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Full text of "The apostolic fathers ... by the late J.B. Lightfoot"

u 




THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS 



FIRST PART 

VOL. II. 



i 



Pi 6^6T 



:he apostolic fathers 



PART I. 

S. CLEMENT OF ROME. 



A REVISED TEXT 

WITH INTRODUCTIONS, NOTES, DISSERTATIONS, 
AND TRANSLATIONS. 



BY THE LATE 

J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., 

LORD BISHOP OF DURHAM. 



VOL. n. 



ILontion : 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK. 
1890 

\^All Ri gilts rese7-ved.\ 




# 



\^ 



ainbrilige : 

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SONS 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



^(JP^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



SECOND VOLUME. 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION. 14 

The authorities for the text. Other sources of evidence. Symbols used. 



TEXT AND NOTES. 



515 



THE SO-CALLED SECOND EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT. 

INTRODUCTION. 191210 

The attribution to Clement in the manuscripts [191]. External evidence 
against this [192, 193]. The designation 'to the Corinthians' [193, 194]. 
Internal evidence. Not an Epistle, but a homily [194 197]. Probably 
delivered in Corinth [197 199]. Harnack's theory of its Roman origin 
considered [199 201]. Limits of date [201 204]. Theories of authorship, 
(i) Bryennios' theory, Clement of Rome [204 206]. (ii) Hilgenfeld's 
theory, Clement of Alexandria [206, 207]. (iii) Harnack's theory, the 
Clement mentioned in Hermas [207, 208]. Analysis [208 210]. 

TEXT AND NOTES. 211 261 

The lacuna in the Alexandrian Manuscript. 263 267 

Corrigenda in the collation of the Constantinopolitan Manu- 
script. 268 

TRANSLATIONS. 

1. THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIANS. 27 r 305 

2. AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 306316 



I 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION. 317- 3i8 

Interesting problems presented by his personality and life. The dis- 
covery of the Philosophumena. His relation to our main subject through 
his intimate connexion with (i) the early history of the Roman Church, 
(ii) the earliest western list of Roman bishops. 

1. ANCIENT REFERENCES TO HIPPOLYTUS. 318365 
I Hippolytus [318324]. 1 Chair of Hippolytus [324326]. 3 Eu- 

sebius [326, 327]. 4 Liberian Chronographer [328]. 5 Epiphanius [328]. 
6 Apollinaris? [328]. 7 Damasus [328, 329]. 8 Hieronymus [329331]. 
9 Rufinus [331]. 10 Prudentius [332 338]. 1 1 Palladius [338]. 12 Theo- 
doret [338, 339]. 13 Gelasius [340]. 14 Andreas of Cassarea [340]. 15 Li- 
ber Pontificalis [340342]. 16 Cyrillus of Scythopolis [343]. 17 Gregory of 
Tours [343]. 18 Eustratius of Constantinople [343]. 19 Stephanus Gobarus 
[343]. 20 Leontius of Byzantium [343]. 21 Chronicon Paschale [344]- 
22 Concilium Lateranense [344]. 23 Anastatius Apocrisiarius [344, 
345]. 24 Anastatius Sinaita [345]. 25 Pseudo-John of Damascus [345]. 
id Germanus of Constantinople [345]. 27 Pseudo-Chrysostom [346]. 
28 Georgius Syncellus [346]. 29 Nicephorus [346]. 30 Georgius Hamar- 
tolus [347]. 31 Photius [347 349]. 32 CEcumenius [349]. 33 Zonaras 
[349]- 34 Suidas [349]. 35 Nicephorus Callistus [349? 350]. 36 Ebed- 
Jesu [350]. 37 Inscriptions relating to reliques [351, 352]. 38 Itineraries 
[352 354]. 39 Western Service Books [354, 355]. 40 Calendars and 
Martyrologies [355, 356]. 41 Florus-Beda [356, 357]. 42 Ado of Vienne 
[357 360]. 43 Mencea [361, 362]. 44 S. Petrus Damianus [362]. 
45 Passio Sancti Sixti Laurentii Hippolyti [363, 364]. 46 Acta SS. 
Cyriaci Hippolyti Aureae etc. [364, 365]. 

2. MODERN LITERATURE. 365370 

3. NAMESAKES OF S. HIPPOLYTUS. 370377 
Points of contact with the story of the son of Theseus [370]. Five other 

namesakes, real or imaginary persons [371]. (i) Hippolytus the martyr 
of Antioch [371, 372]. (2) Hippolytus the Alexandrian connected with 
Dionysius [372]. (3) Hippolytus the Greek captain of brigands [373 376]. 
(4) Hippolytus the soldier, the warder of S. Laurence [376]. (5) Hippolytus 
of Thebes [377]. 

4. GAIUS OR HIPPOLYTUS. 377388 
Was there such a person as Gaius? [377]. Works ascribed to him [377]. 

The 'Refutation of all Heresies' proved not his, but Hippolytus' [378]. 

Yet the author of the ' Refutation ' must have written all the works ascriljed 

to Gaius, except the 'Dialogue with Proclus' [378 380]. The 'Dialogue' 

too by Hippolytus. Gaius simply the name of the orthodox disputant, 

wrongly considered the author [381, 382]. All facts predicated of Gaius i 

are predicable of Hippolytus [382, 383]. Testimony of the Letter of the 

Smymx-ans [383]. The evidence of Eusebius [383, 384]. Presumption 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vil 

PAGE 
that Hippolytus wrote against Montanism [384 386]. The argument from 
style [386]. Objections met [386, 387]. The ' Heads against Gaius' [388]. 

5. THE LITERARY WORKS OF HIPPOLYTUS. 388405 

Introduction [388]. (i) Biblical and Exegetical [389 395]. (2) Theo- 
logical and Apologetic [395 399]. (3) Historical and Chronological [399]. 
(4) Heresiological [400 403]. Spurious Hippolytean works [403 405]. 

6. THE MURATORIAN FRAGMENT. 405413 

Metrical passages embedded in Irenseus [405 407]. Verse employed for 
theological teaching and for lists of the scriptures [407]. The Muratorian 
Canon, history, date and country [407]. A translation from a Greek 
treatise in verse [408 411]- The notice of Hermas common to the Mura- 
torian Canon and the Liberian Catalogue, and Salmon's inference [411, 412]. 
The treatise probably by Hippolytus [412]. Included among the titles on 
the Chair [412, 413]. Its date [413]. 

7. THE COMPENDIUM AGAINST ALL THE HERESIES. 413418 

8. THE REFUTATION OF ALL HERESIES. 418 

9. TABLE OF THE LITERARY IVORA'S OF HIPPOLYTUS. 419421 

10. EARLY AND MIDDLE LIFE OF HIPPOLYTUS. 422, 423 
His connexion with Irenxus [422]. With Origen [423]. 

11. WAS HIPPOLYTUS A NOVA TIAN? 424427 
The allegation of Prudentius derived from Damasus' inscription [424]. 

Damasus' statement avowedly based on hearsay [425]. Contemporary 
ignorance of Hippolytus' history [425]. Considerations on the other side; 
(i) the silence of Cyprian and the Liberian Catalogue, (ii) the chronology 

[425427]- 

12. THE SEE OF HIPPOLYTUS. 427434 

Ignorance of early writers on this point [427, 428]. His allocation to 
Bostra based on a blunder [428]. Le Moyne's inference untenable [429]. 
His association with the see of Portus Eastern in origin [429, 430]. 
Theories of Bunsen and Dollinger [430432]. Most probably 'bishop of 
the Gentiles,' with Portus as head-quarters [433, 434]- 

13. HIPPOLYTUS THE PRESBYTER. 435,436 
Unique position of Hippolytus among contemporaries [435]. The title 

'presbyter' represents not office, but dignity [435]. To whom applied [435]. 
Subsequently misunderstood [436 ]. 

14. LATER YEARS, BANISHMENT, AND DEATH. 436440 

The pontificates of Zephyrinus and Callistus [436]. Peace of the Church, 
internal and external, under Urbanus [437]- Literary activity of Hippo- 
lytus [437]. Death of Alexander Severus succeeded by the persecution 
under Maximin [437, 438]. Banishment of Ponlianus and Hippolytus 
to Sardinia [438, 439]. Their death, and deposition [439, 440]. 



Vill TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

15. THE STATUE OF HIPPOLYTUS. 440442 

16. POSTHUMOUS HONOURS AND SANCTUARIES. 442468 

(1) The cemetery of Hippolytus in the Ager Veranus [44'2]. His 
sanctuary there [443 445]- Evidence of Prudentius [445]. The Romanus 
commemorated by Prudentius [446 451]. The sanctuary and festival 
described by Prudentius [451 453]. Gradual decadence of this shrine [454, 
455]. The adjacent cemetery of S. Laurence [455]- Importance and 
architectural history of the basilica of S. Laurence [456 458]. Reliques 
of Hippolytus transferred thither [459, 460]. Consequent transformation in 
the personality of Hippolytus [460]. Hippolytus the gaoler substituted for 
Hippolytus the divine [460 463]. Subsequent history of the cemetery of 
Hippolytus [463, 464]. (2) The sanctuary on the Vicus Patricius [464, 465]. 
(3) The sanctuary at Portus [466]. {4) The castle and commemoration at 
Fossombrone [466, 467]. Reverence paid to Hippolytus outside Italy, 
especially in France [467, 468]. 

1 7. SPURIOUS A CTS OF HIPPOL YTUS. 

Acts of the Laurentian Cycle. 468 474 

Acts of the Portuensian Cycle. _j^7^__^^y 



APPENDIX. 

1. S. PETER IN ROME. 481502 

2. THE EPISTLE OF BARNABAS. 503512 



INDICES. 

1. INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES. 515517 

2. INDEX OF SUBJECT-MATTER. 518532 J 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 

TO 

THE CORINTHIANS. 



CLEM. n. 



THE authorities for the text are three in number, two Greek manu- 
scripts and a Syriac version. 

(i) Codex Alexandrbms (A), where the Epistles of Clement 
are added to the New Testament ; an uncial manuscript probably 
belonging to the fifth century. It is fully described above, i. p. ii6 
sq. It is much blurred and worn, and a leaf has disappeared 
towards the end of the First Epistle. Thus it omits from 57 a.v& 
wv yap -^liKovv to the end of 63. In the Second Epistle it breaks 
off at 12 oiJTe apo-cv ouVe Qy\\v touto, the end of the manuscript 
being lost. The so-called v icjjiXKva-TtKov is almost uniformly in- 
serted. All deviations from this authority in my text are noted in 
the apparatus criticus beneath. The lacunae in this manuscript are 
not stated, except where a various reading is concerned ; but a 
complete list is given at the end of the Epistles. 

(2) Codex Constantinopolitatius (C), a cursive manuscript dated 
A.D. 1056, and containing the whole of the Two Epistles. It is 
described fully above, i. p. 121 sq. The v <^Xkuo-tikoi/ is syste- 
matically omitted, though there are one or two exceptions. All the 
variations of this manuscript likewise are recorded beneath, with the 
exception of the v c'^eAKvo-TtKov which it seemed unnecessary to 
notice. 

(3) Syriac Version (S), where the Epistles of Clement are found 
incorporated among the Epistles of the New Testament in the 
Philoxenian (Harclean) version. The extant manuscript is dated 
A.D. 1 170. This authority also is described fully in the introduc- 
tion, I. p. 129 sq. How far this version may be accepted as evidence 
for the text, and to what extent it seemed advisable to record 
the variations from the Greek, I have there stated with sufficient 
precision. 

The relations of our three authorities to each other, and the value 
to be assigned to each, are considered at length in the general intro- 
duction. 

I 2 



4 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT. 

Besides these authorities (the manuscripts and the version) we have 
two other sources of evidence; (i) Clement quotes very largely from 
the Lxx, and the text of the lxx therefore may be used as a testimony. 
But discretion must be exercised since the degree of accuracy in quot- 
ing must be a matter of experience ; and we cannot even assume, where 
there are variations, that the reading which agrees with the lxx text 
gives the actual words of our author, a tendency to restore the actual 
form of the original being noticeable in transcribers ; (2) Clement him- 
self is frequently quoted by later fathers, especially by his namesake 
Clement of Alexandria. But here again discretion is needed, for the 
fathers notably the Alexandrian Clement often quote very loosely 
and from memory. 

Where our chief authority (A) deserts us, it is necessary to be espe- 
cially careful in dealing with the others. On this account I have given 
the variations of the Syriac version in greater fulness in these parts 
than elsev/here ; as this is the only check on possible errors in the one 
Greek manuscript (C) which we possess here. In these same parts I ' 
have uniformly inserted the v icfteXKvaTiKov, though wanting in C, be- 
cause it would certainly have had a place in A, and therefore presumably 
represents the original text of Clement. 

A very few words only are necessary to explain the notation. The 
authorities are designated as above A, C, S. Where an authority omits 
any word or words, this is signified by ' om.' ; where it is defective by ! 
mutilation or otherwise, so that we cannot tell the reading, this is ex- 
pressed by ' def.' Where the reading is doubtful, as for instance when | 
it is impossible to say what Greek text the Syriac version represents, the ! 
abbreviation is 'dub.' The abbreviations 'app.' and 'prob.' stand for ' 
' apparently ' and ' probably'. The square brackets [ ] in the text imply 
that it is doubtful whether the words or letters so enclosed ought to < 
stand as part of the original text. The word ' Clem ' in the textual 
notes signifies Clement of Alexandria ; and, where necessary, the re- 
ference to the page of Potter's edition is added. ; 



( 




]3^, w. y^ 



....^^r"'^^ 



-^y-tv Y'' 




^ 



nPOC KOPIN0IOYC. 



'H 'GKKAHCIA tov Oeov tj TrapoiKOva-a ' Pcojuriv 

npoc KOpiNGioyc] For the titles of this epistle in the several authorities 
see I. pp. 117, 122, 131. 



'The Church of Rome to the 
Church of Corinth, elect and con- 
secrate ; greeting in Christ Jesus.' 

On the form of the address, as 
connected with the question of the 
authorship, see the introduction, i. 
p. 352 sq. 

The writer's name is suppressed 
here, as it seems also to have been 
suppressed in another letter of the 
Church of Rome to the Church of 
Corinth written more than half a 
century later during the episcopate 
of Soter ; see Dionys. Corinth, in 
Euseb. H. E. iv. 23. 

This address is imitated in the 
openings of three early Christian 
documents at least; (i) The Epistle 
of Polycarp^ see I. p. 149 ; (2) The 
Letter of the Sniyrnceans, giving an 
account of Polycarp's martyrdom, 
see Ignat. and Polyc. I. p. 610 sq ; 
(3) T\\& Apostolic Constitutions. For 
other openings which it has influenced 
(though in a less degree), see the note 
on napoiKova-a below. 

I. napoiKovcTa] ^sojourning in.' 
(i) The primary idea in this word is 
transitoriness. The distinction be- 
tween TTapoiKOi a tempora?y and kox- 
oLKos a permanent resident appears 
from Philo Sacr. Ab. et Cain % 10 
(l. p. 170) o yap rots eyKVKkion p-ovoLS 



inavix^av napoiKel (Toipia, ov KaroiKel, 
de Conf. ling. 17 (l. p. 416) /carw- 
Krjaav (OS iv Trarpidi, ov^ wf eVi ^fvrjs 
TrapMKrjaav, Greg. Naz. Oral, xiv (l. 

p. 271) TIS TTjf KaTO) <TKrjvf)U KOI TTjV 

avco TToXiv (diaiprjaei) ; tls irapoiKiav 
Kai KaToLKLOP ; Oral, vii (l. p. 200) (k 
TTjs napoiKias eis Trjv KaroiKiav p,eTa- 
(rKfva(6p,voi : comp. Gen. xxxvi. 44 
(xxxvii. l) KUTcoKfi 8e 'laKtu/3 ev rrj yrj ov 
TrapaKTjaev 6 Trarrip avroii iv yij Xavaav, 
Heb. xi. 9, Luke xxiv. 18. Thus ndp- 
oiKos, rrapoiKflv, TrapoiKia, are said of 
the captivities of Egypt (Acts vii. 6 
from LXX, xiii. 17) and of Babylon 
(Theoph. ad Ant. iii. 25, 28). See 
especially the uses of irapoiKelv, kutoi- 
Kelv, in reference to the migrations of 
Israel, in Judith v. 7 10. Of these 
captivities the present earthly condi- 
tion of the Christian people is the 
antitype (Heb. iv. i). 

(2) Connected with this primary 
conception is the secondary idea of 
no}i-citizensliip. In the inscriptions 
' the sojourners ' are opposed to ' the 
citizens,' C. I. G. 3595 oi re TroXirai 
Koi 01 TvapoiKoi TvavTfs (comp. ib. 1 625, 
1631, 2906, 3049). The Christians are 
no citizens on earth. They dwell in 
the world as aliens, ^ivoi, irapeTVL^-qpoi, 
TrapoiKoi, I Pet. i. 17, ii. u ; comp. 
Heb. xi. 13. So too Clem. Rom. ii. 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



Trj eKK\t]a-ia tov Oeou rfi TrapoLKovari Kopivdov, k\}]- 
ToT^f riyiaa-fJievoL^ ev deXruuari Oeov hid rov Kvpiou 

3 navTOKparopos] A ; rod wavTOKpaTopos C (comp. Ap. Const. I. i). 5 ai(t>vi- 



^ 5 KaraXeiyJAavTei ttjv TrapoiKiav tov 
Koafiov TovTov (comp. C. I. G. 9474 
TOV ^iov TOVTOV Trjv wapoiKiav), Kp. ad 
Dioi^n. 5 TTorpiSas oiKovaiv I8ias aXX 
(OS napoiKoi,' ixeTf)^ov(ri navraiv cos no- 
Xirat Koi travff VTrofifvovaiv cos ^ivoi ira- 
aa ^ivr] Trarpis ecrriv avrmv kul iracra 
narpls ievrj, where the writer is de- 
scribing the Christians. A good 
illustration of this sense of napoiKelv 
is Orig. c. Ccls. iii. 29 aX 8e rov XpicrTov 
fKukrja-iai, (TVPf^eTa^ofievai Tois (ov Tvap- 
oiKOvai drJiJLMV iKKXrjaiais, as (jxaaTrjpis 
elcnv ev Koo-p-w, ib. 2P eKKXrjaias tov 
Qfov napoiKovcras eKKkrjcriais tov Kad 
eicaa-TTjv noKiv drjpav. Compare also 
the parable in Hermas Vz's. i. i. In 
the prologue to Ecclesiasticus ol ev 
Tji napoiKla are the Jews of the dis- 
persion, so that napoiKia is almost 
equivalent to hacnvopa; and, as the 
latter word is transferred to the 
Christian people, the spiritual Israel 
(l Pet. i. I TrapeTTihripoLS diacnropas), SO 
is the former. Hence the form of 
address here, which appears also 
Polyc. P/ti/. TJI eKuXrjo-iq. tov Qeov rfi 
TrapoiKov(TT] ^tXi-mrovs, Mart. Polyc. j) 
TrapoiKoixra '2p.vpvav k.t.\., Dionys. Co- 
rinth, in Euseb. H. E. iv. 23 ttj napoi- 
Kovcrr] ropTvvav, Epist. Gall, in Euseb. 
H.E. V. I o\ ev BuvvT) Koi Aovydovvai ttjs 
TaWias napoiKovvres 8011X01 XptoroC. 
From this the substantive irapoiKia 
came to be used in a concrete sense, 
' the body of aliens,' for the Christian 
brotherhood in a town or district. 
The earliest instances which I have 
observed are J/^zr/./'^'/y^.inscr. naaais 
Tais Kara navra tottov ttjs dyias Koi 
KaOoXiKTjs eKKXrjaias irapoLKiais, Dionys. 
Corinth. [.?] in Euseb. H.E. iv. 23 
ap.a Tais Xoinals Kara Kprp-Tjv napoiKiais, 
Iren. in Euseb. //. E. v. 24 elprjvevov 



Tols ciTTo Ta>v TrapoiKiwv ev ais err^peiTO, 
Apollon. in Euseb. H. E. v. \% ^ I8ia 
napoLKia avrov ZSev rjv ovk ihe^aTo : 
whence pa7'ochia, parish. It seems 
not strictly correct to say that irapoi- 
Kia was equivalent to the later term 
8ioiKr]a-ts ; for irapoiKia, though it is 
sometimes a synonyme for SioiKrjo-tr 
(e.g. Conc.Aiicyr.Ca.n. 18), appears to 
have been used much more generally. 
The explanation often given of rrapoi- 
Kia, as though it denoted the aggre- 
gate of Christian communities in the 
ncighboiirJiood of a large town, re- 
ceives no countenance from the earliest 
usage of TrapoiKos., etc. ; for the prepo- 
sition is not local but temporal, and 
denotes not proximity but traiisito- 
riness. For the accusative after irapoi- 
Kelv see the note on Polyc. Phil, inscr. 

I. kXtjtoIs K.T.X.] Taken from the 
salutation in i Cor. i. i, 2, ijyiaapevois 
ev XpitTTa 'irjcrov, kXtjtoIs ayiois. Cle- 
ment not unnaturally echoes the lan- 
guage of S. Paul's Epistle to the 
Corinthians, even where he does not 
directly quote it. Similarly the Epi- 
stle of Ignatius to the Ephesians pre- 
sents parallels to S. Paul's Epistle to 
the same church, especially in the 
opening salutation. The same rela- 
tion again exists between Polycarp's 
Epistle to the Philippians and the 
corresponding letter of S. Paul. For 
the meaning of rjyiaa-pivois, ' conse- 
crated to be God's people,' see the 
notes on toIs ayiois Phil. i. i. 

3. X'^P''^ /c.r.X.] xfipif vjjuv KOI elprjvij 
is the common salutation in S. Paul, 
excepting the Pastoral Epistles. With 
the addition oi irXrjGvvBelr] however it 
occurs only in the two Epistles of 
S. Peter, from whom probably Cle- 
ment derived the form, as the First 



i] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 7 

i]luwv'lt]a'ov XpKTTOv. X^P'-'^ vfMV icai eipr]V}] ciTro iravro- 
KpaTopo's Oeov dia 'hja-ou XpiCTOv 7r\fj6uv6eit] . 
5 I. Aia Ta<s alcpui^lou^ Kai eTraXXtlXovs yevojuii/a^ 

Siovs] ai<pvTj3iovcr A. yevo/jL^vas'] C ; evaa A. S has a present; comp. 9. 



Epistle is frequently quoted by him. 
In Jude I we have eXeos vfilv koi 
(IpyjVT) KOL dycnrr] TrXr^Bwdfirj. 

iravTOKparopos] The LXX rendering 
of niN3^ in the expression ' the Lord 
of Hosts' (see Stanley, Jewish Church 
II. p. 87), apparently not a classical 
word. In the New Testament it 
occurs once only out of the Apoca- 
lypse, 2 Cor. vi. 18, where S. Paul is 
quoting from the LXX. So again 
2, 32 (LXX), 56, 60, 62 (comp. 8 
TravTOKparopiKo), Polyc. Phil, inscr., 
Herm. Vis. iii. 3 {Sim. v. 7), Alafi. 
Polyc. 14. See also Pearson Expo- 
sition of the Creed p. 78 sq (ed. 
Chevalliej-) for its position and signi- 
ficance in the Latin Creed. As a 
Latin translation of TraiTOKparwio, 'om- 
nipotens ' is the survival of the fittest, 
its defunct rivals being ' omnitenens,' 
' omnipollens,' etc. Conversely the 
Latin ' omnipotens ' is sometimes 
translated by TravTohyvap-os for ixav- 
TOKparoop ; comp. Caspari Qucllen z. 
Gesch. d. Taufsymbols in. pp. vi, 24, 
204 sq, 209212. The two occur to- 
gether in the Liturgy of S. James, 
aytoy et, navroKpuTiop, navToSvvap.e 
(Swainson's Greek Liturgies p. 270 
sq). 

I. 'We should have written sooner, 
but our own troubles have hindered 
us. We are grieved to hear that one 
or two headstrong ring-leaders have 
fanned the flame of discord among 
you. This was not your wont in 
former days. Your firm faith, your 
sober piety, your large hospitality, 
your sound knowledge, were the ad- 
miration of all. Authority was duly 
respected by you. Your young men 



were modest ; your wives were quiet 
and orderly.' 

5. rm al(f)vi8iovs K.r.X.] This lan- 
guage accurately describes the perse- 
cution which the Roman Christians 
endured under Domitian. Theirtreat- 
ment by this emperor was capricious, 
and the attacks upon them were re- 
peated. While the persecution of 
Nero was one fierce and wholesale 
oiislaught in which the passions of the 
multitude were enlisted on the em- 
peror's side, Domitian on the other 
hand made use of legal forms and 
arraigned the Christians from time 
to time on various paltry charges ; see 
above, i. p. 81, p. 350 sq. Apollonius 
in Philostr. Vit. Apoll. vii. 4 distin- 
guishes two kinds of tyrants of which 
Nero and Tiberius respectively are 
the types the one passionate and 
reckless {opficoarjs koi aKpirov), the 
other stealthy and treacherous {vwo- 
KadT]p.evr]s), the one acting with vio- 
lence, the other using forms of 
justice. Obviously he places the 
contemporary tyrant Domitian in 
this second class. Again Domitian 
is described by Suetonius {Domit. 
11) in language closely resembhng 
Clement's, ' non solum magnae sed 
et callidae i)iopinatacque saevitiae.' 
Compare the accounts in Euseb. 
H.E. iii. 17 sq, Chron. an. 95, Dion 
Cass. Ixvii. 14, Suet. Domit. 12, 15. 
So Mart. Ign. i speaks of 01 ttoXXoI 
cTTt Ao/Liertafoi; 8iu>yixoi (though this 
refers especially to Antioch). These 
and other passages referring to the 
persecution of Domitian are given in 
full above, I. p. 104 sq. In one of 
these attacks the writer's namesake, 



8 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



b 



rifjLLV (TUfxcpopa^ kcu 7repi7rTW(rei^, dhe\(poi, fipdhiov vo^l- 
to/uev eTTicTTpocprji/ TreTroiPja-daL irepl rcHv iTri^rjTovjuevcov 
Trap' vfiiv irpayixoLTixiv, dya7rf]T0i, r^s re dWorpia^ 
Kal pevt]^ Toh eKkeKToh tov Qeov, juiapds kui dvooriov 

1 7)ixiv^ AS; Kad' rjfjLwv C. TrepnrTuxreis] A; irepiffTaaeis C; lapsus et 

damna S, which evidently represents irepLirTuiffeis (see l. p. 136). ddeXipoi] A; 

dyawrjTol S ; om. C. See below 4, where S makes the same change. /3pd- 

5iov] ppadfiov A. 3 Trap' vpuv TrpayfiaTuv^ A; irpayixaTuiv irap^ vfuv C; 



and patron (as 1 venture to think), 
Flavius Clemens, a kinsman of the 
emperor, fell a victim; see I. ;iS sq. 
Thus the notice here accords with 
external testimony which places the 
Corinthian feuds to which this letter 
refers in the reign of Domitian ; see 
the introduction, I. p. 347. Volkmar 
{Theol. Jahrb. 1856, p. 286 sq, and 
elsewhere), who assigns a much later 
date to this epistle, is obliged to refer 
the notice here to the sufferings of 
the Christians under Trajan; but 
there is no evidence that this perse- 
cution extended to Rome. Our epistle 
therefore was probably written to- 
wards the close of Domitian's reign 
or on the accession of Nerva (about 
A.D. 95 or 96). Other notices of time 
in the body of the letter agree with 
this result; see above, I. p. 348 sq. 

e7raXAj\ovs] ' successive^ repeated^ 
a comparatively late but common 
word, e.g. Philo in Flacc. 14 (ll. p. 
534 M.) Tots (Tvvi^iii K(u enaXkiiXovs 
KaKcotTds, Plut. Foinp. 25 Kivdvvois 
7raXA.j/Xois Koi TrokepLois ; see Lobeck 
Paral. p. 471. It is restored indeed 
by Hermann in Soph.yi;//. 57, but this 
restoration is very doubtful, and the 
word there must have the sense ' re- 
ciprocal.' For (naWrfKovi yevofievas 
comp. Alciphr. p. 1. 23 _;^ta)i/ ttvkvti 
KOI eiraWrjXos (^epo/ie'i/?;. Other- 
wise we might read (ira\\i]Xcos, which 
occurs Epist. Gall. 14 in Euseb. 
H. E. V. I. 

I. j/o/xifo/iej/] The whole passage 



will mean ' Owing to the sudden and 
repeated calamities and reverses 
which have befallen us, we consider 
we have been somewhat slow to pay 
attention to the questions of dispute 
among you.' The reader must be 
cautioned against the rendering a- 
dopted in some translations, English 
and Latin ; ' those thmgs which you 
enquired of us,' 'the points respecting 
which you consulted us,' 'ea quae 
fuerant quaesita a vobis.' This 
rendering involves a historical mis- 
statement. The expression contains 
no allusion to any letter or other ap- 
plication from the Corinthians to the 
Romans. Clement does not write 
Trap vfxav, but Trap' vfilv; and to eVt- 
^tjTovfieva means simply 'the matters 
of dispute,' not 'desiderata,' as it is 
sometimes rendered, e7riC^TTjfj.a being 
'a question.' It would appear that 
the Roman Christians had not been 
directly consulted by the Church of 
Corinth, but having heard of the 
feuds by common report ( 47 avrtj ij 
aKo^) wrote this letter unsolicited. 

4. ievrjs] Doubtless the right read- 
ing; comp, Clem. Hom. vi. lAfOisaKr]- 
6eias dXkoTpiav oxicrav kol ^evrjv. No 
sense can be made of ^euois. The 
doubling of epithets {aXXorpias Ka\ 
ievrjs) is after Clement's manner, 
especially in this opening chapter ; 
e.g. fiiapas Koi avoaiov, TrpoTrfrfj koi 
av6a8r], navaperov koi (if(iaiav, etc. 

5. Trpoo-ojTra] Not simply ^persons' 
but 'ringleaders'; comp. 47, and 



I] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



5 (TTao'ewSy rju oXiya TrpaacoTra TrpoTreTrj Kai avBaht} 
viTap')(^ovTa ei^ ToarouTOv. dirovoLa^ epeKavcrav^ coo'Te to 
(rejuvoi/ Kai vrepi^otjTOv Kai ttclo'lv dvOpcoTroi's d^iaya- 
TTtjTOv bvofjia v/uLcoi/ jueydXcD^ (^\a(r(pr]iuLr]df]vai. t/s yap 
7rapeTnht]iJLt]a'a<i Trpos i)/xas Ttji/ iravapeTOV Kai f^e^aiav 

dub. S. dyaTrrjTol] AC ; om. S. 4 ^^I'l^s] CS ; ^evoi-a A. 8 p\a<r- 

<pT]/ji,r)drivaL] A ; pXaffcpri/j.e'iaOai C ; ui laederetur or laedatur (513003) S, which 
perhaps represents \a(p0i}vai. 



see the note on Ign. Magn. 6. The 
authors of these feuds are again men- 
tioned as few in number, 47 hi iv 
f) 8vo npocrcoTTa aTacrid^fiv npos rovs 
npfcr^vrepovs. 

6. tis ToaovTov K.r.X.] ^ have kiiidled 
to sttch a pitch of recklessness'' ; comp. 
46 eis Toaav^Tjv aTTOVoiau epxopieda. 
Editors have taken offence at the 
expression, but its awkwardness is 
no sufficient reason for altering the 
text ; comp. ^ 45 els toctovto e^tjpLaav 
6vp.ov. Otherwise vtto dnovolas might 
be read. In ciTrovoui sJuimelessness 
rather than folly is the prominent 
idea, so that the dnovevorjpevos is de- 
scribed by Theophrastus {Char, xiii) 
as one wholly devoid of self-respect. 

TO afp-vov Ac.T.A.] So 47 '"o 
(Tep.vov TTjs nepi^oijTov (f)iKa8eX<pl.as : 
comp. Ign. Eph. 8 eKKXrja-ias Tf]s 8ia- 
^OTjTov Tois alwaiv. 

8. ovopa vp.uiv\ ''your reputation'' or 
''character'' or 'worth.'' See the note 
on Ign. Ephes. I ro iroKvaydmjTov 
ovofxa o KeKTr/a-de (j)v(TeL. The addition 
of the pronoun seems to require this 
sense, and the epithets as well as 
the whole context, suggest it. On 
the other hand the expression fiXaa- 
<l>r]p.el.v TO ovop.a, where there is no 
qualifying pronoun or adjective, 
means 'to speak evil of,' 'to blas- 
pheme the Name,' i.e. of Christ or of 
God; e.g. 2 Clem. 13 Ivu to Zvopa fit' 
;/xay p,r) ^Xaa(l)rjp.fJTai, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iii. 6 (p. 532) Si' ovs kuI to 



ovofia ^Xaa-^T]p,e2Tai. For this abso- 
lute use of TO ovofMa, which is not 
infrequent in earlier Christian writers, 
see the note on Ign. Ephes. 3, and 
comp. Phil. ii. 10 (with my note). 
It might be thought that to ovap,a 
vp.cju here would mean 'the name of 
Christ which you bear'; but this 
would have been expressed other- 
wise, e.g. James ii. 7 ^Xaa-^-qp.ovcriv 
TO KoXov oPOfia TO eTTtKXfjdev (<p vfids, 
Herm. Sim. viii. 6 enaicrxvi'dei^Tes to 
ovopa Kvpiov to eTTiKXrjdiv err avTovs. 
It is hardly necessary to add that 
^Xaa-4)ripeli' is frequently used of 
calumniating or maligning human 
beings; e.g. Rom. xiv. 16 p.r) /3Xao-- 
(f)T]pia-da) vficov to dyaOov (comp. iii, 
8). 

TLs yap K.r.X.] The whole pas- 
sage as far as inopeveaOe is quoted by 
Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 17 (p. 610) vaX 
p.'qv iv TTj Tfpos Kopivdiovs tTnaToXf] o 
dnoaToXos KXr^prjs koi avTos rjfiiv tvttov 
Tivd Tov yvaxTTLKov vTToypaipcov Xeyei, 
Tis yap K.T.X. 

cj. TTapenihrjfiriaas] This 'bimaris 
Corinthus' was a natural halting 
place on the journey between Rome 
and the East, as we see in the case 
of S. Paul and his companions, and 
somewhat later of Hegesippus (Eus. 
//. E. iv. 22). Diogenes is repre- 
sented as visiting it (Dion Chrys. 
Oral. viii. p. 151 ed. Emper) on nXel- 
(TTOi dvOpdiTTOi (Kel (Tvvia(Ti....Kai on t] 
TToXis ciiaTrfp ev rptofiw r^y 'KXXafior 



lO 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[I 



vjucov TTicTTiv ovK ehoKLfJiaarev ; rriv re (TUi(ppova Kai 
ETTieLKf] eu XpicTTM evcTef^eiav ovk idaufxaa-ev ; kul to 
jueyaXoTTpeTre^ rf]^ (piXo^evia^ vfxuiv t)6o^ ovk eKripv^ev; 
Kai Tr]v TeXeiav Kai dcrcpaXv, yvcocrii/ ovk efj-aKapicrev ', 
d7rpoa-co7roXt]iu7rTCD^ yap Travra eTTOieTre, Kai to?? vo^l- 5 
fxoL^ TOO Oeov eTTopevecrde, vTroracroro^evoi rol^ t^yov- 
fjievoL^ vjuiMi/ Kai rifxriv ty\v Ka6r]K0V(rav d.Trovefj.ovTe's 

I vfidv wiffTiv] AC; iricTTiv v/jlwv Clem 6io. 2 eTneiKTJ iv] CS Clem; 

(irieiKTji'v A. 3 ovk] AC ; om. S. 4 d(T(pa\rj] affcpaX-rjv A. 5 airpocr- 

u}Tro\r]ixTTTWs] A; a.irpoaijnro\riirTii}S C Clem (edd.)- CTrotetTe] CTrotetrat A. 

rot's cojai'yuois] toi<xpo/j.ol(t A; iti lege (ND1D33) S; kv rots vbixois C; ec rots 
(/o,ai|Ciois Clem, which is approved by Wotton and others. The rendering of S 
shows nothing as regards the reading; for (i) the preposition would be required in 
any case; (2) the singular is explained by the accidental omission of ribui; 
(3) v6iJ.ifiov is elsewhere translated by XD1D3 {vbfxos) in this version (comp. 3, 40). 



(KeiTo. So also it is called the nepl- 
naros or ' lounge ' of Greece ; see [Dion 
Chrys.] xxxvii. p. 522 with the context, 
0)? eva Tav TToXXoSf kcli kut fviavrov 
KaraipoPTcov eh Keyxpeas efnropov rj 
Ofcopop Tj TTpecT^evTrjv rj 8iepxop'evov. 
Hence there was an abundant de- 
mand for hospitality there ; see below 
on 10 <^iKo^eviav, 35 ncf^iKo^evlav. 

navapfTov] Not found either in LXX 
or New Testament, but a favourite 
word with Clement : see 2, 45, 57, 
60, with the note on 57. He de- 
lights in such compounds, e.g. irap.- 
Hfye6r]S, Travdyios, Tvap.irkrjQrjs, navTf- 

2. iiTifiKrj]^ forbearing.'' This yield- 
ing temper, this deference to the 
feelings of others, was the quality es- 
pecially needed at such a time. For 
fTrieUeia Comp. 13, 56, 58, 62, and 
see Philippians iv. 5. It was emi- 
nently a characteristic of Clement 
himself; see i. p. 97. 

TO fieyaXonpeTTei K.r.X.] For the 
reproof lurking under this allusion 
to their past hospitality, see the note 
on d(j)i\o^fviav 35. 

4. yvaxTiv] Here used generally. 



For the more special sense see the 
note on 48. 

5. aTrpocrcoTToki] p.TrT(os] For this ad- 
verb see I Pet. i. 17, Barnab. 4. For 
the forms, -XrjpTrT(os, -Xijirrcos, see 
Winer's Grammar p, 53 (ed. Moulton). 
For an instance of the capricious 
orthography of both our MSS comp. 
12 uvKKr^\ji\^o\i,ivov%. (ruXX7;[/x](/)- 
Qkvras. 

Toty vojai'/iois] ''by the ordinances'' ; 
so 3 iv Tois vop.ip.ois raiv Trpoix- 
rayparcov avrov nopfveadai, 40 rols 
vopipois Toil deanoTov aKoXovdoiivres, 
Hermas Vis. i. 3 edv TTjpija-oxnv rd 
vopipa Tov Oeov. The phrase toIs 
vopipois iTOpevea-dai OCCUrs LXX Lev. 
xviii. 3, XX. 23, and eV' rols vopipois 
TTopevea-dai Jer. xxvi (xxxiii). 4, Ezek. 
V. 6, 7, XX. 18. For the dative, de- 
noting the rule or standard, see Ga- 
latians v. 16, 25, vi. 16. 

6. rots T/youjuei/ots] i.e. the officers 
of the Church, as 21 tovs -n-porjyov- 
pevovs rjpav : comp. Heb. xiii. 7 pvt]- 
povevere tcov rjyovpevcov vpav olrives 
eXdXTjaav vplv top Xoyov tov Geot), and 
again xiii. 17, 24 ; Hermas Vis. ii. 2, 
iii. 9 o' TvporiyovpevoL ttjs eKKXtjo-ias. 



^r 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



1 1 



Toh Trap' vfMv Trpecrf^urepoi^' v60L<i t fJieTpia kui (rejuva 



voeiv e7r6Tp67rT6' yvvai^tv re ev djuto/uo) Kai creiaurj 
10 Kat dyvP] o'vi/eidrjaei iravTa 67riT6\e7u TraprjyyeWeTe, 
crrepyova'a^ Ka6t]K0VTai<s tovs ctvdpa^ eauTwv ev re tw 
Kavovi Tt]<i VTroTayt]^ v7rap-)(^ov(Ta^ Ta kutu tov oIkov 
cejuvM^ oiKoupyeli/ e'^i^afr/cere, ttuvu ccvcppovovcras. 

I have adopted vofxifxais from Clem, but eV is not wanted (see the explanatory 
note) and was probably his own insertion. 6 iirope^eade] CS Clem ; iropev- 

ecrdai A. 7 iifiuv^ AS ; om. C. KaOriKovcrav^ KadiKovaav A. 

8 vfuv^ AS; T]/juv C. 9 a/xw/xy /cat aefivfj Kal ayvrj] AC; ci.jvrj Kal 

d/xwixii: S (certainly omitting Kal (refjLvf), but the transposition of ayvfj and afxojfKj} 
may be due to the convenience of translation ; see above, i. p. 137. 13 oi- 

Kovfryelv'\ A ; oiKovpeiv (but apparently 7 has been erased) C ; curam-gerenics 
operwn [studiose agentes in operibus) S. See the lower note. 



Similarly oiTrpotcTTa'/xei/oiv/Liwi', I Thess. 
V. 12. The reference therefore is not 
to civil officers, as some take it ; and 
the TrpealSvTepois in the next clause 
refers to age, not to office, as the 
following veois shows. The 'pres- 
byters ' or ' elders,' properly so called, 
are exhausted in to7s ^yovfievois, but 
these are not the only seniors to 
whom reverence is due, and Clement 
accordingly extends the statement so 
as to comprise all older men, thus 
preparing the way for the mention of 
' the young' also as a class. Similarly 
21, where, as here, Trporjjovfievoi, 
irpea-^vTepoi, vioi, yvvaiKes, occur in 
succession. There is the same diffi- 
culty about the use of Trpea^vTcpoi in 
connexion with vecorepoi. in i Pet. v. 
1 sq, Polyc P/iil. 5, 6. 

9. eVerpeVere] '_y<? enjoined^ as 
e.g. in Plat. Legg. p. 784 c, Xen. 
Atiab. vi. 5. II (see Kiihner's note). 

yvvai^ip re k.t.X.] See Polyc. PJiil. 
4 cTretra kcll tos yvvalKas k.t.X., where 
Polycarp follows Clement's language 
here and in 21. 

II. arepyova-as] It should probably 
be taken with the foregoing clause, 
and I have altered the punctuation 



accordingly. For the change from the 
dative (ywai^lv) to the accusative 
{(TTepyova-as) comp. Mark vi. 39 eV- 
fTa^fV avTols avuKKiOr^vai iravras, Acts 
XV. 22 eBo^eu roli dnoaToXois k.t.X, 
iKXf^apevovs av8pas e^ avTcov ivip^ai, 
and see Jelf's Gram. 675, 676. 

u T T(a Kavovi K.T.X.] 1. c. ' not ovef- 
stepping the line, not transgressing 
the limits, of obedience '; e.g. 41 /xj) 
TrapfK^aivcov tov atpiap-ivov TrjS Xei- 
Tovpyias avTov Kavova. On the me- 
taphor of Kavojv, 'a incasiiri)ig line^ 
see Galatians vi. 16, and the note on 
7, below. 

13. o\Kovpyfiv\ ''to ply their work 
ill the housed The classical forms 
are oiKovpos, oiKovpelv, and these pre- 
vail even at the Christian era and 
much later ; e.g. Philo de Spec. Leg. 
31 (11. p. 327) SijXeiais (iCJiappoCei) 
olKovpia, dc Execr. 4 (ll. p. 431) yvvai- 
Kas cro}(f)povas oiKovpoiis kol (piXavdpovs, 
and the illustrative passages in Wet- 
stein on Tit. ii. 5. But in Tit. ii. 5 
aaxppovas, ayvas, oiKovpyovs, dyaddi, 
inToTaa-(Top.evas Tols Idiots dvdpaaiv, 
which passage Clement may have 
had in his mind, the great prepon- 
derance of the best authorities have 



12 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[ 



II 



II. ndures re eraTreivocppoveLTe, ^n^ev d\a^o- 
vevofJievoLy vTroTaa-a-Ojuei/oi /udWov h v7rora(T<TovTe<i, 



olKovpyovs, not olKovpovs ; and this 
reading the ablest recent editors 
(Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott 
and Hort; have adopted. In this 
passage of Clement also A has otV 
ovpyovs, and so apparently it was 
read originally in C, but the y has 
been erased. Bryennios says 'j/eo)- 
Tpa ;^etp aTT^Xef^jre to y.' But judg- 
ing by the photograph, I should 
imagine that it was impossible to say 
who erased the letter whether the 
original scribe or some later cor- 
rector. I am disposed to think that 
the original scribe wrote down olKovp- 
yovs, following an older MS which he 
had before him, and then after his 
wont (see above, I. p. i26sq) corrected 
it into the more classical form. At 
all events there is a tendency in the 
later scribes and correctors to re- 
turn to the more classical form, as we 
see from the later corrections of AC 
in Tit. ii. 5. The Syriac here is 
ITnQUT jD^'Njn, the same rendering 
ijeing given in the Peshito and Har- 
clean in Tit. ii. 5. It seems to repre- 
sent olKovpyovs rather than oiKovpovs, 
the first element of the word {oIkos) 
having been already exhausted in 
the translation of the preceding to. 
Kara tov oIkov and therefore not 
needing repetition. Perhaps how- 
ever it may be intended to combine 
the ideas of -ovpyelu and -ovpelu. The 
same verb is more commonly a ren- 
dering of pepip.vav or inineXflcrdai. 

II. 'Submission and contentment 
were the rule of your lives. The 
teaching of God was in your breasts ; 
the passion of Christ before your eyes. 
Peace and good-will reigned among 
you. Spiritual graces and incessant 
prayers distinguished you. You loved 
the brethren ; you bore no malice to 
any ; you loathed faction ; you re- 



joiced in doing good. The ordinan- 
ces of God were graven on your 
hearts.' 

2. v7roTa(Tcr6p.evoi K.r.XJ] SeeEphes. 
v. 21, Phil. ii. 3, Rom. xii. 10, 16, and 
I Pet. V. 5 (v.l.). 

3. rjbiov K.T.X.] Doubtless a refer- 
ence to our Lord's words recorded 
Acts XX. 35, jiaKapiov ecrriv fiaXXov 
8i86vai rj Xan^aveiv ; see below, 13, 
where the context of the passage is 
echoed. It was no new command- 
ment howe^"^r, though instinct with 
a new meaning. Maxims similarly 
expressed had been uttered by the 
two opposite schools of philosophy, 
starting from different principles and 
speaking with different motives. For 
the Epicureans see Plut. Afor. p. 
778 C 'ETTiKovpos rov ev 7racrx' to ev 
TTOtelv ov p.6vov KoKkiov aWa Kol Tjdiov 
(Iva'i (pTjo-i, and for the Stoics, Seneca 
Epist. Ixxxi. 17 'Errat si quis bene- 
ficium accipit libentius quam reddit' 
(bof-i quoted by Wetstein on Acts 

I.C.). 

To\i {(pobiois K.r.X.] i.e. 'the provi- 
sion which God has supplied for the 
journey of life.' Similarly Seneca 
Epist. Ixvii. 3 ' Quia quantulum- 
cumque haberem, tamen plus jam 
mihi superesset viatici quam viae,' 
Epictet. Diss. iii. 21. 9 ex'^'^^ " 
e(p6diop TOLoiiTov els tov ^iov, Plut. 

A/or. p. 160 B COS fJLTj fXOVOV TOV ^fjv 

dWa KoL Toii aTTodvijcrKfiP ttjv rpocprjv 
f(f)68ioi/ ovcrav ; comp. Dionys. Corinth, 
in Euseb. //. E. iv. 23 fKKXrjo-iais 
TToWais Tciis Kara naaav irokii' e<p68ta 
Tre fiTTciv. It is the same sentiment 
as I Tim. vi. 8, '4)^ovTes biarpocjias Koi 
a-KeTraa-p-uTa rovTois dpKadrj(r6pe6a. 
The idea of spiritual sustenance 
seems to be out of place here, though 
'(j)68ia not unfrequentlyhas this sense. 
For this and other reasons the words 



"] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



13 



hAion AiAoNTec H AAMBANONTec, Tols (bodloi^ Tov Oeov 

3 TOV GeoO] A ; tov XpicrToO CS. 



Toh (f). TOV 0. apK. must be connected 
with the preceding clauses, so that 
the new idea is introduced by koI 
irpoaexovTes. The Syriac version in- 
deed attaches koI irpoa-exovTes to the 
preceding sentence, but it manipu- 
lates the words following, as if it had 
read tovs re \6yovs...fV(aTpvicrp,evoi 
(om. ^re). 

TOV Qeoi)] The reading tov Xpia- 
Toii is accepted by Bryennios and 
Hilgenfeld (ed. 2) on the authority 
of C. On the other hand Harnack 
retains tov Qeov ; while Donaldson 
hesitates between the two readings. 

As regards external evidence, the 
balance is fairly even. If the view 
maintained above (l. pp. 124 sq, 139 
sq, 142 sq) of the relative value of 
our authorities be correct, A is en- 
titled to as great weight as CS to- 
gether. Moreover the obvious doc- 
trinal motive, which in C has led to 
the deliberate substitution of Xoyos- 
for nvivpa in another place (ii. 9), 
must deprive it of much value in 
the present case. On the other hand 
it is urged with probability that, as 
Photius {Bibl. 126) complaini of 
Clement's language in this epistle 
on apxupea Kai Tvpoa-TaTrjv tov Kvpiov 
Tjpuiv Irjo'ovv 'KpicrTov e^ovofia^av ov8e 
Tcis deoTTpeTvels Koi vyf/'TjXoTepas dcprJKe 
TTfoi avTov (pcovds, he cannot have had 
Toi) Qeov in his text. But, as the 
declaration of Christ's divinity lurks 
under the reference of the pronoun 
avTov, it might very easily have es- 
caped the notice of Photius who in 
the course of this single embassy 
read as large a numbei of books as 
would have sufficed many a man not 
ill-informed for a life-time. Even 
if the inference were more certain, 
this evidence would not go far, for 
Photius is a late writer. 



On the other hand Gains (or rather 
Hippolytus) early in the third century 
v!\\}i\& Little Labyrinth{H. E.w.zZ; see 
Routh Rcl. Sacr. li. p. 129) mentions 
Clement with Justin, Miltiades, and 
Tatian, besides ' several others,' a- 
mong those Iv ols deoXoyelTai 6 
Xpia-Tos. Routh (p. 145) supposes 
Clement of Rome to be meant (as 
also does Bunsen, HippoL i. p. 440), 
because the author of the Little 
Labyrinth refers distinctly to works 
written ' before the time of Victor ' 
who became bishop about a.d. 189 
or 190, and indeed the whole argu- 
ment turns on this point. To this it 
may be added that Hippolytus after- 
wards (p. 131) uses an expression re- 
sembling the language of the Roman 
Clement here, o evaiikayxvos Geo? 
Ka\. Ki/ptos rjpoav Irjcrovs XpiaTos ovk 
efSovXeTo ... aTToXfadai fiapTvpa Tav 
i8ia>v nadav, and that Clement of 
Alexandria (who is the alternative) 
can only have died a few years (ten 
or at most twenty) before the passage 
was written. On the other side it 
may be urged that the order of the 
names, 'Tovo-tivov koI MiXTid8ov kciI 
TaTiafoii Koi KXi]p,evTos Koi fTtpcov nXei- 
ouiov, points to the Alexandrian Cle- 
ment ; but this is not conclusive, since 
io the very next sentence the chrono- 
logical order of Melito and Irena^us, 
is inverted, tu yap 'Elprjvalov re Km 
MeXiTOivos Koi Tav Xonrmv t'ls dyvofl 
^i^Xia ; The question therefore must 
remain undecided; though the rea- 
sons in favour of the Roman Clement 
seem to preponderate. As it is very 
improbable that so early a writer as 
Hippolytus should have recognised 
as genuine any other writings a- 
scribed to Clement of Rome, his judg- 
ment must have been founded upon 
this epistle. 



14 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[" 



The external evidence therefore is 
far from conclusive ; and if any de- 
cision on the reading is possible, it 
must be founded upon internal evi- 
dence. But here the considerations 
which present themselves are numer- 
ous. 

(i) As a question of accidental 
error in transcription, the probability 
is evenly balanced ; for_xu instead of 
dv, and 6v instead of ;^v, are equally 
common with scribes. 

(2) On the other hand, if we have 
a deliberate alteration, the chances 
that XpicTTov would be substituted 
for Qfoii are, I think, greater than the 
chances of the converse change. 
Such language as aifia Qinv,'rTa6r]^aTa 
Qfov, and the like, though common 
in the second and third centuries, 
became highly distasteful in later 
ages; and this from various motives. 
The great Athanasius himself pro- 
tests against such phrases, c. Apollin. 
ii. 13, 14 (l. p. 758) TTtoy ovv yypa(f)aTe 
on Qeos 6 Sta aapKos iradav Koi ava- 
(TTas ;...ov8ap,ov 8e alfia Qeov 8ixa aap- 
Kos irapahehmKaaiv al ypa(f)al rj Qeov hia 
aapKoi Tvadovra KolavacrTavTa. And how 
liable to correction such expressions 
would be, we may infer from the long 
recension of the Ignatian Epistles, 
where the original language of the 
writer is deliberately altered by the 
interpolator, who appears to have 
lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century {Ephes. i iv aipari Qfov, where 
Xpta-Toi) is substituted for Qeov ; Rom. 
6 TOii TTadovs Toi) Qeov p,ov, where this 
interpolator softens down the lan- 
guage by inserting Xpia-Toii before 
roil Qeov pov, while others substitute 
Toi) Kvpiov pov or roii XpiaToii). At 
this time the heresy to which such 
expressions seemed to give counte- 
nance was ApoUinarianism. At a 
later date, when the Monophysite 
controversy arose, there would be a 
still greater temptation on the part of 
an orthodox scribe to substitute tov 



XpKTTod for TOV Qeov. The language 
of Anastasius of Sinai i^Hodeg. 12, 
13, p. 97 sq) shows that these pas- 
sages of earlier writers (he mentions 
among others \'gx\.Roin. 6) were con- 
stantly alleged in favour of Mono- 
physite doctrine, and he himself has 
some trouble in explaining them 
away. Writing against these same 
heretics Isidore of Pelusium {Ep. i. 
1 24) says Qeov Trades ov Xeyerai, Xpia- 
Toi) yap TO ircidos yeyove K.r.X. On tfie 
other hand, it might be said that the 
Monophysites themselves would be 
under a temptation to alter x'" i^ito 
dv ; and accordingly Bryennios sup- 
poses that in this passage the reading 
of A is due to the Monophysites (or, 
as he adds, perhaps to the Alexan- 
drian divines). This does not seem 
very likely, (a) In the first place, it 
would be a roundabout and precari- 
ous way of getting a testimony in 
favour of their doctrine. If tov Xpia- 
Toii (thus assumed to be the original 
reading) had been in direct connexion 
with Ta wad^puTa, a change in this 
direction would not be improbable ; 
but it would never have occurred to 
any one to alter toIs e(f>o8Lois tov 
XpiaTov into toIs e^oSi'ois tov Qeov, 
because there happened to be the ex- 
pression TO. iradrjp.aTa avTov in the 
next sentence, so that avTov would 
naturally be referred to the genitive 
after rots ecj^oSiocs. It would have 
been much simpler to change avTov 
into TOV Qeov at once, (b) Secondly, 
the dates are not favourable to this 
supposition. The MS which has Qeov 
is assigned by the most competent 
authorities to the fifth century, and 
by some of them to the earlier half 
of the century (see above, I. p. 117) ; 
and, though not impossible, it is 
not probable that the Monophysite 
controversy would have influenced 
the transcription of the MS at this 
date. On the other hand Photius, 
our earliest authority for tov Xpia-Toii 
(supposing that his evidence be ac- 



"] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



15 



cepted), wrote four centuries later, 
when there had been ample time for 
such manipulation of the text. But, 
besides the doctrinal motive which 
might have suggested the change 
from eeov to Xpio-roC, there may also 
have been an exegetical reason. The 
word i(^6biov,7'iaticiiin, was used espe- 
cially of the eucharistic elements (e.g. 
/.//. D. Marc. p. 29, Lit. D. Jacob, p. 
75, Neale), and there would be a na- 
tural desire to fix this sense on S. 
Clement here. 

(3) The probability that such lan- 
guage as T TTadrj^ara tov Qeov should 
have been used by an early Chris- 
tian writer can hardly be questioned. 
These early writers occasionally used 
language so strong in expressing 
their belief of our Lord's divinity, as 
almost to verge on patripassianism ; 
so Ign. Eplics. I aval^(i>TTvpr]cravTi% iv 
alixari Oeov, Ign. jRo/n. 6 iniTpi-^are 
jwi ^iifxr^rrjv elvat Toii iradovs tov Oeov 
nov, Melito (Routh I^el. Sacr. I. p. 
122) o 6eoff iTiTtov6ev vno 8f^i.as la- 
par]\iTi8os, Test, xii Patr. Levi 4 
eVi rw TTfi^et rov v^'iarov (a very 
ancient writing ; see Galatiaiis p. 307 
sq), Tatian ad Grace. 13 rov -KeTtov- 
QoTo^ eeou, Tertull. de Cam. Chr. 5 
' passiones Dei,' ad Uxor. ii. 3 ' san- 
guine Dei ' (and so elsewhere Ter- 
tullian speaks of ' God crucified,' 
' God dead,' ' the flesh of God,' ' the 
murderers of God'; see de Cam. 
Chr. 5, adv. Marc. ii. 16, 27, v. 5), 
Aiic. Syr. Doc. p. 8 (ed. Cureton) 
' God was crucified for all men,' etc. 
And similar passages from writers of 
these and the succeeding generations 
might be multiplied. See Abbot 1. c. 
p. 340 sq, Otto Corp. Apol. Christ. 
IX. p. 445. The nearest parallel in 
the New Testament is Acts xx. 28, 
TT]v eKKXtjalav rov Qeov rjv Trepienoirj- 
(raro tea roii aifxaros rov l8iov ; but 
even if roii Qeov be the correct read- 
ing (as possibly it is), the form of ex- 
pression is far less strong than in 
these patristic references. 



(4) It is more to the purpose to 
urge that, though such language is 
not uncommon in other writers, it has 
no parallel in Clement ; that he else- 
where speaks of the blood ' of Christ ' 
( 7, 21, 49) and describes itas ' pre- 
cious to God His Father' ( 7) ; and 
that throughout this epistle he applies 
the term Qtos to the Father as distin- 
guished from Christ. This argument 
has considerable weight, but must 
not be overstrained. The Catholic 
doctrine of the Person of Christ ad- 
mits both ways of speaking. Writers 
like Tertullian, who use the most ex- 
travagant and unguarded language 
on the other side, are commonly and 
even in the same context found speak- 
ing of Christ as distinct from God ; 
and the exact proportions which the 
one mode of speakmg will bear to 
the other in any individual writer 
must be a matter of evidence. It is 
clear from the newly discovered end- 
irig (>5 58 Cfl y"P o Qfos K.r.X.) that he 
could have had no sympathy with 
Ebionite views of the Person of 
Christ. Moreover, in the passage 
especially quoted ( 7) one authority, 
which probably preserves the right 
reading, omits Qea. And after all the 
alternative remains which Abbot is 
disposed to favour (p. 343), that Cle- 
ment wrote avroi) negligently, not re- 
membering that rov Qeov had imme- 
diately preceded and referring it in 
his own mind to Christ. 

(5) It remains to enquire whether 
the connexion is more favourable to 
rov Qeoi) or rov 'Kpicrrov. This will 
depend partly on the connexion of 
the sentences. If the punctuation 
given in my text be retained, rov 
efou is almost necessary ; for ra i^6- 
hia then refers to the ordinary means 
of subsistence. Hilgenfeld reads and 
punctuates ro'is e<po8ioLS rov Xpia-rov 
apKovfjLtvoL KOI Trpocrexovres, under- 
Standing by the term ' spiritual sus- 
tenance.' This seems to me to give 
an awkward sense (for the mention 



i6 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[" 



dpKOVjuevoi' Kai irpoa-exovre^ tov<s Xoyov^ avTOv eVi- 
fjieXu)^ evea-TepvLa-fjievoi t]T6 toIs (nrXdyx^^^^f '^^^ '^^ 
'7raB^]fjiara avrov r}v Trpo 6(f>6a\^cov vfJLWV. Outo)^ el- 
p}]V}] fSaOe'ia Kal Xnrapd e^edoro TrdcTiv kul ciKopecrTO^ 
TTodo^ ek dyadoTTOuau, Kal vrXtjpr]^ TrvevjuLaros dyiov 5 

2 evearepvifffJL^voi] C ; earepvurixevoi A. 4 \nrapa eSeSoro] XenrapaeSc- 

Sero A. ^^ TrXrjprjs . ^KXi'(Tis eylvero] AC; plenae effusiones . . .erant S, 

as if irXripeis e:xi'0'e's...e7iVoi'TO, for the plural here cannot be explained by ri/>m. 



of 'contentment' is then somewhat 
out of place) and an unnatural punc- 
tuation (for Kal 7rpo(7e;(OJ'Tfs then be- 
comes a clumsy addition). 

1. Tovi \6yovs] For the accusative 
after npoaexovrfs compare e. g. Exod. 
xxxiv. 1 1 'rrpo(rf)(f crv Tvavra acra eya> 
fvreWofini aoi, Is. i. lO Trpoa-exere v6- 
fiov Qeov, Neh. ix. 34 o^ rrpovicrxov 
ras evToXcis (v. 1.) crov Koi to. pLaprvpia 
<rov. 

2. evfarepviafievoi] ''ye took thcni to 
hearty i.e. tov^ Xoyovy, which is the 
accusative to fVfo-Tfpviafxevoi as well 
as to TTpoirexovTes ; so v^ 12 ftVSf|a- 
fifVT) avToiis eKpv^ev. For evarepul- 
^eaBai compare Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 6 
(p. 123) rov <T(i>rr\pa ivcrrtpviaacrOai, 
Euseb. Mart. Pal. 8 p.d^ova rov aci- 
fiaros Tov Xoyicr/iiw ivecTTepvicrixevri, ib. 
1 1 fjLV^p.as avrSv (tcov ypa(f)coi/) evfo-rep- 
vicTTo, ib. Laud. Const. 5 5 rav e'/cel 
(^(i)T<t>v aXfKTOv TTodov evi(TTepvi<Tp.ivos, 
Apost. Const, prooem. ve(TTepvicrfj.voi 
TOV <}}6^ov avrnv, lb. V. 14 evcrrepviad- 
fievos nvTov. There seems to be no 
such word as a-repvi^eadai, and there- 
fore evea-Tpvi(Tiievoi must be read. If 
farepviap-ivoL could Stand, Cotelier's 
explanation would probably be cor- 
rect, ' Clementi {(Trepviap-evoi sunt, 
qui Latinis pectorosi, homines lati 
capacisque pectoris (2 Cor. vi. 11), 
as the analogy of anXayxviCfo-dai 
suggests ; and later critics seem to 
be wrong in making it equivalent to 
fvtaTfpvia-fievoi, which owes its trans- 



itive sense to the preposition. 

TO. iradijiiara avroii (c.r.X.] Compare 
Gal. iii. I ots kut 6(f)daXfiovs 'irjcrovs 
Xpicrros Trpofypacpi] earavpcap.ivo';, of 
which Clement's expression is per- 
haps a reminiscence. In this passage 
it has been proposed to read fxadrj- 
fiara for 7ra6rip.ara ; and the confusion 
of fiadrjTrjs, rradrjTris, in Ign. Polyc. 
7, and p.adj]p,aTa, Tradrip-ara, in Ign. 
Stnyrn. 5, shows that the interchange 
would be easy. This emendation was 
originally adopted to meet the diffi- 
culty of the expression ' the sufferings 
of God.' Among others it found an 
advocate in the late Ezra Abbot 
{Bibliotlieca Sacra, April 1876, p. 313 
sq) in a learned paper on Acts xx. 
28. But it has obtained some favour 
even since the discoveryof the alterna- 
tive reading rov Xpio-rov. Yet (i) The 
parallels quoted in the note on rov 
Qeov prove that no alteration is need- 
ed, since ra TTaBripLara avrov would be 
a natural expression to a writer of 
this age; (2) The reading pia6r)p,aTa 
would destroy the propriety of the 
expressions in the parallel clauses as 
read in the MS, iveaTepvia-p-evoi refer- 
ring to Tovs Xoyovs and Trpo 6(^6aXp.6^v 
to TO. Tra6rjp.aTa, ' the words in your 
//6'ar/j-, the sufferings before y our cyes^; 
(3) While TCI Tradijp.ara is a common 
expression in the New Testament, 
being used especially to denote the 
sufferings of Christ, the word p.a6rjjj.a 
does not once occur either there or 



ii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. I 7 

KXV(Ti9 67ri 7rdvTa<5 eyivero' luecToi, t6 oVta? fSouXfj^ 
ev dyadf] Trpodvjuia juet ev(ref3ov^ 7re7roi6r](Te(09 ^Ti- 
i/are ra? )(^Tpa^ v/ucoi/ vrpos tov iravTOKpaTopa Qeov, 
iKETevoi'Te^ avTov tAew? yeveaOai, e'lTi (xkovtc^ rjij.dp- 
3 rere. dyiov f]v vjuJi/ rj/uepa^ re kui vvkto^ vwep Trdo-rj^ 

6 offlas] AS ; deias C : see the lower note. 7 TreTroiOriaews] Trewoi-riOrjaewa- 

A. e^ereivare] A; i^eTeivere CS. 9 iX^ws] A ; 'iXeuv C: see the lower 

note. aKovres] AC ; k6vtS S. 7]fxdpTTe] AC; peccabatis (rifiapTdvere) S. 



in the Apostolic fathers ; and in the 
only passage in the LXX where it is 
found (Jer. xiii. 21) there is a v.l. 
fiadrjTcti (for ixadijfinTa), which ap- 
proaches more nearly to the original 
Hebrew; (4) Though rh naOrnxaTu tov 
Qeov might stand, still al di8axal tov 
Qeov (or some similar expression) 
would be more natural. 

3. eipijvr) ^adf'ia] 4 Macc. iii. 20 
fiaOelav elp^vrjv bia Trjv evvofxiav i^fxwv 
eixov, Hegesipp.in Euseb. //. . iii. 32 
yevopiivr^s elprjprji jUadelas ev Trdarj e'/c- 
K\T]a-ia, Athenag. Suppl. I ?) a-vinraa-a 
oiKoviievrj tjj vfxeTepa avvecrei. ^adeias 
flpt^vrji ciTro\avov(TLV, Liturg. S. Basil. 
p. 165 (Neale) ^aOelav kui dva(paipeTOV 
elpijvTjv, Euseb. Vzf. Const, ii. 61. 

5. dya6oTroi'iav\ ^ bt'ne/icence^ ; SigaAXi 
just below and 33, 34: comp. i Pet. 
iv. 19, Test, xii Patr. Jos. 18. The 
allied words occur several times in 
S. Peter: dyaBo-noielv I Pet. ii. 15, 20, 
iii. 6, 17; aya^oTTOioj, I Pet. ii. 14. 
While KoKonoua regards the abstract 
character of the action, dyaOoTroua 
looks to its results and more especi- 
ally to its effect on others. 

6. oa-ias] For the confusion of 
ocioc and eeioc comp. 14, 21, and 
see above i. pp. 138, 140. For oaias 
see J5 45 ev oaia Koi d/JLCOfiu) npodeaei, 
56 Si TTJs oaias nai^eias avTov ; for 
dfias, 40 TO. ^ddr] Trjs 6eias yvwaecos. 
There might possibly be a question 
which of the two words should be read 
here : but (i) we have a combination 

CLEM. II. 



of two authorities (including the best) 
against one ; and (2) the other in- 
stances show that the tendency is to 
change oaios into dehs, and not con- 
versely. 

9. iXecos yeveadai] The adverb 
IXecds is recognised by Hesychius, but 
no instances are given in the lexicons. 
As it appears only to occur in the 
expression iXecos ylvecrdai {Bull, de 
Corr. Hellen. XI. p. 453 (1887) pJiTe 

01 deol IXecos avTa yevoivTo, 2 Macc. ii. 
22, vii. 37, X. 26), it is probably a 
grammatical mistake of the later lan- 
guage, tho true construction being 
forgotten and the word being erro- 
neously treated as an adverb (IXeais 
instead oClXeas). In this passage it 
may be due to the transcriber and 
not to Clement himself At all events 
our MS (A) in the three passages of 

2 Maccabees has IXeas, where the 
common text has a proper grammati- 
cal construction tXew yevofievov, iXeco 
yevecrdai, iXeco yevo/xevov. In Herm. 
l^is. ii. 2, Sl/n. ix. 23, we have the ex- 
pression "iXems yivecrdai, but the Con- 
text fails to show whether IXeas is 
treated as an adverb or an adjective. 
E. A. Sophocles Lex. s. v. gives an 
instance of the adverb IXeuis from 
Moschion, and the inscription above 
cjuoted proves it to be a possible 
word. 

10. nywv ^v K..T.X.'\ Comp. Col. ii. i. 

rjfxepas Te Ka\ vvktos] Hilgenfeld 

calls attention to the fact that the 



i8 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[ 



II 



Til's ctheXcporriTO^, ek to a-co^ecrdaL fxeTci deov^ Kai 
crvi>eL^^a-eu)9 tov dpidfjiov tcov e/cAe/cTWJ^ avTOv' 6i\i- 
Kpiveis Kai (XKepaioi ^t6 kui dfjivno-'iKaKOi ek dWriXov^' 
irdo'a CTTaa-i^ Kai irdv (T~)(LG-\xa ^ZeKvKTOV v^xiv eirl rots 
irapaTTTcoiJiaa-iv Toh TrXncriov eTrevdeiTe' to. v(rTepf]fxaTa 5 

I fiera diovs] C; fier' eXiovs {eXaiovcr A) AS. 2 eiXiKpiveis] eiXeiKpL- 

peia- A. 3 cLKipam] aKepeoi A. aixprjaiKaKoi] C; afia/xurjacKaKOL A. 

So I read the MS with Tischendorf, but previous editors gave it avafivnaiKaKoi. 
^ pSeXvKTov] A; add. tjv C, and so probably S. 5 rots irXrjaiou] A; tQv 



writer elsewhere has the same order 
' day and night ' S 20, 24, and argues 
thence ' scriptorem non e Judaeis, qui 
noctem anteponunt, sed e gentilibus, 
Rornanisquidem,ortumesse.' This ar- 
gument is more specious than sound. 
Thus in the Apocalypse the order is 
always ' day and night,' iv. 8, vii. 15, 
xii. 10, xiv. II, XX. 10; in S. Paul al- 
ways ' night and day,' i Thess. ii. 9, 
iii. 10, 2 Thess. iii. 8, i Tim. v. 5, 2 
Tim. i. 3 ; while by S. Luke either 
order is used indifferently in both the 
Gospel (ii. 2>7, xviii. 7) and the Acts 
(ix. 24, XX. 31, xxvi. 7). 

I. ahekfporr^Tos] A word peculiar to 
S. Peter in the New Testament; i 
Pet. ii. 17, V. 9. So Polyc. Phil. 10 
' fraternitas,' where the Greek is not 
extant; Herm. Ma7id. 8. 

jLiera Seouf] I have ventured to 
adopt this reading, as other recent 
editors have done, on the inferior au- 
thority of C (mcta Aeoyc for Mere- 
Aeoyc), because it rescues the passage 
from a difficulty and so commends it- 
self By this combination \i.iTa Seovs kol 
avvddijcTfcoi the whole clause is trans- 
ferred from God to the believer, and 
(TweiSj^o-f coy becomes intelhgible. With 
the whole expression comp. Liturg. 
D. Jacob, p. 55 (Neale) Soy ruCiv, Ki5- 
ptf, \xtTa. TravTos (jiojSov kol crvvfi8i]a-e(os 
KaOapas irpo(TKOfiicrai k.t.X. For the 
idea of fear as an agent in the work 
of salvation see Phil. ii. 12; and for 



the expression /xfra 8eovs Heb. xii. 28 
XarpevoDfiev fvapearas tm Qea /xera ev- 
Xa^eias Kai Biovs (the correct reading), 
an epistle which has largely influ- 
enced Clement's language elsewhere. 
For the use of crvveiSrja-is here comp. 
34 (TvvaxdevTes ttj avvfi8i](jei. It de- 
notes inward concentration and as- 
sent. Zahn {Gbtt. Gel. Ans. Nov. 8, 
1876) still retains the reading /xer' Iki- 
ows, explaining it of brotherly kindness 
shown towards offenders, and pro- 
poses (jvvaQ\ri(Ti(miox (jvve{.hr)(jf<ii^. He 
might have quoted Apost. Const, ii. 13 
eneira p. era eXeovs kol olKripp.ov Koi 
TrpoaKi]\l/ea>s oIkslov vTncT'xyovp.fvos av- 
rw (T(orT]piav for this sense. Lipsius 
{Jetiacr Lite7'attirs. Jan. 13, 1877) 
accepts pera 8eovs, but holds by his 
conjecture (rvv8ei]ae(os {Academy, July 
9, 1870), though it is now rendered 
unnecessary. Donaldson {Theol.Rev. 
Jan. 1877) suggests p^Tci reXfias avv- 
eXevaecos;. 

2. (rvvei8ij(Tf(os] If the reading 
fXeovs be retained, crvveLdija-eois must 
mean ' with the consent of God,' but 
this is hardly possible. I had ac- 
cordingly hazarded the conjecture 
evSoKifcretoy (eYAoKHcecoc for cyNei- 
AHcecoc), which is less violent than 
crvvaivecreais, (rvvfi^fcos, avv8e^(rfa>s, and 
other emendations. This conjecture 
struck me before I was aware that 
Davis had suggested a-wevSoKijcreais, 
of which word I cannot find any in- 



"] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



19 



avTwv idLu eKpiveTE' djuerafxeXi^roi r]Te eiri Traorri dya- 
doTTOua, eTOiMOi eic nAN eproN ArAGoN* Tr} TravapeTO) 
Kai cefiaa'fjiLio TroXiTeia K6KO^jxf]fJievoL iravTa ev tw (f)o^u) 
avTOu eneTeXeLTe' tu Trpoo'TayjuiaTa kui tu ^iKaiiajJiaTa 
OTOV KvpiOV eni ta nAAXn thc KApAiAC ymoon ererpAnxo. 

TrXijcriov C; vicinoriiin S. 6 fSta] C; tSia A; i5ta S. 7 eTot^uoi] 

aiToifioi A. 8 ae^acrpLiq}] A, and so apparently S; (Te^affiuiaT&rr) C (see 

I. p. 126). 9 eTrereXetTe] eirereKuTaL A. 



Stance. The clause would then mean 
'of His mercy and good pleasure': 
comp. 9 KfTot yiVOjjLevoi rov eXeovs 
Kai rfji -^prjCTTOTr^TOS avTov. The lexi- 
cons supply a few instances of the 
form evboKTjais (e.g. Diod. xv. 6, Dion. 
Hal. iii. 13), which also occurs below 
40 (see the note). In the N. T. the 
allied word eiiBoKia is generally said 
of God; Matt. xi. 26 (Luke x. 21), 
Eph. i. 5, 9, Phil. ii. 13. If however 
we accept Beovs (see the last note), no 
emendation is needed. 

ToT^dpiOiiov K.T.\I] See the note on 
59, where the same expression oc- 
curs. So too in our Burial Service, 
' shortly to accomplish the number 
of Thine elect.' 

iVKiKpivels KoX aKepaioi] For elXiKpi- 
vfls, see Pliilippians i. 10 ; for uKepaioi, 
Pliilippians ii. 15. 

3. ap.vr](T'[.KaKOL\ So we have a\t.vr]- 
(TiKaKUi^ below, 62. Comp. Test, xii 
Pat)'. Zab. 8 dfivrjaUaKoi, yivecrde, Clem, 
Alex. Strom, vii. 14 (p. 883) dp-vrjai- 
KUKov elvai BLbdaKei, Hermas Mand. ix. 
auros dpvrjaiKaKos eari, and SO Strom. 
11. 18 (p. 398) St' dpvr]crLK.aKias. 

