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Oxford Illustrated. **** 


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& f HE name of Oxford is accepted as proof of its 
I very great antiquity ; it. being the Celtic form 

^1 of Ousen-ford, the ford across the water, as 
in Ousen-ey, or Oseney, intimating the 
existence of an Island. The later name of Oxna-ford 
(though an early one), like the Ox-ford of to-day, is a 
departure from its original intention, though not by 
any means inappropriate, and is in agreement with the 
Arms of the City, in which appears the ox crossing the 
ford. For two centuries, between 626 and 827, 
Oxfordshire had been a frontier country between the 
West Saxons and the Mercians, and Oxford, itself a 
ville on the border of the Thames, the natural 
boundary-line between the two great kingdoms, had 
been the constant scene of struggle, and had belonged 
alternately to Mercia and Wessex. In the year 827 
Egbert of Wessex, having brought Mercia under his 
sway, consolidated his power, and Oxford being no 
longer a frontier town had peace and made rapid 

During these two centuries great and important 
events had been in progress at Dorchester, within eight 
miles of Oxford ; events which must have exercised 
great influence amongst the inhabitants of this district. 
It is at this early date that the religious life of the 
diocese of Oxford begins. Quoting from Beda's 
Ecclesiastical History, we find " that in the reign of 
King Cynegils, in the year 634, the West Saxons were 
visited by Birinus, who expressed in the presence of 
Pope Honorius his intention to ' scatter the seeds of the 
faith ' in the remote districts where no preacher of the 
truth had been before. When he came into Britain he 
first visited the West Saxons, and found them the most 
utter pagans. Having determined to attempt their 
conversion he was soon after rewarded by the conver- 
sion of the King, and subsequently his people. At the 
baptism of Cynegils, Oswald, the King of the Northum- 
brians, acted as his godfather, and together they made 
a gift to Birinus of the City of Dorcis, that it might 
become the seat of a bishopric. Other royal baptisms 
followed in those of King Cuthred and King Cwichelm, 
the son of Cynegils." Birinus died in 650, and was 

I \ ^i K. O O 


buried at Dorchester. The influence and extent of this 
diocese continued to increase so rapidly under the 
successors of Birinus that in 673, on September 24th, 
we find a Council was held by Archbishop Theodore at 
Hertford, at which " all the Anglo-Saxon bishops were 
present, except Bishop Wini," who had been expelled 
from the bishopric of Dorchester for simony ; and in 
705, upon the death of Bishop Heddi, it was finally 
determined, " by a Council of the Fathers of the Church 
and the Kings," that the " great " diocese of Wessex 
was too large to be governed by a simple bishop, and 
Oxfordshire was -accordingly assigned to the See of 
Winchester. The influence of these stirring events 
must have been greatly -felt at Oxford, and probably 
had a direct influence upon the establishment of the 
" religious house," founded by St. Frideswide, who died 
in 740. Although both monasteries and nunneries 
existed in England earlier than this date there is reason 
to believe none existed in this district until the 
foundation of St. Frideswide's Nunnery, about 727 ; as 
an old document, which shows how the church (now the 
cathedral) was re-built in 1004, gives the following 
narrative of the original foundation of the religious 
house. One Didarus, " King of Oxford," gives the 
site to his daughter, St. Frideswide, the most holy 
virgin, and raises there a nunnery for her. William of 
Malmesbury supplements this account by a story of 
Frideswide being sought in marriage by a king, named 
Algar, whose suit she rejected, dedicating her virginity 
to Christ. Finding her lover importunate she flies into 
the wilds of Oxford, and when he still follows her 
strikes him with blindness, but on his repentance gives 

him his sight again. Falkner, in his History of 
Oxfordshire, says: " There is nothing improbable 
either in there being one Dida, a sub-king of the 
Oxfordshire district at this time, or in his building 
there a nunnery for his daughter, and St. Frideswide's 
Nunnery may be thus considered to date from early in 
the Eighth Century." 

This house was re-placed by a foundation for secular 
canons, and in 1004 some " inns " were provided by 
the King for those who sought the benefit of their 
learning and piety. In these "inns," afterwards 
" halls," we may reasonably suppose we get the earliest 
glimpse of the future student life of Oxford, although 
it did not aspire to the collegiate life until some cen- 
turies later, when in 1264 Walter de Merton transferred 
his scholars from Maiden in Surrey, and made his head- 
quarters at Oxford, thus establishing Merton College ; 
his students being the first to live together in one 
building for the purpose of removing them from the 
evil influences of the crowded town. Falkner in his 
later researches makes the transfer of students to be 
in 1294. 

The Saxon Mound. 

ONE of the most striking features of ancient Oxford, 
and one also that cannot fail to attract the 
attention of any person in visiting the City- 
to-day, is that extraordinary Mound which is passed 
in the New Ro<ad, upon approaching the City from the 
railway stations. The Castle, under whose shadow 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Cornmarket Street. 


so to speak the Mound lies, is said to have been the 
first stone building of any importance that Oxford had 
seen, but this Mound, green and fresh as ever to-day, 
must have been in existence nearly two centuries before 
the erection of this Castle, in the reign of William the 
Conqueror. It is reputed to have been raised by 
^thelflaeda, Lady of the Mercians, who had " built a 
castle " at Oxford about 910, and although Saxon stone 
work is knoijvn to have been erected occasionally during 
the previous century, history seems to substantiate the 
conclusion that this Mound \\ as the "Castle" referred 
to as built by the Lady of the Mercians. As strongly 
supporting this view we fid the following passages in 
CasselTs History of England, " In 910, the war 
between the two races (Saxons and Danes) broke out 
once more, and lasted with brief intermission, for ten 
years ; when the Danes, finding they were losing 
ground, sued for peace. Those who inhabited Mercia 
were the first to submit. . . . Edward, the King 
(who was the son of Alfred the Great) was materially 
assisted in these struggles by his warlike sister, Elfleda, 
the widow of the Earl of Mercia, who despite her sex, 
appears to have delighted in war. Aided by her 
brother's troops, she attacked the Welsh, who had 
sided with the Danes, and obliged them to pay tribute 
to her." We may therefore justly conclude that this 
warlike princess, immediately upon the renewal of the 
war, hurriedly raised this Mound for defensive purposes, 
which with its artificial defences, probably consisting 
of earthworks and ditches surrounding it, excepting 

on the north-west side which was protected by river, 
must have been at that date a very strong defensive 
fort. Nearly at the summit of the Mound is the 
entrance to a well-room, made in the reign of Henry 
II., during the latter half of the twelfth century. This 
also is in good state of preservation at the present day ; 
it is said to have a depth of 82 feet, the sides being of 
stones well fitted together, and although without water 
now, within living memory water was had from the 
well ; the disappearance being caused by the sanitary 
drainage system of the City about 40 years since. 

There is every reason to conjecture that for many 
years previous to the date of the erection of this Mound 
the Saxon Kings had a Royal Residence here, within 
the precincts of the present gaol. Some early portions 
of the Saxon Chronicle were undoubtedly written during 
the reign of Alfred the Great, as it becomes very full of 
detail in regard to his wars with the Danes, which 
would give the date as the close of the Ninth Century 
Alfred's death being in 901. The first historical 
mention of Oxford is from this Chronicle in the year 
912, " King Edward took possession of London and 
Oxford," after which there are several references to 
the births and deaths of Saxon Kings and Princes 
taking place here, and also to several " gemots " or 
Councils of the nation being held at Oxford up to 1065, 
the year before the Norman Conquest. Dr. Ingram, 
states that Oxford was for some time the Metropolis 
of the Mercian district, and favourite seat of the Saxon 
monarchs, as it was afterwards of the Danes. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

High Street. 


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The Norman Castle. 

THE Castle adjoining, the building of which was 
commenced in 1071, is undoubtedly one of the 
oldest of the Norman building's in England, as 
its building commenced within five years of the 
Normans landing in Sussex, and during those eight 
centuries this uncouth block of masonry has stood 
unchanged frowning upon the City. Having now 
reached the age at which records were kept by the 
monkish historians we emerge from legend and myth, 
and find our authorities in historical records, or so- 
called " chronicles." It is extremely interesting to note 
how the monkish historians mix up legends with facts, 
exhibiting their superstitious fears. At this date Robert 
D'Oyly was appointed " Constabularius " of Oxford by 
William the Conqueror. His first precaution in these 
troublous times, with the Norman hold on the country 
so insecure, was to establish himself firmly on a defen- 
sive base ; and he therefore immediately set to work 
to strengthen the already existing Mercian's fortress by 
a series of castles six of which he is said to have 
built to complete his fortress ; the Castle now standing 
being one of the Bastion Towers commanding the 
western approach to the town. The Chronicle of the 
Abingdon Monastery and also of Osney Abbey give a 
good deal of attention to D'Oyly, who is the principal 
figure in the history of Oxfordshire at this date. He 
is said to have raised money for building principally 
from the Church, which surmise seems to be justified 
by the abuse of the monkish historians. An interesting 
instance of this is worth copying from the Chronicles 

of Abingdon, " In his (Robert D'Oyly's) lust of money 
he harried the churches everywhere, but especially the 
Abbey of Abingdon ; to wit, tie took away their posses- 
sions, and sued them constantly at law, and sometimes 
put them at the mercy of the King. Amongst other 
evil deeds, he took aw r ay a certain mead that lay 
outside the walls of Oxford with the King's consent, 
and made it over to the soldiers of the Castle for their 
use. This loss grieved the brethren of Abingdon more 
than any other evil." But soon after, when his position 
had become secure, he became a benefactor instead of 
a persecutor, and built churches, and thus secured their 
good will. The Chronicle continues: " This happy 
change was in answer to the monk's prayers, who 
prayed for an illness to correct him ; and to an evil 
dream in which he saw himself arrainged before the 
Blessed Virgin and tormented with imps. As before 
that dream he was a plunderer of churches and of the 
poor, so after it he was made a repairer of churches 
and a helper of the poor, and a doer of many good 
works." The Castle commanding the waterway was 
of special Importance in those early days in consequence 
of the badness of the roads, waterway being used 
wherever possible. After D'Oyly's evil dream he went 
by water to Abingdon to make reparation, and the 
monks afterwards made a profit by blocking the main 
stream, and exacting a toll of 100 herrings from each 
boat, using another channel which passed the Abbey, 
and which they kept open. 

The defensive powers of this Castle were strikingly 
shewn in the following century when, in 1141, Maud, 
being driven from London, took refuge in Oxford 

Photo by Hills & Sounders, Oxford. 

Broad Street. 


Castle, which was given up to her by the younger 
Robert D'Oyly, nephew of the builder. King Stephen 
pursued to Oxford, and besieged the Castle, which was 
successfully defended for ten weeks, after which, the 
food giving out, surrender took place ; Maud having 
escaped the night before the surrender. A vivid 
description of the escape is given by Falkner in his 
History of Oxfordshire, from which the following 
extract is taken: " There was a severe frost, the river 
and flooded meadows were hard frozen, and deep snow 
had fallen afterwards and covered everything. In the 
dead of night, Maud, with one or two attendant 
knights, slipped out of a postern, and being all of them 
clothed in white, they escaped the notice of the outposts 
as they crossed the snow. The surroundings seem 
strangely familiar, and it requires no great effort of 
imagination to picture the wintry scene, the level 
mantle of sparkling snow, the frozen river and ditches, 
and perhaps a searching wind sweeping over the levels 
of the Thames Valley as pitilessly as it does to-day. 
The little party made their way on foot across the 
marshes to Bagley Hill, and climbing it came down on 
Abingdon, where they found horses to carry them to 
Wallingford." At a recent visit to the Castle the 
writer found that the top is now reached by 100 stone 
steps (stone, with wooden casings to each) ; at the top 
are six doorways, where the besieged could build out 
w r ooden protected battlements for defensive purposes, 
such as pouring boiling pitch or oil on to the assailants. 
At the basement the walls are 9 feet 3 inches in thick- 
ness. The other five towers were demolished about 

Domesday Survey. 

AT the time of this Survey, in 1085, which was made 
for purposes of taxation, Oxford was in a 
grievous state of disrepair and dilapidation. 
Before the Conquest, in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, there were recorded 721 houses in Oxford, 
but at Domesday only 243 of these remained inhabited 
478 being returned as vast<z, i.e., unoccupied or 
destroyed. Its extent probably corresponded with the 
line of walls afterwards built in the reign of Henry 
III. ; the western wall reaching to> the Castle and river, 
on the east to the end of New College Gardens, on the 
south running along the back of Merton College 
Gardens, crossing St. Aldates, just below y Christ 
Church Gateway, with the south portion of Pembroke 
College built upon the wall ; and the north wall crossing 
Corn Market Street at St. Michael's Church between 
the houses of Ship Street and Broad Street, across the 
Quadrangle of the Old Schools until it joined with the 
Tower of New College. The City was divided then as 
it is to-day by the two great cross roads, the point 
of crossing being known as Quatrevoies or Carfax of 
the present date. 

The last entry of Oxford in Domesday is very 
interesting, being that " all burgers of Oxford have 
common pasture outside the walls, returning six 
shillings and eight pence." This common pasture is 
the present Port Meadow of 439 acres. Falkner says: 
" It is very remarkable that this great tract of common 
land should have escaped the hands of land-grabbers 
for 800 years, and be still serving the same purpose 


to-day as it did in the time of the Conqueror ; even 
Robert D'Oyly, who was so prone to annex meadows, 
laid no hand upon it." 

The King's dues from Oxford at this time are also 
shown to have increased to ^60 ; having been in the 
time of Edward 20 and nine pints of honey. He also 
had a claim on the City for twenty burghers when 
wanted, or a further payment of 20 from the City 
as an exemption of all citizens from service. 

The Ancient Churches 
of the City. 

AT Quatrevoies it is generally acknowledged the first 
parish church was built. The Chronicles of 
Abingdon Abbey has record of its building in the 
year 1034, and makes Cnut its founder. Domesday 
does not enumerate all the churches in Oxford, but 
mentions several others, St. Mary the Virgin, St. 
Michael, St. Ebbe, St. Peter, and St. Frideswide. 
Some of these churches were in a very bad state at this 
date, as the Chronicle goes on to say that Robert 
D'Oyly on his recovery from a dangerous sickness 
" evinced his penitence by re-building at his own costs 
the parochial churches which were in ruins both within 
and on the outside of the walls of Oxford." The St. 
Michael's Church referred to stood at the north gate, 
but a second St. Michael's was standing at the south 
gate, which was pulled down upon the building of 

Christ Church in the Sixteenth Century ; a second, St. 
Peter's (known as " le Bailey "), stood near the west 
gate, which has been removed within living memory. 
St. Mary Magdalen Church is also said to have been 
built by D'Oyly, but it was outside the walls of the 
City ; the same remark also applies to the Church of 
Holy well, the chancel arch of which is very early, and 
the Manor of Holywell being held by him it may very 
possibly be attributed to his foundation, although some 
authorities differ in this. It is important to 
note that St. Aldate's Church is said to have 
been restored in the year 1004, the authority 
being Ingram, in his " Memorials of Oxford." 
The reason why it was not mentioned in Domesday 
probably being that it was then attached to St. 
Frideswide. Some of the stone seats or arched stalls 
were discovered early in the Nineteenth Century, having 
been hidden away behind the panel-work. Coming a 
little later we find the lower part of the tower of St. 
Giles' Church, also outside the north gate of the City, 
dated about 1120, whilst the chancel and nave are one 
hundred years later, at which date we lose the Norman 
characteristic work, and enter into the Early English 
style. This merging of the Norman into the Tran- 
sitional period is distinctly shown both in St. Giles' 
Church and in the Chapter House of the Cathedral ; 
where, although the entrance is a good example of 
Norman doorway, the interior is Early English. We 
shall later treat of the modern churches in the City, 
recognising this as a fitting time to close the period 
that may fairly be described as " ancient." 


Osney Abbey. & 

THIS Abbey, dating from the same early period, 
cannot be omitted from any history of Oxford. 
It must have had a very imposing appearance, 
and grew to be very wealthy, it being described as 
" the envy of all other religious houses in England and 
beyond the seas." In 1129 it was built by D'Oyly the 
younger in a modest style, but being re-built in the 
following century it increased so greatly in its grandeur 
that it was often made the abiding place of the royal 
visitors to the city. It fell into use as a prison in the 
days of Wolsey, students being confined there for 
reading the Bible. Marshall in his Diocesan 
Histories, speaking of the Abbey in its early days, says 
that " the estates belonging to it had been returned at 
the annual value of ^654 IDS. 2d.," equal to about 
twelve times the same value at present day. The 
Abbey stood at a short distance from the west end of 
St. Thomas's Church, and had a chapel of such 
grandeur and size as to be selected in 1542 for the 
Cathedral Church of Oxford. It is described in an old 
document as " a more than ordinary excellent fabrick, 
and not only was it the admiration of the neighbours, 
but foreigners that came to the University for the 
architecture, which was so exquisite and full of variety 
of workmanship, as carvings, cuttings, pinnacles, 
towers, etc., was so taking that out-landers were 
invited to come over and take draughts of it. 
Nor was it inside less admirable, the walls being 
adorned with rich hangings, the windows with awful 
paintings, the pillars with curious statues and images, 

the floor with speaking monuments, and all other 
places with rarities, reliques, etc." The glory of the 
Abbey, as the Cathedral, only lasted however for three 
years, for in 1545, Henry VIII. with his characteristic 
changefulness, transferred the bishopric of St. Frides- 
wide's, the present Cathedral, and the ruin of Osney 
began. " Its two high towers, its fine hall, infirmary 
and dormitory, its spacious lodgings, its house erected 
for indigent people, who lived upon the offal that came 
from the monk's table, its tannery, brewery and bake- 
house all passed away," there being hardly a single 
stone left to show where the great Abbey once stood. 
The ruins are said to have been largely used by Wolsey 
in building his College (Christ Church). All that is 
generally known to exist to-day of its ancient grandeur 
is some portion of the altar plate of the Cathedral, the 
great bell in Tom Tower, and the Cathedral peal of 

The story of the foundation of the Abbey as recorded 
is of great interest, helping us to realize the superstition 
of the age. " D'Oyly had married an Englishwoman, 
named Edith Forne, a previous mistress of Henry I., 
and who had given her the Manor of Claydon as a 
dower. She was walking one day in the riverside 
meadows that lay outside the walls to the west of the 
castle, with her father-confessor, Ralph. It was a 
spring morning, and the jays or magpies made a great 
chattering in the branches. The lady asked her 
adviser, who understood the language of birds, what 
their noise meant, and Ralph replied that the seeming 
birds were but poor souls in purgatory, who thus 
expressed their pains. The transition of ideas was 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Radcliffe Library, from All Souls'. 


easy ; how could their sad state be remedied, what good 
work could the lady do to give them ease? Ralph was 
at her elbow to suggest the building of a religious 
house, and so Robert D'Oyly yielded to his wife's 
entreaty and built the Priory of Osney." Faulkner's 
History of Oxfordshire. 

Jews Settled in Oxford. 

THE Jews, who were first admitted to England by 
William the Conqueror, were, by special grant of 
William the Second, allowed to establish them- 
selves at Oxford ; and to them is attributed the chief 
credit of advance at that period in science and medicine. 
A special district was allotted to them in Oxford, called 
the Great and Little Jewries, occupying part of the site 
of Christ Church and the City Buildings, in which they 
had a synagogue. A plot of ground was also assigned 
for their cemetery outside the East Gate ; the present 
site being the Botanical Gardens and the roadway in 
front, at the foot of the Bridge. Skeletons have been 
dug up as recently as 1899 m laying new sewers in the 
roadway. In process of time they became possessed 
of three " halls " or lodging-houses, for the accommoda- 
tion of students, where they taught Hebrew to Jew or 
Christian alike. Increasing rapidly in numbers and in 
wealth they soon became a source of anxiety to both 
University and City. In 1244 matters became serious 
upon students breaking into Jews houses and carrying 
off valuable plunder ; the magistrates of the City im- 
prisoned the offenders, but they were released by the 

order of the bishop. Breaches of the peace now 
became of frequent occurrence between the students 
and the Jews, and in 1268, on Ascension Day, a serious 
affair took place, for which the Jews were called upon 
to make reparation. Prince Edward being in Oxford 
on a visit, the Chancellor and the whole body of the 
University were going in procession to the relics of St. 
Frideswide, when the Jews offered a deliberate insult to 
the Cross. Records show that they had no hesitation 
in shewing their contempt for Christian doctrine and 
ceremonial, which produced retaliation in the nature of 
Jew baiting and attacks on the Jewry. These scenes 
lasted until Edward the First expelled them from the 
kingdom in 1290 ; but, notwithstanding, the advance of 
some branches of education must be credited to their 
settlement at Oxford. 

Oxford Monasteries. 

WITH the coming of the Friars to England in 1224 
a new feature was introduced into the religious 
and educational work of student life. As the 
Cistercians had come in the Twelfth Century to reform 
the Benedictines, so the Friars came in the Thirteenth 
to reform the Cistercians. These two orders sought 
spiritual perfection in isolation ; in working out their 
own salvation they paid little attention to the salvation 
of their fellow men. In the retirement of their splendid 
houses, on the fairest sites in England, they entertained 
noble travellers, and became agriculturalists, librarians 
and chroniclers ; but they had nothing in common with 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

The Taylor Institution. 


the towns and little with the to\vn people. The Friars 
at first were an entire contrast to these ; they mingled 
with the meanest and poorest, and settled in the most 
squalid slums, wearing gowns of serge tied round with 
rope. They begged their way from town to town, 
setting up their portable pulpit in market place or 
village green. But the care and interests of the poor 
was not the only object of the Franciscans. They were 
great promoters of learning, and " their presence ^t 
Oxford was signalised by their efforts to enlarge the 
sphere of education, and to effect a systematic study of 
theology." The Austinian Friars, who came to Oxford 
about 1268, took a prominent part in the studies of 
the students, and became celebrated for their success 
in teaching theology and philosophy. Their discussions 
and lectures are said to have attracted crowds of 
students, and had such influence that they became part 
of the University Course ; so that before the students 
were allowed to take a degree a certain number of 
Disfiutationes ad Augustinienses had to be attended. 
Their site is at the present time occupied by Wadham 
College, where they had a fine church of stone from 
Headington Quarries, with the timber from Shotover 
Woods. The Dominicans, or Black Friars of St. 
Dominic, settled in their house and church in the low- 
lying meadows by the Thames, on the west of Gram- 
pound (Grandpont) Bridge. On the Black Friars 
followed the Grey Friars of St. Francis, and the story 
of their journey to Oxford is graphically told by a later 
writer of their own Order, and is quoted by Anthony 
Wood, the Oxford Antiquary: 

" As they journeyed from London to Oxford, they 
wandered out of their way like innocent and harmless 
wretches, and being about six miles from Oxford, found 
themselves in a most vast and solitary wood near 
Baldon, with the floods out and night falling. 
Stumbling along in the darkness they came upon a 
lonely grange belonging to the Benedictine Monks of 
Abingdon, and humbly knocked at the door, desiring 
for God's love to be given entertainment for the night. 
The monks, judging from their dirty faces, ragged 
clothes, and uncouth speech, took them for jesters, 
and brought them in that they might quaff and shew 
sport to them ! But the Friars, looking gravely upon 
them said ' that they were not such kind of people, but 
the servants of God, and professors of an Apostolic 
life.' They were thereupon vilely spurned and thrust 
out of the gate by the disappointed monks." They 
built their house at the back of St. Ebbe's, bounded 
on the south by Trill Mill Stream, and it lay between 
the south or water gate and a small postern near the 
castle, through which a road led across the Trill Stream 
to the Black Friars. Their property and buildings 
grew so largely by benefactions that at the time of the 
Dissolution it was inferior only to Osney and St. 
Frideswide. In Diocesan Histories it is stated that 
the Franciscans had a large foundation at Oxford, with 
a magrnificent church 316 feet in length, a proportionate 
breadth, and ten chapels on the north side. Wood 
says the Friary must have been a pleasant place 
enough, with the buildings, courts, a pleasant grove of 
five acres, a garden called Boteham, and the orchard 
or garden called Paradise, and pities the " poore Fryers 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Sheldonian Theatre. 


