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Full text of "Oysgeehle er"

>/C>/^^^ KlJ-J-l^y 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 




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Dpnxö !si8P 



TJiVn fp^3 r« 



5»s;d^e8P pD fiM^'T^np "in : "rinnyo^ni^ 
y^vpnj^ns "lyij^^DD^^sio^Biüp pa Dyvn^ns "lyi : "^in nyom 

yv:i?a D^8 
"y^Di^:j^py nyij'^ü^^ii^a lyi pD P^onp ^n iv^ pD 



trtD^imn pT*»« pn:?^ .m jid ün^:ib*"ivi 



DDSK'^yry:! niDsnyiD^^ cpnfcü'o ^nyip nyn. ps lysyjyjD^ns 

1920 ,piJ?^i: 



11 y^-lODH 

tD^iny; ?^{< üi^)) ,y^v»ny£i^i;^p nyi pc i:iE»K'5i^ n J. 

*iyi pD ::i:?>^üiv nyi n^« l'.« piy^rü:j<:n ri>iK 
11 o^-si« 

nyn n^ix DytDD^D*pnDt?D Drr p.c ;jipn^^rpn*,v n J2 
13 t3^^2ii?*r'.n j^K "iiöpötßuso 

15 0^»2*^8 

PK iiüp^DijS'D nyjnyii^D nyi pD ::ö:i*iyn^K nn .4 

;:ny^yjtyi8D n .y^-^oon^^K-D^n: w ü^^^iött^vi 
PD :jn:iyii:i? nyi ^-in y^v^^i^i^yi nyrri;?"! ".yi pe 

18 D^j£^«-Dji^^vpni?-iB v:v' ^^iK li^yryrpnn^c n 
-pnDSs: p5 ::nn^B:^^« y^^^oy:!'» : ^yo^B»? nyö^nyvyrt 

31 i:s?3:y pK ::ny3vytyi 

— inyrs ^yivDS^yi PK nyo^^i^Da» : ^yö^eetP lyony^s« 
42 D-uni 

6 



T>nB n':)t d>itj nvn p« i:inyi:y : ^j;d^sj<p "lyojnrvj^^: 

49 ü"iyir-inyD po pk dd^-ip-d^uis lyn pD 

o^^anöt lyi pD dssip yn^Dpni^-iQ yDiy:y^p-iy:Q .1 
nfe? üvi pa jjny:ij^^^i83 ny:i^D^^VD>>>j s d^o 

56 :i>'ü-DD^u 

yivDpni^iö p« toyü^ivDjyDrx yDiyDynnss^ ^ 
nfcüD nya^D^^VD"»^^: fc? d^d d^ui» nyi ps d-:8-ip 

58 :i^o-DtD^^n-iK pa ::ivn^p 

59 ony^i-nnyD pD yoiin n : ^yD^ß^np iyöDr^:i{ii^^ 

on PD ;j^^"!J«^n8D n : ^yD''5«:p nyDDrv:8i^v p« p>K 
n» px t:2»-ip-D^>3"i« lyi p2 T^ns oyi nyii^ öiyn 

61 pi^-L)^^n 

66 pi^-D^^^ nyi : ^yD^s5<P "lyoDii^vjs'i^v px ^^iiv 

73 pi^-p^DK' nyT : ^ytD^ssp *iyt3Dr:^:8iiv n« ^m 

-:jniit5^-n§Q y>i$:j^>v$?i :^yü^ßSP 1yt:D:^^f:s^1v p« ny^ö 
78 |yri^-D^'ai8 n pej D^\n 

81 ^s:D^si?p p2 aji^Dsnt? n 

83 y^vpnt^nsyi yD^sr^x : ^ytD^s5?P nyoDrvJsi^v p« s^^d 
pe iJi^iJs^nsD n ::'yD^B5$p "iyDD:>vJ5$nv px opyr 

95 ._ ?ij;o^DSP PN DiyirnnyD 

n^i« y^vpni^nB pD oyvi^-is nytj'^DD^^üiü^ß^p nyn .1 
-"»^« n PD ::8:iyn^« nyi .^»d^^ds^ lynyo^nn » 
nsD C'^DDnyDp^-i^a \v:''t o^)) ,\v^vm-n\ü:v} 
->£5§p PD lyvyry: pN ,nmnD pD y^vpntiinö nyn 

95 DlDJyr'N PD Dni^D nyK'^DD^^SD 

8 n^iN :i:n^vnt^nDyi iyi pD jiiD^jDDnx y^^j^D n J2 
106 y^oi?:i^py nytr^D^^j>*3 nyn nvD a»Dti^D^o lynyoyii 
PN ^8ö^si$p PN DiyinnyD d':id :ji5>^^Dr^N n 3 

108 iiiD^snsi^ PD V'''\^v^ n .Dsnp:^^« 

aji^DNTJi^ PD D^n3 n lyD^oe^j?! d^i^ii ,iynyDC^DiK .4 
a:^^iitDr^N ny^y:j^>v"ii<iBi^ns lyi pd j^:i:ynsi?oit< 
njn : ddj^p^^^k pn ^^kd^bsp pn »ly^rnnyo d'jiö 

6 



— .t3>uiK lyi pQ DyD^ivtDpns^is n — .desip 

Dyi pD D>ni n — .^^üd^süip ly^D^nrnj?!: px |yö 

114 t'Kü^QSP lyDJ^^^'yiD^i« 

PD ryry; yj^^oy:^» Di;|tT : t^yo^ssp lyoDa^vjsTiv p« jyan 

123 :^i^D»n{;|i nytj^^DD^^öiD^ssP 

-D^uiöt ^^^K i^nyiJ^^E n D^iyoy-inj^D ::i^D^t:i^ n .1 
^»o^EfcüP D'J^D ^yt:t?:yn»riv lyi nys »ücsnp 

123 nynnD /ii ^V2'?v^ in on^^^n 

D'jiD ^^D |y3>5"iyn:y-i5$D nvi P5 ::nyjy^piüi2 n ,2 
PK a:i^D»Tiiiii nyn ps ::i^pMiD:fc? nyn ^^n ^^sd^bsp 

130 ni^D >'»myn dd^p Di^n ^y^vsiD^yvji^p nyn 

lyrDyoDOD^ym^D nyi n£ dp^-kii lyi^yj^^iDtj^ nn .3 
•yi ly^ynDonj^K nyi iiö lyi^ ,::nyp^y£fc?3iyn''K 

141 ^'•Difeü-myr 

lyroycD^jD^ym^D iyi na lyoitJ^D y:yi^^K^n5§D .4 
nyi PD ryty: y^^^Dyjt'» d^^t jjnyp^yD^myn^N 
158 j^^^csnt? nyK^^DD^^^*ü^55?p 

nyi PD ryty: cyr^öya^fc? Dyn n^s oy^vbiioDi^^K .5 
168 ::i^D$?TJi? nyfiJ'^tDD^^»D^B»P 

33i^D«t:y j?d'»'7:i:8b:^ yjyDny:» ^ir« n 

nyD^5>i:«iD:i^ pD n^D lyi : 5'yü*'Bi5p lytDDrviS'ny p» 038 
180 3:^>Db*T:i^ 

PD a:iTKnsi^n3Dpy n r^yo^s^P "lyoDi^vjj^iiv px p^: 
186 DnyMB n >^n my nyi 

-Dpy n lyayp i^iny^vyty: y^Di^n : t5yD^Di?p lyoDro^nT 
— .Dnyi:in"inJit^ lyolS pd ^^d nyi Drr yü-i^^nBi^t-iQ 

207 pi^j-tD^^ais Dyn |ypmivsJ#i8 ::uy:vyTy: 

5y-! ]iD lyoipD^iN Diji :^yD>sfe?P "lyt^oro^nl px r^« 

221 nyD-|i?D ly^J'^DD^^KO^SSP 

"n:s5> "lyn \)^ ::);>v\\ n : ^ytD^3fc?P -lytDDro^m p« ^ni» 
n .yntDDnrx nyn «i^^« y^vi^i^^iyn "lyD^^tDD»l^•ö"l^^1 
-ynöonj^« oyi "i»d p-iö:d jy^^^iyr« oyn pd a^iDsr 

224 >KD^B8P \V^ 

1 



230 üD>^fci:o^Q^P iv^ynüDn 

Vjy-t:yD yD>!?D3^;j'y: n : ^j;d^bö;p lytooro^m px ny^o 

247 aj1^rJi<TJl;jt lytJ'^DD^^SO^ÖKP lyT PD 

."tj^D^ßetp Di>n„ 1:83 jyüS nn 

253 p^sy -ij;ty^t3D'''?«n^ö«p lyn nny 

lyvnip p« D^Knj^N nyn 
"^ÖB-'Ögp ü)$l„ i:i«3 ]VtD3 ]!« ]yß2 J1D 

^»•»»«p ]iö ci'»"i^T''np nyi : T T n n y Q ^ M 1 5f 
MQD^'?t>tD^D«p jiD Dy:f ijiö ny-p : T\ n n V ö ^ "^ T 

273 :ripiyD82nt#D « 

273 ^^to^QSp n£ «iM^t^np nyi .1 

277 y^:^i?^'!p"i^'5^ "lyi i^« p^d^skp pe ::it'>^öJ^^K n ^ 

280 t'SD^Bs^p pD "lypnyn^K nyT ^ 

282 Dnyirmyo pc y^vst^ipi^v n .4 

tyv:w oyi ps y^VK5>ip"i^v n px y^vpni^isy"i n .5 

287 ^»D''SKP Wy'^ü^lt^^^V^Vi 

293 lyonnp .6 

300 v^^ t^^c>^"is px yDi<i tD-iyir"inyD .7 

304 iytD5s*rtD^DJ?is n p2 :jid^>^:d^^« n .8 

305 iyt:Di$^^yTyr|y^vp5$ n pa y^i^-i n JQ 

308 iyp^n:j»B yivtD8nyBi?i>*p :^yt3^si?p ]yo:^o div yi8>^*3 

t^D IvvTiP pi« ü^KnrK nyi 

."y^o^^py nytr''ts'»'7j5S nyi jis p"«ö''np nyi i^« 

312 |yt>>nB PK o>M 



a 



.ri^"'n"iöt nyi ps :j:"i'7''"»tDi:f nyi ei''!« p« pnyinsasn q^i« 

nyK^nyp-iyii-tD:Kn nyi iia ::i^^^div lyn ^mk oy-un^ya vv^ 
'^Qi'>'>:\i^ n n« üit^iD jy^e^ny Dyi pö ^y^sB^^^n ($ .d>>3"i» 
-nxun iiD y^^i?"iyst^fc?p lyi pa ys^3 cyi Doy^n^D n : ps? 
T^N ü^^o lyD^M^v Dyi pD fiy^BK^'u ivirn^"?^ 8 .nyn^^jK^ 
lyaijn hd^dd D^ns öm^ .jy^iii^rny: iyn>vnni?D iv pb^ko n 
tsDttDya ü^un» nyi pD :ji^^^div "^nn lyjyo 10 ü^^v p>r pK 
p^K Dn^t^nj^is m'>t^ jt^D-DD^^m» p^N pK ly^ni^j 48,000 
pa ii^D-DD^m» p^« pt« iy5'i5?:-nyj 145,000 pb^sd yrvj>^» 
•D^JB^Din tili« üD^s 5'yi^^D p^K lyii;^ ^na p^j? .lyn^iiDB^ 11 
ü'-D lai« DyT Pi^iK Di^vnijna pK oyi^B^üio y^^yts 4 n^x ^'> 
3,000,000 '^v:!''^^ l^K :i;?t3 i? W"?^^: 600,000 Dnj? oyj^B^^D n 
iDoy:nfc?a pB'bto'D^^nns y:^y^:^^K 18 5»y^aMi ti^iK .-^ti^ii » 
>t li^P ,n^üP8a^:8D -lyn pa nyni^ y^vönysi;?i^p pa rs^a oyi 
-pnfcjns "lyB'nyp-iyirüJ^n 8 pa Dn^a lyn jyiyii lyiMi p^^»» 
nyB^nypnyin3:8n i^ nyppmv ny^Mijn "lyn üi^ nyni? .y>v 
->« 18 ^^: T^8 ,Dy:>B^8D nn« iDyn:nayi t^k ü^)) ,V'>'^:^)'^^ib 
Dyiy> ^^03 Doip yD^yii ,y^^pnijiB-pn38B nyi iv ::8nya 

— 11 — . 



^«t9>S($p 0^1 12 

ptreiD n iyj:y"i:3 iv iv^ipdid y^^^K^jyo pa rfc?^3 oyi tDoyj 
li?P ,y^^''ii 8 tjMK 1^2 ^MK pic ,Dn{^n pN i^i .:ji:iyny:n p« 
-3>nD nyK^^j^Dyo ü'<d iyn:uni?3 i>n y^^pnt^ns v^^'^p n 
jyniDP^QiJSD yp:^^« pN >ii MTt§ ,tioi<n nyn :n:y::n ,D2Knp 
»cjyrc'ötD yti'nt^^KP yr^^p :n:yD>n3y: lyni? ,DKa:^ö-i>n px 
-n>n lyi p« .11 .ts .« >nynyii lyi ps iyr>^i>f yo^iiy; p« mi 
-Dpy "lyi tD^yp^^iDJs c^o^dd -nn isfc^n >*iDjyiij^p p^? ^nyayii 
v\n V'>'?p 8 — tynyojsp] lypnn^s'tj^nyDijp n pD t^jy^nya 
f»« o^\) /'DyK^nytDfc?p„ n>n {§ pD |yto>o px .[|y:'»'",«ii div 
^ns 18 lyni^ny: tD^yDc^y:iD^iK t^k ,i:8-n8iip 8 ^11 ü^ny^ 
T>K yD^y^^ ,pK^8D-piDKT nyi isö "t^in-iytj'nj^fc?,, y:ys:nyi 
"ytD8p„ n pK ly^iiDii'nyi^ n ö^d lyv^«^^ "^nn |yn:m8D 
•»'3 D1V »ly^rn ly^iüQ y^s px \vo D:y^D no^i Dyn ."oytj'TT 
yiDjyr^DKi y^nt^n >"t .^•iDK'-nyii nys :j^^^k^ 2y2 nsD ^y^sK' 
.jyDi^^ya lym ly^iüK'-nyn >n >^d ^-qi^ii pD D^^vy: "qn dj^h 
•ayii 6 V2 2 PD lyo^sHD:» \:i^n m'\v\:i^p ^v^v .0^3 ^^d 
n lyaj^n Dijtii nyo^m» n 1^ tD-iynyj jyni^n yD^yn ^ly^ioB^ 
lyBj'Miv »1D8P lyn .iy::ny3 nyii? :i^2 ^nx tDC^ipy: jy^iDtj' 
ony^nya ü^n pnasD lya^DDn ny-i p« pna^Q-tj'nyD^p nyi 
nysniyotr^Ji^D nyn d^d Djnjyy: "nn Dt^n ny .ini^> 12 nyn>-i8 
.iypn38ö-65^nyü8P 300 n ps ajn^j^xn 
3'init? pD Diyni^Dya d>: öi^in oyvi^is oyi ps niD^^ n ikii 
-e^m"»>: n |yrn »dkük^dsd lyo^n: 8 ^.^i« y^i^pnj^is V'>p fj^ 
nyii:i;?p lyoso pQ 5'y^BK'"3 div >ti ,DynöDn:^« yjyoipya 
•^iD-8 |y:38ay3Din ''i^^jnyiiya .1^ .ts m iiv^v^ yiy^t^totj^ ,|yD 
n^t3P8Bi38D PD |«n ji« ny^^nypiyiroi^n pD yDiDtJ' >t nyn 
-tjiiö-pnn^D lyn w |yDit3i5'-::8nyn^K yvn^p d^8 y^vpni^-i3 
,oij;?-i lytDD'^.viiK' d8 li^D öDip wi5n:8iioiK y:ni^i n .y>vpn 
ünyDir^a ^SMön» oyi pD y^vpni^na y^yiitDp8Di38o n inii 
y:yi:nn8D nyij» j'o'd lyr^x y:in'mD3 n^n s tia o^^ 
oifT .jyDyvjjns rin^n^a ^y*D pD ^^: ,iyDyvijinö-::i^pn^D:8 
•fijüK' nn -180 ainyüB^ yo^na 8 lyi^ya ^^y^DK^^n mv ,t^i« 



13 •»icptjB^so r-s i3n»T'i^>»^i'j'^jiiyn n 

-yi] p^'^W'i nni^> 15 to^D -^ny i8 pic^ t^n ^t^n .pnntüB-nynyo 
[ivint^^ lyröO n pD ::^^:^ pK oy dd>m ,1867 ps jnjyjya 
yiyunötn 6 i^i::^^ toi^n v:i^]!)^ ,pK^i<D » lyii^iiya iy:iQiy 
-yr.v 1820 PN tii^n pnyirD:«n Dj^n .5'ijo p^x ü^o lyoyvi^nQ 
.tsD d:id 7 ifc?D \iviVD V2vH^^ rio 12 ytDK'-iy n D^ytDC' 
tD^yDtJ'y:!!^ 1830 p« '^* Di^n "nDPSCUifiü n pr5»K^ 4 d'd 
2 ly i;i;n:jfe5 i^ öJ^'n "t o5»yDK' p^nasD n px ^^j^^^k^ 8 "i»d 

.Di§-iJ 8 Djys 6 T»3 

"irr tD^D p« Dyt:D^D-pnn5<s Dyi ps :ji^p^^iöJ8 lyn o»d 
D-iy^i ,n t:^^^:fc?3 Di^ii ,"TiD^ip>n:8 nyi pK y^vi^'r^i^ri 
PN niüDtJ'Dfeüo - y^^fpni^"i3 nyi oiyö^nai^Q ijjj ü^} 
Diyii oy 11?: ,ynt:Dni^N psj lyrMiv yiyu» y^8 
lyi pD 5^v:nB nyi .iyüPöiii<D pn i3nyi:yn8D ^'ik 
-pnj^ns üvi iy^>^L}iviyi:ö;:sQ — y^vpnt^tna • |y:^K'8D 
n ^mn] iyt5$ö yi:y"i^Niü^DD:i?p yrn «i>in Dyvijns"D:t^^^ 
[D^yD*^y:!ön:^v t^n ny yj^yi^ pD ,iyDy^i?"is-^^^ü y:^yv:^^H 
^■in ,Dy-iD")n iynyDiJ'D:j$ ü^)^ ,|ynN:D^^N n lyt^^^ w rix 
n ps nip ,.11 .18 .N V''r2v:i ,v>'^:^:ivo lyi ps ajn:yiiji? lyi 
-IN 2^v:n3 lyijyo^tDti'^n nyi onyii — lytDSNU^jyD^imiüW 
iy")^tDP82iJ8o n PN pnN lyanyi lyam Dy:^{i^e:D .Diöyo 
-Dnp-tDoyn n .nyi^s 18 "i8S t^i ,Dyvi?i3-^^^tD p^N i^s i^i 
DJ^ii ,niüP8Si:ND nyi ps y^v8r^:Nni? ps yo-it^s yD-i>r'5>80 
DT^^^ ,ü^^nnN lyi jis :ji^^^div lytD^N nyn ps üONüirya Dtjn 
-yi:y yjn'-noD ins vn^q üdno pn ^^in isin stn n^iN ^n 
pN y^v^^j^iiyi yD>!^D:n: 8 nt^s üoip oyn lyo^i« .lyijn 
nyi ps ny-jfc? ivüpy^üjpnyü^^niN üyi ps ^'yotj'jycNnv nyn 
n:8o cyi i^ r8T3y:y: pN .^iNiJ^nyBnyD^^DiN iyün*:^3ot?p 

-"•^ÜIVD^UIN "lyi ps jN^B "lyi tDV^N Diyil ,ll;?nyBniOP8D 

ps ,tD^>3i8"iyMnB pD 3:njyiiji? nn ^mk dm^v-cmk 3;i^ 



•:v'?i:v nyi M^ »ü^un» iy:j^^u ps niP n^ dt^^^ oy it^j ^ki^ 
ntji: DO ^118 px Diiii .tJ'^toDnyüPi^is:^ mtö: li;? oy DQn nyi 
-D8D lyo^na s dm^ DT:^nD5?p t^« di;?ii ^y^vpni^-is iny^ pK. 
nyi PK "HM« ni^: ,d>j ^^d oyj^t^^sD lij^ oijy^i n ^^d ^n^^Dtj' 
'Vi ony^i n ^^d ,ynDDn:^K-TMn lyjiyisfD lyjyDnyr-'irs 
PK ^^D ,nyD>u"i^ n pD iy:i:ii^*.K'n yoKiins n p« Din^D 
-t^in y:nyi5^D y:y2ny:i ••ks y:ni^"i n .|ytDii:D5J^"i«ii yj*»^^? 
-'»5'öSfc$t5^:^^Dy: Dti'oii^: ,\vü^: Dyn nyo^^K .toiitn ynoonj^K 
-ya üi^n yD^yii ,ynüDn:>K-T^in nytj'ni^a-D^s nyi is^d oya 
lyK^^D-ii^DLi^ lyjojynsi^DiK |8 ^o ij^: lyn-'t^Dnpy toji^p 
-D"iMrnyM5 lyrnjyDc^DDs^yT «t >^n nyiJ^ ^nypnyjrDjj^n 
|y-ij^i^y:i dv^k t^k yntDDnj^K-tnn n »T-'in ly:-»^« |5$ ü^rwi 
W^^'iWi tDV^K ynDDHi^K'TMn n r« ,TMn iy:^^K |^ D^nyj 
-iit:p8DOi§o nyn pa ,pnni^a nyi pD 3Ji5>^^d3i^ y^^^nyo^us n 
-t$o ,iyD^^3"i8-pnns:D n nn"s .prj^aj^o mino Dyn ps nyijjf 
^'Kü^BiüP "lyi y^^yn ,nypnyirDJ«n pK lyD^^aijjmDpss'iJ 
üv-ijsoijjp PK rs^3 p^K PK iyD»D yo^na pK iyoi<Tix ds^üb' 
onyD ynj^atoDno^K 'qnn "^t?: ly t::y^ii5n /üpynn ^n lyn-iK 
PK D^nstJ^i!^ lyj^n di^ii ,-iyD>^mj$-T^ir; n /^d"ik nyt:j5 ik 
-oyn n : ^y^s^j^^o p^K .nysiyi n pK pK lo^yt:^ yoMia n 
»TJK^n^K /"nyi:j?i:tit5' i^k y^^^^i^ jyniyn n pö pna^anyi 
iVD^mK-T^n 9000 PK nyü^^m8"Pnni$s 1000 DrtDDyK^5?2 

.ijs5> pyn^K yö^nati'i^ 
-D^"»m» yö^n-Do PK y^yii^i^T) pQ y^v^oj^^^SDpy n 
nnyo -^^i »-nüP^tDu^^c ny:nyii?o nyi pK \i$ ünvi ly^syip 
-Dyi3 lyi ^^Mi ,pn3{$a lyrüsn lyi t>K nyn^^K ,üQyiJ^ii?2oiK 
-•»^nni^D Dfe^i — pnnsD lyi pk öi^oDMpy Dt^ii Dn«n lyc'o 
lyi PD ö^'^püD^^^ n PK Dy:^:r»D ^nn ddjjip-^ipdiö n jy» 
pK piüp^DOKD lyn PK D5'^>tDiytDDinyD tD^nys — tD'^m» 
-DO nyi •^.yni^ ny3iyp-|y^n2 nn »nyii tD>*v "lyrn^yr iyi 
"lyo^iK tt^5':yDMiy3 üQ^vn ivnyp V3:i^ ps '■w^^VP nya^n 
n .n .T8 .K lycsiiüfif' yroDo p2 ajipn^^i nyn nyojiK lyanijiii 



16 niiapt<ß^3{$t3 ]\s i3n»T':<5'sit'^^ii7T 't 

-^^1 n ^>Mi ,-i^üP82i:8D lyn p« nyi^^K ^tDoys^^nsam« -inyo 
inyo Dii^n ,nyjy^p önyi^ lyo^^m^* n po D>>prnyE-iJ8ae'-iyT 
•n{$"u<9 ysj'nyann n^n y:^:«:: s ^^ni ; lyrn ^n iyöii^v.«iv 
PN iyayrD^>m« lyD^^a^yr^x Dyi lyg^M^v pn« \y::m \vü 
iy-inip:t;^p Dioysix no D^^3"i5§-T^'n n 5»^ii pyD>m8 oyi 
■iJSD "lyi D^D D:ycD:^jyi^ "lyii? y^vpni^i5"iy:^K'8D "lyi ö^o 
t:>ipDniji n ^^>ii ; rMirD:t^^vpnt$is |y:^n^yrt:yi pK iiöpkd 
-ji3jn5§ro^^m5§ yoDaniynonj n pD "lyo^^aib* cyi öamsa 
-'.D2yiJ'i<n n 5>*^it ;.ii .t» .n y>v{?^^ü:yii ,üd^^ ,D^n pa — |yi 
n PK :5>ni ,^^>i:y p« ;rDy2:?y:yio^j< ''^nv^ v?^ i^n öiyr. ir.3 
PN ynöDn:^N yo^n: n ly^yii ,n j^s t:^p2 ^^y v::i'^v'> y:ni^"5 
•n» n üD^>ni-iyi /'yriya^N^ njiiD ör^^tjy: ]V2i^r, i^o^ipn:» 

.üpjiB ]yt:D3yn nn^x T^>i"ny:^onj ny"i'.P^i^P"iyD^*2 
Di^n Dt$ii ,iy5'ö^D-D]i^^vpni;?-i9 n ps ::nn>Di?:t^py n 
.y^vpni?"i3-|y:^^ötc irr "qnn üi^>ny:D^iK jr^obt'oyDD'D ^n 
-i§n PN Ü25<np-ü^^2i8 n DiDyiit^nND ]^ 2')n:i^ ps ot^n p« 
nn "ii<D roMj iy:^n cj^i^ ,iy::i::nKn yf'ssij;?: n D3>n 
ns^üi? r^s D^n» dv^n öt^^ii — »d^-^s^in nn pd :jn^j8^^vp:^ö 
-■•jyii Di^ii ,ts^^T yimy^-:yc-|yK^:yD p.N yn:yt2D>j"i»D nn^N lyp 
nyi PK o^^DiN lyn p.c DyoMVöpnjij-is yj^^üDstJ^H'tyi n nya 
iy:^M lyDyvt^iB'D^^m» yö-i^:>2»:5^p n pD d^üis '•\y\£f'*:^vü 

.y>iDDnj^K lyi pa r^nv tyD>r.y: ^ p« t:5>ypmD:« 

Dy PN |y3:n"iy::^nN do ii^j t*n pfij^eiö n inu »lyonj^i 
y>vi<ü5<i^5Dpy n t^n ,Dyt:D^DniDPi?2i:i?o lyi ^s^: "^n d^nh 
Ml ,iyDyi3 ^D s t:2j# inyr p.N "ly.-y^p ü^j lyo^^aiN cyn pa 
-11t -lyvy^a-oi^nnN n ,^V'i)^ t^n o^^2^i< n .pnnfcta nyi p« 
-yii -iyi:^p pN lyn-iD ,::^'? iy:^n iyi:^0B^ n ,o:ny:DiN \Vi 
.tDMü D1V T^n tD^^nnN "lyi ^>d ü"iyi35<2y:DnN lyn 
'^V^V^'^^ P'D ,tD^"'2"iNny3^N po ^y^BK'^^a lyc'^Db'^p d^8 
pD :3n'T>t5ö!ün3 nyi pa n^^so pn ,d'^3in ^ynjyDNSoiN pK 
lyjyn it^p ,ii? i^nnrp pa ü^yvisa lynyii DJ^n pyt}*^3"n{ n 



-19 üv^ pQ lyö^o r« y>vö:pnnsQ-p^iDt5'-psn nx -^y:j^v n 

»1>1K ni^D Ü01P IV^ypnD Dl^l 1X11 jlK ,DJyi1i;? pK 8 V2 n^'^D 

PK 9 V2 nnD "lyi p« ly^^n-« 4 pD üej? — üdi> 'iV''^^ ^vi 
V2 nnD in p« iy:^n-ö: 5 pd ^j^ü-DD^-'n-ifei; nyi .tojyiii^ 
-j^p Jijt:)-Dü^^ni8 "lyroyo,, t? *i5<d "q^r i^jy^yn tDjyiii? px 7 
4 PD i^^D« p« 6 pD "lyto^y px nyt:Dy>*^y; yi^^n p2 lyn 
"iiDsy >jjty y:^n^ym lyD^^ni» ^n .iDroöyt>'fc?3 W'^v)^ in^^^ 
D'^ais n .nnyo ^^^2 ^}?^t3S5? px ,y:yDp8inyi n >n ,|yi 
-o"iyD5$oyjD^^K n "^i?^ DiyDyi^-iSD r^inyon n px lyi^tj' vi< 
-24: 8 tDi^n ,^y^str>^3 mv ,^y>T5iiD pK y^^^yr^ ^^ px .d^^p 
2 PQ ^^M nyi i^^Q ,3J?ü » :5y;i^v 2000 DDt<Dy: ^yi>>Q inny> 
PK ünv'? Dyn jy^i^iD ly^y^a yD^yi^ ,^y^i^^ü yjyDP5<inyTD^: 
lyny^ lyay^'ö ^y^i^^o y:>Tijti n .ny^^^DK^-^yr^f n iy:!y^2n:i^ 
•>n ya^6J^D>>3 n lyn^x |i?ü 10 pa yo^^s ^ lysy^i^'s^n^ i^n 
'^n PK ,ny^ö D^D 30 lyiiya t^k Di^ii ^nnr^yr:»» nyn p2 lytD 
'5|^5'ayDoiK T^K üVm .diq 210 pa '^^'no » jy^^ioy: oy lyu 
PK y^:^yj^v t$ ps "^y^^D-Di:no Dy-i tny:iiv3in i:'p ^ i^^ 

>n Dtfii »"ni^nstj^ ynj^ia n ^^^siit^D lypjny: W'W^'i too 

-iSDiK ,yrv^otJ^ n ; ti^K-t^MU^^^p pc lyiyn iv dmk d^ip 
^M y3^y^^ ly^j'^^iv ,iytD^\i:ny^iy:i yDDytJ^-ii^DoiK pK y:n:yt3Ej' 

-383 pDMK ^n lyDiüD »IjyDM^D^.K pK tDynpnn$<Q n^^K WÜP^'i'i 

>n ni töiK -ly-i . . .jyTfc^^^v ,iysij?inis'D ^ri^^vyrya iyny> iy>? 
.y^vi^T^^sifc^oyT PC ^»^ip nyD^l^pyntj' » t^k lyoi^riv iy:^iK^i 
-ya 3^t23n k — ^y^^v n o^syiiD ü^)) ny^) "lyn^i^o,, "iyny> 
ünt^Tsn (ysn:-nyD^^Di5< I8 pD D5>^n pK nya^^m^ ^vi^^^'i:^ 
DDyp PK ^trti?^ OYD ^-lyü^-iniK 7 pD Dnyo^^n Di^ii ,nnr pn 
lyDjfi^B' ^yD>D:5' üvi pK .''t^'nyt5üKp„ ^ly-ij^j ^y^^tDij^ pn pK 
,r^^o«D pn ^v ]V\vnv2 ^n >^d ,'^y^n>'»o pK -^y^::^« ^ly^y^ 

-DC83DMK 11^3 ,nyo^^ 2 tID lDnytD{^'K3 ^yn^DK^ di^i .D^3 >^d 

n .yv^^^Djyi^ 3>3yii öi^n oy pK ,iyü3^K y^K ,3 pd t^^i^ 
o^^n-iK "ly-iyiitj' nyn pö üiyü^itoy^D^iK ntK iy:>>T Diyeiyp 
,|y^3yTü^^m3ny3 y3^^p ry^^nBi^ tD>3 m^p -»n r^ ,3t?t3 r^in 
-2^DK^ n pö "^D K .tD^^p3n:yoK'3K nyii^ tD^^p3>^3^n j^^*? üo 
n — a^iüK' PK ncK' ,33i3-int?oiK Pö DiyüD^o |y3>n *^y^ 

•)KB "^y^l^^^D y331' lD3>t55ytJ^K2 Ü^.)) ,ÜV^Ü'>Ü D'3^Q HIV yöD3iy 

•^na ,1V ^M t3-i3>n Dy di^ii ,Dn ?^k tDryt^K'^a ,t5^^a^K "lyi ^^ 
?n3n K IV ,n^ r^^m3^p pö ,\v:iv^ tyv3K3 ^y^n f\>)H ,*>^3 
'»iy^a3*K yony"i3nKö tnrii ^n .ryöiiKiio^iK y3yTtjt««iv"öD3yn 



17 



•)mpH»^3<jo pB :j:nM':^j>x^^9iiyi n 



^n r» ,ü:iy^ya ^n öi^n iitDSJ n nn^^K ,ny^>D y'Di«>o on^ 
öyps: D^D n ^oyDstoK^ yr^iot^ px Itjiüya:»;? .ly^^D lyj^n 
pK ün^D^i^yjDMK DDny: dxi^t px li^n n ,^:p n nynns P3 
iyiy> ::itDDii:iö:D dyo ly^usnfciia iv p>« ^n '>? |y:nyiu;:i ,dmp 
^n lyr^ jyoy pd ü^^^; lyi pK .D>^p:n:yDU^J8 ps ^n'^tvi 
"siy^j:^« n ^11 iv ^n lypp nyiij nyn^ys n ^mk iy:Mvy:DMK 
^^^n:y jyj^n ^n lyii .^^^Jötp iyrK^u"iyi 8 p« ^n lynija 
ji^ ^M ^M mo »D^^nnöi :{^D lynyius' ly^n o^d lyni^i^y: 3^d-i«d 
-ly^n n p« lyjyo n iyo>^>:fc<3 px nn>^^p yoDys yiy^^T 
lyrtt^T Dyn p« Tfc§ ,^^^n^tD»: ni nnyo ü^o t^k oy \iypjyc' 
.nn^K^ ytDDynj n 11^ tD^Mn:^P ny^n pD üc^nyn dö:^p lyv^w 
-n^K PD px ,ynDDn:^K-D>n3 lyi p2 ü:nj"iyD:>n t'D^iK 
-p^n„ yt::8:y2{?T n ly-it^iiy: tD^nyasn« t^k ,iyD^^PD^>pynK^ jn 
niüp5?£^:5<o p« pEJ'i^o ")yi o>D D"inip:ijp v:i'?y\) /ö^^nn» 
o>: D^nsstj^-i^D r^« "ynüDnrx-r^in^ yrrt^n n .y^vpnjna 
.ly-ijy^ya ytr>D-iyi n px "^^ik i^a ,üiv\:i^'P''^2^^ n px nij^ 
nyi .nyi:^"5 p.« lyMiD ps DD5?cy: D:;yDD^^D üiyi^ tD^m» ^"^ 
-»üöt^^BDpy "ly^y^i^j^^^^ \vyf^'^ cn pd y^v^toöti^sopy isni 
.i:8ütJ'iv-tD:ny3 ^vt ps D^nj? •^n üt^mi ^»nyosö-o^i^^Y 
••»nsristD ypnstDK^ 8 ^nx üt^^^^ yp^DD^üsiöD yK^^rvnyo n 
nt?-r^*.n lyrti^i in ^^3 /n lyiJ'^Tiv onij^'ip-iyn^D ps 33^5 
T^K ^^»3» IIX .1^ int#^ 6 ps iy-i:^p üroDyi5'5<3 |ynn^ ö^^a 
-yj n |yi^ .a:^^ lyr^r lynjiüK^-o^^mfe? n .-int^» 5 lyo^i« 
tD£i^ tD^^nn» n üivw: ,(ö^^v "n^^^ px) d^j lyny: lyüDVB^ 
-"3 nya^n-t< 12 "^.ynt? 11 ,10 ?^n nnc ly-i p« nyrn-» 8 pc 

/nysöt^PB^ y'riD« t>k o^^ni» n .0383 

-:ii? üi^n Di^i^ ,y^D^Di^p nyc^^^::y nyn ps osn^a nyi 
-^i^^iBJoy T:y*n^^*^D„) D>^3"i8-"iy-irp iy:yi^ yas^D n osmyo 
y^V808''.^BDpy yD^^pyne^ n ^i:y: ün^>-iK^83 ("iijk^^dijp ü:yD 

: ynoonrK-p^n nyn p« in:^p n pD 

-ivD^n8 ^1^ ii?: iyo38io \^v^^v y:ypiin8C ,v^:v^v n„ 
|y^^ ,T^:vü ^^: m^ üD:ym8D ^y^c^n» nnrp n ps |y:t;^^r 
8 Dtjt^i pyo^y n •isd ü>: "n^^n^ü»: ^n 0^8 d>ij< tyop8^^ 'n 
ny-i:^Kii p^p pk oy ."»n tyTi?^-i8D ^^t p8 oini pk \v^ir:i 
"83 8 r« \:i\i^^]jrt 0>>n:y3"ii^n"i8D px ö^^n^yD^ivtDiK Di^n ,tDO 
^8itj'3 nn>8 . . .jyii^iiya iyrw"iy ^n8 t^k ü^)) ,::nyp^yD 

PD ^fc?v yDM-i3 8 yDiüK^ nyüD3>")yn^: ^vi ^i^i« onyoe^ 

8T8 p8 ^v pD yr:^^8 p8 .iy-i:>p y3^^YyTyjDi8 w^^n lynnD 



."pDiyi ojnDtJ'ny lyrn yp^DD^tDi?üD->ö:j^onp lyT 
t'K lys^yii ,iy:^^ii^"ynüDn:^N v:v^ px pitJ-ü^uiK "lyi 
ivi2'>P n pD pi^-^y!D>DP«D lyi) "iyD^>:iyi'p i? tDsnniyn^K 
K 3:^5»^^ 3 iy5>fc$2"Ds:D^iK px t^k iy>'it^'-üDy>D-»nöE5' n p{< 
|y^y3'DJji3 pn nytojiK wü tDvyiyinyDjns •^{^3 onyn ,(^i$ii 
m^no o^D "iyD^O"i8 n iy5>t^v pD Dy^D'-o oyi ^^n tiy-iDsn 
.("DyoD^D-ptjno«) t:^y3 lono ü^d t)i^DK^3i^ 

ji« TitDp«öi3»D nj;3nyTt5o "^yT ps :i3ö:iyn^w nyi .4 
a3ny^y3tyn«ö n .y'>ntDDn:''«-D''n3 i:c t5"'''nnrp'in 

-pnynB j;3y"» ci''*i« iy:fyTj;rp'»nn«ö -»t jiö 

ly'DiK^ö ort '=i">n DD^ip-ts^^ni» nyi p.a 33i3>^^3n8a n 
yD^n-tD^3 PK ty^-iD ps tDSsnp-ü^^nn» nyi id>d lyDMino^D 
•13^^318 y^»Dni;^3 y^s po 33^^1183 ly'ö'^.^j's "^in »ny^^m» 
-••K PS Dyts^^^stünn ny'DitJ'B ^m pK ,iy33i33n5$rD3yny^ p^ 

-jnonynn» d^3 lyo^^ii ii?p lyo y^^yii ,iyv^3yn3-n"iüK3 yoni 
-»5»nn»D n jy^ytDS^Bi? '^>^k '^^t ?id tD^Diyn lyasriv pK ; \vt2 
,y^Vöit38i^BDpy yij'>öD^^b!t3^s»p n ^^33 px nn^no n pD 3313 
t:p3^ö lyn dj? ij?3 ^^1 ,nmD' y3Mi?n n n^m tD>ny3 p« Di^n 

V3 ü^^^ y338^ 8 Vi1V'''\'^ OV t^K — t33>n3iy-T ':\^^i:V ülVi^ 

33nn^D3^^K "lyn ^i^üd yn3it3:5^ n üdip — 03^n3iyn ü"iyi^ "ly 

331^1381^80 ny^y36r 11^ t3V^« pD "lyi I8D PK Dy3^55^80 pD 

(nit3pöiDi38D ^i^iK nyni;?) D^>3i8-r^in nyD^ypy-)3iv lyi pD 

.y^vpn{jn3-pn38ö pK 
a3i3yi'i83 iy3nt?T nyi pD ^y^sti^^^s jytDD^sDj^^'i^p nn 
-33n>^^p ^^^ny^»») "^yn^SK 33nyii„ pa y^vpni^iö n r3iK tD^3 
•8^p "in 0^1^ »Dns i3Dy3 ynt3Dn3^K y3Mt^i n .(ly^p^Dis 
/lijtj'^Dfc^p t33yo^t?^5Dy D'3yni^^tJ'D„ nyi ps y^v^p^a^D 
T^IB ,in>^3K' ny38ö3yö8P ,ny38D ts^TryoKT p« DM-nitDr 
^ypnyt3ny3 p« nyssD-nyioyn ,iy38o-nyi'>^p-|yMnD ,D3n 



19 mttp»B^3<jD iii «nM^j^j^jn^^^ii^n n 

TW:v'?P y^'y^D pk nyoDisj^ ,ny3SD-Dype'ojyn p« lyoyoni^p 
D:y:^np"T^8n ,iyD»^is"ip pa y^vspnn^^a n mi ,|ymiv 
PK iD:>t:DyB^j<3 \vw: t^K Dt^-n ,5'$<:i$Diys-iy^nD nn .ivts.k 
nnjj> pfc? Di^n ^DynüDnrK yrtj^i n px D^>^n p« -i:s^i:y 
115,242 D:yüDr:yii yD^yii ps ,586,298 öD»Dy:D''iK 1861 
n ,in^'< 15 pa ny:3^&< 16,650 pfc< -ini^^ 20 ps ny:j^K [yj^n 
-r^yp |yt::^j^^K"isD Dyi px o^nyo^^ais yrriifT n ps ^r^x 
-iV^Vü pD ^8?v n .750,334 jyiiyy t^« (1861 int#^ p«) ^^n 
,Ti5^ »t:in ^^n ürü5:yt5'553 2^ü>^vd^>^: iy:^n Dtjin ,^yD>mK 
r« ,D^^Mi PK i:j<^3:y px ^nn^^^K' px ^nyDöt^-DypK^ojyn 
89,285 ,in5ji' 15 iyü3iK iy:>n 14,964 yD^y^i pD ,437,969 
oy .nni^> 20 pD '^vi:i^V 333,117 r\r\^^ 20 t>3 15 pö |y:'H 
lynynyj Dt^n ,iy:^niv vw^v^? id k no^en ^,vi pK jy^nyD 
üD^P ,iynyDSJ' >n ^ii ,iy^ijiv n nyn«;^ ]vdv: n^o |yi^ .lyn«: 
p^^s D^^Mi PK n:85'::y "iöid 1861 ps DUjy^ cy-r üm^ d»^k 
^y^D^Ti ,^y^DMTK -inyayjöiK — it^nys 1,024,277 i^.d yoiD k 
lyn^in n^ö .dd^^^-h^s pk ^nnypK "3 |yci:"i5<D |y:^n oy 
-D^nK lyD^yn Dy:^t5'5v*D n di^^i iv ,|nyü*jn82 iv it^ pDiyn 
P;K ,iyDe;D-üpn{:?is yny^\iy:'3-.K y:'»nK ^isj'd i^n mi |y:iyi2 
•lyDSD-nyo^^mK yiy^^ny:»DiK y:MTK ''^nc üdkd« n Di^nnKB 
p« ünn^cya ünyii "^y^KSK ::nyii„ ps y>vpnj^"iB n 
-'•^üiv pniv Din^Dy:r^K "qn ^^2 lynj^n ya^yii ,iy"!iopKDi:8D 
üt?n DJ^i ^y^DM*. ^^K ,^yD nrs ^^ik ^^: t^^^siK nyn ps 5ji^ 
yiyjy^P ps ;y'nDDnrK ny-r pK Di^Dcnpy ^lynns pQ piB^ 
-innvirK n^D "lyn^^iD ^i^ o^: ivm lyü^^^^^.» yD^^y^i ,DiyüD^^o 
,iyinK:Ko-nninD ]ik iy-iiüpKDi:8D n^ö -^.i^: ,"iy3nn:-,KQ v^v 
ü^D m lyoyjnsD "ijst^ ü]!?v^^^ p.« tD-^yt^r yv:s3 r» ^itk 
12V p.K iDyD^^fcifvysD D^K .3 .1 .N ^nytoDv^* ^11 lyr^i^v y2^y!K 
-T>in y:ycny:i "»iTyi pD önn^eya y^vpni^is y:ni^"! n t^nyii ^^> 
-KD pD lyjji^^^üöi? yD^^iyo^iK dmk ryi^>3 y^f-yn ,iyD^^mK 
'0'''<ü v:''''^P n pö )^>BK PK iy:nK:btD*imnD ,m"iDpKD^: 

.D")yo 
-^3¥!ra5i<n ,iyf>»^nytDKO xm^-i ,«\i^t>«ro^'3'iK työ«» »i 



ryij^iw öTi^^yjnyn^K vh ü^\^) ^ötnyüfcfo'iytj'jyö iy:^^^n p.D 
ynoonrK'D^na n Dtj^i ,^t po onyis^Kn (üi^nyi d'di^: ^^i« 
PD iy"iiDP{$D^:s» n /t3DKoya ^ns^ lyni^n n^tD^ipnjj? p« 
ny^M iyp:»"inötD w ü^ny^ lysi^n y^vpni^^B ps o^nya cyi di^ 
w iyDD^^i$D^B«p n PD ::riyii;^a lyi ^^^syTüB^n inyD^DJ» 
nv |y:i^p "n^T ^i^T Di;i;^i ^^ö-i» yonn: 8 o:»n i'^y^:^« |yn{;?n 
n:8D yrti^i n .y:8"iDDJ^3 nyi pD :iwiit<n '^v^v'^ iv lyofe^a 
•ni^ii«iv '»T "^n lynyj lyi^üonpy tori^^y: nyntj lyni^n lyniDpfeüö 
on»n ryü^na d:?s y^vpnij-iB-TMn p« yK^nypny^rDJsn y:yD 

.y^vpni;?nB ny:yr>K '^V'>''\ ni<B 
-o^m« yrri^i n p« tDiy^rnnyo pD y^vpni^iB yoma n 
y-jy^M pD ::ny:^^>mi?D iy:n:yi:5J' "lyi ü^d "q^^^^iv ,iy:^Miv 
Dy-1 pa ^^^DytDBMn ^n D?oyj pt< lyoijya *^n üj^n ,iy^p>D"i8 
yya^smvD^iK *\^)v^ ii:ya dmp t^k d^'w »p^^-o^^an«; ly^tso^j^D 
-«:o>DPöto lyi tD^D |y-i:mfe!:D t^k di^ii p« ,|yny^ rny^nD » 
yp»t3 .]Vii^2VD 8 nsD •^i^^ayo ni^j vh djjii ,ö^^v"tD^\'n8 ly^ 
T>K Dj^ii ,ü\'?2']V^:vü pK D^n^,K^-iye»jyD jid t3>^p;>5»3 n dj^ 
•"»8B PK enyoy-infcitB :n:vt2\i^ ai^n ,niinD pK ül^y-iJ^in^jD 
":i8^3:y nsD ^pnsoTSTBijt oyi ai^o wiv üv^k ^i^^ üiyDyi: 
nyi lyonK üt^nyn oy iki^ ,pni<D-^s^jt^^t^P Dyn ^^^k ^y^vysD 
•si^^iiy .p»0K-»y3 ^v^>^::v iyi pk D>\ijnyTiy: y5j^>5»::y n 
nye^K "lyi pd on^^n lyi .üp:ib lyr^Dnp k ^v lyoipya t^k 
nyo^^m» Dyi ps y^v^*Dfe<tf'SDpy y^^tons V)^2 — yii^oyo 
tr^ü^DytoD^D s PD -iyr:yn ivi^ ii^vo c^"«^:^3 ,^»nyDKQ 
-ya iviiyj d^3 nryo piK' t^k — ;:'!f'^^öiv-tj^^2"i8 "lyö^ypMiöJK 
•PKi^ny^y:»' li^: -lyi ^»d pk Piöto ryi:yDP8ii on ikd 3ij 
n lyoipya t^k oy .tyt}D'^»D>B5<p n pd v:yiipiijp "lyijyo 
-tj» yiy3{^*^vi^i?^iyriyi^^t5'ö:8 n p.K ,vi^^^ in pD yijioij' 
->^nyvD^K y^8 üB»3y:oii5< di?o "lyD^^^: 8 i^k öi^n diji^ ^pu' 
TfDKoviB MI ,nyDD-D:ij^vpTTi^-'.B ly^ni^i nrt pD tyr^iv ys 
— ,>^ .TK .K 'nsrs^üDW .'nyny) /nytiD^K' ,*ny-i^^:t*' /^*i 

.p«^ö-ny3 *^ — ?yiiw ^nt 



.ynDDnj^j< nyo^n; nyn pc ni^nys Dyn px lyi^MirüsyK'yi 
'^o n pD pi^ nyn .iyD'it#Tiy:D>nK lyiyii nyi:^p y::r nnyr 
n PD p^^ Dyi IV royDO^jö^ymuß d;i'^idb' lyo^unK-p«^ 
PD yiDDDnij^ n iv lynyny: yny^M ^d k otjin pyD^»an»-TMn 
ncy: ^n lynj^n Dt^i^ ,nyp"iyirD:öin n pD pi^ nyi .''yoni^ n 
IV ifc^ ü3Mn pK^SD n yD^yii d^s p« ,y:e:5» lynyoyn ($ p« ly^ 
-D^/i^-D^x lyj^n "lyo^^ans-p'^j'i^D y^^: n .ü^kd ,iynnip:i^p 
iyK^>j5?2yD "lyn po n^M lyi id^d .ly^no y«v p« ^y^n^^o ^^^ 
0^^318 -iyir-iy:yD lyn i^d ^^bi;?:i^o oyi ^n |ytD3^:nKD üdbv 
lyüii^D y-iyüD^^> n pD lya^non^D pK urtD^^nn» v'\)f'i'i^ *^3 
y:>i:Dyo n .iyi:^p ya:^ viyr p« nyr^^ yo^s \vo\iü o>'3i» 
-pynij' in .lytD^^ms'Disn ytDDDs^^B^ n tDatj^K^iyn nynip:i^p 
ytDvy5> n pD ^tro p« itji:i^^ pK ü^io-ny;:in pD dpikii iy3^^ 
nyn pD 3:iD>nBinsD lyi d>d ^y5>»n8B onya .•^nt^» rnyv 
1^3 lyD^un» v:^^^^^ ,Dinyö^^m8 y»o n ."»nyn^^rpK^t^o 
nyii? D1D s p« ö:sn » o>d jy^y^^w ^n ü^)y ,pir8o-n^': "lyi 
üD^p oy M^ ,3niynyöi5' nnij in:yvn ,p^^8 tDijjn lyi ö^o 
pa iDyD^^K^vyBD in p« D^n: in »ü^^piyiiK^ m tDM^ o>^k 
-sytrfejn ly^T .0D8ip"D>^ni8 ^y^D dmk jyao »pK'so in 
-ü^^nis yijs^» n pj»i 5? tD^ny: ii»d t^vb^ oiy^i iiiro 
'u ^^1 lyvi^p ^n |y:^n iy^i<D yöDinya n j^« ü:n »iniioe^ 
-j^^« Diyii pK'so-n^^j n i«i^ D^üyoiK .oyüD^D ]]:o^\Si on 
p« ::y iv^iya oyi inij iy:^n di?^^ ,iyü»0K^i»^i p« oin^cya 
-iö:d ,.11 .Tt< .X tDM »ly^yoii^p ,"^^6? lya»!: d^^2 >ii ,D5>'*Diy3^K 
iyi„ .ü:ny: ri»s t'>^v^ W""^ 0^^ ,3iipi^^^ n n tDiyona 
•"iPrns ,t:t?n lyo c^)^ — ,111^^ iöid^dijp d:ijt — ,pnir^K 
30 PD ivt^^^niüt Dy iKi^ »lysy^rtD^^ai» ynn^: n pK :n:y?D 

Dfc^ii ,rn n '^^^iyiöiyom vh .lyD^'DiK-pe^tto 40 V2 

•DyiQ n |yoyifc?^i iv «in« o^y^v^irT»: n pD t'^i^^^^ö ^n üi2V} 

fm» pK ü^^nis lytD |yi^ i^>dk T^PJnr vh ,ü:vv'*ik 

PD .n .1 ,|yi:iDiro^^ni8 Vi^oyo y:ymiy3-Mr« lyoKocmm 



•iiD ir^KD »iDijniijt PK iyrn"8 6 t^n nna n]/n pK nyrn-» 8 
•01K pK li^rnya 4 lynij 3 i^oyo^y^yn :^ü iyny> |y:yiitoDyT 

o>:D^«-Dit$^vpn{^iB y3>5'üB8K'^yty3 n pk y^vi^jjiiyn n 
"i^iö n pD 3:^^iJ8i"iD^K nyn pD DSD5>iTyn ny^^o^o nyn dj^ — 
"•K pD K^SD"t^'^D lyv:»: » "^nn tonyj jy^D^D-Djiii^vpn 
oyi ün^ v» iyiD>^3 ,iyD"i5^D y:n^T n ,>n .iyonis{D-D3:5<:nyi 
Djn lynt? oy:^^« px lyoinj^D üi^n ptj'öio-n^^j n Di^m ,rK^i3 
DiTK ^iMK tDi^n ^T Di^^i »tD^-tx "lyT DM^ ,rMirynDDnj^K pyn:» 
DM^ »nytD^^aiK n pD y^»^ ly^mynnQ nyi üm^ »i^pn^iiya 
-nypiyirtD:^n ,-iy^yniüPi$Di:i§o nyn p2 toD^iyrnynM« Dyi 
n PD |yt3Dt;?p tD^yrmn n ts^i^ ,y^vpnt^ns-T^in ny-it? "iytj> 

,^yiBtjfn:i DIV ^''nyDKDVIB •lyi PK .11 .TK .K lyöy55^-tD^^21fc? 

,tDTT^J8nij lyiiy: pitJ' o^^^D^ytDDinyö ?^k D^m» n ikii 
pK^8D"n>o n T^K ^y^vsnysj^i^P ^y2t?D:^^K inn "^^^DyTt^s^in 
-ynitDp8öi:8D "lyn pD ^j^dpsd ly^^j 8 t^i^n lyiiy: :j^d:i# pk 
-yööiiJ' /nyDSDnynoyn /nyn^^jK^ nyi p« .y^spHi^na ny^ 
önyi Dijj p^K PK .ly^niiiD y^» "^in -^n ly^^^D .11 .rj^i .k -»n 
iyt:iPK3 üii^ lyn:» i» pK .y^vpnijnB-pnn^ö v:i'ü^'>^ ^ ]^ 
18 pD ^tjnyü^D lyn^n oyi ["dij^dpsiü^i^p«] ^y^D''Di8D 
lynij 50 r^n 10 pa pyiis ly^ytDii' p« iDD^^fe§D^3^p"iyn>iK 
'^^v ^vi^ D-iyp^iü pK DyrtJ^^Q-n^o ^^n nyio^^nnis-pi^ nnyo 
in^^n DJJ11 Dyrc^^D ly^nt^D y^» '>n ^11 üp:iö ^'n^^n^y .oyp 
-yii Dn:yv.y3:fc? \V2^p p« oy^D^D lytoin^^j^nj« v? d>i« do 
-:^in *iyiij: iyp"iyirD:t*n |y^05§n ^tD^ant^s üv^'^'pp ^ px lyi 
yD^to :n:yüy3iv nyit? 'y^^^ösö iy:yi^^K nyi ti^D ,iyD^^:}i8 
^n IV lynyny: yD^yii ,Dy:j>:j'^D-n^^: "nnK ^'nytD^^Di» yioyiQ 
^^3 ,DyöD>D nyi n:s^3jy px dv^k üinyn ti^^DptSD .p>^» 
oyvB^5$D ^i?v VD^n: 8 D^nD^yvii^p t^D^^^ü^s^p iy-j lys^yii 
-ijiB-|yrc^8D n ny ö^^^d"i^q ^t^^iyn px ,röt^3 8 Dy:>n pk 
n pB ^^018 lyn lyti^^iiv i^iD^^m^yi lynyo^ni ni<Q ]vt:i\^\^ 

.nyD>^ni8-rnrt 



23 niap8Bi:tjo pr ;jjnM»j^'3^'?^jny"i n 

on^^ nyijyo vy^^'^ n .y^xpnjj-iB-pnnsD nyroan » p» 
Ji^Mi .Köu pB^»D"n>^i nyi pD nytDPsiw oyi pD njvn nn^x 
Dn^no d':dik yjyn^^K'nsD ^^^k n |yn:ynN^vJi# o^^pD^^'^yo n 
lyi^Mw-oDyK'yi yöiyi:iTy:Bi;?nynnD n pD :juo^^«ni?a i$ iv 
(Viu^yToyT PQ ynJSDij? nyn iyD:iK pK tk^ö lya^yton pk 
•»niiv >i Dijn ,Diji D^D "^MK üD^yn r:yi:yö lyn ; $»80^5^?? 
jyDDy^DK lyjt^p Dy^vsiysj? v^]n:^ yrj^^N p.« ö^^nn» yi^yo 
^^5>njy PK ,ünvü^ v^^o >t i«ii vk^3 oyn pK lyny^i jj^^yj 
•DJsn n PD y^vsnsi^isDpy yD>^i^'öisEDiK n in^K üD^yn 
"»^K yiy»T o^D |y-i^vnijnB y^^yii ,nyD^u"iöi'T>in p« nyp"iy^i 
nyöv^« p^B' T^MT^^'D ^M üijn 5>nu nyn üijt .oyj^ii'ötD vm 
ü^)) ,^80^B8P pa yoKD yi:yDPiinnn:yDB' n .lyc^^iDv: 
y^vpnjjns n iij; D^^no ,Dyi^6J'»D"ny: px my^yj:^n5$ oiyn 
-t^n n üo DjjiT PK ,iyDpnj^i3 d^d pisd Dyi lya^K ü^>d p« 
n .Dyi^K^fcsD-n^>i viV'^^ |y2npnfc§Q i^j ^^:rD k nyo^^DiK 
"382 yiy»n oaj^i^v oyj^e't^Q yo^ntj po «di: y^vpnt^nßnyn^K 
»iMK *n lynya i^ ,r«tsiji l» pk v^ lyronj y^^yii ,iytD:8pn 
K tD^Dnyn tDQKB^ pK tD^ijvy:; ly^^^D^y^yii 8 nsa ospii^ia 
.oyriJ'öiD PD nyD^ü:yr>K v}'>'^'pi> n nt?D nyniP^^P ys^^o^D 
y^^pntsDiijip nyi pK ifc^D "noD -^j?: lyoip Di^-n ,iy:i:nyn:y n 
^^^3yi3-it$D ny:y^pnsD ,3jir^>nii?D ny^t pK oyj^K'SD n pD 
-KD ly^t^P ytDvy^ n pK ^lyi^^soytpy yo^s n pd toiyn oyn 
-»na IV ni^J ,tyr^nD yr^^rtoi^BtJ^ njiiD ,inyii tDD>ipn{s*D T^nijyo 
t5»D ly^msyi »m iy:i?p yD^yii ,yrvr^K n ,iyi2D^^i$a^s5<p yo 

,]v^:vKi n':iD rs^ß cyi Doy^iisD ü^\\ .v^^-^üiS'I n 
,|yDyvi^"3 y-iy:tii>vi^j^iiyi y3^^:ny v^^ PK mi ,fc^n ■^^^liy ü^i 
OD^iDtj^ DDi^-ip-pia5<i "lyn PD 3:n:yii:){^ n .sjst^p lytDvy^ Dyi 
Dt^i .B' .3 .V »n ,iyainyt:ij^ y;:^^:DyD-pn ^i^x ii^ n^^nnri^ ^n 
ny^M lycnynöin ^v D^^pnynK^ n ,Dy:^tri?o n pD jy^D^nö 
-KQ ynyoD^^^ n pD lynyii y^^t^p y^yr^^ di;?;! ,L5>^pn:Mi:?'y: 
•xj-nKfiny n di^i^ ,iyijnyöK^ y:MTK v^k — .^i .tK .k oy:»»' 



y^vönoiyyjijp n n^K .lyoip^v^u >n8 m> ,dmk n^w D:iy> 
iyiiDP8DU8D yiyDj/ii n px Dyj^tj'KD-o^ois ^d (s po 
-nsD ,i3ö8"ip-«iD»T pQ ajnjynji^ nyn iv tj^n p^K pD ö3^nD 
n ü^D nosn PQ ny"np:i?P n ö^n nyi:» nyn pQ o-\v'?v:^ 
-D^^an» |i« nyo^^m« pd y^:^8"iD:y^:¥P *t ly^^PDio-iytJ^jyo 
•^in njs^ijy üv^k tsny^ Mt» .lypnasD yoMi: p« oyj^K^Ko 
"^yiSBK ainyiv HQ i^np-DJi^^vpnt^nB ly^sDij^ijp oyi px 
-pni;^-iB v^vi:^ v^o'^r]VD n px ^ii ,[ynDDnj>N-jjn^^^p] 
-piüDi^SD nyi pö ::»:nyn^N Dyi ps ij^^jyiypiyn^« 18 ,Dy^v 
-pnneis i^« tD^unjs*-r^in iyi ps pj^ pnyii-üJ8-i d':i2 ,tid 
-:i?::^« ly^^n dj^ii ^lyonj^ö y^ö: y:y> '>)) oyn^i^: -- y^vpni^na 
-j^^« Dyi nyo^i« |yni?"ny: onv^j^üini^Dn pk Diyi:ri8D w"^ 
-j^^K 3:8^ pö \'>\^ ivns^n ,ynt:DnrK nyo^na nyn pö di^d 
|yD^^P3>^py-iB^ y^8 lynnonya^K i^^dx Pn ^>r ^u tonn^sy: 
-ij;D"D::i^p^i^üJ8 yivDni?Q y:^n ini^ oyDD^D-pnn^D cyi pd 

.ly^^yo 
,r>D>üD nj^B t:iü)i) ü^)) »y^j^^^jjtiiyn y^yntoonj^K n ü^ 
n PD ajits^nsK'D^iK nyi •^in o"iy^yjK^ii?D ^>5'Dd:'p lanyi^ 
Dy v::^^)) p« ,iya^M"iv-ynt5Dnj''X y^s nn« lyvytyrpnabtD 
yüD«n:j8n^v n .nyirp n« jyji^nyB yjji* »jy^iD lyo^^nns 
"lyn ,nipDDn n ,ajy^ pn y:i:3 Ji^D-DD^unsi d'^id :jn>ßi:yn 
ns"n^n pD oytoD^D Dyi y:i:n ,iy:n:y px |ynnn:j^ pd ö>^v 
-J1K iyi3^p y^8 PD ::iD^5'6j^DnK nyi y:i:3 ,'^V'i:'>p isd ö>^n 
3>tD^i: t3"T p^« pD tDijn — .11 .TS .« Tj^'pv ]VD'>)m K nyD 
-D1D n |yiD>'m5?D IV PK Dy:>e^t?D inya iy!^iJb*3 i!^ tJDsoyj 
iyi:8 lyn pD nyi>ii na ;tDD8"ip-n>nD d^s ^d^jt -^iin ly^ip 
pK injj^isD Dny: Dy oijiii ,di?t rst^B p« iy:>iiy3 iv tD^n 
lyiyii Di?ii ,|y^D>D-Djj^^vpni^nB n ö^nDts'yjD^i« iriyii ,ö^>v 
^11 .18 .K Dyn^^y: ,D:yiviK n Mi ,'n>5't:D8K^r>oy: DS^nay; 
•8it3:yv3i?p y^yoyna 8 iDin^DyaDnn tDiyii Dy ,d-ii?ii p^k id^d 
•yu yDD8By3iv ivnyn 8 pi< jy^ü'D-Oij^^vpnt^iB n pD y^y 
Dijtii ,33ivyTDMK-DBnn n .nyö^-^ms pd 33i3:)mDn:iv yiyo 
•P8D1380 lyny^ pd lyit^iiy: D^i^myi^n ^*^öD8K^3y"i'*> vh 



9i ^iDp«B'i:<jo ]M a:n>P3<j^si';^npn n 

1"! «i>w mn^Dix:j^ üDyK^y: otn '^3 ts ,nyT ly^^y: {j'^dpöid 
-j^n» 3^öM3 yyryrpnasia nyn nyD:iK t>K »ntüD'^Dö!» jyo^K 
-ryrniv n lynij v^ t^« di;?u .|y^«ü^5t$p ynyoyna Wiv^'i'i 
ö^ons-TMn n p« ö^^m»-p^n px nrjpKDUK» jy^r^iv lyont^D 
Diyii üv ^^: Ml ,in nyo^iK lyii^n nn ^n ir".^$>isD ,p^^K 
-KSoiK .o^'3i8nyi:^p n jik ai^ö-Do^niK im üv^:yn3K3 
nyi T^K lyDsyip-D^^m» y^yii^i^ii pQ y^vstosi^eopy vt^Qijn^^ 
.o^^p:MyQ-y:yi^p:i^p -'.y^n pD dv»3 nyrvj^^ie 
j;^vpnij"iB-pn3»Q lyn ps iy::i:3nK3-ü:n: n pc y^'^K 
::n^$'uy"i nyi iyö:it< |yD"ii^'ny:iyDj^K tD*iyii n o:n ^y^vyeo 
•^nyn ly^soiijj J'D^d ny3>t pn ^v vk ,:i^ö-Da^^3n8 d':io 
-83 8 ps y^vpni^iB nyi ö^d -ly^n pn iv ,0D^^^ oip ; 08D 
iyoo^ütr«i2 8 pD iiiDsu' lyi D^D lyifc? nn^no ono ]vod'*o^ 
yD^$>vyTy: n .ü'^v pd '^^q lyoD^üi^sa 8 pK ^yp^onsTii 
AVcvi:^ \VD nD ,:tjit5-Dt3^''ni8 lyon^^uyn on p.D nipoen 
"lyB^nijtnyB p« iy3^5'vi^3 ny^n ^in »lyiijK' p^p ü^: iy::yi3 
p)c ^n tsrey: di?ii ,t:pnj^"iB on ,ü^^a"i8 "lyn PD ^Ji^yoK'Btj 
-^iTy-j i'o^o D^^p-iyD>T y:nijn n ji:io^^m8D>i« ps Dy^i^ns 
iy:t^p 13^^318 lyT p« p^r iv p^dbo tD^^pD^^ayo n pK 08D 
"•^3-18 ysj'^jssyD-pn p« jy^yn ös^myi lyös^^^ "^i^^i^ös: 
"■»PD P8 v^'^üv^ y^^j^T 8 iy5>^BK' oy ixn lyisiijn nyi^^« jyo 
-yo pa |y"nDP8D^:8o n i^h 5'y^B65^^^3 mv Mi jyoyvij-iB yc' 
-yo yüD-inyo n p8 p« >nypy3 ,'ny3i8D ,^ny3^>^3 ,^nyB 
PB ayM Dy:yoi^"iüy:DMx |yö^8 cyi ^^3 .tyi^op8D'i:8D'^8o 

iy-J PD ,D^^318-Ü38: lyi pD ,38JÜ"DtD^>3"l8 iypjynt?83DiK 

n^ü8: yiy> üoip lysy^ lys^^e^^yo pD j^n^y^itrnsD it^^ü 
nyi i^D ''r:yianii283„ ny3^3>^8 18 mi ni^D "^^^^i:! ajnyoB' ys'^ 
n ü^^p-iyan iniro ö^d id^: ür^^o"i8D üc^a p^p .y^vpni^iB 
i32'^^t2"i8D \2^n yyTyrpn38D Dt^i Mi .lyöpyorK y:yi^^K^i8D 
-yM lyDyn lynu'y: ü^^ et^n iy:^^p ."lyv^^yia-iiös:,, y:Mr8 
-Dn:^KnyByD *iyn iid lyiiyn n mi /|yD^^P3^5»:yoom^ \Vi 
-38D Diji lynijiMya ör^5»y:DMn8 'm ^mk t»k 1864 pk .yn» 



»iijitD{j'-"»nyByD ciyn |y35?o iv yitjoyo yonyDymsD n^ 
-nyaDMns t^k Dtifin — ,3:iDDyiDMK ^nn Di^otj'ji^ pm ^nn 
-:ijp y^o n ^n« ni — »rytyrpnnsQ Dyn ^nn ]v^i$)m jya 
Di$.o ytD:ynsyro>3 n lyjypno d^v ojyiviK n jid y^vpn^D 
^jn PK D^>pro3Mi iyD>n3 tiö iya:n^D{ja lyj^n .ii .tk .k 
.n3K^D nyi px Dy-i:ij:"ia k?8 iy:yD^^vi$D pK ^nysy» PD tDD:jip 
— lyr^MiD^K o^i Dj^ns i^? tD"iynjinnnij> nyovy^ nyn dj^ii 
; irijj^iya oiyjy^pi^D ^y^a r>K Djyivi« n jic iitDsiyBoyD n 
:ifiv'?v:2^ K üj^n oy px ,|y^n>^p ^you e^nsn s p^k üi^^ii^ oi^i 
t^K ,niK>3: y^8 ^mk 3n:ypip d^: ".d^^d n pjn« 3:^pn^n 
lyn T8 'US ^jyrtoK'ya tD>3 d^^d y:yci^^^ n ps r^na-oDijp nyi 
nyaoyvn tu 1864 iv^üv^^fi pq üj^ji^d 12 n isd taij^sopy 
.OD d:id 138,628 ^'iK ü"iyii i>K |yi^0K^y:ny3n» üijtn 1865 
.int?^ 3 yrnynnD n pD ts^jtrDin ayn 
lyD^snya \vü otjn ^y^ysyi^tJ» pd y^vj$pnn8D lyn pK 
•lya^K |y5»3 ^n nya i5>^dk ,^y^2rK n r» »ryryr-nüsj 8 isö 
-DijQ pD ::)\i^^ü -lyT p« "qy^v^yn >n lypjitD lyrio ,3j#d^d ny^u 
D^jö PN lyDiitipya ^n t^k 5i»:5$n -lyj^oa^a nyn lyD^yii pQ ,-i{#d 
n lysnyjDM-is ot^n Dt^iii ,(1864) opK-pnnsa nn .pns 
K lyrany iv iy::iKiivyi Dtjtn rO^^v tyiii^sK^ i^ ö^^pro^u 
w lyoipiv iDO lyjijtp nn-'K pa lyao^n n dijii »pij^jü'D-piiü 

.^lyD^m» n 
lyn pa jyr^^^ n pK iyDV>K ii?3 |yo toyoe^in»! ^n» 
-3»B Dyn |yanij{iiy:"iyD:i« o^o lyj^n Di^ii ,iitDp»aiJ5?D-iy!^^fiy 
otv tD^^^f yj^oyo^yayn p^p \v:iv: öo tijip jyo r» ,Yvm':>'>i 
-yiDSD-tyv^Qij' y^yn^^entja pa "^n tyjypnö ü^i dohd ^lyoy 
tD^n yD^yii ,tD^^v y-iyv-i^p s ini? y-iy:jy^ » tDöyj r^^^n 
■j#n n^nyn n*"*!» .inyo nyni^ yiiiotj' » vi ou^q >m pa t? 
•'•i^^soy D':ynn^''tJ^ö,, lyi pa lyn^D^oijjp n onyao^yy: lya 
r^K Ml yrn^ytn lyrn lyi^yoiJ^oiK n,, : "jt^K^^oi^p ö:yo 
ryük:Kpn3SD-tDB''^n n t^a yi^r^» ."«nyDm-ryoyöÄD "^Tt 



27 "nöptfß^:tfo pfi jJ3n»T»i^j'si^^iijr"i n 

-vi^3 p^p D^J lynM^iy »ly^sDDin lyansn >n o^)) ,|yDyvi$iB 
jyi^^D ,|yD^^vSi5?D -ij<D tD^^nns lyi jis :ii^yDtj'Qi^ yinj:^^ 
-»3 lyDDpyt Dyn "rin — pi^n dmi: ^'myi jyn^^^ ^i^t \vo 
-:ytDDpy ddpj? nj?DP«D„ pD y^vpyo nyDDpyr nyn ps tisna^n 
"lytD iy;nDs:i?D-18 i8 lynyay; ^n lyo ofcjtn (1864) ''opk ikb' 
ü3^^D:yDynsD t^k ryrya Dt;?i Di^ii ,]^ dicdst oyi po ,t^o 
n |y:^5^2D^ij< |yn>"in:i;? lyr^D ly^yii ^n lyjsii m ,iyii^^iy: 
pa ly^jn^Dtj'öin n dm^ lytD^^v^tjio 1550 niposn ytovyry^üDyß 
-PJKD T>« ryty: di^t ni ^DyiDj^: n^sa ''.üPs-pnsKö on 
-:spn2«D lyiiyn n lyni^r: ,D:yD»^-ieis pD lyn^^iiy: oi>jij;'v 
-Dy^ip5<no^K ">!„ :::ipyntD:» n üDötoy: ^tjo t^^fc< d^d |yö 
D'jia :jnn^Dr^5< in ps Di5$Tny-i jyni^n -i>d oj^n ,|ytD>^p3^> 
,D^: lyrsy: n>D .oD^^pn^mi^D ü^: ^n jy^j^n ^ryryrpnnsö 
n^D .ünyDi^y: |dik t^k oy lys^yii ^^^x Diyii y^vpnj^iB n tk 
onyr lya ".d^^v nya^n^'yTiyi pK nnya tj^^üpss iy-i^vntji9 
-y3 Dyii "lyr-ip jys^yn ,tDjyDi?^"i89 ny^'^^jjy -in tk ,pB-iyi 
PK ,üyD^^Koy; ^y^si^f üJi^DnöiD ny t^ jyD-ijjini^a d^j Dn^ 
ryryrj:is^iv » ts ,3:ir^viyn^K nyn iv lytsipyj i^n^sny "^in 
-n*j)ti''"iDi^D y^8 jyrD^nütn f'nyssn w'ü^^b 8 ^in ii^p 
PN* :r.pjy"!tj*^n iy:yp y^vpnj^is lyi pa lyj^nyotJ'-nD»: ya 
Dyi |yin^D:^^K tn^^n lyo |yn ji^ü-Dü^^ms D':ia ^jiT^iay-i 
*^ynnyi toiyi^ ,r^Tiv-ynt:DnrK lyo^iiy: 8 p« üp^-pn^sD 
tDt? pa "^tJ^D pK PN ,tD8:5?D 18 T>3 6 pa I'ü'^vü » D^yoe^yj 
-3ya n jyrD^n^a i:; jnyr lyo^^pnasa n |yai8i tD^^v irr 
üJi^titD ? "q^^jyipoix,, :^yD")y"n D'i^a^i^o •lyainyoK' y^^o 
Tt tDD83 "!t3"ii?ii lyij^ns: üv\ lojjJ "lyüJiN d^j f>i#D:^^p vd 
-nsa Di^i lyii "lynt? .y^:i^^{^]DytD nyjiyii^o lyn i^a ^y^vyao 
':v^v'?v v'^V'^v^^o n r^^^v "^^^üdj'P nr» ddko yyryrpn 
-TiüPsai:8»D pa ::i^nj8inb*a lyn leta ^d^ij |yrn Dt^ii ,iyD 
PK f|^iK oy D-iy^yy^^ntia ^y^vpm^ns-pnn^a p« y^vpm^iB 
iyjy5>ivD^\K :*dm: tDa^o Dy di#ii DyiDin ,o^>v *iyj'i^iw np^ 



D':iQ :jn^>iay-i n ji^ ^n dd^idc^ ,iy^t:^D v^'::iv^ im lyiyii 
ns n n£3 |yü^^^:^yl1ya y:>DyD^y:yiDi« n ^in« ^j^D-DD^^m» 
nnyo üB^nyn oy i«ii ,^sd nyi ^y>vysD t>k d^^i .kdi^ nyD^-'D 
r^« p« ö^^v pD ^^njyirj^isö n p« ,t3>ui«"p^Dty n ojyDD 
lynyii tDDSoya oi: \^p '^^)) -jyi pD nyiijj js^d Dyi pD ^^^d 
^yni^oyo 8 — tD^^ai^-üDs: nyifc? o^^mitii-iyn^x ynyDysK^ ^m 
nyD^uns Dyjyopj^iinyi on n^-i: dd^o px DSDyt^n^D yD^yii 
ts^ ü:n ,|y>nD pK "iyD>>nn5$ v::v ]v:v^t^? yj^>T D-i^:^Kn p« 
-w 8 T^K Dö^np-tD^^m» n |y3y:D^iK p« o^\'?:nJ^5'^y:yT n 
•i^jJiitD PD t5^>p:^5'^^iiaj8^ lyi ryjiyp y^vp^yn y'^iK^s yD>^i>D 
^i?3 8 pK ^^1« lynjjt -^n n ODiiy: ,tD>^m» nyjinyöy^K' "lyjj^D 
y^vpni^nD nyi v^ yonsjs "lyn ps nsia ly-iy^yn ^y^a t? 
PD ^y^M1 D^n in^K pD tDöSDK^ yD^'yn y^Dii?jjs nyi pD ,t<Di:i 
üDönp-ö^^ms nyT pD y^v»t3»i^3Dpy nyDD^^vy:ij^^K-D^: i? 
PK lyajnyijy ytrm^nys yr^oy:^» n nn-i§ .f-^to^Djüp im 
-js^iK' y^y^!^ysD n nn-{$ p» (^p^v) t^np jy^ynDon:^« Dyi 
-Djij^vpni?-iB iyiy> p« -ir^D jyoip dj^ii ,piyD n pd mw 
SJ? |y:jyn ya^yii ,*'\v:^^vd„ v:v^)^vy''\^^ n -^it^j jyoip ,3»ti!^ 
nnij^ PD niDipn yrtDorj n pD tD>^pjj'm^nyQ nyi pD ^>d 
oy Dijn ,DyT pD nyii^ ,yii?D nyi pd ^^d ,y^vi?aM"i«i: ij$d 
-yaon« lyriD ya^yii ,iy:ji^ytDK^8n yo^n: \^ :ji^vi^3 lyoip 
"KD IV tD^\-!jnyiTy: n .id^^v nyüoyvi^p -lyi px lyiyii ü^^d 
3:iü^nBB^"i8D lyi ü^d lyoyia ö"iyii |y:i:i^yDK'fc$3 ys^yr» jy^ 
PD aj^o^nBK^D^iK n„ .in^nay^yö d'jid pk ty:n83jyr^''K pD 
"*'»i D1V D3j|?T ,"1^01^ tyv:8a i'iyn^K DyoD^D-t^Djyf^x Dyn 
-ya n t3^yp^iiüi8 inyT tDt?n„ »d^j^p^s^üd nyjj^uj^^ i? ^y^Bjj^ 
.aji^ytDK^i$2 8 ly^'^DD^iK i^d ü^^v yviip s ly^y: iv D>\i:nyn 
-018 nn:ny p« lyDoyc^iDiso ^i^ar«^: pD ny^v^x ly^ip c>jip 
•lyi pD lyrt^aso yo^iia n r^8 ty^i^ii 2 vh ^ijsor^K -lyeyj 
•»»«5^83 tyD8D ^n ,minD n IV ty^yösj' -n^o t^ii«i^ /^ö^d^ 



29 i"iapes^,:80 ]*s jjii.'pj^^s'.7tj^iyn n 

VJmynns] n p« .jj^d lynnD iy:y^D ^n ni r^vi^^ iid lyD 
'^\)^ nyn i^i< lyD^n::^^ iy:i;^p ^6?q y^s *i^d iy:y^D |y-intj:> 
nynfc? t3^^^« ; i^^^ryo lyoDDyj pc yjstnasj^j nyi n^^ ü>^^; ny-iyj 
üyii oy yisnsDi^: k 'liJD oi^)) ,iy3i^TD^"iNifc?D t^^j "iy:^^p ii>*p 

D>: 'n^?: |yrn yD^yii ,|y"i"iüp»D^:MtD px iypnni<2 n i^x 
i^^>i{#nyD DB'iyn ,ryryrpnnfc?D oyi nytDJiK iyDij;?ny;nyü:iK 
yjysnyrnr» n ps ü>^v "lyi px tD^^anjünyn^« yuDD^^pyna' n 
nyo^us iyi px .jyiii^ytDK^Kn y:n:ji^^i^3 n n^^i^ ,iy:iitTyD 
p« iiDpfc^atjyio nyi px ,pnn^s lyi pD :ji^^^d3{^ iyD^5> 
,D^^ni^-T^in "wi PD T^np oyi px .n ,i ,pu<3fc<o-nTinD Dyn 
pK ,rDyD^y:yiDix ^^z> lyj^Dyn i^« t^n ;:^3^D£yji^8n n i«ii 
-^n px ^isnyDi?» jynm nn^N d>o sj;? iyvj^:)j^t« üi^vr] yD^y.i 
Di:u oy lyoyr, ,t:D^^fc?t:i^sü:p D'r,ö rnsstp nyi pa jy^ji^yoK' 
Dnyii nnyö dj^ii ly^i^^tj^D^ns iy:yii :ji:y3y-iDMX p^p t3>: ^i 
^1 i^i^v^vi "lyD^yii pi< ,.1^ .T5$ .K ov:'"^^^f2 ,Dyn^>nyj n ps 
-D^D D"iyii 1^1 — ^yD D'iytD^^ms oyi d^d nn"5$ Dtj^^:it^: d>o 
,yyoii?-"inyTyi y^ynDon:^« |5< Dyiiyi{^ny:Dnx tj'^D^cyo 
yD^yn p,i< lysMisy: anjyoiJ' ij^p oD^^ystD^sis-p lyn v:i^v'^'i 
nni;?> PD ^>^D p^K piD ^'^0 px Di:yiv^ib'ö to2^n:yD5j!'D ü'W 
^K^a pK D3Di^"ifciiD pt? ,::«^^v-D^^3*iis* lyD^^^^'jyaoiK nvi "^nn 
üii^t /'DyDi^n n„ .D^^'^riJ^^tD^^nns "^nn ^^^d "iyn:{5 Dyi ps 
n iyT't3iü-.^2Dpy„ /'i^^k^^oj^p üjyo^j^^E'oy o'^y-n^^ti'ü^ n 
» lyij^Tiy: fx yD^y^i »ü^^ans-i^in nyi jiD D>^p:^Dyo^y:iyioi« 
cy lyn ,D^>v-ö^^m« n lyc^nc^^VD^nst ns ,t:^^i:ny^iyj 
2 PK 12 ,11 ^^^ ,t3^^nn» jüiDDpy t^n Dy y^^yii ]i$ Di^st^' 
ü^i ^r>Vi Dy ni /'iyi:iDtJ^ y^t? ti^^K,, i*'^t:p5^:D ,d3ü::^>3 ihin 
ii<ii„ ,^yvy^3 pK ji^ t:invi D^>m{$ n p,N ; '?v\:i^V)) yD^^:nyiiy3 
*in^K .D^D n PD jy^^D •^^^^< iy35?r: iv :i:y: r^x p^b^ö'^i^ya lyi 
D"iyn^ii5^ Dy lyst^ ,m t2:yDy p« n^D nyi t^3 iv •itrcx t:ny;j 
"ijt3 y-iyT:iK »ü^^^ ytj^N'OJ^P iy:>M ^n„ ".-lyi^^^n inya iv •^^•'k 
^M„ — nyüD^K' » ,nny n pD nyj^^x tD^j^rya Dt^n — "oyo 



DyT jn'^> toyD3 ont? onya ny a^iK »nnjji^ n^sn p^x mnD n 

n jynijn ^ns ,"|y;ijnyD::' yK^^jDyo,, n iy:yii mi dpjib 
^i?: I'njyD px D'njyD'ya lyDo^^so^s^P yDi^DyiyDr«nb;2 
''lyD^^ijnyiiyrDODyt^y;,, yjyDnyr"«iT8 n |y:iyi^ ^nx dv^n* 
nyn PD iioKJ nyi po lyoip d^^^i ,iyaji:^^jyn;ie;i lyj^n ^>t rt^ 
-^yii^n n pD ^nt^yr:r^n^^ nyi ly^iy: t^x dj^t .y^vpn^^nQ 
DijT lypyiK^ 1^f |yn^iny;:fc? ü^n ^n lyii ,3^inji? px dtuji^ 
yny* Ml nnyo tD::yn yntoDn:>K ny^n D:n .rytyrpnnsa 
^y^vöt^Mit?: lyn pD «^^do px ,pn$j;D-D^y^i Dyi pD siji yny-i:» 
ünyii \i$ IST pö .ny::^^' ^^ tD3j<oy3 ^n :ijn«aiy n ü{^*n ^jjsi 
D^yi^snsD /'DDy^y:i n))i \vivü^ ^yti üv„ ti? ^yn^y^yna yiy^ 
.^yn:Mii5^ ny'Dic^ö bt ni iy"iJ^t:py3D:)ifc<-pnn^D v^'''?:i^v n pa 
lyn PD lyijoinytDJiK ytoD^n^yoMiya jix y^^^D^n: n 
j;r:>>i« pK ts ^ly^^isn "jj^^^oi^iip ü2Vü^i^'?Br2v Doym^^tj'a, 
ns D'jiD ajn^^iayn nyi ps tD^D^iiTyn lyn i^^ tyntjonj^« 
]V2t^n ^n Di?i^ ,nyt:>ois yoso n r» ,nyn jynyj :i?tD-DD>^3 
tD^nt^-i^a a^DytDD^^^a ^rwo ^n pt< lonyii rtorto^ytj^b*! nyn^-^.D 
nyi jyiiy: t^k jJiT^uyi n üfcjt tt? px pn^^ fy^?ji§;i |'iyn>^ 
-BSP yr3>TDix »ytj'nyTiyD n n^i« d^i:? ly^s^t^'^^si lyDij^ny 
Dyn 1^ ü^j tDsnniyrN "qn lyoss yD^^y^ ,yni?o nyi pa jyrn 
PD aji^pMitD^s n TS "nns ; ynDDnj^«"DMi3 ivi pD cyco^D 
Djna ]v^'>:^v^ nyi DDs^y:iDj^ dj^h p^öy:^s p5< y^vs^^isrD^ 
-D1X yjyny:y:Jt? y-iynjs y^s ts px ,D>>nns-iijiryD in ps 
,iyn''^i?nüJi^p do toti^n^ji^D it^p ]vr2 dj^ii ,|yn:stD*w^^ 
-IV •^-in ,Dyn^''ny3 - p'^^'^^ii yiyDyi:i ^in iy-i:iMiK^isD 
-j^D^^vD^^^a 'pi^'i nytDnyoynnsD s "^-in ,Dy:3^trso y^yoipy: 
n iDi? Di^ii ,a:1p-lM^pn1^^ nyi -^Tn tij< lyü^-^nns yD^^üDytJ^sn 
-jsn-DM"i3 pD DyiDD^D Dyi fi^s K^^Dn jys^n |y::nyn:y y^s 
yjMts IV p^K D^: ^i?o:''^p ^SD^DSP nyi do^dij' ^i;fn p« .^yi 
-M« yjin pö |yny:y:^v i:s3s3i?3 tDny^i Dt^n -»ii — |y:ijnyijy 
-"^Dy^^s IS pD pm Dyn nytojis,, lyn^^D — lyoynDisD vm 



31 ::nyisyTyrpnat<E pB jJinri'e:'^« j;:''>oyj'?i< 

PK yrjnDD^fi<^i83 vü^^v n ,::uy:vvtyrpnnfesD n 
-n^D5§: nxn nMK üDöttJ'^yTy: lyi ps: ^r.PiMipmv yrDyD:8^a 
,Dyviin3-DJi^>vpni^i3 nn^K ps ü^tüü^ya nyD^ypniDJ«-^^> 
p2 tDpntjiiB lyan^yTiDn: »:8 üp:ib ,inyty:i lyai^n i>d m^ ,t*x 
nyij'nüpy^y nyn p« p8r5yii»3 '>'\^ ,ynüDn:>N-Dmi lyi 

.5i^n:y^yD 
iy:iypD:fes* iyD:fc?pn2Sö n pa ^0{<p iytj^^üi§:fc?5 nyi px 
-D>n8 lyai^n yD^yn ,t5P8"pnnfcü2 lytj'^^ijy oyn ps |yüp:i9 n 
-KD Di^^ iy5»D^D lyoDnj^^fe^ ti^ix n^vin yj^^^p t? ^n «i^ix tD:y5»y: 
njyvjy^: in üt>m^s3 »lytD^^nn» V'^v^'t pa "lyi^^: n lyv^B' 
PQ üD^ij'^yTya i$ p« rfc? »^yi^sn-'nö po 5$o:i?T n D^n» 
,Dy*i3")n ^^jsn nmo^ ^viv tD^my: lyoyiyorK yDvyTy::y3yp 
nyoyn ü'p^\'\ üi^\) .lyvu yD^^:ynyB y:^n -!i^j tD3n ny djj^i 
-Djj^^vpnt^ns iytJ'>iDD^^i5:t:^3»P üvi lyinnytopjjiiiiiD ü^i^pyi 
Dn^K ^^^K iy3:MWWD>n8 D>^p:n3yivjM: n di;? >ii ,|D'.k 
-jiD^nr^s ytDDDi?2:^>« n lynn^sr^K '?^\ iy »lyvyryroeiötüB' 
ny-i ?"i:ny: di^i tyD>n-ii<D px D^^PD^^rn ly^^j^n w lya 
|ix üD^niy^D^iK ly^nysytD n p« üj^n 1864 pD Dpfe5-pnDfc?D 
a>^^:i?l1V ly^^n ys^yi^ ,iytDfc?o*^p-iy^i 200 ny^nt« tarj^nyi 
yD^yii i^N ,iy"it^iiya D:>rny3 d'»: ^i;?t:r>p 11^3 -lyij^ nnt^^ 
lyi p« ]V2^r] p« oa^üDyK^b^n |yiiy:i iy:^n nyo^^msf 27,800 
-tDDfc^J üt:i? PK tD>^Di{<":i?ö lyroyoiyrN ny^n pD ö>^v nyv:5<3 
i? PD iDi^n yD^yi^ ,tDQi^ yüyüDyBifcs'D fc? üoyüi?y::>^K tD^^nn» 
,yD>^"iyK^D"i« i^ i^^^3-i5<D p« t^D^s^r n« dj^ii ,33irDDyK^»3 
pK D^^np:«np -^n px üii^iü Dt^tii ,3iiri:DytJ'b:3 » ü:i^vi 
-jyii PD jy^D^o n DinyonjvD ^y^D "inyr üt^n öp» lyn .ü^d 

.y^v»5»^D 
-pnn^D D':^ö ^^^D lyi 01? m^ni^n d^^v -ly^n^ynyn pK 
ID^.«-D:i^^vpni?i5 *yK^>DD>5'»t5>B»p "lyn ni ,nt^^p inyi op» 
3:nyDyniJSD y^K^i^^v»"» ny* d^ik üd^^st ^15^^ avy pn »n^ 



•jBD'Btfp D^l 82 

jjniji^y: tDp"iyDfes*n i:i$:«i3j^: t^k üv .dp^iq \vü'>^w » lyn^t^ 
'P'>2)P 500 Tot »ro^DiJ^r^x mv^pnyn |y"ii^t:pi^i yK^^>::y n ni 
W11 ,DiD>rD nyn:yrjy:i d^p fe? t^« jt^nyEs lys D^n-DSi^ did 
lyi ny3i^ ! inytj^ nsa .d^^v y-)y::y^ « ij^ Dny: D^^ni» n 
-ni>K oiy^y:tj'n{$E2 ly^y^yr^jsiiiv yrn y^^ ü^o Dp^-pnaj<Q 
4ypnnöt2 ps iytD5<üti^pnyii yiyjy^p p.D ::i>i:5$^nfei;Q n Dpyn 
HD oryrDiüjy^^^K oyi it? Dpyin:^x iy t:D>n: ^^^5:1^1^2 px 
*i#o s tD>D VD'<\^:^ n tDiyDmsQ px iyDD^^fe?to^ß^P v^v^V?? n 
iviy^ px iy:i:iNiivy:2^n5< ü'?^)) vvm ü^i n^ix px ,':>^b^: 
ü^i^i^ ,nyü^un5§ lyny^ ni<D ü^)^ di^'o yroMj n D5$ül^'p^y^^ 
yj^^ijp yi:yr^iö ün^xnsj^iESDpy üpy-in b^^p p>n d^o Di^i 
U/K^^DD^^i^'j^s^p Dyn jysn^yj:}^ d^j^ii d^i ! iytDD>^i!;D^3fe?D 
'V::^ ü^jjii Dy .n n ,!5yvis;?ii iyt3::yn d^-i^ ID1N-D:i^^:;pn^"i3 
^^D ^M"i: ^^D — ^iüD^s^p ps ;jio"]y^n5s*2-DD3pyr n lysn: 
ns nyi i^a ^^nn"ijs*D im n^pr^x "ly^iö,, oyi iin ■— p^^p 
nynnyi onya a:uyjvyTyrpn25<2 iyv:^3 nyn .DD«"ip-D^>n 
DiD-p^2*.p 500 yrii^T n i^f üD)p Dy lyii ,Dyüi^ -lyi on« 
nyü:iK y^ynöonr» n ,iyDy:onfc^t:>iN ynj^ü^jyiD n .ddi^ 
-Di^: ly^j^mynn^ lyij^DpysD^^^-pnni^D n ,Dy^D^!Di^p-j:iDu 
-DIN n -1^« px DiD-p^n^p 500 n ps t3^"'p3n:yi")ün: n "T:i?js 
jyiytJpnyT >n .^^ü^25?p pD^^x iy;ij^iivivs>n^ D^n ü'^p:i'>'?:v^ 
•p:»"ip"iy3j^^ ynynjt? t^« DDmmtj^ Ti? ,]t^)^ oyi Pi^x {i^^DPfe?s 
3Ji::nsrDjyDy> t$ i^« »to^^m» "lyi ps lyöip oi^n ,iyt:^'»n 

.^{?tD^S^P p-i^*D 

lyrn üPs-pn3{?D on p5< lytopJia-Dajn^^n n Dni^ ^ii 
-:yoy^y n o-i^ü^^pijns ^{#n ^n lyn^i^n ,jyo^:y3 |yv:^3:^i< ü^j 
ny^n .tD^^nns "lyi pö ^^'^n Dy:y:r,i<Tivy3 » 1^2 :jn7^n yiiütD 
in pD t3^^pD^^:yD n ly^iij^n ^i^o lyüij'ny ü^)i t^^n 3t'j?2iy 
OD^in ; tD^^nn^-tDJ^n ü^d p^t:D^:3c': pn J^n^^n p2 3:n:i>n-'i^*2 
n .p^iDDi?:»:>3 p,« 2:n^^n ü^d D^^3n{<-t5.^i?n p2 "n^ij^ ,üv 
an:riyrD^iK ,|y:i2y:D^iK n^t?n jynt^^n iy"iJ^*jpy5DrN-pn;;<2 
\v:i'*'\P iyn:^p-pnDis:2 n c^n tst ,nyiny>-^i{^ n p2 r.ny n 
,iy^^K^-ii^ö y:^DyrD^y3yi n ^^1 Dsnnyor.K !'y^2^ut? d^nh nj^3 
jr:y^ >)) "iny>3 "^i;?: ü2i^ p« ^y^D^niit üpjiö dvk "^n ^n ly^ny^ 
*iyi r»K ti>iK -^n w^'?^^ v^'pV)'^ ,n ."^s*?:^^« r^« "^^^r n„ 
^i^*:y^j< üy^3 p>< trn2 3nj>'*üK^ fym .j^d ly^^fcf.i fc? it?3 ^^k^ 
jü PD nytDD^D *iy"i .cnir^^ '•i ry':)yr,V2>^t< :!>ny2 t"!>? 3^^^i^ 
-t<2 yn^^n "»"t pß y^y^ tsrjx'o ^ik^ to^Hn ^ p?* o^^^iü? t?2^yn 
'i'p^t p.K ,^nni8 ^^y^ P'ö :J:i^i?rny \)i^ nn2S li? lyji^^.vüeyß^ 



m) ly-i^ss ,Trp r""$?2 ^:y>yD-^':y"io£ri n-yo cy tu? "ji^^ 

iy::^'n ^* pK ip-'DK pi< ,t''!t^• px ii^ nns -.yi px p,2 Dxn ct^ii 

PD ".i:2^^2-iJ5 p*r pi: trnD px iyL::i»2 doip d^^.i ,ny-!yi:{> i» 
D^o ryTMiis52 Dy C'??-i ly^s^ ü-yrt?"! '•^i ,DytoD^D-p^^.:^*D oyi 
iy3^02:^pi!; nyi pö pyp nyi DVJ;>"iS5i'y:D>r,i? ^^n ,ü'üib y>» 
nyj^y ryDMiy-i öt ny^^« ^y^J^p ypi^ "".^2 cyr. yD^y^.i ,:i:in>vnjf 
»p^DDi!::^^^ p.j-^ DDmyj:ii5 tD*D o^^nnj^ yr.'Dpni^iEs fyiJ^m^D 
yD^^D!:5<iJ'7yTy5 n pyoynnfc^^ vi m^ yii^Dy»j j< dpö: li^: do 
iyvvni?i2 1!^' ""n yn^^t^yc yrvr^« n d>« -^.i;?: ,y^vpnt^is 

.tvi^^'vo yD^ypMvjiö! rD^n^»» 
£;'^:Dy'j 02^*1:» yncDn^^H-D^n: n r^ »inyty: lyai^n n^-o. 
yspyii ,ü>\in^; nyi p;D :ji>^^d^^ yrcy^-i^.opi^^irsttD n bi^ 
-n^* ^^'•D p^K 1^* lyny^ ly'^:^?: pn n^i« ly^oyjs cyi iv m:>3 
-:^x-c^na -.yi pc yoifc^D y:i^>LDD^>5?t2^£^p n lysi? ny2 ,o^"'3 
{ü q^iN *ii^: :ji^'^tDiv"t:^^n"ii< yjy^ p^x lyini 02^"^' y>",DDn 
n :?.r'i ,Dyi3"ii"i P^'i^it.z lyrtDD^i "lyi p« : iöin piyD'^pynB' 
*:}? iy:^jvcD^,N*'',i?2"t:::n''yT st px iyü''^ni^ cyi D>yi:ö!iriö:D 
'2^'2 "ya^DDn ny-i -lyo^i« Diüy^^,« p,K ,p*^fc?^ t'^"'t} » ps ::^n 
pK ly^'i^'u^io i^.D iM-i2y3 lys^n^nj^sD oy-i "qm t-i^i^^^o — i>n 



-jyD i"m iyn»T^;u ,]y:'C'KO y;'DyDp")y'.n:^n ikii Di!:yoiK {* 

n i::>nc dkii ,nyt3<'ni« oyn yjJT:3 j:T'?n:Hiif3iK roMi; <j i^b bo^? 
pB r^<7B nyn lyoir.xs p'-^'tja-aoijT n a^n anni^j pn .pv^p 
nö r8^5 cyT iyoy3"^xB ly ^^o b^^'k .lya^o-nj iy:>'T<n ojn 
■uioni« pn ]i2 yi>?.5D'iK n p« jii^jyioB':« n .]»{rKö-*iet«T nyn 
-p^r.^yva': ntjs '?y'j?y5D pK om:: nynny;ioiK t'jjj't^jb t^h öcj^n? 
^yi cKn MT« Ity^^nyKt^Q xtk 1:1 B7><B"nKT«B iy3»M yr"7yn »yayo 
10 ]is ny'?:i3'« n:yjy;!Di« p.« na:ynKp pn lyjieyj y:ii^?'? i»d'D<^? 
e'3 Pitt' ,iy'7i::e'2y^n:K: n lynyn □"a t2:j»öByy{<3 ">n^» 15 to 
n lynym isTioy:» ]yn^n yr'^yn ,"iynrp yiy;u'K n ]ib lynyi i» 
lyn .Q^n-i« yiyiitt' T»'?inynr;?3i« vh oy^ .ly^iavayn r'.yiy^p 
D':yn'7'e'o^) ."c5K")p-ci,?2Kn ]tb rt^'^B oy^ t:ie^ kt ayiai^tB "jy^^'H 
-'B» ny^i (.6 J ,144 .t ,"1866 ,Q-iKBKT iyi55 ^Httf^o^jrp ojyo'v^EOy 



"DMia nyi pD Dvy Dyi nfc< ü^unts in PQ jji^^^div "lyi^Dyo 
iDT>Mi y-iyi:« lytj^n^v .|y>n>Q ro^snya "nn dtsj^ ynDDn:^« 
pc s^'O lyoma »: dj^^i ,dp^'d ly^^^pyi^ oyi px dmis ^n ny 
lypnnstD y:ny-ii;?o n px DrioDyt^ö^n lym y^^yii ,"iyirp n 
-y;^v IJ? -lycD^y lyDoynnQ ly^n pD W'^v)^ ^lyniDP^D^Jso ptc 
•lyini;^^ px ly^ji^yr^n ytoDD^^Dj^^K n pa d^^-is i» iv üi^dk^ 
,D^^a*i« DiJjD \'>'<p -^n rijyjny^DnK do ,DTD»i^öDpy :J8^ 
lyi^n^ytny-! px i!?>cn "^^^v^: ly^i?» ly^yeiy >n ü^i^^i dj^ii 

nyi PQ 3:i'''-.'Div "iy:i"'DyD.TiDpxDi:xD nyi ü^d ^ii ^n» 
^n« oy Dnya ^ns ,D«D{i'-ixii px ^^jy^^yj*»« iD^^ms 
nyi PK :^jyr.yj^K o^^m» nyi pD jji^^^div lyi d^d 
•yüK^ niDPsanj^iD px piyiiDJxn |ot ^d .üDt^^i^^yTya 
•^ytyj nyi pD y^x^D^n: yr^oyi^x n lyost^v |y> 
Djyvni^-iB Dyi \v'?Vü:i^ ü^i t^k ,y^vpni>n3 nyD^^tDSx«^ 
lyo^niv Diji ,y>vpn{^"i3 pa :i^niv lyD^^D^^j^^D^i« Vi^ lyo^iK 
«ü ,iy3:i3^t:DyK^i?3 yrn pa :2^>pr3XD^y^a y3>^::nB65^nix n 
•y: y3x^D:na lyi os? ^^x .öjyD{^D-D::i^p^iiD:8 lyr-iJiyTiüM: 
a^^iiv"Di»^^vpni?iB iyiyn:iTX3 '^viV' Jiiinxeiy ^m -^in dj^d 
M tDDijtp^i^DnxD ny ,Dn^K ixd iddxb ü^)^ ,yD"it^D yt^'-'jsytD n 
PD iiJ"):i lyoMiy: x tDD^n:nyi tDiyii üv ij^: ^ii p.x »D^njx^ 
oDn Dij^i yrv:^^K di^t .^y:«^» n ly üin>^xDDnp ^ü^^-^s^n 
iD^nns oyo oyn nn-» t^k ,3:nyijy ix D^nx üii^t px i^-r 
-D^'»3ix n PK :i:nyi:y n »iro^yoK^ ^yn^xn nyi di^ii ^»it^t^tj' 
otjn lyni? ^ii^'or^K .ii^3 ^tjoy^x tDo^p ojj^i ,tyü:yonöDrK 
-^K Dyi pc yo*ij?2 yj^DXB y:''DyDD3:nnxDiy n lyöip^ii v^ 
ü)n PD inyr oy tJ?p lyo ^11 ^oy^iyöiisnnxD ny Dny^i ^ü^yonDD 
tjnnt^^ nyo^yt^^iD 5\nK ty«^:yrtyn^K üsiji t^k ny ü^\) ,opö:ö 

.pyjj» Dyn w nn p^k ps 
onn:MinK> lyolS r^x ^'3 djji^^ ,e»^i2DnyDp?sn»D t>k oy 
^'tynDo^o^ iyD^\ny; IyDBxt^^pnyT!y:^ n lyns^n pn« 

ti^n nsKX) PN 0"ptD>:)yj p^r "nin ty^^it^iv cyi 
lyetDnxn oyi pK .ly^mj^n» t:j>sJpy3 >n p« 
onyii .i;?''Xi2 ly^tDy p2 [noK^o n ps -tiin] "y^t:yf3 yn -nv^^ 
•m« t^nyii ny nyn ,^yry: x t^ ,Dy-iy-i:x ]]f^'>'\^)i ]V2'*iti-*v:^^^ 
^v ,nyi''n5 yj^>T^ nyi28J^ b* id>2 .onytDO^^ n lytj'M^v tyoi^ya 
''y2D'^i? 0*3 ^^T lyr^p pK ,'n jyrt;>y ^^ ,v*^'>y^''^5 ?yair^ 



-t?T pK /'iy5»m iv^nQ i'ü''d DBsc^piy^iya p^i pD nmo n lya 
D^j "ly tDyn ynya^K ypöi ps lyoynyo:^« n px \\si„ ikj 
-i^ifi cyi px ]V'\v'?T\]i^ n ^i^x n:ip cyi lyDso Dstp-iycDMK 
]>n ly^nycDy i5f o''Oivi nD ,niDK>D ^>y3 y-yi:» p2 üpm 

."nrnno yjyj'^x 
Di^n Dt^n »ly^^^K^ Dyi lyoniv oijn ynöon:^« yDM"ii n 
-t^iB lyD^^üDSK^^yry: Dy:y:>>« '-,v'''^ ly^oyo n ib'D DpynKD 
-nsD n pz) nmo DDj^oya üt^n di;?i^ pk ,Dyvi^i3-DJi^>vpn 
•^ij: üo ,iy:^niv-D:i;?^vpn{^"iB yD";yn:ny:2t^-^^>n>Dö:: yjn^^K^ 
-yi px yD''nDni<3 n iv i^^dk nt^j ,nyi:s nyi iv üvy^i< po 
^n ni?D p« is: iyr'"'^ivD^^K ,B^vjn3 ny>n .kdu i^niv |yn 
-jy»:y>y yD^yt^t^'y:sM:lv y:^n p« i^MWD:ijt>vpni^na iyny> 
lyi "Hin lynyii t^in^cy^D^ix nn^i cy Dtjn ,anjyDD8 d>: ,iyö 
tD25<i^':yD^"n y^nyit;?^ v^^^i n lysj^'j'y:! üfc^in ,tDJ5$n '^]!2'>'?\^:vo 
-jyo^Tiv ^n D3öti ,y:j^Diii!:yi^^i5'n«3 n .y^:5^^t^::3yü nn pa 
-t^ö^i^•^yry3 nvi pd lyö^etDK'y: ^yoiyr^otJ'ifeüD p.i< yTJ>*^:j8n 
-fcnn VK DT^^ijyiDnK ^>t \V2^n Dyvi^"i3-DJJ#>vpni^-i9 iyD^> 
-pyiiv{?n nyi d^^!' »y^j'^t^t^^ytaD^o px y:^DyD:fc!;^B :>j»tüd^«ii 
-jyD>';rTiD8J lyn j^a iy:jn:yTi:i? yDiynj^tyasi^ ,::ipnni "lyo 

-i3n: yo^iiJ ys^^oj; n t^pynD^» ^n« iDi^n y^:i?^t?j3yo n 
pD D^\"?rDytD yivüPHi^is viv' ü^)\ ,:2):vv>^2 Pd lyoit^D 
iytoi^':)rDni5:yi^''t5'"iS2 y^j$ rt?-iü ,1^^ ocy: nysiyp \v2'<'?mv^ 
^^:^2Vü n >ii '•'■,?$< Dp:is ; lyü^yt^niDDr« yDijyiiya^i^ n pD 
ni Dü'^Jii^a nny^ ynyrti'^D yt3"i^v^>i30i^p"ODDyn n px Dnyt 
•aynp y^^^jj^Dya yDfe?DJ>^K n ps :j^^i;?nnyn^ii yrn:yüK^K3 » 

.|yö 
^i^^r^p t:^yn:fe?nfe?n px tDDi?nDi<D ynöon^^K y^nyii^D n 
o^öt Dyvii:"is-D:fc^>^pnt^-:3 « pa yo'^{$D yi:yn^t:D>Tpy n ts^j 
.ny:i^^v^^i^Tiy"i nynnyi !^^< Dni?3 "lyj^^jDyD nn^x .ra^^an^y 
t^5< D"':Di«-D:i^^vpni?iö y^nnyn^iD y>8 p.a on^^n -lyn nyn 
-yvjjns ytJ^^oyD ,ynyrtJ^KD n "n-in (* .ivüö:inyD:ijp \v)m 



-D3i<'!JpnN"is n N"?'»» ,'tj;t:3:?Dni:D3'N-D3K':ipnt<na n n:«:«:« b'j 

-•jb'nsnK ya-iy"72r,^BOiK n ]yiiy;j »tsnypnßo ,t'k iyD»'7p y^ynoon 
•^'7Knyi yjjn:y!23' n .y<!fpn»"iB nyn po d':dik yc':« n pD aaia 
pB oii'jD^nBDnK ys'^nynDnKOiK n ,y'!ipn^<"iB ip pfi ;jjn»:<j»!t 



n v^« ,y^vpnj^-iQ "lyn ps y;s^D:n3 "lyK^^jDyo lyi d^d ovi 
Dy^VfcüJoo^P yD^^DDÄ<c'^yiyi n i^k lyo^^Di» n pD oy^vpjia 
nr» Dp:^B D^Diyi Dioi^^vi^j^iiyi n .Dyvj^iB-ü^^nni§Dyi pis 
-ya nyi p« r:yr.yj^K ü^ui» nyn pc ::i>''^div n jnjytot^fe^^ 
-»D p« i'fcüD^QötP |yD;<a nynan« is ini? ddi^ii px DDSL^^yt 
.pyi:» Dyn px i^MWDjjjt^vpnt^iB p^x pD nyD-'^Dns lyo 
•Dpy^i nynnyn ünyij^D y>itDDn:^«-DMna nyi pD nitoio n 
-•M>8 ,Dy^vpjiD n pa D^>p3^^iyijyn{§Q ,d^uiis: lyi ps jji> 
D^M lyiJfe? "lyn ps ."lyD^^nns; üvi ps D^vD^^:yi^^n ya^a 
nv yo^s n yoiijD nyij'^tDD^^^D^Bytp in'-i^ px n ton^vni^-isyn 
-lyijnsn yD■'.yJ^^D6^''^5§D v^n'>i^ ü^d ü^u'i{< lyi pa j:i^^^d 
■^neiJ^iyi^i^ nyoi^i^Das nyi di^ mi inyry;i lynj^n n^o .|yD^\T 
"»un» Dyi ps D^^pnyDn p« ü^^piDoyD ,nn yiy» pyiist ooy: 
Dn^K iy:i^>:i>ivD>n8 Jin^yoK^ Dyni^-n iy mi ;y:i^5> onyö 
-Djyny^ pn ^mk t^yD^D-DD^u-it? nyn t:^D lyo^^nv D:s:n pQ 
:>D^?2iya^K lyDiöio y^vp:iD-^^^D pn tD>o lyo^niv p« ,^ytD^D 
n lyDp^iiDMK DTi?^ "^nsK'iyTi^ lyi idj# ni ; i>ij< p^^» Dn>i< 
PD^y^i »yyDns-inyty") ly^ynoon:^« nyi p2 D^^pD^^"iyMny;iDix 
nsö ü^^"u V't }n:v^^ 'p^: n nD ,i:v^v pK lyo^^ny; üiyii 
D^iK "^n ü^yniüj^ ny ^^i ;y:5§iD3i^J ^y5^♦'t3D^^^ü^s^p nyi 
nfc?D PK ,D5<?pnyi:D^>nn«; üvi pd niann-iyD^üD yti^nj^nyö px 
n PK jiK |yüDy-ip-ü^''nij$ n pD "iiy^ t? inj? ly^^n^y^iK^ 
PD ü3»D yDtjyii »y^D^öt:^ nyD^^oss^^'^yTy; nyn pa nijmin 

pv^K m evy? ü>^2i» ^yi ps a^^^Dpy^i n lyni? i^ik 
-^^^1 in ö^D pK vytyriiDstJ Dy^^öDy^'^yn^K is mi ^^: ^nn 

-nB y'bi? pB yr<<By yTKiirTin n on« lyiys^ii: — js:ijynKa yjn 
iy«Kjj "ly^n B^a ]'m2''B' y^ytsD^mys »y^oys y*?» -lyrKBy yjjnnyn 
-BMK ]y"iyii ,]y;3iKntr2K p« lycnjxa y;nn>"ninyu'7» ps yti'TiD 
-n4<B wx lysKn tir lyT'K iü'?ij lynyii y:yst<yyrio y'bt« ,üt"^yj 
ei? l'^K «inK Bnytsiy p« t^'j^d t'k dkii r'rK .]:}vj'i'i li? Biyji'ti^j' 
pK ,131'34<B<<15 eiyii ;j«^i'n T'k dkii y"?» ,Tm i'ü'o pyiijt unyj 
-:i*7yBB^ y"iy»'T «jmk ]ypip is lyjiiKiisyjj T'bnay jyiyn jyL^jya n 
y"iyB2'i ü^D iy;iiin»sijn y:i'B"T:yjyp y-iyn «in« »lysy*? p« ]r;s 
-10(<? lyn pfl iflDyB»5»D« : Dpit<o '^^'9? P« D'?y:j3y .s) ."Ty;;nN 

(.6 .T ,1848 I^TSK*? ,"''»11^9 iy!r»t:ö'i 



??«■ 




87 jiJiri-jssyTvrpni^*!; p.s j!:nn'B:"K jra^'oyj'?» 

•q^^^S^D p.i< lyo^^nn^ n pc ::i:?Dpyn n lyjypiy.vji:? ömd 
-p-ioy:?^ I5§ D^i§ "lyD^^msi oyi p,D d^^p:>o^vp8 yt:DD^?jyjD n 
-^ymi?2 n lyDj^siv px ryiyrDjs^^^pni;!;-!» iy2>7DD^i>'?yryi 
« "ife?D üv toD^D n .::iD^>piMnsD iy?i<Dii;?: pn iv [y^'^jy:: 
t}isp2^p-y^inyjc^N n lyD^-ianstD iv t:nD px lyny? pD y:8"!D 
-yp>ys:j<2--yt:^>2-ii§ nyjyD>i?-yi ii-iyry-i px r>vi:iv^v \^ pc 
nyijy^Dpyii nyi "ij<d lyiyr. oi^yint^a jy^j^p ^ij^r ot^v, ,::n 
"2fei! ny-; nn^^ ,y^V5<D^v?sDpy ")yj'^t2D^^5?ü^si?p 8 pD ::r.ynij3 
yTjypDpy^i n "j^d iyi^:yD d':^,d tD^^pi{$ni:yin5<2 nyoi^j^c 
nvi ,DnMvirx-^^^ü Dyi iyt3^^2i^£ ^i* ; iy:jr.y"!8^2-Dö^''2i8 
Dyi n*»"« ^y^vp^iD-^^^t: nyD''^i:5s<rf'yryj fe? ps ^v:^}!')^ \vv)'?2 
y:j;n>vj,-i{v;D n lyD^yii 1^2 ,Dn^ivi:^N iyü^ypmDJ^*-:^D^n^8 
04)^ ,D^^p;>toyD pD D^jciN iy:^n Dy^vp:iD yD^>t:D{v*:i^^yrya 

A'^vi^^ üyi lyr^K Ei;? iyö>u 
-yi tyrti^T Dyn pD D:y!2J^^ iyD^ypnitD:i?-^^?-i>D{i: P>k 
,y^-it:Dn:^^-DMn3 ny- p,D iid> pc^'.x ,Dyvi;?i5 iyny:t^^^i^{^n 
-^ni^,* « .w'?'^ yD^PDSj^'^'üiMnjjs*^ px yii^^^^yo^^i^a n |yj>n 
-ns n yD^y^i px ,iy7r^ i^np^nonj^D yi^^:3yD n w^^^t "lyü 
p« yoj^^^jryt^ nyi px D^mytor.« |y:np -^vi^'P D'^yD>^3 
-nDDj^N-D:j^''Vp'n5^nö yjyT'^iJ^ii^c n pc ::^vob*a nyi^'^üpöiis 
":j^p y2js*:p ^ytot^'-iy n ^^^inyr^yryrpnnjjiD n n^^.« .lyojyo 
DJ^n ,>fci!D^35$P Dyi pD lyii^i^y: t:2t:ypy:D^it< t>n dj^^i ,V'>:)V'i 



-'7Kp ]'« iKisyjj li^n TN D^iT ,mr«'?ö y?^ n ix*^en ^^«py^ e'i'^^i 

t:K ]'N |y^NBy;3in8 T« p3 nys^ '7^33^"'K ...•j!r^:i^; i!t T^k jmö 
-r^'*? mzK*?» yin'K a^n yr'jyi^ ,]y'i't?Bi^ J;-''7"|y^i^^'^l Pß ß'^yii "ly"» 
ni ]ki2J?:j n«n t^k I dinii p'ü «im« ,^ynD;*n yin»« i^t^k nya 
]yry; ü'i T'N t3''iiK-]yrf3 pB cc^rtry:) lyn Mi mt^* .]jrii3 y*^» 
iyn''7pr:iinij »pT p« ipsi^nyjpyii» cjr tm :vt .t^ö'b^is i'Hi'i 
/■^ypyT*l»<T » ,"iypmm ^J -nor iy":«<nyj pa T« ikit ,on!fj!tr pK 

[')'j:'^^2 IHK ;;yn'n ^] ypoi'r^jD ny:i':y^T T» ^h '?n»B ,t3'>2"i» ^r'?^? 

".»•jyö "inyo pH 



-n^^D-l5<DDl« n T{n* ^ü-iJ PDD p^P "!{;?: "lyni;^ T^« ,D>uni$ -lyj^D 
-n55 Di/T ^in DDj^D ly&j'^D^^iiiiQ nyi pa Jjnya^ii/ 3;:d^^ 

nyo^uife? n px ,ti^^L5P»i3 pfc< tj^^üyii^yü ,D3n")yt::i« \v^ 
yi^'^tDD^>Kt2''Bi$P n T» ,ü^: pdd p^*? ^ir« dpjis f»« oy .lypii^' 
-yD^yniiüDnyD^m«! yti^^üi^jj^py n p« yivpnijsia pD yaii^D 
iym5'i#D3s iö: px lynyDiJ' ,nn^« iv toDfc?sy:i^v iy:^n Dt^^i ^lyc^o 
-^M ü^D pfc< |yijnny:i yiy:i^^^i>t;?'nyn y:MTi§ ^''d TiiQSi^-iyi^ii 
-njj nyi pD :ji>^>tDiv nyo^s nyn ps a^iQiüti'si^ n — t^y^^? iy 
"iVD^^'DD'tj'yi » pö lyDnstJ^nyiMi n po jj^^pmiidj» n .to^^n 
ayn -iyD>^DD^t^yi lyi^vr^x nyi lynt? r^« yQ-ii^D-D:i^>vpni?n9 
yonj^D y^^: s pj? DT^^>y:iDnN ü-^V)) yoij^Q yrtj^i n ^nj? ^ii 
lyi tDt^ — " ^i£)5$p pn ^u n^^^n pytoDiK',, .lonnyjs^ix ü'W)) 
y:n'«-nD s jyni^iiy: t^x noan nyj^'nDi^^D-^ya nyi pa rsJi' 
üjjn DtDK^i nyD^D-nyrn lyn lyi^ ,is^ Djyci^D Dyi pQ mto^j' 
-pßtj' n — D^npi5§ P^^^n^v nyi ,p5j>»D-nQ»T n lyjiDny 
.«i^c'-nofe?! n — ii^*D^iQ -lyD^-imtü-i^^yiiNi' lyi px pti'KD 
-nssD i^« D^^niK n D-)^^i:yn ::i3y:^ytyrpnn^D n |ot-3'D 
IS '11 tD3KiD5<n ni^^ oy tDiyii ,.ii .tj? .x lymop^ciJöiD ,iypn 
viv .^'JittD^Q^P PQ ßryr::n^05§i^i3Dpy n p« ^n lyK^^oj^^n^j: 
-i«3 ,i:yii D^^3"i5§-T^in -iy:yanyr''ns nyi pD nysj? ^jn^^'iiyi 
nyi PiMN nn::5it nytDpynn t? mi lyiyn toD^-iDütn '^''>'?: ,ü^v^ 
iyijy^n^D-D-ife?v nyi c^)) ,tDnti' tu — pyto^y n pD üdj^id 

^>>i:y lyjjiNiivyj nyni^ ojjtn lyop^^D n pa DDt$D n .lya 
ly^ütriv üT^''5»y3D'i« üj^h yntDDn:^N-D^n3 n ts »inyrivj^^K 
ü^D pt< y^^''Db;D ^v\2^^ "lyi pd on^n lyK^^oj^jj^py on idvo 
"inx ,Dn^K IV üDj^syiiv lyiiy: t^k di^ii ,D^^3"iö!-|y^^^ö^D nyi 
nyn:>p n pD »ayi di^i .ndi^ rniD">^tj^-|y^^^DSiQ yD^s n 

.lyiyii üi^Dj^^pi^nö Dti^yj üijtn 
tDanyirDi^*^ nn P« ü^i^ry: t^nyii — r^^mys^^p^^ioiK,, 
üöip — 1866 PQ "li^iJ^^Di^p üjyo>fc^^Boy D'jym^^ti'D,, nyi pö 
PD nyiJ^p n t» ,r))'^v n ps lyajir^vtitn v'?^ pa onn» *ij^^p 
jy-yii IV Dv^K^i?3 tDO Dy:^^p pD -^n tyrt^^u nyosy^tj'y: n^n 
-fcüi^BDpy PD DyiDD^D iyi ."pyü^y yiy^n pD ^ii ^^y^s^ns 
ü^>3nfc?-T^in n p« ^>D3 ü^^nn^nynrp n di^d s ]n^ lyi^o 
lyn^N pyt^^y n D^?1l /'iyt3^i<ny:iD^i«,, nns-in Dnyii üids 
iw ya^^pn^ii K ^^lynrp yon^jv px y::v y-iy*n nyn^x d>ik 



89 üinyji^ytprpnsejjr pfl jjjnff'BJi^K ?:t'öy;i:w 

ny-irp y-iy^n pa ly^^a iv Da«D yDi^j^onöi n lyvnsn do 
8 p^p ^y^s^irs ^n pD iy:t^^i>'ivDMi8 n3 ,tyj'^«o yDütsr^K 

üvi n^iK toDyi t$ lyai^n lyjj^nys yjji> p« nyu^p •^i^)^ 

-lyn pD ::iD'n3D^D lyi ly^ypi::» j:ny:vyryj "lyi pa nt^ 
02ö!"iP y^^^iysiyp ny^n Djy-iai^ yD>yn »D^sviyj D'j-iyo^y 
i'ysj^DK' lyanyio « pimk nyD:n8 ^n üp>m px d^^v "lyi ikd 
".Djyryn y>yit:py^yürx p« y^^^Kit^o pD 
Di^^i ,üD^D D^yD^'y n pD ::idm"i3d^d d^: lyni^t f« oy 
:in''ü5§i^sDpy yopyinj^x lyniji yopy-in n lyDjütj^ya üi^n 
üv ,D"iypisD -ii^j ,^^n^BSP Dyi ^nn lyDayip-to^^ni» y::r po 
DJ;?n ü^\) ,y^^?s:ü5<^^^Dpy pD |dik "lytj^^DD^^ötD^ssJP "lyi t^k 
,tDDi$D yi:yDm2D^D öt "ii?D \')v^'?v n ps ü^jüiiy: n üSöioyi 
yK^^cij:{^py ytDDüisyiw nn>K onyoK^iv üi^n "ly dj;?^ DynDin 

.y^s^Djna 
-D>ni§ ü^: ^n 5'I^t oy lynj^ tDcsjn^ypy pK 'n^^py-itj' mi 
Dyi px iyTyn-iy^^^c5j5ö lyo^s oyi ps ::n^^^D^i« n lyr^^n 
-j^x-OMna n |y:iyiiDDyi:^.ö d£^k^ »oyDD'D iyi^'^DD^^b*ü^ös? 
,iy^nö n p^x tDi>^^t) n o^)) y^>j^"i ny^DSMi *iyn inn »ynoon 
-J'yty: n pi< "lytDDy^K^y: yn^^n pD nyn:^p px ly^i^nya y::p 
y-iysD ny-i vinö lyDyvj^iQ-Dii^^vpntitns ytDi^T^Ji?3-ii^-^^^tD2KK' 
-yn » niüD y^jü^ü^n^ y:i^^D{^:i?py y^o n ,iy3y> jy^^^r^in pc 
n tytj^^v.v nn^^K' nyi ps px y>^^D5<ö "lyi ps yoni^D lynya 
IV Tnons ^U8 üPJis ,"nn Dnyü^ki'nb'D ,t>« oy .iVü^v'p^Vi 
"iSD y^^^cfc?3 "lyi pQ yonj^D ytj^^Js^iyr'q^^öDnp n |yi35»fc?n 
nyiijt ,yonfc^Q yK^^o^n-ö^s n >ii ,y3^^"i:y p« ytDi^i?D38 i» 
d:j< »yD^yii — yons^tQ yt5'^^^ü:ynt;? n lyij^ ,yt:^onrtD!58 n 
-d:8 pc n^n VT'?üy\ifv: » ^n lyij'Miv d^^x lyDso »xmix 
Di^^i ,tDPi?D -lyi TS ,nij^P >n5< üp:i3 "n^^K t^x oy .ar.^p^ii 
ps D^ytDry:]yDötnv t^fc? ^i?:i^nys-cü^^:n« iytDn^:^32t^p nyn 
.|y^'lDl^'•■lyü^y ^^^ly^s p« "lytD^y^ti'y: yn^^n ps jyenmnj^K 
f'5?iip s lynyii ,iyir>:yt3^yn-isD yi^yD^itE) "iyt::iN .üiypnsc tio 
pv>fc;t3n2 rDynniöfc?: in p« D^n ; ri^p>iiD:s iy:5<^in pD 
-i{?Q tDt^üDMpy *iyio^"'3"i» "lyn ini^ »yo^i^D "ly:^'^t^D^^fc?D^Q5«p 
"ife?D Dyv{!?"i5-D:i?^vpn{^is "in 0^3 ,Dyv}^n3-D:5?^vpni^n9 oyn 
lyDytDDyDn^D ii; 3:i^yDi^:y?o^*nv yrtfe^i n t^n ,iyD^^n"n< orr 

.■»nyiiöJ^pr r^K ü^\'?jy3ii?i"iisQ po ^»^p 
rytyrpnntJiD ot^n piyi>^Dya^ö5-i{<D *,v ü^^p:n:yi"itD^^: n 
ytDK^ny n nsD ryryroKiD^i« Ii? üi^ütr:ij dh^k pa lyDso pn 



-yii pK ly^nv^'^QK' n — ci/DD^o-pj^^D nyi pss jyD^jycyt^'stn 

^yi i"iD ^j^^rD^jii'pMiDJfcü |ya^>ü::>c'y:i üyi p.D iyjöitDi:'^:^: r^x 
»TiDp^D^ji^o |iD ü^i^Dc^y:! ypy:fc?"'':^n45;iD n .ynDDnj^K-Dm:i 
j^D DjnjiyDJvn nvi tinx Diyii ,D>ia'iy:-t''in px pnyiVDJötn 
-piüD^Ji^D n ; ü"^^J{;?^v1^J^'1^y•^ tyvJtaj''j< ynDDiiJ^x-D^n: in 
— pnyirü:{<n oi^i ,\>'i2^^ ivi P5< lya^^? anjytosj^ tDny: iid 
pö lyiyDD n lyiyii i^>ijy px ,niDP^DiJ^D nyi px ^njyDtj' 
iyvmp"ij<n-iyi:it<ii iny-^a^ b* p« ,D>ui«-pin px p-iyn-ü:«n 
-"•^p3^>-iy^iny:o^i< ytDDyi^>ii n i«ii ,Dijn>:j nyj-'DDn » d^^v 
ny^n jyn^nD yi^*^.;L^y;"i^3Dpy nyt^^DD^:?;sD^Q5üP iyi ps lyo 
>M^v iynyay:i lynj^n nynj^ s^^p iyDvy> Dyi .^y^ea^ iy»nD 
,:3nn^D-!y yLDPi^mynMrsn^ytDiJ^ n ojyDt^^ny : iyi:yt:K^oiK 
-DD^^ü^i^ Dyi lytDJi« ö^^D i'js'ts^B^p nyi m^ n^^n ^ns t» 
lyD^t^üQiütj'^yTy: üvi 112 lytopjis y:^y:^r^x p« it^: ^j^iö^i^p 
p« iy^i?V5?n "fy^nDy^ivony-ijit^ ^nvü y?^ "^n iy t:Ti?^ ,t^^-»p 
jytiD^^feüD^B^p n pQ ^nt^y; nyi Djyt^^Miv ; |yDp:^B yiyi:» 
DD^^n D^-i ,iy3j^:i:n5<D-r:y"nP:^P n pN o^^na^^t?; nsts xsu 
Xü^^n-]^ PD y^viSD^^^SDpy ny- «i^tx iya:^p:ynK^fc?n vt'^'?: ^^q 
-1» y-iyoyna n |y;ypD3^ toDynoiK i5< \V)m ^'?^)) üv„ 
m^K px D>>n"i^-iy-ij\'5 nyn"-« y^D^joi^p n D^j^t /'lynyrD^^n 
,3:n>^i5yn nyn iytD:iK lypnn^^ta yiy^n ly^ytoK^ iv„ ,t:3nx2 
lyrn r>'!^v-üDyi^•y: Dy^yr"»?; iv'f pQ nysy^ yiyjy^p n ny^ 
nvs -lyi PD ::ip:iyn^'^n ^v:i'''?'ivm p"»? iv iy2'i^^^*nyt::ix to^: 
-nyr.pji^p y^^^^rD^j pQ ü^''p:i^DDyny:oi« lyi i:^ .D^-'v-ts^^n 
n nyn ij^s lyo^p dj^ii ,ts>^rt5^^ni^ nyn y:i:a iy:i:i:i:nx3 
Dttip ,ryty: ny-i po Db^^o^ix 1^* jyn-'^^n lyD^Dti^piy^i v^v^v^i^ 
ü^)) ,iyt3:)^pnn*^2 yiycyn:! n ifc^a \vi^'^ "lyi:^ lyi w -^^2 
pD lyj^ivy^öJ;^ Diyn to^-imtü-ny-i^^p px -|y>nQ p5 ^y^'^iv iyi 
i:v .YVm D'jis t3n^^i:yn tj^^ fy^y^i yD^y^i ,^VBVii^ n iv ^>r 
,"iy2y'^ yiy:y?P pö 2Jinnyo^,b:D n t3i^^:^^t:D ci^-i tD^i^ii -^^^ 
nyi -)^D rtDD:>3 iyt:Dn:i''^ dx n^'^D^ix \r.^ toyos lyrn y^^yi^ 
•ynnt^D lyr^oya^fc? px ^^in^viy ^ü^^^s^^^^Dyi^ptü^ ,ü>>ntojiry3 

-jy^ixivii? Dyni>nö y^y-i^'-yn^Q fyii^iiy: üss^'y^ |yj>n oy 
-yivytyrpnnxD nyn pc rys^vris n i^ü^ipnax lyi t^^i« |y-; 
.iyt:v^« VI :^i?Diy int;^ |yn>^ny:i y^x nyn?^ ryrn ^n ,3312 
H^. v\x üv T^ ,r^x ly^b'o Dfc?rpiy^2^ix 11^: i^n ^n^ -n^« d«#^-^ 



41 JU^3:7Jisytyj-pn-ce pß A:nn»fij»»« ;;j»»a;?;i^<j 

D^i? :iny:vyrj;: lyi ps ;i:iD>n3K^D^'.K yj^^oy;^» n a^i« 
D5$^p-iyD^^aneJ Dyi nsiD ^yD^o-vic^ iyrDD^^:i p« ny^^n^D t* 
Diypy:*^i^2 p^ on« ^r ü^nstj^ ,'n>5>i^^Dnt:i;ö*iK lynj^iiy: r^x 
n ,üyD^ny;:i# dj^t pi5i^ ly^j^n n^D Mi ,D>n iyn:i< lyi p.s 
"■»^^P 5< nn« iyDy:k*{$n5-D>'a"i8 yjyrntjfiiwSiv n pD ij^^njsm^D 
PD y^vöi-iü:yv:j^P s i^ ,Dy üd^m ,üin'B n ; 3i$tD&J'D«o oy^ 
-pnns^D üvi pD DDbt^i^-iyn nyD>^D^^t^'D^•lN nyi w px tJ^D^s^p 
•)yo:>n ,iyDi{^2-3:^:iyn''K px yo^j^ y>8 D-iyo'^iv >r .D^sj'Tyi 
.^so^ssp pD DDjsti'iyn n t^mi^>^d ~}^j "^n t^^^n^n ov v^'?m^ 
'ivn "w^v^^ p.K lytopynn pn d^o ri§5a ^y^n a^DyjnfcüD p« 
lytDpynn oyn "^piK n Dnyr^Dyi^'btnj^Q ny^iiJ ü^önyi .üDiitB' 
-:^^K D:m^ n nya .DDft$'ynyn nyjnj^n ^yi |y:ypD:b; fio5<p 
-i?:i^py PK i:i:Tiiit ,D>^p:>Dyo^y:yi ,D^"'proiJ^£:D>^^3 ly-in^siv 
^nn ,n Dnnyonb'D ^üiüDtJ'pnyn iy^ynMinj>« wiv pK y^o 
:jn>5>uyn px ::ipjyiti'e5n n dj^ii ^^^-^d-ildd jyiy^^.ny^Dix nvi 
•i$üy:p n px y^sni?:s n »p-ijoyo "lyi o^i :5^'J-Dt:^''2*ij< d'^id 
"oya lyvj^^r« y^vpnj^ns *iyti'''DD^5'y:D^25<P nyi pD lyct^noD 
npat^p n px o^^aife? nyi pD t}ytoMrD:yt33^K n ^^ix mi ,iyD 
ri:yc3>n5<D .nyo^^n"!«: oyn d^o ynyj^^yto lyn ps nyn 
ny yDvy^ n n toyDD^jiöts ,iyntDDn:>K ys^^rnn ii« v:'''''^? n 
-1^3 DyT "n^iK ö^onyi p« "^yo^^myi y:nyn^K„ n p2 d^po 
-^üsyo-üDfesiJ'^yry: jyviyta ny-i piD ^ypyi-tD^>niyDM lyjnyn« 
-t>yTy3 n i^n iy::ur"ii<n y?ynyt25?o n :n:y3ü:!D t)>n .dto 

Ü3tlt0 ,DyVl^")E-Dj5>*^VPnJ^"l3 D]/T p2 y^V^J^Döi^P yD^^DDiJgf 

-Kto^3i<p pn pQ iyv^T3y:y3 iit< |yDn2^"iynMi n n^n "^m« n 
'T DtjiM ,D>^v "iy:u^ynyi px ^^^:^fc?3 pn ,yonfc^ö nyj'^DD^^ 
üQi§t5^ »üDöttJ'^yty: y^^: ^ lyn-'c^ij^D w |yt3:yoy^y n öskk^ 
•tyry: yD^s n iyi>:i?>vi^i?iiy"i dj^^i »lyDLynp >t ^mn >r 



t^H typn!:KB yivii^nysKxp »i ]id nyts^jö lyn ,]yT^ Bnj?3K> {* 
-y; 13^3 1B1« Ditrn .spiyüwn n^^nnu m ,"iy3?e t:Kn ny:*?!;!! ,iyoi<ip 

1^(13 ,oi;2D'D"pn3KD DVT «^»1« iy:33yDny3Dpy yj"? unsy:: tr'cptfiB 

.y»vi'7<!tTiyT ny'jtt'S^D "lyi pD cp3i9-D«<j;> 



n^Q D:y?»nMipy is oi^^ini^is it^j öijsn lyD^^ani^ m |yii 
in pö aj^:yr^Kjiijt n PK »üEsnp-D^^nii; pn pd tsiyii Dyi 
y*ypnijt-i3 n t^« o^ii — ^^so^ß^p rann öiyinnyo iv^ii^i 
nt^D tJ^P Dy5f¥^3 lyi üiSi .üiyinnyo |yüipi^Da{< oyi pD 

,D^JDlK-D:i^^VPni5{1B PD niD> I'D^IK ,-lI?D DtDip px ,jyoiP 

-tD^D nyn \ni^ 6rni;iit3D^T lyii^iiy: ünyc^tjyny^^N lyrn v:i'PV)'> 
•:rü:>8aiJ^y3 y>yD-ii>*2 8 "ii^:: odip oy ,>kd^5j$p pd aj^pin*; 
-:^K IDiK-D::n^ü8i^SDpy nyB^^DD>>»D>si?p "lyn lyii^ ,::ny-i 
•lyiits^'pB^ nyi i:>m ,|di« lyrnnynnD oyi pd ^n üi^^ij'nyD 
-iKinyo n dwi lyDiJ^i dj^ii ,Dyi3in ni^: ,.3 .t .k üvüü'ü 
IV n 001p ijn p« ,aj8iiv lyopynn k ^in lyony^o^ns tD'^3 
.DD8-ip-D^m8 lyi PD pi^^.pn^D "lyr^nvnD,, Dyn -^nn ij^üdi^ 
n DMK 1DD80 öiyinny» iytDi>j«D2öt pd y^vpnj^na n 
oyi pK DyDD^D iyK^^DD^^fc?D>Di5P üy-i pD yat<'7D:n: y:>'öy:^8 
.Diyirnnyo jy^vüs^yn pd y^vpni^na "lyi pD Dpj^D-a>^njijj 
D:>^'t:^v n>'nn3> pit? ;ii?id-dd"2-i8 nyn r^« nyDvy> lyi ^>3 
.0>U"i8nnyD p« ü'U"i8 nyinjyiiDn: p« ; nyp^Dfif^ ^niv pK 
--IS yr"i:yi^D*iJ n onyii ,tD^^3nK-nnyD n piy^jyt'isD iv na 
-»ivnpy -in 18 lyDso ya^^yii jyiijJüyD "rin tD:ii^pi8D ö»^3 
nyr:yii pk lyny^i tDn>vni#ns :»t^T r^i^-o^^sn» Dyi po ojy^ 
tDnym oiyinnyo lyoi^i^Dns on pd y^vpni^nD n .d>^v 
y>vpnijn3 n ; ^j^o-DtD^^m» Dyn pD i^v? lyi ontj ^t^j ^>t 
^in pK ■qnn Di>Di;|t>vi^i;?^iyn onyinnyo jyivö^^yn oyn p» 
VD^^'DDKiJ'^yTyj n p.« ü^^an» nyi pd r^oy^i^iB ytj^^jDyö n 

.ty:>:n>fln3 
"^'iV'^ t>K önyinnyo iyirD8>y"i Dyi pD y^vpnt^-is >n 
,IDiK-D:i?^vpni^"ia lysj'^DD^^'fcJD^ßtsp-B^^D'vyöD (s ivi^^o lya 

42 



l'EMK DK^iy ,i#DU iy3Jij:n83 pK iy?D>o »lyijjtDyo y:^M ü^o 
Dyi lyöJi« D^uiK lyn pa ü^^p:yD-iJ;?inyDJi« lyn na D^isa 

ni^D y3n:yi5^Miv ^^ik tyi^iiKiv:»? int^a :^:y3 pv üyn oy 
"^inn 0SDi3y:D^n8 ö^j ü"iyn D'^ai^nnyo n ys^yi^ px ,|yo 
o:yvni^")B lyi ik^i pk ^tDjyvns^na oyi ps ::^\)'£ jyüpyin 
p« .^'KD^BKP n)'i \VQ^^\)ivo:\H 'PVü^^ti d^j ^{#: t^k v'?^ 
V'P \v^'i:>^2 t}^j '^i$2 ^JKü^Bfc^p "in üi^n lyont^a yjnin n 
•3>yT n |y3y> .Dyvi#"iB"D^^si8 nvi nyn^« ?i;ifit3:i^p lytspyin 
p« niDX^D yiy^M |i^ lyin^Q v:i'?v\\ ,|yD:yvni^nB y:n:yDy 
-yDiNii lyi DMis tsv\ü ,:yii |yiyni^o-tD^8 Gyn ^nx nanyp« 
-D^yiJKH lyn nyii^ :>tüD'BKp""iyDiKii nyi ,-iniD nyn nyii# nyi 
n Di# lyii .DMSiSB 8 m DMK 'n Dri? '^v:i'pv\\ ,>8ü^bkp 
,iDBK6J'pyryi 8 p« vi^v^^^ivn n t^k y^v^üK^^^Bopy pB yoii^D 

M ; ID^K-D3l#^Vpni;it"lB lyB'^tDD^^StD^BKP ]'<'>;> ^ü>: ^if: VH 

IV yBiDi:'-a:8ny3^K 18 pn ,tD^n nyi:« lyn pd ,"iy3i^ p#p 
.iyt:?8-:'yt3^D pB fi^D d^u ly^^yi yp8D ov t^k n mi ,Dn>K 
"Wi ÜPM183 oy ^1^ »lyoit^B yrijyj^MVi yo^iya lyji^p ^^>ijy 
-••11 \vo')^i pK i;?T ,D^^3-i8-Tnn ny:iyi{;?o nyn pa ^y'S'j'^^a 
4;nDDn:^«-DM'u nyn pa ü3n:-iyDJ^T nyi ^imk lyj^^sj'-iy lyn 

.inyTD>i8 |yDiyi3yi8a n^i 8 d^d Din 

inyD tVöi^i?D28 oyi pa y^vpnsiisiB n »"^n ünytD'i>'-i8a 
pa y^vpni^-iB -lyn jia lyiyii Dvyjyi:3i# |yv:83 p« lyp onyn 
lyT p8 .yni^yD nyi p« ni^j onyii-inyo tyirü8py"i oyi 
y^vpni^nB nyn "i8a lyii^Dyo n t8 ,D>n8 ^^t iot^mi yp>DP8")B 
o^^v nyrn^ynyn pK lyj^n D"iyirnnyo iyivtD^*>yT üvi pa 
nnyo lyoit'j^Das oyi pa y^vpni^iB "lyn nsa lyni^oyo ^mk 
oi^n :i^D-Da^^3i8 oyi pa i:ny3:y>n8a n ,'^i^: nnyo .ünyii 
pa tDpni^na "iyüD3>^D^tD:yr^K nyi d>8 ü^yaiJ'yiD>n8 "^^r 
lytDi^Ji^Dzs pa y^vpni?"iB nyn n^^a .ynoonj^K-DM-ia nyi 
pa D^^pjya'ni#iinyD:iK y^yont^a vm n ii:y3 t^k önyinnyo 
-nJ8n T8 »^y^BK'^u div .>8ü^B8P Dyn "iyü:iK d^^3"i8 nyi 
ly-i»? ,p^^8 "^n nyta D^>3"i8y: ^ynna ly-i^n y^^yii ,nyp"iyn 
nyov^K jy^i^T »lytDD^^Q ly^iJ^^yv 8 pa ly^yiy^ d^8 ii»EN 
-:ijp lyopyin oyn ny^DJi« nyD^^D-i8"pi> 0^58 iyDyio:^n8 
-iy^^DD^^8o^B8P"iJ'^a^vyED *iyT .t:D>^e5t3^E8p 8 pa 'pipü 
iimüv^ y^y^vysD d^8 jypiMi w i?^ d^mh iai8"D:i?^vpnii5iB 
nys DjyoK'ny tD-iyunnyo iyivD8>y"i pa y^vpnj^ns nyn n8B 



v)^2 mm nyn» V2 \v:'>'^^ J/D^yi^ »lyiüonr« nns üb^d -ly 

nyn mi n>»n-«n8 .y^vpn^is PD ly-ij^^yo n p« lyjjnyn 

Ml i^5$rMTi$ — inyD ^t^j p« ,rMirDj^^:i:pn^i3 lyvjü^j 
-pnt^ns y^-'DDni y^s nyn^K >i^-iDjr;*p Dyi lyjusny;) t:D^;^ ny 
-jy^iyn •q^>DDKtJ'>yjy3 .yj^^oyi?» n ny Diyr, ,iymiii-Dji:^^v 

.Dyxi#"iQ"Djj^^irpnJ#nQ Dyi iid yoit^D yn 

-:^^« T^« lDi«-DJt^^5^pnj^-i3 iyii^>DD>/i§D''Ei5P *iyn n^^o mi 
-pnt^ns lyr^DyjPS nyn lynt^Viy; va. p« tonn^sy;:^'-« ^^;!D 
PK lyDi^j^'Dn« lytj'Mi^ n^^iJ'iyür.N nyn ^n t^ti^^» ,iD^,«-D:.^^';f 
•^n .D^y-i:«n ov mi n^si Mt» ,iy>n>D ü-iyirnnyo iyivDi^:^yn 
'}^ .iDBnnnyn>« tonyinnya pD ytot^i n nyDyi;in»Q iy;iyn 
,ünyM nn^K um:? tD:?t^v^a onyii DDj^nP'ü^^in^ n t^ ,iyD':yi 
•ijtnD n DM« : nn^nn yijy^i'fc^D n i>;ypü:i5 i^i iji^*» tDnyD^^ 
pD i8"!r>»^i:^: nn^« p« D^^ms nyn pD t^s^ip yM^üpn 
nnyo ps ycösn n ij^p ^yDo^Di^'^ii:} K t^« toyoMrDjyDj^« 
p« ^jny-ijy nyiPDöt^yn « Tin ij^j lynyM D-iyDyn:ni.^D iDiyn 
iy:njyMOMJ nyi pö ,iy^^^ü-i:i§to*^s3 yrn p-ö dt.^ nyT 
bu ^>D"iyi ^i^T pi> nyn im« .to^unK-nnyD ^.yi p,i< D^^ni» 
tDTi^^ ,DDS-iP"n^*'ni8 lyn pD üiyM Dyn nyD:i« ly^^DnyD^nis 
-^ns nyi p« nyiyMtojy iijni/DyniifcüD ^ -q-i.n i>;j d>^i -^n 
(oyüMi^Djyöi^K) t:''^püij];iüt^yjj}? nyi p« lyij^ toyoMv^pn 

.ü^un» nyi pa 

IV n3 ,ö^^v VV383 t^n lyni^n ^^•^^■^ -lytD^un» iyi dmk 
p^^» "^n iytD^i?niyi iv |y^,D^0Djyny> y;!^DMj n lyn^ifH^^ns 
lyö^ui» IV D^'-v p^p ü'j Dn^K t^a^^^n i^i ^y^^^^D pn p.« 
-DDirtDMVtDpni^ns lyoMiyj 8 |ni^ .v^vi:^^ iöü:. d^v'^-'v: in?it 
tD"v yjnyD^« v^p ü^i "lytD^nifc? iyi ot^n d^ui» nyi pD n^-j 
p^p i^DO n« tD^^v yro^^öiyn^K ^Tfe§ jni^ ;ni5:^-i pn p« 
eo "IM« lyni? .lytDD'f'btD^Q^p yr^p «>>dd pt? D^-inn^nnyo 
p^x ü^D ,|y:{;?-i^3 y^^ii^ya v:''i> ,nyt^^J5n-|yr.^*>pij^ p-ip 
n Ml tDij^ny cynDt^j .nyvnsrDMij ps d^^p p^p : t:n^M 
»n^ijütJ^iv tyi^'^iy^ü ny^M po b^-init^y^DMii? -im w^^n jy^^yo 
lyDMiy: 5$ p« V'\^ T^K ,Dy dd^^h ,xqi3 ts^^ni» nyn jyii 
p« »jyD^jyto^ynnfeüQ dmk lyopötM ,DD>t'öD8t^•^yryn«^ nsia 
•r:yt3DMpy nyi tDiyn jytj'jyD p^k ps ü'^mi^-inyo n w^yn 



45 ai:;innyD "ij^^i^tsjjT^yn p« i^rtsiT^Dn» 

•qn ly^'pM^D:» yD>yn »lyt^'^jyEiyisn n v^^ ly^''» '^^» ^v:^^ 
-ti'iy Dy:y^ p« j:"ijn^i2fc§3 ny^^i ps iy>cD^D n Tin ji« d>d 
ny"i 112 ly^^^D n pc y>vii^si^'^.3 n t^« ,ny"i^ii ,"iii5^iy3 lyo 
r^^ip "^^^ijyoi« ,ü^^3i» nyiDyiD pd lyny? yD^yii ^üDS'^pyryj 
-öij^Q Dyi ü^D .|yD:yvnj;|inB yopyin i^d yDöso lyn ^3J^ 
nyi pD üDönp-D:i?^^pn{jti3 "lyD^^tsaK^^^yrya nyi pD onsy 
no^^i^'-^^D^sjiip n .(* y^vi>^2j^-is yrr^^T n ddpsit ü^^3"i8 
nyD^^'yii ,iyi^>*3 |y^^oi^:i#py i» nn« d>i« Djyr-iya^x üopkii 
-py >n .Dy^fj^i2-;i:"i:'p^iiDJ8 |yj:8> » I^d opni^is nyi t^n 
n T^« V'2'?v^'i ,o^^3ii? "lyT p2 Dyü>iv*jipni^"i3 yi^yi^üDn 
ft? p2 DPn{^i2 nyi t^k ,mD^iK'"i'5<D>2i?p nyi p2 yjsP^DJni 
üo Di5< iyD5§2 lyii^nys y-in>fc< üi^)) ,2:i>pMiüJfc$ "lyD^^D^^K'yj 
.lyoiyn^iHini^^ yojytMD ii^: ,iyD-iyi;3iirnniit^ pv 
-yj lyD^ypnio:» lyrjyii nyit^ nnyö "lyi p2 inyry^B^ 
-ipö n Bi^ t:::yn ,y^vpni^is iyD^^tD2bic^pyTy: lyi pD D^stDß^ 
\v:i^\> ^n .iyj:ijni§2-iiDi<: p2 D^un» nyn p2 cytDMi^Dpn 
Ml ,K2U |y*^:yQ d'ji2. niü»: "lyn iv iy-iyi^ Dnn>2y:pniv y5>8 
n .Dn» Dn>« ü>y::n Di^i^ iiü^j nyi iv p« .11 .T8 .k yDsn 
^Mi^ ^M« tj^^öi^:i#py iy^y!2iv iy::"i::n83-iit:83 yD^^iyo^iK 
' : V 2 V *? p« DitDD^n lyD^^'-i^tDfc?: ^^1« : |yDfc<>p yomi 
p« -^^n nyo^ii ,iyni^n p.ß t:^^p-i^302n2 .n n j y tJ tD ^ d 
-D > ^ n n » p« DitDD^n jys^^i^D»: n^x p« ,.11 .ts .« ij'^d 
-i5t:>yo ,r^{^n ,\vt'^ y"i5<32>i^ ,iy^^2-iyD5§ii ni ,1 y iJ o ^ d 
t):yii y^vsp^Mr^ nyi p2 ::{<2:i;? p« ."n is »« jy^iMp ,\v'> 
'v:^ s «^MK ,D*,t:3^n lyD^^-i^üs: p2 yoni^2 yas^'-iy n nyn>i8 
i2D^^^:i«2 .yD"ii^2 yt:>Mi^ n — y2"iDK^-:ji>p^i'itDJ« ^v^v^ 
\vr]ü^ — i:>':^v^'\ lyto^» lyn p« "lyi^^ ^lyn:^« ü^o nj^t^ajy .n .v 
.D^ jy^iKiitj' P2 jy"i3 D^^3 "iyijy> n ü^d nD:n{>*p p« 
yD^yn ,iyK^oy2nyi^:j-iit:»J ^i^v n t^x oy lyjy^p üi^)) 
n t^« Dy nyoyn: ö^'\) pn ,iyiyii ür-in25<a dpi^d^s lyna 
,üö!D^^P P2 tD^^prüDJ^: n px ü^>pi»3üDn2-iyi{?3 ys^^-i^ü^ti 
nyn *i»2 :n:yiitDM3 t^« di^ii ,tD^^v-t3^^3i» n t>« ^v:v'?i> V^K 
•^^^i^t^B .nyi:^P yj^n p« o:yvni#n3 Dyi p2 iJiD^sns-'iK 



iy3nB':;;i^s pjp tspn^iB oyi pD ny'?Dipn:in 99 pvu"m» oyi 



-tiin piB^ Di^n MTs .p^>8 ^n 'ifcjD D^uis pn "lyn^K j;-iyn:8 
-D^K pDi^n^ T^« Dy„ : D^nvo yD>K n lyjyii Dp-iyoKn DnijtT 
-jnp i/ny^M I1Q ijin^:^ny n lyoDi^p p« n^D rjyn mt ,v^^^^>i 
yDoya yioDpyj n ^n nsQ ly^i^p ^u ."? ü^j^m^iötD nyi 
5»^D |y:nyi>j nyi jyoy iv -^m« ^u jyri ^n ; t^^bk' y^^Dj^^« 
iyiDiit-13 Dn^« li^p lyD r'y&^ii n^i« ,Dfei;oK'-Dn^sfc53 üvi pa 
,iyDpMiy3-ßDn n pQ •^y^jjyo^ px iy>if-iiitii n px ,iy^^Q p« 
ytsDinyo n .jyDi^-iny: p« ODJ^pyj t^mi^^^d ,nM"i pmi^^^d 
^ns VH üDi> n tJ^^ii ,Dyinj^n p« üypKJ Dn» iyny:i '^vi^^? 
0DP811 oy TU A^v^'^^ i^J^'t nj^p s ddj^p nynnyi .i^^o 
Ml "Tiy 1» ny:^:yii) lyaDi^n 20 mi nnyo ü'>: jyvj»::^« ,dmk 
Di^^i "18Q jjnyipp-iy-tDB^in n vh ü^i .{:>'\^d y^ü^n 20 
^n Di^ii nsD p« »v''^^^^ ^^^öi ö'"»^» P^ ^'^ jjnyp>yD»3 n 
-i:Dyi:iE5 ."pny^i yonnj yDt'y:» lyoyjiytDjix üji^py: lynj^n 
"•ns ü>j DnvD iyD:5S oyi p.s pnymn yo^njj n lyrn lyjyn 
pD Ml ,:jnyp^yD82 pn pD ::i$!:o^« nyn pa y:^i^D n >y^Q 
ijnyp^yDSD n üi^n lyo ny^^yii p« ,y>vii^Qi^n3 nyo^n: nyi 
nyD^uns iy:^yvr^K lyn mi mt» .iyvi:DM« ^na Dji^pya 
pn VH oy "lyjy^p dj^m ,tD^un»nnyo '^nvo r^öt iyny:DMni§ ii^p 
lyi V» oy nyjy^p dj>*i\ ^mk mt8 ,D>^rD^ui8 y:njynüM3 
|yi>vni^nö iv ^n öiyni^D Di^ii ,:jnyp^y2fci:nnyü'U"i8 t>'^o 
c^w ,^"D nn^K T^K lyoyn^ y^s ,iy^tD^D-D:y2y> yrijyiiDMj n 

jr^vpntitnB yB^^0D^^»D^S8P n isi! ^Ji^D:'^« i^d lyoyi 
I1K yrn^ytn ddjj^t lyn^^^s jyijyDB^D^i? n n^x ,i55i üyn 
0M13 n iyD>n i>T ,yüD^tDU^»2 « t^« it?ü-DD^ui8 pD ::yt> n 
.|yiii?3 pD 0'^p*)K3ü3nD lyi üm5» ^y^vyso ,D^un8 nyi pD 
-i82ü3nD nyn ts ,Diypn»3 do jd^k dv^d nynj^ t^i^i^D panyi 
Dyn PD DP1K11 cyi nfc$D lyDOi^yosB nri i^« lyit^n lytDD 
-nyn n tom: t^k iviyn .iDiK-D:i?^vpn»#nB lyK^^oD^^stJ^ssp 
n^ t^« niDs: n i«ii .•md»^ in '^yn^K lyK^jyo d'j^d tDssBf 
8 Ml ,oiyn n p« tysrjyo oyn m tD^sn^ ,tmyn:yiiiyn8D 
n>n8 tD>3 Dn^« ^mk oay^ n ."^y^i^jK^-in^D n isd nj^p 
ny6:'^5J?")D "Wi tD^i .ly^pMio:» w p^^s in ü^^pruyiitDMi n 
-nytDiD Dt^n t^K iyny^-|y^:8^Q i^d Dpixiny^^K pn ü^d tD»o>^p 
.OSD^^P lyroyo 8 id^d ofcüB-nny nyn "ij^j ,^8ü^e»p pd n38> 
-jjniiKnKö n nt?: ,|yni#i Ps tD^'pi»303nD ytD^^ijtDn» n do 
•iiD Dyn DMK 03«c ,iyüpni^nB yD^^vow y^^n pD o^^pa^öi» 



47 onyinnyo ipirts»*?)?"» p« "lyöi^^jon^ 

n^DKJ n pD lyjji^Dpyn n •^nn ^ly^j'^yo oyn Da^no p« 
yj^n lyD^D^y^DnsD iv ,tDDy^ iy yD^yn p« ,iyijyDK^Di« 
PK iy5>D>D-DD^^3"i8 ,iytD^^pi^nyD ,|yK^'jyBiyi83 yjyr^K 
-niD»: 8 iyn^5>i#iü:i^p w D^^p:njyiiDMj n .D^jLiK-DtD^^an» 
nvji^ n ,nn>« t^^o ini^y"ii>*3t{^ pn iv ,^^^DD8K^>yty; oa^np 
D:yn ya^^K^jyo ps tD^^ms lyi Tin iyoyjr>K lyii^ iyjyj>^K 
pK y^^Ji^-i yDD:^DD^ii n o^y^st^ ,neiüJi'D«D lyo^na 8 n^m 
n T^K t'y^SK'^^D Div MT8 .yntDDnj^K lyi ps yoa^K'yj lyi 
njK^i^n ,yni5$3Di}i:5 nyn px (* ,DnvD px jjnoijyriyDsn 
-81^82 n INI! ,.11 .T8 .« |y>Diy3 »lynr« pK lyii? .n .is .k 
oi#i li^J o^J iyii^3 Dyi D^i iy^i<tJ5$p yD>^DD:^p Tin a^nyo 
oyT D^D ,*qM« Dn^K ü2:yin "li^J ,"iyDi?ii yrü^ij-D::nfc?nDi« 
tDyipyo lyi .Dnt^ü^r^j^Dnya y^siyro ,:nyn n pa d^^^'B' 
-J1K ,|y^^^^^D PK |y^:j<Bij^ p« yntDonj^K "lynjyn^^'a "lyi pD 
(** .y^v8TOt?:8P n lyiiy: t^k ^üssij'nyn "iy;y'38"i8 lyn "lyö 
-3>^:y2 n it^j ^i^oy^fc? lyn^: |y3:u:nK3-iiDfe?: y:^DDri 
,D'^3"i8"nnyD "lyi pa ü^^pd^^pimi n ü^: ^i^dj^^p lyat^. d^^p 
-»^tj'iSD n .opni;?"iB-nnyD pD nyni^ onyinnyo ps ■^^^a^ijD 



pD "ly-iiTD:^ 0*71« D«7p-i:7aDn9 Dyn ps t:B8B''ij;n n in»« o'D pH 
pfi cp:iB-o"s "lyn pk ]u lyi ]iö J3n:yn n„ «mo^^pn;» -lyi 
n ]yz^n lynnyn px ,^ib iy!:7iT *.^ p< tan' in oi'?': "^yn p;ii ,"in<j» 
ipüDynj nyi ts'O ;i:n:yii y;'TKT n lycrKnK^n üncy; "iy:t<'QB'jy 
oyi ipyuB''.saDyD "t ind ;'t23Mi lynyj T'K oy ...ö"pDt<Tp"iyöBnn 
-ijb'7 y-iyt p« jynn'B i:r tt mi lyom is na ,n^nyB lyi'Hjn 
]y3U tDnoy:» nynnyn lynKn "t ,]p:ioy:"iyuiiK y2>':aC8trQTMi 
]y;M^T oyn ps iyp"iyTMi Dyn pa '::!Q^n pK tyr^s jy^iijcin 9 
/Tiy nyn pe iy;j:uyn»3 n vjm'i ii^ii:\sn2H„ ,ynvp) .opiii 

(.141 .T ,1863 tn»9 ,.:r:ri 

D':is Br»o lyn ]id ]yjix^-a3n; y^ynytatta n pB ya'^K (** 
IIB ]yoTiitj;:iK-D:K'!/pin<i3 ::2'>^^;> y:ys"n<nKT:r n nyn^K a^^^v 
"<jon»«D n .D"i'7ci!J-"jyDKn cyi ps j^n^'buyj n jyiiy;» »'k yn^'it 
lyT'K ]y:Kü«f"n«B lyoyn d^<t jynKn lyn:'« pB lytr-iyn ys'O»"! 
lyji^n Dyi ]y3^(»-iyT iw ^i ly^yii "»^d ."iy:'7^<Brj<: ys"'?:iiy yiy^u 
j|»^»o « ni nnyo pB w^:;"} c^t co^py; i2Kn nyr^yii ,1866 pt 
,]y«^»j:y3 pB jjDon^j üpncjn oyi ]ik |yoni»ii 



n];i:y> y:yi^^tj'n^D p« üjnnDi§n o^^nii? dod iyju?ytnyi 
yjnjyiiDnJ n Di;jtn ^^:?j^i^D p« lys^oyaiyij^n yjyi^-'t^n^Q 
n •lynjyDij'Di« yD^^^j ddjj^t ^u jyi^^tj'ifc^Q t^« D^^i^-D^uns 
niDKi >ii *ii^j D^uns-nnyo nyi ^imn wpv)) iy-i:yLD'^DiK 
lyii ,Dp:^3 Dyi iyD>tD:^fc$3 ^n Di^^i DynDin .n .t ,iyi^^:yn: 
•^liy DyT pK .y-iyiJ8 n^o ü^uiö: n ly^jiKCji^ -^n li^P oy 
lyjniitn nyi ^n topn ^tontj^DiJ^a dd^so ynDonj^x n dj^i^ 
-yB{#n^"'«-DDyn nyi p2 lyo^oi^« .p^-'i:^ 5i>ik ryjyn:nit:fe§j 
-^^i^iy n p^N "^n ldq^p nyo^^aii? nyi iki^ ,üDfc?tj'>yry: nyty^x 
-nnyo Tin ntjt: »nyDonpy "iyjy:>^« pn ntitD lyD^uns ^v k^^: 
];:ynM3y:t3^o t? t^n oy Tfc§ ,p>k tDD>^> -^n lyo Dyi^^n ,D^^aii$ 
nnvü » iyny:nD>nö: tD^un^* nyD^^tj^jyo lyn ps D-2^:i':y:^>« 
ro nyj^iK^ij^K Dyn ^y^ssj^^^n div lya^^ Doy: .topni^iB 
nyi ixii ,Di:i?^y5^3ni5 lyu^^Dj^MS oyi ps ly^rj^fc^-nnro n 
lyai^n nyjMN'nj^^N n ny3„ n^i$i^ px n^Mi üdp^ii 1^:^*0 
^iKD iyi Tj< ,Dnn Dyi PK ^i^> ^ 3njy"iy^in ,Dr^jfnyn^K ^n 
jy^^^ö^v px D^DK' Dyn Si^ ^n wP^n ,rD^^^f p^^ t>K D>n pa 
,tDV5<ipy:D>in» Diyii "q-i^D "lyn ;nyp^D5i^ y^^^t^y pK nn^x 
•i?:b!D pD"iyT üivi^ oy p^ ,Dn^ny:3in px nyot?!! ld^o tDs^'^oyj 
<DJiö 300 'n^^jny'jiyj d>3 D^n p^« .'nnnny: di^ rtDi^D ^nyo 
ünj^i üny: lyo .t::iD 600 t>3 500 pD lyny^ -^m« ij^p p« 
*o t:nyi jyo 'u dp:"!S ,t3M"in it? "qn top^n \vü pt< i!?{§^i px 
-mto »TS TS jyD^jy::i? (*".r^i>*n \i^ lopsn lyo ps t:^.« 
($ iyn:itDt5'-tD>^3"is 12 lynt^n tnsi nypsn-DMin lyii'^tDsns 
n oi^)\ .iy5^^:y2"iy"iS3 yj^n y>s iy:inn£sn iv ns ,"qj>*'n 
nD .tD^^v yin^^^j "^D s T>« ,Dn^N ü^: nitDs: nyi pD d^^pddij 
a'»iD''^i T^K ,p^^8 -^n ISO tyijyinsc ü^^v y^n^^"? n lyji^p 1^ 
-pyiis n ^i<iT "ly ns ; lyniyD^.j'cis yD^^oD^tJ'y: ps n>n yvjs: » 
|8 y\ tDiynt^Q jy^i^Ttys yn^yiö -^sg tD^>msnnyo ps tT;3y: 
-»D^ssp » iynj>*iiy3 Din^Dy:ir^« ü'?i^)) jjs^^v lyD^^iyo^ij? 
tDDisi?;3 ^^^i^ ß^^y^ "ly^is'Q nyi t3^{>*ii ,y^vpni>ns3 yij'^üD^^ 
oyi p^^» -qn nsQ jyonyj 1^ hd ,^1^11 s ayD 6 lyo^^Dis 
iit3S3 nyi pD iD^^pDüt: n .3i^tD-DtD^^ms p^s ps Dpnsns 
-»ynt? ,^i^ii 8 3yü 6 lytov^« D^^ms iy Di^ii isa t3>j üny^piy 
•yaoiK 8T8 .n .T »tD^^ms-nnyo 3yö 5 D^ns o^a ny Dj^inss 



yt32 /ir»ö ijn n:iK y^rijj'jD n ,yTiy n„ : iikiö» .d ($ 

.148 .T 1854 ;»'S5'''? ,rJ»'?BMii 



40 v^iM D'aifi onii irT p« iSM^s:; 

pfc< ji^D r^K ^nK "is^j iDpjyiK^5$2 t^« ü^^v-D^m» y:njy^> 
W^'^ nynj^ y^vpni^nD nytj^^t:D^p»D^B8P lyi pK ."li^ii lyn 
yivtDpnt^iö n pn ix n^üs: nyi pQ jyDDynP yii^opm^na n 
-tins yD>^D2fe?i^'^yry3 n ^ii nii? tDp:iB ,^fe?D^£etP pd lyüDyip 
D^ypMVuDj« "^n lyai^n yj7yii ,D^^m8 *iyn p2 lyosyip yirDpn 
ps lytDDynp yivDpn^i^na n pn ^v lyj^^K' ,yD3^6^'yj in px 

^yo^sttp "iy2inys:'<3 

ij?T ns ms D'Jis D^nj lyn r« 3311^13? 