5. To'is 77X770-101'] A brachylogy for 
Tols tQ)v ttXtjo-lov. Jacobson quotes 
Eur. Hec. 996 p.ri8' epa ratv Trhrjaiov. 

6. dp.eTap.i\-qToi /c.r.X.] i.e. ' When 
you had done good, you did not wish 
it undone ; when there was an oppor- 
tunity of doing good, you seized it.' 
The latter clause eroi/not k.tX. is from 
Titus iii. I irpos irdv i'pyov dyaOov iroi- 



povs flvai : comp. 2 Cor. ix. 8, and see 
below 34 with the note. 

8. TToKiTiUi] ' the graces of your 
heavenly citizenship' ; see Phil. i. 27, 
Ephes. ii. 12, ig. For TroXireia, rro- 
XiTfiifa-dai, see 3, 6, 21, 44, 51, 54. 

9. auToC] i.e. Tov Geov, understood 
from rfi iravapeTO) kol a-fjiacrpia tto- 
'KiTfia ; comp. 54 ''"'7'' dperap.f\r]Tov 
TToXiTeiav TOV Qeov. 

TCI wpoa-TdypaTo] The two words 
occur together frequently in the LXX : 
see esp. Mai. iv. 4, and comp. i Sam. 
XXX. 25, Ezek. xi. 20, xviii. 9, xx. Ii, 
etc. 

10. eVi Ta irXaTT] K.r.X.] Taken from 
the LXX of Prov. vii. 3, iiviypa^ov Se 
7rt TO TrXaroy rrjg Kap8ias crov, whei'e 

TrXaroy corresponds to the Hebrew ni7 
' a tablet.' The phrase is repeated in 
the LXX with slight modifications in 
Prov. xxii. 20, and in some copies 
also in Prov. iii. 3 ; but there is 
nothing corresponding in the Hebrew 
of Prov. xxii. 20. Wotton's state- 
ment that nXaTos occurs in this sense 
' passim ' in the LXX is erroneous. 
From this LXX reading the expres- 
sion TO nXuTos Tijs Kap8ias is not un- 
common in the Christian fathers (e.g. 
Iren. i. praef. 3, and other passages 
quoted by Wotton), and ra TrXar?; 
was doubtless written by Clement 
here. But it seems not improbable 
that the expression arose from a very 
early corruption of the LXX text (a 
confusion of TrXdrof and nXaKos), since 



/ 



20 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[III 



III. riacra ^o^a kul 7r\aTV<Tfi6^ edodrj vjuuv, Kal 
CTreTeXecrdt] to yeypafjifjievov' "EcfiAreN kai enieN kai 
errAATYNGH kai enA)(YN9n kai AneAAKTiceN d HfAnHMeNOc. 
'k- tovtov ^t^Xo^ Kai (b6ovo<5, [kuiJ epi^ Kai (TTacri^y 
^icoyjuo^ Kai aKaTacrrao'ia, TroAe^os Kai al^iuaXa}(rLa. 5 
01/TW9 e7rt}'y6p6t]G'av ol atimoi en'i xoyc eNTiMoyc, 01 aoo^oi 
CTTi Tou^ ev^o^ov^^ ol a<ppove^ eiri TOv<i (ppovifJLOv^, 01 
Neui eni royc npecBYTepoyc. Cia tovto no^oa AnecTiN 

I ^^0^7?] 8o6ri A. 2 ^drreXaKTicTev] CS, Deut. xxxii. 15; aveyaXaKTi- 

(Tev A. 4 Kal ^pis] A; ^pis (om. Kal) CS. 8 &Tre(TTw'\ A; ^^^ S 

(which probably represents diredTiv) ; &iriaT7} C, which is nearer to the Lxx of Is. 

TrXa^ is the natural equivalent of ni? 15, Km alfxa crTa(f)v'Kfjs eniev (v. 1. eniov) 



and is frequently used elsewhere in 
the LXX to translate it. S. Paul's 
metaphor in 2 Cor. iii. 3 is derived 
from the original of Prov. vii. 3. 

III. 'But, like Jeshurun of old, 
you waxed wanton with plenty. Hence 
strife and faction and open war. 
Hence the ignoble, the young, the 
foolish, have risen against the highly- 
esteemed, the old, the wise. Peace 
and righteousness are banished. The 
law of God, the life after Christ, are 
disregarded. You have fostered jea- 
lousy, whereby death entered into the 
world.' 

1. TrXarvafjioi] ^enlargement, rootn 
to move /;// i.e. freedom and plenty, 
opposed to d\i\j/is, a-Tei/oxcopla, dvdy- 
KT];SiS 2 Sam. xxii. 20 7rpot(f)6aadv /xe 
rjnepai O^i'^eas pov Kol eyevfTO Kv- 
pios iirtCTTrjpiypa pov Kai e^ijyaytv pe 
fls nXarvcrpov Kal e^f/Xero pe, Ps. 
cxvii. 5 f'f ffki\j/fas fTTfKaXecrdprjv tov 
KvpLov Ka\ fnrjKov(rev pov is TrXaTva- 
pov : comp. Ps. xvii. 20, cxviii. 45, 
Ecclus. xlvii. 12. See also the oppo- 
sition of iv evpvx^ipa and arevoxoi- 
pf'ia-dai, Hermas Mand. v. i h evpv- 
X<^P<^ KaroiKoiiv dyaXXida-erai. Hence 
the Latin use of dilatare, dilatatio. 

2. ((jiayev k.t.X.] A very free quota- 
tion from the LXX of Deut. xxxii. 14, 



oivov' Ka\ e(f)ayV 'laKcojS Kal eveTrKrjadr) 
Kui arreXaKTicrep o rjymrrjpivoi, e\inav6r], 
enaxvvdt], iirkarvvBT). It diverges Still 
more from the original Hebrew. 
Justin Dial. 20 (p. 237 b) quotes the 
same passage, but his quotation has 
no special resemblances to that of ^ 
Clement. If^ 

4. CfjXos /c.r.X.] The v/ords occur in 
an ascending scale : Jirst the inward 
sentiment of division (^rJXoy develop- 
ing into ({)d6vos) ; next, the outward 
demonstration of this (epty develop- 
ing into o-rdo-ty) ; lastly, the direct 
conflict and its results {8icoyp6s, uku- 
TctaTaala, iraXepos, alxpaXuKrla). 

CrjXos Kal (jidovos^ These words oc- 
cur together also below, 4, 5 : 
comp. Gal. v. 20, 21, Test, xii Patr. 
Sym. 4 OTTO TtavTos ^yjXov Kal (f)66vov. 
For the distinction between them see 
Trench A''. T. Syn. ser. i xxvi, and 
Galatians 1. c. ZijXos is ' rivalry, am- 
bition,' the desire of equalling or 
excelling another. It does not ne- 
cessarily involve the wish to deprive 
him of his advantages, which is im- 
plied in (pdovos ; but, if unduly che- 
rished, it will lead to this ; 4 Sta 
^rjXos AauftS (f)d6i>ov eax^v. Plat. Afe- 
nex. p. 242 A TrpcoTov pev ^fjXos oTrb 
(tjXov fie cfidovos, ^sch. Agam. 939 



Ill] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



21 



H AiKAiocyNH Kai eipt}ur]y eV tm d-rroXeLTrekv eKaa-rov tov 
o (bofSop TOV Oeov Kal ev Trj Trio'TeL avTOv dju^\vct}7rf](rai 
/ULrjde eV toI'S pojuijulol's twv Trpoo-TayjULarcoi' avTOu Tropeu- 
ecrOai lurj^e TroXiTeveo-Oai Kara to KaSrjKOv tu) XpicTTM, 
dWd eKacTTOV (^adi^eiu kutu Tas eTridvjuia^ Trj^ Kaphia^ 
auTOu Tri<i TTOvrjpd^, ^f]\ov dSiKOv Kal daefiy] dvei\t)(po- 
^Tws, CL ov Kal Ganatoc eicHAOeN eic ton kocmon. 

lix. 14 d(p^<TT7]Ki', given in the lower note; see above, i. p. 124 sq. 9 Atto- 

XetTreiJ'] inroXenrl A; dTroXi.ire'lv C, and so probably S. 10 Tr/crret] Trtcrrt 

A. 13 dXXot] AC, but Bryennios prints d\\\ as if this were the reading 

of C. T^s Kapdias] CS ; om. A. 15 Kai] AC; om. S. 



6 8' a(f)6(>VT]T6s 7' ovK eVi'fr/Xos TveXfi, 
Arist. R/ie/. ii. 4 vcf)' <Sv ^Tj^ova-dai 
^ovXovrai Koi firj (pdoveLadai. 

5. aKaraa-Taa-Lo] '/?/;// /^// ' ; Comp. 
Luke xxi. gTroXejiovs koI aKaracTTaa-ias, 
2 Cor. xii. 20 eptf, ^riXos...dKaTa(TTa- 
criai, James iii. 16 onov yap ^fjXos Kal 
tpiSfia, eKel duaTaa-raaia k.t.X. 

6. 01 aTijxoi K.r.X.] Is. iii. 5 Tvpoa- 
Koy^ei To naidiov Trpos tov TTpealivTrjv, 

6 art/10? npOS TOV '4l/TLp.0V. 

8. noppoi anecTTLV /c.r.X.] Is. lix. 1 4 
Koi r) diKaioavvT] paKpav a(pe(TTriKev. 

10. dfijj\vo}7rrj<Tai] ^ grotun dii- 
sighted'. The Atticists condemned 
dpfiXvarrfiv and preferred dpI^XvmT- 
TfLu ; Thom. Mag. p. 39. The word 
and the form dp.j3XvQ}Treiv are as old 
as Hippocrates, Frogn. I. p. 38 (ed. 
Foes.). In the LXX it occurs i Kings 
xiv. 4 (displaced and found between 
xii. 24 and xii. 25 in B). But in most 
places where it occurs there is a v. 1. 
dp.fiXva>TTeiv. Comp. a Gnostic writer 
in Hippol. Re/, v. 16 (p. 133 ad tin.). 

12. TO KaQfjKov rc5 Xpicrro)] The ex- 
pression has a close parallel in Phil. 
1. 27 d^i'o)? TOV fvayyeXiov tov Xpia-Toii 
TToXiTfvea-df, from which perhaps it is 
taken. The emendations suggested 
{Xpia-Tiavco or ev XpiaTa for XpiaTco) 
are therefore unnecessary. 

14. ^fjXoV K.T.X.] Comp. 45 ddlKOV 



^fjXov aviXr](poTaiv. 

1 5. Kal 6avaTos k.t.X.] From Wisd. ii. 
24 (pdovu) 8e 8iai36Xov daraTos flafjXdev 
els TOV KncTjjLov ; comp. Rom. v. 12. The 
following passage of Theophilus con- 
nects the quotation from the Book of 
Wisdom with Clement's application 
of it : ad Autol. ii. 29 (p. 39) o 2ara- 
va.s...e(p^ o) OVK laxvcrev davaTcoaai 
avTovs (pdovco (j)ep6iJ,evos, r)viKa ecopa 
T6v"A^eX evapecFTovvra rw 0ec5, evep- 
yqaas els tov a8eX(f)ov avTov tov kqXov- 
jxevov Kaiv eTTOirjcrev dnoKTelvat, tov 
d8eX(p6v avToii tov AfBeX, Kdl ovtcos 
dp^rj davciTov iyevero eis Tovde tov Kotr- 

fJiOV K.T.X. 

IV. ' Said I not truly that death 
came into the world through jea- 
lousy? It was jealousy which prompt- 
ed the first murder and slew a 
brother by a brother's hand ; jealousy 
which drove Jacob into exile, which 
sold Joseph as a bondslave, which 
compelled Moses to flee before his 
fellow-countryman and before Pha- 
raoh, which excluded Aaron and 
Miriam from the camp, which swal- 
lowed up Dathan and Abiram alive, 
which exposed David to the malice 
not only of foreigners but even of the 
Israelite king.' 

The idea of jealousy bringing death 
into the world had a prominent place 



22 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[IV 



ll 



IV. FeypaTTTai yap o'utu)^' Ka'i ereNero Mee' hme- 

pAC, HNerKCN KaVn AHO TOON KApna)N THC fH C ByCIAN TO) 080), 

KAi "ABeA HNerKeN kai aytoc And toon npcoToxoKooN tojn npo- 
Batoon kai atto toon CT6AT00N AYTOON, KAI eneiAeN d 0edc 
eni "ABcA kai en'i to?c Acopoic aytoy, eni Ae KaVn kai eni 51 
taTc eYciAic aytoy oy npocecx,6N. kai eAYnneH KaVn Ai'an 
KAI cYNeneceN tCu npocoonoj aytoy- ka'i eineN d 0edc npdc 
KaVn, i'na ti' nepiAYnoc epf-NOY; ka'i i'na ti cYNeneceN to 

I oi'Tws] AS; om. C. 2 t^J ey] AS; t<^ Kvplip C, with the LXX. 

3 Trpopdruju] AC; add. avTov S, with LXX. 4 eVerSei/] emde A. 7 ry 

7rpo(TU)7ry] A with the LXX; to wpbffwwov CS, in accordance with what follows. 
9 eac] A ; Sj/ C. II dp^eis aiiTov] A ; aiyroi} dp^eis C. S has the same 



in the teaching of the Ophites as re- 
ported by Iren. i. 30. 9, ' Ita ut et dum 
fratrem suum Abel occideret, primus 
zeluin et mortem ostenderet': and Ire- 
naeus himself also speaks of the f^Xos 
of Cain, iii. 23. 4, iv. 18. 3 (see the 
last passage especially). Mill supposes 
that the idea was borrowed from 
Clement. As regards the Ophites 
however it is more probable that 
they derived it from a current inter- 
pretation of the name KaiV : comp. 
Clem. Horn. iii. 42 rov ^tv Tvparov 
KoXeaas Kaip, o epiJ,r]veveTai f^Xor, os 
Kol ^riXaaas aveTKev tov a8e\cj)ov avTOV 
"A/3eX. In a previous passage (iii. 25) 
this pseudo-Clement calls Cain d/x- 
(fioTepi^ov ivofia, because St^^ ^'x^' '''^^ 
epiJ.T}veias ttjv iichox'qv, epjjLrjveveTai yap 
Ka\ KTTjais (njp) Kcu ^^Xor (ii2p) k.t.X. 
The interpretation KTiiais is adopted 
by Philo de Cherub. 15 (i. p. 148), de 
Sacr.Ab. et Ca. i (l. p. 163), qtiod Det. 
pot. ills. 10 (i. p. 197), etc., and by 
Josephus Aiit. i. 2. i. 

I. KOLi eyevero k.t.X.] Gen. iv. 3 8, 
quoted almost word for word from 
the LXX. The divergences from the 
Hebrew text are very considerable. 

7. T5 TTpoa-anrco] The case is diffi- 
cult to account for, except as a very 
early transcriber's error in the LXX ; 



for the form of the Hebrew is the 
same here as in the following verse, 
where it is translated (Twinea-ev to 
TrpocrcoTTov, and the dative though in- 
telligible is awkward. 

9. ovK eav 6p6<Si K.T.X.] The mean- 
ing of the original is obscure, but the 
LXX translation which Clement here 
follows must be wrong. The words 
opdas BaXrjs stand for nns'? 2^D'<n 
('doest good, at the door'), which the 
translators appear to have under- 
stood ' doest right to open ' ; unless 
indeed they read nnj for nHD, as 
seems more probable (for in the older 
characters the resemblance of J and 
D is very close). At all events it 
would seem that they intended duXr/s 
to refer to apportioning the offerings 
(comp. Lev. i. 12, where it represents 
nnj and is used of dividing the 
victim) : and they might have under- 
stood the offence of Cain to consist 
in reserving to himself the best and 
giving God the worst : see Philo 
Qnaest. in Gen. i. 62 64 (l p. 43 
sq, Aucher), de Agric. 29 (l. p. 319), 
and de Sacr. Ah. et Ca. 13, 20 sq, 
(l p. 171 sq, 176 sq), in illustration 
of this sense. The Christian fathers 
however frequently give it a directly 
moral bearing, explaining o^QQ>s fifj 



IV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



23 



npdcoonoN coy; oyknIan opOooc npoceNefKHc 6p0ooc Ae mh 
oAieAHc, HMAprec; hcyXAcoN" npoc ce h AnocTpo(|)H ay'toy, 
KAi CY Ap^eic AYToy. kai eineN KaVn npdc "ABeA ton aAgA- 
(\)6n aytoy' AieAGcoMeN eic to neAi'oN. kai ereNeTo ew tcu 
eiNAi AYTOYC eN Too neAi'oo ANecTH KaVn fc'n'i "ASeA ton aAsA- 

' ' I I 

(\)6>i aytoy kai An6KTeiNN AYTON. OpciTe, dce\(pOL, ^V/A.09 

5 Kai <p6oi/0 dheXcpOKTOVLav KaTeipydcraro. dia ^rjXo^ 

6 7raTt]p t'jjucov ' Iuko)^ dire^pa diro TrpoccoTrov Hcrau 

order as A, but this would be most natural in the Syriac. 12 dL^Xdu/j-evI 

AC ; add. igitiir (= br\) S. This addition is found in some Mss of the Lxx. 
TreSi'oj'] Ko.i^i.ov A. 13 7re5t<ij] iracdM A. 14 dSe\(poi] AC; 

dyaTTTjToi S; see above, i. 15 KaTeipyd<raTo\ AS; Kareipydaavro C. iiV^o^^ 

A ; '^ffKov C. 



SteXi/s to refer either to the obliquity 
of Cain's moral sense or to his un- 
fairness in his relations with his bro- 
ther, e.g. Iren. iii. 23. 4 'Quod non 
recte divisisset earn quae erga fra- 
trem erat communionem,' iv. 18. 3 
' Ouoniam cum zelo et malitia quae 
erat adversus fratrem divisionem ha- 
bebat in corde, etc.', Origen Sel. in 
Gen. (11, p. 30) ov buTKfv opdcos' rrjs 
6eias voixoQeaias KaTe(^p6vrj(Tev k.t.\. 

ID. rjavxacTov] The word corre- 
sponds to the Hebrew ]'2-| 'lying,' 
which the LXX have treated as an 
imperative 'lie still'; comp. Job xi. 
19. Much stress is laid on rfcrvxafrov 
by Philo dc Soh'. 10 (l. p. 400), and 
by early Christian expositors, e.g. 
Clem. Hem. iii. 25, Iren. 11. cc. 

12. dieXdmfjLev els to 7re8iov] This 
clause is wanting in the Hebrew and 
Targum of Onkelos, but found in the 
LXX, the Samaritan and Peshito 
versions, and the later Targums. 
Origen's comment is interesting ; 
Sel. in Genes, (n. p. 39) iv rw 'E^pdiKw 
TO Xf^deu VTTo Toil Kaiu npos tov''Aj3(\ 
ov yiypaiTTai xai ol rrepl AKvXav eSei^av 
oTi (V TO) CLTTOKpiicpa (f)aa\v oi 'E/3paiot 
Kuadac ToiiTO ivravda Kara rfjv Tap 
f^BofiriKovTa KSo;^r;i/. These or similar 



words are plainly wanted for the 
sense, and can only have been omit- 
ted accidentally. The Masoretes 
reckon this one of the twenty-eight 
passages where there is a lacuna in 
the text : see Fabric. Cod. Apocr. 
V. T. L p. 104 sq. Philo enlarges on 
the allegorical meaning of to nedlou. 

15. 8ia CfjXos] On the two declen- 
sions of fjjAos see Winer ix. p. 78, 
A. Buttmann p. 20. Clement (or his 
transcriber) uses the masculine and 
the neuter forms indifferently. 

16. 6 TraTTjp i^fxaiv] So 310 Trarrjp 
Tjficov 'A/3paa/i, 60 kuBcos eSoxay to'is 
TvaTpaaiv rjjjimv, 62 01 TrpoSebr^Xcofiepoi 
TTUTepes rjp-av (where see the note). 
From these passages it has been in- 
ferred that the writer was a Jewish 
Christian. The inference however is 
not valid ; since Clement, like S. Paul 
(Gal. iii. 7, 9, 29, Rom. iv. 11, 18, 
ix. 6^8) or Justin {Dial. 134), might 
refer to spiritual rather than actual 
parentage; comp. i Pet. iii. 6 'S.appa... 

77s iyevTjOr^Te TeKva. So tOO Theophi- 

lus of Antioch (quoted by Jacobson), 
though himself a Gentile, speaks of 
Abraham {ad Autol. iii. 28, comp. iii. 
24) and David (iii. 25) as 'our fore- 
father.' To these references add ib> 



24 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[IV 



Tov d^eXcpou auToi). ^fjXo^^ e7roLf](Tev 'lcoa-n<p ^^XP'- ^"~ 
vccTOu hico^dfivaL KUL jJiexp^- ^ouXeias elaeXQeiv. ^n\o<i 
(hvyeiv rivdyKaa-ev Mcoucrfju diro TrpocrojTrou <Papait) ^aa-L- 
Xews AlyvTrrou ev rco aKOucrai avTov dwo rov 6fj.o(pu\ov 
Tic ce KAxecTHceN KpiiHN h Aikacthn ecf)' hmcon; mh ANe-5 
Ae?N Me CY OeAeic, on xpdnoN ANeiAec exOec ton AirYTTxiON; 
hid ^riXos 'Aapcov Kal Mapidfji e^o) Tt]^ Trapefx^oXfjs 
rivXicrdrjcrav. ^t]Xo'i AaQdv Kal 'A^eipcov ^wi/ra? Kart]- 
yayeu ek dhov, hia to (TTao'iacrai avTOo^ npos tov 

2 elaeXdelv] A; iXdeiv C, and so probably S. 5 KpLTTji' ^ St/cotrTV] A; 

dpxovTa Kal 5i.KaffT7)v CS, with the LXX. See the lower note. 6 ex^fs] ^\ 

X^'f s C. 7 5td] CS ; om. A. f^Aos] A; ^riXov C. 8 yivXiadyjaav'] 

-qvX-qadriaav A. ^57^0?] S; Sia^rfKoa A; 5td ^rfKov C. lo 5ta ^17X05] A; 

5id griXov C. AauetS] 5d5 AC. I have followed the best Mss of the N.T. for 



iii. 20 ot 'Ejipaioi, ot kol Trporrdropfs 
TiiJiwv, d(ji u>v Ka\ Tas lepas /3//3Xous 
6xo/xef K.T.X. 

5. TLs (re x.T-.X.] From the LXX of 
Exod. ii. 14, which follows the He- 
brew closely, inserting however x^^s 
(or e'x^es). Clement has Kpirrju rj for 
apxovTa Kai, perhaps from confusion 
with Ltike xii. 14 Kpirrjv 77 pepicrrriv 
(the best reading, though A and some 
others have biKaa-rrju rj fiepiarrjv). The 
LXX is quoted more exactly in Acts 
vii. 27 and in Apost. Cotist. vi. 2. The 
life of Moses supplies Clement with a 
twofold illustration of his point ; for 
he incurred the envy not only of the 
king {ano Trpoa-conov 4>apaa)'), but also 
of his fellow-countrymen (eV tS aKov- 
crai avTov k.t.'X.), as in the parallel 
case of David below. 

7. 'Aapwv K.T.X.] The Mosaic re- 
cord mentions only the exclusion of 
Miriam from the camp, Num. xii. 14, 
15. In this instance and in the next 
(Dathan and Abiram) the jealous per- 
sons are themselves the sufferers. 

9. TOV Oepanoi/Ta k-t-X.^ The ex- 
pression is used of Moses several 



times, e.g. Exod. iv. 10, xiv. 31, Num. 
xii. 7, 8, Josh. viii. 31, 33 : comp. below 
43, 51, 53, Barnab. 14, Just. Mart. 
Dz'a/. 56 (p. 274 d), Theoph. ad Autol. 
iii. 9, 18, etc. 'O 6epa77cov roii Qeov 
was a recognised title of Moses, as 
o cf>LXos TOV Qeoxi was of Abraham. 

10. AavelS] Or perhaps AauiS. 
There is, so far as I know, no au- 
thority for AajSiS, except in com- 
paratively recent MSS. Yet Hilgen- 
feld reads Aa^SiS. Funk says ' C Aa/3iS 
ubique,' and a similar statement is 
made by Gebhardt, being misled by 
Bryennios. The word is contracted 
in C in all its three occurrences in 
Clement; 18, 52, as well as here. 

11. vTTo Tcov dWo(^vK(ov\ The Phi- 
listines, I Sam. xxi. 11, xxix. 4 sq. 

12. vnh 'S.aovk] I Sam. xviii. 9 'And 
Saul eyed (inro^XfTropevos LXX, A) 
David from that day and forward.' 

V. 'Again, take examples from 
our own generation. Look at the 
lives of the chief Apostles. See how 
Peter and Paul suffered from jea- 
lousy; how through many wander- 
ings, through diverse and incessant 



v] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



2^ 



lo QepaTTOvra tov Qeov Mcoua-rju. hia ^tjXo^ Aaueih (bOo- 
vov '(r)(ep ov ijlovov vtto tmv dWofpvXwUj dWd Kai 
VTTO CaovX ^(SamXeM's la-parjA^ ehi(jO)(^dr]. 

V. 'AW iW Twv dp-^aicav uTTodeLy/ULdTcoi/ Travau)- 
fjteQa, eXdw/ueu errl tov^ eyyia-ra yeuojULeuovs ddXrjrd^' 

15 Xaf^wfjiev T^/9 'yevea<i ti/ucov ra yei/i'aJa VTrodeiy/uara. 
Aid ^fiXov Kai (pdovou ol jULeyicTTOL Kai diKaioraroi 
(TTvXoL ihiM^drjcrai' Kai ews davdrov tjSXfjo'ai/. Adf^co- 
fjiev Trpo 6(J)6aXiu(Joi' tj/mcou tov^ dyadous dirocrToXov^' 

the orthography of the word. 11 vTrb] A; airb C 12 virb 2aoi)X] 

A; airb TOV "LaovX C /SatrtX^ws 'Icr/DaTjX] AS ; om. C. 13 vTroSe(.yfj.d- 

Twv] inroSty/xaTUJi' A. 15 yevvaia] yevvea A. 16 jJ-eyLCToi.] CS ; 

...(TTOL A. The word fMeyiaroL was rejected by Tischendorf and several editors 
(myself included) as insufficient for the space, and some other word substituted to 
fill the lacuna of A, but the text of the other authorities removes all doubt. 



persecutions, they bore testimony to 
Christ ; how at last they sealed their 
testimony with their blood, and de- 
parted to their rest and to their 
glory.' 

14. eyy la-To] 'very iiear^ as com- 
pared with the examples already 
quoted. The expression must be 
qualified and explained by the men- 
tion of 7; yei/fa r]\x.(i)v jUSt bclow. It 
has been shown that the close of Do- 
mitian's reign is pointed out both by 
tradition and by internal evidence as 
the date of this epistle (i. p. 346 sq). 
The language here coincides with 
this result. It could hardly be used 
to describe events which had happen- 
ed within the last year or two, as 
must have been the case if the letter 
were written at the end of Nero's 
reign. And on the other hand ?) 
yei/ea r\^x<iiv would be wholly out of 
place, if it dated from the time of 
Hadrian, some 50 years or more after 
the death of the two Apostles. 

aQXryra^^ See the note on Ign. 
Polyc. I. 



17. (TTvkoi\ See the note on Gala- 
tians ii. 9, where it is used of S. Peter 
and other Apostles. The accentua- 
tion (TTvKoi is there discussed, and it 
has the support of C here. 

18. dya6ovs\ So too Clem. Horn. 
i. 16 o S ayados Uirpos npo(m)]8)](ras 
K.T.X., quoted by Harnack. Editors 
and critics have indulged in much 
licence of conjecture, suggesting 
dyiovs, TTpMTovs, Oeiovs, etc., in place 
of dyaQovs. This has led to the state- 
ment made in Volkmar's edition of 
Credner's Gesch. des N. T. Kanon p. 
51, that A reads a ovs (a supposed 
contraction for Trpwrous). Nothing 
can be farther from the truth. The 
word dyaQovi is distinctly legible in 
full in A, and it is confirmed by the 
other authorities. Such an epithet 
may be most naturally explained on 
the supposition that Clement is speak- 
ing in affectionate remembrance of 
those whom he had known person- 
ally. Otherwise the epithet seems 
to be somewhat out of place. 



26 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[V 



rierpov, 09 did tfjAov aSiKOV ov)(^ eva ouZe Zvo dWa 
TrXe'iOva's v7rt]veyKev ttovov^, kul ovtco fjiapTvpr]a'a^ etto- 

I n^rpoc, 8?] C ; ...oo- A ; Petrus S. Before the discovery of C, the lacuna of A 
was filled up [6 Mirp\o% or [Il^rpjos. The true reading could not have been fore- 
seen. 1 viri\v'yKiv\ viTT]veyKe C; and so doubtless S, which has 73D tulit, 
portavit (see 14). As regards A, Young read virifieiviv; but Mill and others 



I. Uirpov K.T.\.'\ A passage in 
Peter of Alexandria {de Poenit. 9, see 
I. p. 164), where the two Apostles 
are mentioned in conjunction, was 
probably founded on Clement's ac- 
count here, for it closely resembles 
his language. The same is also the 
case with a passage of Macarius 
Magnes Apocr. iv. 14, quoted in the 
note on vn-e'Sei^ei' below. This juxta- 
position of S. Peter and S. Paul, 
where the Roman Church is con- 
cerned, occurs not unfrequently. 
The language of Ignatius, Rom. 4, 
seems to imply that they had both 
preached in Rome ; and half a cen- 
tury later Dionysius of Corinth (Euseb. 
H. E. ii. 25) states explicitly that they 
went to Italy and suffered martyr- 
dom there Kara tov avrbv Kuipov. This 
is affirmed also a generation later by 
Tertullian,who mentions the different 
manners of their deaths [Scorp. 15, 
de Praescr. 36) ; and soon after Gaius, 
himself a Roman Christian, describes 
the sites of their graves in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Rome 
(Euseb. H. E. ii. 25) ; see also Lac- 
tant. dc Mori. Pers. 2, Euseb. Dem. 
Ev. iii. 3, p. 116. The existing Ada 
Petri et Pauli {Act. Apost. Apocr. p. 
I, ed. Tischendorf) are occupied with 
the preaching and death of the two 
Apostles at Rome ; and this appears 
to have been the subject also of a 
very early work bearing the same 
name, on which see Hilgenfeld Nov. 
Test. extr. Can. Rec. iv. p. 68. This 
subject is further discussed in the 
excursus S. Peter in Rome appended 
to the first volume. 



But not only was this juxtaposition 
of the two Apostles appropriate as 
coming from the Roman Church ; 
it would also appeal powerfully to 
the Corinthians. The latter commu- 
nity, no less than the former, traced 
its spiritual pedigree to the combined 
teaching of both Apostles ; and ac- 
cordingly Dionysius (1. c), writing 
from Corinth to the Romans, dwells 
with emphasis on this bond of union 
between the two churches : comp. 
I Cor. i. 12, iii. 22. 

2. p.apTvpri<Tas\ ''having borne his 
testimony.^ The word ndprvs was 
very early applied especially, though 
not solely, to one who sealed his tes- 
timony with his blood. It is so ap- 
plied in the Acts (xxii. 20) to S. Ste- 
phen, and in the Revelation (ii. 13) 
to Antipas. Our Lord Himself is 
styled the faithful and true p.apTvs 
(Rev. i. 5, iii. 14), and His p.aprvpia 
before Pontius Pilate is especially 
emphasized (i Tim. vi. 13). Doubt- 
less the Neronian persecution had 
done much to promote this sense, 
aided perhaps by its frequent oc- 
currence in the Revelation. After 
the middle of the second century at 
all events paprvs, naprvpelv, were used 
absolutely to signify martyrdom; 
Martyr. Polyc. 19 sq, Melito in 
Euseb. H. E. iv. 26, Dionys. Corinth. 
ib. ii. 25, Hegesippus ib. ii. 23, iv. 22, 
Epist. Gall. ib. v. i, 2, Anon. adv. 
Cataphr. ib. v. 16, Iren. Haer. i. 28. 
I, iii. 3. 3, 4, iii. 12. 10, iii. 18. 5, etc. 
Still even at this late date they con- 
tinued to be used simultaneously of 
other testimony borne to the Gospel, 



v] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



27 



pevOt] ets Tov ocpeiXojuevov tottov Trj^ ^o'^ti^-. oia ^i]\ov 

professed to see the h, and Wotton accordingly says 'proculdubio legendum est 
inT-f)veyKev\ According to Jacobson 'hodie nihil nisi yTT restat'. On the other 
hand Tischendorf sees part of an h. I could discern traces of a letter, but these 
might belong equally well to an e or an h. 



short of death : e.g. by Hegesippus, 
Euseb. H. E. iii. 20, 32, by ApoUonius 
zb. V. 18 (several times), and in a 
document quoted by Serapion id. v. 
19. A passage in the Epistle of the 
Churches of Gaul (a. D. 177) illustrates 
the usage, as yet not definitely fixed 
but tending to fixity, at this epoch ; 
01;;;^ ana^ ov8e 8\s dWa noXXaKis 
fiapTv prjaavTf s Koi (k dtjpiatv avdts 
dva\r](pdevTfS. . .oliT avrol paprvpas eav- 
Tovs aveKTjpvTTOv oiiTe prjv rjplv eVeVpe- 
TTOV TovTco Tco ovopuTi TTpouayopeveiv 
avTQVs' aXX. evrvoTe Tis r]p(ov bi inKTTO- 
y^TJs T] 8id Xoyov pdpTvpas avrovs Trpoa- 
finev, (nenT^rjcra'ov TTiKpcoi' ' i]8e(os yap 
irapexd^povv rrjv rfjs p,apTvpLas irpoa- 
Tjyopiav tcu XptcrTw rcS incrTa Koi akq- 
6iva) pdpTvpi...Kdi infpipvrjdKOVTO tcov 
e^fXrjXvdoTMV i]8i] papTvpcuv nai eXeyov' 
eKeivoL rj8rj fidprvpes ovs iv rf] 
opoXoyla 'X.p icttos t]^ icoaev ava- 
Xrj(f)drjvai, iTvicrt^payiadpevos av- 
TU)v 8ia rfjs f^68ov ttjv paprvpiav' 
i]fils 8e op-oXoyoi, perpioi koi raneL- 
vo'i (Euseb. H. E. v. 2). The distinc- 
tion between pdprvs and 6poXoyr)Ti]s 
(more rarely opoXoyos), which the 
humility of these sufferers suggested, 
became afterwards the settled usage 
of the Church ; but that it was not so 
at the close of the second century 
appears from the Alexandrian Cle- 
ment's comments on Heracleon's 
account of opoXoyla in S/rof/i. iv. 9, 
p. 596; comp. also TertuU. Prax. i 
'de jactatione martyrii inflatus ob 
solum et simplex et breve carceris 
taedium.' Even half a century later 
the two titles are not kept apart in 
Cyprian's language. The Decian 
persecution however would seem to 
have been instrumental in fixing 



this distinction ; see Euseb. Mart. 
Pal. II TTpo TOV paprvpiov 8cd Kavrtj- 
paiv vTropoffjs rov r^s upoXoyias 8ia6- 
Xi](ras dyatva. 

Thus the mere use of paprvpelv in 
this early age does not in itself ne- 
cessarily imply the martyrdoms of 
the two Apostles ; but on the other 
hand we need not hesitate (with 
Merivale, Hist, of the Romans vi. p. 
282, note 2) to accept the passage 
of Clement as testimony to this fact. 
For (i) Clement evidently selects ex- 
treme cases of men who etay Oavdrov 
rjdXrjcrav; (2) The emphatic position 
of papTvp)](Tas points to the more defi- 
nite meaning; (3) The expression is 
the same as that in which Hegesip- 
pus describes the final testimony, the 
inar-tyrdo)n, of James (Euseb. H. E. 
ii. 23 Kal ovTa>s i papTvprjaev) and 
of Symeon (Euseb. JP. E. iii. 32 Kai 
ovTco papTvpfi); (4) Dionysius of 
Corinth couples the two Apostles to- 
gether, as they are coupled here, say- 
mg epaprvprjcrav Kara tov (wtov Kaipov 
(Euseb. H. E. ii. 25), where martyr- 
dom is plainly meant and where pro- 
bably he was writing with Clement's 
language in his mind. The early 
patristic allusions to the martyrdoms 
of the two Apostles have been already 
quoted in the last note. It should 
be added that S. Peter's martyrdom 
is clearly implied in John xxi. 18, 
and that S. Paul's is the almost in- 
evitable consequence of his position 
as described by himself in 2 Tim. iv. 
6 sq. 

3. TOV 0(f)lX6peU0V TOTTOV^ TllC CX- 

pression is copied by Polycarp {Phil. 
9), where speaking of S. Paul and 
the other Apostles he says, 6ty rov 



28 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[v 



Kui epLV flavXo^ V7r0fji0vri<i (^pa^lov vTre^ei^ev, eTrraKi^ 

I /cat ^piv] CS; def. A. Here again the calculation of the space has proved 
fallacious. Editors, before the discovery of CS, filled in the lacuna of A with Kal 
6 or Kal simply. ppa^etov^ ISpajBiov A. Vwedei^ev] ?5fef C ; iu/i/ [por- 

tavit) "H''D S. As regards the reading of A, there is some doubt. Young printed 
dTreVxe", but Mill formerly and Jacobson recently read the MS y CM- Ac- 
cordingly Wotton and most later editors have written virecxxev. With respect to the 
Y my own observation entirely agrees with Tischendorf 's, who says ' post ^pa^iov 
membrana abscissa est neque litterae quae sequebatur vestigium superest'. Indeed 
(if I am right) there can hardly have been any such trace since the MS was bound, 



6<^fiKofx.(vov avToli ronov (ia\ napa tw 
Kvpico. So Acts i. 25 Tov Torrov tov 
'ibiov (comp. Ign. Magn. 5), Barnab. 
19 TOV (opLCTfiepov Tonov, and below 
44 '""i' IBpyfievov avTols tottov. An 
elder in Irenaeus (probably Papias) 
discourses at length on the different 
abodes prepared for the faithful ac- 
cording to their deserving, Haer. v. 
36. I sq. 

I. ^pa^fiov\ S. Paul's own word, 
1 Cor. ix. 24, Phil. iii. 14. See also 
Mart. Polyc. 17 (Bpa^elov dvavTipprj- 
Tov diTevr]veyiJ,evov, Tatian ad Graec. 
33 aKpnaias ^pa^elov dnrfviyKaTO : and 
comp. Orac. Sib. ii. 45, 149. The 
word is adopted in a Latin dress, 
bravium or brabiuin, and occurs 
in TertuUian, in the translation of 
IrenaDus, and in the Latin versions 
of the Scriptures. 

un-eSfi^fi'] ''pointed out the way to, 
taught by his example'; comp. 6 
vn6deiyfj.a KaWitTTOv iytvovro iv r)fuv. 
The idea of vntdei^iv is carried out 
by vnoypafifjios below ; for the two 
words occur naturally together, as in 
Lucian E/tet. Praec. 9 woSet/ci/vs to 
Arjuoa-devovs ixvr]...']rapa8eiyp,aTa Trupa- 
Ti.6eLS TU)V \oyoL>v ov pudia p.iptladai. .. 
(cat TOV xpovov nafiTToXw vnoypay^eL ttjs 
odoiTTopias ' so vTTodeiKvveiv eXnidas 
and vT7oypa(j)iiv eXTrtSas- are converti- 
ble phrases, Polyb. ii. 70. 7, v. 36. i. 

This conjecture vnedei^ev, which I 
offered in place of the vneaxev of 
previous editors, occurred indepen- 
dently to Laurent, who had not seen 



my edition, and it was accepted by 
Gebhardt (ed. i); though in his later 
edition Gebhardt has adopted the 
simple verb eSei^ei/ from C. If Mill and 
Jacobson are right, this cannot have 
been the reading of A, as the initial 
Y was once visible. My reasons for 
doubting w'hether this was possible, at 
least in the later condition of the MS, 
are given in the upper note. On the 
other hand vneSei^ev is supported by 
a passage in the recently discovered 
work of Macarius Magnes Apocr. iv. 
14 (p. 181, Blondel), where speaking 
of S. Peter and S. Paul he says, 
fyvaicrav VTrodel^aL tovtois [i.e. Tols 
TTtcrrevovcrti'], Trot'oiy dydcriv 6 ttjs tv'kt- 
Tecos (TvyKeKpoTTjTOi (rTe(pavos. In the 
context, which describes the labours 
and martyrdoms of these same two 
Apostles, the language of Macarius 
appears to give many echoes of this 
passage in Clement ; v7rep,fLvav evae- 
/ScSs 8i8acrKOVTS, tmv dbiKovpevcov virip- 
fiaxot, 7roXXa...ra) Koapa prjvvaavTes, 
TOV /3tou TO TeXos dTri'jvTijcrev, pfXP'' 
6avaTov...7rpoKiv8vvevaa>(ri, Ttjs evKXeias 
TOV enaivov, 01 yevvd8ai, dvd ttjv oIkov- 
pei/Tjv, l3pa(Bflov...KTcop(voi, Tvnoi dv- 
8peLas ...yevopevoi, TroXXa tup koXoiv 
ay 03 via par (OV, rffs 8i,8ax^i kcu tov Krjpvy- 
paTos, papTvpiov 86^av, 7riKpaLS...^acrd- 
voLS, VTTopovfj noXKfj, yf vvai.<A)S (j)epfiv. It 
seems highly probable therefore that 
the use of vnodeiKviivai. in this some- 
what strange connexion was derived 
by him from the same source. Comp. 
also p. Gait. ^ 23 in Euseb. //. E. 



V] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



29 



decrjua (popeaa^, (puyadevdei^, XiSacrBei^y Krjpv^ yevo- 

so that Jacobson was certainly mistaken and Mill perhaps so; but I have so far 
regarded this statement, as to offer a conjecture which respects the y- On the 
other hand the 1 at the beginning of the next line is clearly legible even in the 
photograph, though it has not been discerned by previous editors. Tisch. says ' 1 
quum paullo minus appareat, possit erasum credi'. The letter is certainly faint, 
but though I have inspected the MS more than once, I can see no traces of erasure. 
For other reasons which have led me to prefer vir^8ei^ev to ^dei^ev see the lower 
note. 



V. I els TTjv Tcov \oiwav vnorvnaiaiv 
inro8eiKvvu)v otl firjdev <poj3p()V oirnv 
narpos ayanr], firjSe aXyeivov ottov Xpto"- 
Tov 86^a. S. Paul himself says (Acts 
XX. 35) vTTfSei^a iplv otl k.tX. C is 
found in other cases to substitute the 
simple verb, where A has the com- 
pound (see I. p. 127), and would 
naturally do so here, where the 
meaning of the compound was not 
obvious. The rendering of S, which 
also translates /3pa/3eioi/ by certanicn, 
corresponds fairly with iirkvxf^v sug- 
gested by some editors ; but this was 
certainly not the reading of A. 

fTrraKtr] In 2 Cor. xi. 23 S. Paul 
speaks of himself as eV (pvXaKals ne- 
pL<TaoTpa)i ; but the imprisonment at 
Philippi is the only one recorded in 
the Acts before the date of the Se- 
cond Epistle to the Corinthians. 
Clement therefore must have derived 
his more precise information from 
some other source. Zeller {Theol. 
Jahrb. 1848, p. 530) suggests that the 
writer of this letter added the captivi- 
ties at Caesarea and at Rome to the 
five punishments which S. Paul men- 
tions in 2 Cor. xi. 24. But the irevTa- 
Kii there has no reference to impri- 
sonments, which are mentioned se- 
parately in the words already quoted. 
I should not have thought it neces- 
sary to call attention to this very 
obvious inadvertence, if the statement 
had not been copied with approval 
or without disapproval by several 
other writers. 

2. (fivyabfvdfLs^ We read of S. Paul's 



flight from Damascus (Acts ix. 25, 
2 Cor. xi. 33), from Jerusalem (Acts 
ix. 30), from Antioch of Pisidia (xiii. 
50), from Iconium (xiv. 6), from Thes- 
salonica (xvii. 10), from Beroea (xvii. 
14), and perhaps from Corinth (xx. 3). 
Some of these incidents would be 
described by (f)vya8ev6eis, but it is 
perhaps too strong a word^to apply 
to all. On (pvyaSeveiu, which though 
found even in Attic writers was re- 
garded by purists as questionable, 
see Lobeck Phryn. p. 385. The read- 
ing pa^hevQw (comp. 2 Cor. xi. 25) 
which was proposed to fill the lacuna 
in A is objectionable, because the 
form pajidi^dv alone is used in the 
LXX and O. T. (and perhaps else- 
where, in this sense). 

Xidaadeis] At Lystra (Acts xiv. 19). 
An attempt was made also to stone 
him at Iconium, but he escaped in 
time (xiv. 5). Hence he says (2 Cor. 
xi. 25) aTra^ iXiddadriv. See Paley 
Hor. Paul. iv. 9. 

K^pu^] S. Paul so styles himself 
2 Tim. i. II. Epictetus too calls his 
ideal philosopher /c^pii| r5>v dea>v, Diss. 
iii. 21. 13, iii. 22. 6g. The Stoics, like 
the Christians, were essentially Ktjpv- 
Ks in their mode of action. The 
picture of Diogenes at Corinth, given 
in Dion Chrysost. Oral, viii, ix, might 
stand viuiatis inutandis for S. Paul. 
The word is accentuated KVfpv^ (not 
KTjpv^) in C in accordance with the 
rule of the grammarians; see Chand- 
ler's Greek Accentuatiofi p. 181, no. 
669. 



30 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[V 



juei/05 ev Tf. Trj dvaToKrj kui ev t^ ^vcreiy to 'yevvaiov 

' ' ' 

Tr]<i 7rLa-T6(i)<s avTOu kt/Xco? eXaj^ev, ^LKaiocrvvnv ^ida^a^ 

oXov Tov KOOTfJiOV Kai eirl to Tepjua Trj^ ^vaews eXBcov 

I re] AC ; om. S. 2 Trlcrreus] iriffTaiuxr A. 5t/caio(7i/i'7jj'] A ; SiKaio- 

aivrts CS, connected by punctuation in both these authorities with ^ajSe. Bryen- 
nios had overlooked the reading of C in his edition, but corrects the omission 



I. TO yevvaiov k.t.X.] ' the noble re- 
nown which he had won by his faith' ; 
i.e. his faith in his divine mission to 
preach to the Gentiles : see Credner's 
Gesc/i. dcs N. T. Kanon (i860) p. 52. 

3. okov TOV Koa-jjiov K.r.X.] In the spu- 
rious letter of Clement to James pre- 
fixed to the Homilies it is said of S. 
Peter o rryy Svcrecos- to aKOTeivoTe- 
pov Toi) Koafiov ixepos cos iravTav 
iKavcoTepns (fxuriaai KeXevadeis ... top 
fcroixevov dyadov oXa> Ta KO(Tp.co fxrjvv- 
aas ^naiXea, /xe'xP'S' fVTavda Trjs 'Poo/xjys 
yfp6iJLevos...avToi tov vvv j3lov jSiaicos 
TO ^f]v lu.eT^jXXa^ev (!:; I, p. 6 Lagarde). 
This passage is, I think, plainly 
founded on the true Clement's account 
of S. Paul here ; and thus it accords 
with the whole plan of this Judaic 
writer in transferring the achieve- 
ments of S. Paul to S. Peter whom 
he makes the Apostle of the Gentiles : 
see Galatians p. 315. 

TO Teppa Tris Svafcos] ' i/ie extreme 
west.' In the Epistle to the Romans 
(xv. 24) S. Paul had stated his in- 
tention of visiting Spain. From the 
language of Clement here it ap- 
pears that this intention was fulfilled. 
Two generations later {c. A.D. 180) an 
anonymous writer mentions his hav- 
ing gone thither; ' Sed et profec- 
tionem Pauli ab urbe ad Spaniam 
proficiscentis,' Fragm. Murat. (pp. 
19, 40, ed. Tregelles, Oxon. 1867; or 
Westcott Hist, of Canoji p. 517, ed. 
4). For the expression to Tipp-a t^? 
Suo-eo)? pointing to the western ex- 
tremity of Spain, the pillars of Her- 
cules, comp. Strab. ii. i (p. 67) iripaTn 



Se avTr]s {Trjs oiKOvpevrjs) Tidrjcri iTpos 
8v(Tei pev Tas 'VLpaKkeiovs OTjfXar, 11. 4 
(p. 106) pe)(pi Tcov oKpcov Tijs l^rjpias 
cnrep SvcrpiKmTfpd ecrTi, iii. I (p. 13?) 
ToiiTo (to lepbv aKpatTripiov) ecTTi to 8vti- 
KuiTaTov ov TTjs EvpcoTTJjs povov oKXa KOl 
Trjs olnovpevrjs aTraarjS arjpeiov' irepa- 
TovTui yap VTTO twv hveiv rjirelpcav r/ 
oiKOvpevrj irpos hvcriv, toXs re ttjs Eupw- 
irrjs aKpois Ka\ toIs TvpaTois ttjs Ai^vr^s, 
iii. 5 (P- 169) e7ri8r] kotu tov nopOpov 
iyivovTO tov koto Trjv KoXtttjv, vopiaav- 
Tas Teppovas eivai Trjs oiKovpevrjs.-.Ta 
uKpa, tb. (p. 170) ^ryriiv enl Tav Kvpias 
Xeyopevwv (tttjXcov tovs Trjs olKovpevrjs 

opovs (these references are corrected 
from Credner's Ka7ion p. 53), and 
see Strabo's whole account of the 
western boundaries of the world and 
of this coast of Spain. Similarly 
Veil. Paterc. i. 2 'In ultimo Hispa- 
niae tractu, in extremo nostri orbis 
termino.' It is not improbable also 
that this western journey of S. Paul 
included a visit to Gaul (2 Tim. iv. 
10; see Galatians p. 31). But for the 
patriotic belief of some English wri- 
ters (see Ussher B^'it. Eccl. Ant. c. 
I, Stillingfleet Orig. Brit. c. i), who 
have included Britain in the Apo- 
stle's travels, there is neither evidence 
nor probability ; comp. Haddan and 
Stubbs Counc. and Eccles. Doc. i. 
p. 22 sq. This journey westward 
supposes that S. Paul was liberated 
after the Roman captivity related 
in the Acts, as indeed (independ- 
ently of the phenomena in the Pas- 
toral Epistles) his own expectations 
expressed elsewhere (Phil. ii. 24, 



v] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 3 1 

Kai fJLapTVpr](ra^ eiri twv t^yoviuevcoVf outco's a.TrriWa'yr] 
5 Tov KOCfiov Kai ets toi/ ayiov tottov eiropevdr], vTrofiovri's 
yevo/JLevo^ fixeyia-To^ vTroypa/ujuios. 

Didache p. py . 3 eirt] The word is distinctly legible in AC, and therefore 

the conjecture viro (see below) is inadmissible. 5 toO /ciffynou] AC ; ab hoc 

mitndo S (see the note on ii. 19). eiropeiiBri] AC; siisceptus est (eirrjpdr]?} S. 



Philem. 22) would suggest. Those 
who maintain that this first Roman 
captivity ended in his martyrdom 
are obliged to explain to repfia rrjs 
bvcrecos of Rome itself. But it is in- 
credible that a writer living in the 
metropolis and centre of power and 
civilization could speak of it as 'the 
extreme west,' and this at a time 
when many eminent Latin authors 
and statesmen were or had been 
natives of Spain, and when the com- 
mercial and passenger traffic with 
Gades was intimate and constant. 
(For this last point see Friedlander 
Sittengesch. Roins II. p. 43, with his 
references.) On the other hand Phi- 
lostratus says that, when Nero ban- 
ished philosophers from Rome, Apol- 
lonius of Tyana TpeVerat eVi to. ^a-ire- 
pia rris y^y (iv. 47), and the region 
which he visited is described imme- 
diately afterwards (v. 4) ra TaSetpa 
(ceTrat Kara to ttJs 'Evpanrrji Tepfxa 
(quoted by Pearson Minor Theol. 
Works I. p. 362). This is the natural 
mode of speaking. It is instructive 
to note down various interpretations 
of eVi TO Te'ppa ttjs 8va(ccis which have 
been proposed: (i) 'to his extreme 
limit towards the west ' (Baur, Schen- 
kel); (2) 'to the sunset of his labours ' 
(Reuss); (3) 'to the boundary be- 
tween the east and west ' (Schrader, 
Hilgenfeld) ; (4) ' to the goal or centre 
of the west' (Matthies); (5) 'before 
{vTTo for iiTi) the supreme power of 
the west' (Wieseler, Schaff). Such 
attempts are a strong testimony to 
the plain inference which follows from 



the passage simply interpreted. 

4. enl Twv i]yovp,va)v] ' before rulers^ ; 
comp. 37 rots Tjyovpevois iqpa>v...Tov 
^aaikfcos Koi tcov ^yovpevav, $1 ol 
rjyovpepoi AlyvTTTOv, ^55 ttoAXoi (iaai- 
Aets KOI riyovp,evoi, g6l tois re ap)(ovaiv 
Ka\ riyovp.VOLS rjp,a)v eir\ ttjs yfjs- The 
names of Nero and Helius (Dion 
Cass. Ixiii. 12), of Tigellinus and Sa- 
binus (the praetorian prefects A.D. 
67), etc., have been suggested. In the 
absence of information it is waste of 
time to speculate. Clement's lan- 
guage does not imply that the Apo- 
stle S papTvpia eVi rav ^yovp-evoiv took 
place in the extreme west (as Hil- 
genfeld argues), for there is nothing 
to show that eVt ro repixa k.t.X. and 
papTvprjcras fnl rav rjyovpevtov are in- 
tended to be synchronous. Indeed 
the clause koi eVt to reppa Tfjs 8v(Tea>s 
f\da>v seems to be explanatory of the 
preceding Si/catocn;i/7;i/ SiSa^as oXov tov 
Koa-pou, and the passage should be 
punctuated accordingly. 

6. vTToypappos] ' a copy, an example^ 
as for instance a pencil drawing to be 
traced over in ink or an outline to be 
filled in and coloured. The word oc- 
curs again i^i^ 16, 33; comp. 2 Mace, 
ii. 28, 29, I Pet. ii. 21, Polyc. Phil. 8, 
Clem. Horn. iv. 16. The classical 
word is inroypa(f)ri. For an explana- 
tion of the metaphor see Aristot. Gen. 
An. ii. 6 (l. p. 743) kul yap 01 ypa(j)els 
vTToypa^avTei Taii ypappals ovtcos fva- 
Xeicfjovai Tols xpajpucri to ^aov. The 
sister art of sculpture supplies a simi- 
lar metaphor in inroTVTrucrii, the first 
rough model, i Tim. i. 16, 2 Tim. i. 13. 



32 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[VI 



VI. Tourois Tol^ dv^pacriv octlco^ iToXiTevcrajjievoi^ 
a-vi^}]6poi(r6t] ttoXu TrXfjOo^ eKXeKTwv, OLTLve<5 ttoWuTs 
aiKiai^ Kai /Sacrai'Oi'Sj cia ^r]\o^ TraOouTe^, VTrodeiyiua 

3 ^tJXos] a ; tv^ou C, and so again in the next line. 4 diwxOeTirai] 8iu- 

xdtaai A. 5 Aavai'des Kal AlpKai] A ; Sava'i'des Kal 5eip Kal C ; danaides et 

dircae S. I am not prepared to say now that the word is written AAH&l^ec as I 



VI. ' But besides these signal in- 
stances, many less distinguished 
saints have fallen victims to jea- 
lousy and set us a like example of 
forbearance. Even feeble women 
have borne extreme tortures without 
flinching. Jealousy has separated 
husbands and wives : it has over- 
thrown cities, and uprooted nations.' 

2. troKv ttX^^os] The reference 
must be chiefly, though not solely, 
to the sufferers in the Neronian per- 
secution, since they are represented 
as contemporaries of the two Apo- 
stles. Thus fvt]nlv will mean ' among 
us Roman Christians,' and the alKiai 
Koi ^daavoi are the tortures described 
by Tacitus Au7i. xv. 44. The Ro- 
man historian's expression 'multi- 
tudo ingens ' is the exact counterpart 
to Clement's noXii jrA^^of. 

TToXXal? aiKuui K.r.X.] ^ dj or amid 
many sitfferings^ Previous editors 
have substituted the accusative, ttoK- 
Xas aluias ; but, as the dative is fre- 
quently used to denote the means, 
and even the accessories, the circum- 
stances (see Madvig Gr. Synt. % 39 
sq), I have not felt justified in alter- 
ing the reading. In this case hm 
C^Xos TradovTfs will be used absolute- 
ly, and TToXXms alKiais k.t.X. will ex- 
plain VTToSeiyfxa iyivovro. 

5. Aavatbei Ka\ AipKai] This read- 
ing is supported by all our authori- 
ties, with minor corruptions, and I 
have therefore replaced it in the text, 
though not without misgiving. If it 
be not correct, the error must have 
existed in the archetypal MS from 



which our three extant authorities 
were derived. But such testimony, 
though very strong, is not decisive, 
since we find this common ancestor 
at fault in other places ; see above, 
I. p. 145. If correct, it must refer to 
those refinements of cruelty, patron- 
ized by Nero and Domitian but not 
confined to them, which combined 
theatrical representations with judi- 
cial punishments, so that the offender 
suffered in the character of some hero 
of ancient legend or history. For the 
insane passion of Nero, more espe- 
cially, for these and similar scenic 
exhibitions, see Sueton. N'ero 11, 12; 
and for illustrations comp. Fried- 
lander SitiengescJiichtc Roms 11. p. 
234 sq. Thus one offender would 
represent Hercules burnt in the flames 
on CEta (TertuU. Apol. 15 'qui vivus 
ardebat Herculem induerat'); ano- 
ther, Ixion tortured on the wheel (cie 
Pudic. 22 ' puta in axe jam incendio 
adstructo '). We read also of crimi- 
nals who, having been exhibited in 
the character of Orpheus (Martial. 
Sped. 21) or of Daedalus {ih. 8) or of 
Atys (TertuU. Apol. 15), were finally 
torn to pieces by wild beasts. The 
story of Dirce, tied by the hair and 
dragged along by the bull, would be 
very appropriate for this treatment ; 
but all attempts to make anything of 
the legend of the Danaids entirely 
fail. Arnold {Neromsche Christenver- 
folgjing p. 38, 1888) cuts the knot by 
suggesting that additions were made 
to the original legend of the Danaids 
for the purposes of the amphitheatre; 



VI] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



33 



KaXKLG-rov eyevovTO ev f]fMv. hici ^17X0? hLta-x^SeLcrai 

formerly read it (h and n being frequently indistinguishable where the MS is creased 
and blurred), and I was certainly in error as regards the division of the lines in my 
first edition. 



just as in these scenic exhibitions 
Orpheus was torn to pieces by a bear 
(Martial Spec/. 21). But after all 
the difficulty still remains, that the 
mode of expression in Clement is 
altogether awkward and unnatural 
on this hypothesis. Harnack, who 
however expresses himself doubtfully 
on the reading, quotes Heb. x. 32 
ttoXKtjv adXrjcriv vTrefifivare Tradrjuarcov, 
roi'TO fiv oveiSicTfiols re kol 6\L\lrf(Tiv 
dfarpi^ofievoi, but here dearpi^o- 
fievoi is best explained by i Cor. iv. 
9 oeaTpov eyevtjdrjfiei/ ra Koafico K.r.X., 

where no literal scenic representation 
is intended. Laurent explains the 
words by saying that the punishment 
of the Danaids and of Dirce ' in pro- 
verbium abiisse videtur.' But he can 
only quote for the former e's rov toiv 
Aavai8mv rridov iidpocfiopelvhucia-n Tim. 
18, which is hardly to the point, as it 
merely denotes labour spent in vain. 
Clement of Alexandria indeed {^Strain. 
iv, 19, p. 618) mentions the daughters 
of Danaus with several other exam- 
ples of womanly bravery among the 
heathens, and in the earlier part of 
the same chapter he has quoted the 
passage of his Roman namesake 
( 55) relating to Esther and Judith; 
but this does not meet the difficulty. 
It has been suggested again, that 
these may have been actual names 
of Christian women martyred at 
Rome : but the names are perhaps 
improbable in themselves, and the 
plurals cannot well be explained. 

Having regard to the difficulties 
of this expression I am disposed 
still to favour the acute emendation 
of Wordsworth (on Theocritus xxvi. 

CLEM. IL 



i) which I placed in the text in my 
first edition, yvi/aiKes, z/edj/tSfj, rratSt- 
(TKai.t as highly probable and giving 
an excellent sense j ' Women, tender 
maidens, even slave-girls ' : comp. 
August. Se7'm. cxliii (v. p. 692 sq) 
' Non solum viri sed etiam mtilieres 
et pueri et puellae martyres vicerunt,' 
Leo Semi. Ixxiv (l. p. 294) ' Non so- 
lum viri sed etiam y^^w/;/rt:^ nee tan- 
tum impubes pueri sed etiam tenerae 
vzrghies usque ad efifusionem sui 
sanguinis decertarunt ' ; quoted by 
Wordsworth (I.e.). To these illustra- 
tions add Minuc. Fel. 37 ' viros cum 
Mucio vel cum Aquilio aut Regulo 
comparo ? pueri et mulierculae nos- 
trae cruces et tormenta, feras et 
omnes suppliciorum terriculas, in- 
spirata patientia doloris inludunt.' 
For the meaning of nai8ia-Kri in Hel- 
lenistic Greek see the notes Galatians 
iv. 22. 

Tischendorf calls it 'liberrima con- 
jectura.' So it is, but there is a free- 
dom which justifies itself; and the 
corruption is just such as might have 
occurred at an early date, when the 
epistle was written on papyrus. I have 
been informed by Mr Basil H. Cooper, 
through a common friend, that he 
proposed this very same emendation 
in the Mojithly Christian Spectator, 
January, 1853, p. 16. He assured 
me that it had occurred to him inde- 
pendently; and that, till quite re- 
cently, he believed the credit which 
had been assigned to another to be 
due to himself, and wrote to this 
effect to the Western Times as lately 
as 1 87 1, not knowing that Words- 
worth's emendation was published 



34 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[VI 



dvoa-ia Tradova-ai, eirl tov Trj^ Trto'Tew? (ie^aiov ^po/mov 
KaTi']VTt]a'aVy Kal eXaf^ov yepa^ yevvalov al daSevei^ tw 
(TtafJiaTL. ^\o^ dTrrjWoTpiwcrev ya/ueTa^ dv^pcov Kai 
r\\\oL(ti(rev to prjdev vtto tou Trarpo^ rjfxiov 'AZajj., Toyto 

NYN OCTOYN eK TOON OCTeOON MOy KAI CAp2 eK THC CApKOC MOY.5 

tr]\o<i Kal epi's TroXei^ jmeydXa^ KaTecrTpeylyei> Kal edvt] 
fxeydXa e^epl^cocrev. 

5 d<TTe(>iv] oaTaiwv A ; ocrruv C. 6 ^yots] epeia A. Kar^ffrpexJ/ev'] AS ; 

KaT^(TKa\{/e C. 7 e^epl^ucrev] A ; i^eppl^uffe C 9 iTo/JLVT^ffKovres] A; 



in 1844. The fact of its having 
occurred independently to two minds 
is a strong testimony in its favour. 
Bunsen {Hippolytus I. p. xviii, ed. 
2, 1854) enthusiastically welcomes 
this emendation as relieving him 
' from two monsters which disfigured 
a beautiful passage in the epistle of 
the Roman Clement.' Lipsius also 
in a review of my edition {^Academy^ 
July 9, 1870) speaks favourably of it; 
and Donaldson [Apostolical Fathers 
p. 122, ed. 2) calls it admirable, 
though elsewhere {Theol. Rev. Janu- 
ary 1877, p. 45) he himself offers 
another conjecture, yewalai re Kal SoC- 
\m. Lagarde {Annen. Stud. p. 73) 
conjectures dvakKihfs koI KopiKai ; 
Haupt {Hermes iii. p. 146, 1869) 
suggests dfividei dUaiai, comparing 
Clem. Alex. Frotr. 12 (p. 92) al roii 
Qeov 6vyaTeps, al dfxvddes al KaXal. 

2. Karr^vTrja-av /c.r.X.] The verb 
Kuravrdv signifies to arrive at a desti- 
nation, and the corresponding sub- 
stantive Karavrrnia is ' a destination, a 
goal,' Ps. xix. 6 : comp. Schol.onArist. 
Raft. 1026 (993) iXaiai (TTixn^ov tarau- 
rai, ovaai Karavrrj fia tov opofiov. 
Thuso^e^aios 8po/ios'the sure course,' 
i.e. the point in the stadium where 
the victory is secured, is almost equi- 
valent to ' the goal.' For Karavrdv eVi 
comp. 2 Sam. iii. 29, Polyb. x. 37. 3, 
xiv. I. 9. 



4. TovTo viiv K.T.X.] From the LXX 
of Gen. ii. 23, which corresponds with 
the Hebrew. 

6. C^Xos KOI f'pis] The two words 
occur together, Rom. xiii. 13, 2 Cor. 
xii. 20, Gal. v. 20 : see above, 3. 

TToXets p.ey(i\as k.t.'K.] See Ecclus. 
xxviii. 14 TToXets oxvpds KadelXe Kal 
oiKias fieyia-rdvcov KareaTpfyfAf. Jacob- 
son refers to Jortin, who supposes 
that Clement had in his mind Horace 
Cartn. i. 16. 17 sq, ' Irae Thyesten 
exitio gravi stravere, et altis urbibus 
ultimae stetere causae cur perirent 
funditus.' 

7. e|fptfQ)o-6v] For the form see Tis- 
chendorf Nov. Fest. i. p. Ivi (ed. 7), 
A. Buttmann Gramm. p. 28 sq. Most 
editors needlessly alter the read- 
ing to e^eppi(u)a-ev. Compare /.leyaXo- 
pi]p.ova 15) (pvXXopoel 23 and ii. 
31. For C see above, I. p. 127. 

VII. 'While instructing you, we 
would remind ourselves also. We 
are all entered in the same lists ; we 
must all run on the straight path ; 
obeying the will of God and respect- 
ing the blood of Christ. Examples 
of penitence in all ages are before 
our eyes. Noah preached repentance 
to his generation : Jonah to the men 
of Nineveh. All whosoever listened 
to them were saved.' 

9. virofjivqa-KovTes] Comp. Orph. 
Hymn. Ixxvii. 6 (p. 345, Herm.) ^ikd- 



vii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 35 

VIT. TavTUf dya7rr]Toif ov /uovov vjua^ vovQerovv- 
res eTTKTTeWoiuev, dWa kui eavTOv^ fviroiuvtjG'KOVTe^f' 
o iv yap tw uvtm ecrfdev (TKafJifJiaTL, kui 6 ai/To? t]juiv 
dywv eTTLKeiTai. Aio dTroXeiTrcvjuev Ta Kefws Kai jua- 
Taia^ (ppovTida<Sj Kai eXBvofjiev em tov evKXetj Kai orejuvov 
Trj^ 7rapah6(reit)<i tjjucov Kayova. Kai i^wjueu ti kuXov kui 

virofiifivriffKOVTes C. lo iv yap] AS ; Kai yap iv C. tj/mv dyuv] A; dyuiv 

Jijuv C ; dub. S. II diroXeiirojixev^ A; dTroXlircofiev C. 12 evKXerj] evKXaiT] A. 



ypvTcvos vTvnpLviqijKovaa t Travra (a refer- 
ence given by Hefele). So also jivij- 
(TKopLni in Anacr. ap. Athen. xi. p. 
463 A pLvrjCTKfTaL evcf)po(rvvr]s (which 
editors perhaps unnecessarily alter 
into nrja-erai or fivr^crerai). But as the 
scribe of A blunders elsewhere in add- 
ing and omitting letters under similar 
circumstances (see above, I. p. 120), 
we cannot feel sure about the read- 
ing. The word occurs again 62, 
where C reads viropupLvrja-KovTes, as it 
does here (see I. p. 126 sq). There is 
the same divergence of form in the 
MSS of the spurious Ignatius, Tars. 9. 
10. (TKcifxpLaTi] ' lists.^ The aKapL^La 
is the ground marked out by digging 
a trench or (as Krause supposes) by 
lowering the level for the arena of a 
contest : see Boeckh Co7-p. Inscr. no 
2758, with the references in Krause 
Hellen. i. p. 105 sq, and for its meta- 
phorical use Polyb. xl. 5. 5 ovhk eVt 
TOV (TKapLpLOTOS d)V TO dfj Xeyofievov, 
Epict. Diss. iv. 8. 26 ds too-ovto 
(TKa.p.p.a irpoeKoXelTO navra ovTivaovv. 
A large number of examples of this 
metaphor in Christian writers is given 
by Suicer s.v. This word and many 
others referring to the games, as 
agonotheta, epistates, brabium, etc., 
are adopted by the Latins (see esp. 
the long metaphor in Tertull. ad 
Mart. 3), just as conversely military 
terms are naturalised from Latin into 
Greek ; see Ign. Polyc. 6 with the 



notes. In the phrase virip tcl f'aKafi- 
p.iva TTT^hav, aXXeaOai (e.g. Plat. Crat. 
p. 413 A, Lucian Gall. 6, Clem. Alex. 
Strom, v. 1 3, p. 696 ; see below on 
Kavav)., ' to do more than is required 
or expected,' to. eV/ca/x/xeVa is the trench 
cut at the end of the leap beyond the 
point which it is supposed the great- 
est athlete will reach (Find. Ne7n. v. 
36 p,aKpa S17 avTodev aXpiad VTroaKan- 
Toi TLs' e'xco yovarmv eXacppov opfxav). 
Krause indeed {Hellen. i. p. 393) 
interprets to. ia-Kanfieva of the line 
marking the leap of the preceding 
combatant, but this explanation does 
not account for the metaphorical use. 

6 avTOi rjfuv aymv] See Phil. i. 30 
TOV avTov dyava exovTes olov ei'Sere eV 
e/iot. 

II. eniiceiTai] ^ awaits' y as Ign. 
Rom. 6 6 roKerds p.oL eiriK^LTai : comp. 
Heb. xii. I top TrpoKeifievov i]fjuu d- 
yava, Clcm. Rom. ii. 7 iv x^P'^'-V o 
aymv. 

Kevas Koi /Liaraias] ' empty and fu- 
tile' the former epithet pointing to 
the quality, the latter to the aim or ef- 
fect of the action. The combination is 
not uncommon; e.g. LXX Is. xxx. 7, 
Hos. xii. I, Job XX. 18; comp. The- 
oph. ad Ant. iii. 3, Plut. Vit. Artax. 
15, Mor. p. 1 117 A. 

13. TT)^ TTapaho(Ti(s>i\ The lacuna was 
variously filled so long as A was our 
only authority, the best suggestions 
being TeXetwo-ews and d^Xjjcrfcoy. The 



36 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[vii 



Ti Tepirvov Koi t'i TrpocrdeKTOV ivwTriov tov 7roir]cravTo^ 
f^jULci^. drevia-cdfjiev eh to al/ma tov XpicrTOv kui 'yvw^ev 
o)? ea-TLV TLfJLiov Tw TraTpl avTOV, oti dia tyiv f\ixeT6pav 
a-cDTripiav eKX^Gev ttuvti rip Kocrfxa) jueraj/oia^ X^P^^ 



3 T^J warpl avTov] S ; ry Trarpl avrov ry 9e(^ C ; rw6b3[KanraTp]iavTov A, 
presumably. An upright stroke (probably l) and a portion of a preceding letter 
(which might lie p) are visible. See the lower note. 6ti] S translates as 

if 5 Ti id quod. 4 fieravoias x^P"'] AC ; fxeravolav S. Bensly points out that 

the omission in S may be easily explained by the homoeoteleuton in the Syriac, 
SnUTn, i<ni3''tD. 5 vn-riveyKev'] A ; sustulit 13''D S ; eirriveyKe C. dU\- 



true reading could hardly have been 
anticipated ; but it adds to the close- 
ness of the parallel in Polycarp PAz/. 
7 Sto aTToXnrovTfs ttjv fiaTaiOTrjTa tSv 
TToXKaiv (cat ras \l/ev8oBi8acrKa\ias eVi 
TOV e^ ^PXl^ Tjfuv TrapadoOevra Xoyov 
eniaTpexj/oofjLev, a passage already 
quoted by the editors. By tov rfjs 
Trapa8oa{(os ijfiav Kavova Clement ap- 
parently means 'the rule (i.e. measure 
of the leap or race) which we have 
received by tradition', referring to 
the examples of former athletes quo- 
ted in the context; comp. 19 eVi tov 
e'l apxV^ TrapadeSopevov rjp'iv Trjs f'P'?'- 
vr)s (TKOTTov (to which passage again 
Polycarp is indebted), 51 r^s napa- 
8e8npevr]s rjp'iv AcaXcos Km 8iKaL(os opo- 
(f)covias. Clement's phrase is borrow- 
ed by his younger namesake, Strom. 
i. I (p. 324) npo^r)a-fTai rjp'iv KaTO. tov 
fVKXerj Koi aepvov ttjs TrapaSdo-ewf Ka- 
vova. 

Kavova] This is probably a con- 
tinuation of the metaphor in a-Kappa: 
comp. Pollux iii. 151 to 8e perpov 
TOV TvrjhrjpaTos Kavciv, o 8e opos Tci 
ecTKnppeva' odev eVi twv tov opov virep- 
nrjdcovTcov 01 Trapoipia^opevoi Xeyoucrt nrj- 
8av vnep tu eaKappeva. See 41 (with 
the note). Thus Kavmv will be the 
measure of the leap or the race as- 
signed to the athlete. 

Tt Ka\ov K.r.X.] From Ps. cxxxii. i 
inov OTj TL KaXov tj ri Tfpnvov k.t.X. 



I. TTpoabeKTOV iv(07riov'\ So aTTobfK- 
Tov evtoTTiov, I Tim. n. 3 tovto Kokov Ka\ 
aTr68eKT0v ivcoiriov tov a-(OTrjpos rjpav 
9eoG, of which Clement's language 
here seems to be a reminiscence : 
comp. I Tim. v. 4, where koKov Ka\ is 
interpolated in the common texts 
from the earlier passage. The simple 
Trpoo-SeKroy appears in the LXX, Prov. 
xi. 20, xvi. 15, Wisd. ix. 12 (comp. 
Mart. Polyc. 14), but the compound 
evTTpocj-SeKros is commoner in the 
N. T., and occurs three times in Cle- 
ment ( 35, 40 twice). 