\vho were turned out and put to their shifts." The site 
is still called Paradise Square, on which is the Rectory 
House of St. Ebbe's Parish. After the Grey Friars 
came the Carmelites or White Friars, whose first house 
was in Stockwell Street, where Worcester College now 
stands ; but a grander home was soon found for them 
through the smartness of one of their Friars, named 
Baston, w T ho was attached to the suite of the King, as 
a poet. He was with Edward II. at the flight from 
Bannockburn, when the King commended himself with 
a vow to the Virgin, and on the suggestion of the 
Carmelite, promised if he left the field alive to provide 
the White Friars of Oxford with a better house. He 
afterwards redeemed his promise by presenting to the 
Order his royal palace of Beaumont, on the site of the 
north side of the present Beaumont Street, near 
Worcester College. The Royal Chapel became the 
Friary Church and had a fair steeple and a peal of bells. 
This also came down at the Dissolution and the whole 
palace destroyed except the refectory, which was 
converted into a poor house, and eventually demolished 
in 1596. Besides these greater Orders of Friars, three 
others of less importance had houses at Oxford ; the 
Trinitarians, who had a house outside the East Gate ; 
the Penitentiarians, having a house outside the West 
Gate ; and the Crutched Friars, who had a house near 
Grandpoint, and later near St. Peter-in-the-East. The 
chapel of Trinitarians, at the East Gate, was used as a 
place of Sanctuary, and in it the Mayor of the City 
used to attend Mass on his return from London, after 
taking his election oath at the Exchequer, after which 
he \vas conducted by the citizens to his own house. 

" Town and Gown " Feuds. 

THE recorded history of these feuds goes back to the 
beginning of the Thirteenth Century ; and it is 
as a consequence of these disturbances that, not- 
withstanding the Charters that had been given by the 
previous monarchs to the town, that eventually the 
township became merely an appanage of the University, 
with all its privileges abolished. At this date the 
University was in its infancy, but growing rapidly, 
when, in 1208, a scholar killed a girl and fled from 
Oxford. An unsuccessful search having been made for 
the scholar, the citizens seized two of his fellow-lodgers 
and hanged them. As a retaliation the scholars 
migrated to Reading and Cambridge, and the Pope 
applied an interdict to Oxford, depriving it of all 
spiritual comforts. After four years an appeal was 
made on behalf of the citizens to the Papal Legate 
in London, who, granting them absolution, exacted 
severe penance, and granted privileges to the University 
at the expense of the town. It was ordained that any 
student found in crime should not be subject to munici- 
pal authority, but should be handed o>ver to the Chan- 
cellor for trial in his Court. This privilege the Univer- 
sity frequently avail themselves of at the present day. 
Amongst other penalties that were also imposed it was 
enacted " that all lodgings should be let for half the 
usual rent for ten years." These conflicts were of 
frequent occurrence, always producing the same result, 
the humiliation of the town, and acquiring of new 
privileges by the University. In 1248 the Corporation 
were compelled to agree to the payment of a heavy 


fine if any citizen were in future to assault a scholar ; 
and the Mayor and Bailiffs were sworn on accepting 
office to " preserve all the privileges of the University." 
Notwithstanding" all precautions these disturbances 
continued, bloodshed frequently taking place even 
within the walls of St. Mary's Church, until matters 
reached a climax in the riot of St. Scholastica's Day of 
1354. The details, which seem to us to-day so impos- 
sible of realisation, are best given in Mead Falkner's 
History of Oxfordshire, from which the following is 
extracted: " Some students were drinking in the 
Swyndlestock Inn, near Carfax, and an assault on the 
landlord led to a tavern brawl, which was carried into 
the streets after the revellers had been ejected. John 
de Hereford, the Mayor, a heady and unpopular official, 
ordered the bell of Carfax Church to be rung. This 
bell was the recognised tocsin of the townsmen, and 
they flocked together at its summons to do battle with 
the clerks. The Chancellor de Charlton retorted by 
ringing the bell of St. Mary's, an equally recognised 
declaration of war on the part of the University. Free 
fighting began in the streets during the afternoon, but 
the days were short, and darkness stopped hostilities 
before much harm was done. Next day the bells were 
rung again, and the fray was resumed on a larger 
scale. A band of some hundreds of roughs from the 
suburbs and country, who had either been invited by 
messengers of the citizens, or were prompted by a 
natural taste for riot and looting, broke into the City 
and carried all before them. They bore, it is said, an 
ill-omened black flag, and shouting, ' Slay, havoc, 
smite fast, give good knocks,' certainly seem to have 

acted up to their words. The town was completely 
triumphant ; hall after hall was burst open and gutted, 
heads were broken, chaplains were scalped (if we are 
to believe Wood), the Blessed Sacrament, which was 
being carried by the Grey Friars as a pacifying influ- 
ence, was itself treated with contumelv, and a good 
many of the scholars, and some of the townsmen, too, 
were left dead in the streets. But in the midst of 
their triumph misgiving fell upon the citizens, and 
an order was put forth by the leaders to stop all further 
attacks on the scholars. But the town was deserted, 
the scholars had fled en masse, and a Master of Arts 
sped to Lincoln to lay the tale of outrage before the 
Bishop. Vengeance was speedy and complete ; the 
town was laid undeij the ' greater ' interdict, and the 
King took the privileges of both the University and 
town into his own hands. The University received its 
privileges back within a week, and was shortly 
reinforced by a new Charter. To the Chancellor was 
given the assessment of taxes, the control of the streets, 
the ' assize ' of bread, beer and \vine, the ' assay ' of 
measures and weights, and, in fact, the general 
management of municipal affairs. The Mayor was 
lodged in the Marshalsea ; the Corporation was 
condemned to pay a very heavy sum to the University 
by way of indemnity ; and the Mayor, Bailiffs and sixty 
of the principal citizens had to attend each year on 
St. Scholastica's Day a solemn mass, for the repose of 
the slain, at the University Church. They were in 
addition to pay at least a penny each as a contribution 
on this Occasion in aid of poor scholars, and this 
humiliating custom lingered on into the reign of Charles 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London 

Oxford Cathedral. 


II." Matters remained in this position for a century 
and a half, until in the beginning- of the Sixteenth 
Century the citizens began to assert their rights. They 
refused the customary penance at St. Mary's and 
claimed the privileges of citizens. The University 
appealed to Wolsey, and it was by his aid that " the 
refractory Corporation were brought to a proper state 
of subjection " ; the Cardinal having obtained from the 
King a new Charter giving to the University the entire 
management of the trade of the town, and the right of 
himself to try all cases in which a member of the 
University was concerned, with no appeal to be allowed 
against his decisions ; upon receipt of which, in 1528, 
the citizens made their submission to this further 
humiliation. Wolsey's fall and retirement having taken 
place the following year (1529), the Mayor in 1530 
refused to attend and take the oath, for which he was 
excommunicated, his sentence being published in the 
parish churches. When the mass was abolished at 
the Reformation, another attempt was made to evade 
the humiliating ceremonial, and it was omitted for 
fifteen years, when the University entered action against 
the City for its restoration, resulting in a continuance 
of their attendance at a litany at St. Mary's and the 
payment of the pence. This ceremony, in a modified 
form, was continued until the year 1857, when Mr. 
Isaac Grubb was chosen Mayor, having stipulated that 
he would refuse to take the oath. The University were 
authorized by Convocation to take proceedings, but 
after some litigation gave way, and consented to 
abolish the oath. Thus ended, after 500 year's con- 
tinuance, a custom \vhich was most objectionable to 

the citizens, and which did not reflect any credit upon 
the University. 

Conflicts between the students and citizens are now 
things of the past ; the incorporation of University 
representatives in the Council of the City undoubtedly 
affording the best means of removing any cause of 
friction between the two bodies. 

The Camera. 

THIS fine building (formerly called the Radcliffe 
Library) was begun in 1737 and opened with 
great ceremony in 1749, by the trustees of the 
will of Dr. Radcliffe, the founder. He also left 
^40,000 for its erection, besides endowments for the 
Librarian's salary and for the annual purchase of books. 
It was built from the design of James Gibbs, a Scotch- 
man, and a member of St. Mary Hall. It is a circular 
building 100 feet in diameter, with a basement forming 
a double octagon, and a superstructure of Corinthian 
style, surmounted by a lofty dome with cupola, sup- 
ported on a continuous arcade of circular arches. The 
basement is now enclosed and with the room above 
contains nearly 200,000 volumes, principally of works 
published since 1851 ; the original library of medical 
books having been removed in 1861 to the University 
Museum. The dome is 80 feet from the floor of the 
Library and is richly ornamented with stucco. Around 
the base of the dome it is encircled with open stone- 
work, and from this height of 100 feet a magnificent 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Oxford Cathedral : Interior. 


panorama of the whole of the city and many miles of 
the surrounding district can be obtained, the distance 
round the building" being 170 yards. One of the most 
notable and magnificent pageants that the University 
has ever witnessed took place in this Library. On the 
1 4th day of June, 1814, the Prince Regent, the Emperor 
of Russia, the King of Prussia, the Duke of York, and 
many other royal personages and nobility, to the 
number of nearlv 200, were entertained here by the 
University in the most magnificent manner. It is said 
that the splendour of the fete could only be exceeded 
by imaginary scenes of Oriental description. The 
tables were loaded with elegant plate, the dresses of 
the company were superb, and many of them unique ; 
as over their court dresses and regimentals, all the 
princes, noblemen, and gentlemen who had received the 
honorary degree of D.C.L., wore the scarlet Academic 
robes of that degree. 

Bodleian Library. 

THE commencement of the history of this world- 
famed Library is the room over the old Congre- 
gation House, at the east end of St. Mary the 
Virgin Church, and is attributed to Thomas Cobham, 
Bishop of Worcester, and dated about 1320. The 
oldest portion of the present building is that over the 
Divinity School, founded by Duke Humphrey o f 
Gloucester in 1445. Sir Thomas Bodley, of Merton 
College, it is said, "found the walls bare, and not a 

volume of the previous stores remaining " ; the Com- 
missioners of Edward VI. having committed great 
destruction at Oxford. He re-fitted and restored it in 
1602, and in 1610 added the east wing. The number 
of MSS. are estimated at about 27,000, and the printed 
volumes, bound up, nearly 600,000, besides numberless 
old, rare, and original copies. The second floor of the 
quadrangle is partly used as a Picture Gallery ; and 
contains besides, various models, busts, and curiosities. 
Many valuable books and manuscripts are exhibited 
under glass in the reading room. This Library, by 
agreement with the Stationers' Company in 1610, has 
had a right to a copy of every book registered with 
the Company since that date, and it is one 
of the five libraries which receive new publications 
under the Copyright Act. The rooms are open to the 
public daily, subject to a fee of threepence. 

Schools' Tower. 

ON the eastern side of this quadrangle is the gate- 
way known as the Tower of the Five Orders, 
built by Thomas Holt, c 1620, and carefully re- 
faced in 1882 at a cost of ^6,000. It is an extremely 
interesting example of mediaeval work, ornamented 
with pairs of Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and 
Composite columns, with a sitting statue of James the 
First presenting copies of his works to the University. 
In the tower of this gateway the records of the 
University are kept. 

Photo by Hills <fc Saunders. Oxford. 

Old Divinity School, from Exeter Gardens. 


The Divinity School 

is a magnificent room, built in the Perpendicular style 
and completed in 1480, principally through the munifi- 
cence of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and Thomas 
Kemp, Bishop of London. The oak work is dated 
1669, and in 1702 it was restored, and extra buttresses 
built on the south side. It had originally very fine 
stained glass windows, which were destroyed in the 
reign of Edward VI., leaving the splendidly groined 
roof its principal feature of beauty, adorned as it is 
with elaborately carved pendants and shields of arms. 
This room was the scene of the trial of Ridley and 
Latimer when brought before the Commissioners to 
answer for their heresies, " so openly maintained by 
them at Oxford " ; here also the House of Commons 
held its sittings in 1625, when driven from London on 
account of the plague ; and during the Civil War it 
was used as an armoury and storehouse for corn. 

Modern Oxford. 

THE recorded history of the City of Oxford has now 
reached a thousand years. From the earliest 
records it has been linked together with London 
in its associations with royalty, and at the present time 
the Charter still provides " that the Mayor of the City 
of Oxford shall be assistant-butler to the Mayor of 
London at the Coronation feast." Kings and princes 
have had their palaces, and held their courts and 
parliaments here ; and in the present generation our 
royal house has honoured Oxford by sending their sons 

to this University for their education. During the last 
six centuries the rapid growth of the University, with 
its beautiful buildings and educational advantages has 
materially altered its features, the result of which has 
been that during the last half of the Nineteenth Century 
Oxford made marvellous progress. Many things 
have contributed to make Oxford the beautiful City it 
is to-day, and to give to it that world-wide renown as 
the " City of Learning." Add to these things its beauty 
and the beauty of its surroundings, and w r e cannot 
wonder at finding a present day writer expressing 
himself as Meade Falkner does in his History of 
Oxfordshire, recently published " That it is the most 
beautiful City in the United Kingdom few unbiassed 
persons will be found to deny many will say that it 
is the most beautiful in Europe and w r hen to its 
beauty are added its intellectual facilities, its easy 
distance from London, and the pleasant associations of 
young and healthy life, which have on most constitu- 
tions a vigorating influence, the great increase in its 
residential population is easily accounted for." In 1801 
the population was 12,279, and in 1901 it has increased 

to 49.4 I 3- 

One of the latest developments of its municipal life, 
and one that is unique to the City of Oxford, is the 
recent appointment by its Council of a Committee from 
its own body, who have power to co-opt other 
members from outside the Council, as a Visitors' Com- 
mittee. That the voluntary services rendered by this 
body are appreciated is abundantly proved by the large 
increase of visitors who year by year come under the 
organisation of this Committee (See advertisement of 
Visitors' Committee). 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Balliol College. 


The High Street. 

" O ye spires of Oxford ! domes and towers ! 
Gardens and groves ! your presence overpowers 
The soberness of reason ; till, in sooth. 
Transformed, and rushing on a bold exchange, 
I slight my own beloved Cam, to range 

'/ Where silver Is^s leads my stripling feet 

' Pace the long avenues or glide udown 

The stream-like windings of that glorious street, 

An eager novice, robed in fluttering gown " Wordsworth. 

THIS, the principal street of the City, has been fre- 
quently quoted by authors as one of the most 
beautiful streets in the world. Sir Walter Scott, 
writing of it in his Provincial Antiquities, says, " It 
cannot be denied that the High Street of Edinburgh is 
the most magnificent in Great Britain, except the High 
Street of Oxford." The Daily Telegraph, in an 
article in 1872, says, " The visitor here beholds the 
finest sweep of street architecture which Europe can 
exhibit. . . . For stately beauty, that same broad 
curve of colleges, enhanced by many a spire and dome, 
and relieved by a background of rich foliage, is abso- 
lutely without parallel." Since the date at which this 
was written two blocks of new handsome buildings 
have been erected, further increasing its beauty the 
new Examination Schools, which have been built at a 
cost of ; 1 00,000, and the new front to Brasenose 
College, immediately adjoining the University Church. 
Fortunately for the harmony of the buildings, both 
these important works were carried out from the 
designs of Mr. T. G. Jackson, R.A. The Schools, 
being an excellent example of English Renaissance, and 
the Brasenose front, with its tower, entrance gateway, 
and fine range of oriel windows, have added much to 

the beauties of " the High." The length of the street 
is 2,300 feet, it being 80 feet wide, and, what is of 
much greater importance in regard to its further 
improvement, is that both the City and University vie 
with each other in the present day to enhance its 
beauties by re-building" in accordance with the best 
characteristics of the street, and in further widening 
the thoroughfare. 

Government of the City. 

HENRY II., in 1161, granted a Charter to Oxford, in 
the preamble of which he professes only to con- 
firm the liberties which the place had enjoyed 
under Henry I. By a new Charter, given by Richard 
I., Oxford was given the same laws and liberties as 
were enjoyed in London, the Guilds were established, 
and the Corporation allowed to levy all kinds of taxes 
and dues. Richard also gave the town a Mayor and 
two Aldermen, and appointed the Mayor to be sub- 
butler under the Lord Mayor of London at the 
Coronation Feast. By a Charter of Henry III., the 
Aldermen were increased to four, and the Mayor was 
required to be presented to the Barons of the Exchequer, 
the same as the Mayor of London. In the time of 
Edward III., it is recited in a Charter that all pleas 
relating" to matters, real and personal, arising in the 
town or its liberties are to be determined before the 
Mayor and Bailiffs. Some few years later, in 1354, 
occurred that great conflict between the University 
and town which resulted in an " interdict " being laid 

The Largest Furniture Factory in Oxford. 

P. Cross, 






NO. I, 2 ^ 3, Pembroke Street 


NO. 31 & 32, St. Aldate's. 

(Sarved Oak Jurniture, 
Gfjurel) "Work and 
Jnterior fitments. 

Customers own designs 
promptly carried out at 
the lowest cost. 



Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Christ Church. 


upon it, the privileges which had been granted to it 
were taken away, and a new Charter was granted to 
the University, giving to that body not only the general 
management of the municipal affairs, but the entire 
control of the trade of the town, the Mayor also being 
imprisoned, and the Corporation compelled to pay a 
large indemnity to the University. Several centuries 
passed by before the Corporation succeeded in fully 
recovering its privileges and freeing itself from the 
humiliating penalties that were imposed upon it. [This 
era of its history is dealt with more fully under the 
heading of " Town and Gown Feuds."] It was as 
recent as 1858 that the Mayor succeded in freeing 
himself from taking the oath of fealty to the University, 
in the words " do swear to keep the liberties and 
customs of the University." 

Under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, tne 
City Corporate Body was re-modelled. It was then to 
consist of Mayor, Sheriff, 10 Aldermen and 30 Coun- 
cillors, the City being divided into four wards. This 
body lasted until 1864, w r hen the body was named the 
Local Board, consisting of the Vice-Chancellor and 
Mayor, 16 members elected by the Corporation, 17 by 
the ratepayers, and 15 by the University. In the year 
1889, under the Municipal Corporations Act, the 
Council was again re-constituted, having the powers 
of a City Borough Council conferred upon it. It now 
consists of oo members one-fifth of whom represent 
the University ; viz.: the Mayor and Sheriff, 12 Alder- 
men, 36 elected representatives of four wards, and 12 
elected representatives of the University (three of whom 
are elected from their own members as Aldermen). 

The Mayor and Sheriff are elected annually, the Alder- 
men for terms of six years, and the Councillors retire 
by rotation after each three years' service. 

Municipal Buildings. 

THIS very fine block has but recently been erected, 
and w 7 as opened with much ceremony by His 
Majesty the King (then the Prince of Wales) on 
May 1 2th, 1897. The style of architecture, which is a 
combination of Elizabethan and Jacobean, is in entire 
accord with much of the new work in Oxford, and 
affords additional beauty to St. Alda-te's Street, without 
reflecting on the beauties of Christ Church, situate just 
below it. The front elevation is arranged in three 
portions, the central block being carried up above those 
on either side, and treated more elaborately : the front 
of this block is divided into three bays, the lower part 
consisting of three semi-circular arches, the centre one 
being the entrance ; those on either side enclosing 
windows. Between this and the upper windows is a 
broad scroll running the whole length of the building. 
The Assembly Room is over the entrance, shown by 
the three large mullioned windows, flanked by octagonal 
towers, finished with capping and vanes. The space 
above the windows has a cornice and open balustrade, 
connecting the turrets with an ornamental gable 
adorned with the statue of Queen Victoria and the City 
Arms, and crowning this is an octagon cupola with 
vane. The two other blocks flanking this on each side 
are of four windows of the same semi-circular arches, 


with two fine oriel windows above, and dormers above 
these, each with three lights, and elaborately finished 
semi-circular gables ; whilst at the angle over the 
entrance to the Public Library is a larger turret, of 
similar design to those in the centre. The whole of the 
work is of Clipsham stone, from the designs of Mr. 
H. T. Hare, of London, upon whom the work reflects 
the greatest credit. The cost to the City was between 
^"90,000 and ^100,000. One important and valuable 
consideration is that it provides accommodation for the 
whole of the working staff of the City Council, including 
the offices of the Medical and Sanitary Inspectors. It 
also includes the Sessions Court, with Jury Rooms, 
Police Station, and Drill Hall, and even the large Public 
Library of three floors. 


is approached by a fine stone staircase into an arcaded 
upper hall, surrounded by a dado of polished Hopton 
wood, stone and marble. The ceiling is vaulted in 
enriched plaster, and the windows are fitted with 
stained glass containing various coats of arms. 

The Hall itself is a grand room of no feet by 55, 
surrounded on three sides by galleries, and at the east 
end is an orchestra with accommodation for 200 per- 
formers, and a grand organ by Willis, of Camden Road, 
London, furnished at a cost of about ^2,000. It has 
been built and decorated in accordance with the best 
style of Renaissance work, the beauty of the ceiling and 
gallery fronts being particularly noticeable ; its seating 
accommodation is nearly 2,000. The contrast upon 
entering this roora after visiting the old College build- 

ings cannot fail to surprise and gratify the visitor, and 
is a fitting -finale to a day's visit to the City. 


is a fine lofty room, 64 feet by 32 feet in width, and is 
situate in the centre of the building fronting St. Aldate's 
Street, being immediately over the principal entrance. 
The oak panelling, which is a noticeable feature over 
the whole of the buildings, harmonises exceedingly well 
with the style of the room. An Elizabethan fireplace, 
constructed in stone and marble, is set off with an 
artistic minstrels' gallery above it. The room is 
capable of accommodating about 600 persons. Adjoin- 
ing and opening from this room is the Committee 
Room, and immediately adjacent the Mayor's Parlour ; 
in both of which the characteristics of the Assembly 
Room has been thoroughly exhibited by the architect. 
The fireplace in the Mayor's Parlour was saved from 
the old building, and adapted to its new surroundings, 
whilst above it is particularly noticeable a fine old piece 
of oak carving. 


has been specially constructed to accommodate the 
number of members under the new Corporate Act. It 
is excellent in its every detail ; its oak panelling, 
windows, ceiling, and strangers' gallery all being in 
entire accord with the other parts of the building ; the 
comfortable roomy seating accommodation for its sixty 
members being very noticeable. The high windows 
are calculated to show off the beautiful ceiling, and 
portraits of many of the former benefactors of the City. 


Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Corpus Christ! College. 



Immediately under the Town Hall is a large room of 
71 feet by 55 feet, which is, as its name implies, used 
for drill purposes of the Police Force, whose quarters 
immediately adjoin. It is also used for shows and 
catering for large parties, it giving seating accommoda- 
tion for 550 persons. There is a large corridor adjoin- 
ing of 10 feet wide, giving separate access from Blue 
Boar Street. 

The Public Library 

is situate at the south corner of the main building. The 
approach to this department is by a stone stairway, 
leading to the principal reading room, capable of allow- 
ing 200 readers at one time ; the ladies' room, and the 
lending department. The Library has made rapid 
strides since its opening in 1854, after a poll of the 
ratepayers had declared in its favour. It has a very 
fine room on the second floor, which is used as the 
reference department ; and the basement during nine 
months of the year is used as a children's reading-room, 
from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m., both sexes being admitted under 
fourteen years of age. This step has been adopted 
experimentally during the last two winter seasons, 
and has proved so very successful, at a small cost, 
that it is improbable it will ever be discontinued. 

Martyrs' Memorial. 

THIS monumental statue of the Decorative style of 
building is erected at the northern end of the 
Churchyard of St. Mary Magdalen, facing the 
broad thoroughfare of St. Giles. It was designed by 
the late Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A. , on the model of the 
Eleanor Cross at Walham, and is beautiful both in 
design and in execution. It is 72 feet in height, includ- 
ing a basement of steps, and was erected in 1841, at 
a cost of ^5,000. The amount being raised by public 
subscription as a protest against the Tractarian move- 
ment, which was then very vigorous, encountered a 
great deal of opposition, but was successfully carried 
out. The statues and the niches afe of Caen stone, 
that of Ridley facing Balliol College, Latimer facing 
Beaumont Street, and Cranmer facing St. Giles. On 
the north side is the following inscription: 

" To the Glory of God, and in grateful commemoration 
of His servants, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Hugh 
Latimer, Prelates of the Church of England, who, near this 
spot, yielded their bodies to be burned ; bearing witness to 
the sacred truths which they had affirmed and maintained 
against the errors of the Church of Rome ; and rejoicing 
that to them it was given not only to believe in Christ, but 
also to suffer for His sake ; this monument was erected by 
public subscription in the year of our Lord God, MDCCCXLI." 