üDsnp-ü^ms lyi i^D tDiyii "lyi ts »inyrya |y3»;?n n^D 
•:yr/jMrrDyDLD^^ijnyr,y: n p,D DiyTi Dyi -qm Do^DtJ'^3 VH 
•8D n .-lyü^^nii? lyD^^D^r^'Dnn Dyi p2 ly^ü^D-Djysy^ yri 
rpt :y^ yoiJ^'D in^x djh ,iy^t:^D-Djyny> yrii^i n pD yo 
•yj lyto^D^Dt^feün 5$ ps yD{>*2y lytDo^D:^'«:^ » px r^« ,iyü^^3 
tDfy-:^\"iyn n h^^P -lyanyi px ,yopyü-j*yrüDyD fc? iD2s*^^yT 
»"^n to^^n Dy oj^n .dmi; (yo:«t:D:t>*p) y:n:yD*^ fc$ d^s ly^iyn 
^^iiv i{<-i;s;D lypn ov .yo^o "lyrr^i nyn pD ony^i -.yi t^k 
3:i^^Di:'!j<2-D-iy^i lyi px pn^ lynyj dj^^i ^lyn^^DP^D v^vi:\i 
'o:^ ^r\'^ P2 lyoDii^P n T^i< nyj^^K .tD2t;iP"ü^^n-]i? nyi pd 
; y^vpni^iQ nn^x pD 12^,n* Dyi ü^d "^n pyn:y v:^'?]!)'^ ,::)'?P'>^^ 
^^ n T^5< n ^^ ,t2^^n:yi^"''j'i^D-ivofc?: nn^« r^« nyiyi:^? ^yi 
-nyi PD *iy"ii^ '\vi2'i> pd ,iy>nD ny-it^ ny^ys pD üDj^ip-ü^^a 
y:ni?n n pD •n^iimsD nyn .(n^noi« "lyii;? fi^n) y:yDp«:n 
oyi PD ß.^ lyiMi mjyn nyD^yn ,iyt:Dy-ip-D^^m8 yJy•^^^:^'■'.fc?D 
lytoDJ^P n px i>^K^-iyi::it? lyo^na t? dd^o ,iD^&<-D:{^^vpnr^nB 
p,D Dnyi^ Dyn p« px y^5^D^D-iyo^^nn^' p< lyo^^snonK pD 
iyi:y:^i^D nyi i^« .^ya^>ms iyD^^:yo cy^yops^nyi cyn 
iy-iy"ii n^nino n li? »D^yoc'ny ji^ n^o lyoy: nyn^^ 3:on-iyo:iN 
nyn pd T^ns nyi t^? ,D:yo^^nv ; ü^yi^ ny^n üm> üd^ip"i8D 
ü^iiiD "lynt^ ,ünyii "in^N nyan^; t^i^sofc? ür-'üt^ üD{<-ip'ü^^n"i8 

.onyii Dyi "lytDJiN do ^ji^oj^v 
n ryi ,DMn8 ^n lo^ytD'j^ ,|y'2i:y33>>* >i:?'2r^« D{;?i t^« 
ü-iyjrnnyo pD ps^ üDetip-u^^n-is nyi pd i^na d'jid lyoma 



-jyoDpy n ijni;? it^D-DD>u-)S Dyn jid 3jy> n (1 : iy-i:yDK' 
ü^^PDajyiL3B^y:3ii{ y^soi^i^J n (2 ; D^uift? -lyi pa dmi: yivo 
iVDD'DtJ'feja t? TS >n8 ,DM"i3 yiVDjyDJ^K '^Vl^ ü^un«; nyn pD 
(3 ; o^^v -iyDD^iDK'83 8 pi< ly^yjyjD^ni? Diy^i ü^u-ij? dod 
nyn T8 ^ns ,0^^318 nyi ps DD«np-D:j^>vpni^-)Q n ^^^ijy 
-yna 8 d^^v lyrn^ynyi p« dmis ü>;i D^^aifc? dod lyj^a^yt 
-d:3i^P'^id:8 oyn dm;? ȟpni^ns ddd ny:y?p ny-ii# lyiyo 
ni;?^p T^N oy .y>vpni#nQ -lyn pq ly^^ij^nsn n ps ijina 
•jDijp yjyn^^^j'ifcüD nnyr lya^pni^D m^p oy tt? ,nnfc<-iyn^^x po 

•VT pyi^y lyii^fitDPötD ^m n ^ii oy-i "^i^j d-«!^ ,Dy^v83u 
j:y> n lyii ,^8q oyi DjyDtJ^ny lyDDj^iütJa n>ci^^ (« 
(D^ms lyn ^^3 ajiajyitoc'jt^ n p« iijjQ-DD^^n-is Dyi pD 
tDtsnp yivDPHiinB n nyni^ ^n Dnyijy oy »yrn^yrn |ya^>^3 

.ö^^ms lyi pD 
an:vo^ DDSK^ DMii nyoMiy: s pd aj^ü-DD^^an» nyi .1 
i^i lyo^^n D^j 'nn ^j?t oy tjy^an^ ,üpni^n3-D-iyii lyrn^ytoy-t 
♦•1^13 yo^o n nn-»« ld^o px iD^my; ly-i pa DynM^^üpni^iQ 

.mino nyjt'yvr^« nyi pa r^ns lyi -^^ip^^j^d pn ^jyopn 

-jjiis i3yD^irD:yo:>N iy^fe?on>^: p2 yn^iütj'-o^^nii? 1 3^1« 
12 pö :t^D'DD^>D"i8 ibt üyi^ ,::^^^K' y2 pd Dnyii s Di^vn 
.J3^^^K^ 6 PD üpnjjtns-tDnyn i$ ly^y^D^n» ^»oy^s lyijioiy 
-n^BDiK üD^^>3 D^y: p£ D-iyn nyi rs ^unyi ij^ ly.oyj "tio) 
-yn: ü^^nnfc? nyi pD DQ5§ip-DJi#^vpn>?n3 ^1 üiyii .(ö"iynjy 
•D^ns :??tD-Da^^n"i8 nyrn^ynyi oyii t^i ,ny:y^p lynt^ nyo 
PD D-iyii nyi rs ^im ,|y^P^tDn8 ^v^i'^^v^^ nyii^t nnyo ly^jyna 
-yii *»yii? nnyo t^^^x ly^^^onsD ^^^;^t?D ^n oyii aj>$»^jj^ 6 n 

.nnino lyrj 
nnyo nyn p« OD^ip-ü^^ni» lyn pD Dnyii nyn .2 
rpyn:» dw nyr^K 3:iüDn iyünnypnb*D » px in pyn:y tDiyn 
tDa^^:>n ,ny:y:?p ony^i DD{§np-t:>^m8 nyi pD tonyii nyn lyn 
ns nyn pD toiy^i lyn lyii ; üiy^inny^s Dyn ikd -lyinyo 
nnyo oyi nj<D -)yr:yii D3^>:?3 ,nyDyi3 tanyi^ D25inp-D>u 
nyi PD oDfc^np lyivDpn^^iö "lyi j^k :jnyDyi:i»D s ,üiyii 
-nfc$D pK iDDsnp-D^^mfc? lyi ps. Diyii oyi t:-iyjy>pn5<D ü^^ms 
a:ny:y^P»2 »— D"inypi»D px ; ö'iyirnnyD nyi Dnyoyii 
Dyi tD^yDymtfs tD^mj^ nyn pD od»ip "iyivDPn>^iö nyn t^D 
,oiyir-inyD oyi tony^y^pnj^D pk üc5?-ip-d^>3"i8 nyn pD oiyn 
l«p ,ü-iyiy3 lyD^ni ,DD8np-t3^''3"i5? "lyn pD onyii lyn 



51 nne d'jid dm-ij n^n px ajnjrriy 

-'•u Di^ ; tD^^^DK^ D^^ms nyn p£ DDfesnp yiVDPni^is n |yn 
:t^D-DD^u-ifc§ iy:jnj'ii:6j'-l2 Dyn pa üpiij^is "lyi nn« ,^y>BB^ 
3 T>N üD«i-ip-D^^3"ib* "lyi PD D-yii nyn p« ^j^^^b^ 6 oiyii pk 
iy;?i?2nyo:n8 d^: ocit^-ip-D^^ms nyn pD Diyii in |t^p jj^^^k^ 
yiPDpni^is yDnyDynn{<D n lyi^^o ,3:^^>:5^ 2 ^^^k 3 pD 
fy-fj^Dti' 4 px iy"i^vntit"i3 iv D3>i5>ny e^^nn» lyi pD oesip 
-i^aya "lyn^ia lynt^n yD^yii ,iy^tD^D"D:yny> yoj^o yrn^ym 
önyii nyi ,D-iypi»2 .y^:^pni^-is "lyn n^iD lyij^ö:^^ 6 ö-iyi 
p3s^>^ 4 ^i^ij^ 3 PD lyr^Dtr D^j |i^p ü£8np-ü^>m8 nn po 
oy .n .1 ,D^b*s D>^n",s nyi pa tDösnp yivüpnj^-^a n iyi^>D 
lyrn'^yTiyi ii2 y^vpiij^-a nyi -iss lyioiDSj^ 8 "^n inyij^a 
aijy3 nynna |y:^n oy lyD^y^^ leta ,iy:3i:^'2-D:y2y^ yo^o 
lyi PD ijnyDyiai^^s n rj^i ,tD2^i^D pain .lyia^DK^ 6 \vwi 
Diyii Dyt "lyojns dd"isii D^-'m» •yi pa oytDMvapni^ia 
; ünyirinyo Dyi t:)>^iyT üimh pK D2ünp-D>>2n8 "in pa 
üytD^iPCPni^-iB "lyi pa ::ny:y^p"i5<a n ,ünnyp-iü;a ,ny3 
nyDjnx loaiütii pN loaönp-D^^niK lyn pa üiyii Dyn ün>in 

.üiy^^nnyo nvi 

ir,VD pa D>"n; nyn p« ::ny"ijy -lyiy^ d^d mi ^tts .3 

nyi px D^i: -lyi pa a:nynjy ytDnnypyaoiN i» üdip oiyii 
nyi pa üiyi^ nyi mi ^nt$ px ; oasip-D^^m» nyi pa Diyi\ 
"lyn px a:nynjy is ö^d pyuy ")j^: ^n |i;?p oas-ip-ü^^ai» 
,ii^^P n^3 paiyi t^k : tD^^D-i» lyi pa Daxip "iy^rDp'ni>n9 
pa "^M tooy: o-iy^nnyo pa D^na lyn pN ::nyi:y y-iy> rtj 
pa tDny^i oyi p« D>n:i nri pa 3:nyi:y -lyDinypyars^K t» 

.oa^ünp-D^m» irr 

ya?yii ,iy:3i:yii»riyK^Miv lyöpni^a iy:i;?p lynt^ >>n"iyT 
-D^ui^ nyi pa i^^^.a Dyn pa 3jiD^*a'.v nyi iy:ypi::8 lypn^i 
pa tD"iyii "lyi nn« : ^y^stj'^^n c^v .tsiyn "in^K iv üaiinp 
-lyii^üpni^na nyDnyoy-in^^a ^< nono tD^sn isa^np-ö^^m» "lyn 
n nyi« ,3 n^iN ::)'^^t5' 4 pa ly^^^ay: D^^n^j? ^yi pa üssip 
r^K ü^i^^i ,6 ti^it? ;y"f:it3K^ 8 pa ü^-'V^^^dis yrn:yiio>ij 
]V'?m n«3 ^KT t3a^?np-t5^^nn8 pa T^na nyi rx ,'^^'?:v^ lyiiyj 
Djya 2 :r^"'tj' 3 ,D:ya 6 ar^^tJ^ 3 ,D:ya 8 ar^^K^ 3 pi^in 4 pa 
lya^ü^ya n«a "lynnyi D^i^n^ my^innyo nyi p« ,.ii .t< .k 
.« D^ya 10 aa'-^^t^^ 3 »oaya 6 aa^^^c^ 3 ,Daya 4 aa*?^«» 3 f)^^« 
T^K V^ayna-DiD^a^fD pn d»?ii ,ty^t?a oyi pa i^ia lyi .^t .n 
l't^iK üBi»'»^ oy Dtjii w'wvi Dyn pD fe^ oaayn ,jj^5>^b^ S 



.D>n nynj» nyi pD ij/D^uns n pa n:ö^D{^ 

•jy Dy D^ii .|y?D^D-Djy2y> diso iyDD>DK^i?n fc? pa tonyii 
TN .D>^ni5$ iri ps üötnp nyii^üpni^iB lyn d^q ^n Dnyi 
a;D5<D ny^n tD>: jy^D^o-ojyny? yrtt^i n pa d n y n nyi 
It^P D^on» "lyi pD D281P lyirDpnsis "lyDiyDyinjiiD » »3 
"li^Dt^is ly^^n^yriyT p« px :^d>^v3^^^3 lyopöi^i «s^a vo^ü n 
-i:yri^K ini? üd>^»d^d^p oyi px nyo^unb* ayi nfe?2 y^^ 
•"iK nyi PD T^ns üvi lytJ'Miv D>n: ny-i i>k a:innjy ^v'2'?v'\) 
•^y:^^^::nDK^•^l^? "iy"i n^i« .Diyinnyo cyi px toDsip-ü^^a 
yan^yr.D^i: n px ar^^si' 3 t^k Dssinp-D^uns ly-i ps: Dnyii 
T^« oiy^nnyo lyi n^^iK ,iyi:iü{5' 6 toDy"itD{<a ü^-'r^^^nn» 
,\vi:\^^* ö "^MK tosyiD^D D-)yir"inyD lyn lyis jj^p^tj' 3 "q^ix 
lyi PD toD^"ip-D:iii^vpn«nB "lyi p« aji^si^Dii^D » d^j^ii i»i 

üvi P'X i2r.5<"ip-D^"'m8 "lyi pD T^ns Dyi DTJ^^y:i ,y:^n:?yT 
D^i^ii t35?iDpnyn lyrvr'^x nyn .tD*iyi:yi^2DiK t^nyinnyo 
MT5? ^t^cfe? "^i^: ^:^ytDli^y:^t^2 D^i^ii ^n pD ny"iyny> di^ii ,iyiiy3 
D:n .lyoiy^nMinya y:yni?^^yr-iyr^n "Tiy ^3^ nynijs ^y^s 
-jynsDoiK jyn^^nya ü^i^^^ Dr^np-D^un» lyi ps r^ns nyi 
lyai? |yn .üiy^i nn^« lyanj^s |y:^ün'3 "^j^-i ly d^j^i^ »oiyn 
\'i V2 D'3 ,iy^{$2ya tof't^ii lODs-ip-ü^^ms lyi pQ r^ns lyi 
^^: »önyn Dy^^j in"»« i:n5> y^^v^^ did^j-'d cyi ^ar^^tj^ l^/^ 
nyi üJ^ ü^>?ii ,.')i .{< .K D:ys 6 ::^^>k^ 2 ,D:y5 2 ar^^jy 2 n^ix 
-öto yD^yDy-mt?fD s Di^toiyTyiByn 'ni>*j r^» t^ns nyjy^xsya 
üi'i^i^ öDeJ"ip-D^^3"i8 "lyi pD T^ns nyn .iy!?D>D-D:y3y> v^d 
"lyn PD üDfcünp-irüpnj^ns lyDnyoymxD s ^"2 idix cyn ti^ij« 
t? tD^o ly^^Tiv inya ^isitn p« ,iy^fc?D i:jsijfc?Ds^j Dji^py: ,ü>>m» 
ifc? oyi PD yD8D -lyn pD lyopytii |yrn:ytD5^ p« lyrtD^^vs^^^j 
^niJD üvi ü^ö lynt? ty3>5n»D .ix^^t^^^'o^yny^ D'iyo^n 
,iypiiTy3 riivöß^ DD^np-ü^^m» Pd ony^i lyn d^j^ii ,oiyii 
p« nyo^^nn^ nyi ps ya^^^-D^y^y^ nyi lytj'M^v tojnjst^ lyn ti« 
.iypy»o Y'?^ !y"^i^*iiya idik nyi n^K d^i>mi od^^^ü^dsp oyi 
tyii ,^8D Dyn ^D^yü^-'iiv ,tyü38iö83 »lyt^v^« "i^dj^^ (3 
nyi tiD 0D8IP yivöpni^iö n ti« aj^ö-Dü^^ni» oyi ps a:y^ n 
•^^voiyiDJ^» n in onyn:y cy p» yrn^yrn tys^^^s 0^^3*18 

.12^^318 nrr tiö uro 



5$ t»»Tfi D':^ß D".ia -i;n pK :s2:-,yn:y 

"inyö p« nynnyi ^^i önysiyp-i^jD 3t^D"Dt:^"'2*i» ny^vDjyj:^» 
-^yny-i ps :^^ "iy^vDjyD:^«-iyr:yii nyi lyi^^N iyDpn{>^-3 
nyivt:pn»^-,3 iyDiyDy-i:ni<D 8 Vi'^ ,noK .w^.:)^^ ^j^v ny^D 
-j^ns "inyö dmik ^^ik :i?LD-Dü>''2"^,ü; lym^ynyi tD^: tsisn? 
ps ünyn "lyi t:p:n '?^^ iiv^v'"? cyi ai>» px iV2^ .iv^pn 
-■»^K D>m^ "iy:>:yii iddj^p ly ^^n^ ,DPni>n2 oyj^yv:^^« oyi 
-jyii?2öix ly tjn^^^n ^i?!: lyts^^ny üy-i p« nyn oynns "Wi 
.iyn>iD >"ii iD^^n'^i? yrn^yrn ddj^p üpni^is ly-i ^^ni ,tD")yT 
iy>M pQ ^5<d"i);d:^k i» int;? t^i oa^^Dij' lytDpnj^is t^i^v n 
nys ,T>ns ly^n ü^^d iyo{<nv ddpi^i^ y^o^o-t^ns n .r^ns 
nfe?2 « pK nt^j yQiD-t:"iyi y:^a^yrn o^n^?? ^n t}!?yoiJ^ ö-ii^t 
t:n^^^2 iyi:iD^^ ^i>*v n lyii .|yDpnjf^";9 ps yo^j^D nyonycyia 
■1» iy-iyii^Djyürfc< lyi "lyinyi "^n oiyaiyp-i^s .yrn^yrn 
»•^^^i^j^D PN ,t:pni^-i3-tDny^i lyonyDynrfe^D 8 px :i^ö-Dö^^3 
«ü^y^ "inyo px »-lyrn^ynyi Dn>>^n ü^y: ps ünyii nyi fyi^ 
^y>2Mi fin« ^ny Dyn i^n "^n Diyi:y ,0Dfc?i? ny di^ii ,ü-iy^^ nyi 
-li^: iyD^^üEi?K^^yry: Dyn po st? dd^m^ öyt3^^vD:yürK pn 
nynnyi "^n ü^yüB^ jt^ü-Dü^^n» lyrn^ynyi .ntinr^so 
-"»DjyorK lyi ."nn d>"»3 o-iyi^ pn di^^i ,üpni#iB » p« ni^e 
;ij^5»k; 7 p« ,5'y^sK'^^n D1V ,3i?ü"D0^^3nK iy3>i:^Dfi5'"12 ,iyii 
"iy3njii:*^-12 -lyi m\ ,iy^'\i^ 6 p« üj^osj'^i? ,.ii .» .k ::'>^'\i^ 8 
.li^^p T>N üv .üytDnvDjyürx nyD^5':nyny: pd :j;?d-dl5^^d";8 
fcü "n^T t:-iyn:y at^t^-Dö^^mj? D'r.D t:pn»^iB-tD")yi^ •in 3^ix tk 
üvi P2 jy^^'t: yn>>3 iy:r^p i^n »ar^^^Jr 8 inx 6 pc lyr^ösr 
tDEötnp-ü^^nnfc? lyn pD t^ns lyi — i:pni;?-is-t3-iyn iy:nt;n 
pN ^^D ,ü>^^ nyrn^ynyi px lyDP»^^ — üiy^nnyo nyi p.s 
-t^nö-toiyii nyn lyii .ii$"i3 iyD^^^3-ü>: » pK ^^d ,|yD'^^: t< 
ns "lyi p2 T^ns *iyi ]^p ,3:^^^sj^ 8 ^nx 6 po cr^ütJ^ Dpn 
"lyrn^ynyi p« yi^n »lyopfeüii D->yir-inyo nyi p« üCttiPtD^^n 
-c^^nni? iyi i^d :]ny2yn-T>n5 n .4 n^iN ar^^tj' 3 pa ,d^^v 
T>^",s "in>N ry; ,T^nny3^o^i3 p^x ü>a ^»d oyn pN dd^^'K' üd^ip 
T^ns j-'N 3:^nyDyn n ,i:"inypiöiD .0"iyi^ nn^K ^v:i^'^^ üi^^'ü^' 
.ü^yii nn>« p« ^i<D-iyo:n» i8 ü^d lysbtnv lyo^P ifc?3 !i>*P 
-15? 'lyi P2 33ny3yn-T^nQ n lyii ,^i^d y^»» ifc^c tooip D^^^ 
-B^^ nytDiy^y::rnfc!iD in>K d^d d^k üo ^m ö3^^^3 ocsnp-ü^'3 

.33W^3 

PD DyoMvopni^ns lyn p« 3:nyi:y i» r» ,|yD^>ii i^o 
i»?3 .iyo8:D>iK yi:ynyrnyD^i5"iKD ü'ü ,03:yn3 o^^3i8 njn 



pss lyüpni^iB n lyi-j ,onyir-inyo d':id dmi: "lyi p« k>^do 
-iS üyn PK pn» jynyj iyj>niv-ynDDn:^K yüinny:!:j>* n 
wiv^:yn:8n n üti: .^M-i^ya lyj^Dya-D^^nj^iKiiy; D'iyü^^a 
V? D^u ü^uis nyi pD D^na n ^^d nm^)) ,\>V'\'i^ i^i ü^«d- 
|K o^D ^ipy^s nn^K ü^d ddip ,^rD:ytorK nyij^ irojyDDpy 
rajynnwiK ,üpni#iB-Dnyn nn^K ps o^na nyi pK ;jny-]:y 
onyii nyiMi|?T nyn lyD^yn p« »^yp^ois oyi pD iid»: ^yn pa 

.Dnysnypij^D t^K 
onyDynaiKD ü'?^\) b^^m» lyn pq DyjDnvD:yt:j>K n lyii 
pK D^^^^ nyrn^ynyi pK |y:"'''i^v-ynt:DnrK y^» pK lynf^^iya 
PD nsn: lynyDyn ny^^j lyn Vi'pi^)) ijjn ,dj^o nyj>''>;i t? p« 
nj;D^^tDD»j^^yTy: nyD^^jnyiiya nyi lyiJ^iiya Dyto^ii^DjyD:\s 
•t)>:K^3nn n ist i:?>dk iyt:^i#ii lyjyiiDDy-ir.a .n^nr?fc$o-i«3 
-"li'-isiö lyn^^Dya ts^uis nyn pa iy"ii8nrDyD^ivDjyt::j^« yj^!? 
-Do^uns -lyiyivDjyüi^K nyn .lyjJ^-'VJ^^ y:yi^>t^ni<D ^^n lyi 
-ö>y: pyDyn k p« tD^ytDt5'yjnj?2 ^n D^i^ti^ ij?*^^^?: p-»« ps :h;D 
PD ;i^t2"DD>^n-ifcit "iy^vD:yü:^K"ny:^jyn "lyi lyn^^K pmo^^.K 

.1^^^»J ivtj^ lyT 
tJDSiP yiVDpnt^iB n lyii ,^j?d Dy-r lytoi^^K nno lyoyj (a 
ü^u oy »ya^ytn jyr^^n ö^^ms lyi pQ üyto^ivDjyoj^K n pK 

jj^ö-DD^uife? Dyi pD ::v'? n ii>o "qn 
ny .ty::itDDn ^^ii!? pK py^^y I^t ]^p a^D'DD>uni5 nyn 
lyoip^n n^D .|y-iyi^ Dny::y^nsa lyi}^ lyiyii üvi>pnfc$D |t^p 
, : tyvytya y"i:ya^t>*D n iy2:3i:n^a y^^j n lytojiK 
•^yii »tDnyii fc? p« "qn onysiypn^a at^D-DD^^ai^^ nyi .1 

Jl^D-Dt3^^21K Oyn D""» ^^^^JlV D^iüQ nyi{^ bDpfcÜll lyD 

D>n3 lyi Iyl^'n1v niD^^e^ iyi pK ajnynjyi^a yny^ .2 
-DD>^mK "lyi pö üiyi^ oyi p2 d^i: nyn p« tonyinny^ n':i3 
nyn pD D^na nyi px a:nyn:y")^*3 ^ pD "^n o'^y^ dc«-ip 
pK jyoyj i>D .Diyinnyo Dyn ps •^'^i^j^a px o^>m^-inyo 
12 DMK n^^nns^ os^q :i<!D-Di3^^n*ib* lyi T{< ,m:ni^n yiyrr.« 
]m:)ü\^ 6 PK ü^^niK yanjyi^o^^: ]v^:)^^ 6 : [yn^iD*^ 
PD ,:y'?'>^ 6 D^-.K tD3SD ispni^nB lyi t;s ; tD^^nns-nny.o 
üB^yn y-in:K n pk nyo^mK oyi \^ too^p db'^.vt p^k y^^y^i 

.tDD^^ÖltJ^Btfp Dyi 

a3iv*i^piKö n D:ytotj^ny tyt53Kit2i$3 ly^yii i^d 
«i^^K 12 PS nyr-'DtJ' k ,3i>*D-Dü^"'ni$< oyi po 
-iKf 5 jiD ^1^ nnyo dc'U oiyii k D>n» 0^2 iy .|y-T:^DK^ 10 



65 t'ns D'JiB DniJ "i;;t I'k jisnywj; 

nj<D y:nj<n n .2 pimk ir^^t^ 3 pd d^«d D-iyinnyo nyi ,4 
Dyi w y^vi^35^i3 pn oiyu^on^^ dmi: pu pD jjnyij^o 
D1V lyo^'isM-ieis ^n üi^n ny : DDötiP'tD^un» "lyi ps ü"iyii 
^n "ly to^e:n-i{<3 ü^^n ,3 ii* 3 mi i32i$iP"0^un>$ nyn ps t:"iyi> 
DJMiya üEi$-ip-t:^^3-)i§ lyi pd üiyn lyi .3 iv 2 ^^i nnyo d^: 
-inyo TtD^D ^^^^:-i^*D pt< .n .n »onn: nyivDK^yi p« nssnyi 
tDDpfcüii "ly .yrs^ytn D3^^^a oma yüi^i>*D38 p^r D:n »tDiyn 

.2:3 nn« 3:3 pD 
-00^^318 oyn Mö 3:iVT^Pn8D^"T 
.iy::i:j>n5§n y^ynyjya ^i -lyiDJi« :^ü 
tD^^PD::y)tD*^y::J? n piX loci^np yiVDpn^iJns n ly^i dd^m Di;?i 
Dyn 121K Dyi ^mk ütj^5> »yiu^ym lya^^^n D^^ms nyn pD 
-ü^^mt^ y:n:y^^D^i: n k^^q!d p« D2»ip-ü^ui8 PD onyn 
üvi PK t:>u"iS""inyD n dvi^p^üid n .ünyi:ynj<s:oiK d^^v 
•^MK i:^fc?D Diyii-inyo üvi PQ oni: nyn ü^d .üiyinnyo 
,DDi?"ip-tD^^n-)fci; nyi pD D>in2-Dnyii nyi i^ :^>:ytD^yn"!»2 pn 
PQ T>n3 Dyi :n:ypm5t^-ii§ n^^j .ya^n^yrn Dn>^^3 yD!?yi^ 
"•BSP in tD^J^ii D^nrüiyii nn>x nyo^i^' t32s-ip-t:^''3-i8 in 

ly^ypo:)» iyt3D>^fe?tD''3fc$P n pD ni:ytD ya>5>:nyny: y^s 
-nfe?3 n Tfe? »nyii'D lyj^n :«t:-Dü^^mi$ Dyn ps j:iv"i^pifc?D "lyn 
lin \V2i^n rü ü^)) ,iyi:yt5*^DiN n lyt^^i« ni;;^ cd^p i:ivn^p 
:tD-inypifc?D ist n t^« ü^-'Pd^^pimi lyi p« nyn ,iyoijy:3iji 
PD tDyüMVD:yt:rx pN üyD^iVDpnj^^s nyn px :jnyijy is 
PD a:i^")>p"iSD nyi isd ^vn^^^ "lyiy^iüjy cd^p D^^ms lyi 
.in^K '^}^i Dpy-in lyij^ :i^D-Dt:^^3n8 Dyn 
-IS Dyn MD ajiny2:y^nsD s ^"-i 
üDps^^ ,iyiJitDti' 14 Pi>^iS 12 PD lyr^n:?' » ,3 i>* ö - D ü ^ ' 2 
-y:y:iv lyi^iütj^ 2 n jyn ,4 <^^1N :r^^tj^ 3 pD ü"^,yirnnyD nyn 
nyn .cD^^stD^DSP r^SD tD^^n-is""inyD \v:i''t D^^nis ly^yn 
PD DM-13 n nyn »iros^yT p« toi^t^^ons üdpsti Diyinnyo 
-ns t:nyn:yisD'oi« ton^^^n DDsnp-ü^^ms nyi pD üiyii Dyi 
.4:3 ^^^« 3:3 PD ,iVDS^yT ü^SD 1y2^; ,üi!'{j{D 
ast5-Dü^>n"is nyi ly^^y^i p« ,t^pnt^nD-tDiyii ny-i >^i ^its 
,3^itt^ cyi l^D 3:ny3:y^"iS2 "lyn ü^tD ddps^i ,ikd "^n DH'iDK' 
nnyo nyi ••« ,üDS"iP"ü^^nis nyn i^d r^ns nrt ^« »yi^^n iy3i>*p 
-D^: nyii? lyD^^^a s p« ,tD^^v iy:>3^ynyT p!< lyopsn oiyn 
-3yD "lyanyi i^« dpikii ny^^to^^vj^^^i nyi t2K> -o^d nys^^^j 



nyn pD üyDMVD:yt:j>K -yDnyDy-i;nfe?D 8 ^^a n« :ii#D-Do^u"i^ 

nyn pD T^ns lyi i^^p av^D-DD^uit? iyD-iy;jy>i«D s d^d 
ün^^^n ^yrot^j D:in .tonyii in^x nyoj^« iy?fc;D iD2»-ip-to^>n-t> 
üiymi^D nyi •lyrtDJi'yj i>^2« t^i< lyii;! ü-iy-ijyij^DDiN iy 
iDM^ ,iyp:yny3 i>d mi ,DVb*^y:i tonyii D^snp-tD^^^n» ny-i ps 
.ly^üiDik^: Dyn üm^ "lyiJ^ ny^n lyD^^D^JtJ'D-in ly^j^oit^: in^« 
lytDDötsya^v cyi tan^ p« ,iyt3^>ni8 ayi pD nt#nyQ-D:yny> 
T^K Dy M^ ,3juy^iti;n px ly^j^totj'-D^yny^ pD ryJioi« ly^b'Qii^J 
lyoM^y: s iv fa ."n^i^j nyD^^tj^jyo lyn i^üd iy*jDJ^Dy;ji# 
,tDDfe§ip-D>^ms nyi pD ::iV''JS{^ yDiyoym^D n ij^p t:p^iB 
-Do^uni? PD ::ny::y^ij^D s P2 iy^>^DDi^ tD^: "^n ür?^^ Di^^i 
-lyn^N lynj^ .pi^ pyDy-i:i t? •^m lyiyi^ iy3>^;yjD^iN ,}i^ü 
m^} y^» tfc§ ^^yjiJ' ^^t{s* nyt:^"'n"iy; Dyi pD 3:5n*>:is{^ n ddps^^ 
/UDnN-iyi^ii DyT pN y2{<:DM« ^.yi jid iy;!:i;:n5<3 y^öiD 
3jn>:i^^^p:iD px i^''Vpn»^iEyi pD iy::i3jn^D y^t:oiJ<!j y^s 
lyi pQ T^ns nyn .^-lytotj^i^: lyiy^i on^ip-D^ui» ^yi ps 
,t:i^D5iti^DDpy Diyi^ n lyD^yii p« ,^^§"13 in px ldd^ip-d^uis 

.i^nD^^^^i^a pn ^v fi-'i« jynyn 
*iy>n n ^« |yii ,>^d nvi lyoD^iD^a D'^y^i^; n^oj^^ (n 
-jyt::"'« in>K ^K ,DDi?-)p yivDpnj^iD in>x ^k ,t:^^ni» lyi p& 
-'tj'ifc?Q "q^^^yo lyj^n ^myn j^d^^vs^"'^:) ^n pynjy toy^nvo 
^i?3 iyt:3fc?"iDfc?3 lyvnip px t^i ly^yii n^D .Dy^^;8:^3ci^P yjyn 

,y^yD y:^D3>ii >n^» 

nyivüpnj^is iyt5"iyjy^pni?Q {$ ]vm) >?i lynyi i^o lyii 
,iymiv-t:^^m» yj^n{< pt^ i^d iyj^^>D »o^^m^ nyi ti£ üct^np 
-ü^"-!-!« "lyn po tonyii oyi |yQ^t:tj^^3 IyDpn^;?n^ yny^>T dj^ii 
» PD toöip Di^^'n ,^y^5t^^^3 D^v ,3:ny3y^pi^*D ^r^ ; Dstfip 
n Dii^ii ,pDiyi PK ryi?<fn pD D^^p"i^3L?DnD nyb-iyjy^pn^s 
:i;?D-DtD^>3n8 ^vi .^v'^V'''^ "^ly-'D^ lyiy^i |yöp^^nrIy"^^53 
t^« üpni^iD-onyii pn px -)y3nJ^t^t^'-l2 i^ t>« ,fy3«t i>?3j<i^ 
n» nyn pD nix^in n dik t^nnyp pDnyi t^s^yn 5< r'a:^^^^ 6 
.üiyinnyD Dyi d*»!« toD^c tDD^yn V'^vi:^ n ,tD2»np-ö'^2 
|y-i:iüK^ 6 PK ID^K Dyi fin« «nn o^sdiv at?D^DD^^3iK iy^ 



&7 T^nB D'j^ö Dvnji -lyT ]i» iiMvi:)} 

V^3?i^D p.K ,::^>^K^ 4 n^K 3 pd dd.n;-,p-d^ui45 lyi ps Diyn 
nyi n^'.N .lyiJiD^j^ 8 ^Mj< 6 pD ü^^rD^^2-u$ y;njynDnj n 
-n8"inyo n o^^ia is^-i ,ti-iyijyiii:Dci&< Da^^^n :i^d-dj:^u"i8 
2 n^ife< 3 PiD — Diy^rinyo "lyi »ly-ijitoij' 4 ^^ik 6 ps t3^^3 
2 «i^iK D"iya:y^-i5<3 D-iyn :j^LD-Dt:^^n-ii5 lyi n^^x jjO^k' 
nnyö n oa^^^n \^i ,iyi:iü^ 14 pin« 12 pc .n .i ,|y-T:iöB^ 
DMna pM ly^j? ^ar^^i:^ 3 Diyinnyo nyi ,iyijiDtj^ 6 o^^m» 
•Di^Qy^ /jD5$ip-t:^^mj^ nyi p2 t^nyii div ^^^^riSiD pK d^sd 
jj^ü-DD^-'aist "lyi \V)) .D^u"5i: iy;n:yiii3n: nyi "Tin \vo 
^lyijrjK^ 16 Fints* 12 P2 ,iyi:it3K^ 4 ^imk Diya:y?iN3 tDnyii 
PK Diyirnny»:) p2 iyDMi:i y^y:}^^vn^si;?-i3 n lya^^'rn Ifeüi 
-jy^^ö^: px t:^^3nb*"inyQ ps ,OD5?:ip-D^^3ns "lyn ps D-iyii 
PQ 0^13 yt2i^{^D2^ n ny2{^ ,tD^y-:y-i^*2»DiK ,ü^>318 iy:in 
nyn pö D^n: n ,2:^^^tJ^ 4 nn« 3 p2 DDp^*n onyinnyo oyi 
Va n^i« .n .1 ,iyiJitoti^-t3^"»mb* 8 «^MN* 6 112— ü^^ziöfinyo 
nyivDpni^i» "lonyjy^pi^a ^* ^^3 .üjyvj^i» 33i-j lyis? 
-lyra^yT-.yi i^t< :i:ny:jy^-i^*2 » px ü^^ms "lyi PQ tDrsn? 
0^113 yüi^i<tD3St n ,üv DD^^n ,ii<!p ,a{>*D-Di:>^nni§ oyi pa ü^^^ 
ni^2>^")S pM nyn ,Diynjy"iJs:2o"'.fc< lya^'-^n t3iyir-iny»D nyi p2 
lya^^^n i^p dmi: ypyjj>*^vnN*£j^-i2 pn ; ü'p^-i D^n3 y^y:^>*^^ 
n» lyi p.N ,DDPi!:n D^n: yDi^j^tons; pn nyn ,üiyi:y-ij<£oifc< 
-iny»: yö^D n >s< t^* ,^iTb* lyny^i oiyjy^pifc^a ij>*p :}^t:-DD^^n 
ossip-D^^niK "lyi piD toiy^i nyi iv y^viJ^iBi^ns in^t^ ^k ,üiyii 

.iyDP5<ii yi'^ii iy^i#t 
-IV jyn ,D3>nnyi ny^y^ti' ^i^: t:-iyii tD^^t^^nyi "lyi idj^ 
-:ytD3>« in^K ^^^« tDoptsii D^^nii? nyi pd ijy5> nyn tD>D ^^^^a 

.tjytDnvD 
-:yr^üK' n lynt^n 1815 V2 1799 ps ^c'q-ö^^v Dyi pN 
t( ü^^iny^o^o -T:i?^::y px ly^to^o-D^yay^» n pD lyr^na yi 
,pi^-ü^^n"ife? "lyD^^piMi nyi ^it^^i^^i^ ,3:nyDyn-pi^ v^v^cofn 
ii-WD ivi .ly^fc^syj T^N ,iy^D>D-Djy2y^ px Dpmy:DnK 
p:8i » ovio^^^yi p« üi^i^Dnb* lyopiüiiya lyity: i^n r^x oiyn 
-y3 lyi pt< 10^^3-15? "lyi pa t:yoMVD:yD:^« lytDiyDyny: -lyi 
K yD^yn D^D ȟ^^v-o^^nifc? lyi i^d ::ny:3y^-ie;D ny:y:3^i<iiv 
•\yo^^3"iöi n p2 ::^onj#"ifc<D fc? pN ^fc?t:^2etp pa dpiki^ iv'>v:^ 
lJr^1 »ii^nya nyn jyuya vk dijst .e:Kn p« öjbh iy::»:yi vt/i 



jJu^D3y-iöia i;DDyD s lyjijtnpyj 

lyrn^ynyi p« "^^ö; yi^u \Vi>v\) DyD^irojyDJ^« ynjyop^n 
jynyii di^ii ,iy^P^D"i8i vom n lyrnyonsa yn^u jj^ddh 
,oy OD^M ,iy^-i^p-ifc§D yi^u .d^"»^ "lyjy^yjya 5$ p« ön^xnj#-i9 
IV DDMnnniüQ "lyD^unj? nyn d^^ii ,2{;fiü-DD>un^ pD !?^>d nyi 
-jyn .Djy^jsiriipy ny^n nyii^ ly^D^o-ojyny^» yj^n lyn^vnj^ia 
-»n ^^Dn üiyn ji^D-Dü^u-i« oyi pD ryjyna iyt:D:nyio 
nya^yii ,Dyr^T ^^^D-ub^toK^sn lyron: oyi di^ "nm dd^ds:' 
:i#iD-DD>^3n» iyvjfe?a nyi |yn .ly^-i-ipisa ny3i<t "^n üt{#> 

-nfc$S D^l^ll »^^-iD Dyi Di;? 1)1 V2 \Vli^))V:i Dt^nVIKD D>i^l1 

-:iN '^l^^iyDDiK T^K Di^i^ ,D^^nn8"inyQ n [yit^iiy; lynj^Ni^s^ 
"•BSiP "lyi psj aJirD^ntiin n .^fc?D^sj$P pa ü^'myi oyi nyo 
lyp^riK^ötn iv onn^iny D^i^n D"ii<iD-D:i^^vpni^n3 nyti'^öD^^^D 
lyni? .ü^^ro^uns nyruyiiD^u iyi tjMJ? ai^tD-Do^uns ayi 
-^1 jyn^^^n lyijyüt^'D^N y^nya^« n n^x ,^S2 Dyi px i^>2k 
in^K t:^nsK^y:DMN ^mn ü^^v yanjy^iD^ij n d^:^ii ,yrn>yr 
-jnsrD^y^y^ D'iyD^>a"i5§ Dyi ^^••n ,ü^n p^« pa .Dyjifeüa 
lyny^ pa iy::inyiJ^a vy'>^ m ny^^n lyij^i^y: lyD^i^ii lyjju 
nyrDv^s lyi pa ^>^d s ^^^i^ ,D^n nyu» lyn pa nyoynj 
.tD^nn» "iy;njyiiDnj "i^a V):v:iV'\Vi ^n D^i^n D^^nn^-nnyo 
IS lyasB' >v i^üMJ lyiiy: o^t^^i ot^i^ ,D^m» n t^k di^t p« 
.i:i;?a-D;:i^ofei:TJi^ px -inyiyn lyD^^DaKt^^yrya 
18 lyi pa Dasnp yivtDpnt^ia n iddps^^ oy nnyo Di^n 
p« ,|yiyii Dvn^'^i^a :i?tD-Dto^^n-i8 lyn t^P "»nyo r^s ,ü>^i 
|t^p inyD r^8 »üvn^pn^a Diyi^ :t^ü"DD^''m» nn inyo di^ii 
-^yry: oyn pa .lyophil tD^^m^ nyi pa DytJ^n^Djyürx n 
tDytD>iVDpnj^"ia n ddpj^ii ,DD»ito5^n t3piiQi:5$t}t5^ lyD^^üasc' 
-i?T n .D^ms jia lyii^stj^i^^K Dyn d-'d ^>ik d^^si» lyi pa 
-i^"iQ n pa 3:nj^5t^j^^K n n^^: do i^^n öd^^k' y>Di^:i^py yrr 
n» yTi;?^vi3 y^8 pa ajn^^Di^a n ^^i« ij^j jy^D^D-ojt^^vpn 
rvpnt^nö pa taii< nyti'^üD^^^D^Bi^p lyn nya ..jytD^^a 
-V3 ty5»ynM)nj*K tyiy^ I^k y^o^:i?py lynn^ö^vr^x »3rr.^ 



nyoMia ivi pi: piK' Diynyjsi^ »lyocyip-D^uie: p« ly^tD^D 
•■»K Dvyn lyj^n "lysi-iJ »üv^k a^D>u iy:^^r dj^it »oy^vp^ia ^i^v 
PD D£j<ip y^vt:pni^-)3 p.« oyünvDjyDJ^« n |yi^ j^D^^snya 
iyD^^tDD8:i'5>yTyi pa ^^^d nyi t^x ,dö^dk^{$3 |y:^^T tj^^ais nyn 
-1^-13 ny^ynyüfcüD in *i^d :n:yiiD>u t^x dj^i^ ,ai#o-DD^m8 
Dijfn ,5»^^D nyi ^^^j^i^D p« ,nyv-i^P ^y^D Mt» c^mk ,V')i:>\i 
-ipoD5<K^5'yry: p« "iy;'DD^>:i ,"iy^nD nyi ij<d cnyni^-iy onyii 
,'iyDy"i3 ^jy^a ^its n^ix t^>? ]::'?v)::'^^ n p3 tD^>p:^t3yD lys 
y^» jytJ'Mi!; D^^^ünj^D lyroy^D^^^a t^k D^^nn» n ^y^DMi ^^^k 
5'y^D^i^ 51^1« PK »DSfeü^j'^yty: nyi pD nyi^^;tD^D yaMyE-o^^m» 
PD lyDii^TiBJ^nj« li^P DCj^^^yTy: nyi p2 ds^p p^k nyrjyi^ 
5)^1« >T lyDiöti^QMnN pK ts^^Dis nyi ps tDDs> yD^^i^os: n "qn 
D'jiE ::i:;n^'?"ib:D nyn n»ö YV^vn nyDi^^D2$$ "in .ynn:» 
-D>^n"i^ V2'''^vi'?^ n ,li?3 3:it:Dn "lyi i«: ,t^« :j>*a-Dü^^3")8 
lyDfcü'^y: t:nyii tDDfcüK^^yrya ny:i'^üD>^»D^25<P "lyn px .od>^d 
-Djyny^ yvjfe?3 n d^^i oyn ^in ,d{?^p p^« nsa d>>v yns 
.o^^v*tD>^3i8 PK o^yiJKinKD oiyii lyo^o n »is o'^v 

.ans;!!—«!};» tib j;tD«n n 

in D^8 lynyii üpmyao^^N ij^p tDnyiinnyD pn yo^ii n 
-ns lyn ps üiyii oyn iv tDiyirnnyD Dyn pa D^:o^yn-iK5 
lyi D^s nyii^ ,^fe?t3>s^*p ly^ntitnK'n oyi iv nnj^ ,üi:K-".p-D^>3 
.t:^''m^ "ty:n:yiiDM: -lyi i^; D^^mj^nnyo ny-i ps D^Jü^ymsD 
tD3''^^:n»3 ,Dnnypnfe?D ,y^Di?jJ^py ytj»^D^^i^9 y:T8iK^rnn n 
-j^ns iyvJ83 DyT PQ tDtyii Dyi d^d oiyir-inyD oyi nyo^K 

•opn 
Diyii Dyi PK to^iyirinyo cyi ly^ytaK^ivii^o ij^cyo nyi 
üPn>^i3-DnyTi nyi ps ly^^^D-^na ni üCMnp-e^^ms nyi pD 
PD D^inK D:3y3nyn^K ddp^i^ "lyDf'yi^ ,ir:iK-D3:pyü6j'-it?3 k— 
-"•ns^n pn d^ii ,Kt:ia iQiK-D^^^vpnj^ns jyt^^üD^^Kü^BKP nyi 
|y2^>3''vysD nyi DpynnKC — nytoyst^ lyt^^i^D-in» "^n Dyii ::iü 

D'J13 tJ'MüD^IK Dyi .n .1 ,m3^^ty-f'»tD^3NP nyi p.D "lyt^PKIKD 

on PK tD3einp-r)^^n'iK ^yriy^y^ '^yi t:^t5 ^Kt5^3»P ly^sKnjsMi 
•31^ .üpnij-iB oy"» riß nyo^^Di» on lyo^^u^D^*»« jyo^^a^^i 



HD i>>6? *ij;k^5kq "lyT omis dpid »dpks ivs^^pn^i^ cyn ü^^kjk' 

yny^n pa no^^tj' nyi t^n^ üpntjtns Dyi d^d ^n iy;?^>LD^v üd'»^ 
y^»» M^ MT» .Dpnijna Dyn ly^j^ti' pN iy-ii?L5pfc?£) yjyi^^t^^-iijD 
-Dj{^^vpn»^"iQ lytJ'^DD^^^D^ö^P üvi pD lyon^'iD yD^ypmDJi>* 
n ^>^-i^üs: T^K ,y^Vi§nysi>*j^P i'iB \Vü^i^t \Vj''i oyvj^nD 
-'»DDOJ^JSDJs jyD^^D^tDjy:^^« ny^n inyi-iJs^Q iv "qj^r ytooDD^^^ 
-Dii^^vs^vt^Ds y^nö pK ^n ly'ji^oTj^nöt p« ny^Pön^D ly&i' 

.lyanJütD 
-njy^iüMi lyi ii' ü^msnnyD lyn pa D^Jt3^ymj:$2 nyn 
o>ito^yn-i83 "lyi 0^55 ly-iy^i t:pmy:D^ix "q^i« I^^p D'-m» -yj 
nisi lyo .D^uiüi iyD^i^v82 ))s D^''m5§ ly^t^v^^n^i« ps 
^ n OD^^P DD^^fc?:3>2^P nyi t» ,iypjyiya -lyio^x ^unyi lynsjj 
lyi p2 ciyii Dyi "ifc§D D^j^v^a px Ds^ip-D^^nns 
öQ^Dts' ,D^j^^ -ly Di^^i ,T^nB nyi ^y^D^i t]^iK ,0D»ip-D"'^3-if$ 
-y^ "lyi nyn^K m^n oyi ly ddipj$i i^siyi .iD-iyn Dyi d^o 
-ni^i iy"i pD :3iD^:yrro pn .kdi: üD^iP-D^ms ny:ny3 
PD "^^ü px .jyii^nyQ ^^iiv t^t< t:^fe?Di:; t^s^^np-D'^n-iö: iy:i 
"ii^j T^« Di^ii ,tDiyii fc5 ny^m» nyi üi^vn}^-i3 ij^nys p>« 
^üD^^SD^söip "lyi ,tD2{$np-ü^^n"ii$ pn pa Diyii oyi 1^ tj^i^:i 
-"!{$ nyi P2 T^n3 iyD:iy^y:DM« cyi i«2 üoipb*n ,Dy dd^-'H 
,üinypi»Q .T^n2 ly^^n^ytoyi pD Dpn5>*^s 5$ Dc^ip-ü^'-n 
i]n ps a:iD^:yrri: n üq^ij' üiy^rnnyD pa n^nys Dyi px 
üDJ^p nys^yii ,tDD^^8io^S5?p oyi nj<D Dnyi^ » tos^t-ip-D^^nn» 
3iiDyaD^'iK n t:^* üanp ny .ü:y^{$iiM"ipy-Loiyn V'^p d--: dh^^^ 
-inyD n ii;^p pt nyn üj^ px .toon^six D£^~ip-t2^^ni^ nyn pQ 

"lyi nyn^K yi^x^i^p n ns^: d^j lynnyi r^« ^st^^s^p lyi 
lyn "lyn^« yi:isr)i^p n tyü^:y3 tDjna t^x t^n oy .D^^nis 
-ysD "lyD^iyTi p« »Diynnnyo iny^ .tD^^mfc? nytD^j<tv»n^i« 
Tt ^i?T ny—.ii .» .« vo:V) ,w<)i: ,ü^2t^i5— tD^isiDJ^'y; ny^y^i? 
njüD » '^h: Dvy pn ün^ t^K ,tyin^3i<öDnpD^ns d^j nyt:y£c> 
pa tDynpyo nyi .ö^^Vü^^nis '^yt3^^<lv^?2fD1^? p2 :jnys*iyp 
,Dyn PN ^>iN "^n tDT^'>> t'^ü^ssp pa ;:iDnyin«5t:Dn:5yT lyi 
yo^i^VöiSDi« D13D lytDD^üti'KD » nw^ pn px üj^n ny Di^n 



^"ta nytaopyt 

"IS nvi ps T>n3 D^» pi^ D'iytD^uifc? ÜV1 D>n8 ^n üt^^ii 
fe§ 15^2 D^j^vy^ ü-iyi^ DJ^ii ,to^yi didd "iyD!2^D5i^fe§n yt— 12^^3 
nyi pD Diyii Dyi ly^yn üiyn |yo .D^^ms dod iyoD^i:K^83 
ny;)njyi^t:n] ir;^« \^ \v^ D2n pmo^is-D^y: pn px o^^a-i» 
lyjy^i lyo öiyn D^n iyi:öt "lyi ps .r^ns ly^^^n^tsfe?: lyii^ 
Di^^i »lyi^ns jy^yii t^D^^n Di^i ,d^^dis nyi ps lyr^ns-p^tjo 
.T^ns iy:n:y^it:>iJ "in>t< ny^^nx nyn^^ lynn» ^^t ly^y^ij^a 
? miHD fc§ pD oiyT) Dyi n^D fyiDDyD di^ii ^nn "lyntii 
»"•ir^ii ^11 .nn^K pK Dr^ oi^)) »tD^^nifc? lyn ?id dm"i3 nyi "^")n 
n» iy3nJitD{j>-12 » pD ^y^Eti^^^n div tsnyii nrr \^P ,i?r^8 
,|ynjiDiJ'-D^m» 12 n "^nn ? üo^ütJ^sn ty"iy^^ ai^t^-Dü^^D 
—lyijiütj^ 12 pQ :j^o-Dü^^n"i8 it? pN lyD^snto:» ly^^n Di^ii 
jiED ::i'iTn'iyn^« i» mi inyo ü^j t^« n^wn v^ti^i n Di^n 

.n^KK^ nyn 
»nnino 8 ^ii pnfc?o Ten« tyiyi^ od>^pi85 |y:i^p iv na 
nis*3 Dny^i n nyi^^K ,iy^"'üDnpy d^jq ^3 ^y tD^^ms n no 
lynyj üjt^pya in^« ü^^ti ,"iyDi^ ^nyo^^ms nyn lyii .üq^ip 
üCMp-isD "^i^T ny t3^i^n löti ,VJyöDnpy yri^yt^K^üDn^yr » 

lytspym 8 ü^i^^i ,|y3in2K^nyi>^^ n tD>^ ps pyryjsi^ 
"'ivnv'? n*»!« tD^''n"i8 "iyt3'in''^8yi ps .n .i ,D^y3 ps ti^^itDo^i« 
,«E"ia y^vpn^'hs y:j^^tDD^^8ö^BNp n DD8:^y35>ft ,t:>^m8 ^v: 
-Dro^^sns "lyn .D^mK-pi^ lyn n^t« ünsya üpyin t>x v:i'>v^'\ 
-ü^yj 8 px ^y^BtJ'^^3 D1V nxD -^n ü^ytDt^ jyi^it^ti^ 12 pQ ai^ö 
tyiiy: ü^«ii ts^^m« pn pc t^ne nyn jrf'^ti^ 6 ps enyii 
lD■l^^^^^*^.Q ^^?D üvi p« .epn«nE3 pn po T^nQ cyn iv *i^>^3 
n D''''n"i8 pn p2 '^v^'^'^i^ Dyn 1x2 »'•m^nnyo p^P d^: ny 

61 



cyi pin« .Duni^^ni^E: y^vpnj^is nvtj'"'DD^>fc;LDis^P nyi 
T>« ü:n: Dyi pi^^n pi< d^uiöi pn ny üqmp-iüid lynt^ mo^ 
lyij^üiJ' 12 -ii$D toDiPsn ny lyii^ .ü^uis-pii» D^un» pn 
"lyi^^« ny;oyii dd^\i Di^n »ar^^c' 6 nyi^^K ny:^:y^i d^ui» 
tD^möt lyijiüij' 12 TS ,D^i« tDQip Dy .D^ms |ynjiDK> 12 
-211^: .D^m» wi^^ü^ A) .8 .N 6 ,10 n^N D^iN -nn lytJ^^iD 
n ii?: t:o ^ünD pk lyo^na yD^^^a p^p ö^j ^us ü^ jy^yDtJ' 
tjit tDnyD65^i5^ Dfc^^i ,"^n^t^nyT1^ fc?r8 .p^^s Jj^o^Dti'ytrDiyii 

*DnK Dyi lyin^DDMiö! ly^yn iv do n^iyö t^^p t^« oy 
nyü:iK Dyi pD o^^nns ny:^jyii ^imn D^^ms ^r\vü pD k^md 
-:» n PN tD^uis yt^in^^syn t^k yr^N Di^ii »dii^q ]^n n^^u' 
-•yi rjnJiK inyo "^i^: t^n dj^i .»•»ms v:^''^v^v'> t^n ynyn 
^in tDD^DtJ^i?3 D>: Diyii nnino n ps tDiyn nyi Di^n ,nfci!D 
,r-iyöiypiii!D in^N p« "q^^piMi t^n D^n ,tD^^ni» didd Dy? 
njyiitD^ij p« ü^^^ »t^^'-ms lynyny^ di:)d Dyn "rin ij^j 
-iD^^m» 6 ni^2 ij^-n d^vd^ mino » .yvpnt^ia "in>N ii?D 
n yD^yii Tin jyjjnj^Qiy DD^oya ly-iyii oy n^i« .tyn:iD2' 
IC ti^iK D-iyii nyi D^SD ,iy-i:iD{i' 3 px lynyi^ t)i^vni#i3 \^p 
"^'wvi üi^vni^nB V)^ T^N DJ<!ii ,minD nyi ps i^^a« Da^yn 
nynno Di^ii lot^DK^::^ ,\vi:^t2^ 3 ij^d üv>n D^you^ n .lyn 
PD D^na n .d^^din yD^^DQi?K^^yTy;i yjn:y"i'tt:"'ij lyi^inK^ 6 
.ü^^nn» D1DD ivi Tin DQ^DJi'sn ,Dy dd>\"i ^Diyii iDnyi^ m^« 
•"•^»yn iyi "nin d^j »y^vpini^ins in^x nb*D "^n tDiyij>*Q ü^\) 

.tD^"'mi? nyi p2 Dn^a ivov: 
-nniHD rs^iN Dm» iDy-iD '^y^?nsn-t3^y:l oyi iy:iypto::8 
nyn DJ^ii .lyD^uiJ? nyi nt^: »ü^un» n oo c'^dp^q pns.o 
pn ^11 '?v:^ MT8 .toQnp'to^^nns pn i^n .oE^ipifc^D nyü^^ms 
-ya IV DiynyaQMN V)^ n toj^n ^i^? "^^^pini -qn d;ijs3 ü^^m» 
.iy2^iP"ii5?D D^i "^TWü -ly^nyi piK^ n i^p ny .dh^n iv tynyn 
p^^» iy3J? »lyonyii n pQ dj^d n p« Dvy lyn t^n tD^^ni» n 

int? D:nfc?ny: oj^tn v^'oi^^^pv v^'>t:i^'i>^B ytsit^'nu n 
t^nö„ tin3sn Dyi ]V2V'? ly^^^^yo^N oyn ^-in p^onp iyiyto^"»ii 
tsijt t:wj >iT» ">)) ,iy:y"i3 iv "^^r '^«nyT nD /'D^^ni» lyi pD 
'V^^v n T» ,tnyTy::''^N i!?Nn toj^n n ? ü^^t^K^Na r^ns lyi 
PD T^na Dy-i y:ii:)n ivWpp^v i^^:i^i^ piN y3«nD3J^3 pD ly^^n 
n ^11 t3^:n}?a inyo »nnino nyijN lyny^ y3i:n •«ii ,tD>^s"i» ^y-? 



n yj^^K lypyi y:8*iD3i;?i n \)h üi^2:i^ nyi nnK .dmi: nyo 
lyijyotJ'DiK n jyii ,:j^pJönii5'-T^n3 n um« D"iyn ,yiyi:8 
y:ünDDi#j lyny^Piy isn nyai# .yrn^yrn oyn nn « jya^^J'a 
yii?-iDDi^: lyii ,ü>^3"ifcii nyi ps t^ns nyn .D;j'>:ni;?a ü^2:^ px 
üjjyn Di^ii ,T^n3 "lyD^^i^cs: nn^K ?>« ^-^n lypyi ü^2:i^ pK 
-y: Dt^n ]VQ "lyii^t .oi^n:^^ Dyi p« y:5?nD3s^j -lyi p£. st^ o^: 
,rns-pni§D pa iyjjip:5§TiK' n ps ^i^^^iv^ \'\v::]J'> K lyo^J 
^^ns nn^K ts; ,iyjiDy:DMX oijn jyo p« ,nni^> k ^y^QK^^^a di^ 

.Dnirö^JK'^in IV'PVO'D K IV P3 D>1« "nn ID3^>>J Bi#-18 p.K 

-'>^: Di^w ,|yj:nyi:y v^n't< nyn^^K ,idi« ^.yi:ei |s ^m« lynyii 
nyn^K ü^ivn ü^)) ^i^ns lyi Dij{ .dmk •q^^D^*K'3-in ^n lya 
: >n D'T'^'i^yn pK ü^^di» nyi pd iyr>nB-p-ie;'o ]f:'>^vn)'i n 
ean ü>od dj<i» mi ,0^^315$ -lyi pa "r^na nyD^^i>ö8J^ nyi 
t>« üi^)) ,üiyi^ nyi ij^j »nmno yin:8 ^u mi ,pn |i#p ,Dy 

.D^'yj pK üpmy3D>i« 
TK »tor^oya v^^i^^i^PV yi^^ü^^'t^a n öt^in lai« oyi n^^.x 
nyn pa lyr^na v:'''?v^'^)i n Tin iy3:n"iDin ly^j^p oy^^ n 
T^N D"iyii iy:nj^i nyi .tony^ nn>K iv lyo^piv p« D^^ai» 
n Tin lyiJ^iiya Do^üc^fc^n ,nrnnD v^Vi:^ ^^3 mi ,nyo^Mi ikt 
-DJ^p-DJi^^vpni^ia n iy:^n di^i^ lyni^: .iyDDJ^p-D:i#^vpnijtna 
-nfe§ Dyi nD ,iy:DDi>*p n üd^m ü^i ^nyo^^ans DyT pa—iyD 
-^D^-Kiiöin IM tDi^n y:{§ia n üj^ ? lyn^vm^na iv «ai: nyD^o 
n D^D D>ii^r. ,y^Di>»:{^py nyc'^D-^'i^a nn topinynyö:-!« n^> 
^n n üj^n yD^yts: d^{$ o^^nns nyn pa iyt:Di^p-D:i^^vpnt;?nB 
,"l^^:^j?a .tDn^ p2 ^iM Dinnya tD^: px r^np p« tDnymya 
lyi pK T^« ,D^^nn8 ^y"i pa ünyn nyi lyany^^i^s tot^n n oi^n 
ei^üonpy o^)) ,t:a^np-D^^ms "lyn pa oiyn lyi iD^^pa^5>piMi 
Mtiü Dpr.a T^K p« ,nyt3^^n-ij§ Dyi pa ü^^p3>^:ynya nyi pK 
r« pi^'tüo ^5 Ml ,ü^uiK lyi 11a ,y^vp:ia nn^s pa |yi^"'K^i8a 

.Dy^v^nyaii: v^r]'i^ pa lyi^^Jt'nKD 
-o^uiüi nyi pa t^na t^x D-iyM mi t^yr ür« n^oi^^ 
D^8 Dni^B nyü^yi:5<Mne:a ^v^'t px iJ>*a "qn ly^ytsK' öc»ip 

.pi^-Dö^'^n» 
t^x üaötiP"t3^^3i8 nyn pa t5nyinj>*ö "lyi t» »lyo^Mi vo 
,iy3y^ D'nyD^^niK oyn pa a:y^ lyoMiy:! » c^i^« ü:yayny:D>iK 
ji^ü-Dü^m^ nyi pa a^y^ yoMiya » D'D^ot^ oy iya5»yM ü^d 
üayiDKD :fc?t}-Dü^^3"i» nyrDyoo^\n:MKMy: in tk ,]^ ooyj 



"^\^ 3 ODfcitnp"D>^niK lyn po Diy^r;ii?iD nyn ti« Iin:ii:)t5' 12 
jy^ytotr Dy iyD>yii p« ,t3-iyii ^ pD pmDM«-ü)y3 nyi— jj^> 
3 oo^psa -lyo^une: nyi n^N •lyiJiD^i'-D^ui^i: ö n^^D ^n 
-0^^318 i^n PD Diyi^ üvi t:i:i''^P iy ts ,Dy dd^^h ^^j^^^k^ 
üi^ 3>i« .jyiJiüK^ 12 pQ "^tro pN j^toyD T>fc< V2'?v)'\ ,üD8np 
üpmy^DMK DV^is' üiy^i ODi^ip-tD^uni? lyi po D-iyir:j>'D nyi 
"li^D n liin ^n t^Dipj^n ,D>>n-i«-j{^D nyi pQ Diyn lyi d^s 
"lyi .:^^^6^' 3 iia onyii bi i:i^n id^uis iyi:iDK' 12 n : y^io 
Dyi I21K ^^y «^n« DD^Dti'^n DQ5inp-D^ui5§ nyi pQ üiyii 
-OMJ nn^«— ü^yj i^« t:pmy;DnN lyij^ ,tD^ui8 nyn pQ toiyn 

.T^n3 lyjnjyii 

»)M« ür>o "tD^^nis lyn PD Diyii„ pniDM« nyn ^ii ^n» 
n y "T y^DJ?j{<;py nyL^'^tD^>i>*Q ^yrsitJ'nn "lyi pD jiz'^ Dyn 
ünyoc'-isD ,tDD8"iP"D^^ni8 lyn pD üiyn 
-y>p pn rnjyüK^ tid ü>ui8 lyi pD Diyn nyi tj5 ,«^^dd ^n 
-ya LJD^^iütD^Dj^P nyi Dni^n ,Dpnj^is-Dnyii in>N nyi^^x lyj 
i^DM: T^K Dy ny-i^''« ,ny:ijy^ DDii;np-D^mfc5 n in:yt:ty DD^nn 
-no Dyi pK .tonyi^ oyjyr^x m^K pD y^vpn^^nD nyn n^iD 
Di^^i .DDünp-ü^uns nyi p2 Diyii nyi t^n ^y^Dty^n iy:niyn 
,ünyii 8— ar^^c' 3 »lyn^itDK^ 12 pD '^^ü p^? t:i>j{^>vpJiD 
in^N .lynjictr 6 n^^ lyo tn^^i lyn^vn^^is iv dh^x n^iN ü^)) 
ü^^PD^^Pn^ii nyi p« ^^mt ,;:>^^t:^ 6 iy:y:8-i t>k topm^ns-tonyn 
-ijtis-Diyii in^K P&5 ,iyi:it:ij^ 12 pD -^k^o pn >r d-i^j}^>vp:id 
,ö^^v lyn pD n{>»: ,cnyii nyjyr^N nn^t^ pD qj^ do t:i:i2vn dph 
•yn Dn id^n ayi ^mn ddip«3 jyo .üny>ny:i D^^nn» n Di^i^ 
-K3 .ai^^^K' 6 PD toiyii 8 DDfcütJ^ v:i'>V)^ ^ü^^ms r» ,t:8tD^n 

jr^^K^ 3 pD Dnyii j? Di^n 
lys^yii PN ^a^^^^K' 3 pd üiyii ly-i : "iyD^"''n lynyr n^o 
-DD^^m» Dyj PD ^^^D nyo^j^^^j^n iyi D^yati'ynj^tD t^n oy 
iyni# önyi^ d:»» tDr''iJ'ny ,d>ui8 ]vi:\^^ 6 n .n n ,:{v*d 
"lyD^y^i ,iy^^it365' 12 pD :i;fttD-Di:^>mb* w^:^^ nyn pD r^na 
-Dts^^mK Dyn PD Di{^D n .\vi:)Vi^ ytD^}<ivb*rLD>3 6 D^tüno:» 
:3i^^^üiv nyi pd iidi^ lyny^ d^n [din oyi ci^ix totj^y^ pi^ 
n^nnyo W »^•»n-iN *iyn:yiiün: tr»"!« :i<itD-DD^^m» d':id 
yvjsa n .iD^>nn» nyo^j^tv^rtD^: px •lyo^^v^n n^i« ,tD^^n 
•jyr^NS^^^ nyi pN .D^ni8 yt5^i^vN3 o'?^ ür^tj^ny d>>3-)n 
oiö lyjyr^«^''"'^ lyi dii^ii ^tD^-inn« n "^n ün^^tj^-iye^iN üd^ük' 
,r-iB i'iND ü^D ny D^ii ,t:>^2nfc?-::^iiv nyn pD ,p^^^ -^n ifc?D 
-tfi^pB' iyi p« .ri'ni^DD pN t^'inn ,d^>v pn px r^^i^D pN 



'd:v2V'? v:vy'i^ y:^n pd D^.yn Dyn Di« n«^: onyp t^iötppi^ lyi 
•^^'.K ,p^?^ ^M neiD tJ'^opöiD rov t2D>^T ,o^unj§ ny lyii ,iy?D^tD 
ym o^uiöt yv:«3 n .i'iyn pn n^D diu ly di^^i »D^'^n'.j^ ^n 
"ly ü^^Dis^pi^ "lyT pt< .D^ui» yt:?i<;^'srü^: d^s D:^^t>'*iy 
yü^^vfeün-oo nyiJ# ü'"'3"iinr.y,o n i?>-:k ,D"iypnj<D ,0^"'^' 
d:"i{^3-i{<d nn^"'5:^"DrL::y:^^K n .yopi^vötn n^ "q^K ü^^ai» 
niD^-'tj'-D^y; n ,j>^7« ^n 1552 lyD^^nii? d'd^^pk^ oyn lyDiJ^i 
.nyt:>^3n^-pi^ DyT p.2 lyü^'-möi conüi« dj^t 15^1 ö:ni>*ai83 
T^x Dy j^üDMi 'iJy-I^^:^'DJy ni lyD^n:«;^ lynnn iJ>*p lyo 
p« DD5inp-D^''D-.« nyi PD t^ns p« Dnyii ps :j^>-t:iinn^*3 n 
pa T^^"i2 p« D"iyn oy-i i-"« "lyii^ pvrü^^z-its^ i^s yoij^D "lyi 
--«2 y:37yii ^y^o-ir^'^-^ji^^^-^ny ny-; ü»^ n^*s .t<2iJ ü^^möi nyn 
,'^3"'n in^« "15^13 DMib* Dr^v pK no^^*^' y^^^pini n o^yoK' 
p2 ^11 lyD^^nns n p>2 ly2]l^ytDEJ'n^^*2-DD2y'^ y^{§ onsy: iy:^n 

-D>^^tD^55$P Dyi p.D Dy^n^^&5-Ü^M^^"i2 y^N ,iyDD^^fe5D^£3i?P n 

ytr''DD^^t$D^2i$P n p,2 v-^''^^s y^» ,i2"i«"D:$>*^vpnj^iB iysj'>D 

.iyüD^oi>*:i^py 

nyi Ml -".yj^^üiJ^ ly^-'iipyr p2>iN opjia ^^ij' pn^üs üijnyiv "ii>*D 
i? D>: ny2Mp lyi .nr.inD yny-;:^» y^s p,D n^pn^^s px n^'.P 
Dyay t^k ds^ii ^yp^D")j5 18— nyc^pni^D "lyi »yoiD-D^y: yoMiyj 
8 Dyi px tDnyr D{^*p nyi^'>t:Dnr lyn .t:^yj nyi^^« tj'iyi:» 
-ni^2-ür."i: ny^D n p« dmn "^^t topm ü^^^ ,?)^n ly^'ynyo^D 
n nD 2^: i^«„ : üryi"DPünD3i^P ly^^ts^n Dyi pa lyo 
n HD 1D T^5 ; I^ö üD^i>*T n nD no '^^k ; lyny: üd^^^ 

ti>r iyTi^5> Dnyiri^r.ny: ii« ü-yirs^ntD ni >nöt .lytD^^i 
DM« ü>j nynnyi ünyr ,")yiyi:« nyi d^d -;yj^^« lyDoyo ö'J 
nyi p2 T^nB -iyn„ /'ü^>n"i« "nyi pa DiyM ^n^ pmon« nyn 
;'5>yrib*3 pa t:-iyM nyi„ pmoM« on pa iyi^;j>nis*a "D^^ai« 
D>^M ,i.i^*oe^oi« lyi lijiJ ü^^P wiyi .*'5'yMfc?n pa t^ns lyi» 
n tsnya^^ya Di^n ny mi Dyiai^3 ü^i^v«n ü:np nytD^^nn« lyi 
•''^3"i{$ iy"i Dt^M /D")yM-^>n3y3„ nyi »i^^uy .ü^^m» 
öo D^^PT^pnMi lyn p« t>« ,t2D^^fe?t:^EKP Dyi üiya^^ nyo 
ya^^vo yco^t^K'Ka » ,ajn:yM:fc? -^n'»« nj^: »üasnp-ü^^nn« p^r 

.M .« .N Ü^^Sn^-pBK^ ,tD^^318-nyDD1K' ,D^^31» 

-.8 Din pa t5P3is"t?^*üi*' cy"T ^m« v^ ly^yttK* "^»o ly^ 
-^» -.yr-iröc'-12 "it: ^y^asr^a D^v öiaip»n ^5>ini »•ly»''! 



onyii lyn j:^^'^:^' 3 n pD >yL>>D-Pinp nyi tr>DPöt2. onus nfcüD 
vi^t^)) üv 3^iN T5? ,p^K DO ^i>*o:^^*5 nysnyi ünyr "ly .oiyii pD 
PK ,ü^^2i5< ",y-i pD 0-iyn nyi ^*,i "liiiT »rs D-i^oDMpy i>>p-im 
^5<o>bö:p V'P D7i?n ,üiyii Dyi dj^: d^{;^vö:3 ^^>pimi d:?i^ii -ly 
D^jynis^nKE oo ^t>*or^p t3>r^n ü^ya p^i px Di^öDMpy d>: 

.^»D^D8P pK iy-iJ^iiyi 
p^^-D^^n*!» üyn PD 3Ji:!y^^N3 y^^^piMi n Dr^v iviyn 
oo T^K Dy Tfc? ,:v^ PN lyr^^i^ets yD^yii ,iy::o^^t^'ny y^nts 
•in iN*3 »ü^tj^vöL D"::-. Dj>*ii .DDütnp-D^^nnö; nyi jid ünyn nn 
-;^r^tjny n i5>f .«di: d^uiö; nyn pD »^niay: in^N pc t:"iyi^ 
18 (1 -lyDs^p yo-'n: ^miv px ly^^^ör''« vo ]v:i$P m 
üvi p.c 3:y> "^.yts-iy-ijyyj "lyi d>d pi^'-D^^ms pD 33nyn:y 
lyoip Vi:i^:>Vi 013 nr» DP:i9 lyni^ t:^{^ii [yo ji^D-OD^^aiK 
i^i ,pir8o nyi pD Diyn cyi üo D^i!?vi<n lyo t» ,di^c» dii; 
IV nnyo üDt<;p oy Dnj^^.i ,Dy^vfciny3{>' y-in^x po tDiy^i Dyi 
lyn (2 .3i>*D i^^N n^iK iyi^\s ^-^j^ii 8 ''i^i« p*j'^*o 8 |y::n 
n» y:y^^^;^'■^5?2 pD nn^Dti' n p« "r^-itr-iyü^iN ny^yn^imr« 
-oyn lyrsy: "i>o .ü^^nis v^'pv*'^ "Tin lyin^E yD^yii ,nyü^''3 
n wi ,^nyD8^pt5' PD Dyt:D^D nvi p« •^^^t^'1yD:1^< lyr^^yr 
n^^rr ini;? ^^nD p« pj^id üa^ip-i^D Diyn K213 tos^np-ü^^ni» 
mn in tDiynya Dy^D^D-iyDS^pc^ Dyi pK ^inyo dk'o ."qy^ 
,ooi^3-in Dyi lyn^x ^r^v^^ o^)) ,t:28iP"D^>3i8 ;$? pD 
Dyi lyüJiN üiyotj^ di^i^ ,tDD8iP"D^^Di8 18 pD PTM iyi lyit^' 
DyoD^D Dyi pK p8 ,iy»3^D:yr^K-|yG8^ptr Dyi iy ,t:orDin 
t^K ^>>ii »p^^j» iyt3^^Di8 Dyi Dy tsiyiy^ o^^3i8'pi^ iyi fis 

On PK pK ,0D81p-tD^''nn8 pn P^^8 iy t3D>1P18D ^8D p^8 

•lii^nyB lytDni 8 pö öe3mpi83 n üiy^i ^85 iyiJ8 
yr385^y^B inyt ]^ lyi-iii etjy^ nqi3 t^iro^^aiK m 

r\'lK 1l;?D D!D1p üD81P'tD^^218 iyi pD ^l^pISD iyi .fyölt^E 

t^8 ,yaii>*D yt3:5yiJ8iii83 n .ü^^v i^s i^nys ryt^'^^^-j'^n 8 
tDiyiiii^ii ,oiyir3j>*ü iyi ii;53 üpym -^n ö!^yötj^ oy ly^v;^^ 
D':iD Vüi^ti n lynnyi t^8 ,i:D8ip-ö''^3i8 m pD .11 .T8 .8 

^^ ,T8 .8 t^i^-jjj^o iyi ^1 .1 ,pi5»-ö^*v 



01 pi'rtt^^» tri 

-D^^m» lyi PD t'ns d':id dmi: iri px iy:3nyi:y n 
D^i< opmy:D^iK nyüv^« lynyn »onyinnyo nyi iik ückip 

-a^^3"ö: in PD DnyrrK'^iü üyi ivij'Miv i^^K'nyD:^« nyi dmi» 
-lyrri^i lyn y^t^yTi px ,iy^ü^D-D:yny> yoio nyT p« DSKnp 
p.K iy^yrcJ>o s lyu^M^v n^^e^nyoji« c^» ,nynnö; ünyj oiyn 
«i^iK lypjyni^'»! lysnyi *^>t jy^yii i^o .pitJ-tD^uibt ly^yyn 
.pi^-t3^^v Dyi iy-innytDpi§ni$D ys^yii ,iyöp:^s yr:^^K 
Dnri:y ts^y^ ps o-iyi^ lyn t» ,ii# i^i "i^d lyoyj ^roiip 
pn nj<2 ü'oipsn nyn^''3"i8 nyi dj^^i ,tD^y3 yoio n .ü>: -^n 

T>K Di^ii ,v\^ Dyi iiD nyii^ ,p'i^-ü^^2i8 jy^yroi?: pn pD 
*iyrnpyt"iyi rs ,ni^^p nyni^ t^n oy .öiy^i oyi ts^!? ovsK'ya 
nyi •q}>»j tDM5> .lypyiDK^ii^s i^^p .11 .t8 .k pi^-iyDi^i^ ,pi5»-:i^D 
öD^\i ,ü^^2"i8 yo-.D "lyi 1^?: ün> ,3i^D-Do^^n-is d'j^q i:y^ 
PD T^n3 Dy:yi^^K^-ii<D nny? 8 r[>^:v^ oiy2>^ ly Dt^ii ,Dy 
n^D lyoiD-tD^y: y:yi^^rii?D "inyi od^ni dj;?! ,d^^31K "lyi 
üD^M »jyo T1D p^^-D^''V cyi y:ii:3 .to>^2")» dod lyrs^yroyi 
-18 cyi p.D ^^n-^D Dyi ly^^nv iyi^^iJ'"iyD:ix lyi^ii »oysy 
PD T>nD cyi pK mI*» .TS .X pi^-iy3i;?Ti ,in^-:i^o ,pi5>-D^^i 
ü^n ,T^nB Dyn ü^^ lyo tD^^sy: ny^i^ ^^.ts ^ti .t:^^2nt< ijn 
cyi ?tD^''2n8 DOD |yor:^t::^•etl » p>D DiyirD^y: cyi dd^ni 
:n3y^'»^Div lyo oi^^y^ 0^^215? "lyi ps. t^-'^b lyD^^'j-irj^sin 
»IM« t:D{<"ip-ü^^3i8 nyi ps tD"iy^r:i>*t: lyD^poo'^onn oyn 
SM« .3{^tD-Dü^^3-)8 iyD^^tD^::^':-)n am p,D in:iüK^ >ni;?v n 
'^^ 3 r^« DDisnp-ü^^ms lyn I^.d tD-)yv.-:s^o njn ^y^SiJ'^^s d^v 
— iyir.t:*^-D^^3ifc$ 6 p.D dphkis cyi pD öiyM nn — :r^ 
T>n9 "lyi r« |fc?i ,nyr-t:itDi^'-i2 {< t>« 3>^o-Dö^^3ief "lyi P« 
3 ny-,i^ 12 n^*,« iD^^^t:iv ::^^^*^' 3 yi:iDi^-tD^^3i?< |^^« pD 
Dy"s ti^^.« T^« Di^M ,yi:^üK^-ü^^3i» "n pd T^ns nyi .ü:vb 
-lyD Dii:ö-tD^\"tr^« 18 MI D:yn ,iynt^My3 iyr,Ey:DM« lom 

.ü^^n"i8 "lyT pD t>ns oyi 
|i?p ^^ .T8 .« p^^-^i^M ,pi^-3i^D lyT ts ,ü:)^j?d PD"iyT 
ü^^n ü>"'Di8 nyi pd t^ns nyi ü:n ,^vy'2'?Vi''\vi ]V2''^2 
-o^\njnyMy: nyi ,^y^B*^''^n div ,nM« .jy^ss p« n:8:8Di>o 
'i^ü lyi !'.« iyi:io*^ 10 ]vw: t^« 3i^o-Dt:>^2i8 "lyroyo 
-0^^218 "^yi ps:- T^nB iy"i üj>*n »jd^^^k^ 3 ö>^3"i8 nn ps onyM 
,D:yB 3 IV nyü:Ti8 ü^8D ")y ; D^ys 3 3/5 lysi^iüsa vi:^\2\t^ 
^)n .in:^o*^ 12 iv or^D*^ :ii#o-Do^^3n8 lyi mi i^83 mt« 



pD T>nQ nyi Dil ^lyr^toa' jt^P |M5'-^i;?n "lyii^ iM^-;ii^D nyi 
.o^öiD iy DM« i^^DK nyij^ lyj^n^ynyn os^^^a D^un^: "lyi 
jnjiD5i^-10 mm VH ji^D-DD^uis nyi »^y^BK^^u di^ ^mk 
J81 »iJ^p^K' 3 T^x D2^ip-D^^Di» -lyi PD Dnyn--3i^D lyi p« 
oy snK .Djys 3 3/B yi:iü:i^D^ui8 18 pD vib nyi t^k 
lyiiiüK' 12 ü^uiK nyo^^ans nyn p« ö»m» nnyo ony^i 
-3i;?D pn ii<i Dv^üiJ^ ,t3^>m8 nyn pD r^ns ly^^n^yroyT ^^^k 
»••^mö! nn PD T^ns nyi D^n ,Djy3 7 1/5 ::>^^k^ 3 ^pi« pi^ 
o:^p]!i ü^J^M Dfe!iD>nyn lyrn^ynyi .Dnynjyya o^: ^n Dijtn 
-yi3 D^t^ii ,D^ui8 nyn pD :jy^ lyi üi^tDtj'ji^ |yii »lyoipoMn» 
Dyi PD \vi'"i:i^ 01^1 .ö>^pü:jy-)i2*^'y::i^ in^K tyii^ny: lyo 
PD ü^^^JSD pn nynnyn ]^p pi^"|yDi^n lyii;? -;ii^ö jy^yj^oi^: 
.üDsnp'D^ms lyi PD nns iyn:y^sD nyii^ iyn:yn^^^nD^^>; » 
'-iyt:^^3"i8 -)y-; pD nojDn nyi jyayn 3>t}Dn r^« v^Vi^^'i^ oi^i 
PD üD^^n "lyi DJ^^.^ ^ü^nns; didd nyi ^^.i i^öi^^ns ,y^^^»fc?D 
n pD D^^mjs* "lyi Tin DinyoifeüD üiyii »onys^^ y^^^DötD nyi 
•:n» lyii^Dyo i^snfeüD t^r^s lyrn oy .nyi^^^tD^o-iy^^^D^D 
pa sj# D^: lyajyn di^ii ,D>>nn{$ lyi pD r^ns oyi [yvynvnyo 
.pi5»-iyDi^*M nyii? -at^io ly^y^^Di^: oyi ps ^inyjy^PisD nyi 
-n» nyn PD t^ns nyi~p"i^-D>^v Dyi pD tD>\-i:^>K-Dt^D n 
-:i#D nyi id^^^üi:^ tyo jyii ,0^18 ^n D:>Dy3--y-i:it:trD>^2 
oyi pD |y"T:iDK^ ^fc?:^ lyi "qnn toDsip-ö^^mj^ -lyi pD ony^i 
•Dis^uis "lyi t^ iyoi:y::^ .ji^D-D^^m» ?yrDyoü>^n:n«iiy: 
oDSip-D^^Dis nyi PD Diymi^D lyi p« lyiJiDtr 12 t>« :j^t3 
-:iN •lynjiDC'-tD^n-iii: 6 pD tTpHi^ns-onyii nyi ,::>!?^:j' 3 vh 
yi:iü^-tl)^nn8 nyi pD t^ns lyn r^x lyn^yoi^D^N n d^ nyo 
nytD^^m» nyi nnx .o^ys 6 — oPm^nD-D^yii nn^x px o:vb 3 
nrit<i) aj^D ^ ly-r^iüsj' 12 ly-i^^x lyaoy^i D^^DDy^^^n tDny^i 
6 ni?^ »^'y^Dß'^^n d-».!? ,('^^)) lyn p« ayo 6 nyn^^K nyrjyi^ 
]1D T^ns lyrri^i oyi ^^2 ,ny ooipi^n |i«i ,iyn:ie{^ 8 lyni^ 
Ml m:» .tM^-;i^D a:)^^^^^ IVa nyij^ :r^^ji^ 2 nt^: .o^^si» nyi 
t? ly-fiiütj^ 6 tD^jtJ^Dnn px lyn^^nns iy T-,0 myt^^n nyi üm^ 
Dyi ü>D Do^ütJ^ Di^ii ,pi^-:i^D p^« ni<i: lyi^vn^ns iv n3 ,:^ü 
nyrn^ytnyi üm^ mi mt{< p« ; üDfcsnp-ü^^Dnöf pn PD onyii 
•^in ni^D üQ^yn 8 it^*:) ynjitD*^ -iyny> i^k ny e^^ni» ,niyK^n 
,n«^P p2")y-i T^x— üD^^^tD^ssp Dyn isd üD^yn ynyn:» n ji« 
,iy"!:)iD5J^ 6 PD t)pni^"iD-tD"iyM oyi |y:j>*^6^»Dni» ü>: tt^p ly ?{< 
VD nnx .lyiröij^ 12 nyn^'»« -iy3^:yi"i oa^öDysj'öin t^k -ly m^ 



60 }M^»»s njrr 

-i8"iirn'K iiQ tvi^i^^ vi^mvvim'^ n \r\m: lynnD irnijff 
•n» lyi Djjtii ,|yT'^ n pd ly^ijiip n j^i \vü üp\)'^ü:v ,ü>^n 

•"•>jyD 8 ly^i^v IV ü^j in iDy^D^^Dij^a üd^^^^d^ssp nyi ts 
,tyir.tDi5^-D^^2-i8 n nj^D vv2 ii$: ,pi^ iyD^!:'0jj;3yn -iyni<5 lya 
Dn^« iy ji^p ,"u;tD"n"i8 cvi ]Vi''üD)i^^2 iv D^ysy: Dn>« dj^ii 
T^K Ds?ii .n nyi^^K ü'^v lyiyvi^p s ^>^.n lyj^Dsye^sa 
pp-iyiJiDK^ Dyn iyvst^iV2i>* rm« dj^d n jyny; n^^nnD^ 
-Dü'''2n« "lyn ^11 *i^5<n ^it» .d>>di8 "lyi pD r>n3 oyi nyii^ 
,iy-iJitD6r >{^v nyt^D^DK-'fe^D 8 I1D inyui^*s3 iv t^^it? Dnyn 5i^d 
•iyD^{<;vi?2 "lyn ly^'^tv rsnjy^oKf.v lyi |yij^j<ivj^nj<D D-^.yii 
Dv^K |{?p DD^^«D^25?P nyi .Dornst iyo^i^!^5$n-t:^: px :d^^2-i8 
-"löi "inyo DizD lyD^^tDtj'eta « "lyo^^nns ayn pd iy:»Ni^i^'DMi8 
pn 1SD D'^v-tD^"'mi$ yri:yTiün: n Dn^t? in^yay: t?>: ,d^^3 
pD tD>\'?rDyo^y:yi yiy> iyrDD^:ii?D ij>*p ly .n^rn ^y:yr>^< 
rnsi^p ,D^^pD^^Dynp{?n pn öm^ ,|i^p px ::^rDDy!^b*3 lyi 
.-"»x yDDD>^pynt5^ >t w^^'? ,üvi pd Dynycj^x-Djyoi^o "iyii# 
cyi nyoJiK .D"'N'?:nj^^ü^^msi ^mt? ly^^u ^n D'^ms-iyi 
,*'ü>^n"i« nyn pc r^ns ly^^ü^ij?:,, cyi d^j^v *iy t8 ^n^non« 
""i^D » ]ni^ ,3i^D-Dt:^^n-i8 Dyi -ny^ij' ^ \r\i^ nyi:y5'-i{$D ny ji^p 
cyi PD ajip^yiK'^a y^^^vyry: n ."lyD^^anö? nm -ifcns ::iö^y3 
»Dan ,-;:»d:5'^v lyri'nnv fc<T8 pD piid » tD38o ii?ö-Do»a"i8 
p2 "^n ü^y^ ü^)^ ^t^^'f^-iK i^x pnn cyi iv d^: ,"^n onyoe^nsD 
üii^D Dyi pN ::nyi3y nyi pD ^yny:^:?'^*?^ ps nyiip:^?? lyi 
-np v^^^Vi'?^ p.x yT^ni^^-iD pD lyiiji ,nyü>'Dn» y^rücyK^^n 

•lyon 

T^nB lyi ]^p pi^'iyDJ^iTi lyti^ -:i?t} lyDnyDy-inytö 8 0^0 
nyo^n» '^ni p.s "lyn^yriyn lya^^^n ^y:^öi;?j D^m» "lyi po 
»•li^D ^i^ü y^8 üoip Dt^-i .-^öiia ly^^oifcj;: pn iyt3:iK lypjn 
'Vi V't ly^'Ti? Diyajy^iyic ^iv)^ aj^D-D0^^3ii? nyi n^sD^i 
yi:"it:tr-ü''^Dn8 nyi pd i^ns lyi px nym lyrDy^sD'^n:^«'!^ 
•Dt:^^3"i55 Dyi pD ::v'? n ü^Ptfii Dy d^^k .ivn'pv^'^vi D3^'^3 
8 I^K 'Hi^: üDNip-ü^^n^'S nyi pd ::iv>J2t^ n üdps^i ,3i^t3 
pD üiy^i "lyi ^M« ly^nyn DDpisni oy ^y^vit^^st^ns "W'^v'pv:^ 
-yniDonr« "^d ^ü p« .üD5<np-tD>^ni» nyjynyayjDMX in 
-o tyrn oy px ,^y:y" yj^^^Dya^yi n t^« t^^-t^^^v inti ,iymiy 
-yi ^n t:«n ,e^^v-o^^a-i8 lyi iv iyvy:y"i3 V2'>'?'ivw V'P H^ 
n» ivi T» ,D^nr^xr,y3 n üyn^^oyio^i« p^5>8 ^n jid nyan 



nyans .vi^idk^ v^^nv^ n ^m onjy oy V2 ?y^3K^'u d^v 
/'D^^D-iyni^^ tD^^vnyn^N vw ov üd^m ryjyi:) ly^nt^T ayi 
-yn D^^v n ony^i ,ü^''n:^''K-Di?D d^s yiJictJ' n :njyoyj p.x 
lyjii^p ^>^ny3y^ t? p« iddj^* Dan ,(""*ys i$"itDDpyJ iD>j^:^fe!in nya 

•y3 'w^^i'^v'? "lyT PK ,2{^t:)-Dt3^^ms ly^^^piMi Dyi ps tj^^c-^nn 
.nyütfiy iyi nyi^^x iy3:y> nni^^ ly:^:^?: j'Dnn D2{^ üiyn 
pD ::ny::y^-ii?2. nyi c^d ,ü>^Dn» nyn ps t^^-'.b px opinis in 
|i^ üoyj ,ryjy"ir^»oii>*j lyon^y; » nya^x at^tD-DD^^nns ayi 
18 ,Dii^3 8T8 lyrMi^-yntDDnr« v^'t2''\2 v:vt'^'^^d p^« 
-yr-'n» nyi ps '^ti'o px to^^nn» "lyi pa f-ns iy:nyi^: nyi 
-y3 n lyo^^nis oyi ^i^x ^i^ns üi2^m o^^v^sonj^t: iy:yDn 
•iy;^:y: 8 lyai^^K^D^n» ^mi ny n^ix ,D^^Diyiii? yö^i>*v8riyD 
-DtD^'318 Dyi pD 3:ipjyi:5^i$n VT'?'^vm n .pi^-ü>>3i8 lyi 
.lyaoyn^ö Dyi dj^ [id 5)id {< DD8oy:i ts^sin :j^d 
nn ny3:y^ dj^ii t8 .üpsd lytD^sp^rp^oy:^» 1» r^« oy 
^n» nM« ,3^nw-ynüDnj^K lyo^^iy: 8 px t^x ai^D-Dü>^3n» 

.pi^-ü^m» ny-j T^K nyanyi^: '>];'>t> 
ms "nyi |yii : rytya di#i toi^^ionsiD lyn^ix jyni^n i^d 
*\\n^ 'ii^ü nyn bi# D3:yn »nyoö^toti'^n » r^« D^^m^ nyi pö 
e^^t^ö panyi .ü^uis ytoiy^^^y: d^dd Dyi ps i>i^-[y3j^ii 
.tD*^n-)8 nyi ps t^ns nyi f^ ov ny:jny-i^: dj^ii m ,DjytD:^iy 
Vü '^ViiV'> r^8 nyii^ »ü^^ni» D^D lyi p^t tid nyoyi:! y^h 
üiyrty: pn ^^i^t lyD^^ms lyi ns ,:i^D-Dt3^^2i8 "lyi pn 
Dy-i pD i:^>p2nyT^: n .pi5'"i3^:5J>3-in \V'\:v^v I8 ö^d i^^dk 
n« n ny33y^")8ö iv lyD^^ms üyi i^-i Dn>nö t^ns-a^"«m8 

-ö^^m« ort pK ^8BnyD:n8 i» tD^n nn>8 ps oms tsa^yia 
.pi^-iy3j?ii ny-ttji -:i^o oyi t^K n^^dd p« t^na 

e^^ans'at^ö üvi 18B nytD>^3i8 oy-t pB nn^D^ n ?yii 
tD^^3i8 3i^tD 8 v^ tyi:iD{j^ ?j^v n lyni^ ,y3^yT>i ly^^^^a 
,T>nB"t3^^nn8 nyi ü]n Tin pr^^ ü^^b »o'iyj^y^n^B t^nyii 
tDD>5'j<tD^B8P Dyi lyrt^^ y^ijy^i »ty-i^ytDt^^ix v:'^2'?vvi ^V2^ 
^^iK Dn^K lyn^a ,:i^t3-DD^m8 cyi py^^y^i^B a^üB8^'^y^n 
•nyo^ii^ ,Dn>K ^n ty;r"!iv "q^^n^y t^x ,ö^^PD^^ay^ n t^sj^iyiy 
ü^83 üv V2 ,T^nB-ü^^2nj< ly^yrcs^: oyt "i^^sx lyai^iiK^v 
,eD'^n Di^n ,iyn:ii:K^ ^{?v yöiyonsö n ps r^^^.s nyv383 nyi 




71 tn^p'B» n:^T 

112 ^yoji'ii* nyT D^Diyi tDopj^Ti ,-iyjyQ 2 lyii^ lii^jis to^u 
lyrcy: dj^ti ,iyD£:y-ip-ü^^3nj5 n hd >yD*^i^ lyi D:n ,ü^>2n8 
Ds^n »nyriPJi^P n ."iy:u?ynyi Dn^^>D ,pi«d Td^ii« ^n 
üTJ^^iyi ,"iyD^u-i{< n lyti^mv ly^yitj'y: i2i« Dyi nnx iDiyn 
pt« ,D^^mfe? nyi p2 V'^B Dyi lypmaj^i^^ dd^^«ü^3«p Dyi 
-w^nn« D^^PD^^:yo n "lyiMi dh^k d>j T^ns nyjy^^^Dyj lyi 
D,^ üiyiT ny3{^ -i^iHD (* .ü^^rD^uns n nnyo ^i^*: iyn>^ 
"j$2-D>: pD iy'Di3D yD^^jnyiiy:nyDMK nyn^x j:irD^yiiy: n 
]v:^''?i2^^^^vm oyi nynn^ lyp^Ds?^ dj^^i ^ö^uiö; iyD^{>*^ 
-fei;::^25$p n jytj'^iiv nynp^^P P2 ^yo^D s ,nfe!tnrDtD^:K^2"in 
Dyi pr ünyDiJ'sn fna-niinD oyn pa ^^^tD ^ .«rij \vüü'>> 
D':i2 ^^^tD -iyD^j^^j<n-i2^j nyi .t:s8np-D>^mfc§ nyi pD r^na 
.niiHD "lyi PD t^n3 Dyi pN ly^ysyi ü^: "^n no r^ns-D^'^nns 
nyi T^i< DJ^i .lyDMp-minD Dyi lyiyii üp:yL^y:pyii{^ Ij^p ny 
nytD^n'iv nyi .Din^a nynipji^P n lyD^yn iv ,Dn:o ny^t^'-iy 
-ti>ip-i{<D Dyn pD lyo^^K^ivD^iN fx ,t:n^nD n üi^)) iv ,DnD 
ty^js*^i»Ni:2K Dyi pD >^^tD 8 DjyLDD:oyn nnino lyi P2 r^ns 
-y:i:y?nsJD nyi "Tin lyni^iiy: lysstt^^ya t^n dj^ii ,üiyirnnyo 
D^K -^n Dyi^^n ID1X ÜV1 ^^ ^^K .3i^t:-Dt3^^m» cyi pD 3:n 
inyo r^fe$ nyD^Mi dj^i^ pi< ,^^2 iy:^yv:^^N ;{< d^8 o'^nyiv 
»TininD PD r^nD-tinpi5<D ly^nyno-^j^Dii^joi« ps* »tDJ^DDyDS^ 
-yM-iü » pD y3bt^t::n: yanjyt::?^ n t^* P^i Pd üiyn lyD^yn 
ny Ml ,ü^''^-D''''3")8 iyrDyo"iy2''N 1» ii<D pi^-to^^nis iy:n 
-jyi:'^'o''iK yrn^yrn dpjid pd üpnj^ns nyi lyi^y: n>'nn2> vk 
.ijH^n p^^fe? üD^^^^ü^D^p Dyi w^'? y^^Mi » ly^yi^ "ino .\vi 
üiv^ü^''^ n jyEj'^iiv nynpJi^P ^i t^« D{<::^'oi^n p«,, 
yo^i^y: it^tü iv ly^aiK^vy^ ty^^^r ^n pD y^y^D ts ,d>ii:i mts 
ts^yij'ya "qn üDJt^t lyt:^^^^ ^n üi^i) ,'^v2vyvi''''2^^ d^8 lysst 
-•^213 D^-t ni<i:) ,ü^y: iny^D ü^j jyö üd^ö •^i^ji p« ; l^?£D ^^ 
-Dnpy Il^•^:^^^ pN lynj^n 1862 pN ."pDiyn |yvo n D^#^ mp 



-DM"i^D'i.yii*iyK)tn:?"ij;T p« »tso^m ]yi3 j:«*? m ]^tt'»2ni? "is a^nj 
...lytD'ms IIB B^^an^t n bid inö ]n» lyn^ .dk;j I'sm« tyDi^<nya 

(Senior, 'Tliree "•^^'"'9 ■^"'« "^•>'-^-^"^^ -"-^I^^ ^''^*^*^ ^^^ =«^ 
Lccturcs on thc Rate of Wagcs,") London, 1830, p. 14. 



-li/Dji« t:Dnp-ifc<3 ü^n lyiyijjj; nyi p« r^ns jy^JiD oii^ ü^ni 
j/iyn tinx D;{;??P»a ^n lyat^n yiDfej^-)/ n .r^na iy>y;iy-i oyi 
-^Di^p-D:ijninyDJiK nysi'nKDjyDöipii^ö js isq lyojy-npji^p 
|y-i«j »n Di^)) ,DynDnn ij^j iyn^Donpy ^n^ : D;>t^3 >ii y>D 
-■»^11^ pK ,(n"iinD n injytj'^yD) Dip^ipniQ Di#i Djyüii'iy si^j 
iny^^Djö! lyü^^niK v^V'^ pa dmi« lyir^i^ ^n Di^tn ,DjyD 
...t3^''nn{$ nyr-iJiDiy-tii'y^iv pa pi> cyi is^ö ü^^nns lyij'iDB' 
ü^D ,^yD>o nyi t^« nyD^un» n pD ü^^niöi yD^i^v5<;aoi« n 
-ipjijjp n ...Dnn^sy::iit üiyn ^oj^p-nympJi^P nyi ly^^y^i 
-i/ntj' nyn ps ^jjtm« n r^« DnyoD^^Dnypyn n lytj'Miv nyn 
DDMp"ib*3 Di^ii ,"iypyn s .d^ui^-üdj^j n lyc^-tfi^si^ ü^^-^jn 
ly^j^^si'D^nK T1D ,^nyo n pD T^nß-^Dj^p nvi nyo:!« ts^na 
lyn .nyD^ui^ y:>n pa ü^ui» *iyany:i^« nyn pQ nin p^r 
p« ]V^:vo v^i^'o PQ to^ms ly-iJiDtj' 12 li^j dmik :np "^^k 
,T^ ny tt^P ,iyiJiD5i' 20 nyit^ 18 D>n^ doip^s nsn^yij p^o 
--18 n |yn .T^ns-tinpi^Q Dyi px ly^i^^a^ ^-qn onytD^j'iiüD 
->K ns3 ly^^v^n ^n ^i^t \vo ,\'^v)b to^t^py:! lyo^s^n ^yo^^a 
,n p2 :?^i!v yD>n3 i< ...lyü^iiy:» tDsyn j^ik^ d^j^ii ,t3^^riy3 
lyj^n ,iy2^ipi552"t^nö-nyt^^i^5 y:nJin n ^^n lytD^'-m» üi^'\^ 
Wr^vm^ifi iy:jiK'nvyj iyj>>r v::'?V)'\ ,ü^^^ y:jr pK yioyiö 

'Myanp \v:i^p ^n Dt^ii ,pi!? jyny» 

Bi^ 1t?: Tt ü^yrSB' HD lyK'^tDD^^^tD^S^P ÜVl v^ ^^1 .üt'^l 

D^Mi üD>^fc?t3>ß«p lyn .|'n'i3^^ti'-Dit?>vpni?-i5 n p£ p^jj' lyr 
p^« "q^iK toD^^K' ü>^nn» nyi ps vib ny^^*ont?: nyn ts ,o^i 
'^1 n ypfc?iD Tfe? pj^ »ö^^an» iytD^j;*A't?n2^x didd ty^D^tsa^j^n » 
.nrn pn jiq ^j§^ip "ly^i^ont^: lyn r^t? D^^nii? yo^Ji^v^noi« yrr 
nsD DO ^^31 Dn^DD>Tpy ü>^v-D>m5<-inyo ym^^y^KP n 
ns |y^«D-iJ?3 Dyi t^x lyDi^^tj'y:!^^« t^« oy ni nvn ,Dn>x 
ji^D Dyi pK tD^j^vs^n ny ri< ,ür^o ny lys^y^i i{<3 ,3i^d-dd^^3 
n ,tD^^v-nyn>R n Dn^i^ nsts Dn^Donpy ny3J>* i^mvi .pi^ 
Di^Ti ,ry:y"i3 cyi nynn«:? :>?ü-DtD>''m8 d':iq :jny::y^n5<3 
pn y;o3 .o^^nns "ly-i ps t^ns tyD^nxiiy: Dyn tD>o ü^^^db' 
»i^^DN ny tD3j^^-iötD ,T^n3 |'iyD3iK iDQnpi5<E3 üi$^) ,\:i:v'^'\p:i^P 
-Ml .ü^^v-nyn^« "lyani^i nyn n»2 MntDDpy jy^j^jv ^^^r -^v^v^ 
c5D^^t^^ 331^^^v ^?"ibDpy yrti^i n rs ,i:o ny D^ni ^j^oyi lyi 
-y: "^n p5 fns nyi m .ü^^ni» yD^«^f^?nr31N p^K >it{< öp:i9 



78 inrp»BvipT 

">i< \^ pi: viB "lyi nv2 »yiJiDtj^-D'^met Va p: DpnJijt-is-Dnyn 
Dpnj^is-üiyi^ nyi — Djya 4 t^fc< y-;:iD5i'-D^u"i« ny^^D^^^nya 
-i<p lyT \'^ ^n Doyj ^{§d lyDiJ'iy p« .yir.DK^-a^uijs* % pa 
^KD \^]ii2^ üvi pN ,ya yi:iDij^-ü^un8 "lyiy pd üo^^'biö^a 

yoii^D yö^TiiK^ni^D t? ^ii "inyo do t^k pirp^tDB^ lyn 
yo>yi:t5inö:D n t>« pi:'-D^^v "lyi ^ii ^ns ,pi>-D^^v üvi pb 
.D2S"iP"D^^3i8 "lyi p2 r^n3 "iy"i}>* onyi^ nvi ps yon^^a 
^i!8 P^pa jytDK'ny pdmk dm« oy DnyT pi>-p^üt5' Dyn »u 
pn D?i^^^ ,ü2Mp-i»3 "lyD^^anjj "lyi Di^r. »üiyn-^niny: nyn m^ 
-ii>*: »ü^ons y^nyny? ^tD^ij-ip-D^^ms pn ps "n^nDy^ nyi ü>j 
^ns p« ,üpni;?n3 oyi pw ii^üy::^n» pii^' t>« dj^u ,ü^^m8 
DD^üij'tüa lyny: D?i#n o^un» "".y:Mt?i lyT pa r^ns lyi m^ 
.üjyvni^iB p2 D^^"?rny3-j:^DD^^? lyi ^in 
-SM« pnsüK' p^>n Dyn va^ iv midiv lyi t:o ü:vi:iznv 
ni^D yi^u Di^i^ ,p>PK Dp»Q Dyi Tin p^.c' ly^.yi. D^^yo^nDy: 
->>« 011^ lyrn^'ynyT p« ^m lyj^cya pirto^uis Dyi p2 jyo 
t^« oy .iy:>nw-D2yK'y: yrn^yrn p« y"iyi:8 n lyay? y: 
yoit^D nyn i^k o^M^yi^^K'ietD n t» ,p^p^* ^n nj^ta ntpp lyni^t 
,Dvy pn y:i:3 ü>:ii>*3 üivi2V piP"ü^^n"i8 ayi |y?nt;?vDnK po 
•»yK^^DD^:>»D*s5$p lyn nso lyrtoor: pn ii^p yoi^^a p^x n^n 

.yoii^s ny-jt^ ;$> lyi^^K y^vpni^i& 
121 tDoyji»D :j>*tD-DD>m8 nyD>pjnyiiy: nyi tj? ^lyoijyjji^ 
l'''»^ .yü:'t^i'b*3-ü^j ö pK yDPt^^^3 lyrn ö y^rjyn pd ^lyiJitDK' 
-n{§ p^« pD i^K ,::'i>''^ ö t^« ,|y3i^T i^dj;?^ ,Dpn{;?-i2-Diyii 
t» ,iyQy::i^ iy:5y^i n^o .D:y3 ö ^^>:pi^d t^k yij^DSi'-D^u 
Di^ii ,nyü>^mK is tk ,3:nn5ND-iy >3 ?y dmik ^n Dpyt:^^ oy 
-j^nyD p.K üyüMVDjyu:^« Pd nt;"irD^:;^D-in oyi tD^o d>^21» 
-pyiy: n "ii^j :^^Dpfc>2 tDyi:y^nfe<3 ,Dy üd^^h ,-iyD^y^i — - ü^v 
|8 pD y^vpnj^ns nyi iS2 tD^^v-ü'^mfe? yrijynanr^otDstJty 
-«3 n»3 '^D ,iyi:iDiy i:z p« nyp^tDK^ 24 ünyc^? — ^^yp^Di» 
» p3 »lyDDVo "^n iyri;:> Dt>*ii jy^^^D "»^d ,iyüpni;?-.3 y-iyijn 
PD D*iy^i nyi t^« id'.x üyn n^N .ü?ni#i3 iyi:y::ynjyoii:nv 



'?»i3»Böp D^jn 74 

nyo^uifct lyi .Djys 3 f« p^'DSi' Dyj>yvr^K iy-iy> pD D-yit 

-JID^ 12 pN IDIN Dyn tlM« DJyni^Q p« P^DiJ' lyB IVa t:)i'ip 

^v DP^K P85 T^t< pi>-D^^v Dyi y^ua m mt^^ jj^^^&j^ 3 lyi 
VT "ife$D lyiJiDK' ö D>>n-ii$ nyD^^ms nyn t» ,ii# Doyj lyo 
PD ü^uifc? ny nyni;^; ,t:D^:'{5D^Bfe$P oyi "i^üq ly-ij^üt^ t; p.« 
Dyn nbtD yiyi:» n px -^n n»2 o^^^yn p^K yijiDij^ nyiy> 
|yo ^x ,ü^j i^^K'iyDJiK p^p i^i "n^ifc^ t^N MtK ,üD^>«D^ö^p 
3>sn pt< D:?j^vKa n^fe?n fx p^tDtj^ yj^'yvr^x y-iy> tfe$ ,t)jt;jr 
nt^j onyp lyp-iDtJ^ Ik5 n pQ t^na nyi t^^ lyni^ ,ü'?i$'i^2-'ü':i 
12 yiynj» n p« nya ^tDDsnp-D^m» nyi ps tony^i nyi dih 

.Diyinnyo nyi üiysiyp-iyiD t^« 
-jyr^K yK^^tDDnyiDp8ni§D n iyt:D5^itDfe?n nyo^^x i^Dt^> 

."lyDjynyj pyD^nj? i^i^-p^Dii^ üvi pd lyDssii' 
^-in üi^^j^ntDji^p jjti Diyii D^^nn» lyi pa tD^^pDt^i: n 
,i8ij lytoir'^OD^jtJ'Din s pö pn tid yD^yii ,n2ij d^uik nyi 
oyn D»^ p« .t^nrp^totj' iy:?"i2 Dyi ü>t^vi$a iy:np iv na 
-pi> pD t^Ki^P nytDD-ii§no3nD nyi i^rp^Dti' lyi tDiyi^ tsns 
.■»nyjnt:^^! lyt^'^üo^^isto^s^p pt< |y;iJin^^3i^ 
lyi ni$D Dfcjto yoQ^üJi'feitn n«a fc$ üd^^^üo^sj^p Dyn to^: ny 
yD^yii ,D^^rü^un8 n n^j .ü^inib* lyn pö üyo^iVDjyD:^« 
-Kl lynnD pD t^k di^i^ ,nninD didd i$ px ^n onysiypiKD 
-:>yry3 0:^8 o^^j .ainn^Diy "»s ?y ü'pvü'^^vyüüv^ px dq>dk^ 
o:>8 D>i#v»3 t^i^'^iP p« tD^^y-D>uiö: y'jn:yntonrvt'D£»B' 
-yn üD^M nysytj^-iy-p^jK^ yiyoyna -iy:j>*ijj^^ n pK .ys^yrs 
yii^osj' » ,tDDyn s w .2 .v ,0^^218 P'ü^ yoMiyj « nynn 
pD .v^:)ü\i^ » D:ys ö IV ,.3 .1 .« ynjiüti' yn^j^n k lyiijt 
-i^irD^itJ^Din nyn i-»« oy r^ys^ii jyo d^mi yp^Dpsns lyr 
-yn ^^3 nyii^ »yntp y^^j k üdip oy lyi^ .yiJit^tj' » pd dph 
p« D^n lysj'niv ript^no s it? *in tonnn ,.11 .ts .« lyiiDSiKii 
vii'i^^ ^ 1^ '^'^^a t^« ü^^m^ p^Dji' yon^y: fc$ ^5^ ,nyD>^nit$ 
nyi 3M« ."^^i« iin Dyn^''tJ'tDJ8 ::nnfc$D"iy n m ,a\ .ts .k 
,tD^iprnyD-Da:^tDD^^> y3^?D>j^3"in n d^j dvm»3 nyD^un» 
-iK-ji^o pa DiD^PD lytoD^DtJ's^n 55 nyD>> tDo •n^j':>i>*5 ny fi^p 

0^^318 nyn pa t^^^'^o^^yiütj'yi^i? p« ü^^-^düi^ n ^11 ^rs 
p^^j-tD^^nns Dyn pa yoit^a lyi "qnn D-l^>^^nD:^^p i^i tviJ^ii 
nyi lyn^« D^na^i« lyi pa ?^^d lyo^na i§ n ü3^d ,Kai3 
-D^ina n lysnyi oasB^ pi>-p^ö6f "lyn .ro^^aiyn^« id^oi» 



76 tn^»BB^ njn 

pn .ij;t:ni?D-ü:nj ^miv ou^rj^a üvod^d nyrt^i lyi j:ipm 
•qn ivünen^s iss lyDD^^:) pi>-p^ür nvi od»d ü^n p^x 
-••uns'p^:' üvi pK iDD^^'SD^sKP ayi lyi^Miv ly^yüsj'ivj^nx 
nyi .di?dp»iü:{#p iv c>>3"is n lyny^D^ns dji^it — nyo 
nyi P2 'i^^'D^^syDM« tDDip lyji^r-iya'iytj'^^iv y:>Ti^i n pa nm 
DD^:'fe?D^sj<P nyi Dj^^i ,T>ns-tD^u-is cn ly^^niv Vjynysn 
cyn iyTi#> ^n Dijin ,T^n3 lyjni^i oyi pD p^^a Dyn p« ,to>i^^ 
PK üD^M DyioD^D "iy:ni^-j nyn .lyrnp c^^üp^^d iyt:^uifc$ 

pip-p^DiJ' nn ü3^^,?-iy ü^n iyi:8 nyi pa .(lyv^^itj'D^i« po 
nya '?v'^ ^ns nsQ Dpfe$nD:i?p 8 lyo^^K' iv üD^^fcüD^sj^p oyi 
nyi lyD^jy^i n^s »i^na i§ ^imk »"lyo^^ms-Dsnn oyi o^o p>db^ 
lyr^t^^i PK lypyDtj'ivJi^ lyDJiK ^n coy: p^^s iVD^^ms-Ds^in 
Dn ^"in D^nifc? "lyn ps jjn^tDKi^'ßopy ^t .lya^ynD^iK yj^n 
pQ jjn^Dsi^BDpy in im ^i ^n oD^^piMn^^s ^kd^bkp 

.nytD^^n^iS pDin "lyo^'ms Djn 
n» on ^^>Tö8i Dy t>k ,pi^-p^dk^ ün^Donpy ?i^Dj>^K 
-D^^3"i8 pn iy3:ynD55'iv:8^ oy-iyDPK lyD^^jynya D'nyD^^i 
pnjüö iyj:n: dd^jd dj^ii pk ^-^^^^yo >n irD:yD:^K ^n» ücsnp 
.üyt3nvD:yD:^K ps n^ii ly^titDii^: Dyn py^yn *.v DD>>fc$ü>B8P 
1^ Dy-iyor« nyDO^ynyö o'iytD^-'Dns oyi oy t^k "^^k mi» 
pn ]vy'^^ üyii Dyi3"in :>^>ii ,:t#tD-Do^^m8 oyi ny3:ypne;D 
DV Ml ,y^vp8yi 8 o^D D:jyin oi^n .piriyDi>Mi nyit^ -ji^o 
PD inyryiBi^ — im^ü^-'V d^>3 lyii^iiiyj lysn*^»^ pit^' t>k 
nyi ly^i ip'bk .:i^tD-DD>^nn» d':i3 j:nyj:y>ij<D >n Di^ii ,Dyi 
^n 1KD PK IK P^K üü'"?^ ,'^Vy2'?Vn]n ÜT'1>1 i>o-p^0K^ 

.D^^m» nyi pD r^na oyi pK :'fc?-:"iyüjnK \h 
lyD^^^Ji « iyDfc$:DMK v^^^V'i'i to^o D'.^"iyn pi^-to^^v oyn ^^3 
pirp^DiJ' Dyi ^^3 ny3 ,iyD^>3iK yrn^yin iöid pO"o^'3i» 
-fctn K Tin ü>^rtD^''3"i8 lyi pd t^ns "in v^^t^ in Doyo 
pO'iyDi^ii iyii# -:j^ü nyi lya^^ .lytDpnijfiB ddd |ytDD>DK' 
-■•mK n pD ü^^n:yi>''t^nö5D iy:?ynnvirK nyi t:n> "qn t3^>i 
cpnt^is D':iD Dio^ra K li^: Dny2>> ny:>^K y^^y^i pD ,-iyD 
,i30ty3nn Dyi tD-iyc^:» lynyus lyi ,ü^^v iy:y3y:y: k pK 
-p-iMi *^n ya^n .oo'^DTn cy-i nyi^^K "iny^ — lyom "lyr 
"lyn ün:» »D^Pi^n yo^-i: ij^d lynnyi t^ tycip noJDn iy3>> 

.11 .TK .K "ly^lDMK ,V'ilV:V ,t2Bi<1P ^D^^PDP^C'y;! lyjyT^KHKD 

onyotJ'iöiD .oiyi:y o^-i .nyD^''3n8 jyl^ynninrK on po 



^»BtBgp D^fT 76 

-JM? 11« tJötio^öfe?? \v^'>m rno^^iJ' p:^^oy:>s n ü^j ij^j »-^n 

üvi nj^D pirD^jK^jin nyi v^t üv)) V)y iyD>j^vy;D^i« üyi 
-o^u"i{$ lytJ'Mi^ y^v"i{<;ai^n3 n Di-'^^a DjyD''''iiv .;>nivDöy£j'y:i 
^y^jynMinj^K nyi ^n ni>n ,Diyijyi5<;2ioi« tDiyinnyD p« pi> 
-inya yo^D nyi ü>d dd^d'^ lyo-'^^-i« Dy:^y^j>'>K Dyi po pi> 
nyiyDyn: nyi "lyn^^ .^yn^rn:^« D"y2^> ny DJ^n ,Dnyii 
,tDyD^p«nMvnj^« lyn ü^:i pi>-p^üc^ nyi di^ii ,DMT>y^s*^^ 
-"•?KnMin:^« y:n^i n ly^'p-'iioj» i^ ü^n p^« pD DiyiDtii' 
-jyü^kj'ODn^yT n ^^n^ayrto^M^nD Dyi "q^i« D^onyi px ,üyD 
nyi p3 pyD^m^ n pD :'i^nt::i^p-DDn^yT Dyi p« ü^'-'p:'»! 
|y:ypD:fc§ nyj^'»« p« -qn \v^'>\)'i nynip^^p "ly^n — ü^n nyujs 
ni^DM« nyijyD ^ lyanyi ü^n v^tp^ü^ nyn .pyn^K nyi 
-ife$irDO:^Din Dyi nyn^« lyri^-^^mfe^ y^ynnvu^« n lynnn 
•»iD >3 ?y "in üi^*n pi^-p^Dtj' iyDQ^D^b*3 » ixii ,tDni?n .«213 
ly^iyj lyanyi lyj^n oy p« ,iJ^--aj^? 110 DJ^Doyajjia pv^ y^vn 
-i^n n iy3J^n »lypmiviyiDjn» dh^k lyD^^-^rny^^K^ y>y^vysD 
IV :'yD"'D Dyi ij^d oa^j^y^ ^n |y?öi2-D»:bnx y:^iTfc? p« oyo 
T^K pirp^totj' lyn .pv^'i^''^ P« "i>»"n3 d^d dh^« ly^'i^^rnfeUD 
-nD PN üi^)) ,üvt:iO'>o'\vi:)o^ oyi pD yv^D^-oann {§ •q^i'Tjy 

.|yni;i:iiy:i lynn^^n -lyn 
-lyi tis ,D>ns T^ toT^Mi ::n^n^fc$2 nyriynj^pn nyn pQ. 
-üs -^n üDyia 05^11 ,pi>-D^^m8 PD yoij^D n t^n p^^-p^dlj^ 
ny D:n .iDis<-D:i^>^fpn^-i3 lytJ'^oD^^'^ü^s^p oyn iv lytooya 
Pi:j-d^"»v Dyn lyny^ üinirs ny — ■'^a d^j idik or^a r^« 
ns yK^^?;:y p« ys^'n^^vj^iQ n p« ynynj» ly^j'mv ^y^v^DJjt 
nynt^ ny t:j^iw:i — Dnyiji.-nnN> |yDl4 ps iy^:yryrnyD^^n 
'^D ly^^^D^yr''« Dyi pD n^i^ifeüD p« ötj^ny n^ya y-iyDyi;i » 
nyi PD i^^nyD 3:bnTpt<-Dn"iDB' Dyn p« .ni^nyD"iiDpfc?Dij 
i? Ml ny ü:yn ,1815 rn itüt pd ^y^vyso ynDonrN-on-iJ 
PK tD^^riD^^Dis nyi pD ::ny3jy^i5$D lyn ni$D jji?ü5j'-ann 

.piro^^:^ üvi PD ^jipmnyDJn^ lyn 
-lyi p'D 3iiD^ns^DM« PN iDyüMrDjytoj^H n i>:yn ni 
DDi: i^t^yj oj^n ,pi:?-p^tD{i' oyn d>d lyrtDt^ya t^N dj^ii ^D^^nns 
,y^yüK^ y-ijy3^{<!D n üt^min3 ,iD8nstDy^i^i3niü^'ipnaN oyi 
DinJ^^-ij^^ n«D DDnK'-''^DnNQ » pd lya^jy^om» t^n Oi^'w 
: 1814 pN lyrtj'ny t>x d^^ii ,iyDifc?D iiN 
onyii lyD^^mKmö^ipnjN n pd ^^^d nyiyDyi; ?y^D lyi^ 



77 in'rp^ttty njn 

i:^ lyavioi« DayiD^'a pi^'-ivjj^ii ly^n .tj^un^-p^DLi^ on? 
D^u Djymj^D iüt;0 i§ löt ,iyDy:jJ<t :yrj lyo D^n p,« ;.3ri'>ü' 
">^ 1 ,|yD'ui8 u :rjy-i:{? "lyiyDyi: lyi nyor.« ,pp-p^Dt5' 
ü^Dy; ,pi?-iy2i^ii W2 lyi'^N inyo :j^^^:i^ 'Z "ii>'rx nyitii ::^> 
pD 'PDn-'^D üvi lyotJiu" ü:y::y-i lyo lyn ,d^"« iy3J>* lya 
^^^»0 pK ^Jii^D^yti'Ka.o^s nyviif ddi>isd pn Tfe§ ^nojjn [>m 
lya i^;P nyto^ni ...tDD:ymi?2 cyi nya^i^^ D:yn nnj^> p.D 
-yj 8 PK tiinv^:^^ \v^:vd n dj^ p.s pi^ ""lyi t^* ^lyrsyj i?>Dn 
-Djyny? yin:yiiü>"".: n pD ma nyi i:^ y^v-ii^*3i^i3 lyo^n 
pn iyiny:"iyT |i^p iyi:>p ^>iiv d^d \^d ^ ts ^n» ,|y>Dvo 
1^0 lyi 3ni< /'y^^^Dii' ny^j^'^np lif a^jy^ip:^ too y^^^?2KQ 
;yiMiy3:i? ly^iyj V)^ ,Dy üd^^t ,ny D^j^n ,ny-irp ^m to^^n 

.^jnp p2 npiv ^MK 
-pnnsD Dyi lyDii^Tinyo:-!« lyrn Di^ii ,iyp>i25<D n px 
-:^^« nyi p^mi ,:?y:yi yj^^Dyj:'}^ n im>-p^ü-^ nyi to^iy^i ,Yvm 
-DD^uii^ Dyi |yn^!^D^:5< "j^: ]i^? P5<d^s{$p ^ns^ m :yii nyr^» 
.iVDjyDJ^K "nyo d^>::'',ö: n njyDisvo ri< ^i$o 
,ü"iynjyy:i ony^^ o^uns nyi ps t:)yDMrüPn{^n3 n jyii 
"D^^nns yonyijyy: 8 {yopm^-ia didd nyrz^ynyn nt^Q D^yoc' 
T^N ny Dn5^"n ,pi^-p^t3:j' "lyi "^'i« i^t D-iyijy "^^^^^i^^s »d^^v 
-j^.« px .t3^''VD^^aii$ nyüö^üt^'w {$ p.D pmo^^.K-pnB nyn 
tDi^vn-^j^ns lyir.Dtj' ik! p« lyrn ^y^sB'^^n iy:imynn2 lyr 
|yi:^t:'^ iz n ps lopni^na-üiyii "lyi nyn ^p'D'j^ 24 lyin^^^iyj 
3 ü28ip-ü^^m« *iyi p3 üiyirjj^D nyn »ajo'-tj^ ö lynyj pk 
IM> "iy"i P« Djys 3 yiJitsLj'-ü^un» ny: p2 r^na nyn ,::^>*^fi5» 
I23^ny::^n» lyny: pk p^id*^ p^i< pfc^ .Djys iVa p^oa' 1 n^a 
t)"iyD^> 3^o-DD>u"i5$ nyr2:pynyT n>^N .yiJitDij^-t3^>2i8 % 
nfe? "lyn pD Dyn^vL^pn^^i-is nyD'>y3i^'ü"i^*5 nyi non»: ,^v^'i'^ 
-:öt y:>8 n^iK p« ,^4: Di>*t}^:« -lyp^D'^ 48 ,iyj{>*T ")^ot^> ,t:^^3 
-p^D^j» "lyi D>fc?2 |»T ,üiy-ijy"i»2D^.N lyn^^^n ly-ijytsij'oit^ yiyi 
ü^jyt:^ p^t3t^ yiy^ ^^ ^itös ,ü2vb % nns Djya ly^ ps pi> 

^t^o 4« "^MK T>K ^*.Ty: p« ar^^ir 3 dmx ü^Sn'o D:y2 IVa ^^^'^ 
pi^P^ütJ' nyn nyoiyii ynyiji$ d^d ,::^'?^^ 3 "^^*':'3 D:y3 % 
nys^yii p« ,y^v-ii?2t>nQ nyrn:'ynyi pi< t3vyryjiyD:ni< tDiyi^ 
p.ö "ntro pt? ü-i^vnips iy-iyii dnii ,^yp^Dt5^ ^Jjtv n ddp5<ii oy 
ü"iyii DJ^ii ,iD>''v-D^^3ni? n Ml •q>^:i>i^D px ,0^^;; "lyj^a^ynyn 
j:nyn:y n ü^^i .ü^{<2 ,p't:'^ lyrn^yroyi ti^x üyuyinj^D 
•KP lyti'Miv lycoetp yn:yD:r D>n« ddh p^^-p^ük' cyi pD 



ÜV1 lyvyriv-iyDjns ^^^p-i>n hd ^i^non« i» d>$< oy i^i^: 
px it;)} Doyj lyü^uns nyi 'p^^ii nyiijs .ü-'^-ik nyn pa nna 
Dn^K tD>i^v lyo TS .n .n ,pi>-p^D:5^ ayn pa v^ nyi üor^v 
"ly p« ,ü£»ip-t3''U-iö: pn i^d ü>j p« t:pni#-iö p>T ns3 
üo T^« üi^)) ,V)'? D'Ji'D jij^vyTQ{>nfc$ |s ;y:ypo:« T"! ü^yto^j' 
PD t>nQ IyD^fyTy;Iö^;t1S li? pa d^'»:; lyrn^ytin p« ü>^>jy!3 
üayn ü^d ^SD^isfe^P lyi si^ toj^Di^a ni:yD y^^yrs .ni^ino lyn 
-rfij^ ny .D>uns-pi> pa n^toto -lyn ly^yii n^yD lya^^iJ k d>8 
ny^^DtJ^ » ly^yp^^fSMis Tirifc^a lyjnj^Ji ayi iy;yptD:i$ Doyi 
,t:^ij'B^öiy?pny px ,ynDDnr« nyi p.a ontj'Dni^D Dyi n^ix 
D'-^yD^uis oyi D^J t^« ü^u-i» nyn pD oyD^ropm^tnö n ist 

.poy 

.*?ytDtö*jp nyüOj»s:eii» P« ")y»fl 
PD T>nB ly-T p« öiyii ivi rt? ,|nyryi pitJ> twijfn i^o 

0>8 »"n^T ü>>3 ,pl>-D^U1l;$ nyi tDD>\"l Di551 ,DSfcinp"D>'31» lyT 

,iy?D^D-Djy2y:? yo^^o n px .lyDstT« '>'>'?iv'?^ po D»D>ny"i 
Itjip ,pirtD^^ms v^ t3^o lyanpp^K |is;p lytD^^nis nyi y^^yn 
ni?3 iy:>n ds^i^ .lyDsniN yjyi^"'6j'iS3 ^in iiyn:y -^^ix ^n 
-ü^^ai» "lyn PD t^ns nyi px :jnyi:y nyi pD j^j^ynsj^iK 
-i#p »nynjy:' yjyn^^ij'nKD ^n« p^>3 iü lyDnt^ii i>o lyii .DDsnp 
nsD yrcvD^^>i » d?5$ lyr^jriy oy^vj^JUDJ^p y>{§ n dj^ lyj 
n an:yD^^:>3"ifc§D .iy:in>-D^^nis y^^ijui^^vj?: po tD>>n:yn^^E5» 
p« jyDy: nynnyn n>D lyr^o »ly^t^-ivt?: y^yn^^^j'ifc^D ^u iy:M> 
PK lyjinyn^y n lyD^Dtj^sn dj^ii ly^srnix y^^t? n dds-iüsi 
-o^K Dn p« T^nB Dyn ; DDsnp-tD^ms nyn pa onirtsny^i nyn 
-y>-os^^n yD^ypM^D:8"B^ni^DDM p« y3*>^^tDS3 n pa :j8d 
,iytD>^ni8 Dyn pa iyüDi?pDar.n>viy n ; |yc^>:yD"in»n-D:y3 
PD tDyoMvt3pnt?is n ,ü^^3i5$-iynrp px -|y>nD pa y^^i^n n 
-Oi^yiiDSj'ya^tii n px at^D-Dü^uis Dyn pa :jy> ^ ,ü'^31» lyr 
'n^>>iisD "iyD^>ay>a"iynn« n»: » ^t^^a« .i3^^nnt§ lyi pd o^^p 
i«!D pi^ :j>*D-Dt3''3t^3"in Dyi iyn^:^nyi diip ^{^t ]Vü »ünyniütD 
n» I» nn« iviw yjyn^^unsD px |ynt:)Dn:^K y:^3?yTn 
n PD ::d^^^5D^ix ^t» ^^J .omi; nyrs^ynn pa ai?ü-DD'^3 



79 iMV-oan2-i» pe L3i'n::rT»tt>"iKB y^»:|j'3tJ3 

n^*D D^*r)-ii<n3 fc< pn ii;?p "iyt2vy> nn li^J mi ^ts ,pi>'p^OK^ 
DM-)3 ny^vDjyD:^« nyi i»d m^ üu mts ^üytD^rtopniisns in 

.D'u-i8 "lyT pa 

-•ivD:ytDj^K yD^^D^^sj'^nn yoniy: i< ü^>; ij5§> lyny px 
üDMim^D üiyii 0:^11 .ü^uiöt ''"I 2MK .ü^uiöt lyi pD eyö 
-"'^« iVDjyto:^« ny:^:yii f« »n-ino i< pD y^vpnj^-is nyn p» 
nyi^^« -^nvn n to^^nm^üD |5$t ,ü^ji>'Din "iyrD5>^j nyi nyi 
nynnyn -^n Djy^y-i ps< tD^>^ y;n:yiitD^ir"q^^DD8iJ'^yiy3 n 
yD*^o^'trDin n .c^-'Pddi: iy^i?D-iJ^: {$ ps ü^^ms d^» üo 
; i:^'? IV "i:i^^ p.2 ^n ü^'^ tD^un» lyi ps toyDni^D^yü:^« 
■Din y^i?:5?^vs: n d« .nyjy^p n t>k tDii^n »lyoyi: n vh ^i 
k-j>^«-DJ^D ny^M Di^^i »lyD^^^-syia 5ii n^i:^v ly^yois^ lyDotJ» 
n .t}^^3i$<-D^yii lyi PQ ü^^ni^''x-ü^r^'3nn n ji« ü>\t 
]^« nyn^nyn DTvnt^ns D^-'sns v'?^:i>p'^^2 yivDjytDj>N-nnyD 
-nyn pK oiyr. inyo .iyo''D:ytD:^x -yrjy^i lyi i:^d '^^^5':n«D 
.o^y: inyD px dmx ^n opm "lyD^yii ,tD>^v nym^yr 
ü-iy^i ::n:y^i:i? -iy^i?:j<i^v^: pn px Diyii pD ryty: Di>n 
\:i:v:iV^ Pi^o-o^yn ps^^x d^^ »DynDnn D-iyi:yy3 ^r^v^ ^i>o 
-n?;yc t? ü'?^ ^mx tD>^mö: y^fc?:i^^V8: y'n>Dpnr;?nsnnyo n ^n 
-y: D^: t^« i^^^v^: y^rtjpni^is n mi i:^'? >nfc?— yivDjyD:>H 
rnB-Fi^iPi»2 oyi lyvyr.viyüjns v:yiip:i^P 1"n iy:r.Kr.v 
.D^yii ny^n pd nsi: Dyi iv mmD in^« pa 
"d:5§ t^k y^vpn>>n5 yii'^LjD^^is^ts^s^p n mi Tiy cyn pK 
•q^^K ü-ii^n lyr-'io^i^ -fy lyra^yroyi px ^ijet^» 8 px o'>v?''^^ 
^yi p.2 tDyD"'"ivüpni^-s p.« oyüMVD:yt:rK yD^^D^r^DTi n 
n .-j{<-i: |y^y;:i?>vb*riyt:r« oy-i nyanjü o^^m» ny^e::s^^vis*i 
-y^i y:^y^^ ȟi^d lyrn^yrr^yi ps nr^ino ly'oiDD yjyn^^K^ifc$D 
-i{< "lyrn^ynyi p« "lyijy^ y:yi»ti^n{<D px oi^vnj^ns lyn 
y^ii::j?^vt?3"iytDrK y2'^^: P^P 12^3 "lyn^yn ]v:i^t] ,t:^^v-t}^^3 
üD^^r DJ^i jyT^ns yjyi^^'^-,N3 pN d^ik "^n WP''^'^ PN jyDnyn 
{^••vj^JiyürN n 0^1? iyi^"'c^n{<2 \vyt d^)) jy^iD-D^y; px 
DD^^n ,Dyii D^yj d':^d c-yii nyivt:b*''y"i "^yi .ly^ivii y^8: 
-■•s^p iiya^ypn^.o:» i» d^^ i??^v^: lyi ^^3 iy:y^P pv ,Dy 
t< to^^ i^^^v»: "lyi ^^3 "ly-T^^« ,|2iN-D3i^^vpnj>nQ tyL*"'OD^^fc<ö 
-ny-t C3^J^D oy .I2l^*-D3^^^vpnt<!■^^ iytD^ypMit2:5N-iyrjyi^ 
ü:y^^^v\^py lyi ,iM^-tD^^3-'.i< ly^yj^^^^: -^^vi t5< ,p2"iyi nyn 
pn i^N oyi^ ,ü^y2 px DpmyjD^^x üsöt^p-ü^^sn» ny-t pD 
Dt^T ; nyö>>nv nyn ^^3 mi |t#'Vfc5J nyotj^ny lyn »^a ^v:ivn 



3^ü3n "n^l« t^« Dl^-I TS ,\Vii^^ IV D^J 121K DltJ'n lynj^ d^^d 

.lyjnp Dy-i ij^a V4P ivd^u*^.» nyn D^n 
-D^ya Dyi p2 ü^M:yn>^{i'-ifc?D nyi t)i^ r^n s i^^d« lya^? 
nyi 18 ,iy:^£:yj t:)Qt^ \vo üyi^ ,ny"ijy> yjyi^^K^ntiiD p« ü-yn 
ü^o t{>:^V5s': nyo^iy nyi ^u ivyjn Vi^ piriv^j^ii lyij^ -:j^d 
-••niv ^yi ^u nyi^^K ,i2iJs*-D:t^^vpnj^-iD lyD^ypMitojj^-nnyo {$ 
ns nyi cd^m dj^i ,T^n£2-ü^''ni5i: ".yrpü8!?yi lyi nyn ^nyu 
w ^11 t:»"!:! ^118 ony^rnnyo nm iv 3:u^v8a pn p« t^na-D^u 
•8J lyD^niv nyi ^u ny^yn ünytDSi' »topni^na d'jiq Dnyii Dyi 

.lyDtj'iy lyi ^u ly-i^^N ,ii>*^v 
ps3 y^D^oi^p-pnDi^D nyi piD ny^^:5D^^ t? ,^y"i{$p .i^ «tJ^n 
jjonnyt::^^ -iyM:y: 5< "^ip /ü^D^iiyn d^v lyo^-pyj ?^« ,1833 
ty^üPSD |y:^i^ n lyj^n njb*^j:y p«„ ts ,^ny:^öK^ nyi pa 
-:ii^ ,t:jy:^D:!j^P pD^i« "lyi^^x ,iya3SpnnsD n ni?3 ny:nyi^j 
•iyt5'^^;:y lyi /'ny^yn pn >n lyji^p nyD^un» nvi nss ^i>*^.i 
DyT pN ,1J^3 ör^^ii iij^nnyi nyiJi^Dpy^N* *^^;üpysD:"•K-pnn{?D 
-jyD^^^^niüD » TTn ,1866 "lyn^top^* fytoSl ps DDnb*a-pnn8D 
Dyi Vi^iD T» ,tDjyrDJtp Ten« |yLoi<^D*^ n tD^o p>ldd^D5<dd yn 
-■»Dii^p n f« ,D^"'v-o^^n-!S "iyny:i:y^ ^y^D p« pi^ ly^^-.yio 
-jjy n nyn^^K *iyny>^ü Dpnj^tna Dr^ niD^^^i^n D^^m^? y^;j$üjy: 
pnnsr^yiisn s px 'n.vitDpyin ^v^>'?::iV i» .ts^^nis yti'^^ 
14% üij^-i Dnyi^y: t:^>v-t:"'^n".s n Ti? ,\:>^v'?prj 3nin:yi^{^ p« 
,ü3yiii? -iiK 8 V2 nns nyn pN* 6 ^^^n p,D ,:5^ö s w^jvlW 
PD -^ti^o p« ,nyD^^n-iS y3^D"i^^n n rs pi^ ,|yDJ^^tj^y3:)>^« r,2^ 
n:t?^:3y ^y^DMi jyüpnj^ns ^y^Q^ns d^j i-iyD^^» ü^^v nyi t:^^ 
-yTD^iK y;j^^^2:y "iyD:i« lyto^^nn» ^n |yii ,ty"TJit:!ti^ 3.0 n p« 
lyts^^nn» ^n |yi^ ,ny3^jyii -qo fe§ •qt^;} iyn^vni<t-i3 ^n ps* ,^vn 
^v:i'>'\V']^2 ^0 ^ tDnyD^i' v^'> ny-i »nynyrcn« yj^'D^n lyar,« 
^i?v n nyni^ ,ü:yvt^n5 50 n^ix ]v'Pi^t^ ^y^ö i^k ^^j^^jjy px ni 
-"cnsD p« ^nyoyni ^y^c T^i< ynyj^^i^i^o nyi ^v ■qiy --ö^ t3:yn 
.3 IV 5 pD y^vn^5^n3 "ly^ !'« lyjji^^^ööj^ v^vi 
ytJ'^Dn n ly^y^.i ü^o^b yi^ya nny? t^^^ynn lunnyn "lyn 
-jjy 18 tyDyjy: dh^k ükh |yüpN»Q n .fyt3:^?pn2^Q-^yns3 
üij T^3 t:3^ü5yK^s2 tyi^y: ü^^^i ft^ "nys^yii »nj^iDpynn nyK^>^ 
-ü3"nD '"IT^? T^K D^ii .ry^^*3 lyti^^Dr nyi t5« n^ix .Pniv ::&?? 
-D^^py-itJ^ yö^N •'T i^it? lynyt^K^ »ryts^ün^^K^ ^^^ny^s PK n{s*3 
iyü:spnnt?5 v^''^::v n iid "u^i^nys-o^Mi^^p Dyn p2 |yt:^^p 
^its .injy^::y i^^i-üj^j lyrn nyin>D n jjin^^n -.y^^s: px 



