
mitted there' (Lockhart, 'Peter's Letters to 
his Kinsfolk', 1819, vol. ii, p. 197)- "This 
locality, which still bears the name by which 
it was so bloodily baptised, is situated in the 
vicinity of West Register Street, at the back of 
the east end of Princes Street, and close to 
the Register Office. . . . But a too literal 
interpretation is not to be given to the scene 
of these festivities. Ambrose's Hotel was 
indeed "a local habitation and a name", and 
many were the meetings which Professor 
Wilson and his friends had within its walls. 
But the true Ambrose must be looked for only 
in the realms of the imagination the verit- 
able scene of the "Ambrosian Nights" existed 
nowhere but in their author's brain, and their 
flashing fire was struck out in solitude by 
genius independent of the stimulus of com- 
panionship' (Preface to Professor Ferrier's 
edition of John Wilson's 'Works'). 
Ambrosian Library, THE, at Milan, 
founded in 1609, was originally the private 
library of Cardinal Borromeo (1564-1631), 
archbishop of Milan, and was bequeathed by 
him to public uses. It was named after St. 
Ambrose, bishop of Milan. 
Ambrosio, the hero of M. G. Lewis's 'The 
Monk' (q.v.). 

Amelia, the heroine of the episode of 
Celadon and Amelia in the book on 'Summer* 
of Thomson's 'The Seasons* (q.v.). 
Amelia, a novel by H. Fielding (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1751. 

This is the last of Fielding's novels and the 
story is less successfully told than that of 
'Tom Jones*. A good deal of the book is 



devoted to exposing various social evils of the 
time, such as the defects in the law of debt, 
and the scandals of the sponging-houses and 
prisons. William Booth, a penniless young 
officer, with little to recommend him beyond 
a good person and physical courage, has run 
away with the virtuous Amelia, against her 
mother's wishes. The poverty of the couple, 
Booth's folly and wealmess of character, and 
the beauty of his wife, involve the couple in the 
series of misfortunes with which the story is 
occupied. Booth himself succumbs to the 
charms of Miss Matthews, whom he meets in 
prison, but his infidelity, when it subse- 
quently comes to the knowledge of Amelia, is 
generously forgiven. Amelia becomes the 
object of the illicit pursuits of various un- 
scrupulous admirers. The couple are re- 
duced to the utmost misery, and the long- 
suffering devotion of Amelia is prolonged, 
until the situation is saved by the discovery 
that the will by which her sister inherited her 
mother's property is forged and Amelia is the 
true heiress. Among the pleasant features of 
the book are some of the minor characters, the 
faithful Sergeant Atkinson; the benevolent 
Dr. Harrison, a sort of second Squire All- 
worthy; the pair of Colonels, James the un- 
principled, and Bath, whose bravery is only 
equalled by his punctiliousness; and the 
admirably drawn women, Mrs. Atkinson and 
Miss Matthews. 

American, The, a novel by H. James (q.v.), 
published in 1877. 

American Democrat, The, or Hints on the 
Social and Civic Relations of the United 
States of America, by James Fenimore 
Cooper (q.v.), published in 1838. In this 
vigorous work Cooper examined and set 
forth, to the offence of his countrymen, the 
defects and dangers of democracy as it 
flourished in America. 

American Fabius, THE, a name bestowed 
on George Washington because his tactics re- 
sembled those of Fabius Maximus (q.v.). 

American Taxation, On, a speech by E. 
Burke (q.v.), made in 1774 on a motion for 
the repeal of the American Tea Duty. 

After dealing with the narrower arguments 
as to the expediency of the proposal, Burke 
turns to a broad historical view of the subject, 
going back to the Navigation Act and ex- 
plaining the course of British policy. He 
shows that the Tea Duty is at variance with 
the declarations of ministers and an 'exhaust- 
less source of jealousy and animosity* without 
practical benefit. He exhorts the Govern- 
ment to abandon it. 'Do not burden the 
Americans with taxes. You were not used to 
do so from the beginning. Let this be your 
reason for not taxing. These are the argu- 
ments of states and kingdoms. Leave the rest 
to the schools/ 

Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512), a Floren- 
tine merchant who settled at Seville and sailed 


in 1499 in an expedition, to the West under 
Ojeda, and again in 1501 in the service of the 
king of Portugal. In the summary account of 
his travels addressed in 1504 to Duke Ren 
of Lorraine, which appeared in a book pub- 
lished in 1507 at St. Diez in Lorraine, he 
claimed to have made a voyage in 1497 in 
which he discovered 'Terra F'iraia*, the main- 
land of S. America. His name was given to 
the continent of America in virtue of this 
claim, which is not substantiated by evidence. 
The matter is discussed at length in an ap- 
pendix to Washington Irving's 'Life of 

Amhara, see Amara. 

Amfaaric, the principal language spoken 
in Abyssinia. It is partly Semitic, partly 
Hamitic, in origin. 

Amiatinus Codex, the best extant MS. of 
the Vulgate, so called from the abbey of 
Monte Amiata, to which it was presented. 
It was discovered in the igth cent, to have 
been written in England, early in the 8th cent,, 
at Weaimouth or Jarrow. It was probably 
copied from an Italian original. It is now in 
the Laurentian Library at Florence, 

Amidas, in Spenser's "Faerie Queene*, V. iv, 
the brother of Bracidas. Their dispute over 
their inheritance is solved by Sir ArtegalL 

AMIEL, HENRI-FRfiDERIC (1828-81), 
Swiss author. His * Journal intime*, originally 
published in 2 volumes in 1883, was trans- 
lated by Mrs. Humphry Ward and published 
in America in 1885. 

Amiens, THE TREATY OF, concluded in 1802 
between the British and French governments. 
Great Britain abandoned her recent con- 
quests with the exception of Ceylon and 
Trinidad, while France retained her con- 
quests in Europe. War was renewed in 

Amintor, the hero of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's 'The Maid's Tragedy' (q.v.). 
Amis and Amiloun t a metrical romance pf the 

Middle English period, in which the virtue of 
friendship is exalted. It is adapted from the 
French z 3th- cent, romance, *LI amitiez di 
Ami et Amiie*. 

Amis and Amiloun, two noble foster- 
brothers, are bound in close friendship. 
Amiloun takes the place of Amis in a trial by 
combat, for which piece of guileful devotion 
he is punished with leprosy. Amis, discover- 
ing his friend in this grievous plight, at the 
bidding of Raphael sacrifices his own children 
in order to cure the leprosy. But the gods do 
not allow the sacrifice to be realized. Amis 
and his wife Belisante go to see the dead 
bodies of their children and find them only 
sleeping. This noble and pathetic tale finds a 
place in one of Pater's * Studies in the History 
of the Renaissance 1 , and has been told in 
prose by W. Morris; both use the form 
*Amis and Amile*. 



Amlet, MRS. and DICK, characters in Van- 
brugh's *The Confederacy' (q.v.). 
Ammon, or more correctly AMON or AMUN, 
the supreme god of the Egyptians in the 
Theban religion. His worship spread to 
Greece, where he was Identified with Zeus, 
and to Rome, where he was known as Jupiter 
Ammon, His oracle in Africa became famous 
after Alexander the Great had visited it. 
Amraonian Horn, see Amaltkea. 
Ainon, see Ammon. 

Amontillado, a dry Sherry (q.v.) wine, of a 
peculiar flavour, made by a special process 
and in small quantity. 'The Cask of Amontil- 
lado* is the title of a story by Poe (q.v.). 
Amoret, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', in. 
vi and xii, and iv. vii, daughter of the nymph 
Chrysogone and twin sister of Belphoebe. 
She is *bf grace and beauty noble Paragon', 
and has been married to Sir Scudamour, but 
carried off immediately after by the enchanter 
Busirane and imprisoned by him until re- 
leased by Britomart. Timias (q.v.) loves her, 
but being reproved by Beiphoebe leaves her. 
This incident refers to the displeasure of 
Queen Elizabeth at the relations of Sir W. 
Ralegh (q.v.) with Elizabeth Throgmorton. 

Amoretti, a series of eighty-eight sonnets by 
Spenser (q.v.), which have been thought to 
illustrate the course of his wooing of Elizabeth 
Boyle, the lady whom he married. These 
were printed with the 'Epithalamion* (q.v.) 
in 1595- 

Amory, BLANCHE, a character in Thackeray's 
Tendennis' (q.v.). 

AMORY, THOMAS (1691 ?-i?88), a writer 
of Irish descent, the author of two eccentric 
works of fiction, 'Memoirs of several Ladies 
of Great Britain*, published in 1755, and 
'The Life of John Buncle, Esq.*, published in 
175666. Eighteen imaginary ladies were to 
foe the subjects of the 'Memoirs', but the 
author confines himself to one, Mrs. Marinda 
Benlow, adding disquisitions on a great many 
miscellaneous subjects, among others, the 
doctrines of Athanasius. 'John Buncle' (q.v.) 
is virtually a sequel of the 'Memoirs*, but is a 
good deal more entertaining. Amory was an 
ardent Unitarian, and a student of medicine, 
geology, and antiquities, and in his rambling 
narratives and digressions he gives a mass 
of information on these subjects. 

Amos Barton, The Sad Fortunes of the Rev., 
see Scenes of Clerical Life. 
Amphibology, AMPHIBOLY, a sentence that 
may be construed in two distinct senses; 
ambiguity arising from the uncertain con- 
struction of a sentence. 

Amphibrach, a foot consisting of a long 
between two short syllables. 

Ampnion, son of Zeus and Antiope. Hermes 
gave him a lyre on which he played with such 
skill that when he and his brother Zethus 


were fortifying Thebes the stones moved of 
their own accord and formed a wall. See 
also Antiope. 

Ampfoisfoaena (from the Greek dfi&Cs, both 
ways, jSeuWcv, to go), a fabulous serpent with 
a head at each end and able to move in either 

Amphitryon, a Theban prince, who ob- 
tained the promise of the hand of Alcmena, 
daughter of Eiectryon, king of Mycenae, on 
condition that he should avenge the death of 
that king's sons, who had been killed by the 
Teleboans. Zeus, captivated with the charms 
of Alcmena, borrowed the features of Am- 
phitryon while he was gone to the war, and 
introduced himself to her as her victorious 
husband. The son of Zeus and Alcmena was 
Hercules. This legend is the subject of plays 
by Plautus, Moliere, and Dryden (see below). 
Amphitryon's connexion with gastronomy 
arises from a line in the play of Moliere. The 
servant of Amphitryon, perplexed by the re- 
semblance of the two who claim to be his 
master, hears Jupiter invite some friends to 
dinner, and is thereby convinced that he 
is the genuine Amphitryon c Le veritable 
Amphitryon est TAmphitryon ou Ton dine'. 

Amphitryon* a comedy by Dryden (q.v.), 
published in 1690. 

The play is adapted from the comedies of 
Plautus and Moliere on the subject of Amphi- 
tryon (see above), who, expecting to arrive at 
home on the morrow from a successful cam- 
paign, sends his slave Sosia in advance to 
announce his return to his wife, Alcmena. 
Jupiter, in order to enjoy the favours of 
Alcmena, assumes the form of Amphitryon, 
and forestalls her husband ; at the same time 
ordering Mercury to take the form of Sosia, 
and keep out the true Sosia. ^The comedy, 
which is of a somewhat licentious character, 
consists in the complications arising from the 
successive arrival at Amphitryon's palace of 
two indistinguishable Arnphitryons, and two 
indistinguishable Sosias, and the final con- 
frontation of the two Arnphitryons. 

Amram, the father of Moses (Exod. vi. 20). 
There is a reference to 'Amram's son* in 
Milton, 'Paradise Lost*, i. 339. 

Amrita, a Sanskrit word meaning 'immortal*; 
in Hindu mythology, the water of life or 
ambrosia, procured by the gods by churning 
the ocean. 

Amundeville, LORD HENRY, a character in 
Byron's 'Don Juan' (q.v.), whose house is the 
scene of part of the last three cantos. 

Amurath (Murad), the name of several 
Turkish Sultans in the i4th-i6th cents. *Not 
Amurath an Amurath succeeds, But Harry 
Harry*; Shakespeare, '2 Henry IV, v. ii. 

Amyas, in Spenser's *Faerie Queene*, 'the 
Squire of low degree'. See Poeana. 

Amyas Leigh, the hero of C. Kingsley's 
'Westward Hoi* (q.v.). 


Amymone, one of the daughters of Danaus 
(see Danaides). Mentioned by Milton, 
'Paradise Regained', ii. 188, as a * beauty rare'. 

Amyntas, in Spenser's 'Colin Clouts come 
home againe*, is Thomas Watson (q.v.). 

AMYOT, JACQUES (1513-93), a French 
writer, whose version of Plutarch was trans- 
lated into English by Sir T. North (q.v.). 

Amys and Amylion, see Amis and Amiloun. 

Anabaptist, one who baptizes over again, as 
the due performance of a rite ineffectually 
performed in infancy; the name of a sect that 
arose in Germany in 1531. There was a re- 
volt of Anabaptists in 1534 at Minister, under 
John of Leyden, who founded a theocracy, 
and "was executed in 1536. The name is 
applied (more or less opprobriouslyj to the 
Protestant religious body of the Baptists. 

Anabasis see Xenophon. 

Anacharsis, a Scythian who went to Athens 
about 594 B.C., made the acquaintance of 
Solon, and became famous for his wisdom, in 
contrast to the stupidity and ignorance of his 
fellow countrymen. 

AnacharsiSt Le Voyage dujeune, an historical 
romance by the Abbe* Jean- Jacques Barthe- 
lemy (1716-93), descriptive of Greece in the 
time of Pericles. It was published in 1788 
and enjoyed a long popularity. 

Anacharsis Clootz, see Clootz. 

Anacoluthon, Greek, 'wanting sequence'; a 
sentence in which a fresh construction is 
adopted before the former is complete. 

ANACREON (c. 563-478 B.C.), a famous 
lyric poet of Teos in Ionia, author of many 
melodious verses on love and wine. He lived 
chiefly at Samos, but went to Athens at the 
invitation of the tyrant Hipparchus. He is 
said to have died choked by a grape-stone. 
Of his poems only a few genuine fragments 
have survived, many songs that bear his name 
being by other authors. T. Moore (q.v.) 
published in 1800 a translation of the 'Odes 
of Anacreon" into English verse. Byron calls 
Moore 'Anacreon Moore*. 
Anacrusis, 'striking up% an additional 
syllable at the beginning of a verse before the 
normal rhythm, e.g. the 'and* in the second 
of the following lines : 

Till danger's troubled night depart 
And the star of peace return. 
Anady5 f mne, see Venus. 

Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, 
to the Constitution and Course of Nature ; The, 
a treatise in defence of the Christian religion, 
by J. Butler (q.v.), published in 1736.^ 

The treatise is directed against the views of 
the Deists, which were very prevalent at that 
time. The author takes as starting-point the 
assumption, which was common ground to 
him and his adversaries, 'that there is an in- 
telligent Author of Nature, and natural 
Governor of the world'. Proceeding from 


that part of the Divine government over 
intelligent creatures which comes under our 
view, to the larger and more genera! govern- 
ment which is beyond it, and comparing the 
acknowledged dispensations of Providence 
with what religion teaches us to believe and 
expect, he finds that the two are analogous 
and of a piece, and that the latter must 
reasonably therefore be accepted. On these 
lines the author discusses the credibility of a 
future life, of miracles, of revelations, and 
other religious doctrines. 
Ananias, (i) the Jewish high-priest before 
whom Paul was brought and who caused him 
to be smitten on the mouth (Acts zziii); (2) 
the husband of Sapphira who was struck dead 
because he lied unto God* (Acts v); (3) a 
character in Jensen's 'The Alchemist* (q.v.). 
Anapaest, Greek, 'reversed*; a reversed 
dactyl, a metrical foot composed of two short 
followed by a long syllable. 

Anaphora, * carrying back", the repetition of 
the same word or phrase in several successive 
clauses; for instance, 'Awake up, my glory; 
awake, lute and harp; I myself will awake 
right early.* 

Anarchiad, The, a verse satire produced in 
America during the Revolutionary period. 
It was inspired by the conflict with England 
and the subsequent internal fight between 
American Whigs and Tories. Four of the 
'Hartford Wits* (q.v.) Joel Barlow, John 
Trumbull, David Humphreys, and Lemuel 
Hopkins collaborated in writing it. 

Anarchifj The Masque of, a poem by P. B. 
Shelley (q.v.), 'written on the occasion of the 
Massacre of Manchester* (the Peterloo affair, 
August 1819). 

AnasfasiuSt a picaresque novel by Hope 
(q.v.), published in 1819. 

The story, told in the form of an auto~ 
biography, is that of a Greek of Chios, a man 
of courage and ability, but utterly unscrupu- 
lous, who lived in the latter part of the iSth 
cent. It takes the reader to Greece, where the 
hero rights with prowess against the rebellious 
Albanians ; to Constantinople, where he lives 
by his wits, and turns Moslem to escape the 
consequences of detection in an amour with 
a Turkish lady; to Egypt, where he enters the 
service of the Mamelukes and rises tem- 
porarily to a position of some eminence; to 
Smyrna, where he behaves atrociously to an 
amiable and trustful young lady; and to 
Arabia, where he lives for a time among the 
Wahabis. Notwithstanding the great variety 
of the adventures recounted and of the places 
whose oriental customs are depicted, the 
book, which is very long, is monotonous. It 
enjoyed, however, considerable popularity. 

Anatomfe of Abuses, The, see Stubbes. 
Anatomy of Melancholy t The, a treatise by 

Robert Burton (q.v.), published WL 162,1. 

In purpose the treatise is a medical work. 
The introduction sets out that melancholy is 



'an inbred malady in every one of us*. Part i 
deals with the definition, causes, symptoms, 
and properties of melancholy ; part ii, with its 
cure; part iii, with the melancholy of love, 
and the melancholy of religion. But the 
subject is expanded until it covers the 
whole life of man; and social and political 
reform, as well as bodily and mental health, 
are brought within its purview. The treat- 
ment is marked by a sense of humour and 
pathos, and a tolerant spirit in religion. In 
the exposition and illustration of his argu- 
ment, Burton uses quotation (or paraphrase) 
to an extreme degree, drawing on a very wide 
field of literature, from the Bible and the 
fathers, through Greek and Latin classics, to 
the Elizabethan writers. His book thus be- 
comes a store-house of the most miscellaneous 
learning, and is apt to be regarded in that 
light rather than as a medical treatise. 

Ancaeus, the steersman of the ship 'Argo* 
(see Argonauts)^ who is said to be the occasion 
of a well-known proverb. He had been told 
by a seer that he should not live to taste the 
wine of his vineyard. A cup of his own wine 
being set before him, he laughed at the seer, 
who replied, TroAAd fj,rav TrcAet KvXiKos KQJ, 
XetAeo? aKpov, 'There *s many a slip between 
the cup and the lip*. At that moment Ancaeus 
was told that a wild boar was near. He went 
out to pursue it and was killed. 

Anchlses, a Trojan prince, who enjoyed the 
favour of Venus, and became by her father of 
Aeneas (q.v.). 

Ancien Regime ', a French expression signi- 
fying the old order of things before the 
French Revolution. 

Ancient Mariner, The Rime of the, a poem by 
S. T. Coleridge (q.v.), which first appeared 
in 1798 in Wordsworth's and Coleridge's 
'Lyrical Ballads* (q.v.), and subsequently in 
the latter's 'Sibylline Leaves', published in 

AJI ancient mariner meets three gallants 
on their way to a marriage feast and detains 
one to recount his story. He tells how his ship 
was drawn towards the South Pole by a 
storm. When the ship is surrounded by ice, 
an albatross comes through the snow-fog and 
is received with joy and hospitality, but is 
presently shot by the mariner. For this act 
of cruelty a curse falls on the ship. She is 
driven north to the Line, and becalmed. The 
crew die of thirst except the mariner, who 
by the light of the moon beholding God's 
creatures of the great calm and their beauty, 
blesses them in his heart. The spell breaks 
and the ship is brought back to England, but 
the mariner for penance is condemned ever 
to travel from land to land and to teach by his 
example love and reverence to all God's 
creatures. J. L. Lowes, in his 'The Road to 
Xanadu*, traces the process by which Cole- 
ridge built up the poem from various sources. 

Ancient of Days, a scriptural title of God; 
Dan. vii. 9. 


Ancients and Moderns, Quarrel of the, see 
Battle of the Books. 

Ancrene Riwle, or^ Ancrene Wisse, The, a 
devotional manual in prose written for the 
rule and guidance of certain English nuns. 
The author is unknown. Besides the Middle 
English copies, which vary considerably, 
there are French and Latin versions. The 
work, which is animated by a 'lofty morality 
and infinite tenderness* (C.H.E.L.), belongs to 
the early Middle English period (c. 1200-50). 

75), Danish poet and author of dramas, novels, 
and books of travel, is chiefly known in Eng- 
land for his series of fairy tales, of which the 
first volume appeared in 1 835. They were first 
translated into English by Mary Howitt(i846), 
and by Caroline Peachey in the same year. 

American writer, born in Ohio. His chief 
works are: 'Marching Men* (1917), 'The 
Triumph of the Egg* (1921), 'A Story-teller's 
Story' (1924), 'Dark Laughter* (1925), 'Hello 
Towns* (1929). Anderson is considered as the 
doyen of the modem American school of 
story writers. 

Andouillets, ABBESS OF, the subject of an 
episode in vol. vii of Sterne's 'Tristram 
Shandy* (q.v.). 

Andr6, MAJOR JOHN (1751-80), an officer 
in the British army who during the American 
War of Independence was entrusted with 
secret negotiations with Benedict Arnold, an 
American general, for the betrayal by the 
latter of the forts on the Hudson River. 
Andr was captured within the American 
lines and hanged as a spy. A monument was 
erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey. 

Andrea del Sartp, a poem by R. Browning 
(q.v.), included in 'Men and Women*, pub- 
lished in 1855. 

Andrea del Sarto (see Sarto) was called 'The 
FaultlessPamter'.Thepoetpresents him as re- 
flecting, inamonologue addressed to Lucrezia, 
his wife, on his deficiencies: his inferiority in 
inspiration to Raphael ; his faithlessness to his 
patron Francis I ; his neglect of his parents ; 
his weak devotion to Lucrezia, who is, in fact, 
unworthy. But he is peaceful and resigned. 
Perhaps in the New Jerusalem there will be 
four walls to be decorated, by Leonardo, 
Raphael, Michelangelo, and himself. 

Andrea Ferrara, a celebrated maker of 
swords, probably a Venetian, of the i6th cent. 
The name came to be frequently used to 
signify a broadsword. According to the 
author's notes on 'Waverley* (q.v.), it is 
generally believed that Andrea Ferrara was 
brought over by James IV or V to instruct 
the Scots in the manufacture of sword-blades. 

Andrea of Hungary, Giovanna of Naples, 
and Fra "Rupert, three plays forming a 
trilogy, by W. S. Landor (q.v.), published in 
These plays deal with the marriage of 



Andrea, brother of King Lewis of Hungary, to 
Giovanna, queen of Naples, in the i4th cent.; 
his assassination at his wedding-feast owing 
to the intrigues of the Hungarian monk Fra 
Rupert ; the accusation brought against Gio- 
vanna of causing her husband's murder; the 
attempts, finally successful, to oust her from 
her throne; and the exposure at the last of 
Fra Rupert. 

Andreas, an OE. poem attributed by some to 
Cynewulf (q.v.), included in the 'Vercelli 
Book* (q.v.). It recounts a mission of St. 
Andrew to the Mermedonians, Ethiopian 
savages, among whom St. Matthew was in 
danger. It is remarkable for its description of 
a sea voyage. 

Andre" e, SALOMON AUGUST (1854-97), the 
Arctic explorer, bom at Grenna in Sweden, 
and educated as an engineer. With Nils 
Strindberg and Knut Fraenkel, he attempted 
in 1897 to cross the North Polar regions in a 
balloon. They started on 1 1 July from Danes 
Island, Spitsbergen, but their balloon was 
driven down in 83 N. lat. Their remains, 
diaries, &c., were accidentally found on 
White Island^ off the NE. coast of Spits- 
bergen by a Norwegian expedition in August 

ANDREW OF WYNTOUN, see Wyntoun. 

ANDREWES, LANCELOT (1555-1626), 
educated at Merchant Taylors* and Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, became bishop suc- 
cessively of Chichester, Ely, and Winchester 
(1619). He was renowned for his patristic 
learning, wrote theological works, and was 
first on the list of the divines appointed to 
make the 'authorized version* of the Bible. 

Androcles, or Androclus, and the Lion, a 
story told by Aulus Geliius (v. 14) of a slave 
who, running away from a cruel master and 
concealing himself in a cave in Africa, was 
confronted by a lion. The animal presented 
to him a swollen paw, from which he ex- 
tracted a thorn. Androcles was subsequently 
captured and sentenced to fight with a lion in 
the arena. It chanced that this lion was the 
same that he had relieved. The lion recog- 
nized its benefactor and instead of attacking 
him, showed every sign of affection and 
gratitude. Bernard Shaw wrote a play 
'Androcles and the Lion* (1912). 

AndrS'mScne, the wife of Hector (q.v.) and 
mother of Astyanax, Her parting with Hec- 
tor before a battle is the most pathetic passage 
inHomerVIliad'(BookVI). After the capture 
of Troy she fell to the share of Neoptolemus, 
and was given by him to Helenus (q.v.), a 
brother of Hector. Aeneas met with her in 
Epirus ('Aeneid*, iii). 

AndrSme'da, a daughter of Cepheus, king of 
Ethiopia, and Cassiopea. Cassiopea boasted 
herself (or her daughter) more beautiful than 
the Nereids. Whereupon Poseidon in anger 
sent a sea-monster to ravage the country. 
To abate his wrath, Andromeda was exposed 


on a rock to the monster, but was rescued by 
Perseus (q.v.), who, returning through the 
air from the conquest of the Gorgons, 
changed the monster to a rock by showing it 
the Medusa's head. Charles Kingsley (q.v.) 
wrote a poem on this myth,, entitled 'Andro- 

Andronicus Comnenius f see Wilson (J., 1627- 

Andvari, in Scandinavian mythology, a 
dwarf who was forced by Loki to give up his 
treasure and the magic ring with which he 
could make gold (known in German romance 
as the Ring of the Nibelungs). It passed into 
the possession of Fafair, was taken from him 
by Sigurd, and by Sigurd given to Brynhild. 

Aneirin, The Book of, see Aneurin, 

Anelida and Arcite, a poem in rhyme-royal 
by Chaucer (q.v.), belonging to his early 
period. It is the lament of Queen Anelida 
for the falseness of Arcite her lover. 

ANEURIN or ANEIRIN (fl. 600?), a Welsh 
bard whose compositions are contained in a 
MS. 'Book of Aneirin* of the 13th cent. This 
contains the 'Gododin', an elegy on the 
Welsh chieftains who fell at Cattraetli at the 
hands of the Saxons. 

Angel, from the Greek word ayycAos, a 
messenger, used in the LXX to translate the 
Hebrew Malak, in full malak-yehowah^ 
'messenger of Jevohah", whence the name and 
doctrine of angels passed into Latin and the 
modern languages. [OEDJ The angels in 
the Scriptures are prominent chiefly in the 
apocalyptic books, e.g. Revelation and the 
apocryphal Book of Enoch (q.v.). The latter 
(c. xxi) enumerates seven archangels: Uriel^ 
Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Sariel, Gabriel, 
and Jerahxneel. But the names vary in other 
passages. According to the 4th-cent. work 
attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite, the 
heavenly beings are divided into three hier- 
archies, each containing three orders or choirs, 
viz. seraphim, cherubim, thrones ; dominions, 
virtues, powers; principalities, archangels, 
angels. The Koran (q.v.) names four chief 
angels : Gabriel, who writes down the divine 
decrees ; Michael, the champion of the faith ; 
Azrael, the angel of death; and Israfel, who 
will sound the trump at the resurrection. 

Angel, the coin, see Noble. 

Angel in the House* The t see Patmore. 

Angelic Doctor, THE, Thomas Aquinas 

Angelica, in the ' Orlando Innamorato* 
(q.v.) and * Orlando Furioso* (q.v.), the 

daughter of Galafron, king of Cathay, the 
object of Orlando's love and the cause of 
his madness. For the story see under tibe 
above-named poems. Cf. Milton, 'Paradise 
Regained*, iii. 341. 

Angelica, the heroine of Congreve's *Love 
for Love* 


AngeEco, FRA, see Fra Angelica . 

Angelo, a character in Shakespeare's 
'Measure for Measure' (q.v.). 

ANGELO, HENRY (1760-1 839 ?), a fencing- 
master patronized by the fashionable, and 
especially by Byron. In 1830 he published 
his 'Reminiscences*. 

Angles, THE, one of the Low German tribes 
that settled in Britain, where they formed the 
kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, and East 
Anglia, and finally gave their name to the 
whole English people. The name in its 
origin signifies the people of Angul, a district 
of Holstein, so called from its angular shape. 
Anglo- Catholic, see Catholic Church. 

Anglo-Saxon, originally a collective name 
for the Saxons of England as distinct from the 
c Old Saxons' of the Continent, was extended 
to the entire Old English people and language 
before the Conquest. After the Conquest, 
natives and new incomers were at first dis- 
tinguished as English and French; but as 
the latter also became in a few generations 
English politically and geographically, the 
name could no longer be applied distinctively 
to the people of Edward the Confessor and 
Harold. Hence the extended use of the name 
Anglo-Saxon. [OED.] In this book the 
English language before the Conquest is re- 
ferred to as Old English (see English). See 
also Angles and Saxon. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, The, compiled by 
monks working at different centres, notably 
Winchester, Canterbury, and Peterborough, 
is, in the main, a dry chronological record, in 
vernacular, of events in England from the 
beginning of the Christian era to the middle 
of the 1 2th cent. It contains, however, some 
vivid and more detailed passages, notably the 
account of the struggle with the Danes during 
the period 893-7, and of the misery of the com- 
mon people during the civil wars of the reign 
of Stephen. In the portion of the 'Chronicle* 
relating to the loth cent, are inserted some 
important poems, among others the 'Brunan- 
burh' (q.v.). The earlier part of the 'Chron- 
icle', down to 892, may represent the work or 
inspiration of King Alfred. 

Anzma Poetae, a collection of aphorisms, 
observations, reflections, and other literary 
material, extracted from the numerous note- 
books of S. T. Coleridge (q.v.), and pub- 
lished by Ernest Hartley Coleridge in 1895. 
Anitra, in Ibsen's 'Peer Gynt* (q.v.), an 
unscrupulous Arab damsel, with whom the 
hero flirts when masquerading as a prophet. 

Anna Christie, a play by Eugene O'Neill, first 
produced in 1921, which was one of the 
playwright's early successes. 

Anna Karenina> a novel by Tolstoy (q.v.). 
ANNA COMNENA (b. 1083), the daughter 
of the emperor Alexius Comnenus, and 
author of the 'Alexiad' (a history in fifteen 


books, mainly of her father's life). She figures 
in Scott's 'Count Robert of Paris* (q.v.). 

Annales Cambriae, ancient annals of Wales, 
of which the earliest extant MS. dates from 
the second half of the loth cent. They have 
a special literary interest on account of their 
reference to the 'Battle of Badon, in which 
Arthur carried the cross of our Lord Jesus 
Christ on his shoulders, and the Britons were 
victors', placing it in the year 518. They also 
refer to the battle of Camlan in 539, c in which 
Arthur and Medraut [Modred] fell'. We 
have here one of the sources of the subse- 
quent Arthurian legend. 

Annalia Dubrensia, see Cotswold Games. 

Annals of the Parish, a novel by Gait (q.v.), 
published in 1821, in which the Rev. Micah 
Balwhidder chronicles, with quaint simplicity 
and unconscious humour, the events, great 
and small, that affected the homely lives of 
the parishioners of Dalmailing in Ayrshire 
during the period 1760-1810. The scene of 
the death of Mr. Cayenne (ch. xlvii) has 
been declared by a competent authority 'one 
of the greatest things in all literature*. 

Anne, queen of England, 1702-14. 

Anne of Geierstein, or The Maiden of the 
Mist y a novel by Sir W. Scott (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1829. 

The period of the story is the reign of 
Edward IV. The earl of Oxford and his son 
Arthur de Vere, exiled from England after the 
victory of the Yorkist party at Tewkesbury, 
are travelling on the Continent engaged in 
intrigues in the Lancastrian interest, under 
the name of Philipson and in the guise of 
merchants. Passing through Switzerland and 
overtaken by a storm in the mountains, they 
are hospitably entertained by Arnold Bieder- 
man, the Landamman or chief magistrate 
of Unterwalden, whose niece, the young 
countess Anne of Geierstein, rescues Arthur 
from death. The business of the Philipsons 
being with Charles the Bold, duke of Bur- 
gundy, they accompany Biederman and other 
Swiss delegates who are setting out to 
remonstrate with the latter against the out- 
rageous proceedings to which the Swiss have 
been subject at his hands. The Philipsons 
are seized by the cruel Archibald of Hagen- 
bach, the duke's governor of the citadel of 
Brisach, and narrowly escape death, a fate 
only averted by a rising of the citizens against 
Hagenbach and his condemnation by the 
Vehmgericht (q.v.) and execution. The 
story is then occupied with the negotiations 
between Philipson (or Oxford), the duke of 
Burgundy, and Margaret of Anjou (Henry 
IV's queen), of which the object is to secure 
the duke's assistance to the Lancastrian cause 
in return for the cession to him of Provence. 
These negotiations are interrupted by the 
utter defeat of the duke by the Swiss at 
Granson and Morat. After the duke's death 
at Nancy, Oxford and his son return to 
Geierstein, where Arthur marries Anne. 



Apart from the vivid portrait of Charles 
the Bold, and the picture of the court of 
Rene", the king of Troubadours, the most 
interesting feature in the book is the descrip- 
tion of the secret tribunal of the Vehmgericht, 
of which Anne's father, Count Albert of 
Geierstein (alias the Black Priest of St. Paul's), 
is for the time being the chief figure. For this 
description Scott drew on Goethe's *Goetz 
von Berlichingen*, which he had translated, 

Amaot Lyle, a character in Scott's * Legend 
of Montrose' (q.v.). 

Annual Register, The, an annual review of 

events of the past year, founded by Dodsley 
(q.v.) in 1758, which still survives. 

Annus MirdbiUs, a poem by Dryden (q.v.) 
published in 1667, and probably written at 
Charlton in Wiltshire, where the poet lived 
during the plague and fire years. It is written 
in quatrains on the model of 'Gondibert* 
(q.v.), of which the first 200 deal with the 
sea-fight against the Dutch at Bergen on 
3 August 1665, the indecisive four days' battle 
of June 1666, and the victory over the Dutch 
off the N. Foreland on 25 July of the same 
year. The remaining hundred couplets relate 
the Fire of London (2-7 Sept. 1666) 

ANSELM, ST. (1033-1109), a native of 

Aosta in N. Italy, and a pupil of Lanfranc at 
the abbey of Bee in Normandy. He made the 
monastic profession and became in time 
abbot of Bee. While he held this office he 
visited England, where William Rufus had 
left the see of Canterbury vacant for four 
years. In a fit of sick-bed repentance, Rufus 
appointed Anselm archbishop (1093), a re- 
sponsibility which the latter reluctantly ac- 
cepted. The king resumed his tyrannous 
course and in 1097 Anselm withdrew to Rome. 
He returned to England as archbishop under 
Henry I. Anselm wrote many theological 
and philosophical works, including the 
famous *Monologion*, 'Proslogion', and *Cur 
Deus Homo'. He is commemorated on 
21 April. 
Anselmo, see Curious Impertinent. 

Anson, GEORGE, BARON ANSON (1697-1762), 
who became first lord of the Admiralty, made 
his famous voyage round the world in 17404. 
The account of it, compiled by his chaplain, 
R. Waters, was published in 1748. It is a 
stirring narrative of the sea. The seven 
vessels of the squadron were reduced by 
storms to three. Of these, two sailed refitted 
from Juan Fernandez, attacked and destroyed 
the town of Paita, and captured the Manila 
galleon with a vast treasure. Anson finally 
reached home with a single ship. 

(1843-1914), Warden of AH Souls, M.P. for 
the University of Oxford, and a learned writer 
on the Law and Custom of the Constitution 
(1879-86) and on Contracts (1879). 

Anster Fair, see Tennant. 


educated at Eton and King's College, Cam- 
bridge, is remembered as the author of the 
*Xew Bath Guide* (1766), a series of letters 
in anapaestic verse, describing the adven- 
tures of the 'Blunderhead Family* at Bath, 
and depicting the manners of the place and 
time with much good humour and drollery. 
ANSTEY, F., the pseudonym of Thomas 
Anstey Guthrie (1856 ), who is author 
of many novels and dialogues, including: 
'Vice Versa* (q.v., 1882), 'The Giant's 
Robe* (1883), *The Tinted Venus* (1885), 
'A Fallen Idol* (1886), 'The Pariah '(1889), 
'Voces Populi* (1890), 'Tourmalin's Time 
Cheques' (1891), 'The Talking Horse* (1892), 
*The Man from BlankleyY (1893), 'Mr. 
Punch's Pocket Ibsen* (1893), 'The Brass 
Bottle* (1900), f Salted Almonds* (1906). 

Antaeus, a Libyan giant, son of Poseidon 
and Ge (the Earth), and a mighty wrestler, 
Hercules attacked him, and as Antaeus drew 
new strength from his mother whenever he 
touched the earth, Hercules lifted him in the 
air and squeezed Km to death in his arms. 
Ante-Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 
terms applied respectively to Christian litera- 
ture from the time of the Apostles to the 
Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325), and from the 
Council of Nicaea to Pope Gregory I (d. 604), 
Antenor, a wise counsellor of Priam (q.v.), 
king of Troy. In post-Homeric legend he is 
a traitor, who plans to surrender the city and 
the palladium (q.v.) to the Greeks. 
Anthology* The Greek, a collection of 
about 4,500 poems, inscriptions, &c. s by 
more than 300 writers (sth cent. B.C. -6th 
cent. A.D.), originating in a collection by 
Meleager of Gadara (the 'Garland of Me- 
leager*, c. 60 B.C.), which grew by successive 
additions. In its present form it is sub- 
stantially the work of Constantius Cephalas, a 
Byzantine of the loth cent. A.D. 

Anthropo'phagi, in Greek legend, a people 
of Scythia that fed on human flesh. 
Antichrist, the archetypal personal opponent 
of Christ and His Kingdom, expected by the 
Early Church to appear before the end of the 
world, and much referred to in the Middle 
Ages. The term was at one time applied by 
some (e.g. Wycliffe) to the Pope or the Papal 
power. * Antichrist* is mentioned in i John ii 
1 8, 22, and z John vii, and variously referred 
to as the Man of Sin (2 Thess. ii. 3), the 
Beast (Revelation), &c. 
Anti- Corn- Law League, see Corn Laws. 

Antlgdne, a daughter of Oedipus (q.v.) and 
Jocasta. When the strife between her brothers 
Eteocles (q.v.) and Polyneices had led to the 

death of the latter, she buried his body by 
night, against the order of King Creon, and 
was ordered by him to be buried alive. She 
took her own life before the sentence was 
executed, and Haemon, the king's son, who 
passionately loved her, killed Mmself on her 



grave. The incident was made the subject of 
one of the tragedies of Sophocles. 
Antigonus, (i) a character in Shakespeare's 
'The Winter's Tale' (q.v.); (2) a character in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's 'The Humorous 
Lieutenant' (q.v.); (3) the name of one of 
Alexander's generals, who on Alexander's 
death received certain provinces of Asia, and 
of some of his descendants, kings of Mace- 

Anti-Jacobin, The, a journal founded by 
Canning (q.v.), to combat the subversive 
principles of philosophy and politics that were 
current at the end of the i8th cent., and to 
deride their supporters. It was edited by 
Gifford (q.v.), and included among its 
contributors, besides Canning, Ellis (q.v., a 
converted author of 'RolliacT satires), and 
Frere (q.v.). In addition to ordinary news, the 
journal published satirical verse, mainly in the 
form of parody, of which 'The Needy Knife- 
grinder', a parody of Southey, and 'The Loves 
of the Triangles', a parody of Erasmus 
Darwin's 'The Loves of the Plants', are famous 
examples. 'The Rovers' was an amusing 
burlesque of contemporary German drama. 
Its final and most important satire was 'The 
New Morality' by Canning, a denunciation of 
the French propaganda and an exhortation to 
maintain the old English institutions. The 
'Anti- Jacobin* came to an end in 1798, but its 
crusade, in feebler form, was continued by 
'The Anti- Jacobin Review and Magazine'. 
'The Poetry of the Anti- Jacobin* was reprinted 
in 1852, with explanatory notes by Charles 

Antilia, see Seven Cities. 
Antinomian, one who maintains that the 
moral law is not binding upon Christians, 
under the 'law of grace'. A sect appeared in 
Germany in 1535 which was alleged to hold 
this opinion. 

Antmous, a youth of remarkable beauty, 
who was a favourite of the Emperor Hadrian. 
He was drowned in the Nile in A.D. 122. 
AntiSpe, a daughter of Nycteus, king of 
Thebes, was beloved by Zeus, by whom she 
became mother of Amphion and Zethus. To 
avoid her father's anger she fled to Epopeus, 
king of Sicyon, or was carried off by him. 
Nycteus made war on Epopeus and when 
dying entreated his brother Lycus to con- 
tinue the war and recover his daughter. This 
Lycus did and married Antiope. But Dirce, 
the first wife of Lycus, imprisoned and tor- 
mented Antiope. The latter escaped to her 
sons, who undertook her revenge. They 
killed Lycus and tied Dirce to the tail of a 
bull, which dragged her till she died. 
Dionysus changed Dirce into a fountain in the 
neighbourhood of Thebes, and deprived 
Antiope of her senses. 

Antipholus, the name of the twin brothers, 
sons of Aegeon, in Shakespeare's 'Comedy of 
Errors' (q.v.). 

Antiquaries, THE SOCIETY OF, was founded 


about the year 1572 at the instance of Arch- 
bishop Parker, but was suppressed on the 
accession of James I. The present Society 
was founded in January 1717-18, with Peter 
Le Neve as president. Its 'Archaeologia' 
was first printed in 1770. 
Antiquary, The, a novel by Sir W. Scott 
(q.v.), published in 1816. 

A gallant young officer, known as Major 
Neville, on whose birth there is supposed 
to be the stain of illegitimacy, falls in love 
in England with Isabella Wardour, who, in 
deference to the prejudices of her father, Sir 
Arthur Wardour, repulses him. Under the 
assumed name of Lovel, he follows her to 
Scotland, falling in on the way with Jonathan 
Oldbuck, laird of Monkbarns, a learned and 
garrulous antiquary, and a neighbour of Sir 
Arthur. Lovel saves the lives of Sir Arthur 
and his daughter at the peril of his own, fights 
a duel with Hector M'Intyre, Oldbuck's 
impetuous nephew, and saves Sir Arthur 
from the ruin that his credulity and the 
impositions of the German charlatan Dous- 
terswivel have brought on him. He finally 
turns out to be the son and heir of the earl 
of Glenallan, and all ends happily. The 
charm of the book, Scott's 'chief favourite 
among all his novels', lies in the character of 
the Antiquary, drawn according to Scott from 
a worthy friend of his boyish days (George 
Constable), but in which we may recognize a 
portrait or caricature of Scott himself; and in 
that of old Edie Ochiltree, the king's bedes- 
man, shrewd, ironical, and kindly, who is 
instrumental in routing the rascally Dous- 
terswivel, and in bringing events to a satis- 
factory termination. 

Antiquary, The, a comedy by Shackerley 
Marmion (q.v.). 

Antiquities of Warwickshire, see Dugdale. 
AntisthSnes, the founder of the Cynic 
school of philosophy. He was an Athenian, 
lived in the 5th cent. B.C., and was a pupil of 
Socrates. He taught in the Cynosarges, for 
which reason probably his pupils were called 
Cynics, though others attribute the name 
to their surliness (from /ctkov, a dog). He 
despised art and learning, and the luxuries 
and comforts of life, and taught that virtue 
consists in the avoidance of evil and in- 
dependence of needs. Diogenes (q.v.) was 
the most famous of his pupils. 
Anti'str6phS, meaning 'turning about', in a 
Greek chorus, the response to the strophe 
(q.v.), recited as the chorus proceeded in the 
opposite direction to that followed in the 
strophe. The metre of strophe and antistrophe 
was the same. 

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 86-161), Roman 
emperor from 1 3 8 to 1 6 1 . He devoted himself 
to promoting the happiness of his people and 
his reign was an exceptionally peaceful and 
prosperous one. The WALL OF ANTONINUS, 
or Antonine Wall, was built in the course 
of the reign by the prefect Lollius Urbicus 



between the Forth and the Clyde to streng- 
then the protection of the province of Britain 
against invasions from the North. 

Antonio, (i) the Merchant of Venice, in 
Shakespeare's play of that name (q.v.) ; (2) the 
brother of Prospero in 'The Tempest' (q.v.) ; 

(3) a sea-captain in 'Twelfth Night" (q.v.); 

(4) the brother of Leonato in 'Much Ado 
about Nothing' (q.v.); (5) the father of 
Proteus in 'Two Gentlemen of Verona* (q.v.). 

Antonio and Mellida f a tragedy by J. Marston 
(q.v.), printed in 1602, and probably acted 
two years earlier, is interesting as having pro- 
vided Ben Jonson with materials for his 
ridicule of Marston in the 'Poetaster* (q.v.). 
In Part I of the play, Antonio, son of Andra- 
gio, duke of Genoa, is in love with Mellida, 
daughter of Piero, duke of Venice. The two 
states are at war and Genoa has been defeated, 
and a price set in Venice on the heads of 
Antonio and Andrugio. Antonio, disguised as 
an Amazon, comes to Piero's court to seek 
Mellida. Mellida flees with Antonio but is 
captured. Andnigio offers himself as a 
victim to Piero, who appears to relent, and 
assents to the marriage of Antonio and Mel- 
lida, and the first part closes joyfully. 

In Part II Piero reveals his true character. 
He kills Andrugio, contrives the dishonour of 
Mellida in order to prevent the match, plots 
the death of Antonio, and gains the hand of 
Andrugio *s widow. Mellida dies broken- 
hearted. Antonio, urged by the ghost of his 
father, assumes the disguise of a fool, and 
kills Piero. 

Antony and Cleopatra, an historical tragedy 
by Shakespeare (q.v.), probably written about 
16067, anci first printed in the folio of 
1623. In it the poet closely follows North's 

The play presents Mark Antony, the great 
soldier and noble prince, at Alexandria, en- 
thralled by the beauty of the Egyptian queen, 
Cleopatra. Recalled by the death of his wife 
Fulvia and political developments, he tears 
himself from Cleopatra and returns to Rome, 
where the estrangement between him and 
Octavius Caesar is terminated by his mar- 
riage to Octavia, Caesar's sister, an event 
which provokes the intense jealousy of 
Cleopatra. But the reconciliation is short- 
lived, and Antony leaves Octavia and returns 
to Egypt. At the battle of Actium, the flight 
of the Egyptian squadron is followed by the 
retreat of Antony, pursued to Alexandria by 
Caesar. There, after a momentary success, 
Antony is finally defeated. On the false 
report of Cleopatra's death, he falls upon his 
sword. He is borne to the monument where 
Cleopatra has taken refuge and dies in her 
arms. Cleopatra, fallen into Caesar's power, 
but determined not to grace his triumph, 
takes her own life by the bite of an asp. 

See also Cleopatra. 

Anubis, an ancient Egyptian deity, ruler of 
the dead, whom he conducts to the shades. 


He was represented by the Egyptians with the 
head of a jackal, and by the Romans with that 
of a dog. 

Anushirvan, see Khusrau L 
Anville, Miss, the name borne by the 
heroine of Miss Burney*s 'Evelina* (q.v.), 
until she is recognized by her father. 

Aonia, a part of Boeotia (q.v.) which includes 
Mt. Helicon and the fountain Aganippe, sacred 
to the Muses. Hence Milton speaks of "the 
Aonian Mount* ('Paradise Lost', i. 15), and 

Thomson ('Castle of Indolence 9 , li. ii) refers 
to poets as 'the Aonian hive*. 

Apache, the name of a tribe of Red Indians, 
applied in recent times to the hooligans of 
Paris. Cf. Mohock. 

Apache State, Arizona, see United States. 

Apelles, a celebrated Greek painter, bom 
probably at Colophon in Ionia, of the time of 
Alexander the Great, who, it is said, honoured 
him so much that he forbade any man but 
Apelles to draw his portrait. When Alexander 
ordered him to make a picture of Campaspe, 
one of his mistresses, Apelles became 
enamoured of her, and Alexander allowed 
him to marry her. His most celebrated 
paintings were a picture of Venus Anadyo- 
mene for a temple at Cos (subsequently 
placed by Augustus in the temple of Caesar at 
Rome), and a portrait of Alexander wielding 
a thunderbolt. Apelles is said never to have 
let pass a day without practising with his 
pencil, whence the proverb, nulla dies sins 
lima. Apelles is a character in Lyfy*s 'Alex- 
ander and Campaspe* (see Campaspe). 

having found fault with the drawing of a shoe- 
latchet in one of the pictures of Apelles* pro- 
ceeded to criticise the drawing of the legs. 
To which Apelles replied, *ne supra crepldam 
judicaret", or according to another version, 
*ne sutor ultra crepidam*, of which the 
modern equivalent is 'the cobbler should stick 
to his last*. Hazlitt coined the word 'ultxa- 
crepidarian* for a critic who goes beyond 
the sphere of his knowledge, with reference 
to William Gilford (q.v.), at one time a shoe- 
maker's apprentice. 

Apemantas, the churlish philosopher* in 
Shakespeare's 'Tirnon of Athens* (q.v.). 
Apnaeresis, the suppression of a letter or 
syllable at the beginning of a word. 

Aphorism or APOPHTHEGM, a short pithy 
sentence into which much thought or ob- 
servation is compressed. 
Aphrddite, see Venus. 
Apicius, the name of three notorious 
gluttons. The best known of the three was 
Marcus Gabius Apicius, who lived in the 
reign of Tiberius. Having squandered his 
fortune till it was reduced to about 80,000, 
he hanged himself from despair at having so 
little left to live on. 


Apis, an ancient Egyptian deity, the incar- 
nation as a bull of Ptah, the god of the sun, 
identified with Osiris (q.v.). Apis was 
represented as a bull with the disk of the sun 
between his horns. 

Apocrypha, THE, in its special sense, those 
books included in the Septuagint and Vul- 
gate versions of the O.T. which were not 
originally written in Hebrew and not counted 
genuine by the Jews, and which, at the 
Reformation, were excluded from the Sacred 
Canon by the Protestant party, as haying no 
well-grounded claim to inspired authorship. 
They are Esdras (I and II), Tobit, Judith, the 
Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, 
Ecclesiasticus, Baruch (with the Epistle of 
Jeremiah), the Song of the Three Holy 
Children, the History of Susanna, Bel and the 
Dragon, the Prayer of Manasses, Maccabees 
(I and II). 

The texts of the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, 
Epistles, and Apocalypses are printed in 
"The Apocryphal New Testament', trans- 
lated by M. R. James (1924). 

Apollo, called also PHOEBUS, often identified 
with the sun, was the son of Zeus and Latona 
(q.v.). He was the god who brings back sun- 
shine in spring, who sends plagues, and who 
founds states and colonies. He was the god 
of music and poetry (cf. Shelley's 'Hymn of 
Apollo') and had the gift of knowing the 
future, so that his oracles were in high repute. 
He was the type of manly youth and beauty, 
and was represented in the famous Colossus 
(q.v.) at Rhodes. When his son Aesculapius 
(q.v.) had been killed by the thunders of Zeus, 
Apollo in his resentment killed the Cyclops 
who had fabricated the thunderbolts. Ban- 
ished by Jupiter from heaven for this act, he 
hired himself to Admetus, king of Thessaly, 
as one of his shepherds and served him for 
nine years. He rewarded the kind treatment 
of Admetus by obtaining for him the boon that 
he might be redeemed from death, if another 
would die in his place (see Alcestis). See 
also Delos, Delphi. The BELVEDERE APOLLO 
is a statue of the god in the Vatican (Belve- 
dere is the name of a part of the Vatican 
palace, originally a garden pavilion). 

Apollonius of Tyana in Cappadocia (b. c. 
4 B.C.), a Pythagorean philosopher who at- 
tained so great a fame by his pretended 
magical and wonder-working powers that 
divine honours were paid to him. His life 
was written by Philostratus. 

Apollonius of Tyre, the subject of a popu- 
lar medieval romance. See Pericles (Shake- 
speare's drama). 

grammarian of Alexandria, who wrote at the 
end of the $rd and beginning of the 2nd cents. 
B.C. His 'Argonautica*, a poem in the Homeric 
style on the expedition of the Argonauts (q.v.), 
was coldly received and caused a quarrel 
between him and Callimachus (q.v.). In con- 
sequence he migrated to Rhodes, where he 


was well received and made a citizen. He 

subsequently became chief librarian at Alex- 


Apollyon, 'The Destroyer', the angel of the 

bottomless pit (Rev. ix. n). He figures in 

Bunyan's Tilgnm's Progress' (q.v.). 

Apologia pro Vita sua, see Newman. 

Apologie for Poetrie, The, or Defence of 
Poesie, a prose essay by Sir P. Sidney (q.v.), 
probably written at Wilton in 1580 during the 
queen's temporary displeasure with him. A 
treatise by Stephen Gosson (q.v.), entitled 
the 'School of Abuse, containing a pleasant 
invective against Poets, Pipers, Players, 
Jesters, and Such like Caterpillers of a 
Commonwealth', dedicated to Sidney, was 
probably the occasion. The 'Apologie* was 
published in 1595 after Sidney's death, in two 
editions, one of which bore the first of the 
above titles, the other the second. 

It is a methodical examination of the art of 
poetry and a critical discussion of the state 
of English poetry in the author's time, such 
as had not before appeared in English. Start- 
ing with the essential nature of poetry, the 
art of imitation or representation, the author 
classifies the various kinds of poetry, discusses 
their relation to philosophy and history, the 
objections (including Plato's) that have been 
raised to poetry, and English poetry from 
Chaucer to his own day. He next deals with 
the principles that should be observed in 
tragedy and comedy, laments the poverty of 
English lyrical poetry and the affectation of 
the current English style. Lastly, he deals 
with prosody in its special relation to the 
English language. 

Apologue, a fable conveying a moral lesson. 

Apology for Smectymnuus, see Smectym- 

Apology for the Life of Mr. Colley Gibber, 
see Gibber. 

Apology for . . . the People called Quakers, 

by Robert Barclay (1648-90), published in 

Apophthegm, see Aphorism. 

Aposiopesis, a rhetorical artifice, in which 
the speaker comes to a sudden halt in the 
middle of a sentence, as if unable or unwilling 
to proceed. 

Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, see 

shire squire and sportsman, educated at 
Rugby, wrote, under the pseudonym *Nim- 
rod', 'Memoirs of the Life of John Mytton* 
(1837) and 'The Life of a Sportsman* (1842), 
both illustrated by Henry Alken. He was a 
contributor to 'The Sporting Magazine* and 
a member of the staff of 'The Sporting 

APPIAN, an historian born at Alexandria, 
who lived at Rome in the first half of the 


2nd cent. A.D. He wrote in Greek a history 
of the countries forming the Roman Empire, 
of which a part survives. 

Appiam Way, THE, the first great public 
road made by the Romans. It was constructed 
in the censorship of Appius Claudius Caecus 
(312 B.C.) and ran from Rome to Capua and 
thence to Brundusium (Brindisi). 
Appius, see Virginia. 

Appius and Virginia ff (i) a tragedy commonly 
attributed to J. Webster (q.v.), by some 
authorities to J. Heywood (q.v.), in whole or 
part (T.L.S. 30. vii. 31). The date of produc- 
tion is uncertain. It appears not to have been 
printed until 1654. The plot is taken from 
the classical legend (see Virginia}, which 
forms one of the stories in Painter's 'Palace of 
Pleasure' (q.v.). 

(2) A tragedy by John Dennis (q.v.). 
April Fool's Day, i April, the celebration of 
which is probably the survival of ancient festi- 
vities formerly held at the spring equinox, from 
25 March (old New Year's Day) to i April. 
Apsley House, Hyde Park Comer, built for 
Lord Apsley at the end of the i8th cent., was 
the residence of the duke of Wellington after 
1820. Its windows were broken in the Re- 
form Bill riots (1832). 

APULEIUS (b. c. A.D. 114), of Madaura in 
Africa, educated at Carthage and Athens, was 
author of the 'Metamorphoses seu de Asino 
Aureo', 'The Golden Ass' (q.v.). 

Aqua Toffana, a slow-acting transparent 
odourless poison, probably arsenical, invented 
in the I7th cent, by an Italian woman named 
Toffana, who lived at Palermo and Naples, 
and used to sell it in vials labelled Manna 
di S. Nicola di Bari. Several poisoners, 
headed by an old hag named Spara, who had 
the secret from Toffana, were arrested in 
1659, and five of them were executed. 

Aquarius, a constellation that gives its name 
to the eleventh sign of the zodiac, which the 
sun enters on 21 Jan. It is represented by the 
figure of a man pouring water from a pitcher. 
Aquilo, see Boreas. 

AQUINAS, ST. THOMAS (c. 1225-74), of 

Aquino in Sicily, Italian philosopher and 
Dominican monk, a compound of the seeker 
after truth and the Christian apologist. He 
represents in his writings, and notably in his 
'Summa Totius Philosophiae*, the culmina- 
tion of scholastic philosophy, the harmony of 
faith and reason. The above work, which re- 
mained unfinished, was a vast synthesis of the 
moral and political sciences, brought within 
a theological and metaphysical framework, 
one of the greatest monuments of the medie- 
val intellect. St. Thomas Aquinas was known 
as the * Angelic Doctor', and by his school 
companions as 'the Dumb Ox*. His followers 
were called THOMISTS. 
Ara vos prec, the title of a work by T. S. 
Eliot (q.v.), taken from Dante, Turgatorio*, 

3868 [33] 


xxvi. 145. The words are Provencal, *Xow 
I do pray you'. 

Arabesque, the Arabian or Moorish style of 
mural decoration, composed in flowing* lines 
of branches, leaves, and scroll-work fancifully 
intertwined. Representations of living crea- 
tures were excluded from it. But in the 
arabesques of the Renaissance human and 
animal figures, both natural and grotesque, 
were freely introduced. 

Ajrabia Deserta, Felix, Petraea, in ancient 

geography, the several parts of the desert 
region between Egypt, Syria, and the 
Euphrates. ARABIA PETRAEA included the 
peninsula of Mt. Sinai and the country N. 
and NE. of it, and was named after its 
capital Petra. ARABIA DESERTA included the 
Syrian desert and part of the Arabian 
peninsula. ARABIA FELIX (i.e. fertile, as it 
was supposed to be) included the more 
southern parts of the peninsula. 

Arabia Deserta, see Doughty. 

Arabian Nights 9 Entertainments, or The 
Thousand and One Nights, is a collection of 
stories written in Arabic which, were made 
known in Europe early in the i8th cent, by 
the translation into French of Antoine 
Galland. They were translated into English 
by Edward William Lane in 1840, with some 
omissions, and an unexpurgated version was 
published by Sir Richard Burton in 1885-8. 
There is a French translation by J, C. Mar- 
drus (1899 and subsequent years). 

The source of the tales is uncertain. The 
framework (that is, the story of the king who 
killed his wives successively on the morning 
after the consummation of their marriage, 
until he married the clever Scheherazade, who 
saved her life by the tales she told him) is of 
Persian origin. It is mentioned by Mas*udi 
(A.D. 944) and in the 'Fihrist' (A.D. 987) as 
occurring in a book called the *Hezar 
Afsane' or 'Thousand Tales', attributed to a 
Princess Homai, the daughter according ^to 
tradition of Artaxerxes I. But the stories 
themselves told by Scheherazade are, for 
the most part, not Persian but Arabian 
in character, and were probably collected in 
Egypt by a professional story-teller at some 
time in the I4th-i6th cents. 

Arabin, THE REV. FRANCIS, a character in 
Trollope's 'Barchester Towers* (q.v.) and 

subsequent Barsetshire novels, a protg of Dr. 
Grantly, vicar of St. Ewold's and afterwards 
Dean of Barchester. He marries the widow, 
Eleanor Bold. 

Aracfaxie, a woman of Colophon in Lydia, so 
skilful a weaver that she challenged Athene 
(q.v.) to a contest. She depicted in her work 
the amours of the gods, thereby arousing the 
wrath of Athene, who tore the work in pieces. 
Arachne in despair hanged herself, but was 
changed into a spider. 

Arafa or ARAFAT, a hill near Mecca, the 
scene of certain ceremonies in the course of 


the Mohammedan pilgrimage (such as pelting 
a cairn with stones), no doubt the survival of 
heathen rites, explained by legends relative to 
Adam and Eve, to Abraham's sacrifice, and 
the like. 

Aramis, see Three Musketeers. 

Arbaces, (i) the legendary founder of the 
Median empire (see Sardanapalus); (z) a 
character in Beaumont and Fletcher's *A 
King and No King* (q.v.). 
Arbiter elegantiae, see Petronius. 
Arblay, MADAME D 5 , see Bumey. 

ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735), was 
M.D. of St. Andrews and physician in 
ordinary to Queen Anne. He formed a close 
friendship with Swift and was acquainted 
with Pope and most of the literary men of 
his day, and earned general praise both for his 
medical science, his wit and humour, and 
his kind heart. His 'History of John Bull* 
(q.v.), a collection of pamphlets issued in 1712 
advocating the termination of the war with 
France, was included in Pope and Swift's 
'Miscellanies' of 1727. The first of these 
pamphlets was called 'Law is a Bottomless 
Pit, exemplified in the case of the Lord Strutt, 
John Bull, Nicholas Frog, and Lewis Baboon, 
who spent all they had in a Law Suit'. This 
work was the origin of JOHN BULL, the 
typical Englishman. Dr. Arbuthnot was the 
principal author of the 'Memoirs of Martinus 
Scriblerus* (q.v.), which were published with 
Pope's * Works* in 1741. He also wrote 
medical works, which proved him to be in 
advance of his age in medical science. Of 
these the most interesting is 'An Essay con- 
cerning the nature of Aliments* (1731), in 
which he urges the efficacy of appropriate 
diet in disease, and c An Essay concerning the 
effect of Air on Human Bodies' (1733). In 
*A Sermon preached to the People at the 
Mercat Cross, Edinburgh' (1706), he ad- 
vocated the union of Scotland with England. 
His 'Essay on the Usefulness of Mathe- 
matical Learning' (1701) is said to be an 
excellent work. He wrote one poem, an 
ethical study, TNtiS! ZEAYTON, Know 
Thyself (1734). 

Arc, JOAN OF, see Joan of Arc. 

Arcades , Part of an Entertainment presented 
to the Countess- Dowager of Derby at Harefield 
by some noble persons of her Family, by Milton 
(q.v.), written about 1633. It was probably 
composed at the request of Henry Lawes, the 
musician, while Milton was at Horton. 

The piece is short, and consists of a song 
by nymphs and shepherds as they approach 
the seat of state of the countess, an address to 
them by the Genius of the Wood, in deca- 
syllabic couplets, describing his occupations 
and praising music, and two further songs, one 
by the Genius, the other by the chorus. 

Arcadia, a mountainous district in the Pelo- 
ponnese, taken as an ideal region of rustic 


Arcades ambo, 'Arcadians both', is applied 
by Virgil (Eel. vii. 4) to Corydon and Thyrsis, 
young shepherds and poets. 

Arcadia, a series of verse eclogues connected 
by prose narrative, published in 1504 by 
Sannazzaro (q.v.), occupied with the loves, 
laments, and other doings of various shep- 
herds in Arcadia. The work, which was im- 
mensely popular, was a link between the 
pastorals of Theocritus and Virgil and those 
of Montemayor, Sidney, Spenser, and later 

Arcadia, Greene's, see Menaphon. 
Arcadia, The, a prose romance by Sir P. Sidney 
(q.v.), including at the end of each book a 
pastoral eclogue. It was begun in 1 580 for the 
amusement of his sister, the countess of 
Pembroke, but not published until 1590, after 
Sidney's death. Sidney had no high opinion 
of the work and is said to have asked when 
dying that it should be destroyed. But it has 
an important place in the history of English 
literature. The chief incidents were drama- 
tized in 'The Arcadia* (1640) by James Shirley 

The scene is laid in Arcadia, with its flowery 
meads, where 'shepherd boys pipe as tho* 
they would never be old*. The main thread 
of the story, which is diversified by incidents 
and interposed narratives, is as follows. 
Pyrocles and Musidorus, son and nephew of 
the king of Macedon, gallant knights and 
devoted friends, after achieving many ad- 
ventures, are wrecked on the coast of Laconia. 
Pyrocles is carried off by pirates, Musidorus 
rescued by shepherds and carried to Arcadia, 
whose king, Basilius, in consequence of an 
oracle, has retired with his young wife 
Gynecia and his beautiful daughters Pamela 
and Philoclea into a forest. 

After a number of preliminary incidents, 
Pyrocles seeing Philoclea in the forest falls in 
love with her, disguises himself as a woman 
(Zelmane), and is admitted by Basilius to his 
household. Basilius falls in love with Zel- 
mane, while both Philoclea and her mother 
Gynecia, seeing through the disguise, also 
fall in love with him. 

Musidorus discovers Pyrocles, falls in love 
with Pamela, and obtains employment as 
servant to Dametas, who has charge of 
Pamela. He makes love to Mopsa, daughter 
of Dametas, to veil his affection for Pamela. 
The pathetic story is here introduced of the 
true Zelmane, daughter of the wicked 
Plexistus, who from love of Pyrocles had 
followed him as a page, fallen sick, and died. 
(The character of Bellario in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's 'Philaster' is borrowed from this 
Zelmane.) Cecropia, who had been heiress 
to the crown of Arcadia until Basilius married 
and had daughters, now carries off Pamela, 
Philoclea, and the disguised Pyrocles. She 
is besieged in the castle where she holds them 
captive, trying by the most cruel devices to 
make one or other of the sisters marry her son 
Amphialus. (Pamela's prayer during im- 



prisonment acquired celebrity; Charles I on 
the scaffold handed a copy of it to Bishop 
Juxon, incurring thereby the censure of 
Milton.) Finally, after deeds of valour by the 
disguised Pyxocles, the stirring narrative of 
which is unfortunately unfinished, the sisters 
are delivered. 

The sisters and Pyrocles return to the 
forest, where finally Musidoras runs away 
with Pamela, and Pyrpcles, pestered by both 
Basiiius and Gynecia, gives to each an 
assignation in a cave on the same night, thus 
confronting husband and wife with each 
other. On this occasion Basiiius drinks a love 
potion intended by Gynecia for Pyrocles, and 
falls apparently dead. Pyrocles is found in 
Philoclea's chamber and arrested; Musidorus 
is captured. Gynecia confesses that she is the 
cause of Basilius's death. Pyrocles and Musi- 
dorus are sentenced to death, Gynecia to be 
buried alive, Philoclea to a nunnery. At this 
moment a stranger arrives, who reveals the 
identity of Pyrocles and Musidorus as princes 
of Macedon and Thessaly, and Basiiius comes 
to life again, his potion proving to have been 
only a sleeping draught. A general pardon 
and clearing up follow. 

The miscellaneous poems printed with the 
* Arcadia* contain little that is comparable to 
Sidney's other work, but they include the 
splendid dirge *Ring out your bells, let mourn- 
ing shews be spread*, and the song *My true 
love hath my heart*. 

Archangel, an angel of the highest rank, a 
title generally applied in Christian legend to 
Michael (q.v.). For the seven archangels 
enumerated by the Book of Enoch, see under 

Archdeacon Singleton, Letters to, see Single- 

Archer, ISABEL, the heroine of H. James's 
'The Portrait of a Lady* (q.v.). 
Archer, a character in Farquhar's 'The 
Beaux* Stratagem* (q.v.). 
ARCHER, WILLIAM (1856-1924), edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University, was a dis- 
tinguished dramatic critic, and is remembered 
for his editing and translation of the plays of 
Ibsen. He also wrote a life of Macready 
(1890), a study of Henry Irving (1883), and 
other works, including the play, 'The Green 

Arches, COURT OF, the ecclesiastical court 
of appeal for the province of Canterbury, 
formerly held at the church of St. Mary-le- 
Bow or 'of the Arches* (so called from its 
arched crypt). 

Archie, a popular name during the War for 
an anti-aircraft gun. 

ARCHILOCHUS of Paros (fl. 648 B.C.), 
'one of the great original forces in Greek 
literature* (Jebb), especially celebrated for his 
satirical iambic verses, and proverbial for 
his bitterness. It is said that when Neobule, 
who had been promised to Archilachus in 


marriage, was given by her father to a 
wealthier man, the poet's satire drove her and 
her sisters to suicide. 

Archimago or ABCHIMAGE, in Spenser's 

c Faerie Queene*, is the great enchanter, 
symbolizing Hypocrisy, who deceives Una by 
assuming the appearance of the Red Cross 
Knight (i. i). His deceits are exposed and 
Archimago is 'laid full low in dungeon deep* 
(i. adi. 36). From this he emerges in Book II 
to seek vengeance on Sir Guyon for what he 
has suffered at the hands of the Red Cross 
Knight, and employs Braggadochio (q.v.) for 
the purpose. 

Archimedes (287-212 B.C.), a famous 
mathematician of Syracuse, many of whose 
works are extant, including the treatises *De 
Sphaera et Cylindro', *CircuIi Dimensio*, &c. 
He is said to nave constructed a kind of orrery 
representing the movements of the heavenly 
bodies, to have invented the screw for raising 
water which bears Ms name, and to have set 
on fire with lenses the ships of the Roman 
consul Marcellus that were besieging Syra- 
cuse. When the town was taken, file Roman 
general gave strict orders that Archimedes 
should not be hurt and offered a reward to 
whoever should bring him alive. But a 
soldier, not knowing who he was, killed 
Archimedes, who was engaged in solving a 
problem and refused to follow him. * Give me 
where to stand and I will move the earth* is 
a saying attributed to him. See also Eureka. 
Arch-poet, see Golias. The term is also 
applied in Philemon Holland's translation of 
Camden's 'Britannia* to *Henrie of Aurenches, 
Archpoet to King Henrie the Third', and used 
by Pope and Fielding as equivalent to poet 
laureate (q.v.). 

Arcite, see Palamon and Arcite* 
Ardashlr Babagan, a Persian employed by 
the Parthian king Ardawan, who, as told in 
the 'Shahnameh* of Firdusi (q.v.), eloped 
with Ardawan *s favourite wife, made himself 
master of Persia, and became the founder of 
the Sasanian dynasty. In A.D. 226 he occu- 
pied Ctesiphon and took the title of king of 
the Iranians, 

Arden, a large forest in the Midlands, 
centred in Warwickshire, which figures fre- 
quently in Elizabethan literature. The scene 
of the greater part of Shakespeare's *As You 
Like It* is laid there. Drayton in 'Polyolbion', 
xiii. 15, makes it extend from the Severn to 
the Trent. 

Arden of Fever sham, The Tragedy of Mr., a 
play published in 1592, of which the author 
is unknown. It has been attributed by some 
to Shakespeare. It deals with the persistent 
attempts, finally successful, of Mistress Arden 
and her paramour, IMosbie, to murder Arden, 
for which purpose they hire two murderers, 
Black Will and Shakbag. The crime is dis- 
covered and Mosbie and Mrs. Arden are 
executed. The play is founded on a murder 
actually committed in February 1550/1 and 




recorded by Hplinshed. A play on the same 
subject was written by Lillo (q.v.). 
Ardenne, THE FOUNTAIN OF, in Boiardo's 
'Orlando Innamorato' (q.v.), had the power 
of changing to hate the love of those who 
drank its waters. 

Ardennes, THE WILD BOAR OF THE, William 
de la Marck, the third son of John I, count of 
La Marck and Arernberg, so called because 
of his ferocity and acts of rapine. He was 
beheaded in 1485 by order of the Emperor 
Maximilian. He figures in Scott's 'Quentin 
Durward', where the historical facts regard- 
ing him are perverted. 

Areopagitica : a Speech of Mr. John Milton 
for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the 
Parliament of England, by Milton (q.v.), 
published in 1644. The title is derived from 
Areopagus (q.v.). 

In this discourse Milton, addressing the 
'Lords and Commons of England', attacks 
their recent order 'that no book . . . shall be 
henceforth printed unless the same be first 
approved and licensed by such ... as shall be 
thereto appointed*. He shows, first that 
licensing has been chiefly the practice of 
those whom the Presbyterian Government 
most detest, viz. the Papacy and the Inquisi- 
tion; while Moses, Daniel, St. Paul, and the 
Fathers, by precept or example, enjoin free- 
dom in the pursuit of learning. Next, that 
promiscuous reading is necessary to the 
constituting of human virtue. And thirdly, 
that the attempt to keep out evil doctrine by 
licensing is like 'the exploit of that gallant 
man who thought to pound up the crows by 
shutting his park gate*. Not only will 
licensing do no good, but it will be a grave 
discouragement and affront to learning; and 
he quotes the case of the imprisoned Galileo. 
Milton ends with a magnificent exhortation 
to the 'Lords and Commons of England* to 
consider 'what nation it is whereof ye are, 
and whereof ye are the governors : a nation 
not slow and dull, but of a quick, ingenious 
and piercing spmt*. He compares it to an 
'eagle mewing its mighty youth', and urges 
that it should not be shackled and restricted. 
'Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to 
argue freely according to conscience, above 
all liberties.' 

Areopagus, the hill of Ares (Mars), near the 
Acropolis at Athens. It was the place of meet- 
ing^ of the 'Upper Council', the highest 
judicial ^tribunal of the city, with general 
supervision in political and religious matters. 
Ares, the god of war of the ancient Greeks, 
identified by the Romans with Mars. He 
was said to be the son of Zeus and Hera, and 
to have been detected by Hephaestus (Vul- 
can) in an amorous intrigue with Aphrodite, 
caught in a net, and exposed to the ridicule 
of the assembled gods. 
Arethusa, one of the Nereids (q.v.), and 
nymph of the fountain that bore her name 
in the island of Qrtygia rjear Syracuse. 


Legend relates that the river-god Alpheus 
pursued the nymph, and that both were 
turned into streams that passed .under the 
sea and were united in Ortygia. See Shelley's 
poem, 'Arethusa'. 

Arethusa, a character in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Thilaster' (q.v.). 
(14921556), born at Arezzo in Italy, whence 
his name. He was author of five comedies and 
a tragedy, and also of satires and other poems 
of a scandalous or licentious character. He is 
frequently mentioned in English works of the 
Elizabethan and later periods and differently 
appreciated, from 'It was one of the wittiest 
knaves God ever made* of Nash ('The Un- 
fortunate Traveller') to 'that notorious ribald 
of Arezzo' of Milton ('Areopagitica'). 
Argalia, in Boiardo's 'Orlando Innamorato*, 
the brother of Angelica (q.v.). 
Argan, the malade imaginaire in Moliere's 
comedy of that name. 

Argante, (i) in the Arthurian legend, 
Morgan le Fay (q.v.), the fairy queen to whom 
Arthur, after the last battle, is borne to be 
healed of his wounds ; (2) in Spenser's 'Faerie 
Queene' (in. vii), a mighty and licentious 
giantess, daughter of Typhoeus the Titan, 
whom Satyrane puts to flight; (3) a character 
in Moliere's *Les Fourberies de Scapin*. 
Argantes, in Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered' 
(q.v.), a fierce Circassian, a champion on the 
pagan side, finally killed by Tancred. 
Argents, see Barclay (J.). 
Ar gentile and Cur an, a story in the 'Albion's 
England* of Warner (q.v.), reprinted in 
Percy's 'Reliques'. King Adelbright on his 
death-bed leaves his daughter Argentile to the 
care of King Edel, who, hoping to get her 
kingdom, keeps her from the sight of princely 
suitors. Curan, son of a Danish prince, takes 
service in Edel's household as a kitchen 
drudge in order to woo her, and Edel, to 
further his own plans, encourages his suit. 
The indignant Argentile flees, and Curan in 
despair becomes a shepherd. He falls in love 
with a neatherd's maid, who turns out to be 
Argentile. They are married, and Curan, 
claiming his wife's kingdom, conquers and 
kills Edel and becomes king of Northumber- 

Argentina or ARGENTORATUM, in imprints, 

Argestes, the Latin name for the west- 
south-west, or according to Pliny the west- 
north-west, wind. 

Argonauts, the name given to the heroes 
who accompanied Jason (q.v.) on board the 
ship 'Argo' to Colchis to recover the Golden 
fleece. The cause of this expedition was as 
follows: Phrixus and Helle, pursued by the 
hatred of their step-mother Ino (q.v.), fled 
from Thebes to the court of Aeetes, king of 
Colchis, on the back of a ram who had a 
goldeu fleece and wings. On the way, Helle 



became giddy and fell into the part of the sea 
called, in consequence, the Hellespont; but 
Phiixus arrived safely, sacrificed the ram to 
Zeus, and dedicated the golden fleece. Aeetes, 
to obtain possession of the fleece, murdered 
Phrbois. When Jason, some time after, de- 
manded of his uncle Pelias the kingdom of 
lolchos, which Pelias had usurped, Pelias to 
get rid of him said he would surrender the 
kingdom if Jason would first avenge the 
death of their relation Phrixus. Jason under- 
took the expedition, embarked on the 'Argo* 
with the bravest of the Greeks, and after 
many adventures reached Colchis. Aeetes 
promised to surrender the fleece, which had 
been the cause of the death of Phrixus, if Jason 
performed certain difficult tasks. These in- 
cluded the sowing of a dragon's teeth, from 
which armed men would arise whose fury 
would be turned against Jason. With the help 
of Medea (q.v.), the king's daughter, who fell 
in love with Jason and possessed a knowledge 
of enchantments, the tasks were successfully 
accomplished, and Jason and Medea returned 
to lolchos with the golden fleece. 

The story is the subject of one of Pindar's 
best odes (Pyth. iv), of the *Argonautica* of 
Apollonius Rhodius (q.v.), and of W. Morris's 
'Life and Death of Jason* (q.v.). 

Argos or ARGUS, (i) a monster with a hun- 
dred eyes. Hera, jealous of lo (q.v.), whom 
Zeus had changed into a heifer, sent Argus 
to watch her rival. But Hermes by order of 
Zeus slew him, having lulled him to sleep 
with his lyre. Hera put the eyes of Argus in 
the tail of the peacock, a bird sacred to her. 
(2) the dog of Ulysses (q.v.), who recognized 
his master on his return from Troy after an 
absence of twenty years. 

Argyle, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, eighth earl, 
first marquess of (15981661), who took a 
prominent part in the events in Scotland 
that contributed to the downfall of Charles I, 

figures in Scott's 'The Legend of Montrose* 
(q.v.), where his character is contrasted with 
that of his great rival, the earl of Montrose. 
Beheaded 1661. 

Argyle, JOHN CAMPBELL, second duke of 
(16781743), a prime agent in bringing about 
the union of England and Scotland, and a 
distinguished military commander (he sup- 
pressed Mar's rising of 1715), figures In 
Scott's 'The Heart of Midlothian* (q.v.). 

Ariadne, daughter of Minos (q.v.), king of 
Crete, fell in love with Theseus (q.v.), who 
was shut up in the labyrinth to be devoured 
by the Minotaur. She gave him a clue of 

thread by which he extricated himself from 
his confinement. After conquering the Mino- 
taur, Theseus carried her away and married 
her, but when they arrived at the island of 
Naxos, forsook her. Ariadne in despair 
hanged herself, or according to another legend 
married Dionysus (Bacchus). 

Arian heresy: 'under Constantlne the 
emperor about three hundred years and up- 


ward after Christ, Arius a priest in the church 
of Alexandria, a subtle-witted and a marvel- 
lous fair-spoken man, but discontented that 
one should be placed before him in honour, 
whose superior he thought himself in desert, 
became through envy and stomach prone 
unto contradiction, and bold to broach at the 
length that heresy, wherein the deity of our 
Lord Jesus Christ contained but not opened 
in the [Apostles'] creed, the co-equality and 
co-eternity of the Son with the Father, was 
denied* (Hooker, 'Ecdes. Polity*, v. xlii). The 
heresy was repudiated in the Nicene Creed 
and in the Athanasian Creed. One of the 
most interesting points about this heresy is 
that all the 'barbarian* tribes who overran the 
western Roman Empire in the 4th, 5th, and 
6th cents, had been converted by Arian 
preachers (except the Franks, who were 
heathens till the time of Clovis, and the 
Angles and Saxons). The result was that 
the Franks were Catholics from the first, and 
had inducement to fight the Arian tribes, 

Ariel, (i) in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest* 
(q.v.), an airy spirit whom the witch Sycorax 
has imprisoned in a cloven pine and whom 
Prospero by his magic releases and employs 
to give effect to his designs; (2) in Milton's 
'Paradise Lost* (vi. 371), a rebel angel; (3) in 
Pope's 'The Rape of the Lock* (ii. 53 et seq.) s 
the chief of the sylphs whose humbler pro- 
vince is to tend the fair'. 

Aries, see Ram. 

Arimanes, Ahriman (q.v.), the form of that 
name used by Byron in his 'Manfred* (q.v.). 

Arirnaspians, a Scythian people, of whom 
Herodotus (iv. 27) relates that they had only 
one eye, and that there were gold-guarding 
gryphons in their country; a legend that 
probably relates to the presence of gold in the 

Arioch, in Milton's 'Paradise Lost*, vi. 371,, 
one of the rebel angels. 

AR1ON (fl. 600 B.C.), a famous poet and 
musician of Lesbos, whose principal achieve- 
ment was to perfect the dithyramb or hymn 
to Dionysus. A fragment of Ms poetry sur- 
vives, addressed to Poseidon, telling how the 
dolphins wafted him to land, when he had 
lost his way at sea. A legend grew up that 
having gained great riches at the court of 
Periander, tyrant of Corinth, by his pro- 
fession, he went to Sicily to take part in a 
musical contest. On his return, the sailors 
of his ship resolved to murder him, to obtain 
the wealth that he was carrying. Arion 
begged that he might be allowed to play some 
melodious tune before his death. Having 
done so, he flung himself into the sea. A 
number of dolphins had been attracted by his 
music, and one of them bore Arion safely 
on its back to land. 

Arion, a fabulous horse, the son of Poseidon, 
which had the gift of speech. Hercules gave it 
to Adrastus, long of Argos, 



ARIOSTO, LUDOVICO (1474-1533), born 
at Reggio, spent the greater part of his life at 
Ferrara and for many years was in the service, 
first of Cardinal Ippolito, and then of Duke 
Alfonso of Este, This family he exalted 
in his poern, the 'Orlando Furioso* (q.v.), 
published in its final form in 1532, the 
greatest of Italian romantic epics. There is 
a portrait by Titian, said to be of Ariosto, in 
the National Gallery. 

Ariosto of the North, so Byron calls Sir W. 
Scott ('Childe Harold *s Pilgrimage', iv.4o). 

Aristaeus, an ancient divinity worshipped 
in many parts of Greece, as the protector of 
flocks and herds, and vines and olives. He is 
generally described as the son of Apollo and 
Cyrene. He was father of Actaeon (q.v.). 

Aristarchus of Sarnos, who lived about 
280 B.C., was an eminent astronomer and 
mathematician ; he lived at Alexandria. Going 
beyond Pythagoras (q.v.), he maintained 
that the earth revolved round the sun, and 
that this was the cause of the seasons. 

Aristarchus of Samothrace (jL 150 
B.C.), a celebrated grammarian and critic, 
who founded a grammatical school at Alexan- 
dria. His principal work was the revision of 
the text of Homer's 'Iliad* and 'Odyssey*. 

Aristides, an Athenian general and states- 
man, surnamed 'The Just', who commanded 
his tribe at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) 
and was archon in 489. He was the advocate 
of a quiet and conservative policy as opposed 
to the 'strong navy* policy of Themistocles. 
The struggle between the leaders became 
acute and Aristides was ostracized (see below) 
in 483, but fought at the battle of Salamis, 
and commanded at the battle of Plataea. He 
died about 468 B.C., so poor that his funeral 
could not be defrayed from his estate. 
Ostracism (from oarpeov, oyster) was effected 
by popular vote, the voters writing on an 
oyster-shell or potsherd the name of the 
person they desired to be sent into exile. 
Plutarch relates that an illiterate voter asked 
Aristides (not knowing him) to write Aristides 
upon his shell. The good man, surprised, 
asked whether Aristides had ever injured 
him. 'No, 3 replied the voter, 'but it vexes me 
to hear him everywhere called the Just.' 

Aristippus, founder of the Cyrenaic 
school of philosophy, was born at Cyrene 
about 428 B.C. He taught that man should 
devote himself to extracting from life the 
maximum of pleasure and the minimum of 
pain. But he was not a sensualist, and held 
that the pleasant was identical with the good, 
and must be obtained by self-control. 

Aristippus, or the Joviall Philosopher, see 
Randolph (T.). 

ARISTOPHANES (c. 444-*. 380 B.C.), the 
great Athenian comic poet, whose comedies 
are of great historical value for their carica- 
tures of the leading personages of the time 
and their comments on current affairs. The 


following are his extant comedies: the 
'Acharnians' (an attack on the war-party), 
the 'Knights* (an attack on the demagogue 
Cleon), the 'Clouds* (a criticism of the new 
spirit of philosophical inquiry), the 'Peace* 
(advocating peace with Sparta), the 'Wasps* 
(an attack on demagogues), the 'Birds* 
(general political satire), the 'Frogs' (Euripides 
and Aeschylus contending for the tragic prize 
among the dead), the 'Plutus* (an allegory 
on the coming of wealth to the worthy), the 
'Lysistrata* and 'Ecclesiazusae* (dealing with 
government by women), and the 'Thesmo- 
phoriazusae* (Euripides tried and convicted 
at the female festival of the Thesmophoria). 
Aristophanes, THE ENGLISH, Foote (q.v.). 

Aristophanes'* Apology, a poem by R. 
Browning (q.v.), published in 1875. 

Balaustion (see Balaustion's Adventure) is 
returning to Rhodes, with Euthukles her 
husband, after the fall of Athens and the 
death of Euripides. She relates the events of 
the night on which the news of the death of 
Euripides was received. Aristophanes, half- 
drunk and flushed with the triumph of his 
'Thesmophoriazusae', had come to their 
house, and a discussion had followed, which 
forms the substance of the poem, between 
Aristophanes and Balaustion: the former de- 
fending comedy as the representation of real 
life and attacking the ascetic and unnatural 
Euripides ; the latter maintaining the superior 
value of the tragic poet, and supporting her 
view by reading his 'Herakles'. 
ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.), the great 
Greek philosopher, was born at Stageira in 
Chalcidice (Macedonia). His father was 
Nicomachus, the physician of Amyntas II, 
king of Macedonia, and author of treatises on 
natural science. Aristotle studied at Athens 
under Plato, and stayed there for twenty 
years, latterly also giving instruction in 
rhetoric. He was subsequently appointed by 
Philip of Macedon to be tutor to his son 
Alexander. On the accession of the latter 
to the throne (335), Aristotle returned to 
Athens, where in the shady paths (-TreptWroi) 
surrounding the Lyceum he lectured to 
many scholars, while walking up and down 
(irepiTTOT&v). For one or other of these reasons, 
his school came to be known as the Peripatetic. 
He remained thus occupied for thirteen 
years, and here composed the greater part 
of his works. Shortly before his death he 
came under political suspicion and retired 
to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died. His 
writings, which had an immense influence on 
thought and some of which serve as text-books 
to-day, cover an extraordinarily wide field: 
logic, moral philosophy, metaphysics, poetry, 
physics, zoology, politics, and rhetoric. He 
created Logic, the science of reasoning. He 
surveyed the whole range of zoology, adopt- 
ing broad classifications which have been 
accepted by later science. His most famous 
works are his 'Ethics', an introduction to 
moral philosophy (he was the first to point 



out that virtue is a state of the will, and not 

of the reason), 'Poetics*, and 'Politics*, 

though the scope of this last is limited to the 

city-state of his day. He was made known in 

the Middle Ages by Latin versions of the 

commentaries of the Arabian scholar Averroes 


Ark, The, Sir W. Ralegh's ship at the battle 

with the Spanish Armada. 

Arlotto Mainardo (1396-1484), the curate 

or piovano of S. Cresci di Maciuoli, near 

Fiesole, a witty and jovial priest, who made 

several journeys to Flanders and is said even 

to have visited England, where he obtained 

the favour of Edward IV. The witticisms 

attributed to him were collected in 'Facetie 

Piacevoli* (1500), which were frequently 


Annachanus, the Latin title of the arch- 
bishops of Armagh; see Fztzratpk. 

Armada, THE INVINCIBLE, consisting of 
some 130 ships (besides smaller vessels), was 
collected by Philip II of Spain and dispatched 
in 1588 under the duke of Medina Sidonia. 
It was to sail to Flanders to transport thence 
to England the Spanish army of the duke of 
Parma. It was defeated and dispersed by the 
English fleet under Lord Howard of Effing- 
ham and such captains as Drake, Frobisher, 
and Hawkins. 

Armadale, a novel by Wilkie Collins (q.v.), 
published in 1866. 

Armado, DON ADRIANO DE, a character in 
Shakespeare's 'Love's Labour *s Lost' (q.v.). 

Armageddon, in Rev. xvi. 16, the place 

where the Kings of the Earth are to be 
gathered together for 'the battle of that great 
day of God Almighty*. 

Armida, in Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered* 
(q.v.), the niece of Hidraotes, king of Damas- 
cus, a powerful magician. She offered her 
services to the defenders of Jerusalem when 
it was besieged by the Christians under 
Godfrey de Bouillon, and going to the 
Christian camp lured away by her beauty 
many of the principal knights. She inveigled 
them by magic power into a delicious garden, 
where they were overcome by indolence. 
Among her captives were Rinaldo of Este 
and Tancred (qq.v). 

Annine, FERDINAND, the hero of Disraeli's 
'Henrietta Temple* (q.v.). 

Arminianism, the doctrine of James 
Arminius or Harmensen (d. 1609), a Dutch 
protestant theologian, who put forth views 
opposed to those of Calvin, especially on pre- 
destination, refusing to hold God responsible 
for evil. In 161819 his doctrines were con- 
demned by the synod of Dort; but they 
spread rapidly and were embraced, in whole 
or in part, by large sections of the Reformed 

Arminius (latinized form of HERMANN) 
(B.C. i8-A.D. 19), the chief of the German 


tribe of the Cherusci, who incited his country- 
men to rise against the Romans and destroyed 
the army of Varas in A.D. 8. He also con- 
ducted the resistance to Germanicus. 
ARMSTRONG, JOHN (1709-79), a phy- 
sician and poet, author of the 4 Art of Pre- 
serving Health* (1774), a surprisingly pleasant 
poem in spite of its unattractive title ; also of 
'Taste*, a satirical epistle of literary criticism. 

Armstrong, WILLIAM, known as KINMONT 

WILLIE (fl. 1596), a border moss-trooper, 

whose nickname is taken from his castle of 
Kinrnont in Canonby, Dumfriesshire. He 
was captured in 1587 but escaped; he was 
imprisoned in 1596 at Carlisle, but was 
rescued by the Scottish warden. His fate is 
unknown. He is the hero of the ballad, 
*KInmont Willie', included in Scott's * Border 

Arnaut, an Albanian. 

Amo, the river on which stands Florence, 
the city where Dante was bom and the home 
of Boccaccio, the Medici, &c. 

Arnold, in Byron's *The Deformed Trans- 
formed* (q.v.), the ugly son of Bertha, who is 
miraculously transformed into the shape of 

Arnold, BENEDICT, see AndrS. 

ARNOLD, Sm EDWIN (1832-1904), edu- 
cated at King's College, London, and Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, was principal of the 
Deccan College, Bombay, from 1856 to x$6i, 
when he joined the staff of the 'Daily Tele- 
graph*. The fruit of his Indian experience is 
seen at its best in *The Light of Asia, or 
The Great Renunciation 1 (q.y., 1879), a poem 
of which Buddha is the subject. He wrote a 
number of other poems, some of them trans- 
lations from the Sanskrit. 

ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-88), son of 

T. Arnold (q.v.), the great head master of 
Rugby, was educated at Rugby, Winchester, 
and Balliol College, Oxford, where he won the 
Newdigate Prize. He became fellow of Oriel 
College, and an Inspector of schools, a post 
which he held from 1851 nearly until his 
death. He was professor of poetry at Oxford 
from 1857 to 1867. His first volume of 
poems, *The Strayed Reveller and other 
Poems', appeared in 1849. It contained 'The 
Forsaken Merman*, *The Sick King in Bo- 
khara 5 , and the sonnet on Shakespeare. 
*Empedocles on Etna [q.v.], and other 
Poems*, containing 'Tristram and Iseult' 
(q.v,), followed in 1852. Both these volumes 
were shortly afterwards withdrawn from 
circulation. In 1853 appeared a volume of 
'Poems* containing extracts from the earlier 
books, c Sohrab and Rustum* and *The 
Scholar-Gipsy* (qq.v.); also the 'Church of 
Brou*, *Requiescat*, the 'Memorial Verses to 
Wordsworth* and the * Stanzas in Memory of 
the Author of Obermann*. 'Poems, Second 
Series", including 'Balder Dead* (q.v.), ap- 
peared in 1855 ; *Merope, a Tragedy* in 1858; 



and 'New Poems', including 'Thyrsis* (q.v.), 
'Rugby Chapel*, 'Heine's Grave*, 'A Southern 
Night* (a lament for one of his brothers), 
and other well-known pieces, in 1867. 

The bulk of Matthew Arnold's prose 
works appeared after 1860. The most im- 
portant of these were the 'Essays in Criticism' 
(1865 and 1888), in which he gave literary 
criticism an unusually wide scope, extending 
it to an attack on the 'phiHstimsm* or 'pro- 
vinciality* then, in his opinion, prevailing in 
England. He also published lectures 'On 
Translating Homer* (1861) and 'The Study 
of Celtic Literature' (1867)'. His 'Culture 
and Anarchy*, a criticism of English social 
and political life, appeared in 1869; and this 
was followed by various works of religious 
criticism, *St. Paul and Protestantism* (1870), 
'Literature and Dogma* (1873), 'God and the 
Bible* (1875), and 'Last Essays on Church 
and Religion*. 

Special reference is due to Arnold's 
attempts to secure the improvement of 
education, and particularly secondary educa- 
tion, in England. He was sent in 1859, and 
again in 1865, to study educational systems 
on the Continent, and his reports, 'The 
Popular Education of France* (1861) and 
'Schools and Universities on the Continent*, 
drew attention to our deficiencies in this 
respect. There are further references to his 
views on education in other writings, e.g. 
'Culture and Anarchy* (1869), and the 
'Letters on Compulsory Education" in 
'Friendship's Garland* (1871). 
ARNOLD, THOMAS (1795-1842), edu- 
cated at Winchester and Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, is principally remembered 
as the head master (1828-42) who raised 
Rugby to the rank of a great public school. 
He was author of an unfinished 'History of 
Rome* (1838-42), inspired by Niebuhr (q.v.), 
and of an edition of Thucydides (1830-5). 
He was appointed Regius professor of modern 
history at Oxford in 1841. His 'History of 
the later Roman Commonwealth* appeared 
posthumously in 1845. 
(18641930), a learned writer on the Cali- 
phate, Legacy of Islam, &c. 
Arnold of Brescia (d. 1155), an Italian 
Augustinian, an eloquent ascetic, who 
vigorously condemned the temporal power 
and abuses of the clergy and papacy. He 
gathered round him a following known as 
Amoldists, and fomented the revolution by 
which the Roman republic of 1145 was 
instituted. Arnold fled from Rome in 1155, 
was seized by order of Frederick Barbarossa, 
handed over to the pope, Adrian IV (Nicholas 
Breakspear), and executed. 
Arraignment of Paris, The y a pastoral pky 
in verse by Peele (q.v.), published in 1584. 

It was written for and played before Queen 
Elizabeth, whose beauty and virtue are duly 
celebrated. Paris is tending his flocks on 
Ida, with Oenone his wife, when he is called 


on to decide to which of the three goddesses, 
Juno, PallaSj or Venus, the golden apple shall 
be awarded. He decides in favour of Venus, 
who carries away Paris, leaving Oenone dis- 
consolate. Juno and Pallas arraign Paris 
before the gods of partiality in his judgement. 
The case is referred to Diana. She evades 
the delicate choice by awarding the apple to 
the nymph Eliza, 'our Zabeta fair*. 

Arria, see Paetus. 

ARRIAN (b. c. 100 A.D.), of Nicomedia in 
Bithynia, a pupil of Epictetus, and consul 
under Antoninus Pius, wrote a history of the 
Asiatic expedition of Alexander the Great, 
and a work on India, including the voyage 
of Nearchus, Alexander's general, from the 
mouth of the Indus to the Persian Gulf. 

Arrowsmith, Martin, a novel by Sinclair 
Lewis (q.v.), published in 1925. 

Arsaces, the founder of the Parthian empire 
and the first of the Arsacid rulers. He re- 
volted against the Seleucids about 250 B.C. 

Arsis, in modern acceptation, the strong or 
accented syllable in English metre. The pre- 
cise meaning of the word in Greek is un- 
Art of Dining, see Hayward (A.*)* 

Art of English Poesy, Observations on the, an 
attack on the use of rhyme in English poetry 
by Thomas Campion (d. 1619), to which S. 
Daniel (q.v.) replied in his 'Defence of 

Arte of English Poesie, see Puttenham. 
Art of Rhetorique, see Wilson (TV). 

Artaxominous, the king in 'Bombastes 
Furioso* (q.v.). 

Artegal, a legendary king of Britain, son of 
Gorbonian, deposed for his crimes and re- 
placed by his brother Elidure. When Artegal 
returned from exile, Elidure restored him to 
the throne. The story, which is in Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, is the subject of a poem, 
'Artegal and Elidure', by Wordsworth. 

Artegall, SIR, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', 
Bk. V, the champion of Justice. Britomart 
(q.v.), to whom his image has been revealed 
by a magic mirror, is in love with him, and 
her quest of him ends in their union. He 
undertakes the rescue of Irena (Ireland) from 
the tyrant Maltorto, symbolizing Lord Grey 
de Wilton. Jointly with Prince Arthur he 
slays the Soudan (Philip II of Spain). 

Artemis, see Diana. 

Artemisia, (i) a queen of Halicarnassus in 
Caria, who accompanied Xerxes in his in- 
vasion of Greece and fought with distinction 
at the battle of Salamis. This is 'the Carian 
Artemisia* referred to by Tennyson in 'The 
Princess*, ii; (2) the sister, wife, and suc- 
cessor of Mausolus, king of Caria. Her grief 
at his death was so great that she mixed his 
ashes with her drink, and built in his memory 


at Halicamassus the Mausoleum, which 
passed for one of the seven wonders of the 
world. She reigned 352-350 B.C. 

The name 'Artemisia' is given to the genus 
of plants that includes wormwood and 
absinthe, either from the goddess Artemis, 
because of their medicinal properties, or 
from the above queen, who mixed her hus- 
band's ashes with her drink. 

Artful Dodger, THE, a character in Dickens's 
'Oliver Twist* (q.v.). 

Arthur, KING. The romantic figure of King 
Arthur has probably some historical basis, 
and there is reason to think that, as Nennius 
(q.v.) states, he was a chieftain or general 
(dux bellorum} in the 5th or 6th cents. The 
'Annales Cambriae* (q.v.) place the battle of 
Mount Badon, in which Arthur carried the 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ on his 
shoulders', in 518, and the 'battle of Camlan, 
in which Arthur and Medraut fell", in 539. 
The contemporary chronicler Gildas (q.v.) 
makes no mention of Arthur (though he 
refers to the battle of Badon), nor do some 
of the principal Welsh bards of the 6th and 
yth cents. But there is mention of him in 
certain ancient poems contained in the 'Black 
Book of Carmarthen* and more especially in 
the ancient Welsh romance 'Kilhwch and 
Olwen* (q.v.), where he figures with Kay, 
Bedivere, and Gawain (Gwalchmei). But 
this Arthur is a king of fairyland, and the 
author of the tale is building, in Matthew 
Arnold's words, with the 'materials of an 
older architecture, greater, cunninger, and 
more majesticaP. In fact, Arthur and several 
other characters in the Ajthurian legend can 
be traced to figures in the ancient Celtic 
pantheon (Rhys, 'Studies in the Arthurian 
Legend*, 1901), but their working up and 
fashioning was, in the wide sense of the word, 
English (Saintsbury, *The Flourishing of 
Romance* in P.E.L.). Rhys suggests that 
there were originally two Arthurs, the British 
god and the human general, whose characters 
have become blended in legend. 

Arthur first takes definite form as a roman- 
tic hero in the 'Historia Regum Britanniae* of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth (q.v.), a work in 
which the author's imagination played a very 
large part. In this narrative Arthur is the son 
of Uther Pendragon (Welsh = chief leader in 
war) and Ygaerne (Igraine), wife of Gorlois of 
Cornwall, whom Uther wins by the help of 
Merlin's magic. The elves bestow on him 
long life, riches, and virtues. At the age of 15 
he becomes king of Britain and wars against 
Scots, Picts, and Saxons. With his sword 
'Calibum* (Excalibur) he slays Childric, de- 
feats the heathen, and conquers Scotland, 
Ireland, Iceland, and the Orkneys. He 
marries Guanhamara(Wenhaver, Guinevere), 
a lady of noble Roman family. He conquers 
many lands on the Continent. His court is at 
Caerleon on Usk. He is summoned to pay 
tribute to the Emperor Lucius of Rome, 
resists, and declares war. Guanharnara and 


the kingdom are left in Modred, his nephew's, 
charge. On his way to Rome he slays the 
giant of St. Michael's Mount, Walwain 

(Gawain), his ambassador, defies the emperor 
and bears himself bravely in the ensuing 
combat. Arthur is about to enter Rome when 
he receives warning that Modred has seized 
Guanharnara and the kingdom. He returns 
with Walwain, who is slain on landing, 
Modred retreats to Cornwall, and in a final 
battle on the Camel, is slain with all his 
knights. Arthur is mortally wounded, and is 
borne to the island of Avalon for the healing 
of his wounds. Guanharnara takes the veil. 

This story was developed by the Norman 
writer Wace (q.v.), who added many details. 
The 'Round Table' is first mentioned by him, 
a device to settle the disputes as to precedence 
among Arthur's knights. The wounded king 
is expected to return from Avalon and resume 
his kingdom. Wace's work served as the basis 
of the *Bnit 9 of Layamon (q.v.), the first 
English record of the *noble deeds of 
England*, which adds many romantic details, 
and a fairy element, to the story. Elves are 
present at Arthur's birth, his sword and 
spear are of magic origin. After the final 
battle at Camelford, Arthur is borne off to 
Argante (Morgan le Fay s q.v.) in Avalon, in a 
magic boat. 

The Arthurian story was also developed in 
the French Matiere de Bretagne, by such 
writers as Marie de France and Chretien de 
Troyes, and later by Robert de Boron. 
Arthur became the centre of a mass of legends 
in various tongues. A number of these, deal- 
ing with various personages, Merlin, Launce- 
lot, Tristram, &c., were gradually associated 
with him. He is the central figure only in the 
narratives of his earlier years and of his final 
battles and death. In the other tales Ms 
court is merely the rallying-point for the 
various adventurous knights. He ceases to be 
the model of purity and valour, and yields in 
importance to Gawain and Launcelot. 

The story of Arthur, as summarized above, 
is the foundation of Malory's 'Morte 
d'Arthur 9 (q.v.), but the greater part of this 
work is occupied with the exploits of the 
Knights of the Round Table, the quest of the 
Holy Grail, the loves of Launcelot and Guine- 
vere and of Tristram and Iseult. For Tenny- 
son's presentment of the story see Idylls of 
the, King. See also William of Malmcsburyi 
and Glastonbury for Arthur's alleged burial 

Arthur, PRINCE, in Spenser's *Faerie 
Queene*, symbolizes * Magnificence* (?Mag- 
nanimity), in the Aristotelian sense of the 
perfection of all the virtues. He enters into 
the adventures of the several knights and 
brings them to a fortunate conclusion. His 
chief adventures are the slaying of the three- 
bodied monster Gerioneo (Philip II of Spain) 
and the rescue from him of Belgfe (the Nether- 
lands) (Bk. v, x and si); and, jointly with 
Artegall, the slaying of the Soudan (Philip II) 


in Bis 'chariot high' (the Armada) (v. viii). 
Whether Spenser had in mind any particu- 
lar living person in his description of Arthur 
is uncertain; perhaps the earl of Leicester 
is indicated. 

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual 
Union, THE, were the thirteen Articles, 
agreed to by the Continental Congress in 
*777> which provided for a union of the 
American Colonies to be known as the 
United States of America. The Articles were 
subject to ratification by the individual 
States, and it was not until 1781 , when Mary- 
land finally agreed to the Articles, that 
ratification was complete. Once the Articles 
were effective, the old Continental Congress 
proceeded to act as the Congress of the 
Confederation . 

Articles of Religion, THE, or THE THIRTY- 
NINE ARTICLES, the thirty-nine statements to 
which those who take orders in the Church 
of England subscribe. In 1553 forty-two 
Articles were published. These were modified 
and reduced by Convocation to thirty-nine 
and received parliamentary sanction in 1571. 

Arundel Marbles, THE, part of a collection 
of statuary, pictures, gems, and books made 
by Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel 
(1585?-! 646), a patron of learning and the 
arts. The marbles and many statues were 
given by his grandson, the 6th duke of Nor- 
folk, to the University of Oxford. The 
marbles include the Tarian Chronicle* (q.v.). 

Arundines Cami, a collection of Cambridge 
Latin verses, projected and published in 
1841 by Henry Drury (1812-63). 

Arvalan, the son of Kehama, in Southey's 
'Curse of Kehama' (q.v.). 

Arveragiis, in Chaucer's 'Franklin's Tale' 
(see under 'Canterbury Tales'), the husband 
of Dorigen. 

Arviragus, in Shakespeare's 'Cymbeline* 
(q.v.), one of the king's sons. 

Aryan, a term applied by some to the great 
division or family of languages which in- 
cludes Sanskrit, Zend, Persian, Greek, Latin, 
Celtic, Teutonic, and Slavonic, with their 
modern representatives; also called Indo- 
European and Indo-Germanic. Also applied 
to a member of the Aryan family, one belong- 
ing to or descended from the ancient people 
who spoke the parent Aryan language. 

As You Like It, a comedy by Shakespeare 
(q.v.), probably produced about 1599, not 
printed till the folio of 1623. It is a dramatic 
adaptation of Lodge's romance f Rosalynde' 
(q.v.), with the addition of the characters of 
Jaques and Touchstone, the humorous scenes, 
and other minor alterations. 