At the same time as the erection of this memorial, 
the Martyrs' Aisle was added to St. Mary Magdalen 
Church adjoining, on the north side, in which was 
placed the door of the prison in which they had been 
confined, with its lock and key, the prison having been 
demolished in 1771. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Tapestry in Exeter College Chapel. 


The memorial does not mark the spot on which the 
Martyrs suffered ; this took place at or near a spot 
marked with an iron cross in the centre of the road 
opposite Balliol College, at the western end of Broad 

The Colleges and the 
University Church. 

IN his Memorials of Oxford Ingram says " Accord- 
ing to the general accounts of history and tradition 
there was a church or chapel on this spot in the 
time of Alfred the Great, it being positively said to have 
been built by him and annexed to the school, college, or 
university which he founded or restored aft^r the 
ravages of the Danes. His place or royal mansion 
adjoining it, called by himself, in his Laws ' King's 
Hall,' corroborate the claims which have been advanced 
for the high antiquity of the place." A variety of smail 
chapels \vere in course of time attached to the old 
church, many of which were entirely obliterated by 
subsequent alterations, but the names of some of them 
have been preserved, and are known as St. Ann's 
Chapel, St. Catherine's, St. Thomas', the Royal, and 
Our Lady's (now known as Adam de Brome's) Chapel. 
The Royal Chapel, now known as the Old Congregation 
House, is still an interesting relic. A deed executed in 
the year 1201 is said to have been " given in our house 
of Congregation." There is reason to conclude that 
it was built by Henry I. ; for in his Charter of 

Confirmation of St. Frideswide's Church and Monastery 
in 1 1 22 he describes this establishment as "looking 
towards his own chapel." From the earliest history 
of University life this Church has taken an important 
part ; but whether it was Saxon or Early Norman as 
some authorities state, it was largely re-built just before 
the close of the Twelfth Century. 


This building, erected on the north side of the present 
chancel, is of the date 1320, and with the library over 
it, are attributed to Thomas Cobham, Bishop of 
Worcester. It was restored in 1871. Adjoining, but 
on the other side of the tower entrance, is Adam de 
Brome's Chapel, first Provost of Oriel College, re-built 
in 1328. The large altar tomb is that of the founder. 
Near this Chapel, under the Tower, are some of the 
oldest memorials in the building ; the brass and 
inscription of William Hawksworth, third Provost of 
Oriel, being dated April 8th, 1349. In the early days 
of the University, all its public functions were held 
in this building, including the meetings of Congrega- 
tion, the granting of degrees, and the sitting of the 
Chancellor's Court ; it w r as also used as the library and 


The simplicity of this Tower is in beautiful contrast 
to the abundance of decorated pinnacles and niches, the 
largest of which are enriched with statues, 7^ feet in 
height. The pinnacles are lined with a profusion of 
pomegranates, in honour of Eleanor of Castile. The 

1'hoto by Hil/s <( Snunders, Oxford. 

Hertford College. 


height of the spire from the basement is 197 feet. It 
was erected about 1310, and re-built about 1490 ; it was 
again restored in 1861, and recently, it having been 
found that the pinnacles and statues at the base of the 
spire were in a dangerous state, a re-construction was 
carried out by Mr. Jackson during 1896-8 of the spire 
and decorative work, new figures being added, at a 
total cost of nearly ^ 12,000. 


is said to owe its foundation to Walter Lyhert, Provost 
of Oriel College, 1435-45, wno afterwards became 
Bishop of Norwich. It is lighted by lofty windows 
reaching almost to the roof, and is still a beautiful 
specimen of Fifteenth Century work. It has many old 
memorial slabs, amongst which is that of Amy Robsart, 
of Sir Walter Scott's " Kenilworth," who was buried 
at the east end of the Chancel in 1560 ; the spot having 
been accurately ascertained by Dean Burgon, he, in 
1874, placed an inscription above it, which is to be 
seen at the foot of the altar steps. In 1674 Dr. 
Bathurst, the Vice-Chancellor, gave ^300 to repair the 
chancel with black and white marble, the necessity 
for which is said to have been caused by the large 
number of royalist burials which took place during the 
Civil W T ar. 


is divided from the chancel by a modern stone screen, 
above which is the organ. At the beginning of the 
reign of Henry VII., the University, through the bene- 
factions of others, built almost a new r church, producing 

a magnificent nave and side aisles, following the line of 
the earlier chancel. The nave consists of seven bays, 
lighted by spacious windows, both chancel and nave 
having open timbered roofs. On the north side of the 
nave is the canopied seat of the Vice-Chancellor, and 
the stalls occupied by the Heads of Colleges, Doctors 
and Proctors. Amongst the many stirring scenes that 
have been witnessed in this church, none probably have 
been more tragic, nor produced greater consternation 
amongst those present, than on that memorable occa- 
sion when Cranmer was brought here to publicly recant 
his Protestant opinions. " Having lifted up his hands 
in prayer," instead of recanting he boldly repudiated 
all Romish doctrine as being " contrary to the truth," 
adding, " As for the Pope, I refuse him as Antichrist." 
Then followed great uproar, the preacher, Dr. Cole, 
Provost of Eton, shouting " stop the heretic's mouth." 
The great west end window was filled with stained 
glass in 1891, in memory of Dean Burgon, of 
Chichester, who was formerly Vicar of St. Mary's. 


This magnificent entry from the High Street was 
erected by Morgan Owen, chaplain to Archbishop Laud 
in 1637, a t a cost of ^230. Its twisted columns and 
rich adornments are not only picturesque, but also 
unique, and blend beautifully with the character of the 
building. Over the porch is a statue of the Virgin and 
Child, which was defaced soon after its erection ; and 
which was made one of the articles of impeachment 
against the Archbishop during his Chancellorship of 
the University, it being worded in the indictment as the 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Jesus College. 


" Scandalous statue of the Virgin Mary with Christ 
in her arms." It is recorded, that in 1642, when the 
Parliamentary troops, under Lord Saye, were leaving 
Oxford they fired off their pistols as they marched 
away up the High Street, and shattered the heads of 
the Virgin and Child over the door of St. Mary's and 
the image of Our Saviour at All Souls' Gateway. They 
would have done more damage but for the urgent 
remonstrance of Mr. Alderman Nixon and others of 
the townsmen. The porch and the figures were 
restored in 1865 by the late Sir Gilbert Scott. 

The length of the church to the street is nearly 200 
feet, it being 54 feet broad, and the height of the nave 
roof is 70 feet. Taken altogether it is probably the 
most beautiful feature of High Street. 


Founded by Henry Chichele, afterwards Archbishop 
of Canterbury, jointly with King- Henry VI., and styled 
" College of the Souls of all the faithful people deceased 
at Oxford " in the year 1437. The statues of both the 
King- and Archbishop are over the entrance gateway in 
High Street, and also a canopied niche with a group of 
figures rising from the dead. The principal front, of 
over 250 feet in length, has entrance gates to east and 
west quadrangles, and is of two stories, with embattled 
parapet. It has also a western frontage to Catherine 
Street of about 450 feet, with a fine gateway of iron 
work shewing the interior of the inner quadrangle, one 
of the prettiest of all the quadrangles of Oxford. The 
front quadrangle, 124 feet by 72 feet, remains very 

much as when first erected, with the chapel imme- 
diately opposite the entrance gateway. The inner or 
new quadrangle, of 172 feet by 155 feet in breadth, 
and formed by the library on the north, which was 
beg-un in 1716, and was not finished for 40 years, and 
by the building of the cloister on the western side in 
1734. On the opposite side are the common-room, 
and fellows' chambers, relieved in the centre by two 
lofty embattled towers with pinnacles, in Gothic style. 
The very fine sun-dial, constructed so as to show the 
minutes, is dated 1653. 


called the " Codrington Library " from the founder, 
Colonel Christopher Codrington, Fellow of the College, 
who was a great benefactor, and bequeathed the sum 
of ^10,000 and books of the value of ^"6,000. It is 
built in the Italian style, is 200 feet long, and contains 
with ease over 80,000 volumes ; it has a gallery on 
three sides, and the ante-library has so^e stained glass ny 
of the same date as the foundation of the College. In 
addition to 24 busts, cast in bronze, of eminent Fellows 
of the College, there is also a fine statue in marble, by 
Bacon, of Sir Wm. Blackstone, and a statue of Colonel 
Codrington, by Cheere. 


begun in 1729, has handsome windows representing 
College worthies, and contains a large picture by Sir 
J. Thornhill, '' The Finding of the Law: King Josiah 
Rending his Robe." There are busts of Bishop Hebei 
and Archbishop Chichele, and numerous portraits, 

Photo by Hills & Sounders, Oxford. 

Keble College. 


amongst which are those of Henry VI., Archbishop 
Chichele, Archbishop Sheldon, Archbishop Vernon, 
Colonel Codrington, and Sir Christopher Wren. 


is approached by a vaulted passage-way at the north- 
west corner of the front quadrangle. It is 70 feet long 
by 30 feet broad, and wac consecrated in 1442. Its 
interior was wrecked in 1549 by the visitors of Edward 
VI., and its beautiful reredos destroyed. 

Between 1664 and 1715, in the several restorations, 
the open roof was converted into a flat ceiling and 
decorated, and the battered reredos plastered over and 
painted with "The Last Judgment," by Robert Streeter, 
which afterwards had substituted for it the " Assump- 
tion of the Founder," by Sir James Thornhill. After 
the lapse of another 150 years since the last restoration, 
during which the existence of a previous reredos appears 
to have been forgotten, an accidental discovery of some 
fragments was made by men repairing the roof in 1870. 
A general restoration of the Chapel was made in 
1872-76, the building being carefully restored under 
the care of Sir Gilbert Scott, including the removal of 
the ceiling and the construction of the reredos. This 
latter work, which is said to be the finest of its kind 
in this country, was executed at a cost of ^3,000, 
which was defrayed by Earl Bathurst, who was at the 
time Senior Fellow of the College. It consists of three 
tiers of elaborately carved niches, containing 35 
statues of kings and nobles, apostles, ecclesiastics, and 
fathers of the Church ; and nearly 100 statuettes, 
including the leading characters of the Old and New 

Testament. In the apex, near the roof, is a representa- 
tion of the Last Judgment, and over the Communion 
Table is represented the Crucifixion. The whole of 
the carving was executed by Geflowski, of London. 
Just above the altar are three richly decorated panels in 
relief, by Kemp, the subjects being the Deposition, the 
Entombment, and the Resurrection. The five windows 
on each side of the Chapel are in brilliant colours, and 
add much to the beauty of the building. The large 
west window of coloured glass in the ante-chapel is by 
Hardman. The " Noli me Tangere " of Raphael 
Mengs, representing our Saviour's appearance to Mary 
Magdalen in the garden, now hanging in the ante- 
chapel, was at one time the altar-piece ; the sum of 
300 guineas was paid to the painter for this picture, it 
being painted at Rome. 


The exact date of the foundation of the College is 
doubtful, but the year 1266 is assigned as its probable 
date. The statutes of the foundation are still preserved 
and were compiled in 1282, bearing the seal of Dervor- 
guilla, the widow of the founder, Sir John de Balliol, 
father of the King of Scotland of that name. The 
foundation is dedicated to the " Honour of the Holy 
Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Catherine, and the whole 
Court of Heaven." The scholastic attainments of 
Balliol College have become very high during the last 
century ; its students, in their examinations, securing a 
larger proportion of " firsts " than generally falls to the 
lot of individual colleges. This is probably largely due 

Photo by Hills & Saundcrs, Oxford. 

Lincoln College. 


to the new departure of the college authorities in pro- 
viding" a larger number of " open " scholarships and 
requiring" higher merit to be shown in their matricula- 
tions, which has secured to this foundation higher 
merit than the average " freshman." Balliol College 
has a very extensive front both to Broad Street and 
from the Broad, north to St. Giles, until it almost 
reaches St. John's College. The re-building of the 
Broad Street front was completed in 1869, whilst the 
new west frontage, opposite the Martyrs' Memorial, 
was added in 1853. Entering the Front Quadrangle 
from Broad Street, we have facing us the 


The former was built in the middle of the Fifteenth 
Century, and amongst its treasures are several early 
manuscript editions of the Bible, and the original 
Statutes of the College. The original Chapel was 
dated 1529, the present building having been erected in 
1857. The east window representing the Passion, 
Resurrection, and Ascension, was presented in 1529 by 
Dr. Stubbs, and was deemed so valuable at the time 
that Nicholas Wadham offered 200 for it, that he 
might place it in the Chapel of the College he was 
about to establish. The windows of Van Linge, of 
Flemish design, on the north and south aisles, are 
dated 1637, an d represent Philip and the Eunuch, and 
Hezekiah's Sickness and Recovery ; the other windows 
being portraits of Saints and Scriptural subjects. 

Proceeding through a small archway in the left-hand 

corner of quadrangle we approach the second quad on 
the north side of \vhich is the New Hall, completed in 
1876. The style of this second quadrangle is unique to 
Balliol, it being the only one in the University that is 
studded with large elms and chestnuts, beneath whose 
shade students may carry on their studies. The Hall 
is approached by a fine flight of steps, the basement 
being occupied by the Common Room, Buttery, and 
other offices. It is an exceedingly beautiful Hall, with 
fine windows and an organ presented by the late 
Master, Dr. Jowett, at a cost of over 1,000. It 
contains portraits of eminent members of the college, 
including the founder and his wife, Cardinal Manning, 
Dr. Jowett, Robert Browning the poet, Archbishop 
Tait, and John Wycliffe, from the original Lutterworth. 
who was Master of the College, 1360. 


Having been erected in the reign of Henry VIII., 
cannot fairly be described as one of the ancient colleges, 
but this college, like nearly all the others, stands on 
the site of some of the earliest educational buildings, 
no less than five halls being merged at its foundation: 
Brasenose Hall, said to have derived its name from a 
brazen-hus or brew-house ; " Little University Hall," 
which occupied the north-east angle near the lane, 
being described by some antiquarians as " one of those 
halls that King Alfred built." On the south side stood 
Salisbury Hall, and further south, where the modern 
Chapel stands, Little Edmund Hall, the fifth being 
Edmund School. Four other halls were afterwards 
purchased on the east side known as Haberdasher's 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Magdalen College : Cloister Quadrangle. 


Hall, Black Hall, Staple Hall, and Glass Hall, three 
of which were afterwards surrendered to make room 
for the Radcliffe Library. The foundation stone was 
laid in the south-west corner of the quadrangle in 1509, 
by Bishop Smyth and Sir Richard Sutton, and is called 
by the Charter " the King's Hall and College of Brase- 
nose." The quadrangle remains in its original state 
except that a third story was added about the time of 
James I., the hall and tower-gateway retaining much 
of their former grandeur and picturesque effect. The 
old frontage of the college occupies nearly the whole 
of the western side of Radcliffe Square ; whilst ;\ 
handsome new frontage, with an embattled tower 
gateway fronting the High Street, was erected in 1887, 
the four oriel windows adding much to the beauty of 
the street. The two quadrangles show a marked 
difference in character, partly due to the lack of space 
in the new one, but principally to the artistic effect 
introduced into the modern buildings. The College 
derives its name from old Brasenose Hall, existing in 
1270, which is supposed to have been named from its 
knocker fixed in a nose of brass, which is perpetuated 
in the gilt nose over the entrance gate. The original 
" nose " from which the name is derived was removed 
to Stamford, when, as Anthony Wood relates, the 
students migrated thither in 1334, endeavouring to 
establish another University, transferring the name 
of their Oxford home, taking with them the " nose." 
Until the year 1880 the knocker remained upon the 
door of the house they occupied, when it was removed 
for safety ; and in 1890 the College purchased the 
property and recovered the relic which had been lost 

to them for over five centuries ; it is now treasured in 
the Dining" Hall, being secured to the wainscotting. It 
consists of a large knocker-ring passing through a 
brass face between ihe nose and mouth. The well- 
known piece of statuary, " Samson Slaying the 
Philistine," better known to Oxonians as " Cain and 
Abel," which stood in the centre of the quadrangle, 
was removed in 1881, having stood there from the 
year 1727. 


The Hall is entered through a curious porch, un- 
doubtedly the original work, over which are two busts 
of King Alfred and John Erigena, supposed date 1300. 
The former is said to have ben discovered in the laying 
of the foundations of the College. The principal 
features of the Hall are a fine bay window at the upper 
end filled with painted glass and a massive chimney- 
piece presented in 1760. Amongst many portraits are 
those of Bishop Smyth and Sir Richard Sutton, King 
Alfred and Lord Chancellor Ellesmere. The design ot 
the Library, which has been attributed to Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, is singularly interesting as a connecting 
link between the ancient and modern architecture. The 
interior was fitted up in 1780, a new arrangement being 
required through the large bequest of Principal 
Yarborough. L T ndsr the Library were formerly cloisters, 
a curious portion of which is still seen in the entrance 
to the Chapel. 


The present building was consecrated, having been 
ten years in building, in 1666 ; also from the designs of 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Magdalen College : River Front. 


Sir Christopher Wren. It has a very fine east window, 
the old glass having been entirely replaced by Mr. C. E. 
Kemp in 1896, and several memorial windows also of 
stained glass. In 1894 the Chapel underwent partial 
restoration, and its roof and ceiling were given a great 
deal of attention, the latter receiving elaborate decora- 
tion and ornament. There is a very fine ante-chapel 
attached, which has an excellent window dated 1776, 
by Pearson, the gift of Principal Cawley, containing 
figures of Christ and the four Evangelists. 


This Society, which is much larger than any of the 
Colleges of Oxford, was founded by Cardinal Wolsey 
in the year 1525, and was called Cardinal College. 
Had he been able to carry out his original intention to 
provide for 200 scholars, an enlargement of the front 
quadrangle would have taken place on the north side. 
To provide the funds for his scheme permission was 
granted to him to suppress twenty-two convents and 
priories, including St. Frideswide Priory with its 
revenue of ^,300 a year, and divert these revenues to 
his buildings. The Church of St. Michael, which stood 
at the south gate, was also destroyed to give room for 
the quadrangle. A patent was granted by Henry 
VIII., dated July i2th, 1525, for the foundation as 
" /Edes Christ! Thomae Wolsey," and the foundation 
stone was laid on the i7th July, by Dr. Longland, 
Bishop of Lincoln, with great pomp and ceremony, 
who preached from the text " Wisdom hath builded her 
house." The first portion built is said to have been 
the kitchen and hall, which adjoins the only portion 

that is left of the old building of St. Frideswide, the 
building south of the Cathedral, which was the original 
Refectory, and was until 1775 used as the Library of 
the College. The rest of his completed work was the 
south and east sides, and part of the west front of 
the quadrangle, including the Tower, named " Faire 
Gate," which was carried up to the level of the parapet ; 
being afterwards completed by Sir Christopher Wren 
in 1682. W^olsey having fallen from the King's 
favour, in the year 1532 Henry VIII. re-founded the 
College, and named it King Henry VIII. 's College, 
dedicating it to the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary and 
St. Frideswide, and endowed it with a revenue of 
^2,000 a year. In 1546, a new patent was created, 
by which it was re-established and connected with 
the new Bishopric of Oxford under the name of Christ 
Church ; the Church of St. Frideswide being made the 
Cathedral. The buildings remained in this unfinished 
state until Dr. John Fell was appointed Dean (1660), 
and w r ho was afterwards Bishop of Oxford ; he 
attempted the completion of the north side of the 
quadrangle, succeeding in finishing the portion with 
the entrance at the north-east corner, and nearly com- 
pleting the north buildings ; but the Civil War breaking 
out they were left unfinished, and later were completed 
by his son, John Fell, together with the unfinished 
portion of the west front to St. Aldates. His statue is 
over the north-east corner entrance, facing Wolsey's 
over the hall entrance. He also employed Wren to 
complete the Tower, and place there the great bell 
from Osney Abbey, now known as "Great Tom," re- 
cast in 1680, and weighing nearly i8,ooolbs., being 

1'hoto by the Phot.och.rom Co.. LffJ ., London. 

Magdalen Tower. 


5t't. gins, high, and 7ft. lin. in diameter. It was first 
rung" on May 2gth, 1684, and every night since, as a 
signal for the closing of the College gates, it has rung 
its 101 strokes at five minutes past nine ; this number 
being the same number as the students of King 
Henry's foundation. By the north-east archway is 
approached another large quadrangle, called Peck- 
water, deriving its name from an ancient hall 
the property of Ralph Peckwater, who gave it 
to St. Frideswide's Priory in the reign of 
Henry III. Another ruin called Vine Hall with 
other buildings was added to it in the reign of 
Henry VIII., and were formed into a quadrangle in 
the middle of the Seventeenth Century. In 1705, the 
east, west and north sides were re-built after a design 
by Dean Aldrich, and made into the new quadrangle ; 
the Library on the south side being begun in 1716 was 
not completed until 1761. A smaller quadrangle called 
Canterbury Quadrangle (from Canterbury College, 
founded 1363, bv Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury), was given to the College by Henry VIII. 
Between 1775 and 1783 this quadrangle was re-built 
chiefly at the expense of Dr. Robinson, Primate of 
Ireland. The principal ornament is the magnificent 
Doric Gateway erected in 1778. A new range of 
buildings was added to the College in 1862-66, occupy- 
ing a length of 35oft. at a cost of -20,000, and over- 
looking the Broad Walk and the College Meadows. It 
consists of accommodation for 50 members with a 
central tower gateway goft. high ; the buildings being 
of three stories with dormes in the roof. The main 
front of the College to St. Aldates, being Wolsey's 

foundation, is about 4ooft. in length, with a projecting 
wing at both ends adorned with oriel windows reaching 
to the parapet ; " TOP Gateway " in the centre being m 
set back under dwarf projecting towers, with Wolsey's 
Statue above. 


This building occupies nearly half of the southern 
side of the large quadrangle, which is 264^. by 261 ft. 
the dimensions of the Hall being iisft. long, 4oft. 
wide and 5oft. wide. It is a magnificent room, and is 
said to be only equalled by the Hall at Westminster ; 
it was built in i52g, but having been damaged by fire, 
was in 1720 repaired. The roof is of Irish oak pro- 
fusely decorated with the armorial bearings of Henry 
VIII. and Cardinal Wolsey. The sides are half-wains- 
cotted, having a handsome cornice with shields of 
arms beneath. At the upper end is a very fine oriel 
window, filled with heraldic glass in 1867 by the late 
Archdeacon Clerke, in honour of the present King 
Edward and His Royal Highness the Crown Prince of 
Denmark, both Students of Christ Church. The 
window 7 has also full-length portraits of Cardinal 
Wolsey, Sir Thomas Moore and other members. A 
very large number of portraits adorn the walls by the 
best masters, including Sir Joshua Reynolds, Vandyke, 
Sir J. Millais, Holbein, Gainsborough, Hogarth, 
Herkomer and Professor Richmond. Amongst recent 
portraits added are those of Dr. Pusey, Dr. Liddon 
and Mr. Gladstone by the late Sir J. Millais. Amongst 
the numberless worthies who have made Christ Church 
famous from being educated there, we may mention a 







few of the century just closed, with whom many living 
to-day were acquainted, viz. : Lord Canning, Lord 
Dalhousie, Lord Elgin, Lord Salisbury, Mr. Gladstone, 
Lord Rosebery, Dr. Pusey. John Ruskin, Canon Liddon 
and Dean Liddell. 

This grand building, in Corinthian style, occupies 
the whole of one side of Peckwater Quadrangle. It 
was built from the design of Dr. Clarke, Fellow of All 
Souls' College and M.P. for the University, and is 
1 42ft. long by 3oft. wide ; its fitting up being very fine 
and its ceiling richly ornamented, whilst its pillars and 
wainscotting are of Norway oak. The building was 
completed in 1761, and was repaired in 1829. The 
lower portion of the building is devoted to a Picture 
Gallery with statues and busts ; whilst the upper floor 
has a very fine collection of books, manuscripts, and 
coins. In the Picture Gallery are several original 
specimens of early masters previous to painting in oils, 
including Madonna and Child between a Crucifixion, 
date 1300 ; Christ in the Temple (on wood) ; St. 
Francis, 1275, arid; n\any others of equal interest. 