81 ^»Brp pB Jüi*?»»;:^ n 

-35$D D1V tDO ^M :^it: öD^^5?o^2i?? iyi5^^Dn lyjjriMaya in 'ii 
-3i^D "iy:n:j;DB' lyi »tD^^niöfiyn^x *iyT Vi;?"iD .ücytj^y: pn 
^1 pa :ji^J^viyTiDO "iyt:DD^^i:y;j' nyn px »D^^an^ü-DDöt: pK 
üvi 1111 ni^j iitDp^20so yi>'^Dn n d^^p Dys^'ki'T ^nya^^m» 

.nyi^PJi^P yc'n:ypDMX p.2 ü};?m»D 
-:i? lyni^n tyüSb^'^^yry: yt5'n:y^D^ix i» ,t::5?P5<n t^« ov 
px 1^1« Ml j<i3{^"i^''K-rnTD px iy:r:j<n:yT^^N ly^n iv \Vü^m 
■"'"izy:!:^^« n d^d lyo^t'.v »tDrüDyi^^jin ^^nnyi ly^J^n p« ,yM8 
-ya :n:y^n .nyo^^m» yt5'^^::y ^j^v yo^iy: 8 i^k ,y:yi 
p« iycy:ivrnK t:>\'5:n:yirjM3 "ly'^^^Dpfcji-iB ^nn iyi:*,«v,^ 
p.3 t:yüMVD:y*j:^i< nyi pK |y-i^'''^nyt2:iK y^i<:j;it^V{?: n pnirn 
—.y ly^n .lyiJ^*^ p^P torsn^y: i:^: ^n dj^t t:fc>*n »o^^mt? in 
-fc^n "w:^]::} :::^ip iyt:^^2i55 lyi i^^25< lyn ry: »cT^Misn iin.isD 
inyo n d^ik lynj? tD»2ip ,tD^''2*j< yiyivD:yt3:^K isö ü'^^): 
n Ml ,t3D>^8a"'2S!P cyi i{s*2 '^v'PV'\'\'?V'^'i ü^^m» yivo^yor« 
.ö^^m» v^'?i$'ii<2 ^v^'wi'': i^K yivDjyo:^« iyr:yn 



.^xa''BKp na 5n^ö»T3i>* '»n 

-ö^o"D:i}^^^fpni^i5 pi< ü^y: yoiD i$ p.D ::^5'-i:i!iv.i82 n 
ü2^*o Dy DJ^ii ::i:yi"i5<2 yjjti'iy n t^« t:2{s*"ip-tD^^2^.^ P« jy^ 
-n{s*2 n .3bto^2^p Df-b* |yi^:j?^vpr>2 pii{>n '^»v^^v'ii ^t^iyii lyr 
,c?Mt2D^"it? p2 ö^^y: i'2^'.K ,Pi^o |'2^•!^< 11^2 tD^r^.p ::n^i:8ii 
^jiiyii^n lyi dj^ iid dm^jid lyo^Miv lyi .y^vj<''^.pi^v pd 
-i^iB n i^5^3Mi ,t:3njyi{^2 r^x— y^vpnj^i2 p2 cyv?^i3 lyi — 
-yii ,nninD px lyiisniya t:^yi:5<in5<2 lyrn iyp:2>5:-D:}^^vpn 
-i:fc?Di^fe!53 V'\V''^t P2 üiyn c':^2 lyoy^: r^« oy üiyii cyt) 
Di^ii ,^i^'J^2{?p Dyn •^n t^x |ytD^b*nt::j? v:i^v^) ,.r\ .i jy^^^D 
-IV i? •^^^*: ü>o lys^nv ,tD3y^yim« iynn2 ^m p« ü5;jn lyo 
nt^i'iy32Mit< "qi^iiyi lysitti nnino n .tsiyniyn^K ps 21^3 
^1»! lya .trMtDD^^,K p2 t^np D'r« »pi^Jo Tömk jy-iyii jvd 
DJ^i »ü^y: PK oiyii ly^n lyoiPtün ,iyiM>^fc?y-i ,|y2Mp-i82 ^n 
-:ij{ pD lyiMi .11 .t? p« ^eiü^2ijp pK iy^i:8in82 nnni o^y: 



•n n« yi>^K ^in moD ünyj ^VD^yii ,T>np nxn oiif .nnn 

PK nnino yj^v lyD^pn^itD w D^^'PD^^iyo n lyn^^n ^fc^r dd^^ 
ü)n p£3 ^^^D lytDDyii oyi ^fc?D^B5j;p p« ly^-iiis^mtitj: nyi^ii 
ny:myö^^i"j lynix px .lyoipsn ^n nyi-: tDi^n iy d^;ii ,D^y: 
^Kü^ssp D':iQ y>:;5$^ipn^>^ n r» ,is? vo \vov: 2:)'?i2^nBi^ 
cyn pa Vp^i^i ny"iyM:ya 8 401« ly^^^it^sj » «in« "ij^2 d^ip 
.■^u tyD^Miv D'j^K lyny^^ lyayiiy: oy^i oyvi^na 
ü^^^ .n .i ,üiyiinnyD Dn^vnj^nö d^\) »üD^^^tD^s^p lyi 
PK lyo^ms Dy-r ps Dpym D''^m» yts^j^v^n^i« d>in üinr 
TT ü^yj o^\\ ,".yDti^"iy nyi t^k »nnino px pnöi n tDpm 
-^D:yr^« lytovy^ "in t^^^ fx ny ^ynt^ ,Diyii-nnyo oyi iv 
ly^i^oiv D>D"iyT "^i^iiyn ^n ^ifc§i ly .Dnyr.nnyo pd nyo 

•)yo>iD:yr^«n")y n d^d : y^vpn^ns ly^^^DDb^sj'^yrya nyn 
y"iyi:n»n ^m px nynnyi to^iüciv ünyirnnyo nyi j .t .5< 
•KP y:yn>^B^iKa iv t^ l^^^P VJ^n D>p^n yj^yi^^K^i^D .iy^>^D 
-BtjD^« ,|yö"ii?Q yiyi^^tj'iKD iyo^pfc?n px lyt^'jyo Dyni^:iyD 
,nin-D^y"i:8n ,t5:yvi^"iB ,nin mi ,v^v^:\s> n pa yr^« yrjjym 

.3 .1 .K yü:yi-Tiy 
DD^^bttD^BKP "iyi T» ,|i^ i^D ryoyj ,h^^^ .ö^n p>k pq 
.onyii ny^n ^v »tDn^vnj^ns üt^n ny di?ii »nnino y^^ üs^ipn^Q 
^'»D^BSP lyn ys^yn »jyoni^D y^^: n p« an^ynyjj^nj^; ü>: 
b^n lyij» nyn jid .y^^5<i^^pn>v ps o^ny: cyi ci^ik I{>* t^^y: 
ny M^ ^ns öjyvnt^nB tyi>''OD>^^D>B{<P Dyn i^d lytoDi^nto^n 
»owinnyo iyv:x: nyi ps nyo^Djya^^« nyn tyi^y:» t3^i>»>i 
u^Bfi)^ y:>n y^K pd ly^yiünsö ny*:— 5>mi lyo nn« lyi?^ 

.3>n Dyi PK 
,ii^^p T'K ,it^Q ^^^piMi üoip 2:i^D»r:i# n ^y^Q^ii ti^i« 
•ins ^"» lyDMPisB IV lyny^y^r^K -^n üj^n tDD>^fc?ü^ö{<p cyi r« 
•»3 ot?n iy Di^^i ,ü^ya dj^i iy5'n:i$in85 p« mino ycn^vn 



88 y^spn^jnejn psew^m 

onmi "ly ys^yii ^^n ,|yi:i::n8D y:>DOj yjy> p« nie»: pn 0*: 
nn y^vnijjsi^is » nss üi^)'^ pK jji^Dsni^ psj ü:v^v'?v |k 
-'S8P nyn DJ;?!^ ,p^n oyi nn« ly^saiv ö^j ^j^r üiyn-inyo 
ny Dij^ii ,P^n Dyi px »-^n -i»q p^k ö^»n t5:yvni#nö"üD'^öto 
•y' nyn "nt^T ü:yvnt?n5-üD>^fc$ö^38P lyi r^K »nyijjji bi^ o^j 
1^0 .tDnyi^nnyo Dyi iv ^vü\^v "in in Doy: ot^i^ ,-iyrj 
00 ,Dyvi?i3 on "nn ly^t^ooM« d^^3 ,11^ •lynnyi lyoy) 
ps .ö^^PD^^PiM^ nyn pK isnsa v^ ov dj?i^ »di^t ^^1 nnyo 
Dyi pD y!:ni^snD:ni yDscr^K n ö^iyn iD^n nyi:» in 
PK y^vfcü^^.pi^v nyi ^"in o^ypjiDij^D :r.^08Tiijt pEj oyvi^-ia 
•"K'nss nn« ly^SEiv tD"iyn D-iyirinyo lyn ot^ii ,üvi ^nn 
pK 3:i^d8t:i^ ps Dyvt^ns oyi p.a t^J's:^ "lyi .ly^^'ö y:n 
y^^'ii 8 n^iK |yf'i?T n^D ^nynnyi oiyni^ita yonijfD iyj>n p^r 
-•♦K Dyn iy>yö:ns£ ü^)) Av^ii^y^^iv y>s n tD>M » m \yi^> 

.DT^:83yD pn po Maya jya^^iy: 

» PK y'vpni^is pö Dyvi?-i5 "lyn y!D"ii?ö k ii*ö oi^ii pD 
moD K'njjnyB ny tid D^8D:y5'8 ,t>n t:>: ^i^t üQstJ'f'ytyj 
-D^^« ö>i p^p DD^K^^yty: n .lyonsta ya^yrn iny^Dnn 
•lyD-inn-itüD iv triynöM« do ]^:> n ^^i ,iyi^vni^-is iv lyiyn 
-yi ii>*D OD^p y^vpni^ns -lys^^DEsr^yry:) p2 Dyvi;?i5 irry 
ai^« ü38nö»3 \vo ty^i .y^vpni;?"iByn piQ oyvj^-is d!?» nynn 
lyjyr^« pn pD Di^noK^ iy:n:you' 0^8 ,Dyv:8: D^^noy c;» 

o^^v nyn^ynyi p« ly^^t y^vpnj^is pa iya:i3:ns3 n 
DO ii?P tDDötfij^^yrya d^k^ p>p .y^vpnt^nsri po |y:r3:n8i 
-D3»^vpni?n3 PK pn^v ty^:fe?in8B üo pk 1103 jyn^vnii^-iB 
V^ö lyc^iiy: «t r'Vpvii^-iB «ly^o pö lyojyöy^y p« jy^e^ö 



lyii ,^»D Dyi pK "ii;?i "i^in nyDo^osi'öin k ^i^^« oy lyD^^myo 
p« ly^snyütüD y^n n »r^vy^ n—iy^D^D-Dji^i'vpni^-iB n 
öl PQ -^tJ^D px t:D^nmi$Q lyiyii Di#i^--iy^8nyD8D-DD^>n n 
-Dyi pD ly^p^on» yo^D iyD>^^: k ö>d lytDunss lynyi^ ,in»#> 
-y^i D^>^üy:]si^ I21N fc§Tb* ^^^« lyaifcin vi:i'^v^ n ; po lys^yr 
p« ,ini#^ Di^i n5$3 lyDi^t^'yj lynyii Dt^i^ ^lyDpni^na n po \vi 
^iiD nyoo^ütJ'^^n s .y^vpni^ns t^D Dyvi#-iö d':^« pn» p>m^ 
-jy^T .y^vpnj^ns nyi i^t^k üiynya npni^-iö ly^^^nny pö 
üi^Donpy ,^^nnya lyirDpnjjns ni$Q t:D>üß'8n n^^nna^ yi 
üi}\) ,\V^p)ii$iQ v:i'?v^^ jiQ yöni>*D -lyn px "^^^^nyiiy: ^i^^d *^y^ 

.^Minyi ly^yn^iinj'K Ti^d d^j lyiMD 
oyii ,6j^>0D>^{<ö>Bfei;p T>K y^vpni>na pD yont^D n n^ix 
p« Ml MTS W2)B .tJ'^DD^^xD^BSP pn y^vpni^nöyn n 'hmk 
Dyn "ixD ^yt^^o d^s ni^j D^^nifc? n ü:^^ij^iy y^vpntitiö nyi 
-in pK ^Mx MTX ,p^^8 "qn pD •n>T nyoyia-ixD ^v ^xö^ssp 
D^':xnyn^x ^yo^o x mi ni^j o^^mx n öj^^u^ny y^vpni^nsyn 
j-\ .1 ,^xt3^2XP D^x ünyn iyD:y^y:j^nx cyn lyTvni^iB iv 
-ijtii^py n .p^^x "^n ps -qn tDnyoynnxD di^m ü-iy^ x d^x 
iij: ,iyK^:yo x ^mx "^n tD^xn cd^^xü^bxp x ps ypoxo yu^^o 
.^XD^sxp D>x an^ytoK' Djyn ü^y^ t>n di^m »oyi ^nn 
nyöD D-Ma 100 ps yoiD x t>x nni?^ ü^i ixd .d .v jjmk 
X lyaxt^'yi ü^n n px ^-xtD^sxP px ly-ij^^iy: o^yi^xmxD :r^ 
ini#> ytDDpyj Dt^n n ^nxi ,3:^^iyrDD ü:i2: 20 pD üiy^nnyo 
.y>vxnyE3J;it yn^ym lyaxoain inni |ynni^> yr-nyü^Mi n p« 
^Xü^sxp iyö:y^y::^nx Dyi pD opixinv lyss^ni^nya d^x 
-sxp iyi3y"i^:j^^vpJiQ oyi pa eanQ yt^n^^nya d^x int^ 
OD^^D Di;?M ,nD:3n PD yoii^D n D-iyrnnyo -lyi ooipx3 5xd 

o^x TM^n tDD^^xtD''BXP fixö ti^vn nD33n n üi^ smk 

'^'>'\VB MTX D3M-imXQ öiyM M HMX ; ^M13y3 I^n nXD T3}#D 

-:x y^x ^^n IM 1X3 1^0 tynt^n ,iy:i^ipy:rnx üiyM m mi ,rn 
iyn¥ .rvpnt^iöy-j y^xer^K n ry3D^a:nx3 ya^^i nn 



81 y'xpn<j"iBj?i y^ijfijnit 

cy ii^i MI ,0^^:81 ri:yaij' üiy^^ tDP3is-::ii!iD>^« lyi ü^i^ px 
-:^^K Ulsans n oi^n ty!2 "ly^^yii ^mk ^ü^^v n nya^xisD ünv:^ 
D^^^ (S o^onyi iyo8Tiv ^^n-^jiiD tviya oy ii>*j ^ii ; ODMpyi 
üfejji^D s ,1i#n K pD ^ti'D^ ,i:y^ nyD^iiy: 8 ps. y>vpni<:iQ pD 
-Dj#: üsriy "iyi:^^2ii? Dyn !ya o^j^v^n iy!?i^v8n nyii^ j .i .k 
-iMi "in^K |yT^*.iy:DMn» t^-'.tr üi;?n D2bt"ip-t2^^n"i8 V'>\ ")) ,üv^ 
-yr^K nn^K >^d .nn^no p« ü-iyaiypi^üD ^n dj^h px :jip 
tDD^\T ,ü^^\!^ nyo^^m» nyi .oiyiinnyo Dyn ^>d ,tDny"ii oyj 
■J8D ii^D ^^'^nyi ü^yDK^ nya^yii ^ly^i-nnyo Dyn -nn« ,dj#i 
,iii^D Dyn pK OD^^iijD^ssp D'oiQ n^i^ß-^^nny^ oyi "is^3 t:ik 
nn:yn8D nn .n .t ,pi^ ly^yr^« pn "in Doyj oy ty:8^i pD 
nyi) ny nn^^« ,nynnD dh^« dssk' ny px ; ^sü^ssp "iy3^> 
; p^^-D^^nn» PD yoit^is '^n p« dh^k iv pmv ooip (^isü^b^p 
c^n ,^8D^B8p cyi tD¥ "iiDD tDi^YHi^nsyn ny idt ^d tn^a pK 

cn "ii^D |yöD^Di?:t?py yt^^K^nn n t^ w'^v^^ iv:i'^)n 
rnoK nyn pK .ksi3 üphi^ib oyi ps 5»>^d fc$ d^s ,pi^ 
nyn pK lyö^^si» Dyi iv pmv ddip oy üt^\'\ pi^i vh lyn^ 
-yi p^^8 iy 01^*11 ,opnt^"iö Dyi po >^^d s ,pi^ ps e^'S^K^ya 

Dyn IIB tsnyi^ oyi »no« ,Dn^« o^i?!^ DD>5'8tD>Efci:p "lyi 
yD"in:yy3 n tm^d t>k lysJit o^y: Di;?! .ü^y: p« tspni;?iB 
PD — •iy:>t3DO iyni# ,"iyD^^2i» d'j^d üpni^^B cyi pD yoiii^D 
ntüD nytD^^^n» nyi di^ii ,id^^v lyn px .üpni^ns cyn pD ^^^d 8 
-i^nB y^^: p« iy^D^D-D:i<:^vpni^i3 n pD f'^^o p^« tD^yi:8ii 
t3^'3i8 "iy:mynnD pn pD üpntinB nyn on» ür:v:i ,]Vopm 
orjtT .o^ya PK ü5'yi38i^n8D pmv üiyii iy ^«^^ ,P"i8o i'dmk 



,ü^y: Di^T pns in i:i\if'ü i^i oiiiin ,Dyi Tin ^n DDipfeüi Oi^ii 
-KD^BöiP iyv:8; oyi ivüDsntDötn i^d ii,o mi ,riD>n ünjMv^nsD 
-j>^K DVT DKOJ^'J« D^^pnytD^m» iyvj«3 Dyi px D5§^p-|yDD^^ 
"KP lyn ."lyD^uis Dy:^yvr^K oy-i n« dd^^so^sjjip üv^'?v'^ 
nyn r« Ds^Pnyü^^Dns nin :njytoK^ ü^a Dfc§^p-iy.t:D^^Kö^ö 
Dj^ii ,iyDpi-ii^is n pD ^>^D }<i n^i« iy:in^no}^-ü^y: pD yQ-.i^Q 
lynj^n iyüD^^55ü^si?p n px DTvnJitis ]V2^n nyo^^nis n 
D8^P nyo^^ms nyi tD^i |y2:n^>^^:{^ n ot^ .iyDijy:iv ^n dj^ii 
ij<s:nyT Doyj pK Di?^p-iytDD^:?ȟ>3{$p Dyi pmv :n:yDt;^ pi^k 
.DPni^iQ Dyjy:^'-« pn ps ^^^d pn DiT« ^n 
bpni;?iB nyn Di^ii ,Dyn ^nn tD^yo^n^ö r^K toDyt^'ya lyn 
yoiJiitD n \4 üDyj mino n pK nnino ^^ p2 yo-ii^a n Di^n 

.tD^yi pö 
s ni: 121K «TS n^i« r^N ^»d^s55P iyD>^nynjyi»D ivi 
nyi tDi^^'^ny oy ^v:im'\ px ^yciJ^s ysi'ni^DD^n yiyi:ntjin 
Ml ,1 j t^ s - D ^ ^ 3 n 8 lyi nyij? |y^D>Q-D:yny^ P3 nji^a 
8 D>j 'n^^i^Dfcit: üvi iyü:^&< ;n:ynyDtj^n^*2 ,iyj{>*r ")yn:y^a:y n 
nyi T^K Di^i ; D^^ni» lyi n^D -i:}^ö fc? n^: ,tD^>nnj^ pa ui^s: 
-5'»nDM« p^^st in nD ,iyni^n Pin^i lyD^^m» nyi di^^i ,ijj^d 
PK lyTvnj^ns no p^^s ny djjj^i px ,|y"i>vni^nsyn pK lytD 
-i^ns nyD^^DöfeüiJ^^yTy: ps ly^ytoD^D y^8 ^n lyn^vnj^iB -lyini 
*]Vi pN nj^: a>-i:yD*^ n:?^Q-D^^n-i» Dyi tooipsn ny .v^^pn 
opnj^-iB nyjyr^K pn ^^m ,D"'''ms V'<] isJS D^j^vy: pö yDni>*Q 
-•Bi<P ps yonj^D lyi p« :n:yt:^ on^^? pD in tDiyü^nnyi 
-t:^^3is nyn tDj^-'triy oy -lyD^yii p« ,yoii?2 n dj^ lyni^ .;»» 
cyi t:^3 t:D>^5<t3^£)»P nyi t«; ,dp5<2 Dyn doij^3 ^-w^^v ,"iji^ö 
PK n Ml ,iyt3vy5> d'j^d D^^mj? nyi pD 5>'^o » rn^n nyü^o")» 

.jytspnj^nB t^K önyöiypn^D 
yrn o^D ü'>n^» *iy .lyMs Dy:yr^«n>^^ » lyoyj n>oi<t^ 
.n .V n^yo Dy:yr^« v^'t ^nx ly^tD^'D-DiJ^^^pniTB i^^vr^K 
^n« ji^nnB iy d^^di» ayo ^m y-iyn:^? n .li^M 8 :yo ^m 
,-^:^ftB-ü^^3'^8 Dy:y3^tK pn 2n:ytot^• Dn>vn{<t"i3 iy .rna pn 



87 y»spn<<->Byn yr^jeaim 

-ii#o ^i^T rns "lyi lyn .D^^ans iytD^t^vfe$3 p« "iy:>^^^rnö 
n^P .nynt n ,mDnrD^u"i5<; n ,iyn>^3 oyi ^n lyoyj^v lya 
-lyn T^D ,"iy>iö cy^yr^x-n^^^ d'^iq ly^D^D-Djj^^^fpni^iB n — 
.rn3 Di^ t:2i$ip-D^^m» pn ly^npitüD ]i^ ii^D Dyi po '^v\:i'^v'? 
-nD ^11 ym^yrn lya^'-^n iy^{>n iyn:yütJ';Dix yiyijjj y^s lyii 
pN :yo 6 lyD^^nn« lynnQ ni tDp:iD ly^ia lyi toyii ,"iyn 
-ytyiiy: p^t n^^D jyD ^m pK p^^« "n^r n&§2 :vü >m :^ijn^ 
*iy .nynyjü^uis iynjy>i^v-pi? 8 üv^x t^k ny^^yii ,rn3 nyj 
-pni?i£3 n lyDMnmsD .nynns mi üp:i3 »^^k üv^« ^j^: oyn 
ünyii ny^n t^yii p« jy^to^D-DJi^^vpnt^is d^8 iy^D>D-D:fc^^v 
-^n 8 toyii oynnc 'Vi tDp:is .i:pni?n5 rc^it^ ly^ii^nonynnK 
nyai? .lyTvniinBy"! ^mj< pvi)^ topnj^-iia d':id ^^^d ')vt:iü''\:i^ 
,^^'2^^'V^'? P3 yioii^ö n i^ tofsyj tD>^nn5j;-ii>*nn2 n "ii?: mi 
-yi p5< Di^vnj^iB "lyMS "lyi d^^-.i ,n:5^D-o^^3n» nyi li? Doy: 
pn Di^ii ,^y!D^£5<P p2 y^nj^a n ,iynnD mi dp:i3 ,ön^xni^"i3 
-^yi^ »DD-'oi^ji^py nyt^i^i^nin lyn .on^« d^j rns ny^yryiiy^ 
,y^ni^Q n iyT>^t>'3J^ t^o no iyt:vy:yi3sn v^t d^d i^i^p nys 
•■•iK n ^^ ü2»o ,p^^» "q^T nyn p3 ^D^^^iJ^iy "^j^t {§ nyj^yTi pK 
•ü^u"^.» nyi üöyj "^j^j dj^^h i^^dk di^^i ,dp55d oyi i^d jy: 
1^« T^^n ^»D^ssp pD y^ii^D n D^yii -lyr^iK «i^i« l^? n^^o 

.ly^is'mi^JD^iK 
|8T -itii: Dn^^-is3 ^fe?D>3^p iy3^^"iy"i:y-i^*D nyn ,noK 
-i?p D':"i3 D^^vy:iD^i« toiyr. dj^ii ,t:nyii i$ pa nyt2P{§i»3 Dyn 
lytj'^DD^^yiü^sj^P Dyn tyto^i^itoijin n^o lyii ,"i:»^n d'od^^^^ü^b 
.sjiK^^jfeiin pM pD *^M^ iy:njytoti' d':^« y^vpni^na p3 |din 
n^Q -lyn^inji^ t^n oy jyii px t^n oy inii in tto ny "lynt^ 
,iy,'Dy:3i# üPjISijsoc^ lyrov^t^-t^^ nyT:iK pa nynnyn lyno 
-ji<: iyD^^::)fc?D:i^ nyoniy: $< "^^in ^t>'ofc? t^« dd>^jn*o^55<p "irr tk 
— tD''''n"iöt nyD^i^v«ri2^3 pD r::iynsi<DiK /üry:i ps :ji^Dt?T 
-)y:yr^x pn t^o lyoDjymsD n ps ly3:nti;5rE^;? ^"in ni 



ly^DfeüniDfe?! ly^jyj nyoyst^ ly^yii i^d oi^n ,Dy^3i^"i3 nyn 
j:i^D»i:i^ "iyD^^3j^2:iii "lyi iy:yi^ ^yü^ssp d'j>k 
Di^^i ,T>i^n p^^i? üpj^s nyi pic^ ,pn tD>: ^i^r dj^i mi lysi^ 
^T nyi^ »y^vpnfc^iB iy'^^DD>^5$D>sife?p lyn pD oyvj^iB nyn 
^^n ^jyDi^naiyDJiN d-'J ^moD \^ \:ir]v: ,y^vpni#iBy"i y38;2:>>x 
lijt jynnn dj^ii ,iy:i:nyn:y ynj^myi:"!«!^ yiyi:» "^i^: D>n8 
fyi::öj Dy-r '^mk li^j ,^5$D>Bi?p iyD>^nynjyi8E3 oyn tm^3 d>3 

-j#ny3 Djjyin a:>^nyDD tDJiD 1000 pa ^fc?t:^Bfc§p s n^ix 
PK ir^ny^D üjiD 200 pQ tonyirnnyo 8 ,^>^nny» .n .v ^ts'n 
T>« ,in{^> Dyny^ DDMim^Q tJiyi^ ü-iyirnnyD nyi Dtjt n^i« 
-nsD Dyi PD yoiD >i oyn nn^^^ jy^-B pa n^D px n$ ,ii#^P 
,:r^nytDD djid lOOO nyns ,200X5 ^n DnyirnnyD lytoa^nn 
.^fe5LD"'Sj§p |yt::iy^y3rnK"iynnD oyn ^>^^i .n ,t 
nii^i lyiyii D3>i*imi§Q d^^^i^ tDiyinnyo iy3>5>iny' lyn \v\) 
ly^^n^ytoyi Dö:ny:i n^o iyt:^j^ii »tos^yn s n^x .n .v ,t>^^^^^>d 
•^n D^i^ii oyvi^iö-DJi^^^pni^ns lyn Mi ,DyT -^j^j D^o^^tyn 

.t::is 1000 T^K toiiD 100x10 ^^ni ,inj^^ jnyv D'im'ynyn^K 
^feüto^sfc^p iytD:y^y;j^n8 nyi d^^^üiv jyo lyii 4>^oy;^ij pK 
.T^^iiiy^ oiy^i^D tDD^^^t^^Q^jtP "lyn di^ii ,DiyirnnyD Dyi tin« 
-i<in toy^ iDD^^Js'tD^si?p nyn y3>yi'i p« ,iyini^^ ^i^v n lyo öj^sya 
pö tD^y^yar^-,» ^^n ly dj^ii ,^^d^s8P oyi lyoyayasMK [ya 
.lyn^^ija D^j Dij'^jnj^a ^^jd^ssp Dy:y^ ps m)^ ov pK ,nnn:i? 

Dyn i53M-im^2 ny t» ,üpjyi üD>^»tD>5b*P in ü^)) ,ü^i 
oyi .n ,1 ,D^un» -iyD^i>*v^rtD^: ,iyioyi3 lyi pc dph^^j-^s 
D':iD tD-iyii iyD'>5'::»D:{>* Dyn Din^ünDix tD^sn px Diyii -^r.vo 
nyo^iiy^ K "HJ^j .•qb*r n d>:) ij^j k^^ldp^q tDiynjy .^ttü^ssp 
,üai;?^i»Q iy Di^ii ,^{§D>B{<p D'jiQ D-iyii lyi r^x |yint^> "pi^^i 
PD ^K^D PK üi^n ny dj^ii »öiy^rnnyo d':iq yoiD lyn "^^^^j 



8i yispn^napn 3;r»s3'^K 

,Dyn"nya n — dh^k p2 ^^>d p^k dj^mi p« DMia pK üin:yy3 
etjtn "ly \v^^ ,t^« iy ^11 lyryiiyi i^^d« t^«— j .t .« Dyj^t^'^D 
Diyn Dyi |y:y^i "^n D^yijsn i^i iy2i^ .ü^yiJ^y: dj^t Djysyyj 
.lyoiyoy^y y^iynyD^^o ym ly^yn ö-»: pi< ^sd^s^p d'ji3 
•ly Di^ii ,üvi ^nn iy:y!:i5?2 ns: pn tDD^nnnt^D ^.yr^« lyn 
PD Diyn lyn ^n D^n: ^nx iy:^n V2'?]ii^ ,nmn ^n n^i« t:Dyj 
yoiD n Tn^3 nt^'Q ly^yon^D n»3 pn e^yoc' ,iy:yDn5$D pn 
: üD^^so^öSP l't^^D ^^1« T^K yn5»yTD{#i p« .nnin yj^r pD 
iytD:y^y::^nK V'^x ^^^5a r« Di^ii ,Di^r.tDy DDmmt^D üijtn iy 
iy:>üv>K pn pQ üiyi^ "lyi "it^iQ "lynnyn ts^yöC' ,^8tD^si§p 
•IV ^n ü^n "ly Dtjiii »üiyiinnyjD Dyi pD yD*,D n ii^: ^^üd^e^p 
>ypy-in VP .oa^^jn^^a cyi -ii?2 ü^j^v5<3 rijynj^n t:>3 ,iyoiiy: 
.0^: ^r]Vo on^toonpy ^so^s»? lyt^^K pn pc üiyii d':id 

Df'yi:8in8D ,::i^a»T:i? '•)]jiv'> Pd iyv:5$3rx inyryisiii 
,oyvi#"iB-DJi^^vpni^na "lyan^yot^ nyi tm^s t'Mny:njyiiüM3 
pyajy^ iyi8? pyvn^p 8 ii^: ,y'vpni^isyi y35$D:>>N n lyij^ 
pK lyiiji ,^fc5o>E8P lycpyDötiyi 8 p« ^^^d^bkp lyny^ ,nt#nya 
pK lytoyitD^^n« D>n i^^en ly^^ .oiyirinyo lyonn^^tüD^aöip 
nyT Ds^ii ,5'fc?ü^5»P 8 lyiiya ds^t t^k Dyvi^iö-D:t^^vpni^iö 
TVD ,0^^3*18 ny:y:^^K v^t o^o ü^yo8Ty::t^ üj^n "lyo^Djyr^« 
|yoi:y:^v vi< üi^)^ ,ü"iy^i 8 lyiy^i "w^vb*:^ lyii^ lyn^-iD ny 
yo-ii^ö lyi PK— aonysiypn^D 8 nyn^iit »D^i^v^n int;? iyni>*iiy3 
"^i^VKi-D^j lynDyiö p2— a^iyn:« DJ^^^toy ps lyni;? t^^y: pQ 

.13^^318 nyo 
nsQ IV n3 T8 ,|nyry3 td lyni^n ^lyo^s^p iyD4 d'j^« 
ly-i^DD'Tpy $>i^T oy iuya ü^: t^k .^jüd^ökp p« ü^y: iy^n:8it 
.pi«o Ten« lyT^ipn^v jy^i^T 'n jik nmno pQ y^vpni^iB h 
I'e^ik iy:^Ey3 üK^iy ^i#o no o^ya d'jiq lyo^o^yr^« iyi 
|y:jiKiivy3 lyi«^ 'hd lysiKT yD^yii »lyu^jyo ynri:» piso 



.K^nyn:» oysy |y& 
lyn |iD e^yoKiiiD lyn Dnyütj'^n t^r^» j'noK -lyn [>« 
*iyT lytr^iiv a:n^^:fiv "lyi pN y^vpni^ns nyti'^toD^^^D^öfciip 
nyü^uifc? Dyi lytJ'^m* üd>\i di^i ,t:pni^*i3 in^N px o-'^ni» 
cyisnn iynt# .ü^ms "lyi ps iy:ji3jn{$n v'?V'>^vom n px 
-lyi p« p^DN ,ü'iTn'y:iynns 3>-ijyDtJ^ Diyii poy lyi ot^n 
-^^KifeüQ :jn>^t5^iv v^'ii^i n Dnyii ^y^vpm^nsyi -iy35<Dr>« 
-iye^^DD^>8D^£3»p "iyi p.D. D»D^nyn ly^y^vysD lyn d^s orn 

.y^vpnij^iö 
,op:ir:i8aD^"iK Ik tn^2 ly^^ya lynnD ?>x oy Di#ii iyni# 
-yi 8 »yvpni^isyi nyD^ar^N nyn p:8i 0; ,iv^v^\i^ tony^i 
-D1K tD^y"ij{§in»Q tD^n p^« ps .-noD "qn d^^jsd dj^ii tDtiiD^n 
-3^n y^ynyü^D di^t y^^^pnj^is ps oyvi^nB nyi "^^^nynsD^i« 
; tDD'5»5§tD'D8P r"i»3 iy^D''Z2"'qM-iny3 ps p« ^»tD^a^p px did 
D'iiD Dms riiytoti' lyD^^ms lyi üdip d"t lyijs nyi pD 
D^»»— |yDi?iDy:j^n« on^« p« t>x iy ni ^it» dii^ö Dyvj^ns 
lyviJiVDM« ly^tD^D T^x Dy ya^yi^ inj:^ nyni? ,DiDD»n pa ^»iip 
-yarns t^« ly lyr-^^? ni nr» .p^^» ^n "ifc$D DiDD>n di^i 
•y:2i? tD^-'nns v^^ t-»« ,y^vpnt^is lyn pa oyvj^ia pK lytoi^iD 
DD^5»i?ü>a5$p D'iia |y"iJ^^^y:i iyoi:iy:")5f ^nn^K ^^n |yij?iiy:i t5a>ip 
,^{5t:^s»P pK lyii^iiya Diyanypnija t^« jin DiD:y;j^>K d^8 
j^K D^ynj^insa -noD Dyvt^na D':^a to^^v lyi p« n tDiyn 
r« y^vpni^ia pa Dyvj^ns lyi ni ^ns .üpnt^-ia lynoyia. k 
üD^^^tD^et^ip lyn lyD^yii ^in ,Dyvj?-iQ nyi tD^>^? lyn^ynyi pK 
-18 D':ia öpHi^na nyi üiyii »üa^ip'ü^^m» n DD>nni8D 
*ii?: ,nn^nD p« t>i^n 0^3 t:^y^J8^n8a ^^^nyna^^XDi« iyD>^3 
v:i^v^^ »toa^np n d^k ürn 0^)^ ,tDnyii px ; ^8tD^S8p p« 
— ly^tjinya lyanp d^^i ,^ytD^D-Djyny? t^« : lyDiyii ds^b^ 
t3^D |yiin:8Di<5p dj?ii jy^ü^D-ojiiii^vpni^ia pK ; lyD^^m» n 

.tDiyvnt^-ia Dyn 
ri^yDK^ nyü^^2-i8 -lyi tsi^vn^^nB 101« oyi ^^1« 
•"•B^P ps yonfe?£. lyn pK "nyn^ ,QiD3'n iy>ynyD8!5 
DH^K ny^*»« tsB^iyn Di^ii ,öa8o lyi^yia 8 pi3 öd^^Td ,?8d 
DM^i« jnjyDK^ 001P -lyD^^an» lyn p« .pn^» tDi^ööi^sDpy pic 



91 7^^n<<i3in yr^jsa^'K 

.y^vpnj^iB lyK^^öD^^jjio^ssp nyi ps nyoonpy nyn ps 
PK .1D1K iy:n]y^Miv » ein« Ds^nni^ö nyö^^ni» irr 
ö^^m» pn "^"in "ly ü3Mnnn{i!3 ,ün^vni;inB ny di^ii d"v nyn 
DJ^ii ,|yt}pni^-i3 PK ^n D^y-i:sin»2 pK |y^ü>o-D:i^^vpni^ni 
-ms ^n pK VK ü^)^ ,^8t:^S5§P nyi ^11 D-iyi^ pyDyn: k wi^n 
"i^D ps IDIK nyivtopni^iB pn t^k ü^i .[yni^^iy: \:i:v'?V} 
Tj^K D^^ms pn ü"iyi^ "lynift d^^v lyn^yr lyi p« .jyD^na 
pa .DDMpy:B>^ m Oi^n dj^ii ,üd^^kü^b«p o':id üSMinnisa 
ny Di^^.') ,D^y: dj^i d^ik nyo^^D^iK lyi tDo ü^n in:» nyn 
->ip IV ^^iK ,t:2S"ip"o>^n"i8 pn lyanpiss pa lyaipw ^^n 
.■^n Di^vnj^iayi p« D^y^ ly y^^yi^ d^o ,iy^tD^^-D:yny5' lya 
-j^"ia n .a:^.D^n3nKa y^^^^ynys y^ynnvi:^« \'>^] t^k di;?i 
lym nyD^^D"]» D'jta ajoMimjiia y^yn^iri:^« p« yivopn 
tD^yi:sn ^$$£ p\s i^k .^n lyi^'Miv iy-i^'»*«>'"i{$a jnjyatJ'^ia "^mk 
•^tD^ssP DyT t2"iyny: p,K fjötü^sstp D':ia DBi§ip-n^nö s ^i^ iy 
DMK D^>a PN p^^s "^n ny t:iivr\v:i ^fe?a nyi:» oyi i>k ; eo^^ 
-y"i3 n -lyD^iK lyny^ Dy:y3^^K pn jia Dy^vp:ia y^ynnrir« 
"\v Dyn P-: ü^ü^nyn lyn .Dyvi^"iö-D:i^^vpni;?"i5 D':ia lyvy: 
lyi »tDD^^^to^ssp D':i2 lyny^ ot^i t^k lys^nDifeiia ü"i8 lyüK^ 
"lyD^^ms D':"ia jyny^ ot^i — tDn» |yö>^^iv D':ia tD»D^nyi 

-■•i^'i^a n PK 3i?tD-Dü^^m» nvi üd^ioks lyn^n i^d fyii 
yf>y^Q pK ,nöK ,v'o \V2^n ,Dynt:DnrK yonna n pK dv: 
IV |y::^Kiivy: dei^ t^k "lyü^^nis lyn t» ^inyrya ly^y^ac'^u 
K PK ■^sn^n 8 "iKD T^i^2 "^^iimsta iyD^^:ynys pn lyD^ito 
tDöy: t'feita Dyn pK .Dyv{^i9-D:i>*^vpnj;|tiB oyn pa ^^^a 
-ü^^ms: pn lyo^K^jt^ jyjt^P iv hd v)^2 iy^t:>D-D:y3y^ n -ly 
PK ly^^-iP ^lyoyp r^j^a iv o^yoc' lyo ^ii mt^ dpjib ,öD5inp 
iy:>n Ti*'-3"'^?3 ps Iv^o^D yrn .^^^k — i}>n i'-i^a pK lyosiii 
; ^yü^D-D:if^vpnj^ns k pa iy^o'*D"in*i3-iK2 v)^i D^«^yi 



tD'3 |yDD8iiD83 "i>D ivii ,^i$T n DM« ünvT tnyi^K v:^: 
»lyD^^nn» oyj^yv:^^« oyn p« DD^^tsLD^Qfciip Dyj^yvj-'^« Dyn 
pytD^ms Dfe$^p Dyi 11« iycD>^ötü^£SP d^ü^p iyi;:«j Dyn 1:^3 
-80^E»P Dyi ni>*3 ,y^vpni^i3 ns lyoy^j^na yü^y^:^^«ifc$2 tD^j 
pn ^M« p.K :jiiyiis3 pn p« y^vpni<!"i3 pa Dy^^i>nö jyti^^DD^^ 

.n5§DtJ'D»''o iyD^^Dj:»t^'^yty3 

^8lD^B8P pn pD ^^^D 8 DM« D^3 DD^^SD^SfcüP nyi lyil 

pD Diyii Dyi D^ony-T ny tDiyoynr.t^s ,DSfcinp-L)^uni$ n^« 
ü^D Dy'nn ny »rjyn -^i^d t^« üi^i ^V2^ .'pm'B^i^ iyvjs:i pn 
DijM ,DyT PD TM^n ü'»: Dn^tD'-Di^-ia iy .jyr^D >mi^ bj^^p p^« 
ori DO iy ü^w ,Dyn pd "i^i« nj^j ,"iyD^un5$ d':31q doip^i iy 

.lyD^m» 
-D^^m« nM« Dtj'^iDyiDM« DiyM Di<in ,^5$D^öi?p lyi 
-D:yny> n^« Dii'MDy:DM« lyD^^ms n pa Diyii ,DDfc$ip 
n iyn^vni#"iQ iv D^yn yDvy5> >"i pD "^^nn^i^D -lyi p« ,\v'?ü'd 
p« nyo^^nn« n ps .11 .« .« ^ti^d ,nyr^n ,\v\)iv:i ,iy^ipDiD 
oy DJ^M ,Dyn jid lyvyjyia n p« .nyD^^ni» v^a ]v^^^ iv 
D':iQ 'JiMnansD lyD^'^^yiiys "lyn t>« ,:^dmj D::n5?noi« r^« 
,iy^D^D-D:yny$> n ps i:i^iJ55M-iyi3 « lynnyi os^p-iyD^^n-i» 
pniv ,DDiinP"D^''m8 nfc§2 D^i^vy:DM« DJ>*n ^»d^öj^p lyi ü^)\ 
-«15'SDpy -lyiMi ii^p ^fcüD^ssp nyi dj^m ,D2j<np-D^^mfeit y^>j p« 
y>vp'nt^iByi p« y>vpni>nE3 n r^« 'n>nm«Q nyn di^ .lyn^D 
-MJ DD^^fc?D^ssp nyi lyD^yii p« ,^yD^D-D:j<t^^:pn^^i5 oyi pQ 
nyD^^jynys lyi .p^^» nyD^m» d':iq — /n« -qn d^d 
pö ^^"»D 8 ni^iQ "^n D^D D^yD*^ nyD^n*!« d'jiq 'T'nmi§D 
r^8 ,f>^Dn ^5?D^B»p D'jiD y^^pnjjtnsyi p« y^vpni^ns) nyi 
-nsQ "»yi "lyoM« nyii^t pnasD p« li^D döip iy ^v or"»« 
,*im« lyoMK "ly-ii^ D>^3i« nyi pa oyv^iQ D'r« ; pn 
O'iiD o^^v nyi p« ; v^t^D "lyt po lyrj^n dj^t mi dpjib 



Ö3 y»spn<jiBin yrößj^H 

>^ ,N2i: "^sr m njüs:. :jiD^ni?3 ]'>'>p o^: oi^n oy p« 
nyii>* ,p^^fc$ ^n ^i^iiD ^yn^ivnrx DDnmusö lytD^^m» nyn 
fc$ pa IMiaife^D lyi r^x ^n» üpji3 .ny^^^v t:D>^»tD>5KP cyn 
Dyvi>'-"i2-D:{;it^vpn5<:n5 cyi ps üjyoi^D s nyrjyii d^j nenn 
n .t:Dy n dj^ii ,üvi p.D üD>:y: i>^^8 nonn n dj^^i ^panyn 
Di?^p-''.rto^^m» D'riD ::n^i^ni?"i5yn pK ::id'7^iö''^.x yrijyDsj' 
.^8ö^Q«p D'r.D :3n^vni^i3yn nyn ps ::^3:nfe$n » :'>i:v^^ t^« 
•j^K D*.v iyrj<i^nyD^x rnn Di^i |{^p DD^^tno^EfeitP nyi "ii^3 
D'r,2 ::"nnyDnj^2-t:D2^yT px 3:"iD^fc$nDnN-t3Dn^yT p2 öpj-iüd 
-••^rij^x nyi ts ^nsrnyi ^i^: -^n tani^r ny .p^^s lyio^^nn» 
DDD^^:yD lypjy.tj's^ "^n ^ijJT lyo^^nn^^ d':id •^M-inij^Q ''w'pv)'^ 

D55^pnyD^^nifc$ nyn t^k üp:i2iJi?ütJ' Iy^^^t:£5?t^'^yry: pa 
Dpr,3 Dyv}>*-,i3-Dt2^>nnü! iy-i8n^yt:^0DiK cyi lyon« 'h^in t>*:^8 
-yny^-üo nyn mi ,^^t5>s^p d':iq D^,D:yr^K iö: ^y^2 nte: n^i« 
-n5<2 ny^ynnvi:^N nyi i^^c« .D:yonDD:^«"t:^^ni» iy:n 
D:ly»:^<^*D 8 n^J iyvy:yiJ yoMiy: pN t^x "lyo^^n*.» n ps "^Mia 
Dyvv^ni: "lyi .^{<D^5^p D':^D y^vpm^nsyi ps cyvj^iD Dyn pD 
-pnj>nQ yt:D^Kiiöirt:Dn^yT n üi# ts ,iynnD '^n tDni>*r lyniji 
DJ^ni ö>^^f lyi pK ,iy2>i^pyi^8 t:^: ly^j^r iy^jyDnüDrK"Djj#>^ 
nvi ^v Dinn ny^n ps üpni^is ny^^r n^yo::' oiyD^nnyi iy 
ny^yn^irij^« lyi .^stü^aetP d':id b^nn iy2^^vyTy:i:y3yj 
-Q^t^ ny^yr^x ly^n n5?D D^n p^x ps '^n üni>*T ^mmsS' 
-ifcits 'Hin— ::^n "lyn:^ nyi ps px 3:n^vn^"ißy"i px ::iiD^8n 
-j<:t >n T» ,Dyi niits yt iy ünj^T— iy^ü^o-D:yny^ n \v\:i'2'<} 
.•^n p;s>ip*^5<2 pni<^ Ts^^N jymp "": Dv>n ps -iyi>^i -noa ly? 
pn IV |yi:ny3w W'i'^v^i wü^'P ^'o T^^? ti^s'^pt^ nytj'^o^n nyn 
|y-;:i2y:iv nyo^ü^y:^^« pn iv t>k nyü^^3"i»-pi^ nyn ,-i8n 
ü^j T^« nyo^üjyr^« nyi ^^.ynt^ .cnys yii^nüsn^^K d^d 
D^8 Ds^p-iyüD>^KtD^BSP lyi ni#: »cD^^Bö^BKP "iy:$'yv:^^K i» 

."lyvjw 



•■•^nnii; |y>nö nni n^x t3DyrDiD:y3''^K ]'>'<: ,:^ü'): nj^s iy:i2 
-;:y pt< ^y^sK^^^^ div t^n mts .lyvyryroajeinv ^nn nyo 
\vwi nyD^^3"ifc?-pt:^SD ns ::iny"iJt?'nD^i« n 1815 T>n n:»^ 

.iyDi^"iDK^ ynyii:^' nytojix iytDii5m»Q 
ny-i PN DD'^iJ' D«^p-iyD^^nni§ d'jis ^jn^vnjjnöyn n 
mv "in p^N ps:. aDnn«D*iy ps j^i^oüiT^ii: n p*»« ö^^v lya^y? 

•y: Dfe?^p ^T» pD nytDonpy n o^y^yn dd^^5§ö^e»'p lyn 
»y^vpnjitne lyn i^.s lyDjyay^y n iy^»Miv "lyo^u-is yD:ny> 
Dyn D^s >n üdöiid^d iy i^n ,-it5^r '•b ^y nn^K iv lyiynyj ot^n 

.^^ü^B^p lyD^^iyijyi^D pn pQ Dvy 
-ni^iEy-i yvpni^ns p.D Dyvt^sns ^yti^^DD^^feüD^BSP nyi 
px üDsnp-D^^nn^ iyi \v^^m ::)T''m)i n p^^5$ j^t^» di>v 
n i^^D^yi topn^^Ni^D pN üi>vnj^nsyn iy .ly^o^D-tD^^m» n 
:n:yD5i' t:::Miv ny .iyD^mj< Dyi iyi^D«n^3Dpy ix jy^D^D 
lyni^n i^^ ns ,ü2fc!np-D^^n"i8 v^t lys^ipnj^D iv nyo^^niK nvi 
-3yo n L^D^^SD^siüP Dyi }n2vo\i^ ü>; px ,iyny^ ix ü^)) po 
f'i{§2iv p^p DO .^n pyD-'n^n iv nD ,n lya^ip iv d>^'52^$' 
ps'iN lyD^^nib* nvi jy^ypto:« t:D>^5?t:^öb*P Dy-i to^yLoa^ '■\r^v^ 
p>5'{$ Dyxi^iB lyn .lysnpninö » iy:yp -^v^^^P ü^^ pn^o 
nya^^m» Dyn p-)«D-nninD Tb^n om» in:v^^ üifn Dcn^^ii 
-jyDti' tD^yi:^"in»D p« i:B^ip-D^''3nfc$ pn pB nyB^ip-ifc?B d^» 
"SD^B^P D':i2 ^yo^D-n^iP Dyi px Dpni^iB Dyjy^^^x pn rn 
5'«ö^Bi§p Dyi iyt:)^>nnfc5i nyi Diyny: pnoN nyi p« .tDD^^ 
-{;jiji>*py \'<^'( ,üü^'?^\^'<B^D cyi "^n tDB^1pn^*B ^v lyi^^« ^i?3 
iyB>? ^N D^^v lyn^ynyi px o^nt? üynts ;i:iByi^PK>nöi£ v^'ü 
ntitB pn pB :jiN*^o»n ^yi^•^i^>-ly2 "lyi pj^in ^ D^yiosj'n^B >k 
Di^iii ,Dyn PB p« D^nr''^yn n lyto^^n pn pB ,p^^i$ Tt lya^ip 
-n^nyß ^in ü3sd ,pi^ lyn ,ü^ui» "lyn pB T^ns-piKr in 

(* |y:i:i^pN5vi vi^ 






-w \Vü jyn ,Dyvt?is-D:«!ii>vpni^i9 lytj^^tDD^^so^Böip njn 

ü>j nynnyi Di^vns^nB ,ain^vns^iByn pD oyvi^nB d^k iynij{ 

-i^nsyn px Dn^xniifiis ny ; onyinnyo -li^:: tD>: ,nmnD nijj 

D^^T p^K pö : «213 K^^JD^ym^D yij'^t2D^^5<D^sfc?p n m^vn 

.nyo"3n»-p^5» oyn ü^n nrijs nyi ps .dd^^ko^bs? or? 

8 ?l^i« y'»:fpnt5nB ps oys^ö i5;trt2D''^«t3">B»p ny-r (l 
^nniHD IIB yxpnij-iö nyi n»ö ty^o 

ÜD1P Diyii-^nyo nyn mt» mi ^oDsitoötn "i^o lysi^n i];n'''^ii 
"lyi MTfc$ ni ,|yD35$"iD«3 n^D lysi^in tov*"« ;^8tD^Bi$p pe 
nyo^tDjyr^« nyi lyii .i^nyiinnyo pa ü»dp ^kd^bkp 
-lys y:^n iy:nnD5§2 ^v ns ,t:nyinnya cyi ü^: üdm-idikd 
t:nyii ,^8d>2SP d^5§ dh^« t3Vi:{<3 "ly nj>*: ,iy'j'^:2iy-tt<2 yD^5>:yT 
-^8 D1V iy3y:y:^v üiyii lyD^yii ,^ett:^Bti:p iy^^: « ly^i^nya 
pö ajiiDyiiJi^ n .^fc?t:^5js*p tD^yD{<Ty::i;? tsiy^i dv : [yü 

.^KD^Eöip P2 ^j^^D^TJi^ üD^M ^ö:tD^D5$p p« pmv oiyu 
D':i£: ü^nyiv lyorsintDütn a:^nyn^« oyi üif i^dj^^ 
.V »"lyj^BtJ^ 8 .üD^^«o>Bfc?P Dy:^yvr^N oyn ps üp^iaiJStDK' 
pK 4/5 'n pD ; ar^nyoD üjid 10,000 D^^^^yarn» Di^n ,.3 
tmr] iy .pi^-ö^^D"i» p« 1/5 PK .3 .1 .K Dy:^c^{<o ,^y^^K3 
PD oiyii PK üni^D DJ1D 240,000 D-i^vni^"iB nni^* ony* 
100 T'K Diyi^nnyo po D^n: n lyii jj^^iycD o:id 12,000 



1/6 D^IK DDi§D Dij5n ,DnJ?D DJIÖ 40,000 PD DpniJJIQ Dyj>n 

Dpni^iB-nnyo lyi dj^ .s^tonn pä ,tDpnj^i3 iyv:^3 dvi pd 
D^>3 IVDipsn tDyii IVD yD^yi^ ,jj^^iyüD idjid 2,000 onyii t^« 

.Iva^ipiKQ 
roiD VDVDipyiix n ^ny^^SB^ nyi pn ty^-iJ8in»Q iv hd 
lyii — nyj^Qty nyi tn^i ,^sd^5^p pn :iJ^^nytDD üjid 2,000 ps 
4/5 nt§Q — ovnnD Di^ii ,y3^yrn jyn^^^n ly^j^^^ntüD y^»» 
y>ii jyDMpr^« 1/5 nfc?D PK .11 ,8 .« ^'ynj^n lyDMpj^^« ^>r Pd 
-Djyny^ n p-iijD \'b'm^ w^^v: ly^yn dj^ii ,iyD>^3n5^-p5K^ 
ür^^yaD^^K ot^n iDD^^jjiD^sj^p-nyj^s^i^ iyi yD^yii n^*D ,iy^D^D 
^y^^j nyn ii;? t:n''in üd^{^d55T .lyjo^uii? n sy^^i^^ \:iiv'^) oyn 
nyi PK |yi^ji^^vp:iQ IV ::>^nyi:D d:i3 2,000 n^ ^^:d''EJj;p 
400 PD iDiyiinnyD 8 p^K D^n pn pD Dj:»nD p« ^nyj^ssj^ 

.::^^nyDD djid 
-y: üi>^5y3:^n8 3Mn:j^ pK t^n 5'^t3^e»p pd tDiyii iyi 
,Diyp"it§D ,ü-iyirinyD lyi ; ü^y: pD ya-ij^a ivi p« lyit^^i 
lyDD^Dtj'sa 8 pD t:^!^^) nyi d^s Dt^^nyi^^ Dn^üonpy 
-i^ona lyi tDij^ ly^^ .tDpnf^is-i^Dna nvi pD ^^>d 
,tD^y3 PK tD^ynJsiniiiD pk lds^ipi^d Diyi") üph^^id 
,yD"ii^D yD^^:iJ5?aji^ pn Pniv üiy^r^^o^s^p "ly-i ddip»3 
-py PD idK lyamynnc pn dik d^^d D-iyinnyD lyi nynj? 
-^8ö^Bfc?p nyn ^^d— yi^^a iy:^n ii? üjyDJ^ö Dyi Pd .nyaon 
-i^KmsD ny^M PK ,]VD)ü'ü'?vi — toiyinnyo nn ^>d ,ü^v)'\ 
.|DiK lyn^ytDri pk p^k n^iK ij^ö üdip pn^v 5'»d^b5§p pk ::)'? 
DD»^»D^B«P nyi DitDii^D lyiynj« oyn ^^d ,iyD'^iy Dyi ^^d 
-jiji o^^pD^^ayD n dh^k ü^: y^^yii ,^l^tDt^' y^^j lyD^-ipr^K ^>ik 
Dijn li?: »^yp^tDiK pn pD ::n^vni^nö n ^>j D^;^ pD lyn^iniv 
•ii^ofij' Dyi ü¥ na lyni? .njüotj'Dt^D pyDyna fe? ?inK '?^d 
.pifc?o i'QnK iy:^2ya dh^k ny riD ,iyDnp i» 
ijr DS11 ,nt5Diyi ik: ly^^^ipn^v Dn>?2 y-^y:i^^K yrn 



MI MI» tDPJIB ,p18D r£''^K ini;?* D'JID üpHi^lS p^ Öi:yi3 

.nmno y-iy^n tD^D dj^i lyitD lytoD^^iSD^ESP ynyus n 
lyj^^nny^ Dy^^^oyi^s Dyi lyosr^j^ lypyDK^ nmno y?8 n 
,iy>i$D^38P y:^y^j^^K n pD yoiD n lys^y^i p« ,tDpn>^nB 
njüD T^« ,üDfe?tJ'?yryi nyn pa ^^stD^sötP nyvjfc?: lyn dd'm di^t 
-inoD Dyn ^in .nnj^> cyi pa D>^2i lyn px lyii^iiyj D>yi:8ii 
-■»^oyj?» [yrti^T Dyn pa Dv^n y:>yvj^^« n iyj>n pikd p» 
,ny-i:ii; ayi ^iMkS ny:^^K lynt^^iyj iyD^ny:D>ii< dphi^ib oy: 
,^M-i3y: nyi .üjj^n iv üj^n p2 iyij;|i^iy3 ly^i^iDyj-iyn^K p« 
^Dpni^iB iyD'?-iny^ w^:^: oyn pa lyDsio lyp \vo Dj^n 

jj^:?yüi5'jyo8T^x pn pD Bi$, ojjyir 

ly^yD'^^v r^» n5<Q lynnQ tid nnii5> p.D y^vpni^-is n 
jy^-'SDM« niKn lyo y^^yii "^nn »(lyony^r^^n^ya n) lyDst n 
p« ünyüirj^n ^$§ü^2fe?p nyi v^'pv^'i pö ,iy^^'o y^ynyosD n 
lyr) ;yii .nni#> pD '^sj^d p« lyiJ^iw Dvi:y:Bi# iy:^n ya^yn 
"irii^ "lyj^n lyn ,tDpni^i3"N::yj nyi Dn^^^n ,bj^"i8 dj^i üjysn 
p« .Diy^^-inyD "lyn ür^ oy lyD^yii pK ,t:pni^nö-nnyD "lyn 
PK lyrn lyDn ? Dpn5>*"i5"viy^ lyi oj^ tDnyütJ^fc?n Di^ii \\d 
|y:nyn25§n i^ ^^ix üo^ütj'sa lyj^M Di^ii ,iyD8T i^isa oyi 
-lyDD^^SD^Q^P Dyi ps lyK^jiNiroiDpi^ n p« ly^s^^janyi^n n 
-nnyo lyi ly^^ .nji^D-immöia p^r i^it^s |yi^^3 Dtjii ,d»^p 
nnyo nyi tD^i^i^ ,Diin mi nnyo d>: mm "lyni? ü^ijtii topniiii"ift 
tD»nya lyoS^ii "i^d pk lyii^iiy; Di^ymss lyvjs^r« tDiyn 

•arn^vn^^nsyn yD^rj^^« i» tM$»i 
üpnijiönnyD d'jid ^>'tD p»^ \vd ntD »ly^Dsnvji;^ na 
IHJ^ lyn^^D1^;D-l^ dj^i hd lyni^ .^»d^s^p p« |y5>i38^nsö 
,iyDöT ys^yt» ij^j ^8D\e9Kp p« iy^-i:8in»D lyo it^p ,ü>03 
'^^B ,.n .1 ,tD^^3n8 nyi pc Dyvt>n3 d'j^k lyvu^n \^? lyn Di;?ii 
y3^yii jyDfcüT v:i^v^^ ^vi'')) lix .ly^o^o - oii^^vpn 
.jy^'D^o-Djyny^ ,.n .i ,nyü^>D-i8 üvi lyo^'fejnDM« w |y:yn 
tDvi^b53 TiD ,Dy üD^^n ,t3»niKnnyD nys^^nny^ nyi pD ^^^d p^« 
"Djyny^ pK iyf>D^a-D:i^^vpni^n3 y^^: lyi^vnij-is n^H lynyii 
i'ü>ii iy:^v D^ii ,n n^ -lyoyij t^k ot^n ,^ni^v » pK ly^ö^o 
lyT ,mp .^KD^BSP iyor^5>y:rn» oyn ly^yoi^ivpniv vik 



ni#D ü^yotJ^ ,Diy^rnnyo "lyi ,iy Dt^ii ,Dpn^nb-inyD nyn >^^ii 
» PD jy^^rD y5>ynyD8D n \>w t^ pk tD^JüinDJs »onyii \'>'>i 

.(* 5'8D>B8P oy^'i 

•fc?p D^» |y-i^:t^^^pjiD -i'ppTii ly^^^ö n oi^ lyri^^ iv na 
^y^>: p« D$<i^p-iyüD>^e:D^2Sip nyn ^n üa^DM3 ,^^^9 
•DyK^5>3 pvj» n pD yve^tD^i^sDpy n |yii pN .oöK-ip-D^^ais 
nyni^ ivDjyoDpy lyiyii DnyoyinsD d^: ^ifi\ lyo^^mfe? yora 
oyi n^D rryK^^iis y>o iy-iy^i ö^yDtj^y^ji;: lytio ,^vDjyoj^K 
pi5j^ y^vpnj?7'3 iyt^^DD-^^*D^Q55p *^yT pa Df:{§3yD lyi tst^n 
nö! üvi üV'ini$iBV') t^^^n ny dj^ii ,üvi "^nn önt^tya '^mx 
a^jya t^n p^^ iyD^^:nyiiy: p-»: dj^ii ,d»^p d^»» D^^p-nytD^^a 
-nyoiKD pn "^MN iJ?: ,;:^t:^^nD^iN pn py^n iv r'i^'a ü>j 
»ii^N iytDDyip-D^^3"i8 y^^: n t}{>* ^j^i pnsi ^»'^^bkp lyn .3:n 
o^yoir Ds^pnytD^^ms lyi oi^n .nyo^y pD lysiDtj^ yjyi>'tyn8Q 
-Dj«#^vpntit"!3 y^^: n d>d ly^snv ;yri>>K"i{§D ,'q^^iny> iv Dn>« 
,int?' PD y^vpnj;?iB nyi p« v)^ -^n tya^ijntDJö; Di^ii jy^ö^D 
18D T^« f»SD^B»p pN önyinnyo d':id aji^ij^jin^Q n p« 
-D»TJi# n ünyüsj'sn toyipiii^p "q^iit n |yoDönü»n vo \V)) .ro 
y5»8 H^i« ^iKü^gsp oyn ^o Tömn an^yoc' lyn^vnt^-is p« ;j^^ 

-^^3 iy:>niynnD lytii« Vi tyinyppniv üv^k ^n n>Dt?/ 
-yi tDtp DmnK : yoD^K^ya vü'?^ n t^i |y2J>*n n^o .^y^SB' 
-:i;f ly-! .1^ .8 .K VnpV' tyn^nya tDt^n pn^^^ ,i'pnv^ lyn^n 



«l'iH ijr^p'tDiij-oiDpi'? tytJ'nonx iKp ]«»SK3 K ]y2'?yn p5«n i< iik 



\ 



pn» Di:y"i3 ^j^^nyüD djid 10,000 ps ^»ö^b»p "lya^^a^UD 
•>B^i> üiyn onyinnyo nyi piK ,dji2 2,000 ?i2 ünyinnyo s 
•iv ti^sn:s^ Dn^K ly^y^i i>ö — ^j^-^^e^^p "ly^^J "lyi .üiv^^'Ko 
ü::yi3 ::^^")yüD d:id 2,000 i*>5 — 1 "ly^i: ^5<D^3t?p-nj^3 
^^1« 3:^5>^^t:r^« pn im» ,t::i3 400 ps tDiy^nny» » pn» 
,yD8i n ,DM")3 '1 P» ^ij^D^sstP ly^^p-.yT^yn^E: p« lyrijyor 
"i§P iy3^5'3:i?D:i? D^^n di^u ,yn^yTn rys^^^n üiyrnnyo d':id 
,ü"in^^j§D*S5?P *iynMi tsiyn Dnymnyo im ü^ |yii .^sd^b 
nv » i^K — ^i§t:^2^P Dy^^J lyo^M^v 5$ p« j:^yi:^ir.i<D ,.n .n 
onyi^nnyD Dy^^: pns -ly Da:y")D — ,2 nyou ^i?D''3i?p-ni^3 

.1^ .8 .N 3:^^nyDD DJ1D 80 PD 

,tD"iyii-nnyjD p.D 5»>^d cn t:D^nüfe?n p« id>3 i?t w^iiv: 1^0 
T1K t:ik tD-i>DynytD:>K oy .oDM^nnsiD DD^^öirj^stüp nyi oyn 
|yny;y:^v ly'iyi'» ly^sto^stüP-Dijir.v n ^v ,t::yoj^tD nyi pK d^j 
DH^x pD lyony^sj? lynyr. ^n ivi^ ,?yt:^Eyp |y3^^::8D:i^ d^v 
nyn DMK ^n tDviJ oy >v ; •iyi:ni!;3 DrtDiy*irii?s lyiy^i p« 
^n ü^: iy ^v ,tD5'yj:sTy3:{# ^n Di^*n DJ^n ,i:D^^ü!a^3ü:p lynf'yr 
iyDt$n^ t» ,iyDy;it$2 d^: tm^3 lysi«:?! n^o .y^yi:» "ya^« 
•:i^ "^yi DTvns^isyi |y^»D^Bi?P yüyi^^ny:DMj< y^o n e^o 
•nn« ü-i>vni^"i3 pK v^'?^ "nn nyü^Mi "^mj^ 5'^ü>s5<p "yD^^::j<D 
•»Ty3:i^ lyiy^ lyayn roDn t^x yn^iyroj^-i r» px ,uiyirnnyD 
ny Di^n ,^SD^E5?p"3fc?:iv Dyi ^v r,vfc?3 p« ^fc?D^3»p jyö^yD 

.iyi^*2y: ü^n 
-:^n» TT!! Di^^3y:DMK in oj^n ^»d^5{<p nyD^^::«:^:^* nyi 
nyo^Djyr^K ly^r Di?n ^nt§ mi jj^^nyoo o:id 10,000 jyr^^ 
n» "lyi iin p« o^^n'^» nyjyr>t< pn ^"in — ? lyoipsn ^n 
p^K p« t:^n pysüjy — ! pyt:^ymN p« nyo^y ym ps ü^^n 
ny^n px .y^o^?:^^py nyK''^ü^^J>*3 "lyi iis lyt^yonj^itD^x n '?):> 

PK |y-*n Dy y^pyii t2M^ »nnino iy-i^vni;?-i3 pD lyvyry: n 
^« ,tytD3y^»MM^py »lyonyr, yD^^^i it>*: ü'^'^oy^DM« ü^r^onn 

.nmnD 1SD v)'?2 nmno üdmp nyiyiy 



'?«B'B8p D^l 100 

2,000 n pD ^8D^ß{?p-3J;?:ii^ üvi ü^D r^« K^nyij» r:w 
lyj^n inyoc^o:» pn pa Dyvt^ns üvt d^d .3:>^nytDD djid 
•"»^»ü^SiüP iii?Q "in ö^D ü'^vü^ ny .üJKpi$3 ^i:ya n«: -i>d 
o>i ^n PK ny to^ötntaJ» Pic' |i^ 3Mn:8jt ps .onyinnyo lyDin 
»11 K^iy-]j» lyostiK' ^^^T Dt^ii .öiyii pQ ^ypyia ly^^v:^^« v^»:) 
>i DJ;?ii ,iy^D^ö-D:i^^vpni^na n .i:>nni§ nytD^nj^^^sn d>3 pd 
PK ,|yüsy-ip-D>^3-i» y'»^: n ü-.ysiypnj^Q p« lya^vyjiv lyn 
•onpy iyDt:ynp-D'''ii» n ys^yn t)^^« ^jy^D^D-D^y^y^ n -^mk 
oyn PS ly^^^ü mi inyo dsj'^: ni^D in d>d \v'?vo\i^ ,\v^''ü 
oD^n D^^p-jyüD^^siD^BSiP •^.yn djjiii ,p^n Dyi ,Dpni?n3-inyD 
-D^^öiD^B^P ivi |yii .D»^p-iyD^^3ib' Dyr >^3 b^ nni^^ jyiy» 
D^un» y^o p?n Dyn oj;? pc. ^»>tD k "i^a p^K dd^ip D«i^p-|yD 
Y? ly^t'MD oy T» ^n» ,r>ns ly^^ö nn^K ü>i^ i^^qöi ,üdk^p 
-K2 ytD^s n n^Dn -^i^t on^^^a ^lyo^iy^^ yD^^^i d>^k ^^myn 
ny^n yo^yntja '•n "»^n b^ dq^ip dj^^i ,ny-iynj^iy d'jid ;i:i^i:5§n 
.tDn^nyjBt? ^n ^^n Di^*n ly DJ,ni ,ü^y: nyi n^jD nnino 
O'^3imnyo pn ^nn Dj§^p-nyD>>2iK lyi üj^n o^KSjyiy^ 
lyrijyiDip oyi oyii di^i^ ^f^sD^esp oyi lys^s^'y: nnj#» cyn ps 
otj^ii ,Din r^K Dijfn öl;? .üDfe$np-D>^möi y^>j iy:^DDyfirs3 in«» 
."^{^D^BSP PQ |ynj;?ny; onyii ^5<d^sj§p„ dbh lyt) 
2,000 pD 5»fe<ö^B»p-3i?:iv lyDK^iy oyn pD j:i^t:»:ji^ n 
lynnD p& nyDonpy nyi »>3 t»i^2 •n»^;iyD t^k ar^nytoD djid 
•■•BöiP D1V L5::{?i='»3 ü^)) ,iy'?^voo 0312 10,000 PB \:i'-]]j)) » ps 
IV lytD^Miv nyi ."o>uns iy3^^j:{<2Jt^„ pn p^^n i$ ,dd>^»d 

Ml ^nVü ID>3 üiyii^B ,tD*inyp1J<B ,tD31D 400 pB ^^D^3»p-3i^3 

nyn t»K "ly yD^yii pD ,t::iB 2,000 v^mv n ps ;i:"i^D»T:i? n 
-niynnB ^»ik DiD:yr»K dj^t .iDiyirnnyD "lyöm^^feüD^s^p 
ya^vr^K n av^x ib^k st» ^imk t^x ü>^m» lyü^nj^vsrD^: lya 
O'^nns yo^-ni^vj^no^K Vi'>iV2v'? nrvs lyDipinn isb ::i;i:nsi 
üD»f>8ü>Bfe<p lyn inyo Di;?ii .35:?d55'd»d pyoy-i: i$ r^» 5i>^x 
.iy^D8T3J? lyü^ni ny p<ip inyo r^s ^ü^yDsry::}^ ü{>*n 
onytDK'öta oy lyDfyii ps ^üiyinnyiD nyi ^jy^sni n^K 



n ü^D j:5!5?pj^''N px |yiiy: t^n D.Ntn ,pi^^.pr*'K l» ,>8D>bsp 
-^fyiv: — D-^.yiJ<iD 05^111 pt^ nmnD p2 ^j'^iDonN d'jiö lyvyry; 
pn ^i^r lyü^uns lyT t» ,Di>n mi inyo oo — Da^-iDsa ^^i» 
-•^« "lyi pK lyD^^prnyo vm^'i^ vy'\ nyn^K Di^3y>83 irr 
üi^)) ji^D IV ^ns pM t^i^T nmnD n px ü^yj nyi pD lyo^oiw 
-IV lyi >y^Dni PiM« ; nn^N ivwnv^i Dt^ii »jyDiyii n o^d >mi ly 
pa üi§D^nyi 8 mi -inyo do t^k .11 .8 .n 2 nyoi: ^j^D^si^ip-nijii 
» Ml nnyo 0^: ,Dy dd^m ,px 1 lyci: '7$5ü^b»p-D5^:iv oyi 
-y^ ^y^2Mi ^^iK ; tj'^^yo^ynisD ny:n"iynnD lyi p2 Dstst'ny-j 
pD Yvm Dyn ü^o a^on px nyo^N t^k n^pr^« "lyjpyvj^^x lyi 
lyvyiy: n t» ,n{;?>p t^k i>V'^ '•n» 5i>ik — ,:i>nQDM«-nninD 
y^vpnj^ns nyi tinx to^uy: lyj^n yDi'yn ,D''.D:y:^^j< übtims pD 
Dyjy:^^fc< ny^n px "^n ly^pMiDJ» ,mT,nD pa y^vi$>ipi^v p« 
yD'^>i ps iJ'nüDnt? Dyi 0^0 iynMny:i:i;|i "^n tDi;?n cy .■ni3\-i 
tD3n oy 18 ,>ufc$ t)ny-ny:D>i« ^n oy tsi^n nytov^K px ,iyDiy^i 
.(* fej'MDD^'.j^ 155 "li^D üDip oy 18 ,DM« ni;ii: "^M 

-8P pD ^^^D nn T^« D^y^irny dj^ii »issnyi t^k Dtp px 
,t:D8np-D^^3n8 ^MK ly.i^iiy: t:i^'nüy;D^iK f« ü^)^ ,xdu ^^ko^b 
D^ii ,opn{<:irD"»^m8 lynoyiD d'jid ^>^d » mi nnyo d^: 
pK ; iD:y^8ivi';py l» inj^t lyoijy^iv "^n üi^n üü'^^ü'>b^? lyn 
tD^j ,"iyo^^2n8 nyi ,nyr^T üjyvns;?nB in dh^« 0^: ojyo^Mu 
tD^D ^i^J ty-inyppniv Dn^« no iy "it^j ,^'^d nyi oi;? pniv iijfj 
jyK^Miv c'MDDMs^ p2 ti'^^yo^ym^ö n .üpni;iti2nnyo üV3 
-DMK 18 Ml "inyD ü>: t^n lya^^Di« cyi px dd^^'Sd^b^p cyi 
8 TM^n ,y^V8^ipi^v pD cyv{>'-)3 Dyi öiyny: Di?n ,t:^^jyD3n 
ton^v^s^DD^D p.8 8D13 ü^8n:^8 cyi noynD t^k yD^yn ,yo"ii;?a 

-D^U18 PD iyDMp-18D pN lyDMpDM« V}n:Vi^^ Di>n .DH^K 



na :j3"i^pmt338 -inm ns yDiaty lyomy^ ij imk mi b?:^b (* 
-<j")B •iytt''aD'*78c'Et<p » ]'« inyjiyn^K nrnno ]tb yr^pn^it-iB n 
-'?« n 19 lyüpn^ia n iroyJ TnoM "ijt pk) nnino po y«^pn 
]iD TTD» i'sMK Jis'iy nnino pc yoiKS yrOiyruBnn px yi^oy;» 
,iy^ytyj-DVj::yj''K n in« ]ytiD n?» ,(y»spin<n3 ■iy{y't3D''7(<a'B«? 
n l'K ]ny;nya'K ,nmnD |id yspn^ne lyn «imk t»t lyttö» o^^n 

.D^e:y;^'» iyy»öD''?»ö»B»p pB ly»jrtyjJ 



,DyT p« ünyöt^'Kn ö^j^n^^K lyi p« ; yo-it^ö n r^« üdsip 
nyiDVia nyi pc ^>^ö ö; iidd D^^niötQ üd^^s^d^bsp lyi dj^ii 
II« iyDpnj^i£3 !■« iy"i>;iiy: ü^yi:^in^s vw t^k dj^ii ,iD^>ni8 
pyoyi: i§ nn« ,üjy^snMipy i» \ni^ iv -1102 ^n Dayj ny dj^;i 
TJ1N ^n üJ^n ütj^nyiv .d^ui» nyioy-is lyjnyay? pD didd 
•"18 lyjyr^« ^i^ix tDinj§n üDyvDiüjyr^N d^i ti< ;i2:i)ivi 
ni#j ^^Mi .lyoyjji^ DTiDy:i >U8 n^o jyni^n D3yDD:^:yii .t:^^2 
-»>« lyjöiDK^y: ly^^n nnino ps lyD^ojyr^K yD:^ü3y-iy!DD^^p: 
p/D^yii ^-in ,^vü'o yrvr^fc? di^t p« ,nyi:8 oy-i |y:iyp ny: 
-^8 löt pQ nnino n p2 nyo^to^yr^K "lyn lynyn |i<tp tj'jyo c? 
PK ; nnino yjyr-»« yrn lynyasi^ iv — lyiiya t>k ,]"\v^ 
t\'>'\H .ü^m» ^nn "ii^j iy"iyii lysj^K^yj p>niv lyjj^p ytDvy^ n 
ü^i D^t§ Diüiyrt« Di^i lor^t^iy t5D^^fc?D^afe$p d'jiq D^n nyi 
in^« nynt? D^^nns yo^i^vs^DiK ynoyna lyDyjnj^s iv oayn 
iyDy:wiv nyü^uife? i'-ifc§D o^^pD^^^yDix i«: d^k pk opnjjna 
pK DiDjyr^K lyti'^iiv 3:n^^i^•1V n .DpH^^ns Dy:yr^« pn 
iSDfcüDts' üi^)) »ryry; D':ia üfcüD^nyn lyrto^i: 8 Diyn tD^^3i8 
— yT>2 ^n D^^i Dy-i p2 ,tDyD^Djy-i>K ly^n 112 ßi? lyan 
.yn^yroj^i m d^^'k ly^'^t — ü^^m» p« Diüjyj^^« 
,tDai?^:5^ ,^^n lyiyii iv it^oyo nytj^^öD^^Kö^afcjp lyi 
y^vpnr^ns lyi pc lyvyry;! y3^^::fc$Dji^ n ,DMn» ^n üt^^ii 
Ditj^3 "iy DnyDSi^D:» ^i>n px ; pnj^ d^:3 pk '^''»^i nnino pD 
|yi:yii:i;|i -im nj^j jyvytyj n ly^ynoiya^x ^-in ü^j idik 
pip i$ ii:ya t^k ,ni^^p lynyii ^j^t oy nD pynnyi px .••n 
,3Jiayiiü:a nyn ps lyifcüD yjn'-noD n ^imk ,pni:f tinx |j^d iv 
: ^JiitD^a^p pD 5J"!^D»T:i^ nyi iv onn^s OKin 
i:i^i:8infc?2 yD>^::i?£jj;ii n t^? ,inyty; i>d lyni^^n os^nyiv 
-yj n ü>)'? D^ixDin li^a iddip ^^d^böip pk yoio-onyii 8 po 
pn tD2^ip'",8i] -ly^'iüD^iK n pa iy:^>K .{^ntoo^ix pa lyvyr 
Ü01P83 -lytDK^-iy nyi .n üb^ip nynyi:» nyn ,Da8"ip-tD^'2"i8 
-n» n — ü"iyir"iMnnya in>8 oi^ii ,mino pn [la üiyn oyn 
lyn 118 lyti^'-iii^ D':ia Diüjyr^K oj^n D^onyi tDiyii — tD^>3 
•»3 oi^ii ,|y^o^o-DJi?>vpnijis n üv^k o^ynj^m^a nyo^ni» 



.ODyT '3 ^y ^MK DH^« üiynyj os^n »üpnii^ns oy^^: 8 p« 
:p^« ^n ]^K üD>^55' üpni^ns oy^^: oyi Di^ ps üiyn lyi 
.jy^'D^D-Dji^^t^pnt^iB yüD>n3")fc$2 n po o-iyii nvi »Djyücny 
-ü^o"D:iit^vpni^"is n oi^ lyDmn-iss ü^: |i^p ü^^3"is yD^^vi: n 
oy^^j DyT ^MK Diyii in^x jn^yai^ntDiya^K mi »ij'iyn:» ly^ 
tDS8iP"ü^^3n8 n T1D »lyD^ip n ^ti^r jyo hd "lyni^t .üpni|)t"is 
PD y^m Dyn p« ö^m» v:i''p'ii: fy^yo^^ivw njsttDK'o^K pn 
.lyijyinsa m ^nen lyo inii »ynoonj^K 
oyn üpnt^iB ny^^: d':i2 Diyii lyi p^n dd^^'st nyo^^ii 
lyon^y: 8 p« tDseinp-ü^^ms nyi pa t:ny^^ d'jid D:y^8ip^^py 
,ü£8ip-o^un» n Di^r. ,i8£iyi t^k di^i pn .önyinnyo 
ci>^N : i3^^v iyüo^tDK^{$2 s n^i^ lynj^^iyi üs^ipikö t^« dj>**.^ 
nyn^^K ,ünyii nyrjyii "^n p« D^fc?nt::öi .ii .{$ .k -^n)) s ,;i>*D fc? 
-lyD^^nn» *iy"i .dsj^k^ ü^^v lyn n5?s •^^nsya in^{< 
-ü'^nis pn pö üiyirK'^iD oyi D^{^:;{$n iyoiP5$2 lynt? üi^n 
Ml ,tDiyin>n3ya nn>« iy3y:y:"iya^x D^onyi üi^n p.x dd^ip 
.iyönp-)83 p« jys^iP PD ^öts lyiy^ px ij^d üoip di^i 

ns ly^yötj^wiv : tDiyin^nniSD lya^^o^D^yr^K 18 ü:ifi>2 
D^: tDiyijy di#t — ,üiyii idin 818 ^^ix iy£8'^ iv pK d^^2 
.nnino jie y^vpni^is nyi pc ryry: oi^i ii^n p^8 v''^ ^^\i< 
W^^Wi D;^^5'y::^n8 vh ü^)) ,yo"iD-ü"iyn n nynnyi 3^ik px 
-tjns nyi p« "iy3n8 ^8£J^^8 v)'?! ü^j onya ,pi^-D^^3n8 pK 
tDD8tDs:' ,üiyinnyD 8 d^d t:-iyDyin82 Diyii m ij^j ,iDpn 
,")yD^^pn8D Dyn tDn8:y:2i# oi^n lyo di^ii ,DyT ps do ü^i 
,minD p'T pQ ü-iyii jy^is oyi |yDip83 "^i^i tot^n iv:i'?V'i\ 
.mino n toi^: tDDnin"i8D ^ww nyn Di^ii ,Dyn pa i^y 
n 18D it?J iD^MD^^^i ünyii^D ti'^itDD^^.« pD ryry: o^i 
|y-it^Tiy3 lynyjyjsi^ ]vy'\ ü^)) ,nninD n ps ly^ny^rK^MO 
T8 ,li# 3nnji# pE ^?^C8 ü^yii^a oy .-)y"iyn:8 ^vi nsa yj^^K 
ü^j li^i üt^n pK ,iyi^^5j'^8ö p'T ly^t^T ly^nyin^iny: yny^n 
•sii^j üK^ny p^ ^n oann lyD^yii ,^n-i3")8D ny^n ö^kt it^o iy 



PD ivvyty; yt^^oiiioi^py n to^o ijs^pj^^« p« n:ya ii#ö ift^^j 
oijtii ,ü3ifTDiD:yr>« cyn ü^o pn nrnno pD y^vpni^nö nyi 

.pann CD0Bö8^ 
: lyosö^uyn yi^y^^i^ö n tDi^n ^ijn px 
on o^: ,iDD"»^fc?D^Efc?P Dyn enynyj opni^is nyn t» (1 

; iyü>'3nif 
üvi lyo^iN tD^snüis Dpnt^nss oyn pa üiyii lyi ts (2 
oijtii ,üiyirnnyo s "^j^j ^SD^ßütp lyDa^^^yjj^ns üvi pE D-iyii 
— OD^5>8ü^si5P üvi p« D^-'nns DDi^pyj lyto^^mö: cyn oi^n 
oiD^yj^^« ya^^vyty; 8 topnijfna nyn t^k -^i^n p« ; oc'^jit^a 

; üD^^^tD^BKP D'jia 
-0"3i8 pn o^yDtj'yapniv ot^n lytD^^nns in rs (3 
B tDinp ny |y^^ »lys^pisa ^o di^t «i^i« m ji^p p« db8ip 

«lyanp 
yc^niitnyB 8 ^11 "inyo o^i t^« y^^fpn^^nByi ys^a:^^« *n 
onyn ü^yi ; y^v^nysi? '^\v^^'^v in dj^ pa jji'itn'nyn^« 
üny^i rytyi di^t .^«d^skp p« tD^yn^^m^a '>j dij^t pa noo 
'mVPVi 8 ,tDinyp"i8a ,DDip8n oy ;iy3J^i3y;i ö^j tD-^oiyn 

jnjyDK' "^n lyr^MiKivDm» t3»n 
-8a3^'« in iDJ^iDtJ^^tji W) ,tDK^^iiJ^i "^^^x ^n Diyi:y oy 
pyö^nn 8 »1^18 ::)n^vnj#iayi n üdip j:n^^ni^-!Eyn lya 
in tD3ni3i8a fi^a lytsc^iy D'r« jj^^asnt^ "^m a^DK'DSD 
^8B lyo^Miv D'3^« ; tDiyinnyD iyv:8J cyi tDo^^^ü^B«? 
iy Di?ii ,D^Diyi ii;?ü*^^iKi^ lya^^iyii^a pn dmi8 iy öt'^ii 
Dip tD^yiJ8in8B p« iDiyii-iiiyD d'jtb $>»^ü « nt^j oanmiKa 

.^8tD^S8P p« yriys'K 
^i^D3^^p tDi?n iy ; Dio^yr^x pn t^« Diyn"inyo in 
in P« pn8 DH^K or^^ iy \v)) .|iyi:8 I8 iv tDiynya ü'*i 
,iyayDi8B üvm'^''» pn pB v^i^ oy iy tD3^»> ,y^vpni^i0 



.P180 i'dmk Dm» 

"ly ; üss^y^Din üi^n ^fc?D^28P "iyn:yi^:t^*^pjie üv>« lyi 
-f'iti'D^K pn ,üD55ti'"n^in3 y3^^j:8<£jiit pn p^k n^on o^kh 

|yiy> >i2 |y-iyii t^'v.;;)^-..,^^ p,ß {yvyiyj n JDT ^D .D>>pin 

•yir^« — lyijiisn Dn^t< lyoy: n^ö |yii — k'^iod^k ps tsp» 
»Dt^iiDy "^M lyoyjiv pss ^y^y^^N^i? pD |2i« nyn r^i^p »lyo^sn 
i^^K ^^3iyT ri:y"inn:i^ d^: »y^v^^i^i^yi yv:»: k lyDsoonn 
y^vpnj?-)3 nyi ly^yii:::^:::^^ o^)) ,DDyTD^o:yi^^K n lisn (j: 
üD5$^P px ,n''in:i? p« '•ii ,t^k üDyi ya^yr Dijtn .nn^no ps. 
-y* PK Djyvni^-15 oyi loiyny: lopni^-is "lyi ^^d ,d:>^k r^8 
yrony^iD^^^i ,|yDjy^i§irnpy "li^i :n:yK^MtDD^iK jt^p nyi 
^^D ,ü^u"i8 ny:yr^« pn "^m r^'.^n ^n pyD^neta .nnino 
-3>n yD^5'ü2KK'^yTyi Dt^i ^xii »n^^nys lyc^^Do^^sD^sötP D'rx 
,n PD DiDjyr^x o^i dj^d nyiyoyn: » v^t? p« Diyn did 
yD^i#v»nDiK n -^jm lys^Dii^a ^x iidd ijüiid'^'d^« jyj^n Dt;?n 

.ynyi:8 pa tD'^ai» 

Dxn nt#: i^^D^ii ,'n>^i>^Di82D^.« üiyi^ ütjü^'nyi nyi di^ 
üEsnp-D^^nn» pv |ycnp"is3 w dmk dqip p^^»» lyo^^si» 
-j^na n üiyii ]i^ D^i>*oö:n pD otj^ny ypeiD nyni^ jnino d^» 
yoni^iD y&j^^B^ti n D-iy^i px yj^^Dy^^s i^ nnino ps y^vpn 
üPnt^iB nyny^ ony^^ |j# tD^j^syi p.D ü'-i'ny ; y^vpni^iB pD 
3;üi^vniitiQ y:^:$5:i di^i px c^^ipni^s n^^x tD"i^vnijtna d^^ni^s 
pö y^vpni^-iB n .y^vfc?^ipn^v "lyi "Tin "qnn onya Diö3'n 
üK'-iy Dsfcjij'^yrya lyvji^i irr ti^i« ^^ns ^n tDii^iiv nnmo 
ütr-iy ^MK -lyni^ ; Dn5v*2 in^« d^>v^) tD^^mi<-pi^ n |yii ,18t 
: lytDcynp yjyiii^nn^s yin^K y^t$ n iD^yp>iio:8 o5'j#oyi 
nniHD pE y^vpnt^ns nyi pD ::i:^pMitD:» nyi ü^o ^^^^:^v 
-yryrDiiDjyr^N n ly-iy^i ,y^vpni?nB ytr'^DD^^öiü^BSp 8 px 
lyvyiya pk io:'yi:Kini<D nnino pd y^vpnijiiB lyi pa |yv 

.Giü:yr^K lyc^^oDOKO^BSP pa 



'?»t3»B«p 0(jn 106 

-$»yD8Ty::i;? pK »ly^^^pyjji;? lyn^n d^j djjöiejj^ dh^n ^j^t lyo 
PK nyn^ .onyiinnyo lyoin^^SD^ssp "iyii# ,5'Kt:''ai<P lyo 
iyiy> ^i^Dn üiyii ^ooi^ntoK' y^vpni^iQ n mi ,Dyn ps it?'» 
-jyiJMisj'"i»D 8 nnyo r^öi ^»o^söip nyür>^y;ij^nK :jfe?sji# ps 
Dyn ü^D i>^^ji»D p« ^^^D nyi^^^p iy>>ny:D^K i« ,Dni: yn 
lyni^ ,üiyi^-nnyo lo^o .n .i ,^fc?tD^s{<p lyD^yDKry;:^? tDpym 
•KP PK lyi^nya D^yi:55inKS pn'.'i t^k dj#ii ,iDpni#"irinyo 
cij^i ,o:8n lyn pK dv>k D-i^ji>*^vp:ia ny 'v dj^^n r^K »^löitD^a 
.tDJsn lyiDyis 8 pK lyni;? ,ü^yD8Tyjj{? dh^k dj^h 

-yn yMjy: yoMiy: pi^ik jy^yDtJ'ßiis ^n ly^yi^ n^o lyn^x 
D':iD 3j^^ijfc§"in»ö "ly-i ps lyni^ :ji^ö»TJi# iyi pD iyi:n^3»D 
P^k iyrtD>n{$3 i>d lyDisn ,^»D>sfciip pK pmv onyiiinyo 
üt^n V''Di^:4?v ytJ'^o^^t^s yB'^Dsf'p n oi^^i ,ö^^pj^o>n^Miv 

.Din^sy^r^K 
oD^f'Kö^BSP "lyn Dt^ii »nniHD n mi »r^yii ^nt? üp:ib 
Dy:yr>K pn ay^^iv öiyinnyD pn po ^»^o k 18d obmp 
-lyiniüö PK y^vpnii^ns pD ly^'to^D d^» dh^k lyjyn •Ji^nayi 
ny D^^i ,n to^^nife? yiviDpnj^-is » t^k r:yn ^ns ^^^^J ,::\d 
'^D PK yD^^i^ü5<i: ym pö :iji:nnEKn ivi 2y>^iv öb^ip 
ytDJi^ony-» n lya^ipr^K Tin üi^ük^:»? .lyK^^jyBnynein y^K^^ 
-'•SKP pK DnyirinyD Dyn ly^nj^insB iv tD^m» pK nrnno 
D^iK Dn>K ü^: iy iynt>' ,tDinypi5$B ,Dn>K "ly üD^naiKB ,^8d 
,|yny^ üni< lyti'^v^iB lyo^K ayi iv •qis^n^» ."id2Jip:>^k„ d^k 
,ü^i |yD>n3"iKB pK„ ,tD:i^T ^y:yn mi ,ty:KöB^fe?3 r^K Di#n 
-^^vy^D^K Diyijj^tKn "^n üt^n dj^^i pk /'djj^oike \vü dj^ii 
^y^D pB PK irnB yD^^jynys pB didp^^» oyn id^o tD:yD 
D^5>t?D3K lyiiy^ V'ü^:i^pv nyi^itj^riu lyn ikb t^k ,^v:v"y 



D^: li^P lyo : üd^^d ys^^iy^i^n yojj^iy n d5>8 ^8ö^Bfc$p pa 
-DMK üj^D!^':^ ^nDjDH vi:^: H ODn"i3n5$D lyo lyii ,iy^o8r:{? 
-i^ns iy:np^,v:^^n» ^imk "in^« 112 ^^^o |yijy:D^nfc?3 01 iy3y:iv 
W^ü^p ^v Ml ,-inyD pn» |y;i:y"in ya^yii ,"iyD^ui» yirDpn 
;y"in^Dy^j^2 iv lyoipy^DM« >n t^x d^^t nyn:» "lyi pö .p^^» 
"ötü^s^p ^r^:)): d'^^d nys^yii ,p^j?3 pD ^^^diinii;?d üvi 0^0 
DJ^^o px nnv^iX pD :ji?d«;t:{^ lyn d^d rvpni^ns ytj'^üD^^ 
^in D?3^p DJ^n ,^'Ti^ T^« nn^'^'y yD^'ycsTy::^;? t» ,^V2'''\Vi 
PD .n .T ,yö"i{^r"nt:^^ in^x pK a:nyD'^iv ps lynyn ^ivu 
-g^ipi^v lyi pD iyr*.vyjDM-i» üiyii Di^ii nynj^ ,3:i3m3"i8s 
,y>vst^ipi^v pD iVD^^'^D^^.j^ ü7y:s D^!i^ d^ji^ii lyo lyii .y^v 
-»ßfc?p D/t? ::iDiyr.i5§D pn ps "^iem nyi lyi^yi Oi^i ü^ii,)) 
yoTj^D nyi pK ,^nyDüi: p2 ^nn^no p2 aji^oj$nJ# n px ^fj^iD 
y38Dr^« Ifc? lyny: o^'j^it »oinny; d^: lyr^ Dtiiiii ,nnviK ?id 

y>Di^:i>*py ly^r^ü^^i^s lyrjjtr^j'pm lyi ps injn:»2 n 
pD "immijs nyn ts ;\^ \vv'v^ ••n lyii ^ü^yiy: lynnyT ]vy'\ 
-pfe§iöiD i$ T^N "iyt:^''3i{< yivt^pn^-iS ^in üpni;?ns-iny^ oyn 
-lyni^ .^»D^setP PD 2:i^d5$t:i^ nyi pö •^nütj' nyK'^öDnyö 
^t§t3^Bt5P pD 33i^»»t:i^ n t» ,iyto2Mne;n iv n^yn » r^N oy 
•qin üpni^nsnnyo Dyi p2 "nM-ini^D uvi px "li?: ünyo'j'sn 
-i^t 'i>^\ \V'2 Ml ,y2^yrDi^i t>k d^i .lyD^^an» yM^topnJi^nö 
-:^^K ünyü*^fc<3 t:nyM""."iyo cyi pD ::nM>^fe?D^2ö:p n t8 jya 
-D^"'3~i8 PK ünyMnnyo Dyi pD 3:i^iJöii"nsD lyi PN rv 
üiyM DJ^M ,ü"iyir"inyo nyv:^3 nyi t8 ,dd^v"i di;?"i ,DD8nP 
-jy-.SD ps "1^3 ünyDC'sn ^^sid^s^p iy^^: i< d^^ü or^^y^j^nwi 
lyD^yM pK ^yoifc^D n r^x D2ö:iP"D^^3ii> .^^d^sj^p lyD^^nyi 
pD oyvi^ns Dyn p« on^DDMpy ^5<t2^2{<P lyD^^nnjyiytD ^n 
D':iD .üDM^n")»2 p^^ii^ M D"iyM Dyvi<5-is cyi px .y^vpni;?i9 
in 1in — y^vp:iQ in^« ^nn t^sMimfc^D n pk .üd^p^o^bsp 

.jy^D^o"Djj>*^vpni^iB n — o^^m» 
-D^m» ytDDMpya n nsc ü^i^v^n D-iyii dj^m ,tD^y: djti 
"Djyny^ ^m« lynyayaoMK ü^-'v lyn^yriy-i iv ünyii ,c2i<"ip 
.lyü^^ni« jyivüpni^nB oyi ps ü-iy^is^s lyny^ dj^m ,ry^t3^o 
lyriMDiK Dyn ^v T^^wöt lys^'^feiD et im dd^p ü^dd Dtns 



?t?0»BBP 01$'] 108 

pK tD^^^tDw:^^« TN ^fc<ü^Bisp iy:^vr^N iy-iy> Dan ts ,di^i5' 
"^rv^fcja nvT DnVDK^»n ,^^^d |yD^^iyn:y-i{<D px |y:injytD^ » 
"fcitp iyD>^"iy-ijyn^*D Dyi px -i^^j DD«'^*^yTy:i ivi i^s ^jjiü^bsp 
ly^^VDMN ti^iK iyayjy;iD^^« lyv:«: pK lo-iyn -ly .n .n ,^«^^5 

ü^y-i:sinsD Di^iiy^ pD D:8pnn?<D ^ : .c^ .3 .v 
5»sö i^^K D>ifc< Dr^^ ny 3»L3^2»p pK :ij>^iyüD 10:12 2000 
i^nK — 5»^^D lyD^mv » »lyayu lys^p:^^« pimx tD^y; d':id 
jytrayo n lynj? .)) .{< .« oyj^t^'jjD ,Dyii?D-^j^ii jyD^ipj^^K 
lynMi ly^i^v ,Dyj^:r»D n px Dy-ij^s n oömp ny y^^yii ^u 
.üD .D 2000 yv:»i n i^n ,.ii .» .« nyo^ms n ^^^d » pDiy-r 
-lyv:»: nyi lyn^ ,^yD'>m8 iss: pi^ d^s |yny:iy:D''iK Diyn 
,3:^^"iyt3D t::iD 2000 n p« onysnypnb^s t^^? o^)) »topnj^ns 
tD3^^^ ]^P |yo ."lyD^^niK y^i^üpni^-is p2 toDM-i^i^a lonyii 
n pK cr^ ü:you-i8 ^v^:^^^ tiö oan^y: yvjj^a ü^i ts ,inyr 
-r« p^K PD ir.K lyp^tj^ yD^yii /'nyo^-iii ^iii? [in„ : nytoiyn 
•)y3>N :d^dd dsis DD^n »i'niDN nyn px .-iynyi:;s lyn iv nb*DD 
'y)w in^« ii;ii ^n Dn^^n oy in^i ,iyDni<:i nj?i:i ;iJomyüJiN ^i 

.D>^pa>i 

•nnyD nyi ü^siosn 1^0 tyn^^n ^yto^ssp iy:ni<!ö px 
»üPni^nsnnyD oyi — yn^ytoi^T t^n oy Dt^ii "iyi{>* ,üiyn 
p« ,DD>^8D^s^P D'JiQ i^j^a-q^nny; |yD>^:ynya d^j? ij>o 

TM^n D3ö!-|D»3 Dn^X tOV''« T^3 l'D \V2^T\ ^yD^EISP Dyi pK 



-nytjnmx -lyn DHU ,n<<5iyT tm ,]yu5Mn«n ^u iirn ,iy:*7yn piK nyi 
-»BDi^Kts'Bjjp "lyT pB lapnijnB ly:Ji^<; cyn iirenpex d'j ]xp dk7p 
J^a'^yi^ ,iyt2pn«"iB y;!ny3iK yoKo »? ix tu onn^p ^t2B^a'^i;Tir:j nyef 
"♦■ip y'?ynuDn3»« is ünn^s dkt iix pitjD ]>'p ]j;i»s:;:i la»: i^jxp 

.("iJ;?öP8iyn oyn pö :iJiP"iyöJi?) lyo^» 



•ly^stT yn^u to^-'V lyD^-'f': ^v tn; "ly : nyna» di^i rn^n ny-»i^ 
D^K Dynjyi^y::j^ tDnyii 5>^^ü nyo^Mi^ j$ ,üö:ip:^>n d^» üd>^ 

.lyD^m^ lyi r^« nyjy^"? y^» »ly^^^ö n pa ny:^^« rx oy 
-ii§s n üo^ü'^^n ,V2'?vv\ lyr^T iy33ii:nfe§3 nyi:» y^s lyii 
.::i^Di?Tji? lyi p.D D^n: n ly^^^to ^mix n lye^^iw c'^jyo^yn 
-fe$o^E5§p nyi ^üiyirnny^ d':id lyD^üjy:^^« nyi it^i: lyai^ 
-j^^x p.N ^j<!D^Eis:p pK Diynnnyo cyT p^j? ü^^^d ,p>^8 ddo 
pD ^^-»tD cyn jy^yii .ly^ni pn p2 üp^? ij? t^x di^t .ööjip 
DH^x D-",}^EC^ iy„ : lyo Dij^r \i^ to^yoi^r iy dj>*ii ,p^n pn 
pn ü^^£*iy iy ^"»mi .n .t ,n^ix t:^: Dn^i< coy ny ^^mi /bj^j 
.nyD^n ^n ly^so iv — y^vP^iD n ,DD^^i?D>E8P d^s y^vp:iD 

-y^ n D^8 Dr^'^iy üo^^stto^Bb^P nyi ^ii :3^mi mt» ^i^ik 
pK lyDnüyajj^ ly Diyii ,^e5to^£j<p ps ajnysnypifcüö vy'^v^ 
D^jyj Dyi Tin tiN lyonyir-^^nay:» n ^-in d^: o^proyö pn 
-nb*D pM PN Dnyirc>^.D üvi i"in 11^2 ^lyonyii-^'^^i^ya n pD 

jjnyDynj 
-nyii y*^: pN lytDiyn n iy^i:^nn5$D ps lyp^DS^KD d^8 
2y^^iv |yi''vnii:n9 iv D^^n^j'^yo n mjem ini^ ny öijniv ^lyo 
pö ::^^pn"iü]8 lyi ^v "iy Da^yia t:>Dnyi px ; iyi>vni^"^2 
j:"iDi<'^ "lyi i:^ p« lyosyip yiv'jpni^"iB ys^^tsBS^'^yry: n 
p^^8 "i^j iy:^n Dt^tii ,y^vpni^n3 ps iy2:i::nöin y^ynyowD p2 
-y3 ny-iyayn 5$ ps iid^ ly^j^yi cyi lyi^^n'.vonK "ijsidk^^« 
n — r« üv iy2''^jn3-D:'n: Dyoyii ,yD-iJ>*2 "lya^^üBSiJ'^yr 
-J5P "lyi .Dn^Tin:^x iyiy> p2 ::^^pniL3Jöt y^ns pK y^iB 
D'r.2 aj'n^v^2"'3Jiiny5 Dfifc? t^^s ünyirD^^itjDfc? t^n t:D^5'80''B 
Dn^^^p Di^i^ .lynfeüp d^v "n^^^ny ny t^n ^yn^yi» d^s .^»o^bk? 
D^'n D^^'n ,di^i it^: .niTi^y nyn Dy^^i!^ nn^K'y p« nnvi« 
o^^a T^N »nyaiK'o lyii^ 3:i3^^j yD^^jynyB 8 in^a vk iy:i8p 
,DT^:8Dyo lyD'^D28t^'^yTy3 oyn p2 osö^iny"! k dd^^kd^bsp 
nyi pb 3:i^PMiDJ8 n ^^yiv') Vh v)^2 vh iy ly^^yn p« 



^tftsifit^p 0^*1 llU 

-yii^ns ü-iyii oi^^i ,^8ü>95$p d'jid ::nyDyn:n8a ly^n'-noD 
y:yn^pjj#p n p« ,ajioyj"iyoJiN "iy^ynüDnj>x is p« t:3^>^ 
ynjytDJt^ n üd^^üid^ssp oyj^yvr^N iyny> pim« ^ms D^fyr 
>ii ,|DiK - Dji^^vpnijinB iytj'>tDD>^8D>5j$p üvi 11D lyvyry: 
ü^^p3^5'3yD n tD^: ün>« o^i nynip:^P n .ly^yryrDJJiini:^ 
piDD Dn>K üiyDyinsD iy lyi^^o ,^»ü^5»p pn iyo^5$niv:^^« 
-lyin'niDD Tin '^i .ij^-yi:» d^: ny li^p dh^n nyDyinss p« 

«t T>i^3 lym D^K^yo yj>n mi ^lynnyn o^^i^ nts ^^k 
ft^nys pn px üp^yi^j'sn t^« oi^)) ,^8ö^s»p d'jid y^vpjiD 
-"18D "iyD8iinö "iy:yr^« pn !>k ,pntDDi«iij«;D px ly^ini ü^d 
pD 3ji^o5§T:t? lyn lyayi Dny2«2 ny d^ii ,nm » ni^: *nni3 
'iyi5'^:y^^t§o^K ly^^ysi^D nyi p« ni nife? opr.s ,?5$D^2fc?p pn 
-i?n Dyn nnx ly^saDn« yoj^iins n lymirss ynyo^i^nau 
3Ji^oi?t3t# .^iSD^ssp üvi ly^yp tDD^^»i:^2»p d':iö ö>n-D^3 
')M .DiD3^n iy3^^DD5?e'^yTya pD o^yii >i ly^y^j^« d:^"'d 
-ytDSo-iyK'iyo tytDi^to^i^sDpy nvi ps yo^o lyi ü^d lyoKr 
nyn yüpynn^^K p« yopyin n ^m« o^i« n o^nsty ^sn 

-KTiv .DiüyDi« üpnm nin nyaiD nyn ps msy n iy3i^ 
-Dpnt^iB lyK^^DD^f'fcüö^sfe?? Dyn pD a:i^pmü:s nyn ifi^o jyo 
-t?P nyi ö"iyn ,DiD3^n jis px ::^^ofc?r:j^ nyi ps ,;21x-d:i^>v 
.f'ötü^Bt^P PD i3n>v^D>ji^nys » t^i^s v^"! *.v n-*"!« t3D^?5$ü^ö 
''Dl«« Dy:yr^« pn nijD "^ri^sya lys^^t^'^yo« k üoip5?3 ly 
-3"ofij' IV niiSöß'ö^K pn ^t^t ny tk »mtm Tt Dyi5'^3 "ly p« 
,tD>^prtDD^^: nyj^n iy:yii »or^öypDs \vm) ü\^n nyi ny3^K \v^ 
•nnv^« ly^iKP lyc^ni^ot:^« nn P2 ^''ö"i^«ikd k iy3^K ni 
-oyofis^ tDD^5'i?ö^B8P lyK^-^DK^p nn dj^ii d^^v ",y-i px .ly^o»? 
•P3^B V'') ]vm nnsy d^öi '^n-isi^s ty^ynnvnrx nvi ü^ya 
nyn t^K »ai^^DStii^ lyn pD "::iD^s5n2i^,, -lyi ty;iyi ji« y^y 
"D80i^ n lyo^öivön« n:8öt:^o^« od^!^8D^2^p nyüin^jnynjjto 



III ^tctj'Etfjp PK t3ipir">n;?D pB ji3T^i:«in«ß n 

ü)m p« K'^jyDiyi82 pn lyr-inesa pd «lü^^nst^ d^s aji^ 

-i^is iyB^^üD^^5$t3^58P DJ/T ps n^iHii^ lyij'ni^iDD^n a'>3 
\2:i^D t:D^^ft?t3^2fe§P iy:yoipyi2nN lyny^ pK — iDiN-D:tit^vpn 
-iiKP ly&nyn — "inn ^yn^rir« ysitoK^ ysJ'nl^t:D^^ n t3ij 
ny2J>* .iyD28'-5^jyi^^^ ytDi^j^Dnx d^s r))i'>^v iv üdi^ pk oss^' 
ü^: t:25<*^ y^vpni^-12 "ly^j'^üD^p^üü^setp nyi p£ aji^pMio:» n 
oy^^f^^ipysD ^"in Djyay oy .D:yr:yn5<D i^s D^yn » m^: 
-Ji^vi^s 1^3 ly^siiP iDjyr^iö \:i'>iv'\P pa cytoD^D nyi •^^^ pH 
tinyii i:i^pMiD3i? p£ ysitoK' "".yoM^y; üi n^i« .iy"iy^^ V^ ly^n 
"lyn^yr -lyi p^? t^n V2'?V'i) ,::)i:v)y^'\^^ pa i^^i: "lyoniy: s 
-i:ny"ip pa T'« "ly^nyn jix — D^^pD^n ps t^>^iöI3 k ü^'v 
-p^^:^ife5„ Dyn ibtD D^^'^^^onj Dsy^^y: i§ i^^dn — o^^prnys 
n«vin nn p« i^ns ünvi didpi^ nyi .üd^^^d^s^p "|y3^^ 
ü^: ,üD^^i§ü^2i?p D'iic "lyjj^DyiüD^n» v:i''?^^v^v„ n n^ix 
0^^3-15$ ny:yr^N pn pD y^vn^^si^is lyi pN »nyn^P lyi ^ii 
lyn pN "ii}tj ,iyD^n3"i:$D Pd -^n lyo^snsj^ Dy:yr^x pn ps iix 
p.x DD^^-.p-D^^m« y-toy,2 D>'.fc< Drn ny iv::i'?V)) pN ,D{<!»: 
-''3y:"i5$s lyny ps lyo^etnsj^ *qn ly^i^r ^n nytD^^ms n Dam:; 
"8p Dyi -iVQ ::n:yTiK^-ii?2 n Dan ^nynnyi px .lyay^» ps lya 
,"iyiDPiin5§D lyrvisnjysj^ Dyn tD>: ^j^dj^^p üaii^na dd^^jüd^s 
; *r'B w'p^i^vti jyrDJj^n-D^nn nvi ps :in:y^iB^-i^D n ^^i 
PK DDi$5i':ni?p yr^^D55» an:yD:j' toj^^ Dn>N nyDj^i dm px 
"ii?D n Dopt^^i it^i -— ,Py"i*^ ^^i5< ü"i^Tö:n ,ü^^po:y3yny2D>^« 
,:ji^o5§t:i^ pn D^D iyöi§T^v cd^^j^d^sj^p oyi nvo :jn:yivj' 
-nyi PN .yto^Miv n iyvy3y-i:i5<:D d^: ^^aiyi tid yD-j'iy n p,s 
-^yvr^« Dyi ^^3 lyifisn i^k ^n D^ypMiD:^ ly^i^* o^^v lya^yr 

IV ajuyiücj^ lyi lyB^Miv dp^^2:>^p-dd^5s*d i? DD^^^fiD^söip oy: 

.D3yr:y:ii?D iv ,iyD^jy: iv 3jnyiü*J^ "lyn pN iy:^cKT:i# 
»•qn » pt< ü^vi2^ — ")ytDDyK'tD:is*o ps ynoon:^« n„ 
-y:ir^N li^ip — 1795 pK t:D^^t3:y2y-ife<D üj<tn pp^y .-n di^h 
nii^nya jytoi^'iy oyi ps .lyi^'ny» ly^D pw lyiyn ts^^^ö 
ivü^^ai» IV ny^v^ lyajiNiivya mm lyo^öipnn^Q n lyj^n 



*7«ö»Bt?i5 D^l 112 

-••n D^yoij'yaiv ^n lyni^n V2'?v)'\ ,\ivü'?v n lyjy'nj/t^n ^-in 
-y: nsDiyi lya^^^n yD^yn p« ^y^jj^x-py^ d^k lyirp y:)jr y-iy 
\V2^r) v^^ ^y^;r« n Dtjin ,o'>')i lyi p« ,|y^i^v5$n iy>^ü ütid 
"••Djj-is yD>^D^:tJ'3in n iy:^n D>n lyij» nyi p£ .loiy^Jinya 
ypnsü!;^' onyii^aya üi^n j^.^a^itjj^ n pN :nyio jyiiyj lyD 
lyai^n px ly^^yo y:n^*p mi ony^ya lynj^n ^n .D^^poi^ni^sij' 

^M lyDSD IV iyn^inya:j# '•n lyn^n it^nys lyo^^iiv d':-»«,, 
nyiiK^ MT« iDpi^ö ü^un^y:! ly^i^n ^n "iyni# ,Djyjyoi«D yr^^p 
"18 pD y^vstDsi^EDpy yn^n^ytD^ooi« viv'* ^^^n /'lynnD mi 
ö>D tD^^nn«! Dj^ii pyiyiy^ D>>n oy ^^^ ,tD^^m» üdj^^p D-'^a 
...lynnD Mi di^j^ö mt8 t:ny^y3 lyni^n >n p«„ ^lyö^^p^i' 
,DiDpi^ iyi lyn^nyijt^ •jpr tD>^n iii:'>^v^ ivt^m Dyi p« 
-i^ii lyp-'K'DMnt? Tin lytD^nnDMK jyo o;y^2 ü^v'^^v: cyi p« 
oy .i:»^ p2 toytosj'-piötD y^8 p« ly^ji^yotj^i?! ^i^j lyi^^rs* 
P£ iyr"»K i^^p ntJ'EN nyii^' :i>:yii -inyr tt^i ,'?i^^:!yo inyr r^« 
es^n lyo di^ii ,a:^^nyDD dj^d 4000 t^n 3000 pD |y^{$D>s8p n 
.1690 ifc?Q Di^üDnpy tDi^n ,yntDDnj^N lyi pK D^yo^ry^j:^ 
iytD:{$pn38D n ly^J^n ivüv^^ Dfc^ntDy "lyit? ü^^v nyi on» 
•^M lynn IV lynnnyjjj^ iyni<;n px ü^y; ü^yöi?Ty:j^^ p^si' "ni^-i 
■^1?^ ..."lynne mi iyt>M v:vü'>'>'? p.N y^iyv^^i DJ^tot^'ji? py^D 
tDiyiJinnnt^^ lyDjnyvDS d':"id nn}^> r^njnyv jytDSj'iy nyi t^« 
i$?D tD^ytDii'yj üi^n Di^ii ,0Ji<pnn5i:2 lyiytDoytj'DJfeüo 8 Di>*n 
nyDfe?a |yDny:iDMn8 ,pMi jytj^njy^DMt« li^^'?^ s tsoyj y^>n 
"•^K ."D^:3t5' yj^n y^« pD syp n id>o ^ypj^sj^ 8 p« |y;i:^,p 
K PD iy3i$3Dn« n lyni^n ^üvy-^m n lyj^t^'iy ly^^n oy lyi 
•^n ly^y^Q '^t i«ii .r^5■l8^DDy'^ oyi p« ojyat^ r^« t3:t$pn3i?2 
c'i'is Tj^^: 5§ -i»D Ü2VB 6 Ml inyo ö^: lyDsiDOMK jyoipDM:iv 

pK — 1758 PN lOK>ny .P838D i{5rv 8 n»s >jyB p^K pN 

jyD oi^n,, — ! yai>*ey ny^^j 8 pia n^n^t^ I» w^m vk Di^i 

•yj PK lyounsc '^>^p^M1 t^n di^m »i^^pye s lysyi^ t2:{^py: 

"1 yüynsp ly^yr^x iö P8« lynni^D ,öDyu' 



nsD n« D^Dpi^ lyo^n: ps iiiiinys "lyi t^x« ,iDiyi:innnt^* 
/tDsytJ'y; ps iJitD^nnoM« in Tin Dv^ütj^nyor.« ,::Mm)^ 
ür^n ^i^T iy lyii »D^i^tya pp^y .m lyou nyi o^i ü^^)) oi^n 
? iyDDytj'D:ö!D i^k ü^nDn-nmn iy:{$D:j'y:2^iN lynt^n :j;?d iv 

-vy^ Di^T pK yt2*^"iy o^i ?>« oi^n ! ö^yo^r ! o^yosr 
-ü^ms iD>i ,iD>^'5D55nt?2K'^ ! D{;?3y: "iyr^^\i lyi ,D")»;iiii yo 
nss .n .1 ,tD"iJ^5Jr ,Di{^3c^ nynnyi pK ."|i^ öt^yo»: D^''p!D»r 
-lJ^st^♦ n Di^ii ,^»nyD»D cyi iv D^yoB^ o^^an» n .^^ö^bkp 
nss .n .1 ,Dnj?36^ »üit?»'^?^ lyanyi p.x ."(i;)^ Df^yot^r ö^^posr 
nyii? Diy^nnyD d':id ^>^o lyiyoyia s ^^^:yo mi o^yiisn 
ü\^ ari^o^nt? ! ^»ü^söip pk pmv üPHi^-^annyo d':ib 
y^'iDni^D lyi oi^ p« — y^^pni^is di^? V'^P^'^i^^ti ,3:i^d^t:j^ 
•i^üCM n tDpmyiD>^.« v^i^^i^p:! y^*^o^?t^2 y^>Dfc?5p n Di^n 
V'>p «in« T^x n PK .ii^nys iyTö:"iC'T"i*.2 cyi ps: y^D^o y^^n 
lyn^nromy: n iy:yii -^n >u t:n5<:y3 ly^iy: ü>: mj^o p^K 
nyDi^> Di^i tDj^n a:iü^nöt2 s isd üi^)) ^V2^ ,ü)üyi cyn po. 
.D^\"?rijy^iDMj yij'ni>*DD^n n ^^^n 15<2 tDnyü:^' oy lyii 

v)'?2 nyn«!t:y^{^"iB nyi ü^«in y^Di^j5>»py v^^o^^p n n»*!« 
cyn nyni?: n o^sn ^ony^innyo iyn>>;n5?iB iv yr:r»o {$ *i»s 
nnyo cyn ly^i^ötinKö iv yr*k^'fe?D s "i5<d rn^a OD^^sD^setp 
rvpji£ yi^'nj^üDM n \^ ücyj n .f'fciiD^söip cy^^j pK ünyi^ 

.üDjny inyt oc^>«ü^e^p d':i3 
lyn pD Dy^vi$oii^D yK^^ot^ji?py yoD:yi^>tj'i82 n px 
ntjij »y^vpm^isyn yDöiDJ>^x ife$ ni^n d^j "ij^d jddip üs^^i^'^yTyj 
-nfe?2 PD D2n ,35?üK^cso pyü^nn fe? ^^ix y>vpni>nEyi s "^mk 
PK Dn^:ini#-i9 inyo v^s moo o-iy^i oy .dm-i: iyjyn>vjf 
üpni^ns D':iD nnyo v^« ^li'^^ oy pi« ,üD>n2-i8D nnyo 
oy^j^is nyn ot^ nynj? .iy^t3^a-Dji>*^vpni^is p« D^ynjötineta 
-qMN "iyn>nyi px ^^o^Eb'p ps 3ji^D5<r:j^ d'?^ ü>: "iJiitD oaip 

-D3lifVpni#"l9 n IDT ^3 »tSD^^fcüD^Beip D'313 y>VPJ^,D D^8 ÜO 

PK opHi^nß pM 1'^K lyanyn p« lyü^ui» D':ii: [y^o'D 



äi 



^»o>Bt<p Dti^ lU 

ivi pK ü^j "iJjj üH^K ivjiyp (ynyDK^ iv^ü'^ü'ü:v2V'> yr^r 

'M1V Ü>D Di^n tDinOD^^^K DJIS^ti^TI ^"^fe?:i'Dn nJ^DVDi^lS 

n:»^ ny^n p^^K lyD^^m^yn Di^-n ,Dny>is lyrn ;ijnyp^y2 
PK |ytD2yontDD3^«-"iyD^">ni» yny^n jytopnt^is yiy^n lyoy: 
,-ijt;?ö {< PD y^"ii;?D H |t? DO ^f^or^"? iy^D^o"nyDD>Tpy y-iy>n 
nynnQ t^k lyDtjyii ,nin oyn pD lyij^iiy; Dij-^sK^y:issi^ t^x d^ii 

.|yi^ny:i D>yöfei;Ty;i3{^ 
VD^^'DE^'^tD-i^irDo n jynyii ü^n nyi:i§ nyi pD 
7\'?^üKi y^'>'?::v n ikii ,iy^fr^ii^-i3 n ps nyD^^nn» 
-n ,DyDD^D yD^» n Dr^^^y:!D^iK DiDy^i« ni ^y:oyii Di>-n 
pD >^^D s IV ü^sD Dy lyoyn ,D''!?na n ps ortDay^^'t^s üpyi 
ojy"i ivm ,tDnnD d>» tDD^l^•tD'^nr-l:^;^ PD DpiiJ^-is-inya Dyi 
üDMnmj^D tDnyii üphi^is oyi dj^ pd >^^d p^x .Djn: dMid 
nj5D 5»^iD 8 "^i?: pK yon^^a "lyD-'^T'D^*: lyi p« D^^na n pD 
■"HMinya vwi:^ px p« iyD5s*T-D^DPi!^ I^k lyo^-'^^j^ n |y>-i:)^n 
•"n"i8 n "i5$D pi^ Dyi d^k ds^o yjny^^x dj^-i p« ,iy?D^o 
-:>R-o"m8 yjyr>« yny^n po lyo^iD^yj^'»« lyrn yD^y^i ,nyD 

•lyDjyonDD 

üD^tDK'sn ^ytD Dyi pK .DyDciH^i^i ,Dyjy3y;y; o^^iit^y d^^^ 
pD onna n 5'55ü^s^p"3i?i^v px üc^ipr^N pi^ik 3:i^>>l}J''>n n 
raaynsNDi« "nn ö"iyi:y ;ji^o^tjj^ n ly^J^ .2:i^o^*tj{^ nyi 
D>n3 nyn pej a:nyi:y lyn ü^d ly^^nv ;:i^^''ör^N ny^y^ ])z 
-8P lytD^i^ii ö:yvi#nö 80 .2 .v |yn .p>^» önyinnyo C^r 



,\}ni^\)Vi 03ni3i8ß t::y^ii?•^fi 20 r,K iDJ^vy: dtt'^ijd^i 
tMifi 2400 lycii^nüy::^^ ^so^ssp nyo^y'Dj^TP::^^ ".yi o^i^i'» 
-js: nyi ^v ,Dyi t^ ^n on^yn'D ,.dd .d 1200 nyij^ ,2:^$>iyüD 
.tDD .D 1500 t>n "lyni? 3000 t^D iny^nyi tj^^i^ oiyti-nny»: "lyy 
¥T^8 lyn^n :iJi^08Tjj? nyi psj D^na 'in t^B ;:iD^t:^«<3 *iyi ^^a 
PS D1DD lyv:^: Dyi lyo^o^j'ss ü^\) ,|yijyü5^c^,« y>5< n 
OD«iö»n •^^r'nn^öD^^K lyrn iyi:yoK^tDi>5 n öj? .ö^yir'inyö 
•nnyo ne y^vpnipB nyn iy;yn ry^D^ESP n p« lyii^iw 

.Diyn 
^nyo Dn pß y^ri^^BJ^is n vh ,Dp:yiy3 nyry^ nyi ^)\ 
•^^318 Dyn pD y^vytüj^i^BDpy tttna Dyi pD j^i^ynet^ onyi^ 
,üwrinyo po y^^^pni^-is n üDjinDKn jyni^n n^o lyn .nyo 
-y^i |y2y"iDj§3 nno;^' n t» ,iy!:^:y3:i;^ ;n:y*o*^ to {y2{>*n 
.tDEKnp-t:^^2"i» "lyi pD oiy^^ nyT ^n ,^y^s ^n» D:yDDr3 
nyi Diyii lyni^ ^fejD^BSip p.D J:iiy^i82 "lyü^-'DPünB iy-i p« 
lynyn nn^DK' n oi^i^ ,Dn Tin Dn^vnt^ns ^^i« üiyvrnnyo 
-p»D .üDsnp-tD^^nn» in pb tDiyvi syi "iyö:iK t^pn-y^Bi^^K 
-j8^n»D iJtjD'-nnnnsD -)y;i^ün: nyi ;bik cyn n^*i< oiy^i k^'^d 

1538 D'J^K .5'ii:D^B5$P P.B -IJJ^B'Da^l^'DKniiit ]H t>« ü^yi' 

lytDjnyv:^^: d':id ^yt^m "iiv y^'^iy n p.x iytD:nyv 
•ya lyBiJt lyoD^^so^BSP v\i^'^i:v n lynj^-i Diyir.n-int;^» 
lyawon« n lypmiv-iyDJi-iö; t^fc« pyiw iy^>r ts .ü:t;^t 
.ry^yii lyocrnyi^j cyi iv t^2 (* lyc^^nn« n pD 
^^^D in nD ynDDHj^« lyi pd lyr^iiv y^s pK D:n 
iy^D^D-ö^'3"i8 PB Dnyüiri$3 Di^^i ,^5$D^B5<p lyinjyüß^ d':^q 
.K oyi^^ayj ,iy^ü^o-t)"ii?BD:8io ^lyosiss« ,r^vy3 ^oyj^criJD) 
oi^'ii ,^t^'i 8) iyt3'^3i8 ^^v "lyon^y; « ntüD y.:v} pn ,(.: .i 
^t^i ,(^^ö^B8P"i5^5'DMK D':iD DMii lyi inn tJc^DU'W ony^i 
nyi p« iniyoB' lyop^n d^j ^^h v^? ikb 5^^ö iyi üi$ ^-^sn 
lyr»^^ .lyü^^m» yDj^D2y^5?3 ^i^v n >ii ,c'^:yD^yi"nt<B "lyn^yt 
18 lyiJitDK' 8 ^^3 ly^yöK'n lyo^^sn» 100 pnneiD t^ px ,2 .v 



ülpnyoJi$) "iJMV^ n|^ •nunayoo^ w»m ocn |y*3 D«n (* 

^ii#öp«iyi Dyi pö 



^t^t^i^e^fi» 0^1 lli 

y^j 50 w'pvo^:^ ^v i^P ,üs^yn » ti^ix pi;Dyn o^'-ans yo 
-KP Dy^^j jyr^^Dnx v^« "»y ^i» tD^i^Dyn ny^j^ .nyo^^mii! 
n» ^MK "^MK "ii#J nya^^m» n isa p^^ n^« ii;?j do ^«d^3 
100 yt:^8 n lyD^^niöi lyr»^^ ti« "^y^^ I^P ^i' .ly^o^o-D^u 
l>^K^ lyrn D^i^oyi ,8 Di^D^ji^ }^o ^ \vi:)0^ 12 nyo^uns 
— öo nnyo ,iöns3 i^k^ |y:^n dj^i^ ^ly^ü^D-D^^ms n jijya 
-'»« n ii^p 121N Kt8 «in« .jy^OD*'')« ly^y^tj^ -^n ly^yii 'n 
nynyoyi) ^in jyii^iiy: DDsnny^D^n» t^« DJ?n ,d^^3"i» y:ny3 
-j^ns-nny» oyi lynt^n ,tDa«ip-D^>2i» nyi i^d :rj:yntD^:i# 
DO ,(3ii^Di$TDfc? nyn ps Dvy oyi) ü-iyinnyD oyi |ik üph 
-KP lyanjyou' on ^y^i^i^vit^Bi^is ^'■nnyT anjyiyoyninsta 

iD^ytn tDD^o PK nynt jy^y^sK^ oDK^i'tDinnDK^ nyi px 
|yo ; ynoDnj>« "lyi p« ly^^ny^^D y.Tn n di^ii ,v^^i 
■viyD DM«")i?D an:y3t>*n ü^: ,\vi^2 inytD lyn^m^s t:o i^^p 
liD p« ly^KnyöKo yn>n n pD dod nyn ly^i ly^i^ .nynr 
pn n T^i^3 piK^ DJ^n »lyny^y^ t*»« (r'':^y;i) iy^D''D-t:^^3"i» n 
nyi:iK^i s ^lyo^^^i n^o ^^^ .in^^n d'jid :^iD"'^n-ixyn yti^^^fc^DyD 
^yn^'ym \v^) .lyopHi^is n pa di3d oyn ti>*,N 3jipimi yiKi 
n» D13D pyoy-ii s pn« ür^^ nyü^uis ^ijtv ,nynK t^2 dj^ii 
o^jii^a ^^^ß« ür^^ lyo lyii ,ü'^piKnt:3n& n ^n d^mh ,d>^3 
*n K iijiD nyi^ii öoip i#"j .lypD^a-ö^^m» nn« dmk inyo 
n>ii n Di# PK ; niDKi ")yi ^in« lyK^jyo d':is a^ipini yopyi 
^:i5i3KT:i? nynyDyn ps ^kv.p lynK^^yo^DD^K IK tonyii jjip 
.5>KtD^BKP Dyo T>5? oy |y3^yi^ pö ajit^^crnK lyn ini^i 
PK o^^anK n^K y2K;D^iK y^'3 viv"* üivi^ti *q^^n3y p« 
jm^n »i^iK y3K2D>iK y^^: rjjyDyist^D:« ik ynoonj^K irr 
n« .|y^t3'D-iD'^3-iK ^nx ^i^JD y^K tD^: lyns^ jy^j^nytDKD 
n »ynöDHi^K ny2) ynoonr« yivopj^nt^Dpy n "»ii '»n» 
n pK (J .T .K Dynn yjyi^^KnKD .ly^n^ip pd ::i3J?n:D>iK 
jriODnrt« nyi^yo^^niKys nyi *,v ly^yo^ DDKti'Dinn:«^ 
n« jnn>K nKB ly^KnyoKo n p.K ly^'KnyüKo vn'>\'^ ynn»K 



-j^« lyijytD^^Dnsya lyn ,5'i$d^skp lyD^^^^y^oMK cy^^: in^^ 

.ynoon 
-jyiyßnypnsD : Ofc?ü5>n];"j nyr^ny;^» in dosdk' i^ßnyn 
-ü^^mij n — DiüD^n pD nysy^^-Dini yi^>3 n ^n i^« in 
D^: Di^n ,öD8np » ^i$tD>s8p "lyn doip»^ ~ ,n"iy n n« üS)Kip 
-ji^ pn pD |yu:yoy^y n lyD^nst^^voMK ü^^PD^^^yo n dh^k 
Dy Ml ,iym Di^ii ,iyvy:yni n p2 o>n iy:y' ^mk ::^^D8r 
Dyi Tin ,Dni: lyjy;^^« pn ^-in tD:y3^>vy3:x^ ,t^ ean 
-o^D-D:i#^vpnfc^"iB yün^^^nt^ns V)\:^ n pD d^dd cyi p.« oiyn 
.y:yt:Dnpy pn dm« in tDpm oy y^^yM p« ,iy> 
-KP pD iii^Dj^Tjj^ lyn pK ii;ppKD lyrüDMi nyo^Miv 8 
"^•yTyj lyi pd üyüMvopnijii "in i^ n^nj nyi t>k 5>8o*i 

.o^uis nyo^^öDtjy 
ü^^nns lyn ps }:iti^^ nyirDpni^iB in o^o lyostiY 
tDiysnypnfcsa t^k oy yD^yM p« ,iyopnt#"J9 pc yoso n ödp8m 
'Vi s 1^2 DnyM-inyD k ^m« lyanyn pk oiyi) nyoo^ür83 ($ 

JID üyDMVDp^"U?13 n IDDP8M Dy inyo Di^ll .DM-13 lyOM^ 

-o^o tD-iyir-inyD nn "^n p« d^shü:« mvo r^K ,0^^218 nn 
onyinnytD iid yo^n n lyM .a^i^cKtJi^ po p« Doy: po \v> 

1i$: 0^»D M 3MK) tD^SD M lyil ^^'DK pK AV^W MI 03''^3 

lyn PD tD2j<ip yivüpnijtns n or^tD^ oy nyn^^K "lyoKt^JK^ 
üi^ lyM .üpni#n3-"inyD on ps yD»» n ddpkm ,(ö''3"i8 
y^vnj>*2i^n5 '•\v:i'?v^'\)n p« p^k ^m ü^^^d Dpnt^nsnnyo in 
nyn>nyn \i{^:> ,^8ö^B»p-ni?3w p« üd:ip:'^k ^im« lynnB Mi 
-D::i^Qj§T:Jii nyn px »lyDPSM DD^JiötD^si^p d':ib -^Miaya in 
"t^-13 n .jy-iyM -iy:y^p 00 d^^v "lya^ytnyn pK ^ijtT n:i^D 
-P8M i^'2« p^p i:i^D"D::i^o8T:i# oyn ps dmi: y^y:i^*vii^9 
>T DijM t:>''v nyn p« »nit^D-^Mnnya oyn pc pnc'n i'emk lyo 

-D^D ^y^D Mtfe? ÜD''5'5$D>2»P Dyi CD>: nniHD n P2 J31J^^>3n»D 

nv nyni^t .nny^ ^j?: i^'^dk nyii^ '^vn^'^ü mi ,iyD^jyj oiv iy> 
-lij "in pD üyLJMvtDpnijtnB n odpkm oy mi .o^oiyn lyosr 



■yÄO^B^p 0^ 118 

,ünyinnyo HD vd^i nn pc ::nyDy"i:"i»D n -^^ik D^Diyi p« 
^^d:^^p t^DpKii iy .ÜDP811 pi^-o^ms iV5'»yi nyn )'?'>siH \V)^ 
.tD^^ms -.yi pD oytDMrtDpniiiiQ lyn i5f ^yjtit^vii^Bi^"i9 ü^j 
i^t5»8 oijyna ^sd^skp iy3^5>"iyijy"i8D pD öiyii nyra^yr lyn 
n8 nnyo "i^m nysnyn p« t:ß8"ip-o^>mK nnyo ^jiiyi^sn p« 
n»D T>« ^ütü^Eötp lyjnjyoij' pc Diy^i "lyj^a^ynyi .id>u 
-^» ^r\Vo VH .n .1 ,|y^t}^D-D:j#^vpni#"i3 ^nvü p« Diys-iyp 
*u/ ; rv^K''iVD^ö-si^\iy: p« jy^snyoiito-tD^^aiK ,iy5'D^o-o>u 
-pnijtna lyo^jK^ oi^i^ »lyojyoy^y nnyo iv "n^iN lynnyi o^yDij^ 
.0^^318 pn» lyssT Diiti^ nni^ onyii \vt^^ Di^ii ,n ^ii ly» 
üH)^ »lyn^yrnyi Ds^^^n ^8D>B8p-nt^aiv d'jiö onyii nyi jyii 
K ii^D '^^1 tDQip nyiy^P i^^D« üiyi^ iy lyii lyii? ,nynnD 
-i^nsyi "lyn iid 2siük^d8d nyn tm^3 tD^j j:i^D8r:i^ y-iy^yjK' 
n ni#j .ly^snyD^o p2 e3nj>n i^k nyDy-i: onyii y^vpn 
PD tDiyi^ lyn m^ ,^v^v:^ ddpsii tD-iy^rnnyo pD y^vpniitna 

.^8t:^Q8P"3i?iiv nv\ 
18 nn PD t328^p iyirt3pni#"iB nyi pD :ji^pmid:8 n 
iyit>* ,5>8D^B8P ly^yrrii^ on ^imk pmv •^mn tDpn^ii D^^a 
-DJi^^vpni^nB D':*»« p^tJ' "^n oj^ey: oi^ii ,5'8ö^B8P oyn ^^ik 
-8P iy:njyüK' iyn:yn^:i?^vp:iD oyi iid ^^>ö p>k .oyvi^nB 
,.3 .n .K Dyrij'^D >^i ,iy5'D>D-D'^m8 pa Dnyt:K^8n ^80'i 
nyii^ o-.^vni^iByn "^n« nynnyn ti« tD3Mnnn8B lyiyi^ yD^yii 
^K^ö p8 pD lyn^yr Dyi ps lyi^^Boyrpy y^^j ^"in iyü^ai8D 
^^^o p^K BJ? onn^t^B^ inj^^ oyiy^ iv2^ .lynt^nys viv::v'? pD 
PD !?y^^i:y DJ?n üD^n:nyi "ly -n n ,|y^D^»-tD^^3i8 n Di? pD 
nni?^ Dyny> nyany-i -nn ü^Dy: iy .y>vpiiD nyivDpnt^ns pn 
"180 p2 ivi^ v^'i?'\i^'^Bv^ nyij^nj^nyB v^t pD yn8tDD nyi t>K 
\V'i^ .pD lyn^ytoy-i pD |yn8^3oyTpy y»>j ein« iriy^^ tvw^a 
pK y\ DiyDyn:i8D i:^^3i8 lyi PD ö£8np yivüpni^iö n 
-m^d:8 ^t p8) iy^D>D-ü>^nn8 '»t üi? pD Dit^ütro-iny: nyi 
•u;t pD 3:i5'P^"iid:8 ny:niyn:8:83iit: -lyn d^d nD3 ^n D^yp 
P08tpnM^ '^nv^ P8 y>^3 |yoy:i8D ,(p>:Dyö p« t3D8{i'jyD')i 



^n üi^)) D"'^ni8 nyi iiö dod Dyi lyDDsnüsn n^D lyi^ ,nK 
.n .K iVDönsss ,r^vy: »oyj^u^j^D nyr^u ^y^Q ^o^ns lya^; 
tjt p« tDiyi^ ^öiD^sKP "lyD^s nyn .yt:^8 n po vk^q oyi j 
-ßKDiK ,^^j Di^T tiM« t:n>^ni^iB yo-ii^D iyivtDpni^-)ö i:^vd 
"yoynon« p« iy3:ny-i:yni$2 y^'StDyi yri'moD n ps r^jyn 
,]'>w t)vi:fc?2 lyo Di^^i ,iy^D^D-tD>ui8 n pK iy::n 
nyn — ^j$tD^S5§p iy3n:yü6j' cyi ps ^"»^ö nyü^niv lyn 
•nD3 tDnyn — iy^8nytDi§a"pi^\T n p« ^»nyoso lynm 
.in^'» fc? ^11 ny:^jyn ps "^^q pK ^^: Di^i ^i^i« ai^vn^^iB 
D^i>*^:yt3D"inyD — ,t2Si§ti^ünnn:fc?^ ps üüip dj^ii ,DtjtT pK 
tDPn>iT .3 ."I .K lyit^tDyo yiyoyn pD ::nn>2r^« viv^ .•^^^'.ny^ 
Td^k PK ^i§D^25<p-n{?:iv i'D^iK rtD^^vD^^^: tDyoD lynnyi i^i 
-ü:» yiy^ .iyi^jj^^vp:iD pi< p^B^ ^n oj^Dya dj^ii ,^j§d^sj<p 
^i^D ^y^D px t^i^n tDO tDiyDyiJit^D y^oy:: nyi pD :ji^p>^i 
-D^iN PD lyDiJ^Q n p« |y^^nyt:{<D y^^^vij pD di:d Dy-i 
-nyn DnytD>nniK2 pj< iy^8ny::fci!o ytDJ5<p5§n r)^ n lyvi: 
ji^p "ly i«i^ ,t^np Dyi ^^üd^dj^p d'j^d dpikii oyn d^o lya 
pniv tD^^v nyn^yT'yi px Dny^ n .lynyn ür^^y^m» 
^fcitsöi^ Dyn y^^fpni^nsiyn pD Dyvj^ns Dyi px lyD^fc^iix^vm» 
-yn D25<^ PK ::n^nan^D p« y^^pn^^ns pa oyvi^is oyi iid 
n»D n^Di^ Dy^^j ^'stD^E^p ps- 3}^:dmk Dy^^j K in{^ "lynn 
pD :y.;jyiü'^:ijt n pyDyin^D Tin tM^n m üp:i3 .^tjttD^s^P 
PD y^vb*t:{?i^DDpy n üiyDynnKD myi^ tDD^",p-D^^DiK lyi 
n pK DDstJ':yDni n ^mn lyssti^ >ni§ ,ny^^ü::>n"nDi?J n 
,5'fc$to^E^p D'JiD ^jnytD^nnnnK nyi ik2 D^^P^^^^yo ^ p^:Dyö 
.^'Kü^Dfeüp iyijyn^ji^>^p:iD Dyi pD dmi; lyi pD :^j:yns>jiDiK 
^^>tD Dy-i tiMK pmv D^^v nyn^ynyi px p^x p« lypi^ii ^n 
Dyn PK iyDt>ntoy:irnK t^k Di^ii ,^^t:^D{s*p |y^y:^:ni^ d'ji2 
pn pK >nD onysiypiüSD ^v:iV'' .:jiK^^j^*n pD i:ö;'j^"iy 
-Din T^K üi^\\ ,::i^pMit^jK yD^^DCi^'^^yrya n y^-ii,tD iy^^: 
Dy .yo"it^D nyo^K V] pD lypn |'ny:oj^-i lyn^^r.ya üD^^jya 
nyi PD a:"i^pMiD3K nyn Di^ d^o lyo^jn^; Tfc< ^^n oryüi:n{s*D 
3:ny:y^pnKD yT^^^i^>^D n ^>m t:ny: iddöi*ip lyivDpnsji-ia 



p>t On^^lKD »ptJ^SfD 8 PK ,5'y^B6y^n DIV »Da^S» Di^ll ,^8D 

|yD5»yT Dyi pD Dyj>iJ'8D yiyoyn lyr^c^ny oy lyii ,oiyn 
•HM eti^^ oiyn iiq ::nyjy^p-iöiD n dj^ ^y^sni »i^ik .d^i^d 
ü3MiyrüB^in nn^N ü^»S) »nyi^PJi^P "lyn PJ8"i k lySi^a unse' 
j;»v»iD».»^BDpy nynyoyna nyi ti^ ^'^^^ ,iyü^m8 oyi ^n« 
oyi lyß^iPivDM« öD^^ißD^BSP nyi ödu nyo^^m» oyi i^q 

.pDiyi DJ^n ny Di^^i ,ini#K^ 
pa oiyii Dn Dpnjjtia i'dmk '^v^'^i^ üat^iü tD^^m» n 
lyi pD .D3n"ini$$D üi^n n D?^n ,iy^D^D-D:i?^vpniin3 n 
-Djjji>vpni?"iB n p£ vo^D n px onyi^ nyi üdpsii D^n lyi:» 
-y: D^^m» PD D1DD lyoM^ya cyi 'nnn jyj^n Di^^i ,iy^ü>D 
n üiyii ü]f lyivüpnijtnB Di^^i .::i:ynfc§n pK int^i^ya DDsna 
D^i ,nynnyn ,tD^un8 pD dod nyn^y: nyn lyii .ü>^3"i» 
w tDny^^ Dy>>j ps didd lyn^yi Dyn nt^^ i^^bn iv in:ytDi5' 
-*B8P D'jiD Diyii ivü'?^ nyi "^j^i isop^n ,|yDpni#nB v^n>t^ 
-Jitiö n }yi^ ,iyDpni;|t-i3 n ^mk lyan» o:i>nD n ü^)) ,^»d 

.üDpsii ü^^nn» m pD Dyö^ivDpn 
-»^a D1V ,iy^yii lyj-'Btj' lyt^nj^x is p« nysj'^^jjy i» lyii 
-:>k iy:u>ytnyT d^d lyiiitDB^ 5»i?v ya^ytn lyD^un» ^^yBtj^ 
-»^5>i lyi^xnj^iB o>^v ^^11 8 PK yi>>n ^n ly^yn ,oyDMi^DjyD 
,Diin3ii^:j nyn ci^j »imk 3n:ypip tD^i ,"qi^i p« .lyanyii y3 
nyn lyu^^iix i^^e^iyta^iK nyo^n:» nynny^oiK j» Ik-ikb t^k 
ü^\) ,iy-ijy5';jy d':ib üph^^ib lyD^^DjyDyn nvi ps Dnyii 
(yj^B^SD K d^d) CKDijttDiiK jyo^nj :n5'Ki^3 k d^d d^^:}^» 
Di?n Di^^i ,DnrK Dyn pD Dpnt^iB d':^d Dnyii oyi pK 
p^K PK D^riisiiiKD lyrBJi^ lyt^'^^ijy 'in ."iJ^n:>BK^ k i^^^n 
-j>K-pBK^ ,^yiife?3 PD lyosD ynyoyi^ ^i?d ü^v^i'in -^d k :t^D 
T^« ^MK -lynnyi o^sn ny .oni^D pK .a .n .k |yt::yDntDD 
•ijtnB yi'M PK Dnyir^fejD^Bt?? nyoyna k ^i^D ünn:in ^d k 
.n .n ,ö^^3"iK 3i?D pn pD öpni^-iB-ünyii in lyn ,iyöpn 
n IV lyit^iiya tv^y^y^^v ^^j Dip i^d t^k d^ii ,tDiy^i nyn 
Ijniy; ^?'EK ü^^i 43"3i8 lyn Tin ty^D^D-oii^'j^pni^-ia 



n» }i^ü [^n ^i^i ^^4\\ ,on:^K d'jid tDpni^iB"Diy^^ mv ^^^^3 
,üpn}^i3 Dy^o i'E^'.« nya^« DJi^nü *iy dj?i^ »Diyn lyü^» i» 

.5»5<D^B8P D^8 m^Jfc^^VpJID ^-3 Dl^T PD |S?P DJ#n pK 

T^K — ,D^y3jy -^rnns t:ik ü^nyiiiin — ,1782 pK„ 
^1^3 ini#> ^m 3;jy:i:8:"i8D n ii3 5'i^n yv:»: n "i:8^j:y p» 
n» ,nye^u"i8 pK 5'yj:8o oyi p:8t s ü^^nnsya id^j lyay^ya 
oo tD^»»?^^ oy ]V)\ ,ü^'»2"J8yaDix lyn^^^n tsTioy: ^i^j id^j^ii oy 
*>i^ii n Dj^n üi})) ,v^m y^v^^M^iv y^o n *i^\t iv lyo^py: 
PK lyii^ny; öny2nypi8i3 vh Di^\) ü^ui« n .ly^^SK^y^on« 
nsa^yü^DD^K ,^n DHyotn^D ,üi#n ,pk^8ö 8 ps yoitjD nyi 
'v:v'?:> 8 ö^\*?3^^iyD 8 oo n nyzi^ ,Ds^t:K^y;D>n8 oo Dyj>^p 
n ivüpni^nB lyD^ni^nsD i:^ pi^n üo nyD>^nn8 ^i^v nyn 
n8D P2 3i#:iv 8 ^m ö-)yii Dy^>: in>« iv lynyjiv pK ^^\\ 

.üiy^i iyD^5$ nn^K j .n .« dh^d pD yani^D lyn p8 lyo^isn 
o^^v lyD^ynyi p8 ly^nyn tD28K^ tD>^3i8 yoiysiypisc n 
•t^neyi "lyiyD^nn 8 "i82 t:28ip"n^no 8 ^^d p« ^yü^o 8 ^^d 
p:8trymD8: iyi t:nyt:6y8n oyi p8 .^t^n lyi po 3:n'vn 
-^8 DyT iyL')^8nD''i8 lyp m dj^i) ,D^>:n8 '^Vi'iv^v'? lyn po 
Dyi tDM^ ,ünyn Dy>o tDD8t^ n di^ti ü^'v nyi pK oiyii jyo 
tD^'318 ^yi p2 oma n px ü^^pdöitpim^ n ddp8^i oy ^n 
nn D^D .n .n ,iy^o^D-D:iii'vpni?"iQ y-in>K ps Dnyii in pK 
nn^K jiD :j^^pMit3:8 lyn o^d lyojjT^.v ony: di^ii ::i5>o8r:i^ 
oa^3^>8"i82 PK nn« -lynnyi m ü^^jn ,t:D8iP"D:t#^vpni^"i9 
-Düii: DDP8i^ Dt^ii ,tDny^r5>8D^a8P 8 Vü^h^ ny^o 8 pK moD 
-«3 D>^3i8 ny:y3:nya i^d aytDD^D Dyi *^n lyni? .n^s^K 
lyn pQ yo-ii^D n ts^^niK "lyi i^d üDsnp-nüs: n Dij Doip 
lyD^jyn p« ,^8t:>B8P d'j^d t:D8iP "lyn^yo^'KnEnK ^m p^^k 
vy^^^^^^vm ynn^K mi 'it8 üpjib ,D"iyBiyp"i8ß Diyii n 
-ß8K^:yr^K n d^8 dmik ^m jyr^^^^ lyosyip yivopnijtia 
nyn pD 3:^B83"i8D y:n:yDt5» n mi pk ^8D^B8P d'ji» ]]fo 



fiD ti/tDcynp 0^55 ü^yDfij^yani^Q lyiyii to^un» nyi iiq w^^in:^^? 
n Di^ii »üiyii PD lyDit^D y^s ^11 ^ir» Dpiis ^^kd^qkp nyi 
•o^ya ps lyoiijJö D^ei tD^yDtj'ynj>*D lynyii ,|y:fc^önss nnmo 
t3>0D D81S Dt^ii ,^»D^S8P lyjnjyDtT Dyi jid ^^••d nyjy^ 
-ii^ya n Ml jy^ü^D"D^un» n — "lyDn^DP^D nyi„ 11? Dan 
lyvjinaj'K yi2Vü^ üi^ii^^vp^iD — j .i .« Dyrt:^»D n »on 
ovi:y3Si? Ü1V)) "ly lyai? ,y^vpni^i3 na oyvt^iB Dyn p» 
^^D^niv ni^j Dnyi^ pn nynns t::i?"iD px t^^ny^Do rn^3 
ni^D D^ytsK^ "ly .niDD lyDj?:^^ DD^yn ny dj?i^ ,nninD n ^nn 
ly^viopiit^nB *iyn pD J^i^p^iit^js nyn ps dj^d y'riDN i» 
nyD:i« nyi "hm« tDDPt?^^ dpixi^ pn d>d |yoi?Tiv .ddsip 
-3^^^y:mfc$ Dyn ps didd iyv:»i ori lyti'Miv dmi: p« n^^c^ 
-nsD t:iyii di^ii ,^5<ü^e»P ps ^^^d ny:y^ px ^«to^sfeüp \vo 
üDpsi^ oy : nyt^nyii v^v^:^ ü^d .o^yöj^D lyiy^ p« D^mn 
Ml »jy^ü^D-D^ms n p2 ^snyü^D d':id üiyn pß yotjo n 
-"B^n^D ,n^ö-D"m$^ ,iynnDnn^DSt? »oyj^tj^fcitD ^Dyi^^^y: n 
DM13 nyv:fe§:i ny^n px jyn^Ji^^vpJiD v:i'?v^) avi^^i^b^ v^v^ 
-pni#"i3 n p« iJ^nys py^n^p lyis^ pyjjy^» 8 pa "isi^D pk 
VD^yn iyn>^ ; nyn^« iidd "qn Tirn or^ii ,|yDy^^j^iB"D:i^^v 
PK lyiD^^m» ynyjy^P y^D^otJ^i^n ij^d iv ^mn dvij»d lynyii 
lyT^isa ^n p« r^Misy^Do T>i^n livijy^si? ^••myi lynyii >^r 
-n« iDiK »T» nn« iy3J^"iD PN T^M'nyp^D:^' ii^j t:iyii ly^n 
PK .t^Mnyp^Djy 1}^: tik topni^is Te^i« tDiyii ly^n lyi 
-K3 lynyii iy^D^D-D^ui8 n ioi^ lyD^yn i^k ,y^v-ii|?si#i3 lyn 
|np ^i^nyi anjynyaiv ü>: »dph^^ib Pd iv^^^ d^s ü^^u 
•y::Jit lyiyn ^n ^y>DMi ^mk ».n .n ,tyDpnjj5i3 n iv ünyii 
ü3M~im»s lyiyTi lyii? yv:»a d^s to^^m» nyi p« üijyn 
DDMD^K ,t3:ipin ^vn-^i^ V)^ Mi ,^n lyajyis ,t^mi^"d ni;iti 
,«ir?ßi r\vm)^ Ml ,iytDBynp-nitD«j n dj?m ^lyvi: lyn^ytöyi 
Pfi [yvi3 lyaißDnDm nyi öj;? .3 .n .k ^v\^''^''''\^pv'?]f »tDQ^ff 






'ij?»n2D^'5«D^s«p IIS rytya yr'^öyi'?» o^ 

nyü^>n"i8 Dyn hd ^"112 ayi n^^x ta^n ^{^d^qkp d':id dpin^ 
T>K aiiB'nj^^SDnN lyi üj^ px "ii^idpsc lyDorioDMi lyn .ds^p 
•ip Di^i^ ,m:mi:v n |iK ^ütD^ssp D':iD 5'ytD:j':yDfci:r^^ lyn 
.3:i^o»T:i^ PD Dyvi^nö d':id ^im^-iss p« "ii^d cn^« p« lyo 
?yDDönüfc§3 lyö ^n^i ^^d^bj^p d'j^d ^yDtJ'jyc{<nv oyi 
üD^üt^•ytD "ly onyn — üiyn oyi yjui .0^:21« ^^^i^ ^^ik 
piMK tD^^^üy::^^« üiyii ny "ly^^yii ts^^^ ,y^vnj^si>n3 nyi i"in 
-tD^o-D:i^^vpni^"iB n pD oiyii oyi .n .i ,f'fc<ü^sötp |y:n:yü*^ 
lyn iiE üiyii oyn .n .i ,^»tD^2{§p iyD>"?iyi:yifc$D 6)11« p« ^jy^ 
•>^3"i» n D^i^ivy^D^'iN üiy^i Dt^ii ,yoiD lyT ,D2^np-D^^3"i» 
J^^DJ« 18 tDoy: Di^i^ ,^Knyüfc?o oyi y^i:^ .p-,^ d^k "^yo 
•i"K 58ö^B8P "lyvJiita nyi üiyn »y^vpnt^nB 112 oyvj^na D'r« 
•D^^3i8 "lyriyay^ n^ix px ly^o^Q-ojtis^vpnt^nB fin« tD^^^^oya 
•B3 oiyii ^ytDtJ'jyo^nv ps pmon« *iytDvy^ lyi .tDDjinp 
i^D Vü^ü lyi Iyt^'>^1v tD^n p^n pd a:in>V5<3 lyi inn üo^ök' 
nyi:8 lyn PQ pt< ,ovn»3 lyiy^i D^il^^ ,iy^D^o-D:3i;j>vpni>»nB n 
IV ^^t n3 ,;^ö>i: t-K ül^'\^ ,tD^^nn8 p.Q vdjüd "jyi lyc^^r.v q^'t 
— >ytDtJ^:yeKTiv pd pmom« lyü'j'iy oyi |i^ «in -^^m jyvi:»3 
•^ 3 D y » — ]PO''^>^v ori > y w» 3 y o ^M 1 V - ö 1 y n 