Frederick has usurped the dominions of 
the Duke his brother, who is living with his 
faithful followers in the forest of Arden (q.v.). 
Celia, Frederick's daughter, and Rosalind, 


the Duke's daughter, living at Frederick's 
court, witness a wrestling match in which 
Orlando, son of Sir Rowland de Boys, defeats 
a powerful adversary, and Rosalind falls in 
love with Orlando and he with her. Orlando, 
who at his father's death has been left 
in the charge of his elder brother Oliver, has 
been driven from home by Oliver's cruelty. 
Frederick, learning that Orlando is the son 
of Sir Rowland, who was a friend of the exiled 
Duke, has his anger against the latter revived, 
and banishes Rosalind from his court, and 
Celia accompanies her. Rosalind assumes 
a countryman's dress and takes the name 
Ganymede ; Celia passes as Aliena his sister. 
They live in the forest of Arden, and fall in 
with Orlando, who has joined the banished 
Duke. Ganymede encourages Orlando to 
make love to her as 4 though she were his 
Rosalind. Oliver comes to the forest to kill 
Orlando, but is saved by him from a lioness, 
and is filled with remorse for his cruelty. He 
falls in love with Aliena, and their wedding is 
arranged for the morrow. Ganymede under- 
takes to Orlando that she will by magic 
produce Rosalind at the same time to be 
married to him. When all are assembled in 
presence of the banished Duke to celebrate 
the double nuptials, Celia and Rosalind put 
off their disguise and appear in then: own 
characters. News is brought that Frederick 
the usurper, setting out to seize and destroy 
his brother and his followers, has been con- 
verted from his intention by an old religious 
man* and has made restitution of the duke- 

Jaques, a lord attending on the banished 
Duke, a contemplative character, com- 
pounded of humour and melancholy, and 
Touchstone, a cynical philosopher in the garb 
of a buffoon, who marries the country wench, 
Audrey, are among the delightful minor 
characters of the play. 

Asaph, in the part of 'Absalom and Achito 
pheP (q.v.) written by Tate, is Dryden, and 
refers to the Asaph of i Chron. xvi. 47 and 
xxv. i, and the hereditary choir, the 'Sons of 
Asaph*, who conducted the musical services 
of the Temple. 

Asaph, ST. (d. c. 600), a pupil of St. 
Kentigern (q.v.) in his monastery at Llanelwy, 
and his successor as its prior. He was the 
first bishop of that see, which took his name. 
He is commemorated on i May. 

Ascalaphus, see Proserpine. 
Ascanius, the son of Aeneas (q.v,). 

Ascapart, the giant conquered and con- 
verted by 'Bevis of Hampton* (q.v.). 

Ascendant, see House (Astrological). 

ASCHAM,ROGER(i5i5~68),was educated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
distinguished himself in classics and became 
Greek reader in 1538. He published in 1545 
'Toxophilus*, a treatise in English in dialogue 
form on archery, urging the importance of 


physical training in education. He succeeded 
Grindal as tutor to Princess Elizabeth in 1548, 
and travelled on the Continent as secretary to 
Sir Thomas Morison, English ambassador to 
Charles V, in 1550-3. In the latter year he 
became Latin secretary to Queen Mary, being 
specially permitted to continue in his pro- 
fession of Protestantism. In 1558 he was 
appointed private tutor to Queen Elizabeth. 
In his 'Scholemaster', published after his 
death, he dealt with the education of boys of 
position both at school, of which he criticized 
the prevailing discipline, and after leaving it, 
pointing out the dangers of idle attendance at 
court and of Italian travel. By his 'Toxophi- 
lus* and 'Scholemaster* and by his 'Letters' 
he contributed notably to the development of 
a simple English prose style. His love of 
sport is interesting. According to Camden 
('Annals', 1568), he lived and died a poor 
man, owing to his addiction to dicing and 
cock-fighting. Whatever may be the truth 
about his gambling (which he condemns in 
'Toxophilus'), he acknowledges in the 
'Scholemaster* his interest in cock-fighting. 

ASCLEPIADES, a lyric poet of Samos, of 
the 2nd cent. B.C., to whom is attributed the 
invention of the Asclepiadic metre (a spondee, 
two or three choriambs, and an iambus.) 
Asclepius, see Aesculapius. 
Asiandiyar, see Isfendiyar. 

Asgarct, in Scandinavian mythology, the 

region, in the centre of the universe, in- 
habited by the gods. 

Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, so 
called from the practice in the Roman Catho- 
lic Church of marking the foreheads of 
penitents with ash on that day. 

Ash Wednesday, the title of a book of poems 
by T. S. Eliot (q.v.). 

Ashfield, FARMER and MRS., characters in 
Morton's 'Speed the Plough* (q.v.). 

Ashkenazim, see Sephardim. 

AsMey Library, the foremost private library 
in England, collected by Thomas James Wise 
(q.v.). It is remarkable for its first editions 
of famous English poets and dramatists from 
Jacobean times, i.e. from Ben Jonson down- 
wards. The catalogue of the library (id 
volumes) appeared in 192230. 

ASHMOLE, ELIAS (1617^92), antiquary 
and astrologer, studied physics and mathe- 
matics at Brasenose College, Oxford. He 
joined the Royalists and held several govern- 
ment appointments. He presented his col- 
lection of curiosities (see Askmolean Building) 
to Oxford University, to which he subse- 
quently bequeathed his library. He wrote or 
edited antiquarian and Rosicrucian works. 
Ashmolean Building (the 'Old Ashmo- 
lean*), Oxford. Erected between 1679 and 
1683 at the charge of the University, for the 
reception of the collection of natural and 
artificial curiosities given by Elias Ashmole 


(based on the nucleus of a collection of 
John Tradescant, 1608-62), and for the pro- 
motion of the study of chemistry and natural 
philosophy. The architect of the building 
is said ('Oxford Historical Register* and 
^University Calendar') to have been Mr. 
Wood, *a stone-cutter or mason of Oxford*; 
the claim that the designer was Sir Christo- 
pher Wren is discussed in Sir Charles 
Mallet's 'History of Oxford* (vol. 3,. 1927). 
The main floor of the building has been in 
use since 1901 for the compilation of the 
Oxford English Dictionary. In 1897 the 
Ashmolean collection, considerably aug- 
mented since its inception, was removed to 
new buildings in Beaumont Street, now 
known as the Ashmolean Museum, of Art and 
Archaeology. The present Museum includes 
also the pictures belonging to the University 

Ashmolean Museum, see the preceding 

Ashtarofh, see Astarte. 

characters in Scott's 'Bride of Lammermoor* 

Asia, PAMPERED JADES OF, see under Tambur- 
laine the Great. 

Asiento Treaty, a treaty between Great 
Britain and Spain, accompanying the Treaty 
of Utrecht of 1713, by which Great Britain 
obtained the exclusive right for a period of 
years of importing negro slaves into the 
Spanish colonies in America, and also the 
right of sending each year one cargo of goods 
to Portobello. 

Aslaugo?s Knight, a romance by De La 

Motte Fouque" (the author of * Undine*, q.v.) 
translated by Carlyle in * German Romance** 
Aslauga was the daughter of Sigurd and 
wife of Ragnar Lodbrog. The Knight Froda, 
long afterwards reading of her, elects her as 
the lady of his heart and Ms helper in fight 
and song. Aslauga appears to him from time 
to time and controls his destiny, and finally 
carries Mm off to the land of spirits. 

Asmadai, in Milton's ^Paradise Lost*, vi, 
365, one of the rebel angels, vanquished by 
Raphael. The name is the same as *Asmo- 
deus' (q.v.). 

Asmodaeus, in Tobit ili. 8 9 the evil spirit 
who loved Sarah, daughter of Raguel, and 
slew the seven husbands given to her in 
succession. The spirit was driven away to 
Egypt by the smoke made by the heart and 
liver of a fish laid on the ashes of incense, 
according to instructions given by the angel 
to Tobias; after which the latter was able to 
marry Sarah in peace. 

Asmodeus is the name given by Le Sage 
in his *Diable Boiteux' (q.v.) to the demon 
companion of Don Cleofas. 

Asoka, emperor of India, 264-228 B.C. 



Inscriptions state that he abandoned a career 
of conquest by the sword in order to spread 
the religion of Buddha. He sent missionaries 
far and wide for this purpose, and is highly 
venerated by Buddhists. 

Asolando, the title of the collection of the 
last poems of R. Browning (q.v.), published 
in 1890. It contains some of the author's 
most beautiful short pieces, and ends with 
the well-known 'Epilogue' 'At midnight in 
the silence of the sleep-time 1 . The title is 
derived, as the poet explains in the preface, 
from a word ascribed to the inventiveness 
of Cardinal Bembo, asolare, 'to disport in 
the open air, amuse oneself at random*. 

Aspasia, the famous Greek courtesan, 
daughter of Axiochus of Miletus, came to 
Athens, where she acquired fame by her 
beauty, culture, and wit. She so captivated 
Pericles (q.v.), that he made her his lifelong 
companion. See Pericles and Aspasia. 

Aspatia, a character in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's 'The Maid's Tragedy* (q.v.). 

Asphodel, a genus of liliaceous plants, 
mostly native of Southern Europe. The poets 
make it the flower of the Elysian fields 
(Homer, 'Odyssey*, xi. 539) and connect it 
with the legend of Proserpine (q.v.). The 
word 'daffodil' is a corruption of 'asphodel'. 
Aspramont, Aspramonte in Calabria, which 
figures in the Charlemagne legends as the 
scene of a fictitious campaign against the 
Saracen king. 

Asraei, see Azrael. 

Assassins, THE, a fanatical sect whose re- 
ligion was compounded of Magianism and 
Mohammedanism, founded in Persia at the 
end of the i ith cent, by Hasan-ben-Sabbah, 
known as the 'Old Man of the Mountain', 
from the castle of Alamut in the mountains 
south of the Caspian which was his strong- 
hold. The Assassins migrated to the Lebanon 
and were notorious for the secret murders 
that they carried out at the orders of their 
chief. It was said that before they attacked 
an enemy they intoxicated themselves with 
hashish, whence their name, which means 

For the story of Hasan-ben-Sabbah 's re- 
lations with Nizam-uI-Mulk and Omar Khay- 
yam, see under Nizam-ul-Mulk. 

Asseneth, in a variant of the story of Joseph 
and Potiphar's wife, is Potiphar's daughter, 
whom Joseph consents to marry if she will 
renounce her gods, which she does. An angel 
signifies approval and Pharaoh gives a feast 
to celebrate the nuptials. The story, perhaps 
of early Christian invention, was made the 
subject of a French prose romance, early in 
the 14-th cent., by Jean de Vignay. 

ASSER (d. 909?), a monk of St. David's, 
who entered the household of King Alfred 
and studied with him for six months in each 
year (c. 885). He received the monasteries of 


Amesbury and Banwell, and later a grant of 
Exeter and its district, and was bishop of 
Sherborne. He wrote a Latin life of Alfred 
and a chronicle of EngHsh history between 849 
and 887. The authenticity of these has been 
disputed. The 'Life* is important as 'the 
earliest biography of an English layman'. The 
classic edition is by W. H. Stevenson (1904). 

Assiento Treaty, see Asiento. 

Assonance, the correspondence or rhyming 
of one word with another in the accented and 
following syllables, but not in the consonants, 
as, e.g., in Old French versification. 

Assur, ASHUR, or ASSHUR, the local god of 
the city of the same name, which was the 
metropolis of the first Assyrian kingdom. He 
became the supreme god of the Assyrians, 
the god of war, the protector of the people, 
represented in a horned cap, shooting an 
arrow from his bow. His wife was Belit. 

the eastern equivalent of the Greek Aphro- 
dite, the goddess of love and fruitful increase. 
ASTARTE is the name under which 
Augusta (Byron's half-sister) figures in his 
poem 'Manfred' (q.v.). The story of Byron 
and Astarte is told in 'Astarte', by Ralph 
Milbanke, earl of Lovelace (issued privately 
in 1905 and for general sale in 1921). 

Asti, the name of various wines, still and 
sparkling, produced at Asti in Piedmont. 

Astley, SIR JACOB, Baron Astley (1579- 
1652), a Royalist who served as major-general 
with distinction in the Civil War. He was 
'hurt' at Edgehill. His prayer before Warwick 
is famous : 'Lord, I shall be very busy this day : 
if I forget Thee, do not Thou forget me.* 

Astley, PHILIP (1742-1814), the famous 
equestrian performer and circus-owner, 
joined General Elliott's light horse in 1759 
and became breaker-in and sergeant-major. 
He opened an exhibition of horsemanship at 
Lambeth, and in 1770 a wooden circus at 
Westminster. Subsequently he established in 
all nineteen equestrian theatres, including 
Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, London. 

Astolat, in Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur* 
(Ascplet in 'Le Morte Arthur*, q.v.), is, ac- 
cording to Malory, Guildford in Surrey. For 
the 'Fair Maid of Astolat' see Elaine le Blank. 

Astolfo, in the 'Orlando Innamorato* and 
the 'Orlando Furioso' (qq.v.), a courteous and 
graceful English knight, one of the suitors of 
Angelica (q.v.), and at one time a prisoner of 
Alcina (q.v.). He receives from Logestilla 
(q.v.) a magic horn, the blast of which fills its 
hearers with panic, and a book that tells him 
all he wishes to know. He gets possession of 
the hippogriff of Rogero, and with an Eng- 
lishman's partiality for travel, flies about the 
world, relieves Prester John in Nubia of his 
troubles with harpies, visits Paradise, whence 
St. John carries him in a chariot to the moon. 
There, in a valley, are collected all the things 


that are lost on earth, lost kingdoms, lost 
reputations, lost time, and in the heap he finds 
the lost wits of Orlando, which he restores to 
the crazy hero. As regards his description 
as an English knight, it appears that in the 
earlier French chanson he figures as Estout de 
Langres, or Lengrois, corrupted into Lenglois 
and PEnglois (F. J. Snel! in P.B.L., 'The 
Fourteenth Century'). 

Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise 
Beyond the Rocky Mountains* by Washing- 
ton Irving (q.v.) published in 1836. 

One of living's early books, devoted to 
John Jacob Astor's development of the fur 
trade in the American North-west, and based 
upon the first-hand information furnished 
by various travellers, 

Astraea, a daughter of Zeus and Themis. 
According to the poets, she lived on earth 
during the golden age and was a source of 
blessing to men ; but their impiety drove her 
to heaven during the brazen and iron ages, 
and she was placed among the constellations 
of the zodiac, under the name Virgo. 

ASTRAEA in line 290 of Pope's 'Imitations 
of Horace*, Ep. n. i, 

'The stage how loosely does Astraea tread*, 
is 3V Irs. Behn (q.v.). 

Astraea Redux, a poem on the Restoration of 
Charles II, by Dryden (q.v.), published in 

Astrte, see Utf& 

Astropkel, a pastoral elegy, written by 
Spenser (q.v.) in 1586 on the death of Sir 
Philip Sidney, who was mortally wounded in 

that year at Zutphen. Spenser again lamented 
him. in s The Ruines of Time* (q.v.). 
Astrophel and Stella, the series of sonnets 
in which Sir P. Sidney (q.v.), according to the 
common account, expressed his love for 
Penelope Devereux, daughter of the ist earl 
of Essex. In 1580 she was married against 
her will to Lord Rich, and Sidney's dis- 
appointment and passion are supposed to 
have found voice in these poems. It appears, 
however, that Penelope was in love before her 
marriage with Charles Blount, earl of Devon- 
shire, whom she married after her divorce 
from Lord Rich. This renders the theory of 
Sidney's devotion to her improbable, but not 
impossible. The sonnets were not published 
until 1591, after Sidney's death, and their 
chronological order is uncertain. Eleven 
songs, originally printed after the Sonnets, 
were interspersed among them in the 'Arcadia* 
of 1598. 

Asuras, in later Hindu mythology, evil 
demons, the enemies of the gods. In the 
Vedas the term is frequently applied to the 
gods themselves. 

Asyniur, in Scandinavian mythology, the 
collective name of the goddesses (see JSEsir). 
Atabalipa, in Milton's 'Paradise Lost*, si. 
409, is Atahualpa, the Inca of Peru who was 
conquered by Pizarro, 

Atala, see Chateaubriand. * 

Atalanta, according to legend the daughter 
of lasus and Clymene, who was exposed by 
her father and suckled by a she-bear. She 
lived in celibacy, but her beauty gained her 
many admirers. She required her suitors to 
run a race with her. If any reached the goal 
before her, he was to be her husband ; but ail 
whom she distanced were to be killed with 
her dart. As she was almost invincible in 
running, many suitors perished in the at- 
tempt, till Milanion presented himself. 
Aphrodite had given him three golden apples 
from the garden of the Hesperides, and as 
soon as he had started on his course he cun- 
ningly threw down the apples, and Atalanta, 
charmed at the sight, stopped to gather them, 
so that Milanion arrived first at the goal. 
(According to another version, the successful 
suitor was Hippomenes.) Atalanta was pre- 
sent at the hunting of the Calydonian Boar 
(q.v.), which she was the first to wound. She 
received its head from Meleager (q.v.). For 
Swinburne's 'Atalanta in Calydon" see 
Swinburne. 'Atalanta's Race* is the first 
poem in W. Morris's 'The Earthly Paradise* 
AtalantiSf The New, see Manley. 

Ate, in Greek mythology, a daughter of 
Zeus, the goddess of evil, who incites men to 
wickedness and strife. 

Atellan or OSCAN FABLES, Atellanae Fabulae t 
so called from Atella, a town of the Osci in 

Campania. They were *a comic but not 
wanton kind of popular farce ' (Lewis and 
Short), from which magistrates and other 
persons of high rank, and also characters 
from low life, were excluded* They were per- 
formed not by professional actors, but by 
Roman citizens of good birth. They were 
written in the Oscan language of southern 
Italy, which resembled Latin. 

Athalie, the name of Racine's greatest play, 
which deals with the story of AthaHah, 
daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and wife of 
Joram, king of Judah. She put to death all 
the children of the house of David, save 
Joash, who escaped and was hid in the house 
of the Lord. After six years Joash was pro- 
claimed king, and Athaliah slam (2 Rings xi). 

Atfaamas, see Io. 

Athanasian Creed, THE, the creed 
cumque uult, called in some manuscripts the 
creed of St. Athanasius (q.v.). Its origin has 
been the subject of much controversy. It is 
perhaps the work of Caesarius, bishop of 
Axles (503-43)- 

Athanasius (c. 296-373), a famous 
bishop of Alexandria in the reign of the 
emperor Constantine, and a vigorous op- 
ponent of the Arian heresy. He was in 
consequence much attacked by the Arians, 
and persecuted by Constantine and his 
successor Constantius. For the creed that 
bears his name see previous entry. He was 



repeatedly driven into exile and concealment, 
but remained steadfast in his faith. 

Atheism* On the Necessity of, see Shelley 
(P. B.). 

Atheist's Tragedie, The, a tragedy by 
Tourneur (q.v.), printed in 1611. 

D'Amville, the 'atheist', desiring, from the 
wish to increase the wealth of his family, to 
marry his son to Castabella, who is betrothed 
to Charlemont, the son of Montferrers, his 
brother, arranges that Charlemont shall go 
abroad on military service. During Ms 
absence, D'Amville and Belforest, Casta- 
bella^ father, achieve their purpose, and 
Castabella is married to the sickly Rousard. 
D'Amville then murders Montferrers. Char- 
lemont, falsely reported dead, and exhorted 
by the ghost of his father to 'leave vengeance 
to the King of Kings*, now returns. D'Amville 
endeavours to secure his murder, but ven- 
geance comes upon him in the death of his 
two sons. Finally, when himself about to 
carry out the execution of Charlemont, he 
dashes out his own brains by accident, and 
Charlemont is united to Castabella. 

Athelstane of Goningsburgli, a character 
in Scott's 'Ivanhoe* (q.v.). 

Athelston, a verse romance of about the year 
1350, of some 800 lines. Four messengers 
meeting by chance in the forest swear brother- 
hood. One, Atheiston, becomes king of 
England, and makes one of the brothers 
archbishop of Canterbury, one earl of Dover, 
and one earl of Stane and husband of Athel- 
ston's sister. Dover secretly accuses Stane 
and his wife of plotting against the king. 
Athelston imprisons them. The queen inter- 
cedes, but the king brutally kicks her and 
kills her unborn child. The archbishop, 
interceding in turn, is ordered to give up his 
office, but excommunicates the king, who 
submits on a threat of popular rising. Stane 
is tried by ordeal and exculpated. The king 
declares the son of the countess of Stane 
(St. Edmund) his heir- Dover is exposed by 
ordeal and executed. 

Athenae Oxonienses, see Wood (A.). 

Athenaeum, The, a literary and artistic 
review founded in 1828 by James Silk 
Buckingham (q.v.). It rose to eminence 
under the editorship of Charles Wentworth 
Dilke (q.v.), and many of the greatest English 
writers of the nineteenth century were 
among its contributors. e lt was full of the 
most awful swipes about poetry and the 
use of globes. . . . Golly, what a paper!* (John 
Finsbury in 'The Wrong Box* by R. L. 
Stevenson and Lloyd Osboume, 1889, ch. 
xv). 'The Athenaeum* was incorporated 
in 'The Nation and Athenaeum 3 in 1921, 
and this in turn in 'The New Statesman* 
in 1931. 

Athenaeum Club, THE, in London, was 
founded in 1824 as an association of persons of 
literary, scientific, and artistic attainments, 


patrons of learning, &c. Among its founders 
were the earls of Liverpool and Aberdeen, the 
marquess of Lansdowne, Scott, Davy, Fara- 
day, Croker, Lawrence, and Moore. (There 
was an 'Athenaeum* at Rome, a university on 
the Capitoline, founded by the emperor 
Hadrian, for the promotion of science and 

Athene, the Greek goddess of wisdom, in- 
dustry, and war, identified by the Romans 
with their goddess MINERVA. She was the 
daughter of Zeus and Metis, and sprang fully 
grown and armed from the brain of her 
father, who had swallowed Metis when 
pregnant, fearing that her child would be 
mightier than he. Athene quarrelled with 
Poseidon for the right of giving the name 
to the capital of Cecropia (see under Cecrops). 
The assembly of the gods settled the 
dispute by promising the preference to 
whichever gave the more useful present to 
the inhabitants of the earth. Thereupon 
Poseidon struck the ground with his trident, 
and a horse sprang up. But Athene 
produced the olive, was adjudged the victor, 
and called the capital ATHENAE. Her other 
name Pallas, which perhaps signifies 
'brandishing* (her spear), has probably sug- 
gested another legend that she was the 
daughter of the giant Pallas. She is 
represented generally with a countenance 
marked by masculine firmness and com- 
posure rather than by softness and grace. 
In one hand she holds a spear, in the other 
a shield with the head of Medusa (q.v.) 
displayed upon it. See also Arachne, 

Athenian Gazette, The (afterwards known as 
the 'Athenian Mercury'), 'resolving all the 
most Nice and Curious Questions', was a 
penny weekly sheet issued from 1689/90 to 
1695/6, a precursor of 'Notes and Queries*. 
It was published by Dunton (q.v.). 

Athens of the North, a term applied some- 
times to Edinburgh, sometimes to Copen- 

Atherstone, THE, a celebrated pack of fox- 
hounds, dating from the end of the i8th cent., 
whose country lies partly in Leicestershire, 
partly in Oxfordshire, with Nuneaton as the 

American novelist, born at San Francisco. 
Her chief works are: 'Patience Sparhawk and 
her Times' (1897), 'The Aristocrats* (1901), 
'Tower of Ivory' (1910), 'Black Oxen' (1923), 
'The Crystal Cup* (1925). 

Athos, Mr., the 'Holy Mountain', the 
easternmost of the three Chalcidic peninsulas 
projecting into the Aegean Sea from Mace- 
donia. It has been occupied since the Middle 
Ages by various communities of monks. 

Athos, Porthos, and Aramis, the 'Three 
Musketeers' (q.v.) in Alexandre Dumas* novel 
of that name. 


Atkins, THOMAS or TOMMY, see Tommy 


Atlantic Monthly, The, an American, and 

more particularly a New England, magazine, 
founded in 1857 with J. R. Lowell (q.v.) as 
editor. It has numbered among its dis- 
tinguished contributors, O. W. Holmes, 
Emerson, Bret Harte, Whittier, and C. E. 
Norton (qq.v.), 

Atlantis, a fabulous island in the ocean 
west of the Pillars of Hercules, a beautiful and 
prosperous country, the seat of an empire 
which dominated part of Europe and Africa. 
But owing to the impiety of its inhabitants, it 
was swallowed up by the sea. The story is 
told by Plato in the 'Timaeus*. 

Atlantis, New, see New Atlantis, 

Atlas, one of the Titans (q.v.), and king of 
Mauritania. He was changed into a moun- 
tain by Perseus (q.v.), who, being refused 
hospitality by Atlas, turned the eyes of the 
Medusa upon him. This mountain, which 
runs east and west across the deserts of 
North Africa, is so high that the ancients 
thought the heavens rested on its summit, and 
that Atlas supported the world on his 
shoulders. According to Lucian ('Charon') 
Hercules visited Atlas and relieved him of his 
burden. Atlas was father of the Pleiades, 
Hyades, and Hesperides (qq.v.). 

Atli, in W. Morris's 'Sigurd the Volsung* 
(q.v.), the Attila of history. 

Atom, The History and Adventures of an, a 
satire by Smollett (q.v.), published in 1769. 

The Atom, having in the course of its 
transmigrations, lived in the body of a Japan- 
ese, relates to one Nathaniel Peacock his 
experiences in Japan. Japan stands for 
England, and the various Japanese personages 
referred to in the story represent prominent 
characters in the recent political history of 
England (e.g. Yak-strot, the earl of Bute). 
The satire is of the utmost coarseness. 

Atossa, see Moral Essays* 

Atreus, according to Greek legend, a son of 
Pelops (q.v.) and king of Argos. The tragedy 

associated with his name does not appear in 
Homer, The post-Homeric poets relate that 
Atreus, to revenge himself on his brother 
Thyestes for seducing his wife, invited 
Thyestes to a banquet and served him the 
flesh of his children to eat. Thyestes fled in 
horror, cursing the house of Atreus, which 
was visited by various calamities. Thyestes 
became the father of Aegisthus (q.v.) by 
his own daughter Pelopia. Aegisthus slew 
Atreus, who had ordered him to kill Thyestes, 
and restored Thyestes to the throne of which 
Atreus had deprived him. Atreus was the 
father (or according to some authors the 
grandfather) of Agamemnon and Menelaus 

Atropos, see Parcae. 
ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732), 


educated at Winchester and Christ Church, 
Oxford, became bishop of Rochester, after 
holding various important preferments. Ke 
engaged in the Phalaris (q.v.) controversy, 
and in the political and theological disputes 
of the day. He was imprisoned in 1720 for 
alleged participation in a plot to restore the 
Stuarts, and subsequently left the country 
and threw in his lot definitely with the Jaco- 
bites. In religion he was a strong supporter 
of the Church of England, and opposed to 
the Latitudinarians (q.v.). He was a notable 
preacher and a trenchant political writer. His 
'Sermons* were published in 1740, and 
his 'Miscellaneous Works' in 1789-98. His 
'Discourse occasioned by the Death of Lady 
Cutts* appeared in 1698. 

Attic, a dialect of ancient Greek spoken at 
Athens and in the surrounding country 
(Attica). As an epithet, it is applied to a pure, 
simple, polished style, as being characteristic 
of the best Greek writers. 

ATTIC SALT, refined, delicate, poignant wit, 
of a kind characteristic of the ancient 
Athenians. From the Latin sal atticum, the 
word sal meaning both 'salt* and 'wit*. 

See also Order* 

Attic boy, THE, in Milton's I1 Penseroso* 
(q.v.); see Cephalus. 

Atticus, the character under which Pope 

(q.v.) satirized Addison (q.v.) in lines pub- 
lished in 1723 in a miscellany entitled 
'Cytherea, or poems upon Love and In- 
trigue*, and reprinted in 'Miscellanies, the 
last Volume*, 1728. The lines, much altered,, 
reappeared in Pope's * Epistle to Dr. Arbuth- 
not* (193-214), 1735. 

The original of the character, T. Pom- 
ponius Atticus (109-32 B.C.), was a Roman 
eques (a member of the order of 'Knights*, 
who held a middle rank between the Senate 
and the Plebs). His surname was given him 
on account of his long residence in Athens and 
knowledge of Greek literature. He was a 
close friend of Cicero, whose letters to him 
still exist. 

Attila, king of the Huns. He ravaged the 
Eastern Empire during the years 445-50, and 
after making peace with Theodosius, in- 
vaded the Western Empire and was defeated 
at Chalons by Aetius in 451. He died in 453. 
The terror he inspired is shown in the name 
given to him, the * Scourge of God* (flagellttm 
Dei). In German heroic legend he figures aa 
ETZEL, and in Norse legend as ATLI. 

Attis or ATYS, a Phrygian deity connected 
with the myth of the 'Great Mother*, Rhea, 
Cy bele, or Agdistis, Attis was the beautiful 
son of Nana, daughter of the river-god 
Sangarius ; she conceived him after gathering 
the fruit of an almond tree sprung from the 
blood of Agdistis. Agdistis fell in love with 
Attis, and because he wished to marry the 
daughter of the king of Pessinus, drove him 
mad ; so that he mutilated himself. His spirit 



passed into a pine tree and violets sprang up 
from his blood. His death was mourned for 
two days, after which his recovery was 
celebrated, a symbol of the death and revival 
of plant life. 

AUBREY, JOHN (1626-97), antiquary, 
educated at Trinity College, Oxford, was 
author of a * Perambulation of Surrey*, which 
was included in Rawlinson's 'Natural His- 
tory and Antiquities of Surrey' (1719); of a 
collection of 'Lives* of eminent persons, 
much used by Anthony a Wood (q.v.), and 
subsequently published in 1813 (fuller edi- 
tions in 1898 and 1931) ; and of 'Miscellanies* 
(1696), a book of stories and folk-lore. 

Auburn, see Deserted Village. 

Aufousson carpets, carpets made at the 
celebrated factory of Aubusson, in the Creuse, 
a department of central France. The factory 
dates from the i$th cent. 
Aucassin and Nicolette, a late isth-cent. 
legend of Provence, which has been trans- 
lated or adapted by F. W. Bourdillon, Swin- 
burne, Andrew Lang, and Eugene Maron. 
With 'Amis and Amile' (see Amis andAmiloun) 
it forms the subject of one of Pater's 'Studies 
in the History of the Renaissance*. The ori- 
ginal is in prose interspersed with songs. 

Aucassin, son of Count Garins of Beaucaire, 
loves Nicolette, a beautiful Saracen captive. 
The father forbids their marriage and im- 
mures Nicolette in a tower, and subsequently, 
after further dissension with his son, im- 
prisons Aucassin himself. The damsel 
escapes and is followed by Aucassin, and the 
story is concerned with their simple adven- 
tures and faithful love, which is finally 

Auchinleck (pron. 'Affleck'), the name of 
the family and estate of James Boswell (q.v.). 
Audhumla, in Scandinavian mythology, the 
cow that fed the giant Ymir (q.v.) with her 

Audrey, in Shakespeare's 'As You Like It* 
(q.v.), the country wench wooed and won by 

Audrey, ST., St. Etheldreda, daughter of 
Anna (king of East Anglia) and patron saint 
of Ely. 

TAWDRY LACE, a silk 'lace' or neck-tie much 
worn by women in the i6th and early i7th 
cents., appears in the earliest quotation as St. 
Audrey's lace. It is told by Baeda that St. 
Audrey died of a tumour in the throat, which 
she considered to be a just retribution because 
in her youth she had for vain show worn 
many splendid necklaces. Harpsfield, arch- 
deacon of Canterbury in the i6th cent., 
thinks that the silk neck-tie may have been 
worn in memory of this. Skinner in his 
'Etymologicon* (1688) explains tawdry lace 
as 'ties . . . bought at the fair held at the fane 
of St. Etheldreda'. There is no discrepancy 
between the two statements. 'St. Audrey's 
laces' would naturally be largely offered for 


sale at her fair, and this doubtless led to the 
production of cheap and showy qualities of 
the article, which at length gave to tawdry 
its later meaning, [OED.] 

AUDUBON, JpHN JAMES (1780-1851), 
an American ornithologist of French descent, 
noted for his remarkable pictures of birds. 
His 'Birds of America' was published in 
1827-30, and his 'Ornithological Biography* 
in 1831-9. 

Aufidius, a character in Shakespeare's 
'Coriolanus* (q.v.). 

Augean Stables, Augeas, king of Elis, had 
an immense herd of oxen, whose stables had 
never been cleansed. The cleansing in one 
day was one of the labours imposed on 
Hercules (q.v.) by Eurystheus. Hercules 
undertook the task for a reward of a tenth 
part of the herd, and accomplished it by 
changing the course of the river Alpheus so 
that it should flow into the stables. Augeas 
refused the promised payment on the pretext 
that Hercules had made use of artifice. 
Hercules thereupon conquered Elis and put 
Augeas to death. 

Augsburg, INTERIM OF, a statement of 
religious doctrine prepared at the bidding of 
Charles V in 1548, which was in the nature 
of a compromise, adopting from the Roman 
Catholic position such doctrines as transub- 
stantiation and papal supremacy, and from 
the Protestant position justification by faith 
. and the marriage of priests. 

Augsburg Confession, a statement of the 
Protestant position drawn up by Melanch- 
thon for the Diet of 1530. 

Augusta, the name of several Roman towns 
colonized by Augustus or otherwise con- 
sidered worthy of the title. Thus Augusta 
Emerita (Merida) in Lusitania was colonized 
by Augustus with veterans of the fifth and 
tenth legions, and Augusta Praetoria (Aosta) 
with men of the praetorian guard. 

Ammianus Marcellinus (fl. A.D. 390) refers 
to Londinium (the Roman London) as a city 
on which the title Augusta had been con- 
ferred. Thomson in his 'Seasons' ('Spring') 
uses the name for London. 
Augusta, in imprints, Augsburg. 
Augusta Leigh, Byron's half-sister, see 

Augusta Trebocorum, in imprints, Stras- 
burg. See also Argentina. 
Augusta Treverorum, in imprints, Treves. 
Augusta Trinofoantum, in imprints, Lon- 

Augusta of Berkely, THE LADY, the 
heroine of Scott's 'Castle Dangerous' (q.v.). 
Augustan Age, a period of literary eminence 
in the life of a nation, so named because 
during the reign of the emperor Augustus 
(27 B.C.-A.D. 14) Virgil, Horace, Ovid, 
Tibullus, &c. flourished. The term is applied 



in the history of English literature to the 
period of Pope and Addison, or limited to 
the reign of Queen Anne, or extended back- 
wards to include Dryden. In French litera- 
ture the term is applied to the period of 
Corneille, Racine, and Moliere. Goldsmith 
has an essay on the 'Augustan Age in Eng- 
land* in 'The Bee'; he identifies it with the 
reign of Queen Anne. See also Saintsbury's 
'The Peace of the Augustans*, a survey of 
iSth-cent. English literature (1916). 
Augustin or AUSTIN FRIARS, a religious 
order of mendicant friars, formed in the isth 
cent, to bring together under the single rule 
of St. Augustine a number of small congrega- 
tions of hermits. Many houses of the order 
were swept away by the Reformation. Austin 
Friars Church in London (Old Broad Street) 
formed part of the priory founded in 
I253> when the first friars of the order had 
recently reached England. At the dissolu- 
tion, the church was transferred to the Dutch 
Protestants, who still possess it. 

AUGUSTINE, ST., OF HIPPO (345-430), 
was born at Tagastein Nurnidia(Constantine), 
his mother being Monica, a devout Christian. 
He was trained as a rhetorician, formed an 
irregular union, and was father of a son 
(Adeodatus). He was for a time a Mani- 
chaean, but was converted after hearing the 
sermons of Ambrose, bishop of Milan, where 
Augustine was a teacher of rhetoric. The 
scene of his conversion is vividly described 
in his 'Confessions*. He became bishop of 
Hippo, and was engaged in constant theo- 
logical controversy, combating Manichaeans, 
Donatists, and Pelagians. The most famous 
of his numerous works is the De Civitate 
Dei* ( c City of God*), a treatise in vindication 
of the Christian Church. His Confessions* 
contain a striking account of his early life. 
His sermons were used throughout the 
Middle Ages. Augustine died during the 
siege of Hippo by the Vandals. His principal 
tenets were the immediate efficacy of grace, 
and absolute predestination; he furnished 
the doctrinal basis of the revolt of Luther 
and Calvin, and of the Jansenist heresy. 

Augustine, ST. (d. 604), first archbishop 

of Canterbury. He was prior of Pope Gre- 
gory Ps monastery of St. Andrew at Rome, 
and was sent by that pope with forty monks 
to preach the Gospel in England. He was 
favourably received by King Ethelbert, who 
was afterwards converted. Augustine was 
consecrated * bishop of the English* at Aries. 
He founded the monastery of Christ Church 
at Canterbury. St. Augustine*s, also at 
Canterbury, was a Benedictine abbey, named 
from its founder, and is now used as a 
missionary college. St. Augustine is com- 
memorated on 26 May. 

Au^ustinian Canons, an order of canons 
regular of the Roman Catholic Church, who 
adopted the rule of St. Augustine in the nth 
cent. The order spread to various parts of 

3868 L 


Europe, including England, during the later 
Middle Ages. 


VIANUS (63 B.C. AJX 14)5 the nephew of Julius 
Caesar, and first Roman emperor, occupying 
the throne from 27 B.C. till his death. The 
title of Augustus was conferred on him in 
27 B.C. by the senate and people as a mark of 
their veneration. It was borne by all subse- 
quent Roman Emperors; even Charlemagne 
used it, and several of his successors in the 
Holy Roman Empire. 

Auld Lang Syne, a song whose words were 

contributed by Burns (q.v.) to the fifth 
volume of James Johnson's * Scots Musical 
Museum, 31 (17871803). It was not entirely 
of Burns's composition, but was taken down 
by him, according to his own account, *from 
an old man's singing*. But, in fact, the re- 
frain, at least, had long been in print. The 
original version has been attributed to 
Sir Robert Aytoun, an ancestor of W. E. 
Aytoun (q.v.). 

Auld Reekie, a term familiarly applied to 
the old town of Edinburgh, in allusion to its 
smoky atmosphere. 

AuldRobin Gray, see under Lindsay (Lady A.). 

Aulic Council, a sovereign court in the 
Holy Roman Empire, instituted in 1506, 

which sat at Vienna. It heard appeals from 
the courts of the Germanic states. 

AULUS GELLIUS, see Gellius. 

Aurelia Allobrogum, in imprints, Geneva. 

Aureng-Zebe, a tragedy by Dryden (q.v.), 
published in 1676. 

This was Dryden's last rhymed play, and 
he subsequently adopted the use of blank 
verse. The plot is remotely based on the 
contemporary events by which Aureng-Zebe 
wrested the empire of India from Shah 
Jehan, his father, and from his brothers. 
But it turns on the attempt first of the old 
emperor, then of Morat, one of his sons, to 
take from Aureng-Zebe, by violent means, 
Indamora, a captive queen, his affianced 
bride. The attempt is defeated by the con- 
stancy of Indamora and the generous 
qualities displayed by Aureng-Zebe and by 
Arimant, the governor of Agra, aided by the 
jealous rivalry of Nouxmahal, the empress. 
Atirignac, in the Haute-Garorme, France, 
gives its name, from the flint implements 
found there, to an industry or culture, the 
AURIGNACIAN, which is believed to have 
prevailed in France from about 11,500 to 
10,009 B.C. 'Throughout all this time Aurig- 
nacian men continued to carve figures and 
engrave small objects, and to decorate the 
walls of the caves which they inhabited* (Peake 
and, Fleure, 'Hunters and Artists*). The three 
principal types of man of this culture are the 
Grimaldi, Cro-Magnon, and Combe Capeile. 
Aurora, the Greek Eos, a daughter of 
Hyperion (q.v.) and the goddess of the dawn. 


She is represented by the poets as rising in 
the east from the couch of her husband 
Tithonus, drawn in a rose-coloured chariot, 
preceding the sun, pouring the dew upon the 
earth, and making the flowers grow. 

Aurora Leigh, a romance in blank verse by 
E. B. Browning (q.v.), published in 1856. 

Aurora Leigh tells the story of her life. 
She is left an orphan, studious and poetical 
by nature, and is brought up in the uncon- 
genial home of an aunt. She is often with her 
rich cousin, Romney Leigh, a man wrapped 
up in philanthropic schemes, but arrogant 
and dogmatic. He proposes to her, but his 
proposal, suggestive that he wants a 'help- 
mate not a mistress', wounds her pride and 
she refuses him. She goes to live in London, 
earning her bread by her pen. Romney 
rescues a poor outcast daughter of a tramp, 
Marian Erie, and offers to marry her. But 
the project is defeated. Later, when mis- 
fortune has overtaken Romney, his philan- 
thropic plans have failed, his Hall has been 
burnt down and himself blinded, he and 
Aurora come together. The story is made 
the vehicle for the expression of the author's 
views on a variety of subjects, social, literary, 
and ethical. 

Aurora Raby, a character in the last three 
cantos of Byron's 'Don Juan* (q.v.), a beauti- 
ful and innocent young heiress. 

Aurungzebe, see Aureng-Zebe. 

Ausonia, a name applied by poets to Italy, 
from the Ausones or Aurunci, an ancient (prob- 
ably Latin) tribe, which settled in Campania 
but subsequently disappeared from history. 

A.D. 310-90), a Roman poet, born at Bor- 
deaux, near which he also died. He taught 
grammar and rhetoric, and acquired such 
reputation that he was appointed tutor to 
Gratian, son of the Emperor Valentinian, and 
in Gratian's reign rose to high official posi- 
tion. He sang of the Moselle, its wine and 
trout, says Professor Saintsbury in his 'Notes 
on a Cellar-book*. 

AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817), was born at 
Steventon in Hampshire, of which her father 
was rector, and lived an uneventful life at her 
birthplace, at Bath, Southampton, Chawton 
(near Alton), and Winchester, where she died 
and is buried. Of her completed novels (for 
which see under their titles) 'Sense and Sensi- 
bility* appeared in 181 1, Tride and Prejudice* 
in 1813, 'Mansfield Park* in 1814, 'Emma* in 
December 1815, 'Northanger Abbey* and 
'Persuasion' posthumously in 1818. The 
order in which they were written is somewhat 
different. 'Pride and Prejudice', in its 
original form and entitled 'First Impressions', 
was begun in 1796, refused by a publisher in 
1797, and revised before ultimate publication. 
'Sense and Sensibility* was begun in 1797, 
but apparently left unfinished for many years. 
'Northanger Abbey* was begun in 1797, sold 


to a publisher in 1803, but not then published. 
The manuscript was recovered in 1816, and 
may have been revised, but appears to 
represent the earliest of her work as we have 
it in the six published novels. 'Mansfield 
Park' was begun in 1811, 'Emma* in 1814, 
and 'Persuasion* in 1815. Besides these Jane 
Austen was author of two works which she 
did not publish, 'Lady Susan* (the story, 
written about 1805, and told in letters, of a 
designing coquette, the widow Lady Susan 
Vernon) and a fragment, 'The Watsons* 
(q.v.). These were published by J. E. Austen- 
Leigh in the second edition of his 'Memoir of 
Jane Austen* (1871). A further fragment, 
written in 1817, known to her family as 
'Sanditon', was published in 1925. The 
standard edition of Jane Austen is that of 
R. W. Chapman, 1923; Letters, 1932. 
Auster, see Notus. 

AUSTIN, ALFRED (1835-1913), of a 
Roman Catholic family, was educated at 
Stonyhurst and Oscott College. He became a 
barrister, but soon abandoned the legal pro- 
fession for literature. He was much interested 
in foreign politics and a devoted follower of 
Disraeli. In 1883 he became joint-editor 
with W. J. Courthope of the newly founded 
'National Review*, and was its sole editor for 
eight years after the latter's resignation in 
1887. Between 1871 and 1908 he published 
twenty volumes of verse, of little merit. A 
prose work, 'The Garden that I love', pub- 
lished in 1894, proved very popular, and in 
1896 Austin was made poet laureate, shortly 
afterwards publishing in 'The Times' an un- 
fortunate ode celebrating the Jameson Raid. 
Some of his pleasantest work is to be found 
in his prose writings, on the garden of his 
Kentish home (Swinford Old Manor) and 
kindred subjects. His 'Autobiography* ap- 
peared in 1911. 

AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859), was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple after serving 
in the army, was professor of jurisprudence at 
the London University, 1826-32, and while 
holding this post wrote his famous 'Province 
of Jurisprudence Determined* (1832). His 
'Lectures on Jurisprudence* were published 
in 1863. 

American novelist, short -story writer, 
essayist, and dramatist, chiefly known for her 
studies of American Indian life. Among her 
works are 'The Arrow Maker* (1911), 'The 
Basket Woman* (1904), 'A Woman of Genius* 
(1912), 'The Land of Little Rain* (1903), 
'The American Rhythm* (1923). 

AUSTIN, SARAH (1793-1867), nee Taylor, 
wife of John Austin (q.v.), translated Ranke's 
'History of the Popes' (1840), 'The History 
of the Reformation in Germany* (1845), and 
'Germany from 1760 to 1814* (1854); also 
F. W. Carove"'s 'Story without an End' (1834). 

Austin, the name of a popular English make 
of motor-car, after Sir Herbert Austin, the 



manufacturer; the 'Baby Austin', a 7 h.p. 
model, was the first successful attempt to 
produce a reliable car of very small horse- 

Austin Friars, see Augustin Friars. 
Authorized Version, see Bible (The Eng- 

Auto-da-fe", a Portuguese expression (Span- 
ish, auto-de-fe), meaning 'Act of Faith', an 
act or decision of the Holy Inquisition, and 
its execution; hence popularly applied to the 
burning alive of heretics. 

Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table, The, see 
Holmes (O. W.). 

AutSIycus, (i) in Greek mythology, a son 
of Hermes, celebrated for his craft as a thief, 
who stole the flocks of his neighbours and 
mingled them with his own. In this he was 
outwitted by Sisyphus (q.v.); (2) the witty 
rogue and pedlar in Shakespeare's *The 
Winter's Tale' (q.v.). 

Automedon, the charioteer of Achilles 
(q.v.). Hence a name used to signify a 

Autun, TEE BISHOP OF, sometimes used to 
designate Talleyrand (Charles Maurice de 
Talleyrand-P&rigord, 1754-1838), the French 
diplomatist who played a great role as 
minister under Napoleon I and Louis XVIII. 
He had been appointed bishop of Autun in 
1788. He accepted the Civil Constitution of 
the Clergy, but afterwards put off his orders. 

Avalon, AVALLON, or AVELION, in the 
Arthurian legend, a place in the 'Isle of the 
Blessed' of the Celts, a mythical land like the 
Fortunate Isles (q.v.). It is to Avalon that 
Arthur is borne after his death. See Olaston- 
bury for its identification with that place. 

Avare, V ('The Miser'), one of Moliere's 
most famous comedies. Harpagon, the 
miser, and his son Clante are rivals for the 
hand of Marianne. Cle*ante gets possession of 
the casket containing the miser's treasure, 
and gives his father, whom his loss has re- 
duced to frenzy, the choice between Marianne 
and the casket. The old man chooses the 
latter and abandons Marianne to his son. 

Avars, a Tartar tribe who migrated to the 
region about the Don, the Volga, and the 
Caspian Sea in the 6th cent. Thence they 
extended their dominion westward to the 
Danube, were subdued by Charlemagne, and 
disappeared from history in the 9th cent. 
They built stockades of wood and earth 
round their settlements, known as AVAR 
RINGS, of which traces still remain. In one 
of these, in 796, Charlemagne, after defeating 
the Avars, captured an immense treasure, 
the fruit of the pillage of the Greek Empire 
by the Avars. 

Avatar, in Hindu mythology, the descent 
of a deity to the earth in incarnate form; 
hence loosely, a manifestation, display, phase. 


Ave atque vale, Latin, e hail and farewell !', 
as a farewell to the dead, notably in the poem 
of Catullus in memory of his brother, to 
which Tennyson refers in his poem 'Frater, 
ave atque vale*. 

Ave Maria, c Hail Mary!', the angelic salu- 
tation to the Virgin (Luke i. 28) combined 
with that of Elizabeth (v. 42), used as a 
devotional recitation, with the addition (in 
more recent times) of a prayer to the Virgin, 
as Mother of God; so named from its first 
two words. [OED.] 

DE, the name assumed by the author of the 
false Part II of Cervantes 's 'Don Quixote', 
issued in 1614. Cervantes's own Part II ap- 
peared in 1615. 

Avenel, SIR JULIAN and MARY, characters in 
Scott's 'The Monastery' and 'The Abbot* 
(qq.v.). ROLAND AVENEL is the hero of the 
latter work. The WHITE LADY OF AVENEL is 
a supernatural being introduced in 'The 

Aventine, THE, the most southerly and one 
of the highest hills of Rome. On it was a 
temple of Diana, the sanctuary of runaway 
slaves and of plebeians. 

Avermis, a lake of Campania, filling the 
crater of an extinct volcano. From its surface 
mephitic vapours arose, which led the 
ancients to regard it as the entrance to the 
infernal regions. 

AHMED IBN ROSHD) (1126-98), a Moslem 
doctor born at Cordova, and a philosopher, the 
author of a famous commentary on Aristotle. 
He is mentioned with Avicenna (q.v.) by 
Dante, 'Averrois che il gran cornento feo* 
('Inferno*, iv. 144). 

Avesta, the sacred writings of the Parsees, 
usually attributed to Zoroaster (q.v.). As we 
have them, they are the fragmentary and com- 
posite relic of an ancient priestly literature 
said to have been destroyed by Alexander the 
Great at Persepolis. In its present form it 
probably dates from the Sasanian period, but 
the oldest extant manuscript is of compara- 
tively recent date (i3th cent.). 

AVIANUS, FLAVIUS, probably of the 4th 
cent. A.D., the author of fables in Latin 
elegiacs, which were much used as a school 
book in the Middle Ages. 

Avice Garo, in Hardy's 'The Well-Beloved' 
(q.v.), the name of the three women, mother, 
daughter, and granddaughter, loved in suc- 
cession by Jocelyn Pierston. 
AVICENNA (ABU IBN SINA) (980-1036), a 
Persian physician and philosopher and com- 
mentator on Aristotle. He is mentioned by 
Dante ('Inferno', iv. 143). 
Avignon, a city on the Rhdne in France. 
Clement V removed the papal seat to Avignon 
in 1308, and there it remained until 1377. It 

[1 E2 


She is represented by the poets as rising in 
the east from the couch of her husband 
Tithonus, drawn in a rose-coloured chariot, 
preceding the sun, pouring the dew upon the 
earth, and making the flowers grow. 

Aurora Leigh, a romance in blank verse by 
E. B. Browning (q.v.), published in 1856. 

Aurora Leigh tells the story of her life. 
She is left an orphan, studious and poetical 
by nature, and is brought up in the uncon- 
genial home of an aunt. She is often with her 
rich cousin, Romney Leigh, a man wrapped 
up in philanthropic schemes, but arrogant 
and dogmatic. He proposes to her, but his 
proposal, suggestive that he wants a 'help- 
mate not a mistress', wounds her pride and 
she refuses him. She goes to live in London, 
earning her bread by her pen. Romney 
rescues a poor outcast daughter of a tramp, 
Marian Erie, and offers to marry her. But 
the project is defeated. Later, when mis- 
fortune has overtaken Romney, his philan- 
thropic plans have failed, his Hall has been 
burnt down and himself blinded, he and 
Aurora come together. The story is made 
the vehicle for the expression of the author's 
views on a variety of subjects, social, literary, 
and ethical. 

Aurora Raby, a character in the last three 
cantos of Byron's 'Don Juan' (q.v.), a beauti- 
ful and innocent young heiress. 

Aurungzebe, see Aureng-Zebe. 

Ausonia, a name applied by poets to Italy, 
from the Ausones or Aumnci, an ancient (prob- 
ably Latin) tribe, which settled in Campania 
but subsequently disappeared from history. 

A.D. 310-90), a Roman poet, born at Bor- 
deaux, near which he also died. He taught 
grammar and rhetoric, and acquired such 
reputation that he was appointed tutor to 
Gratian, son of the Emperor Valentinian, and 
in Gratian's reign rose to high official posi- 
tion. He sang of the Moselle, its wine and 
trout, says Professor Saintsbury in his 'Notes 
on a Cellar-book*. 

AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817), was born at 
Steventon in Hampshire, of which her father 
was rector, and lived an uneventful life at her 
birthplace, at Bath, Southampton, Chawton 
(near Alton), and Winchester, where she died 
and is buried. Of her completed novels (for 
which see under their titles) 'Sense and Sensi- 
bility' appeared in 181 1, 'Pride and Prejudice' 
in 1813, 'Mansfield Park' in 1814, 'Emma* in 
December 1815, 'Northanger Abbey' and 
'Persuasion' posthumously in 1818. The 
order in which they were written is somewhat 
different. 'Pride and Prejudice', in its 
original form and entitled 'First Impressions', 
was begun in 1796, refused by a publisher in 
1797, and revised before ultimate publication. 
'Sense and Sensibility* was begun in 1797, 
but apparently left unfinished for many years. 
'Northanger Abbey' was begun in 1797, sold 


to a publisher in 1 803, but not then published. 
The manuscript was recovered in 1816, and 
may have been revised, but appears to 
represent the earliest of her work as we have 
it in the six published novels. 'Mansfield 
Park' was begun in 1811, 'Emma' in 1814, 
and 'Persuasion' in 1815. Besides these Jane 
Austen was author of two works which she 
did not publish, 'Lady Susan' (the story, 
written about 1805, and told in letters, of a 
designing coquette, the widow Lady Susan 
Vernon) and a fragment, 'The Watsons' 
(q.v.). These were published by J. E. Austen- 
Leigh in the second edition of his 'Memoir of 
Jane Austen' (1871). A further fragment, 
written in 1817, known to her family as 
'Sanditon', was published in 1925. The 
standard edition of Jane Austen is that of 
R. W. Chapman, 1923; Letters, 1932. 
Auster, see Notus. 

AUSTIN, ALFRED (1835-1913), of a 
Roman Catholic family, was educated at 
Stonyhurst and Oscott College. He became a 
barrister, but soon abandoned the legal pro- 
fession for literature. He was much interested 
in foreign politics and a devoted follower of 
Disraeli. In 1883 he became joint-editor 
with W. J. Courthope of the newly founded 
'National Review', and was its sole editor for 
eight years after the latter's resignation in 
1887. Between 1871 and 1908 he published 
twenty volumes of verse, of little merit. A 
prose work, 'The Garden that I love*, pub- 
lished in 1894, proved very popular, and in 
1896 Austin was made poet laureate, shortly 
afterwards publishing in 'The Times' an un- 
fortunate ode celebrating the Jameson Raid. 
Some of his pleasantest work is to be found 
in his prose writings, on the garden of his 
Kentish home (Swinford Old Manor) and 
kindred subjects. His 'Autobiography* ap- 
peared in 1911. 

AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859), was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple after serving 
in the army, was professor of jurisprudence at 
the London University, 1826-32, and while 
holding this post wrote his famous 'Province 
of Jurisprudence Determined' (1832). His 
'Lectures on Jurisprudence' were published 
in 1863. 

American novelist, short -story writer, 
essayist, and dramatist, chiefly known for her 
studies of American Indian life. Among her 
works are 'The Arrow Maker* (1911), 'The 
Basket Woman* (1904), 'A Woman of Genius* 
(1912), 'The Land of Little Rain* (1903), 
'The American Rhythm' (1923). 

AUSTIN, SARAH (1793-1867), nee Taylor, 
wife of John Austin (q.v.), translated Ranke's 
'History of the Popes* (1840), 'The History 
of the Reformation in Germany' (1845), and 
'Germany from 1760 to 1814' (1854); also 
F. W. Carove"'s 'Story without an End' (1834). 

Austin, the name of a popular English make 
of motor-car, after Sir Herbert Austin, the 



manufacturer; the 'Baby Austin*, a 7 h.p. 
model, was the first successful attempt to 
produce a reliable car of very small horse- 

Austin Friars, see Augustin Friars. 

Authorized Version, see Bible (The Eng- 

Auto-da-fe, a Portuguese expression (Span- 
ish, auto-de-fe), meaning 'Act of Faith', an 
act or decision of the Holy Inquisition, and 
its execution; hence popularly applied to the 
burning alive of heretics. 

Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table, The, see 
Holmes (O. W.). 

Autolycus, (i) in Greek mythology, a son 
of Hermes, celebrated for his craft as a thief, 
who stole the flocks of his neighbours and 
mingled them with his own. In this he was 
outwitted by Sisyphus (q.v.); (2) the witty 
rogue and pedlar in Shakespeare's *The 
Winter's Tale' (q.v.). 

Automedon, the charioteer of Achilles 
(q.v.). Hence a name used to signify a 

Autun, THE BISHOP OF, sometimes used to 
designate Talleyrand (Charles Maurice de 
Talleyrand-Pe*rigord, 1754-1838), the French 
diplomatist who played a great role as 
minister under Napoleon I and Louis XVIII. 
He had been appointed bishop of Autun in 
1788. He accepted the Civil Constitution of 
the Clergy, but afterwards put off his orders. 

Avalon, AVALLON, or AVELION, in the 
Arthurian legend, a place in the 'Isle of the 
Blessed' of the Celts, a mythical land like the 
Fortunate Isles (q.v.). It is to Avalon that 
Arthur is borne after his death. See Olaston- 
bury for its identification with that place. 

Avare, V ('The Miser'), one of Moliere's 
most famous comedies. Harpagon, the 
miser, and his son Cle"ante are rivals for the 
hand of Marianne. Cle*ante gets possession of 
the casket containing the miser's treasure, 
and gives his father, whom his loss has re- 
duced to frenzy, the choice between Marianne 
and the casket. The old man chooses the 
latter and abandons Marianne to his son. 

Avars, a Tartar tribe who migrated to the 
region about the Don, the Volga, and the 
Caspian Sea in the 6th cent. Thence they 
extended their dominion westward to the 
Danube, were subdued by Charlemagne, and 
disappeared from history in the 9th cent. 
They built stockades of wood and earth 
round their settlements, known as AVAR 
RINGS, of which traces still remain. In one 
of these, in 796, Charlemagne, after defeating 
the Avars, captured an immense treasure, 
the fruit of the pillage of the Greek Empire 
by the Avars. 

Avatar, in Hindu mythology, the descent 
of a deity to the earth in incarnate form; 
hence loosely, a manifestation, display, phase. 


Ave atque vale, Latin, 'hail and farewell I', 
as a farewell to the dead, notably in the poem 
of Catullus in memory of his brother, to 
which Tennyson refers in his poem 'Frater, 
ave atque vale*. 

Ave Maria, 'Hail Mary!', the angelic salu- 
tation to the Virgin (Luke i. 28) combined 
with that of Elizabeth (v. 42), used as a 
devotional recitation, with the addition (in 
more recent times) of a prayer to the Virgin, 
as Mother of God; so named from its first 
two words. [OED.] 

DE, the name assumed by the author of the 
false Part II of Cervantes's 'Don Quixote', 
issued in 1614. Cervantes's own Part II ap- 
peared in 1615. 

Avenel, SIR JULIAN and MARY, characters in 
Scott's 'The Monastery* and 'The Abbot* 
(qq.v.). ROLAND AVENEL is the hero of the 
latter work. The WHITE LADY OF AVENEL is 
a supernatural being introduced in 'The 

Aventine, THE, the most southerly and one 
of the highest hills of Rome. On it was a 
temple of Diana, the sanctuary of runaway 
slaves and of plebeians. 

Avernus, a lake of Campania, filling the 
crater of an extinct volcano. From its surface 
mephitic vapours arose, which led the 
ancients to regard it as the entrance to the 
infernal regions. 

AHMED IBN ROSHD) (1126-98), a Moslem 
doctor born at Cordova, and a philosopher, the 
author of a famous commentary on Aristotle. 
He is mentioned with Avicenna (q.v.) by 
Dante, 'Averrois che il gran comento feo* 
('Inferno', iv. 144). 

Avesta, the sacred writings of the Parsees, 
usually attributed to Zoroaster (q.v.). As we 
have them, they are the fragmentary and com- 
posite relic of an ancient priestly literature 
said to have been destroyed by Alexander the 
Great at Persepolis. In its present form it 
probably dates from the Sasanian period, but 
the oldest extant manuscript is of compara- 
tively recent date (isth cent.). 
AVIANUS, FLAVIUS, probably of the 4th 
cent. A.D., the author of fables in Latin 
elegiacs, which were much used as a school 
book in the Middle Ages. 

Avice Caro, in Hardy's 'The Well-Beloved' 
(q.v.), the name of the three women, mother, 
daughter, and granddaughter, loved in suc- 
cession by Jocelyn Pierston. 
AVIGENNA (ABU IBN SINA) (980-1036), a 
Persian physician and philosopher and com- 
mentator on Aristotle. He is mentioned by 
Dante ('Inferno', iv. 143). 

Avignon, a city on the Rh6ne in France. 
Clement V removed the papal seat to Avignon 
in 1308, and there it remained until 137?- I* 


was sold by Joanna I, queen of Naples, to 
Pope Clement VI in 1348, Provence being 
then the inheritance of the Angevin kings of 
Naples. After the outbreak of the papal 
schism in 1378, two anti-popes, Clement VII 
and Benedict XIII, resided successively in 
Avignon, the latter being expelled from the 
town in 1408. The city remained, with inter- 
ruptions, in the possession of the popes until 
annexed by the French National Assembly in 
1791. Avignon is also famous for its connexion 
with Petrarch (q.v.). 

Avon, THE SWAN OF, Shakespeare, born at 
Stratford-on-Avon, so called by Jonson ('To 
the Memory of Shakespeare 1 ). 

Awkward Age, The t a novel by Henry James 
(q.v.), published in 1899. 

Awntyrs (Adventures) of Arthure at the 
Terne Wathelyne, an alliterative verse 
romance of the i4th cent., containing two 
parts. In the first, Arthur and his court go 
from Carlisle to 'Tarn Wathelyne' (Tarn 
Wadling near Hesket in Cumberland) to 
hunt. Queen Guinevere is entrusted to the 
care of Gawain. During a storm, a fearful 
figure, the spirit of Guinevere's mother, 
appears to Guinevere and Gawain, reproaches 
her for her evil life, exhorts her to penance 
and amendment, and prophesies the destruc- 
tion of King Arthur and the Round Table. 
The second part relates a fight between 
Gawain and Sir G aileron of Galway, who 
seeks to recover his lands taken by Arthur 
and given to Gawain. Arthur stops the fight, 
makes Gawain lord of Wales, and restores to 
Galleron his former territory. 

Ayala's Angel, a novel by A. Trollope (q.v.), 
published in 1881. 

Lucy and Ayala Dormer, after having been 
brought up in an artistic and luxurious home, 
are left penniless orphans. The romantic 
Ayala is taken into the family of her aunt 
Emmeline, the vulgar and purse-proud wife 
of the city millionaire, Sir Thomas Tringle ; 
while Lucy goes to the home of her uncle 
Dosett, a civil servant of small means, and his 
conscientious but depressing wife. Trouble 
soon follows. Lucy rebels against the drab 
conditions of life in the small house at Notting 
Hill, and Ayala shows a lack of proper 
deference to her wealthy aunt and cousins. 
An exchange is effected, and Ayala goes to 
Notting Hill. But this does not mend matters. 
Lucy falls in love with an impecunious artist; 
and Ayala, with equal perversity, refuses 
three eligible suitors: Tom Tringle, her 
cousin, who tries to charm her by a display 
of his jewellery, and shows his disappoint- 
ment by knocking the breath out of a 
policeman and other outrageous proceedings ; 
Colonel Jonathan Stubbs, an Admirable 
Crichton but for his red hair and large 
mouth ; and the absurd Captain Batsby, who 
thinks the possession of a very pretty little 
place of his own down in Berkshire a suffi- 
cient claim to her affections. In the end, 


however, Ayala discovers that Stubbs is the 
'Angel' after all, and sufficient means of 
subsistence are found for Lucy and her 
artist. Many amusing situations are also 
furnished by the love affairs of the two 
Tringle daughters. 

Ayenbite oflnwit, 'Remorse of Conscience', 
a prose translation from a French moral 
treatise, made by Dan Michel of Northgate, 
Canterbury, about 1340, and chiefly of 
philological interest. 

Ayesha, the favourite wife of Mohammed 
(q.v.). To her loss of a necklace under con- 
ditions regarded as suspicious may broadly 
be traced, it is said, the seclusion of Moslem 
women down to the present times. 

Ayesha, a novel by Sir Rider Haggard (q.v.). 

Aymon, The Four Sons of, a medieval French 
romance of the Carlovingian cycle. See 

Ayrshire Legatees, The, a novel by Gait 
(q.v.), published in 1820. 

It takes the form of letters recording the 
proceedings of a worthy Scottish minister 
and his family in the course of a visit which 
they pay to London in order to take posses- 
sion of a legacy. Their naive comments on 
their experiences, and the comments of their 
friends in Scotland on the letters themselves, 
make an entertaining miscellany. 

(1813-65), a descendant of the poet Sir Robert 
Aytoun (1570-1638) who was the reputed 
author of the lines on which Burns based his 
'Auld Lang Syne', was educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and University. He divided 
his life between law and literature, becoming 
professor of Belles-Lettres at Edinburgh in 
1845, and sheriff of Orkney in 1850. He is 
chiefly remembered for his share in the 'Bon 
Gaultier Ballads' (q.v., 1845), for his 'Lays 
of the Scottish Cavaliers' (q.v., 1849), and for 
his 'Firmilian, or the Student of Badajpz* 
(1854), a mock- tragedy, in which he parodied 
and ridiculed the poems of the so-called 
'Spasmodic School' (q.v.). The hero of 
'Firmilian*, a student at the university of 
Badajoz, is engaged in writing a tragedy on 
the subject of Cain. In order to equip him- 
self for his task, to learn 'the mental spasms 
of the tortured Cain', he embarks on a career 
of crime, with absurd results. 

Azaria and Hushai, see Pordage. 

Azazel, see Scapegoat. In Milton's 'Paradise 
Lost' (i. 534), Azazel is the 'Cherub tall' who 
raises the standard of the host of Satan. 

Azim, the hero of 'The Veiled Prophet of 
Khorassan', one of the tales in Moore's 
'Lalla Rookh' (q.v.). 

Azo, in Byron's 'Parisina* (q.v.), the mar- 
quis of Este. 

Azoth, the alchemists' name for mercury, 
and the universal remedy of Paracelsus (q.v.). 


Azrael, in Jewish and Mohammedan 
mythology, the angel who in death severs the 
soul from the body. 

Aztecs , a native American people first known 
as inhabitants of the valley of Mexico. They 
became important and extended their con- 
quests in the I5th cent., their most successful 
leader being Montezuma I (1440-69). The 


Aztecs were conquered by the invading 
Spaniards under Cortez, early in the i6th 
cent. They figure in Southey's 'Madoc* 

Aztlan, in Southey's 'Madoc' (q.v.), the 
capital of the Aztecas. The word means 
'place of the heron* and is, in Aztec legend, 
the original home of the Aztec race. 


CORPORATION, the national broadcasting 
authority, constituted in 1927. It succeeded 
the British Broadcasting Company, which 
had been formed in 

Baal, name of the chief god, or in the plural 
(BAALIM) of the gods, of the Phoenician and 
Canaanitish nations ; hence, a false god. The 
name appears in various forms and com- 
binations, e.g. BEL, the Baal of Babylon; 
BAAL-ZEBUB, the 'fly-god', &c. 

Bb, THE, or GATE, the name given to Mirza 
Mohammed AH, a Shiite, who began to 
preach a reformed Moslem religion in Persia 
in 1845 and was executed in 1850. His 
followers were called the BASIS, and his re- 
ligion BABISM. The Babis were expelled 
from Persia after an attempt on the life of the 

The Bab was succeeded in 1866 by Abdul- 
Baha, who preached a revised form of 
Babism, in which the Koran is recognized, 
but its finality as a revelation is denied. The 
BAHAIS are now a flourishing sect, with their 
centre at Acre. 

Bab Ballads, a collection of humorous 
ballads by W. S. Gilbert (q.v.), published in 
'Fun' in 1866-71 and in volume form in 1869 
and ('More Bab Ballads') 1873. Several of 
the Gilbert and Sullivan operas (q.v.) owed 
their origin to the 'Ballads', e.g. 'Patience', 
'lolanthe*, 'Ruddigore', and 'The Yeomen 
of the Guard'. This matter is fully dealt with 
in I. Goldberg's 'The Story of Gilbert and 
Sullivan* (1929). 

Babbage, CHARLES (1792-1871), educated 
at Peterhouse, Cambridge, a mathematician 
and scientific mechanician. He was a founder, 
secretary, and later, member, of the Astro- 
nomical Society. He devoted thirty-seven 
years of his life and much of his fortune to 
the perfection of a calculating machine of his 

Babbitt, a novel by S. Lewis (q.v.), published 
in 1922. 

The book depicts life in Zenith, a pros- 
perous American town of the present century, 
with its hustle, 'business-punch', and 'modem 
ideals', where minds and electrical appliances 
are equally standardized. Against this back- 
ground the author draws in minute detail the 
character and mode of life of George F. 
Babbitt, a successful real-estate broker (what 

we should call a house-agent), weak, snob- 
bish, lying, not averse to a questionable 
business deal if sufficiently remunerative; 
but periodically revolting against the futility 
of his life and the tyranny of his environment, 
even developing mildly liberal opinions 
(quickly suppressed by the 'Good Citizens* 
League') altogether an intensely human and 
familiar being. 

BABBITT, IRVING (1865- ), Ameri- 
can critic and professor at Harvard, born in 
Dayton, Ohio, who, with Paul Elmer More 
and W. C. Brownell, is a defender of the 
classic tradition in recent American criticism. 
Among his works are 'The New Laokoon* 
(1910), 'The Masters of Modern French 
Criticism* (1912), 'Rousseau and Romanti- 
cism* (1919), 'Democracy and Leader- 
ship' (1924), and 'On Being Creative* 

Babes in the Wood, see Children in the 

Babism, see Bab. 
Baboo, see Babu. 
Baboon, LEWIS, see John Bull. 

Babu, a Hindu title of respect answering to 
our Mr. or Esquire; hence, a native Hindu 
gentleman; also in (Anglo-Indian use) a 
native clerk or official who writes English; 
sometimes applied disparagingly to a Hindu, 
or more particularly a Bengali, with a super- 
ficial English education. 

Babylon, a magnificent city, once the capital 
of the Chaldee empire; also the mystical city 
of the Apocalypse ; whence in modern times 
applied polemically to Rome or the papal 
power, and rhetorically to any great and 
luxurious city. 

THE WHORE OF BABYLON as a term applied 
to the Roman Catholic Church by the early 
puritans, with reference to Rev. xviu 

said to have been made, on the slope of the 
city towards the river, by Nebuchadnezzar 
(605-562 B.C.), who devoted much care to 
beautifying the city (Diodorus Siculus). 
Babylon, an old ballad, of which the plot is 
known to all branches of the Scandinavian 
race', of three sisters, to each of whom in turn 
an outlaw proposes the alternative of be- 
coming a 'rank robber's wife* or death. The 



first two choose death and are killed by the 
outlaw. The third threatens the vengeance 
of her brother 'Baby Lon'. This is the out- 
law himself, who thus discovers that he has 
unwittingly murdered his own sisters, and 
thereupon takes his own life. The ballad is in 
Child's collection (1883-98). 

Babylonian Captivity, the period (c. 603- 
536 B.C.) during which the Jews were captive 
in Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar, having sub- 
dued Judaea, removed the inhabitants to 
Babylon, whence they were released by 
Cyrus. *By the waters of Babylon we sat 
down and wept, when we remembered thee, 
O Sion'; Ps. cxxxvii. i. 

'Babylonian Captivity' is also applied to 
the period of the residence of the popes at 
Avignon, under French influence, beginning 
with Clement V in 1308. 

Bacbuc, in Rabelais, IV. i, and V. xxxiv et seq., 
the oracle of the Holy Bottle, consulted by 
Panurge on the question whether he should 
marry (see PantagrueT). 

Bacchanalia, the mysteries or orgies cele- 
brated in ancient Rome in honour of Bacchus 
(q.v.). They were attended by such licentious- 
ness and excesses that they were suppressed 
in 186 B.C., and replaced by a more innocent 
festival, the Liberalia. 

Bacchanals , priests, priestesses, or votaries 
of Bacchus (q.v.). 

Bacchantes, priestesses of Bacchus, repre- 
sented with dishevelled hair and garlands of 
ivy, carrying a thyrsus, and clashing cymbals. 

Bacchus, also known as Dionysus to the 
Greeks, the son of Zeus and Semele (q.v.), and 
the foster-son of Silenus, was worshipped as the 
god of wine. Zeus, to save the infant Bacchus 
from the resentment of his wife, Hera, con- 
veyed him to Mt. Nysa, where he was brought 
up by the nymphs, whom Zeus rewarded by 
placing them among the stars as the HYADES. 
Bacchus, when grown up, made an expedi- 
tion to Eastern lands (according to later 
legends as far as India), teaching mankind the 
elements of civilization and the use of the 
vine. In this connexion he is frequently 
represented drawn in a chariot by tigers. He 
married Ariadne (q.v.) after she had been 
deserted by Theseus in Naxos. Greek tragedy 
was developed from the custom of repre- 
senting the history of the god in sacred 
choruses at his festival. 

BACCHiXIDfiS, the mostimportant Greek 
lyric poet after Pindar, since the publication 
by F. G. Kenyon (1897) of the large papyrus 
fragments. He lived about 470 B.C., a native 
of lulis in Ceos, and was a nephew o 

Bach, JOHANN SEBASTIAN (1685-1750), 
born at Eisenach, of a family that in- 
cluded many musicians, was one of the 
greatest composers of all time. He was for 
many years musical director of two churches 


at Leipzig, where he composed most of his 
music. Much of this is of a sacred character, 
highly intellectual, and showing a supreme 
command of counterpoint and fugue. 
Bacharach, a town on the Rhine giving its 
name to a wine formerly much esteemed. 

American writer born at Pierpont, N.Y., and 
educated at St. Lawrence University, known 
chiefly for his popular novel, 'Eben Holden' 
(1900), and for his story of Lincoln, *A Man 
for the Ages' (1919). 

Back Kitchen, THE, in Thackeray's *Pen- 
dennis' (q.v.), was "The Cyder Cellars* in 
Maiden Lane, frequented by Person, Maginn, 
Charles Dickens, Sec. 

Backbite, SIR BENJAMIN, one of the scandal- 
mongers in Sheridan's 'School for Scandal' 

Backwell, EDWARD (d. 1683), a London 
goldsmith and banker at the Unicorn in 
Fleet Street, probably the chief originator of 
the system of bank-notes. He had financial 
dealings with Cromwell and Charles II, and 
was ruined by the closing of the exchequer 
by the latter in 1672. There are frequent 
references to him in Pepys's 'Diary*. 

Bacon, FRIAR, see Friar Bacon and Friar 


and VISCOUNT ST. ALBANS (1561-1626), was 
the younger son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord 
Keeper in Queen Elizabeth's reign. Fie was 
born at York House, in the Strand, London, 
and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He was admitted to Gray's Inn and went 
through the various steps of the legal pro- 
fession. He entered Parliament in 1584 as 
member for Melcombe Regis and subse- 
quently represented other constituencies. He 
then wrote papers on public affairs, including 
a 'Letter of Advice to Queen Elizabeth* 
urging strong measures against the Catholics. 
He made the acquaintance of the earl of 
Essex, who treated him with generosity and 
endeavoured to advance him in his career. 
Nevertheless, having been appointed to in- 
vestigate the causes of Essex's revolt in 1601, 
he was largely responsible for the earl's con- 
viction. He married Alice Barnham in 1606, 
became Solicitor-General in 1607, Attorney- 
General in 1613, Lord Keeper in 1617, and 
Lord Chancellor in 1618. In 1621 he was 
charged before the House of Lords with 
bribery, and confessed that he had been 
guilty of * corruption and neglect' but denied 
that he had ever perverted justice. He was 
deprived of the great seal, fined, condemned 
to confinement during the king's pleasure, 
and disabled from sitting in parliament. He 
remained in the Tower only a few days, the 
fine being subsequently assigned by the king 
to trustees for Bacon's own use. The re- 
maining years of his life were spent in 
literary and philosophical work. Pope 



described him as 'the wisest, brightest, 
meanest of mankind*. 

Bacon's works may be divided into three 
classes, the philosophical (which form by far 
the greatest portion), the literary, and the 
professional works. The principal and best 
known of the philosophical works are : (i) the 
'Advancement of Learning* (q.v.), published 
in English in 1605 ; (2) the 'Novum Organum* 
(q.v.), published in Latin in 1620, under the 
general title 'Francisci de Verulamio . . . 
Instauratio Magna*, with a second title (after 
the preface) 'Pars secunda operis, quae dicitur 
Novum Organum sive indicia vera de inter- 
pretatione naturae*; and (3) the 'De Aug- 
ments' (q.v.), published in Latin in 1623 with 
the title 'Opera F. Baconis de Verulamio . . . 
Tomus primus, qui continet de Dignitate et 
Augmentis Scientiarum libros ix*. It was 
Bacon's ambition to create a new system of 
philosophy, based on a right interpretation 
of nature, to replace that of Aristotle ; the 
* Novum Organum' describes the method by 
which the renovation of knowledge was to be 
achieved, and is thus the keystone to the 
whole system. The 'Advancement of Learn- 
ing', of which the 'De Augmentis* may be 
regarded as an enlarged edition, was included 
in the 'Great Instauration* or Renewal of the 
Sciences as a preliminary review of the present 
state of knowledge. Of Bacon's literary works, 
the most important are the 'Essays* (q.v.), 
first published in 1597, and issued in final 
form, 1625; 'De Sapientia Veterum', pub- 
lished in 1609 ; 'Apophthegms New and Old*, 
published in 1624; the 'New Atlantis* (q.v.) 
in 1626; and the 'History of Henry the 
Seventh*, in 1622. The largest and most 
important of his professional works are the 
treatises entitled 'Maxims of the Law* and 
'Reading on the Statute of Uses*. 

Bacon wrote much in Latin and always 
endeavoured to clothe in that language the 
works to which he attached importance, with 
a view, as he supposed, to their greater 
permanence. Yet he was capable of varied 
and beautiful styles in English, and there is a 
peculiar magnificence and picturesqueness in 
much of his writing. Many of the sentences 
in the 'Essays* have assumed almost the 
character of proverbs. But he is sometimes 
obscure. The standard edition of Bacon's 
'Works' is that of James Spedding (q.v.), 
published in 1857-9, followed by the 'Life 
and Letters* in 1861-74. 

BACON, ROGER (i2i4?~94), philosopher, 
studied at Oxford and Paris, where he may 
have graduated doctor, returned to England 
c. 1250, and probably remained at Oxford 
till c. 1257, when he incurred the suspicion of 
the Franciscan order, to which he belonged. 
He was sent under surveillance to Paris, 
where he remained in confinement ten years. 
He produced at the request of Pope Cle- 
ment IV Latin treatises on the sciences 
(grammar, logic, mathematics, physics, and 
modern philosophy) 'Opus Majus', and, 


perhaps, 'Opus Secundum* and 'Opus Ter- 
tium'. He was again in confinement for his 
heretical propositions, c. 127892, and is said 
to have died and to have been buried at 
Oxford. He wrote also on chemistry and 
alchemy. By the public of his day he was 
regarded as a necromancer, and was believed 
to have constructed a brazen head capable of 

Roger Bacon may be described as the 
founder of English philosophy. Like Hs 
more famous namesake of the i7th cent., he 
advocated the substitution of an appeal to 
experience for the scholastic method of argu- 
ment jfrom general premisses based on 
authority. Like him, he begins by stating the 
chief causes of error (offendicula) authority, 
custom, the opinion of the ignorant many, the 
concealment of ignorance under a show of 
knowledge. But, unlike Francis Bacon, he 
attached importance to mathematics, and Hs 
scientific method, by recognizing the value of 
deduction, is better than that of his namesake. 
At the same time, Bacon's outlook remained 
medieval and mystical. His attack on the 
methods of scholasticism was taken up again 
and developed by William Ockham (q.v.) in 
the next century. Bacon was a man of great 
learning: he had a wide knowledge of the 
sciences, was an accomplished Greek scholar, 
and knew Hebrew and Aramaic. As a 
practical scientist he invented spectacles, and 
indicated the manner in which a telescope 
might be constructed. 

Bacon and Bungay (i) the rival publishers 
in Thackeray's 'Pendennis* (q.v.). (2) See 
Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. 

Baconian Theory, the theory that Francis 
Bacon (q.v.) wrote the plays attributed to 
Shakespeare. It was started, apparently, in 
the middle of the i8th cent., and is based 
partly on (supposed) internal evidence in 
Shakespeare's plays (the knowledge displayed 
and the vocabulary), and partly on external 
circumstances (the obscurity of Shakespeare's 
own biography). Some holders of the theory 
have found in the plays cryptograms in 
support of it, e.g. in the word 'honorificabili- 
tudinitatibus* in 'Love's Labour 's Lost' (v. i). 
Among prominent supporters of the theory, 
some of them Americans, may be mentioned 
Lord Penzance ('Judicial Summing Up'), Sir 
T. Martin ('Shakespeare or Bacon'), I. Don- 
nelly ('The Great Cryptogram'), Mrs. Gallup 
('Bi-Literal Cypher'), Sir G. Greenwood 
('Shakespeare Problem re-stated'), and Sir E. 
Durning-Lawrence ('Bacon is Shake-speare*, 
1910; "The Shakespeare Myth', 1912). 

Badajoz, SIEGE OF, in Spain, undertaken by 
Wellington in 1811. Badajoz and Ciudad 
Rodrigo were two strong fortresses which 
barred Wellington's advance from Portugal 
into Spain. Badajoz was stormed in April 
1812 with very heavy losses to the British 
troops and the capture was attended with 
acts of great cruelty and outrage. 



Badger State, Wisconsin, see United 

Badinguet, a nickname of Napoleon III. 

Badman, The Life and Death of Mr., an 
allegory by Bunyan (q.v.), published in 1680. 
The allegory takes the form of a dialogue, 
in which Mr. Wiseman relates the life of Mr. 
Badman, recently deceased, and Mr. Atten- 
tive comments on it. The youthful Badman 
shows early signs of his vicious disposition. 
He beguiles a rich damsel into marriage and 
ruins her; sets up in trade, swindles his 
creditors by fraudulent bankruptcies, and 
his customers by false weights; breaks his 
leg when coming home drunk, and displays a 
short-lived sickbed repentance. His wife dies 
of despair, and Badman marries again, but 
his second wife is as wicked as he is, and they 
part 'as poor as Howlets*. Finally Badman 
dies of a complication of diseases. The story 
is entertaining as well as edifying, and has 
a place in the evolution of the English 

Badminton, the name of the duke of Beau- 
fort's country seat in Gloucestershire. It has 
been given to a cooling summer drink, to the 
game resembling lawn-tennis played with 
shuttlecocks, and to a series of books on the 
various sports. 

Badon, MOUNT, the scene of a battle con- 
nected with the legends of Arthur. It is first 
mentioned by Gildas (q.v.), but without 
reference to Arthur. The 'Annales Cambriae* 
(q.v.) give the date of the battle as 518, and 
state that Arthur bore the cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ there and the Britons were 
victorious. Badon is identified by some 
authorities with Bath, by others with Badbury 
near Wimborne. For a discussion of the 
question see E. K. Chambers, 'Arthur of 

Badour or BADOURA, PRINCESS, see Ca~ 

Badr-ed-Din, HASSAN, see Nur-ed-Din. 

Badroulboudour or BEDR-EL-BUDUR ( moon 
of moons'), in 'Aladdin and die Wonderful 
Lamp* (q.v.), the daughter of the Sultan of 

Baedeker, KARL (1801-59), printer and pub- 
lisher, of Essen, Germany. He started the issue 
of the famous guide-books in Coblenz, and 
this was continued by his son, Fritz, who 
transferred the business to Leipzig. 

Baetica, a Roman province of Spain, of 
which Corduba (Cordova) was the capital, 
deriving its name from the river Baetis 
(Guadalquivir), whence 'Baetic vale*. 

Baffin, WILLIAM (d. 1622), navigator 
and discoverer. He was pilot in the Mus- 
covy Company's expeditions of 1615 and 
1616 in search of the North- West Passage, 
which resulted in the discovery of the bay 
which has since been given his name. He 
was killed at the siege of Kishm in an ex- 


pedition against the Portuguese in the Persian 
Gulf. He wrote accounts of most of his 

BAGE, ROBERT (1728-1801), a paper- 
maker by trade, was author of six novels, 
'Mount Kenneth* (1781), 'Barham Downs' 
(1784), 'The Fair Syrian' (1787), 'James 
Wallace* (1788), *Man as he is* (1792), and 
'Hermsprong or Man as he is not* (1796). 
Scott included the first, second, and fourth 
in his 'Ballantyne novels*. Bage was a 
materialist, and 'Hermsprong', the best of 
his works, the story of a 'natural man* without 
morals or religion, is written to expound his 

B AGEHOT, WALTER (i 826-77), of Lang- 
port, Somerset, educated at Bristol and at 
University College, London, was a banker 
and shipowner, joint-editor with R. H. 
Hutton of the 'National Review* after 1855, 
and editor of the 'Economist* from 1860 till 
his death. His remarkable insight into eco- 
nomic and political questions is shown in 
his 'The English Constitution* (1867), 'Lom- 
bard Street* (1873), and 'Economic Studies* 
(1880, ed. Hutton). His 'Physics and Politics* 
(1876) is an 'application of the principles of 
natural selection and inheritance to political 
society*. In his 'Literary Studies' (1879) were 
republished papers contributed by him to 
the 'National Review'. 

Bagford Ballads, The, illustrating the last 
years of the Stuarts' rule and the last years 
of the I7th cent., were published by the 
Ballad Society in 1878. They were assembled 
by John Bagford (1651-1716), originally a 
shoemaker, a book-collector who made for 
Robert Harley, first earl of Oxford, the 
collection of ballads that was subsequently 
acquired by the duke of Roxburghe, and 
at the same time made a private collection 
for himself. 

Bagnell, MRS., a character in Meredith's 
'Lord Ormont and his Aminta' (q.v.). 

Bagnet, MR. and MRS., characters in 
Dickens's 'Bleak House* (q.v.). 

Bagstock, MAJOR JOE, a character in 
Dickens's 'Dombey and Son' (q.v.). 

Bahaism, see Bab. 

Bahrain I, the king of Persia who put to 
death Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, in 
A.D. 274. 

Bahram Gur, or the 'Wild Ass', a national 
hero of Persia, who came to the throne in 
A.D. 420, celebrated as a hunter in the 
'Rubaiyyat* of Omar Khayyam (q.v.). 

Baiae, a town on a small bay near Naples, in 
beautiful surroundings and possessing warm 
mineral springs, a favourite resort of the 
Romans, who built many palaces and villas 
there. Its site is now covered by the sea. 

Bailey, THE OLD, on the site of Newgate 
gaol, the seat of the Central Criminal Court 



in London, so called from the ancient bailey 
or ballium of the city wall between Lud Gate 
and New Gate, within which it was situated. 
(A bailey is an external wall enclosing the outer 
court of a feudal castle, forming the first line 
of defence.) 

1742), author of an etymological dictionary 

BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES (1816-1902), 
was privately educated at Nottingham and 
matriculated in Glasgow University with a 
view to the Presbyterian ministry, but soon 
renouncing this intention', studied law in a 
solicitor's office and became a barrister of 
Lincoln's Inn. Deeply impressed by Goethe's 
* Faust* and feeling compelled to give his own 
version of the legend, he retired in 1836 to 
the seclusion of his father's house at Old 
Basford, near Nottingham, where in three 
years he wrote the original version of his 
'Festus' (q.v.), published in 1839. A second, 
much enlarged edition appeared in 1845. The 
final edition of 1889, which exceeded 40,000 
lines, incorporated the greater part of three 
volumes of poetry that had appeared 
separately in the interval : 'The Angel World* 
(1850), 'The Mystic' (1855), and 'The Uni- 
versal Hymn' (1867). Bailey is often regarded 
as the father of the 'Spasmodic School' (q.v.). 
In 1856 he received a civil list pension. In 
1858 he published 'The Age', a colloquial 

Bailiff's Daughter of Islington, The, the 
title of an old ballad, included in Percy's 
'Reliques'. A squire's son loves the bailiff's 
daughter of Islington (probably the place of 
that name in Norfolk), but his friends send 
him to London bound as an apprentice. 
After seven years the lovers meet again and 
are united. 

BAILLIE, JOANNA (1762-1851), Scottish 
dramatist and poetess, published in 1798 her 
first volume of 'Plays on the Passions', con- 
taining 'Basil' and *De Monfort'; the latter 
was produced by Kemble and Mrs. Siddons 
in 1800. A second volume appeared in 1802, 
and a third in 1812. Her most successful 
drama, 'The Family Legend*, was produced 
in 1 8 10. 'Miscellaneous Plays' appeared in 
1836. Miss Baillie's poems ('Fugitive Verses', 
1790, and 'Metrical Legends', 1821) show 
sprightly humour. She was a close friend of 
Sir Walter Scott, who much admired the 
'Plays on the Passions'. 

BAILLIE, ROBERT (1599-1662), Scottish 
Presbyterian divine, minister of Kttwinning, 
Ayrshire, and subsequently professor of 
divinity (1642) and principal (1660) of Glas- 
gow University. He was with the Covenan- 
ter's army at Dunse Law, 1639, and in 1640 ; 
and was sent to London to draw up accusa- 
tions against Laud, 1640. His 'Letters and 
Journals' (Bannatyne Club, 1841-2) are of 
importance for the history of the Civil War. 


Bailly, HENRY, in Chaucer's 'Canterbury 
Tales' (q.v.), the host of the Tabard Inn. 
BAIN, ALEXANDER (1818-1903), born in 
Aberdeen of humble parents, left school 
when eleven years old to work as a weaver, 
but continued his studies and obtained a 
bursary at Marischal College. He visited 
London and made the acquaintance of Mill 
and Carlyle. In 1860 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of logic at Aberdeen. In 1876 he 
founded the periodical 'Mind'. His two 
principal philosophical works were 'The 
Senses and the Intellect' (1855) and 'The 
Emotions and the Will* (1859). His other 
works include 'Mental and Moral Science' 
(1868), 'Logic' (1870), 'Mind and Body' 
(1872), and 'James Mill, a Biography' and 
']. S. Mill, a Criticism with Personal Recol- 
lections' (1882). Bain was one of the first 
exponents of a scientific psychology based on 
a physiological method that traces psycho- 
logical phenomena to nerve and brain. He 
elaborated Mill's doctrine that the mind is to 
be explained by experience and association of 
ideas, extending this view from the intellect 
to the will and emotions. Though a Utili- 
tarian in general, he accepted the existence in 
the human mind of 'motives that pull against 
our happiness', and held that purely altruistic 
conduct is possible. 

Baines, CONSTANCE and SOPHIA, characters 
in Bennett's 'The Old Wives' Tale' (q.v.). 

Bairam, the name of two Mohammedan 
festivals the LESSER BAIRAM, lasting three 
days, which follows the fast of Ramadan (q.v.), 
and the GREATER BAIRAM, seventy days later, 
lasting four days. 

Bajardo, in the 'Orlando Furioso* (q.v.), the 
horse of Rinaldo. See Bayard. 
Bajazet or BAJAYET, ruler of the Ottomans 
(13891402), overran the provinces of the 
Eastern empire and besieged Constantinople, 
but was interrupted by the approach of 
Timour (Tamerlane), and was defeated and 
taken prisoner by him. He figures in Mar- 
lowe's 'Tamburlaine the Great' and Rowe's 
'Tamerlane* (qq.v.). . 

93), traveller and sportsman, whose explora- 
tions contributed to the knowledge of the 
sources of the Nile. He discovered and 
named Albert Nyanza. He was appointed in 
1869 for four years governor-general of the 
Equatorial Nile basin. His best-known works 
are 'Rifle and Hound in Ceylon' (1853), 'The 
Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia' (1872), and 
'Ismailia' (1874). 

Balaam, requested by Balak, king of Moab, 
to curse the invading Israelites, but warned 
by God not to do so, yet went on his ass 
with the princes of Moab. He would have 
been killed by an angel standing in the way 
if his ass had not saved him. When he beat the 
ass, the Lord opened her mouth, and she 
reproved him. Finally Balaam, inspired by 



God, foretold the happiness of Israel (Num. 


Balaam., SIR, the subject of a pungent 

satire in Pope's 'Moral Essays', Ep. iii. 339 et 

seq., a religious, punctual, frugal citizen 

tempted by the Devil through wealth, who 

becomes a corrupt courtier. He takes a bribe 

from France and is hanged: 

The Devil and the king divide the prize; 

And sad Sir Balaam curses God and dies. 
Balaclava, a small seaport on the coast of 
the Crimea, near Sebastopol, was the scene 
in the Crimean War of the famous charge of 
the Light Brigade (26 Sept. 1854), celebrated 
in Tennyson's poem. The Russians, about 
12,000 strong under General Liprandi, had 
captured certain redoubts held by a small 
force of Turks, and thus threatened the port. 
They had next attacked the English and been 
repulsed by the Heavy Brigade under General 
Scarlett. Owing to a misconception of Lord 
Raglan's orders, Lord Lucan then ordered 
Lord Cardigan with the Light Cavalry to 
charge the Russian army, which had re- 
formed with artillery in front. The charge 
was heroically carried out, but put of 673 
officers and men who took part in it, 247 were 
killed or wounded. 

Balade of Charitie, The, see Chatterton. 
BalafrS, LE, HENRI DE GUISE (1550-88), a 
leader of the Ligue directed against the Pro- 
testants in France and one of the authors of 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew, so called 
from a scar on his face. He conspired to 
oust Henri III from the throne of France, 
but the latter caused him to be assassinated 
at the chateau of Blois. Scott gives this nick- 
name, in his 'Quentin Durward' (q.v.), to 
. Ludovic Lesly, the hero's uncle, one of the 
Scottish Archers of the Guard. 
Balan, see Balin and Balan. 
Balance, THE, see Libra. 

Balaustiorts Adventure, a poem by R. 
Browning (q.v.), published in 1871. 

Balaustion, a RJhodian girl, a deep admirer 
of the Athenian poet Euripides, persuades 
her kinsfolk to leave Rhodes when that island 
joins the Peloponnesian league against 
Athens. Her ship is pursued by a pirate into 
the harbour of Syracuse, the bitter enemy of 
Athens, where refuge is denied them. The 
hostility of the Syracusans is however 
changed to welcome when Balaustion recites 
to them Euripides' play, the 'Alkestis', in 
which their god Herakles is celebrated. 
Browning 'transcribes' the play, putting his 
comments in the mouth of Balaustion. 

Balaustion appears again in 'Aristophanes 
Apology' (q.v.). 

Balbec, the name used by Proust (q.v.) for 
the seaside resort (Cabourg) in Normandy 
which is the scene of many of the incidents of 
*A la recherche du temps perdu'. 

Balboa, VASCO NUNEZ DE (1475-1517), one 
of the companions of Cortez, the conqueror 


of Mexico. He is said to have joined the 
expedition of 1510 to Darien as a stowaway. 
It was he who first, in 1513, discovered the 
Pacific Ocean, not Cortez, as Keats supposed 
when he wrote : 

Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes 

He stared at the Pacific. 
(Nor was Balboa silent on this occasion, as 
Keats makes Cortez. He said 'Hombre!') 
Balboa was beheaded by Pedrarias, governor 
of Darien, on a charge of treason. 
Balchristie, JENNY, in Scott's 'The Heart of 
Midlothian' (q.v.), the housekeeper of the 
laird of Dumbiedikes. 

Balclutha, in the Ossianic poern 'Carthon* 
(q.v.), a town on the Clyde, burnt by Combal, 
father of Ossian, in one of his raids. 

Balder or BALDUR, in Scandinavian my- 
thology, a son of Odin (q.v.), the god of the 
summer sun, beloved by all, but threatened 
with death. Frigga, his mother, has per- 
suaded all things to vow not to injure him, 
but has overlooked the mistletoe. Loki (q.v.) 
induces the blind god Hodur to throw a 
branch of mistletoe at Balder, and this kills 
him. In another legend Hodur is the rival of 
Balder for the beautiful Nanna, and has ob- 
tained possession of the irresistible Miming 
(q.v.) sword 'Mistelteinn* (mistletoe). For 
the legend of Hermod's journey to hell to 
recall Balder to the upper world, see Balder 

Balder t a dramatic poem by Dobell (q.v.), 
published in 1854. 

A poet has taken his young bride to live in 
c a tower gloomy and ruinous'. He is engaged 
in mystic meditations, and believes himself 
selected to conquer the secret of the universe. 
Meanwhile she pines, but is for a time com- 
forted by the presence of her infant child. 
Presently the child sickens and dies, and the 
mother goes mad. The poet conjures the 
doctor to cure her, threatening him with death 
if he fails. Finally, unable to witness his 
wife's sufferings and to listen to her prayers 
for death, he kills her. 

The poem, which contains some fine 
passages, but is hardly readable to-day as a 
whole, is the most notable production of the 
'Spasmodic School' (q.v.). 

Balder Dead, a poem by M. Arnold (q,v.), 
published in 1853. 

Balder (q.v.) has been slam by the blind 
Hodur through the scheming of Loki. The 
poem tells of the lament of the gods for him, 
and of Hermod's journey to the shades to 
persuade Hela to give him up. Hela consents 
if all things on earth will weep for Balder. 
This they all do except Loki, who, in the 
guise of an old hag, refuses. Hermod returns 
and relates his failure to Balder, who is 
reconciled to his lot, and holds out the hope 
of a happier world, after the destruction of 
Odin and the gods at Ragnarok. 

Balderstone, CALEB, a character in Scott's 
*Bride of Lammermoor* (q.v.). 


Baldur, see Balder. 

Baldwin, the name of four of the Christian 
kings of Jerusalem (and a nominal Baldwin V, 
an infant), including the successor of Godfrey 
de Bouillon, who figures in Tasso's * Jerusalem 
Delivered* as one of the leaders of the 
Christian host, and also in Scott's 'Count 
Robert of Paris* (q.v.). 

BALDWIN, WILLIAM, see Mirror for 

BALE, JOHN (1495-1563), bishop of Os- 
sory, author of several religious plays, a 
history of English writers, and numerous 
polemical works in favour of the cause of the 
Reformation. He is notable in the history of 
the drama as having written 'King John', the 
first English historical play, or at least a 
bridge between the interlude and the his- 
torical play proper. 

(1848-1930), a distinguished statesman, edu- 
cated at Eton and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, notable in a literary connexion as the 
author of 'A Defence of Philosophic Doubt' 
(1879), 'The Religion of Humanity* (1888), 
'Essays and Addresses' (1893), 'The Founda- 
tions of Belief* (1895), 'Questionings on 
Criticism and Beauty* (Romanes Lecture, 
1909), 'Theism and Humanism* (Gifford 
Lectures, 1915), 'Essays Speculative and 
Political* (1920), 'Theism and Thought* (Gif- 
ford Lectures, 1923), and 'Opinions and 
Argument* (1927). 

Balfour, DAVID, a character in R. L. Steven- 
son's 'Kidnapped* (q.v.) and 'Catriona*. 

Balfour of Burley, JOHN, a leader of the 
Cameronian sect, who figures in Scott's 'Old 
Mortality* (q.v.). 

Balifoari, THE CHEVALIER DE, in Thackeray's 
'Barry Lyndon* (q.v.), the uncle of the hero. 

Balin and Balan, one of Tennyson's 'Idylls 
of the King* (q.v.), published in 1885 with 
*Tiresias*. See Balin le Savage and Balan. 

The poem is described in the original 
edition as *an introduction to Merlin and 
Vivien*. Balin, a violent, choleric, but honest 
man, a knight of Arthur's court, is filled 
with humble devotion to Queen Guinevere. 
Disturbed by a glimpse that he gets of the 
intrigue between Launcelot and the queen, 
he leaves the court. His suspicions are finally 
confirmed by the perfidious Vivien. Possessed 
with fury at the shattering of ^his idol, he 
defaces the queen's crown on his shield and 
flings it from him. His brother Balan, another 
knight of Arthur's court, who has been given 
the quest of a demon, passing at the moment 
and thinking that this mad knight must be 
the demon of whom he is in search, attacks 
him. The two brothers fall, mortally 
wounded by each other. 

Balin le Savage and Balan, two brothers, 
'marvellous good knights* whose deeds and 
death at each other's hands unwittingly are 


told in Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur', Bk. II ; 
also in Swinburne's 'Tale of Balen* (1896). 
They appear to have had their origin in 
Belinus and Bran (qq.v.), gods of the sky and 
nether world respectively in Celtic mythology 
(J. Rhys, 'Studies in the Arthurian Legend*). 

Baliol, MRS. BETHUNE, in the introduction to 
Scott's 'Chronicles of the Canongate* (q.v.), 
the friend of Chrystal Croftangry, on whose 
recollections the latter draws for his stories. 

Baliol, JOHN DE (d. 1269), father of John de 
Baliol, king of Scotland (1292-6), founded 
Balliol College, Oxford, about 1263, as an act 
of penance imposed for having 'vexed and 
damnified* the churches of Tynemouth and 

Balkis, or BELKIS, the name given by the 
Arabs to the queen of Sheba who visited 
Solomon (i Kings x). The Koran (c. xxvii) 
contains an allusion to the story that Solomon, 
having heard a report that her legs and feet 
were covered with hair, invited her into a court 
of which the floor was covered with glass. 
The queen, mistaking this for water, lifted her 
robe in order to pass through it, thus giving 
Solomon an opportunity of ascertaining the 
truth of the report. According to some le- 
gends Balkis (on her return to Ethiopia) bore 
a son to Solomon whom she named David and 
who became king of Abyssinia. 

See also the song 'Balkis was in her marble 
town* in 'Emblems of Love* (Pt. Ill , 'Virginity 
and Perfection') by Abercrombie (q.v.). 

Ball, JOHN, a leader of the Peasants* Revolt of 
1381. He was a priest. He is the subject of W. 
Morris's romance 'The Dream of John Ball*. 

Ballad, originally a song intended as the 
accompaniment to a dance; hence a light, 
simple song of any kind, or a popular song, 
often one celebrating or attacking persons or 
institutions. From this last is derived the 
modern sense in which a ballad is a simple 
spirited poem in short stanzas in which some 
popular story is graphically narrated. [OEDJ 
In this sense of the word oral tradition is an 
essential element. There has been much dis- 
cussion as to the origin and composition of 
the old English ballads. They appear to date, 
mostly, from the isth cent. (See 'The Ballad 
of Tradition', by G. H. Gerould, 1932.) 

Ballad of Bouillabaisse t a ballad by W. M. 
Thackeray (q.v.), published in 'Punch* in 
1 849. The author muses on the sad memories 
recalled by the old accustomed corner in the 
Paris inn, where with his young wife and 
friends he used to eat bouillabaisse. 

Ballade, strictly, a poem consisting of one 
or more terns, or triplets of seven (or, after- 
wards, eight-lined) stanzas, each ending with 
the same line as refrain, and usually an envoy 
addressed to a prince or his substitute; 
e.g. Chaucer's 'Compleynt of Venus*. More 
generally, a poem divided into stanzas of 
equal length, usually of seven or eight lines. 



Balladino, ANTONIO, in Jonson's 'The Case 
is altered* (q.v.), the character under which 
Munday (q.v.) is ridiculed. 

Ballantyne, JAMES (1772-1833), at first a 
solicitor, then a printer in Kelso, printed Sir 
W. Scott's 'Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border* 
in 1802, and thenceforth continued to print 
Scott's works. He received a loan from Scott 
for the purpose of establishing a printing 
business in Edinburgh in 1802, and took a 
half-share with his brother, John, in the book- 
selling business, started in 1808 by Scott. He 
was ruined by the bankruptcy of Constable 
& Co. in 1826. BaUantyne 's 'Novelists' 
Library', with 'Lives of the Novelists' 
prefixed by Scott, was issued in 1821-4. 
Scott nicknamed him 'Aldiborontiphosco- 
phornio' from the character in Carey's 
*Chrononhotonthologos' (q.v.). 

Ballantyne, JOHN (1774-1821), brother of 
James Ballantyne (q.v.), became in 1808 
manager of the publishing firm started by 
Sir Walter Scott. He was nicknamed by 
Scott 'Rigdumfunnidos' from the character in 
Carey's 'Chrononhotonthologos' (q.v.). 

BaUiol College, Oxford, was founded by 
John de Baliol (q.v.) in 1263, and his founda- 
tion was much increased by his widow, 
Devorguilla. Among famous masters of this 
college have been John WyclifTe and Ben- 
jamin Jowett (qq.v.), and among its many 
distinguished members Humphrey (q.v.), 
duke of Gloucester, Adam Smith (q.v.), and 
a large proportion of the British statesmen 
of the last hundred years. 

by surname, a character in Scott's 'Waverley' 

Balmoral Castle, a royal residence near 
Braemar in Aberdeenshire. Queen Victoria 
visited the neighbourhood in the summers of 
184850, taking a lease of Balmoral House; 
and the estate was purchased by her in 1852. 
The present castle was commenced in 1853. 

Balnibarbi, in 'Gulliver's Travels* (q.v.), 
the country, subject to the king of Laputa, of 
which Lagado is the capital, where in every 
town there is an academy of projectors, en- 
gaged on projects for increasing the welfare 
of mankind, none of which come to perfection. 

Balor, the chief of the Fomors (q.v.) of 
Gaelic mythology. One of his eyes had the 
power of destroying whatever it looked on. 
The eye was put out and himself slain by 
Lugh, the sun-god, at the great battle of 

Balthazar ('possessor of treasure'), one of the 
three Magi (q.v.) or Vise men of the East*. 
He is represented as king of Chaldea. 

BALTHAZAR is the name assumed by Portia 
as a lawyer in Shakespeare's 'Merchant of 
Venice* (q.v.). 

Baltic, The Battle of, see Campbell, 


Balwhidder, THE REV. MICAH, in Gait's 
'Annals of the Parish* (q.v.), the minister of 

BALZAC, HONORfi DE (1799-1850), 
French novelist, author of the great collec- 
tion of romances entitled *La Come* die 
Humaine' in which he endeavoured to repre- 
sent, faithfully and minutely, the whole 
complex system of French society. The 
design is expounded in his famous 'General 
Preface* (1842). He has been considered by 
many authorities (including Henry James) 
the greatest of all novelists, and has powerfully 
influenced later writers of fiction. Balzac was 
a Parisian, poor and lonely during most of his 
life, working in a garret. He first attained 
success by 'Les Chouans* (1829), ^nd more 
conspicuously by* La Peau de Chagrin' (1830). 
These were followed by a number of master- 
pieces, 'Eugenie Grandet', 'Le Pere Goriot', 
'Le Cousin Pons', &c. His 'Contes Drola- 
tiques', a Rabelaisian work, published in 1833, 
and a few comedies, stand apart from the 
main body of his work. 
Bamboccio (cripple), the nickname of Pieter 
van Laar (1613-74 ?), Dutch painter of scenes 
of low life, whence the name BAMBOCHADES for 
genre pictures of this kind. 
Bampton Lectures, THE, on theological 
subjects, are delivered at Oxford annually, 
the cost being defrayed out of the proceeds of 
the estate left for the purpose by the Rev. 
John Bampton, of Trinity College, Oxford, 
and a prebendary of Salisbury, who died in 
1751. Among notable Bampton lecturers 
have been Whately,Milman,Mansel, Liddon, 
and Rashdall. 

Ban, in the Arthurian legends, king of 
Brittany and father of Launcelot (q.v.). 

Banastaire, HUMFREY, in Sackville's 'Com- 
plaint of Buckingham' (q.v.), the dependant 
of Buckingham who betrayed him. 
Banbury, a town in Oxfordshire, formerly 
noted for the number and zeal of its Puritan 
inhabitants. Whence 'Banbury man' is used 
by Ben Jonson and others for a sanctimonious 

BANBURY CAKES were known to Gervase 
Markham ('English Huswife', n.ii, 1615), and 
are still famous. 