This world-known Walk, in which during the present 
generation " Show " Sunday, being the Sunday in 
Commemoration Week, was a great feature in the 
proceedings of " Commem. at Oxford," was made 
during the time of Dean Fell, about 1660. It is said 
that some of the old elms standing to day were planted 
by his order. The waste materials from the building i 

works of both Wolsey and Fell were used for raising 
the walk. Anthony Wood (born 1632), records that 
" he had heard from old men that they used to row up 
to Corpus and obtain drink from the buttery^." The 
Walk, formerly known by the name of the " Long 
W T alk," is about a quarter-of-a-mile in length, with 
seats on both sides, and forms a delightful promenade. 
The New Walk, 600 yards in length, was made .n 
1868, and leads to the Isis, the scene of the boat-races. 
The Meadows are a mile-and-a-quarter round, and 
with the exception of the Broad and the New Walks, 
are encircled by the Isis and the Cherwell, both being- 
kept in excellent order at the expense of Christ Church. 
They are always open to the public, and are much 
frequented by visitors ; the scene upon the river, 
especially during Term, being very attractive. 


is situate between Christ Church and Merton College 
Tower. It was founded in 1516 by Richard Fox, 
Bishop of Winchester, whose intention was to erect a 
seminary for a company of monks from the Monastery 
of St. Swithun at Winchester ; but acting under the 
advice of Hugh Oldham, the Bishop of Exeter, he 
altered his plans. Marshall's Diocesan Histories 
states that Richard Fox did not refuse to listen to the 
advice of Hugh Oldham, who was more far-sighted 
than himself ; for when he proposed to become a bene- 
factor of the College, it was upon the condition that 
he (Fox) abandoned the design of making it a home 
for monks, whose end and fate they might live to see, 
and make a College for secular students, who by their 

Wfe- -n 1 

c v 


T3 60 

O (fl 

< s 


learning" might do good to Church and Commonwealth ! 
Bishop Oldham then contributed the handsome sum 
of 6,000 marks towards the building- expenses. The 
quadrangle, 101 feet by 80 feet, was completed in 
1517, and embattled about 1609, another story being 
added on the north and west sides in 1737, with further 
restoration during the last century. The principal 
front is facing Oriel College, and consists of an 
embattled frontage of three stories, with a gateway 
tower of four stages. The front is ornamented with 
a good oriel window and rich canopied niches, with 
a curious piece of sculpture representing Angels 
bearing the Host. The beautiful tracery of the vaulted 
roof of the entrance gateway is very noticeable. A 
curious sundial stands in the centre of the quadrangle, 
designed by Charles Turnbull, a Fellow of the College 
in the Sixteenth Century. 

Throueh the cloister is another more modern range 
of buildings overlooking Christ Church Meadows. 
They were erected in 1706, on the site of the old 
cloisters, by President Turner, at a cost of ^"6,000, 
being 1 19 feet in length. Extending from its south 
front is the. Fellows' Garden, in which on the south 
side may be found traces of the old City wall. 


has a good roof of Perpendicular work, but is an 
unpretentious building of 50 feet by 25 feet. It was 
re-wainscotted and ceiled about 1700, and again restored 
in 1857. It contains various portraits, amongst which 
is an original one of the Founder on panel, and those 
of various Bishops who have been connected with the 

College. The Library is rich in rare MSS. and 
ancient volumes, amongst which are some vellum 
copies printed in 1466. 


was erected in 1517, and enlarged in 1677, and the 
floor re-laid in black and white marble, and a cedar- 
wood screen set up. The east window is Perpendicular 
in style, and has a very fine picture by Rubens as an 
altar piece, representing the " Adoration." It was 
presented to the College in 1804, by Sir Richard 
Worsley, formerly a member ; who purchased it from 
the Prince of Conde's collection at a cost of ^2,500. 
There is a very old eagle lectern, p-iven by John Clay- 
mond, the first president, who died 1537, and whose 
brass, with effigy in a shroud, and twelve verses 
remains nearly perfect on the south side of the ante- 
chapel. At the east end is a gallery, between the 
chapel and the president's lodgings, containing the 
portraits of the seven Bishops committed to the Tower 
ay King James II. 


The foundation of this College was under the name 
of Stapleton Hall, in the year 1314, it being founded 
by Walter de Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, who removed 
hither his scholars from Hart Hall. In 1404, Edmund 
Stafford, Bishop of Exeter, altered the name to the 
present one, and established fellowships. Sir William 
Petre added largely to its endowment during the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and reforming the statutes, 
established it as a College in 1565. The main frontage 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Merton College. 


to the College, situate in Turl Street, is 220 feet in 
length, having an embattled four-storey gateway tower, 
which has been re-built on three occasions, 1595, 1703 
and 1834 ; extensive repairs took place in the latter 
year under Mr. Underwood's supervision, the whole 
front being re-faced. A large house was erected by 
Dr. Prideaux, rector 1612-1642, behind his house, for 
the accommodation of the foreigners who were 
attracted to the College by his great" reputation, which 
was afterwards added to the College buildings. In 
1856 a new quadrangle was added under Sir Gilbert 
Scott, with a northern frontage to Broad Street. This 
has also a gateway tower, the whole building being in 
Modern style, and is about 150 feet in length. In the 
Fellows' Garden, a secfuded and beautiful spot at the 
back of the front quadrangle, are two noted trees: the 
large chestnut at the farther end being known as 
" Heber's Tree," as it directly overshadows the rooms 
of Brasenose College, occupied by Bishop Heber ; and 
a fig tree at the entrance, known as Dr. Kennicott's 
fig tree, the story being that on one occasion when the 
figs were ripe he attached a label " Dr. Kennicott's fig 
tree," for which a wag substituted another label, " A 
fig for Dr. Kennicott." 


The Hall is a noble room, with fine timber roof, and 
was built by Sir J. Acland in 1618. It was last restored 
in 1872. Beneath the Hall is a Crypt, which has been 
attributed to St. Mildred's Church, which formerly 
stood near this site, but during recent years it has been 
converted into a store-room. Amongst many notable 

portraits ate those of Sir William Petre, Sir Walter 
de Stapleton (the founder), Charles I., Queen Elizabeth, 
Lord Justice Coleridge, Dr. Mackarness (late Bishop 
of Oxford). The Library, which is in the Fellows' 
Garden, was built in 1856, from designs by Sir Gilbert 
Scott. It is not so rich in old and rare works as many 
of the College libraries, many treasures having been 
lost by a fire in 1709. 


The original Chapel was built in 1326 for Stapleton 
Hall, and stood in the present Fellows' Garden. In 
1624 a new Chapel was erected by Dr. Hake will, fellow 
of the College, at a cost of ^"1,400, on the site of the 
present building, which gave way for the present 
magnificent Chapel, designed by Sir Gilbert Scott in 
1857-9, an d built at a cost of nearly ^"20,000. It is 
designed after the style of the celebrated Sainte 
Chapelle of Paris, the dimensions being: length, 91 
feet ; width, 30 feet ; height to roof, 84 feet: its style 
being Decorated Gothic. It has been frequently and 
rightly described as a gem of beauty, for no one can 
behold the harmony of its many details in stained 
glass, its columns with carved capitals, its mosaics 
and marble, its fine roof and wood carving, without 
being struck with its extreme beauty. The principal 
feature of attraction was added to this Chapel in 1890 
by the placing on the wall, near the altar, of tapestry- 
hangings of extreme beauty, representing the " Adora- 
tion of the Magi," with life-size figures. It was 
designed by Sir E. Burne Jones, D.C.L., and executed 
under the care of the late William Morris, M.A., both 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Merton College and Christ Church Towers. 


Honorary Fellows of the College, at the works of 
Morris and Co., Tiverton, near Wimbledon. 


Has an eventful but interesting history. Founded by 
t/ Elias de Hereford, it was known as Hart Hall, and had 
existed as a hall for students from 1284. A Mayor of 
Oxford, named Sir John Docklington, purchased it in 
1301 from the founder's son for ^20, and in 1312 
granted the lease to Walter de Stapleton, founder of 
Exeter College, who placed students there until his 
College was ready for them. It was afterwards used 
by William of Wykeham, founder of New College in 
X 379> f r tne same purpose. In the year 1740, the 
Rev. Richard Newton, of Christ Church, who was in 
1710 appointed Principal of Hart Hall, obtained a 
Charter to convert the Hall into Hertford College ; but 
principally on account of insufficient endowment it 
never flourished, and, in 1805, as no qualified person 
ould be found to accept the office of Principal, the 
foundation ceased to exist, and the buildings having 
become ruinous, in 1818 its small endowment was 
granted to the sole remaining Fellow, Richard Hewitt, 
for life ; after which it fell to the University. In 1816 
a special Act of Parliament was obtained by Magdalen 
College, by which they acquired the site of Hertford, 
and having erected two new blocks of buildings 
opposite the Bodleian, they occupied them in 1822, 
and re-named them Magdalen Hall. In 1874 another 
Act of Parliament was obtained by which the founda- 
tion of Magdalen Hall was dissolved, and the old name 
of Hertford College restored. 

The buildings consist of a single quadrangle, which, 
until 1888, were in two detached blocks of three stories 
each, united by a high wall with rusticated gateway, 
erected in 1820 by Magdalen College ; but in 1878 the 
space of 80 feet was filled with buildings of somewhat 
similar character, but in elaborate style, the centre 
being occupied by an entrance gateway, having a lofty 
arch flanked by four fluted pilasters, with handsome 
capitals, and also adorned with a shield bearing in 
relief a hart lapping at a brook. The dining hall and 
common room entirely occupy the first floor of this new 
building ; the former being a fine room of 60 feet by 
27 feet, having an oak chimney-piece, beautifully 
carved, and oak wainscotting. A new set of buildings 
was erected in 1890, facing New College Lane, com- 
pleting the quadrangle. The remaining buildings 
formed part of the ancient Hart Hall, and its successor, 
Hertford College, included in which is the Chapel, an 
uninteresting structure in Italian style, erected by 
Richard Newton, the last Principal of Hart Hall, in 
1715. The old Hall on the north side contained 
portraits of John Tyndale, the translator of the New 
Testament ; Lord Chancellor Clarendon, Thomas 
Sydenham the physician, and several bishops. 


is remarkable as being the first College of Protestant 
origin, being established in 1571, on the site occupied 
by four of the old halls, Elm, Hawk, Lawrence, and 
White Halls. For a long time the buildings were poor 
and incomplete, until the appointment of Sir Leoline 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Manchester College. 


Jenkins as Principal in 1661, when, through his munifi- 
cence it began its course of prosperity. It has, from 
its foundation by Dr. Hugo Price, mainly drawn its 
students from Wales, although there is no provision by 
statute that it should do so. Its foundation was of a 
very modest character, Dr. Price giving estates of the 
value of 160 a year, which were allowed to accumu- 
late to ^.7 before the buildings were commenced, 
Queen Elizabeth contributing timber from the woods 
of Shotover and Stow, and a portion of the site, 
including the religious house called White Hall. The 
College consists of two quadrangles, being immediately 
opposite Exeter College, facing both the Turl and 
Market Streets. The principal front was re-built in 
1856 in the style of the Sixteenth Century, and has 
an embattled gateway tower, with turret. Over the 
entrance is an elegant oriel window, the front being 
completed with the eastern end of the Chapel. The 
inner quadrangle is larger than the front one, being 
100 feet by 90 feet ; its building was completed in 1677, 
and similarly to the front consists of three stories. 


is a spacious, lofty chamber and was given by Sir 
Eubule Thelwall. It has a very fine oriel window of 
20 lights, projecting into the inner quadrangle, and 
also has an elaborately carved screen. The portraits 
include Queen Elizabeth, Charles I. by Vandyke, and 
Charles II. Amongst the treasures of the College 
in the Bursary is preserved a silver-gilt punch-bowl, 
presented by Sir W. W. Wynne in 1772. It weighs 
278 ounces, its height one foot, and its girth five feet 
two inches, holding nine gallons. 


built in 1621, was lengthened by additional chancel in 
1836, and was carefully restored in 1864. It has an 
appropriate motto over the entrance, " Ascendat 
oratio, descendat gratia " (Let prayer ascend, and 
grace descend). Its east window, of the date 1636, is 
Late Go<thic, and in 1856 was filled with stained glass, 
representing the types and anti-types of Christ, the 
Resurrection of J aims' Daughter, the Son of the Widow 
of Nain, and Lazarus. A former altar-piece, a painting 
ten feet by seven feet, representing St. Michael over- 
coming Satan, being a copy from Guido, and the gift 
of Viscount Bulkeley, has been removed to the south 
wall. The front and sides of the chancel are of 
alabaster, relieved with marble columns, with an altar- 
piece in relief, representing scenes of " the Crucifixion." 
It has also a carved screen separating the ante-chapel, 
with a decorated timber roof ; whilst the floor is of 
marble, relieved with decorated tiles, the altar steps 
being particularly fine. 


This is the latest of the Colleges erected that is 
included in the University as a Corporate body. It is 
situate near the Church of St. Giles, being opposite the 
University Museum ; and was founded in 1868 as a 
memorial to the Rev. John Keble, author of " The 
Christian Year," and to promote plain living and the 
doctrines of the Church of England. The site of about 
four-and-a-half acres was purchased from St. John's 
College for ^7,000, and the foundation stone laid on 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Mansfield College. 


April 25th, 1868, by Archbishop Longley, of Canter- 
bury, the first cost of building having been ^50,000. 
The College was incorporated by Royal Charter in 
1870, and on the 23rd day of June, was opened by the 
Marquis of Salisbury, the Chancellor of the University. 
The building is very much in the style of Early Gothic, 
but the free use of the coloured brickwork has Imparted 
an appearance entirely distinctive from the other 
Colleges. The buildings consist of two quadrangles of 
variegated brick, with bath stone dressings ; the 
entrance being through a gabled tower in the centre of 
the east front, supported by buttresses. The large 
quadrangle has a very striking appearance, no other 
College, excepting Christ Church, shewing the style 
of the raised broad terrace surrounding the grass plots, 
which are well set off at this College by the colour of 
the surrounding buildings. 


The Hall is one of the largest in Oxford, being 127 
feet by 35 feet. Both rooms are approached by a very 
fine staircase, having a lofty roof, and being lighted 
with an oriel window. The Hall has on one side a pro- 
jecting gallery, supported by three arches ; it is panelled 
all round, and has traceried windows, with a fine 
timbered roof. The portraits include Archbishop 
Longley, Dr. Pusey, Rev. John Keble, Dr. Liddon, 
W. Gibbs, Esq., the Bishop of Rochester, and others ; 
whilst the Library contains busts of Dr. Pusey and 
John Keble, by Richmond ; and also of Cardinal 
Newman, by Woolner. The cost of erection of both 
the Hall and Library was borne by the Gibbs family. 


This is a superb building, entirely different from the 
style of any other Chapel in the University. It was 
built from the designs of Mr. Butterfield, being com- 
pleted in 1876, at a cost of ^"60,000, and was the gift 
of the late Mr. William Gibbs, of Tyntesfield, near 
Bristol. It is 125 feet in length by 35 feet in width, 
and 95 feet high. The interior is' of brickwork, the 
walls being adorned with Scripture pictures in coloured 
mosaics, composed of marble, granite, and alabaster. 
The whole of the windows are of stained glass, showing 
the Prophets, Apostles and Evangelists ; the windows 
being exceptionally high, making room for the panelled 
mosaics below them. At the west end are three 
mosaic panels, exhibiting the Second Coming of our 
Lord, attended by Angels. In the centre, St. Michael 
the Archangel, is dividing the saved from the lost. A 
small side chapel has been erected on the south side, 
in which is placed Holman Hunt's great picture, " The 
Light of the World," which was presented to the 
College by the late Mrs. Combe, of Oxford (cost 
; 10,000). This picture was presented with a view of 
increasing the income of the foundation, and therefore 
a small charge is made for admission to the ante- 
chapel ; tickets for which are had from the porter at 
the gate. 


This College was founded in 1429 by Richard 
Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, to counteract the influence 
of the teaching of Wycliffe, and was to be " a little 
College of true students in theology, who would 

J'/ioto by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

New College. 


defend the mysteries of the sacred paee against those 
ignorant laics who profaned its most holy pearls." It 
was originally semi-monastic, and rather a hostel for 
theologians than a College. It was built on the site 
of St. Mildred's Church and Churchyard. Bishop 
Fleming dying before much was done for its establish- 
ment, the College fell into great straits for want of 
further endowment, and in 1478 Bishop Rotherham, 
who succeeded Fleming as Bishop of Lincoln, re-con- 
stituted it, obtaining another license from King Edward 
IV. The College was named after the See of Lincoln ; 
Fleming's license from Henry VI. stating that it should 
be known as " The College of the Blessed Virgin and 
All Saints, Lincoln, in the University of Oxford." 
The eastern part of the inner quadrangle was added 
about 1630, and an extra wing providing accommoda- 
tion for fifteen students was added in 1882 on the site 
of the " Grove," at a cost of ^"9,000. The greater part 
of the College retains its original character, the oldest 
portion being the kitchen, which is said to occupy the 
site of an ancient Hall, dated 1300, which the thickness 
of walls, and its high open timbered roof seem to 

The entrance to the quadrangle from Turl Street is 
by an embattled tower gateway, with a groined roof. 
On the opposite side of the quadrangle, which is 80 
feet square is 


a handsome building, built in 1436, and repaired in 1701 
and 1835. The fine old timbered roof was covered in 
with a plaster ceiling in 1701, when it was refitted with 

new wainscot work ; this plaster work being removed 
in 1889, it is now restored as it was originally built. 
Amongst many portraits are those of the founders, and 
Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, formerly Rector of 
the College. 


situate in the second quadrangle, is a well- 
proportioned Gothic building 62 feet in length and 26 
feet in breadth. The whole of the interior is fitted with 
cedar wood, some of the carving being specially notice- 
able. It is dated 1631, having been built at the expense 
of Dr. Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of York. The windows are particularly good 
examples, the colouring being remarkably distinct. It 
is said they were procured from Italy in 1629 by Bishop 
Williams. The large east window is divided into six 
compartments, and represents Old and New Testament 
subjects, as types and anti-types: the subjects being, 
the Creation of Man and the Nativity of Christ ; the 
Israelites passing through the Red Sea and the 
Baptism of Christ ; the Passover and the Lord's 
Supper; the Brazen Serpent and Christ on the Cross ; 
Jonah delivered from the Whale and the Resurrection 
of Christ ; Elijah in the Fiery Chariot and Christ's 
Ascension. The windows on the north side represent 
twelve Prophets, and those on the south side the twelve 

In the ante-chapel is Wesley's pulpit, from which he 
preached when a Fellow 7 of the College ; he was elected 
from Christ Church to a Fellowship at Lincoln in 1726. 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

New College : Garden Front. 



deserves special notice, as it was the only College 
Library in Oxford that escaped the ravages of the 
Commissioners of Edward VI., when so many valuable 
works were so ruthlessly destroyed. It was first 
erected at the expense of Dean Forest ; it was restored 
in 1590 and in 1656. In 1739 it was re-fitted, and it 
now contains many valuable MSS. and books, including 
a MS. copy of Wycliffe's Bible. 


Anthony Wood says, " Magdalen is the most noble 
and rich structure in the learned world," and this state- 
ment made three hundred years ago is held by many 
to be equally true to-day. It was founded by William 
Patten, of Waynflete, who in 1457 secured the site of 
the old Hospital of St. John the Baptist, standing 
outside the City gates, being immediately adjacent to, 
or perhaps partly occupying, the old Jewish burying 
ground. This Hospital is supposed to have been the 
original foundation, and carries us back more than 
two centuries earlier than the foundation of the College; 
as between 1231 and 1233 Henry III. re-built or 
enlarged " the Hospital leading from the east gate to 
the Cherwell," over which was an ancient bridge in 
1004. The Hospital continued under the name of 
Almshouse until 1607. The old doorway, called the 
" Pilgrim Gate," is still to be seen near the foot of 
the tower facing High Street, filled in with stonework. 
In consequence of the troublous times, however, and 
that Waynflete lost favour with the King, his chapel 

was not commenced until 1474, and at his death in 
1486 his buildings were not completed. The new 
society being temporarily lodged in the Hospital build- 
ings received their Charter of Foundation in 1548. 
Magdalen College from its foundation received a large 
amount of royal patronage ; Edward IV. in 1481 came 
from Woodstock to Magdalen, sleeping there and 
attending chapel service. Richard II. also paid a visit 
t\vo years later, and was much gratified with his 
entertainment there. Prince Arthur, brother to Henry 
VIII., was several times entertained there. James I. 
also brought Prince Henry, heir apparent to the 
throne, to Magdalen, and he was later followed by 
Prince Rupert, nephew to Charles I. 

The College is beautifully situate at the eastern end 
of the City, at the foot of Magdalen Bridge, being 
bounded on the east side by the River Cherwell, which 
runs into the Thames a short distance below. It has 
a frontage, 570 feet from north to south, and 330 feet 
to the High Street, but the beauty of its buildings are 
the interior quadrangles, which, with its Grove and 
Walks, occupy an area of nearly 100 acres. 

At the entrance by the porter's lodge is St. John the 
Baptist Quadrangle, with its quaint stone pulpit in 
the corner, from which the old custom of preaching a 
sermon on St. John's Day has recently been revived, 
in commemoration of the Baptist preaching in the 
Wilderness ; on which occasion the congregation 
assemble in the quadrangle and the ground is strewn 
with rushes and grass. Adjoining is the west doorway 
of the Chapel, adorned with the figures of St. John the 
Baptist, 'St. Mary Magdalen, St. Swithun, Edward 








IV., and the founder. The splendid tower on the right 
is named the Founder's Tower, with statues of St. 
Mary, St. John, Henry VI., and the founder. On its 
first floor is a very fine banquetting room with oriel 
windows at each end. Facing the entrance gateway 
are the President's lodgings, re-built in 1888 ; adjoining 
which stands a remnant of old Magdalen Hall, properly 
known as " Grammar Hall," it having been erected by 
the founder as a school connected with the greater 
foundation. The pretty little bell-tower still remains, 
and is said to have the bell used in Waynflete's 
School. The new buildings on the west side are St. 
Swithun's Quadrangle, built in 1887, the new front to 
High Street being nearly 200 feet in length. Entering 
the inner quadrangle by way of the chapel entrance is 
the cloistered quadrangle, the cloisters having been 
built in 1473, excepting the south side, which were 
added in 1490 ; in 1822 they were restored. A series 
of allegorical figures ornament the buttresses, dating 
from 1509, and have attracted a great deal of attention 
from antiquarians. Passing from the cloisters we find 
another scene of entrancing beauty in the so-called new 
buildings erected in 1733, with wide and splendid lawn 
in front about 300 feet square, and the Grove, or Deer 
Park, at the further end. The buildings are in the 
Italian style, the lower storey being a piazza, with 
three storeys above. At the lowe-r end is the Cherwell 
stream, dividing the " Water Walks " from the 
Gardens, a most pleasant walk shadowed with trees, 
bounded by the river all the way round, in which is the 
far-famed Addison's Walk. The one other quadrangle, 
known as the Chaplain's Quadrangle, is at the foot of 

the Tower, and the Tower being erected from 1492- 
1507, this quadrangle immediately followed, being 
built, it is said, from the remnants of the old Hospital ; 
the wall on the right being part of the original building. 
The Tower is 150 feet in height, consisting of five 
storeys, and crowned with a rich, open battlement, 
with eight pinnacles. On May-day morning in each 
year at five o'clock, an old custom is still observed of 
the college choir singing the Latin hymn " Te Deum 
Patrem colimus " on the summit of the tower. 


built by the founder, and decorated with armorial bear- 
ings, is a spacious and well-proportioned room of 73 
feet by 30 feet. The date inscribed on the wainscot 
is 1541. It is adorned with oak panelling of linen-fold 
pattern, and at the west end has some remarkable 
carved figures, brought from St. Mary's Abbey. 
Reading. A very fine window is also at the west end. 
Amongst a large number of portraits a fine picture 
of Mary Magdalen, by Guercino ; Prince Rupert, 
supposed to be by Vandyke ; the Founder, Prince 
Henry, Addison the Poet, Bishop Fox, Founder ot 
Corpus Christi College, and others. The kitchen, 
adjoining, is particularly interesting, it being supposed 
to be the original building of St. John's Hospital. 


is on the right of the entrance gateway, and is generally 
acknowledged to be one of the finest in the University. 
The foundation stone of the College was laid in the 

Photo by Hills & Sounders, Oxford. 