^»Ü»BKp D^n 124 

\r\^ ,^^ü^B^P PD ^yDtrjyD»nv lyjyii or^^ nyi ^^n i«ii diu 
ni^i Dyn inyoK^-iKD 'pi^üv^^ \vd ^i^i ,Iy::l6^'D^^üD^"l« ynyD^^ii 

.Dyj^n ^yDSi'jyoyiTiv |y^^j5§a 
tvm Di^ii ,iy^8iD>B8p yj^yv:^^« ,y^ynMvi3^« y^y^D n 
^n tyn^^J? »y^vpinr^ns i^a j^^^iv lyoMiy; s V^ Vi:iv'?v:iy'>'\^ 
':Vü^m ny^n o>i^ -^n jyK'Mii^ nytojix lyr^yii ly-jj^ nnyo 
^yöt5^:yD»n^ ly^ynnin:^» ly^n ps D^^tJ^Din lyi ,^yD'^ 
-y: Dyn pK ^»d>s»p iyv:8J d':id ^yoK^^ya^r^!; ayi mx to^a 
D^jsTDnn lyT t:ix ö^: i>'7i:iy p« .y^vpnj^ns ps a^^iiv lyoMi 
'^m üjn y^vpni^nB ps |yi"iiv y^s px lyD^j^j'Dm y?fe$ pD 
tjyi PK ^»D>Dfc$p tyD>^DDSK^^yTy3 iyv:«3 oyi p£ ^yt:Ej^:yD 
i>o ly^y^i ^•yDtj^jyDj^riv ü]n ü^ iy:iyi"i n^: px .n:»^ 
.a:i6j^n»?DD^i« iy:myü^^i^ lyi pk ?yn^n ^dh-^d jytDvy^ p« 
pn PD Dpixn Dyi D^ns ossn ^^d^s^p pa dpixii lyi 
-0"3i8 pK tD^yi:8iin8Q toiy^i dj^ii ,^"d lys^^nyiiynsD 
D^yiisinKD üiyii Di^n ,o*iyir"iy3^N nyn pa ^^^id s .üD^$-lp 
pK lynyn tD^yn^s^nsQ pniv ^^üv'?^ tid »^-i^tD^s^p oy^^: p« 
'2^ VQ^'? .i:i?rD^ui8 Dy^^: 8 p« ,^fc?ü^B8P lyD^^iyijyn^D 
PK önnoriKaDiK lyn^^a jyjj^ajn^n yiyi:» y^» r« ,]vm2 
t)^^\ '\):2^vnvi i^ix tDn>^^3 ^^D^ötjtP d':id ^yüK^jyü^tiv nyi 
iy^o^D-D:iit^vpni^"iEi pa yoiD yDD^DK^s;:: is ts .n n »lynna 
,0D8"iP"ü^>m8 pa yaiD ly^^yr in p« an:yDSj' "^n D^^tD^j 
,nijt^p T^K ^83 oyn l^x ;::iay^i»n pK ty^^ynn >n ^^r d^i^ 
lyö^isnanN ij^ö n^t^a lyi p« D^^ms ^n« ayiaDi^: ivi r» 
•KP nyT ü^^^^ ,y^vii?Qi?ia nyn^yt lyi p« \vüp^)\ lyto^^m» >i 
Dir ly^ysB^ di<ii^ ,iy^y:t^ r^8 ony^i dpiki^ ny^n p« ,^öttD>3 
Dyiyi tDastr ^kd>B8P lyn n^^D^i .^8t3^B8P nyn ddpkii 
-yaiv tnyii ^^^id k lya^yii pa ,D-iyiriyn^K lyo^^iy^ j$ nnj^> 
kdo DpiKinv lyT ü^;? n^^n^i ; ^-sis^ssp |yD>^:i:{<a^t? div lyny: 
PD 3:nyDy-i:ii§a lyi ü^d \v^^m nn?^» oyny^ lypy-ia tDiyn 
nyoDiK T^"J3y i^KD ^11 ; pij}^ D-)>:j<i^vp:^a Dj^n ,^ȟ^58P ort 



125 oii^öJjTJ^j nyiytttD<"?«tD^Btp IIB ryty; o^n 

iy:y^j^n8 niv ivD^ny: y^*»: lynt^ piyo y^^: ^n lyjyoy oy lyji 
yD^^DE)5<B^^yTy:i yD^yp^iiD:»-»^: pa. üötü^iiyn o*?^ 5>»d^s8P 
-DMK ^y:;y iji^'DST:»^ na nfejüK'DfcüD nyi ji^p (lyB^^jyanyiKta 
cyi na iy^>>i::>^N d'j'k ajnynjy lyi r^^n p:8i 8 lyopsn 
-r^K n« ^b^o^B^P ^M« Dpnj^Tiaiya^« ini^ onyii-iyn^K 
"DMi^ jynyii Dijii ,iy;jnyii^a n |y:ijsp ,^^8 n^sn^^ ,tDa:ip 
|y:^^D*j^"iynn8 ,^8D^E8P D'jia :i:i^d5§t:3Ji? "lyn im lyanyj 
; nyto'un» n ns ^^i^^ 'i »tDe^np-o^uiK lyi pß dp^ki^ ßxn 
,ü5^n:j^ ny^^T lyr^Dc^nynn» it^p ^lyD^^nn» nni< :yiaDi?: nyn 
.jM^ ny^n na :jnyayn 8 lyoipnj^a it^p lai« «rs ^m« n» 
n nj^j lyii ,iyDipni^a ^dh-^d lyovy^ i^k "^^^pn^ii oy tid mtk 
-oyny;aDiN lyi^tDonpy lyn^^^a iy::i::ne;3 y:yTn^y:ii#-tyaMK 
»•yL^^m^ nnyo Dvi^sn tyiyii nnt^> üv^v* nn« ^»^^ .onyi 
-nyi '^v^VB^ "lynt^ lynna no ,ini^^ yimynna di^t nyi^^x 
"»« ^-i^T ::^^D{<Tii# nyn na iyiJ^^:yanyi{<D n r» ,üvi iv inyi 
-18 "lyi n« ,t:>'''3"i8 nö tDi^n:^^ jyD^^jnyiiy: oyi lyop^^nya 
"inx^ fvDjnyva^a lyv:»: d':^« .üiysynyj lynyii ^t^t r^^-iD^^a 
-jm^j^^ lyts^nyvDS D':ia t^a^yn lytstj'-iy lyn p« n« üiyijin 
•^n üj«^p8n ;yD 'ii »inyn D:i;irya ij^^i^y pn lyo üi^n tDiyi 
i>8 ,iy:ii"i:jnfc$n y:^DD:o nyj'jy^i nyii^ "inyo n .ort «i^ik 
iD"i."y-n8a n« ^'^« ^no^i^stn D^^p-nyö^^m^-pi^ -lyT ys^y.i 
-«p nyi pa nytipsi^s-Dini Lyn oo ^se p^p px nyi:y »^n 
-i#-iDy"i rr{sar^N n ni >n8 t:p:is .y>vpni^")3 lyB^^DOv^o^a 
-i^a y'j^i:D'>8t3^ö8p n "nns "'ö Diji pa moa üa^r ari^^n 
-D>^i«:D^Qfc.p n lytj^Miv c^^jyjD^ynn^a n .n .t ,Kau r^jyo^yn 
,"iyiyi:N nyn pa lytD^^niK-p'i^ n jyti'mv px ü^n i>^n pa wo 
'Oii,D \'-)V^'>'>^2 8 n^K ::n^vni^nay"i n >^: dj^t iia tDesiJ' nr» 
ij^^jyD^ynn^a yK^^DD^^so^a^P 8 ,3:1^^81:^^ n .n .n ,28db' 
•yn3 lyii^ lytDD^^^ü^a^P nnyo : s^ldk^dsd pyo^nn 8 n^i« 
pa nyD^^n"i8"Pi^ "^r^vo p« o^r p>« pa iyüD>^8D>B8P v^vo 
,üa8"ip-D^^n-)8 nyT pa ::n^vnt#iBri n .o^n iyij8 nyi 
-■»D D^8 xaia 5'8ü^a8P d'j>k i^n» ■n>5»iynanKoiK «nsi oi^i 
pa iy^na83 tD>: ^n itj^p dj^ii ,ü-iyii pn nyoyna-iKa iv ^yo 



yD^yn IV ,ivt:D>^ö;D^Bfeitp yj^yv:^^« n pi: o^^a Dyi "T-rn ppn 
i^D iyD-iJ^2 n pQ :j3n>vnj^nDy"i n ü^ — ,"qn ücnp-^^D ly 
lyT jiö ^^^0 nyi^DDMi » TnoK nyi p« t^« üDsnp-D^un» 
-■•BfcSP P2 :i:^^Di<TJiii n .nbu ^^ü^bkp d'jid ^jn^^nj^^nByn 
.iDü!nb*iDy^}^nB d'jid 3:nyDynn»D s nynnyi lor^o ^fc$tD 
r« ,nyD^^m» Dyn ^li^ta iy:j^a:n{§3 y:^DDJU n nyo:!« 
oyn D*»» •lyn^'^^iyT iv '^^:^ >5$D^Bi$p pB D^^pr:jynBijt pn 
ns>': ,iv"iyi"i^ t^^^ :3^^pr::ynBi^ n tonyi^ ^sd^b^p pb dpi«ii 
-D^^fcüD^BSp -lyn PB ü^3y: "lyi ,n .i ,tD>n:iyiD^iK nnyo Diyii n 
^n D^nn ^sü^B»P IIB tDBfes*:j>iyn n px y^vfc§Dfe§i>BDpy lyK^^o 
yrn p3 ^i#v nyi px ^sd^bjüp üvi pb D^n:i lyi ü^d dmx 

.|y:{$tDiyDji« 
ot^iv »üpnijnBnyn^N Dy:yr''K ny>n p3 ^'"»d iyDMi:i » 
**ß8P Dy^^: PK tD^yn^sin^^B -iidd Dny^^ p« iny» r^iü ddpö^ii 
'irs .iy^D^D-::i^t^v pa yDii^B lyi p« t>'^i)'^ ^n iv tooip ,^fe?D 
,iyK^^:yBnyn5<n v^v^'f pB t^np Dyi lytD^nnoMK iy:ii^p >n t» 
^^•ynyo »^jn^^^ip «imk lyn^^DMK V'yV'>'>\ pyDynmtfiB \v:i^? 
"lyni? .ü^y: yoiD y:^^^p ^ i^^bk lynt^stJ^Bt^ lyjj^p px ,: ,i .« 
i3By:p D'jia :ii^ijfe?nsn p« :r.T^^B:^ ,ain^^^p ynyoyn '>)) dp:^b 
ortD^v^n tDByjp D'jiB Dnt;?Btj'y:B{^ D^y; yaiD ynyoyn:! ^ p« 
PB PK Di^Dbti^BDpy lyiyii pB nji^DtJ'iv Dyi dh^k i^üb d^j 
PD i:»DK^iv Dyn ü^: "^^ik oy DrtD^nbtn ^n» ,ü^>P:^5:ynBi^ 
.^^yo^^ans n "tj^B D^v3'':!:ynB{^ Pb pk \v^v)) i:3n^tD»i^BDpy 
p.B t:^ü!?nyT 0^5$ ddip yD^yii »pirtD^nnyi d':^b :jnyByn 8 
n TK ,v)^2 l'riDK ^vi PK üJ^^o ,^8t3^BKP PB 3ji^oj<t:{>* ny-7 
-pi^ •lyn DJ^ii ,t:^"'P ny:yn^N*: nyn pa D>>pnyiii5» n pK 2jy^ 
•ßi^ 5'j^DK tDn^i^nyn ^-^n ib»B Dn^Dtj^yjD-'iK piiJ^ üj^n -lytD^^niK 
-1K jJi:i:ynD6J^:i^ PK tD^^p:yrivy:ji^ in^K ^yo^n k lyri^^^v 

TK .DBnonK I'ID^D DO tDB^^pyj :?^D IV DJ^M Ü"iyi1 DBKIP'tD^^l 

-fc^nö yin>K "^nn lyii^ o^-iniK ih^k ^in |y:j^p ^i^r nya^ip •ly-i 
5'y>v pn .|y{j>>3yBnynKn yD>^:yny3 v^'t ly^nna^iin [ybpn 
PB 2:n>vmj^9 n »skd^bkp pn p3 ainyoyirKB n — t>k 
lyn lyi^^K .ü^an» inyo ^n pk lyo^snDJ» v:i^V)'\ ,nninD 



-y: D^i Dsj'^jii^: p^^{§ Dn^N üi^n Dj^n ,tDnyn pD ^^^d t<T«i ,Dy 
iDDy: lyo nyD^yn 1052 ,üi^r^^»yi "^^i üiyii ys^y^i n« üdj^p 
ly-i^vni^is .dd^^.pisic Lsiyn minD n iyii ,d^i#v»3 ^ijtT 
Kyiy: yDi^t^osb' dj^i t^n dj^t — iv:^''^ lynyii »tD^yninyo 
pinx ''\^: li^p D2i$ip-D^u"ii? n .i2ix-D:i^>vpni^nB Dy-i tDjjj pa 
-JiinB n lyo^sHD^iK ii<ip >t ^y^a^ii sin« ,d^jip lyjnp ^y>D mtk 
'^j 0^1 ne [y-T-vm^ns i^i^p ,^i$D^28P d^s ly^D^o-D^i^^vpn 
t3ö8i5» n ^y^QMi fi>iK tix ^Sö^B^p D^öt tDiyii ny:yr^« m^K 
•is»n ^"! .^SD^ssp cy^^j p,£ ^öinp » tD^unj? "lyt^^t^vütaoiK pK 
inyö lyrn ^^t ^v dj^^« y^s ,k3i: nnpi^s nn>K ps |y:ji::n 
iytD^fe?nüJ8 ,nytD^ms n "ii$3 r:DD:'3 ny;^:yi^ nyni^ j^üorj 
^o DJ;?n pD noD 5'i?T n ,::i;i:n»a yron: n -lynnyi ^n j^« 
■yn n lyiy^i t3^nny:D^ix -noD ^i>*t oy t» pk lyny^i Danp"i»D 
TD '>)) .^{§ü^sfe?p pD yoii^s lyn px ö^^PD^n ps ;:n^vnipB 
ny 18 ,fc?T8 pi^-D^''ni{$ d':ib y^D n pi5^ t^k ,inyry: [ynrjn 
-Dl« PD D1DD |yD>^iy;i » w^Vüm'i 5'j^t lyD^^ms lyi ,DnyiijD 

,^5<b lyDoyn p« ör*»»: p^^-tD^on^ oyi px ijnyayn » 
yrii^i n .D^^D"i5§ yD^j<:vfe$nDiN nyr:yii pyD>> nnsi iy TK 
-yotj^ ^sT n r» ,d^>i^ ^n^ ]r.v: d^j ^t^Dr^p li^p ::ny:y5'pi8& 
"jfc?P y2n^5<ii3 n IIB inyiy^BJ^ .nbi: oy^D^D Dyi hjdd p« ly^ 

nyi T^N ÜP^^B^J^P 8T8 p^? P«) P*!^"D^^3-18 lyn^N ]VW^Ü 

pD lyr-'üti^ Dyi px pn ,(D{^n^!^8n nyi :n:yDK^ Dt^ns^iKa 
-■»B^p pB :r.^DST:j^ nyi pE d'dip dj^^t ,d>^3"i8 pB t^na oyi 
tDr^tT'K' DV iy-ij^ : yivD^^j-iy^^x ynjyif'j^B n D^yp^n^B ,^8ö 
D•^yD{^' jyr^DSJ' pn oi^n ,ife$Biyi D^'-sn» ^vi pB i^ns lyn 
üHi — »^'iütD^Bt^P PB iji^'ostTJi^ nyi PB D>ntrDnfc^D Dyi DO 
15'^EK lyop^Mi ij?p ^^D^5j<p nyo^na {$ '?'')) ,y'p:v>2 n»^ t^i« 
n T{< ,ij^^p ns:3 T^K ^tuB Dyn p« .D^B^?^3 nyj^^^p 8 d^o 
D"iyDC^ D^^3"i8 yD^^JV^n^iK pb yoiD lyi pb 3:ny:y^pn8D 
.^8D'B«!p pB DBfcst^nyn lyn p3 ::iD^n3Dnt< in d>3 

-lyD^'n:??^ aji^oytt^i^ n D^yn ,D>n *iyi:8 "ly^ PB "lynt? 
üiyii Dy-i "n^n ^^m^ ,pi^-ü^^mät oyn pb ::nyDyn lyn p:in ir 
-y^p Diyi^ oy .DD:yme;B iib iJipiMi yi^yn^nD n lyBoyD 



•y^D'Bfc'p D^i 128 

tDiK n .n .1 ,jiny:y^p-i82 lyi pc ifc$mN n ü-ijnr^ii<2 :i:n 
-ü^^mfc? "lyi PK ^fc§D^S{<p Dyi ly^j'^iiv i3yD^^^:i^ivi{^Ei^-i3 
•i^iB Dyi pQ ür^:fe?Dyo -lyi .D-i^DtiJi^QDpy Dnyn dj>*^i ^tDSj^np 
yj^^^MiD^^v n p'i^b* p:^j< «?b* ^^^« üJ^D^nfe^a iDuroJi^^^^pn 
inm ö^j^Q p^5'-tD^"'m5$ nyn .dd^b^j^^ iy D5>*ii ,]v:i:)'^Vü^ 
üyn PD lyK^^^ysnyibi^ n DDyiötj'DJt? y^^^yj^ ,^^in lyi tn 
*nno pn Dyn i^^n n tD^ ^:^ d:"^« r^s ,^5i:LD>£»p ps opinis 
^fcjionjiii ly^iy: t^t^ Oi^^i ^t^ih nyi ^.v "i^^^; lyij^ ly^yn ,"iyj 
,i?t^fe? lyryt n^D .D"iy::yny: in ü^;^ i>i!^"D^^m« nyi nyn^^« 
•j^DDi? Dn PD ::nyjy7pn«D n too DDts^o ^^d lyo^iy p« r» 
ü5«np-tD^mi< nn P2 DpiN»ii |yrDy?::D^jü^ynnsQ nyij^ |yü^,? 
-yn>« nsQ ^i^tD^sj^P ayi :jnyp^yD^n"iyD^^m5$ iy-t pD "iyij>* 
n tODiüD ^»tD^Dj<P D'r.r ajriycym^'s n ^ü-iypnt^D nt^j ,3n 
d';}^« .p*-^? IV "'.«D ,|y-i^Döi^^2Dpy i^^p ly^ D.Nti"i ^tDC^ip-D^un^ 
iyöi^j>*D3S üvi pD :irnyDyn:-i«D n tD^: ds^o ^»s IyD^M1^: 
nyn»? t3D{<np-ü^nn8 nyi pD dpi«ii |y:5^Dy?oD''JD^yi-n^D -iy-ii>* 
-■•jyrD^: iuüd ^j^to^ct'p üvi ^jjnyp^y^yn nyD^uns nyr pD 
"^B^:> D'j^D ::nyjy^pi5$s n ^toiypn^s n»>*j ,p^^p in? i^d ,i:yi 
*'iy"Ji^ ,iyi>D^^'^5Dpy i^^p lyo d^i^ ,t:s^np-ü^^mwNt n dd^jo 5'^d 

^n PK ssi^ Di^n "^in ly^.vst^' f'j^^iD^ßfc^P pd ;:ii!^DST:i^ nyi pa ly:; 
PD yoiD "lyn iid ?y3:i:y^iK3 yj^Dy>2D^:yD^yn-iKD pd vo-^^b 
cyi p:ki ö: pK ,ty*i'tDjsif^DDry iJ^ip jy^ d^ii .tDöKip-to^'-mK 
ny:yr>K nyi '^nn lyony^D^ii^ lyiyn >n t^ ,d>^k -qn ddh 
.ODK"iP"ü'''»niK nyn pD ::i3yii^D ny^njytDC'DDa^yT 
lya^^i^^tj^^iy n i^a ::iK'ü^"'t:D>iK yt^^^D k nynnyi t^k oy 
,iy3»?T Iyt:D^ö^?:t?py n \v)\ »^-Ntii^DKP pd 3:i^?^^r:j^ nyn pD 
IV lyo^^nnK-pi^ ^i^v n t^k ^j<iok r» ,nDiyn doip ü^i tk 

.Dm: IV 5>«DK PK J>^^p 

01^^^ ,y*vpni#na 'lytj'^tDD^^Kt^^sKP "-.n pd rytyj oi^n 
-yi lyD^^n^DK:« lyant^ti^'noif^D oy-i pd ojy^KiJiD lyi t^k 
: |yniy:^D pK W'W^y Dpmy;DMK \^? "3:nyp$>yDKn pD yyr 



o^yij^in^D tDiyi^ di^^^ .ü^^m» nyo^Ji^v^noiK "lyn jyB^M^v 

""O t^K DJ^I^ rö^^ms iytD^i;|IV83 ny^^J lyi PK ,^»O^B»P p« 

T>K Di^T .^i^o'QSp Dy»: Dyn :>:i:yi^sa pK iy;:yia ^v nD ;;^d 
-M13 ^Miv lyK^Miv 6r^jyü^yms3 p^p oo idik 0115^2 nyanyn 
lye^n^v — -lyiyn:« "lyi pa y:'^« :u:ynsi^"iN |yr>T ü^)\ jyo 
Pö DirD Dy-i pD PK D^n p^k pd ^»so^ssp d'jid D^na lyi 
pK ,o"iypi«:s ;tD^n "lyn^s nyi pd 3:nyp^yDi$riyD^^3i8 ly^ 
nyn lytTM-sv K'oyö^ymöiD j< tn^n dj^ii t^k ^dh-^d tyovy^ 
-1>vn]n PK p^K PQ tD^'^ms lyD^i^vKn nyi p« nyü^t^vwoiK 
-oiK "lyi pD DOD nyi nn« ojnyp'^ysssnyü^^ms "lyra 
PK IV t:i'?vt^^ Ds^p-iyü^^3"iK nyi ot^^^ ,o^^n*,K "lyo^i^v^a 
TK ,^y2i5^ ^n» tDDPKii ,m ü'PVü^^ DK^p-|yüD^^8D^SKP nyi 
üD^p üv lyii ,i«n "11?: ^Kü^sKP PK \V'\v\^ tD^yiJKinsi: ii^p ny 
-"n"i8 lyi t3"iyii ,d^^2")K yD5>i?v8:2 y^^: didd nyo^^iya » iv 
\VT'>'?2 m:):^:ni$i yny-i:K y^K |yii ,pK DiyDyinKQ V'^^'^vt:i 
^y:i^^v-ii?st?n9 D^^niK yo^i^vKno^.K n ,iyn>iD ^ii yn^yrn 
.üp:iB 8 ü3^n:-iyi 5:ny:y^pi85 n t)^ »11 i^k3 lyst? ny:y^p 
riMK o"iyn »^isü^ssp oyi D-iny:iyn v:i'?v^'\ ,o>^3ik y^^j lyn 
5^^D lyi : y^vPKyn k üoip ,didd ly^iKoni?: k pk lyrjipiviv 
'V"?? oiyn ,|y"iyii ött^^kü^ssp ^isn ot^ii »idd^ipj^^k in pD 
iK Dn PD DpiKi^ nyi pk nyDKiiK^ »lyii iJ^^oKt:»? n ,-iy3 
ti;rj< ^^*.K .pniv ti^iK jny: \^ üs^m pk sjj Tt D^ytsK^ p^^-ü>'3 
n pD D^iiK ö^i t^i^T3^^3"iK D'JiD ajnyDyn n onya idik 
-o:na n ennnKa 0^: v^^i ü^: lyn^^^n oy v:i^Ti'i pK ,iyv':ynj 
D-iyii ]yiDvy^ on •isd ; DytDD^D-iyöD^^»o^98? oyi pd nniD» 
"•na ts »i^iK ajiTvnJTDyi s ^mk tD-iyDmss oyn lyo^iK ^^2 

-DKTit? iytr^OD^^KlD^B{§P "in pD YV^V^i Dtp .aKtSB^DKO pyo 

inyTD^iK lyir^öD^D on tyüD^otit:i?py n ^'3 üaiPKn oi^ii ;ji^ 
pniDMK. IK TM^n r^DK -lyi pK i^t^k t^k »ryiymüK: k pd 
DMK piK^ DD^^K' 3:i^cst:i^ "lyn i^d iiük: n Di;|in ,Dyi pt 
D'^D-i» lyn PD y^v»o«"i^DOw; nri pd «nyap^iKD yrv ynv» 



^atfiK!) miß ISO 

3:n>vni^-)Byi ly^n'-noD ,"iy3n:yü{j^ in pyüK^ Dony üji^p 
nn^« ^t^j ^^niyi |i« &j^^:yD^ynn»D ny65^^DD>^KD^38i5 -lyn |ii 
|t#p K^nyi:» .n^Dc^oöto pyo^na 8 y^s n^iK ^jn^vn^^neyn 
-'»^m» "lyi lys^yii ^^3 .laix-DOi^^vpn^na st» ^u pn o^: D»n 
n pD DPIKI1 DyT PS iyK^^:yD-)yiKn n n»B öi^üonpy nyts 
■DMpy n t8 ,Dyi üi^ö:j^:sji ,i»isd pi25^ tyrn ys^yn ^lyoiyn 
fifi lyoyiijr.iJA« n |y:yn ly^^n ,toiyp-i8Es ,iyD^öD^n yn:y*i^ü 
-yi "lyi t^K ^^.^ ^nsi dpjis .nyo^ui«; oyi po aji^pniöD» in 
PD ::i2ti::j^ nyn pd opnt^nsi s \v^:vd j'iyn^x DBnyn y^ji>^ 
-»ö^BSP lyn p« Dn>K nyn^« t:i^invn ^ns ,öj#p Dyjyr^fe? pn 
-"» ym pö ajisstJ' lyn pd Dpni^tiö « y^vpnt^ia iytj'^DD>^ 

•ojyn yjya 

•n D^ns üQn ,p^^» |ytDD^Dj#:i^py n pa 33i:^>d "lyi d>^^ 
•D28t^•^yTy3 oyi ps dm-i: n do pi^-ö^ms Dn pa a^ny^yn 
DMii n tD>: PK ,Dv^K pitJ' üi^DDnpy di^i^ ,DiDD^n jyo^^ 
lyn T^D^^K^D^i« ni^j ,piK^ D•^^Ji^>^fp3^D o^'w ,^m'^^p pa 
nrr P5 nsii iy"i p« i:i^D»ni^ nyi pa dpikii lyri'moD 
cv^K T'3 .(y>Bt?p ,1 ^n ,nD^«:D .«) .dpikii oyi pa tD^^p^yj^y 
^yvtpB oyT PD DnsD iyniu»2 i>^x DD^noöta i^d lynt^n 
>jttD^ß»P D'jiD DP1N11 in ty^^yii px ,Dn82 ayi r"»» d»^t 
n» ?yBn:3ytD |yD^^-iyn:n»Düi« ,|yjnjyDi5^ » ^^3 ni^D üöip 
lyts^^ii enya oyvj^iB nn iV2^ .^sd^bsjp d'jid ^yto6j^:yxD»r 

.Dn»B oyi Di^ ps 
•»P ort PS nn^D' yr^oya^B n tyr'tsDnpy oy n^b*3 ^11 



n liD t:>>pt3p>Lj^y: n pN ,i .i .« |yii?2 d'j^d ü^^pisaDDns >i 
|i« t:nyijiiy:si>* |yD>^3n{< Di^ii ,ny-i^vni^i9 yi^ajynsi^i» 
•t§^ip PN DM-ij$ nnyo ^m or^^i v:i'?v'i'\ ,ü^^P0P^i5^y3 n ,p^5»8 
lyri^^ "i^D |yn — »lytopni^nö n ps d^^pdöu nyi p« ,tDyö^^ 
'Vi "lyi PD iKn: "yi :{§ .n^o lynyt ,r^öt dj^t Oij ü^^t » ji^ 
D^^K "nn Dpm ü^-im» lyi ps tDyonvtDpnj^-iB lyD^^üCKij^^yT 
,iy5'tD^D-D:{#^^pnj^nB n pc D^n: "lyj^oyoDoo^'ymsD lyn px 
PD ^JTD PN Dpnj^iB fc? p« t:^yij»ir,»s "iyD^^3"i8 |» o^)) 
•ifc? nyi pB ::i:i:yT0B'3i^ ■lyDo>t:t^'S3 » ''2 t:>^v lyoM^yj s 
y^H'ii ü^Q ,iy^D^D-D:i>*^vpnj^iB n iib yoio n .öB8"ip"ü^^3 
•'»'ivDpnfc^iB "lyi D^D 1^:1^11^ 0Dp5§"ii »i^nnysi^ lyö^un» "lyi 
i^n W^V'B^ |y'D^D"D:v^^vpnj^i3 n 05# .D^^nns i^n pa eyo 
-^uyi 8 T^N ^n piB ^^^D p^N pB DP^«ii -lyi .y^j^n y:n:)y>MW » 
nyi PB üytonrtDpni^-iB ~iyi ps sjnyoymsB nyi pB ü^ü 
*i83 :ji:i:n6^n s pk — "»n pa ^^^d nyi:» it? pB m ,^''2^^ 
IBIK iy^yniüpfes*Bi:ND cyi ^u ,.n .v j:nyDy"m^B ^yi di# 
pK lyo \^p üvy^y^'^ \v)i)2^2 D^^n px 0^^3-1» n iy5»^^üiv pB 
;iyDpnJ>ns ynm ^inyo lyo^^^n^yn d>>v p.B -qü^iD iy»j^^t:5^5§n s 
.lyaynD lyBJ^DSJ'-DB^'n pN iy^i§>^y::5<!D vn^^^ ^{;?v y-iyDyn;j t< 
i; T^K Diji-T , .D^-'m» "iyi p.B Dy^i*l^^3 D':^K pnj? ,üi^'\ DD^^'^ 
rx ö^>3is nyi pB tDyD^r.^topni^iB n Dt^ii ,Dyi pE D^üo^nyi 
•KD tiE 2:1^13013 n T^N tD^n lyti» lyi pb .iyn{<:i^y: "lyoyij 
PE ,|y^tD^D-:r.rtDD-r:!s*n y^ynyj^o p.B ,n^B-D''>ni» ps ,Dy:^i^ 
•t^")B n pyDy-iJ-!5:<B ^^* ::i:jn5<n s — J .n .k lyn^nü-cns^y*^."! 
^nx mi^\ \vo fn8"i v:i'pv^ D^i .tD>^2is lyi pa üyoMvopn 
-:t#p |y:>n D^^ii ,ty^^'^"D:fc;:^vpnj^-)B n pB yoiD lyi iy:yn 
|y^D''C5-tD"i{^BD:NnD ^s^yiriNT^y^tJ^ ^cyn^-i^y: d^j? onntD^yv 
-DJ{?>vpn^;J■l^ n p3 dp^ni^ "lyn >v ,d:^^n r^N nynj# .: ,1 .k 
üny^i Dt^Ti ,uct5nP"tD^^3i» nyi ts^iD i*>^;"i»3 pN üy^i jy^D^o 
lyiy^ P« ,DKü7ny"i t; nyii^ aji^rij^tD s pn ,iynyiy:^v ^n iv 



'^VQ^BVP D^l 13t 

or»Mi o>^m8 in PD DVDMVüpni^iD nyn po Jijnyjyn n 
o^^ni8 yotjo iyi pc :i:ny:y^pifc?D lyn p« o^n» "lynnyn ^n 
Di^^i »y^vpni^ns ps jy^ö^D ps yosD lyn w y^vii^sj^-is pK 

jrjyiij^n PK D:i:y"i2 D^un» n 

D'jiö 5'yDt^:yD8t^v lye^^^ayD d'j^« ajnyi:y yrrt^n n 
-D^o-D:ijt^vpnj^n9 v^\ü nyi pa dpi«ii ny:nj^n nyn ,^t!iö''3fc$p 
p« üTt^^n Di#ii ,üß5?ip"D^^m8 yoiD lyn d^d ^^^^nj^a px ly^ 
-i?T^v"Diy^i Dyn n^^« 2i# lyn^i ^n D^y^^stj^ ,|yDy^ v^ii?; ^n 
-:yo6t> Dyi pD j:nyDy-i:-iyD iyi ^^k ,5'i§D>3etP d':iq ^vi:i^2vo 
•"182 pn PD pntj^n Td^ik ^^ts^ssp ps Diyn d'^id ^^^d |y:n 
iDjiy^D ütj'ny^v t» ,iyay::)i# ,,2 .x ,n^Di^^ .^"»^d |yD^^"iyn:y 
|y5'D^o-Dii^>vpn^nB nn« pv)m<. ^8d^s8P |yD>^iy3 8 pD 50% 
•MVtDpni^nQ n |yii ,nyoysiJ^ .üD^np-D^^m» tj^x 507o p« 
80% pyii8 i^^iJ^ tanv^i ."^n Diyoynn^D o^'-ni» "^yi ps toyo 
.3 .1 .K ÜD81P"ü^^m8 <=inK 207o PN ly^D^D-Djj^^vpn^is ^^1K 
|y3n:yDfi5' Dyi pD dpix^i lyn'niDD Dyi ps ryrya dj^i üj^ 
,^^^tD |yD^^"iyn:yi8D üyi t^^ö ^^^^neta p« ^^to^a^P d':i2 ^^^d 
lynMK pi^J^ jyns^n n^D ^i^i) ünD iyny> ?)>in D^^toyD^^n Diyn 
or^K y^8 ,nmnD pa lyr^^ns n pr r^^fe?:» oyi ^nn (lyrni^i 
^^n lyaj^sy y^^oi^ji^py y:yn>^^"i8s iyD^^^:"i82 ly^y^i n^D ^» 
nyj^s^ynyn p« p>k pn oy^vs^ y:yn^''5j^n8D iv iJ^^v^: p^N 

.y^j^sy ly^^oj^j^py 
nnsyi ot^i^ »r^ns ps p^n Dy:y^ ps D^n; n 
nyi .n .1 ,y>vpnt^iö pD ly^D^^ n pa tonyii cyi nj^o üi>tD:yr 
-8tiv üDp^"!^ ,f'8t2^58P lyrijytDii^ nvi \)^ ^^^ro "lytoaniniNS 
n nyn ,^8t3^E8P p£ 3ji^o8r:j^ ps ontj^üij^'s cyi d^d [yo 
D^^3i8 n n^ö ü^j^>^ Dj^ii ,t^n3 pa p:?n pynjN oyi pa d^u 
-üii^B Dyn D^D in Diy^y^p-iNa (^8ü^s8P iy::^^iyi:yi8a Dyn) 

.^8t3^s8P pa a3^^^8Tjj<! pa on\i^ 
-■»38? D'3^Q 5"iD |y3^^iyn:y-i8a oyi pa a:ny:)y^p-i8a n 
::ny-(iy n nyii^ ,^'^d |y:njyDc^ oyi ö^c "q^^^n^a p« ^8C> 
-^M^ TM^i "nt^T ffc^p ^8t5>38P Dyi pa ^yt^t^iyoNTWtD-iyn d'jid 
•ynyöKD y^^r pa ^yoirjyö^nv pK :jnyn:y n lyayio^« jyr 



-ifeüD ,T^N ,^i$D^£5^p iy3^^iyn:yi82 ps 1/8 ^^ik nj< ly^n^yoc^ 
a^^vy; n ps »^snyo^üD lyn^n d'ji2 yoj^o y-ijijt: n ,Diy? 
lyDa^D^j'^n » PD iVDpni;ii"i3 DVijfcün tov^K D-iy^^ oi^t^^ ,.: .i .« 
,nyDyn:i ^i;?rD t:iyi:in ^d « p« ,üES"iP"t:^^2ifc?-'''*iy:^Eiy didd 
pD 3>^nj{^ pK yo^D yijyDynssj'D:» n jynyj i^x oy lyi^^K 
,Dyi pK 01^3 üay^^ pQ"iy~i ^5§niK n .tDiyn:imni>*^ iya-18 
üyonvDpni^is lyi pa j:nyDyn:ii§2 "lyi o^d iyt:8riv di^ii 
-D:i?^^pni^n3 n pa yo^D n ii^: d^: toDP^ii D>^2n» nyi pc 
iDnyn ny^M lyjy^p "imn üiyii oy -liji: ,üv^j»n n Di^r. .ly^'ö^o 
eiyii ny>n üdpj^^i la^t? ^htk n^iK /üod ny^n d^d ^^^^jn^D pK 
lynnyn ,vü^ü ny^n iv ^y:^^v-)i^3i#")3 ü^: "lyn^^ to^^i^Ds» 
•ifc$3 Dyi PK iy:n:yt:ti> Dyi ly^Mi^ n^^s^-iyo^iN nyi cop^n 
n>>5>;-)yoj^« "lyi "iyi>^t< ,iyoi?T;:»^ "^d k ^j^d^bkp lya^^nnjy 
cy yD^yii pN* ,iy^D^o'D:j^^vpni^i3 n p2 yoso lyi lya^M^v 
112 D13D Dyi p,5< ,^5<D^3i?P nyrijyüij^ nyn D^ynj^iiiKö ü"^yn 
ns2 "lyi Dpyij^in^a t:nyii oy ny^^yii pN ,d2s^P"0^^2ik 
'^VüV'^^ to-iyii i^^c'-iytoiiK lyD^rny nyi .^j^D^sötp ny2^^iyi:y 
•vy^ "lyi M^ u$ni \'-\v:v'?:> s Pn ly::^ /ly^^^^iv i'o^ lyoeinv 

."lyo 
t:iy:y/p"ife?s 3:i^o{<Ti^ nyi pö 3:i^p^ri::» n on lyaj^ 
D'ji2 5'^^to iyD^^")yi:y"ii§2 cyn pi2 D>"n3 yroycD^^ü^ymets n 
cy ryi ,ü^>pD>^:yo n dm« d^: D^onyi "^j^n >t :dd>^*^ »^»o^etp 
TS ,ly^yJJ^^ n^oj^^ .dmi: yt:i^{^D3i< pn pyDy-):-i8c ^n ^»^t 
►i^".« ü^^^t:yjr^N wm üiJ^nyiv r^x ^iiitD^si$p pB üiyii lyi 
•i/Sij' pN ,^sü^2i?P iyD>^"]yi:yni?D 507© p.s lynjytD::' 50% 
ifc?2 2^".« ,|y2^^iy-!:y"i5<2 207o ji« iy:n:yt:ij' 80% ^nx lyo 
6,000 p2 iy:i<Jt "i^Di^^ »^üiü^ssp ^y2^^:iJS2:j:{ nyn t^k ü^^v nyT 
lyDr^ijir.yjD^iK t^k ,ü:id 18,000 vi \vcp^)mo^M< :r^-iyt:D 
-y3 lynnö t^k ny .1/5 ^mn 5'^^d iy2^^-iy-i:y-ifc?2 nn>K ^mk 
nynnr 2^-,k n??: .t:r.2 3,600 ly t^k ütk p« ü:id 8,000 lyn 
20% *1MK nyDy-i:"ii?D v^ ^j^t ?80>d8P "ly^ t» ,|yiiy3 :uy3 t^k 



^tJU^Q^p 0^1 



154 



DX^K t^K ,20% n^i« ü^^D'iK ^^ix 3ynD3i^:) DXH py^rn 1>f HD 
.^i<D>5i?p ny3^5';j«;£::i^ ^y>Q mts ^i^o 'm j^d>ij dvt pim« 

iDQSip-ü^^mi^ lyivDpnj^iQ '^VT'?i:)ti^^'?vm iyi 112 j:i^pmi 
fi^iK y^vs"iysi>*5^p n3 nyoDnpy nyn ^n i^: pn ^^^:iyQ li^^p 
-ni^ IV ^^^;yD t^x ^i?ö oyi px ii<i: t» ; n^totroK^ lyo^na 8 
IV ;t)^^nnx nyi na 3:n>:^aDi^p px ^ji^-'^Dyv n lynnosa 
-:i^p -q-in iy^ö^G-D:j^^vpni?nQ n lynt^^BK^j^"-« iv ,iyn^T^Di;?j{#py 
"5>yT8 lyny^ mv lysniVD^n» ; lyo^^o yom: px ^n |yint:jyv 
ly-iy^T lD^iy"l^y:i^^ ü^: niDSi ny^n d^^ lyjj^p di^ii ,3^>vya yD 
, oy^-tti^fe^o pD DyiDD^D 8 ^^1 ,nyü^u-ix "^d s pd ly^^riv ii?j 
ni^iiyiiyD^ix ^d^j nyn pd lytDsynp y^xDi^^^^p n |y:3fe§o ^v 
Dyn |y5>i:{<in^D px y^vpnt^is nyn pd tv^'^Vö'iJ'^^^ n lyD 
in pD ijnjynj}^ lytJ^^jDytD x px yivpni^iB ps Dyvj^ia 
^>vpnj^-iQ nyrtD-i{$-m^nD "lyi pd i^d^ Tdmk .toDi?^:yD^i^ 
yos^viD PD Dit::yr^x oi^n lyrn iy^t:^o-Dj{#>vpni#i3 n |yii 
•lyii? nynnyn Dn^vni^ns lyü-iun^-LDj^^n nyi jyi^ ^lyj^nya 
üD^npiD^uix pn DD^ipnsD ly nyi}^ ^^n^yt^K^tDon^yt px p^^x 
tyn^vni^iD iv ly^D^D vp d^: dj^h ny ^-^^i^ ,nninD » d^x 
•n^tD yv^nyDJ^^^p nyi pd ^Ji^p-intD:!» n tony^i ,;injyt:t^öDn^yr 
jy^fe?t3^ö^P y^yi-iMinj^x pD dpixii nv\ im r^^^a üd'-^'Pimi 
-pnj^iD v:i''?üB^^'?vm ^i ^'y^D^ii tinK ,^y^D ^iti? n^ix lyiiji 
PK o^ynj^i'ns^D lyiyi^ ty^D^D-nytoonpy px jy^D^D-D^i^^v 
nyn PD TiD^ Td^ik .lyDD^^i^ü^Qfejip n pD Diü^yr^x-to^^i'nna 
lyo^n: x ti'-^x y^vpni^is n lijjp y^vpn^is nyrDnx'mino 
,v^^i^^ lyK'^DD^^feüD^DXP 8 PK tn^n ly^P^iiü:» "^n d^dk^d^d 
yj^'yvr^x PD ii2vn n px ^^^jiü^dxp pd :ji^oxt:i? vo^^m 8 
jiiajn^nniirD yrD^i: x lynnyi t^x nnino tiD nyn^vni^nö 
n^ö .y^vpnj^ns j^d i^d^ tya^^üD^^SD^BKp iyc^>D^vyaD nvi nxa 
•iK D>''3 tDn'>tDDnpy ;3i^DXT3t>* ktx tk ,\VüVi:i$ "lynnri lyriD 
njtiö PID idik lytj'^öD^^xD^öXP div ^nypnyirDJKn pd a^wnyn 
PK n ^^11 »''y3^^3^xDiJ?„ lyDn |yo ii^p iji^osr^t? n ,v'^p)'^ 
e^yoKiiiD nytJ^nt^öD^i 8 iii?3 ,ü8ü^nyi lyji^^'ifc^tDDNn v^:) do 



jDIK 18 nfe<D DJ^I^ n^lK jyj^SyjIVDMK r»^3 P>P DO "^l^J P« 

p2 iDix jyc'^DD^^^ü^s^P Dyn p2 Dpjis-::ei;iDM« nyi t^n m 
y^^^DD^^^^^yryi n pyoyn pd ly-ij^ayo y^» lynj^» .y^vpnijnö 
Dyn ^MK "^^r ly^pniDi» m lynytDs^ojs y^^yn ,t2D8ip-a^^2i8 
nyDyn:i8S} iv ini^^yD tD^>v '■\V2'?]:\ nyi pj^ lyrn ,D:yei$i:^D 
"^yii ,üpni^is""iyn^i< P2 lyiJ? üiyirnnyD pD y^vpni^iB n 
-Disni^ n DEsty Di^ii ,ü:yny^y is ^^^k to^n pn pD r^x -^.yo 
-j^royo >x tD^'v lya^yr lyn pn 'v jyj^n isix sr» ^nx jji^ 
•yo >K ,^»D^s»p Dy^o L5i^vn{>*n3 5'j$D^si§p y^^y^.i ^nn jyn 
'DIN y:n'-nDO n .5'b*tD^255P pD aji^D^nj^ ^v^v2^ ps ly-ij^D 
•q^T Dpm ^j^D^sj^p PN DiyirinyD po ::i^-i:j<iri5$2 yonypy:» 
lyD^yn ,^8D^si?p D':i£ dmi3 n odp5§^i oy Dt^ii ,Dyi p« d^in 
onyii ö^n nn^« ps .y^vpnj^ns pQ Dyvj>n3 d'j^n pn» ony: 
^>T D^nnii?D Dy lys^yi^ nn« niD^ lyn aji^i^^sinj^D n djjs 
infc^Dyo n "i^s D^na nyi ,y^vpni;?nB 'lyi pD nt<DirD5$D iyi . 
rn^N lyD^^^iSS dj^mi ,DD{$ip-D>^m8 yn^Dpni^iQ n py^yn ps 
ti'iK ,n^iN .Dny^rinyD p2 y>vpni^-)3 nyiy^yjtj^ n i^ö Pn 
1$ fK ^'{^D^&sp PD 3:^^dö:t:>^ pD nN"i: nyoniyj n ,idin kts 
•D:i^''Vpni^"i3 iyß^^DD^5'i§D^B5§P |yß'^2^vy3D cyi n»D aiiaaniiin 
PD a:ny^yiK'i8D n dmin nyovy^ "lyi ,Dnypi»Q ,DDn ,idin 

.^8D^si?P pa :j^^Dj$r:j^ nyi 
PD 3:i^yD'^:yD8ti!? ytj^oDyo n t« ,ivnyT D^^yin Di>n 
tDnyi^ ^^^D nyD^^"iyi:ynb'D nyi tn ,''nN in D^yuy ^»d^3{$p 
.iy3n:yDtJ^ oyn d^d "q^^^aiijD p« nyjy^p pn 

yo^iiya n ii^d "^n o'd D^yDB^ ^»d^bö^p ly^^yvj^^N nyiy> 
ü'D iyn:n"i»Q r^N p« iy^D^D-D:j^>vpni^-i3 pd V''^^'^i:i:v'i:^? 
•"IN -lynyoyi: nyi>^ ^v\v:v'p:> n nyn^x DDN^nyn lyo^iiy: s 
•^y^'i PD ^lyD^o {$ ü"iyu :ji^Db*TJi^ yny^ .lyD^^Di« pD ^^d 
tynoi^^vp]^D Di^i^ »lyD'üa^n n :n:y-iyDy-infc!JD jjif'Dsiniit 
n pN y^vN"iDiyviJ,?p pn ^n« n Dpi{<DB'n^D ,5ND^3iiJp d^» 
jD^N 8T8 «l^^N t33^*^ PN lyüD^SxD^ssp v:'?V)i^'^ii pD Djyn 



*?»Q»Btitp 01$-} 136 

a;>vpnj^nB p.D lyij^Di/D yt^'>DD>:?KD^Ej5P"tf'^ö^vyBD >t ps px 
T^M nj^D DQip ^sü^ssp ivD^^DDijiK^^yryj d'j^d dpi«ii irr 
ynyi:8 y^» m) .iy^fc$ü^ö»p yj^yvr^x y^y>Q pd dpikii oyi 
jy^KtD^ßSP yj^yvJ^^N n lyoptun ,yn^yrn iy:^n iy:iji3:n«a 
-ü^o*DJj?>vpnj^nB n pD yv^niojyv^j^P n >n d^d lyo^tiv pK 
|y3^5>DD8K^^yry: jyvjs: cyi pD p^n oyn w ^yjj^^vii^BtriB |y^ 
tD^^x nyn^ynyi p« .on« iddsd ^n pQ nyny^ ü^)) ,^8d>38p 
p« iy;i^ni^f y^^: ly^j^ü^ai^p ya^^ajötöj^it n pd bijj ^n lyo^n 
-»tD^BfcüP y3n:ytD:^t:Dn^yt y^^: ü'?^ iyi>:t^^vp:iD ^v ti# lyann 
-yo-i»D n pa 3:i^^>div n y^i^i s ,3;x ,t3f>y^sK' ^^myn .ty^ 
::i5'Dsr:j^ lyi ^^n .lyDD^^yiD^QSp n pD Dy^^^atja n px Djyj 
.Ix;t:D''^»D^5b*P n ps ^j^:^ n ^nt« nynny-; ddpsit ^»ts^SKp pD 
,pö Dyi pD y>vfe$nt::yv:t^p n |yinnyDP5$i^*3 ly^jjr ^miv 
i^^ß« T>« nyi}^ ::i^Qb*T:i^ nyn nnx tapwi '^n üv^dk» y^^y^i 
DP1K11 "lyi : D:ytoiJ'iy jji^D^rji^ n oi^ii yn^ytoi^i p« Dr>K 
-D:i;?"'Vpn^i3 yD^^tD£^ii'^yTy:i n p& :i:3nnDjyv:{?p nyn p3 
"yna^n f« iyDD^^fc?D^öi<p y:^yvr^K pD tD:yn n t>K iy^ü>D 
y^i? lyn ,D^DD>n lyD^^DDt^t^^ytya Dyi pD dpik^^ i'd^d üv^j 

IVÜ'V.Vi ^ PK Il^t2n^*3 T^N* D^^ll ,^^tD^Sfc?P \V^''?üf^^^'?Vm PD 

•■»B^^p y^y^D ly^i^ni:; to^^>rDy:i:^\x Diyii ,y^vpnj^n3 pQ r-i^iv 
•Dm MI pyiJi^ Dyi jy^ypo^üi ny:^m lynytOK^ y^^yn ,iyüD>^fc?D 
l'ü^D ny:''^ iynn^p:5^^p dj<:ii ,minD pD "^yi^vn^^s y:^::yn3i# 
-8tiv t3ny:i dkii ,yy^nü:yv:Kp n p.x ::i^öi$ni^ >i .]ivi:^ 
nnyr -lynm ti^ypy-a".^ -it^*: 120 ".rsnyi jynyn ^nn-ij^ o^d \vt2 
-p:iiD D^i^ ,Iyf'^j:ü^3^p n pD Dp^.^-n nyn ij^jj ,iyt:pji3 y5'y>D 
y>^j DM« -qn lyn^^n ov lyii ,ö^yD*^y:3J^ myn ,pr^ |yn^ji>*^v 
«^^D»n^ n ,yo^« n tD^ypyi^i^ w^v)) oy pi< jy^tüD^s^p 
•:yv:^^»p n d58 iD^n ?^m tiD t:m nfc?D D-'n^ü "lynnyi toyntj 
*iynm DD5$5j^nyn •'*i pi? iy>t:^D"D:)i^>vpniii-i5 n pD y^v^iD 
0^8 ,nyiPJ^;P d?» — D^n nyi:« ",yi pd px d>^2i» lyi 



-ß i^ nyi '\i)ii^ iy^8tD^Ei<tp y^ynMPn:^« ,yj^yvj^^« y^y^D n^m 
n DiytDt^' ,yiyi:8 n y;m yj>^« jy^^^ö y:^n ps d m d k' 
y'üiij'B p^p tD^: Vi^ T^K Di#T .ly^^^D n pD : j i n > v i v 
'^vn nyi po p« ly^D^D-DJi^^vpni^ns n ps y^V8iü:yvji?p 
T^K Di#ii y^:;^io:yv:ii:p p^P üo ,D^m8 lyn nyn^K des:^ 
-fc§p PS y^v»"iD:yv3Kp s t^k d{#t j:^^05<Tiiji nyi iv ^^^:ny 
PD ::^üD^inft§D n ,Dyi^^ny;D>^K p^fi^ ^n |y3{>*n üi^\) ,]V^^ü'Q 
y^vsnsj^nsDpy n »tD^^prnjyDt^'DDz^yr ny^ynMv-irx ny^^r 
pc :3i^i:s^nöiD n ,\'^vi:^ oyi "^m oD^^etü'ssiP p^k pd 
.iy5'ft$o^s{^P yoMia pt^v lyr^^p s px iy^«D^Bfe<p yj^^^p y^y^D 
,t3^D"iyi lyLJ^j'iy cyn ps nyD:iK "^n di^^k^ oyv^na in öi# 
• ■»^tD-y-i:ö!:8D nyi ps ::ny-:y nyi ^mk rn^n üpimi oy D^n 
n^iss' iy"i>:i?''Vp:^2 PK lyi^üD^py dj^ii ,iy^«ü>3t$p n ps 331^ 
-i^Da$$ üvi D>o D^^:yi:fc?n ü^: nynnyi t>« r^np-j^^pnni pn 
n ö>D iy-ij^ DiüD^n lya^^DEötK^^yry: Dyn tis dpiki^ lyai^ 
•"B^P ^yi in D^yofe?T fc^n .3:i^o^t:j# pd lyv^^yn: yDi^i^on» 
-nsD D^ii^i ^^Mi ,D3yn ya^j^^K pK lyo^o yonna p« |i^ ^t<D 
n "^^^ü^yr^K t^k Dj>n .ojyn yny-i:» y^y^s ps ^v onmKf 
•:i^ nyn pQ i^^»nyt:j^K px ,|y5»st2^Bfc?p n ps yv8r^$>önD:yv 

.y>vöfiD:yv:i^p p« ^Ji^osr 
,|ir^KD^B8P n PD y^v^r>^^D:yv lyi pD |yv^:yn: n 
|t^p ,py"iJ8 Dyi ^nn ^^ü^dsp p>« pD ^Jin^viv nyi pD ny-ii^ 
yvnip nt^i ^i ly^^ynn ly^yii "i>d jyajyisDni» 0^: >^"i jyo 
t5"i.TDy;i Diyii ^•oNp-nyn^PJt^P *iyi .|y:i:n^ni:i# ytr^üpeiD 
pD tD''^pr^''D n .nnino n nyr^^n ü^m |yo Di>*ii ,Dyn "^nn 
iyn>^^n iy::i3:nsjn yiyiJe: y^fc? ly^^ — bi? ü^^yn nnino n 
•T p« ,iD>'3")K ^yi pD oytD^vüpni^nB nyn pD -— yn^yrn 
.y^vpni^iB "y-i pD s^o'^'D^irD d':id bi^ ü:i:yn üyö^ivöpni^iB 
ryn nyo^i« .v:'"'?? n -lyany-i ly^i^^ij'w jy^sa^ESP yoni: n 
-fc?ü^s^p lyi ^n ü^yp^^,^t::fc? oy jyii r» ,iy:t^onyn ^n n^oijt^ 
PD Dm3 y^^o^r'o n üDpfc^ii ,y^vpni^"iQ pd idik "lyK^^oD^^ 
DyT iy-in>D iv ^i^^k run: i^k Dj>*n ,5'5<!tD^B»P ly^ynnm:^« r» 



^isat&t$p otn 186 

ü^)^ ^y^vpnijiiQ lyn pD lyr^np VD^yi» p« pn» nynnyi ^n 
-Dn:>K nyD'»nj "lyi po üDj^iK^nyn ivi nyoj^K nyü:i&5 ly^^is 
t^N nyiip:i?P n .tyv:fe?:ij^« ü'>: nyit^ T^m:ytD>^x v)^2 y^D 
-8D>B»P v^^v^DV? n pD ^ijtv "lyi IV ^yjsji^vii^Qj^nB -q^^^: r^i 
n .-»n pD D>n:j nyn iv ^y:ij:^vni#5i^nö ünypyjDus px |yp 
-»ü^ssp v^'^'^p '^D 8 T» ^^"»J'T i^^:nyny:i oajyni n];"npj:^p 
t^n^^^^D iy^«D iy^»D^B«p v^v»^ PN ny^Ji« iyny;i lyjD^^ 
-j83yK ^n lyny: t^^ii^^d \)^ ,'^v:iV''^ oyi jis Djyn n px pn^^i 
lyn o^D Wü^rn in ü^ypniojs Dy-nyon« .lyij^^n^D \v'i 
— DDs^p y^o 8 iyv383:^K '^j^: y^vpni^na "iye^^L5D^5'SD"'Söip 
-yn^^K^fc^n d^» pns D^^nya ^n ny m'22i otj^ny^v ; t3>iy-ip nyi 
DnyD ynj^DpnyD^n i^o "^in ; :ij"i^Dfc§TJi^ ps -lyD^yno-'D "lyj 
yöTK^vj^DS ins^ yj^yv:^>K PD tD^yn n px *in:iv iy ton^v 
••.yii? ynyjy^p px iy:^n ot^ii ,iy^D^o-D^ya n [yt5D^^b*tD>ß8P 
T^sn nyaj^ .üDfeüK^^yrya lyi pk ö^nßsi'iv lyo^jQ ynyDyi:; 
»losp-nyniPii^p nn pt< a^-'xyj '=i^5'nnyDy:i px ^^j s ny tonyn 
ly^s^vi^D iy^«iDi;it^:?p 8 PN ü^yn:NinsD iy ^iv'^'^ Dvy^iv p« 
.ly^-s^D^BNp n pö y^>f«t^^{nü^yv nyn ikq DT»:«3yD 
j;wnjjinfi nyc^^tsD^^u^^BNP nyi po ;:i^p^iid:8 nyn d>d 
-jnp nyi px nynipji^p n i>^k ^^n D^yp^i^D:» ,3:^^DN?ii? pK 
-»nv .y^fNT^^sntDJyv pD iy^D>D yDoroDyn ^>iiv n üijj ,Dn 
oyn 3Ji^D8TJi? lyi pö a:i^pniD:» n DiyoymNij tD^onyi |yD 
•^B»p y:^yv3^>« n .n n ^r'Vsip^sntDjyv lyn *isd ^»nyoNo 

j?D>5öD»r^yTyi n D>n p^n pd y^üfpni^nB nytj^^DD^^Ko^SKP 
ti^)^ ,iya:^Dy:nyD:iN y^ynDonrK yonia n p« *^>:ys"iy"i8i 
•-jyv lya^nynnD lyi d^d jn:nn»D t>k aj^3>^pi^insD ny»r 
-3yt3 n — ö>n nyijs in pö pk ,5'j§d>3»p d'jiö y^v^üT^^NiD 
Dv^K t^N öyn pJNi » .iy:iJ"iDy3iyDJJiN n tD^ ins iy^D>» y{^>3 
n jiN ly^^ü^BSP yj^yv:^^« n pö nyiip:i^p y:^ü^njy;!y: n 
T^K Dy ]yii lyi^^N »lypiisDtJ^ ^y^ö y^vsn^NiD^yv ^v Y:iV'^:vo 
n PK Dy^i^D lyrDyoD^jD^yni^D nyi dm lyni^ .lynnö 



-ya 8 V2 lynyii ;i:^:yTiü;rD:j#^x»T^p»"iDjy^f lyi ps v^nyjy 
iy{^>üD>p^D^E{$P üvi PD D^n: "lyT "inn Do^Dtj^^n n^n: lyo^i 
Di#n »Dyi "^nn nx ,iyn^i^y: ü^^njiy-i jMti' t^k dj>mi ^diüd^h 
•»T '^^1 ü::vn ,^v:ivn r^« "lyj^^i DT^j^Dyo nyjj'^Di^ji^tpy nyn 
nyn pD sj^ lo^j ID1K üi^n y>v8r^?öinDjy:^ "lyi pD :i:i^pmio:8 
.^SD^5{<p iy2>^üC5§:5'^yTy: oyi ps ijnyorijnyisj nyivtDni^a 
"lyn PD y^V5?r^^8it}3yv n iyD:iK D"iyi:n5?n di>^k^ djp P« 
nn:» 18 TM^n ij^a ^n o>o o^ytoti' yj^yii ,y^vötnD:yv:{^p 
•DsrD pyD^nn 8 ^nx y^vpini^ns nyi "lyiD pmon« pD ycnj^a 
•jy ny'tD'15^'0 8 inn lyoip-ii^D \i^p y^vKt^^siDiyy n .d^db' 
-fc§D^S8P yi3y"i^DDnpy pia^ n pD ::i^^^d:^^j5 nyi px :jjny-T 
^i^v "lyn DM^ ajn^sn: lyn p« ajnyijy ny'Diii's 8 inn ,iy^ 
]i$P ^8t:^a8P "in .^festo^ssp ly^^^to^^sj'^yry: pd ly^^^tD n pD 
,DMi: nyiy^^ny:^^« i8 V2 lyop^^no^i« ojyn ya^j^^x p« in 
r« .üjyn "^D 8 "inyr p2 lyi^^xv.^yn»!: ny t^k lyoii^i ^^mi 
nyi y^^8T^^8itD:yv n ü^j^ti iy::^.Dy:-iyt::^K p2 ym lyiy» 
lyrn dj^ii ,iy^8a^D8p y^s ly^^ ,r^:y*ia lyovy^ i'tu oD^n: 
lyrv:^''« p^K PK iyDj>*:y;!Dnj^v ^n lyo^i^ii ,ii>*ün8D "in>K pK 
ü}i^Pv: Y':v\i nyi D{>* d^j^^^ üc^ß'^yTya -iyny> px .^»ü^bsp 
-ya nyv:83 "lyi lyii ,o:y^i^D Dy:y^ pK ni;^j lynyii tDD^nnrt 
PD ^:v^ n PK tD:^:^^K-".8D ^n DPi^ii ^kü^skp ny^^^DEKtJ^^yr 
-5'ytyi "iyrv:^^K p^k Pd iv^^ OD^^Kto^s^P iya>v:>^K p^k 

.lyOD^^KtD^BKP pD ÖDSIÖ^ 

.a:^^D8T:i^ nn pd ü^^:nK n tD:n:yn8D y^vKt^^KnDiyv n 
-DMK ü^^pD^^:yD n tyoD^^KO^s^P y^ynoon:^« n i:^: n ^^ni 
nyK^^ci^ii^py "in .o^^niK "ly^n pD a^toe^D^D oyi lyD^nniy 
aa^D^nDD^iK n ^v d:>^k r^s »nyrn'^ynyi p^r oyii üKo^nr» 
-K*iü3yv nyn p:^-] k 'rni? ,3ii^cKT:i^ "iyi p:k"i k ^^t odip 
ly^ü^o-i^Kiia ^"in ^^*d üoip y^^Kr^'7öntDjyv n ^v .yvKT^^ 
lyiDjyv ^^nnyn lyiyii ly^^D^E^P y^^r^K pk a^ia^j^^Kn^D pa 
^n TK ,ynyn3K n ikd iDDK"ip"D3jin^viv "lyan^si^a kt8 Pd 
--"^D n pD 3:nrmKD yD^^iny px y:?yn^"i^>nrK n |ynyü*^iv 
-K3 n IV "^j^j-iyT lyn^v pk ly^tjo^Beip v^n:^ n üi^ i^d |y^ 



ci^ii iyi{^ ,üyi^uy:iDnK vw -^n lyn^^M d^^^i ,iy?}s;ü^2^p n 
— 1E1N pytob*^: s n^« "ii<!ö t:Dip jyn^^nD^i« p« ^n lyto^^^n 
cpit;"!! nyi .\Vüi:^\i^'?vwi v'^v^>;i''£\^^ pc jjn^^nDMx lyi "qm 
Ditoyroix r^« lyjJiDyjiyojiN y^ynDon:^« n pD oni: iyi ps^ 
-y^DVi p2 y^^fe?pjfc$ni^ lyiytD^nn fc$ n^^D t:Dp:is-:ij«:Dn« I» 
jji^pM^DJ^ lynyD^nn s ntüD ,iy:i^jy» ^d » pa D^-^nis ^y^^r 
-:yt:5i^ s ij$D .n .i ,iyDDynp-;i:i3yii!sn y^yny^yio vm^i^ po 
p£3 lyoyvi^na yjy^i^^DtJ'yjsi^ y-iy-rjn^n ps ;:i^ijj§in!SD lyn 
V^tD£stJ':yD^^^ p« yon^j^oj^p "i^^toD^t^^^yry:! pts* y^vpn^^ia 

.y^vpni?i3 PD lyoy^t^na yoin^sy^ji^ 
a:nyDy"in»ö yan'nioD n ,::i^Di?T:f^ n rj? ,nj^^p t^k oy 
lyi pa nyr&< Dnya ys^y^i ,ijn^^ni^i2yi 'qnn ^b*to''S5$p D'jia 
i:^yt35i^ nyroii^ö-^^i^öD lyi pN ::ii:iyn^2 ly^^öif^a-r^^np 
lyn D^D 'n^''^:nfc?s pj< oyvj^ns lyo^n:^^ « inyr ij^q "qn to^D 
-na lyn px ::nynjy is t^i^n tanvi^^ ya^yii ,y^V5^T^^i5itD:y:^ 
lys^^cD^ii'^yty: oyn pa ly^^^D n pa ^i^>^ lyi d-'-.^ ^^rn-ia 

3:"i^ö«t:{^ n t^3 ,iytDi8T! Dsi^nyj d^j^^t |yo |yii ,iy:-t'3jyr 
,yDiü:^ nyi y'^ ]v'?m'B^\> y^^yvj-'^N yrj'«^« iy5j>n:2 ü^: Dyn 
•^T^^$$nto:y^' n .insn^yt^^« IK lynn^DDin p^^js* jyjhJp ■•n \m) 
nyn Dv^t lytoDfe^-^^ytya ynyji^^vp^* Tnn üj^h ,D-iyp"i$?2 ,y^^ 
anjynyH'Jt^niüD p« ,y^ypyD{i'-nyn^i^f » "Tin ^-ii ,'?vy^^ toD-ina 
-d5§t:« "lyi jiD a:ipn^ii n 121« «t« ti^i« rnjynyD"'nnD"'iK pt< 
PN IiN y^V8r^^i$iD:yv n DiyiD>nm«D p« ü-iy^yj:^n{<D ,:ij^^ 
^yD^^'^yo^Tiv lytj^^jDytD d'j^n Dyvi^j^^iyi n d^-iv lyn^yt nyn 
Iy3n:yt3i2^ pn nyDy-infe$ö dj^i^ ,Dy>vip):^'nyi n .^yiü^s^p d':id 
,pyjy^pi^*D p« ^^^D iy3^^"iyn:yi{$D d'j^d p^t^'^ |'d>i« ^^^d 
.D^mfc§ 51^'.« aynDDt?: Dyi a^DyoD^jt:^ynife§2 ,di^t t:D^\T 
ps Dyvt^ns Dn ^in tyiyii dj^ii ,^»to^38P tis lyo^D n 
-yi3nfc?ö p« ton^vni^iEy-i lyiyii ^lyDj^ayaanjiv y^vfc?r>^^"it3:iyx 
^n PN ,-iy^y:tJ^ 5y^D "i^: ,iy^st3^2»P ynynj» ^11 üpjiq toiyo 
-^'yrya pD ly^o^D v:i^ü:iV0 o^n ny^n pa lai« «its ^^i« lyiyn 



lynnyi \vd onyoK^nt^D ^:i^D»T:i# nya^^'öcssj'^yTy;! nyn pö 
.y^vj^T^^öinüjyv ns a:ipnni n -^^in x^^on oyi lyDoiK ov>k 

IV ^ytD^D-^^M D^5$ •^^5'3yrD3nn |y:yn ,::^5'pmüJ8 ny^soni^j 
-Dnj^K ^^3n ,|y3JipyiD:8 px |y;ijn:>ß"iy y^^: lyn^Dsi^sDpy 
^KLj^ß^p lycD^» 18 "183 i^iN "lyni^ .lyij^Di^p^i^DiKD y^yno 
,BJ^p pn ^n tD^^:8n oy |yi^ .ü:yDi^D 8 d^^!^ -lyn ü^d doip 
rn D18 D^^3 ny lyii o^yot^o » ,"iyi^^3 yrn px ,-iynn^D pn 
^voii^D "iy:yDi^p^i^2 8 p« jy-ij^ay: ^^: d^t jis Diyii p« üMiT 
fi^; HD 0^^318 pö D13D nyiyjy^p 8 :i:yi v\< oy "lyD^'yii "3 
-8^ lyn^-i p8 Dyj>K^8D yD8c ynyona 8 ::iayTi83 p« jy^^yia 
-18 ^^^8 :y-iöDJ^j üv\ pD 3:nyjy^pi8D ym^^D28 n .^8nyo 
•^^71^1:8: tDyi^ A)^!]^! ü8D^*iTyn nyriDM: d^8 üoip d^^ii ,ü^n 
yD^yn p8 ,iyD8o n tyrn oy nyoy-ia dj^i^ ,nyDynj r^8 pn 
y^V8r^^8i*LD:yv iyi p:8t 8 lyoi^jyjöMjiv v\\y ^n lyni^n oy 
Jji8^^:8n PD Dyvj^-is Dyi "^nn iyD8D dj^ii ,iy^8ö^B8P n 
D-i^u Dt^^^ ,^8ü^s8P "ly^^J "lyi ^v on^v D>n p^8 ps ,i^t^8 
nyrjyii i^k iy:^:yii r5>8 ,3Ji^Q8tJ{^ ps oyvt^is p8 d>i8 vt 
D^n "iynJ8 "lyn P2 PK ,D^n: t^n t^^D *^^>^n8ö pN lyo^an» 
-j^nsy") K^nj^nya tDnyi^ Di^ii .^8ö^58P "iyD^8 nyi bi^ dd^iöjj' 
-^yii ,nyD>ui8 nnyö p» nnyo r^8 »yoii^Q ny»j 8 p« OTvn 

.tD:^D2yK^8n "lynnö tDi^n ny y^ 

.'•''Diö-TnyTyn 

!y:8tDK^8n üK'iyi!; t^8 yD^yii ,^8tD^E8P pQ 3:^^D8rjijt n 
p« aj'.ü^nnDM«) 3Jiü^nnD^i8 iyivü8to^tDJ8'i^p pv pK V)^^ 
-^ü8t:^^8^^P 8 D^o »inyry: \V2i^T\ i^d mi ,D^^^38n üiyii ,(^i;py 
••ynn8a lyan'moD 8 ö»o ,^yöK':yD8Tiv pn pD :jnyi:y lyn 



nyn:yiKQ Dn PD \)2^n Tan« ^^^d lyjnjyDK' l>n ps: :i:'nyD 

PK Di^Ti ,D^m8 P2 DDfeinp iyiVDpnj^i3 nyi pd Jji^pniüjs 
5'yt:K^jy?ofc?TVA iy:i^^j«i3iJ# d'j^x ::nyijy n ,iyir.nn;s!D dh^k d^d 
1^« DJ»n ^^: D^j jynyj »onns D£n iy Di^i^ ,^t$tD'Efe$p d'jid 
DP1X11 i'D^o nyij^ 3Ji^D«Tjt? lyi pQ ::i^P"«iid:5$ ny-i ano tojsn 
;-iy^yj65^ ^y^D "^^j tyny: ^n ;DitoD^n iyD^^tD2j§:^^yTy:i d'jid 
-28 "lyn tD>D nyij? :i:^^Dfei:T:i^ ny'ü^K^a lyn d^q lyo^^ri^ ^^^n 
tntDD^n iy:D''^tDö$^e'^yry3 lyv:^: d':id ajnyDy-irifc^D lyüi^i^D 
I1K ,|o:yoy^y v:'?V)i:'^ii yj^n pa y^v^^f^siD^y^f n ^m« Dnya 
^i?t3^B^p Dy^^: D'j^x y^^^i^j^i^yn ^v^'::iVo nyn d^d lyDsrvj? 
ö^D .^so^s^P lyD^^iJöiD:^^ d'j^n y^ri^i^iiyn ]:^'>:::vü n Dnya 
e^>:Df'yn-ifc?D n -^n Diynjy ^ji^D^iini? nyn pB ;i:i^p^^idjj§ nyn 
-SP D'j^ö ^^"»D jyD^^nyijyn^B oy-i px |y:njyDc^ Dn ly^-'i!!^ 
::82:i>* p« T^J< K'^jyD^ynnss n ,iy:5^r i^dj#> ^n^ix .^^^^'•3 
A\ .T8 .« ,4 ^^ 1 ^3 IV 1 ,2 IV 1 ^11 ^fc^inyn n üiyii ,i iv l lyiiyi 
*n5$ p« D^yiisiiisD Dny^i ^^^d^s^p P2 dpikii i'd^d r» mts 
"^i^: ^t^'^V'i) Dyr^oy^^i? p"»? iid tDS^yn » tD^j i^^tj^ DB^np-D^^n 
,^yt5Dpyt-p^j< ,^yüBj''B"p^« ,^ytDnyB-p^x '^i^^^vi »^yün-i-p"»« 
-nT''>iiv — ly^D^D-DjK^vpnj^iB pj< p« ,ii .Tfc§ ,K ^yDD^-p^« 
^yüDS'iyan »^ytoopyr^rs ,^yDBJ^B-iy>B ,f'yDiyB-'»nn ,^yD 
'rjin iD^j üD^üK'SD oiyi^ ü-'^nns ^^k jyiEDJ^j nyi .11 .Ti§ .« 
iyD^^"iyijyn«B pv ps ns^^ ,!7«d^b8p lyv:»: cyi pa om: n 
]V'i:^:i D':^E Dpit?n nyi ü^d lyjy^p y^s moD ly tjnyii ,^^>d 
Dn ^v 5'y3i^^v-iJ<iBJ^nB nyoyna r^»» lynyji ^v öJ^Dtj'jj^ ^-st^^ssp 
tDWi 3ynB3i?3 "»yn .tDjysyiy: nynnD lyns^in n^o ni ,Dp^sn 
D':iB D'n: nyn d^o ^^^^nsB p« ,:^DyDD^Jü^yni5$B ^vav^P 
l'D^D Dny^y^pn^B ny^y^K^ "^i^: anyii ny ;^5§tD^BSP fyv:w 
"8P iyv:«t3 D':iB dpix^i i'o^d d^h .o^nj ny-i tst^ pb dp^kii 
TD^^ans n "lyiijt ,^>^o nyD^^-iynjyi^^B pn *nM« ddpsii ^st^^ö 
p« lynij tDDpfeit^i ny ,Dn"'« pN onysiypisB fx dj^ii öbsip 
uro PK ,|ytD^>v:yt^^^iiv n .y^vii^BJ^iB nyny:y^p ti( 



,TiD^ \v^'>:dvü üV2V2ViVi oyi nnx y^vpnj^-is nyn pd iin 
i'D^i^i;: et iVDman^D jyjj^p ^i^r ivd hd ,'-\v'ii'<p rpfe? jy^yi^ 
:n3ypip d^: ,^t^r lyo ns ni>^: i^^dk lyii^ ^"lyo^^ms ^j^v y^o 
ly^i^P ,^{^D^Bi$P lytD^» D':^« iyj:*nyi:y y:n:yDi5^ n ti^i« 
t^K ,iyoi:-ij§D pitJ» lyj^n dj^^i ,"iyD^uis n lyo^ütn^j^ injytDiy 

*- lynyn üyi nyo^ix .y^xii^^aj^ns "lyiyoyi; 8 r^s pN* iiv"? 
^ D»! ly^n p2 y^*iy:T^^iJno:y^ n px 3:^^>:i?r:{^j yuyDpjiiii 
D':iD ^ytDtJ'jyD^Ti^ D'r« jy:jny-i3y y^^: pa ^si^p 
PD jjnyjypp-iiL^D nyny^yy^ ly^^j fe? Pd lyii? ^5<:3^s5§p 
*•"» Di<t .iy:>-i:y'jtJ^ i'd^d ^^^;?jie:3 pK ^^"»ü lyDviyn^ynfejD pn 
^>it3 iyD^^-iy"i:y-ii?D cyn ps ::ny:y^p"'ife5:2 yj^Dy.':;D^jü^ynn»Q 
jyvii?: D'j^D Dpixi^ Tü^a ny^'yjti^ r'?^ D-iyii Di^ii ,^8t3^sb*P pD 
"•yi^^N ,ny^yjc^ ::nyjyppnfc^D n ony:i ^^nnyi px — ^j^ü^bjjIP 
t:^n ly-;:« nyi iid Dnyt — ,^»to^58P m:^:i d'jid Dp'.xn "lyi 
-H'^sn-nyo^uis nyn pa dpinii nym^j^on» "lyn '•n /i:j5 d^^n 
cpifc^^i nyi -lyi^^fc? ^ly^yjti^ lyjoipyni^^s ,i:nypifci:3 »D^tjtii ::nyp 
ty^y; iv lypo-'Q n pD iy-i;i: /^{j!D''sö;p iy2^^-iy-i:y-iSD d'j-.d 
^.yni# l'n.'^i^ nyi px jjnyp^yDi^n-iyü^^Di^ nyi ::"t:i^LD2yc'»2 
fy:j>*^v'^i^Bi>n3 iidd D^n» aj^^oj^nj^ y*^^t3D^^Si:^3^P n tD2n 
n&? yo^nj iv :^Dy!2D^:to^ynifcN*£ i? oma in>N* p« y^aiyjy •^n'^• 
"ly-i ü^o ^^^^:"i{5D pt5 yDMi: ^)i s .n .i ,:jnyp!^y2fc$nnyt}^n 
,DPiNirDD3^yT p« ^^ö^2^p D'JiD t^'^:y£"lyllo lyD^^D^^D'Dnn 
.:jnyp^yDiN*riyD^''m8 "ynyD^N^ i» lynnyi p« 
-yr ^^KD-'Eft^P iy3^^L3D{<'^H*Ty3 w^^^i üvi :in:yaoi?"i083 
D^r.s ^i^sK iDsn ;r.^c5^r:i^ pn p£ Dyv{<;i5 lyi tk ,i^d lyn 
-i^D y-iyi:niiii y:^n lyiyii ^>;ofe< p.x iy:ijriy-i:y yii'nr^nys 
P2 lyt^np yjyi>^'^ni?D Iyc*M•\^: D^^^onj^Q rD^^V3^^5< lytDjyD 
D':^K 2jnyn:y n "it^Q üd^.p tyr^np yrr^x pN ty^vpn^ns 
-iS^DD» pn jia DpiK^i nyi in^* ^^ü^q^ip d':id ^yüeoyrsn^ 
lyr^np ynyi:8 p« ; y^vyt-itojyv^i^ip ny^^^v t^^^'s ,D^n3 "lytJ 
nyi ö^D |yi:ui8D ^t^ü^Di^p po dp^kii iyt:i^i;JD3s "lyi t^k 



"JCB'etfp o<n 144 

pD "lyi^ ,^»tD iy2>?iyi3y"ifc?D pn pi2 :jnyjy^piö!a nyt^^^i^Da» 
-^•'-'.p ynyiJöt ^j<!: pn ; toDM-inn^iD ny dj^ii Dstj-ip-D^uife^ ^yi 
-ryD Dyjyny^y: Dyi nn« '?i$f2Vi^^ ^^d^b^p lyi ddp^üii jyr 
y>^: ,Dp^Kii pn d^d ^y:{^^viJ^Ei^n5 ,^v dh^^ p« iid^ |yt^o 
-:y y^j'Ofcüiii^ is ii>*Q dij^i tooip ?^oto2t^ px ^ly^Dyip-D^^ani;: 
•-ys^^iyijyife^D pn ny:y^P Diyn oy ps ,^fe?D"'ö5$p d'jiq :i:nyT 
Dyi PQ DpiKii nyi t>« y^i^pnj^ns pD lypnp v"?^ p« ,^^^d 
nyi P3 i3^D-iyi lyofeüTi^ px ^«t:>Bb*P d'jid ^^^d iyD^^"iyi:y"iö!D 
*:y yt32J^ ü^d iyn:miü2 :n:yt3{^ nyLs^m» y:oa^DDy:^fc^a ^j^v 
-iyn^i< iy:^^^MiD^^y 65 jis ::n^>:]Dn5< nyn ü^d pn lyjjnyi 
•qn üpm ytDvy^ n ^v d:^^n r^« ^^3-iyi px o:nyp^y25$3 
"•M Di^ii ,iyt:^u"i^ n lyD^iDt^DMis pa yoii^Q nyi px on« 
1:^2 ny^j^ iy:^tD:yp lyrjyi^ nyn pt^ nyi^ ,D:^ü!:y:i'fc?n pitj^ |yj 
nyi p{< lyn^v^^n» lyjj^P d^j pö y^n^D nyijypn^ii iy:i^:y^i 
.|y^5?jö:p'J'iVs;>* yD^^:nyiiy: n ^in nyLD''Ui^* y^o n D^ms 
D^^i ,^i?D^5^P ly^^^iDQ^t^^yty; nyi pD D>n: nyn d''D lyofe^r^^ 
üvo ,iyDp5$iTJ}^ pn pD "i«n3 Dyi t^^D px ,pi5^ di^jj^j^vpjid 
P2 PN y^vpn}^i3 nyi ps nsj^itot^D^D d'jis :i^nyD"»nnii!iQ nyi 
iyi r.2 :ji^pmt::» ^yi ü^d ^nyo^^nn^? yD^^t^öyK^ijin ^t^v nyi 
SJ-iü^nnD^iN nyn d^d ,tD^^ms ny^n pa D2b*np nyiv^pn^^is 
-"•nn "^nN' Diyn D^DD^n pD jy^^ip y^» pQ ::nyDynn^D pN 
t'o lyiofcjTW 11^2 DDip Dy lyD^yii tin« .n^Ds^Ds^ nyi ^y^ 
•qnx 5>fciiD^öi?p t'Din *iyD>^2n» n pD :jin^viv "lynyoyi: nyi 
lye'^:^?:"!?^ d':id :3nyijy n w^v*^ ::iDntD:i^S5^ yiyoyn:) » 
ü"iy^^ yDii^D nyc^^jDytD pn ps pN ^j^tD^sfeüP d':id ?yDty:y^:{smv 
-1^-13 PD lymiv n pQ T^np lyi nytD^nn Diy^n oy px ny^yr^ 
.ro^^vr^« ^fc^DK iJi^D tDDip a:nyi:y n y^^yii p« ,y>vpn 
-■•^n-iN n üi^)^ ,ü^Diyn .pyi:» oyn •^i^*: rniv p^x pN ^t^i^^i? 
PD jj^^ofc§T:>>* n DMis t52n ^üip tDD^^n ,::nyp^yDi§n-)yir 
,^p^D^D n Di^D lynyDyi: i§ r^» pN p^^» n ödn^ ,^nld^2j<p 
rytyj Oi^n t^n d^t .anyn^« :^Dy!:D>iü^ymfc!iD n lys^üD d^^ii 
•fesD>Di$p cyi n^D 6J^>t3DnytDPfc$^t?3 T>N D^i^ ,3inyp^y2j<n pd 
•D^n nnis ly^v* *iKö ^^"> ^p:^2 »y^vpnj^ns pD idik w^^üo^^ 



-»3 yK^ni^DD^n » lyai^n otjtii ^^nyp^jycw po lyvyry: yny-i 

"Dnpy (Dp^.Kin^ pc) i:nyp^ya^3 pD ryty: Dp»iüDns j» 
nyi p« ^^iK TT ü5^>D oy tu ,nvn px |yv:8^2 iss i{#3 on^D 

.\i^iVO lyi i^n^^ ü*»: ü^syj 
-n:i 8 T^K ::nyp^ys8rnyö^^n-i8 y:>nyn^N n nn« ^V24 
n2 ::i^p^"iitDji5$ lyi pa "lynt^ »jji^oj^t:^^ pa üph^^ib ')v:'>o 
nyn^« n dj^ Diyi^ ,n^D> lyji'^üD^^i^D^BfciiP Dyi nn« DiüD^n 
-:j>* iyt^'>DD^^^tD^25<P ifc$2 ^yo^D i? D>n nn^x pa ^jnyp^yasa 
"5?P Dyi pa nytoDnpy lyi i5§a ::i:jn8n s i^^rx p« ::)^ü\i\ 
ypy^iDDn:^« is; ds^ij' n .y^^pn^^na pa la».« iyL>'^DD>?e;ü^9 
pt? ,ty^*''.:j!:n ^n i^^p ^i<D>ESP nyi lyD^yii d^o ,^^o"i«i-'inyryT 
^'.T» ,Iy^•:b*:l^^5 cn^i<;Dai< ^y^a ms: pi^*.j< cn^x Dnyny; v:i'?V)\ 
i:a^:j' n .Dyiiy-i?>*ny:D^iN ::^:yDy") pn n^ix m ü^^^.i iy mi 
-jr ya^yii ,::nyDy-inj?a-toDn^yT p« |yK^oyaiyi5<n v^i isa 
T^N ü^)) »^UjtnyDj^Q iya^^::^:yo lyo^n: :n:yto^ » ,'^'t r^v^ 
-yn: n p,a :^::ynej>*'2*.fc? t^k pk y^vj^L^feüi^aopy ij^a '^'^::fc?i'V 
-fc$n:i j:r,yp7ya^3 nyi i^a DP\sr.-'.v lyD^^piMi D'r,a Wi 
■j^na "lyi p^a :j^^pmid:j§ nyi ovo pN* ::i^cb:r:i^ nyi ts^o \vo 
':^ nyi tD^D jyD^T^v lony^ dj^^i »ö^^a^i? pa oa^s^p lyivDpn 
r/:^B ;:vj^n3Dn« nyri^r.^v^i^a p.a üa^inp n tDDPb*ii ,2:i^cfc?r 
-yna onyii oy Di^ii ,n^anyi it^: ü^: i3Dpfe?ii n pN* ; ^öiD^a^jp 
*- PK ^fc^o^asp lyijyn^ücnpy cyi pa o^^priyrn n nyo 
li^: i{>'a ü^ytDK' ^e:t:^as:P "lyi "ly^^yi^ pa ,nri''w'y ytoi^{>*Dzöt 
-yip nyi dj^ii ,"iy:a*iyi nj^:: üo ; '?''ü \V'^''üüyi'?v ]vo^m: H 
nyn Bi^ '?i^ü^ ü'ü i^my^anx nyiyijnütn -^viv' ^^n d^: üh 
Dy^^j D^i? nn^c'y nyi pa ^^^ö iyD^^jny^iy:*Dii< ii< y^vpn{>*"9 
cf^ii ,üvi P:sn i$ DynyoMX ^t^j tDDp^in^ n .^fc?t:^ai<p-nj>*r,v 
^■^ — t^aia Dyvi^-ia-D3i^*>vpn>^"ia D'Jia iy3:^a:n5^n yc^ODyo n 
tT*,t< •l^^:iyo jy^so — .a .t .k jy^t^^ri-uij^sDjfcsnü n ,Dy:^K^MO 
"inyt ^t^T DPnj-Jianyn^N "lyi t» ^nsiuir'DbtQ lyo^n: m "inyr 
n .iy^'j^a-D:i?^vpni;:ia y>^: pK lyiyii ü^yiJönny^a ^yjc' 



^ö'BKp ü^i 146 

nn D^D ODpsii j/D^yii »nn^i^x; nvD^^DCtttj'^yTy; ^j;i pQ vd^d 
|v5>i:»infci;D *^n li^p V2'?v'\) n« ::i^Q«nj^ -lyi ps jji^pmidj« 
pK pns toyQD-'N lyvjfc?: dj/i d>d "^n dtj^^ ,^»d^E5.<p dj/^^j pK 
•^n üi>*n Dy p-i^ Dyoyii ,y^vpnj^n3 Iiq rv^^'ii^ vü"?^ n 
Di^i pö lyny^i di^ti ,iy:^^m* n px lyi«^ ,iD^n3y3Dnfc< jji^vi/a 
-M3 lyiyii yD^yii ,.3 n .k lyjnKnjyr^^K p« ^i^ ,^:vQvv:i y^o 
.lyr^iit^-DJt^^vpnj^iD ytD^s n pa ;j^^pniüj» nyn pjs'i fc? ro 
t:''D i]fci!ü5^*o>N i^n ^i^T |yD ,a^D^"j t>« ly^^a v:i'?v^^ v'?^ p« 
lyr^np yiyi:^ t''»*i^-'^^'nj$is'n :n:yiy:y^pn^D d^: p« ^{>*c» 
'p:iB yDDrtDD^ii n p« iyti^:yQ \vü^d yo^n^ lysn^iiKivrn» 
•83 iy"i .ajnyp^ysjjmyn^« n 1^f ü^yoK^ ly^^iiyD ->! dj^ .|ytD 
nyD^yii .yntion:^« nyjiyni<:D nyi p.D jyii ny^i^^tDony^jp^n 
--•x lyny^i Dt^in lyi^^nys yjnny^-inyv pD ly^p^v ii^*2 D^yosi' 
•^y^yio^» PD jyij^nyQ ,|y::i^pfc!i^i viv:iV'pp ^m lyonynyn 
p« Dnnp pD ,pi"n ly^nn t$ ny^ji« y^vpn^^na pD »ajiDy^D^i« 
-D^^.N ny:n:yü5i^ nyi p2 5^ Vi:>2vr\ m) nyn dj^ ,n:«D£5^^>D:^ pD 
ajnpuDM« PK ajiDMimfeüs: lynyjy^p nyij^ lyiyDyii ,a:n^>3 
-■«K iyi pD ,^^D"i8-inyTyi ny^ynoonj^« is p2 ^^^ dj^i pd 
-rnüDnr{< nyn pD lyoMtnD y:yn^''e^n»3 n .jjnyp^yD^nnyn 
PK ::nyp^yDt?inyD^K n D^n ny^n pD iy*!yDyi;i$ü2 ^p^j? ly^ 
"i-iDD n jyDj^iJ^ PD tyni^DPK^ yöD5^'>:nyjy n pD nyr-'K lynyn 

.''^: DJ^T PD 

"DH^K nyj"iyit?D nn pd :yii ■iyD^^D^D:ya>''K nyn ot^ 
-ns n PD nyr^K V'i;> pK lyDyiD o^i |i<tp \vio lyD^yi^ ,ynD 
^^^2yD ö^: lyi^y;! ^^k t^k ,ü>MB^:yD lyn pD \v:^i$^v v^i'^iivn 
''^r\h ny5^>üD^:'KD^Bi?P nyn pd D>\m:^p nyi pD -r^nya dTk 
Diyi:yy3 m^t to??n ^b^io^s^p q'jid ^yD^:iTD^Tiv lyn .y^vpn 
-y: nynnyi f« aji^oti^ji^ pn d^ö jyosriY .di^?::»? nnyr 
ay^DDfc^: pD DPiKiriv iy^yj>^"'vnj?5J^-is k |y;iJ«:y:i •q^^^nyii 
PD ::i^DKtJt^ nyi PD ::)t^p''iiD:8 n dkuj»^ ^ii .D^^ms ^nx 
-^sy ny:3nyi>^ö nyn id^d •q^'«^nKD pK lyiiyj d^j t\s ^istD>a{:?p 
tyv^jyi: yD>5'n^DK: n «i''i« tvoMDi^':}^ "^jn "^n iy D:y^D ,yD 
•i^BDpy ii^D '^^^aiyai^f t>K d}>*ii ,3:nyp^yDsnnyö''^mb* iy-i p.s 



t$ .nyoyB*^ iy:{;?oiyi ]v'?v'\'\ 1^0 y^^yii ly^yn ^ly^ü^Q-i^^siia 
r/'vpnj^~is lyi pa j:iD^n2D^^.« yr.^D^^.^ii^j^p ,y:n::i^v^^s 
n ; ::i2»Dn:^j^^« ny:i^-;j"i^'ii>2 nn\x -ii?2 ;y.a:n5:53ii^D s t^k 
-vy^ n "lyai;? ,:jvj^nnD^iN i^ D>ns nyiM^ ücn 3ji3Dn*^j>^K 
^>^;:y:nv t^x D{^"n ^'smyD^^-iytJ'jyD s inj? '^^^:yo d^: t^n vd 
-^■•ms ^^v nyi ps 3jnyDy-o-i»D j$ |ni>* ,y^v«t:öti^sDpy isd 
-i§2 lyi ps DpiK^nv lyü^'-^iiiiDn^ oyi ps 2>i:yn25^»:iK ,ivo 
l'DiK^B i? Tin lyssu^y^ D-iyn :i:nyDyi:n82 n di? .::nyp^y3 
t)>o lyD^m^ n pa ^^^d » i-dd "ü^nssn,, ^yD^yii ^oyvj^ns 
"•^Dib* yüi^Dcyti'feün n pD ^}^v n pyjy^pi^a Dt^ii ^yni^^yD 
yv:fe$3 n .yvpiii^iB nyijyDP^n nyi iv D^^ü^yn^j^D px nyö 
-i>*D lyi n^D tJ'^DDnyopisn^s r^x v^'?v'\'i r^y.m^^^ p.2 yoii^D 
-jytDK' -iy:n'-nD3 « ps 3j>* lynnyi Dj:yn ,y^nt:DnrN nyjiyr 
-srnyt^^^mfe? "lyi pD ^^^ü lyo^iya j< ps 3:i^nj8i'nöiD ny^n 
.'^:i}vr\ v^^'Vi^v^^:i':i^i<r, lyni^ yt:rD2yK^»aD'!X pN jJiiyp^yD 
Vt tDT^ni y^»^:{^py lytj'^D^^i^s "^.yi p.2 D^"'P3^!'Dy^£iy2^iN n 
nsD [iK ::iD^nDD^iN n i^i ü^y: m Dt>*ii ,Dyi px dmis 2}ü 
'^'^'WB.^i 1^2 iy»:>^ü2o^D y'DiK's n .n .i ,:o^-;ynp p2 3:ivi^'^ 
p^ nnD n d^^ ,5'p^v ly^ynDDnrx d'j^2 ty2:nyn:y ytrn 
(jy^iT ,iyDyj^^2) D"'.y2nyp ytJ'^^D^n n ^11 .iyi:nyT:y n Dt# 
5'J^?2 i"»^« lyrn ^""t "i^^2^^^ ,:rjyn^n ^.y^n ::ii?2 niDD lyvyr 
-DSi^t^^yty: n '^^1K d2^*!d ^u^ ,aray^i;5?3 pK ly-i^i^yj toD^nnyj 
-D>iN pD ::'i;y"n^3 n V'^ ^^: or^i p2 "idd y^vpni^^s ya^^ 
".i?i"iy:irns ^t^or^x t^n n ips^nni ,:r.2»2n:rp^N p« ;r.D^n3 
^^r.y-i jy-yii iy2^?^2 n j:*:iyiib*n "lyi dj^ px lyn^^ry: lys 
-j^a D'3i2 iyDnft!;2 y:yi^"':j'~^2 n px lyDyin*,« c^n ny^n pD 
-:nx3 yjyr^« y:^n ^^: dj^t po "1102 ü2j<k^ o^^^ ,Dy^ft;?•^2 lyv 
-ify^ n |yii PN .to^^pti^nt^nys p2 yoni^a n ji^ DtDyj ,iya:u 
y*aj?:f?py yti'^to^^t^ö n "^n« ptK^ t:i2nn ,p^« ^n Dyiiyi:iD yts 
"lyn^N "iy:^DyoD>:ü^yn-i?s;2 r.2 3:i2{<c» n r^» ,inyüt;n{<2 ^v ]if 
PN anyn^N r^« Dt^ii ,3:nyp^y2fc<D ^ Pd .n .1 »aanypH'SN^ 
pH ^öitD^Ej^P D':i2 tJ'^:yD"iynö!3 •^yD^Vj^a^^Dnn d^d ^^^'^n.xD 



*?»l3»B(Jp Ct$l 148 

.vnLDonrK -iy:nyT 
-i#iö lyjyryiiya » ,^^>iinyo .n t:;ii^T — |yoyjJJ>* "i^»i^^, 
-Dfciiyn » "nJitany"! ,"ni^2Dp>;j p« y^Dij::j^?y nys^^D^^^a ps ij^oya 
,iyDy::t# n^ot^^» — DinyDD>:^?o-Dy>:j^S^P iyt^'>^a:y d'ji2 nyo 
,Dnnp i$ T^« oy Dt^^^ ,üvi "lyr« i^ Da:y-iD*kj^ P?{>*2 üip T55 
p2 ^n ly^ns^n ^v 3:ny"i:^iiDMK Tin hd ,n^nD yj^n y^öt 
-ya D^i^^i Di^iT .ü^^^yonj^ y:nyn^« DjyrnD Diyijin y^^^Dy 
-yDyirifc^D "lyiosi'ny nyi ^^a t»: — ? pDnyn Dj^ü^iryi nyi |yii 
•yi "^n yovy^ n p« ü^i^ii ^nyo^^m« n^ix aynöD^j d':"id ;:n 
y>>: pa dp^x^i:}^ iy-i i^n ü^j ^i^t oy '?v:^ ^11 .pnn s to^n''3 
IV na ,t5^^v nn 0: pD Tkj'D s D^{$D:y^8 "qn Dnyii^D ,]V'^:vd 
•r-iK n ,n^n iyi "ly^j^ ."lyD^uns yjyopsi'nyi lyD^^nnj^a 
•»yi pD "^^^DytüaMH öj^ ü:3:yn jyD:^pnn$$D yiyT:ix p2 toajip 
ly^nyny^ P2 Djy^^^o lyroorj Dyi iyv"i:ivD^""iX ^''?::i''?)Vü 
*t*D in lyrto^n^a irix isti^ ^i^^x p« nnino n^« :yn2D5^o 
TT i»^ pyDmsQ w^^P '•n nyni>* .n:;s*05j'^>ü5i' ps t:^^v lyn 
cyj^tj'so n nyn^N DC5?tJ'iyn nyi "^in rn^n tD^^p2^^:iyo n di^ 
|y:j^p ly^j^T ^n ,rün: i^n oy ,D:yiTtD^^m» n nyn^x px 
r« üi^i w^ ,iJi$tD^o^« v^ ly^J^T ^n ; D:yn V''''^z^ |y:^Dya 
jiL oyo^n^üPK n |yD«iiiJ^W3i^ nyi^^ ly^jynrotrivjj^ ^ronj 
r"iyi:s ; pnj^o d':id n:i$DK^iv nyn on^ oy^vsnysi^ yiy^n 
lyD^^pyi'^ "lyi ^n i2»D:i^D^5< ly^^iy: tD^: iS3i^ ü)^2 ^n lytD^j^n 
nyD^yii 51^".« ,y^vni^B y-;:yK^"iyn n lyD^simvcnj^ nyiiP^J^'P 
r^ö5'»D i^^2« ."n:i?^ cyi pö nn^tj^y n oyi^n^ya t^k cy 
nyi "1^2 D^^pr-jjy^iDn: d^s 3:riyp^y2»2-iy3^« n üjypny:« 
•:nyi^y3 pn on^ /t tD^y^'piyi iy D;!n ,ynöDnj>x "iy:nynt^o 
DP^K^nv lyriy^^« ü^^t^ons üyi 0^0 ,o^^püv^:y"i:8n 'ivt'? 
tj"iyii n ü^^^ ,nvi ü'd ü'>: \)i< ::)^vp'?v^^2-^v^'<^2')^ lyi pa 
^:py"iiy3 y:i^p n iy^%, : ü^j^t "ly .anyn^x ^Dy^sDOto^ymiiiD 
lyo'^ms n ty^^n^v jy^^t lyn^^n njinn w :iv«3 px lyo^^n 
'"inysys lynyi^ ^n ]v:^P ,r:in3 jyoniya 5? t>i lyiyi^ tDin^siyr 
•p«;di:8ö PS r::ynB^ T^DyTDB''in ?^k ot^ni ,n:»^ »1 n^s v^ 



ivnyi^ D^yoK^y:iv d^j ,:yiDDi^j lypiiüDK^ "iyi:ir8n » -^nn 
-n:ü;in»i: n px ,Dn» inj^;^ 18-16 p« mi »lynna pi^üd j'd^^.« 
jyoipiijts \i^p iy:jni^sK'38^ ^in ^»d^b^p pk nin d':id ::i^ 
•»Jt^üB^iv fc§ PK ^{^oy^s T'K ij»^ Di^T ; lyj'yiif' "Tiy |8 pK ü': 
lyDpi^^^ toyii nytD^^n"i8 ly^niaiftüD iv T:i^ß -in^x ts ,ypvn ps 
1D1N iüTüi ti>is rn:y-iy^pnyi ."::nyp^yDt?3 n iyi>^« ,ny5y:&j^ 
*^y2b*3-"iyn^K lyroycD^jü^ymss s ps ii^cssj' y:n:yt:*^ n 
-fcjLo^ö^p lyi n^D a:i::ni?3 yrtD^ij d^» iytD>^2"i8 pD ::nyi? 
-D{?^-i^D ,y^DJ^:i^py y^^^t^'^i^s n iDr^^» ,::i^D8ni^ lyg^^DD^^ 
5$ pD "^^yn^K,, in^K PD ^^d pk pn» ,i'>\ü yt:^8 D^ts on^p 
IV iDi:yiiy: jym yD^yii ,iyt:nyi^ yi:y:^i^Q od^J'Sü^bsp lytD^: 
^n DJ^ii ,^fe$o^D»p "ly^^: "lyi lyoyii ,nyo^^n"i8 ''yriya^x^ n 
^.'>ü„ : D5^: r^^iK lysni^^iyaDMis ü^n ^lysst^'w lyai^n p^^»» 
Di^i^ nyiDin »"i^^^yo ii^: oi^ii rf»» ^^^k n»D lyiö lytDiSpnnsD 
,D-i^i:Dnpy "in^K \v:i'?V)^ ^imk ^^jo^bsp oyi pyDy-iiiss n^o 
^x ^i#v ny>^K lyosBiv -— wnya^K dj^i m^ tsr-isn nn^K p« 

."ly^ii^D-nyüDnpy n 
üo IDIK D^iJ^n PK y^vpni^iB nysj^^üD^^Ko^BSP lyi ikd 
nya^^-i^ci?: nyi di^ii ,üs:fc?"ip-t2^u"i» ly^na ps di3d nyi 3^:y3 
-D3» ly^ns: nn^K nsi2 .ivD^yDij' :i:nyp>y2»3 nyi p2 dpik^iniv 
!*>« DJ^ii /'D-iöt-inyry-) y^ynaon:^« I» ro^ij t^k i:i^p^n 
.r^:y"i3 ly^^^i^osj oyi di# p2 :>3:ynBiii!2iK 
lyij^ :jTiyDyn:-isD n ts jyouy::«;? 1^0 ly^jj'h ov^k t^3 
]^K 'T>^Dp:^s uny3 ^löia^BötP iyD^^"iyi:yn82 d'jid ::ny:yS"5n8D 
"lyi P2 arnyjy^p"iei2 ivi^ jjnyDynnsD "lyi o^d jjs^pj^^k 
]V2'''?2 ]i^p 'wo^'^i^^ ^N»v n .iyD^^3"iK yürt^2yl^'M ^J;|!V 
-182 nyi oyii ^t^-i jynyii iy:y5>p i^^bk lyii^ D"iy"i:yifc>2o^K 
nyi n^^K »ivdp^^^ ."»n nys^K DiJ'nyn di^ii »^iKO^Bt^p iy3^^"iyi:y 
pn ; ü^^nn» "inyc ly^yo^i'wiv p^ önnn "lyo^^ais lyjpyv:*^« 
en^^^n ü'»^n"iK lyi pB T^nB nyn Dan .lynnyi üDPöin pi^ 
ryDKTi:»^' D^KB "ly ii^j .i^^bk o^kb ny lyi»^ önyijyiKBo^K 



^BtaiBKp D\$i 150 

Lyn p« .ö^^ms ns ono nyi "in öu/oyini^s oy nyT«^« 
s ^SD>3fc§p iyD>^"iyi:y"iSQ d':id jjnyoynnj^D n Diyii ^sd 
5't?v nynyoyi: s p2 üo pfc< o^^my; di3d pyDyi: b* P2 |o^d 
iviy^ PD DyiyDrx nyD^^{>*Dns nyi .ny^^ui^ yDj^Dsytj^jiin 
i? lypniDM« ]v:i^P ^j^t iy ,Dyn px tonyDE^j^n toD>^«t}^S55P 
-yDyna » p2 d^: px lynyjy^*? ^ ps d^uis didd lytoo^Lssj^^n 
toPJiQ lyüDt^p i^^2« yovy^ n ly^j^t px ^lyn^uiöt 5»?^^ nyn 
i^N nytD^^3i5$ ^i^v n lyii .iy;i^^>n "^j^j i^^d« "lyii^ 3^^u mt» 
'-".i^Ej^nB pj^iD^sj^P wi^Vü*^ PD 2öi^D^iN nyi ddpj^i^ ,iyDyi:i 
-y^ifc?2 i^« Ü3^nny3 onyii Dt^ii ^D^^ms yo^o nyn i^ ^yji^^^ 
-••asp \vyi2Vü^ ü'jiD DpiNii lyi t^« ,"iyjy^p t^n* n lyu ; :ji: 
p£ n^üC'Döto -iy-i r^x oy lyoyi^ D^^11 .lyD^nr::»^ "^0 {>* '?^o 
üJ? DDipfc§n :i:^ü^ni?n y-iyjyn^^tj^D:^^; js r^fe? ,y^^pn{^iQ lyr 
-{§P pD i:i^08TJ>? nyi d^d üDpijii ;j^D''nfc?n pn .ivd^d nyi 

-D>^fe?D^£i»P Dyi pQ 3:i^p^iiDi8 n TS ,inyry3 jynt^n n^D 
-ü^uns lyiropnj^ns nyi pa p« y:^pni^iö pQ jaiN lya^^tD 
•ost:{^ "lyn pa D^D^nyi -lyn p« "nsnix n "n^^^:i^ — döj^ip 
-y^is^n pfc? |y3j^n3 iv D^^-^D^^^yo n 'JD^^st^^öSP Dyi d^j ,:j")^ 
^vii^ ivDjyDDpy an:ynyDyi:-i«2 ,D^^ms dod pyoyia 5$ :iJi: 
üjyiTiyD^^n^s y^^yvr^« n pD y^^jsiDsipsDpy n ivDjyDr« 
.^«tD^asp iy3^^iyn:yifeii3 p2 :is^d^ij< iy:mynnQ nyi ^u 
-^55t3^5SP lyn'i'yrnyi px p-»« -^m t» »inytya nyD^^ii \v:i^r] -i-^d 
:n:yü^^3"i8D »lytDsynp-tD^uns ^^^^ yiyoyij ^ ny ua^ip Diyn 
"W^VD n »yt^p^sj'y:»!« d>ö lyö^^ms? v^P^ii^v: n inyo r^s 
.lynrp pK iniin'i::^ ü^ü v:vopm-]Vi n ^lyma dvo 

ps i^T^s D^rnn :j^^östjj? lyi pQ 3:ii^pmid:8 "lyi t^^D 
pyDy")3 s 3:iayi^sn t^x ^sto^si^p lyD^^iynjynsa lyi D^n p>« 
,nyü'^n-ii$ ^j^v n ^^myi :njynyDyinss ü^: ,D>^nib* didd 
PS ^SD^ssP iyD^^nyn:yisiD s D3:^nn D^n nyn:)» lyi piD p« 
nyi ^^2 o^^nifc? dod ny^yna $< :i:iay^it§n px D^n: nymynns 
-•»^Dtj'DM-ij^ ,"n^^n:y ,p« tD55<np-D^>n"i5$ P2 yoso iy:!niynnj> 



.DyD^^s^ip nyanyio pD iyD^u"i8 'Pi^'i yiyoyi: » :ji3yii82 
,ajnyp?yD^r"iy3^« ly^^oy^D^jD^yn-iötD 8 pa jjidjjk' n 
•yjtj' ^>>*: lynnyi orwi »lyD^ui^* n pa ":j^{<^>"id83„ n lyii^ 
-5^12 DyT pD y^vi^j<:iiy-i ytJ'^JDyD n nijjs üoip oy iyn>*K ,"iy^ 
-nt:y:nytD:iK pic^ d:>>k r^fc? D-iyn "lyD^yii ,Dyv{^"is*Dji^^vpn 
-'^K ,"iy^y^ti> ^i^: ; 5ji^o8t:j^ lyi p£3 ::i^pMit::5i: nyi ^in lyn 
D':i2 ::ny:y^p-ifc$D yrcycD^JD^ym^D n ni^D l5dip oy lyn 
,\Vi'i:vo^ Tü^D ■^^>^n5$D px ^^jd^s^jp ps ^^^d fyr^^"iyi:y"iii:2 
iyt:^^:Dyü nyi öj^ 12>d 1^:^11^ tony: dj^ii ,::nyjy^pn»-3 n 
-i5<D ly^n D^Q lyiy^i ly^o^o-Djj^^vpnijj-iB n an« .y^v^^i^iiyn 
p« "iyr:y"ii v?» ü^^'5;>ny£-D*^3-i8 p« :j^öo^x pt? a:nyDyi: 
'i^Q n Dt^ tD"iyii ,-iyD^>2n^ Iy:l''tDDyi^'»2 -.v '?vü''D ;?< "iyr:yi^ 
t'D^D :"n»n^.^ "ly-ijyaf'j^:^ "lya^K "^j^j tDi^v^an^p t^'^^yo^yn 
-••Qj^P ny"i t:2^'^ D2^ip-D^"'nn^ nyivtDpn>^ns *iyi ps Dpixr 
ny ny-i^-i^? ,^v^v:^ ü''2^^ Pd oj^n:}^ lyDiyDyiin^D t? y^o 
ü^^3"i5<iya^K n .^yt^^^nn» ^iMk :v't::^ pn toiyoyir.fcüD 
tDiyDynn^D D^^p-iyD^^zn^* Dyi p.t: ^>^ü lyoj^D-iyti^iün nyi pD 
Di^ii ,pm iypi^*t5ti^ IV iy^ ,D"iyp"i»:2 px ,iyn^n-rr.yTy-i yrn 
•»n n pi>ix D^ix ün^x nyt:>^a-!5<"inyTyi n pa r:y"iiP:j^P n 
-■»^ms y^msy^j'^ün n) yovy^ n tD::^iiv ,"iyü^^3"i5§ ytorasy-j' 
ly^nyDfcJtn n "^n iyDn«;rnyD:iN iv px ü^>ai5<""iyn^K iv (nyö 
iü "lyD^^nit^ ^^^ö p""« piö ::i^^^D"iiNnfc!2 n .^i<ü^s^p d'jid 
-1» ^^•'D nyij» lyi DJ^n ,Dy-i ^in ir:yr:n>"»? Dy:y:i:^Niivy3 
"».j^D w^V'i'i "n^n 112 ^yo^^ ^ DiyiT /Jiypiiitö p6< ,'?v^ w ü^^i 
ü^^!^ nyn^ynyi pt« öiy^y:tin^ö p« iyt:D^^i!:D''s^*P y:^yv:^^« 
M'i ,D^n3 {$r8 p2 ^^on^-inyTy-i "iy!^ynDDn:^K i» fi£ :i:i2S5>* n 
-jj^ lys^^üst^trf'yTya lyi pQ 3:i^pMrjJ8 nyi "iöiö ro^i: t^k oy 
^yn nfe<D ^d^i: t^x t3:iyoi^?3 nyi üj^i ^y^sni ^in« .3:1^»:^: 
:jnyp^y2fc?r-\yn^t< ^yroy^D^jü^yn-isD nyn pa :3n3^3D^^M 
"iyi{^26j^:^^«„ pD ly^D^ö y'^>:iDy'L5 ynn^N .n:fc?!^3:y .3 .v 'jt'^it 
*7 o'pifi)) Iy3^^:?o lyii »"^j^n ps .Dn^3 ^n'Nm^ [yr>T l3^^3•^^* 
pr iy"iJ;5iiy:i üD^nnya pN lyni^iiy: Dpj^ncöt^ DiDy^oix O'^n'^ 



VUD'Stfp 0^1 152 

Wxn^^fij^iKQ n nt$Q tD^i#ii ivo |yii p« ,ij;v<3yn3 y^KJij^vfe?i n 

•^^18 yijyi^üonpy n tD^i^ii »DDy^ij^ya px '•\vü'?v *iy^M on^ 
lyin^Eivji^ n^i« aijyj tD^j Di^i^on«; lyny; ^jnyp^yc^^n-iyD 
.nsDK'DKD |yri3V^« nn^t? tiMx p^i^2 p£ y^5;pnj^iQ n -lyü^Mi 
lyo^uns "yivDpnii^nsDii?,, y:^LDV^fc< n pa ^••^ö lyo^n: » inyr 
."yivDpni^ns« lyiyii iv iyoipy:DM« ü^i^in 
ti^^ni» PQ iy::nyi3y yo^nn >i lyiyii lyoijy: w'^:^: px 
TDn^rr^« PK ::iD>naD^iK nyi Tin T'^D^^ti^D^^K Dn^^uyi pi^ 
jyDöinv üny;» dj^ii /^sntü'ir.yiyT ly^ynioonr« "lyi ps ::i9 
n .^p^^ |y^y^nt:Dn:>N d'jid iy:jnyn:y ytj'ni^nyö n ld^d 
ry^VKnü5^i n ^in tD>: Do^tDSj^fejD lynnyi lyiyii |y:jny"iiy 
niit: o:nyp^yD5§n-nrü^^3i8 nyn jiD ^i^v -lyoi^t^Dni^ lyi iid 
nyo^^ni» nyi lyD^yii p« »y^vni^si^ns "iyjyi^^c^"i{$D "lyi Tin 
"^nn ,>^DiS"ir.yTyi s px ^^on» "lyn^topfc? is ^imk tD^«2iv d^üS'? 
"■»DyoD^iü^yniiüQ lyi pD ^jnyjy^p-'.^D p« ;:nyDyi:n»D nyn 
-^yii p« ,ife?n3 Dyi ^nn ^j^nyp^-yrfeiJanyn^K iyi p2 dmi: iy: 
PK .o^nsiiin nyi^ii ^^^ds px tosMini^D ^i^os Diy^i ^t lya 
n iD^i^ii Di^ii ,ryty3 fe? inyry:D>^N d^j^ii iny^j^ : i'noN "lyn 
-»n iytDi^i?D3» nyn ps s^ajynsi^ os^oy: ^c?i:^58P P2 :3^pimi 
-Di^: oyi |y"i^^^:y"i iv üKütj^:^^ ,a:3nyp^y£fc?3 nyi ps }:)m) 
'^p pD ::iSDnK^r^N px 2:it:^nnDnK lyn d^^ t:.si3:j^ P5< jy-io 
pK lytj^^iyc-iynj^n y:^n ü-'d ,üv üd^m ,2jyf^pr^K px ,^{<ü^3 
lö^K {$T8 ^^1« lyi^^^^yn ; ^n jyo^^n yD^yn »DpiKiiir^Dn^yr 
3:i3r:nr:>^N nyi p:^ » inytD^^x ^j^r pn»^-D^^2i« lyi r» 
nyi p:»n s P« ,D^^Diy2^t< :^DyDD^jü!^ynnj<ö ^feütri^s^^P d':id 
'on« D^J^i^ inyc^ ! ü^^cnyi tD^j — ^js^t^^Q^*^ P2 a^itD^nnon« 
•in>K ö^o yntDoni^N nyjiyij^D nyi i^s ryty; D>n iryrya 
W'W'i^ V^^V'\'\ |yDnfc?£ yc^ntfinys y3>n pN ^p^v lyjnny^-jrryv 
Di^ii ,iy::^^P»ii Vi''ü::o'?v:v^'t:i': o^o iyDnynyn^i< ivnyi "^^^3 
«i^PMitj:» lyi D>D lynyi:» nyn "^j^: yj>^« nyasi^ r^8 ?ynyi 
PD D»r)3i?i » Yv^v: DJ^i DJ^ r^K ^i^n p« j:i^D{<r:i^ lyn po 
•O'^an» nyi odp»ii ryiy; on ö^^ .y^Di#:t<ipy nytj^^o>^i?B nyi 



DiyMT ü^i PK ,::nyp^y-:ötn-iyD>>n-iei lyn pD ijr.nyoij^ö 
T^3 .n .1 ,t:^^Dnyn^« onyii PisD-nyo^^n» lyi r^a ,a:i?3 ^n» 
^>^5'nss PK p^^P IV royoD^JD^'y.-n^D oiy^i ^iüü^sj^p nyi 
p^^-D^^ans lyi d^sq d^no^^t .iyi:''uij^ p.a Dt^^ji^ cyi d'-d 
^>Mi .^snyD •lyi pD D^n yo^niv ^1 v^ -lyis ly^i^n i^d px 
y^» ::nyp^ys:j$inyö^ui» n üiy^i ,ü^j<d pi^-ö^^^i» nri 
nyiMi Dn^K ^v :ivfcs3 p« Diyii ^jüd^e?5P lyi rs: ^^.r^ ^nynyo^B' 
•yjy^pn^ö n — d^ik di^i lyti^o^^D y^.y-i^ji: m^ ivii^ ,D^n3 iv 
-i^sDpy lyi pD aji-iyoyir.j^D n p« p^^-D^^3ij$ oyi ps ::n 
,iyi:ny3:yoMtTiv ü^onyi t>k di^i^ »-lyj^^mt? n Pd y^v$<ü» 
-:nri^3 n oi^^i d^^v "lyi p« ,::i^o^t:j^ n lyn^i oiy^yi^^'ifcJSD 
-^'2"i8 Dyi PD DP1N11 Dyi si^ tD^j<n p^^-ö^^an» oyi ps d^^p 
^^2 ,tv^:ia:n»n \i^ nyiMi lyoip |£ik »r» ti^i« .D^^'pnyo 
3yiD3i^: üvi "i«D '^v:v'?P t>« ü^^ai» pD 01^3:1^ lyi y^^yii 
,")yDyn lyn^^i p^^-tD^^ni» "lyi Diyn od^kost .D^^an» n^iK 
"lyi ")»D 3:oyiisa ps ni^itDyo "ly.y^^ü 8 "iss Di^ii .v. .r» .« 
D^j#ii Dy nyi'^K ! y^vpnj^is -lyty^tDD^^^is^ö^s'P lyü^ypniüjs 
•«^B 8 lyDipii^D \:i:ii:?v:i p^5'-D^^3"i8 ü'jia ;:TiyDyn nyi ly^^K 
-»n iy:>nyDtD>^2"ife? "lya^^pn^i lyi ps i^nyDynaisD yii^ü^t 
ü:iiiP]f:i ^^D ]!y'?^v iya:i3:n$<n n üi^ ^^a ü^i^n ,3:nyp^yD 
n lynn^ß^ij niMn |yo ny^^y^i ps ^k^s pk ,a^^v n pyr^anjcD 
u: ]^K öss^B' yi:yi^^rDJ8 n ly^y: ,y^JS2':i^p y^ynoonr« 

.n |y:Mi 
iyf>t<ö l'D^D ro^^VD'^$>: 1859 px 1849 lynni^^ n lye^^iiv 
-i^rpn K tr^tDpytD |yo^py:ni^D pn ,r«nn n^i« lyr^ns n po 
•Dinn:fc?^ v\y'>'p::v n p« pi^-t3^^D"i» oyi pD ::nyDyn v'pvy*^ 
'\2:v:iVi\ lyi T^K ,2 .V i^tt'tD^^ii PK .lyop'^i^Dn ya^SosKC' 
pD — *i^ti»iDyD-)Ki PK ,3r^^*j' 8 TU 7 ps |y3^t:»j'y: pi^ ny3>^ 
ps tD^^^nyi K lyiiy: t^k di^i .: .i .k :r^^K' 9 tu 8 inj;> 7 
•»n •^yc^^cnt^i "lyinyn^K "lyn ps3 d^^dsjj} lya^f'^yiiy^oiK \h 
•iyi»rnDn^ n inn w^'^Vi lyEny^Dnnöt t^k ot^ii ,;:nyp^yD 



^»jn»B<«p D(jT 154 

n» lyi T^« DV "iy:inx;-!^j Di^ii .ii .r^* .« lynn: jypnnj^D y^o 
üpm oy yD^yii px jytojyvj^is n lyrn ly^yn r^fc< ,pi^-D^^3 
pi^-D"a"i^ lyi DMK „3 .V Mt« .yj^n 3:nyDyn n dm« T»r 
,22 tn lya^Dtj'yj T^N ny n« "l^i^ » ar^^tj» 20 lyiiyj nynna t>« 
nynnD r^x ny ,oiyp-ib*D n^N .107o dm« jjnyDyn n ü:}^^ 
')j:ivri n üdko ,9 tu lyr^cry: t>« iv n« j^^^k^ 7 t>i^3 lyny; 
•n3yt:>n«3 nnyr pn i5^ dm« Dnyr oy di^m ,28 4/7% dm« 3:n 
^^'£i« ii« ,i^«Ma « lynMnyjDM« Dnyon«2 n wii^ri D^«J3:y^8 
r:«3 iyjM5>-"iy:i3"in n di^ |y:yM D>^n "tDD^oi^^j^py iJ^i:i^^, ivi 
•^« I«„ iy:iyM lynyn iv iy3Mny::j<i «^nj « p2 i^*d p« üdjii; 
n«ö ^1 lynr^n di^m p« ."j:nyDyn "iynjyD^n«3 p« ny:>>öyi 
jypyM nyü^>::n«-n"ii^i n V2 Di^My^ ^n lya^^n ? i^^Dy: onyo 
T» ,n«i3 «T« V2 w^nvn^^^ ^M pi^ iyijyv:y^3 «i« p:«i « 
ny6^^oi?:t^py-K^^tD«ö.'ii^n lyi m^ mt« jy^«D lynMi ^j^t pi^ -ly^n 
-inyiD üin^Dy^r^« lynj^n ^m ,p^j ? ij^*q Di^n ^m D^yoti^ nio 
-yr«„ lyii^Mya lyiMi i^«n lyrn nyo^^ni« n p« ,Dy:>:i^«D 
-i«D |yD^«ny: lynt^n p>^« iy^i«D n di^m ,D^<to «r« p« "jn 
-y:j>n« jyny: pit^ Dö«trD")Mnj«^ p'« t>« oi:^« nm'^Vi 
'iT^B « p« tDa^-'^y^j^n« p« »lynna mi /'^«d^e^p nny?D„ or^^ 
:ynD3i?3 "lyi D^sjn iD^önyn iyD«Mv ivm .yonj^D lyiyM^tDpn 
ii?3 »rDyoD^jQ^ym«D nt^: oo Dnyjy^p")«D in ü^^nn« ^im« 

.tDl5'l>'D3« "IM« 

-yj n iyD«nv öb^^d y^vp^a ytj'^o^^jj^py yjyiMiy::}^ n 
-u^^m« Dyi p2 aj^3yM«n yr^Dy:i^« n iyn^^i:yn di^mi ,|yvyr 
.n .n) D«^myü^m« nyi ly^Miv tJ'^jyD^ym^ö n ny-rj^ t^i^ 
-ya tyv:«3 oyi ly^^M^v p« (Drj^iP'D^m« nyvj«3 lyi tyt^M^v 
n |yn^^i3y-i di^m ^v^vm n d^d ,^«d'35?p |yD^^D2«t^^yr 
yiyn:n«3 lyt^M^v ::nyp5yQ«3 nyo^^nn« lyn pc a^^^^^or^« 
nv iyiyrüD:>2 « pj«i « 'd 'v 3m« .y'vpni^'^» ps lyr^np 
y^vpnj^"i3 pa r^np lyDMiyj « p« 3ii^D«ni^ ^t r^« -!:{«:kc' 
'Vü^ü Dyi pQ lyayn tytD-iJ^i t>« nin lyi »rny^y^ D"iyi:ir«:i 



Dyi üiyDyir.fcto pi^ "iytDiy3yny;i nyn .pi^-ü^^m» lyn p« 
-y:i "lyD^yii ,y>vpni^iB pD t^np oyi pN lyD^'^nis pa di>ew 
ly-iyn ü5$t o^: tsyi^ ny r^n ,|y3J^;iJn5<n yroor: p« ^n ors 
-jy5> ^ tinx pi^-D^ui» lyn üyn tD^i^yi ; üss-ip-ö^m» o>o 
-0'':55^3n lyiniynnE pn t^n ly^ötssi^i» nyn^n e^^v lyiya 
IV lyiiy: t^« di5»d^v nyi 3^1« ,nyriy"i^i i^^s« -lyii? di^d nyD>^ 
lyD^^n")» pö D^f'si^f nyn n^^N "ii#: o^: üiyn toD^KOKi .OMii 
lyöm^üD i^^2K Diy^i ly n^jt: ,y^vpni^i3 ps rniv oyn p» 
T8 ,t:D^öi^:i^py nyi üj^^d iy^5$3 yD^iyr^? p« .Di^sstjt i» tD^o 
"nrs Ml pN i^?ii„ ,iypiyD83 p» lypip^vot^j P^k t"? tD^a dh^k 
yDi^i^Dns 18 pi^-ü^^m» pD ::nyDyn lyi ^»3 ii;?E) üoip Dir 
*iyüi^i^Dn5< IS ^^3 PK ,"iyt:^^3i8 ^^i^v ^yi ps ajnyoy-inötD 
D'r.2 jjnyjy^pii?2 {? — iyö^^3-i«i ^i^v lyn ps a:nyDyin8Q 
y3^^Dnj^-pn 5< ^t^J "W idpip ny3i^ Tnox nyi p« ,pi^-:3>''3-i»5 
-pns^nB pö miv lyD'iiy: p^« p,ö Pi{§rD-ü^^3"i8 d':i2 aji^pöti^ 
-net n iy^>^D:^^« iis iy3:ir^tJ^iy n "ni;?: tm^3 dpip ny ; y^v 
y3^yii PN lyr^np yjyi^^tJ'isD n ly^Miv 3jnyp^yDj^3-"iyD>^3 
-oyDiyn»3 n ps 3^::ynöj^ .Di^^^y^rns üiyii ^fe?D^3öJP "lyn 

•in lynyiDy V2^v^'\ ,\vt:i'^v^ d':iö ly^^ 
pD jyii^nys n p« üpm ^^onei-inyTyn y^ynoonr« n 
nyii^i:P8 lyn pimn i^uy^s^ix ly^yü^o p£3 p« ij^ft^t^'^yü^D 
D'rK iy::'nyii^D yin^x d-'iv pK D^j§n px '^o-ife$nyö^^3nK 
-"1^2 n .iy3n3DMt< ytj'^tDnp ti« y^vpni^na-iys^N P2 li^'iVB 
n^ix »n^iiJ^ "lyn "lysnyi t-N 3:nyp^y2ö:3"iy3^N yrDyoD>:tD^y.n 
ps dj?3:j^ p« aynD3i^3 i^ö rytya D^^^ y\ ü:yTi83 oy [ys^yii 
,iyv^:yia ü^d ryty^ Dyi p£ :3ipini n üpjy"iK^83 n .tD^^3n8 
-Dpy ^i^: Dti'-in cyi d^o 3:fc>'^pr>N pK di^i^d38 ty:>n ys^yii 
•P8"i83 ys^yii .Dß^itJ^iyn w 3:nyit:K^ nyi ü^d pn y^vsc^i^s 

.^Nto^BNP cyT piNDC' nr» lynnnytD 
PQ oyr^K IV lynnyppniv ^n ly^i^r n^o ,rN^Q lyn t^n i;)n 
-i^^ .p^t5y:i?^i^Dfe> iy;i'^oJ?:i?py nyn ps ly^^iNiüSM« yonia n 
•yar^« lyiyit oy d>^ii .oyi p:»i n 3mk t» ,|y:i^oiyn "nn i^o 



Di# DMK MtK t:y:{^^{^s5<-DD^Di^ji^py nyi ü^o^'ü ,iyin:yüi7 
"D^nLsa« ]i« rj^o^ESp oyi "Dirm^^D,, oi^n ,y^vs-iyEi# n 

anynya n^ n^D lyji^p üv^k öK^ny .lytD^uiK n "ii?2 ^tüD^a»? 
lyiyii oy .üy3i?5>{?5S d'jiq ü^ipooyK'-iKDoiK n lyvsirDi;? 
vny^^t "^M« nj?3 ,"iyD^^m» n li?: do "ö""i25<3„ i'noK nyi px 
":t^P lyT iviyi 1^« .nnn yrnyo^^^i n j^« iv^v^oi^^^vü'^ 
W^ ,ini?iiya D3nnn"i«D iy^i:y"i d^j^^i dj^ii ,"iyD^^n"i{§ tDjy:rD 
-5» "in^K n^i« üiyDy-insQ "qeis::^^« -^n tD^i;?Ti ^jioyjiyDJiK >t 
•iji^yj "D^nD»3„ tov^N lyj^n "lytD^^nii? y^» n dj^ .Dnb:^ lyo 
Ii?p »riDyD pn IV üsy-iüK' di^ii »'^^{o^bsp ly^^j nyiy^ px .ivi 
•^yo^^m» n tDi^ «pn lyn^viv ny nyii ^v .|yv^:sn >n d^o ^n 
»j^iK ;y-i53Di^3 ny:>*Dya^8 nyn oyii or*»« r^» ,yiyiJ» lyi^ 
iy>^: nyi i^^n^i »ly-iyn tDiyijyya d^j ijjjn » n>i« d-i^dis 
MT8 pD t^i^n p"i8o Dyi ly^ns^n iv n:»üiJ^o>« t^n ^^c^bj^p 
-yasMi» Dn^K n^N jy^i^n oy^ßs^üto n ^y^BMi ,iyD>^mj$ ^y^D 
•"31» ^^'i viv:v'pp 8 IV on^v ^»d^böip "lyi a^x .|yBii;?n 
1$ 0"2-)8 tD^a "ly 3n« ; yriyn^K n pD ^i^v n iddpsii pyta 
*i^i« ayiDDijiJ iy:^^Dy:^8 "lyi üdpsii ,iyD>^n"i5$ ^i^v lynyDy-ia 
^jn lyK^'iiv y:y"iyDn nyi "n^^^a t>« dj;?ii ,5»^^^ 8 ^n« D^^ms 
IDi« »T8 «^MK .nyo^u"!» yü3>nn-)8s: p« "yö^n£»n„ ^i^v 
n Di^ii ,tD^^ni8 ^^^« ayiBDi?: oyn i^b 3:nyDym»3 n Diyii 
-DMi» \:^:^pv^ |yD5>fc?ii .rs^-B 8 lyan ys^yii ,|y^8to^B8p y>o 
n ^y^B'11 «^^iK ,*^"iy oyi i^k D"in^^8"iD^^i o^sBjiy* ,\v^'\') 
DM18 iyB"i8ii DyrK^8D n di^ii ,iyü^^n-i8 n id>o öpy-ry: oiyn. 