3. Tipiov Tca Trarpi] Compare i Pet. 
i. 19 TLpico alp.uTi as dpvov dpcipov Ka\ 
dcnriXov XpiarTov. 

Trarpi] The lacuna after rw Qea 
in A must, I think, be supplied by 
Ka\ TTOTpl rather than Trarpi alone for 
two reasons; (i) If Trarpi were con- 
tracted npi, as is most usual in the 
MS, the letters would not be sufficient 
to fill the space ; (2) We find 6 Qeos 
Ka\ naTrip frequently in the Apostolic 
writings followed by tov Kvpiov, etc. 
(e.g. Rom. XV. 6, 2 Cor. i. 3, etc., 
I Pet. i. 3, Rev. i. 6), whereas 6 Qeos 
TraTTjp is never so found. In fact with 
any genitive following, the alternative 
seems to be 6 Qeos koI naT^p or Qeos 
rraT-qp. On the other hand o Qeos 
iraTfjp occurs once only in the N. T. 
(Col. iii. 17, with a v.l.), and there it 
is used absolutely. On the whole 



VIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



2>1 



5 virnveyKey. ZieXdiofJiev ek ts >yeu6a<i Tracra?, Kai Kara- 
fjLadwiJLev on ev yevea kul 'yevea jueTai/oia^ tottou eSw/cei/ 
6 heoTTTorrj^ roh fiovXojuevoL^ e7ri(7Tpa(pnvai eV avrov. 
Ncoe eKnpv^eu fj.erdvoiav, kul ol vTraKOvaauTe^ eaiadr]- 

euifiev els] w/xeveia A ; 8U\9u}fJLv (om. els) C ; iranseamus super S (which probably 

represents dieXduixev els). In Rom. v. 12 els wavras a.vdpwTrovs 6 davaros SirjXOev 
both Pesh. and Hard, have "2 "MV not "pj? inV as S has here. In 4 dieXOelv 
els is rendered by "h '\2]}. The verb BuXdeTv is frequent in the LXX. Kai] 

AC ; om. S. 76 Seairdr-ns] AC ; om. S. 



however the correct reading is pro- 
bably preserved in the Syriac, the 
different positions of ra Qea in the 
two Greek MSS showing that it was a 
later addition. 

5. \mr\veyKev\'' offered^ So it is gene- 
rally taken, but this sense is unsup- 
ported ; for Xen. Hell. iv. 7. 2, Soph. 
El 834, are not parallels. Perhaps 
'won {rescued) for the whole world.^ 

tUXdafiev K.T.\.] This passage is 
copied in Apost. Const, ii. 55 o yap 
Beos, Qeos mv iXenvs, an apxrjS enaar-qv 
yeveav fTTi fierdvoiav KaXel 8ia raiv oi- 
Kai(ov...Tovs 8e iv rm (caraicXiicr/Licp Sta 
Tov No), Tovs ev '2ob6jxois Sta tov 
(fiiXo^evov Aa)r (see below ii)k.t.\. 

6. yeuea Ka\ yevea] ''each successive 
generation.^ A Hebraism preserved 
in the LXX, Esth. ix. 27, Ps. xlviii. 11, 
Ixxxix. I, xc. I, etc. : comp. Luke i. 
50 yeveas Ka\ yeveas (vv. 11.). 

TOTTov] The same expression StSwat 
TOTvov fieravolas occurs also in Wisd. 
xii. 10; comp. Heb. xii. 17 y-eravoias 
rortov ovx^ evpev, Tatian. ad Graec. 1 5 
QVK eyei jieravoias tuttov, Apost. Const. 
ii. 38 TOTVQV fxeTavoias apiaev, v. 1 9 
Xa^elv avTov touov p.eTavoias. The 
corresponding Latin ' poenitentiae 
locus' occurs in the celebrated letter 
of Pliny to Trajan Flin. et Traj. 
Epist. 96. The emendation rviiov 
is not needed. 

7. Seo-TTorjys] Very rarely applied 
to the Father in the New Testament 



(Luke ii. 29, Acts iv. 24, Rev. vi. 10, 
and one or two doubtful passages), 
but occurring in this one epistle some 
twenty times or more. The idea of 
subjection to God is thus very pro- 
minent in Clement, while the idea of 
sonship, on which the Apostolic 
writers dwell so emphatically, is kept 
in the background ; see Lipsius p. 
69. This fact is perhaps due in part 
to the subject of the epistle, which 
required Clement to emphasize the 
duty of submission ; but it must be 
ascribed in some degree to the spirit 
of the writer himself. 

8. Nc5e eii^pv^fv (c.r.X.] The Mo- 
saic narrative says nothing about 
Noah as a preacher of repentance. 
The nearest approach to this concep- 
tion in the Canonical Scriptures is 
2 Pet. ii. 5, where he is called St/cato- 
a-vv-qi KTJpv^. The preaching of Noah 
however is one of the more promi- 
nent ideas in the Sibylline Oracles ; 
see especially i. 128 sq. Ncoe 8epas dap- 
(Tvvov eov Xaoia-i re rracn KJjpv^ov 
p-erdvoiav k.t.X. This passage,though 
forming part of a comparatively late 
poem, was doubtless founded on the 
earliest (pre-Christian) Sibylline (iii. 
97828 of the existing collection) 
which is mutilated at the beginning 
and takes up the narrative of the 
world's history at a later point than 
the deluge. Indeed this earhest Sibyl 
(if the closing passage of the book 



38 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[vii 



(rav. 'I(i3va.<i NivevLTai^ KUTaa-Tpocpriv eKrjpv^ei/f ol ^e 
fj.eTavor'jG'avre'S eirl Toh djuapTrj/ULaa-iv avTcov el^LKacravro 
Tov Qeov lKeTev(TavTe<i kui eXaf^ov crcoTripLai^, Kaiirep 
dWoTpiOL TOV Qeov bvre^. ;: 

VIII. 01 XeiTOvpyoL Ttj^ -^dpiro^ tov Qeov dia 5 
TTi/evjULaTO^ dylov irepi jueTavoLa^ e\a\r](Tav, kul ai/TOs 

I oi 5e] C ; ot5eA; ol'Se S. 3 iKiTeixyavresl A; t/cerei^o^'Tej C, and so apparently 
S. 5 'Kei.Tovpyoi] \i.Tovpyoi A. 8 iJ.eTa opKov] AC ; Bryennios reads /J.ed' opKov 



Still belongs to the same poem) con- 
nects herself with the deluge by 
claiming to be a daughter-in-law of 
Noah (iii. 826). From these Ora- 
cles it seems not improbable that 
Clement, perhaps unconsciously, de- 
rived this conception of Noah. To 
this same source may probably be 
traced the curious identification in 
Theophilus ad Aictol. iii. 19 Ncoe ko- 
TayyeWav Tois Tore dvdpcoTTOis fieXkfiv 
KaTaKXva-nov ea-eadai 7rpoe(f)^TV(Tei> av- 
Tois Xeycov' Aevre KaXel vpLas o 0eoj 
fls fieravoiav' 810 otVeico? AevKoXLCOv e- 
Kkrjdr] ; for Theophilus has elsewhere 
preserved a long fragment from the 
lost opening of the earliest Sibylline 
{ad Autol. ii. 36), and this very 
passage incorporates several frag- 
ments of hexameters, e.g. Aevre Kokfi 
...Qeos els jxeTavoiav. As Josephus also 
quotes the Sibyllines, he too in his 
account of Noah {Anl. i. 3. i 'ineidev 
iin TO KpeiTTOV avroiis ttjv biavoiav Koi 
ras TJ-pd^eis ^Ta(])4peiv, quoted by Hil- 
genfeld here) may have been influ- 
enced by them. See on this subject 
I. p. 178 sq. For the Mohamme- 
dan legends of Noah, as a preacher of 
repentance, see Fabricius Cod. Pseud. 
Vet. Test. I. p. 262. To the passages 
there collected from apocryphal and 
other sources respecting Noah's 
preaching add this from the Apo- 
calypse of Paul 50 (quoted also by 
Hilgenfeld) e'yco ei/xt Ncoe...:ai ovk 
enavijafj,r]p rots dvOpdnois KTjpvacreiv' 



Meravoe'iTe, l8ov yap KaraKkvanos epx^' 
rai (p. 68, ed. Tisch.). A passage 
cited by Georg. Syncell. {Chron. p. 
47 ed. Dind.) from Enoch, but not 
found in the extant book, seems to 
have formed part of Noah's preach- 
ing of repentance; see Dillmann's 
Henoch pp.xxxviii,lxi. See also below 
9, with the note on TraXiyyevea-ia. 

I. KaTa(TTpo(j)j]v] '"overthro'dj, rum ' ; 
comp. Jonah iii. 4 koI Nti/et))} Kora- 
aTpacprjcreraL. 

4. dWoTpioi Ac.r.X.] ' aliens from 
God^ i.e. 'Gentiles': comp. Ephes. 
ii. 12 avrrjWoT pico fievoi r^s TroXirei- 
as TOV larparjX...Kai ddeoi iv tS> Kocrpico. 
Both dXXoTpioi and dXX6(})vXoL are 
thus used, as opposed to the cove- 
nant-people. 

VIII. 'God's ministers through 
the Spirit preached repentance. The 
Almighty Himself invites all men to 
repent. Again and again in the 
Scriptures He bids us wash away 
our sins and be clean ; He proclaims 
repentance and promises forgiveness.' 

5. Oi XeiTovpyol] i.e. the prophets ; 
though they are not so called in the 
LXX or New Testament. 

8. Zq) yap eyco k.t.X.] Loosely quoted 
from Ezek. xxxiii. 1 1 ^w e'-yw, rdSe 
Xtyei Kvpios, ov ^ovXopai. tov ddvaTov 
Tox) aae^ovs cos aTToaTpeyj/ai tov daf^ij 

OTTO TJJS 080V aVTOV KOt ^fjv UVTOV. 

diTocTTpoi^f) aTTO(TTpiy\raT dno tyjs obov 
vpLwv' Koi Iva tl anodvijaKeTe, oIkos Icr- 
pai]X ; K.T.X. 



VIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



39 



^e 6 decTTOTri^ twu diravTiav irepi fxeravoia's e\a\t](r6u 
jueTa bpKOV Zoa r-^P epoo, Aepei Kypioc, oy BoyAoMAi ton 

9ANAT0N TOY AMApTCOAoy, 03C THN MeTANOIAN" TTpOCTTLdei^ 

o Kai 'yvu}fJiy]V dyaOtji'' MeTANOHCATe, oIkoc 'IcpAHA, And thc 
anomi'ac ymoon' elnoN toic y'oTc toy Aaoy Moy 'Ean cocin 

which has no manuscript authority. yap] AS ; cm. C. 9 Trpoffrt^eis] 

irpoaTTjOeta A. 11 v/J-uiv] AS ; toO XaoO /j,ov C. elirov] AC ; dum diets tu 

{dviLv) S. 'Ecii'] AC ; Kac [?] or /cat ta.v S. 



10. Merawncrare /c.r.X.] It is usual 
to treat these words as a loose quo- 
tation from Ezek. xviii. 30 sq oikoj 
'lo-paTjX, Xe'yei KiJpioj, eT7i.aTpd(f)r]Te Kai 
atroaTpi^aTe (k Traacov rau aaej^eiriv 
vfj,wv...Kal Iva rt aTrodvrjCTKeTe, oIkos 
'lo-paTy'X ; Stort ov deko) tov Bavarov tov 
anodvjja-KOPTos. If taken from the 
canonical Book of Ezekiel, the words 
are probably a confusion of this pas- 
sage with the context of the other 
(Ezek. xxxiii. 11), as given in the 
preceding note. See however what 
follows. 

11. 'Eai/coo-ii/K.r.X.] This passage is 
generally considered to be made up 
of Ps. ciii. 10, II ou Kara ras aiMaprias 
iqfiaiv enolrj(TV qpiv ov8e Kara ras avo- 
fxiai -qpav avTaivehuiKiv rjplv' on Kara 
TO vyJAOs Toi) ovpavov ano rrjs yfjs eKpa- 
Taiaxyf Kuptos to eXeos avTov ewL tovs 
(po^ovfievovs avTov, and Jer. iii. 19, 22 
Koi (iTra, IlaTepa KoXea-ere pe Koi an 
ipoii ovK dnoaTpa(pricr(r6e . . . sTricrTpa- 
(f)r]Tf viol eTncrTpe(f>ovTes Ka\ laaopai to. 
(TvvTpippaTa vpmv, together with Is. i. 
18 Kai iav axTiv al apapTiai k.t.X. 
Such fusions are not uncommon in 
early Christian writers and occur 
many times in Clement himself. But 
several objections lie against this 
solution here ; (i) No satisfactory 
account is thus rendered of the words 
iav (oaiv nvppoTepat kokkov Ka\ peXavd- 
Tspai (TciKKov K.T.X. I for thc passagc of 
Isaiah, from which they are supposed 
to be loosely quoted, is given as an 
independent quotation immediately 



afterwards. (2) The expression Trpoo-- 
Ti6i'i'i KCLi yvcdprji' ayadrjv seems to im- 
ply that, even if not a continuation 
of the same passage, they were at all 
events taken from the same prophet 
as the words quoted just before. (3) 
This inference is borne out by the 
language used just below in intro- 
ducing the passage from Isaiah, Ka\ iv 
(Tepm roTTo), implying that the previous 
words might be regarded as a single 
quotation. (4) A great portion of 
the quotation is found in two ditfer- 
ent passages of Clement of Alexan- 
dria, and in one of these the words 
are attributed to Ezekiel : Qut's div. 
salv. 39 (p. 957) 0X1 ^ovXopai tov 6d- 
vaTov TOV dpapTcoXov dXXa ttjv peTa- 
voiav' Kav wcriv al dpapTiai vpmv cos 
(fioivLKOvv epiov^ (MS ;^ioj'a XevKavai, Kav 
peXdvrepov tov ctkotovs, cos epiov XevKOV 
eKVL-^as 7roir]croo, and Paedag. i. 10 
(p. 151) (f'^o'i yap diet lf^eKt.r]X' Eav 
eViCTTpac^ijre e'^ oXrjs ttjs Kap8ias Kai 
e'lTTTjTe, ndrep, dKovcropai, vputv cos Xaov 
dylov. Thus it seems to follow either 
(i) That in the recension of the can- 
onical Ezekiel used by the two 
Clements the passage xxxiii. 11 was 
followed by a long interpolation con- 
taining substantially the words here 
quoted by Clement of Rome ; or 
(2) That he is here citing some apo- 
cryphal writing ascribed to Ezekiel, 
which was a patchwork of passages 
borrowed from the canonical pro- 
phets. The latter supposition is fa- 
voured by the language of Josephus 



40 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[viii 



Al AMApTIAI YMWN And THC fHC e03C TOY OypANOY, KAI SAN 

d)CiN nYppoTepAi kokkoy kai weAANtoTepAi cakkoy, kai eni- 

cTpA(t)HT6 npdc Me e2 oAhc thc KApAiAc KAI ei'nHTe, TTATep, 

enAKOYcoMAi YMcoN (ic Aaoy AfioY- Kai ev eTepu) tottw 

\eyei o'uto)^' AoYCAcee kai KAeApoi reNecee- AcjjeAecOe tags 

noNHpiAC And toon ^fYX*^"^ ymwn ahcnanti toon 6cI)0AAMa)N 

MOY' HAYCAcGe And toon nONHpicoN ymoon, MAOere KAAdN 

noieiN, eKZHTHCATe Kpicm, pfcAcOe aAikOymgnon, KpiNATe 

dp(t)ANa) KAI AiKAioocATe X^P"^' ^^^ AYTe kai h\e\er)(OciiMeK, 

3 Kapdias] A ; ^/vxv^ CS. 4 XaoO ayiov] C Clem 152 ; Xowa7tw A. 5 X^7t 
ovTus] A; oOVws X^yet CS. Xoiaaade] Xovaaadat A. /cat] A; om. GS. 

7^j'e(7^e] yevecrdai A. ac^eXecr^e] acpeXecrdat A ; dtpeXere C. 7 Trat^ffair^e] 

iravaacdai A. 8 pwacr^e] pvaaadai A. 9 /cat 5t/catw(raTe] AC ; dLKaiwa-are 

(om. /cot) S. XW?] A ; XW'*" C ; dub. S. /cat SieXeYx^ti^MeJ'] fat . . eXex- 



{A?lt. X. 5. l), ov jxovov ovTOi ('lepe/xt'as) 
irpoiOicnncre ravra roii bx^ois aWa 
Koi 6 Trpo(priTr]s 'le^oiirjXos TrptSros 
Trepi TOVTCOV 8vo jSi^X la ypa\JAai Kari- 
\nrev. This statement however may 
be explained by a bipartite division 
of the canonical Ezekiel, such as 
some modern critics have made ; and 
as Josephus in his account of the 
Canon {c. Apion. i. 8) and elsewhere 
appears not to recognise this second 
Ezekiel, this solution is perhaps more 
probable. Or again his text may be 
corrupt, /3' { = hvo) having been merely 
a repetition of the first letter of ^i- 
^\ia. See also the remarks of Ewald 
Gesch. des V. Isr. iv. p. 19. Apocry- 
phal writings of Ezekiel are men- 
tioned in the Stichometry of Nice- 
phorus (see Westcott Canon p. 504), 
and from the connexion (Bapou'x) 
A^^aKOVfjL, E^fKtrjX, /cat Aavt/jX, \|/'ei/8- 
fiTiypa(f)a) it may be conjectured that 
they were interpolations of or addi- 
tions to the genuine Ezekiel, like the 
Greek portions of Daniel. This hy- 
pothesis will explain the form of the 
quotations here. At all events it 
appears that some apocryphal writ- 
ings attributed to Ezekiel existed, 



for TertuUian {de Cam. Chtist. 23; 
comp. Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 16, 
p. 890) and others quote as from Eze- 
kiel words not found in the Canonical 
book : see the passages collected in 
Fabric. Cod. Pseud. Vet. Test. p. 1 1 17. 
Hilgenfeld points out that one of 
these, ' In quacunque hora ingemue- 
rit peccator salvus erit', is closely 
allied to Clement's quotation here. 
This apocryphal or interpolated E- 
zekiel must have been known to Jus- 
tin Martyr also, for he quotes a 
sentence, eV ots av vp,as KaraXajBo), ev 
TovTois KoX Kpivo) {^Dial. 47, p. 267), 
which we know from other sources 
to have belonged to this false Eze- 
kiel (see Fabric. I.e. p. 11 18); though 
Justin himself from lapse of memory 
ascribes it to our Lord, perhaps con- 
fusing it in his mind with Joh. v. 
30. (On the other hand see West- 
cott Introd. to Gosp. p. 426.) So too 
apocryphal passages of other pro- 
phets, as Jeremiah (Justin. Dial. 72, 
p. 298) and Zephaniah (Clem. Alex. 
Strom. V. II, p. 692), are quoted by 
the early fathers. The passage of Je- 
remiah quoted by Justin must have 
been an interpolation, such as I sup- 



IX] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



41 



10 Aerei' KAI eAN COCIN AI AMAPTi'aI YMWN 6dC (t)OINIKOYN, UiC 

XiONA AeyKANO)' eAN Ae ojcin (xc kokkinon, (x>c epiON Aey- 
KANOO. KAI eAN GeAHTe KA! cicAKoycHTe MOy, TA ataGa thc 
rflc (})Arecee- eAN Ae mh GeAHxe MHAe eiCAKoycHTe Moy, 
MAX^'^iP''^ y/WAc KATeAexAi- TO TAR CTOMA Kypi'oy eAAAHCeN 
15 TAYTA. TraVroc? ovu toi)? dyairriTom avTOv j^oyXofj-evo^ 
fieravoia^ /meTao'^elv, icTTrjpi^ev tw TravTOKparopLKw 
j3ov\t]iuaTi avTOV. 

IX. Aio uTraKOucrcojueu Trj /JLeyaXoTrpeTreT Kal ivdo^to 

Oufji.ei' A ; Kal StaXex^'^Mf C ; loquamur cum alteriitro (om. koX with Pesh) S : 

see above, I. p. 143. 10 X^7et] A; add. Kvpio^ CS, with Hebrew and 

LXX. 13 (p6.-^icde\ (payeffdat A. diX-qnl deXrjTaL A. 14 yap] AC; 
om. S with the Pesh. 



pose was the case with Clement's 
citation from Ezekiel ; for he writes 
avTT] 7; TrepiKOTrrj rj eK raiv Xoycov tov 
'lepfjjLLOv en (cttIv (yyeypafi/jLevrj tv 
TKTiv dvTiypdcjiois Ta>v iv avvayooyaLS 
'lovBaicov, TTpo yap oXiyov )(^p6vov ravra 
f^sKO'^av K.T.X. On the apocryphal 
quotations in Clement see below 
13, 17, 23, 29, 46 (notes). 

2. ixeXavcoTepai] The comparative 
p.XavcoTepos occurs Strabo xvi. 4 12 
(p. 772), but I cannot verify Jacob- 
son's further statement 'hanc formam 
habes saepius in LXX.' It is derived 
from the late form peXapos = peXas, 
on which see Lobeck Paral. p. 139. 
Another late form of the superlative 
is piXaivoraro^. 

(jaKKov] Comp. Rev. vi. 12 /cat o 
ijXioj iyevero peXas ws (tcikkos rpi- 
X'-voi, Is. 1. 3 fvbvcroi TOV ovpavov (tko- 
TQ9 KoX <as aaKKov dijao) to irepi^o- 
Xaiov avTov. It was a black hair- 
cloth. Thus Hilgenfeld's emenda- 
tion XaKKov is superfluous, besides 
being out of place, for the comparison 
is between garment and garment. 
The (TKOTovs of the existing text of 
Clem. Alex, may at once be rejected. 

4. fv eTfpco roTTOj] Is. i. 1 6 20. 
The quotation is almost word for 



word from the LXX. See Hatch 
Essays in Biblical Greek p. 177, for 
the various readings in the MSS of 
the LXX and in the quotation. It is 
twice quoted by Justin Martyr, Apol. 
i. 44 (p. 81), i. 61 (p. 94), and the first 
verse again in a third passage, Dial. 
18 (p. 235); but his quotations do 
not agree verbatim one with another. 
Almost all the various readings of our 
authorities here, KaQapoX (koI icadapol), 
d(f)eXf(rd (a(peXTe), koI diKaiwaraTe 
ydiKaiaxraTe), XW9- ix'lP'^^)' 8evT Koi 
(Sevre), 8i,Xeyx^<^p-ei' (StaXcp^^cD/nei', 
etc.) are found in the MSS of the LXX 
or in Justin or in both. 

9. dimtcoaaTe xVPf] '' gi'^^ redress 
to the widow^ preserving the same 
construction as in Kpivan 6p(j)av^. 
The LXX however has the accusative 
XVPf^v ill the second clause though 
with a various reading xWt- 

10. Xe'yei] sc. 6 Kvpios, which words 
occur in the LXX of Isaiah in accord- 
ance with the Hebrew. 

16. Trai/ro/cparopt/cw] Apparently the 
earhest instance of this word ; comp. 
60. 

IX. ' Let us therefore obey His 
gracious summons. Let us contem- 
plate the bright examples of obedi- 



42 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[IX 



l3ou\t]<r6i auTOv, koI iKeTai yevofjievoi tov eXeou^ Kai Trj^ 
^pt]GTOTr]TO's avTOv TrpocTTrea-Mjuev kul eTna-Tpe^cojuev eTri 
TOV<s OLKTipfjiOVi avTov, dTroXiTTOUTes Tr]v juaTaiOTTOuiav 
Trjv re epiv Kai to eU Bavai-ov ayov ^r]\o^. dTeviacoiJiev 
ek Tov^ Te\e'uo<i \eLTOvp'yt](ravTa<i Trj juieyaXoTrpeTreT ^ofrj 5 
avTOv. \a(3(aiuev 'GvcD)(i o^ ^v VTraKofj d'lKaio^ evpedek 

I yevS/xefoi] AC ; but S seems to read yivdfievoi. A^oi/s] eXatoucr A, 

3 OLKTip/Moiis] oiKTLpfj.ov(T A. ciwo\nr6vTi] AC ; but S apparently (XTroKeiwovTes. 

5 reXetws] AC ; reXeiovi S. XeLTOvpyrjaavras] XiTOvpyrja-avTaa A. 7 Odi/a- 



ence in past ages : Enoch who was 
translated and saw not death ; Noah 
through whom a remnant was saved 
in the ark.' 

3. iiaraionoviau] The word occurs 
in Classical writers, e.g. Plut. Mor. 
119 E, Lucian Dml. Mot't. x. 8 (l. p. 
369) ; comp. Theoph. ad Autol. ii. 7, 
12, iii. I. Polycarp, Phil. 2, appa- 
rently remembering this passage has 
aVoXiTrovres Ty]v Kevrjv fxaraioXoyiav 
Koi TTjv Twv TToiKXav TrXavrjv. But this 
does not justify a change of reading 
here ; for iiaraiOTvovlav, which is the 
reading of all the authorities here, is 
more appropriate, and a transcriber's 
error is more likely in the MSS of 
Polycarp (all derived from one very 
late source) than in all our copies of 
Clement : nor is it impossible that 
Polycarp's memory deceived him. 
MaraioXoyla OCCurs I Tim. i. 6. 

4. arevlcra^ev K.r.X.] Clement of 
Alexandria Strom, iv. 16 (p. 610), after 
giving an earlier passage from this 
epistle (see j^^ i), adds elr i^iK^avea-re- 
pov 'ArfvicTiafiev k.t.X. down to 'Paa/3 
;) nopvi] ( 12), but contents himself 
with a brief abridgement, and does 
not quote in full, so that he gives but 
little aid in determining the text. 

5. T^ fifyaXoTrpene'L fio|?] The same 
expression occurs in 2 Pet. i. 17. 
The word ixeyaXoTrpeTTrjs is frequent 
in Clement, i, 19, 45, 58, 61, 64, 



and just above (comp. /xeyaXoTrpeVeta 
60). It is only found this once in 
the N.T. 

6. 'Ej/a);^;] Clement is here copying 
Heb. xi. 5 Evo)^ pLereTedr) roil fir) i8eiv 
davarov Kai ov^ ijvpicrKfro (COmp. 
Gen. V. 24); though the words are 
displaced, as often happens when the 
memory is trusted. In the sequence 
of his first three instances also, 
Enoch, Noah, Abraham he follows 
the writer of that epistle. See also 
the language in Ecclus. xliv. 16, 17, 
to which Clement's expressions bear 
some resemblance. 

dLKaios] The book of Enoch is 
quoted as 'Ei/w;^ 6 SUaiOi in TesL xii 
Pair. Levi 10, Juda 18, Dan. 5, Benj. 
9. Thus it seems to have been a re- 
cognised epithet of this patriarch, and 
perhaps formed part of the title of 
the apocryphal book bearing his 
name. It was probably the epithet 
applied to him also in the opening 
of the extant book,i. 2, in the original ; 
see also xii. 4, xiv. i, xv. i, and else- 
where. 

7. aiJroii] i.e. Enoch himself. Forthis 
reflexive use oiavrov see A. Buttmann 
p. 98 sq. Comp. also 12, 14, 30. 

8. TS-aXiyyevea-iav] \.t.'' a second birth, 
a renewal,' of the world after the 
flood ; as Orac. Sib. i. 195 (comp. 
vii. 11) Kai bfVTepos ecraeTai alcov, 
words put into the mouth of Noah 



x] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



43 



lu6TT6ri, Kal ov')(^ evpeOrj avTOv OavuTO'S. Nwe ttktto^ 
evpedek hia Trj^ XeiTOVpyia^ avTOu TraXiyyevecTLav Kocr/uKi) 
EKripvpeVy Kal diea-cocrev ^i avTOv 6 ^ecTror^/? Ta elcreX- 
lodovTa ev ofJLOuola ^toa ets rrjv Kif^coTov. 

X, 'A^pactfji, 6 (plXo^ Trpoa-ayopevSek , ttlo-to^ ev- 

Tos] A ; 6 ddvaroi C. 8 5ia rrjs Xtirovpyias] AS (but Xirovpyiaa A) ; ev ry 

XeiTovpylq. C. 96 detTirorris] S translates the word here and in other passages 

dominus universi (?3T KID). 1 1 ttio-tos] TnaTicr A. 



himself. See Philo Vit. Moys. ii. 12 
(ii. p. 144) 7ra\iyyVf<rlas iyivovro rjye- 
fioi/fs Koi dfvrepas dpxT)yfTai Trepi68ov, 
where also it is used of the world 
renovated after the flood. Somewhat 
similar is the use in Matt. xix. 28, 
where it describes the 'new heaven 
and new earth.' The Stoics also 
employed this term to designate the 
renewed universe after their great 
periodic conflagrations ; see Philo d 
Mund. incorr. 14 (ll. p. 501) o'l ras 
KTTvpo!>(TLS KOi Tcis TToKiyyevecTias eicr- 
Tjyoviifvoi rod Koa-fiov, Marc. Anton. 
xi. I rr]v TrepiodLKrjv nakiyyevea-iav rOyv 
okoiv (with Gataker's note). For 
Christian uses see Suicer s. v. Any 
direct reference to the baptismal 
water (Xovrpw TraXiyyevecrias, Tit. iii. 
S), as typified by the flood (comp. 
I Pet. iii. 21), seems out of place here; 
but iraXtyyevfcria appears to allude 
indirectly to the renewal of the Corin- 
thian Church by repentance. See 
the next note. 

10. eV o/iiowia] An indirect reference 
to the feuds at Corinth. Even the 
dumb animals set an example of 
concord ; see below 20 ra eXaxia-ra 
Tav (dxou ras crvveXfixreis avrcov iv 
op.ovoia Koi elprfvrj iroLovvTai. The word 
6p.6voLa is of frequent occurrence in 
Clement. 

X. 'Abraham by obedience left 
his home and kindred, that he might 
inherit the promises of God. Not 
once or twice only was a blessing 



pronounced upon him for his faith. 
He was promised a race countless as 
the stars or the sand in multitude, 
and in his old age a son was granted 
to him.' 

II. o (l)ikos\ From Is. xli. 8 'Abra- 
ham my friend' (LXX ov ijyanria-a) : 
comp. 2 Chron. xx. 7, and see the 
passages of the LXX quoted by 
Roensch Zcitschr. f. Wiss. Theol. 
XVI. p. 583 (1873). See also James 
ii. 23 K.ai (fiiXos Qeov eKXTjdrj, and below 
17 (piXos wpocrriyopeiidr] rov Qeov. 
In the short paraphrase of the Alex- 
andrian Clement this chapter relating 
to Abraham is abridged thus, 'A^paafx 
OS 8ia TVLCTTiv Ka\ (piXo^evLav (jilXos Qeov 
Trarfjp 8e rov 'icraaK irpocrrjyopivdrj ; 
and it has therefore been suggest- 
ed to read ey 4>iAoc for o 4>iAoc. 
But no alteration is needed. Abra- 
ham is here called ' the friend ' abso- 
lutely, as among the Arabs at the 
present day he is often styled ' El- 
Khalil' simply: see d'Herbelot s.v. 
Abraham, and Stanley's Jewish 
Church I. p. 13. So too Cle7n. Horn. 
xviii. 13 oiirws 8vvarai...ov8e Ei'tu;^ o 
evapearria'as fJ.r] eldevai ovre Ncof 6 8l- 
Kaios p-Tj eTriaraddai ovre ^Ajipaap. 6 
(f)[Xos prj (Tvvuvai, which has other 
resemblances with this passage of the 
genuine Clement; Clem. Recogn. i. 
32 'Abraham pro amicitiis quibus 
erat ei familiaritas cum Deo.' It is 
an indication how familiar this title 
of Abraham had become in the Apo- 



44 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



b 



pe6f] ev TO) avi-ov vTrrJKOOv yevecrdat roh pY]fj.a(nv tov 
Qeov. ovTO's ^L vTraKofj^ e^rjXdei/ 6k rfji yfjs avTOu Kal 
eK Trjs orvyyeveia^ auTOv Kat e'/c tov o'ikov tov iraTpo^ 
avTOv, OTTWS yriv oXi'yrjv Kai crvyyeveiai' ctaSevfj Kai olkov 
fjLiKpov KaTaXiTTcov K\}]poyoiur](ni ras STrayyeXia^ tov 5 
Oeov. \6y6L yap uvtm' 'AneAOe eK thc thc coy kai Ik 
THC cyrreNeiAC coy kai bk to? oi'Koy toy nAxpdc coy eic thn 
THN HN AN CO! Aei'lco, KAI noiHcoo ce 610 e0NOc MefA KAI ey- 

AorHCOO ce KAI Mer^AyNW TO o'nOMA coy, KAI 6CH eyAoTHMe- 

Noc- KAI eyAorHcoo Toyc eyAofoyNTAC ce kai katapacomai io 
Toyc KATApco/weNoyc ce, kai eyAorHBHcoNTAi eN coi nACAi ai 
(jjyAAi THC THC. Kai 7ra\u> ev tw dia^^copKrdfjvaL avTOV 
diro AwT elirei/ avTw 6 Oeo'S' 'AnaBAch^ac toic o^OaA- 
MoTc coy, lAe Ano Toy Tonoy, oy NyN cy ei, npdc BoppAN kai Ai'Ba 

KAI ANATOAAC kai GaAaCCAN" OTI nACAN THN THN, HN Cy OpAC, 15 

3 avyyefeias] avyyeviaa A. 5 eirayyeKiai] enayyeXeiaa A. 10 Kara- 

pdao/J-ai] A; KaTapaa ffofxai C. 15 17V] AS ; oni. C. 16 at'wvos] A; tov 

aiuivQS C. 19 '^^Trjyayevl A ; e^-r)yaye 5^ CS. 21 tol-s aaripas'] AC ; 

add. TOV ovpavov S. 24 yrjpq] yrjpei. C ; see the note on 63. 25 r^J 

Gey] AS; om. C. For a similar omission see Ign. Rom. 4. Trpbs] A; e^s C ; 

super S (with the Hebr. and Pesh. of Gen. xxii. 2, where the LXX has c^' or eTrt). 

stolic age, that Philo once inadver- of the Lord.' Later Rabbinical illus- 

tently quotes Gen. xviii. 17 'A/3paa/x trations of this title will be found in 

TOV (ptXov fiov for TOV TraiSof fj.ov and Wetstein on James ii. 23, and espe- 

argues from the expression, de Sobr. cially in Bqqv Leben Abraham'' s, notes 

II (i. p. 401), though elsewhere he 427, 431, 950. Comp. TertuU. adv. 

gives the same text coi'rectly de Leg. Jud. 2 'unde Abraham amicus Dei 

All. iii. 8 (l. p. 93), Quaest. in Gen. iv. deputatus ?' 

21 (p. 261 Aucher). At a much earlier 6. "AneXde k.t.X.] From lxx Gen. 

date one Molon (Joseph, c. Ap. ii. 14, xii. i 3 with slight but unimportant 

33) who wrote against the Jews and variations. In omitting /cat SeOpo 

is quoted by Alexander Polyhistor after tov iraTpus a-ov Clement agrees 

(Euseb. Pracp. Ev. ix 19, p. 420) in- with A and the Hebrew against the 

terpreted the name Abraham as Trarpos common text which inserts the words. 

(f)LKov, apparently reading Dn"13X as He also reads fvXoyTjdqa-ovTai with A 

if it were DniQN. And in the Book of against the common text evevXoyrjdi]- 

Jubilees c. 19 (Uillmann in Ewald's a-ovrai, but evXoyrjfiivos where A has 

JaJu-b. III. p. 15) it is said of this ivXoyr]To%. See Ha.ich Biblical Greek 

patriarch that 'he was written down p. 154 for the various readings in this 

on the heavenly tablets as a friend passage in the MSS of the LXX, in Acts 



XI] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



45 



COI ACOCOO AYTHN KAI TO) CnepMATI COY e'^C AIOONOC- KAI 

noiHcoo TO cnepMA coy d)C thn ammon thc fhc- ei Aynatai 

TIC e2ApieMHCAI THN AMMON THC fHC, KAI TO cncpMA COY 

ISApieMHGHceTAi. Kai ttolXlv Xeyer 'E^Hr^reN 6 Oedc ton 

20'ABpAAM KAI einCN AYTCp- ANABAevfON eiC TON ofpANON KAI 
ApiGlWHCON TOYC ACTCpAC, 61 AyNHCH e?Api9MHCAI AYTOfc* 

oy'tooc ecTAi TO cnepMA coy" eniCTCYceN Ae 'ABpAAM to) 
Oeo), KAI eAoricen aytTo eic Aikaiocynhn. Aia ttig-tiv kui 
(piXo^eviap eloOt] avrw v\6<i ev ynpo^y Kcci ^^' v7raKorj<s 

25 7rpo(TY]ve<yKev avrov dvarlav tw Oeco Trpos ev twv opeiov 
COP kdei^ev auTtp. 

XI. Aid (piXo^eviav kui evcre^eiai' Acot ea-wdt] e'/c 
Co^OfJitov, Tt]^ Trepixf^pov Trda-r]^ KpiOeia-r]^ dia 7rvpo<5 Kai 
de'iov 7rp6dr]\ov 7roir](ra<i 6 dea-rroTt]^, otl tovs eXni^ov- 

30 ras eV avTOv ovk iyKaToXeiTreL, toi)s ^e erepoKXiveT^ 

op^wi'] opaiwv A. 28 KpiOeiffTjs] A, as I read it. Tischendorf, with whom 

Wright agrees, reads it KpiOrjcr-qcr and appeals to the photograph. The photo- 
graph seems to me more Uke KpLdeKTrjcr, and another inspection of the MS itself 
confirms me. I can see no traces of the left-hand stroke of an h. 29 delov] 

diov A. TTOL-rjaas] AC ; S translates as if eTroi-rjcrev. 30 iw' avTov] A, 

and so too apparently S ; eh avrbi' C. 

vii. 3, and in Philo Mtg-r. Abrah. i (l. 25. jrpoy %v K.r.X,] Gen. xxii. 2 (^' 

p. 436). Clement agrees with Philo in If tS>v opeav cSv av aoi e'lnw. 

quoting airiXBe for i'^eXde. XI. ' Lot's faith and good deeds 

12. eV ra 8iaxa)pt.(T0fjvai] The ex- saved him from the destruction of 
pression is taken from Gen. xiii. 14 Sodom and Gomorrah; while his own 
fiera to 8iaxa>pi(T6rivai tov Aoor oTr' wife perished and remains a monu- 
avTQX). ment to all ages of the punishment 

13. ' Ava(3\e\l/ai K.r.X.] From LXX with which God visits the disobedient 
Gen. xiii. 14 16, almost word for and wavering.' 
word. 28. Kpidfia-rjs 8ia Trvpor] Comp. Is. 

19. 'E^Tj-yayef] From LXX Gen. xv. Ixvi. 16 eV rw rrvpl Kvpiov Kpidija-erai 

5, 6, with unimportant variations. naa-a 7) yfj. The emendation Kav^fi(r>;s 

24. ({)iKo^fviav] i.e. his entertaining for Kpidflcrrj'i is unnecessary as well 

the angels ; comp. Heb. xiii. 2. Simi- as weak. 

larly of Lot just below, 11, and of 29. noi^aai:] A nominative abso- 

Rahab, 5^12. The stress laid on this lute; see Winer xxviii. p. 194, 

virtue seems to point to a failing in A. Ruttmann p. 251 sq. 

the Corinthian Church. See also the 30. irfpoKKivels] ^swerving aside,' 

note on a(f>i\o^fviav below, 35. especially in a bad sense ; Epictet. 



46 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XI 



vTrap-^ovTa^ eU KoXaciu Kai aiKL(Tfj.ov TiOricriv' (ruve^eX- 
Sovcrr]^ yap uvtm Ttj^ yvvaiKO^, eTepo'yvwfxovo's vTrap^ov- 
0"js Kai ovK ev oiuovoia, eh tovto a~t]iue7oi' ereOri uxTTe 
<yevea6aL avTrjV (TtyiXyiv dXo^ ews TJ79 t^/uepas Tavrr]^, et? 
TO 'yvuiijTOv elvat Tracriv oti ol Zl'^v^ol kui ol cicrTa^ov- 5 

I KoXocrjj'] AC ; but S translates as if Kplffiv. 2 frepoyvdjfiovos] C ; A is 

read erepoyvw/jLocr by Tischendorf and Jacobson, erepoyvui/iov by Vansittart. The 
last letter appears to me lilce c with possibly y superposed. Wright is probably 
correct in his explanation that the y is seen through from eypeQH on the oppo- 
site side of the page. The reading therefore is erepoyvw/jLoa: 3 tovto] AS ; 
om. C. 6 Kpl/jLo] Kplfia C. <ry)iJ.eiw<nv] arj/juwatv A. 8 (piXo^eviav] 



Diss. iii. 12. 7 cTepoKXivas e'xco Trpos 
ijdovTjv. See below, ^47 tovs erepoKXi- 
i/flf vTTopxovTas acf)' rjjiSiv. So fTepo- 
KkiviaClcm. Ho7n. Ep. ad Jac. 15, said 
of the ship of the Church heeling 
over, when not properly trimmed. 

2. eVfpoyj/wVoi'os'] The word has 
two senses, either (i) 'dissentient, 
otherwise-minded,' Cyril. Alex, in Es. 
xlviii (II. p. 642), Iii (ll. p. 736) okorpd- 
TTCof eTepoyva>ixovas Trap" eKfivovs ; or (2) 
'wavering, double-minded', Cyril. 
Alex. Cord. Cat.itiPs. i. p. 225 hi^vxov 
Tf Kai fTfpoyvapovos. As it seems to 
be defined here by ovk ev ofxovola, the 
first meaning must be adopted ; 
though Lot's wife was also eTepoyva- 
liav in the other sense, and as such 
is classed among ol di\lrvxoi koI Sicrra- 
(ovres below. In ev ofiovola there is 
again an allusion to the feuds at 
Corinth ; see above 9. 

3. ei's ToiiTO K.r.X.] Here aare is 
dependent not on els tovto, but on 
(rrjp.e'iov eredi] ; and els tovto 'to this 
end' stands independently, being 
afterwards explained by els to yvco- 
(TTov elvai K.r.X. 

4. 0)9 Tf]s T]fi. TavTTjs] A pillar of salt 
identified with Lot's wife is mention- 
ed as standing in Wisdom x. 7, aVi- 
aTovcfi]s yl/vxfis fxvr)p,e'ir>v ecrrrjKvla a-TijXr] 
a\6s, and in Joseph. A7it i. 1 1. 4 who 
says that he himself had seen it. So 



too Irenseus {Haer. iv. 31. 3) speaks 
of it as 'statua salis semper manens,' 
which he makes a type of the Church. 
Cyril of Jerusalem also, Catech. xix. 
8 (p. 309), describes Lot's wife as cVt?;- 
\iTevp,vr] 81 aliovos. The region a- 
bounds in such pillars of salt (see 
Robinson's Biblical Researches, etc. 
II. p. 108 sq). Mediaeval and even 
modern travellers have delighted to 
identify one or other of these with 
Lot's wife. 

5. 01 St\//'uxot] The word occurs only 
twice, James i. 8, iv. 8, in the New 
Testament. Both the word and the 
warning are very frequent in Cle- 
ment's younger contemporary Her- 



mas, Vis. ii. 



2, 3, 4, 7, 10, II, 



iv. I, 2, Sim. viii. 7, etc., but especi- 
ally Maud, ix, x. Comp. also Didache 
4 ov hv^v\r](Teis noTepov earai r] ov, 
with the corresponding passage in 
Barnab. 19. See below 23 with 
the note (comp. C/em. Rom. ii. 11). 

XIL 'Rahab also was saved by 
her faith and her hospitality. She 
believed in the might of the Lord 
God, and she rescued the spies ; 
therefore she and her family were 
spared. She was gifted too with a 
prophetic spirit, for the scarlet thread 
typified the saving power of Christ's 
blood.' 

8. 'Paa/3] This account is taken 



XIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



47 



Te? Trepi Tfj<s rod Oeov ^uvajueco^ ek Kpijua Kai eU a-t]- 
jueicoo'iv TraoraL's tol^ yeveah yivovTcti. 

XII, Alcl TTLO'Tiv Kai (piXo^eviav icrwdr] ' Paa^ ij 

TTopvt]' K7reiuL(p66VTcov yap VTTO ' lr](rov tov tov Navri 

10 KaTacTKOTTCdv 49 Tr]v 'lepi^co, eyvco 6 (^acriXev^ Trj's yrj^ 

on fjKucriv KaracrKOTrevcraL Tr]v yjapav avTcoVy Kai epe- 

A, but CS repeat the preposition, see 5tot (piKo^evlav. For C see Bryennios Didache 
p. p7'. y] TTopvT]] A ; t] e-mXeyofx^vT} -Kopv-q CS ; see the lower note. 9 e*-- 

irefj.cpdivTuii'] eKwe<pdevT(j}v A. rod tov^ A ; tov (omitting the second rod) C. 

10 tV] a ; om. C. 11 i^iweix\j/ev'\ A ; 'iireix\pev C; dub. S. For C see 

Bryennios Didache p. py' . 



from the book of Joshua ; but Cle- 
ment gives it in his own words, even 
when recording the conversational 
parts. The instance of Rahab was 
doubtless suggested by Heb. xi. 31, 
James ii. 25 ; for both these epistles 
were known to S. Clement and are 
quoted elsewhere. His expression 
8ia nicTTiv Koi cftiXo^eviav connects the 
two aspects, to which the two Apo- 
stolic writers severally direct atten- 
tion, the iri<TTis of the one, the epya 
of the other; comp. 31, 33, 34, 49 
(notes). See also the note on the (piko- 
$evia of Abraham 10. 

7/ TTopvr]] For the insertion ^ em- 
XeyofievT] see above, i. pp. 125, 139. 
The object of this interpolation is to 
suggest a figurative sense of the 
word ; comp. Orig. zn les. Nave 
Horn. iii. 3 (11. p. 403) 'Raab in- 
terpretatur latitudo. Quae est ergo 
latitudo nisi ecclesia haec Christi, 
quae ex peccatoribus velut ex mere- 
tricatione collecta est?. ..talis ergo et 
haec meretrix esse dicitur, quae ex- 
ploratores suscepit lesu'; comp. ib. 
vi. 3 (p. 411). From a like motive 
the Targum interprets the word in 
Josh. ii. I by Xn''pn31D = 7rai'SoKevTpia 
'an innkeeper,' and so Joseph. Ant. 
V. I. 2 vnoxoapovaiv e'ls Ti Karaymyiov... 
ovres iv rc5 ttjs 'Pa;^a/3r/s Karayco-yt'o), 
etc. This explanation has been a- 



dopted by several Jewish and some 
Christian interpreters ; see Gesenius 
Thes. s. v. njIT, p. 422. Others again 
have interpreted the word as meaning 
'Gentile'. The earliest Christian 
fathers took a truer view, when they 
regarded this incident as an antici- 
pation of the announcement in Matt. 
xxi. 31; e.g. Justin Dial, iii, Iren. 
iv. 20. 12. 

In Heb. xi. 31 also 77 eniKeyop.vri 
nopvr] is read for ?) Tropvrj by K (first 
hand) and likewise by the Harclean 
Syriac, this part being preserved 
only in the Cambridge MS (see above, 
I. p. 130 sq). Bensly also calls my 
attention to a passage in Ephraem 
Syrus O^. Graec. i. p. 310 ofioios 8e 
Koi Paa^ 7/ iTtiKeyop.vq nopvq 8ia rrjs 
(f>LKo^fvias ov crvvancoXero to7s oTret- 
drjcracri, de^apivr] roiis Karaa-KOTTOvs iv 
elprjVT]. Immediately before, this 
father has mentioned Abraham and 
Lot as examples of persons rewarded 
for their (juXo^evla, so that he seems 
to have had the passage of S. Clement 
in view. 

9. TOV TOV Navfj] In the LXX Num. 
xxxii. 12, Deut. xxxii. 44, Josh. vi. 6, 
etc., he is called 'irjaovs 6 tov Navij, 
and the same expression is adopted 
here, though in the genitive it sounds 
somewhat awkwardly. 

1 1, nvrcoi/] Not ai5rc5i', as most edi- 



48 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xii 

Tre/i-v/^ei^ avdpa^ tov^ crvW-t^fjL-^OjjLevovi avTOvs, ottws 
(rvWr]fi(b6evTe^ davaTtodcoG-LV. ri ouv (piXo^evo^ Paaf^ 
eicr^epaiuLeyr] avTov^ etcpv^ev ets to vTrepwov vtto Trjv 
\ivoKa\afjLr]v, eTTLCTTadevTitiv Be twv Trapa rod (3a<ri- 
Xew'S KUi XeyovTwv TTpdc ce eicfiAGoN oi KAXACKonoi thc 5 
rflc HMooN" eSAfAre AYToyc, 6 r^p BAciAeyc oy'tooc KeAeyer 
t] he ctTreKpWri' EichA9on mcn oi ANApec, oyc zHxeire, 
npdc M, aAAa eyGeooc AnHA6oN ka'i nopeyoNTAi th oAco' 
VTToheiKUuovcra avToX^ ei/aWaf. Kai elwev 7rpo<s tov^ 

I avWyj/xxpofxivovs] crvWti-'pofj.evova- A, though just below it has avWrj/j-cpdevTea: 
For the omission of /x compare eKire<pdevTU)v above. C has (tvW7i\j/o/j,^vovs, (tvX- 
\'q<f>divTes. For the orthography see i dTrpoffUTroXrj/jnrrws. 5 XeyovTWv] AC ; 

add. z//i S. 6 oiircjs] . .rwcr A; ovtu C. 8 dTrrjXdov] A; e^rfKOov C. 

9 ffaXXdl] CS. For A, Tischendorf prints ew... as though the 2nd letter were 
legible; but nothing more than ei can be discerned, and the 1 might as well be 
the upright stroke of n as of K. 10 eyw] AS; om. C. 11 vfiQiv] A; 



tors print it ; comp. 9 and see the 
note on Philippians iii. 21. 

I. Tov^ (jvKkr]\i.-<\ro\iivov%\ i.e. ot ctuX- 
\r]\).-^ovra[.. For this construction see 
Winer xviii. p. 121, and the notes 
Galatians i. 7. 

4. \ivoKaka.]ir]v\ 'flax-stalks'' laid on 
the flat roof of the house to dry; see 
Josh. ii. 6. So Joseph. {Ant. v. i. 2) 
explains it, \ivov yap ayKoXiSas eVt tov 
Tfyovs e'yl/^vxf- The word vnepMov does 
not occur in the original narrative, 
which describes the men's lurking 
place as on the house-top (eVl tov 
hdfiaros). But Clement would not 
necessarily be familiar with Eastern 
customs and might easily substitute 
a wrong expression. 

9. VTrobeiKuvovcra avTols] Clement 
must have made a slip of memory, 
as he has done already in vnepaov ; 
for in the original narrative Rahab 
shows the opposite route not to the 
king's messengers but to the spies. 

fvaXXd^] 'in the reverse^ or ''oppo- 
site direction.^ The word ivdKka^ has 
two meanings ; {i)' alternately ,^ wh.ich. 



is its more frequent sense ; (2) ''cross- 
wise,^ or ''inversely'' ; e.g. Aristot. 
Aniiii. Hist. iii. 4 (p. 515, Bekker) 
erepai (0Xe/3es)...0e'poucrii' evakXa^, ?) 
fiev K T^v apiarepcoi' els ra Se^ia, 1] 8e 
els Ta apiarepa eK twv 8e^ia>v. So too 
the attitude of Jacob crossing his 
hands, when he blesses the sons of 
Joseph, is described in Barnab. 13 
(professing to quote the words of 
Genesis) koI iiroirjaev ^laKajS evaXKa^ 
Tas x^'pos '-'"-^- Again in mathe- 
matical language speaking of propor- 
tion, evaXXa^ is permutando, i.e. the 
inversion of the antecedents and 
consequents, as defined by Euclid v. 
def. 13 evaWa^ \6yos eVri Xfjyjns tov 
Tjyovp.evov irpos to rjyovfxevov Ka\ tov eiro- 
p,evov npos to inonevov : comp. Aristot. 
Anal. Post. i. 5 (l. p. 74), ii. 17 (p. 99), 
Eth. Nic. v. 6 (p. 1 131), who is rather 
fond of the word. The attempts to 
supply the lacuna in A were signal 
failures before the discovery of the 
second MS. 

II. 6 (f)6^os K.r.X.] The expression 
does not occur in the LXX here, but 



XIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



49 



ai/dpa'i' fiNoocKOYCA riNcocKoo eroL> OTi Kypioc d Oedc 
YMoaN nApAAiAoociN ym?n thn thn taythn, d r^p (jidBoc kai 
d rpoMoc YMooN eneneceN toTc katoikoycin aythn. ojc can 

OYN reNHTAI AaB6?N A^THN Y^^^C, AlACobcATe M6 Ka'i TON 

oTkon toy nATpdc moy- Kai elwau avrfj' "Ectai oy'tcoc wc 

[5 cAa'AHCAC HMIN. (X>C eAN OYN rNt;)C nAp Afl N OMCN OYC HMAC, 
CYNA^eiC nANTAC TOYC COYC i-no Td TerOC COY, KAI AiaccoGh- 

CGNTAi- dcoi TAp eAN eYpeBoociN ef03 thc oiki'ac, AnoAOYNTAI. 
Kai Trpoa-edevTO avrrj hovvaL (Tt]fJ.eLOv, 'otto)^ Kpe^aari e'/c 

TOU o'lKOU aVTt]'S KOKKLVOV, 7rp6h]\0V TTOlOUVTe^ OTI dia 

om. CS. ^6/3os, rpo/xos] C; (po^ocr, .../j.o(t A. The two words are trans- 

posed in S. 12 avTTjv] AC; ttjv 'yrjv S. ia.v'\ A; dii' C. 15 eXd- 

X7;(ras] A ; XeXdXrjKas C. cbs] AC ; not translated in S. eav] A ; w C. 

Trapayivo/jLevovs] AS (by the pointing); irapayevoixivovs C. 16 to reyos crov] 

TOToeyoaa-ov A; to ar^yos (om, (tov) C; tectum domtis ttiae S. See below. A 
reads aov, not ov as sometimes stated. 17 otrot yap'] AC; et omnes illi qui 

(koX oaoi) S. eai'] A; a;/ C. 18 KpepAa-^] A; eKKpeixdar) CS. 



is common elsewhere ; e.g. Gen. ix. 2, 
Deut. ii. 25, xi. 25. These passages 
illustrate not only the combination 
of (/)c)/3o? and rpouos, but the repeti- 
tion of the article before the latter. 
Cotelier observes that Clement seems 
to have had in his copy of the LXX 
(Josh. ii. 9) the words koI KaTinrrja-- 
crov TvavTfS 01 KaToiKOVvres rrjv yr]v a(p 
vfiav, which are wanting in all the 
best MSS, though supplied in the 
Complutensian edition and repre- 
sented in the original Hebrew. The 
existing text of the LXX has only eVi- 
TTtTTTaKev yap 6 <ji6j3os vixwv e0' Tjjtxas. 

16. Teyos] The text of our au- 
thorities makes it difficult to decide 
whether we should read areyos or 
Ttyos. The former occurs in the LXX 
only once, Epist. Jer. 8; the latter 
not at all in the LXX, but in Aquila 
Num. xxv. 8. In these passages 
they are used for 'lupanar'; and 
Tfyo<i especially has frequently this 
bad sense elsewhere (e.g. Orac. 
Sibyll. iii. 186, v. 387). But the 

CLEM. II. 



word is perhaps not intended to bear 
the meaning here. 

18. npoaedevro k.t.X.] ''they went 
on to give he}- a sign\ The word is 
used in imitation of the LXX diction, 
where it very frequently renders FiD'' 
and thus reproduces the Hebraism 
'to add to do,' as e.g. Luke xix. 11 
TTpoade'icra ehep, Acts xii. 3 irpoa-iBero 
o-uXXajSe ti/ /cat Uirpov, and so commonly 
in the LXX. In this sense both the 
active and middle are used. Har- 
nack strongly objects to the transla- 
tion 'praeterea ei signum dederunt' 
and renders 'praeterea mandaverunt 
ei ut signum daret,' appa rently taking 
npoa-Tidea-Bai 'to enjoin' or 'impose.' 
This seems an impossible rendering, 
and moreover in the narrative (Josh, 
ii. 19) the spies are represented as 
giving the sign of the scarlet thread 
to Rahab in the first instance. 

ig. 7rp68r]Xov K.r.X.] So Justin Dm/. 
Ill (p. 338) TO avpLJioXov TOV kokkLvuv 
(TnapTiov...rri a-vp-finXov tov iiifxaTOS 
Toi) XpiUTOv fdrjXov, 81 ov OL naXat, 



50 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xii 



Tov aifjiaTO^ Tou Kvplov Xvrpcoo'i^ 'ecrTai iracnv tol^ 
TricTTevovcrLv kui eXiri^ovcrLV ctti tov Oeou. 'Opare, 
dyaTrrjroif ov fJLOVOV ttlo'tl's dWa 7rpo(pr]Teia ev Trj 
yvvaiKi yeyoveu. 

XIII. Ta7reivod)povri(T(i}iuev ovv, dhe\(pOL, dwoGefxe- 5 
VOL Trdorav dXa^oveiav Kat Tv(po^ Kai d(ppocrvvr]V Kai 

I TOV Kvplov] AC; TOV xptfToO S (see the passage of Justin in the lower note). 
2 Kol eKirl^ovcxLv'] AC; om. S. 3 oi] A; 6'rt oi' CS. d\Xa] A; add. Kat 



tropvoi Koi aBtKoi fK Travrav Tav idvav 
a-oj^ovrai k.tX, perhaps getting the 
idea from this passage. Irenaeus (iv. 
20. 12) copies Justin, 'Raab for- 
nicaria conservata est cum universa 



domo sua, fide 



coccini etc. 



See also Origen In yes. Horn. 
iii. 5 (II. p. 405), vi 4 (II. p. 411), 
In Matth. Comm. Ser. 125 (iil. p. 
919). From this time forward it 
becomes a common type with the 
fathers. Barnabas ( 7) similarly ex- 
plains the scarlet wool of the scape- 
goat (see the note there). Compare 
also Heb. ix. 19, which may have 
suggested this application to Cle- 
ment. 

The word jrpoSrjXos occurs twice be- 
sides in Clement 1 1 7rp68r]\ov Troirja-as 
6 8e(T7r6Tr]s oti (the same construction 
which we have in Heb. xii. 14 npodrj- 
\op oTi e^ 'lov8a k.t.X.), 40 Trpo8i]\a>v 
ovv rjplv ovrcL>v tovtcov. It may be a 
question in many passages whether 
the preposition denotes priority in 
time or distinctness. In Demosth. 
de Cor. 293 et p.h) yap rjv aoi 7rp68r]\a 
ra /ieXXoi'Ta...TOT eBei TrpoXiyeiv, el fie 
p-rj npo-^8fi5 K.T.X., lb. 199 ft yap ^1/ 
aiiatji. 'np6hr]Ka ra peXkopra yej/T^cre- 
adat KOL Trporjdeaav aTvavres koi av 
npovXeyes. On the other hand irpobr)- 
Aor frequently signifies 'plain,' 'mani- 
fest,' 'famous,' 'illustrious,' and it is 
explained by Trpo4>avi]s in the Greek 
lexicographers. 



3. dXka 7rpo4)r)TeLa} So Origen in 
yes. Horn. iii. 4 (ll. p. 403) ' Sed et 
ista meretrix quae eos suscepit ex 
meretrice efficitur jam propheta etc' 

4. ykyovev\ The perfect tense ye'yo- 
vev, ' isfound^ must unquestionably be 
the right reading here ; comp. i Tim. 
ii. 14 r\ 8e yvvTj e^aTTaTr)6ii(Ta iv rrapa- 
^aa-fc yiyovev, where, as here, the 
tense denotes the permanence of the 
record and the example. See also 
Gal. iii. 18 rtS 8e 'A/Spact/n. bC enayye- 
\ias Ke)(api(TTai 6 Qeos, iv. 23 o Ik tjJs 
7rai8i.aKT]s Kara aapKa yeyfvprjTai, where 
the explanation of the perfect is the 
same. So too frequently in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, e.g. vii. 6 
8e8eKaTa>KV, xi. 28 TreTTOirjKev. 

XIII. 'Let us therefore be hum- 
ble, and lay aside anger and pride. 
The Holy Spirit condemns all self- 
exaltation. Let us call to mind the 
words in which the Lord Jesus com- 
mends a gentle and forgiving spirit. 
The promise of grace is held out to 
patient forbearance.' 

5. dnodepevoi K.r.X.] So 57 
fidOeTe inroTaaa-etrdai diroOepevoL ttjv 
dXd^ova Koi vireprji^avov Tfjs yXcocrcTTjs 
vpav av6d8eiav. Comp. Heb. xii. X 
oyKov dnodepevoL ndvTa, James i. 21, I 
Pet. ii. I. 

6. Tvcf^os] A neuter form like eXeos, 
Cv^os, ttXovtos, etc., for which see 
Winer ix. p. 78 and Jacobson's 
note on C^Xos above 4. For an ex- 



XIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



51 



opyccs, Kal TTOLYia'ijoiJ.ev to yeypa/uLjuevoi/' Xiyei yap to 

TTvevfJia TO ayiov Mh kayx<^c6oo 6 cocfjoc hu th co(t)iA aytoy, 
MHAe d icxYpdc eN th icxyV aytoy mhAc 6 nAoYCioc eN to) 
nAoYTw AYTOY, aAA' h d kayx<^m6noc eN KYpiw kayx^'^cGoo, toy 

6KZHTe?N AYTON KAI nOielN KpiMA KAI AlKAIOCYNHN' /XaAfCTTa 

/jLCjULvrjiuevoi tcov \oyo)v tov Kupiov lr](rov, ov^ eXdXrjcrep 

CS. 4 y^yovev} A; iyev-qd-rj C; dub. S. See the lower note and comp. i. 

p. 126. 6 dXa^oveiaf'] C; aXa^oviav A. ti^^os] A; rvcpov C. 

10 dXV 7) 6] A; dW 6 C, and so perhaps S. 



ample of rixpos Jacobson here quotes 
Cone. Ephes. Can. 8 (Routh Script. 
Eccl. Opusc. p. 395). As the v is long 
in the older writers but short in the 
more recent (e.g. Greg. Naz. ii. pp. 
490 V. 44, 880 V. 45, ed. Caillau), I have 
accentuated it according to this later 
usage; see L. Dindorfin Steph. Thes. 
s.v. and compare the analogy of (ttv- 
Xoj, (TTvko^^ Galatians ii. 9. 

8. M77 Kavxaa-doa K.r.X.] This pas- 
sage is taken from I Sam. ii. 10, or from 
Jen ix. 23, 24, or from both combined. 
The editors have overlooked the first 
of these passages, quoting only the 
second, though in several points Cle- 
ment's language more closely resem- 
bles the first. The latter part in 
I Sam. ii. 10 runs aXX' ^ iv tovtco 
Kavxa(T6a> 6 /cav;(cojLiei'o? avvielv Kal 
yivuiUKeiv tov Kvpiov Koi Troielv Kpifia 
Koi 8iKaio(rvvT]v iv fieaa Trjs y^s; while 
the corresponding passage in Jere- 
miah diverges still more from Cle- 
ment's quotation. On the other hand 
S. Paul quotes twice (i Cor. i. 31 
Kadws yty paTTTai, 2 Cor. x. 17)0 Kavx^^- 
fievos ev Kvpio) Kavxacrdo). The resem- 
blance of Clement's language to S. 
Paul may be explained in two ways ; 
either (i) S. Paul does not quote lite- 
rally but gives the sense of one or 
other passage (i Sam. ii. 10 or Jer. 
ix. 23 sq) ; and Clement, writing after- 
wards, unconsciously combines and 
confuses S. Paul's quotation with the 



original text ; or (2) A recension of 
the text of Jeremiah (or Samuel) was 
in circulation in the first century 
which contained the exact words 6 
Kuvxc^P^evos iv Kvpico Kavxacrdo). The 
former is the more probable hypo- 
thesis. Iren. iv. 17. 3 quotes Jer. ix. 
24 as it stands in our texts. In 
neither passage does the Hebrew 
aid in solving the difficulty. In i Sam. 
ii. 10 it is much shorter than and quite 
different from the LXX. Lucifer pro 
Athan. ii. 2 (Hartel, p. 148) quotes 
it 'non glorietur sapiens in sua sa- 
pientia nee glorietur dives in divitiis 
suis, sed in hoc glorietur qui gloriatur, 
inquirere me et scire in Dominum 
gloriari, quia ego sum Dominus qui 
facio misericordiam et judicium et 
justitiam super terram.' As Cotelier 
remarks, he seems to have read ck^?;- 
rfiv with Clement, for he has 'in- 
quirere' three times in this context, 
but the coincidence may be acci- 
dental. On the other hand Antioch. 
Patest. Horn, xliii {Bibl Vet. Patr. 
p. 1097, Paris 1624) quotes directly 
from I Sam. ii. 10, and betrays no 
connexion with Clement's language. 
12. p.ep.vr]p.evoi k.t.X.] Comp. ActS 
XX. 35 p.VT]p.ovfViv TU)v \oy<x>v TOV Kvpiov 
'ir/o-ov, oTi finev k.t.X. See above 2 
^8iov XapjicivovTes k.t.X. (with the note), 
where Clement's language reflects 
the context of this quotation. 

42 



52 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xiii 



diddo-Kcov eTrieiKeiav Kai iuLaKpo6v^iav' ovtws yap eiTrev 
'EAGATe i'na eAeneflTe, A(j)ieTe i'na AcjieGH ymin" <x>c noieiTe, 
oy'too nomeHceTAi ymin- cbc AiAoxe, oy'twc AoGHceTAi ymin* 
cbc KpiNere, oy'tooc KpieHcecGe- (he xpucTeYecOe, oy'twc xRh- 
creYSHceTAi ym?n- w Merpco MexpeiTe cn aytco MeTpHGHce- 5 

TAi YMIN. Tavrr] tw evToXtj Kal Toh TrapayyeX^aa-iv 

lit 

TOVTOis (TTtjpi^coiuev 6avT0u^ 619 TO TTOpeveordai vTrtiKOOv^ 
ovra^ To7s ctyLOTrpeTrecFL \6yoL9 avrov, TUTreLVOCppo- 

I ivuiKeiav] e-jriUKiav A. ouVws] C ; . . rwa A. 2 'EXeare] A ; 

Aeetre C. a^tere] A ; a^ere C. 3 oi-Vws] C, and in all the other 

places in this sentence where it occurs ; so too A, except in the first, where it has 
ovTu. 4 Kplvere] Kpiverac A. XRV^'^^'^^'^^^I XPV<^Tve(rdai A. 5 w 

lx4Tpu}...iJi,eTpri6'/j(TeTai v/juv] here, AS Clem; before cos Kplvere k.t.X., C. ev 

avTi^] S; evavTT] A; ovrcosC; om. Clem. 7 arrjpi^u/xev] A; a-rripL^ufiev C. 

iropijea-0ai] iropeijea-de C. 10 irpaiiv] A; Trpdov C. raXoyiojA; 



2. 'EXfare k.t.X.] The same saying 
which is recorded in Matt. vii. i, 2, 
Luke vi. 36 38, to which should be 
added Matt. v. 7 fiaKapioi oi eXerjiioves 
oTi avToi fKfrjdijcrovTai, vi. 14 eav yap 
dcf)fiT Tols avdpconois K.r.X., Luke vi. 
31 Kodais Bekere Iva ttoloxtiv k.t.\. 
(comp. Mark xi. 25). As Clement's 
quotations are often very loose, we 
need not go beyond the Canonical 
Gospels for the source of this pas- 
sage. The resemblance to the original 
is much closer here, than it is for 
instance in his account of Rahab 
above, 12. The hypothesis there- 
fore, that Clement derived the saying 
from oral tradition or from some 
lost Gospel, is not needed. Polycarp 
indeed {Phil. 2) in much the same 
words quotes our Lord as saying 
dtpUre Kal aCpfdrjaeraL vp.1v, eXeelre tva 
fXfTj^fjre, but it can hardly be doubted 
from his manner of introducing the 
quotation (pvrjpovevovres a>v fi-TTev 6 
Kvpios SiSaV/ccoi'), that he had this 
passage of Clement in his mind 
and does not quote independently. 
See also Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 18 
(p. 476) tX^aTi., (fyrjalu 6 Kvptor k.t.X., 



where it is quoted almost exactly as 
here, except that ev avra is omitted. 
He betrays no misgiving that he is 
not quoting directly from the Gospel, 
when evidently he has taken the 
words from his namesake the Roman 
Clement. Comp. Apos/. Const, ii. 21, 
Ps-Ign. Tral/. 8. 

On the form iXeav (for iXee'ip) see 
Winer xv p. 97 sq, A. Buttmann 
p. 50; comp. Clein. Ho7n. xviii. 6. 
Previous editors needlessly read eXe- 
elre here. 

4. coy xPl'^'>'^'^^^^^ "^he corre- 
sponding words in S. Luke (vi. 36) 
are yivfade olKTippoves. In Justin Dial. 
96 and Apol. i. 15 they are quoted 
ylvecrde Se xPW'^'- '^"'' olKTippLOves, and 
in Clem. Horn. iii. 57 yivea-de dyado\ 
Ka\ oLKTippovfs. The verb ;^p7;(7rei;6(r^ai 
occurs I Cor. xiii. 4. 

5. perpco K.T.X.] Quoted also in- 
directly Clem. Horn, xviii. 16 a p-erpa 
ep-erprjaav, p.(Tpr]6fj avTois T(5 icrca. See 
Mark iv. 24, besides the passages 
already quoted from the other Evan- 
gelists. 

8. dyioTrpeTrea-i] Compare Polyc. 
P/iil. I. This is apparently the earli- 



xiv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



53 



vouvre^. (brjcriv yap 6 ayio? \oyo<s' 'Eni tina eniBAevfoo, 

o aAA' h eni ton npAyN kai hcyX'on kai jpeMONXA Moy ta AdfiA; 

XIV. Alkulov ovv Kai bcnov, avhpe<i d^e\(pol, virr]- 

Koovs rifjid^ fjidWov yeveadai tw Oew t] to?9 ev dXa^ovela 

Kai aKaTacTTacTLa juvcrepou ^t]\ov^ dp-^tTyoT^ e^aKoXou- 

deiv. fi\dl3ijv yap ov Trjv TV^ovcrau, judWov he klv- 

5 Zvvov VTrOKTOfJLev ideyav, eav pi\jyOKivdvv(jo^ eTrthcofjiev eav- 

Tov^ Toh 6e\)]fj.ao'LV twv dvdpcoTrcou, oWiue's i^aKOVTi- 

toviTiv ek tpLV Kai aTacrei's ek to dTraWorpiwcrai tjjuds 

TO!)s \6yovs C (with LXx) ; dub. S. 1 1 oaiov] AC ; deiov S. See also 2, 

21. 12 T//xas] AS; V/J.5.S C. yeviadai ti^ Oey] A; tQ dec^ yeviadat. 

CS. dXafoi'etoi] aXafowa A. 13 ffJXous] A ; fjjXoi; C. 17 ^ptv'l 

A; ^peis S (where the plural depends merely on ribid, and would be suggested by 
the plural of the following word); alpeaeis C Nicon. See above, i. p. 125. cfto,- 

creis] (TTaaiu A. et's toI AC ; rod Nicon. 



est passage in which the word occurs. 
Suicer gives it a place 'quia a lexi- 
cographis omissa,' but does not quote 
either of these passages in the Apo- 
stolic fathers. 

9. 'EttI riW K.r.A.] A quotation from 
the LXX of Is. Ixvi. 2 with slight and 
unimportant variations. For a dis- 
tinction between irpaxis and rfcrvxi'Oi 
see Bengel on i Pet. iii. 4 (where 
both words occur). Comp. also 
Hatch Biblical Greek p. 73 sq. 

XIV. 'We ought to obey God 
rather than man. If we follow men, 
we shall plunge ourselves into strife 
and peril; if we follow God, we 
shall be gentle and loving. The 
Scriptures teach us, that the guileless 
and meek shall inherit the earth ; 
but that the proud and insolent shall 
be blotted out.' 

II. AiKotoi/ K.r.X.] This passage as 
far as xaXcof exovros is quoted in 
Nicon the Monk, in an extract given 
by Cotelier from the Paris MSS Reg. 
2418, 2423, 2424. He strings together 
with this passage quotations from >^ 
15, 46, of this epistle, and 3 of the 



Second. See the several references. 

vnrjKOQvs K.T.\.'\ For the stress laid 
by Clement on the duty of vnuKoij, 
see 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 58, 60, 63. 

13. fivaepov] The form fivaepbs 
occurs again below 30 ; and in both 
places the editors have altered it to 
jxvaapos. This is not necessary : see 
Lobeck Pathol, p. 276. In Lev. .xviii. 
23 it is so written in A ; and simi- 
larly in Mark i. 42 fKadepladrj is read 
in the best MSS : see Tischendorf on 
Acts X. 15 and proleg. p. I (ed. 7), 
Winer v. p. 56. See also the form 
piepav (for /xiapav) in Boeckh C. I. G. 
no. 3588. So likewise the play on 
lepfv?, pifpevs, in Apost. Const, ii. 28. 
(C writes p-vcrapav for pva-epau in 30, 
but not so here). 

dpx^yoli^ Comp. 5^ "PX^y"' '''1^ 
araafcus. 

15. pi^j/oKtv^vucjoi] 'in a foolhardy 
spirit^; Appian Civ. i. 103. It does 
not occur in the LXX or New Testa- 
ment. 

16. i^uKovT'i(ov(Tiv\ The word here 
appears to mean, ' launch out.' Gene- 
rally, when it occurs metaphorically, 



54 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xiv 



Tou /caXws exoi^TOs. ')(^pt](rTevcr(joiuLe6a avToT<s Kara Triv 
eva'irXa'yyyiav kuI yXvKvrrjra tou iroiria-avTO'i t]^a. 
yiypaTTTaL yccp' XpHCTOi Icontai oiKHTopec thc, akakoi 
Ae YTToAei^BHCONTAi en' aythc* oi Ae nApANOMoyNTec eio- 
AeepeyOHCONTAi ah aythc Kai iraXiv Xeyer ETaon acsBhs 
YnepYS^OYMENON kai enAipdweNON wc tac KeApoYC toy AiBa- 

NOY, KAI nApflAGON KAI lAOY OYK HN, KAI eSeZHTHCA TON TClnON 

I airdis] A; iavrois CS. i iXvKiT-qTo] y\vKriT7]ra C. 4 oi dL.. 

air' avrris'] AC; om. S (by homoeoteleuton). evoked pevO-qaovTai] A; e^oko- 

0pev6rj(rovTai. C. See the lower note. 5 W5ov] idov A. d<xe^v] 

aa-e^Tjv A; rbv aae^jj C ; there is the same v. 1. in the Lxx. 6 eiraLp6iJ.evov] 

ai.irepoiJ.evov A. 7 rov Tbwov...eZ'pov'\ AC; avrov Kai ovx evpedrj 6 tottos 

avToO (with the lxx) S. 9 ivKardXeifjL/jia] evKardXififia A ; eyKaTd\\ei/xfji.a 

C. 10 KoWtjdQfJLev] AC; aKoXovdija-wfxev Nicon. 12 OSros 6 \abs] 



\6yovs or yXcoa-aas would be under- 
stood, if not expressed. 

1. avTols] ' towm'ds them^ the 
leaders of the schism ; comp. 2 Thess. 
iii. IS M '^^ ix^pov rjyelcrde K.r.X. This 
must be done 'in imitation of the com- 
passion of the Creator Himself {Kara 
TTjv evcTTrKayxviajj k.t.X.) ; comp. Matt. 
V. 44. Others substitute aurois^dXX?;'- 
Xois, but this is not so good. More- 
over, as the contracted form avrov 
etc., for eavTov etc., seems never to 
occur in the New Testament, it is a 
question whether Clement would have 
used it : see the note on avrav 12. 

2. 6i;(r7rXay;^i't'ai' K.r.X.] The same 
combination occurs in Theoph. ad 
Autol. ii. 14 '^^v y\vK.vTT]Ta Koi ev- 
cnikayxvlav Kai biKaiocrvvqv k.t.X. quoted 
by Harnack. 