Oriel College. 


middle of the high altar, the building of the College, 
progressing outwards from the Chapel, the Chapel 
being completed in 1480. In the ante-chapel, which 
is separated from the choir by a fine stone screen, 
above which is a magnificent organ, there is a fine 
painting in chiaro-oscuro by Christopher Schwartz, 
representing, "The Last Judgment," which was 
restored in 1794 by Egginton, by whom the other 
windows in the ante-chapel, were executed. In 1635 
the inner chapel was paved with black and white 
marble, and the interior fittings and decorations 
renewed. It was also provided with a handsome 
screen, a new organ, and painted windows. In 1649 
the stained glass and the building generally was 
seriously injured by the Parliamentary troops. In 
^33 a general restoration took place at a cost of 
;i8,ooo, the windows and the choir being re-fitted 
later with brilliant stained glass, and in 1864 the 
reredos was re-fitted with statues. There is a valuable 
painting, as an altar-piece, of Christ bearing the Cross, 
having doubtful authorship, it being traced back to 
one of the wrecked galleons of the Spanish Armada ; 
and over the painting, in the apex, is a sculptured 
representation of Christ appearing to Mary in the 
Garden by Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A., altogether pro- 
ducing one of the handsomest eastern decorations of 
all the College Chapels. There is a monument in the 
small ante-chapel near the altar, in memory of Richard 
Patten, father of the founder, erected in 1833, having 
been retrieved from Waynflete Church. 


The history of this College is of special interest, as 
exhibiting the model of all the Colleges of Oxford and 
Cambridge ; the statues of Walter de Merton having 
been very much copied by all later founders. Previous 
to the time of this foundation the students were 
scattered in inns and halls throughout the whole of the 
City, and were under very little control. A new era 
began with the foundation of Merton College, and its 
example was very quickly followed, to the great 
advantage and comfort of the scholars. As an inter- 
esting example of the stringency of the new regulations 
we quote the following from Clarke's Colleges of 
Oxford: " By the injunction of Archbishop Laud it 
was ordered that the College gates should be closed at 
half-past nine, and the keys given to the Warden ; none 
being allowed to sleep in Oxford outside the College 
walls, or even to breakfast or dine. In 1508 the 
College itself legislated against the growing practice 
of giving out-college parties in the City, and coming in 
late, 'even after ten o'clock.'' The first Charter is 
dated 1264, and was given by Henry III. " for the 
perpetual sustentation of twenty scholars dwelling in 
the schools of Oxford, or wheresoever else learning 
shall happen to flourish." In 1270 the founder ratified 
and confirmed his preceding endowment ; and again 
in 1274 is a Charter approving of the two former 
Charters, with the seal of Edward I. attached. In the 
following year to.the first Charter the founder obtained 
a piece of ground " about the Church of St. John the 
Baptist " from the Abbey of Reading. A royal confir- 
mation of the grant of the land was procured and a 





license for the enclosure of the ground, " for the better 
site of such his house of scholars." Other properties 
adjoining- fronting the street having been purchased, 
enabled the founder to complete a plan for a quadrangle 
with considerable frontage to St. John Street, with 
the Warden's lodgings occupying the east side, the 
chapel the west, and the hall, with kitchen, butlery, 
and other offices the south, with probably a small part 
of the small court now called " Mob Quad." The north 
side of the buildings, facing Merton Street, were 
altered about 1589, but the noble gateway, with its 
embattled tower, remains as built in 1416. In the 
front are two statues of Henry III. and Walter de 
Merton, and immediately over the gateway a curious 
piece of work, representing John preaching in the 


which is approached by a flight of steps, was so greatly 
altered a century ago that little more than the dimen- 
sions of its original structure can now be ascertained. 
The present porch was built in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and the Hall was about the same time 
wainscotted with oak, similar to those of New College, 
and Magdalen, which was removed in the alterations 
referred to in 1800 ; in 1872 an attempt was made to 
restore it to its ancient character by the late Sir Gilbert 
Scott, at a cost of 6,000. The outer door to the 
Hall is said to be all that is left of the old 
structure of 1280, and is particularly noticeable 
on account of its hammered iron hinge mountings, 
dated about 1330. 


was until late years the Parish Church of St. John the 
Baptist, which parish has now been incorporated into 
that of St. Peter-in-the-East, leaving the College 
services alone to take place here. It is built in the 
Decorated and Perpendicular styles, consisting of a 
choir and transept and a central tower. The choir, 
no feet in length, was begun in 1277, and has, besides 
the east window, fourteen others, seven on each side, 
of extremely beautiful decorative work, retaining a 
great deal of the original glass. The east window is 
often described as being the pride of the chapel. The 
seven liehts, executed by Price in 1700, show principal 
events in the life of Christ, the beautiful rose above 
exhibiting some old remnants and brilliant pieces filled 
in about 1850. In the altar-piece below the window is 
a painting of "The Crucifixion," by Tintoretto, 
presented by John Skip, a Gentleman Commoner of the 
College. The stalls, desks and flooring were restored 
in 1854 ; and the ceiling- was also re-constructed and 
decorated with figures of Prophets, Evangelists and 
Fathers by the Rev. John Pollen, Fellow in 1842-52. 
In the floor of the choir are nine brasses, the finest 
being those of John Bloxham, Warden 1357-87, and 
John Whytton, 1420 ; and a large full-length effigy of 
Henry Sever, Warden 1455-71. In the ante-chapel 
are monuments to Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the 
Bodleian Library, 1613 ; to Anthony Wood, the 
celebrated Oxford Antiquary, 1695 ; and to Sir Henry 
Savile, 26th Warden, 1622. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Queen's College. 



This College is under similar conditions to Mansfield, 
not being" intended for resident students. It was 
established at Manchester originally in 1786, and after 
removal to York, returned again in Manchester in 
1840, afterwards being transferred to London in 1853 ; 
it was finally settled in Oxford in October, 1889, in 
rooms in High Street. The Trustees having secured a 
site in Mansfield Road in 1891, the memorial stone was 
laid on October 2oth, and the College formally opened 
on October i8th, 1893, for the purpose of instruction 
in theology, without adopting any particular theological 
doctrines, such teaching to be open to students who 
have already graduated. 

The main buildings, which comprise three sides of a 
quadrangle, are in Gothic style, have a frontage to 
Mansfield Road of three stories, relieved in the centre 
by an embattled tower ; the Senior Common Room 
being over the gateway, the north wing being the 
Library, and the Chapel the south wing. On the first 
floor are the Professor^' rooms. 


This room, 80 feet in length by 30 feet wide, which 
was the gift of Mr. Henry Tate, at the cost of ^"10,000, 
is a very handsome room, having large bay windows, 
one of which is of stained glass, presented by the 
congregation of Cairo Street Chapel, Warrington. 
The Library already contains nearly 20,000 volumes. 


is a handsome addition to the beautiful Chapels of the 
Oxford Colleges. It consists of nave, and a raised 
portion fitted with richly carved oak stalls ; it has also 
a handsome oak screen, and on one side a screened 
chamber containing the organ, which was presented by 
Mr. George Buckton. The windows are specially 
striking, being all of stained glass from designs of 
Sir E. Burne-Jones, and were executed by Mr. W. 


was transferred to Oxford in 1886, by the Trustees and 
Council of Spring Hill College, Birmingham, who 
resolved, with the sanction of the Charity Commission- 
ers, to establish it here as a centre of evangelical work 
amongst members of the University. The buildings 
were erected in 1887-9 at a cost of about ^40,000, and 
occupy a portion of the old Cricket Ground of Merton 
College, near the LTniversity Parks. They are built 
in accordance with the Gothic style of the Fourteenth 
Century, from designs by Mr. Basil Champneys, of 
London, and are arranged so as to form three sides 
of a quadrangle, with the entrance gateway in the 
centre of the middle wing, surmounted by a square 
tower with oriel window ; an embattled tower being 
at its south-east angle. 


forms the eastern wing of the building, and although 
a plain structure, is very rich in its carved oak wood- 
work, especially in its canopied stalls, and the canopy 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Queen's College. 


of the pulpit. It is 84 feet long- by 40 feet wide, 
having 1 six bays with narrow side aisles, and an open 
roof supported by stone arches, with statues of divines 
in canopied niches. Two stained glass windows, the 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. Haworth, were added in 1890, 
and an oak screen erected to form an ante-chapel. A 
fine organ was also added in 1890, presented to the 
Colleg-e by Sir W. H. Wills, Bart., M.P. The Chapel 
service on Sunday mornings (and also at Manchester 
College) differs from the ordinary College services in 
allowing the public to attend, there being seating 
accommodation for 350 persons. On the exterior or 
east side of entrance doorway are figures of Origen 
and Bunyan. 

The western wing comprises the Library, 76 feet by 
33 feet, a w r ell-lighted room, special attention having 
been given to this in its building, with fine projecting 
windows and oak roof ; it also contains the larger 
lecture rooms, and the Principal's house with garden 
attached. The central portion of the buildings includes 
the dining hall, 41. feet by 20 feet, common room, 
professors' and other lecture rooms. The lawns are 
extensive, and have a pretty effect being in raised 


The title of " New " has clung- to the College for 
more than 500 years ; the original application being 
that it was " new " in the sense of the completeness 
and splendour of its buildings "and arrangements, as 
compared with the earlier colleges of the previous 
century. The foundation stone was laid with great 
pomp and ceremony on March 5th,- 1380, it being the 

fifty-fifth birthday of the founder, William of Wyke- 
ham. According to the founder's plan, which was 
carried out solely at his own expense, the College 
consisted of the principal quadrangle (which included 
the Chapel, Hall and Library), the Cloisters, the 
Towers, and the Gardens. The third story was added 
to the original building about the end of the Sixteenth 
Century. The front quadrangle is 168 feet long by 
127 feet wide ; the Cloisters, approached by a passage 
between the entrance g-ateway and the chapel, surround 
an area of 175 feet by 85 feet ; they have a ribbed roof 
of oak, and contain numerous monuments, having 
been consecrated as a burial place for the College in 
1400. The Garden Court w r as the next building, 
having been erected in 1682, somewhat after the style 
of Versailles, and it is terminated at the entrance to 
the Gardens by iron palisade and gates, 130 feet in 
length. A third quadrangle was added from 1872 to 
1898, the first portion being from the designs of Sir 
Gilbert Scott, and the later portion by Mr. Basil 
Champneys. The whole is in the Perpendicular style, 
consisting of buildings of four storeys, and having a 
frontage to Holywell Street of 370 feet, including a 
large tower gateway 80 feet in height, erected as a 
memorial to the late Alfred Robinson, Fellow of the 


> y* 

adjoins the Chapel on the east side. The first 
important alterations took place in 1504, when the 
wainscotting- and screen, which are in many places 
most curiously carved, were given by Archbishop 
Wareham. The old roof of 1386 was taken down 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

St. John's College : Garden Front. 


about 1790 and re-placed by a flat ceiling, which in 
1866 gave place to the present magnificent oak roof, 
the stained glass being placed in the windows also, 
at a total cost of ^6,000. The painting is a valuable 
one of the Caracci School, and is described in an old 
authority as " the Shepherds coming to Christ after 
his Nativity." It was presented by a former Earl of 
Radnor, and was over the altar in the chapel up to 
1790. The portraits include the founder, William of 
Wykeham ; Archbishop Chichele, Bishop Ken, Bishop 
Waynflete, and others. 


It is impossible in this brief notice to do justice to 
the extreme beauty of such a building as New College 
Chapel ; it is only to be realized by personal inspection. 
Its reredos, which is represented to have originally been 
of the utmost splendour and magnificence, shared the 
fate of those of All Souls' and Magdalen Colleges, the 
visitors of Edward VI. having removed the " images " 
and ordered the painted windows to be pulled down ; 
" but," Anthony Wood says, " the College not being 
rich enough, as they pretended, to set up new, promised 
that they would when they were in a capacity," so 
the windows escaped destruction. In 1550, " the 
niches, having been filled up with stone and mortar, 
were then covered with plaster, on whose removal in 
1695 some broken statues were discovered, and the 
whole re-fitted with various ornamental work in wood, 
gilding and painting. In the centre was the Saluta- 
tion of the Virgin Mary, and over the Communion 
Table was the Caracci picture. So the Chapel 

remained until 1788, when the decayed state of the roof 
causing repairs to be carried out, the old wall at the 
east end was once more discovered, with some remains 
of its beautiful niches and work, when the wall was 
restored under the direction of Mr. Wyatt to as near 
a resemblance of its original appearance as his genius 
and taste could conjecture." In 1876 the latest 
restoration of the Chapel began, under the superintend- 
ence of Sir Gilbert Scott. The plaster ceiling was 
re-placed by an oak roof ; the panelling and cornice, 
and also the organ-loft were largely re-placed with new 
w T ork ; the beautiful sedil^a was re-constructed, and \, 
the restoration of the reredos completed in 1894, with 
new grouping of the statues, the plan from the apex 
of the roof downwards representing a complete illustra- 
tion of the " Te Deum." The restoration on this 
occasion cost ^25,000. 

The inner Chapel is 100 feet long by 35 feet wide 
and 65 feet in height ; it is separated from the ante- 
chapel 80 feet by 36 feet, by a screen supporting a 
magnificent organ, re-built by Willis in 1875, with 33 
stops and nearly 3,000 pipes. The windows on the 
south side are Flemish, and supposed to be by Rubens' 
pupils ; the figures of saints, those on the north side, 
representing Prophets and Apostles, w 7 ere placed in 
1765 and 1774, and are by Peckett, of York. The 
founder's pastoral staff, of costly materials and 
beautiful workmanship, over 600 years old, is in a 
glazed recess on the left of the Communion Table. It 
is nearly seven feet high, of silver gilt, embellished with 
Gothic ornaments, and curiously enamelled with 
jewels, enclosing in the crook of it, the figure of the 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Somerville College. 


Bishop himself in a kneeling posture. In the ante- 
chapel is the well-known window of " The Nativity " 
by Jervais, designed by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In it 
space ten feet wide and eighteen feet high, is repre- 
sented the Nativity of our Lord, a composition of 13 
human figures, besides animals. On the left the 
painter has introduced the portraits of himself and 
Reynolds as adoring Shepherds. In the seven com- 
partments at the base of window are the w r ell-known 
figures by Sir J. Reynolds of Temperance, Fortitude, 
Faith, Charity, Hope, Justice and Prudence. The 
original drawings of these when sold in 1821 produced 


Mr. Hawthorne, in " Scarlet Letter " says, speaking 
of New College Gardens, " such a sweet, quiet, sacred, 
stately seclusion, so age long as this has been, cannot 
exist anywhere else." The grounds are thickly studded 
with deciduous trees and evergreens, with magnificent 
chestnuts and limes of ancient date, intersected with 
lawn and flower borders. Surrounding the gardens 
are a portion ^of the old, mediaeval City Walls, in excel- 
lent condition ; the founder entering into an agreement 
with the City, of whom he purchased the land " to keep 
the \\alls in good repair for ever." 


The proper foundation of this College dates from 
1324. In this year Adam de Brome, Almoner to King 
Edward II., obtained a license, dated April 2oth, to 
purchase a messuage in the town or suburbs of Oxford 

to found therein to the honour of the Virgin Mary a 
certain College of Scholars ; but in 1325-6 the King 
enlarged the original plans and became the founder. 
He (Adam de Brome) being already Rector of the parish 
of St. Mary, secured some property running parallel 
with High Street, which was already in use by Scholars 
of the University, and shortly after courteously surren- 
dered it into the King's hands, who having enlarged 
the original plans, became the founder in 1325-6 ; fully 
carrying out the wishes of his Almoner. By Charter 
dated 1326 the King constituted it " a perpetual College 
of Scholars for the study of Divinity and Canon Law," 
and appointed Adam de Brome the first Provost. 
Amongst the greatest benefactors of the College was 
Edward III., who, amongst other gifts, in 1328 granted 
" the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Oxford, with 
all its appurtenances, as a place of retirement for the 
Society in case of plague." 

The present buildings are comparatively modern, the 
south and w T est sides of the Front Quadrangle were 
re-built from 1621-42, and the north and east sides a 
little later ; whilst the second called the Garden Quad- 
rangle, was begun in 1719 and completed in 1817. 
The Entrance Gateway is opposite the Canterbury Gate 
of Christ Church, and has an embattled tower showing 
the Arms of Charles I., and a fine oriel window over 
the gate. The view from here of the approach to the 
Hall with its steps and canopied figures is particularly 


built with the Chapel, was completed in 1642. It is 
50 feet long and 20 feet wide, having one of the finest 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Trinity College : President's Lodgings. 


timbeied roofs in Oxford. Above the entrance, in 
canopied niches, are statues of Edward II., Charles I., 
and the Virgin and Child, which, with its semi- 
h//exagonal porch, makes a handsome entrance. 
Amongst the portraits are Edward II. on his throne, 
by Hudson ; Queen Anne, Sir Walter Raleigh, Thomas 
Arnold, John Keble, and Cardinal Newman. There 
are also two valued silver cups which were the gifts ot 
Edward II. about 1327, and Bishop Carpenter in 1476 ; 
one of which bears the following interesting inscription 
in Latin: 

Drink, gentle Sir, with moderation, 
And not from drunken inclination ; 
Thus health of body is provided, 
And strife of tongue may be avoided. 


situate at the south-east corner of quadrangle has seen 
several restorations, the last being in 1884, when a new 
east window was inserted to the memory of the 
Provost. The Chapel was completed in 1642, and was 
built with a transept ante-chapel, the greater part of 
which was taken into the inner Chapel at the restora- 
tion in 1884, by Mr. T. G. Jackson ; the screen was 
also thrown back and an organ erected over it. The 
window, representing the " Presentation of Christ in 
the Temple," dated 1767, which had been at the east 
end was also removed to the west end, giving place to 
a very fine stained glass memorial window, designed by 
Mr. Wooldridge, the subject being " The Adoration of 
the Magi." Stained glass windows were also added 
on the north and south sides of the Chapel. There 

are two marble monuments to the memory of Dr. 
Edmonds, D.C.L. , 1746, and Dr. Carter, Provost 
[708-27, the latter by Westmacott, executed in 1871. 
Amongst the noted men of the last century who 
have made Oriel famous are Pusey (who went from 
Oriel to his Professorship at Christ Church), Keble 
(elected Fellow in 1811 at the age of 18), Cardinal 
Newman, Whately, Archbishop of Dublin ; Hughes, 
author of Tom Brown's Schooldays ; Mr. Goschen, the 
present First Lord of the Admiralty ; and the late Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes ; whilst Sir Walter Raleigh was amongst 
earlier students. 


The history of this College is of special interest, as 
it is in its foundation purely local. It was founded in 
1624 by the Corporation of Abingdon from the endow- 
ments of Thomas Tesdale, of Glympton, and Richard 
Wightw r ick, Rector of Ilsley. Mr. Tesdale (who was 
the first boy placed in Abingdon School by its founder 
in 1563) being anxious to provide the boys of that 
school whh University education, left a srm of ^5,000 
for the purpose of endowing fellowships or scholarships 
at any College in Oxford. Before an agreement was 
completed between Balliol College and the Corporation 
of Abingdon (the trustees), they having the promise of 
the charity of Mr. Richard Wightwick, who also 
intended to found scholarships at Oxford, determined 
to found a new College in the old society at Broadgatejs 
Hall, which had partly belonged to the Abbey of 
Abingdon. They accordingly obtained letters patent 
from the King, James I., ordaining Broadgate^s Hall 


Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

University College. 


should be named Pembroke College, after the Chan- 
cellor of the University, the Earl of Pembroke. Four 
of the scholars are still elected from Abingdon School. 
The buildings, nearly all of which are modern, are 
Gothic in character. 

The front, re-built in 1830, is of two portions, each of 
three stories, with a battlemented parapet at right 
angles to each other ; in the angle on the north front is a 
gateway tower of four stages, with an oriel above the 
entrance and embattled parapet rich with panelling ; 
the front facing the east being the Master's lodgings. 
The buildings form two quadrangles, the Library being 
on the right of the entrance gateway. On the north 
side of the second quadrangle a range of new buildings 
was erected in 1846 about 150 feet in length, making 
the quadrangle complete ; and thereby transforming it 
into one of the prettiest and most attractive quadrangles 
in Oxford. 


The Hall, erected in 1848, is a fine building of five 
bays with an embattled tower and an elegant louvre in 
the centre of the roof. At the upper end of the south 
side is a tall oriel with three tiers of lights, reaching 
almost to the roof. The walls are hung with a large 
number of portraits, including the founders, Charles I., 
Queen Anne, Simon, Earl of Harcourt ; several Bishops 
and others. The present Library is the eld Refectory 
of Broadgate's Hall, and contains, amongst other 
treasures, a bust (by Bacon) of Dr. Johnson, a member 
of this College, whose rooms were over the gateway on 
the second floor. 


situate on the south side of the second quadrangle, 
was built 1728-32, it being a small structure of Ionic 
character, having pilasters between the windows and 
a panelled parapet ; its south side being upon the Old 
City Wall. In 1829 the Chapel was modernised, and 
has later been beautified, its decoration having been 
completed by Mr. C. E. Kemp in 1885. The windows 
were filled with admirable stained glass at the same 
time, but the series were completed in 1893 by the 
erection of two memorial windows to the late Dr. 
Evans, Master 1864-91. It has also a fine reredos of 
veined marble enclosing a painting by Cranke, of 
Rubens' "Christ after his Resurrection." The ceiling 
is a good example of decorative work. 


The front of this College, occupying 140 feet frontage 
to High Street, with its bold cupola, is one of the most 
striking features of the many beauties of " the High." 
The first buildings occupied by the Society are described 
as " Temple Hall and other buildings near St. Peter's 
Church. Cn this foundation in the year 1340 Robert 
Eglesfield, chaplain and confessor to Philippa, Queen 
of Edward III., founded the College, with its front 
opposite St. Edmund's Hall. In 1349 the King 
granted a patent for building the chapel, which 
remained in use until 1713, in which year the new 
chapel was begun. In 1710 the front quadrangle was 
commenced, which was completed principally through 
the benefactions of John Michel, of Richmond, a 

Photo by Hills & Sounder a, Oxford. 

Wadham College. 


member of the College. In 1778 an alarming fire 
destroyed, in a few hours, the whole of the western wing 
of the new quadrangle, which was re-built at a cost 
of over ^6,000, contributed by members of the College 
and their friends, including the sum of ,1,000 given by 
Queen Charlotte. 