BANBURY CHEESES were thin, and Bardolph 
in Shakespeare's 'Merry Wives' (i. i) ad- 
dresses Slender as 'You Banbury cheese !* 

BANBURY CROSS, destroyed by the Puritans, 
has been restored in recent times. It is the 
subject of a well-known nursery rhyme. 

BANCROFT, GEORGE (1800-91), Ameri- 
can historian and diplomat, born at Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts, and educated at Harvard 
College and Gottingen. The 'History of the 
United States from the Discovery of the 
American Continent' appeared from 1834 to 
1874. Two supplementary volumes, 'History 
of the Formation of the Constitution of the 
United States', appeared in 1882. 



BANDELLO, MATTEO (14801-1562), a 
Lombard who fled to France and was made 
bishop of Agen by Francois I, was an Italian 
writer of amusing and licentious romances, 
which were translated by Belleforest into 
French in 1565, and some of them into Eng- 
lish in the "Tragical Discourses' of Geoffrey 
Fenton (1567), and became widely known. 
The tales in Painter's 'Palace of Pleasure* 
(q.v.) are largely drawn from Bandello. 

Bandusia, a fountain celebrated by Horace, 
probably on his Sabine farm. 

Bangorian Controversy, a church con- 
troversy of the early years of the reign of 
George I. The Anglican Church, which was 
committed to the hereditary principle of 
monarchy, found itself in a difficulty when 
the claims of the Stuarts were set aside on the 
death of Queen Anne and a parliamentary 
king brought in from Hanover. Strict 
churchmen refused the oaths of allegiance to 
the new king, and there was strong feeling 
between the non-jurors and the rest. Benja- 
min Hoadly, bishop of Bangor and the king's 
chaplain, published a pamphlet and preached 
a sermon in 1717 reducing Church authority 
to a minimum and making sincerity the chief 
test of true religion. These gave rise to the 
'Bangorian controversy*, in which a great 
number of pamphlets were issued, the most 
.important among them being the 'Three 
Letters to the Bishop of Bangor* of W. Law 

BANIM, JOHN (1798-1842), the 'Scott of 
Ireland', novelist, dramatist, and poet, is 
chiefly remembered for the pictures of Irish 
life and character, drawn with greater 
fidelity than by earlier novelists, and with 
more attention to the sombre side, contained 
in his 'Tales by the O'Hara Family' (first 
series, 1825). In some of these he was 
assisted by his brother, MICHAEL BANIM 
(1796-1874), who also wrote 'Father Con- 
nell' (1842), 'Clough Fion', and 'The Town 
of the Cascades'. 

Bank of England, THE, was founded on the 
basis of a scheme put forward by William 
Paterson (1658-1719, who also conceived the 
unfortunate Darien project, q.v.), with a view 
to raising money for William Ill's foreign 
campaigns. The charter, after violent op- 
position in Parliament, was granted in 1695. 
Sir John Hpublon was appointed the first 
governor, with Michael Godfrey (a nephew 
of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey), one of the 
most active promoters, as deputy-governor. 
The bank began its operations in the Grocers' 
Hall. The standard history appears to be by 
a Greek professor in Athens, 'A History of 
the Bank of England', by A. Andr&ides (P. S. 
King). 'The Bank of England from Within, 
1694-1900', by W. Marston Acres (2 vols., 
1931), may also be consulted. In this^work 
the financial side of the Bank is subordinated 
to internal affairs and the human element in 
the Bank's history. 


Bankers' Marks, see Freemasons. 

Banks, SIR JOSEPH (1743-1820), an 
eminent explorer and natural historian, and 
a great pioneer of science, who studied the 
flora of Newfoundland in 1766, and ac- 
companied Cook in his expedition round the 
world in the 'Endeavour', subsequently 
visiting Iceland. He made valuable natural 
history collections, which are preserved in 
the British Museum. He was president of 
the Royal Society, 1778-1820. Banks left a 
narrative of Cook's voyage. 

Banks 's or BANKES'S HORSE, see under 

B'ankside, the right bank of the Thames at 
South wark (q.v.), noted in the i6th and i7th 
cents, for its theatres and disreputable haunts. 

Bannatyne Club, THE, was founded in 
1823, with Sir Walter Scott as president, for 
the publication of old Scottish documents 
(see Lockhart's 'Scott', Iviii). The club was 
dissolved in 1861. George Bannatyne (1545 
1608), in whose honour it was named, was 
the compiler in 1568 of a large collection of 
Scottish poems. 

Bannockburn, near Stirling, the scene of 
the great battle in 1314, when Robert Bruce 
utterly routed the English under Edward II, 
and all Scotland was lost to the latter. The 
battle is described in Scott's 'Lord of the 
Isles', vi. 

Banquo, in Shakespeare's 'Macbeth* (q.v.), 
a general of the king of Scotland's army. 
Though mentioned by Holinshed, he is not 
regarded as an historical character. 

Banshee, a supernatural being supposed by 
the peasantry of Ireland and the Scottish 
Highlands to wail under the windows of a 
house when one of the inmates is about to die. 
Certain families of rank were reputed to have 
a special 'family spirit* of this kind. The 
word is a phonetic spelling of the Irish 'bean 
sfdhe', from Olr. *ben side', a female spirit or 
elf. [OEDJ 

Bantam, ANGELO CYRUS, in Dickens's 
'Pickwick Papers* (q.v.), Grand Master of the 
Ceremonies at Bath. 

Bantam Battalions, figured in the early 
years of the Great War. They were made 
up of men too small in stature for inclusion 
in the ordinary formations. They were dis- 
continued before 1917. 

Baphomet, the alleged name of the idol that 
the Templars were accused of worshipping. 
According to 1'Abbe* Constant, quoted by 
Littre", this word was cabalistically formed 
by writing backwards tern. o. h. p. ab. t ab- 
breviation of templi omnium hominum pads 
abbas, 'abbot of the temple of peace of all 

Barabas, the 'Jew of Malta*, in Marlowe's 
play of that name (q.v.). 



Barabbas, the notable robber, released in- 
stead of Jesus (Matt, xxvii. 16-26). 
Baralipton, a mnemonic term in scholastic 
logic constructed to represent by its first 
three vowels a syllogism in which the two 
premisses are universal affirmatives, and 
the conclusion a particular affirmative (see 

Barataria, in 'Don Quixote* (q.v.), the 
island of which Sancho Panza is made 

Barathron or BARATHRUM, a deep chasm 
behind the Acropolis at Athens, into which 
criminals* corpses were thrown. 

Barbara, in logic, a mnemonic term desig- 
nating the first mood of the first figure of 
syllogisms, the three A's signifying that the 
major and minor premisses and the conclusion 
are universal affirmatives. In this system, 
E signified a universal negative proposition, 
I a particular affirmative, O a particular 
negative. Of the possible combinations of 
these four letters in groups of three, only 
nineteen are valid syllogisms, which are 
enumerated in a well-known mnemonic verse, 
beginning : 

BArbArA, cElArEnt, dAril, fErioque prioris. 
(See Aldrich, 'Artis Logicae Rudimenta'.) 

Barbara Allan, a Scottish ballad included in 
Percy's 'Reliques', on the subject of the 
death of Sir John Grehme for unrequited 
love of Barbara Allan, and her subsequent 
remorse. 'Barbara Allen's Cruelty', another 
ballad on the same theme, is also in the 

Barbarossa, the nickname ( Red-Beard*) of 
the emperor Frederick I of Germany (1152- 
90). He made five expeditions into Italy for 
the purpose of its subjugation, and entered 
Rome. But the last expedition was opposed 
by the Lombard League and was a failure. 
Barbarossa was drowned in a river in the 
course of the Third Crusade (having gone by 
land to avoid the perils of the sea), but 
legend says that he still sleeps in a cavern 
in the KyfThauser mountain, with his com- 
panions about him and his beard grown 
round a stone table, until the need of his 
country shall summon him forth. This 
legend appears to have been transferred from 
Charlemagne to Barbarossa, and from Bar- 
barossa to his grandson, Frederick II. 

Barbary Corsairs, the cruisers of Barbary 
(the Saracen countries along the N. coast of 
Africa), to whose attacks the ships and coasts 
of the Christian countries were incessantly 

Barbason, the name of a demon mentioned 
by Shakespeare in 'The Merry Wives', II. ii, 
and 'Henry V*, II. i. 

(1743-1825), nee AIKIN, was author of 
miscellaneous poems and prose essays, in- 
cluding nature studies entitled 'Hymns in 


Prose*. She is chiefly remembered for her 
fine lines beginning: 

Life ! I know not what thou art. 

Barbican, an outer fortification to a city or 
castle. The Barbican in London (Aldersgate 
Street) was, according to Stow, the site of an 
old watch-tower 'whence a man might behold 
the whole Citie toward the South, as also into 
Kent, Sussex, and Surrey'. In the street 
named after it lived Gondomar, the Spanish 
Ambassador, and John Milton (1645-7). 

BARBOUR, JOHN (i3i6?~95), Scottish 

g>et, was archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1357. 
e probably studied and taught at Oxford 
and Paris. He was one of the auditors of 
exchequer, 1372, 1382, and 1384. He com- 
posed his poem 'The Bruce' (q.v.), celebrat- 
ing the war of independence and deeds of 
King Robert and James Douglas, about 1375. 
Other poems which have with reasonable 
certainty been ascribed to him are the 'Le- 
gend of Troy' and 'Legends of the Saints', 
being translations from Guido da Colonna's 
'Historia Destructionis Troiae' and the *Le- 
genda Aurea*. 

B ARBUSSE, HENRI (i 875- ), French 
novelist, author of the well-known volume of 
short stories of the War, 'Le Feu' (1916); 
also of 'Clarte*' (1919), La Lueur dans 
1'abime* (1921), &c. 

Barchester Towers, a novel by A. Trollope 
(q.v.), published in 1857. 

This is the second in the Barsetshire series, 
the sequel to 'The Warden' (q.v.). To the 
characters included in that work are now 
added Dr. Proudie, the new bishop of Bar- 
chester, henpecked by the masterful Mrs. 
Proudie, and the bishop's chaplain, the 
intriguing and hypocritical Mr. Slope. 'Bar- 
Chester Towers' is mainly occupied with the 
struggle between Mr. Slope and Mrs. 
Proudie for the control of the diocese, and 
in particular for the disposal of the warden- 
ship of Hiram's Hospital as between the two 
candidates, Mr. Harding, the former warden, 
and Mr. Quiverful, the incumbent of a small 
living and the father of fourteen children, a 
struggle in which the lady comes out triumph- 
ant. Mr. Slope's manoeuvres are dictated 
partly by his rivalry with Mrs, Proudie, 
partly by his desire to win the hand of the 
widowed Mrs. Bold, Mr. Harding's daughter, 
while at the same time he is smitten with a 
violent passion for the Signora Vesey- 
Neroni, the daughter of Canon Stanhope, a 
lady in an equivocal matrimonial position. 
Mr. Harding's candidature for the warden- 
ship is defeated, in spite of the strenuous 
advocacy of Archdeacon Grantly and his 
allies ; but the tables are turned by the offer 
to him of the vacant deanery of Barchester, 
which Mr. Slope had hoped to obtain. 
Mr. Slope, defeated by Mrs. Proudie, dis- 
appointed of his hope of the deanery, rejected 
with contumely by Mrs. Bold, publicly 
exposed by the Signora Neroni, is un- 



ceremoniously bundled out of his chaplaincy 
and disappears from view. Mrs. Bold marries 
Mr. Arabin (q.v.). 
BarcMno, in imprints, Barcelona. 

BARCLAY, ALEXANDER (i475?-i55a), 
poet, scholar, and divine, probably of Scot- 
tish birth, was successively a priest in the 
college of Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, a 
Benedictine monk at Ely, a Franciscan at 
Canterbury, and rector of All Hallows, Lom- 
bard Street, London. He translated Brant's 
'NarrenschifF into English verse as 'The Ship 
of Fools' (q.v., 1509), and wrote his 'Eclogues' 
(q.v.) at Ely (1515). He also translated a life 
of St. George from Baptist Mantuan, and 
Sallust's 'Bellum Jugurthinum* (c. 1520). 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1582-1621), a Scot 
born at Pont-a-Mousson in France, author 
of 'Argenis' (1621), a Latin political and 
historical romance, in which there is refer- 
ence, more or less precise, to recent events 
on the Continent, notably to the wars of the 
League, and the characters have some re- 
semblance to actual personages, such as 
Henri IV of France. He also wrote 'Euphor- 
mionis Satyricon*, a satire on the Jesuits in 
the form of a picaresque novel, in Latin, in 
two parts, published in 1603 ?~7. 

Bard, The, a Pindaric ode by Gray (q.v.), 
published in 1757. 

The ode is based on a tradition current in 
Wales that Edward I, when he completed the 
conquest of that country, ordered all the 
bards that fell into his hands to be put to 
death. It is a lamentation by a Welsh bard, 
and a curse pronounced by him and the 
ghosts of his slaughtered companions on 
Edward's race, whose misfortunes are fore- 
told. Then the bard sings of the glories that 
will come with the house of Tudor, and of the 
poets of that age. 

Bardeil, MRS., in Dickens's 'Pickwick 
Papers' (q.v.), Mr. Pickwick's landlady, who 
sues him for breach of promise. 

Bardolph, in Shakespeare's 'Henry IV 
and 'Henry V (qq.v.), one of Falstaff's 
disreputable boon companions. He is * white- 
livered and red-faced, by means whereof *a 
faces it out and fights not'. He is hanged for 
looting in the French war. In Shakespeare's 
'Merry Wives of Windsor' (q v.) we find him 
discarded by FalstafT and employed as tapster 
by the host of the Garter Inn. 

Bareacres, EARL and COUNTESS OF, charac- 
ters in Thackeray's 'Vanity Fair* (q.v.). 
Barebones Parliament, the assembly 
summoned by Cromwell in 1653, consisting 
of 133 members, so called from one of its 
members, Praise-God Barbon, an Anabaptist 
leather-seller in Fleet Street. 

TONIO (1719-89), bom at Turin, came to 
London and opened a school for teaching 
Italian in 1751. His 'Italian and English 


Dictionary' was published in 1760. He was 
a friend of Johnson and Thrale. 

1845), educated at St. Paul's School and 
Brasenose College, Oxford, took orders and 
held various preferments, including that of a 
minor canon of St. Paul's. His 'Ingoldsby 
Legends', written in the latter part of his 
life and first published in 'Bentley's Mis- 
cellany' and 'The New Monthly Magazine', 
were reissued in 1840, and by their humour, 
felicity of verse, narrative power and variety 
of subject, became immensely popular, 
though charges of irreverence and the like 
have been made against them. He was par- 
ticularly successful in the grotesque or frankly 
comic treatment of medieval legend. 

BARING-GOULD, SABINE (1834-1 924), 
educated at Clare College, Cambridge, was 
rector of Lew Trenchard in Devon, and 
author of a large number of religious and 
other works, and novels. The latter include 
'Mehalah' (1880), 'John Herring' (1883), 
'Court Royal' (1886), 'Richard Cable' (1888), 
&c. He also wrote 'Curious Myths of the 
Middle Ages' (1866-8). 

), dramatist, author of 'The Marrying 
of Ann Leete' (1901), 'The Voysey Inheri- 
tance' (1905), 'Waste* (1907), 'The Madras 
House* (1910), 'The Secret Life' (1923)* 
and a number of other plays and pub- 
lications, including two interesting series 
of prefaces to plays of Shakespeare. As a 
theatrical producer Mr. Barker is especially 
known for his remarkable productions of 
Shakespeare's 'Winter's Tale* (1912), 'A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream' (1914), and 'Twelfth 
Night* (1912), at the Savoy Theatre. 

Barkis, in Dickens's 'David Copperfield' 
(q.v.), the carrier, who sent a message by 
David to Clara Peggotty that 'Barkis is 
willin' . 

Barlaam and Josaphat, a medieval religious 
romance, interesting as a christianized ver- 
sion of the legend of Buddha. It appears first 
in the works of John of Damascus (8th cent.), 
then in the 'Lives of the Saints* of Symepn 
Metaphrastes, a celebrated Byzantine hagip- 
grapher, and subsequently was widely dis- 

Josaphat was, according to the story, the 
son of an Indian king, Abenner, who perse- 
cuted the Christians. A glorious and pros- 
perous reign was foretold for Josaphat, but 
in a higher kingdom \ and it was said that 
he would become a Christian. Abenner, 
perturbed by the prophecy, for a time 
secluded his son from the world, but yielding 
to his entreaties at last allowed him freedom. 
Barlaam, a holy man, now visited India, 
conversed with Josaphat, and converted him 
to Christianity. His father having ^ failed to 
shake him in his faith, associated him in the 
kingdom, was himself converted, and then 



died. Josaphat handed over the kingdom to 
Barachias, sought out Barlaarn, and died a 

Barleycorn, JOHN, the personification of 
barley, as the grain from which malt liquor 
is made. 

BARLOW, JOEL (1754-1812), American 
poet and diplomat, born at Reading, Con- 
necticut, who is remembered as the author 
of 'The Columbiad* (q.v.), and as one of 
the 'Hartford Wits' (q.v.). 

Barmecide, the patronymic of a family of 
princes ruling at Bagdad just before Haroun- 
al-Raschid, concerning one of whom the story 
is told in the 'Arabian Nights* (q.v., the story 
of the Barber's Sixth Brother) that he put 
a succession of imaginary dishes before a 
beggar, pretending that they contained a 
sumptuous repast. The beggar, entering into 
the spirit of the jest, pretended to be in- 
toxicated by the imaginary wine offered him, 
and fell upon his entertainer. Hence 'Barme- 
cide* is used of one who offers illusory bene- 
fits. See also Jaffar. 

Barn Elms, at Barnes, near London, had in 
the i7th-i 8th cents, a fashionable promenade, 
favoured by Evelyn, and notorious for the 
duels fought there. Referred to in Congreve's 
'Love for Love* (q.v.), n. ii. 

Barnaby Bright, or LONG BARNABY, St. 
Barnabas' Day, n June, in the old style 
reckoned the longest day of the year. 

Barnaby Rudge, a novel by Dickens (q.v.), 
published in 1841, as part of 'Master Hum- 
phrey's Clock*. This was the earlier of 
Dickens's two historical novels (for the other 
see Tale of Two Cities) , the period dealt with 
being that of the Gordon anti-popery riots 
of 1780. Reuben Haredale, a country gentle- 
man, has been murdered, and the murderer 
has never been discovered. Geoffrey Hare- 
dale, his brother, a Roman Catholic, and 
Sir John Chester are enemies. Chester's son 
Edward is in love with Haredale's niece, 
Emma; and the elders combine, in spite of 
their hatred, to thwart the match. The 
Gordon riots supervene, fomented secretly 
by the smooth villain Chester. Haredale's 
house is burnt, and Emma carried off. 
Edward saves the lives of Haredale and 
Emma, and wins Haredale's consent to his 
marriage with the latter. Haredale discovers 
the murderer of his brother, the steward 
Rudge, the father of the half-witted Barnaby 
and the blackmailer of the unhappy Mrs. 
Rudge. Rudge pays the penalty of his crime. 
Chester is killed by Haredale in a duel. 

The principal interest of the book lies in 
the vivid descriptions of the riots, which held 
London terrorized for several days, and in 
the characters accessory to the above plot: 
the pathetic figure of Barnaby; the sturdy 
locksmith Gabriel Varden, with his peevish 
wife, and the incomparable Dolly, his 
coquettish daughter; Simon Tappertit his 


apprentice, small in body but aspiring and 
anarchical in soul, and Miss Miggs, his mean 
and treacherous servant; John Willet, host of 
the Maypole Inn, and Joe his gallant son; 
Hugh the savage ostler, who turns out to be 
Chester's son, and Dennis the Hangman; 
and lastly Grip, Barnaby*s raven. 
Barnacle, a character in Shirley's 'The 
Gamester* (q.v.). 

Barnacles, THE, in Dickens's 'Little Dorrit' 
(q.v.), types of government officials in the 
'Circumlocution Office*. 
BARNARD, LADY ANNE, see Lindsay 
(Lady A.). 

Barnard's Inn, one of the old Inns of 
Chancery (q.v.). It was bequeathed by John 
Mackworth (d. 1451), dean of Lincoln, the 
owner, to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. 
It was at the time occupied by one Barnard 
and became a law students* Inn, but remained 
the property of the Dean and Chapter until 
1894, when it was sold to the Mercers* 
Company, who established their school there. 
(G. R. Stirling Taylor, 'Historical Guide to 

Barnardine, in Shakespeare's 'Measure for 
Measure* (q.v.), a prisoner 'that apprehends 
death no more dreadfully but as a drunken 
sleep ; careless, reckless, and fearless of what *s 
past, present, or to come*. 

Barnardo, THOMAS JOHN (1845-1905), born 
in Dublin of a German father and an English 
quaker mother, entered the London Hospital 
in 1866 as a missionary medical student, 
intending to go to China, but found that the 
need for rescue work was more urgent at 
home. He founded an East End juvenile 
mission for destitute children in 1867, and 
in 1870 opened the boys' home in Stepney 
which developed into 'Dr. Barnardo 's Homes'. 
This was followed by the 'Girls* Village 
Home* at Barkingside in Essex in 1876. He 
sent his first party of boys to Canada in 1882. 
Since then his institutions have been re- 
sponsible for sending over fifty thousand 
children to the colonies and dependencies, 
where many have risen to good positions. 
At his death he had been the means of assist- 
ing 250,000 children. He was an excellent 
man of business, and successfully refuted 
charges against his disinterestedness. 

Barnavelt f Sir John van Olden, an historical 
tragedy, probably by J. Fletcher (q.v.), acted 
in 1619. This remarkable play was dis- 
covered by Mr. A. H. Bullen among the MSS. 
of the British Museum and was printed in 
his 'Old English Plays* (1883). 

The play deals with events in the contem- 
porary history of Holland. Barnavelt, the 
great advocate, disturbed by the growing 
power of the Prince of Orange and the army, 
under cloak of a religious movement con- 
spires against him and raises companies of 
burghers in the towns to resist the army. 
The plot is discovered, the companies dis- 


armed, and Barnavelt's principal associates 
are captured. One of these, Leidenberch, 
confesses. Barnavelt, who by virtue of his 
great position is still left at liberty though 
suspect, upbraids him and tells him that 
death is ^the only honourable course left to 
him. Leidenberch, in remorse, takes his own 
life. The Prince of Orange, who had hitherto 
counselled moderation, now convinced of the 
gravity of the conspiracy, advises severe 
measures. Barnavelt is arrested, tried, and 

BARNES, BARNABE (is69?-i6o9), edu- 
cated at Brasenose College, Oxford, was a 
voluminous writer of verse. He issued (per- 
haps privately) 'Parthenophil and Parthe- 
nophe, Sonnettes, Madrigals, Elegies, and 
Odes* in 1593, and *A Divine Centurie of 
Spirituall Sonnets' in 1595. He also wrote an 
anti-popish tragedy, 'The Devil's Charter*. 

BARNES, WILLIAM (1801-86), the son 
of a farmer in Blackmoor Vale, Dorset, 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
1838, took orders, and became rector of Came 
in 1862, where he remained till his death. 
He wrote a number of poems in the Dorset 
dialect, marked by pleasant sentiment and 
a strong perception of the charms of the 
country ('Poems of Rural Life', three series, 
1844, 1859, and 1863). 

Barney, in Dickens's 'Oliver Twist* (q.v.), a 
Jew, associate of Fagin. 

BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574-1627), 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, pub- 
lished 'The Affectionate Shepherd* (1594), 
'Cynthia, with certain Sonnets* (1595), and 
other poems (1598), including two pieces, 
which appeared in the 'Passionate Pilgrim* 
(q.v., 1599), and were long attributed to 
Shakespeare, the better known of these being 
the ode, 'As it fell Upon a day, In the merry 
month of May*. 'The Affectionate Shepherd* 
is a pastoral, based on the second eclogue of 
Virgil and dedicated to Lady Rich (Sidney's 
'Stella'). In 1598 Barnfield published 'The 
Encomion of Lady Pecunia*, a satirical poem 
on the power of money. 

Barnum, PHINEAS TAYLOR (1810-91), the 
great American showman, began his career 
by exhibiting a bogus nurse of George 
Washington, alleged to be aged 161. He then 
started the American museum, containing 
curiosities and monstrosities. He conducted 
Tom Thumb to Europe in 1844, and Jenny 
Lind to America in 1850. In 1881 he com- 
bined forces with the keenest of his rivals, 
launching the firm of Barnum and Bailey, 
which visited Olympia (London) in 1889. 
He acquired the elephant Jumbo in 1882. 

Barnwell, George, see George BarnwelL 
Baroque, a word adapted from the Portu- 
guese barroco, Spanish barrueco, meaning a 
rough or imperfect pearl. It is applied to the 
heavily and grotesquely ornamented style of 
architecture that succeeded the style of the 


Renaissance. Baroque reached its culmina- 
tion in Italy and France in the early part of 
the 1 8th cent. Cf. Rococo. 

BARRfcS, MAURICE (1862-1923), French 
writer and politician who is best known out- 
side France for the extreme Nationalism of 
his views, the almost mystical fervour of his 
patriotism, and the fame that was brought 
to his writings by the War. Among his own 
countrymen his reputation was of longer 
standing, and was more purely literary. By 
birth he was a Lorrainer, and the love of his 
own particular corner of France was really 
the living heart of his fervent gallicism. At 
his death he may be said to have ranked with 
Anatole France as one of the representative 
figures of the literature of igth and early 
2Oth century France. His best-known books 
are: 'Un Homme Libre* (1889), 'Le Jardin 
de Be*re"nice* (1891), 'Le Roman de Pfinergie 
Nationale* (1897), 'L'Appel au Soldat* (1900), 
'Colette Baudouche* (1909), 'Les Amities 
Francaises* (1903), 'Le Voyage de Sparte* 
(1906), 'Greco* (1912), 'La Colline InspireV 
(1913). During the War he contributed a 
daily article for four years to the '"Echo de 
Paris*, and these were collected and published 
in a long series extending over the years 
1915-19, entitled 'L'Ame Francaise et la 

), educated at Dumfries Academy and 
Edinburgh University, was in his early days 
a journalist (his experiences in this profession 
are reflected in his 'When a Man *s Single', 
1888). Among the best of his earlier works 
are tiie biography of his mother, 'Margaret 
Ogilvy* (1896), and such sketches as 'A 
Window in Thrums' (1889). As a dramatist 
his most original work is to be found in 
'Quality Street* (1901), 'The Admirable 
Crichton* (1902), 'What Every Woman 
Knows* (in which he pricks the bubble of 
male self-sufficiency, 1908), and 'The Twelve- 
Pound Look' (the exposure of a pompous 
egoist, 1910) ; while he gained immense popu- 
larity with 'Peter Pan* (q.v., 1904). His other 
publications include: 'Better Dead' (1887), 
*Auld Licht Idylls' and 'An Edinburgh 
Eleven* (1888), 'My Lady Nicotine' (1890), 
'The Little Minister* (1891, the play was 
produced in 1897), 'Sentimental Tommy* 
(1896), 'Tommy and Grizel' (1900), 'The 
Little White Bird* (1902), 'Peter Pan in 
Kensington Gardens* (1906), and 'Peter and 
Wendy* (1911). Also a number of dramatic 
works, among others, 'The Professor's Love 
Story', produced in 1894 ; 'The Little Minis- 
ter' (1897), 'Little Mary' (i9O3),*Alice Sit-by- 
the-Fire' (1905), 'Dear Brutus' (1917), f Mary 
Rose' (1920). See Kailyard School. 

Barrington, DAINES (1727-1800), lawyer, 
antiquary, and naturalist, is said to have in- 
duced Gilbert White (q.v.) to write his 
'Natural History of Selborne'. 

Barrington, GEORGE (&. i755)> whose real 




name was WALDRON, was a famous pick- 
pocket, who was ultimately transported to 
Botany Bay. He moved in good society and 
robbed Prince Orloff of a diamond snuff-box 
said to be worth 30,000. He published a 
description of his voyage to Botany Bay and 
is chiefly remembered for the lines attributed 
to him (when a convict) : 

True patriots we, for be it understood, 
We left our country for our country's good. 
But these are now said to be by another hand 
(see R. S. Lambert, 'The Prince of Pick- 

HARROW, ISAAC (1630-77), educated at 
Charterhouse, Felstead, and Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, was successively professor of 
Greek at Cambridge, of geometry at Gre- 
sham College, and of mathematics at Cam- 
bridge, resigning the latter appointment in 
1669 in favour of his pupil, Isaac Newton. 
He became master of Trinity in 1672. He 
wrote an 'Exposition of the Creed, Decalogue, 
and Sacraments* (1669), 'Euclidis Elementa' 
(1655), 'Archimedis Opera* (1675), and a 
treatise on 'The Pope's Supremacy' (published 
1680). His sermons rank among the best in 
the English tongue; they are written with great 
smoothness and lucidity, but are extremely 
long. Coleridge ('Anima Poetae') refers to 
Barrow's 'verbal imagination', in which he 
'excels almost every other writer of prose*. 

Barrow, SIR JOHN (1764-1848), accom- 
panied Lord Macartney on his missions 
to China and the Cape of Good Hope. He 
became assistant secretary to the Admiralty, 
and revived the projects to explore the Arctic 
for a NW. passage, which had been dropped 
since the failure of Baffin (q.v.). His 'Auto- 
biographical Memoir' (1847) contains an 
interesting account of his travels. He also 
published a 'History of Voyages into the 
Arctic Region* (1718) and other books of travel. 

Barry, ELIZABETH (1658-1713), a celebrated 
actress who owed her entrance to the stage 
to the patronage of the earl of Rochester. She 
'created* more than one hundred roles, in- 
cluding Monimia in Otway's 'The Orphan*, 
Belvidera in 'Venice Preserved', and Zara in 
'The Mourning Bride*. Otway was passion- 
ately devoted to her, but she did not return 
his affection. 

BARRY CORNWALL, see Procter (B. W.\ 
Barry Lyndon, The Luck of, a Romance^ of 
the Last Century, by Fitsboodle, a satirical 
romance by Thackeray (q.v.), published in 
'Eraser's Magazine' in 1844, subsequently 
entitled 'The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, 
Esq., by Himself. 

, It takes the form of the autobiography of 
Redmond Barry, an impudent Irish ad- 
venturer, who flies from Ireland under the 
delusion that he has killed (at the age of 
fifteen) his adversary in a duel, serves in the 
English and Prussian armies, and then turns 
gamester and man of fashion, a career in which 


he meets with such prodigious success that 
he becomes well-to-do, and by his effrontery 
is able to bully the wealthy widow, the coun- 
tess of Lyndon, into marrying him; where- 
upon he assumes the name of Lyndon. He 
dissipates her fortune and grossly maltreats 
her until she is rescued by her relatives. He 
now falls on evil days and ends his life in the 
Fleet prison. In spite of being a thorough 
blackguard, his courage and frankness retain 
the reader's interest. And his old rascal of an 
uncle, the Chevalier de-Balibari, is likewise 
an entertaining figure. 

Barsetshire Novels, The, of A. Trollope 
(q.v.) are the following: * The Warden', 'Bar- 
chester Towers', 'Doctor Thome', 'Framley 
Parsonage', 'The Small House at Allington*, 
and 'The Last Chronicle of Barset* (qq.v.). 
Barth6Iemy, JEAN JACQUES, see Anacharsis 
(Le Voyage dujeune). 

123050), also known as BARTHOLOMEW DE 
GLANVILLE, though the addition 'de Glan- 
ville* is most uncertain; a Minorite friar, 
professor of theology at Paris, and author of 
T>e proprietatibus rerum*, an encyclopaedia 
of the Middle Ages first printed c. 1470. ^A 
I4th-cent. English version by John Trevisa 
was issued by Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1495. 

Bartholomew, MASSACRE OF ST., the 
massacre of Huguenots throughout France 
ordered by Charles IX at the instigation of 
his mother Catherine de Me*dicis, and begun 
on the night of the festival, 24 Aug. 1572. 

Bartholomew Fair was held, at least from 
Henry II's time, within the churchyard of 
the priory of St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, 
London, at Bartholomew tide (24 August, 
O.S.), attended by the 'Clothiers of all Eng- 
land and drapers of London' (Stow), and 'a 
Court of pie-powders (q.v.) was daily during 
the fair holden for debts and contracts*. The 
fair was continued as a pleasure-fair until 
1855. For a description of the fair in the 
1 7th cent, see Ben Jonson's 'Bartholomew 
Fayre': see also H. Morley, 'History of 
Bartholomew Fair* (1858). 

Bartholomew Fayre, a farcical comedy by 
Jonson (q.v.), produced in 1614. The play, 
the plot of which is very slight, presents, with 
much humour and drollery, if somewhat 
coarsely, the scenes of a London holiday fair, 
with its ballad-singers, stall-keepers, bullies, 
bawds, and cut-purses. Bartholomew Cokes, 
the perfect simpleton, visits the fair and is 
successively robbed of his purses, his cloak 
and sword, and finally of his future wife, 
whom he is to marry against her will; while 
his servant, the self-confident and arrogant 
Waspe, is robbed of the licence which is to 
marry them, and is put in the stocks for 
brawling. The puritan, Zeal-of-the-land 
Busy, is ridiculed for his hypocrisy, and like- 
wise gets put in the stocks. Overdo, the Jus- 
tice of the Peace, who attends the fair in 



disguise to discover its 'enormities', is taken 
for a pickpocket and subjected to the same 

Bartholomew Pig, a pig sold at Bartholo- 
mew Fair (q.v.). 'Little tidy Bartholomew 
boar-pig* is a name applied by Doll Tear- 
sheet to FalstafT ('2 Henry IV*, n. iv). 

Bartholomew's Day, ST., on this day 
(24 August) in 1662 some 2,000 of the Eng- 
lish clergy resigned their cures, refusing to 
assent to everything contained in the Book 
of Common Prayer, as required by the Act 
of Uniformity. 

Bartholomew's Hospital, ST., see Rakere. 

Bartolist, a student of Bartolo, an eminent 
Italian jurist (1313-5?); hence, a person 
skilled in the law. 

Barton, SIR ANDREW, the subject of a ballad 
in two parts, included in Percy's 'Reliques*. 
He was a Scottish sea officer who lived in the 
j 6th cent. He obtained letters of marque to 
make reprisals against the Portuguese for 
damage suffered at their hands by his father, 
and availed himself of them to interfere with 
English ships. The earl of Surrey fitted out 
two ships under his sons Sir Thomas and Sir 
Edward Howard, who after an obstinate 
engagement, in which Barton was killed, 
captured the two Scottish vessels. 

Barton, ELIZABETH (1506-34), the NUN or 
MAID OF KENT, was a domestic servant, and 
at one time subject to trances. She attributed 
her utterances during these trances to reli- 
gious inspiration. She was induced by Bock- 
ing, a monk of Canterbury, to anathematize 
all opponents of the Roman Catholic Church, 
and inveighed against Henry VIIFs divorce 
from Catharine of Aragon, prophesying that 
he would die in a month after his marriage 
with Anne Boleyn. She was executed with 
her accomplices at Tyburn. The story is told 
by Froude in his 'History*. 

Bas Bleu, see Blue Stocking* 

Bashan, a kingdom beyond the Jordan con- 
quered (with its King Og) by the Israelites 
under Moses (Num. xxi. 33). The mention 
of 'fat bulls of Basan* is in Ps. xxii. 12. 

Russian diarist, whose * Journal*, written in 
French and published posthumously in 1 887, 
attained a great vogue by its morbid intro- 
spection and literary quality, and was trans- 
lated into several languages (Engl. translation, 
1890, by Mathilde Blind). 

Basil, Pot of, see Isabella or the Pot of Basil. 
The word 'basil 3 is derived from the Greek 

t/cov, 'royal*, perhaps because the plant 
was 'used in some royal unguent bath or 
medicine' (Prior). For the many Greek and 
Italian traditions concerning this plant and 
its dual character, erotic and sinister, see 
Gubernatis, 'Mythologie des Plantes', vol. ii. 
The belief among the Creoles of Louisiana in 


its power of attracting love is referred to in 
'The Grandissimes' by G. W. Cable (c. ix). 
Basilea, in imprints, Basle. 
Basilikon Doron, see James L 
Basilisco, a braggart knight in 'Solyman and 
Perseda' (perhaps by Kyd, q.v.), referred to 
in Shakespeare's 'King John', i, i. 

Basilisk, a fabulous reptile, also called a 
cockatrice, alleged to be hatched by a serpent 
from a cock's egg. According to ancient 
authors its breath, even its look, was fatal. 
According to Pliny, it was so called from a 
spot resembling a crown on its head. 
Medieval authors furnished it with *a certain 
combe or coronet* [OED.]. In the i6th cent, 
the name was given to a kind of large brass 

Basilius , (i) a character in Sidney's 'Arcadia* 
(q.v.) ; (2) in 'Don Quixote*, the rival of Cama- 
cho (q.v.). 

Baskerville, JOHN (1706-75), the famous 
printer, began life as a schoolmaster at 
Birmingham, where he taught writing and 
book-keeping, and carved monumental in- 
scriptions. He began to occupy himself with 
type-founding in 1750, and after experiment- 
ing for several years produced a type with 
which he was satisfied. His first work, a 
quarto edition of Virgil, appeared in 1757, 
and his 'Milton* in 1758, in which year he was 
appointed printer to Cambridge University 
for ten years. He first printed his edition of 
the Prayer Book in 1760, and of the Bible, 
one of the finest ever published, in 1763. He 
brought out a Greek New Testament^(quarto 
and octavo) in 1763, a quarto Horace in 1770, 
and in 1772-3 a famous series of quarto 
editions of Latin authors. His printing plant 
was purchased after his death by Beau- 
marchais (q.v.). 

Baskett, JOHN (d. 1742), king's printer, was 
printer to the University of Oxford, 171 1-42. 
He printed editions of the Book of Common 
Prayer, and the 'Vinegar Bible' (q.v.) in two 
volumes (1716-17), of which it was said that 
it was 'a basketful of errors'. 

Basoche, the guild of clerks and lawyers 
attached to the French courts of justice under 
the old regime, which at one time possessed 
certain privileges, appointed a king (roi de la 
lasoche), held parades, and gave literary 

Basrig or BACSECG, the Danish king defeated 
and killed at the battle of Assendon t^Esces- 
dun) in 871 by the English under ^thelred. 

Bass, a celebrated kind of ale, which takes 
its name from the firm of Bass of Burton-on- 

O Beer! O Hodgson, Guinness, Allsopp, 
Bass! . 9 

Names that should be on every infant s 
tongue ! 

(Calverley, 'Beer'.) 



Bassanio, in Shakespeare's 'Merchant of 
Venice* (q.v.), the lover of Portia. 

Bassett, COUNT, a character in Vanbrugh 
and Gibber's 'The Provok'd Husband 1 (q.v.). 

Bassianus, a character in Shakespeare's 
'Titus Andronicus' (q.v.). 

Bastard, The, see Savage (#.) 
Bastard, PHILIP THE, son of Sir Robert 
Faulconbridge, a character in Shakespeare's 
'King John 1 . 

Bastard, WILLIAM THE, in English history, 
is William the Conqueror, the natural son 
of Duke Robert of Normandy and of the 
daughter of a tanner of Falaise. 

Bastille, THE, in Paris, was built as a fort by 
Charles V, king of France, in 1369, and was 
later used as a State prison. It was destroyed 
by the populace of Paris on 14 July 1789. 
The anniversary of its fall, as marking the end 
of the old regime, is the national holiday of 
republican France. 

Batavia, the Netherlands, formerly in- 
habited by a Celtic tribe called the BATAVI. 
Also the capital of the Dutch East Indies. 

Bates, Miss, a character in Jane Austen's 
'Emma* (q.v.). 

Bates, CHARLEY, ui Dickens 's 'Oliver Twist* 
(q.v.), one of the pickpockets in Fagin's gang. 

naturalist, who visited Para with Alfred 
Russel Wallace in 1 848 and the Amazons in 
1851-9. His researches revealed over 8,000 
species new to science. He published his 
'The Naturalist on the Amazons' in 1863. 

Bates, JOHN, in Shakespeare's 'Henry V 
(q.v.), one of the English soldiers with whom 
the king converses before the battle of 

Bath, from aet Bathun ('at the baths'), the 
well-known city in the west of England, so 
called from its hot springs, said to have been 
discovered by the legendary prince Bladud. 
The Romans, who called it AQUAE SULIS 
(from a deity called Sul), built there a con- 
siderable city with fine baths and temples. 
Bath's modern reputation dates from the 
1 7th cent., but it rose to the zenith of its 
fame and prosperity under the rule of Richard 
('Beau') Nash (q.v.), the 'King of Bath' in 
the 1 8th cent. It is the subject of very fre- 
quent literary allusion, having been visited 
among many others by Smollett, Fielding, 
Sheridan, Fanny Burney, Goldsmith, 
Southey, Landor, Jane Austen, Words- 
worth, Cowper, Scott, Moore, and Dickens. 
Its ruins seem to be the subject of the OE. 
poem 'Ruin' (q.v.). It was once a cloth- 
making centre, and is mentioned in this 
, connexion by Chaucer ('Canterbury Tales', 
Prologue 447, concerning the 'Wife of Bath'). 
Bath owes many of its Palladian buildings 
to John Wood (i 705^-54), the architect, and 
Jiis son (d. 1782) of the same name. 


Bath, COLONEL, a character in Fielding's 

'Amelia' (q.v.). 

Bath, KING OF, see Nash (R.). 

Bath, ORDER OF THE, an order of British 

knighthood, so called from the bath which 

preceded installation, instituted in 1399. 

Bath, Wife of, see Canterbury Tales. 
Bath Guide, The New, see Anstey (C.). 
Bathos, Greek, 'depth'. The current usage 
for 'descent from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous* is due to Pope's satire, 'Bathos, the art 
of sinking in Poetry' ('Miscellanies', 1727-8). 
The title was a travesty of Longinus's essay, 
'On the Sublime'. 

Bathsheba Everdene, a character in 
Hardy's 'Far from the Madding Crowd' 

Bathyllus, a beautiful youth of Samos, 
loved by Anacreon (q.v.). 

Batrachomyomachia, or Battle of the Frogs 
and the Mice, a mock-heroic Greek poem, at 
one time erroneously attributed to Homer. 
It describes in Homeric style a battle between 
the tribes of the mice and the frogs, the cause 
of hostilities being the destruction of a mouse 
while visiting a frog. Zeus and Athena 
deliberate as to the sides that they shall 
take. The frogs are at first defeated, but 
reinforcements, in the shape of a party of 
crabs, come to their assistance. 

Thomas Parnell (q.v.) wrote a satirical 
'Homer's Battle of the Frogs and the Mice' 
(1717), directed against Theobald and 

Battle, SARAH, the subject of one of Lamb's 
*Essays of EUa' (q.v.), 'Mrs. Battle's Opinions 
on Whist', a character drawn from Mrs. 
Burney, the wife of Admiral Burney, and 
sister-in-law of Fanny Burney (q.v.). 

Battle of Alcazar, The, a play in verse by 
Peele (q.v.), published in 1594. It deals with 
the war between Sebastian, king of Portugal, 
and Abdelmelec, king of Morocco, who had 
recovered his kingdom from a usurper, 
Muly Mahamet. The latter invokes the 
assistance of Sebastian, offering to give up the 
kingdom of Morocco to him and to become 
his tributary. Sebastian sails with his fleet 
to Morocco, and at the battle of Alcazar is 
killed, as are also Abdelmelec and Muly 
Mahamet, the latter being drowned while 
fleeing from the field. Sebastian is assisted 
in his expedition by the adventurer Stukeley 
(q.v.) who is likewise killed at the battle 
(which was fought in 1578). 

Battle of Dorking, The, an imaginary ac- 
count of a successful invasion of England, 
designed to draw attention to the lack of 
adequate military preparation, published in 
'Blackwood's Magazine*, May 1871, by 
General Sir G. T. Chesney. 

Battle of Lake Regillus, The, the title of one 
of Macaulay's 'Lays of Ancient Rome' (q.v.). 



Lake Regillus lay east of Rome in the terri- 
tory of Tusculum and on its banks was won 
the great victory of the Romans over the 
Latins under Tarquin in 498 B.C. 

Battle ofMaldon, see Maldon. 

Battle of Otterbourne, see Otterbourne. 

Battle of the Books, The, a prose satire by 
Swift (q.v.), written in 1697, when Swift was 
residing with Sir W. Temple, and published 
in 1704. 

Temple had written an essay on the com- 
parative merits of 'Ancient and Modern 
Learning* (the subject at that time of an 
animated controversy in Paris), in which by 
his uncritical praise of the spurious Epistles 
of Phalaris he had drawn on himself the 
censure of William Wotton and Bentley. 
Swift, in his 'Battle of the Books', treats the 
whole question with satirical humour. The 
'Battle* originates from a request by the 
moderns that the ancients shall evacuate 
the higher of the two peaks of Parnassus 
which they have hitherto occupied. The 
books that are advocates of the moderns take 
up the matter; but before the actual en- 
. counter, a dispute arises between a spider 
living in the corner of the library and a bee 
that has got entangled in the spider's web. 
Aesop sums up the dispute: the spider is like 
the moderns who spin their scholastic lore 
out of their own entrails ; the bee is like the 
ancients who go to nature for their honey. 
Aesop's commentary rouses the books to 
fury, and they join battle. The ancients, 
under the patronage of Pallas, are led by 
Homer, Pindar, Euclid, Aristotle, and Plato, 
with Sir W. Temple commanding the allies ; 
the moderns by Milton, Dryden, Descartes, 
Hobbes, Scotus, and others, with the support 
of Momus and the malignant deity, Criticism. 
The fight is conducted with great spirit. 
Aristotle aims an arrow at Bacon but hits 
Descartes. Homer overthrows Gondibert. 
Virgil encounters his translator Dryden, ,in a 
helmet nine times too big. Boyle transfixes 
Bentley and Wotton. On the whole the 
ancients have the advantage, but a parley 
ensues and the tale leaves the issue un- 

Battle of the Frogs and the Mice, see 

Battle of the Spurs, a name given (i) to 
the battle of Courtrai (1302) in which the 
Flemings defeated Robert, count of Artois, 
on account of the number of gilt spurs the 
victors collected; (2) to the battle of Guine- 

fitte (1513) in which Henry VIII with the 
mperor Maximilian defeated the French, on 
account of the hurried flight of the latter. 

Battle Abbey Roll, THE, was probably 
compiled about the i4th cent, purporting to 
show the names of families that came over 
to England with William the Conqueror. The 
roll itself is not extant. We have only 
i6th-cent. versions by Leland, Holinshed, 


and Duchesne, all said to be imperfect and 
to contain names which have obviously no 
right there. [E.B.] 

Battle Hymn of the Republic, a patriotic 
hymn of the Federal party in the United 
States of America, written by Julia Ward 
Howe (1819-1910). She visited the army of 
the Potomac in 1861, and was invited to pro- 
vide dignified words for the popular marching 
tune, 'John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in 
the grave* (q.v.). The fine stanzas beginning 
'Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming 
of the Lord' were the result of her effort. 
The poem was first published in the 'Atlantic 
Monthly* in 1862. 

Battledore-book, see Horn-book. 

Battus, a shepherd of Arcadia, who saw 
Hermes steal the flocks of Admetus. He was 
bribed by the god not to tell, but broke his 
promise, and was turned into a stone. 

Baucis, see Philemon. 

French poet, whose chief work is contained 
in his 'Fleurs du MaF (1857), poems in which 
the melancholy romantic spirit is carried to 
a morbid excess ; but remarkable for their 
originality and peculiar charm. The first 
edition was suppressed ; a second eolition with 
omissions and additions appeared in 1861. 

Baviad, The, see Gifford. 
Bavieca, the horse of the Cid (q.v.). 
BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-91), a presby- 
terian divine, who sided with parliament and 
was a military chaplain during the Civil War. 
'A pious, useful, irrepressible heresiarch* 
(Saintsbury), he was the author of the 'Saint's 
Everlasting Rest' (1650, the book that Mrs. 
Glegg, in 'The Mill on the Floss', used to 
favour in a domestic crisis), and the 'Call to 
the Unconverted* (1657). He contributed 
powerfully to the Restoration and had a 
bishopric offered to him; but soon after 
refusing it he suffered much ill-treatment 
under Charles II and James II, being im- 
prisoned in 1685-6, and fined by Judge 
Jeffreys on the charge of libelling the Church 
in his 'Paraphrase of the New Testament* 
(1685). His numerous writings include 
a lengthy autobiography, 'Reliquiae Baxter- 
ianae', published in 1696. 

Bay State, Massachusetts, see United 

Bayard or BAYARDO, the magic horse given 
by Charlemagne to Renaud, son of Aymon, or 
Rinaldo (q.v.), which figures in 'The Four 
Sons of Aymon', the 'Orlando Innamorato*, 
and the 'Orlando Furioso* (qq.v.). Bayard 
was formerly used as a mock-heroic allusive 
name for any horse, and also as a type of 
blind recklessness. [OED J 

(1476-1524), the 'chevalier sans peur et sans 
reproche', born in the Dauphine", a famous cap- 
tain in the Italian campaigns of Charles VIII, 



Louis XII, and Fran?ois I, killed at the 
battle of Romagnano. He won his first 
laurels fighting against the 'Great Captain*, 
Gonsalyo de Cordova (q.v.), at the Gari- 
gliano in the kingdom of Naples. 

Bayes, the name under which Dryden is 
ridiculed in Buckingham's 'The Rehearsal' 
(q.v.). The name is taken from the bay laurel, 
sprigs of which were woven into a wreath to 
crown a conqueror or poet. 

Bayeux Tapestry, THE, a strip of linen 
19 inches wide and over 200 feet long, on 
which are represented the events in the life 
of Harold from his visit to William, duke of 
Normandy, until his death. It was tradition- 
ally said to be the work of Matilda, wife of 
William the Conqueror. It is preserved at 
Bayeux near Caen, and a reproduction is in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington. Although known as a tapestry, 
'it is exclusively of needlework, executed in 
wools of different colours' (A. F. Kendrick, 
'English Embroidery'), and is thought by Mr. 
F. R. Fowke ('The Bayeux Tapestry') to have 
been ordered by Bishop Odo of Bayeux for 
the decoration of his cathedral and worked by 
Normans in the vicinity of that city. 

Bayham, FRED, 'huge, handsome, and jolly*, 
a character in Thackeray's 'The Newcomes' 

BAYLE, PIERRE (1647-1706), French 
philosopher, author of the 'Dictionnaire his- 
torique et critique' (1697-1702), a pioneer 
work in scientific biography and in criticism 
of religion and legend. There were English 
editions in 1710, 1734-8, 1734-41, and 1826* 

1839), educated at Winchester and St. Mary 
Hall, Oxford, produced songs, ballads, and 
dramatic pieces, including 'I'd be a butterfly', 
'She wore a wreath of roses', and 'Perfection' 
(a successful farce). Becoming involved in 
financial difficulties, he in a short time pro- 
duced thirty-six pieces for the stage. His 
verse has been the object of a good deal of 

Baynard Castle, Blackfriars, London, per- 
haps a royal residence in pre-Conquest times 
(see W. R. Lethaby, 'London before the 
Conquest'), took its name from Baynard, a 
follower of William the Conqueror, to whom 
the estate was granted. From him it passed 
to the Fitzwalters, by whom it was trans- 
ferred to the Black Friars. A later Baynard's 
Castle, farther east (Upper Thames Street), 
was an important residence of the dukes of 
York in the i$th cent. It was destroyed in 
the Great Fire. 

characters in Thackeray's 'The Adventures 
of Philip' (q.v.). 

Bayona, see Namancos. 

Bazzard, MR., in Dickens 's 'Edwin Drood' 
(q.v.), Mr. Grewgious's clerk. 


Beaconsfield, EARL OF, see Disraeli. 
Beagle, H.M.S., see Darwin (C. R.). 
Bean Lean, DONALD, in Scott's 'Waverley* 
(q.v.), a Highland marauder. 

Bear, THE, AT THE BRIDGE FOOT, a tavern 
that stood just outside the Great Gate at the 
Southwark end of old London Bridge (q.v.). 
It is frequently mentioned by Pepys, e.g. 
2,6 Oct. 1664; 24 Feb. 1666-7. 

Bear, THE GREAT, for its mythological 
origin see Callisto. 

Bear and Ragged Staff, THE, a crest of the 

earls of Warwick, borne before the Conquest 

' by the Saxon earls of Warwick, and derived 

from the chivalrous Guy of Warwick (q.v.). 

Beardsley, AUBREY VINCENT (1872-98), 
an artist in black and white, worked for a 
short time in an architect's office after 
leaving school and then became a clerk in the 
Guardian Insurance Company. At about 
the age o eighteen he became known in a 
narrow circle for the designs that were to 
make him famous. His earliest important 
commission was from Messrs. Dent & Sons, 
to illustrate the 'Morte d'Arthur'. He became 
art editor of the 'Yellow Book' in 1894; and 
his connexion with that periodical lasted a 
little more than a year. Shortly after this had 
ceased, Beardsley joined in the production of 
'The Savoy', of which eight numbers ap- 
peared, and to which he contributed three 
poems and a prose fragment, 'Under the Hill*. 
His later work included designs for Oscar 
Wilde's 'Salome', 'The Rape of the Lock*, 
'Mademoiselle de Maupin', Ernest Dowson's 
'Pierrot of the Minute', and a set of initials 
for an edition of 'Volpone'. Beardsley died 
of consumption in his 26th year, after 
achieving an unusual amount of work in so 
brief a life. 

Beatrice, DANTE'S, see Dante. 

Beatrice, a character in Shakespeare's 'Much 
Ado about Nothing' (q.v.). 

BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803), professor 
of moral philosophy at Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, and poet, is remembered as the 
author of 'The Minstrel', a poem in Spen- 
serian stanzas, tracing the development of a 
poet in a primitive age. The work remained 
unfinished. Book I appeared in 1771, 
Book II in 1774. 

Beau Beamish, a character in Meredith's 
'The Tale of Chloe' (q.v.). 

Beau Brummel, see Brummel. 
Beau Nash, see Nash (R.). 

Beau Tibbs, a character in Goldsmith's 
'The Citizen of the World' (q.v.) ; an absurd 
creature, poor and unknown, but boasting of 
familiarity with the nobility and affecting the 
airs of a man of fashion. His wife is at once 
a slattern and a coquette, who washes her 
husband's shirts while her talk is of countesses. 



Beauchamp's Career, a novel by G. Mere- 
dith (q.v.) published serially in 1875, in 
volume form in 1876. 

Nevil Beauchamp's career begins in the 
navy, where he shows himself a gallant officer 
and a chivalrous if somewhat Quixotic gentle- 
man. In spite of subversive views on political 
and social questions, he earns the approval of 
his rich aristocratic uncle, the Hon. Everard 
Romfrey, a medieval baron in ideas and a 
hater of radicals and the like. After the Crim- 
ean War, Nevil plunges into politics, stands 
unsuccessfully as a radical candidate for 
parliament, and comes under the influence 
of Dr. Shrapnel, an enthusiastic servant in 
the cause of humanity, but a republican, a 
free-thinker, and everything that is detest- 
able in the eyes of Mr. Romfrey and his 
friends. Induced by misrepresentations, 
Romfrey goes so far as to horsewhip Shrapnel, 
thereby incurring the fierce indignation of 
his nephew, who makes it a point of honour 
to force his proud uncle to apologize to the 
radical. This apparently hopeless enterprise 
becomes an obsession with Nevil, whose love 
affairs are likewise a source of distress to him. 
He is torn between his early passion for 
Rene*e de Croisnel, now the unhappy wife of 
an elderly Frenchman, and his love for her 
utter contrast, the ideal English girl, Cecilia 
Halkett. He resists the temptation which the 
flight of Rene"e from her husband places in 
his way; but he loses Cecilia, whom her 
father and her friends conspire to marry to 
Nevil's more humdrum cousin. Harassed 
and unhappy, Nevil falls desperately ill and 
lies at death's door. His danger effects the 
miracle, and Romfrey comes to Shrapnel's 
cottage, where the sick man lies, and tenders 
his apology. Nevil recovers and marries 
Shrapnel's ward, Jenny Denham, a kindred 
soul. But after a few months* happiness, 
Beauchamp's career is prematurely closed. 
He is drowned while trying to rescue a child 
from the sea. 

Beaumains, in Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur', 
the nickfiame given to Sir Gareth by Sir Kay, 
the steward. 

Beaumanoir, in Disraeli's *Coningsby* 
(q.v.), represents Belvoir Castle. 
Beaumanoir, Sm LUCAS, in Scott's 'Ivan- 
hoe' (q.v.), Grand Master of the Knights 

CARON DE (1732-99), son of a Paris watch- 
maker of the name of Caron. He obtained 
admission to the court of Louis XV as 
watchmaker, became popular there, had many 
adventures, and took the name of Beau- 
marchais from a small property belonging to 
his wife. He was author of the famous 
comedies *Le Barbier de Seville' (i775) anc * 
'Le Manage de Figaro* (1784), the latter a 
keen satire on French society. 
BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (1584-1616), 
was born at Grace-Dieu in Leicestershire of 


an ancient family. He was educated at 
Broadgates Hall, Oxford, and was entered at 
the Middle Temple in 1600. He made the 
acquaintance of Jonson, for several of whose 
plays he wrote commendatory verses, and of 
Drayton. He collaborated with John Fletcher 
in dramatic works from about 1606 to 1616 
(for a list of the plays so produced see under 
Fletcher, .?.) _ 'The Woman-Hater' (1607), a 
comedy showing the influence of Jonson and 
based on the 'humour* of the principal 
character, is probably the work of his sole pen. 
Dryden states that Beaumont was 'so accurate 
a judge of plays that Ben Jonson, while he 
lived, submitted all his writings to his censure, 
and 'tis thought used his judgement in 
correcting, if not contriving, all his plots*. 
And this superior faculty for the construction 
of plots is discernible in some of the plays 
that he wrote in collaboration with Fletcher. 
Beaumont was buried in Westminster Abbey, 
near Chaucer and Spenser. 

Beauty and the Beast, a fairy tale of which 
the best-known version appears in the French 
'Contes* of Mme de Villeneuve (1744). A 
somewhat similar story is included in the 
Tiacevole Notti* of Straparola (1550). 

Beauty ('la Belle') is the youngest and 
favourite daughter of a merchant, who suffers 
reverses. He sets out on a journey in the 
hope of restoring his shaken fortunes. Un- 
like her sisters, Beauty asks him to bring her 
back only a rose. The journey proves a 
failure, but on his return, in the beautiful 
garden of an apparently uninhabited palace, 
he plucks a rose for Beauty. The Beast, an 
ugly monster, to whom the palace belongs, 
threatens him with death as the penalty for 
his theft unless he gives him his youngest 
daughter. Beauty sacrifices herself and goes 
to the Beast's palace and lives there. She is 
gradually rilled with pity and affection for the 
Beast and finally consents to marry him, 
whereupon he turns into a beautiful prince, 
having been released from a magic spell by 
her virtue and courage. 

Beaux' Stratagem, The, a comedy by 
Farquhar (q.v.), produced in 1707. 

Aimwell and Archer, two friends who have 
run through their estate, arrive at the inn at 
Litchfield, in search of the adventure that 
will rehabilitate their fortunes. Archer for 
the nonce passes as AimwelTs servant. There 
is much speculation as to who they are, and 
Boniface the landlord concludes that they 
are highwaymen. This curiosity is shared by 
Dorinda, daughter of the wealthy Lady 
Bountiful, who has fallen in love with Aim- 
well at first sight in church, and Mrs. 
Sullen, wife of Lady Bountiful's son, a 
drunken sot. Aimwell, thinking Dorinda a 
suitable prey, gets admission to Lady 
Bountiful's house on a pretext, with Archer, 
between whom and Mrs. Sullen a mutual 
attraction has sprung up. An attack by 
rogues on the house is the occasion of the 
rescue of the ladies by Aimwell and Archer, 


and they both press the advantage thus 
gained. But Aimwell, who has passed him- 
self off as his elder brother, Lord Aimwell, 
smitten with remorse in presence of the 
trustfulness of Dorinda, confesses the 
fraud. At this moment Mrs. Sullen's brother 
opportunely arrives, to rescue his sister from 
the brutality of Sullen. He brings news of the 
death of Aimweirs elder brother and of the 
accession of Aimwell to title and fortune. 
Sullen at the same time willingly agrees to 
the dissolution of his marriage, so that 
Mrs. Sullen is free to marry Archer, and all 
ends happily. 
Beaver State, Oregon, see United States. 

Beazeley, OLD TOM and YOUNG TOM, 
characters in Marryat's 'Jacob Faithful' 

Beck, MADAME, a character in Charlotte 
Bronte's 'Villette' (q.v.). 
Becket) a tragedy by A. Tennyson (q.v.), 
published in 1884. 

The subject of the play is the bitter 
quarrel that arose between Henry II and 
Thomas k Becket when the king had ap- 
pointed the latter, already his chancellor, 
to be archbishop of Canterbury against his 
wish, culminating in the words of the king 
which authorized the four knights to seek 
out Becket at Canterbury and kill him in the 
Cathedral. With this is woven the story of 
the love of Henry for Fair Rosamund, whom 
he entrusts to Becket's protection; of Queen 
Eleanor's finding her way to Rosamund's 
bower with intent to lull her; and of Rosa- 
mund's rescue by Becket and relegation to 
Godstow nunnery. 

Becket, THOMAS A, see Thomas a Becket. 

BECKFORD, PETER (1740-1811), master 
of foxhounds and scholar, was author of the 
famous 'Thoughts upon Hare and Fox 
Hunting* and 'Essays on Hunting* (1781), 
which marked an era in the history of hunt- 
ing. Beckford also wrote 'Familiar Letters 
from Italy* (1805). 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1759-1844), son 
of William Beckford (1709-70) the alderman 
and lord mayor in the days of Wilkes, was 
a man of great wealth, M.P. successively for 
Wells and Hindon, who spent large sums in 
collecting works of art and curios, and in the 
building and decoration of his mansion of 
Fonthill, where he lived in almost complete 
seclusion. He is remembered chiefly as the 
author of the fantastic oriental tale 'Vathek* 
(q.v.). But many readers will derive more 
pleasure from his two books of travel, 
'Dreams, Waking Thoughts, and Incidents* 
(1783, revised 1834), an d 'Recollections of an 
Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobafa and 
Batalha' (1835). 

Bed of Ware, THE GREAT, an oak bed 
10 ft. 9 in. in length and breadth, with a 
richly carved headboard, columns, and 
canopy, of the i6th cent., whose first home 


may have been Ware Park. It was transferred 
to the Saracen's Head Inn at Ware, apparently 
before the end of the i6th cent. It is referred 
to by Shakespeare ('Twelfth Night*, in. ii); 
Jonson ('Epiccene', v. i); and Farquhar ('The 
Recruiting Officer', I. i). It was exhibited in 
London in 1931. 

49), educated at Charterhouse and Pembroke 
College, Oxford, went abroad to study medi- 
cine and settled at Zurich in 1835, living 
thereafter mostly abroad. He published in 
1821 'The Improvisatore* and in 1823 'The 
Bride's Tragedy*. His most important work, 
'Death's Jest-Book* (q.v.), a play in the 
Elizabethan spirit, was begun in 1825 and 
repeatedly altered at various times, not being 
published until 1850, after his death by sui- 
cide. Beddoes showed in his work, besides 
a taste for the macabre and supernatural, a 
capacity for occasionally fine blank verse, and 
more especially a poignant lyrical gift, dis- 
played in his dirge for Wolfram in 'Death's 
Jest-Book*, in his beautiful 'Dream Pedlary* 
('If there were dreams to sell, What would you 
buy?'), and in many other short pieces. His 
poetical works were edited by Gosse in 1890 
and 1928. 

BEDE or B^EDA (673-735), historian and 
scholar, was when young 'placed under the 
charge of Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wear- 
mouth. Thence he went to the monastery of 
Jarrow, where he spent the greater part of his 
life. He appears from his writings to have 
been wise, learned, and humble. He was a 
diligent teacher, and a Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew scholar, and found many pupils 
among the monks of Wearmouth and Jarrow. 
He was buried at Jarrow, but his bones were 
taken to Durham during the first half of the 
nth cent. The epithet 'Venerable* was first 
added to his name in the century following 
his death. His 'Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Anglorum* (q.v.) was brought to an end 
in 731, and by that year he had written 
nearly forty works, chiefly biblical com- 
mentaries. The treatise 'De Natura Rerurn*, 
one of his earliest works, contains such 
physical science as was then known, and has 
the merit of referring phenomena to natural 

BEDE, CUTHBERT, pseudonym of E. 
BRADLEY (q.v.). 

Bedford Coffee-house, THE, stood at the 
north-east corner of Co vent Garden. It was 
frequented by actors and others, including 
Garrick, Foote, Sheridan, Hogarth, and 

Bedivere, SIR, in Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur', 
one of Arthur's knights. He and his brother 
Sir Lucan, with Arthur, alone survived the 
last battle, and it was he who at Arthur's 
bidding threw Excalibur into the water, and 
bore the king to the barge that carried him 
away to Avalon. 



Bedlam, a corruption of Bethlehem, applied 
to the Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem, in 
Bishopsgate, London, founded as a priory 
in 1247, with the special duty of receiving 
and entertaining the clergy of St. Mary of 
Bethlehem, the mother church, as often 
as they might come to England. In 1330 
it is mentioned as 'an hospital*, and in 1402 
as a hospital for lunatics. In 1346 it was 
received under the protection of the City 
of London, and on the dissolution of the 
monasteries, it was granted to the mayor and 
citizens. In 1547 it was incorporated as a 
royal foundation for the reception of lunatics. 
In 1675 a new hospital was built in Moor- 
fields, and this in turn was replaced by a 
building in the Lambeth Road in 1815. The 
hospital has now been transferred to Monks 
Orchard, Eden Park, Beckenham. 

From Bedlam are derived such expressions 
as TOM o* BEDLAM (q.v.) and BESS o* BEDLAM, 
for wandering lunatics, or mendicants posing 
as lunatics. 

Bedr-ed-Din, HASSAN, see under Nur-ed- 

Bedr-el-Budur, see Badroulboudour. 

Bee, The, see Goldsmith. 


founded in 1735 by John Rich, the manager 
of the Covent Garden Theatre. The society, 
which included many eminent persons, used 
to meet and dine in a room at the theatre, the 
name being derived from the beef-steaks 
served. When Covent Garden Theatre was 
burnt, the Society moved to the Bedford Coffee- 
House, and later to the Lyceum Theatre. 

Beef- steak Club, THE, was founded about 
1876; the members used to dine in a room 
at Toole's Theatre, and moved, when this 
was demolished, to Green Street, Leicester 
Square. There was an earlier club of the 
same name. These are not to be confused 
with the 'Sublime Society of Beef Steaks'. 

Beefeater, an eater of beef, a popular appella- 
tion of the Yeomen of the Guard in the house- 
hold of the Sovereign, instituted at the 
accession of Henry VII in 1485 ; also of the 
Warders of the Tower, who were named 
Yeomen Extraordinary of the Guard in the 
reign of Edward VI. (The conjecture that 
the word has some connexion with the French 
buffet is historically baseless.) [OED.] 

Beefington, a character in 'The Rovers' 
(see Anti-Jacobin). 

Beelzebub, adapted from the Latin word 
used in the Vulgate to render both the Greek 
/?eeAe/3ouA of the received text of the N.T., 
and the Hebrew 'baal-z e bub', 'fly-lord', men- 
tioned in 2 Kings i. 2 as 'God of Ekron\ The 
/JeeAe/?ouA represents the Assyrian for 'lord of 
the high house', but was understood in N.T. 
times as 'lord of the underworld'. In Matt, 
xii. 24 Beelzebub is spoken of as 'prince of the 


devils'. Milton gives the name to one of the 
fallen angels, next to Satan in power (' Para- 
dise Lost*, i. 79). 

BEERBOHM, MAX (1872- ), edu- 
cated at Charterhouse and Merton College, 
Oxford, a critic, essayist, and caricaturist, 
published his first book, 'The Works of Max 
Beerbohm', in 1896. A master of wit, irony, 
and satire, and of a polished and incisive 
style, he directs his criticism at literary 
mannerisms and social pretences. He suc- 
ceeded Bernard Shaw as dramatic critic of 
the 'Saturday Review/ in 1898. One of the 
best known of his critical works is C A Christ- 
mas Garland' (1912), a series of parodies of 
contemporary authors, Wells, Bennett, Con- 
rad, Chesterton, &c. 'Zuleika Dobson* (1911) 
is an amusing story of the devastating effect 
on the youth of Oxford of a beautiful ad- 
venturess. H!is other principal works are: 
'More*, ' Yet Again','And Even Now'(essays) ; 
'Seven Men' (stories) j also volumes of carica- 
tures, among others 'The Poet's Corner* 
(1904), A Book of Caricatures* (1907), 
'Rossetti and his Circle* (1922). 
Bees, Fable of the, see Mandeville (B. de). 
Beethoven, LUDWIG VAN (1770-1827), 
born at Bonn in Rhenish Prussia, of Dutch 
descent, the famous German musical com- 
poser. He studied under Haydn. He be- 
came afflicted with deafness in 1802, which in- 
creased until it became complete, but did not 
arrest his creative genius. Beethoven died in 
Vienna. His principal achievement was the 
introduction into the art of music of some- 
thing other than the mere development of 
musical themes. His musical conceptions 
have an intellectual and moral quality that 
was previously unknown. He perfected the 
symphony. His compositions included one 
opera ('Fidelio'), two masses, nine sym- 
phonies, and a large number of concertos, 
sonatas, quartets, and trios. 
(1836-65), nee Mayson, author of a famous 
book of cookery and domestic economy, first 
published in 1859-61 in 'The English- 
woman's Domestic Magazine' and in book 
form in 1861 ('The Times', 3 Feb. 1932). 
Befana, an Italian corruption of EPIPHANIA, 
Epiphany, an Italian female Santa Claus, who 
fills children's stockings on Twelfth Night. 
Her name is also used as a bogy to frighten 

Beggar's Bush, according to Ray's 'Pro- 
verbs' (p. 244, ed. 1768), *a tree notoriously 
known on the London Road from Hunting- 
ton to Caxton*, frequented by beggars. 
Beggars Bush, The, a drama by J. Fletcher 
(q.v.), and perhaps Massinger, probably 
produced in 1622. 

Florez, the rightful heir of the earldom of 
Flanders but ignorant of his rights, and living 
as a rich merchant at Bruges, is in love with 
Bertha, who is heiress of Brabant, but has 
been stolen away and placed with the Burgo- 



master of Bruges and is equally ignorant of 
her rights. Gerrard, father of Florez, who has 
been driven from Flanders, has concealed him- 
self among the beggars near Bruges, is their 
king, and watches over the interests of Florez. 
Wolfort, the usurper, proposes to marry 
Bertha and restore her to her rights, thus 
obtaining possession of Brabant. He sends 
Hubert, one of his nobles, who is in love with 
Jacqueline, Gerrard's daughter, to effect his 
purpose. Hubert, however, joins the beggars, 
among whom Jacqueline is living, and plots 
with Gerrard to get Wolfort into their power. 
In this they are successful. The identity of 
Florez and Bertha is revealed and they are 
married. The play is interesting by reason 
of its examples of early thieves* cant, and its 
realistic picture of vagabond life. 

Beggar's Daughter ofBednatt Green, The, a 
ballad written in the reign of Elizabeth and 
included in Percy's 'Reliques'. 

Bessee is the fair daughter of a blind 
beggar, employed at the inn at Romford and 
courted by four suitors, a knight, a gentleman 
of good birth, a merchant of London, and the 
innkeeper's son. They all withdraw their suit 
on being referred by her to her father, except 
the knight. The old beggar gives her as 
dowry three thousand pounds, two pounds 
for every one the knight puts down. It now 
appears that the beggar is Henry, son of 
Simon de Montfort, who has assumed the 
disguise of a beggar for safety. 

The story forms the basis of Chettle and 
Day's 'Blind Beggar of Bednal Green' (1600, 
printed 1659). J. S. Knowles (q.v.) also wrote 
a comedy called 'The Beggar's Daughter of 
Bethnal Green* ; and R. Dodsley (q.v.) wrote 
a musical play, 'The Blind Beggar of Bethnal 

Beggar's Opera, The, a musical play by 
J. Gay (q.v.), produced in 1728. 

The play arose out of a suggestion by 
Swift to Gay that a Newgate pastoral 'might 
make an odd pretty sort of thing'. The prin- 
cipal characters are Peachum, a receiver of 
stolen goods, who also makes a living by in- 
forming against his clients ; his wife, and his 
pretty daughter, Polly; Lockit, warder of 
Newgate, and his daughter Lucy; and Cap- 
tain Macheath, highwayman and light- 
hearted winner of women's hearts. Polly 
falls desperately in love with Macheath, who 
marries her. Her father, furious at her folly, 
decides to place her in the 'comfortable estate 
of widowhood* by informing against Mac- 
heath, who is arrested and sent to Newgate. 
Here he makes a conquest of Lucy's heart, 
and there is a spirited conflict between Polly 
and Lucy, the rival claimants to his affection 
('How happy could I be with either, Were 
t'other dear charmer away!'). In spite of her 
jealousy, Lucy procures the escape of Mac- 
heath. The play was a great success and Gay 
is said to have made 800 by it. (It was said 
to have made Gay rich, and Rich the pro- 
ducer gay.) 


Beghard, a name derived like BGUINE 
(q.v.) from the surname of Lambert Begue, 
given to members of certain lay brotherhoods 
which arose in the Low Countries early in the 
1 3th cent, in imitation of the beguine sister- 
hoods. From the i4th cent, the beghards 
were denounced by Popes and Councils and 
persecuted, and such as survived in the i7th 
cent, were absorbed in the Tertiarii of the 
Franciscans. [OED.] 

Be"guines, a name derived from the sur- 
name of Lambert Begue or le Begue ('the 
stammerer'), a priest of Lie"ge in the i2th 
cent., given to the members of certain lay 
sisterhoods which began in the Low Countries 
in the izth cent.; they devoted themselves to 
a religious life, but were not bound by strict 
vows. They were protected by Pope John 
XXII when he persecuted the Beghards 
(q.v.), and are still represented by small 
communities in the Netherlands. [OED.] 

Behemoth, an animal mentioned in Job 
xl. 10, probably a hippopotamus. Used in 
modern literature as a general expression for 
one of the largest and strongest animals. 
Behemoth, biggest born of earth. 

(Milton, 'Paradise Lost*, vii. 471.) 
The might of earth-convulsing behemoth. 
(Shelley, 'Prometheus Unbound*, iv. i. 310.) 
The OED. supports Milton's accentuation. 

Behistun Inscription, THE, a cuneiform 
inscription in the three languages of the 
Persian empire, on a lofty rock between 
Hamadan and Kirmanshah, recounting the 
events of the reign of Darius. It was copied 
and deciphered by Sir Henry Rawlinson. 

Behmenism, see Boehme. 

or AYFARA (1640-89), daughter of John 
and Amy Amis, lived as a child in Surinam, 
Guiana. She returned to England in 1658, and 
married Behn, a city merchant. She was 
employed by Charles II as a spy in Antwerp 
on the outbreak of the Dutch war. Between 
1671 and 1689 she produced fifteen plays, of 
which the most popular was 'The Rover* 
(in two parts, 1677-81), dealing with the 
amorous adventures in Naples and Madrid of 
a band of English cavaliers during the exile of 
Charles II. 'The City Heiress* (q.v.), 1682, 
is one of her typical coarse comedies of con- 
temporary London life. She also wrote poems 
(including the beautiful *Love in fantastic 
triumph sat'), and novels, of which her 
'Oroonoko, or the History of the Royal Slave* 
(q.v.) is the best known. It is the first English 
philosophical novel containing dissertations 
on abstract subjects, such as the religion 
of humanity. Afra Behn was buried in the 
east cloister of Westminster Abbey. 

Bel and the Dragon, one of the apocryphal 
books of the O.T., detached from the Book of 
Daniel. Bel was an idol worshipped by the 
Babylonians (the word is equivalent to Baal), 



and the story tells how Daniel convinced 
King Astyages that it was a mere image of 
brass. The dragon was a living animal, 
which was also worshipped. Daniel dis- 
proved its divine character by giving it lumps 
of pitch, fat, and hair to eat, so that it burst 

Belarius, a character in Shakespeare's 
'Cymbeline* (q.v.). 

Belch, SIR TOBY, in Shakespeare's 'Twelfth 
Night* (q.v.)^a roistering humorous knight, 
uncle to Olivia. 

Belcher, a neckerchief with blue ground and 
large white spots having a dark blue spot or 
eye in the centre," named after the celebrated 
pugilist Jim Belcher (1781-1811). 

Belial, adapted from the Hebrew words 
b e li-ya*al, means literally 'worthlessness' 
and 'destruction', but in Deut. xiii. 13, and 
elsewhere, in the phrase 'sons of Belial', it is 
retained untranslated in the English version, 
as a proper name. It has thus come to mean 
the spirit of evil personified, and is used from 
early times as a name for the Devil or one of 
the fiendsj and by Milton ('Paradise Lost', 
i. 490) as the name of one of the fallen angels. 

Belinda, (i) the heroine of Pope's 'The Rape 
of the Lock' (q.v.); (2) a character in Van- 
brugh's 'The Provok'd Wife* (q.v.); (3) the 
title of a novel by Maria Edgeworth (q.v.); 
(4) the niece of Mr. John Jprrocks, who 
promised her (on her marriage) 1,000 
every time she should have twins. 

Belirms, the name of a Celtic sun-god, and 
of a legendary British king (perhaps the same 
as Cassibelaunus) who built a tower and made 
a haven for ships at what was afterwards 
London. Billingsgate (q.v.) is thought by 
some to be connected with his name. 

Belisarius, the great military commander 
during the reign of Justinian (527763), was a 
native of Illyria and of humble birth. After 
successful campaigns against the Vandals, 
Goths, and Bulgarians, he was in 563 accused 
of conspiring against the emperor. His eyes, 
according to tradition, were put out, and he 
was reduced to wandering, a beggar, about 
the streets of Constantinople. But, in fact, 
he appears to have been only imprisoned for 
a year. 

Belit, see Assur. 
Belkis, see Balkis. 
Bell, ADAM, see Adam Bell. 

Bell, ALEXANDER GRAHAM (1847-1922), born 
at Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh 
and London Universities, went to Canada in 
1870, and thence to Boston, U.S.A., where he 
became professor of vocal physiology. He 
exhibited in 1876 his invention of the means 
of transmitting sound by electricity, which, 
when perfected, became the telephone. 
Bronte (C., E. t and A.). 

Bell, JOHN, see Egan. 

Bell, LAURA, the heroine of Thackeray's 
'Pendennis' (q.v.). 

Bell-the-Cat, Archibald Douglas, fifth earl 
of Angus (1449?-! 5 14), who earned the 
nickname by declaring to his confederates 
that he would 'bell the cat', i.e. kill Robert 
Cochrane, earl of Mar, the hated favourite of 
James III. He figures in Scott's 'Marmion* 

Bell's Life in London, see Egan. 

Bella Wilfer, a character in Dickens's 'Our 
Mutual Friend' (q.v.). 

Bellafront, in Dekker's "The Honest Whore' 
(q.v.), the repentant courtesan, and exem- 
plary wife of the worthless Matheo. 

Bellair, a character in Etherege's 'The Man 
of Mode* (q.v.). 

Bellamira, a comedy by Sir C. Sedley (q.v.), 
produced in 1687. 

It is a coarse but lively play, founded on 
the 'Eunuchus' of Terence, reflecting the 
licentious manners of Sedley's day. Danger- 
field, a braggart and a bully, whose cowardice 
is exposed in an adventure similar to that of 
FalstafT at Gadshill, is an amusing character. 

BELLAMY, EDWARD (1850-98), Ameri- 
can author, born at Chicopee Falls, Mass., 
whose fame rests upon his popular Utopian 
romance, 'Looking Backward* (1888). 

The hero of 'Looking Backward' falls 
asleep in 1887 and awakes in Boston, in the 
year 2000, to find great social changes. 
Private capitalism has been replaced by 
public capitalism, and all work is done for 
public benefit rather than private gain. Few 
'Utopias* have been thought out more 
logically, or in more detail, than Bellamy's. 
His communistic ideas gave rise to a new 
political party; but it is in Russia that his 
theories have been most closely approached 
in practice. 

Bellario , (i) the name assumed by the heroine 
of Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Philaster* (q.v.) 

CESCO ROMOLO (1542-1621), an Italian 
cardinal and a powerful defender of the 
Roman cause against the Protestants, was 
author of 'Disputationes de Controversiis 
Christianae Fidei adversus hujus temporis 
haereticos' (1581-93)- 

The name 'BeHarmine* was given to a large 
glazed dxinking-jug with capacious belly and 
narrow neck, originally designed by the 
Protestant party in the Netherlands as a 
burlesque likeness of their great opponent, 
the cardinal. [OED.] 

Bellaston, LADY, a character in Fielding's 
*Tom Jones* (q.v.). 



Belle or ISOPEL Berners, a character in 
Sorrow's 'Lavengro' (q.v.), a sturdy wander- 
ing lass, who acts as second to Lavengro in 
his fight with the Flaming Tinman. 

Belle Dame sans Merci, La, a ballad by 
Keats (q.v.), written in 1819. 

The knight-at-arms, enthralled by an elf, 
wakes from the dream of his lady, not to find 
his dream realized, but the cold hill's side, 
where 'no birds sing'. The poem is, says 
Oliver Elton, 'a touchstone* for this kind of 
composition. 'La Belle Dame sans Merer* is 
also the title of a poem, in rhyme royal and 
octaves, translated from Alain Chartier, 
attributed at one time to Chaucer, but now 
thought, on manuscript authority, to be the 
work of Sir Richard Ros. 

Belle Sauvage, or BELL SAVAGE, Inn, THE, 
stood on Ludgate Hill, and dated at least 
from the i5th cent. In a deed of 1453 it is 
described as 'Savages Inn* or the 'Bell-on- 
the-Hoop*; and the name e Bell Savage* per- 
haps arose from the association of the name 
of the proprietor with the sign of the Bell. 
Dramatic performances and bull-baiting took 
place in its yard in the i6th and iyth cents., 
and it was a starting-place for coaches in the 
1 8th cent. Sir Thomas Wyatt's march on 
London came to an end there. The site is 
now occupied by the publishing house of 
Cassell, whose publisher's design interprets 
the name as meaning 'the beautiful savage 

Belle's Stratagem, The, a comedy by Mrs. H. 
Cowley (q.v.), produced in 1780. 

Doricourt returns from his travels to marry 
Letitia Hardy, whom he has not seen since 
his childhood, the match having been ar- 
ranged by their parents. He finds her beauti- 
ful but lacking in animation ; she falls in love 
with him at once. Distressed by his cold 
reception, she determines to win him by first 
disgusting him through the assumption of 
the manners of a country hoyden, and then 
conquering his heart by her sprightliness at 
a masquerade, and this scheme she success- 
fully accomplishes. The sub-plot is con- 
cerned with Sir George Touchwood, a doting 
husband, who brings his wife, Lady Frances, 
to London for the first time in her life; the 
attempt of Courtall to seduce her at the 
masquerade by assuming the same disguise 
as her husband ; and the defeat of the plot by 
her old admirer, Saville. 

(fl- I 533~^7\ Scottish poet and translator 
into Scots of Livy. 

Bellenden, LADY MARGARET, EDITH, and 
MAJOR, characters in Scott's 'Old Mortality* 

Bellerophon, son of Glaucus, king of 
Corinth. He was banished for a murder, and 
fled to the court of Proetus, king of Argos, 
where Antaea, the king's wife, fell in love 
with him. As he slighted her passion, she 


accused him to her husband of an attempt on 
her virtue. Proetus, unwilling to violate the 
laws of hospitality by killing Bellerophon 
under his roof, dispatched him to his father- 
in-law, lobates, bearing a letter signifying that 
he should be killed (whence the expression 
Bellerophontis litterae). lobates accordingly 
sent Bellerophon against the monster Chi- 
maera (q.v.); but Bellerophon, with the aid 
of the winged horse Pegasus (q.v,), overcame 
it. He afterwards destroyed assassins sent by 
lobates, and was successful in an expedition 
against the Amazons. Thereupon lobates, 
despairing of killing the hero, gave him his 
daughter to wife and the succession to his 
throne. Other legends relate that he at- 
tempted to fly to heaven on Pegasus, but that 
Zeus by means of a gadfly caused the horse to 
throw its rider. 

Bellerophon, H.M.S., the ship (Captain 
Maitland) on board of which Napoleon sur- 
rendered himself in 1815. 
Bellems, the name of a fabulous^ person 
introduced by Milton in his 'Lycidas* to 
account for Bellerium or Bolerium, the Roman 
name of Land's End, in Cornwall. 

Bellisant or BELLISANCE, in the tale of 
'Valentine and Orson* (q.v.), the sister of 
king Pepin, and wife of the emperor of 
Constantinople, mother of Valentine and 

(1870- ), born in France, educated at the 
Oratory School, Edgbastpn, and Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, is a versatile writer of essays, 
novels, verse, travels, history, biography, and 
criticism. Among his best works is 'The 
Path to Rome* (1902), the description of a 
tramp from Toul in the north of France, 
through Switzerland and northern Italy, to 
Rome, with divagations on innumerable sub- 
jects. His other best-known writings include : 
'Hills and the Sea' (1906), 'The Bad Child's 
Book of Beasts', 'More Beasts for Worse 
Children', 'The Modern Traveller', 'Cau- 
tionary Tales '(all light verse); 'TheGirondin', 
'The Green Overcoat', 'Mr. Clutterbuck's 
Election', 'A Change in the Cabinet' (novels) ; 
'The Four Men* (fantastic travel); 'Marie 
Antoinette* (history); 'The Servile State* 
(sociology); 'British Battles'; 'History of 
England' ; and books of essays on 'Nothing*, 
'Something', 'Everything', &c. 
Bellona, the Roman goddess of war. 

Bells f The, a dramatic adaptation by L. Lewis 
of 'The Polish Jew' of Erckmann-Chatrian, 
the story of a burgomaster haunted by the 
consciousness of an undiscovered murder 
that he has committed. It provided Sir H. 
Irving with one of his most successful parts. 

Bells and Pomegranates, the title under 
which a series of poems was published by 
R. Browning (q.v.) between 1841 and 1846, 
including 'Pippa Passes', 'Dramatic Lyrics* 
('The Pied Piper', 'Waring', &c.), 'The 



Return of the Druses', C A Blot in the 
'Scutcheon*, 'Colombo's Birthday', 'Dram- 
atic Romances* ('How they brought the good 
news', &c.), and 'Luria* (qq.v.). The entire 
series was then issued in one volume under 
the above title (1846). 

Bellyn, in 'Reynard the Fox" (q.v.), the 
name of the ram. 

Belmont, Portia's house in Shakespeare's 
'The Merchant of Venice* (q.v.). 

Belmont, SIR FRANCIS, the heroine's father 
in Miss Burney's 'Evelina' (q.v.). 

Belphegor, the LXX and Vulgate form of 
the Moabitish 'Baal-Peor* mentioned in Num. 

In Machiavelli's 'Novella* (1469), Bel- 
phegor is the name of an archdevil sent by 
Pluto to the world to investigate the truth of 
the complaints made by many souls reaching 
hell, that they have been sent there by their 
wives. Belphegor has orders to take a wife, 
arrives in Florence well provided with money 
and a retinue of devils as servants, and marries. 
But he is unable to put up with his wife's 
insolence, and prefers to run away from her 
and return to hell. We have echoes of this 
legend in one of the stories of Barnabe Rich's 
'Farewell to the Military Profession' (1581), 
and in Jonson's 'The Devil is an Ass*(i6i6). 
John Wilson (? 1627-96) produced a tragi- 
comedy, 'Belphegor, the Marriage of the 
Devil*, in 1690. 

Belphoebe, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, the 
chaste huntress, daughter of the nymph 
Chrysogone, and twin sister of Amoret (q.v.) ; 
she symbolizes Queen Elizabeth. Belphoebe 
puts Braggadochio (q.v.) to night (n. iii), 
finds herbs to heal the wounded Timias 
('whether it divine Tobacco were, or Pana- 
chea, or Polygony*, in. v), and rescues 
Amoret from Cornambo (q.v., IV. iii). 

Belshazzar *s Feast, the feast made by Bel- 
shazzar, the son of Nebuchadnezzar and the 
last king of Babylonia, at which his doom was 
foretold by writing on the wall, as interpreted 
by Daniel (Dan. v). Belshazzar was killed in 
the sack of Babylon by Cyrus (538 B.C.). He 
is the subject of dramas by Hannah More 
and Milman, of Robert Landor's 'Impious 
Feast', and of a poem by Lord Byron (qq.v.). 

Beltane, the Celtic name of the first of May, 
the beginning of summer, used for old May 
Day in Scotland, where anciently it was one 
of the quarter-days. It is also the name of 
an ancient Celtic anniversary celebration on 
May Day, in connexion with which great 
bonfires were kindled on the hills. Cormac's 
Glossary explains belltaine as 'two fires which 
the Druids used to make, and they used to 
bring the cattle [as a safeguard] against the 
diseases of each year to those fires' [OED.]. 
Beltenebros, the name assumed by Amadis 
of Gaul (q.v.) when he retired to the wilder- 
ness to do penance, being in disgrace with 


Beltham, SQUIRE and DOROTHY, characters 
in Meredith's 'Harry Richmond* (q.v.). 
Belton Estate, The, a novel by A. Trollope 
(q.v.), first published in 'The Fortnightly 
Review' in 1865, and reprinted separately in 

The Belton property in Somerset, belonging 
to Mr. Amedroz, is entailed, in default of 
any son of his own, on a distant cousin, Will 
Belton. Charles, the son of Mr. Amedroz, 
commits suicide, and Clara his sister is 
menaced with destitution when her father 
shall die. Will Belton, a warm-hearted, self- 
confident young farmer, hardly known to the 
Amedroz family, comes forward on the death 
of Charles with offers of assistance, wins the 
affection of the feckless Mr. Amedroz, force- 
fully puts his affairs in order, and is welcomed 
as a brother by Clara. He promptly proposes 
to her and is rejected, because Clara is 
already in love with Captain Aylmer, her 
cold-blooded, mean-spirited relative, whose 
true character she has not gauged. In com- 
pliance with a promise that he has given to 
his aunt on her death-bed, Aylmer proposes 
to Clara and is accepted. But his meanness 
and tyrannical disposition soon come to light, 
as also those of his odious mother and sister, 
and arouse the resentment of Clara. She 
breaks off her engagement and is finally 
married to Will Belton. 
Belvedere Apollo, see Apollo. 
Belvidera, the heroine of Otway's 'Venice 
Preserv'd' (q.v.). 

Belvoir Hunt, THE (pron. bever), one of the 
most celebrated in the Shires, dates from 
about 1756 and was established in the days 
of the third duke of Rutland, the owner of 
Belvoir Castle, near Grantham, from which 
the hunt is named. 

Bembo, PIETRO (1470-1547), Italian human- 
ist, became bishop of Bergamo, a cardinal, 
and historiographer of Venice. He wrote in 
Latin and Italian, in prose and verse. He was 
a devoted admirer of Lucrezia Borgia (q.v.), 
and figures prominently in the 'Cortegiano* 
of Castiglione (q.v.). 

Ben, BIG, the great bell in the Clock Tower 
of the Houses of Parliament at Westminster, 
named after Sir Benjamin Hall, Chief Com- 
missioner of Works (1855-8), during whose 
term of office it was cast. 
Ben Htir: A Tale of the Christ, by Lew 
Wallace, published in 1880. 
Ben trovato, from the Italian phrase se pop 
e vero, e ben trovato' (if it is not true it is 
well invented), sometimes used as an epithet 
of a good story, &c. 

(1866- ), Spanish playwright and critic, 
who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922. 
He is the author of many light and pleasant 
comedies of which the following are the best 
known in English translations: 'Saturday 
Night* (1903), 'Rose of Autumn' (1905), 



'Vested Interests' (1907), 'Brute Force* 

Benbow, JOHN (1653-1702), a gallant 
British admiral, master of the fleet in the 
battle off Beachy Head (1690) and at Bar- 
fleur and La Hogue (1692), and commander 
of the bombarding flotilla at Saint Malo and 
Dunkirk (1693-4-5). He was later com- 
mander-in-chief in the West Indies, where, 
badly supported by the ships of his squadron, 
he endeavoured to bring Du Casse, the French 
admiral, to an engagement off Santa Marta. 
He here had his right leg shattered by a 
chain shot, but after having had the wound 
dressed, returned to the quarter-deck. He 
died of his wounds at Port Royal. 

Benedick, a character in Shakespeare's 
'Much Ado about Nothing' (q.v.). The name 
is used (also erroneously in the form 'Bene- 
dict') of an apparently confirmed bachelor 
who marries. 

Benedict Biscop, ST. (628?-69o), a thegn 
of Oswiu, long of Northumbria, who after 
making two pilgrimages to Rome retired 
to the Isle of Le"rins, where he adopted the 
monastic life. After two years he again went 
to Rome and was directed by the pope, 
Vitalian, to accompany Theodore of Tarsus 
from Rome to Canterbury. He was then ap- 
pointed abbot of St. Peter's, Canterbury 
(669), resigning the dignity two years later to 
visit Rome once more. During this journey 
he collected and brought back many volumes 
and relics. On his return he founded (in 674) 
the monastery of St. Peter at the mouth of 
the river Wear, importing workmen to build 
a church of stone and to glaze the windows. 
Once more he went to Rome, bringing back 
a further store of books and relics. After this 
he founded the sister monastery of St. Paul 
at J arrow. He was buried in his church at 
Wearmouth, haying left directions for the 
careful preservation of his library. He is re- 
garded as one of the originators of the artistic 
and literary development of Northumbria 
in the next century. He is commemorated 
on i a Feb. 

Be'ne'dictine, the name of a liqueur made at 
Fecamp, near Havre, in France; formerly 
(before the French Revolution) by the monks 
of the Benedictine abbey there, each bottle 
bearing the inscription D.O.M. (Deo Optimo 

Benedictines! the order of monks, also 
known from their dress as 'Black Monks', 
established by St. Benedict (480-543) about 
the year 529, when he founded the monastery 
on Monte Cassino in Campania; the first in 
time, as in fame, of the great Western Church 
orders. It became noted for its wealth and for 
the learning of its members. Among its oif- 
shoots were the Cluniacs and Cistercians. 
Battle Abbey in Sussex was built for them by 
William I where the battle of Hastings was 
fought. As regards their valuable literary 
work see Maurists. 

Benenj|eH, see Cid Hornet BenengelL 

), American writer, born in Pennsyl- 
vania. His chief works are: 'Five Men and 
Pompey' (1915), 'Young Adventure* (1918), 
"Tiger Joy' (1925), 'John Brown's Body '(1928, 
a chronicle drama in verse dealing with the 
Civil War). 

Benicia Boy, nickname of John Heenan, an 
American pugilist, who fought Thomas Sayers, 
the champion of England, in 1 860. Heenan was 
a much bigger and stronger man than Sayers, 
but the latter was more skilful. The desper- 
ate fight between them was interrupted, and 
a silver belt awarded to each. 
Benjamin, used of a youngest and favourite 
son, in allusion to the youngest son of Jacob 
(Gen. xxxv. 8 ; xlii, &c.). 
Benjamin, A, in the first half of the i9th 
cent., was an overcoat of a particular shape 
(according to Brewer from the name of a 

BENJAMIN, REN (1885- ), French 
writer, author of 'La prodigieuse vie de H. 
de Balzac* (1925), 'Les Justices depaix*(i9i3), 
*Les Plaisirs du Hasard* (comedy, 1922), &c. 
BENJAMIN OF TXJDELA (fl. c. 1150), a 
Spanish Jew and traveller in the East, whose 
itinerary 'Masaoth*, printed at Constanti- 
nople in 1543 and at Ferrara in 1556, was 
translated into English in 1840 by A. Asher. 
Benjamin visited Constantinople, the Aegean, 
Damascus, Jerusalem, Bagdad, Basra, Aden, 
Assuan, and Egypt, of which Saladin was 
then vizier. 

KITTY, and LYDIA, characters in Jane Austen's 
'Pride and Prejudice* (q.v.). 

1931), born near Hanley in Staffordshire, 
spent his childhood in modest surroundings, 
and was educated locally and at London 
University. He became a solicitor's clerk in 
London and in 1893 assistant editor and sub- 
sequently editor of the periodical 'Woman*. 
After 1900 he devoted himself exclusively to 
writing, theatre journalism being among his 
special interests. 

His fame as a novelist rests chiefly on 'The 
Old Wives' Tale' (q.v., 1908) and the 'Clay- 
hanger* series ('Clayhanger* (1910), 'Hilda 
Lessways' (1911), 'These Twain* (1916), re- 
printed as 'The Clayhanger Family' (1925)). 
The 'Five Towns* which figure prominently 
in these works are Tunstall, Burslem, Han- 
ley, Stoke-upon-Trent, and Longton, centres 
of the pottery industry; and the features, 
often ugly and sordid, of this background are 
skilfully woven into stories of lives which he 
presents dispassionately, with an infinite de- 
light in significant detail, but without com- 
ment or protest. 'Riceyman Steps* (1923) 
is another of Bennett's pictures of life in drab 
surroundings in which the novelist is seen at 
his best. It is the story of a miser, a second- 



hand bookseller in Clerkenwell, who not 
only starves himself to death, but infects his 
wife with his passion for economy and brings 
her also to an untimely end. Among Bennett's 
other best-known works are: 'The Grand 
Babylon Hotel' (1902), 'The Grim Smile of 
the Five Towns' (short stories, 1907), 'Mile- 
stones' (play, with E. Knoblock), and 'The 
Matador of the Five Towns' (short stories, 

Bennett, JAMES GORDON (1795-1872), born 
in Scotland, became celebrated as the founder 
of the American newspaper the 'New York 
Herald* (now 'New York Herald-Tribune' by 
amalgamation). He sent Stanley to Africa 
as explorer in 1871-2. 

MORE, a i2th-cent. trouvere, born at Sainte- 
Maure in Touraine and patronized by Henry 1 1 
of England, for whom he composed a verse 
history of the dukes of Normandy. His best- 
known work is the 'Roman de Troie', based on 
the writings of Dares Phrygius and Dictys 
Cretensis (qq.v.). The'Roman'wastranslated 
into Latin prose by Guido de Colonna (q.v.), 
and thus served as a source on which many 
subsequent writers drew, including Boc- 
caccio, followed by Chaucer and Shakespeare, 
in the story of 'Troilus and Cressida'. 

Bensalem, the name of the imaginary island 
in Bacon's 'New Atlantis' (q.v.). 


), noted as the author of the popular 

novel 'Dodo' (1893), and many other stories. 

BENSON, STELLA (1892- ), novelist, 
whose chief works are: 'I Pose' (1915), 
'Living Alone' (1919), 'This is the End', 'The 
Poor Man* (1922), 'Good-bye, Stranger* 
(1926), 'Worlds within Worlds' (1928), 'Tobit 
Transplanted' (1931). 

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832), edu- 
cated at Westminster and Queen's College, 
Oxford, was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
but never practised, and turned his mind to 
physical science and political speculation. 
He published anonymously in 1776 his 
'Fragment on Government', in form a 
criticism of Blackstone's 'Commentaries', in 
which he first sketches his theory of govern- 
ment. While in Russia, during 1785-8, he 
wrote his 'Defence of Usury' (178?) and a 
series of letters on a 'Panopticon' (1791), a 
scheme for improving prison discipline. In 
1789 he published his 'Introduction ^to 
Principles of Morals and Legislation' (which 
had been first printed in 1780). Besides these 
he produced a number of works on ethics, 
jurisprudence, logic, and political economy, 
his influence proving greatest in the first two 
of these spheres. In the dissemination of his 
views, Bentham was greatly assisted by his 
devoted disciple, fitienne Dumont of Geneva, 
who compiled a number of treatises based on 
Bentham's manuscripts and published them, 
between 1802 and 1825, in French. A con- 


siderable part of Bentham's published works 
are retranslations of Dumont. 

It is in the 'Fragment on Government* and 
more fully in the 'Principles of Morals and 
Legislation* that we have enunciated the 
political and ethical theory (rather than 
philosophical doctrine) of 'Utility' by which 
Bentham is principally remembered. 'It is 
the greatest happiness of the greatest number 
that is the measure of right and wrong.' Pain 
and pleasure are the 'sovereign masters* 
governing man's conduct; 'it is for them 
alone to point out what we ought to do'. 
Pleasures and pains can be quantitatively 
measured according to their intensity, 
duration, certainty, and propinquity. When 
the pleasures and pains resulting from any act 
to all the members of the community affected 
have been measured by these standards, we 
are in a position to determine the moral 
quality of the act. The criterion of the 
goodness of a law is this principle of Utility, 
the measure in which it subserves the happi- 
ness to which every individual is equally 
entitled. The motive of an act being always 
self-interest, it is the business of law and 
education to make the sanctions sufficiently 
strong to induce the individual to sub- 
ordinate his own happiness to that of the 
community. Bentham. worked out the quanti- 
tative value of pains and pleasures as motives 
of action with extraordinary minuteness, with 
the object of giving scientific accuracy to 
morals and legislation. 

Bentham. did not share the theoretical 
views of the French Revolutionists, and he 
criticized the 'Declaration of the Rights of 
Man' in his 'Anarchical Fallacies* (included 
in his collected works). His democratic views 
are expressed in his 'Constitutional Code' 
(1830). His 'Chrestomathia', a series of 
papers on education, appeared in 1816. He 
also propounded a number of valuable re- 
forms in the administration of English justice, 
which have since his time been applied. In 
1824 Bentham, with the assistance of James 
Mill (q.v.), founded the 'Westminster Review', 
the organ of the philosophical radicals, which 
lasted until 1907. 

Bentley, the name of a well-known make of 
English motor-car, expensive and capable of 
high speed. 

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1662-1742)* born 
at Oulton in Yorkshire, was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and appointed 
by Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester, tutor to 
his son, remaining six years in his household. 
He was brought into great repute as a scholar 
by his 'Epistpla ad Millium' in 1691, a critical 
letter in Latin on the Greek dramatists, con- 
tributed to John Mill's edition of Malelas, a 
medieval chronicler. In 1692 Bentley de- 
livered the first Boyle lectures, entitled *A 
Confutation of Atheism*, seeking for part of 
his argument the assistance of Isaac Newton 
(q.v.). He became keeper of the king's 
libraries in 1694. During 1697-9 he was 



engaged in the famous controversy relating 
to the 'Epistles of Phalaris* (see Phalaris, 
Epistles of), which he proved to be spurious. 
In 1699 he was appointed Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, which he ruled with 
such despotic power that he was brought 
before the bishop and nominally, though not 
effectually, deprived of his mastership. 
Among his greatest critical works were his 
bold revisions of the text of Horace and 
Manilius. His arbitrary revision of Milton's 
'Paradise Lost', on the other hand, was a 
venture in a field unsuited to his genius. 
Bentley is caricatured by Pope in the *Dun- 
ciad' (Bk. IV. 201 et seq.). His son Richard 
(1708-82) was a correspondent of Horace 
Walpole (q.v.). 

Bentley, RICHARD (1794-1871), publisher, 
the founder of 'Bentley 's Miscellany' (1837) 
with Charles Dickens as editor. His issue at a 
low price of 127 volumes of 'Standard Novels' 
was not only a successful but, from the public 
standpoint, a beneficial venture. He was 
succeeded in the business by his son GEORGE 
BENTLEY (1828-95), who introduced many 
notable novelists to the public, including 
Wilkie Collins, Mrs. Henry Wood, and Miss 
Rhoda Broughton. 

Benvolio, in Shakespeare's 'Romeo and 
Juliet' (q.v.), a cousin and friend of Romeo. 

Beowulf, the name given to an Old English 
poem of some 3,200 lines, perhaps the earliest 
considerable poem in any modern language. 
The manuscript, of the late loth cent., 
formed part of the collection of Sir Robert 
Bruce Cotton, whence it passed into the 
British Museum. 

The poem opens with praise of the deeds 
of the Danes, Scyld their king, and his 
descendants. One of these, Hrothgar, builds 
a great hall, Heorot. The monster Grendel 
enters the hall at night and carries off thirty 
of Hrothgar's thanes, and haunts the hall for 
twelve years, accomplishing more murders. 
Beowulf, the nephew of Higelac, king of the 
Geats (a tribe living in the south of Sweden), 
hearing of the trouble, comes with fourteen 
companions across the sea to give assistance, 
and is welcomed by Hrothgar, but taunted 
by Unferth, one of Hrothgar's followers, for 
his defeat by Breca in a swimming-match.' 
Beowulf tells the true story and retorts on 
Unferth for not facing Grendel. Beowulf 
and his men sleep in the hall ; Grendel breaks 
in and devours Hondscio, one of these, and 
seizes Beowulf, who unarmed wrestles with 
him and tears out his arm. Grendel, mor- 
tally wounded, makes off to his lair. Hroth- 
gar rewards Beowulf, and Unferth is silenced. 
The minstrel sings the tale of Finn, a Frisian 
king, who had carried off Hildeburh, and was 
attacked by her brothers Hnaef and Hengest, 
and of the recovery of Hildeburh by Guthlaf 
and Oslaf. Grendel's mother, a water-hag, 
enters the hall to revenge her son, and carries 
off Aeschere, the counsellor of Hrothgar. 


Beowulf prepares to attack her. Unferth, 
recognizing the greater prowess of Beowulf, 
lends him his sword. Beowulf dives into the 
mere, and reaches a cave where the witch's 
lair is, and rights with her, but the sword 
fails to wound her. She nearly kills him, but 
his woven armour, with God's assistance, 
saves him. He sees an old sword, made by 
giants, among the armour in the cave, and 
with this cuts off the witch's head, and also 
the head of Grendel, who is lying in the cave. 
But their blood melts the sword, of which 
only the hilt remains. With this and the 
head of Grendel, Beowulf returns to Heorot. 
Hrothgar praises him, but warns him against 
pride. Beowulf and his Geats return to their 
own land. Beowulf surrenders the gifts he 
has received to Higelac, his king, and receives 
in return the sword of Hrethel, seven thou- 
sands in money, and a part of the kingdom. 

After the death of Higelac and Heardred 
his son, Beowulf succeeds to the kingdom, 
where he reigns for fifty years. A dragon 
which has been guarding a treasure finds that 
it has been robbed, and devastates the 
country. Beowulf and eleven companions 
go out to meet it. The dragon issues from 
its mound breathing out fire. All the com- 
panions, save Wiglaf, fly to a wood. Beowulf's 
sword breaks, and the dragon sets its teeth in 
Beowulf s neck. Wiglaf wounds it, and its 
strength wanes. Beowulf kills it, but is 
mortally wounded. He bids Wiglaf bring the 
treasure out of the mound, that he may see 
it. He directs that a barrow be built for him 
on the Whale's Headland, and dies. Wiglaf 
rebukes his companions and sends word of 
Beowulf's death. The messenger warns the 
people of coming troubles. Beowulf's body 
is burnt on a pyre, with his armour and the 

Many of the persons referred to in Beowulf 
are known to us from other sources, and it is 
possible to fix the date of the historical events 
in the first part of the 6th cent. The date of 
the composition of the poem is more un- 
certain, for it includes religious elements 
both of a Christian and a heathen character. 

There is a good edition of the poem by 
F. Klaeber (1922) and a number of transla- 
tions, one of them by William Morris in 
collaboration with A. J. Wyatt (1892). 

Beppo: A Venetian Story, a poem by Lord 
Byron (q.v.), published in 1818. 