-D^^8lD'»B8P "lyi pD DT^J8DyO lyn T8 »Or^D Ül^l .083 l'snK 

yoi^i^Dn» n t8 ,üvi nsB pitJ' ^n Da-iJ^tr y^vpni;?n3 ny^j^^D 
•jn:"i8B p^p lyanom» d^j ^i?t ^»o^b^p d':ib ::nyDyin8D 
Din öi? px .iD^m» n^K 3y-iD3i;|i: Dyj^^oya^» 18 PD a^nyo 
PD ö^^poni? nyi 183 "a^ia^ö^iisD« ii? oya{^^j^B8 nyi übh 
"un 180 p8 tyi^^^ yny^M 185 ,iyö'^3i8 y:yDMoe^y2D>n8 n 



157 Jii'jDtjT:^ lyyvjD^T^B^SKp ]is*ryTyj D^n 

ny?i/ntDDn:^K lyn pD lyn^n n px DMii« ^>r iyD-ii?ii yD^yn 
,y3^yTDJ^"i D^: t^k o^^nst ^m« :yi£DJ>*: lyi .'•^a^.ei-inyiyn 
f« ü^^m» pD c:i?3:i? nyi px »5>ö:D>2fc5P pQ dpinii "lyn dj^j^ 
TK ^iT» ,Di?^P""iyü^^3i8 D'JiD DpiNii lyi Di^ii ^yn^yTDi^n o^j 
-Bi^DiK ^Miv p.Q :Jip-iMi yrD^n:yjy3 p^p o^: i>d jyni^n i^t 
lyi .yDi^^yDya lyr^t "^y^nr^r^y^stj^ n -lyD^yip yr::yn 
t"« PD DM« .lyo^n yi^u ^mn j^d^^v^^^n \:}P^^\\ '?^d'b^:> 
,D>^3ij§ nn« :yn23i?: oyi 3:i^t:iitTii? pn DiyDynnjüD ö^n 
nyt:>>n"iiii PS üH^^^ DVT tD^n lyn:» nyn pa n öiyDynnsa 
yürtDDyK^5$n-tD^j n pa pm nyi pK ^''jjiK^na»^;, ly^n "qm 
•^VD^n» ytorDcyu'sn n tD^^v nyn^ynyi p« üiriiv lyo^^nn» 
Dyi i2iN fe?i» piMK t:3»o PK D^^n-ii? D13D lynyoyij i? \v2v: 
üvi pa i{§n:i lyDMiya » V2 :>;:yr:2i#»DiK D^^ni» pa dj;J3:{^ 
iDDöio ,iiD^ Dyi Pi^K Ci^ "in ;n:y:yiisn .nyo^^mj^ pa ü^2:^ 
"Dyi nyi ^lanss ü^^m» i^a üi^i:^ px :yna3J^: pa vv:v: oi^i 
lyD^^m» n lyii t^« »nynnyn px .^'iiiD^asp D':ia dt^dj^b 
Di^ii T8§ ,iayiü ^^ifiPV^i m^ DV nr» ^^i »tid cyi ^mx lypyi 
PK Diüs^n |yiDyia lya^ti' ^n '^nv'2 ü^)) ,iytD^^ai» ^^t -inyo 
,t:^^a"iK "ly^^T pa dskip yivDpni^ia n ddpj^ii oy inyrD dj^^ 
D^K y^vpjia ny^n i^^ax ^n n^a üiyn nyDno^N "iny^D r^» 
-»Dy:j ^n lyn ; ^Kta^SKP pa ^^nyDy-inKaDDn^yt "lyi pa ^yo^a 
-j^« T^K p^^»» ^n lyti'M'iv nyn'ip:i^P pa ik"i3 "lyi tk »d^n \vi 
"lyn^K "iy2^Dy»:D^:tD^yn-iKa lyi pa pm n'^ia :>::ynai>* iyv:j<: 
DJJ^^:rn^no i"in -lynnyi ^n lyo^^^a ^n lyii ; ::nyp^yaK3 
pa n iyti^'11^ y>vK^ys^i!^i{p yrDyo:K^a |y"in^:Kni;?i iv j .i .k 
,ürtDayir»n ü>: {yrn D.7/ n px ür^aytj'sn jy^^n di^ii >n 
Dyi i:?^ pa lyü^c^'ny") n lyrt^ii^i'a^* nyii;? tyü^^jnfcija iv hd 
Di^tii ^yvpnj^iiD -iytj^^üD^^5<o>ay!P "lyi pa ryry: lyD^^i^L^s:: 
PK üD^^'Kü^sKp lyT üD5<o DD^i#DK"i-~,D^*>p ly^n ts-i^rxn 
Dnn 5'ni |yo tk ,i^kii: » ,y>^^^:»^py y^r^ü'^i^B n ,^:in t^n 
-:i^ PK ayiaat^: pa ryiya "y:>5^M^ m "y:i^3^^K. oi^i lya^o 



'?>Jt3'B»P C^t 158 

-■•^T ,nyn^ tD>M lyi:« lyn ps .rvry:i ayi ps ar.p-i^ii "lyw?' 
-yoK^ (.n .V Dy^ji^^i^p n pN) ly-uy^tj^Di« ya^DOj^rD"»: i^fe^i 
PK »>Dns-inyTy-i y^yntDon^^N i^ lyi^'-'nD^iK ^n ^t^tr oy ,|yn 
-*^3is Dyi pD tD"p::i>jyn£j^ yD^^j^on» n tD^Diyi lyosrvi 
PK ^SD^BSP nyi Diyii jytoD^^^t^^ö^p d^^p oyn pa D»^p")yD 
-ijiji^py y65'>iD>^j!^B n) KtJ'D3»B-i^trt::5i;D iy3>^Dy^Diyan« pv 
-ji^ p« :ynB3i?: pa rvm "|y:>^'^i„ Tsn« üDfe$"^,ny:E;nN (y^^ 
-Jisnsf ^in DH''« lyayp ?in w^'pvr] iv ^n iyD>^>a >n p« dj^h 

p« tDi^oDnpy ajnyp^yDjjtnyn^K ya^oyDo^^tD^ynifeUD n 
^lyü^^Difc? nyny^ tDnyny: in"»« 1^f .lyajn^D^tJ' yD^^:iy^ ^^^ly^y: 
t^^p nj^3 t3t?n iy "lyni^ ,T^m^»^D ii^i Drtocytj^^jn r^{< ny idt 3d 
yD^y^^ ,iyo-!J?a yoma n D>n » ji^ i>>o lytJ^^ .::>: D^^m^? 
-e^D yüyi^^c^i^a >-[ DJ^ii jyoii^Q n »tj^n^nys lyn^x "^n i'irn 
-^yDSiriyi^N nyn ix lyn-'a ^p>x ly^ynDonj"»« Dyi ps [yoM 
pD ü>^v nyi pN ^11 ,^1^^ -^nv^ ^j^o^ t^k n t{§ ^n» ,:!:nyp 
-i>D lyn ,o>^v ly^^Dt^' "lyn p5< ^ii ,^^:^i'2 '?^^^ px ^onnp ^ 
yrniyiDtJ^ ^m n>D lyoip^^n ,D>n fe? jj^ lyoij^ö n ü^ w^t^i'? 
-liSD 8 »yüyoOc » : a:nyp^y2^r-iyn"'i< fiD w^^^^ 
.Vi''*'^:vr]vt2\^ »PK y j y 5» ^ -i ,"T 
n PN — yntDDni^K ny^ny-it^ö nyi iid lyiDjyx n pK 
fynyii — .3 .i .« oyost^ti' jy^nyo^j ,iymüpfci;Di:»o ,|ypn2fej:a 
yiyoyia pK fyanvya^v ^>>*^{$ ,|yD^iiot^y;s}^ H*üfe? lyts^'^n-i» n 
ns yrt^cytj^ss n pd ^j^v n Diyn nyi pjxi t< p.« ; |y^}5{^f 
-jy^Kö 8 r>8 t^N D3n ^Diyoyin^s ^sn-^o |yDvy> px nyo^^n 
-pns^iB "»yi pB sfcJD'^'DKo i'o^o ^^^^nfe?B px y'vifc>*Bi^na nyn 



.yonijiö 
jyDSütnöiii yo^na y^»» px >^d p.« lypnnsiD n p« ^^d 
-Drjy^i T^K Dy iKii nyii^ ,Dy:^:i'^o ODMi^yj ly-iyn oy ik^i 
-«3 ,0^^318 nyi pa :ji^^^tD^v yjiy-it^o ^ D-in^ey;ij^^K d:vü 
—lyD^.sj's ^-lyD^uis V2^'?:iVD y2^^i:yr.> ^i<iv yD>n:i t<; ^n onyi 
ny:^^^p 8 ii<!3 nt^j orsy: ,:nny^-^iD iy-iyii >n lyii ."qy^::^K 
; y^vpni^ns ps jyrMiv yjmynna n i^x D^^m» ^n pö 5>^^d 
-18 lyi p.D 2i^ "n^^inyiiya \v^ d^j^t ^^r p.a ^^^d lyoDy-ii oyn 
-ynnyn^K nyro^^'D p.a ^^vüv'^v 8I8 on« lyip^n ^n .d^^d 
"DnrN nyi p£ dpi«ii i'd^d ^^r DiyDym^r di^ii ,;:nyp^yQ 
'^J^J ünya — ^^^ü:yr^« .n .i »D^inr^oy ^n pD ^>^d 8 .yi^ 
-^nyi n oj^ p£3 nyr*'« .Dnnrcy oi^n dj>*i"i ,^8d^28P Tdj^j 
pK ::nyp^y28n ny^^^a^ni nyn pa dpiki^ nyi — t>k lyc^D 
|y:yn ii^p pciyi ^y^sc'^^n d^» ."iyD^^:yD nyi d>o ^^^>n82 
ü^)) ,nvi PK ünyD'^'^n '\v::'?V)'\ ,'nnE'^nyiMi nyi ."iJ8^::y 
t::nn2?j?3 yD8D"iy*ü>ui8 lyr P2 dpikiiiv ly^^^n^a^: lyn 
ny Dan ^^'SD^siüP p2 2:i^08t:i^ lyi p.s iy5j'^:yDiyn8n n d^^ 
t^K ,iy6j'^jyDny-i83 n üj^ nynns to^-'V nyra^ynyi p« ür^DB' 
1^-} .^8t:^58P D':i2 ::i3yii8n Dvy lyi ps 'rnsiJ'iy'T'ii 8 
yiy^y^P 8 px ny^^^an» y::r ^f>*v y-iyoy-i;) « rt^n: i^x nn^x 
-■•nK^ nnyo t^onj^: t^x •^ns^^nyiM^ nyn oi^ .y:yDp8iny-i ^i^v 
TD üi^'i) ,DyT px ünyotj'sn nya^yu ,nyD^M^,v 8 mi rn:y 
üjyn-t5^^n-i8 pK ^yjj^o 8 «n^",« "^n i2aj^^P83 lyo ^n ly-iyn 
-yjDn-18 lyiyii nyt^^^^i» yi:yTnt3 lyit ,ü>^v "lyrn^yt-iyn pK 
tD^^niK "lyi pD ::i^^^tD^v n Di^i^ ,"i8QiyT d^: Tsm« iyQii>*ii 
-pni^is p2 m-iV lyDD^tDtJ^yn p^« iv r^i^n inaisyaiv ^n toi^n 
^iT8 t::yn-t:^^m8 n dmn ^»tD^E^tP nyn üvi: DynyonK .y^v 
ly■^^^^> y^yü>D yj^^i p« pi:^' toiy^i -lyD^^Dis -lyi r» ,^v^^ 
pD lyn^n n i^k pn» ts^^a "iy ."^^iik^ "iyj^:yTt nyii^ nnyo 
"lynyDyn 8 ps üpniyjEi^n» tDiyi^ ny nyii;? /'yrnyn^x,, n 
lyD^na nyi P2 lyto^^Diöt n i»Nt-i3 .y-iyany-i>: 8 n^iK vz^o\^ 
,^^ .m .ynyi:« mi lya^ayn ly^y^ ,dm-i8 Vf üt^mi »y^vpnijfiB 



^»o«a»p D<jn 160 

Dyi |iD i:y5»-D:yay^ yD^^üucj'DTn n r^« i:ii#D5J^ lyn p« t» 

— Ds^P"iyü>^n*is cyi po iin ,nni^> 38 dk^p lyD^^jyoibtQ 
-Djyny^ yD>^D>:t^D"in n t^n ^^siyiv^ px .nni#> 17 t^i^a 

— lyü^Miv Dyn n^D px ,injji^ 35 djh^p jyDtj'iy Dyn nsja :jy^ 
-yn^iKD ytJ^^j^Dn» n unfein lyijyütj^ci« yD^yr» p« .nni^^ 15 
-liiD y:>lT» ^u lyo^pii^ö üöinöitDy^i^nB po ^^^d Dyi ps ::nyD 
"•♦n p2 ajwi:iBi# "iyf»yjtj' nyi pi>in injypip tD^j dj^ii ^lyijiij^i 
PE"iyi ,^i?v p« DnyDyi:ifc5D ^t^i ny D-iyn »lyDjyoy^y yj 
nnn n pD ::^N>^:{$n ^v'?V2^ ^ PD tj'^jyDiyisa n "^n Doyj 
yiyijs n "ifc^s dm« ü^: to^^ün yvw: V2'?v^ üi^i) .nyü^''nn» Pd 
nynsn yD^^üDj^tJ^^yiyi n üi^ (jjnyp^ycj^n nyi pQ iyD»5>p 
-^yii ,ni3inn ynno ^m tD:nnDfc§n toiy^i nnn y^^: p« K^^:yD 
yD^yii PN ,iy3:i2Jn5§3 n ps üi^tD^nyi lyrto^^j » iy:3>n ys 
Tm PN ,y^vpn{^"i3 lyD^n: "lyi pd nyD^m» n lyny^» oy 
-'»i5>»n nyn ,t:^y^i nyn tinx iy-irp iy:ijy"in 15$3 i:i:>i^Nn nyn 
w nyirp n ny^yesj^ ü^^pD^^^yo nyi p« ünytD^^n ü^)) ::): 

.|yi^ü8i53Dpy 
•nis^ n Dnj? toDy: y^vpnj^ns yK^^tDD^^i?D^S55P n li^: mi 
tsny^i ,011» n üoyj n ^'y^sm t)>i« -^ny cyi i>n p« ,ö2»tj^tDiMi 
iKD 3jnyp5'y28nnyto'^ni8 lyt^'^Q-iJ^i nyn ^mn :yisDi^j nyi 
-i^^vp:iö Dijn ,^Nt:^Bii!P ps :ji^D»T:i? nyi iv ^y^^ijus ^'^v:iV'?? 
PD a:iDMiDirBiit n ; o^ny: cyi n^N iJ^öy:rn» t^n ü^)) ,ü"\^: 
D^j ,iDi*D:yBoi?p D^j t^i t:i'^v'\^ i:'\'^vp'?vti^2 lyK^^Dii^i iyi 
pK oy lysyiD i^d mi ,::in^viv lyiyDyu » Tin tD^^Dy^D^x 
^^^0 » t^K lynnyi .y^vpni^iQ iy3^^DB{?tj^t5"innjbt^-ü^: "lyi 
pK tny:iv"iy3^« is^nyn :^i:v^^ ::'\^vP^vti^:i nysy^anj^T lyn pa 
•»ey^i^ia ly^ynöonr« lyni^ ly^j'^tDiJ^OK' d'jid ]vr]''>^ n 
nsB roDra lyrn D^?11 ,iy::i3Jn83 ^i^« 015511 ny pN üfc?n 
^811P in ÜJJI ÜD^^D IDIN t$T8 tiMN jiis:iy3^N »t» 

o^^prnoyiDr ^n lyai? ,ri:3yüii' :iiiiyp5yö»3-iyn^« pö 
,^^^tD:y:"K '^tn töt^MiKS tsiytDK' n iv di^div pn pD 
^Hyp^syet^n-iyn^K y^y^^^nit^s 8 oi"»DDnpy «di: tiii^i p« t8 



"TD D^u rnjytDty nyiD>>n"i8 iv^^anii^n Dvn pD tDDiynnsa in 

PD ]!0i^'?2 in pK DID p^K O^D t'i^Dy^'S DHyDK' ly PK ,n)ü 

..."»ny^'Dya 
-nyn^N "iy:^DyDD>:D^yi-n82 in pa yni^;ytDKP ycm n 
-■•DPöt lyi p& ^i^^ü » D^iN DDöiD ,y:n:ynyü:5^ n ,3:nyp^yö83 
-yi tD^j inyi t>« jjirosy^f'^a in^x li^j ,>^Di8"iyD^^3"i8 lyn 
-i^gyt^^DMKDiN 18 ^8ü^B8P Dyi IV "lyanyi D^yDtJ» m .ly^u 
iy::ujnfc?3-D:yDy^ yin^« .üSöiip-D^^nis ly^nD pD ivik jya 
pn iy5Ji::n{§n y^^oii^: yD^^ü^^u'Din n >ii ,iy:nyi^: \vn)tü\:^ 
-"»n2 8 182 n DD80 i>?i: DSjii PK ,D8^P*iyD^ui8 D':iD ly^y^ 
iyi 18D .y^v8t:8i^2Dpy ps |y:>^^iv y^y^vysD 18D onsa lyo 
D^^VD^ui» PD Dio^DPSD 8 {^•^DDnyDP818^ T>K ynj^jyDSP 
-D3Mn in^K o^D Djypsn ^n jy^j^n i^d .pi^ pa dio>:^d 8 px 
-yi tDiy^i n ."y>iDDnrN-pin„ ps pnan iyi lyo^iN yoiijiD 
-j^K lyoMi: iyi \)d lyo^^^is y:nyn'ts' n ps 1103 oi^onp 
-^>ni8 n tiD Diyi:iT8D PK /üD^srDinn:»^' iyi pK ynoon 
-lyD^iK PK lyis^^n v^^v^^ ,iyr^iw y^ynoonj^K n pa lyo 
-■iJKQ iyi ^in ü3yMK3 oiyn o^^niK-o^Kn n v^^v'i'i pK ,inya 
n .y^vpni^i3-|yrrKo iyi ^m iiDP^aoKD n iik ,iitDPKD 
ö'D Ml ,Dyi ü^D iy28PV 0DP811 yni^iyDKP iyi Dt^ pa oma 
r^K ÜDP8M :3i^D8r:i? iyi pa y^:iy:y iyi ü^o pk dmu lyi 
lyn^ynyi pK .lyo^uiK "yriyn^K^ pa a^n^^noMK n inyo 
.D85'p"iyö'^ni8 D':'ia \:i:vvv'pv ktk dmk n ddko lyat;^ d^'» 
IK ; p^^K "n^T Dra^^KiKa pk p^^k ^n Di^vnt^iayi D«i^n 
D'rK ^^^d:k iiyoyij k royco^^tD^yniKa Doy: dj^m ^tD^yoy^y 
yiyi:« y^K mi ,DK^p-iyD^uiK d'jid dpikukiv Dyj'^Dyj^« 
pK lyün^ya pa ^ni^v n it$: 0^3 : ]'noK iyi pK .lyojyoy^jr 
iy:"T Dy^p^DKa n pa onu yn^i^D2K n ^mk li^j ,|y^Ka-DMD 
.n .1 ,p"i^-D>^niK ü'Jia ^mh m ly ^yji^^vii^ai^ia DiypiKO 
oyni^jyD^P y:yi>^65'iKa oi^ii .jy^ö^o'ojyny^ t^a dod irt 
■^yt^*oo^^KD*B»P iyi pa TV^vi djj^i ö^ •i^Jt^'^w 'r^^^Tm 



Mi 



'7»QtB|$P 0^1 162 

vöin^^Mvv IV i^^D« iy-it^ lyii'jyD yi^ni ^v |yDfe$3iv o^i^nyj 
m 3:nnyQnfc?D-iyDfc<D "lyi |k tj^n üji^oiyn ny .lyDD^ji^^i^? 
■^«ntr ^yn^^vi:^K lym dj^i^ »ivc'^jysy&j'ftüi yanyny^ d^j^d n 

-'DyDD^rj^ynisa lyi pD dd^*^ ytDonyi^j n i^^ijy px 
.-tnysixs ps T^np d'j^k ^n D:>öy:i a^nyp^ysfcjnnyn^« lya 
-"•oDi^-13 PK ly^yisni^D ,iysy^K^ n ö^n 8 |i# lyti?^ i^d |yii 
j'noK oyi t>x ü«:''n»Dy^i55-is-iysoi^ fräftsa Dyi ,np ,DypDiD 
^m DDfe<ij'^yTy: lyi p5 DD^tj' nyi p« n>D tyni^i ,tD"iJ?ii ps pr 
3^:y3 T^K oy .yrnya-ü^^mj? n — D^ytoK'iy .Dyni#:yt:8p 
-•^a:y oyn i^ö p^dd^dj^dd n |ypip^V3in i^^'Dy^Qiyan« ii^i 
o*>^yoni# P2 ^ii^v n t8 ,|ypiyD{?3 iy na ,DrnyöiK3 \v^ 
''V^:> PK Dnnp lyiy^ ^>n nyoyia onyii npiv w |i^ lynip Di^ii 
— DiyD^M^v .y>vpni?-i5 nyi px ::uy^snK '^viv ^^n iy: 
Di^n .npiv IV IJ^ lyoip dj^^i ,n ps iy-i:>p n p« D^Din^ n 
PK ; ^^DiK-inyty"! "w^yntDon^^K nyi n{$Q iyDK"in:5§p lyrn 
.D .V >)\ ^ajiKiiK^öMK iy^ynDDn:^K lyo^na j? pa lyit^nya n 
pö iyn»n n pK r^>ii3yD»D lya^K ^v:^ >v lynyj ,1861 pK 
nn^^KiJ^Dyn n — D^yom .'»^DiK-iyD^niK iyirt:pK iyi 
jyi^n Di;?! .D^^m» iv yrnys-t3^3 iyv:{<;:^K »yDoni^iSD ,yö 
oi^ii ,-iKDiy"! nyD:iK lynya yD^yii ,|y:{#nys n "^^^syrDann 
-83 D-iyii Dt?n ,y;K^ ny^^j nyi iv lyossiv d^: -^n tyit^p ^n 
lyöyniD D8?ii ,>n ; d^^iik nyi pD :i:i^^^oiv lyn P^sn 5$ ]v^^^ 
nyö^^niK D'jia 3iy^ lyi jis ry:)y"i: iy^{<i»ii^: oyi lynn» 
oifi'j ,yniDDn3^K nyi pa ni^snp n "^-iik lynyny: lyrnj? ; lyay^ 
pa a:n:yii:ii5 nyo^nn "lyn ü^d nyDyna r^»» tDiyn ^{<iv ly^v 
n ;.a .i .k lypnnsa v^''r:iV^ ,m\'^: ,üv:'>^^ü yD^^nnyaya 
IK T^K DtnyaiKB nyi a) .k .k ,niJo5'K ,vp:^'^p ,Dyp>5»p 
-83 8 PK ^^DiKnnyryi lyivtDpK nyi i8a T^in-iyi^^8^irK 
.'»^D-)8"inyry"i ny^ynoon^K nyi "i8e ksj'd y-iyi'iK' 8 ,tDD8^ 
-3^3D^iK lyi pa raaynsji? vh DTnyai83 D'aia a:n^uD^iK n 
-ro''^3 ^1 ; a3i"^yp^y585*5y3^K ■^yrDy*:DOü3yn*)8s *iy"i pa ajii 



"py nyn ni?2 3:^ajn8n yro^i: s nrnya^fco lyi vh yjMv^'py:^ 
•o:öt lyn it^D P« y^vpn>^-)s nyK^^DO^J'üiD^BSP nyn pD nyDDu 
niK^^in yivDpni^iBD^K n iv D-wnv: iy .DiD3''n pD Jii^'p'u 
jj^P ^öiü^E»p lyi Di^ii ,y^vpni^"is iy2^>üD^^»ü^B8P nyn pD 
Dyn PD oyv^^^ö n n^i« lyBn^^^B^nöt ^^^ü lycona r^K ''li^i 
j/nsiK^nn "lyr^^p nn pe hx os^'pnyü^^anK 
in »DiüD^n "iyD^5'ü£SK^^yty: nyn t^k oy lyona Di;^ii 
; DPiK^i pn pD V'i^v:v PK D>n3 n ,^i5t3>s8P "lyoay^yarnK 
'^'^B D':^2 D^n3 yDi^i^Dzs n r^« oy ,Dy dd^^h »lyona Di^n 
*y"i: r^s ^ü^^m» pn pd ddkip yiri:pnt?is n p« 08n»üy> 
,|yDfe?m« yn^yrn .'»^Di^-inyin y^ynöonr« n t^k lyo 
.5»i?tD^B»P D'jiB ::iD^nnD^it< nyn pD üdsip n |y^p>iio:8 Di^n 
•lyn^^n t^iötn oy dj^ii ,ü-:»np-tD^ui8 y^no n 'n>i« ly^pmo:» 
nnyiyi ny^ynDonr« nyi pB D^n: yroyso^jo^yni^D n 
n ]vo?^\\ üv ^^^ ,DyT ü''0 ^y^t<"ifci:B lynnyn üDPi?r. ^^di» 
-yn n tDi^ t>« oy lyoyi: ot^^i lyni? .DiüD^n p.D lyosrip 
,^^Dnt§ lyD^^ni» lyivDPbf nn d^d "q^^^n^s^D pK ^^on^nny? 
Dyoyr. ,3:nyp^y2»n yrnyn^t^ yn^yo*^ n t>k lyo^n^ r5>8 
jyD^inyöiüD n ü'd y^v"ii^Ei;?"iB nyoiypiKB ^ p« t^k ü^^p^snijt 
n lym cy nyoyn: üi^^^ ,v^''>2V p« »o^unj? p^r pB p^B p» 
•yn y^ynt:Dn:>K n px Dt^^pnyü^^möt d':i2 lycD^tj^ny^eya 
^ .DtnyB^SB "ly^y^VBfc^ nyn t>« nyoyia r^s ,^^D"i»inyt 
y:'^Dya^8 yo^^t^on» oi^i t'K oj|i 
-:i? nyc^^üDObtö^BKp nyi pa rjrTjfi 
-ni;Q nyi ^^n oy onyn ^lyvyty: y-iyn:» y*?» Mi j : i ^ d k r 
»lyijyDK'Di« yDD3^t:ni?jyi^^:^nKB i*in üiyi^yya ::o>^pnni 

•D^DDn n PB' ^ny'mtDtJ' n ^•^yD:^'■^sQ t:^^^^ i^r^b' li^p lyo 
-IV lyEiöti ^n t» ,nyD^^n-ib' n lyjnya v^^v^'i ,|yoD>ci^:^^py 
-ji# pK ^{<D^BSP D':iD iyiJ'^:Dnyiei3 n iv f'j^v ny^v lyo^o 
y>vpni^iB ly^j'^üD^f'Sü^BBip ivi Iid Di'JKDyo "lyi .lyopsii 



-iv nyi Di^ pD D'it^ii vü^iv üi^i .i]/DpKii:i^ p« lytj^^jDiyi 
-^yssn-iyn^K y:^DyöDotD^ymeiD lyssK^ p« cnyDti'sa ^jidjjö 
yDvy^ Dj^T PN ,>^Di{i-inyTyi y^ynDonr« |8 px j^nyp 
lyn pD Iyü3>t5' y-iy^^na n«; pö o^^pd>"ii^ n — r>N oni^^i 
.DTnyDiND D':iD nk^d yiyTic^ n px ^^r>"i8"iyü^>3-ii$ "nyirüp» 
n pD vo^ü ynjyDPfcüii rf»» n lyD^yii ü^^^ ^yv^v: üi^i 
-y: lyn pD ;:i^p^^id:8 nyi pjj^i s ,\i^p |y^ö^o-D:i#>vpn«#i3 
$< D-iD :i:ijyii8n px [ynyii Dstinsya ^D^^nii? iy3^^DD5>*tJ^^yr 
iDi^ — ,D3ii<ip -lys^^K'jyD pD tDD^^nj^D i'^v^v'?? pN pyjy^p p-i 
»DMöin iyK^>DD^^fe?D>ssP DyT nn« d^in -^n Dpm ryty:! dj^t 
■ys n liji: ,r^vy; n "^n iv iv öd^üs lyD^m» lyi d>j inii 
Di?ii : |y-i:y:^i^D p« — ,nytD^m5$ n ^n iy iv lyoss a>^^^ 
"yia y^s .D^^ms nyi pd üs^ip yivDpni^-iö n t^n oy nysyn 
"iy>M pD ly^D^D n ti>iN lyD^^an» n pa pm lyi r^t? nyo 
ya^üMj n r^« ,Di^i dd^^h ,nyD>T iyi^:yii r^j? ,jJirD£yK^5§3 
-yr^« ly^n Pd n^ipnj^s nyi -~ nytDonpy ny^n ps :ji::n»n 
-y: IV ^^^« ,D^t53^n noyiD iynyDyi:n5$D iv ^im« t:£^np iy: 
»TS nn« ."qv pyDymsD iv ö^^pD^^^yo j^ ^5$tD^s{§P nyi |y:2 
iy^t3^D-D3i#>vpni^"iB n PD Dp^Nii iy"! tonypisa Doipj^n idik 
ii?D DDP lys^yii ,tD^^m8 nyi p2 toytD^ivDpnj^ns nyi pa p« 
8 ,:inyp^yD»n lyirDpnt^is ivi pa dp^nii nyi mi .ly^yjtj» 
■^y£snnyD>^3"i« n dj^i^ ,Dy"i p« pmo^ix ly^i-'^DD^^sD^ssp 
-«P D':^a ir^:Qny-i8n n '^i »ny^yjiy an:yt::^ üdpsii ijnyp 

nyn pa r^^»:» d^^d i^d iy2i?n ;:i^>^tDSi? nytsnya nn px 
»inyty; üiyiinnyD lyroynD^Jo^yn-iöia ayi pa y^vpnj^^ia 
-yD y^i$ ^n ly^pMiüj» DytDo^D iytt'^t3D>^5<t3>3t?P *iyT ^'•n ts 
pa üasip-Dii^'-vpni^ia V3'''?ü^^^^vm n \iv:^vn ha lyn^^D 
.iytD^^n-18 ty^ynnm:^« oyi pa pntrn i'a^ix D^^nis lyn 
]^K tD^yi3S^n«a lynyii y^vpni^is n ly^pniüjs iv ry^D^o y^{< 
;t:3yvni^i5 ayn tyn^üs^^sopy px lyaismytDJiN iv [y^to^D 
If; pa 5'^^D t$ Dn>N pa ty^^t: nyt:^^3nt$ oyi ly^snpisa »n 



165 «l^ttHTJ^ nyy'!5Di'7X!2'B»? ITByyT^JDWt 

"Wi tD^D iys3i§nv ; vti^^^ lyi ^:^ ^ys^nt^ 8 Iid y^^j^n lyi iy 
; ü^^n^^« nn^x sj^ Imn ^n |yoy: ,ü^^D"ife$ lyi pD D^^pny^its' 
Dyvi^"i3 D'r.D lyt^cynp y:^DD^^: n nytD^^nn» d'jiq 3i^ lyo^n 
-nj52 DCi^tJ^jyDMT n ^y^2^ii ti>^,K ,^y^D nrj^ nni< d^^dis pd 
; üs^np yjniyDK'^i^D ^ d^8 oyv^is oyn oi^ ü^d "qn d:^:>^k 
D01P nyt3>u"ii§ Dyi y^^yi^ ^^3 ,iy:3Ujnfc$n n lynymyv "t 
pD ü^^^ nyi PK lyDJiK Dn^« wt^^m — ^lytD^^m^ iv d^i« 
lys^^Dyn ,iyD>^:>^^p » iyD:it< o^-ian^? "lyi pd oyv^^-is oyi 
p« lyny^ V^^ p^s t:>>^ yvJi?: n ly^n^j^injüD ; Dt^Di^SDyi 
lytDji« "^vi^^P PK MiD pn lyansi^ ;tD>^^ - ü^^ai» 
p£ |yiJ<st3yo y^» lynj^ .>nid''S8p d':i2 -lyiyn n 
lyni^DyiD d^^v lyn^'ytnyi pK iy:>n öiyirinyD lyn^vnj^ns 
,tD-iy^i 3Ji^»25$r:j<i nyi Iid :jitD^nnDMK yny> px ::^^ob*::{^ p2 
Dyn pQ .lyii^DyD n üj^ ty^p^^io:» itf ^yD>D k ,Diyp"iKS 
-■•si^p in It? V^ ü^yöötT Dy 'Ti Dyi en^ t» ,|y;i:my3 r>K 
iyn>^ l^n "»ii ,iyiyii nyny nyD>>mK oyi pd y^fe?^ n tid ,^t$D 
ü>i^ »rytyi dj^t »■q^^'ijy hs* .pi^ pn pn o^: ^j^t oy anyn^j 
-j^K n lyit^ :jnyp^yD^niy3^N y3^Dy>:D'jö^ymj$D n ly^^yii 
D'i^K lyD^j^nynyDJiK rijyLJC' ö^yii ^^D-ij^-inyTy") y^ynoon 
-ji# pD y>:ny:y px D^na lyi d^q tDDM^yr^^'»^^ p2 i^Ktonv 
-••^K »nycDyD ^^tD>3$<p ü'^'i lyo^^met nyi iv Di^ot^' .^ji^dst 
ly'DiyLDyoJ^nD Di^ct^yaiv dj^h ly'DiöoyDyn pD ^vr^^r: -lyi nyi 
,t3^^poni^ PD 3:^^n^TJiii n dmis üdh rytyä ü^i (*.T!^yD d^v 
3j^^Dfc?T:fc? n .5'^D^D^P IiD 3:i^a8T:i^ lyi D^y-iEt:'^:« Di^n 
a:i5'DöiT:i^ n ieik t5TK ^i^^k ^y^ü di^j^d p^k ^^ik DiDD^n po 
--ifcüD ,D^^njyDMiDiK ,t2Dfe<c'üDy:p ps ,p^d pd »»•'••poni^ pd 



]iD 12^; üyn ii;D'\iy; ukh px iy"iKTi;u Dys p« ,D^NyT ^nyayj n 

(.i^Dpttnyn oyn pc ;iJipiyo 



-'>s pn Di^vni^is Di#^^ ,D»^P D'jiD D>n in ^n« ,.n .1 ,di^ 

.^fc$ü^t3ö:p D^8 Dpnj^ns Dy:y) 
-D^5.tj!D>sKP nyi liD lyDp^n^n *^y:^'^t3D^Ji^3KDJ» ^iVi t2^ 
t::ypiy:s lyoii^s yjyi^^si'nsD nyD:i« t^nyii ::i^D{$rji^ nyc^^o 
y3^^:ny on^i? d^o «^m:^!^ lytJ'^D ^n dm ,|yDD^os^*:i^py n iid 
n PD iyj:i:^^Kny y^yi^^irijsD ns3 u:\ii 1^« ^i^i nynt^ 
.y^xpni^na jis d^jsik y^^^^toD^^iiiiD^sijp-iKi: 
ytDDyna n pa ny:^^« »oyoni^ "^»^{^d nyc'^j^^vyjyii lyi 
DDSit3K3 ,tinyn:in-nnt^> iyD-18 d'jid iyt3D^ös^:^*pynya^n5j' 
18 D^8 y^vpni^is "iyK^^DD^^8ü^38P iyi pEs Dt^:^38ü:8 cn 
o^n„ .DitD2^n iy30D2j$:5'>yTy;i pD ryrya iyD^>n^Di$j p^oyi^»» 
Ii^^vsj lyiy^ p« DDDy^K^ ytj^^oi>*:i^py pN ddi3 yK^^D}^:i^py 
pa D^:JL"iy3^fc? lyi ; D3^^>:y:D^^« lyiyiJb' TDin or^x lynyn 
•3^n pK ^y::8o i$ ^i^.*2y^8 t:r^D i^^vk: p^&< ^^n "lyo^Ds^n 
5i?Dy^8 t^« Dy:>^x pQ nn^sj^y yo^n: .ynynjfc? ^^n nyo^D 
tjij i^n lyroni Dy^8 pa jy^nya |yt3^^i^D28 Tü^d lyijm^s 
lyi pa D^t:D>>"i di^t .ynyijyi ^-i^v nyiyDyna b* Tiy isi p« 
tD^^po>ii# nn^« p« ,::nyp^yD«3 "in>x t^Dynaß^tD:» i^^^vöt: 
Dan y:^^K pa D^^prD^>^a n .DitoD^n nn^« t5^y-l25^'DJ8 
^vr^vyinv'? p« yanj;? .yiyij» n pa tnyr:ny^ dj^t dmi» 
.11 .K .K "yi^oyo 11K V2^^i pa DpHt^tna lyro^i: s iyr>T 
-»p^^;:» lyi D3n^ ly'DyDii^ "^^2 Dn» nn?^^ inyv p^^ DyoD 
-»i: 0^8 ö^^poni^ n laiN lyu^^j^v 8 ^in« uyD^sa n^a ny&j'^: 
ns i5f iJSi^v nyD^^DDyn nyi,, .DioD^n nsa :ji::nj<n y:i^D 
n^fci:ii:i D^D ,iyü^^p:nyiv^ yo^n; iv d^d lyumsa t^k o^n 
D^j li^a tD^yütJ' ny::'in nyi lyai^ ; toio tD^o p« tD^t) 
ly ii#: ,pm lya^^-iyna^^NoiK px ly^^öK^ ,|y3>^nna 8 11^3 
-i8^s p« D^^ni» "182 )Vü^ü "lyD^^vo^J d^8 d^i» "qj^: Dan 
üD>>n ,siit D::yn r^8 ."^ji^jy-iDii'jiji yDDpn^Dtj' n D^^proyo 
DD8: ly^n^yDB' 8 -i8a iy:iin oyi |ya8o iv 'ii ,Dyi pa ,üm 
D:ni?t iy'iyD:8D pa :ii:'>ö nyn d^^^ p« ,d8^p nyD'^2-18 C3 
Dpnni Di^^i ,3:nyp^yB83 tis yyty: otr oyi |y;yn piij^ ^n 



^nfe? ^MX :^D3nDMNni^D o^j .n .i) Ji^toDnonxii^D ü'>: isia lyo 
pK ^yay^ üyjyi^t^; » \n^ to^yn nyi nM« lyoip ^n r» ,^y^ö 
,\V^:VD it$"iSD ^{^Dy^fcü lyi^n t:Dj§5i'^yTy3 lyn px ts nt« X^no 
yDornyi^j P« yDorviD^ ,yDDSi'^DS7PtJ' ^i \^ü ly^i^r dj^ii 
oyi PJ^i öt üiyii p^^j ly^^^^jyD pD yö^D n .lyD^ui» 
-yii lyt^'jyD y-'.y^jy-''^« ^yiyto^^P^^yi n ,ü")yDyi3nfc§D >y^s »i^^.x 
^nx iy:i^p ^n nsji: ȟ^uns -lyiyn&j' pD D^ns^n i}<ij t:^: |yi 
ryrya dj^t .a ,i m ^in^a ly^nn ny^n iy:^j^2Di^j DiyDt^'yiQi« 
n pN yu{>*oi«n n jyitDtJ'yi; vi ünynDty t2^^^yDni^ n {y:yn 
Di^Ti ^Dy^D^D Dyi PD ::):i'M^ n p« ynüyoyo n ^D^ipjnyjs^ 
lyi nnx ."o^yn lyi ^mj? iy£8:^*t§3 lyjt^P "iiDb*J n p« oi^a 
-oni^ n D;>3^^«"it$D Dj^n ,^to d'j>k aj^n "^^ji^o ny:^^j«^vyjyn 
-üDnp n PD nyoDMpy nyi nsiiD j:i:^toDyn83 » inyry: ,d>*p 
PN D'D'jpr^^^'^D ,DiyDD^i^p n pD ,iy3:iü3nr>N-npn^ yD^^ 
•nsD D:^Dy: ,iy3^*n n:inn tDO ly^j^i D>n?; n 155 ,:in:!3 oyi pD 
•DM« ii§ ^TD ayi ^^ PN n^: "lyK^^Djfc^DDytDJ^ns nyi d"»^.« D"inyp 
-^iijt nyi yD^yii ü>i^ jyvyry: >t iy;y3 ly^ynDD^n« nsD i^n 
iyD^^DDfc<ii^?yTy: nyD-'^ay^p $$ pimn DDyn k i:snyi üt^n \^d 

.y^^üE' 
üat^r — ,D^DD^n lyD^^DDS&j'^yrya on pD ::^^pmiü:8 n,, 
-^yryj ivi ps d^^p lyn^^^^ij dvt di^ dm^jü tDDn — ^ii^ük' 
•oyn pN yDDanyrj »yöDr^^Mi::^:^ n st^ did Diiit^i .lddkb' 
oyv^^^D yj^n n^N ^^nj^ tDay!5 oj^n ,y'\'\p jyo^mK y^oD^^ 
p« Dycy:y;3tsQiN lyny^ D'r« Ifc?-iiüD ni>»: t^n oy Di^i^ ,r^K 
y^yijj? n i^jd tD^onyi tDiy3>T-i»D px »DD^^ptj^i^D ot^ii ,r'?\i 
yD^^Dy^Dnyn^« I» ji« aJ^D^Dl^' v:i''^;iv'\^ ^ ,o^^v y^no lyoK^p 
:t2ay-iD ^-ii^d^j' ".ii .8 .« nyöp^njüD pD o^^pam^^ (la^DDn) 
-fcüD^Dötp "ly-i PD ü^^p"iyDyn n ünyDK'ytD "n^^toaya^^N üt^i) p« 
-yi ^yi ü^o pN D^'ponj^ "in^N o^d y^Vfcjr^^Mvx nyc'^toD^^ 
? DTn83"iö:s DyT ü^d "i^^^anyD px lyosD n pD yv^ietia 
! to'^piysn p« : lycDay p^k tm^3 DJ^cya ny 



•bSQiSKp Dyi 168 

,DitDD''n D-i^vni^iB D>un« pn D:n n^^j .^nny^ Dyjvj>^« 
3V 3>nya :^:yn nnyr dh^n DD8Dy:i DiDD^n yn^yroj^i ü'?^)\ 
Diü3^n Di^T lyon^n jyiiyj p^^s e^i^ii ny fyn ,tD>ui8 lyn 
D>i .n .1) \v^:v^„ \vü'?i^)^ 3:ii>"'a pn dm^ ."iy3M-ia"i«2 i^ 
|y3:^jyoi?p^i^Dn«D v"?^ pD Dnon lo D;!J^Ty;sj? -n^t (lyD^^ai» 
-Dnj^N n Di^ii ,D:y:^:y:n8Q y^s pa '^n« px ddjip nyi p« 
l'tD^o lys^ip üsni$iy3 üip \vo'?i^)) ^n {yii ,t32fc§K^i»Q ynö 
...lyiD^^ms D':iD D^uii? n >ii ^D^nis lynyi^tj^ j^r» pa. t^ns 
•81 nyn pa D^'^toy^si^ iy:iji:i:ynt::i^ji<i n |yj>n at^D iv üj^^n 
-1^ D^^mj? K^jy» ^yn^yrnyi p« iy:^^N d>^ ; "»n ii$a 3:in> 
Dtjiii ,yp^D ntüanyi ,tDinypn5?a ; si^ "^^:nyn onr. px ütj^iy 
-»Dy"i:i{:?Q ya^^njyaix n ...nyo^^r.^ "lyi to}^n ^D^^ins lyj^^« 
nynnyi ii^p ü^ni^ nyi pa lytDayip yii-'Dpni^ns n pa s^n 
-pi^ pa ::nnyDiii:a n mi toötü^nyn nyi:^ dijij' p^p |y:np ao 
."D^^^ y:3^n ynjynyr^n-»^^ pa D:yr3y:i-ii§a n p« did 
•KID -yn Di^Doyn Dt^i: px ^'»y^ toi^v^^ivi '^>'?i:v p« 
^^3 Ml ü^^P MT^ 01^2 tDvo ny^nDpt^i "lyt^ii^nn lyi — /d 
üV v:i'?V)'i px ,yjy^ ly^^n nia^^o ycn^^ ^i^ : nr«i—,ij^^a s 
^Kii ,y:y^ lyrn mai;?D yD>n n p« ,du p^}^*a oyi -^n t}ay> 

."onj^ tj-.^jny^iyj v^ p>i^a oi^i 

no^^K' 8 lyiiiin di^i^ »lytop^a n lyaj^nn n^D ly^yii ük^wv 

.iviyi 
tD3>n3iyi 1841 i^k tDi^n n:)^^i^x t^a ;:nyp5yD»n n 
V2 iy^fctay:Qfc?-i» n r^x 1851 p« ;r\)^^: 8,222,664 V2 
5% T^n — 1866 PK ; 5,850,309 V2 — 1861 I^K ; 6,623,982 
ajnyjy^pn^a n .1801 pa 5tjiv nn^K r^n "inyay:iDiK ji#*^*o 



-{^?n{<;D nni?^ 20 pa f^n^iSD pK üj^n njs^n^K rs Mr8 ,1846 
Pi2 i-'^VfeinrDy yvj«3 nn^K jjnyppys^n in\^ pD 5/16 |yi 
; m^^'c: 1,591,487 pa lyj^t^D'i^n t^5< 1865 ^^r r^n 1851 ^^o 
*ii inyo i^in^^ay lyoifc^n pD üi^n nni;?> n:^3 y^vy^ n i^d 
lyD yD^yii p« r^vvn n pD ^{?v n .mt^'2J ij^^p^d "ly^^fc^n » 
.52,990 ti^i5< 1861 V2 1851 pi: D^yjyppnjj;3 "^n üJ^n ,d:mxii 
PD nü^ » t3>D DDn$<2 >^!^ n ^n D^^n 1861 tu 1851 pQ 
DöiSD i^.D ^t^v n ; 61,000 si^l« üiyoy-iinsa 'WP^ 30 tu 15 
piMK tDiyDy-infeüD ^n öj$n lyi^s nyp^ 30 ps. inyo d^d 
"^M tDfc^n n:^:^ px dq-i5§d n pQ ^j^:; yv:js;a >i p,x ,109,000 
y:ni?i n .120,000 ^^ms^ t:-,yjy^i")-itiD ü^^i -iyra?ynyi p« 
-nfeüD nyi pß i^^D^^sj'Dnt^ t:i^to^ny-i » i]:2^\ r^« ;:ryjy^pn^D 
.n .T ,iyps 15 M^ ny:>:yii iyi}^n ^ ^^"2 orD'-.^D n ps :JitD3>j 

.y^v^"itDjy!^:i$p iy>n pi: D^üPiiyn s 
-DMiöt "l^^i^D^^: üj^n 3:nyp7yD^n nyi pa .ijnyj'p"i^D n 
-pni?i3 |yDb*o n jid ::ny:y!^p~ii>D yr^oy:^b! i^ i'^6< lysny: 
nnj^^ Fi:u n iyDD^*iDi<D i^ :i:y3 t>x pv^)"^ "iyr:ix ntita .jyD 
Dina^Dy toi^n oy yD^yn pD n^i^n^^D l^x ,1865 V2 1861 pa 
•T^D^s ^T P« .mt^'s:) p>^v^Q '2'p^n » ^^1 nnyo "ij^f'i^x pD 
nnyo 51MK Dnyjy^pii?D "pT oi^n ijnyp^yssn nri ps ^J?^ yo^^ 

-■»Biiip nytD^ypnvüjy is ps i:^'^ ^ t^k yD^yii ,-ijfc<^a:y 
,nj«^ ^ynDDnrx {n* Diyijnj§3 px y^vpni^iB "lyt^'^DD^^st^ 
a:nyp^y2^n nn^« D7fc?"ii lyo lyii ,t2i^3 t2>o ly^jy^^yaBt? d^j^iii 
-^yDyti nyi it^ioya oy tos^n jyo ^ii ,^n» nyii? nyi iv tOTt;?^ya 
njj<^ » T^^n Dv>« r^N* i:^^i^s' nyni^ .njöt^"i^t< P2 yj)^]:p 
in>R PD DOMvyass? ,iJ^*^i:y ps DpntDon lyD^^ociüirD-i^'n 
^^f D^ytDC' Dt^ii ,üP^*,DDn » ,|y35^"i:nyDfc<t^^ iyü>nn » ^nn 
-yn yK^nyD^^^D pfc< yf'ynDDn:^» ,n^D ,^i^'.i ,nxun ij^f'^^y 

•lyDnp 
-lyn üDöt-iny: oi^n ::nyp^y£}t5n nyn pD ::ny:y^"?^«2 n 
i^D f-i^v ^T T5< ,iy"iy^.i ü^u"»f5ya d^j ^i;?t iyij#3 id ^* t^^ »v^« 



^iJDtBöip 0^1 17Ü 

D'iiD ::nyDy"in«a nyi »in« n^ypip ido ^t^ ddiv-h^d n :» 

"»Miv ynyn:$? px p^^ :jnyjy^pn^D ytoi^j^Dns i» i^^i:« lya 
^MK Dnyii yD^y^i »jji^pniü:» ynü;npiyQ5$n d^p k t^i^2 m 
D^3 ,1i^T PN .pniv 5inN onD ü-'D lyony^-iyn^K y^-'^ii y^s 
n T>K oinyp^ysyn lyi ])z> i:'\^v:v'?P''itsii "lyi 5=i^^x njypip 
-y: "iiDD -lyDi^D D'jiQ tDD:ynn^D "lyn pn lynt^n d'j^d yto^yi 
,an:yDi5'-iyD^^ny:DMK >its ^-'2 t^D^ymi^D nyi D:n jyop^n 
p^K P3 .inyDC>".^*D 1!^ DD^^^ i^fc^ P2nyi nn'»D n .yDjyT n mi 
nsD tDpniitns iyv:i§: Dyn pD ^>''ö ly-iyDyi: 8 "in ü5?n D^^r 
pD y^^j§r^^K^D:y^ nyi p:5$i s Dpns^is-iyn^N pN D^yi:»ii 
-i;^B-n^D p« ly-iJ^riyp^ PD i^i^-u^m^a -lyi pN dqij^d n 
D13D lyvj^a "lyn n:n ^lyopj^iiy: t^« i:pni^isny3>« nyi ,ny^ 
» -)i?: ^N üpnj^iD-nyn^N nyi yD^yi^ p.D ,iyapni?"i3 n ps 
üiyn nyn nx D^n ivi:^ lyi po .lyn^ny: nyjy^p v^ ,^>^d 
lyn^^x ny^yrw^ ^j^: lyopisr.y: D^y; p^ t:pni;?is-iyn^« Dyn pD 
Din:nKn pK ins?^ 20 v\:i)^v^ n di^ii ,Dyi pj^i s dmi: pn 
-piKD n |yDpt?iiya "noD i:^^;i:y pK ly^-'n nnj^* 10 ytDvy^ n 

oyi 1^5 lyjyn yD^yit jy^D''ö-D:}#^vpni?iE! v^^vpv^:!)'^ 
'■\v:i'?V)^ ü^D PN iJia^üQyi^'^n ps ^y^^o d^» p'^^js Djyyns^is 
n» ynoyis p^*? ^^nnyi ri:yv^:D^"iN ü^: ,iyny^ fc? dd^d *\y 
tüPM^iB ^iVi *^i /'^ijtD-'Bj^p^ ym) nti? Dp:i5 lyrn ,tD^^3 
T^K tD3y!^nfcj5i3 Dy^ya^'-K pn p£ tJDnini^D ony^i otjn 
Divi^ ainyp^ycisn ps yos^o ny-i ö-'d lyD«n^f m\ ."nrnno,, 
Dijii ,|y^D^D-D:t^''VPni?i3 n p2 yo^D n ^^n :3ny:!y^pn5§D 
nyi pN DDPN1V ,ü2fc?^oiMn:i^5' lyi px üi:y^iyj:{>* lyiy^i 
•j^ns in^N pN D-iy^i d5?^i ,^5<d^£{$p ps vom n ld^^v "lyn^yr 
-pnj^ns ytD^ypyiDiv ymynns n ps ^^^ö » ^^^i ,t33>>5'ya 
.^i?D''Sfc?p px l2^y^:^*1n^^ W'W'i'i jy^D^^-D^j^^v 
nyi PN nyo^^N r^x dkii ,"i:N^n^N po ^nü^snp lyv^xa "lyi 
üt^n ,Hn:Nn j^k pn ynoonr« pN |i<iDy3:^nx tDSfc?iyüTm:s> 



"DJS ^V2^ nnyr i^ ötjn issnyi j^oyo^y^yn d>j iny? p» 
PK .jy^^^ö y^yn^iinj^N yj>n pa y^vetr^^ötiD^yv n ü^yp^^ 
•lyDi^t^Dns pn \v^w üo t^k oy ^snj^ jin p^^p mi ,"^^^i:y 
t3^D ^^^^ji»D p« ,3^DyDD^:D^yn-ie5D "qj^i ^n iy tDtjn ,dpikii 
pisoK^ ,t3nyjy^Pi8ö pi^o\i^ ^>T Di^n di#ii »«nyp^yrijn "lyn 

.ünyoymsD 
yjya^K ynyT^iN n^iK idik b*T5$ ?i^ik "^n D^ypniD:» i^i 
jyiyoyn vi? dijii ,Dyvt;?-)9 tu n^üDK^obto lyom:» s ^^ik lya^K 
|yDi#:i#py ysj'^D^^j^s (yivD»inyD:i^p) y^^opt^is^oniit n lyji;?? 
iy>n ,yD2J^T ny^T lyv^toK^nyo:^« iv tinx lysj'j^ii ö^j ^n p^^s 
pj^ 3:nyp5>y£«in"")y2^{< "lyn p2 tD^^jt:'^ ü^^pontji n t5< ,f>^3 
-j^*"« pni^ Diy-n lyoso n pD lyny^ d'j^« tDSMiy:3'^^i nyn r» 
Diji jjnyp^yD^n "lyn ps a:nyjy^pnKD lyn "nnn ü^yDi^'ya 
-•»'« ,D:yQny2Dpy "iynyD«nny^j<3 jin ny-iy^DD^i^ "pv^q k t^k 
Di^ii ,Diyn:imns?> ;yü:nyvnys! iyü>D ps (nD:D) Doye n lyi 
piB^ T^K oy n^K ,n;« .ty::n5§n ^irjj lyni^n ny:»nio^j<D n 
lyni^n di^ii ^lyo^JD^ymsB ^"i ^m« lyDDyDiv:^? ivxs: tviiyj 
-D»a Dyi .3:nyD^n»n nyi px i:iK^nD8n nr; ^v DD^n^ya 
DytDMrj<sj n Di^n »tDiynJinnni^^ |yD-l4 pD nsöt^ 
UMK 3^1« Di^^i ,DJ?-i r^K pD lyti^'-y^D^n^ üyinyoMN -^i;?: 
-y^pnyis n PK iDDys ^i üs^n ,n:i$^;jy px ,^fc?:5$p d>u t y t 
•y^D^n» Di^n n yD^^yi^ ,::nyp>yi:{$3 lyi ps ::ny3 
ijnyD^nsn nyn pK ::ii<>nsö;3 "lyn ^v üD^iny: ,\v^)^ 
tD^n lyjy^ ^mn nQ;o yrn^yrn dj^h ,iyD5<o ytj'^ani^T n pö 
•ü3y:p ynyoynj "jyv lyöny^oMn» ^^^npJötnD p« ,^fc?:jjp 

nysyn ü3>^^üi»d n:i§^n>K px toi^n 1846 ps iv::)*^ nyi 
DiD3^n Dyn .D^^^yoni^ nt^j r^ij nynj^ »lyiJ'jyD ij^^^^o k 
-roy n .t33etiny: ü^j lynt^t^y dik^ p^p ly Di^n 'i:^'? d'j^d 
pK jyiD^KnyD inij^ rvJKiiv yDDDyj n t^K tDj^n v:i'?V)'\ y^vKi 
ly^iya t^k oy ^ii »ünyjy^piöiQ d>:) üj^h ,"nn lyiyDymöia p^K 
5>i^v nyn d^d lyo^tiv ,W)P |yjnny>-rD^m oyi pK ^kd lyi 



'?»Q>Bt5p 0^1 172 

Dyi pD ü^ni ly^^^D iyo:ytnD n»2 :jnyp^y2y;n yon^ n 
'sn "in lyntfn di^i^ ,|ytDj«nroy n .D^^p^nr;? lyn pD Diij^ 
ü^->r\^ "ini?^ Dy-iy^ jyp^ji^ ,iyD«fc?Dij^ yorj^'j^i^D n p« t::^yT 
-'»5'm5§D jyj^n dj^ii ,n nsD lyoDj^tp-yt^n /o^y:i lyoio yDn*,a 
p^N DM« Diyn:sii Di^ni ,y^j«:sDi;|;p yiy> .D^Miyi px jyn 
.y^Jis'Bo??p "lyijs 18 inj$^ yoDDy: dj^t -^j^j in '^n: Dn-»:^ ,inii:* 
::nynj«iiDMN n r^« ^Di^^ioy nji<:^i>K w^ü^d lir dj^o^:^^ 
jyrM^v yDD^irD2:iPr''« D'n:«^"i^K pa nyj^^« lynt^ny; -^j^: 
-yt3D>D « lyn^^iiiya T^fc< y^v«n;^Dy n .üsys^'yrD-ii^sDpy pD 
lyi PK ^t?^ « Tin :^^y2iv üny>n n ü^3 ; Dy^^j^ns lyt^'^toj^o 
-vy^ lyn ps dm"i8 ini^^ oyny^ üysofc^a n ii?i ,3:nyp^yDö!3 
;in t:>'D to;:^nn Dpix^nv nyn ny-i>^« »lyt^jyo nnyo lyn 
ny^y^p Diyii ^jnyp^yssn nyn pD ^l?^f yoi^i^on» n rs mtn* 

nnj^t^ i:; ini^^ P2 
yK^njy^n^K n n«:D lyto^ü^nyi n {yiiy:! |y:^n dj^ii p^? 
. ^n lynj^n px lyn^^nynyn^x lyonj^i lyj^n dj^ii ,nyD>mb* 
T^K tDi?tD^ny-i nyn — ?jjnyp^yD^myn^N nyi pEj D^ns^^n 
iDi^^n T>« 3:nyp^yD8rny3^K y;i^DyDD^:yD^ynn5^D n t^ jyny: 
T^i< pi^-tD^^Dn^ iy-i T«: ; 1846 ini^> i'nj^s Mi DMia Mty: dPjMs 
in ü^n to^^nnt^ nyi pa D^'^pnyMK^ n rj$ ; :nyn^: ntfc? üp^ib 
Dy>^: fc? IV Din^Q nyöiyn n p^? D^^p^nj^ n T{< ,tDnyDyn;-ib*D. 
PK y>vi^s?My"i n .y'DitJ'is iy:>n psnyi lys^ni« n .onnp 
-fc^nroy "lyn ü^d üjsn pK oii^n tony: D2j^ii^DnMn:i<i^ lyi 
::nyp^y2fe?nny3^K ly^^DyoD^JD^ynitsD 5$ pa ::)^^^ n .y^v 
"8D nyn pD 3jny:y^pni<!D yt^i^j^on^ n nyi^-iK ,iv'^vy^ onvi 
•yr ,n y^yn^D "lyn nnx pip s tv^jist^iyr ^>o m) ,:i:'\ivP'?v^ 
nyvy^rn''D pK lyii^nnypK ps a^i^iJ^m^D n t^ ,1^^ jyn 
.n:«^3:iy p« ni r^v'pv^^ l^^J lypnni tDnoy:! ij^^n^K p« o^n 
n "nn« DD^.m^Q lyi to>o lyo^nv t:Dp5<ii n:t$5';i:y t^N ^>ni 
nyüDiK iyni?3 nyi Diyii tjüs^i^k t^K P« ,D:in3 p5 ^jiD^m^yn 
-nD nyp^üii' yonn: dj?m d^^v nri px .üiyjy^pn^ö ojna 



-wi^ an>>^ ni?: nyiiji dv\s lynvöiJ' jyii^n {yD^^m^^ya lyn 
ü-^v)) ,üv^^^'? y^njyDtJ' pt< lynj^i^yj to^yiJsmj^D lyj^n >>r 
'Dirnn^tD n 112 p« ly^^nyn^'Mi n |id ^^^d nyoMna i? üv\^ 
1^ ü)i):^'2 ,iyit^iiy:i tDVi:yjDnj< ü>j -lynns lyj^n Dijin ,iys 
— Doifcs-: v'?vo'<D I1N ynyjy^p n .üdiv-h^d >n lynyDyiJiss 
nypi< 100 ni '■\:]Vü ^'<: lynj^n Di;?ii ,n y^{$ iv ^^t 1^f ly^yn ^^t^ 
PD 4/5 "lycyiDifc? D^ii? v^8 ^J^: ly^öto — lyn^^tn lytD^^nnj^ya 
-DnMHJ«^ "lyi pö nymp:i?P n .ddisd 5»i;?^f nyv:83 lyn 
,iai« iyt^^DD^^sJD^£^*p i$ ^nx Din^sya oiyn Di^ii ^DDütK' 
jy^yto'kj^ ^n px »nynna lyi^^x ,iypi5§ü^ 5'y^D >n ^mk öpm 
-pi^ n I1D '^Diiü -lyn px lytoi-ipy-i y^o r^s iv -noD lynnn 

.lytD^^m» 
-n3t5D n ,i:is^i^x PD ynüonrt^ yonnj yi>vj^^N n 
rjyii pK :^DyöD^:D^ym{<ö ^n ts^D^i: ,D:yir*^ ps. y^vöip 
":yto^nfe?n^iK 1» "is?: ^^Dn DrDcytj^sn n ; iy:yo yjyDpönnyn 
n Di^ii Dyi n^i» r-ijypip ü>j ,3:"nyp^yD5$3 "nyi pa 5»^^d tyn 
^yiifcitn lynj^iiy: nyny^^D rx ov ojn DnyDynnj^r: "^n üj^n 
"j^x yonia ynyiJ^' yiy> ^n .1866 V2 1861 lyini^^ n p» 
Dy:iy:i^^t< nn^5< px iy:ji^pfeiin y:n:yDtJ^ "qm n dd^jk^ yn^on 
yDjjiD n lyii ,:i:nyp^y£i?n-"iyn^K y:^DyoD>iü3'ynn»3 s T>np 
*nfc? i^^Di^ ^n iD"iyDyn:"ib*2 ,p^« D^i^^jy n di^ii »nyD^^ijns PD 
DDsiti^ ::nyp^y2e:n nyiJ^^Eii^i lyn iiö ö^^poni;? n .üi^j^d 
yny^n Ofc^-n ,.: .n .« lypnnütQ-iynoyn v:i''^vn ib*D D^Tfc$3 nvi 
n^o .nyaiyi n "iyn>x D^nsK^iv ^^^tD:!yoD")nyo |y:^n lyD^^^iK 
jyni^n n>D di^ii ,D>^ms"tnn ps cytso^D oyi nyini i?i lyj^srya 
D^>mb*"iyn^N n lyn^yii ^^3 »oytoD^D cyi »tD-in^^tJ'y: nynnö 
y:n:yiDC^ ly^^n ü^^nn» iyi lytc to^i^vy: y"ijy3>:yrD>: n pK 
n Dan ,'^>^•^Jy px ."lytD^möt "yanyn^N^ ]vz^^ iv ly^tD^D 
-IV ys^yr» d^j i^i üarnn a^iiyp^yDötn nyi pD ::nyjy^pii$D 
lyo^yp^iit::«: i» i^^d n:^^ «: pK >ii ,tyDö!tD^uyi n^y-iyüB^ 
int^ t5>j 1^1 M^ix n t:n^^^3 ^i#i ,y>vpnt^"i9 ^yt^'^üD^5'ötü^Bätp 
>T .P^yjo jyD^^nyj^K Dyi ^i>i« :Jipi>'npniv lyan^ytou' » 
-n n li^j »nyi^^n yrn^^^» nya^« iii^j tD>: öt^^» 3:nyiJKiiDnK 



>tf»*Btfp D^l 174 

iy:^D"iij; Dyn ni^j Dn Dj;y:)y"i:iöt3 33nyi:^iiDnK n .nnn 

yj*>^p n pD 5>5'D3 ,ni3«^D ^^ya n pD »nyoynp yj>>^p n ns 

.D^^^DODy^j'yi 
n» yu^^aniin yjyainy: n ps y:^^ '^y^ pD i^>a ni^^p k 
-j^K n p£ |yüDnfe?3 n px n^o lyj^Dya ijs^n^« px nyo^u 
ü^>^ yoni? n»2 lyD^süt^'^s ys^^njy^n^x n pö lyii^DpysD 
in ü^D 11?: in tD^i?n di^ii ,;jnyoyn » pc yDo^ityn .(1870) 
•yas^ys lyo^^ny; "lyit? Dy:yDi? Pd p« lyDyji^t^sn pD «^i^vn 
1$ »lypmD^ix v^v'^^ tD^D j^DDnni^D pn lyno ,i:fei:t::j'irD::n 
; lyDD^i^D i:8^:jy p« jyay^i^p vw't dj^ii ,D^^prD3niiitD 
.oyni^^« ü^o \v:iv'? :i:\'^^:iV''\ ny^n o^: ^n lyti?^ "^isst px 
"•ms n PD DD:yn"i;i<2 nyi D^^n iyöDni<a yny^n tD>i^ 
Dnyoym^Q in ,inyn^: nnyt ini< Dv^i< i«?: üp,vü^ Di^n ,nyD 
D3KD PK ,t}:yvi?is 60 t>3 50 pinx ini?^ 20 yovy^ n i«d 
-j^n -lyniji .^i^ii j< ::^^>c^ 9 T>n 6 pQ i^^D^:tj^3nn on« d^^« 
r« toD3y>m»2 lyDnyDynnj^Q p-j^n lyDtJ'ny Ten« oyi öi# nyo 
,]^i^-o^un5? D'jiD ::ny:y^pii$2 5< lynj^nnsD j'dok nyi p« 
tD^o ü3^>^iy:Dn>5 ö>: üiyn tDD:yn")«D P2 ::nyDyn n ^^ni 
-ts^D-Doyny^ y:>Dn: n Pinx lyr^ns n ps i:nyDyniK3 lyn 
20 n -i5$D T^« \v'?D''ü'ü}y2V> v:'<ü'>M n pc r^ns lyi .iy> 
ypSD "in^^^p t'ö PK rinn nr» ^i?o ^mv iny |8 ly-ii^ny: nntis^ 

•inn ms 'phd >niv n^y: 
•ijnB yrD3n-i3^: y^yr^iiy^it? n o^n » \i$ yi:v^0 PK 
nsD n PS 3:iD^^5>3n8Q n t» ,iyp:yny: 5»^D3 jyo tid ,y^v-ii?s 
tD>ni 1^: CD^: ,D^y3 p« öpniyaonK w^^'^'t ^n m jytDD:yn 
lytDoyi: lyn ojy^D iy:jin i'r^n .oKö^nyn jy^^ü^n p\"5 o^j 
•yjDn« "iy:nKii5>^K yK^^Dni^n n ps |ytDD:ymöiQ n ps ^^^d 
oay^D ü^y: pk pk my nyi ps lytDpni^na pK lynyn ü^t^v 
0W1 -lyai? DV'K ; 5^^d iyiy:y^p nyi nij: tynyn ö^t^vy^nn« 
,ljra:i-ny3 r« pit? p^^» psiyn .o^y: d^o ü^j^vy: i^^^nyny; 
-n«D t'riDK QVi pc |y3:nyi:y n pn |yv,y:i o^: jy^j^r oy ni tk 



r\v:ivr\ iviv^i ot^oy: D^y: rx pmD>iK pn öj^n ,öD:y^"i 
•'>ü\i^ » D^j^cn^Q "lyD^ms: lyt^'^sni^i -lyi üj^n ny^^in r"it<2„ 
-i^ny: pi< ^y£{?t:-i5$p ün'>'':v:i ü^n ny lyD^yi^ p)mn ,\vi^2 v'pvp 
lyD^ip ni^: ö^i "ly no ü:^m hk .niciy px Dnrn oyiiyn 
-:^^K n lyni^^'iyaji^ ^>it< Di^n ly -li^j .ly^to^D-Djy^y^» yrn y^K 
pK n^B^y ,DnTn lyönpnjjD pD lyas^n oay^D ly DJjt^i ,iyöDiip 

-y: lyü^^ms yty^Qntp 't '^vr\'<^^ |yrn rnoN iyi p« 
iy2i?n p« ,"iyD-i82-Dny^i3 yj>^^p n ü^d iyDJ?:y:rn:^v lyn 
-in yüß'iyüj^n n ^nsrnyns nyi t^yn^^ny^D^^x D^yüDinyo 
lyiy^D 'V yD^y^T n^t^ ,DD"ife$D yo^na px y^yo^D n ps \vn 
-jin D'Jis y£:i?nt:D5<üSP lyn torr D^iy .D^^m^ ly^n lysi^n 
D8?p D':iD ^^^D b* pn IV lys^iny;:^;? ^n lyni^n 1846 pD ly: 
nsD T^K Dj^-n njiüütj^ "iyijns53 k ,nytD^u"is-p^^ J'^^'i Pa 
.|y:iin^Vi?rtD^y3 ^m nynyrD^^m^* yrn d^d injn 
-8r:3ijn«ii n jyi^y^ lyrn Dy Di>ni ,dd^kii{$3 t^k oy 
DD^fc^üKT Din "lynj? .1846 ni?D lyD^^ms n pa iy3:ujn 
n p£ ^^^D s .iy"i5?Tiy3 ^v^'^v ii^: iy:ji3:n$53 n üj? |y:^n 
3{^D jyiy^ D^D ,n»2X »tonyii nys^yi^ ,-iyt3^'m8-Pi^ii?T y:y;:nya 
nyrx p« D01SD n pD lyii^n oyn ^i^i« tjj^j ü^^ni^ ,iy:y^p 
-nfe? tor^ütj^ iJiüDK^iv ny:22^n^ypy ny^>T üi^\) ^'qs^r^M ya^^a 
pK üDMrn nyi px inyry:! jynii^n i^o dj^ii »yDony Dijn -lya 
Dy T-»« >n» PK .lyDpnoDn yD^^osi^trü-i^inji?^ v^''^i:v n 
•5i« PD lyopnüDH yrr^K p« "lyoMK ,i:5<^"i>k px nioyoiK 
-ya^^ ,pnr^P iyüD^iJ'2i?"i3 n pK nm pK oy r^« ^i:8 ; nyDO 
nnfc^DDpyii ox^p^'n pK — mto px .ii .tj? .n ^^jyp^^"? ,pn 
33^p PD d^d:inp n pN — "j:fc?^i^x pD '\vi:i:v'i pN ^.n .t8 .k 

P« — PD!^ pN ,.^1 .Ti? .K p5»nn üD^lJ'Dfc?"!^ "lyi pK ,p1ip PK 

PK T^"iJy P>? ,.1^ .^» .« Ii^"i'i!^^ ,Dnü:K ,P5sT lyoDjifj^DfcinJ n 
n„ .11 .Tbl .K ^^ii^eta ,i^^yD ^ii^oi^p Dt^n ,i^»:^^d pk — myo 
PD "lyr^K D^i« tD^nsj» — ,iyD^^möf yK^^nt^i n ps "^j^^r^'n 
nyn PK vy^Vi *iyT ikd ns-in « |yrn — .ly^^öpysDj^K n 
-5>yii PK ,ny3y> n lyDso iv ns ".us^ Dyi pd y^VKt^^Mvv 



•jtJtt'BKp D^n 176 

-tDDiKi^i$n Dt?i„ ."lis^T^M n toi? iy tonynyj lyto^^^ yD^t^-mx 
b!tK p« ^n iyD^fe?n lyD^yiTin^Q y-iy^n ps* lyni;?^ n t« ,pn 
-ns"pi^ yij^^D"ii^T n ^^n D^n ,:ir.pn"nyDj^K -lytj'^DDyjp ton» 
lyjya osn px t3D^^-iyj:y: ps Si^cy: 5$ ly^ny^o^ns; lyo^^n 

')'?^))V^ nyD^^DSi^iJ'DinriJi?^ nyn pD top» lyoti^iy lyn 
-i?3 lyi-in Di^ii ,^fe$^T^''n n iy;i^itD25^-ife? p^? [yjyttoüj^^n ft? y^^ 
li^toya t^K Dj^-i p« .D^ms lyi pD nyony n tl>^^: jyj^^D*^ 
.5>ö!:a^D » D^i^ ■'11 PK n^Dt^'D^D iyD"'n3 {$ inyr n^it^ lyn^^iiyj 
lyrn lytD^m^ ^d s .ivn>i>< pö lyii^iiy^ lynyjiy: t^k dj^sii 
lyDiyT n pK •^^$1 » ty^^t 1^ lyiiyj iy:jiNii:^y: jdik ^rs Pinx 
-i^aj^n» ,^^r:^^ ^11 ,^n lyo tot^n ]v\:)''\i^''^ .Diytot^ n px pt« 
nnnin p« ,ny^yp nyoy^ ^^5»iy^K px ,Dyp^^tj^ n px lysii^n 
»Dy^^^DSs ytj^njy^i^K nyDjyr^io .iy^^*Di5§iip yioony n p^^ 
D>^p:yi:ny:"iv "iy:)yD^yr ny^n d^d d^ix "^n lyjys^^v y^^yit 
D^D PK iD^^pD^^nyna iy:n{^^rij^t ny^n ü-id ,ty»2^^n yiy^n iv 
i^^DK w iy3^:i Dy mi — niy>:v pK o^^-^j^n-nnDK^D ny^n 
y^KJfc^^vK: V'\V''''^ ü^D lyajmyaDin lyj^n dj^ii ,ivi:v'?:i:v n 
5>i?Q8 i3^D ly^^n Dy^^'D^D "iyD::ynD n Dt^ — jy^^^t^^iNnj^D 
n5<D PK "tjn tyriviy lynyii oy ikii ,nyvy^3 I^k |y^is*sy:rn^ 
Donsta yt^^'jDtJ^ ^^D t3^>ms ly^n tov>K lyn» ny^yo n .lysy-in 
ytoDnyDnDiK n ti^ij^ .n n ,:^\:i i'd^ik fi^D iy:}:nyi t^iyn P« 
ly::^^ k iny: iv dv>k ^s^j ^n |yni^n„ ivnyi ; jy^^i^jn^rpi!^ 
^11 iy:yi ps y^vy^y^o^K DDijt ,pni^ p« Dife?D lyi n^K :yi'' 
-'•^pD^^oyjy3:35§oiK yiyi:« pö y^iyD^tsy^D^iK üöt^ ,iy:yn n 
ü^\npj8ip ^a^njjiiK'Bt^ -^n D^D -q^^jnyivy: iy;3^nn yD^yii jyD 

."ö^^"5Dn5^ PK 
-i^n» t^an^nya d^k iniit> ,p^K nni^> |yni<tn mytotj» n 
n PK ":nyn^K„ |yni#iiy3 lyj^n dj^ii nyD^-'n-i^ y^t? n ly^yj 
|yo tDnyniiKii DyiDj^: pK lyDpnDon yD^^üSKe'önMniK^ 



t$ lyD-ifc^i D^r»^E \v^ T«: ,t^n dd« nyi ''Inyo^^m» pK ^yj 
>^3 ü^^r::'SinD "wi^ ü^jsj^ pa o^^v lyi pK n^n ^yajsD 
lyD^^v ynyus y^« px ; o^^a-i^^n^yD nyüj:yiD;5'y::i;? nyn 

,t}pniitis-Ds^in nyi lyoii?-; t^k di^ti »^yru^üisp n lyoyjBi^n» 
^n lyrsy: »Ji^^n^nc lyüoay: d'jid nnnjij ^ru lynt^Dpt^ t^D 
jyii ,ü^^v nyn p« i^^ek t8 ji« ."I8?ü '\'^ Dt^ii onp "nn "ikd 
:yD yv:»: ly-i^^nss ^n r» ,ü^^ DsyntD,, ,|yDi:i«D |y:>n ^n 

."o^^m^^ i]n PK mpDsn n pjsn s 

-fc^^iyn nyD>^üESK^ön^in:»> lyn ps lyö^üo^im n dij 
-y^ß-n^D Pfc< lynj^riypi? ps 33i^n:sin«a lyi ps .n .i ,y>vi^ 
y^D{?:fc?py y^jy-.ot^ jy-in^sr"»« ps ,Dyr6J^8D lyvijstn pe ,iyv 
-D1D n pJfeüT » '^Vi'^v ^^^ ly^y^^ •— .1^ .Ti< .N ö^un«: nyi pK 
i:s^ 1^« lyvn p« iny:: nr« iy:^n d^^ n .n .n ^D^vnsnyo 
nDJDH yny^^T |yny:ivD^^K Dj^üti'jK »lyann y-iy^n pK kqu 
yr$>^M Dsjn lynnnivJtji is^n V'i> ^''^^ '"^^ .i:ö:^dmk p» 
\]nivn y:ni?T n ü^f>^;„ iyn^>^ »tD^njt? px :y-i2ai?j ps yyiyj 
yr^^p yny^n pa ,in lyro^i: ^n y^^yi^ px ^lyo^^nii« y^» 
iy::iNiivy3 idin »Ti? ti'»^« iy:^n dj;?^i ,iy"i{^ü»i:y"i8-nyo"i8D 
TD oy pynj^D v^v» ^<i^^ m^ »D^vns yny^n n^iK ly^^yii^n i^ 
n pD v\'? nyn ^^i "iy:y^P "^d 8 t>k ü^)) pi^ » letD p« ,"? 
jiitD ^iT8 lyriD Diyoife?D n p« pyü>^mi$":i^ü yD^^:nyiiy;i 
,]yüci^"ifc$2 PK iyD^>PD^^cyiiPö:2oiK y^«i n Pinx anjypip ü^j 
n^D IV D^K iDDip ^n Di^ii ,üvi "lyn^K pcnyi lynti^n ^m di;?ii 
]yö:yDfcjo yt^^Dnp n px "lyi^ya v^vy^i^ v^V't lyroy^ssj 
.^•^Knn n jy^^^^pss^ns p« lyn^^nyiD pD 

,3:irüöyK^^D PD tt>^p3^Dyo^y:yn ü^: p« ü^^piyDn-oo n 
>! tDi# ,ü^^nnK *iy"i pD nipDQ.-i yi:yiy^n-:3K^ pk yost;^ n 
n2^D 2:nyp^yöKr"iyn^K nyrDy»0D>:D^ym5!:D k pD n>:oD y^s 
ps lynt^cpyßD^K n p2 |yL}Dn^*3 n px idik kt5< n^iN lyin 
oy üif^^ ^lyü^^pinyn^j' d?»» ü^^^yanj^ "ikd lyD^KOc^JK n 



^IftBVP 0^ 17ä 

nyn .jy^jn^^K^ny v:i'''p:riv ü:y:iy;»D ü^n^üDy^t^nB lyij'^^jij^y 
ly^yniDDnj^K |8 p« ,"iJö:^ajy p« Dfitn ,vi< nynj^ n^'^j^iyjj^x 
»nyßiyi n i^K lymyryi y^ynoonj^N n ii;? ^n ly^oi^r ,njK^ 
,nj»^ jy^y-nD^ipn:» i» j^k ,n:»^TK pK d>^i^ d^^v -lyi px 
n p« tD^yosTya^i;? lymyiy-i ];D>^t:si?6j'üiMn:b'^ n lynyii 
•^^"iS'^ni^T yjynniDiijD n ^nx "qn lyto^^n oy ixii ,DiytoK^ 
nsD lyD^^n-)» y^>Dni?i "yr-iya^«,, n lyiy^i -iJK^::)y px .nyo 
*T lyn^^^nnsö n^s^i^K px ; iyD^^2ifci:"pna«D px D^yijfcjiv 
•nis^ ,DiyüK' n p« lyni^^-nya ly^nDifcHD iy:^>T oi^ii ,"iyD^^3i55 
0P^t5^y3DMi8 :''i:vü^ lynyii ^n p« •lyD^^nis yD^^torsK^toini 
pK lypm ^n D3n ,d^ui5< lysn 11? »DDiiüD n n^K ,tnv^"i pt« 
.üD:yn-i552 ly^'^^ni^ott' Dyi ^>ik ^mn t3>^v lyn^ynyi 
pH lyn^« iy3>3 iyöDn«in y^y^v^cj? n p3 nyD«sij^Q n 
Dyn pD y^s^ ly^ynyDu^o lyi lyayii wo)*?^ v'^v^''^ lyvnp 
oay^ iy ü:n„ : ism {«ry: pim« lyü^^snö^ iyD^^DEi?tj'üi>iin:{^^ 
r:y3 DMP DD:y>T^sö pn t^x •^s^i ^D^ysy^y^on« pn^Dtj^ inyr 
-83 IV pK T^^ßtJ^ ü^ö y^^^DSD n PK ^n lyni^n^D iv ^.^ik 
•'D8D iyi "it<D n« on^« "i^ö :jn^^^p j^^n ; o^yrmn ly^ij^v 
-'iK^i V'iV'">\ pö t:2i^ n ...lyDDjyni^D yrD>n •qn pyis^D y^^ 
oi^n Iyt^♦':y£'^y'^»3 yD:nnöH3"D>: y-iyn:» tD>a lyo^r^v ly^^ij 
ni nyoD^'^ iy^i#r lyij'iyö ü^^p ivi m ts ,ivnyn tD3j^i2y: 
piß^ T^« DyiDj^: /'tDsmriitj' p« did^ü ^mk |yp:ynp ynynj» 
PD jyaijrnny lyrD^oK^:^^« oyi öm^ ,01^11 ^o"»: lyijixii p^p 
1$ inyo r^8 ^n iD^nstj^-i»s oy jytDD^-ifcca n P2 lyDötsiöiö n 
Dif)^ ; Döt^p Dyn üt^ ps tyn^n >n pt? ö^^n:yinöivoiN ysy^o 
; e'^n:ya:83n^D n lyinyppmv ^n ?i^r oy ,iy^y"n to^i^ii iy 
,oq:^p^v lyn ly^yii ij'k^d ^>t t^k ,Dn5i:^i:yay3 ^n üDj^n ny Di^ii 
l^K ''lyas^i^üön pa di^d^^k lyD^^nnysy; Dyi lyü^ix ^>r ü^3„ 
.8pnyD8 j^^P iyin:>öy iy:y^^ — "q^r p^n |y:yii 11^3 ö'oi^n 
VK'^jöi^Tiü^SD yoMii n t^'nn^ n^n nnr nx li? n^ö Di^ii px tD5j 
•KD Di?ii ,^);i:>iD-^^^n nyr^Dy:i^8 "iyB'08>no^8D nyi ^y^^vöJSö 



,npo''2"i»-pni»B y5J^n:y^-i^K n jyny^ oy "^^^p^?: >ii 

,^ys3:j^^in p^K ps inyt |y:j^p n^o ly^y^i 
TnyrK yT^n-ni^Dpy2D:^x V^o ^^^k ly^^y; pn ^^x jy^u 
ii^opysD:^«-p>"2t>E ^yr^^::y nyn t:3j;^t — ,i:^^n^x p.ö pBv 
-y:>^K M^ »DiyniiKinjiis pnstü'j^ l^o üi^n — r-yp^'s Diy^j^"» 
-rP yrv |y3y: iv üD^^Psy: ^n üi^n lyD^^nn» "lyöP^K^ya ($ 
•Diyn lyrK r: ^^k .ty^ü^o yr.sip y:^n ri^i« ::n^i2 nyi 
• :yny2 Dn>« pc oiyny: >r 3S;?n ^^k mi ,:j^5'nyvnn pn ^^> 
nyi :>D:yp t^n lyü^^m^ nyop^sj^yj 8 ^^^pi^i^ vi< iv t8 ."^^^ 
nnino lyi^vnti^iB *.v ovij^n dh^k d>d tt oi^n lyo dj^ii ,pd 
nytD"iyi^ yrn iy:^n ofc^ ."iyDDy:rD:j§o p.ö p"i$<d i'-iöta 
-?iJ^OK^ 8 "n^K 1^3 y^iysi^ns in o^i^ .ji^D^i^ij'n "^^o ddii |yo^ 
i>t< 11 T^3 nno -lyi p»s nyrn-s: 6 ps ü^^^n« "i^x ; lyDy-is 
t:>^3"i» n n>o iyri:y nn*^ ; ^xu^ns V2 i^]^:^^ pa ,ü:yiii# 
px lyoy 3XtD^D finx lyij^Dtj' ^m lynt^n "i^'j px ü:yi^t^ px 6 
cip{$3 ü^^ms p^D ii?E ,iyij^p tira at^n "^^x .nnsj^ n^i« 
*n^D PK "i^iK iD^ms M1D i^^o ; iJ^Ti » ü:vb 6 ::»^^6J' 10 ^^k 
D^»» T^K Di^ii ,y:^^D ^yi^^D y-iyo^'y n .-qj;??. si ^r^^c^ 5 ojyn 
lytj^K PK p:iVP lyn^^K r^x n .i^in Ts^ix ::'!DDi< o^; ,"ini^^ 12 
^)\i^ nyi IV nyij'p yiy:rK n \'i o^nj n .pnys^yn yrvr>« 
D>D "^^^^3 pyiife? ü"y: px n^o o^^o "^^^^a ^"ik *:ir]];o'^f ^na p\o 

c:^>n"i8 "lyi i»2 .nns lyn pj< ]ViV' "lyrvtü ^.re 11^3 nf'j^n 
-nny^-«^^yTiv nyt:^« c>3 :i?d pc ^sro ps .ötJ'>:-iN'3 -i^q lyry 
".vo lycy iyD^^2:i^ .lynrp yiy^yf'P n nvx 3:^dds y^^iy-i^'?: y: 
lyp^ntD ''13 .D'^n» lyoy lyny: i'o .nnr "lyi p« ^y^n-^* 8 
"^^V2>f.r\ p>c ytr^*p "i"o jyoy ^'^or'iiyj .'^^^^ px Ss^ p^k t'o 
rijTi ,DyT IK "nn tDijyii oy ; 5'ny!:-yTnipp pc nyi^? Siyo y* 
-ip^p "lyi w 1^0 lya'a nyom -lys^^P ^v i:]^*^:*^^ i^n lym i^*^ 
i< SJ^ii? •^"•o lyoy: nyon .-lyo^i^ ü'd nyp^v ^yo':; ^ ^ny«: yv,-i 



•^n l^K ^n^ö D^unöi n jnjy "^^k |yi^ .nnt^^ n{<:i » jxd^u 
••"«^« n p« n^o lynyt k^^''^d ^yp^osi^ » .ly^D "inyT D:yi^i>* p« 
*j^p yiyT:ifc< |id ^m .ty^^^D'Ds^D^^x px ntj?: »lyto^y» inyr lyj 
*ij$£^ ^i^ii X ''2VB 1 IV "ifeü2iy-i ly^ni^v n^D . ^Vvi^ px lynya nyn 
p« ^nt^D »"^i^ii 8 ü:vb 9 Tr.N DDi^*p tD^y:i nin .nrp Dyiy» 
"i^ii ^^iiv yny^ D:yE3 6 a:^^^:?' 1 DjyDD;i^rMi wüü^p 3:^^f"'^i^n 
t>K D^n Dt? ,iyüD:nn8D y^i'nw^y^n^« n ]v:''>] o^i üi^ ."|yD 



5^^D •)yüD» 

-'»st?p PN tD^yi:»ini{?D tJiyii ü^iya mi ^inyry: lyns^n i^d 
PD p5< Diyinnyo ]vm^v:i tonyii ^sd^sj^p inn mi ;55?ö 
-Jij: n D^ix-ifc^2 Dvy? >>nnri .^^o^s^p nny?D — D-iytrinyo 
PK ,önyirinyD ps nytoonpy n — ^b*tD^Bb*p r^Q ::i^.rDi?? 



181 :jji^ö8TJK yr'^;ii<23rj y:yßiy-iJ nt» »1 

.*iy"i^vn{^i3-];n5$sii ps üjyn n p{< tDSsnP'D^^n^K i^.x ^^o 

D^n^* ü'>: \v:^P n^o lyD^yi^ pD ,T^np lyD'SiK^^^'iötD j? px dik 
-D5<TJj^ yD^^:i:«D:j# 18 toi^oDMpy oy tfe? ^lyoy::}^ ^nn lyi^^D 

-ßyn ,:j^^dj<tj^ i^ ; a:^^D5$ns^ "lyj^^LDD^^SD^SKP nyt DnxniiiiD 
-pniitnB iyj5'^0D''^8D^BSP oyi p.s i:fc?D^uyi v^p ü^: t^k yo 

.Dp:is-i:8:!DnK pn it^i: ,idik-dj{^>^ 
-^D^^i^s lyi PK ü^VB^ ::i^D8T:fc? yD^^;i:i!;D:t? yrit^-i n 
p« "i:n yLDK^iy n mi ,V''?^i V2'?v\ n üyoD v^'ü^^i^pv lye^ 
^nn i^N nyin yv ps iyDy:iy: t:i?n pt^'j^nn ni^ .y^ij^^j^yo 
n p« ."C^T n iyoipy:5{#ife? po tyD^^K'jyo Dyn pi^^,k t^k oyi 
nyn ■qMJ« ony^i 3:i^d8t:j# iyD^^;iJ82:ij "lyi pa :r.j:5<toiJ'si? 
::8^ pisi' pK .c5^^njyaJ5§n»D nyi p£ Di^npy:» i» ^in t:i-^v':>p 
p^K pa : lytj^jyo ^^^ny^nix ü2V'?v: jyni^n lyo^^v y:y::i$;n5?D 
nyn pD p» ,tD^>^ yDsni^sK^ px yojyr^yürK ,y:>D^>^2 o^n 
■y:8üis^ü:iJ^i82 Wn^n Dijiii »lyso^^» n« "iyv:y^MQ o^n iyi:» 
Di^T .D:yr^K ny^n o^nya lyni^n ^n -lyn^^x ,-inyo ^fc?j Dyn 
nn^t^y DtossryiJtit lyni^n vü^Z'^^v n t«; ,w-iyi öDj^n^ya Dr^n 
lyDMX ,iy2MPii<2 IV ü}§ny3 d{^^j"15^:i ^)ü'? \V2^n ytsvy^» n px 
-ont? n D!o«ü^ tD^-iv "lyani^i "lyn pD pn .^ya v^v^i^ ly^n 
-iP D^: ,tDV^« V2 ■^J^: lyztjn ys^yi^ jyDsc v^'"^^ n ps ö^\*? 
lys^ipnsiD Div üsj'^j-ii^: ,D"ni8 lyrijyDi?^ ny>n pi^n :n:yp 
DDpy:i^ yD^yi^ ,y3>:yii n na tD>>pD^n n px ,V'>'?^ "nn lyo^t« 
•lyD^^my: iv tD"iyny:iDMK ::^^ V)^ \V2^n ^n djh ,ij{<jö!3t^: 
•ony^pnyT n:n "lyDcny ly^^^t^^t^yö nyi lyayii y"i:y:y^ n 
lyoy IV lynt^iiya tD^>^D"iiN"ij<2 t>k c^jyo nyi Dt^ii "i«d ,?:".« 
nyi na yoD^^i^ya n p« ; ü>:b pn pa d^^iik^ Td^o o^na pn 
yittnny^pnyiDi« -i tjik tony^p-iyn nrr nytD^ny "iyK^>Di;?:i#py 
•^«t n yD^yn nj^a ,iyt^:yo ij^^i^a lyr^ oy Dt>nn^*a ,D8:dmk 

IV ^ijt: D'-itn'ynyn^K lyny^i mu'yo-K3n yii^n^^j yD^ytfc? 



Mt8 |yiiy3 5'ijD8 ivy''^ Oi^^^ ,iyrnv:«tn2 n nsD tDo^Di^K^ 
•D^jnsD iyvj83:>K ütjn iy ts ,ny or^o »myi p« .-^^nDD^^i 
Dv 'i^^T)^ .D^Doyi^^K lyjyp ct^^^ü^vi^d pd iy^fc?BJi? n oyD 
y:^>'^^ {ji oy tDiyv. ,yj8nD"DitD:yr^« nyn jyayii -^n ü^yn:8n 
•Kns nyanj^T nyi pd Dpiisn^sDu^ Dyi i^ytDK'ixD^nfe? dd^^d 

VüT^v:i nys^^pn^ii lyi pK .lyD^t:t^'"D;:1^PM"lDJi< y^K p« 
/nya^n ,:jiD8^pt5'i8Q ,iy::nyDi^ny ^tsD^xiisa ^ii ,iy5'y>EU' 
ny^yn^^K lyi p« "lyzi^ .y^i^i yDoy-i: n ^lytDsio-i^s^.^: : niP 
ü3yi j;^^n^K ifc< |tj rn>^t< pD üii^ivri v''ü^:^pv ny^r^D^^j^a 
ya^v:>^K n lyiiy: ^j;?d y^s ^tD'ts^noi^D ,tyrn "D^^mst,, p« 
-»: DsiDMK ivi D^D ^t^D Dyiy^ nyntiji ,\]:iv'\'\ "q^n pc ly^Lo^o 
pD lyii^üyD n lyrn fnoN nyi px ."ini#^-'>>n,, pd -i^^i^ts 
•^K V'P ü^: it^: ,o^^n nn^K di^ii r^^ iji^D^nt^ -iyD>^i:^D:fcii 

.y^^n 
3oyii MT8 t3p:iB ^n isd pk t» lyrn mino px ü^vi 
^n .|y5»ö^DD:yny5' nni^ iy^D^D-Dit?>vpnj#"is •>)) ^^fcHD^ssp 
«n nyni^ .^8d^3^*p pk lynyn iD^yn:{<in^D tDij^iy tyQiijnfc?! 
TDiK yiDD^ö^j^^n "iyo:iK ii?: lyoipii^ö \^p ;i:i^iJ5$in8D yrrij-i 
^n lysii?! ov : lyayiDjyDj^riv ^n lyDisn v^^V)^ ,iyi:ytDK' 
jf:y-iiii5^-i5§ö y^^j ^^^-ly^Miv a:nnn{<3 p« lyoip px iyöipD^i:iv 
PB "lyo^o^yr^K o^n t^^« pD — lyvn^n-minD pD lytDit^D 
oin^ lyrn ys^yn ,|y^ü^tt-Djy3y5» p« -D:i^^vpni#i5 .ü^v: 
tD^^m» ynöync lyonpi^^x ^nn tsnyii ly^n iyinyönj<3 iv 
l-iD nyönpi^B ,"iyü^>m» y^ns o^n lyn:» -lyn t^2 P« ,tDBö:"i? 
n» PD lyDnpn^D lynnyi px ,t:D^$"ip-tD>>ni» lyjyr^« ^v''^ 
•ynya ^n e^: tt? : pr lyan^y^^i^v i^k lyD^^an» "y^nD„ .tD^^3 
^1^08 ni ,iy5'tD>o-D:i^'vpni#iB n iv -n?3^yD^D:iK p'^8 W^ 
•ya |y5»ö^D-D3iji^vpnt^-iö n d^ ,y3yr^x-n>>^ p« jyD^^p:?^ n 
^n .iyD^tDiy:"fc<ny>^B |y:n:yü:^DD25'yT D^^a ^ii ,^n iv [yiyn 
nv yrtjj^T n jn>^^ pK rn^ ,^nD nnyo ^y^D lyann ly^^n 



183 a5^^t»T3K yr'^jjiijß:^ yjj^sMyi >uij l 

-D^D nyfc^^DD>^8ü^sj<p -lyi .y^vpni;?i3 ")y5J^^DD^^5<D>Bü:p lyi 
oyi D^ö "lyD^^ms d-j^d tt lyn^^sj' dj?i dm«"ij^d tDvyr cyo 
|yD^pp-iMn5§D \^p iy ys^yii Tin ,\v'?o'>d n pi^ik D^ojyr^K 
Dijin y^vpnijns y^^toD^^SD^sj^p n ni^i n^ p« .ü^^di» pn 
ni#i DO n D^sn ,d^d yjy;^^K y^^^^? ^mk ü'?vüm:i ^j^or^K ^n 
-yi3 8 y^8 n^K n Di^vnijiisyn n iij: ^a^n^^ij'iv ym;?T n m 
-'0D>5'KD^s{üp Dyn DDiüK' 05^11 »DyvtjJiB "lyn .asütj'DöiD nyo 
oyi lyn^^K'i^ pD Dyvijns nyi pn ^^i« ij:t^8 tid »oyiDD^D lyu' 
no ; |y^^D-Dü>^3nfc? y:^n pimj« Diojyr^K oyi d>d nyD>^2"i8 
-tDDfcjij'^ytyi n o^n p-»« pd ö^yiJsinötD dj^i^ ,Dyvi#n3 nyi pn 
PN 5'5$D^3{$P PN |y^D^D-D3i^^vpnj#ns PN ly^tD^D-Djyay^ ya^^ 
-p^^ pN nyTvni^ns yi^n^'D^oöiN n ü^>t nyiJN lyi pö 
ijiT^s t^N ::i^»{§TJ{? yD>^:iJ5§D:i$ y:yDinyr>^ts n .nytD>^3n» 
Dyi lyi^^c'i^ pö Dyvj^iB "iyi>'ni^DD>n nyi *ii nnyo dk^o 
-:i?„ D^s Dj^^ti'ny -iy .iy^tD^D-D:i^^vpnj?"iB n d^d D:yvni#n3 
pD yDiDc^ yt^n^üD^nnjüs n Dy-i^^n ny ^^m /'"iyD^^::»D 
üDyiBiJ'D:« DJJ11 ,iDiN-D:ijt^vpnj;?ns oyi pß p« ^kd^s^^p oyn 

•^yryj lytj'^DD^^^D^s^^P nyi ps ^n nyK^^Di^^jjipy nyi 
]^D ivjpntDD -iytj'^Di?:j?py lyi ps |yDpöniy:Dmfe5 t>N ü^^^ 
ny^sij^yD nyi ps a^n^^^s^i« n .DD^ti^^'yryi ny^s§"Ti;?yD nyi 
-^üö^siüp nyn na iyi::yDy5>y n lyrt^^yrnD üijn oDeity^yTya 

.lytr^üD^^ 
üi^n »nyo^^niN lyi ,tD:yvni#"i3 lyiNn^'yo^oJiN nyi 
lyii ,P^^» I^T tin« n^nn-^yn n lyny^i ü^j^pya tio^N'ofcn tDSj'ny 
iy lyn PN lyii^n d^v |yi:iny:iv p^t ^v D"iyny:D''iN üi^n iy 
PD ^{^^pti' p^p nyit? -)y:yr^N-n^^5» v^p lyiiy: inyo üo t^n 
-D^u"i8 pa lysnp-iiüö ly^ns k lynyii iv nD .pyuN in 
•v: n 1N11 rtit^B jny^ pn mino pn iy:i?iü ii^p üi^)^ ,üdnip 
ly^ns^^n Dnoyj nynno ny üi^n ^-^n -i^*d pi^?3 n ^i^: o^^d 
pN yi:yirn v^V'^ d^o ly^yv n p2 DDfcci'nyn nyn pa ^n 
PN D^^'yiB PN ly^iJ^N-py^ ]ViV^'\ lycDn'^iNB yn:ynyüB' 



^»tt>SKP D^l 184 

D^ncfeüD ^n üi$i ü^n D>^r p^« pD .nyD^uiöt-pi^ p« D^yi 
ynyuiK isd pk) ^ys: iiD lyD^v n pa pt; ^nyss^PK^ Pd 
nyni? ,(!^^^^ ^^^t ^"i "'^^ ^P^t^ Dn''tDD>Tpy lyn^nt^^-yDD^tJ'y: 
-jyo yo^nEisn ds^ii ^^2 y;nii;i n lyno D^n nyuK "lyn pD 
^n ^u üi^n lyo ^^ni ,p''^5$ ^n ps nya^pisD lynyn lya^ 
-s: v^V' y^^ p« iy^D>o-DJi^^vpn{^i3 y-iy^n y^s Di^nyjstj 
-Dnj^^^? y^!!<-ii?yD n V2^V'\) ,y:voü'>]p:; ny>>t nj§D Dy^üjsn 
-"»n PD yLDD^t^yj y^M^T n pH .üisnyj ^n n^nD lynt^n lyiJiD 
nyi PD nyoy^n n ?i>^« |ynn:^y:!jj? t^« 3:n>«nDJ^iDDpy ny 
.ny^^D px m^n ps ly^n^^j' y'D^n d^^d ynj^DDM -ly^^^c^jyo 
ny:;i;?n-DD^o y^^j n ,iyDD"'^ö!D^D$<p y^ynoonr« n 
-t?3yv n p^^3 D>: lyo^D^o^n^ t:riDy:i D^n ny>n pD lyniisn 
Ti^P n PD iy>;>r{5;3 n ,D^^nD n "^mn* nj^j ovPiy^i'tDJ^n yi\ 
-nyn ly^n Dj^^^ny DDn:^n nyjn^^i nyn px .DiDD^n pd \v^ 
"''0 ^ü^P lyD^nayn 5< pD Di^D^ityn d^s D3fe?o i:^ ^>r lya^n 
to^D ^^D ,oy^:y!?>'nnD v^n^^^ ps dd5§o iy!^^ni^yD nyn d^d 
nyn 'k DiyDtJ^y: lyas^n v:}^V'\\ ,iyD^^P yiy>n p&< ly^yv n 
y^i^^to«i^DDpy ny^nD nyi ^n ,y^ifpnj?is lyi p.D ;:i^pmid:» 
^n üf^n ynDDn:^x pD nyon n .w^^v^ "nin tytj^jyo pD 
ri^n nny^i^ PD nyt:n n lyo^iDtJ'iVD^n«: ]yny:iy:r^K ^vn^ 
lyni^n j^^^5§ ^n yn^y^i iv jyo^jyny^i'y^ n fyviJD^^t? "^nn 
•^nn t:p:iD iy:i:i«'!itj'y:iD>'ix iy:^n ^n .iy:ii^-iDyr^n üt^^njjij 
-inD nyti'^D^n 'nyn y3:^y^"i ^in ,n ni ]v'?t:i''ü V2'''^üv:i y:nrj$ 
-yiiy: pn tia lüin lyi lyij^iiy^ f'j^rDi? t^-^^ tDDy:p nyjyri^^y;» 

.nyv^ji^ötn pN nyvMfc<i oyjyr 
üi^n nyD^y^i ,3Ji^p^iitoj8 nyi pD Dpj^D-D;:b*2D>ix nyi 
,üD>^^t}''2«p Dyn ^^D lyD^^n-ifes'-pi^ oyi ^^d lyDiiy^D^n» 
ünf^tDifc^D nyi .lyD^^m^ Dyi pD D2fe§c^öDy:p n lyny; t>i< 
Dfc^n n Dj?n ,Dyi pN* is^j fyj^totj^yn r^N* D^fes'riy: Di^n n Di^n 
"ijüD DJ^n n üi^)) ; tiD^tj't^Dyjp nyi pD yDit^D n lyto^ny: 
->0D^5'»ü^s«P iyi pN y^v«o»i^SDpy yc'^vns n ö^yi^sn 



185. ;i5i^ottT:H yi^'riitfB:^ yiysnj;;« nrij n 

0*^11 ü^i iiji3 n^D lysnsn ,:yn nn^x inyo^'-it^s i:; nD .-lytJ^ 
lynisij' yüt:^-iy n 5i>^« \i$ ^n lyo^ioi^' 1^0 mn .i-y;)pniv 
-ü'o ü>u Diyüü' yrj^^« px y^iPnj^~ii3 nw^'^DD^Pi^io^E^p p.ö 
,önyi:in"inN^ iyD-15 n^? |yü-14 pN pitj^ d^ iy:;'njy^?yD 
*ynya "^j^i v:i^BV ny^j'^DD^^feüö^EjüP nyi ps n^^njj^ nyi ^nsi 
ny n "^.i^: ij<n .D-iy"i:in"ini;?^ iyD-16 p2 tsa^ny \vlv^^ tDjya 
-jy-ii?D aj»^ piK' DiDjya^^K-n^^^» piD aj^n^nDsn n t^x ,ü3^^i5^ 
y^ns pD nyüonpy n ,-iyD^ö;-^yD^D pD r:{§^:i "lyT P« öri 

-y^Et^ 5:i^^ö!T:t^ nyD^fia^iüEij^ lyn pD yDD^'^rya nyn pk 
•i^n yD^yii ,Dy^:;i^{^iiyn y^^ n y^j^n y-ijyDb'o-y^i^sy 1» \v'? 
,D8^p-|yDD^^^D^ssp cyi ife$D ::ȣDK^-nMn d^s: D^ynya lyn 
n PS nb*Q nynna p{< jyi^u px lyo^sny: in DS^tn o^)) 
D^o pfe< a:!^^!^^ lyj^n lyV^yo lyo^D yon^a |yii ,|yD:yDtjiD 
p« iy^a>a-D:y3y^ yiy^n ps lyii^iiya lyonyasij n^str.a 
-5>ya^iD D^j< pnsJ^-DtD^^ni5$ i'2nt< lyii^i^ya t:)"iyi^^^jj'yaD>n8 
-'•^a"iS""ny d'jid ajn^xnsi^-isDpy n ."iyn5?uy^j^i3 y>nD 
-i^"iB ly^assa Dyi pD -no^ *iyi ]V)W p« fyi8?3 pn ps lyo 
yant^i n ly^Dt^iüsn ctj'-iyiv nynnyi lysisi "i'o .oyv 
y:jn>ie^nj5D pK jfc^ Doy: yt:3^iry: "in^^< .ajn^xnsj^^iSDpy 
yan^^c^nsD pk Tj-m ünya pfc< ,iyQi^2 y:y^^^:^n5<^ nynay^ 
yD^^DD^K'ya yjyi^^:^"is2 px a^imi^ nyayi^^tj'ij^Q px lyij^s 
in>K PK tytDii!-iüyaD>ns n t^x i:s5^::y p« T>i^n .lyDi^sy 
(*.$)y^sij'^>i D^öt nynnyi n jy^yj n^o pn* ytsii^ia lytj'^Döi^p 



-i'^*? "in .DiB3v;''K-3'''? pD jJTK'nsxn H ]jrf3ipyjj"iKD iKir^ya 
-ipKn KKn ly -lyn^'K .iyiHt*iy^ c-.sKa n:«"? d:;t pK t'k ny:j;:i>>» 

,"iyntja:;'7K-i3 ijr>nB-'7j;jnD |< pK D'b^rii^tTnNs t»*?:» ^«T'rK dh'k is^n 
pK n'nn-'?y3 d:;''3 << ts'nj ijrjiuyjj t»»*?; pity iviyT tsKn ij;:'?;?^! 

•o^yn Dyi pD y»»i^^jnyi n |;;ii .»nj «lyt^ioni iyj»^<«Dir in 



lyoiijT T^K (*3jnyp^yDK2 nyi ps ^^^ö nyDoyi: ^-lya oo 
iy:8Dfi5^8n ,o-iyn:imnt^^ |yD-15 px inyo -qi?: p« »öd^kdüt 
-:iK D^iK ü^j DD5$o Dy ,iyD^ü:yr^N-i:fe$? ony^s y^nD pa 
p« DDyrDiDjyr^fc^ iv^''^ i^^tJ^ jy^sii^ya k i«d di?i^ lyo 
!'K DypD:j#^SD y^^vns yiyoyn;! n pD .lyni^m^^D \v\^Vi 



-*?VB payj^'K yn]?in iy:n<n D^ii ,"iyö'ü3y.i>>N"Tij; yj'»*:? »n (* 

]ny;j'ö2m "?y'B «j nTj'npoM« b'?^s:;i l^ra^n ....{yny'? Dy:j;T»'{y 
,>po'ü:j;;»'«-Tiy 100,000 m ny;<3yn u'3 .. ..tD5?'K m ,p^^<s ]is ^^a 

pD noisn y3''?DO»'nn n .lyas^ttraiMi jr^ne yjy;jnK pn^p 
isiiD 70 T'3 60 ]'« estJB'y:» ö^y^i nyo'DJy^'^Kmy yi^sp yzwti 
tyn^tn D^n ,n pD "j^j^ n t» ,ü:yryiy; a-iyiT oy .inx» » ;3»'7iyt3D 
o<<n ,n nyT'« »nyoyi:» lyiiy^ t^n ,iy"i^3 oyjy;''« •^y'u wniH^^ 
yalO .i3K'?;:y pß yas'tryjj n„ : ''^«p»o) |y*ToyiD annjy")» iya«n 
]ytssy*? PK 1«3 .(334 ,333 lytj'u ,i i:h2 ,"1854 »iKn:«"? ,yj«?SMK 
iy8'»'7;3y nyn ]ib '?yc5i>B-"iy'D ühh cny-:imn«' iyt:13 ps "ryann 
•^»H — .(413 CT ,iy!3n<«n) ö"n"i»-Tiy ps :sny'?yj yoKö-Dp'7^i 
nyB>«?ys-Da2»try:j i^s^'cxoyaD'D d':jj ,ny *?'m ,iy''i'7Np^f3 i't3»3 
.iyttp(<s yJMTjj T'i'jjyö i^: 'jy'sn^ «in« onj* i^^anynyj en»»:» 

n unyn^imnK» iyü-15 p.B «iid cyi ts^^t oyoa^JiiyB ts^n piöo 
V lyaeöB^ay t^n ,^yi3^n iy2»»:y'^^a»«-]i5S Dyi p.s Ki^^n-nyann 
onijcty p3 lyo'^ni» »*t .^ivjsn nysi'j'synyjy;: lyi p« ;3^;yn«3 
n? ]iK lysiyn n p« lyiKiiy:» tyinuy^om» r^'^iayDHio tyj^'i 
PK *''nt2"?ip v^^p,, nyT pB ;3'in>'?nBnK n tsrjjT'nwnKs dnt lynKn 

ly^iyj W 0'?»Oyi »»3 T»« D^^I ,D^0 » PK ian3itj-|yQ-)^;j ^D yO"l^» 



n .lyonssni^LJijijyiöi ly^nc oyi ^in jyni^i^y: lyo^DJ^ 
T^^u^^^D lyjötotj'^n \vy't nyD>^3")8"|M? y^^^Ds^K^Dn^nj»^ 
»IM« üvijyaDMN D^-'V y^nD "ly^n lysii^n y3?y^i ,DnyMS pa 
6 na T^Mi^^^o n« ,iy^>TsrDi: yo^ii n ^'3 |yö^^3ii{ 

lyn p>? lyrn yovy^ n .iyD^^mj:i:-pp vtm^v ps d»>p nvi 
,iyDD8tJ'Dnni y:yr\s d^d ony^s lyr.y^ i>^k o^^P2'^pim^ 
•yn D1V lyatPöta ^t^: ^n iy:y^D nnoa^ v^V'^'t -lyon« 5''mi 
lycKTW n:»^ ^v\>^ tnyo nyit? 4 8 p^5>{? ^n 1012 |yö^^3^« 
o^D lyosinv ^n lyai^n oyinyonw .oyi^^ny: ys^tD^: n D'd 
üjjtn oy 1K11 ,|yni?ryni^^Dy: Dyn üv^jj^s Dny^s y'ncK n 
D1V lyo^psn lyay^Q ^n ly:«!^ p£ p« n^s ly^n lonyö^sy: ^n 

.3 .T .« fni>*ü »r^i^n lyv^^n 
-pnsji"i3 y^8"ii?y2 n üiyii »sijt'^k p3 lyn^'J» y^s p« 
•jyD » lyiTMiv lyii^n do^d aji^^^üiv ^in D"iMnyüP8ij<3 y^Y 
,rns D':iQ DD550 n »lyvMsr-iyoji« 5'ij:v lyiyDyij öd3>^ 
lyi pQ MT8 is>: r::ynBt^ mm v^ ,-iy:r-iyn jyiy^ pc ny 
iy:5?ü")yD:ix ^J^tv nyi pQ mi ,Trx p« mojrn yrn pc D>n3 
Dny^is ^i^^ nyi p2 r::ynBfci5 ly^iy: r^x yt:vy^ n px ; y:>n 
-i^n -lyK^^^'iiy nyi Dan .üsjjtrüi^ii -lyin^yoK'üDD^yr ^ ü*»3 
-yj D^^^Dya:^^« iy:j<oni^: n pQ arnyst^-iy -lyi "^t^: t»« lyi 
Dia nys^vr^«-!^"-« yD^yn ps ,iyü^a-it?ii53 yrryn px ]ynj;?ii 
i^if,^ v^'>üp^v^'?::\s> yü^8 900 |yD^^5^•a^^K ^j^^ddjdi^ öayf»» 
•tDiMi yK^-iy^Q yr^^ip ü^o D^nss^eis ty^^yj 1^"i "ly ^'•« ."lyo'a 
-yjDnn i«n lyo^yr iij: in ot^n oy ys^yii ]v^''m .lyüsöty 
•IV ,iya:ia:ntit3 yaniiti n .üi: "lyK^^vns lynyDy^a « ivDii^^t 
•5yn »oiyöK^ n pc aain^^nQ^« nya^o^^vD^^^a ^ri ü^»d Iyo^<T 
-:yo jyDfcjn ,oiyi3inintji* yi3-15 dj^i t?:yD^^vy:DnK ükh ya 
ni^ö ny^v:»p lyi yD^yii ,ü>VD^n-DP^j^D y^y^ DD^-oya i>^ 
-aa» Diay^ Din^ii«5>^ iu t^n pk tny^^ >n» ö-iyi^^tj* vpoyö 
•^ft»p PD D'^PD^^ay» n lyoij^B^yaDMK \v:m^ *n -vrt^ /y»^ 



^tJD'BKp D^n 188 

,|öm-DJi^^vpni#"i3 lyt^'^DD^^Kü^öKP DI/T iiD 11D' Dyi d:i>'^ 
>T p« PN iVD-lö pD ^yom iVD^y^ d'j^n lyDipyni^D t^k 
t$ .tDnyiJimni^> iyD-16 D':ia ini^> 3>^i:nyv it^s v^^^v 
ly-ii^iiya lyöii^i^iyaDn-is t^n lynj^Dy^j^nö y^>is3 pD yoso 
DT^^yas^N lyj^^T oy Dijiii »oyi ^-in pnsö'Dü^^myi Ts^ife« 
l'tDM^» »lynt^n yD^yii ,iyjyn-nMn n po Dyi:fci;n n lynt^-nya 
"1J r^P injji,, ,D"ii5rtDD DD^^K^n lyD p3 pmoMN Dyjy;ji^yi 
P'^8 ,ü3SD yD^^rjyp n D:n /'tinn m ^'in D^^cy^jj? ly?* 
nn^K PK Di;?n ,aji^p>iiD:» lyr^isi'nn nyi pD Dpnt^ia 8 
n Diy^yjtj'n^Q pi^ü^ üDj^^i'iyn lyDi^j^Dn^? iv ::i2ynDt^ 
\V)m ü^i •^8^-1 n T^N ,Dyi:i^n-ny:yn-fi>in n pa ^jn^^^sn^ 
-t^n ly-iii?^ y^sit^ya yoma n .pDnyi "^j^niN yrvr^K n 
•fcii^iss I'ü^o pN :i^Jyp i'd^d üp^^q^j^p lya-ist:^ 'iv'^'»] >n |yi 
^nn tDsnstDy^t?"i3 pyoyna "nny i» px ü^j s lya^tj^feitn ü:vf2 
PD Dny^iB n lynnDy^si^-ife? i^iinia d^d lyni^n >n Di^n ,DyT 
-i^yQ yn^yt n D^ny: lyn^^n ytDvy^ n v:i^v)'i «rti« ,n"iy lyn 
»on^Biin« \V2^n ^n dijii px »p^^ü? lynj^^ n mi ,DDy"i y^xi 

.iy"ii^3-y"ir''»y: nyi dq^^^ij^d 
ynüoni^N-^ijtii nyti'^Dy^D nyn ps opis^n ny^yjK' lyi 
px ^j?ii n^iN lyr^nD n pö dpinii "iyn:yDyi3^t:j8 iyi pK 
D>D yrti^i n pD 'n^tniN ytopy-in n |yiiya iy:^n ,nj«:^:):y 
y^iSii^yD ytD^»^? n .iy;i:iDMD6j'Dm» yunn^cya^nn "i^{$iu 
-ys yoma n ^nn tyni^my: |yaj^^tj^it$D jyrn oy^^^D^D-Din^ 
-:^p lyny: ly^^n oy^^o^D yI^'^vn3 y^^j n ;nion^D y^^-ii? 
t}ö5?"ip n lyiiya pn to^ya nyD^yii nfe?D ,id^^v ny>n pD nyn 
n^3 — ]v^m "lynnyn t^k ajiri?^ ny^n .ly^syip y^5§ lyn^K 
PfDit§n .ly^^y^s-nyü^D-^j^^j' px i:^^-iyp5$ bi^i iy^n:i?n 
"t^nöDpy n ^1^ /'n:iy^:rN iit? ji^tj'snpDyn,, i^n p« t^n^nii'üfn 
ö"i^:^Kn ,DnyM3 ,nyo^üjy3'^N-ny v:'''>'?p n t^ö ::n^xns 

n "?iy"ii?t3{?sniT'!K yD^n2 y-iyr^iK ii^ di^i önya ü^))„ 
-'^3i»-n^ys ^1 tiQ ■Jjy^'t^^n n iik ony^s n ps |y;j^rm^i 



V 



189 DnynB n »»i "n^r lyi pß ;:n»KnB(jiBDpy n 

ü^>^D"i"iKi^Q ny-ii^ ö:n3 i't'3 ivni^^iyi w^):)'^ lyj^n "ivd 
"JVDiptiin n iyD^^^;ii»D ^i?r lyo iy^i„ .ly^MD finx lynt^nya 
Dy T{< ,iy:^2yjDMs< \vü üyii ,mrnyDn lyo^s lyiy^ pa lytD 
Pill ytj'-iyiis) y:^^^P |iK "lyt^M ^i;?v s iyijiKi^5i'nsö lyj^n 
; lyji'jyo iy:^j^'ii ^y^D D'^yjit^s lyiiiiin nyi rt? ; lyDs^sj^ 
i;'^: y:^j>^« D:n ^oi^j^xn iyv:j<:rK lyrn üiyüB^ ^y^a ts 
nyi D:{^py: DJ^i^oy "qn« d^i^^i ^^x .on^p^y^aM« iyni#n 
DyDD^ji^D Di^n lyo ys^y^.i »lysiyn p« oiyo'^ iid jy^nyv 
lyjiit Dy yD^yii t)Mt< px ^ny^^y^B-syü^D px DpyT:i5ine;s p« 
/p^:?s D^vna n pD lys^n n -ij^i: lya^^m^c 
3n:yü:j^ iy:^n Dyp>Ji?-iD yo^s y:y^ p.d ly^nyjs^^p n 
pö pmr^K Dyi Bi$ '>):vi \v'?:'>b^ ^n nyai? jynnoy^iyn^K 
,n n^us iy^'^jyD^ynn5!i2-D:j^>vpnj^"is n pj< y^v^^jjj^iyn lyi 
n lyti^n^^ "n^^^j-ii^a s .d^^v "iy:y' p« ony^ya iy2i;?n D^^n 
D3i§o ni;?o ü^^t^ü p.s p« vpDyD-iä;?D wvjjs'P d':i3 lyDsni^ 
-jin-iDN^ iyD-16 PN iyD-15 oyi lyt^'^iv üjn:3i^ Dyi nj^^p 
Dy:y3Ji^y3 i'd>i^ ,T^i< D^^p-ny::^^n-is ny5^>^:;jy "lyi .Diyi 
-j>n« ::fc?ny3>N-iytJ'niv |yiy^ |ni^ ,ti^tD:"i{^nD pD pmo^^x 
.DynyT^''fc< Dyn p« -lytD^^-t^^^i? üy:y-i^j^; nyi ps ly^tüay: 
.y^vi^j^iiy") lyi nsta lypj^i^nyn ^n Dj>*n a^ny^vyry; n 
->^>iw pD ^^in nyi n^ix |y:^ü6j'y: d^: dd^noxi -^i^^ t^&? n 
3:n^oD>^t< n Dr^o Dt^i /'DiDD^n-Dp^fciic,, Di^n ij<ii .y^v^r 
•n5?D p>? y^i;t?i:ö:i^2Dpy yM'ni^Qmn'mK n px ^j^d^böip pd 
ly^DDyn d^s o:iV2inv:i wiv)^ iyDi$^"Dp^i^D n pa ajioni^ 
•^in^M ly^yn yDD^K^y: pn px .nosn-n^i^o pa pmo^iK 
•^n \V2^r} D>^v ny:nt#"i iyi nn^?,, : t^p5?n ü:i?t lyto-? oyi 
pN i^iü^-nypöt iy^-ijfe?inj<D ^mx iy:r,:t^^p{<3 n DinyoieiD » 
-yii LD^nya n« t:a-it^T^*n dd^>^ |y:i#p y^^yii ,-iyvy^3-nyü'D 
-üy ti>ifc< yt:-injy"i5< ,"iyDO px .lyDiDoets y^^^üy "nnn lyi 
m: v:i'?V)^ pr) "int^> » tinx nyij# ajjü^Djyny^ tin« ,nni^^ yD^^ 
jynt^n ,ny!Dn{<3 y:yDyTyrnD >i AVü^i^" n ps ^^^ö lyo^n:» 
Di^i ."lyD^a y:i''vn3 ps lyij^iiya D^y*TJ5<^ni?D lyj^n (ony^ya 
•lyi p« 3jnyp^y25i;3 nyi pa ajn^psn n lyany^om» tatfin 



nsB ü'Jis p« :^:yp d':i2 no^n n pyn^ifc^^iötn iv r^« tj^iüsj' 
lyswnsQ lyjyp ly^yssn DiD^^tDiyDynfcitD lyn^^n ^n .D:yD»^ 
yD5>yii »öDSK'iDn^inDSi^n^ö lyi iy:yp p« jyii^n-yir^Dy: nvi 

r::'\^vp'?v^^:i n pyjy^pisQ 
IV tDi#2"i»D (10 .sfcüP ,1489) lytD? nyi '>'\:vn pQ ^nya^n k 
D:yDDr:yii W'wn^fi oy y^^yii iv nyr^M ys^'-iyna n lynyoK'w 
Diyi^ lyD? Dyi n:yn po 25 ^nv^^2 nvi pK .i:»^ lyps 20 
:öitj!Tya oynyi:» jyii^^iiv Diyii diij- .id^^j»2 oj^m^js nyn 
,iyDsytj' Dnyi:n83 ,üV'iv'^v^^'r\'>fi yo^i;! px ddisö ^y^D« 
; lytj'jyo ^ijv nyr^^p k pD ü:vn n px D^yo^rya^i? "nn lyntjin 
,*uk5» n^K iyt^nB-yn:ynK n |y;i>DC'y: pi^db^ iy:^n DyiDin 
lyj^n lyr^M j^« lyDTP ,iyni^iiy: on^j^xn t^fc? ü^^nn^my n 
]V2^T] lyosDDp^i^Q yo^na iy>>ny:Qi« ; tyitjtiiy: DnytoK^-.v 
V'\V'''*^ P« ^n n»2 ]V2V'? K iy35§o w \v'?ü'>o v^V''''^ lyni^^nsD 
-^v n ly^mvpn^v lynnyi lo^nys^s ryty: ü^i ."oy^^^o^s 
]V^'>m D^:yü^ynn»D n oo^tDtJ^^s »lyann yt^'-iy^^a yöiyt:*^* 
,tD$»nyv"iyn 1533 pQ ups I5$ .a .n .« iJs^ny^^D px nj^^nypj^ 
-83 ny pK ,|yD3y6}^ 24,000 lyatjiöntüa iyo^tD:yr>« ya^J^^^? rs 

.2000 ü^D ^J^v n tsvoyna 
-lyn lyayp aaiiyavytya n t^x p^j^sd tia ly^na^ya n 
yD^y^i »Dny^s pK Dij^tD^n^yifc? v:i'>'>^i> n pa aiin^NnsjitisDpy 
,in{^^ 150 PS '^K'o ^ PK jtji iyD-7 Dn n^yn ps |y:j5s*ay:ji? t^k 
"lyD^K ny^n ps iid Dyi .lyD^ü^nyi ini? lyiiy: ^^^^a [yrn 
tDP8 iyi„ .iVD^ii Dyay:^"«« pn tni^ j^pj^a mx ropynüJb* a^^Q 
y^snj^D PK y^-^ivv« yrn t^x ny d:5?t "\vt:t'7 üvi n:yn po 
"sn D1V PK O'^anDy^ö lynya t^k„ ,20 aai^^^ioa^ /'|yvi?rDnK 
8 PD nyr^^n-Dife?D pk d^o-.ss ly^Ktrsn ütjin ny ; pynaiNi^ 
taani^TKn ^n t^jjtn ny üd^m Dij^i ,Dnia ly^sDii^a lyü^^DC^yin 
lyaa^nnivD^nfc? a\iyD pn ly^t^t ^n tk ^irri^n ^y^D nr^ o>o 
•aiK yüyö3yapn»ß-D^a p« yD^^ayDi«D aiaya o'?v)) nyi >i^ik 



."nyö'uns yjy:jny;i pD o^: ,-iyD^D:yr^N na tDjyn n pK 
Dny-fcjsy: »Diyp"»»::: »oj^n y^vpni;?na ysj^^DD^^so^ßKP n 
pK j:i^ni»^ni§D ny^n ,iyc{<o-Dp^i?D n pa ::iü3y:pn8D n 
"DtD^uis yny^M pa ::i^i:8insa n px »nyo^uiK v^v::)ivi 
-Dijfcü^nyn^K lyrij;?! lyn pa ^t?^ px .^«ö^sjsp p« ly^D^o 
n ^>iN iyrjj^iy2'N iv ony-DSJ'yi ijuyavytya n üj^n yDijay 
-pi5> ya^^Dafci:K''DiMn:5$^ n pa "ns^r^^n n ^u ijö;^ lyps 4 
•J8i^D"isiiP lyDyjivrnö: lyct^^iüta '•m ütjtn n pk nyo^>3i8 
pa D^^i* -)y- pfc< ,1627 p{< ^i?: .lya^iJ-iN^i y-iy^n p« lyö 
n^Nn^a ^^öo:t?"ia pa nyp{§-ip nytj^ni^-i t^n rtyo-1 nyi do^^k^h 
«i^^K inn » ünny:aMK ü^n ny di^^i ^i^^anyi lyij^^^ya ö^^^d 
oyi "IV Iyt:^Jl^•yiw do p« ^^^DJi^ia pa lyij^n ly^'^vns Dyn 
pa ü^^v lyi p« ,1638 PK "^i;?: .n:s^ '■wp^ 4 yri^ytss^ p^p 
,y^D>»i^p V2^^:'>:vP 8 lynii^iiy: D's^Dtj'»^ t>N ,iyD-l on J^nsp 
•yi »rytyi yt:^s dj^i lynn^ai^ann lyiiya t^n ysj^aa^i« Dyoyii 
lyot^msa "qj?: ütjtn ^yi^^^i^ip ; i:\^'? ^vp^ 4 n |y:yii ^mk m 
-u ü^i ,Tnn 5? ly^n iv l^^ijs?^ cn^ y^:n: ^^^d-4 oyi nyo^iK 
nyD'^iy nyi px ^t?: .i:s^ lyp^^ 4 pv iv-^yi :n:yn^^:t5' 
lyn ,iy:t?^p:i? lyo ü:y^a Diyijininx^ iyt3"18 D'j^a üa^yn 
t>3 1 pa iD3j^Di8a ü^: ly^i^n nyo^^msnjiö:^ n pa ivv^n n 
•öi>in:i?$» iyi T^K lyo^^v ya^D^M ."^^r ly^y: "t3»^ "lyps 2 
» v\'?2 üijin :3i:nKn rn ]V^^ »t'^P'^^ nyö^^nis nya^^öasB' 
lyaan nn^N tia tD^^ii |i^p ny \v\) "lyn^ ,iyö"i¥^-D:na ayj^^^p 
.in tD;ii$T /'lyDiöta n px Dinijt^iDy^ '>!„ ,\vii^2 ^vp'^ü^* k 
lyn ^^3 nypüt ya^^oy .t^^fcnn pN ü^sn t^n iy^i:sn,, ,-iyt::i^n 
•jynsJjDiK ^v oasDy: dh^k lya^s^ii ,iyü>^2")8 o'j^a ::i:»^ki^ 

ü^o nyn pa oyvijina nyn Di^n d^^ük^ tya»^prnij^ Dy>o k 
lyo^'D-Dp^jja n pa 3jn>Knai^"iaDpy iyDin'»2y:D"in i^\^)m 
11K y^vts'o^i^ay-i lyi P3i?"t i< öiyi:imni#^ rvo-ie pK iyoip»3 
-■•^^iDtüP n .lyD^nyDn^p n iia iy:y'3::'ö:3 jyf'ötDj^^ii^p ü]n 
-i^ya n lynyj y>v8D-itjiDn lyn pa o^^v "^yi pK t^k yai'P yv 



7^}u»EtfP D^T 192 

n .liK^'^^y PK \vi^2 '?'>'<ü lyo-'-na » pD piyD^D3y3>^N y^5<!n 
|yD-ii#iiy3DMnüi üi^n .;; ,i .« ony^on^p n pD ajipmiyDJix 
-i§t3y^Jiii£3 p« yovy^ n ü^ynjs^n^D p« nyjnxnj^^fc? yny^n 
'Vi tipj^^K'iv ^'^üjyDDinyD lyrn p^^y: lyD^riyaT»? n .nyn 
nyiiji a^jyp d'jid y:j>^ny^^ y^^toK^nn n^n ^t^j n iv lynt^n 
yn^yn^^ipysD i^? lyt^ns yr^^-üt^QK^ iv lyni^-nya DD^ipn^a 
\v:i^n yovy^ n p« ; nyj^i«iij^^x yrDii^Dti^ nyitj lyon^o 
-t#n Diji^ /'ny:^ns3nyD:iK„ v^'?^ n T^ni:yDi$D iy3nDy:isj?n» 
p« ,|yt:"mfc?y3 di^^ |ynfc?n oyi lyoip^a n\^)i'>:i nnn ps lyn 
•11« yDn^D:8".^2 "^^^vyty^ oi^i .lyDS^K^onm v^V'*] ön>:^Nn 
-i5$D iD^^m»yi lyni^n dj^^ii ,nyD"'^nij$-iiy yonj^t n pD niD^ya 
DiDyDiK,, .lyii^iiya Dn^':'D^D:{^p ü^Miy^^DK' t^« »ntJ^yo-iyDi^p 
eyn^T^^y t^rjyp lyany^Dn« os^n "ItD^^^yDnt^ lyo ücy-iD 
pD '^n^'> iyüD-43 d'j^j<„ n:^^aiy lyn^« vv^^ ^ ^v'in'^i^ ^^^ 
^v ^y>^^2{? ly^iy: lyj^ix^ivy: y'?i:v wo t^k :jny^:yi "in>« 
-j^"-» »D^^Püönfc^nsD v:i'^PV^^ n »Dtnysixs cyi |y:yp")yjfc? 
•ya Dyi pd iyD«Qij<D n„ .ny'>D^-tD^''^yDntii Dyi 3n:yin^D 
lyni^n Dt^^i ,iy2fe?T-iii< n ly^s^tiVD^n^ DoytJ'ya ^n jynt^n ryt 
,|yi>^5^ny lytj^^y: ly^nyi Di-t^k lyni^n p« ,iyQny:iDMi5$ Dn^tt 
'^viv'* |nt? ,:n]D iy:^nyny:^'yTy3 lya^^jny^iyj oyi iv ^lö^n t^t« 
,4 .BSP ,iyD"l Dyi ^"ife§P ps top» iyö-16 nyi •^nn .nonpn 
pi< Dc^ny pfc^ »nj-iy^n ij^a lyijjiiiyj \:i'iv^p^v ryty: di^t t^r 
-iijD y-iyöDya s iyDijy:ijj? ü^^pD»^pn>iT lyn pn oy Dj^n 1834 

(*.yD 



-Dya<<-i9 liö t3Dn;i byT in:?TDniJj ly» iNp opinis lyö^m:^ (* 

•ntj D'iaynNTi'bj? ps jj^itrai^tton« i^^jj'urn in tyj:;n iy;;K"iB iny^ 

:9 yj«"iB .:j313''D pu ü^v'^öv^ pi« — (lyu-l on DwatTT ]ib 
-Kns lj?2Kn ■t3pn!2D>viyrn'p "lyniK iiD lyöiNB pr=''"i y^io^'«« 



19S onyMB n ^^3 tij? lyn tiB wn^Kne^iaDp^ n 

-yi T^« L:^iD3yr^N-{yDi\"5 D^i .yDor^SMi n jyiiya ü^j lyj^n 
-•»jyD^yn-ibiD'D^Djyr^« vd'?^ n ps nD> ^v^V'':i'>'?v\ lyn lyii 
-'•jyt:5'yn"ii?ö yrit^n n lyns^n ly^sta pn d^d m \v^^2 pa lyt^ 

.jyi^DDnpy ^:i^pv:i o^: inyo lytr 
D-iyi3i.-nn{#^ iyD-17 üyn ps ny:^^n:nyv yovy^ n p« ^j^: 
Dny>i9 yr::ynBi?Qij< ^n d^o D^ytotJ'yr.t^D jyo^j?^ n ]V2^n 
n pD Ds^p -lyi nyi^^« .nnyo lyiiyj ^}^v ny^n d^i^ |y:>n pK 
-Dfc^np P2 D2«^"ip":oB>in n tDyi^^ny:D^i« lynt^n ^n .nyonsa 
-ya ^n lyj^n ,''^^j^pi<^ pD 3:'i:yp-iy:s lyi ü^i^ i^^qn ,p« i'^yn 
yny^n px d>v>"i3 ytD'-nDiJ^'i^Q n iyi>>N ny^yn ^y^D \v:^t:i*z^ 
-lyn IV ly-in^D t:D"ij<iy: \V2^n yD^yi^ »D^n^r^nJ^i n ,ny:yn 
y3^^t:D«i:rDn^m:s^ n .|y"isn yiy^n p.ö lyn^^iDsyp n nein 
-ya Dyi p« D^sn^:^ lyiiyi i^i ^j^: lyrn i^^e« lyt^^^msi-pi^ 

lyD •??<? ,yD-na ]»« lyiKBö»:'^« lyijj^ t5'3 t? cyn OKn ,iKonK 
T8 ,nn'nD "ip ]>k irom lyr^"? "jnt ]yo p« ys'u^* ]'k D:«Tr:K 

•y'onn'TKB t? lyny^^'n« j^o iyu?3»t::yK3 k P« iy '^nt ,t3''nK-Tiy 
ny ]y3^yn tsM": ,t>>is ly^D^nyi»: cyi lynnii« pK jt<'7s»iKB tya 
-yn ]k'?b Dyi pB "lyoNBiKB n .!2i''?yDnK n t3ik to lyonya '?mi 
ts»3 p;"?'!! yr'?yn »lyi^tTiys t^ iy:'By; nn'iD "^(yi pK tk ,]y3y2 
]yj3n itr tanynp p^p "lynK ]y7ö'0 p'p iso lynwn pK lyta^anit 
]yiKp ]y'?KT »IT T»t nrte »ti'v ^ nyiK dikb « tt lymymy ist nyn« 
lyr^jö IX tojj»»3y:> pu lyBi^jn b>''7 yinrK jniyannK-ta»: yj^yi 
eznBOK iiyi lytsaiK tsyn ]ik .]yjK'?Ä'iKs yiayo^tB apnoon oyi 
»T ey^i »BTBHp inyjJ 1«0'"ik ]n iyD"n<i lyi« kt •n«upKia3Kp h ]td 
or'^B ]»n lyn^n oyii »pnoon nyr "J^ni ,B^p pu ein« ly'jKB lan 
-*7yn iy;yn ,bpk lyT tk »mita "i^ynK ]ynKn i>o .o^'Biy iKan^« oiir 
.«jyiaio ly:»!*?? t<T» ]yony:i!i3<< i3'3 tann'jiy ,t^t o'ryiiKn oy lya 
ny^uKn-nny yauaynBKfaiK yjnyn^K n tk »lyom mtio ih'k itfi 
113 ,T3i» 1!» inyoirix ]v'7yi^ y;j'onK n iid p« i3BKtrDt«i:i lyi ]ib 
yiDK'j^tB iy=y")y!:3^K lyn I^k nynycitriKB y^.yTiiK «in« ])jp'\^'i'\ ^» 
-3nK-D;i3Kin lynn'jny lü lapy'HnBTy^';^ « iyj^tni33int< iy'7^«T »u 



•:iKiiBnKß \Vü)^' n tyrn 1750 bn» vv I« .tyi«i2"i?^i''ö 
-^M tDiyiiin-ini#> iyD-18 ps iyr$>"i:nyv yovy^ n r^« m !Jn 
liD DiDiyr^K-yir^cy^ pc \vi)b^ v\:i'^v'? n lyiiixiiK'itjD |yj 
ni« ytJ'>Di?:i?py-p'"i ^ tD^n 8 \^ t^i iyTj#5> n^o .onyna n 
^4: \v^v\) n^D .y^vi^i^iiyn ny^^^Dc^t^^DiMn^i?^ nyi pd lya^t 

.iy^D>D-n^«"ii: yin^K |yD3KnDi$:i 
•njs^ n lyni^n ddisvdd n ps y^v^iiisüDyi lyi -^t^: 
T^« yD^yi^ ,3:r.^BnniK n "^^^^ytya oiiT'Dy^Dnn lyö^öjyr^« 
•vytya \n^ rvöipynj^D fci:sj#"i^^K p« t3:y:'ö:t;^p i'Dnx c^oyo^K 
'VW v'?^'\i^vci n ü£!«tj^y:st? lyni^n ^n .iyüyD>^i§Qn{^D ya^^ 
in PD iysii?^iy;i35^is tyni^n ^n .n .i ,D'iDjy:i>^N-nj8^ ps ivv 
iD^D {yiJun^D lyiiy; lyj^n oi^ii »hdi^d lyi iv j'nu^nnn y^»« 
py^i^K^ "^ir. riDi^D lyi "D^^ü^ni^Q,, lynj^n ,5:ivn8n-i:8^ 
n:y3 ^n lynijtn jyojjiD-Dp^j^D vw^:^ n px Dnyns n pinx 

.ys'üÄ' «iMK taiyT p^p lyi^n tso *?kt ,]yn«Btt>i^>M a»: tu 12TK7 ys 
]»» TT ]y3'Bj?j D^jn »lya'ayD n lyci'jswK ,^^d iyß«n /tsyn dkt 
11^ n^tsD'n 'm : »ps'js .ii) ".ys^citr n^: nn lynayn ps »tan^ 
PK — (.85-84 .T .T ,2 n:Na ,1855 »iNiajj'? .iiiütnyta»'? '7ypiu'T«a 
-tay ts'ta iyDipy;j"H(iB miDiy;i^K-nn'? ps lys^trst* d^t rm natj'^cKttf 
z^n 1698 p« "iw .i:t?^;jy ]'k "lyii'x »lytsyety taiyn^imn«» y3'^ 
Hm : B3yD8'?nijB iyB'njy'?t2^B' p« tany'^pny iiöa'JKD pö nya'üy'JD 
Ml ,"i'y;i»3^Mi tjo ]^K ns^<try:l anyn n:«":::«»» ]'« ny^toya ps "jijx 
-yn ly'jy'B^sinB k h'« d»J1^ ,'7yu>Q"DB'?'n y:t's:i'« d^t .200,000 
-a»>^ ya*?« o^n lynn's:'^« pm» — T'k »tyjM^trnNB |Kp ,ij?:Kp>'7niB 
nj^jüöf o»K B»3 ]y3''T D^Ti »y*?^ n lyBjj^ptr ikb ly:«« tiK Dii:2y;''K 
•yoni^ n pc okoö^ lyr,, ]i't I'k ,]yny ."i:;;n^r i:j t<t i«b p^*?» 
•3^'^ liD ;3^B^^trB^ n„ : 15;j«t (61 ,60 .t .t ,1 .s»p ,1 n:i<n) "'j^»^ 
.o»<pDn^ n in o'ta iy;i:'nn eiioy:! ,Dnj« !3T»'*,i ,B«n ci^iy;;''» 
•51K ]iD o^^^yon^ n pB pya^y n !y3»»T ^yn^tjn ti>» "nopj^si^KD 
iö:(JO ,i3t<'72i<3^ PK ■!y3Kp''i'nT5y"^' iy^y>B'53nB lyny» m ."p^kb i:?» 
•i»'*? ]iö ;i3^B^ys^ n '^'3 TK ,!2^3 tsr^T "ly CKn »myia cyn ih3 lyiy 
qnK DnjrnB n ps Diüsy;:'^« Dyn ps :i:iBNtt'5K n ikj Dvj;3y;ji'K 
ytsn^ n«B ti'7;»'?^b px '^i:;nK!:y^K"'3 "ikb D2Kf3:?;i 'm ükh i^iKn "lyn 
•lyi ]:?3>n nsK'?:^!? pK c^^'^j^önj* ]y;:yn r>?^VT57^ n ^^ i^'^^ny .c*? 
»'l'^"'p3»"iB V^ 1656 pB Kp'ny "lyn pH 1571 pK iy'?iö pB ^nirBxn 
•tri» "lynii T* 1*^»» tyo^pyr#i t»k ja^'i^ii^^ft^pftopy n ^m^ 



IM ony*»!» n ^'n ny "ipi pc :J3n»K'")B?"i5Dpy »i 

5]n« Dryi y^sis^ya ij^j ü:{^r3-i{<D ]V2ifr. "»n dj^^i d^^v "lyi px 
-tDiMn:«^ n n^ix iy:r.Kiivy:D^inöi "^^pi-^y lyDii^n n« ,Dn^« 
üi^i$'?) iyvyryr3:^vyT5$n n i:üt^;jy p2 nyo^^^is yD^^oEj»::^ 
,y-i3^>cya nyi i:^ lyijnyi^v ^n iyn5;?n y^^yii X^^J^^i^^^J^^ i''^ 
i"ij^jni^: Dni^2 lyosiD Dyi ps ^nya^n nyi >ii mt» wy>B 
.DnyiB y^j'^Dn n yu^^'Dy: nyn iv iyi:ny:iv t:^n 

-D>^fe:D^2t<P pN yt^^ny^'^ijirTiy n t^^^Jt^ p&< ü^snny; ly^'ötnj^ 
y^t^sy y^^: n t^jyryy: ly^i^n ^n .lyD^r^-iyD^si^is yij^^D 
pD nn::) lyn^v^top^-s iv iyn^iny;j{^ lynii^n >n d^)) ,i:>üin 
-•^^i<3 8 n^i« ly^ipyns^D nyn^-i2 t>s< ys^yr. ,"iyt3^rnDiPö n 
^yüv"! yrtJ^i n .n&?OwDb*»D ly^xoi^^i^P 8 n^iN »is-iX cy^yn 
-t:5>*3tj' 1^ lyiJ^iiy: tDs^^p-.fe^s: -lyij? .lyi^^iy^ üp^^k^^v lyrn 
lynv:!^:.!^ y^visisniriN* "lytopym inn ni?: nyis? jyr^ns y:>^o 
-D:y>p lyT inijt lyv^ipynj^D r-'X v'?^ d^i .'yo^j yt:yiipi2 iv 
jyrn Di?ii r>yt:^rn.'D*,?o n .Dy::^!^^'3"i5?D ny^^^vyry: lyn 
iD>?2 lyD^Tiv ii:ix lyt^^ny^y-in-ij^D fcs*:iN* ti^ix |y-iJ^^iy:j ü2y:3ii<D 
nyi p« lyrn ^n ^y^am «n^ix ,-iyt:'riy3"i^P n ps n^n oyi 
,]y3:^:y3 iyit?^"i^'2 o^: y^vi^t^iiyi ny:i?p^^msyi lyn p2 d^^v 
D:y3y^i^s yD^^o^j'n^D yrt^rM n p£ iio^-os^^.n Dyi jy-i^^n 
lynj^n lyDD^^N'iD^SNp yr^n'^'inn n .ryDixr^i? y:^'^^::y n pa 
c^-'TD^^s^ p« ri:y2?^n ,y^v^"iy£fc? ly-i ^^^k D2''^jyr^n.sv, L:pipy3 
» PK iy^n:ö:ini?2 iv^^i cyn 'oyii dj^t t» ,Dy-iy-t:5< [yt^'n^v 
PD ü'ivi Dyi lyü^nnonx oyi^ ,!^yp^Dn«"Dpyi:i!J.i \'Vi)^B 
Dyi pyDy-iniüD oyii ,y^vpni^-i9-D>"n3 -iyD^^D5{<K^tDi^in:i<^ 
-nyDMt? j n .« "lyany-t n 112 'iynft<Dyf'fc>n3 y^n2 p2 01^21^ 
-nrns ys^^n^üi?] n w^m y^ü«"ipi?QDn^"ny y^^: n t^n oyi 
-•»D ny3>-,n lyi p2 ,y^t2fc!tipj^DDn5ifp:fc?n lyn p2 ytD'2nir ys^^ 
■yiD^^K ^^« ny-i p2 tDi'ny üd^n»:)»;"! ^n t:i>*n D{>*ii ^D'^y^rnsJ 
-b!T "in |yn^j:^ d^Ii ,iyDD>"i'!Dpi?2i:i<'o yom: n ps pK ,0""^*^^ 
ynfeüitJ'rnu yi*-'^^a:y n .^n^^ü-nK^ on ^^)k Dv^tDiry:! üd^^xo 
-an '^TK üp:i3 lyoynyürK yjyr^« yin^N p« j?yiJb*ny: üi>*n 



•y:Din-D^fc?ii; ü^o ly^v px |yr:yp n üv^tD^'-iyDiiK ,Dny>ia 
K'nyiiK' n üif,)) ^-lytD^rpnp n po y^vs>"iBi^iöDpy nytoin^D 

pK iyD-10 Dn ^nsp i^D D^^v in pk pk 1604 D^n lyoip 

(.|yD"ll Dyi ^"i8P 
pD K^iyi:» nw T^« Dijtii — Diüjya^^K-yii^^oyi ü^i 
"ü^» IS mm v^ — Diüjyr^K-nDi^D lyDDsntDsrDtj'iy oyi 
•31« lyny^ iv DvyryaDni^D o^n v:i'?V'\) ,3JitDDn:>>K yi5'^:fe?D-iy3 
n '>)) »inyryi lynijn n>D .DP^fe?"iijyD pa •niDpyi Dy-i nyo 
,DitD:y3^^K V'^:^'Dv: pd i^n^ßimK yonn^öyaDin-i^sii: id^ö 
«i^njsinss nyi ü^d lyiiy^ ü^^^:«3 DjytDDinyD r^x yD5>yii 
pN iyn^iny::i^ -^n ot^n ,-iyvy^ö-iyü^D px njt^^nyp» d':id 
.0")y-i3imnN> |yü-16 pö "hb^d p« Diy>ny3 px iyü"15 ps ^no 
lyDipyniijiD 3:n>EniTiK ps oyvi^iö nyn t^k dd^xd^^t nynt^ 
^y^ya ,iyD»ntDn5>fciiio y^yn>ir-i:>K vn'>^i » pD yonj^s nyi p« 
tDDnöiK inij^ 150 pD "iK^D » pK Di^n ajiny^vyty: n yD^yn 
-»DtJ^sn fj? Diy"ij"tnnn«> |yD-18 pa Dn^tonj^s nyn .DDoypyj 
ü^yn:»in»D r^>^» ryty: üi^i vi< bo^ii:^^ dj^^i ,Dyn p« lyj 
•nt$D yo^n: n D:n ,njs5'-Dp^i?D pc :^^vyrn>n t< px lyni^iiy: 
y:y3"K yny^n 'n^x D-i^v^üpsinB ü^isnyi lyötjtriv lynt^n lyo 
yts'neiDjyDUj^i^B n .ly-iJ^Dyo-Di^ivns yr;:ynßj^Di« yr^^p 
lyvyty:,, n "ii^d '^>r tD>D \v^v^^ y^vsannix nyi pö yoni^D 
-yn n ,öiyny: tj^nyn:» /'lyni^ryu^^Dyi pD iyD^iv:>^K ntjD 
pyii» p^^t? in lypr^tj» nyvnöfnn:»^ n y^^-yii •^nn jy^rip 
-ynpyn n ,|ynt?ryn:^^Dyi oyi nn« DitD:yr''K-Dsi'in3 oi^i 
ü^yp^^^ WitJ .0 .D nyo .p^t^D Djn lyTKnsi^iöDpy iv lyD 
ny yD^'yii Tin ^ly^nyn^ifiB-iyDöJpi^msi yiD^3 yj^n b^ p^^i§ 
-ü«!ivnö D^5< Diü^yr^N-nr^Dy^ üi^i ly^y^ti^ivit^ö "nn tDD^^^a 
Dyi jyoin^D wn^n v:i'^V)) ,diii^^i3s^ yonia n pD Dit::yr''x 
I»,, . ''5's ü-iyit;?D iy |yii ,"iyvnsn-n:ü!5' y^snj^yö n ps vb'!'^ 
-ya PD ajio^ivj^^K nn nsD t::yDfcit^-iKB ps dp^? Dy:>^öy;f'b* 



197 Dnyna n "i iiy "lyi ]:b J3n»KnB<<n5Dpy n 

Dy iy^-jj<int>a ii^ tsii'iy nD ,p"'nü5i'"nDi^Q "iyK^ns;D:yc5^^-iö;a 
"ya nyn ps '^^i ny D^iyij^D iviyi px ; DiLDjyr^s^-üi^nns px 
.D^^^yonj^ yD'T'KnsJi^iBDpy n *ifc?D *':jirü^:"i5<3„ ::uyjvyr 
lyoii?^ y:^:jyn2i^D^x >i pD ü-ij^ oyi üi^)) d^^v "lyi px 
|8 ,in{^^ 8 5^^iK D"ii;?t3j§i:y-ii? ,"iyDi»D-D>:D:i' lyo^jiKS lyni^n 
i^p^^n Dyi lyDii^r.yjiyD:',« lyr.y: t^k dj^ti ,D^iy -iyr::ynsiit 
Dyi iy:y'2j:'yn y^^tDSöyoD^D dj^i tDj^n ,di"i{;^^i:«^ n pQ 
,nyD^rnD^^D n pa ^nynm nyi d^o lyc^ir^v jyii^a-yir^oya 
yDMi3 Dii? ny:y> po dp^kii iyiy^^ny:ous Dyi iyspt;?ny3 
n Diyn:imnijt> jyj-lS px lysny: üi;^n lyo y^^y^i ,0015^2 
-y: 'n2„ Di^n p« ,Dai5§2 ya^^'-imD "lyiJ^ »D^oit^D-^i^D^asp 
lyi i»Q ü5§n^Dy^i^n3 d^s :jnyp^yc5?3 y^^^Dit^n n "öD5$o 

.y>it:Dn:>x 

-D>-ii^-Dp^i^2 p« i3^^p2^n y^^':j^>vö:: tk ,yü-19 oi^i ^11 nt^^p 
yo^M n üöiJtüK^ p2iy"i .yn^yr Oi^i px d:^^k lyü^njjD d^^p 
|y:iyii d^^v "iyjy> pa mübsnytD^^» nysj^^öt^ii^py nyi p« p^oy^s^e 
yD^^oy fc^i Jjyin i^x .lyij^n-ynr^Dy: ps ^j^omv^^n lyn 
^^Mi ,n^D "i^D tD3y>^ Ds^ii ,^fe$nyDü;o |yD>n oyi pc ly^yüK' 
PK iy:nyny^ o^^i^ ")y:y^ pD |y-i:yü5rDix n ly^yu anD-in 

.lytDynüDms "lyo^n 
— /'-i^t^Tit^cöifciin PD iyn:^^DyriyD-i^? y^y^D pK„ 
yny> ,ddiö!d 24 iy:^n„ — ,"iyiyD yDs^nny^D^ix I« tDn>nK' 
3 PK iyDi^3y:i:yosTiv ,'^^5't2^:K^Din ^vp^ 150 r^n 50 pD 
n w^t "i^ti'^^J^pr^ PK "i^^^'Ji^üsoynüni^: pK^ ."DaisD 
iyDn"i2 fc$ n^^K lyoipyrt^a lyij^ryir^oyj p2 iy::iD^ivr^K 
pD lyjKtDK^öJK W^i''^ v^i'^'V)) ,iyü2K'^niK> n p« n^üDiroKo 
p« iy-itji'iiy:i D^y-i:»infc?D DiyöDnnyo w^»^ ^ly^r.Dnvr^K n 
nifc?^ v'?V'i:i PK lyj^M paiy-i oyiü^nyn D^et .nyvy^Bnyo^D 
jyrn lynno ikii ,^v?^ 50 r^i^n :i^3 i'-iyto^iK üv^k lyöCKt? 
,|y^^üti' ,py^^ty ^lyT^-'n v:vw\v: pß nmin . . .1500 lyiiyj 
-"•iK^i:^^« y3>f'{;^'ob' n po ly-iiat^ yi>v:^^K n iy:^n ".} .1 .« 



-P3 lytDiy y^y^Q i^k ly^^n iv^^^d^q px lyt^^n 100 ps .lyi 
-nnvD n pfc< nyvnstrTiy n 112 ^i?v n . . .10 ^v^^ 8 . . .ivn^^n 
öii'ny lyo^pym^a t^k a:iD^ivj^^N n ixii ,iyir''Qyriy3i''p yno 
,n ü>o '^^^^:"ife?D pK p^^P nnyr t^« p'>i)'^ nnt^^ 20—15 ü>d 
-yai^^N t^« ny lyi^^x /lyni^n oyi lo^-'m^yn Dit^i lyni^n Dt;«iii 
4 TS ,'^^} yD^^nyi^y.iD^x p*»? d>j t^n oy .lynisiiy:) d^^iv 
;jK^-ü^: n |yBfe^*3^l:?Q ly^j^r D^vns DD^!;-n>D v:^^'''^ 5 "lyij? 
iy:^£ya nynns "^n lynj^n y^^yii ,iy^Dstj'n^^ yDCMvy:on8 
V'W^v'pp ^y^Q nt« "^s^j PK lyoiyia 30 tu 20 pQ ü^vt) n p« 
lyosnv tov^« jyi^n y?5^ ^n .Dii^tDfcüijyi» px nyo^to^yr'»« 
-ünni yiy^n ps iyi^iiy:i [ycii^iiyjDMnj? ly^^^osQ Viv^'^'i ü^d 
rD^yii ,iy^^^DSD vivi:^ ^ya ^n ü^d Dy:^>NrK px lytss^ti' 
.{yny^ t? i:3t^oy: >n Dns px D^^nis o^ny: >n ^^n jynj^n 
-J1N mt^^n:^^ lyt^'^'jstj^ d':iq lyn^^iiy^ fx Ds^DiuitD px 
ni?: ,iy"ii?n nyri^^^ lyi ni^j do :i:iDnv:^>K P2 ^v''^^ Tiyü 
nyii? ■n^^DE:i<tJ'j"'^?oy3 iy-ij^"ny:i to^m^yn t^x dj^ii ,nyi "^^ix 
-yii t?n i^n "i^n\, .y-ij^^oy^ -lyi iv ^i^vs}^ lyDo-'D^i'yin t^ iö^ö 
•^yii ,iyni?3 D':^D pN* '^Vi'?vt^ V2v^i^ n pa 3jiö^^v:^\x nyi jya 
-n^^tD")ö52 yD^yii ,ny3>ntj' n ^^>^^? .t3^>ni^yn pitJ» iy:>n V3 
n DiyDyins2 :i:id^^v:^^k n t» ,1^ lyn-i^ ,iyjri^>i^r^x n |y: 
-y^ ^^iK lyt^ns n ^i^i« jyn^in ,D♦^■]^?D n pQ :jnn''^i>*SJ?:i^*D 
iy:'n yD^y^i ,dö-i»d n ^yoyi: -^i^j D2st2 p« iy^t:\*D-D:yn 

."D^n: iv •^^iK nr« pis^» 
->n3 yrr^N pö ö:yn n px pns tD^ss lyij^n nyi |yii„ 
yD^yii) ,nyDisQ yr-i^p n lynyii,, ,D^n5 .m ü^^t /'lyD-isö yo 
p« lyo^tD^yr-'j? y^^^^p -^d »„ D^i< D:yD^^vt?{3 nynna Df^n ly 
n ü^D Dy^^"'>DSQ yiy^n px ^n fy-inyjiy oi^ii D"i}^Dfcsn:yiy! 
,^^^' n pc ,Iyü^''nn^?yn ^n Dt^ii ,iyn^n oyn pQ lytDpnt^-is 
-i?ry-i:)^^?3y3 cyn ?l^1^? ly^yD^e ^n dj^^i ,.: .n .« onrn ,ni2^y 
-Diyny^ lys^ip iv t^♦^:yDny^i?3 v:'''?^ ^ ]V2^n ^n ts >nfc? ,]Vi 
-y^ yiy^v ly^mss ü^)) ,iyK^jyo px tD^yiJi<Tnsö ("IV^ö^q 
iy3:"iKiivy3 |y:^n px yiyiJ5§ 1^0 lyto^^ni« ^in |y'50>!:?-D:v3 
-••D öyii oy ...lys'^^'iss ^^t dj^ii ,r^s ^{?: pii<D px iny: ^v 



199 Dnyns n '»i n^r n;?T \\t jJin'xns^iaDpy n 

^'^'ii ,iyDpe;"ii jy^yn jy-iioPötc^jfeüD p« to-iyt:^^ ..jJi^r.i ly-iyp 
)f3?yn ,iyi^':ya inyo lynyii iynnt:y:j^ni$ ^n px ly^yii oy 
-"i^toiü: Dpnm Dy lyD^yn ti^^.N ,2V)) lyi pk dj^i .o^uiö! ly^i? 
Dtjin >T lyD^yii ^imk p.x ,dd-i^d n pD 3jnnD:yv:i^p n "q^^ 
''.öp-iMiyj K^>tDp»"iQ ly-iHi^^ y^y^D D>n p^.ij' "^^nrjyp nyi px 
PD :jipiMi nyi \vm) üDi<o iy Di^n ^d.t^d lyi tx dij; 
n p2 v:^'? n ^n dj^h ,iyDi:y;i m:^: pK„ : iy:jiü^^vj^"'K n 
;üdm:m iviv PN* DyD3 üiynynsD lyosiD-Dp^j^D viv^^ivi': 
-y: tDpmy:EJ^ii5 lyj^n lyoijss px -ly^^n^nmy yiyjy^p n 
|iK pyo^^m5$":i;?io p« iyD^"'3".«-p"i^ pc yji?^ nyi ^v lyn^^ii 
ly-iiji^iyi yis^ ly^MJ^i nyi px ^n -ib^s t^x d^^v nya^ynyi f^5< 

(*."iyny^ « ly^iüD iv ly-iy^ia^ 
lyii^rynj^^öy: oyi pD :jn^sinis< n ü^r> u^^Dp^ia pt< 
lyaötnv T^x yD^yii ,DQi?5i'D"iMn:ö:^ "lyn px y^^i^j^iiyn n px 
-lociüK^D-innJis^ n ^MK ^^^^ ^irs: üpnniy: ,iy:jö::y;i "in\s d^o 
I>x 1765 lytj'n^v t^j^n ,iyiy dm^ i^>dn ,Ti§ ,iyD^m5$ vd''? 
-»:^D Dyi lytDJ^K iy^t$2 w iyn^*.ny:3i^ nyny^n pi^ nyi 1780 
-"lyDJ^K ^nn lynyii ü^jynyi DDistiy) t2i;?n ny rs ^rj^ ,n)D 



'^n e"*? y2>n n^ .om lya'?« cyn ]'n t:ik a^Könyi dkt (* 
.ly-TKn-nzi'rö ij?r2'7»'t2T^-c': oyi ps 'r^'a ly^sDyn: nyi lyoiJTKD lya 
isyn ]yf3 tk ,a>is. •i:;t ]ts iyi3yü2*OTK n ]>k ttnn'^jy:« U•-^?^ "t 

]is :2',o>t:iyis lyn tü'o ':Nf3'?n»j ,n'>^2^ yf^oK y-iynt pc lyixn "lyp 

,]pK3 iK^pi'jtt' y^'^'rp y3'?ys3''« üK'itriK ijn'^yB yj'nstry^DnK 
,ts:Ts-n'5 p« cmK-i'7j?D 'n tysKTpa* !;!Jiix2 ^>t lynKn 'in^^iy! 
-»<7if3 n u'^n-iK nj?T ]iB lyrayai!» ]yD !:;y'?D iyr:yö ync n '^'mt 
t2Kn';:> "1«3 wHin iyBK'?pti' *j'0 tt iyvi:Ki dkt ]i« .tsDjyn-iye 
]y2«n uD3yn-"iyü''?'o p,s !2'nE«n :!n2';3''t dktt ,n'":;o n 'u ikb 

n •lysK'ypy ^'o !2'?'Biyn'K ly^iy: t>k ear^r:» y!«3t<j n px lyo'B 



,ny tD:ijT ,pi^ nv^n .D^-i^yront? njüD nn^Vi n po 3:iv>tDt^ 

-j^^K n PQ ly^n^^toi^Q » lynynD^iK y^^^ii .« ^^: -i^Di#^ 
18 ,rD3n tDO T^K üv„ .D^nB .m pD '^v:im s pk lyiJis^iv 
n ^11 nnyD id^j tonyi lyn ^^ni ,iyjy^P to-iyi^ :jinyp^y2»a n 
n^i« rn^ya nyjycj^ Td^^« to^^niK ^v^''^ ly-ijyi^K^iKD iyir:yD 
Dijtii ,iyt^jyD p« Dnynis yj^^^p pD :iJi^iJ8TnsD nyi Tin 
T>K ,o>m8 "inyD i{^t:y:5fc? t^nyi^ ,ynyi:8 "i»q jyD^^m» lyno 
-»: lyi njjtD i$<3K^JMi nnyt t>« "lyD^yii ,DD:ym»D s üt^i 
...(1:0 '^"'^n^Dii;: lyiyny: yo^ynjsinKD n lyiD^yii i^) ji^^v 
-nsö ny^n ly^i »lyoyi: pn toyii D^^m5$ nn pa tDpni;?*i9 lyi 
üv : DisD i^"»« ?i>iK lyiyi^ Dn:yiiyjjJ^ üyii o^^nn» y^rj^^K 
n:KD n n^D tDpnfe^iönyn-»« lyn^^DDMx od^kosi ^n Dyii 
n iTa y^^^x) iyi^üp{<aij^D ^i ly^yi^ oyiDnn p« |yn^t:pfc?ö 
IV y^vntjtai^nB pK lynnyj^-^.^D "^n (ii^^v^^ nyn ps lynr.an^i^: 

."nxun pD y^vpni^nB nyn 
-'»5't^3 nyi nyD^y^i ü-'o ^D^^pi^nn yrioD^^: yK^^Ki^üo n 
-"»^^„ D'jiö 2:)-]:]}^ lytDDrTntyn nyn n^^K üpip Di^:i^py ly^^^D 
üKnbi^Ssma lytDDDyii nyi pi^ix pK "D3yn-Diö:y:^^K |yr^ 
Dyi lyr^'^pyiis w msmj ni^j lyj^n ^n an« lyji^n^ys |y:yp 

-y;i "lyiy^p pN "iy-y'7P r*^» t'x n>'n^ -!r^:;'':tjaiN ;;nis n i^c «^^j 

]^K ,t2>''? yr'n n ^ynyji ip'u iyi«n dj?"i iiß D'ns-'?^^ n *?^^)} 
yinß p'p 13': i2iMi«n yai:^^ n p?n^Jn lyiKn oyi trJ''-"'8y:i iü 
,1 *TJK3 ,n:;jnp-ny;n'3 y^'^m,, :p»SK) ."pDi^S*?!!» 1^: ,iytr:yö 
tt^'s nyn lü lu cn'^j»! nn p« y'ryüty yjjuNT n .(7 .Bt<p ,1 "jn 
e^jn D^jn ,i2D3un-iyu''7'D n .CiX»:'»''? iic inyTj?j n n^c pD 

njn "rnb'p yr'^yii -in ,iy'?t:'^--3nn n pc d^^x ^j^i^^»» -^nK tm 
pK »yayj^'K-n^''? p» oi-iyns yB^oni y»nB ic^jnitiinijfl ts^i ipoinj 



201 DnyMB n '»2 Tiy nyi ]Tß ;jn»KnBX"iEDpy n 

IIK iyDfc<nD-i:i§K' ,iy^nj/n^n y^s n .".y^^ij^o fc? p« Bt^nD 
-y;i2-n-i^ö:ii;j t^^D n tD^^^:fc<n lysj^n ys^yii ,|yp^^:DiK-DP^{#D 
rm iyD-15 ps ^y:om lyovy^ d'jiö i:n^KnEi^"iEcpy yoin^a 
-jy^^j^D ii>*: D>n^ dh^k ^u jy^n ,Diyi:imni^> jyjis pd ^i^d 
->iiv e^>:y:o^ynn^'2 y^^tiDn n„ nri^ED^*;« "lyijyüD^ntD^ in 
•lynyji D^yü'j'y:pnvi Pi-i§i ri$^3-iyt:^D px n:5?^-iyp8 ]v*^ 
-:in-inK^ lyo-lö ps ^^^d |yt:)Dyn;i p« iyDl4 iyv:st; d':^k ^,i^j 
i5>^DK PN 3 .2 n^^N ri<^B-iyt2^D ^vp^ 1 DD^üDy^DM« ü^n Diyn 
n t^K onyir.ninj;?^ ]V0'16 p.ö lyo^o p« .n:b:^nyp8 '•wp^ 4 
*nyp8 nyps 2 «i^k r^^B'^yo^D nyp» 2 lynii^^iy: i^'^^yD^ymso 
nvp^ iyp8 1 w r^^s-nyj^D ^vp^ 2 pc — -wt^vB^^ p« n:«^ 
ruyo^yrnKB nyrD^n nyn iv lysipya "^^^n^y t>n üv to ,i:8^ 
/nj8^nyp8 nyp8 p>K fi-iix r^^snyo^D nyp8 3 pD 
iy::iyy: lyntj^n^B i^^-i^d«: t^n Diyi:imniji> iyD-19 p« 
-yj p« ny>\fl {yt^M^v ::8n:yD8nv iy:yii ::ny:>K-iy n i^^c» 
nyrinyüysK^ nyi |y;iri^ rijiyn^n ü'>: rv^ .D^D^yj^^x-yij^^D 
r^yo 8 ^i^?28 lyc-.p^a ::riyp^y28n ye^^Bni^n n toi^n — ,ö^^v 
-^n v^i^v^'i »ini^ryir^öy: •lypb: 3,511,770 n 18D :iji:^t:oi8B 
pH 1831 !'.« 1801 w'c^^m ]}n^)m Di^ny:py^i8 nn^K ^^a ly: 
?|yi"it^5' n ^v rr'iJi^i^ya t:p:^^K^y:pyii8 K'n8D:yt:8^i8B iy:^n 
Dn jyTxnBt^-iEDpy pB Dyvi^ns lyo^n^ lycvy^ Dyi 
•Bt$ pB DP8„ nyjysnyr-'n« nyi 'li^B tj^yioti^ nyns d^^2 ]\rm2 
PD '^T jyrr^nsi? PB — rn?3K in i^k) "lyD^: n iyr:^n 
lyni^n int^tDyD ytj^^^.'»:y yto3j<iü8n ^vr]^ V2 y^8 .(ly^jyo 
.''|y3>:i>nEi?,, iy:i'':^?-i oy-i pis* pmo^i« lyDDsyn ny^n lyjiBya 
jyrDr^T Dyi pb ajnyn^^c^ *iyi >n inyry: ty^j^n n^o ^ii 
Dy iK^) ,|yt3"ii?i tDV^K Dr:y:-iy-r ,^yü^ss;p iyini;itB p8 n:8t3^iv 
-^nBi$ D^v ,|y:>rnivB4? t.v^yii »cny^ia t''P 'ii'^v^o i^ö^: lym 
-üD8tJ'D"in'n28^ n T^ ^iT8 ,|y3:i:nN^i n pB tni^n oyi lyrj 
•y3 p^^8 ly^y^^ ^n Dfc^*n ,iyii>*3 cyi ^^in |y:i;?P lyo^^m« y^^^ 
-^^3 nyni^ Di^i^ .|y:^iNTi D^v rN^-s i^^P lyrBy: ö^^ jyD^^m» 



^«B'B^JP D^l 202 

ü^l ,i3it?ii pD pr i'nDK Dyn p« "iv^'^^i n |y:>j^nBt^„ tD>n 
nyifc^D nyi pD py-p nyi px "jim lyonnyi üti^iy T'id lyjj^p 
t|iT DjyD^^^ lytDit^i ,iJü;^D{^tJ'-i^^n px "iiDö;-iyto^^-|y:soi>n nyj 
nyn t^^D ,iytDpi§-ife§D lyti'^DfeiiDyDD^D pn d^d d^in Dyvj^ns nyi 
p^K ü^D t:-in^Dy33-in Diyii ny yD^yii idm^» ,Dy:nfc?D pit^ onna 
^n TS ,ivnyT iy::^:iyi D-ni^^n:^?^ n jym u^ü^n^x pfc<) b^'?? 
p« .^j^s p^K tD>D ^vB")v\ v:i''?^v IV lyn^ntoD^is iy:!y^D 
ijfe?^ nyp>tDtj' ^^1« lyi^D^a yn^yrDi^i tD^y^D ust^Di^ii'-^^^n 
nyn o^d '^^5'ijy p« — (DitD;iJ^viyn Dytj'D''n » mi dmi;i n 

.DiDjyr^N-^ny pQ yoni^Q iy-iy-ijn^n 

-:y3»K nn lyiiyj t^« i^^p lyiy^ pK jyj»^? px Din^:5<:-ir# 
-it^D iyi Avov^v:^ v^ iy ly^^yii ^^ik ,nj«^ nyi ps nys^o 
p« ,"I8D *iyDM-i3„ iy-ij? ny^Dto^y pn ,]^'?p d'jid nyny^^ 
Dyi pD "lyo^Djyr^x "iyDn>^^to>D ly^yj^öi^: nyi lyiiyj "^^j 
-^y:^'« ytDT^iD^o n t^5< n:5$^3jy ps p:i^:yp n "-ii ntöt ,]Vi^2 
iy{j^^^2:y "lyn lyii av^^:^ \v'?^:^'^^: |yv:^:i nyn pa v^vü^o 
ly^nyjnp yD^^ny:>K n iypmiyt::ii< iv |yj:i^y: t^« ::n^jyi 
ri>iK iy^5§öjfc? yD>^iynD^i«:iK V'\V''>^ p« "ny^y» yD^n:„ n iid 
jy:»^p n ps "yoDtD^y,, n lynj^n ,iy^i>*D yK^n:y^Di?ti'-iyn>: n 
lyni^n ^n ny^^yii iv »D^^nisfn^n -ly^n lynyayjSMK d^: -^^i 
.yont^D nn>x üiyijyyj nj^3 wn^n ^n ; Dinyiiy^iv 3Jöi^ pQ ^n 
yiy^iü^o D^i ^n lyni^n toyt^nt^ü^iK iyjy;>^x ny^n d^o t^i^d 
PK .tD3yrDiD:yr>K-D5$ivi3 p« tD^yiJ5<inytD üDyrDiDjy:i^^» 
IV tDi^n oy^yii ,tD^''^-ib*^P n ts ,iy:iDy:D^i« lyaijtn ^^? jyn 
T/DK^ tD^t?^iy:i "nn lyn^n ȟsn^inya d>: nnyo jy^i^n 'n ryo^n^jD 
-»n ^n lynfc^n ,^n pyD^n^n iv 3:13y•^t2^ ly^n ly^ypü:^? |y^ 
PD :^:yp it?^ .i^s^i: to^o to^-'^-iiü^p n ly-ij^^ivD^nfe? lyDJ^^K' 
w iyt:DyDii<ö D^i^py^ to3y-i lyn^yi oyi tD^D "qn d^j^ii nji?^:jy 
ns^oysj^nö ü:ifc?T ^''lyjfcütDiyüiiK yrn y^tn d^ p« |yn>ntDi»D 
y3^yii ,y^vi^j;?iiyn nyant^n *iyi pc IyT^?5 yotj^ny n 4^t:i>j 
n:^*DtJ'QnK lyovy^ Dyn "^i^: lyn^iny^jt^ njfcü^Di^sj^ p« ^>t ti^n 
'Vi lyü it^ip ,ii^it5 i'D^iK D:ynjyDyi3 oyi [id ny;ijynjfc? n pD 



203 DnpiB n "1 Tiy iö;! pfi Jun'HnB^jiBopj? n 

-vp px ü'')i pn px rö5 »"^n n^D ivD^inyi dissvöd p2 .ij^d 
-ni§2 n:^''ioi^'^-i^in Di^n ,ton];-ijin-inx^ iyD-18 pc ^yurn lyo 
Dt^n ,i^^3 ya>yt dj^-i tD5<o-i5<2 Dy:^^^p pK "^n d^d D^yDt^'r: 
D'Di^'.^DD PN üi?n lyo lyi^ .lynna ini;^^ 600 d^d j<21;?-i^^n 
i:}j5n ,-tny ^yi jis ly^yj n lyn-inDiVEi^n» lynnny^jij; w^^'^ 
,i:^'? pD nyi:i$"nKivDMN |ytoj^Dn$<3 ^n« td^^vd^^^: >n lyD 
yiyijfe? pN p.« it^JD^ü^: pj< ^n iyn^nDivrni$ n^ssiu ü^ü hd 

.üiytDtj'-pnnsD 
PK tsciyny: iDi^n Di>ni ,(*iJ#DyD Dn pQ fiy^Bij^^^n d^k 
n DJ^n /:jnrj^nB¥.f '^ ^i^y^ P^t tDyii ,tDiyn:imni^^ iytD-19 
,IJ#Tny3 yanj^i n . iDDy:oy:j ü^^n nj^i^nym^D pa p:i;^v-iyn 
,iyDj^^K^^n ::{?n ,V'^^:^pv px D:-iy^y2^^ij<ii lyv.y: t^k vd'pv'i'^ 
■ns"i ö! |yin^2i^D-in ,iyi'»2yT iv iynMny::j^ tDJ^n m >ii "n^^^'a 
-iyü''2 p^N PN iy^n:^inN2 i^n y^v^nysj^ yt^'^^sj^^i^py y^NP 
'PK 3:)'nyp^yD^*n n lyD^yi^ px ,ddnk^sni3 yv:fc?; n r^^^ 
■y: D"iy:y^pnö:D üd^xoni V2 pis^ lyoyvi^^B yD^^jny ^in 



-r^3j?öKp n;n ,iK:ypn cjskt ^'i^^^^h^ ]id iiN':-T',n i'enK (* 
i3Hi'js'-.!?-DT!2::;;i'K n;-!':« ^n c*'.:.'!'!,» ,1814 ]'« ^ü^'^D .k ]:d iks 

*ÖP y^'TKi n iMK T'K ^T) Di«'^KijyiN-nt:Mi<3 n ^inx j^i^vpi? 
]yii;»; n^^nns t'« ijrr'^ir'n »tyt«:! lyn j^ia^'ni^^r^ ps d:?bd'd 

pH ,lI?2H;DnK VBD3y'7p H »n ]ycpnH"iB 'jy's TT iyoipK3 ,T'ni 
,n ..iynnay:p';r.« Biyn y:y"iKir;:j ;nyn'K n lynyn ]B"ik ktk r\nH 
ü-i-i ly'ra'O ty=u ,|y»<»n y-iyr po iy5nKiiy;!Dm» lyiyii D^jtii 
-nKya,/ : l«3ypn nm^n) ".n .t .r anyac'-pnn<<B n p« lyay'? 
,:»-n23ny ,""iyp«"n''yB pß Diesen,, c'na^oD .ii .ij .h tp:j2iarij 
-K-'CDpy r;nHn ""lysyo yonnj,, ytyn3y^aK?y n„ (.144 .t ,4 n^Ki 
]yD'"iyjDMK lya'r^j'i'i »u ni ,c2'»^ mtk Dy»'7»ot«B yvJtjj aTNna 
-p j;:»:«^ "ly^u pn nyonyi a'7yn3»nij3 ]ya^<n »'t ; tyT^<-i; pn'^m n 