3. xPW''- K.T.X.] From Prov. ii. 
21, 22. The first part of the quota- 
tion xP'?o"Tot...e7r' avTTjs is found in A 
with a very slight variation (and par- 
tially in S),but B omits the words ; the 
second runs in all the best MSS of the 
LXX, oSot [Se] acre^av en yrjs oXovvrai, oi 
8e TTapavofioL i^acrdrjcrovTai air avrris- In 
quoting the latter part Clement seems 
to be confusing it with Ps. xxxvii. 39 
oi be Trapdvofjioi e^o\odpev6t]a-oprai ejri 



TO avro, which occurs in the context 
of his next quotation. 

4. ^oXe6p(vd>]<rovTai] On the vary- 
ing forms oXedpeveiv and okodpeveiv 
see Tischendorf Nov. Test. p. xlix. 
Our chief MS for the most part writes 
the word with an e. 

5. EiSoi/ aa-e^ri k.t.X.] From the 
LXX of Ps. xxxvii. 36 38 with unim- 
portant variations. The LXX has /cm 
e^ijrrjcra avrov Kai ovx ^p^^l o tottos 
avrov. In the Hebrew there is 
nothing corresponding to 6 tottos 
avrov. Without hinting that he is 
quoting from a previous writer, Cle- 
ment of Alexandria, Strom, iv. 6 (p. 
577), strings together these same six 
quotations, beginning with Ps. xxxvii. 
36 sq and ending with Ps. xii. 4 sq 
{TTapprj(rLa(Top,ai iv avrco). In compar- 
ing the two, we observe of the Alex- 
andrian Clement, that (i) In his first 
passage he restores the text of the 

LXX, and quotes Kai i^rjrrjaa avrov 
K.T.\. ; (2) For the most part he follows 
Clement of Rome, e.g. in the remark- 
able omission noted below (on aXaXa 
yevrjdijra k.t.X.); (3) He inserts be- 
tween the quotations an explanatory 
word or sentence of his own ; (4) He 
ends this string of quotations with the 



xv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



55 



AYTOY KAI OYX eypON. (|)YAaCC6 dKAKIAN KAI TAG eyOVTHTA, OTI 

ecTiN eNKATAAeiMMA AN9pconcp eipHNIKCO. 
lo XV. ToLvvv KoWriQcojJLev Toh julet eva-e/Seia^ elprj- 
vevovcLV, Kai jut] to?? lueO' VTroKpio'ea)^ (SouXojmevoi^ elpri- 
vr]V. Xeyei 'ycip ttov Oytoc d Aaoc toTc x^'AeciN Me tima, 
H Ae KApAiA AYTOON noppco AnecTiN An' eMoy. Kai TraXiv 

Tcp CTOMATI AYTOON eY'AOfOYCAN, TH Ae KApAlA AYTOON KATH- 
15 poONTO. KaL TToXlV Xeyei' 'HfAnHCAN Ay'tON TO) CTOMATI 

A and apparently S; 6 Xaos oi5ros C. rots xf^Aecrti'] AS; tw crTo^art C. 

13 aw(XTti'] A Clem; dw^x^i C Nicon ; dub. S. 14 eiiXoyovaau] A; ev\6- 

yovv C; et/Xoyovcrt Clem. See I. p. 127. rrj 5e] AC Clem; Kai rfj S, with 

the LXX. KaTTjpQvTo] C (with Lxx) ; KarapCivTai Clem ; Tischendorf says of the 

reading of A ' KarrjpovvTo certum est,' but Wright reads it KarripwvTo. I looked 
several times and could not feel certain. On such forms as KarripowTo see 
Tischendorf iVoz'. Test. prol. p. Ivii (ed. 7). 



very words of the Roman Clement, 
TaTreivo(jipovovi'T(ov yap... to Troifiviov 
avToi), without any indication that he 
is citing from another. 

9. eVKaraXet/x/ia] 'a remnant^ i.e. 
a family or a memorial of some 
kind, as in ver. 39 to. iyKaTdKiip.\i.aTa 
rcov dae^cov e^oXoOpeva-erai : comp. Ps. 
xxxiv. 16 Tov e^oXodpeiia-ai sk yfjs to 
^vr]iJ,6(Tvvov avTau, quoted by Clement 
below, 22. 

XV. ' Let us then attach ourselves 
to the guileless and peaceful; but 
avoid hypocrites who make a show 
of peace. Against such the denun- 
ciations of Scripture are frequent and 
severe; against the idle profession of 
God's service against the deceitful 
and proud lips.' 

12. OvTOi 6 Xaos] From Is. xxix. 13, 
which is quoted also Matt. xv. 8, 
Mark vii. 6. Clement follows the 
Evangelists rather than the original 
text. For the opening words of the 
Origmal, eyyifei fxoi o Xaos ovtos iv 
Tw (TTop.aTL avTOv KOI iv Tols ;(t\eo"tj/ 
avTav Tifiaaiv /xe, they give the sen- 
tence in a compressed form ovtos o 
Xaos (o Xaos ovtos Matt.) toIs xf'AeaiV 



p,e Tifia as here. Both Evangelists 
have ciTre^et with the LXX, where 
Clement has ajrea-Tiv. Clem. Alex, 
follows our Clement, modifying the 
form however to suit his context. In 
C/e/Ji. Rom. ii. 3 it is quoted exactly 
as here, except that 6 Xaos ovtos stands 
for OVTOS o Xaos. Justin quotes the 
LXX, Dial. 78 (p. 305). For various 
readings in the MSS of the LXX and 
quotations from it see Hatch Biblical 
Greek p. 177 sq. 

14. Tm oTo/iart k.t.X.] From LXX 
Ps. Ixii. 4, with unimportant varia- 
tions. 

evXoyov(Tav\ for eiXoyovv. See 
Sturz Dial. Mac. p. 58, and the refer- 
ences in Winer xiii. p. 89. In the 
LXX here SB have ivKoyovtrav . Clem. 
Alex, (edd.) quotes ivXoyovdi. 

15. ^Yiyan-qa-av /c.r.A.] From Ps. 
Ixxviii. 36, 37 almost word for word. 
'ETrto-rai^r/a-ai' is here a translation of 
13DX3, 'were stedfast.' Though ryya- 
7rr;crai/ is read by the principal MSS 
(SB) of the LXX, the original reading 
was probably ^naTTjaav, as this corre- 
sponds with the Hebrew. See also 
Hatch Biblical Greek p. 204 sq. 



56 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xv 



AYTWN KAI TH rAWCCH AYTCON eS^GYCANTO AYTON, H Ae KApAlA 

AYTcoN OYK eYOeiA met' aytoy, oy'Ae enicTOieHCAN in th 

AlAeHKH AYTOY- ^l-d TOVTO "AAaAA reNHeHTW TA )(e\KH TA 
AOAlA TA AaAoYNTA KATA TOY AlKAlOY ANOMIAN' KUl TVaXiV 

'EloAeGpeYCAi KyP'oc hanta ta x^'Ah ta AoAia, rA<J;>ccAN 5 

werAAopHMONA, TOYC eiHONTAC, THN fAoicCAN HMOiN MefAAY" 
NOOMGN, TA X^'AH HMWN nAp' HMIN eCTIN' TIC HMa)N KYpiOC 

ecTiN; And thc TAAAinoopiAC toon nTOOX^N kai Ano toy 

I e-^evaavTo] AS Clem ; ^e^av C. 3 5ta tovto] CS Clem ; om. A. 

yev7)0y)TtjS\ A Clem; yevndeirj C. 4 to, \a\ovvTa...Ta. 86\ia] S; om. AC 

Clem by homoeoteleuton. 5 yXQacrai' fxeyaXoprjfiova rovs etTroyras] AS; Kal 

y\Coa<Tav /xeyaXop'rifiova roi/s dirbvras Clem; y\Qiaaa fxeya\opr}fx.wv Kal wdXiv Tods 
eiwbvTas C. The scribe thus patches up by insertion and alteration the text which 
the previous omission had dislocated, so that it may run grammatically and make 
sense; see l. p. 143. 6 ^JLeya.\{lv(^3|xev'\ A; /j-eyaXwovfiev C Clem; dub. S. 



3. 8ia tovto] This should not be 
treated as part of the quotation, since 
it is not found in any of the passages 
of the Psalms which are here strung 
together. The Alexandrian Clement 
however (p. 578), quoting from his 
Roman namesake, may perhaps have 
regarded it as such. 

"AXaXa K.r.X.] I ventureto transcribe 
(within brackets) the note in my first 
edition; from which it will be seen 
how far I had divined the reading of 
the text, as since confirmed by the 
Syriac version. 

[The words aXaXa yevt]di]Ta) Ta X^ 'At; 
TO. 8oKia are taken from the LXX, Ps. 
xxxi. 19. Those which follow are from 
the LXX Ps. xii. 36 e^oXodpevcrai 
Kvpios navra ra x^'At; to. BoXia [kol] 
yXaxrcrav iMeyaXoprjfiova tovs eiTvovTas 
K.T.\. Since in the quotation of Cle- 
ment, as it stands in the MS, yXaxra-av 
[ifyakoprifiova has no government, it 
seems clear that the transcriber's eye 
has passed from one to. x^i^V ^" 8oXia 
to the other and omitted the intro- 
ductory words of the second quota- 
tion. I have therefore inserted the 
words f^oXedpfvaai Kvpws iravra to. 



xeiXrj TO. 86Xia. Wotton and others 
detected the omission but made the 
insertion in the form koI 'E^. K. tt. 
r. X- ''' SoXta Kot. This does not 
explain the scribe's error. The kui 
before yXaa-crav p,eya\oprjfJLOva, though 
found in AB, is marked as to be 
erased in S and is omitted in many 
MSS in Holmes and Parsons ; and in 
our Clement's text of the LXX it must 
have been wanting. The Hebrew omits 
the conjunction in the corresponding 
place. The existing omission in the 
text of the Roman Clement seems to 
be as old as the end of the second 
century, for his Alexandrian name- 
sake (see the note on eidov da-e^rj 
K.T.X. above) gives the passage, SXaXa 
yevqdtjTco TvavTa Ta X^'-^l '''^ doXia /cat 
yXaacrav [xeyaXop^pova k.t.X,, msertmg 
Kal before yXaxraav, though quoting 
it in the main as it is quoted here. 
Or we have the alternative of supposing 
that a transcriber of the Alexandrian 
Clement has independently made a 
similar omission to the transcriber 
of the Roman. For the form ixfyaXoprj- 
fxova see the note on i^epi^(i)a-ev 6.] 
7. Trap' i^plv] ' in our power, our 



xvi] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



57 



cTeNAfMOY T(ON neNHTOoN NYN ANACTHCOMAi, Aefei Kypioc 

lO OHCOMAI eN COJTHpi'cO, nAppHCIACOMAI 6N AyTO). 

XVI. TaTreivocppovovvTOJV yap e(TTiv 6 XpicrTO^, 

ovK eiraipofjievcov eirl to ttoijuulov avrov. to orKfJTrrpov 

[t^9 IULe'Ya\(joa-vi/t]'S~\ rod Oeov, 6 Kupio^ [^//xwj^] XpL<TTO<s 

'lt](TOu^, OVK f]\6ev ev KOfiTTM dXa^ovela^ ov^e V7rpt](pa- 

15 vias, KULTrep hvvaiJievo<i, dWa raTreivocppovcov, Ka6u3<i to 

7 Trap' 7]/j.Tv] A Clem; Trap' tj/jluv CS. 8 dirb] A; om. CS Clem. 9 dva- 

ffTTfia-ofiai] ava<jT-qffoiJ.ev A. 10 et- (rwTijpt'y] Clem; ei'crwrrjpia A; XJp"l"l33 (ef' 

aidTTjpla or ev auTripiip) S; om. C. The MSS of the LXX vary. 13 rrjs fxeya- 

Aw(Twi?j] AC; om. S Hieron. r]fxi2v] A; om. C Hieron; dub. S, for pD is 

used equally for 6 Kvpios and 6 Kvpio^ ^/xwf. Xpio-rds 'Irjaoi/s] A; i-qaovs 

Xpi-a-Tds CS Hieron. 14 dXafovet'as] aXafoj/tao- A. 15 raireivoippovuiv] 



AC [Hieron]; add. ri\9ev S. 

i77///.' It represents the Hebrew 13nX. 
The dative is correctly read also by 
Clem. Alex, and some MSS of the 
LXX ; but SAB have Trap' i^ficiv. 

9. dva(rTT](ToiJ.ai^ The reading of 
A avaa-TTjdonev has arisen from ava- 
a-Tr](Toix, whence avaaTrjaofii : conip. 
aixfJ-oXt^o-Lo. {alxp-aXcoa-Lav) for at;^/LiaAa)- 
(Tia {alxfJ-oXo^cia) in ii. 6. So too 
41 (rvvei8r](TLV (crvveLdrjcrT) for crui'et- 
8rjat= avvi8r](Ti. 

10. drjCTOixai K.7-.X.] ' / w/// //<:? 
/i/; z safety, I will deal boldly by 
hvn.' The Hebrew of the last clause 
is wholly different from the LXX. 

XVI. ' Christ is the friend of the 
lowly; He Himself is our great pat- 
tern of humility. This is the leading 
feature in the portrait which the evan- 
gelic prophet has drawn of the lamb 
led to the slaughter. This too is 
declared by the lips of the Psalmist. 
If then He our Lord was so lowly, 
what ought we His servants to be ?' 

12. OVK enaipofifvcov k.t.X.^ Comp. 
I Pet. V. 3, Acts XX. 29. The word 
noipLviov occurs again ^>5 44, 54, 57. 

7-6 (TKrjTTTfwv K.T.X.] Thc cxpresslon 
is apparently suggested by Heb. i. 8, 
where Ps. xlv. 6 pd^bos evdvTr]Tos 7) 
pd/3Sos TTjs ^a<n\fias arov is applied to 



our Lord. Fell refers to the applica- 
tion of the same text made by Justin 
Dial. 63 (pp. 286 sq) to show otl koX 
TrpoaKvvriTos eari koI Qeos nai. XpicrTos. 
Jerome in Isai, lii. 13 (iv. p. 612) 
quotesthis passage of Clement, 'Scep- 
trum Dei, Dominus Jesus Christus, 
non venit in jactantia superbiae, quum 
possit omnia, sed in humilitate.' This 
application of our Lord's example 
bears a resemblance to Phil. ii. 5 sq 
and may be an echo of it. 

13. p.iyak(xi(Tvvr]s\ The word is 
doubtful here, but occurs several 
times in Clement elsewhere, 20, 
27, 36, 58, 61, 64, 65 ; and this fact is 
in its favour. 

14. eV KofXTra k.tX] Macar. Magn. 
Apocr. iv. 2 (p. 159) iroKvs yap ovtos 
T^y aXa^oveias 6 KOfXTTOs. 

dXa^oveias K.r.X.] The adjectives dXa- 
^u>i> and iiT!-epi]<pavos occur together, 
Rom. i. 30, 2 Tim. iii. 2. The one 
refers to the expression, the other to 
the thought; see the distinction in 
Trench A^. T, Syn. xxix. ist sen 

15. Kcuirep bwafifvos] This passage 
implies the pre-existence of Christ ; 
comp. Phil. ii. 6 sq os iv p-op(l>fi Qeov 
vTTnpx^^v K.tX. ; see the introduction 
I. p. 398 sq. 



58 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xvi 

TTvevfJia TO a<yLOV vrepi aurou e\d\r}(r6v' (pr]<Tiv yap' 

Kypie, TIC enicTeyceN th akoh hmoon; kai d BpAXioiN Kypioy 
TiNi AneKAAy^QH ; ANHrreiAAiueN Inantion aytoy, wc haiAion, 
<x)C pizA EN TH AiyoiCH- OYK IcTiN gTaoc AyTco, oyAe AolA- 
KAI ei'AoMeN AYTON, KAI oyK e?xeN elAoc oyAe kaAAoc, aAAa 5 
TO elAoc AYTOY ATIMON, eKAe?noN nApA to eiAoc twn ANGpoi- 
noiN" ANepconoc eN nAHTH wn kai noNCO kai eiAcoc ct)epeiN 
maAaki'an, oti AnecTpAnTAi to npdcoonoN AyToy, htimacGh 
KAI oyK eAoricGH. oyTOC tac amapti'ac hmoon (})ep6i kai nepi 

HMOON OAyNATAI, KAI HMsTc eAOriCAMSOA AyTON e?NAI GN nONCO 10 

3 dvijyyeikafj.ev'l avriyyCKajxev A. iratSt'oi'] AS ; Trediov C. 4 etSos 

avT(^] A (with Lxx); avrip eWos C; and so S, but the order cannot be pressed in 
this case. 5 KdXXos] AC; dd^av S, but Nn31t^ is probably a copyist's 

error for XIDIti', the former word having occurred in the previous sentence. 
6 eKXelTTOv'] K\nrov A. to eWos twv dvOpuTnav] AC; iravras avdpdnrov^ S. 



2. Kv'pie K.r.X.] A Messianic appli- 
cation is made of this 53rd chapter 
of Isaiah by S. Matthew viii. 17 (ver. 
4), by S. Mark xv. 28 (ver. 12), 
by S. Luke xxii. 37 (ver. 12), by 
S. John i. 29 (ver. 4, 7), xii. 38 (ver. i), 
by Philip Acts viii. 32 sq (ver. 7, 8), 
by S. Paul Rom. x. 16 (ver. i), and 
by S. Peter i Pet. ii. 23 sq (ver. 5, 
9). Barnabas also ( 5) applies ver. 



The LXX itself differs considerably 
from the Hebrew in many points. 
See also Hatch Biblical Greek p. 
178 sq, p. 201 sq, on the form, of the 
early quotations from this passage 
of the LXX. 

3. dvrjyyeiXanev K.r.X.] The LXX 
reading here is devoid of sense and 
must be corrupt, though the MSS and 
early quotations all present dvrjyyelXa- 



5, 7, to our Lord; and Justin both in fj.ei/. As this word corresponds to the 
the Apology and in the Dialogue Hebrew Vyi (Aq. Theod. dva^r]c 



interprets this chapter so frequently: 
see esp. Apol. i. 50, 51 (p. 85 sq), 
Dial. 13 (p. 230 sq), in both which 
passages it is quoted in full. For Jew- 
ish Messianic interpretations of this 
chapter see Hengstenberg Christol. 
II. p. 310 sq (Eng. trans.), Schottgen 
Hor. Hebr. II. p. 138 sq, and espe- 
cially Driver and Neubauer The fifty- 
third Chapter of Isaiah according to 
the Jewish Interpreters., Oxf. and 
Lond. 1877, with Pusey's preface. 



Symm. dvej3r]), Is. Voss proposed 
duereiXafiev (see Grabe Diss, de Variis 
Vitiis LXX p. 38) ; but even this 
alteration is not enough, and we 
should require dvknCKev. The follow- 
ing meaning however seems gene- 
rally to have been attached to the 
words ; ' We the preachers an- 
nounced Him before the Lord ; as 
a child is He, as a root etc' (see 
Eusebius and Jerome on the pas- 
sage); but Justin Dial. 42 (p. 261) 



Clement's quotation for the most strangely explains my iraihiov of the 

part follows the lxx tolerably closely. child-like submission of the Church 

The more important divergences to Christ. The interpretation of Ori- 

from the LXX are noticed below. gen ad Rom. viii. 6 (iv. p. 627) 



xvi] 



TO THE CORINTHTANS. 



59 



KA\ eN nAHTH KAI eN KAKOOCei. AYTOC Ae eTpAYMATIC0H AlA 
TAC AMApTIAC HMCJON KAI MeMAAAKICTAI AlA TAC ANOMIAC HMOON. 

nAiAeiA eipHNHc hmoc)N en' ayton* to) MooAooni aytoy HMeTc 

lAOHMeN. nANTGC cbc npoBATA enAANHSHMeN, AN9pOOnOC TH 

15 oAo) AYTOY enAANHBH- ka'i KVpioc nApeAcoKGN AYTON Yirep 

Tc2)N AMApTlCON HMOaN. KAI AYTOC AlA TO KeKAKOOCBAI OYK 

ANOi'rei TO CTOMA" oic npoBATON eni c(|)ArHN h'xQh, KAI cbc 

AMNOC eNANTIOISl TOY Kei'pANTOC a4)0ONOC, ofTOOC Oy'k ANOIfei 
TO CTOMA AYTOY- GN TH TAneiNOOCei H Kpi'ciC AYTOY HpGH" 



See the lower note for the lxx reading. 1 2 a/j-aprlas, dvofiiai] A ; transposed 

in CS. See the lower note. 13 TraiSela] Trai8(.a A. ' 15 iir^p tuv 

a/JLapriuv] AC; rah afxaprlais S with the LXX. See the lower note. 19 iv 

rrj rairetvwaei] AC; add. ejus S, where the punctuation attaches it to the previous 
sentence. Kpiais] Kpiaeio- A. 



is not quite clear. The fathers of 
the fourth and fifth centuries gene- 
rally interpret as plCa iv yfi di-^aia-r] 
as referring to the miraculous con- 
ception. In the order iv. avr. cos 
TraiS. Clement agrees with SA Justin 
p. 230 (p. 85, 260 sq, ivainov avToi)); 
and so the old Latin, e.g. TertuU. adv. 
Marc. iii. 17 (and elsewhere) 'annun- 
tiavimus coram ipso velut puerulus 
etc.'; but B has ws iraid. iv. avT., the 
order of the Hebrew. 

6. Trapa to ei8. r. dv6p.^ The LXX 
S, Clem. Alex. p. 440, Trapa navTas (S 
corr. from nav) roiis vlovs t<ov dvdpd- 
TTcav ; B, Justin p. 230, Tertull. adv. 
Marc. iii. 7, adv. Jiid. 14, irapa tovs 
vlovs Ta>v dv6pu>TV(x>v ; A, Tertull. adv. 
Marc, iii. 17, Trapa navras dvdpcoTTovs ; 
Justin p. 85, Clem. Alex. p. 252, Trapa 
TOVS dvBpanovs. 

7. Ka\ Tv6v(o\ Wanting in the LXX. 
The words must have crept in from 
below, iv TTovco Ka\ iv TrXrjyf], either by 
a lapse of memory on Clement's part 
or by an error in his copy of the LXX 
or in the transcription of Clement's 
own text. 

8. dTTia-TpaTTTaiJ The original is 



13D0 D^:D'inDOD, 'as Mding the face 
from him'' or 'fromus^ The LXXseem 

to have adopted the latter sense, 

though they have omitted 1JD0 ; ''His 
face is turned away, i. e. as one 

ashamed or loathed ; comp. Lev. xiii. 

45- ^ ^ ^ ^ 

12. dfiapTLas, dvofiias^ So B, Justin p. 
230; but SA, Barnab. 5, Justin p. 
85, transpose the words, reading dvo- 
ixias in the first clause and d/xapTias 
in the second. 

14. avdpcoTTos] 'each man^ distribu- 
tive; a Hebraism not uncommon in 
the LXX; and the use is somewhat 
similar in John ii. 25, i Cor. xi. 28. 

15. i^TTep Tcov a/^apncoj'] The LXX has 
Tols dpapTiais, and SO Justin pp. 86, 230, 
Clem. Alex. p. 138; but Tertull. adv. 
Prax. 30 ' pro delictis nostris.' 

19. eV T^ raTTCij'cucret K.r.X.] This pas- 
sage is also quoted from the LXX in 
Acts viii. 33 iv T^ TaTTeivaxrei [^avTov\ 
Tj Kpiais avTov rjpdrj, where the first 
avTov should be omitted with the best 
MSS, so that S. Luke's quotation ac- 
cords exactly with the LXX. For the 
probable meaning- of the LXX here 
see the commentators on Acts I.e. ; 



6o 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xvi 



THN reNeAN aytoy tic ^iHTHceTAi; oTi Ai'pexAi And THC rflc 

H ZOOM AYTOY' ATTO TCON ANOMIOON TOY AAOY MOY HK6I eiC 9ANA- 
TON. KAI AOOCOO TOYC nONHpofc ANTI THC TACt)HC AYTOY KAI 
TOYC nAOYCIOYC ANTI TOY OANATOY AYTOr OTI ANOMIAN OYK 

enoiHceN, ofAe eYpeOh AoAoc sni tco ctomati aytoy- kai 5 
Kypioc BoVActai KABApicAi AYTON THC nAHrHC" CAN Awje nepi ' 

AMApTIAC, H YYX^^ YM<^N oVcTAI CnepMA MAKpoBlON. KAI KVpiOC 

BofAeTAi A(t>eA6iN And toy noNOY thc ^>y)(HC ay'toy, AciIai 

AYTtO Ct)OOC KAI nA_ACAI TH CYNCCCI, AlKAuicAl AlKAION CY AOY" 
AefONTA nOAAOIC- kai TAC AMAPTIAC AYTWN AYTdc ANOICei. AlA 10 

1 tV yevedv] AC; /cat rrjv yeuedv S. 2 iJKei] AC; rJxSv S. See the 

lower note. 7 6\peTac] ei/'erat A. 8 rrjs V'l'X^s] AC; awb r!j$ xj^vxvs S. 

The P which represents dirb before tov irovov is pointed as if = ^eV. 12 roZs] 



and for patristic interpretations of 
yevea, Suicer I. p. 744 s. %i. The 
Hebrew is different. 

2. r]Kei\ Tjxdrj LXX and Tertull. ad?', 
yud. 10; but r]KiL is read by Justin 
pp. 86, 230, though elsewhere he has 
rix^f] P- 261 (mss i]x^n^')^ coinp. p. 
317 ort OTTO tSv avofiiav tov XaoO 
dx^WfTai fls davarov. As rjx^l may 
easily have been introduced from 
ver. 7, rJKei was perhaps the orig- 
inal reading of the LXX ; and so it 
stands in some MSS in Holmes and 
Parsons. 

3. Ka\ StBo-o) (c.r.X.] The LXX clearly 
means that the wicked and the 
wealthy should die in requital for 
His death ; as Justin Dz'al. 32 (p. 
249) avTi TOV davarov avTov Toiis ttXou- 
(TLOvi davaTcodi^aeadai. Thus the refer- 
ence to the crucifixion of the thieves 
and the entombment in Joseph's 
grave, which the original has sug- 
gested to later Christian writers, is 
rendered impossible in the LXX. This 
application however is not made in 
the Gospels, where only ver. 12 ev 
Tols avonois fKoyladr} is quoted in this 
connexion, nor (I believe) in any fa- 
ther of the second century nor even 



in Tertullian or Origen. 

5. ovbe evpidt) bokos] So A in the 
LXX, but SB (corrected however in 
S by later hands) have simply ovbe 
b6\ov, following the Hebrew more 
closely. In i Pet. ii. 22 are the 
words OS djiapTiav ovk i-no'i-qcrev ovbf 
evpedr] boXos ivTw (TTOfiaTi avTov, though 
this is not given as a direct quotation 
and may have been intended merely 
as a paraphrase, like much of the 
context. But it is quoted by Justin 
also Koi ovx evpidr] bokos p. 230, and 
ouSe evpedri boXos p. 86, though in a 
third passage he has ovbe boXovp. 330. 
And so likewise Tertull. adv. Jiid. 
10 'nee dolus in ore ejus inventus 
est,' Origen L p. 91 C, IL pp. 250 D, 
287 C, and Hippol. in Psalm. 7 (p. 
191 Lagarde). The passage of S. 
Peter might have influenced the form 
of quotation and even the reading of 
the MSS in some cases : but the pas- 
sages where ovbk evp^drj bokos appears 
are so numerous, that we must sup- 
pose it to have been so read in some 
copies of the LXX at least as early as 
the first century. This reading is 
found in several MSS in Holmes and 
Parsons. 



xvi] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



6l 



Toyjo AYTOc KAHpoNOMHcei noAAoyc KAi TOON icxYpcoN Mepiei 
ckyAa" anB' wn nApeAoGH eic Oanaton h ^>X){H aytoy kai toTc 

ANo'moIC eA0riC9H' kai Ay'tOC AMApriAC nOAAOON ANHNerKGN KAI 
AlA TAC AMApTIAC Ay'toON nApeAoOH. Kui TTuXlV aVT0<5 <pt](nV' 

iS'Erto Ae eiMi ckooAhz kai oyk ANGpoonoc, ONeiAoc ANepoincoN 
KAI e2oY0eNHMA Aaoy- nANTec oi GeoopoYNTec Me eleMYKTHpi- 
CAN Me, cAaAhcan eN yeiAeciN, eKiNHCAN Ke(})AAHN, "HAniceN 
eni K-fpiON, pYCACGoo ayton, coocatoo ayton, oti GeAei ayton. 
'Opdre, avdpe^ dyaTrtjToi, tl^ 6 vTrojpa^jULO^ 6 Se^o/xe- 

20 vos rjfjuv' 61 yap 6 Kvpio<i ourco^ eraireLVOCppovy^a-ev, tl 



A; ev Tots C, and so probably S, which has 3 not ?. 
17 eKlvy)<Tai>] eKeivrjaav A. 18 otl] AC; et S. 



15 5e] AS ; om. C. 



6. TTjs TrXrjyrjti:] So SB Justin pp. 86, 
230 ; but A (LXX) has drTo rris TrXrjyfjs. 
For aadapi^eiv or KadaipeLV tlvos COmp. 
Herod, i. 44. So the intransitive 
verb Kadapeveiv (Plato Epist. viii. p. 
356 e) and the adjective Kadapos 
(Herod, ii. 38) may take a genitive. 

8(OT] So also LXX (SAB) and Jus- 
tin pp. 86, 230 (mss, but many edd. 
Scorai). Eusebius comments on this 
as the LXX reading, and Jerome dis- 
tinctly states it to be so. Accordingly 
it was interpreted, ' If ye make an 
offering' (or, translated into its Chris- 
tian equivalent, ' If ye be truly con- 
trite and pray for pardon'). With 
dovvai Trept Comp. Heb. v. 3 rrepi fav 
Toi) 7Tpo<T(ppeiv Trept a/jLapricop. The 
meaning of the original is doubtful, 
but 8aTe seems to be a rendering of 
D''"'n taken as a second person, ' //loii 
shalt give.'' The reading hOirai 'give 
himself^ which some editors here 
would adopt, is quite late and can 
hardly stand. 

7. Ki^ptoj (BovXerai k.t.\.] The LXX 
departs very widely from the Hebrew, 
but its meaning is fairly clear. For 
d^eXeiv OTTO, ''to diminish fr 0711 ', comp. 
Rev. xxii. 19, Exod. v. 1 1, and so fre- 



quently. TertuUian however reads 
rr\v ^vxi]v ' eximere a morte animam 
ejus,' ad7'. Jlid. 10. nXacrai (sc. avrov) 
stands in the present text of the LXX 
(SAB), and in Justin pp. 86, 230, nor 
is there any indication of a different 
reading : but, as y^Ci''* stands in the 
corresponding place in the Hebrew, 
the original reading of the LXX was 
probably TrXrja-ai, as Grabe suggested 
{Diss, dc Vit. Var. LXX, p. 39). Com- 
pare the vv. 11. paacrei and prjacrei in 
Mark ix. 18. 

12. Tois avop-ois] iv Tols dvoixois LXX 
(SAB), Justin pp. 86, 231, (though in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the 
first passage he has fiera twu av6p.a)V, 
p. 85) ; /xera dv6ix(x)v, Luke xxii. 37, 
(fMark xv. 28t). 

14. ai'Tos-] Christ Himself, in whose 
person the Psalmist is speaking. 
Comp. 22, where avroi TrpoaKoXel- 
rai has a similar reference. The 
words are an exact quotation from 
the LXX Ps. xxii. 6 8. The applica- 
tion to our Lord is favoured by 
Matt, xxvii. 43. 

19. () vTr(>ypap.p.()i] See llic note 
above on i:; 5. 



62 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xvi 



Troirjorco/uLev >)/xe?5 ol vtto tov ^vyou Trjs ^apiTO's avTov 
^L avTOv eXdovTES ; 

XVII. MijULriTai yevcojueda KaKelvcoVf o'lTive^ ev hep- 
fiacTLV alyeiOL^ Kai fj.r]\wTaX^ 7repL67raTr](rau Krjpvcra'ov- 
Ts TriP eXevcTLv tov Xpia-Tov' Xeyojuev de 'HXiav Kai 5 
'GXia-aLe btl ^e Kai l6^Kit]X, roiys Trpocptjra^' 7rpo9 tov- - 
T0L9 Kai Tovs fj.e{JLapTvpriixevov<i. ijuaprvprjOr] weyaAw? 

I jroiricTWfji.ev] A; iroL-qao/Jiev C; dub. S. i e\66vTes] S ; eXOovroff A; 

anre\96vrs C. 6 'EXto-at^] A; 'EXt^o-ate C. ?rt 5,^] AS; om. C. 

Kai] AC; om. S. Trpos roi^TOts] AC; add. bk S. 7 i/xapTvpi^dr)'] AS; 

add. 5^ C. 9 drepi^wp] A; drepicas C; drepicroi) S, apparently, for it 

renders ei dicit cogitans humiliter, videbo gloriam Dei. raireipo^popwp] C; 



I. TOV ^vyov Trjs ;^dpiTos] A verbal 
paradox, explained by the 'easy yoke' 
of Matt. xi. 29, 30. The following St' 
avToii is 'through His humiliation and 
condescension.' 

XVII. 'We should also copy the 
humility of the prophets who went 
about in sheepskins and goatskins ; 
of Abraham the friend of God, who 
confessed that he was mere dust and 
ashes; of Job the blameless, who 
condemned himself and all men as 
impure in the sight of God ; of Moses 
the trusty servant, who declared his 
nothingness before the Lord.' 

The whole of this chapter and part 
of the next are quoted by Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iv. 16 (p. 610) in continuation 
of 9 sq (see the note there) : but he 
cites so freely, abridging and enlarging 
at pleasure, and interspersing his own 
commentary (e.g. rr^v ov^ viroivm- 
Tovaav vofico alviTTOfiivos afiapTiav yvco- 
(TTiKots fierpLOTradaiv), that he cannot 
generally be taken as an authority 
on the text, and (except in special 
cases) I have not thought it worth 
while to record his variations. 

3. eV Sf'p/xao-ti/ fcT.X.] From Heb. xi. 
;i'7. For the prophets' dress comp. 
Zech. xiii. 4 ' The prophets shall be 
ashamed... neither shall they wear a 



garment of hair' (where the LXX 
omits the negative and destroys the 
sense, koI epSvaovrai 8eppiv Tpi)(ivT]v) ; 
see also Bleek Hei^r. I.e., Stanley's 
Sinai and Palestifte p. 305. The 
word fxrjkmTr) is used in the LXX to 
translate miN, palndamentum, 'a 
mantle' ; e.g. of Elijah and Elisha, 
I Kings xix. 13, 19, 2 Kings ii. 8, 13, 
14. Though not a strict equivalent, 
it was doubtless adopted as describing 
the recognised dress of the prophet. 
Ezekiel is fitly classed with the older 
prophets, as representing a stern and 
ascetic type. His dress is nowhere 
mentioned in the O. T, but might 
be taken for granted as the ordinary 
garb of his office. Clem. Alex, after 
fiT]\coTais adds Km rpi^wv KafJLTjXficoi' 
TrXeynaaiv, as after 'le^eKifjX he adds 
Koi 'lu)avpr]v, the former interpolation 
preparing the way for the latter. 

6. 'EXio-me] A frequent form in the 
best MSS of the LXX (with a single or 
a double o-), e.g. 2 Kings ii. i sq. The 
editors have quite needlessly changed 
it into 'EXicra-aiov, which is the form 
in Clem. Alex. 

Toiis npocfyriTas] Epiphanius has 
been thought to refer to this passage 
in Haer. xxx. 15, avros (KXtj firjs) ejKa- 
fiia^ei 'aXiav koi Aa/31S /cat ^afixlrav koi 



XVIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



63 



10 



'A^paajUL Kal (pi\o<s ir poorly opevBr] rod Oeov, Kal Xeyei 
aTeviVoiv ek Tr]V Zopav tov Oeov, TaTreivoCppovwi/' 'Eroo 
Ae eiMi rfi KAi cnoAoc. eTi ^e Kal irepi '/w/S ovtms ye- 
ypaTTTai' MtbB Ae hn Aikaioc kai AMeMnroc, aAhSinoc, eeo- 
ceBhic, AnexoMGNoc And nANToc kakoy' ciW avTO^ eavTOV 
KaTYiyopei Xeyiav, GyAeic KA0Apdc And pynoY, oyA' an 

T<nreLvo(j>p(i>vij}v A. 11 5e] CS Clem; om. A. /cai] AC [Clem]; om. 

S with LXX. dX');^t^6s] aXTjdeivoa A; dXrjOLvbs Kai Clem 611. 12 /ca/coO] 

AC Clem; n-ovrjpov Trpdyfiaros (with LXx) S. 13 Kariijyopet "K^yuv] C; 

KaT-qy A; contra seipsum dicens loquitur (as if Kar-qyopdv \iyei.) S. 0^5' 

hv'] C ; 0^5' et Clem ; def. A. See the lower note. 



TTovras Toiis Tvpo^-qras k.t.\. ; but the 
reference must be to the spurious 
Epistles 071 Virginity^ where Samson, 
as well as the others, is mentioned by 
name (see above, i. p. 409). 

7. Tovs fiepiapTvprifievovs] ' bome 
witness to, approved,' whether by God 
or by men ; see below, 17, 18, 19, 

38, 44, 47, Acts vi. 3, Heb. xi. 2, 4, 5, 

39, 3 Joh. I2,etc. Here the testimony 
of God's voice in Scripture seems to 
be intended, as appears from the 
examples following. 

8. (pCkos irpocrrjyopfvdri] Comp. 

James ii. 23, and see above, 10 with 
the note. 

9. rrjv do^av] i.e. the outward ma- 
nifestation, the visible light and glory 
which betokened His presence ; as 
e.g. Exod. xvi. 7, 10, xxiv. 16, 17, 
xxxiii. 19, 22, xl. 28, 29, Luke ii. 9, 
I Cor. XV. 40 sq, 2 Cor. iii. 7 sq, etc. 

raneivocppovuv] A favourite word 
with Clement ; see 2, 13 (twice), 
16 (three times), 19, 30, 38, 48. In 
like manner Tanftvocjipoa-vvrj and ra- 
n-dvaxris occur several times. The 
scribe of A reads Ta7reivo({)p(i>v cov here, 
as he reads Ta-rreivo^^pov ov 19. In 
both cases his reading must be cor- 
rected. This verb occurs only once 
in the LXX (Ps. cxxxi. 2), and not 
once in the New Testament. 

'Eyu fie K.T.\.'\ Quoted exactly from 



the LXX Gen. xviii. 27. 

1 1. 'Icb/3 ^v K.r.X.] A loose quotation 
from Job i. i, where SB have aXrjdi- 
pos ajiejiTTTos 8i.Kaios Beocrefiiqs., and A 
apLefiTTTos diKaios aXrjdfivos deoae^ijs. 

13. KUTTiyope'i Xeycov] I prefer this 
to KaTTjyopav Xeyet or Karrjyopav elnev. 
Wotton is certainly wrong in saying 
that he could read dnev in A. There 
is no trace of the word and cannot 
have been any. He must have made 
some confusion with the elirev below, 
which is blurred. 

Ov'Seij K.T.X.] A loose quotation 
from the LXX Job xiv. 4, 5. 

ov8' av] All the best MSS of the 
LXX agree in reading eav koI, which 
many editors have preferred here. 
On the other hand Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iv. 16 (p. 611) has 0O8' el, and as in 
the rest of this quotation he follows 
his namesake pretty closely, where he 
departs from the LXX, he may have 
done so in this instance. Origen, 
who frequently quotes the text, gene- 
rally has ov8' av (e.g. H. p. 829) or 
ov8' d (in. pp. 160, 685), but some- 
times omits the negative. In Apost. 
Const, ii. 18 it is quoted as here. 
The passage is one of very few out- 
side of the pentateuch quoted by 
Philo, de Mtct. Norn. 6 (l p. 585), 
who reads n's yap.../cai av... 



64 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xvii 



..-' 



MIAC HMepAC H H Z(OH AYTOy. McOVO'fjS niCTOC CN oAtO TO) 

oiKO) AYTOY eK\r]6r], kul dia t^? vTrrjpeona^ auTOv eKpivev 
6 Qeo'i AtyvTrTOv Zia tmv juaariycov Kai tcHv aiKLcrfjia- 
Tcov avTwv. dWa KcxKeivo^ do^acrdei^ fj.eyaXcd'i ovk 
ijueyaXoptj/uLovrjcrei/f dW eiTrev, erri Tr]^ f^arov xP^f^^~ 5 
TiCfJiOV avTM ^idojuevov. Tic eiMi epoa, oti me neMneic; 

-2 avToO pri] AS (with Heb. iii. 2); om. C. ^KpLPev] AC; Kpivei (appa- 
rently) S. 5 iirl TTjt ^drou] e (iarov A; fwt tov ttjs ^drov C ; iirl ttjs 

(or ToO) jSaron S ; t^s ^oltov Clem. See the lower note. 9 e'iirwfJLev] 



1. TTKTTos K.T.X.] Hc is SO Called 
Num. xii. 7; comp. Heb. iii. 2. The 
avrou is tov Gfoi), for the LXX has 

fXOV- 

2. i57r>;pea-tay] Comp. Wisd. xiii. 
II, XV. 7. 

eKpLvev K.r.X.] Compare 11 Kpi- 
deia-ijs 8ia nvpos. Moses was the 
instrument in fulfilling the prophecy 
uttered before, Gen. xv. 14 (comp. 
Acts vii. 7) TO 8e edvos (o iav bovkev- 
craxTi Kpivw eya. 

5- epfyaXopr]p6vr](Tv] See the note 
on i^fpi^axreii, 6. 

eVi Trjs (BaTov] A Cannot have so 
read the words as they stand in C, 
unless this line was very much longer 
than the preceding or following one. 
Moreover eVi tov Trjs ^aTov xp'JMa^'f" 
/xov auVw 8i8op.evov is in itself a very 
awkward and unlikely expression. 
Probably A read enl ttjs ^utov or eVl 
TOV ^ciTov, this being a common mode 
of referring to the incident ; Luke xx. 
^7 (comp. Mark xii. 26), Justin Dia/. 
128 (p. 357), C/em. Horn. xvi. 14, 
Apost. Const. V. 20. The reading of 
C must be attributed to the in- 
decision of a scribe hesitating be- 
tween the masculine and feminine 
genders ; the word being sometimes 
masculine, o /3aros (e.g. Exod. iii. 
2, 3, 4, Apost. Const, vii. 33), some- 
times feminine (Deut. xxxiii. 16, Acts 
vii. 35, Justin Dial. 127, 128, Clem. 



Horn. xvi. 14, Apost. Const, v. 20). 
So we have im tov jSutov Mark xii. 
26 (though with an ill-supported v.l.), 
but eVi TTJS (3a.Tov Luke xx. ^7. In 
Justin Dial. 60 (p. 283) we meet with 
OTTO Ti]s /3drou, 6 ^oltos, 6 /Sotos, o /Saroy, 
en Trjs ^uTov, in the same chapter. 
See on this double gender of the word 
Fritzsche on Mark I.e. 

6. Tis ei/x' ^7^] From Exod. iii. 11 
Tis elfii eyco, oti 7ropevaop.(ii k.t.X. 

7. f'yto Se K.T.X.] From Exod. iv. 
10 l(Txv6(^u>vos Koi /SpaSi'yXcocrcros' iya 
elp-L. 

8. Eyco Se elpi aTpis k.t.X. j This 
quotation is not found in the Old 
Testament or in any apocryphal book 
extant whole or in part. The nearest 
parallel is James iv. 14, nola yap rj 
^afj vpcov ; aTfus [yap] eVre 1] npos 6X1- 
yov (jiaivofievrj k.t.X. Compare also 
Hosea xiii. 3 'As smoke from the 
chimney' (or 'the window'), where 
the LXX seems to have translated 
originally dTp,\s dirb aKpidav (see Sim- 
son's Hosca p. 44), corrupted into 
QTTo 8aKpvcov in B and corrected into 
fK Kanvodo^rjs from Theodotion in A ; 
and Ps. cxix. 83 ' I am become like 
a bottle in the smoke,' where again 
the LXX mistranslates wo-et da-Kos iv 
irdxvT). In none of these passages 
however are the words very close, 
nor are they spoken by Moses. Per- 
haps therefore this should be reckon- 



XVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



65 



eroo Ae eiMi ic)(Nd(t)00NOc kai BpAAyrAooccoc. Kai 7ra\iv 
Xe'yei, 'Ercio Ae eiMi atmic And KyOpAc. 

XYIII. T'l ^6 eLTTuofJiev 67ri T(jp iJi6fjiapTvpf]fj.evoi 

10 Aavelh '^ 7rpo<i bv i7rev 6 Geo?, EypoN anApa kata thn 

KApAiAN Moy, AAyeiA ton roy leccAi, en eAeei aiooni'co expiCA 

AYTON. dWa Kai avTO^ Xeyei irpo'i tov Oeov 'Eaghcon 



A; iiroi/xev C. lo, ii AaveiS] dad AC. See above, 4. 

AS; om. C. 11 iXhi] C; eXatet A; eXat'oj S Clem (edd.). 



10 6 9e6s] 
See below. 



ed among S. Clement's quotations 
from apocryphal books, on which 
Photius {Bibl. 126 pjjra Twa to? airo 
rfjs 6eias ypa(f)fjs ^eul^opra TraptKrayfi) 
remarks : see also !^ 8, 13, 23, ^o, 46 
(notes). Hilgenfeld supposes that the 
words were taken from the Assump- 
tion of Moses. This is not impossible ; 
but the independent reason which he 
gives for the belief that Clement 
was acquainted with that apocryphal 
work is unsatisfactory; see the note 
on the phoenix below, ,25. I have 
pointed out elsewhere ( 23) another 
apocryphal work, from which they 
might well have been taken. The 
metaphor is common with the Stoics : 
see Seneca Troad. 392 sq ' Ut cali- 
dis fumus ab ignibus Vanescit...Sic 
hie quo regimur spiritus effluit', M. 
Anton. X. 31 kouvov kol to ^.-qbiv, xii. 
33 vKpa Kai Kanvos; so also Empedo- 
cles (in Plut. Op. Mor. p. 360 c, quoted 
by Gataker on x. 31) had said, <i>Kv- 
ixopoi KciTTvoio blKrjv apdevres aTvenrav. 

K\)6pai\ Another form of x.'^rpa's, 
just as KL6a>v and ;^itcoi' are inter- 
changed. The proper Ionic genitive 
would be Kvdprjs, which is used by 
Herodes in Stob. Floril. Ixxviii. 6 
(quoted in Hase and Dindorf s Steph. 
Thes.). Clem. Alex. Pat'd. ii. i (p. 165) 
has KvdpLSioLs ; and for instances of 
Kvdplvos (for x'^'^'P'-^o^) see Lobeck 
Pathol, p. 209. In the text of Clem. 
Alex, here ;^i;Tpa? is read. 

XVIIL 'Again take David as an 

CLEM. II. 



example of humility. He is declared 
to be the man after God's own heart. 
Yet he speaks of himself as over- 
whelmed with sin, as steeped in im- 
purity, and prays that he may be 
cleansed by God's Spirit'. 

10. Trposoj/] Comp. Rom. X.21, Heb. 
i. 7, and see Winer xlix. p. 424. 

Evpov K.T.X.] A combination of Ps. 
Ixxxix. 21 ivpov AaueiS tov hovkov 
fjLOV, iv eXat'o) ayia p.ov i'xpicra avTov, 
with I Sam. xiii. 14 avdpanrou kuto. 
Tf]v Kapdiav avTov, or rather with Acts 
xiii. 22 evpop Aave\8 tov tov 'leacrai, 
livSpa KaTci ttjv Kapbiav jj-ov (itself a 
loose quotation from i Sam. xiii. 14). 
In the first passage e'Aat'w the reading 
of SA is doubtless correct, the cor- 
responding Hebrewbeing}?3t^; though 
e'Xe'et is read by B. But Clement ap- 
pears to have read eXeet as our Greek 
MSS testify. Similarly in 56, when 
quoting Ps. cxli. 5, he reads eXotocr 
(i.e. eXeos) dfMapToaXcov for eXaiov ap.ap- 
TuAuv. On the interchange of ai 
and e in this word see above, I. p. 121. 
On the other hand Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iv. 17 (p. 611), quoting this 
passage of his namesake, restores 
the correct word iXala (if his editors 
can be trusted), as he would do 
naturally, if accustomed to this read- 
ing in the Psalms. 

12. 'EXe'jjo-oi'/c.T.X.] The 5 1st Psalm 
quoted from the LXX almost word for 
word. The variations are very slight 
and unimportant. 

5 



66 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xviii 

Me, 6 Oedc, kata to iwepA eAedc coy, kai kata to nAflOoc 
TcoN oiKTipMooN coy elAAeiS'ON TO ano'mhma moy- eni nAeiON 
nAYNON Me And thc anomiac moy, kai And thc amaptiac moy 

KABApicdN Me' OTI THN ANOMIAN MOY CffJ^ r'NOOCKOd, KA I H 
AMApTIA MOY CNcbnidN Mof eCTIN AlA nANTdc. COI MdNOO HMAp- 5 

TON, KAi TO noNHpdN eNobniON COY enoiHCA' onooc an AIKAIO)- 
0HC eN TOic Adfoic COY, kai nikhchc eN tco KpiNec6Ai ce. 

lAOY r^p eN ANOMIAIC CYNeAHM(j)0HN, KAI CN AMApTIAlC IkIC- 
CHCeN Me H MHTHp MOY- lAOY f^P AAhlGeiAN HfAnHCAC" TA 
AAhAa kai TA KpYCl)IA THC CO(})IAC COY fe'Al-iAOiCAC MOI. pAN- 10 

I ^Xeos] eXatoa A. 2 olktip/jlujp} oLKTeipjioiv A. iwl TrXeiov k.t. X.] C 

omits the rest of the quotation from this point to e^ovOefuiaei (inclusive) at the end 

2. em nXe'iov k.t.X.] i.e. 'wash me prosy or some other taint was purged 

again and again'. The Hebrew is according to the law; see Lev. xiv. 

'mukiply (and) wash me'. 4 sq, Num. xix. 6, 18, and Perowne 

6. oTrwy K.T.A.] This verse is quoted On //le Psa/tns, ad \oc. 

also Rom. iii. 4. The middle /cpiWo-- 12. aKourtets] For the word qkovt-i- 

6ai, Ho have a cmise adjudged, to (eip see Sturz de Dial. Afac. p. 144. 

plead^ is said of one of the parties to It was perhaps invented to translate 

a suit. The 'pleading' of God is a the Hiphil oi'^t^i^. 

common image in the Old Testament; 16. eu^es] A common form of the 

e.g. Is. i. 18, V. 3. In this passage neuter in the LXX, e.g. Judges xvii. 6, 

however the natural rendering of the xxi. 25, 2 Sam. xix. 6, 18, etc. The 

Hebrew would be Kpiveiv, not Kpivecr- masculine ev6r]i also occurs, e.g. Ps. 

6aL. xcii. 14. 

7. viKrjo-rfs] The future wKj^Vets is im- 19. ryeiioviKO)] The word occurs 
probable (see Winer xli. p. 304), frequently in the Greek philosophers, 
especially with a preceding 8iKaio)6fjs ; The Stoics more especially affected 
and the MS A is of no authority where the term, to ijyefioviKov, or ^yefioviKov 
it is a question between h and ei. without the article, using it to signify 
The LXX text (SB) has viKijajjs. the principle of life, the centre of 

8. eKicra-Tja-fv]' conceived', not found being, the seat of the personahty, 
elsewhere in the LXX. The sense the element which determines the 
and construction which the word has character, etc. (see Menage on Diog. 
here seem to be unique. Elsewhere Laert. vii. 86 159; Schweighauser 
it denotes the fastidious appetite of on Epictet. Diss. i. 20. 11 with the 
women at such a time and takes a index; Mayor on Cic. de Nat. Dear. 
genitive of the object desired ; comp. ii. 11 29). Considering the world 
Arist. Pax 497. to be an animated being, they dis- 

9. ra abrjKa K.r.X.] The LXX trans- cussed what and where was its 
lators have missed the sense of the ^yey^oviKov. The Stoic definition of 
original here. rjyeyioviKov in the human being, as 

II. va-a-ioTTof] As one defiled by le- given by Chrysippus, appears in 



XVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



67 



Tieic Me yccobnco, kai KAeApicOncoMAr nAyNeic Me, kai ynep 
XiONA AeyKAN9h'coMAi AKoyrieic Me apaAAiacin kai eycjjpocy- 

NHN' AfAAAlACONTAI OCTA TCT AH e I N OOMeN A. AnOCTpe^ON TO 

npdcconoN coy aho toon amaptkon Moy, kai hacac tac ano- 

[5 MIAC MOy elAAeiyON. KApAlAN KAGApAN KTl'cON 6N eMOl, O 

0e6c, KAI HNieyMA eyBec e'rKAiNicoN en to?c erKATOic Moy. 
MH Anopi'yHC Me aho toy npocobnoy coy, kai to hncyma to 

AflON coy MH ANTANeAHC a'h' GMOy. AnoAOC MO! THN AfAA- 
AlACIN TOY COOTHpiOy COy, kai HNeyMATI HreMONIKOJ CTH- 

of the chapter; see l. p. 128. -rrXeTov] vXiov A. 7 piKrjarjs'] viKrjcreuT 

A. 10 crov] A (with Lxx) ; om. S (with Hebr.). 11 irXweis] 

irXwieia A. 16 e7/cdrot?] evKaTOicr A, 



Diog. Laert. I.e. to KvpidraTov ttjs 
'^vx^js iv CO at tpavracTLni kul al opfial 
yivovTai Koi odev 6 \6yos dvaireixireTai. 
M. Antoninus divides the human 
being (ii. 2) into three parts, aapKia, 
TTvevfiaTLov, riyefjiOVLKov, which corre- 
sponds to his triple division else- 
where (iii. 16) (Tuma, -^vxT], vovs ; comp. 
tk V. 1 1. In Epictetus the use of the 
word is very frequent. A full defini- 
tion of it is given in Sext. Enipir. ix. 
102 (p. 414 Bekker) Traaai al eVl rot 
(J'^prj Tov bXov e^aTToa-TeWofxevni ^vva- 
peis cos ano Tivoi Tr/jy^y tov Tjyep,ovi- 
Kov i^airoaTtWovTai, with the context. 
It is identified by various writers 
with the \6yos or with the soils' or 
with the irvevpa or with the ^vxrj, 
according to their various philoso- 
phical systems. In Latin it becomes 
principatits in Cicero {de Nat. Deor. 
I.e. 'prmcipatum id dico quod Graeci 
j/yf/LtowKov vocant'j ?Lnd principale in 
Seneca {Ep. 92 i, 113 23, and 
elsewhere). So Tertullian de Resurr. 
Ccirn. 1 5 'principalitas sensuum quod 
r\yip,oviKov appellatur,' de Attini. 15 
'summus in anima gradus vitalis 
quod riyep-oviKov appellant, id est 
principale.' 

The Hebrew word ^''"IJ, here trans- 
lated rjyepoviKov, signifies 'prompt', 



'spontaneous', and so 'liberal in 
giving'. Hence it gets a secondary 
meaning 'a prince' or 'a noble', 
'generosity' or 'liberality' being con- 
nected with persons of this high rank. 
In this meaning, which is extremely 
common, the LXX translators seem 
to have taken it here; and the ideas 
which heathen philosophy associated 
with the word r^yepoviKos suggested it 
as an equivalent. Thus nvevpa jjye- 
pioviKov would mean ' a spirit which 
is a principle or source of Hfe.' The 
Hebrew phrase itself however seems 
to signify nothing more than 'an 
open, hearty, free spirit.' 

But, inasmuch as the Holy Spirit 
is the fountain-head of all spiritual 
life, the expressions nvevpa rjyepoviKov, 
'spiritus principalis', came soon to 
be used by Christian writers of the 
Holy Spirit ; and the passage in the 
Psalms was so explained, as e.g. by 
Origen Co)mn. ad Rom. 1. vii. i {Op. 
IV. p. 593 De la Rue) 'principalem 
spiritum propterea arbitror nomi- 
natum, ut ostenderetur esse quidem 
multos spiritus, sedinhis principatum 
et dominationem hunc Spiritum sanc- 
tum, qui et principalis appellatur, 
tenere'. This connexion indeed 
might appear to them to be suggested 

52 



68 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xviii 



picoN Me. AiAaIoo ANOMoyc TAC oAoYc coy, ka'i AceBeic 
enicTpevf'oyciN eni ce. pycAi mg il aimatoon, 6 Geo'c, o Oedc 

THC COOTHplAC MOy. AfAAAlACeTAI H fAOOCCA MOy THN AlKAIO- 

cyNHN coy. Kypie, to ctoma Moy ANoiIeic, kai ta xeiAH 
Moy ANArreAei thn AiNeciN coy on ei hiOeAHCAC 6yciAN, 5 
eAcoKA AN' oAoKAyTooMATA oyK eyAOKHceic. 6yciA Toj Oeo) 

HNeyMA CyNTerpiMMeNOM KApAlAN CyNTerpiMMeNHN KAI Te- 

TAneiNooMeNHN d Oedc oyK eloyOeNoocei. 

XIX. Tcov TOcrovTwv ovv Kal toiovtcov ovtco^ fjie- 
fjiapTvprifievoiv to TUTreivocbpovovv Kal to viroZee'i oia 10 
T^9 VTraKori'i ov fjiovov tijua^ ctWa kui toc? Trpo ijiucov 

4 sq TO (jT6ixa...TCi xe'^'?] A; the words are transposed in S with the Lxx and 
Hebrew. 9 Toaodrwv, rotoiyrw!'] A; transposed in CS. oCrws] A; 

om. C; Kal ovTws S. 10 TaTrLvo4>povovv'\ Taweivocppovov A; Taireivlicppov C. 

II dXXot] CS; aWaa- A. ras npo tj/jluv Ycj/eas] AS; toi>s irpb tj/jlcSv (omitting 

7ei'eds) C. 12 re] AC; om. S. 13 avrov] AC; rod 6eov S. 



by the words of the Psalm itself, 
since to -rvvevfia to ayiov crov occurs 
in the preceding verse. So in the 
Fragm. Mtirato?'. p. 18 (Tregelles), 
where speaking of the four Gospels 
this very early writer says that they 
are in perfect accord with one another 
'cum uno ac principal! Spiritu de- 
clarata sint in omnibus omnia'; on 
which passage see Hesse Das Mura- 
torische Fragment p. 109 sq. Thus 
irvevpLa ^yefioviKov furnishes an ad- 
ditional instance of the alliance of 
the phraseology of Greek philosophy 
with scriptural ideas, which is a 
common phenomenon in early Chris- 
tian literature. 

a-n^pia-ov] So SB read in the LXX, 
but A and others a-Trjpi^ov. On 
these double forms see Buttmann 
Ans/. Gr. Spr. 92 (l. p. 372) ; and 
on the use of a-Tijpiaov, etc., in the 
New Testament, Winer xv. p. loi. 
The scribe of A in Clement is in- 
consistent; for he has ea-vTjpi^fv ^ S, 
aT-qpl^aypLev 1 3, but iaTrjpKxev 33, 



and (TTrjpicrov here. 

2. aipiaT(Dv] The plural denotes es- 
pecially 'bloodsked\ as in Plat. Legg. 
ix. p. 872 E, and the instances col- 
lected in Blomfield's Gloss, to ^Esch. 
Choeph. 60 : see also Test, xii Pair. 
Sym. 4 f's cup-aTa napo^vvn, Anon, 
in Hippol. Hacr. v. 16 alp-acri ya'^P^^ ^ 
rovSe Tov KO(Tp,ov SeoTTorjys', Tatian. ad 
Graec. 8. The same is the force also 
of the Hebrew plural CfDl, of which 
alp-ara here and elsewhere is a ren- 
dering: comp. Exod. xxii. i, where, 
as here, 'bloodshed' is equivalent to 
'blood-guiltiness'. 

XIX. 'These bright examples of 
humility we have before our eyes. 
But let us look to the fountain-head 
of all truth ; let us contemplate the 
mind of the universal Father and 
Creator, as manifested in His works, 
and see how patience and order and 
beneficence prevail throughout crea- 
tion'. 

9. Toil' ToaovTcov K.r.X.] An imita- 
tion of Heb. xii. i. 



xix] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



69 



15 



20 



yevea^ ^eAr/ofS eTroiricrev, tovs re KaTahe^afjcevov^ to. 
Xoyia avTOv ev <po(iia Kal dXtjOeia. noWwu ovv Kal 
fjLeydXwv Kai evho^iov iueTei\ti<pOTe^ irpd^ecov^ eiravaZpa.- 
fAWjuev eirl tov e^ otjO;^>7? Trapa^e^ojuevou rjfjuv tZ/s eipt]i^r]<s 
aKOTTOV, Kai drevLa-wfjiev eis tov Trarepa kui kticttt^v tov 
cnjfji7ravT0<i Koa'/aoVj Kai Tah jueyaXoTrpeweo'i Kal virep- 
jSaWovG'aL^ avTOu ^a}p6aT<s Trjs elpt]vr]<i evepyecriai^ Te 
Ko\Xf]6wjJiev' 'Ihcojaeu avTov KaTa didi/oiai/ Kai ejulSXeyfyU)- 
JUL6V ToT^ ojujuao'iv Tt]<s ^v')(f]<i eU to fJiaKpodvjjLOv avTOv 
(SovXrjjua' vot](T(jojjiev ttco^ dop<y}]TO^ vTrap^ei Trpo^ Trdcrav 
Trjv KTioriv avTOV. 

I4 jrpdifw)'] C ; TTpa^aiuu A; add. tovtup, ddeX^ol dyatrTjToi S. 17 K6fffiov'] 

AC; hicjus vnmdi S; see above, 5, and below, ii. 19. 19 koWt]- 

6u/j.v] AC ; coiisideremus (vorjaui/xep) et adhacrcamiis S, but this is probably one 
of the periphrases which abound in S (see i. p. 136). 



10. roTreii'o^poj'oi}!'] See the note on 
TaTretro^poi/oji/ above, 17 ; and comp. 
38 below. 

TO vTroSees] '' sitbmissive7iess\ ''siib- 
ordinaiion\ This seems to be the 
meaning of the word, which is very 
rare in the positive, though common 
in the comparative vTroSfea-repos ; see 
Epiphan. Haer. Ixxvii. 14 to vrroSees 
Kai ijXaTTcofj.evoi', a passage pointed 
out to me by Bensly. Accordingly 
in the Syriac it is rendered di7niniitio 
et demissio. Laurent says 'Colo- 
mesius male substantivo subjectio 
vertit; coUaudatur enim h. 1. volun- 
taria sanctorum hominum egestas', 
comparing Luke x. 4, and Harnack 
accepts this rendering 'egestas'. But 
this sense is not well suited to the 
context, besides being unsupported ; 
nor indeed is it easy to see how 
wroSe?;'? could have this meaning, 
which belongs rather to evdeijs. It 
might possibly mean 'fearfulness', a 
sense assigned to it by Photius, 
Suidas, and Hesychius, who explain 
it vTr6({)oj3os. But usage suggests its 



connexion with 8(0fxai indigeo^ like 
aTToSeT/s, eVSeTfy, KaraSej^y, rather than 
with Seos tiinor, like aSejfy, irepiberjs. 

12. KaTabe^afiivovs] Davies proposes 
KaTaSe^oixevovs. The emendation would 
have been more probable if the pre- 
position had been different, SiaSe^o- 
fifvovs and not KOTade^ofxevovs. 

14. fxfTeiXrjcfioTes^ ''participated in\ 
i.e. profited by as examples. The 
achievements of the saints of old are 
the heritage of the later Church. 

15. elprjvrjs ctkottov] ''the /nark, the 
goal, of peace'. God Himself is the 
great exemplar of peaceful working, 
and so the final goal of all imitation. 

21. aopyrjTOi] '' cahii^ ; Ign. Philad. 
I, Polyc. Phil. 12 (note). Aristotle 
attaches a bad sense to the word, as 
implying a want of sensibility, Eth. 
Nic. ii. 7. Others however distin- 
guished dopyr)(xia from avaiadrjaia (see 
Aul. Gell. i. 27) ; and with the Stoics 
it was naturally a favourite word, e.g. 
Epict. Diss. iii. 20. 9 to uv^ktikov, to 
dopytjTov, TO npaov, iii. 18. 6 evaruduis, 
aldrjuovMs, ciopy^Tois, M. Anton. 1. i 



70 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[ 



XX 



XX. 01 ovpavoL Trj ^LOiKricrei avrov (raXevofxevoL 
ev eipt]pr] vTroTacrcovTai avrio' tjjULepa te Kai vv}^ tov 
rerajfjievov vir avrov dpo/mov ^lavvovcTLV, fj.t]bev dWrjXoi^ 
ijULTTodi^oi/ra. f/A.iOs re kul a-e\r]vr] dcrrepcDU re X^P^^ 
Kara tyiv diaTayriu avTOv ev Ojuovoia 3f% Tracrr]^ 5 
TrapeKJSdcrew^ e^eX'icrcrovcriv tov? eTTLTeraj jjievov^ avTol<i 
dpia-fjiov?. yrj Kvo(popov(ra Kara to deXyiiua avTOv toT^ 

I dioLK-fja-ei] AC; StKaiuxret S apparently. 4 re Kai] AS; Kal (om. re) C 

dcTTepwv T xopot] AC ; but S translates as if darep^s re Kal x^poi- 6 Trctpe/c- 

/3d(rews] .apeKJBacTewa A; Trapaj3daeu}s C. In S it is rendered in omni egressu cursus 



TO KaXorjdes kol aopyqrov. The word 
does not occur in the LXX or New 
Testament. 

XX. 'All creation moves on in 
peace and harmony. Night and day 
succeed each other. The heavenly 
bodies roll in their proper orbits. 
The earth brings forth in due sea- 
son. The ocean keeps within its 
appointed bounds. The seasons, the 
winds, the fountains, accomplish their 
work peacefully and minister to our 
wants. Even the dumb animals ob- 
serve the same law. Thus God has 
by this universal reign of order mani- 
fested His beneficence to all, but 
especially to us who have sought 
His mercy through Christ Jesus'. 

I. (Tokevoixevoi] If the reading be 
correct, this word must refer to the 
motion of the heavenly bodies, ap- 
parently uneven but yet recurrent 
and orderly ; and this reference seems 
to be justified by e^eXia-aova-iv below. 
'EaXeveadni is indeed frequently used 
in the Old Testament to express 
terror and confusion, in speaking of 
the earth, the hills, etc. ; but never of 
the heavens. So too in the Sibylline 
Oracles, iii. 675, 714, 751. On the 
other hand Young would read /x?) 
(TaXevoiJLevoi ; and Davies, improving 
upon this correction, suggests ov 
(TaXevojjid'oi, repeating the last letters 



of avToi). But such passages in the 
New Testament as Matt. xxiv. 29, 
Heb. xii. 26, 27, are not sufficient to 
justify the alteration ; for some ex- 
pression of vwtioii is wanted. Not 
' fixity, rest,' but ' regulated change ' 
is the idea of this and the following 
sentences. For this reason I have 
retained aaXevopievoi. In the passage 
of Chrysostom quoted by Young in 
defence of his reading, z'/z Psabn. 
cxlviii. 2 (v. p. 491) ovhlv crvvcx^Qr] 
Tcov ovrav' ov daKarra rrjv yfjv eiriKXv- 
af!/, ovx^ rjXios rode to opafxevov KaT- 
KavcTfv, ovK ovpavos irapecrakevdrj K.r.X., 
this father would seem purposely to 
have chosen the compound Trapaua- 
Xeveadai to denote disorderly motion. 
The same idea as here is expressed in 
Theoph. adAutol. i. 6 aaTpcov xopeiav 
yivopivrjv iv r<a kvkXw tov ovpavoii ois r] 
TToXvTToiKiXos ao<pia Toil Qeoi) naaw iSia 
ovopara KeKXr^Kev, comp. ib. ii. 15. 

5. iv opovoia] Naturally a frequent 
phrase in Clement; 9, 11, 34, 49, 
50, comp. 21, 30, 60, 61, 63, where 
likewise the word opovoia occurs. 

6. napeK^da-eois] The Other reading 
TrapajSaaecos destroys the sense. For 
the whole passage comp. Apost. 
Const, vii. 34 <p(x)a-Trjps...dTrapdl3aTOV 
(jd^ovTiS TOV ho\i)(ov Ka\ KaT ov8ev 
rrapaXXaaa-ovTes ttjs o'tjs ivpocrTayrjs. In 
the immediate neighbourhood is the 



xx] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



71 



l^ioi^ KaipoX'i TYiv TravwXtjdri avSpcoTTOi^ te kuI Orjpa-h kul 
Trdoriv toT^ ovcriv ett avTrjv ^woi^ dvaTeWei Tpo(pr]v, fir] 
10 ^L')(^ocrTaTOVG'a jurjhe dWoLOvcrd tl tcov hehoyiiaricrfjie- 
v(jdv VTT avTOv. dfSvcTCTwv T6 dve^L^VLa(TTa Kal vepri- 
pcov duEKhitjyrjTa Kpi/maTa to?? avToh a'vve-)(eTaL irpoo'- 
TayjuacTLv. to kvto^ Ttj-s dTveipov 6a\dcr(rt]^ kutu Tr]v 

ipsorum, which probably represents TrapeK^dcrews, and where probably the reading 
was 8ia for Six"- 8 TravTrXrjdT]] A ; TrapLTrXrjOyj C. 9 eTr' avTrjv'] 

A; ctt' auriis C; in ilia S. 



same quotation from Job xxxviii. 1 1 as 
here in Clement. 

eleXtWouo-ti/] Comp. Plut. Mor. 
p. 36S A TocravTaii ijixepais tov avrrjs 
kvkXov (^e\L(T(Tei{of the moon), Heliod. 
^th. V. 1404 5e Kepi TOV vofxia kvkKov^ 
ayepaxovi e^eXiTTovres (both passages 
given in Hase and Dindorf s Steph. 
Thes.). Thus the word continues the 
metaphor of xP'h describing the 
tangled mazes of the dance, as e.g. 
Eur. Troad. 3. The opiup,o\ therefore 
are their defined orbits. 

9. eV avTr]v\ For the accusative 
so used see Winer xlix. p. 426. 

ai/are'XXet] Here transitive, as e.g. 
Gen. iii. 18, Is. xlv. 8, Matt. v. 45 ; 
comp. Epiphanes in Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iii. 2, p. 512, ffKio^ Koivas 
rpocjias ^ciois ciiraaiv dvareXXd (mSS 
dvareXXfiv), which closely resembles 
our Clement's language here. 

10. Twv 8f8oyp,aTi(Tp,(va)v k. r. A.] 
Comp. 27 ovdiv p.r) wapeXdj] tQ)v Se- 
SoypaTi(Tp.eva)v vrr avTov. 

12. KpifiaTo] ''Statutes, ordinances,^ 
i.e. the laws by which they are 
governed, as e.g. 2 Chron. xxx. 16 
eaTTjaav enl rrjv crraaiv avrcov Kara 
TO Kpipa avTMv (' as they were ap- 
pointed '), 2 Chron. iv. 7 ras Xv^^ias 
Kara to /cpifia avT^v (comp. ver. 20). 
But KpipaTa is very awkward, and 
several emendations have been sug- 
gested, of which KXlpuTu is the best. 



We may either adopt this, or (as I 
would suggest in preference) strike 
out the word altogether. In either 
case we may fall back upon the con- 
jecture of Lipsius (p. 155, note) that 
Kp'ip.aTa was written down by some 
thoughtless scribe from Rom. xi. 33 
ave^epevvrjra r KpipaTa avToii Kai dv- 
e^i)^VLa(TToi al oSot avTov (he gives the 
reference ix. 33, which is repeated 
by Jacobson, and still further corrupt- 
ed ix. 23 by Hilgenfeld). Indeed the 
same word seems still to be running 
in the head of the scribe of A when be- 
low he writes Kpvpara for Kvp.aTa. The 
veprepa are the 'subterranean regions ' 
regarded physically. Yet KpipuTa is 
the reading of all our authorities. It 
must have been read moreover by 
the writer of the later books of the 
Apostolic Constitutions, vii. 35 dv^^- 
i\v'iauT(.)^ Kp'ip.a(Tiv. My attention has 
been called also to the connexion of 
words in Ps. xxxvi (xxxv). 5 to. Kpip-md 
aov [ojcrei] dlSvcrcros TroXXij. 

1 3. TO KiJro?] ' t/ie JioUow, the basin,' 
as Ps. Ixiv. 7 o (TvvTapdcrcruiv to kvtos 
Tfjs daXdcrcrrjs. In Dan. iv. 8 to kvtos 
is opposed to to v-\j/^os. Comp. also 
Theoph. ad Auto/, i. 7 o awTapdaaav 
TO K.VT0S Trjs 6aXd(ra-r]i, and Apost. 
Const, viii. 12 o avaTrjadfjievos a- 
fivcrcrov Ka\ /xe'ya kvtos o-VTrj ttc- 
pideis...7rr]yals aevaois p-eOvaas... 
iviavTcav kvkXols . . ve(jj(ov opjipoTOKiav 



72 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xx 



hrjjULiovpyiav avTOv (Tva-raQev eic tac cYNAro^T'^c ov irap- 
EK^cdveL ra TrepiredeiiuLeva avTrj KXeWpa, ciWd Kadu)^ 
liera^ev avr^, o\JT(i)<i TTOLeX. elirev jdp' "Ewe wAe 

1 brjiuovpyiav'] Brtmovpyeiav K. 3 oyrws] A; ovtm C 4 Kifxara] 

Kpvixara A. ffvvTpijSrjaeTai] A; ffwrpi^i^cTOVTai C. e, dvdp. dirip.] A; dwip. 



StaSpo/xais- fls Kapiraiy yovas Kai 
^axov (Tvaraaiv, crTadpiov avijxmv 
dianveovTcop k.t.X., in which passage 
the resemblances cannot be acci- 
dental. 

I. eh ray crvvaya>yas] From LXX 
Gen. i. 9 kul avvi]x^^ v8cop to vtto- 
KOTU) roil ovpavov els ras avvayayas 
avTmv, wanting in the Hebrew. It 
refers to the great bodies of water, 
the Mediterranean, the Caspian, the 
Red Sea, etc. 

irapeK^aivet k. r. A.] From Job 
xxxviii. 10, II edefirju Se avT opia 
Trepi6e\s KKeWpa kol nvXa^, eina Se avrfj 
Mexpi TovTov eXeva-jj Koi ovx VTrepjSricrr], 
dXX' ev (Teavrr) avvTpij3T]a'eTai aov ra 
Kvfiara : comp. also Ps. civ. 9, Jer. v. 22. 
4. (OKeavos K.T.X.] This passage is 
directly quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom. 
V. 12 (p. 693), by Origen de Princ. 
ii. 6 (l. p. 82, 83), Select, in Ezcch. 
viii. 3 (III. p. 422), by Jerome ad 
Ephes. ii. 2 (vii. p. 571). It must 
also have suggested the words of 
Irenaeus Haer. ii. 28. 2 'Quid autem 
possumus exponere de oceani accessu 
et recessu, quum constet esse certam 
causam ? quidve de his quae ultra 
eum sunt enuntiare, qualiasint?' On 
the other hand the expression o noXi/s 
Koi arrepuvTos avdpoonois (OKeavos used 
by Dionys. Alex, in Euseb. H. E. 
vii. 21 may be derived indirectly 
through Clement or Origen. On 
Photius see below, p. 86. 