The poem tells, in the mock-heroic style, 
with much gaiety and gentle irony, the story 
of a Venetian carnival, at which a lady's 
husband, Beppo (short for Giuseppe), who 
has been absent for many years, returns in 
Turkish garb, and confronts her and the 
cavaliere servente whom she has taken to 
herself. No tragedy follows, but reconcilia- 
tion over a cup of coffee. 

1857), French poet, the author of cheerful 
trivial songs of Parisian bourgeois life, whose 
natural and unconventional form, a reaction 



from the classical rigidity, gained them much 

Berenice, the wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. 
When her husband invaded Syria to avenge 
the death of his sister (also named Berenice) 
who had been murdered by her husband 
Antiochus, king of Syria, she dedicated her 
hair as a votive offering for his safe return. 
This hair, placed in the temple of Arsinoe at 
Zephyrium, was stolen thence and said to 
have become the constellation Coma Bere- 
nices (near the tail of Leo). Callimachus wrote 
a poem in celebration of it, which Catullus 
translated. Berenice was put to death by her 
son, Ptolemy IV Philopator, in A.D. 221. 

Berenice, daughter of Agrippa I (grandson 
of Herod the Great), and wife of her uncle 
Herod, king of Chalcis. After his death in 
A.D. 48, she lived with her brother Agrippa II. 
She is the Bernice of Acts xxv. Titus is said 
to have fallen in love with her. She is the 
subject of Otway's play, 'Titus and Berenice', 
and of Racine's 'Berenice'. 

Bergamask or BERGOMASK, the name of a 
dance 'framed in imitation of the people of 
Bergamo (a province in the state of Venice), 
ridiculed as clownish in their manners and 
dialect* (Nares), referred to in Shakespeare's 
'Midsummer Night's Dream', v. 360. 

BERGERAG, CYRANO DE (1619-55), a 
gallant French soldier, whom a bad wound in 
the Spanish War turned into an author of 
comedies. He is the subject of a highly suc- 
cessful play by the French dramatist, Ed- 
mond Rostand (1898). 
BERGSON, HENRI (1859- ), French 
philosopher, born in Paris of Anglo-Jewish 
parents, taught philosophy at various schools 
and universities in France until he gave up 
teaching in 1918. His principal works in- 
clude: 'L'eVolution cre"atrice' (1907), 'Matiere 
et me'moire' (i 896), 'La perception du change- 
ment* (Oxford lecture, 1911), 'Le rire* (1900), 
*Dure*e et simultanelte' (a discussion of 
Einstein's theories, 1922). 

His philosophical attitude may be gathered, 
in its main lines, from the Oxford lecture 
above mentioned. The insoluble difficulties 
and antinomies of metaphysics, according to 
Bergson, arise from the attempt to seek the 
reality beyond the appearance of change and 
movement, and the immutable and stable 
which are subject to these, by a faculty 
radically distinct from the senses. Our 
logical and mathematical mental processes 
are incapable of revealing the real world. We 
must return to the immediate perception of 
change and movement. It is a delusion to 
suppose that movement, like the space it 
traverses, is divisible, and that change is a 
series of successive states. The instability of 
change and the immutability of substance are 
mere abstractions, which the mind hypo- 
statizes into multiple states on the one hand, 
and thing or substance on the other. Cases 
of apparent stability are the outcome of a 


situation analogous to that of two trains 
moving parallel at the same rate, the harmony 
of movement to movement giving the im- 
pression of immobility. There is change, not 
things that change ; there is movement, but not 
necessarily invariable objects that move. The 
indivisible continuity of change constitutes 
true duration, what is called time, but time 
perceived as indivisible. Change is reality 
itself, the very substance of things, whether 
we are dealing with self or the external world. 
In indivisible change, past and present are 
one (font corps). All things should be per- 
ceived sub specie durationis. 

Berinthia, a character in Vanbrugh's c The 
Relapse* and Sheridan's *A Trip to Scar- 
borough* (qq.v.). 

Berkeley, The Old Woman of, a poem by 
Southey (q.v.). 

BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753), phi- 
losopher, was born at Dysert Castle, in Kil- 
kenny county, and educated at Kilkenny and 
Trinity College, Dublin. He came to Eng- 
land in 1713, and became associated with 
Steele, Addison, Pope, Swift, and others. 
He travelled abroad and later went to America 
on philanthropic business. He was dean of 
Derry in 1724 and bishop of Cloyne in 1734, 
where he remained till 1752. He then re- 
tired to Oxford, where lie died. 

His chief works were the 'Essay towards a 
New Theory of Vision* (1709) on the inde- 
pendence of the ideas derived from sight and 
feeling and their 'arbitrary* though constant 
connexion ; the 'Principles of Human Know- 
ledge' (1710); and the 'Dialogues between 
Hylas and Philonous* (1713). These embody 
his earlier system of philosophy. He pub- 
lished his dialogues of 'Alciphron* (q.v.) in 
1732, his 'Theory of Vision' in 1733, and 
'Siris*, a miscellany on the virtues of tar- 
water for the body and of a more mystical 
philosophy than that of his earlier years for 
the soul, in 1744. In 1713 he contributed to 
the 'Guardian* (q.v.) essays against the free- 
thinkers ; in 1734 ne published the 'Analyst*, 
a criticism of the new mathematical positions ; 
and in 1735-7 the 'Querist*, dealing with 
questions of social reform. His 'Common- 
place Book* was discovered and published in 

Berkeley takes up the evolution of English 
philosophy where Locke left it (see Essay 
concerning the Human Understanding), and his 
work is primarily a destructive criticism of 
Locke's external, material, reality. Only par- 
ticular things exist, and since these are only 
a complex of sensations, if we abstract from 
them that of which we have perception, 
nothing remains. The 'support* of ideas or 
sensations is percipient mind. The esse of 
material things is percipi. Locke's distinc- 
tion between the primary and secondary 
qualities of objects has no validity. Both are 
exclusively mental. Locke's dualism of spirit 
and matter, like that of Descartes, leads, in 
Berkeley's view, to scepticism and atheism 




(of which Hobbes (q.v.) is the prominent 
example), and these Berkeley was specially 
concerned to combat. According to him, 
spirit is the only real cause or power. Of the 
existence of our own percipient mind we have 
knowledge from experience. The existence 
of other finite spirits is at least probable, 
principally because they speak to us. For the 
same reason we believe in the existence of 
God, who speaks to us in the whole system of 
nature, through the sense-experiences pro- 
duced in our minds in a regular and uniform 

In his 'Alciphron' Berkeley, through the 
medium of pleasant Platonic dialogues, com- 
bats the views that he attributes to the deists, 
discusses the nature of virtue, finds proof of 
the existence of God in the theory of vision, 
&c. In his last work, 'Siris', his idealism 
takes a more transcendental form, and the 
intellectual processes are exalted at the ex- 
pense of the senses. Berkeley was a master 
of English prose; he is remarkable for his 
lucidity, grace, and dignity of expression. 

Berlin or BERLINE, an old-fashioned four- 
wheeled covered carriage, with a seat behind 
covered with a hood, introduced by an officer 
of the Elector of Brandenburg, c. 1670. 

Berlin Decree, see Or den in CounciL 

Bermootnes, THE, in Shakespeare's 'The 
Tempest', I. ii, are the Bermuda islands, dis- 
covered by Juan de Bermudez, a Spaniard, in 
1515, and" rediscovered by English explorers 
in 1609. 

Bermudas, The y see MarvelL 

'THE BERMUDAS', also called 'The Streights' 
(Straits), was a cant term for certain obscure 
courts and alleys near St. Martin's Lane, 
frequented by thieves, debtors, knights of 
the post, &c. 

BERNARD, ST. (109 i-i 1 53), a great French 
ecclesiastic, founder of the abbey of Clair- 
vaux, one of the four 'Latin Fathers', the 
glory of the Cistercian Order, and practically 
dictator of Christendom. In the schism of 
1130 between Anacletus and Innocent II, 
Bernard vigorously supported Innocent. He 
preached the second Crusade. He was an 
adversary of Abelard (q.v.). He left some 
remarkable letters and theological treatises, 
and was one of the founders of Latin 

BERNARD OF MORLAIX, a Benedictine 
monk of the monastery of Cluny in Burgundy, 
lived in the i2th cent., and was author of the 
beautiful Latin poem, 'De ContempruMundi*, 
of which Archbishop Trench (q.v.) published 
extracts in his 'Sacred Latin Poetry', and 
which inspired the hymn, 'Jerusalem the 
Golden', by Neale (q.v.). 

Bernardine, see Cistercian. 
Bernardo del Garpio, a semi-legendary 
hero of Spanish chivalry, the son of a secret 
marriage between the Count de Saldana and 


the sister of Alfonso the Chaste. His father 
was imprisoned by the king, and Spanish 
ballads deal with Bernardo's attempts to get 
his release, his rebellion after the Count's 
death in prison, and his other achievements. 
He lived in the 9th cent., but according to one 
legend he pressed Roland to death in his arms 
at Roncesvalles (see 'Don Quixote*, i. xxvi). 
The legend of Bernardo del Carpio is a kind of 
rejoinder by the Spaniards to the chansons of 
French prowess associated with Charlemagne 
and Roland. 
Berners, BELLE or ISOPEL, see Belle Earners. 

Baron (1467-1533), statesman and author. 
He was chancellor of the exchequer in 1516 
and attended Henry VIII at the Field of the 
Cloth of Gold. He translated the 'Chronicles' 
of Froissart (q.v., 1523-5); 'Huon of Bor- 
deaux' (q.v., probably printed in 1534); 
Guevara's 'El Relox de Principes* under the 
title of the 'Golden Boke of Marcus Aurelius* 
(1534) ; and another Spanish work, the 'Castell 
of Love* (printed 1540). 

BERNERS, JULIANA, see Book of St. 

Bernhardt, SARAH (RosiNE BERNARD) (i 845- 
1923), a celebrated French actress, partly 
of Jewish descent. Her earliest successes, 
during the period 1867-77, were in Victor 
Hugo's 'Ruy Bias', as Zanetto in CoppeVs 
'Le Passant', as Dona Sol in Hugo's 'Her- 
nani', and as Phedre in Racine's tragedy. 
They were largely due to her beautiful voice 
and magnetic personality. She was fre- 
quently seen in London. The loss of a leg, 
late in her life, owing to an accident, did not 
dimmish her activity, and she acted at the 
front during the War. 

BERNI, FRANCESCO (1490-1536), an 
Italian poet of the mock-heroic school, which 
took from him the name of Bernesque. It is 
this school on which Byron modelled his 
'Don Juan' and 'Beppo'. Berni wrote a 
rifacimento or recast of Boiardo's 'Orlando 
Innamorato', which ousted the original in the 
estimation of his countrymen. 

Bernstein, BARONESS, see Virginians (The). 

Berosus (BAR-()SEA), a priest at Babylon in 
the reign of Antiochus Soter (280-261 B.C.), 
author of chronicles of Chaldea, known to us 
only through 'quotations at second or third 
hand' (Sayce). 

The 'Berosi Antiquitatum libri quinque*, 
forged by Annius, a monk of Viterbo ( 
cent.), were long accepted as genuine. 

Berowne, in Shakespeare's 'Love's Labour's 
Lost' (q.v.), one of the three lords attending 
on the king of Navarre. 

Berserk, BERSERKER, from an Icelandic word 
of disputed etymology, a wild Norse warrior 
of great strength and ferocious courage, who 
fought in the battle-field with a frenzied fury 
known as the 'berserker rage'. It often 



means a lawless bravo or freebooter. [OED.] 

The word is sometimes explained as equiva- 
lent to 'baresark', one who fought without 
armour, in his bare shirt. 

Bertha, a character (i) in Scott's 'Count 
Robert of Paris' (q.v.) ; (2) in Dickens 's 'The 
Cricket on the Hearth* (q.v.). 
Bertha, BIG, the German gun that during 
the Great War fired on Paris at a range of 
70 (?) miles; used generically for all big 
German guns. 

Bertlie au grand pied (d. 783), the wife of 
P6pin le Bref and mother of Charlemagne. 
She is the subject of an early French chanson 
de geste. 

Bertram; or the Castle of St. Aldobrand, a 
play by Maturin (q.v.), produced in 1816, 
highly successful in its time, but rendered 
unreadable to-day by its overwrought senti- 
ment and passion. 

Bertram, COUNT OF ROUSILLON, a character 
in Shakespeare's 'All's Well that Ends Well' 

BERTRAM, CHARLES (1723-65), some- 
times self-styled CHARLES JULIUS, literary 
forger, English teacher in a school for naval 
cadets at Copenhagen. He produced-between 
1747 and 1757 an alleged transcript of a 
manuscript work on Roman antiquities by 
Richard of Cirencester (q.v.), together with 
a copy of an ancient itinerary of Britain, at 
many points supplementing and correcting 
the itinerary of Antoninus. He also published 
works of Gildas and Nennius, with the text 
of his forgery and a commentary on it, at 
Copenhagen, 1757, and several philological 
works. His imposture was finally exposed 
by B. B. Woodward in the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine*, 1866-7. 

Bertram, HAKRY, a character in Scott's 
'Guy Mannering' (q.v.). 

Bertram Risingham, a character in Scott's 
'Rokeby' (q.v.). 

Besant, MRS. ANNIE (1847- ), n&e Wood, 
an ardent supporter of Liberal causes, be- 
came a pupil of Mme Blavatsky and a mem- 
ber of the Theosophical Society (q.v.) in 
1889. She was President of the Society in 
1907. In 1917 she was President of the 
Indian National Congress and has been 
active in the cause of Indian self-government. 

BESANT, SIR WALTER (1836-1901), 
was educated at King's College, London, and 
Christ's College, Cambridge. He published 
'Early French Poetry' in 1868 and 'The 
French Humourists* in 1873, was secretary to 
the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1868-86, 
and with E. H. Palmer wrote 'Jerusalem* 
(1871). As a contributor to 'Once a Week', he 
became acquainted in 1869 with James Rice, 
with whom he collaborated in several novels, 
including 'Ready-Money Mortiboy* (1871), 
'The Golden Butterfly* (1876), 'By Celia's 
Arbour* (1878), and 'The Chaplain of the 


Fleet* (1881). From 1882 he continued to 
write fiction without collaboration, chiefly 
based on historical incident, e.g., 'Dorothy 
Forster* (1884) and 'For Faith and Freedom* 
(1888). 'The Revolt of Man' (1882) is a 
satirical romance, in which Besant shows 
himself a critic of women's claims to political 
power. In 'All Sorts and Conditions of Men* 
(1882) and 'Children of Gibeon' (1886), he 
called attention to social evils in East London, 
and stimulated the foundation of 'The 
People's Palace', Mile End, for intellectual 
improvement and rational amusement (1887). 
He helped to found the Society of Authors 
(1884), and edited 'The Author* (1890). He 
defined the financial position of authors in 
'The Pen and the Book' (1899). In 1894 
Besant commenced the 'Survey of London*, 
which he unfortunately left unfinished (the 
work appeared in 1902-12), but published 
'London' in 1892, 'Westminster' in 1895, and 
'South London' in 1899. His other works 
include 'The Eulogy of Richard Jefferies* 
(1888), 'Captain Cook* (1889), and (with 
W. J. Brodribb) 'Constantinople* (1879). 
His 'Autobiography* appeared in 1902. 
Bess o' Bedlam, see Bedlam. 

Bess of Hardwick, Elizabeth Talbot, 
countess of Shrewsbury (15181608), daugh- 
ter and co-heir of John Hardwick of Hard- 
wick, Derbyshire. She is described as 'a 
woman of masculine understanding and con- 
duct, proud, furious, selfish, and a unfeeling* 
(Lodge). To her care and to that of her 
husband, the sixth earl of Shrewsbury, Mary 
Queen of Scots was entrusted in 1569 at 
Tutbury. She married her daughter to 
Charles Stuart, younger brother of Darnley 
(Arabella Stuart was the issue of the marriage), 
and was imprisoned in the Tower in conse- 
quence. She was herself four times married 
and inherited the fortunes of her four hus- 
bands, her income being estimated at 
60,000. She built Chatsworth (not the 
present building) and Hardwick Hall. 

Bessus, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 'A 
King and no King' (q.v.), a cowardly brag- 

The historical Bessus was Satrap of Bactria 
under Darius III. After the defeat of the 
latter by Alexander the Great at Arbela, 
Bessus murdered Darius, assumed the title of 
king, was betrayed to Alexander, and put to 

Bessy, the name given to one of the^stock 
characters, a man dressed as a woman, in the 
medieval sword-dance (q.v.) and in the 
Mummer's Play (q.v.). 
Bestiaries, allegorical poems, popular from 
the sth cent, to the Middle Ages, in which 
human beings are satirized under the form of 
beasts, birds, and fishes, and often in the 
later periods, I2th-i4th cents., richly illus- 
trated with miniatures. The chief example 
is the romance of Reynard (q.v.), the fox. 
They have their origin in ancient times, 




notably in the fables of Aesop in Greece, and 
in those of Phaedrus and Babrius in Rome. 
Later came the PHYSIOLOGI, in which natural 
history was combined with Christian re- 
ligious instruction. There is an Old English 
'Physiologus', which has been attributed to 
Cynewulf, the animals presented being the 
panther, the whale, and the partridge ; and a 
'Bestiary* of the period 1150-1250, based on 
the Latin 'Physiologus' of Thetbaldus. The 
'Owl and the Nightingale* (q.v.) contains 
kindred elements. The name Bestiaries is 
also applied to early popular treatises on 
natural history. 

Bethgelert, meaning 'grave of Gelert*. 
According to a story traditional in the village 
at the foot of Snowdon, where Llewellyn the 
Great had his abode, Gelert was a hound 
given by Kong John to Llewellyn. On one 
occasion this favourite hound was missing 
when Llewellyn went to the chase. On his 
return he found the hound smeared with 
blood, his child's bed in disorder, while the 
child was not to be seen. Thinking that the 
hound had devoured the child, the father 
killed Gelert with his sword. The child, 
awakened by the hound's dying yell, cried 
out from under a heap of coverings, and under 
the bed was found a great wolf which the 
hound had slain. 

The story is the subject of a ballad by 
W. R. Spencer (1811). Similar stories are 
found in other places and in the 'Gesta 
Romanorum*, and Baring-Gould ('Curious 
Myths 3 ) traces their origin to Indian sources. 
Bethnal Green, see Beggars Daughter of 
Bednal Green. Bethnal Green was a hamlet 
separated from London by fields when Pepys 
drove there by coach to dine at Sir W. Rider's 
(16 June 1663), at the house said to have been 
built by the 'Blind Beggar*. 
Betrothed, The, a novel by Sir W. Scott 
(q.v.), published in 1825. 

Though styled one of the 'Tales of the 
Crusaders', it has in fact little to do with these. 
The scene is laid in the Welsh Marches, in 
the reign of Henry II. Eveline Berenger, the 
sole child of a Norman baron, finds herself 
in grave peril when the fierce Welsh prince, 
Gwenwyn, besieges her father's castle of 
Garde Douloureuse, and the old warrior 
himself is killed in an imprudent sally. She 
is rescued by Hugo de Lacy, Constable of 
Chester, and under the influence of gratitude 
and of a vow made in the moment of 
danger, consents to be affianced to him, 
though his age commands her respect rather 
than her love, and he is under pledge more- 
over to set off immediately to the Crusade. 
Left to the care of his nephew, the gallant 
Damian, whom she secretly loves, and ex- 
posed not only to malicious tongues but to 
the machinations of Randel, another de Lacy- 
kinsman, Eveline spends the years of his 
absence in a position of much difficulty and 
danger. Hugo's return is only just in time to 
extricate Eveline and Damian from a position 


of the utmost peril; for they are charged with 
high treason, and accused moreover of taking 
a disloyal advantage of his absence to indulge 
their mutual love. The old Constable clears 
up the situation, releases Eveline from her 
pledge to him, and places her hand in that of 

Betteredgej GABRIEL, in Wilkie Collins's 
'The Moonstone* (q.v.), steward in Lady 
Verinder's house and narrator of parts of the 

BETTERTON, THOMAS (i635?-i7io), 
actor and dramatist, joined Sir John D'Ave- 
nant's company at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 
1 66 1, and was associated in the management 
of the Dorset Garden Theatre from 1671. 
He opened a 'theatre in Little Lincoln's Inn 
Fields' in 1695, producing Congreve's 'Love 
for Love', and in 1705 the theatre erected by 
Sir John Vanbrugh in the Haymarket. His 
impersonations included Hamlet, Mercutio, 
Sir Toby Belch, Macbeth, Bosola (in the 
'Duchess of Main*), and Heartwell (in Con- 
greve's 'The Old Bachelor'). His dramas 
include the 'Roman Virgin*, acted 1670, 
adapted from Webster's 'Appius and Vir- 
ginia'; the 'Prophetess*, 1690, an opera from 
the 'Prophetess* of Beaumont and Fletcher; 
'King Henry IV, 1700 (in which he played 
FalstafT), from Shakespeare; the 'Amorous 
Widow*, c. 1670, from Moliere's 'Georges 
Dandin'; and the 'Bondman', printed in 
1719, from Massinger. He was a man of high 
character, and was much esteemed as an actor 
by his contemporaries. 

Betterton, MRS. (d. 1711), the wife of 
Thomas Betterton (q.v.), at first known on 
the stage as Mrs. Saunderson, the first 
notable actress on the English stage (until 
1660 female parts were taken by men or boys). 
Mrs. Betterton was the first woman to act a 
series of Shakespeare's great female charac- 
ters, such as Lady Macbeth, Ophelia, and 

Betty, Miss, in Fielding's 'Amelia* (q.v.), the 
spiteful and rapacious sister of the heroine. 

Betty, WILLIAM HENRY WEST (1791-1874), 
actor, called the 'Young Roscius'. He played 
Romeo at Belfast, and Hamlet and Prince 
Arthur at Dublin in 1803, when only twelve. 
He appeared in London in 18045. He 
subsequently went to Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, returned to the stage in 1813, and 
finally retired in 1824. 

Betty Martin, ALL MY EYE AND, a colloquial 
expression meaning 'all humbug*, occurs in 
Grose's 'Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar 
Tongue* (1785). The shorter form, 'all my 
eye', occurs in Goldsmith, 'The Good- 
natured Man' (1768). The fanciful deriva- 
tion from an imaginary Latin prayer, 'Ah, 
mihi, beate Martine*, has no authority. 

Beulah, LAND OF, see Isaiah bcii. 4. In 
Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress*, it lies 'beyond 
the valley of the Shadow of Death and also out 


of the reach of Giant Despair'. Here the 
pilgrims were in sight of the Heavenly City, 
'they heard continually the singing of birds 
and saw every day the flowers appear in the 

Beuves de Hanstone, a isth-cent. French 
chanson de geste, of which Bevis of Hampton 
(q.v.) is the subject. 

Beverly of Graustark, see under Grau- 

Bevis of Hampton t a popular verse romance 
of 4,000 lines, of the early I4th cent. The 
mother of Bevis, wife of Guy, earl of 
Southampton, having procured the murder 
of her husband by Mordure, son of the 
emperor of Germany, marries the murderer. 
Bevis is sold as a slave and given to the 
king of Armenia, who offers him his daughter 
Josian as wife. Bevis, as a Christian, at first 
refuses the union, but saves Josian from an 
unwelcome suitor, Brademond; and finally 
accepts Josian on her promise to become a 
Christian. The king, misled as to the lovers* 
relations, sends Bevis with a sealed letter to 
Brademond, who imprisons him for seven 
years. Josian is married first to Yvor, king 
of Mombrant, then to Earl Miles, whom she 
hangs on the wedding night. Bevis rescues 
her from the stake, and takes her to England. 
He defeats and slays the emperor and Yvor. 
After various adventures, in the course of 
which he converts the giant Ascapart or 
Asclopard, he and Josian return to the East. 
The story is told in Drayton's 'Polyolbion' 
(ii. 259). The sword of Bevis was called 

Bewick, THOMAS (1753-1828), wood-en- 
graver, apprenticed to, and subsequently 
partner of, Ralph Beilby. He engraved blocks 
for Gay's Tables' (1779), 'Select Fables' 
(1784), 'General History of Quadrupeds' 
(1790), 'History of British Birds* (i797 and 
1804), and 'Fables of Aesop* (1818). The 
text of the 'British Birds' was by the Rev. 
Mr. Cotes, of the 'Quadrupeds' by Beilby. 

BEYLE, HENRI, see Stendhal 
Bezae, CODEX, see Bible (The). 

Bezonian, from Italian bisogno, Spanish 
bisono, a raw recruit, a needy beggar, base 
fellow, knave, rascal. 'Under which king, 
Bezonian? speak, or die' (Shakespeare, 
'2 Henry IV, v. iii. 1 16). 
Bianca, (i) a character in Shakespeare's 
'The Taming of the Shrew' (q.v.); (2), in his 
'Othello' (q.v.), the mistress of Cassio. 
Bianchi and Nerl, 'White' and 'Black*, the 
name of two factions formed by the citizens 
of Florence after the expulsion of the Ghi- 
bellines in the isth cent. The Bianchi, 
refusing to submit to the directions of Pope 
Boniface, and threatened by the approach of 
Charles of Valois, fled from the city (among 
them Dante and the father of Petrarch) in 
1301, and ultimately joined the Ghibellines. 


BIA0ANAT02, A Declaration of that Paradoxe 
or Thesis that Self-Homicide is not so Naturally 
Sinne that it may never be otherwise) by John 
Donne (q.v.), published in 1624. 

oldest Hebrew text that we possess of this 
{Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus) is com- 
paratively recent, dating only from 916 A.D. It 
is a Masoretic text, i.e. one prepared by the gild 
of scholars called Masoretes (see Masora). Of 
much earlier date ($th cent. B.C.) is the 
Samaritan text of the Pentateuch. We have 
also the Targums or Aramaic paraphrases, 
written at various times subsequent to the 
date when Aramaic superseded Hebrew as 
the language spoken by the Jews (shortly 
before the Christian era). The Greek version, 
known as the Septuagint (q.v.), of the 3rd 
cent. B.C. is of far greater importance. 
Other translations into Greek were made in 
the 2nd cent. A.D. and were collected in 
parallel columns, together with the current 
Hebrew text and a revised text of the Septua- 
gint, by Origen in his Hexapla. This has 
perished with the exception of the revised 
Septuagint, of most of which we possess an 
8th-cent. copy. In addition to the above, 
there was an old Latin version (known as Vetus 
Itala) of an early Greek translation, of which 
fragments alone remain, and which was 
superseded by Jerome's Latin text, known as 
the Vulgate (q.v.). 

(2) THE NEW TESTAMENT. Of this we 
possess manuscripts in Greek, and manu- 
scripts of translations from the Greek into 
Latin, Syriac, and Coptic. The most im- 
portant of these are the Greek, of which the 
chief are the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex 
Sinaiticus, uncial manuscripts of the 4th cent.; 
the Codex Bezae, containing the Greek text 
on the left-hand page and the Latin on the 
right, probably earlier than the 6th cent.; 
and the Codex Alexandrinus, an uncial of the 
5th cent. Of the Latin versions there were^ 
before Jerome undertook their revision in the 
Vulgate, two main types current respectively 
in Africa and Europe. Several manuscripts of 
these survive. Of the Vulgate text there are 
a large number of manuscripts, of which the 
best are Northumbrian (based on Italian 
originals), Irish, and Spanish. (See in this 
connexion Amiatinus Codex and Lindisfarne 

See also Bible (The English), Mazarin Bible, 
Zurich Bible, Polyglot Bible, Complutensian 
Polyglot, Luther, and Gutenberg. 

Bible, THE ENGLISH. Apart from para- 
phrases attributed to Csedmon (q.v.) and the 
translation by Bede (q.v.) of part of the 
Gospel of St. John, the earliest attempts at 
translation into English of the Holy Scrip- 
tures are the 9th- and loth-cent, glosses and 
versions of the Psalms, followed by the loth- 
cent. glosses and versions of the Gospels (the 
'Durham Book' or 'Lindisfarne Gospels', 
q.v., and the 'West-Saxon Gospels'), and 
JElfric's translation of the O.T. at the close 



of the same century. After this little was 
done until the time of Wycliffe (q.v.), to 
whom and his followers we owe the two I4th- 
cent. versions associated with his name, the 
first complete renderings into English of the 
Scriptures. Of these two versions, taken 
from the Latin text, which appeared about 
1382 and 1388, it is doubtful how much was 
Wycliffe's own work. The second, or revised 
version, was a great improvement on ^the 
first, and is a readable and correct translation. 

William Tyndale (q.v.) was the first to 
translate the N.T. into English from the 
Greek text; this he probably did in Witten- 
berg, the translation being printed first at 
Cologne, and when this was interrupted, at 
Worms (1525-6). In 1530 his translation of 
the Pentateuch was printed at Marburg, 
followed by a translation of the Book of 
Jonah. These translations were made from 
the Hebrew, with reference also to the Vul- 
gate, Erasmus's Latin version, and Luther's 
Bible. Our Authorized Version (see below) is 
essentially the text of Tyndale. The complete 
English Bible that bears the name of Miles 
Coverdale (q.v.) was printed in 1535. It is 
not a translation from the original texts, but 
probably from Luther's version, the Zurich 
Bible, and the Vulgate, with assistance from 
Tyndale's version. A second edition was 
issued in 1537. The Prayer Book text of the 
Psalms is largely Coverdale's version. 

'Matthew's Bible* was issued in I537 
under the pseudonym of John Matthew, by 
John Rogers (isoo?~55). He was a friend of 
Tyndale, was converted to Protestantism, and 
prepared and annotated his version for publi- 
cation, Rogers was burnt at Smithfield in 
Mary's reign. 

'Taverner's Bible*, prepared by Richard 
Taverner (i5os?-75), was a revision of 
Matthew's. It appeared in 1539. Richard 
Taverner was a religious author who was 
patronized by Wolsey and Cromwell, was 
sent to the Tower on the latter's fall, 
but subsequently obtained the favour of 
Henry VIII. 

The 'Great Bible', also called 'Cranmer's 
Bible', was brought out in 1539 under the 
auspices of Henry VIII ; Coverdale was placed 
by Cromwell in charge of its preparation. 
The printing of it was begun in Paris and 
finished in London. 

Towards the end of Henry VIII's reign, 
there were interdictions on the use of the 
Bible. During Mary's reign, the reformers 
took refuge, some in Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
some in Geneva, where in 1560 appeared 
the Genevan or 'Breeches' (q.v.) Bible. 
It had a marginal commentary which proved 
agreeable to the Puritans. 

In 1568 was published the 'Bishops' Bible", 
an edition promoted by Archbishop Parker 
to counteract the popularity of the Calvinistic 
Genevan Bible; while Romanists made a 
translation, known as the Rheims and Douai 
version, which appeared, the New Testa- 
ment in 1582, the Old Testament in 1609-10. 


It is characterized by the frequent use of 

The 'Authorized Version* arose out of a 
conference at Hampton Court, convened by 
James I in 1604, between the High Church 
and Low Church parties. The undertaking 
was proposed by Dr. Reynolds, president of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and was 
supported by the king. The revisers were 
forty-seven in number, divided into com- 
panies dealing with various sections of the 
Bible, and were drawn from the most 
eminent scholars and divines of the day. 
They were instructed to follow the text of the 
'Bishops' Bible* wherever they could. The 
work of revision and retranslation occupied 
three years and a half, and the so-called 
'Authorized Version' (it was not authorized 
by any official pronouncement) appeared in 
161 1. It is practically the version of Tyndale 
with some admixture from Wycliffe. Two 
issues of it were made in 1611, known re- 
spectively as tihie 'He Bible* and the 'She 
Bible', because in the first the words in Ruth 
iii. 15 read 'and he went into the citie', and in 
the second 'and she went into the citie'. 
Modern bibles are based with slight _ varia- 
tions on the 'She Bible'. Various editions of 
the Bible are named after eccentricities of 
wording or mistakes in the printed text; a 
few of the more important of these, such as 
'Breeches Bible* and 'Vinegar Bible', are 
dealt with under their respective names. 

In 1870 the Convocation of Canterbury 
appointed a committee to consider the 
question of revision, and as a consequence of 
their report two companies were constituted 
to revise the authorized versions of the O.T. 
and N.T. respectively. The Revised Text 
was published, of the N.T. in 1881, of the 
O.T, in 1884. That of the N.T. was un- 
favourably received, owing to many irritating 
and apparently unnecessary alterations of 
familiar passages. The Revised Version of 
the O.T., though not altogether free from 
these, was in many respects an improvement 
on the Authorized text. In 1923 the Rev. 
James MofFatt, Washburn Professor of 
Church History in the Union Theological 
Seminary, produced a 'New Translation of 
the New Testament', and in 1924 'The Old 
Testament, a new Translation*, both of which 
caused some controversy. 

Bible in Spain, The, a narrative of travel, by 
Borrow (q.v.), published in 1843. 

Borrow travelled in Spain as colporteur of 
bibles for the British and Foreign Bible 
Society from 1835 to 1840, and this book 
purports to be an account of the adventures 
that he met with in that country, at a time 
of great disturbance owing to the Carlist 
troubles. It is impossible to say how far the 
various incidents recounted actually oc- 
curred ; but the vivid picture that the author 
gives of Spain is unquestionably true, and the 
work is one of the best of English books of 



Bibliographical Society, THE, founded in 
1892. Its 'Transactions* were first published 
in 1893 (merged with 'The Library' (q.v.) in 
1920). The Society publishes also separate 
monographs, and in 1926 issued the in- 
valuable 'Short-Title Catalogue of English 
Books, 1475-1640*. 

Bibliography, WORKS OF, see under Bohn, 
Brydges, Dewey, Dibdin (T. F.\ Hazlitt 
(W. C.), Lang, Lowndes y McKerrow, Quaritch, 
Watt (R.\ and previous entry. 

Bicester, THE, a famous pack of fox-hounds, 
whose country lies round the town of Bicester 
in Oxfordshire. 

Bickerstaff, ISAAC, a fictitious person in- 
vented by Swift (q.v.). A cobbler, John 
Partridge, claiming to be an astrologer, had 
published predictions in the form of an 
almanac. Swift in the beginning of 1708 
produced a parody entitled 'Predictions for 
the ensuing year, by Isaac BickerstafF, in 
which he foretold the death of Partridge on 
29 March. On 30 March he published a 
letter giving an account of Partridge's end. 
Partridge indignantly protested that he was 
still alive, but Swift retorted in a 'Vindica- 
tion* proving that he was really dead. Other 
writers took up the joke, and Steele, when he 
launched 'The Tatler' in 1709, adopted the 
name of Bickerstaff for the supposed author. 

BIGKERSTAFFE, ISAAC (d. 1812?), an 
Irish playwright, who produced many success- 
ful comedies and opera libretti, including the 
popular comic opera 'Love in a Village' (1762), 
'The Maid of the Mill* (1765), 'The Padlock' 
(q.v., 1768). 'The Hypocrite' (1769, adapted 
from Moliere's 'TartunV and Gibber's 'The 
Non- Juror') contains the well-known charac- 
ter of a hypocrite 'Mawworm'. His 'Lionel 
and Clarissa', successfully produced in 1768, 
later appeared as 'The School for Fathers'. 
Bickerstafife fled the country in 1772 sus- 
pected of a capital crime. 

Bidpai or Pilpay, The Fables of, or Kalilah 
and Dimnah, is the title of the Arabic version 
of a lost original of the 'Panchatantra*, a cele- 
brated Sanskrit collection of fables, the source 
of much European folk-lore. 'Bidpai' is a 
corruption of 'bidbah', the appellation of the 
chief scholar at the court of an Indian prince. 
Biedemeier, a German style of furniture, 
showing the pseudo-classical taste of the late 
French 'Empire*. It takes its name from a 
political caricature in 'Fliegende Blatter', and 
was in vogue from about 1815 to 1848. 

Biederman, ARNOLD, a character in Scott's 
'Anne of Geierstein' (q.v.). 
BIERCE, AMBROSE (1838-1914 ?), Ameri- 
can short-story writer, born in Ohio. He 
served throughput the Civil War. In 1913 
he went to Mexico to join the staff of the rebel 
general, Villa, and disappeared mysteriously. 
His best stories are in 'Tales of Soldiers 
and Civilians* (1891) the title of which was 
later changed to *In the Midst of Life*. His 


greatest single tale is 'An Occurrence at Owl 
Creek Bridge*. 

Bifrost, in Scandinavian mythology, the 
bridge by which the gods cross from heaven 
to earth, the rainbow. It is guarded by 
Heimdal, and at its summit sit the Norns 

Big-endians and Little-endians, see 
Gulliver's Travels. 

Biglow Papers, see Lowell (J. jR.). 
Bilbo, ^ apparently from Bilbao in Spain (long 
called in English Bilboa), a sword noted for 
its elasticity and temper. 'Bilbow blades* 
could be bent till point met hilt. 

Bilboes, of uncertain derivation, but, like the 
preceding, usually referred to Bilbao on the 
alleged ground that many of these instru- 
ments were manufactured there, were a long 
iron bar with sliding shackles to confine the 
ankles of a prisoner, and a lock by which to 
fix one end of the bar to the floor. [OEDJ 

Bildad, one of the three friends of Job (q.v.). 
Bill of Rights, see Rights, Bill of. 

Billickin, MRS., in Dickens's 'Edwin Drood* 
(q.v.), a cousin of Mr. Bazzard, who keeps 
lodgings in Bloomsbury. 

BILLINGS, JOSH, see Shaw (H. W.). 

Billingsgate, the name of one of the gates 
of London on the river side, and hence of the 
fish market there established. It is perhaps 
derived from a personal name, Billing (cf. 
Billingshurst), and according to fable from 
Belinus (q.v.), a legendary British king. 
There are frequent references in i7th-cent. 
literature to the abusive language .of the 
Billingsgate market; hence foul language is 
itself called 'billingsgate'. 

Bills of Mortality, official returns of the 
deaths in a certain district, which began to be 
published weekly by the London Company 
of Parish Clerks in 1592 for 109 parishes in 
and around London. Hence this district (the 
precise limits of which were often modified) 
became known as 'within the bills of mor- 
tality' [OEDJ. 

Billy Taylor, the subject of an old song. 
He is pressed and sent to sea and followed by 
his true love, disguised as a sailor, who shoots 
him when she finds him unfaithful to her, 
and is made first lieutenant of the 'Gallant 
Thunderbomb'. The text is in Oliver's 
'Comic Songs* fend ed. 1825?, according to 
B.M. Cat.). 

Bingen, BISHOP OF, otherwise known as 
Bishop Hatto (q.v.). 

BINGHAM, JOSEPH (1668-1723), fellow 
of University College, Oxford. He withdrew 
from the university, being unjustly charged 
with preaching heretical doctrine. He was 
author of 'Origines Ecclesiasticae, or the 
Antiquities of the Christian Church* (1708- 
22), a very learned work, which long retained 
its authoritative character. 



Bingley, CHARLES, a character in Jane 
Austen's 'Pride and Prejudice' (q.v.). 

Binks, SIR BINGO and LADY, characters in 
Scott's 'St. Ronan's Well' (q.v.). 

Keeper of Oriental prints and drawings in 
the British Museum, noted as an authority 
on Chinese art. He is the author of many 
volumes of poems, of which the first was 
'Lyric Poems* (1894), and of some plays. 
Among his publications may be mentioned 
'Auguries' (1913), 'The Anvil and other 
Poems* (1916), and the drama 'Arthur* 

Biographia Literaria, a literary auto- 
biography by S. T. Coleridge (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1817. 

The autobiographical thread is slender. 
The work consists in the main of a discussion 
of the philosophy of Kant, Fichte, and 
Schelling, and a criticism of Wordsworth's 
poetry. (For Coleridge's philosophical doc- 
trines see under Aids to Reflection.) 

BION (fl. c. 280 B.C.), a pastoral poet of 
Smyrna, who ended his life in Sicily, where 
he was poisoned. He is best known for his 
lament for Adonis, on which Shelley partly 
modelled his 'Adonais*. Moschus(q.v.) called 
himself the pupil of Bion. 
Birch, HARVEY, the mysterious pedlar and 
spy in J. Fenimore Cooper's novel of the 
American Revolution, 'The Spy'. 
Birdcage Walk, in St. James's Park, Lon- 
don, so called from the cages for birds and 
beasts kept there for the amusement of 
Charles II. 

Birds of America, see Auduban, John James. 
Birnam Wood, see Macbeth. 
Biron or BEROWNE, in Shakespeare's 'Love's 
Labour's Lost* (q.v.), one of the three lords 
attending on the king of Navarre. 
Biron, a character in Southerne's 'The Fatal 
Marriage' (q.v.). 

President of the Board of Education, 1905-7; 
chief secretary for Ireland, 1907-16; author 
of 'Obiter Dicta* (1884, 1887, 1924), 'William 
Hazlitt* (1902), 'Andrew Marvell* (1905). 

Bishop Blpugrarrfs Apology, a poem by 
R. Browning (q.v.), included in *Men and 
Women', published in 1855. 

The poem is a casuistical apology for the 
position of a beneficed priest whose belief 
does not extend to all the doctrines of the 
Roman Catholic religion. Though a mono- 
logue in form, it is in fact an argument 
between the bishop and Mr. Gigadibs, his 
critic, in which the bishop succeeds, at least, 
in silencing the critic. But Browning has the 
last (crushing) word. Cardinal Wiseman was 
the model from whom Bishop Blougram was 

Bishop Hatto: a legend of the loth cent. 


relates that Hatto, archbishop of Mainz, at a 
time of famine (970) assembled a company of 
poor people in a barn and burnt them to 
death, that there might be more food for the 
rich. He was pursued by an army of mice, took 
refuge in a tower on the Rhine still known 
as the Mauserturm, and was there devoured 
by them. The legend is told in 'Coryat's 
Crudities', and in a poem by Southey (q.v.). 
The historical Bishop Hatto was not guilty 
of this atrocity, and the Mauserturm was in 
fact erected for the collection of tolls on 
river traffic. The legend is said to arise from 
an erroneous derivation of Mauserturm from 
mause (mice). Similar legends of men de- 
voured by mice or rats are widely prevalent 
among northern nations; Baring- Gould 
('Curious Myths') attributes their origin to 
the heathen practice of human sacrifice in 
times of famine. 

Bishopsgate, the principal north gate of the 
ancient city of London. It is mentioned as 
porta episcopi in Domesday, but the particu- 
lar bishop with whom it was connected is 
unknown. Loftie thinks it may have been 
Erkenwald or St. Botolph. Burbage's first 
theatre was just outside Bishopsgate. 

VON (1815-98), afterwards duke of Lauen- 
burg, known as 'The Iron Chancellor', born 
at Friedrichsruh in Prussia, became Prussian 
prime minister in 1862, and under his admini- 
stration were fought the war against Denmark 
of 1864 and the war against Austria of 1866. 
Bismarck became chancellor of the North Ger- 
man Federation in 1867, and in 1870-1 ensued 
the war with France, in which the southern 
states co-operated with Northern Germany. 
The German Empire was constituted in 1871 
and Bismarck was its first chancellor. He 
presided at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 
and concluded the Triple Alliance in 1883. 
Having incurred the displeasure of the Em- 
peror William II, he resigned in 1890. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-98), a native of 
Scotland, war correspondent of the 'Morning 
Star* during the Franco-Prussian War, and 
subsequently sub-editor of the 'Daily News', 
is remembered for some of his novels: 'A 
Daughter of Heth' (1871), 'A Princess of 
Thule' (1873), 'Macleod of Dare' (1879), 
stories of his native country; and 'The 
Strange Adventures of a Phaeton* (1872), 
which combines romance with descriptions 
of English localities. 

Black Agnes, Agnes, countess of Dunbar 
(i3i2?~69), daughter of the first earl of 
Moray and wife of the tenth earl of Dunbar, 
remembered for her spirited defence of 
Dunbar Castle against the English (1339). 

Black Beauty, see Sewell. 

Black Bess, the celebrated mare of Dick 
Turpin (q.v.). 

Black Book of Carmarthen, THE, a 
Welsh manuscript of the i2th cent., contain- 



ing a collection of ancient Welsh poetry, 
interesting among other things for references 
to King Arthur. 

Black Book of the Admiralty, an ancient 
code of rules for the government of the navy, 
said to have been compiled in the reign of 
Edward III. 

Black Bninswickers, a military mounted 
force raised by Frederick William, duke of 
Brunswick(i77i-i8i5, killed at QuatreBras), 
for service against the French in the Napo- 
leonic wars. There is a famous picture by 
Millais representing *The Black Bruns- 
wicker'. See also Hussars. 

Black Death, THE, the name now com- 
monly given to the Great Pestilence or 
visitation of the Oriental Plague, which de- 
vastated most countries of Europe near the 
middle of the I4th cent., and caused great 
mortality in England in 1348-9; sometimes 
also including the recurrences of the . epi- 
demic in 1360 and 1379. The epithet 'black' 
is of uncertain origin and not known to be 
contemporary anywhere. It is first found in 
Swedish and Danish i6th-cent. chroniclers. 
Black Douglas, see Douglas (The Black). 

Black Dwarf, The, a novel by Sir W. Scott 
(q.v.), the first of the 'Tales of My Landlord*, 
published in 1816. 

The principal character in the story, who 
gives it its title, is a dwarf of extraordinary- 
ugliness and strength who takes up his 
abode in a lonely spot in southern Scotland 
at the beginning of the i8th cent., builds 
himself a hovel of mighty stones, and 
acquires a reputation for supernatural powers. 
He is called Elshender the Recluse, or 
Elshie of the Mucklestanes, and his acri- 
monious speech suggests an excessively 
misanthropical disposition. Yet the story, of 
which the plot is slender, tells of his bene- 
ficent influence on events in his neighbour- 
hood. A robber carries off Grace Armstrong, 
to the distress of her lover, the young farmer 
Hobbie Elliot, but she is immediately restored 
on the dwarf's intervention. His intervention 
prevents the marriage of Isabella Vere with 
Sir Frederick Langley, to which her un- 
willing consent has been wrung by her 
father, the laird of Ellieslaw, for his own ends. 
It turns out that the Dwarf is the rich Sir 
Edward Manley, the near kinsman of Isabella, 
a man embittered by his deformity and by his 
unhappy love for Isabella's mother; he has 
long been supposed dead, and Ellieslaw is 
deeply indebted to him. 

Black-eyed Susan, see Gay (7-). 

Black Friars, members of the order of the 
Dominicans, founded at the beginning of the 
1 3th cent, by St. Dominic, so called from 
the colour of their dress. They had a con- 
vent in the part of the City of London that 
still bears their name. The buildings were 
surrendered to the Crown in Henry VIII's 


reign, and the case for his divorce from 
Queen Catherine was heard there by the 
papal legate. For Burbage's theatre in the 
precincts of the old monastery, see Blackfriars 

Black Hole of Calcutta, the punishment 
cell of the barracks in Fort William, Calcutta, 
into which, by order of Suraja Dowlah, 146 
Europeans were thrust for a whole night in 
1756, of whom only twenty-three survived 
till the morning. 

Black Hussars, see Hussars. 

Black Letter, a name (which came into use 
about 1600) for the form of gothic type used 
by the early printers, as distinguished from the 
'Roman* type which subsequently prevailed. 
A form of it is still in use in Germany. 

Black Maria, popular name for a prison van. 
Black Michael, nickname of Sir Michael 
Hicks Beach (1837-1916, chancellor of the 
exchequer, 1885 and 1895-1902), from 
Black Michael, the king's wicked brother in 
'The Prisoner of Zenda' (q.v.). 

Black Monks, the Benedictines (q.v.), so 
called from the colour of their dress. 

Black Prince, THE, a name given (apparently 
by 1 6th- cent, chroniclers) to Edward, the 
eldest son of Edward III (1330-76). The 
origin of the appellation is a matter of con- 
jecture, and published sources, says die 
OED., afford no evidence. It was perhaps 
due to 'his dreaded acts in battle', or to his 
wearing black armour. 

Black Rod, short for 'Gentleman Usher of 
the Black Rod', so called from his black wand 
of office, is the Chief Gentleman Usher of the 
Lord Chamberlain's department of the royal 
household, who is also usher to the House of 
Lords and to the Chapter of the Garter. 

Black Watch, THE, the 42nd (Highland) 
Regiment of the British Army, so called from 
the colour of their uniform, a dark tartan. 

Blackacre, THE WIDOW, a character in 
Wycherley's 'The Plain Dealer' (q.v.). 

Blackfriars Theatre, THE, an apartment in 
the dissolved monastery of the Black Friars 
(q.v.) adapted for a play-house and purchased 
by James Burbage (q.v.) in 1596. Owing to 
local opposition, it was handed over to the 
Children of the Chapel (q.v.) but reverted to 
Richard Burbage Cq.v.) in 1608. After this 
date Shakespeare acted there. The site of the 
theatre is marked by Playhouse Yard near 
'The Times' office (Loftie). 

MAN, JOHN (fl. 1436-48), fellow of Mer- 
ton College, Oxford, chaplain and con- 
temporary biographer of Henry VI, our main 
authority for his piety, &c. 
Blackmoor Vale, THE, a celebrated pack of 
hounds in the west country (Dorset). Its 
praises were sung by Whyte-Melville (q.v.). 



physician to Queen Anne, produced some 
indifferent poems of great length, heroic and 
epic, and 'The Creation, a philosophical 
poem demonstrating the existence and provi- 
dence of God* (1712), which was warmly 
praised by Dr. Johnson. 

DRIDGE (1825-1900), educated at Blun- 
dell's School, Tiverton, and Exeter College, 
Oxford, published some volumes of verse and 
a number of novels, of which the most 
famous was 'Lorna Doone* (q.v., 1869). 
Among the others were 'Clara Vaughan* 
(1864), 'Cradock Nowell* (1866), 'The Maid 
of Sker* (1872), 'Alice Lorraine* (1875), 
'Cripps the Carrier* (1877), 'Christowell* 
(1881), and 'Springhaven* (1887). The last is 
a pleasant tale of adventure and romance 
centring in a small southern port in the 
days of the Napoleonic wars, and presenting 
Wellington, Napoleon, and George III. 

Blackpool, STEPHEN, a character in Dickens *s 

'Hard Times' (q.v.). 

Blackstick, FAIRY, see Rose and the Ring. 

80), educated at Charterhouse School and 
Pembroke College, Oxford, was a fellow 
of All Souls and the first Vinerian professor 
of English law at Oxford. His fame rests 
on his * Commentaries on the Laws of 
England* (1765-9), a comprehensive picture 
of the English law and constitution as a 
single organic structure. The work was 
criticized by Bentham ('Fragment on Govern- 
ment') and others, but exercised a powerful 
influence. It was translated into French, 
German, Italian, and Russian. Blackstone 
published a collection of 'Law Tracts* in 
1762-. He was made a judge in 1770. 

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, a month- 
ly periodical started in 1817 by William 
Blackwood (1776-1834) the publisher, as a 
rival to the 'Edinburgh Review' (q.v.), of a 
less ponderous kind than the 'Quarterly* 
(q.v.). It had John Wilson, J. G. Lockhart, 
and James Hogg (qq.v.) on its staff. The 
number for October 1817 contained the 
famous satire on Edinburgh notabilities 
which took the form of a pretended 'Chaldee 
MS.' 'Blackwood's* was then Tory in 
politics, and -die avowed enemy of the 'Cock- 
ney School' in literary matters, i.e. Lamb, 
Hazlitt, and in particular Leigh Hunt. In 
1819 William Maginn (q.v.) was added to 
the staff. He was perhaps the originator 
of the 'Noctes Ambrosianae* (q.v.), which 
shortly began to appear in 'Maga', as 'Black- 
wood's* was familiarly called. De Quincey 
was also among the early contributors. 

Mrs. Oliphant's interesting 'Annals of a 
Publishing House: William Blackwood and 
his Sons' appeared in 1897. 

Bladud, a legendary king of Britain, father 
of Lear, and founder of the city of Bath. 


Blair, HUGH (1718-1800), Scottish divine 
and professor of rhetoric, is remembered for 
his famous sermons (5 vols, 1777-1801) and 
Lectures on Rhetoric. He belonged to a 
distinguished literary circle which included 
Hume, A. Carlyle, Adam Smith, and 

BLAIR, ROBERT (1699-1746), educated at 
Edinburgh and in Holland, was ordained 
minister of Athelstaneford in East Lothian in 
1731. He published in 1743 'The Grave', a 
didactic poem of some 800 lines of blank 
verse, in which he celebrates death, the 
solitude of the tomb, and the anguish of 
bereavement. The poem compares favour- 
ably with the somewhat similar 'Night 
Thoughts' (q.v.) of Edward Young, with 
which it was almost exactly contemporary. 
It was illustrated by William Blake (q.v.). 

Blaize, Elegy on Mrs. Mary, a burlesque 
elegy by Goldsmith (q.v.), published in 'The 

Blaize, FARMER, in Meredith's 'The Ordeal 
of Richard Feverel', Lucy FeverePs uncle. 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827), the son 
of a London hosier, did not go to school, but 
was apprenticed to James Basire, engraver 
to the Society of Antiquaries. His earliest 
poems are contained in 'Poetical Sketches', 
published in 1783 at the expense of his 
friends, Flaxman and Mrs. Mathew. In 1789 
he engraved and published his 'Songs of 
Innocence*, in which he first showed the 
mystical cast of his mind. Their underlying 
theme is the all-pervading presence of divine 
love and sympathy, even in trouble and 
sorrow. 'The Book of Thel* appeared in the 
same year, and its theme is similar: the 
maiden Thel laments the vanity and tran- 
sience of life, and is answered by the lily, the 
cloud, the worm, and the clod; they explain 
the principle of mutual self-sacrifice and that 
death means a new birth. 'Tiriel' belongs to 
the years 1788-9. It is the story of a tyrant 
and his rebellious children, the symbolic 
meaning of which is obscure. In 1790 Blake 
engraved his principal prose work, the 
'Marriage of Heaven and Hell', in which with 
vigorous satire and telling apologue, he takes 
up his revolutionary position, of which the 
main features are the denial of the reality of 
matter, the denial of eternal punishment, and 
the denial of authority. In the 'French 
Revolution' (1791), 'America* (1793), and the 
'Visions of the Daughters of Albion* (1793), 
his attitude of revolt against authority is 
further developed. He creates a mythology 
of his own, with Urizen, the deviser of moral 
codes, and Ore, the arch rebel, for central 
figures. The 'Songs of Experience* (1794) 
are in marked contrast with the 'Songs of 
Innocence*. The brightness of the earlier 
work gives place to a sense of gloom and 
mystery, and of the power of evil. We find 
again a protest against restrictive codes and 
an exaltation of the spirit of love. The 'Songs 


of Experience' include the famous 'Tiger! 
Tiger! burning bright*. In 'The Book of 
Urizen' (i?94)> 'The Book of Ahania', 'The 
Book of Los* (i795)> Blake pursues, in 
mythological form, his exposure of the errors 
of the moral code. By an inversion of the 
Miltonic story, it is Urizen, the author of 
moral law, who is expelled from the abode of 
the Eternals, and obtains control over the 
human world. In 'Europe* (1794) and "The 
Song of Los* (1795), Enitharmon is the giver 
of restrictive morality, on behalf of Urizen, 
to the sons of men; Los, a changing and per- 
plexing character, appears to be the per- 
sonification of Time, a champion of light, but 
held in bondage; Ore rises in rebellion, a 
symbol of the French Revolution. In 'Vala* 
(1797), subsequently in great part re-written 
and re-named 'The Four Zoas',the symbolism 
is exceptionally difficult to follow, but we 
still have the opposition of Urizen and Ore, 
representing authority and anarchy ; the con- 
demnation of the oppressive code of morality ; 
the ultimate triumph of Ore and of liberty. 
In the later version (the 'Four Zoas*) 
there is a new element, the revelation of 
forgiveness through Jesus Christ. In 1804 
Blake began to engrave his final symbolic 
works, 'Milton* and 'Jerusalem*. Milton 
returns from eternity to correct the error to 
which he had given currency, and enters into 
Blake, who preaches the doctrine of Jesus, 
of self-sacrifice and forgiveness. In 'Jerusa- 
lem* we have expounded Blake's theory of 
Imagination, 'the real and eternal world of 
which the Vegetable Universe is but a faint 
shadow'; 'the world of imagination is the 
world of eternity. It is the divine bosom into 
which we shall all go after the death of the 
vegetated body.* In the 'Ghost of Abel* 
(1822), a short dramatic dialogue, Blake, 
referring to Byron's 'Cain*, combats the view 
that the curse of Cain was uttered by Jehovah, 
and attributes it to Satan. His later minor 
poems include some beautiful lyrics, such as 
'The Morning* and 'The Land of Dreams'; 
also the fragmentary 'The Everlasting Gospel*, 
his own interpretation of the Gospel of Christ. 

Blake made, and sometimes engraved, 
designs in illustration of many works besides 
his own poems, notably Young's 'Night 
Thoughts', Blair's 'Grave', Gray's Poems, the 
Book of Job, and the 'Divina Commedia', 
designs which reveal his greatness as an 
artist. There is a good edition of 'The 
Poetical Works of William Blake* by John 
Sampson, Oxford, 1905. A 'Life of Blake' by 
Alexander Gilchrist was published in 1863 
(2nd ed., 1880; new ed., 1906). 

[In the preparation of the above summary 
of Blake's symbolic poems, much help has 
been obtained from vol. xi, ch. ix. of the 

Blakesware, in Hertfordshire, the *Blakes- 
moor* of the Essays of Elia (q.v.), the great 
house where Mary Field, Lamb's grand- 
mother, was housekeeper. 


Blancheflenr or BLANCHEFLOUR, see Flares 
and Blancheflour. 

Blandamour, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', 
Bk. IV, a 'jolly youthful knight*, 'his fickle 
mind full of inconstancie', who consorts with 
Paridell and Duessa (qq.v.). 

Blank Verse, verse without rhyme, espe- 
cially the iambic pentameter or unrhymed 
heroic, the regular measure of English 
dramatic and epic poetry, first used by the 
earl of Surrey (q.v.). 

Blanketeers, a body of operatives who met 
at the so-called Blanket Meeting in St. Peter's 
Fields, Manchester, on 10 March 1817, pro- 
vided with blankets or rugs, in order to march 
to London and press their grievances on the 
attention of the government. 

Blankley's, Man from, a play by F. Anstey 

Blarney, a village near Cork. In the Castle of 
Blarney there is an inscribed stone in a 
position difficult of access. The popular 
saying is that any one who kisses the 'Blarney 
stone* will ever after have 'a cajoling tongue 
and the art of flattery or of telling lies with un- 
blushing effrontery* (Lewis, 'Topographical 
Dictionary of Ireland', quoted in OED.), 

Blarney, LADY, in Goldsmith's 'Vicar of 
Wakefield* (q.v.), one of the fine ladies intro- 
duced to the Primroses by Squire Thornhill. 

Blatant Beast, THE, in Spenser's 'Faerie 
Queene* (vi. xii), a monster, the personifica- 
tion of the calumnious voice of the world, 
begotten of Envy and Detraction. Sir Cali- 
dore (q.v.) pursues it, finds it despoiling 
monasteries and defiling the Church, over- 
comes it and chains it up. But finally it 
breaks the chain, 'and now he raungeth 
through the world again*. Cf. Questing Beast, 

Blattergowl, DR., in Scott's 'The Anti- 
quary* (q.v.), the minister of Trotcosey and a 
neighbour of Mr. Oldbuck. 
(1831-91), a Russian, who in 1873 Jbecame 
connected with spiritual research in New 
York, and there, with Col. H. S. Olcott and 
W. Q. Judge, founded the Theosophical 
Society. In 1879 she transferred her activities 
to India, where the Theosophical Society 
was organized on a new basis (see Theosophy). 

Blazed Trail, The, a popular novel of the 
Michigan lumber camps, published in 1902, 
by the American writer, Stewart Edward 


Bleak House, a novel by Dickens (q.v.), 
published in monthly parts in 18523. 

The book contains a vigorous satire on the 
abuses of the old court of Chancery, the delays 
and costs of which brought misery and ruin on 
its suitors. The tale centres in the fortunes of 
an uninteresting couple, Richard Carstone, a 
futile youth, and his amiable cousin Ada Clare. 
They are wards of the court in the case of 


Jarndyce and Jarndyce, concerned with the 
distribution of an estate, which has gone on 
so long as to become a subject of heartless 
joking as well as a source of great profit to 
those professionally engaged in it. The wards 
are taken to live with their kind elderly 
relative John Jarndyce. They fall in love and 
secretly marry. The weak Richard, in- 
capable of sticking to any profession and 
lured by the will-o'-the-wisp of the fortune 
that is to be his when the case is settled, sinks 
gradually to ruin and death, and the case of 
Jarndyce and Jarndyce comes suddenly to an 
end on the discovery that the costs have 
absorbed the whole estate in dispute. 

When Ada goes to live with John Jarndyce, 
she is accompanied by Esther Summerson, a 
supposed orphan, one of Dickens 's saints, 
and the narrative is partly supposed to be 
from her pen. 

Sir Leicester Dedlock, a pompous old 
baronet, is devotedly attached to his beautiful 
wife, Lady Dedlock. The latter hides a 
dreadful secret under her haughty and in- 
different exterior. Before her marriage she 
has loved a certain Captain Rawdon and has 
become the mother of a daughter, whom she 
believes dead. Rawdon is supposed to have 
perished at sea. In fact the daughter lives in 
the person of Esther Summerson, and Raw- 
don in that of a penniless scrivener. The 
accidental sight of his handwriting in a legal 
document discovers to Lady Dedlock the fact 
of his existence, and its effect on her awakens 
the cunning old lawyer Tulkinghorn to the 
existence of a mystery. Lady Dedlock's 
inquiries bring her, through the medium of 
a wretched crossing-sweeper, Jo, to the 
burial-ground where her former lover's 
miserable career has just ended. Jo's un- 
guarded revelation of his singular experience 
with this veiled lady sets Tulkinghorn on 
the track, until he possesses all the facts and 
tells Lady Dedlock that he is going to expose 
her next day to her husband. That night 
Tulkinghorn is murdered. Bucket, the de- 
tective, presently reveals to the baronet what 
Tiilkinghorn had discovered, and arrests 
a former French maid of Lady Dedlock, 
a violent woman, who has committed the 
murder. Lady Dedlock, learning that her 
husband knows her secret, flies from the 
house in despair, and is found dead near the 
grave of her lover, in spite of the efforts of her 
husband and Esther to save her. 

Much of the story is occupied with 
Esther's devotion to John Jarndyce; her 
acceptance of his offer of marriage from a 
sense of duty and gratitude, though she loves 
a young doctor, Woodcourt; Jarndyce's dis- 
covery of the state of her heart; and his sur- 
render of her to Woodcourt. 

There are a host of interesting minor 
characters, among whom may be mentioned 
Harold Skimpole (drawn 'in the light externals 
of character' from Leigh Hunt), who disguises 
his utter ^selfishness under an assumption of 
childish irresponsibility; Mrs. Jellyby, who 


sacrifices her family to her selfish addiction to 
professional philanthropy; Jo, the crossing- 
sweeper, who is chivied by the police to his 
death; Chadband, the pious, eloquent hum- 
bug; Turveydrop, the model of deportment; 
Krook, the 'chancellor' of the rag and bone 
department, who dies of spontaneous com- 
bustion; Guppy, the lawyer's clerk; Guster, 
the poor slavey; the law-stationer Snagsby; 
Miss Flite, the little lunatic lady who haunts 
the Chancery courts ; and Jarndyce's friend, 
the irascible and generous Boythorn (drawn 
from Walter Savage Landor). 
* The case of 'Jarndyce and Jarndyce' was 
suggested by the celebrated proceedings 
arising from the intestacy of one William 
Jennings, who died in 1798, leaving property 
at Birmingham worth many millions. 

Bleeding Heart Yard, London, in Dickens's 
'Little Dorrit' (q.v.), the abode of Pancks, the 
Plornishes, &c. It stood on the south side of 
Charles Street, Hatton Garden. The author 
of the 'Ingoldsby Legends' (q.v.) tells in c The 
House- Warming' of the carrying off of Lady 
Hatton, wife of Sir Christopher, by the 
Devil, with whom she had a compact, and of 
the finding of her heart in this locality. 

Blefuscu, in Swift's 'Gulliver's Travels* 
(q.v.), an island separated from Lilliput by a 
narrow channel. 

Bleise or BLEYS, in Malory's 'Morte d 'Arthur' 
and Tennyson's 'Coming of Arthur' (qq.v.), 
is described as the master of Merlin. He 
dwelt in Northumberland. 

Blemmyes, a people of Africa who, accord- 
ing to fable (Herodotus, iv. 85), had no heads, 
but eyes and mouth placed in the breast. 

Blenheim, BATTLE OF (sometimes called 
battle of Hochstedt), in Bavaria, in 1704, 
in which Marlborough, having marched to 
the Upper Danube and joined Prince Eugene, 
defeated the French and Bavarians under 
Marshal Tallard. For poems on the battle 
see Addison and Southey. 

Blenheim Palace, the mansion near Wood- 
stock, Oxfordshire, erected by the nation for 
the duke of Marlborough after the victory of 
Blenheim (1704). It was built on the designs 
of Sir John Vanbrugh (q.v.), and the park 
comprises part of the old Royal 'Chase'. 

Blessed Damozel, The, a poem by D. Gi 
Rossetti (q.v.), of which the first version 
appeared in 'The Germ* (q.v., 1850), and 
revised versions in 1856 and 1870. 

In this poem the maiden, 'one of God's 
choristers', leans out from the rampart of 
heaven, sees the worlds below and the souls 
mounting up to God, and prays that she may 
be united once more with the lover whom 
she has left on earth and whose own com- 
ments are introduced parenthetically into the 

POWER, Countess of (1789-1849), after an 


unhappy first union, married the earl of 
Blessington, and travelled on the Continent 
with him and Alfred, Count d'Orsay, with 
whom she ultimately lived. She published c A 
Journal of Conversations with Lord Byron* 
in 1832, 'The Idler in Italy* and 'The Idler 
in France*, and a number of novels. 

Blifll, in Fielding's *Tom Jones* (q.v.), a 
character representing the extreme of cunning 
hypocritical meanness. 

Bligh, WILLIAM (1754-1817), the comman- 
der of H.M.S. 'Bounty* (q.v.) who was cast 
adrift by her mutinous crew. He was ap- 
pointed governor of New South Wales (1805), 
and was forcibly deposed and imprisoned by 
disaffected military officers. He became vice- 
admiral of the Blue. 

Blimber, DR., and his daughter CORNELIA, 
characters in Dickens's 'Dombey and Son* 

Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, see 

Beggar's Daughter of Bednal Green. 
Blind Harry, see Henry the Minstrel 
Blithedale Romance, The, see Hawthorne. 

Blondel de Nesle, a legendary minstrel in 
the court of Richard Cceur de Lion. Richard, 
on his return from the Holy Land in 1192, 
was imprisoned by the duke of Austria. Ac- 
cording to Favine*s 'Theatre of Honour and 
Knighthood* (translated from the French, 
London, 1623), Blondel set out to find him, 
for no news of him had reached England for a 
year. Coming to a certain castle in Austria he 
heard that a single prisoner was detained 
there, but could not learn his name. Ac- 
cordingly he sat under a window of the castle, 
and sang a song in French that he and the 
king had composed together; half-way 
through the song he paused, and Richard 
took up the other half and completed it. So 
Blondel returned to England and reported 
where the king was. 

Blood, THOMAS (i6i8?~8o), an adventurer 
who, among other exploits, headed an un- 
successful attempt to take Dublin Castle from 
the Royalists in 1663, and tried to steal the 
Crown jewels from the Tower in 1671. He 
figures in Scott's 'Peveril of the Peak* (q.v.). 
Bloody Assizes, THE, the name given to 
the assizes held in 1685 in the west of Eng- 
land by Judge Jeffreys (q.v.) for the trial of 
the supporters of the duke of Monmouth after 
his defeat at Sedgemoor. Some 300 persons 
are said to have been executed and 1,000 sent 
as slaves to the American plantations. 
Bloody Brother, The, or Rollo, Duke of 
Normandy, a play by J. Fletcher (q.v.), Jon- 
son (q.v.), and perhaps other collaborators, 
produced about 1616. 

The duke of Normandy has bequeathed 
his dukedom to his two sons Rollo and Otto. 
Rollo, the elder, a resolute and violent 
man, in order to secure the whole heritage, 
kills his brother and orders to immediate 


execution all who refuse to further his ends, 
including his old tutor Baldwin. The latter's 
daughter, Edith, pleads for his life, and her 
beauty captivates Rollo, but his order to stay 
the execution comes too late. Edith deter- 
mines to revenge her father's death, and 
prepares to kill Rollo when he comes to woo 
her. His apparent repentance shakes her 
determination. While she hesitates, the 
brother of another of Rollo's victims enters 
and kills the tyrant. The scene between 
Latorch, Rollo*s favourite, and the Astro- 
logers was probably written by Jonson, as 
also part of Act IV, sc. i. 
Bloomer, a form of female attire that 
originated in America about 1850, being 
adopted for a time by some of the American 
pioneers of the movement for women's rights. 
'It was invented by Mrs. Elizabeth Smith 
Miller, the daughter of Gerrit Smith, a 
prominent abolitionist, a great landowner in 
western New York. . . . Mrs. Miller wanted a 
dress in which she could easily take long 
walks about her country home. It consisted 
of a small jacket, a full skirt descending a 
little below the knee, and trousers down to 
the ankle. It was not beautiful, but was very 
comfortable and convenient and entirely 
modest. Mrs. Amelia Bloomer, editor of the 
"Lily", the first woman's paper, was much 
pleased with it, and advocated it warmly in 
her paper, and thus it became associated with 
her name.' (A. S. Blackwell, 'Lucy Stone: 
Pioneer of Woman's Rights', Boston, 1930.) 
BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT (1766-1 823), of 
humble origin, worked as an agricultural 
labourer and then as a shoemaker under his 
brother George in London, enduring extreme 
poverty. He is remembered as author of the 
poem, 'The Farmer's Boy*, published in 
1800, of which it is said that 26,000 copies 
were sold in less than three years. The 
similarity of his circumstances to those of 
John Clare (q.v.) leads to their being fre- 
quently compared, but the talent of Bloom- 
field was inferior to that of Clare. 
Bloomsbury Square, near the British 
Museum, was one of the first squares to be laid 
out in London (by the earl of Southampton in 
1665). Bloomsbury, part of the old manor of 
Rugmere, was so called from one Blemund, 
owner of the land in the time of King John. 
Sir Charles Sedley, Steele, Disraeli, and other 
notable persons, lived there. 
Blossom's Inn or BOSOM'S INN, an inn in 
Lawrence Lane, Cheapside, occasionally re- 
ferred to by Elizabethan writers. 

'Our jolly clothiers kept up their courage 
and went to Blossom's Inn, so called from, 
a greasy old fellow who built it, who always 
went nudging with his head in his bosom 
winter and summer, so that they called him 
the picture of old Winter.' ('History of 
Thomas of Reading', c. ii, quoted by Soane, 
'New Curiosities of Literature', ii. 333, who 
adds that in the rest of the tale the name is 
given as 'Bosom's Inn'.) 



Blot in the 'Scutcheon, A, a tragedy in three 
acts, by R. Browning (q.v.), performed at 
Co vent Garden Theatre in 1843. 

The events take place in the i8th cent. 
Lord Henry Mertoun loves Mildred, the 
sister and ward of Lord Tresham, but delays 
to ask her hand of him until he has already 
become intimate with her. Lord Tresham 
willingly gives his consent, but, warned by 
a retainer that some man has access to Mil- 
dred's chamber, obtains from her an admis- 
sion of her guilt, but not a confession of her 
lover's name. Lord Tresham surprises Mer- 
toun and kills him, but is filled with despair 
by the youth's story of his love, error, and 
remorse, and the sense that he has ruined his 
sister's happiness. Mildred dies of a broken 
heart and Lord Tresham takes poison. 

Blougram, BISHOP, see Bishop Blougram's 

Blount, MARTHA (1690-1762), the friend of 
Pope to whom he dedicated his 'Epistle on 
Women' ('Moral Essays') and his Epistles 'To 
a Young Lady with the Works of Voiture* and 
'To the same on her leaving the Town' fin 
which occurs the character of Zephalinda), 

Blouzelinda, a shepherdess in *The Shep- 
herd's Week' of J. Gay (q.v.). 

Blue and the Gray, THE, familiar names for 
the armies of the North and South during the 
American Civil War, referring to the fact that 
the first wore blue uniforms and the second 

Blue and Yellow, The, the 'Edinburgh 
Review* (q.v.), so called from the colours of 
its cover, which were the election colours of 
the Whig party when the Review was started. 

Blue Beard, a popular tale in an oriental 
setting, from the French of Perrault (q.v.), 
translated by Robert Samber (1729?). 

A man of great wealth, but disfigured by a 
blue beard, and of evil reputation because he 
has married several wives who have dis- 
appeared, asks for the hand of Fatima, the 
younger of the two daughters of a neighbour- 
ing lady of quality. At last she is prevailed 
on to marry him. Blue Beard, called away on 
business, leaves the keys of all his treasures 
to his young wife, but strictly enjoins her not 
to make use of the key of a particular room. 
Overcome by curiosity, she opens this room 
and finds in it the bodies of Blue Beard's 
previous wives. Horror-struck, she drops the 
key, which becomes indelibly stained with 
blood. Blue Beard returns, discovers her 
disobedience, and orders her to death. She 
begs for a little delay, 'Sister Anne' sees her 
brothers arriving, and Blue Beard is killed 
before he can execute the sentence. 

Andrew Lang, in his 'Perrault's Popular 
Tales/ discusses the many parallel stories 
found in other countries. Blue Beard is 
identified by local tradition in Brittany with 
Gilles de Retz (q.v.). 


Blue Grass State, Kentucky, see United 

Blue Stocking, a woman having or affecting 
literary tastes. The origin of the term is to be 
found in the evening parties held about 1750 
in the houses of Mrs. Vesey, Mrs. Montagu, 
and Mrs. Ord, who endeavoured to substi- 
tute for card-playing, which then formed the 
principal recreation, more intellectual modes 
of spending the time, including conversations 
on literary subjects in which eminent men of 
letters often took part. Many of those who 
attended eschewed e full dress', among them 
Benjamin Stillingfleet, who habitually wore 
blue worsted s in lieu of black silk, stockings. 
In reference to this, Admiral Boscawen is 
said to have dubbed the coterie the *Blue 
Stocking Society' [OED.]. There is an 
account of the * Blue-stocking Clubs* in Bos- 
well, under the year 1781, and Hannah More 
(q.v.) wrote a poem 'Bas Bleu, or Conversa- 
tion' on the same subject. Mrs. Chapone 
(q.v.) was another member of the coterie. 

Blue- coat School, a charity school of which 
the pupils wear the almoner's blue coat. Of 
these schools there are many in England, the 
most noted being Christ's Hospital (q.v.), 
formerly in London, founded by Edward VI, 
whose uniform is a long dark blue gown 
fastened at the waist by a belt, and bright 
yellow stockings. 

Bluemantle, one of the four Pursuivants 
(officers ranking below Heralds) attached to 
the English College of Arms (see Heralds' 

Blue- nose, a nickname for a native of Nova 
Scotia (the term frequently occurs in Hall- 
burton's 'Sam Slick'); also applied to Nova 
Scotian ships. 

Blues, THE, the Regiment of Royal Horse 
Guards, originally the Royal Regiment of 
Horse, one of the New Model regiments dis- 
banded in 1660 and immediately raised afresh, 
so called from the colour of its uniform. 

BluUe, CAPTAIN, a character in Congreve's 
'The Old Bachelor' (q.v.). 

Blumine, in Carlyle's 'Sartor Resartus' 
(q.v.), the lady with whom Herr Teufels- 
drockh falls in love. 

BLUNDEN, EDMUND (1896- ), poet 
and scholar, educated at Christ's Hospital 
and Queen's College, Oxford. During the 
War he served with the Royal Sussex and has 
written one of the best books of the War 
'Undertones of War* (1928). After his own 
poetry (collected edition, 1930), his greatest 
service to poetry has been the researches into 
and discovery and publication of the hitherto 
unpublished poems of John Clare (q.v.). He 
has also published the first adequate bio- 
graphy of Leigh Hunt. 

Blunderbore, a giant in the tale of 'Jack the 
Giant-killer' (q.v.). 



1922), poet and publicist, author of 'The 
Love Sonnets of Proteus* (1880) and other 
volumes of poetry (complete edition, 1914). 
His political life and writings were all in 
defence of nationalism, Irish, Egyptian, and 

Boadicea, BONDUCA, misspellings for Bou- 
DICCA, queen of the Iceni in the east of 
Britain, who led a revolt against the Romans, 
but was finally defeated by Suetonius Paulinus 
in A.D. 6 1 and took her own life. 

'Boadicea' is the title and subject of a 
poem in galliambics by Tennyson ; also of a 
fine ballad by W. Cowper. See also Bonduca. 

Boanerges, 'sons of thunder', the name 
given by Jesus Christ to James and John 
(Mark iii. 17), because they offered to call 
down fire from heaven to consume the in- 
hospitable Samaritans (Luke ix. 54). 

Boar of the Ardennes, THE WILD, William 
Count de la Marck, who figures in Scott's 
'Quentin Durward* (q.v.). 

Boar's Head Inn, THE, celebrated in con- 
nexion with Falstaff (Shakespeare's 'Henry 
IV), was in Eastcheap, where the statue of 
William IV now stands. The inn was in 
existence until 1831. It is the subject of a 
paper in Washington Irving's 'Sketch Book*. 
One of the best of Goldsmith's essays is his 
'Reverie in the Boar's Head Tavern at 

Boaz and JacMn, the names of the two 
pillars set up by Solomon in the porch of the 
Temple (i Kings vii. 21). 

Bob Logic, in 'Life in London* by Egan 
(q.v.), the Oxonian associate of Jerry Haw- 
thorn and Corinthian Tom. 

Bobadill, CAPTAIN, a character in Jonson's 
'Every Man in his Humour' (q.v.), an old 
soldier, vain, boastful, and cowardly, notable 
among the braggarts of comedy for his 
gravity and decorum. 

governor of Hispaniola, appointed in 1499, 
who put Columbus and his brother in 
chains, and sent them back to Spain. 

BOABDIL, a corruption of Abou Abdullah, 
was the last Moorish king of Granada (1482- 
92), a pathetic figure in Washington Irving's 
'Conquest of Granada*. 

Bobby, a slang nickname for a policeman, 
probably an allusion to the name of Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Robert Peel, who was home 
secretary when the new Metropolitan Police 
Act was passed in 1828. Cf. Peelers. 

Italian novelist, poet, and humanist, was born 
in Paris, the son of a Florentine merchant and 
a French woman named Jeanne. He was 
brought up in Florence, and fell in love with 
Maria d*Aquino, illegitimate daughter of 
King Robert of Naples, and wife of a Count 


d*Aquino, who inspired many of his works, 
and is the Fiammetta of his novel of that 
name. In 1351 Boccaccio carried to Petrarch 
(q.v.) a letter from the Florentine authorities 
announcing to him the restoration of his 
family property and inviting him to return to 
Florence. Boccaccio was a friend and ad- 
mirer of Dante and endeavoured, apparently 
with little success, to interest Petrarch in his 
fellow poet. He wrote a Life of Dante which 
is one of our principal sources of knowledge 
on the subject. Boccaccio's chief works, apart 
from the 'Decameron' (q.v.), were : the 'Filo- 
copo* a prose romance, embodying, with 
adaptations to his own love-affair, the story of 
'Mores and Blanchefleur* (q.v.) ; the 'Amorosa 
Visione', a long poem describing the poet's 
visit, in a dream, to the realms of Love, Fame, 
&c. ; the *Filostrato', a poem on the story of 
Troilus and Cressida; and the *Teseide*, a 
poem on the story of Theseus, Palamon, and 
Arcite, which was translated by Chaucer. 
Boccaccio also wrote a Latin treatise, T>e 
Genealogia Deorum*. 

Boccaccio is an important figure in the 
history of literature, and particularly of the 
novel, and among the poets who found in- 
spiration in his works were Chaucer, Shake- 
speare, Dryden, Keats, Longfellow, and 

Boche, abbreviation of Attache (=AUe- 
mand), a French popular and contemptuous 
name for a German (Larousse), which came 
into vogue in England during the Great War. 

Bodle, a Scottish copper coin of the value of 
two pennies Scots or (c. 1600) one-sixth of an 
English penny. The name is reputed to be 
derived from the name of a mint-master 
Bothwell, but no documentary evidence is 
cited. [OED.] 

Bodleian Library, see Bodley. 

Bodley, SIR THOMAS (1545-1613), was edu- 
cated at Geneva, whither his parents had fled 
during the Marian persecution, and subse- 
quently at Magdalen College, Oxford ; After 
being for some time a lecturer in that 
university, he travelled abroad, and from 
1588 to 1596 was English diplomatic repre- 
sentative at The Hague. He devoted the 
rest of his life and most of his resources to 
founding at Oxford the great library that 
bears his name. It was opened in 1602. In 
1609 Bodley endowed it with land in Berk- 
shire and houses in London, and in 1610 the 
Stationers' Company undertook to give to the 
library a copy of every book printed in Eng- 
land. It received also important gifts of books, 
in its early days, from Laud, Oliver Cromwell, 
and Robert Burton (author of the 'Anatomy 
of Melancholy*). Among other considerable 
accessions may be mentioned the library of 
Bishop Jerome Osorius (q.v.), seized on the 
occasion of the descent of Essex on Faro in 
Portugal (i 596) and subsequently given to the 
Bodleian; also John Selden's library, given 
in 1659, and the Rawlinson MSS. in more 



recent times. The Canonici MSS. were 
purchased in 1817 and the Oppenheimer 
Collection of Hebrew books in 1829. The 
Bodleian shares with the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Library, the National Library of 
Scotland (see Advocates* Library), the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, and (with limita- 
tions) the National Library of Wales, the 
right, under the Copyright Act (1911), to 
receive on demand a copy of every book 
published in the United Kingdom. Macray's 
'Annals of the Bodleian' (1868, 1890) is a 
standard work on the history of the Library. 

BOECE, see Boethius. 

1536), a native of Dundee and a student in 
the University of Paris, where he became a 
professor. He published Latin lives of the 
bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen (1522), 
and a Latin history of Scotland to the ac- 
cession of James III (1527), the latter in- 
cluding many fabulous narratives, among 
others that of Macbeth and Duncan, which 
passed into Holinshed's chronicles and thence 
to Shakespeare. 

Boehme or BEHMEN, JACOB (1575-1624), a 
peasant shoemaker of Gorlitz in Germany, a 
mystic. The essential features of his doctrine 
(known as Behmenism] were that will is the 
original force, that all manifestation involves 
opposition (that good can only be known 
through contrast with evil), that existence is a 
process of conflict between pairs of contrasted 
principles, and that these are ultimately re- 
solved into some new unity. The doctrine of 
Boehme strongly influenced W. Law (q.v.). 
English translations of Bpehme's works, by 
various hands, appeared in 1645-62. A re- 
print of the works in English, ed. C. J. 
Barker, has appeared (1910-24). 

Boeotia (pron. Be-o'shia), a country in 
central ^Greece, surrounded by mountains, 
containing the valleys of the Cephissus and 
Asopus, and having Thebes for its capital. 
Its inhabitants were proverbial for dullness 
of intellect, but -die country gave birth to 
many illustrious men, such as Hesiod, Pindar, 
Plutarch, and Democritus (qq.v.). 'Boeotian* 
has come to be used as a derogatory adjective, 
synonymous with boorish, dull-witted. 

SEVERINUS, frequently referred to as 
'Boece* in the Middle Ages, born at Rome 
between A.D. 470 and 475, was consul in 510 
and in favour with Theodoric the Great; but 
incurring his suspicion of plotting against 
the Gothic rule, was imprisoned and put to 
death in 525. In prison he wrote the cele- 
brated work, 'De Consolatione Philosophiae*, 
which was translated by King Alfred (q.v.). 
Two versions of the translation exist, in one 
of which the metrical portions of the original 
are rendered in prose, in the other in verse. 
The 'De Consolatione* was also translated 
by Chaucer under the title 'Boethius', by 
Queen Elizabeth, and by others. 


Boffin , MR. and MRS., characters in Dickens J s 

'Our Mutual Friend' (q.v.). 

Boggley Wallah, THE COLLECTOR OF, Jos 

Sedley, a character in Thackeray's 'Vanity 

Fair* (q.v.). 

Bogle, The Rhyme of Sir Lancelot, see Bon 

Gaultier Ballads. 

Bogomils, a sect which arose in the 
cent, in Bulgaria, holding heretical views on 
the divine birth of Christ, on the sacraments, 
and on other points of dogma. They held 
Manichaean (q.v.) opinions on the dual origin 
of good and evil. 

Boheme, Scenes de la vie de t a well-known 
romance of Paris student life, by Murger 
(q.v.), published in 1848; Puccini's opera 
'Boheme' was founded on it. 

Bohemia, SEA COAST OF: in Shakespeare's 
'The Winter's Tale', in. iii, Antigonus says, 
'our ship hath touched upon the deserts of 
Bohemia'. Sometimes quoted as one of the 
rare instances where Shakespeare failed in 
general knowledge, since Bohemia is an en- 
tirely inland country. 

Bohemia, Story of the King o/, told by 
Corporal Trim in vol. viii of Sterne's 
'Tristram Shandy* (q.v.). 
Bohemian is frequently used in-the sense of 
a gipsy of society, especially an artist, literary 
man, or actor, who leads a free, vagabond, or 
irregular life, and despises conventionalities. 
In this sense the term was adopted from 
French, in which bohme, bohemien, have been 
applied to the gipsies since their first appear- 
ance in the i$th cent., because they were 
thought to come from Bohemia. The word, 
with this meaning, was introduced into Eng- 
lish by Thackeray. [OED.] 

BOHN, HENRY GEORGE (1796-1884), 
publisher, and author of the 'Guinea Cata- 
logue* of old books (1841), a valuable early 
bibliographical work. Among Bonn's many 
publications ('Standard Library*, 'Classical 
Library', 'Scientific Library*, &c.) may be 
specially mentioned his 'Antiquarian Library* 
(1847 onwards). 

an Italian poet of the old chivalry, who drew 
on the legends of Arthur and Charlemagne 
for his materials. His principal work was the 
unfinished 'Orlando Innamorato* (q.v.). 

(1636-1711), French critic and poet, the 
friend of Moliere, La Fontaine, and Racine, 
who _ by his 'Satires', 'Epitres', and 'Art 
Poe"tique', remarkable for discrimination and 
good sense, did much to form French literary 
taste, previously vitiated by Spanish and 
Italian influences. He was known as the 
legislateur du Parnasse. 

Bois-Guilbert, SIR BRIAN DE, the fierce 
Templar in Scott's 'Ivanhoe' (q.v.). 
Boke of the Duchesse, The, a poem of some 
1,300 lines by Chaucer, written in 1369. It is 



an allegorical lament on the death of Blanche 
of Lancaster, first wife of John of Gaunt. 
In a dream the poet joins a hunting party of 
the Emperor Octovien. He comes upon a 
knight in black who laments the loss of his 
lady. The knight tells of her virtues and 
beauty and their courtship, and in answer to 
a question declares her dead. The hunting 
party reappears, a bell strikes twelve, and 
the poet awakes, with the story of Ceyx and 
Halcyone, which he had been reading, in 
his hand. 

Bold, JOHN, a character in Trollope's 'The 
Warden 3 (q.v.). Mrs. Bold, his widow, 
figures prominently in its sequel, 'Barchester 
Towers* (q.v.), and in 'The Last Chronicle 
of Barset', where she is the wife of Dean 

Bold Stroke for a Wife, A, a comedy by 
Mrs. Centlivre (q.v.), produced in 1718. 
Colonel Fainall, to win the consent of 
Obadiah Prim, the quaker guardian of Anne 
Lovely, to his marriage with the latter, im- 
personates Simon Pure, 'a quaking preacher*. 
No sooner has he obtained it than the true 
Quaker arrives and proves himself 'the real 
Simon Pure', a phrase that has become 

BOLDREWOOD, ROLF, pseudonym of 
T. A. BROWNE (q.v.). 

Boldwood, FARMER, a character in Hardy's 
'Far from the Madding Crowd* (q.v.). 

Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, the 
future Henry IV, figures in Shakespeare's 
'Richard II' (q.v.). 

first Viscount (1678-1751), educated at Eton 
and perhaps Christ Church, Oxford, a sup- 
porter of Harley and the Tory party in parlia- 
ment, became secretary of state in 1710, was 
created Viscount Bolingbroke in 1712, and 
was in charge of the negotiations which led 
to the treaty of Utrecht (1713). He founded 
the 'Brothers' Club' (q.v.) in 1711. He was 
dismissed from office on the accession of 
George I, was attainted, and his name was 
erased from the roll of peers. He fled to 
France and was secretary of state to James 
the Pretender, from whose service he was dis- 
missed in 1716. His 'Letter to Sir William 
Wyndham* (q.v.) was written in 1717. He 
was pardoned and returned to London in 
1723, and settled at Dawley near Oxford. It 
is to the following period that his principal 
political and philosophical writings belong. 
He contributed to the ' Craftsman* ^ (q.v.) 
from 1727 to 1733 a number of virulent 
attacks on the Whig government under 
Walpole and Townshend, notably in the 
'Remarks on the History of England* (1730- 
31) and in 'A Dissertation upon Parties* 
( X 735)- In 1735 he retired to Chanteloup in 
Touraine, and there wrote his 'Letters on 
the Study and Use of History* (1752), .in 
which he points out the failure of English 


historical literature to produce either a general 
history, or particular histories comparable to 
those of foreign nations. In 1736 he wrote 
'A Letter on the Spirit of Patriotism' (q.v.), 
and in 1738 'The Idea of a Patriot King* 
(q.v., published 1749)- In 1749 he issued 
'Some Reflections on the Present State of the 
Nation', dealing principally with the question 
of the public debt. 

Bolingbroke 's chief strength lay in oratory. 
His policy was a kind of democratic Toryism, 
anticipating that of Disraeli. He can hardly 
claim to be a philosopher, but some occasional 
writings of his, of a deistic tendency, were 
published as his 'Philosophical Works* in 
1752. The influence of these is seen in Pope's 
'Essay on Man* (q.v.). Bolingbroke's col- 
lected works were published by David Mallet 
in 1752. 

Bolivar, SIMON (1783-1830), 'The Libera- 
tor*, the leader of the revolution of Venezuela 
against Spain. He founded the republic of 
Colombia, uniting Venezuela, New Granada 
(the modern Colombia), and Ecuador; became 
dictator of Peru ; and formed the republic of 
Bolivia. Peru and Bolivia turned against him 
in 1826, and the republic of Colombia broke 
up soon after his death. 

Bollandists, Belgian Jesuits who publish 
the 'Acta Sanctorum', legends of saints 
arranged according to the days of the calendar. 
The work was begun at Antwerp by John 
Bolland, a Flemish Jesuit of the i7th cent., 
the first volume appearing in 1643, and the 
last volume of the original series in 1786 after 
the dispersal of the Jesuits. The Bollandists 
were re-established in Brussels in 1837 and 
continue their hagiographic studies, but in a 
more historical spirit. Their quarterly review 
('Analecta Bollandiana*) was founded in 1882. 

Bolshevik, the Russian name for a member 
of the revolutionary party led by Lenin, 
which seized power in Russia in 1917, pro- 
fessing to act in the name of the proletariat, 
confiscated the property of the landowners 
and distributed it among the peasants, and 
in general attacked the bourgeoisie and the 
capitalistic system. The word (colloquially 
'Bolshie') is frequently used in England and 
America to signify any advocate of a radical 
reform of the social and economic system. 

Bolt Court, Fleet Street, contained the 
home of Dr. Johnson from 1776 to 1784. 
Cobbett (q.v.) published his 'Political Regis- 
ter* there. 

Bolton, FANNY, a character in Thackeray's 
'Pendennis* (q.v.). 

Bomba, KING, Ferdinand II (of the Bourbon 
dynasty) of Naples, whose treacherous and 
tyrannical reign extended from 1830 to 1859, 
so called on account of his bombardment of 
Messina in 1848. 

Bombastes Fwrioso, a burlesque by William 
Barnes Rhodes (1772-1826), published in 
1 8 10, with illustrations by G. Cruikshank. 




The name is applied to a person who talks 
in a bombastic way. (The word 'bombast' 
originally means cotton-wool, hence cotton- 
wool used as padding, and so inflated lan- 

The characters in the burlesque are King 
Artaxominous, Fusbos, his minister, General 
Bombastes, and Distaffina. The king is 
divided in his affections between his queen 
Griskinissa and Distaffina, who is beloved 
by Bombastes. He is discovered in Dis- 
taffina's cupboard by Bombastes and prepares 
to hang himself, but decides to hang up his 
boots instead. Bombastes fights with and 
kills the king, and is in turn wounded by 
Fusbos ; 

Here lies Bombastes, stout of heart and 

Who conquer'd all but Fusbos Fusbos 


Fortunately the dead revive and all join hands 
and dance. 

Bombastus, in Butler's 'Hudibras' (n. iii, 
q.v.), refers to Paracelsus (q.v.). 

Son Gaultier Ballads , a collection of parodies 
and light poems by W. E. Aytoun (q.v.) and 
Sir T. Martin (q.v.), published in 1845. 
Among the authors parodied are Tennyson 
(notably his 'Locksley Hall', in the 'Lay of 
the Lovelorn'), Macaulay, Lockhart, and 
Mrs. Browning (in 'The Rhyme of Sir 
Lancelot Bogle'). 

'Bon Gaultier' was the pseudonym under 
which Sir Theodore Martin (q.v.) contributed 
to 'TaitY and 'Fraser's* magazines. It is 
taken from Rabelais (Prologue to 'Gargan- 
tua'), who uses the words in the sense of 
'good fellow' or 'good companion* ('Gaultier* 
is a proper name generalized). 

Bond Street, London, named after Sir 
Thomas Bond, who began its construction 
about 1688. Sterne, Sir T. Lawrence, and 
Boswell (qq.v) lived there at various times. 
It has long been famous for its shops. 

Bonduca (Boadicea), a tragedy by J. Fletcher 
(q.v.), produced some time before March 
1619 (the date of the death of Richard 
Burbage, who acted in it). 

The tragedy is based on the story of 
Boadicea (q.v.) as given by Holinshed. But 
the principal character in the tragedy is 
Caratach (Caractacus), the sagacious and 
patriotic soldier, a generous enemy, and a 
wise counsellor to the impetuous British 
queen. The play presents the battles in 
which Boadicea is defeated and killed, her 
daughters take their lives, and Caratach is 
taken prisoner. Incidents worked into the 
general action are the love of the Roman 
officer Junius for Bonduca's daughter, and 
her treachery; and the disobedience of 
Poenius Postumus to his general's orders, 
expiated by his suicide. 

Boniface, the landlord of the inn in Far- 
quhar's 'The Beaux' Stratagem' (q.v.); 


whence taken as the generic proper name of 


Boniface, ABBOT, in Scott's 'The Monastery' 

(q.v.), the abbot of Kennaquhair. 

Boniface, ST. (680-755), the apostle of 
Germany, born at Kirton or Crediton in 
Devonshire, was educated in a monastery at 
Exeter and at Nursling, near Winchester. He 
went to Rome in 718, and with authority from 
Pope Gregory II, proceeded to Germany, 
where he preached, established monasteries, 
and organized the Church. He was slain with 
his followers by pagans at Dokkum on the 
Bordau. He is commemorated on 5 June. 
His original name is said to have been 

Bonivard, see Prisoner of Chilian. 
Bonny Dundee, Graham of Claverhouse 

Bontemps, ROGER, the subject of a song by 
P. J. de Be*ranger (q.v.), the type of cheerful 

Bonthron, ANTHONY, in Scott's 'Fair Maid 
of Perth' (q.v.), a villainous cut-throat, em- 
ployed by Sir John Ramorny to murder 
Henry Smith and the duke of Rothsay. 

BOOBY, characters in Fielding's 'Joseph 
Andrews' (q.v.). 

Boojum, in Lewis Carroll's 'The Hunting 
of the Snark', an imaginary creature, a 
dangerous variety of the snark. 

Book ofKells, see Kells. 

Book of Martyrs, see Actes and Monuments, 

Book of Mormon f see Mormons. 

Book of St. Albans, The, was issued by the 
press that was set up at St. Albans about 
1479, soon after Caxton had begun to print at 
Westminster. It contains treatises on hawk- 
ing, hunting, and heraldry, and its authorship 
is attributed to a certain Juliana Berners, 
whom tradition represents as prioress of the 
nunnery of Sopwell in Hertfordshire. The 
book is a compilation and probably not all by 
one hand. An edition printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde in 1496 also included a treatise on 
'Fishing with an Angle'. 

Book of Snobs , The, see Snobs of England. 
Book of the Duchess j The, see Boke. 
Booksellers' Row, a name that was given 
to the old Holywell Street, which ran parallel 
to the Strand between St. Clement Dane's 
and St. Dunstan's, before the formation of 
Aldwych at the end of the I9th cent.; so 
called from the number of second-hand 
booksellers that had shops there. 

Boone, DANIEL (1735-1820?), American 
pioneer, explorer, and Indian fighter, who 
played a notable part in the opening up and 
settlement of Kentucky and Missouri. His 
name^ is a synonym for pioneering courage, 
sagacity, and endurance. 



Bo6tes, from the Greek word meaning 
ploughman, wagoner; a northern constella- 
tion, 'the Wagoner*, situated at the tail of the 
Great Bear and containing the bright star 
Arcturus. See Icarius. 

Booth, CHARLES (1840-1916), a suc- 
cessful shipowner, was author of a monu- 
mental inquiry into the condition and occupa- 
tions of the people of London, of which the 
earlier part appeared as 'Labour and Life of 
the People* in 1889, and the whole as 'Life 
and Labour of the People in London" in 
seventeen volumes (1891-1903). Its object 
was to show 'the numerical relation which 
poverty, misery, and depravity bear to regu- 
lar earnings and comparative comfort, and to 
describe the general conditions under which 
each class lives". The passing of the Old 
Age Pensions Act in 1908 was largely due to 
Booth's advocacy of this reform. 

After an interval of forty years a 'New 
Survey of London Life and Labour" on the 
lines of Booth's inquiry has recently been 
undertaken by the London School of 

Booth, WILLIAM (1829-1912), popularly 
known as 'General' Booth, famous as the 
founder of the Salvation Army (q.v.), was 
born in a suburb of Nottingham, the son of a 
speculative builder. He joined the Metho- 
dists, and became a travelling preacher of 
Methodism, but broke with his Church and 
turned independent revivalist. He started 
his Christian Mission in Whitechapel, the 
nucleus of the Salvation Army, in 1865. 
Though entirely ignorant of theology, and a 
man of narrow prejudices, he became, by his 
sympathy for the degraded poor, by his fer- 
vour, and by his gift for advertisement, a 
considerable force in the religious life of the 

Booth, WILLIAM, the hero of Fielding's 
'Amelia* (q.v.). 

Bor or BORR, in Scandinavian mythology, 
the son of Buri (the first man, made by the 
cow Audhumla licking the salt stones), and 
father of Odin (q.v.). 

Borachio, a large leather bottle or bag used 
in Spain for wine or other liquors; hence a 
drunkard, a mere 'wine-bag*. Shakespeare 
used the word as the name of one of the 
characters in his 'Much Ado about Nothing" 
(q.v.), and it occurs in Congreve, Middleton, 
&c., to signify a drunkard. 
Borak, AL, the winged horse of Mohammed, 
on which he was, in a vision, borne to Jerusa- 
lem and to heaven. 

Bordeaux wine, see Claret. 

Borderers, The, a tragedy by Wordsworth 
(q.v.), composed in 1795-6. 

The gentle Marmaduke, leader (in the 
reign of Henry III) of a band of Borderers 
whom he has collected to protect the inno- 
cent, is induced by the perfidy of the villain- 


ous Oswald to cause the death of the blind 
old Baron Herbert, whose daughter Idonea 
he loves, being led to believe that her father 
intends to sell her into infamy. 

Boreas, the North wind; in mythology the 
son of the Titan Astraeus and of Eos, and 
brother of the other winds, Zephyrus and 
Notus. He dwelt on Mt. Haemus in Thrace. 
Identified with the Aquilo of the Romans. 

Borgia, CESARE (1476-1507), favourite son 
of Pope Alexander VI, notorious for his 
violence and crimes, at the same time a man 
of great military capacity, and one of the 
early believers in the unity of Italy. He per- 
haps murdered his brother Giovanni, duke 
of Gandia, and he instigated the murder of 
Alfonso of Aragon, his sister Lucrezia's 
husband. He conquered Romagna, but his 
position was shaken by a conspiracy of the 
dispossessed or threatened nobles (the Orsini, 
Baglioni, &c). Borgia decoyed them to his 
house, had them arrested, and two of them 
strangled. His power came to an end after 
the death of his father. Julius II had 
him arrested, but he was released on 
condition of surrendering his castles in 
Romagna. Borgia fled to the court of Navarre 
(he had married Charlotte, sister of the king 
of Navarre), and was killed in the service of 
the king. He is, to a considerable extent, 
the 'hero* of Machiavelli's 'II Principe'. 

Borgia, LUCREZIA (1480-1519), daughter of 
Pope Alexander VI and sister of Cesare 
Borgia (q.v.). She was married when very 
young to Don Gasparo de Procida, but the 
marriage was annulled by her father, and she 
was betrothed to Giovanni Sforza. This 
engagement was also cancelled by her father 
for political reasons, and Lucrezia was 
married to Alfonso of Aragon, a relative of 
the king of Naples. Alfonso was murdered 
by direction of Cesare Borgia, and Lucrezia 
then married Alfonso d'Este, heir to the 
duke of Ferrara, being at the time 22. Her 
life henceforth was peaceful, and when her 
husband reached the throne, her court be- 
came a centre for artists, poets, and men of 
learning, such as Ariosto, Titian, and Aldus 
Manutius (qq.v). 

Borgia, RODRIGO (1431-1503), Pope Alexan- 
der VI, a Spaniard by birth, the father of 
Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia (qq.v.), elected 
to the pontificate in 1492. His policy was 
mainly directed to the recovery of the Papal 
States and the unscrupulous promotion of the 
interests of his family. The tradition that the 
Borgias possessed the secret of a mysterious 
and deadly poison, which they used against 
their enemies, has not been substantiated by 
historical research. It may be accounted for 
by the hostility of contemporary chroniclers 
and by the tendency to attribute to poison 
any unexplained and sudden death. 

I2th-i3th-cent. French poet, to whom is 




attributed the authorship of two important 
parts of the Arthurian, cycle of legends, a 
poem on Merlin, and one on Joseph of 
Arimathea and the Holy Grail. There is also 
a prose version of the poems, *not necessarily 
by Boron's own hand* (E. K. Chambers). 

Borough, THE, London, signifies South- 
wark (q.v.). 

Borough, The> a poem by Crabbe (q.v.), 
published in 1810, in twenty-four 'Letters* 
describing life and character as seen by the 
poet in Aldeburgh. Among the most striking 
of the tales are those of 'Peter Grimes', 
'Ellen Orford', and 'Clelia' (qq.v.). 

Borr, see Bor. 

BORROW, GEORGE (1803-81), was edu- 
cated at Edinburgh High School and at Nor- 
wich and articled to a solicitor, but adopted 
literature as a profession. He assisted in com- 
piling the 'Newgate Calendar* (q.v.), and then 
travelled thro ugh England, France, Germany, 
Russia, Spain, and in the East, studying the 
languages of the countries he visited. In Russia 
and Spain he acted as agent for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, and in the latter 
country as correspondent for 'The Times*. 
Finally he settled near Oulton Broad in Nor- 
folk, where he became celebrated for his 
promiscuous hospitality. He published a 
number of books based in part on his own 
life, experiences, and travels: 'The Zincali, 
or an account of the Gypsies in Spain* (1841), 
*The Bible in Spain* (q.v., 1843), 'Lavengro* 
(q.v., 1851), 'The Romany Rye* (q.v., 1857), 
and 'Wild Wales* (1862). His novels have a 
peculiar picaresque quality, graphically pre- 
senting a succession of gipsies, rogues, strange 
characters and adventures of all kinds, with- 
out much coherence, the whole permeated 
with the spirit of the 'wind on the heath* and 
of the unconventional. 'Lavengro' and 'The 
Romany Rye* are largely autobiographical, 
but the border-line between autobiography 
and fiction in them is hard to trace. 

Bors de Ganis, SIR, in Malory's 'Morte 
d' Arthur*, one of the knights of the Round 
Table, and cousin of Sir Launcelot. He 
takes part in the quest of the Holy Grail. 

BOSGAN, JUAN (c. 1490-1542), a Spanish 
poet born at Barcelona, who did much to 
introduce Italian verse forms into the poetry 
of his country. He was an intimate friend of 
another Spanish poet, Garcilasso (q.v.) de la 
Vega, and the two are mentioned together by 
Byron in 'Don Juan* (i. 95). 

Boscobel, a farm near Shifnal in Shropshire, 
where Charles II lay in hiding after the battle 
of Worcester. The 'royal oak*, which stood 
near it, has now disappeared. See also 

Bosola, a character in Webster's 
Duchess of Malfi* (q.v.). 

Bosom 's Inn, see Blossom's Inn. 



Bosphorus, or more correctly BOSPORUS, the 
channel between the Black Sea and the Sea of 
Marmora, said to be so called from the legend 
of lo (q.v.). 

1704), French divine and famous preacher, 
one of the leading figures at the court of 
Louis XIV, of whose son, the Dauphin, he 
was tutor, and bishop of Meaux. His fame 
rests principally on his eloquent funeral 
orations on great personages of the reign. 
His 'Discours sur 1'Histoire Universelle* 
(1679) is a summary of history in which the 
divine intervention is traced at each stage. 
He also wrote a 'Histoire des Variations de 
1'figlise re'forrneV (1688). Bossuet was a 
rigidly dogmatic theologian ; he entered into 
controversy with Fe*nelon (q.v.) on the 
subject of Quietism (q.v.) and secured the 
condemnation of his adversary's doctrines by 
the court of Rome. 

Boston Tea Party, the name given to the 
act of violence by which the American 
colonists in 1773 manifested their objection 
to the tea duty imposed by parliament. A 
large quantity of tea shipped to Boston was on 
arrival seized and thrown into the harbour by 
a number of young men disguised as Red 

Bostonians, The, a novel by Henry James 
(q.v.), published in 1866. 

BOSWELL, JAMES (1740-95), born at 
Edinburgh, the son of Alexander Boswell, 
Lord Auchinleck, a Scottish judge who took 
his title from the family estate in Ayrshire. 
He was educated at Edinburgh High School 
and University, and reluctantly studied law at 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Utrecht, his am- 
. bition being directed to literature or politics. 
He made the acquaintance of Samuel John- 
son (q.v.) in London in 1763. He travelled on 
the Continent in 1765-6 and was introduced 
to General Paoli in Corsica. As a result he 
became absorbed in Corsican affairs, and 
published 'An Account of Corsica* in 1768, 
and 'Essays in Favour of the Brave Corsicans* 
in 1769. Boswell paid frequent visits to 
Johnson in London (from Edinburgh, where 
he practised at the bar) between 1772 and 
1784, and made a tour in Scotland and the 
Hebrides with Johnson in 1773. He was 
elected a member of the Literary Club in 
1773, succeeded to his father's estate in 1782, 
was called to the English bar in 1786, and 
was recorder of Carlisle in 1788-90. In 1789 
he came to reside in London. His f Journal 
of a Tour to the Hebrides' appeared in 1785. 
He had been storing up materials for his 
great work, the 'Life of Samuel Johnson* 
since 1763, and after Johnson's death in 1784, 
he applied himself to the task under pressure 
from Malone. The book appeared in 1791, 
and proved BoswelPs extraordinary aptitude 
and talent as a biographer. While Johnson 
owes much to Boswell, Boswell's devotion 
to Johnson was the source of his own fame. 