-ijn >T lyrn 1820 V2 1814 pD .15,000 t^n Mi üvdd lyii^ii 
liN DJi^nsD ij'^Dfe^oytoD^D ,Dy^'7^D»D 3000 *q-iy ifc? ,15,000 yj^T 
PK DiyDK'iv lyo tDijn nysnri i^^K V'^ij'^^t ,iy-ii^^iy3 lynnonb^D 
-jKinKD lyvy^'Q-nyD^D p« — nyn^yD y^^* yny^n ,D:y-iDiö:D 
ty-in^DivDin lyit^^iy: i^p^^j'y: lypn ly^^iii^j^D v^''?:2V .t:^yi 
^n |y:j'"'iiv iy:y^K^y: iv lyoipya i^^dn t>n oy p« ü^^nns; n 
D^i^i^y: tDO Di;?n y^^yii ,MnD yio5'5§ i» .ny^^ixi^^^^t? n p{< 
-5<^D n pN iy*ii$^iy: D:iynnii<Q r^x ,'?V2'>i^i^ nn>« pc iny^D^iK 
yant^i n üi^n |2ix {<ri? ^i^k .jycijtiv ^yn^DC' nn^N d^d lyo 
-I^V)) ,i:5<^ nyp5< 794,000 lyDi^yjiv -qn Dön^*D yD^yLDt^yr^^^.n 
-n^D n .|s^p D^v Dnynya lyD^^v yi:^» ,vü'?^ pö lyn^^n yD 
i:k^ ^vp^ 6000 '^ny is |yny:y:Et^ n ü^i{^ iy:nNiir^K y:ynnD 
lyps 6000 n .y^^^Dfcs*D » ^>^k ^vp^ 2 iv ,d> pc :yin i'd>i5^ 

pK t^« pjtfvnyn n .mojDn v:^'P to^iü^inyiirn» d>: lyo^öjya 
n T8 ,D^Mi MT{$ iy:jK:y3 D^^p:^xnyn-Dia p« to^^p^yn^^K nn>« 
18 D:yB 6 ir^^K^ >Miv IV "u:?i ü^iß^Dnn px üjyDyiy: Dj^n 
-jiniHK^ pD "^K^ pK lyni^n yD^yii ,d^>^-|^^P n ^^ tD:y-i nyp» 
lyv:^!!: oyi .nns^D ^n^x -ii$s t^^^n ny^n lyoi^nj^c ^yt:iy-T 
-^^^ 29 p« ü^»tDy:r^>? M 05^n tyn}?ri5<?p lyü^M^yjsi^ 

-D>^D ,y^$>''08D p^K tSJJMNIiy) Di;?n D-.b'D '^V^V ^MK p« ,D^ni?D 

tsni^ Dyn tj^it? |yi>n 1825 pN .ö5yjp-Di^*5 ytj'^^jjy pö DJiyD 
nn PK .jyDEyß^ 131,000 lyiiy;» pi:^ w^v:^ 15,000 n pa 
l'DM« iy"i^My3 jyöni^in^a r^« ot^ii ,^y:''i«i^i^>x n pa ^>^d 

-lyDBys' » i^t onyrxtrnKB »u po on:;^.! c^i:;« k ...nvn yi'JMi pD 
lyn . . .iy:t':yiT n^je n^p — tk n:7i d^ii ,iK-ii<2 lV2':'Kn k ikö ,'7yö 
.yi»2 pß i:;s:n^<<"is-pD2» n «in« ly'Jb'BJ^^^^ ty^^n ty'7«>*^3MD n 
ly^MK^ii'^K n ijnj(<iDnK iij ii^j^'^e^yjnKs üxn lyn p« |j;d t:«n 

P« i:nn'B7J2"in DT"i^'i?n3y'7 ys^n^y^tt«^ id t« ]vi^n ^K'^trnKS iyn"7r? 
:-iKD3y cnn^ctn) ."ts'^'i'Dni«'? pyjjn« ynj^nt ij^jyp n:««? »ij^nr 
,"1818 ]^<ni^ .]yj^j'S^j3 ]1B J3nyp'?yß»3 "lyi lyjiyii jj^ity^NsonN i>f„ 

(.216 ,215 .t .T 



205 Dn;?MB n »^r inj? ">yi \\ß j^n'^na^j-iBopj; n 

|iD pmoMK Dvi L3>^.^ ,D2y^yi \v2^n px ,iyu^DD8 lyn^iiii^yi 
Tq^ik n^ötn pi« nij'n^ lyi ^mk a>ö;n »nyn^nK' iyK^^^:ijy i» 
•Dny^y: D^5$n "it^: yi^u j^a Dy^s ayi d^d pk nyo^n 
12^K lynyiyiitj^ j$ ^m&? ^i;?: iyai;iin ly^ya yiijjin n nynjj 
IT pD ajnyt:y:iKD yty^üJSDJ^myn ly^n lya^pon« DtiDy: 
iy::^:nyi t^« k^^d n po nn nyn ,18>P po ""lyjyo yo-^nj^ 
••^n-iyi tipyoij'iyi lynt^n ^n .iy:ytD yonn: n ps iijj d^x 
-t^iD yoMia n ^v D> :y-i3 cyi iy::nn8D lynijin pK lyo^ci^ns 
nsQ ^{??o wo^'^m D1V iy:^n ly^yi n px it^i:^?^ pe ny^:yn 

-y: D^yiJKinsD nyvy^BnyD^ö n pQ $»^^d 8 t^k ^id di^ 
->n i:i!:^a:y px tk »toDit^iiiün r^t^ üv nyvy^öi:«^ p^? lyii^ii 
lypnstB n p« ni^nn:»^ n .löinöiD ü^: nyi^yi^ Vüisy V':> \v: 
^Vj^'i:^'? n ni Dys ,nvn-Tnn yoDy lyrn ü>^^ yoMi: n po 
"lyT nyany-i r^x iJSi^Di^tj' .(lyDstD^-an-üni^üK^) lyonyi^t^ 
,(i:öt^ n) "DC8K^:y-i^''^„ lyn'Din^ in i^a ü^vd-^^v '^v\:i)iv^ 
"^n jynt^n,, ,1848 p« D1y!:^<D Dil;?? /'nyn:y5"^Mn n px^ 
,p^K5<3 PD D^^T p^K n^iK ,in .ü^nsB^isa pnKDt^ in^y^i n 
nyn n^K ,iyDiiji p« »n^btir^tryD^y^»:! cy^o oyi 'in^K öijn 
-D>n lyn^ynyi px .i^'sir-'pnyimö: Dy>^: n]n ,ü^n lyu» 
,ry!^3 iy:n»^ ny^>ny3Di5< i» ,ü:i8ö-py^n nn in>K üi^n ::iö 
l>Tiy::i? nn^i pa ,nnyD i^n nniD pa .tyrt^^nsa i:^^ do ^mk 
; y^:^^-i^»ii Vi:^: p^x ov>k nn^K üi^n \^2^ pa lyr^ya n ra 
^v^'?V'\'i y^^: n ^n lyj^ay: n^jü^-^nn pa ly^^^tD yiyi:» p« p« 
•»n ...."n .18 .« ji^üDn^^rDiy^: ,'>'\v::v'?i »r^tj^ons pi«!:^ pa 
^^Mi »"lyüiy yi82t5aiia'oiN n^i« inynyn^K i:inüv:i lynt^n ly^y: 
üY^K .nyvy^3"iytD^a px lynt^iiy: ü^yn:8in8a r^K |ynt^3 -ly^n 
-y^iyj n pK ^lyoeyi^' n ly^^m^B w pj nvn-iJ8> n lyn^in 
yn^^ii n ."i:y^y \ivüv^^ 8 P« "ntjt: pn» ly^sa ony^^e y^yr 
ny-it? ny:^^K .jy^^rw jysy^ ö^: ly^^^P p^t^a o^i p« lyi^yii 
iyvy^a-iae!^ n tDTt$5» t^^b cyn jy^n^^^Bi;? tid nyin:» lyn 
pK Ml "ni?^ a^viKi^v PK n:^B yi:yDip n p« ^i^v pK lyopsii 



^Vi P^K P*»? \v:'^vi D^J nnyo Dyii lt»« px ,y:y3j^2ifc?D n 
•-11« n ly^i'mv Jjuyiijs^n lyrrj^i nyi pN .ij«^-d^m pn tiM« 
*Dn5§ ,Vii^^ : :n^i:5^ i^mi^^^d lyj^n Ufcn^-inn p2 iyQ^D:y;i 
nynj^ t^mi^^^d ,:i .i .k ^nynt^nny^^-i:»^ ,y^v>no{$ ytj'^DöiiPfc^D 
tp^D^^ji'DMK nrnn;«> ü^c '?v'^:^^ pt:>D yt ^n jyrtDcyt^'^n 
,i:j<^-i"ifc§n V'D^ 1$ T5< ,DP5?2 feü T>« Dy ^^>ii .D^j:i^-i3 ny^^^.i^ 
pn« ly^ya v^v^ pi^ dj^^id ^lypynniü?^ "it^D lyDyjyjEiit 
"ijnsy^^nii?^ "lyi .,.rfe?^Q'"yü^2-5^fc?c^ 5$ nyi^^x ,ü^dj#-iö nnyo 
pn tDv>jyn:i§3 ,iy2Mp di!^ i:y3yri;5$> » ddu -lyD^yii ,iyn 
Di^ii ^ly!*"^^ n .^yD^^a-ü^y: pn pD D^n: nyi L3>d ij^j tDt^n^i^ 
^lyijy^-^nn n pa -lyriN^ir"«« n lyit^iiyi t^ctüs^n^D lyj^n 
•SDii^j n pD p^to''^5?a n lyi^^x ,'i^^pyntJ' ny:i>jy^i o^j jyj^n 
•i?3 lynj^n n^n-ij^?^ n nJ5<^::y oc^t^i^Q DJ;?n iy:^:)yp ye^o 
Dtjtii ü^^v nyi px »ny^^n: y^« lyay^ i^ tD^^'5D"»^jyö fc$ \v^)p 
\^v^iv P« py^jy \^ r^^ pn' lynnoi^D lyiyii \v^:vo n 
-3» nyn ^i^J D^^n^nD p-»« ün^ny:s:^ W'W)) P^t^a D^^n »..T^np 
n j}$D iyny> ü^ü -^i^: üopm ajipmny^ji« n pt^ ,.,iynyi 
liD a^ufc^nfcüD PK "a:i3^rn5t^„ n -q-in lynn^ö nyo^t2:yr^H 
-jy^itonj yD^^üS^'tj'ün^injö;^ « ^ii ,s"'Vjn3 \vüüv^ s mi p^j^d 
jyDDip p« lyD^n pa tDr:^ny;2{? ly-iyn oy mi ^nis ,^^^"5:^ 
yv:^*: n PK ,iy^^«!-iDD^"ix p« KpnyoK po lyD^jiyi^^'n n 
(* ".iQ^K |y:^DyoDEyc^y:i ,iy:^in k ^^-iK ij^ t:inv: y^vsnyEt^ 
-aij: ysj'nyDyimKD n ,iyD^riyD"i^p n pa »nyn^n n 



ipityny lys'n p,nn n .2 i^^v: ,28 — 12 .t .t /'1848 iKn^^*? .1847 

— lyin pB ttKu^nyn D*?» uiy^piyT T'?-)»eK3 1847 p» py; n p9 

D^jT m "!yn« /'nyau n ps jau'^^nsK^ n — .iy'7ü'D-Dj:nn«: yn 
-y:i Dnynin^i tu ükh "lyjy^jnyiNn,, i3K'7tru<»n p« lyo^nj;; tNin 
!2^<n p« :iynp tyjnnN''j'D^">'n Dyn "Hjta ^aK'jtrü'n ]in ty^n'ö '.it«? 
-jn^tn iDKn n .tyniK'jÄ'sn« cnyns lysnyjD'n« lyopKTiip ps* 
]ys3ni^"i8 *7i<c:yt3Dnnyo ]'n .T:K'72't2»n-n"iTö ]'k aÄ"iynyj D^yr 
onyMB n otyrun^D lyts'nw lyn nmne iscny ü^n lyD'ne \^t 



njjnyD iy;-5?p:i^:y"i5 d>o »ycj'nji^i^iüDnn^x n ,DiD:y:^^N-yi:^^oya 
-:y:^^x-is;?p px iy^s:iJ?y2 nvi P2 Jji^iJiüintsD yDin-icy^D-in 
y^y^D n jyj^n D»>n — D'.ojyj^^t^'t^^ivns Dynyn?^^ p« ü)ü 
\V2i^r] >n jji^,^{n*t:{^ iyD^^::^2:i? ",y-i i^s iyii^t:yo yij^^^n^« 
»ODSiti'tD-iMnjö:^ nyii'^DD^^{<tD^2b;P nyn "i«2 n^yc « ly^ijy^j^^x 
^'iütD^QSP D'jiD si'^^pQ p« tD*,^n n5<2 lyij^n üyi t:3^oy: iy2J>M 
->^: Dyi ynDDHJ^« -iy:i"'üiJ^:D-*j' nyi n^a ly^b^^yj lyn^^n p« 
.iyn«Dy?j#i3 y^n£-^y:MD pD di^di:; lyro 

|y:^'tD'i'DJ55: T^x iv^'pv'i) ^ü^nfeitt^y^j^is ly^na-^yriö lyn 
^yjyn-^^in y^^is^ya pa oynj^a n pD :ijn>^^eMK lyi ^in 
D':i2 3]n^«>"iB^-E:Dpy ny*L)in^2y:Dnn i^^ii: o^t: -^yn -^nn p.x 

»j.n.K ny- ,nyT''n n pmi? lyni^'snx ly^»' rxn-n:; n U':ii'.i<in 
.a»'5?j;rKi'i^« n« n's ü>o i^'^SKL^'jjn^-.rDn^Ma n ]:;;!iKnKB '.:f 
pj^nutt» ])N ]iN nra-^K ]nt INS ij^'^Ki'TKD pN üj'tt'iiy; T'T c«n njy 
t:;!^'? UTK ]yf2y3;»::K ]x i«s dnit ,::;;« .yDKp-nn'?o nyi *iks "iv"^«^ 

-'D nirinyiHS i'u i^s in pN y'^v'^^'r n:;'i:r^'7X5 ]ts3 ]n:;T yjD ]Np 
-my DyT tic lyö'tir^n :;i:Di?i: n ]T5 dj^^k t^n DpKTs,, : N3Kn 

,!2t>poni< nir:''73nynr^"iyDnN ]v^VP *?yu'f3 « i»<3 d:; t'k po iirs 
"iK n ,py»'t2Ä> yuppn n .i:K!:Ä''?MN'n pc ^«np ]i'p t:»: "ij?;k 
iytt"^'n Dyi lypm ij;t:''p;jn'7r2' '''riy':« n p« rns i'snn ta'O 
-na»i» ycpyivni'K ,tDsnp iy dkti .y'?h ikd in^ d"?»*:» "lyr'^yii ,iiyna 
1»3 DH'N T'K .]v^3«:53'K DH^x ]*>n'3>Nn n'*?!!; m »n« pK ...l"iy 
ijr ni ,MT« p« ivüTNi iv^pnxns r^'u lysnpiKö :^ i:n:«2iKö 

»'3 ,TT I3:J't3M3 ny DXn ]'K ,DNT IVB'lp C)»3 TTK iHa i^; .'jtn 



i 



nyi ^^1^? iy"i{#iiya toDtünnyj t^fc« ny ^i ^yjti' mtk iidpj<q'"J^?o nyj 
-D^ns :ji5»vi^b lyj^n dj^ii ,n |yni;?n D^n "iyi:s nyi iid .ü^yii 
,yy^i#p-D:yay^ lyD^^jnyiiyj ny^n pd lyni^i^y: Dnyi^^^tj'yi 
-Q^VDH ny-i 1^ "nn iy:nynyi^v :ji^vi^3 mt^ Dji^py: do ^nx 
tD^ynjSTnjjD T>Mi:yD8D lyj^n ^n .iJSDtj^iv ny^^j cyi pa p^ 
-■»j D^iN r^ni^'^D »nysy^üj'DnK ,iynM"i ,iy^Dyn p« lynt^i^iya 
-jyDtJ'Di« n pa ::^m oyi "rin ly^ya ytoonnyo p« nyni^ iju 
•^jt'D p« pN iyD-15 pQ «TiD pK »"nn üoyj panyi px .lyi 
n KBijn^''K"myD nsj pN ,D-iyi3in-in{?^ |yD-16 ly^j«: pö 
lyrtDV^K Dyi PD DiytD^D n .••nyQy^sj'DnK iy:yp W'^v^Vi 
fym ^n Dt^ii ,i8!D"iyn lysijtitDK^sn ]vo to^y^s D^^pnytD^^msi 
n .tD^^^ yonj^ PK "lyßy^K'oni? lynyn iv lyiiyj iy:jix"nvy3 
-iyDynni5§D "yr^^irns,, mt ü^yi:j§n5§3 ^m üi^n ::ny:vyry;i 
]ym: Dy:yr^« ly^n pD sj^t iD:i:yn oy t» ,D:y3y-iy: öj#n n px 
»jynjyDK'DiK yo^s n ny^jiK lyto^^ms pn^v iny: i^ ly^ni 

.Di^DDnpy tD*»: piK' lysi^in yo^y^i 

^f ]»n.i? DH'« E)jj<"iö ytj^iy'? n .'ny:>Btt' n K^nyji d'j id'7^<ii ny 
pn? ,n'm ]<n ;3u't2sys't?3 y2^'?si3 ?^ jniy^yj ,ü£3:ipj'm yom^Ji 
nyn^ .1"'?^? d.tx tmn ]ik lyts^'m» y3>n »lyjyn yj^u ,"ly^J'p 
"lyT ü'o lynn's is dmn on»« EDip oy ]::2^'7 ;j>iy;N':p »j itjs D^n 
D''a p':c'Ti^'j:t<p 8 m iy laiim» nyou 1 jiu'ßsytrt^n-ffi'?»!-! nyj'Thfi 
lyj'U-tJ 9 lysN^ty TT id;i'''7 ny .n'i'ys po |yoy:BK"Hf p« ]"iyp8 
-ntj p'T ta'ö lyoTpnn t^« oy m hd ,;jj!3-"ik5 2 «inx-isnyary p« 
-B^ pyjjiy*? inn üö-iKiyj T'7!:3yj^'K "ly ts'^xn ia'':t-iya:Mi x^iiz 
on'K »'1 t:'7^itn Dy lysK ; mna yj^n lytrnEJBN '^yD'i-K yt ii^nM 
tt^^n ny ]yn ,nynT n{<D pK lyoy ü^^ nxnn p'p iyn''?3yj do 
'^'i^z 1» ns ,nKnn ysj«j i^^t ^ysnpn^B ]yTn:Bts^n>j i'r^: unoy:« 
»m"^ y;uKT n lyBN'^e'ijjs is ns ,iynnyi tiö iy .py^ae^ n ly^ 
»in« .ci''p:^D'^'7E yt3Dy"i; n lyt^ia^n imyi Tita iy ...lyi'Btr 
-|< D3'iK cn» ]yB?«'7tr t:tti?"iyu3n^ nyns lyi tt oji^i"? ]t)H ^«tjj 
»n^j ]•!« ,jKü-nKB 6 lyn^ 5 on« p.n« tanyas' jik ts^K^na ■iy:snT 
-1» y;jnitT »«t .JHüi^T "iyD>^H »lysy*? p'T ne j(jd lynyi oy enya 



.iyD-7 oyi njyn iöid 
nnyD lyü^^nis ^v p« yD^s :1530 ,iyD-8 "lyi n:yn 
yo^ny^ .ly^toyn iv iJ'^jynM^iy n lyo'.p^n ly^ioyn yrnysoiN 
lynfeüEK^i^D pfc« lyo^^Dii'BJ^ lyo ti"i»T .ünypn^a »nysy^tj^oni? 
PK ^Tijyayi^ k nyorn iyn:uiv "»n ^i5§i lyo .Vü^^\:i pK 
-ijT "^5?:iyT ; nysiyp ly^n ps tyvnac^ ^{^r toi^n T>n ,|yD^^DiJ' 
"Diinya ^y^n px lyiyppnw "^n ly^yi^ ^n t» av^V)^^ ^n |y^ 
yDvy^ n DJ^ixiiya lyni^n >n ".^^i^ ,^1^ üvi p« nyii^ rj<^ö 
nsD DJ^ii .ü^uis lyn ^v iy^y:pniv ^n jy^yii px ,inj^> ^m 
üV' ''^'^VT) pQ 27 ^yiD^£«p nyi px ! y^iJi^n^N yrn'nriTDX |8 
Diyi^ oy nt?: ^tD'ntn'ynyn^s* Yinvi v^^^^^ dj^t Diyi^ ,\v*ö'S 
t? Dy:>^N t:25<D lyo \v^) .lynj^r.v y^"»: Tin D"iy:jy"iD'^i{$-:. 
jyo^^c*^ iy"i>ii Dn"»« |yo ^ni?i »"^n lysy^tj'onst ^i^»d ivd^^iiv 
nyDi^ 'p^^ lyam D>^n .-lyMx iyn^fe?n » nn^« iyi^^r^3ii: px 
PK nysy-iDiKö iv^v))^ d^8 D:y3y"nfe?D ^ytDsssy: lyn Diyii 
.jy-iyi^ DyDDny^rn ni^i p.x Dcyit^'^yry: nyn pa dj^>d 

^y>c TT pjns'?^ tl-Hjn p« lynis ]i« ny:yD n Dxn ,n:D n vn d^t 

(.yn:y;'7^itB ]ik 212 .t ,3 12x2 /'1788 l^it";:^«'? .y'2 
•vnj» 18 ,1866 ^nst« p« .yn$?:iDnK nyo^^-n^ nyi iv ::{^:)iv 
-tiiyöyn^js PK DiyD^jD Bnyn^«"i ps 112 yan'i:'X3yn»iN c^i m DynrK;» 
^»"iun^D t« iy-^«?nyi ^m»*? 1«^*? n^o^BKia lyn e«n ,iyiKr.y:j ür'*? 
•nyc^B-PKC» n ]iö ;:i'?n:{ti"nHD lyn ]y:syii csNtr'?yTy.r!:D:',p lyi p« 
entron^D cyi tsiyi'j'try; '^nnn ta^tn n« "iyn'?yin;x' iv.? nyi-y'^B 
.ny*T3y^rnn yvnay'jts^ö' n «inK ]^ ttnyj dkti .^ar^DM'.iKs pD 
f^j'jB-nyc'B-ei^tr pB y^% Dyn tyayi^KB "r^jiT n'?{tn-i:M» t< t(< . . .„ 
]y;'^uni<B lyiyii *^t<^ n .n3K'?2Mn i'bmk ikt y:''?3ny'ny:j h vh 
\t na »lyirjyD n lynnuni^B nynns u^n ]yo m »ni^n y'T'?ni pB 
inrij pB lys':« »n pB inyj i^p lyo ...siKtr n "inb vh^^ \f ]yrKO 
inn "nor DüiKip'^« t^ttrn i^ m "i'ty-it?D")NB p« 'TiKn'?Kn pB 
.r»? yn'JMi n ,DpiB lyi ly^^u "^yiby^} n pB y'?y»B pw — .n^^tn 
y:jn:y'jtr TKn "lyr'B'jK "lyi ]ik i'a'jyTm lyT ,D"iNn lyr ,iyTiKO "lyi 
tD'i iy3»'T tt<n n pK yp-iyny^i n »"jyjj'^yp nyn pM ,ny3MK^«»iK 



^»Ü'B^p OIJT 21Ü 

•^U"i8 i:^ Bi^ ^n to:i;?T lyj^^« n>us ist ,to:y-ij^iö;D ,1547 ,ir\i^> 
V^^v^) ,]i^nvB "lyi lif ny^PJi' D^js* lyiyii iyny:iy:!Qi^ ly ^t^r ,iyD 
^{^T nun-^ya lyi nyn^^m^"'^ d^^ tO'iDD'n^a Dn>{< Di^n 
-y: yDfc^iic' ,iyD$5:'n nj< dmi3 io^d TM^n lynnyjiy net^Psi' pn 
ntüD lyrsy:! üyii iy y:D^yii ,iy^fei;Döj>*-t^'^^^Q yrnj^ pN lypjstno 
,ü^un8 iy-iy^ p)^ij< dh^k lyn^ntD ^^: Dsyi oi^n dj^h iy j^dis-b 
-■•^P j^N lyn^D*^ PN lyo^^otj' ^in ,pn ldo ^t^r n toD^n^ypy ni 
n^D ny Diyn ,iyDJ^ii ^miv «^mn dd^i^dj^? m'^\>^ nyi n^i« .lyD 
tn^üT jyo PN ,iyny^ lyv:»^ vt «i^ix ^ny^^^pa?^ r:^ d^-'^d-i^n 
*iy lyii ;S nistot^Dn Dyn jy:yinD^iN P^n nyii>* py^^j' pn ^mn 
-nsi^n D^^ tDjyDyii5<Q iy Diyii ,^{<:o lytom mv Don^to^j^ 
:yD JT-nn-^yn iyi .tyny^i toytoDnyjrn «ri^n p« lyDynnnj^D 
,^5<^Pt5^ D^fe§ dh^n lyajmjüQ ^ntj^nu iy;!j^TE!i;? ,iyQMpn{$D dh^n 
n ly^i .n^D nyii? DiDjyr^N y^^^^y^ij^D vwi:^ oy-iy^ ^11 >ir» 
^>ix ^n lyei^i ,i^n ny^n iy:yp "qmisis n ly^^'o \v^^'?P^ 
,rwü^ N anjyDip^'i ,-iyoDn-DjyinD .jyiy^i tDyDDny^j^T 

]iH ly^Nn :?r'7:;Ti ]'!n^i nyp>aty yy^ny^öTN .]Vf2ipy;j pn« ;:k'? 

y2''r!:y "ib's i:;:nj?;i«3-n:N*' ois "jn: lyjy'T ]i« JiinyDyn^SS pH 
/'nnN^ PK u'is nyi'-np k ps "iitq pN "in: inx dnt pN ,iNT-iya 
-ö^ty t?„ :id;nt 1866 ':!' iy:D-2 pD "t2D^0K:«py ixn^N^, n.y: 
-oyi n ]Tö ^311« :Dyn3 pyi:« ^ya^ms ts'^nysiyn :i3mns ];^nif7 
,3:»'? ü': t!Nn ipD lyr'ryn inö ,"i'c>n3N7-iymND p« oaiNS-fit^JJ' ya 
tyis^syj ,p;^i«^y-^D'i*< ^'»'< J2p«-i'j:«P"yT3yi« ny^'a^^K pn -|»;'7 ^y-i^ 
.in3 I "n7K^n;«' n p« ü'i'ynjK^nxs üiyn »ji^'j'^.yQD üjis 1200 
ttpiiB . . .'tytD^•>m^J iyt:p3it2D3'N y^snxye yaiyr^a n Mi ,ki tynyr 
cKn . . .nynynxiy "lyÄ'iJNDnxa lyi lyii »c:? lyn p« Mi »it« 
]N''7>o 'niii .. ..n'^N'.nj«' P^k iy:«o is nr »lysnyn 36 üiyti^ri:? 
'lyijy'?!; ytsDiN^isrn«] yjiO'^N tt ]yi>£y:j Dy yr'^yii lyu'ni^ ,i::p^ 
-N3 Di<i .;:n"'? pN !3DMi ty^:N.t3'« lyTN'^y;« Tyj^n ,n:N'i't:Kii' pD 
yi2D*J5Nn")nN3 yo^D n lyt^mi? yt ::i:]:z):i is'^'ü-iy'::; ]id Txn; yr^^PTa 
-y; T'K nyi*?« ]yn pD i'7Nin.iN» "lyn ; nuins übk^sni;} nyi p« 
; tapncDH pKjyn«n |yD>n; Dyn p« lyn^s-T^i;» iyuDyi;j nyT |yii 



»n»i ,:yD ^m an^^^ onynyaon« ^n Di?n nyBy^t>t2n8 nyi 
Dn^&5 ^"»3 ivjyinD^iK ,Dii;ii-DDnny3 p^r pK |y:ij>na Dn>« |yo 
p« y ^j^D^i'DC nvi lyt^^K iyDn^>;y:ji^ 18 ö^o tDona i'bmk 
ny-[jj D^^r-iöfDöta ^>iK lyüi^DiJ'y: et lyoni^T cn^« ly^iyoK^pyiiK 
Dyn D^j |i^ ü^3 -lyBy^'trons nyi lyn .d^oi» r^yn:« ^mr 
•y^» n^a pn ^im« pij^iqkj' D^t< iy ^i^t ,Dni#-DDniny: ti^roan 
yrn nyrixiu^^K n ps ,o-ii# nvi ps ^s^Pi:^ "nyi inyi^ [ya 
-BDyDt^'^l^ dh^k ^mk $)i^t |yo p« ^y^vsnt^sns^p ly-i pD lyijf 
lyoyjiVEi^ üDy^i di#i Oi^n ny:^^« nyiy> ,S nijoK'^n oyn ]V^ 
.iy::v-|-iy^ d^«; "t [yü^stn p« lynj^p yrn iysy5''^on» D^^a 
riK .20 :^n "^y^i^^D p.« nnt^^ 24 :'3 lytD^sn lyo :yo ^y^arK 
lyi^^^Dibta nyo^'y lyD^yt on iv t^i ^n ly^i^r »lyc^^Dis »n 
-^^oK^ ^lyi^DtJ' ^n w^? v:2'py^'i ,D^nr'»^yn yny^-'r ps lys^j^pK' 
18 itjü:i? ^i8T nun-^yn ivw'* .jy^ni >n ^ii j .i .k lyo 
pn piD D^D pK D:yn n n^x px r^^n j'b^^k ;iin oya-iyr^^K 
DH^K D>D pn p« lyjypiyi ^vüv2 d.-i^k ^i^t -ly nD ,f\^^p\i^ 
•y3 T8 ,tDni^T8D ryty: oyi pö ^^^ö -.ytDvy^ nyn .lyiya»: 
r^^B D'jiB iyD^>n"i8 dw dv^:82 iny^^ ly^i^t ü^^^yoni^ yo^n 
jyoy lynya ^^t jy^yii yD5»y^i av^:vü v:'?v^:''''i< n pc irri^ 

-Bijn; p!r:<«i n ijn^^H »ntatr injopa ^ Dony:^.(<B oy ne ,öpt<D di;t 

]^jp ,;:icOMn<<D nyjjn'r^iu ir^'t^i ijn p:»T <t B»'pj'nrt*o:<j»» 
iabi$\\ ']*7t^'[V^y^'?i$']y2 djn iib lyi^n oyn ^mk o^tn »pB^yn inyr |yo 
l^K i<j3 !3t3];r^ö D:r t» ]^k ,iyoBj?v 15,000 ]nyo»» t33<tpy:i i:rö 
yan^rr ori . . .n:K'7c<rr pB pratri^tj» !y^3?:i d^t Itb p^rrDO;»0'm 
T»*?; r3¥tJ B'?Kn üy ...n'cpn^eiBtaiK ijn«2K«'K t»k n:<e*?nj(j» y^titfi 

,]ya»5yjn<B 2y>*f\^ ]yttfvyi lya^n D^jni ,iytr»3yüDm pH ]pr'3 



•7^*13» Bi<p D^jn 212 

iyiD-19 p« wtD TU n:fei:^::y px iyn^5»mö;D w:''''^ lyö^^pK^-yi 
.(iyoDijifc^-i) nyny:oiK \vm^ oyi "lytojix DiynJimnx^ 
PK ?ytDyv-ti^on>i^ny is int^ ly^tsyn :1572 ,üv:i^v'pv 
iDDjyn px lyoy: d^j >n ^>ii lyr^p nnx ,nni?^ 14 pD ivü'pv 
\VD PK lynyi^ jyo^DC'ya :n'ni:iomyDiK jy^j^r ,"ini?> ^^^m n>iK 
-"»^K tos«D iVD ly^i .-ly^iK |ypj^^ I'd^ik ly^s^ytDtj'SJjf ^n ^-t^r 
ly n^iN ,iyüMD dh^k jy» ^{?r ,^i?D lyD^Miv div ly^Dyn Dy: 
PK lyoyj D^j Dn^K ^ni ly:^'»? nn« p« ,in}?» 18 pD "ly^^y t^k 
■m Di^^ lynJ;? Dy:^^K |yo ds»3 .in^> ^•'iiv ^"'1« D2^:5^ny:yn 
\r]^ iyt:52n:vT lysynnisD-nDi^ö d^» dh^k jyn ^J^r ,^{?ö jyD 
PK 13 .B^p ,üyn{$r^^y ,18 : \V)ivm VT'p^nv .ni^om iyiy> 

.1597 pD ny^^^iiv j$ 
PK DnK DiynjKi^ dj^^^ ,-iy:>^K nytD-1 nyi dq^^sj^h 
-D:yinD n .nysy^'tj^onx d^8 jynyii Diy^piy ^{^r ȟ^yayn 
,iyü:t?pnnt$a ,D^vnQ lyto^i^» "qn ünytDtj'-i^^Q oy — lyoDn 
■■»n — ^B^ü -lytDDyiyi lyn tDn"iDy:iJj^ t^k oy lyoyn ,D^n^;i 
pK ^lyD-i^D^j^sj? '^^'?^:v^v Dn^K lytj?^ i^ tortoDyo^i^Dyn \v: 
--no jyD{^:iJ^D 6 dh^k |yny: ^^a lytDSJ'iy div dh^k |ys»D d^u 
yon^ö pK ly^^n ^n ny^^n .nni^> 2 ^^j^o ?yD^^^1^? div pk ,yD 
ny^Dn-D^yina lyn ni ^lyD^^oiJ' H'-'D pk toßij >it^ ^n lyo ^j^r 
-yn Di^ii lysy^c^onK yD^^nnycy:! n ...di: n^s |y:>Dy: Dyii 
ü^D ly^soyütj^ ^yDp5< |ypr^ Dyn ^i^k \v^ ^i?r ,t5^: "qn pyo 
tDSK3 PK tD''UiK"2:Kiiv ti>^K ly^yt^^ PK R DKD^sn Dyi 
•lyDDnrn m^om inj;? ^^r |yo ^j^t jy^t^yn d^u nyi^ii 'n lyo 
pD n^in:j^ pK t>3 3''ü5>^j \v^m W^'^ lyjjinii^ifcüa yrn^i n 
^in oK^-iy ly-it^^iy: iDSKt^'y^Qi? lyrn pK tDiy-iJimnj^^ |yt2-l8 

.23 .58P ,k:jk pQ 12 ^nysiiia oyi 
I'K 1MK lyii^iiya lynyayjo^nK lyj^n lyvyry^ yD^^jny 
tDiyiJimnt^' jyü-lT pö lya^D pK ^n ü^^n oy ^kii ,^^npi^-iQ 
PK ^j^: .•lysy^ij'onK Pö nai^o k p-ife?9 pK Dyi^uy:D>iK 
-13 pD 'pnvBii2 lyi) iytD-16 Dy-i riini^ ps o^^v ^v^^iv iyi 
-lytD^y D':^K |yK^:yD lyöiity: |y-iy^ tyo üs^n (1777 ^^r tyo 



PK HDK^ö V'P üötny3 ü"»: ü^n iy n*»!« ,60 vi nni^* 16 |id 

ps ,iyt:-5 ny\ ^istp ps ryryj ot^i t-^n Dyi iv "^^^jny .(y: 
-fc§ütj^ n pD Jpny ^vü^iv nyi ; njj<^i;|in ^552 ,1537 "-> z^opj^ 
-fc?^s„ "lyi ,1614 Yivo iyD-19 pD "i:i?^i^n ps üiv^z* m W^ 
1649 ^:r |yt3D-25 pD iyv:Mi^"is yDj^j'^KietD n pD "Dytp 

.a .n .K 
ü*ö üK^nyiv :jnyppy2^3 nyK^^D-it^i nyi >^2 |yo üi^n >n8 
-:ytDD-inyo ps m Djt^n^D jyrj^^ nn^N ün^Nn2t;?nsDpy n^^r: 
-j^nyD ^in ly^ystJ' px »lysy^^^on«! p« D5'yi:5<rnsiö ^^^j: 
-"IV iyr:^^3 PN ly^E^yDK^si^ »lyD^^»:*^' Tin jyvyry^ yu^^oon 
-D^D D^^ms-pi^ Dyi ps p^B^yon "lyron: nyn iv n tDjnyi^yj 

.Dyö 
lyi t^N iyaji3:nj<n-ü^>n-i» n dj^i^ ,ai:y: tD^: •qi?^ t^n oy 
-f'ytyj nyi pD D^n p^x ^^in tyr^K^ny 5'fe§D^Be:p ps y»Dit^D 
lyz^n ü^)) ,\v^2Vü tyr^tj'-iy ü^n nyijst nyi ^"-ix px üdj^k^ 
T^N ov .DBbnp-D^"'Di8 ny^n nyon« »lys^^piötB iv D*^^:"iii?j 
•lyD^Pii^D a^^^ivns ^^t ly^'j^t ^n ,^n lyamv iv :i:ya d^: ^^in 
TT ü^ypM^DJis! y^vpnt^iB lyt^^DD^^j^ü^EStP "lyi pö :j^: d':^n 
,3:in^v-iy nyi p:^t ^ Djypiy:« '•\vi'?V'\'\ »Dtü^p-iyD^^ms I8 
-fc?is lyrii^i Dyi pD iy3:ny"it^B n ü^^njnyiiy: px y^v^i^"iD 
n .vyTyr-nt:^<: 'n^^i:yt2iJ'nöJD-DD3^yT t? 0'?^ IBIN-D^jj^vpn 
,Dyyi^is-D:j^^vpni^"is lyi^'^üD^^efD^BSP nvi PQ y^vsr^:fe?3-iii{ 
--lyiMT lyiy^ üDyir.y ,üyi^^ny:D>iK "^n et^n ly ^n nyiri^j 
D^?^ ü^5<n a:nyp^y2^3"iy3^N yii^Döt^'y"! yan^y^tJ^ n ju^jül*^ 
PD "qnN "lynnyn p« tD^^mj^ pD y^sisDi?: px tDi^nji? pD YV^v:i 
-yBiyiöin n DsyiEi^'o:^ y^^yi^ ^aiitDDn lyi p« pi^-ü^^m» 
VK^^ofc^jfc^py n pB 3:i<Tiv "lyoitDtJ^ "lyi .^etü^Bs^P pd lytJ'o 
-"'BX'jp Dyn pD üBöiK^nyn n rD^>ri:y d3^o |yK'^:yo5»ynni<D 
v^''^^:^?V'ü': ,yi{<2!'yt3^o:i« .lyD^^ms: Dyi ny^^x üo^^eta 
ri^3 nynt^ ,on:yiiy::i# y^^ i^^dx "^j^^ lyiyii iyofc?nü-n^»^ia 
nyn^K "lyü^^anyt Dy-i lyo |ijp lyni^ ^^3 "qnn .Di<jD^iK d5»» 
-lyi w .n .1 /'y>vprijti3 lyn po lyvyryr-nüt?:,, n iv jyrij^ 



i^n^^BP oisn 214 

n« Dn^D:8-i8i >n pe lynvii pK p^^s iyj:i3:n»3-D:iji>vpn 
nyi ü^D ^n üviJsa ynsiK^nn y:yDipy:D^^« n .o^^n^^KnsD 
,P^^-DD^^mi5 ü]n ''iyn^^i:y-i„ iv itjt m ouyi^ px öDSD-nai^io 
jy:j^P 5'i^t >T Tt? ,iyv^:yia y^nr» p« dh^k lyD^^ütrj^n» iv .n .n 
üiy3:y^i»D ^ijtt ;i?iD-DD^^ms nyi rt? »lyö^Dj^iis yoDyi jyDSD 
1$ n^m lytD^iiiinyj lynyi^ ^{#t p>5»k lyö^^nis nyn px lyiyii 
-ijD nyrDDni » t'K DJjn .tD>^p:^i:ynsi# r^s yDiüK' iy$>»Dii#: 
j:^^Dt?r:ij: nyD^^::^DJi^ iy:yDnyr>n8 nyi p« öjyo 
lyjstDB^ö:» t^K lyD^y^T ,nyt3^^3n8"i^^^ n ps oiü^p nyi 
0D^«D8n üsjn ,Diyn:^nini^^ fyD-14 ps DS^yn nyovy^ lyi pK 
-•»^^p t$ TM^3 Dyi5»^Dy3 ,iDiyiJinnni?^ tvoDDyj d':^« "^nK pk 
PK üv^l^'ya DU lyiiy: t^k p« 3:nyp^ys5§n ivi pd 5»^^^ cyj 
J1D jyoDSK'DnMrDny^iB yi^i^yiDij'üDn^yT n ^nn yj«i^ pn 
tnijn t^« .ü-itiiiDß' pfe y*vst>Jsni?-iyDyv lyn -^nn p« rnt^-r 
5'8^Vi^D nyö>^3i8 n jix D^n3iT''^yn n lyj^n öijjdk' p« pK 
iD^^p:yDni?inyt3JiK n .y-iy-i:»: n ^v yj^^x o^ynt^tj iy:sDK^y: 
ni^Q 8 nijt: jyiiy; t^k ^ftüo^sj^p Dyi -lyDjiN nyö^^ms n pD 
üai^onsB oo •^i?i tDijUT p>^8 iDijTDjiji^vpn^is "lyi .n .n ,y^yo 
nynjyiiüD nyn .nyopüini^D jy^j^^DD^^^üD^aiitp |ytJ'^D>vysD p^p 
lyrötJ^ynyn^« fiy^D nnyr ^^ik Djjin ^^d^esp d':^d ^>^ö nya^^ 
t^K nyD^^ni8"pi^ «IMN y:«nE)3iijii n .5>^^d jyn^ytDij' oyi 
-■»BSP PD :ji^08rjsjt -lyiy^ d^d ^'yjB^ ^inyt lyopsiiya lynnyn 
-ya T^8< ny^^^nns-p^f» pD ü^22^ nyi ojjtn d>^v nyn i^k ,^5$t3 
-j^iB iy^i?:ij^v8: on pa ^^^d nyo^na t? .Dfe?Tj:iü^ nj^j lyopsni 
-:iji Dyi PK lyni^iiya D^yn^tüinyiö nytoyBSJ^ t^k nyD^y^i ,^;?)i 

.nyö^^D-1« Dn pö i:j^ö-D3Mi3yj 
•y:iv n^in:fcj pD vwi^ ,tD^>Dnü^-p".^ iy:iy^i ^oiny^vyry;} n 
-"11 -in^K pK PK lyö^nnj^ d':id y^vsaj^i^sopy ny-i iv ücjüb 
-3:y PK iij TT ünnn ,Dn^K iv 'n^^Ti^D 3njyt:tj^ :Ji<; [y:niyD 
Dyn -nKny pD "•^.yD^n^^ iy:iyii lytDiD^üD^ Dy-i ü^o i:^^ 
a^oriij-iKD n gh^k öDyis^i'ü^K ^""ip:8-id pk .1349 ,|yt)3 



y:^-^^a:y n .|{§k^t 3^*yp na ivoi^j i^x Ij;ny:y:D^n8 ,1350 pd 
^^^jny iy:>n px ^y^5<-i5§9 jynyj :jny:vyTy3 yK^n^ivjj^nQ \m< 
\V2i^n lyvytyrnyD^^mj? n ^y^DMi n^iK .ü^snr« ny^n px 
nnyD ^n "h^k ^yii ,3j?D-Dt:^>Di{5 cyn ny::y^nj§D ^v t:nyiüK^y: 
D5'yi:5inya nynns ^n nijin "^^k ^^^ii »lyiyppniv d^j 'n i^ 

.(5 ,^yü^BKP nyD"8) 
-Dnn» Vit, (ryryjnyD^^n-i^) nyo^ms ly^yn isidsöd in 
-5si3 yD^iytojiis*) "D:fc?cs^p iii^i mn„ üvi ps lynijnya lynyjya 
— V'^i}^ ^ irxfe^J D:i^*T — nynnD,, .(üjyD^^^-.j^B pa yöK> 
^n T5< j^^^-o^^mfe? lyD^in ^:{$ üiyit^aya D^^^yoniii n lyat^n 
r\s Dvn^ .D^DD>n Dyi p« yn^onr« "lyn Dni^-ny; [yntjn 
p.« y>nDDn:^t< nyn ^^^x Dni^n ny 15? ,3ny-i^j >n^ pi^ ny^n 
-ya '^^: üD^^^^D pfc< iDiK nyijs i» n^iK ny^i^ »Ditoa^n on 
lynjiti^y: D^yoti'yrtsDyD t^k oy ."dd5'J^c{§t nyi^^K ,iy3>^nyD 
n5$-p^L2'^ ntiD ,5)-«,i^i p,}< DiJ^t:^' "isD ^n^tD-pi^ nys^^vyry: 8 
DDn^ny: "in jysi^n iyt2"'''nn5?-^-ij#T n .t2^^2i5§-:5?tD p« ü>^3 
."pife?^ Dy:y2^ Ts'"!«,, — yi^'^Dij<Jt}5j^ n ,"inj^> t* ^n^ ly^jnnsa 
jy^s?^' 1^ ,vr2'\)ü pD tij^iüK' nyi -iyt::ix ,iyDi^n-ib*2 üiyii Dy 
pi> pysyn lyjoyj lyni^ ny^o^^yty: oyi iyi>^K ,pi? py^yn s 
■^j>'i tonyii ^irs .tn^ iy?{^^ mi ^ocj^-D'^j^n ny;:yni2t5' '^«!: Diyi^ 
-py^ \vm^ ryry: D'Dynb^r^^y J12 19 p« 18 iy2:i^^^to3J^ n px 
DJ^-n ,DyT i5§3 yt^nvi^ :j<;t: inyv p.D pu^noti^ n oo^:2i>'{<3 \v::v 
yoniD :yiD :i^vJ«^i^-pK"i^^x yv:«3 lyzj? ,pi^ pynyn si ü^i;?v 
1360 nnj?' pD ryry^ s .im^ py^yn i? üoyj DJ^n Dyn iss 
n>nn-^yn Dyi D^^DsyD^i^at^n px iyi:yiD^ lysjjnDi^ n üdj^o 
(yü^ T^n) ti}^"iD'^ yD^^iysiyp "nnn nyo^^nn» Dyn jy^J^^iv i!^ 
,iy3j^rr^x-ifci;2 y^^ .nn^^iD-pi^ lyD^^vyrya cyi -.fc^'S lyo^^^i» i!f 
|y;y^Q lynn p« -lyny^^.o n ys^yii Tin ,myn*^' px lysssosi;? 
^02 ü'?^ w^^w: ü'^v'?p')V lyrn ^n^sjJi^ wi^^m tyi^nn^^Q ^n 
D^yi t3:yDy-iya ony^i nytD^^nnjs* pD 3Ji3>r^N-,yD yiy^ .^tDnr:. 
,1825 VI ü-iyn3^mn{j^ |yD-14 d':id ,|yDyi2i{<D lyiyiiK^ 8 
jy^yp lyvytya >n ly-ii^iiya tssj^t^yjsj^ lyj^n oy jyn ini#^ cyn 
pc DD'^a nyi .(lyr^Kn^üD y^y^i^^Dysi^iQ) D:j#^3i^-"i^nD n 



^t<i9*s^P 0^1 216 

-y^D^n» iy:^n ot^ii ,n ns m 1349 p.s ryryriyü^m» oyn 
onyii Dy dj^ii ^psiyT ij^^p oiyii ,Dn^« -^^a lyitjtiiy: lyny: 
ü^j ^SD vp nfc?s nyasii pi^ pQ did^dp^d fc$ Do^DtJ^ötn ^n p« 

.DID^J^D p^P 

-■•ms n pD y:^?? n Tt toijtn ü-iyiiimni?' iyiD-16 p« 
-ya T^K pi^-iD^y: lyi .D^yanyisö pnj^DSJ' ,i2DiKiisn >n ,iyt} 
lyi ^y^Q>i^ «i^iK ,nyT d^d ^^^^:-i8Q pk o^j nyni^ ^lyro^j' 
lyDötnv T^« Dy ^y^ö^i n^i« px ly^sDy:; t^k tD^y:i pa i^na 
-D^^piMi nyi i>K .lytDpni^nö ps i^ns iyi lyroK^y: ü^Diyi 
D-i^DDnpy r^« iyn^*n "^^^i p« .jy'b^sya pi^ lyn t^n j^t^» ü^^p 
-IV pi^ Dyn lypnnyrDjnij? iv D^y^vy: lyni^n yD^yii ,V'£vm n 
-BoyDiJ^ pK ny^iK Dyn lyi^^jc^'öi^ lyayi^ lyvytya n tD>o lyoKt 
Dtiti — "D2^K^ny:yn px lyoyj id^j ^^ti nyj^^p lyoyn,, ,n ly^ 
lynyjya D5^n ,3 .b^p 5 ,t2y3«T^!^y ps iy::vny^ |y:iyi"i yytya 
n^'D i>i^ Dyi ly^ytotJ'^vDDyQ dd^^o^j^d n -iyL32n-DjyinQ n 
PK ini?^ pE) lyü^^v n tDM^ dh^k py"i:y px lyD^^m» yo^i^ya 
-y^Dnx tDj^n nyt:-l nyi Do-'^K^n .nnino pD r^ns oyi ü^^^ 
^lysyii n n^ix "i^ik D^^nn^ nyn pD a^n^^^ayi yrrt^n n iD^na 
tj'nnt^s^n (* .nyD^uiiü Dyntji:ytDj§p y-iyi:» y^s p« lyj^sK' 



D«T lyoipxa iy:«n iy::«ü-t2:Kiiy; y^'j'm t^ ,inyT lyö i^p ,6 .B<«p 

Dj^T ip'iDpn u "iyD2'VD:j;n''*iB d*?« 'ry'S'ö« p'^8 taryi-Ds^on« 
]j?:^'T n3t?':'2'i2'n r« — .tr^^^'j'^'iKii y:j;;"« yi^^'tr pK e)n(ja-nj(«^ 

-nNTi3>i« y*?« .lytrayo pis jh''^ tyiiy^t ly^'u dkii ,iy:2U viyT 

]ysj;t-iKB ^b"ikt;;i ^u ünh i:;o p« >'!:''7kb i^ri lyn'jyo öBiwn:;; i:ri3 
,iy3jrn D*?» i:;r3'ipi!?:^? u;NTt::H tu ly^wn "T ^nb i'k »^diio pK 
•y*T3K i"in p;nj;'? di;^ ly'i'ü'ö nn n^B w^s)}:i i'j'bI« ty:>y'7B ^'t iv^i 
.pi*? iy:^'7:jyt3 ]:?Dmy;i « ikb i:;nB ]'n«B lyn^'T ^"l^ m »ta^m^j yi» 



-i8D~;;o»>Di8 \ViVi> lyviTtya n o>^"i3yjD^m ü^n nyD-2 lyi 

ly-i T^K pr jyD'^iDjyj^^K pK ii^nys-nDpjs'CTJijD Dyi px 
•y;i pnetDtJ^ Jiy^s mts ^m« iDi«-DJi^^vpni;i;n3 nyc^^üD^^t^ü^öSP 
-y: lyrn pi5»-ü^un8 üvi lyn^^iayi iv lyvyry: n töi .lyiijn^ 
n ü^n: w^^n ü^t^iiyj D::fe$D:i^ Dj^n |ya it^: ,i'''\VTi< fyiijin 
Di^i"! oi^n "^^^ .ü>i: pD f'j^D 8 PiMx ^j<jyDi» \vü'?^ ps nnyi^yi 
--.^jg; n ly^ijv IV lyDi^nnsta \Vü'2 Dyi ti'mi^it'rT ps 8 ryry: 
:y^^^ 2 M^ -inyö t3:y:y;Dix nyi px |{^i:t?^ pK D^^yi3-nyi 
pymtD Dy:^^Dy:^» pa ly^iüD p« lyo^ix :j^ü » ojya 7Vi 
"^t< 68 .S8P iyü-3 oyi i^'nnj^tj'n pa 13 ryiya o^i üt$n -^^^ 
-ü^^ms Dyi pD i:n^^uyn n lyDDn-Djyins n iv lyrjji^yjiya 
-üDny: y-iy^yn n ]V2^n 1796 p« "^i^: ; lyD^^m^-n^n pa pi^ 
PD jy^'nyasn n ^v ,|yi^^c'DJöt tDDi^-iyj ^{^d^m^v lyD^ettDtj':» 
"ii§D "^iK j^d5>^:i iy:^n pi^'D^uib: iy:yii nyt:Dn-D:yi>"ia n 
DP^ Ife? üisn 1799 p« "nj^: ; ny^^^ans yD^^Dsst^iDiMnJS^'ü^i 
lyD^^met'iyj^D n i^a j^i^ nyi ts »crtoyDK^j^a t::yDs^"is3 pa 
D'Dya^üT^^y pa dioj^dd k ^nn Dn^^i;iy-i Diyii i:8^tDi?65^ f^a 
.1671 pi< 1661 pa |yDp8 yK'n^y^DJ^^J' ^n^v ^in p« lyiD^^v 
jyü^iiyaai« ^^Mnyn ^n jyai^n iy:ji;:nfe?D n D^ni ni ^i^i« 

Vj^iZ^i » T'ö l^TD p« .(125 ,1 »lyuy'jy nt«5 Dy':fpJKD ]m< cy; 
--:i<? n ps iyj:i:Tn«-ncs y"?^ pN ij^^i?;^: TT ]yij;n uiyi:imnK» 
-DMK y^n'nssin ,yür^':D*^^<D n iy;j?n ly'n,y;^{'j>p jrij;t3»n lyo^Tfl 
PK ]jr;:uin?j3 ynyiw n ]'k i'n« oij im |yD«B yr'ryn ,iys*nK"ii 
Dy:^y:t:''K an ; pi^ lyr^'i'riyTyj d^t tt'o lymeis W': t? ly'jytay 
na'2D yxjKj» n nyi^K onya ly'^nKS i» ir^^'mt«a Diyn nys'Hjz-Tiy 
]iB ]y;:ijan»2 n ]y:"»"»T ^^<^ ]tk .yop^a in'H ]»« eo'^'j'sa e^jn 
-iiT "t nyT'K »lyDyn lynyj t^iniyu":; Jy'*ip oyi l^f^ cnitj ny"r 
pK i:'Tyj yny» i^ji ükh 1652 ]ik ; ny::yBB' in^' 100 ao W^v^ W 
PK c^n t2"s lyT i'K ,ty'7B !yDy;y;j iKn pK "j^jd 'mx lyny^y 
-pnoD'T ly^iyjJ jjk*? t3'3 ik;; "|H3 iyai^<T jy^^r oiynainnn^t' -^t:ik 
nyi inK .nn^» pK 'jtJö ^m -ik^ »»»»'jd tsijny; lyaKn 'n ikii ,iy:: 
]»k nyn»^H nyryn lynyj ;ynp iy;nny»jj'D'm i'r^jti t»K ]n*7-j^j(a 

(.jHs^ne i) ."taiyniimn^«» lyoD^yi oyt 



^»0'8i<p D^^n 218 

.r85>B Dyi pK ,t^i .ü:yD5<^")553 lyK^^^ajy PD tmh lyotj^iyb 
lyvyryj tm^s oi^vn^KD "iniji^ 400 t"ia l^^o P« oj^n |yo ixii 
lyi lya^yii lyn^K ,pi^-ü^^möt pa dioidpso nvi iy:yii 
1769 yK lynsD^^nii Di^n »ly:^^::^' d>: |din DiK^n li^o pi^ 
•oD^B^oiMn:»^ 18D pi^-DiDO^D jyD^^vytya «i |y;i?^6j^y;ni?D 
,Dn^K iy:yp ü^yotry: ^n Dt^n ü^b d^h pn .nyD^^m» vy"? 
"lyö^sn» yoni^ n ps y;^^ n„ i» ,jyny;y:iv "^j^t ny Dt^in 
-n ly^y^i lyvyiy: n |yi>n ,1813 i^k ,^^5'i:y /'^>^pyitj^ t^x 
-ya lyrn ^^r .|y"ii^i^y: DSfes'tj'yjai^ pi^nyo^m» oyi lyi^^ia 
•31$ üijn oD^^sD^s^p lyi üj»T y^^i?!:{^:s v:i'>'?')v:iV'? s lyiJ^ii 
-Tit^iSD yüi?^vn5 yr^T Tin pnn^ö n iyn>^i2yi iv jyn^iny: 
"Din ny>>t2t5^-ü^^^yDni? nvi "^nn D:i?pya i^^nyn dj^h p« ly;^^ 
Dyi rn lytD^^nni}? ys^^tDöj^it^toinnj«^ n ps pi^ oyi ly-in^o 
•yii lyvyrya-iyD^^nis n ps iy::iD^Dii'i?n n .di^^:''d |y:"'tD^ij 
-yii ,iyD^>m8"pi^ n px D^nn-'^yn n lyti^^iiv iyt3Pi§-iD:i^p lya 
lysi^n Dt^ii ,j .n .n t:p^iD:i{<ip oyi ly^j^ts^ix ps d^>v lyi ly: 
-jijp Dyi lyDynn isd n^an-^'yn Dyn iy:i^i^2"ife?D ^v Dnn^ny 
-y"i3 15§D nyo^m» Dyi ny^i? ,DDnyr^^ir5f t^x *m^: dp^iü 
PK ^jjt: lyj^n »oDnyj ly^yronp pK — üp^iüji^p üvi ]V^ 

(* Ji^ü lyrDj^M V2 o^^'^\> 
PK ly^^sya |y3^n 3:u^j^^ki^ö iy:yp lyvyrya yo^^rMia n 
nyni? .lyo^^niöt n pc jJi^ytDK^ lyijynt^-n nyi nyn^K 1825 
.t^^i^^^D v)'?2 ly^^sy: ^n jyj^^T oyi n^ix :njypip d^: 
lya^n rytya |yto^» Dyn pD iyvDyn^''^myn^K y:nyK^ yrr^K 
nsa PD ÜP8 nyi ü^n ^^^ijy .1859 pK DtJ'iy iyn:iK^^sj'"i^Q 
-iBB^ yt2vy^ n lysstK^st? D^i^ry: 1871 ^:i^ iytDD-29 pd D:yo5§^ 
-JK "lyD^^vyrya "lyi ^nn a:uy:ivyTyrD«^p nyrri^i nyi ps lyn 
-lyt^nötü^yQfcü^iSQ k "wnt^ .D:i^^:r*n^ntD n ps ::i:yp"iy 
-•onp DJ^i |yin:yD5§ iv dpj? li?) did^i lyn^yi cyn pa üpk 
•"löi IV jjnyosj' PK iy:3inj^-n ,ü8on^s^ia iv y:^:D ryryr^^j 



»1875 r« |p«fiiy^ üBött^iB^ lyi^n »»t (* 



^^T lyst^n "lyD^uii? n yD^y^i o^o ,|y^D^D n \vo üjjn ^nyD 
iyoi:y:DM"ii§ ,mj<P8^^ {< lyiij: p^^^iüd » ^^n |yvus2 ojt^pyj 
-lyDiiN ^n D^yDtJ^ya n» ryty: ayr^oy:^» pD yiyDO lyn pa 
oy jiici'D^^oD^'iK Dy^yi^ ,3:uy:vyTyrti5^Tjtt' lys^^ö^jo^iK ]^ 
\ii^:^\>'^2^^ n pD ü:yn n px lyij^nyj iyny:y:"iy2>K v^ 
ir]^> ^'>m D>D .lyDDn-Djyinc n ly^iy; |ym >n 5>^mi ^p^^»» 
PKüDi»:^: nyn^ynyn i^x TMnnyD:i{< yn^yroiiiii ü^r> -lynna 
-tjns'Vyty: « tyji^iDyarns idik lyD^^nny lyn^yr oyi f)>^« 
Dyn iy:yp iyvyTyrPit^-it:K^-Doi$:D^'!K v^^ w^^^b^ ry:yii üpy* 
3jny^ nyü^^iiv nyi iv r^n mi lyo^^^i lyns^ ,D{<^p-iyo^un» 
•qi^T n |y^ t3{^n ^n^ pK ; Dti^^nyn ü^: ^j^'dj^^p dh^n lyo oi^n 
üi^n ""»^oniüs y^^nyn^^ yDnia^, n t^n ,a:et^ mt^ Dsy^srnsD 
^n ly^yotj^ iv did iyDipi?3 oynii^D n »••a Di^^^fis nn^x "^nn 
-y:m^ n t:i^n nyD^yn ,üi?n5$Dy^j?"iE Dyn |y:yp lyn^^iJ'tD:» 
|y:nj^i oyi t2>Q ^n 3n:y^yü*^jyinDw ü^: .ö35s*o px üDöni 
-"»!^33y n ün^i^^iiy "''•tsn^ns y^'^iyn^^» yo^na^ n ü^n ,ü»"nx2. 
Dyi nt?ö "iyt2D:yn iv ü^n3„ rijytDtJ^ lyrn di;?i^ ,-iyDDn ye^ 
lyjyp lyvyty: yD^5< n lynj^iiivDMx lyi^n ,De:^p lyi^yjnyn 
■■•:^''Xii?D-)yü^"»3"iy: lyayp ^n iyi:y^.iKiv:i^ p« "iy::nyTifiri»D^ 
'^vt:^:)'^ PK ly^Mi Dy:yr^K pn iy:yp ii^: tk ^lynyt i^d .iy::^3 
-Q^iK D:yD^^ib*3 ly^j'^^a^y lyi üi^n ,iyDso n pa pm or» 
DyiDi?: D:{?^:rn>nD p« Dp^noD lyayp tyvyry; n lynyaya 
ün^ot^^vpiia üiyi:^mni^' ti^a pa ^^d p« Di|?n p^^s ny ^n 
-rn^nü yrijyDis^ » d^s D^^pü^yK^isat:^« lyc^'^y ly-i tD^D 
."lyü^^niK n ]v:V\> |yaD^^»:o^BKP n pa fijn 
^^^^a i^npjKia PN y^TK^^nn n oi#n ü^n "iyi:8 ir» pa 
-wsi? lyi^Ti tD3stTiy: Di^ütJ^'D^t^^vi^j^^iyn Dyi pa n^in^ij} pK 
T^N Di^i^ ,3:ir:^^Ni{s*a pa oryn Dip lyo^^sii? n ^'3 ly^y: 
*3V |yü-14 pa YV^v:i oyn "qm .lynt^i^yj oiyai^-iy Dsj'-iy 
-:röK„ D^K iy3Dir:>^K"iKanyö^^ii» y'^» o^iy^piy m öt^n 1791 
•!yK^:y^ pa y^VKiK^pr» •'.y^ *i^ik pk o'^n^ns •»yi »i^h o^ö 



^Ua»EKp ein 220 

yrtijT Di^T .tDDyriynu V)vop^ ps t3Di^ii<D ini^> p^K px 
Gyn DD^^vy::^>« dd»o lytt^^x^^v^^i^a ^nn üj^n di^i^ ,ryiy: 
,iy:^^:y"i3 n p« o^^m» px ^j<d>b^p jyc^Miv nBo^p-nynip^i^p 
-yi üDy^ynyn^« ü^r\ ,5>i?D^B^p ayn i»d nyiipi^n lyrn yD^yi^ 
nijnyD n i^^dk .oy^DDeiri pD D^^nDix Dyi p« |y:8^>vi^i^ii 
ü^n aj5<^ ö>: ni#3 üK^iy .Dinny3:iN Dtj^^ya oy Ds^n jjn^^yi 
.Dpyijjp-tij^iöC' oyi PD iyDr#iD:^y;iDnK oy lyo 
yn^n nyn nyi^^x ,s:^>DDnyi2p8*i;^3 "^rwr^ ü^j t>K ^j<t \'<''i> 
nyi ,y^^ys{?tj^ .l^noc^-nsi^o |y3>^nynu w^^^i cyn pB 
"KP ly^yn j:^^»3KTn!Sö iy^$<3t?>VKJ nyn nss nyny^si^-Danfeitn 
:ö3i?ty3 D^n /'"lynt^Toayn iynjy>y„ iJ^ t:ön ly^ioyi ^^d 
jyr^DtJ^ ^{;|;t p^^-iD>^nns lyn ts ,DiyiiD:y:i^ri^ t^x oy ü:n„ 
DH^K tODiPsn Dijtn lyn na ,üv>x ^ny^Ji' iy "lyi^^N ,iyDyn 
üiy^i y^^yii »D^^p^^jynsij: ^.yoi^^^onfe? i«i px v^t d^j ^i>*r 
yüDro^i: n dh"»« ly^nyö oy dj^ii ,Dyi ^m lyDnyjD^ns: 
IV "n^^Jiny toyos t>k ya^yii ,D>^'?:l^::y^s{^ \^ ,iy^t:>öD:yny^ 
-••v.v "in |y-i^n2^i:iv ü^: nya^^nns n lynj^ö ^{^n /'>nys){s*^pti' 
nD iy^n:fc$n Dö;Tr''Dy; px lyoyiyD:^« yny^n iy:yi^ "qn \v^ 
v:i'^V'i) ,t:^^pa^::ynsi? yoi^ijon^,, ny^n py:y^p"iKB iv DyiDin 
tinnnyjjj? ^m iyt:^j^ii tD^oiyn ^>ni /"»nyssi^ptf iv ^>^jny T^^9 
-:•!« y:^tDv\s n »noN^c-'^yn y^yty^iy: n pc ö^^n^ne n,, 
"üi^'ptj' px nytD^^m^ n Wü'p^n iv o^^n^ns n) "lyoynyD 
n PD y^t:i^5DyT nyi jyjyp 2:irj>^x"i5üD s ^^^ii px ,(! '<'^Vti 
-pniv D^iji^ — ! Di^ii DsynD — niax^o-'^ya-'^yv yr^i^^s 
ly-it^-iiy: t3ESK^y:Ei? f« Dt^ii ,y^vs!T>:js!iii?"iy3yv n ts^yot^y^ 

! y^!fio^DD:t^p -lyK^nMVJsiD nyn ^in 



yrDi^2 n ; -lynfeüoy^ii^ia y^ns-^yriD n pa ::)z^\y yöin^D 

n ; "iy'j^''m«-p'.5> 1« t:pyi:8in82 ^n öi^n yD^yii »p^s^von^ 

-Dpy n :n:yiyDy"iri«ö ,iy3t?n v^^V)) ,iyüöto-n2i^o y^^viou' 

■nj<D ly^to^D ytJ'^N^^v^^i^s ^nn »lyö^^m» n pD y^vi^DSti^B 

iy^yt:i^ i^>d lyani^T — ,^i<ö^3öip pc ::i^ofc§n{^ n ony^y:»^ 

?iy\:i:y:i iyDD>^eto^s{<P n ^m jyni^n yt^ny^^^^ I12 : y:i{<"is n 

nj^n^yD^DDiK :d2ö!K^ any^^B n ps a^n^Nnsii^isDpy n $»>ni 

::inyt2'^'ü:{< "'.yi ".v ^^^»^ t^k Dfc^ti .nyvn5<a-Tiy yD^n: -ifc^: 

t5>o ,iy:i^T 12^ nTi< ,DJ^i "i^D iy:i;?p ,Dii;^t38i:yn{<nyDn»2 n pö 

DJ^^i ,Dyvj^i3 nyoi^njü;^ e: v^ ü^i '?>>)) ,\vb^ü:i^ t:i:vn n 

-3^'^ n .iyDiy"i:^mnK^ ^y^Q ps "^k^d px lynvy: '^n toi^n 

lyni^n ny^^tD:yr^«-i")y yr>5>p v^^^ n ^n« px ,p^^5< vwi^ 

"jyr^N ps iy&^^:yD^ymj<D yjyn^^tj^-^.feüs nnyr pK lyjicy: t^ 

inyr nytDJiK ^nx lyni^i^iy; o^nci^n lynnyi tyrn px cid 

.iy3Ji::n83 yK^^r:i^:i^py y^yi^^iJ'ifciiD 

WWi "iy?D"ii§D-ii?tDöt-!3yn< nyosj^ny nyi r>K njjN^ry p« 

8 r^^fe? ,(01: iy*^'^vn3 pD -lytD^'st^i-n^c ,Di?Ji?py) ^i^^^^a lyn 

-"•n Dyn 112 v:^'? "in iv •q^f'^ny t^k v:^'? pn ."lyjyr^x-^^^^ 

'q&j'o px .T>np-D::^pini \'\v:^v i» p« iijJ /'Dip^^ni,, lyt^^o 

ni>D "ly Diyii onynjimnt^^ iyt:-14 pD ^^'?vn lytD^Mw ~iyi po 

ü^D tDni^ni?D rnö "lyn lys^yi^ ,"iijt3ön:ynöi 10t ^in jyü>3 

tDi^^tJ' "li^üütijy-i» D':iD y:^^ n j^^vynypei p« n^s ,nynT 

-fc?i5'DDpy "ly .-ly^^Q d':id y^i?^ ly-t ps lytDjiK r:yn nnyr "i^r 

"5»n 8 ,y^t:yo » iv tsnyii if'5<n .lyts^^nnyi inyo v'i'pi ü"i^d 

,^Kü^Eytp Dyi ps 5»>^ö p^« ^v ö^yoK' ny ."u^üy!i:y-i{< iv2 

•"•'3 PK lyo'^^^^ on rne lyn ,?D^^2nij lyn iv :^ün3 t^k ct^n 

— 221 — 



•^yiK ")yrD3n "lyi üDy^nsö diiji in''« m .'^v:^ r:fc§J i:t^^::y 
-p^^ injy:^^:8n .^sd^qsp pn lyopj^n ütiji^ lyD^yii ,-ij?to8i 
ü^ya p« — DPnj^is'nnyo üyn pc ^^^d k d^i?!^ Pn .nyo^^a^s 
•iny 0^8 ,i"ii^^-iJi$^ Dyn — (iyiDpni;?-iB p«) "i^D5<j px nynt# 

.Diyn 
Dijiii ,pt?3ynfeit9 in Pk ny^^a nyra:ynöi^io"iK irr lor^s 
8 önn^sy; i^ik nnoB' ikd iy:yn pn ü^d '^>^^:^!^ üj^n 
-nnK> iyD-15 ps "^t^s p« iy:iy^D ,as3;sK'ün>n y:njyDtrüD3^y? 
-^yDB'DiK n jyrn ,ü^^3"i8 ly^^r pD njvn ly^n lyn^v DiyiJin 
-"•u lyiiy: i^yD-o^-'nns pn p« iJ^otn^yn^nyon^D l'ifc^D iy-i 
p« y^^f1^t?^1yn yD^^DssK^Dinn:»^ n j^oyo^yD^o "q^^^: yi 
•ya v^« '^^n yD^'y^i »Diyu^nnn«^ iyD-15 p,3 ^yü>n lyovy^ 
I'ö^d) tDiyir.mnx^ iy:2-16 |yvjis*a nyi pD ^tj^o p« onyMi 
oyi ,Dn^K üj^n (nni?> iy:^^i:nyv ytDvy^ n p2 'qi>n döijd^in* 
"'•DnijtT n Di?n n mi ^oiyD^n^n ^yjii' 'u^ op:ib ^iJ^Dfcüuy-'uN; 
•yir^Dya D':iD a:n^3nnux n .Dont^nj^c :jnyp^yDj<D yu' 
^,v 5>y^D c^MK D>^p3>^3yD n |yny;y3 dh-»« D8^n j n .k jyi^n 
lyn PK ,iyn^:DMK tw^ \m ^v^'^ DiDD'''»Tn^D pn lynnyo-i^D 
Dyi>n jyrivy^D^ns: n^a lyani;?! Dyn pa t^^n ny ü^'w d^^^ 
•^nn '^D »D^mK'i^yfi lyn ^^3 dh^k rijy:;i:^n >^d to^Dt^ns 
•lyi^n Dyi nt^D »jdvd \'^>'i lyvi^on« "Tin ^--d pK lya^^.pn^a 
"i:y-in5j^üJ8 18 lytDipyy.x t^k DiynjininK^ iyD-16 pK 
iyt3PK"itDJi^p-yijyi8 n iy:y^D dd^kd^t .o^y^t^D lyrtoDni 
yjn'-nD3 ü^r\ ,^r\^^ 99 nnx iduj? ,\vy^^v^ y::^^ nnx pn 
PD "nnK nynnyi pk ly^^oyo y^yny n pQ tony^i doid ly^sa 
PK .DDns y:y-rf'{^: iy:i:y-inrnK nj^*to?5?n::ynK Dyi üjy^Q t^^ya 
r^K ly tDJ^n ly-cyDtJ^iK yü:)j^o-iyT:y3nK y^8 n pd inyry:sij: 
tDv^K ?^K jyD^fy^ D'r.D 3'^>d 8 .in^-D^^m« on lyo^jt^^y: nnyo 
vinK lyt^ns n .lyo^Dj^ns-yi^yn^ n ^v ty"ii?iiy:i lyny^y;?^^ 
-lonnn:»^ pD lytspi^t^ns y^{< ^inK niP ,5^*^^pd ,5'i^ti ,nKi3n 
Di^i üüijöya nypn r^K lyn^n pK lyops^^ya moD lyj^n tD^^r/ 



,o>M p^T pD n^o yiy^ int^ i{;?ü5<n:yi8 üi/T pB ^'yo^u-iD^yi 
jy^i?^ DDii<iya ü^n ly dsji^i ,üjymy n dj^ii d^>v nyi pK 
T^K MI8 (* ö^y:i P2 ony^i lytD^t? oyn on^ tD:yDyny:i ^n öjjn 
y3^n pD jji:yDy"i i'd^^k ^^d {ynt^iiy; nys^n a^o^'va^^^; "iy 

tt7:,u ]\ü cijrii D':is ly^Kß dmi o^n ,di'?b:'ik d:;t ]j;:j:;n (* 

tt>»'7Di:»'7 yjyT'trnBB yiyT3iK iiD iy;:u^j'7pN2 y^'^jinyiiya yj»:»'K 
n .(li^Sl l^'ii^J'?) iyo^ytt::7tt'n .d ^^ ]ifl /lyc« yi;?Ti^M pK 

-om» Djr lya cyn 1751 p« i^a pK ,ri.»BD?yB^ lyn^nirix o>»v 
Djj»^»» PK nyi^'T Inno ly'noK nyi .ly^KJ ]'»t "lyuiiK lynyjyj 
: MTtj nyö'i ijn ta^'^^tryn an« pi« ]»k .ii^budd 
.in'K ,iy':KS4<8'i3iMn2K'? nyi ,]2V pio ,'in>K„ : lyon in 
in'K ,nypnyivj:»n yiyi:R ]tr nyor» nyuys '\n>H ]ik nyoyip nnyn 
tiTjj t\>iK "rniT .cu pt<J lyoynyo:»» }:iy^^K lyome^» imkp y'?^« 
i>t Ml ,iy"iK^iy:j ny-iyn^ es»» lya^u lyr^t y^^t ^ycm «imk "ryö 
ynyiK s)MK lytins n in'» tsnyryn "rys pt» cimk ,\v'\^yi ly^'u 
lya^n "i>d .üßMpnss ^tn d«^i iy;:u't3Bytr82 lyiK lycpn^inB 
cyT ly^yryn lyi^p ly'p^t tq Dxn ^u »lysnpn^s ^^ taö'»:'^^:» iy:<t 
->ip lyno n^D yz'jyii »lyrt*? n lyjypsi» oy ly'jyetr u ns »t^na 
TK„ : iK*^p;<i Dyn tyts'-v "lyT ojy-iB n-n« lyo^ms << «imk — ."|yB 
]'\a ?C3''D in'K lyoyn ,iytr:yo tj n«B d^t ]y:nT o^n ,T'k tsys 
BO bö'^:"i«:j 'myi lyBiNT Dtjii ,n dkt lyj^n nyii p» "i^b lynnB 
]ifl lyny? dkii ,y^K y:y' p'O n»K^ :nijtDPi^T — "? iyn»^n«B 
lyanp-iKD mt^j .nyn lySiKS >n m "j^n^ ,iyflMp"n<fi ]tk lyßnp 
,]ytr:yo ikb dkt ]y:''T D^n ]ij<„ : lyon — ."lH:nyi in« oy «»» 
ly» ,nK„ rni^Dpt^T — *?»'3ny'7 lyaniyj ,t3JKT nn»K m ,y2'?yn 
.p;!yn-ü:yT lya^» oyn um'? »dtkb k ]yo^»3"ii<y3 D(«n ,n ]y3>»T D(JT 
pö ttiyn lyu*?«« Dy"r um*? e^yi ly'r^jts ^'t dkit a^x lyn ]♦« ^»mi 
:aD>'n ü^i ; Dy: oyT on^ lytspiixiB yiyit ^n lyBMp-ntB ,B'?ya 
Dy DHU ,v^t< lyBMpn^s ]tk j»^»3 -jny? lyn^n oyn i<?b ]y*j^«» »n 
•H<D D^jT ^ya^T D^jn pK„ myön — *. ..iy»»ö »"innyi taopijii 
y3y» lyT^K ,nny?3 ^^myr ;yn»'?*i^<D ,w(«r "jn'K m ,y2b)f)\ .lyvjy» 
y*??« pK "lynn ,Di>'?-'7ynt n lyi'U dkt« riiijtbpi^i — •?]y3'nyj 
lyiK ,tt'?t?nyj lynK yujyn iyt3«7y!3e»yjcDyD j< pB ]yny^ D|«ii .yiynilf 
tjio oo n»T lyj'cBytt'ön lyn^« lyn^ja lynr eo p'^t« lyon^iiirB o^tn 

."lyßnpnjjB pH lycna 



^«12*'SJ<P D^T 224 

-16 HD ^"iD PK üJ^n i:5?^j:y Dt^ni ,ü>: njn:^Kii v»^ ^v^'^'^vi 
-nsD yinD^KDKT n ü^i^ ,pD D5<^p » ü^nv: Diyuimniji^ |yo 

-sin lyK'^öit^n nn ps ::i35?nfe!!S px ::n^KnBi$i2Dpy n 
■qn üi?n lyni;? T>Mi:yD^it5ij^ lyDipynt^D t^k ü^)) ,::nyp^yD 
nsQ D^yt^K^yjiv »inytyj lyni^n *i>d ^ii .üt^n ,tD^i?mynni moD 
-y^t^ns lyDstö y^^i px y^^j r^{$ yniDonr« nyt^^Dii^tD^j^ nyn 
>i ü^o nn^^K^ ly-ty^ lyD^i« lyj^Dij^y: w:''^ o^)) ,iV'''\^o 

t^K (iJ^Diynjfc? DD^^sj'n o^d Iyt^•^DöM:•lV ü^j nifc?T |yo) iJ^onyi 
"pyin i? pK ly^M^; oyi lyany^o^ns ytoD^tj^yro^yi^^n V'>r 



n ps iKupy'jMp -lyT p« "i^^a'^KinNs n^n !:;iiy;! lyü'jij'jyö^o ]id 
-n'ß-Dttsytt'y; pn ipNn:;: U'-'-s px »"^ktk^b oyi iss iv^npjn^iö^ 
-3nw:r:)SMiK "pT inyiNiBK p« ]r^:iD;n9DnK Tin ükh D«n ,"171 
^MOtse^ IP'n DiKD'tytp y;'T^"7 n .t2D''?t«t2'Bt?p « 8]^« a'jj;! 
»intyn "lyT t'« dni,, :'?i»<Btyn Dis .Doon» yoma ijriiy; p»*?« 
»HJDi»Tyn -iJjB t^'^r^DKp n:;ri'?ij;ün ,]pKO ri pijtrT iiyn D«n 
D:ri nt?5 ^iii^rryi tj iNtj't'n p« ein'D ij;3'?:?ii ,"!Kn pu 1» t2^:;j3ttt 
liriyny:» okii ,i:;tt3yn n i^;yn y»n:i:in ps siki;! p« jiK^iyn 
tyt:D--28 Dl!? T'3 1359 ijrnöyifjrT ]yuD"25 tiD dk'j^t ir^jn^j^jj« oyi 
"BnpDiJ^D n pö y:33'trp; n„ : ^^ya:^» D»Dpy':K) 1369 irnöjrijy'T 
.DMit? KT piÄ» TT tar^m Dy .(244 .t ,.v .t« .k r;'?KnjraKö ,]ya 

^na"ty3'»'7 K 1!? tS'7KB 1^2^*? i:^2'':t:BKti''?yT:»;> PB iy"i:?BD )j'7^ p« Ml 

•»D3t<3'B n i:;o:?3 .3 .5» u^nj?.: i:'tr'öK3iNipj; pBn« ."ly'i'ta'ö'ittB Dyn 
^^n ;y3yt3yoD n bkik n:?'7i3rn"p''?p pK Dnmo ȟ^'^-i^nya ,iv"> 
P« ; lyasy^^p y:^^T on^< ts^jp^in^f iyi i5p»*?D lyoyi^^nB y'JMrs 



ny:^^::j<£:j#: lyi ps iD:y'oypy [yrti^T Dyi ^>n ]V'?v\2*^b^ y?^Mi 
-fcün lyiJ'^Dir^i iyrj:yn£^ lyi p2 :i:nyjy^pnj<D >"i jji^d^'t:^^ 
■n^D yi:yDy-i5K'D:y ife? nj^: d>j iy2ny;DM"!8 t}j?n ;:nyp^yD 
■ojyD-^r.2t?5:'T M**. ,Di>n^oy^i^"^B iy*^^üiJ;?DB^ oyi pD j:nnyD 
PK ynytoetD-topyi^ nyn ps j:nnyt:-ij<:D n \:iiv^i)"\vi ny^^« 
rijypiP öo .lyo^MW 8< px ;jny:y^pi»ö nn^« ^nn dij^ p^t^ 
Dyi D^*2i5<y2 \V2^n V2m) ,iy^:y3 ^{^v n o^)) ,ü)n c^n» 
-yjyjD^n» '^l?^ Win^ *iy- Dj^n ,Dnyjy^p"i5?D ^n ü^n ,\vi^^ 
5>^>^i ,-iynn2 ^it .lyLJpni^-is ^nvo )'?'>bh p« lyr^yii d^j lya 
iy:^'^:yü^yn-ij<!D-D^D3y;i^^K n px y^x^^ijiiyn iri ö^d lyo^tn^ 
-yo-Tiü::ip y::'(yDynnb'D n iy::8:ya ^mk ryj^v w^^^ i'Dn» 
•{#13 n p.D y^^j<iD:yv:t^p ,y^V8<-iyö{^{^p y"iyD^ypMiD:fc$ »lyii^D 

oyn) "ly^a'DigB^ nyi pn y:yso-nya:'n nyn e)n« a3it:2'iK5 k^jj 
n ]iB u'u K ]^ l:pm^J£3 ciyii nynni lyairy^ lyi ]ik ,(aDSi<s 
tycM'.:? lyt'O'fiiKB yr'^T'öiSBOiN n lyTMi ]y:'n yr^yn ,D'n'?:j 
TMK iy:'u nT8 ij^'^^^y P« Mi — .f[H^ j;:'>t iik tiiddks lyju ayi 
«in« ci^nu^^ lynyjj Dyn^ony» v^^i^yt yD»n:j n Tnp:«iB pK 

]j^-14 ]>n ,iy;iy i^''?j-n«B i'K ö'i WiV^ <<T ly^'n b»odb"hjt 
lyr ."Diynyü,, n »döikb n ]jr:Kt3tt'tt:t< ly^'n oiyn:in"i."Hj» 
ts*?»«»?; lynjjn ^'i .100,000 "iy3»K ö^mi ,tyDpt«nyj iidd t'n "j^jx 
n ]iB '?yaB:'B t'k t's '?ytDß^yn^ pm pB ,iyi^3 i'itjB yn:yni<t n 
tpiiy:» iy:»u dqijjb y:5't^(i n .iv^k: pk nyi^ o'jyj p« lynpinjiB 
TT en:yn oy .;: .1 .« (iy'?yni«3 yn'bjtn riy'^yn^ja) db'B-31d ,db>d 
-y;j lyn^tn »'T pc yj»3»m ;r'^<?3 oyi pB noB' p« taiyn oyi nj 
•yj ^ pK i3:i^«D"n<B lyn^tn ddikb y*?«« n .lypij yr^'jtay "n<3 ü*?n)ri 
]y:nT oy .iy:nK^i:''K y^yu nyn>K tsryTDtarnyj n^ji; lyoMi 
-nyoiiK iij nijB D^jn ly'byiatrn^jß tt ]^p ]):d .]yi\fii ny^B lyny^ 
'^1 n iiT-^2Mf tt3y'?y:jiya'K ts^tn ;3nyp'?yB»3 yv'B'HjT n jjaipni 
pK lyjn: BD'?KaKi ?? ,id;^<t !»'yo:KO .iy:<«To yj^^*?? y*?»? y^»? 
TM'?n Ji3y;i lyj'^r ü:"n inn »lyornyj 160,000 lyny: i'npj^jid 
-D3yinB n !::y:yiyj:'nii< ,(]yü'i'^joe':»-Dü2ny;) iy'?(<3nna 4000 

•lyasnya 



n» w "iyivD:yDJ>fc< ly^iy: lyjjixnvy; -it^j do jyj^n nyo^u 
D^^nnsya lynj^n >n lyD^yii n^^x ,n^yD Di^n ^n» ij^j »lyD^^a 
-»TW .jyni^tiiyj nyjy^p ,nyjy3nvy;ir^K r^s t^k ,p^^s ^n ikb 
-^yöfcjn nyK'^Dnj^T nyi pa ^^-d s pd jJi«>nQKn nyi ü^d |yo 
•D^o-Djyny^ y^n-iynns yr^r [yii^iiya >nö "^n« lyj^n :jnyp 
•5'8nyü{<o üvi pK iy-)i?iiya D^yiJ»insD üv^k wy''^ ^n .iy5» 
Dijii^ ,ny^^9 Tji .'?m'B^? lyD^^iyijyiSQ oyi pd ü:vüv'?y 
\v^'')p Diioya üv^K Dj^n ,üy\) i'd^ik lyii^iiy: lyti^^ya t^x 
-yncDDnrx ayi »n^nn-^ya oy^: pn ^^a [y^D^o-Djyay^ yj>n 
oy ^11 p« .p^^-D^^nifc? p3 yont^D nyi pk ,üd>^{$ü^s»p |y> 
o>D inyij'ya •n^ix t^« ^irs ,iy^D^D"D:y3y^ n d^d inyts'ya t^K 
nyi "18D ly^snyt:«:'^ vn'>)i ys^^ös^tJ'tDn^^nJS^ ytj^^D^NT n 
on PD ^^'ö 8 PK tD^yi:8insD "^n lyaijn >n .yntDonr« 

.fi^D^s^p lyinjyDK» 
yt^^^SDDoyn n pD ^^^d s ^n t8 ,iyoyj:i^ .n .v i^oi^^ 
y^8 iyi3-2 oyi ^ninD pd o^^v nyi p« jyai^n yD^yn ,Dnyn3 
i^Kiw ö^ö lyo Dj^n ,("i'v p^p o^j i^^d« jy^i) dp^ü^d iyjis^y:i 
oyi PK ,^n iyantDy:D>n«i px tyii^n iy»r on^Nnsj^-iDOpy 
PK iD5>yi:önn»D \vü o^n »Dyjyn^^ny^iya^N oyi ,^>^ö \vo'^'>m 
->>V3^^^a ."iyDnsD-Dnt^D»i:yi«i yD>n:i n pD nyD^unj^-ji^D 
^Ki) ,iy^nynyiT p« iy>ny:^s6j^-DPi$5'D yon-i: d>ik |yDpfc$ii :>d 
Dnyt DP^^D nyn .pi^ "JSö tDv^K lytD^-'mi? "y:yn{^iiyr"'nD„ n 
n« DH^K PK Dyii^D p^K p>p pynnD >)) top:i3 dmk dv^k 
pn« TiK nom y^«>vfc?D y^^: s nyni? jyis^iiy; t^-iy-fj» to^: 
jyanjyoK' oyn ps 5>^^d t? d^^k Dyi^u ny »lysnyp i>n pK 
p^T ny ö:y5'D lynnD .n^nn-^yrniüpj^Dii^iio pn pD ^^jd^gj^p 
yDf'y^i »lyn^nj^iö vy'pp pd ^i^v lyoMi:) b* w^^'m iD^^^üvi 
y:"^'? PK iy:i5tj>y: p^^{$ pK DinvD^ip p^^{§ dh^k lystiJn 
-Jijip -iy T^K tDV^K PK .Dy^^^ajitD yny^n d^d lyDj^iTiv \V'D)3ü 
-i8 lya^yii isc ,dd^^!:<d^s«p p^k pd ü:^^ nyi pK üi'>^^yj'^ 
(wy^^'V^ pe) ö>^5nt$ yiDDpy ^i .jynyi^ pK iy:"'Bii^ vrji 
•yjom PD HDJDn yiöDpy ?^k jy^y^i öin^^jiiyn nyn>iB ts^y^D 



PD D^^v "lyi PK ,1^1« lyij^ Dy^^^Djüs-Dny^B 5'y>D "iy^\-i 

•lyD^ns P2 r:yp cyi ij<2 r^v^'^i^ i^n ,iy:D-2 Dyn "^mno 

•D^^5$D^D^P v:i^^\^v ^^52 tD^ci^nQ pkS DinOfcsy") n oiyi^ dx^k 

jyny: nynns iy:^n Di^ii »ly^v^ii^-nyi^ I^.« ly^ir»:^' n .jyö 

pK Dpn-iy::yaö:ti:»* dv^k lyj^^r ,"iy2iyi n ny^^x ü^nsc^i^D 

tD^D PK "iyD^u""iö: n D^ö iy>:^*nv Dy:o*^8T^$P"•^yü^^a^ö{ yD^^tay 

nn pK ly^^iüt^^-ny^i ,iy^i:^sii:^ n pK .^«:nyDj<D lyn^n oy-i 

ly^ü^D p.2 D^yn:s:^n5s2 jj^ ü^^k ps lynyi^ ^i?nyD^D '-ivn'>)'\ 

p« ny^yr* I'.k ny:^Eir - nt^a r:yL}Dnpy nyrjjynsi^^'Di« I» pa 

-«nDiK "»^^ ''2 lyrn^iVD^^N p« ^n ü^d lyiiyu^oti^P iv ly^D^D 

^^ik ^11 ,iyniopfe<D"i:5§D vo'>)'\: n ^^u^ r-i:y?ip .D^mfe? vt:i'Pi^^ 

-D>i:"i^ lyi^n "^ t» ,^'^ \Vü Dp-iyr:i.v2 do*i»2 yo^n; n «^mk 

PK iynD:yv-D:i?^vpni?i5 v^''"?? ^y^2 Iis iyii?iiy:i ü^yDB^yi 

j;:nc,p ^y,2 pa :jn^KnE8$isDpy Tin oyi^^nyao^iK ^n [yn^n 

-IV nyro^'': lyn oyii ny2{? m^"^ .iya:yvi-;fc?is3 yra^ynst^^'N* 

.\V2^r] D^: m:yD p^p ,r:^j3 y:^::^^r p-»? ü^: t:5;^\n ü^)\ ,ny^'.^'' 

,y^vi^i^i^yi "lyn p.c n^^^ oyi ,??nj<i'D pD ü^^v lyi iv 

nvDP5$Drjj<^:>„ lyo^^ny: ii^j iy-nDp5<;s)i:^*^ yoMi: n {ya?;??! 

ni?D„ iy;i?T n^D mi ^tj? ,(iy:oi?tD'^nisMi yü:^:>''K-i^D) "^:i^y-i 

— ,üD8 PK 'n^^:ny^iy3 ^^2 üoyj |yc„ .'^yn^ys ytD;>:>^K 

-jyo "iyüiyi:in ikii ,|y"i''.üP^D^.:yo yD^i;; n — ,t^2y:n>D tD:i?T 

-y: DDn lyo y^^yii pK if^-opyin p^K nyjj^x ly^^^ms ly:^ 

,tDnyp^»2 ,yjy^ n^^K ,iymüp5s's:^j$<o y^iD^^r^K-^D "n^^-'nyii 

"ötn ^v^v ^vo^'^^^ ^J^v yD>n3 et -inyr tD^-im^? oy v^^v^) p« 

üTi^^ lyc : P^p ^ DMP jy^ D^a ,\M^n üv:vy'i< p^t n^iK lyn^n 

•^n3 s lyo t2ny:5$n ^^nnyn .üjnrnyDrn pK "q^!':ny^^y3 ^n 

pD 5'>^ö ly^^üD^irnoK i^* lyi^^n p^^s«: ^n ^^n^ ,-iy^-iyD lyo 

-lyni? Dyr^K ov)) Pnnt^ö y*jrj^^Kn{<D n . . .DV^3'n-Dp^j;5D 

nyD^^met n ^V2^ ,]V2^o ^^n ly^MyjoiK nyoyjnyojiK ^'>m 

nyoipstn-p^^ yü?>?vfc52ny3"iy nyi^» nyoyn v)'?^ lyrn ,ynn^K 

nyojiK D'jiD nn>c^y nyn p« ^■»■•tD:^ p^P ü>: |y*2y^ ^n pK 

•■•^p tDiyn ,Dnyp"ii<D »pn^e^D iytD-iyi:ny25ii{ "lyi px .nyoy: 

. . .^^^:yDnKD t>k "lyo^^ms: ^i>*v yo^n: «; lynt^ ^i^n o^j iy: 



^yD''D K w^v"? öis lyroyt) px lyjnjytos^'js i» px jynyr 'n 
-^>^P 8 ü^\) D>^v nyT PN ,v:^'? ly^n pyoyaisiD iv n:yD>ns3 
i;röDMi V'P pn DO ^fc^Dj^^p \^i> pi5>-tD^uns pD ajnyDyn y: 
'^'<'?:vü DDfeitD n Dj^ii DjyoDDyn nyon« ,üd:ipiv nyn isq ^«r 
^^iD pK tD:i?n PD lyny^» iv nyoyn oi^iitoy nyt^^^Di» n iisd 
-D>^D ,iyniDps2^:8D y^yn^m:'»« yo^iyn^ny^si? n .pn» 
n iy:^n »lytoDstJ'DnMi D^m^-my v:'''''^P d^d lynjnnsD Djyo 
-»t:*^n»ii yüiy"i:iTy:s^ n D^ötn i?n»-i^Q nn« ."y^nQ-rv:>^« 
•■•^«nsD,, n nyi^^« ,iPDPnijia p« K^^D{?:i?py inyo "isd lyo 
-jsni^ yD^^oorp D^8 TM^n ytDvy^ n tD3»iD»n px /'ytD:o 
iyrD5>yD:ii;?T ü]n lyDJiK Dyiiyit^ny:DnH ,tv^:i$5'D-ynytJ^T 
Dyn D^D lyny^pny dj^t ^d ji^tp ,|yj:n>3yrn3i^D n ps a^iK 
>i>iK iyiiöp8Di:8D ^>^t3 lyo^n: j$ ps njj^DtJ'iv lyriD^j^D^T 

.tDjyj^DJj;?P lyt^'^xysi^i^^N Dyn 
-J8i"n»D onyMB y:^^5>p n ly^i^n y^^yn ,iyD>jynytj'y: n 
-Do^nis p« iy^tD^D-D:y2y^ yny^n pt« nyo^-ims-pi^ pN ü^yn 
•«P ly^ynoDnrx oyi pD lyto^y^y^y y^ynyüjüo ps ly^D^o 
nyr« 1{$ lyDvy^ Dyn nj^s lyastK^y: j^d^-ivd^^^j lyni^n ,^}$t:^D 
Di^vni^is Dy^^^D5?D-nny^i3 n lynj^n lynnD .p-i^üd lyD^^ 
•^yii ,^{$nyüSD lyn^n Dyi px ly^o^D-ojysy^ n D^^m^yn p« 
•jjn n .üDM")m^2 p^^s ^^^DjyoDinyD DynD^^i: lyni^n ^n yD 
lyij^i^yi DV^N lyrn lypD^o-Djyny^» p« jy^^ny^öto vr\'*)''\ Vi'>^ 
P18D » öi^cya piN T^Mi:yD$^a ^n dömp^j^d ny^ia nyn ; nn^no 
y3J?i3 ,D:yiv^^ ^onys-^j^i^ .imDp^DUKD n i^« ^n iö!D 
in OJ?n ^»nyöSD -lyn^n nyn ys^yi^ piD ,iyDfe?T — - ntjüt^-^j^ii 
'V lyD^yii t^« y>^^DSD '•w^iv^^b ^viv t^x lyjicy; lynns 
— »ünyiiy^ p^^ Drs'^y;i ^^nnya oyjyr^K ly^n ny>^iv lyst^n 
-pfeüD^^sa px tyii^-ny: tD^yn^Ninsa |qin »ts n^iN m'i< lyj^n 
yp5<D iyn5>*n lyDpnDon ytj^^Qii^T n v:i^V)^ nfe§ö ,|y^p^Di8-T.o 
^vn'<'\f^ ,'^v^''\\> ^t^v yoMia n .pn^oT^iaj^ Dyi tDyn^uy:D>ix 
"t^nQ v:'''''?P ^t^v lyD^ia s pa iyj^*Dti^^i vh n ^^mi ^D^^nst^'iv 
iynnü:yvji?P ,p^^s ^n n»D o^^^nsy; lyntjn djjiii ,-iyn>vn 



•:\s D':i2 tD:n^Tb:n Diyi^ ds^ii ,pn«D lyom: p^« px üv^x "^n 

-Dpy lyn t:iVo D:fc?n px ojsn Dny: mtö: .^»D^setp jy^ynDon 
*iy^n p« Dny^B y:n:yDtj'üD3^yr lyn^iD n pa ajiTxnsi^iö 

n lyD^nai? pD oyvi^is nyi »ynDonj^K-iy^yj nytJ'^Dnsjn nyi 
pQ ajiDD^niüD n ^^: px .ü^^ms-ny "lyi pD i^t)Pfe?2i:8o 
jyD^^iyj^K nvi "i5§s lyas^*^ ]^P ynDDn:'K-r'in ny^^^Dij^i nyi 
I^T Dj^D^u Dy lyD^yiT i^t? ,y35<^ ytoDys n 1:5$^ s pd pijjd 

.IDix-D:j?^vpni^n3 nyi^'^DD^^KD^ESP lyi 

pr lya^^Dyr"«« px ii;?nyB-T.üp»£i:5?D lyi Di;?n '^^i p« 
nyi ^n niST jyo .:i:nyi:ya^x y^stpnsi p>p iv DDsnnya d'»: 
"iiii: DK'-iyn^n Dj^n -nDpfe?Di:i<D y^yanyr-'ns n r« ,iy:i?o 
'Vi rijyüB' "nn t:i?n px y^vpnn^ns y^^jii:^vi<j n t^Mijy^^^o 
-"»Eij^i nyi pi< ^nypiy^rüJötn "lytj'^aiJ^t^ti' nyi n^ix tDv^ü^ 
"yj i^« DyDD^:"i5$2 v^'iv'? n üi>*n n ly^i .ynt3Dnr«-T^in ^v^ 
-pji5 yo^iiy:) ti^^,x ,iyrMivtD2y::^y: yiyi:iT^*n pK »lyont^^s yoni 
">'>m ^lyonj^D yiyi:5$ px lyDiiy^Dnifc? nyi>n >m n D5?n jyD 
»Dn5<i^3 "lösn: lyD^-nyj 1$ vi ^n ü^n n ^^mi ,iyt3p:^3 px ly: 
"lynnyi totitn n .ly^isnytosD vn'*^') n lyo^^an^yn i:^ w^^n 
"^^v n y^^yii ^^n ,D^^^-^ni?T vr''':>i> PD Dj^t^p Dy>>: s lyssK'y: 
— :j*i:^Ds:yi^»rü3>"in n p« ^8r''^D ^ i^^ W'iW t^« ü>^3"i8 
-"»ipnsD ^n yD^yii pc lyDpnj^is n ,o^uis y^yntoonr« n 
t^K Di^i .ny^i:yn "q-in nyii^t üpyin mt2psDi:5s*o lyi i^k wh 
■ii^3 Dyi myto fc$ p« pnjü D3:y-in yD^yii ,nuD n pD y:>^K 
■15 pa 5>yDm lytovy^ d'jid .ytDD^'^y^ "iy^>^3jy in pD nya^ 
,|y::i:iii^py:n ^^in jijt 1103 "^n "ly tDonüK' D"iyi:i.-nni^> \Vü 
\vri2V^^ Dyi ty^yii ^lya^i^'D^j? r^nijyiD^^v ii^j lynyii y^^y^i 
ny:n'-nDD lyi p.K 'nyo-i5?Q "iyi5'>DD^^^*tD>Qfc?p ivi pa dpikii 
n "ly ü^^cya d-im nyi35$ "lyi i^ .Dnyns n pD ::iaD^:nND 
^ii^v ^V'\v:v'?? » !^K D3n ,"»^: o^i ps an^yotJ^ nny^is y^Miji 
(* .|y::i:jn5?n v^Vi^'W nyo:^« ^jiijid y^» pK 



n ni :t3t*'7 '1t<< -a^'s D'*?ynt3^«-ip 1^3 tsrr^^a BijaonK ]ts (* 



•DiK lyi ^n i:;iyMi lyn^^nys; y:nj^"i n dm^ p« ; ^t;?: iJi^-'iys) 

-"»DD^^feiitD^E^p nyi n^'Q Dn^rüjn: ly^njyt:'^ Dyn ,iy:^si^5!!0 
"yjDiK n ^^p^ii^n DTij^naj^nöDpy n ; i3£{$ii't:"inr'i:{:>> "lyt:^ 
•:yni?D pi< ajnyp^ys^n lyti^^snt^-i nyi ps o^^iiny^ vrj^'r] 
-j^«-iMn nytj^^Dnj^-i pw D^-imtümy w^^'i)): ::i^^^div n D:n 
^nynyii pK ^nyrs^ n — -lyD^yii pa jy^vii^ii n ,y>"it:Dn 
tDB^ny Dnynj^ny ,yntDDn:^« yo^-i: n /t .dmx t:iD^n n — 
lyvJW Dyi ^n« ^5$tD^st?p ly^ynüonj^K Dyi i^d -lynnyi 

.p-i5§D lyD^^-iy:^« 

•jy^'Eb*? nyuD;iD»nT p« inn 

-y:-it?Q T^« DD"'^5<D^i3^P ly^yntoDn:^« cyn pD bnny:i n 
ini? ."iyDii<snij;D5<-ijyii< oyi pö Mi "i^^yoisB Mt^ to>: lyoip 
-üDD^yr inyo "^fc^j ii^' D-lylDD^vo"'qy^? v^^'^p y:^j^^« ly^-in psd 
•IV "lyü^^nnypi^ i^"'5n* lynj?* lypiyirD^s^n y:*«^^? ypn^ytoiy 
-i5§D r^i$ ^nn ,'^5^:inyi p« |yDD''^^D"'S«P yr^^p lyiJitiiy: DK^iy 
-Di» pK "lyD-i^nnis y:y::ny5 p2 y^i^^Dj^i^sopy ^yDiyoyni 
nrp Dyi i^« .iyt:D>^$^t:!^s»p ytDDy — ;ji^05s*tjj^ ly-ijy^y-isK' 
^i^oDöi? t^« y^vpnj^nQ "wi^^^o^'p^d'^^p lyi ps "ij^nys-D>M 
,t3iyD!r v^''7iVi:i'?^'?VüVD n po D^^-n:"'p nyi pt^ mi iy:jy!:y:iv 
pn ^i^T y^yp^'X-n^^^ y:yr:fc?^tDJ8 n ps "*iyii — y:i5^i2 n ixii 
|yi>^^D:st ^^^DjyiDDinyD lo^y^D — lyjyn nyii ps* lyt^D^^^ 
nyii p« lyDi^^-DJis -^lynnc r^« ^n pö lyii ,nvi dm^ lyiyn 

.nytDyesy 

-Dp'r^Q :;ty?j:y n ps lyt^r^ti» 3;?« ]yn^!t^ ,ü'i:?myjj »Li^^n p''7m3j;"' 
Ijri'u tn 'lyr'jy.T i^ ,y'v«-K"i;j?n i:;n ]i£3 iy:i>iny;i5MN tt ]yDxf5 

.|yi«nTa n ps ö'^^f "in ]'n lypjnyjss^jtiK 



yoMi: n p:8"i fe§ |y"ii;?iiy:i lya^^ii^y: t^n Dt;?n ,p-ii<!o-£D^yiT Dy^^: 
-^yto^D nyi .Dnn:inin&?> |yD-15 112 ^no d'jid iy:jipynD:y: 
pa lyatt^D yjyi>^{i^ii<D ^miv lyrj^^ynyn^x nyni^ oj^n lyo^ö^ 
-'Dt^:i^py yüD:yi>^t^i5?D n px j^tD^^v \v^v\) V2'?V'i) ,^j$d^S8P 
nj^nys Dyn it$D lyt:^^: p^^ Dsjjtsj'^yry:! lyi P2 üv^'^^d-h^^ y^ 

-J8n nyn pK ^5<ü^3i5P"iy3ifc^ii "lyi : iy:^n di^i — "qn ijüd px 

.^SD^sfes^p-^yn 
tDnytDtj^iiüD nyD^yii »lyn^n^^ -iyK^^^;i:y |5<t ü:ij^t ~ ,t:v^«„ 
yvJ83 n tDny: — ,^e:D^2s:p"^yn:8n cyi p2 y^i^i n d^: nas 
...DD^^feüD^Sütp Dy-T p2 t::yn n pN* tD2fe$:^^yry: nyi p2 n^n^^v 
pn lytD^uni? ayi ,üjyi i^n "iyo^cD:yr^N-ny cyi d^i^v ^y 
,0^1 i:i^yo-iyD"i^p d':id ps I■ly>^D:^' n p2 ny^ot?: Dyi ,p^^ 
tD^^':'2^^P"ini nyi px — ^i^^D lyonni 5< dtj;?^ Pn /jdip -»n di^ii 
•"iny> D':iB — ,'?'>''Vi iyn:yDp5$^i 3j^ü lyiy^ d^d px lycDyi: cyi 

DD^^8D^2b*? nyi .P^^S? 1>T "10:2 D^-iniS: lyi P2 tDpnt;?12 IVD^^ 

IIB iyo>D:y:^^« '■w^^^v lyn d^s [yim tDDfcjnt3$§n i:iv>n i5>'p 
o.TK tsiitn ryry: v^'p d^h »DVi^s^n lyD^^DSstt^'^yty^ lyv:)^: cy; 
n ...DiD:y:^^K lyrtJ^i Dyi tin« üsyn dj^t lyny^ynyD^« tD\T 
^nn lyni^iiy: iy2iiy:D>n8 t^k Diü:yr^x PK 3jny-t:y yrr^^n 
n^i^pnyo rjyii ü'»: t^n oy p« ...^i<tD>S8P n^ix üjyvi;|ii3 |y*:yj 
IV tDD^^^2y: ^n lynj^n fc?2J^n^^K n«: P2 lyny^vyryj n :$< ,:n 
P2 üDMD n .'•nyDix'n jyayp lyvyry: •^in ii2-iyi lyD^n-.ss*:: 
i$ T^N iJ5§^ pB nn^t^'y iyv:i?3 lyi nyn>fc< lyüD^^feitD^G^^p ^1 
*Tin — ^J^n pi< ,üDyrDiü3yr^N ps y^vi^i^n^yn y:n:yt2i*'^^'!: 
-DM18 n T^N lyvyiy^ p2 Vn^'^'\ '•\v:i'?v^'\ i"in lyifc? vv^v^i \v:i'?V)) 
]VP:v^v:i Ü2i8ny: ü^t^ii nyD82i82 nyi "?iy"iJ^iiy:) lys^-iy: 
•lyvyry: "q-in tD38oy:j to^: ly-iyn oy^vif't^iiyi r» 
33i:Tii?"iy3yv n p5< ny2nyi n px ::imfeji y^fcsni^y2 n 
üijin Di^n ,5'8ü>28P"ü^y: nyi tDiync'y^ iynj>*n Lsiyot^^ n pK 
iy^i:8Mi82 IV ,5'yi:8n px ^ny^ixii ^in 'jjyi'-^DyjDnK vt 



^ÖB>st<p D^T 282 

nyjyn-n^in y^j^^^^na n iid ::ip^^ömk nyi ü>d jy^KDya jyj 
-i?n8E3 lyt^Mi^^^D iix 3:n^Kns{^nsDpy nyn ü^d p« oyijsn 
lyiiDp^DiJfeiio y^^j n j:nyp^yD5<n lyij'^&nj^-j -iyi po ajia 
*iyni? D^ D^o DiyüK^-iya^n n pK lyiij'nya tDynjnaya lyj^n 
nyon« |y:isya ^n jynii^n yo^yi^ r\:^^ px lyDpjis yj^n$§ p» 
.a:unitji-iyDy^ ji« ly^^Dij^t^K^ lyto^s lyn ps ^i?iü:i?p nyi 
n pD ^Dsp nynyaunsD "lyn nj8^:jy pK "^n üöyj poiyn 
yrti;?! n |y:yp lonyotJ^ (yün^ay^^iins yo^») yt3nn«f5ii#pj^K 

.jynDjyi^ y^yntDonj^« y^o 
-D^iK n ,spnyDi§ p» nyn^n px n^ija pa jjipyiDJS n 
iy:yi{?nyar^fc< nyi pD i:ni#-i:»i p« jjiDs^PK^nsD ,3jii3ij:i 
a^itDD^ii-ifeüD pi? a:nyni?")y n ,|yanmyn n i^k ijnyp^yssn 
n5<!D n ,|yaJs:Dy:J5? dd^ko^i ^n t:i?n dijii ,iynr«"DDij ps 
"»LDMiTniü^iK' «^MN ayy: nsD rj<^ö «^ pk «pna» pa :iii^nj«in 
■fe>ii<-pr Dyn DjyD^^^ötn ü{?n di^t — ,^^t ü^d ^y-ij^n n^^iv ya 
-ijn n .nt?nyB-DJJ^>!iPni^ns ty^^^D^^^^^&^P ^vi PQ 3iS3 
':^ lyi ps lyDjyDJ^D-Ds^in n \v:''''( tyoyvi^na yK^'5»n^x yrr 
pa nDn^D-^yiJsn n Dny: ^n '^i^: px .::5i^Q{?T3fc!5 lyD-'^^jyia 
-y: y:yvD o'?^ dj^h oy nyD^'yii n«a ,iy:ij^v8^ y^^^xysi-ti^^x n 
•a^iK Dyn ü^d ji^ ^n Dr^n n ,'?v:i'\i>n'^v nyv:s3 lyi üjyn 
-Dit? ]v:i'>W'>''\ 8 li? üDy: ,iy^j^s6J^ lyjyp iJ5<^iyn>j pa i^^ta^ 
t:ir]v:^ pK ,-iJ8^3jy pa non^D nyE^^rDi?p5$^-'»t5j» nyi pK ::i5a 
-Dvaij n ni »ly^ijajfcjfn^n pa yoii^a nyn pK n^a tov^« ^i^j 

j .1 .« .i?r3 |y:yp m^n^o 
•y3 :Ji^Di?r^i? lyD^^aj^aji^ tia lyo^yofc^D y:yT>Kn«a n 
,]y^jss^ p« niD lytj'^Ji^^i^ji^na «i PK iyr:yii -lyij;? ^nv^ \vn 
-yii n:5<^::y pi« n:5?^::y pk ^^^np^sia ,n:$<^jjn »^saiöiJ^a 
-"Ki{<a iJ^^DfeUDyüD^D D-iyn:"imnN> iyD-17 pa ^id p« ^n lyn 
y:iynt?o ,DyDD^D-nin-n3i5>D ,DyüD>D-^^>Ji?^ss?p oyi p« d^j 
•^üVü yjnj^i n .nyt5D^D-D:i^^vpyDi?nB pi< DytDD^D-py^^üc^ 
,ü3fc.*o-i5'^^^3 •lyDD^iitü'nn lyi ti-ti^ t^"»ii^^^d "nn lyv^DB' |yi 
-8S ^M y5»«i nyni^t ,DyDD^D-D3i^^v»T^ji^^i?p nyn ^y^SB^^^a d^v 



"liüD lif TPi3D:^p nD ,ü2s:6^'^yTy: ivi pD DDfe>D-i^5<ii: yo 
-pnj^iB ly^iiT^^yD oyn lyp-ij^in^sD pD oyvfc^iB nvi iiy^yjK' 
Gyn iyv'i^'5-,{<D iv px iy^^DD^>i<'j^2öJP Dyi p5< i2'.j<-D:i^^^ 
"Wü'?^ lyiy ps piNiJ'ips n T^K i^jüiu n .:iy*.rD:i^s:-iyn\s 

.11 lyj^^« ü:i?r DyüD^D-^^'^jt^^iiip iy3>^DD>-ip nvi lyayii 
»DyD^^K^vysD p^r "155:2 DDt^oyj ürojyLjonP üi^n dj^ii ,tDOKi»n 
yjyDnyr"»^!^ n pa mn^vn px ü^-'Pi^mi n„ : Dyi:y:^}^D 
lyiy^ iy:yp iii< to^yii "Wi pd ^^^d lyny^ px \vo^i y^^^Donp 
-'•n iD^j lyrcy^ ,iyDDy:p"i^2 ü2^pv: i^: \V2i^n ^n dj^ii ,p^8?3 
-J8 p^P ^u yto^^:^'yrD^y^1 nyi ps ii^nys i>^p px lys^^^; "ly 
p« n'n^jQmn'DiK Mi ,tDy-i^^Dy:oi« px "i5"ii mi .vo^-^ in 
-iy&5^n:y^t^n nyn pa y^a-'t^y:» n ".pn tD^i ^t^t n tj^^Dyij^ 
-D^^5<tD^S5<P D^T lyiiy^ T>N i:s^{?n px — üa^K^üiMr^öt^jj^^i^p 
"iüD ^'?v?'''\'i„ — ünyijimnN^ iyD-17 fiD P^t^any^D^D v'^'O 
nin^^n ,ini^ ,t55$mfe<D pa i^^n ^^^:nyiiyinyD>ix is nyuKi 
.K>>tDDnyop8iJ5D Mts 00 T^K ^$<t p^p ."D^^prDnyiDiyi^j p« 
-5?3 1:^ nD »Dyny^yv t^« tyi^^yo lyjy'n:: pa Dyt:D>D nr;>K ^i 
-ii$a ^y^vysD iy:^n D>3iriy^:yD .j^iis' ni?a lyas^pK^ lyoip 
nyn px nyvytnyn^« nyi ,3J3 lyn .[yi^ii^iy: ö^iK^y^ pyi^v Dyn 
PK .^'yiisn nyi pK iyD:y:j<-DaMn n lyiiy; iy:^n lya^pn^üD 
-pyii5< n .nya>ipii<a Dann n — jyvna y:rii?Dy:ir^K n 
niD yo^^ny: p« ly-i^üac^-ii^a \vü üsy^a ü^^^ y^jr yüyaji'ya 
ti>iK lyp^cnyn^K d^v ü^na pn lyay^'a "r t^a ,Dyny^yv pN oyo 
yrii^T n„ :ü3»^r DS^-.etn ny^y^v^aiji I8 .lya^'j^-iyat^^pi? 
y:^^K »oyoniü yc^^iy; ü'>d ^la t>« ,.d .v nj^Djjjpt^^ t:*7^t:c^ 
yD^^p^^:o^N ü^D ü5i^ü:;'y::i? ,nynyi:8 nyn pa nyD^^pyitJ' 
ü'o »lyo^v pK iDi^DtJ^ya ,^^J8i^t3 PK D^^'^rv^^a pa ni:3ip 
-Ko iy;i^iyr:i?3 \'^ nD ."cy^^^'ofc^a yiy>n pa lyony^ai? nf'sina 
|ytj^nyr,tDni^a oyi DaMpynytD:iK lyijy^i^n n lyniifin >*pn'^ 
.O-'J^tDK' PK tV^^^V^^^^^K 1641 pK 'n Di^n iy .ii;iiDö::iy20 



-nyi Dn^K lynt^n px mn pn iv lyoipyjiv ^y^e^ ^n lyj^n ist 
yDiD-n^iPivt::"!« n iv^t^vsn pD "lyiy^i iv niü9„ nD ,Dy'nn / 
,iyD{?iDy3 T>K D^D ny^n ii?: ik^i jj^^nyoD idjid 21,875 iid/ 
•yp^yDsn nyi iia ^jirrnsj^ px ^jitoonnöSD iy;iJs:iy:D^D r^N* 
-yp5'y2sn n loj^n ^»'iiiü^ ps n^^j^is fc$ /;i:{<!irji?n px .:i:n 
-— 1881 PK p« »nifij'ß: 80,000 nyn^« D^nyvy:! 1750 p« j:n - 
"! 'ryiJsn *iy^yi^^5<„ üD^\n oy di^ti d^^ .8000 tn^^^ 

iynr«-DDi^ pt^ üö«K'-iyn nya^^D^^j^ö nyi nyon« |yoiPb*n 

lyni? .^öijn^^K px p« pa minD pa i:ii^3Dj^-iD ^Mi< px 
PK jy^TJ^N n lytj'n^v ,|ynj^K pD iy:iy-i3 n ^^3 ^vi:^n lyn 
-y3 ynyayn n pa ^5?2t^:i?o lyi lyiiy: vi< kdi: lyn:"»« p^< 
^ycyn »Dvsi? ,r^^T ps 5'j?s^:i?d nyn .y^Ji^sa^p lyi pö yt:'^» 
PD ly^siip yD>^syK'"iyDiK lyiiya lyrn nnino v^vi:^ m 
p« lyr^na n lyo^DS^'iiin ly^y^D i^^^j? yo^syn n .D^>p3^n 
fynj^n ^n ^ly^öni lyon^^x yD''^p^^:i»iK n ps jynjitj'yi |y3i?n 
-JK 18 tyoijya ü{?n ii?t:i§i*iynir^i5"iy:ya lyi .D^i^iiyj p-»^» 
ty:y^D D^nn^po y^^n .^ynjs.TD^i^na |yri{?i oyn pK ^>^d 
lynt^n >n y^^yii inn ly^jia^nsn nyD:iK |y:5p$<nD:i?p iyDPi?D 
"ij^a PD 1^5?: lyD^D ,-iyp^DyD^K n pD nyj^^p -^t^j »D^i^py: 
»"qy^üyiiK^ ^i^ lyopsiio^i« ly^y^'D Djy^yon^jD yonia .dij^^: 
jni? lyöipij^s t3:y5'ö 3:i^öb:r:i? yD>^::i$Dji^ n .35^0 p^K j^k 
lynni^i'j pD 5Ji:5'i?DnistS"DDny: n .D^yn^^oMK ::'»'?^^ p^K 
I{<ir^j^D lyo^iiy: k .jy^y^sK^-'U yrir^D "»o fi^a t^k Diirüo^M 
oyn PN Drs^ ü^D ly^nji^n ^^ik üPi?iD:5^p k iy!:ip»n djjh 
-ya jjnyit^eanN ny^y^v^cj? r» ü^)'? pi^n ny |yii ,ü:yoi^D 
»^^^1 inyt ü:y^^ oi^ii »lynrx pa ^>>ö 8 px lynni^ass^ üdi?<i 
-Di>sj# pn toD>ipn8ö üj^n liüiv^'i^D .DpntDDn-Di^si^ \viV'> ps 
pn .t ^ 3 lyDMiy:) « 1^f ::^^nytDD tojjiD 40,000 n8J^ üp^iüij^p 
60,000 183 DP8itDJj^p Dyi DD^^pn^D 3i^ü lyn^yroy-T dj^h 
0P8")DJJ?P ü]n tiD iy^i:D>i8 p« lys^^p iy::vy^ nyn px .üjid 
D'JiB lyai^^tj^y^Dni» Dyi Dy^8 ^t?: Di^n ly t8 ,t3"iy^piyT t3{}:,"t 



p.D ly^ipisn 1769 V2 1757 pD yüDöiyn y-n^K ni< y:{<2c5?? n 
W'^^'V,'^ ijr^iyDD t::ia jj^^^^d 6 r\:r\D minn lyonj^x n 
-"iy::in 8 lyany^D^nt? iv'i^v'pi^v n lyn^^n 1770 n« 1769 
Dyi Dsipy^D^i» lynj^n "»n dj^ii DyiDin ,iynr« p« ü>ij 
,pni:; Dn^N iy2'''ip-i^2 vi o^j^ry^sj^ ^n ly^j^n px t^n ly^fj^a 

.lyr^^na y2>in-:in'DnN*D i^d- jyn^D 

p« ^1^ »oy^jj^^i^p-y^v^üJ^^s n p5< iyiiy:i y:yni;f;3ya:^^K n 
-toij^BDpy n^D DD^ütj'^n iyiiy;i lyj^n y^^y^i jynrx-DDyii 
'11 ,-iyijy^ yto-iyp^yD^rüDny: pi? yD^>n n pi< p« ,^y"T:^*n 
1^? jyiiy: to^^^tDiiN^^s lyrn yD^yii jynrx-DDiii px «p-iDpyo 
pr jyD^^tDjyr^« pi< oy^jj^^j^p n px "n^ix ni;|;: ,nn^x"i px n^n 
-osn^c nyD^^::^*£:fc^ nyi pa nyt:pfe?n^D nyD^pDonp "lyi üi^n 
j/sj^^üJi^DDyt^j^na ynyDD-'j n di;? .iytniy:D'n» d^u 'nn :ji^ 
lyo^i^ti'j^n n "^nn lynj^n ,i:t<^3:y-rj p« nyj^toniQ n ,Dnn: 
•yn3 8 lOD^oc'^n (:j^^D^Tnis*2 ^y^:y3yJ^:yry:) ^^noyo^ "ly^n p£3 
])i^ ]V2^^^ ly^'jsnj'K iyny> nt?D a:^^nyt:D d:i2 60 pa y^D 
ioc>t3:i'^*n ^n lynj^n 1720 px .lyriD^m-tD^-i Dy:ya:^£y: iyny> 
-n^ti') ö^5?pD |yti^>Jö5nr« lyiy nj<D tDJia 100 ps y^^Dyis s 
-yj ^ Di^n ^yrDtoyni^LD^D^o lyn ^ii DyiDi;?:) ,1744 ps ; {\vi 
-^}?ö üo>üK^;j?n ^n lynj^n jy^ynyn d^j< t:>-iy^piy ontj^ ryD>ii 
— lyDyn iin nnj?^ 12 pD D:ym?<:j>-ny:yo ij<d : lyr^ns yijya 
y>'j) DJiD 105 — yjy:j^*£y:iny3yD "ikd ; (D^ya y^^j) djid 100 
n^D ; ü:id 55 — ^in:i''P ?i« jy^ns yjy^^siDyj nj^Q ; (D^ya 
yD^^Dy iD^o ! ü:i2 50 — ny-i:^p p^< ly^na tia D^y^nj^c' 
Dpi3 Dyt:D^D-^fe?^:fc?^5?P "lyn in djjjh -lyoyQt^ nni^^ r^i^nyv 
D2n ^nsJ) D-iyüJ^D-Dnaf'^B yons n pa lyiii^p n i^^ W'i^v: 
-yiD^ pN üinJi^iiyar^« lynt^n di^ii ,ny^^*üniö ytotj^iy n iy»3 
-Q^K I« PN lyiiy: D!^N»:Kn ryrn y^^yn ,(i3üt^3jy tia ypn 
->n nsQ P« iyi2y^::y n ps ajn-ynt^ED^iN nyn 1:^1^ .ij^'d:;^ 
-f'^B n pD ny-irp n ,''m yrD^^ronn n iy3J>*n üf-j^v^s iy 



•78^5 >BNP D^n 236 

D^B! :ijn^s^fci;pD n px :y^yrD^^3 dj^i üiy^p-iy oi^n üjyo«^ 
,o^vn v^v^^'i PN iyDy:y:j ly^Jifin dü^: n px oi^: dj^^^ ,\v^ü'>d 
•DJ» n tDny^yjt^nsD ^^^tDD:\"? üj^h oyDO^D-^^^jj^^t^p nyi 
-1^0 iyto2i§ii'^yTyj„ n .y^vfe§3Mii$rD^ pN ^y-ij^n pa :ji^pmi 
■ji^P nyi PD ly^D^D y^^to^yo iyiiy:i iyj>n nym^ pa "«^^}?2j?j 
-n 8 lyc^^y^ lynj^n oy^j^^^j^p n .^stD^a^p pD y^ifsiiDjy^ 
p« iyiiDpi§Di:iso yi:y^{;?n2ij^D"'^« n iöid Pi^oTi^TB^it \iv:> 
,nn!^"i« n jji^djjitjj;? ytDiyDy-inj^D » — ^i?3i^:{^Q ivi Tin 
-nis*D "qnn Dpynn DnMiy::^^ 5§Di^n^^K nyo^iK D^^n |yo Dt^ii 
y^^j^BJ^iDyo nyn p-n iyoipy::^n«: lyrn ,mn^v") px ajiDsi^pii' 
-»P PN lyn^^iiy^ jD^y-ij^msD lyD-iJ^i lyj^n p« (iJs^nytoiD) 
-■»^itDj» :nJyD:^'^i^^ ytoa^ny n üi^n yD^yi^ ,n:»^{^*n ,^ij§t3^3 
iy:st5:^'y: 1648 pN pitj^ t^n ,DyDD>D-^«^:i^^i?p oyi D^yp 
oyD3 ü};f;n„ nn^K ^^? .D^'^pD^iro^y-ij^n nn^« ps r^s^ pan« 
-nsQ iyi piN ^ynj^n nytj>n:^N-DD5^ ny-i t:-iyny:i Ti^D^^tj^D^N 
"■•D y-in^N .^3^-)^^x pö nnro'pD^ p« nny^-Dm \v^'>m lyp 
-yn iy:fc?D:^y3 lyj^n lyniDp^^i:»© y-in^« ,toi?^D nn^« ,\V'^^v^ 
c>'^^2^t^V'\ ny^ 112 iy^i?D"'Di?p n .i:^'? ly-i:^? |yiy^ po mi ,iyD 
•Ji? y^» ps ly^iüü^sNP n nyi>^N nnyo lyiiya d::^^^^d lyj^n 
DDy;-i^*D p^'^rj /'lyoijyijyo^tiv »bj^i^^n pq iv'\2V'? vwi 
1648 pN piti' lyj-'n n^^^j^n px lyDSD-Dp^j^s n : [ynyji^^iv 
-jtN ny^^^nn px Doyni<!ib*Q p« D^^msynyn^N nnyo lynya 
nyijy^ ynyn:» y^s i'iQ lyoso-Dp^j^Q n lyn^"»« üpmynytD 

.iyQijy::yöi?Tiv i^ai^i^^N pa 
D^D öD^tj^'iymj^D y^ynDDnr« n Din^D :i^d i^ ö:^^-i 
itjnysmDPi^ciJjs^D cyn pK ,ü£)i?tj'iynii^D-D^yi:i»n n ^n 
t3B^{i'-iynnj^D-D^yn:3i?n n ,t:-iypii<ö ,Di^n pt iyD>^tojy:^>N j^n 
-"ly^^N n "nn Doyj pa-iy-i .y^ynL3Dn:^N n "^n d^o DD^inyj 
-ya D^NOiüi t3i>*n Dy^o^D-^^^Ji^^j^p lyi dj^ii ,y^{^n yi:yjyn 
^n t3fc?n Di^ii /'tD^:i ly-iDyiD nyi„ lyny; t>n oi^i .ü^y^Etj' 
jiN i^sj^n^^N pD iytoy:iB{? yo^5§ n lyjyp nsto^» D^^n D^yüiJ'y: 
pnn pN D^iDtJ' p"»« ü^ro :{?D Dyjnyii' p^x pN ^y^y^» ^n Di^n 



t^N Dj^i .D^MiJ'jyo "lyi pD pyi^v iva^vr^i? px ly^vy? oyi 
DyDD^D nyjiyiM^ ^^^ \^^ ji<!D-DD"iuyj "lyi ly^tya 
■"»^DjyDy pD DytoD^D nyi .Dnynp-nDi^o p.N nmn-nD^.^D pq 
n>D iVD^yn ps j:ii:DJj^ Dyi ,nuin-n3i^D n .n .n ,Dny-ip ly^ 
^n oj^n ,nyD^5<^yD^D px pi^J» :i'>'^\V2V)^ m «^Ji^^ P« lyj^^yj 
.sisj^T^x rJfeit: "ly^^K is^nys-n^DpsaiJ^'D Dyi px D^nsc'ifeüD 
mcn^Q-D5>yiJ55n px ^yiJ5<n-D> p''\ ü>d DyDD^D-^5§>Ji;?^j#P nyi 
ny ü^n ^n^ jji^p^iid:» pn D-iy^yjti^isiD "h^^cdj^p \V2^n 
S] .1 ^nnin-HDi^D n .*7:b*^5^n p« D^y^nj^^iy;:^^« DK^nyi^ -nM 
^v ,c'^Di^sDyT 'V DP"»« r^8 — nD^^Q nyi pD :jnoyiD-ii?D n 
Dyi ^Mi< pyi^i? wy'? — tj'^:«p^^msyi ^v ,/y:t?^viD^DD:i;?p 
^n^ nyrvr^N "lyi .^ysoyotj^ ny^n "ij^nys iyij'^DD>^5<D^3i$p 
•q>^p-iMi T^« lyD^y^T ,D*iüD^n-^{$:i;?^^i§: Dy^yariyr^tj? üyi pD 
-y>ij _ Ti« ,^vP'?Vt^ v:^vii^o n pD iy:yD"ii§s yoiitTj^^oyj dj^t 
-jjo n t::yiipyD:j$P n^: 'q^r looyj p£iyn .nnin-n:n.^o yi 

poK^--:»! nyi onyii tonyip nyD^^t^jyay lyi .oy t^x lyD 

mn-HD^^D p2 inyDiJ'Dii? i'd^d lyD^tiv pt? .^'^üd^ssp d'j^d 
ijn lyi PD rsi^B üyi mn-n^i^o pi< jynM^a nyn üoyjiiüQ 
.|yny^^ lynyjii^D d^j i^^p v:i'?V'i^ ȟd^^: iy:^^^>n oyi lyiyp 
ly^D^o yoD^i'^jnyjy n pa ny^^^x ünyii mn-iDi^o "lyn 
"lynnv fe:; pc s^^p j< Tin ni jji^D^tJi? "iyD^^:jö!2:{^ "lyi pD 
nyn^iv n t:^y;i iyii^Dpnfc?"isoix Dyi lyn-'N ny d^: y^ypyüK^ 
D^^prtD^iJ "lyiy^ \r\^ ,^st:^s5$P px ^n iy^nj5<in{<3 iv üD^np 
-iSiD lyj^n 05^11 ,v?''V^ "lyi l^« maxi n -^n iyi:"'.5innyto:us iv 
-iKiT "lyüstiins ü'ü i^'EK "lyifc? yntDonr« nyi d^d iyi:n 
n^: ü^VD^^P^M^ nyi pN lyn"»: iyni;iiDnynp-nDi^Q n ."»nya 
-»^t::y2y pfc< iD^yi:^iny:D Diyi^ yoio v:vn'<'?v:i n ^>mi ^üs^'^j 
yD^yii PN lynynyn^N dd^^^ Ij^p lyo y^^yii ,Dy>vfcN*r^nj^ yD 
.tD^y: 'li^n lyiiya i^''^^^ dj^t ^ii ,üjyn yny^^r px iyi^:i^*vp:iD 
ü^'?? st lysytc'ya ojjn n^n-nD^^o nyi Diijiu Dyn lyo^iN nynij 
-yDpsiiyjDMN iDDi<: ny^^x n ptt lyD^^nD^yvnynyrjn^^^ pD 



-nj^ao n nyDni< ni — p^i^D Dyi pN* ;iJn^:iyn lyn ly^j'Mi:; -ly^ 
DnniD , ly^DötT-py^^Dti' Dj^n yuyis pK ly^yj dj<;ii oyp^t^DiJ' 
lyDys ^ iv^^i^ D^^D oy yj^yn iv ,iyD:^pnn«D yDiüiins p^^ 
ü^n — ,'?Vf2'>n p,D 2ii.: « mi ,yn^"'^:t^-nDi^D iviv'' PQ P^n 
-jsn Dyi ,iyDDfe§t^^yTyr|y>vp«: n lyny^ di^ DD^nnyj T^it? ny 
PN Dy^^fi§>ipy2D yjyn^-'Lj'-i^Q ,iy"i^Q«rDiyii ^^^-ly^y; ld^q ^yn 
nyn y:-iyiJ^D n p« ^y^5^-|ynyn n — nip ,^ti5t:j^^i^T5$ 

.pjya n pö DDKü^ 
-ya lyrn dj^ii ,p:y3 yDMn;i n [ynt^n \^ öiiny; ny^n pa 
ü"»D D^yDti^yjiJ^D ,iyoyj y^i$ji^^v^*j y^nn d^d D^y^^Di^i lyii 
lynt^n yD^yi^ ^lyoj^^ipysiD y^i^ima pa jyiosyitj'^yryj T>i^n -^n 
Düiny:! fynfc^n px ly^jiT'jyn n pa to-'n nyi ^>3 lo^ytDt^ya "^n 
iyn>^^D>iN* iv ,Dy^;y^n*ins yjy^^Pbin n p:«t ^ .ü^^pD^^^yo n 
tD^: mmn-riDi^D n ps dpinii nyi Dj^n lynnyn .t:^y:i >n 
Dy^vp^ n pQ lyr^D^ yjn'mos dj^i ni ^dj^id yiyrDDn p^p 
ün^in Dy yD^yii pD a^i^p^^itD^fe? y^iQ n ,p;yn y^nj^i n pD 
ytj>^^j:y n .pjj^n lyii^^^jjy nyn ps ;jnriJ nyi pQ ]^ V( 
nyi lyn^'i'yjD^^N Di^n n d^ii ,D''D"iyi lyn^inyjj^^ D5>*n pj^3 
n üt^n ü^^:^ nyn^ynyn iv ; tojyvj^ia 8 ^i^^x D^y:i :):ny^:y'^. 
oyi p£3 myntDD lyo^^ivon« üDsto n lyoipfeün tDjyDN^iisa P2 
-niö Dyi |yn^^yaDni< •^j^Jiyi oy dj^h n px ^^^D-'QiSip lyn^yr 
.(Dy^^f^J:l^Dls;) lyioj^rpjj^n p2 y^nt^s ny- px ^j^ü k ^fc^J dip^^ 
•yj ,iy^Dpyn lyn^Djj^tpon DJi^py; lyoi^j y;nj^-i n d^d t^j^n n 
];^yiiiK ^n i«Q lyD^ip p« yixuüi^ ?^>iN nj^:3^^x d^» ^n jyn 
,D^yrtDny^p Dt^n p5< ,üny^ny: :ij^^ d>: t^j^n oy .|y7$<tDyD 
ü^D ,tD^y;i Dj;fn lyit^iiya t^n ,Dn^!^nn^D Di^n p-'^is* n Di>*^i 
ynn^K hd^^o lyi DSSDyj dj^h ,njy;^:jy ps pjfe?n n ,"»t jy^^y^i 
n D^jjivy: ::n^3yn nyi ps pstJ'n oyn pim« tot^n p« niK^S-: 
Dtjii^ aijya i^'-: r^« Dy .ninin yD^^üjycy n n?s:D lyt^jy^^j^ia 
IV iny>D nytD^Miv -lyi d>o nD »jy^yaya Dj^n p^x d^o Di^*n n 
-iPi^n Dti^n n Di;?Ti d-i^v lyn^yr nyn p« ^-qj^j T^^5 >t ; lyo-.pj^n 
iyüvy5> nyi V2 p'?^^ d'jid ij^onyip ".yn lyn^^nya a^n"»^« ,iyo 



")y^Ji§3 "lyi t:^y^^yJ ^n oti^n Dy \v^?v)) Dniü /üp:^5-?yD^a 
tDijn lyD lyn ,^-iy I5§ d^^^ nyn>ynyi px .tDny-ip-^yij^n 
üii^n jyo tDi;?n ^mas^'DD lyjyi^n^D i:^ Diyny^D^iN i:{$^;:y px 
DJ^ii .Dy^^ü:j;^DS y^^j^D pD nyDyto n iyj:yn iv iyn>iny:ji^ 
•y; D^^v ny:y' ps lytJ'jyQ n 5^^in* t:tj;n oy pmr^x p>« nöiD 
m^n ly^iJöt:! nyi pa lyoMic^SMis yjn:i^vi^ö dj^i d^öid 
-:«^ipy2D ,iv^\:>VD ,nyD^i$n-Djy-i ,iy-i^DJ^:^D jyiDnps^^pjsa 
,D .V ,D^^v nyjy^ ps ly^anc^ n lyr^nisn Pi^yvi-iynya p.K lyo 

.pi;i{ia::^^ijt3 pa 
-iyD:'X ist Iy:^tDl^'D:8 i**« mn^n-nD^^o n d^d lyostriv 
pD yj^^x D25? ü^ijnü:^ '^v^'?v)'i ,DyDD>D-Dnynp ly^^jj^^v^i 
Dy^y^ ny-iJ? oyi ^^a ::i^'oi$Tji^ nyD^^j:^^:»^ P.d \v'?vw n 
•■»jj^^vyjyn Dyi ps |ytD^^'5rD2ynt:nyn^: n lynj^n ^n» .p^ijta 
n5$D DnösrtDjn: Dyjy:-iJ^n-tj:D i? Dyi^^ny: oyDo^D-nMi \viy 
-lyüJi« n lyoyii ,ij^*^i^n pc nn^'ki^y nytj^^DD^Pötto^sfcstp lyi 
:iK Mifcü .D^yi lyoiD yoM-i: iyn^^y:iD>\s tDj^n :ny:yii yi:yny3 
-18 PD n^-'injj^i p« pitj» .nj{<;^:ijy p« n:5§^i^n to^o ly^iy: ^^^« 
-yinyr« i:^'?^n pa lyiiDP^DiJSD n lyj^^r ünyuimnx^ lyj 
-:y5^-iyn n pn i^? tonyny:D^i« to^n njfe$^}<{n px ,iy"iJ^i"iy: o:i^^ 
ym^x pD *iyr^x .iJ^^v^rD^yn:fc?n px y^yn^on:^« yi 
-Dnx Di^i nynnyi tDiyi^ 1776 i^n 1701 pD iyD2y:j'yrt:3Mr! 
-:i?P "in^x IV ^y^vyED ,iy^^'t:)^55Np yDm:i iy^\-iy3':ix P3 |yn>^^ 
-■•^jny .-i:ft<^:iy iv — ,t::i<t^ynynns n tDi>M di^it ,pü:y-np 
-fcüDii' yi::^:>^«"ii?;D n px i:is*^j:y jy^j'niv n^^D üv^n ld^dip cyD 
•■»^«nj^D n i^x d:>\"i lyr^ij'iy yD^yii jy^tsD^D^itp y^y^D .\vü 
pK lyny: lyoDy: tstriy lyj^n »ypn^yo x pt^ iyi2i<üK^ yaro 
.tD^'»n"ix"nyiJ^P pa tDi^n öin^^^üö^s^p njx^::y 

,|y3:^^5<:v viin:^ px lyto^yvi^na ys^^iny^ n lypyi lynD ys^^iyii 
-jynyi y^DMJ 8 |ynt>*i^y3 Dyc^D-py^-'üc^ "iy:nyii;?t5 in t>« 
lyni^n mKi5>n n .niKi^n y^ijtjjjj^vi;:! pD DyDD^D oyi pe 3:iy 



-yDyn n d>^v m d^d lycnoM-ii? Dr^Dy:i lyni^n ^r nyai^ ,iy^ 
yjn'moD n v^i^n d-'T lyijj^ nyn iid ^iivoi^ n pa ::n 
^nn lynj^i^y: lyany^DMi« t^n a^)) ,py^>Dt^' n pa :jny:Dyn 
-nj -ly-iyi s>3 |yj:n^;iyi n iy:ij^j<"nvy3 ,nixi^n ytDDi^ nnyr n 
•jjtD lyT .HNi^-i y^'"»: 8 lyDisD nw^in nya-'^Djyi-iJ^-iyDn« iy 
-in nniK^-Dönn Dycy^i »hdi^^ nyi jid DytDD^DTJfe<:^Q lyjnyn 
DijiO iy^ü^o"D:yny^ yoD^njyiiDnj n n^i« \^v^''0^ n lyj 
^M p« "lynnyi d:i^"id ,("iyiy'''^ "n^^n^tofe?: ytDvy^ n lyaso 
3iny^^i2{5'nyn^N n .dpixii jysi'^DKöj^o^iN ps pyp Dyi p^^k 
PK .B^vjns 5$ "iyD^:i "ij^j ,D:y"i^x:^x ny:i>^y2^x p^p do t^« 
Din^Dy33^^i? ü^iv)^ T^« DyDD^D •lyrr«;?'! iyi ixii »njyt^j^n 
0M1 yi tDi^nDj^a "lyo^n; lyn nynnyi dh^n üi^n jyii^i^ya 
lytD^^ms Dyi ly^xtD iv oy^D^o jyDoyn Dyi D^i? D^y^tj^y^D^n» 
"lyn^K IV ...pK tDyiD^ panDD s ntüa p^? j^d^^^q ,:>ay:3i?j 
nyn DJ^n ,::iptii yn^yiyD'^j'ii.* n .D^^nn^ d>d dh^k lyiN^ 
tDn^Dyny::]^« pyD^^niöt n pa y25<^ nyi t)«.-)« j2j;^n DyjD^D 
,Dny^i3 n pQ y^v»nsj;?-!5Dpy n lyi^^K lyrr^i d:&? i^t m» 
-^yD^D Dyj^^^p üyi pD ly^^-'D y^yi ps — n^P ,nyp"iyirDj»n 
ly^yii .lyisj^iya |ys:ny:D^ns nn^5< 'nm t>k ^v:i'?V'i'\ ,ü^'?p 
ytsiK^nn n ^^n i^^d« iy:iju^^D '>iiv p^p i^o^j |yj>n Dyn 
DytDD^D Dyi pc ;:ipnMi yi:yn^«nss^nsDpy n .lyoD^Dijji^py 
lyi) DyDD''D"DJ5?^vpytD{?i9 Dyn ^in Dpift$to5^i^*D "^j^: üiv)) 
K p^^8 T^« ys^y^i ,("t3^^nn» y^j^jfcjt^vs: n iyv^^„ pa Dy^D^D 

n^^^? pD ^^^D nyrtDD^i 
Dy:nyni;iiD nvi pi< nnin-nD^po n d^^i y^^j^n yo^n; n 
-yi n ly^iii^ii-i^ö d^-'D o^y^sK^ya lynj^n py^^to^ pa oytDD^D 
lyTKnsi^nQDpy d^^2 ^^isi^j^s^p p« "ly^^DD^n y3''^DQfc?*^'^yT 
•pi^ n iypmiyD:i5< D>^n px ny-i^vni^iö y:njyD^'üDa^yr n 
PK ^yi5'ni5^i ,Dy3t?p mi py^yotj^DEin^ y:i^r^K toj^n ny^^^m» 
-öBnn n ivDn Dyn pK jy^j^r ^n tö: ,ivnyi öin^sya y-iyn:» 

.|yP'^JoiK"DP^t^2 yrtor^i y?» ps na^o 



IV ^ytD^to ^^^'üDj^"? i5 \vwi T^N Drt}D^D-D:t;?>vpyD{?"iB in 
yr:j>\nB{?^iN lyn^Nnsi^naDpy iv ,iyD:{<:pn38D lyn^vnnKD 
"lyi pD iy^ü^o-Dji;?^vpni?"is n lyi^ppsiD^a^p iv ,nyü>'an» 
-5»» cyi pD ::j<;-iyn^« Dyi lyvi^piiüc v^ i^5<ii3 i^^d ,ii^^v»: 

ytj'^fc^ysj^i^^K n .DyjiyiijJD üvi px lOK-Djj^^vpnJi^iB |yD 
pö tyoy^i ,Dyi lyay^i ^n lyt^'-i^^v lyo^ny: ^n iy3i;|in noi^D 
-:^^K jix ; ;:nrDny lyant^n nyi ps t::yD{?3 nyi tsnyny^ ^n 
lynj^n ,iyDfc$o-iyt3^2i;?iB n ps toD^yn px ly^i^iDyjj^n» ^i^ 
nmx y^vn^nD:5#P j<i ?v))'^ nvi ny^^^v ür-'^y^DMns: M^n ü^j »n 
-n ,iy^ij;v-Dj^^vpyt:8^-i3 "^in DpynnrN .p^{;^d lyr^x "iy>n 
-.'j3j>; y:o:^\iE{^ n p« .: .t .n Dy^oy-is-t^ij^sDpy ^m opyi 
-Dnj^i? yvjöt: >i t:5^-ly;DM^? n^5<^u ü^ü ^n lyn^^n "lyijy^ yK' 
yti^n:y^i^« n ü{?iy:iDMK n:8^i:y .n .v t:i?n oy >^i ,ynD 
fx üjyj^Dii^p iyti'\sysj^-^^« nyn n^^x .nK^üpyöU{i:D-5>j^n 
lyD^Dr.^K ^y^D "ns^j »"lynf'S^P pc n^nnn nyi -^i^: »oyvi^is lyn 
I{§Q-ynt:DnrK cyi ps ^sd^böip nyD^^j:5<2:i;? nyi .iy"ii?^iy> 
,Di?Ti iv„ .iv^^*-rDi^o DyT p,D Dpynn r^^i^^^D t325>* i^t djdip 
y:«^: Dy-i ps nno n jy^n tD^ni >ne: — ,i^25<n^D d^in döh — 
'^iV^P iy:nnj?^-iy^'^ QJ^t "^«ö lyop^r px iildp^^s^js:» nyi pd 

"Inuin-n^i^D ij^^^-^d 180 

n .3 .1 .« ,man^o-^yi:sn n ,DyDD^D-D:i;?^vpyD}^"i3 lyi ,py 
-öjyr^K PK nj^nysmDpiscoyi'o cyi pD ^y^y^D^n y::r y:n{^"r 
ni^P Dyn pQ ^c'o pK iyDp5?iiy:D^iK jnyn |y:^>T ,pT jys*^ 
nyi PD üiiny^ n .yntoonr« lyo^n: nyi pa n^ny9"D^\T 
-y^Mnnynrp yt^^Dm^n yo^ns ^"in ony^^sy^ tDiyii nyovy^ 
-nD^Q n "n^m iy2{?n ,üi?!^ö iy3^^r:yp nyi >)) dp:i3 .jy^n 
.Diys^D PQ n^M lyi ü^o nyo^^myt ny>n iDT'Dnpyn lyp 
*iyT pD lypy^iK^ n iv ü^j t^k iy-;y .d .d lyo it^nSn^s^ix n^ 
-tjn nn^« jiD ::nyp^yDS!3 '^yt^'^c"^{^^ lyi pD y^Visnat^nsopy 
IV T>3 üiyi:innr:K^ lyü'lB p3 ^ytom lytDvy^ cyi orr lyi 
|y-incivt3D2^yT ni ; onyi^ininx" iyü-18 p3 ^no nyi »»^-»v pn 
*'injy^^ön:„ t^k iv::'?];)) .üvü^ib w^^^i oyi ö': t:D>"TJä;3 ly 



'78tt<B«p DKT 242 

/nyvy^önvD^D px iJi$^-nyps jyt^niv t^oyD^ymuüD yj^tDDn 
B^^jynytJ^K ys^'^aj^jj^py yn^yr n onn« too ^i^-i -ly üt^mi 
nv^^^'P m ''''''\V2'>\T^virP PD ü^^':J3njyiit2^ij lyn yjija 
-pni|:ia nitop^*öi:fe$D "lyn pD jj^^nj^jin^D lyn n^^iv ^nystj^pf^ 
yviDDn n ly^ytDtj'j^^fc^ n^^iv px y>:^pni?i2-p>in{^D pt< y^v 
.ü5.»"iP'D^^ni55 pj? ^8D^B{$p lyjj'M'i:^ [y^'^jyD^ynnj^a 

yntDDni^K I» \^? >^ ,y:snD nyi D^^püstpnyDDnN pn lypjyc^ 
n n^iJ^ ,P^^: y^yn^iinj^x px y^sjj^^v^-: dj^i pyoy-i^n^B 
PD '\vi:i''P n jyn^npyiis ;:;!<3 |yD^n:i^j^*Diy in^K n^^^v piij^t 
rMijyön: ly^Jjr ^n nD^ »yonj^ n pa iyj:i:^ixii jix lyr^^n n 
^"ü lyüoyn^ oyi iyt:)^ui5$B{^ yiyiJS n yj^^« ;n:yto"'''ais2 
üD^no n n^^« ; n)") ny^n pD pn ton^nitün pt? t:38J lyi pD 
»lyDDy^K'yj yn^n pa nyij^p ^j>^^ yD>ii: » ly^j^tiv Dy-nyo^x. 
•aniiypy^tJ'jK n t« nts ^tyii^ir^j ])^ ivd'?v y^yi^^tJ^ni^D ps 
-iyD»^y;D^iK iy3^5'D3y^tj^ya i:; lyin^D no ^y^B^j^^^a pd ü^^p 

?D^>njynii?-nsD p« d>m 
•»Pi»^ pK Dnyi:nss pt« i^6j'Dyn:ij>t:fc?j »i^K^-imyi pK„ 
lyrB'^o y^yjiaiy ::»^-d"»j n |yj>n -— ,iyi^y^B ü;i?t — ,'^>^ 
,iyD^^tD n ^o üisn ,|ypnnsD yD>n;i px jyij^iiy: Din^Byjr^x 
lyDi^n üjyn yüjytMo ns^riyDsii n lynyn |y:^p yD^yii 

üD^KOfcH T>n T>K DJ^ii ,D"iyi3iTsn n^K^i?p:s^ piN ; DiyD*^ n 
-öl» PK Dnyp^yDts*n "lyto-'S^^ ,yiy"iJs Vi^^D •^^-'^nj^s px jy^iy: 
|y:>tD>i: iv lys^^ny^js? r^t? ni?B ^vr]'>'^Q •'in üj^n ,^sDDDn£ 
lyDiT IV lyn-iiny^Ji? ly^o dj^h v^^j Pb "idvü jjnyp^yB»3 i? px 
•y: n iyjfe$Dß^DJb* t^k "^^^^^ px .nyara yp:)>^D pN yr-i^p n 
nfcüB n PB "n y ^ a : ^ k ■ t *i S' ^ lyrnpoMis iv t:^^n:nyii 
pK Dt$n;irDn^3 ,|j^n3i?^ PB nyt>^TDt3>"'nns-|y3n^p v:iVi''^ 
-ß^^n yr^^p y:nj^-i n pB ynjiyrnö ^y>B ,^y^B .tonytDtJ> yiynjiis; 
•Bt^ lym ü^s nn{^> 14 lyii^ 13 T>n 7 pB lyo^^ysy^^j^n yri^^ 
njn .n .i) i^dd^^ö nyn »ijäi^;i:y pBv px iyii?"iiya öp^5^y:j 



p.K iy^3:^x"py^ yj^n on^^f^pyj ^^^inyiiy: o^n (n:riy-ir.'5 
"^y^irs-py:? ^ px lycj^^t?? div dij? \^ px lyoy ^n iy::y:y3 
'^)m ü^VD'^^v::^ W^'^ lynytDMfc? .pnnstis lyi jy^y: p"!,^ 
T« n PK p.K .D^"'sn8 lyi ^^2 ''\v\yp n [ypipDS^: )v lyi 
lyij?^ ^v iyiiy3 r^x nynyiD^^K-iysis^'PiJ^ y;ni^i n ps iyDy*"iyD 
PK D^i^vya ly^n ^^ni ,n^n3 n "^yanK lyts^-'an^ lynrp n 
-y:D^n^ vit, ü^^^ ^lyopHüifi-s didd oyn p2 rsjynsi^ lyr.y: 
•nyi DijD^ny") lya^^-i^tos: nyn .nyij^p n ps lyit^^iyj coy^s 
•:iT»n ,|yiDpnüDn-pnn^*D ^y^D ps .„n^nisK jyi^y: r^x pd 
yöDijyD>n^n5?n n Di:y^iy::{;? lyo tDj^n p^i^i<p:«> px o-^yi 
-^jyayiJ'Kn yijy^y px y:n^it^'?3i5< y:nijtn >i pimn ly^jirr^D 
IVD .pnnss PD n^a.T^yn oyi >nD lynyj lyrn yD^yii ,\v^ 
jyo .OMtD D^v m toyK'Dici^D ü^^mjj -iy::s;^ ^.v -^-in >n Di^n 
in tD^D tD3^:^^sy: pK lyto^^p px m^D^^y: ,iyD^D*^yi ^n dj^h 
t}iy::iny3DMK ^n lyo ü^t] ly^siD "^d iü ps* ; rnnr^x -^.y^^Dy-i;; 
'•^»sny: >n lyo üijin to^-iv lyD^ynyi i^j< pk .lycy^ypD -.v ru 
p:^j^^K pK ...p^trt::i<p pD ^^^n ny-i ü^d ü^^dij? "lyi ^^3 lyo 
n ...iiJ^oüDn^yT iv lynii^v.ya üD^inya i^>2k ^n lyrn ly^'fcits 
PK n^K^D5i:n:j^tDij:3 p^Ji'^ann pa ly^i^to yir^D^ssci;^"! p,K yjny:^' 
•nsD iy:^n »lyriK vy'p^:vo v:'^'"*^ ps t:rD>ivy:s5^ »"'.^ij'Jn'PjJ?^ 
öDt^ pK aiirj^^B PD "lyüiy v'2''^?vr^ pn iy"it^r,y: tD^yi:5sii 
lyiiy: iy:^n lyoJKpnnKD n ps [yiD^Dj^ns n ,„i^^^ po ^^'2« 
•yss lyK^^D^yii ny^n üv^mv ii>*j lyii^ üj>*n di^t ."iy^\"iy:r:^K 
;i .1 ,D^>D"i8-tDD8i iy-in>Dr^.K iy3^"inyj:i>* iyn^\i ^n .o^a 
,11^3 1^3 iy"iiit"ny3 üsys'yjD^^K t^k tDjyn ysn: i^^k m ^cyiDi^j 
; t}"n"i8-üD5it: 18D VBM:i yü^"»iiv 8 o^n: üjcny: pitr ^n wz^n 
n Di^n ,iyDy2 n p« pyi^smyan» tD:y^D ysnr:}^» n 
PK .tD"iyp"i8D PK ,iyTJ^^"ii$D ö^n'j: tD'^ny t2t>v-i ysnrüDNi: 
I y y a ^1 t s ,p^i^d pk ^yo"iyii t? Dns ony: i^l'^'p:^'? 