5. dTreparos] ' impassable^ as the 
context shows, and as it is rendered 
in the translation of Origen de Princ. 
ii. 3 (' intransmeabilis '). The com- 
mon form in this sense is aivepaTos ; 



though airepavTos is read here not only 
in our MSS, but by Clem. Alex. p. 693 
and Dionys. Alex, in Euseb. H. E. vii. 
21, or their transcribers, and may 
possibly be correct. Yet as I could 
not find any better instances of this 
use than Eur. Med. 212, JEsch. Prom. 
1 59 (where Blomf. suggests airipaTos), 
and in both passages the meaning 
may be questioned, I have preferred 
reading anipuTos as quoted by Origen 
Select, in Ezech. viii. 3. 

The proper meaning of aTrepavTos, 
' boundless,' appears from Clem. Horn. 
xvi. 17, xvii. 9, 10, where it is found in 
close alliance with aireipos. See also 
Clem. Alex. Fragm. p. 1020. On the 
other hand for dnepaTos comp. e.g. 
Macar. Mdign.Apocr. iv. 13 (p. I79)p6i 
T(5 depei Koi rw )(eip,oi)Vi ttoXvs koi anepa- 
Toi. The lines in A here are divided 
Anep^N|TOC ; and this division would 
assist the insertion of the n. An 
earlier scribe would write <\nep&|TOC 
for (^nepAlroc. See Didymus Expos. 
Psal. 138 (p. 1596 ed. Migne) el yap 
Kai aKeavus dnepavTos, aXX' ovv Kai ol 
p,eT^ avTov KocrpoL toIs tov SecTTTorou 
bLaTayah huOvvovrni' TrdvTa yap Ta rrpos 
avTov yey evqp.va 07roi[o7roia?] ttot ecTTiv 
rayais Trjs eavTov irpovoias SioiKovfJieva 
WvveraL. This language may possibly 
have been derived from Origen, and 
not directly from Clement. Anyhow 
the recognition of both the various 
readings, Tayais, diuTayais, is worthy 
of notice. 

ol p.eT avTov KoapoL k.t.X.] Clement 
may possibly be referring to some 
known but hardly accessible land, 
lying without the pillars of Hercules 



xxj TO THE CORINTHIANS. 73 

H2eiC, KAI TA Ky'mATA COy In COI CYNTpiBhlceTAI. C0K6aVO9 

5 dv6pa)7roi9 drrepaTO'S Kai ol jueT avTou koo'/uloi Tah avra't's 
TayoL'i Tou decTTTOTOV dievdwovTai. Kaipoi eapivoi Kal 

avOp. C. airipaTo%\ Orig ; intransmeabilis S ; dwipavros AC Clem, Dionys, 

Didym. See the lower note. 6 rayaTs] AC; 5taTa7ars Origen. See below. 



and in foreign seas : as Ceylon (Plin. 
N. H. vi. 22 ' Taprobanen alterum 
orbem terrarum esse diu existima- 
tum estjAntichthonumappellatione'), 
or Britain (Joseph. B. J. ii. i6. 4 virkp 
(OK.favov erepav e^ijTrjaav ol<ovfJiivT]v Kai 
fi^xpi t5>v nvicrropi^Tcov rrporepov Bper- 
ravuiv hirjvfjKav to. onXa). But more 
probably he contemplated some un- 
known land in the far west beyond 
the ocean, like the fabled Atlantis of 
Plato or the real America of modern 
discovery. From Aristotle onwards 
(c/e Caelo ii. 14, p. 298, Meteor, ii. 5, 
p. 362), and even earlier, theories had 
from time to time been broached, 
which contemplated the possibility 
of reaching the Indies by crossing 
the western ocean, or maintained the 
existence of islands or continents 
towards the setting sun. The Cartha- 
ginians had even brought back a 
report of such a desert island in the 
Atlantic, which they had visited, 
[Aristot.] Mirab. Aitsc. 84 p. 836, 
136 p. 844, Diod. V. 19, 20; see 
Humboldt Exam. Crit. I. p. 130. 
In the generations before and after 
the time of Clement such specula- 
tions were not uncommon. Of these 
the prophecy in Seneca's Medea 
ii- 375 ' Venient annis saecula seris 
Quibus oceanus vincula rerum Laxet 
et ingens pateat tellus etc.,' is the 
most famous, because so much stress 
was laid on it by Columbus and his 
fellow discoverers : but the state- 
ments in Strabo i. 4 (p. 65), Plut. 
Mor. p. 941, are much more remark- 
able. The opinions of ancient writers 
on this subject are collected and ex- 



amined in the ist volume of A. von 
Humboldt's Exam. Crit.de la Gcogr. 
die Nouveau Continent : see also other 
works mentioned in Prescott's Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella ll. p. 102. This 
interpretation is quite consistent with 
the fact that Clement below ( 33) 
speaks of the ocean as to nepiexov 
rfji/ yfjv vdcop. 

At all events this passage was 
seemingly so taken by Ireneeus and 
Clement of Alexandria, and it is dis- 
tinctly explained thus by Origen (Set. 
in Ezech. viii. 3 sq, de Priiic. ii. 6) 
who discusses it at great length. All 
these fathers acquiesce in the exist- 
ence of these ' other worlds.' At a 
later date however this opinion came 
to be regarded with suspicion by 
Christian theologians. TertuUian, de 
Pall. 2, Hermog. 25, was the first 
to condemn it. The idea of the 
Antipodes is scouted by Lactantius 
Div. Inst. iii. 24, with other fathers 
of the fourth century and later (comp. 
August, de Civ. Dei xvi. 9) ; and in the 
reign of Justinian(ir.A.D. 535) the spe- 
culations of Cosmas Indicopleustes 
(Montlaucon Coll. Nov. Pair. II. p. 
113 sq), who describes the earth as 
a plain surface and a parallelogram 
in form (see Humboldt I.e. I. p. 41 
sq), stereotyped for many centuries 
the belief of Christian writers on this 
subject. It was made a special charge 
against Virgilius, the Irish geome- 
trician, bishop of Salzburg (f a.d. 
784); see Stokes Ireland and the 
Celtic CImrch p. 224 sq. 

6. rayai^Y directions^ ?i.% Hermes 
in Stob. Eel. i. 52. 40 fTroTrrrjp roivvv 



74 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xx 



Bepivoi Kal jueTOTTcopivoi kui y^eLfdepivol ev elptji/j^ juera- 
Trapa^L^oaa-LV dWriXoi^. dvefjuiav (TTadfjLol Kara tov 
idiov KaLpov Trjv XeiTOupyiau avTwv d.Trpoo'KOTrco'S eVtre- 
\ov(rLv' devaoL re Trr^yal irpo^ diroXavcnv Kai vyeiav 
dr] iuL0vpyr]6e'i(raL ^'ix*^ eWel^eto^ Trape^ovTaL tovs Trpo^ 5 
tcorj^ dvdpcoTTOi^ ptatov^. ra Te eAa;^fO"Ta tmv ^cocdv tocs 
(TuveXevcreis avTivv ev ojuoi/oia. koi eipiqvf] TroiovvTai. 
Tavra TrdvTa 6 /ueya^ hr]fJLLOvp'yo<s Kal decnroTrj^ tcov 
diravTcov ev eiprjvt] kul opiOvoLa irpocreTa^ev eivat, evepye- 

I fj-eTOTUpivol] ixedoirwpivoi A. fierawapadLSoaacv] A, and so app. S ; fxera- 

diSoaa-ip C. 2 dv^fxwv'] A; add. re CS. S translates ventique locorjim as if 

it had read dvejxol re arad/j-Qv. 3 ttjj'] AS; Kal ttjv C. XeLTovpylav] 

XeiTovpyetav A. 4 a.ivaoi\ A; aivvaoi C. dirokavcTLv] AC; add. re 

S. vyeiav'] A; iyleiav C. 5 irphs t^rjs] A; 7rp6s fwTji' C. S translates 



rayrjs earai tcov oXav o^vbtpK^s debs 
'A8pd(TTeia, with Other passages quoted 
by Hase in Stcph. Thes. s. v. Origan 
Sel. in Ezedi. 1. c, and apparently 
SiXso dePrific. I.e. (for the Latin is c//j'- 
positionibiis), has Starayal?, which 
some editors adopt ; but he would 
naturally substitute a common for 
an unusual word, and his quotation 
throughout is somewhat loose. 

1. /ieraTrapaSiSoacrii'] '' gwe ivay ill 
succession^; again a rare word, of 
which a few instances are collected 
in Hase and Dindorf's Steph. Thes. 

2. avepicdv o-ra^jLioi] From Job 
xxviii. 25 iiTolrjijev Se dvepcov araOpiov 
Ka\ v^arav pirpa, where it means 
' weight,' as the original shows. 
Clement however may have mis- 
understood the meaning ; for he 
seems to use the word in a different 
sense, ' the fixed order^ or ' the fixed 
stations^ as the context requires. 
The common Greek expression in 
this sense is orao-ety, e.g. Polyb. i. 
75> 8 Kara rtvos avepcoi' (rracrfis, ix. 5- 
23 eVtx<^P'ot raj rav dvepMi' crracreis 
KoWicTTa yivco(TKov(Ti : see Schweig- 
hauser on Polyb. i. 48. 2. A good 



illustration of Clement's meaning is 
the noble passage in Lucretius v. 
737 sq. 

3. aTrpoa-KOTTcos^ So again 61 
bieTreiv Tr]P vno (tov be^opivqv aurois 
rjyepoviav aTrpocrKoTrcos. For the cor- 
responding adjective nnpuaKonos, 
which seems to have been a spe- 
cially Pauline word (Acts xxiv. 16, 
as well as i Cor. x. 32, Phii. i. 10) 
see Philippians I.e. 

4. vydav\ A common foi'm in late 
writers : see Lobeck Paral. p. 28 
(with the references), Phryn. p. 493, 
Pathol, p. 234. It is so written in 
several inscriptions, and so scanned 
in 07ph. Hy/nii. Ixxxiv. 8 (p. 350, 
Herm.) iSKfiou eTnTrvelovcra Kal rjjrto- 
X^ipov vyelav (unnecessarily altered 
by Porson, Eur. Orest. 229, into -qnio- 
Xfip' vyieLav), and elsewhere. Editors 
therefore should not have substituted 
vy'ieiav. Compare rapfia 50. 

5. Tovs npos (mrji p.a(ovi] The meta- 
phor was perhaps suggested by Jer. 
xvni. 14 (lXX) ^17 KXL\lrov(Tiv dno 
rrerpas paaToi, which however departs 
from the existing reading of the He- 
brew. For npos C<ofjs, ' on the side of 



xxi] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



75 



lo Twi/ Ta TravTa, vTrepeKTrepKTcrco^ he r]iuLa<i tov^ TrpocTTre- 
(pevyoTU's toI^ oiKTipjuoT^ avTOv hia tov Kvpiov f]fj.coi/ 
' Irjaou XpicTTOu, do rj hopa Kai t] fxeyaXcocrvvt] ek tov9 
aiujva^ Twu amoviiov. djj.r]v. 

XXL 'Opare^ dya7rr]T0L, /ur] al evepyea-iai avrov 

15 ai TToWai yevwvTai els Kpijua irdcTLv YijJiiv, edv /urj dp'uos 
avTOv TroXiTevojuevoL Ta KuXa kul evapeaTa eviainov av- 
Tov TTOLcojuev juied' OfJLOvoLas. Xeyei yap ttov rTNeyMA 

ea quae ad viiam, omitting fia^o^is altogether. 7 crweXeiVets] AC ; anxilia (as 

if (TiiXXTji/'ets) S. 10 7rpoo'7re0eii7(3Tas] AS ; 7r/)ocr(/)e!;70j'ras C. II oiKTip- 

fj.ois] OLKTi.pij.oL<r A. 12 Kal Tj fj-eyaXoiavvri] AC ; om. S. 15 eh Kpijua 

waffiv f]/J.?v] A; els Kpl/xara avv ijixiv C (eiCKpiMATACyN for eiCKpiMAnACm) ; 
in judicium tiobis S; see I. p. 143. 16 aiiTov pri.] AC; om. S. 



life,^ ' conducive to life^ comp. Acts 
xxvii. 34 ""pos T/^s vfifTepas (rcoTrjpiaSj 
Clem. Mom. viii. 14 jrpos- Kocrfiov koX 
Tep-<\rea>s, and see Winer xlvii. p. 391. 
This sense of npos is more common 
in classical Greek. 

7. (Tvve'Kevcrei':] Comp. Jer. viii. 7 
'The stork in the heaven knoweth 
his appointed times ; and the turtle 
and the crane and the swallow ob- 
serve the time of their coming ', etc. 
Or it may refer to their pairing at 
the proper season of the year. Comp. 
Ptolem. Geogr. i. 9 (quoted in Steph. 
Thcs.). 

8. Sj^/itovpyo?] Only once in the 
New Testament, Heb. xi. 10: in the 
Lxx again only in 2 Mace. iv. i (and 
there not of the Creator). On the 
Christian use of this Platonic phrase 
see Jahn's Methodius 11. pp. 1 1, 39, 91. 

10. 7rpoo-(/)ei;yeir] Altogether a late 
and somewhat rare word : see i Sam. 
xxix. 3 (Sym.). It does not occur in 
the LXX or New Testament. 

12. T] 8('j^a Kut 7; p.ey.] So again ^5 64. 
In the doxology Jude 25 also the two 
words occur together; comp. Ecclus. 
xliv. 2. 

XXI. ' His blessings will turn to 



our curse unless we seek peace and 
strive to please Him. He sees ail 
our most secret thoughts. Let us 
therefore offend foolish and arrogant 
men rather than God. Let us honour 
Christ ; let us respect our rulers, and 
revere old age ; let us instruct our 
wives in purity and gentleness, and 
our children in humility and the fear 
of God. His breath is in us, and His 
pleasure can withdraw it in a mo- 
ment'. 

15- a^ioos TToktrevofxevoi] The ex- 
pression occurs in Phil. i. 27. Cle- 
ment's language here is echoed by 
Polycarp P/iit. 5. 

16. evapeara evcoTnov\ Heb. xiii. 21 ; 
comp. Ps. cxiv. 9. 

17. Xeyet -yap K.r.X.] Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iv. 17 (p. 611 sq) cites the re- 
mainder of this section and the whole 
of the next, continuously after g 17, 18 
(seethenote 17). For the most parthe 
quotes in the same loose way, abridg- 
ing and interpolating as before ; but 
here and there, as in the long passage 
Tas ywa'iKas ij/mcov ...dveXei ovttjv, he 
keeps fairly close to the words of his 
original and may be used as an au- 
thority for the readings. 



7^ 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxi 



Kypioy Ayxnoc epeyNooN li tamigTa thc rAcrpoc. ' Idiofiev 
TTw? iyyv^ ea-Tiu, Kai on ov^ev XeXrjBeu axWov tcov 
evvoLcdv rifjicdv ov^e t(jov dLaXoyiarjULwi' cuv TroLOVfxeva. ol- 
KULOv ovu ecTiv fjir] XnTOTaKTeiv tjjULd<s diro tov veXr]- 
juaTO^ avTOV' judWov dvOpcoTroL^ dcppoo'i Kai dvorirois 5 
Kal 7raipoiu6VOi^ Kai eyKav^oo^ei/oi^ ev dXa^oveia tov 
\6yov avToov TrpocTKO^cojULev rj tvo Qew. tov Kvpiov 
'If^aovv \XpL(TT6v\, ov TO aljuu vTrep rjfjcov c^oOr], evTpa- 

I Xi^x^'os] C Clem 6ii; 'Xvxvov A. Taiueta] AC; ra/iela Clem. 2 ia-riv] 

AC; a.dd. nodis S. oti] AC; om. (?) S. 4 Xt7rora/cxe?i'] A; XeLiroraK- 

retv C. 5 jxaXKov] AC; add. 5^ S. 6 eyKavx^tJ-^vois} ejKavxo}- 

fievoi A. aXa^oveia] aXa^ovM A. 8 Xpiarov] A; om. CS. 10 ri/xwv] 

A; om. CS. viovs] vaiova A. 11 Traideiav] TraiBiav A. tov (po^ov] 



Uvevfia Kvpiov k.t.X.] From Prov. 
XX. 27, which runs in the LXX 4>cos 
Kvpiov TTVoTj ai'dpooTToyv o j epevi'a {fpavva) 
TUfiela {rafjufla) KoiXias. A adds rj 
Xvxvos after dvdpcinoov, but this must 
originally have been a gloss suggest- 
ing an alternative reading for (pas, as 
\vxvos is actually read by Aq. Sym. 
Theod. ; see a similar instance of cor- 
rection in this MS noted above on 17. 
Comp. also Prov. vi. 23 Xv^i^os evroXri 
vo/jLov Koi (j)(os. from which passage 
perhaps Xvxpos came to be interpo- 
lated here. Hilgenfeld prints Xeyet yap 
nov TTPfvfia Kvpiov Avxvos epevvSv k.t.X. 
and finds fault with Clem. Alex, for 
making the words nvevpa Kvpiov part 
of the quotation (Xeyei yap irov rj ypafjii] 
nvevp-a Kvpiov k.t.X.) ; but they seem to 
be wanted to complete the sentence. 
Our Clement in fact quotes loosely, 
transposing words so as to give a 
somewhat different sense. See below, 
Is. Ix. 17 quoted in 42. For the exact 
words Xeyet yap wov see 1 5, 26, and 
for other instances of Xeyei (or 4>r](Ti) 
with no nominative expressed, . 8, 
10, 16, 29, 30, 46. On the spelling of 
Tajxula (ra/Lieia) Clement (or his tran- 
scriber) is capricious : see 50 (note). 



2. e'yyws icTTiv] As below 27 ; 
comp. Ps. xxxiv. 18, cxix. 151, cxlv. 
18, Ign. Ephes. l^ to. KpvnTa rjp.a>v iy- 
yiis avTco icrTiv (with the note), Herm. 
Vis. ii. 3. There is no allusion here 
to the nearness of the advent, as in 
Phil. iv. 5 (see the note there). 

ovhiv XiXrjBev K.r.X.] This passage 
is copied by Polycarp Phil. 4 koI 
XeXrjdev avTov ovbev oi/Te Xoyicrpav 
ovT evpoLwv. On 8iaXoyi(Tp.oi, ''iyiivard 
qtiestionijigs^ see the note on Phil, 
ii. 14. 

4. XvK0TaKTiiv\ So avTop.6Xklv be- 
low, 28. Ignatius has the same 
metaphor but uses the Latin word, 
Polyc. 6 p.r]Ti<i vpcov deaepTcop ivpidr] : 
see the note there. 

On the authority of our older MS I 
have preferred the form XmoTUKTeiv. 
There is poetical authority for the 
simple vowel in XnroTa^iov; see 
Meineke FragDi. Com. il. p. 12 14, 
III. p. 71, with the notes. So too in 
analogous words, wherever they occur 
in verse, the form in t is found : e.g. 
Xmavyri's, Xnrovavs, XmopavTrji, Xi- 
TTomvoos, XiTToaapKJjs, Xmo^vxelv. The 
grammarians differed on this point ; 
see Choeroboscus in Cramer's y^;/i?67/. 



XX l] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



11 



TTcojULev Tov^ '7rpor]yovfJievov'i rificov aldea-dcojaev, rovs 
10 TrpecT^vrepov^ tjjULcop TLfXf'ia'UiiJ.ev, roi)? veov^ Traideuorcojuev 
rr]v Traideiau rod <p6^ov rod Qeov, ras yvvaiKWi rjixwv 
67rc TO d<ya66v diopdcoa-coiueda- to d^iayaTrriTOV Tt]^ 
dyve'ia^ rj6o<s evheipdadMcrav ^ to aKepaiov Tijs TrpauTtjTO^ 
avTcov (^ovXt]fjLa aTTodei^aTcoa-au, to eTTieiKe^ Tt]^ yXwa-- 
15 crt]^ avTMV ^m t^7? aiyt]^ (pavepoi^ noirja'aTcoa'ai'' Tt]v 
dydirriv avTwu, jurj kutu 7rpocrK\i(reL<s, dWa iracnu toIs 

AC; om. S. 13 dYcei'as] ayviacr A. Clem 612 has the order ^6os rr,s 

ayveias. evSei^aadwcrav'] AC Clem. Bryennios wrongly gives the reading of A 

Clem as iv^ei^aTwaav (ad loc. and comp. p. p^S'). 14 /3otiXr;^a] AC; NJ"'2V'l 

(xat ^ov\y)ixa) S. 15 (ri7^s] CS Clem; (pwvria A. 16 Trpocr/cXtVetj] 

AS ; Trpo(TK\7]<Tei% C. This same itacism occurs several times in C, 47, 50. 



Graec. Bibl. Oxon. II. p. 239 Xeyei 
6 'Qpos oTi navTa trapa rn Xeinco oia 
rfji ei 8i(f)6oyyov ypa(^erai, oiov XeiTTo- 
vecos, XetTTora^ta, XfinoTa^iov, Xeino- 
crrpaTeiov' 6 8e 'Qpiyivrjs 8ia rod i Xeyei 
ypa4>ea-dai. There seems to be no 
poetical and therefore indisputable 
authority for the ei. 

5. a4)p. Kol dvoi]T.] LXX Jer. X. 8 
afia licppoves Koi dporjroi flat, found in 
some copies, but not in the principal 
MSS. The former word points to 
defective reason, the latter to defec- 
tive perception. Comp. 39. 

6. eyKavxoip.evois K.r.X.] See James 
iv. 16 Kavxo.(Tde iv rais aXa^oveiais 
v/xav. 

7. Tov Kvpiov K.T.X.] Clem. Alex, 
(p. 61 1 sq), as commonly punctuated, 
quotes the passage t6v Kvpiov 'irja-ovv 
\eyu)...ov TO aifia vtrep r}p.(i)v riyiaadr^' 
evTpancofifv ovv rovs Trporjyovfiepovs rj- 
fiwv, Koi alBecrdaifjLev tovs TTpea^vTipovs ' 
Tip.^craipei' rovs veovs, Traidevcrcofiev ttjv 
naibdav tov Qeov. A different punctua- 
tion, KoX aldeadSfxev' rovs Trpecr^vrepovs 
Tifxri(ra>p.ev' tovs veovsTratSevcrcofiev k.t.X., 
would bring the quotation somewhat 
nearer to the original. 

9. TOVS TTporjyovfifvovs^ i.e. the offi- 



cers of the Church ; see the note on 
Tois rjyovp.ivois I. The following 
tovs npeafSvTfpovs must therefore refer 
to age, not to office. 

10. TOVS veovs K.T.X.] Copied by Po- 
lycarp Phil. 4 to. reKva 7rai8evfLu rrjv 
TraiSelav tov (pofiov rov Qeov. Comp. 
Prov. xvi. 4 (xv. 33) (f)6^os Kvpiov 
naiBeia, and Ecclus. i. 27 where the 
same words are repeated. 

15. (Tiyrjs] They must be eloquent 
by their silence, for ywai^l Koa-fxov 7) 
aiyr) (pepei. This meaning is so obvi- 
ously required, that I had restored 
a-iyfis in my first edition on the au- 
thority of the Alexandrian Clement 
alone in place of the senseless (})o)vfjs 
of A. It is now confirmed by our 
two new authorities. Hilgenfeld re- 
fers to I Cor. xiv. 34 sq, i Tim. ii. 11. 

T7]v dydnrju k.t.X.] So too Polyc. 
Pliil. 4 dyanfiXTas ncivTas $ laov ev 
Traa-T] eyKpareia. The numerous close 
coincidences with this chapter in 
Polycarp show plainly that he had 
our epistle before him. 

16. Kara npnaKXiaeis] From I Tim. 
v. 21 p-rj^ev noiwv KaTO. npofTKXicnv. 
The word Trpoa-KXia-is occurs again 

47, 50- 



78 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xxi 

(pofiovfjievoL's Tov Qeov oorioi^ 'la^v Trapex^Twcrav' tu 
TEKva t]jjiu)v t;7? eV Xpiarru} Traidela^ fjieraXafji^aveTtocrav' 
juadeTCOcrav, ti raTreivocppoo-uur] vrapa Oew i(r^vei^ tl 
dyciTrri dyur) vrapd tco Oeu) hvvaraiy ttco^ 6 (pof3o<i avToO 
KaXo^ Kai fj.e<ya<i Kal aroo^wv TravTa^ tov ev avTco ocrico^ 5 
aVaa'Tped)o//eVoL's ev Kadapa ^lavoia' epevvyjTrj^ yap icTTiv 
evvoLuiv Kal evdv{jL>]ore(ov' ov y] ttvoy] avrov ev rifMv icTTLV, 
Kal brav 6e\r] dveXel auTr]V. 

XXII. TauTa de iravTa (^e^aiol t] ev XpicTTw ttlot- 
TL^' Kal yap ocl/tos ^la tov TrvevjULaTO^ tov dyiov ovT(i)<i lo 
TTpocrKaXeLTai i]iud<s' Aeyxe tekna, AKoycATe moy, (t)6BoN 
Kypioy AiAaIco ywAC. tic Ictin ANGpoonoc d BeAooN zooh'n, 
ATAno^N HMepAC iAe?N ataSac; nAycoN thn rAwccAN coy Ano 
KAKoy, KAI xeiAH Toy MH AaAhcai AoAon" IkkAinon And 

2 Tjfiwv] S Clem; v/j.Qi' AC. ixeraXafx^aviTwcrav] AC; fieToXa^eTueav 

Clem. 3 I'crxtyet] icrxw- A. 4 t(^] A ; om. C Clem. avrov'] ACS ; 

TOV Kvpiov Clem. 5 Koi au'^uv] AC ; et liberans et salvans S ; (tJi^wv (om. Kai) 

Clem. oaiias] AC; deiws S. See above, 2, 14. 6 diapoiq.] AC; 

Kap5ig. Clem. eaTiv} AC ; om. Clem. 7 ivOvfi-qaeuv] C ; evdvixi-jaanov 

A; ivOv/jLTj/jLaruv Clem. 8 dveXet] A; dvaipd CS. 9 5e] AC; om. S. 

10 ovTuis] AC; but Bryennios reads ovtw without indicating that he is departing 
from his MS. 12 tls iariv avOpuwos] C omits from here to ptjcrerai airbv 6 

Kijpios, and begins again elra TroXXat at ixduTiyes rod a/xaprwAoO k.t.X. (1. 21). 

I. oaicos] This word is best taken ful and God-loving, but threatening 

with irapfx^'''^(^^v, for it would be an utter destruction to the sinful and 

unmeaning addition to rol? (po^ovfxe- disobedient'. 

vois TOV Sew. 9. TaiiTa 8e navra k.t.X.] i.e. Faith 

6. epevvrjTrjs k.t.X.] As Heb. iv. 12 in Christ secures all these good re- 
KpiTiKos iv6vyi,r}cre(ov /cat ivvoiwv Kop- suits ; for it is He Himself who thus 
Stay. appeals to us, not indeed in the flesh, 

7. oii...avTov] A Hebraism, for but through the Spirit, where David 
which see Winer xxii. p. 161. says 'Come etc' For avTos irpoa-Ka- 

8. ai/eXet] On the rare future eXw Xetrai see above, 16 aiVoy^T^o-ii', with 
of alpeo) see Winer xv. p. 94 with the note. 

his references: comp. Exod. xv. g, 11. AeSreK.r.A.] FromLXXPs.xxxiv, 

2 Thess. ii. 6. 1 1 sq almost word for word. The 

XXn. 'AH these things are as- differences are unimportant, 

sured by faith in Christ. He himself 18. to iJLvrip.6(Tvvov] See the note on 

speaks to us by the lips of David, evKUToXeip.pa above 14. 

promising all blessings to the peace- eKeKpa^ev] In the existing text of 




xxiii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 79 

15 KAKOy KAI nOIHCON ArAeON' ZHTHCON eipHNHN KAI AlOO^ON 

AYTHN. d(t)0AAMOi Kypioy eni AiKAioyc, kai wta aytoy npoc 
AeHCiN AYTa)N- npocoonoN Ae KypiOY eni noioyNTAc kaka 
TOY ezoAeOpeycAi sk thc to mnhmocynon aytojn. eKeKpAleN 
6 AiKAioc KAI Kypioc eiCHKOyceN aytoy kai eK nAcc2)N 

zoTWN GAiVeooN AYTOY epycATO AYTON. noAAAi Ai BAiVeic Toy 
AiKAioy KAi eK nAcouN pyceTAi ayton d Kypioc* eiTa' 
rToAAAi aI MACTirec Toy AMApTooAoy, Toyc Ae eAni'zoNTAC 
eni KypioN eAeoc KyKAoocei. 

XXIII, 'O OLKTipfjiiov Kara TravTa Kai evepyeTiKO'i 

!5 7raTt]p e~x^eL (T7r\ay)(^va eV/ tous (po^ovfjievov^ avrou, 
f]TTL(jd^ Te Kai Trpocnji^w^ Tas '^(^apLTa^ avTOu (XTro^ido'L toT^ 
irpocrep-^oiJ.evoi'i avTco aTrXrj ^lavoia. hio /ULt) ^lylyv^w- 
ixeuy iu>]^6 iv^aWe(r6(a t] ^v^U tjnicov eni rah virepfiaX- 

14 /cat] A Clem (with Lxx); om. S. X^'^^?] A; add. aov S Clem with the 

LXX (v. 1.). 16 ocpdaXiioLl A Clem (with A of lxx and Hebr) ; on 6(p9a\/uiol 

S (with BS of LXX), Trpos] A; els Clem with the lxx. 18 eKiKpa^ev k.t.X.] 

See below. 20 dXltJ/ewv] dXixpaiwv A. aiirov] om. Clem. noWal at 

6\l\l/is...6 Kiyptos] S; om. A; def. C. 21 eiral C ; et iteruni S, frequently a 

translation of /cat irdXiv, which possibly we should read here; but see below, 23, 
fiera Tavra. 22 at] ACS; fikv yap C\&\n.. toO d,tiaprwXoO] AC ; tGjv 

d/iapTuXQiv Clem lxx. rot/s de iXirl^ovTas] A Clem ; top Se iXwi^ovTa CS with the LXX 
and Hebr. 23 Aeos] C Clem; eXaiocr A. 24 ocKTip/j.wi'] oiKreLp/j.ui' A. 

Clem. Alex, this is read eKeKpa^ev Se o stituted for t6v iXirlCovra. 

Kvpioi /cat etVr;(coi/o-e, obviously a cor- XXIII. 'God is merciful to all 

ruption. that fear Him. Let us not spurn 

20. TToXXai at dXiylreis k.t.X.] This is His gracious gifts. Far be from us 

from Ps, xxxiv (xxxiii). 20, the verse the threats which the Scriptures hurl 

but one following the preceding quo- against the double-minded, the im- 

tation. The LXX however has the patient, the sceptical. The Lord will 

plural rav 8iKaia>v, avrovs, and SO it is certainly come, and come quickly', 
quoted in 4 Mace, xviii. 15. The 28. ii/SuXXeo-i^a)] 'indulge in ca- 

Hebrew has the singular, and so the prices and hi(!noHrs\ The word is 

Peshito. The words have obviously generally passive, ' to be formed as 

been omitted in A owing to the re- an image', 'to appear', and with a 

currence of IloXXat at, and should be dative 'to resemble'; see Ruhnken 

restored accordingly. Timaetts s.v. Here however it is a 

IloXXat ai p.a(Triyfs k.t.X.] An exact middle signifying 'to form images, to 

quotation from Ps, xxxii. 10 (lxx), conjure up spectres', and so 'to in- 

except that roiis eXTrifoiray is sub- dulge in idle fancies', like the later 



8o 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxiii 



XovG-cti^ Kai ii/do^ois S(i)pea7^ auTOv. Troppu) yevecrda) ci<p' 
rifjiMV r] <ypa(pri aurr], ottov Xeyei' TAAAincopoi eiciN oi 
Ai'yyXOI, 01 AicTAZONTec THN yYX'HN, 01 AfcTONTec, Tayta hkoy- 
CAiweN KAI eni toon nAjepooN hmoon, kai iAoy rernpAKAiweN 

I Tr6ppw yev^ado}] AS ; ir6ppw ye yeviadw C. See below, 33. 1 aurij] 

AS; aiiTov C. 3 r7]v \pvxriv'\ A; ry \j/vxv C ; dub. S. 5 avv^i^riKev] 



use of <f)avTa^e(T6ai. The lexicons do 
not recognize this use, but see Dion 
Chrys. OraL xii. 53 (p. 209 m) npore- 
pov fiev yap are ov8ev (Ta(f)es etSorey 
(iWrjv aXXos aveTrXarrofXfv I8fav, irav 
TO dvTjTov Kara ttjv eavrov 8vvap.Lv Kai 
(f)V(riv lv8aWopevoi Ka\ oveipcoTTovres, 
Sext. Emp. adv. Math. vii. 249 eVmt 
{(pavTaa-lai) rraXiv cltto vnapxovTos pev 
fldiv, ovK aiiTo 8e to inrdpxov lv8a\- 
XovToi K.r.A., xi. 122 o TOP ttXovtov 
peyiaTov ayadov IvhaKkopevos, Clem. 
Alex. P?vtr. 10 (p. 81) xP^^^ V 
\i6ov T] 8v8pov TJ npa^iv tj nados 
r) voaov rj (f)6(3ov lu8aXXea6ai cos 6env, 
Method. Sy/iip. viii. 2 eVt evSrjpovaai 
Tois acopaaiv lv8akXovTai ra deiu. (1 he 
last two passages I owe to Jahn's 
Method. II. p. 51 ; the others I had 
collected before I saw his note.) So 
'iv8aKpa most frequently suggests the 
idea of an unreal, spectral, appear- 
ance, as Wisd. xvii. 3 lv8a\paa-iv e/c- 
Tapaaa-opfvoi, Clem. Hoin. iv. 4 ^a.v- 
TaapaTa re yap Ka\ lv8a\paTa ev pfcrrj 
TTj dyopa (paiveadai ttoimv 81 rjpepas 
Tvacrav iKTrKrjTTei rrjv rroXiv, Athenag. 
Stlppl. 27 oX ovv aXoyoi avrai Ka\ Iv- 
8aXpaTm8eLS ttjs yjyvxvs Kivqaeis {18(C- 
Xopavels dnoTiKTovcn (pavraaias, where 
he is speaking of false objects of wor- 
ship. 

2. TaXairrapoi K.r.A.] The same pas- 
sage is quoted also in the 2nd Epistle 
ascribed to Clement ( 11), being there 
introduced by the words Aeyet yap Ka\ 
6 7rpo(f)i]TiK6s Aoyos. Though the quo- 
tation there is essentially the same, 
yet the variations which it presents 
show that it cannot have been de- 



rived directly or solely from the First 
Epistle. Moreover it is there con- 
tinued, ovTcos Ka\ o Xaos pov aKaTaaTa- 
(jias Kai dX[yj/eis ecrx^v, eWetra ottoA?^- 
yJAeToi TO dyada. As this passage does 
not occur in the Old Testament, it 
must have been taken from some lost 
apocryphal writing. Some writers 
indeed have supposed that Clement 
here, as he certainly does elsewhere 
(e.g. 18, 26, 29, 32, 35, 39, 46, 50, 
52, 53, and just below raxv fj^ei 
K.r.A.), is fusing several passages of 
the Canonical Scriptures, such as 
James i. 8, 2 Pet. iii. 4, Mark iv. 26, 
Matt. xxiv. 32 sq (Mark xiii. 28 sq, 
Luke xxi. 29 sq); but the resem- 
blances though striking are not suffi- 
cient, and this explanation does not 
account for the facts already men- 
tioned. The description 6 7rpo(f)riTLKos 
Xoyos and the form of the quotation 
o Xaos pov K.r.A., as given in the 2nd 
Epistle, show that it must have been 
taken from some spurious prophetic 
book formed on the model of the 
Canonical prophecies. I would con- 
jecture that it was Eldad and Modad, 
which was certainly known in the 
early Roman Church; see Herm. Vis, 
ii. 3 eyyiis Kvpios rols eTricTTpecpopevois, 
o5s yeypaTrrai ev rw EA8aS Ka\ Mco8a8 
Tols 7rpo(j)rjTev(Ta(rLV ev tjj eprjpat rco 
Xaa, a passage alleged by Hernias 
for the same purpose as our quota- 
tion, to refute one who is sceptical 
about the approaching afflictions of 
the last times. On this apocryphal 
book see Fabricius Cod. Pseud. V.T. 
I. p. 801. It may have been forged by 



XXIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



8l 



5 KAi oyAeN hmTn toytoon cyNBeBHKeN. ih anohtoi, cyMBAAere 
eAyroyc SyAw- AaBctg AMneAoN" npooTON men cj^yAAopoei, 
eiTA BAactoc riNeTAi, eljA (j)yAAon, e?TA anGoc, kai mcta 
TAYTA om(|)a5, elxA cta(})yAh nApecTHKY?A. Opdre, otl ev 

A ; <rvfj,^ipr]Ky C. 6 TpCirov fiiv (pvWopoei'] AS ; om. C. 7 kcu fiera 

ravra] translated in S as if eira, the koI being omitted. 

some Christian to sustain the courage 
of the brethren under persecution 
by the promise of the Lord's advent ; 
and, if so, the resemblances to the 
New Testament writings in this quo- 
tation are explained. Hilgenfeld sug- 
gests the AssumptioH of Moses (see 
the notes 17, 25) as the source of 
this quotation, but does not assign 
any reason for this view except his 
own theory that Clement was ac- 
quainted with that work. 
o( Siyj/vxoi K.T.X.] Comp. James i. 8 

avT]p dl'^v^oi duarddTaTos (v jracrats 

raij Qhoi% avTov. For the parallels in 
Hermas see the note on 11. The 
conjecture in the last note is con- 
firmed by the fact that Hermas gives 
repeated warnings against hi^vyia 
and even speaks thereupon in the 
context of the passage referring to 
'Eldad and Modad.' For close re- 
semblances to this quotation see Vis. 
iii. 4 ^"^ Tovi hv^v-)(ovi Tovs 8ia\oyi- 
(ofjievovs fv Toii Kap8iais avrmv el apa 
ea-Tai ravra fj ovk ea-rai, Matld. ix. 01 
yap 8i(rTa(oi>rs eli rov Qeov ovroi flcriv 
01 Bi'^v^oi K.r.X. 

3. oi Xfyovres K.r.X.] 2 Pet. iii. 4 
Ka\ Keyovrfs Uoii ((rrtv 7; fnayyeXla rrjs 
rrapov(rias avroii; a.(f)' fji yap oi Trarepes 
eKoip^drjaav, navra ovras 8iap.evei an 

4. Kal (TTi] 'also in (he time of\ 
Either the speakers use the first 
person r\Kov(Tap.tv as identifying them- 
selves with the Israelite people of 
past generations, or (as seems more 
probable) eVi rOtv Tvarfpoiv must mean 
'when our fathers were still alive', 
i.e. 'in our childhood and youth.' It 

CLEM. II. 



will be remembered that this apo- 
cryphal prophecy is supposed to be 
delivered to the Israelites in the 
wilderness. At all events we cannot 
arbitrarily change ejrl into otto with 
Young and most subsequent editors 
(Jacobson and Hilgenfeld are excep- 
tions), for eVi is read in both our 
MSS, both here and in ii. 11. 

6. Xa^tre apneXov k.t.X.] The 
words strongly resemble Mark iv. 26 
sq (comp. Matt. xxiv. 32 sq, Mark xiii. 
28 sq, Luke xxi. 29 sq). See also 
Epict. Diss. iii. 24. 86 o5? o-vkov, <os 
a'ra(pvXT], rfj rtrayp^ivrj apq roii i'rovs, 
iii. 24. 91 ro (pvXXoppoelv Kal ro la-xd8a 
yivfadai airt crvKOv Ka). a(TTa(f)i8ns: 6K 
rrji (TTacpvXfjs k.t.X., M. Anton. xi. 35 
op(f)a^, (Tra(f>vXi], aracf^is, irdvra pera- 
jSoXai OVK els to pfi ov dXX' els to vvi> 
prj ov. 

cjivXXopoel] For the orthography 
see the note on e^epl((oaev 6. 

8. TrapecTTrjKv'ia] 'ripe'; Exod. ix. 
41 j) yap Kpidrj Tj-apeaTrjKvui. So Theo- 
phrastus Caus. Plant, vi. 7. 5 Trapia-rd- 
pevos Kal e^io-rdpevos, of wine ripening 
and going off (see Schneider's note). 
Similarly napaylvea-dai is used, e.g. 
Herod, i. 193 irapaylverai o a'lTos- 
The words op(f>a^, ora^vXr;, a-Ta(f>U 
(da-Tacfyis), denote the sour, ripe, and 
dried grape respectively ; see the 
passages in the previous note, and add 
Ant/ioL III. p. 3, IV. p. 131 (ed. Jacobs). 

'Opdre K.T.X.] This sentence is 
generally treated by the editors as 
part of the quotation, but I think this 
wrong for two reasons; (i) In the 
2nd Epistle, where also the passage 
is cited, after aracjivXrj napeaTrjKvia fol- 

6 



82 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxiii 



Kaipu oXiycp eh TreTreipov KaTavra 6 KapTro^ rod ^vXov. 
CLTT dXriQeia^ "T^^X^ ^^'- ^^oi'i-^vr]'5 TeXeicodyjorerai ro (3ou- 
XrijuLa avTOu, orvveinfJiapTVpovcrr]^ Kai Trj^ ypaCpf]^ otl 
TAXY H2ei KAI OY XP'^'^'^'^' '^'^' elAi'^NHC Hiei 6 Kypioc eic 

TON NAON AYTOY, KAI 6 AflOC ON f'^eic npOCAOKATe. 5 

XXIV. Karavoi^o'iiofjiev , dyaTryjroi, ttws 6 dea-TroTrj^ 
ewiheLKVVTaL ZirjveKco^ rijjuv Ttjv fjieXXovcrav dvao'Tao'iv 
'iorecrdai, r]<s tyiv dTTap-)(Y]v eTTOLrjcraTO tov KvpLOv ' lr]crovi/ 
XpLG-TOv e/c veKpwv dvacrrria'a^. 'i^cofjev, dya7rr]T0i, Tt]v 
Kara Kaipov yLVOfJievr}v dvaoTTaa-iv. tj/nepa Kai vu^ lo 



I Triireipov] irtwipov A. 2 e^a^^vrys] e^etpv-qa A. 4 e^ai<pvri%\ 

e^aixvvc A. 7 iTriSelKwrai dLTjveKuis tj/uv] A (but eTndiKPVrai); SirjveKUi 

ijfjuv iiridelKvvffi, C; monstrat nobis perpetuo S. 8 T7;^ dTrapxV] AC ; add. 

^Sr; S. 9 ^pi<TTov\ AS; om. C. 10 ko-to. Ka.ipov\Q,\ KuraKai... 

A; in omni tempore 'i. '^wotJ.hy\v'\ AC; add. y]ixw S. 11 Koinarai... 

Tlfi^pa] AC ; S renders as if it had read KOL/j-arai [rts] vvkt6s, avlararai rifiipas. 



lows immediately the sentence ovrwi 
Ka\ 6 \a6i fiov K.T.X. ; the words opare 
K.T.X. not only not being quoted but 
being hardly compatible with the form 
of the context as there given ; (2) opare 
is an expression by which Clement 
himself elsewhere, after adducing a 
quotation or an example, enforces its 
lesson; as 4, 12, 16, 41, 50. 

I. els !Ti7ripov\''to maiurity\ The 
construction Karavrav els is common 
in the LXX and N.T.; see also above 

5. _ 

4. Taxv rjei K.r.X.] A combina- 
tion of Is. xiii. 32 Ta^v ep^erai kcii ov 
Xpovie'i (comp. Hab. ii. 3, Heb. x. 37), 
and Mal. iii. I koI e^alcfivrjs ij^ei els 
TOV vaov avTov Kuptos ov vp,e'is ^rjTe'iTe 
Kai 6 ayyeXos rfjs SiadrjKrjs ov vfieis 
BeKere. The substitution of 6 ayios 
for 6 ayyeXos k.t.X. may have been 
intentional, but is much more pro- 
bably an inadvertence of Clement, 
who quotes from memory largely but 
loosely and is influenced by the in- 
terpretation which he has in view 



(e.g. 42 Karaa-rijaco tovs enicrKoTrovs 
K.T.X., where he cites Is. Ix. 17). This 
portion of Malachi's prophecy is 
quoted much less frequently in early 
Christian writers than we should have 
expected. On the other hand the 
first part of the same verse l8ov aTro- 
crrf'XXco rov ayyeXov p,ov is quoted 
Matth. xi. 10, Mark i. 2, Luke vii. 27, 
and not seldom by the early fathers, 
by whom, following the evangelists, it 
is explained of John the Baptist. 

XXIV. 'All the works of the 
Creator bear witness to the resur- 
rection. The day arises from the 
grave of the night. The young and 
fruitful plant springs up from the 
decayed seed'. 

The eloquent passage in TertuUian 
(ie Resurr. Carn. 12, 13, where the 
same analogies are adduced, is pro- 
bably founded on this passage of 
Clement (see above, I. p. 160). Com- 
pare also Theoph. ad Aut. i. 13, 
Tertull. Apol. 34, Minuc. Fel. 48, 
especially the passage of Theophilus, 



xxv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



83 



dva(TTa(TLV tjjuiv hr]\ov(riv' KOiiuaTai t] vv^, dvicTTaTai 
tljuepa' t] rifxepa aTreLcnv^ vv^ eTrepx^Tai. XafBcojuev 
TOi)s Kapirous' 6 cnropo^ ttws kul Tiva TpoTrov yiveTai ; 
elHAOeN d cneipooN Kai e^aXev eU Tt]v yfjv eKucrov tcov 

5 (nrepficLTiov, ciTiva ireorovTa ek Tr]V yfju ^r}pa Kai yu/uiva 
diaXveTaL. eiT 6k Tt]^ dia\v(re(jt)^ rj /ueyaXeioTris; tyj^ 
irpovoia^ tov decnroTOv dvia'Tr]<Tiv avraj kui e'/c tou eVos 
TrXeiova av^ei kul 6K(p6p6i Kapirov. 

XXV. 'IZwfjLev TO Trapdho^ov crrifjLeioVy to yLvo- 

5 fxevov ev toIs dvuToXiKoh tottol^, TOvrearTLv T0i5 nepi 

aviaTaraL rjfj.ipa\ dviffTaraL rj rjfiipa C ; aviaTarairi... A. After the H Tisch. thinks 
he sees part of a second h and would therefore read tj T]/j.pa. Having more than 
once inspected this MS, I could only discern a stroke which might as well belong to 
a M as to an H ; and the parallelism of the clauses suggests the omission of the 
article. 15 ^VP^ i^^^ 7U/a^a] AC ; ^7]pav S. 



which has many points in common 
with Clement. 

8. rrjv dirapxri''] I Cor. XV. 20 
XpiCTTOS iy-qyeprai k vKpu>v airapxr] 
Tav KfKoifMrjfjievav; comp. ver. 23. It 
is evident from what follows that 
Clement has this 1 5th chapter in his 
mind. 

10. Kara Kaipov] ''at its proper 
season'. In my first edition I adopted 
the reading Kara Kaipovs, ' at each 
recurring season ' ; as in the parallel 
passage Theoph. ad Aut. i. 13 Kma 
Kaipovs irpocjifpovcriv tovs KopTTovs, but 
in deference to the recently dis- 
covered authorities, I now adopt 
Kara Kaipov. 

12. XajSw/ifi/] So again ;i7 Xa- 
Qatfifv TO (Ta>p,a ^jiav. 

14. i^Tikdev K.r.X.] The expression 
is borrowed from the Gospel narra- 
tive ; Matt. xiii. 3, Mark iv. 3, Luke 
xiii. 5. 

15. yvpiv(i\ See I Cor. xv. 36 sq, 
rom which this epithet is derived. 
t denotes the absence of germina- 
ion : see the rabbinical passages 



quoted by Wetstein on i Cor. I. c, 
and Methodius in Epiphan. Haer. 
Ixiv. 44 (p. 570) Karapadf yap to. a-rrep- 
p.aTa Trd)? yvfxva Koi aaapKa ^aXXerai 
ii Trjv yrjv K.r.X. 

16. 8iaXverai]^rot'. Comp. Theoph. 
ad Aut. i. 13 npaTOv dno6vi]aK(c 
Koi Xverai. This analogy is derived 
from I Cor. xv. 36; comp. John xii. 
24. 

18. av^ei] Intransitive, as in Ephes. 
ii. 21, Col. ii. 19. It is treated how- 
ever as a transitive in the Syriac, 
where av^ei and eK(f)epei have the 
same subject as avlarr-qcnv. 

XXV. 'The phoenix is a still more 
marvellous symbol of the resurrec- 
tion. After living five hundred years 
he dies. From his corpse the young 
bird arises. When he is fledged and 
strong, he carries his father's bones 
and lays them on the altar of the sun 
at Heliopolis. This is done in broad 
daylight before the eyes of all : and 
the priests, keeping count of the 
time, find that just 
years have gone by'. 



five hundred 



6 2 



84 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxv 



TVjV 'ApajSlav. opveov yap ea-riv o Trpoa-ovo^d^erai 



I 6pveov^ opvaiov A. 



I. opveov K.r.X.] The earliest men- 
tion of the phoenix is in Hesiod 
{Fragm. 50 ed. Gaisf.), vvho however 
speaks merely of its lon.^evity. It is 
from Herodotus (ii. 11) that we first 
hear the marvellous story of the burial 
of the parent bird by the offspring, 
as it was told him by the Egyptian 
priests, but he adds cautiously l^ioX 
fifu ov TTKTTa 'Keyovres. It is men- 
tioned again by Antiphanes (Athen. 
xiv. p. 655 b) ev 'HXiov fiiv (paa-i yly- 
vfo-dai noXei (j)oiviKas. From the 
Greeks the story passed to the Ro- 
mans. In B.C. 97 a learned senator 
Manilius (Plin. A''. N. x. 2) discoursed 
at length on the phoenix, stating that 
the year in which he wrote was the 
215th since its last appearance. He 
was the first Roman who took up the 
subject. At the close of the reign of 
Tiberius a.d. 36 according to Pliny 
(following Cornelius Valerianus) and 
Dion Cassius (Iviii. 27), but A.D. 34 
as Tacitus reports the date the 
marvellous bird was said to have 
reappeared in Egypt. The truth of 
the statement however was ques- 
tioned by some, as less than 250 
years had elapsed since the reign of 
the third Ptolemy when it was seen 
last (Tac. Ann. vi. 28). But the 
report called forth many learned dis- 
quisitions from savants in Egypt 
both native and Greek. A few years 
later (a.d. 47) the bird was actually 
exhibited in Rome ('in comitio pro- 
positus, gt/od actis testatum est,' are 
Pliny's words) and may have been 
seen by Clement, but no one doubted 
that this was an imposture. The 
story of the phoenix of course has a 
place in Ovid's MetamorpJioscs (xv. 
392 ' Una est quae reparet seque ipsa 
reseminet ales' etc.), and allusions 
to it in Latin poets are naturally 



not unfrequent. Claudian devotes a 
whole poem to it. Another ascribed 
to Lactantius {Corp. Poet. Lat. p. 1416 
ed. Weber) also takes this same sub- 
ject. The references to the phoenix 
in classical and other writers are 
collected by Henrichsen de Phoenicis 
fabtila Havn. 1825. 

The main features of the account 
seem to have been very generally 
believed by the Romans. Thus Mela 
(iii. 8), who seems to have flourished 
in the reign of Claudius, repeats the 
marvellous story without any expres- 
sion of misgiving. Pliny indeed de- 
clines to pronounce whether it is 
true or not ('baud scio an fabulose'); 
but Tacitus says no doubt is enter- 
tained of the existence of such a bird, 
though the account is in some points 
uncertain or exaggerated. Again 
yElian {Hist. An. vi. 58), who lived 
in Hadrian's reign, alleges the phoenix 
as an instance of the superiority of 
brute instinct over human reason, 
when a bird can thus reckon the time 
and discover the place without any 
guidance ; and somewhere about the 
same time or later Celsus (Origen c. 
Cels. iv. 98, I. p. 576), arguing against 
the Christians, brings it forward to 
show the greater piety of the lower 
animals as compared with man. 
Still later Philostratus {Vit. Apoll 
iii. 49) mentions the account without A 
recording any protest. I do not lay 
any stress on such passing allusions 
as Seneca's {Ep. Mor. 42 'lUe alter 
fortassetamquam phoenix semel anno 
quingentesimo nascitur'), or on de- 
scriptions in romance writers like 
Achilles Tatius (iii. 25), because no 
argument can be founded on them. 

It thus appears that Clement is 
not more credulous than the most 
learned and intelligent heathen wri- 



xxv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



8^ 



ters of the preceding and following 
generations. Indeed he may have 
thought that he had higher sanction 
than the testimony of profane authors. 
TertuUian {de Restirr. Cam. lo) took 
Ps. xcii. 12 SUaios (OS (f)o2vi^ dvd^a- fi 
to refer to this prodigy of nature, and 
Clement may possibly have done the 
same. Even Job xxix. i8 is trans- 
lated by several recent critics, 'With 
my nest shall I die and like the 
phoenix lengthen my days' (comp. 
Lucian Hcrmot. 53 r\v firj (f)OLvi.Kos 
errj j3ico(t/;), therein following some 
rabbinical authorities : but even if 
this be the correct rendering, the LXX 
version, through which alone it would 
be known to Clement, gives a different 
sense to the words, rj qXiKta fiov yrjpd- 

(Tfl aXTTTep aT\f)(OS (f)OlVlK09, TToXvv 

xpwof 010)0-0). The passage of Job 
xxix. 18, in relation to the phcenix, is 
the subject of a paper by Merx in 
his Archiv. f. Wiss. Forsch. d. Alt. 
Test. II. p. 104 sq (1871). 

At all events, even before the Chris- 
tian era the story had been adopted by 
Jewish writers. In a poem on the 
Exodus written by one Ezekiel, pro- 
bably an Alexandrian Jew in the 2nd 
or 3rd century B.C. (see Ewald Gesch. 
IV. p. 297), the phoenix, the sacred 
bird of Egypt, is represented as ap- 
pearing to the Israelite host (see the 
passage quoted by Alexander Poly- 
histor in Euseb. Praep. Evang. ix. 
29, p. 446). Though the name is not 
mentioned, there can be no doubt 
that the phoenix is intended ; for the 
description accords with those of 
Herodotus, Manilius (in Pliny), and 
Mela, and was doubtless taken from 
some Egyptian painting such as He- 
rodotus saw and such as may be seen 
on the monuments to the present day 
(see Wilkinson's Anc. Egypt. 2nd 
sen I. p. 304, RawHnson's Herod. 11. 
p. 122). In the AssHDiption of Moses 
too, if the reading be correct (see 
Hilgenfeld Nov. Test, extra Can. 



Rec. I. p. 99), the 'profcctio phocnicis' 
is mentioned in connexion with the 
exodus, and it seems probable that 
the writer borrowed the incident from 
Ezekiel's poem and used it in a simi- 
lar way. The appearance of the 
phoenix would serve a double pur- 
pose; (i) It would mark the epoch; 
(2) It would betoken the homage paid 
by heathen religion to the true God 
and to the chosen people : for Alex- 
andrian Jews sought to give expres- 
sion to this last idea in diverse ways, 
through Sibylline oracles, Orphic 
poems, and the like ; and the atten- 
dance of the sacred phoenix on the 
departing host would not be the least 
eloquent form of symbohzing this 
homage in the case of Egypt. But 
this Ezekiel, though he coloured the 
incident and applied it to his own 
purpose, appears not to have invent- 
ed it. According to Egyptian chro- 
nology the departure of the Israelites 
was coincident or nearly coincident 
with an appearance of a phcenix (i.e. 
with the beginning of a phoenix- 
period). Tacitus {Ann. vi. 28) says 
that a phoenix had appeared in the 
reign of Amasis. If this were the 
earlier Amosis of the 17th or i8th 
dynasty and not the later Amosis of 
the 26th dynasty (the Amasis of 
Herod, ii. 172), the time would coin- 
cide; for the Israelites were consi- 
dered by some authorities (whether 
rightly or wrongly, it is unnecessary 
here to enquire) to have left Egypt 
in the reign of this sovereign; e.g. 
by Ptolemy the priest of Mendes 
(Apion in Tatian ad Graec. 38 and 
Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 21, p. 378) and 
byjulius Africanus(Routh's Rel. Sacr. 
II. p. 256). For rabbinical references 
to the phoenix, which seem to be 
numerous, see Buxtorf Lex. Rab. s. v. 
?"in, Lewysohn Zoologie des Talmiids 
p. 352 sq ; comp. Henrichsen 1. c. 
II. p. 19. The reference in a later 
Sibylline too {Orac. Sid. viii. 139 



86 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxv 



oTav (jioiviKos iire\6r} Trevraxpovoio) was 
probably derived from an earlier 
Jewish poem. 

Thus the mere fact that the phoenix 
is mentioned in the Assumption of 
Moses affords no presumption (as 
Hilgenfeld supposes) that Clement 
was acquainted with that work ; for 
the story was well known to Jewish 
writers. In the manner and purpose 
of its mention (as I interpret it) the 
Assumption presents no coincidence 
with Clement's Epistle. The pas- 
sage in the Assumption of Moses is 
discussed by Ronsch in Hilgen- 
feld's Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. Theol. 
XVII. p. 553 sq, 1874. Ronsch takes 
the reading profectio Phoenices, and 
explains it of the 'migration from 
Phoenicia', i.e. Canaan, into Egypt 
under Jacob. And others also take 
fynicis to mean Phoenicia, explaining 
it however in different ways. See 
Hilgenfeld's note to Mas. Assumpt. 
p. 130. In this way the phcenix en- 
tirely disappears from the passage. 

Of subsequent Christian fathers, 
TertuUian, as we saw, accepted the 
story without misgiving. As Theo- 
philus of Antioch {ad Aut. i. 13) fol- 
lows Clement's analogies for the re- 
surrection up to a certain point, but 
omits all mention of the phcenix, 
I infer that his knowledge of Egyp- 
tian antiquities (see ii. 6, iii. 20 sq) 
saved him from the error. For the 
same reason, as we may conjecture, 
Origen also considers the fact to be 
very questionable {c. Cels. iv. 98, i. 
p. 576). But for the most part it 
was believed by Christian writers. 
S. Cyril of Jerusalem {Cat. xviii. 8), S . 
Ambrose (see the quotations, I. 167, 
172), Rufinus {Symb.Apost. 11, p. 73), 
and others, argue from the story of 
the phoenix without a shadow of mis- 
giving. In Apost. Const, v. 7 it is 
urged against the heathen, as a fact 
which they themselves attest; and 
Epiphanius {Ancor. 84) says etr olkovjv 



acfuKTai noWav in<JTa>v re kch anidTav. 
On the other hand Euseb. ( Vit. Const. 
iv. 72) gives it merely as a report, 
Greg. Naz. {Orat. xxxi. 10, I. p. 
562 d) says cautiously ei' rw ttio-tos 
6 \6yos, and Augustine de Anim. iv. 
33 (20) (x. p. 404) uses similar lan- 
guage, 'Si tamen ut creditur'; while 
Photius {Bibl. 126) places side by 
side the resurrection of the phoenix 
and the existence of lands beyond 
the Atlantic ( 20) as statements in 
Clement to which exception may be 
taken. Other less important patris- 
tic references will be found in Suicer's 
Thes. s.v. (po'ivi^. 

It is now known that the story 
owes its origin to the symbolic and 
pictorial representations of astrono- 
my. The appearance of the phcenix 
is the recurrence of some prominent 
astronomical phenomenon which 
marked the close of a period. Even 
Manihus (Plin. N. H. x. 2) had half 
seen the truth; for he stated 'cum 
hujus alitis vita magni conversionem 
anni fieri iterumque significationes 
tempestatum et siderum easdem re- 
verti'. For the speculations of 
Egyptologers and others on the 
phoenix period see Larcher Mem. de 
I' Acad, des Inscriptions etc. I. p. 166 
sq ( 1 8 1 5 ), Lepsius Chronol. d. Aegypt. 
p. 180 sq, Uhlemann Handb. d. Ae- 
gypt. Alterthumsk. iii. p. 39 sq, 79 
sq, IV. p. 226 sq, Poole Horae Ae- 
gyptiacae p. 39 sq, Ideler Haridb. der 
Chfon. I. p. 183 sq, Creuzer Symb. u. 
Mythol. II. p. 163 sq, Br ugsch A egyp- 
tische Studien in Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. 
Morgenl. Gesellsch. x. p. 250 sq (i 856), 
Geograph. Inschrift. der Altaegypt. 
Denkmdler I. p. 258 (1857), Wiede- 
mann Die Phoenix- Sage in Zeitschr. 
f. Acgyptische Sprache etc. xvi. p. 89 
sq (1878), Lauth Die Phoenix-Periode 
1880 (a separate issue of a paper in 
Abhandl. d. Bayer. Akad. der IViss.). 
The actual bird, around which this 
mass of symbolism and of fiction has 



xxv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



87 



I /j-ovoyep^sl fiovoyevria A. 



gathered, bears the name bennu in 
the Egyptian language and appears 
to be the ardca ctnerea (or purpurea), 
a bird of passage ; see Wiedemann 
I.e. p. 104. 

Thus the phoenix was a symbol 
from the very beginning. Horapollo 
says that in the hieroglyphics this 
bird represented a soul, or an inun- 
dation, or a stranger paying a visit 
after long absence, or a restoration 
after a long period {airoKaTa^TTauw 
7To\vxp6vLov), Hierogl. i. 34, 35, ii. 57. 
The way was thus prepared for the 
application of Clement. This Apo- 
stolic father however confines the 
symbolism to the resurrection of 
man. But later patristic writers di- 
versified the application and took 
the phcEnix also as a type of the Per- 
son of our Lord. The marvellous 
birth and the unique existence of 
this bird, as represented in the myth, 
were admirably adapted to such a 
symbolism : and accordingly it is so 
taken in Epiphan. (I.e.), Rufinus (I.e.), 
and others ; see especially an un- 
known but apparently very ancient 
author in Spicil. Solesm. ill. p. 345. 
Some of these writers press the par- 
allel so far as to state that the phoenix 
arises after three days. The fact 
that a reputed appearance of the 
phoenix was nearly coincident with 
the year of the Passion and Resur- 
rection (see above, p. 84) may have 
assisted this application. At a later 
date the Monophysites alleged the 
phoenix as an argument in favour of 
their peculiar doctrines (see Piper 
Mythol. u. Sy7nbol. der Christl. Ku7ist. 

I. I, p. 454). 

For the representations of the 
phoenix in early Christian art see 
Piper I.e. p. 456 sq. Before it ap- 
pears as a Christian symbol, it is 



found on coins and medals of the 
Roman emperors (for instances see 
Piper p. 449) to denote immortality 
or renovation, with the legend SAEC. 
AVR., or AETERNITAS, or AICON. It is 
significant that this use begins in the 
time of Hadrian, the great patron 
and imitator of Egyptian art. 

I. /^towyei/es] ''alone of its kind, 
U7iique\ This epithet is applied to 
the phoenix also in Origen, Cyril, and 
Apost. Const. V. 7, and doubtless as- 
sisted the symbolism mentioned in 
the last note. The statement about 
the phoenix in Apost. Const, (f^aal yap 
bpveov Ti novoyeves VTrap)(fiv k.t.X. is 
evidently founded on this passage of 
Clement; comp. e.g. el toivvv...8i 
dkoyov opviov SeiKwrai r/ dvacrraais 
K.T.X. with Clement's language in 
26. So also in Latin it is 'unica', 
'semper unica', Mela iii. 9, Ovid Ajh. 
ii. 6. 54, Lactant. Phoen. 31, Claudian 
Laud. Stil. ii. 417. Thus Milton 
Samson Ag07iistes 1699 speaks of 
'that self-begotten bird... That no 
second knows nor third,' and again 
Paradise Lost v. 272 'A phoenix gaz'd 
by all, as that sole bird. When to 
enshrine his reliques in the Sun's 
Bright temple to Egyptian Thebes 
he flies'. Why does Milton despatch 
his bird to Thebes rather than Heli- 
opolis? 

'irr] KivraKo(Tia\ The longevity of 
the phoenix is differently stated. 
Hesiod gives it (9x4x3x9 = ) 972 
generations of men ; Manilius (Plin. 
A'^. H. X. 2) 509 years ; Solinus {PolyJi. 
36) 540 years ; authorities mentioned 
in Tacitus 146 1 years, which is the 
length of the Sothic period; Martial 
(v. 7), Claudian, Lactantius, and 
others, 1000 years; Chaeremon (in 
Tzetzes Chil. v. 6. 395) 7006 years. 
But, says Tacitus, 'maxime vulgatum 



88 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxv 



yevojuevov re ijdr] 7rp6<i clttoXvo'iv tov aTrodaveiv avTO, 
(rt]K6v eavTM ttolcT k Xifidvov Kai (T/ULvpvr]^ Kai twv 
XoLTTwv dpwfjiaTcov., ek ov TrXrjpcoOevTOs tov )(^povou 
elcrepx^Tai Kai TeXevra. (Tr]7rofj.evr]^ he Trjs capKo^ 
(TKioXr]p Tis yevvaTai^ 69 e/c ry]^ iKfJiaho^ rod rere- 5 
XevT)] KOTOS ^coov di/aTpecpojuei/os iTTepo(pveL' eiTu <yev- 
vaTo's yevofjievos a'lpei tov crr]KOU eKeivov ottov tu 
oa-TO. TOV TrpoyeyovoTOS eCTiv, Kai TavTU (iacTTa^uiv 
^Lavvei diro Trjs 'Apa^iKrjs -^wpas tcd'i Trjs AiyvvrTOV 
6f9 Triu XeyofJievnv ' HXlovttoXiv' Kai t^juepas, (SXewov- 10 
TO)!/ wduTcoVi eTTtTrra? eTTi tov tov fjXiov jSwiuov Ti6r](riv 



I re] A ; 5^ CS. 3 tov xpoi'oO] AC ; add. vitae suae S. 4 reXei/r^ 

AC ; add. in illo S. 5^] AS ; re C. 5 7ej'mTat] A ; kfiivarai. CS, 

the latter translating nascitur in ea illic. 5s] AC ; So-xts (apparently) S. reTf.- 
Xei;T?7/c6Tos] reXeurTjKOTocr A; TeXeuTTjffacros C; see I. p. 126. 7 ar]Kbv 

eKeivov] AC; S adds H^inn |0 { = KVK\6dev avroO). 8 ^aardi^wv] ^aara^ov 



quingentorum spatium'; and this is 
adopted by almost all the Christian 
fathers together with most heathen 
writers ; of the latter see a list in 
Lepsius Chron. p. 180. 

I. TOV dnodavflv avro] 'so that it 
should die ^ explaining the preceding 
yevo\i.evov npos dnoXva-iv 'at the eve of 
its dissolution'; comp. 46 ep^o^eda 
acTTe fTTi\a6e(Tdai rj/xay. This con- 
struction seems to me preferable to 
connecting avro with what follows, 
as in the Syriac version ; for in this 
case I should expect that avro eavTa 
would stand in juxtaposition, as e.g. 
Rom. viii. 23, 2 Cor. i. g. 

5. (tk(oXt]^ Tis yewdTai] This mode 
of reproduction is not mentioned by 
Herodotus (ii. 73) ; but it formed part 
of the story as related by Manilius to 
the Romans and is frequently men- 
tioned by subsequent writers. To 
this account is sometimes added the 
incident that the parent bird lights 
its own pyre and that the worm is 



found in the smouldering ashes ; e.g. 
Artemid. Oneirocr. iv. 47 avroy favrw 
TVOiTjadfievos eK Kuaias re Kai afivpvrjs 
nvpdv aTTodvijcTKer Kavdeiarjs 8e r^r ttv- 
pds fxerd \p6vot> eK ttjs (nro8ov (TKcoXrjKa 
yevvdcrBai Xeyovcriv k.t.X. (comp. Mar- 
tial V. 7). It is interesting to observe 
the different stages in the growth of 
the story, as follows- (i) The lon- 
gevity alone (Hesiod); (2) The en- 
tombment and burial of the parent 
by the offspring (Herodotus) ; (3) The 
miraculous birth of the offspring from 
the remains of the parent (Mani- 
lius) ; (4) The three days' interval 
between the death of the parent and 
resuscitation of the offspring (Epi- 
phanius). 

6. yevvdlos] ''strong, lusty ^ as e.g. 
Dion Chrys. vii. p. 228 R \<Txvpo\ en 
veoi Kai yevvaioi Ta crap-nra. It corre- 
sponds to Ovid's 'Quum dedit huic 
aetas vires'. 

9. biavvei] 'makes its way\ fre- 
quently used absolutely, e.g. Polyb. 



xxvi] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



89 



auTa, Kal outco^ eU TOVTriaio dcpop^a. 



01 ovv lepei^ 
eTrKTKeTTTOi/Tai tu^ dvaypacpa^ twv 'x^povMV kul evpicr- 
Koucriv avrov TrevruKOO'LOG'TOv eroiy? 7r67r\ripa)juevov eXrj- 
5 Xvdevai. 

XXVI. Meya kul davixaarov ovv vofJLi^Ofxev elvaL, 
el 6 ^rifXLOVp'yo'i twv cLTravTuiv dvaaTacrLv TroitjaeTai 
T(t)v dcr/ws avTco dovXeuaavToyv ev TreTroidrjcrei TricTTeu)^ 
dyadf]^, OTTOV Kai ^i opveov ^eiKwaiv i^iuiv to jueya- 
i 20 \elou rf]^ eTrayyeXias avrov', Xeyei yap ttov Kai 

elANACTHCeiC Me KAI elOMOAorHCOMAI cor KAI eKOIMHeHN 

KAI fnNoocA, elHrepOHN, OTi cy mgt eMoy eT. Kai TraXtv 

A. 9 diaviet] C; diavevei A; niigrat volans S. 11 Ka,vrij3v\ A; 

a.vavT(j}v C. ^TTtTrrds] AS; om. C, doubtless owing to the following eTrt. 

12 lepels] AC; add. ol t^s Myvirrov S. 14 ireTrXTjpu/xivov] AS ; irX-qpovfjiivov 

C. 19 opviov Se'iKvvaLv'] opvaiov diKWcnv A. /aeyaXelov] fieyaXiop A. 

20 e7ra77eX^as] e-rrayyeXeiaa- A. 22 i^rjy^pdrjv] A; /cat e^rjy^pdrjv CS. 



iii. 56. I {airo), iv. 70. 5 (), ii. 54. 6 
(Trpoy). The word occurs above, 20. 
The reading of A, biavevei, is out of 
place, for it could only mean 'turns 
aside', i.e. for the purpose of avoiding. 
Several instances of the confusion of 
biavvdv and biavfvau by transcribers 
are given by Jahn Methodius ll. p. 
no. 

13. ray amypa^as] ^ the public re- 
cords'' ; comp. Tatian ad Grace. 38 
AtyuTTTt'coi' Se i\<jw aX eV aKpL^es XP^' 
vav dvaypa4>ai. For the Egyptian 
dvaypa(f)aL see also Diod. Sic. i. 44, 69, 
xvi. 51, Joseph, e. Ap. i. 6 sq. The 
recently discovered register of the 
epiphanies of the bulls Apis is a par- 
allel instance of such chronological 
records; see Bunsen's Egypt I. p. 62 
(2nd ed.). 

XXVI. 'Is it then strange that 
God should raise the faithful, when 
He has given this marvellous sign? 
To such a resurrection we have the 
testimony of the Scriptures'. 

16. Me-ya Km 6av\i.a<jr(}v\ For the 



same combination of epithets see 

50, 53- 

17. 6 8r]p.i.ovpyos k.t.X.] See above 
20. On this Platonic phrase com- 
pare Jahn Afethodius li. pp. 39, 91. 

1 8. v TTfTroiGrjcrei /c.t.X.] 'z' the con- 
fidence which cotnes of honest faith ' : 

comp. Ephes. iii. 12 e'v nfTroidijaei 8id 
Trjs TTtVrews avrov, and below 35 
ttIcttis iv nfiroidrjo-ei. The phrase tt/o-- 
Tis dyadrj occurs Tit. ii. 10, where 
however nia-ns seems to mean 'fi- 
delity.' 

19. TO ixtyaXelop] ' the greatness' ; 
comp. 32, 49. It occurs Acts ii. 1 1, 
Luke i, 49 (v.l.), and several times in 
the Lxx. 

20. Xeyfi yap nov] Taken apparently 
from Ps. xxviii. 7 kuI dvedaXtv r; (rdp^ 
pLOv Ka\ K 6f\i]p^aTos fxov (^opLoXoyrjO'o- 
p.ai avra (comp. Ps. Ixxxvii. II). 

21. fKoifj,7]dr]i/ K.r.X.] A confusion of 
Ps. iii. 5 ^y^ (KOLfijjdrju Kai virvuxra, 
(^TjyepdfjV ort Kvpios dvTi\i^\j/fTai pov, 
and Ps. xxiii. 4 ov (j)o^r]6rja-opt.ai kuku 

OTl (TV flfT tflOU 61. 



90 THE EPISTLE OF S. "CLEMENT [xxvi 

Icop Xeyer Kai ANACTHceic thn capka moy taythn thn 
anantAh'cacan tayta hanta. 

XXVII. TavTf] ovv TYj i\7ri.^L Trpocrdedeo'dcoG'a!^ 
al yp-v^ai rudiav tw TricTTia eV tol^ e7ra<yy6\iai<s Kai tm 
^LKaiip iv raj's Kpljuacriv. 6 TrapayyeiXa^ jur} yfyevdeaSai 5 
TToWw luctWoi^ auTO'S ov \jy6ucreTai' ovhev yap dhuva- 
Tov irapa tu) Gew, el fir] to xfrevcracrOai. dva^coTrvpr]- 
craTU) ovv h ttio'tl's aurov ev rifJuv^ Kai votjcrco/uiev otl 
TravTa eyyu^ avrw ecTTLV. ev \oya) Trj^ jueyaXcoo'vvri^ 
avTOv (Tvve<TTt](raTO ra iravra, Kai ev Xoyoj Cvvarai 10 
avTCi KaTaa'TpeyjyaL. Tic epe? ay'tco' ti enomcAc; h tic 

ANTICTHCCTAI TO) KpATCI THC ICXfoC AYTOYi 6x6 6e\ei Kai 

I crdpKa] crapKap A. 2 avavrX-fjaaaav] A; avrk-fjcraaav C; toleravit 

(d,vaT\rjaa(xav7) S. 3 TrpoadedecrOwffai'] AS ; irpoffoexiaOuiaav C. 4 eV] 

A; om. C; dub. S. t^ StKat<f)] A; diKaiip (om. rf) C, and so apparently S. 