The windows removed from the old chapel were 
painted by Van Linge in 1636, and being repaired by 
Price in 1715, are still in a good state of preservation. 
The two windows on the south side of the chancel 
represent " The Ascent from the Sepulchre " and " The 
Ascension." In those on the north side "The Resur- 
rection of the Dead" and "The Last Judgment." In 
the windows on the south side of the chapel are " The 
Adoration of the Magi " and " The Descent of the Holy 
Ghost," the other two being figures of a bishop, popes 
and saints. On the north side are " The Last Supper " 
and " The Salutation," with early fathers. The ceiling, 
of excellent stucco, is decorated with a painting of 
'' The Ascension," by Sir James Thornhill, and in the 
middle window is " The Holy Family," by Price ; 
beneath which is a copy of Correggio's " Night," in 
the Dresden Gallery. This building, of 100 feet 
in length, with its Corinthian columns, valuable 
windows, and fine decoration, is one of the best 
examples of restoration in the University. 


was built in or about the same year in which Provost 
Lancaster laid the foundation stone of the first quad- 
rangle (1710), the design of which is supposed to have 

been Sir Christopher Wren's. The room is a noble 
one in proportion and effect, and is embellished with 
portraits and arms of founders and benefactors, whilst 
in the gallery adjoining are similar portraits. An old 
custom still exists in this College, dating from the days 
of the founder, of summoning the members to dinner 
by blowing a trumpet, the usual course being the 
ringing of a bell. In this Hall also is still carried on 
that well-known ceremony of the " Boar's Head " 
procession accompanied by the singing of a carol. The 
traditional origin of the custom is that a wood at no 
great distance from the College was at one time 
infested by a wild boar, which was a terror to all the 
neighbourhood. One day a student of the College 
studying Aristotle in the wood, suddenly perceived the 
animal approaching him. The scholar waited for him, 
and as he was going to attack him thrust the Aristotle 
down his throat and choked him. How early this 
originated does not appear, but a version of the carol 
printed in 1521 is in existence. 


built 1692-4, is a large and noble apartment, described 
as " one of the most splendid in the University." The 
western elevation, towards the Fellows' Garden, has an 
elegant appearance, the basement being decorated with 
eight statues in niches, on the right being King Edward 
III. and Queen Philippa, King Charles I. and his 
Queen, and on the left Robert Eglesfield, Bishop 
Barlow, Archbishop Lamplugh, and Sir Joseph 
Williamson. The interior has some excellent carving 
of Grinling Gibbons, and a fine stuccoed ceiling by 

Photo by the Photochrom Co., Ltd., London. 

Worcester College : Old Monastic Buildings. 


Roberts. In the north window are original portraits 
on painted plass of Henry V. and Cardinal Beaufort. 
The Library contains about 70,000 volumes, and a fine 
collection of Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and other 

Amongst many distinguished men who were educated 
at this College w r ere the eldest son of Edward III. (the 
Black Prince) and Henry V. 


This College w 7 as originally a house of Bernardine 
Monks (a branch of the Cistercian Order), and was 
purchased by Archbishop Chichele in 1436, and con 
verted into St. Bernard's College. The improvements 
to its buildings, however, had scarcely been completed, 
when in 1539 it was suppressed, the King giving it to* 
his new College of Christ Church. The Hall had been 
built in 1502, and the Chapel completed in 1530. Four 
years later, Sir Thomas White secured it from Christ 
Church, and on the first day of May, 1555, under a 
grant from the Chapter of Christ Church, St. John's 
College was founded " for Divinity, Philosophy, and 
the Arts, to the Praise and Honour of God, the Virgin 
Mary, and St. John the Baptist." At the time Sir 
Thomas White took possession it is recorded that for 
nearly twenty years the buildings had remained unin- 
habited, but were easily repaired. Though they have 
since undergone many alterations they remain structur- 
ally the same after the lapse of nearly 500 years. Varied 
fortunes attended the new College, for after the death 
of the founder in 1566, St. John's, which had become a 
" hot-bed of Catholicism," languished terribly. In the 

next century, however, owing to Laud's great munifi- 
cence, and the loyalty of the College to Charles I., " it 
was second to none in the University in position and 
influence." The inner quadrangle is sometimes called 
" Laud's Quad," it being built by him during his 
Presidency of the College, under the designs of Inigo 
Jones, together with part of the picturesque garden 
front. Over the main entrance in St. Giles is an old 
statue of St. Bernard, whilst in the inner quadrangle, 
over the colonnades, are two bronze statues of King 
Charles I. and Queen Henrietta, said to be by Fanelli, 
a Florentine artist. The statues were presented by 


is situate on the north side of the first quadrangle, and 
the structure remains as in use in the time of St. 
Bernard's College. Alteration and re-decoration took 
place in the century just passed, and amongst objects 
of interest are the figures in the east window of Sir 
Thomas White and Archbishop Laud, who lie side by 
side under the communion table. It also has an urn 
containing the heart of Dr. Rawlinson, who was buried 
in St. Giles' Churchyard. There is a beautiful small 
Mortuary Chapel attached, now used as a vestry, built 
by Dr. Baylie in 1662, to receive the remains of his 
son ; its groined fan-tracery ceiling is one of the finest 
features of the building. Some fine wood-carving is in 
the organ gallery, and the altar-piece is of rather strik- 
ing character, being painted stone figures representing 
the Baptism of Christ, the water being poured from a 
shell, with two angels in attendance. The interior was 
re-decorated, and three memorial windows inserted in 


1872, showing figures of Apostles and Prophets, with 
scenes from their lives. The window over the commu- 
nion table is very rich in its colouring, ten subjects 
being beautifully rendered. The central scenes are the 
Crucifixion and the Nativity, the Visitation and the 
Annunciation, with figures of St. John the Baptist, 
Virgin Mary, St. John Evangelist, St. Bernard, Sir 
Thomas White, and Archbishop Laud. 


The old Refectory of St. Bernard's has a fine arched 
roof, with a screen of Portland stone. It was built in 
1502, but has undergone considerable alteration since 
that date. Amongst its portraits are those of the 
Founder, Archbishops Laud and Juxon, Thomas 
Rowney, M.P. for Oxford, 1695, King George III. in 
coronation robes, Sir Walter Raleigh, King Charles I. 
and Queen Henrietta. Beneath some portion of the old 
buildings on this north side is a splendidly preserved 
crypt, now used as store rooms. It has an exceedingly 
flat roof, originally supported by a single column ; an 
old fireplace is still existing in these vaults, which very 
greatly resembles in its style of building the old Roman 
chimneys of flat tiles. 


consists of two large rooms on the south and east sides 
of " Laud's " Quadrangle. It now contains not only a 
very large collection of books, many of which are rare 
copies, but it is very rich in relics and curios. At the 
completion of the nc vv buildings in 1636, Laud enter- 
tained Charles I. and the royal party in this room. 

" The King, the Queen, and Prince Elector dined at a 
table which stood across at the upper end, and Prince 
Rupert, with all the lords and ladies present, which 
were very many, dined at a long table in the same 
room," and later on George Wilde's play of " Love's 
Hospital " was performed by members of the College. 
Passing from this quadrangle through a passage with 
curious old doors and a fan-traceried roof we enter 


It is often questioned which are the most beautiful of 
the College gardens ; but for quiet retirement and 
peaceful repose in the midst of sylvan scenery, nothing 
can excel the Gardens of St. John's. They occupy an 
area of about five acres, with wide lawns, well planted 
shrubberies, and finely grown cedar and chestnut trees. 
They were first laid out in the year 1612 by one of the 
Fellows of the College. 


The foundation of this College begins a new era in 
University life, it being the first of the Colleges founded 
after the dissolution of the monasteries. Amongst the 
hardships of the dissolution no case seems more 
arbitrary than the suppression of Durham College, 
which stood on this site, as one half of its number were 
lay students ; but as the other half were Benedictine 
Monks it was condemned. The site and buildings, 
however, were reserved from the general destruction 
by Dr. Wright, who had occupied them for some years 
as Principal of Durham Hall. Going back to the 


foundation of this Hall we find the first grant of an 
inclosure of land in Oxford made " to God and our 
Lady . . . and to the Prior and Convent of 
Durham " is dated about 1286. It is conveyed by 
Mabelle Wafre, Abbess of Godstow, and consists of 
nearly the same ground that is now occupied by Trinity 
College. At the suppression the site came into the 
possession of George Owen, physician to Henry VIII., 
from whom Sir Thomas Pope bought it, he being Privy 
Councillor to the King ; and in 1555 he founded 
Trinity College, dedicating it to the " Holy and 
Undivided Trinity." 

The College is entered from Broad Street through 
gates of ironwork, adorned with the arms of the 
founder, the Earl of Guildford and the College, and one 
cannot but be struck with the beauty of this quadrangle, 
enhanced by the new buildings completed in 1887, and 
the new house of the President. Passing under the 
square tower we enter the first court, in which is 


completed in 1694, at the cost of Dr. Bathurst, Presi- 
dent of the College. This is said to be one of the most 
favourable specimens of the Corinthian style in 
England ; the gateway and tower, which are separate, 
being Ionic. The carving of the interior, by Grinling 
Gibbons, particularly of the cedar screen and an altar- 
piece, is unrivalled. The ceiling was painted by 
Berchet, a French painter, its subject being " The 
Ascension." The monument of the founder and his 
second wife, with effigies at full length, in marble, is 
placed at the upper end of the chapel. The stained 

glass windows were added in recent years, containing 
figures of saints and early fathers. A very fine copy of 
Andrea Sarto's " Deposition of Florence," painted by 
Cannicci, faces the entrance door, over which is a 
memorial window to Isaac Williams, with richly 
coloured glass, the subject being " The Crucifixion." 


is the most ancient part of the College, being the same 
which belonged to Durham College. It was founded 
by Bishop Bury, who died in 1343. In 1765 after many 
previous attempts to repair the ruined windows, they 
were taken down, renovated, and re-placed, but they 
still exhibit many curious remains of old painted glass ; 
particularly noticeable being the figures of the four 
Evangelists, Edward III. and his Queen Philippa, and 
St. Thomas-a-Becket, who is represented with a frag- 
ment of the dagger of Fitz-Urse in his forehead. 


built in the Gothic style in the year 1618. Later, in 
1772, improvements were made, consisting of new 
ceiling, wainscotting, and chimney-piece. The statue 
of the founder (Sir Thomas Pope) is over the entrance, 
and portraits of benefactors decorate the walls. 

The West Court or Quadrangle was designed by Sir 
Christopher Wren, and was completed in 1682. From 
this quadrangle is the approach to 

These Gardens, with their broad grass plots and 
splendid trees, one is never tired of visiting. The 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 



principal feature of beauty is perhaps the old Lime Tree 
Walk, which, with its cleverly-trained twenty-four trees 
on each side, not only affords a most enjoyable parade, 
but is in itself a veritable bower of beauty. 


Great difference of opinion exists as to whether this 
College should not be considered as the first College 
founded in Oxford. This point we will leave for the 
three Colleges which claim that honour to settle 
between themselves those three being University, 
Merton and Balliol. The foundation of the College is 
said to have originated with William of Durham, who 
is supposed to have been educated at Oxford, and who 
died in 1249. By his will he bequeathed to the Univer- 
sity the sum of 300 marks for the purchase of rents to 
provide a maintenance for a considerable number of 
advanced students. As early as 1253 the trustees made 
the first purchase, and in 1270 other properties having 
been brought together producing an income of 18 
marks, the trustees selected four masters or scholars to 
live together in one house, and a body of statutes was 
agreed upon in 1280. It is supposed they removed to 
Great University Hall, their present situation in High 
Street, about 1343. At the beginning of the reign of 
Henry VI., the old buildings which stood without any 
uniformity, having been erected at different periods, 
and consisting of several halls or tenements, were 
pulled down, and buildings erected in the style of a 
quadrangle. The foundation was laid in 1634 on the 
west side, which was built in two years, this being 
followed by the High Street frontage, the Hall and 

Chapel being a few years later, in 1639. Owing to 
the troublous times at Oxford in connection with the 
Civil War the east side of the quadrangle was riot 
completed till 1674. The buildings have a frontage to 
High Street of 260 feet, with two gateways having 
flights of steps, and battlemented towers. 

Over the principal entrance to High Street is a statue 
of Queen Anne, and on the interior is the statue of 
James II. ; the second gateway has over it on the out- 
side that of Mary, daughter of James II., and over the 
inside that of Dr. Radcliffe, who built the second quad- 
rangle at his own expense in 1719. The principal quad- 
rangle is 100 feet square, having on its south side the 
Chapel and Hall, and an additional structure 
approached by a small cloister on the right, containing 
a memorial statue to Shelley the poet, the gift of Lady 
Shelley to the College in 1892. 


The Hall was commenced in 1640 ; but it was jiot 
completed until the reign of Charles II. The inte'rior 
was re-fitted in the year 1766 at a cost of about ; 12,000, 
the elegant chimney-piece being contributed by Sir 
Roger Newdigate, D.C.L., for many years M.P. for 
the University. The new Library was built in 1861 
from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A., and is in 
Decorated style. It contains fine statues of Lord Eldon 
and Lord Stowell, both former members of the College, 
and also a very rare (imperfect) copy of the Hereford 
Missal, of which there are only four copies known to 
exist, printed in 1502. 



completed in 1665, was restored at great expense in 
1862. There are fine specimens of wood carving- by 
Grinling Gibbons, the old cedar wainscotting and oak 
screen having- been preserved at the restoration. The 
seven windows, north and south, are good examples of 
Van Linge's of 1641, and are said to be amongst the 
best of their kind in Oxford. It is worth recording 
that an old authority says in reference to these 
windows, " It fortunately happened that the building 
was not at that time (1641) in a state to receive them ; 
so that they escaped the destruction to which works of 
art of that description were devoted by the anti- 
ecclesiastical spirit of the period." The subjects of the 
enamel paintings on the south side are the " Fall of 
Man," " Abraham entertains the Angels," " The Offer- 
ing of Isaac," "Martha and Mary," and "The 
Expulsion from the Temple " with, on the north side, 
"Jacob's Dream," "Translation of Elijah," and 
"Jonah and the Whale." 


The early history of the site of this College is that it 
was occupied by extensive buildings belonging to 
Augustinian Friars, who came to England in the middle 
of the Thirteenth Century. They here taught theology 
and philosophy, and became so famous that for nearly 
three centuries after their dissolution the practice of 
holding disputations, called " doing Austins," continued 
without inter-uption, and was cnly abolished in the 
year 1800. No traces of the buildings now exist, 

except in external walls ; the last portion, pulled down 
early in the Nineteenth Century, being an old building 
just above the King's Arms Hotel, the site being now 
occupied by twelve sets of rooms added to the College. 
The foundation of the College was intended by Nicholas 
Wadham, who set apart a considerable sum of money 
for the purpose, but his death in 1609, prevented him 
carrying out his intentions. His widow, however, 
being his executrix, carried out his views the following 
year, purchasing the site and the remaining ruins from 
the citizens of Oxford for 600. The foundation was 
laid in 1610, with great ceremony, " the Vice-Chan- 
cellor, doctors, proctors, and others, accompanied by 
the Mayor and his brethren, walking in procession 
from St. Mary's Church with Te Deum, chanted by 
choristers and singing men, and the whole concluded 
with an oration and an anthem." The buildings were 
completed in 1613 at the cost of ; 11,360, and the 
first Warden, Dr. Wright, admitted in that year. 


built with the College buildings, but its decorations not 
completed until 1622, that year being recorded on some 
of the old glass. Over the entrance, facing the quad- 
rangle, is a statue of James I. under a canopy, with 
the two figures of Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, the 
former in armour, holding in his right hand the model 
of the College. Dr. Turney, whilst Warden, consider- 
ably improved and embellished the Hall, and gave the 
splendid glass in the great south window. The large 
oriel and the side windows are adorned with the arms 
of the chief members of the College. This Hall is 


now said to be one of the most handsome and appro- 
priate specimens of College Refectories to be found in 
either University. It is 82 feet long, 35 feet wide, by 
37 feet high, and it contains amongst a large number 
of portraits, Nicholas Wadham the founder, and also 
the wife, King George I., King William III., and 
Admiral Blake. 


Although the general characteristics of the architec- 
ture of the College is its uniformity, in the chapel, hall, 
and library windows is clearly to be noticed distinct 
differences, indicative of the Transitional period of 
architecture. It has been suggested by some that the 
original windows of the Augustinian Chapel were 
incorporated into the new building, which might 
account for some of these differences of style, but this 
must be left to conjecture. It is 83 feet by 35 feet 
and 37 feet high, and is one of the finest in Oxford ; the 
open-timbered roof being a curious example of adapting 
Gothic to Jacobean detail, whilst the workmanship of 
the whole is beautifully finished. The ancient glass 
by Van Linge has been preserved, and amongst the 
papers of the College is an interesting one illustrative 
of the contracts with glass stainers ; being the contract 
signed by Bernard Van Linge in 1621 for the east 
window at 100. The four windows on either side 
are also of stained glass. In the east window the 
subjects are divided into two compartments, being the 
principal types in the Old Testament relating to our 
Saviour, and in the ten compartments below, the 
most remarkable circumstances of His history recorded 
in the New Testament. There are also the arms of 

the founder and other benefactors. The other five 
windows on each side are of our Saviour, the Prophets 
and Apostles, of the date 1838. The ante-chapel floor 
was paved with marble in 1678, and the handsome 
brass lectern presented in 1691. 


The library is built over the kitchen beyond the quad- 
rangle, and forms an additional wing, corresponding 
with the Chapel on the opposite side, and connected 
with it by a cloister. It is 55 feet by 30 feet, and at 
the end is lighted by a handsome window, the side 
windows being narrow and of Gothic character. The 
Gardens, entered by a passage near the clock, possess 
some very fine trees, including noble cedars, auricarias, 
and others, and are nicely laid out. 


This College is described as being the last of the old 
Colleges, it being established as the present foundation 
in 1714 by the Trustees of Sir Thomas Cookes, of 
Bentley-Pounceford, Worcestershire. The early history 
of its previous foundations is a chequered but exceed- 
ingly interesting one The original foundation is dated 
1283, and was established by Baron Giffard for 
Benedictine Monks from Gloucester, and called 
Gloucester College. Other Benedictine houses soon 
obtained leave to associate themselves with the founda- 
tion, including the religious houses of At. Albans, 
Abingdon, and Norwich ; the members of each house, 
which were distinguished by escutcheons and rebuses 
above the doors, constructing separate dwellings for 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 



their students. On the south side of the quadrangle 
are examples of these the original buildings, re-built 
in the Fifteenth Century. At the time of the suppres- 
sion of the monasteries it was in a flourishing condition, 
but shared the usual fate, and was taken over by the 
Crown. After a few years, in which the buildings were 
used as a palace for the Bishop of Oxford, they were 
sold about 1563 to Sir Thomas White, the recent 
founder of St. John's College, and the name was 
t/ changed to S*f John Baptist Hall. Success follbwed 
the change for a few years, but later the Civil War so 
seriously affected it that Anthony Wood says, about 
the year 1680, " there was not one scholar in Gloucester 
Hall, only the Principal and his family, and two or 
three more families that live there in some part to 
keep it from ruin ; the paths are grown over with grass, 
and the way into the Hall and Chapel made up with 
boards." Towards the close of the century, Dr. 
W'oodroffe appropriated the College to the education 
of Greek students ; in the meanwhile Sir Thomas 
Cookes having expressed a wish to endow a College at 
Oxford, set apart by his will ^10,000 for this purpose, 
and having died in 1704, his trustees in 1714, purchased 
St. John Baptist Hall and founded Worcester College. 


The Chapel, though small, is one of the most elabor- 
ately decorated in the University. In 1870 its 
restoration was completed, at a cost of ^5,000, and is 
now said to be one of the finest examples of Renaissance 
decoration in England. The wall decoration illustrates 
the Te Deum and Benedicite ; the altar-piece shows 

" The Entombment of Christ " ; the chancel flooring 
exhibits in mosaics " The Parable of the Sower " ; 
whilst a very rich ceiling has two illustrations of " The 
Fall of Man," in niches, in the angles of the Chapel, 
are statues of the four Evangelists. The Hall, corres- 
ponding exactly in size and character with the Chapel, 
is a fine handsome room, ornamented with fluted 
Corinthian columns at the west end. [t is enriched by 
a fine dado of coloured wood, and by a handsome 
marble fireplace. It has a fine old Flemish painting by 
Snyders, representing a Dutch Fish Market ; over the 
fireplace is a full-length portrait of Sir Thomas Cookes, 
the Founder, and in other parts of the Hall are portraits 
of Dr. Blechynden, the first Provost, Lady Holford, 
and others. 

The Library, constructed over an open arcade or 
piazza, extends to 100 feet, and has a gallery of the 
same length. It is stored with rare and curious works, 
amongst others being the original designs for 


The most attractive feature of Worcester College, 
both from the citizens' and visitors' point of view, are 
the lovely secluded gardens with the extensive lake, 
which, by the kind courtesy of the College Authorities, 
are at all times thrown open to the public. This agree- 
able spot was first selected by the White Friars, or 
Carmelites, on their arrival at Oxford, they having in 
1254 obtained a grant of land from the Constable of 
the Castle, one Nicholas de Meules, to which, having 
afterv.-ards made addition, " they began," Wood says, 


" to covet fine gardens and pleasant walks, adorned 
with water, groves, etc." 


The records of Magdalen College, under the date of 
1260, in referring to this Hall, state that Ralph gave 
it to his four sons, the building receiving the name of 
"the Hall of the Four Sons of Edmund." Ralph 
Edmund was a citizen of Oxford in the reign of Henry 
III., which gives 1233 as the date of the foundation. 
It is also said to take its name from Edmund Rich, of 
Abingdon, Archbishop of Canterbury, who lectured in 
schools on this site as early as 1219, and who after his 
death was canonized. In 1269 it was purchased by the 
Canons of Osney for the purposes of education, but 
the record of its history is lost until 1317, when John 
de Cornubia was Principal. It was suppressed by 
Henry VIII., and granted to two citizens of Oxford, 
who sold it to the Provost of Queen's College, and in 
T 557 ne devised it to his College, which, having been 
confirmed by Congregation and the Chancellor of the 
University, secured to them the perpetual right of 
nominating the Principal. The irregular and quaint 
buildings, chiefly dating from the middle of the Seven- 
teenth Century, occupy little more than three sides 
of a quadrangle ; the Hall forming the west side, and 
the Chapel and Library being on the east side. This 
Hall is the only example left of the old system of 
University life ante-dating the first College foundation. 

The Chapel and Library are interesting as being the 
only case in which they are comprised in one building. 
The building dates from 1680, and is of singular 

character, built in the Classic style ; the entrance is 
flanked by two Corinthian columns rising through both 
stories, and supporting a pediment. The Chapel has 
memorial windows of recent date, and a stained glass 
east window, designed by William Morris. The altar- 
piece represents "Christ bearing His Cross." The 
upper storey is the Library, which contains several 
thousand .volumes of classical and theological works, 
many of which are rare. 

The Cathedral. 

THIS building is frequently erroneously termed 
" Christ Church Cathedral," the proper title 
being "the Cathedral Church of Christ." As a 
church it had an existence several centuries before it 
became the Cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford, the 
transference of the bishopric from Osney Abbey to 
Oxford Cathedral taking place in 1546. It was 
originally the Church of the Priory of St. Frideswide, 
and is directly connected with the earliest recorded 
history of Oxford, carrying us back to Saxon days. 
Although much of the earliest history is legendary, the 
story of its original foundation is generally accepted 
as founded on fact, and quoting from Anthony Wood 
may be thus summarized: " About the year 727 there 
lived at Oxford a petty king named Didan, who built 
a house or founded a nunnery for his daughter, St. 
Frideswide, which foundation consisted of twelve 
religious virgins of noble birth ; as, his daughter ' being 
a princess, she utterly disliked the notion that she 


should be subject to her inferiors.' After taking the 
veil in her own nunnery, she was sought in marriage, 
' being accounted the flower of all these parts,' by 
Algar, King of Leicester, who would not take a refusal, 
but sent ambassadors, who were smitten with blindness 
in endeavouring treacherously to carry her off. He 
then made for Oxford, and finding she had taken refuge 
amongst the woods at Bampton pursued her and was 
smitten with blindness also." When she returned 
three years later, the historian continues, " the citizens 
lived, if I might say, in a golden age, for no king or 
enemy durst approach Oxford." St. Frideswide died 
in 739, and was buried in her own church. The main 
facts of the above story are given in a document of St. 
Frideswide's Monastery of 1004 ; in which King 
Ethelred grants a Charter to them. The oldest part 
of the present building is a piece of wall at the eastern 
end, which is probably part of the original church built 
in the first half of the Eighth Century. The Priory 
afterwards became a Monastery ; after which the 
Augustinian Canons re-placed the Monks, about 1122, 
under Guimond, a reputed Chaplain of Henry I. ; and 
the relics of St. Frideswide, having become renowned 
for the working of miracles, increased its glory so 
much that its wealth and importance were largely 
augmented, until in 1524 Wolsey obtained the surrender 
of it to the King by John Burton, the Prior, for the 
building of his College ; its revenues amounting to 
^300 a year. By the document of 1004, above quoted, 
we find that in 1002 the church was burned, under the 
following circumstances: Ethelred early in 1002 
bought off the Danes by the enormous payment of 

^20,000, and granted leave for some of them to settle 
in Wessex ; after which in November of the same year 
he gave orders that on St. Brice's Day all the Danes 
in his dominions should be put to death ; and in this 
Charter he acknowledges giving the order and carrying 
out the same. The Charter states: " But as many of 
the Danes who dwelt in the City broke the doors and 
bolts and entered the sanctuary of Christ by force in 
striving to avoid death, the people followed them, and 
failing to turn them out, flung fire upon the timber 
work, and burned the church with its ornaments and 
books." It is said that at this early date there was a 
tower in which the last stand of the Danes was made. 
In 1009 the Danes revenged themselves by an 
unexpected advance through the forests of the Chiltern 
Hills and sacked and burned Oxford. There is much 
difference of opinion as to whether Ethelred re-built the 
Church or that it perished, and that in the latter half 
of the Twelfth Century, it was re-built or restored. 
The Chapter House doorway however seems to-day to 
show work earlier than the end of the Twelfth Century. 
The upper portion of the Tower, with the addition of 
its spire, was built at the beginning of the Thirteenth 
Century, together with St. Frideswide's Chapel ; whilst 
in the Fourteenth Century the Latin Chapel was added. 
The glass in the windows on the north side are Four- 
teenth Century work, whilst the east window com- 
memorates the story of St. Frideswide, from designs 
by Sir E. Burne-Jones. During Wolsey's operation 
in the building of his Cardinal's College he swept away 
the three west bays of the nave, seriously reducing the 
dimensions of the church, and to him is also attributed 

Photo by Hills & Sounders, Oxford. 