(*JilJt »"»J ^¥D t>^P IM fy^'H^p 



^n^syrnti^n po OK^yi lyDvy^ Dyn iyii;f!^"i«D j<b^-i^>n pa 5jij 
ü^D Di^v^j^DiJ' K^':*v iy3J|?n lyji;?^:;»: n .lyo^^^y:! pa PK 
-••Döip iv ^yov:) D^s Djyny:» "it^i: Di;?n Dtiiiii ,D>M:^^Dy;i lyiy^ 
->jijnr^yi:j5n yirxsj n '?v^b^'>'>2 div üry$> j:i^ö»tj{?-^kd 
-"DntoyiD^ns Diyi^ j^t .|{#D-iy-i:bt .8 lyD^^iny nvi pa oyp 
Dtj:^^ ,D8?T HDDn-na^^D M}^^'?::v lyi pD noixntD o'?^ DnyD 
D>D ^yijfc?n Dyn iynn>D o^yDyj nynna Di^n y^^y^i ,n:8^:i:y 
,iyn:>«"toDyii iy5f^p;:y nyi p« {<pnD8 iyt>*^iv;^ rn^n Diy;yj 

p« ,219 .T ,1795 I^n:^'? 3uDjrsn:3^?o an« ^»'o j>!?-i;;3 to :j»Dnm 
."1795 ,iytriyö t? ]iB iyo2»^s »i wy^'i :i:ib'1i«bd>ik ]»„ : pK3D»:j 

iy;j5»n2 i2B"i8iy:i -inya ta»: iik a:8n i'iy:::^« '?8n7K!»i3-"in:'p cyi 
•jyi ,^'B .1 n^D 1711 — ,iyTi'n-Da"mt? n is u^^iu ü'd lysK^pty n 
•a'nij 1815 1^« 'ji^jn ,''»j'ip2»'?:»'tt'"ib*n l'ß ly^D':»»,, ayi iis nyaijfi 
pyöty S) lyanijn D'Diyie oKn »r^^'iy^'P IV^y^i ^'^ I"t lyjJNitap 
"iy («Tisp'i l"JB nj'ne lyo»»:'« i» ii« yt3'0^p-iN''?n lyn ps 
»le .öDixn^s lytsy'?^ T'K D>v :yöN'?K3 nyt2Ä>iyt2iiN nyi ]'« any^p 
IM« lyo S2^n ,ö^np:i?2 » Dy3>>« |ib lyr^t pyn:» ts'O tyDtjTix 
*]'» ^yo lyö SMK) yn3j*2 <? l^'spi^ ^^sm'? üsnpnijs pK tD-i'Da^tj^r 
.DiB:yj3^*K rn IIB ^nt3 Q"}^ »lyia^vpi^iiKB |ib (typnnoM« mt» 
tyDipy3"H>B osnyi «iMn-*iy2M» cyt njjs t^k pni» in^» »»ns a^o 
.Ty^A3»« «^^f^t tf iy;«yM ö'jy'Uijnya i«? ts^n oy :^»b lya'^ntyai^ l^rtf 
ASjjp^'naö» <f 1» lyiyiyiiyn^ät <'f s|?n yna'^ayriysT»? iiyai^ij^"? y 
'»p^«« .pyTi^ 1^ IS lyiyiyjny^'« ^^?^riyiMi »n is^n lys'jyn 
•^ßs^ pB 12^28''!» i? PK lyjifly;» T^^*T:y n? t:^n Tjn-iB-^ytyiyo ^ 
tys'^'^tt^n^ inyö 1^3 ,]yaims b* ly^yn .ü^'paiy;i5inyjDnN nyai^ 
iytt>n.»u3yoi*'?iNB *iyT p3 ly'j^Q'a d*?^ aDiwir.yn nn ly t:Kn ^^b 
-a^*? «t a^n pni!? *in(<» y^^'j^y tm'?3 ö'O .y»D^DKp-Dj:i2n-iya:i« 
oatjpnQtjB ö ö<D ns<ös?j li? lyo^t'i^y; yn^^^oyriy^-i'p "^y:^*! 
nyn ti> ^TrryTyjDMK'^yö t'K &y l(«aBij iy^*j^ii om^ ,*iic^tf'? p* 
■l?^y* «nrw^l^ yeiiTyi 90 y^ ^n» ^1? »ifts^'^s^isja jar^p^^^aöp 



OJ^n jy^ip^n toi^n i:^^j:y .{<pny!25$ '\v^'>:^b^ lyi p.N' fe?p 
D-'o i<pny»:j< y^>:{52:i^ n iy:"ii?r5$3 iv "^^^nny^ 1743 T>n t^Dyn 
ly^y^^^si^ I« tD25?ti'i^D ■^>^^:iv pi:j^ t:t^n di^i .Diy:y: 4800 
Dmji PN* ^isnyii^^ .yi:^'ni?Tj:{^p "iyB^^^::y -lyi ij^d ^yD:i?o 
^VTj^n -lyjMiin nyi 3yi:i?n"|y£i<^pt;' Dyi p:j^t i? lyni^ny; 
-■•^ njita ^r.^Di^n^ iyD^^::üt2:5? na yii^^jyt: n Dyn^^^y: tsj^n 
n lyn^^nij^D "'>:b„ "ly^isnyir^ n lyrn Dvn ny px .^isiyii 
yji^D^!^ n .5':n^a — ny^^yii ,^r::ü!n"iy£5<^pü^ ps -ly^^^ijün 
•y^xny.^5?p Dyi n^^N ^T)n„ — 1795 ps pp^^n m ps oans^ 
yj^^n^n tD2^^ ,ü-:5$t^jy"t^^^ s iv i^n öD^^rDa:^oyjnyD:iK w*? 
^i3"iy"iv^ ."D^y:i lyoiD yo^na pnj? ü2:^nn p« yi:yT>n-D^ 
px »lys^t^ 15 ^yTJsn"iy£i?5'PK^ ^^n ü:>tD2yK^5<3 1730 pK tsijsn 
pK iiK ,96 — 1770 pK ,74 — 1760 px ,iy2^K^ 53 — 1751 

•ryö^iJ^ 132 — 1792 
px üi?n ynioDnrK-^yiisn n Di^n o^^v lyn^ytiyn pK 
»tDpiM-.ya 'm^ik n Di^n /nyafe$^pK^-nyi:>p Din^Dy:r^fc< i:^^::v 
'm^'?P^ y^i?2ni?nDi<ö nyrjyn nyii^ -inyD yamynns n r» 
iy^"]:i?"iii5s'D "^^T ^j^T tyi^N5$tDK^ yt:3>r^N"ifc?ö n pa üsütB^t^iMi 
toi>*-i ^^3D px ,ü£js*CDn>irD:i^^^j<ü«!i^5Dpy v'?V'>)iivr2^p ^ pj? 
-ys ^ss^n^^H ri< nyto^un» n pa ^nyast^p^» ytDT-PDfcit^nijja n 
nyn ps ^nya^^pK^ y:yaij n ^^ODyny^B 8 isa m^?, üansn 

.ü^yi^ iy": 

-DJi^-'Vpni^-is |yt^^t3D>^fc?ü^ö$<p ü]n pa "lyvyryri^tDeJJ yra 
-••^n-ui; n lytj'niv Dyvi?-i5-D:jn>''K^ uvi |y:n:y-i«:a iv ,iaiK 
n iy^"T:fci:Tnt<a ü^^t p^k pa ; iy::^::n5!trü'>nnö: n pK nyö 
pa PK ^fc<D>sj<P pN |y^tD>a-D:yny^ p« iy^ü^D-D:j?>vpni^-i9 
"•^anöt-pi^ pK iyDfe?D-Dp^t?a n ty^iifcüint^a ö^n -lyi:» lyn 
IVivtin Dyn pK /'D^^^jyDni^ yn:yo'^3i8,, y^na pK ,npt5 



bttD^Bt^p D^-i 246 

o^iya ü^i n^K (*.j;i33^K^y3 ny^^j "lyn pQ Dpnt^iö \V2'>'?üüyp 

D3nyaj>^K lyo^pya ^»d^is^^p ü^i t>« /'pöin p^k ^imk jypy^D 
DvnsK' lynijB y:>n y^s pD px d^d n tu st^p iid m^a pK 

.no^ pK öi^n 



-i^j3^'^„ ]>oijfQ nyn .Tyojyp lyiNiiy;? vh n;;Qnnx-p*,7 n ps 
"IIB ^n»'»« IX i3»'T p»K ps r«"J^^J^P D?tj i3xi:ttn tsnyn "ms j:n 
O'U lynj» nn ps p« J .i .k oy'i'iaj?^ ,(t2"'7yönK ynjynyrji'Tn'?) 
yBp''?By;B^J v^p i^s lao T? ta'D iTOa» ya^yn ,iya'»2i»f n i» 
.]y^iD»D-DB'»m^ y^:;^^^ ps lyo^aiy;^'« n n«: lyj'u y^'jyn ,]mn 
PK iyj:tj;y;nyn'N ""vis :i3m>ja"%, pmoM« nyi va y)}^):^ an po 
t»3 ^'^ .T» .K n'?'^tt'tD .a^n ,"iyD»B'7i»p ps yio«3«py nytr>t2''?^s nyi 
-tDiM'?;jt?3 n tt'/''am« ]tk nyn hnj ony; pk .^yny p« hö^od .tj 
ny ]yii ,p"inn liiöiy "jx'jNyTtjis ]yB'>a''?K5 lys'^oyn,, nyn ps wp 
-^B yr't'Dyn« k d*:« "a^'^yDn^ yijyu»'3i4<„ pmon« nyi üny'jpny 
»inK jn:y:>n ,0Kn nyr'jyii ,f\i)n lyjtu«"! lyn ."yiKis yti^a'^ 
-|ji tß ps y'j^Ji »T ta'jyiBö'yj ,yirir<;''7K lytr^^j^y lyn i'i rD':i<nyj 
MTi< ttp^iB »yiJi'j^Tiyn lyB^TM^ii^is *iyT ^:i r>?T3y:!yp ]'k "lyp'a:»» 
yiT'^spnyötJ'pBX n ^'2 o'^tjny; sin« ;n:yj''T oynns tsNn iy ni 
B^yiBtt'yj ,n:^att'snK lyir'i^pnyo« oyn ]ib ;l3»s3^J px ,Dy'3^'7^t? 
ly^iy; t»« .y-ifj^'^^t nyt2'>'7;3y nyi iy:yp '7Kiy3>'7 » ps y*?^! n 
-:»n ps ]y)iy'(}}:i n„ : mö^tiu lyr^'rjnyny; yaND » Tin itk ^"ln 
]iD lysyty;» n lynnyi ti« maKi nyi ps lyr^yry;» n |y3»>T ^yi 
,*'iyo^^-i:yt2'?yT ty:yn ly'iJ'xayn ]in lypiNny:»^ :pnnn .y) ."cKi 
T|j ,iyniiNn p'p D^a lynnyn t^k oy (.32 ,31 .t .t ,1800 !«i:^^ 
nu ly u^n ,muKi lyn ps p« t2«;i ps jy^jyryjj n ^i')t:'^:i jjnjy^T 
p»ttDnyt2ptj-ii<3 yau n .p-iKD lyaoyn Dy*7 pimk tisnpntJS bi^ü y'7<^ 
DT''?(<iyn<'7 pH ps iNnyB nyi px pnnn niiöny lyjs'TKi Dyi pe 
t»K lyp^^o .lyasnB» o'iypKu naymyi oyn ]»k ]::2^s);:i ]ya iKp 
HJ "lys^t ,iyt2r'T3'n yjnyni« y*?« ]'k nypNü ^ pK n*?;» « ly^iyj 
]»K — üD'fDXiNpy nytt"ai'?NS iy;»r23»ö k ]i« s'ry?^ lyjjnayatt'i» 
yr'jyn ,t3^'pjj'TK'?iyt:pN"iN2 yz^'niya' atyiyn oy tyn ,!2''!r "iy;'aj"n 
B^'^JD "lyTiiN T'« /"jynaxn ps iyayTy;j n„ p« j'iyaiycaiK ann'i'i 
tyr'iy yr'jyii ,DpTn n lypi^on^K-in i!f '7«f3S nyim ti« 'jwrixr^a 
.BJ8'?<jo o'o — • l^f P'K a'ö ^'1*73 lyjj^^s:^: y-iyn ps "lyaaiK t» 



I 



ti>iK ?::io^t:^si? ytj'nj^toD^n pn üD>^^ di;?i ,^fe?ü^ösp d'j^b 
n^D jn^n^yo^DDiK vi^ ij^q d^j "^n ü^d d^^dij^ n ^ra^ii 
Dij"T »lyD^nn^-pi^ px J;:yr^^5-n^>^ |ik w^^'??^ pa :ji^njfc?ii 
D^nj^n »yoi^D lyn pQ 3:ny-i3y yrnt^E 8 T'^D^yr^x üd^^h 
,iytD:yvniin3 ynsn^yto^DQ-i« n pQ y^ViJt^nsj^nsDpy n 'm$: n 
DTtsn üi^n D5^i^ ,D^Djy;^^fe< üfcjirns p2 i:n^^^2^^x n .n .n 

.ö^^an» lyjyr^K «in« 
T^P ,iyD>^::D5$c^^yTy3 div r^r^yjyp d^ö; DiDjy:^\s-Dfe$"nn3 
-Dto^un» n 1X1^ ,tDnj^T 16^: DT'DDnpy ,DitD:yr^« iy^vüpy> 
-ynya iy::^::n5<rDD^^an8 yD^^-iyo^ix vwi^^ n px ly^D^'o 
yaniji n ^^^ psnyi a^iiynsfc^ nysj? .tD'»>5 y^^i^ns iv lyn 
•ns ü^i "^nN Dj^n ,nyt3^ms"ü>j "lynj;? nyD^^nn^ lyrn D^-'f» 
-"»Di?5^ yD^^njyöi« n .iyöpj<n83 lyi:?!? i^ DiDjyr^t<-Di$^^ 
ii?D "^n tD^ö D^yLiSJ» DiD-^yr^x-Dötivns üi^i yD^yii ,iy:jn 
,tyDiüK^ yr-ijytJ^Miv n ej^ it^: [y^rstj^ ,p^^2 lyDC'iy Ts^n* 
.ly^DyntDDpy yi^n yrrj^i n ly^^mv iy:y^ ys^yii 
"i?"i3 yj^^T 5i>^i< lyo^^nij? d'jie Dit:jyr^s< yos^ims c^i 
n .y^^pni^ns-p^^p p2 D^yrDi^njis lyi rx |y^ü^^-D35^>vpn 
3Ji^PMit3:{$ lyi löiD a:i:ijn5?3 yrtDM: 5< t^x y^vpnj^n5-p>^p 
-n:^« "ly^na nyn pa p&? y^vpnj^iB "iyD^^D25?K>H*Ty: nyi ps 
"lyi Dn^tsonpy i^^'T'to^o .i^^fj« "iyt:^''nni? nvi ps t3yL3^^i«;n^r 
D1D:y^^^<-n^>^ ^^nyrjit^pt^ ^^n "i^k iciK-D:i;?^vpni;«tn3 lyrrs;}-! 
,ün^5D ny "lyntjt .D>''pr:ijynsj^ Pd lye'^^yD^ymjs^s y")yi:j< p,K 
,y!Dii^2 yt^'^Döi^P n iDoip^*n px y^^iyjy yv:)j<: pn DnyD^^x 
-■18 nyi 181^ ,D"iijn T>"i^n ,|ytoDijt»Dy3ji^ >i^ dh^« i82 r>K v^'?V)'\ 
-fe<rDü^''nn8 n p2 nyö''tD3yr>K-tD8iin2 ny>n2 8 t^k nyto^^n 
Di^ii ,i^yö Dyi pD nyns 'lyi — Dvi:js*n iy v^'pV)) AV^^'^i^'^ 
D^D ,üjyDnüD:^K Dyi pD "lypnyiroj^n -lyi ,o^^3*iNy3 ^y 

.ny^DDj\'? 8 Ml D^-'m^ iy ly^'^yn 

247 



•röta'BSp D^n 248 

.ly^D^D-Djiijt^vpni^nB n jid y^^j^itojyvj^^p n ^^d d^ix üdi^k' 
lyn^yr oyi pK jji^^^Div-D^unis n "d »y^vsiysj^i^p n ^^d 
pK ;:^&j'-iyn5§n yD^^tosss^'^yTy: n >^d ,Dy5^tjnQ-D:i^^vpni^i3 
-yj n PQ 3:i^p^iiüjs V'^'^b n ^^d o^t^s: nyi pa ajn^^ijyn 
PN ni^j -n^^^yo T^N ly .iyD£yip-D:j^>vpn{jn3 v::^'?d^\^^^v\ 
.ö25§&j'^yTya p« y^vpnj^ns ps ly^^oyn: yii^tD^ona px yjjy 
,ü3y"i to^D ü:i;?t "lypyö ni ,üd^m dh^x lya^n^^^ij^s ly^yn )'£ 
nyoMiy: 5§ fi^ix ."ü^^pa^oyo^yto^D yr^^yj^s n lyn^üyipyn« 
n ü^yn lyn nn« p^^j? iy toarnn ::i^p^iidj» pa v^'i^^ 
\^ DjyDJ^D nyi pD jjidd'Ji^q iy:yr^N pn i^a ly^D^o 
'^Vii^ n DDstj'^yTyj lyi pa ü'>w px lyinn iv |{? ^n lyn^in 
pa iy-i:inyj DSi^aya "^n |yni?n y^^yii ,iytD3i5tj'jyn>^^ p« \vo 
pn .üytDD"':-i5<3 tDiyii ny pt< lyiyii t^yDD^j-i^a rio ny .dh^n 
yt:'^ypy"iniv px ySynMV-T:)^Nn p3 ::i^'T:i;5in«3 n ,a:iD3^Jie5a 
-i« nyi fVm^^ü^Vi^nP ^^^Dastj'^yry: p^^ [y^D^D-oji^^vpnj^ia 
-:iy:^^fc5 yoMi; dj;?i pt^ y^y^a pa DiDjyr\s-p^^p n'jia :i:^:iyn 
ys^na n ^u iyni;?n Doia y^f^n3J^i3Dpy n pj< yrjyi^ pa did 
-j'.^-Dü^^nn» PN jy^D^o-Djyny^ yny^n pa px lyD^o-Dp^ijfD 
-«naj^iBDpy yny^iti^ pN y^^^pyiij^ y^n^^n n — jytDjyDntoD 
D'j^a yDa^i^^ynj^a n d^in Dyi^n iyDb*o"Dp^i^a n pa y^v 
,Iy^^toyQ"^^{^*11: t^a vn'>''^ yv:^3 » on« »ayj n .^^t:>aj$p 
-{^3y 18 lyDj^o Dfe^ii ,yjy> T^^^n DD{^i»ji?n lyzj^n n^^ yD^yii pa 
-nsJiti2Dpy n jj^^ojünj^* ny^^^jj^aj}^ iia iyiJ?t:yo o"?^ yD 
tDin^ay^Din Diyii iyt::yvn^n3 y-i8n^yü^Q»:iN n pa y^vj$ 
p,a ::ipi^ii lyn iyto:iN px Dr^^^u^ü^i lyr^fi^nDisj^^i« id^^d 
-■'^^ yoDD^^Dyn pN yDD3"'^:^^^p ^ytoor^^iotj' ,yDD3^^*i:yty n 
-y: lymj^my t>n dj^ii ,Dit:iyr^N-D8iin3 di^t .|yDai?t^:yi 
^MN jy^i^n^-in^ tonns^n dj^ii ,D^^nnt§ ny^ys^^x d^o iynj>*^i 
-»'•nns iy3^2jyn3J>*DiN oyj^y^^j^^N D'jia :iJiDpiiJnjyostnv nyn 
•^-ln iyDntD6j'y:D'''n« Diyii jyjj^ajnjv'rDD^^ms y:3>n d^o lyt: 
^iMN tDnnsn Dtjsii ,D'ito:yr^N-Di5^in3 iyj^'^üD>^ö:ö^B«p oy-j 



^^u-18 iv^nD ^yoii^D "lyni? lyiöy-is p.2 y^v^Dfcü^i^sDpy nyi 

; tDD^s^'^yrya yD^s >n t:r^^yj"iyiJs;:n«:D tD^na p« ny^D au 
'^'\B v^ lyu^ny: D^yi:^instD lyj^^r lyD^^nns n ni ^yjK^ nr» 
^ns ; ^^o^s^P pN iyi:i;ir-i5trDD^^3"!i< viV''^ p« iyni<*jy? 
-ya ^n oi^n isiN-Dji^^vpnj^ia "lytj'^tDD^^öJD^sjjtP nyi mi '?v:^ 
n y^"i5^2 y^u i§ IJ? lyoy: — ,d^d y:yr^K y:^n ^inx D^ytot:' 
ns-: ynyo^Mi n ,d^u*,ö: nyi p2 a:iD>^DD^65'^yTy;-i5s2 yiyo^Mi 
jy^D^Q-D:j^^vp*.ifciii3 vw^^^ n pa px my "lyn pD 3:ipi:ö!ii 
i;D^^t2D^tj'r^Dya nynnyi pt< y*ji'Dö;"i^sDpy-^^^ü£5<:^^yTy: p« 
ps y^v^nsi^iSDpy ynyD^^ii n ^mk p« iy^tD^o-D:i<!>^fpn}^n3 
— jyi>«n25^i2Dpy üv\s n^ij;;"! lyo n^^N .Diüjyr^K-Dsivna 
^•n^T n^^x tD^^ms Dfc^Ti ,-iyD^unö: Dyn mVD du i>ii5^ dj^i r^t? 

-1^11 lyn Tin D^n^syaDin tD"iyii y^vi?nE}>*"i2Dpy yriJ;?! n 
-»p iyi pD lyvyrya (yD^^-iyj^N) ytD:y:5?'o^x n p.s ::^p 
pD ::nv^5'fc?iD:yv lyn i"in ,p"'^{§ y^vpnt^is "lytr^üD^^^D^a 
"J8 v'PVi: t:^iD fj^iK tsai^^ü'iv t}D>^5?t3^S5s*P p^K .iy?j§tD^S5$p n 
iy-ii^ ::nn^^S"it:iyv "lyrit^i lyi t:^» DJj§n ix oj5<n .yiyn 
,y3^^t:y Tin lyDD^^^jD^s^p "^d ^* p2 ::n^Kn5i^"i5Dpy lyi 
•i^i3-ü^^niö5 Dyi p.2 yoii^D yr.^D^iya^j^P n tt ü^yp^^itD:» 
y^o^yü yaonDD^^r.^'n n ,n5storDi^o pyoyia s 5^^in oyv 
y^v^D^t^sDpy ya^Dyö:i?^Ä n .tDsjst^jyo^ii lyn pD aanjyiui^ 
-$'yT8 px |y^D^»D"Dü>^sis{ n pD aji^^j^nri^s's n ,|ynj;?3 D'r.a 
•'o^:j^py n ,^^?üD^*K^r^oy: t^^^a o-uyi"!yajj# tnyii ü^^a ,y3 
-ij:*iB D^K ^n |yvui?3 ^^n iy>ö^»rD.^i>*^vpn«-a y^^* ps ijivr 
;tDi^n-i» -)y3^^2:si<i??y?y: "lyonu^n»:!!?? ps iy;ü''^'D:¥'^*pn 
d'3iq vy: "lyi px lyp^ys y^x iyrwyu>nfc: t'i« jynyii oy 
iyi:Pi?"iütD iy^{<:)fc?^^yt:"iyD:^x oyn dd^^ij^ ü^i p« ,p"i»o-D^yii 
-n'TiDD nyi ü^o lyoiüTVi .D^t^ryi Iyt^'>üD>^ytD^s^'P oyn pD 
^v^^ ,iyDt<u^o"5't*t3>sb'P n ti2 ^i?v -lyi ps a:'ny:y^p-it52 lya 
tyavt^T Dyn po ni^^VD y^j? ry^'T^!5't?5i?3i?D p« fn^Bin^x r) 



oyn ,D8^pnyD^ui8 Dyi pa iii^'n lyi ^mk ddpsii d^ä'^tt 
^v^ Dyi ^nn toiyi^ Dijii pj? lyopj^^^ p^« p» d^kh oi^w ,08>p 
«DU Dyvi^ia-D:iif!^vpni^"iD ly^^^DD^^^D^B^P ayi pD DPJip 
onyii ^Kö'ßsp PS ^t?ö>?3i;?o nyi .üi>r>:fe{:ni# p« torj^^KiKö 
ä ^ya^yii »iDiK-Djs^-'Vpni^ns oy-i n»D yojiys tu ,D^'p 8 vt^n 

jj^piMi nn>K lyDJiK px "in^^ d>d iyoi?nv on^^ayss^i« ü^ti 
-^yryrsD ^t p« ly^ü^D-Dj^^^vpnjjt-is n t^a y^VKT^^öinüjyv n 
iy:jjP ^M TK ,opj"i3 ij:« ly^^nry-i d>^318 nyi ps 3Ji3^^t:Dß2^ 
n px .ü^^n ytj'>üD^^«t3''a»p ny^n ly^j^nüiy^-'K ü^: inyo 
-na lyK'^DD^^Sü^ssp Dyn ps nv\^ v^'nu'? n üdip oy .üvs^ö 
.on^xnsi^nsDpy lynm Di^oyinsj^nBDpy n .DiD:yr^K-D8ii 
•^yii ,Djyr^x "iSQ iy3«o l^Q I21K "lyK'^DD^^^D^ssP nyi 
-pnj^iQ pa iQiN lyK^^DD^^SD^ssP Dyn pa toiSD^nyn « t>« -lya 
-ju>-iy n v^ ,Dit}jyr^K-D8iins yt^'^DD^^^^o^ssP djji .n .i ,y^v 
^^iK iDin^n ü^^^ ,D"iD:y2^^N-Dj5Tins Dyn pa 3:iJ^^ji8a yo 
D:m3 y'»vpnt;?ia yt^^^üD^^^^to^si^p n lyni^ .0^^318 ny:yj>>5< 
y:yr^N in^x Dy^j^na-niDj?^ 8 pa ü^^p:n:yTiDn: iyi d>d dmi» 
ü^yüB^ M j:"i:^^jn«ta in pa 3:iJ^^j"i^a n t^k di^i jjij^^^isa 
tu n nyniit ^nyo^^ms D'^ia Diüjyr^K-Di^iina dj^t pniv du 
:jnyni^ny nyi jia ü^na ü]n tin« Diü:yr^K ^ynnvij^N dh^k 
y^vetiys^j^p fia 0:11: fa^ix : v^ii^i^v ny&j^^DD^^ȟ^Sfe?p lyi pa 
•pni^nB n pa jix lyii^n Dyi pa rn^D lyD^^tDayt^j^^Dy^ j k 
.lyi^vni^ia p-»^» lyo^^m» n dj^ii jy^D^D-o^i^^^ 
,D:y:iyoi8a'Oj?nina yo^ypy-iniv n jia aji^i^^insa n 
-KiD^BSP PK ,ü'ui8 iy:y:"« -lyi n^it^ ö-in»3 lyni^n y^^yii 
-yiijr p« lyiyD^n:»^ 8 "Tiy i» px du "^^^-i^ümj t^« \v^'<üü>'? 
iytj»iüD^^8t:^Bfe?p Dn pa ::i^iJ8in5§a n ^ii ^Dyvj^is nyiyi 
nyD^^üESK^^yrya pi^ik Pik' tj'^DpjjB Din^n d^^i ,DitDjyr^K 
Dy ^^T üijin üii^-i .Dits:i;r^« ly^^^Ds^^'^yry: pN .y^vpniifis 
^"in iyDKO"D^^{?D n pa y^vsnßt^iftD^y "in ry^y^i o^yt:8nyj 
Ti^'^ÄD^y njn lyayii oy v^ »^yij«n ^t »dij/idsbiitih ys^^üy 









.yvJSJ D^8 y^vpnijinB 



/"^tja^B^P D«T„ "i^K2 lyaS l^B ^:ru'5«p l^aSG p5 jj^somk J» 

l/iro^ons n iv ü-^vr\v:i ,>^d^2^*p ny^y^^^nyo^^tp iyi ,"iynnn 
^vr]'>i^ -^0 5§ tDi^Donpy lyaj^n oi^ii »^{jJto^E^p jia ly^nj^a 
-jj^ -q^T t^j^n y^vpnj<i-!9 i^D id*.k iyK^>üD^^^L5^--yp nyi "lyi^^» 
-njjis: n iyD:^x lyj-'syj D:i^pya üi^n fyo y^^yii p,x jynnnya 
.iy:iJ^n"iJ? y3"'^D2;s:Ei^^yry3 V'^'^>^:i^?v ytDojyn^^*^ 
VD "»11 »^^D'is^pny^iNii nvi ^^ ps nyoD^rpy n 
^i^D 5$ lytoormics Di^i D"iyii^2y3 D^^n ^jysn dh^i« iy:yo 
PN» nnino px lyiyii o^yi^^in^^a ly^j^r iyDpn{^"i2 n po 
-pMiD:y ^n ^i^r Dy>vp:iD yjy-i^^jj^n^a ym px ü ^ v : ü^i 
.nninD p2 c^^üdmk üvi t^^o lyo^nv ly^ 
-D^yi:i?n d^d iyi:in"ii$2 r^x ^fe!;D''Efci;p pr ^r.^P^r^Djy n 
jy^ps I^« .3{?D^2Stp"nsr2 ü>o Diy"i:iifei;n px ,^5$D^5i5P 
lyii ,p^^3i2y"i lyn p2 iy2iDti^ yto^^y^ n ps ;in3y:)j5?2:i^ ,D^n 
-?8 "lyi pK ni ,"iyrnyi^: ^^y^^ iy:s;D*^'y:i i^t< "iidpöi2i:j$o 
-5!tp"D?y-i:{<n \V2i^n ,:i:i>pMiD:y ps yaiüt^ "iy3^:'::^:K'3in nyo 
n t3D>n:nyi ^fciiü^2i^p-iynyDixii px ^{i;ü^2fc:p-r:i^*J'2 ,'?^\2'b 
.lyoij^Q yiD^öt n pD lyvyjyi: n px nm^ yt:>DDyn 
ü'ü üo^p nnvix p2 lyn^^^p o^i t» jnyry;! lynt^n n^o 
-jinvis "iy^y:i^^Dy2i^"i2 lyn lyn^ .D^y:i p2 ajir^c^iy nyi 
D^yi:Kii"iö:D üiyii ny lyii ,iün ü'jny j^dd^i ü"iyii nyn^^^p 

.ly-iyaiNii s pK 
iD^D tD^2{^ia lysytrs IV D1X ü?y;i Dyn''>!'tD:i8 ny>n:yn lyi 

PK .38D^2fcilP D^K |yDM13-|fcs'2 IV Di^T DIN ,üD>>n Di^fT ,DyT 

253 



"J^iiiB^p D^l 254 

pD lyQiDK^ yrnynnD n na n i ^ d *iyi "^^t ü^zv: 'q^^;^i^*2 
»ny^ijyn Dyi to^o lyD^^to^yni^r. yn^yr n pN Dss^^yryj lyi 
"iiiD^s^P DyjiyiJ^D D1V :ivy:n pi^ i^^t^nyip lyjiyii^D nyi mt 
üi^ ü'?r]'QV:i \V2i$n lytoyomyii^ji« yti^^^^iD^p n ^^n .dd^? 
,«?«P>» n£ iyoyt:myivjiN n„ .iyD0D>yni{?2 ytJ^-'C^vysD n 
,i;?jD^ynn ,n^$$o i^« nn^na ,ü-i^dk^^{^2j^n ,fe?pj^c^^{<D 
n D:yp-iy:st lyiyus oyi "^j^: *iyr\s lyaj^n ,iiyiD ,|^yp 
, n 1 i< 1 ^ n v'pv^):'iv^t^\^ pi^i5< üjyvi^a Pd o^^pT'p'avm 
D3^^^y;:^nfc< jyj^n lyti^^^iyn-'^^ny yrr^^T n pa tira yDJ^'ny n 
m^'? üiJ^tDtJ^ iy-i pQ Dj$i nvi pD lyirmj? n p« lyiJ^iiy: 
lyjyi^ 3:^^n:^nsi?„ lyn i!^ y:«^>^n » px DD>^D:ycyisQ p« 
."DiD:i?£-yDnn ps ,ii#^^ p« "DJy^fi?12 m •»nysis^ii 

n D>:) tDDj^^j^Dn^iriyaj^^ps^ yo^yii pN .lyoi^Q y^s p« 
yti'^a^n p« yt^^Dnj y^mytoyöt:^ n pa li^j ,y^i§Dn8nDfe?2 
D^y: ^^?1•l ,n)'^)i)i^ w'p^^r.^ p2. ^yD^o fe§ d^ij? Djyn ([yD^^v 
nyi "Tin yiynj55 pa D^^ms n lyoyjpyns ps ^ytD^o {$ t^x 
d:?» DV"iJ5?n tD'^y; i^iyn ,.'n jj< .k "1:^:5 ,iy5{^^pt^ pa lya^p 
li^p lyo Di^n Dyi ny^^iv üjyvJ^ia V'>iis DJj^nn ,^;j!tt3^£y;p 

.121« ST{§ ^^)i< |yr^^:>ns Dy 

lyDii^s yK>>oDnyDp»"iKD ^mi^ I^^isq lyrn oy lyn?^ 
-ye nyi 1^*0 ton^Donpy lyn^^n Di>*r. ,^^D^2j:!ip-tDjyi'{>*-i2 pa 
— V^t^ann« ^^T ^^fc^ ,y^vpn^i£ iyt^>DD>^fe?D^Eb'P p,D y-iJ^n 
^n iy^j<in-iy-i'''n lyDij^s v^'pv^ n .lyoii^^a yj^^Dony^ptitn^:: 
tn^n lyiJji ^y^^'pni^ns iyi:^^DD^^b*D^s^p p£ lyni^i oyi ?i^^,x 
n D^J inyo piE^' fyj^n ^n .iy':)i5<iD yjynn^inyDji« d^s 
-j^iD-LD:r^\^i2 P2 nytop^iisD Dyn lyo^to^^n v:^'^V)) lyonj^s 
,D3yD:yiy : lyrn lyon^sin ^^.n^ yrt^n n »^^d^söip ]Vim 
p.2 ny:!:yinD^i« ^^f D^y:! lyn^-i^ p^* t:)nyt:*^yn dj^ii ,''ny:D^xii 
-:yvnj<ii2 V2^''?p 1^ D^^y^ lyn-''-^ px ünytotj'^n dj^ii ^ny^iNi^ 
-^D2y::^^n ly^n 1^2 r-'^y: yjyr-'X v^V"^ lyvnj^::: y^^yii ,iyD 
DnyiJiTiNtn p« niDK^'^o-'^yn n lyDJ^^^yaj^^t^ ly:"»'»: j^i p,fc< ;ijia 
pi^i« ,iyijyt:K^oiK ysi'^DD^^^D^E^pij^c. n p« t?^Mi ,Dny^i2 n 



266 DytyBO'^Äa'Süp-i^a 

-pni^is i;>yn'^T^3^5^ yr;jyns^oi5< Dan>ny w^^n >n >y^am 
DyDni^^^D VD^n: n iJ^D^snüjy os^p-any^is nyi Dt^n ,y^v 

.iytojyvnj#i3 ya^yrs pa 

•Dpy n p« ny>^v5?2-i:s^ ya^n p.D lyi^rxn dj#"i nyni^ 
-yoK'Djy nyi iv D^rps iyo:yvni^i2 yr^^p n p.D y^i^yiosi^a 
.iy^8D^E8P-ü^y:i yonna ps. y^vsi^^s^i^^vfci:: px ijin. 
cyi 2i^ de:«::^ Dyvj^is "lyrrJijn lyi liin: tu "i^tL Diiifn tu 
iy:iyi{^D p« Di^Dfeüs Di^n oy '>)) ,y^vpni^-i2 pa I2in lyo^s 
-^Ei?p Dyi p^fc? üin^Q oyv^is ny;M>>n nyi ^v p« ,i?9i#i^^x 
ivi m lyvj^iJ^« "nn Di:yi^ ^y^^^pnj^is dis lyK^^tDD^J»»^ 
ü^w lynjyDJJ^Qix n px ^ji^pniDjy ny.^ni^50D^n p2 ysiöB' 

.cns n iy^j:n 

PD yoii^ö yK^^tDD^iyDp8"i8D n D^öi ,^sa^5KP"")yiy3iKii 
Ü2i?iinymy3>'.« ivi ü:iV\B'^^i22V ,'?^^^^^P iy-i:y:i^iD-üjyvi^nB 
y:yr\s v^v^'i V"?^ lyrn Di^ii ,Dny^i3 p2 y^xpn^^ns-p^^'p PQ 
lyi lyii .ni2K>ö-oyn yr^>p ps px ^lynyrtD^^-is 
-ijns n PK ::irD£.y^»2 p2 ^yo^o n ^n nss i^i^n lyo^^-is 
Dyi pK Ml ,^5$D^25<P p2 yoiJ^s lyi p« o^^nfe? ps \vüp)i 
tD^Mjy:y^y: v? iy ot^tn ,y^xpn{>n2 dis iy::'^tDD^^{$D^2SP 
,D>yj tonj^a ny lyn .tDjyvnfc^i2 ^* o"?^ ü'?v: jyn^n iv öo 
•^n iy:"ii?r5$n i^ dik dj^t iy ld^d ,ny;i^>Di^' s ,T!5$aoi^5' p« ni 
^fc^j iKi^ "lynj^ .•^^"iny: ly^^^jyriya pn isd lysijT o^d 
nyn PK -iyi{^ ^^yroj^j — -iyD^üjy3>\s lyn t^k lyD^uns in 
•i^"i2 yj^n pD PK :ju>D2yu^{<3 p.2 ^yo^o y:'n pd — i'nD« 
*KP Dyi ü^o ly^ysyi ^n /jjyvni^-i2 d^j? ,iy n» ,iyDpn 
1801^3 .^8t:^2i?p-iyDiKTi ü'D Ml ij^itonyip üyi po ^kö^b 
nv:38i "lyi tk ,d;i#t ny ll?ii ,PJKny:i Dyn ikm;j^ dmk lopm 
PK DDKnya t^k P^:ü:yvi^n2 lyn n:ynyM ,D"i^t:py2Dy-i t^k 
-ijyiyii ,y3^n n ^v ü^yj Dn^^> TpJ5$a lyn "-j^mi ,i3ytD3Kn8ö 
Dyn önytiKD iy .y,^ni^ n iv tDn>^> pjü:yvj^"i2 "lyn 
■i;?D p2 lyonK ^Miv n ly^niv "T^^ü^"iyt::'iK nyi Di>n ,op8D 
mtj y^s^Vi^D y-i:yDy-i£t>'D:y n p2 pK y^vpni#i3 lyJ'K^x 



pe üBv^^v tD*»: T^x "^i^T n Di^i n« ,pn8 i^n "^n üt^'^o |yaj^3 

tDnya ,Djyvni^iE oyj^^^p oyi pD D-:5§nP n dmi« dh^v Di^"n 
-in oyi D>i« Dinyv di^ii /nyDiNii lyi id^o D:j<n px tDJj<n 
ytj'^oMi n pD ^nyDixn n mi ^yr^ nrs ,iyvn^n-ijj5^ lyD 
n ^nyyny^s y^'^D^n n Di^rxn :n:yü5^^iD toi^n iy^vnDfc$2 
y^viSDen^EDpy pa dij^q yani^i n ^n tD^^n .lyiyns v:''''?p 
-nfcüD Di^n t:2«;:^ü-iMriyö»^P^ yon^pDjs**Di^£oi5< px ,tD3n:yy3 
.D£.8*^tD-i^iriynyn3 V''?p pc Yi^^B nvi \vo\: 
Di^n) ^ny3i«ii ^i ]t^p ojyv^^ns p2 yoii^D lyi nyDJi« 
-r^K Xi'^^^"'"''^^ i*"^ D^s.1^13 PQ yoit^D n [« ny^ys^ o^yj 
n PD yaiD nyi nynn» D^^siyn"»« |yv:to Dyi jy^r^K^ 
-yQK' Dnyii dj^ii) lyDjyvn^is n pD ^yD^o-nytoonpy yj'-tj'-ij 
niiD3» n5§: ,*n^^:i^J<!2 ,t>i< oy p« ,(pi^ p« D^ynj^infc?D "lyiD 
p^K d::^^;5^ Di?"n ,üjyvi<ii5 Dyn ü^, ps dj>*o n ly^^-i^r.j^D *,v 
D^v Dny:i oi^ii ?^^d cyi nyo^ix ,Dnyirinyo Dyn lyvj^i px 
Di^n ,yDj<TtD:yvi^i3 ny:iyn{^*o nyi pc D{>*q "lyi d^d ,D^t<DK> 
ists .DiyjnnyD nvi pa ^^^d s rn^n pynj? ^^^:nyiiy: Doy: 
D^: nyD>>m^-pi^ lyn dj^t ,üp^2 Dyn d^ik dtj?^ "q^^^nj^D 
tD:yvt^"is ,ü^öfc?-is ,Dn^K o^Dsyt^'j^n d^^ii .DD^^j^to^sjjip cyi 
ny Di^ii ,tDny^rinyo oy-i ]v^:^:ii px ,t5D^M dj^i ,yDjyriiy px 
IV D1K ,'^^^?;i-i55D lynnionj:? nvi Dt^ D3;t?D nyp .ün^vn^^is 
"KP ps ;]i^pMi:D:y nyn "qnn toriiy^ lyü^-'m« iy-i '»ii ,iyr>n^ 
-"»>« T>fc< Di^n ,yüötn"D:!yv{^-i2 lyn pD |y^b*ö oyi pt< ^t^D^s 
]V)'\ j:i^pMit:jy lyrtJ^T lyi pc \v:i'?i^B y3^>n^D5<: n p.s:. y: 
-•»x n D^iK DPit *iynyDi«ii ^yi ds^ii :ii:y:i do ts ,^:^^ ]vü 
t^M^jy^Do ^j<ij iy tDiyii ,i3np pn pD tD^^nn^-Di^aiys 
Dyn ps ,33"i^tD2y!i'i?2 pa >yD^o n ps n^2n->yn nyi 
p^« PK Dns ^ns D^i?n pi? ,pip pn pa "ny nyi p.« r>in 
yrijyDt^^^D n üi? ts ,\vo öoyn^^D ,Dn^K lyi^j^nsj^isDpy 
ji^roayK'W pD ^yo^o n fyoyjpyiij? oitn ,y^v8n5J>*-,EDpy 
iyi DJ;?ii ,tDt<to^nyi p*»? tD>: r^« nyo^^Difc^ cy-i ^^3 
nijij ,iyD>n;nyi w osn y^vpnt^iB pD jßix nyu^^DD^^'ijD^s^p 



-pi^ Dyi ^'3 pyiiö! Doy3 ly» .onisi onya y^vpni;^-'.s y^^^o 
,p^jD:yvi?"i5 Dy-T ^^3 ^«?pl^' 5< lyiyTi iv o^^PD^iJ^yc n ns^P:^ 
ninsn '?::'? ,Dy:yr^K"n^^:? Dyi o^^ li^oy: oy DJ^n lyrs mi dpjis 
nyi lyp lyDMiD-iöiD s d^s .ü:yvn5;f!i2 d>öi y>i;?i pn px 
•yDiKii .li^Dnyip oy-i p.D n^^P'^ » jynyii lytoysi^^ ?^,s^P6r-pi^ 
o^v: "ly "ly^^yii P« ,y2"^i?£ ^vyi^i "lyn pk ^i^^D^sj^p-nyi 
-ni^"iB ytapym n pa ü^^3'iiifDi^2iyn''j< yv:w n iv ^^i^pi^^ 
]iD iy;:i::ni§rD:n3 n .y^vpnj^ns d-ik n d>: ü^v^^v »lyojyv 
-:y^n{?i5 n Dsi »Djyü^f'iy nyrn y^vpnii^is tD"is lyrTi^n nyi 
^:irüDytJ'ötn pE ^yo^o yiy^n pa lyv^rj^a n pn {y^ii^T \vd 
.y^vpni#"i5-p^5'p pa yons^a yi:y3y-i3{rDjy n ,D:yü^nw p,i< 
tjn tv lyD^^an» Dyn t:^: oa"i5<n"iyü:i« ,^«<a cyi px ^^eiD^atüp 
-ynöDn:^« d^s "lyo^^ais ovi "i»a to^: tDr^sj^ny ny pn opym 
-in n D^iK v)^2 oinyv ?8D^2öiP"iyD^Nii "i:y"iyi'i ,^5$d'28p ny^» 
yiviDpni^iB yin^K ött^^8-i»9 ,y^vpni?"iB ps Vü'\^t vyt 
D^^v "lyn^'yT "lyi iv p« ly^pmtDjy iv ^n t:NtD:y:5< lyoayip 
-i^D n yD^yn PK »lyajiariss y^yasnyi^c n iy ür3>"'5<"iii;D 
oyn ^^1« tD5»yp^ii»:y tD*»: t^k ü^^ms pa üyöMVDpni|5"is y^»>v 
-^p Dyi ")yo:iK ^sa lyn t^k oy mi ,Nai: o^^ms: pa pn^^n 

.y^vpni^is Di^ ty^j'^üD^^fcjD's 
-:iK 1« ,Dn» ^T» ,"iy3iK^^ D^iK tDD'»» iD^n p^N pa 
jnD^K n ^^K oi^ar^K in:ynyüK^iv pk trrjy^Jf^'^J^iyD 
•^3*^K ly^rn^yß n« työ^^J *i'i» px lyo^oa^n yf^^nj^yD pK 

-m^ v>u ^B'Ti or^ ^^V5>n^fni y3^>iyr^3-p^>^ t^» ysny^ii 
n^an-^ya lyn t"t iv r^ij ^8jt: oj'^jt D:yvni||iii lyn mii jro 
typMio:y iri iyD:i» .y^vpni^-is pa rya:'i3i>i»3 yrn lya^w 
DO "lyD^nn» lyn t^k y^vpni^ia di» ny^^^DD^^titö^E^p "lyo 
oyi pa »aiiröaytrbts pa ^y^^o y:>n pa nyo^D^yr"»« ly-r 
ny Di?ii ty^^nyo^fo m'<)^ n pa ^*oi»y3 iy ot^ii i^y» 
ÄTDO^j lyrn^i Bin •^yoji» lys^ .-n .r» m .'lya^ic D^n^n 



-:yD»n:i: ivnyii lyD^^aiK yj^yvj^>K n .ksij y^vpni^nis dik 
iy«»iitDiv IV pyiw Dyi D"'D lytDütDtJ'Piyii yoMn: p« DSKiayj 
üDSßy^iv üp:)B VH \:i'>'>i?^'^ovü d'j«o p^k ty /n» D^^ai» n 
.pK^xo i« p« D^y"i:»inKS D^yii a^^vy; Di^i .DjyD^M^v 8 iv 
PB ü^N'?D^i'3yiife?n n o': myo pi:^ Dn^i!?iy y^^^P^l^"^s tDis ^n 
»iMK ü"ii:^ i^^« PS ly:l)#1D'^ynn8 ny^>T ,^yD^D-D:»ji^vpnij^na ^t 
,DiD:yr''>? p^:'P d^d ^j^-: lyi t^« oy ^n ,iytD>niv or» 
-18 Dyn pß ^'j/ 'pDiy-jJuy;iBJ55 n ,y'V8^j#T>K n tD>j '^i'^ir \m 
v^'ipM^'iB Diy. nyt5'^DD''>8D^55?p nyn lyDiix .p^t'« lyö^^a 
n pD Djyvnfc^ia oyi jy^^^j^st^ D^i ^nysiN^i pijj^ lyi^ 
'M DJ^n yDsnij? ly'D^iJ'B lyi ny^^iv ,5'yD^D"D:j>*>vpni#ifl 

.D^^^Dyisi? V)^ lyrn 
-i^is n 1X11 DiJ^T DiDD^n-D^ya ünn^^^iDjyv 'ny^ixii 
DU tDiynjy n .iynjuy;i:yD8n!; d>j lym ^yD^D-D:i?>vpn 
-83 8 Ml ,1V "in^8 IV -^n Dyöytj^D n ^^a ^y^vpni^iis id-i8 n 
Bt^ oyoMD ,Di>a nn^8 Drn n .nn^8 D3J^i;iyD:i8 p8 ,tDn8n 
-ivJiji y^vpni^isy"! iis oyvj^ia Dyi d:i:miv p8 jyinyj v^r\'>i^ 
lißiyi ,iy;jijjn83 y-i:yD^nv-i8n ir]Vü ^i#: lyDJi« inyj 
D8 lyiiyi 1^8 Dt^ii ,-iyiyDi8ii Dyn |y:iy: D8n lyn ^n tDoyj 
-i^is Dn 1811 ,D^yii iyD^8 lyn p8 iy3J?"ist^y:Dn8 lyDoinyo 
'V^ T^8 ^ycD''o-D:i^^vpni^is yjyr-ix pD rn83 D'Djyvn 
^:iJTit^ "lytj'^D^^i^ö iyi ps Dn8n nyi d^-iv nya^yr iyi iv [yn 
Ml ,ö^Mi MT8 .lynn Dyi pa tD^>pr;!:yn5i^Di8 ivi pD 
-nyr« nyi mi ö^mi mt8 nn« nyni>* ,ij^ D^8n ^nyD8^P'^ 
P8 i"iij$» iy^8ii^yD Dyi pe. DaM-iaisa Diyii Dpiii^ns-Di^a 
im ivii^ "lyo^Darr*»« * iyD8>?c^ nyi nya ,yDMiD v^t 
,iyiyDi8ii an pa ^v:vj n p8 pns iy^8s ii^'? iv^^i^v^ 
n8 nn tm?:^ .v^'pvvi v^if^i^^-^B di8 n tDn^^>ni8D 
nyoH5:yr^8-iyD8^pK^ "iyojn^i;j'n8a ivi .^v:iv Diyii iyt:>'a 
ny 5^Mi ,inriitj' lypm \i^ t^^n nii?^ ly^snt^ya lyi '^V14 
n»i8ii ayi -lijD r»^» id^m^ iy •int^ .ö^myi tDiyn p>5.8 
13?*ii^py n "!ViJ# ny)#n«3"^jjj^ » f^^?« tsnyii nya^rn ,ny"i 



259 DpyiQD'^UB'B^pl^Jß 

PD lyoDn n d^ö ^»d lyi lyiiy: t^« oy Mi »ipo'-öiyr'« 
oyayii ,D-]{<iüö:i:8i^2Dpy yo^j? n ps. rs^is oyi .Dni lyo^» 
»^fcüDiijtnüi^s ^yr:yii -ly-ij^ nnyo lyiiy: t^k y^vsD^ti^'fiDpy 
^D$<o ly^j'^D^H*» ")i?£3 ^yo^D 8 lyiiy: D:yoDinyo t^k n ^^>n 
•*.y:yc'.py:i:MN im ,iv:':'>^:^)) D^ya ^-yDisn lyi Dt:y:i»D 
-y; D>3 Dyn Tin oiyii «213 y^vpni^i3 di» n lynt^ .n^n: 

.oiyi:y 
"ii;;d y^j< ^n« ^iip-iMi y"iy:i^^vi^i?iiyi s t:«^n 'ny3i«ii 
,^y^D MTS 5^^it? TM^n iyoii^2-D:i#>vpnj#n5 yK^^DD>^»ü^B»p 
-■•^K ps lyoit^c n n^i5< üiy^ p« DyDD^:-ij<2 n ^y^DMi *i>ik 
-i?3 nyi pD \]ni^2 lyooyD Dyi 15^*3 w'pv^^ v:i'?V)) ,Diö:y) 
lyiyii üi^:^ni^"i2y-i :n:ytD*^ lyr^.o Pi« y^xsir^*{<ni^ iv^'ü'»^ 
n lyoii« .ly^o^^n -qn ^t?T y^V8r^:fc?:-it^ ytj'^ö^^i^s n nD 
px tD^^v y:ji<^ 5< lyo^einji^ 'nyai«ii ii^p lyont^s y^j'^Dsn» 
-i#2 {< PK iy^i<2iyT:j<:-i^2 lyij'^oi^ijj^py i5< t^i^n iy3sm«n»D 
|y::i2r"iWi^2 yrü"»*!: n lyii ^^nv .ü^^pd^^idi{<ö ytr^ö^^ 
*in p« lya^yn 1:^ ^vü^d ^ ^ny^iNii Diyii "i:yryii:K lyj^n 
Dyi ^in iD^n p^x ps ,y>vpni^"i2 ü^.s; oy^^j oyi p2 ::n:n3 
,y^vpni^"i2"p^^p p2 PK nn^^ iy^tn»vy2 Dyi pD lyn^j^xn 
-pni^nB n |yi>p^8-itD:yv oy-i Tin D^n iyn:{< "lyi pB pK 
.PöttD^Bötp P2 yoni^s "lyi px ^yD^D-Dji^^y 
•ya^öt P^P ü^nv^i ü^: t:»?' p^p Di^n lytD^s-f'yöro pK 
tv lyDi^m^B 3^^231^ p2 t:i^r\ v^i'p n .yDKTt3:yvi^nB yr^ 
•y; p,K lyvyry: .mKiSi i^x oy yD^yii n^« ö:yvi^"is jycyj 
yDNn-ü3yvi^i5 n »niN*,ST dv^k^ks Di>*ii r:yn lyni^n |yDD>-» 
nyi .'nvn nnyt |yiiy3 i^Liyi t>« ly^KB y^yn^vir« pK 
ly^•^l#v p2 D^^pri:yriüM: n ,tD^ya p2 ^m^^d^k nyDVjyn:»^ 
|yl^•:yQ iy:;:iKiivy3 o^^n jy3:"iS"iJ>*vr-« yüDinyo px i^ira 
ü^y:i p2 :r>^DD^:K lyi iyr:yii Di?ii ,Df'y) lyn^^^ w inyo r^» 
rin3K2 ly-i ^K ,yüfc?vtD:yvjfti5 n "»k tD:>ypMitDjy ww: vh 
'fij^'-iKP n p2 D^^v "lyi PK .iyi>^K'nK2 nw |yrn ^nysiKii po 
.^ny^^iKi") or^oy: o:yv^jt^^ 100 pi^k D^y: lyn^^f» tDi^n jy^fco 
•216%% lysijyj .1348 p« ,iyn^3 yrr^K |yni;?n mki:k5> pk 



•^jjü'Eijp D^i 260 

^'t^iDoysj^ö ly» Oi^n \v'^^ü'>i^ Pk .yoüirDjyvi^is y^^^vyt 
-yn lyiiy: tD"»: t>« yüötn yD^^jnyiiya n sj^di^o ,40% tD^>«?^ 
-jimnt^^ lyojnyviys nvi V2 |yD£^y*,n üvi pa 20''^ pc lya 
.ytDsn yD^^vytya n d^s 12V2 7o üo^öK'^n oi#n »ji^nyii .Dnn 
ytDsi n Do^DC'feiin üj^n nyo^mv nyi ^mns li^DSiyso^K 
t>« lyvniJ^iQ-pMi n p« .lyi^K "i»2 ni^s lyni? ,l07o d^» 
-mnn{#> ly^jnyv^m p« '^^: vo^i y3^?vyry:i n iyiiy:i 109& 

♦Diyn 
-lüD^^siD^asP nyn d^d '^n Dvusn ^8D>5»p nynyDixii 
-'•OD^^feSD^ssp Dyn inj^ "lyni^ ,y^v«üKi^BDpy iid vm^VQ "lya^ 
•^n tD^ii^n-iy-iMi iJi$DiJ^iv iyrti?"i nyi .y>vpnj#-iE dis lytj^ 
y:yjSDiJ^y:Bti; n p« ^odsjj'dimi nyisiiK^nn lyi pt< ^ix 
TT lyiny^i oi^ii »yD^yrs pk "lyit^ ,ynDDn:^K lyn pd lyj^Mi^ 
civ .y^vpni^iB öi8 Dy:nyii?o oyi iv jjj^nyn^« üvi \v:y2 
pK yDfc$i-D:yvi^is n lys^^^jij^s \v^')) n^o n^ix »^^SK^^^n 
öyn pD yDö!") n do lyoy: i^o jyr^D ,iynrK t>K px n:i?^i:y 
nvr^^P pD ni^D oyi pa ,iy;i^T n>Di^^ ,"ij^: /'-ij»^:i:y \'\^ p2V2„ 
":^« yK^^D^\"i PN iyD:yvnj^nB yj^^t^p iv Dn^^> oi^w ,^ny:^K^{$o 

.lynüon 
iyo^tD3^n lynjy^itj'nfeiiD ps «jii^^ » d^» »nysiNii 
-tpe Dn D^o DD^yn oy ^^mi ^d^^p^^dd^t ly^j'nj^iüD^n pa t>« 
D'"imD üVi PN ^ND^süipnyDiNii .^^ö''2^p w^^ pQ oy^ 
oi^ii ,DiDD^n-D^y3 PD ::'\r]vt::i^\:i:v lyi jya^yn nyo^toa^n 
lyDpnj^ifi ^vymy oi^)) .Diüjyr>N-n:s> pa r::ynst^*oiN t^n 
-iJ'^iD iyr:yii oi^ii pN nn^no pa. iytDpKi5?3 oyi \i^ \vüv:- 
PS B'>jyDy>D PN »"»nn yv:^: n ans üssi3 tDiyi^ 
,DiDD^n ny'noN d^s D^ya tor^c'iy nnyo r^N ,y^vpn^iB 
"Ni p^r D^o "q^^^iifciiQ PN j^^oyi^fc? pN DiDD^n ,üD^^^ ot^i 
lyit^n lyi t^n di^^t .[yto-iy^r^Miay;! pN nytoonpy |yüvjyi;i 
ps PN ü^yrD^yi^ pa yonj^a in nn n .nnviN lyn^^^p pa 
-w ,nninD jia yoii^a ytDi^j^Dn» n iJ^ tj^ya tDoyj ,ivin ik 
n üif Dnyi:n»3 t>N oy pn .^yo^D-Sii?v «i d^» D-iynjn 




261 Oj;VUD'7»53^Bt<p"H5B 

oyijynn^iib^s p« {^nyijy^^tj^ntitD .^5§D^Efc?p-D^y: p« -D:v'i 
-v^s jya^^P IV ^ytD^D s d^s ,Dy3^yr{$ d^5$ o'pvi m^i didd^h 
nyj^^^p nyn ,(nnm ly^nj^v pa ^yo^o s d^s i^k pt^) ::n 
iy:)j"i^nj^v2i^ lyDSo iv Dit? D:yDDinyD to^iy; finj^n Djyvniiina 
Div lyoDjyn p« v:iv? lyi ij^d "iK^yo pD lytD^unKD oi^i) 
-i^-ismy lyii^ d>u-i8 d^o lynyii D^n^vy: iy;iy^D 01^:11 ,rna 
8 pnsi t:?y^2'^ lyiy^^DiJ'-Dpy: i^.x yo:yTD^y:i n^x ,iyöpn 
->yT5$ D'?\s- ^y)^2Vi t5?y;i Diy^i ly^^üs y-i^-'D i^fe? .t^j^n yD>n; 
-nnv'.x ürj)) D^n nyt:^niv lyi pö .(^ytDV's-^nj^v 8 d^^ü ,DyD 
--«nD n D^^any p« laiN st» ^^1« v)'?2 üD^ppn^nsa lyn^^^p 
iv^K 18 pa nyo^Djyr^N lyi dj^ii .iy-iyDiKii oy-i pa lyo 
nyn lyz^ ; Dya^yts d^» T?y: i^j ^^s^o^sjüp do t^h Dj:j^^",sa 
-fc$P"D^y;i pn ly^ijsirijs^s iv t:>\"5D^>;iy^ i< dh^k t:^: D:yv{^n9 
-ijanj^a iv mi ^yo^^ « p« üo^^n D'41 ,üü2'?v^ -^n nfc?a ^fcütD^s 
K "^M« PK t:^u-i«-Di^aiy3^i< n iyv:ö5:j^K nyi{# ^^^d » lya 
yovy^ n lyii ^^^ax ,«a^: lyo^jaiyist^'Dj^^vpni^ns pa ^^>:3 
DiD:yr^N v'?v:i'oi$: dj^t d^ö: Dn^i< p,a tD-iy-i:Ky:2i^ lys^^^a 
Dyn pi< ,D^ix ür]V^ oy Mi ,DTODMpy ^nyD^,«^ .yiyi:» pa 
ron^p^Ej^ ü\'? ,^vüv:i n ^"n dp:i2 ,y^vpnj^i2 pa nyiiyj 
nynyir^ r^» t^n to^y: .lyo^yii n lyj'Miv lyo^n n pN lyny'' 
yr^oyj^s n li^ ly^oy: lyDpnj^ia n -iyr:yii dj^ii ,iyo^Pi<3 iy 
yj^^p D^J "ly-iyaixn lyn Djypiy:« onsi .nnino pa yo"i{>*2 
n3{<t:ii'nyi^ii n nyii^ idm: n nn js* ,|y:jnyt:i:^ yiyi:» 
p^^P p« .ü^y: lynj^n lyaien d^)) n pa cafeitni? 
^^^DytDEnn D^y: tD:yn y^vpni^iB nyn^-p^^p "ly-ii^ lyiy^n 

•:|i^3 T^K DJ^II) "iyD^^318 "Wl ^t^: lyil ,^y*i3\»2-51'1p 8 D^8 

rrn pa lyn^üjyr^K lyi D^^o "iyi:yayirya^« 10t p« k^8 
(iyQn{^a-D:i^^vpnij:"i2 y:nt^i n nyajiN !?'yD\»:-DJj;?^vpm;in9 
^nn "lyniji ^eiaiv i? ^in ::irDay:re::: pa ^yu^Q yj^n iDi^^isa 
ijstoi^^^x ü'': fx iy |yi^ "lyij; ,|y::n^Dbia y3>^jnyiiy:iyDnK 
.y^vpn^i^^.sy-i pa 3:fe?:i lya^^jnyny: cyi px ^n jyjniyrvpn^v 
5)»o ycDrüa^i n lyrn ly^snyüijo vn'<)'\ p5< J'yö^o-ojyajy^ 



^»ts^Btfp D^n 262 

n PD ^n lyn^vni^isyi ^v ^^^iyoDi« pn oy |i^p ,iy"iy^>D lyiyn 
-ynyj ytDDy^sf' k tm^3 mi dp:^3 jyiDpniina n po |yD»jj>>x 
•jn ^v i:8DK^^« pn ö^j 5'i;?T ly^u nyn t8 aoy: r^« K^^jy» 
ya^yr n .yoii^s: "lya-i^i^iD^j in>K pK nynr n lyn^vn^^ia 
on^^Kn lyni^n ny^vnüjjs yti'^DMn n ys^yii -^m ,mön5»ö 
on» ^ns PK lyoj^n^i^D lyiyii ^v :n:y3riiv ^n »nyyny^'s n 
PD lyD^janyiütn n ly-i^vn^^nsyn iv D^^p3^^:yo p^p lynj^n du 
':^ lynt^tn ,tynyii DDnj^-i5$Q p« D^^prtDyo nyivDpni^ig "W'»'»^ 
D^r^ ,iysip lyosMiy: d^d ny^vnoss n ps üiv'pv^ n D^^sy: 
n opynn lyyny^s n lyay; iv idi^dss':«? ,d^^v "iy:y^ ps o^ya 
lyn^^y: ^n ^n lynj^n »n^s ,niyQ ,iyoMT — lyüpni^ns y:>ö^i: 
lynijtn p« ,Ti^^vi: lynya t^k p^^s ^n ikd Dtjtii "qsr 8 ,ivb'[:? 
^ ly^mvivm» D^K ::nKn |y:ni#i oyi ü^d övi:83 ^n 
-y^B n anjy^iJ^injüs: on« ^ns ,yo8rD:yvi#is y:in^8)i3 
PD üö^inyn nyn iy^:i« .lyas^Pt^^ yüri^i^fi^D px nyyi 
'4)m tDiu>«n ^^^K lyiy^n ys^'^j^ns n iyj>n |yjsai^^"i«tp n 
— ^ayiiDMN p^K T^i^n lyn^^ny: t^n ^n ti? ni» ,niDn^o Tin \]n 
»lytj'^o^n lyi pK .nmn"'»5'y3 o^üsj'jijt yjyr^«-n^^^ lyiyii iv 
lyaijsn lya'uytDyiyrDu ts »tai^oss dsi? oy ü^n ynyso^K 
nwtjit PK nnrp v\V'''>\ lyD^ipi^üD iv lyiyna n |y;i3iKiivyi 

.y^^n n iv lyss^pK' issj p^^8 V^ 
o^'K PK .iyüp:is-3:n:yii v:'*'>üv:'?^ n lyjyn ^y^s ^ns 
n pEi üDi^'i^D nyii^i iyD^sn:Jii ü^i bi# üryn y^ya v:^v^ 
iV'^V'' PK ,iy^82iv nyüjyt^iD pD Iy:^'U£:^y^8rD:J#^vp^Jjt^^ 
•Dni^njjD tDyD>n5$3 lyDOi^isQ "iyi{# jy^SQ^v yD^yrs pa -iy:>>K 
^nyD^Kii pD ünjinss nyi "ifeüs a:^:yDy ij« d^s D:yn pK ü^^p 
rjya i^n it^p mp u ps |y'-i:5 o^i mi ist »rs .ly^np^vj^ns 
iy>u«tn ^v n:sDK^^K p^r oo ^t^r Djyvni^ns "iy:>^^p "lyi t» 
^y tD^ss» IST .nstoii^Dso tyrnynnc on ^mk y^vpnt^iB pn 
•jy t^K ^i#Dr^K pK ,putD:yvi#"is nm pD ^y;yj n pk pn» 
Y^ayoo^K DH^K nsD p^k' pk ,o:yn n pk nynyaiKii d>^3 

•lyny-nivDMiK ^»r 



263 Dys'»aD''rBO>B»?n<jB 

-2J^ yiy> .^yD^o-^ni^^ fc$ d^« D^y: pc y^vpjiD n t^« nyiya 
-y: t^o DJ^n ,.11 .t«i .« »ly-iy^^DSJ^ .vdiv'^ ,ü'?V} ps :i:i^ni;?v 
-D>^: n ^n ü^o t^ai^iD ,3i^d lyDo^D^j^n s p« w^v^i toDöto 
-i«ii T^K Dn$5i .PV))'i ST8 18S tD^y: lyoipsn ^v D^v:njyii 
— lyD^^v y:^DJ^\n n r"'2 lyD^^v y*^^öm yü^»» n p,D — ^nya 
tji^i ."iy^c5§T pi< iy>ni^v-D:y"i pj? lyiy^^DSJ' d^d iyir,3i»& 
8 iy2(S*^5^a nnino ps :iJ^D>n2tj'"i5<D n px ijyijsn lyi ,"inyD 
pn nD D>y: .|y>ni<tv pt< lyanp ly^j^nf^ j:^>^^DirD^>v yoMiy; 
^n .ö^^v lyDD^D'j'fciin 5$ p« VK^Si' ipDD^DJi'fcsn « Pin5< to^^-oy::j^ 
-D>y: lyn y:D>yn pj^ .lyi^ytDJ^^iN n iv lyin^D it^p dj^i ^ny; 
]^\'\VB ya^yrn pj< yr^x t^k "lyny^ixii nyi px dd^^sd'ssp 
nyni^ .iyp'J^2'0^y:i n p2 inyr lyo \i^p ,|yo>^i* yrt::^\T i^^ex 
iyi PD iy^D^0T)2>in n pD yr>N Diyn ^nyD^x^t ya^yr n 
tD^y: lys^nny: iv t:^^p:njyi^D>i: lyi pD :i:i^PMiü:y lyiyo^^i^ 
-i?"is Dyi pn5$ ü2y^t^ n dj^ii nyi "nnn ,^yD>ö-Sni^v 8 d^jj 
-y; n ü^vü^)'^ px nuin p« iy2y>D p.« lycy^t) r^et D:yvn 
t):y^i#i2 |iD DD5!t^ nyi dj^i ,t2>Mi >ir8 ^yo^o-^ii^v yD^?:nyn 
Dyn PK .y^^pnj^i2yi y^^^oii^: v] i^i^: •^^^iyooix t:38o 
•i'ni^v t$ D^5$ D^yi pa D-ins ^nya^xii t:vj^"i2tj' 5'{§d w^^i 
in^K t^^iK D^y; ps- y^vpJiD yjnt^n n D>n2{^n5?D px ^yo^o 

.tD>2y3 iy^>2^vy2D Dy:y;i''8« 
» D^8 li^D D»:ip DyDD^D-Dny-ip oyi pD ::i^pniü:y n 
-"ij§2D^o D^j \Vü niöti DJ^i lynJiit ."•nyDiNiT iy;iy: V'^^^V) 
n ,nyn^nt^ yo^» ^ii ^n« lys^D^^öon« c^^j^d "lyii^ ]nvü^ 
-D^^öt^vi^D yj^^{^8 n -lyni^ ,ivr]ü)'? ,v:i''\'P lyi pd "oyto^D^ 
^11 ny^oyn do pn inyD d^j dj>^ö oy .ii>'üy:i di^i m^n \vü 
iy::i::n{<3 n iv ^fc$ü^2i<p iy-i:y3i^iD-üjyvi>n2 iyDi^*inyD:i« 
.y^^pni<:i2 Dn» iyK^^DD>^^*ü>2iN*p nvi p2 iyD^^2iyii<3 p« 
-"'2fc$p •iy"i:y:i^-iD-tDjyvi^-i2 lyi t^k iytDi:y: p^oyj^s vh 
n IV iDDet2yaiv oyDo-'D-ü^ny-ip Dyj-iy"ii>*o oyi nytD^ix ^8D 
D^feü ^ny3i«ii .y>vpnj#-i2 "iy{i'^DD^^eiü^2SP ps iy3ji:i:n83 
üiyii n "11^3 ,iyi^ODnpy iv t)>it< o^j ii?: d^: Dnyn y^^yr» 



'^^B .^i^QS pD 3:nv:ivi;ry3 nyn i^k ür^^i;:iD^n8 nn^x ^>i« 
nyiVDiNii pa yoii^D n ij# t:^j{$n ^yiü^Efcjp "iyn:y:i^-itD-ü:yY 
jyn^>^ Di^ii ^lyo^t^p ^vn^ |y:i^nyö iv r.5f»n p« ^kü^skp 
jyty>üD^^SD^35i:p Din D3yis:^D:y Di^^i pT Dyi p« o^j ts^xrj 
yD^yii "lyDJi« ,iyijyDiJ^^t< p« "iy-ii# »yvpnj^is pa Di» 
-»n Dij;i .in iy:int^i oyi lyat^n d^j |i#p tD^ya ii£ iyn^>^ o^ 
|yjnnDfc$i iv dik n^nDi^t^ » px ü'?v: ]vn'>''? ^^ik ^n ün^^ 
iv tD^yj lyn^^^Djy n^ix nyn^ ; iyD>jQiyi»3 y^yn^im:^« 
tD^j lyj^n Di^ii ,iyD:yvnJ^is ^v lyiJ^ pyijyiiK^ibtD yo^n 
yj^^^P ,5'y^aK'^u div ,mi ,iyi::yrni^-i2 yij^^Do^^bit^^BKP p^p 
-^i^: lyj^n yD!?yii ,.ii .t» .« ,n"l^^?>o-'»>yn ,nytD^ü:yr^«-iiy 
pK ; |yD^:2iyi;si3-D:j^>vpni^"i3 v^v^'t P2 nyvn^D n r^» 
^jytDiiyvni^ns yi^^^DD^^fc^tD^siiip n^^t^ dj^t y\ t:n>!^fc?a ^^^:y 
^n T» ,25§Di:^Dfc$o nv2'"'?p 5$t8 ^iv,« y^^ Tjt^j lyinysi^ yD^yii 
.iyD:yv'ni^n2 yi^yrDDy^r^n-p^^s-^n ^y öjyni^j lym 
,^8D^35$? iynjyaj?iD-D:yv^i3 Dy^^^t^nyD:^K ol^^^ üt^i 
•D^^sü^E^p Dyn pN üjyj^y^y nyronj s t^« iy ^y^cMi vi« 
lEiK Dii^^n t^K ,^^*tD^5^P"nyny3*iKii pD ,y^vpni^n5 Dn» jysr^D 
T^s Dy .«ai: ^5<D^iiij<p lyrrt^-i oyi pD nytopsij?;^ nyi o^j 
,tDpnni iy yD^yn ny^ji« fyijytoj^'oiK yDiyi^yifcüD n in^n 
oyi pD iytDPi$is3 nyt:iy-ijynfc?2 "iyv:^3 px lyi ^-^^^i^i^ö pK 
i5>^2N nj<!ony-iP DyT d^o lyDQyt^^y: dih^d i^x ün^»'? D^n 
-•»^^p 8 D78 ünviD tD:^ip ti'jyo lyD^n p>p do [yn ,y^ys p« 
nyn tD^o li^Dy^ ot^n Dny^i ,"iy^n:yn k nyii^ Djyvnijins nyj 
pK iDD^^btü^sisP s pD y^vp:iD n lyp^siy Dy^^ ny t» ,:ji:2i^n 
nyii? nnyo -^nn lynyDymsts ^»to^s^p lytonj^sy:; Dyn Dyii 
» D^8 tDnyip D3np ny .tD^^m^s ^yü^nj^v^no*.« nyr:yn 
^:vt:^ 8 Di^n »iJiüüt^DiH "lyi t:« .DD^^-i^D^Eötp ly^y^vjyöJ^a 
K^^n-ücy^^y: 8 px D^^prnyQ ,y^:inyjy t2^o ni^: ,D^t33^n jnj^ 
-ji«i"i»n p-iüiD^ tDnyii ,öD^^fc5ü^Ei?p s lyiy^i Dnj^t nr» \4i> 
,DyDD^D iyti'^DD>^j§D^E8P cyT pD lyan^^üiKD n po öny"» 



265 D;?ty'töDÖtJl2'B»pl»fB 

diu; iv'K'^tDD^pjjiD^sb'p d;/i ivdjik ü'^^i^ViBi^ '):y: Vj^i 
,y>o r^i5 D;):^nn D^^-^a^^^yo y:ni^i n t^'DJ^D .y^:^pni<ns 
iy^.^-"ip:j^p iJjf ly^^in ys^yii ,iyüD>-i^DJ5<i^kX y:ytrr.«i'!yrD>j 
M üny3M"*.82 ,iyüD^^^o^5{<p yj^yvr"'« yijyi^DD^ipy ^i to^^ 
•ij!3 pn DyD^nn^^D ,i<:>u ^i$D^2i?p pa ny^onpy zvi t'^ 
lyücyip y^^j y'?^ ly^np ^:^ Dn*-« i»d '^''?:vü ü3^^ n« ^jyi 
|y:3>>:ny i^ nnj^ .D^^ü^^yry: nyi pa lyo^^si' yr-.n^j n pa 
nn^K ü'\2v: ")yü?«-pyD"'a px y^-"-? yc^^^Motip n ü«n 121« 
»inK ;>ijyp^.p D^: ,p^?^*2 pD mno ytDcyn n p,D y^^-i^ny* 
n pE "lyr^K lyiiy: t^x di^i p« .D^toD^n nyis^ Din^ ,"^:fci;D5^• 
nytDDns pa D2fc$'^"iyn n lyrüDya^n p« 'pvü'o ycDroDMi 
nnyo oi^n .DDfeüD yc'^D-i^p-^yoM« n lypmiyDJiK pN d^d 
I^D lyji^Tiys yo:yrQ}^i3 iyi>^^o^D8 if^p ü^'?p "ly-ijy^-iyn 8 
pn T^K lyD^^inyaya p.« ly^DDyo r^5<,Dfe??p lyoK^-iyn^^a 8 

PK ^ko>£5nP iyT:y2}^"iD-Djyv5^'n2 p2 ^jiDiüi-ij^D n D^: 
-:i^ nyi r^« :i:^iyp"iy:j$ y:yDi^ i^n ,D-iyp-i^*2 ,^i^: ,p^f:y;^8 

.cyoD^D-Dnynp Dyj"iyii>*^ nvi p2 3:^-^ 
nK^^ iy;y3 Dy^vpfc<yi yD^yri< ly:^^ d^j i;?T lyiyn n>D 
,vi^« PD D^^^ yani^ n iy^^'^$<3 1:^ DDny; \v2i^n Di;^^i ,^ny3 
nyn p« D:^^n^D p« 1350 px) iyn820i^^-Dj:r.^jyn n m) 
-ys PK 1479 p« PK 14C0 PK ^lyDys;^ pK ,yyt:jKp t5':KiD 
*^n Dy^vpytyn yjMt^i n .(ly^^so^K pk ,i?:Ki^5!5D pK K^r-'m 
-••K n lyr^v ^n Di^^^ »i^anyi ^^^syrtos^n m^npnyo lyj 
ly^r^Kii yona ü^ynji^in^D yD^y^i ,yD3^:ry3 nyi pa y^^{>n 
üM^ .ü^^siy lyiy^i ^n "»i^ ^yrj^ ^n» »r^ny^y: ly^n pK 

'ü'^iV'^P n tyjy^i o^: i^i n^o |y-iyi "^^ik .ly-nKDOJjj^ n iv 1007? 
IHK'j'n nni? p-'f'-iyn^yc'D vn .*n ni lyc^^yo pD DyneiD:K2 
lytDl? ps: i^^'ijnyvint^^ lytovy^ pK Iyn^^^'^ yD?yn ,iJ>*pDn3 
y^OK^Pi^ttsDni? vz'''?::v n iy>^i25<3 iv D^iKr.sy: ü-iyi:innnj^* 
6Dyi:n3y3 ,ü^yjn^E5?3 ld^o p:eJ2-i:5!:^ k "qnn ^nyaiK^ pa 



PK fciiijy: n« :nyjyii p« lyii^^iy: Dy-rn^yj w^'^t y^^yii 
lyn 11D lyj^tD'^Djy |yrn ,D"iyiJimni^^ lyDlS p.« iyDl2 üvi 
,^y"i:^n lyom: oyi pc px nyai^p-D^ Pd D^^pjnjyriD^i: 
lyn pD ly^nsöin iv ^n ,in^« d^o iyijnifc?3 lyiiyj f« dj^i^ 
•ü^y: Dyi pK y^^i>*£t^jj^o lyi pa p« ^nyD^Nii p.£ D2{$:^>iyn 
ys^yii jypjsn y n ^ a y j i^ n n dj^i dp^üe: nyn .t:Dy:j^y; 
,|yp>^3i2yi-oii^Dtj' y:nj^i n px lyn^^iiya Dyi:njy;i lyrn 
•"iD^tDD:^« pn yo-ii^2 n lyoi^yajj^ ld^^^ nyzi^yr lyi ^^ jynj^n 
-yi üi^n Di?i§DK^ lyn inii ,Dny"ip lyj^^Ds^tJ^^yty: isd oy^-^ 
pa ytD2J^pr^K y:^ü2:ipiv pc pnti'n oyi n^N D^y: lyn^^ 
yD^yii ,ny^i:yn n dj^ii ,Dy"i •^jin "^n Vi^v'?P^v ,iyiy^^D5^ 
->Di^-is iy^iy:i lyj^n ,tDyn:n:iy:i \v\:i^^^^v^v:i yrns [yni^n 
t)p:iQ lyj^n ^n pK ,|yDfe!;fe?D5i' y:ini^-i n pa jyji^nyö yD:y: 
VT Ml d5§5§o:j^ ny^n ly^naxn i^k Dn^Dy-iyD:^Kij$D lyiiy: >it8 
nyi ^ px lyiyDiKii n pa. iyDjy^?i^i£ vy)n n pa p^^s 
Dyi nyn^K ^i^iDJi^P ly^n lypi^DSi^isa i^^ d>^v lyn^yr 
i^i^ P3yn„ Dyn DJi^^sy: ü^n lyo |yii ,nynnyi .Nai:i D^i^to:^ 
tyrn iyp:^3„ : oi^i Dvyry^D^« lyn^^t^ n lyni^n /'i:^^j:y 
lyTüD^py lypj^n Vi2vr\^'?2 »oy^viD^DDr« y5^>:b*p^^:2ißyi 
üi^n lyni^ .nnc^n j^k D^iiyDOo^ ,K^:iy:i ,2ny:y^i i^« 
PK nynj^ ^^npjt§ia pK p:fc$n $§ pa ü')vr]v:i \V'\^ '■W'^'ov 

''? iy>j»2*^ 
p:»2 nyi mi dp:^2 ,1609 pk Dsniyt^Dt)» pa PJj^n nyi 
nyi pK y^j^ay p^p Djy^^^ifj^n too o^n ,1619 px ;nnüi?n pa 
]vw:i T^K Di^i .DyDD^D-Dnyip Dy:nyni>*o nv\ pa :Ji^PM^Djy 
DDu^^o n .o^y: iyr^^:^nj$ nsa »lyonisayi i^a p:fe?n » tm^2 
M^ inyo JD^: lyny: lyrn iyny:yjD>n^* Di^n pj«2 lyn dj^ii 
-i^n PK ,"iy2^n PK "1^1^*3 lyür^^y^j^nfe? oyi ii<2 oy^vj^D^ip 
^n lyn^n dj^ti n pa lyD-i^rDia nvi D^a tm^i Dn^^ipn^v lyn 
'V^P "ly^y^^^-lyüi^p nyn ^n tDi^n n:i?S^n pK lyni^ 4y:>N;-ipi;i 
-:Kn cyi d^o iyot§Tiv D^yp^iDjy Day^yrD^yj D}<n pk dh 
^8D>BSP nyi:yji;inD-t:jyvi^ns nyi pK »niDpyauso pk ^y-i 



267 Dyir^aD''7»e'BKpi^jD 

pt< .lyosrtojyvi^is vanyi^j n pK ikjij^t lyT^r.yiD'-'nj? "^n 
jyii^iiy: tD35§"iDfe$n "i:fe?^j^n t^k tD-)y-i:imni;^> lyol? Dyi p« 
>n topjis ,3:i^pMiü:y 'iyK'^Di^:i>*py pd nj^^-ny^D-io » ü'?ü 
lytj'ni^-D^j? "lyi ps ^i#3i^:i;?D lyn .üv^k oifr t^« i:s^a:y 
-ya iJi?5> Dyjy^ p« r^« ,tD^^poni^ piMx t:y-i:n:yi ,^nyDiKn 

.tDDMiy:i Dy:ya>^« in^x pö iy^8& 
üT>^^i Diyn:in"ini^^ lyDlS |yv:»j Dyn p2 Pi^^-iöts pN 
-ya 8 üiyii^D \vd pn ^y^ssj'^u s d^s njs^j^n ^in« li^ \vo 
2:)2Vi'üV''iV:i PK) iyt5j§rD3yvi;^i2 ps ::ny:y^pn{$2 y:y:ji«ii^ 
-fcüa IV pi< (aj^o^n lyrti^i lyi px |yii;?^iy:j OTi^Dy^Din pk 
lyDii^mytDJi« pn IV ^SD^ssp iy-;:y:ii#"'itD-t:jyvi^i2 oyi |yD 
n Di^D^:i^ ,^8tD^s8p ly^ynoDnr« px iy^y>viyDi;?p üvi 
.iD-i>üDMpy p$i t^3 lyni^n Dt^ii lyD^JD^ym^iD ytaiypisa 
y:ni^T n ,^nyDiNii iy;iyj ^csp lyij'^o-nDi:^ iy;nip ivi 
-jiK pn ^j^T ^»D^ssp "iyi:y:iJ^-itD-D:yvi^is nyi Dt^i ::ny-it^Q 
ny:i^TJfc^ "lyi rn^n t^k ,^8D^28P ly^ynDonj^x div lyöii^inyo 
-"»i: ypTi^i n |y-i>^28Dy v:i^v'\'\ ^ly^^ny-inD^i« ytj'^jjimi^ n pD 
Dyn p« y^vpni^"i3 "lytj^^tDD^^^ö^ESP ps iya:^:jn>?n-ii^D yra 
Dyn py^i» D^n p^K ps o^y: oyD^y^i ,DyDD^D"p:fc$n Dyjiyit^D 
-:^i) oy Di^ii Dyi "nv.i ^{§D^E^p-iynyDi«T) oyi pD ^i>*2J^:i^ 
pfe? pns ^n 021^!;^) pK ly^nyil/ro^'y: yri^^> n üinDjyv 
'i$ü üvi ö^^T "iyiyi:8 nn pa Dvy:yi;fi§i iin ,p")^-ü^y;) Dyn 
pD iJiDs^^'sn "iy-i l"in kdu jy^Küyo yiy^^D n p2 ^i#3i#: 

.D^yronynp 
-»nt^ y^yo^ii^D pn tDa:»5'j<33i^ ü^)) ,DyDD^D-p:M di^t 
-"»"iiD:y p« nyüD3^^tDD:>p -lyn t^k ,::n>T^^t^"it3:yv p« y^vsr^: 

-i#-l2 IDIS iytJ^^üD^^{<ü^2{<P Dyi P2 DPHI^IS lyoD^y? 

-ya üpmyjDM« 1697 pk piB' t^k'd di^i^ ,t:p82 » ,V''^:>'r. 
n iDiy5'p"iy Dt^n .ü^^v iy:y' pD "qu 8 p« lyni^^^ 
.pjy3„ >i M) y^v^iD^oDr« «rs ps üdso yan^s^iy: 



PD yonj^D n Di#n pj»2 "lyi ."»n iv ivdjüq t^t^ vmu^ n p5< 
-jjnö PD aJi^j^^Dii^D lyi pQ p« ynyo^j^HDu iy^5<D-iynoiK 

D^Li#"i5 nyD^^D^jK^Din lyn i» »inyryj lyn^^n i^o .yoni^s 
Dy:^yv:>^« lyiy^ PD lyitjt ,DD>^fci;D>3i<:p Dy:^yvr^« ayi pn 
Di;fiii ,D^nni§-Di^Diya>« nyi pD d^j Do^Dti'^a üiyn ,^^t:^Efc$p 
ny^j^a lyn pD li^J ,DK^"iyiv "nn i{$d üoy: ^«tD^B$<p iviv 
iyDi:y:pyii» toiyii 0^11 ,D^uife5-Di^D-iyn^N pD ^yo^Dj^iip 
"8P nyj^yvr^« nyiy> lys^yii pa ,^st:>5^p jyv:»: Dyn pD 
"fcüP lyv:»: nyi pa '?>'<ü k D>i$ ijyn^ivi s DDipiiin ^j^d^b. 
Dnyii ^SD^SKP pD lyDpönsa ny^i$>vi^D lyrrt^i lyi .^^d^s 
"^i^D lyi *nnn toD^^pn^nsa injyotj^^i^s. p« DPifc^tD^^^ii?-] 
pö .DyüD''D-Dnyip p« p:»n oyi ps j:i^p>Tiüjy lynjytDij^ 
nöiQ 'i^^jyo D3i$D ny »nyü^ni -^i^j ny Dny: D^n lyD^m^f nyi 
|yvi:i»n ix iytDD>^sD''S»p y^y^vnyo^p p« y^ynDonj^N n 
">BKP ,iy^y^vjyDi#3 n^ji^r nnt^ ,iyD>ni iyx:s: nyi 0^0 -^n 
IVDPK D>: t^K "ly ni D^Mi ^u» ?iMK »Ds^^^yry: lyi pa ^üid 
->i"iny:i lyi do px n^^tsny-ip lyi do dj^ ^it» ,D:i^^^y;:^n8 
nynt? "iyD>D:y3>>« yint^ii yrn lym ^»to^ssp t$Tfc$ pD lyD 
PD nyöpsnsD lyD^siins nvi ßi? üss?«?' oijsi .|yt3jyxnj#"i2 
-KP pD ajiastrsi? n oy öp^d ,^y^£. mt» n^i« ,px ^i§D^s»p 
n D"iyii DyüD^D-pj»n cyi pa «n^^n nyi d^d .«au ^j^tD^sa 
«t o^öi ,iDay^y3 ny^y^vyso s d^s ^ötD^setP pa i:i^>>ünss. 
-KP ytDKima pa D:yn n pa lyDi^y^D^n» ,y^vpjia y^K^x^'D 
Diyii ö^^v lya^yr nyi iv nyni? .DiyiyDiN^ii pN lyDD^^jjt'ü^a 

PK 5yö^D yDDOKTpT'11 Di;itn DyDD^D'Dny^P PK -pJKn D^n 

"■•^K ynn^K pa lyD^^ii y^vpnt^na ys^^^toD^^KO^aKP n lyn^nD 
jytojyDntDD:^K yüoa^DDyo n pa lyr^K pK ,iyvy:y"iJ v^v^i 
ü^D ,DyDD^D-p:KD D^i pnyo ^t^j .^yim^ pK lyonnp pa 
iy-ijyi^^ip-i^x pa ly^ij^a y^yi^-ttj^iKa D>nK dti^^ oy di^ii nyi 
l'noK nyn pK t^k D^'ya d^i ,DT^MiKn ,ü^y: üNtDt^':K ü'<iv''>p 
"PK^sa ly^K^vi^D Dyn pa pmo^iK ly^'y^vyßo k '\i inyo 00 



nvjnijtn lyi oi^i nts ,iVDpni?i9 v^n^'i^ p« D^^m» t^2 "ivo 
">nn:>K pD iviJ^n Dxn pd i^^triVD:!« pn p« ,"iyüpfc?n5<3 
Ivt^MiDMis v'?^2^ lya^^'ijy p« ^n no ,y>vpn{#-is iv^yn 
.nmnD yiyiJS d^d d^^t ^^n D^n nnino yD^^o^Djyr^N I^ d^» 
cytoD^D-Dnynp dj^t tj^ ,^yD^Miv "lyoM« oy Vi< ,D:yt:^y^ 
ti^i^-i^L p« (""lyi^y?,,) :öi^r>n "lyrtsayo » d^« lyjyn üv)S 
-1^13 018 lyiJ'^oD^^feito^sttp Dyi p2 3:5§nyn^« üyi pa 
; DS»*^nyD"'^n"i5§ "iyDrj^>t<-i5<s 8 Pd y^^pn^i^nB t? iv V''£:>'n 
-m: yiyi:» d>d ::n:u"i82 px ojyoy^y p^x d^s v)'?2 '^viifi 
.«Dia y^vpnj^-iB D-ii< nvi px oy^^^i^i^iiy"! ya^^j^ni;? yo 
-D:yvi^i2 pi? ^«D^5j<p-^yi:5<n oi^i jnyty; lynt^n i^d 
.^8D^£5$P ps. lyD-ij^'D yoDD^y n iy:^n >5§d^5^p "iyi:y3i^"^,D 
-fe§3 üiyiT a:8DoiK lyD^^jnyiiya oyi p« tj? ,'n^^"i^öfc§j t^« oy 
"lyi D^3 ^fc<tD>5{<p PS. yoij^c ytDDrn px tDsnn n d^» odkiü 
.^i?D^2fc?p "lyi^yai^iD-DjyvJ^iB lyi ifc?: ,^j<ü^58p-D^yi:e:n 
tD^^proyo n ro^yp t^x ^'j^o^E^p-D^yu^n ps ^j^d Dyi px 
D^öt DDfcintDj§3 oiyi^ n ^:^ or^KV^öi ,|j5!:-iyLj'Miv t? p.2 
iJ^D Dyn p« '"lyai^t ."^yit "lyi:^?:» nyii^ o^uns ,^yi:Mi5J' 
-ii$2-tDD3^yr n ü'W)) ^8ü^35§p iyijy:i?iD-tDjyvi^-i3 P^d 
iDiyirnnyo ps ayiS^üu^j^n n pN ony^i pD ::nyDy-ij 
.iyD2{<^:yr^x yjyni^msD ,Vü'>''r\v2 o^o o^yanyjo'ns 
-i^3 n 113. ^'>'>ü 8 i^"'B« Di^ii ,t}p8D Dyi Diy^piy Dl#t 
-j^« i«n ,"iyi:y^ n p« D-iyi:n83 ,iyüD^oj^ji^py yr^ö^!^ 
,iD^ypMiD:y rijyDtr^i^D ö^: ^t^J t^n 5>8ü>b^p ly^ynoon 
nfe§D ^fc$D>38p |yn:y:»^-itD-Djyvi^"i3 lyo^sn ,"n^np:»i3 px ni 
"i"iy iyüD5?nü8n p« ^^^d^b^p iib yonj^B ly^eitojyosnJiB nyi 
KT8 pB yoii^B yoi^v^Bniiito 8 D^t? r>i^3 ,'?V'B\i^'"2 mv ,yD:yi 
;:nyi>>:iv yL^orjyii:^« n Diyii jbik oyi n^i« .^'öid^bsp 
-D^D lyv:^:: p« y^vpni^-iB oi» lyK^^tDD^^öiD^EbtP "lyi pb 
tDp:iB ,12^'? 18 ,t3p8B Dyi lyvj»: pK DP1P-18B jyD ,iy:80'jn8B 
-•E8P Dyn (iya:nn8B) lyn-i^ya tm^d üiyii »^»d^ösp mi mts 
-pnt#-i3 n |yn^>> ^^k ,T^"i'ök^ »I^? ivo .öd^^ko 
.lo^'ya ü«ük^:k ,."11 .TK .K üvi^'^v: »lyo^srsc mi ,^yü'D-o:i#^v 



oyi ^^1« ii?: /n ^mk Djyvi^iQ li^J d^: jy^ni^^ pn»i |yo 
•ysD n ,ü"iyir^^n3y: ly^n ny^^^v t^k Dt;?i n« tDoi^ietD-ru 
-8p pa |yü:yoy^y y:in{^T n 112 yant^a yD^5>i>D^j ,y:^^s^x 
^^ ,T>K ^fe$D lyrii^i Dyn p« "^i^t vi^v'^'^^o^v n .^kd>3 
üJ^^oyi tD^j^ii ü^)) ,]Vü:v'a^i^iB Wi^^v^i'! n iv ^>r dh^^^» lyo 
,y^vpnt#i3 015$ lyK^^toD^^fc^ü^sfeüP oyn pa tD>\n:yTyii38 n 
^v nyii^ ,1^2 DQip Di<n 1N11 yiyao nyi px iyt:Dr:yn D8 
D"iyii Dt^n »jyDD^^siD^asP y^ynoonrN n iv ^n on^^^ lyo 
t)"iK lyK^^DD^^feütD^s^P Dyn lyDJi« '^8T■•^Jna 8 d^k iyoi:y::jji 
"j^ns ti^^rr px i:yDS2D-.x inyo "^i^j i^« oy .y^vpni^is 
^>i« ::it:D«-iD»n nyi^ix pa ^>^d iy:ni#i Dyi p« Iysy^t^'^^f 
-yn^irn:^« üyn isa »lyD^Mi ^n^ p« »nyr^^n pa iyn^>^ di^t 
o^yii^iK^^n Diy^i Dfe$^p lyD^uij? lyi dj^i .^Mimeia jy!? 
,yiyn:8 «i^ik ^11 üuy; jy^n^^n oyi ^mn dj^ lyjn^ötii: s PK 
•si^iK li#tDy:i Diy^i d^^-i ly^j^ ;Dp{<a "iyD>^:>^K^:y:^i« 15$ r>i< 
.^ytD^ö-Djyny^ ^n oanp-isa ly^^y^i ,-iy^Tjyn Dyj^^^P nvi pa 
1>K "ii^a ODip üi^)\ ,y^v«D8i^BDpy nsn: lyo^^iv s t^k Di^i 
lyjj'Miv n^^ji'nytDji« lyi .«au Dyvi^na-D^i^j^vpniiJns oyi 
jjitD^n^n p^p ^»a lyrrj^i oyi p« öt^tn iyn^>^ pN lyanpi^a 
d5»8 lyiyii D3^*"iD^3 tD>J li^P PN ^^yoii^a v)'?2 i^« p.« ü^j 
-»2 o>j |yv:s: PN T^« D>j{ii Dy:^*-« pa lyi^^o ,rDD>i^-n:nj 
.Dy^3J^i3 Dyn pa iy::i::ni§n ya^^'pi^i^ n o^d d:kp 



yiyi^^K^i»2 n lyn^D^i^sopy ^y"i:»n ^« ^nya^Nii 'k 
M lyT'pj^DN ni^j ,D^J n lyas^'sn >>t .y^t^pni^ia pa lyoii^a 
IV DIN Dpym lyD^^n^vji^ n Dan ^nya^Ni^ .lyo^m pa 
,^ip»3^: PN ^i^»^5<ai^: jyi^tD^i^SDpy iv >t ^:8öt^^^N pn 
inyo PN nnyo y^vpnj^is ddno pn ivüNiinyojt^P t^n n nya?? 
lyny^ y^vpnj^ia pa iyLD:)yoy^y n nyj^:yii dj^ii .•^>5>:y^p 
lyoip PN nnino d^^ y^vpni^ia pa oyv^^na nvi pn pn« 
pa ^^nst^niN ^v''^ d^in dpip iny^ r^N ,nninD d^n o^n» 
n ^t?"i N nyijyD^HNn dj;?ii .dp» lynyn^itNn N d^n ö^y; 



271 oytt'^fi2D»'74jtö'S,»pi^je 

inyo v$>8 ,y^vpnj#"is ny^^^vi^D nyi pK D^y^st:^ y^vK^m^v 

."•nyD'.^n tDn^^3 

ny Di^i ,^s;D>5^p-"iy-iyDiK^i iv j^v^n p« ,tDr^D ,D*,D3^n po 
iDiyii DitDD^n pD eiTS? .tD^y: p« nmn yrn y^»» ^>i« ü:i#o 
ps yDb*o n inyD Di^n ,inyo r^« D^yp^iiüjy i:»^ lyiy» pK 
üip ,.1^ .T« .« yüDjyn yD^?i^D{$: i3>d ^n ü:yji:ütn y^vpni^ia 

.iytD"iyn"T'^2y2 ü^d ,DD»%n 
ny .wipTii yo^ysi^n ^ ^nysix^^ üJ^n ^y^s ^nt? pinx 
D^n »^3 o^n DiüD^n-D^y: ra:yn2J^o"ii< i» n ü"i>oii^2 ,D:yoK' 
•"ii^D y:^Dnj n iv n t:>:y: ,D:yü>>i^v .Ds^p-^yi:»n nyi ps 
"»ü^yr^K n üi^j^xn n ,dd>m di^i ,d^>2"i5$ pD Iy::i3:n83 
tD"iyn Dnx MT8 .|yD>:2-iyi{<rD:i#^vpnj#n5 yD^s< n p.c. nyo 
pD iyD^:£"iyi8n n pD ::n^>3 "lyi pK ij^topifis lyrtDDyo » n 



K iy3>:?nyaiyn^« iy:>n i:fc$n lyDm nyi ti« lyo^^iiv oyi PQ 
-i^t; yjyi^^t^ife?D 1^^ lyiJ^iiy: lynn^^y; lyj^n Di^i^ »D^nns t^i^^ 
,p^>8 ropnfciio p2 iy"iJ^Tiy:i D^^^ojyDyij^D do lyj^n p« lyo 
^t^: .:i:y; tD^ui^y^o^N ns^s. lyD^'fenny:! to^: >n üj^h "ly ^>mi 
-jyoüiTW D^jy^jy ^mna iJ^ncDjyny^ pn ^n üi$n d^iü pn 
^inyr ü^d av^w lyj^n ^n ni nis DD>>D:y2y-ii$£ px D^ytoK^yj 
5;rTiin n ü^n op^m \V)) t« ,inyT \i^p \vü .iy;jny*i:y vb^:p 
-yDiJ^ivDDyQ ni^j jyjn p« D^ny:! iy Di^n ,iy2nf^y:i ly^D^s^p 
1^ y-iynii^Q pn i^k .p^^5§ •qn i^Q iyp:^iy3 yj^n iy> 
syi ty^iya DH^x 1552 T^5< Dy t^ ,D>y:i:y d:^t i:»3 lyD^Mi^ Dyn 
-»D Dyjyn^^nyiiyn^« Dyn iy>yü5^'WjyD5<nv d^uis yiy^it:' 
-DO'^Dnn Dyi n^s t» ,inyüL^^-i«;2 iv d3^^> t^x oy .^5§nyD 
.nynjya yrtJ^i n |^yDtJ^n^?2 iv nyi^:^ nnyr t^« lyry^ lyD^? 
-y: ni^üpisnyi nyn Di^n lynnyi ,|ynnti^y:i jyj^n ^n mi ^uk 
^M1^f n pD n^von nvi ivw nvi \V2vy i^ -^n n^i« lyaiJ 

.yDiJ^D •)y3^>njyü5J'ifc?a » p« lyijya 

.mniD ^m "qnn ^jüd^söip lyi ony: ,f>r^ \vü'>>)) td ni 
i^L lys^^p D^8 pi^D pK DD^^^D^ssP lyi üj^>tny ^DjytDtj^iy 
,D:yD^ni!^ .üQ^^ip-D^^niK p,N tv^^ny^sto ,r*vya ^nmno 
iiD y^vpn^is nyi i^t? iyifc?8ii yDanpy^r^« n d^n iy dvo 
ytov^^yiDMK n ^"n ,iyinyo oiyn lyj^n dj^ii ,nnmD y^^: 
; lyD^^pifcHQ s d:?» ,p"ii<>: pK pniv ny tDoip ,D:yDm .nnino 
->£55P-D:>y3 Dyi pQ Diyii lyi .tot^ya iy t^np minD pn nj^s 
— D^ya : Dy^vj8tDD yi:3y3>{<;Q n "n-ni taix cyi pi>in ony: ^yiö 
n tDJ;?n lyn« ^^3"iy-r .o^yi — mino — y^vpni^ia — n-nno 

273 



27S ^IP»i»p pe »i>i^T»»i? ir» 

"!}?D Di^n |y>yD5J^ i^o .yci^'-iy n m^ oycyi^ T'« ^'^^^ v^^o 
ür^D ; i«ii ,r\)2'n ^fej'XT d>o y>:>> fc? PiS yan^i^D nyi pJ5 

2': 2-D . . . E . . . 1-D 1-3 

^Miv p« p^K ^n üi^^^o ,miRD — i:>yj :nmD ytDK^ny n 
PD ?^^D p^« ü^D ,D:yD'«^ny .lyanp:^^« lyoij^p y-)yn:n83 
^^p lyD ^üssip-D^^ns n toD^^5<D^s{§P nyi onp o^jy: pn 
.K — : : nin^n-"'6j'K"i n d^o y^r:? nyi pj< ly^yos^ii^D Di^T 
p^K ny '02^ip D^y:i pn pD >>^d ''•yi:» is O'o ,D3yö^ni>^ 
3;^j^> "lyn p« iy:?yD'^nj^D jyo |i^p dj^i ,iy!5D>ö-D3J?>vpni^-i3 

]^« ::oy""in"iyö:ix iö; r« y^vpn^^ns ,n:-no yo^^i^v n 
üD^^etD^EötP nyi lyi^ : t'i^D^öfeitp-D^y: nyn p,D ^m^r^np Dyn 
-i?"i3 v:y-i^^*^ni?L n p^x D2s;-ip-D^^2"iS5 n D3^*.py;r^x dj^h 
"t^i3 nyi px |yv^:D^i« üi^iv ^n ny nie:! jypa^o-D^i^^vpn 
j^K iy:^^{^"iy "lyiMi ii?p ny -yi^^K ,n-iinD ny^^j k pa y^vpn 
uyiiy; ür^^jy^j^^K nMnjj^ pa t^« dj^ii ,^{?:o>28P "lyi .p-iso 
iiD yDiJ>*D nyi px nyt:v^« "^n D^^^y: ,yoi5^3 D>y; nyn px 
.:>8D^s^p lyii^D^pini^ia 
nn üJ^n y^vpnj^ns n lyii ,i^ ^>r Dann nrn^D yom n 
-DJi^^vpni^n3 n d'-d lyo^itriv ü2i!{"-ip-o^ui5< n ,Dn:yy: in2^ 
-yi: 5$ pD m^no y^^: i< px lyiJ^riyj tD?yn:y;rii5$ii lyj^n fy^ü^D 
•lyi p« inMi ^«ü^s^p nyi ^n D:^r:yi lyio:^^« .D-iyii pyD 

.:'^D^3j§p-minD pa yoij^a 
-ijis n D^y"i:ytin«2 ,ü>y: — n-nno : n:"no yovy!? n 
yiDD^^py:r^« n mi ,ü'-\V)) pyoyii fc< L3{>*n Di>Mi ,minD yöi^vn 
•D^jya lyor^w:^^« nyn m^ ,D>y2 yo^D yiyDyn: tt px ,nninD 
pD ysDi^^E lyi pj< "lyiMi tDJ^^tj'iy ^^d>3^*p nyi .^öjü>3{<p 
.^n?T^np ^v^^'^v "lyn in Djn:y ü^onyi ,^{s*D^2xp-D>y3 
üT^Mi 10 ,iyv:w PK ti^i^T^np oyn o^^iDüfn "in>N |yn 
.DOia?3 yjyi^^K'nsD '^m \:ir\vi 'p^ü'b^i? nyn r» »om» -^n 
,>»tD^Bfe$p-D:'y: pD yoii?3 nyi pK ly or^r^^iy oK^ny 
-"»B*<P lyM^DpiiJjiTS p2 yDii^*3 lyi px ii>*:iyT 
,:>8tD^Bt<p-nninD ps yonj^a nyn px nyiMi ,> e: d 
ü^eiDtJ'yj nyoii'ny pn w nynni d*,^ ^n iy üiyp tDvy:^iv p« 
^i^ iDoyD Di^ii ,:>^33 ^'fcs'D^ö^p Dyi .^ s u ^ 3 ^5p - ö > y j pa 
iyoi^j Dyn d>d dpij^d Djy^^-'vjitn ,|yon>it2 yjyn^^c'isD oyn 

.r'StD^BöiP "lyt^y^nnDin^^« 



^»tt<B??p Dt$i 274 

.ir; üt'y: vdid yiVDy-ia s lyii^^iy: vvi v: ü'?v} vü)d viv: 
n»np Dyn pD Dxy nyK^^DD^i'j^D^Bb'P nyi onyD^i'fcjn Dyn p« 

ü^ng^-iy ny Di#11 Di#T .^JÖID^SSP jy^ynDDH^K Dyi pa P1M> 

•-o^^jyo n DH^« ü^j; o^ya pa yo-iJ^2 nyn pK lyiMi ^iid div 
'«a TD tyi^ .D^^JiJ^: yn^yt n ly^Mmvji^ Dy^o-K""iyn^i< o^^*? 
"i^^ ,>»tD^S8p ly^ynDDnr« nvi ps lyon^Q n i^: ly^DsiD 
ot'yöJ^'yni^D ;ijiayii83 pn ii^p id ,Dm: n d^^t » |i# rnjyr 
"»K'Kn D-io piji> lynjyj^i^Q iyi ps vü^^q nyi pK lyiyn 

: nn^n 

i D..2..D :i D..5..D : D..5..D 3 

,VD jyny? ,n'<'?)}'?: yn^n n Dt? pj< p^x ^n lypip "i^d lyii 
/ii#"i » p« ^n nts "n^T tDnym >5<D^Efc?p iy>ynDDn:^N ivi t» 
VT tD'nrn ,ür''K^"iy ny ya^y^i px {yü:?i$tDti'y: n ps yny> — 
^ PD viv^ lyoyjJiit o:yp in>« ,"iy-ini p« nyini moD ny^^x 
-oyj ,nM>T^np oyi pa annji# Dyi n^^a lyo^iüDB^yji y;ni^i 

j;^vpni^ns — mino — - t^t^ya — ■ m^no — y^vpni^ia (1 
.minD — y^vpns^is — nninD — D>ya — n-nno (2 

üvi ö^o anjyrinjj^ ^'^Hü^sstp ly^yn^onr« Dyn pa ::i;y^i 
lyii^ma t3r^?yjj^ni$ t^n >^t:^£!SP"D>y:i lyn ^t'j^o^asp-Dpy) 
,tDa5$"ip-ö^>ni8 p« ly^D^D-Dji^^vpnj^ns pa ti>ip:j^ ayi pN 
IV D1K ,tD:'yDK^y:iE}^ y^^^iinyn y^vfe?:?ipn^v n -^n dj^sh Dyn tinx 
lyas'^yji tst^n y^vpn^n» n ly^i .y^vpni>na "lyn r^^^a jyny: 
ü>y: n ,D>yj tinx ly-ii^i^y: D^f'^^oyaoM« n T'« ,nmnD y>>: j^ 
üvi p« jyii^Tiya Dr^:?yj:^ns nyi^i r>N (panyn ^^^d fc? ly-i«) 
.^1 .8 .« Daiinp-D^''nii5 px ly^ü^D-Djt^^vpn^^is pa. Pinpjj^ 
-ni;^D 'nn Tfo lyjt^p ,T^nP s p« ^n D^yn^n D{>n mi ^ns lyn?^ 
yjyasij'y: n ,y^vpn^-iB nyi d^ö ii^ "qn tonnn oy t» jy^yD^i^' 
-y^D^iK lynMi Diyii o^y; n ,ü:?y: i^a Danpi^a onyii n-nno 
r— öasnp-D^^n-is? PK iyt'tD^D-D:j^^vpni>na — nrnno fi^in lyny:! 
':|>T |y:j^p i^D nyii^ .y^vpnj^na n ii>* nyiMi -^n lon^in oy jix 
'•T ,nTnD iy;nj^a *iyn d^d ii^ "^n Dn^m oy rs ,|y^ytD'^iJ^a 
"-J8 ^^^K ü^MDy:DMK o"iy^i D^'yj >i ,D>yj n^a tDa^^pn^^a toiyn 
^- üafeinp-D^^n-is p« iy>t3>o-DJt#^vpni^ia — m^no yiy-i 
8fD>yn »y^vpnii^is nyi pa lyDJ^nmyDJix tDiyii y^vi$^ipi^v ^-j 
.n-nno ny^>: i$ pa jj^a^^c^ nyi d^d ^n D^njy 
•D"5>J tDß8K^:'y?yi ny-i p« ni#a "^i^t öoip lynox lyn pK 



yi^ioD^-;iLi;o^£^p n üDfei:"iL)82 ivo |yii .n:*nö lyi:»:» p« 
-yi o^^v nyiy^ iv t5< ,d^ik ^n or^ni »lyvjs: pK OESi^^yrvj 
I»"» PB iViV 1MN ^^d^sö:? iyvj«3 nn^K pD >»^d » v^ tora 
onyii DnyiP i*iK pyi:{<n ps nyoD^D oyi "^in .nij^io yrrj;;! 
]n^ ly-T-^ip-i^v IV ?i<tD^2»p lyny^ "ife§2 D^V3^>:yo n lysöiK'y: 
pn |y?yD*^£i^ d^j ^"ist ^'»D^söip-tD^jy; lyi ; i^^^ynsnyo:!« 
y^vpni^"iB n iyr-!:y •^n oyii oy r^2 jyD-istn iv y^VK^^pn^v 
-i^")5 nyT ,n"!^nD yiDi^vni^-is n ly^.y^i DB^ipitüD toyn oy pu 
-y^i {yopni^is yj^n i^n lyoisn d^: ti-.fe!n :>»D^Bfc«p lyivtDpn 
•'M^ lyT'vnijtnE w ii;? tDn^in iy lyi^^« ,iyny^^ üD>*.pn»B |y^ 
D^3 F^nen ,^5§ü^2öip-D:5yi:Kn nni;ii ^^sö^s^p-m^nD nyi ; nyo 
li^ t32^in "ly "lyi^^K |y-i»i^ y^o pc y^vpni^-s n «^m« lytsi»^^ 

.y^vfcf>'*p-'.^v pn in>ii 
iy*^:yo »t^^t'S ü^: ^n D:yii82 ,^^^n^D»: ,^SD>sfc?p lyi 
""»^t^j^^N n .|yüD^^»*j^EfcitP n — ::^iy^i»3 pK dh^n |y:ij»n3 
-j^")S »tJjjD^sj^p-D^ya T^K ?8ü^E8P lyt'ynDon:^« ny-i pc ;:i^ 
-"»s8P"D:^y-i:e:n "lyii^) :'{<D^2ütp-n-i^RD p.x >^*d^£8P lyivDpn 
"SP n pD ::i>>^Dr^K n ij^b pmo^',« -iyi:s it? "ll^!: t^« (^»o 
4;ivtDpnj?-i2 ,(iy"i^p:5<3) lyt^D^t^so^Ebip-tD^yi p« lyDD^^stD^B 
DD^M Di#"i (iyt5:yvn?^"i2 ytt^^oD^^^t^^ESP nyiJ^) lyoD^^sD^ssp 
.(DnniD) iytDD^>8L:^2fci:p-D>yiJ8n px jyüjspnasß. 
y^vs^ipi'v lyi pc ni3"na y:'» n Wü^^ita^^ n^o jy^^ 
.pt^^n tt i«-i^B ^n lyz'Miv t>« oy Tt< ,i*g irny: ^!{<ö>Bfc<p pD 
^ys^jyv. ü^D ,nn^.nD pc y^v^j^ipi^v y3$^2:^^« n t^k !)^>ö p^k 
^yi IV ly^D^pya ty^^'t "i^o nyi^-i^ 1^3 ö:ypt§3 "^n m^ry i^o 
«^^*.K öir^^DyjD^^.K oiy^i r\^)r\o : y^vpnjpa '^rs^^öD^^öü^BKP 
t»>D irr ,mmD »i^^k ö2r«ioyaD^^it nyini tsnyii öJjyj px tD>w 
« ii'iK o^y^^ "iyD>^>j V Dt7^ioy3D^*.>« üiv)) oy ?k ,t^i{ '^a^rr 

n t'K y^'ü nyo^n^v nyn .ty»^PD^n» e»3 ö'-iyii-nnyo p*p ]i^:> 
.onyiinnyo m lycsB^ya o-iyn oy "ly^^yi^ t^« ,y^vpni;?nö 
•r« Dyi pQ yrjii^s v^v^ i^t^j? t^k >5?d^B5<p lyivtjpn^ns irt 
myi:» 'miv n Bt# |y:r^n oy lyDt'yii P2 ,^kü^b»p ly^^ynDon 
.t>80^B8P-iD:'y: nyi p« ^{<iD^ESp-Dt)yn:8n nyi — |yo-)i;:-> 
» PK y^vpni^"iB "iVß^'üD^^sD^BKP lyn pB üöto^nr» ir» 



"m ,a-D ,Diyii ^yii/Dyn; iyDpetny;iD^iK r^« ,1-d ,nninD 
»üiyii nyD:^^>y;i:^n» iyi "»k .Diyir-inya lyi t^k opkiikiv 
nyn p« yi^^n y^^^nyi ^i^j ^n |y:^sy: üiyn-nnyo lyi ^« 

(=^ .nmno pD yoi^ö 
yDn^vni^ns n lya^ipnsi: "lyo^^« ^"i8i dd^^sd^ssp lyn 
ny lyii .y^vpni^na ^^ lyn^in:^^ nn^i ii^p ly nyi^'»« ^m^no 
-j^n{§ ni^T "ly Töi ,ü': dj^i dd^m »ds^^pi^^d iy3{>* vw oy ü^*n 
lyny^on« i{<ip ny .y^vpn^^is n px :ju^>> yv:j$; pn ly;^^^ 
Dyjyr^K pn i^d p2iy-i' :5^^tD » nynj>» ^DiyinnyD lyt^ji?; oyi 
':i"'T «n^i« Drj^nnn^Q ny t^ ^ly^yDti^-ii^Q -^n "i^dj^^ ."q^ransD 
y^^yii i^« ,nninD n iy:?yii D^{^:::)yT .toiyirinyo |yvji$: Dyn 
-D^ifc? Dyii Dpy:i n px D^y: ?i^ik lynyi^ iyDoy;DnN ,Dr^ "ly 
•TV n "^n oyii D^siyi p« ,nmnD pint< ly-T'ii iyiy"ii |yny;iyi 
:tj>MDD>"i« ny3{5D:>"'X j» pn oy^i oy .iyr-i:y, y^vyi^ip 
-y> ,minD lyoi^^^'n^^is lyi pQ ^^^t3 iynyi:{<i lyi .d— ;— d 
-yiT tOkJ'^itDy:D^iK t^i« Dyii ,pp cyi t:-i''tD:yTyn3yi Di^ii "lyj 
IV nn« lynyii lyny^y^onx Dyii üpya n lya?^ ,oi5y: finx lyn 
ynyLs^ni i't^D DDfe?ip-D^u"i5§ p5« iy>tD^a"Djj;?^vpnj^i3 lycnp 

.y^vpni^iB 
iyv:5§:) cyi onx d^j tDD>>»LD^öi$P lyi ü^j "q^^jnyny;) 
jfe? \^ ?^^D 8 py^is lor*':' "ly ij^j »p^t^s ^n ^inx Diyinnyo 
,rL5M: T^« lyn^^ ivnyi .tD£yK^y:i pn lyD^nmvD^^x finx D^n 
nD ,Dm:i yoniy: « DD^nnyn lyn^n >i^T dp5s**.ixiv "lyi t{§ 
-18 "invD iy:i:n v** /lyj^tj'^D y^^: ly^yoti^j^ns ly^^'p >s^t lyo 
iy:yD^^py::i^ lyi iy-i^^« ^t^^nyo^o nnyo jyanpj^"»« ,iyD^^3 
n DD^nnyi dd^^^ld^gnp Dy:t5yvr''X oyi ^^n Di^n üiytrinyo 
ü^n lyLs^^vn^a- .|yD:?8n D^y: n d>d ^n iy n^ ,Dnn: yrt^nj 
t8 jiD yoii^a lyn p« nyiin^n ly-iny^ •»^n jyn^^pyj di^t "^n 
üD^c^t^yty; lyti'^üD^^^ti^Et^p nytopypmo^y I8 px .nvij? 
tDiyii lytoii^i .p:^n pn p« pn» dd^^'^d^e^p "lyi dj^i ü35^-it3 
ly^^yi^ ,^8D^28P'D:?y: 8 lyoiSi-v otonj^syi yD^yr» y;^ pa 
•J1K y^^i ^i^^fc^ iyDD^>8D^2t?p yny-ij« ps jyiy^i dvi:83 jj^p 
\jT^:^2 tDnyir-inyo lyi üiyii iii.'i« Dyn n^x .fy^JvijyjiyD 
wn ,y^vpni<n3 y*^^t:D^>8o^28P yvj^i n lyü^nn^von« ^n« 



,yö"^HB lya^'jjroenö i« r« typmDMH omi j:?;^? tq (* 



Dn:yDiy ?>D3 d^>p lys^'^üD^^^sD^ssip "lyn t^o nyo^Mi 
-{5D yjiyDyn;inyiD lyc^ip iv sinx ly^j^D^ss^p y>^j lyj'^irns 
•:j>T ü3^^?? Di^n »Diyimnyo lyn Djy>T i^'.k ^.vnyn .>*iyj''i>» 

.lypjsn n px m 
'^2 D'iy^nnyo iy:y3^^py::J? *iyi üj^ üivti cyi rn i? 
-i#i3 yLj'>üD>^5§ü^sfc?p n ly^i i>^dj? »iJj^D-ir.yiyi s d^js* dvi: 
jiD pi^-spiiitE nyi T^ ,i:Qyiü oy .tD^^"i3y:DnN j:^: D-iyn y^vpn 
»•^^pjnyTiy: >ii lyj:^^:' -^n on^vissi mino -iyDi"'5fnJ^"is "ly: 
-D^c'DJi^^vpni^iB n p2 lyr^ns n T8 ^lysyiD |j>*p oy "iyii<5 
nnyo |yny:iDns< fi",en D:j*'?ötD'E»p nyi pK jyj^DC'yj iy:^n iy> 
pn nsD iy:'O^D-D:{^>vpni^ns vrtD'i: n lys^^pi^:*^« 5i*ij< Dpya 
n PK iy30py::i;ji ^^t öJ#n dj^ii ,Diyu"inyo nyi tDi^ .pn3{<2 

.y^^fgripn^x lyi ]•»« •78D''s»p J1D ::T7'»''Dr''« ^i .11 

lytD'^ny) y^vpnn^ns yK^^tDD^>{§t3^3ötP n :n:yDDet")ü83 p« 
-j y D K^ 8 n p« :'i!$D^sötP cyi D^j^^Dyjj^-K dp"ij§d Di>*rT ,(^n 
-"iKD p.K ^fe§D^5ö:p (lyöJöttDDJi^p) lya^i 
"lyT .r'fc^ü^ssP (ly^^N^iKn) jys^MyTjy 
:y^vpni^-is pD ly^t^^o n jyrn oi^n — >fc<D^2»p ^yr^:yDi^•S2 
D^: DDPöiii Diyii ly^n ; nyrij'i?^ px lyi^^ny; ,iy^8nyt:»o 
,ü^«t::i^ya yD^^^ysiyp p>T ij*?: D-iy"i:y "ly ,y^vpni^ns "lyi px 
|y:s^"iDynyn^K iyv:{<::^K Diy^i iy ,ü:yiv^> Diy^i Dpt^^a pc 
jyj^M Di^i — ?$<'j>28P nyD^>iyi:y-ii?D lyn .m^no n n^-it« 
-D''"»2"is "lyi PD ü-iyii "in "lyn^^ ,"iyö^^n"iK n piD nn^^ij' n 
y^vpnj^*i2 lyi i^k t:vi:y:DMK üiyii ü2S"ip-D^^n"i5< n .üem-iP 
-»^K in^N Ml ivovi} T^x "lys^yn ,tDiyn Dy^: fc? ö£fc;iy n iin 
üVi p« üiyii Dy^o cyi lytrniv nynysn n .üiyn ''.y:yj 
'ir]]n iy-T r^« ücfeü-ip-D^^nn» ^VDV'i:y;DMK nyi p2 oiyn 
-i<P iyD:^''^y3r"'*t< Dyn pc ^^^ü d y -i pd Diyii lyi .^nyi^ 
.[yopKiiya t^k ly ,tDiyn:yn»s ^n ü{>*n ^Jit:'Q 
j^D y^v{<>ipi^v n lyoDj^iütJn ^v *iyüv^N jyoip "1^0 lyi^ 
oyi D-np lyoyj tio .3:if»>"'tDr^K y^^j 8 n^c lyrcya ,!='nu^5n*p 
"iidd:^« n lyrn psnyi ^>^o p-"« .^titö^Es^p tyri:yoK^K3 
8 üvi:y;3 lynyii ^n .nyrij'xo n ,y^vpn^nQ pD fyojw» 
-ni#"iD n tiv« iy:ii^nt:y:j>nfe< iD-,yi^ onyi^ ly^n ,ü^^v vnv:;«^ 



*?{JQ>2KP 0|Jt 278 

'ViB4 lynyii »n ni :»y^Q mt» «imk ,T^Mi3y>D^3 mino pötv 
($ 3M« .lyDis^iD^n» iyv:e;jj>K ^n na jyo lyjjini t^d ,idvo 
K "lijti onyii ,"inij{> inyv ^nyoiss "lyn px lyjyn iJ;?p pa^so 
|y30-iny* nyn n^x |y:j#-iDyjiy3ns Diy^i nn^x ps p>n-D:ny^ 
n |yii ,iyoi»D Dyi iv pniv odip p« lyi^jyD n po opni^iB 
-iSD lya^^^n ?yD3nyv p^: yiyi:» n .üempisd ü-w)) nio^n 
AV^r\i^' nynnyo «^i^ik ^öiö^sfe^p iy;njyD:5'8n Dyn p« jyuu 

.> 8 D ^ E 8 P - 1 y D p ^ D lyi T>N DijJT 

•ipö »tspni^Tß üyn p« pns lyny: di^ii ,iy^8nyt:8D n 
ü^Q T^K ya:>yTDi^T .onyii iyv:83 ny^>r dh^« ?imk nyn^« ly: 
ö^j lynyi Di^ii ^iiiDD^^^Ji^n aVp^^p ni ,iy>D>D-fi>>n yD^yis 
^n : |yi^Dn8!:.D^i8 dh^n w^i'pvn lyni^ ,Dpni?"i5 oyi px pn» 
.nnino yon^vni?-iB n ^'»i« oiyn |y!^:8;i ly^n -ly^n» iy:i^-iD 
-ytDKD n pD Diyii nyi ddip ^ür^ipn^D üiyn nnino n lyn 
Dyi ^v pmv iyv:w p« >yD^o-5i:'>n yöinyvisD px iy>8n 

01V pniv "i^iK iDoip ^8D''28P lyD^^iyi^yi^D lyvjs: nyi 
nyn : nnino lyoi^vm^is nyi ps Diyii nyn px dd^^'Sü^bkp 
n ,.n .T ,t)D8np-o^>nn8 lyt^voy^D^« lyi pD ünyii nyv:»; 
n^vni;?nB""»^: nyi pö r^^^D » tsy-i^^n ,iyD^^2i8 n pD nn^3^ 
PD Diyii üvi PK DD^i'8t:>£8P D1V pniv üDip tiK ü^yii lyD 

.mino iyt3D^ipi8D lyn 
-i^ns T^K Dt;?ii ,f8tD^58p iyinjyD^'82 oyn ps >^>t3 nyi 
•ü^D-n^\i p« iy>8nyD8D ytDV^:y:D^iK n px jyii^iiya ür^^ya 
nyi wy't ,:?5$tD^E8p iy3^:'nyi:y-i8E. cn ü^d Dy:>^N p« ,iy> 
,>8D>B8P ny-t:ynoipi^v iy-ii>* n y a ^ d ^ > d 
^lypiyn^x oyi px ivdp^b cy-r pD nypiyn^x Dyn ]vt^>m 
.nj^o-«pc: yrtoD^r. » ixi^s vi< ^^tD^sxP lyro^^Q oyi ps 
y^vpn^ns n px D^^^y^^^nx üiv'i'i >8t2^B8P nyro^^D lyi 
,tDrD*i82y:D>iK Diyii Dpnj>*n2 nyi r^n ,ü^^!^ yvnip x tin« 
-18D ts^^^•^ DD^^8to^E8P nyi |yii jyvjx: px pniv to'oip iy pjc 
-j^n» nyi>ii "i>^n lütn i^^p ny .minD y^-i^vn^^ns n tDB^i? 
-:>n8 üiyn :'8t:'28p-iyDp''C nyn .y^v^^ipn^v n px lyöyiD 
tjMK ü^: pmv DD1P Diyn pn px d^^v y::^!' 8 ^nx or^^y: 
-i^nx ü^j |y:t>»p D^p^n yrrt^n n .o^p^n yr^^p px ij^: ,^}^jj{ 
-y:iBj?j iyv3X3 nyn tyxoi t>3 ^y^v^i'ipn^v px nyn>ii lyöyiD 
t:Di>*P p6^'x♦^ x ,^tt'o^ ,3^^x .»nypy^^^x '^n ü^^n ünyii lytsv^: 
oarnn n px ,ir]^' 5 px üv^^yast^ D-^.yii >t px ix^j^t 15000 
px ayo 300 :n:y:y3yi id »nytj» x D^^^nx p^ok^ p^x dm^x 



279 y»ss'7ip"i'!r n;*! pK 7»ta'B»p ps ;i3^'?iia3»m n 

lyn^vnj^ns iv ^j^ii j:? "q^^D^Ji^^D-in üoy: oy n^^K .n^^n in>« 
t?n*.v iy:>"ip dd''^5>l^^e:5:5p "lyn Dyii ,nn^,nD n lya^ipnsD px 
.j^i^t^o lyi 1^,2 üi'W)) iyür^^y;:^n» oyi ps .^j^n 50 "qj^^ii yiy» 
-y^i Dy V2 lyonj^ii px D^n bi ]>:• lyr^^pyiife? ^.y t^^ n^^i^i 50 n 
15,000 yv:5?2 n lyn^^^p^y^isinv isi« cyi ^^^t? dh^k ^^2 ^^r ]v> 
y^^^iriyi .p*^ü<o y^^: i^ ly^i^^p iyj{>*p 'ly cyii t2:?}<;^^yl ,"ifc?>j^i 
.nv'.x it!t p,D ycii^D nyn px »LDV^^ttn^^i« Dn^x ^^3 D^y: n ür^ 
'V'^p ^ D^'o DSfc?'^>yTy: ••iy'^^üD^>^D^2{5P nyD^^ypniüjy i8 px 
Dy Dyn iy ,Iyo^^il^ üo -^n ^^2 D^y; n ny oy^i cyoD^D-tDn 
v^vrj^ ^^ lyn^^^D^^^ oy |?$p p:^2 n .piists px lyai^iüi^ns 
•^V'^v^i y^J i''t< iyr^>:)^n» D»^n ly^yn v::i>V'i) ,iyt:D^:^s:D'5t<p 
Dyn ^5<t3>üN'p DyJyr''^? pn po y^^^j^^ipTV n px ^V2i$ .jya 
pt5 ly^i^n n Dyii iy ly^i /j>{^?oyi ii>*j iyo'.p:^n» y^^^o n 

.lyv:^:: 
-D''!?fc?D''GvXp "iy-iy> PS ^^Lj^E^p-nyop^s "lyi ,"^^1 i3nyD"j'ie:2 
^ly^j^Ls yjyi**-:n^2 pc nyi^i^ t:nyD:i'fc?n :royr,yo:^N nytr^D 
TS ,D^^« D^ip nynnyi .d^"'V ymi^yrn vi>^ 'oo lyiy^n Di^^i 
-1^ Diyii PK y>V5<>ipi^v p« pnj< tjyiD 7stD^2^p-nyDp^2 "lyn 

•lyc^D yD^^:?:r:iK yjyi^^n^s pN* nn\s pD iyrivy:ipn 
D-iix "qn D:yD^^i^ yntDDn:^^? y^'^toD^^^sa^sss^P n ^ii ^1:5$ 
iyi:^^tDyQ n pt? >'ivi'\y^':> "^yn pö iy;jriyDyn"i5?:2 y^n^ytDtJ^ t3^D 
n lyi^n^ ifc? ,'^st yD^^^jny^iya s n>>*3 oy t^k ^,ü ,y^vpni^"i5 pD 
"D'^nfe? pv^ n Diyii ,|yi«i^y3 Dv>:y32?>* iyv:i{<: pN t^x pl^•so 

•I^ti'feü^ lyiycyn j< ^nn yntDonr« "lyn p.c toEitD^i'y: 

cyi p2 fy^^^D y:)yi>*.in{??D n iy^>:t<n iv "^n ü-iy^j^^c oy ci^n 
c^^ii ,iyj^'^y!Q y^^J pD :i:nn"'2r^K n pi« ,^sü^5^*p-iyDp^D 
-fc?*^y: ü^yn,, — ,]V^r\i^' y-iy^n ^»52 yt:>i? n TN'^Dnyii ly^i^^D 
t}:>^T /'iyD>Tnp y^^^iiijnys ns2 onsrn "iy!?ynyü{<o ^yi |ys 
ni§2 ^MT lyo lyii jypjyiy: iv rtoD^ii t^j^ pi^Ji ('*' .Dpitsvo 

•lyDnnp p2 ly.Tb'n^x n inyoi*^ 

-fc?P PD Sil^^-^ür^X y3i<2^M1V fc? TJ1K ISS ?;?T^S lyn^'H "'.^O 

-: y "1 s 2 nyi n^o iyi^^K^nytD:iK y>vpnt>nB nn ps : ^sö^e 
px .^SD^ESP iy:>"i:yDtj's3 Dnp2 lyDOnyi 



"'K ytr»^:>:y — ,*7y:2'B»p lye^'o ,nn lya^ni!? /"7«*:'SHp„ (* 

.211 J .ii^T;rr;z 



^tja'B^p Dyn 280 

-> ^ D njni>*) iy"Tjynoip"i>v Dyn— - y^vK^ipn^^c nyn 
-i^py ya'^tD^^i^ö yti^itj'nn n .| y d p ^ d Dyn pD (i y 3 ' d 
-y3 Dyi nn. ni^J üdip onyinnyo lyn ts ,d^j D:ypiyj« y^oi^j 
oy'Dp-iSD oi^n nynnyi ^toD^ip-tD^^niis niino "lyi pD ^^nn 
]^« ly^njyoij'sn s px ^^i^D^Eötp lyvj»;) Dyi pc 3Ji^^^t3J^^K 
Djypiyjs n .Dyt^o^o in>« p« t3^J r«>3 p^p iyD^^")yn:yn»B 
)r^v»>ipn^x pn ^v i^!f5§n p« ^j^q^ssp p.ö ;:i>^^dj^^« n li^j 

♦t'SD^Es^P |yn:yT>ipi^v px lyop^D » px 

.^Kta''58p pD nypnj?^''« nyn Jii 

Anvm pi^ jyni^n n-"» ^)) ,>8d^s»p pd yDit^atD^na n 
:ji?j nvi PK ^JJ^UD Dny^i iy .>isD^£fe$P lyivtDpni^ns nn r>« 
-yi .^sD^Biüp-tD^y: px :>5§D^3SP"iy"i»t5ii p« yvfcüPipi^v po 
.t^np iyn:?yTDy-i p« -^n lynyn iv nyiMi li^ iy isn^n D>i;?o 
^yi p2 y>v«>ipi^v nyi dv^ lynsn^ ,y^^pnj^"i3 pa ii;?r>D p^« 
•fe?P pa n y P n y n ' « p^« oyi^'u ,ynfc;ii ly^i^vn^^-ia 
iy>j<!tD^£^*p yjyi^^^j^n^^a pa lyp-iyn*»« cyi i^a D^>if n .!?fc$D^3 
PD ü^^^f n T^K ?8D^2^P lyn^^yt^yi ^"»2 nyi^i^ .*i^"'^i ü^: t^n 
3^1« .y^^fe§^ipi^^ pö tD^•'^? n ^1^ /yn^ytn d^: yvpni^iB lyi 
-1^13 iyi ps D^^y n ni ny:i:y> t^« ii>^^'?)i?vi pD d>^^ n 
ni^no n iyc^ip")«D iv 'iv^av'? ü^v: oy n^^.K ,.n .i ,y>vpn 
-j5^ iy:j^p ^?>*T y^vpn^i2 n hd t>n jyn^vni^iB w n lyi^^« 
cynj ^ |j^^vpn{^-i2 ".yi pj< iyr"'t53''n8 lyo ^nj^i ,iyD>Mi iny: 
-:yp T^« y^vpni^na ivi pa ü^^^* n n^^,^^ ^Diypnj^D .^»D>sfc;p 
ny:i:y> Dayj oy n^^« ,.n n ^y^i^fcü^^'ipn^i: "lyi pa ü^"»^ n n^ nya 
n lyii iD ,iy3^ip-it*3 V;^ n nyi^^N nnino n lyn^vni^ns iv 
^nn |yi^> D>y: n ton^^^n jyi^^ji^y: dsmpi^s pii^^ vi< minD 
— ,y^vpni^i3 "iy"i p« lyiy^i iDj^"'>y;im» nyiMi i^^p n nyi^^x 
IV nnj^^ n^'i^n « Doy: oy : ^ny':0"i^Q lyi px ^^y^stj'^^n d^v 
-j^nn IV lyDJ^ii y^otoy ii^: lo^y: oy p« n«un n jy-i^vnijiia 
^T lyn^in:)?^ do i^^p jyo nya^^i ,iya^ipn»a. p« pij^d px n [y^ 

.:n^^> y^^^inyn tDr> ^j<to>25<p-D^y:i nyn ^jy-i 
|y:3ny^:y iy3«rni5< yjyn^''^ifc?3 ny^^^.v n^a jyoip ivt:)'')) 
->n Di^ii ly^jfejinyD^o n pa ^v\^ nnino nyn pa lyt^ns n px 
tN^^v n ^n Diyijy oy lyn^ .lyn^yn^^is iv nn^x j^ö^i: ly: 
on^vi^ia nninD lyi pa r,i^p-ifti;i] nyi — yvi^^^ip-i^v nyi pa 



281 ^«jü»B8p pa nypnp"»» *^yT 

» )'i \v>')P ly^yüK'i^^v iVD^n >nT ü^y: oy n^^.x ,>y^2'^- 
^M« iy?Mp D>n3y;iv lyni^n ny?;5^D:yj''^j< ivi fiii^i »ma-ipi^*: 
•lypyüiJ'Ei? D^j ^M ?ii?t lynna n p« D^^z-.öt n ^u ,iy:3J;?^i ^m 
üa^'.n lyo nyit? »insajyr^^K y^^j fcii L^nii'jD'ix ü-v)) oy nnx 
ü^^v n p« ,iy2n:-i>i^i n pa D>n^ üo lyp^ip lyn^^ii ^^ i^;? 
üptjioyn ,DD>yn ^ ^n« tovi^PiKD üiyn iy>Mp |ynyD^5> iss 
j'Dn "HD lyr^^j^ns lysnn^j^; n ps ^y>^^D:y;^^^K nyi ^i^n 
üi:7vr[ vw^:^ n ,|y>Mp px vü\ü "lyimynna lyi p.D Ds^yn s 

'^v^v:i iyv:Ka oyi pD y^vK^ipn^:^ n ly^Dj^iLD^n n^o [yii 
-D^^>: iny^jjjt ü^: li^p n ryt ^-t-d lynyr id ,^^d^b»p iyD^>DD8K^ 
n8£. T>« y^^pni^ns yc^^DD^^ötü^E«? n mi lya^iit ^ns .royo 
n>v nyn px öpsnsi? nyn t^q ^d »y^vs^ip")^:^ nyi o^d iyi:n 
"SD^ssp nyi pD 1:83 Dyi px ly^^nyoK^ iyi:iiDMi8 y^vs^^p 

♦y>vpni^i3 "iytj'>tDD>> 
•oi^vni^"i9 Diyi^nnyD lyi ony^^ jnytyj lyn^^n i^o ni 
Dyi pQ ?'>D s$ T^fc< nyD^yn ,:?{?d^2j^p lyD^^nyijynss nvi \)Q 
•■•« ^^t ü^v^ ov '')v:i'?V'\) px ,ü'''^ n .^^jd-'s^p lyijyi^^ipi^» 
n;§D 182 ^^•'^j ü^j lyat^ t^k ,^8t:^E8P "lyuyn^^ipi^v lyn lyi 
-'»:'P "iyT:iK px ü28i^DiMnJ8> lyi i^t< : lyosya^yj yjyi^^a^ 
üjyDDDyn "lyii^ ,:i^^ 8 — -»nypyn 8 p8 r<>^4' 8 oy D^Dyj tD8o 
.lynüDn:'«« ^m-iV ly^yDK^i^^ß ^n n^Di^> tsj^M jyj ni^s 8 
•8? "lyijyioipi^v nyi iya^8 "^n toiyp ^n pa iy:^^K px at^)) 
.■^i^n 8 :'i^o p^K nynyi:8 iyi p« P« "ini>*' 8 'p^o Vi^ 'p^O'b 
fi^v yra^yin lyo t3^>3i8 yi^'^n p8 t8 ,iyoy::i;? lyD^m "i>Di>*^ 
y:^2^yrn ^^^tD^jK'Dnn iy:np nytD^^ms n t8 p>« »lyiJiDC 
p.2 y^v8D8i:'2Dpy lyi ps y^iJ^*: n t8 ,dd^m dj^i .nnoij' 
nyi T8 ,.n .i ,100% pn t}^> ^-q^^^: yi^^n p8 t^8 "iyt}^^n"i8 Dyi 
•''S8P "lyi PN D"iyn Dy:y28'w^y: oyi p£. t22^yn tD:inp "lyD^^ms 
-•>~iyi:y''i82 oyi pa y38.iD^'i« n an« .oi:'?vr] ^n« üd>^8D 
-ya üiyn id ,n8^i>n 100 i^>t::y3yi^ on« dd8d >8o^S8P iy3 
-:^« yi^u pN .i8^i?i 100 P2 Diy^nnyD 8 'n^t'DjyDyn iy285J' 
n82 PK -lyü'^ms n dmn t2D^>8D^28P lyi D^nj>*v iy^it:3Dn 
eiyinnyo 8 ^^anyn idd8o pn n8>i^T 5,200 ini^> 8 ps ^m> 
^yi PK n»65'iyOJ^K |8 |8ii5a "lysi? vh ÜV n8^J#1 5,200 PQ 
^lyijyTt'ipi^v lyi ikii .iy^8ü'B8p ^^iiv n iid y^V8>ipn^i' 

-1<Ü^S8P nyi ^181 ,ini^^ 8 ^i^O P^K "iyn\S ^n ü-iyp >80^£8P 

iy>ni;^v>VDMK nnK "i8>i;i{i 100 y^^: 1^^:11 yiy^ lyr^^rn» od'> 



5,200 ür''>y;rnö {Dl« Dyi ^>i« iy oji^n mijj^ «iid oiv ,nn>5i5^ 
lyD'Mny^ n ,5,2üü nc- Dnyii-nnya » DD«oy:i Di^^n n« ns^i^ 
-r« "»ynyiJ» ny^ P« ,100% üsy-iDsn ^nyii-nnyo ns yoii^j 
p^« lyn^K ^n Diyp :'i$o''SSP "iyn:yn^>ipn^v nyi ini^ ^ynoon 
yn^yrn ■^^^11 yiy^ ömk dd^^^d^s^sip nyi d>j^v ."qi^n fe? ft^a 
yrar^yrn nnj^*' fcü ps d^^v lyi p« p« nno^ 5imn .^i^t 100 
n .Diyn-nnyD 5,200 yrn^ytn üdj^ ny p« ,is^i;iti 5,^oO 
-j'n» tDi^n ny y3>yi^ ,"i8>i^n 100 n oi^n ,"ij?j r^x dj^d-xpdj 

ny m ^^^i yi^J' P'"i^^ ^J^'^ 1^ IJ^^^i^ »1^*^^ yoK^ny n o^^^^yj 
n iy:pni#vivD''iK tin« iyvi>^*3 ^^'?i^i 100 ym^yrn |j^p 
,n»:5t#T 100 n ü^D ,.n n ,mDD mt» px ,'^^^'l yD^Miv n nnoK' 
]y:?nt?vDn« ny p?'p »-q^ii yDt^'^y n Dr^^jyjji^nst D?iin ny dijii 
ün-iv iy D^^ii ,DiyirinyD n«:?i^i 5,200 n .iü!:?i?T 5,200 n 
-r^^yar^« Dyn pim« 5,2007^ i^ri'j? tDsyitDsa ,toDy:^y3 oyi pa 
-Dnj^N p^K p« T5? ,DD^M D^i .^»D>s{$p iyD^?nyn:yij?2 lyo 
-iyn:y"i5§2 tyt3:^^^y:irns cyn p2 ij^^^t 100 viv* iy:5^iD yno 
-lynyi:» i» p« ,nnj^^ » Diynnnya i^'^i^i 100 ^^^d^s^p |yD>^ 
nyütJ'ny "lyn p« 100% t^n D^y^^^is ly^^^^nny* nyi ,5,200— 
|t^ DJ? m:vr) -i^^i^'iyo:^« nyn .nynynjs nyn p« 5,200% px 

.y^vis>iPi^v lyi p3 to^^p"i:Mitry;i ny-i 
j:^^05§T:i? lyn «T'IN ^r.pi^ii » Di^in ly-i^^i i^-'K'iyDJix ivi 
4^« üD^^i?ü^£«p Div DD1P DiyiinnyD lyn lyii .t:'b*D^5i?p ps 
oyi lyv^^D^i« iy t^*p ,iy:%*D"iyD n^)p pw D^y: ps y^i^D lyn 
yrDMi n^i« ^^1« px mK^*^n y^^^jynys y:'n n>iK tonyinnyo 
ynyn:» p« ^fc?D^£$$p-iyDp^-:^ Dyi \v'>''2^2 y'i n^« ,iy"iiDö5iy£yn 
^lyp'iyD''« nyn :2^i« ,ö-iypnii<3 4yn5^:!D^\N-tDDy:^y:j ytDDny:ioi« 
>ii8T ,ü^^v yiy3:y> « Diy^n t^^D^ßj^p Iy^Jy-)^>1p^^^f pn p.s 

«i^\« DM«"IS;|1B V^ PSÖ'ÄSP :?^''D ^ iy3^»>Dnfe? t5D^^^D^l2i§p lyi 

jiiK^in yo>yt« 

D^i ::i3":j^iy i« r^K nn^nD pd y^v»?"ipi>v yasts:^^« n 
•oy .inyDs^iKD vi dd^^> ly^nyi t>k p« b>yp^in5?£ d^: t^n 
U'^^^ys''.^ cyn d^d yD3>^^'y3 iy3^^K>:yr) nyi p« ]^ in Dn^^n 
ir.'/PMitDjy "i;n t}*'ö .iyi^pn>N:-ift n^iJ? }ytDpni?*iQ t'.2 {^^"it^o^s« 
yi:5''^i ps |y>ys. ,n^':n3 -— m-no yo^i^ya 8 enyn ^yingn p.a 
,r)Dy>b^'!r"iipy Dy^•'?:'y;^ü« r? "i^*ö ;yDi:yj:>? — p»::i^d ,n^^n 
'i^m jin^nD nyij« y>» DK^niDyaoMK lynyii oy lyaj'yii »i'iK 



£8« tt^y^r^ny« rs y's«^^fn<s n 

-jic< y!?t$— i^s?3 ,ny3^'t ,nysiis— |y!?»üy^ n lya^ym^a ny» 

nn r.2 ::inn*:5<ri^ nyi ö^ü .iyu:y>b*irrpy y:'^oy:>8 ynyn 
-öytD:;*y3 :yp5!!t:yo n ri2 lyaa^iiy: yj^^oc^sa lyiyii iy::i^^3 
yiy^ .D^v3 r^^* Di-p — hdi^o nyi pD no^nn in d^d ü^yj 
•D^-.K -.yn-'ii »LT-yii üpy: n ,u>y3 ^mx DLj'^"iüy:D>^K önyii nrnno 
P2 iyo^D:yr'K lyiy^ ps Pyii^ ^y"i .nnino 51^,5^ tD-^nit^yj 
c^,ni /op'-^ra pn ir^i^zy^DM« t:i<in iy ,io3^n:nyi t^n hitiD 
nfc?-: y^ i^nj<i^ ny d^ii ,|yr2pni>n3 yz^yrs n^iK ,d^j men iy 
cyn 11^3 y'^^^:^'!pn''V n ^^t iD:n.;y D^'Dnyi .^mi315!5S pm 
-^T ü^o : nytvM"! tD-'.^^'^.p-'v lyn}^ yiJit:^y»: yrn^yrn .lya^ip 
■pn "iisi:. tst^^ya i:v<n "iy2^ipi5?s lyD^^i^ lyi dj^ii ,\:i'>v^ 
DJ^i Dnya m:» p« "^n n^D nninD y^yn:»! iy lds^^p »mmo 
Dy : K^tJ'p j^ IM D'?yüs^ tjn .pn»o iyv:^2 i'iyr« "lyo^ii 
ny n ytrt "nn ::!:y: ly-'sii p,ö .snn:?^ i» pn ry^iy '^i>n rio 
|y^i ,tDD.v!i3 nnyi ?^x n^ij^p n ^nx nyj:D:y ny-i ? yaao yns? 
r« ,ynD^ s lyii^r.y: vh '?^üvd nyi lyi^^N t» ,üp:y-iya lyo 
-y: Di^vn^^-i2 vi^ r>H ,y"iyn:^ t^^^ '^^'<'?m mino » \vw: ny 
t22^»:y: lyo DJ^n lysip pD : üiyin' -"^^y: pn ny^^iv lyii^n 
y^:i'Pnt^-i2 n jjn^^f — n^j^: px "lyn^n pD ^oy^yj p« r^vy: 
-niiHD pD üDiis^^i'yTy: in px "lyto^Mi ts? ony: ly^j^oyo ps 
i::rnn n?i?3 iyii>* iy3:?n pD ojyvntj^is lyi .lyrojyvnt^iB 
*i^'iX D^« DH^x ntis oy d^^d m p« j:n^:iyi lyn iv ^etüyo p>r 
ü^Q ii>*j ,tD3Miy: nyn^ynyi ps ,^t§Dy»3 ly^^^yt^yn pB nyp^Dir 
1^^; pn!S"t^2 iy D5<iii iy ü^^ip n^ynoo n ü^d .t^yE^oyoc^ in^K 
.y^vb'r^ipi^v nyi p« ü^y;i n pn^ üyiö tD^K cyi ^^\^ 
V)^:^: n ^v ,y;bns v'p ly^yto::^ ü^: ij?; i?i t^ I^p ciy 
't^x ,yv?5>'!P"';^v ps< IDIK Dyi t)Mx -^M Drsya di^ii ,D^y3 y^^a 
tDs^ipyj lyy^.i nr.'.HD — ,nii^nD y^» |y^^iD^,VDni< ^^js* rirs 
n'^ins p^p oc^^p ny:y^ ,tD^3 t3:?y3 p^P t)i?n oy lyii ,D>y: i»a 
jynr.p ty^nys oy Dt^i^ ,Dn yj''?)'i r» ,yp»D di^d^jb cy .0*5 
,o>y3 p« ;>nn ay^:>*v — lytonyi^ nynJi^t ö^d lyn^ ,pi»o pK 

.nn-nD ps y^^5<)^^i^v iyD«2:^^x nyi p« 3:nyüy p^p t¥ tDO 
ini^^ nyi po n«^rn pn üd^ipiso tD^3 D?^n -ly^js in Di;rn Dt^i 
]]n}Vü'i:> Dyi n^^« i^y» p^t tyyrwf: iv do dh^k oiyo'j^ 
-3nt53 pyi^v nyn "ik2 nyn? n ür-'^yjpyv^ t^^?n "ly — ,int^' 
y^^n ü^o ö^m» "ly ,r^vy3 ym 0^0 IyDp^^ yr>T Oi>T! ny ,n];i 
Tt "ii<s V'^^ :i:y:i Dr^^y^pyii« tDJ>*n ny p« ,05yii y:y;''» 
♦Tni^>-n-iy3'K T^3 jypy^p Dn>{< r^J;?? Dy .n^cna yj»n n»i ri« 



nvn .?8ü^B»p pD y>V8^"ipn^v nyn ü^d 6J^ny-i3» ii?3 1^« Dy 

"'B8P"iy"i8ii!^i PD yoni^D nyi p« e^^ ^n ü'?vd^ mino yt:n^v 
.^»D^EKP'D^'yi pD yoni^D "lyi p« inyjnyn^t? üo \i^p p« t't^D 
n *Jin \y2]!: v^] iy:8ii pa : y^sic n lynnn "qn D^yoK^ oy 
-tD^ya pi< ^Jii^i:» D-iyn :'fe$D''2e:p-(yn:<^^i nyn ys^y^i d^q ,D>y:i 
yD^'yn d^d ,D>y:i n ^n Doyj {yjsii piD ,t:D>^i di^i ? ^»d^s^p 
tDD-^ipy: D"iyii lyojyvnijnB yt^^DD^t^t^to^si^P ^ ps mino n 
-y-ii^yö 'PVQ MT» lyD^'yii ontü ,y:»iö n t>x di^t ? pn^^Q p« 
)» 1SE3 Dt^ii ^MX„ : syp n dph ny "qi^j ^n ly^ynn nyp^D 
n^v lyn pa lyn^^^ivD^nj? n^on ddo^üd^s^p nyn DT^^"ii5<a ieik 
-ijtnDy;rn8 ti^« px Dt^n ny lyn^^« ,D^yj "lynnyo y^vj$^ip 
-i^py nytKic^nn » o^)) »N^tJ'p n lyn^« i^n tD>j opn^o c^ v iy:j 
-'yiiyn^N tDiy^i j^^lj'P y;^n:?ytn nynj? .ü^yotj^ya Di^n dd^oi^^ 
n "^M lyoyj ixn : i^öj$iyö^> "iy:j^^DD^5't§^v{^D nyn p« D'irn 
V tDiyinnyo lyn t:):o oy iyD:'yii p« ,nninD n ifeüD lyanp 
-Jniüa '>iiv |yDD5<nto83 lyo ^ntin ,t<^^p n nyötDjy"ii?2 iv 
pn tDnnyvisa dd^^^d^sj^p "lyi lyii ,D:yDK^ny : v'?v^ vivi 
,D:yto^nw PN »"nniny: oyjyr^x pn ifc?D ü-iynnnyo iy^:«j 
oy nD ,:>^^ü s sj^ tDii^tBK^ p« :?^^o k ni>*j t:-inyviiiiL ny jyn 