7 Tip] A; om. C; see above, 21. t6] A, and so apparently S; om. C. 

10 TCI Trdcra] A, and so probably S ; wavra C. 13 TrotT^crft] AS ; Troi-qcrai C. 

15 oi] A; om. C. 16 iroirj<T lv] Troi-qaeiv A. x^'P'^"] ACS; Bryennios 

accidentally omits xetpw;' in recording the reading of C (p. 51). 17 rb trre- 

piw^ia K. T.X.I C runs to aTepiw^ia' Kai aKovovTai ai <po}vou iravTijiv ^Xeirofiiviav Kai 
aKovo/jLevuv (pojSrjdwfxev k.t.X., omitting many words. The omissions here are not 

I. 'Iw/3 Xeyei] From LXX Job xix. XXVII. 'Let us therefore cling 

26 dvaaTTjaet 8f jxav to aajxa to dvav- fast to God. He has promised, and 

rXoOi' raOra as read in A, but i<B have He cannot lie. Whatsoever He wills, 

dvaa-Tfiaat to depua fiov to dvavrXovv (or He is able to perform. To His power 

avT^ovv) ravTa. The Hebrew original no bounds are set. To His eye and 

is different from either. For the con- His mind all things are open. The 

fusion of dvaTXrj(Tai and duavrXfjcrai heavens declare His glorious works', 

in this passage of Job and in Prov. 4. rw tvkttw k.t.A.] Comp. Heb. x. 

ix. 12 see Schleusner Lex. Vet. Test. 23 nicrTOi yap 6 fTrayyeiXdnevos, and 

s.v. dvaprXeo), Field Orz: Hexapl. Ii. xi. 11. 

p. 36. It may be a question what 6. ovhkv yap dBvvaTov k.t.X.] Corn- 
reading the Syriac translator had pare Heb. vi. 18 eV oh ddvvaTov yj/fv- 
here, but the same word 72D is used cracrdai [top] Qeov, with Matt. xix. 26 
elsewhere (e.g. Eus. //. E. viii. 14) to (Mark x. 27); see also Tit. i. 2. 
render di/arAavrey; see Payne Smith 7. ai'a^w7rupr;crarco] Intransitive; see 
Thes. Syr. s. v. the note on Ign. Ephes. i. Thecon- 

Harnack refers to the discussion text seems to suggest that ?; ttlo-tls 

of this passage of Clement in Caspari avrov should be rendered 'His faith- 

(2uellen z. Gesch. d. Taufsyinbols ill. fulness', as in Rom. iii. 3; see Gala- 

p. 158. tians p. 155. 



XXVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



91 



20 



0)9 6e\ei TTOi/jaei iravra, Kal ovZev fjn] TrapeXOrj Tcav 

ZehoyfJLaTKTfjievMv vtt avTOv, iravTa tvoiTTiov avTov 

15 elcLVf Kal ov^ev \e\t]6ev tyiv ^ovXr]v avTOv^ el Oi oy- 

pANo'i AmrOYNTAi AoIan Ogoy, noiHCiN Ae yeipooN aytoy 
ANArreAAei TO crepeooMA' h HiwepA th HMepA epeyreTAi pflMA, 

KAI NY? NYKTI ANArreAAei rN<>^CIN" KAI OYK 6ICIN AOfOI OYAe 
AaAIAI, (Ln OYX' AKOYONTAI AI (})00NAI aytoon. 

XXVIIl. riavTwv ovv iSXeTTOjueucov Kai cLKOvofjie- 
vwv, (bo^r]6cJofjiev avTOV Kal diroXeLTrMfJiev (pavXwv epycov 
fxiapca eTTiOviuia^f 'iva tw iXeei avTOv (TKeTracrdodfJiev 

OtTTO TWJ/ fJieXXoVTMV KpifJiaTCdV . TTOU yap Tl rjiJ.wv 

altogether explained by the practice of abridging quotations (see i. p. 128). 
18 avayylWeL] A; d;'a77eX S (with Hebr. and LXX A); def. C. In the previous 
line S has the present {avayyeWeCj. 18, 19 \6yoL, XaXtat] S transposes these 

words, as in the LXX. 19 ai ^wvat] The text of S is perhaps corrupt here. 

As it stands, the translator would appear to have had toIs (puvais ii?p2, instead of 
N?p, unless it is a very loose paraphrase. 20 oSv] A; re (IT'D) S ; om. C 

(see the note on t6 crrep^w^a /c.T.X.). 21 diroXeliru/uLei'] A; dvoXlTrufjiev C. 

21 /xiapai] AS ; /3Xa/3fpds C (see Bryennios )/'</. p. py'). 23 Twf /xeWdv- 

Tojv Kpi/JLaTwv] AC ; tou i-UWovTOi Kplfxaros (TTiyi NJH) S. The variation cannot 
be explained by rtdui here, and must have been deliberate ; see also 21. 



9. iyyiis avrw] So Ign. Ephes. 1 5 
ovhiv Xavdavfi rov Kvpiov, dWa /cot ra 
KpvTTTa rjpiwv eyyvs avra iariv, which is 
perhaps a reminiscence of this pas- 
sage : compare 2 1 above. 

fi> \6ya) K.r.X.] See Heb. i. 3 (jiep- 
(ov Ta iravra rai pTjp,aTi r^s Swajxecos 
avTov : comp. Wisd. ix. i. See the 
introduction, I. p. 398, on the relation 
of Clement to the Logos doctrine. 

1 1. Ti's e'pf'i avTcp k.t.X.] From Wisd. 
xii. 12 ris yap tpel Ti enolrja-as rj rii 
afrtcrrjjcrerat r<a Kplfiari (rov; Comp. 
Wisd. xi. 22 KpciTd j3pn)(iov6s (Tov Tis 
dvTC(TTi](TfTai ; TJie expression to Kpa- 
roj r?7j l(Txvos avTov occurs in Ephes. 
i. 19, vi. 10. The Kparos is the la-xys 
exerted on some object. 

13. ovidiv p.Tj napeXdrj k.t.X.] Comp. 
Matt. V. 18. 

15. ft Ol ovpavol K.r.X.] ^seeing 



that The heavens etc' The ft is no 
part of the quotation. So treated 
the passage presents no difficulty; 
and the corrections proposed (e.g. 
the omission of ei, or the reading Ka\ 
01 ovpavoi) are unnecessary. Perhaps 
also the /cat before ovk elaiv should be 
excluded from the quotation in the 
same way. The quotation is then 
word for word (except the interchange 
of Xoyot and Xakiai) from the LXX 
Ps. xix. I 3. 

19. u)v...aiiTa)v\ See above the note 
on 20. 

XXVIIl. 'Therefore, since He 
sees and hears all things, let us for- 
sake our vile deeds and take refuge in 
His mercy. We cannot escape His 
powerful arm ; neither in the height 
of heaven nor in the abyss of ocean 
nor in the farthest parts of the earth'. 



92 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxviii 



^vi/aTUL (bvyelv cltto Trjs KpaTaia^ ^eipo^ avTOU ; ttoTos 
he Koa-juo^ de^eTat nva tmv avTOjuoXovvToov cItt uvtov ; 
Xeyei yap ttov to ypacpeTov FToy a(}>h'2oc> ka'i noy Kpy- 
Bh'comai And toy npoccanoy coy san anaBoo eic ton oypA- 
NON, cy el eK6?' can AneAOco eic ta Icxata thc thc, eKe? h 5 
Ae2iA coy can KATACTpoocoo eic tac AByccoyc, eKel to nNeyMA 

5 el eKei] A (with LXX ABS); eKei tl CS. exet ij 5e^id crov] AS ; ffi e/cet eT C. 

7 ovv] AC; om. S. aTroSpixcrr;] A; dirodpacrr] (or ajroSpdcret) S; ris drrodpa- 



2. aOro/xoXowr<av] See above, Xi- 
TToraKT-eii' 21, and the note on Secrep- 
Twp Ign. Polyc. 6. 

3. TO ypa^etoi'] ' //z^ writing.^ S. 
Clement here seems to adopt the 
threefold division of the Old Testa- 
ment books which appears in Ecclus. 
(prol.)) in S. Luke (xxiv. 44), in Philo 
{de Vit. cont. 3, ll. p. 475), in Jose- 
phus {c. Ap. i. 8), and generally. The 
third division is called ra aWa ^t/3Xta 
and ra Xoiwa rav ^iSXiav in Ecclus., 
\lraKfjio\ in S. Luke, vfivot in Philo and 
Josephus. Its more general name in 
Hebrew was D^3inD, 'the writings', 
translated sometimes by ypa(p{ia, 
sometimes by ayi6ypa(pa : comp. Epi- 
phan. Haer. xxix. 7 (l. p. 122) ov yap 
aTTTjyopfvTai nap" avrdis vofiodecria nai 
npocprjTai Koi ypacpeia ra trapa. 'louSai'ots' 
(caXov/xfi/a, and again Trap' avrois yap 
was 6 vofios Kal oi 7rpo(prjrai. /cat to. 
ypacjifla Xe-yop.ei'a k.t.X., Mens, et Pond. 
4 (11. p. 162) TO. KoKovp-iva ypn(pf'ia 
Trapa. Ticri de ayi6ypa(f)a Xeyopeva. In 
the first of these passages however 
Epiphanius includes the historical 
books among the ypaipela, and in the 
second he confines the term to them, 
placing the Psalms, Job, Proverbs, 
etc., in a separate section which he 
calls ol (TTixrjpe'ii. This does not 
truly represent the Jewish tradition, 
in which i, 2 Chronicles alone be- 
longed to the D''2inD, while the his- 
torical books generally were ranged 



with the Prophets ; see Fiirst Der 
Kanon des Alten Tesiatnents p. 10 
^^.1 P- 55 sq. Elsewhere he uses 
ypa(pe1a more widely, Haer. xxvi. 12 
(p. 94) atCka pvpia Trap' avroii TreTrXacr- 
fifva ypa(f>ela ; comp. Deut. x. 4 (Aq.). 
John Damascene likewise (de Fid. 
Orthod. iv. 17, I. p. 284), following 
Epiphanius, describes the historical 
books from Joshua to 2 Chronicles, 
as Ta Kokovpeva ypac^eia napa riai 8e 
ayioypa<^a. In the Classical language 
(as also LXX Job xix. 24, Hex. Jer. 
xvii. i) ypa(pe2ov is not 'a writing' but 
' a pen.' 

IIoC d^jf^oj] A very loose quota- 
tion from Ps. cxxxix. 7 10, where 
the slight variations of the principal 
MSS of the LXX do not affect the wide 
divergences in Clement's quotation. 
Compare also the parallel passage in 
Amos ix. 2, 3, to which Clement's 
quotation presents some faint resem- 
blances. It is important to observe 
that in using /caraorpwo-o), ' make my 
couch,' Clement conforms to the ori- 
ginal ny*VX, where the LXX has Ka- 
ra^M. This is the more remarkable, 
as he elsewhere shows no knowledge 
of the Hebrew, and in the Psalms 
generally quotes pretty accurately 
from the LXX. Whence then did he 
get this word.? We may conjecture 
that he was acquainted with one of 
the versions afterwards included by 
Origen in his Hexapla. The 5th 



xxix] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 93 

COY. TTcl oiiv T19 aTTeXdr] h ttov aTroZpacrr] diro tov to. 
Travra efjiirepie^ovTO'i ; .^., 

XXIX. ripoa-eXdiofjiev ovv auTw ev 6<TioTt]TL x/^u- 

lo xr}^, dyva^ Kal diuLiavrovs ^elpa^ alpovTe^ Trpo^ avTOV, 

dyaTTcovTe^ tov eTrieiKtj kui eva'TrXay^i/oi/ jrarepa Yifjicov 

09 K\oyf]9 fJi6po<i 67roit](Ti/ iauTW. OvTO) yap ye- 

ypawTai' "Ore AieMepizeN 6 fyicToc cOnh, cLc AiecneipeN 

aei C Tot] A ; om. C, and so probably S. g oSv] AC ; om. S. 

II eirieLKrj] eTneiKrjv A. 12 fiepos] A; add. ri/xas CS. ovru] ovtcos C. 



version {e in Origen) has o-rpwo-o) or 
Karaorptoo-o) (see Field's Hexapl. ad 
loc), and as this seems to have been 
the one found in an old cask either 
at Jericho or Nicopolis (Euseb. H.E. 
vi. i6, Epiphan. Mens, et Pond. i8, 
p. 174 ; see Hody^i? Bibl. Text. Orig. 
etc. p. 587 sq), it may very well have 
been an ancient Jewish tradition prior 
to the age of Clement. Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iv. 22 (p. 625) quotes the 
passage nearly in the form which it 
has here (though substituting the Lxx 
Kara^a for KaTacrrpfoaco), and doubt- 
less derived it through the medium 
of the Roman Clement, so that he is 
not an independent authority. 

a07;|co] The verb d(f)i]K(Lv is not 
found in the LXX or N.T., and is 
altogether a rare word ; comp. Plato 
Resp. vii. p. 530 E, Antiphon in 
Bekker Anecd. p. 470 s. v. acft^Kovros. 

XXIX. ' Therefore let us approach 
Him in prayer with pure hearts and 
undefiled hands. We are God's spe- 
cial portion and inheritance, of which 
the Scriptures speak once and again '. 

See on the liturgical character of 
this portion of Clement's Epistle 
which follows, the introduction, i. 
p. 386 sq. 

10. ayvas K.r.X.] I Tim. ii, 8 fTrai- 
povTas oaiovs ;^etpas, Athenag. Suppl. 
1 3 (Traipcofifv oalovi- ;^e7paf avrw ; see 
also Heliodorus the tragedian in Ga- 



len, de Antid. ii. 7 (xiv. p. 145, ed. 
Kiihn) dXA ocrias p,iv ;^ftpas is ^ipa 
Xafinpov deipas (quoted by Wetstein 
on I Tim. ii. 8). The expression de- 
scribes the attitude of the ancients 
(as of Orientals at the present day) 
when engaged in prayer, with ex- 
tended arms and uplifted palms. 

12. eKXoyfjs fispos k.t.X.] ' /las made 
us His special portion^ or rather 'has 
set apart for Himself a special por- 
tion\ In either case the e <Xoy^y \iipos 
is the Christian people, the spiritual 
Israel, who under the new covenant 
have taken the place of the chosen 
people under the old; as i Pet. ii. 9 
Vfieis 8e ye'vos eKXeKTOv, (SaaiXdov ifpd- 
Tfvp.a, edvoi dyiov, Xaos els irepiTroLrjaiu 
K.T.\. See the notes on napniKova-a 
and riyiaap.ivois ( l). Thus fiepos eK- 
Xoyfjs here is coextensive with ol e'KXe- 
Xeyfievoc vwo tov Qeov Hia Irjaov Xpia- 
Tov 50 (comp. 64). The words 
fxepos eKXoyrjs are not to be translated 
'a portion of his elect' but 'a portion 
set apart by election,' eKXoyijs being a 
genitive of the same kind as in Acts 
ix. 15 CTKevos eKXoyfjs, Iren. i. 6. 4 (mep- 
fiara eKXoyfjs. The expression therefore 
has no bearing on the question whe- 
ther Clement was a Jewish or Gentile 
Christian. See the note on Xaos below. 

13. "Ore diep-epi^ev k.t.X.} From the 
LXX Deut. xxxii. 8, 9, almost word 
for word. 



94 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CEEMENT 



[xxix 



yioyc 'Aaam, ecTHceN opiA eSNoaN kata ApiSMON ArreAcoN 
eeoY- ereNHBH Mepic Kypioy Aaoc aytoy 'IakooB, cxoi'nicma 

KAHpONOMIAC AYTOY ' I C p A H A. KUl Iv eTEpo) TOTTW Xeyei' 

Maoy Kypioc AamBani eAyTto Ionoc Ik Mecoy e9N<ji^N cbcnep 

I dpidixov] apidov A. 1 iyevrjdi]] AC; Kal iyev/jdr) S with LXX. 



I. Kara apidfiov k.t.X.] The idea 
conveyed by the LXX which Clement 
quotes is that, while the Gentile na- 
tions were committed to His inferior 
ministers, God retained the people 
of Israel under His own special 
guardianship : comp. Dan. x. 13 sq, 
xii. I, but esp. Ecclus. xvii. 17 eKacrTco 
edvfi KarecTTrjcrev rjyovjxevov Koi fiepis 
Kvpiov 'l(rpai]X iariv, and Jnbilees 15 
(Ewald Jahrb. iii. p. 10) ' Many are 
the nations and numerous the people, 
and all are His, and over all hath 
He set spirits as lords... but over 
Israel did He set no one to be Lord, 
neither angel nor spirit, but He alone 
is their ruler etc.', with the context. 
See also Clem. Honi. xviii. 4, Clem. 
Recogn. ii. 42 (references which I 
should have overlooked but for Hil- 
genfeld Apost. Viit. p. 65). Clem. 
Alex. Strom, vii. 2 (p. 832) uses the 
text to support his favourite idea that 
heathen philosophy is the handmaid 
of revelation ; ovtos ianv 6 bibovs kui 
Tots "EXXt^o"! TTjv (f)LXo(ro(f)i,av 8ia tcov v- 
nobf fcrripaip dyytXav' fla). yap (Tvv8iavf- 
vefirjfiivoi Trpoara^ei deia re Kol ap^aiq 
ayyeXoi Kara edprj, dXX' i] fi(p\s Kvpiov rj 
86^a Twv ntaTfvouTwv. On the Other 
hand the present text of the Hebrew 
runs ' He set the boundaries of the na- 
tions according to the number of the 
sons of Israel (^Nlt^''' 'n ISDO*?) ; for 
(or 'while', ""3) the portion of Jehovah 
is His people, Jacob is the rod of His 
inheritance'. So too the Peshito and 
Targum of Onkelos. But it is diffi- 
cult to get any good sense out of this 
reading, and the parallelism of the 
verses is thus shattered. I can hardly 
doubt therefore that the LXX is right. 



and the error can be easily explained. 
The ends of the lines have got out of 
gear ; 7N1K''', which in the present text 
occupies the end of ver. 8, has been 
displaced from its proper position at 
the end of ver. 9, and thrust out the 
original word DTI^Xn, which has thus 
disappeared. The 'sons of God' are 
mentioned Job i. 6, ii. i, xxxviii. 7, 
and in all places are translated (as it 
appears, correctly) by ayyeXoi [rov 
Qeov] in the LXX ; see Gesen. T/ies. 
p. 215. This conjecture is confirmed 
by the fact that the Samar. Pent, reads 
'Israel' at the end of both verses, 
thus presenting an intermediate read- 
ing between the LXX and the present 
Hebrew text. Justin Martyr Dial. 
131 (p. 360 b) refers to the difference 
between the Hebrew and LXX texts; 
see also Origen /?i Num. Horn, xxviii. 
4 (II. p. 385), In Ezech. Horn, xiii 
(ill. p. 401). The reading of the He- 
brew text is naturally adopted in 
Clem. Hom. xviii. 4, as it is by 
Justin'sjewish opponents. The writer 
lived late enough to have got it from 
one of the Judaizing versions. On 
the other hand the LXX is quoted by 
Philo de Post. Ca. 25 (l. p. 241), de 
Plant. 14 (i. p. 338). 

2. Xaos\ We have here the com- 
mon antithesis of Xao^ 'the chosen 
people', and %Qvr] 'the Gentiles'; as 
e.g. Luke ii. 32, Acts iv. 27, xxvi. 
17, 23, Rom. XV. 10, II, etc. By 
becoming the Xaos however the Is- 
raelites do not cease to be called an 
'IQvo^ (see esp. Joh. xi. 50), but are 
rather 'iBvo^ ayiov (as Exod. xix. 6, 
I Pet. ii. 9) or i'dvos K fieaov edvav 
(as below) : so Justin Dial. 24 (p. 242) 



xxx] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



95 



5 AamBaN6I AN0pOOnOC THN AHApXHN AYTOY THC A A 00, KAI e2e- 

AeyceTAi eK toy eONoyc eKeiNoy Af''^ AriooN."^ 

XXX. 'Ayiou ovv juepi's v7rap^ovTe<i Troujo'coiuev Ta 

OY 

7 'Aylov ow] AfioyN (the oy above the hne being written prima manu) A; 

ajyio. ovv /xtpU S ; dyia ovv /n4pT] C. See I. p. 143. 



Iva yevrjTai fdvos diKaiov, Xaos (pvXacr- 
(Tcov nia-Tiv (from Is. xxvi. 2). All such 
titles, referring primarily to the Israel 
after the flesh, are transferred by 
Clement, following the Apostolic wri- 
ters, to the Israel after the spirit ; see 
above the notes on i , and comp. below 
64 fls Xaov Tvepiovaiov, and especially 
Justin Dial. 119 (p. 347). I call at- 
tention to this, because Hilgenfeld 
{Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. Thcol. 1S58, 
p. 585, and here) distinguishes the 
\aoi of the first passage and the Wvo% 
of the second, as though they referred 
to the Jewish and Gentile Christians 
respectively. Of such a distinction 
the context gives no indication ; and 
the interpretation moreover supposes 
that Clement departs from the ob- 
vious meaning of the passages in- 
corporated in the second quotation, 
where the original reference of Wvo^ 
is plainly to the Israelites. See the 
note on e/cAo-y?]? fiepos above. 

axoiPicTfia] 'a portion measured out 
by a line' (see the note on kovuv, 
7). a common word in the Lxx 
exactly representing the Hebrew ^3n. 

4. 'iSot) Kvpios K.r.X.] A combina- 
tion of several passages ; Deut. iv. 34 
(I {ireipaaev 6 Qeos elaeXdcov Aa/Seii/ 
favTM edvos eK jxicrov i'dvovs eV neipaa- 
/iw K.r.A., Deut. xiv. 2 koi o-e i^iki^aro 
Kvpios 6 Geof aov yeveadai ae Xaov 
avT(o TTfpiovcriov ano navruiv tu>v e'Ofcov 
K.T.X. (comp. vii. 6). 

axrnep Xap^dvei k.t.X.] The pas- 
sages most nearly resembling this 
are, Num. xviii. 27 Xoyiard^aerm vp.1v 
rn n(f)aipfpara vp,cov a)s a'trni; ano ctXco 
Ktii difinipfpa dnn Xrjvov, 2 Chron. xxxi. 



14 tovvai rds aTrap-)(as Kvpiov Ka\ rd 
dyia Ta>v dyicov, Ezek. xlviii. 12 (o-rai 
avTols rj anapxh 8e8opevr] tK rcoi/ arrap- 
)(U)v rrji yrjs, dyiov ay'iav ano tuiv opicov 
K.T.X. with the context ; but in all these 
passages the reference of the 'first- 
fruits' is different. As Clement's quo- 
tations elsewhere are so free (e.g. 
18, 26, 32, 35, 39, etc.), he may only 
have combined these passages and 
applied them from memory ; but 
the alternative remains that he is 
quoting from some apocryphal wri- 
ting, such as the spurious or interpo- 
lated Ezekiel quoted above (see the 
notes 8, 13, 17, 23, 46). The dyia 
dyiav are the specially consecrated 
things, the offerings or first-fruits, as 
in the passages just quoted ; see also 
Lev. xxi. 22, Ezek. xlii. 13. The ex- 
pression is applied here either to the 
people of God themselves, or to their 
spiritual oblations (see below, 40, 

44)- 

XXX. ' Therefore, as the portion of 
the Holy One, let us be holy our- 
selves ; let us lay aside all sins which 
defile ; let us shun pride and ensue 
peace ; let us be on our guard against 
slander and backbiting ; let us seek 
not our own praise, but the praise of 
God. Self-will is accursed in His 
sight ; but His blessing rests on the 
gentle and lowly-minded'. 

7. 'Ayiou ovv pepls] i.e. 'As the 
special portion of a Holy God' : 
comp. I Pet. i. 15 sq Kara top KaX4- 
cravra vpns dyiov /cat avTol ayioi ev 
Trd(TT] dvatrrpocfiTJ ytvi^drjTe, ^uWi ye- 
ypiiTTTai (Lev. \i. 44) 'Ayioi eaecrBe on 
(yM tt'yi ij. On the liturgical charac- 



96 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxx 



Tov dyiaciuLOv TravTa^ (pevyovre^ KaraXaXid^, /ULiapd^ re 
Kai dvayvov^ orujUTrXoKas, jueOa^ re kui vewTepicriuLOvf 
Kui fiheXvKTa^ e7n6vfjLLa<iy fjivcepdv fj-OL-x^^iav, (S^eXvKTtjv 
V7repr](paviai>. Oedc r^p, (priG-iUj fnepH(|)<\Noic ANTiiAcce- 
TAi, TAneiNoic Ae AiAcocin x<^P'n. KoWtjOwjuev ovv 6Ki- 5 
voi^ oh t] xajOf? avro tov Qeov hehoTai. ev^vaiufjieda 
Ttjv ofjiovoiavy Ta7reivo(ppovovvTe<i, eyKparevofJievoi^ dno 
TravTO'i yp^idupio'iuiov Kai KaraXaXid^ Troppw eavTOVi 
TTOiovvTe^, epyoi's BiKaiov/uLevoi Kai /mt) \6yois, Xeyei 
yap' '0 TA noAAA AerwN kai ANTAKoycexAr h d efAAAoc lo 

oTeTAI elNAI AlKAIOC; efAOTHMeNOC reNNHTOC TYNAIKOC OAl- 

roBioc MH noAyc n phmacin riNoy. eTraipo^ rjfJLcov 

1 av&yvovs] C ; ayvova A. (jvixirKoKi-s] AC ; Kai ffvfiirXoKas S, rendering 

the word however by contentiones (Jurgia), and connecting fuapas re /cat dj'd7J'ci;s 
with KaraXaXids. re] AS ; om. C. 3 /xucrecac] A ; nvaepdv (/xvaapdu 

C) re CS. /jLoixflcLv] fj.oix'^av A. ^SeXi/KT-Jji'] A; koL ^de\vKT7]v CS. 

4 Geos] AC. Bryennios reads 6 9e6s, as if it had some manuscript authority. 
6 dirt)] AS; om. C. 8 KaTa\a\iS,s...iavTovs] AC; S translates as if /caraXa- 

\ids... iavTU!!', connecting dwd iravThs xpt.9vpia/j,ov with eyKparevbixevoL. 9 Kai] 

AS; om. C. lo fi] r} A ; d C ; -g (apparently) S, for it translates Hie qui 



ter of the language here used, see 
above, i. p. 387. 

1. (})fvy. KaraX."] I Pet. ii. I anode fie- 
voi...TTa(ras KaraXaXids- 

2. dpayvovs] Something may still 
be said for Xdyvovs which I read in 
my first edition after Colomi^s ; comp. 
Athenag. Suppl. 19 Tois aKoXdoroty 
Kcu Xayvois, 21 Xayveias t] ^Las rj nXeo- 
vf^ia^, Clem. Recogn. ix. 17 (the Greek 
is preserved in Csesarius) fiedvcrovf, 
Xdyvovs, baifiovavras, Ada Petri in 
Isid. Pelus. Ep. ii. 99 (see Hilgenfeld's 
Nov. Test. extr. Can. Rec. iv. p. 70) 
o yap <^CKoxpr\\iaTos ovk fx<opr](re tov 
TTJs aKTTjiJLoa-vvrjs Xoyov ov8e 6 Xdyvos 
TOV ntpl a-a>(f)po(Tvvr)s k.t.X., Clem. Alex. 
Faed. ii. 10 (p. 222 225). The com- 
mon form was Xayvos, the Attic 
Xdyvrji; see Lobeck Phryn. p. 184. 
Neither word {avayvo^ or Xnyvo^) oc- 



curs in the LXX or New Testament. 

3. p.v(Tipa.v\ For this form see the 
note on 14. 

4. 0fos yap K.T.X.] From Prov. iii. 
34 Kvptos inreprjcfydvois k.t.X. In I Pet. 
V. 5, James iv. 6, it is quoted 6 Qeos 
vnpr](f)dvois k.t.X. The Hebrew has 
simply Nin 'he'. 

8. ^16. Kai KaTaX.] See below, 35. 
The words occur together also 2 Cor. 
xii. 20 ; comp. Rom. i. 30 "^iBvpuxTds, 
KaToXaXovi. 

9- fpyoii diKaiovixevoi] See the note 
at the beginning of i^ 33, and the in- 
troduction, I. pp. 96, 397. 

10. 'OTairoXXd K.T.X.] FromtheLXX 
of Job xi. 2, 3, almost word for word. 
It diverges widely from the Hebrew, 
and the sentiment fvXoyrjfxevos k.t.X. 
has no connexion with the context. 
It may be conjectured that the words 



xxxi] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 97 

ecTTOi ev Qew Kal jULt] e^ avTcou, ouTeiraLveTOv^ yap 
juioreT 6 Oeos. tj /uapTvpia tyj^ dyadf]^ Trpa^eio^ fjjucoi/ 

5 Bi^ocrdo) VTT aAAo)!/, Kado)^ edodt] TOT'S Trarpacnv rjjucoi/ 
ToT^ ^LKaiOL^. 6paG'09 Kal avOadeia kui ToX/ua rols 
KaTt]pajuievoi^ vtto tov Oeou' e7ri6iK6ia Kai TaTreivo- 
(ppocrvi^r] Kai Trpaiirt]^ irapa to?? rjuXoyrjiuevoL^ vtto tov 
Oeou. 

'o XXXI. Ko\\t]6u)iuLep ovv TY] evXoyia avTov, Kai 
L^Mjuev TLve^ al odoi Ttj^ euXoyia's. dvaTuXL^Mfjcev Ta 
(XTT dp^tJ9 yevojueva. tlvo^ X^P'-^ f]vXo'yr]6r] 6 7raTt]p 
rjfjiiiov ' Aj^padfj. ; ov-^l diKaioa'vvt]v Kai dXtjOeiav ^la ttlct- 
T6W9 TTOu'iaa^ ; IcraaK jmeTa TreTTOiOtjcrea)^ yivoocTKcou to 

mulhim dicit et audit in hac {hoc) quod qui bene loquitur, etc. 1 1 evXoyrjfj.^- 

fos] A; om. C; S substitutes Yej/j/i^ros, thus repeating the same word, Hv"' X'7v\ 
12 Tjfxwv] AS; vfiSiv C. 13 OetfS] A; ri3 de(^ C 7ap] AC; om. S. 

14 ayaOrji'] AS; om. C. r)|J.Qlv^^ A; vixQiv CS. 15 e^odrj] eSe-qdrj A. 

17 VTTO TOV GeoO] AS; om. C. See l. p. 125. eVietKeta] eTrtet/cia A. 

18 7rpaiiT7;s] A; irpaorrjs C. S transposes TaTrLvo4>po(Tvv'rj and irpavr-qs, probably 
for convenience of translation; see I. p. 137. 23 5ta Trt'crTews] AS; om. C. 

yewT]Tos yvvuLKos oXiyo/3to? crept in 18. npavrrjs] This word is distin- 
from xiv. I fSporos yap yevvrjToi yvvai- guished from raneivoclypoavvr], Trench 
Kos oXiyo^ios, which may have stood A^. T. Syn. ist ser. xliv, and from 
next to this passage in a parallel iirifLKfia ib. % xliii. 
column, and the euXo-yr;/iei/os will have XXXI. ' Let us therefore cling to 
come from the first word of the next His blessing : let us study the re- 
verse, "i''12 misread jinn. cords of the past, and see how it was 

1 1. y(:vvr]To%\ See the note on Ign. won by our fathers, by Abraham and 
Ephes. 7. Isaac and Jacob'. 

12. 'O enaivos k.t.X.] See Rom. ii. 21. dvarvkL^anev] ' unroll \ and so 
29 nv 6 enaivos ovk i^ dvdpwnMv dXX' ^ pore over'; comp. Lucian Nigr. 7 
(K TOV Geou, 2 Cor. x. 18 ov yap 6 rovs Xoyovs ovs Tore rjKovaa avvayd- 
iavTov (Twia-Tavcov k.t.X. ; Comp. I Cor. pcov kuI dvarvXiTTcov. 
iv. 5. 22. o TraTrjp rj/xwi/] See the note on 

13. avTav] So read for aOrcoj/. On 4. 
the forms avruv, avTa, etc, as inad- 23. ovxi- SiKaioa-vvTjv k.t.X.] Com- 
missible here, see 9, 12, 14, 32 bining the statement of S. Paul (Rom. 
(notes). iv. i sq, Gal. iii. 6 sq) with that of 

avTfnaiveTovs] No Other instance of S. James (ii. 21 sq). See the note at 
the word is given in the lexicons. the beginning of 33, and the intro- 

15. i57r' liXXav] See Prov. xxvii. 2. duction, i. p. 96. 

CLEM. IL 7 



98 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxi 



jixeWou I7^ew9 Trpoa-^yeTO dvoria. 'laKco^ fdera Tairei- 
vo(ppO(Tvvm e^')(^wpr]cr6v Trj^ yfj^ avTov hi dheXcpov Kai 
eTTopevdn TTjOO? Aafiav kul ehovXevaev, kui edoSrj avTw 
TO dwdeKacrKrjTTTpov tov 'IcparjX. 

XXXII. 'Edv Ti^ Kad' ev eKaarov elXiKpivM^ Kara- 5 
vorjo'rij eTTiyvMcreTai /ueyaXeTa twv vtt' avrov hedojuevMv 
hwpewv. eT avTOv yap lepeh Kai XevTrai Travre^ ol 
XeLTOVpyovvre^ tw 6va-iacrTr]pi(i) tov Oeov' e^ avrov 

I ^S^ws] AC; KoX ijdiccs S. 5 'Ew] conj.; def. A; 5 &v C ; qjtae si (as if 

a, iav) S, which is perhaps correct. See the lower note. elXiKpivws] iXiKpiv... 

A. 7 ocopedv] 8wpaLU3v A. avrov] S; avrwv AC. lepets] A; ot 

lepeh C. ot] AC; om. (apparently) S. 8 'Keirovpyovvres'] "KiTOVpy... 

Pair. Nepht. 5 to ScodfKa (TKrJTrTpa tov 
'lapa^X. 

XXXII. ' If any one will consider, 
he may see what blessings God show- 
ers on the faithful. What great ho- 



I. jJSe'tBs K.T.X.] There is nothing in 
the original narrative which suggests 
that Isaac was a willing sacrifice ; 
Gen. xxii. 7, 8. According to Jose- 
phus however, An^. i. 14. 4, on hear- 
ing his father's purpose he de'xfrai 
TTpos rjbovTjv Toiis Xoyovs and oopfirjcrev 
eVt TOV jScofiov Koi ttjv a<payi]v. See also 
Beer's Lebeji Abrahanis p. 65 sq 
with the notes p. 709 sq, where ample 
rabbinical authorities are collected 
for this addition to the narrative. The 
idea is brought out strongly by Melito 
(Routh's Rel. Sacr. I. p. 123) o hi 
'icraaK. criya TTenedrjfiivos a>s Kpios, ovk 
afoiycov to aropa ovde (f)dfyy6p.evos 
(f)covfj' TO yap ^i<^os ov (fio^rfdels ovhe 
TO TTvp TTTorjdels ou'Se TO TvaOelv Xvnr)- 
0e\s f^aaracrev tov tvttov tov Kvpiov 
K.T.X., where there is an obvious 
reference to Is. liii. 7 in ovbe (pdey- 
yofifvos cfxcvfj. Philo de Abr. 32 (ll. 
p. 26) is seemingly ignorant of this 
turn given to the incident. 

4. TO hahiKacTKrjTTTpov] Equivalent 
to TO ScoSeKa'^vXoi/, which occurs below 
55 and Acts xxvi. 7 ; for aK^nTpov 
(D2C0) 'a branch or rod', is a syn- 
onym for 'a tribe'; e.g. i Kings xi. 
31, 32 Kai 8coo-&) aoi BeKU (TKrJTrTpa kol 
dvo (TKriTrTpa ?(TTai avTm, and again 
ver. 35, 36 (see 32) ; comp. Test, xii 



noursdid He confer on this patriarch 
Jacob ! From him was derived the 
priestly tribe of Levi : from him came 
the great High-priest, the Lord Jesus ; 
from him are descended kings and 
rulers through Judah. And by the 
other tribes also he was the father of 
countless multitudes. It was God's 
will, not their own righteous doing, 
whereby they were glorified. And 
by His will also, not by our own 
piety or wisdom, are we and all 
men justified through faith by His 
Almighty will to whom be glory for 
ever'. 

5. 'Eai/] Previous editors read et; 
but, though ft with the conjunc- 
tive is possible (see Philippians iii. 
11), it is rare and ought not to be 
introduced unnecessarily. 

eiXtKpti'wy] ' distinctly, severally^. 
It seems to be a military metaphor 
from i'CKr] ' turma ' ; see the note, 
Philippimis i. 10. 

6. vii avTov\ i.e. tov Geov. There 
is a little awkwardness in the sudden 
transition to e'^ avVoi), which must re- 



XXXIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



99 



6 Kvpio<5 'lt}(rov^ TO KaTci crapKa' i^ avTOv fiacriXeh 
lo Kai ap-^oi'T6<5 Kai t]<yoviaei/oi, kuto. tov lovhai/- to. 5e 
XoiTva (TKtiTrrpa auTOU ovk eV luiKpa ho^t] VTrdp^ovcriv, 
w? eTrayyeLXafxevov tov Oeov otl "Ectai to cnepwA coy 
(he 01 ACTe'pec toy oypANOY. /7aWes ovv eZo^d(T6t](Tav 
Kai efJLe'yaXvv6t)(Tav ov di avTwv r] twu ep<yoiv avTwv r] 
15 t//9 diKaiOTTpayia^ //s KaTeipyd(TavTO, dXXd Zid tov 



Tca A. 

TjyOlJfJ.VOl. 

TCL^ei C. 



10 Kara] AC; ot Kara S, this being a repetition of the last syllable of 
5^] A; re CS. 11 avrov] AS ; om. C. dd^rj] AS ; 

12 TOV Qeov] A; 9eov C. 14 airui''] avruv C. 



fer to Jacob ; but rav viv avrov 8e8. 
Bapeoiv can only be said of God (as 
ri '9i 23, 35), nor can vtt' avrov 
be translated ^per eum', as in the 
Latin version of Young. Lipsius (de 
Clem. Rom. Ep. p. 55) explains ' De 
beneficiis a Jacobo in nobis collo- 
catis' and Harnack adds 'haec dona 
sunt sacerdotes, ipse Dominus se- 
cundum carnem, reges.' 

7. e^ avrov\ i.e. from Jacob. The 
following clauses render it necessary 
to read avrov for ai5rc5i', which might 
otherwise stand. For the whole pas- 
sage comp. Rom. ix. 4, 5 S>v...r] Xa- 
rpfia KOI al eirayyeXiai, mv ol narepes 
Ka\ e^ d)v Xpiarbs ro Kara adpKa. 

9. o Kvpios 'irjo-oiis} He is men- 
tioned in connexion with the Leviti- 
cal tribe, as being the great High- 
priest, a favourite title in Clement : 
see the note 36. Comp. Ign. F/ulad. 
9 KoXot (cat 01 if pels, Kpelcraou 8e 6 dp- 
Xifpevs. With Levi He is connected 
as a priest ; from Judah He is de- 
scended as a king. Hence His name 
is placed between the two, as the 
link of transition from the one to the 
other. But there is no ground for 
assuming that by this collocation Cle- 
ment implies our Lord to have de- 
scended from Levi, as Hilgenfeld (A- 
post. Vat. p. 103, and here p. 98, ed. 2) 
thinks. The Epistle to the Hebrews, 



which Clement quotes so repeatedly, 
and from which his ideas of Christ's 
high-priesthood are taken, would dis- 
tinctly teach him otherwise (vii. 14). 
A double descent (from both Judah 
and Levi) is maintained in the Test. 
xii Patr. (see Galatians p. 308), but 
this writing travels in a different 
cycle of ideas. And even in this 
Judaic work the Virgin herself is 
represented as belonging to Judah. 
In Iren. Fragm. 17 (p. 856, Stieren) 
likewise a double descent is ascribed 
to our Lord e'/c fie rov Aeui Kai rov 
loi'Sa ro Kara aapKa as fSaaiXfiis Ka\ 
lepevi iyevvrjOrj. On the descent from 
Levi see Sinker Test, of Ttuclvc Pat?'. 
p. 105 sq. 

10. Kara rov \ov8av\ ^ after fudali^ 
i.e. as descended from him and 
thereby inheriting the attribute of 
royalty, Gen. xlix. 10. This idea of 
the royalty of the patriarch Judah 
runs through the Test, xii Pair.., e.g. 
Jud. I o TTarr]p p.ov 'laKmjS Tjv^aro p.01 
Xeywv, Baa-ikevs ecrrj KarevoSovixtvos eV 
Tracrt. 

12. "Ea-rai K.r.X.] Comp. Gen. xv. 5, 
xxii. 17, xxvi. 4. It is not an exact 
quotation from any of these passages, 
but most closely resembles the first. 

14. 81' auVwi/] Not avTciv. See 
above the notes on 9, 12, 14, 30. 

15. rfji SiKaioTTpayias K.r.X.] Comp. 

72 



lOO 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxii 



BeXrifj.aTO'i auTOv. Kai rifjieis ovv, dia SeXrifjiaTO^ avrov 
ev XpiCTw ' lt](TOv K\7]6evre^y ov hi eavTWv oiKaiov^eOa 
ovde ^id Ttj^ ijjuerepa^ (rocpias rj o-ui/ecrew^ y} eva-6(3eia^ tj 
epyoiv (hv KaTeipyacrafieSa ev oaioTtjTi Kapdia<Sy dWd 
did tP]9 TTLO-Teit)^, di ^? 7ravTa<i rov^ aTr aiMVO^ 6 irav- 5 
TOKpartop 0609 ediKaicoG'ev' o) ecTTio r] do^a eU tov^ 
al(Joi/a<i T(Jov aicdvuiv. dfit^v. 

XXXIII. Tl ovv TTOiricrcoiuev, ddeXcpoi ; dpyyiG-wfjiev 
diro Tt]^ dyadoTTOuas kui eyKaraXeLTroofjiev Tt]v d<ya- 

1 avTov] AC; rod deoO S. Kal r]ixeh...de\i}iia.To^ avrov] AS; om. C, by 

homcEoteleuton. 3 ij/xeT^pas'] rj/xepacr A. 5 iravras] A ; dvavTas C. 

Toi)s] Tov A. 6 Toiis aiu>vas rCiv aliLvuiv] AS ; aiCiva^ C. See also 

below, 45. 8 Tt odv irotrjauixev, dSeXtpoi] AS ; ri odp ipovfxev, dyaTnjToi C. 

This variation is obviously suggested by Rom. vi. i, where the argument is the 
same; see I. p. 125. For ddeXcpoi translated as if dyaTrrjToi see above, i, 4. 
dpyT^awixev] A; dpy-qaofiev C. 9 Kat] AS; om. C. iyKaTaXelTrw/jiei'] 

A; KardXiironev C; dub. S. 10 iaaai 6 de<Tir6T7)i1 A; 6 becnrbT-qs edaai C. 



Tit. iii. 5 ovK i^ epyav twv iv hiKai- 
oavvT) a 7Toii]aafifv ijfieli aWa Kara 
TO avToi) eXfos ac.t.X. 

2. St' iavTcov] i.e. ijfxaiv avrwv, aS 
e.g. Rom. viii. 23, 2 Cor. i. 9, iii. i, 5, 
and commonly. 

3. (Tocpias fj avpe<T(ci>s] The words 
occur together i Cor. i. 19 (from Is. 
xxix. 14), Col. i. 9 ; so too (ro0oi icai 
o-vveTOL, Matt. xi. 25 (Luke x. 21). 
They are explained in Arist. t/i. 
Nic. vi. 7, 10. The first is a creative, 
the second a discerning faculty. 

6. T] So|a] See the notes on Gala- 
tians i. 5. 

XXXIII. 'What then? If we are 
justified by faith, shall we leave off 
doing good ? God forbid. We must 
needs work. The Almighty Himself 
rejoices in His own beneficent works. 
The heaven, the earth, the ocean, the 
living things that move on the land 
and in the sea, are His creation. 
Lastly and chiefly He made man 
after His own image. All these He 
created and blessed. As we have 



seen before that the righteous have 
ever been adorned with good works, 
so now we see that even the Creator 
thus arrayed Himself. Having such 
an example, let us do good with all 
our might'. 

In 31 we have seen Clement com- 
bining the teaching of S. Paul and 
S. James in the expression ov^i Bikoio- 
(Tvvrjv Knl aXrjdeiav 8ui TrlaTeas Troiijans; 
So here, after declaring emphatically 
that men are not justified by their 
own works but by faith ( 32 ov 81 
avrav t) raiv epycov avrav k.t.X., and 
again ov 8ia...epya>v (of KaTeipya.crdiJ,eda 
iv 6(Ti6Tr]TL Kaphias ak\a 8ia ti]s niarecos 
K.r.X.), he hastens to balance this 
statement by urging the importance 
of good works. The same anxiety 
reveals itself elsewhere. Thus, where 
he deals with the examples adduced 
in the Apostolic writings, he is care- 
ful to show that neither faith alone 
nor works alone were present : 10 
of Abraham fita tt'kttip koI <f)i\o^viav 
f8udr] avra vlos k.t.X., 12 of Rahab 



XXXIIIJ 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



lOl 



io7rt]v; jULr]6afj.(jo^ tovto iacrai 6 hecTTrorrjs e(J) rifjLLv ye 
yevrjdfji'aL, dWa orTrevo'MiJiev {leTci eKTeveia^ kul irpo- 
dujuia^ TTciv epyov dyadov eTTLTeXeiv. avTOS y^P o 
hjiuioupyo^ Kcil dea-TTOTt]^ tcov diravTcov eiri toI<s epyoi^ 
avTOv dyaWiuTai. tw yap TrajUjueyeOecTTaTa) avTOv 

15 Kpdrei ovpavou^ e(TTf]pi(Tev, kul Trj dKaraXtjiTTip avrou 
(Tweaei hieKoa-fj.^G'ev aJroi/'s* yr]V re hLe^wpKrev diro 
Tov 7repi6^ovTO<s avrrjv v^aTO<i kcu t]^paarev etti top 

ye yV7]67JvaL] A; jevridrivaL (oni. 7e) CS. Above, 23, we have the same pheno- 
menon, though there the relations of A and C are reversed, A omitting and C re- 
taining 76. It is wanted here for the sense. ir eKrece/as] eKrevia... A. 
14 aYaXXtarat] A; d7cXXeTat C Leont Damasc. Tra/xfjieyeOeaTarq}] AC ; Trafi- 
fxcyeffTOLTip Leont Damasc. 15 ea-rripia-ep] AC; ecxT-qpi^ev Leont Damasc. 
T^] A Leont Damasc; iv rrj C; dub. S. 16 yrjv re diexupicrev] C; yqv 

re pLcrev A; yrji/ de Stexciptirej' Leont ; y7Ji> 5e ix'^pi-o'ev Damasc. 17 17- 

dpaaev] AC Damasc ; ^dpaaev Leont. 



Sta nicTTiv koI (piKo^eviav ecradrj. See 
Westcott Cation p. 23. Nor is it 
only where doctrine is directly con- 
cerned that Clement places the teach- 
ing of the Apostles of the Circum- 
cision and the Uncircumcision in 
juxtaposition, as e.g. 49 ayaixr] ku- 
XvTTTfi TrKfjOos afxapTicov, dyairr] iravra 
avex^Tai K.r.X. (see the note there). 
This studied effort to keep the balance 
produces a certain incongruous effect 
in the rapid transition from the one 
aspect of the antithesis to the other; 
but it is important when viewed in 
connexion with Clement's position as 
ruler of a community in which the 
two sections of the Church, Jewish 
and Gentile, had been in direct an- 
tagonism and probably still regarded 
each other with suspicion. On this 
position of Clement, as a reconciler, 
see Galatians p. 323, and the intro- 
duction here, i. p. 96. A part of this 
chapter is quoted by Leontius and 
John Res Sacr. ii (see above, I. p. 188) 
with considerable variations. 

8. Tt ovv 7rot?)o-co/xfz/] Evidently 
modelled on Rom. vi. i sq. 



10. fdcrai 6 becnroTTjs K.r.X.] True 
to his dictum that everything is Sta 
6f\j]pi.aTos avTOv and nothing St' iav- 
ratv, he ascribes the prevention of 
this consequence solely to God's pro- 
hibition. On o dfcnroTTjs see the note 
above, 7. For the preposition in 
e'(^' J/Mi", ' i'n our case,' comp. John xii. 
16, Acts v. 35, xxi. 24, 2 Cor. ix. 14. 

12. avrof yap K.r.X.] This passage 
as far as av^aveade Ka\ TrXrjdiii'eade is 
quoted (with some omissions and va- 
riations) by John of Damascus Sacr. 
Parall. (ll. p. 310). 

13. Srjuiovpyos k.t.X.] So Clein.Honi. 
xvii. 8 TvdvTaiv 8T]fxiovpyov koi SecrTTorjjj/. 

15. fo-rripia-eu] See the note on 
cTTijpiaoi' 18. 

17. TreptexoiTos] This has been 
thought to imply an acceptance of 
the theory of the (OKeavos TroTapios 
supposed to encircle the earth ; comp. 
e.g. Herod, ii. 21 t6 S' wKeavov yfjp 
TvepX iraa-av peeiv, M. Ann. Seneca Suas. 
i. I ' de Oceano dubitant utrumne 
terras velut vinculum circumfluat.' 
But, as Clement does not use the 
word cineapos, and as it is not un- 



I02 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxin 



d(r(pa\f] Tou i^'iov /3ou\r]iuaTO^ defxeXiov Ta re ev 
avTrj tcoa (pOLTcovTa Trj eavTOu diaTa^ei eKeXevcreu 
elvaf 6d\a(T(Tav kul Ta ev avTrj ^wa TrpodtJiuioupyr]- 
(ra^ eve.K\eL(Tev Ttj eavTOv dvvajuiei' Itti TrdcL to e^o- 
^coTaTOv Koi TrajUjueyeSe^ kutu diavoiav, dvQpiairov tol^ 5 
lepals Kal dfj.cdfj.OL'i ^epaiv eTrXaaev Tt]^ eavTOv eiKOuo^ 
)(^apaKTripa. o'vTUi^ T^/' (p^lO'LU 6 Qeo^' TToiHcooMeN an- 
9poanoN kat' gikona kai ka9' omoioocin HMTepAN. KAi enoi- 
HceN d Gedc ton ANBpoonoN, ApceN kai GhAy InomceN Ay- 

I j3oi'Xi7/ia70s] AC; deXrjfiaTOS Leont Damasc. rd re ev avTr!...dvvdfjLeC\ 

om. Leont Damasc. i iavTov] AS ; eavrOip C. 3 !rpo^7)ixLovpyr]aas] 

irpoSrjixi aaa A ; irpoeroi-fidaas CS. 4 ev^KXeicrevI eviK\iirev A. iwl 

]ra(Ti...dv6puirov'\ AC; iirl rot/rois rbv i^oxi^rarov {e^braTov Leont) Kal iran/xeyedq 
dvOpuvov Leont Damasc S. 5 wafx/xiyedes] A; irafx,uyeOe(TTaTov C. For 

the other authorities see the last note. . 6 iepais] AC ; ioiais avrov Leont 



natural to speak of the water ' gird- 
ling' the land independently of this 
theory, the inference is questionable. 
See the note on 20. 

3. 7Tpo8riiiiovpyi]aas^ i.e. before to. 
ev Trj yrj {"wa (poiToivTa, which have 
been already mentioned out of their 
proper place. 

4. eveKKeiaev] ' tnc/osed within 
their proper bounds' : see above 20 
ra TTepiKelfxeva avTjj KkeWpa. 

TO e^o^coTaTov k.t.X.^ Is this an 
accusative after eVXao-ei', avOpaiTov 
being in apposition ? Or is it a 
nominative absolute, referring to the 
whole sentence which follows, avOpa- 
Tvov. . .xapaKTTjpa ? On the construction 
adopted depends the sense assigned 
to Karo hiavoiav which will mean 
respectively either (i) 'in intellectual 
caj>acit_y', referring to man; or (2) 'as 
an exercise of His creative intelli- 
gence\ referring to God. The former 
appears to be generally adopted; but 
the latter seems to me preferable ; for 
a sentiment like Hamlet's ' How 
noble in reason ! how infinite in 
faculty !' is somewhat out of place on 



the lips of Clement, and such a strong 
expression as TrapLfieyedes kotci 8ta- 
voiav jars with his language elsewhere 
about human intellect, e.g. 13, 32, 
36. The TranfjLeyedei kuto, didvoiav 
therefore seems to have the same 
bearing as ttj a.KaTa\7]TrTa> avTov (Tvveaei 
above. John of Damascus indeed 
takes the sentence otherwise, but he 
omits KaTci hiavoiav. 

5. waixjieyedei] The word does 
not occur either in the LXX or in the 
G.T., but is found in Symmachus Ps. 
Ixvii (Ixviii). 31 a-woba irafineyedav 
(Field's Orig-. Hexapl. ll. p. 204). 

6. d/LiwjLiois] 'faultless'. See the 
note on pLcopLoaKOTTr]dev, 4i' 

7. Ylonja-cofiev k.t.X.] A broken quo- 
tation from the LXX Gen. i. 26, 27, 
clauses being left out. 

8. elKova, opLOLcoiTiv] These words 
are distinguished in reference to this 
text by Trench N. T. Syn. ist ser. 
xv, 

Dorner {^Person Christi I. p. 100, 
Engl, trans.) considers it probable 
that ' under the expression ei/cwj/ Geov, 
whose xapaKTripa man bears, we are 



xxxiv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



103 



10 Toyc. TauTa ovv iravTa TeXeiwa'a^ eiry^vecrev cwtcc Kai 
ijuXoytjcreu Kal eiTrew AyHANecee kai nAneVNecee. G'l^o- 
jdev on ev epyoi^ ayaOoh iravTe^ eK0(Tfj.r]6r](rav ol hi- 
KaiOL' Kcii auTO's ovv 6 KvpiO<i epyoi^ eavTOv KOcrjULrjora'i 
e.)(^apy). e)(^ovTe^ ovv tovtov tov vTroypa/uiuov ao/cj/wv 

15 TrpocreXOwjuev too deXrjjULaTi avTov, e^ bXri's 'kt^vo^ f]jj.wv 
epyacrutfJieBa epyov diKaio(rvv)}<i. 

XXXIV. 'O dya6o9 epyaTtj^ /xera Trapprio'ias XajUL- 

Damasc. 8 eUdva] Damasc adds ijfj,Tipav and omits it after ofj-oiucriv. 

10 iirrjvecrev] AC; iiraiveaev Leont ; ewoliqcrev Damasc. 11 Av^aveaOe] 

avk,aveadai A. TrX-rjOvveade] wX-ajduveadaL A. Et5o;U6>'] Young (marg.); ibwixev 

ACS. 12 OTi\ CS ; add rb A. 'ipyoi.s\ eyyoLcr A. e/coffjUTj^T/crac] 

AC; eKot/j.-r]d7](Tai' S. 13 oSv] A; 5^ CS. epyois] A; add dyadois CS. 

See above, 30, and comp. i. pp. 126, 141. 15 e'^] A; Kai i^ CS. tVxi^os] 

A ; TTJs iaxvos C. 



to understand the Son'. Though the 
text in Genesis is so interpreted by 
later fathers (e.g. Clement of Alex- 
andria and Origen), I see no indi- 
cation in the context that this idea 
was present to the mind of the Roman 
Clement. See the remarks on the 
logos-doctrine above, i. p. 398. 

11. Av^avio-de /c.r.X.] From the 
LXX Gen. i. 28. 

El'So/xei/] The sense seems to re- 
quire this substitution for 'ibu>iiev ; see 
the introduction I. p. 120 for similar 
errors of transcription. ' We saw be- 
fore,' says Clement, 'that all the 
righteous were adorned with good 
works ( 32), and now I have shown 
that the Lord God Himself etc' By 
6 Kvpios is meant 6 SrjjjLiovpyos koI 
Secnrorris tSv airavTOiVf as appears 
from ovv and from ix^P^ taken in 
connexion with what has gone before 
(compare ayaWiarai above). 

12. oTi K.T.\.^ If the readings to be 
retained, we must understand a cog- 
nate accusative such as K6a-fj.t][j.a : e.g. 
Soph. if/. 1075 TOV del irarpos (sc. 
(TTovov) SeiKaia (TTevaxovda. This is 
possible ; but the reading of A is dis- 



credited by the fact that the scribe's 
attention was flagging here, for he 
writes eyyoty for epyoty and (as we 
have seen) iSa/j-ev for eihofiev. On 
these grounds I proposed the omis- 
sion in my first edition, and it has 
since been confirmed by our new 
authorities. 

14. vnoyjjaynj.ov'l See the note on 

5. 

15. TTpoo-eX^cu/xei'] The verb npoa-- 
epxecrdai occurs several times of 
approaching God in the Epistle to 
the Hebrews, and in the imperative 
npo(Tepx(ofJifda more especially twice, 
iv. 16, X. 22. See also above ^ 29 
TrpoaeX6a>p,V ovv avra k.tX. ; comp. 
23, 63. 

XXXIV. ' The good workman re- 
ceives his wages boldly : but the 
slothful dares not face his employer. 
The Lord will come quickly with 
His reward in His hand. He will 
come attended by myriads of angels, 
hymning His pi'aises. Let us there- 
fore with one voice and one soul cry 
to Him, that we may be partakers of 
His glorious promises, which surpass 
all that man can conceive'. 



I04 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxiv 



^->7 



(idvei Tov apTOv tov epyov avTOv, 6 vwdpos Kai irap- 
eLjuevo^ ouK cii/TO(p6a\iu6T rw epyoTrapeKTr} avrou. deov 
ovv ecFTiv TrpoOujuovs ij/ias elvai eU dyadoTrouav e^ 
avTOv yap icTiv Ta iravra' irpoKeyei yap Y\\Xiv' Maoy 
6 Kypioc, KAI 6 Micedc AYTOY npd Trpocoanoy aytoy, AnoAoY- 5 

NAI eKACTCp KATA TO epfON AYTOY- FlpOTpeTTeTaL OVV t^jULCl^ 

TTiG'TevovTa^ e^ oX^s Tt]^ Kapdia^ eir' avTM /ut] dpyou9 
jurjde TrapeifJLevovi eivaL eiri wdv epyov dyaSoV to Kav- 
X^lM-(^ ^)/xwi/ Kai ri 7rappt](ria ecTa) ev avTO)' ivTroracr- 

I 6 vuOpbs] AC ; 6 d^ vuidpb^ S. 3 ^/aSs] AC ; vj^as S. et, avrov] 

AC S translates as if it referred to irpodv/jLovs iifids k.t.X. 5 6 KvpLos] A; 

K^pios (om. 6) C. 6 UpoTp^Trerat] irpoTpeireTe A. 7 inaTevovTa{\ CS ; 



1. o v(o6pos K.T.X.] Both these 
words occur in the epistle to the He- 
brews, and nowhere else in the N.T. 
For voidpos see Heb. v. 11, vi. 12; 
for irapeifievos, ib. xii. 12. The com- 
bination appears in Ecclus. iv. 29 
vadpos rat Trapfip.evos if toIs i'pyois 
avTov, which passage perhaps Cle- 
ment had in his mind. 

2. dvTo(l)6a\pfl] '/aa's\ as Wisd. 
xii. 14, Acts xxvii. 15, Barnab. 5. 
The word occurs frequently in Poly- 
bius. Comp. avTccTre'iv Theoph. ad 
Atitol. i. 5, ovTop-paTiiv Apost. Const. 
vi. 2. For dvTo(f)da\fjL'Lv itself see 
Lit. D. Jacob, p. 25 (ed. Hammond). 

epyoTrapeKTj]] '' ]iis employ cr\ I have 
not found any other instance of 
this word, which is equivalent to 
epyo8oTr]s. Compare also fpyoXdjBos, 
{pyodiwKTrjs (Exod. iii. 7, v. 6, etc.). 

3. e^ avTov] i.e. TOV epyoirapeKTOv 

l]flWV. 

4. 'idov 6 Kvpios K.T.X.] The be- 
ginning is a confusion of Is. xl. 10 
t8ov Kvpios (o 6e6s vp.u>v S) Kvpios (om. 
Kvpios sec. A) /Liera Icrxvos epx^Tai Koi 
6 ^paxioiv add. avTov A) p,eTa Kvpias ' 
idoii o piadbs avTov fieT avTov Kai to 
e'pyov ivavTiov avToii, and Is. Ixii. II 
iSoD o (TaTrjp (TOi irapayiyovfv {croi 6 



<ra>Trjp TrapayivcTai SA) excou tov eav- 
Tov picrOov, Koi TO epyov avTov (om. 
avToii A) irpo TrpocrcoTrov avToii : but the 
ending comes from Prov. xxiv. 12 os 
a7ro8i8a)criv eKacTTm koto to. e'pya avToii, 
unless (as seems more probable from 
the connexion) it is taken from Rev. 
XXII. 12 I80V epxofiat Ta^v Kai 6 fiia-ffos 
pov peT epov anoSovvai eKaarco (os to 
epyov e'a-Tai avTov. Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iv. 22 (p. 625) has the same quo- 
tation, but is copying the Roman 
Clement. 

7. V auVw] i.e. Tw piadM, ' la/t/t 
our reward in view\ The position 
of e^ oXrjs Trjs Kapdias is Opposed to 
such corrections as eV avTo to or eVl 
TO for the MS reading eV avTm ; nor 
does any alteration seem needed. 

8. prj8e TTapeipevovs k.t.X.] Comp. 
2 Tim. il. 21 els Trav epyov dyaOov 
ijToipaapevov, ib. iii. 1 7, Tit. iii. i, and 
see above, 2. The pr]Te after px] in 
A was so suspicious (see Winer ^ Iv. 
p. 513, A. Buttmann p. 315) as to call 
forth the suggestion in my first edition 
that it should probably be read pr]U ; 
see the vv. 11. in Luke vii. ^^i, Eph. iv. 
27. Our new authorities have con- 
firmed the justice of this suspicion. 

12. Muptat K.r.X.] Dan. vii. 10 (Theo- 



xxxiv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



i05 



I lo or CO /ued a tm OeXtjjuaTi avTOV' KaTavor](T(afxev to irav 
7r\f]6o9 Twv dyyeXwv avTOV, ttoj? t deKfjjULaTi avTOv 
\eiTOupyou(nv TrapecTTcoTe^' Xeyei yap t] ypacprj' MypiAi 
MYpiAAec HApeicTHKf icAN ay'to), kai )(iAiai xiAiAAec eAeiToyp- 
roYN AYTO)" Kai eKeKpAfON" Afioc, Afioc, a'tioc KVpioc CA- 
15 BaooO, nAhipHc haca h kticic thc Aozhc ay'toy. Kai tjjueT^ 
ovv, ev Sjuovoia ettI to avTo orvva'^devTe^ Trj crvvidri(reij 
ws e^ eVos cTTOjJiaTO^ (ioy)(nofj.ev 7rpo<s avTOv eKrevw^ eh 
TO fXETOXOvs tjjULas yevecdai twv jueydXwi^ kul evho^iav 

om. A. See i. p. 124. 8 /xiyS^] C, and so probably S; iJ.-qTe A. 12 Xet- 

Tovpyo\j(nv'[\i.rovp-yov(yiv A. 13 eXetToyp70w] C ; XiTovpyovv A. S translates 

both this word and TrapeiarriKeicTav as presents. 15 Kricns] AS ; yrj C with 

LXX and Hebr. 16 ry crwetS'^crei] AC; in una conscientia S. 



dot.) )(iKiai ;(tXtaSe? l\nrov()yovv avrOi 
{idepaTTevov avrov LXX) Koi fivpiai pv- 
ptdSes Trapei(rTT]KLcrav avrm, the clauses 
being transposed by Clement. The 
order of the clauses in the Hebrew is 
the same as in the Greek versions. 
Yet Iran. Haer. ii. 7, 4, Euseb. Pracp. 
Ev. vii. 15 (p. 326), Greg. Nyss. Hoiii. 
via in Ecdcs. (l. p. 463), Cyril. Hier. 
Catcch. XV. 24 (p. 237), and others, 
give the quotation with the inverted 
clauses as here ; but, as it is quoted 
with every shade of variation in dif- 
ferent fathers and even these same 
fathers in some cases give the right 
order elsewhere, no stress can be 
laid on this coincidence which seems 
to be purely accidental. 

14, Kai e/ceKpayoi'] A loosequotation 
from LXX Is. vi. 3. 'EKeKpayoi- is an 
imperfect of a new verb Kf/cpayw 
formed from KfKpaya ; see Buttmann 
A us/. Griech. Sprachl. iii (ll. p. 

37)- 

15. Kat J/xeiy ovv k.t.X.] The con- 
nexion of this passage with the li- 
turgical services had struck careful 
observers, even before the discovery 
of the liturgical ending of the epistle 
(,^ 60, 61) had furnished a solid ba- 



sis for such conjectures. Probst more 
especially {Litiirg. d. drci crsien 
Jahrh. 41 sq) emphasizes this con- 
nexion. The phenomena which ex- 
pressly point to it are (i) the 'ter 
sanctus', and more especially the 
connexion of Is. vi. 3 with Dan. vii. 
10 ; (2) The expressions eVi to avrh 
avvaxdevres (comp. Ign. Ephcs. 13, 
Philad. 4, Sniyrn. 7, 8), e'^ eVoy aro- 
fxaTos (comp. Rom. xv. 6), tKrevas (see 
I. p. 385), etc. ; (3) The quotation 
64>0a\p6s K.T.X. For more on this 
subject see the introduction, i. p. 
386 sq. 

16. Trj a-%!veL8r](Ti] Hii heart, ill con- 
sciousness'' ; comp. Eccles. x. 20 Kai ye 
iv crvvei^rjaeL crov (BaaiXea p,rj KaTapacrrj, 
i.e. 'in your secret heart'. The pre- 
sence of their hearts, and not of their 
bodies only, is required. The com- 
mentators however either translate 
as though it were ev ayaBf] a-wftdrja-fi, 
or give tt/ crtn/etSrycret the unsupported 
sense 'harmony, unanimity'. This 
last is apparently the sense assigned 
to it by the Syriac translator ; see 
the upper note. Others have pro- 
posed to read arvvBrja-d or avvabia. 



io6 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxiv 



eTrayyeXiMU avTOv. Xeyei yap' '0(\)QaKm6c oyk el^eN 
KAi oyc OYK HKoyceN, KAi eni KApAiAN ANepconoy oyK aneBh, 

OCA HT0l'\AAC6N TOIC fnOMeNOYCIN AYTON. 



I '04>da\ix6s] A; a 64>6a\f^bs CS (with i Cor. ii. 9). 
^Toi/Maaev] A; add. KvpLos CS. rots virofievovaiv] A; 

the lower note). 



3 offa AC ; orn. S. 
Tois dyaTTuxxiv CS (see 



I. 'O0^aXjLio? K.T.X.] This quotation 
occurs also in S. Paul i Cor. ii. 9 
(where it is introduced by Ka^wy ye- 
ypawTai), in the form a o(f)6aXfibs ovk 
elBef KoX ovs ovk. fjKovcrev Koi eVt Kap8iav 
dvdpcoTTOv OVK avefirj baa TjTOifiaa-ev o 
Qeos Tols dyanacriv avrov. It is cited 
again in ii. n (comp. 14), AfarL 
Polyc. 2, Clem. Ep. ad Virg. i. 9 ; see 
also Lagarde's Gesamm. Abhandl. p. 
142. It is apparently taken from 
Isaiah Ixiv. 4, which runs in the 
LXX OTTO Tov almvos ovk rjKovaanev 
ov8e ol 6cf)6aX[io\ rip-mv eibov deov jrXrjv 
(TOV Koi Ta epya crov a Troirjcrets toIs 
imopivova-Lv eXeov, but more nearly in 
the Hebrew, ' From eternity they 
have not heard, they have not heark- 
ened, neither hath eye seen a god 
[or 'O God'] save thee (who) worketh 
[or '(what) He shall do'] to him 
that awaiteth Him' (see Delitzsch 
ad loc)\ combined with Is. Ixv. 16, 
17 OVK dva^ijafTai avrav eVt rrjv Kap- 
Biav...ov prj eTreXdrj avrav ini ttjv Kap- 
biav. Clement mixes up S. Paul's 
free translation or paraphrase from 
the Hebrew (the latter words ocra 
rjToipaaev k.t.\. being apparently the 
Apostle's own explanatory addition) 
with the passage as it stands in the 
LXX ; just as above, 13, in quoting 
Jer. ix. 23, 24 (or i Sam. ii. 10) he con- 
denses it after S. Paul. For a similar 
instance see above 34 l^ov 6 Kvpios 
K.T.X. The passages, which Hilgen- 
feld suggests as the sources of the 
quotation (4 Esdr. x. 35 sq, 55 sq), 
diverge more from the language of 
S. Paul and Clement, than these 
words of Isaiah. 



The passage, if we may trust S. Je- 
rome, occurred as given by S. Paul, 
both in the Ascension of Isaiah and 
in the Apocalypse of Elias (Hieron. 
in Is. Ixiv. 4, IV. p. 761 ; Prol. in Gen. 
IX. p. 3). And Origen, in Matth. 
xxvii. 9 (ill. p. 916), says that S. Paul 
quotes from the latter, * In nullo re- 
gulari libro hoc positum invenitur, 
nisi (et pr]., 'but only') in Secretis 
Eliae prophetae'. This assertion is 
repeated also by later writers (see 
Fabricius Cod. Ps. V. T. i. p. 1073) 
doubtless from Origen, but combated 
by Jerome (11. cc. and Epist. Ivii. 9, 
I. p. 314), who refers the quotation to 
Is. Ixiv. 4. If it could be shown that 
these apocryphal books were prior to 
S. Paul, this solution would be the 
most probable ; but they would ap- 
pear to have been produced by some 
Christian sectarians of the second 
century, for Jerome terms them 'Ibe- 
rae naeniae' and connects them with 
the Basilideans and other Gnostics 
who abounded in Spain (11. cc. ; see 
also c. Vigil. 11. p. 393, and comp. 
Fabricius p. 1093 sq). If so they 
incorporated the quotation of S. 
Paul in their forgeries. For a simi- 
lar instance of incorporation see the 
notes on Galatians vi. 15. At all 
events both these works appear from 
the extant remains to have been 
Christian. For the Apocalypse of 
Elias see Epiphan. Haer. xlii (p. 372), 
who says that the quotation in Eph. 
V. 14 (which is obviously Christian) 
was found there ; and for the Asceti- 
sion of Isaiah, this same father Haer. 
Ixvii. 3 (p. 712), where he quotes a 



xxxv] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



107 



XXXV. 'CaJ^ ^aKapia Kai Oav/uLaa-rd to. ^copa tou 
5 Oeou, dya7rt]T0i. ^wrj ev ddava(TLa, XajjcTT pern's ev di- 



passage referring to the Trinity. In- 
deed there is every reason to beHeve 
that the work known to Epiphanius 
and several other fathers under this 
name, is the same with the Ascension 
and Vision of Isaiah published first 
by Laurence in an yEthiopic Version 
and subsequently by Gieseler in a 
Latin. The two versions represent 
different recensions ; and the passage 
' Eye hath not seen, etc' appears in 
the Latin (xi. 34) but not in the 
yEthiopic (see Jolowicz Hiinmelfahrt 
tc. Vision dcs Propheten Icsaia p. 90, 
Leipzig 1854). The Latin recension 
therefore must have been in the hands 
of Jerome ; though this very quotation 
seems to show clearly that the ^thi- 
opic more nearly represents the ori- 
ginal form of the work (see Liicke 
Offcnbarung d. Johannes p. 179 sq). 
Both recensions alike are distinctly 
Christian. 

It was at all events a favourite 
text with certain early Gnostic sects, 
who introduced it into their formula 
of initiation and applied it to their 
esoteric teaching ; see Hippol. Hacr. 
V. 24, 26, 27, vi. 24. This perverted 
use of the text was condemned by 
their contemporary Hegesippus (as 
reported by Stephanus Gobarus in 
Photius Bibl. 232), as contradicting 
our Lord's own words fiaKapioi ol 
o(f)daXfjio\ vfiav K.r.X. In Other words 
he complained that they would re- 
strict to the initiated few the know- 
ledge which Christ declared to be 
laid open to all. But Stephanus Go- 
barus himself, writing some centuries 
later and knowing the text only as it 
occurs in S. Paul, is not unnaturally 
at a loss to know what Hegesippus 
means by this condemnation {ovk ol8' 
Ti Koi TvaBwv fiUTrjv /xiu eiprja-dai raiira 
Xe'yei k.t.X.). On the use which some 



modern critics have made of this re- 
ference to Hegesippus in Stephanus 
Gobarus, see Galatians p. 320. 

For the connexion of this quotation 
ocpdaXfjLos ovK eiSev k.t.X. with the 
earlier liturgies, see the introduction, 
I. p. 389 sq. 

Fabricius (p. 1073) quotes a par- 
allel from Empedocles {Fragm. Phi- 
los. I. p. 2, ed. Mullach) ouV eTriSepKra 
Ta8 dv8pctcriv ovt enaKovcrrd, ovre vooa 
Tre piXrjTrTa.. 

3. vTrop.vov(nv] It is clear that 
Clement wrote vrropevovaiu from the 
words which follow at the beginning of 
the next chapter riva ovv apa ia-rlv tci 
iT0ip.a^6p,eva tols viropevovcnv; where 
he picks up the expression according 
to his wont ; see the note on 46 
TO)!/ eKkenTuiv fiov diacrTpeij/aL. On the 
other hand S, having broken the 
connexion by substituting dyanuxriu 
for v7rop.evov(rip, re-establishes it by 
the expedient of adding koI dyancovTcov 
to inroixevovTwv in 35. On this 
reading {inrop.epov(Tiv) see also i. p. 
390, note. 

XXXV. ' Great and marvellous 
are God's gifts even in the present ! 
How then can we conceive the glory 
that hereafter awaits His patient ser- 
vants .'' Let us strive to attain this 
reward. And to this end let us do 
what is well-pleasing to Him : let us 
shun strife and vainglory ; let us 
lay aside all selfish and unbrotherly 
sins. Remember how in the Psalms 
God denounces those who hearken 
not to His warning voice, who persist 
in wronging their neighbours, count- 
ing on His forbearance. He tells us 
that the sacrifice of praise is the path 
of salvation'. 

5. XaiJLTrpoTrjs] ' cheer/u/ness, ala- 
crity, strcnuousness\ as e.g. Plut. 
Vit. Cim. 17, Polyb. xxxii. 23. i (see 



io8 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxv 



Kaio(ruvr], dXriBeia ev Trapprjcria, ttlo'ti's iv 7r67roi6t](reiy 
eyKpuTeia iv dyiacrfjico' kui ravTa vTreTTLTrrev iravra vtto 
Tr]V hidvoiav tjjutoi/. Tiva ovv apa icrriu Ta eTOijua^o- 
jueva Toh vTrojuevovcriv ; 6 hrifxiovp'yo^ kul Trarrjp twv 
alwviov 6 Travayics auTO^ yLviacTKei Trjv TrocroT^TCt Kai 5 
Tf]u KaWovrjU avTcov. t^jueT^ ovv dycoi/icrcoiueda evpedfjvai 
eV Tw dpidjUM TWV vTTOfxevovTUiv avTov, OTro)^ jULeTaXa- 
fiwjuev Tvov eir^yyeXfJievcdv hcopewv. Tray's he ecTTaL tov- 
TO, dyaTTtjToi', eav ecTTtipiyfJievr) rj t] Ziavoia 7]p.oiv Zia 
TrlarTew^ Trpos tov Oeov eav eK^^TWfjLev Ta evapecTa lo 
Kal evTrpoG'heKTa avTco' eav e7rLTe\e(r(i)fj.ev Ta dvrjKOVTU 

1 iyKpareia] eyKparia A. vireiri.irTev ttAvto] A ; vvoir'nrTeL iravTa C ; vtvo- 

iriTTTovTa S, some letters having dropped out, YTTOniTTTe[lTTA]NT&. 4 Kai 

TraTTjp tQv aiihvwv 6 7ra;'d7tos] AS; tQv althvwv /cat irarrjp vavdyios C. 7 vwo- 

fievovTWv] AC; add. Kai dyairdvTuv S. For the reason of this addition see the note 
on 34 6<pda\fibs k.t.X. auTov] A; om. CS. 8 ti2v evqyyekfiivwv SwpecDf] 

TuveirriyyeXfieviiivdwpaiiov A; Ttov dwpeCov twv eirrjyyekixivwv C, and so probably S. 
9 dyairrjToi] AC; om. S. 3 '^l '?'? A ; ^ (om. ij) C. Sid Tricrrews] Young; per 

fidcni S; iria-Teus (om. dia) A ; iria-ruis C. 10 iKlyjTQfiev] A; iK^rrjawfiev C. 

ra eiidpeara Kal einrpocrdeKTa ai}ry] AS ; to. dyadd Kai eiidpeffra avT($ Kai evwpoa- 



Schweigh. Lex. s.v. Xa/nTrpds). Com- 
pare the similar word 0atSporjj?. The 
position of Xafinporrjs here seems to 
require this sense, for all the words 
in the parallel clauses ^cot/', dXrjdfia, 
nicTTis, eyKpciTfia, refer to the moral 
consciousness, not to any external 
advantages. 