Much information concerning his life may 
be obtained from his letters to the Rev. W. J. 
Temple, published in 1857 (new ed. with 
other letters of Boswell, by C. B. Tinker, 
Oxford, 1924). BoswelPs voluminous journals, 
recently discovered, are now in process of 
publication. See also under Zelide. 

Bosworth, BATTLE OF, in Leicestershire, the 
last battle of the Wars of the Roses, fought in 
1485, when Richard III was defeated by the 
earl of Richmond (Henry VII) and killed. 

Botanic Garden, The, see Darwin (E.). 

Botany Bay, a bay on the eastern coast of 
New South Wales, where a penal settlement 
was established in 1787-8. 

Botany Bay Eclogues, early poems by 
Southey (q.v.), written at Oxford in 1794. 
They take the form of monologues and dia- 
logues by transported felons. 

Bothie ofTober-na-Vuolich, The, a poem in 
English hexameters by Clough (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1848 as 'The Bothie of Toper-na- 

The poem, described as 'A Long- vacation 
Pastoral', tells the story of the love of Philip 
Hewson, a young Oxford radical on a reading- 
party in Scotland, for Elspie, the daughter of 
a Highland farmer. 

(A 'bothie* is a hut or cottage.) 

Bothwell, JAMES HEPBURN, fourth earl of 
(1536 ?~78), husband of Mary Queen of Scots, 
is the subject of an historical poem by W. E. 
Aytoun (q.v., 1856), and of a tragedy by 
Swinburne (q.v., 1874). 

Bothwell, SERGEANT, in Scott's 'Old 
Mortality', a soldier in Claverhouse's force, 
who claims the name of Francis Stewart. 

Botolph or BOTULF, ST. (d. 680), an 
Englishman who studied in Germany and 
became a Benedictine monk. He founded a 
monastery at Ikanho (perhaps near the present 
town of Boston), which was destroyed by the 
Danes. He died, with a high reputation for 
sanctity, at Botolphstown (Boston). Four 
churches in London are dedicated to him, 
and he is also commemorated in Botolph's 
Lane and Botolph's wharf. 

Bo-tree, theficus religiosa or pipal tree (from 
bodhi, 'perfect knowledge'), the sacred tree of 
the Buddhists. It was under a tree of this 
kind that Gautama attained the enlighten- 
ment which constituted him 'the Buddha'. 
It is regarded as the embodiment of universal 
wisdom and in some sort identified with 
Buddha himself. 

Botticelli, SANDRO (1447-1510), a Floren- 
tine painter, whose family name was^Filipepi 
(Sandro is short for Alessandro, Botticelli the 
name of the goldsmith who was his first 
instructor). He was a pupil of the painter 
Filippo Lippi. Abandoning the simple re- 
ligion that had occupied Giotto and his 
followers, he sought inspiration in the works 


of Dante and Boccaccio or the classics, and 
treated religious subjects with a peculiar 
sympathetic humanity. His paintings (among 
them the famous 'Birth of Venus' are marked 
by the freshness of the early Renaissance. In 
1491 he came under the influence of Savona- 
rola and became one of his ardent supporters. 

Bottom, NICK, the weaver in Shakespeare's 
'Midsummer Night's Dream* (q.v.). 

A 'droll', 'The Merry Conceits of Bottom 
the Weaver*, adapted from Shakespeare's 
play, was printed in 1646. 

NER (i820?-9o), educated at London 
University, was a skilful adapter of plays from 
plays or novels by other hands. He produced 
'London Assurance' in 1841, 'The Corsican 
Brothers' (from the French) in 1848, 'The 
Colleen Bawn* in 1859, 'Arrah-na-Pogue* in 
1864, and 'The Shaughraun' in 1875. 

Bouillabaisse, see Ballad. 

Bouillon, GODEFROI DE, duke of Lower 
Lorraine, leader of the ist Crusade and pro- 
claimed 'Protector of the Holy Sepulchre' 
in 1099. He died in uoo. He figures in 
Scott's 'Count Robert of Paris' (q.v.). 

Boule, ANDK& CHARLES, a wood-carver in 
France in the reign of Louis XIV, who gave 
the name to Boule-work, less correctly Buhl- 
work, brass, tortoiseshell, or other material, 
worked into ornamental patterns for inlaying. 

Bouncer, MR., a character in the 'Adven- 
tures of Mr. Verdant Green'; see Bradley (E.). 

Bounderby, JOSIAH, a character in Dickens 's 
'Hard Times' (q.v.). 

Bountiful, LADY, a character in Farquhar's 
'The Beaux' Stratagem' (q.v.). 

Bounty, The Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of 
H.M.S., a narrative by Sir J. Barrow (q.v.), 
published in 1831. 

H.M.S. 'Bounty*, a ship of about 215 tons, 
which had been sent to the South Sea Islands 
to collect breadfruit trees, left Tahiti early in 
1789 for the Cape of Good Hope and the 
West Indies. On April 28 of that year, 
Fletcher Christian, Alexander Smith (the 
John Adams of Pitcairn Island) and others, 
seized Lt. Bligh, the commander, and placed 
him and 18 of the crew in an open boat and 
cast them adrift. These eventually reached 
Timor. The 'Bounty* then sailed east with 
25 of the crew to Tahiti, where 16 were put 
ashore. These were subsequently arrested 
and many of them were drowned in H.M.S. 
'Pandora*. Fletcher Christian and 8 others 
with some Tahitians went on and settled at 
Pitcairn Island. There they founded a colony, 
of which John Adams became the leader, 
and which was subsequently taken under 
the protection of the British government. 
These events form in part the basis of 
Lord Byron's poem 'The Island' (q.v.). 



Bourbons, THE, a branch of the royal family 
of France, the descendants of Robert de Cler- 
mont, sixth son of Louis IX, who in 1272 
married Beatrix de Bourbon, in the Bour- 
bonnais, one of the old provinces in the centre 
of France. The Bourbons ascended the 
throne in the person of Henri IV in 1589, and 
retained it, apart from the Revolutionary and 
Napoleonic periods, until 1830, or indeed, 
taking Louis Philippe (Bourbon- Orleans) into 
account, until 1848. The Bourbons also 
furnished kings to Naples, and to Spain, 
through the duke of Anjou, grandson of 
Louis XIV. 

Bourdaloue, Louis (1632-1704), a cele- 
brated French divine and preacher of the 
reign of Louis XIV. 

BOURGET, PAUL (1852- ), French 
novelist, whose works are notable for their 
psychological analysis. Among the best 
known of these are c Le Disciple' (1889), 
'Cruelle finigme' (1885), 'Mensonges' (1888), 
<Andr6 Cornells' (1887), and 'L'Etape' (1902). 

Boustrophedon, from the Greek words 
meaning *ox turning', written alternately 
from right to left and left to right, Hke the 
course of the plough in successive furrows, 
as in various ancient inscriptions in Greek 
and other languages. 

Bouts- rimSs, 'The bouts-rimez were the 
favourites of the French nation for a whole 
age together. . . . They were a List of Words 
that rhyme to one another, drawn up by 
another Hand, and given to a Poet, who was 
to make a poem to the Rhymes in the same 
Order that they were placed upon the list.* 
Addison, 'Spectator', No. 60. 

Bovary, Madame, the chief work of Flaubert 

Bow Bells, the bells of Bow Church, i.e. St. 
Mary-le-Bow, formerly 'Seyn Marie Chyrche 
of the Arches', in Cheapside, London, so 
called from the 'bows' or arches that sup- 
ported its steeple. This church having long 
had a celebrated peal of bells, and being 
nearly in the centre of the City, the phrase 
'within the sound of Bow-bells' has come to 
be synonymous with 'within the City bounds* 

Bow Street, a street in London near Co vent 
Garden, in which the principal Metropolitan 
police court is situated. Hence 'Bow Street 
Runner* was used in the first half of the igth 
cent, for a police officer. Henry Fielding (q.v.) 
was magistrate here. Will's Coffee-house (q.v.) 
was at No. i Bow Street. Waller, Wycherley, 
Garrick, Mrs. Woffington, at various times 
lived in this street. 

BOWILER, THOMAS (1754-1825), M.D. 
of Edinburgh, published his 'Family Shake- 
speare', an expurgated edition of the text, in 
1818; and prepared on similar lines an 
edition of Gibbon's 'History'. His works 
gave rise to the term, 'to bowdlerize*. 


Bower of Bliss, THE, in Spenser's 'Faerie 
Queene', n. xii, the home of Acrasia (q.v.), 
demolished by Sir Guyon, 
Bowery, THE, a street in the lower (southern) 
part of New York, said to have been so called 
because it ran through Peter Stuyvesant's 
bouverie or farm (see W. Irving's 'Knicker- 
bocker's History of New York'). It was for- 
merly notorious as a haunt of the criminal 
classes. Its present population is cosmopolitan* 
Bowge of Court, The, an allegorical poem in 
seven-lined stanzas by Skelton (q.v.), 
satirizing court life. The word 'bowge' is a 
corrupt form of 'bouche', meaning court- 
rations, from the French 'avoir bouche a cour', 
to have free board at the king's table. 
educated at Winchester and Trinity College, 
Oxford, was vicar of Bremhill in Wiltshire 
from 1804 to 1850, and a canon of Salisbury. 
He is remembered chiefly for his 'Fourteen 
Sonnets' published in 1789, the first of any 
merit that had appeared for a long period. 
They stimulated Coleridge and Southey, and 
the former made many manuscript copies of 
them for his friends. In 1806 Bowles pub- 
lished an edition of Pope, which aroused a 
controversy, with Byron and Campbell as 
participants, as to the value of Pope's poetry. 

Bowling, LIEUTENANT TOM, in Smollett's 
'Roderick Random' (q.v.), Roderick's gener- 
ous uncle and protector. 

Bowling, TOM, the subject of a well-known 
song by C. Dibdin (q.v.), included in his 
'Oddities' performed at the Lyceum in 
1788-9, is said to represent his brother Tom 
Dibdin, who died at Cape Town on his way 
home from India in 1780. 

Bows, MR., in Thackeray's Tendennis" 
(q.v.), the first fiddler in the orchestra of Mr. 
Bingley's company, and instructor of Miss 
Fotheringay in acting. 

BOWYER, WILLIAM (1699-1777), 'the 
learned printer*, was printer of votes of the 
House of Commons (1729), printer to the 
Royal Society (1761), and to the House of 
Lords (1767). He published his 'Origin of 
Printing' in 1774. 

Bowzybeus, a drunken swain, the subject 
of the last pastoral in the 'Shepherd's Week* 
of J. Gay (q.v.). 

Sox and Cox, a farce by J. M. Morton (q.v.), 
adapted from two French vaudevilles, and 
published in 1847. Box is a journeyman 
printer, Cox a journeyman hatter. Mrs. 
Bouncer, a lodging-house keeper, has let the 
same room to both, taking advantage of the 
fact that Box is out all night, and Cox out 
all day, to conceal from each the existence 
of the other. Discovery comes when Cox 
unexpectedly gets a holiday. Indignation 
follows, and complications connected with a 
widow to whom both have proposed marriage ; 
and finally a general reconciliation. See also 
Cox and Box. 



Boxers, THE, the name (a translation of 
Chinese words meaning 'fist of harmony*) of 
a secret Chinese association in which popular 
discontent took an anti-foreign form at the 
end of the igth cent. The Boxers besieged 
the legations at Pekin early in 1900. The latter 
were relieved by an international force in 
August of that year. 

Boxiana, see Egan. 

Boy and the Mantle, The, a ballad included 
in Percy's 'Reliques', which tells how a boy 
visits King Arthur's court at 'Carleile', and 
tests the chastity of the ladies there by means 
of his mantle, a boar's head, and a golden 
horn. Sir Cradock's (Caradoc's) wife alone 
successfully undergoes the ordeal. 

Boy Bishop, THE, one of the choir-boys 
formerly elected at the annual 'Feast of Boys* 
in certain cathedrals, to walk in a procession 
of the boys to the altar of the Innocents or of 
the Holy Trinity, and perform the office on 
the eve and day of the Holy Innocents, the 
boys occupying the canons* stalls in the 
cathedral during the service. Provision for 
this is made in the Sarum Office (see E. K. 
Chambers, 'The Mediaeval Stage*, App. M). 
This custom dates from the I3th cent, and 
lasted until the Reformation. There is an 
effigy of a Boy Bishop in Salisbury Cathedral. 
Boy Bishops were appointed also in religious 
houses and in schools. 

Boycott, CHARLES CUNNINGHAM (1832-97), 
agent for Lord Erne's estates in co. Mayo, 
came into conflict with the Irish Land 
League and suffered annoyances which in 
1880 gave rise to the word 'boycott*. 

BOYER, ABEL (1667-1729), a French 
Huguenot who settled in England in 1689. 
He published a yearly register of political 
and other occurrences (1703-13) and a 
monthly periodical, the 'Political State of 
Great Britain* (1711-29). He also brought 
out an English- French and French-English 
Dictionary, a 'History of William III* (1702), 
and a 'History of Queen Anne* (1722). He 
translated into English the 'Memoirs of 
Gramont* (q.v.). 

Boyg, THE, in Norwegian folk-lore and in 
Ibsen's 'Peer Gynt' (q.v., II. vii), a vague, 
impalpable, ubiquitous, and invulnerable 

Boyle, CHARLES, fourth earl 'of Orrery (1676- 
1731), editor of the spurious Epistles of 
Phalaris which led to the Phalaris (q.v.) 

BOYLE, ROGER, first earl of Orrery (1621- 
79), author of 'Parthenissa' (1654-65), a 
romance in the style of La Calprenede and 
Mile de Scudery (qq.v.), which deals with the 
prowess and vicissitudes of Artabanes, a 
Median prince, and his rivalry with Surena, 
an Arabian prince, for the love of Parthenissa. 
Boyle also wrote a 'Treatise on the ^Art of 
War* (1677) and some rhymed tragedies. 


Boyle Lectures, THE, (i) BOYLE LECTURE 
SERMONS, on religion, established in 1691 
under the terms of the will of the Hon. 
Robert Boyle (1627-91), son of the first earl 
of Cork, natural philosopher and chemist, 
one of the founders of the Royal Society. 
He was also deeply interested in theology, and 
studied Hebrew, Greek, Chaldee, and Syriac. 
(2) BOYLE LECTURES, founded by the Oxford 
University Junior Scientific Club in 1892. 
Both series of lectures are described, listed, 
and dated in Oxford Bibliographical Society, 
'Proceedings and Papers', iii. i. 

Boyne, BATTLE OF THE, fought in 1690 on and 
across the river Boyne in Ireland. William III 
and the Protestant army defeated James II, 
who fled to Kinsale and escaped to France. 

Boythorn, a character in Dickens's 'Bleak 
House* (q.v.). 

BOZ, the pseudonym used by Dickens (q.v.) 
m his contributions to the 'Morning Chron- 
icle' and in the 'Pickwick Papers', 'was the 
nickname of a pet child, a younger brother, 
whom I had dubbed Moses, in honour of the 
Vicar of Wakefield ; which being facetiously 
pronounced . . . became Boz'. (Dickens, 
Preface to 'Pickwick Papers', ed. 1847.) 

Bozzy and Piozzi, see Wolcot. 

Brabanconne, THE, the national anthem of 
Belgium, composed by F. Campenhout at 
the time of the revolution of 1830. 

Brabantio, in Shakespeare's 'Othello* (q.v.), 

the father of Desdemona. 

Bracegirdle, ANNE (1663?-! 748), a famous 
and enchanting actress, the friend of Con- 
greve, to the success of whose comedies on 
the stage she largely contributed. She also 
created Belinda in Vanbrugh's 'Provok'd 
Wife*, and played Portia, Desdemona, 
Ophelia, Cordelia, and Mrs. Ford, in Shake- 
spearian adaptations. She was finally 
eclipsed by Mrs. Oldfield in 1707 and retired 
from the stage in consequence. 

Bracidas, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, V.iv, 
the brother of Amidas, whose dispute over 
their inheritance from their father Milesio is 
settled by Sir Artegall. 


(i 748 1 8 1 6), American writer, whose satirical 
novel 'Modem Chivalry* gives a good descrip- 
tion of men and manners during the early 
days of the American Republic. 

Brackyn, see Parnassus Plays and Ignoramus. 

HENRY DE (d. 1268), a judge and ecclesias- 
tic, was author of the famous treatise *De 
Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae*, the 
first attempt at a complete treatise on the 
laws and customs of England. He also left a 
'Note-book* containing -some two thousand 
legal cases with comments. 
Bracy, SIR MAURICE BE, in Scott's 'Ivanhoe' 



(q.v.), one of Prince John's knights, a suitor 
for the hand of Rowena. 

Bradamante, in the 'Orlando Innamorato* 
and 'Orlando Furioso' (qq.v.), a maiden 
warrior, sister of Rinaldo. She fights with 
the great Rodomont (q.v.). Rogcro (q.y.) 
comes to her assistance, and falls in love with 
her. For the sequel see under Rogero. 

MAXWELL) (1837-1915), became famous 
by her novel 'Lady Audley's Secret', first 
published in 'The Sixpenny Magazine* and 
issued separately in 1862. She contributed to 
'Punch* and 'The World 1 , wrote plays, and 
edited magazines, including 'Temple Bar' 
and 'Belgravia'. But she is best known by her 
novels, which, though criticized on the score 
of their sensationalism, have merits which 
commend them to good judges. 

famous as an advocate of free thought, was 
a private soldier in the army, 1850-3, then a 
solicitor's clerk, and proprietor of the 'National 
Reformer' from 1862. He was elected M.P. for 
Northampton in 1880, but unseated, having 
been refused the right to affirm instead of 
swearing on the bible. He was re-elected in 
1 88 1 and a prolonged struggle ensued, ending 
in 1886, when he was at last allowed to take 
his seat. Bradlaugh engaged in several law- 
suits to maintain the freedom of the press, 
published pamphlets on various subjects, and 
during 1874-85 was associated with the work 
of Mrs. Besant (q.v.). 

brother of F. H. Bradley (q.v.), and literary 
critic, especially noted for his contributions 
to Shakespearian scholarship. His best-known 
works are 'Shakespearean Tragedy* (1904) 
and 'Oxford Lectures' (1909). He was pro- 
fessor of poetry at Oxford, 1901-6. 

BRADLEY, EDWARD (1827-89), educated 
at University College, Durham, and rector 
of Stretton, Rutland, is remembered as the 
author of the 'Adventures of Mr. Verdant 
Green, an Oxford Freshman* (1853-6). 
Under the pseudonym 'Cuthbert Bede* he 
contributed extensively to periodicals, and 
published works in verse and prose, some of 
which he illustrated himself. He also drew 
for 'Punch'. 

1924), brother of A. C. Bradley (q.v.), and 
fellow of Merton College, Oxford, published 
'Ethical Studies' in 1876, and 'Principles of 
Logic' in 1883. His 'Appearance and Reality* 
(1893), a work of profound criticism of current 
metaphysical thought, is one of the most 
important philosophical works produced in 
England in recent times. Bradley's 'Essay on 
Truth and Reality', a book less negative in 
character than its predecessors, appeared in 

BRADLEY, DR. HENRY (1845-1923), 
philologist, is principally remembered for his 


work on the 'Oxford English Dictionary* 
(q.v.). He first gave help, while still in 
London, with the letter B ; then undertook in 
1889 the independent editing of the letter E, 
and removed to Oxford in 1896. He suc- 
ceeded Sir James Murray (q.v.) as chief 
editor. He also wrote a successful book on 
*The Making of English* (1904). A memoir 
on him by R. Bridges (q.v.) is prefixed to 
'Collected Papers of Henry Bradley' (1928). 
BRADSHAW, HENRY (1831-86), edu- 
cated at Eton and King's College, Cam- 
bridge, scholar and antiquary, was librarian 
of his university, 1867-86. He published 
treatises on typographical and antiquarian 
subjects, some containing original discoveries. 
BRADSTREET, ANNE (1612-72), Ameri- 
can poet, was born in England but emigrated 
to Massachusetts in 1630. Her volume of 
poems, published in England in 1650, under 
the title of 'The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung 
Up in America*, and in Boston in 1678, was 
the first literary work of any significance to 
be produced in the New England colony. 

Bradshaw's Railway Guide was first pub- 
lished in 1839 in the form of 'Railway Time 
Tables' by George Bradshaw (1801-53), en- 
graver and printer. These developed into 
'Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide' in 

Bradwardine, THE BARON OF, and ROSE, 
characters in Scott's 'Waverley' (q.v.). 
Braes of Yarrow, THE, see Yarrow. 

Braggadochio ,in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', 
the typical braggart. His adventures and 
final exposure and humiliation occur in 
Bks. II. iii; in. viii; and v. iii. 
Bragi, in Scandinavian mythology, son of 
Odin, and god of poetry and eloquence. It is 
he who welcomes the heroes as they enter 
Valhalla. He is the husband of Iduna (q.v.). 

Bragwaine orBRANGWAiNE, in the Arthurian 
legend, the maid-attendant of Isoud of Ire- 
land. See Tristram. 

Brahe, TYCHO (pron. Teeko Brah'e) (1546- 
1601), a famous Danish astronomer, who built 
for Frederick II of Denmark the great obser- 
vatory on the island of Hven, known as the 
Uraniborg. He made important astrono- 
mical discoveries, but did not accept the 
Copernican system. 

Brahma, the supreme God of post-Vedic 
Hindu mythology, and in the later panthe- 
istic systems, the Divine reality, of which the 
entire universe of matter and mind is only a 
manifestation. The personal god Brahma, 
the creator, is evolved from the above abstrac- 
tion, and with Vishnu, the preserver, and Siva, 
the destroyer, forms the TRIMURTI, the great 
Hindu triad. Brahma is now less worshipped 
by Hindus than the other members of the 

A BRAHMIN or BRAHMAN is a member of 
the highest or priestly caste among the 



Brahms, JOHANNES (1833-97), born at 
Hamburg, a great composer of the classic 
type, author of many beautiful songs, of 
examples of every kind of chamber music, 
and of four symphonies. 

BRAINARD, JOHN G. C. (1796-1838), 
author of 'Occasional Pieces of Poetry' (1825), 
born at New London, Connecticut, U.S. A. 
His literary remains, with a biographical 
sketch by John Greenleaf Whittier, appeared 
in 1832. 

B rainworm, a character in Jonson's 'Every 
Man in his Humour' (q.v.). 

Bramble, MATTHEW and TABITHA, charac- 
ters in Smollett's 'Humphry Clinker' (q.v.). 

Brambletye House, see Smith (Horatio). 
Bramine, see Draper. 

Bran, in Macpherson's Ossianic poem 
'Temora', Fingal's dog, which is found lying 
on the broken shield of Fillan, before the 
cave where the hero lies dead. 

Bran, the Blessed, a son of Llyr (q.v.). His 
tale is told in the 'Mabinogion' (q.v.). In 
Celtic mythology he was a god of the under- 
world, who later assumed the character of a 
hero, and finally was made the father of 
Caractacus, a convert to Christianity, and an 
introducer of that religion to Britain. 

Bran, The Voyage of y an early Irish work, 
partly in prose, partly in verse, originally 
written, according to Kuno Meyer, in the 
7th cent, and copied in the loth. 

Bran, son of Febal,is summoned by a woman 
bearing a silver apple-tree branch to Emain, 
the 'Happy Otherworld', a distant island in 
the western ocean. He sets out upon the sea 
with three companies of nine men. They first 
touch at the Island of Joy, then at the Land of 
Women. The chief of the Women draws 
Bran ashore with a magic clew and keeps him 
with her for, it seems, a year. Longing seizes 
one of the band to return. All accompany 
him, and on their arrival in Ireland they find 
they have been absent so long that their 
departure is forgotten save in the ancient 
stories. Bran tells his adventures and dis- 
appears again from mortal ken; his com- 
panion who touches the Irish soil is reduced 
to ashes. (See Alfred Nutt, 'The Voyage of 

Brand, a lyrical drama by Ibsen (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1866. 

Brand, a young Norwegian clergyman, 
filled with contempt for the timorous practical 
compromising spirit of the religion of his 
countrymen, and an ardent conviction that 
*all or nothing' should be the principle of 
faith, goes at the call of duty to a town on a 
distant sunless fiord. Unbendingly he prac- 
tises his principle and enforces it on others, 
though it costs him the life of his child and 
of his wife. Finally the people whom he has 
sacrificed himself to elevate turn against him 
and drive him out into the snow, and he is 


reduced to despair. An avalanche over- 
whelms him as he makes his last appeal to the 
Deity, and receives the answer, 'He is the 
God of Love'. 

Brandan, ST., see Brendan. 

Brandon, COLONEL, a character in Jane 
Austen's 'Sense and Sensibility' (q.v.), who 
marries Marianne Dashwood. 

Brandon, MRS., the 'Little Sister' in 
Thackeray's 'The Adventures of Philip* 
(q.v.), who had previously figured in his 'A 
Shabby Genteel Story'. 

Brandon, RICHARD (d. 1649), the execu- 
tioner of Charles I and various distinguished 
Royalists. He was the son of Gregory Bran- 
don, common hangman of London. 

Brandt, see Gertrude of Wyoming. 

Brandt, MARGARET, the heroine of Reade's 
'The Cloister and the Hearth' (q.v.). 

Branghtons, THE, in Miss Burney's 
'Evelina' (q.v.), the heroine's vulgar relations. 
Brangwaine, see Bragwaine. 

DELLES, Abbeond Seigneur de (c. 1527-1 614), 
French author of memoirs, a soldier who 
fought in many countries and was for a time 
chamberlain to Henri III. An excellent 
witness to the vices of his age, being moved 
neither by shame nor indignation, he left a 
series of memoirs, much of them of a scandal- 
ous character, which were not published until 
after his death. These include: c Les Grands 
Capitaines Fran?ais*, *Les Grands Capitaines 
Etrangers', 'Vie des Dames Illustres francaises 
et e"trangeres', and 'Vie des Dames galantes', 
titles given by the booksellers, for Brantdme 
left two great collections, named respectively 
'Des Homines' and 'Des Femmes'. 

Branwen, see Mabinogion. 

Brasenose College, Oxford, was founded 
in 1509, replacing an earlier Brasenose Hall. 
In 1344 a part of the students of Oxford 
migrated for a time to Stamford, where they 
occupied a house known as Brasenose Hall, 
on the door of which was a brass knocker 
shaped like a nose. The knocker remained at 
Stamford until 1890, when it was acquired 
by the College. It was this knocker which 
probably gave its name to the Hall, although 
it has been maintained that the origin of 
Brasenose is to be sought in 'brasiniurn', a 

Brasidas, a famous Spartan general in the 
Peloponnesian War, killed in 422 B.C. For the 
story of Brasidas sparing the mouse that bit 
his finger, for its show of fight, see Bridges, 
'Testament of Beauty', 1. 531. 

Brasil, see Brazil. 

Brass, a character in Vanbrugh's 'The Con- 
federacy' (q.v.). 
Brass, MAN OF, see Talus. 



Brass, SAMPSON, and his sister SALLY, 
characters in Dickens *s 'Old Curiosity Shop* 

Brawne, FANNY, the lady whom Keats (q.v.) 
met in 1818 and with whom he fell in love. 
'She is an East- Indian and ought to be her 
grandfather's heir. . . . She has a rich Eastern 
look* (Keats to his brother George, Oct. 
1818). His passion is reflected in one or two 
of his sonnets, notably 'The day is gone*, and 
c l cry your mercy'. His letters to her were 
published in 1878 (ed. H. B. Forman). They 
are in the collected edition of the 'Letters' 

Bray, MADELINE, a character in Dickens's 
'Nicholas Nickleby' (q.v.). 
Bray, Vicar of, see Vicar of Bray. 
Brazen, CAPTAIN, a character in Farquhar's 
'The Recruiting Officer* (q.v.). 

Brazil, a word of unknown origin, perhaps a 
corruption of an oriental name of the dye- 
wood originally so called. On the discovery 
of an allied species, also yielding a dye, in 
S. America, the territory where it grew was 
called terra de brasil 'red-dye-wood land*, 
afterwards abbreviated to Brasil, 'Brazil*. 

The name Brasil figures in connexion with 
the legendary 'Island of the Blest* in the 
Western Ocean ('O 'Brazil, the Island of the 
Blest* is a poem by Gerald Griffin). 

Bread and Cheese Club, THE, a New 
York literary society founded by James Feni- 
more Cooper. 

Bread Street, off Cheapside, was at one 
time the chief bread market in the City of 
London. In the time of Stow (q.v.) it was 
'wholely inhabited by rich merchants, and 
divers fair inns be there*. John Milton was 
born in Bread Street. 

Breck, ALAN, a character in R. L. Steven- 
son's 'Kidnapped* (q.v.) and 'Catriona*. 

Breeches Bible, THE, a name given to the 
edition of the English Bible printed at Geneva 
in 1560 (see Bible, the English), in allusion to 
the version adopted therein of Gen. iii. 7, 
'They sewed fig leaves together, and made 
themselves breeches', 

Breitmann, HANS, see Leland(C. G.). 

(484-577), of Clonfert in Ireland, perhaps 
made a journey to the northern and western 
isles which formed the basis of the medieval 
legend of the 'Navigation of St. Brendan*. 
The legend, of which the oldest extant version 
dates from the nth cent., has been repeated 
in many languages at various times, and 
recently by Matthew Arnold and Sebastian 
Evans. The saint, sailing in search of the 
earthly Paradise, which at last he reaches, 
meets with fabulous adventures. Of these 
the best known is his meeting with Judas on 
a lonely rock on Christmas night, where the 
traitor is allowed once a year to cool himself, 
in recompense for a single act of charity in his 


lifetime. (Cf. the stories of the 'Voyage of 
Bran* and 'Maeldun*, qq.v.) St. Brendan 
visited Brittany between 520 and 530, and is 
said to have accompanied St. Malo there. 
He is commemorated on 16 May. 

(There was another St. Brendan, almost 
contemporary, of Birr, a disciple of St. Fin- 
nian of Clonard, to whom the voyage to 
Brittany is by some attributed.) 

Brengwaine, see Bragwaine. 

Brennus, the Gaulish chief who in 390 B.C. 

defeated the Romans at the Allia and took 
Rome, all but the Capitol, which he held to 
ransom. See Vae Victis. 

Brentford, Two KINGS OF, see Rehearsal. 

Brer Fox and Brer Rabbit, the chief 
characters in 'Uncle Remus'. See Harris 
(? C.). 

BRETON, NICHOLAS (1545?-! 626?), 

educated at Oxford, was author of a mis- 
cellaneous collection of satirical, religious, 
romantic, and pastoral writings in verse and 
prose. His best work is to be found among 
his short lyrics in 'England's Helicon* (q.v.), 
and in his pastoral volume 'The Passionate 
Shepheard* (1604). His other writings in- 
clude (in verse) 'The Pilgrimage to Paradise* 
and 'The Countess of Penbrooke's Love* 
(1592), 'Pasquil's Mad-cappe* (earliest known 
copy, 1626), 'The Soules Heavenly Exercise" 
(1601), 'The Honour of Valour* (1605); and 
(in prose) an angling idyll entitled 'Wits 
Trenchmour* (1597), 'The Wil of Wit, Wit*s 
Will or Wil's Wit* (^99), 'Crossing of 
Proverbs' (1616), 'The Figure of Foure* (first 
published c. 1597), 'A Mad World, my 
Masters* (1603, a dialogue), and 'The 
Fantasticks* (1626, a collection of observa- 
tions on men and things arranged calendar- 
wise according to seasons, days, and hours). 

Bretton, MRS. and JOHN, characters in 
Charlotte Bronte's 'Villette* (q.v.). 

Bretwalda, a title given in the Old English 
Chronicle to King Egbert, and (retrospec- 
tively) to seven earlier kings of various Old 
English states, said to have held superiority, 
real or titular, over their contemporaries ; also 
occasionally assumed by later Old English 
kings. Its sense can only be 'lord (or ruler) 
of the Britons* or 'of Britain* [OED.]. 

Brian Boru (926-1014), having become* 
king of Munster, started on a career of con- 
quest, in which he defeated the Danes, and 
gradually extended his dominion to the whole 
of the island, becoming chief king of Ireland 
in 1 002. He gained a great victory over the 
Danes at Clontarf in 1014, but was slain in 
his tent after the battle. 

Briana, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', vi. i, 

the mistress of a castle who takes a toll of 
ladies' locks and knight's beards to make a 
mantle for her lover Cruder. 

Briareizs, according to Greek mythology, a 



giant with 100 hands and 50 heads. He as- 
sisted the giants in their war against the gods, 
and by some accounts was thrown under 
Mt. Etna. See also Aegean and Argus. 

Bridal ofTriermain, The, a poem by Sir W. 
Scott (q.v.), published in 1813. It is a ro- 
mance of love and magic, telling of the quest 
of Roland de Vaux, lord of Triermain, for the 
maid Gyneth, daughter of King Arthur and 
the fay Guendolen, and her rescue from the 
spell that Merlin has laid on her. 

Bride ofAbydos, The, a poem by Lord Byron 
(q.v.), published in 1813. 

Zuleika, daughter of the Pasha Giaffir, is, 
by her father's order, to be the reluctant bride 
of the rich bey of Karasman, whom she has 
never seen. She confesses her grief to her 
beloved brother Selim. The latter reveals to 
her that he is not her brother, but her cousin, 
the son of her father's brother, murdered by 
her father. Moreover he is a pirate chief, and 
he asks Zuleika to share his lot. At this 
moment Giaffir, waving his sabre, comes upon 
them. Selim is killed and Zuleika dies of 

Bride of Lammermoor , The, a novel by 
Sir W. Scott (q.v.), published in 1819 (third 
series of the 'Tales of My Landlord'). 

Lord Ravenswood, deprived of his title for 
the part he had taken in the Civil War of 1689, 
and dispossessed of his estate in East Lothian 
by the legal chicanery of Sir William Ashton, 
a clever upstart lawyer who has attained the 
office of Lord Keeper, dies in a fit of fury 
against the man whom he regards as the 
author of his ruin. His son, the fiery sombre 
Master of Ravenswood, inherits his hatred, 
and, as sole possession, the ruinous tower of 
Wolf's Crag. Chance leads to his saving the 
life of his enemy, Sir William Ashton, and of 
Lucy Ashton, his daughter, and he falls 
deeply in love with the latter and she with 
him* Political changes raise the friends of 
Ravenswood to power, and the timid Sir 
William thinks it advisable to conciliate 
Ravenswood, which he does so effectually 
that the latter overcomes his desire for ven- 
geance and becomes secretly betrothed to 
Lucy Ashton. Lady Ashton, a woman of 
violent and domineering character, who has 
hitherto been absent from her home, now 
returns, learns the state of affairs, and con- 
temptuously dismisses Ravenswood, who 
proceeds on a foreign mission after having 
renewed his pledge to Lucy. Lady Ashton 
now sets about breaking her daughter's 
spirit and obliging her to marry a husband of 
her own choice, the Laird of Bucklaw, by a 
course of cruel oppression. To this the gentle 
Lucy appears at last to yield, only stipulating 
that she shall write to Ravenswood and ob- 
tain his release from her pledge. The letter is 
intercepted by her mother, and Lucy in 
despair consents to the fixing of the wedding 
day, convinced that her lover has abandoned 
her. Immediately after the ceremony Ravens- 
wood, at last apprised of what is going 


forward, appears, and challenges Lucy's 
brother and her husband to duels on the 
morrow. The ^ same night, Lucy stabs her 
husband and is found insane and shortly 
after dies. Ravenswood galloping furiously 
along the shore to meet his antagonists, is 
swallowed up in a quicksand. 

One of the characters in the book is 
Caleb Balderstone, the old butler of Ravens- 
wood, determined to maintain in the eyes 
of the world the fallen dignity of the 
family, who resorts for this purpose to the 
most absurd devices. 

Bride of the Sea, Venice, see Adriatic. 

Bridehead, SUE, a character in Hardy's 
'Jude the Obscure* (q.v.). 

Bridewell, originally the name of a royal 
palace in London, which stood on the bank of 
the Thames at the mouth of the river Fleet 
and near a well of St. Bride. This palace was 
rebuilt by Henry VIII for the reception of 
the Emperor Charles V. It is the scene of the 
third act of Shakespeare's 'Henry VIII*. It 
was given by Edward VI for a hospital, and 
afterwards converted into a house of correc- 
tion. It was in great part destroyed in the 
Fire of London. 

Bridge of Sighs, THE, at Venice, the bridge 
connecting the Palace of the Doge with the 
State prison, across which prisoners were 
conducted from judgement to punishment, 

Bridge of Sighs, The, a poem by T. Hood 
(q.v.), published in 1846. 

This was one of Hood's most popular 
works and shows his power of pathos at its 
highest. Its subject is the finding of the 
drowned body of a woman, an outcast of 
society, who has sought refuge from life in 
the gloomy river. 

Bridgenorth, MAJOR and ALICE, characters 
in Scott's Teveril of the Peak' (q.v.). 

BRIDGES, ROBERT (1844-1930), born at 
Walmer, was educated at Eton and Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, and studied, and 
for a time practised, medicine. His reputa- 
tion as a poet was made by the successive 
volumes of his * Shorter Poems', published 
in 1873, 1879, 1880, 1890, and 1893. He 
also published some longer poems: 'Prome- 
theus, the Firegiver' (i 884), 'Eros and Psyche* 
(1894), and 'Demeter' (1905). 'Eden*, an 
oratorio, appeared in 1891. An edition of the 
'Poetical Works of Robert Bridges' appeared 
in 1898-1905, which contained in addition 
the sonnet sequence 'The Growth of Love* 
(first form 1876), the Purcell Commemor- 
ation ode, some reprints of poems from 
magazines, and his eight plays (published 
between 1885 and 1893): c Nero* (two parts), 
'Palicio', 'The Return of Ulysses, The 
Christian Captives', 'Achilles in Scyros 
'The Humours of the Court*, and 'The Feast 
of Bacchus' (partly from the 'Heauton- 
timoroumenos* of Terence). The Oxford 
Press edition of the 'Poetical Works* (1912) 



first made the author known to the world 
in general. In 1913 Bridges was appointed 
poet laureate. In 1914 he issued privately 
'October, and other Poems', subsequently 
published, with some war poems added, 
in 1920. In 1916 he published 'The Spirit of 
Man', a collection of prose and verse extracts 
from various authors, having special bearing 
on the spiritual needs of the time, and in 
1925 a volume of 'New Verse'. Bridges also 
wrote much prose, including essays on 
'Milton's Prosody' (1893), "John Keats 
(1895), and on 'The Influence of the 
Audience on Shakespeare's Drama'. He was 
one of the founders of the Society for Pure 
English (q-v.) and edited its series of Tracts. 

The author of many beautiful lyrics and a 
remarkable metrist, Bridges was perhaps too 
subtle and severe a poet to appeal to a very 
wide public. But his great philosophical 
poem in 'loose Alexandrines', 'The Testa- 
ment of Beauty' (1929), a compendium of 
the wisdom, learning, and experience of an 
artistic spirit, went through fourteen editions 
or impressions in its first year. 

Bridges was intimately associated with the 
Oxford University Press, taking an active 
interest in questions of type, spelling, and 
phonetics, and did much to encourage taste 
and accuracy in printing. He was also in- 
terested in Church music, and collected 
'Chants for the Psalter' (privately printed in 
1899) and the Yattendon Hymnal. 

Bridget or BRIGIT or BRIDE, ST. (453-523), a 
patron saint of Ireland. She was born, it is 
said, at Faugher, near Dundalk, the daughter 
of Dubhtach by his bondmaid Brotsech. 
She took the veil and was probably invested 
with rank corresponding to that of bishop. 
She was the founder of the church of Kildare, 
and is commemorated on I ^ Feb. Other 
authorities see in her a survival of Birgit, 
the Gaelic goddess of fire, an origin attested 
by the sacred flame in her shrine at Kildare, 
and other attributes (C. Squire, 'Mythology 
of the British Islands'). 

Bridgewater Treatises: the Revd. Francis 
Henry, 8th earl of Bridgewater (1756-1829), 
left 8,000 for the best work on 'The Good- 
ness of God as manifested in the Creation*, 
which was divided among the eight authors of 
the 'Bridgewater Treatises' (Sir Charles Bell, 
Dr. T. Chalmers, Dr. John Kidd, Dean 
Buckland, Dr. William Prout, Dr. Peter M. 
Roget, Dr. William Whewell, and the Revd. 
William Kirby). 

Bridlegoose, in Rabelais, in. xxxix, et seq., 
the judge who decided causes by throw of 

BRIEUX, EUGENE (1858- ^ ), French 
dramatist, author of plays on social themes, 
<Les trois filles de M. Dupont* (1897), 'Les 
AvarieV ('Damaged Goods', 1901), *Les 
Hannetons' (1906), 'Blanchette' (1892), 'La 
Robe Rouge* (1900), &c. He was made 
known to English readers in general by G. B. 


Shaw (q.v.), in an introduction to a transla- 
tion by his wife of three of Brieux's plays 

Brigadore, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', the 
horse of Sir Guyon, stolen by Braggadochio 
(v. iii. 34)- 

Brigantes, THE, a powerful British tribe, 
who occupied most of the country from the 
Humber to the Roman Wall. Their capital 
was Eboracum (York). They were not 
thoroughly subdued by the Romans until 
the reign of Hadrian. 

Briggs, a character in Miss Burney's 
'Cecilia' (q.v.), drawn in some respects from 
the sculptor Nollekens. 
Briggs, Miss, a character in Thackeray's 
'Vanity Fair' (q.v.). 

Bright, JOHN (1811-89), son of a Rochdale 
miller, famous as a leading agitator against 
the Corn Laws, and as an orator. He was 
M.P. successively for Durham (1843), Man- 
chester, and Birrningharn, and held various 
posts in Mr. Gladstone's governments (1868 
onwards). Bright and Cobden (q.v.) were the 
two leading representatives of the emergence 
of the manufacturing class in English politics 
after the Reform Act of 1832. 
Brigliadoro, the horse of Orlando (q.v.). 

Brigs of Ayr, THE, the Old and New 
Bridges across the river Ayr at Ayr, cele- 
brated by Burns in his poem of that name. 

(1755-1826), French magistrate and writer, 
author of the famous gastronomic work, 'La 
Physiologic du Gout'. 

Brisels, daughter of Brises of Lyrnessus, 
fell into the hands of Achilles (q.v.) when her 
country was conquered by the Greeks, but 
was taken from him by Agamemnon when the 
latter was obliged to surrender Chryseis (q.v.). 
This was the occasion of the wrath of Achilles 
and of his prolonged withdrawal from the 
Trojan War. 

Brisk, FASTIDIOUS, a character in Jonson's 
'Every Man out of his Humour' (q.v.). 
Brisk, a voluble coxcomb in Congreve's 
'The Double Dealer' (q.v.). 
Bristol Boy, THE, Chatterton (q.v.). 
Bristol- diamond or BRISTOL STONE, a kind 
of transparent rock-crystal, found in the 
Clifton limestone near Bristol, and alluded 
to by Spenser in the 'Faerie Queene' (iv. xi. 

But Avon marched in a more stately path, 
Proud of his Adamants with which he 

And glisters wide. 

Bristol Milk, Sherry wine shipped to* 
Bristol, or according to Macaulay ('Hist, of 
England*, I. iii), e a rich beverage made of the 
best Spanish wine'. 

Britannia, the Latin name of Britain, and a 


poetic name for Britain personified. For the 
figure of Britannia on the copper coinage of 
1672, the earliest modern coin on which it 
appears, Frances Teresa Stuart or Stewart, 
duchess of Richmond, was probably the 

Britannia, or according to the sub-title, *a 
chorographical description of the flourishing 
Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
from the earliest antiquity', by W. Camden 
(q.v.), was published in Latin in 1586, the 
sixth (much enlarged) edition appearing in 
1607. It was translated in 1610 by Philemon 
Holland (q.v.). It is in effect a guide-book of 
the country, county by county, replete with 
archaeological, historical, physical, and other 
information . 

Britannia's Pastorals, see Browne (W.). 
British Academy, see Academy. 
British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, THE, held its first meeting 
at York in 1831. Its object is the promotion 
and diffusion of science, and the encourage- 
ment of intercourse of scientists of the British 
Empire with one another and with foreign 

British Magazine, The, founded in 1759 by 
Newbery (q.v.), with Smollett (q.v.) for 
editor, and Goldsmith (q.v.) among its con- 

British Museum, THE, Bloomsbury, occu- 
pies the site of the old Montagu House, 
which was acquired in 1753 to house the 
library and collection of curiosities of Sir 
Hans Sloane (q.v.). These were from time to 
time enormously increased, notably by the 
purchase of the Harleian MSS., the gift by 
George II and George IV of royal libraries, 
the purchase of the Elgin Marbles (q.v.), and 
the acquisition of Egyptian antiquities (in- 
cluding the Rosetta Stone, q.v.) and of the 
Layard Assyrian collections. The new build- 
ings were erected in 1823-47, and the great 
reading-room, designed by Antonio Panizzi, 
the librarian, was opened in 1857. 
Britomart, the heroine of Bk. II of Spen- 
ser's 'Faerie Queene', the daughter of King 
Ryence of Brittany and the female knight of 
chastity. She has fallen in love with Artegall 
(q.v.), whose image she has seen in a magic 
mirror, and the poet recounts her adventures 
in her quest for him. 

Britomartis, in classical mythology, was a 
Cretan deity, mistress of the fruits of the 
earth, who presided over hunting and fishing. 
She was also known as Dictynna, goddess of 

Briton, The, a weekly periodical conducted 
in 1762 by Smollett (q.v.) in Lord Bute's 
interest. Wilkes's 'North Briton* (q.v.) was 
started in opposition to it. 
Broad Stone of Honour, The, a work by 
Kenelm Henry Digby (1800-80), first pub- 
lished in 1833 (re-written and enlarged 


It is a study of chivalry, which is defined 
as 'that general spirit and state of mind which 
disposes men to heroic and generous actions 
and keeps them conversant with all that is 
beautiful and sublime in the intellectual 
and moral world', and is considered histori- 
cally, in its relation to Christianity, knight- 
hood, women, &c. In the preface to the work 
the author says: 'I have enterprized ... to 
frame and imprint a book . . . which I call 
The Broad Stone of Honour, seeing that it 
will be a fortress like that rock upon the 
Rhine where coward or traitor never stood, 
which bears this proud title, and is impreg- 
nable.' The reference is to the fortress of 
Ehrenbreitstein, of the name of which the 
title is the English translation. 

Broadside, a sheet of paper printed on one 
side only, forming one large page; a term 
generally used of ballads, &c., so printed. 

Brobdingnag, see Gulliver's Travels. 

Broceliande, in the Arthurian cycle, a 
legendary region, adjoining Britanny, where 
Merlin lies enchanted by Vivien. There is a 
forest of Bre*cilieu in Brittany, in which a 
legendary tomb of Merlin is shown. 

Brocken, SPECTRE OF THE, a natural 
phenomenon, first observed in 1780 on the 
Brocken in the Harz mountains (North 
Germany), in which an enlarged shadow of 
the spectator is thrown by the rays of the 
evening sun on a bank of cloud opposite him. 
Goethe uses the Brocken as the scene, in 
'Faust', of the Witches' Sabbath. 

Brodie, WILLIAM (d. 1788), deacon of the 
Incorporation of Edinburgh Wrights and 
Masons, and a town councillor, became the 
head of a gang of burglars which operated in 
Edinburgh, 1787-8. One of the gang turned 
king's evidence; Brodie fled, but was at last 
found in Amsterdam. He was executed on 
i Oct. 1788. He is the subject of a play by 
R. L. Stevenson and W. E. Henley (qq.v.), 
'Deacon Brodie, or the Double Life*. 

Broken Heart, The, a tragedy by J. Ford 
(q.v.), printed in 1633. 

The scene is Laconia. Penthea, who was 
betrothed to Orgilus, whom she loved, has 
been forced by her brother Ithocles to marry 
the jealous and contemptible Bassanes, who 
makes her life so miserable that presently she 
goes mad and dies. Ithocles returns, a suc- 
cessful general, from the conquest of Messene 
and is honourably received by the king.^ He 
falls in love with Calantha, the king's 
daughter, and she with him, and their 
marriage is sanctioned by the king. Orgilus, 
to avenge the fate of Penthea, of which he has 
been the witness, entraps Ithocles and kills 
him. During a feast, Calantha hears in close 
succession the news of the death of Penthea, 
of her father, and of Ithocles. She dances on, 
apparently unmoved. When the feast is done, 
she sentences Orgilus to death, and herself 
dies broken-hearted. 


BROME, RICHARD (d. 1652?), was ser- 
vant or perhaps secretary to Jonson, whose 
friendship he afterwards enjoyed and in con- 
junction with whose son he wrote a comedy, 
'A Fault in Friendship 3 (1623), which has 
. not survived. 'The Northern Lass* (q.v.), 
his first extant play, was printed in 1632. 
'The Sparagus Garden' (a place to which 
more or less reputable persons resorted to eat 
asparagus and otherwise amuse themselves), 
a comedy of manners, was acted in 1635. 
The 'City Witt' (q.v.) was printed in 1653. 
'The Joviall Crew' (q.v.), his masterpiece and 
latest play, was acted in 1641. His other 
plays (fifteen in all of his plays have survived) 
include the * Queen's Exchange* (printed 
1657) and the * Queen and Concubine* 
(printed 1659), romantic dramas. Some of 
the plays, particularly 'The City Witt*, show 
the marked influence of Jonson, others that 
of Dekker. 

BRONTE, ANNE (1820-49), sister of 
Charlotte and Emily Bronte (q.v.), was part 
author with her sisters of 'Poems, by Currer, 
Ellis, and Acton Bell', and author, under the 

E:donym Acton Bell, of 'Agnes Grey* 
,, 1847), and of 'The Tenant of Wildfell 
' (q.v., 1848). 

BRONTE, CHARLOTTE, afterwards 
NICHOLLS (1816-55), daughter of Patrick 
Prunty or Bronte, an Irishman, perpetual 
curate of Haworth, Yorkshire, from 1820 till 
his death in 1861. Charlotte's mother died in 
1821, leaving five daughters and a son. Four 
of the daughters were sent to a clergy 
daughters* boarding-school (of which Char- 
lotte gives her recollection in the Lowood of 
*Jane Eyre*), an unfortunate step which may 
have hastened the death of Charlotte's two 
elder sisters. In 18312 Charlotte was at 
Miss Wooler's school at Roehead, whither 
she returned as a teacher in 1835-8. She was 
subsequently a governess, and in 1842 went 
with her sister Emily to study languages at a 
school in Brussels, where during 1843 she 
was employed as teacher. In the next year 
Charlotte was back at Haworth, and in 1846 
appeared a volume of verse entitled 'Poems by 
Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell', the pseudo- 
nyms of Charlotte, Emily, and Anne. 'The 
Professor', Charlotte's first novel, was refused 
by Messrs. Smith Elder and other publishers, 
and was not published until 1857; while 
Emily's *Wuthering Heights* (q.v.) and 
Anne's 'Agnes Grey* were accepted by J. 
Cantley Newby in 1847 and published in 
1848. Charlotte's 'Jane Eyre' (q.v.) was 
published by Smith Elder in 1847 and 
achieved immediate success. Fresh sorrows 
now descended on the author: her brother, 
whose vicious habits had caused the sisters 
much distress, died in September 1848, 
Emily before the end of the same year, and 
Anne in the following summer, and Charlotte 
alone survived of the seven children. She 
produced 'Shirley* q.v.)in i849,and 'Villette* 
), founded on her memories of Brussels, 


in 1853; both stories, as well as 'Jane Eyre', 
appeared under the pseudonym Currer Bell. 
'Emma', a fragment, appeared in the 'Cornhill 
Magazine' in 1860, after her death. Charlotte 
married in 1854 the Rev. A. B. Nicholls, her 
father's curate, but died a few months later. 
BRONTE, EMILY (1818-48), sister of 
Charlotte and Anne Bronte (qq.v.), was part 
author with her sisters of 'Poems by Currer, 
Ellis, and Acton Bell* (1846), and author, 
under the pseudonym of Ellis Bell, of 
'Wuthering Heights' (q.v.). 'Last Lines' and 
'Remembrance* are among her finest poems. 
She was, at her best, a great poet. 
Bronte, (PATRICK) BRANWELL (1817-48), the 
brother of Charlotte, Anne, and Emily. He 
was a clerk on the Leeds and Manchester 
railway, and was dismissed for culpable 
negligence. He was subsequently tutor to a 
family. He took to opium and died of 

Bronte, DUKE OF, see Nelson. 
Brontes or BRONTEUS, see Cyclopes. 

Brook, MASTER, on Shakespeare's 'Merry 

Wives of Windsor* (q.v.), the name assumed 

by Ford when Falstaff is making love to his 


Brook Farm Institute, see Transcendental 


Brooke, LORD, see Greville (Futke). 

Brooke, DOROTHEA and MR., characters in 
G. Eliot's 'Middlemarch' (q.v.). 

BROOKE, HENRY (1703-83), born in Ire- 
land and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
lived most of his life in Ireland. He is 
principally remembered as the author of the 
curious novel 'The Fool of Quality* (q.v., 
1760-72). His other novel 'Juliet Grenville* 
(1774) is of less importance. He published 
in 1739 a tragedy entitled 'Gustavus Vasa', 
on the delivery of the Swedes from the 
Danish yoke in 1521 by the valour of 
Gustavus. The performance of this play was 
prohibited, owing to the fancied resemblance 
of the villain in it to Sir Robert Walpole. 
Brooke publicly advocated the relaxation of 
the penal laws against Roman Catholics. 
His philosophical poem, 'Universal Beauty', 
was published in 1735. 
BROOKE, RUPERT (1887-1915), the son 
of a Rugby master, was educated at Rugby 
School and King's College, Cambridge. He 
began to write poetry while at Rugby, and his 
first volume of verse was published in 1911. 
During 1913-14 Brooke travelled in America 
and the South Seas. When the War brokeout, 
he took part in the unsuccessful defence of 
Antwerp, and early in 1915 was sent to the 
Mediterranean. He died and was buried at 
Scyros on 23 April of that year. His 'Collected 
Poems* (1918), including the '1914* group of 
sonnets (published in 1915), show that he was 
a poet of exceptional promise. His 'Letters 
from America* appeared in 1916, with an 
introduction by Henry James. 


Brooks of Sheffield, in Dickens's 'David 
Copperfield' (q.v.), an imaginary person 
invented by Mr. Murdstone to indicate 
David to his friend Quinnion. 

Brooks 's, a club founded by Almack (q.v.) 
in the middle of the i8th cent. It was origin- 
ally in Pall Mall, and the present club-house 
dates from 1778. In its early days it was a 
noted gambling centre, and was much as- 
sociated with the names of C. J. Fox and 
Sheridan. Horace Walpole writes of it to 
Sir Horace Mann on 2 Feb. 1770, *The 
young men of the age lose five, ten, fifteen 
thousand pounds in an evening there*. 

Brother Jonathan, the nickname of the 
American nation, as John Bull is of the 
British. The origin is unknown. It is 
attributed by some, without historical 
evidence, to Jonathan Trumbull (1710-85), 
Governor of Connecticut during the Ameri- 
can war of independence, a friend and coun- 
sellor of Washington, to whom Washington 
used to refer familiarly as 'Brother Jonathan'. 

Brothers, The, a comedy by Cumberland 
(q.v.), produced in 1769. 

The younger Belfield has been dispossessed 
of his estate by his brother, and driven from 
his sweetheart, Sophia, whom that brother 
is now courting, having forsaken his wife 
Violetta. A privateer is wrecked on the 
coast, on board of which are the younger 
Belfield and Violetta. Their unexpected 
arrival frustrates the designs of the elder 

Brothers* Club, THE, founded by St. John 
(Bolingbroke) in 1711 at the inspiration of 
Swift 'to advance conversation and friend- 
ship* and assist deserving authors and wits. 
It was composed of members of the Tory 
Ministry and some of their supporters, and 
included Swift, Prior, Arbuthnot, Harley's 
son, Lord Orrery, and others. 

Brou, CHURCH OF, at Bourg-en-Bresse, near 
Lyons, a beautiful church built (1511-36) by 
Margaret of Austria, wife of Philibert II, 
duke of Savoy. It contains exquisite tombs 
of Philibert, his wife, and his mother, 
Margaret of Bourbon. It is celebrated in a 
poem by M. Arnold (q.v.). 

Brough, the swindling philanthropist in 
Thackeray's 'The Great Hoggarty Diamond' 

Brougham, a one-horse closed carriage, 
with two or four wheels, named from the 

BROUGHAM AND VAUX (1778-1868), educated 
at Edinburgh High School and University, 
rose to be Lord Chancellor. Best known as 
a parliamentary orator and the advocate of 
Queen Caroline, in the history of literature 
he is remembered principally as one of the 
founders, with Jeffrey and Sydney Smith, of 
the 'Edinburgh Review* (q.v.) in 1802. He 


also wrote 'Observations on the Education of 
the People' (1825), 'Historical Sketches of 
Statesmen in the time of George I IF (1839- 
43), 'Demosthenes upon the Crown, trans- 
lated* (1840), and 'Life and Times of Lord 
Brougham' published posthumously in 1871. 
Brougham is said to have been the author of 
the article on 'Hours of Idleness' in the 
'Edinburgh Review* (January 1808) which 
provoked Byron's 'English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers*. He was a man of amazing 
activity, effected considerable improvements 
in the court of chancery, took an important 
part in founding London University (1828), 
and sat constantly in the supreme court of 
appeal and judicial committee of the privy 
council. His features lent themselves to 
caricature in 'Punch'. Of the many squibs 
written on him the most famous is the 
description of him in Peacock's 'Crotchet 
Castle* (q.v., in the chapter 'The March of 
Mind'), where he figures as 'the learned 

Brougham Castle f Song at the Feast of, a 
poem by Wordsworth (q.v.), composed in 
1807. See under Shepherd (Lord Clifford, 

BROUGHTON, RHODA (1840-1920), 
novelist. When Miss Broughton started to 
write she had a reputation for audacity of 
which a younger generation deprived her 
much to her private amusement. She once 
said of herself, C I began my career as Zola, 
I finish it as Miss Yonge'. Her best-known 
books are: 'Cometh up as a Flower' (1867), 
'Not Wisely but too WelT (1867), 'Doctor 
Cupid' (1886), 'A Waif's Progress' (1905). 

Browdie, JOHN, in Dickens's 'Nicholas 
Nickleby' (q.v.), a bluff kind-hearted York- 
shireman, who befriends Nicholas and 

Brown, CAPTAIN and JESSIE, characters in 
Mrs. Gaskell's 'Cranford' (q.v.). 

Brown, FATHER, in G. K. Chesterton's 
detective stories, a Roman Catholic priest, 
highly successful in the detection of crime by 
intuitive methods. 

1810), born in Philadelphia, was one of the 
earliest American novelists. His most power- 
ful novel, 'Wieland' (1798), was based upon 
the true story of a religious fanatic. Other 
works are: 'Arthur Mervyn* (1799* written 
under the influence of William Godwin's 
'Caleb Williams'), 'Ormond' (1799), 'Edgar 
Huntly' (1799). 

Brown, JOHN *of Ossawatomie* (1800-59), 
the anti-slavery leader commemorated in the 
well-known marching song 'John Brown's 
body lies a-moulderingin the grave', was born 
at Torrington, Connecticut. In 1855 he 
migrated to Kansas, where he became a leader 
of the anti-slavery movement. On the night 
of 16 October 1859, at the head of a small 


party of his followers, he seized the arsenal of 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia, intending to arm the 
negroes and start a revolt. He was quickly 
captured, tried by the authorities of Virginia, 
and hanged at Charleston, Virginia. 

The author of the song is unknown ; it was 
set to an old Methodist hymn-tune and 
became the most popular marching-song of 
the Federal forces. See also Battle Hymn of 
the Republic, 

BROWN, DR. JOHN (1810-82), educated 
at Edinburgh High School and University, 
practised as a physician in Edinburgh with 
success, and was author of essays published 
under the title 'Horae Subsecivae* ('odd 
hours', 1858-61), including in the second 
series the beautiful dog story 'Rab and^his 
Friends', 'a flawless example of pathos in a 
brief compass' (Elton) ; and of an essay on 
Marjorie Fleming (q.v.). 

Brown, JOHN (1826-83), for over thirty 
years a favourite and devoted Scotch atten- 
dant of Queen Victoria, who enjoyed a 
singularly privileged position, and became 
'almost a State personage*. (See Lytton 
Strachey, 'Queen Victoria', pp. 272-3.) 

Brown, LANCELOT (1715-83), 'Capability 
Brown*, the reviver of a natural style of 
landscape-gardening. He laid out the gardens 
at Kew and Blenheim, and was architect of 
many country houses. 

BROWN, THOMAS (1663-1704), satirist, 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he wrote the famous C I do not love thee, 
Dr. Fei' (see Fell). He afterwards settled in 
London as a hack writer and translator. His 
'Amusements Serious and Comical' (1700) 
contain entertaining sketches of London life. 
His collected works appeared in 1707. 


97), born in the Isle of Man and educated at 
King William's College, Isle of Man, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, was a fellow of Oriel 
College, and second master at Clifton from 
1864 to 1893. He published ' Betsy Lee, a 
Foc's'le Yarn' in 1873, 'Foe Vie Yarns' in 
1 88 1 , and other books of verse. His collected 
poems were issued in 1900, and there is a 
selection of the best of them in the 'Golden 
Treasury* series. The greater part of his 
poems are in the Manx dialect and deal with 
the life of the humble inhabitants of the island. 
They have found very warm admirers, who 
rank Brown high among the English poets of 
the iQth cent. 

Brown Bess, the name familiarly given in 
the British army to the old flint-lock musket. 
BROWN MUSKET was in earlier use; both 
names ^existed long before the process of 
'browning' the barrel, and apparently referred 
to the brown walnut stock. [OED.] 

Brown, Jones, and Robinson, THE 

PLEASURE TRIPS OF, a series of drawings with 
descriptive underlines, by R. Doyle (q.v.), 


setting forth the experiences of B., J., and R. 
at various places and functions in England 
(and including two sets of pictures dealing 
with the Rhine), appeared in Tunch' from 
July to November 1850. In 1854, after 
Doyle had (in 1850) severed his connexion 
with 'Punch*, a further series of drawings 
appeared as a separate, publication, under the 
title of 'The Foreign Tour of Brown, Jones, 
and Robinson', satirizing the manners of 
English travellers on the Continent. 

67), born in Maine, U.S., an American 
humorous moralist, who wrote under the 
pseudonym of ARTEMUS WARD. He purports 
to describe the experiences of a travelling 
showman, and like 'Josh Billings* (H. W. 
Shaw, q.v.) uses his own phonetic spelling. 
He contributed to Tunch' and died in 

Browne, HABLOT KNIGHT (1815-82), under 
the pseudonym 'Phiz', illustrated some of the 
works of Dickens, Surtees, Smedley, &c. 

Browne, ROBERT, see Brownists. 

BROWNE, SIR THOMAS (1605-82), was 
born in London and educated at Winchester 
and Broadgates Hall, Oxford. He studied 
medicine at Montpellier, Padua, and Leyden, 
and graduated at this last university as doctor. 
In 1637 he settled at Norwich, where he prac- 
tised physic. He was knighted in 1671 on the 
occasion of a royal visit to Norwich. His 
'Religio Medici* (q.v.) appeared in 1643, 
though writtensome years earlier ; his Tseudo- 
doxia Epidemica', better known as * Vulgar 
Errors' (q.v,) ; appeared in 1646; 'Urn Burial' 
(q.v.) and 'Garden of Cyrus" in 1658; his 
'Christian Morals* was notpublished till 1716, 
after his death, and was later (1756) edited by 
Samuel Johnson. The best edition of his 
collected works is by G. Keynes (Faber and 
Faber, 1931). 

(1826-1915), best known under his pseudo- 
nym 'Rolf Boldrewood", an Australian squat- 
ter and police magistrate, and a warder of 
goldfields, was author of the very popular 
'Robbery under Arms* (1888), the story of a 
bushranger, Captain Starlight; also of 'The 
Miner's Right' (1890). The 'Squatter's 
Dream* and 'A Colonial Reformer* appeared 
in the same year, giving excellent pictures of 
the life of the Australian squatter. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM (1591-1643), was a 
Devonshire man educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford. He published 'Britannia's Pastorals', 
a fluent but desultory narrative poem, 
dealing with the loves and woes of Marina, 
Celia, and the like, in couplets interspersed 
with lyrics, Bk. I in 1613, Bk. II in 1616; but 
Bk. Ill remained in manuscript till 1852. His 
'Shepherd's Pipe', written in conjunction 
with Wither (q.v.), appeared in 1614. Among 
various epitaphs he wrote the well-known 
lines on the dowager countess of Pembroke, 



'Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother' (at- 
tributed however to Ben Jonson in Whalley's 
edition of that poet, 1756). His poetry is 
characterized by a genuine love of nature, and 
influenced Milton, Keats, and Mrs. Brown- 
ing. His works were collected by W. C. 
Hazlitt in 1868. 

Brownie, a benevolent spirit or goblin, of 
shaggy appearance, supposed to haunt old 
houses, especially farmhouses, in Scotland, 
and sometimes to perform useful household 
work while the family were asleep. [OEDJ 

( 1 806-61), whose father's name Moulton was 
changed to Barrett on succeeding to an estate, 
married Robert Browning in 1846. Her 
'Essay on Mind ; with other Poems' appeared 
in 1826 ; 'Prometheus Bound, translated from 
the Greek of Aeschylus ; and Miscellaneous 
Poems' in 1833; 'The Seraphim and other 
Poems' (including 'Cowper's Grave') in 
1838; a volume of 'Poems' (including 'The 
Cry of the Children') in 1844; 'Sonnets from 
the Portuguese' (privately printed in 1847) 
in 1850; 'Casa Guidi Windows* (recording 
political events in Italy and manifesting 
Mrs. Browning's enthusiasm for the cause of 
Italian liberty) in 1851 ; 'Aurora Leigh* (q.v.) 
in 1857; and 'Poems before Congress* in 
1860. 'Last Poems* appeared posthumously 
in 1862. After her marriage Mrs. Browning 
lived mostly in Italy, and died at Florence. 
Her best work is contained in the 'Sonnets 
from the Portuguese*, where the form 
restricted her tendency to prolixity. Mrs. 
Browning's romance is the subject of 'Miss 
Barrett's Elopement* by Mrs. Carola Lenan- 
ton (Oman), 1929, and of the successful play, 
'The Barretts of Wimpole Street', by Rudolf 
Besier, 1930. 

BROWNING, ROBERT (1812-89), the son 
of a clerk in the Bank of England, was 
privately educated. His first poem, 'Pauline* 
(q.v.), a'ppeared in 1833 and he first visited 
Italy in 1834. 'Paracelsus' (q.v.), which 
attracted the friendly notice of Carlyle, 
Wordsworth, and other men of letters, ap- 
peared in 1835. He next published 'Straf- 
ford* (q.v.), a tragedy, which was played at 
Covent Garden in 1837. 'Sordello* (q.v.) 
followed in 1840. 'Bells and Pomegranates' 
(including 'Pippa Passes', 'The Return of the 
Druses', 'A Blot in the 'Scutcheon*, *Col- 
ombe's Birthday*, 'Luria', 'A Soul*s Tragedy*, 
qq.v., and other pieces) appeared during 
1841-6. In 1846 he married Elizabeth 
Barrett (see under Browning, E. B.) t and lived 
with her mainly in Italy at Pisa, Florence, 
and Rome, until her death in 1861 , after which 
Browning settled in London. In 1 850 he pub- 
lished 'Christmas Eve and Easter Day' (q.v.), 
and in 1855 'Men and Women* (q.v.). 'Dra- 
matis Personae* (q.v.) appeared in 1864, and in 
1 868-9 the long poem 'The Ring and the Book' 
(q.v.). His chief remaining works appeared 
as follows: 'Balaustion's Adventure* (q.v.) 
and 'Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau* (q.v.) 



in 1871, 'Fifine at the Fair' (q.v.) in 1872, 
'Red Cotton Nightcap Country* (q.v.) in 
1873, 'Aristophanes' Apology' (q.v.) and 'The 
Inn Album* (q.v.) in 1875, a translation of 
the 'Agamemnon* of Aeschylus in 1877, 
'Dramatic Idyls* in two series in 1879-80, 
'Jocoseria' (containing the fine dramatic 
monologue 'Cristina and Monaldeschi') in 
1883, 'Ferishtah's Fancies* in 1884, and 
'Parleyings with certain People* in 1887. His 
last volume of poems, 'Asolando* (q.v.), 
was published on the day of his death. He 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. Two 
volumes of his correspondence with Mrs. 
Browning have been published. 

Brownists, adherents of the ecclesiastical 
principles of Robert Browne (1550?-! 633?), 
who preached c. 1578 denouncing the paro- 
chial system and ordination, whether by 
bishops or by presbytery. About 1580 he, 
with Robert Harrison, collected a congrega- 
tion at Norwich, which they called 'the 
church*, but which was familiarly known as 
'the Brownists'. He finally submitted to the 
bishop of Peterborough and became for 
forty years rector of Achurch in Northamp- 
tonshire. He is regarded as the founder of 

Bro willow, MR., a character in Dickens 's 
'Oliver Twist' (q.v.). 

BRUCE, JAMES (1730-94), educated at 
Harrow, African traveller, was author of an 
interesting narrative of his 'Travels to dis- 
cover the source of the Nile* (he discovered 
that of the Blue Nile), and of his visit to 
Abyssinia, published in 1790. His veracity 
was long doubted, but established by Burton, 
Speke, and Baker. 

Bruce and the Spider : according to legend, 
Bruce while lying concealed from the English 
in the island of Rathlin, one day watched a 
spider making repeated attempts to fix its 
web to a beam of the ceiling, and at last 
succeeding. Encouraged by this example, he 
left the island in 1307, landed at Carrick with 
a small band of followers, and gradually drove 
the English from Scotland. 

Bruce, The, an epic poem by Barbour (q.v.), 
written about 1375. 

The author relates the story of King Robert 
the Bruce and James Douglas, and of the war 
of independence, mingling anecdote with 
substantially accurate history. It contains 
some good descriptive passages, notably of 
the Battle of Bannockburn, and a frequently 
quoted outburst on freedom, beginning 
'A! Fredome is a noble thing I* 

Brugglesmith, the title of a short story by 
Kipling (q.v.), included in 'Many Inventions', 
of an amusing midnight adventure in the 
streets of London with a drunken man. (He 
gives his address as 'Brugglesmith* inter- 
preted by a policeman as 'Brook Green, 


Bruin, meaning 'brown', the name of the 
bear in 'Reynard the Fox* (q.v.), whence it 
has corne to signify a bear in general. 

Brumaire, from French brume, mist, the 
name of the second month of the year in the 
French revolutionary calendar. It extended 
from 22 Oct. to 20 Nov. The i8th Brumaire 
of the year VIII (9 Nov. 1799) was the day 
on which the French Directory fell and the 
supreme power was entrusted to Napoleon 
Buonaparte, as first Consul, with Sieyes and 
Roger-Ducos as his associates. 

Brummagem, a local vulgar form of the 
name of the town of Birmingham, hence 
(contemptuously) an article of Birmingham 
manufacture; used especially of cheap 
jewellery and the like. The old spelling of 
'Birmingham*, e.g. in Clarendon, is often 
*Bromwicham*, which would naturally be 
pronounced 'Brummagem 5 . 

Bmmmel, GEORGE BRYAN (1778-1840), 
generally called BEAU BRUMMEL, a friend of 
the prince regent (George IV) and leader of 
fashion in London. He died in poverty at 

Brunariburh, a poem in Old English, included 
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (q.v.) under 
the year 937, dealing with the battle fought in 
that year at Brunanburh between ^Ethelstan 
with an English army and the Northmen 
supported by the forces of Scotland and 
Wales. The site of the battle is unknown. 
It is a song of triumph recounting the deeds 
of ^Ethelstan and his brother Eadmund, 
and the rout and slaying of the invaders. 
J. H. Frere (q.v.) and A. Tennyson wrote 
translations of the poem. 

Brunehaut, BRUNHALT, see Thierry and 

Brunei, SIR MARC ISAMBARD (1769-1849), 
born in Normandy and educated for the 
Church, served in the French navy and 
emigrated to America in 1793. There he 
practised as a surveyor and engineer. He came 
to England in 1799, where he had a distin- 
guished career as an inventor and engineer, 
having charge, among other important works, 
of the construction of the Thames tunnel 

59), also a distinguished engineer, designed 
Clifton suspension bridge (1831), built the 
Great Western Railway (1833 onwards), and 
did much marine building, e.g. the 'Great 
Eastern* (1852-8) and other steamships. He 
was also concerned in the buildings for the 
Great Exhibition of 1851. 
BrunMId, see Brynhild. 

Bruno, GIORDANO (?i548-?i599), Italian 
philosopher (who saw God as the unity 
reconciling spirit and matter), born at Nola. 
He was in early life a Dominican friar, 
but broke from his order and wandered about 
Europe teaching his philosophical doctrines, 
which are obscure, or embodying them in 


dialogues and verse (some of them dedicated 
to Sir P. Sidney, under whose auspices he 
visited Oxford) of great fire and vigour. He 
finally quarrelled with one of the Mocenigos, 
by whom he was employed at Venice, was 
denounced to the Inquisition, arrested, con- 
demned to death, and burnt (whether in 
reality or in effigy is not quite certain). 

Brut, meaning 'chronicle*, is a transferred 
use of Brut- -Brutus ', the legendary founder 
of Britain, as in the French title, 'Roman de 
Brut', and in the 'Brut* of Layamon (q.v.). 

Brut of Layamon, see Layamon. 

Brute or BRUTUS, legendary founder of the 
British race. Geoffrey of Monmouth (q.v.) 
states that Walter Archdeacon of Oxford gave 
him an ancient book in the British tongue, 
containing an account of the kings of Britain 
from Brutus to Cadwallader. This Brutus 
was son of Sylvius, grandson of Ascanius and 
great-grandson of Aeneas. Having had the 
misfortune to kill his father, he collected a 
remnant of the Trojan race and brought them 
to England (uninhabited at the time 'except 
by a few giants'), landing at Totnes. He 
founded Troynovant or New Troy (later 
known as London) and was the progenitor 
of a line of British kings including Bladud, 
Gorboduc, Ferrex and Porrex, Lud, Cym- 
beline, Coel (Cole, the 'merry old soul'), 
Vortigern, and Arthur. The name *Troy- 
novant* is a back-formation from 'Trinovan- 
tes*, the name of the powerful British tribe 
that lived north and east of London. Drayton, 
in his 'Polyolbion* (i. 312), relates the legend, 
and Selden, in his 'Illustrations* to that work, 
discusses its probability. 

Brute, SIR JOHN and LADY, characters in 
Vanbrugh's 'The Provok'd Wife' (q.v.). 

Brutus, DECIUS, a character in Shake- 
speare's 'Julius Caesar' (q.v.). 

Brutus, Lucius JUNKTS, the legendary first 
consul of Rome. His brother was murdered 
by Tarquinius Superbus, and he escaped 
the same fate only by simulating idiocy 
whence the name Brutus. After the death of 
Lucretia (q.v.), he stirred the Romans to 
expel the Tarquins and was elected to the 
consulship. He put to death his two sons for 
conspiring to restore the Tarquins. 

Brutus, MARCUS JUNIUS (85-42 B.C.), joined 
Pompey in the civil war (49), but after the 
battle of Pharsalia was pardoned by Caesar. 
He nevertheless joined the conspirators who 
assassinated Caesar, in the hope of restoring 
republican government. On the occasion of 
Caesar's murder, the dying man uttered the 
famous words, ( Et ttt t Brute\ In the subse- 
quent war between Brutus and Cassius on the 
one hand and Octavian and Antony on the 
other, the former were defeated at Philippi 
(42), and Brutus took his own life. His wife 
was Porcia, daughter of Cato of Utica. 

BRYAN, Sm FRANCIS (d. 1550), poet, 
soldier, and diplomatist, was Henry VIIFs 


permanent favourite, held various court posts, 
and was sent on diplomatic missions. He 
behaved discreditably in the matter of the 
execution of his cousin, Anne Boleyn, and 
accepted a pension vacated by one of her 
accomplices. Cromwell, in writing of this 
circumstance to Gardiner and Wallop, calls 
him 'the vicar of hell*, which became a popu- 
lar nickname. It is to this, no doubt, that 
Milton in the 'Areopagitica* refers when he 
writes, 'I name not him, for posterity's sake, 
whom Henry VIII named in his merriment 
his vicar of hell*. Bryan contributed to 'Tot- 
ters Miscellany* and his poetry was highly 
valued in his day, but is now undiscoverable. 
1878), American poet, born at Cummington, 
Massachusetts, first a poor country lawyer, 
then a pioneer in the prairies of Illinois, and 
finally a New York editor (who raised 'The 
Evening Post* to a great position in America). 
His first volume of collected poems (in- 
cluding 'Thanatopsis') appeared in 1821, and 
further collections at various subsequent 
dates. His poetry reveals a very elementary 
philosophy, based on the O.T., a love of 
political freedom, and a strong and simple 
sense of the relation of man to nature. 

BRYCE, educated at the High School and 
University of Glasgow, at Trinity College, 
Oxford, and at Heidelberg, was Regius pro- 
fessor of civil law at Oxford, 1870-93, and 
held a number of high political and diplo- 
matic posts, including those of chief secretary 
for Ireland (1905-6) and ambassador at 
Washington (1907-13). His publications in- 
clude two classical works : 'The Holy Roman 
Empire' (1864) and 'The American Common- 
wealth* (1888), besides a number of other 
writings on various subjects: 'Impressions 
of South Africa* (1897), 'Studies in His- 
tory and Jurisprudence* (1901), 'Studies in 
Contemporary Biography* (1903), 'South 
America: Observations and Impressions* 
(1912), 'Modern Democracies* (1922). 

(1762-1837), bibliographer, published his 
valuable 'Censura Literaria* in 1805-9 and 
1815, 'The British Bibliographer* in 1810-14, 
and 'Restituta: or Titles, Extracts, and Char- 
acters of old books in English Literature 
Revived* in 1814-16. 

Brynhild or BRUNHILD, one of the principal 
characters in the 'Volsunga Saga* (see under 
Sigurd the Vohung) and in the 'Nibelungen- 
Hed* (q.v.). 

Brythons, a Welsh name used to distinguish 
the branch of the Celtic race which was 
ultimately driven into Wales and Cornwall, 
from the Goidels (q.v.). 

Bubastis, the Greek name of the Egyptian 

goddess PASHT, identified by the Greeks with 

Artemis (q.v.), and represented under the 

' form of a cat. The town of Bubastis, on the 


Pelusiac branch of the Nile, was the chief seat 
of the worship of this goddess. 
Buccaneer, from the French boucanier, 
originally 'one who hunts wild oxen* (Littre*) 
from boucan (a S. American name for a 
hurdle on which meat was roasted or smoked 
over a fire), a barbecue, boucaner, to dry meat 
on a barbecue. Thus the word was used to 
mean one who dries and smokes flesh on a 
boucan after the manner of the Indians. The 
name was first 'given to the French hunters of 
St. Domingo, who prepared the flesh of the 
wild oxen and boars in this way*. Hence it was 
extended to 'piratical rovers who formerly 
infested the Spanish coasts in America* 
(E. B. Tylor, quoted in OED.). See 

Bucentaur, see Adriatic. 

Bucephalus, from Greek ftovs, ox, /ce^oA^, 
head, a horse of Alexander the Great, whose 
head resembled that of a buU. 

BUCHAN, JOHN (1875- ), author. 
Private secretary to the high commissioner of 
S. Africa, 1901-3; on H.Q. staff of British 
Army, France, 1916-17; director of informa- 
tion under the prime minister, 1917-18. 
Among his writings are: 'Montrose* (1913), 
'History of the Great War* (1921-2), 'Lord 
Minto* (1924), 'Julius Caesar* (1932). His 
novels include: 'Thirty-Nine Steps* (1915), 
'Greenmantle* (1916), 'Mr. Steadfast* (1919), 
'Midwinter* (1923), 'The Three Hostages* 
( r 924), 'Dancing Floor* (i 926) , "The Blanket of 
the Dark* (i 93 1), 'Gap in the Curtain* (1932). 

BUCHANAN, GEORGE (1506-82), born 
at KiUearn in Stirlingshire, studied at St. 
Andrews and Paris, and became tutor to a 
natural son of James V. He satirized the 
Franciscans, thus provoking Cardinal Beaton, 
and was imprisoned at St. Andrews. Escap- 
ing thence he went to the Continent, became 
a professor at Bordeaux, where he had Mon- 
taigne among his pupils, and in 1547 was 
invited to teach in the university of Coimbra, 
but was imprisoned by the Inquisition, 1549- 
51. After some years in France he returned 
to Scotland and professed himself a protes- 
tant. He became a bitter enemy of Mary, in 
consequence of the murder of Darnley, and 
vouched that the Casket Letters were in her 
handwriting. He wrote his 'Detectio Mariae 
Reginae* in 1571. He was tutor to James VI 
and I during 15708. Chief among his many 
writings are his Latin poem 'De Sphaera*, an 
exposition of the Ptolemaic system as against 
that advocated by Copernicus, and his Latin 
'Rerum Scoticarum Historia* (1582), which 
for long was regarded as a standard authority. 
His first elegy 'Quam misera sit conditio 
docentium literas humaniores Lutetiae*, de- 
scribes the hard lot of the student at Paris 
in those days. 

(1841-1901), poet and novelist, the son of a 
socialist and secularist tailor who owned 



several socialistic journals in Glasgow. He 
came to London in 1860, and made his 
reputation by 'London Poems' in 1866, 
'Master Spirits* (1874), and 'Ballads of ^ Life, 
Love, and Humour* (1882). He satirized 
Swinburne and others in 'The Session of the 
Poets' in the 'Spectator' (1866), and attacked 
the Pre-Raphaelites (q.v) in the * Contem- 
porary* (1871) in a pseudonymous article 
entitled 'The Fleshly School of Poetry 1 , 
which led to a prolonged controversy. Of 
his novels (all now forgotten) the principal 
are 'The Shadow of the Sword' (1876) and 
*God and the Man* (1881). He wrote many 
plays, of which the chief successes were 
'Alone in London' (1884), *A Man's Shadow' 
(1889), 'The Charlatan' (1894), 'The Strange 
Adventures of Miss Brown* (1895). 

Buchanan and Targe, in J. Moore's 
'Zeluco* (q.v.), the Scotsmen who quarrel 
about Mary Queen of Scots. 

Bucket, INSPECTOR, the detective in Dickens *s 
'Bleak House' (q.v.). 

Buckeye State, Ohio, see United States. 

BUCKHURST, LORD, see Sackuille (T.) 
and Sackville (C.). 

Buckingham : the line, 'Off with his head! 
So much for Buckingham*, occurs, not in the 
Shakespearian text, but in Colley Gibber's 
version of 'Richard III' (in. i). 

'Buckingham, Complaint of, see Complaint of 

Buckingham, GEORGE VILLIERS, first duke 
of (1592-1628), the favourite of James I, by 
whom he was familiarly known as 'Steenie', 
figures in Scott's 'Fortunes of Nigel' (q.v.). 
He was assassinated by John Felton. 

Buckingham, GEORGE ^VHXIERS, second 
duke of (162887), a prominent figure in the 
reign of Charles II and an influential member 
of the Cabal, was the Zirnri of Dryden's 
'Absalom and Achitophel* (q.v.). He was 
author of the burlesque 'The Rehearsal* 
(q.v.), 1671, and of other verses and satires. 
He figures in Scott's Teveril of the Peak* 

1855), author and traveller, and founder of 
the 'Athenaeum' (q.v.). 

Buckingham Palace, in London, stands 
on the site of an old mulberry garden planted 
in 1 609 by order of James I, which became 
a favourite place of popular resort. It was 
bought in 1703 by^the duke of Buckingham, 
who built, or rebuilt, a house in the garden. 
It was bought in 1762 by George III (and 
then known as 'Queen's House'), and the 
house rebuilt in 1825 by John Nash the 
architect, whose large gateway, known as 
the 'Marble Arch', was in 1851 transferred to 
its present position. Queen Victoria made 
Buckingham Palace the most usual royal resi- 
dence in London. 


(1826-80), naturalist, educated at Winchester 
and Christ Church, Oxford, published 
Curiosities of Natural History* and kindred 
works, and started 'Land and Water' in 1866. 
Bucldaw, THE LAIRD OF, Frank Hayston, a 
character in Scott's c The Bride of Lammer- 
moor' (q.v.). 

received no school or college training and 
devoted himself to travelling on the Conti- 
nent, where he acquired the principal 
languages. The first volume of his 'History 
of Civilization in England' appeared in 1857 
and the second in 1861. These were only 
to be introductory portions of a far larger 
work, which the author's premature death 
at Damascus prevented him from executing. 
Buckle criticized the methods of previous 
historians and sought to adopt a more 
scientific basis, with special regard to the 
physical conditions of various countries, such 
as their climate and soil. In the second 
volume he illustrated his method by applying 
it to the history of Spanish civilization from 
the sth to the iQth, and of Scottish civiliza- 
tion to the i Sth cent. 

Bucklersbury , a street off Cheapside, in the 
City of London, Stow says that its western 
end was 'possessed of Grocers and Apothe- 
caries*, which explains the following: 

'Like a many of these lisping hawthorn- 
buds, that come like women in men's 
apparel, and smell like Bucklersbury in 

(Shakespeare, 'Merry Wives', in. iii. 87.) 

The name was originally BUKERELSBURY, 
from the name of an old city family. 

Bucolic, from Greek jSou/coAos-, herdsman, 
means pastoral; and the plural, BUCOLICS, 
pastoral poems. 

Buddha, *the Enlightened*, the title given 
by the adherents of one of the great Asiatic 
religions, thence called BUDDHISM, to the 
founder of their faith, Sakyamuni, Gautama, 
or Siddartha, who flourished in northern 
India in the 5th cent. B.C. Sakyamuni is 
regarded as only the latest of a series of 
Buddhas or infallible religious teachers, 
which is hereafter to be continued in- 
definitely. [OED.] He was the son of the 
king of Kapilavastu (at the foot of the 
mountains of Nepal). Finding salvation 
neither in the teaching nor in the austerities 
of the Brahmans, he developed by long 
meditations his own religion, which he ex- 
pounded at various places in India, making 
many disciples. The principal doctrines of 
Buddhism are, that suffering is inseparable 
from existence, which is an evil; that the 
principal cause of suffering is desire ; that the 
suppression of suffering can be obtained by 
the suppression of desire, and this in turn 
by Buddhist discipline, of which nirvana is 
the reward. Nirvana is the extinction of 


individual existence and absorption into the 
supreme spirit. 

BUDGELL, EUSTACE (1686-1737), a 
cousin of Addison, a miscellaneous writer 
who contributed to the * Spectator* and is 
alluded to by Pope in the 'Dunciad*. 
Buffalo Bill, the name under which William 
Cody (1846-1917) obtained a world-wide 
fame. He was born in Iowa, worked as a 
herder in the western plains, and served as 
hospital orderly in the Civil War. His fame 
as a scout, slayer of Indians, and terror of 
bandits was largely fictitious, the result of 
the works of the American novelist Ned 
Buntline and of the press campaign of John 
Burke. He achieved great success in Europe 
with his 'Wild West Show' and was lionized 
in England in consequence of his spurious 
fame and striking appearance. But the tide 
of prosperity passed away, and though Cody 
struggled on gamely to the last, he died in 
poverty and comparative obscurity. The 
T.L.S. of 17 Oct. 1929 contains an interesting 
article on the 'Legend of Buffalo Bill*, from 
which the above facts are taken. 

BufiSe, SIR RAFFLE, a character in Trollope*s 
'Small House at Allington* and 'Last 
Chronicles of Barset', John Eames*s bluster- 
ing official chief. 

DE (1707-88), French naturalist, was keeper 
of the king's garden, and author of a re- 
markable 'Histoire Naturelle* in thirty-six 
volumes (1749-88), in which he deals not 
only with natural history, but with mineralogy 
and such questions as the origin of the earth. 

Buffone, CARLO, in Jonson*s 'Every Man out 
of his Humour* (q.v.), 'a public scurrilous 
profane jester*, perhaps intended to designate 
'Marston* (q.v.). 

Our word BUFFOON is derived through the 
French 'boufTon* from the Italian 'buffone*, 
a jester (buffa, a jest, bujfare to puff, either 
in the sense of something light and frivolous, 
or with reference to puffing out the cheeks as 
a comic gesture). 

Buffs, THE, the East Kent Regiment, the 
old 3rd Foot regiment of the line, so called 
from the buff facings of its uniform. 

Bufo, a character in Pope's 'Epistle to Dr. 
Arbuthnot' (q.v., 11. 230-48). It is uncertain 
whom it represents. 

Bug Bible, a name given to versions of the 
English Bible (Coverdale*s and Matthew's) 
in which the words in Psalm xci. 5 are 
translated 'thou shalt not be afraid for any 
bugs by night*. 

Buhl, see Boule. 

Bukton, a friend of Chaucer, to whom he 
addressed an 'Envoy*, of some interest for the 
light it throws on the author. 
Bulbo, PRINCE, a character in Thackeray's 
'Rose and the Ring* (q.v.). 



Bulbul^a bird of the thrush family, much 
admired in the East for its song; hence some- 
times called the 'nightingale* of the East. 

Bull, from Latin bulla, the leaden seal 
attached to the Pope's edicts, and hence a 
papal or episcopal edict. The word is applied 
to a non-episcopal edict in 'the Golden Bull', 
a decree issued by Charles IV in 1356 to 
regulate the election and coronation of an 

Bull, an expression containing a manifest 
contradiction in terms or involving a ludicrous 
inconsistency unperceived by the speaker. 
The origin of the term is unknown. No 
foundation appears for the guess that it 
originated in a contemptuous allusion to 
papal edicts or for the assertion of the 
'British Apollo* (1708, no. 22) that 'it became 
a Proverb from the repeated Blunders of one 
Obadiah Bull, a Lawyer of London, who 
lived in the reign of K. Henry the Seventh* 
(OED.). Often associated with the Irish. 

Bull, JOHN, see John Bull. 

Bull, DR. JOHN (i563?-i628), composer, 
singing-man of the Chapel Royal (1583), and 
professor of music at Gresham College (1597 
1607). He was subsequently (1617-28) 
organist of Antwerp Cathedral. See National 

Bull Run, the name of a small river or creek 
in eastern Virginia, the scene of two im- 
portant battles in the American Civil War, in 
1861 and 1862. The Federals were severely 
defeated in both battles. 

Bull- dogs, the colloquial name of the 
'University Police*, the Proctors' attendants 
at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Bulls of Basan, see Bashan. 
Bully Bluck, see Magog Wrath. 

Bulstrode, MR., a character in George 
Eliot's 'Middlemarch* (q.v.). 

Bultitude, MR. and DICK, characters in F. 
Anstey's 'Vice Versa* (q.v.). 

Bumble, the beadle in Dickens*s 'Oliver 
Twist* (q.v.), a type of the consequential, 
domineering parish official. 

Bumby , MOTHER, a fortune-teller frequently 
alluded to by the Elizabethan dramatists. 
Lyly (q.v.) wrote a play entitled, 'Mother 
Bombie* (1594), which is, says HazHtt, 'very 
much what its name would import, old, 
quaint, and vulgar*, 'little else than a tissue of 
absurd mistakes, arising from the confusion 
of the different characters one with another, 
like another Comedy of Errors, and ends in 
their being (most of them) married ... to the 
persons they most dislike*. 

Bumper, SIR HARRY, in Sheridan's *School 
for Scandal* (q.v.), one of Charles Surface's 
convivial companions, who sings the famous 

'Here 's to the maiden of bashful fifteen*. 



Bumppo, NATTY, see Cooper (J. Fenlmore). 

Bunbury, an imaginary character intro- 
duced by Wilde (q.v.) in his play 'The 
Importance of being Earnest', where Bun- 
bury serves as an excuse for visits to various 

1811), a Norfolk squire, is remembered as a 
great caricaturist, and as the author of the 
'Academy for Grown Horsemen ... by 
Geoffrey Gambado*, 'Master of the Horse to 
the Doge of Venice', a humorous work illus- 
trated by his own comic plates, and an early 
example of the literature of sport. 

Bunce, JACK, alias ALTAMONT, ex-actor and 
pirate in Scott's 'The Pirate' (q.v.). 
Bunce, PETER, one of the bedesmen in 
Trollope's 'The Warden* (q.v.). 

Bunch, MOTHER, an ale-wife of London, 
well known in the i6th cent. There is a 
reference to her in Nash's 'Pierce Penniless', 
in Dekker's 'Satiromastix* (1. 1178), and in 
'The Weakest goeth to the Wall' (attributed 
to Webster). The name of 'Mother Bunch* 
was adopted in the title of many zyth-cent. 
books of anecdotes and jests. 

Bunde, John, see John Buncle. 

Bungay and Bacon, the rival publishers in 
Thackeray's 'Pendennis' (q.v.). Bungay is 
there proprietor of the (fictitious) 'Pall Mall 

Bungay, THOMAS, known as 'Friar Bungay 9 
(fl. 1290), a Franciscan, who was divinity 
lecturer of his order in Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. He was vulgarly accounted a magician 
and is frequently referred to in that capacity. 
See Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. FRIAR 
BUNGEY, an astrologer, figures in Lytton's 
'The Last of the Barons' (q.v.). 
Bungay Castle, in Suffolk. When Hugh 
Bigot in Henry IFs reign 'added fortifications 
to his Castle of Bungay, he gave out this 
rhyme, therein vaunting it impregnable : 

Were I in my castle of Bungey 

Upon the river of Waveney 

I would ne care for the King of Cockney.' 
Ray's 'Pro verbs', p. 251 (ed. 1768). 
Bunion, ROSA, in Thackeray's 'Mrs. Per- 
kins's Ball* (q.v.), poetess, author of 'Heart- 
strings', 'Passion Flowers', &c., who loves 
waltzing even beyond poesy, and lobster 
salad as much as either. 

Bunker's Hill, more correctly Breed's Hill, 
a height near Boston in America, where in 
1775 an English force, after severe fighting, 
compelled the withdrawal of the American 

Bunkum, BUNCOMBE, empty clap-trap 
oratory, from Buncombe, the name of a 
county in N. Carolina, U.S. The use of the 
word originated near the close of the debate 
on the 'Missouri Question' in the i6th con- 
gress, when the member for this district rose 


to speak, and persevered in spite of impatient 

calls for the 'Question*, declaring he was 

bound to make a speech for Buncombe. 


Bunsby, CAPTAIN JOHN, a character in 

Dickens's 'Dombey and Son* (q.v.), a friend 

of Captain Cuttle. 

Bunthorne, REGINALD, the principal male 
character in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic 
opera 'Patience', 'a fleshly poet' in whose per- 
son the 'Aesthetic Movement' of the eighties 
was caricatured. 

BUNYAN, JOHN (1628-88), born at 
Elstow, near Bedford, the son of a tinsmith, 
learned reading and writing at the village 
school and was early set to his father's trade. 
On completing his sixteenth year he was 
drafted into the parliamentary army and was 
stationed at Newport Pagnell from 1644 to 
1646 under the command of Sir Samuel Luke, 
an experience perhaps reflected in his 'The 
Holy War*. In 1653 he joined a Non- 
conformist church in Bedford, preached 
there, and came into conflict with the Quakers, 
against whom he published his first writings, 
'Some Gospel Truths opened' (1656), and 
'A Vindication' thereof (1657). He had 
profited by two religious books belonging to 
his first wife (who died c. 1656, leaving four 
young children) and devoted himself to 
reading the Bible. 'I was never out of the 
Bible either by reading or meditation.* He 
married his second wife, Elizabeth, c. 1659, 
and was arrested in November 1660 for 
preaching without a licence. Refusing to 
comply with the law, he was kept in prison 
for twelve years, until Charles II's Declara- 
tion of Indulgence. During the first half 
of this period he wrote nine of his books, 
the principal of which was his 'Grace 
Abounding to the Chief of Sinners" (q.v., 
1666). In the same year appeared *The 
Holy City, or the New Jerusalem', inspired 
by a passage in the book of Revelation. After 
this he wrote no more until, in 1671, he 
published *A Confession of my Faith, and a 
Reason of my Practice'. After his release in 
1672 he was appointed pastor to the same 
church in Bedford, but was again imprisoned 
for a short period, during which he wrote the 
first part pf 'The Pilgrim's Progress from this 
World to that which is to come' (q.v.). The 
second part, with the whole work, was 
published in 1678. His other principal works 
are 'The Life and Death of Mr. Badman' 
(q.v., 1680), and 'The Holy War' (q.v., 1682). 
Bunyan preached in many places, but was not 
further molested. He was buried in Bunhill 
Fields, London. 

Surana Carmina, see Carmlna Burana. 
Burbage, JAMES (d. 1597), actor, was a 
joiner by trade. He was one of the earl of 
Leicester's players in 1574. He leased land in 
Finsbury Fields (1576), on which he erected, 
of wood, the first building in England 
specially intended for plays. In 1596 he 



acquired a house in Blackfriars, and con- 
verted it into the * Blackfriars Theatre* (q.v.). 
He lived in Holywell Street, Shoreditch, 1 576- 
97. The first English playhouse is mentioned 
in an order of council, August 1577, and was 
known as 'The Theatre* ; the fabric was re- 
moved, c. December 1598, to the Bankside 
and set up as the Globe Theatre. It was 
burnt down in 1613. 

Burbage, RICHARD (1567 ?-i6i9), actor, was 
son of James Burbage (q.v.), from whom he 
inherited a share in Blackfriars Theatre and 
an interest in the Globe Theatre. He acted as 
a boy at the theatre in Shoreditch and rose 
to be an actor of chief parts, 1595-1618, in 
plays by Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and 
Beaumont and Fletcher. He excelled in 
tragedy. Burbage lived in Holywell Street, 
Shoreditch, 1603-19. He is known also as a 
painter in oil-colours. 

Burbon, SIR, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene', 
v. xi, represents Henry of Navarre. 

Burchell, MR., in Goldsmith's * Vicar of 
Wakefield' (q.v.), the name assumed by Sir 
William Thornhill. 

Burden of a song, from the Romanic bour~ 
don, the continuous bass or 'drone* of a bag- 
pipe, is the refrain or chorus, a set of words 
recurring at the end of each verse. 

In the English Bible (e.g. Isa. xiii. i, 'The 
burden of Babylon*) 'burden* is used to 
render the Hebrew massa, which Gesenius 
would translate 'lifting up (of the voice), 
utterance, oracle*. But it is generally taken 
in English to mean a 'burdensome or heavy 
lot or fate* [OED.]. 

BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN (1722-92), 
nicknamed 'Gentleman Johnny', remembered 
principally as the general who was forced to 
capitulate to the Americans at Saratoga in 
1777, was the author of a clever and success- 
ful comedy 'The Heiress* (1786), in which 
the vulgarity of the rich Alscrip family is 
contrasted with the native good breeding of 
Clifford, Lord Gayville, and his sister; while 
the temporary humiliation of the virtuous 
heroine, Miss Alton, who is driven to take 
service in the Alscrip family, until she is dis- 
covered to be an heiress and Clifford's sister, 
provides a sentimental interest. He also 
wrote 'The Maid of the Oaks* (i774)> a 
cheerful little comedy of country life. He 
figures in G. B. Shaw's play 'The Devil's 
Disciple* (1900). 

Burgundy, at one time a kingdom, then an 
independent duchy, united to France in 1477 
as one of its provinces (capital, Dijon). 
There was also a 'County* of Burgundy, 
Franche-Comte", ceded to France in 1678. 
Burgundy gives its name to a red wine of high 
quality and considerable potency. The best 
burgundies are produced along a narrow strip 
of the C6te d'Or , on the right as one drives from 
Dijon to Beaune and beyond. Famous among 
the best are Clos Vougeot, Romance, Riche- 
bourg, and Chambertin (Napoleon's favourite 


wine). Corton, Beaune, and Pommard are 
sound, less eminent burgundies. There is a 
reference to burgundy wine in England as 
early as Wycherley's 'Love in a Wood*, I. ii 
(i 672). The finest of the white burgundies is 

Burial of Sir John Moore, The, see Wolfe. 

Buridan, a French scholastic philosopher of 
the end of the i2th cent, to whom is attri- 
buted the sophism of the ass equally pressed 
by hunger and thirst and placed between a 
bundle of hay and a pail of water, who must 
die of hunger and thirst, having no deter- 
mining motive to direct him to one or the 
other. 'Like Buridan's ass between two 
bundles of hay* is said of a person undecided 
between two courses of action, who adopts 
neither. According to tradition Buridan was 
thrown into the Seine in a sack (Villon, 

Burke, *A Genealogical and Heraldic His- 
tory of the Peerage and Baronetage of the 
United Kingdom*, first compiled by John 
Burke and published in 1826. Since 1847 
it has been published annually. 

BURKE, EDMUND (1729-97), the second 
son of a Dublin attorney, who was a Protes- 
tant married to a Catholic wife. He was 
brought up as a Protestant, and educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin. He entered the 
Middle Temple in 1750. His first published 
works, 'A Vindication of Natural Society* 
(q.v.) and 'A Philosophical Inquiry into the 
Sublime and the Beautiful* (q.v.), appeared in 
1756. In the same year he married Jane 
Nugent. He started the 'Annual Register* 
in 1759, and contributed to it till 1788. He 
became private secretary to the marquis of 
Rockingham in 1765, who from time to time 
helped him by advances of money and at his 
death directed that the bonds should be 
destroyed. Burke entered parliament as 
member for Wendover in the same year, and 
first spoke in the House in 1766 on the 
American question. During the following 
years he vehemently attacked the Tory 
government. He participated in stock 
jobbing operations and remained in con- 
sequence involved in financial difficulties 
for the rest of his life, but bought an estate at 
Beaconsfield in 1768, before the crash came. 
He published his 'Observations on "The 
Present State of the Nation" ' (q.v.) in 1769, 
and 'Thoughts on the Present Discontents* 
(q.v.) in 1770. He became M.P. for Bristol 
on the invitation of the citizens in 1774, and 
made his speeches 'On American Taxation* 
and 'On Conciliation with the Colonies* in 
1774 and 1775. His 'Letter to the Sheriffs of 
Bristol* (q.v.) was written in I777 an( * his 
great speech against employing Indians in 
the war was made in 1778. His speech on 
economical reform was made in February 
1780. His championship of free trade with 
Ireland and of Catholic emancipation lost him 
his seat at Bristol in 1780, and his 'Two 


Letters ... to Gentlemen in the City of 
Bristol' (1778) and his 'Speech at the Guild- 
hall, in Bristol' (1780), form a noble vindica- 
tion of his attitude. He became M.P. for 
Malton in Yorkshire in 1781. By his attacks 
on the conduct of the American War he 
contributed powerfully to North's resigna- 
tion of office. He became paymaster of the 
forces in 1782 but retired from the ministry 
with Fox, returning to the same post in 1783 
under the coalition government. His sympathy 
with the Irish Catholics is shown by his letters 
'To a Peer of Ireland on the Penal Laws' 
(1782) and 'To Sir Hercules Langrishe' 
(1792). He took an active part in the investi- 
gation of the affairs of the East India Company 
and became the relentless enemy of Warren 
Hastings (q.v.). His famous speeches on the 
East India Bill and 'On the Nabob of Arcot's 
Private Debts 1 were delivered in 1783 and 
1785. He opened the case for the impeach- 
ment of Warren Hastings in 1788, and sup- 
ported Wilbei force in advocating the aboli- 
tion of the slave-trade in 1788-9. His 
'Reflections on the French Revolution* (q.v.) 
appeared in 1790, followed by 'A Letter . . . 
to a Member of the National Assembly* 
(1791), and by 'An Appeal from the New to 
the Old Whigs' in 1791, a defence against the 
charge of inconsistency between his attitude 
towards the American colonies and his de- 
nunciation of the French Revolution. In the 
same year appeared 'Thoughts on French 
Affairs'; 'Remarks on the Policy of the Allies' 
in 1793 ; and the 'Letters on a Regicide Peace* 
(q.v.) in 1795-7. He retired from parliament 
in 1794 and received a pension from the 
ministry, for which he was criticized, chiefly 
by the duke of Bedford and earl of Lauder- 
dale. He defended himself in his 'Letters to a 
Noble Lord* (q.v.) in 1796. His collected 
works were published in 1792-1827. 

Burke's political life was devoted to five 
'great, just, and honourable causes': the 
emancipation of the House of Commons 
from the control of George III and the 
'King's friends'; the emancipation (but not 
the independence) of the American colonies ; 
the emancipation of Irish trade, the Irish 
parliament, and the Irish Catholics; the 
emancipation of India from the misgovern- 
meat of the East India Company; and 
opposition to the atheistical jacobinism 
displayed in the French Revolution. An 
historical study of Burke was published 
by Lord Morley in 1867, and a life by him in 
the English Men of Letters series in 1879. 

Burke, WILLIAM, the name of a notorious 
criminal executed at Edinburgh in 1829 for 
smothering many persons in order to sell 
their bodies for dissection (his accomplice 
was William Hare). Hence *to burke* is to 
murder as Burke did, and, figuratively, to 
smother, 'hush up', suppress quietly. 

Burleigh or Burgnley, WILLIAM CECIL, 
LORD (152098), lord treasurer under Queen 
Elizabeth and her chief minister. He had 


previously been secretary to Lord Protector 
Somerset; secretary of state, 1550-3; and 
employed in negotiations by Queen Mary. 
He is introduced in Sheridan's 'The Critic* 
(q.v.), where, in Puff's tragedy, he comes on 
the stage and shakes his head, being too much 
occupied with cares of state to talk, whence 
the expression, 'Burleigh's nod'. 
Burlesque, from Italian burla, ridicule, 
mockery, literary composition or dramatic 
representation winch aims at exciting laughter 
by the comical treatment of a serious sub- 
ject or the caricature of the spirit of a serious 
work. Notable examples of burlesque in 
English literature are Butler's 'Hudibras*, 
and 'The Rehearsal' (qq.v.). 
Burlington House, London, was begun by 
the ist earl of Burlington about 1664, and 
rebuilt in the Palladian style by the 3rd earl, 
the architect, about 1731. It was bought by 
the government in 1854. It houses the Royal 
Academy and various learned societies, in- 
cluding the British Academy. The name is 
often used to signify the Royal Academy. 
Burman, MRS., in Meredith's *One of our 
Conquerors' (q.v.), Victor Radnor's wife. 
(1842-85), cavalry officer and traveller, com- 
manded the 3rd household cavalry, 1881-5; 
killed in the attempt to relieve Khartoum. 
He was author of 'A Ride to Khiva' (1876). 
(1836-1917), educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, had a vocation for the 
stage which manifested itself in the produc- 
tion of a large number of burlesques, notably 
'Black-eyed Susan' (1866), 'Cox and Box* 
(1867), and 'The Colonel' (1881). f He con- 
tributed to 'Punch' from 1863 and joined the 
staff; his 'Happy Thoughts'(i 866) proved one 
of the most popular series in that periodical. 
He was editor of 'Punch', 1880-1906. 
Burne- Jones, SIR EDWARD COLEY (1833- 
98), an eminent painter of the romantic school, 
a friend of D. G. Rossetti and W. Morris 
(qq.v.); famous for his pictures ('King 
Cpphetua', &c.) designs for stained-glass 
windows, and other decorative work. 
Burnell the Ass, the hero of the 'Speculum 
Stultorum' of Wireker (q.v.). Burnell, an ass 
who wishes to acquire a larger tail, goes to 
Salerno and to Paris to study, meets with 
various adventures, and finally loses his tail 
altogether. In the course of these travels he 
hears the story to which Chaucer alludes in 
the 'Nun's Priest's Tale' (1. 492): 

I have read well in Dan Burnell the Ass, 
Among his verse, how that there was a cock, 
For that a priestes son gave him a knock 
Upon his leg, while he was young and nice, 
He made him for to lose his benefice. 