Blenheim Palace : North Front. 



the rich vaulting- of the roof of the choir. Ingram, in 
his " Memorials," mentions that some say the Cathedral 
thus mutilated remained in the condition Cardinal 
Wolsey left it until about 1630 ; but other writers 
affirm that large repairs and alterations were made at 
the time of the removal of the bishopric from Osney to 
Oxford in 1545. " In 1630," so says Anthony Wood, 
" the Dean and Canons took down all the old stalls in 
the choir, and in their places put up those that now 
are," and at the same time in laying down the new 
pavement of the choir and side aisles they removed 
the old memorial tablets, some of which are said to 
have had at that date Saxon inscriptions, and which 
have been unfortunately altogether lost sight of. There 
seems to be some reason for thinking these memoria 1 
slabs were used for covering up a drain which was 
made across " Tom Quad " at the time of these alter- 
ations ; and it is not too much to hope that if there is 
any foundation for the statement, that steps should be 
taken to recover these valuable mementoes before all 
trace of them is lost for ever. 

Upon entering the Cathedral, one cannot help being 
struck with the great contrast between the plain but 
substantial work of the early portion of the building, 
and the richness of the early Sixteenth Century roof of 
the choir. An extraordinary feature which cannot fail 
to attract attention is that the Norman pillars are 
carried up through the triforium on the inside, with half 
capitals fixed at different heights. The building 
consists of a choir of five bays with aisles, and on the 
north side two chapels of four bays,and on the south 
one chapel ; a central tower and spire, nave of four 

bays with aisles, a large vaulted western entrance, a 
north transept with western aisles of three bays, and a 
south transept communicating with the cloisters. The 
eastern end of the choir has been recently re-built as 
far as possible In accordance with the original work, 
and has two recessed Norman windows surmounted 
by a wheel window, all of stained glass, executed by 
Sir Gilbert Scott in 1871. A fine reredos in sandstone, 
richly gilded, has since been added. The Bishop's 
Throne on the south side is of walnut, and was erected 
as a memorial to Bishop Wilberforce, late of Oxford, 
at a cost of ^"1,000. On the north side of the choir is 
the lady chapel, dating from the middle of the 
Thirteenth Century ; on its north side are interesting 
tombs, the first at the west end having the figure of an 
armed knight, Sir G. Bowers, 1425 ; the second, under 
canopy of Early Decorated work, is a fully vested 
Prior, supposed to be Alexander Sutton, Prior of St. 
Frideswide, 1294 ; there is also the altar tomb with 
effigy of Elizabeth Montacute, d. 1354. The east 
window of this chapel is a memorial to Frederick 
Vyner, of Christ Church, murdered by Greek brigands 
in 1870 ; near which is St. Cecilia's window, presented 
in 1875 by Dr. Corfe, organist of the Cathedral. The 
Latin Chapel adjoining was completed in 1359, and 
has some of the woodwork of the old Priory Church. 
The wooden watching-chamber was erected in the 
Fifteenth Century, from which a " watch " was kept 
on the riches of the shrine, by the monk whose duty it 
was to guard the treasures. The large window in 
the north transept, by Clayton and Bell, was presented 
by the Marquis of Lothian in 1876, as a memorial to 


his brother ; the subject being St. Michael expelling the 
Dragon and Fallen Angels. The window at the west 
end of the north aisle is one of several that existed early 
in the Seventeenth Century of Van Linge's, represent- 
ing the story of Jonah and the Gourd , the others 
having given place to memorial windows. In St. 
Lucy's Chapel, south of the choir, is the curious Becket 
window of the year 1350, representing the murder of 
the Archbishop, the head of Becket having been 
obliterated, it is said, by command of Henry VIII. 
At the eastern corner of the chapel is the altar tomb, 
under recessed canopy, of Robert King, last Abbot of 
Osney and first Bishop of Oxford, d. 1557 ; the window 
above showing the Bishop in his canonicals, with the 
Abbey in the background ; this window was preserved 
by its removal by a member of the family before the 
surrender of Oxford in 1646, and was re-placed after 
the Restoration in 1661. Among the many memorials 
are a life-like bust in marble of Prince Leopold in the 
South Chapel ; monuments with effigies to Dean 
Godwin, 1590, and Robert Burton, B.D., author of the 
Anatomy of Melancholy, 1640, in the lady chapel. A 
brass in the floor shows the supposed resting-place of 
St. Frideswide, whilst a marble slab in the nave marks 
the burying place of Dr. Pusey. The organ screen is 
remarkable for its curious mixture of Gothic and Italian 
detail. The organ, which was built by Schmidt <n 
1680, and since improved by Gray and Davison in 
1848, was placed in its present position in 1876, the 
framework of the organ loft being completed in 1888. 
Adjoining the south transept is the entrance to the 
cloisters, from which the chapter house is entered by 

a fine Norman doorway, of the supposed date of 1180 : 
the interior of the building is an excellent restoration 
of Early English architecture. In the south wall is 
fixed the foundation stone of Wolsey's College at 
Ipswich, bearing the date 1528. 

Old Student Life. 

THE features of University Student Life in the 
Middle Ages, when Oxford was crowded with 
young men and boys desirious of availing them- 
selves of educational facilities, and the features of the 
present day life at Oxford are so vastly different that 
it is almost impossible for the mind to realise such a 
difference could exist. It is difficult to form any correct 
opinion as to the numbers, as statements vary con- 
siderably. Florence of Worcester (writing of the time 
in which he was living) referring to the exodus of 
scholars from Oxford in the year 1209, incidentally 
mentions " that all masters and scholars seceded from 
the University to the number of 3,000 leaving not one 
behind." The Bishop of Armagh, in 1357, stated that 
in his University days, in 1320, they numbered 30,000, 
although he admitted there were only 6,000 in that 
year. Accepting this latter number as a correct 
estimate, in view of the knowledge that the population 
of Oxford must have been exceedingly small in those 
days, the population at the Survey in 1085, being 
between 1,000 and 1,500 only ; we are lost in the 
consideration how the number of 6,000 roughly 
speaking, double the number of present day students 


could have been provided for at all. It is described as 
being a seething mass of young life, full of disturbing 
elements ; in which anything was good enough to form 
a division and produce constant brawling and fighting, 
the favourite cry being " North against South " ; the 
contentions between these parties sometimes attaining 
the magnitude of a battle. In 1252 one of the most 
serious of these inter-student conflicts took place, 
resulting in such restrictive measures being passed 
that abolished the celebration of all national festivals, 
and the imposition of an oath on all members of the 
University not to break the peace in this way. It is 
known that the students were in such large numbers 
that they were crowded in little " Halls," or in the 
houses of private citizens. The " Halls " were houses 
rented by a group of students, who selected one of 
their number to act as principal, look after the 
commissariat, and exercise headship over his fellow- 
lodgers. In the days of Edward I. there are said to 
have been 300 of such " Halls " in Oxford. As Falkner 
in his " History " states the life of the students in such 
places was rough beyond description ; whilst their 
lodgings were squalid and over-crowded, and their 
habits such as to offend all modern ideas of comfort, 
sanitation, or decency. 

Present Student Life. 

NO contrast could be greater than that afforded by 
the surroundings and- daily life of the Oxford 
student of to-day as compared with the student 
of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Whilst 

the old student was encircled with a loop-holed city 
wall, and the streets intersected by a labyrinth of 
squalid lanes, crowded with hostelries, the present 
student enjoys the fullest advantages which sanitary 
science can produce in wide streets lighted with 
electricity, every house inhabited by students being 
required to pass an official sanitary inspection, and 
nearly every College having its own large private 
gardens and cricket and tennis grounds. The whole 
features of College life have also undergone an entire 
change, to-day's students being drawn from an entirely 
different class ; the former being largely those who 
combined education with, if not labour, at least the 
strictest economy in their studies ; whilst the student 
of to-day is almost without exception of the wealthy 
or middle class, to whom economy is a secondary 
consideration. The hours devoted to study also have 
since those early days of highly-valued educational 
facilities been considerably reduced, the present day 
requirements being lectures generally from 10 to i, a 
student sometimes attending two of an hour each, but 
more often only one, and often absenting himself 
altogether. The afternoons, up to dinner at six in 
winter, and seven in summer, are almost without 
exception devoted to football, athletics, cricket, 
boating or other pleasures, leaving the hours after 
dinner free for study ; which to the earnest worker are 
very valuable, when he is able to " sport his oak," a 
sign even to his friends that he is to be undisturbed. 
The wild scenes of turmoil and bloodshed have entirely 
disappeared, without doubt largely due to the exuberant 
energies of youth expending themselves on the river 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Iffley Lock (from above). 


and in the cricket and football fields. That there is 
the same inherent spirit as of yore in our Oxford 
students to-day was amply shown upon the call for 
Volunteers for South Africa, when Oxford students 
responded by sending- a large contingent, some of 
whom have called for special commendation. 

University Buildings. 


THIS fine edifice, one of the principal ornaments of 
Oxford, is situate in Broad Street, adjoining the 
Divinity School and the Clarendon Building. It 
was opened in 1669, having been built from the designs 
of Sir Christopher Wren, at a cost of .15,000, the 
whole expense being defrayed by Archbishop Sheldon, 
who was at the time Chancellor of the University. He 
also bequeathed the sum of ^2,000 for its support and 
repair. The ground plan is taken from that of the 
Theatre of Marcellus at Rome, and by its excellent 
arrangement is made to conveniently accommodate over 
3,000 persons. The southern front is disposed in two 
storeys of the Corinthian style, and over the entrance 
are the Arms of Archbishop Sheldon, and in niches at 
the extremities are statues of the Archbishop and the 
Duke of Ormonde. The remainder of the building has 
a rounded front to Broad Street. The roof, Soft, by 
7oft. in diameter, rests upon the side walls without 
cross beams ; it having been the first large building in 
Oxford so constructed, attracted at the time a great 

deal of attention. In 1802, it being feared the roof 
would fail a new one was substituted ; and it was again 
repaired in 1826. The ceiling has the appearance of a 
painted canvas strained over gilt cordage, in imitation 
of the ancient theatres ; it was painted by Streater, 
Serjeant-painter to Charles II. in 1668, representing 
the " Triumph of Religion, Art and Science over their 
Foes." The canvas was cleaned and re-stored in- 
1762 at a cost of ^"1,000, and during the years 1900-1 
a new outer roof has been substituted, and another 
restoration of the canvas painting took place at a 
further cost of ^2,000. 

There are portraits of the founder, of James, Duke 
of Ormonde, Sir Christopher Wren, and Lord Crewe, 
Bishop of Lincoln and founder of the Creweian Oration, 
the delivery of which constitutes the " Enca?nia " or 
Commemoration. In 1876 a new and fine organ by 
Willis was substituted for the old one fixed in 1768. 
The building is surmounted by a cupola, added in 1838, 
having eight windows, from which an extensive view 
of the City can be obtained. The whole of the frontage 
is enclosed by a dwarf wall and iron railings secured 
to tall stone piers, terminating in seventeen huge 
grotesque heads, intended to represent various sages 
of antiquity. 


This large and handsome block of buildings, which 
was completed in 1860, is built in a semi-Gothic 
character, at a cost of about ^"90,000 ; to which has 
just been added a new wing, presented by the Drapers' 
Company, at a cost of over ^20,000, to be used as the 



library. The grant from the University Chest each 
year is ^2,200, and its endowments nearly ^1,000. 
The main entrance is by a finely carved doorway 
opposite Keble College, into a main court of 120 feet 
square, with a glass roof, supported entirely by iron- 
work in columns and arches, the heads of every column 
being enriched with foliage of wrought iron of different 
designs. The materials of the piers are of different 
geological formations, and 125 shafts are all of different 
rocks and marbles of the British Islands. The whole 
court is surrounded by an arcade on the ground floor, 
and a gallery above, from which access is obtained to 
the various and many departments. The theatre, or 
lecture room, on the first floor, will seat 500 persons. 
The Pitt-Rivers collection, one of the most attractive 
features to the non-scientific visitor, has a large room 
on the farther side of the main court especially devoted 
to it. The library, almost entirely consisting of works 
on physical science, contains about 50,000 vols. The 
building has a frontage to the Parks Road of nearly 
400 feet, and is a very fine modern addition to the many 
beautiful architectural buildings of the University. 


This building, situate at the corner of holy well Street 
and Broad Street, owes its foundation to the exertions 
of Sir Monier Williams, Boden Professor of Sanskrit, 
" for the work of fostering and facilitating Indian 
studies in the University ; and for the work of qualifying 
young Englishmen for Indian careers, and qualifying 
young Indians, who come to us for training and 

instruction, to serve their own country in the most 
effective manner." The building, which was first 
opened in 1884, is built somewhat in the Elizabethan 
style, with an octagonal tow 7 er, with decorations and 
cupolas. In the basement there are two lecture rooms, 
and on the ground floor a reading room and a lecture 
room ; with, on the first floor, an Indian Museum and 
more lecture rooms, and a fire-proof library, having 
fine oriel windows. The memorial stone was laid by 
" Albert Edward, son of the Empress of India, on May 
2nd, 1883," as the brass tablet in the entrance lobby 
has inscribed ; and the building from designs of Mr. 
Basil Champneys, of London, was completed in 1896. 


is the eastern portion of a grand pile of buildings of the 
Ionic style facing St. Giles ; the remaining portion 
being in Beaumont Street and consisting of the 
Ashmolean Museum and University Galleries. The 
front of the Taylor Institution has four Ionic pillars, 
crowned with statues, personating France, Germany, 
Spain and Italy. It was founded from a bequest of 
Sir Robert Taylor, who died in 1792, " for the erection 
of a building for teaching and improving the European 
languages " ; but its building was not completed until 
1848. The interior consists of a spacious library, 40 
feet by 40 feet ; six lecture and class rooms, and a 
superintendent's residence. The leading periodicals of 
France, Germany, Spain and Italy may always be 
found in the Library. 




These buildings have an imposing frontage to Beau- 
mont Street, being a reproduction of the temple Apollo 
Epicurus, built 430 B.C., and consists of a central block 
with two wings, the frontage being relieved by six 
columns supporting a pediment crowned with a figure 
of Apollo ; its length being 240 feet by 100 feet deep, 
forming three sides of a quadrangle. It was built with 
the Taylor Institution from 1841-49, at a cost of over 
^"49,000. The Museum and Galleries comprise a 
sculpture gallery on the ground floor, and a fireproof 
gallery and picture gallery on the first floor. A new 
building was added in 1894 at a cost f ^ I 5 ooo > f r 
the removal of the contents of the old Ashmolean 
Museum in Broad Street to this site. It now includes 
the collection known as " Tradescant's Ark," formerly 
at Lambeth, collected by John Tradescant early in the 
Seventeenth Century ; together with Dr. Fortnum's 
collection of bronzes, majolicas, and other artistic 
relics ; also the chief excavations of Professor Petrie 
in Egypt, a fine collection of Greek vases, the Arundel 
and Pomfret marbles, and the celebrated jewel, known 
as " Alfred's Jewel." 


These buildings, erected from 1877-82, at a cost, 
inclusive of site, of ^100,000, are near the eastern end 
of High Street. They were' built from the designs of 
Mr. Jackson, after the Italian Gothic style ; and from 
the opportunity which was here given oi displaying a 
double frontage, both to High Street and King Street, 

gave scope to originality of design, which the architect 
has most effectively shewn. The side to King Street 
is apparently intended at some future period to take the 
place of the High Street entrance and to be the 
principal front ; its plan being three sides of a square, 
with the two wings thrown forward. The present 
principal entrance is from High Street, having a finely- 
carved porch way with pillars on each side, and being 
adorned in relief with appropriate scenes of University 
student life the one being the Viva Voce Examination, 
and the other the Conferment of Degrees. The frontage 
is relieved by very fine mullioned windows and an 
ornamental parapet to each wing, crowned with a 
delicate but effective louvre. The interior abounds 
with marble and alabaster worked into the structure 
in panels and balustrading to the staircase, with 
the rooms wainscotted with panelled oak, and the 
ceilings designed in panels of stucco in rich designs. 
There are three Writing Schools of 114 feet, no feet 
and 90 feet in length and twelve viva voce rooms ; 
whilst the entrance hall or waiting room is 79 feet by 
26 feet. The whole building is fitted with 19 electric 
clocks, and every room has electric communication with 
the official at the entrance hall. At the eastern corner 
of these buildings is a block devoted to the Delegates 
of the Non-Collegiate Students. This was erected in 
1887 and is built entirely in character with the other 
portion of the building ; its front being relieved with 
three Gothic windows and gables to the High Street, 
whilst near the corner of the building in King Street 
there is a very fine circular oriel window, crowned with 
a cupola. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Below Iffley Lock. 



was completed in 1775 from funds bequeathed by Dr. 
Radcliffe at a cost of nearly ^30,000, on land given by 
the Third Duke of Marlborough, nearly nine acres in 
extent. The buildings consist of a semi-circular block 
of two stories, with wings each 69 feet long. It has an 
octagonal tower, with a conical roof, on which are 
figures of Hercules and Atlas supporting a large globe. 
The tower was designed by Wyatt from the Temple of 
the Winds at Athens. Besides the rooms containing 
the best modern astronomical instruments there is a 
library, lecture room, and dwelling-house for the 


These grounds, formerly called the Physic Gardens, 
are on the site of the ancient Jews' Burial Ground of 
the Tw-elfth Century. The Gardens were founded at a 
cost of ^5,000 by the Earl of Danby, in 1632 ; the 
ground consisting of five acres on the banks of the 
Cherwell being raised to protect it from floods, and the 
whole of the site except the river front being enclosed 
with a high wall and an Italian gateway, from the 
design of Inigo Jones ; the entrance is adorned with 
statues of Charles I. and II. Several valuable 
bequests have since been made both of botanical collec- 
tions and of books, which are contained in buildings 
near the gateway. In 1894, a large new palm house, 
40 feet by 30 feet, and other glass houses were added. 
The grounds are kindly thrown open to the public. 

Amongst many other University Buildings deserving 
of our attention if space permitted, should be mentioned 

the University Printing Office in Walton Street, com- 
pleted in 1830, built as three sides of a quadrangle, 
and having a frontage of 412 feet ; the Clarendon 
Building in Broad Street, erected in 1713, in the Classic 
style, designed by Hawksmoor, a pupil of Wren's ; 
the Oxford Union Society's Rooms, with access from 
both Cornmarket and New Inn Hall Streets ; and the 
University Boathouse re-erected in 1881 on the banks 
of the Isis, a picturesque building in character with 
the beautifully decorated College barges serving as 
Club-houses with reading and dressing rooms on the 
opposite side of the river. 

Parish and 

Ecclesiastical Churches. 

OXFORD of to-day has between twenty and thirty 
parish and ecclesiastical churches. Four parish 
churches are mentioned, connected with taxa- 
tion, in the Domesday Survey of 1086, viz.: St. Mary 
the Virgin, St. Michael, St. Ebbe, and St. Peter. It is 
known from other sources that St. Martin, St. Frides- 
wide, St. George-in-the-Castle, and St. Mary Magdalen 
were also in existence, and it is therefore assumed that 
at least ten churches existed either within or just outside 
the ramparts of Oxford at that early date. Falkner, 
in his History of Oxfordshire, says '' that by the 
reign of Henry I. (1100-1135) there were certainly 
sixteen, and probably at least twenty, churches in the 



situate in High Street, was given by Henry I. in 1122 
to the canons of St. Frideswide. Its vicarage was 
created in 1 190, and it having been presented by 
Edward II. in 1327 to the Bishop of Lincoln, was given 
to Lincoln College by Bishop Fleming, its founder, 
about 1427. The spire of the church having fallen 
through the building in 1699, the existing edifice was 
built in 1708, from the designs of Dean Aldrich, of 
Christ Church, its mixture of Corinthian and Italian 
style making it a striking feature of Oxford ar/hitec- 
ture. It is built in the Corinthian style, with a 
balustrade encircling the building, and has a finely 
ornamented tower with a graceful spire, altogether 153 
feet in height. The interior is handsome and lofty, 
being remarkable for the extent of its span, 42 feet, 
without the aid of a pillar. Its interior was restored in 
1866, its oro-an enlarged in 1896, and the tower and 
south front restored under the superintendence of Mr. 
H. W. Moore during 1899-90. Since the removal of St. 
Martin's Church from Carfax, in 1895, All Saints' has 
become the City Church, and is attended officially by 
the Mayor and Corporation every Sunday morning. 
The living is a vicarage in the gift of Lincoln College, 
and is held by the Rev. A. J. Carlyle, M.A., lat? Fellow 
of University College. 


The body of the church was removed in 1896, for 
the purpose of widening Carfax, and other improve- 
ments, leaving the tower as a permancn' memorial. 
The church is said to have been founded in 920 by 

Edward the Elder, although in the Chronicles of 
Abingdon Abbey is a story of its building, making Cnut 
its founder in the year 1034. Falkner in his record 
states that it was the first parish church in Oxford. 
The tower has been substantially restored without 
alteration of structure, and is practically the same 
tower with the addition of buttresses and turret at 
north-east angle carrying a flagstaff. By order of 
Edward III. the tower was reduced in height in 1341 in 
order that the townsmen might not annoy the scholars 
with stones and arrows thrown from its summit. The 
tower has an illuminated clock, which was presented 
by Mr. G. R. Higgins, of Burcote ; beneath which are 
placed a pair of old figures known as the " quarter 
boys," which have been preserved for many years in 
the City Library, and are now fixed to resume their 
old work of striking with hammers at every quarter 
hour. The tower preserves its peal of six bells, dating 
from 1678. 


This ch'irch takes its name from St. Eldad, or 
Aldate, who lived about the year 450, and is said to 
have been foundeJ or restored about 1004. It is a 
stone structure of great antiquity, having five arches 
on the north side exhibiting traces of Early Norman 
work. Its immediate vicinity to St. Frideswide and it 
being vested in Abingdon Abbey tend to prove its 
antiquity ; whilst the fact that the upper part of the 
south aisle was in use as the Library of Broadgate^s Hall 
which had earlier also been part property of the Abbey, 
confirr.s this sup sition. Some of the stone seats 


or arched stalls in the chancel were discovered in the 
early part of the Nineteenth Century behind the panel- 
work. The present building is composed of various 
styles in excellent state of preservation, with a vaulted 
crypt under the south aisle. This aisle was built by 
Sir John Docklington, a Mayor of Oxford, in 1336, and 
the north aisle followed in 1455. In 1862 extensive 
repairs with enlargement took place, and the tower 
and spire were re-built in 1873 at a cost of ^6,000 ; 
whilst the roofs of the nave and south aisle have since 
been renewed. 


This church is a tithing of St. Aldate's Parish, being 
separated from it by the Isis. It was formerly in the 
county of Berks, but by the Local Government Act, 
1888, it was included in the extended Borough of 
Oxford. The church was built in the Perpendicular 
style in 1890-1 at a cost of about 8,000, the site being 
given by Brasenose College. 