1. irl(TTis iv 7re7rot^r;crei] See the 
note above, 26. 

2. Kui raiira /c.r.A.] 'These,' Cle- 
ment argues, 'are already within our 
cognisance. What then are the joys 
in store for those who remain sted- 
fast to the end?' Comp. i Joh. iii. 2 
viip TiKva Qeov iafJiev Ka\ ovtto) f(j)av- 
padrj Ti iaofj-eda. 

5. TTuvayios] Apparently the first in- 
stance of the word, which afterwards 
takes a prominent place in the 
language of Greek Christendom ; un- 



less indeed the occurrences in4 Mace, 
vii. 4, xiv. 7, are earlier. 

9. 8ia TTio-rews] The reading of the 
Syriac version is unquestionably 
right ; see i. p. 143. The omission of 
8ia in A may perhaps be explained by 
the neighbourhood of 8iapoia. Hil- 
genfeld and Gebhardt read Tria-Toos. 
Lipsius (p. 15) defends TrtWemr, trans- 
lating '' cogitatiojtcs fideV, but this 
would require a\ 8iavoiai rijs Tr/o-rewr. 

II. evTrpoa-dfKTo] See the notes on 

7, 40. 

13. naaav ddiKiav k.t.X.] The whole 
passage which follows is a reminis- 
cence of Rom. i. 29 sq Troielv ra p,rj 
Kadr]KOVTa...Tra(rr] d8iKLa TTovrjpiq irXeo- 
ve^Lq...epi.8os 8oXov KaKorjdfias, ^idvpia- 
ras KaToXaXovs dfO(TTvyeis...vnepr](jia- 
povs aXa^opas ...eTTiypopTei: oti 01 ra 
ToiavTa TTpdcrcropTes d^ioi dcipdrov elaip, 



xxxv] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 109 

rfj dfJitdfJLM l3ou\t](r6L avTOv kul ciKoXovOtjcrwiaei/ tyj oZw 
TfJ9 d\r]6eia^, ciTroppi^avTe^ d(p' eavTwu Trdcrav dhiKLav 
Kal dvofjiiaVf irXeove^iav , 'epei9, KaKorjdeia^ re Kai hoXov^, 

15 ^i6vpL(Tiiiov<i TE Kal KUTaXaXid^, OeocTTvyiav, vTrept]- 
(baviav re kul dXa^oveiav, Kevoho^iav re Kal dcpiXo- 
peviav. Tavra 'yap ol rrpao'O'OVTe^ crrvyriTOi tw Oew 
vTrdp-^ovariv ov juovou he ol TrpacrcovTe^ avTa, dXXa Kai 
ol (TvvevhoKovvTe^ avToh. Xeyei yap ri ypacpr]' To) Ae 

20 AMApTCoAo) eineN d Oedc "Ina ti cy Aihth ta Aikaioomata 
MOY, KAI anaAaiuBancic thn AiaGhkhn moy eni ctomatoc coy; 
CY Ae Imichcac nAiAeiAN, kai eleBAAAec toyc AdroYc moy ^ic 

8eKTa C. 14 dvo/xiav] A; Troi/rjpiav CS (comp. Rom. i. 29). irXeove^iai'] 

AS; om. C. 15 /caraXaXtds] KaToXiKtacr A. virepr)(paviav re] AC; koI 

virepr](paviav S. 16 dXa^oveiav] aka^ovid A. d(pi\o^viav] CS; (piXo^ei/iav 

A. 18 /xovov] [lov A. 20 515777?] A; eKdn^yfj C; dub. S. This is a 

v.l. in the Lxx also. 21 iirl] A (as the Hebr. bj?) ; 5ta CS with the LXX. 

(Tov] fxov A. So the MS seems clearly to read (as even the photograph shows), 
though Tisch. gives it aov. 22 av d^ k.t.X.] C omits all to 6 pvofievos (p. 1 11, 

1. i) inclusive. After the omission comes /cat iv t<^ reXet dvaia atVecrews k.t.X. 
iraideiav] iraidLav A. e^ejSaXXes] e|a/3aXXeo- A ; efe/SaXes S ; def. C. 

ov pLovov aira TTOiovaiv {v. I. Tvuiovvres) liness of their contributions towards 

aXXfi Kai (TvvevhoKovcnv {v. I. arvvevdo- the needs of poor Christians abroad, 

Kovvres) toIs irpaa-aova-iv. On the though they may have failed in this 

reading iroiovvm, avvfvboKnvvm, sup- respect also (see the note 38). The 

ported by Clement's language here, duty of entertaining the brethren 

see Tischendorf 's note. from foreign churches was a re- 

16. a(^i\o^evLav] This was the sim- cognized obligation among the early 

plest emendation of the reading of A Christians. In former times the 

(see the note on ^j) dr/;/xeXetVw 38), Corinthians had obtained a good re- 

and it is now confirmed by our new port for the practice of this virtue 

authorities. The word occurs Orac. ( i to pLfyaXoTrpe-n-es rrjs (fnXo^evias 

Sibyll. viii. 304 rr]s a^iKo^ivir)^ ravTr^v vp>.u>v ^6os), but now all was changed. 

Tia-ova-L irpane^av. Other proposed Hence the stress laid on the hos- 

readings were (^yikoTm'iav, (fiiXodo^lnv, pitality of Abraham ( 10), of Lot 

^ikoviiKMv. The suggestion of Lip- ( 11), of Rahab ( 12); for this 

sius (p. 115), that the Corinthians virtue cannot have been singled out 

had failed in the duty of providing in all three cases without some special 

for others, appears to be correct. reference. 

But the word seems to point rather ig. Tw Se a^apruikw k.t.X.] From 

to their churlishness in not enter- the LXX Ps. 1. 16 23, with slight va- 

taining foreign Christians at Corinth, riations, of which the more important 

than (as he maintains) to the niggard- are noted below. 



no 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxv 



TA oTTicoi. ei eOecbpeic KAentHN, cyNexpexec aytco, kai meta 
Moi'xcaN THN MepiAA COY eriGeic- to ctoma coy enAeoNAceN 

KAKIAN, KAI H fAoOCCA COy nepienAeKGN AOAIOTHTA" kaOhmenoc 

KATA Toy AAeAcj)OY coy katcAaAcic, kai kata toy yioy thc 
MHTpo'c coy eTi6eic ckanAaAon" tayta enomcAC kai ecirHCA'5 
yneAABec, anomc, oti ccomai coi omoioc eAe'r^oo ce kai 
nApACTHCoi ce KATA npdcooncJN coy. cynctc Ah tayta, oi 
eniAANSANOMeNOi toy Oeoy, mhttotc ApnACH <x>c AeooN, kai 

2 itrkedvacrev^ A ; ewXedva^ev S. 4 dde\(poxj] a8e\<f)ov(r A. 6 dvofie] 

avofiai A; avofilav S. See the lower note. 7 ere /card irpbaoj-rrbv aov\ A; 

/card irpbffWKbv aov ra? a/jLaprias aov S. .See the lower note. ro y] LXX (BS) 

see below; rjv ACS (with some MSS of the Lxx). aOry] AC; adroTs S. 

ToOGeoO] AS; /xov C. 13 dcrOeveias] affOeviaa A. 14 rovrov] C; TOyxoy 



3. Kudijfievos] Implying deliberate 
conspiracy ; see Perowne on Ps. i. i. 

6. avofjLe] LXX avo^iav (B) ; but S 
has avojxe, though it is afterwards cor- 
rected into avofjLfiav {avopiiav). 'Avo- 
fxiav is read by Justin Dial. 22 (p. 
240), Clem. Alex. Stroin. vi. 14 (p. 
798) ; but avo\x.i Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iv. 24 (p. 634). The Syriac does not 
favour avo\x,i (as Wotton states), ex- 
cept that the existing pointing in- 
terprets it thus. The reading of 
our MS A here shows how easy was 
the transition from the one to the 
other, ai/o/xat (avofie) and avofxia ( = dvo- 
fiiav). See the notes on dvaa-Trjanixai 
5, and ^ Se/|co just below. Though 
aj/o/xe makes better sense, the original 
reading of the LXX here must have 
been dvopiiav (not avop.e as Wotton 
thinks) ; for the translators must 
have misread n\ni< nVH TT'OT 'Thou 
thoughtest, I shall surely be', as if 

n-'nx niin rr^an 'Thou thoughtest 

destruction (or iniquity), I shall be', 
since niin is elsewhere translated by 
dvo^ia, Ps. Ivii. 2, xciv. 20 ; and Theo- 
dotion, whose version agreed with the 
LXX (see Field's Hexapl. ad loc), 
must have read it in the same way, 

7. 77apa(TT}]crw ere k.t.X-I ' I will 



bring thee face to face with thyself, 
show thee to thyself in thy true light.' 
The uf. is omitted in BS of the LXX 
and doubtless had no place in the 
original text of this version which 
agreed with the Hebrew, ' I will lay 
in order (the matter) before thee'. 
Justin Dial. 22 (I.e.) and other wri- 
ters supply an accusative ras dfiapTias 
aov, which is found also in a large 
number of MSS (see Holmes and 
Parsons). 

8. cos Xe'taj/] i.e. ' lest he seize you 
as it we7'e a lio?i\ The words coy Xecoj/ 
are absent from the LXX (and Justin 
Dial. 22 p. 402), as also from the 
Hebrew. They must have come 
from Ps. vii. 3, either as a gloss in 
Clement's text of the LXX or as 
inadvertently inserted by him in a 
quotation made from memory. 

10. fi Set'^coj As fi is read in the LXX 
(BS) and in Justin 1. c, and as the 
parallelism in the opening of the 
next chapter (tJ 6hos ev evpofiev to 
a-coTi^ptov K.T.X.) seems to require it, 
I have restored it for rjv. For similar 
corruptions in the MS A see 15 ava- 
arrja-ofiev (note), 36 o(ra)V, 41 o-wei- 
b-qcriv, ii. 6 aLXfJ^oKaxriav. If rjv be 
retained, a-mrijpiov must be taken as a 



xxxvi] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



1 1 1 



MM H d pyoMeNOc. eyciA AiNeceooc AolAcei Me, kai eKei 

lo f5Adc H Aei'loo AYTO) to cooTi-ipioN toy Oeoy. 

XXXVI. AvTY] Tr] o^o'i, dyaTTriTOi, ev t) e'vpofj.ev to 
crwTtjpiov >7/:xa)i/ lt]crovv XpicTTOV tov dp^iepea tmv irpocr- 
(popwv t]^o)Uj TOV 'rrpoa-To.Tnv Kai f^ot]66v t^9 d(r6eveias 
ij^MV. ^la TOVTOu dTevL(TU)jj.ev ek to. v^t] tcuv ovpavwv 

15 ^la TOVTOV evoTTTpi^ojueOa tyiv afjLMjjiov Kai vTrepTaTrju 
b^lnv avTOV' Zia tovtov ^veto-^driorav rifjicov oi ocpdaXjuoi 
Ttj^ Kap^ia^' ^la tovtov ri dcrvveTO^ Kai ea-KOTM/uLevr] did- 

(the superscribed y being prima manu) A; toCto S, and so 11. 15, 16, but not 1. 17, 
or p. 1 12 1. 2. areviaijiiiivl A ; cofitemplcmur (or contemplabimur) S ; drevl^o/ji.ei' C. 

15 evoTrTpi^6^9a] AC; videa?mis (or videbimus) tajupiam in specula S. 16 ^J'tci- 

xOvo-av] A; dved)x6v<^av C; et apcrti stmt ^. T]ix.(hv\ AC; vixGiv S. 17 kcjKO- 

TUfiivrf] AC; iaKOTia/x^vrj Clem 613. 



nominative in apposition with 686s. 

XXXVI. 'On this path let us tra- 
vel. This salvation is Jesus Christ 
our High-priest. Through Him our 
darkness is made light, and we see 
the Father : for He is the reflexion of 
God's person. He has a place far 
above all angels, being seated on 
God's right hand and endowed with 
universal dominion and made tri- 
umphant over His enemies. These 
enemies are they that resist God's will.' 

12. TOV apxiepeci] This is founded 
on the teaching of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews (ii. 17, iii. i, iv. 14, 15, etc.), 
of which Clement's language through- 
out this section is an echo. See 
again 61, 64. Photius {B/dl. 126) 
alludes to these two passages in his 
criticism of Clement, dpxiepea Kai 
TrpocTTaTTjv TOV Kvpiov rjpav ^ly^aovv e^o- 
vofjLa^iov ovbe Tas Beonpenfis Kai yyj/rjXo- 
Tfpai a(f)riKe nepl avTOv (fxovds (see the 
note, ^5 2). The term dpxiepevs is 
very frequently applied to our Lord 
by the earliest Christian writers of 
all schools ; Ign. Philad. 9, Polyc. 
Phil. 12, Test, xii Pair. Rub. 6, 
Sym. 7, etc., Clem. Rccogn. i. 48, Jus- 



tin Dial. 116 (p. 344). 

13. Trpoo-raT-j;!'] '' guardian, patron, 
who protects our interests and pleads 
our cause'. To a Rornan it would 
convey all the ideas of the Latin 'pa- 
tronus,' of which it was the recognized 
rendering, Plut. Vit.Rom. 13, Vit.Ma- 
rii 5. Comp. Trpoa-TaTis Rom. xvi. 2. 

Trji ncrdevdas^ In connexion with 
the work of the great High-priest, as 
in Heb. iv. 15. 

15. ivonTpi^opedal Christ is the mir- 
ror in whom is reflected the faultless 
countenance of God the Father (av- 
Tov) ; comp. 2 Cor. iii. 18 Trjv bo^av 
Kvpiov KaTOTTTpi^opevoi, Philo Leg. All. 
iii. 33 (l. p. 107) pr]bk KaT07rTpicraipr)v 
ev oXXo) Tivl TTjv (TT)V I8eav rj iv <to\ t 
060) ; comp. John i. 14. 

a/xw/xo!'] ''fmdtless\ ' fleckless'' , be- 
cause the mirror is perfect. For the 
meaning of lipaipos, sec the note on 
fi(OHoq;KOTrT]6ev, ^ 4^- 

17. 8ia tovtov K.T.X.] Quoted in Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. 16 (p. 613) o iv ttj 
irpos Kopivdiovs iTVKTToXrj yiypaTrrai, 
Aia 'irjaov XpitrroG rj d(rvv(Tos...rjpas 
yevcacrOai. 

ij drrvveTos k.t.X.] Roni. i. 21 Kcii 



112 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxvi 



i^oia i^fjiiou dvaSaWei ek to [Oaviuaa-Tov avTOv] (pco?' dia 
TOUTOv tjOeArjcev 6 decTroTtj^ Trjs dOavarov yviacreoy^ 
rifjid's yevo'acrvaL' oc con AnAYr<^cMA thc MerAAoocyNHc ay- 
toy TOCOYTOi MeiZOON eCTIN AfreAoON, OC(ii AlACJJOpOiTepON 

ONOMA KeKAHpoNOMHKeN. yeypaTTTai yap ovtw^' '0 noiaJN 5 
TOYC AVreAoYC aytoy nNeYMATA kai toyc AeixOYproYC aytoy 
nYpdc (t)AorA. 'Stti de tm vIuj avTOv outws eiirev 6 
oeo'TTOTrj^' Yidc moy el cf, er<i> CH/wepoN rereNNHKA ce* aT- 

THCAI HAp' ImOY, kai AcbcCO COI GONH THN KAHpONOMl'AN COY, 

I TO Oaufxaarbv avrov 0tSs] A (with i Pet. ii. 9) ; to <pSis S with Clem; rd 
davfiaaTOf (pds C. 2 Trjs ddavdrov yfdiiieus] AC ; mortis scicntiae S (Q<xva.Tov 

Yi't^irews), where r^s has been absorbed in the preceding syllable of deairdTris and 
OavaTov is written for dOavaTov. For an instance of ddvaTO'; for d^dvaros see ii. 
19, and conversely of dddvaTo% for Odvaros Ign. Ephes. 7. 5 &o/xa kckXtj- 

pov6ixr)Kev^ A ; KeK\ripov6ix7]Kev Svo/xa C (with Heb. i. 4). 7 Tupos 0Xo7a] 

A (with Heb. i. 7); (pXbya -rrvpos C (as Rev. ii. 18). 13 ry deXrifiaTi avTov] 

CS; Twde\7}iJ.a.TLTU3d\-q[ji.a A, as correctly read by Tisch. The lacuna has space 

for seven letters and should probably be filled up (with Tisch.) TiavTov, the words 



T(f> deXrifiaTi being written twice over. 

icTKOTicrOrj rf dcrvveros avrav (capSta, 
Ephes. iv. 18 ea-Korcofievoi [v. I. (tko- 
Tianevoi] Tji biavolq. These passages 
are sufficient to explain how Clem. 
Alex, in quoting our Clement writes 
eo-KOTto-jLte'i'?;, but not sufficient to justify 
the substitution of this form for eV/co- 
rm/xei/77 in our text. See A. Jahn's 
Methodius II. p. jj, note 453. 

I. avaOaXkit K.r.X.] i.e. ' Our mind, 
like a plant shut up in a dark closet, 
had withered in its growth. Removed 
thence by His loving care, it revives 
and shoots up towards the light of 
heaven.' Comp. i Pet. ii. 9 tov ck 
(TKOTOvs Vjias KaXeaavTos els to dav- 
fiaa-Top avToii (j)oas. See also Clem. 
Alex. Faed. i. 6 (p. 117) npbs to dtdtov 
dvaTpex^ofievov (pas and the note on 
59 below eKoKea-ev ^^^J,as k.t.X. It is 
Strange that editors should have 
wished to alter dvadaXXei, which con- 
tains so striking an image. 

3. OS av K.T.X.] The whole passage 
is borrowed from the opening of the 



18 eiicTiKuis] eKTiKus C; Ic7nter 

Epistle to the Hebrews, from which 
expressions, arguments, and quota- 
tions alike are taken : see esp. i. 3, 4, 
5, 7, 13. For the meaning see the 
commentators on that epistle. On 
ovoiia, ' title, dignity', see Philippiatis 
ii. 9. 

5. 'O TvoiQiv (C.T.X.] From LXX Ps. 
civ. 4. It is quoted exactly as in Heb. 
i. 7j TTvpoy (j)X6ya being substituted 
for TTvp cpXeyov of the LXX (BS, but A 
has TTvpoa 0Xeya which shows the 
reading in a transition state). 

8. Yios/iouK.r.X.J FromLXXPs. ii.7 
word for word, after Heb. i. 5 : comp. 
Acts xiii. 33 (in S. Paul's speech at 
the Pisidian Antioch), where it is 
again quoted. In both these passages 
the 7th verse only is given ; Clement 
adds the 8th, aXTjja-ai k.t.X. 

1 1. Kadov K.T.X.] From LXX Ps. ex. i 
word for word, after Heb. i. 13. 

XXXVII. 'We are fighting as 
soldiers under our heavenly captain. 
Subordination of rank and obedience 



xxxvii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 113 

10 KAI THN KATAC)(eCIN COy TA nepATA THC fHC. KUl TTCtXlV 

Xe'yei Trpo^ avTOV KaBoy eK Ae^ioJN woy, eooc an eoo 
Toyc exQpoyc coy ynonoAiON tcIon noAcoN coy. T'lv6^ ovv 
OL e-)(6poL ; ol (pavXoL Kal dvTLraa-crojULevoL tw 6eX>]{j.aTL 
avTOV. 
15 XXXVII, CTpaTev(TU)fie6a ovv, avdpes dheXcpoi, 

fjiBTa Traorv]^ eKreveia^ ev toI^ djuw/uoi^ irpoo'Ta'yfj.aa'iv 
avrov' KaTai/or](r(joiuL6v TOv<i aTpaTevojuevov^ Toh r\<yov- 

IULVOl rifJiMV, TTW? 6VTaKT03<S, TToJs eLKTLKtO'i, TTWS VTTOTe- 



{placide) n''N3''3"1 S; eyeKTil... A, as I read it. The first part has originally 
been written eieKT, but the i is prolonged and altered into an y, and an I is 
superscribed between e and K, so that it becomes eveiKT-. So far I agree with 
Tischendorf prol. p. xix. After this he reads oo ('non Integra'); it seems to me 
more like an i with a stroke of another letter which might be K, so that I read the 
part before the lacuna eveiKTiK- But the MS is so worn, that it is impossible to 
speak confidently. The lacuna seems too great for a single letter, and this again 
is an objection to ei;i/crw[(r], the reading of Tisch. But the uneven length of the 
lines diminishes the force of this objection. See the lower note. 



to orders are necessary conditions in 
an army. There must be harmonious 
working of high and low. So it is 
with the human body. The head 
must work with the feet and the feet 
with the head, for the health and 
safety of the whole.' 

15. ^TparevcTcofJieda] 2 Cor. X. 3, I Tim. 
i. 18, 2 Tim. ii. 3, 4, Ign. Polyc. 6. 

17. Karavoijorconev K.r.X.] So Seneca 
de Traiiq. An. 4 'Quid si militare 
nolis nisi imperator aut tribunus ? 
etiamsi alii primam frontem tene- 
bunt, te sors inter triarios posuerit, 
inde voce, adhortatione, exempio, 
animo, milita'. 

Tois rjyovfievoLs iqfiu>v\ ' under our 
temporal j-itlcrs.' For this sense of 
ot riyovfKvni see the note 5. On the 
other hand ol Tjyovfifvoi is used else- 
where of the officers of the Church : 
see I (note). For the dative after 
(TTpaTfvea-dai see Ign. Polyc. 6 apku- 
Kere m (TTpaTfveadf, Appian Be//. CiT. 

CLEM. II. 



i. 42 Tols fv avTj] 'Po}p.aioi.s . . .Kripv^v. .. 
arparevaeLv eavrco (where (rrparevadv 
is transitive). 

18. elKTiKcos;^ ' concessive /f\ In 
my former edition I had proposed, 
with the evidence then before me, to 
read evecKxiKcos. The adverb eveiV- 
rcos is recognized in the Etym. Magn., 
and of the adjective fCeiKTos the Lexi- 
cons give several instances, e.g. Dion 
Cass. Ixix. 20. On the other hand 
of fveiKTiKos, -KMs, though legitimate 
forms, no examples are given in the 
lexicons. But in the light of the 
recently discovered authorities, etV 
TiKois seems to me more probable. 

The alternative would be to read 
eKTiKws with C. The word cKn/ccos 
means 'habitually', and so 'fami- 
liarly', 'easily', 'readily' (i.e. 'as a 
matter of habit'); comp. Epict. Diss. 
iii. 24. 7S (TvWoyiap.ovs iv ava\vcrT]s 

fKTlKOOTfpOV, Plut. A/or. 802 F KTLK(OS 

h '"fX""'''"'* 1 8iuip(TiKa)i, Porph. (fe 

8 



114 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxvii 



ray/ULeva)^ eiTLTeXovorLV Ta diaTacrcrojueva. ov TravTe's 
elaiv eTrap-^OL ovhe '^(^LXiapxoi ov^e eKarovTap^oi ovhe 
TrevTYiKOVTap-x^OL oiiZe to KaOe^rj-s' dW eKao'TO^ ev rw 
ihiui TOLyfjiaTL to. iTTLTacrcroiueva vtto tov f^acriXea)^ Kai 
TCdv riyovfjievcdv ewiTeXeT. oi MerAAoi Ai'xa to^n MiKpo^NS 
ov huvavTUL elvai, ovte oi MiKpoi Ai'x^ toon MerAAcoN- cfr- 
KpAci'c TIC ecTiN EV 7rd(nv, Kal ev tovtois xP^^^^' Aa/Sw- 

I eTTLTeXovcni'} A ; reKoucn. C ; dub. S. to, 8iaTacr(x6iJ.eva] AC ; TrdfTa ri 

biaraaaofieva S. 2 ^Trapx^O AC ; S adopts the Greek word virapxoi., but it 

does not necessarily imply any variation in the Greek text. 4 itriTacrcoiJ.eva.'] 



Abst. iv. 20 TO alriov tov crvufJ-eveiv 
e'lirois av koI tov eKTiKcos diajieveiv, Diod. 
Sic. iii. 4 iieXeTT] TroXvxpov'ioi /cat fivrifJ-f] 
yvfiva^ovTis Tas "^v^as eKTiKcos eKacrTa 
T(ov yeypafxfxevaip dvayivaaKovai, 1. e. 
'fluently' (where he is speaking of 
reading the hieroglyphics). So here, 
if the reading be correct, it will mean 
'as a matter of course', 'promptly', 
'readily'. The adjective is used in 
the same sense, e.g. Epict. Diss. ii. 
18. 4 *' >"' TTOtelv fOeXeis cktikov. The 
reading of C confirms my account of 
A as against Tischendorf's, though 
he still adhered to his first opinion 
after my remarks. There can be little 
doubt now, I think, that the account 
in my upper note is correct; for the 
reading of Tischendorf has no re- 
lation to the eKTinas of C. The ey 
(altered from ei, as it was first written) 
must be explained by the preceding 
ey of evTaKTcos catching the scribe's 
eye as he was forming the initial 
letters of either eKTiKcoc or eiKTiKooc. 
He had written as far as ei, and at 
this point he was misled by the same 
conjunction of letters noocey just 
before. Whether this ei was the be- 
ginning of eiKTiKooc, or an incom- 
plete eK as the beginning of eKTiKtoc, 
may be doubtful. In the latter case 
we must suppose that the second 1, 
written above the line, was a de- 
liberate (and perhaps later) emenda- 



tion to get a word with an adequate 
sense ; but on the whole it seems 
more probable that he had eiKTiKcoc 
in his copy, and not eKTiKcac as read 
in C. If so, fLKTiKas has the higher 
claim to be regarded as the word 
used by Clement. It is difficult to 
say whether the rendering in S repre- 
sents elKTiKms or iKTLKcis. In the Pe- 
shito Luke vii. 25 NDi31 stands for 
jiaXaKos, and in the Harclean Mark 
xiii. 28 for arraXos. Thus it seems 
nearer to el<TiK(os than to exTiKcis. 
The word (Iktikos occurs Orig. de 
Priiic. iii. 15 (l. p. 124), and occa- 
sionally elsewhere. On these ad- 
jectives in -iKos see Lobeck Phryn. 
p. 228. 

1. ov Traj/Tc? K.r.X.] Comp. I Cor. 
xii. 29, 30. 

2. enapxoi K.r.X.] See Exod. xviii. 
21 Karaarijaeis [avTOvs] en avrmv ;(iXi- 
dpxovs KOI eKaTovTapxovs Koi nfvrrjKov- 
rdpxovs Koi deKaSap^ovs (comp. ver. 25). 
The reference here however is to 
Roman military organization as the 
context shows ; comp. Clem. Horn. x. 
14 ovnep yap Tpowov eis icrriv o Kaiaap, 
ex^i Se vtt' avTov tovs dioiKiJTas (viraTi- 
Kovs, fTrapxovs, ;Y'Aia/);(;ov?, eKaTovrap- 
Xovs, teKa^dpxovi), tov avTov Tponov 
K.T.X. The enapxot, therefore are 
'prefects', e-rvapxos being used especi- 
ally of the 'praefectus praetorio', e.g. 
Plut. Galb. 13, Oiho 7; comp. Dion 



xxxviii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 1 15 

juev TO (TwfjLa rjfjiiav' ri K(pa\t] ^/^ twv ttoBcov ovdev 

eCTTLV, OVTCd^ 01/^6 ol TToSes ^^X T7? Ke(pa\f]<S' TO. de 

lo e\a^^lG^Ta jueXf] rov o'cojuaTO^ rifxwv dvayKoia kul ev- 
^prjCTTa eicriv bXw tw (rcdfjiaTL ' dWa iravTa (rvvTrvei 
Kal vTTOTayt] juiia )(^priTai eU to (rco^eadai bXou to 

(TCOjULa. 

XXXVIII, Cco^ecrdu) ovv rifiMV bXov to (rcoiaa ev 

A; vTroTaaao/iieva C. The converse error appears in the MS of Ign. Ephes. 2 cTri- 
raaaofievoc for vwoTacraofMevot. 8 oi/Siv iariv] A and so prob. S ; icxTiv ovB^p C. 

II (rvvTTPel] A; av/j.irvei C. 12 xp^rat] A; xpSrat C: see the note on ii. 6. 



Cass. Fragm. (v. p. 203 ed. L. Dind.) 
alcTXpov icTTi, KaTcrap, eKarovrapxa ae 
diaXeyecrdai rcov eirapxatv e'^a eoTUiTuiv. 
The x'-^^opx^h eKOTouTapxoi, again are 
the common equivalents for 'tribu- 
ni', 'centuriones', respectively. But 
for TTfPTTjKovTapxos I do not know any 
corresponding term in the Roman 
army. If it represents the 'optio' the 
lieutenant or the signifer 'the ensign' 
(see Lohr Taktik u. Kriegsweseji p. 
41), the numerical relation of 50 to 
100 has become meaningless. 

3. eKacTTos K.T.X.J I Cor. XV. 23 
eKacrros 8e ev tco tSto) Tayp-OTi. ; comp. 
below 41. 

4. /SacrtXe'tur] Comp. I Pet. ii. 13 sq 
eire /3a(7tXfi...eiVe T^ye^ocrtf ; COmp. 
Joh. xix. 15, Acts xvii. 7. The offi- 
cial title of the emperor in Greek 
was avTonparap, but ^aaiXevs is found 
in common parlance, though the cor- 
responding 'rex' would not be used 
except in gross flattery. 

5. ol jxeyakoL K.r.X.] See Soph. AJ. 
158 (quoted by Jacobson) kultoi ap,i- 
Kpoi fieyaXaiv X'^P'-^ a(f)a\pov nvpyov 
ftiifia neXovTai k.t.X. (with Lobeck's 
note), Plato Leg. x. p. 902 E ov8e yap 
avev (Tp.iKpS>v rovs p.eyaXovs (j)a(r\v ol 
Xi^oXdyoi Xidovs fv Kelcrdai, with the 
remarks of Donaldson, New Ci-at. 
455, on this proverb. I have there- 
fore ventured to print the words as a 



quotation, and indeed Clement's text 
seems to embody some anapcestic 
fragments. 

6. axjyKpacris k.t.X.] This seems to 
be a reference to Eurip. Fragm. Ailol. 
2 oXX (TTi rts (TvyKpacris coctt e'x^i-v 
KoXcuy, for Euripides is there speaking 
of the mutual cooperation of rich and 
poor : see the passage quoted from 
the context of Euripides on 6 ttXov- 
aios K.T.X. just below 38. Cotterill 
{Pcregri)ius Proteus p. 25) points out 
that this extract appears in close 
proximity to the passage from So- 
phocles quoted in the last note in 
Stob^eus Floril. xliii. 18, 20 (p. 82 sq, 
Meineke). Comp. i Cor. xii. 24 aXXo 
o 0eos (TvufKepaaev to crafia. 

7. AalUcofiev to cra>p.a k.tX.^ Sug- 
gested by I Cor. xii. 12 sq (comp. 
Rom. xii. 4) ; see esp. ver. 22 to. 80- 
KovvTa p-eXr] rod (rcofj,aTOS aadiViCTTepa 
vnapxeiv avayKola iaTiv. For XajScDjifv 
see above, 5. 

XXXVIII. 'So therefore let the 
health of the whole body be our aim. 
Let weak and strong, rich and poor, 
work together in harmony. Let each 
man exercise his special gift in humi- 
lity of heart and without vainglory, 
remembering that he owes everything 
to God and giving thanks to Him 
for His goodness.' 

82 



^.,^3 



Il6 THE EPISTLE OF S.CLEMENT [xxxviii 

XpiCTTW 'lt]a'ov, Kai vTroTao'area'da} eKaarTO^ tw TrX^aiov 
avTOu, Kudoj's Kul eTedt] ev tm x.^pLG'/uLarL aurov. 6 
ia-)(ypo<5 fJif] dTrijuieXeiTco top dadevrif 6 de dcrdevt]^ ev- 
TpeTreadio tov [(T'xypov 6 ttXovo'io's 67rL')(^opr]'y6iT(t) tw 
TTTw^^w, 6 de 7rTa);^os ev)(^apiG'TeiTa) rw 0ew, oti e^coKev 5 
avTw Si' ou dva7rXt]pw6r} avTOv to v(TTeprjfj.a. 6 oro(p09 
ivZeiKvucrdu} Tt]v (ro(piav avrou (jly] ev Xoyoi'S dXX ev 
epyoi'S dyadol^' 6 TUTreivocppovcov fxr} eavTop /ULapTvpeiTa), 
dXX' eaTio v(p' eTepov eavTOV juapTvpela'dai, 6 dyvo^ 
ev TYi aapKi yitw kul jur] dXa^ovevecda) , yivwcTKoyv otl 10 

I 'ItjctoG] a ; om. CS. 2 /cat] A ; om. CS. 3 firj dTTjfxeXeiTca] 

fjL7p-/xfJi.e\eLTU} A; T-rjixeXeiTU (omitting /xr]) CS. Obviously the a of aTTj/ieKeiTu had 
already disappeared from their prototype as it has from A, and the transcribers are 
obliged to erase the counterbalancing negative fii] in order to restore the sense; 
see above, I. p. 143. evrpe-Kiadw] C ; ^vrpeir^Tw A, retained by Gebhardt ; 

but it is a soloecism. 7 evSeiKviadui] evdiKwadu A. iv \6yois] AC ; Xoyois 

(jibvov Clem 613. ev ipyoLs] A ; 'ipyois C, thus omitting iv here, while conversely 

Clem has omitted it in iv Xoyois. S has it in both, but no stress can be laid on the 
fact, as the translator repeats the preposition where it does not occur in the Greek ; 
see I. p. 137. 8 TaTrivo<ppovu>v} A, and so prob. S; Taweivorppwu C Clem; 

see above, 19. /U.7j eayry fj-aprvpelro}] AC ; fMapTvpeirw fx-q eavri^ Clem. 

1. vTTOTaa-aea-dco eKaa-ros k.t.X.] here confirms the conjecture that in 
Ephes. V. 21 ; comp. i Pet. v. 5. the earlier passage Clement has the 

2. Ka6a>s Kal fredr]] sc. o irkrjdiov, words of Euripides in his mind. 
^ according as he was appointed with 6. dvanXrjpadfj k.t.X.] For the ex- 
his special gifV ; comp. i Pet. iv. 10 pression see i Cor. xvi. 17, Phil. ii. 
tAcao-ros Ka^coyeXa^ei^X'^P'O'M") I Cor.vii. 30: comp. Col. i. 24. 
7 e/cao-roy Ihiov i'xei x'^pi-crf^a sk Qeov, 6 (TO(f}os k.t.X.} This passage down 
Rom. xii. 6 exovres x^P^^I^'^^^ Kara to rffv eyKpareiav is quoted in Clem. 
Tr)v x"-p<-v rffv ^oBelcrav rjpiv bLa(l)opa. Alex. Strom, iv. 16 (p. 613) between 

3. \i.r] aTTjfifXeiTco] This reading extracts from 40, 41 (see the notes 
makes better sense than TrXrjpLfieXfiTco there). 

(for Clement is condemning the rt'i?/?'^- 10. tjto)] ^ let him de it\ For this 

ciation of others) and accounts more emphatic use compare Ign. Ephes. 

easily for the corruption ; see the 15 a\i.iwov lanv a-ionTvav koI elvat rj Xa- 

omission of a in dcfuXo^evlav 35. Xowtu fif) ehai, Iren. ii. 30. 2 ovk 

4. o TrXovaios k.t.X.] See Eurip. fVTcSXeyfivdXX' evrS elvai. 6 Kpelrrav 
Fragm. jEoI. 2 (of which the context dfUwa-dai, oc^eiXet. I have preferred 
is cited above, ^y) a nfj ydp ia-n tco Laurent's happy emendation rjra to 
TTivrjTi, TrXovo-tos b'lbaxr ' a S' 01 ttXov- otyaro) which has also been suggested, 
ToiivTfs ov KKTT]p,fda, Tolo-iv TTevijai both because it better suits the vacant 
Xpmp.fvot 6ripa>p.i6a. The resemblance space in A, and because it is the 



XXXVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



117 



eTepo^ ecTTLV 6 eTTLxoptiyMV avTw tyiv iyKpareiap. ^Ava- 
XoyicrcojueOa ovv, d^e\<poi, e'/c Troia^ vXr]^ eyei^t^drjjULev' 
TToioL Kai Tii/es eicrjAdajuiei/ ek tou koctijlov ck ttoiov 
TaCpov Kai CTKOTOV^ 6 TrXacra^ rifxa^ Kal Zf]jJiiovp<yri(Ta<i 
15 CKTiryayeu et? tov koct/uou avTOv, 7rpo6TOiiuia(ras ra? 
evepyecria^ avTOu rrpiv rjjJLa<i yevmjOiji^ai. TavTa ovv 
iravTa ep avTOv 'e')(OVTe^ dcpeiXofJiev kutu Travra ^v-^a- 
piCTTelv avTM' (p ri ho^a eU tov<s alcovas tcov alwucop. 

djUt]!/. 

9 idria] ACS ; eu rw Clem. v((>' eripov eavTov'^ A; airbv v<p' eripov Clem; 

iavrhv v<f>' eripov C; S translates the lenience sed ab aliis testimonium detur {/J-ap- 
TvpeiaQu) stiper ipso. ka.VTov\ AC ; avrov Clem. lo ev\ AC ; om. 

Clem; dub S. -^tw] Laurent (his earlier suggestion had been ^<jru:, Zeitschr. 

f. Luther. Theol.xyilY. p. 423). CS Clem omit the words -^tw koI: see above, I. 
p. 142. In A the margin of the parchment is cut off, so that nothing is visible. 
There seems however to have been room for lyrw, as the size of the letters is often 
diminished at the end of the lines ; see below. i r eyKparuav'] eyKpanav A. 

13 Kai rives] C ; /catrt... A; om. S. da-qXdafiev] ...aifKdaiJiev A; eia7}\do/j.v C. 

15 Tov k6(t/j.ov] AC; S has /lunc mundum, but it probably does not represent a 
various reading ; see the critical note on ii. 19. 17 o^etXo/tec] o(pL\ofj.iv A. 

KOLTo. Trdcra] AC ; om. S. evxo-pi-0'Tetv~\ evxapi-O'Tl A. 



form found elsewhere in Clement, 
48. Hort suggests o-rz/ro), com- 
paring I Cor. vii. ;i7. At the end of 
a line it is not safe to speak positively 
about the number of letters to be sup- 
plied, as there the letters are some- 
times much smaller and extend be- 
yond the line ; but o-iyaro) seems 
under any circumstances too long 
to be at all probable. Hilgenfeld's 
reading, 6 ayrus iv rfj crapKi Koi \avTos\ 
^LTj aka^ovevia-dw, supplies the lacuna 
in the wrong place. For the senti- 
ment see Ign. Polyc. 5 el' nr Swarat 
iv ayvfia jxevftv els Ti^rjv ttjs crapKus 
TOV Kvpiov, ev aKavxricria fxevfTQi' iav Kav- 
XWT)Tai, dncoXfTo (see above, I. p. 149), 
TertuU. de Virg. Vel. 13 ' Et si a Deo 
confertur continentiae virtus, quid 
gloriaris, quasi non acceperis', pas- 
sages quoted by Wotton. Clement's 
language is not sufficient to explain 



the allusions of Epiphanius and Je- 
rome (quoted above, I. pp. 170, 173), 
which doubtless refer to the spurious 
Epistles on Virginity; see above, I. 
p. 408 sq. 

13. Tvoioi Ka\. Tivis\ I Pet. i. II 6ts 

TlVa T) TTOIOV KaLpOV. 

flcn]\dafxv] For the form see Winer 
xiii. p. 86. 

eK TTo'iov Td(j)ov K.r.X.] Harnack re- 
fers to Ps. CXXxix (Cxl). 15 TO OCTTOVV 

p.ov...eTioiriaas iv Kpv(f)rj KoL rj vnocrTaais 

fXOV iv Tols KaTCOTaTOLS TTji yrjs. 

15. TrpoeToifMacras k.t.X.] See the 
fragment from 'the 9th Epistle' of 
Clement of Rome in Leontius and 
John Sacr. Rer. ii (Mai Script. Vet. 
Nov. Coll. VII. p. 84) given above, i. 
p. 189. Though it has some points 
of resemblance with this passage in 
our epistle, it cannot have been taken 
from it. 



ii8 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxix 



XXXIX. ' Acppove^ kui davveTOi Kai jutopoi Kal 
ciTral^evTOi ^\eva^ou(rLU rifj.a^ Kai jjiVKTvipL^ovcrLv, iavrov^ 
(^ouXojuevOL eTraipecrdaL tol^ ^lavoiai^ avTwv. tl yap 
dvvaTai SprjTO's ; rj ti<s la'^y^ yr]<yevovs ; yeypaTTTai yap' 
Oyk hn Mop(})H npo 6(})eAAMooN Moy aAA' h ay'P'^'N kai S 

((JOONHN HKOyON. Tl f^p i MH KAGApOC eCTAI BpOTOC eNANTI 

Kypi'oY; H And twn eprooN aytoy AMeMnxoc ANHp; ei kata 
nAiAojN AYTOY OY niCTefei, kata Ae ArreAcoN aytoy ckoAion 

i"K(f>pove%...aTral^VToi\ AS; dcppoves Kal airalSevToi Kal fxoipol C. 2 /xvKTTjpl- 

^ovcxLv'] fivKTtprj^ovaiv A. 6 Ka6apbs\ AC; 5<73n corruptor S, perhaps connecting 

it with KaOaipeiv, as if KaOaip^rrjs: see above, I. p. 140. The translator however may 
have had (pdopos in his text. ^cTTaL] AC ; ia-nv S. IvavTi.] A (with Lxx SA); 

evavrlov C (with LXX B). 7 el\ AC; ^ S. 8 iral5<j}v'\ AC; operiim S, but 

this is due to the false pointing; see above, i. p. 138. ayroC] A; eai/ToO C. 



XXXIX. 'WhatfoUy is the arro- 
gance and self-assumption of those 
who would make a mockery of us ! 
Have we not been taught in the 
Scriptures the nothingness of man ? 
In God's sight not even the angels 
are pure : how much less we frail 
creatures of earth ! A lump of clay, 
a breath of air, the sinner is consumed 
in a moment by God's wrath : and 
the righteous shall inherit his for- 
feited blessings.' 

1. "A(j)povfs K.T.X.] Comp. Hermas 
Sim. ix. 14 cKppav el Koi dcrvveros. 

2. ;^Xevdfou(rii' K.r.X.] Ps. xliv. 14 

(v. 1.), Ixxix. 4, flVKTTJpKTIXOS Kai X^V- 

aa-fios ; comp. Apost. Const, iii. 5 /uuk- 
TTjplcravTes x^evaaovai. In C iavroiis 
is connected with the preceding words 
by punctuation. 

4. yrj-yevovs] As a LXX word, yr^yev^s 
is a translation of DHX in Jer. xxxii. 
20. In Ps. xlix (xlviii). 2 o'l re yrjyevels 
Koi 01 viol Tcov avdpcoTTcov is a rendering 
of K^'-N* ija m DIN "-n DJ where the 
next clause of the verse has nXova-ios 
Kal TTfvrjs. In Wisd. vii. i Adam is 
called yijyevrjs TrpwroTrXacrros-. The 
word occurs Test, xii Pair. Jos. 2, 



Clem. Alex. Paed.'x. 12 (p. 156), Strom. 
iv. 6 (p. 577). In classical writers 
the yTjyei/ets are the fabled giants, the 
sons of Uranus and Gsea, and rebels 
against the Olympians (e.g. Soph, 
Tracll. 1058 o yrjyevTjs arpaTos yi- 
yavTOiv, Aristoph. Av. 824 ot 6eo\ 
rovs yrjyerels KadvTreprjKOfTtaav, see 
Pape IVortcrb. d. Griech. Eigenftam. 
s. v.). Connected with this idea is 
the translation of D''^sD"l, where it 
means 'the shades of the dead', by 
yr^yevels in the LXX of Prov. ii. 1 8, 
ix. 18 ; while in these and other pas- 
sages the other Greek translators 
(Theodotion, Symmachus) render the 
same word by yiyai/rec or Beofiaxoi'. 
see Gesenius Thesaur. s. v. XQl on 
the connexion of ' Rephaim ' and the 
giants. Altogether we may say that 
the word (i) signifies originally 'hu- 
mility and meanness of origin', and 
(2) connotes 'separation from and 
hostility to God'. 

yiypamai yap] A long passage 
from the LXX Job iv. 16 v. 5, the 
words oi3pai'ofS...ai)roi) being inserted 
from Job xv. 15 (see below). The 
variations from the LXX are for the 



xxxix] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 1 19 

Ti eneNOHceN- oyp<^noc Ae oy KA6Apdc eNooniON aytoy' ga 

10 Ae, 01 KATOIKOYNTeC OIKIAC HHAINAC el d)N KAI AYTOI eK TOY 

AYTOY nHAoY ecMeN' enAiceN aytoyc chtoc rpdnoN, kai And 
npcol'SeN ecac ecnepAc oy'k g'ti eiciN" nApA to mh Ay'nacOai 
AYToyc eAYToic BohGhcai AnoiAoNTO' eNecfJYCHceN ay'toTc kai 
eTeAefTHCAN, nApA to mh e'xem aytoyc cocj^ian. eniKAAecAi 

15 Ae, ei' TIC COI YTTAKOYCCTAI, H ei' TINA AflOON ArrcAOON OyH" 
KAI TAp A(})pONA ANAipC? dpfH, nenAANHMENON Ae GANATO? 

01;] AC; om. S. Triffre^ei] AC; TTLjie^a-et S. ii iirai<Tiv avTovs\ AC (but 

A eireaev) ; i-rreaov avrov S ; see above, I. p. 140. cnjros] ayjrov stands in A 

(as I read it), by a transposition with the termination of the next word. Tischendorf 
gave (X7]To(T, but afterwards acquiesced in my reading of the MS. Tpowovl CS; 

TpoTToa A; see the last note. 12 ^rt] AC; om. S. 15 ei.' pri] AC; ^ S. 

aoi] A, and so prob. S (with Lxx BS) ; ffov C (with LXX A). oVs] A; 6\f/i C, 



most part slight. 

5. OvK rfv nop4>fi K.T.X.] The words 
of Eliphaz reproving Job. He relates 
how a voice spoke to him in the dead 
of night, telling him that no man is 
pure in God's sight. The LXX differs 
materially from the Hebrew, but the 
general sense is the same in both. 
The OVK is not represented in the 
Hebrew, and it may have been in- 
serted by the LXX to avoid an anthro- 
pomorphic expression ; but the trans- 
lators must also have read the pre- 
ceding words somewhat differently. 

7. el Kara iraibuiv /c.r.X.] 'seeing 
that against His servants He is dis- 
trustful, and against (to the discredit 
of) His angels He noteth some de- 
pravity.^ 

9. oupai/oy Se K.r.X.] From Job xv. 
15 (likewise in a speech of Eliphaz) 
61 KaTa ayicov ov Tncrrevei, ovpavos Se ov 
KaOapos ivavriov avrov. The fact that 
nearly the same words occur as the 
first clause of xv. 15, which are found 
likewise in iv. 18, has led Clement 
to insert the second clause also of 
this same verse in the other passage 
to which it does not belong. 

eu 6f, ol KaTOKovvTii] 'how much 



more, ye that dweW. In the LXX BS 
read tovs Se KoroiKovvTas, but A ea hk 
Tovs KaroiKovvras ' let alone those that 
dwell'. The latter is a better render- 
ing of the Hebrew and must have 
been the original LXX text. Sym- 
machus has ttoo-g) /jloXXov, to which 
ea with this construction is an equiva- 
lent. Job XV. 16, xxv. 6. 

10. oIklus Ti:T]XLvas] The houses of 
clay in the original probably signify 
men's bodies : comp. 2 Cor. v. i t) 
eVt'-yetos r\p.av olKia tov an^vovs, called 
before (iv. 7) oo-rpaKiva a-Kevrj. But 
the LXX by the turn which they give 
to the next clause, e| a>p Ka\ avrol 
K.T.X,, seem to have understood it 
literally, 'We are made of the same 
clay as our houses' ; e^ a>v being ex- 
plained by eK Tov avTov Trr]Xov. 

11. Ka\ ano TTpoiWev k.t.X.] Kai is 
found in BS but omitted in A. By 
ano irpatdev k.t.X. is meant ' in the 
course of a single day' ; comp. Is. 
xxxviii. 12, 13. 

14. ereXevTrjaav] In the LXX A so 
reads with all authorities here ; but 
BS have e^r]pav6r]a-av. 

16. opyrj, f^Xoy] i.e. indignation 
against God, such as Job had shown. 



120 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[xxxix 



zhAoc. erw Ae ea>pAKA AcfjpoNAC pi'zAC BaAontac, AAA ey- 
eeooc eBpoiOH aytoon h Aiaita. ndppoo rcNOiNTO o'i y'oi 

AYTCON And COOTHpiAC KO A ABpicGei HCAN eni GypAIC HCCONOiN, 
KAI OYK eCTAI d elAipOYMGNOC A f^P CKeiNOIC HTOIMACTAI, 
AlKAIOI eAONTAI" AYTOI Ae eK KAKOON OYK e^AipeTOI eCONTAI. 5 

I 5^] AC ; om. S. PaXdvras] A; ^dWovras C (with Lxx), and S also has 

a present. eWiios] A (with lxx BS) ; evdi/s C (with LXX A). 4 eKehois 

riToifj-atXTai] AC ; eKehoi. -^Toi/xaa-av S : for the LXX see below. 5 i^alperoi.] 



2. 8latTa] ' //letr abode^ ; as e. g. 
LXX Job viii. 6, 22, xi. 14, xxxix. 6. 

3. KoXa^pia-6eiT]aav] ' mocked, in- 
sulted\ as Athen. viii. p. 364 A KoKa- 
^pi^ovcTL Tovs olKeras, aTreiXovai toIs 
TToWols. Suidas after others says 
KoXa^piadeir]' xkevaa-deir], eKTivaxdfirj, 
CLTiyLaadeir)- KoXaftpos yap koI (cnXa/3poj, 
o [iiKpbs xolpos' uvt\ Toi) ov8evos Xoyov 
a^ios vofxiadeiT], And SO Bochart 
Hieroz. ii. 57, I. p. 707, ' KoXa^pi^eiv 
Hellenistis conUmnere, quia porcello 
apud Judaeos nihil fuit contemptius'. 
But this derivation cannot be correct ; 
for (to say nothing else) the word was 
not confined to Hellenist Jews. The 
same Athenteus, who furnishes the 
only other instance of the verb KoXa- 
^pi^co, has also two substantives, KoXa- 
^pos or KaXajBpos (iv. p. 164 E, xv. p. 
697 c) ' a licentious song', and aaXa- 
^picTfios (xiv. p. 629 d) 'a certain 
Thracian dance'. The latter is de- 
fined by Pollux (iv. 100) QpaKiKov 
opxrip-o- KoL KapiKov. Here therefore 
the derivation must be sought. The 
jeering sallies and mocking gestures 
of these unrestrained songs and dan- 
ces would be expressed by KoXajBpi- 
((IV. The reading of A in the LXX 
aKoXa^pia-dfiTja-av, compared with (tko- 
paKi^eiv, might seem to favour the 
other derivation, if there were suffi- 
cient evidence that KoXa^pos ever 
meant ;^otptSioi'. 

eVi dvpoLs T]aa6vcov] ' a/ ^ke doors 
of their inferiors'. There is nothing 
corresponding to tJo-ctoi/wj/ in the He- 



brew, where ' at the gate ' means ' in 
court, in judgment'. 

4. a yap sKeivois Ac.r.X.] In the LXX 
(BS) a yap iKeivoi crvvtjyayov {idepicrav 
A), h'lKaioi edovrai k.t.X. For i^aipeToi 
io-opTai A has ^fp(dt](TOVTai (i. e. e^ai- 
pe6r]crovTai). The LXX in this verse 
diverges considerably from the He- 
brew, i^aiperoi here has the some- 
what rare sense ' resetted, exempt,' as 
e.g. Dion. Hal. A. R. vi. 50. 

XL. ' This being plain, we must 
do all things decently and in order, as 
our Heavenly Master wills us. The 
appointed times, the fixed places, the 
proper ministers, must be respected 
in making our offerings. So only 
will they be acceptable to God. In 
the law of Moses the high-priest, the 
priests, the Levites, the laity, all have 
their distinct functions'. 

The offence of the Corinthians 
was contempt of ecclesiastical order. 
They had resisted and ejected their 
lawfully appointed presbyters ; and 
as a necessary consequence they 
held their agape and celebrated their 
eucharistic feast when and where 
they chose, dispensing with the in- 
tervention of these their proper offi- 
cers. There is no ground for sup- 
posing (with Rothe Anfdnge p. 404 
sq), that they had taken advantage 
of a vacancy in the episcopate by 
death to mutiny against the presby- 
ters. Of bishops, properly so called, 
no mention is made in this epistle (see 
the notes on 42, 44) ; and, if the 



xlJ 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



121 



XL. ripo^riXcdv ovv }]fMV bvTCdv TOVTcoi/, Kai iy- 
KeKvcpoTe^ ek to. (3adr] Ttj^ Oeias yvcoo'eco's, iravTa 
rapei TTOLeli/ ocheiXofjiev bcra 6 hecnroTtj^ eTrireXeTu eVe- 
Xevcreu Kara Kaipov^ TTa<yfjievov<i' ra^ re 7rpo<T(popa^ 



e^eperoL A. 6 ijfuv 6i'Twy] AC ; ovtuv tjjjuv Clem 613. 

a5e\<poi S. i'yKeKV(j)6Te%] AC ; eKKCKVcpoTe^ Clem. 

A. Saa] AC ; sicia (ws?) S. 



To&roiv] AC ; add. 
8 d(pei\o/j.ep] ocpCkoiiev 



government of the Corinthian Church 
was in any sense episcopal at this 
time, the functions of the bishop were 
not yet so distinct from those of the 
presbyters, but that he could still be 
regarded as one of them, and that no 
special designation of his office was 
necessary or natural. On the late 
development of the episcopate in Co- 
rinth, compared with the Churches of 
Syria and Asia Minor, see the disser- 
tation in Fhilippians p. 213 sq, and 
Igtiat. and Polyc. I. p. 562 sq, ed. i 
(p. 579, ed. 2). 

6. npo6;fAwv K.r.X.] This passage 
as far as Kaipovs Teraynivuvs is quoted 
in Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 16 (p. 613). 

eyKeKuc^ores] ''peered into, pored 
over\ See below 45, 53, Polyc. 
Phil. 3, Clem. Ham. iii. v- In all 
these passages it is used of searching 
the Scriptures. Similarly TrapaKinr- 
Teiv, James i. 25, i Pet. i. 12. The 
word eKKKv({)6Tei in Clem. Alex, must 
be regarded as an error of transcrip- 
tion. 

7. Ta (dadr] ttjs deias yioJaecos] The 
large and comprehensive spirit of 
Clement, as exhibited in the use 
of the Apostolic writers, has been 
already pointed out (notes on 12, 
31, 33, 49). Here it is seen from a 
somewhat different point of view. 
While he draws his arguments from 
the law of Moses and his illustrations 
from the Old Testament, thus show- 
ing his sympathy with the Judaic side 
of Christianity, he at the same time 
uses freely those forms of expression 



which afterwards became the watch- 
words of the Gnostic sects and were 
doubtless frequently heard on the 
lips of their forerunners his contem- 
poraries. To this class belongs ra 
^ddr] Trjs yvcoa-fccs (comp. I Cor. ii. 
10) : see S. John's language in Rev. ii. 
24 OLTLves ovK eyvuxrav to. (iaOia 
Tov "SiOTava, oj? Xeyovcriv, which is 
illustrated by Iren. Haer. ii. 22. 3 
' profunda Dei adinvenisse se dicen- 
tes', ii. 28. 9 'aliquis eorum qui alti- 
tudines Dei exquisisse se dicunt', 
Hippol. Haer. v. 6 iTTiKokidav iavrovs 
yvaxTTiKovs, (fidaKovrei fiovoi to. jBddr) 
yivdaaeiv; compare the description 
in TertuUian adv. Valent. i ' Si 
bona fide quaeras, concrete vultu, 
suspenso supercilio, Altum est aiunt', 
and see Galatians p. 298. It is sig- 
nificant too that yvSidis is a favourite 
word with Clement: see i, 36, 41, 
and especially 48 ^'rm fiui-aro? yvaaiv 
e^emelv (with the note). Again in 
34 he repeats the favourite Gnostic 
text 'Eye hath not seen etc.', which 
they misapplied to support their prin- 
ciple of an esoteric doctrine. See 
the note there. 

9. ras T 7rpo(r(f)opas K.r.A.] Editors 
have failed to explain the reading of 
the MS satisfactorily. Two modes of 
punctuation are offered. The main 
stop is placed (i) after fKeXevaev, so 
that we read Kara Kuip. rer. rds re 
npoacp. K.T.X. ; but in this case we get 
an unmeaning repetition, Kara Kaipnvs 
TfTayp.ivovs and copiaixevois KaipolsK.r.X. 
belonging to the same sentence: or 



I 



122 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XL 



CD 
ft) 



KUL \eiTOvp<yia<s eTTf/xeAw? e7riT6\T(r6ai kui ovk eiKfj t] 
dTaKTia eKeXeva-ev yivecrdai, dW copicTjuei'OL^ KaipoT^ kui 
apai^' TTOv T6 Kai ta t'lvmv eTTiTeAe^adaL OeXei, avTO's 
opKTev TTj vTrepTciTU) avTOv (iov\ri(T6L' \v ocrico^ iravTa 
yuojuLei/a ev evdoKtjcrei ev7rp6(rdeKTa elr] tm 66\r]fiaTL 5 
auTOv. 01 ovv TOiS TTpoo'TeTa'y fjLevoL^ Kaipol^ ttoiovvte^ 

I XeLTovpyla'i] XeLTovpyeiaa- A. eTTi/xeXtSs] conj. ; om. ACS. The reasons 

for the insertion are given below. eir it ^Xeicr 6 ai /cat] AC ; om. S : see below. 

2 aKK''\ A; dXXa C. 3 co'pais ttoG re] AC. S translates as if it had read oJpats re 
TTou. 4 virepTciTip] A; virepTdrri C; see the lower note, -nd above, I. p. 127. 

TrdvTa] TravTara A ; wavTa rot C. For S see below. 5 ev evdoK-qaei] AC : S 

translates the sentence, iia ut, quum omnia piefiant, velit tit acceptabilia sint volun- 
tati suae, thus apparently taking ivevdoKriaei. (one word) as a verb and reading 



(2) after eTriTeXeto-dai, in which case 
imrfXela-dai must be governed by 
o06iXo^6i/. But, with this construc- 
tion (not to urge other obvious objec- 
tions) there is an awkwardness in 
using the middle fmreXela-dai. in the 
same sense in which the active eVt- 
TfXflv has occurred just before ; 
though the middle in itself might 
stand. (In James iv. 2, 3 however 
we have alrelv and alreladai side by 
side.) I have therefore inserted eVi- 
/xeXws, supposing that the omission 
was due to the similar beginnings of 
the two words (as e.g. aia>viov for aivov 
aiaviov ii. 9 ; see also the note on 
ii. 10 evpelv) ; comp. i (3) Esdr. viii. 
21 Travra Kara tov tov Qeov vofiov 
eTriTeXecrdi]T(i) eTTi/xeXw? ra Gem 
rw vy\r'i(TT(o, Herm. Maud. xii. 3 rrjv 
biaKoviav . . .Tikei eTTi/xeXcos. Thus the 
passage reads smoothly and intel- 
ligibly. An alternative would be to 
omit eniTeXeladaL (and this is done 
by the Syriac translator), as having 
been inserted from below (Sta tlvmv 
enireXf^crdai), and to take rds re 
npoacfiopas koX XetTovpyias in appo- 
sition with oaa, but this does not 
seem so good for more than one 
reason. For the growth of the various 



readings in our authorities, see I. 
p. 143. I should have preferred ras 
8 e TTpo(T^opas, as Tischendorf de- 
ciphers A, but (unless I misread it) 
it certainly has re, as also have CS. 
On the Christian sense of Trpoa-cpopai 
see the note on Trpoa-eveyKovras to. 
dcopa 44- 

2. KULpols Koi wpais] A pleonasm, 
as in Dionys. de Isocr. 14 (p. 561) /lit) 
iv Kaipa yiveadai p.rjS' iv (opa, Plut. 
Ages. 36 TOX) kclKov Kaipov olKflov 
flvai Koi (Spav. The words differ only 
so far, that Kaipos refers to the^i/iess, 
Spa to the appointedness, of the time. 
Demosth. Olyiith. ii. p. 24 iirjdeva 
Kaipov jUJyS' apav TrapaXeiTrav showS 
that Spa does not refer to the ' /lour 
of the day', as this use of the word 
was only introduced long after the 
age of Demosthenes. 

4. vTrepraro)] I have not ventured 
to alter the reading to inrepraTrj, since 
even in classical writers compara- 
tives and superlatives are sometimes 
of two terminations; e.g. Thucyd. iii. 
89, loi, V. 71, no. See Buttmann 
Griech. Sprachl. 60 anm. 5. 

TvavTa ywop.iva\ I have Struck out 
ra before yivop.(:va as a mere repe- 
tition of the last syllable of Trdj/ra. 



xl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



123 



Ta9 7rpo(T(popa<s avTwv evTrpoa-heKTOi re kui ^aKapioi, 



ToTs yap vofJUjuoL^ tov 



ecTTOTOV d-KoXovdovvTe^ ov 
l^iaL XeLTOvpyiai 



^Lafiapravovoriv. tw yap dp^iepei 

10 dedojuei^ai elcriv, Kal toTs lepevcTLV l^io 6 totto? 

irpocTTeTaKTaL, Kal Xevtrai^ idiai ZiaKOVLai eTriKeiv- 

ehaL for eirj. eir]] A; add. Travra C (thus repeating it a second time in the 

sentence) ; for S see the last note. 6 TrpoaTerayfi^voi.^] A ; Trpoaraye'ia-L C. 

9 dpxi-epel] AC ; apxtepevaiv S. This is probably due to a misapprehension of 
the translator or of a scribe who supposed that the Christian bishops were meant, 

10 6 rdwos] A ; tottos (om. 6) C. S translates as if it had read l8iois towols. 

11 XevtraLS . . .iwiKeLVTaL] AC (but emKivraL A); levitae in ministeriis propriis po- 
niintur S. 



and as interfering with the sense. 
The omission of to is confirmed by 
the Syriac. 

5. iv evSoKTjVft] SC. TOV Geov. See 
the note on 2. But possibly we 
should here for eYAOKHCeiGY- 
nPOCAGRTA read eYAOKHCeieY- 
nPOCAGKTA ; as in Epiphan. Haer. 
Ixx. 10 (p. 822) evhoK.r](m Geov. 

9. TM yap dpxiepe^ K.r.X.] This is 
evidently an instance from the old 
dispensation adduced to show that 
God will have His ministrations per- 
formed through definite persons, just 
as below ( 41) ov navTaxpv k.t.X. 
Clement draws an illustration from 
the same source that He will have 
them performed in the proper //-tx 
There is therefore no direct reference 
to the Christian ministry in a/3;^iepei;'y, 
lepeiy, Aetiirat, but it is an argument 
by analogy. Does the analogy then 
extend to the three orders ? The an- 
swer to this seems to be that, though 
the episcopate appears to have been 
widely established in Asia Minor at 
this time (see Philippians p. 209 sq 
with the references given above, p. 
121), this epistle throughout only 
recognizes two orders, presbyters 
and deacons, as existing at Corinth 
(see esp. the notes on eVto-KOTrcoi/ 42, 
and on lav Koiprjduiaiv, diabe^cavrai 
K.r.X. 44). It has been held indeed 



by some (e.g. Lipsius p. 25) that, this 
being so, the analogy notwithstand- 
ing extends to the number three, 
Christ being represented by the high- 
priest (see the note 36), the presby- 
ters by the priests, and the deacons 
by the Levites. But to this it is a 
sufficient answer that the High- 
priesthood of Christ is wholly differ- 
ent in kind and exempt from those 
very limitations on which the passage 
dwells. And again why should the 
analogy be so pressed.'' It would be 
considered ingenious trifling to seek 
out the Christian equivalents to eVSe- 
X^X'-'^H-'^^ V i^X^^ ^ rrepi apaprias Koi 
TrXrjppeXeiai below (41), or to enapxoi, 
xCKiapxoi, eKarovTapxoi, TrevrrjKovrapxoi, 
K.T.X. above ( 37) ; nor is there any 
reason why a closer correspondence 
should be exacted from this passage 
than from the others. Later writers 
indeed did dwell on the analogy of 
the threefold ministry ; but we cannot 
argue back from them to Clement, in 
whose epistle the very element of 
threefoldness, which gives force to 
such a comparison, is wanting. 

10. I'Sto? 6 roTTOf /C.T.X.] ' The office 
assigned to the priests is spcciaV. 
On this sense of roTrof comp. below 
J5 44 TOV Idpvpevov avTois tottov, and 
see the notes on Ign. Polyc. i iKhUfi 
aov TOV tottov. 



124 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xli 

Tai' 6 XdiKO^ av6p(j07TO9 toTs Aai/co?? TrpocTTayfjiaarLV 

XLI. '',Ka(TTO<i vfJLcov, aheX(poi, ev rw l^ua ray- 

2 S^Serat] A; S^Sorat CS. 3 vfiuvl A.; tj/uluv CS. 4 vxapi-(yTelTu] 

A; ei'iapea-retrw CS. See the lower note. (rwet5T?(ret] auveLdTjaiv A. 5 /xt; 



I. XaiiKos] Comp. C/etn. Hovi. E- 
pist. CI. 5 ovTdts ^Kcicrra XaiKco afxap- 
Tia forrh K.T.X., Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iii. 12 (p. 552) Kav TrpeajBiirepos rj Kav 
8iaKovos Kav XatKoj, z^. v. 6 (p. 665) 
Kcokvua XdiKrjs aTricrrias. In Tertul- 
lian 'laicus' is not uncommon, e.g. 
de Pracscr. 41 ' nam et laicis sa- 
cerdotalia munera injungunt'. In 
the Lxx \ao% is used not only in 
contradistinction to ' the Gentiles ' 
(see the note on 29 above), but 
also as opposed to (i) 'The rulers', 
e.g. 2 Chron. xxiv. 10, xxx. 24, (2) 
' The priests ', e.g. Exod. xix. 24, 
Neh. vii. ']'}, (viii. i), Is. xxiv. 2 ; 
comp. Jer. xxxiv (xli). 19 rous apxovras 
lov8a Kol Tovs dwaaras /cat rovs lepe'is 
Kui Tov \aov. From this last contrast 
comes the use of XaiKos here. The 
adjective however is not found in the 
LXX, though in the other Greek ver- 
sions we meet with XaiKos ' laic ' or 
'profane' and XaiKovv 'to profane', 
Deut. XX, 6, xxviii. 30, Ruth i. 12, 
I Sam. xxi. 4, Ezek. vii. 22, xlviii. 15. 

XLI. 'Let each man therefore 
take his proper place in the thanks- 
giving of the Church. Then again, 
in the law of Moses the several sacri- 
fices are not offered anywhere, but 
only in the temple at Jerusalem and 
after careful scrutiny. If then trans- 
gression was visited on the Israelites 
of old with death, how much greater 
shall be our punishment, seeing that 
our knowledge also is greater'. 

4. evxapia-TeLTO)] The allusion here 
is plainly to the public services of the 
Church, where order had been violat- 
ed. Thus evxapia-TLa Will refer chiefly, 



though not solely, to the principal act 
of Christian thanksgiving, the celebra- 
tion of the Lord's Supper, which at a 
later date was almost exclusively term- 
ed evxapc(TTia. The usage of Clement 
is probably midway between that of 

5. Paul where no such appropriation 
of the term appears (e.g. i Cor. xiv. 
16, 2 Cor. ix. II, 12, Phil. iv. 6, i Tim. 
ii. I, etc.), and that of the Ignatian 
Epistles {Philad. 4, Sviyrn. 7) and of 
Justin {Apol. i. ^ 66, p. 97 sq. Dial. 
41, p. 260) where it is especially so 
applied. For the Ihiov raypLa of the 
people at the eucharistic feast see 
Justin Apol. i. 65 (p. 97 d) ov (i.e. 
TOV TrpoearaiTos twv ddeXtpdv) avvTeXe- 
aavTos ras (vxas Koi. rrjv evxapiCTTiav 
iras 6 Xaus errevcfirjp.e'i Xiyav 'Afiijv... 
fvxo-picTTTjaavTos Se tov TrpoecrrcoToy koX 
iiVv(^rjp.rj(ravTos iravTos tov Xaoii k.t.X., 
and again zd. 67 (p. 98 E). See 
Harnack De?^ Christliche Gottesdienst 
etc. (Erlangen, 1854). 

Though the reading evapea-TeiTO) 
is simpler, evxapia-TfiTa is doubtless 
correct ; comp. 38 with Rom. xiv. 

6, I Cor. xiv. 17. For another 
instance of confusion between evapea- 
Teiv and evxapiaTelv in our authorities, 
see 62. 

iv ayadji (TvvLbrj(Tii\ ActS xxiii. 
I, I Tim. i. 5, 19, I Pet. iii. 16, 21 : 
comp. Kakfj avvfidrjais, Heb. xiii. 18. 
For an explanation of the reading 
avvfi8r]cnv in A see above 15. 

6. Kavova] Compare the metaphor 
2 Cor. X. 13, 14, Kara to p.iTpov tov 
Kavovos and inrepeKTiivopiev. see also 
the ROtc on 7. 

Trpocr0epoi/rai] The present tense 



XLl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



125 



/iiaTL v^api(rT6iT(t) Oem eV dyaOfj (Tvveihv](reL vwdp^cov, 

5 jUf] TrapeK^aivuov tov wpKTjuei'Ou Ttj^ XeiTOvpylas avTOv 

Kavova, ev crejULVOTrjri. Ou TravTa^ov , ctdeXcboij 7rpo(r(pe- 

povrai ducriai ivhe\6)(^L(riuiOv rj ev^cou rj irepi djuapria^ Kai 

wapeKpalvuv] AC (but irapaiK^aivuf A); et perficiens S. XetToi'p7tas] \novp- 

7iacr A. 6 irpoacpepovTai] AC; om. S. 7 e^X'*'''] A; irpoa-evxuiv C. 



has been thought to imply that the 
sacrifices were still offered and the 
temple yet standing, and therefore to 
fix the date of the epistle before the 
destruction of Jerusalem, i.e. about 
the close of Nero's reign. To this 
very early date however there are 
insuperable objections (see the intro- 
duction, I. p. 346 sq, and notes on i, 
5, 44, 47). Clement therefore must use 
Kpoa-^epovrai as implying rather the 
permanoice of the record and of the 
lesson contained therein than the con- 
tinuance of the i7istittitio7i and prac- 
tice itself. Indeed it will be seen 
that his argument gains considerably, 
if we suppose the practice discon- 
tinued ; because then and then only 
is the sanction transferred from the 
Jewish sacrifices to the Christian 
ministrations, as the true fulfilment 
of the Divine command. If any one 
doubts whether such usage is natural, 
let him read the account of the Mosaic 
sacrifices in Josephus Ant. iii. cc. 9, 
10 (where the parallels to Clement's 
present tense Trpoa(f)epovTai are far too 
numerous to be counted), remember- 
ing that the Antiquities were pub- 
lished A.D. 93, i.e. within two or three 
years of our epistle. Comp. Barnab. 
7 sq, Epist. ad Diogti. 3, where also 
the present is used. This mode of 
speaking is also very common in the 
Talmud ; comp. Friedmann and 
Graetz Die angebliche Fortdauer des 
jildischen Opfercultus etc. in the 
Theolog. Jahrb. xvil. p. 338 sq (1848), 
and the references in Derenbourg 
LHist. lit la Geogr. de la Palestine 



p. 480 sq. See also Grimm in Zeitsch. 
f Wiss. Theol. xili. p. 28 sq (1870) 
with reference to the bearing of this 
phenomenon on the date of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. Comp. 
Apost. Const, ii. 25 atto rav dvaiav 
Koi ano Traa-qs TrKrjfipieKeLas kql nepl 
dpLapriav, where parts of the context 
seem to be suggested by this passage 
of Clement, though the analogies in 
the O. T. are interpreted after the 
fashion of a later age. 

7 evSeXexicp-ov] ' of continta'ty, 
perpetuity, the expression used in 
the LXX for the ordinary daily sacri- 
fices, as a rendering of "fOn (e.g. 
Exod. xxix. 42, Neh. x. 33) ; and thus 
opposed to the special offerings, of 
which the two types are the freewill 
offerings (evx^av) and expiatory offer- 
ings (ntpl dfiapTias fj 7rXr;/x/LieXfiay). 
Of the last two words anapria denotes 
the sin-offering (ni^ton) and ivXrip.p.6- 
\eia the trespass-offering (D^'S). A 
similar threefold division of sacrifices 
is given by Philo de Vict. 4 (ll. p. 240) 

TO oKoKaVTOV , TO aOiTTJpiOV, TO TTfpl UpLUp- 

Tias, and by Josephus Ant. iii. 9. I sq 
q oKoKavTcoaii, rf )(ctpiaTrjpios dvaia, 
7/ vnep dfiapTdbcov (passages referred to 
in Jacobson's notes) ; see also Ewald 
Alterth. des Volkes Isr. p. 52 sq. 
Here the Qvfrla eVSeXe^'o"/^"'^ stands 
for the oKoKavTa>\iaTa generally, as 
being the most prominent type ; and 
in the same way the Qvfrla fu^wi', as 
a part for the whole, represents the 
peace-offerings (o-wrrypta in the LXX 
and Philo) which comprised two spe- 
cies (Lev. vii. 11 17), the vow or 



126 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLI 



TrXiT^/ueXeia^, dW t] eV ' lepov(Ta\f]fjL juovr]' KaKel e ovk 
ev iravTL tottm 7rpo(T(pepeTai, dW ejHTrpoaOei' tov vaov 
TTjOO? TO dvcnaa-TYipioVy jJLWfjLocrKOTrridev to 7rpo(r(pep6- 
fjLevov hia TOV dp^iepeco'i kui tcov Trpoeiprifjievcov XeiTOvp- 
ywv. 01 ovv Trapa to KaOfjKOv Trj^ f3ov\t](re(i)^ avTOv 5 
7roiovvT TL duvuTOv TO 7rpo(rTifj.ov e^ovcriv. 'OpaTE, 

1 ir\7]ix/j.e\das] Tr\r]fjt.iJ.e\iaa A; irXrj/jLfj.eX'q/j.dTuiv C. S has a singular. /J'l'vri] 

AS ; om. C (as a pleonasm after dXX' ij). i Trpoff^epeTai] AC ; offeru7ttur 

sacrijicia S. 4 twj'] AC; ceterorum S. XetToi'/57wj'] \LTovpyuji> A. 