The story is that Gundulf, driving some 
chicks from the granary, struck a cockerel 
and broke its leg. The cock bided its time. 
On the day on which Gundulf was to receive 
his father's benefice, he was to start at cock- 



crow for the town where the installation was 
to take place. But the cock that day failed to 
crow; Gundulf was late, and lost his benefice. 
In the main narrative, the Ass represents 
the monk who is discontented with his lot. 
BURNET, GILBERT (1643-1715), edu- 
cated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, was a 
popular preacher and was offered four bishop- 
rics before he was twenty-nine. These he 
refused, and in 1674 was dismissed from the 
post of king's chaplain for remonstrating with 
Charles II for his profligacy. He was chaplain 
to Mary when she was still Princess of Orange. 
He became Bishop of Salisbury in 1689 under 
William III. He published his account of the 
death-bed repentance of Rochester (q.v.), 
'Some passages in the Life and Death of the 
right honourable John Earl of Rochester*, in 
1680, and his 'History of the Reformation in 
England', vol. i in 1679, vol. ii in 1681, vol. iii 
in 1714. His 'Exposition of the Thirty-nine 
Articles* appeared in 1699, and his best- 
known work, 'The History of My Own 
Times', posthumously (1724-34). Other 
notable works by Burnet were the 'Memoires 
of the . . . Dukes of Hamilton* (1677), the 
'Life of Sir Matthew Hale* (1682), and the 
'Journal of Lord RusselPs last week* (first 
published in the 'General Dictionary', 1739, 
and subsequently in the 'Life of William 
Lord Russell*, 1819). 

BURNET, THOMAS (1635^-1715}, a 
Yorkshire divine and master of the Charter- 
house. He was the author of 'The Sacred 
Theory of the Earth' (168490), an imagina- 
tive and romantic cosmogony, suggested to 
him by a voyage across the Alps. It contains, 
particularly in the third book, descriptive 
passages that are highly sonorous and mag- 
niloquent. The work was much praised by 
Addison in No. 146 of the 'Spectator'. 
SON (1849-1924), writer of popular stories, 
born in Manchester, emigrated to the 
United States in her youth. Best known 
as the author of 'Little Lord Fauntleroy*. 
D'ARBLAY (1752-1840), daughter of Dr. 
Burney, the historian of music, lived during 
her youth in the midst of that literary society 
which included Dr. Johnson and Burke. _ In 
1778 she published her first novel 'Evelina* 
(q.v.) anonymously, but the revelation of its 
authorship brought her into prominence, and 
she was appointed second keeper of the robes 
to Queen Charlotte (1786). Being broken in 
health, she with difficulty obtained permis- 
sion to retire. In 1793 she married General 
D'Arblay, a French refugee in England. 
From 1802 to 1812 she was interned by 
Napoleon and lived in France. The last 
part of her life was spent in England. 
Her second novel 'Cecilia' (q.v.) was pub- 
lished in 1782, 'Camilla* (q.v.) in 1796, 'The 
Wanderer' in 1814. She edited her father's 
'Memoirs* in 1832. Her 'Early Diary* 
(1768-78), with pleasant sketches of Johnson 


and Garrick, was published in 1889, and her 
later 'Diary and Letters' (1778-1840), which 
gives an interesting account of her life at 
court, in 1 842-6. Miss Burney was the 
originator of the simple novel of home life, 
taking as her theme the entry into the world 
of a young girl of virtue and understanding, 
but inexperienced, and exposing her to 
circumstances and incidents that develop her 
character, and display the various droll per- 
sons with whom she comes in contact. 

Burning Babe, The, see Southwell. 

BURNS, ROBERT (1759-96), born at 
Alloway in Ayrshire, was the son of a cottar, 
and was educated by his father. Set to work 
as a farm labourer, he early developed an 
inclination for literature, and also a tendency 
to dissipation. From 1784 to 1788 he farmed 
118 acres in partnership with his brother 
Gilbert at Mossgiel, and during this period 
wrote some of his best work : 'The Cotter's 
Saturday Night', 'The Twa Dogs', 'Hallow- 
een*, 'The Jolly Beggars' (a cantata descrip- 
tive of a vagabonds' festival), 'To a Mouse*, 
'To a Mountain Daisy*, and some of his 
keenest satires, 'Death and Dr. Hornbook* 
(against a village apothecary) and 'Holy 
Willie's Prayer* (against a self-righteous elder 
of Mauchline). In 1786, in order to obtain 
the passage-money for a voyage to Jamaica, 
where a post on a plantation had been offered 
him, he published the Kilmarnock edition of 
his early poems. It made him famous, and 
took him for a time to Edinburgh, where his 
modesty, the charm and ease of his con- 
versation, and his conviviality, made him very 
popular. The second edition of his poems 
(published by William Creech) brought him 
500 and enabled him to settle down on a 
small farm at Ellisland and to marry Jean 
Armour, one of his many loves (another had 
been Alison Begbie, 'Mary Morison', who 
rejected him; and another Mary Campbell, 
a Glasgow skipper's daughter, who died, 
and was the subject of his "To Mary in 
Heaven'). Burns also received an excise- 
man's place, which after the failure of his 
farm was his principal means of support. 
Apart from songs, he now wrote little of 
importance f Tarn o' Shanter*, q.v., and 
'Captain Matthew Henderson* are the chief 
exceptions). He contributed some 200 songs, 
new or adapted, to the successive volumes 
of James Johnson's 'Scots Musical Museum' 
(1787-1803), among others the famous 'Auld 
Lang Syne* (q.v.), 'Scots wha hae', 'A 
Red, Red Rose*, and 'It was a* for our 
Richtfu* King*. In 1792 he also accepted an 
invitation from George Thomson to supply 
songs for his 'Scottish Airs with Poetry*. 
Among his many beautiful lyrics may be 
mentioned 'John Anderson, my Jo*, 'Comin* 
thro* the Rye*, 'The Banks of Doon*, and 
'Mary Morison*. In a different category fall 
the humorous vernacular 'Address to the 
Deil*, 'To a Louse*, and 'The Auld Farmer's 
New Year Salutation to his Mare Maggie*, 



a delightful retrospect of a long association 
between man and beast. 

The sympathy that Burns had at first mani- 
fested for the French revolutionaries brought 
him into bad odour with the authorities and 
nearly cost him his place; while his^ inclina- 
tion to convivial living imdermined his health. 
In the last two years of his life he began to 
see through the aims of France. His last 
ballad, 'Does haughty Gaul invasion threat?' 
shows his patriotic spirit ; he joined the Dum- 
friesshire Volunteers in 1794 and was buried 
with military honours. See also Sylvander. 
BURTON, JOHN HILL (1809-81), edu- 
cated at Aberdeen, wrote much for Edin- 
burgh booksellers, reviews, and newspapers, 
and made his mark by a life of David Hume 
(1846). He published a 'History of Scotland 
(1853, 1867-70), 'The Book-hunter' (1862), 
'The Scot Abroad' (1864), and^many other 
treatises and editions, chiefly historical. 

(1821-90), matriculated at Trinity College, 
Oxford, but joined the Indian Army in 1843 
without graduating. His Indian experiences 
are recorded in 'Scinde, or the Unhappy 
Valley' (1851); his experiences in Africa, 
where he travelled with Speke, in 'First 
Footsteps in East Africa' (1856) and 'The 
Lake Region of Central Africa* (1860). He 
was one of the first Englishmen to visit Mecca, 
making the pilgrimage in *disguise, and pub- 
lished his narrative thereof in 1855-6. After 
many other travels in Africa and America, 
recorded in various volumes, he devoted 
himself to literature and published his trans- 
lation of the 'Arabian Nights' (q.v.) in 
1885-8. Burton also wrote a translation of 
the 'Lusiads' of Camoens (q.v., iSSj). He 
was consul at Damascus, 1869-71; *uicL at 
Trieste (1872), where he died. 
BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1640), edu- 
cated at Nuneaton and Sutton Coldfield 
schools, and at Brasenose College and Christ 
Church, Oxford, became vicar of St. 
Thomas's, Oxford, and rector of Segrave, 
Leicestershire. He was author of the 
'Anatomy of Melancholy* (q.v.). 

BURY, RICHARD DE (1281-1345), named 
from his birthplace, Bury St. Edmunds, was 
tutor to Edward III when Prince of Wales, 
became bishop of Durham, and is celebrated 
as a patron of learning. He was an ardent 
collector of books, employing for this pur- 
pose members of the mendicant orders. He 
founded a library in Durham College, Oxford, 
and was author of 'Philobiblon*, the auto- 
biographical sketch in Latin of a lover of 
letters, first printed in 1473. An English 
translation was published in 1832. 

Busby, RICHARD (1606-95), educated at 
Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, 
was a famous head master of Westminster 
School from 1638 to 1695. Among his pupils 
were Dryden, Locke, Atterbury, and Matthew 


Busirane, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, in. 
xi and xii, the 'vile Enchaunter' symbolizing 
unlawful love. He is stricken down by Brito- 
mart in his castle and forced to release 
Amoret. On the door of one of the rooms of 
the castle was written: 

'Be bolde, be botde, and everywhere, Be 

but on another iron door, 

'Be not too bold.' 

Busiris, a mythical king of Egypt, son of 
Poseidon, who sacrificed all strangers who 
came to the country. He was slain by 
Hercules. There was a city of Busiris 
(Abousir) in the Delta. Milton attributes the 
name Busiris to the Pharaoh of the Exodus 
('Paradise Lost', i. 306). 
Busiris, King of Egypt, a tragedy by Edward 
Young (q.v.). 

Buskin, a word existing in many European 
languages, whose ultimate derivation is un- 
known. The special source of the English 
word is likewise uncertain. It is the word 
used for the high thick-soled boot (cothurnus) 
worn by actors in ancient Athenian tragedy, 
frequently contrasted with the 'sock' (soccus) 
or low shoe worn by comedians. Hence ^it is 
applied figuratively to the style or spirit of 
tragedy, the tragic vein. To put on the buskins, 
to write tragedy. [OED.] 

Bussy D'Ambois, a tragedy by Chapman 
(q.v.), published in 1607, and the most fam- 
ous of the author's plays. It was severely 
criticized by Dryden. 

Bussy D'Ambois, (in real life, Louis de 
Bussy-d'Amboise), a man of insolence and 
fiery courage, is introduced to the court of 
Henri III of France by Monsieur, brother of 
the king, his protector. He quarrels with the 
king's courtiers, of whom he kills three in an 
encounter, and even with the Due de Guise. 
He wins the favours of the wife of the count 
of Montsurry (Montsoreau), and this fact 
becoming known to Monsieur, who is also 
enamoured of the lady, is by him from 
jealousy revealed to Montsurry. The latter 
forces his wife by torture to send a letter 
summoning Bussy to her. On his arrival, 
Bussy is overpowered and killed. 

The story is the same as that told by 
Dumas in 'La Dame de Montsoreau*. It is 
interesting that both writers make the same 
alteration of the actual fact, which was that 
the king, who detested Bussy, and not Mon- 
sieur, revealed Bussy's amour to Montsoreau. 

Bussy D'Ambois, The Revenge of, a tragedy 
by Chapman (q.v.), composed in 1610 or 
161 1, printed in 1613. The play is a sequel to 
the tragedy 'Bussy D'Ambois* (q.v.). 

Clermont D'Ambois, brother of Bussy, a 
courageous stoical gentleman, close friend of 
the Due de Guise, being urged by the ghost 
of his dead brother to avenge his murder, 
will only do so by the honourable method of 
a duel, for which he sends a challenge to the 



cowardly Montsurry, who evades it. Urged 
again by the ghost, he introduces himself to 
Montsurry's house, forces him to fight, and 
kills him. He then learns the assassination of 
his patron Guise, and refusing to live amid 
'all the horrors of the vicious time', kills 
himself. The similarity of the play in certain 
respects to Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' is evident. 

Busybody, The, a comedy by Mrs. Centlivre 
(q.v.), produced in 1709. 

Sir George Airy and Miranda are in love 
with one another, but her guardian, Sir 
Francis Gripe, has the design of marrying 
her himself and believes that she loves him. 
The devices by which his intentions are 
defeated, and those by which Charles, Gripe's 
son, secures the hand of Isabinda, whom her 
father intends for a Spanish merchant, 
occupy the play. The character of Marplot, 
whose well-meant but misdirected inter- 
ference constantly endangers the course of 
true love, has enriched the language with a 
name for the blundering busybody. 

Butcher, THE BLOODY, a term applied to 
the duke of Cumberland, second son of 
George II, on account of the cruelty with 
which, after Culloden, he suppressed the 
rebellion of 1745. 

BUTLER, ALBAN (1711-73), educated at 
Douai, where he was subsequently professor 
of philosophy and divinity. In 1746 he was 
sent to England and became chaplain to the 
duke of Norfolk. He was president of the 
English college at St. Omer, 1768-73. He 
was author of 'The Lives of the . . . Principal 
Saints* (1756-9). 

BUTLER, JOSEPH (1692-1752), was son of 
a Presbyterian linen-draper at Wantage, and 
was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. He 
was made rector of Haughton-le-Skerne in 
Durham in 1722, and in 1725 of Stanhope 
in the same county. In 1736 he was brought 
into prominence by being appointed clerk of 
the closet to the queen, and in 1738 bishop of 
Bristol, from which he was translated to 
Durham in 1750. In 1726 he published 
'Fifteen Sermons' preached at the Rolls 
Chapel, in which ' he defines^ his moral 
philosophy, affirming an intuitional theory 
of virtue. While recognizing benevolence 
and a due degree of self-love as elements in 
virtuous conduct, he regards conscience as 
governing and limiting them by considera- 
tions, not of happiness or misery, but of right 
and wrong. In 1736 appeared his * Analogy 
of Religion' (q.v.), a defence of the Christian 
religion against the Deists by showing that 
their natural religion is open to the same 
objections as revelation. To this was added 
his essay, 'Of the Nature of Virtue*. 

Butler, THE REV. REUBEN, in Scott's 'The 
Heart of Midlothian* (q.v.), Jeanie Deans's 
lover and husband. 

BUTLER, SAMUEL ('Hudibras' Butler) 
(1612-80), born at Strensham in Worcester- 


shire, the son of a farmer, and educated 
at the King's School, Worcester. As atten- 
dant on Elizabeth, countess of Kent, he be- 
came acquainted with Selden (q.v.). Nothing 
further is known of his life until 1661, when 
he was employed by the earl of Carbery. 
About 1673 he enjoyed the patronage of 
George Villiers, second duke of Buckingham, 
who, however, is satirized in his 'Characters* 
(on the model of those of Theophrastus, q.v., 
published in his 'Genuine Remains* in 1759) 
and his 'Hudibras' (q.v.). Of the latter work, 
Pt. I was published in 1663, Pt. II in 1664, 
and Pt. Ill in 1678. It was highly approved 
by Charles II, who gave the author 300 and 
later a pension of 100 a year ; but Butler was 
perhaps for a time neglected, and was said to 
have died in penury. This is commemorated 
in the epigram on the monument erected to 
his memory in Westminster Abbey: 

The Poets Fate is here in emblem shown: 
He asked for Bread and he received a 

Butler's verse also includes *The Elephant 
in the Moon*, a satire directed against Sir 
Paul Neale, of the Royal Society. The 
elephant turns out to be a mouse, which has 
got into the telescope. Butler's 'Genuine 
Remains in Verse and Prose* were edited in 
1759 by Robert Thyer, and more completely 
by A. R. Waller and R. Lamar in 1908-28. 

BUTLER, SAMUEL ('Erewhon* Butler) 
(18351902), the grandson of Dr. Samuel 
Butler (1774-1839), the great head master of 
Shrewsbury School and bishop of Lichfield, 
was educated at Shrewsbury and St. John's 
College, Cambridge. He abandoned the inten- 
tion of taking holy orders and went to New 
Zealand in 1859, where he succeeded as a sheep 
breeder, as recounted in his 'A First Year in 
Canterbury Settlement' (1863). He returned 
to England in 1864 and settled in Clifford's 
Inn. In 1872 he published 'Erewhon* (q.v.) 
and in 1873 'The Fair Haven*, an ironic 
defence of Christian evidences. 'A Psalm of 
Montreal*, a short satirical presentation of 
the conflict between Greek art and modem 
gospels, evoked by the discovery of a plaster 
cast of the Discobolus in a Montreal lumber- 
room, was written in Canada in 1875 and pub- 
lished in 1884. He next wrote a series of works 
of scientific controversy, 'Life and Habit* 
(1877), 'Evolution Old and New* and 'God the 
Known and God the Unknown* (1879), 'Un- 
conscious Memory '(1880), 'Luck or Cunning* 
(1887), and 'The Deadlock in Darwinism*. 
His general attitude in these was one of pro- 
test against the Darwinian banishment of 
mind from the universe; and he maintained 
the transmissibility, by heredity, of acquired 
habits. He published in 1881 'Alps and 
Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Ticino', a 
delightful travel-book combining wit and 
humour with a keen appreciation of beauty 
of scenery and the character of the people; 
and in 1888 'Ex Voto*, on the Sacro Monte 


of Varallo-Sesia. In 1896 appeared his 
"Life and Letters of Dr. Samuel Butler', his 
grandfather. Meanwhile Butler had developed 
a keen interest in Homer, which led to his 
theory of the feminine authorship of the 
'Odyssey' and its origin at Trapani in Sicily. 
On the latter subject he published an article 
in 1893; 'The Authoress of the Odyssey* 
appeared in 1897, and translations of the 
'Iliad* and the 'Odyssey' into a vigorous 
homely prose in 1898 and 1900. 'Shake- 
speare's Sonnets Reconsidered' appeared in 
1899, and 'Erewhon Revisited' (q.v.) in 1901. 
Butler's autobiographical novel, 'The Way 
of All Flesh* (q.v.) was published post- 
humously in 1903, and selections from his 
note-books in 1912, under the title, 'The 
Note-books of Samuel Butler'. 

Butler was pre-eminently a satirist, who 
waged war against the torpor of thought, the 
suppression of originality, the hypocrisies and 
conventions, that he saw around him. 

Button's Coffee-house, the rival of Will's 
(q.v.), stood in Russell Street, Covent Garden. 
It was frequented by Dryden, Addison, 
Steele, and Pope. Button was an old servant 
of Addison. 

Buzfuz, MR. SERJEANT, in Dickens's 'Pick- 
wick Papers' (q.v.), counsel for the plaintiff in 
Bardell v. Pickwick. 

Bycorne, see Chichevacke. 

By- Ends, MR., in Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress* (q.v.), 'a very arch fellow, a downright 
hypocrite; one that would be religious, 
which way ever the world went: but so 
cunning, that he would be sure never to lose 
or suffer for it'. 

Byng, ADMIRAL JOHN (1704-57), was sent in 
1756 to relieve Port Mahon in Minorca, 
which was threatened by a French fleet. He 
was repulsed, sentenced by court-martial for 
neglect of duty, and shot at Portsmouth. 
Voltaire wrote, in 'Candide* (1759), *I1 est 
bon de tuer de temps en ternps un amiral 
pour encourager les autres*. 

Byrhtnoth's Death, see Maldon (Battle of). 

BYROM, JOHN (1692-1763), educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and a fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He taught 
shorthand in Manchester, where he chiefly 
lived, ^ and elsewhere, and wrote, besides a 
quantity^ of religious verse, a pleasant 
anapaestic 'Pastoral* celebrating the daughter 
of Richard Bentley (q.v.), with whom he fell 
in love. He was a Jacobite and an enthusiastic 
admirer of W. Law (q.v.) and turned some 
of his teaching into verse, introducing the 
anapaest with strange effect. His 'Private 
Journal and Literary Remains' throw much 
light on Law's character. Byrom wrote the 
hymn, 'Christians, awake! Salute the happy 

(1788-1824), son of Captain John Byron, a 


profligate, and Catherine Gordon of Gight, 
was born in London and came into the title 
when ten years old. He had unexpectedly 
become heir-presumptive in 1794, in conse- 
quence of the fifth baron's grandson falling 
in action in Corsica. He was educated at 
Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. 
While at Cambridge he printed his 'Hours of 
Idleness* (at first named 'Juvenilia'), pub- 
lished in 1807, which were severely criticized 
in the 'Edinburgh Review*. To this criticism 
he replied, in 1809, in 'English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers' (q.v.). From 1809 to 1811 
he travelled abroad, visiting Portugal, Spain, 
Greece, and the Levant, and addressing 'Maid 
of Athens* to Theresa Maori. On his return he 
took^his seat in the Lords, and in 1812 pub- 
lished the first two cantos of 'Childe Harold* 
(q.v.). During the next four years appeared 
'The Giaour', 'The Bride of Abydos*, 'The 
Corsair', 'Lara', 'Parisina*, 'The Siege of 
Corinth', and 'Hebrew Melodies' (all dealt 
with under their titles), also 'The Dream', a 
beautiful visionary poem in blank verse. In 
1815 Byron married Anne Isabella Milbanke, 
an heiress, from whom he was separated in 
1816. He thereupon left England, never to 
return, embittered by the strictures of what 
he regarded as a hypocritical society. In 
company part of the time with the Shelleys, 
he travelled to Switzerland and Venice, 
which, with Ravenna, Pisa, and Genoa, be- 
came his head-quarters. Canto iii of 'Childe 
Harold* appeared in 1816, canto iv in 1818. 
In 1817 appeared 'The Lament of Tasso*, a 
dramatic soliloquy, expressing the poet's 
passionate love and regret, as he lies in prison, 
for Leonora d'Este. Byron wrote the first 
five cantos of 'Don Juan* (q.v.) in 1818-20; 
'Beppo* (q.v.) appeared in 1818. In 1819 
began his connexion with Teresa, Countess 
Guiccioli, who lived with him for a time at 
Venice, and whom he followed to Ravenna. 
While there and subsequently at Pisa he 
wrote his dramas, the principal of which are 
'Manfred', 'Cain', 'Marino Faliero', 'The 
Two Foscari', 'Sardanapalus', 'Heaven and 
Earth" (dealt with under their titles); also 
'Mazeppa* (q.v.), 'The Prophecy of Dante* (a 
dramatic soliloquy embodying the poet's 
vision of the future liberation of Italy), and 
the later cantos of the unfinished 'Don Juan*. 
In 1822 Byron and Leigh Hunt joined in 
the production of 'The Liberal* magazine. 
The first number contained Byron's 'The 
Vision of Judgment* (q.v.), an outcome of his 
feud with Southey. The second contained 
'Heaven and Earth'; and the fourth, Byron's 
translation of the first canto of Pulci's 'Mor- 
gante Maggiore*. No further numbers ap- 
peared. In 1823 Byron set out to join the 
Greek insurgents, and died of fever at 
Missolonghi in April 1824. His last works 
include the tragedy 'Werner* (q.v., 1823), 
the beautiful romantic verse tale "The Island* 
(q.v., 1823), *The Age of Bronze' (1823), a 
satirical poem inspired by the Congress of 
Verona, and 'The Deformed Transformed* 



(q.v.), an unfinished drama (1834). Byron's 
body was brought home from Greece and 
buried at Hucknall Torkard, in Nottingham- 
shire, near his family seat. 

Byron's poetry, though much criticized on 
moral grounds, was immensely popular at 
home, and also abroad, where it exerted great 
influence on the Romantic movement. This 
popularity it owed to the author's persistent 
attacks on 'cant political, religious, and moral*, 
to the novelty of his oriental scenery, to the 
romantic character of the Byronic hero (con- 
stantly reappearing in successive works), and 
to the ease and fluency, and (very frequently) 
the real beauty, of his verse. 

Byron, HARRIET, the heroine of Richardson's 
'Sir Charles Grandison* (q.v.). 

BYRON, JOHN (1723-86), as a midship- 
man on the 'Wager', one of the ships of Lord 
Anson's squadron in his famous voyage, was 
wrecked on an island off the coast of Chile in 
1741. His 'Narrative* of the shipwreck, pub- 
lished in 1768, was used by his grandson, 
Lord Byron, in his description of the storm 
and wreck in *Don Juan*. 

Byron, The Conspiracy and Tragedy of 
Charles Duke of, a double play by Chapman 
(q.v.), published in 1608. 

The play deals with the intrigues of Charles 
Gontaut, Due de Biron, a brave soldier who 
had fought successfully and been nobly re- 
warded by Henri IV of France, but whose 
overweening ambition made him disloyal to 
the king. His plots are discovered, he asks 
forgiveness and is pardoned. But his restless 
ambition makes him prepare a new con- 
spiracy, which is revealed to the king. He is 
arrested and condemned to death. He pro- 
fesses his innocence and is reduced to frenzy 
and despair when he realizes that he is to die. 


Byronic, characteristic of or resembling 
Lord Byron (q.v.) or his poetry, that is to say, 
contemptuous of and rebelling against con- 
ventional morality, or defying fate, or pos- 
sessing the characteristics of Byron's romantic 
heroes, or imitating his dress and appearance ; 
'posturing statuesque pathetic*, as Meredith 
describes it ; * a man proud, moody, cynical, 
with defiance on his brow, and misery in his 
heart, a scorner of his kind, implacable in 
revenge, yet capable of deep and strong affec- 
tion' (Macaulay, /Byron'). 

BYWATER, INGRAM (1840-1914), edu- 
cated at University College School and King's 
College School, London, and at Queen's 
College, Oxford, and a fellow of Exeter 
College, was an eminent Greek scholar. He 
succeeded Jowettas Regius professor of Greek 
in 1893. He had acquired a European repu- 
tation by his edition (1877) of the Fragments 
of Heraclitus. His monumental edition of the 
'Poetics' of Aristotle appeared in 1909. He 
made important contributions to the OED'., 
and guided the critical methods of the editors 
of the long series of Oxford Classical Texts. 

Byzantine, the word used to designate the 
art, and especially the architecture, developed 
in the Eastern division of the Roman Empire. 
This Eastern division endured from the 
partition of the Empire between the two sons 
of Theodosius in A.D. 395 to the capture of 
Constantinople, its capital, formerly known 
as Byzantium, by the Turks in 1453. The 
Byzantine architecture is distinguished by its 
use of the round arch, cross, circle, dome, and 
rich mosaic ornament. St. Mark's at Venice 
is a prominent example. 

The 'Byzantine historians* are those who 
lived in the Eastern Empire from the 6th 
to the 1 5th cents. 

C.IJX, the Criminal Investigation Depart- 
ment of Scotland Yard. 
C.S.C., see Calverley. 

Qa ira, the name of a celebrated French 
revolutionary song, of which the refrain is 

Ah! 53 ira, 9aira! 

Les aristocrates a la lanterne! 

Caaba, see Kaaba. 

Cabal, from the Hebrew word qabbalah 
(see Cabbala), a secret intrigue of a sinister 
character formed by a small body of persons, 
or a small body of persons engaged in such an 
intrigue; in British history applied specially to 
the five ministers of Charles II who signed the 
treaty of alliance with France for war against 
Holland in 1672; these were Clifford, Arling- 
ton, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale, 
the initials of whose names thus arranged 
happened to form the word cdbaL [OED J 

Cabbala, from the Hebrew qabbalah, tradi- 
tion, a Jewish tradition of the mystical inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures, a reaction from 
the rationalism of the school of Maimonides 
(q.v.), developed between the 9th and I3th 
cents., comprising the 'Sepher Yezirah* ('Book 
of Creation*) and the 'Zohar* ('Splendour*). 
These mystic doctrines included the exist- 
ence of 'Sephiroth*, realized abstractions or 
emanations, by which the infinite entered 
into relations with the finite; and the belief 
that the letters of the biblical text, converted 
into numbers, may be manipulated in such 
a way as to reveal hidden truths. There is 
perhaps a trace of this in the number of the 
Beast in Rev. xiii. 18. 

American novelist, born at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, His chief works are: 'The Rivet in 
Grandfather's Neck* (1915)* 'Jurgen* (1919), 


'Figures of Earth* (1921), 'The High Place' 
(1923), 'The Silver Stallion' (1926), Some- 
thing about Eve* (1927)- 
(1844-1925), American novelist, author of 
some charming stories of the old Creole 
society of Louisiana, including 'Old Creole 
Days 1 (1879), 'The Grandissimes' (1880), and 
'Madame Delphine' (1881). 
Gacodemon, from the Greek word meaning 
an evil spirit, in which sense it is used in 
Shakespeare's 'Richard III', I. iii. In 
astrology the name is applied to the Twelfth 
House in a figure of the Heavens, so called 
from its baleful influence. 

Gacus, a famous robber, son of Vulcan and 
Medusa, represented as a three-headed 
monster vomiting flames. He stole some of 
the oxen of Hercules, and dragged them 
backwards into his cave to escape discovery. 
Hercules departed without perceiving the 
theft, but the lowing of his other oxen was 
answered by those in the cave. Hercules 
thereupon attacked Cacus and strangled him 
in his arms. 

Cade, JACK, REBELLION OF, a political move- 
ment in 1450 by the men oi Kent against the 
misrule of Henry VI and his council. It was 
headed by Jack Cade, an Irish adventurer 
who took the name of Mortimer. With a 
large mob he marched on London, entered 
the city in triumph and beheaded Lord Say, 
the lord treasurer. After a fight on London 
Bridge, the insurgents deserted Cade, who 
was pursued into Sussex and slain. 

Cadenus and Vanessa, a poem by Swift 
(q.v.), written in 1713 for Esther Vanhom- 
righ ('Vanessa*, q.v.), and published after her 
death by her request. It is the narrative, in 
rnock classical form, of the author's relations 
with *Vanessa" and an apology for his conduct. 
* Cadenus' is an obvious anagram of 'Decanus*. 
It is evident that Miss Vanhomrigh took no 
exception to his statement of the facts, since 
she preserved the poem and desired it to be 

Cadmean victory, *a victory involving one's 
own ruin' (Liddell and Scott), usually 
associated with Thebes or the Thebans. 
Cadmus (q.v.) was the founder of Thebes. 
Cf. Pyrrhic Victory. 

Cadmus, son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, 
was sent by his father in search of his 
sister Europa (q.v.), whom Zeus had carried 
away. His companions were devoured by a 
dragon, which he attacked and overcame by 
the assistance of Athene. He sowed its 
teeth in the plain, upon which armed men 
sprang up. He threw a stone in the midst 
of them, whereupon they turned their arms 
against each other, till all perished except 
five, who helped Cadmus to found the city of 
Thebes in Boeotia. Cadmus married Har- 
monia, a daughter of Aphrodite. Owing to the 
misfortunes of their children (Ino, Semele, 


qq.v., c.), whom Hera persecuted, Cadmus 
and Harmonia entreated the gods to relieve 
them of the miseries of life, and were turned 
into serpents. Cadmus was reputed the first 
to introduce the use of letters into Greece. 
Cadogan, a mode of knotting the hair behind 
the head, said to be derived from the first 
earl of Cadogan (d. 1726). It was popular 
among French ladies in the i8th cent. 
Cadoudal, GEORGES (1771-1804), a leader 
of the Chouans (q.v.), executed for plotting 
against the Hfe of Napoleon Buonaparte. 
CadflcSus, the wand carried by an ancient 
Greek or Roman herald, and specially the 
fabled wand carried by Hermes (q.v.) as 
messenger of the gods. It is usually repre- 
sented with two serpents twined round it. 
As Hermes was thought to have the power 
of bringing sleep to men, Milton ('Paradise 
Lost', xi. 132) speaks of 'the pastoral reed 
of Hermes, or his opiate rod*. 
Cadwal, in Shakespeare's 'Cymbeline' 
(q.v.), the name borne by Arviragus while 
he lived in the woods. 

Gadwallader, the son of Cadwallon and last 
king of the Britons, who reigned in the 7th 
cent. He defended Wales against the Saxons, 
and Merlin prophesied his return at some 
future time to expel them. He joined Penda, 
king of Mercia (an Angle), against Eadwine, 
the Angle king of Northumbria. 

CADWALLADER is also the name of a 
character in Smollett's Teregrine Pickle* 
(q.v.), and a Mrs. Cadwallader figures in 
George Eliot's 'Middlemarch* (q.v.). 
CJEDMON (corruptly CEDMON), (fl. 670), 
entered the monastery of Streaneshalch 
(Whitby) between 658 and 680, when already 
an elderly man. He is said by Bseda to have 
been an unlearned herdsman, who received 
suddenly, in a vision, the power of song, and 
later put into English verse passages trans- 
lated to him from the Scriptures. The name 
Csedmon cannot be explained in English, 
and has been conjectured to be Celtic (an 
adaptation of the British Catumanus). In 
1655 Fran?oisDujon(Franciscus Junius) pub- 
lished at Amsterdam from the unique Bodleian 
MS. Junius 1 1 (c. 1000) long scriptural poems, 
which he took to be those of Csedmon. It is 
now generally admitted that these poems are 
of at least two dates, the first portion (con- 
taining versions of Genesis, Exodus, Daniel) 
being earlier than the second portion (i, the 
fall of man ; 2, the descent into hell, ascension, 
and second advent; 3, the temptation), and 
all of them later than Csedmon. The only 
authentic fragment of his work that survives 
is his first Hymn, which Bede quotes. 
Caelestina, a character in Dekker's 'Satiro- 
mastix' (q.v.). See also Celestina. 
Caelia, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene* (q.v.), 
I. x, the Lady of the House of Holiness, 
mother of Fidelia, Speranza, and Charissa 
(Faith, Hope, and Charity). 



Caelica, a collection of sonnets and songs by 
Sir Fulke Greville (q.v.). 

Caerleon, see Carlion. 

Caermarthen, Black Book of, a Welsh MS. 
of the 1 2th cent., containing poems attributed 
to the great traditional bards of Wales. 

CAESAR, the name of a patrician family 
of Rome, which CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR, the 
conqueror of Gaul and dictator (102 ?~44 B.C.), 
raised to the highest eminence. He was not 
only a great general and statesman, but an 
orator, poet, and historian. The only work 
of his that has come down to us is his 'Com- 
mentarii', the history of the first seven years 
of the Gallic War, and of part of the Civil 
War. The name Caesar was assumed by 
his adopted son, Octavianus, on whom the 
Senate conferred the title 'Augustus', and 
by Tiberius as the adopted son of Augustus. 
Both names were used by successive emperors, 
whether of the family of Caesar or not. Caesar 
survived as a title in Kaiser and Tsar. 

Caesar's Wife: Julius Caesar divorced his 
wife Pompeia, who was accused of an in- 
trigue with Clodius, not because he thought 
her guilty, but because Caesar's wife must be 
above suspicion. 

Caesar and Cleopatra, a play by G. B. Shaw 
(q.v., 1901). 

Caesar and Luath, Burns's 'Twa Dogs*. 

Caesar and Pompey, a Roman tragedy by 
Chapman (q.v.), published 1631, but written 
at an earlier date. 

It deals with the contention of Caesar and 
Pompey, the events leading up to the battle 
of Pharsalus (48 B.C.), the murder of Pompey, 
and the suicide of Cato of Utica. The latter 
is the real hero of the play, of which the 
motto is 'Only a just man is a free man*. 

Caesaraugusta, in imprints, Saragossa. 

Caesarean or CAESARIAN operation or 

SECTION, the delivery of a child by cutting 
through the walls of the abdomen, as was done 
in the case of Julius Caesar. 

Caesarion, son of Caius Julius Caesar (q.v.) 
and Cleopatra (q.v.). He was executed by 
order of Augustus. 

Caesu'ra, in Greek and Latin prosody, the 
division of a metrical foot between two 
words, especially in certain recognized places 
near the middle of the line; in English 
prosody, a pause about the middle of a 
metrical line, generally indicated by a pause 
in the sense. 

Cagliostro, COUNT ALESSANDRO (i743~95)> 
whose real name was Giuseppe Balsamo, 
was a charlatan born at Palermo. After a 
dissolute and criminal youth, he travelled 
in the East and studied alchemy. He then 
wandered about Europe selling drugs and 
philtres, and acquired a great reputation. 
He visited London several times and was 
received in the best society, but finally under- 


went a period of imprisonment in the Fleet. 
In 1785 he was implicated in the affair of the 
'Diamond Necklace 5 (q.v.). He was acquitted 
in this connexion, but imprisoned on other 
grounds. He was finally arrested in Rome in 
1789 as a heretic (on the denunciation of his 
wife, Serafina) and sentenced to death, but 
the punishment was commuted to perpetual 

Ca&ors, in the S. of France, a famous seat 
of Italian money-changers and financiers in 
the Middle Ages ; whence the name CAORSIN 
for a money-dealer from Cahors. The 
Caorsins were expelled from England by 
Henry III in 1240, readmitted on the inter- 
vention of the pope in 1250, and again pro- 
scribed and imprisoned in 1251 'on account 
of their unbounded and detestable usury* 
[OED.]. Dante couples Cahors with Sodom 
in 'Inferno* xi. 50. 

Cain: A Mystery, a tragedy by Lord Byron 
(q.v.), published in 1821. 

Cain, revolting against the toil imposed upon 
him as the consequence of another's fault, 
and puzzled to reconcile what he sees with 
what he has been taught of the Omnipotent 
God, becomes a pupil of Lucifer, and ques- 
tions him as to the problems of existence. 
Lucifer's teaching intensifies the revolt of 
Cain against the conditions he endures, and in 
a fit of passion at Abel's devotion to Jehovah, 
he strikes his brother and kills him. Re- 
morse and punishment follow, and Cain goes 
out into exile. The audacity of the poem 
aroused intense indignation, and evoked many 
attacks on the author. 
Cain, The Wanderings of, see Wanderings. 
Cain- coloured, of the reputed colour of the 
hair of Cain, to whom, as to Judas Iscariot, a 
red or reddish-yellow beard was attributed. 
He hath but a little wee face, with a little 
yellow beard, a Cain-coloured beard. 

(Shakespeare, 'Merry Wives', I. iv. 22.) 

(1853-1931), of Manx and Cumberland 
parentage, was befriended by D. G. Rossetti 
(q.v.), whom he first met in 1880. Caine was 
Rossettfs housemate from 1881 tiU the 
latter's death. He was author of a number 
of novels of wide popularity, many of them 
centred in the Isle of Man, including 'The 
Shadow of a Crime* (1885), 'The Deemster* 
(1887), 'The Bondman' (1890), 'The Scape- 
goaf (1891), 'The Manxman* (1894), 'The 
Christian* (1897), 'The Eternal City* (1901), 
'The Prodigal Son' (1904), 'The White Pro- 
phet* (1909), 'The Woman Thou Gavest Me* 
(1913). Several of the above have been 
dramatized. 'My Story*, a narrative of the 
early years of Caine's literary career, ap- 
peared in 1908. 

Gairbar, in Macpherson*s Ossianic poems, 
a lord of Connaught, who rebels against 
King Corrnac, murders him and usurps the 
crown. It is he who slays, and is slain by* 
Oscar, son of Ossian, 


CAIRD, EDWARD (1835-1908), educated 
at Greenock Academy, Glasgow and St. 
Andrews Universities, and Balliol College, 
Oxford, which he entered in 1860. An older 
man than his fellow-undergraduates at 
Balliol, he found his most intimate associates 
among graduates, notably T. H. Green (q.v.). 
Jowett was his tutor. He became fellow and 
tutor of Merton College, and in 1866 pro- 
fessor of moral philosophy at Glasgow. In 
1893 he succeeded Jowett as master of 
Balfiol College. In his 'Philosophy of Kant' 
(1868), 'The Critical Philosophy of Im- 
manuel Kant* (1889), and his monograph on 
Hegel (1883), he produced brilliant ex- 
positions and criticisms of the systems of 
these two philosophers. In 1893 he published 
his Gifford lectures on 'The Evolution of 

CAIRD, JOHN (1820-98), principal of the 
University of Glasgow, and elder brother of 
Edward Caird (q.v.) ; author of 'An Introduc- 
tion to the Philosophy of Religion' (1880), in 
which he discusses the evolution of religion, 
and shows ground for thinking that theorganic 
development of Christianity is not inconsis- 
tent with its divine or supernatural origin. 

Cains (pron. 'Keys*) College, Cambridge 
(full title, Gonville and Caius College), was 
formerly Gonville Hall, which was founded 
by Edmund Gonville in 1348. John Caius 
or Kay (1510-73), scholar and physician to 
Edward VI and Mary, who was educated 
at Gonville Hall, refounded and enlarged it as 
Caius College in I557,andwasmaster, 1559-73. 

Caius, DR., a character in Shakespeare's 
c Merry Wives of Windsor' (q.v.). 

Calais was taken by Edward III in 1347, 
the lives of the principal burgesses being 
spared at Queen Philippa's intercession. It 
was recaptured in Mary's reign by the duke 
of Guise (1558), to the deep mortification of 
the queen. During her last illness she told 
a lady-in-waiting, 'When I am dead and 
opened, you shall find Calais lying upon my 
heart' (Holinshed). 

Calandrino, a foolish credulous fellow, to 
whom many ludicrous misfortunes happen 
in the Decameron (q.v.) of Boccaccio (e.g. 
viii. 3, viii. 6, ix. 3). 

Calantha, the heroine of Ford's The 
Broken Heart* (q.v.). 


(1600-81), a great Spanish dramatist, and the 
successor of Lope de Vega (q.v.). Eight of 
his plays were translated into English by 
Fitzgerald (q.v.). The best known is 'La 
Vida es Sueno 5 . Dryden, Goethe, Shelley, 
Bridges, among others, were under obliga- 
tions to him. Besides some 120 plays, Cal- 
derdn wrote more than 70 autos, dramatic 
presentations of the Mystery of the Holy 
Eucharist, in which his genius is said to be 
seen at its best (Magnus, 'Diet, of European 


CALDERON, GEORGE (1868-1915), Eng- 
lish dramatist, was educated at Rugby and 
Trinity College, Oxford. His plays include: 
'The Fountain' (1909), 'The Little Stone 
House* (1911), 'Revolt' (1912), and a tragedy 
in blank verse, 'Cromwell : Mall o' Monks' (in 
his collected plays, 1921-2). 

Caleb Balderstone, a character in Scott's 
*The Bride of Lammermoor' (q.v.). 

Caleb Williams, Adventures of, a novel by 
W. Godwin (q.v.), published in 1794. 

This work is interesting as an early example 
of the propagandist novel and the novel of 
crime and its detection. It was designed to 
show 'the tyranny and perfidiousness exer- 
cised by the powerful members of the com- 
munity against those who are less privileged 
than themselves*. The first part of the book 
deals with the misdeeds of Tyrrel, an arro- 
gant and tyrannical country squire, who 
ruins one of his tenants, Hawkins, for re- 
fusing to yield to one of his whims, and 
drives to the grave his niece, Miss Melville, 
for refusing to marry a boor of his selection. 
In the course of these doings he comes into 
conflict with Falkland, a neighbouring squire 
of high-minded and benevolent disposition, 
knocks him down in public, and is shortly 
after found murdered. Suspicion falls on 
Falkland as the murderer, but is diverted to 
Hawkins and his son, who are tried and 
executed. From this time Falkland becomes 
eccentric and solitary. Caleb Williams, the 
self-educated son of humble parents, is ap- 
pointed his secretary, and presently becomes 
convinced that Falkland is in fact the mur- 
derer of Tyrrel. The remainder of the book 
is taken up with the unrelenting persecution 
of Williams by Falkland, in spite of Williams's 
devotion to his employer, and his refusal 
to betray the latter's secret. By Falkland's 
cunning dispositions, Williams is imprisoned 
on a charge of robbing his employer. He 
escapes from prison, but is tracked from con- 
cealment to concealment by Falkland's 
agents, until, driven to desperation, he lays a 
charge of murder against Falkland, is con- 
fronted with him, and although he has no 
proof to offer, by the generosity and sincerity 
of his statement, wins from the murderer a 
confession of his own guilt. 

Caledonia , the Roman name for the northern 
part of Britain. Hence used poetically for 

Calendar, the system according to which the 
beginning and length of the year are fixed. 

The JULIAN CALENDAR is that introduced 
by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C., in which the 
ordinary year has 365 days, and every fourth 
year is a leap year of 366 days, the months 
having the names, order, and length still 
retained. This was known as 'Old Style* 
when the Gregorian Calendar was introduced. 

The GREGORIAN CALENDAR is the modi- 
fication of the preceding, adapted to bring it 
into closer conformity with astronomical data 


and the natural course of the seasons, and to 
rectify the error already contracted by its use. 
This modification was introduced by Pope 
Gregory XIII in 1582, and adopted in Great 
Britain in 1752. It was known as 'New Style'. 
The error, due to the fact that the Julian year 
of 365! days (allowing for leap years) was 
ii minutes 10 seconds too long, amounted 
in 1752 to 1 1 days, and in order to correct this, 
2 Sept. was in that year followed by 14 Sept., 
while for the future the years 2000, 2400, 
2800, were to be reckoned as leap years, but 
the other hundredth years, 1800, 1900, 2100, 
&c., were to be ordinary years. 

the year begin at the autumnal equinox, and 
was in use in France from 22 Sept. 1792, date 
of the proclamation of the Republic, until 
i Jan. 1806. Its twelve months of thirty days 
(supplemented by five intercalary days) were 
Vendemiaire (Sept.-Oct.), Brumaire (Oct.- 
Nov.), Frimaire (Nov.-Dec.), Nivdse (Dec.- 
Jan.), Plumose (Jan.-Feb.), Ventdse (Feb.- 
Mar.), Germinal (Mar.-Apr.), Floreal (Apr.- 
May), Prairial (May-June), Messidor (June- 
July), Thermidor (July-Aug.), Fructidor 
(Aug.-Sept.). The names were invented by 
Fabre d'Eglantine (1755-94), tne French 
poet, and the chronological arrangement de- 
vised by Gilbert Romme (1750-95). 

The JEWISH CALENDAR combines solar 
years with lunar months, an additional month 
being intercalated in each of seven years in 
every cycle of nineteen years. It reckons 
from the creation of the world (3760 B.C.). 
The new year begins on the first day of the 
month Tishri. Thus A.D. 1932 = A.M. 5692- 
3, Tishri i of A.M. 5693 falling on I Oct. 1932. 

consists of twelve lunar months dating from 
1 6 July 622, the day of the Hegira (q.v.). 

See also Calends, Nones, Ides, and Newgate 

Calender or KALENDER, one of a mendicant 
order of dervishes in Turkey and Persia. 

Calends or KALENDS, the first day of any 
month in the ancient Roman calendar. The 
Romans reckoned the days forward to the 
Calends, Nones, or Ides next following. Thus 
27 May was described as the sixth day before 
the Calends of June. 
See also Greek Calends. 

Calenius, WALTER (d. 1151), a name used 
by John Bale (q.v.) for an undefined writer 
who was archdeacon of Oxford, 1115-38. 
This Walter, according to Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth (q.v.), brought from Brittany the 
Celtic chronicle which Geoffrey professed to 
translate. 'Galena' being, in the bastard 
Latin of the i6th cent., used for Oxford, Bale 
by 'Calenius* meant only Walter of Oxford. 
He is sometimes confused with later arch- 
deacons of Oxford, Walter of Coutances 
(1183) and Walter Map (q.v.). 

CALEPINO, AMBROSIO (d. 1511), an 

Italian Augustinian monk, author of a Latin 



dictionary, whence the French word calepin 
(note-book). 'Calepin' occurs in English 
literature in the sense of 'book of reference'. 

Gales, KNIGHT OF: 'Cales [Cadiz] knights 
were made in that voyage [1596] by Robert, 
earl of Essex, to the number of sixty; 
whereof (though many of great worth) some 
were of low fortunes: and therefore Queen 
Elizabeth was half offended with the Earl 
for making knighthood so common* (Ray, 
quoted by W. C. Hazlitt). 

Caliban, in Shakespeare's 'Tempest* (q.v.), 
the misshapen evil-natured monster, son of 
the witch Sycorax; 'an attempt to reduce to 
one common denominator the aboriginal type 
whom the dramatist had seen [brought to 
England from America by travellers and 
exhibited] or of whom he had heard or read * 
(Sir S. Lee). 

Caliban upon Setebos, a poem by R. Browning 
(q.v.), included in 'Dramatis Personae' (q.v.). 
Caliban (q.v.), lying in the mud in a cave, 
while Prospero and Miranda believe him at 
work, thinks out, from a savage's point of 
view, the problem of the creation of the 
world by his god Setebos (q.v.). He speaks 
in the third person. Setebos, dwelling 'in the 
cold of the Moon*, himself subordinate to 
a higher deity 'The Quiet', has made the world 
as a plaything to amuse himself, just as Caliban 
himself would make a clay bird, and throw it 
in the air and laugh if its leg were broken. 
Setebos is like Caliban in other respects also, 
neither kind nor cruel, good in the main, but 
jealous. In the fancied security of his cave 
Caliban expresses a hope that Setebos may 
some day come to an end. But a thunder- 
storm brings him promptly to order: 'Lol 
'Lieth flat and loveth Setebos !* 

Caliburn, see ExcaKbur, 

Calidore, SIR, the Knight of Courtesy, the 
hero of Bk. VI of Spenser's 'Faerie Queene'. 
He pursues and chains the 'Blatant Beast* 

Caligula, CAIUS CAESAR, son of Germani- 
cus, so called from his wearing, when a 
boy, caligae or soldiers' boots, was Roman 
emperor A.D. 37-41. The cruelties and vices 
that marked his reign were perhaps due 
to his madness. He considered himself a god 
and erected a temple in his own honour. 
He raised his horse ('Incitatus') to the con- 
sulship, and committed other outrageous 
eccentricities. He was finally murdered. 
Horace Walpole, in his letters to Mann, ii. 
103, refers to the 'Caligulisms' of Frederick, 
Prince of Wales. 

Caliphate, the rule of the Caliphs ('vice 
regents') who succeeded Mohammed (q.v.). 
The first four were Abu Bekr, Omar, 
Othman, and AH. These were followed by 
the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphs. 
The Abbasid dynasty came to an end with 
Mu'tasim, the last caHph of Bagdad, in 1258. 
The title of caliph was subsequently assumed 


by the Ottoman sultans. The caliphate 
practically ceased to exist after the abolition 
of the sultanate in 1922. There were also 
Fatimite caliphs in Egypt (see Fatima) in the 
ioth-i2th cents. Various other Moslem 
dynasties have from time to time assumed the 
dignity of the Caliphate. The chief of these 
is perhaps that of the sultans of Morocco, 
who, under the title of Grand Sherifs, are 
still revered as caliphs by their subjects. 

Galipolls, in Peele's 'Battle of Alcazar 9 
(q.v.), the wife of Muley Muhamet, the 
Moorish Icing, frequently quoted as typical of 
a sweetheart (e.g. Shakespeare, '2 Henry IV, 
II. iv). Sir W. Scott writes the name, 

Galista, the heroine of Rowe's c The Fair 
Penitent' (q.v.), in which the 'gay Lothario' 
figures as her lover. 

Calisto, see Callisto. 

Some beauty rare, Calisto, Clymene. 

(Milton, 'Paradise Regained', ii. 186.) 
Calisto and Melifoea, see Celestina. 

Call of the Wild, The, the story of the 
dog Buck by Jack London (q.v.), published 

CALLIMACHUS, a celebrated poet of 
Alexandria, who was chief librarian of the 
library of that city about 260240 B.C. Some 
of his poems survive and justify Ovid's 
comment, 'quamvis ingenio non valet, arte 
valet*. His epitaph on Heracleitus has been 
translated in a well-known poem by W. J. 
Cory (q.v.). He also wrote a poem on the 
'Lock of Berenice* (q.v.), which Catullus 

CalliSpe, the muse (q.v.) of epic poetry. 
CaUipolis, see Calipolis. 

Callirrhoe, the wife of Alcmaeon (q.v.). 
Callirrhoe is also the name of the heroine of 
the romance 'Chaereas and Callirrhoe' (q.v.). 

Callista, a religious novel by J. H. Newman 
(q- v -) published in 1856. 

Callistnenes, a philosopher of Olynthus, and 
pupil of Aristotle, who accompanied Alexan- 
der the Great on his expedition. He became 
obnoxious to the monarch, was accused of 
being privy to a plot against him, and was 
put to death, or, according to legend, sub- 
jected to various tortures and finally given 

Callisto, a nymph, the daughter of Lycaon 
(q.v.), the companion of Artemis and a 
huntress, was beloved by Zeus and became 
the mother of Areas (the eponymous hero of 
Arcadia). She was metamorphosed into a 
she-bear by the design of the jealous Hera, 
and was slain by Artemis in the chase; or 
according to another legend, was on the 
point of being slain by her son in the chase, 
when both were turned into stars, Callisto 
into the Great Bear. 


Calpe, the modern Gibraltar, one of the 
Pillars of Hercules. The 'Calpe foxhounds' 
is a celebrated pack, hunting the country 
inland from La Linea. 

DE LA, see La Calprenede. 

Calvary (from Latin cafoaria, skull, used to 
translate the Aramaic gulgaltd, Heb. gulgo- 
leth, which in Gk. N.T. becomes 'Golgotha'), 
the name of the mount of the Crucifixion, near 
Jerusalem. Hence 'a Calvary' is a life-size 
representation of the Crucifixion, in the open 
air, or a series of representations, in a church 
or chapel, of the scenes of the Passion. 

(1831-84), educated at Harrow and Balliol 
College, Oxford, whence he migrated to 
Christ's College, Cambridge, became a 
barrister of the Inner Temple, but suffered 
grievously in health from an accident in 1867, 
which impaired his power of work. He pub- 
lished 'Verses and Translations* in 1862 and 
'Fly Leaves' in 1866, becoming famous under 
the initials C C.S.C.* for his parodies (of 
Browning, Macaulay, Tupper, among others) 
and for the wit and scholarship of his verse. 

Calves' Head Club, an association formed 
at the end of the I7th cent, to ridicule 
Charles I, calves' heads being used to repre- 
sent the monarch and his courtiers on the 
anniversary of his execution. The club was 
suppressed in 1735. 

CALVIN, JOHANNES (1509-64), Jean 
Chauvin or Cauvin, the great French theo- 
logical writer and reformer, was born at 
Noyon in Picardy. He settled at Geneva in 
1536, where he became dictator of a kind of 
theocracy, and caused Servetus (q.v.) to be 
burnt in 1553. His great work was the 
'Institutes of the Christian Religion', written 
first in Latin (Basel, 1535) and afterwards in 
French, in which he expounded his doctrine 
of original sin, of predestination and election, 
and his anti-Roman views, and showed him- 
self a master of prose. He was the spiritual 
father of John Rnox and the originator of the 
dogma of Scottish Presbyterianism. Wher- 
ever Protestantism has had to fight for its life, 
it has sought strength in the discipline of 

The 'Calvinistic Methodists' are the sec- 
tion of the Methodists who follow the 
calvinistic opinions of Whitefield (q.v.) as 
opposed to the Arminian (q.v.) opinions of 
J. Wesley (q.v.). 

Calydon, an ancient town and district of 
Aetolia. See Meleager. 

Calypso, one of the daughters of Oceanus, a 

nymph who reigned in the island of Ogygia. 
When Ulysses (q.v.) was shipwrecked on her 
coasts, she received him hospitably and 
offered him immortality if he would remain 
with her. The hero refused, and after seven 
years' delay was allowed to depart. 



Cam and Isis, the rivers on which Cam- 
bridge and Oxford stand, sometimes used 
to signify these universities. But there is no 
real river Isis: the Romans called the river 
Thamesis from source to sea. The corruption, 
as old as Leland's time, arose from the 
'Thame stream' coming in at Dorchester. 
Hence 'Thame' and 'Isis* are bred out of the 
real name Thamesis. 

Cama, see Kama. 

Camacho, in 'Don Quixote' (q.v., n. xx, xxi), 
a rich farmer of La Mancha, who prepares a 
splendid feast in anticipation of his wedding 
with Quiteria; of whom, however, he is de- 
prived, by means of a stratagem, by his rival 

Camalodimum, the Roman name of 

Camaralzaraan ('Moon of the Age'), in the 
'Arabian Nights' (q.v.), the prince who marries 
Badoura, daughter of the king of China. They 
were brought together secretly one night by 
the intervention of the jinn, fell in love with 
one another and exchanged rings. Then the 
jinn separated them, and they were lost to 
one another, but were ultimately reunited. 

Carnarina, a town on the southern coast of 
Sicily, a colony of Syracuse. In its neighbour- 
hood was a marsh which the inhabitants 
drained, in defiance of the advice of an oracle, 
thus opening a way for their enemies to 
attack them. In the ist Punic War, Ca- 
marina was captured by the Romans and the 
inhabitants sold into slavery. Whence the 
proverb : IATJ KIVCI /ca^apivav, ne moveas Cama- 
rinam (Don't disturb Carnarina), quoted by 
Dominie Sampson in Scott's 'Guy Man- 
nering', c. viii. 

Cambal, CAMBALLO, one of the two sons 
of King Cambuscan, in Chaucer's 'Squire's 
Tale' (see Canterbury Tales ; see also Cambell 
for the continuation of his story in Spenser's 
c Faerie Queene'). 

Gambell or CAMBELLO, the name given by 
Spenser in the 'Faerie Queene', iv. iii, to 
Cambal (q.v.), whose tale he borrows from 
'Dan Chaucer, well of English undefyled*, 
and completes. Cambell is brother of Canace, 
for whom there are many suitors. It is 
arranged that the strongest of these, three 
brothers, shall fight with Cambell, and the 
lady be awarded to the victor. Two of the 
brothers are defeated; the contest between 
the third, Triamond, and Cambell is un- 
decided, each wounding the other. They are 
reconciled by Cambina, Triamond 's sister; 
Canace is awarded to Triamond and Cambel 
marries ^Cambina. The magic ring of Canace 
in the 'Squire's Tale' reappears in the 'Faerie 
Queene', with the power of healing wounds. 

Camber, according to legend, one of the 
sons of Brute (q.v.), the legendary first king 
of Britain. Camber is supposed to have given 
his name to Cambria (Wales), but this is in 


fact a latinized derivative of Cymry (Welsh- 

Cambrai, THE ARCHBISHOP OF, Fenelon 

dus de Barri. 

Cambria, see Camber. 

Cambridge, in Old English Granta Bricge, 
was according to legend made the seat of 
a school by Sigebert, king of the East Angles, 
about 630. The first historical trace of Cam- 
bridge as a university (studium generate} is in 
1209, its first recognition in a royal writ to the 
chancellor of Cambridge in 1230, the first 
papal recognition in 1233. The process of 
development of the prerogatives of the Uni- 
versity was slow, the chancellor's jurisdiction 
reaching its full extension in 1383. (See 
H. Rashdall, 'Universities of Europe'.) 

Cambridge (Mass., U.S. A.), near Boston, is 
the seat of Harvard University. 
Cambridge Platonists, see Platonists. 

Cambridge University Press. Books 

were first printed at Cambridge in 1521-2 by 
John Siberch (John Lair of Siegburg), a friend 
of Erasmus. A charter was granted to the 
University by Henry VIII in 1 534 authorizing 
the printing of books there, but not until 1583 
was the first university Printer, Thomas 
Thomas, appointed. The undertaking was 
opposed by the Stationers' Company as an 
infringement of their privilege, but the 
University finally vindicated its rights. The 
activity of the Press was developed under the 
influence of R. Bentley (1662-1742, q.v.), 
and many notable books were produced by it 
in the i8th cent. Among these were four 
Prayer-books and a Bible printed by Basker- 
ville (q.v.). The Pitt Press Building was 
erected early in the iQth cent, out of the 
surplus contributions for the statue to Pitt 
in Hanover Square. 

Cambuscan, in Chaucer's 'Squire's Tale* 
(see Canterbury Tales}, a king of Tartary. 
Cambyses, KING, subject of a tragedy (1569) 
by Thomas Preston (q.v.), which illustrates 
the transition from the morality play to the 
historical drama. It is founded on the story 
of Cambyses in Herodotus; its bombastic 
grandiloquence became proverbial, and is re- 
ferred to in 1 1 Henry IV, n. iv: 'I must speak 
in passion, and I will do it in King Cambyses* 
vein*. Among the characters are three comic 
villains, Ruff, Huff, and Snuff, who figure 
again in the 'Martin Marprelate Controversy* 
(q.v.) in the course of Lyly's 'Pappe with an 

CAMDEN, WILLIAM (1551-1623), anti- 
quary and historian, was educated at Christ's 
Hospital, St. Paul's School, and Magdalen 
College and Christ Church, Oxford. He was 
appointed head master of Westminster School 
in 1 593 . He made tours of antiquarian investi- 
gation up and down England, and published 

his 'Britannia* (q.v.) in 1586, of which the 
sixth (greatly enlarged) edition appeared in 
1607. He published in 1615 'Annales . 
regnante Elizabetha ... ad annum 1589. 
largely a panegyric of Queen Elizabeth; 
the second part was printed posthumously 
in 1627. He founded a chair of history in 
Oxford University. He wrote principally in 
Latin, but his 'Britannia* was translated into 
English by Philemon Holland (q.v.) in 1610, 
and his 'Annales' in 1625, 1628, and 1635 by 
other hands. 

Camden Society, founded in 1838 in 
honour of W. Camden (q.v.), for the purpose 
of publishing documents relating to the early 
history and literature of the British Empire. 
founded by Neale (q.v.) in 1839 for the study 
of ecclesiology. Its name was afterwards 
changed to The Ecclesiological Society'. 

CameHard, in Malory's c Morte d 'Arthur*, 
the realm of King Leodogrance, father of 

Camelot, in the Arthurian legend, the place 
where King Arthur held his court, is stated 
by Malory to be Winchester. But there was 
a Camelot in Somersetshire, which still sur- 
vives in Queen's Camel, and Leland found 
traditions of Arthur there. Drayton, in the 
Tolyolbion' (3rd Song, 1. 395), refers as 
follows to the river Ivel in Somersetshire : 

The nearest neighbouring place to Arthur's 
ancient seat, 

Which made the Britons' name through all 
the world so great. 

Like Camelot what place was ever yet 

On which Selden (in his 'Illustrations* to 
the Tolyolbion 3 ) observes: *By South Cad- 
bury is that Camelot, a hill of a mile compass 
at the top, four trenches circling it, and twixt 
every of them an earthen wall.* There is 
something of the sort there. 

Cameronians, the followers of Richard 
Cameron (d. 1680), a noted Scottish Cove- 
nanter and field preacher, who rejected^ the 
indulgence granted to nonconforming minis- 
ters and formaEy renounced allegiance to 
Charles II. His followers afterwards con- 
stituted the body called the 'Reformed 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland'. The 
Cameronians figure prominently in Scott's 
'Old Mortality' (q.v.). 

The CAMERONIAN REGIMENT (the old 26th 
Regiment of Foot, now the ist battalion of 
the Scottish Rifles), was formed originally 
from the Cameronians and other Presby- 
terians who rallied to the cause of William III 
and fought at the battle -of Killiecrankie. 

Camilla, queen of the Volsci, was dedicated 
when young to the service of Diana. She was 
so fleet of foot that she could run over a 
field of corn without bending the blades, 
and over the sea without wetting her feet 
(Virg. *Aen.* vii. 808 et seq.). She marched 


to assist Turnus against Aeneas and died of a 
wound she received from Aruns. 
Camilla, or a Picture of Youth, a novel by 
F. Burney (q.v.), published in 1796. _ 

The story deals with the matrimonial con- 
cerns of a group of young people, Camilla 
Tyrold and her sisters, the daughters of a 
country parson, and her cousin Indiana 
Lynmere; and centres round the love-affair 
of Camilla herself and her eligible suitor, 
Edgar Mandlebert. Its happy consummation 
is delayed over five volumes by^ intrigues, 
contretemps, and misunderstandings. The 
book, especially in its earlier chapters, con- 
tains some of the comic situations and 
absurd characters in which Miss Burney 
excelled. Among the latter are Sir Hugh 
Tyrold, Camilla's good-natured but un- 
practical uncle; the grotesque tutor, Dr. Ork- 
borne, so wrapt up in his own studies that 
he can give no attention to the duties for 
which he is engaged; and the fop Sir Sedley 
Clarendel. But the drollery soon gives place 
to overstrained romance. 

Camillo, a character in Shakespeare's 'Win- 
ter's Tale' (q.v.). 

Camiola, the heroine of Massinger's 'The 
Maid of Honour' (q.v.). 

Camisard (from camisa, a shirt), a name 
given to the Calvinist insurgents of the 
Cevennes during the persecution (the *dra- 
gonnades') which followed the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. 

Camlan, according to the *Annales Cam- 
briae* (q.v.) the scene of a battle in 539 'where 
Arthur and Medraut fell*, is perhaps 
Slaughter or Bloody Bridge on the Camel 
near Camelford in Cornwall, or a site on the 
Cam near Cadbury. Malory places the last 
battle on a down beside Salisbury and not 
far from the sea. 

CAMOENS, LUIS DE (1524-80), a Portu- 
guese poet, who lost an eye in service against 
the Moors and suffered other misfortunes, 
including a shipwreck off the coast of 
Cochin China, in which he is said to have lost 
all his property, swimming to shore with one 
hand while he held his poems in the other. 
He died miserably in Lisbon. He was the 
author of c Os Lusiadas', the 'Lusiads*, an 
epic poem on the descendants of Lusus, the 
legendary hero of his country, and more par- 
ticularly on the exploits of Vasco da Gama 
(q.v.), the great Portuguese navigator. This 
was published in 1572. There is a close 
translation in English by Aubertln, and Sir 
Richard Burton also wrote a version. 

Gamorra, a secret society of lawless mal- 
contents in Naples and other Neapolitan cities, 
which existed during the I9th cent. 

Campagna , THE ROMAN, the plain surround- 
ing Rome, extending from the sea on the W. 
to the Sabine hills. 

Campaign, THE, see Addison. 


Campaigner, THE, see Newcomes. 

Campaspe, Alexander and, a prose comedy 
by Lyly (q-v.), published in 1584. Alexander 
the Great, enamoured of his Theban captive 
Campaspe, gives her freedom and engages 
Apelles to paint her portrait. Apelles and 
Campaspe fall in love with each other, and 
when the portrait is finished, Apelles spoils it, 
so as to have occasion for further sittings. 
Alexander suspects the truth and by a trick 
makes him reveal it. He surrenders Cam- 
paspe to Apelles and returns to his wars, 
saying 'It were a shame Alexander should 
desire to command the world, if he cannot 
command himself. The play includes the 
charming lyric, ( Cupid and my Campaspe 
playd, At cards for kisses . . / The story of 
Alexander, Campaspe, and Apelles is told in 
Pliny's 'Natural History', xxxv. 36. 

Campbell, the family name of the earls of 
Argyle (q.v.), celebrated in the song 'The 
Campbells are coming*. The chief of the 
house is styled in Gaelic Mac Calain More, 
after its ancestor, Sir Colin Campbell, sur- 
named More or Great, for his achievements 
in war. 

CAMPBELL, THOMAS (1777-1844), son 
of a Glasgow merchant, was educated at 
Glasgow University. He published 'The 
Pleasures of Hope* (q.v.) in 1799, 'Gertrude 
of Wyoming* (q.v.) in 1809, 'Theodric' and 
other poems in 1824, and 'The Pilgrim of 
Glencoe' and other poems in 1842. He is 
principally remembered for his splendid 
war-songs, 'Hohenlinden', 'The Battle of 
the Baltic*, and 'Ye Mariners of England*; 
for 'The Soldier's Dream', 'Lord UUin's 
Daughter*, 'Lochiel's Warning*, and 'Lines 
on Revisiting a Scene in Argyllshire* ; and also 
for some single lines that have become pro- 
verbial, such as 'Like angel-visits, few and far 
between* ('Pleasures of Hope*, Pt. II), taken 
from Blair's 'Like angels* visits, short and far 

Campeador, EL, a surname of the Cid 
(q.v.), meaning 'the Champion*. 

Camperdown, a village on the coast of the 
Netherlands, off which in 1797 the British 
fleet under Duncan defeated the Dutch under 
De Winter, thereby preventing a projected 
invasion of Ireland. 

Campion, EDMUND (1540-81), fellow of St. 
John's College, Oxford (1557), went toDouai 
in 1571 and graduated there, and joined the 
Jesuits in 1573. He returned to England in 
1580, preached privately in London, was 
arrested in 1581, sent to the Tower, examined 
under torture, and executed. 

CAMPION, THOMAS (d. 1619), men- 
tioned as a 'doctor in phisicke', published in 
1595 a volume of Latin Toemata', and in 
1602 'Observations in the Art of English 
Poesie* directed 'against the vulgar and un- 
artificial custom of riming*. He wrote 
masques for presentation at court, a treatise 


on^ music, a volume of songs on the death of 
Prince Henry, and four 'Books of Ayres* 
(161012), containing pleasant lyrics (some 
set to music by Campion himself), including 
the beautiful 'There is a garden in her face'. 

Campo- Basso, COUNT OF, an Italian cap- 
tain in the army of Charles the Bold of 
Burgundy, who figures in Scott's 'Quentin 
Durward* and 'Anne of Geierstein' (qq.v.). 

Canace (pron. Can'ase), the daughter of King 
Cambuscan (q.v.), in Chaucer's 'Squire's 
Tale* (see Canterbury Tales), and in Spenser's 
'Faerie Queene' (Bk. IV). 

Ganaletto or Canale, ANTONIO (1697-1768), 
a Venetian painter, who painted many 
architectural pictures of his own city. He 
visited England in 17467 and painted views 
of Whitehall and the Thames. 

Canary, a light sweet wine from the Canary- 

Canby , HENRY SEIDEL (i 878- ), American 
journalist, born in Delaware, editor of the 
'Saturday Review of Literature*, New York 
the leading paper in America devoted to 

Cancel, in printing, a new page or sheet 
substituted for one cancelled or suppressed. 

Cancer, (a) the zodiacal constellation of the 
Crab, lying between Gemini and Leo; (b) 
the fourth of the signs of the zodiac, which 
the sun enters on 2 1 June. The sign originally 
coincided with the constellation. 

Candace, (i) a legendary queen of Tarsus 
who, in an episode of the legends attaching to 
Alexander the Great (q.v.), lures the con- 
queror by her fascination to a life of sloth. 
(2) The queen of the Ethiopians, whose 
treasurer was converted and baptized by 
Philip (Acts viii. 27-39). Her name seems to 
have been common to queens of Ethiopia 
(Smith's 'Classical Diet.'). Another of this 
name invaded Egypt in 22 B.C. 

Candaules, a legendary king of Lydia. See 

Candida, one of the 'pleasant' plays in G. B. 
Shaw's Tlays, Pleasant and Unpleasant' 

It deals with the conflict between 'a higher, 
but vaguer timider vision ... an incoherent 
mischievous even ridiculous unpracticalness*, 
represented by the poet Eugene Marchbanks, 
and 'the clear bold sure sensible benevolent 
salutarily shortsighted Christian Socialist 
ideal', represented by the Hackney parson 
MoreE. Candida is Morell's wife. 
Candide, a romance by Voltaire (q.v.), 
satirizing optimistic philosophies. 
Candlemas, 2 Feb., the feast of the Purifica- 
tion of the Virgin Mary, celebrated with a 
great display of candles. Brand ('Popular 
Antiquities') quotes Becon ('Reliques of 
Rome') as tracing this ceremony of candle- 
bearing to an ancient Roman custom of 


carrying torches in honour of Juno Februata. 
Candlemas Day is one of the quarter-days ia 

Candor, see Public Advertiser. 
Candour, MRS., one of the scandal-mongers 
in Sheridan's 'School for Scandal' (q.v.), 
rendered peculiarly odious by her assump- 
tion of a love of truth. 

Canephoras, in ancient Greece, one of the 
'maidens who carried on their heads baskets 
containing the sacred things used at the feasts 
of Demeter, Bacchus, and Athena' (Liddell 
and Scott) ; hence applied to figures of young 
persons carrying baskets on their heads. 
Ganfield, DOROTHY, see Dorothy Canfield 

Canicular Days , the days immediately pre- 
ceding and following the heliacal rising of the 
dog-star (either Sirius or Procyon), about 
ii Aug.; the dog-days. 
Canicular Year, the ancient Egyptian year, 
which was reckoned from one heliacal rising 
of Sirius to the next. 
Canicular period, see Sothic Cycle. 

Ganidia, a Neapolitan courtesan whom 
Horace once loved, and whom, after her 
desertion of him, he holds up to contempt as 
a sorceress. (Horace, Epodes v and xvii, also 
Satires, I. viii.) 

Cannae T the site, in Apulia, of the memorable 
defeat of the Romans by Hannibal in 216 B.C. 

CANNING, GEORGE (1770-1827), states- 
man and author, was educated at Eton and 
Christ Church, Oxford. He was appointed 
foreign secretary in 1822 and premier in 1827. 
Apart from his political speeches (published in 
1828), he is remembered in a literary con- 
nexion as founder of and contributor to 'The 
Anti-Jacobin* (q.v.) ; his Toems' were pub- 
lished in 1823. 

Canon's Yeoman's Tale, The, see Canterbury 

Canongate, Chronicles of the, see Chronicles 
of the Canongate* 

Canonical Hours, stated times of the day 
appointed by the canon of the Catholic 
Church for prayer and devotion ; the Canoni- 
cal Hours have been fixed since the 6th 
cent, as follows : Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, 
None, Vespers, Compline (Mass is celebrated 
normally between Terce and Sext). Also the 
hours (now from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m.) within 
which marriage can legally be performed in a 
parish church in England. 

Ganopic Vase (from Ganopus> a town of 
ancient Egypt), a vase used in Egypt, chiefly 
for holding the entrails of embalmed bodies. 
Its distinctive feature was that its lid was in 
the form of a human head. The town CANO 
PUS was supposed to derive its name from 
Canopus, the helmsman of Menelaus, who 
died in Egypt on the return from Troy. 


CANOPUS is also the name of the bright 
star o: in the southern constellation Argo. 
Canossa, in the district of Modena, a castle 
of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, where in 
1077 the emperor Henry IV submitted to the 
penance and humiliation imposed on him by 
Pope Gregory VII ; hence 'to go to Canossa* 
implies a reconciliation, real or feigned, with 
the pope. 

Cantab, a contraction of CANTABRIGIAN, of 
or belonging to the University of Cambridge. 
Cantabrian (from Cantabri, a people who 
lived in the north of Spain), means Spanish or 

Cantacuzene, a noble Byzantine family, a 
member of which, John, the historian, be- 
came emperor of the East in 1341. 
Canterbury Pilgrims, THE, a name given 
to the Anglican settlers who founded Christ- 
church in New Zealand in 1851. See also 
next entry. 

Canterbury Tales, The> Chaucer's greatest 
work, designed about 1387, and written for 
the greater part in heroic couplets (about 
17,000 lines). The main Prologue is espe- 
cially interesting for the vivid picture it 
presents of contemporary life. A party of 
twenty-nine 1 pilgrims are assembled at the 
Tabard Inn in Southwark, about to travel 
to the shrine of Becket at Canterbury, and 
of each of these the poet draws a striking 
portrait. They are the following: 

1. Knight; 19- Tapicer (maker 

2. Squire ; of tapestry) ; 

3. Yeoman (ser- 20. Cook; 

vant); 21. Shipman (sailor) ; 

4. Prioress; 22. Doctor of Physic; 

5. Nun; 23. Wife of Bath; 

6, 7, 8. Three Priests; 24. Parson (parish 

9. Monk; priest); 

10. Friar; 25. Ploughman; 

11. Merchant; 26. Miller; 

12. Clerk of Oxford; 27. Manciple (stew- 

1 3 . Sergeant of Law ; ard) ; 

14. Franklin (free- 28. Reeve (bailiff); 

man and free- 29. Summoner (offi- 
holder) ; cer of ecclesias- 

15. Haberdasher; tical court); 

1 6. Carpenter; 30. Pardoner (seller 

17. Webbe (weaver); of indulgences); 

1 8. Dyer; 31. Chaucer himself . 
After supper the host proposes that they shall 
shorten the way by telling each a story on the 
way out and one on the way back. The teller 
of the best stories shall have a free supper on 
his return. The host will accompany them 
and act as guide. The pilgrims agree and the 
tales follow, preceded each of them by a 
short prologue. But the poem was not com- 

1 So the prologue states, but according to the enu- 
meration there are, including 1 Chaucer himself, thirty- 

utry reierence uj a siugie ^AICSSL. .out cviu.cxn.ij' 
v^iir changed his mind as the work proceeded, and 
left it unfinished when he died, 



pleted and contains only twenty-three tales, 
as follows : 

1. The Knight's Tale, a shortened version 
of the 'Teseide' of Boccaccio, the story of the 
love of Palamon and Arcite, prisoners of 
Theseus, king of Athens, for Emilia, sister of 
Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons, whom 
Theseus has married. The rivals compete 
for her in a tournament. Palamon is defeated, 
but Arcite, the favourite of Mars, at the 
moment of his triumph is thrown and injured 
by his horse through the interposition of 
Venus and Saturn, and dies. Palamon and 
Emilia, after prolonged mourning for Arcite, 
are united. 

2. The Miller's Tale, a ribald story of the 
deception, first of a husband (a carpenter) 
through the prediction of a second flood, and 
secondly of a lover who expects to kiss the 
lady's lip and avenges himself for his dis- 
appointment with a hot coulter. 

3. The Reeve's Tale, connected with the 
French fabliau, 'De Gombert et ses deux 
Clers*, and the 'Decameron*, D. x, N. 6, an in- 
decent story of two clerks who are robbed by 
a miller of part of their meal, and revenge 
themselves on the miller's wife and daughter. 
(The Reeve, who had been a carpenter, thus 
retorts upon the Miller.) 

4. The Cook's Tale (another tale of 'har- 
lotrie* as Chaucer calls it) is imperfect and 
omitted in some manuscripts. It is followed 
by the Cook's Tale of Gamelyn (not by 
Chaucer), for the substance of which see 
under Gamelyn. 

5 . The Man of Law's Tale, related to a story 
in Gower's 'Confessio Amantis', B. ii, is the 
story of Constance, daughter of a Christian 
emperor, married to the Soldan on con- 
dition that he shall become a Christian, and by 
the device of the Soldan's mother cast adrift 
on the sea. Her subsequent misfortunes are 
very similar to those told in the verse romance 
'Emare" (q.v.). 

6. The Wife of Bath's Tale is preceded by 
a long prologue, in which Chaucer places in 
her mouth a condemnation of celibacy in the 
form of an account of her life with her five 
successive husbands. The Tale is like 
Gower's story of Florent in 'Conf. Amant.' 
B. i, but is transferred to the court of King 
Arthur. It relates how a knight who is 
required, in order to avoid execution, to 
answer correctly within a twelvemonth the 
question, what do women love most, is told 
the right answer 'sovereignty' by a foul 
old witch on condition that he marries her. 
He reluctantly complies and finds the witch 
restored to youth and beauty. 

7. The Friar's Tale tells how a Sum- 
moner meets the devil dressed as a bailiff, 
who confides to him his methods in dealing 
with men. The Summoner attempts to extort 
a gift from a widow, who commends him to 
the devil. The devil thereupon hales him off 
to hell. 

8. The Summoner, in retaliation, relates 
how the manoeuvres of a greedy and hypo- 


critical friar by a sick-bed were unsavourily 

9. The Clerk's Tale, which the poet states 
he learnt from Petrarch, was translated by the 
latter into Latin from the 'Decameron', D. x, 
N. 10. It tells how the Marquis of Saluces 
married the humble Griselda, and of her 
virtues and patience under trials. (The same 
story is treated in Dekker's 'Patient GrissiT, 

10. The Merchant's Tale, of an old man 
and his young wife. The old man becomes 
blind ; the wife and her lover take advantage 
of this in a pear-tree. Pluto suddenly restores 
the husband's sight, but Proserpine enables 
the wife to outwit him. The precise source of 
the story has not been traced. 

1 1 . The Squire's Tale, of Cambuscan, king 
of Tartary, to whom on his birthday an envoy 
from the king of Arabia brings magic gifts, 
including a ring for the king's daughter 
Canace, which enables her to understand the 
language of birds. A female falcon tells 
Canace the story of her own desertion by a ter- 
celet. The poet promises the continuation of 
the tale, but it is incomplete. (See under 
Cambell for the continuation in Spenser's 
'Faerie Queene'). The tale is referred to by 
Milton in 'II Penseroso': 

Or call up him who left half-told 
The story of Cambuscan bold, 
Of Cambal and of Algarsife 
And who had Canace to wife. 

Carnbal and Algarsife are Cambuscan's sons. 

The origin of the tale is unknown. 

12. The Franklin's Tale, of a woman, 
Dorigen wife of Arveragus, who to escape the 
assiduity of her lover, the squire Aurelius, 
makes her consent depend upon an impossible 
condition, that all the rocks on the coast of 
Brittany be removed. When this condition is 
realized by the aid of a magician, the lover, 
from a generous remorse, releases her from 
her promise. Chaucer states that the tale is 
taken from a 'British Lay*, but this is lost* 
Similar stories are found in Boccaccio's 'Filo- 
copo*, B. v, and 'Decameron 9 , D. x, N. 5. 

13. The Second Nun's Tale, in rhyme- 
royal, is perhaps translated from the life of 
St. Cecilia in the Golden Legend of Jacobus 
a Voragine. It describes the miracles and 
martyrdom of the noble Roman maiden 
Cecilia and her husband Valerian. 

A certain canon and his yeoman having 
joined the party at Boughton-under-Blee, we 
next have 

14. The Canon's Yeoman's Tale, an ex- 
posure of the follies and rogueries of the 

15. The Doctor's Tale, of the death of 
Virginia by her own wish at her father's 
hands, to save her from the designs of the 
wicked judge Apius, who has conspired 
to get possession of her. Chaucer quotes 
Livy as the source, but has followed fairly 
closely the version of the story in the 'Roman 
de la Rose'. 



1 6. The Pardoner's Tale has an analogue in 
an Italian miscellany known as the l Cento 
Novelle Antiche', N. Lxxxii. The Pardoner 
discourses on the evils of Gluttony and 
Drunkenness, Gambling and Swearing. This 
theme is illustrated by the story of three 
revellers who in plague-time set out on a 
search for Death, who has killed one of their 
comrades. An old man tells them they will 
find him under a certain tree. There they 
discover a heap of gold. Each designs to get 
sole possession of the treasure, but they only 
succeed in killing one another. 

17. The Shipman's Tale. There is a similar 
story in the 'Decameron*, D. viii, N. i. The 
wife of a niggardly merchant asks the loan of 
a hundred francs from a priest to buy finery. 
The priest borrows the sum from the mer- 
chant and hands it to the wife, and the wife 
grants him her favours. On the merchant's 
return from a journey the priest tells him that 
he has repaid the sum to the wife, who cannot 
deny receiving it. 

1 8. The Prioress's Tale, the source of which 
is unknown, is the legend of a widow's child 
murdered by Jews because he sings 'O alma 
Redemptoris mater* when passing through 
the Ghetto at Lincoln on his way to school. 
The body is discovered owing to the fact that 
he miraculously continues his song after his 
throat is cut. This tale is in rhyme-royal. 

19. Chaucer's own contribution follows, 
in the form of the Tale of Sir Thopas, in 
which he slyly ridicules the romances of 
knight-errantry by contemporary rhymers. It 
contains phrases from 'Isumbras*, 'Li Beaus 
Desconus* (qq.v.), and refers to Sir Bevis, Sir 
Guy, &c. It is soon interrupted, and Chaucer 
then gives the Tale oJMelibeus, a prose trans- 
lation of a French romance, *a moral ^tale 
vertuous'. It is a long and (to us) tedious 
disputation between Melibeus and his wife 
Prudence on the most judicious method of 
dealing with enemies who have done them 
grievous injuries. 

20. The Monk's Tale is composed of a 
number of 'tragedies* of persons fallen from 
high estate, taken from different authors and 
arranged on the model of Boccaccio's ^ *De 
casibus virorum illustriurn'. The tale is in 
eight-lined stanzas. 

21. The Nun's Priest's Tale, perhaps de- 
veloped from one of the episodes in the French 
story of Reynard the Fox, tells of a fox that 
beguiled a cock by praising his father's sing- 
ing, and was beguiled in turn to let the cock 

22. The Manciple's Tale is the fable of the 
Crow, which had been treated by many 
authors from Ovid onwards. A certain 
Phebus has a crow that is white and can 
counterfeit any man's speech. It thus reveals 
to Phebus his wife's infidelity. Phebus in a 
fury kills his wife, and then, in remorse, 
plucks out the crow's white feathers, deprives 
it of its speech, and throws it out 'unto the 
devil', which is why crows are now black. 

23. The Parson's Tale, a dissertation in 


prose on penitence, the character of each 
kind of sin, and the appropriate remedy. ^ It 
is probably the raw material on which 
Chaucer proposed to work, rather than his 
finished tale. 

Tyrwhitt's famous text of the 'Canterbury 
Tales*, with introductory discourse, was pub- 
lished in 1775-8. 

Canute or CNUT, a Dane, king of England, 
1016-35. The old story of Canute and the sea 
is told in Holinshed, vn. xiii. Being on the 
seashore near Southampton, he sat down close 
to the rising tide and bade it go no farther. 
When it advanced and wetted him, he said 
to his courtiers that they called him king, but 
that he 'could not stay by his command- 
ment so much as this small portion of water*. 
This he did to reprove their flattery. Cf. 
Thackeray's satirical ballad on the subject 
in 'Rebecca and Rowena* (q.v.). 

Canute, The Song of, a famous early English 
ballad, stated to have been composed and 
sung by the king as he rowed past Ely, and 
recorded by a monk of Ely in 1 1 66. It begins : 

Merie sungen the munechis binnen Ely 

Tha Cnut ching rew tHer by. 

Canute's or CANUTUS BIRD, the Knot. The 
derivation of the name of this bird from 
King Canute (mentioned by Camden and 
Draytpn) is said by the OED. to be without 
historical or even legendary foundation. 

Caorsin, see Cahors. 

Cap of Liberty or PHRYGIAN BONNET, the 
conical cap placed in Roman times on the 
head of a slave on his emancipation. It was 
adopted as a symbol of liberation (the bonnet 
rouge} by the French Revolutionary Jacobins 
in April 1792, when the Swiss survivors of 
the Mutiny at Nancy of Aug.-Sept. 1791 
were released from the galleys; for the red 
'Phrygian bonnet' was the head-dress of the 
galley slaves at Marseilles, where these men 
had been confined. 

'Capability* Brown, see Brown (L.). 

Gapaneus, one of the seven heroes who 
marched from Argos against Thebes (see 
under Eteocles). He was struck with a 
thunderbolt by Zeus when scaling the walls 
of Thebes, because he defied the god. 

Cape of Storms, Cabo Tormentoso, the 
name given to the south-western cape of 
Africa by its discoverer, Bartholomew Diaz, 
in 1487; subsequently changed by John II of 
Portugal to Cape of Good Hope. 

Capet, the name of the French dynasty 
founded by Hugo Capet in 987, which ruled 
until 1328, when it was succeeded by the 
House of Valois. Louis XVI was described 
as Louis Capet when tried before the Con- 
vention in 1793. The origin of the nickname 
of Hugo I is unknown. 

CAPGRAVE, JOHN (1393-1464), an Au- 

gustinian friar, who resided most of his life in 


the friary at King's Lynn. He wrote, in Latin, 
sermons, theological tracts, and commentaries 
on many books of scripture. His chief Latin 
historical works are 'Nova Legenda Angliae', 
'De illustrious Henricis', and 'Vita Humfredi 
Ducis Glocestriae'. In English he wrote lives 
of St. Gilbert of Sempringham and of St. 
Catharine of Alexandria, also a chronicle of 
English history extending to A.D. 1417, of 
some importance as an early English prose 

Capitol, THE, in ancient Rome, that summit 
of the Capitoline hill on which stood the 
magnificent temple of Jupiter. In this temple 
were kept the Sibylline books, and here the 
consuls took the vows on entering upon office. 
It was to this temple also that victorious 
generals were carried in triumph to render 
thanks to Jupiter. 

In modern Rome the term is applied to the 
Piazza, del Campidoglio, in the depression 
between the two summits of the Capitoline 
Mil, where Brutus made his speech after the 
murder of Caesar. In the centre of the Piazza. 
stands the bronze equestrian statue of Marcus 
Aurelius. On one side is the Palace of the 
Senator, where it is said that Petrarch (q.v.) 
was crowned and Rienzi (q.v.) ruled as 

In Washington the Capitol is the seat of 
the National Congress. It is built in Re- 
naissance style, and surmounted by a great 
dome. It was completed in 1830. 

Capitolinus, MARCUS MANLIUS, see Manlius 

Capitulary, a collection of ordinances, 
especially those made by the Prankish kings. 

CaponsaccM, CANON GIUSEPPE, one of the 
principal characters in Browning's 'The Ring 
and the Book' (q.v.). 

Capricorn, (<2) the zodiacal constellation of 
the He-goat, lying between Sagittarius and 
Aquarius; (b) the tenth of the signs of the 
zodiac, which the sun enters about 21 Dec. 
The sign originally coincided with the con- 

Captain, THE GREAT, see Cordova. 
Captain Kettle, see Kettle. 
Captain Nemo, see Nemo. 

Captain Singleton, Adventures of, see Single- 

Capua, a prosperous city of Campania. It is 
said that the soldiers of Hannibal were 
enervated by its luxury when moved to 
winter quarters there after the battle of 

Capuchin, a friar of the order of St. Francis, 
of the new rule of 1528, so called from their 
sharp-pointed capuches or hoods. 
Capulet, in Shakespeare's 'Romeo and 
Juliet' (q.v.), the noble Veronese house to 
which Juliet belongs, hostile to the family of 


Caput^Mortraim ('dead head'), in alchemy, 
the residuum remaining after the distillation 
or sublimation of any substance, good for 
nothing but to be thrown away, all virtue 
having been extracted. 

Carabas, MARQUESS OF, a character in the 
fairy tale of Tuss in Boots* (q.v.) ; also in a 
song by BeYanger (q.v.); in B. Disraeli's 
'Vivian Grey' (q.v.); and in Thackeray's 
'Book of Snobs*. 

Caractacus or CARADOC, king of the Silures 
in the west of Britain during the reign of 
Claudius, was defeated by the Romans and 
fled to Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, 
who betrayed him. He was taken a prisoner 
to Rome in A.D. 51, where his noble spirit so 
pleased the emperor that he pardoned and 
released him. He figures as Caratach in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Bonduca' (q.v.). 
W. Mason (q.v.) wrote a play 'Caractacus'. 
Caradoc, see Caractacus. 

Caradoc or CRADOCK, SIR, see Boy and the 

Caran d 'Ache , adapted from a Russian word 
meaning 'pencil', the pseudonym of Em- 
manuel Poire" (1858-1909), a celebrated 
French humorous illustrator, who employed 
the method of silhouettes outlined by a single 
continuous line. 

Carausius, see Caws. 

Carbine, a famous horse, brought by the 
duke of Portland from Australia in 1895. He 
won thirty-three out of his forty-three races 
in Australia, and was only once unplaced. 

Carbonari ('charcoal-burners'), the name of 
a secret political association formed in the 
kingdom of Naples, during the French occu- 
pation under Murat, with the design of intro- 
ducing a republican government. It lasted 
during part of the igth cent. Louis Napoleon 
was a Carbonaro in his youth. 

Carbonek, in the legend of the Holy Grail, 
the enchanted castle where the Grail is found. 

(1501-76), a famous Italian mathematician, 
and writer on medicine and the occult 

Cardenio , in 'Don Quixote' (q.v.), the lover of 
Lucinda, who, driven mad by the loss of her, 
haunts the Sierra Morena, and is finally re- 
united with her. 

Cardinal 3 s Snuff-Box, The, Henry Harland's 
most popular novel. 

Cardinal^ The, a tragedy by James Shirley 
(q.v.), produced in 1641, and printed in 1652. 
This is one of the best of Shirley's plays. 
The cardinal, urged by ambition, designs 
that the Duchess Rosaura, the widowed 
daughter-in-law of the king of Navarre, shall 
marry his nephew Columbo, general of the 
army, and obtains the support of the king. 
The duchess is betrothed to Columbo 



accordingly, although she loves the Count 
Alvarez. While Columbo is at the wars she 
obtains the king's consent to her marriage 
with Alvarez. On the wedding night, 
Columbo murders Alvarez. Hernando, a 
colonel who has been affronted by Columbo 
in the field, plots with the duchess to be 
revenged, she promising him her hand if 
he succeeds. Hernando kills Columbo in a 
duel. The cardinal, suspecting the complicity 
of the duchess, plans to ravish and kill her. 
Hernando, concealed behind the arras, kills 
the cardinal, but not before the latter by a 
trick has effected the poisoning of the duchess. 
Hernando takes his own life. 

CardoMe, CARDUEL, in the Arthurian ro- 
mances, perhaps Carlisle, but in the History 
of Merlin said to be in Wales. 

CARDUCCI, GIOSU (1836-1907), an 

eminent Italian poet, author of 'Odi Barbare', 


Careless, in Sheridan's 'School for Scandal* 

(q.v.), one of the companions of Charles 

Surface. Also a character in Congreve's 'The 

Double Dealer' (q.v.). 

Careless Husband, The, a comedy by Cibber 
(q.v.), printed in 1715. 

Sir Charles Easy, who neglects his wife and 
carries on an intrigue with her woman and 
with Lady Graveairs, is brought to contrition 
by discovering that his wife's gentle and 
friendly treatment of him is due not to ignor- 
ance of his infidelities, but to her virtue and 
sense of duty. The coquette, Lady Betty 
Modish, is led to accept the suit of her 
honourable lover, Lord Morelove (with whom 
is contrasted the boastful lady-killer, Lord 
Foppington), by a plot to excite her jealousy 
and to persuade her that Morelove, weary 
of her contempt, is about to give her up. 

Carew, BAMFYLDE MOORE (1693-1770?), 
son of a Devonshire rector, who ran away 
from Tiverton School, joined the gipsies and 
became a clever sharper. He went to New- 
foundland, and on his return again joined the 
gipsies and was convicted of being an idle 
rogue. He was transported to Maryland, but 
escaped and returned to England. He fol- 
lowed Prince Charles Edward's army to 
Derby in 1745. 

CAREW (pron. 'Carey'), THOMAS (1598 ?- 
1639?), a son. of Sir Thomas Carew, a master 
in Chancery, was educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and became secretary to Sir 
Dudley Carleton at Venice and subsequently 
for a short time at The Hague. He won the 
favour of Charles I, was appointed to an office 
at court, and received an estate from him. 
He was, in poetry, a disciple of Ben Jonson, 
and wrote a fine elegy on Donne. His principal 
works are a masque, 'Coelurn Britannicum' 
(1634), 'The Rapture' (a fine but licentious 
amatory poem), and numerous graceful songs 
and lyrics. 

CAREY, HENRY (d. 1743), is remembered 


as the author of the burlesque *Chronon- 
hotonthologos' (q.v.), as the inventor of the 
nickname of Ambrose Philips (q.v.), and 
principally as the author of the words and 
music of 'Sally in our Alley*. He also wrote 
a burlesque opera, 'The Dragon of Wantley' 

Carfax (Latin quadrifurcus, four-forked), a 
place where four e roads meet, the intersection 
of two principal streets in a town, as at Oxford 
and Exeter. The crossing of the great streets 
of medieval London at Leadenhall (q.v.) 
market was called the 'Carfukes of Leaden- 
hall* in 1357 (Lethaby). 
Carinthia Jane, the heroine of Meredith's 
'The Amazing Marriage' (q.v.). 

Carker, JAMES, a character in Dickens 's 
'Dombey and Son' (q.v.). 

Carleton, Memoirs of Captain, see Memoirs 
of Captain Carleton. 

CARLETON, WILLIAM (1794-1869), 
born in Tyrone, the son of a poor peasant, 
was the author of a number of remarkable 
stories of Irish peasant life, of which he paints 
the melancholy as well as the humorous side. 
His 'Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry' 
were collected and published in 1832 (first 
contributed to 'The Christian Examiner'), a 
second series following in 1833, and 'Tales of 
Ireland* in 1834. The best of his longer 
stories was 'Fardorougha, the Miser' (q.v., 

Carlion, in Malory's 'Morte d'Arthur' (q.v.), 
the city where Arthur was crowned and held 
his court, probably Caerleon-upon-Usk, 
though in places Carlisle appears to be meant. 

fifth earl of (1748-1825), Chancery guardian 
to Lord Byron and attacked by him in 
'English Bards and Scotch Reviewers'. His 
tragedy, 'The Father's Revenge', was praised 
by Johnson and Walpole. 

Carlos, DON, the deformed son of Philip II 
of Spain. The marriage of the latter with 
Elizabeth of France, who had been affianced 
to Don Carlos, forms the subject of Otway's 
tragedy 'Don Carlos' (q.v.). 

Carlovingians or CAROLINGIANS, the second 
royal dynasty of France, of which Pepin, the 
father of Charlemagne, was the first king 
(752). It was succeeded by the Capetian 

line in 987. 

Carlton Club, THE, was founded in 1831 by 
the duke of Wellington and his political 
friends. It is a political club for men of 
Conservative opinions. Its present house in 
Pall Mall, replacing an earlier one built 
in 1836, was opened in 1855. 

Carlton House, London, from which Carl- 
ton House Terrace is named, was built for 
Henry Boyle, Baron Carleton (d. 1725), and 
sold to the Prince of Wales in 1732. It be- 
came famous as the home of George IV when 
Prince of Wales. 


CARLYLE, ALEXANDER (1723-1805), 
nicknamed 'Jupiter', educated at Edinburgh 
University, Glasgow, and Leyden, a minister 
and leader of the Scottish 'Broad Church* 
party, was author of an interesting auto- 
biography which refers to various notable 
events and personalities of the period 
(printed in 1860). 

Garlyle, JANE BAILLIE WELSH (i 801-66), 
wife of Thomas Carlyle (q.v.). Collections 
of her letters were published in 1883, 1924, 
and 1931. 

GARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881), was 
born at Ecclefechan, in Dumfriesshire, of 
peasant stock. He was educated at the parish 
school, then at Annan Academy, and at the 
age of 1 5 entered Edinburgh University. He 
was subsequently a schoolmaster at Annan 
and Kirkcaldy, but soon took to literary work, 
contributing to Brewster's 'Edinburgh Ency- 
clopaedia', studying German literature, and 
writing his 'Life of Schiller*, which appeared 
in the 'London Magazine* in 1823-4 and was 
separately published in 1825. His translation 
of 'Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship* ap- 
peared in 1824, followed by that of 'Wilhelm 
Meister's Travels' (included in 'German Ro- 
mance*, 1827). In 1826 he married Jane 
Welsh, a Scottish lady of strong character 
and shrewd wit, one of the best letter- writers 
in the English language, and retired to her 
farm at Craigenputtock, on the lonely moors 
of Nithsdale. He contributed essays on Ger- 
man literature to the 'Edinburgh* and other 
reviews, wrote 'Sartor Resartus* (q.v.), which 
was published by 'Eraser's Magazine* in 
1833-4, and the first part of the 'French 
Revolution* (q.v.). He removed to Cheyne 
Row, Chelsea in 1834. The manuscript of 
the first volume of the 'French Revolution* 
was accidentally burnt while in J. S. Mill's 
keeping, but Carlyle re-wrote it and the 
work finally appeared in 1837. In the same 
and following years he gave several courses 
of popular lectures, the most successful, that 
'On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic 
in History*, being published in 1841. In his 
'Chartism* (1839) and 'Past and Present* 
(1843) he turned his attention to political 
problems of the day, and the present and 
future of Labour, expressing his contempt 
for the teachings of political economy and 
democratic nostrums. Salvation, according 
to him-, was to be sought in a return to 
medieval conditions and the rule of the 
strong just man, who was not to be got by 
popular election. The same views, in an 
exaggerated form, are to be found in his 
'Latter- Day Pamphlets* (1850). Carlyle *s 
second great work, 'Oliver Cromwell *s Letters 
and Speeches*, was published in 1845, and 
the 'Life of John Sterling' in 1851. After this 
he spent fourteen years on the preparation of 
the 'History of Frederick the Great* (pub- 
lished 1858-65), of which, though it is the 
most entertaining of his works, the result is 
generally considered disproportionate to the 


labour spent on it. Mrs. Carlyle died in 1866, 
and after this he wrote little of importance. 
'The Early Kings of Norway* appeared in 
1875. JHis 'Reminiscences' appeared in 1881, 
and his 'Life* was written with more frank- 
ness than judgement by his friend and 
disciple, James Anthony Froude (q.v.). 
Several volumes of his letters have been pub- 
lished: editions by C. E. Norton (1886 and 
1888), 'Correspondence of Carlyle and R. W. 
Emerson' (1883), 'Letters of T. Carlyle to his 
Younger Sister* (1899), 'New Letters of T. 
Carlyle* (1904), 'Love Letters of T. Carlyle 
and Jane Welsh* (1909), 'Letters to Mill, 
Sterling, &c.' (1923). 

Carmagnole, a kind of dress much worn 
in France from 10 Aug. 1792. It was the 
southern name for a long waistcoat worn by 
the Marseillais 'Fe"dereV who came to Paris 
at that date and helped to storm the Tuileries. 
The name was extended to a lively song and 
dance popular among "the revolutionists in 
CarmatMans, see Karmathians. 

Carmelites, an order of mendicant friars 
(called also, from the white cloak which forms 
part of their dress, WHITE FRIARS) and nuns, 
who derive their origin from a colony founded 
on Mt. Carmel by Berthold, a Calabrian, in 
the i2th cent. 

Carmilhan, a spectre ship, the subject of 
one of Longfellow's 'Tales of a Wayside Inn*. 
She brings disaster to whatever ship meets 
her. The captain of the 'Valdemar* derides 
the legend, but encounters the 'Carmilhan* 
(with Klaboterman, the Kobold of the sea, 
on board) in a storm, and the 'Valdernar* is 

Carmina Rurana, a collection of Goliardic 
(q.v.) poems from the Benedictine monastery 
of Benedictbeuem in Bavaria. The best 
edition is by A. Hilka and O. Schumann, of 
which the first two volumes were published in 

Camac, in the Morbihan, Brittany, famous 
for its stone circles and other megalithic 
monuments. The circles of Carnac differ 
from the British circles in that the stones 
nearly touch one another. 

Carnegie, ANDREW (1835-1919), the son of 
a damask linen weaver of Dunfermline, 
was taken when a child to America by his 
parents, who emigrated thither during the 
'hungry forties'. At the age of 13 he began 
work in a cotton factory. Later, by his energy 
and shrewd speculative investments, he be- 
came enormously rich and one of the fore- 
most ironmasters in the United States. In 
1900 he published his 'Gospel of Wealth* 
maintaining that a 'man who dies rich dies 
disgraced*, and in 1901, retiring from busi- 
ness, set about the distribution of his surplus 
wealth. The most important of his bene- 
factions from a literary standpoint was his 
provision of public libraries in Great Britain 



and the United States, on condition that the 
local authorities provided site and mainte- 
nance. He also instituted a trust for the 
universities of Scotland, and several trusts for 
the advancement of research and education 
in the United States. Mention must also be 
made of his endowment for the promotion 
of international peace. 

Carol, a word whose etymology is obscure, 
and of which the earliest meaning appears to 
be a round dance; thence a song, originally 
the song accompanying the dance, and 
especially a song of joy sung at Christmas 
time in celebration of the Nativity. The first 
collection of Christmas carols that we possess 
was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1521. 

Carolina, American State, appears to have 
been named after Charles I and Charles II, 
under the latter of whom, in 1663, the final 
settlement was made. Cf. Maryland. 

Caroline, a term applied to the dramatists, 
authors, &c., of the period of Charles I. 
Caroline, QUEEN, (i) consort of George II, 
figures in Scott's 'The Heart of Midlothian' 
(q.v.) and is prominent in the memoirs of the 
time; (2) consort of George IV, figures in 
Byron's poems, &c. 
Caroline Gann or BRANDON, see Brandon. 

Caroline Minuscule, a style of writing de- 
veloped at Tours under Charlemagne, and 
perpetuated in our modern hand. 
Carolingians, see Carlovingians. 
Garos, in Macpherson's Ossianic poem of 
that name, is the Carausius of history. He was 
the commander of a fleet charged to protect 
the coast of Gaul in the reign of Maximian, 
but becoming suspect to the emperor, crossed 
to Britain, assumed the title Augustus, and 
was finally acknowledged by Diocletian and 
Maximian as their colleague in Britain, where 
he continued to rule until murdered in 293. 
In the Ossianic poem he is attacked by Oscar 
and his troops put to flight. 
Carpathian wizard, see Proteus. 

"CARPENTER, JOHN (1370 ?-i44i ?), town 
clerk of London, 1417-38, compiled the 
'Liber Albus', a valuable collection of records 
of the city of London (printed in the RoUs 
Series, 1859, translated by Rttey, 1861). He 
left lands for educational purposes, from which 
the City of London School was founded. 

Carpet, MAGIC, see Ahmed for that described 
in the 'Arabian Nights'. According to Mo- 
hammedan legend Solomon had a carpet 
which transported him and his army, the 
wind carrying it wherever he wished to go. 
See Koran, c. xsi, and Sale's notes to c. xxvii. 

Carpet-bagger, in U.S. political slang, a 
scornful term applied after the American 
Civil War of 1861-5 to immigrants from the 
northern to the southern states, whose 'pro- 
perty qualification' consisted merely of the 
contents of the carpet-bag which they had 
brought with them. Hence applied oppro- 


briously to all northerners who went south 
and tried, by the Negro vote or otherwise, 
to obtain political influence; and generally to 
any one interfering with the politics of a 
locality with which he is thought to have no 
genuine or permanent connexion. 

Carpio, BERNARDO DEL, see Bernardo del 

Carrasco, SAMSON, in 'Don Quixote' (q.v.), 
a bachelor of the University of Salamanca, a 
little mirth-loving man, who, in order to cure 
Don Quixote of his folly, disguises himself 
as the Knight of the Mirrors, overcomes him 
in combat, and requires him to return home 
and abstain from, chivalric exploits for a year. 
He boasted to Don Quixote that he had fixed 
Giralda, the weathercock on the cathedral of 
CARROLL, LEWIS, see Dodgson. 

Carson, KIT (1809-68), famous American 
trapper and guide, whose activities were 
mainly in the Rocky Mountains region. 

Garstone, RICHARD, one of the two wards in 
Chancery in Dickens's 'Bleak House* (q.v.). 

Cartaphilus, see Wandering Jew. 

CARTER, ELIZABETH (1717-1806), 
daughter of a Kent clergyman, and a member 
of the Blue Stocking (q.v.) circle, was a friend 
of Richardson, and of Dr. Johnson, who had 
a high opinion of her abilities and to whose 
'Rambler' she contributed two numbers. 
She published a translation of Epictetus in 
1758. Her letters to Miss Talbot, Mrs.yesey, 
and Mrs. Montagu, were published after 
her death (1809-17). 

Cartesianism, see Descartes. 

Carthage, a famous city of the ancient 
world, situated about the centre of the coast 
of N. Africa, whose power in the latter part of 
the 3rd cent. B.C. under the leadership of 
Hannibal gravely threatened Rome. The 
Punic Wars (as the wars between Rome and 
Carthage were called 1 ), which lasted 265-242, 
218-201, and 149-146 B.C., ended in the de- 
struction of the latter city. It was rebuilt by 
Augustus, and became an important post of 
the Roman province of Africa. For the phrase 
*delenda est Carthago', see Cato the Censor. 
See also Marius among the ruins of Carthage. 