.Dcy^j'y: PN iy:>^^ivrn8 
nyo^iw 5$ tD^o tDsytj'yj pn |i? ünnn i3D^>8D^5fc!ip '^v^v 
pKü^ssp-iyop^s <^MN D^iN ny D^: pDiyi ^j^-jd i§ ,D>y:i yaio 
-8ü) ?fe?D^38p iy"ijyn>t5ip-i>v n^iN ^^^D 8 XlJ'^^'^i^^ .nyrsj's^iD) 
n ni D^Mi ^n» fiMN ,("iyD^m» n pQ nn^Dtj^ ,iy^^nyD 
-SP |yür>:'y::^nN nvi ^^: Di^üjyTyisyn nnino yt2i>i^nj^-i3 
Vü^ü N iy:j;ii"iDy3:^n» p^^s dd>>sd^e{$p lyi -^i^i t:i^n ,^5$d>3 
.mino "lyDi^vni^is nyi pQ Diyii nvi i:^ '^^''^j t^n di^ii ,tD^y: 
yoiD yj^^ytn ?i^^n pmv lyo^^nnyn^N lynnyi ^^r i{>*p ny 
:k>k^p n -^^^3 lyni;^ tD3^^>3 oy .öDt^ia ns: r^« d^^t .D^y:j 
nnyo oyi lysnp i^; ti^i« i^jy: >t pi»o px "qn Doyj iy:{?n pD 
?yüiny oyn p« rvii^^^yj lyDKiJ^y: toK^ny -^m ?>« ly^^y^i ,Diyii 

?y>vpnj#-i3 pn pD ijjjt^d 
^5^Dpjjn8iS2 ^iu — DPi»o tDiysto^y — "rncN lyi pN„ 
Oi^n »ü^'yi y:y^ lyn^js ,ti^iN lyn^iN pa mytonN do :jj>»t Dy 
tDr> Di^^i ^iDiynnnyo Dyn lym^^Jöyi ^v j^^^n dvi:{$3 Diyn 



"Hj yOiny ,'?yQ»Bijp ^^:y^yin ,in nyü»ti«s /'^rJ'Ewp,, (* 



285 öiyirnnyD ps y»s»'?ip"i's n 

o^i< to^j y^^f«>ip-i^^ p« I^ns ov iy:^nD ^n "lyni;? .kdu d«^p 
c>» DMK oy lyau ^n .^j^tD^Eiiip dp8 do ,t:>y; ytDr^>y:rn» 
IK \Vüv: i^0J^> ..."Ji^naij^a. lyD^^jyinyB "ly^n ".&?•:. ^'y^^o-pi^".? 
,;:iDy:-iyD:^« I» YV^iv |i^ t:nnn oi^^i ,DD^:'»tD>2fe?p Dy:>y^*:^^N 
"ly ür^^ nnj^^ lyoK^iy oyi na ti^i>ifc?D px .lyaiöis » ,'?z^d^ 
^ns ,"i^>^T 25,000 pD ,m^^ -l^DJjt> ,>sio^E»p-t:^y3 8 pnöi 
ri^iK p,« "ii§>{#i 20,000 y^vpni^iB pQ ly^D^o n^n iy>nt;JV5?3 i^ 

n p^K iyD^>65^ "löl^i^l 25,000 ">! ...IJS^l^l 5,000 tD2Sip-D>^3n8 

r^"? m ^v^'^ü-i^pv 15^1 m^T ly "iVi^ .t'8ü^Efc?p-ü^y: yv:öia 
;yD^>jynys yj^^t .nnt?» ^id i^n lyoyjDmbi to^: ny j};?? D^ya 
...iyni<tn dj^i «niin ny .ini^^ 8 n^^J^i 5,000 lysyiDiiin nixvin 
«i^iK D'iKvin n jypyi "ly tid nni^^ w^^^v nvi p.s ti^i^n^üD p« 
tD>yi n «.yjyjj^yp iy:yr^« pn p2 ^^"^21^0 iy3^>:ynys pn 
cy ü^3 iy ,Dy tD^^y^;^ö:2• ny .^j^d^ssp ü'?^ pns o>j iy Dr^^ 
fci^r. ,t::?y:i n ...Dinyvn«^ iv v:i'pv^) ,iy>D''OD:y3y> pi>in onx 
D1V ...y^vfci:>ip"i^v PN Dn^>>m5$D ,ü>n{^vi<3 "i{<s^yn öj>*n iy 
Dnyii T^N ü^)) ,ni*,nD y^v8:>ipTV pt? pn5§ ly öSJiinD "inj^> nio 
Dyn (1 : dm"i8 tD^yj iy .oy üq^pi^üd p« "i8?{^i 30,000 
tonyinnyo s (2 px is^j^t 25,000 ps ^fe?tD^5j$p iyt:r^^y::^n8 
("^ ,1"?^: VH lyii^ny: to:3yi:{$Tnö;2 t^n dji^^ ,ii<^JrT 5,000 p2 
cy ü^n ny ^^j^d^qsp d>8 is^i^i 25,000 t3r>>y:irn5$ tDJ^n ny 
5;^v»^ip"i^v pD D^ns ön^v ny ,y^v8^ip"i^v pN iy:ii^iDy::^n5< 
5,000 PK :'fe§D^25$P pD yo-li^D lyi pt? 25,000 ,-i8>t^T 30,000 
iy:^n is^j^t 5,000 vyt^i *t .üiy^i-nnyo ps yDii>*2 nyi pN 
tDJ^n "ly DJ^^i ,ü'?v: v:v' ü^d n>j^3 px lyiJ^iiy: D>yi:8^nis*D 
,tDD^^80'»2s:p D>» 0^: — y^vs^ipn^v pK ly^j^ntsyarnet p^?» 
M d:?» pni^ DH^N w üv oo^P "iyt3V^N ...üjy!2iD:i?P d:?»: ii^^ 
p« .t3i'vnt>ns üi^n ny dj^^i tDiyinnyo Dyi iid yo"iJ^2-ü^y;i 
ü^o rnjyn^in:s? lyit? .nni^^ iv ini^^ pQ noD oy onya nrs 
-ifc§D iy Di^"n i8>{#"i 5,000 n "ü^d jy^yo^ ini^^ jyD^Miv ny-j 
-i^"i5 iDJ^n iy Di^i^ iD^yirnnyo nyn pc ,yoii>*2-t:''y3 n oinyv 
Dn^N IV ü^ip oy p« ,nni^> y:?» oy tD"inyvi5<3 iy .üi^vn 
o^: DD>>8ö^sfc?p nyi pns üjj^id tD^sy: n ...int;?^ y^fc? pniv 



Biyinnyo p'? t<j ,DnK ooip p2rn on l»«^ ,!3"ivTi"inyr3 iy!f:»j 
-y'? tinn n»2nn ^s'^binr* ]''» ni "i'''?^ ,'^»''«1 5,000 i'u ci^ki 

(.yjrpi^nr' ]^D Jiipnyoi^) — .ly'^a'raojya 



(* ".üiyinnyo ayn iyji#>tJ^D^ni< Dyn ny lyn 
lypnyn^K ayi p« y^^pn^^ns n fi^i« li^: ü?)? \vo n^.x^ 

-8 D > B 8 P Oyi ^^3"iyi DDSIt^ötyD PK tJ 8 ü ^ B 8 P pD 

iDji^P D^8 IDO ,^80>B8P pD j^nysiyp-iKD D^8 nj^: D D O 
|yüD^^8D^B8P n 18 ,0^8 "^n ÜI>^1^ 1ü ,|8DD>yi1 8 p8 Djyo 

D^8 onyinnyo ly^n y^V8?ipn^v p8 pn8 Jnjyüs:^ iy:{j^nt3 
üo 5>i^d:^^p tDnyt lyo p8 ,^8D^B8P"ryi88iT ly^n pa >'^d 8 
,ü»3 ^r^:"P tDnyt lyD »norn d^8 ü:vn y-iy^r p« D>y: v»? 
-18D IV ^^18 y^v8^^pn^v pK D5y:i iy:J^"itDj^n8 ly^i^r 'u t8 
"»yc^^DD^^8D>s8p lyi lynijt lyii ...Diyirnnyo iy>n lynnyv 
iy-inyv-i8D ^v nn« D^ya y>v8^ipn^v p« pn8 ö:i^-iD d8>p 
*8^*.pn^v ps ü^y3 yn^yi n D>n8 '^i#jny"T iy bn'>)i ,nD:Dn pn 
,Dy>o 8 ny3^8 ns^yo yn^ytn lys-iinji? n^on ]^p ly ii« ,y>v 
o^yi yoiD yron: n ,d8^p d^8 ,Dn^8 ^>n Dn>^^m8Q p ^y 
•"•B8P n ni m^n p8 .n^j^a p8 bnynnnyD nyn iy^iJ8in8D iv 
onyiinnyD oyi ij^j d"»: pn8D-n"TinD Dyn ps lyoy: iyDD^^8D 
üv "iyii# ,iynnyv-i8Q ^n dj^ii ,nninD n pD ü>8t3K^yj nyi p« 
yjy> iD2>ipy: lyn^^n ^n yD^yii d^ö ,D^y3 n ^n iv pniv dd^p 
n |ya^ivy:iDm8 lynt^n ^n t8 ,'i^^"iyB:^^JJ'8n ni;ii^p t>k ,nninD 
0Dt?p mino n .Djy^8TiM^py 18 inj^ y^V8^^pi'v ps nnino 
(** ".nn>8 18D Di'ya ly^ni^v ^n D:n ,D:ruiJ^: ^n 
11?: ^n iDi^n iyj8ii Pd ,y:!8-iD n jy^ytDt?^ -^i^J ^^r li^p oy 
D8^p nyi5'^DD^^8tD^B8P nyi Dt^ii ,D^y3 n iyDi:y: li? 2'''in:j^ pD 
-y: nyi pa ld^sdk^ dj^t .y^v8^ipn^v p8 iy;{^iüy:j>n8 ü^n 
-Mn:ij? ,iy^8Dyo-D^yiy pD nmciv yDnyDynnsa n„ rytoD^tJ^ 
-n'n^coo 8 Dyn^^n ,Dnyij^nin{^> lytDjnyvDyr oyi d^o :n:y3 
-8P nyn p& ;3i^p^iio:y -lyn pa yDD^^y: nn p8 D:yDJ>*o [yj 

(*'*''^' ".y^vpnijtiQ lytJ'^toD^^iJü^B 
"8P n lyi^ ,^8ö jy^^iiv üvi |yüD8itD8n "iyDv>^ n^oiiji^ 
•8n ii?J ,tDnyirinyD |yv::i^o ny>n ü>: |yinyv"i83 tyt2D^^8tD^B 
oy .yvpnü^iB n lyD-^nn^^'D^iN ^^8 pöiyn ^"«^d 8 \V'^)i 
'ifn Dyi iynn^5'8yn "iv ^i^k o'?Vi n '^^r tDoy: m) ,^n D:jyis 

.287—385 .T .t ,jj'i'?i>0BN rotJ'"»:? ,'7j;tt>SKp nj^üaj/^jjra'T C* 
.556-— 655 .T .T »Jii'j'^DEsj^ ytas'jyns ,'?ytt'BKp njnaoji^^J^iis (** 
yiyi'yjiy} 396 .r ,:iJi'7^'tiB^ yetrnj; »"yyotBtJp iy:2:rsy:i»t (*** 



V 






-287 *?ue»Bi<p pB j'Sij^ip'i's i^K p'spn^jiBy^ 

Vy^vpniris n pK 
Dy^'i K 0380 ly ly^i ,od^5{<d^58p -ly^ynoon:^« "lyny^^ 
yv:fei:a n y^vs^ipn^!^ pt5 ^t^o «i o^o pns "ly oiJjnö ,D£y6ry3 
,^b:o^5fc?p-|yDp^D pn px or^^y3i^>"it? Di>*n ny DJ^n ,o>y3 yaio 
,r^MiDy^D>3 nj>*: y^vet^ipn^^ lyi pd lyn^vonn» oyn "ly dijiii 
-1^15 lys^^iny' V'>i ps ti^ipii<2 nyi Tin lynnt^^ pd i'^-d s pk 
y^vfe§^iPT^ PK i^n» ny o:j^io >d diip ti? /jD^\n Di;?! ,iDpn 
in o^i^myini oin ."in^N pD onis on^v iy m^ o^y: -lynnyo 
-»: pn PK o^^:j^a onyii ^8D''ej<p nyv:^: lyn lyi^ ,^i#o lyiy 
y:y^ px inj^^ y^s "qn o^i^n-iyn^i d^^t ;o^ö:o»^y: nya^^n^ö 
o^^J5$3 lyvjfciti pK ^"i5$i >8o^3fc?p-nyDp^ß Dyoyii »lyoDytJ^ya 
^niDKnötsyn "lyiy^ ^^3 r^ni^^^D ^n o^i^i-nyn>^i oip' ; lynyii 
-p^s Dyi ps ::iK^':»2 nyT^Mi^^''D lyiy^ ^^3 ,o:i|5Dri \)nv'' ^»a 
P2 iy:nvy:D>nK onyii oo^myr^K nn« ,^]'?^ .^8o^s$<P"iyo 
001P 10 ^or^^yarn» onyii oy ni ,o^y: nynnyo y^vs^ipn^x 
(* ".panyi iis^n nyi bpiis Do^mynjs ni^D 
-yn 8 iDiK oyi ^n« ^n on^^^P OD^^so^ee^P iny> ^^i 
o^ya n ."i^k3 lysMim^s o>j w iy lyD^yii ,iiJ^Dinyr 
o^ya n d^ik iyn>^^ iyp:j<3 n .p:83 pn px pn» ny oii^no 
pns "lynni o^y:; n oyno i^ik Dyi nn« jyojy^^p v^V'^'i it 
-on« o>^pD^5»3yo n o^: Dyoo^D-onynp nyi .y^vK^ipn^v pK 
-onK :^oni T^K oy lyn .niynoo ^t^v lyr^^'P k o>o \vü)p\'^ 
Oiit pD lyn^v OD^^8o>BKp iy-i jyp ,y>vpni^-i3 n lyo^naiv 
.n^fc^ji y^^: on^vnt^n» ^nx onyii cyi nn-» .i:t^B üyi 
-yi pQ y1^;y;S1p•^-.v n INS ron: t*»« Di^ii o^y: n ,"nvp3 
pD 0"inyv"ife?D oo oiyii ny3!5yn .oiyitnnyo cyi ps ^>^o Dyj 
p£ tD-iys^^y: inx onyii ^'^^^jyrnys döi^p lyjj^^oD^tJ^o^BbtP Dyi 
n>:5'nyo3iN p^p "li?; t^k oy .k313 d^^p |yi5'^OD>58D^B8P orr 
y:y> bi^ osnp d^^p nytj^^oD^^i?o^B»p ^yn ni ,Dyi pa o^i 
•nnyo ps ^^--o nyi 0"iyB-iypifc?B t^k oy nys^yii p« ,minD 
.•qn-iDyi ly^^^^yrnys pn ^^d o^nyvisD ny d^^ii ,oiyn 

,iyi88ii y^nt» pk o^yol^'8^ öpni^-iB -lys^^my» lyn 



556 — 555 J .T ,w)^"D2tr yefi'?:?!^ ,'?yt2'5?<p ij?oe:>'53Ki^» (* 



bNts'Etjp Dtjn 288 

,nmnD n .|yD>n3ivD>ix dh^x nnR pK iJ^D^sfeüP lyivtopn 
-yii tD^>^Dy:j^^N lyji^p ^mnnj^s iyD^^:ynyö nvi lyjn Di#ii 
cyn jiD Dinyvife?2 lyiyii oi^^i .v^v (1 : lyo"^? >niv p« lyi 
Dyi pD t^nyii oyi ^^^J»:) T^fc< oiyii ny^n — ,ü^'?p lytD^^ms 
iDiny^f"it^2 jyiyii ü^)) ,nninD n (2 ^^^to-'ssp ry3^^"iyi:y"iKD 
lyo^^p IV tin« jy^to^D n — ,d«^p lyti^^Do-'^^D^sfeiip oyi pa 
.DnyiinnyD cyn i^d dd^^'^d^ejüp nyn dh^v nrnno y^nt^i n 
üiyirinya üvi ü:i^)'i2i^ii d^?p -iyij'^DD>?^*D>ß«p lyn 
Diyirinyo ^yn .irtDpnj^na t^^ip^^d pfc< "^^^jynys r>M^5'^D 
lyjn ly^i^r dj^ii »nrnno yD^yrs p« i^i^vn^^na lynnyn öiyii 
•{$ü^Q{§p n pD i^inisa ]v:i''>2vnvB Dyn it^a .lypyiiv yi^^i 
lyD^Kisn ^n dji?ii ,nninD v:i'?v^^ oi>vn{#-is lyiyn jytDD^^ 
,Diy^r"inyD üv\ ps >^^tD -lyjy^ Döy-itosn oy mi ,^y>D ^n» px 
lyirDpnj^iB Dyi n^^D ."qn n^i« •q^tJ^nyiiy:! d^i« lya^a ^>t Dt^n 
\vv''\^ |i^P jyjD «^yt2>o-D:}^^^fpn^;?^3 bT'vni^-ia lyny^T "qnnny: 
Dyn D^D D^i5< -^n tD3^^^: y^vpni^is n ^itk '^)) ,pn:^'n s d-id 
.tDD'''ny3D^^^3 pfe^ yi^u "^n lyj^sy: ^n p^? ■q>nnn8ö 
^nim^a nyi pk y^^fpn^#1^ n ^i^ jnyr Djyosi^-^.y '^ü^'? 
''?vm lyti^^ioD^^^to^a^p lyi pN tDDMiy;^»^; px lyn^^^n ly^i^p 
ly^'T lyD^nnivD^iN d'-j ly^n iyDD^^j§D^3»p n ir.i ^tD^jiiB' 
fyii ,DMn8 toDip DJ^ii ,inyT n^D ly^yii "iJ^j-in px ^y^vpini^ns 
pns oy ly:^"'^» px Diyir-inyo ny^n ps ^j^^d » Si^ \v^i^^^ ^n 
.I'DpisD ^^n i^o lycyj |yny2''V n .y^vpn^-^B ynytD^^ii px 
^Miv p« ly^^^Di!^ lyo T10 tDpn^nö lyD^^nny^ tJ^v:»: Dyn 
-yüi?o ,DD^\i DJ^-i ,iy^D''Q-D:j^^vp'ni^n3 n ,D:ytD:5^ny : D^p5>n 
-'K>{§D ytov^^yjsj^ ,nns^^ s nyn^t? lyD'iS!! t^yii |y^ oi^ii ,iy^8n 
-jynys ü)n ^i^^« tsnya oy di^i^ ,Djyt3^n'!X ; |yD''^?jiyn p,« ]V2 
lyp^^Dr"»« ly-im tyo ji^p p^n lyü^Miv oyi .-q^nms^a, jya>^ 
•»p n Di^ii PK lya^nm^Q lyt^^^m» n Di^ii : n-ip^n ^niy [>n 
lynny^i^D lyo^^ms n .p^^t? "qn n^ix d^ik |yn^:i lyDD^^üto^s 
':^ n^o lyni^in ^lytoD-i^^ü^s^p n pN ,fyvJSi pt< nn^2^ v^v^"*^ 
,|yoyjji^ n'»Di^^ .üiyinnyb iyv:b:3 ^V'''>^ lynnrv-iiüa ,|yoi:yi 
.mT-Dtj^ n ^y>D>"!\ ^tjy^a nt^ tocyno^n t:iyinnyo nyn r» 
-pn>^i5 i^x tD:>^ nfc<>j<:i ii<i^t'^D 5,000 pö ^»D>5t?P 8 V'\ ^0 
>*^Q P5 ^Y^^p ,|y3^^5>jny-i i^n nyj^ij^so ,nyBip ^lyr^^K piD y^v 



DZ v^)iP'i'^^''\B "lyn p5< ny?{>n i«^^>d 2500 p« ,i);?ovj-D:i^^vpn j 
nyo^^ai» n d^^ii ,iy::pn{ps p.D — 1250 : iy?D^«-D:y2yp n j 
-D^^^D^2^*P n D^ii .yrir^ ps — 1250 v^vi2^ p« fy-.ni.*v-i?D j 
,"iyDDJ^i2 Di^iv pn ^t>*T a:i:yDyn lyn^K ns .lyiny^^-.fciiD [vd j 
DV^:y335>* lyv:^*; pN Dnyr nyrtj'b'o n t» ,iycy:jj? n^>3 ly'^ri'j 
iy:yDyi:^nöt ^n jy^yi^ n^o p« ,in{<i> Dyi pa ü^-'V ly; j^x 
,'?*^^ü'? ,|nytDMX pyn pnc^n lym« .ly^s^nyDyo n lyc'Miv 

: iy?t5^a-D3^^vpn{^"i3 pa y^v^pn^^^D (x 
,1,000 nn^D«i^ ,4,000 pn tj^s^ ,iy^5§nyü'80 :n*.K^^n 

.5,000 ircisn^ 
,4,000 ly^fcünyDb*^ ps tODJ^p lyn : ("ini^> ijy div) mDj^n 
•^^u^ o^iyrnny^: nyi ,l,oü0 DEStip-D^^nn^ pD dd^^p -yi 
|yjh!p 05^11 ,nnr.D px tDv^i^ tor^ dj^i .6,000 lyo^*?^^ ,1,000 
.nni^^ cy^^j cyn -ii?2 iy^i§nyt3i?^ ifeüD lynyn ^ovi^^ötn 
: "ly^^^n")^ n iyi2 iy^o^^-D:ynyt' pa y^v^pnD5?2 (2 
'^m ,-^0 nnoK^ ,1,000 pn Tt;?!' ,iy^»nyüöiD in^.Nvin 

.1,250 \VD 
ps DDi^p nyn ,1,000 jy^j^nyDei'D pD oDi^p iyi : n-.D::,- 

.1,500 i^D^Tiv ,250 iDiyirnnyD ,250 Döötip-tD^^nn» 
tycD^^istD^sfe?? n 1012 iy^ü^fo-D:yny^ pD y^vspn^öts 

,"2„ PK ^11 ::ijy2yi yn^yr n ^Ni?2j<Di>*:— 
.9,000 üEy^Dfcitn lyofeünv Dpnt^iö lyD^^iny^ "iy^:^3 nyi 
K pa yonj^D nyn p« iy^yt:ii^:yD8Tiv nyov^K Di^i t-cj^^ 

: yv^>::8D 

6,000 1,000 1,000 4,000 («) iy^D^D-D3i#^vpniiJ-i& 

— iy^D^o-Djyny> 
1,500 250 250 1,000 — (3) ^yo>>nnN iöid 

1,500 250 250 1,000 0) |yDD^5>Kö>BSP 180 



9,000 1,500 1,500 6,000 n^D 

-vao^iK ly^y^i nmno y^ni^i n mi ,inyr -i^oi^^ lytDV^K 

-yj Di^vni!?"iB lyrn "2,. lyü^^ni« n pa nn^D::^ 250 n 
nyw^^n-i» yn^yrn .lytD^^ni» "iy:c ]v^^'^'ü2V2V'? P« lyn^ütii 
250 n .|y5'O^D"D5y3y^ n Dt^ lys^iP nn^DK^ yiy^n ü'd lypy^^ 

♦vH'11 tyoD^^Kü^Bt?P'^f ,;yüD*^»o^BKP ^u^ ly^tD^o-Doyay* 



-ubäuk^) ly^D^D'Djyny^ yiy^n ivB^p pynj« ojn '^a ^vyvi 
250 II« "s^ 250 ,»?T^» .(iy5'^Di#Di#ünK ,iyn^^^P y:yn>n ,ny^: 
HD Djyn n px ^i^: t|n Dj^sya oy .pnsD pa sj^n» t>k 'X 

.lyD^ons i»D iy:?D>o-Djynyi> p« 1250 "a^ lyoD^^ötD^säöip n 
\vy'^ nnoK^ y-iy^>T ot^i^ /'}. "iyü>u"ij< n iv 250 lyanp-i^D ^n 
lys^ip D^ya n ü^'d p« |yoD>^yiD>SvSP "isd iy^D>o-Djyny5> pfc< 
"3^ lyoD^^öiD^sj^p n D!^^« \V2i^r) ID1^5 Dyi ifi^ix .250 v:^'' ^n 
lyD^ni .iy:5!3^o-D:y:iy7 yny^n v'Wiv "^^ nyo^m» n p« 
•D:i^>vpni^-iB i^^i^n 1000 n^".« "3„ lyDD^^^ü^a^P n lyansi 
-y> pK 1000 viv'''>r lyenpiytD "2,, |yDD>^Jü:to^2»P n .ly^o^o 
n D^o px "«„ lyD^^nni? n ^v "lyD^^ai» "ikd ly^'D^o-D^yn 
yD^yn p« ,iy^ü^D-D:i^^vpnj#nQ 1000 n si? ^n lys^ip D^ya 
TüB i^D lyj^n •'^8 :'»„ iyD^^2"i8 n pQ nnoB' n |yrt> oy 
•)KD lyn^ijtiiya tDS^oy: lyrn dj;?ii ,|yDPni^"i3 y^8 PD lyni^nya 

.nytD^uis n PS ■qmni^D orr 
1,000 iy"t lyD^^p-ife^s lyaiso "«.. ijfDDi>^8ü^sfc?P n 
-y^ lyc^ip ^v jy^js^nytjso ^^5>iy^» px üv'? di^ii ^tsnyinnyo 
1,000 jyni^n ":„ lyDO^^^üö^sfeüP n ,tDiypi8D .iy>tD>o-Djy3 
•"»^30^« lyno ^^T Di^ii ,iyDD^!?8to>Bj§p njsD iy>D^o-D:y3y> px 
1,000 n .|ypnnfe§D v'^V'^t "i^d ly^^nyDst: ^^^ly^s ci^ix lyD 
n -ni^: ün^^^jn /«,, 1,000 n Pi^i« lyD^nyaon« Diyn '';„ 
-Ml no oy pK ,iy^D^D-Dii^^vpnr?nB t^« i^r^ Di^n /%, 4,000 
-"•^üBi^i lya^yt nyi px y^vpni^iB px lyiyii Dr^^yaj^ns nyn 
pyia» oyn ^n ny:^^« "«„ rytDD>^8ü"'Bfciip n ly^jyi^ ,i^T^» .::)'? 
"2» ,"H„ |yi3D^^55t3^B8P n .jy^i^nyo^o yrii^i n lys^PSJ^ 
Dxn ^MR y^vpni^na n lyn^n:«? *)y-iMi dv-'K ly^t^p "j„ px 
.|yini|?s-8n»5 '>)) ^tüö^BSP tyn^yr oyi tD^o nnj^^ oy^^: 

m^: työb^5»m3^ß»p ^1 lyii ,^»s Dy'i lyioy: 'T'ö5>*^ "lyo^^fc? 
pyi5» Dyn ,üiymny!3 "^.y^n tis ^^••d fc$ "ij>*: "«in c^mk d^is 
t^n» oy tyr^> ^n BJ^Tbb^'>n d^^^ : ö^y^^ya pH pnti '•n irr'»^ 
,o5y3 n D*o ^n ly^yi^ inifj^-ß-iy^^s? ,dd^m d^^ ?D£yry.'5 p« 
PK |yt^'« tyo^^P ,|y>>sl^*ö^;»M« p« lyi^^^p yiiyi^n tD:^!DE>:t; 

,o^^oy«''^i< B^ny-?:s p^ r^D Dpni^'is ly^^^nny^ lyn j^r^^ 

ry^rnyoljb 2iy^D^D-D:i?^^vpni^iB t^a y^v^p^nsKa (?^ 
.6,000 ry»8TV^ ,1,000 D-vy^-inyo ,1,000 n)vy^ ,4,00® 



291 ^»t5'B{jp IIB y'j?»?^?'«'» V» rspn^j-iBjn 

.1,900 ivo^T^v ,450 ü-iyr.-inyo ,450 nnos^ ,1,000 rv^ö^nyo 
: lyDc^PSD^ESP n ife?D ly^D^s-Djy^y^ pD y^v^pn^fc^s: {: 
J,lüO lyDfcüT^.v .300 Diy^rinyc ,300 r\)T2^ ,500 ly^bt^-^.yöKD 
yrn?yr n lycyiD^s Dyr^« r« ":„ n« "a„ n« "«„ 

.ü^^^Di^a \^''>Vi:^ iy:^n ^n nyat^ ,-iynnD >ii 9,000 
-i<ü » pD yonJi^s: nyn pN ly^yotJ'iyoötriv "n^iN d^t "i^dj?^ 

: yv^^n 

6,000 1,000 1,000 4,000 (N) [y^ö^tD-Dii^^vpni^iö 

1,900 450 450 1,000 — (2) -)yD»nni< iKi: 

1,100 300 300 500 (:) lytOD^^eiö^ßSP ikd 

9,000 1,750 1,750 5,500 n"D 

um PK .i^^5^-iyD:iK "lyi Da^^ iki^ ii<to ?)? k ldv^n n>ai^^ 
-:5^ ":„ PK "n,, ,"n„ |yDD^^^D^3{<p n wii^n '?v'^^'>'2 lyöK'iy 
-y: >v \V2^n nio d^v ,7,500 pd >ft<tD^Hj<p s d>o lyn^^ny^ 
-Bi# lynya ^n ^^n t^k dj^i p« ,1,500 pD Diyinnyo s ddso 
yD^yrs p« lyi^y: ü-i^vni^iB t^k oy — ,iy"inyv"i5<D ^^ D38oy: 
P3t;5n nni;^^ lyoDpy: Dyi «i^^ik iy^ö^tD-DJi^^vpni;j-i9 .nrnno 
.nyü>^2"i8 nt?2 jy^ü^o-Djyny^ PK 1,500 pK 6,000 ^^r^v:^ ^^r 
Dyi p.D ,1,750 pD tDixJirinyo k ^n ly^Ko ik^b Dy>^: cyi ^i#: 
»i^iK '^^: cnj^^i ,1,100 >ti nnyo b^: lynnyviKS "lyni? >n iy:i#p 
]V2^n WT^nvi:^ .iy"i>^iiy: Dn^vni^ns ^n "1K2 t^k "pvz ^n» 
nyni^ ^n |yn{>*n nni^^ ciid q*.v ,5,500 ti^i« ly^KnyDK*^ d^^ ^n 
?y^KnyDKo '\r\V^ 500 n^iK |K"1KE r>K oy ,üd^\i Di^n ,6,000 
n» iKD iy^D^Q"D3y3y> .y^vpni^-is n ty-iyDy"i;"i{<B iv ci''ik 
nytD^^nnK n can ,1,900 ^i^iK lyni^iir: üi^^ni^*i3 m "iyü^^3 
•KD T^K Dy ,t^r^K .1,750 "ij^j ini^> oyi ^in ö:mKQ |y3i;?n 
VK^mi .nyD^"'mK "iKD iy^D^D-D:y2y^ yanys^K 150 cinx iki 

Viyiyn -nt:3 pnyi ly^ üy^i 
450 n jycnp nn^3t^ y"iy>n ü^d ly^yii "d„ nyo^^niK n 
"iK n .nn^3ti^ yny^n iyr> cy yn^yii pK ,|y^t3^o-D:y2y^ pK 
•y> PK 1000 n |yE>ip nn^str yiy>n d^'d iy>yii "k„ ivü''2 
n ."D„ ly^K^yoKo n lypyütj» oy y5^yi^ pK ,\v^ü'ü-d:v2 
800 "D, ryöD^^Kü^BKP n pD lyB^ipBi^ ly^yii "3,, ivd^^d-ik 
ny"? PK üpytD^j^ oy di^ii 450 ^nv'*^ pq iy>ü^D-D:y3y> pK 
1KD iy^D^D"D:y3y^ 150 n^iK ^n "d ün^^J'S oy .ü^yir-inyo 



'7»tttBtfp 0^1 292 

pjMiyi ^MK ^n 18D "^4} i^D lyat^n y^'nnn o^)) ,nyD>^n-i8 

or^^^ya lyDJjn >n di#it SOO n lyoy: "3/. lyüD^^fejD^Bötp n 
^"lyn-viyD ly^n ür> oy v:i'?v^'\ px ,iyi8»ii n po p^n 8 nsc 
•^5> oy v^'^v^'i pK ,D:yi^n p« ly^^nipi^DM« ü^Diyi lyanp px 
-1KD ":„ lyoD^i'KD^ßbt? n /':« lyo^^m» n pa nnoB^ n |ya 
lynt^iiy: Di^vni^is vh oi^)) »onyinnyo 300 yiv'>''\ inny^ 
oy lyonp >n ,öD>^n di;?t ,ip£"iö:i ^n ys^yiii ,|yD8t yru» p« 
n lycMpnj^s w 'ni?: o^^^^a oy .pyi:» oyi >^3 iyj>^K st^ 
in oy^ ^M p« Di;?ii ,|yDD^5>8D^Qö:p nss iy?iD^D-Djyny> 500 
lysi^n "3^ iyDD^5'8D>s»ip ^^'TVD^yii ,^8nyD»D oyi pB ony^i 
-o^^öfü^BSP n IV oy lyr^ipiE?!: ^n .{ypna^Q yiy^n p« a^tsn^ 
öwinnyo 1,000 yny^n pB 500 fyinyviKB v:i'PV)) /'k^ |yo 
Vit^ o'pv} n ü^D "K„ iyüD>^i$ü^B8P n ^^3 Bt? lysnp 'u p{< 
ony^^nnyo lyn t^s 500 ]nvi:^ n ü^d .ly^snytoj^o 500 
n ^ii;3 lyr^^jn nyo^^ii ."i^» työD^^»o^B»P n ^i^: i>t ly^^^n 
n löiB ty^snyoso n ps önyii nyi tD3^5> ^n p« di^ii ,4,000 
"K^ |yoD^^8D^B8p n jy^yii di^t nyni;!} »"«^ i:i^^^tDfli# yv:w 
•^n PK oy lyBnjjn ^n onii^iT ,tyB>pBi;)i pyi:» avi ^^i lyj^^K 

•lypnDj^B yiy 
150 *iMK p« ly^ötnytDSo 500 n^iK lyn^^aya t^k oy ,t^r?8 
650 n ö'T'DjyTynByn o^ .lyo^^m» n^s jy^ö^o-Djyay^ 
•nyvisc D>: ^»ii d»^p nytJ^^DD^^j^D^BSP nyi dj^^i »Dnyinnyo 
r« ivnn .yvpnt^ns y^^i pK lyr^^'rnj^ oy ^n^ ny n^: ,\v^ 
»IMK iny:py^"i» ^nsn 150 px 500 ^^ik ly^snyoKo rtD^ij 
fy^y^.i "K^ 3:i^^^üDt? nyi ps tVöD^^^D^EöiP n »t^r^»» .nn^DB' 
150 n D^D »ly^snytDb'Q n lys^ipst^ \^vi:^ oyi ^^n lyr^x 
nyo^-^nii? y^^j n pt^ ^nyo^^nn» S>*v yiyoyi: fe? mri ^^r iy5>yii 
fy^D^o-D:y3y> 150 n lys^ipBi;? px nn^Dc^ n ryoyj lyijyi^ 

.oBMpnsB D^j lyn^^ny: iy:>n ot^n 
•^'3 jyo^Miv ü]n vt< y^vpnii^nB "lyn ps ijnyDynjn^^B n 
»i^iK jyBMP |yDD>^»D'B8P ^T Di^ii ,Dyi p« ünyDK^i?! 5y^Q»^ 
.nytD^m» inyD 150 «imk |y:jn pfc< ly^y^nyoeto nnyo 500 
yr^DD^^Sfü^BSP n ^n» M^ ,\)2^n Dyi ]^b t^t^s lynyi n^o 
PK pyn^» Div nniji* p^x i^b jy^^nnD^^x -^n (t^p y^vpnt^iB 

•linyii onyoB^yi d»j ^lütt D3Miyj3^>5»j n 



] y D M ^ n p .VI 

y:55n2 ^1 lyii^ny;! Dnyiy:on» ^y^a inyr vi< ,t'Dp-i«o ^t^t: lyo 
->DD>^«iD^£8P nyn PD JJio^naD^ix nyi p2 lyvyjy;^ n jyjyii 
Dyi px "^nBiJ'"iyn>ii„ s lyji^y: oj^n lyj: .yvpni^"i3 ly«^ 
-pnj>*nö n ö^^n Dü^myj^^x oiji)) ,Dyt:D^D jy^j'^DD^^sD^ESP 
^M« DDpsi^ D^n lynyi:« "lyi P2 px lyopöiii ps rT:yD5i' y^» 
o^j nn^sK' ny^^T d^d [y:i>*p V27V)) ,"iyni$Dy^^i5 ds^p nyi 
TN nyK^^DD^^i^D^GötP "lyi P2 opnijiis |yv:»3 crt lysMpaij 
cyi p.D "y^:^£DiDji^pni?ü:^x„ nyn ps Dj^o^nyi ".yi .ynüon 
,nmnD ps "y^:^pni^n5-iyn>«„ yij^^:i';nD 8 t^« d»>p "iyö^»:n» 
-'3»p >T «lyonnp ypy^nDonrx y^^ni^nys n tain^a oi^u 
lyDn IV jy^Jixr.vya lynny-; lyj^n i:st^ lyiy^ ps lyDo^^KO 
PD iyt5D^^t$t3^Qt$p n p.a r:y")ip:J^P ^ ,n:ii:^D>iK pK pife<a k 
DT^^snyED^N ))i ünn^2 p-ii5o-D^yn l'snx nn^^D yjyi^^sj^nKfl 

.:ynp-o5'yii pK 

Dpn^*t3 ti>* ,i23J>*T D^'yajy ny^^yii |y:yn ,iy:i:ipiyD»3 v^2vnvy^2 
-ysK' in>K n3„ DsnpDiJSo pn p« tD5>yüB'y:rn8 nn^K Dt^n 

: ''ny3'^nn^2DM« \]f'?^'<\)ü:v nyo 
-Dit^^vpnt^iB tVK^^tDD>^»o^5»p üvi p« lyDnöB^iymu 
,p-iö;o cyn isd roDMi iyj>^T "sys^ip d^s "lyo^^niK n : tsiic 
-t$n w Vjyi:yD » ü}^n oaiü^t'yTyj y^^DD^^^iö^ßKP n nyaif 
ny^v ps "lyc^ipit^D D^8 T^ns lyooiy^p oyn 5^^^« »»i lyppn«^ 
nnsci'nyTMi nynyD^Mi 8 .tscsiP'D^^ms — m^nD lyjyr^it 
p^ mr^^iDJi' y^vpnt^-5 y:i^>DD^^8ü^s»p n lyii .ly^i^ey y:y* 
-^K PD lyD^ey -leiD D>n8 nyt:^« "^n typni ,nin3 ynn^K y^« 
•y::j? tDO lyj^^p lyjsy-ip-D^i^^vpni^is n ^*ni »y^vpi-it^ia-iya 
Dn>vnj^-i3 nfc>*: d^j ^^anyi ^i^it oy ts ,Dyi \r\i^ lynyn üyijyrt 
ts-iM^^'^jy"! ly^t^P i^iK ^J^T "ly t» ij^j ,tD"iyii y^yoyii 8 lyiy^i 
■n ^T ,y"i88ii "lyi ps tinp^^Q lyn nynt^ ; fyny^i (dd^pikc) 

Dyi PQ "^^IK «^>D0 PX ,580^E8P"|yn881^ ürt I^D y^V8T*^8 

•2iyi83 n ps iyvy:yij n •qnn tD>j t3P:*nK>83 r^K ,oiyii-inyo 
,058t^^yTy3 lyi pD (y^veoioii^p) '^>n3*i8D nrr po jyo'j 
,OD8iJ'5>yTy: 8r8 pD ^^niisc cyi fiD iyD':D"iyn83 n \^b -u^ 

206 



(* ".^u lyDDpyj D1X nyni? Diyny; di#i 
: p:fc?"ty3 lyrn^yioyi nyn^x ny o'-irn ^n jytDm Dyi p« 

-öDn^'yt pn PK >5N*to^ßb*P "lyn t» ,.n .i ,«213 ^sjid^e^p nyi t^k 
'n:y "lyi px DP^is-jj^riDn« nyn d^» lyi^^tj'iy ar.Diy^n^D 
t« ; yvpns^^D nyi p2 pyn^ ny-i pN ivd}>*o nyi d!?» ,t3p:ia 
ü^: p« ,^»t3'»3SP Dyn 15^2 y^vpnj^ns li^: t^« y^vpni#-)B '"i 
n T^i^n ü^: iy:^n iy!?D^Q-Dj^>vpni^n3 n ts ,.n .n ,DiypiK£ 
pD üsi^tj'^yryj n -■«a lyny^ oyi lyo^^D^^'yiWD^^« ty^tsro 
n lyjy^ifcsn ^n ij^p oy ya^yii p« jyvy^yn: n .|yDjyvni>*n3 
nyi fin« ^n tov^ütj' d^ii ,Diyir^{<D^sKP oyn ps a^iD^snoM« 
n pD yo^D nyoMi: "in ps j^nnyonss pK y^vsnsi^nsDpy 
anjytDK^ "lynnyi ly^yio lyvyjyna y:>ti^T n — jyojyvm^ns 
lyi ya^yii ,y^vpnj^ns pD lyn^oyo n D^tD ^nstJ'iyiMi pN 
-y: lym yD^yi^ p« py^iv pn n^c iy-i:nii^* tiö dd^^^ü^bsp 
•i^ns n n^iK ,y^vpn^iB lyi pD i:nnyoisö n «^^ik öyosn 
-ö:y yD:j>ifc?2fo^K n tn^^x ,p^^b* "^in -1^*2 pyi^v » d^»» y^ypn 
nyn pa lyoaynp yivDpni^tns v^'^o?}^^'?vwi n p2 ::i^pmi 

DP18D nysj^ onyn iit<3 lyn^yroyn ti2 y^ytsK^ "lyn:» i» p» 

: D^J^T ny Dt>*i^ T^« üJ^ xnyi:{< ii^: nn |y:yv» 
lyonnp n ts AV^^t ^v c*'*^^*^ y;t^:5j>*D^,«D y:^n k t*« oy 
•:j^p n:;rny2-D:i:'!^ni>*^ p« pnn fc? i^« oy Ds<tii »psnyi lyö^p 
...lyD^y^iD^f^p y:^■:y2-D;:1^•^^^•v p« nyij^ ("^^nm^B) y^vsöiD 
"HM iy:^By: oy t» ,i}^: bo^^'n d^: "^n iy2^ip^-5<2 nrnno n oi^i^ 
^Mi .|y>ni?v5<n "in^N ii?B w^^^-P ly^^t dj^i^ ,iyönp p>p tD^j 
2r-:n3t?2 "iy2y^t: p2 p^'^ » fyny; y^3>>*5J>*DiKt3 lyi iV2^ ]VK3 
w » t33np D8^p "lyö^^nnt? lyn ti^ ,t33J^r \v^ d^^ii ,D^Dnyn 
nafcjütJ^iyn'*« nyi tfc<t p« »dphi^ib nyjy^^^x pn p2 ^^^d cyp^^p 
Di?^p "iy*j'nn8 nyi ^11 ,1^83 nrs lyiyii üiyDD^^^nyi i^p 



.363 .T ,(::i^yny3»K 
"231 .T .T ,:j3^'?"!:b^ yta^nn ,^yttiB8p li^eijr^STB ,v^ irjm(** 

.(ysK;jDMK ytt»t3»n) 232 

,"H<öptf":yi PB .P^yoi»j — .!*»<? lytsopy: oyt pK T» w<cy;i iy^iv^^z 



295 WO^^lp 

vy^i |yii iDD^^n Dip ,t3pni^-iö pn ns p^n \*^iiüT\i 8 öanp 
IVD^Tnp n TS ,|y:n px jyzi^n jyo ^n^in lo ,iyDp»ii nn^DK^ 
nV3^yii p« ,nj^ny3 s ^nn ii;fn; D^n^y^iv ^t^D lyiy jynyi^ 
D:np Dfcn^p "lytD^^anj? lyi n« p^»y:^fci; px |y:^^DB^ nn^DB^ n 
Di^^i ,Dpnj^"iö lyD^^iny^ Dyi pa 5^>d Dy:y^ \)d p^n pyoyn: i? 
-y3 jynfc^n jyiijinyB yD5>yTe: .y^vs^oiDJ^^p nt^D Do^Dtj'sa t^n 
pD iDpJiai38DSJ' Dyi pD jyonnp iy-i:yiisi^ ,tDiyp-ifc$D ,t55>i#T 
(* ".^DK' "|yDDi^-)3. Dyn pa lyon yrri^T n 
nyvisa oy'DpnsD d^d ly^yo^ ^m n iDD^^^jn^s |yo lyn 



.(y2»;D>iK ytt'Qny) 386 — 385 
iyia33»ity nyn^ lys'^pnni cyn lyjy^i lyiyn n«*?? "jm jyo an« 
»yjniynns ^>ns n px y'i'ycö' •^yasy'? nyi lytrmjt iriBty-ijnMi 
/^«DiBKp,, i^fi ^*>ö ny;j»:^3''N lyi tk ,]y:u p« jyn^tn ]yn e^^Hi 
']H3 .liHi nyntrny lyn t»« ,iyny'7 Dy'Dpi^ö ikd ]);i^^'\:! vh dkii 
-y: nK3 tstjn "ly yr^yn .Dinns no ^ ]yn>7ny;"iyn'K lyi^u aniD pt» 
-y;3yoKTi5r »n is^n D'jyjjay li^nß-oayny'? p»t .|yo>»ai(<iy3'« 0*7«^ 
-»m» Dyn lynyjyjom» B^jn p« »lyT^'jyj tu a^n oy m ,Kyiiyp^ttiy 

.n:tf3 w^'»^'^ DyT pH lye 
oyn tt*?yisrry;}3yoKn!f tsKn D^y:j:y yr'ryn po lyaenpoiaxo n 
.1865 pK 1861 lyö'ms lyiNnyj lynna'yj y'^i« ]y:>n i:h2 tyann 
]y"iyii Dy ixn ,iyt2BnpDU»jD ta^'S lyn'ryT lyn pB ly^'^^ny; ij;:^! cy 
B'D nyn^j ,n3K3 lyo'ms oyn is lyiyny:: dkii ,iyj!i«"iB n a'^yiittn^en 
pe lyi^n »u '?^m ,BSi3Kn ö>3 D'jyjsiy tt a^jn iyüBnpDi:^<a y:y» 
'^Q nyasy'7 nyn .lyiKiiyi a'^3"iit!!y;jiyi^N "j^jd i^fo » n^3 popi»» 
,1878 ]'K iynKiiy:i ]ynntryj> t»k 13^*2 lyann^r oyi pD ttsnpDiJ 
yspinjiByi n iy^n:Kn«3 ys^yn ,iy'7ü'Bxp v^v^ pH P''"HJ T'k "ly 
.■j^ü'BKp ]yT'7t3DKty':yTyj ]ys3x:i oyi pD ysjj'ripi'S n ]^H 
]^H ]yn>n>r pm pK in«» J's:«<n:i ta'^nn Dpit<ö m itjo t» lyn 
y:yn''72y:"iyn»K n p« t^ ,inyt3tr"n<D is ü:><^ tm ^o »tyn^nitriyn^K 
B>t3 p>K ü'i lyo'BB' DKn »ly^yaty lyi'By; TT |ypo y:"T lyTEt^s 
iD2''?a:yfiy"iKB p-iyii p'T i3'?^|m opi^o lyn .lyp^ttiy; ynyoyBtt» y^^'t 
itTBK pK tDsyoKnaiB D*?»« p3»ny;j p'« ]yoiry;3<« icbk iy u'y^inT ,]"'7«< 
1» u^^osyitfa "ntB jyn'jtjnyi oo tu i3^<n ni'nc p'T lyn^« ,pyi:4« oyn 
T^H Dpn^<D Tij .üiy'i'py: anin iy .lyps^iy; y:"T ■'.yn'« "njrjy» k p»? 
BKny; t^jtn ny d^<^i .lyiyn "jk? u'byii n »oryi dkt enn 0^*11 ,]|*d y 
tyB»*? n ö2»DHJB oni« »^a tt lyn^jn oy nyin« ,]yj|<t ns ]y:i? pit 



•83 pn D^fD ^y^vj;5D ,^»ö^ßfc?p na y^X85'ipn^v njn p.D y>it#yö 

-83 ynjynya^^nnfcüD ni "inyo o^: lyi^n ly^yotj' >niv vü^iv n 
lyn •lyij'D^^DD^^K ly^yii d^: >n ^t^r jyo to^na mi »lyjjipiyo 
^nyinnyo oyn ps y^vs^ipn^v n f« yasns nyn pD ovy 
üD>^8tD^Q8P nyi ^v ,ivnyn ^^^k' d^j ni?:i t>k oy r» ,D:i?t dp^kd 
nyi >^^o 8 pn» d:i^^^ ny ^:^ ,i3nyirinyD iyv:8i pn ony^iKa 
D>>^tDy5r^K myi:» onyii y^vpni^ia n ,OQv^v:i p« pa 
4^« lyaiji »ynüonrx nyi pa lyi^i^v y:yi>^5n8a n iyfij'>iiv 
^n« itjt Dnyi n ,i^d^j n:^D-Npaj p^p ni^a t^« y^v8^ipn»v nrt 
iyv38: pn i>^^8 iDnnyvn^a d^s^ii dd^^kö^s^p lyn jyii mi 
iijyi üasB^^ytya nyn p« |8i8a t^« oy n:?83ni .Diyinnyo 
o-iyi> DJ^tii ,iyDpni^i3 yo^o n ry^^MOiVD^i« ^i^in mysöo 
Dijtii ,D*^« iD>: ni;?j Ü38D ^ü ,nnj#^ 8 pa ^ik^d oyn p« iyE8K^y3 
pD DwrnnyD Dyn Dn^Djytyiayi tDnyirn-nnD oy-i pa 5»"ö 8 

:t3D>>8D^B8P Dyn 
>T IV üivnv:^ y^vpnt^-19 yv:83 n T8 ni^fa ^n D^yisjj^^ 
nijii t»K ü^'3n8-"inyo ny^n t8 ,13D^\i dj^t ,p^^8 nyD^^sns 
— ,iyöD>^8a^a8P n "i8a d>j ,p^^s ^n -i8a ü^unN-nnyo 
y3^ytn jy3^^^3 lyoiy^rmino njy-i>5»ip"i>v yD8D n ö^i^n 
lynjyöiTDiK ya^^^a "lyo^ix yv8^ipi^v nn^x n8a ü^i^ii p« 

(*".ü^y3 yoiD yrn^yr n Dasnnyjj^ns 
i^'?4^) y^vpntris ytr^iDD^^8t3>B8P n nsa p"i8o ^yi 3^« 
-8P nn D^i;|tii ,nyD>u-i8 n pa ^M-i3n8a Dyn j^a iy:j8nyj3i^ 
Dnt#ii ,ty"i>DDnpy t^:i^?v:i ö^: püi^n^ DytDD''D nyK^>tDD^^8ö^B 
pa 5>^^o 8 li^:) lya^iP nn^3K^ y:^n ü^d ii^p iyD^u"i8 nn 
lijtp |:?D .tD^^v "lyiy^ iv iya8:^»^*3 »nyii oj^n ,Dpni^nQ cri 
önyinnyD pa ^^^d Dn : d^^v yv-np 8 p)^in nvy i» iy2yj ^n 
lyi^^^j^^ns iy it^p ,p^^8 tD^j tD3y;?i8a dd^^^d^b«? nyn dijDi 
n pa 3n Dii^t-i n^i« nynj;? .nrnno y^o pa y^vpnj^na n |»k 
•jyD"3i8 Dyi pa 'qnn3i8a oyi |yjn Pii^i nnino yrtt^n 
•)ytD^^3-)8 ny-T it^p ^it8 m^ : «^j^p 8 tsi^^a ^i^i t^^^^'?! ^d .D8^p 
pa 5>^^D 8 '\^: lyTD^ytyiayn dj^ii ^nn^SK' yrn d^ö d8>p 
? Dpnii^is iyv38a oyi lya^p ,Dpni#-iö oyn 
•o^K nyn tDyiiytD8n dt^^8d^b8P on t8 ,rn^n ^yi t^8 
|yD^ipi8D DO lyji^p iyoD^5»8ö^B8P n Di^i^ : pn8t3 "lyB^n^y^ 



.652 .1 .Di^nttß^j yöflVyn» ,^yo»B«p iyÄDj«»3tjnj * 



297 lyDtTnp 

•iyn:sJ8 \V2^n Dt^n ,|y^p^Dn» pi>^k |yDpni^i3 v^''ü'>'>n n 
ni^i T^« Di^n ,yD*^.i^D yD^^"i>ü$$j iyi:i$:öi nyni^ ^tony^H'^^i^yj 
— Dynt^:yDt?P ^miv n pD D^:tD>yni8D"üiyii oyn iv ^^^i? d^j 
nsD lyD^^jytnya Dyn n^^a ly^p^Dis ii« iy5D^o-Djj;^^vpnijf-iB 
•iyiKD ,^ö:ü^öi?p iy3n:yt36J'83 pa y^v*ii;?5i;?iB n ny^^^ ,'^r^V'i 
"pni^nB n yD^yu ^m« pk ^^nyu-viyo px ^{üd^böip jyD^^nyn 
nyn .lyiyi^ iD^^^toy::^>« lyji^p Dyni^:yD»P vt^2 n p£ lyö 
n p« ^'yiisn iyK^n:y^DMK Dyn pns Dii^nn jyo d»;?ii d^d 
n pD Diyii Dy:yDfe§5J^yr"iyini lyD-'^nny^ Dyn pD ;:oinyD:^« 
(* ".yjtns n nyD:>^^3-i5$ö "ii#: lyo ijijip »lyopm^iB 
liK^D^iK p« "lyö^ip n T» ,^^5'nyBr>65'Kn li^f^p ^j#t t^n oy 
iri^Dii;?BDpy ^n DMK ,n"nnD yDn^Dii^Bo^N n jys^ip d^j iyii>*p 
T^^K'-iyto:!« nyn .m^no yjyi>^K ny^^r yoiD ya^^^: ^5 ^imk ü»j 
PK jynni üBMpnsD t^q di^^ .niino po Dyi p« ii;?: i^r^»» r^K 
jyDpni^iB yK'^D^^^ lyönpisc iv dkü:?':« :p"i5§d |yK^>D^\T Dyn 
tDi^n lyo y^^yii n^x ^yij'njy^DnK |y2>iPiöiD lytio lyo üyi^ 
nyK^njy^JDMN ny"i„ .jyDpni^iB yDi^Dii^BDpy n DtJ'MtDyaon« 
pyiD^nn » n^^x lyanB^j^iyi^ii n ^lynns li^J tD^jjnö ...^ynjtsrr 
C^* ".T^np^jy^Bti^ jynyDyi: {§ *^t i{<d D:yBy ,nt2^ 
"y^vsDiDJi^pnyD^iN« Pd ynj^yo nyi ps tD^>Pu^5»ö n 
]^D nn'D |yt:^8 oyi lyn^K D'nrn n ü^)) »oyT p« onyöe^w 
ly-T« t» ,iytDD^Di^:5>*^y ytsiK^nn V'W'^^^ n px i'o^dd Dxn» 
.^PD tDnyotJ'titn üpni^nB üvi ps oiyii iyD>^D2SK^5yTy:> lyv:»: 

nsp lyan^yöiTM oyi it? |yv:»3 px ^^Diyi Doy^iKB ryo 
nsD ü]n IV y>vni?Bi;?nB p« an:ytD6j' üdpsii lyD^iyn ,^8D'» 



^i^»»DHj yisD^yiw ,*5yB'B»P nyoDj'Sitjn» ,ii<q nyo>n« (♦ 

.(j3isynyn'K pQf»^;uj?) 548 .t 
••nw ,;i:i^<'BB^^ yoD!)y ,'7jn3^B<«p i^^üDjtignv »najja i^oim» (** 

.(j;:«j<JDMK yofQ^n) 444 .? ^3)'?<^BBV)ya3iii j» 
yv'Dn) 329 . J3^'?>>isBrj jr^33»'3 ,'?j;ö»Bijp i.jroDj^ir^jjn» (*** 



•?tfa'B<?p 0^1 298 

üK ünvüir^D Dpni^iö ny3>5»iny> nyi .^jüd^süip ivs^^nyijy 
-D:t?>vpni^i5 PD nynnvD "q^^j nyni^ ,iy5'iD^ö-Djyn.v> 112 ij^: 
n» nyi tD^j ^vd^ip iy:i;?P lyoD^^^D^ß^p n ir#j dj^ii ,iy^D^tD 
-yi >>n iy'nTn'iv-iyn>fc< ny^o d^: D-iyii dpisd .d8>p iyD>''n 
-»DD^^fcHü^Essp lyi lyK^niv n^^^*iyDj"i« nyn rfc? ,D^>njy;y^yj ny-i 
üi^n Di^ii ,y^vpn}^nö-iyi»j5ii iytDDi^-13 -lyi n« y^vpn^^ia nytj^ 
Di^ii ,«21:1 inyn px DnyDt^'83 ,dt^>5$d^ö8P Dyi nj^a toi^DDnpy 
•ya nyn t^« y>vpn>^iö-iy^s^^^ lyoDi^iD lyi pa pyiivi:y lyn 
pK DK^^iDy^D^« Diyii yD^yi^^ ^yij^iii'n nyn pD Diyir^mn 
,y^vpnt#iö nys^^DD^^ijtD^st^P nyi pd pyiin:y nyn nyn ,piö:o 

»önyinnyo nyn t^x ,Dnypi»3 
PD yatsm« n ? lyonnp oni^a -^n lyoy: yK^t-iyjfe?^^ P^- 
D^: It?P DS^p iytJ'^DD^^fe?tD^ö^p nyi Di^n ,do t^« lyonn» 
-ß^iK D>i p^^» ii<!p ny D{^ii ,D"iyirinyD Dyn pe lyiy^i di^q 
-Koii^: -ly^^^n^N IS ^^3^ i^^£K MT» '»11 DT^^n Dp-isD .lyoy 
'41B nynni nt^j nnj#> iv ini^^ pa ^{<tT oy lyii ,y^vpni^n3 ny> 
/'5>fc?ü^E)SiP lyD^J'DDStJ^^yTy: nyD:^^^y::^ns lyi lynyn Di^vn 
-p>B Dyi PD y>viJ^si?"i3 n lyiyii »lyoti^y;! o^^v lyi ü>a t^o 

(* .^so>BSP lyj^D^^D Dyi p« |yo 
nyop'D nyi ,5'fe?D^ssp oyi ps '?^'d » inyrya lyni^n n^o 
pmv öDip PK jyoiD yonii p« Dr^^y^^^ns Diyii ,^feiiü>a»P 
lyny^ pD lyn^t'pyj:^^ lyiyn d^p^h yriJ^i n .D^p^n y:^^>p p« 
n jyoip oyii oy ly^i ,nD ^nj^^D-inyiyi s d^j» DD^^fcHD^ssP 
^i^T ,y^^: lyD^ip w p.« nyj^^i'SD vü'?^ n lyDj^iixivD^n» d>^^ 
•KD n i^y^stj'^^n div ,|yii .t^^t^ iv Dt^n di^ii d^o ivn^in iy 
ly D3^^5» ,nn{^^ 10 D:n n pK ns^t^i 100,000 idd^p nyr^^ 
int^' inyv '^^: p« ,nni#> s nfc§^i?-i 10,000 f>:^:i ^ p« pyii» 
DMK >t öo tiN n^^^i^i 100,000 n ^^^os d>o D^n» ^v ooyj 
Bt^ tDii^BtJ' ny ü^)) ,"i8^^"t 10,000 n lyu .'•lyrtj^s^o ti^ix 
n i^K ,ypK^is s PN vyny 3>nn lyjy^y:! "qn |yD>i^Ti ,*n^^iny» 
üDSoya "Hbt^yo^D "^n iyL:>i^ii ,iyDn^i Dyii ly ü^\) ,\v:'^^o 
"D^iK DD^*"^ ^ns ]V)W üv ts^^ii ,nnt^> jnyv n p2 D^^i^ nyn px 
npni? I'nnt? nyi px .ly^ny^-iyn iv Dt^n t^« oy m ,|yin^Div 
D^iK oy ü:ni<in pJ5<n n ,p3sn n pK D^ya n pn» ny oa^i^-iD 
■D^n» üo^p DV lyii PN ,iy:i:)^öy3nytD:'iK v^v^:^ n^iN y^^^nyi 
»•q^^jnyiiya ^11 ,DNDtJ':N ns^^j^i 100,000 n ^i^*ds t5^o lyn-^^.v 
D^yn:»n »"^^^n^üsi .D^yj p« niP P.:«n n t^n ,i^'?i^i 10,000 



.225 — 442 .? .T n^3 "lytt'mjr (* 



299 lyD'Tnp 

p« iyoD^^t§D^5KP lyDjyr^iö dik d^^pd^^p^^ii njn px ^n cy 
m IV D>y: -y^n iy£"i»i y^s to^j .lyjj^^^^o lyDiyuin din 
pt ^3 ,Dn^^^3 iy::nyDC' ps y^^m^ n nyai;): .ö^^v nyn>yr 
^iT» T^K oy .18^3 8 o'o ü>: ^n öih^d y^vpnj^-iB yvj»:i n 
-j^-i iy:j#^^^D nn« t:ii:v^'Vi \VD^^'^: s Di?nyi dpj^*!"; "in>N lyii m^ 
Dyn t:]>M TS ,pn üyr. t2Sü!?iTy-i nyi .iyD^«in3U fe? jnijt "ik^» 
']}: nyni^ lyai^n i^d .D?y: ly^iya toyii iyni;?D ,y-i«sii ly^iya 
-n^v iix y^vpni^is lyi^'^DD^^etD^EijsP nyi ps lyiyn n t» ,|nyT 
-i^-is "lyn lyi^ ,D^i^?oyi ni^: ro^n lynyn ^n lyji^p y^v^üi^ip 
-iüsii nyi ,^e:D^sb*p-|y"iS{ii^T p« nyn^« Drya PsiD^söip -lyiropn 
px "^ynn^ ;?j§LD^s^*p-D^y: nyi ,^^t:^3Sp-D^y3 px >xö^sj<P"|yn 
ny Bi^ ^n D^yoK^ j:ny-i3iyD:ix in»^ ,>xd^2xp ly^rDpnj^is 
.|nyt:)K^ p^^'xo yv:j<3 n D3^"'>3 ,!any"i p>K rvi 
-np IV D^in^a y^vpnijsiQ-iyn^x rx ,T^i^ ^^^^ dpix'o ,n!:x 
-:^K„ ^11 IXT ynH'T n ü^: t^x 'Tvpni^-isiyn^x« nynijt .lyon 
nyi Di^Ti ,p2-iyn d^j t^^D^.p y^vpn^isiya^x ."y^v5oiD:i^pnyD 
nt^j ,D^^3"ix pn p3 Dpni#"i3 ?yv:x: oyi t^^: o^^ii^ nyo^mx 
ün^vnj^ns dd^^xd^exp p^x idt ^d .ly^xnix yiyn:x n{>': pa 
,|y"ixx^^ ^y^Div pM ?i?QX tid jny-ijx Dyi ps anjyo^^i o^: 
DJ^^nxa »Diy^piy o^: npni^ "qj^j t^x tD^oiyi joyii iv ^i^fDX 
ms "iy:^D^^v"ixr x .lyon^iP iv lynn^s tio y^vpni>ns"iy3^x 
lyn^^pyi:^^ ßj^n iy Dt^ii ,p.siyi lyiJ^iiy: m^in d^j ^j;jt!2:>^p t^x 
yl^'rDl^^^ nxD .üjyiv^^ >y^Div ^monn !?y^2iv ,nxnn ^y^E^v 
PD Di^n ny \v\^ ,nnv x dx>p |y:j^^üD>^xt:^3XP Dy-t ^.x£ oy t\s 
"lyrtD^^vnxD nyi ps ni-i^D-xp^: n t^x dj>*ii ? ^y^Div "^xt "lyiy^ 
•nyo:^x lyi ?iyi"^DD^^Xü^sxp "lyi ^v t32x:^'D■l^n lyK^^'vna 
n .y ' V X t5 1 p 1 ^ V iy:i'''DD^?xtD>5XP "lyi px t>x n^^sj' 
Dj^n ly-inhi^ yro^^viXD n px lyixx^i ps y^vx^iPT'v yjxsr^x 
lys^iP "lyj^yvr^x "lyiy^ ^^'•i^ ,Dnnp x iv lyin^s tD^j^pya t3o 
ly^i .ynyi:x y^x Pc tDininy^sj? lyi^y: t^x •ly^npnxD px 
üiytDiyyj D^: Di^i üi<jn ,-iysnp p^p lyinsyi ü^: ^^n ynxxii p^x 
DT-i^xtD^sxP "lyi nyn»^ .nyi^x lycnpixo px lyi^vni^nQ ^v 
-i^"i3 n ü3X'3 px y^vx^ipn^v lyn px lynxx^^ y^x pnx on^v 
-X"i3 n p2 ^^"ö X lyn .y^vx^iP^^v "lyn pD r3^y^5^^ y^vpn 
nyn lyto^xnyjst^ onyn ,ü2^ipnxQ o^* üiy^^ lynxxii yün^vn 
-pnt^iB n Bi$ D^yot^ nynni di?"t p'X ,y^vx^iP"i^v iyi p2 :jx3 

.onnp X lyni^n ^>r2 px ,y>v 
-Q^^ y>vpnt^"iD pD idix lyt^^üo^^xts^sxp ^yn nynii? T^^^, 
n Di^ii ,ivnyn ixd:"x y:x")D yv3X3 n üoip ,1^1^11 üBXß'yj 



•7«tÜiB»p D^l 300 

w inj^^ pD "^^^^j ü'j fN ,D>8ütj'y3 "lyD^i'iyE-iyp pn pN ^^j 
-^K) ")n{#^ iyD^iiy;i ^ p« D>n: "inyr t^N ^>^d iy:y^ nnx .ini#> 
]Vo \Hi> ,{\^^:vo ^^3 Ml ü^\*?D^^2iyDK' ny^^^to^JK^Din nyn lyi 
•^ny p« pn ny oyii n^^^^ s nya^N rs ,ny:3n tj^i« ly^Dn ^^t 
-n^^n PN yD-tm^yaD^iJ^-n^feiin ,vn'>\i ps yD»»3 n .lyjyJ'p 
P2 y^vpnr^ns y^^^nny^ n nisD 3^dmj lyj^n d^-^^i ,|y^b:nyt:^*D 
Diyi^ — ]v\2Vü^'ü)i^ VT'^'?^ nyi5:iN — ^Mimsiö pD ly^p^tons 
T« p2 y^^pni^is yvjs:i >"t no nynnyi rw^v'?? d^j psnyi 
oyi iyp3n p« nnt^> p^n jyr^DSJ^ y>vpni;?i3 Pd iyD:yonöD 
lyo Dissii ,ü>D^yT iy2t?ynDMX "^n lyo i^p ponn .ini^> pynjs 
p>K pa .finin^n jyo mi ny-inyo lyn^yn^^iB 3>-ijyD^ üyn 
T-»« oy nyi^>K ,^»D^s»P"iyDp^D dj^o yiyoyii s pn ^n^n t3^n 
yn^n nnyo lyrsy:! ^n nn^T o^n lyiyi:^ lyi pc ;pi3^n rö^: 
ya^t^iny^ n n{<2 "^n DnyiJ^D Dy mi ,iyD^^^j*iyi p« ly^sny^jüD 
y^vpni^nsiyn^t? dij^d jj^tj? .(ly^D^o-Diiyay^ Dien) y^vpni^na 
-D''D y^ynyDfe?» n nyn^« Dc^^sj'^yrya nyi pD nn^tj^n n d:^^»d 
-KtD^öi§P nyn p« .nytsonpy iyiyD"»ni nyjy^^^K *in>« pö fy^ 
•y^y 15$ y^vpntjinsnyn^« »t» t^x nyni? Dcj^tJ^^yTy^ ny^^^DD^^ 

(* ".yonfeüj» PD ojyo 

-ya n^D fya^n ,^^tD^2»p ps y>v»?ipi^^ n jn^ytJ-iJbTifcs's 
-^n n^ ,]V'i2^i » D^fe? ,D")yirinyD oyi d^o nt^j ij^d ^v tD»n 
Pö a:^i Dyn pK lyoif^^ wt D^^n ^j^d^ö^p nyn mi ,inyry:i lyn 
->t}pn{^"i5 i^« üPynJ5?in{s*D onyii :'fc?D>E5?p*r>>ya : y^v^^^ipi^v 
»tJ^D^öfe^P'nninD p« >i$D^5is:p ly^rtopnvNjns ,t'^to^B»p jy^i 
lyni^n n>o .11 .b* .« iJi^D^B^p-D^y: pN ly-i^ii t'fe?D^£;s:p-nninD 
pD lyoni^D ^m y:?« n t» ^op-iy^D^xs rnjyny^'-unsD ^mk 
•lynyiii^ "^.yi lyny^ yj^^« ly^^Dcnpy typ^Jö^stüp yjyn-tJ^i^D 
-^ß8P Dyr?yv:^^t< lyny^ "i5§d 'T'>:iy?2 o^v'^'i icix nyi ci^tx pt« 
00 ,2:^3ynDiyü3ifc< ini>' D^yu^ya pn ü^o inya^vj« tDD^^j^tD 
•:|in iny:3nn Dy^^ ^»d^s^p ly^yr*»« pn ly:»^ V2 :njytDn{§ii 
-j;::i>« D-iyii ^'ijra^s^p "lyD^^oDB^i^^yrya in .|yo1l^*Q y>» n 



-»K y!y»^;i:y) 546 ,? ,j:i'7»»t2B<^ v^^'^V ,^yö>DtJp iyüD;'SJ»n!? (* 



801 ya»! a'B^jis p» isiy^nnyia 

-jyo n ^n ps "lyiyiy^ ür-p ony-ip px lypj^^n ps nyDD^D 
jjnynmytDJ-.K in^ IyD2t^•yy: yj^n d^o iny^i^^ji^ D^^pa^^» 
lyti'^DD^^j^D^s^p iy:^:^3 oyi pD dd^^^ü^ej^p nyi mi ^ns 
y"iyi:ufe$3 i^ iy::yt^«n dj^it ,D^p:?n ^m px d^j^^div t^n d8>? 
lyvifcüj lyi no ^d ^d^ü^p lyi^^DD^t'j^D^s^p cyi pr. iy:ji:'^>iD3i; 
^m pK lynyTi ü^>>üy:)j^^fc? *^^^x tD-iyirinyo iytDi^vni>*n9 
"»P pn tiMx T : ' V « Drip DD^i'{5D^£j<p-D>y: "lyi : D>p>n 
-iji n 3 öl nynyny iy:np D:^pn3i?3 lyi pi< in-iO lyi ."pm^B 

-M1V nniHD p2 y^^*^^^,p-i^v -yi pN t5§ ,p2"iy-! to^^j^s oy 
|yji<!p ,D^>p iy5i'^t2D^>{<D^E»p üv' pa lyjj'^^^^DSJ^ ^nn n ]W 
,tDiyii ly^Jia ny>n iv lynyn LDij'Mt^yiDMi^ d^: nmno yjnt^i n 
-nnö!D lyi jyn .nnino p2 y^vijt^ipi^v lyDjits:^^« lyi px mi 
T^ns in^K px iy:np d^j "iy ij^p ,minD pn üs^ipnytc ^:^p 
,üi^vn^n2 lynj^n lyo^^mj^ y:>n d{<jii ,Diyr."inyo ly^^^^j oyi 
,^V'?''\:vn QVi Diyir-inyo Dyi i^e i>'>'ü ^ iyDy".D2J^ rio iy 
MT8 .:'»iD''2fc?p v\ ^'M< D^si^ns {$ IV DrD3yn5§2 r^N "lys^yii 
jyvj^a oyi p^« üd^^ij' mino nyi ps d i y *n lyn mi -^,^24 
T» ,D>^s üoip ,Di^vn{;ii-',2 ü^n "lyD^^aiK lyi Di^^i ,tDnyii-nnyQ 
.üiyii nn^« ")yD:i5^ m^.no pn lys^ip-ij^c r^o üJ^pnn^^D lyi 
nn^no n po t y r ^ ^ "i b -t\ m p "i $< 2 n tj? ,üd^m di;{i 
.| y D n y n v^V't id^o ly^^siDjycsnv t3>j lyjj^p 
-ya Dyi ^mn t : > v nyi iny:2i^i8 ii^: tio "ly^^ii 
ö2>ip üD^^sü^2fc?p"D>yn:fe?n nyn n^ix ,:'{§t}^2»p-:D>ya iyD:ii^2 
Dyi iy:y3yn^3 mt^ü iy rio ,^j<D^2i?p lyom^ny: t3>D mino n 
'41B pn vin » |yn^^>2 dh^k ^Ji^? oy tk ,D>nj^v iy oijfii r^na 
.|y>ni#V{<n iv di>m "ly d^ii t:>v nyi ^^in d^d 
tD-'o r.nino i^d y^vi^^ipi^v n |yüDönD{<3 "lyi^v^i? '^^f2^> 
-fe?3 pfc?D^2fc?p pn .t:D^^js*ö>2i<p iyirL2pni^-i2 cyn pa ly^MS n 
nyi .^fc<D^2b*P lyi^yn^^ipn^v px ^fe<ü^2^p-iyDp^D ps tDnyoB^ 
,t>nö Dyi i^« ]V'i:i<:i t^« pni< tonya ^^^d^ej^p lyioyn^^iPT^ 
pnü: Dny: :'ttt:>^2t5P"|ycp''2, nyi p2 ,nmnD yüTvni^iB n po 
-fcüTiv yi^^D .:>^^D iyt:v>:y32i^ Dyi v*^: t^k Diijin ,yoiD 8 i^^ 
»nnino nyi ps i ^ > 1 b la d t^ P oyi dh^n n82 iyi>^3 |yo 
T^n2üD>?P •lyi .lyn^vni^nB w p^^s Dn>K t:Dt?5p n DSifii Dip 
•J»i nyn ~ »ni^no lyn pD üiyi^ nyn pD r'^^ts k 11^: t^r^s t^k 
•^IKT n jyDfcjD IV na .Diyi^"nnyo oyi p^K üdok^ tDiyii -lyv 



'jijtatB»? D^i 302 

ny T8 n« ü>ya yjyr^i« ];:^n d^d DDy:^y:i lyvJö:^ Dyi üin^D 
.yD>yt8 — ,D:yDiDjj?P div Dpyin nn^no pn p^>s üdmp-i^d 
-D^« V'^D D^j lyj^n ^n ,iyi^DDMpy lyDsyu'yj yK'>DD>>sD^i2fc§p 
üD^PSD^ssp iymi< T{$ ^lyoyjji^ nyo^Mi i^dj^:» ,i>>2i< dj^j 
oyn DD5§itD83 iy .onyi^ \vi>)^ in^« iv niino p>T üDnpnsD 
ytj'T i^Di^:^ .ü^D^ns pn ii?3 ^\:i:'>'\p ny dj^it »tDiyinnyo lyvjs: 
nnyo pa yo^^n n "^n üt55^nib*2 oy ^i^ »pnti'n j< lyDso nytov^« 

.yD5<n-D^2i^-is lyi ^v tjnyi^ 
ünyt2K^»i Dt^ii ,n8>t^"i 10,000 po >fe?D^E5itp ft§ lyoyj i^oi^'? 
-y;sj? tsnyii nyD^y^i ,nj?tPt^i 9,000 p£ pfeüü^sj^p-iyop^Q j§ pD 
-JKP) lyjn^yot^ötn lynjyi^^ipi^v fc? pD ,ini^' |ny>^ pK ov^i 
.8 .« jy^np ,ty>ft?nyr:i?D) n^^i^-j 500 ns- >8ü>5i$p (iyüJ«üD 
ti#> .(nno:^) n^^i^i 500 pQ psd^s^p ly^^nj^n^it^i fe§ px ,(.11 
-n^v lyn t» jyüyjji? Vüi^"? px 100% ytosi üiy^rnnyo n pn 
•lyn lyi^ .inj?> «$ p^^d 10 "qn cyiiy-iyp psd^ö^jp iyi:yi^^ip 
,:>i?o p>« Dyiiy"iypy:D^iN ^n dj^h ^sto^s^^P "lyiiiyi^^ipi^v 
"j^ns Di^n ny Di^ii ,i^>i^i 500 n pn^v DD^^5<tD>5fe?p lyn ornp 
n^^i^n 500 D^D lyD^Tiv ,>{§t3^5«p ly^nsnt^iii oyi p« üy^v: 
-y:j>n8 Dfc^n iy di^^^ ,n5§^^n 500 n oyn nn 8 p« ,tDiyir-inyo 
-snyDSö) Pt^tD^si^ip iyD:)fe$DDjj?p lyuyi^tJipn^:^ oyi px ür>^ 
aaw^jsi? ly^^'p^nv nyn pa p>n-t:jnyv p>N m ,(.11 .8 .« W'? 

1,590 lyo^t^^: ,18>J?T 90 DD'Tl Di^T ,i'8D^58P"iyDp^a Dyi PD 

10 pn tDiy^i Dyi^ nni^^ lyvj«: 8 pa dph^^iq nyi .ik^i^t 
cyi ")8D T>nB-DDi?p "in .n8>i^-! 15,900 ,.n .i ,^y^D nrs '?^o 
.i8t>8?n 5,000 T^« tonyinnyo lyi ,io,900 t^k dd^^^d^q^p 
Iy5>n8n8r, |ytDr^^y::^n8 Dyi 5^^1^? nn^^5 üjyDyn^n lyo ly^i 
D^y^nnyo pa yo^i n d^n dd^o "is^j^i 500 pa ^sd^s^p 
iDiyirnnyD üvi ü:yDyn8n '^yni^* öd^^^ü^ssp nyi .10007o 
pa ?8D^28P iyD:i>^:'y3j>n8 lyv:^; oyn pj^k ü^ai^is pn d^8 
n .p>>8 :58ö^s8p ly^^n^n^ii ayi ti^i« do ,n8^i^"i 10,000 
.507o ^3n-^D m'?i$ fK Dn^x nsa yD8VL5^ai^nB 
1PTV tiK lyDp^a pK ^8ö^B8P Dyn pa 2ji^^>tDJ^^« n 
PK ?8D^B8P iyi:yi''>ip"i^v pa 3ji>>^Dr^x n ,P8ü>e8p |yi:yi'> 
-''^JipTv nyn lyD^y^^ pk ü^^v n ,jy>nNn8^i jin iyü:8DD:i#p 
pK ^^^r?: 0^3 |y:^n — ,Dr.8 ^n Dyi^nyp ::'8d^S8p "lyijyi 
•8P nyi T>« nynjyö vy'üv:'?^ n .|y>iDD'nrK y:yTK'"i8D 
-80 '^"in tD>^2i8 |yii^2ij^iv:^^x t^n yntocnr« nyjj^^DD^^so^B 
,nyj^ti^KD) >8ö^B8P nytDj^ODJKP iyi Diy^i Dyi ^in .nw® 



8ü3 Vt:ü<T b'c^ns p« ttnyirnn;rD 

iy?aKn»ii dvi i!^ y^vit^si^is p« üiyoynnsEs (ly^snrtDso 
-"N ^in) nnypiSD oyi ps Dntj'Dii^D Dyi d^d .(nn^^js^) 
-KP pD y>vi§?ipn>v n \^ Dn>in (lya^K^ yiy^y:^^ iiK lyjnK^jyr 
-DMK lyanyi piiöii üd^^j^d^esp nyi PN nys^: inyj ix iJ^D^B 
n« ly^jsnyüöto ^m« ^JijD^sftiip iynjyn^>ipn^v i^ww^^ K ly^^^ 

-»>m y^8 p« rtD^^vD^^^a li^D d^j lyo^p iy3:nyi:y y>» n 
i^'^QK n>i« T» ,ni^>P pisj^ T^« pQ-iyi p,N ^ynDonr« nyi pc jy; 
-i^sDpy nyi PS ife?i3 -lyi dd>^-i Di;?i) üiyir-inya pa yosT n 
n?rMW y^8 p« y3^^>: s pn ?j^t (nyt:>u-i5$ cyi p,2 y^vstD» 
-j'« yjyi^K'iss 1^« ytDj$vD^2i?"is n toyii ,ynt2Dn:^N nyi pd 

.y3^^>: p^p pn d^: lynöon 
yöKVö^Qj^is n TS Ai^ tDoy: y^oj^jj^py y:i^^t2^>{^2 n lysjijt 
-ji« y^y^DD^^öto^E^p yx:^:i n nsD y3^^>: {$ '^^^'D^^ij^Din t>k 
-^ns^^iynni lyD^^nyr« iö: iv i^t^» i^t lyo^p n^»: .ynoon 
PN lynynyn^N t^n ly^yn tü iyD>yii ,ynfc?yD-D".yn lyi p« 

: lyDiyii v:vy'i< Dy'DpiSD 
PD lyrM^^f yjyn^K^isiD px ts »lyr^iya ii^t^öt iynj>*n n^D^, 
D3Dn i^K ,iyDe:rö>Di^i3 yD^^>::iN w^ivn ynDonr« lyn 
•"»»i^P n PD ::ivyT:yr2i$pv nytj'^jj^m^ "lyjyi^tj^ijjiD nyi tD^D 
y:yn^K'"iKD n d^d — lyi^yjyi: yo^iy: pN — "hmn pn |y:58!D 
^i^iK D?^3 üi^i ...Dns -qn lyiiy-iyp ^n v^'?v)) pn jvd^^!^ 
PE "n^D lyn lyny:! nyns r^n Ds^iniyn^N t^k ny3>yii ^-^^sd cyn 
yny^^T ',v dd^piöie |y"iyii nnmo n ts : j^iDDötiDsa "lynix 
nyi i^K T» ,t3^j P2D p^p "li^a T^K ü^n "lyijs nyi pc .lyoiyn 
-nyi:3^K yr>yEiv p« yD^^tDjyryivoiN P2 inyryisi^ .ü^^p^^ijpnni 
P>p DO ü"i^:oD>Tpy ,D^"iN '^n lyD^^^a o^)) ,yD>ytK lyii;^ jyn^^c' 
-ni<D n ii$D lyDj^rto^DJ^iE yD^i^DO^Din n ps ö^^n:yn>K^-i»D 
' j tD :> i# n M « ynDDnrN "lyn pD lyrniv yjyi^^tj' 
a:iD»JJ'st^ -lyn i n r# lyn^üOMpy DJi^pya 
-»P nyi ME DytDD^D jyvJSJ oyi md 

,l?T?K DJ^^tJ^ Dy .y^Vpill^lS iyt5^'üD08D^B 

iyD>:'piMi ivi iD^D ifc^nr^NiöiD oo i^i t>k yni>*yD-Diyii n r» 
PD iyjjiJ"tny y^osyrt)»^ n 0^0 "is^J'^nise üo ,3r:yii»3 

(* ."y^vpnx^iB ^y^ 



♦) Das Kapital. Dritter Band, erster Teil, s. 132. 

nT3 "3Miy:j lya'ryTDj;'! "i,yn>M opit?» o'"iTn y'^yats' -iyi3»:(j ]^n 



.>vrD^2ä5p lyijyj^r;?^ dvt p« |yD3{;?nD 
.]yo«n ts-'ß^ns n ps :31D*'''^:id^i« n .viii 

:»rt38n pD yiD2^K^y: nyi pD nmo lyiD^j^ny nyi ti-»!« 
0:5^: 0^1^ .|yiD"iyi^ yiy^n ^^ D^MtDy:D^^.K nn-'.no n lynyii 
DJ^ny^sn nyi p^t?» t^x nyD^^3"i» lyi i«ii ,iyi:»ü:j^iv v^v nso 
lyj'Ey: liStDU'iv d y n .y^^pni^ns pa iy>D^o yj^n pa 
cn ^^3 t^^yn iy:"iyiti:Q "lyi p« ^11 '•n^ nyD>» nyn p« "i^ra 
nnx 0^^318 PK nJ«^ P^ütJ^ yjyr^K PM Dvn5?2 dj;^ii ,iyns 
-Diy Dpni^ns nyi ."q^T ni?Q nDt^^D-^yn Dyn ^>3 px p>^i^ in>j« 
jytj^MW ij'^itDD^'iK Dyn Tin 3nnjj^ ps mino s px ^n D^ypMi 
.n>np lyntjynyn ps: lyn^^J n w^^m do ,d^»d y^yi^ij'i^D 
n 18D ^M« DJ#T D?^: ^n» ,njfe5D5i'^v w^^'W ^^: oyi 1012 mi 
^nys8?pi5' ^MK tDyi:n3y: lyrn dj^ii ,iy-i:{^t3K^^v yiyDystJ' 
oyi PD y^v^fj^Jis? yiii^syv n 1^2 p« D5«:ji':yr^^?-n^^i' p« 
IV lyiyny: di?i^ ,yvpn^is !id lyt^D^a n lor >d ,pnyinj8n 
o^^pinyiiij^ tD^D li^J -^n lyts^? y^vpnj^iQ lyi pa :i^miv p^« 
PD ly^Miv yjyi^-'K'-iSD n px ,iynyiJ{< i» p« ly^iijinD-iynn» 
IVD^ma 8 V2 iynJ8J8 lytj'Miv "^n lyD^^mj^D y^vpni^-is nyi 
C" ".D^^a yK'^üD^j^Di^p ly-i^ iyi:y> yioynD mi ry:yi3 
•jnjy 18 v^vi pK 0380 y^vpni^-13 y^j'^üD^^SD^ssp n 
pn PD t>nB-t3Di#p oyi tjjysyn^n öd^^sd^bsp nyi jjn 



,156 .t ,n:ij3 lyjjo'ryTiyi ('*' 



•pnm r»y>»T ijr ijny^^ taflnpi^s lyü'^Kii y'!?pnKia "ijjt ps lynysD 
IMBf VH oy Ml oyn ^^J3 V lyny:; tt'jxoyn B*?^n D^n .lyT^ne y2''> 
njn pD ijnyuD y:y'T<>tt'"n<B n ]^h lyB'r^jn »iiri^nr^ lytmyjj nynns 
pß iy:»»T Dy .ipttttn-ü'ß^tis y3yT»tt''ii?9 nnyr lytrnpn y'spnN"iB 
"^^c iriy^T nnino n »5f ,iy2KT yjyni'i^iKS yiH'i »ni!? r^ii« ]j;inx 
-OMK •iyn:«j:» lytrni» ipyn ^n »s .n .n) lyaiyii yiy"T 1» Msnp 
i»T f»K iy3i»T Dijrii jyonyn n it* onu'^ymj^s oyn p« otyniiyji 
»»np^^jB lyiyiT »»t »» lyn^? ,(iyTinB-Qnyn ynyiu is ,tytD'7KntD3y 
nn« iyo>D^jiB ys^^^a ]y:»^tia *?<<? «inpitta ly^'T t^ »ty^^^'^s yr'^yr^j 1» 

(183 .t) .''r^:>\i 



IVD^^ü^jtJ^Dnn Dyi ü'ü ivostiv i^ns-DOJ^p lyi .0 ^ d i# i b 
n« ,T ^ ^ n 3 * D j J? ^ V p 1 T i? n B oyi d^^k o^sd o^sijnB 
.{ypns-DJi^^vpnt^is yny>n iv öK^noyiDMK lynyn nnino n 
-yiiD:y dd^\pi5<d nmno yjyi^i^'iSD n lyiyr. |dik qvi ^>^k 
"11?: .lyDiy^i yiy^n lyn^x nyiJ? ,iyöiyii yiy^n ly^oi« lyn 
,nmnD y!?«: i^ö iyr^ns-D:i?>vpni?-iB n lyostw D^y^yi jyo lyn 
,nn'inD yps pc üiyTi lyoi^vni^-^.s cyi ^.v "n^^p: pdh ^d "lyn i^x 
tDP^''L3n^2 -^n D{>*n ü-iyirnnyo "lytDi^vnti^nB nyv:«: "in ,.n .t 
yi3/>n IV y^vi5?2i#n3 p« lycD^PSD^BSP Vi'^V)::''^ n ly^^mv 

.|y?euD^B8p 
-»p nJ^ö jyni^n i^d ,pn tj^p .py^ßs^^^s 8 lyony: "i^di;?p 
Di^ii ,nynyiy^ li^pi^n I0ü,ü0 pc — ,n ,i ;i ,3 ,n : lyPKD^» 
-j^ii px iyD:5$üD:i?p px DP^^Dy::^^« lyi^jrnss nyas^ jyj»? 
PK ,pö:ü^2;s!p iyi:yTPip~i^v p.K lyop^D px ,psü^55$p lyPnsn 
tD"iyii lypft^D^sötP n:)^s^ yrrifi n [^s |y-iy^ pa p^>d lyop^Q im 
-SD»^.P2Dpy n p^T Ti^P .Dy>v-ii?3i?n3 y:yi^K^i»2 px üv^jy:2i<i 
yD>^^: js; ly^jioyjnyDr.N ^i^^d y^^ p« nyD^^ms oyn pD y^v 
-•»iD pK) ^iis inytDn« pnK'n nyuiK öyii oPi;^oyi .100% — 

: (lötPi^T nyojyt 

n^D n T ;j 3 K : ^jöio^bsp nyür^pyaj^n» 

390 95 85 60 70 80 nyD:8öD:t?p 

HO s 15 40 30 20 "1?P3i?n»^^ 

HO 5 15 40 30 20 (100%) D-iyinnVD 

22 (7o) yai?vD^2:?ns y3^Pü^r.j^3nn 

202 10 40 51 51 50 .D^Bfc§p "lyD:i<DD:^^p nyüv>:"i»s 

422 20 70 131 111 90 mino lyi pß ü"iyi^ 

312 15 55 91 81 70 ,-ninD -lyi ps t>>ibodi?p 

I/o r^ ^^ .'-^ ^^ ^^ ^^ö^'^ö 

422 37 77 "3 103 9a T^ns-Dis^^vpnmB 

o +17 4.7 —18 -8 +2 (* ü-iyinnyD oyi p« 

nyi T» ,nn^« tsnyt ,p3*j'n cyn p« p^« i^t opp "in^s lyii 
liaouo D^y-iDiits w^^V'^i lyPii^ü^E^p fiJ^ö ^T po ü-iyii-nnyo 
ru^D *» 1 n^^« tD^Di^iB -iyv:ö:3 "lyn T^« t>« Di#T pN i»^i?T 

.">y;>jyii lOD'm — ,nnyo ao^^n "h (* 



■^tJtaiB»? D^jT 808 

yDTvnt^iQ n pc onyii ivi ."is:?i^T 5üü,ü00 i/or^^y: 
n |iD T>ns-DJi^>vpnj^nö lyn px ife?>i^T 422,000 t^n nnino 
DDVJ nn>K \v)) iV2^ .422,000 \v^^n)i t:cyiD^3 nniHD ytJ» 
oyn ps ü>si^"i2 "lyi Bi^ piK^ dd^^ii i^i ,ny-iriTb'n mino yiy^ 
pK .öny^i Dyi pa T^ns-Djj^^vpnt^na nyn ivi^ ,ü^v)y^^nvD 
OMia nys^o: po iy:?»D^2i?p ts ,|yoijy;ji^ Diyii p.^isi'n oyi 
.jyD^Ei^ns y3^''^J o^^^^ ^::^o \v:i'?v^^vi pK ly^i^iü lyno 
,a:^>yDK^ii?D n ür> niyti'n nyrtj^n -lyi pi:. Djn:i p«„ 
PK ODiP y^vpnj^ns nyi pD miv lyny^ p2 ^»ü^s^p "lyn ?» 
01^11 ,üiyi^ OT:i?a oyi pD pi^n nyD>^^:i fe$ o^na p>T iv ^ly 
n pc i5Dy-i5y:Dn« toi^n pj^ü^bsp iy3^^t:B8:^^yTy; lyvjs: n];i 
tDDsntoyts 5Ti5<i :55§tD^B»p iyiJn»3 "^viv m »lyii^ ; lyD^'-n-ij^ 
•■»BSP wyy^^^^'pvm (yv:s3 oyi ps p^dk^ 5$ "-ii is?: ly-iy^^ 
-J83 nn pK ^nw ^ mi {j^^dp^ib DD^:5i<D''3^p iviv px ,^fc$D 
pt p>n » ü:inp "lyD^yi^ ,3JiDy:iyDJi« "lyD^^DBkSj^^yty; nyv 
p>n p^T PB D>nj "lyi 1^ "^ly p« '?>'2 oyn pB d^bi^ib Dyn 

-jyvntitiB yK^^iDD^:>fe§D^E{$P jib D^^yi^ n r^« nyai^ ^ns ^ii 
pK viyD^BijnB PB 3:0^^:5:0^1^? nyrtj^i nyt iv jyo^py: lyo 
yoni^D nyT px n^in:i? pB >^tD^B5§p nyn ü:^^*k^^"iy ytDDisry: lyi 
nyn:y:i?-iiD-t:>v ivi„ .>i$D>2SP"rrv p« t^fciiD^Ei^p-^yiJiiin pb 
"y: yron^B 15 d^» ytoD^^^y: "lyi px Di^Donpy ^sid^bsip 
--ii^B » D^s n^v lyi Di^Donpy oyn ^nn p« yoii^B yto:yVi^ 
,iDBfc?&5^ i'^D^BiitP nyi DJ^ii ,tD"iyirnnyQ ayn pB y^nj^B yrö 
IBIN nyK^^toD^^i?iiD^B;5§p lyn Dt'yii nyn pi>w tooip oy nyn^^N ::s^ 

D^)) D^Bi^lB PK ^'ötD^Bfeüp PB DM^n n D''0 y^^^pHt^lB pB 

üj^^t^'iy :55<D^B{<p-D>yi:5$n lyi .(361 .t) ."DiT-k iyDyi£5j'ü:y 
tDD^>stD^£{<p"D:'n:^n "lyi lyi^ .^^tD^B^p-D^^y: o'pii n^in:j^ pB 
n ly^Miv DB^K^iy^tD^oiKB n p« D:?y: yj^n pni? tor^^ 
-iji^jt'D^^K "ly ?M^ ,-iyi:y:'-D:i^^vpni^nB yjyn^tj'it^B ps nnino 
•D:y "lynyD^Mi nyn ld^o .rr^ lyDo-iiot^^sn s ü'?v:i pn pb \v: 
"DMK DD^:'«D^B^p"D:'yi:{<n nyi |i^ t^nnn t^yii^n d'jib ::"i>p^ii 
IV Dn^K iy>yt:{i> "»n px ,niBN>D-'^yn n iv ^ijnyDisio iy^"»^öiv 
-yn 8 D^^v lyn d^o "t-t D^yp^iiD:y pBiyi .mino y:^t:-isB 
->yn:8n ps «^n^j^n nyi (=^'*' .ynDDn:^K-pn3fc?B yroy^^y: 



.189 .t ,piyn ya^ytD^jT C»* 
]t\H oyT »i>iK ]y3nT »pnyo» iiK i»8"n;n>»:B' Dyi pK (** 



•D^?»tD^Bfe?p n t^K iy;ii^itDy::^n« |5^« Dxn «i^^k öny^^ ö^ßi^^fi 
-^yi ^n DT"iD:yvii?p ö^^v lya^yrnyn « »y^vpnj^iB yu^^o 
n PK D5<"P lyK'^tDD^^'^D^setp iyv3öt:i cyT pa ^8D^£»p-o^y: 
-iy3^« m^v nyD^^:53 j< lysj^ij'yj o-^v^) idik Dyr 5i>ik p« ,iyp:83 
ly-T .ij»> lyiy^ pd ynöon:^« "iyc^>DD^t'8D^B»p iyv:w ^yn 
y3^>D^^^:>^l5 |k ^n netD »#1:58 oi^n :>5jl5^b8p lyivDpnijnB 

.O^DilflS PS üiflO 

ynDonr« lysj'^DD^^'KD^BSp "in pD ::i>p^^iD:y lyi ö'd 
-D>:>8ü^Bi<p y::>yvr^K "iss onn: iv |y::^oy:iyt3:i« n ly^yii 
01^11 :'SD''5«ip nyi .lyüB^^s^^^yiyriy^vps v^ lyn^'o oy .|yö 
y^vpniriB PD IQ1« iyD^:?üsi?K^>yTy: cyi ^vk «>^od onnw 
-i^is pD y^V8nü:yv:^p yD^^DD»:j'^yTy3 fc? D^iKni^fiD ovyt pK 
n tDpyin j?t D>^<my ^lyoDynptD^^nn» px lyiJü^D-D^iiii^vpn 
üpynn pc :>80>b8P) :>8tD^B8P lya^^'üDöiu^^yTya pD yoii^D 
PK ,r>Kö^BKP-tDKir-)B üvi "-v r8T:y;iy: p« (Dn>n^ yjy-ir.msD 
ya^^'DDKK'^yTy: d:»» ^i^^k lytsyno iy:jiöy:iytD:iK yrrt^n n 
o i# 1 .lyijiDyj-iyoJiKTOüiirnB iv rstjyay; px iy::iDy:iyo:m 

D>8 ?8Ö^BKP MD ailDKCBljS »1 t'K 

^1 PD 3>Kmy3^K DiiD:yi'>K Dsn^iB 
iyK^>tDD08D^B8P ü V 1 t^D jyvyjyi: 

tDD^?«!Ü^Bfc$P -lyi .KCn y^VP^Ti^lB MD IDIK 

lyD^siiiSD 8 PK ot'ynJKinyiD tDiyii yi2Vü -^^^pi^ii r^K oj^n 
'Tyo^Djyr^K nyi p2 tk^b i'd^ik iik ,^i$ü^2»p lyioy-iD Dri pd 
^n . . . .iyüD^:'Kö^B5$p-D:'ya yT^t^n n pi^ik lytDyio ^kü^bkp pd 
-:»8D^BKP Dyi PD D^'^oy^BJ^ D"iy^i üjyK'T>-in üyi [id y^j^i". 
-ji^ ymi^B K d:>k nyov^K öj^^K^iy d^dj^ib in .Diöjyr^K 
Oi^ii PDiyi üoKDK' ü^)) ,o^^3"iK"inyD lyTtDyiD pd jji:yj^^K 
-0J8 Diooyr^K nyioyiD d>k lynyoK' iy>o^Q-DJi^^vpni#iB n 



.426 — 423 .? .? ,^^'B ipoöfiy ,t:»3 yam ojn pe yo"n<B lya 

-¥BDip« n 1» '?»''>yB|<D lyti^'ODnK iy3't».;i«D yoMijj n d»»v iiyoür*? 
o»»n im i'K l»t »u D»*nywm tyo»»snii o^jn »onynB n ."^ 



-vy> DV"! w Bi^n» 1^3 üjyj^^tnn oyi ps r^Jyl^*l^:^^ »y^vpn 
yiy^ T^K iyüö5?ti^:'yryrii#^vp» n p« .nyto^m« fyDDi^iQ \vö 
"^^K Dyi PD Dnyi:nyi25<; |yv:{<3 i>n D>^p:^Dyo p2 yoiJ^a 
"lyT PK iy:'t2^ö-D:i;?^vpn>>ni2 n li^ ,.n .i ^^^ü^ej^^p i^^i Diöjya 
TDjy "lyDDsyn "lyi pD tD^ü?iryi "lyi t^« D^^•^ .o>>3nfcii-"inyo 
iy:n:y^^D>i: » ,y^vPn{#iB lyti'^DD^^iJito^st^p ny-i ps 3:i^pm) 
cmv ?5^ü^B»p Dn PD ::i>"i:{$Tnfe$D -lyi iv Dp:^5-D;:5<3Din 
Di#i 0'?^ inyo tD>: "lyni^i »Djyvn^is Dyi pc DiDjyr^K px 
d:?» li^i ,tyt3:yvni^"is yD^jyvj^^Kij^c ps DiDjyr-'N D^nina 
•tDE.»ir:>yTy:i oyopyin Dt'fe? .yoi^K^vi^D» d"?^ D^üjyr^x iy>>r 
-iit?:3nn fe? üin T^N tJ^n nyi:j^ "lyi pQ .DitD^yr^x ov^^'? 
pK D^^prDytD pD Wü'Mfi^ y>fe$ pD jji>-ij«in^D nyn iv dpjib 
cyi D^D iyi:msD- nyns t>3 ^j^: iy:^n ü^)) »y^^pnt^is nyi 
t^K Diji .Dy^vp:iö yD^^DBst^^yiy: p« ,DiD:y;^^K-^fci:D^£^p 
rvpm^ns po id^n fyK^^üD^^iüD^Eif^p on pa ;!JiDfc?iJ'2i? n 
,KDi; y^vpni;?i3 pc idix lyLj^^tDD^^SD^ssp Dyi p2 :i>»n-iyj^K 

ly^'i 8 IV Dp:i5-i:8ny3^« 18 d>8 Pin« lynn« ps on-is ^t 
•^nya «im« ddkk' ny... .yo-i?^B-D:{^>vpn{^-i3 
•i^D [^« ifOi#Br^:i^o 11 \ V ^ 1 2 V i yo 
l'^D i^iK^'DJ^'iK 11 oyn ^111 Diyn 

.iD^^üK' oy-r 
-o>?8D^58^ lyi t^ö iJ^ß^tj'si^ n T^K lyryirfi^^vpji; d^^i 
•d08D^E8P üvi pö niD^ Dyn fin« yntDonr^-o^^inB iv^^^ 
oy lyD^y^i px ,::82oik mm^vi pK p« «213 oy^D^o fy^j'^D 
j?^vpni;?nB lyi pc m>im v^^i ö28218B p^ d>^k -^n D^ns 

4?'"^öDnj^«-ö8i^n5 n oy oyDs^ins» 

•3njnf:^^3 dpi pa wmi^i lya^vr^yr n ro iy;!^^f-iyD n pe 
3ii:yii82 -iytj'^DD^>8^v}^D "lyn p« lyo oi^n D"-.y-i:^n"in^*> lyo 
-P3 lyrn oy .lypnn^B y^VD^iysj^P ^nx D>ny:i ^y^D inyr 
•^1380 yivDi?*"iyE^*p yD^yr^ ps vn^^i yv:^; 8 ]v^i^mi Dyijnj 
DyT D"»» ?yoipy3DMi8 t>« ^^d^^ p« lyi^D^D D^ivns D^ö ?yc» 






S09 irP^"i2»s :rivöKii-s^<vp 

öyi ^u ^^DifcüS'nyD^^nns •!yK'^Dy:-ipi<:!:yi>8^vi^D 1yi^'tD^n nyi 
-ü:y -lyiyD^Mi iy-i r« o^n .1875 px 5<üi^3 p« infc?D:y:»nv 
-»-lysi^j^P n lyni^n arjynsn nyij'^iDD^:5^^vJ;?D "lyi pL :j',?pn^ 
vi^nv: lyni^n ^n dj^^i ,i:iD^ni$n n ly-i^i^^JistD lypn^^D yn^ü 
-DM 8 üv üi^n iy:y^itoDyijiD ,iy"int^^ y;yiy-i3^p yin^K p^' 
-yi 'n lyiyii Di^n opifeito dj^ii ,iycni iv oy^yt::^« Iyi^•n^^D 
Dyi PD üsnpDiJSD Dyi pN 1867 p.« 1836 \v^'v>'i tynn-j^ 

ny ü2i^T — -lyD^^m» n pD lypnnss: yirobnysii^i^P n^ 
p«) yanj^s nyDt?5< lyi pc lyDyinsnn li^ü^-^v nyi iy:^M — 
D^i§ iy:^^ii^"iy ly^iD^o'Dii^^vpnfc^is yD^^D28*«5'i>yTy: n ly^^yi^ 
-8T^j{§:-;j^ nyD^>PiMi ^V''^ p« D^n ,(Dn^n^ ps DiDjyr^x cj^t 
-niiinsyi lytio p« niöyoi« ^^td«: ^n lyi^vni^nsy-i y^-:: 
•lyi "lyai^ ,DyüD^D |yi:yn^DDnpy oy-i pD nijnon y:?» w^n 
^M PD n^'fcünny:^« t^k d^^dis pk ^j^D^BbtP lyij^M^v r8r:y:yj 
lyD^uifc? n tfe? ,yo"ii#D nyn p« ii#: ot^iy^v o^n »tDCöi-^y^Ehs 
^n . . . t3D>:'5§ü^Efe?p nyjyr"«« ny^n lyrn y^vs^vijtDij c^» 
pö ::i:'pMiD:y nyi ps- n^-no lyo^^-y: 8 ^mk ^ns mi »lyr^Mi 
yD^:?Döi§&j'^yTy: n pD p.x ly^ayiP yivopni^-is y^ynyüt^o n 
•^n D>yp>r,ü:y ,nn^« lyDyns'^'üjy ü^)^ »y^vpnt^-is pD lyo-'.r;?!: 
y^^^pni^-13 p2 jDix p^« pD "11082 lyn ü^c d^'.« ^^t t3yi>^2 r,H 
v^ ü^^^ ,DyöD^D-pn38D oy-i ini^ .y^vpntjtis pD icik lyo 8 
,y^vpn{^^2 PD ID1K |yt^'^t3D^^8D>S8P oyi ps lyopsi^y^jon^ 
pK iy>p^iiü:y toji^pya lo^: pnn8& yivoei-iyBi^i^p n -^n oi^i^r 
DMife? DDp5$ii Di^ii ,Dyi:D^D-Dnyip Dyn jni^ r:yii ^n» üpr.i 
Mt8 ,DyDD^D-Dnyip nyi .y^vpni^ns t^o icix lya^yToyi pi 
-D^PSü^ß^P pa iJi^nJsmsE: n n^s ü:itj oyi t)yi>^3 iy n^ 
j/ij'^DDO^D^ESP p« r^^iiDy^D>n lyajioyjnyDJix-tD^i^ns yc'^a 
18 IV jy^tD^o n "n^^x ^n8 dp:i5 üiys^^' ,iyüD8::^^yryr|y^vP8 
iny^ 8 ^M8 jy^jioyjiyDji« y^vD^nysi^r^P n pD ::iü^nnD^i« 
-P8 y5J'^DD^:'8t:^58P ^T .n8t:c^D8o |y>8Ji^^V8J iyr:yn lyit^ 
,|ypnn82 yn^D8iyEi;|ii;|ip n m^ nT8 opjiB ,|y::ioy:nyD:i«-iy»v 
■•'B8P oyi PD iyDiiJiD-:J8a"iy3^K d?8 lynyii t:D8"iü82 iyD"i8i 

.T .1) ".yOTN^^iiJDS n PK Wpni^lB pD ID1K lytT^DD^^SD 

.(428—247 



."y^ütJ^tjpj? |Vt5^''t!i'»^3 nvT p-'tanp m^« iid nmn ni:fp « 

iiiD8nytD^> ')V^'>Di$:^pv nyi p« m^w: D^ynj»n8a t^k |yr 
tD-iyiJimnK^ iyü:nyvD38 oyi ns i:D^yn nyo^^^v nyi pö 
yni^yö n lysjs^t^ya do üj^n dpikd ^-ij$p .d^^v lyT:^« t^2 
ny yD^yii »lyt^ns |ik D^y: lyti^^iv ajfe?niyDi$T^v nyi po 
PD /ly^yiip n ijj; dt^^i ny .-^n pn pK lyijjüJöiQ o^ypMi 
nyi pD o^nD5$3 n üi^n ny ni^: .lyoi^yj n öi^in ny iy:8ii 
',n \v:'>QVi Dy yD^yii »lyDnstj^nynM^ n po px d^^pij^^pdik 
n»ö PK üDsnnyj n üj^h p« ,iyDD^Di#:i#py yiytD^y n »>3 
yni^yD pn t^k Dvyn lysj^ .üiyii ps v'm^v^ pn d*-» i:n3^3 
,::iiy^p"iy t^n pd rijynsi^^'-.« n^3 n:5^DK^:y5y; an nyn^« 
DJ;?D n ^v .|yDDt^oy:i lonyi^ mino » pD D"iyi^ lyi ^U8 ^n 
-j^n» in^« pK T^K y^^yn ,D^^rD^^nnfc$ n t^« D-iyn Dn pd 
miHD n ?öi ,nyDn t^n d:^"»« ,*qfci;T nyus |» oysy ^v ,ii^üyj 
»l'DpnsD pD lyp^Dnp n .Diyn lyoMiy^ 8 ö^d pij<d px ödip 
ürDyDfij^fc?3 Diyii nn^no ly-iy^ pD Dnyii nyi t» ,mH^ v:i'?v^^ 
n lyc^^^iv v^ iy:i:n ly::»^ s pd Dj^D^nyn d^»» ,pn$<o pK 
s Dt^n n T» ,ü^j "n^ix \v^v:>^''^ ,'^v^''\P n pN "lysnpiöiQ 
nyD:i« Di;?ii »nys^ipifeüD Dyn i^a üiv'i) ly^^o^^^o lyo^^iyi 
T« .lysyntD -fin it^p oy .lyanpifcHD do n iy Dyii Diyii oy^y^ 
*iyni? .lyrcya d^j nyD^ip p*»? it^a t^yn m^nD p^üsj' yo^iiya (s 
lyDnpnsD n lyoip ,iyvj^: p« pii<o Dy-i iDs^^D^n |yo lyn 
^>T :iyo Diyii nyn .t^n oy >ii -^n ly^n^v -inn lys^ip n p« 
^u DH^K jyni^n "lyD-i^pn^s n Mi ,iv:v'?P ^yo^n» lyr^-iiiDMi» 
lyni^n nys^p n mi nyoyn: ^yo^n t< p« ,tD^yDyny:iDMK ^n 
pK lyny^y) t^^ t-»« Diy^i ly-; nyn^^ .jy^ni^v^^n iv tsiy^pya 
-ya "nn iyni>*n iyD">ip n p« nyö^ipi^Q n nyi^^K ,m^nD nyi 
•i^n» n T^K Diyii ori ps dj^d n ^v .hpd 8 ti^x tDr:>>K 
oy Ml »y-iK8M "lyn pD ts^^pD^^vo n ^v ,ü^ni8 yür^^:;3 
lyin^« tDiyii nyn iv'2^ jy^D^Di^^i^py yroj^-'n n lytoB^insn 
-oipy«i^ li^i lyüiijti onyii ny ,^-\^o px lyD^e^y: 00 o-iyn 

812 



?8 ,Dp-i^?3 DT^ni D^y; p^D "^Miisya syi ^*oy;j ri:y3myt3:^H 
PD :;^v»^>,pi^v "lyi pk ly^^^^i y:y-i>^^n8D D^y^^K^ D^ya 

.nnir.D 
PD ryüiyii n pQ d^ü vy^^Vi'?^ n tD^.y:i r^K ,üyj\D^^v 
DpmysD^iK T^j< iy lyi^ ,minD s P£ Diyii nyi .nmno y^s 
D "I V n fc? üJ>*n imno n nyni^ .t ^ ^ i q "qn Dsn ,to^y: p« 
M üS>*^i iy'n>oK "lyi pj< .iviJ^v.yj dcmp-i^üd t^x n "iyi^n< 

•^yjnp t^yii ü^j ünyii p^p DJ^n oj^n ,^i?T fc? "ijüD .ü"iyi^ p^p 

ü'^)) "in-'« D^i« üpm nnno in ps Djyvni^iB lyi 
-ynö ^n it?p oy .t^ns t$ in^x ü^: ny ,DD^>n dj^ 'ti^ya px 
^nnnD pn n^x t^ns lyo^n: ^^ ?s: ly^yosr 5>ijt ny r» ,\VQ 
-D''^K "ly iDyn ,piso p« -in^« ü^d lyo^p »yii iy jyii lynijf 
üyi^ "ly PK ^pnu'n p« mytD «t üDSjicy:; t:t?n "ly r» ,iy:>2i;3 
ryD^iP")$<D ly^yii oyii "ly 3mx ,T^ns pn pD jyti^psr^-is lynrs 
Tji^Dij^j^D-in .D^^N "^n iyD^>^: lyDsr yD^ytMt lyni^^ jinino n 
-yosr 1^ T""ia 8 "i»D 01^)) nmo lyi •'ly-ii^ üjyvnt^iB lyn d^^i^ 

8 D^8 11?: D^iy: ö:yn ryr^ns pc ::iD^t3ir»3 ny-i pK 
-ip Ii^^^^D 8 «i^iK nmnD ps lyr^ns n lyo^ütj^^n iv .d t? d 
p« mi$n ü>: -ly^i^i jyrvr^« p^p nyai? lyo »nK"i ns^ 

piera PK lyii^i^y: OD^nny: p^s^ lyrn nnino n i;;i^ 
jy^yüKfw ivz^^:> n lyriD D^^ny D^i^nyn ,\vv^^b y-iy>n tD^D 
TH T'K Dy .m^ns n |y^ni?v5<n iv ri^^u t^K Di?^^ ü^y: ^"^ 

DJjn rD^yi yoiD n Do^ü5r8n lyt^na y^s pe ?3n-^D irt 

.y^vyi^^p'n^v PK lyonör^i» n"»in 



njny^ ^»m »ts^vyii p^p do ukh p'*?» cd^'j lyn^« »ir^y*? oo e'jyo 
o'3 B;3m öDi^ n ik^i ,iyioi»jT .-nai^a lyr pc <nD oy ojnp 
n «)i»T lyo pH »sn: iy'?np <j pK '?y>Btt'^»n o^s m .p»*« pniy 
Tsny^i "lyn T»H D^JT .0 •» y i i <j K» »t o:>-ip «lyBö^jM^n« M^t 



OPT ^'in »DD^M Di;|n »yiNstn nvT na T>n3 oyi ^-in dd^idk' 

(*".i^i?3 p« iDV^K^y:i5i^ ,DnyirK^^iD 

ojyn ij;")n^« y>vp:iD nwni?"i lyn pK .y^vs^ipn^v px pn» 

,^ y D > D - D J l^ ^ V » ^ 1 P n "»V D^S D^y3 Din 

ps ^>ipi8D lyi tD"iyii üny-)p pD iji^p''iiDjy in o^o 
n i»D .-in^« ISO ;ii^i^vr^N lyi pD D^^^Dyjsi^ mino lyn 
ü^i^vya iy:np iy üyii ,üJ'M üömpiu^d inio nyi dj^ii ,nmnD 
,D:^^n |y:{i?ipy3 Ds^n ny ot^ii ,tD^y:i n .üni? n^^m ^m px 
ro^m D^D ös^ipifcüD iDJ^n iy di^i^i »nmno *ife§Q dh^x do^p 
.^^ y D ^ o - D j 3 1 ^ n i? V 5? D^^ i^n tDjyn D^y:i ,pmv :yD 
038n PD o^ya dnt tonyijfc$i^ ^yi:sn lyD^üSJ^^« Dyi p« 
Dt^n PN Dyn^iin pst 8 öc^ipisd iDi^n "ly^is lyn .D:«n pN 
PD lyDMpnstD "lyi nyiy-i -iNt<ts » li; idd^^p ,t)^y: ly^i^ipya 
nyni;? T>« DV .lytD^ni mts pi< ^yirD^j^ "it^s » dd^p lynyn n 
öo ^Jisfir mno » ry:"iy ps. -lyanpisD nyi Ti$ ,^^^3yo ne?: 
PK ,|y:t^ipy3 in^x isd tDi^n ny di^ii ,tD^y3 yvjs:i n lyny^D^i« 
lytD^v y:^^t^DS pN lyo üi^ri di^i .^n ^^n lyr^^^ ^^^o j? ^i^tr 
■"•B5§P lyn pD aji^p^iiiD:» lyT d^o .nnvix lyn^-^^p lyanya 
nt^j öt^n oy .toiynyiiD^iN ü^j oy tot^n t02S{i^^yTy:i nytj^^DD^^jüD 
yiyn5'i?3 n Iy:>^^1^^:^n8 toi^DSj^:« .lyoii^D y^^j iy^i:y;ijj# 
p« oy iyD5»S!nsn pN |i;tDDSp n? px nyii^ P5§t s pn nij;2DD 
t^K "lyni;? np^y nyi .pjsd p« pyny: oy \v^ ü^j^id ,ny^yp 8 
."1 V 1 8 18 D^8 ü'?v: D:yn yoni^D n y n p8 .nyn^yr nyi 
:tD^y3 pD Dy^vp:iD y^yi^^^^'nsD ny^a i^t^8 wn^n n^o 

0^8 (3 »5':;tD^D-Dil?>V8^^P'T'V D^8 (2 ,iyüiyi1 PD D{<tO D^8 (1 

."1V18 D^8 (4 ,^yD''0-D:Jl5'l^^ 

fyiy^ p8 <^n8T jy« D^yj ^y^D^ii ,D:yDy"i8n in^8 n^i8 
•83 oy ^y^D^i^ »lyjyDyiD^^x ojyD^iv nn^8 üd^isi ,D:yoj?^D 
•yi tDD^ip"i8s lyj^n ys^yii ^nnino n pD \vv\q n lysj/nD 
lyiyii DJ-^11 ,ry33^3'j$v n ^DjyD^-'ii^ ; t^^ya y'^^Dn» i^*d ly^.j^n 
jy-ii^iiyj tDD^pnsD nynna ]v:''^t ];3>y^T ,nn^nD n 182 :^^yD 
tyr^vy:D^n8 toyii to^y: ^y^DM^ ,D:yöm ,p8 ; tonyip ti^i« 
PK lynyii lyat^iDyams oyii p8 y>v8^ip"i^^ ^vi pd |y-iyii 



-np»K yef»^;üy »"y^o^jj^jpy tptrto^^^jB iyi p»onp ivj„ (* 

.11 .T ,;31i»y? 



•15 ]j?T'nB pH ü'jyj 

nw VH üv .(Dpi»Ä w^2 /'iviK„ I» ivw^ öyii) |yp:»3 n 
lyn ü^o DO ^n Dpyi ü'?v:i vü)0 yv:^3 n T^,nDiyi n^^p 

.nmno n pc lyr^ns yoio 
-lyn^« ynöo y^^ytn ji^p ,ü^^v ynyj^y^ « tDoy: lyo \v^^ 
irivi n$5D r^^ii o^^^pn^D ny^^.s *iyn .D:yn yr^i:nyv ti^ü^^a 
PD lys^^p-i^'D ny-i ; nyiyi ny ü2mp ^ynn iny:^ n d^o ,^ynn 
;5'yivDti^ ni^s >^i"iv '?V2)i inyv ys^yrn ü>o ds'^ip iviv^ n 
-j»D ^ ^>3 "132 » f'ynn inyv yn^ytn d^d ds2''1P lyDDi:^ nyn 
-»^ipn^v n iJ;? üny; oy n:;Do DJ<ti^ .nyD^^i nr«? p« poon 
n^v p« lyni^n iy?2 ^iisn ü^y: nyr:yii r^8 .nnino pD y^v 

.y^v85»ip 

D^^n ,y^Vi$5'1pl^V nyi pN 3^D^O T^K DJ^IT »D^y3 yoiD n 

tnt<"t lyo jy^ii ."lyrjyii ^i?c{§ ,-inyo lyo tii^i ^i^o» — ^-^n 
; (lyp^iüa n pc) "ivi^,, Dyi ps >^>ü {< om» jy»: on^v ,ir^];o 
PK D^^D-iyn^N Dyn o^n» lyo dh^v ,-)yr:yii ^injin tpo \v^^ 

.|yp:5<n n p« dh^n öioi^syn 
-11« Dy'Dpn{§D p« l'itn'nyn^K iypJ8i.y: vi'pvv^ n^'oi^^ 

: -jyD-iyTi v:vi 
»üD^^n Di^T .lyr^ns iyni>*n yD^yii ,nninD tD-i''^ipi^v ü^ya,, 
w jyii^iiya iy3^^:y;iv p:^-iy:i px d^ik-ij^q px lyrn ys^yi^ 
nsö rD>"i: T^K D^^ii ,n:5i^J moD n ...i^i;?; mD2 'lyoo^D^ri^n k 
n p2 ^Dn-^D Dyn "^nn >3 üdp i2r2^ü^^2 üiyi^ ,y^vöi>ip-)^v 
vüiD n "lysfc^ .ly^j^vr^K t^!D lyo yD^:;^i ,nmnD pD lyr^na 
•^nn ,\vv'i^ n ps. "^nn nyi "Tin (1 Do^ü'^r^n toiyii nqo 
n pQ o-iyu-^MO iy:mo nyni^ jys^in rDy^D^^^nfe?D cyi 
DJ^ii ,nmnD yo^o n ^in (2 p« ,1'?^: p« üV^K^yjsi? »nnino 
-:^>« pa ^i^v n -^-in .n .n .lyt^ns yoo^DtJ'jiis iv lyn^^^pn^v 
(*."iyT^ns vü'Wi IV lyss^^p-ietQ p« lys^ip 
DJ^ii »i^^D'iyi :nyio "lyni^ ^>in üo lyrv lyr^ns n,. 
oy ,v^vt?^ipi^v PN ü^ya nya^ayii nyii^ -inyo i^n^D t^k oy 
»•i^snyi yv^<^ipi^v PN tDf'y: nya^ayii -lyit? nnyo -^n oa^oya 
(=^'*= ".anyiu nyni^ "n^in lyrv [VT^ne n D{;:n 
B« üa^yn y^VN^ipi^v p« n^i^a mos n Dt^i^ ]'\ti'^vi„ 
nmno y^N tiD lyr^ns n pa yo^o -lyD^^nyiayiMQ nyn pD 
T^K ,y^VN^"iP"i^v nyi pD ü^^p^yjtj^ ny^i^-iynayiyia nyi pa pN 
-nsD lyji^P PD jy^D^D-Dat^t^vs^^pn^v pa yoeio n in »lyaamya 

,183 .t (* 
.180 .1 (•• 



^i?: ö^i? TS ,D:i?Tyi nip ; iy"iyi^ ünyoyinöiQ nynt^ üiy:y^p 
y^t^n pn px n^t^i no ,y>vy;^^pn>v nyi pD iytj'^:yD'Tj;ii$3 n 
lyTi^^nsD ^^D8 ,iyDyiDö:n 'Pi^üts ^yD^o-Dji^^vs^ipn-'V 8 pa 

(* /y^^^L^^ip-i^v pD Dy^ay; Dyn 

ti^iK iy3i# .ü^y:i VK^-'^KüyD pD nt^J i^n Dnyn Dpnso 
y^'i^SöyD pö lyD^^v s n^^: t^« ^'>v: yjyn^sytB mi D>>n mts 
ly^iD -in^N IV ly^yii lyDuy^DMX d^^v lyiy^ iv |>^p pK to^y; 
'M1V {^tD^j n^^K'iyDJiN p^p iJ^i T^K ,D?y:i y^j'^i'j^tDyo pi^":« diip 
ü^yrDnyip dmis D^a :jn^:y-i » W)) .i^J?: px ny^ssts \v^ 
D^{?D ,i5'i?a tD"-» lypyi o^j i>^p n Di^n »lyoio yD^yts n*»!« 
'Vüi$: lyr^Dti' oy px ^y^iy^s^s n ps (diip lyi) t^hö nyi 
KT8 px T"»« |yt^^"is n pD lyr^tDB' lyi -lyni? ^jyT^ns n -^^^ 
\2^v> vo)ü "lyi ps 33nnyo"ife$D lyi ps d>j tDiütD^nyi "lyi ^»d 
Dijn pa üiy^i oyi pb lyprt oyi pö ij?: ,y^vi?5'ipn''V p« 

ynfijytD irt pe ytDD^i^'y;i "lyi ?^b Damyn^t^ t» tD^a opiso 
lya^y^i ,Drn ^j^di^^^d -ly^^^^^iy lyn »tvt^ns p^< ^"pvi ps 
"lyoi^s nyn t^j^ ,t:"iyi:in"in{^^ |yD:nyviD3» d'j^« Dny^y; dj^i 
IVT^ne n lya^yii dm^ /'yni^ytD iyivü8t3^DJ5$iip„ in po 
-fcj^^PT'V i^K t3^y: (m^3) oyo^D^j^^ip n "q-in D^^üti^sn ly-iyii 
lyr^tjiJ^ ,y^v^^ip-i''V px to^ya ^y^o |5$nfe$D fx oy tyii :y^v 
.lyt'ne n ly^^s ,D>y: r:yii i^n»2 t^n oy lyii ; lyr^ns n 
nmno n lytsynto,, ,Dpn5§o d:j^t ,y^"ii^yD nyrrj^i lyi "qi^j 
PK i^i^a PK jyt^ns ini? y^vs^ipn^v pö Dyvj^ia Dyn t^K pn» 
-yaD^n«; t^k V'^i^vo D'orn |y:ya c^^/'Diyi^ i$ inj^ *iyn5»n 
p.D üD^oi^:j^py i^ ,Dn5?rüD ro^^r^n p'<ü^^p k d^d lyDyn:^ 
-ya iDi^n DJ^n r^vü^^v in lynya t>k ny^, «d^^v lyi^yt in 
ü?s>iD5j'»n iypnj<D pK ü^ya yo^.D n Diyii : ya^iQ n ü^yoK^ 
'1 pD lyr-^nB n tyiyii m?? .nmno n p2 lyt^ns n ^m 
-Day iy "fiypi^a p^ tD^ya yoiD n "n^in tD^^ös^ön nnino 
PK ran^pai^p n •^in Do^D^j^n W'^)^ tyr^ns n :k ,öiya 
PK lyn^n pk i^t^a yo^o in PQ st^ ta^a \^m< ü)^2 lyaayn,, 

PD mana on iks ta^Kitasa wo \v'2'?v'\^ ,ntD^öD djüik. 



.182 .t 1MK ny? .138 .T (* 
.225 .T (*'»« 



317 lJ?T>n5 U» tt^^TJ 

-y-i D-irii„ ,iy tD3{;?T /'n:5s^ lyi;/^ px mynoo mo3 n„ 
ly^rnn ^n^-i n oj^n ^nn^no n ps r^ns Dyn ^in D"i^^ii 
"iny inyii di^ii iy^p>tois n ps Diyii nyi . . .y^v5<^iP"i^v p« 
-yj ^ iy-iynj^2 ,i:»^ » ryny pN ü2np-ife?D iix i:2>ipy3 "^^p 
D^^^DiötD pK lyn^^ipi^v iy:i^p ly^i^r -»n nD ,D^y:i y^io yoMi 
uv'iiy: D^j ii^p to^y; "inyo pj< ,iyD:yoiDJi?p n ly^MW jy-iyi^ 
iyn^vmj< lyti'o y^^f^^^ipTV lyi p.c ly^sj^p n .iviyn jynyiv 
PK /n ly^^DivjJi: ^i^ix Jijy: t^n dj^i^ ,(o^y:i) v^io s "^n px 

(* .''-inyo iyoy:j^n» t2^j ^i^or^p jyjijp 
-5<v^Tm iyi pD nynr")3 n pa nyo^Mi^ nyi ,Dnypn«Q 

pfc? ünyosj'öt^ niyo pn ts; »üt^^i^ Dpn^o .yn^^yD yn^oyo 
üv^j^n o-.y^i "i^^: r^ ,tDD5<iü»n px ü^: oroy: ny dj;?ti ,Dyi 
-nyi pK ,D^j£*.K y-iyn:^ ti^iK ^^ik ii^: ,V2üü ü'?^ "li?: üo 
i/oiD "lyi pD ::nynr?Di^2 n ".yii;it ::nn:?'o"ifc$3 n t^P "ly^ 
DJ^i .lyt^ns n iy"iyjy^p"i^*3 lyii^ lyiyDyn o^: p^^« i^i^j 
-fc?t:D p« DD^^i>*jj^py nytj'^^i^y "lyn lyt^ii^n j^^^üd^üküd D{>*n 
TioSn ^* lyiiya n^inji^ !iQ t^« nys^y^i ,piü DstoJ^o -lyp^üD^D 
iy T^x ,iyT^n5 pD Vüym: n jniynnvjsj' .j^-nsipn pD 
pn .K^^«2 T^« yni^yD yiiyo^D^si^p n t^ ,01^5^' div lyoipyj 
n "lyni? ::nnyrD-)^ö n t^ jytMiy: nn^x mn :jnnnyD:iK 
^}^^y^5< T>N„ y^v^^ipi^v px D^y:i y^io nyi p2 ::ny:y^pn{<D 
/'lyT^nB n px iy3:nyi:y n pD ,^i§Tn^x n üo ,ü5$tD^ny-i nrr 
]yij'^a}^:j>*py nvi px lyoii^D ynyiii? ■nt?: \i$ Doy: D^y: rj? px 
(*^:?yD^c-D:i^^^»>ip'T'V et p2 yonj>*s n nn-{< ,iynyt> 
lyn^N tD>o lyrtj^ny t^k "lyr^ns pö yDD^t^yj^, d'pid 
nnj^^ r^^ötiiv px piJ^D D^D .1848 PN ,pniv "ini;it> r^fynn 
pN yt ü«n ,1873 ps onnp jy^y^vi^rD cyn "qi^'i ^-lytjystj^ 
-yj t^t^n yD^yii (=^^'* »^^d^^s pyD:n:„ n Dyi^^nya ^pny^Dst 
^inny^nfc^s n ^in ü^i3 ly^y^v^J^Q lyn lyo^ynwDn« üdu 
PK "D^y3 PK pnn„ Dyn ^i^i« jyjJ^^p n .ü'?v: yjyi^SKQ PQ 
lyj^n y^vbt^ipi^v p« t:i'?v:i pa ::nnyDiKQ ny^ ps 3:nyni^3 n 



.233 .T (* 
.260 .T (*♦ 

.pni t»K QiiT yßynwsi'n ly"? "^im o'^yj yjyi»BöB pc 



-:ö:p lyi ojjin 1876 p« .nn^^^ :^vj«^i^ p« ^j^d y^Dpy: n 
»lyBiP "lyü^B ,D:ynMy"i3 i«d ^^tDnb*Q pyn:n: nyi pQ osin 
"lyi I1D 3:snyD:iN Dyi -^i^j .ddik^ ii^^>^D s ps inyo lyri^^y^ 
Dp^ii^D n) ^^tD"isB yK'^DD^^ist^B H lyD^.py: t^5< ^^D-ife<3 py3jn: 
•yii^D iy;i^3^ynyi d^d lyDi^-itoy^D^*!» t^k yD^yii ,(^^tDni$3 
t>K '^ü-i5$s ^tj'^DD^^iQi^B n .yoii^Q nyi:5$ 18 px "ii^i ::n 
PD w^'^vi \V2i^n DiyDisD n ."-^di^s yt^^ny^nj^s s lyiiy^ 
ny Dy ]V2^n lyDD^^-.sj^B n ,nt<inn n^^x lyt^ns y^nyi^j 
lyjSDiJ'feiin T^K "ly^^yii ,"1873 ps lysyi^i^B nvi„ ^nn loiy^p 
V2 .lyn^n D-iM>Dy:i^Dyi Di^n Dyn::i!?p nyi dj^ii ,d:;i p« 
lyn^^t pn lyiyiy^ n»s lyD^^no^ix :ijn>:y"i n D^y^Q 1873 
lyv:!« inyvDyt pa y^vi{?Bi?"i5 nyn "q^^j ny^i^i ynya5>n n^i« 
lyi^y: üo^d^sd T^^? lyD^yii ,(16:1) n^i^:i mx p*»« i«d 'lyn^n 
nyi DB85ry:2{^ Dy-i::j^? "lyi tDj^n 1873 px ,Yvm cyn P« 
^t^ij lyn^n lyny^ivji? ü"]yny:iBnx Di^n :ij'n^3y-i n px yv^Vi 
•»:»P n PK Dnn^iS^n-nyD^n v^ pD d^^q^v nyi .i>n2 Dyjy> 
lynj^n lyDD^^isi^B n .D-iynj;3D^i« Di^n y^v^^ipi^v pD jy^ 
^>iN jyt^^'iB yriyi^j n d^d :ji§n:yD8Tiv pt? tD^^mya o^i 
n^anyT ,y^V8^ipi>v p« D^ya lyj^^yii lyi^^i^ya t^k üv : nxisn 
"•iy-i n TJ^^ .D'n:yD'y: ^n lyn^^n ,iy^i!<Dya lyt^ns n iy:>n 
tin« "lyn^n pn lyiyny^ n^a lytD^^nD^ix lyoy: nynni a^n 
üy^i ,Dr^K IV inyvDyr pa y^vn^aj^ia nyn ^i^: dis^j^i y:-iyn^n 
iy^fe?ay: t^i? yD^yii »lyn^n pa y^vpnjs^na n py^j^oa^ix Dt^n 
y^b* ly^yii ,D^ya d-'d ^ia tyiyii toyii pnyiD nyi ,1873 DJn 
jysn lyö oyii ,D^y3 "^d i? pn loyii oy lyii .|,yr^DK^ lyr^na 
.ünyiP ly^np w pn dd^-»^ Dyii ,D^ya D^n lyr^^ivm^? iki^ 
-■•^nns ^MK a^^^ii^a ^yn ,typnn83 v: iyiM3 -^n ly^^yn oy 
-i^ö n .lyr^ütj^ toyii pi^-D^^ms "in p« pop^ii toyii nyü 
189^ p« Djyinyia *i5$a ^l^ii lyn '»•'3 tDJ^n ^^dij^s y^^^DD^^is 
yc'^D8•^p^f;oy^ n p« ^dd^kii i«''^^» fe$ ni nnyo ly^i^npyj 
yani^n n tDt^n ,iyiy^n3 p,a Lja^tjny-in^a nyn lyD^ix ,^^Dn8a 
-D^yinyia n ^^3 yoii^atofeü^a in'»« ]^j? ty»D^iyj:i''n8 jjny-iJ^ia 

.1900 pi< 1896 pa iy^n«irDDa5<K^ 
-n^a ytDTT^:K3i»? n tDr:>^t?nt<a tDi^n v^'\^vi:i yrti^n n 
-ry^y: n .tD^^v iy:y^ pa nyto^''nnK yt^nn^^fc^n?;; n PK onyo 
-t?D^D3Kiip n TK ,DytDa"'inK2 D^i^^yn jyni^n iyt5D^ioi^:i^py vo 
,D3yp^^^y3 t^-^D jynj^n ^n .t^'^Ka t>k ü^^ya pa v'^^v^ yivü 



319 lyt'ne p« c'^yj 

Difii lyii;? jynp-iy;n^3 oyn HD i^^^v ^yi i^« Mi »iw^'-d*^ 
yjy-i^£^2 yrti^n n pD Dnyii lyi Di^ii ,pDiyi jy^ip oyii 
^^t ::n^;yi n n^x ,pM oyii ynpyr dj^i .iy>i§2 t^yii D^vi 
i{;?j lyn^n px t2iyii iy:>M oi^n ,d-i»^{^i ynyn^n iyay:D>n8 
y:iy3^n fiJ>2 lyD^^zD^is ly^yii ü^j dv^i n;?:^^p .D:yD :^vdid 
'ij^^i^TfiJ^Q fc? n^iN ,$2.50 nyn^n pK DiyTi lyj^n Di^ii ,i»^iitn 
yrvj^^« n .lynyii Di>D"iJ>*BDpy oy^ i^t^:; ri'?^: px yri 
y^8 .ny2^^T pn Dy^i ,»p^-iya8 pN' lyn^^^n toyii DJjtii ,y2öD 
üyiT iy:>^p ly^^? /"nnn mts D^ysi^i lyiyii Vi>^ü w'?^)) lyr^na 
[y^np Dyii ü^\) ^nyönpi^Q nyi ^^mi »lyrr.y^ d^j oyi ^in 
DJ^n .lyD^^m« "lyi nyii^ »mino pn "isid ^^d mts ^j^id ^miv 
-iji lyriD Dyn ,t3^>3-ife§ pn ^^d d^j^vj^d ü^ysi^-i jy^np tsyii 
.Ii;Qnp toyn -iy dj^ii ariv^s: ii^s ly^t^vsa ö^ys 
n»D lyni^n yni^yo nyivD^ü-'tDJöiv.p nyi pD ny3:^>n:iji n 
lya^^syi jyrn |yüS5<ü5j^ yorr^xifeitD n .si^p ly^n ipnij^ 
-:k Diy^ p^^8 n^t^: ,üD^^n dj^t /'-niüijyüD ^'?^:„ üvi ^^3 
D^yp^j n "'•n mt» ,d"i5$^}?i y:nyn^>T n .ü^ya n{<s t::yp-iy 
D^y: ps D:yD^^^ ni nnya ü^j iy:>n ,ü'>:vb y:iys^p n px 
tD^^v "lyny^ iv ly^t^P ^n ^>mi ,ni§Dnyi i{>*: ly-i^^iipi^v ^n p« 
^>^ny^» n o^d '^mk t^« MTi§ ,i^i^i ^i^n lyiyii iyt3>3y:Dn« 

.tD^y: yjyi^ssa lyiDii^D 
PN ajw^iSD y^^J » lyn^ny^:^ "in tst^n ivm v'?'>'))')V'^ 
an:yD:i^ lyo^^ny: lyr^ns n lynj^n 1896 t^3 .ivt^ns y5»» 
-tD^^n^i» nn .iyr^t:>tj^ iv "n^: ij? ^n lyn^n 1897 pa ,iy5»s3 pK 
n lyji^nyi d^j i^^p ly nyni^ ^-^ns^o y'>üz' ^P^'yvü^ px p^^ 
tD''>njynnD^^foiN I5< \^ in Dnnn oy .i^t^ns yi^yr^oK' 
iyB^>tDD^:i^^vpytDJ^"i5 ly^nn oyi D^n^iK^inn \vü ,i:^'? pk 
-n3is*D ny:5<pnyQ^ "»i ü^: "ly r» ,nmnD noyiD nnx ^n»» 
-fc?2 lyo .DJ^o » ini^ lyr^ns n piyDyn w üs^id n jyöjsp 
n "^nn nyi pN ü^i lyn-^no "»n rs ,DDDi>nD n öjn^ijr 
"i^-iB ny:^pny»D» ytony^ya yrn^'yt n lyo^py^ |y:^n .lyt^ne 
-•»nnyi iy?Di:ya lys^^n px y^oi^jxpy -lyK^^o^^t^s PD lyn^^Dj^o 
üJ^^n ü-iyii oy Di^i^i jiD^yn lyoip lyt^ns vT^n n r» »lyt 
.pniv *^n^?^ 3>v:t5MV tD^^ ni ,-i^i^3 '•\nv^ 1D » oi^vnt^iB 
cyi P2 -i^i?a lyn^v^von-i« ^ytD^o jy^^^r^ya » ly^^Dyj ör^in |yo 
yD^y^i ,v\^^^ ^ iy:iD"iy tD^?^ lyo ^irnyv^y^oti' ^n pc «rifc^i^Di^ 
ü^»niD38 ü^^^ »i'ot^T yri^yts pa n^i^a •^yf'py-in ly^^iion« ]m> 
-iKD IV tD^i?v83 iD^J lynno in üt^n o^r t» ,n^»;?a r^yii Mtir 



ü58"i? 1yt^'nDpy^y jid ;:nn^D:^^K n .dvi n^ix tD>^v lyn^^ 
"^feüoyo y£^D n 1^,2 nyoötii lysDi^tBWD^^N DD^oya "^^^jyo üi^n 
v:vü ny"5 dj^^i ,npi>*:i pD iy^$§iip j;>^: Djysyy: Diifin n« lynn: 
nyi T>« "lynnyi .o^iny:; d>j :j«:iri p^p "lynna ^n iv üi^n 

Tin iyii>*iiy: d^ipd t^k dj^^^-isid nynns ry^j^n (* lytso^^ 
niüD "nn t^i^n Dy — ,ynDDnj^«"i^fc?: nyi px lontJ'Dii^Q oyn 
-^ns y^8 iy:^n nynnyi px ,D^ya y^^^^i^oyo yo^o n Dnnyo 
^?l:D^D^j::^^py y^«DPJ^it^to-i{? nyj^^pnyoöt n ,\::vo^v: W 
PD yn^^yjo y^rt2XD^u:fc<Tip v^'pv: ^"i |y^^jy::i^ i^t^s lynj^n 
nyi' pfc< lyaii^m^D lyn^^tro^y jyni^n v^'?^ ^n y:D^yn ,D^yi 

jji^y.ifc^^ "ly^'^DD^jy^^in nyi po tD^^^ 
üo ,ny^:y:^'!rK iy:spnyüN 1» lyDipy: nyn^^ t^x Dy 
^m„ ^j^Jiiij'T pn pi< ,Dfj;n pvs* ,t>5^;j^s< «no ,toD10{^*Jl^py p-ip 
p« nyc^v ü>D lyiMi^n /'^is^3T'"it>'n :jrr^o ijy i^noytJ'Tijy 
^11 /iyDps^iy:Dn« nymyo c^j T^fc< n^j^: yo^^D n t^* ,iyD"iy:p 
V3^yn — .11 .T8 .N nys^p ,]vv'i^ — iy^N*t2yo yiyi:^? yo^o n 
lyo D^i« .ynüon:^« ly^iyn^^tD lyi ps D:y^^n:iG cyi ly^^^^ 
,tDyDB^ini!?n yn^^ytD yivD^tD>D:^iip ^"i '•^i ,iyoy::j? i^^cn ^j^t 
t^nyi^ »pnj^o PN p<ni5ö iy:^n Dh;ii .nnino yoigo yv:^3 n t» 
p« jsi^D T^« DJ>*ii ,-pj^.i yo^^o yi;:)N3 n si^ix tDtJ^i*iDy:iDn« 
5»D T{< o^^P tDifc^D ^i^i T^« /D^"»^ nyn^ytiyi px to^yn lyi 
tD3^^^3 nniHD ynyi:^ p« i^^*3 ry^^'iiv y^^'-ii^si^ns n lor 
A'^V'i^v ü''^ lyr^nö n in ly^yii ^y^^ytn 
;iy>np*D^yii lyj^Dv^N Dy-i ^^d iy^:ipy3 T^^? dj^'-.i ,nnp^ ivi 
PD t35»yii nyn px ct^'n-ts ^^^*iy^^ lyany^D^n^* nyn^-.i öj^h 
nyn T», T^« 3:ny^piy yovy^ n .|ytDD^?D}<i:j^py yt^^iy^y: n 
•:yTi^^ny:D>^N) "li^t^'^y^sr«,, ly^y^'ijj^re lyn pB id»:)1P nnp» 
ny^>ny:D^N 18 lyc^^^ry^ fyn^n :v'^p nvi "lü^si nixiM n :(d^^p 
tK ,T3i« tDny^ a^nn^sny n. px ,^b*ö''5fc?p Dy:y^>s«5 lyo^n:! 



-«tsjra yn>'3 t^j ,ünynis*s dkVi ,ynN:;i3 n t^k "DT»^«üyo>n„ (* 
-K2^o« .e'?y5 1«D Ipl^lT U3J?pi:?3K ly'^MT — lyn'^'T px T?«; — u*^ 
nj^B lyiyiT i33ypiy3N "jn: 'jtj'^yD ]'<» n{<3 tx ,tDD^\-! — - "DT''rKt2:?a 
pK T"!« pK) iiiiKiyr:»'? "iiyny'jiSKS ij;3Kpnyf3K" "in ]'n .is'ry:» 
^yj3iD„ n« "Tit^iayaD b2Hi„ DJ? ij;o usn (ir2''7'^öMtt'2rD'n lyn 



321 ]J?TinB \\U t5'?5'j 

^^^i^vo yrrt^i n p« lyDDjjiömei d^: ^n ?{^t lyo lyii 
Di^msD yD«!ni« v'r\üi< n ts ,ü)'?\i^ div lyöip {yo f^iön t^o 
ti^^K jjK^'i^a ny"T tDDPS^i Dy d{^i^ t^k ,iyr^tDiJ^ lyt^ne n 
,i5^^p -qi^T T^N Dy .D^y: nnyo iKife?2 t^n oy d^^it d^: »nnino 
">^K"ife§2 n p« "iJ^ij^^y^^s:^«« y;^Dv^K n ts ,^y^s5^^^3 dvj^ 
3:5<^ij§2 lynyoyi: 8 pd yssrniK n oo t^n lyo^öiüsj^ yorj 
-yn n .D^ts^ny") nn^N — tonypiyiD dp:iö 1{;?i: ,nmnD ^m« 
,*inyi^y3 tD2"-i5$-y; öt^n iyoi?y:tD*^ yDr:^^Ki82 n po ajn^a 
'^'? n pK (DD:yD:j^t5:etP) oyoi^t^p jytDsn^i^D "leia ')]n'"''>i> 
p« nny^iy; n jyosti^i^D n ly-in^Div^ynnü: lys^K^ ,\]nvi 
p« iy£.">c^ n lyv^M ^v fi^iN iy?nnp ,ü^n lyjy^ pimk v'z\y 
::5??i8D -iyüiyDyn:nfe?D nyi mm r« diu:! üj^ .lyö^'ii mt8 
ly^D^D loetny: ^o^iJ üi^n ::r.^:y"i n .pnj?!:) p« nn^no n^iK 
-i5$D ü{^n n yD^yn ^lyDpnJ^is y^s n "is<d jy^i^vsa iv ^mk 
-nD'k^ lyny^yaD^isi tot^n px niKiSi Dssoya n idii^m ,ü::8^ 
-Jöin n ly^yo ryty: üyi id^^ .yoiD ytDn{;?3y: n ri>iK D'^m 
j:n'3yi "lyn ^^3 v?^^ iy*i>e5$Q-D3:n^;yi ^i !y':iD*^D'")»D lyp 
oi#i .ts^ya yjyi^si^B lypmsi^ lytt^^ yoio n ^imk px «di3 
-»283 ^y^2 ^n«i Dpmyj ::n^:y"i n oi^n mo >3 ^id ^üd^h 
ynn^N lypyi i^ pi^-.k ü^r]v:i ron: oj^n n ^y^2^ii ,D>y: yjyn 
iyv,y: TD^o iy:^n Di^-n ,iyüpni^"is y:yn>^K^"i8ö n nn« m«vin 
tDi^n tD^y: yoiD yD"iyDyi:n»D n ü>3 ,j;^t^8 .n!:n>»D n isa 
nyi ,üiyp-i»2 ii?: ,nninD y^8 n Pin« 3:8^-n<2 oyi \v^^^V3 
ü^y: yoiD n oiyDyii^iöts tDt^n nnino n «imk jis^n^s ^v"} 

j;^v8^ip"i^v lyi pn 
.-lyijy^nDn^'O y85^^«ysj#i>'« r^» PK ^mk t^k v:i^v^ dh^h 
-^^viytnya "»yjijnjt*^ n ipsn^yj or» ly^yii oi^n oy otjni Dy 

: "tM^T83 rrii^yö^ODy pkod^ n ^\ji 
TU »lyt'^^iÄö ^» fyo:y!Din» yoD^»nw p*P »'^ ^'^^ \^ 

-«3 o^tn ,«:»öyj e^n «n»ijn n o^^n ;iauipyts3^ie n (* 
-DM-\8 ip^n iyi2D''7»a'BKP yt2nM»:»JHJ n t» .ir^pu'» o'O lytMi 

,iynp oanyiiyj^!» ]y:^»T »u mi mtjj tyay*? 0'3 ip^yp rayo-o»'?? 
B'O ]'n3yis'3»^K iy3^5 ly'jM^ tyi<«Dyc<<"iB ny^Kpn^rojj ytMiy'rya n 
Hona j« i»'^»D i»K oy o^^^ am^th bdip nnp» -lyn »ij ^"Jiy Djn 



PK o>^v ^vo)iv'> nyi p« D^y: j/dü^ö lyn pss :i:nnyon»D n 
lyrn dj^ii „nyn:y^ yiy-i:» y:5» pN ^11 >n^) lyostonn-oMi; 
^sniK n 0^: PK Dj^D^ny-i ^yi t^k ; (>snD^>j iyni>» ^ynp p« 
n PD lyr^tDtj' Dyi iis ^^^ti^k y'n?DK n .lyr^ns ys^in pa 
Di;|ii^ ,nyD>?DDj>p « ^v ,ny'ncK i^ ^v ,pnn ny-i t^k \vv>^b 

. . .DDötiny:i Di^n "iJ^oK^i^^-non^D nyi 
•D^iK Dy"T 'ISS üSJi^o K nyn ti? ,üt^ni p^Db^üfe$üD n„ 
d:iq 28.000.000 ly^^y: jyvjs: px t^k non^o lyn ps ^na 
lyrtoij'j/y yoiD n t^k ,y>vs^ipT':^ p« ($136.000,000 lyn^N) 
lyDvy^ v\:v ($1.344.000.000 lyn^K) üjid 276.000.000 V2 
-t^iiy: DDü?s3nyvi»& n t^k nni^^ ny^Q p« dd^m Oi^i ,>j^^ 
-j^\-i pD "•:•.'- ;i:y d^d 1915 ^:r yi:y :n:yD^^5':i;j$D ...lyi 
-:^n >niv ^iy 1» pc dpikiiki^ « "t-o lyp^yDsin nnj^> ly^-iD 
Dn^ ,1:)^^^ lyn^yt lyr i^k .(250%) tD:yvj^"iQ rvcis px üiyi 
jyt^nB n lyrn /'DD^DJ^:i^py„ tDDntJ'tD^^v lyi ps pnt^n cyn 
-lyn .tD:yvi;|t"i5 :>vdd8 Pk lynj/n ü>d lyrtDt^^y: nnino n pa 
t^k »'nnn t^k ny Dsn »lyt^ns n px dpikiii^^ oyi pD t3Jy^fl^n^ 
*iyi pö JJitD^nnDMK nyi pD Djyv^^ns lyi ni ny:y^p "^d » 

«y^vfen^ipn^^ PK D^y: tyoKo 
? ty3iiDDKnt3K3 i;^K n t:3ik [yin^Q ü)'?^ k ikq Di<t^i iv 
'^'»-WQ >>iiv DT^^KtD^QKP Dyi pQ ytoD^t^yj "lyn pK lynyt i^d 
Ii;r^^"iQ n lynt^n yii^nys nytDsj'ny nyi ps3 tD>>v nyn p« : ]vi 
nyö^^nv lyi ps t:^>v lyi pK .[y^iüs pK lytD^Knyj an^yoe^ 
lytD^Kn ,p>-i^!^ :>^:fe§iiv "ini^> k d-«» |yn^iny:iji^ -^n tDj^n y^^yii 
-inB n PD ly^KQ nvi ^m i:'\'\v'?P^v n .lyr^tD^^i^ p^k pk >>t 
iyt5^^:DyD lyi di:?ii lyiiya f« yii^nyö "iytDK^*iy nyi p« jyr 
yK'^tDD^^KD>3KP n DinnyöPKiKD tot^n nyD^yn ^onsi^toni^Q 
n tiK y^vpnt^iB pe lyoDJ^p n ünyjy^p-ixD DJ^n ,y^vpni^-iB 
-yj >n öt^n jyDD^^KD^BSP y^^yv^^^K n lyt^^^iv vjyniPJKP 
O'D t'ns-DDi^p Dyn ^v nnino yiy^n lyö^ipiKS w |y;3iKiiv 
ü^n poayö lyn p« t^nt^üi^D lyi .tD^5i?i3 lys^^ü^ijrD-i'n öj 
lyai? öi!?n oy .iDnyny^ö^iK b^j inj^^ :i>vjsiiv yövy^ n "iss 
.tyüD>^Kö^BKP yj^yv^^^K n ir^n^v nyn^PJt^P n oiyny,^5^iK 
-^K työD^^Kö^BSP PQ |y3:3i2>i>''KnKö tDi>T^JK:!"i?^ ^''T m^ri Dy 
,D}{;fiK^>ni^B-i^p y^KDi^t'i^p ,DöD>^-iü — |y^yi y^yn^-'^ns? lyo 
bBKtry^Bt? lyni^n Dt^^ii „ii .tk .k d^iq ,ty^yö-iKP ,tyt3Kp'''^^D 
•^nö PD 3:n>^"i:yi pb oy^o^D k ünn^cyar^K pk .r^ymp^i^p n 
.«^^nK-^nsn iny^ i!^ i^^ tyt^^^s n \VT)n ]^ ü^^v ny^iy^ pD .ryr 
Jinp^ iyi:yr^öß^ Drr tiß 3jny?pny y'nioK *t vh o^i 



y 





Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

froin 
the li'oraiy of 

the late 
Samuel Lazar Kagan 







:w:. 













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