The present building was completed in 1816 in the 
Early Decorated style, the tower and a portion of the 
south wall being the remnants of the old church. The 
fine Norman doorway in the south aisle was carefully 
re-constructed during this re-building. The date of the 
original foundation is unknown, but the church is 
named after St.- Ebba,, daughter of ^thelfred, King of 
Northumbria ; who died in . 605. The church was 
restored in 1865, and consists of chancel, nave, south 
aisle and tower. 

In 1845 the District Church of Holy Trinity was 
added. It is built in Blackfriars Road, in the Early 
English style, all of stone ; and consists of nave and 
two aisles. Erected at a cost of ^3,400, which was 
raised by subscription. 


According to Wood this " was the first church of 
stone that appeared in these parts," some historians 
claiming the Ninth Century for its foundation. It has 
an excellent Norman doorway, and a very fine crypt 
beneath the chancel, having eight pillars and a vaulted 
roof the crypt is said to be scarcely inferior in interest 
to that of Canterbury Cathedral. The church consists 
of chancel, with lady chapel, nave, north aisle, south 
porch and a western tower, remarkable for its con- 
struction, the walls sloping inwards from the base to 
its summit. 


The tower of this church is one of the most interest- 
ing of the many buildings of Oxford ; its peculiar 
proportions, the long and short work of Saxon 
character shewn in the north angle of the tower, and 
the proof of its having been a fighting tower in not 
having a staircase, amply proves its antiquity. The 
church, which is a building of mixed styles of architec- 
ture, has incorporated the City Wall on its north side, 
and has front entrance from Ship Street. It underwent 
a complete restoration in 1854, and consists of chancel, 
nave, north chapel and south aisle, with tower contain- 
ing six bells. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Iffley Church and Yew Tree. 


Space will not permit more than a passing" notice of 
the many other churches of Oxford, included amongst 
which are St. Thomas-the-Martyr, founded in 1141 by 
the Canons of Osney Abbey ; St. Mary Magdalen, 
granted to Robert D'Oyley by William the Conqueror, 
and transferred in 1129 to Osney Abbey b} D'Oyley's 
son ; Hohvell, dated about 1160, last restoration 1845 '> 
St. Giles', supposed date 1120, an interesting example 
of several stages of architecture ; St. Peter-le-Bailey 
(new church 1872), the old building, tradition states, 
was founded 738 by St. Frideswide ; Henry I. confirmed 
the holding of this church by the Nunnery in 1122. 
Amongst the churches built in the last century are 
those of St. Clement's, St. Paul's, St. Philip and St. 
James', St. Barnabas', St. John the Evangelist, St. 
Margaret's, and the Roman Catholic Church of St. 
Aloysius. There are also a large number of Noncon- 
formist places of worship, some of w^hich are very fine 

Educational. & 


AS an evidence of the appreciation of the facilities 
Oxford possesses from an educational point of 
view, no stronger case can be given than is 
offorded by " Somerville's Ladies' College." This 
institution, which is undenominational, was founded as 
recently as October, 1879 ; and in the short space of 
21 years has not only overcome all the difficulties of 
establishment, but has now nearly 100 students. The 

College was incorporated in 1881, for promoting the 
higher education of women, and is intended for those 
from a distance desiring to study in Oxford. In 1882, 
a new wing was erected, and in 1887 it was again neces- 
sary to enlarge by erecting new buildings opening on 
to another street (Walton Street), including dining hall, 
library and gymnasium ; and in 1893, further additions 
were made, including lecture rooms and accommodation 
for 19 more students. No student is admitted under 
the age of 17. The terms generally correspond with 
those of LTniversity residence, and students work 
principally for the Honours Examination of the 
University. The students have boats on the river and 
a hockey field, while lawn tennis is played on the 
College grounds. It is endowed with two Scholarships 
of $o a year and one of ^25. 


was also founded in 1879, in Norham Gardens, for the 
higher education of women on Church of England 
principles. The students number about 50 who are 
under the direction of a lady principal assisted by 
University lecturers. In 1896, a second hall was built, 
containing a dining hall and common room, with 
accommodation for 25 students ; other additions include 
a chapel, library, and gymnasium, and both summer and 
winter tennis courts and boat house. 


also situate in Norham Gardens, was founded in 1886, 
for women students preparing for University Examina- 
tions, who must be members of the Church of England. 


Students, who must be 17, are required to pass an 
examination before admission. The Hall has accom- 
modation for 24 students, and has a dining- room, 
chapel, library and common sitting- rooms. The 
garden, adjoining- the University Parks, has grass and 
gravel tennis courts, and the students, who have passed 
a swimming test, are provided with boats on the 


situate in Cowley Place, was opened in 1893, for the 
reception of women students from the Ladies' College, 
Cheltenham. It is conducted on the principles of the 
Church of England, but receives members of other 
religious denominations also. It has accommodation 
for 28 students. 


was built in 1879, in Banbury Road, at a cost of 
8,000. It is from the designs of Mr. T. G. Jackson, 
and is in moulded brickwork in Queen Anne style ; 
there is accommodation for 300 day pupils, and there 
are several connected boarding-houses. The course of 
instruction is of an extended character, and a special 
teacher is attached to the staff for physical training 
and a daily drill. The school is subject to an annual 
inspection and examination by the Oxford and 
Cambridge School Examination Board. 


THERE is no lack of Hotel and Boarding House 
accommodation, conspicuous among the latter 
may be mentioned " The Isis," which is pleasantly 
situated, facing Christ Church Recreation Grounds, 
five minutes from Magdalen College and Examination 
Schools, and " Wolsey House," a newly-established 
boarding house in a building of ancient and historic 
interest. It is centrally situated, opposite Christ 
Church College and close to the river. 

The River. 

ONE of the greatest attractions to Oxford is 
undoubtedly the river, known locally as the 
" Isis " ; and during recent years its attractive- 
ness has been considerably increased by the opening up 
by Messrs. Salter Brothers, of an excellent daily 
steamer service between Oxford and Kingston, which 
by special arrangements with the Great Western Rail- 
way Company, also combines a circular trip of half 
railway and half steamer. LIpon viewing the river from 
Folly Bridge, which was built in 1826, at a cost of 
;i8,ooo, one is struck with the beautiful appearance 
of the long row of the College barges ; nearly even- 
College, for racing and training purposes, having a 
barge stationed on the Oxfordshire side, beautifully 
fitted up for use as a club-room, with dressing and 
reading rooms. Many thousands of visitors and 
citizens line the banks and crowd the boats during " the 


Eights' Week," which has now come to be recognised 
as the Visitors' Week, and the principal event of the 
Summer Term at Oxford, it being such a scene of 
animation and excitement as once witnessed would 
be ever after remembered. These contests are rowed 
in two divisions of about twelve boats each, starting 
at equal distances behind each other. The boats are 
eight-oared, with a coxswain, who endeavours to 
displace the boat preceding him by " bumping," or 
striking the boat, each crew being distinguished by the 
coloured jackets and crests of their College, whilst the 
excited shouts and cheers of their partisans on the 
banks are heard miles away. Besides the London 
steamers giving the daily service, the ordinary local 
steamer traffic has grown very rapidly during recent 
years ; every evening during the summer season there 
is a service of steamers from Folly Bridge to Iffley at 
frequent intervals at a fare of twopence each way ; 
whilst also, for privately organised parties, steamers 
may be chartered for trips to Nuneham, Abingdon, and 
other places farther down the river at a very moderate 
charge. At the distance of i^ miles from Folly 
Bridge is Iffley Lock, one of the three locks that were 
provided for by Act of Parliament in 1624 " for opening 
of river from Burcote by Abingdon, for the benefit of 
the University and City of Oxford " the other locks 
being Sandford and " Culham in the swift ditch " ; as 
a result of the water being thus kept up the first barge 
was brought up to Oxford on August 3ist, 1635. 
Adjoining the lock is the ancient Mill of Iffley, which 
can be traced back nearly to Norman days. Just below 
the lock is a charming view of the old Norman tower 

of the church, which for 750 years has crowned the 
garden of the vicarage. About a mile further down 
the river is approached a noted riverside hostelry, 
" Kennington Island," at which many kodaks have 
snapped, and which has produced many an interesting 
reminiscence of a river trip. Immediately upon passing 
Sandford Lock, 3^ miles from Oxford, the river begins 
to open out, and presents a series of charming and 
interesting scenes, both in an abundance of low-lying 
grass lands, and fine hills crowned \\ ith splendid 
timber. Continuing through this beautiful scenery, at 
six miles from Oxford we approach 

Nuneham Courtenay. 

THE estate is a very ancient one, and acquired its 
name from Robert de Courtenay, who, in 1214, 
married into the family of William de Redvers. 
Earl of Devon, who had previously been, lords of the 
manor. In 1710 the estate passed into the hands of 
Simon, Lord Chancellor of England, the first Baron 
and Viscount Harcourt, by purchase, at a cost of 
^"17,000. In 1772 the village was removed to its 
present site on the London Road, from its old position 
near the house, which is a plain stone building consist- 
ing of a central block with wings, ccnnected by 
corridors. The gardens are very fine, and under 
certain restrictions, with the park, are thrown open to 
the public on Tuesdays and Thursdays from the 
beginning of May till September, and are a favourite 
trip by steamer or houseboat during the season ; the 


usual charge being one shilling for the double journey. 
In the Park, rising steeply from the river bank some 
250 feet, is carefully preserved an old Oxford relic, 
which was erected on Carfax in 1616, as a conduit for 
the supply of water for the University and City. This 
enterprise was carried out at the sole expense of Otho 
Nicholson, of Christ Church, who brought the water 
in pipes from the hillside above North Hincksey, at a 
cost of ^2,500. After standing over 160 years in the 
very centre of the City, to the great detriment of the 
carriage-way, it was removed in 1787, being presented 
to the Earl of Harcourt, who re-erected it upon its 
present site. From the river at this spot is obtained 
one of the very best views on the Thames, having a 
rustic oak bridge in the foreground uniting the woods 
which come to the water's edge with an island adorned 
with tall willows ; the background being relieved with 
old cottages with thatched roofs and greensward in 
front this being the landing-place provided by the 
courtesy of the Harcourt family for the convenience of 

Iffley Church. 

IFFLEY, as a village or hamlet, is said to have held 
an important position for a long time before the 
Conquest, owing to its having been a recognised 
fordway between what are now Oxfordshire and Berk- 
shire. The first recognised mention of Iffley is in the 
Chronicles of the Abbey of Abingdon, described as 
" Gifteleia," referring to the date 941-6. In Diocesan 

Histories the date of the Church is given as about 
1160, and in Domesday (written in 1086) no mention 
is made of the church, although it is stated " Earl 
Alberic held of the King, Giveteleia, in which were 
four hides of land (a hide being 120 acres), worth one 
hundred shillings." Dugdale says that the grant of 
Iffley Church and Rectory to Kenilworth was made in 
the time of Henry II. (1154-89), as about the year 1180 
a dispute arose between the Canons of Oseney and 
Robert de Germano as to the patronage of Iffley 
Church. It is at a distance of two miles from the City, 
and is easily accessible by Trarmvay Company's 
'busses from Broad Street. 

The church exhibits some of the purest and most 
perfect specimens of Norman work still existing. It 
is supposed to have been erected either by Robert de 
Cheney, Bishop of Lincoln, about 1140, or by Juliano 
de Remigio a little later, who gave it to the Priory 
between 1175 and 1195. It consists of chancel and 
nave, with massive embattled tower in the centre. The 
west front is of three stages, the lowest having a deeply 
recessed doorway with richly carved chevron and beak 
mouldings, on either side of which is a blank round- 
headed arch ; the next stage contains a most handsome 
circular window with chevron mouldings, restored 
about fifty years since by Dr. Warburton, the Vicar, 
from designs prepared in accordance with traces of 
the original window remaining in the wall, this splendid 
window having a circumference of about 30 feet. 
Above this are three windows in line, with shafts and 
capitals and highly enriched mouldings of similar 
character, and in the apex of the gable another single- 


light window. .The north and south doorways are 
also Norman, with ornamented piers and capitals ; 
only the two west windows on either side of the nave 
remaining in their original style, but the mouldings of 
the others remain in the interior ; the five windows on 
each side displaying in the construction of arches five 
different characters of architecture. The tower arches 
spring from piers with cushioned capitals and shafts 
of black marble, whilst the two arches are recessed and 
elaborately carved with flowers and zig-zag work. 
Extensive repairs were made in 1823 and 1844 ; in the 
latter year the western gable was re-constructed, and 
the nave roof restored to its original height. The 
chancel, which was restored in 1858, is vaulted with 
stone and groined, its splendid ceiling being completely 
in character with the older work. It consists of two 
bays, the western one being Norman, and the second 
Early English, supposed to have been added to the 
original church by the Prior of Kenilworth, Robert of 
Efteley, about 1270. The later windows and the 
chancel are of the Thirteenth Century, and in the 
Norman portion the mouldings of the ancient windows 
remain. In the tower and nave four Perpendicular 
windows have been inserted with the Norman mould- 
ings, dating from the latter half of the Fifteenth 
Century. The tower has also, in the belfry storey, two 
Norman windows on each side, and a turret at the 
north-west corner ; in the centre of the north row of 
battlements is the figure of an ox. The font, which 
is a very early and curious example, is of black marble, 
about 3ft. 6in. square, supported on a circular stone 
pedestal, with four smaller ones at the angles. An old 

altar-tomb existed at the time of the restoration of the 
church, on the north side of the chancel ; this being 
destroyed, the upper slab, unfortunately without its 
brasses, was removed to the west wall of the church, 
where it still remains, to the memory of Arthur Pitts, 
B.C.L., of Brasenose College, Archdeacon and 
Registrar of the Diocese, who died 1579. In the 
churchyard is a cross, the base and shaft of which are 
ancient ; it being generally understood to express that 
it was evidence of the church being consecrated and 
the churchyard entitled to the right of sanctuary, which 
did not extend beyond a distance of thirty yards from 
the church door. There is also adjoining a venerable 
yew tree, the trunk of which is hollow from age and is 
said to be as old as the church. 

Iffley Mill. 

THE picturesque appearance of Iffley Mill has been 
for many years a great attraction to artists and 
photographers. There has been a mill here 
almost from time immemorial. The Muniments of 
Magdalen College state that " William, the son of 
Manfred the Miller, gave sixpence of annual rent to the 
Hospital of St. John the Baptist," after the death of 
Juliana de Remigio', who died in 1220. In the time 
of Edward the First it is noticed " with free water for 
fishing from the village of Iffley to the mill called 
Boymille, but there is an annual rent of 44 shillings to 
the lord of the manor." Since the year 1466 it is 
known to have belonged to Lincoln College, together 


with land adjoining' and the right to the fishery ; as in 
evidence produced by the College before a Select 
Commission on the Thames Navigation Bill in 1856, 
a receipt was produced of the year 1466 for a reserved 
rent of three shillings to the Priories of Littlemore. 
In 1622 Sir Thomas Stoner and William Wickham of 
Abingdon " gave ^400 to Philip Pitts, of Iffley, for 
his interest in a lease of sixty-five years granted by 
Lincoln College in the time of Queen Elizabeth to his 
father Arthur Pitts." 

Blenheim Palace. 

THIS magnificent building- which was commenced in 
1705, and was about 20 years in erection, is not 
only in itself, as the master-piece of Sir John 
Vanbrugh, a very great attraction, but the interest 
in the estate of Woodstock is very greatly increased by 
the historical associations of the Royal Houses of 
England with the Borough, through several previous 
centuries. During the Saxon times we find King 
Alfred made his residence at Woodstock, whilst in 
Ethelred's reign he summoned Parliament to meet 
here. Henry I. re-built his palace here, enclosing the 
park and stocking it with deer ; Henry TJ. also used it 
as his favourite residence, his mistress, Fair Rosamond, 
having a concealed bower in the woods, and dying here 
in 1177 was buried at Godstow Nunnery, two miles 
from Oxford, the ruins of which are still in existence. 
Henry VIII. made large additions to the palace, and 

Elizabeth was later confined as a prisoner in the gate- 
house by Mary whilst she was Queen. In the reign of 
Queen Anne, the Manor of Woodstock, together with 
Wootton, was granted to John Churchill, the great 
Duke of Marlborough and his heirs for ever. The site 
consists of about 22,000 acres ; and the grant having 
been confirmed by Act of Parliament, the sum of 
,240,000 was granted for the erection of the palace, 
which was not completed at the death of the Duke in 
1722. The building, which is entirely of stone, is 
said to have cost over ^300,000, and consists of a long 
block with square towers at each end, and wings con- 
nected by colonnades, forming three sides of a large 
court entered by an archway. The whole area of the 
buildings occupies three acres, and has a north frontage 
to the park and a south frontage to the lawns both 
frontages being 348 feet in length. It is quite 
impossible to attempt justice to such a building as 
Blenheim Palace, as the notice of the several depart- 
ments must necessarily be very brief in a book of this 
character. A visit to Blenheim may perhaps best be 
summarized in the words of a German visitor, who 
said: " If nothing were to be seen in England but 
Blenheim, there would be no reason to repent the 
journey to this country." 

Upon entering the outer court one is struck with the 
massiveness of the entrance gates, which are 22^ feet 
in height, and weigh 17 tons. The centre is ornamented 
with a gilded trophy of arms, standards and drums ; 
the upper portion showing the family crests. The 
first court is devoted to the usual offices of a large 
estate, and passing through a second archway with a 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Iffley Mill. 


handsome clock tower we approach the north front, 
consisting of a magnificent Corinthian portico, by a 
handsome flight of steps flanked with pedestals, on 
which rest two saluting pieces from the field of Blen- 
heim. The hall which is 75 feet by 40 feet, has a 
handsome ceiling, 67 feet from the floor, adorned with 
a large allegorical fresco by Sir James Thornhill, 
commemorating the Victory of Blenheim in 1704. Th? 
small drawing room is 24 feet square, its walls covered 
with valuable paintings, including Sir Joshua Reynolds' 
1778 picture of George, Third Duke of Marlborough, 
and his family, which is valued at ^40,000. Proceed- 
ing from this room we pass through the Grand Cabinet, 
27 feet by 28 feet, in which is the celebrated letter 
written by the Duke on the field of battle, and known 
as the " Blenheim Despatch " ; next the billiard room, 
33 feet by 23 feet, followed by the dining room, the 
walls of both of which are hung with tapestries copied 
from pictures by Le Brun in the Louvre of Paris. The 
Saloon, a magnificent apartment, 44ft. by 35ft., follows, 
the whole of the decorations and ceiling being painted 
by Laguerre ; the latter being an allegorical represen- 
tation of the career of the First Duke. Following 
upon the Saloon, we enter in succession the three 
handsome State Rooms, the walls of which are hung 
with those splendid tapestries, made in Brussels, which 
have so long been known as a special feature of 
Blenheim Palace. In the first room they represent the 

sieges of Donawert in 1704, and Lisle in 1708 ; the 
second room, in continuation of the series, shewing 
the march to Bonchain and its siege in 1711 ; whilst 
the third represents the sieges of Bonchain and 
Oudenarde. The Long Library is the largest room in 
the Palace, being 183 feet by 24 feet ; it has a magnifi- 
cent ceiling, and some wood-carving of Grinling 
Gibbons on the bookcases. The organ, built by Willis 
and Son, is a special feature of this room, it being the 
finest private organ in the world, requiring six hydraulic 
engines for blowing it. The most interesting feature 
of the handsome chapel is the superb marble monument 
to the Duke and his two sons, erected by the Duchess 
in 1733, having colossal figures of the Duke, Duchess, 
and their two sons, attended by Fame and History. 
The Lake occupies a space of 130 acres, having in the 
immediate front of the house a grand bridge, with a 
central arch of 101 feet span, the bridge having 
chambers within. At the north end of the bridge, 
marked by a clump of beech trees, is the site of the 
ancient Palace of Woodstock, in which Queen Elizabeth 
w r as prisoner. The Park contains over 2,400 acres, 
and has a circuit of nine miles. The Palace and 
Gardens are open to the public on Tuesdays and Fridays 
from 12 to 3 during the months of May to September, 
at a charge of is., the proceeds being given to 
charitable institutions. 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 

Nuneham Bridge. 

The City of Oxford being so peculiarly adapted for the 
accommodation of large numbers of VISITORS, by reason of its 


the City Council has appointed a Committee, for the purpose 
of affording facilities to those who contemplate 


and for inducing them to make a prolonged visit during the 

Summer months. Having this object in view the Committee 

send free an 


containing list of 


with prices. They also make all preliminary arrangements for 

Organised Parties, in selecting Caterers and securing suitable 

buildings for their meals, in accordance with the number of 

the party ; they pre-arrange 


at a fixed tariff ; and give 


over the sights of Oxford. 

For Particulars and Handbooks apply to 

Hon. Secretary, Tourist Committee, 


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NEWEST DESIGNS. Miss BATES, Proprietress 

Photo by Hills & Saunders, Oxford. 


William H. Aid en, 

Established 1798. 


Te,ephone03,3. FAMILY BUTCHER, 

(37 & 68, The Market ^ m a h street End < Avenue NO. %). 

Superior Pickled Ox Tongues and Beef. 
Meat of First Quality. 


73, 108 & 109, The Market 

(Adjoining High Street Entrance, Avenue A'o. 3). 

Finest Country-fed Pork. 

Home=cured Bacon. Prime Pork Sausages. 

Prime Home-made Lard. Superior Collared Head. 

W. Mate & Sons, Ltd. 

Are Printers and Publishers of ::: 

' Bournemouth Illustrated " (Twelfth Edition). 

' Christchurch and its Priory." 

' Glasgow and West Coast Illustrated." 

' Historic Hastings and St. Leonards Illustrated." 

' Isle of Man Illustrated." 

' Isle of Wight Illustrated." 

' Morecambe and the Lake District Illustrated." 

' Mate's Illustrated Folkestone." 

'Mate's Illustrated Southsea." 

' Mate's Illustrated Plymouth." 

' North of Ireland Illustrated." 

' Peerless Scarborough." 

' Southampton Illustrated." 

Also to ::: 
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Cardigan Bay, 
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All Is each, Post Free Is.lJd. 

Herne Bay, Rhyl, 

Ilfracombe, Sidmouth, 

Keswick, Southend-on-Sea, 

Llandudno, Swanage, 

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Penzance, Whitby, 

Ramsgate, Winchester, 

Reading, York. 

Each containing about 100 pages Royal 8vo. oblong, with about 
'>0 High-Class Photographic Process Views. Price Gd. each, Post Free. Wd. 

W. MATE & SONS, Ltd., 62, Commercial Road, 


The Oxford Photographic and 

Fine Art Galleries. 

Photographers to the 
late Queen and 
Royal Family. 

fesniblisbctl over 
forty years. 

Gentlemen's Rooms 

All College Groups and 
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Portraits of Celebrities 
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Skilled Operators sent 

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Close to the 

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Apply, Proprietress. 





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SALES of Real Property, Household Furniture, Timber, etc. 

Periodical Sales of Freehold and Leasehold Properties 
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VALUATIONS of Real and Personal Property, Tenant-right, 

Timber, Hotel, and Public-house Fixtures, and for Probate, 

Estate Duty, and Mortgage Purposes. 


Accounts audited and kept. Mortgages arranged. 
Rents collected. Estates managed and Surveys made. 

Insurances effected against Life, Fire, 
Accident, and Burglary Risks. 

Telephone No. 0339 Oxford. 

14 & 15, Magdalen Street 


Established 1819. 












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Wines. & Spirits. *g Liqueurs. ^ Cigars. 

Mineral Waters 

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Inside View of Spirit Room. 

Retail Saloon Bar, in connection with this it 

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Wines. * Spirits. < Liqueurs. ^ Cigars. 

JYfayo's Stores, 



Spirits in Bulk 
or Bottle. 


Choice Stock of 
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Purchasers wishing to go 

over the Cellars are 

invited to do so. 

41 6 42, Cornmarket Street, 



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Establishment, 0000 

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Tivoli, 1 


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fa fits : "AutowabHe, Oxford. 

H%Sd| //.'>. 12. 

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