Carthon, the title of one of Macpherson's 
Ossianic poems. Clessammor, the uncle of 
Fingal, being driven to Balclutha by a storm, 
has married Moina, daughter of a local chief, 
but has been driven away, and left his bride 
behind him, and she, after giving birth to 
Carthon, has died. Combal, father of Fingal, 
has burnt Balclutha. Carthon, who was 
carried off to safety by his nurse, when grown 

* Punic, from L. Punicus, earlier Poenicus, from Gk. 
$otm, Phoenician. The epithet is applied to Carthage 
because it was a Phoenician colony. Phoenicia was an 
ancient country consisting of a narrow strip of land on 
the coast of Syria, containing the cities of Tyre and 
Sid on. There were many Phoenician colonies on the 
coast of the Mediterranean. 



to man's estate invades Morven to revenge 
the destruction of Balclutha. He is slain in 
single combat by his own father, Clessammor, 
who does not know him, but dies from grief 
on discovering that he has killed his son. 

Carthusians, an order of monks founded in 
the Dauphine" by St. Bruno in 1086, re- 
markable for the severity of their rule. The 
name is derived 'from Catursiani Monies, or 
from Catorissium, Chatrousse, a village in the 
Dauphine*, near which their first monastery 
was founded' [Littre"] (not from La Grande 
Chartreuse, which was named after the order). 
See also under Charterhouse. 

Carton, SYDNEY, a character in Dickens's 
'A Tale of Two Cities' (q.v.). 

Caruso, ENRICO (1873-1921), the famous 
Italian operatic singer, a tenor, was born at 
Naples. He first came into prominence by 
his singing in La Boheme' in 1894, in which 
as Rodolfo he subsequently achieved one of 
his greatest successes. He sang only in 
Italian and French opera. From 1903 till his 
death he was the leading tenor of the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 

Carvel, Hans, see Hans CarveL 

GARY, HENRY FRANCIS (1772-1844), 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, was an 
assistant librarian at the British Museum 
from 1826 to 1837. He translated Dante's 
'Divina Commedia' ('Inferno', 1805; 'Purga- 
torio* and Taradiso*, 1812), the 'Birds* of 
Aristophanes (1824), and Pindar (1832). 

Carya'tids (from Kapvdns, a priestess of 
Artemis at Caryae in Laconia), female figures 
used as columns to support an entablature, 
perhaps originally statues of maidens taking 
part in the festival of Artemis Caryatis. 
[Smith, 'Classical Dictionary'.] 

CARYL!/, JOHN (1625-1711), diplomatist, 
secretary to Mary of Modena, queen of 
James II, and author of 'Sir Solomon Single*, 
a comedy. He was a friend and correspondent 
of Pope, to whom he suggested the subject 
of 'The Rape of the Lock* (q.v.). 

Casablanca, Louis (1755-98), a Corsican 
who commanded the French vessel TOrient* 
at the battle of Aboukir, where he is said, to 
have blown up his ship to prevent its falling 
into the hands of the English, and 'perished 
with his little son. This incident is the sub- 
ject of the well-known poem by Mrs. Hemans 


COMO (1725-98), an Italian adventurer, 
whose Memoirs, written in an imperfect but 
lively French, describe his rogueries, adven- 
tures, and amours in most countries of 
Europe. The licentious and indecent character 
of various passages mars a highly entertaining 
account of i8th-cent. European society and 
the portrait of its very singular author. 
Casanova's veracity has been much ques- 
tioned, and no doubt it is rather in the main 


outlines of the picture than in its details that 
he is to be trusted. 

Casaubon, MR., a leading character in G. 
Eliot's 'Middlemarch' (q.v.). 

CASAUBON, ISAAC (i 559-1 614), aFrench 
Huguenot scholar and theologian, born in 
exile at Geneva, who resided in London from 
1610 to 1614. His chief work was his 
criticism of the 'Annales Ecclesiastici' of 
Baronius, in his *De rebus sacris et ecclesi- 
asticis exercitationes' (1614). He published 
critical editions of a number of classical 
authors of the early Christian era. He was 
too learned and too critical a scholar to find 
rest in any of the churches of the day. A life 
of Casaubon was written by Mark Pattison 
(q.v., 1875). 

Casby, CHRISTOPHER and FLORA, characters 
in Dickens's 'Little Dorrit* (q.v.). 

Casca, one of the conspirators in Shake- 
speare's 'Julius Caesar' (q.v.). 

Case is altered, The, a comedy by Jonson 
(q.v.), printed in 1609, but written before 


Count Ferneze, who has lost an infant son, 
Camillo, when Vicenza was captured by the 
French general Chamont, sees his elder son 
Paulo go off to the wars against this same 
Chamont, under the special care of his general 
Maximilian. Paulo is taken prisoner, but 
on the other hand Maximilian brings back 
Chamont and his friend Gasper captive. It 
is agreed that Gasper shall return and effect 
an exchange between Paulo and Chamont, 
but Gasper personates Chamont, and 
Chamont himself departs. The trick is 
discovered, and Ferneze is on the point of 
executing Gasper, when Chamont returns 
with Paulo, and it is moreover discovered 
that Gasper is Ferneze's lost son Camillo. 
The other elements of the play are more 
amusing: the attempts made by various 
parties to secure the daughter and the 
treasure of the beggar Jaques de Prie (neither 
of them his by rights), and the fun made of 
Antonio Balladino, a character in which 
Anthony Munday (q.v.) is ridiculed. 

Caseldy, a character in Meredith's 'The 
Tale of Chloe* (q.v.). 

Cask of Amontillado, The, a tale by Edgar 
Allan Poe (q.v.). 

Casket Letters, THE, letters supposed to 
have passed between Mary Queen of Scots 
and Bothwell, and to have established her 
complicity in the murder of Darnley. They 
were repudiated by the queen as forgeries 
(and some have suspected George Buchanan, 
q.v., as the forger), but it was threatened that 
they would be used as evidence against her. 
They disappeared before the end of the i6th 
cent, and have never been recovered. 

Gaslon, WILLIAM (1692-1766), a London 
type-founder, famous in the history of 
printing. His broadside showing specimens 


of roman and italic in no fewer than twelve 
different sizes was issued in 1734. Caslon 
type has been, in the late i gth and early 2oth 
cents., perhaps the most popular in good book 

Cassandra , daughter of Priam, king of Troy, 
received the gift of prophecy from Apollo, 
who was enamoured of her. But as she 
slighted him, the god contrived that no trust 
should be placed in her predictions. After the 
fall of Troy she fell to the lot of Agamemnon, 
who took her back to Greece and to whom she 
foretold the calamities that awaited him. She 
was murdered by Clytemnestra (q.v.). 

Cassandre, by La Calprenede (q.v.). It was 
translated into English in the middle of the 
1 7th cent, and is said to have been read by 
Charles I in prison. 

Cassibellaun (CASSIBELAN in Shakespeare's 
'Cymbeline'), or CASSIVELAUNUS, the ruler of 
the country north of the Thames, who was 
given the chief command of the British forces 
that resisted Caesar's second invasion (54 B.C.). 
He was defeated and obliged to sue for peace. 
Legend makes him brother and successor of 
Lud (q.v.). 
Cassim, the brother of All Baba (q.v.). 

Cassio, MICHAEL, in Shakespeare's 'Othello' 
(q.v.), the Moor's lieutenant. 

(b. c. A.D. 468), of Scylacium in Bruttiurn (the 
modern Squillace in Cantabria), a distin- 
guished statesman who governed for many 
years the Ostrogothic kingdom under Theo- 
doric the Great and his successors, and a 
man of exceptional learning for his period. 
He spent the last years of his life at the 
monastery at Viviers which he had founded. 
There he set his monks to copy classical 
(Latin) manuscripts ; much would have been 
lost but for this. He was author of several 
works in Latin, of which the most important 
is a collection of state papers known as 
'Variarum Epistolarum Libri XII*. 

Gassio pea, wife of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, 
and mother of Andromeda (q.v.), who boasted 
herself (or according to another version, her 
daughter) more beautiful than the Nereids, 
thus incurring the wrath of Poseidon. She 
was changed into a northern constellation, 
the 'starr'd Ethiop queen' of Milton's 'II 

Gassiterides, the 'tin islands', from Cassi- 
terum, tin; possibly the Scilly Isles, or Corn- 
wall, where there are tin mines ; but probably 
islands off the Spanish coast, near Finisterre. 

Cassius, in Shakespeare's 'Julius Caesar', 
the friend of Brutus and leader of the con- 
spiracy against Julius Caesar. 

Castalia, the name of a spring on Mt. Par- 
nassus, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, said 
to be so called from Castalia (daughter of 
Achelous), who plunged into it to escape the 
pursuit of Apollo. 


Gastalio, a character in Otway's 'The 
Orphan* (q.v.). 
Castara, see Habington. 

1529), Italian humanist, chiefly known for 
his prose dialogue, 'II Cortegiano' (1528), 
translated in 1561 into English by Sir 
Thomas Hoby (1530-66). In this dialogue, 
which takes place at the court of Urbino, and 
is presided over by the duchess, all the quali- 
fications of the ideal courtier, ethical and 
intellectual, as well as military, sporting, and 
elegant, are set out and discussed. The work 
had much influence on the literature of Eng- 
land, e.g. on Surrey, Wyatt, Sidney, and 

Castle Dangerous, a novel by Sir W. Scott 
(q.v.) published in 1832, as the last of the 
'Tales of My Landlord'. 

The story deals with the defence in 1306 
of Douglas Castle by Sir John de Walton, 
assisted by the young knight Aymer de 
Valence, on behalf of the king of England, 
against the forces of Robert the Bruce and 
Sir James Douglas ('The Black Douglas'). 
The Lady Augusta of Berkeley, a noble and 
beautiful young Englishwoman, has offered 
her hand and fortune to the English knight 
who will hold it for a year and a day. In a 
spirit of light-hearted frolic she herself goes 
in disguise, with an aged minstrel, Bertram, 
to the neighbourhood of the castle. Here she 
is in danger of being treated as a spy by Sir 
John, before he discovers her identity, and 
then is captured by the Douglas, and is 
offered to Sir John in exchange for the castle. 
Sir John's embarrassment is solved by the 
arrival of orders to surrender the castle, and 
the lady is restored to her lover. 

Castle of Bungay, see Bungay. 

Castle of Indolence, The, a poem in Spen- 
serian stanzas by J. Thomson (1700-48, q.v.), 
published in 1748, 

This, the most beautiful and musical of 
Thomson's works, was begun in 1733. It 
consists of two cantos, of which the first 
describes the castle of the wizard Indolence, 
into which he entices the weary pilgrims of 
this earth. Once there, a torpor steals over 
them, and they sink into idleness amid 
delightful sights and sounds. With a light 
touch of caricature various real persons, in- 
cluding the poet himself, inhabitants of the 
castle, are sketched in. Presently, becoming 
diseased and loathsome, the inmates are 
thrown into a dungeon and left there to 
languish. The second canto describes the 
conquest of the wizard and the destruction 
of his castle by the knight of Arms and 

Castle of Otranto, The y a Gothic Story, a 
novel by H. Walpole (q.v.), published in 

This work purported in the first edition 
to be a translation from the Italian, but its 


authorship was acknowledged in the second 
edition. The events related are supposed to 
have occurred in the i2th or I3th cents. 
Manfred, prince of Otranto, the villain of 
the story, is the grandson of a usurper of the 
realm, who had poisoned Alfonso, the right- 
ful lord. It had been prophesied that the line 
of the usurper should continue to reign until 
the rightful owner had grown too large 
to inhabit the castle and as long as male 
issue of the usurper remained to enjoy it. 
When the story opens, Manfred is about to 
marry his only son to the beautiful Isabella, 
but on the eve of the wedding the son is 
mysteriously killed. Terrified lest he should 
be left without male descendants, Manfred 
determines to divorce his wife and marry 
Isabella himself. Isabella escapes with the 
assistance of Theodore, a young peasant, 
bearing a singular resemblance to the 
portrait of Alfonso, and already under sus- 
picion of some connexion with the death of 
Manfred's son. Theodore is imprisoned, but 
is released by Matilda, Manfred's daughter, 
with whom he falls in love. Manfred, sus- 
picious of an amour between Theodore and 
Isabella, and learning that Theodore and a 
lady from the castle are together by night at 
Alfonso's tomb, hurries there and stabs the 
lady, only to find that he has killed his daugh- 
ter, Matilda. The supernatural element that 
has pervaded the story now brings it to an 
end. The ghost of Alfonso (a mysterious 
gigantic figure that haunts the castle), in 
accordance with the prophecy has grown too 
big for the edifice, and throws it down, and 
terror forces Manfred to reveal the usurpa- 
tion. Theodore turns out to be the heir of 
Alfonso and the rightful prince, and marries 

Castle Perilous, in Malory's *Morte 
d'Arthur* (the story of Beaumains or Sir 
Gareth), the castle of the Lady Lyones. See 
Gareth and Lynette. 

Castle Rackrent, a novel by M. Edgeworth 
(q.v.), published in 1801. 

Thady Quirk, steward to the Rackrent 
family, tells the story of the family since he 
has known it. He begins with the hard- 
drinking Sir Patrick who dies singing his 
favourite song: 

He that goes to bed, and goes to bed sober, 

Falls as the leaves do ... 
Next comes the litigious Sir Murtagh, who 
'out of forty- nine suits which he had, never 
lost one but r seventeen'. Then follows the 
quarrelsome Sir Kit, who marries a 'Jewish', 
and locks her up for seven years. Last comes 
Sir Condy, who tosses up whether he shall 
marry the rich Miss Moneygawl or the pretty 
Judy Quirk, and runs through the remainder 
of the Rackrent property, much of which 
passes into the hands of Attorney Quirk, 
Thady's son, a sharp-witted rascal. The book 
gives a vivid picture of the reckless living 
which in the iSth cent, brought many Irish 
landlords to ruin. 


Castlereagli, ROBERT STEWART, second mar- 
quis of Londonderry, better known as Viscount 
Castlereagh (1769-1822), was chief secretary 
for Ireland 1799-1801, and secured the 
passing of the Act of Union by the Irish 
parliament. He was subsequently president 
of the board of control and in charge of the 
war and colonial offices. He sent Wellesley to 
Portugal and was responsible for the Wal- 
cheren expedition. He fought a duel with 
Canning in 1809, wounded him, and resigned 
office. He was foreign secretary from 1812 to 
1 822, and took a leading part in the European 
settlement at the Congress of Vienna and after 
Waterloo, restraining the allies from retalia- 
tion on France. His mind became affected by 
work and responsibility and he committed 
suicide. Shelley (q.v.) in his 'Masque of 
Anarchy* (provoked by the Peterloo, q.v., 
affair) wrote : 

I met Murder on the way 
He had a face like Castlereagh. 

Castlewood, THOMAS, third Viscount, and 
his wife ISABEL; FRANCIS, fourth Viscount, 
his wife RACHEL, and his daughter, BEATRIX ; 
FRANCIS, fifth Viscount ; characters in Thack- 
eray's 'Esmond' (q.v.). Also Eugene, EARL 
OF CASTLEWOOD, in Thackeray's f The Vir- 
ginians* (q.v.), son of the last named. 

Castor and Pollux, twin brothers, known 
as the DIOSCURI, sons of Zeus by Leda (q.v.). 
They took part in the expedition of the Ar- 
gonauts (q.v.), in the course of which Pollux 
defeated and slew Amy cus in the combat of the 
cestus, and was thereafter reckoned the god 
of wrestling and boxing. Castor distinguished 
himself in the management of horses. The 
twins were also regarded as the friends of 
navigators, having the power to calm storms. 
They were made a constellation known as 
Gemini or the Twins. 

Castor is a name given to the phenomenon 
known as a Corposant (see Elmo's Fire). When 
two corposants were seen together, they were 
called Castor and Pollux and were thought 
to portend the cessation of a storm. 

Castriot, GEORGE, see Scanderbeg. 

Castruccio Castracani, The Sword of, a 
poem by E. B. Browning. He was a famous 
soldier of the i4th cent, and a leader of the 
Ghibellines. His sword, which had been 
kept till some patriot should arise and free 
Italy, was offered to Victor Emmanuel, who 
exclaimed, 'Questa e per me'. 

Catachresis, application of a term to a 
thing it does not properly denote ; misuse of 

Catacomb, a word of uncertain etymology, 
(a) representing the Latin catacumbus, used 
as early as the 5th cent, in connexion with the 
subterranean cemetery under the Basilica of 
St. Sebastian on the Appian Way near Rome, 
in or near which the bodies of the apostles 
Peter and Paul were said to have been de- 
posited: this is the only sense in which the 


word is used in English before the I7th cent, 
(j) In later times applied (in the plural) to all 
the subterranean cemeteries lying around 
Rome (some of which, after having long been 
covered up and forgotten, were accidentally 
discovered in 1578). The word is also 
extended to similar subterranean works else- 
where. Scott in 'Old Mortality', c. ix, uses 
it for a compartment in a cellar. 

Catalan, variant of CATHAIAN, a man of 
Cathay or China; 'used also to signify a 
sharper, from the dexterous thieving of those 
people' [Nares], and so used by Shakespeare 
in 'Merry Wives', n. L 
Catalectic, said of a verse whose last foot 
is truncated and has only one syllable, or is 
altogether cut off; e.g. 'Best and brightest, 
come away*. Cf. acatalectic. 

Caterans, Highland irregular fighting men, 

Catharine of Alexandria, ST., a princess 
in the 3rd cent., who embraced the Christian 
religion by divine inspiration, and converted 
all with whom she came in communication, 
including the wife of the Emperor Maxentius 
and his general Porphyrius. She was be- 
headed in 307, after other methods of putting 
her to death, including that of the wheel 
which bears her name (a diabolical engine 
consisting of four wheels armed with knives 
and teeth turning different ways), had failed 
owing to divine interposition. Her body was 
conveyed by angels to Mount Sinai, where 
the convent of St. Catharine was founded to 
commemorate the spot. 

A CATHERINE WHEEL is a kind of firework 
which rotates while burning; or a lateral 

born at Genoa of an illustrious family . She felt 
an early vocation to a convent life, but was 
refused on account of her youth. Her mar- 
riage to Giuliano Adorno was unhappy. She 
became an outstanding mystic > and wrote 
'Dialogues of the Soul and Body* and a 
'Treatise on Purgatory'. 

Catharine of Siena, ST. (1347-80), an 
Italian saint. Her holiness of life and gift of 
diplomacy were so famous that she was called 
upon to mediate between Pope Urban VI 
and the Florentines in 1378. It was through 
her persuasion that Gregory XI returned 
from Avignon to Rome. Her extensive 
correspondence with popes and princes, in- 
stinct with religious fervour, was published 
in 1860. 

Cathay ('Khitai'), the name under which 
China was known under the Mongol dynasty, 
the Khitans being a people of Manchu race 
to the NE. of China who established an em* 
pire over north China during two centuries 
ending in 1123. See 'Cathay, and the way 
thither, or the medieval geography of Asia' 
by Sir Henry Yule (1866), which includes the 
narratives of the voyages of Friar Odoric of 


Pordenone early in the I4th cent., of Ibn 
Batuta of Tangier (1325-55), and of Benedict 
Goes, a Jesuit born about 1561 in the Azores, 
who was one of the missionaries sent to 
Akbar in 1594; he proceeded from India to 
China early in the I7th cent. 

GATHER, WILLA (1876- ), American 
novelist, born in Virginia. Her chief books 
are: 'My Antonia' (19*8), * Youth and the 
Bright Medusa' (1920), 'One of Ours' (1922), 
'A Lost Lady' (1923), 'Death Comes for the 
Archbishop* (1927), 'Shadows on the Rock* 

Catherine, a novel by Thackeray (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1839-40, and written under the 
pseudonym 'Ikey Solomons, junior*. It is 
an ironical tale of a criminal life, designed 
to discredit the practice of ennobling crime 
in fiction. Catherine Hayes, from whom 
'Catherine' was drawn, was executed for the 
murder of her husband in 1726. 

Catherine de Bourgh, LADY, a character in 
Jane Austen's 'Pride and Prejudice* (q.v.). 

Catholic Church, a term first applied to 
the whole body of Christian believers, as dis- 
tinguished from an individual congregation 
or particular body of Christians. After the 
separation of the Eastern and Western. 
Churches, 'Catholic* was assumed by the 
latter as its descriptive epithet, and 'Ortho- 
dox* by the former. At the Reformation the 
term 'Catholic' was claimed as its exclusive 
right by the body remaining under the Roman 
obedience, in opposition to the Protestant or 
Reformed Churches. These however also 
retained the term, giving it, for the most part, 
a wider and more ideal and absolute sense. 
In England it was claimed that the Church, 
even as Reformed, was the national branch of 
the 'Catholic Church' in its proper historical 
sense. As a consequence, in order to dis- 
tinguish the unreformed Latin church, its 
chosen epithet of 'Catholic' was further 
qualified by 'Roman*. On this analogy 
'Anglo-Catholic* has been used by some, 
since about 1835, of the Anglican Church, in 
preference to 'Protestant* [OED.]. In the 
latter part of the igth and in the 2oth cents., 
the term Anglo-Catholic has been applied in a 
more special sense to the present high church 
element in the Anglican Church, which was 
associated with the Oxford Movement (q.v.) 
and emphasizes the Catholic as distinct from 
the Protestant character of that Church. 

The OLD CATHOLICS are a religious party 
who separated from the Roman Catholic 
communion in Germany after the Vatican 
Council of 1870-1. 

Catholic King, His CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a 
tide assumed by the kings of Spain. It was 
given first to Isabella (by Alexander VI), then 
to her and her husband Ferdinand. 

Catiline, a Roman tragedy by Jonson (q.v.), 
first acted in 1611. The play is based on 
the events of the year 63 B.C., when Catiline 


organized a conspiracy to overthrow the 
existing government and to renew with the 
aid of Sulla's veterans the scenes of blood- 
shed which Rome had recently seen. Cicero 
and Antonius were elected consuls, and Cati- 
line, secretly encouraged by Caesar and 
Crassus, prepared for a rising. Cicero, how- 
ever, warned by Fulvia, the mistress of 
Curius, of the intention to assassinate him as 
a first step in the movement, summons the 
senate and accuses Catiline, who leaves Rome 
and joins the troops raised by his adherents 
at Faesulae. Cicero obtains evidence of the 
guilt of the conspirators through the am- 
bassadors of the Allobroges, and submits it 
to the senate, which resolves that they shall 
be put to death. Catiline falls in the decisive 
engagement between his troops and those of 
the government commanded by Petreius. 

Catnach, JAMES (1792-1841), a publisher in 
Seven Dials, London. He issued a large 
number of penny and farthing chap-books, 
ballads, and broadsides, many of them about 
crimes, highwaymen, and executions, which 
throw much light on his period. - 

Cato, a tragedy by Addison (q.v.), produced 
in 1713. 

It deals with the last phase of the life of 
Marcus Porcius Cato the republican, who is 
besieged in Utica by Caesar (46 B.C.). He is 
betrayed by Sempronius, a senator, and by 
Syphax, a Numidian ally, but faithfully sup- 
ported by Juba, the Numidian prince. 
Further resistance to Caesar bemg useless, he 
provides for the escape of his friends and 
takes his own life rather than surrender to the 
dictator. A love interest is added to the play 
in the devotion of Juba to Cato's daughter 
Marcia, and in the rivalry of the two sons of 
Cato for the hand of Lucia, a rivalry resolved 
by the death of one of them while bravely 
resisting the traitor Syphax. 

The political excitement at the moment 
when the play was produced Anne's health 
was failing and the question of the succession 
was acute contributed to the success of a 
drama dealing with Cato's last stand for 

Cato the Censor (234-149 B.C.) was famous 
for his opposition in that office to the preva- 
lent fashions of luxury, which he combated by 
heavy taxation. Having been sent on a mission 
to Africa, he was so struck with the power 
and prosperity of Carthage that he became 
convinced that Rome would never be safe 
until Carthage was destroyed. Therefore 
whenever called upon to vote in the senate, 
and whatever the subject, his final words 
(according to Florus) were 'Delenda est Car- 

Cato Street Conspiracy, a plot by a certain 
Thistlewood (q.v.) and some thirty other per- 
sons in 1820 to murder the ministers of the 
Crown at a cabinet dinner, provoked by the 
repressive measures taken by the govern- 
ment against the advocates of reform. The 



conspirators met in a stable in Cato Street 
near the Edgware Road. The conspiracy was 
betrayed and the leaders executed. 

Catriona, see Kidnapped. 

(87-54? ?- c -) a great Roman poet and epi- 
grammatist, born in or near Verona. The 
Lesbia celebrated in his poems was probably 
Clodia, the notorious sister of Publius 
Clodius. He had a country house at Sirrnio 
on the Lacus Benacus (Lake of Garda), the 
Sirmione of Tennyson's 'Frater, ave atque 

Caucus, a word of obscure origin, which 
arose in New England, said to have been used 
in Boston (U.S.) before 1724. In the U.S. it 
signifies a private meeting of the representa- 
tives of a political party previous to an elec- 
tion or to a general meeting of the party, to 
select candidates for office or to concert other 
measures for furthering the party's interests. 
In English newspapers since 1878 it has been 
generally misused and applied opprobriously 
to a committee or organization charged with 
seeking to manage the elections and dictate 
to the constituencies, but which is in fact 
usually a representative committee popularly 
elected for the purpose of securing conceited 
political action in a constituency. [OED.] 

Candine Forks, narrow passes in the 
mountains of Samnium where the Roman 
army surrendered to the Samnites in 321 B.C., 
and were obliged to pass under the yoke (a 
spear supported transversely by two others 
placed upright) to symbolize their subju- 

Caudle Lectures, see Mrs. Caudle's Curtain 

Cauline, SIR, the subject of a ballad included 
in Percy's *Reliques', a young knight at the 
court of the king of Ireland, who falls in love 
with Christabelle the king's daughter, is 
banished, returns in disguise and slays a grim 
'Soldan* giant who is a suitor for the princess, 
but is himself mortally wounded. Christa- 
belle dies of a broken heart. 
Canrus, Latin name of the NW. wind. 
Cavalier, Memoirs of a, see Memoirs. 

Cavaliers, a name given to the adherents of 
the king in the Civil War of the I7th cent. It 
was originally reproachful and given to the 
swashbucklers on the king's side, who hailed 
the prospect of war. 

CAVALIER LYRICS, a term applied to the 
lyrical poetry of which there was a remarkable 
outburst during the reign of Charles I, and of 
which the court was the centre, though 
Robert Herrick, the chief of these lyrists, was 
not a courtier. The principal other CavaHer 
lyrists were Thomas Carew, Sir John Suck- 
ling, and Richard Lovelace (qq.v.). 

Cave, EDWARD (1691-1754), the son or a 
Rugby cobbler, became a London printer and 
published many journals and books, but is 


chiefly remembered as the founder of the 
'Gentleman's Magazine' (q.v.), which he 
conducted from 1731 until his death. 

Gave of Adullam, see Aduttamites. 

Gave of Harmony, THE, in Thackeray's 
'The Newcomes' (q.v.), was drawn from 
Evans's Tavern at the NW. corner of Co vent 
Garden piazza, frequented by Douglas Jer- 
rold, G. A. Sala, Leech, &c.; and from the 
'Coal Hole' in Fountain Court, Strand, 

Cave of Mammon, see Mammon. 
Cavelarice , see Markham (G.). 

CAVENDISH, GEORGE (1500-61?), a 
gentleman of Thomas Wolsey's household, 
and author of a remarkable biography of the 
cardinal, in which with much art he contrasts 
the magnificence of the cardinal's life with 
his subsequent disgrace, and indicates 'the 
wondrous mutability of vain honours . . . and 
the fickle trust to worldly princes'. It was first 
printed in 1641 , but was previously circulated 
in manuscript. 

Cavendish, HENRY (1731-1810), natural 
philosopher, grandson of the second duke of 
Devonshire, educated at Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge. He discovered the constitution of 
water and atmospheric air, and experimented 
on electricity and the density of the earth. 
His name is commemorated in the CAVENDISH 
LABORATORY at Cambridge for physical re- 
search, founded in 1874 by the seventh duke 
of Devonshire. 

Cavendish, THOMAS (1560-92), fitted out 
three ships in 1586 and circumnavigated the 
globe, reaching Plymouth on his return in 
September 1588. His ship was the 'Desire'. 
In the course of his voyage he captured the 
great treasure-ship off the coast of Cali- 
fornia. He planned another voyage in 1591 
with Capt. John Davis, but died at sea. 

Cavendish on Whist, *The Principles of 
whist, stated and explained by Cavendish* 
(the pseudonym of HENRY JONES, 1831-99), 
published in 1862. Jones was a member of 
the Cavendish Whist Club. 

CavouT,CAMiLLO BENSO, Count di (1810-61), 
was prime minister in the Sardinian govern- 
ment 1852-9 and 1860-1. He caused 
Sardinia to join the western allies against 
Russia in 1855 and sent a Sardinian force to 
the Crimea under La Marmora. Having thus 
enhanced the international status of Sardinia, 
he in 1858 secured an alliance with Napoleon 
III, which led to the successful campaign of 
1859 against Austria. He resigned office in 
anger on learning the terms of peace settled 
by the two emperors at Villafranca and 
accepted by Victor Emmanuel, by which 
Sardinia acquired only Lombardy. On his 
return to office in 1860 he effected the an- 
nexation of Tuscany, and after Garibaldi's 
adventurous, and at times embarrassing, 
expedition to Sicily and Naples, the annexa- 
tion of southern Italy. His statesmanship 


thus brought about, before his death, the 
unification of the greater part of Italy. 

Cawdor, THANE OF, see Macbeth. 

Gaxon, JACOB, in Scott's 'The Antiquary* 
(q.v.), hairdresser at Fairport, employed by 
Jonathan Oldbuck. 

CAXTON, WILLIAM (1422 ?-9i), the first 
English printer, was born in Kent and ap- 
prenticed, 1438, to a London mercer. He 
went, after his master's death, to Bruges, 
1441, where he remained till 1470 engaged in 
business and acting (1465-9) a s governor of 
the English merchants in the Low Countries. 
He was also employed in negotiating com- 
mercial treaties with the dukes of Burgundy. 
From 1471 to 1476 he was in the household 
of Margaret (sister of Edward IV) duchess of 
Burgundy. Caxton began translating the 
French romance c Le Recueil des Histoires de 
Troves' in March 1469 at Bruges and finished 
it in 1471 at Cologne. He learned printing 
after 1471 and before 1474, perhaps at 
Cologne and in company of Colard Mansion. 
He printed his 'Recuyell of the Histories of 
Troy', folio, probably in 1474, and 'The 
Game and Playe of the Chesse' (q.v.), another 
translation from the French, probably in 
1475, both perhaps at a press set up in 1473 
by Colard Mansion at Bruges and belonging 
to Caxton. He came to England in 1476, and 
continued in favour with Edward IV, Richard 
III, and Henry VII. He established a press 
at Westminster from which he issued, 1477- 
91, nearly eighty separate books, many of 
them translations by himself from French 
romances (the first of them was the earl of 
Rivers's translation of 'The Dictes and Say- 
ings of the Philosophers*, 1477). Six distinct 
founts of type were used by Caxton. At 
Westminster he lived in a house in the 
Almonry, near the west end of the abbey. 
His importance in the history of English 
literature is by no means confined to his 
work as a printer, for he contributed by his 
translations to the formation in the i5th cent, 
of an English prose style. 

Caxtons f The, a novel by Bulwer Lytton 
(q.v.), published in 1849. 

Pisistratus Caxton narrates, with gentle 
humour, the simple annals of the Caxton 
family. He gives a pleasant picture of his 
father, a kindly scholar absorbed in a great 
work; his uncle Jack who pursues his mania 
for speculative enterprises with results 
disastrous to the family; and his other uncle, 
Roland, an old warrior in whose opinion 
Sir William Caxton who fought at Bosworth 
is a more creditable ancestor than Caxton the 
printer. The only considerable incident in 
the story is the attempt of the Byronic youth 
Vivian, who turns out to be the reprobate son 
of Roland, to carry off Fanny Trevanion, the 
rich heiress. Pisistratus, who has been in 
love with her and secretary to her father, 
emigrates to Australia and eventually marries 
his cousin Blanche. 


Gayster, a river in Lydia, falling into the 
Aegean Sea near Ephesus, and according to 
the poets celebrated for its swans. 

Gebes, a Greek philosopher, of Thebes, a 
friend and disciple of Socrates; he figures 
in Plato's Thaedo'. The 'Picture' or 'Table' 
(mvag), a work once attributed to him, a 
symbolical representation of the life of man, 
is now held to be spurious. 

Cecial, TOM, in 'Don Quixote* (q.v.), Sancho 
Panza's neighbour, who engages himself as 
mock-squire to the bachelor Samson Carras- 
co (q.v.) when the latter masquerades as the 
Knight of the Mirrors. 

Cecilia, ST., a Christian martyr who died at 
Rome in 230. She is said to have been forced 
to marry, in spite of her vows of celibacy, a 
certain Valerian. She converted him to 
Christianity, and both suffered martyrdom. 
Through a medieval misinterpretation of a 
sentence in her Acts ('Cantantibus organis in 
corde suo soli domino decantabat') she came 
to be associated with church music and in 
particular with the organ, which she was 
supposed to have played. When the Academy 
of Music was founded at Rome in 1584 she 
was adopted as the patroness of Church 
Music. Her story is told in Chaucer's 
'Second Nun's Tale* (see Canterbury Tales). 
Dryden (q.v.) wrote a 'Song for St. Cecilia's 
Day*, and Pope (q.v.) an c Ode for Music on 
Saint Cecilia's Day'. 

Cecilia, or Memoirs of an Heiress, a novel by 
F. Burney (q.v.), published in 1782. 

This was the second of Miss Burney's 
novels, and was at once successful. Cecilia 
Beverley has inherited a large fortune on the 
sole condition that her husband must take 
her name. Until she comes of age she is 
required to live with one of her three 
guardians. The first of these is Harrel, a 
gambler, who, failing in his attempt to exploit 
her, and to save himself from ruin, commits 
suicide. The second is the impossibly vulgar 
and avaricious Briggs. Cecilia goes to stay 
with the third, the Hon. Compton Delvile, a 
man of overweening family pride, 'arrogant 
without merit, imperious without capacity'. 
She and Mortimer Delvile, his son, fall 
deeply in love with one another; but old 
Delvile treats Cecilia with contempt, and is 
furious at the idea that his son should ex- 
change his name for hers. A marriage is 
nevertheless arranged between the young 
couple on the basis that Cecilia shall re- 
nounce her fortune and Delvile keep his 
name. But this plan is defeated by the 
machinations of the crafty Monckton, whom 
Cecilia has always regarded as a trusty friend, 
but who, being married to a woman much 
older than himself, hopes to win Cecilia and 
her fortune when his own wife dies. Monck- 
ton's treachery is exposed, Cecilia and 
Mortimer Delvile are married, and after 
further tribulations old Delvile is reconciled 
to the match. There are many admirably 


drawn subsidiary characters, notably the 
mischievous rattle, Lady Honoria Pemberton. 

Cecilia Haikett, a character in Meredith's 
'Beauchamp's Career' (q.v.). 

Cecrops, the legendary first king of Attica, 
which was called CECROPIA after him, and 
founder of Athens. See Athene. 

Cedilla, a mark (5), derived through the 
letter z from the Arabic letter sad, written, 
especially in French and Portuguese words, 
under the letter c, to show that it has the soft 
sound in positions in which the hard sound 
would be normal, as before a, o, u. 

Cedric the Saxon, one of the principal 
characters in Scott's 'Ivanhoe* (q.v.). 

Ceix and Alceone, a tale in bk. v of Gower's 
'Confessio Amantis' (q.v.). See Haley one. 

Celadon and Amelia, the hero and heroine 
of an episode included in Thomson's 'Sea- 
sons' (q.v.) in the book on 'Summer*. Amelia 
is killed by lightning in her lover's arms. 

Celaeno* one of the Harpies (q.v.). 

Celestial City, THE, in Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's 
Progress' (q.v.), signifying Heaven. 

Celestial Empire, THE, the translation of 
one of the native names for China. 

Celestina , or the Tragi- Comedy of Calisto and 
Melibea, a dialogue in 21 acts, the greater 
part by Fernando de Rojas (q.v.), published 
in 1501. 

The work takes the form of a dialogue, but 
is essentially dramatic, and marks an im- 
portant stage in the literary history of Spain 
and of Europe. Though as Mabbe, its trans- 
lator observes, 'some part of it seemeth some- 
what more obscene than may suit with a civil 
style', it is an extremely vivid, entertaining 
work, one of the first to present romance in 
everyday life. The reader is brought into 
disreputable, but admirably depicted com- 
pany. The principal interlocutors are these: 
Calisto, a young gentleman of birth and for- 
tune ; Melibea, a modest and romantic young 
lady; Celestina, a crafty wise old bawd; 
Parmeno and Sempronio, the rascally brag- 
gart servants of Calisto ; and Elicia and Areu- 
sa, two wenches. The plot is briefly as follows. 
Calisto casually meeting Melibea falls violently 
in love with her, but is, from her modesty, 
sharply repulsed. On the advice of one of his 
servants he calls in the aid of Celestina, who 
interposing in the affair deflects Melibea 
from the path of virtue and brings about a 
general catastrophe. Celestina is murdered 
by Parmeno and Sempronio for a share in 
the reward that she has received, and these 
are punished with death for their crime. 
Calisto is killed in one of his secret meetings 
with Melibea, and she in despair takes her 
own life. 

An excellent and racy, if exuberantly dif- 
fuse translation into English was made by 
James Mabbe (q.v.) and published in 1631. 
It has been reissued in the Tudor Translations. 


An English play or interlude, of unknown 
authorship, called 'Calisto and Melibea', was 
published by John Rastell about 1530. It is 
an adaptation of the earlier part of the Span- 
ish work, and is one of the first English 
dramatic works that approach true comedy. 
Celia, one of the principal characters in 
Shakespeare's 'As You Like It' (q.v.). See 
also Caelia. 
Celimene, see Misanthrope. 

CELLINI, BENVENUTO (1500-71), a 
Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, and 
author of one of the most vivid and interesting 
autobiographies ever written. The first 
edition was published in 1730 (dedicated to 
Richard Boyle) at Naples. The best English 
translation is that by J. A. Symonds (q.v.), 
published in 1888. There is also a translation 
by Thomas Roscoe (1791-1871), with some 
passages omitted ; reissued (with the omitted 
passages restored) in the 'World's Classics', 
1926. Cellini combined the characters of 
artist and bravo ; he was an arrogant, pas- 
sionate, conceited man, vainglorious but not 
(thinks Symonds) deliberately untruthful. 
His autobiography gives a striking picture 
of i6th-cent. life in Rome and Paris, and 
throws interesting light on such personages 
as Pope Paul III, Frangois I, and Cosimo 
de* Medici. 

Celt, a name applied in modern times to 
peoples speaking languages akin to those of 
the ancient Galli or Gauls, including the 
Bretons in France, the Cornish, Welsh, Irish, 
Manx, and Gaelic of the British Isles. Also 
a name applied to flint implements of the 
Stone Age. 

Celtic Twilight, The, a collection of stories by 
Yeats (q.v.), published in 1893, illustrating 
the mysticism of the Irish and their belief in 
fairies, ghosts, and spirits. It has since be- 
come a generic phrase (slightly ironical) for 
the whole Irish literary revival movement. 

Cenci, The, a tragedy by P. B. Shelley (q.v.), 
published in 1819. 

Count Francesco Cenci, the head of one 
of the noblest and richest families in Rome 
under the pontificate of Clement VIII, after a 
life of wickedness and debauchery, conceived 
an implacable hatred against his children, 
which towards one daughter Beatrice took the 
form of an incestuous passion. Beatrice after 
vain attempts to escape from her miserable 
situation, plotted with her step-mother 
Lucretia, and her brother Bernardo, the 
murder of their common tyrant. It was done 
by two hired assassins. Circumstances having 
aroused suspicion against them, the Cenci 
were arrested, and by dint of examinations 
and torture, the facts were discovered, and 
the Cenci sentenced to death. In spite of the 
compassion aroused by their lamentable tale, 
the executions of Beatrice, her step-mother, 
and one of her brothers were carried out by 
order of the pope. These events occurred in 


the year 1599, and are made the subject of 
Shelley's play. 

Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, Les, a collection 
of French tales, long attributed to Louis XI, 
but probably by Antoine de la Salle (c. 1398- 
c. 1462), of the jokes and intrigues of burghers 
and their dames and serving-maids, licentious 
in character, and showing Italian influence 
(e.g. of the 'Decameron'). 
Centaurs, THE, a fabulous people of 
Thessaly, half men and half horses. The 
legend of their existence perhaps arose from 
the ancient inhabitants of Thessaly haying 
tamed horses and appearing to their neigh- 
bours mounted on horseback. The cele- 
brated battle of the Centaurs and the 
Lapithae (q.v.) occurred in consequence of a 
quarrel at the marriage of Hippodamia and 
Peirithous, king of the Lapithae. The Cen- 
taurs, who had been invited to the feast, 
intoxicated with wine, offered violence to the 
women. The Lapithae resented the injury, 
and drove the Centaurs from the country. 
Famous among the Centaurs was Cheiron 

Centennial State, Colorado, see United 

CENTLIVRE, SUSANNAH (1667?-! 723), 
actress and dramatist, married in 1706 Joseph 
Centlivre, cook to Queen Anne. She wrote 
eighteen plays, chiefly comedies, between 
1700 and 1722. 'The Wonder 1 A Woman 
Keeps a Secret' (1714) provided Garrick with 
one of his most successful parts, and 'The 
Busybody* (q.v., 1709) and 'A Bold Stroke 
for a Wife* (q.v., 1718) are tolerably good 

Cento (Latin cento t a garment of patchwork), 
a literary composition made up of scraps from 
various authors, or, more loosely, a 'string' or 

Cephalus (i) the husband of Procris, 
daughter of Erechtheus. Eos (see Aurora) fell 
in love with him, and caused dissension 
between husband and wife. Artemis gave 
Procris a dog called Laelaps ('Storm') and a 
spear that never missed its aim. These Procris 
gave to Cephalus and a reconciliation followed. 
But Procris was still jealous, and watched her 
husband, hidden in a bush, when he was 
hunting. Cephalus thinking that he heard 
some animal stirring in the bush, hurled the 
spear and killed Procris. There is a reference 
to this myth in the 'Shafalus' and 'Proems* of 
Pyrarnus and Thisbe (Shakespeare, 'Mid- 
summer Night's Dream*, v. i), Milton refers 
to Cephalus as 'the Attic boy* in 'II Pen- 
seroso* (q.v.). (2) The old man in Bk. I of 
Plato's 'Republic*. 

Cephissus, THE, the chief river of Attica, 
flowing from Mt. Pentelicus past Athens. 


(d. c. 1477), an Italian jurist born at Verona, 
author of various legal works. His *Cautelae 

[x 4 8] 


juris utilissimae* (Venice, 1485) or 'Devices' 
and tricks for evading the law are often 
alluded to (e.g. Rabelais, II. x). 

Cerberus, the dog of Pluto (q.v.), who had 
fifty heads according to Hesiod, and three 
according to other authors. He was stationed 
at the entrance of hell, to prevent the living 
from descending to the infernal regions, and 
the dead from escaping. The heroes who in 
their lifetime visited Pluto's kingdom ap- 
peased him with a cake, for instance Aeneas 
('Aen'. vi. 417), whence the expression 'a sop 
to Cerberus'; Orpheus (q.v.) lulled him to 
sleep with his lyre. 

Cercopes, cunning thievish gnomes, on the 
island of Pithecusa, who robbed Hercules in 
his sleep, and were changed by Zeus into 

Cerdic (d. 534), a Saxon ealdorman, who 
according to the tradition, received but diffi- 
cult to believe, landed near Southampton in 
495, defeated the Britons, and acquired South 
Hampshire, and subsequently the Isle of 
Wight, and took the title of king of the West 
Saxons. He was the ancestor of the English 
royal line. 

Cerdon, a cobbler, one of the bear-baiters in 
Butler's 'Hudibras' (q.v.). 
Ceres, see Demeter. 

DE (15471616), the great Spanish novelist 
and dramatist, was born at ALcalk of an an- 
cient but impoverished family, and was 
wounded and lost for life the use of his left 
hand at the battle of Lepanto (1571). He was 
taken by pirates in 1575, and spent the next 
five years as a prisoner at Algiers. The 
remainder of his life was, for the greater part, 
occupied with a struggle to earn a livelihood 
from literature and humble government em- 
ployment. His greatest work 'Don Quixote* 
(q.v.) was published, the first part in 1605, the 
second in 1615. He also wrote a number of 
plays (only two of which survive), a collection 
of short stories ('Novelas Ejemplares') and a 
tale of adventure, 'Persiles y Sigismunda'. 
Fletcher drew largely on these last two for the 
plots of his plays. 

Cestus, the girdle of Aphrodite or Venus, 
which had the power of awakening love. 
CESTUS was also the name for the leather 
thongs which were bound round the hands of 
Greek and Roman boxers to make their blows 
more effectual. 

Cestus of Aglaia, The, a poem by Ruskin 
(q.v.), in which he lays down the laws of art. 

Ceyx, see Haley one and Ceix. 
Cezanne, PAUL (1839-1 906), French painter, 
born at Aix, one of the chief masters of the 
Modern French School, remarkable for his 
sense of form, sincerity, and power of 
expression. For long, the Salon refused 
admission to his works. His life is in part 
described in 'L'CEuvre' of his friend Zola. He 


is associated with the movement known as 
Post- Impressionism (q.v.). 

Chablis, a well-known light dry white wine, 
produced near Auxerre in Yonne (France). 
Chabot, The Tragedy of, a tragedy by Chap- 
man (q.v.), probably revised and added to by 
Shirley,^ published in 1639. The date of its 
composition is uncertain. 

Philip de Chabot, High Admiral of France 
under Fra^ois I, a loyal servant of the king, 
incurs the enmity of Montmorency, the High 
Constable, Poyet the Chancellor, and their 
faction. By fearless insistence on his inno- 
cence he infuriates the king, is accused on 
trumped-up charges, and found guilty of 
high treason by the judges under pressure 
from the chancellor. The king pardons him 
and discovers the abusive conduct of the 
chancellor, who is tried and sentenced. But 
Chabot's heart is broken by the unj ust treat- 
ment he has suffered, and he dies. 

Chace, The, see Somervile. 

Chadband, a character in Dickens's 'Bleak 
House' (q.v.). 

Chaereas and Callinhoe, a Greek romance 
by Chariton (? 6th cent.), one of the sources 
on which Sidjney drew in his 'Arcadia'. 

Chaffanbrass, MR., the skilful cross- 
examining counsel in A. Trollope's 'The 
Three Clerks' (q.v.) and 'Orley Farm* (q.v.). 

Chainmail, MR., a character in Peacock's 
'Crotchet Castle' (q.v.). He believes the isth 
cent, to be the best period in English history. 

Chaldean, a native of Chaldea, especially one 
skilled in occult learning, astrology, &c. 
Hence generally a seer, soothsayer, astrologer. 

Chaldee MS., see Blackwood's Magazine. 

CHALKHIXX, JOHN (fl. 1600), the author 
of a pastoral 'Thealma and Clearchus', pub- 
lished in 1683 by Izaak Walton, and repro- 
duced in Saintsbury's 'Caroline Poets', vol. ii 
(1906), and of other verse included in the 
'Compleat Angler*. Nothing definite is 
known about his life. 

Challenger Expedition, THE, for deep-sea 
exploration, in which H.M.S. 'Challenger' 
was employed, 1872-6. It was conducted by 
Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (1830-82), the 
naturalist, who published 'The Voyage of 
the Challenger' in 1877. 

CHALMERS, THOMAS (1780-1847), edu- 
cated at St. Andrews, where he was professor 
of moral philosophy, 1823-8. He was sub- 
sequently (1828-43) professor^of divinity at 
Edinburgh, and an active pioneer of the 
movement which led to the disruption of the 
Scottish Established Church and the forma- 
tion of the Free Church. He was a. great 
preacher and author of many theological and 
philosophical treatises, including 'The Adap- 
tation of External Nature to the Moral and 
Intellectual Constitution of Man' (Bridge- 
water Treatise, 1833). 



Cham, an obsolete form of the word Khan, 
formerly applied to the rulers of the Tartars 
and the Mongols, and to the emperor of China. 
Smollett, in a letter to Wilkes, 16 March 
1759 (in Boswell), refers to Johnson as 'that 
great Cham of literature 5 . 
Chamade, through French and Portuguese 
from L. clamor e, to call, a signal by beat of 
drum or sound of trumpet inviting to a parley. 
1703), educated at St. Edmund Hall, Ox- 
ford, tutor to the duke of Grafton and to 
Prince George of Denmark, was author of 
'Angliae Notitia, or the Present State of 
England* (1669), a handbook of social and 
political conditions, which met with extra- 
ordinary success, and was enlarged by his 
son, John Chamberlayne. 
89), was a physician at Shaftesbury in Dorset. 
He published a play entitled e Love's Victory* 
in 1658, but is remembered for his c Pharon- 
nida* (1659), an heroic poem in five books of 
rhymed couplets. It deals with the romantic 
tale of ArgaUa, a land of knight errant, res- 
cued from the Turks on the coast of the 
Morea; threatened with execution for nearly 
slaying Almanzor, the villain of the story, but 
reprieved; falling in love with Pharonnida, 
the king's daughter; and after many vicissi- 
tudes united to her. The style is obscure and 
involved, and the tale somewhat incoherent ; 
but the poem is not without beauties. It is in 
Saintsbury's 'Caroline Poets*, vol. i (1905). 

CHEVER (1866- ), civil servant (Educa- 
tion) and literary critic. He is best known for 
the critical exactness and range of his history 
of the Elizabethan drama down to and 
including Shakespeare. His publications 
include: 'The Medieval Stage* (1903), 'The 
Elizabethan Stage* (1923), 'William Shake- 
speare* (1930). 

CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM (d. 1740), pub- 
lished his 'Cyclopaedia* (the first English 
Encyclopaedia, which has no connexion with 
the current ' Chambers *s Encyclopaedia*) in 
1728. See Encyclopedia. , 

with his brother the publishing firm of 
W. and R. Chambers, Edinburgh, and wrote 
and issued a number of books on Scottish 
history, biography, and literature. He 
established 'Chambers 's Journal* in 1832, 
and wrote and published anonymously in 
1844 'Vestiges of Creation* in which he 
maintained a theory of evolution of species in 
animal life and prepared the way for the 
modern scientific view of the history of the 
earth. His 'Book of Days*, an antiquarian 
miscellany, appeared in 1862-4. 

Chambers's Encyclopaedia was begun in 
1859 and completed in 1868, by the firm of 
W. and R. Chambers (see preceding entry). 
Chambertin, see Burgundy. 


1838), German zoologist and poet, chiefly 
remembered for his 'Peter Schlemihls 
Wunderbare Geschichte*. See Schlemihl. 
Chamont, one of the principal characters in 
Otway's 'The Orphan* (q.v.). 
Champagne, the name of a former province 
in eastern France, through which flows the 
Marne. Its wine ranks highest among those 
of France. The best known is sparkling and 
straw-coloured, but other varieties are still, 
rose-coloured or red. Its fame dates far back. 
It is related for instance that Wenceslaus, king 
of Bohemia, coming in 1397 to Rheims to 
negotiate a treaty with Charles VI, found the 
wine so much to his taste that he spun out the 
discussion to the utmost, getting drunk daily 
before dinner. It is mentioned by Butler in 
'Hudibras', n. i (1664); and in Etherege*s 
'Man of Mode* (1676), iv. i, occur the lines, 

Then sparkling Champaigne 

Puts an end to their reign. 
Among the best-known names of champagne 
houses are Roederer, Perrier-Jouet, Veuve 
Clicquot, Pommery, Heidsieck, Murnm, 
Moe't et Chandon. 

See also Sittery, P&rignon. 

Champion 9 The, a periodical issued thrice a 
week in 1739-40, mainly^ written by H. 
Fielding (q.v.). The essays in it centre round 
an imaginary group, the Vinegar family. 

Champion of the King, or OF ENGLAND: 
his office is, at the coronation, to ride armed 
into Westminster Hall, and challenge to 
combat any one who disputes the king's title. 
The office is attached to the manor of Scrivels- 
by, formerly held by the Marmion family, 
and is now held by the Dyrnoke family. The 
last performance was at the coronation of 
George IV. 

Ghampollion, JEAN FRANCOIS (1790-1832), 
a French Egyptologist, who was the first to 
interpret Egyptian hieroglyphics. See also 

Chances, The, a play by J. Fletcher, with 
perhaps some contributions by another hand. 
(The prologue and epilogue are not by 
Fletcher.) The date of the play is uncertain. 
The prologue refers to a production after 
Fletcher's death. The plot is based on a 
novel^of Cervantes, and the * Chances* are the 
coincidences by which Constantia, who is 
eloping with the duke of Ferrara, and the 
duke himself, are brought into a number of 
complications, from which they are extricated 
by Don John and Don Frederick, two Span- 
ish gallants, Dame Gillian their landlady at 
Bologna, and Vecchio, a professional wizard. 
The dialogue shows Fletcher at his best. 

Changeling, The, a tragedy by T. Middleton 
(q.v.) and W. Rowley (q.v.), printed in 1653, 
but acted as early as 1623. 

Beatrice- Joanna, daughter of the Governor 
of Alicant, is^ ordered by her father to marry 
Alonso de Piracquo. She falls in love with 


Alsemero, and in order to avoid the marriage 
imposed on her, employs the ill-favoured 
villain De Flores, whom she detests but who 
cherishes a passion for her, to murder 
Alonzo. To the horror of Beatrice, De Flores 
exacts the reward he had lusted for. Beatrice 
is now to marry Alsemero. To escape 
detection she arranges that her maid 
Diaphanta shall take her place on the wedding 
night; and to remove a dangerous witness, 
De Flores then kills the maid. The guilt of 
Beatrice and De Flores is revealed to 
Alsemero, and they are both brought before 
the governor, whereupon they take their own 
lives. The title of the play is taken from the 
sub-plot, in which Antonio disguises himself 
as a crazy changeling in order to get access to 
Isabella, wife of the keeper of a madhouse. 
The main plot is taken from John Reynolds 's 
'God's revenge against Murther' (1621). 

1842), an American Unitarian clergyman, 
much involved in the Unitarian controversy 
c. 1815. He exercised a marked influence 
on American literature, imbuing it with a 
religious spirit (as exemplified in Emerson, 
Bryant, and Longfellow). His 'Remarks on 
American Literature' appeared in 1830. 

(1818-1901), poet and transcendentalist, is 
chiefly remembered for his friendship with 
Emerson. His 'Poems* appeared in 1843-7, 
'The Woodman and Other Poems' in 1849. 

Chansons de Geste, French historical verse 
romances, mostly connected with Charle- 
magne, composed in the nth-i3th cents., of 
which the CHANSON DE ROLAND (see Roland) 
is the oldest and best-known example. They 
were the work of the trouveres and trouba- 
dours, the former being the poets of northern, 
the latter of southern, France. The Chansons 
de geste were rendered by jongleurs in open 
places, cloisters, but especially in medieval 

Chanticleer, the cock, figures in 'Reynard 
the Fox* (q.v.) and in Chaucer's 'Nun's 
Priest's Tale* (see Canterbury Tales). 
Chantrey Bequest: Sir Francis Chantrey 
(1781-1841), sculptor, left about 3,000 a 
year to the Royal Academy for the purchase 
of works of art for the nation, and other pur- 
poses. Chantrey was the son of a carpenter 
and began life as a grocer's boy in Sheffield. 
Chaonia, a district of Epirus where the 
doves, 'Chaonian birds', were said to deliver 
oracles. Cf. Dodona. 

Chap-book, a modern name applied by 
book-collectors and others to specimens of 
the popular literature which was formerly 
circulated by itinerant dealers or chapmen, 
consisting chiefly of small pamphlets of 
popular tales, ballads, tracts, &c. They were 
illustrated with wood-blocks, and consisted 
of sixteen pages octavo or twenty-four pages 
duodecimo, and were sold at a penny to six- 
pence. They reproduced old romances, such 


as 4 Bevis of Hampton* and 'Guy of Warwick*, 
or such stories as John Gilpin, Robinson 
Crusoe, or nursery rhymes and fairy tales. 
They were issued in great numbers through- 
out the 1 8th cent. 

Chapel, CHILDREN OF THE, see Paul's 
(Children of). 

Chaplin, CHARLES SPENCER (1889- ), 
film comedian ('Charlie Chaplin'), born in 
London, but now resident in America. 

CHAPMAN, GEORGE (i559?-i634?), 
born probably near Hitchin in Hertfordshire, 
and educated at Oxford. He is chiefly known 
for his translation of Homer, animated by *a 
daring fiery spirit' (Pope) and commemorated 
in Keats 's sonnet, 'Much have I travelled in 
the realms of gold'; but Swinburne and 
others have drawn attention to the remark- 
able quality of his dramatic works. He was 
renowned as a scholar and is perhaps the 
'rival poet* of Shakespeare's 'Sonnets*. 

He published the obscure poem The 
Shadow of Night* in 1594, 'Ovid's Banquet 
of Sence* in 1595, and a continuation of Mar- 
lowe's 'Hero and Leander' in 1598. His 
principal tragedies were published at the 
following dates: 'Bussy D'Ambois* (q.v., 
1607), 'The Conspiracy and Tragedy of 
Byron* (q.v., 1608), 'The Revenge of Bussy 
D'Ambois' (q.v., 1613), 'Caesar and Pompey* 
(q.v., 1631), 'The Tragedy of Chabot' (q.v., 
1639). His principal comedies were published 
at the following dates : 'The Blind Beggar of 
Alexandria* (1598), 'An Humorous Day's 
Mirth* (1599), 'All Fools' (q.v., 1605), 'May- 
Day* (1611), 'The Gentleman Usher' (q.v., 
1606), 'Monsieur D'Olive* (q.v., 1606), 'The 
Widow's Tears' (1612), 'Eastward Hoi* (q.v., 
1 605). This last play was written in collabora- 
tion with Ben Jonson and Marston, and con- 
tains a flippant allusion to the Scots, which 
gave offence at Court, and led to the tempo- 
rary imprisonment of the authors. Chapman 
published a specimen of his rhyming four- 
teen-syllable version of the 'Iliad* in 1598, 
and the whole 'Iliad' in 1611, adding the 
'Odyssey* (rhyming ten-syllable) in 1614-15, 
and the hymns &c. in 1616. Translations by 
him from Petrarch appeared in 1612, from 
Musaeus in 1616, Hesiod's 'Georgicks' in 
1618, and a satire of Juvenal in 1629. He 
wrote also copies of verses for his friends* 
books, court poems, and a masque (1614). 
His collected works appeared in 1873-5, with 
an essay by Swinburne. 
CHAPONE, HESTER (1727-1801), ne'e 
Mulso, a friend of Samuel Richardson and 
Gilbert White, published verses and tales 
(1750-3) and essays (i773~7)- She wrote 
part of No. 10 of the 'Rambler*. Her 'Works' 
and 'Posthumous Works* appeared in 1807. 
Her 'Letters on the Improvement of the 
Mind* (1774) were highly esteemed in her 
day. She was a member of the ( Blue Stocking* 
(q.v.) coterie. 
Character of a Trimmer, see Savile (G.). 


Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, 
Times, see Shaftesbury. 

Charalois, the hero of Massinger's 'The 

Fatal Dowry' (q.v.). 

Charge of the Light Brigade, THE, see 


Charidea, see Aethiopica. 

Charing Cross, London: the site of what 
was the hamlet of Charing in the time of 
Edward I, who set up there one of the 
Eleanor Crosses (q.v.). 

CHARING CROSS ROAD nas replaced Holy- 
well Street (see Bookseller's Row) as the home 
of secondhand booksellers. 

Charitie, The Balade of, see Chatterton. 

Charivari (from i4th-cent. French ^ and 
medieval Latin words of unknown origin), a 
serenade of e rough music* with kettles, pans, 
tea-trays and the like, used in France in 
derision of unpopular marriages, and un- 
popular persons generally. Hence a confused 
medley of sounds. [OED.] 'Charivari' was 
taken as the name of a satirical journal in 
Paris, and adopted in 1841 as part of the title 
of the London 'Punch' (q.v.). 

Charlemagne (742-814), king of the Franks 
(768) and emperor of the West (800), the 
son of Pepin. He and his paladins are the 
subject of numerous chansons de geste, of 
which the * Chanson de Roland' is the most 
famous (see Roland). Legend relates that he 
is not dead, but sleeping in the Odenberg in 
Hesse, or in the Unsterberg near Salzburg, 
whence he will emerge when the persecutions 
of Antichrist are completed, to avenge the 
blood of the saints. 

Charles I, king of England, 1625-49. 

Charles II, king of England, 1660-85. He 
figures in Scott's 'Peveril of the Peak* and 
'Woodstock' (qq.v.), and many other works. 

Charles XII, king of Sweden, 1682-1718, 
and a great military commander, who led 
his forces successfully against the northern 
coalition. He captured the capital of Poland 
from Augustus the Elector of Saxony, and 
invaded Russia, defeating Peter the Great at 
Narva (1700) and being in turn totally de- 
feated at Poltava in 1709, after which he 
retreated to Turkey. He returned in 1714 to 
Stralsund, which alone remained to him of 
his continental possessions, but was driven 
thence to Sweden. He was killed at Frede- 
rikshald in a war with Norway. His life 
was written by Voltaire. Johnson ('Vanity of 
Human Wishes') says of him: 

He left a name at which the world grew 

To point a moral or adorn a tale. 
See also Mazeppa. 

Charles Edward Stuart (1720-88), the 
Young Pretender, figures in Scott's * Waverley' 
and 'Redgauntlet* (qq.v.). 


Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy 
(1467-77), married Margaret of York, sister 
of Edward IV. He was severely defeated by 
the Swiss at Granson and Morat, and killed 
in an engagement with them before Nancy. 
He figures in Scott's 'Anne of Geierstein' and 
'Quentin Durward' (qq.v.). 
Charles's Wain, the constellation com- 
prising the seven bright stars in Ursa Major ; 
known also as 'The Plough' and 'The Dipper* 
(U.S. A.). The name appears to rise out of the 
verbal association of the star-name Arcturus 
with Arthur, and the legendary association of 
Arthur with Charlemagne ; so that what was 
originally the wain of Arcturus became at 
length the wain of Charlemagne. [OED.] 

Charley, CHARLIE, the name colloquially 
given in former times to a night-watchman. 
The origin is unknown: some have con- 
jectured 'because Charles I in 1640 extended 
and improved the watch system in the 

Also a small triangular beard extending 
from the under lip to a point a little below the 
chin : as seen in portraits of Charles I. [OED .] 

Charley's Aunt, a highly popular farcical 
comedy by Brandon Thomas, produced in 
1892 and still frequently played. 
Charmian, in Shakespeare's 'Antony and 
Cleopatra* and Dryden's C A11 for Love* 
(qq.v.), the attendant of Cleopatra. The 
name is in Plutarch's 'Antony'. 
Charmond, FELICE, a character in Hardy's 
'The Woodlanders' (q.v.). 
Charon, a god of hell, son of Erebus, 
who, for an obolus, ferried the souls of 
the dead over the rivers Styx and Acheron to 
the infernal regions. It was usual among the 
ancients to place a piece of money under the 
tongue of the deceased for the purpose of 
this payment. 

Charriere, MADAME DE, see ZSlide. 

Charterhouse, THE, near Smithfield, Lon- 
don, was one of the houses of the Carthusian 
(q.v.) order in England. It was built in 1371 , 
and at the dissolution of the monasteries 
under Henry VIII was taken from the monks 
with circumstances of great cruelty. It 
passed through the hands of various nobles, 
and was finally sold to Sir Thomas Sutton, 
merchant, who converted it into a school and 
a house for the aged poor. The school be- 
came famous and numbered Steele, Addison, 
Wesley, Leech, and Thackeray among its 
pupils. The home for poor brethren is the 
scene of Colonel Newcome's last days and 
death in Thackeray's 'The Newcomes* (q.v.). 
The old school has been removed to Godal- 
ming, and the school of the Merchant Taylors 
has taken its place. 

Charteris, SIR PATRICK, the provost of 
Perth, in Scott's 'Fair Maid of Perth* (q.v.). 
Chartist, one of the body of political re- 
formers (chiefly of the working classes) who 


arose In 1837 and who made certain de- 
mands embodied in the 'Six Points* of the 
document called the 'People's Charter 5 , viz. 
Universal Suffrage, Vote by Ballot, Annual 
Parliaments, Payment of Members, Aboli- 
tion of the Property Qualification, and Equal 
Electoral Districts. The 'Chartists', as such, 
disappeared after 1848. 

Chartreuse, a liqueur that derives its name 
from having been formerly made by the 
monks of La Grande Chartreuse, the Carthu- 
sian monastery near Grenoble, with aromatic 
herbs and brandy. The best Chartreuse is 
green in colour. 

Charybdis, a dangerous whirlpool on the 
coast of Sicily, in the straits of Messina, 
opposite Scylla (q.v.). It proved fatal to part 
of the fleet of Ulysses. It was said that 
Charybdis was an avaricious woman, who 
stole the oxen of Hercules, for which theft 
she was struck with a thunderbolt by Zeus, 
and turned into a whirlpool. 

Chase, The, see Somervile. 

Chaste Maid in Cheapside, A, a comedy by 
T. Middleton (q.v.), printed in 1630. 

The play centres round the attempt of the 
dissolute Sir Walter Whorehound to pass off 
his mistress as his niece (the 'Chaste Maid') 
and to marry her to the foolish pedantic son 
of Yellowhammer, a rich goldsmith; while 
Whorehound himself is to marry Yellow- 
hammer's daughter, Moll. The first part of 
the plot succeeds, but the second fails. For 
Moll and the resourceful young Touchwood 
are in love with one another, and their 
attempts to evade the parents and get married, 
though repeatedly foiled, are finally success- 

Chastelard, a tragedy by Swinburne (q.v.), 
published in 1865, on the subject of Mary 
Queen of Scots, and Chastelard, a grandson 
of Bayard, who fell desperately in love with 
her and followed her to Scotland. He was 
discovered in her room, sentenced to death, 
and executed. 

Chatauqua, see Chautauqua. 
Chateau d> Amour, see Grosseteste. 

Chateau Gaillard, a fortress built by 
Richard I on the height of Les Andelys 
overlooking the Seine, for the purpose of his 
war with the French king. It was lost by 
John (1204). 

Vicomte de (1768-1848), one of the pioneers 
of the French romantic movement. His fame 
rests principally on his 'Le Ge"nie du 
Christianisme' (1802), a work of _ Christian 
apologetic, based on the emotional and 
imaginative appeal of religion to the deepest 
instincts in man's nature. 'Of all religions 
that have ever existed* thus the author sums 
up his thesis 'the Christian religion is the 
most poetical, the most favourable to free- 
dom, art, and letters ; the modern world owes 


all to it, from agriculture to the abstract 
sciences/ From this work Chateaubriand 
detached and published in advance two frag- 
ments, 'Atala', the romance of a young Red 
Indian, Chactas, and an Indian maiden, 
Abala; and 'Rene*', the story of a young 
European, the author himself under a thin 
disguise, devoured by a secret sorrow, who 
flees to the solitudes of America. Both were 
enthusiastically received. Of Chateau- 
briand's later works, besides the romances 
'Les Martyrs* (1809) and 'Le Dernier des 
AbenoSrages* (1826), the best known is the 
autobiographical 'Me"moires d'Outre-tombe' 
(1849-50). Early in the igth cent. Chateau- 
briand turned his attention to politics. He 
became a minister under Louis XVIII, and 
went as ambassador to Berlin and London. 
Chatham, EARL OF, see Pitt. 
Chats worth, the famous mansion in Derby- 
shire of the dukes of Devonshire. The 
original house was built by Sir William 
Cavendish, husband of Bess of Hardwick 
(q.v.). This was rebuilt in 1688 by the first 
duke of Devonshire. 

son of a writing-master who was a lay clerk 
of Bristol Cathedral, while still at school at 
Colston's Hospital wrote a notable satire 
'Apostate Will', 1764, and other verses. In 
1768 he published a pseudo-archaic descrip- 
tion of the mayor of Bristol's passing over 
the I3th-cent. bridge, and met William 
Barrett, an antiquarian surgeon who was 
writing a history of Bristol, George Catcott, 
and Henry Burgum, pewterers, for all of 
whom he fabricated documents, pedigrees, 
poems, of which he claimed to possess the 
originals. He also fabricated a number of 
poems purporting to be the work of an 
imaginary isth-cent. Bristol poet, Thomas 
Rowley, a monk and friend of William 
Canynge, an historical Bristol merchant. He 
offered some of these to Dodsley, the pub- 
lisher, and sent a history of painting in Eng- 
land (supposed to be by Rowley) to Horace 
Walpole, who was temporarily deceived. 
The fraud was exposed by T. Tyrwhitt in 
his 'Poems supposed to have been written . . . 
by Thomas Rowley*, 1777 and 1778 > but the 
poems are none the less the work of a poetical 
genius. 'Elinoure and Juga', published in the 
'Town and Country Magazine', 1769, was the 
only 'Rowleian* piece to appear in his life- 
time, and editions of the poems of 'Thomas 
Rowley' were published in 1778 and 1782. 
In 1770 Chatterton came to London, and his 
burlesque opera 'The Revenge' was success- 
fully produced in that year. Reduced to 
despair by his poverty, he poisoned himself 
with arsenic, 24 Aug. 1770, at the age of 17. 
His collected works appeared in 1803, and 
have been several times reprinted. 
CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (i34o?-*4>), 
was son of John Chaucer (d. 1366), vintner, of 
London. The date of his birth has been 
matter for much discussion. In 1357 he was 



employed in the service of Lionel, afterwards 
duke of Clarence. He entered military service 
in 1359, served in France, was taken prisoner, 
but shortly ransomed. He married Philippa, 
probably daughter of Sir Payne Roet, and 
sister of John of Gaunt's third wife. He 
evidently enjoyed John of Gaunt's patronage. 
Philippa died apparently in 1387. Chaucer 
held various positions at court and in the 
king's service, and was sent on a mission to 
Genoa and Florence in 1372-3, when he 
perhaps met Boccaccio and Petrarch. He was 
sent on secret service to Flanders in 1376 and 
1377, and was attached to embassies to 
France and Lombardy in 1378. In 1374 he 
was appointed controller of customs in _ the 
port of London and leaseci the dwelling- 
house over Aldgate. He was knight of the 
shire for Kent in 1386, and went the Canter- 
bury pilgrimage in April 1388. About this 
time he was clerk of the king's works at 
various places, including Westminster Abbey, 
Hving close to St. Margaret's. He received 
pensions from Edward III, John of Gaunt, 
Richard II, and Henry IV. He was buried 
in Westminster Abbey, a monument being 
erected to him in 1555. 

Chaucer's writings fall into three periods: 
(i) The period of French influence (1359-72), 
in which he uses the octosyllabic couplet. To 
this period belong 'The Boke of the Duch- 
esse j , 1369, and the 'Romaunt of the Rose*, so 
far as written by Chaucer. (2) The period of 
Italian influence, especially of Dante and 
Boccaccio, 137286, in which he leaves off 
the octosyllabic couplet, uses mainly the 
'heroic* stanza of seven lines, and begins to 
use the heroic couplet. To this period belong 
"The Hous of Fame*; "The Assembly of 
Foules 9 ; 'Troylus and Cryseyde'; 'The 
Legende of Good Women'; and the first 
drafts of some of his tales. (3) The period of 
his maturity, 1386-1400, in which he uses 
the heroic couplet. To this period belong the 
'Canterbury Tales', designed about 1387. 
His various poetical works will be found 
referred to under their several titles. His 
prose works include a translation of Boethius, 
and a 'Treatise on the Astrolabe' compiled for 
'little Lewis my son', in English, 'for Latin 
ne canst thou yet but small, my little son*. 

Chaucer's well-known portrait was made 
from memory by Occleve on the margin of 
one of his works. The 'Canterbury Tales' 
were first printed by Caxton in 1475 J tn ^ col- 
lected works were first issued by W, Thynne 
in 1 532. The fullest edition is that of W. W. 
Skeat, with introductions and notes, Oxford, 
7 vols. (1894-7). 

Chaucer Society, THE, founded in 1868 by 
Fumiyall (q.v.), for the purpose of collecting 
materials for the study of Chaucer. 

GJhautauqua, sometimes incorrectly spelt 
Chatauqua, an American literary institution 
founded in 1874. For a period of years its 
work was confined to summer literary classes 
held on Lake Chautauqua, New York State. 


Later a Chautauqua Reading Circle was 
formed with a series of text-books arranged 
for home reading and study. The name 
Chautauqua is now also applied to travelling 
entertainments of an educational nature 
lectures, concerts, and drama. In the words 
of the official historian of the movement, the 
Chautauqua idea is 'education for everybody, 
everywhere and in every department of 
knowledge, inspired by a Christian faith'. 
Chauvinism, an exaggerated and bellicose 
patriotism, a word derived from one Nicholas 
Chauvin of Rochefort, a veteran French 
soldier of the First Republic and Empire, 
whose demonstrative patriotism was cele- 
brated and at length ridiculed by his com- 
rades. Chauvin figured in the 'Soldat 
Laboureur* of Scribe, and his name was 
especially popularized by Cpgniard's famous 
vaudeville, 'La Cocarde Tricolore* (1831). 
Ghaworth, MARY ANNE, later Mrs. Cha- 
worth-Musters, the lady with whom Byron 
fell in love in his youth, and to whom he 
proposed in 1803. She is celebrated in 
Byron's poem, 'The Dream'. 
Cneapside ('cheap 'is from Old English ceap, 
buying and selling) was a busy market in 
medieval London, and a place for pageants 
and sports, and occasionally for executions 
(until Tudor times, there were no buildings 
on the north side, so that more space was 
available than now). It was surrounded by 
streets whose names suggested the trade 
of the locality, Bread Street, Poultry, Iron- 
monger Lane, Honey Street, Milk Street, &c. 
Cheddar Caves, stalactite caves in the cliffs 
of the Mendip Hills, near the village of Ched- 
dar. CHEDDAR CHEESE, for which this district 
is also famous, is mentioned as early as 1666. 
Bailey in his dictionary of 1721 mentions 
(s.v. Cheddar) that 'the milk of all the town 
cows is brought every day into one common 
room', duly recorded, 'and one common 
cheese made with it*. 

Cheeryble Brothers, THE, Ned and 
Charles, characters in Dickens 's 'Nicholas 
Nickleby* (q.v.). 

Cheiron or Chiron, a centaur (q.v.), the son 
of Cronos (q.v.) and Philyra, famous for his 
knowledge of medicine, music, and archery. 
He taught mankind the use of medicinal herbs, 
and was the instructor of many heroes and 
the friend of Hercules. He was wounded by 
Hercules in the knee when the latter fought 
with the centaurs. Hercules went to his assis- 
tance,but as the wound was incurable, Cheiron 
prayed Zeus to relieve him of his immortality, 
and he was placed by the god among the 
constellations under the name of Sagittarius. 
CHEKE, SIR JOHN (1514-57), fellow of 
St. John's College, tutor to Edward VI, and 
subsequently professor of Greek at Cam- 
bridge. He was imprisoned by Queen Mary, 
J 553~4' He was an eminent scholar, and 
though he wrote little in the vernacular (but 
many Latin translations from the Greek), 



was influential in promoting a simple style of 
English prose. He is referred to ( ( O soul of 
Sir John Cheeke') in Milton's Sonnet XI, *A 
Book was writ of late*. 

(1860-1904), Russkn dramatist and novelist, 
whose gift of satirical humour has given a 
wide vogue to his works. His first play was 
'Ivanov' (1887), followed by 'The Seagull*, 
'Uncle Vanya*, 'The Three Sisters', and 
(what is generally considered the best) 'The 
Cherry Orchard*. Chekhov's fame rests 
chiefly on these and on his short tales, but 
he also wrote a number of novels: 'The 
Peasants', 'My Life', 'Ward No. 6', &c. 

Chelsea, probably from Chels-ey, the 
gravelly island. Here (on the site of the 
present Danvers Street) Sir Thomas More 
(q.v.) had his residence, where he received 
Erasmus. In the zyth and i8th cents, it was 
much patronized by Cockneys and was famous 
for its bun-house (see below). See also Con- 
greve's 'Love for Love*, II. ii. The manor of 
Chelsea was purchased in 1712 by Sir Hans 
Sloane (q.v.), who founded there the Botanic 
Garden. The Cremorne Gardens (q.v.) 
were in Chelsea. Chelsea has a reputation as 
a home of painters: Rossetti, Whistler, and 
many others lived there. 

Chelsea, SAGE OF, T. Carlyle (q.v.). 

Chelsea Bun- House, THE, famous in the 
1 8th cent., and kept in its palmy days by 
one Richard Hand, stood in Jew's Row (now 
Pimlico Road). It was demolished in 1839. 
Swift (q.v.) writes to Stella about the 'r-r-rare 
Chelsea buns*. 

Chelsea Hospital, for disabled soldiers 
('Chelsea Pensioners'), was founded by 
Charles II and built from the designs of 
Sir Christopher Wren. Fanny Burney's father 
was for many years organist there. 

Chemos or CHEMOSH, a Moabite god 
(i Kings is. 7), ranks after Moloch in Milton's 
hierarchy of hell ('Paradise Lost*, i. 406). 

CH&NIER, ANDR (1772-94), French 
poet and one of the earliest figures in 
the French Romantic movement. Inspired 
by the spirit of the Greek anthologists, he 
wrote idylls, eclogues, and elegies marked by 
pastoral simplicity and freshness. At first a 
revolutionary, he was presently alienated by 
the excesses of the Terror and wrote a fine 
ode in defence of Charlotte Corday. He was 
arrested early in 1794 and after some months 
in prison was guillotined on the 7th Thermi- 
dor, immediately before the fall of Robes- 

His brother, MARIE- JOSEPH CHENIER ( 1 764- 
181 1), was a dramatic poet, and author of the 
'Chant du Depart*. 

Chequers, a Tudor mansion near Princes 
Risborough, Bucks., presented to the nation 
in 1917 by Lord and Lady Lee of Fare- 
ham for the purpose of serving as the 


country seat of the Prime Minister of Eng- 
land for the time being. 

Cherith, the name of the brook where 
Elijah was fed by ravens (i Kings xvii). 

Cherry and Merry, in Dickens's 'Martin 
Chuzzlewit' (q.v.), Pecksniff's daughters, 
Charity and Mercy. 

Cherry and the Sloe, The, see Montgomery* 

Cherubim, a Hebrew word of uncertain 
derivation. In the O.T. they are living crea- 
tures with two or four wings, but the accounts 
of their form are not consistent. They first 
appear in Gen. Hi. 24, as guardians of the 
tree of life. The Divine Being is frequently 
stated to dwell or sit between (or on) the 
cherubim. Their inclusion among the angels 
appears to belong to Christian mysticism. 
According to Dionysius the Areopagite they 
form the second of the nine orders of angels. 
See Angel. 

Cheshire Cat, To grin like a: no satisfactory 
explanation of the allusion has been put 
forward. It has been attributed to the fact 
that Cheshire cheeses were at one time 
moulded in the shape of a cat; and to the 
attempts of a sign-painter to represent a lion 
rampant on the signs of many of the Cheshire 
inns. (N. & Q., ist series ii, 412; v. 402). 
The Cheshire Cat figures in Lewis Carroll's 
'Alice in Wonderland' (q.v.). 

Cheshire Cheese, THE, a hostelry in Wine 
Office Court, off Fleet Street, London, re- 
built shortly after the Restoration, frequented 
by Ben Jonson, and still in existence. 
(1833-95), a distinguished Indian officer, 
published in'Blackwood's Magazine' in 1871 
'The Battle of Dorking' (q.v.), which created 
a sensation, and in 1876 'The Dilemma', a 
powerful story of the Mutiny, besides other 

Chester, SIR JOHN, and EDWARD his son, 
characters in Dickens's 'Barnaby Rudge* 

Chester Plays, see Miracle Plays. 
STANHOPE, fourth earl of (1694-1773), 
statesman and diplomatist, was ambassador 
at The Hague, 1728-32, and entered the 
Pelham ministry in 1744. His tolerant 
policy as viceroy of Ireland in 1745-6 kept 
that country quiet. He was a wit and an 
orator, wrote political tracts, and contributed 
to the * World', but is remembered as a 
writer principally for his 'Letters* to his 
natural son, Philip Stanhope. These were 
written almost daily from 1737 onwards 
and were designed for the education of 
the young man. They are full of sensible 
instruction, admirably expressed, more 
particularly in matters of good breeding (for 
the boy was exceptionally awkward and un- 
graceful), but have been reprobated on 
account of a few passages contrary to good 


morals, in which he commended intrigue 
while condemning vulgar vice. The letters 
to his son were followed by letters to his god- 
son, also named Philip Stanhope. These 
letters are on the same lines as their prede- 
cessors. The letters to his son were pub- 
lished (by the son's widow) in 1774; those to 
his godson, by Lord Carnarvon, in 1890. A 
complete edition of all Chesterfield's letters, 
by B. Dobre"e, appeared in 1932. Chester- 
field is also remembered in connexion 
with Johnson's 'Dictionary*. Johnson had 
addressed the 'Plan' of that work to Chester- 
field, but it was received with neglect (un- 
intentional according to the latter). On the 
publication of the Dictionary, Chesterfield 
wrote two papers in the 'World* in commen- 
dation of it. Thereupon on 7 Feb. 1755 
Johnson addressed to Chesterfield the famous 
letter, in which he bitterly rejected a notice 
which 'had it been early, had been kind ; but 
it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and 
cannot enjoy it ; till I am solitary and cannot 
impart it; till I am known, and do not want 
it*. Lord Chesterfield also wrote some 'Char- 
acters of Eminent Persons* which contain 
valuable historical matter. Every one feared 
him because he was believed to be writing 
his own Memoirs, which would brand most 
people severely. He gave his name to a kind 
of overcoat and to a kind of couch. 

(1874- ), educated at St. Paul's School, is 
an essayist, critic, novelist, and poet, among 
whose best-known writings are: (novels and 
short stories) 'The Napoleon of Netting 
Hal', 'The Man who was Thursday', 'The 
Flying Inn', 'The Ball and the Cross', 'The 
Innocence of Father Brown*, 'The Wisdom 
of Father Brown'; (poetry) 'The Ballad of 
the White Horse', 'Wine, Water, and Song', 
'Poems'; (essays) 'Heretics',' Generally Speak- 
ing*, 'What's Wrong with the World'; (bio- 
graphy) 'Robert Browning', Charles Dickens'; 
(criticism) <G. F. Watts', 'William Blake*. 

GHESTRE, THOMAS, see Launfal 

CHETTLE, HENRY (d. 1607?), the son 
of a London dyer, was apprenticed to a 
stationer, and was for a time a partner in a 
printing business. Upon its failure he took 
to writing plays, of which he is reputed the 
author of thirteen, and the joint-author of 
considerably more (including 'The Blind 
Beggar of Bednal Green', q.v., with J. Day). 
The only extant play attributed to him alone 
as 'The Tragedy of Hoffman' (1602), dealing 
with the story of a Danish pirate who is exe- 
cuted, and the revenge and execution of his 
son. He edited Greene's 'Groatsworth of 
Wit' (q.v.) in 1592, and wrote two satirical 
pamphlets, 'Kind-Hart's Dreame' (1593) and 
'Pierce Plaines' Prentiship' (1595). He also 
published 'Englande's Mourning Garment', 
an elegy on Queen Elizabeth, in 1603. 

Chevalier, THE YOUNG, Charles Edward 
Stuart (1720-88), the Young Pretender. 


Chevalier de St. George, James Francis 
Edward Stuart (1688-1766), the Old Pre- 
tender, called by the Jacobites 'King James III 
and VIII*. 

Chevy Chase, The Ballad of, one of the 
oldest of the English ballads, probably dates 
in its primitive form from the I5th cent. Its 
subject is the rivalry of the neighbouring 
families of Percy and Douglas, heightened by 
the national quarrel between England and 
Scotland. Percy, earl of Northumberland, has 
vowed to hunt for three days across the 
Scottish border 'maugre the doughty Doug- 
las'. The two parties meet and fight, there is 
great slaughter on both sides, and both Percy 
and Douglas are killed. (Cf. Otterbourne.) The 
ballad was printed in Capell's 'Prolusions' in 
1760 and is included in Percy's 'Reliques*. 
Cheyne Row and Walk, in Chelsea, named 
from Lord Cheyne, who sold the manor to 
Sir Hans Sloane (q.v.). Carlyle lived in Cheyne 
Row; George Eliot, Count d'Orsay, D. G. 
Rossetti, Turner, in Cheyne Walk. Don 
Saltero's coffee-house (q.v.) stood in Cheyne 

Ghianti, the name of a group of mountains 
near Siena in Italy, which produce a cele- 
brated wine. 

Chiaroscuro, meaning originally the style 
of pictorial art in which only the light and 
shade, and not the various colours, are 
represented, is used figuratively of poetic 
and literary treatment in the sense of mingled 
clearness and obscurity, light and gloom, 
praise and blame, &c.; but is still used 
chiefly for pictorial art. 

Chiasmus, a figure of speech by which the 
order of the words in the first of two parallel 
clauses is reversed in the second, e.g. 'He 
saved others ; himself he cannot save*. 
Ghichele or Ghicheley, HENRY (1362?- 
1443), archbishop of Canterbury, son of a 
yeoman of Higham Ferrers, Northampton- 
shire. He was educated at Winchester and 
New College, Oxford, and became arch- 
bishop in 1414. He founded the Chichele 
chest in Oxford University for the relief of 
poor students, built a house for Cistercians 
in Oxford, and was founder of All Souls 
College (q.v.). 

Chichevache, a perversion of the French 
chicheface, 'thin-face*, the name of a fabulous 
monster said to feed only on patient wives, 
and hence, from scarcity of the diet, to be 
always lean and hungry. Her spouse, the 
Bycorne, on the contrary grew fat on his 
abundant diet of patient husbands. 
O noble wyves, ful of heigh prudence, 
Let noon humilitie your tongues nayle . . . 
Lest Chichevache you swolwe in her 
entrayle. (Chaucer) Clerk's Tale', 1132.) 
Chiffinch, WILLIAM (1602-88), the con- 
fidential agent of Charles II, page of the bed- 
chamber, figures in Scott's 'Peveril of the 
Peak' (q.v.). 



CHILD, FRANCIS JAMES (1825-96), born 
at Boston, U.S.A., the son of a sailmaker, and 
educated at Harvard, where he remained for 
a time as a tutor. He was much interested in 
English philology, and after studying at 
Gottingen and Berlin became in 1876 pro- 
fessor of English at his university. He edited 
the poetical works of Spenser in 1855 ; con- 
tributed 'Observations on the Language of 
Chaucer' and of Gower's 'Confessio Amantis' 
to the Memoirs of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences in 1863 and 1873; and 
published his great collection of 'English and 
Scottish Popular ^ Ballads' in 1883-98. He 
was instrumental in obtaining the publication 
of the Percy Folio (q.v.) MS. ('Diet. American 

Cbilde, in 'Childe Harold', 'Childe Roland', 
&c., signifies a youth of gentle birth, and is 
used as a kind of title. In the I3th and i4th 
cents, 'child* appears to have been applied to a 
young noble awaiting knighthood. 

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, a poem in 
Spenserian stanzas by Lord Byron (q.v.), 
begun in Albania in 1809, of which the first 
two cantos appeared in 1812, canto iii in 
1816, canto v in 1818. 

The poem purports to describe the travels 
and reflections of a pilgrim who, sated and 
disgusted with a life of pleasure and revelry, 
seeks distraction in foreign lands. The first 
two cantos take the reader to Portugal, Spain, 
the Ionian Isles, and Albania, and end with 
a lament on the bondage of Greece. In the 
third canto the pilgrim passes to Belgium, the 
Rhine, the Alps, and the Jura. The historical 
associations of each place are made the poet's 
theme, the Spanish war, the eve of Waterloo 
and Napoleon, and more especially Rousseau 
and Julie. In the fourth canto the poet 
abandons his imaginary pilgrim and speaks 
in his own person, of Venice, Arqua and 
Petrarch, Ferrara and Tasso, Florence and 
Boccaccio, Rome and her great men, from the 
Scipios to Rienzi. 

Childe of Elle, the subject of an old ballad 
included in Percy's 'Reliques', who loves* the 
fair Emmeline, runs away with her, slays the 
foremost of the pursuers, and is finally for- 
given by the baron her father. 

Childe Roland, in an old Scottish ballad, a 
son of King Arthur. His sister, Burd Ellen, 
is carried away by the fairies to the castle of 
the king of Elfland. Aided by the instructions 
of Merlin, Childe Roland makes his way into 
the castle and rescues his sister. 

Child Rowland to the dark tower came, 
His word was still 'Fie, foh, and fum, 
I smell the blood of a British man.* 

(Shakespeare, 'King Lear% ni, iv.) 

HalliweU ('Nursery Rhymes') thinks that 
Shakespeare is here quoting from two differ- 
ent compositions, the first line from a ballad 
on Roland, the second and third from the 
story of Jack the Giant-killer (q.v.). 


Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came, a 
poem by R. Browning (q.v.), included in 
'Dramatic Romances*, published in 'Men 
and Women' in 1855. 

A brave knight is attempting an adventure, 
in which all who have previously undertaken 
it have failed. He reaches the tower just 
when he despairs of succeeding. Around him 
he sees the figures of the 'lost adventurers'. 
He sounds his horn to announce that he has 
come. We may see in the dreamlike narrative 
an allegory of life. 

Childe Waters, one of the most beautiful 
of the old ballads, celebrating the constancy of 
Ellen to Childe Waters, her heartless lover, 
whom she serves as a page, receiving cruel 
and degrading treatment. Her child is born 
in a stable, where she is tending her master's 
horse. He hears her singing a lullaby and 
wishing herself dead, relents, and marries 
her. The ballad is in Percy's 'ReHques'. 

Childermas, the festival of the Holy Inno- 
cents (28 December), commemorating the 
slaughter of the children by Herod (Matt. ii. 

Children in the Wood, THE, the subject of 
an old ballad (apparently written in 1595), 
which is included in Percy's and Ritson's 
collections. A gentleman of Norfolk on his 
death-bed leaves his property to his infant son 
and daughter, and gives the charge of them 
to his brother. The brother designs to get 
possession of the property by making away 
with the children. He hires two ruffians to 
slay them in a wood. One of these, more 
tender-hearted than the other, repents and 
kills his fellow, and then abandons the chil- 
dren in the wood. The children perish and 
the Robin-redbreast covers them with leaves. 
The wrath of God falls upon the wicked uncle, 
who loses his sons and his goods, and dies in 
gaol. The surviving ruffian is arrested for 
robbery, condemned to death, and confesses 
the deed. 

A similar story is the subject of the second 
of 'Two lamentable Tragedies ; the one the 
murder of Maister Beech, a chandler in 
Thames Street. The other of a young child 
murthered in a wood by two rufEns, with 
the consent of his unkle. By Robt. Harring- 
ton, 1 60 1, 4to.' 

Children of the Chapel, CHILDREN OF 
PAUL'S, see Paul's (Children of). 

Chillingworth, ROGER, in Hawthorne's 
'The Scarlet Letter' (q.v.), the name assumed 
by Hester Prynne's husband. 

44), a scholar and fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford, embraced Romanism and went to 
Douai in 1630, but abjured that creed in 
1634. He was one of the literary coterie that 
gathered round Lord Falkland at Great Tew, 
and was the author of the controversial work, 
*The Religion of the Protestants a safe Way 
to Salvation' (1638). 



GMliip, DR., in Dickens's 'David Copper- 
field' (q.v.), the physician who attended 
Mrs. Copperfield at the hero's birth. 
Chilian, The Prisoner of, see Prisoner of 

Chiltera Hundreds, hundreds (i.e. sub- 
divisions of a county, having their own 
courts) in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire 
which contain the Chiitern Hills. The 
manorial rights of these belonged to ^ the 
Crown, which appointed over them bailiffs 
and stewards. These offices are now obsolete, 
but the stewardship of the three Buckingham- 
shire hundreds (Stoke, Desborough, and 
Burnham) has been retained for a special 
purpose. No member of parliament may by 
law resign his seat so long as he is duly 
qualified ; on the other hand a member who 
accepts an office of profit under the Crown 
must vacate his seat subject to re-election. 
Therefore a member who desires to resign 
applies for the 'Stewardship of the Chiitern 
Hundreds 5 or other similar post, which is, by 
a legal figment, held to be such an office; the 
appointment entails his resignation, and 
having thus fulfilled its purpose, is itself 
vacated. [OED.] 

CMmaera, according to Greek legend, a 
monster with three heads, those of a lion, 
a goat and a dragon, which continually 
vomited flame. It was overcome by Bellero- 
phon (q.v.), mounted on the winged horse 

According to Rabelais (n. vii), among the 
books found by Pantagruel in the library of 
St. Victor was a treatise on the very subtle 
question, debated for seventy days at the 
Council of Constance, f utrum chimaera in 
vacuo bombinans possit comedere secundas 
intentiones', a formula in which the author 
sums up the inanities of decadent scholas- 

Chim&ne, or XIMENA, the wife of the Cid 

Chimes, The, a Christmas book by Dickens 
(q.v.), published in 1845. 

It is the story of a nightmare or vision in 
which Toby Veck, porter and runner of 
errands, under the influence of the goblins of 
the church bells and a dish of tripe, witnesses 
awful misfortunes befalling his daughter, a 
vision happily dissipated at the end; together 
with some social satire on justices, aldermen, 
and the like, in the persons of Sir Joseph 
Bowley and Mr. Cute. 

Chingachgook, the Indian chief in the 
*Leathersto eking' series of tales of Indian life 
of J. F. Cooper (q.v.). 

Chios, an island in the Aegean Sea, one of 
the reputed birthplaces of Homer. It was 
celebrated for its wine. 
Chippendale, THOMAS (d. 1779), a famous 
furniture-maker of London, noted for his 
light and elegant style. He published in 1752 
'The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's 


CMvery, MR. and 'YouNG JOHN', characters 
in Dickens's 'Little Dorrit* (q.v.). 

Chloe, see Daphnis and Chloe. 'Chloe* is 
the name by which Pope ('Moral Essays', ii. 
157) refers to Lady Suffolk, mistress of 
George II. Matthew Prior has several poems 
to 'Chloe'. 

The 'Chloe* or *Cloe* mentioned in several 
of Horace Walpole's letters was the duke of 
Newcastle's French cook, Clouet. 
Chloe, The Tale of, see Tale of Chloe. 
Choice, The, see Pom/ret. 
Choir Invisible f The, a romantic novel of the 
Kentucky wilderness, by J. L. Allen (q.v.), 
published 1897, 
Choliamb, see Scazon. 

Chopin, FRDJRIC FRANCOIS (1809-49), 
pianist and composer, was born near Warsaw 
of a French father and Polish mother. He 
composed two concertos, and a large num- 
ber of pianoforte solo compositions, etudes, 
mazurkas, preludes, nocturnes, &c. His ro- 
mantic connexion with George Sand (q.v.) is 
recorded in her 'Lucrezia Floriani', where 
Chopin figures as Prince Karol. 

Chopine, a kind of shoe raised by a cork sole 
or the like, worn about 1600 in Spain and 
Italy, and on the English stage. 'Your lady- 
ship is nearer heaven than when I saw you 
last, by the altitude of a chopine' (Shake- 
speare, 'Hamlet*, n. ii), which implies that 
the boy-actor (who took female parts) had 

Chops of the Channel, the entrance into 
the English Channel from the Atlantic. 

Choriamb, a metrical foot of four syllables, 
the first and last long, the two others short. 
A Choree is a Trochee (q.v.). 

Chouans, a name given to irregular bands 
who maintained in the west of France (the 
Vende'e and Brittany) a partisan war against 
the Republic and the first empire, after 1793 ; 
hence a polemical name for partisans of the 
Bourbons. The word is perhaps from the 
name of Jean Chouan, said to be one of their 
leaders, or from chouan an older form of 
chat-huant, a species of owl. Probably the 
coincidence suggested the appellation. 
[OED.] It is said that the Chouans imitated 
the hoot of an owl as a rallying-cry. See 
Balzac for his novel 'Les Chouans'. 

CHRESTIEN DE TROYES, a izth-cent. 
French author of part of the group of Ar- 
thurian romances, notably the Story of 
Perceval, in his unfinished 'Conte del Graal*. 
This is an important source for all the Grail 

Christ Church, Oxford, a college begun by 
Cardinal Wolsey (it was to be called 'Cardinal 
College'), and taken over after his fall and 
established by Henry VIII in 1546. Among 
famous men educated there were John 
Wesley, Dr. Pusey, and Gladstone. Christ 


Church is at the same time the cathedral of 
Oxford, the cathedral being within the waU& 
of the college and serving as its chapel. 
Christ's Hospital, London, also known as 
the BLUECOAT SCHOOL (q.v.), founded under 
a charter of Edward VI as a school for poor 
children, in buildings that before the dissolu- 
tion had belonged to the Grey Friars. Here 
were educated Coleridge, Lamb, and Leigh 
Hunt. The school was removed to Horsham. 

Christs Teares over Jerusalem, a tract by 
T. Nash (q.v.), published in 1593. Abandon- 
ing his contentious and vituperative writings, 
Nash here figures as a religious reformer. He 
applies Christ's prophecy of the fall of 
Jerusalem as a warning to sinful London. 
He analyses with his usual vigour the vices 
and abuses of contemporary society. 

Christs Vicforie and Triumph, the principal 
poem of Giles Fletcher (q.v.). 

Christabel, a poem by S. T. Coleridge (q.v.), 
published in 1816, 

The poem is unfinished. The first part 
was written at Stowey in Somerset in 1797, 
the second at Keswick in Cumberland in 
1800 after the poet's return from Germany. 
Christabel, daughter of Sir Leoline, praying 
at night in the wood for her betrothed lover, 
finds a lady in distress, the fair Geraldine, and 
brings her to the castle, where she is hos- 
pitably received. She claims to be the 
daughter of Lord Roland de Vaux, who had 
once been the friend of Sir Leoline before 
they were estranged by a quarrel, and to have 
been forcibly abducted from her home. In 
reality she is a malignant supernatural 
creature who has assumed the form of 
Geraldine in order to work evil, and Christa- 
bel has seen through her disguise, but is 
forced to silence by a spell. Sir Leoline sends 
his bard to Lord Roland to tell him that his 
daughter is safe and to offer reconcilement. 

The poem, apart from introducing a new 
metre, is important as one of the most 
beautiful in English poetry. 

Christian, the hero of Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's 
Progress' (q.v.). 

Christian, EDWARD, a character in Scott's 
'Peveril of the Peak' (q.v.). 
Christian, FLETCHER, see Bounty. 

Christian Hero, The. An Argument proving 
that no Principles but those of Religion are 
Sufficient to make a great Man, a treatise by 
Steele (q.v.), published in 1701. 

Finding, as the author tells us, 'Military 
life exposed to much Irregularity*, he wrote 
this little work 'with a design to fix upon his 
own Mind a strong Impression of Virtue and 
Religion, in opposition to a stronger Propen- 
sity towards unwarrantable Pleasures'. In it 
he inculcates the value of the Bible as a moral 
guide and the failure of the old philosophy. 
The treatise ends with a comparison between 
Louis XIV and William III, and includes a 
significant passage recommending, in con- 


trast with the immorality that pervaded most 
of ^the writings of the day, a chivalrous 
attitude towards women. The work is 
important as one of the first signs of a change 
of tone in English literature. 

Christian King, MOST, a title of the kings of 
France since the middle of the I5th cent., 
or even, according to some authorities, since 
Pepin le Bref (Larousse). 

Christian Morals, see Browne (Sir TV). 

Christianity, An Argument against abolishing, 
see Swift. 

Christian Year, The, a collection of sacred 
poems by Keble (q.v.), published in. 1827. 
The book attained great popularity both 
because of the beauty of much of the verse 
and owing to its connexion with the Oxford 
Movement (q.v.), of which it expressed the 

Christiana, in the second part of the Til- 
grim 's Progress* (q.v.), the wife of Christian. 

Christie Johnstone, a novel by Reade (q.v.), 
published ini853. It is a romantic story, not 
devoid of humour, telling how the gallant 
large-hearted Christie, a Scottish fisher-girl, 
proved herself more than worthy to marry 
the weak-willed artist, Charles Gatty, and, 
by saving him from drowning, won over even 
his dour mother. 

Christie's galleries, in King Street, St. 
James, one of the chief centres of art sales in 
London. James Christie, the elder (1730-" 
1803), was an auctioneer in London (1766 
1803). His eldest son, James Christie, the 
younger (1773-1831), took over his father's 
business, and moved to the present premises 
in 1824. He wrote on the antiquity of chess, 
Greek vases, &c. 

Christis Kirk on the Green, an old Scottish 
poem, doubtfully attributed to James I or 
James V of Scotland, in nine-lined stanzas 
with a e bob' after the eighth line, descriptive 
of the rough fun, dancing, and love-making 
of a village festival or 'wappinshaw*. Two 
additional cantos were composed by Allan 
Ramsay (q.v.). 

Christmas-box, originally a box, usually 
of earthenware, in which contributions of 
money were collected at Christmas by 
apprentices, &c., the box being broken when 
full and the contents shared. Now, a present 
given at Christmas to employees and trades- 
people. Hence 'Boxing Day*. 

Christmas Carol, A, a Christmas book by 
Dickens (q.v.), published in 1843. 

Scrooge, an old curmudgeon, receives on 
Christmas Eve a visit from the ghost of 
Marley, his late partner in business, and 
beholds a series of visions of the past, present, 
and future, including one of what his own 
death will be like unless he is quick to amend 
his ways. As a result of this he wakes up on 
Christmas morning an altered man. He sends 
a turkey to his iU-used clerk, Bob Cratchit, 



positively enjoys subscribing to Christmas 
charities, and generally behaves like the 
genial old fellow that he has become. 
Christmas Eve and Easter Day, two distinct 
poems under one title, by R. Browning (q.v.), 
published in 1850. 

In the first the narrator recounts a spiritual 
experience, a vision in which he is taken first 
to a dissenting chapel, then to St. Peter's 
Church at Rome, then to a lecture-room 
where a German professor is investigating 
the origin of the Christian myth, and finally 
back to the dissenting chapel. He concludes 
that his 'heart does best to receive in meek- 
ness' this last mode of worship, where earthly 
aids are cast aside and God 'appears serene 
with the thinnest human veil between'. 

In 'Easter Day* a Christian and a sceptic 
are disputing. The Christian narrates a vision 
from which he has learnt the value of life, with 
its limitations, but with the hope remaining 
'to reach one eve the Better Land*. 

Christoplier, ST., meaning * Christ-bearer*, 
a Christian martyr of the 3rd cent., said to 
have lived in Syria and to have been a man 
of exceptional size and strength. As a penance 
for his past sins he used to carry pilgrims 
over a river. Jesus Christ, the legend says, 
came to him in the form of a child, to be 
carried over, but before Christopher reached 
the other side, the burden became so heavy 
that he nearly failed. 'Marvel not,' said 
Christ, 'for with me thou hast carried the 
sins of all the world.' The saint is com- 
memorated on 25 July. He is the patron 
saint of wayfarers. 

used by J. WILSON (1785-1854, q.v.). 
Christopher Robin, a small boy who 
figures in the nursery tales of Mr. A. A. 
Milne. 'The Christopher Robin Story Book* 
appeared in 1929. 

Christopher Sly, see Taming of the Shrew. 
Christy Minstrels, a troup of minstrels 
imitating negroes, originated in the I9th 
cent, by one George Christy of New York. 
The name was afterwards extended to any 
similar company with blackened faces who 
sing negro melodies interspersed with jokes. 

Chronicles, see under Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, Annales Cambriae, Asser, Bede, 
Camden (William), Capgrave (John}, Ciren- 
cester y Eadmer, Fabyan (Robert), Flodoard, 
Florence of Worcester, Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
Gesta Francorum, Gildas, Giraldus Cambrensis, 
Hall (Edward), Harrison (William), Hayward 
(Sir John}, Holinshed (Raphael), Hoveden 
(Roger), Jocelin de Brakelond, Nennius, 
Richard III (History of), Robert of Gloucester, 
Speed (John), Stow (John), Vergil (Polydore), 
Wall^ of Jersey, William of Malmesbury, 
William of Newburgh, Wyntoun (Andrew of). 
Chronicles of the Canongate, The, an in- 
clusive title for certain of Sir W. Scott's 
novels, 'The Highland Widow', 'The Two 


Drovers', and 'The Fair Maid of Perth* 
(qq.v.), to which the author attached the 
fiction that they were written by Mr. Chrystal 
Croftangry, who draws on the recollections 
of his old friend Mrs. Bethune Balliol, a 
resident in the Canongate, Edinburgh. Mr. 
Croftangry's own story, notable among 
Scott's shorter sketches, forms an introduction 
to the Chronicles. 

Chrononhofonthologos, a burlesque of con- 
temporary drama by Henry Carey (q.v.), 
'the Most Tragical Tragedy that ever was 
Tragediz'd by any Company of Tragedians', 
acted in 1734. Chrononhotonthologos is 
king of Queerummania, and two of the 
characters are Aldiborontiphoscophornio and 
Rigdum-Funnidos, names which Scott gave 
to James and John Ballantyne, on account of 
the pomposity of the one and the fun and 
cheerfulness of the other. 

Chrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea, see 
Adventures of a Guinea. 

Chrysaor, in Spenser's 'Faerie Queene*, v. i. 
9 and v. xii. 40, the sword of Justice, wielded 
by Sir Artegal. The Chrysaor of Greek 
mythology was a son of Poseidon and Medusa. 

Chryseis, daughter of Chryses, a priest of 
Apollo. She had been taken prisoner and 
allotted to Agamemnon. Chryses came to 
the Greek camp to win his daughter's free- 
dom, but was received by Agamemnon with 
contumely. Thereupon the god sent a plague 
on the Greek host. To avert this, Achilles 
urged that Agamemnon should follow the 
advice of Calchas, the seer, and surrender 
the damsel. This he finally was obliged 
to do, but in his wrath he took from 
Achilles the girl Briseis (q.v.), thereby causing 
Achilles to retire for a time from the Trojan 

CHRYSOSTOM, ST. JOHN (c. 345-407), 
one of the Greek Fathers of the Church, was 
born at Antioch of Syria of a noble family. 
Under his mother's influence he was baptized 
in 370, and spent ten years in the desert, 
leading an ascetic life and studying theology. 
He became bishop of Constantinople, and 
applied the revenues of the see to charit- 
able purposes. He was a most eloquent 
preacher, and his sermons, directed against the 
vices of the capital and of the leading person- 
ages of the empire (including the empress 
Eudoxia), coupled with his disciplinary 
measures, aroused much hostility. He was 
condemned by a packed synod (Ad Quercum), 
banished to Nicaea, recalled, and deposed by 
a second synod. He was sent to Cocysus on 
the slopes of Mount Taurus ; but his energy 
was unquelled, and he was again removed 
to more distant regions, but died on the way 
at Comana, In his writings he emphasized 
the ascetic element in religion and the need 
for personal study of the Scriptures. His 
voluminous works include, notably, com- 
mentaries on the Gospel of St. Matthew and 
on the Epistles to the Romans and Corin- 



thians. The name 'Chrysostom* means 
'golden-mouth* and was given to him on 
account of his eloquence. 

Chucks, MR., a character in Marryat's 'Peter 
Simple' (q.v.). 

Chuffey, in Dickens's 'Martin Chuzzlewit* 
(q.v.), Anthony Chuzzlewit's old clerk. 

Chump, MRS., a character in Meredith's 
Sandra Belloni* (q.v.). 

90), dean of St. Paul's, was author of lives of 
St. Wulfstan (1844) and St. Anselm (1870), 
and of Spenser and Bacon (1879 and 1884) in 
the English Men of Letters series. He also 
wrote a notable history of the 'Oxford Move- 
ment* (1891) and an essay on Dante, of 
whom he was a devoted student; this was 
republished with a translation of Dante's 
'De Monarchia* in 1878. He published 
a large number of essays, sermons, and 
addresses, and an interesting little book 
on 'The Beginnings of the Middle Ages* 

CHURCHILL, CHARLES (1731-64), edu- 
cated at Westminster School. He went to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, but his 
university career was interrupted by his 
marriage at the age of 18. He became 
famous by his satire on contemporary actors, 
'The Rosciad', published in 1761, and his 
violent satire on Bute and the Scots, 'The 
Prophecy of Famine', published in 1763. He 
attached himself to John Wilkes (q.v.) and 
contributed largely to his paper 'The North 
Briton*. He wrote other political and social 
satires (notably 'The Author', against 
Smollett; 'The Epistle to William Hogarth* 
and 'The Duellist', 1763; 'The Times', 
1764; and 'The Candidate*, directed against 
'Jemmy Twitcher*, Lord Sandwich, 1764), 
but died young, at Boulogne, on his way 
to visit Wilkes in France. 

Churchill, FRANK, a character in Jane 
Austen's 'Emma' (q.v.). 

(LEONARD SPENCER) (1874- ), eldest 
son of the late Lord Randolph Churchill 
(third son of the seventh duke of Marl- 
borough). He entered the army in 1895 and 
served in Cuba, India, Tirah, and Egypt; 
was present as a war correspondent^ Spion 
Kop, Diamond Hill, &c.; and served in France 
as Lieut.-Col. in 1916. He was under-sec, of 
state for the colonies, 1906-8; president of 
the board of trade, 1908-10; home secretary, 
1910-1 1 ; first lord of the Admiralty, 191 1-15 ; 
secretary of state for war, 1918-21; for the 
colonies, 19212 ; chancellor of the exchequer, 
19249. Among his publications are: 'The 
Story of the Malakand Field Force* (1898), 
'The River War* (1899), 'London to Lady- 
smith via Pretoria' (1900), 'Ian Hamilton's 
March* (1900), 'Lord Randolph Churchill* 
(1906-7), 'My African Journey* (1908), 
'Liberalism and the Social Problem* (1909), 


*The World Crisis* (4 vols. 1923-9), 'My Early 
Life* (1930), and a novel, 'Savrola' (1900). 

American novelist, was born in St. Louis, 
graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, and 
settled in New Hampshire. Among his chief 
works are: 'Richard Carvel* (1899), 'The 
Crisis* (1901), 'The Crossing* (1904), 
'Coniston* (1906), 'Mr. Crewe's Career' 
(1908), and 'The Inside of the Cup' (1913). 

CHURCHYARD, THOMAS (i52o?-i6o 4 ), 
at one time page to Henry, earl of Surrey, the 
poet, lived a wandering life, partly as a soldier 
in Scotland, Ireland, France, and the Low 
Countries, partly as a hanger-on of the court 
and the nobility. He published, before 1553, 
*A myrrour for man*. Between 1560 and 
1603 he issued a multitude of broadsheets 
and small volumes in verse and prose, several 
containing autobiographical pieces and 
notices of current events. His best-known 
works are 'Shore*s Wife* (1563), in the 
'Mirror for Magistrates' (q.v.), and the 
'Worthmes of Wales* (1587). Among his 
narrative poems are the 'Wofull Warres in 
Flaunders' (1578) and the 'General Re- 
hearsall of Warres' (1579), in which he made 
use of his own experience as a soldier. Spenser 
in his 'Colin Clout* refers to Churchyard 
as ^'Old Palaemon that sung so long until 
quite hoarse he grew'. 

CIBBER, COLLEY (1671-1757), son 
of Cams Cibber the sculptor, was educated 
at Grantham School and became an actor 
in 1690. He brought out his first play 
'Love's Last Shift* in 1696, of which Con- 
greve said 'that 'it has only in it a great 
many things that were like wit, that in 
reality were not wit', a criticism applicable 
to his numerous other plays, in which he 
showed skill as a playwright rather than the 
qualities of a man of letters. Sir Novelty 
Fashion in 'Love's Last Shift* suggested 
Vanbrugh's Lord Foppington in 'The Re- 
lapse* (q.v.). One of the best of Gibber's 
plays was 'The Careless Husband* (q.v.), 
printed in 1705. Cibber was made poet 
laureate in 1730, and was fiercely attacked in 
consequence by other writers. Pope made 
him the hero of the 'Dunciad* (q.v.) in the 
final edition of that poem. Cibber published 
in 1740 an autobiography, entitled 'Apology 
for the life of Colley Cibber, Comedian'. 
By this he is principally remembered, on 
account of the admirable theatrical portraits, 
of Betterton, Mrs. Bracegirdle, Nokes, &c., 
that it contains. 

43 B.C.), sometimes referred to in English 
literature as Tully, was born near Arpinum. 
After studying law and philosophy he came 
forward as a pleader. His success in this 
capacity opened the way for him to the 
highest offices, and he became consul in 63. 
His political fame is chiefly based^ on his 
vigorous action against the conspiracy of 



Catiline. Owing to the enmity of Clodius he 
was banished in 58 for a short time. In the 
civil war between Caesar and Pompey he 
joined the party of the latter, but after 
Pharsalia was pardoned by Caesar. After 
Caesar's assassination he took the lead 
of the republican party and vigorously 
attacked Mark Antony in his Philippic 
orations. On the formation of the trium- 
virate he was proscribed, and put to death in 
43. His works consist of writings on the art 
of rhetoric (of which the 'De Oratore' is the 
chief) ; on political philosophy ('De Legibus* 
and *De Republica'); on moral philosophy 
( c De OfficuV, 'De Senectute', and 'De 
Amicitia'); and on theology ( e De % Natura 
Deorurn') ; of a large number of orations (in- 
cluding the Verrine and the Philippics) and 
epistles (many of them to his friend Atticus). 

Gicisbeo (pron. tchi-tchiz-bay'-o), the name 
formerly given in Italy to the recognized 
gallant of a married woman. The word, 
whose origin is uncertain, is also used for a 
knot of ribbon tied to a sword-hilt, walking- 
stick, &c. 

Cid, THE, the favourite hero of Spain, in the 
account of whom history and myth are diffi- 
cult to disentangle. Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, 
el Cid Campeador ( c el Seyd', the lord, 'Cam- 
peador*, champion), of a noble Castilian 
family, was born c. 1030, rose to fame by his 
prowess in the war between Sancho of Castile 
and Sancho of Navarre, and in conflicts with 
the Moors. Having incurred the jealousy of 
Alphonso, king of Castile, he was banished 
and became a soldier of fortune, righting at 
times for the Christians, at others for the 
Moors. His principal feat was the capture 
of Valencia from the Moors after a siege of 
nine months. He died of grief at the defeat 
of his force, in 1099. 

In myth his character has been glorified 
into a type of knightly and Christian virtue 
and patriotic zeal. His achievements are 
narrated in the 'Poema del Cid* of the isth 
cent, (the most important of early Spanish 
poems, some 3,700 irregular lines), in the 
Spanish Chronicle of the I3th cent., and in 
numerous ballads. The chronicles relating 
to him were translated by R. Southey (q.v., 
1808). The Cid is the subject of the most 
famous drama of Corneille (q.v.). The Cid's 
horse was called Babieca. 

Cid Hamet Ben Engeli, an imaginary 
Arabian author to whom Cervantes attributes 
the story of Don Quixote (q.v.). 

Cider: for J. Philips's poem, see Cyder. 

Ci-devant, a French term meaning 'for- 
merly', signifies, in the language of the 
French Revolution, a man of rank, i.e. one 
formerly such, the Republic having sup- 
pressed distinctions of nobility. 
CImabue, GIOVANNI (1240-^. 1302), Italian 
painter, born at Florence. His best-known 
work is the 'Madonna* in the church of 


Santa Maria Novella at Florence, which 
excited such enthusiasm that it was carried 
in public procession from Cimabue's studio 
to the church. 

Cimmerian, of or belonging to the Cim- 
merii, a people fabled by the ancients to live 
in perpetual darkness; hence proverbially 
used as a qualification of dense darkness. 
The historical Cirnmerii lived on the Sea of 
Azov, and the word Crimea is derived from 
their name. 

Cimon and Iphigenia, see Cymon and Iphi- 

Cincinnati, THE, an order founded in 1783 
by the officers of the American Revolutionary 
army 'to perpetuate friendship, and to raise 
a fund for the relief of the widows and or- 
phans of those who fell in the War of Inde- 
pendence*. The badge of the society shows 
Cincinnatus receiving the ensigns of dictator. 

Cincinnatus, Lucius QUINTUS, a type of 
old-fashioned integrity and frugality in the 
annals of the Roman republic. He was called 
in 458 B.C. from the plough, with which he 
cultivated his own land, to deliver the Roman 
army from the peril in which it stood in its 
conflict with the Aequians. Having success- 
fully done this and held the command for 
only 1 6 days, he returned to his plough. 

Cinderella) a fairy tale, from the French of 
Perrault (q.v.), translated by Robert Sarnber 

The gentle Cinderella is cruelly used by 
her step-mother and two step-sisters, and 
when her household drudgery is done, sits 
at the corner of the hearth in the cinders, 
whence her name. Her step-sisters having 
gone to a ball, she is left crying at home. Her 
fairy godmother arrives, provides her with 
beautiful clothes, a coach made out of a 
pumpkin, and six horses transformed from 
mice, and sends her to the ball, on condition 
that she returns before the stroke of twelve. 
The prince falls in love with her. She hurries 
away at midnight, losing one of her tiny glass 
slippers (pantpufle de verre; perhaps verre 
should be vair, minever), and resumes her 
humble garb at the fireside. The prince has 
search made for her and announces that he 
will marry her whom the slipper fits. To the 
discomfiture of the step-sisters the slipper is 
found to fit only Cinderella, who produces 
the fellow to it from her pocket, and marries 
the prince. Andrew Lang, in his 'Perraulfs 
Popular Tales' discusses the analogous stories 
which ^ exist in the folk-lore of various 

Cinque Ports, a group of sea-ports 
(originally five, Hastings, Dover, Sandwich, 
Romney, Hythe, to which were added the 
two 'ancient towns', Rye and Winchelsea, and 
many associated towns) having jurisdiction 
along the south-east coast from Seaford to 
Sussex to Birchington in Kent. In ancient 
times they furnished the chief part of the 


English navy, in consideration of which they 
received many important privileges and 
franchises. These were mostly abolished in 
1832 and 1835, and the Lord Wardenship is 
now chiefly an honorary dignity. Each of the 
associated towns above referred to was called 
a 'limb' of one of the ports, and contributed 
its ship to the the tale of fifty-seven which the 
ports had to furnish in the I3th cent. The 
origin of the group is unknown; no real 
charter was granted before Edward I. 

GInquecento, a term applied in Italy to the 
1 6th cent., and to that style of art and archi- 
tecture, characterized by a reversion to 
classical forms, which arose about 1450. 

(1504-73), born at Ferrara, the author of 
'Hecatommithi* or hundred tales, told after 
the manner of Boccaccio's 'Decameron' (q.v.) 
by ten ladies and gentlemen sailing to Mar- 
seilles after the sack of Rome in 1527. Some 
of these were incorporated by Painter in his 
'Palace of Pleasure' (q.v.) and provided the 
plots of Shakespeare's 'Othello' and 'Measure 
for Measure', and of plays by Beaumont and 
Fletcher and Shirley. 

Circassian, the name of the inhabitants of 
a region in the NW. of the Caucasus, for- 
merly known as Cir cassia (now Kuban). 
They were finally subjugated, after a long 
struggle, by the Russians in 1864, after which 
many thousands migrated to Turkish terri- 
tory. They were notable for beauty of form 
and feature. Circassian fathers used to sell 
their daughters to Turkish merchants for 
Turkish harems. 

Circe, celebrated for her knowledge of magic 
and venomous herbs, inhabited an island 
called Aeaea. Ulysses, returning from the 
Trojan War, visited this island. His com- 
panions were changed by Circe's potions 
into swine. Ulysses, fortified against her en- 
chantment by the herb called moly, demanded 
from Circe, sword in hand, the restoration 
of his companions. Circe complied, and 
Ulysses remained with her for a year, be- 
coming by her the father of Telegonus, or 
according to Hesiod of Agrius and Latinus. 
See also Scylla and Gryll. 

Circumcellion, *a name given to the 
Donatist fanatics in Africa during the 4th 
cent, from their habit of roving from place 
to place' ['Diet, of Christian Antiquities'], 
extended to vagabond monks generally. 

Circumlocution Office, THE, the type 
of a government department, satirized in 
Dickens's 'Little Dorrit' (q.v.). 
a monk of St. Peter's, Westminster, who com- 
piled a 'Speculum Historiale', A.D. 447-1066. 
See Bertram (Charles). 

Cirrha, a seaport on the Corinthian Gulf, 
near Delphi and Mt. Parnassus. The region 
was sacred to Apollo. 



Cistercians, the name of a monastic order, 
an offshoot of the Benedictines, founded at 
Cistercium or Citeaux in 1098 by Robert, 
abbot of Molesme. St. Bernard (q.v.) was 
a Cistercian; his Bernar -dines were a branch 
of the Cistercians with reformed rules. 
Cities of the Plain, THE, see Sodom and 

Citizen of the World, The, by Goldsmith 
(q.v.), a collection of letters purporting to 
be written by or to an imaginary philosophic 
Chinaman, Lien Chi Altangi, residing in 
London. They first appeared as 'Chinese 
Letters* in Newbery's 'Public Ledger*, most 
of them in the course of 1760. They were 
republished under the title of 'The Citizen 
of the World' in 1762. They are in effect 
a series of whimsical or satirical comments 
on English customs and peculiarities, on the 
mental and moral characteristics of the 
race, and on literary subjects, together with 
character-sketches and episodes, the whole 
strung on a slender thread of narrative. The 
best-known character-sketches in the book are 
those of the 'Man in Black* (q.v.) and 'Beau 
Tibbs' (q.v.). 

City, THE, short for the City of London, that 
part of London which is under the juris- 
diction of the Lord Mayor and Corporation ; 
more particularly, the business part of this, 
in the neighbourhood of the Exchange and 
Bank of England. It substantially repre- 
sents the ancient city that was enclosed in 
the Roman wall, with the addition of the 
wards of Farringdon Without and Bishops- 
gate Without. "The City* is used metaphori- 
cally of business interests or business men. 

City Heiress, The, a comedy by Aphra Behn 
(q.v.), produced in 1682. 

Sir Timothy Treat-all, *an old seditious 
knight, who keeps open house for Common- 
wealthsmen*, has disinherited his Tory 
nephew, Tom Wilding. Wilding is courting 
Chariot, the city-heiress, and introduces his 
mistress Diana to Sir Timothy, as Chariot. 
Sir Timothy, under this deception, arranges 
a marriage with her. During an entertain- 
ment at his house, he is visited by a strange 
nobleman who offers him the crown of 
Poland. The same night however his house 
is burgled and his papers stolen, and himself 
and the strange lord bound fast. It turns 
out not only that Sir Timothy has married 
his nephew's mistress, but that the Polish 
Ambassador was Wilding in disguise, and 
the burglars his associates, who have got 
possession of Sir Timothy's treasonable 
correspondence, and of the ^papers relating 
to his estate. Wilding is united to Chariot. 
The plot is complicated by another intrigue, 
in which Wilding and his friend Sir Charles 
Merriwill seek the favour of the rich widow, 
Lady Galliard. 

City Madam, The, a comedy by^Massinger 
(q.v.), acted in 1632 and printed in 1659. 

The wife and daughters of Sir John Frugal, 



a rich merchant, are grown extravagant and 
presumptuous as a result of their wealth. 
The girls repel their suitors, Sir Maurice 
Lacy and Mr. Plenty, by attaching intolerable 
conditions to the grant of their hands. To 
teach them a lesson, and at the same time to 
test his brother, Luke, a ruined prodigal 
whom he has taken into his house (where he 
occupies a servile position and feigns virtue 
and humility), Sir John pretends to retire 
into a monastery and to hand over his 
property and the management of his family 
to Luke. Being placed in this position, the 
brother acts with great harshness to Lady 
Frugal and her daughters, and to Sir John's 
creditors and apprentices. Luke's hypocrisy 
is exposed, the return of Sir John is welcomed 
by his family, and his daughters gladly 
promise submission to their suitors. 

City of Destruction, THE, in Bunyan's 
'Pilgrim's Progress' (q.y.), typifies the state 
of the worldly and irreligious. 

City of Dreadful Night, The, see under 
Thomson (J., 1834-82) and Kipling. 

City of Refuge, in the Mosaic dispensation, 
a walled town set apart for the protection of 
those who had accidentally committed man- 
slaughter. See Deut. iv. 41-3. 

City of Seven Hills, THE, Rome. The seven 
hills are the Palatine, Aventine, Capitoline, 
Caelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal. 

City of Dreaming Spires, M. Arnold 
('Thyrsis') refers to Oxford as 'that sweet 
city with her dreaming spires'. 

City of the Tribes, THE, Galway, so called 
from the fourteen families or 'tribes* whose 
ancestors settled there about 1270. 

City of the Violet Crown, THE, Athens, see 
Violet-crowned City. 

City Witt, The, or the Woman wears the 
Breeches, a comedy by Brome (q.v.), printed 
in 1653.^ 

This is the brightest and most amusing 
of Brome's comedies. Crasy, a young citizen, 
has been ruined by his generous and easy- 
going disposition, and is cursed moreover 
with a virago for a mother-in-law, Mrs. 
Pyannet Sneakup. From her he gets no 
mercy in his misfortune, and the friends 
whom he has helped in the past turn from 
him when he comes to them for assistance. 
His wife indulges her amorous proclivities 
as soon as he leaves her. He determines to 
show them all that his past good -nature was 
not due to want of wit, and disguising him- 
self in various characters plays on their 
several vices to extort from them the money 
and jewels he has lent them or they have 
stolen from him. Aided by his servant 
Jeremy, who passes himself off as the rich 
widow Tryman, he contrives a marriage 
between the latter and his malignant 
brother-in-law, a drubbing for each of his 
wife's would-be lovers, and humiliation for 
his mother-in-law. The pedant, Sarpego, 


with his comically apposite snatches of Latin, 
who refuses to repay him a loan of ten pounds, 
does not escape his share of punishment. 
Civil War, THE, in English history, the war 
between Charles I and Parliament, which 
began in 1642 and ended virtually in 1646. 
It was followed by the second Civil War of 
1648-51, which was terminated by the 
battle of Worcester. 

In American history, the Civil War or 
War of Secession (1861-5) was caused by the 
secession of the eleven southern or Con- 
federate (q.v.) states (as a result of the anti- 
slavery agitation and the growth of the 
doctrine of state sovereignty) and was 
terminated by the surrender of their armies. 

Civil Wars between the two Houses of York 
and Lancaster t an epic poem by S. Daniel 
(q.v.), of which the first four books appeared 
in 1595. The complete work, comprising 
eight books, was published in 1609. It con- 
tains some 900 eight-lined stanzas, of a grave 
and philosophic cast, and marked by strong 
patriotism. The first book deals with the 
period from the Conquest to Hereford's 
rising against Richard II, the remaining 
seven with the Wars of the Roses to the 
accession of Henry VII. 

Clack, Miss, in Wilkie Collins's 'The 
Moonstone* (q.v.), a niece of Sir John 
Verinder, and narrator of part of the story. 

Claimant, THE, Arthur Orton; see Tick- 

(1798-1879), daughter of Mary Clairmont 
who became William Godwin's (q.v.) second 
wife. She accompanied Mary Godwin on 
her elopement with Shelley (q.v.), and in 
spite of pursuit remained with them on the 
Continent, giving rise to most of the calum- 
nies directed against Shelley. She returned 
to London with the Shelleys and in 1816 ob- 
tained an introduction to Byron, becoming 
so intimate with him that when he went to 
Switzerland the Shelleys were induced to 
follow him. Her child Allegra was born in 
1817, and for nearly three years lived with 
Byron. In 1821 Allegra was placed in a 
convent near Ravenna much against the will 
of Claire, and died in 1822 as the result of a 
fever. Claire's subsequent life was spent in 
Russia, Italy, and Paris. She died in Flor- 
ence in 1879. 

Clan na Gael, 'brotherhood of Gaels', an 

Irish secret society, which had its origin in 1 870 
among the Fenians (q.v.), and represented 
the party of extreme violence in the move- 
ment for Irish independence. 

Clandestine Marriage, The, a comedy by 
Colman the elder and Garrick (qq.v.), 
produced in 1766. 

This entertaining comedy was suggested by 
Hogarth's pictures of 'Marriage-a-la-Mode*. 
Lovewell, the clerk of Mr. Sterling, a wealthy 
and purse-proud London merchant, has 


secretly married his employer's younger 
daughter, Fanny, but dares not brave the 
father's anger by a disclosure. The father, 
ambitious to ally himself with a noble family, 
has arranged a marriage between his elder 
daughter and Sir John Melvil, the son of 
Lord Ogleby, who accept the alliance as a 
way out of their pecuniary difficulties. Lord 
Ogleby and Melvil arrive at Sterling's house 
to make the final arrangements, when the son 
suddenly reveals his aversion for the match 
with the elder Miss Sterling and his passion 
for the more attractive Fanny. The latter 
with embarrassment repels his advances, but 
hesitates to reveal her marriage. Melvil 
turns to Mr, Sterling and induces him, for a 
financial consideration, to agree to the trans- 
fer of his affections to the younger daughter. 
But now Mrs. Heidelberg, Mr. Sterling's 
wealthy sister, strongly resents the proposed 
affront to the family, and orders Fanny to be 
packed off from the house. Fanny in despair 
applies to Lord Ogleby, an amorous old beau, 
who mistaking her inarticulate confession for 
a declaration of love for himself, announces 
that he will himself marry her, thereby 
further increasing the perplexity of Lovewell 
and Fanny. Finally a lover is discovered 
in Fanny's bedroom, and the household 
assemble outside the door for the exposure of 
the villain. When he turns out to be Lovewell, 
Lord Ogleby good-naturedly intervenes on 
behalf of the guilty couple, offers to take 
Lovewell under his own protection, and 
appeases Sterling's wrath. 

Clara Douglas, the heroine of Bulwer 
Lytton's comedy 'Money' (q.v.). 

Clara Middleton, the heroine of Meredith's 
'The Egoist' (q.v.). 

Clare, a nun of the order instituted at 
Assisi, c. 12 1 2 by St. Clare, who was in- 
spired by admiration for St. Francis of 
Assisi. The sisters are also called Toor 
Clares' and 'Minoresses*. 

CLARE, JOHN (1793-1864), the son of a 
Northamptonshire labourer, and himself at 
various times a herd-boy, militiaman, vagrant, 
and unsuccessful farmer, who became insane 
in 1837. He published in 1820 'Poems 
Descriptive of Rural Life', 'The Village 
Minstrel' in 1821, 'The Shepherd's Calendar' 
in 1827, and 'The Rural Muse' in 1835. Other 
poems of his were published after his death 
(ed. A. Symons, 1908), and an edition of his 
poems by Blunden and Porter appeared in 
1920. An autobiography of his early years 
was edited by Edmund Blunden in 1931. 

Clarenceux, the second king-of-arms in 
England (see Heralds 3 College), whose office 
is to marshal and arrange the funerals of all 
baronets, knights, and esquires south of the 
river Trent. He was formerly called Surroy as 
opposed to Norroy the northern king-of-arms. 
The name Clarenceux is derived from the 
English dukedom created for Lionel, second 


son of Edward III, when he married the 
heiress of Clare in Suffolk. [OED.] 

Clarendon, CONSTITUTIONS OF, enacted at 
a council summoned in 1164 by Henry II 
to meet at Clarendon in Wiltshire. Their 
object was to check the power of the clergy. 
The most important of the sixteen articles 
declared that beneficed clergy should not 
leave the realm without the king's leave; 
that no tenant-in-chief should be excom- 
municated without the king's knowledge; 
that a criminous clerk should be tried in the 
king's court; and that after conviction he 
should not be protected by the Church from 
punishment. After the murder of Becket, 
Henry was compelled to give up the Consti- 
tutions of Clarendon. 

(1609-74), was educated at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, and practised law. As M.P. for 
Wootton Bassett in the Short Parliament and 
for Saltash in the Long Parliament, he at 
first sided with the opposition, but, as a 
strong Anglican, from 1641 onwards he was 
one of the chief supporters and advisers of 
the king. He followed the Prince of Wales in 
his exile to Scilly and Jersey, where he began 
his 'History'. He was lord chancellor and 
chief minister to Charles II from 1658, re- 
taining this position at the Restoration. The 
future James II married his daughter, Anne 
Hyde. He subsequently became unpopular, 
partly owing to the ill-success of the Dutch 
war; and being impeached, he fled to France 
in 1667 and lived at Montpellier and Rouen, 
dying at the latter place. At Montpellier he 
composed his 'Life', part of which he in- 
corporated with the 'History'. 

The 'History' 'The True Historical 
Narrative of the Rebellion and .Civil Wars in 
England' was first printed from a transcript 
under the supervision of Clarendon's son in 
17024, the original manuscript (now in the 
Bodleian) being first used in Bandinel's 
edition (1826). But Bandinel either de- 
ciphered it badly or garbled it, and the first 
true text is that of Dr. Macray (Oxford, 1 888). 
The 'Life of Clarendon', by himself, appeared 
in 1759, the 'History of Rebellion and Civil 
War in Ireland' in 1721, and selections from 
his correspondence ('Clarendon State Papers'), 
edited by Scrope and Monkhouse, in 1767-86. 

Clarendon was chancellor of the University 
of Oxford from 1660 until his fall. His 
works were presented to the University by 
his heirs, and from the profits of the publica- 
tion of the 'History' a new printing-house, 
which bore his name, was built for the 
University Press (q.v.). 
Clarendon Press, see Oxford University 

Clarendon type, a thick-faced, condensed 
type, in capital and small letters. 

Clarendon's History of the Rebellion and 
Civil Wars in England, see Clarendon 
(Edward Hyde). 



Claret, from French clairet, diminutive of 
dair, 'clear, light, bright', a name originally 
given to wines of a yellowish or light red 
colour, as distinguished alike from 'red wine* 
and 'white wine' ; the contrast with the for- 
mer ceased about 1600, and the name is 
now applied to the red wines of the Bor- 
deaux region. The finest clarets come from 
the Me*doc, a plain on the left bank of the 
Garonne, and include the Chateaux Lafite, 
Latour, and Margaux, together with Mouton 
Rothschild and Pontet Canet. With these is 
generally classed Haut Brion (Pepys's 'Ho 
Bryen 5 ), sometimes a very fine wine, though 
this is grown in the Graves area. 

Clarinda, the name used by Mrs. Agnes 
Maclehose (nee Craig) in her correspondence 
with Burns (q.v.), who signed himself 

Clarissa, one of the principal characters in 
Vanbrugh's 'The Confederacy 5 (q.v.). 

Clarissa Harlowe, a novel by Richardson 
(q.v.), of which two volumes were issued in 
1747 and five in 1748. 

This was the second of Richardson's novels 
and, as in the others, the story is told by 
means of letters, written by the heroine 
Clarissa to her friend Miss Howe, and by the 
other principal character, Robert Lovelace, to 
his friend John Belford. Clarissa, a young lady 
of good family, e of great Delicacy, mistress 
of all the Accomplishments, natural and 
acquired, that adorn the Sex*, is wooed by 
Lovelace, an attractive and versatile but un- 
scrupulous man of fashion. Clarissa's family 
oppose the match because of his doubtful 
reputation, and Clarissa for a time resists his 
advances. But she is secretly fascinated by 
him, and he succeeds in carrying her off. 
Clarissa dies of shame, and Lovelace is 
killed in a duel by her cousin, Colonel 
Morden. The novel, as the title-page shows, 
was intended as a warning of 'the Distresses 
that may attend Misconduct both of Parents 
and Children in relation to Marriage', and 
was thus in some sort a complement of 
'Pamela'. Clarissa suggested the theme of 
Rousseau's 'Nouvelle Heloi'se'. 

CLARK,. JOHN WILLIS (1833-1910), 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, registrar of Cambridge Univer- 
sity from 1891 till his death, is remembered 
for his 'Architectural History of the Colleges 
of Cambridge' (with Robert Willis, 1886), 
his 'Barnwell Priory* (1897, 1907), and his 
admirable history of libraries, entitled 'The 
Care of Books' (1901). 

1877), the schoolmaster and friend of Keats 
(q.v.), and author of 'Recollections of 
Writers' (with Mary Co wden Clarke, 1878), 

(1809-98), wife of Charles Cowden-Clarke 
(q.v.), is remembered as the author of the 


'Complete Concordance to Shakespeare', 
which she published in monthly parts, 

(1846-81), emigrated to Victoria in 1863, and 
wrote a number of plays and novels, of which 
the best known is 'For the Term of his 
Natural Life' (1874), a vivid and gloomy tale 
of a penal settlement. 

CLARKE, SAMUEL (1675-1729), educated 
at Caius College, Cambridge, metaphysician, 
moralist, and opponent of the Deists. His 
view of morality was that there exists, in the 
nature of things, an immutable agreement 
or harmony of certain things and circum- 
stances with certain others, an aspect of 
reality like its causal relations, apparent to 
the understanding. Clarke's principal works 
were his Boyle Lectures (1704 and 1705), 
'A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes 
of God' and 'A Discourse concerning the 
Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Re- 

Classic, in relation to literature, is defined by 
Sainte-Beuve as what is very good and is 
made to last. The OED. defines it as (i) 'Of 
the first class, of the highest rank or impor- 
tance; approved as a model; standard, 
leading. (2) Of or belonging to the standard 
authors of Greek and Latin antiquity. (3) In 
the style of the literature of Greek and Latin 
antiquity.* Cf. Romantic. 

Classic Races, THE, a name applied to the 
five chief annual horse-races in England: 
die Two Thousand Guineas (for three-year- 
old colts and fillies), the One Thousand 
Guineas (for three-year-old fillies), the Derby 
(for three-year-old colts and fillies), the Oaks 
(for three-year-old fillies), and the St. Leger 
(for three-year-old colts and fillies). The first 
two are run at Newmarket, the second two at 
Epsom, the last at Doncaster. 

Claude (1807-80), the chief of the Paris 
police 1859-75, who acquired celebrity in 
many criminal affairs. Entirely apocryphal 
memoirs of Claude (10 vols.) appeared in 

Claude Lorraine, more correctly CLAUDE 
LE LoRRAiN,is Claude Gel6e(i6oo-82),a great 
French kndscape painter, whom Ruskin held 
up to scorn, in contrast with Turner. 

Claude Melnotte, the hero of Bulwer 
Lytton's 'The Lady of Lyons' (q.v.). 

CLAUDEL, PAUL (1868- ), French 
diplomatist, poet, and dramatist, author of 
'L'Otage', 'La Tete d'Or', L'Annonce faite 
a Marie*, &c. 

the_ last poet of the Ancient World, was a 
native of Alexandria. He is known to have 
lived in Rome c. A.D. 395-404, where he en- 
joyed the favour of Stilicho. The Christian 
hymns attributed to him are spurious. 



Glaudio, (i) the lover of Hero in Shake- 
speare's 'Much Ado about Nothing* (q.v.); 
(2) a character in his 'Measure for Measure* 

Claudius, in Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' (q.v.), 
the king of Denmark. 
Glaus, see Santa Glaus. 
Claverliouse, GRAHAM OF, see Graham of 

Glavering, SIR FRANCIS and LADY, charac- 
ters in Thackeray's Tendennis' (q.v.). 
Claverings, The, a novel by A, Trollope 
(q.v.), published in 1867. 

Harry Clavering and Julia Brabazon have 
been in love, but the latter, having debts and 
expensive tastes, throws over her impecuni- 
ous lover and marries the wealthy Lord 
Ongar, a worn-out debauchee. He dies 
within a year, having led her a terrible life 
and contrived to asperse her honour. Mean- 
while Harry Clavering has become engaged 
to Florence Burton, daughter of the engineer 
in whose house he has lived as a pupil, a 
young lady of amiable character but modest 
charms. Julia returns to London, a social 
outcast, and Harry becomes entangled with 
her, at last finding himself in the position of 
having promised to marry both Florence and 
the widow. Finally, under gentle pressure 
from various quarters, Harry decides to be 
faithful to Florence. The story includes 
various repellent characters, Julia's brother- 
in-law Sir Hugh Clavering, and Count 
Pateroff and his sister Mme Gordeloup, 
whose proceedings intensify the punishment 
meted out to Julia for her worldly choice of a 

Clavijo, DON, in 'Don Quixote* (n. xxxviii, 
et seq.), a gentleman who is transformed into 
a crocodile by Malambruno, and released 
from the enchantment by Don Quixote. 

Clavileno, in *Don Quixote* (q.v., n. xli), 
the wooden horse supposed to possess magic 
properties, on which Don Quixote mounts 
to achieve the adventure of Trifaldi and 
Malambruno, and which, being full of com- 
bustibles, blows up on a match being applied 
to its tail. 
Glayhanger, see Bennett (E. A.). 

Glaypole, NOAH, in Dickens's 'Oliver Twist" 
(q.v.), a fellow-apprentice of the hero in the 
establishment of Mr. Sowerberry, the under- 
taker ; and subsequently one of Fagin's gang 
of thieves. 

Cleanness, an alliterative poem of 1,800 lines, 
of the period 1300-60, exalting purity and the 
delights of lawful love. It deals with three 
subjects from the Scriptures, to enforce its 
moral: the Flood, the destruction of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, and the fall of Belshazzar. 
It includes passages of great power, such^as 
the denunciation of Sodom and the descrip- 
tion of the destruction of Babylon. It is 
attributed to the same author as 'Pearl* and 
'Patience* (qq.v.). 

CleishbotJiam, JEDEDIAH, schoolmaster and 
parish clerk of Gandercleugh, who, by a 
fiction of Sir W. Scott, sold to publishers the 
'Tales of My Landlord* (q.v.). These had 
been composed by his assistant schoolmaster 
Peter Pattieson from the stories told by the 
landlord of the Wallace Inn at Gander- 
cleugh. (See the introduction to 'The Black 

Clelia or CLOELIA, a Roman maiden who, 
being among the hostages given to Porsena, 
escaped and swam across the Tiber to Rome. 
The Romans returned her to Porsena, who 
from admiration of her courage released her. 
She is the subject of the 'Clelie* of Mile de 
Scude*ry (q.v.). 

Clelia, the coquette whose gradual decline 
to the almshouse is described by Crabbe 
(q.v.) in one of the tales of 'The Borough*. 

who wrote under the pseudonym MARK 
TWAIN (1835-1910), born in Missouri of a 
Virginian family, was apprenticed in boy- 
hood to a printer, became a pilot on the 
Mississippi in 1857 and a newspaper cor- 
respondent in 1862, being at that time in 
Nevada. He then adopted as pseudonym the 
leadsman's call which had become familiar 
to him on the Mississippi. He first came into 
prominence as a writer with his 'Jim Smiley 
and his Jumping Frog' in 1865, and shortly 
after became a popular lecturer. His best- 
known works are 'The Innocents Abroad* 
(1869), the fruit of a voyage to the Mediter- 
ranean and the Holy Land; 'A Tramp 
Abroad* (1880); 'Life on the Mississippi* 
(1883); 'Tom Sawyer* (1876), an amusing 
tale of young scapegraces of Missouri; and 
'Huckleberry Finn' (1884), a masterpiece of 
humorous fiction and at the same time, it is 
said, an accurate picture of the old rough 
civilization of the Mississippi. His 'A Con- 
necticut Yankee at the Court of King Arthur* 
appeared in 1889, 'In Defence of Harriet 
Shelley* in 1894, 'Joan of Arc* in 1896. 

CLEMENT I, a bishop of Rome of the ist 
cent., of whom little is known with certainty. 
According to Eusebius and Jerome he died 
in the third year of the reign of Trajan. 
Two 'Epistles to the Corinthians', probably 
spurious, are attributed to him. These were 
highly regarded in the early centuries of the 
Christian era, then disappeared, and were 
rediscovered by Patrick Young (Patricius 
Junius, 1584-1651, librarian to James I and 
Charles I), in the Alexandrian codex of the 

Father of the Church, probably born at 
Alexandria, c. A.D. 150. Four of his works 
have come down to us. He was the first to 
apply Greek culture and philosophy to the 
exposition of the Christian faith. 

Clementina Porretta, a character in 
Richardson's *Sir Charles Grandison* (q.v.). 


Clementine Decretals, see Decretals. 
Clementine Vulgate, see Vulgate. 
Glennam, ARTHUR and MRS., characters in 
Dickens's 'Little Dorrit' (q.v.). 

Gleofas Zambullo, DON, the hero of 'Le 
Diable Boiteux' (q.v.) of Le Sage. 

Cleombrotus, a philosopher of Ambracia, 
who is said, after reading the Thaedo' of Plato, 
to have leapt into the sea and drowned him- 
self to exchange this life for a better. 

'Ha! Cleombrotus! And what salads in 
faith did you light on at the bottom of the 
Mediterranean ?' 

(Charles Lamb, 'All Fools' Day'.) 

Cleon, an Athenian general and demagogue, 
originally a tanner, an opponent of Pericles 
and after his death leader of the party that 
opposed peace in the Peloponnesian War. 
He achieved military fame by taking prisoners 
in 424 B.C. the Spartans in the island of 
Sphacteria. He was subsequently defeated 
by Brasidas and killed in battle (422). 

Gleon, a character in Shakespeare's 'Pericles* 

Cleon, a poem by R. Browning (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1855. 

Cleon is supposed to be one of the poets to 
whom St. Paul in Acts xvii. 28 refers in the 
words, *As certain also of your own poets 
have said, For we are also his offspring'. 
Cleon believes in Zeus as the one God, but 
sees no warrant for the belief in immortality. 
He states the case to King Protus: his sense 
of the inadequacy of this life, and his con- 
ception of another in which realization shall 
be as ample as unrealized desire is on earth. 
But Zeus has not revealed such a life, and 
Cleon grieves in consequence. 

Cleopatra, eldest daughter of Ptolemy 
Auletes, king of Egypt, was born in 68 B.C. 
She was named by her father heir of the 
kingdom in conjunction with her brother 
Ptolemy, but was driven from the throne by 
his guardians Pothinus and Achillas. She was 
restored to the throne with her brother by 
Julius Caesar, and when her brother perished 
in the Alexandrine War became sole ruler of 
Egypt. By Caesar she had a son named 
Caesarion. After Caesar's death in 44 B.C. 
she met Antony in Cilicia and gained his 
heart by her beauty and fascination. In the 
war between Antony and Augustus she 
followed her lover, and the defection of her 
fleet at the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) 
hastened his defeat. Despairing of Antony's 
fortunes, she retired to her mausoleum at 
Alexandria and caused a report to be spread 
of her death. Thereupon Antony stabbed 
himself. To escape being carried captive to 
Rome by Augustus, Cleopatra took her own 
life (30 B.C.). The story of her relations with 
Antony has been made the theme of three 

famous plays, Shakespeare's 'Antony and 
Cleopatra' (q.v.), Dryden's 'All for Love' 


(q.v.), and Samuel Daniel's 'Cleopatra* (see 
below). Her relations with Caesar are the 
theme of a play by G. B. Shaw (q.v.), 'Caesar 
and Cleopatra'. 

The granite obelisks called CLEOPATRA'S 
NEEDLES have nothing to do with that queen, 
but were erected at Heliopolis by Thothmes 
III about 1600 B.C. That which stands on 
the Thames Embankment was brought to 
England in 1878. 

Cleopatra, a tragedy in blank verse by S. 
Daniel (q.v.), published in 1594. It is on 
the Senecan model, and deals with the story 
of Cleopatra after the death of Antony. 
Octavius Caesar endeavours to persuade her 
to leave the monument that she had caused 
to be built, in order that he may have her to 
grace his triumph. Feigning to yield, she 
asks permission first to sacrifice to the ghost 
of Antonius. After the performance of the 
rites she dines with great magnificence, and 
by her order a basket of figs is brought her 
which contains an asp. With this she does 
herself to death. Her son Caesario about the 
same time is murdered at Rhodes and the 
race of the Ptolemies become^ extinct. 

Cleopatra, in Dickens's 'Dombey and Son* 
(q.v.), the name by which Mrs. Skewton 
(q.v.) was known, from the resemblance of 
her attitude when young in her barouche to 
that of the Egyptian princess in her galley. 
When old she maintained a bath chair for the 
sake of maintaining the attitude. 

Cleopatre, see La Calprenede. 

Clerimond, in the tale of 'yalentine and 
Orson* (q.v.), the sister of the giant Ferragus. 

Clerk of Chatham, THE, the schoolmaster 
in Shakespeare's *2 Henry VI', who in Act IV. 
ii is haled before Jack Cade. 

Clerk's Tale, The, see Canterbury Tales. 
was the first professor of experimental 
physics at Cambridge. His best-known re- 
searches relate to electricity and magnetism, 
and his theories with regard to these were 
fully propounded in a treatise published in 
1873. Its fundamental ideas have been 
generally accepted and have formed the basis 
of much subsequent work. They contributed 
to the development of the theory of the 
Conservation of Energy. 
Clerkenwell, in London, a district that took 
its name from a well at which the parish 
clerks of London used each year to perform 
a miracle play. The Knights Hospitallers 
(q.v.) of St. John had their house and church 
in this district. 

Cleveland, CAPTAIN CLEMENT, a character 
in Scott's 'The Pirate' (q.v.). 

Cliche", French, 'a stereotype block 5 , a stock 
expression which by constant use has become 
hackneyed and lost its sharp edge. 
Clichy, a suburb of Paris. The CLICHIENS 
were a royalist club that met there. 



Clicquot, VEUVE, see Champagne. 

Clifford, LORD, THE SHEPHERD, see Shep- 
herd (Lord Clifford, the). 

CLIFFORD, SOPHIA LUCY(^. 1929), nee 
Lane, wife of Professor W. K. Clifford (q.v.), 
is chiefly remembered as the author of two 
striking novels, 'Mrs. Keith's Crime* (1885, 
on the painful theme of a mother's right to 
end the misery of a suffering and incurable 
child) and 'Aunt Anne' (1893). 'A Wild 
Proxy' (1894), 'A Flash of Summer' (1895), 
'The Love-Letters of a Worldly Woman* 
(1913), and 'Anyhow Stories* (for children, 
1882), may also be mentioned. Of her plays, 
'The Likeness of Night* was produced in 
1901 at the St. James's Theatre, 'The Search- 
light* was produced by Miss Horniman in 
1910, and 'A Woman Alone* in 1914. 

Clifford, WILLIAM KINGDON (1845-79), 
educated at King's College, London, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, professor of 
applied mathematics at University College, 
London. He wrote some philosophical 
treatises ('Seeing and Thinking*, 1879; 
'Lectures and Essays*, 1879), conceiving con- 
sciousness as built up out of simple elements 
of 'mind-stuff*. His contributions to philo- 
sophy were cut short by his early death. 

Clifford's Inn, one of the old Inns (q.v.) of 
Chancery, situated in the corner of Fleet 
Street and Chancery Lane, and said to have 
derived its name from a Robert Clifford, to 
whom Edward II granted the property in 
1310 (Stow). The Society of law students who 
came into possession of it was dissolved at 
the beginning of the 2Oth cent. 

Clink, THE LIBERTY OF THE, in Southwark, a 
precinct surrounding the London house of 
the bishops of Winchester. The Clink itself 
was a noted prison. The liberty enjoyed 
exemption from the ordinary jurisdiction; 
and here stood the early theatres (the Globe, 
the Hope, &c.), the bear-gardens, and the 
stews (G. R. Stirling Taylor, 'Historical 
Guide to London'). Hence the slang ex- 
pression 'in clink* for 'in prison*. 

Clio, the Muse (q.v.) of history. 

CLIO were the letters with one or other 
of which Addison signed all his papers in the 

Clitus or CLEITUS, a friend and general of 
Alexander the Great, who saved Alexander's 
life at the battle of Grarncus (334 B.C.). 
Taunted by Clitus at a banquet in 328, 
Alexander, who was heated with wine, killed 
him with a javelin, and was then inconsolable 
for his loss. 

(1801-73), n ee Meysey-Wigley, published, 
chiefly under the initial V, verses and novels, 
including 'Paul FerrolF (q.v., 1855). She was 
accidentally burnt to death. 

Clive, CATHERINE, commonly known as 



KITTY CLIVE (1711-85), actress, and friend 
of Horace Walpole, by whom she was 

Clive, ROBERT, Baron Clive ofPlassey (1725- 
74), obtained an ensign's commission in the 
East India Company's service in 1747. He 
showed his bravery and military gifts by the 
capture of Arcot in 1751 and his subsequent 
defence of that city against a vastly superior 
force of French and natives. In 1757 he 
avenged the tragedy of the Black Hole of 
Calcutta (q.v.) by defeating Suraj ud Dowlah 
in the great victory of Plassey. He became 
governor of Bengal in 1758, and a second 
time (after a visit to England) in 1765. He 
resigned owing to ill-health in 1767. His 
conduct was subjected in 17723 to a parlia- 
mentary inquiry, which resulted substantially 
in his favour. 

Cloacina, a surname of Venus, 'the purifier', 
so called because the Romans, after the end 
of the Sabine War, purified themselves in the 
vicinity of her statue with myrtle boughs. 
The name is derived from cloaca, sewer, and 
the goddess Cloacina is regarded as presiding 
over these. 

Clockmdker, Sam Slick, the, see Haliburton. 

Cloddipole, one of the rustics in Gay's 
'Shepherd's Week* (q.v.). 

Cloister and the Hearth, The, an histori- 
cal romance by Reade (q.v.), published in 

The story, which is laid in the i$th cent., 
was inspired by the author's reading of the 
'Colloquies' and life of Erasmus, and the 
writings of Froissart and Luther. Gerard, 
the hero, the son of a mercer of Tergou, 
is destined for the Church, but falls in 
love with Margaret Brandt the daughter 
of a poor scholar, suspected of sorcery. 
He abandons his career and betroths him- 
self to her, but the anger of his father, the 
hostility of the burgomaster, and the envy of 
his two wicked brothers succeed in preventing 
the marriage, and Gerard is imprisoned. 
He escapes to Margaret, but is presently 
pursued and obliged to flee the country. 
The story now proceeds through a series 
of exciting incidents and vivid scenes in 
monasteries, taverns, and palaces, as Gerard 
travels through the disturbed countries of 
Germany and Burgundy to Italy. Here, by 
the cruel device of his enemies, he receives 
false news of the death of Margaret, and in 
despair gives himself up to ^a life of de- 
bauchery, and then takes the "cowl. Mean- 
while Margaret gives birth to a son and is 
reduced to despair by the loss of all trace of 
Gerard. Finally, as a Dominican preacher, he 
returns to his native town, is astounded to 
discover Margaret alive, and is at length per- 
suaded, through the agency of his little son, 
to return to her and accept the living of 
Gouda. This same son, the close of the story 
indicates, is the future Erasmus (q.v.). 


Clootie, a name for the Devil, as popularly 
represented with a cloven hoof (probably 
derived from an old word meaning 'claw'). 
O thou I whatever title suit thee, 
Auld Hornie, Satan, Nick or Clootie. 

(Burns, 'Address to the DeiT.) 

Clootz, ANACHARSIS, Jean Baptiste Clootz 
(1755-94), a Prussian, who migrated to Paris, 
took the name Anacharsis (q.v.), adopted 
revolutionary views, but was purged from the 
Jacobins and guillotined (see Carlyle, 'French 
Revolution', I. iii and VI. i). 
Clorin, the 'Faithful Shepherdess' in 
Fletcher's drama of that name (q.v.). 
Clorinda, in Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered', 
a leader of the pagan forces, the daughter of 
the king of Ethiopia, who had been lost as a 
babe in the forest and suckled by a tigress. 
Tancred, who has fallen in love with her, 
slays her unwittingly in a night attack. 
Clos Vougeot, see Burgundy. 
Cloten, a character in Shakespeare's e Cym- 
beline' (q.v.). 
dotho, see Parcae. 

Cloud-cuckoo-land, see Nephelococcygia* 
Gloudesley, WILLIAM OF, see Adam Bell. 

son of a Liverpool cotton merchant, and 
educated at Rugby and Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, became a fellow of Oriel, and after 
throwing up his fellowship, principal of Uni- 
versity Haft, London. He was subsequently 
an examiner in the Education Office. He died 
at Florence, and Matthew Arnold's 'Thyrsis' 
was written to commemorate his death. He 
is chiefly remembered as the author of the 
hexameter poem, 'The Bothie of Tober-na- 
Vuolich' (q.v., 1848), and of some fine lyrics, 
including the well-known 'Say not the 
struggle nought availeth*, which bear the 
mark of the spiritual agitation caused by 
religious doubts. His longer poems, pub- 
lished posthumously, include 'Dipsychus' 
(q.v., 1869), 'Amours de Voyage' (like the 
'Bothie' in hexameters), and 'Mari Magno', 
a series of tales (1862). 

Clove, a character in Jonson's c Every Man 
out of his Humour', who makes a pretence to 
learning by a display of long words and 
abstruse terms. 

Club, THE, see Johnson (Samuel). 
Clumsy, Sm TUNBELLY, a character in Van- 
brugh's 'The Relapse* and Sheridan's C A 
Trip to Scarborough' (qq.v.). 

Clutha , in Macpherson's Ossianic poems, the 

river Clyde. 

Clutter-buck, CAPTAIN CUTHBERT, a fictitious 

personage supposed to be concerned with the 

publication of some of Sir W. Scott's novels, 

e.g. 'The Monastery'. 

Clym of the dough, see Adam Bell 

Clym Yeobright, a character in T. Hardy's 

'The Return of the Native' (q.v.). 


Clymene, (i) daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, and mother of Atlas and Prometheus. 
(2) According to Hesiod, the mother of 
Phaethon by Atlas. 

Some beauty rare, Calisto, Clymene. 
(Milton, 'Paradise Regained', ii. 186.) 

Clytemnestra, daughter of Tyndarus, king 
of Sparta, and Leda (q.v.), and wife of 
Agamemnon (q.v.), king of Argos. On the 
return of Agamemnon from the Trojan War, 
she, with her paramour Aegisthus (q.v.), 
murdered her husband, and was in turn 
slain by Orestes, Agamemnon's son. 

Clytia or CLYTIE, a nymph, daughter of 
Oceanus, who was loved by Apollo. She was 
deserted by him, pined away, and was 
changed into a sunflower, which constantly 
turns its head to the sun. 

Cnut or CANUTE (q.v.), king of England, 


Coal Hole, THE, a tavern in Fountain Court, 

Strand, from which Thackeray in part drew 

his 'Cave of Harmony' (q.v.). 

Coart, COUWAERT, or CUWAERT, in 'Reynard 
the Fox* (q.v.), the name of the hare. It is the 
same word as our 'coward*. 

Coatel, a character in Southey's 'Madoc' 

Coavinses, in Dickens 's 'Bleak House' (q.v.), 
see Neckett. 

COBBE, FRANCES POWER (1822-1 904), 
philanthropist and religious writer, published 
anonymously 'The Theory of Intuitive 
Morals' in 1855-7. She was associated with 
Mary Carpenter in her ragged school and re- 
formatory work, and occupied herself with 
relief of destitution and workhouse philan- 
thropy. Her voluminous writings include 
'Broken Lights* (1864), 'Darwinism in 
Morals* (1872), 'The Duties of Women* 
(1881), and an autobiography (1904). She was 
an early advocate of women's suffrage and 
opponent of vivisection. 

COBBETT, WILLIAM (1762-1835), the 
son of a labourer at Farnham, and self- 
educated, enlisted as a soldier and served in 
Florida from 1784 to 1791. He obtained his 
discharge, brought an accusation of pecula- 
tion against some of his former officers, and 
in 1792 retired to America to avoid prosecu- 
tion. There he published pro-British pam- 
phlets under the pseudonym of 'Peter Porcu- 
pine'. He returned to England in 1800 
and became a Tory journalist, editing *Cob- 
bett's Political Register', a weekly news- 
paper, from 1802. Soon he adopted popular 
opinions and wrote from 1804 in the radical 
interest. He published 'Parliamentary De- 
bates', afterwards taken over by Hansard, 
and 'State Trials', wrote an 'English Gram- 
mar' (1817) and a number of books on 
economics and other subjects. He also 
farmed in Hampshire and subsequently in 
Surrey. From 1817 to 1819 he was in 



America. His 'History of the Protestant 
"Reformation" in England and Ireland' ap- 
peared" in 1824; his 'Advice to Young Men' 
in 1829. He became M.P. for Oldham in 
1832. He wrote with exceptional perspicuity 
and vigour, and showed good sense and sound 
observation in agricultural matters. But his 
honesty and shrewdness are marred by an 
arrogant and quarrelsome attitude, and by 
wrong-headed prejudices. His * Rural Rides* 
(q.v.), collected in 1830, are to-day the most 
interesting of his writings. His 'Political 
Register*, which attained a very large circu- 
lation, was continued until his death. 

Gobden, RICHARD (1804-65), son of a Sussex 
farmer, settled in Manchester in 1832. He 
was a foremost leader of the Anti-Corn-Law 
League, and M.P. for Stockport (1841-7), 
for the West Riding of Yorkshire (1847-57), 
and for Stockdale in 1859. By his strenuous 
advocacy he powerfully contributed to the 
repeal of the Corn Laws (1846). He ne- 
gotiated the commercial treaty with France, 

GOGGAI, MERLIN, see Folengo. 
Cock-and-bull story, an ^ expression that 
apparently had its origin in some tale or 
fable, means a long idle rambling story ; or a 
concocted, incredible story. Cf. the French a disconnected, extravagant story. 
'Some mens whole delight is ... to talk 
of a cock and a bull over a pot.* 
(Burton, 'Anatomy of Melancholy*, II. ii. 4.) 

Cock and Pie, used in asseverations, is per- 
haps for *God and Pie*, where 'Pie* is the 
table of rules of the Roman Catholic Church 
governing the offices for each day. 

e By cock and pie, you shall not choose, sir! 
come, come/ 

(Shakespeare, 'Merry Wives', I. i.) 

Cock Lane Ghost 9 a supposed ghost to which 
were attributed mysterious noises heard at 
No. 33 Cock Lane, Smithfield, of which the 
object was said to be the detection of a crime. 
They were discovered in 1762 to be due to an 
imposition practised by one William Parsons, 
his wife, and daughter, but not before the 
report had created much excitement. Dr. 
Johnson took part in the investigation of the 
mystery (see BoswelPs 'Life', 1763). See 
A. Lang, 'Cock Lane and Common Sense', 

Cock of the North, George, fifth duke of 
Gordon (1770-1836), who raised the regi- 
ment now known as the Gordon Highlanders 
and commanded it (1795-9) *& Spain, 
Corsica, Ireland, and Holland, where he was 
severely wounded. 'Cock of the North* is 
also the name of a well-known tune on the 

Cockatrice (from Latin calcatrix, ap- 
parently a medieval translation of the Greek 
Ixyevfjicav, ichneumon), a serpent identified 
with the basilisk (q.v.), fabled to kill by its 
mere glance, and to be hatched from a cock's 


egg. In heraldry, it is a hybrid monster with 
the head, wings, and feet of a cock, terminat- 
ing in a serpent with a barbed tail. 

Cockayne or COCKAIGNE, LAND OF, the 
name of a fabulous country, the abode of 
luxury and idleness. The origin of the term 
has been much discussed but remains 
obscure. Baring-Gould ( c Curious Myths') 
regards it as originally a nickname for the 
'Fortunate Isles' (q.v.). The word in its 
derivation is connected with 'cook* or 'cake*. 
The OED. gives a quotation c. 1305, from 
which it appears that the houses in Cockayne 
were covered with cakes. 
Cocke LorelVs Bote, a popular satire of the 
1 6th cent., in verse, in which types of the 
various tradesfolk take ship and sail through 
England. The captain of the 'Bote' is Cocke 
Lorell, a tinker and probably an historical 
personage. It is an interesting picture of low 

COCKER^ EDWARD (1631-75), a teacher 
of arithmetic and writing in London, whose 
treatise on arithmetic attained great popu- 
larity and gave rise to the expression 'accord- 
ing to Cocker'. 

Cockney, from Middle English coken-ey, 
'cocks' egg*, of which the original meaning 
was perhaps one of the small or misshapen 
eggs occasionally laid by fowls. It came to 
mean 'a cockered child', an effeminate fellow 
or milksop, and so was used derisively for a 
townsman in contrast to the hardier in- 
habitants of the country, and finally for one 
born in the city of London (always more or 
less in a contemptuous or bantering sense). 
Hence it was extended to the London dialect 
or accent. 

THE COCKNEY SCHOOL was a nickname 
given by Lockhart to a set of igth-cent. 
writers belonging to London, of whom Leigh 
Hunt and Hazlitt were representative 

Cockpit, THE, the name of a theatre in 
London in the I7th cent., referred to by 
Pepys (n Oct. 1660 and 5 Jan. 16623). Also 
the name of a block of buildings near White- 
hall erected by Henry VIII as government 

The COCKPIT OF EUROPE is an expression 
applied to Belgium as the scene of many 
wars (a cockpit being the scene of cock- 

Codes, PUBLIUS HORATIUS, a Roman who 
at first with two companions and then alone 
opposed the whole army of Porsena, king 
of Etruria, at the head of the bridge leading 
into Rome, while his companions behind 
him were cutting off communication with the 
other shore. When the bridge was destroyed, 
Codes, though wounded, leapt into the Tiber 
and swam across it with his arms. The feat is 
the subject of one of Macaulay's 'Lays of 
Ancient Rome*. 

Cocoa-tree Club, THE, in St. James's 
Street, originally a chocolate house of the 


same name, dating from the early i8th cent. 
After being a Tory centre and subsequently, 
in 1745, a resort of the Jacobite party, it 
became a fashionable club where, as Horace 
Walpole's letters attest, there was gambling 
for high stakes. 'At the Cocoa-tree Lord 
Stavordale, not one-and-twenty, lost eleven 
thousand last Tuesday, but recovered it by 
one great hand at hazard* (1770). 
Cocytus, the 'river of lamentation*, from 
KCDKVO), I howl ; a river of Epirus, and by the 
poets regarded as a river of Hades. See Styx. 

Godille, a term used in the game of ombre, 
when the adversaries of ombre win the game. 
Just in the jaws of ruin, and Codille. 

(Pope, 'Rape of the Lock', iii. 93.) 

Godlin and Short, in Dickens's c Old 
Curiosity Shop' (q.v.), travel about the 
country with a Punch and Judy show. 
Thomas Codlin was a surly misanthrope; 
Short (whose real name was Harris, but was 
familiarly known as 'Short Trotters') was a 
cheerful little man. Codlin, who suspects 
that Little Nell and her grandfather have 
run away from their friends and is anxious to 
get the reward for their discovery, assures 
Nell that 'Codlin's the friend, not Short*. 

Codrington, CHRISTOPHER (1668-1710), 
born in Barbados, and educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, became captain-general of 
the Leeward Islands in 1697. He spent the 
last years of his life in study on his Barbados 
estates, which be bequeathed to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, for the 
foundation of a college in Barbados. He also 
left his books and 10,000 to All Souls 
College, Oxford, a bequest out of which was 

Coalebs in Search of a Wife, a novel by 
Hannah More (q.v.), published in 1809. It is 
a collection of social sketches and precepts, 
strung together on the thread of the hero's 
search for a young woman who shall possess 
the qualities stipulated for by his departed 

Coffee-houses were first introduced in 
London in the time of the Commonwealth 
and were much frequented in the i7th and 
1 8th cents, for political and literary dis- 
cussion, circulation of news, &c. There is an 
interesting description of them in Macaulay's 
'History of England', c. iii. See Button's, 
WilPs 9 Grecian, Garrazuay's. 

Cogglesby, ANDREW and TOM, characters in 
Meredith's 'Evan Harrington* (q.v.). 

Cognac, a French brandy of superior quality 
distilled from the wine of Cognac, in the 
Charente. The name is sometimes extended 
to any French brandy. 

COKE, SIR EDWARD (1552-1634), edu- 
cated at Norwich and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and a barrister of the Inner Temple, 
was advanced by Burghley's influence to be 
attorney-general, to the disappointment of 


Francis Bacon (q.v), whose lifelong rival he 
was. He became chief justice of the Common 
Pleas in 1606, of the King's Bench in 1613. 
Here he quarrelled incessantly with the 
Court of Chancery and was dismissed by the 
king in 1616. Gardiner calls his dismissal 
a 'turning point' in the relations of king and 
parliament. Coke's fame as a legal author 
rests on his eleven volumes of 'Reports* 
(1600-15), and his 'Institutes' (1628-44) in 
which he recast, explained, and defended 
the common law rules. The first part of the 
'Institutes' is the commentary on the 'Ten- 
ures' of Littleton (q.v.), whence the term, 
now obsolete, Coke-upon-Littleton, a cant 
name for a mixed drink. 

Coke, LADY MARY (1726-1811), a daughter 
of John, Duke of Argyll, the wife of Edward 
Viscount Coke. Her entertaining * Letters 
and Journals' have been privately printed 

Cokes, BARTHOLOMEW, a character in Jon- 
son's 'Bartholomew Fayre' (q.v.). 

Golbek, THE DANCERS OF, the subject of a 
story in Robert Mannyng's *Handlyng Synne" 

A band of 'fools* led by Bovo and Gerlew 
come to Colbek (Kolbigk in Anhalt, Saxony) 
and dance and sing in the churchyard, en- 
ticing the priest's daughter to dance with 
them. The priest, about to begin mass, bids 
them desist, but they continue. He curses 
them and prays that they may be obliged to 
dance for a twelvemonth. This they do in 
obedience to the curse, and although the 
others survive the ordeal, the priest's 
daughter falls dead at the end, and the priest 
dies soon after. 

The circumstances (perhaps an epidemic 
of St. Vitus's dance) from which the story 
sprang appear to belong to 1021. Two letters 
narrating the event were circulated as cre- 
dentials by pretended survivors of the band. 
One of these, the letter of Theodric, makes 
Bruno, bishop of Toul (afterwards Pope 
Leo IX), vouch for the facts. Theodric was 
miraculously cured at the shrine of St. Edith 
of Wilton, and the letter was preserved in the 
Acts of St. Edith, and Mannyng had it before 

Colbrand, in the romance of c Guy of War- 
wick' (q.v.), the Danish giant slain by Sir 
Guy. The story is also told in Drayton's 
'Polyolbion*, xii. 130 et seq, 

Gold Harbour or COLD HARBOROUGH, an 
ancient building in the parish of All Hallows 
the Less, in Dowgate Ward, London, at 
one time the College of Heralds, and subse- 
quently the residence of Bishop Tunstall 
(1474-1559). It was removed by the earl of 
Shrewsbury, who erected! small tenements 
in its place, where debtors and others took 
sanctuary, a character that the locality en- 
joyed perhaps owing to its connexion with 
the bishop. The name is also applied to dere- 
lict houses (perhaps destroyed in the Saxon 


and Angle invasions of Britain) and is borne 
by several localities in England. 

Goldbath Fields, in Clerkenwell, London, 
famous for a prison established there in the 
reign of James I, now closed. 

Cole, KING, the 'merry old soul* of the 

nursery rhyme, was Coel, one of the legendary 
kings of Britain enumerated by Geoffrey of 
Monmouth (q.v.) in his 'Historia Regum 
Britanniae*. Some authorities trace him even 
farther back, to the god Camulus, whose 
name is seen in Camulodunum (Colchester). 
There is a poem about him by Masefield 
(q.v.) in 'King Cole and other Poems' (1923). 

started life as a poor Cornish boy, became 
a sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, a 
master at Harrow, and ultimately bishop of 
Natal. Besides text-books on arithmetic and 
algebra, he published 'Ten Weeks in Natal' 
in 1854; a 'Commentary on the Epistle to the 
Romans' (1861), which attacked the sacra- 
mental system and evoked much opposition ; 
and a 'Critical Examination of the Pentateuch* 
(186279), concluding that these books were 
post-exile forgeries. He was deposed and 
excommunicated by Bishop Gray of Cape- 
town (who had no jurisdiction over him), but 
confirmed in the possession of his see by the 
law courts (1866). 

COLERIDGE, HARTLEY (1796-1849), 
eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (q.v.), 
educated at Ambleside and Merton College, 
Oxford, was appointed a probationer fellow 
of Oriel College, but dismissed in 1820 on 
a vague charge of intemperance. He tried 
work as a schoolmaster, with little success, 
contributed to the 'London Magazine* and 
'Blackwood V, and lived mainly at Grasmere. 
His longest work is the 'Biographia Borealis* 
or 'Lives of Northern Worthies* (1833-6, 
1852). His poems include some beautiful 
sonnets, notably those 'On Prayer*, 'To 
Homer', 'To Shakespeare', and that on 
hims"elf 'When I review the course that I 
have run', and some pieces marked by a 
singular melancholy charm, such as 'She is 
not fair to outward view*, and 'She pass'd 
away like morning dew*. His collected poems 
were issued in 1851, and his essays and some 
of his notable marginalia in the same year 
by his brother, Derwent. 

(1861-1907), belonged to the same family as 
her great namesake; for her grandfather, 
Francis George Coleridge, was the nephew of 
S. T. Coleridge (q.v.). She was author of 
some remarkable poetry. Her 'Poems Old 
and New' (1907) and 'Gathered Leaves* 
(1910) were published posthumously. Her 
first novel, 'The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus* 
(1893), was praised by R. L. Stevenson. 'The 
King with Two Faces', an historical novel 
centring round Gustavus III of Sweden, 
appeared in 1897. 



(1773-1834), son of the vicar of Ottery St. 
Mary, Devon, was educated at Christ's 
Hospital (Lamb, in his Elia essay, describes 
the impression that Coleridge, some years his 
senior there, made upon him), and at Jesus 
College, Cambridge. Thence for an un- 
known reason he betook himself to London 
and enlisted in the isth Dragoons, but was 
discharged after a few months and returned 
to Cambridge. He made the acquaintance of 
Robert Southey (q.v.), and the pair devoted 
themselves to 'Pantisocracy', a form of com- 
munism which they contemplated realizing 
on the banks of the Susquehanna. He 
married Sara Fricker in 1795, Southey marry- 
ing her sister. 

He contributed verses to the 'Morning 
Chronicle* as early as 1793-5, and in 1794 
wrote and published in conjunction with 
Southey 'The Fall of Robespierre*. In 1796 
he started a newspaper, 'The Watchman*, 
which lasted for only ten numbers. In 
1795 he made the acquaintance of Words- 
worth and the two poets, between whom 
there sprang up 4 deep friendship, lived in 
close intercourse for about a year at Nether 
Stowey and Alfoxden in Somerset. Their 
'Lyrical Ballads* (q.v.) containing Coleridge's 
'Ancient Mariner* (q.v.) appeared in 1798. 
Coleridge wrote the first part of 'Chris- 
tabel* (q.v.) and 'Kubla Khan* (q.v.) in 1797, 
and contributed some of his best poems 
to the 'Morning Post* during 1798-1802. 
'France, an Ode*, a retractation of his faith 
in the revolutionary movement, appeared 
in 1798. 'Dejection* was written in 1802. 
After his visit to Germany in 17989, he 
published (1799-1800) his translations of 
Schiller's 'Piccolomini* and 'The Death of 
Wallenstein* under the title 'Wallenstein*. 
He settled for a time (1800-4) at Keswick, 
where he wrote the second part of 'ChristabeP. 
In 1804 he travelled to Malta and Italy, re- 
turning in 1806 broken in health and a prey 
to the use of opium. In 1808 he gave lectures 
on the English poets at the Royal Institution, 
which were imperfectly reported, and in 1809 
he launched his second periodical, 'The 
Friend*, 'a literary, moral, and political 
weekly paper', subsequently re-written and 
published as a book (1818). In this appeared 
the grim ballad-tale of 'The Three Graves', 
written some twelve years previously. He 
spent much of the latter part of his life in the 
houses of friends, notably of John Morgan at 
Hammersmith and subsequently at Calne, 
and after 1816 of a kindly surgeon, James 
Gillman, at Highgate. He had been given 
annuities of 75 each by Josiah and Thomas 
Wedgewood, but Josiah's was withdrawn in 
1811. In 1817 appeared his 'Biographia 
Literaria* (q.v.) or literary autobiography, 
and in 1825 his 'Aids to Reflection* (q.v.), in 
the first of which he did much to introduce 
German philosophy to English -thinkers, 
though some of his philosophical doctrines 
were arrived at independently. He also wrote 


three plays, 'The Fall of Robespierre* (1794), 
'Zapolya' (1817), and 'Osorio'. This last, 
written before 1798, was acted, under the 
title 'Remorse', at Drury Lane in 1813. Cole- 
ridge's finest poems, "The Ancient Mariner', 
'Kubla Khan*, and 'Christabel*, are charac- 
terized by the sense of mystery that he sug- 
gests. His gift in a lighter mood is seen in 
such a poem as 'The Devil's Thoughts' (q.v.), 
written with Southey. 

Apart from his poetry, Coleridge did 
valuable work in literary criticism, maintain- 
ing that the true end of poetry is to give 
pleasure 'through the medium of beauty*. 
The 'Biographia' contains much of this criti- 
cism, in particular of the poems of Words- 
worth. In philosophy, he courageously 
stemmed the tide of the prevailing doctrines 
derived from Hume and Hartley, advocating 
a more spiritual and religious interpretation 
of life, based on what he had learnt from 
Kant and Schelling. 'Anima Poetae' (q.v.), 
edited from his unpublished note-books in 
1895 by E. H, Coleridge, contains some of his 
most interesting work in this sphere. Men- 
tion must also be made of his 'Confessions 
of an Enquiring Spirit*, edited by H. N. 
Coleridge in 1840, letters revealing his atti- 
tude to the question of Biblical inspiration. 
In political philosophy, to which he paid 
much attention, he declared himself the heir 
of Burke and an enemy of Jacobinism, 
though constructively he had little to offer. 
The standard biography of Coleridge is that 
of J. Dykes Campbell (1894). His 'Letters' 
were edited by T. AUsop in 1836. Two 
volumes of his 'Unpublished Letters' were 
edited by E. L. Griggs in 1932. 

COLERIDGE, SARA (1802-52), daughter 
of S, T. Coleridge (q.v.) and wife of Henry 
Nelson Coleridge, was author of 'Phantas- 
mion' (1837), an elaborate romantic fairy-tale, 
with a host of characters, among whom figure 
Oloola, the spirit of the storm, and Valhorga, 
the earth spirit. Even Potentilla, the special 
protectress of Prince Phantasmion, is a fairy 
of no mean powers, for she is able to convert 
him into a sort of flying sea-serpent, for the 
discomfiture of the pirates who infest his 
shores. The story, which is concerned with 
the love of Phantasmion for larine, whom 
after many adventures he wins from his rivals 
Karadan and the wicked king Glandreth, is 
told with much charming fancy, and inter- 
spersed with many pleasant lyrics. Sara 
Coleridge also helped her brother Derwent 
to edit their father's poems, and her husband 
to edit her father's philosophical writings. 
Her interesting 'Letters' were published in 

COLET, JOHN (1467 ?-isi9), dean of St. 
Paul's and the principal Christian humanist 
of his day in England. He studied at Oxford 
and in Italy, and lectured on the New Testa- 
ment at Oxford from 1496 to 1504, Erasmus 
being among his hearers. As dean of St. 
Paul's, he founded and endowed St. Paul's 


School, for which he wrote a Latin accidence, 
W. Lily supplying the syntax. This book, 
revised by Erasmus, ultimately developed 
into the 'Eton Latin Grammar*. Colet was a 
pioneer of the English Reformation, famous 
as a preacher aiid lecturer. His 'Exposition 
of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans' and 
'Exposition of St. Paul's First Epistle to the 
Corinthians' (ed. by J. H. Lupton in the 
Cambridge University Library) throw light 
upon his method of exegesis. There is an 
interesting picture of Colet and his school in 
Erasmus, Ep. 1211 (in Allen's ed. ; translation 
by J. H. Lupton, 1883.) 
Colin and Lucy, see Tickell. 

Colin Clout, the name adopted by Edmund 
Spenser (q.v.) in the 'Shepheards Calender* 
and 'Colin Clouts come home againe* (qq.v.). 
COLIN CLOUT is also the name of a rustic in 
Gay's 'Shepherd's Week* (q.v.). See also 
Colyn Cloute. 

Colin Clouts come home againe, an allegorical 
pastoral written by Spenser (q.v.) on his 
return to Kilcolman after his visit to London 
of 1589-91. It was dedicated to Sir Walter 
Ralegh 'in part paiment of the infinite debt 
in which I acknowledge my selfe bounden 
unto you, for your singular favours and 
sundrie good turnes, shewed to me at my late 
being in England'. The poem describes in 
allegorical form how Ralegh visited Spenser 
in Ireland, and induced him to come to 
England 'his Cynthia to see' i.e. the queen. 
There is a charming description of the sea 
voyage; after which the poet tells of the 
glories of the queen and her court, and the 
beauty of the ladies who frequent it. Then 
follows a bitter attack on the envies and in- 
trigues of the court. The poem ends with 
a tribute to 'Rosalind* in spite of her cruelty 
to the poet. Of the characters mentioned 
in the work, Cynthia is Queen Elizabeth, 
Hobbinol is G. Harvey (q.v.), Amyntas is 
T. Watson (q.v.), the Shepheard of the Sea 
is Sir W. Ralegh (q.v.). 

Coliseum or COLOSSEUM, THE, or Flavian 
amphitheatre, in Rome, was begun by Ves- 
pasian in A.D. 72 and inaugurated by Titus, 
after his return from the conquest of Jerusa- 
lem. It was the scene, during four centuries, 
of countless gladiatorial combats and of the 
martyrdom of many Christians. It was re- 
duced to its present ruinous condition partly 
by earthquakes, partly by being used as a 
quarry for building-stone. 

Colkitto, *or MACDONNEL, or GALASP*, in 
Milton's first 'Tetrachordon' sonnet, was the 
lieutenant-general of the marquis of Mon- 
trose in his campaign on behalf of Charles I. 
He was called Alexander Macdonnel, Mac- 
Colkittoch, Mac-Gillespie, that is to say 
Alexander Macdonnel, the son of Colkittoch, 
the son of Gillespie (or Galasp). He figures 
in Scott's 'Legend of Montrose' (q.v.). 

Colleen JBawn, The (Anglo-Irish, meaning 
'The Fair Girl'), the title of a play by Dion 



Boucicault (1859), founded on Gerald 
Griffin's 'The Collegians' (q.v.). 

College of Arms, see Heralds' College. 

Collegians, The, a novel by Griffin (q.v.), 
published in 1829. 

It is a sombre, sensational story of the in- 
judicious secret marriage of young Hardress 
Cregan with a girl of lower station than his 
own, repented when he finds himself loved 
by a woman of no less beauty and greater 
refinement. He allows himself to become 
affianced to the latter under strong pressure 
from an imperious mother, and connives at 
the removal, in fact at the murder, of his 
innocent young wife. He is arrested on the 
eve of his marriage with his second love. The 
tragedy is relieved by some amusing scenes 
of Irish life, quiet humour, and good ballads. 
Dion Boucicault's play 'The Colleen Bawn* 
was founded on this novel. 

Collegiate Ladles, in Jonson's 'Epicoene* 
(q.v.), a group of dissolute women 'between 
courtiers and country madams, who live 
from their husbands and give entertainment 
to all the wits and braveries [beaux] of the 

COLLIER, JEREMY (1650-1 726), educated 
at Ipswich and Caius College, Cambridge, was 
rector of Ampton, t Suffolk, 1679-85. He 
publicly absolved on the scaffold two of 
those executed for the assassination plot, in 
1696, and was in consequence outlawed. He 
was ordained a nonjuring bishop in 1713. He 
is chiefly remembered for his 'Short View 
of the Immorality and Profaneness of the 
English Stage*, 1698, in which he particularly 
attacked Congreve and Vanbrugh (q.v.). The 
work created a great, if temporary, impression. 
Congreve and D'Urfey were prosecuted, 
Betterton and Mrs. Bracegirdle were fined, 
and some of the poets replied, though not 
very effectively. But the futility of Collier's 
attack is shown by the continued success of 
the type of play that he inveighed against. 
Collier published a learned 'Ecclesiastical 
History of Great Britain' in 1708-14. 

COLLINS, ARTHUR (i69o?-i76o), a 
bookseller in London, was author of the 
'Peerage of England* (1709, enlarged editions, 
1735 and 1756), and of the 'Baronetage of 
England 9 (1720). 

1908), was educated at Kong Edward's 
School, Birmingham, and Balliol College, 
Oxford. He was greatly interested in English 
literature and long agitated, with ultimate 
success, for its academic recognition at 
Oxford. He was a frequent contributor to the 
'Quarterly Review', 'The Saturday Review*, 
and other periodicals, and became professor 
of English at the University of Birmingham. 
He edited Cyril Tourneur's works (1878), 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury's poems (1881), 
and Robert Greene's works (1905); and pub- 
lished 'Ephemera Critica* (1901), 'Studies in 


Shakespeare* (1904), 'Studies in Poetry and 
Criticism' (1905), and 'Voltaire, Montesquieu, 
and Rousseau in England' (1905). Churton 
Collins was found drowned at Oulton Broad, 
near Lowestoft. 

COLLINS, WILLIAM (1721-59), the son of 
a Chichester hatter, educated at Winchester 
and Magdalen College, Oxford. He was an 
exquisite lyrical poet, but his verse was unfor- 
tunately small in quantity, and some of it (the 
'Ode on the Music of the Grecian Theatre', 
written in 1750, and 'The Bell of Aragon' his 
last ode) is unfortunately lost. He published 
his 'Persian Eclogues' as an undergraduate in 
1742, and in 1747 his 'Odes*. The best 
known of these are the 'Ode to Evening', the 
'Ode to Simplicity*, and the 'Ode written in 
1746' ('How sleep the brave'). The charming 
'Dirge in Cymbeline' must also be mentioned. 
His long 'Ode on the popular Superstitions 
of the Highlands', containing some magnifi- 
cent verse, was written in 1749 and pub- 
lished posthumously. He became insane and 
died in his sister's house at Chichester. 

Collins, WILLIAM, in Jane Austen's 'Pride 
and Prejudice' (q.v.), a pompous, silly, and 
self-satisfied young clergyman, excessively 
obsequious to persons of high social station. 
The solemn letter of thanks that he addresses 
to Mr. Bennet (c. xxiii, though the text is not 
given) after his stay with the family has led 
to his name being colloquially associated 
with such letters. 

89), was called to the bar in 1851, but 
adopted literature as a profession. He made 
the acquaintance of Dickens and contributed 
to 'Household Words* from 1855. It was in 
this periodical that he published in 1860 'The 
Woman in White* (q.v.), by which his fame 
was established as practically the first English 
novelist who dealt with the detection of crime. 
His other works include: 'Antonina, or the 
Fall of Rome' (1850), 'Hide and Seek' (1854), 
'The Dead Secret' (1857), 'My Miscellanies* 
(1862), 'No Name* (1862), 'Armadale' (1866), 
'The Moonstone' (q.v., 1868), 'Man and Wife* 
(1870), 'Poor Miss Finch* (1872), 'The New 
Magdalen* (1873), e A Rogue's Life* (1879), 
'Little Novels' (1879), "The Black Robe' 
(1881). For the collaboration of Collins with 
Dickens, see Dickens. 

COLMAN, GEORGE, the eider (1732-94), 
born in Florence, where his father was 
British envoy, was educated at Westminster 
and Christ Church, Oxford. He was manager 
of the Covent Garden Theatre, 1767-74, and 
of the Haymarket Theatre, 1777-89. He was 
a friend of Garrick and collaborated with 
him in writing the excellent comedy, 'The 
Clandestine Marriage' (q.v., 1766). He wrote 
or adapted some thirty dramatic pieces, edited 
Beaumont and Fletcher (1778), and trans- 
lated Terence (1765) and Horace's 'Art of 
Poetry* (1783). His most effective plays were 



Tolly Honeycombe' (1760) and *The Jealous 
Wife' (1761, an adaptation of Fielding's 
'Tom Jones'). 

GOLMAN, GEORGE, the younger (1762- 
1836), son of George Colman the elder (q.v.), 
educated at Westminster School, Christ 
Church, Oxford, and Aberdeen University, 
made his name as a dramatist by the romantic 
comedy 'Inkle and Yarico' (q.v., 1787). His 
comedy 'The Heir-at-Law* (1797) is famous 
for its presentation of Dr. Pangloss, the 
greedy, pompous pedant. 'John Bull' (1803) 
contains the supposed type of the British 
character, Job Thornberry. 'The Iron Chest* 
(1796) is a dramatization of 'Caleb Williams' 
(q.v.). Colman's other pieces are less 

Colmekill, in Shakespeare's 'Macbeth', n. 
iv, is I-Colm-kill (the island of Columba of 
the Church), the modern lona (q.v.). 
Cologne, see Ursula and Colonia. 

Cologne, THREE KINGS OF, or Wise Men of 
the East: the Magi, Caspar, Melchior, and 
Balthazar, whose bones the Emperor Bar- 
barossa is said to have brought from Milan 
and deposited in Cologne Cathedral. 

Colombe's Birthday, a play by R. Browning 
(q.v.), published in 1844 and acted in 1853. 
Colombe is duchess of JuHers and Cleves, 
liable however to be ousted under the Salic 
Law by her cousin Prince Berthold. The 
latter claims his rights, and offers the young 
duchess marriage, employing her advocate 
Valence to convey his offer. But Valence 
himself loves Colombe, and finally wins her 
by his loyalty and self-denial. 

Colonel Jack, The History and Remarkable 
Life of Colonel Jacque, Commonly CalVd, a 
romance of adventure by Defoe (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1722. 

The supposed narrator, abandoned by his 
parents in childhood, falls into bad company 
and becomes a pickpocket. His profession 
grows distasteful to him, and he enlists, and 
presently deserts to avoid being sent to serve 
in Flanders. He is kidnapped, sent to Vir- 
ginia, and sold to a planter. He is promoted 
to be an overseer, is given his liberty, becomes 
himself a planter, and acquires much wealth. 
He returns home, has a series of unfortunate 
matrimonial adventures, but finally ends in 
prosperity and repentance, 
CLAUDIA, or COLONIA UBIORUM, in imprints, 
Cologne. Colonia is also an imprint for 

Colonia Allobrogum, in imprints, Geneva. 
Colonia Munatiana, in imprints, Basle. 

COLONNA, VITTORIA (1490-1547), 
granddaughter of Frederick, duke of Urbino, 
and devoted wife of the marquis of Pescara, 
was a woman remarkable in a dissolute age 
for her stainless character and the admiration 
she inspired among great men, among others 


Michelangelo. Her writings, largely religious, 
include some notable sonnets. 

Colophon, from Gk. Ko\o<j>a>v 9 summit, 
'finishing touch', the inscription or device 
sometimes pictorial or emblematic, formerly 
placed at the end of a book or manuscript, 
and containing the title, the scribe's or 
printer's name, the date and place of print- 
ing, &c. 

Colosseum, see Coliseum. 

Colossus of Rhodes, a celebrated statue of 
Apollo by the sculptor Chares of Lindus in 
Rhodes, which passed for one of the seven 
wonders of the world. According to an un- 
founded tradition, its feet rested on two 
moles, which formed the entrance of the 
harbour, and ships passed between its legs. 
It is said by Pliny to have been seventy 
cubits high. It was demolished by an earth- 
quake in 224 B.C. 

or COLUMBANUS (521-597), sonof Feidilmid, 
an Ulster chief, and a pupil of St. Finnian, 
became a recluse at Glasnevin, and built 
churches at Derry and other places. He 
went to Scotland in 563, founded the 
monastery of Hy (lona), and preached to the 
Picts. His relics were translated to Ireland 
in 878, but were destroyed by the Danes in 
1127. Several books believed to have been 
written by him were long venerated in Ire- 
land. He is commemorated on 9 June. 

Columfoan, ST. (543-615), born in Lein- 
ster and a monk under St. Comgall at 
Bangor, Down, resided in Burgundy, 585- 
6 10. There he built monasteries at Anegray 
and Luxeuil, for which he drew up a monas- 
tic rule, afterwards common in France, until 
replaced by that of St. Benedict. He was 
expelled from Burgundy by Theodoric II 
and preached to the heathen Germans and 
Suabians. He founded the monastery of 
Bobbio in the Piedmont and died there. He 
is commemorated on 21 Nov. 

Coliuribiad, The, a lengthy epic poem by Joel 
Barlow (q.v.), which surveys the panorama 
of early American history, as viewed by 
Columbus. After bringing his history up to 
date, the author launches x into prophecy. 
First published as *The Vision of Columbus* 
(1787), the poem was renamed 'The Colum- 
biad' in 1807. 

Columbine, a character in Italian comedy, 
the daughter of Pantaloon and mistress of 
Harlequin, which has been transferred to our 
pantomime or harlequinade. 

Columbus, CHRISTOPHER (c. 1445-1506), 
in Spanish CniSTdvAL COLO"N, a Genoese 
navigator, the discoverer of America. He 
is said to have first proposed his expedi- 
tion of discovery to the Genoese republic 
and other powers, but was rebuffed. He 
finally obtained the favour of Queen Isabella 
of Castile and embarked on his first voyage in 


1492. He met with much ingratitude and 
persecution, but made in all four voyages to 
the West Indies. His object was to reach the 
Cathay of Marco Polo, and he remained 
under the impression that the regions he 
discovered were the fringes of the Asiatic 

A Castilla y a Le6n 

Nuevo mundo did Coldn, 

is his epitaph in the cathedral of Seville. 
Columbus 's Egg: after the return of 
Columbus from his successful voyage of dis- 
covery he was invited to a banquet by Car- 
dinal Mendoza. 'A shallow courtier present, 
impatient of the honours paid to Columbus, 
abruptly asked him whether he thought that 
in case he had not discovered the Indies, 
there were not other men in Spain who would 
have been capable of the enterprise. To this 
Columbus made no immediate reply, but 
taking an egg, invited the company to make 
it stand on end. Every one attempted it, but 
in vain. Whereupon he struck it upon the 
table so as to break the end and left it stand- 
ing on the broken part; illustrating in this 
simple manner that when he had once shown 
the way to the New World nothing was easier 
than to follow it.* (W. Irving, 'Life of Colum- 
bus , y. vii, on the authority of the Italian 
historian Benzoni.) 

DERATUS, a native of Gades in Spain. He 
was a contemporary of Seneca and the author 
of a work on the various forms of agriculture, 
the keeping of live-stock and bees, &c., in 
twelve books. The 'Columella* of Jane 
Austen is the name of a book by Richard 
Graves (q.v.). 

COLVIN, SIR SIDNEY (1845-1927), edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, be- 
came Slade Professor of Fine Art at Cam- 
bridge (1873-85), and keeper of the prints and 
drawings at the British Museum (1884 
1912). Besides numerous contributions to 
periodicals, chiefly on the history and 
criticism of art, he published lives of Walter 
Savage Landor (1881) and Keats (1887) in 
the English Men of Letters series; 'A 
Florentine Picture Chronicle' (1898); 'Early 
Engraving and Engravers in England* (1905) ; 
'Drawings by Old Masters at Oxford* 
(1902-8). Colvin edited the 'Letters of Keats', 
1887, the Edinburgh edition of R. L. 
Stevenson's works (1894-7), and the 'Letters 
of R. L. Stevenson' (1899 and 1911). He 
published 'John Keats, his Life and Poetry* in 
1917, 'Memories and Notes of Persons and 
Places" in 1921. 

Colyn Cloute, a satirical poem by Skelton 
(q.v.), directed against ecclesiastical abuses, 
and written about 1519. See also Colin Clout. 

Comala, the title of one of the Ossianic 
poems of Macpherson (q.v.). Comala, 
daughter of Sarno, king of Inistore, is in 
love with Fingal, and follows him, disguised 

as a youth. Her romantic passion so much 
recommends her to the king that he is about 
to marry her, when the invasion of Caracul 
(Caracalla) intervenes. Comala sees the battle 
from a neighbouring hill, and on the victory 
of Fingal, dies from the revulsion to joy from 

COMBE, WILLIAM (1741-1823), edu- 
cated at Eton, published a number of metrical 
satires, including 'The Diaboliad' (1776, di- 
rected against Simon, Lord Irnham). He is 
specially remembered for the verses that he 
wrote to accompany Rowlandson's drawings 
of the adventures of 'Dr. Syntax*. The first of 
these works, 'Dr. Syntax in search of the Pic- 
turesque*, a parody of the popular books of 
picturesque travels of the day (and particu- 
larly of those of William Gilpin, q.v.), ap- 
peared in "The Poetical Magazine* in 1809 
(reprinted in 1812). Dr. Syntax is the 
grotesque figure of a clergyman and school- 
master, who sets out during the holidays, on 
his old horse Grizzle, to 'make a TOUR and 
WRITE IT*, and meets with a series of amusing 
misfortunes. This was followed in 1820 by 
'The Second Tour of Dr. Syntax in search 
of Consolation* for the loss of his wife, and 
in 1821 by 'The Third Tour of Dr. Syntax 
in search of a Wife*. Combe also wrote the 
letterpress for Rowlandson's 'Dance of 
Death' (1815-16), 'Dance of Life* (1816), 
'Johnny Quae Genus* (1822), and for *The 
Microcosm of London* (1808). 

Comedy, from /c<wia)Sos=/cco/zaoiSos singer in 
the /txojuos or comic chorus, a stage play 
of a light and amusing character with a happy 
conclusion to its plot. Also, that branch of 
the drama which adopts a humorous or 
familiar style, and depicts laughable charac- 
ters and incidents. [OED.] Greek comedy 
originated in the festivals of Dionysus (q.v.), 
celebrated with song and merriment at the 
vintage. See also Sentimental Comedy. 

Comedy, The Divine, see Divina Commedia. 

Comedy of Errors, The, a comedy by 
Shakespeare (q.v.), acted in 1594 (and perhaps 
as early as 1 592), and first printed in the folio 
of 1623. This is one of the earliest and 
crudest of Shakespeare's plays and is, in the 
main, an adaptation of the 'Menaechmi* of 

Syracuse and Ephesus being at enmity, 
any Syracusan found in Ephesus is put to 
death unless he can pay a ransom of a thou- 
sand marks. Aegeon, an old Syracusan mer- 
chant has been arrested in Ephesus, and on 
the duke*s order explains how he came there. 
He and his wife Aemilia had twin sons, 
exactly alike and each named Antipholus ; the 
parents had purchased twin slaves, also exactly 
alike, and each named Dromio, who attended 
on their sons. * Having in a shipwreck been 
separated, with the younger son and one 
Dromio, from his wife and the other son and 
slave, Aegeon had never seen them since. The 
younger son (Antipholus of Syracuse) on 




reaching manhood had gone (with his 
Dromio) in search of his brother and mother 
and had no more been heard of, though 
Aegeon had now sought him for five years 
over the world, coming at last to Ephesus. 

The duke, moved by this tale, gives Aegeon 
till evening to find the ransom. Now, the 
elder Antipholus (Antipholus of Ephesus), 
with one of the Dromios, has been living in 
Ephesus since his rescue from shipwreck and 
is married. Antipholus of Syracuse and the 
other Dromio have arrived there that very 
morning. Each twin retains the same con- 
fusing resemblance to his brother as in 
childhood. From this the comedy of errors 
results. Antipholus of Syracuse is summoned 
home to dinner by Drornio of Ephesus ; he is 
claimed as husband by the wife of Antipholus 
of Ephesus, the latter being refused admit- 
tance to his own house, because he is sup- 
posed to be already within; and so forth. 
Finally Antipholus of Ephesus is confined as 
a lunatic, and Antipholus of Syracuse takes 
refuge from his brother's jealous wife in a 

Meanwhile evening has come and Aegeon 
is led to execution. As the duke proceeds to 
the place of execution, Antipholus of Ephesus 
appeals to him for redress. Then the abbess 
of the convent presents Antipholus of Syra- 
cuse, also claiming redress. The simul- 
taneous presence of the two brothers explains 
the numerous misunderstandings, Aegeon 
recovers his two sons and his liberty, and the 
abbess turns out to be his lost wife, Aemilia. 

COMESTOR, PETRUS, of Troyes, In 
Champagne, of the I2th cent., so named on 
account of his voracity in the matter of books. 
He was the author of a 'Historia Scholastica*, 
a collection of scriptural narratives with 
commentary. His work was apparently 
known to Chaucer. Dante places him among 
the Doctors of the Church in the Heaven of 
the Sun, 'Paradiso', xii. 134. 

Comet Wine or COMET VINTAGE, wine made 
in a comet year, popularly supposed to be of 
superior flavour. The year 1858, a comet 
year, was that of a great claret vintage, fre- 
quently referred to. 

Comhal, in Macpherson's Ossianic poems, 
the father of Fingal (q.v.). 

Comical Revenge, The, or Love in a Tub, a 
comedy by Etherege (q.v.) acted in 1664, 
important as the first example of English 
prose comedy, as afterwards seen in Congreve 
and Sheridan ; while the serious portions are 
written in rhymed heroics. The play shows 
the author's acquaintance with the early 
comedies of Moliere. 

The serious part of the plot deals with the 
rivalry of Lord Beaufort and Colonel Bruce for 
the hand of Graciana. A duel ensues. Bruce 
is defeated, tries to kill himself in despair, 
is cured of his wound, and consoled with 
Graciana's sister. The comic and farcical part 
has only a slender plot and centres about the 


French valet Dufoy, who for his impudence is 
confined by his fellow-servants in a tub. His 
master, Sir Frederick Frolick, the fine gentle- 
man of the times, is courted by a rich widow; 
he cajoles her out of 200 and finally marries 
her. There is a foolish country knight, Sir 
Nicholas Cully, whom two rogues cozen out 
of a thousand pounds. The knaves and the 
fool are exposed, and for punishment married 
off against their will and expectation. 

COMINES, PHILIPPE DE, see Commines. 

Coming of Arthur, The, the first of Tenny- 
son's * Idylls of the King' (q.v.), published in 

Arthur, newly crowned and setting out to 

conquer his rebellious barons, sees and falls 

in love with Guinevere, daughter of King 

Leodegran of Cameliard; and after his 

success sends to ask her hand. Leodegran 

hesitates, owing to the mystery that surrounds 

the birth of Arthur, but after hearing the 

advice of Bellicent, wife of King Lot of 

Orkney, consents. Lancelot comes to fetch 

Guinevere, and Arthur and she are married. 

An indication is given of the purpose that 

Arthur sets before himself in his kingdom, to 

Have power on this dark land to lighten it, 

And power on this dead world to make it 


Coming Race f The, a romance by Bulwer 
Lytton (q.v.), published in 1871. 

The narrator describes his visit to a sub- 
terranean race that in distant ages took refuge 
from inundations in the bowels of the earth. 
Owing to the discovery of Vril, a form of 
energy embodying all the natural forces, this 
race has reached a high degree of civilization 
and scientific invention. Their country is a 
Utopia in which there is neither war nor 
crime, neither poverty nor inequality. The 
inhabitants regard with contempt the type 
of society which they describe as *Koom- 
Posh viz. the government of the ignorant 
upon the principle of being the most 
numerous*, which leads to rivalry, misery, 
and degradation. Their women are physically 
stronger than their men, and it is the women 
who choose their spouses, a custom that in- 
volves the narrator in grave embarrassment 
and finally in danger of his life, from which 
he is saved by the devotion of his host's 
daughter and restored to the upper regions of 
the earth. 

Commander of the Faithful, a title of the 
Caliphs (q.v.). 

Commedia dell' Arte, in the history of 
Italian drama, improvised drama performed 
by professional actors, developed in the i6th 
cent, from the popular character comedy, and 
having its origin in the Atellane (q.v.) farces. 
It is said to have been invented by Francesco 
Cherea, a favourite actor of Pope Leo X. 

of a Flemish family, first served Philip of 
Burgundy and his son Charles the Bold, and 


then entered the service of the French king 
Louis XI, whose counsellor he became. He 
wrote remarkable chronicles of Louis XI and 
Charles VIII, which were translated into 
English by Thomas Danet (1596), and in- 
spired Sir W. Scott's 'Quentin Durward* 
(q.v., in which Commines himself figures). 
Commines was the first critical and philoso- 
phical historian since classical times. 

Common, DOL, a character in Jonson's 
'The Alchemist* (q.v.). 

Common Prayer, The Book of, was evolved 
in the i6th cent, to meet the popular need 
for aids to devotion (not entirely satisfied 
by the Primers, q.v.) and the demand for the 
use of the vernacular in church services. 
Its development was gradual. The Sarum 
breviary was reissued in 1541 and ordered to 
be used throughout the province of Canter- 
bury in 1542. The reading in churches of 
a chapter of the Bible in English, and the 
Litany in English (probably the work of 
Cranmer, q.v.), were introduced in 1544, ancl 
an English communion service in 1548. 
About the same time the Primers were re- 
vised, and the King's Primer issued in 1545 
in the interests of uniformity; it included the 
English Litany. Cranmer and a commission 
each drafted a scheme for a prayer book, and 
these were discussed in Edward VI 's reign, 
leading to the successive issue of the Prayer 
Books of 1549 and 1552. In the latter the 
form, the Book of Common Prayer was 
practically settled, though a revision was 
made under Elizabeth (1559), minor changes 
under James I, and the final text is that of 
1662. As it stands the Prayer Book represents 
largely the work of Cranmer; Nicholas Ridley 
(q.v.) may perhaps claim some share. 

Common Prayer, The Revised Book of, 
embodied the proposals which, after pro- 
longed discussion, the bishops, presided over 
by Archbishop Randall Davidson, laid before 
Convocation in 1927. It ^ consisted of the 
Prayer Book of 1662 with a permissive 
alternative version as regards Holy Com- 
munion, Baptism, Confirmation, and Matri- 
mony, and numerous additional occasional 
prayers. Opposition arose in regard to ^the 
revision of the office for Holy Communion, 
and when the Revised Book was submitted to 
Parliament at the end of 1927, it was rejected 
by the House of Commons though passed 
by the House of Lords. It was again sub- 
mitted in the following year with certain 
modifications, but again rejected. 

Common Sense school of philosophy, 
see Reid. 

Communism, a theory that advocates a 
state of society in which there should be no 
private ownership, all property being vested 
in the community and labour organized for 
the common benefit of all members, each 
working according to his capacity and re- 
ceiving according to his wants. [OED.] 



Comparini, PIETRO and VIOLANTE, the 
putative parents of Pompilia, in Browning's 
'The Ring and the Book* (q.v.). 

Complaint, The, or Night Thoughts on Life, 
Death, and Immortality, see Night Thoughts. 

Complaint of Buckingham, The, a poem by 
T. Sackville (q.v.), contributed by him to the 
'Mirror for Magistrates' (q.v.). 

Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, 
after his rebellion against Richard III, takes 
refuge with a dependant, Humfrey Banastaire. 
Banastaire betrays him to the king, and 
Buckingham is executed. As his corpse lies 
on the ground, it raises its head and heaps 
curses on Banastaire and his children. 

Complaint of Dear, see Dear. 

Complaynt to the King, see Lindsay (Sir D.). 

Compleat Angler, The, or the Contemplative 
Man's Recreation, a discourse on fishing by 
I. Walton (q.v.), first published in 1653, the 
second edition in 1655. The fifth edition, 
containing Cotton's continuation, appeared 
in 1676. 

It takes the form of a dialogue, at first 
between the author 'Piscator* (a fisherman), 
Auceps (a fowler), and Venator (a hunter), 
each commending his own recreation, in 
which Auceps is silenced, and Venator 
becomes a pupil of the angle ; then between 
Piscator and Venator alone. In the course 
of this, after a short spell with the otter- 
hounds, the author instructs his pupil in 
the mode of catching all the various kinds 
of fresh-water fish, with directions for dress- 
ing some of them for the table. There are 
observations on rivers and fish-ponds, and 
directions for the making of artificial flies 
and fishing line. The instruction is given as 
they fish along the river Lea near London, 
and there are pleasant interludes of verse 
and song. But Walton, though a proficient 
angler, knew little of fly-fishing, and what he 
tells about it is admittedly in the main at 
second-hand. The continuation, supplied by 
Charles Cotton (q.v.), takes the form of con- 
versations between Tiscator* and 'Viator' (a 
traveller, who turns out to be Venator of the 
earlier part), as they fish along the river Dove, 
which divides the counties of Derby and Staf- 
ford. Tiscator* instructs 'Viator* in fishing 
'fine and far off' for trout and. grayling; and 
opportunities are taken to indicate the rocky 
and picturesque scenery of the district. 
There are also fuller directions for the 
making of artificial flies than had appeared in 
Walton's work. 

Complutensian Polyglot Bible, THE, the 
earliest complete polyglot Bible, containing 
the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Vulgate texts, 
a Hebrew dictionary, &c., prepared at the 
expense of Cardinal Ximenes in the Dearly 
part of the i6th cent., at Alcala in Spain (of 
which town Complutum is the ancient name). 



The special Greek type used has formed the 
basis of modern Greek type-design (Proctor 
types and others). It has been called the 
finest Greek type ever designed. 

GOMTE, AUGUSTE (1798-1857), French 
philosopher, was in early life secretary to the 
socialist C. H. de Saint-Simon (q.v.), by 
whom he was influenced, but whom he subse- 
quently repudiated. He was the chief ex- 
ponent of the positivist philosophy, which 
excludes metaphysics and revealed religion, 
and substitutes the religion of humanity and 
sociological ethics, based on history and 
designed for the improvement of the human 
race. Comte's principal work was the 'Cours 
de Philosophic Positive* (1830-42), in which 
he worked out the three stages of knowledge, 
the theological, the metaphysical, and the 
positive, and classified the sciences according 
to their decreasing generality and increasing 
complexity : mathematics, astronomy, physics, 
chemistry, biology, sociology. In his later 
work, 'Systeme de Politique Positive* (1851 
4), he attempted to frame a positivist religion 
which is a sort of parody of Roman Catholi- 
cism, with sacraments, prayers, &c. His 
principal English disciple was F. Harrison 
(q.v.) but he also influenced J. S. Mill (q.v.). 

Comus, A Masque, presented at Ludlow 
Castle, 1634, before the Earl of Bridgewater, 
Lord President of Wales, by Milton (q.v.). 
Though described as a 'masque', it is strictly 
a pastoral entertainment. 

This work was, like the 'Arcades* (q.v.), 
written at the request of Henry Lawes, the 
musician, while Milton was at Horton. The 
occasion was the celebration of the earl of 
Bridgewater's entry on the presidency of 
Wales and the Marches. The name 'Comus* 
was not included in the title in the first three 
printed editions, but is taken from one of the 
characters, a pagan god invented by Milton, 
son of Bacchus and Circe, who waylays 
travellers and tempts them to drink a magic 
liquor which changes their countenances into 
the faces of wild beasts. A lady and her two 
brothers are benighted in a forest. The lady, 
separated from her companions, and at- 
tracted by the revelry of Comus and his rout, 
comes upon Comus, in the guise of a shep- 
herd, who offers to lodge her in his cottage, 
and leads her off. The brothers appear and 
are told what has happened by the good 
Attendant Spirit, who has taken the form of 
the shepherd Thyrsis. He warns them of the 
magic power of Comus and gives them the 
root of the plant Haemony as a protection. 
The scene changes, and Comus, with his 
rabble round him, is discovered pressing the 
lady to drink from a glass, while she, strong 
in her purity, resists his enticements. The 
brothers burst in and disperse the crew. Un- 
fortunately they have not secured the wand 
of Comus, and are unable to release the lady 
from the enchanted chair in which she sits. 
Thyrsis thereupon invokes Sabrina, goddess 
of the neighbouring river Severn, who comes 


attended by water-nymphs, and frees the 

lady. After an ode of thanks to Sabrina, the 

lady and her brothers return safely to Ludlow 


Conachar, in Scott's 'Fair Maid of Perth 9 

(q.v.), the Highland apprentice of Simon 


Conan, in the legends relating to Finn 

(Fingal), 'in some respects a kind of Ther- 

sites (q.v.), but brave and daring even to 

rashness* (Author's notes to 'Waverley'). 

Having visited the infernal regions, he 

received a cuff from the Arch-fiend, which he 

instantly returned with the words 'blow for 


Conary, a poem by Ferguson (q.v.), pub- 
lished in 1880, and based on the old Irish 
bardic tale of the 'Destruction of the Guest- 
house of Da Derga*. Conary is a king of 
Ireland. Three lawless brothers banished 
for their crimes, and joined by the brothers 
of the king, roam the seas. They make a 
piratical raid on Ireland and attack the guest- 
house, where the champions of Ireland are 
assembled under the king. Learning that the 
king himself is there, two of his brothers take 
their own lives; the third is killed. But 
Conall, the mighty champion, is led away by 
fairies, and Conary, left almost alone, is 

Conchobar or CONCHUBAE, in the Ulster 
cycle of Irish mythology, king of Ulster. 
See Guchulain and Deirdre. 

Conciliation with America, Speech on, by 
E. Burke (q.v.), made in the House of 
Commons on 22 March, 1775. 

This was a last effort by Burke to find a 
peaceful solution of the difference with the 
American colonies, and is one of his greatest 
speeches, and a literary masterpiece. Burke's 
proposal is to restore order and repose to the 
empire 'by restoring the former unsuspecting 
confidence of the colonies in the mother 
country*. He rejects the use of force, as 
temporary and uncertain in its effects, as im- 
pairing what it is sought to preserve, as con- 
trary to experience in our colonial administra- 
tion, and as inapplicable to the 'fierce spirit 
of liberty* prevailing in the English colonies. 
He traces the 'capital sources* from which 
this spirit has grown up, descent, religion, 
remoteness of situation ; and propounds three 
alternatives, to change this spirit, to prose- 
cute it as criminal, to comply with it as neces- 
sary. He shows the first two courses to be 
impossible or inexpedient. He dismisses 
American representation in parliament as 
impracticable. He finds the solution in the 
taxation of America through grants by the 
local legislatures and not by imposition. His 
trust is in America's interest in the British 
constitution: 'My hold of the colonies is in 
the close affection which grows from common 
names, from kindred blood, from similar 
privileges, and equal protection.* 'Freedom 
they can have from none but you. This is the 



commodity of price, of which you have the 
monopoly.' 'Magnanimity in politics is not 
seldom the truest wisdom ; and a great empire 
and little minds go ill together.' 

Concordat, an agreement between Church 
and State, especially between the Roman See 
and a secular government relative to matters 
that concern both. One of the most famous 
of such agreements was that made in 1801 
between Napoleon and Pius VII. 

Condell, HENRY, see Heming. 
LAS CARITAT, Marquis de (1743-94), see 

Conduct of the Allies . . ., The, title of a 
pamphlet by Swift (q.v.), composed in Nov. 
1711 in favour of peace. 

Confederacy, The, a comedy by Vanbrugh 
(q.v.), produced in 1705, adapted from 
d'Ancourt's c Les Bourgeoises a la Mode'. 

Gripe and Moneytrap, two rich usurers, 
are niggardly husbands, and Gripe's wife, 
Clarissa, in order to pay her debts, is obliged 
to pawn her necklace with Mrs. Amlet, a 
seller of paint and powder and the like to 
ladies. Mrs. Amlet has a knave of a son, Dick, 
who passes himself off as a colonel, and is 
trying to win by fair means or foul the hand 
of Gripe's daughter Corinna, assisted in the 
plot by his confederate Brass, who acts as