5 /SoDXijo-ewj] A; ^ovXrjs C; dub. S. 7 Sacp] AC; add. 7010 S. /cott?- 



free-will offering (which Clement has 
selected) and the thanksgiving-offer- 
ing (which Josephus takes as the 
type). On the other hand, when 
speaking of expiatory offerings, Cle- 
ment gives both types. 

vx(of^ The V. 1. npoaevx<iv has 
parallels in James v. 15, 16, Ign. 
Ephes. 10, Rom. 9. It is explained 
by the tendency to substitute a 
common word for a less common. 
Here ^vx^iv is unquestionably right ; 
for more especially in the later lan- 
guage, while Trpoo-evx'? is ' a prayer ' 
in the more comprehensive sense, 
iixh is 'a vow' specially. In the 
Lxx TTpofrevxh is commonly a render- 
ing of nbsn, but ^vyj] of iij or in. 

For ew'xv '^ vow' see Acts xviii. 18, 
xxi. 23. In the only other passage 
in the N. T. in which it occurs, James 
V. 15, the idea of a vow may possibly 
be present, though it is certainly not 
prominent, and in the context (ver. 14, 
and prob. ver. 16) Trpoa-fvx^adai is 
used of the same act. But, though 
evxrj might undoubtedly be said of a 
'prayer, supplication', it is not so evi- 
dent conversely that '^poafvx^^ could 
be used of a vow specifically. In 
Numb, vi. 4 sq, where a vow is 
distinctly meant, the word occurs 
many times in the same context and 
the form is evxfjs throughout, though 
an ill-supported reading Trpoa-evxfjs 



occurs in one instance. In Ps. ixi 
(Ix). 6, where the word is "113, the lxx 
(with Symmachus) have npoa-evx^v, 
but Aquila more correctly evx^v, thus 
preserving the fundamental meaning 
of the Hebrew word, though the con- 
noted idea of ' prayer ' is so prominent 
in the context as to explain the LXX 
rendering. 

2. ep.Trpo(r6ev /c.r.X.] The vaos is 
here the shrine, the holy-place ; the 
6v(Tia(TTrjpLov, the court of the altar : 
see the note on Ign. Ephes. 5. The 
[epov comprises both. This distinc- 
tion of vao^ and iepov is carefully 
observed in the N.T. : see Trench 
N.T. Syjion. ist ser. iii. 

3. p.Qi>p.o(yKo-ay]6lv\ ^ after i7ispection^ , 
with a view to detecting blemishes. 
A flaw or blemish, which vitiates a 
person or thing for holy purposes, is 
in the LXX fiwfxos. Doubtless the 
choice of this rendering was partly 
determined by its similarity in sound 
to the Hebrew Q)D, for otherwise it 
is not a very obvious or natural equi- 
valent. [A parallel instance is the 
word a-Krjvri, chosen for the same rea- 
sons, as a rendering of Shechinah, 
and carrying with it all the signifi- 
cance of the latter.] Hence aficopLos 
in the LXX signifies 'without blemish', 
being applied to victims and the like, 
and diverges from its classical mean- 
ing. Hence also are derived the words 



XLIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



12' 



d^eXcpoi, ocrw ttXcioi/o^ KaTri^icodrjiuLev yvMo-eco^, toctovtw 
judWov vTroKei/uieda Kivduvto. 

XLIL 01 dTTOCTToXoi ^iMV euriyyeXlo'drja'av diro tou 

lo Kvpiou 'Iricrou XpiCTOVj ' Irjcrov^ 6 XpicrTO^ dvro tov 

Oeov e^e7refx(p6t], 6 Xpio'TO's ovv aVo tov Qeou, kui oi 



^iiiOrjfji.ev'] Kara^io}9rj/jLev A, as Tisch. (praef. p. xix) reads it, but I could not see dis- 
tinctly. 9 vr]yye\[a-d7]<Tai>] AC ; evangelizaverunt (active) S. Hilgenfeld 
wrongly gives the reading of C evayyeXlcrdT^crav. lo 6 Xpiarbs] A; xP"'"''os 
(om. 6) C. II ^eirefj.(j>dri...dTvb tov 6eoO] AS ; om. C (by homceoteleuton). 



fianoa-KOTTos, ^oifiofTKoivelv, which seem 
to be confined to Jewish and Christian 
writers: Philo de Agric. 29 (l. p. 320) 
ovj eVtot ixcofJioaKOTrovs ovoiia^ovaiv, Iva 
afxiofia Koi daivrj TrpocrdyrjTai tS /3w/xa) 
rd lepela k.t.X., Polyc. Phil. 4 ndvTa 
ficoixoaKorrelrai, Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 
18 (p. 617) y\(Tav 8e icdv rals rav 6v(na>v 
irpoaaycoyais Trapa tm vopa 01 Upeicov 
pwpoaKtmoi, Apost. Const, ii. 3 7^'" 
ypaTTTai ydp, Manoa-Kone^ade tov peX- 
XovTa els Ifpaavvrjv TTpoxftpiC^cySai (a 
paraphrase of Lev. xxi. 17). 

4. dpxiepeas] Wotton suggests 
lepecos, ' quum sacerdotum inferioris 
ordinis potius quam summi sacerdotis 
sit Tas 6v(Tias papoaKOTrelv' ; but 8id 
Toil dpxtfpfcos K.T.X. belongs rather to 
7rpo(r(f)peTai than to pcofjLOCTKojrrjdev, as 
the order seems to show. The three 
conditions are (i) that it must be 
offered at the proper place, (2) that 
it must be examined and found with- 
out blemish, (3) that it must be 
sacrificed by the proper persons, the 
high priests or other priests. The 
8id Toil dpxifpecios k.t.X. is comprehen- 
sive, so as to include all sacrifices. 

5. TO KadfJKou K.r.X.] ' t/ie seemly or- 
dinance of His will.'' For the geni- 
tive comp. Plut. Mor. p. 617 E ex rtoj/ 

Oprjpov TO deooprjpa tovto Xap^avcov 
KadrjKovTcov. 

6. TO Trpoarripov] 2 Macc. vii. 36. 
F,TnTipiov 'ArrtKcoy, TtpoaTipov 'EXX^;- 

MKws Moeris s. v. iiriTipiov. This is one 



among many instances of the excep- 
tional character of the Attic dialect, 
for Tvpoa-TLpiov occurs as early as 
Hippocrates ; see for other examples 
Galatians vi. 6 and p. 92 (p. 89, ed. l), 
Pliilippians i. 28, ii. 14. In the 
inscriptions it is a very common 
word for a fine. 

'Opare k.t.X.] This sentence is 
quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 16 
(p. 613). ^ 

7. yvaxTfafi] See the note on to 
^adrj TTJs deias -yi/cocreto? 40. 

XLII. 'The Apostles were sent 
by Christ, as Christ was sent by the 
Father. Having this commission 
they preached thekingdomof Godand 
appointed presbyters and deacons in 
every place. This was no new insti- 
tution, but had been foretold ages 
ago by the prophet.' 

9. fvrjyyeXladrjarai/] ''were taught 
the GospeP, as Matt. xi. 5 (Luke vii. 
22), Heb. iv. 2, 6 ; for the first aorist 
apparently is always passive, being 
used with a nominative either of the 
person instructed or the lesson con- 
veyed ; and rjplv will be ^for our 
sakes\ 1 1 m ight be a question however 
whether we should not read r\p5)v, as 
in the opening of 44. 

ir. e^eTrep(j)6r]] This is attached by 
the editors generally to the following 
sentence. Yet I can hardly doubt 
that it belongs to the preceding 
words; for (i) The position of ovv 



128 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLII 



aTTOCTToXoi ctTTO Tov XpiCTOv' eyevovTO OVV djUKpOTEpa 
VTaKT(t)<i e/c deXrj/uaTO^ Oeov. TTapayyeXia'i ovv \a(^ov- 
Tes KaL 7r\r]po(popri6evT^ ^la Ttj^ dpao'Tao'ews tov Kv- 
piov fj/ULOJV 'lr](rov XpicTTOv kul TricTTcoQevTe^ ev tw \6yw 
TOV Oeov jucTa TrXtjpocpoplas 7rvevjj.aT0^ dyiov e^rXdov, 5 
eva'yyeXL^^oiJLevoi Tr]v (^aa-iXeiav tov Oeov /uLeWeii/ ep- 
^ecrBai. KaTa ^(opa^ ovv Kai 7ro\ei Kr]pv(r(rovTe^ Ka6- 
LCTTavov Ta^ oLTrap-^a^ avTcoVy hoKifJiacravre^ tw irvev- 
/uLUTi, eU e7ri(TK07rov<s Kai diaKovovs tcov jaeWoi/TMi/ 

2 \a^6vTs] AC; add. ol dtrbo'ToKoi S. 4 rinuv'\ A; om. C; dub. S 

(pD being the common rendering of 6 KipMs as well as of 6 Kipios rjixQv). 



seems to require this ; (2) The awk- 
ward expression that ' Christ was 
taught the Gospel by the Father' 
thus disappears; (3) We get in its 
place a forcible epigrammatic paral- 
lelism 6 Xpia-Tos ovv K.r.X. For the 
omission of the verb to gain terse- 
ness, and for the form of the sentence 
generally, see Rom. x. 17 apa rj 
TTicTTis e'l aKofjs, ) fie aKofj 8ia prfp,aTOS 
XpicTToi/, I Cor. iii. 23 v^els 8e XpicTTOv, 
XpLo-Tos 8e Qfoii ; comp. also Rom. v. 
18, I Cor. vi. 13, Gal. ii. 9. My 
punctuation has been accepted by 
Gebhardt and Harnack and by 
Hilgenfeld (ed. 2), and is now con- 
firmed by the Syriac version. For 
the thought see J oh. xvii. 18 Kadas 
efie aTTeareikas fls tov Koerp-ov, Kayui 
aTTfaTfiXa avTovs fls tov KoajjLov, xx. 2 1 
Ka6a>s aTTearaXKev jxe 6 TVOT-qp, (cayw 
nifXTTU) vfias. See also the notes on 
Ign. Ephes. 6 ; and comp. Tertull. de 
Praescr. yj ' in ea regula incedimus, 
quam ecclesia ab apostolis, apostoli 
a Christo, Christus a Deo tradidit' 
(quoted by Harnack). 

2. TrapayyeXt'a?] ' ivord of com- 
mand'', received as from a superior 
officer that it may be passed on to 
others ; as e.g. Xen. Cyr. ii. 4. 2, iv. 
2. 27. 



4. TTtcrraj^ei'res'] 2 Tim. iii. 1 4 yiteW 
eV oty efiades xai eVtcrrw^T^r. 

5. fiera 7TXripo(f>op[as /c.r.X.] ''with 
Jirtn coiivictioti inspired by the 

Holy Ghosf : comp. i Thess. i. 5 iv 
'TTvetifjiaTi ayico Koi [e>] 7rXi]po(j)opia 

IToXXfj. 

7. Kcidia-Tavov] The same word is 
used in Tit. i. 5 KaTaaTijarjs Kara ttoXiv 
npecr^vTepovs. Both forms of the im- 
perfect Kadlaravov (from laTavco) and 
Kadia-Tcov (from lo-row) are admissible, 
at least in the later language ; see 
Veitch Greek Verbs p. 299. But I 
cannot find any place for either of 
the readings of our MSS, Kadea-rnvov 
and Kadiardv. 

Xfopas] ''country districts', as op- 
posed to tov/ns ; comp. Luke xxi. 21, 
Joh. iv. 35, Acts viii. i, James v. 4. 
Hence the ancient title ^wpfTt'cr/coTroy ; 
see Philippians p. 230. 

8. TCLs aTTapxas avrSv] ' the first- 
fruits of their preaching' \ or perhaps 

avTOiv refers not to the Apostles but 
to the ;^c5pai kq\ TroXeir, and is like the 
genitives in Rom. xvi. 5 os eVrtf 
aTvapxTj rfjs 'Aa-ias, I Cor. xvi, 15 ort 
earlv dnapxrj rfjs 'A;^aras, which pas- 
sages Clement may have had in his 
mind. 

doKiixcwavTfs] I Tim. iii. 10 doKi- 



XLIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



129 



10 TTiG'TeveLV. Kal tovto ov Kaivw<Sj 6k yap hr) TroWiav 
^povcov iyeypaTTTO Trepi eirKTKOiTCdv kul ^laKoviav 
0VT(a<5 yap ttov Xeyei rj ypa(pr]' Katacth'coo toyc eni- 
cKorroyc aytoon 6n Aikaiocynh kai toyc Aiakonoyc aytoon 
eN ni'cxei. 

^5 XLIII. Kal TL 6avfj.a(TTOv el ol ev Xpia-Tw 

TTLCTTevOevTe^ irapa Oeov epyov toiovto KaTeaTi^arav 
Tom Trpoeiptjuievovs', brrov Kai 6 juaKapio^ nicroc eepA- 
nooN eN d'Acp tco oi'K<ip Mcovcfj^ Ta ^laTeTayfjieva avTw 

7 KaOta-Tavov] Kadearapop A; Ka9i(TTa.p C. 8 rc^ irpetjfiaTi] AC; spiritu 

sancto (or rather sanctos, for the word has ribui) S. lo /caii'ajs] AC; /ce^'ws S. 

12 oJJrws] AC, but Bryennios tacitly writes ourw; see the note on 56. 



fia^ecrdaxrav TTparov, eira SiaKOPetTaxrav : 
see below 44 Siade^avrai erepoi 
behoKniaa\i,ivoi avbpes. 

TO) TTvevnaTi] ''by the Spirit', which 
is the great searcher, i Cor. ii. 10. 

9. eVto-KOTrous] i. e. irpea^vTepovs ; 
for Clement thrice mentions iivia-Konot 
Koi bioKoi'oi in conjunction (as in Phil. 
i. I (Tvv fTTia-KOTTOLs Kol StoKWoiy), and 
it is impossible that he could have 
omitted the presbyters, more especi- 
ally as his one object is to defend 
their authority which had been as- 
sailed ( 44, 47) 54)- The words 
eVio-KOTToj and irpea-^vTepos therefore 
are synonymes in Clement, as they 
are in the Apostolic writers. In Igna- 
tius they first appear as distinct titles. 
See Philippians p. 93 sq, p. 191 sq. 

12. KaTao-TTJo-coJLoosely quoted from 
LXX Is. Ix. 17 Swo-o) roivi apxovras crov 
iv elpijpr] Koi tovs (iriaKOTTOvs crov iv 
biKaioa-vvp. Thus the introduction of 
the biaKovm is due to misquotation. 
Irenaeus also {Haer. iv. 26. 5) applies 
the passage to the Christian ministry, 
but quotes the LXX correctly. The 
force of the original is rightly given 
in the A. V., ' I will also make thy 
officers [magistrates] peace and thine 
exactors [task-masters] rightcous- 

CLEM. II. 



ness'; i.e. 'there shall be no tyranny 
or oppression'. For eniaKOTros, 'a 
task-master', see Philippians p. 93. 

XLIII. 'And no marvel, if the 
Apostles of Christ thus ordained mi- 
nisters, seeing that there was the 
precedent of Moses. When the au- 
thority of the priests was assailed, he 
took the rods of the twelve tribes 
and placed them within the taber- 
nacle, saying that God had chosen 
the tribe whose rod should bud. On 
the morrow when the doors were 
opened, Aaron's rod alone had bud- 
ded, and the office of the priesthood 
was vindicated.' 

16. TTto-rev^ei/res] ^ entrusted with\ 
The construction mcrTevea-dal n is 
common in S. Paul : Rom. iii. 2, 
I Cor. ix. 17, Gal. ii. 7, i Thess. ii. 4, 
I Tim. i. II, Tit. i. 3. 

17. ma-Tos depdnav k.t.X.] From 
Heb. iii. 5 Mcoucr^s fxev tticttos eV oXo) 
Tw oiKo) avTov (OS depciTTcov, where there 
is a reference to Num. xii. 7 ovx 
ovToiS 6 depancop pov Mcoijafji iv dXo) 
TM otKO) pov nicTTos ecrriv. On depdnav 
see above 4. For the combination 
of epithets here comp. Justin Dint. 56 
(p. 274) McoiJo-^f ovv n piixcipios kul 
TTta-Toi dfpdnoiv Qtoi) k.t.A. 



I30 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [xliii 

iravra ecrYiiieiwararo ev tols lepaT'i ^i(3\oi^, ta Kai 
e7rr]KoXov6r]crai> ol Xoittoi TrpoCprJTai cvveTTifJiapTvpovvTe^ 
ToT^ VTT avTOv vevofjLoQeTnfJLevoL^. eKelvo^ 7|0j ^t]\ov 
efJLireo'ovTO'i irepl Trjs [epMcrvvr]'^ kuI crrao'ia^ova'cov twv 
(pvXcov OTTOia avTwv ett] tw ivho^w ovojULaTi KEKoa-^rifxe- 5 
vf], eKeXevaev tovs ^coheKa (puXap-^ov^ TrpocreveyKeTv 
avTM pdjSdov^ eTTL^yeypafjifieva^ eKaa-Tr]^ (pvXfj-i kut 
ovofjia' Kal XafBtov avrds e^rjcrev Kai ecrcppajKrev roh 
daKTvXioL^ Tcav (pvXdp^cov, Kal (XTredero avra^ eis Trjv 
(TKt]vriv Tov /iiapTvpiou eTTi Tt]V Tpaire^av tov Oeou' i^ 
Kai K:\etVas Tt]U (TKt]vr]v ecr(ppa'yicrev Ta^ KXelZa<s cocrav- 
Tft)s Kai Ttt? 6vpa9' Kai eiwev avToT'S' "ANApec AAeA4)oi, 

HC AN ({)YAHC H pABAOC BAACTHCH, TAyTHN GKAeAeKTAI 6 

Oeoc eic to lepATeyeiN kai AeiToyprelN aytoj. Trpw'ias 

I icrrj/ieiuKraToi] earjfiLWcraTO A. 2 iir'y]Ko\oi'id'i](rai''\ A; -rfKoKovdyfcrav C. 

5 (fivKGvl AC ; add. iraawi' [roO] ^Icrpa-qX S. KeKoaixruj.ivri'] KeKoafx-rjfjievu} A. 

8 avras] AS ; avrbs C. rots] A ; ev rots C, a repetition of the last syllable of 

(T(ppd.yLcrev. 11 K\el<Tai\ KXiaaa A. 12 dvpas]S; pd^oovs AC. 

See I. p. 140. 15 rbv] A; cm. C. 16 eTredel^aro] ...det^aro A; 

1. fOTjfieidxraTo] ' recorded as a see above 36. 

sign'': comp. 11 ty Kp'^ia kcli els 7. eKaarrjs <^vX^s] For the geni- 

ar]fieico(Tiv Traa-ais rats yeveais y'lvovTai, tive of the thing inscribed after eni- 

So in the narrative to which Clement ypa(jieip comp. Plut. Mor. 400 E tov 

here refers, Num. xvii. 10 drroOes ttjp evravOa tovtovl dtjaavpov eTny payj/airris 

pajBSov 'Aapa>p...crr]p.e'iov toIs viols rcov TroXecos. Here however (})vXrjs might 

dvrjKocop. be governed by kut opop-a. 

lepals] On this epithet see below, 8. eBrjaep k.t.X.] This incident, 

53- with the following e(T(f)pdyLa-ep ras 

2. 01 XoiTTot 7rpo<l>fJTai] Moses ap- KXe'i8as aaavras, is not given in the 
pears as the leader of the prophetic biblical narrative (Num. xvii). It 
band, who prophesied of the Messiah, seems however to be intended by 
in Deut. xviii. 15, as emphasized in Josephus (I.e.) rmv rare (re?) ai/Spwi/ 
Acts iii. 21 sq, vu. 13. KaTaa-rjprjpapevcop avrds, olrrep eKopi^oP, 

3. eKelvos yap k.t.X.'} The lesson Ka\ tov TrXr/dovs, though his language 
of this narrative is drawn out also by is obscure. Comp. Xen. //e//. iii. i. 
Joseph. Afit iv. 4, 2, and by Philo 27 KaTSKXeiaep aCrd koL KaTecrrjprjpaTO 
Vit. Moys. iii. 21 (ll. p. 162). Kai (pvXaKas Karea-Trjaev. 

5. 6v6p.aTi\ i.e. ''dignity., office\ sc. 11. wo-avro)? xat] So also ofioias 

Tfjs lepaxTVPTjs; as 44 enl tov opopaTos Ka\ Ign. Ephes. 16, 19, Trail. 13. 
TVS ein(TKonrjs. On this sense of ow^a 18. TrpoelXep} ^ took oitt\ For this 



XLIV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



131 



15 ^6 yevofjLevri^ (TweKaXetTev ttuvtu tov ' la-pat'jX, Tec's 
epuKoo'La'i ^iXiada^ twv dv^pcov, Kai enehei^aTO tols 
(pvXdpy^OL'5 Tci^ (r(ppa'y'i^as Kal ijvoL^ev Tr]v o-Kt]vt]v tov 
fxapTvp'iOv Kal TrpoeiXev Ta<i pa^^ov^' Kal evpeOt] t] 
pd/Sho^ 'Aapcop ov fJLOVOv ^efiXaa-TtjKvTa dXXd Kal 

20 Kapirov e^ovG'a. tl hoKeiTe, d'yaTnjToi', 01) Trpotj^ei 
McoiJcrrj^ tovto jueXXeiif ea-eaOai ; fdaXia-Ta ri^ei ' dXX 
\va fjLt] dKaTa<TTa<Tia yeut]TaL eV tw ' Icrpar'jX, outco^ 
e7roU](Tev eU to ^o^a(r6fivai to ouojua tov dXtiBivov Kal 
fiovov Oeov' to 77 do^a els tovs a[(ava<s twv aluivcdv. 

25 dfjtriv. 

XLIV. Kal OL dTTOcTToXoL YjfJLiJdv eyvwcav ^la tov 
Kvpiov ijpLwv 'Iriarov XpicTTOv, otl epis ecTTai eirl tov 

iwidei^e C. 17 ras acppayiSas] AC ; om. S. 18 xpoeiXev] irpoe .... A 

TTpoetXe C ; susttilit S. 20 hoK^lreX SoKSirai A. 23 eis t6] A 

uKxre C and so apparently S. The variation is to be explained by the uncial letters 
eiCTO, were. 24 GeoO] S; def. A; Kvpiov C. S translates as if it had 

read tov /xocov a\7]9ivov Qeov. 27 Kvpiov] Ky CS ; XY -^' ^P'^] epeicr A. 

?arai] AC; but S seems to have read iariv. iwi] A; rrepl C, and so app. S. 



sense of the active irpoaipelv see Judith 
xiii, 15 npoeXovaa ttjv KefpaXrji/ eK rrjs 
nripas. Though it occurs compara- 
tively seldom, it is a strictly classical 
use, e penu promere ; see the com- 
mentators on Thucyd. viii. 90. The 
much commoner form is the middle 
voice with a different sense, npoaipela- 
Bai praeferre^ eligere. 

20. ov Trpo^8(i K.T.X.] This passage 
is loosely quoted or rather abridged 
and paraphrased by one Joannes. 
The quotation is given in Spicil. 
Solesm. I. p. 293 (see above, I. p. 187). 

23. TOV akr]6ivov /c.r.X.] Comp. Joh. 
xvii. 3. 

XLIV. ' So likewise the Apostles 
foresaw these feuds. They therefore 
provided for a succession of tried 
persons, who should fulfil the office 
of the ministry. Thus it is no light 



sin of which you are guilty in ejecting 
men so appointed, when they have 
discharged their duties faithfully. 
Happy those presbyters who have 
departed hence, and are in no fear of 
removal from their proper office.' 

26. r]pQ,v\ Comp. 2 Pet. iii. 2 r^s 
Tav aTTocTToKwv vpcjv evToXfjs, where 
vixwu (not :jp.oov) is the correct reading, 
as quoted by Hilgenfeld ; so that it is 
an exact parallel to Clement's expres- 
sion. See the note on tovs dyadovs 
drrocrToXovs 5- 

27. epii eVrat K.r.X.] See Tert. de 
Bapt. 17 'episcopatus aemulatio scis- 
matum mater est', quoted by Har- 
nack. 

TOV ov6p.aTos K.r. X.] On uvop.a see 
above ^S^ 36, 43. The eVto-KOTT)) here 
is of course the 'office of presbyter', 
as in I Tim. iii. i. 



132 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLIV 



6v6iJLaTO<s Tr] 67ri(rK07rfJ. Aid TavTf]V ovv Tf]v alriav 

TTOOyVOXTLV 6l\ri(pOT6S TsXeiaV KaT6(TTri<TaV TOVS TrpocL- 

I odu]AC; om. S. 3 nera^ij] fiero^v A. eirifiovriv] eTrivofxriv] A; 

iTridojj.7]v C. S translates e( in medio [ijiterim) super probatione {kirl doKifiriv or iirl 
doKififi) dederiint etiam hoc ita ut si homines ex iis etc. See the lower note. 



2. rov^ 7rpoipr]fievovs] SC. eVtCKo- 
TTOvs Koi ^laKovovs, 42. 

3. p.Ta^v] 'afterwards''; comp. 
Acts xiii. 42 fis TO /jLera^v crd^^arov, 
Barnab. 13 ei8ev 8e 'laKm/3 tvttov tm 
n-vevfxari tov \aov tov fiera^v, Theoph. 
ad Aiitol. i. 8, iii. 21, 23. See also 
the references in Meyer's note to 
Acts I.e. 

eTrinovfjv SeSwKacrii/] ' have given 
permanence to the office' : comp. 
Athenag. de Resurr. 18 SeTrat Se Sta- 
boxris Bia Trjv tov yevovs 8iafiovqp. 
For inLfiovrj (which occurs occasion- 
ally also in classical writers of this 
age) see Epist. Gall. 6 in Euseb. 
V. I, Tatian ad Graec. 32. This read- 
ing was adopted by Bunsen, but he 
wrongly interpreted it 'life-tenure' 
(see Ignat. von Antioch. etc. p. 96 
sq, Hippolyhis I. p. 45 2nd ed) ; and 
it has consequently found no favour. 
The original author of this emenda- 
tion eninov^v is mentioned by Ussher 
(Ignat. Epist. proleg. p. cxxxvii) who 
quoting the passage adds this note 
in his margin; 'eTrifiovrjv D. Petrus 
Turnerus [Savilian Professor at Ox- 
ford, t 165 1] hie legit, ut continnatio 
episcopatus ab apostolis stabilita 
significetur ; quod Athanasiano illi, 
/cat ^e^aia fievei, bene respondet'. 
Other suggestions, enikoyi^v, eVtrpo- 
Tn]v, iivKTKO'KrfV, eTTiiTToXrjv, anovofxrjv, 4ti 
voiJLov, are either inappropriate or di- 
verge too widely from the authorities. 
It seems impossible to assign any fit 
sense to the reading fnivo^^v con- 
formably with usage or derivation. 
The word elsewhere has two mean- 
ings only; (i) 'encroachment or rav- 
age', e.g. of the spread of fire (Plut. 



Alex. 35) or poison (v^lian H.A.xli. 
32), (2) 'a bandage' Galen xviir. i. 
p. 791 (Kuhn) and frequently (see Hase 
in Stepli. Thes.). It might also consis- 
tently with its derivation have the 
sense 'distribution, assignment', like 
iirivifxr)(Tii. If it is to be retained, we 
have the choice (i) of assuming a 
secondary meaning 'injunction', de- 
rived from the possible (though un- 
supported) sense 'assignment' (so 
Lipsius p. 19 sq) ; or (2) of giving to 
iiTivofxr) the known meaning of em- 
vofiU, 'an after enactment', 'a codicil' 
(so Rothe Anfdnge p. 374 sq ; see 
the note on KOLjirjOwa-iv). Of these 
alternatives the former is preferable, 
but both are unwarranted. I have 
the less hesitation in making so 
slight a change in the reading of the 
chief MS, because jnero^u before and 
e8a)Ka(Tiv after show that the scribe 
of A wrote carelessly at this point. 
Hilgenfeld (ed. 2), not knowing the 
reading of S, conjectured eVl So/ci/n.7, 
which he explains koI fieTa^v 
('jam conditis ecclesiis') eVi SoKinji 
eScuKav (to ovofia Trjs em.(TK07Trjs) oncos 
('hac ratione inducta') k.t.X., adding 
'jam ecclesiarum al airapxai spiritu 
probati episcoporum et diaconorum 
munera susceperunt, post eos sola 
probationis ratione episcopi con- 
stituti sunt'. But notwithstanding 
the coincidence of this conjecture 
with S, I do not think that a reading 
so harsh can possibly stand. The 
word (TTivofifjv is retained by Laurent, 
who explains it ' adsignatio muneris 
episcopalis' (a meaning of eirivojir} 
which though possible is unsup- 
ported, and which even if allowable 



XLIV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



^33 



5^ ^ 



OTTto^, eav 



prjfieuov^f Kai /ueTa^u eiTLfJiOviqv hehu)Ka(Tiv 
KOijurjdwG'iu, ^Lade^covTaL eTepoi ^ehoKLfxacfJievoL avhpe<s 

""Spes] AS; om. C. 



deSiiiKacni'] eduKaaiv A; ^duKav C. 
and similarly S inserts Aomines ex Us. 

in itself would be very awkward 
here) ; and in their first edition by 
Gebhardt and Harnack, where it is 
interpreted 'dispositio, praeceptum' 
(a meaning which would be adequate 
indeed, but which the word could 
not, I think, possibly have). In ed. 
2 however Harnack expresses a be- 
lief that the word is corrupt and 
suggests eVt^oXr/v. Hagemann {R'6- 
mische Kirche p. 684) conjectures 
inivoixLv, ' d. h. wenn diese Form des 
Accusativs von enivofiis nachgewiesen 
werden konnte'; and Hort quite 
independently suggested to me ' eVt- 
voixida, or conceivably but improbably 
inivofiiv, as we have both ^apira and 
;^a/3ii', vria-Tida and vrjariv, /cAetSa and 
KXfLv\ and refers to Philo de Creat. 
Ptinc. 4 (11. p. 363 M.) where Deu- 
teronomy is so called (comp. Quis 
rer. div. 33, 51, I. pp. 495, 509). 
Donaldson conjectures enlSona ' an 
addition' {Theol. Rev. Jan. 1877, P- 
45), and Lipsius liriTay-qv {Jen. Lit. 
13 Jan. 1877). 

The Latin quotation of Joannes 
Diaconus (i.p. 187) contains thewords 
'hanc formam tenentes apostoli etc.', 
and Card. Pitra {Spicil. Solesm. i. p. 
293) considers that 'forma' here repre- 
sents eTTivofiT] (so too even Ewald 
Cesch. VII. p. 269), congratulating 
himself that the sense of iTTivo^xr] is 
thus decided. A late Latin para- 
phrase would be worthless as an au- 
thority, even if this view of its mean- 
ing were correct. But a comparison of 
the order of the Latin with the original 
of Clement shows that the words mean 
'the Apostles following this precedent 
set by Moses', and that 'forma' there- 
fore has nothing to do with iiTivo\ir]. 



0.V 



For ehaiKao-iv it is a question whe- 
ther we should read SeScoKao-ii/ or 
edcoKav. The former involves a less 
change, and the transition from the 
aorist {Karea-Triaav) to the perfect 
(SeSwKao-tv) may be explained by the 
fact that the consequences of this 
second act are permanent. 

4. KOLfjLTjdaxTiv] SC. ol TTpoeiprjfievoi, 
i.e. the first generation of presbyters 
appointed by the Apostles themselves; 
and avTwv too will refer to these 
same persons. Rothe (I.e.) refers 
both to the Apostles themselves. 
He assumes Clement to be here de- 
scribing the establishment of episco- 
pacy properly so called, and supposes 
inivop.rj, which he translates 'after- 
enactment', to refer to a second 
Apostolic Council convened for this 
purpose. I have discussed this theory 
at length elsewhere {Philippians p. 
199 sq). Of his interpretation of this 
particular passage it is enough to say 
that it interrupts the context with 
irrelevant matter. The Apostles, says 
Clement, first appointed approved 
persons to the ministry {KaOia-ravov 
doKiixda-avres 42), and afterwards 
{fxera^v) provided for a succession so 
that vacancies by death should be 
filled by other approved men {ere p 01 
8edoKi,iJ,aafj.evoi avdpes). The presby- 
ters at Corinth, who had been rudely 
ejected from office, belonged to these 
two classes : some were appointed 
directly by the Apostles (KaTaaradevTas 
vrr fKeivcov) ; Others belonged to the 
second generation, having been ap- 
pointed by the persons thus immedi- 
ately connected with the Apostles 
{KaTacTTadivras v(j)' iripatv fXXoyifjioiv 
didpaiv). 



134 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLIV 



TriP XeiTOVpyiav avTWV. tov^ ovv KaraaTadevTa^ vtt 
eKeivuiv rj fxera^v vcf) erepuov eWoyijucov dvdpwv, avvev- 
^OKrjcrdo'r]^ Trj^ 6KK\r](rLa9 Trda-f]^, kui XeLTOvpyf]G-avTa<i 
dfiefJLTrTdi^ Tw Troijuvio) tou XpKTTOv juETa TaTreii/ocppo- 
avi/r]^ Jicru^cos kul dfSavavG'co^y iaejuapTvpr]/tx6vous re ttoX- 5 
Aols ^jOoVofs UTTO TrdvTWV, TOVTOv<s ov diKaio)^ vofju^ofiev 

1 fiera^v] /xeTo^v A. dvdpwv] AC; add. eKXeXeyfjLifovs S. 3 Xeirovp- 

yi^caPTas] XiTovpyrjaavTaa- A. 5 a/3avai5o-a)s] d^avdaus C. fiefxapTvpr]- 

[jL^vovs] fiefiapTvpyifievoKT A. re] AC; om. S. 6 rotJTovs] AC; add. 



1. Toiii ovv KaracTTadevTas K.r.X.J 
This notice assists to determine the 
chronology of the epistle. Some of 
those appointed by the Apostles had 
died {01 Trpoo8onropi](ravT(s), but others 
were still living (pi KaraaraOfVTes vn 
iKfivav). See the introduction, i. p. 
349. Here again pLera^v means ^after- 
'wards\ as above. 

2. (TVvev8oKr]a-aar]s K.r.X.] Wotton 
quotes Cyprian's expression 'plebis 
suffragium ' referring to the appoint- 
ment of Church officers, Epist. Iv 
(p, 243), Ixviii (p. 292). Add also 
the more important passage Epist. 
Ixvii (p. 288), where the part of the 
laity in such appointments is de- 
scribed. See also the account of the 
appointment of Polycarp to the epis- 
copate in the spurious Pionius, Vit. 
Polyc. 23. 

4. rat TTOipivito roii XptcrroO] The 
phrase occurs again 54, 57 (comp. 
16). See also Acts xx. 28, 29, i Pet. 
v. 2, 3. 

^. a^avav(Tws]'ufiassumzng/j\ The 
adjective occurs Apost. Const, ii. 3 
eVro) 8e evcrivKayx^o^, d^avavaos, dya- 
TrrjTiKos, where again it refers to 
the qualifications for the ministry. 
See below 49 ovbev ISdvavcrov iv 
dydirrj, ov8iv vnp^<pavov, Clem. Alex. 
Pacd. iii. 6 (p. 273) [t.iTa8orkov (f>i\av- 
OpcuTTcos, ov ^avavcrcos ov8e aXa^oviKas, 
Job xli. 26 (Theod.) viol ^avava-ias 
(Heb. fTTl^ 'pride, arrogance'). In 



Arist. Et/t. Nic. ii. 7, iv. 2, ^avav- 
aia is the excess of fxeyaXoTrpeneia 
' lavish profusion ', the result of vul- 
gmity. Somewhat similar is the 
sense which the word has here and 
in the passages quoted, ' vulgar self- 
assertion '. 

8. dpLepi,TrTcos Koi ocj/ws] So I Thess. 
ii. 10. 

TrpoaevtyKovTas to. Scupa] What 
does Clement mean by sacrifices, by 
gifts (boipa) and offerings {Trpoa-cpopas)? 
In what sense are the presbyters said 
to have presented or offered the gifts? 
The answers to these questions must 
be sought in the parallel passages ; 
18 6v(Tia T(S Oea nvevpia avvTeTpipifie- 
vov, 35) 36 dvcria alveaeas 8o^d(rei 
fif Koi Kel 686s f] 8ei^a> avra to acori]- 
piov roil Geov- avrrj tj 680s, ayaTrrjToi, 
iv fi evpop.ev to croyTijpiov ^piav 'irjcrovv 
XpicTTov Tov dpxi'fpkci ru)V 7rpoa(f)opmv 
ijpicov, TOV TvpocTTdr-qv koX ^or]6ov r^s 
dcrdeveiai i]pt,cov, 4^ SKaaros vfiav, 
aSeXc^oi, iv tm tSt'o) Tdyp,aTt fvxopicr- 
retVo) TM ew iv dyadfj avvi8r]crei 
VTrdpx<>>v, [ifj TrapfK^aLvcov Tov (opicrfxevov 
Trjs XfiTovpyias avroii Kavova, ^ $2 
6v<Tov rw GeoS dvaiav alveaecos Kai 

VTToboS TW V^'lCTTOi Tas evp^Qf (TOV K.T.X. 

These passages are illustrated by 
Heb. xiii. 15, 16, 81' ovtov ovv (i.e. 
Sia Toil dpxi^fpicos 'irjcrov, VV. II, I2) 
dva(j)ipa)p.ev dvaiav alveaews 8id nav- 
Tos Ta> Qeco, TovTea-riv, Kapnov x^i'^^^" 
ofioXoyovvTcov tco ovopiaTi avToii ' ttjs 



XLIV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



135 



aTTofidWeordai rrjs XeLTOvpyia^. dp-apria jap ov jULiKpd 



6(TTai, 



eai/ 



rj/ULiv ecTTai, eav tovs ajmejULTTTcos kul o(riu) Trpoa-evey- 

Koura^ TO. doopa rrjs 67no'K07rf]'S aVo/SaAw/xei/. juaKapiOL 

10 ol 7rpoo^OL7ropt'](ravT6 Trpea-^UTepoi, oWive^ eyKapirov 

Kal TeXeiav ecr^ou rrju dvaXvcnv' ov yap ev\af3ovi>Tai 

ovv S. 7 aTTo^dWeaOai.] C ; airopaXeadai A. It is rendered by an active verb 

in S. See the lower note. \eLTovpylas] Xirovpyiaa A. 8 ^arai] 

AS ; ecTTiv C. 9 iJ.aKdpwi\ AC ; add. yap S. 



8e evTTOuas koI Koivcovlas fXTj enLkavdd- 
vecrde, roLavran yap SvcriaiS evapecTTel- 
Tai 6 Qeos, to which epistle Clement 
is largely indebted elsewhere. The 
sacrifices, offerings, and gifts there- 
fore are the prayers and thanks- 
givings, the alms, the eucharistic 
elements, the contributions to the 
agape, and so forth. See esp. Co7ist. 
Apost. ii. 25 at rure 6v(Tiai vvv ev)^al 
Koi deijaeis koi ev)(api(TTLai, al tots 
dnapxai Kal Se/carat Kal dc^aipe'juara 
Kal 8copa vvv rrpocrcpopal al dia tcov 
oaiccv eniaKOTTdiv 7rpocr<pe pop.e- 
vat, KvpiM K.T.X., 27 irpoar}Kei ovv 
Kal vpas, dSeX0ot', dvaias vpav rjToi 
npo(T(jiopas Tw eTTiaKoTrco 7rpo(r(pe- 
peiv cof apxi^epel K.r.X., 34 Toiis 
Kaprrovs vpuv Kal to. epya rav x^cpoov 
vpwv els fvXoyiav vpwv Trpocr(f)f pomes 
avTO) (sc. r ini(TK6na>)...Ta dapa vpcov 
8i86vTis avTa (OS lepel GeoC, 35 M~ 
Ken edcras vyxay (o Qeos) 6veiv aXoya 
fa5a...oi) driTTov Kal tcov ela(popSv vpds 
qkevOepuxTev cov o'<^etAeTe rots lepevaiv 
Kal Tav els tovs deopevovs evTroCiav 
K.r.X., 53 bwpov 8e ecTTi Qea rj eKaaTov 
irpoaevxTj Kal evxap'^o"'''''^- These pas- 
sages show in what sense the pres- 
byters might be said to ' offer the 
gifts'. They led the prayers and 
thanksgivings of the congregation, 
they presented the alms and contri- 
butions to God and asked His bless- 
ing on them in the name of the 
whole body. Hence Clement is 
careful to insist ( 40) that these of- 
ferings should be made at the right 



time and in the right place and 
through the right persons. The first 
day of the week had been fixed by 
Apostolic authority not only for com- 
mon prayer and breaking of bread 
(Acts XX. 7) but also for collecting 
alms (i Cor. xvi. 2); and the pres- 
byters, as the officers appointed by 
the same authority, were the proper 
persons to receive and dispense the 
contributions. On the whole subject 
see Hofling die Lehre der dltesteii 
Kir c he vom Opfer etc. p. 8 sq (Er- 
langen 1851). 

10. eyKapnov k.t.X.] The same com- 
bination of epithets occurs again 
56 ecTTai avTols eyKapiros Kal TsXeia ij 
TTpbs Tov Qeov k.t.X. 

11. reXet'ai'] i.e. 'z mature, ripe 
age ', so that it has borne fruit {eyKap- 
Tvov). Comp. the compound TeXeio- 
Kaprrelv which occurs several times in 
Theophrastus (e.g. Hist. PL i. 13. 4, 
Cans. PL iii. 6. 9). The work of these 
presbyters had not, like those Corin- 
thian elders whose cause Clement 
pleads, been rudely interfered with 
and prematurely ended. 

TTjv dvdXvcnv'\ ' their departure ' ; 
comp. Phil. i. 23, 2 Tim. iv. 6. The 
metaphor seems to be taken from the 
breaking up of an encampment (see 
Philippians I.e.), so that it is well 
suited to Tvpoohonvopr]<javTes. 

ovK fvXa^ovvTai prj] ' tJiey have no 
fear Icst^ : comp. i Mace. iii. 30, xii. 
40 (v. 1.). In Acts xxiii. 10 evXajBrj- 
6els is a false reading. 



136 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLIV 



jur] Tf9 avTOu^ fjieT acTTricrr] cctto tov Idpujuevou avToT^ 
TOTTOv. opMfjLev yap on ei/iov^ vfJLeT^ jULeTrjyayeTe /caAws 
TToXirevofjievov^ e'fc r^? djuLefXTTTO)^ avToT^ fTerijurjiuLevti'S'f 
XeLTOvpyia^. 

XLV. <pL\oveLKOL eVre, dhe\(poi, Kai ^rjXwTai irepl 5 
Tcov dvriKOVTMv ek (r(jOTr]piav. ivKEKVcpare els ras 
ypacpds, Tas dXrjOeTs, Tas f^ia] tov Tri/evjuaTOs tov 

2 /Merr]ydyere] fierayayere A. 3 xoXiTevofiivovs] AS ; woKi.Tevffa/j.ivovs C. 

dfiifiTTTus] AC ; om. S, perhaps from a feeling that it was not appropriate with 
TTL/x7]iJ.ivr]S. 4 XeiTovpyia^} XiTovpyeiacr A. 5 ^CKbveiKoC\ (piXoviKoi A. 

^crre] earai A. 6 tQv dvrjKovruvl C (as I had conjectured); ...avTjKovrojv A. 

S inserts a negative. See the lower note. evKeK^LXparel ev re A; iyKKii<par 

C; ei iyKeK6<paTe S. ras ypacpds] A; rds lepas ypa<pds CS. This is probably 

taken from 53 iTrlaracrde rds iepds ypa<pas...Kai iyKeKij^are k.t.X. 7 rds dia 

tov] CS ; def. A : see the lower note. No better way of filling the lacuna in A 



2. Tonov] On the place of the de- 
parted see the note on 5. There is 
here also an allusion to the other 
sense, ' office ' ; see 40 (with the 
note). 

3. fTfTifiTjfievrjsf} ''respected by 
ihejn\ So all the authorities. But 
I am disposed to read TerrjprjiJLepTjs: 
comp. I Thess. v. 23 afjiix7rra)s...T7]pT)- 
6eir). My emendation was accepted 
by Gebhardt (ed. i), and indeed it 
seems to be required notwithstand- 
ing the coincidence of our existing 
authorities. In their second edition 
however Gebhardt and Harnack re- 
turn to TfTifiTjfievrjs, explaining it 'offi- 
cio quo inculpabiliter ac legitime 
honorati erant ', and supposing that 
Tinap Tivi Ti can mean 'aliquid alicui 
tamquam honorem tribuere'. But 
the passages quoted by them, which 
seem to favour this meaning, Pind. 
OL [1. Fyt/i.] iv. 270 Uaiav re aoi rifj.a 
<j)aos, Soph. Ant. 514 eKeiva bvaa-e^rj 
Tifxai xapiv [comp. also Aj. 675], are 
highly poetical. Moreover even in 
these the expression must be referred 
to the original meaning of rifxav, ' to 
respect (and so ' to scrupulously ob- 



serve') a thing for a person' (comp. 
e.g. Eur. Orest. 828 iraTpmav Tip.i,v 
Xapiv with Soph. A7it. I.e.) ; and thus 
they afford no countenance for a pas- 
sive use Tifiacrdai tlvi ' to be bestowed 
as an honour on a person '. The in- 
stances of the passive, which are 
quoted in their note, all make against 
this interpretation ; e.g. Euseb. //. E. 
X. 4 y^P<^po^ 4>povi]aei irapa Qeov ren- 
fiTjpevey Const. Ap. ii. 26 o eTricrKonos 
...Of oil d^ia reTiprjixivos- If TeTip.rip.i- 
vj]s can stand at all here, it must 
mean ' respected ', i. e. ' duly dis- 
charged'. Hilgenfeld (ed. 2) speaks 
favourably of TfTT)pr)p,epr]s. 

XLV. 'Your zeal is misplaced, 
my brethren. Search the Scriptures. 
You will indeed find that God's ser- 
vants have been persecuted, but their 
persecutors are always the impious 
and unholy. Did pious men shut up 
Daniel in the lions' den ? Or cast 
the three children into the fire.'' This 
was the deed of the wicked who knew 
not that God mightily shields His 
faithful people. And so He has crown- 
ed the sufferers with everlasting re- 
nown and honour.' 



XLV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



137 



dyiov eirio'Taa'de otl ou^ev adiKOi/ ovde TrapaTreTroit]- 
fxevov yeypaiTTaL ev avTuTs. ou)(^ evpt](reT6 diKaiov^ 
^ aVo/^e/SA^Z/xeVof? (xtto ocricov dv^ptav e^L(x)')(6f]crav hi- 
KULOi, dW VTTO dvofJLUiv' e<pvXaKL(j6ri(Tav , dXM vtto 
dvoa-idiv e\L6dcr6r](Tav vtto Trapavofxtov d7reKTdv6f](rav 
VTTO TtJov fJLLapov Kui u^LKOv ^fjXov dveLXrjcpOTcov. Tavra 

occurred to me in my first edition than rds tov. I saw that the p-qaeis of all previous 
editors could not stand, as the usual expression is either jrve^iiJ.aTos aytov or rod 
irvev/xaTos roD ayiov. 8 eTriaTaade] einTaaOai A. 9 7e7/3a7rrat] A ; yiypaiTTo 

C. evpTjcreTel C ; ...vprjaerai A; mvenitzs (a. present) S. 12 virb irapa- 

v6fi'j}v] C; vTTOTra . . vo/nuv A; dW inrb irapavb/J.^av S : see I. p. 142. 13 invh 

tCov^ A; airo tuv C; aXX' vvb (or dirb) tlHv S. See the last note. fiiapov] C 

(as I had conjectured, ed. i); /xiapuv AS. ddiKov] AC ; ddiKuv S : see i. p. 

143. ravTo] AC; /cat ravra S. 



5. ^iXoveiKoi ea-re k.t.X.] By read- 
ing rtof dvrjKovTCiv, instead of fir/ avrj- 
KovTcov (by which previous editors 
supplied the lacuna of A), I changed 
ecrre from an indicative to an impera- 
tive ; ' Contend zealously, if you will, 
but let your zeal be directed to things 
pertaining to salvation ' ; comp. Gal. 
iv. 17, 18, I Pet. iii. 13. There is a 
GeoO Cv^os, and in some sense also a 
Qeov (piXoveiKLa. My conjecture was 
approved by Tischendorf and ac- 
cepted by Gebhardt, and is now con- 
firmed by C. S translates eVre as an 
indicative, and is obliged in conse- 
quence to insert a negative with dpr]- 
KovTcov, thus falling into the same trap 
as the editors. Compare Barnab. 
17 fKniC^i. fjLov tJ yjrvxv ^3 emdyfiia 
liov pLTj TrapaKfXomepai ti rav avrjKovTuiv 
(Is aciTTjpiav. For dv^Keiv els see also 
Ign. Philad. i, Smyrn. 8, Polyc. Phil. 
13. For TO. dvr]KovTa with a dative 
see 35, 62. 

6. eV/ceKvc^aTe] See the note above 
40. 

7. Tai 8ia TOV nvevnaros] The emen- 
dation rds TOV nvevfjLQTos, which I pro- 
posed somewhat hesitatingly, was 
adopted by Gebhardt in place of 
the prjaeis TTvevfxaTos of previous edi- 



tors. It is confirmed to a greater 
extent than I could have hoped by 
CS, which have Tas dta tov irvevfiaTos. 
It is difficult however to see how 
there was room for so many letters 
in the lacuna of A ; for the space 
left for TacrdiaTov is at most half a 
letter more than is taken up in the 
next line by otiov8, i.e. six letters. 
Since the lacunae here are at the 
beginnings, not (as commonly) at the 
ends of the lines, there can be no un- 
certainty about the spaces. I have 
therefore placed 8ia in brackets. 

8. napaTvenoirjij.ei'ov] ' counterfeit, 
spurious\ For the metaphor see 
Basil. (.?) ill Esai. i. 22 (l. p. 416 e) 
IJ.i]7rov Ki^SrjXos fj bpaxp-T), TOVTecTTi, p,i]- 
770V 86yp,a TraparreTToi.Tjpei'ov, with the 
whole context in which the metaphor 
is developed. So TrapaTroielv Justin 
Dial. 69, 115, TTapaTToiTjcTis Iren. i. g. 2. 

II. e(f)v'KaKia6r](rau\ Many editors 
read evecfyvXaKiadrja-av, but this is open 
to objection, for there seems to be 
no authority for a verb encfivXani^o) ; 
and indeed such a compound is hard- 
ly possible, for (pvXaKL^a is derived 
not from (fyvXunrj but from cj)vXa^. 

13. fiiapov] The emendation {piapbv 
for pLiapcov) which I made in my first 



138 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLV 



7rda")(^ovre^ eiz/cAews i^veyKav. tl yap eiTrcojuev, d^eX- 
(pol; Aavir]\ VTTO Tiav (pofSovjUievcov tov Qeov 6(3\t]6ri el's 
XuKKOv XeovTiav ; r] 'Avavia^ kul 'A^apia^ kul MtcrarjX 
VTTO TCdv 6pr](rK6VovT(ov Tr]v jueyaXoTrpcTrrj Kal evdo^ov 
6pr](rKeiav tov v^kttov KaTeLp')(dr]arav ek Kafjuvov Trvpos', 5 
IULt]6a/UL(Jos Tovro yevoiTO. Tii/es ovv oi ravTa dpacrav- 
res ; ol (rTvyt]Tol Kal TracrtTs KaKia<s TrXripei^ ei? too'ovto 
epripL(rav dv/mov cocTTe tov<s ev ocria Kal d^wjuio TrpodecreL 
^ouXevovTa^ tw Oew el's aiKLav firepif^aXeTvf, jut] eldoTe^ 

I e^/cXecSs] evKKaMcr A. eiirupLev^ eiirofiev A; etiroiiiev C; dicam (errrw) S. 

5 TOV v^piaroii] AC. The present text of S has N''"1DT tou Kvplov, but this is 
doubtless a corruption of XD''"1DT tov v^larov. KaTipx6ri(xav'\ A; Kadelpx^i]- 

<jav C. 7 (TTvyrjToi] CS ; arvrjToi A. et's] AS ; om. C (owing to 

the last syllable of the preceding word -ets). 9 n-epi^aXe'iv'] AC ; jaciant S. 



edition is now confirmed by C. For 
the confusion of o and w in A com- 
pare etTrojLiev just below, and see above, 
I. p. 120. Here the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of tQ)v would suggest the 
change to a transcriber. Compare 
I fxiapas Koi avocriov ardaeas, 3 
^ijXov adiKov Koi aae^rj apeikrjCJjoTas. 

5. dprjaKeiav] The word is here 
used in its correct sense (see Trench 
N. T. Syn. ist ser. xlviii) ; for the 
incident turns on an act of external 
worship. 

6. nTjOa/jLcos K.T.X.] i.e. 'Let us not 
entertain the thought, let us not so 
pervert facts '. 

8. f^T]pi(Tav] 'persisted ift strife\ 
So Plut. Pomp. 56 ovK e^epia-as aXX' 
oiov i^TTTjOeli, Appian. Be//. Civ. ii. 
151 '^CKoviiKOTspoi Se roiy i^epL^ovaiv 
ovTfs. So too e^epicTTijs Eur. Supp/. 
894, f^epia-TLKos Diog. Laert. x. 143. 
For the whole expression comp. i 
elsToarovrovaTTOvoiase^eKava-av. Hilgen- 
feld reads e^rjptdia-av, but this, besides 
being unsupported and unnecessary, 
would give a wrong meaning, for epe- 
OlCai, i^epiOi^u), are transitive. 

9. 7repi/3aXet!/j ^ to drive round\ 



If the reading be correct, the idea of 
the preposition (as in TrepnriTTTeiv) 
must be 'sudden and complete 
change'. But I cannot find any 
parallel; for in Eur. Ne/. 312 0o/3os 
yap es ro delfia nepi^aKdv p.' ayei the 
meaning of the word is wholly differ- 
ent. Elsewhere (see Schweighauser 
Lex. Polyb. s.v. Trepi^dWeadai) wepi- 
jBaXXeiv has been substituted for napa- 
^aXXeiv, and this may possibly have 
been the case here. So Heb. xiii. 9 
7repi(j)fpea-6e and napacfiepeade are con- 
fused. Comp. 55 irapi^aXev. Our 
Greek MSS however are agreed in 
reading irepi^aXelv here. 

10. VTrippaxps K.r.X.] 'Ynip}xa\os IS 
said of God, 2 Mace. xiv. 34 (comp. 
Wisd. X. 20) : vTTfpaa-ma-TTjs is fre- 
quently so applied (especially in con- 
nexion with ^oTjOos), Ps. xviii. 2, xxviii. 
7, 8, xxxiii. 20, cxiv. 17, 18, 19, etc.; 
comp. 56 TTocror vTTepacnri(rp.6s (cttiv. 

11. fv Kudapa (rvvei8j]a-ei\ The same 
expression occurs i Tim. iii. 9, 2 Tim. 
i. 3 ; comp. Ign. Tra//. 7. 

TrampeTM] See the note on i. 
14. iyypa(^oi\ ''recorded., notab/e, 
famoiis\ The word occurs also in a 



XLVl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



139 



10 on 6 u^KTTO^ v7rpiuLa^o<s KUL vTrepacnna'rtj's eanv twv 
ev KaOapa o'vueL^tjo'ei XarpevovTcov tw Trai/apeTw 6v6- 
juuTi avTOv' lb Y\ do^a eU tov<s aicoi/a^ tixiv alcovwv. 



dfjiriv. ol ^e virofj-evovTe^ ev TreTroLdrjo'eL ^o^av Kal 
Tifxt]!/ eK\r]povofJiy](Tav, 67rt]p6ri(rav Te kul eyypacpoL eye- 

15 VOVTO CtTTO TOV OeOU eV TW fJLVYIjJLOO'VVlO aVTtOV ek TOfS 

alcova^ TMV alojviav. djuriv, 

XLYI. ToLOVTOL^ ovv uTTodeiyimacriv KoWt]6rjvai Kai 
t]jULd deT, dde\(poi. yeypaTTTai yap' KoAAAcee to?c atioic, 

12 Tuf atdjfuv] S; ruvai. . . . . A; om. C. See above, 32. 14 ^77pa^ot] 

C (as conjectured by Laurent p. 424); ewacppoi. A. For ^yypa(poi iyivovTo S has 
scripti sunt. 15 airCov^ A; avrov CS. 16 ct/iTjf] AC; om. S. 

17 ovv\ AC; om. S. 18 KoXXacj^e] KoXXairOai. A. 



fragment ascribed to our Clement in 
Joann. Damasc. Eclog. i. 49 (li. p. 752 
ed. Lequien) oQ^v eyypacpov Trepl avroxj 
(i.e. TOV A^padfi) IcTTOpiav yeveadai 
(OKovofj-rjaev ; but see especially Herm. 
Sivi. V. 3 e(TTai jj Bvcria crov deKTr/ napa 
roS 0ec5 Kal eyypa(j)os ecrrai ^ vrjareia 
avTT] (comp. Vzs. i. 3 evypa(f)i]aovTai 
fls ras ^ifSkovs rfjs C^fjs), Apost. Can. 
19 o yap ffiTTnikav (ura /xt) j/ooSi/tos 
eyypa(j)os \oyi.a6rf(TeTai napa rw eco, 
29 o yap Orjcravpi^cov iv rfi (BacriXfia 
eyypa(Pos epyarr^s Xoyiadijaerai rrapa 
rm 06 w (Lagarde's Re I. Jur. Eccles. 
pp. 78, 79, see Hilgenfeld Nov. Test, 
extr. Call. I v. pp. 102, 104; this 
writing elsewhere bears traces of the 
influence of Clement's epistle, e.g. in 
23 which reproduces the language 
of Clem, g 40). It is however un- 
necessary to substitute vtrh for atro 
with Hilgenfeld; e.g. in this very 
chapter we have a'no^i^'K.r\\i.ivovi airo 
oaiav dv8poov : see also i Cor. i. 30, 
James i. 13, with the examples in 
Winer xlvii. p. 389. The phrase 
TO fivrmoavvov avTov, or avTciov, is com- 
mon in the LXX. It might be a 
question here whether we should 
read avToii or avTu>v, but 26 to (ivt)- 



fiodwov avTav (and indeed the general 
use of the genitive with fjivi]p,ua-vvov in 
the LXX of the persons whose memo- 
rial is preserved) points distinctly to 
avTwv. 

XLVI. ' Copy these bright exam- 
ples. Cleave to the righteous, to the 
elect of God. To what end are these 
strifes and divisions? Have you for- 
gotten that, as there is one God, one 
Christ, one Spirit, so also there is one 
body? Would you rend asunder its 
limbs? Remember how the Lord de- 
nounces the man through whom the 
offences shall come. Already have 
your feuds been a scandal to many, 
and yet they continue.' 

18. KoWaa-de k.t.X.] This quota- 
tion is no where found in the Old 
Testament. The nearest approach is 
Ecclus. vi. 34 tU a-o(j)6i ; avTw npoa-- 
KoXXrjdr]Ti. Similar words however 
occur in Hermas V/s. iii. 6 /xr/Se koX- 
Xcifxevoi To2s ayiois, Still, vill. 8 oi iv 
Tali n pay jjLaT fiats e/x7re(^vp/xeVot Kal fxTj 
KoXXa>p.{voi Tols ayioLs, Sun. ix. 20 
ov KoWatVTai. toIs bovKois tov 0eov. 
It is perhaps another of those apocry- 
phal quotations to which Photius 
alludes (see the notes on 8, 13, 17, 



140 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLVI 



OTI 01 KOAAcOMeNOI AYToTc Af' AC 9 H C N TAI . KUl TTOcAlI/ eV 

eTepo) TOTTCD Xeyei' Mer^ ANApoc A9a>0Y aOojoc ecH kai 

MGTA EKAeKTOY eKAeKTOC eCH KAI MeTA CTpeBAOY AlA- 

CTpeyeic. KoWrjOcojuev ovu rot? ddiooi^ Kal hiKaioi^' 
ela-iv ^6 ouTOL eK\6KToi tov Oeov. '' Iva tl epei Kai 5 
dvjULOi Kal ^I'^oo'TacriaL Kai crxf^f^l^ccTa ttoXc/ulo'S t6 ev 
vjuiV, i] ov')(l eva Oeov e^oiuev Kai eva XpicTTOv Kai ev 

6 irSXe/j-Ss re] AC ; S has the plural (as determined by ridui) irSXefji.ol re and 
adds et cotitentiones J^DI'ik'QI, which probably represents koX yudxat, since the same 
word elsewhere stands for jj.6.xo.<. (e.g. James iv. i, Pesh., Hcl. ; 2 Tim. ii. 23, 



23, 29); or possibly Clement is giving 
from memory the sense of some ca- 
nonical text or texts. This passage 
is imitated by Clem. Alex. Strom. 
V. 8 (p. 677) yeypairrai S, Mera dvSpbs 
adcoov adaos ecrr] kol fxtra eKkeKTOV 
eKkeKTos ear] kol fiera crrpe/SAoi) 8ia- 
CTTpi'^eLs' KoWaaBai ovv Tails dyiois 
npocrrjKei, on ol KoX\a>p,evoi avrois aytacr- 
drjo-ovTai, where the change of form 
suggests that the Alexandrian Cle- 
ment did not recognise the source of 
the quotation in his Roman name- 
sake. Part of this passage is loosely 
quotedalsoby Nicon thus : KokXrjdmfifv 
ovv To7s adcoois koi BiKalois' etcri Se ov- 
roL KXeKTo\ Toi) Oeov' yiypanrai. yap' 
KoXXacr^ai {KoKKaaOe) toXs dyiois, on 
ol KoXXoinevoi avTols dyiaadrjaovTai (see 
above 14). 

2. Merd dv8p6s k.t.X.] An accurate 
quotation from Ps. xviii. 25, 26 : but 
the application of the passage by S. 
Clement to the influence of good or 
bad companionship is wholly wrong. 
The 'Thou' of the Psalmist is God 
Himself, and the passage teaches 
that He deals with men according to 
their characters. 

5. e'peis K.T.X.] The words are ar- 
ranged in an ascending scale ; see 
the notes on Galatians v. 20, 2 1 . Gu- 
p.01 are 'outbursts of wrath,' as in I.e. 
At^ocrraa-ia is weaker than trxicrixa, as 



it is stronger than ardats Si : as 
ardais developes into Sixoa-racria, SO 
8t;Yoo'''"o''o widens into axicriJia. 

6. TToXenos re iv vp.lv] comp. James 
iv. I. 

7. ovxl eva Qebv k.t.X.] From Ephes. 
IV. 4 sq V (T<opa KOL ev 7rvevp,a, 
Kadas Kal iKX-qdrjre ev jxia eXirlBi r^s 
nX'qaeas vpav' eis Kvpios, pia ttict- 
ns, ev ^dnriapa, els Qe6s...evl di 
EKacrrcu ripav eboOrj rj xdpts K.r.X. ; 
comp. I Cor. viii. 6, xii. 12 sq. See 
also Hermas Sitn. ix. 13 ea-ovrai els 
ev TTvevfJia, els ev aapa. -Kal rjv avrmv 
ev TTvevpa Ka\ ev acipa, ix. 1 8 earai -q 
(KKXr](Tia Toi) Qeov ev (rmpa, pia (ppovrj- 
(Tis, eis vovs, pia Tiicrns, pia dydnr], 
Ign. Magft. 7. 

This mention of Qeos, Xptcrro?, 
Tvvevpa, has a parallel in the reference 
to the Trinity quoted by S. Basil {de 
Spir. Sanct. xxix, ill. p. 16) as from 
our Clement, but not found in our MS 
and probably belonging to the lacuna 
from 5^) Cff 7^P o eof kcli ^fj 6 Kvpios 
Irjcrovs Xpicrros Kai to irvevpa to ciyiov. 
Owing to this parallel, I have taken ev 
TTvevpa as an accusative and connect- 
ed it with the preceding words, rather 
than as a nominative, in which case 
it would be attached to the following 
clause, Kal pia kXtjo-is ev Xpttrrto ; but 
the construction is doubtful. The 
construction and punctuation has 



XLVlJ 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



141 



TTvevfJia Tfj^ 'X^dpiTO^ to eK^uGev (p' rjfjia^ ; Kal fiia 
K\f](Ti<i eV XpicTTw ; fW Ti dieXKOjuev Kal dia(T7rwiu6u to. 
^o jueXr] Tou XpKTTOVf Kal (TTaarLa^ofJiev Trpos to (TuyfJLa to 
l^LOVy Kal ek TOcravTrjv aTrovoiav ep^ojueda wcrTe eVf- 
XaOecOai tijua^ oti imeXr] ecTjuev dWtjXcov ; iui/f]cr6r]Te 
Twv Xoycdv ' h)(rov tov Kvpiov tjiucov' elrrev yap' GyAi 

Tit. iii. 9, Hcl.). The connecting particles in the Greek are favourable to such 
an addition; but it is suspicious, as being perhaps borrowed from James iv. i. 



9 dieXKo/xev] AS ; dUXKw/iiev C. 
rjfiuv Iriaov xP'-O'tou CS. 

been confirmed by the Syriac, since 
I first proposed it. 

12. ^eXfjeafjiev] Rom. xii. 5ot7roXXoj 
ev a-afia ecrfieu iv Xpiara), to 8e Kad' 
fls dWi^Xav fieXrj. 

13. OJatK.r.X.] Two different sayings 
of our Lord are here combined. The 

Jirst is recorded in Matt. xxvi. 24, 
Mark xiv. 21, oval 8e rw dvdpcoTra 
fKeivco 81 ov 6 vios tov dvQpuiTrov irapa- 
8i8oTai' KaXov rjv avria el ovu iyevvrjdrj 
6 avBpanros fKe'ivos ; and more briefly 
in Luke xxii. 22, 77X171/ oval rw dvdpwTra) 
(Ke'ivu) 81 ov 7rapa8i8oTai. The sec07td 
runs in Matt, xviii. 6, 7, ov S' av (tkuv- 
8aXi(Tr] fva tQ>v piKpoiv tovtchv Ta>v 
TTKTTevovTaiv fls epe, avp(j>epft avT(3 iva 
Kpepacrd^ pvXos ovikos nepl tov Tpd- 
)(r]Xov avTov icai KaTaTTovTurBrj iv tc5 
TTeXdya, Tr)s BaXacrcrrjS . . .ovai rw dvOpcSnco 
8l ov to (TKav8aXov 'ipx^Tai '. in Mark 

ix. 42, OS av (TK. . T. p. T. T. IT. fls 

ipi, KaXov icTTiv avTa pdXXov d Trept- 
KetTai p. dv. TV. t. rp. avTov Ka\ ^e^XrjTai 
(Is Triv ddXaaa-av. in Luke xvii. i, 2, 
aviv8eKT0V icTTiv tov Ta (TKav8aXa prj 
iXdelv, ttXtjv oval 8l ov ep^fTai.' Xva-i- 
TeXel avTco ft Xidos pvXiKos TTfpiKfiTai 
ir. T. rp. avTov (cat eppinTai els ttjv 
6dXacrcrav, rj iva (TKav8aXi(rrj Ta>v piKpaiv 
tovtwv eva. Hermas Vt's. iv. 2 has 
oval ToTs aKovcraa-iv ra prjpaTaTavTa Kal 
napaKovaaaiv' alpeTcoTepuv rjv avTols to 
pi] yevvr]6fjvai. : and in Clem. Ho))i. 
xii. 29 a saying of our Lord is quoted, 



13 'ItjctoO tov Kvpiov iipuv} A; tou Kvpiov 

TO ayadd iXdelv Set, paKapios 8e 81 ov 
epxfTat' opoicos Kal to. kuko dvdyKT] 
iXdelv, oval 8e 8t' ov epxeTai. S. Cle- 
ment here may be quoting from our 
canonical gospels (confusing them 
together), or from oral tradition, or 
possibly (though this seems the least 
probable supposition) from some 
written account no longer extant, e.g. 
the Gospel of the Hebrews. The 
first solution presents no difficulties; 
for the insertion of ^ eva tSv iKXeKTciv 
pov a-Kav8aXiaai is not a more violent 
change than is found in many of his 
Old Testament quotations; e.g. the 
perversion of Is. Ix. 17 at the end of 
42. See also the fusion of different 
passages in 18, 26, 29, 32, 35, 39, 
5O) 52, 53- The quotation of Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iii. 18 (p. 561) is not an 
independent authority, for it is evi- 
dently taken from the Roman Cle- 
ment. 

I have no doubt that the Syriac 
has preserved the right reading ; and 
this for three reasons. (i) This 
reading is farther from the language 
of the canonical Gospels and there- 
fore more likely to have been changed; 
(2) Clement of Alexandria, Strom. 
iii. 18 (p. 561), so read the passage in 
the Roman Clement ; (3) The word 
8ia(TTpe-^ai explains the sequel to 
(TX}(Tpa vpQiv TToXXovs 8ieaTpe\lrv ('per- 
verted not one, but many'), it being 



142 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLVI 



Ttp ANGpoinqi eKeiNCp- kaAon hn aytw ei oyk e'reNNHBH, h 
e^4A TOON eKAeKTOiN Moy ckanAaAicat KpeTrxoN hn aytco 
nepixeGHNAi myAon kai KATAnoNTicGHNAi eic THN BaAaccan, 

H GNA T03N eKAeKTOON MOY AlACTpeyAI. TO CTX'-O'fJ.a VflOiV 

TToAXoj)? diecrrpe^ev, ttoWovs ek ddvixiav efSaXeUy ttoA- 5 
\ovs ek ZiOTTayfiov, toi)s iravTa^ ti/iias ek \v7rrjv Kai 
e7rifjLOvo<i vjudov ecTTiv tj o-raais. 

I oi)/c] A; ixi] C 4 rwi/ eKXeKTUP jj-ov Siaarp^ypai] S Clem ; tuv fxtKpuv 

fiov ffKavSaXiaai. AC. See the lower note. 6 rods Travras] AC; rovs de 

iravras S. iifMas] AS ; viMci% C. u a^rou re...'A7roXXw] A; eavrov Kai 

after Clement's manner to take up ^StvaKaTarTKrjvwa-aixev TreTrotBoTes 



and comment on a leading word in 
his quotations; e.g. 14 an Bpconcf) 
eipHNiKcp followed by 15 koWtj- 
dcjfiev Tois IJ.T evaejSfias elprjvev- 
ova-tv, 27 d) N OYX' AKOYONTAI 
followed by 28 navrcov ovv jSXeTTO- 
fifvcov KalaKovonevcov, 29erNH9H 
Mepic KYpfoY---Ari<5^ Ar^wN fol- 
lowed by 30 ' Ay lov ovv fiepU, 
3o0e6c...AfAcjociN xApiN followed 

by ols iq ;^apif otto tov Qeov SeSorat, 
34 OCA HTOfMACeN TOTc YTTO- 

MeNOYCiN AYTON followed by 35 
TLva ovv apa iarlv to. iT0ifia^6p.eva 
Tols vnojievovaiv; 35 oAoc H 
Aeiico AYTCp TO CCOTHpiON TOY 

0eoY followed by 36 avri] t) 686s... 

iv fi evpofiev to crwrr/pioi/ ij/xwv, 
36 ecoc AN Geo TOYC exGpoYC 
K.T.X. followed by rives ovv ol ix^Bpoi, 
46 (just above) mcta ANApoc 
a6ca30Y ABcpoc ecH ka} mgta 
CKAeKTOY eKAeKToc ecH followed 

by KoW-qQutfiev ovv rols ddcoois... 
ela\v 8e ovtol cKXeKTol rov Oeov, 
48ANofiATe MOI nYAACAlKAIO- 

CY N H c K.T.X. followed by ttoWcjv ovv 
TTvXoav dveayviav i] iv diKaioavvrj 
avrr] eVriV, 50 (I)N A(t)e9HCAN a! 
anomIai k.t.X. followed by 51 oaa 
ovv TrapfTrfcrap.ev...a^icoa'a)iJLfv a(f)edii- 

vai Vp1v,^$y KATACKH NCOCei STt' 

eAn(Ai nenoiGtoc followed by 



K.T.X. I have collected these ex- 
amples, because this characteristic 
determines the readings in three 
passages of interest (here and 35, 
57 ; comp. also 51), where there are 
variations. 

6. Sto-ra-y/xw] The word is rare, 
but occurs in Hermas Stm. ix. 28, 
Plut. Mor. 214 F. 

XLVII. ' Read the epistle which 
Paul the Apostle wrote to you long 
ago. See how he condemns strife and 
party spirit in you. Yet then you 
had this excuse, that you chose as 
leaders Apostles and Apostolic men. 
Now even this palliation of your 
offence is wanting. It is sad indeed 
that two or three ringleaders should 
sully the fair fame of the Corinthian 
Church and bring dishonour on the 
name of Christ.' 

8. TTjv fTTia-ToXrjv] It must not be 
inferred from this expression that Cle- 
ment was unacquainted with the 2nd 
Epistle to the Corinthians; for exactly 
in the same way Iren^eus (i. 8. 2) 
writes ev rf) irpos KopivOiovs (where the 
present Latin text specifies 'in prima 
ad Corinthios epistola'), and again 
(iv. 27. 3) 'in epistola quae est ad 
Corinthios', and (iv. 27. 4) quotes 
2 Thessalonians as 'ea quae est ad 
Thessalonicenses epistola'. So also 



XLVIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



143 



XL VII. 'Ava\d(3eT6 Tr]v ema-ToXriv tov juaKapiov 

riauXoU TOV dTTOCTToXoV. TL TTpCOTOU VjuTv eV dp^rj TOV 

10 evayyeXlov kypayfrei/ ; eV dXrjdeia^ 7rvevfiaTLK(Jo^ eire- 
(TTeiXev vfjLLv Trepl avTOv re Kai Kt]<pd re Kal AttoAAw, 
dia TO Kal t6t6 TrpocrKXicrei^ v/mas TreTroifjo'daL' dXX' f] 

diroWu: Kal K-qcpa, C, thus conforming the order to i Cor. i. 12 (comp. iv. 6). S has 
the same order as A, but omits re in both places. It also repeats the preposition 
before each word, but no stress can be laid on this (see above, i. p. 137). 
1 2 Trpoa-KkicreLs] A ; divisioties S ; wpoffKKrjcrei'i C. For this itacism see above 21. 



Orig. c. Cels. i. 63 eV ttj npos Tmodtov 
4>r]cri, iii. 20 Tjj npbs QecraaXoviKels, 
Method. Symp. iii. 14 (p. 22 Jahn) 
Xa^erco 8e jjieTa x^i^pos 6 (BovKofievos rrjv 
npos Kopivdlovs emaroXijv, Macanus 
Mcignes Apocr. iii. 36 (p. 131 Blondel) 
Kal ev TTj TTpos Kopivdiovs Se emaToXr] 
Xeyet Ilepi Se tuiv rrapdevcov itriTayrfV 
Kvpiov ovK e'xa k.t.\., Hieron. Epist. 
Iii. 9 (l. p. 264) 'lege Pauli epistolam 
ad Corinthios, quomodo diversa mem- 
bra unum corpus efficiunt', Anast. 
Sin. Hodcg. 12 (p. 97) Ik r^? Trpos 
Kopiv^t'ovy, and Chrysostom in his 
preface to the Colossians (xi. p. 322 
B, ed. Bened.) refers to 2 Timothy as 
q npos Tipodeov {fTnaToXrj). Where 
the context clearly shows which 
epistle is meant, no specification is 
needed. On the other hand I have 
not observed any distinct traces of 
the influence of 2 Corinthians on 
Clement's language or thoughts. 

fxaKapiov] Polyc. P/l//. 3 rov p,aKa- 
piov Kai ev8o^ov UavXov, lb. ^ II 
'beatus Paulus.' This passage of 
Clement is perhaps the earliest in- 
stance of the specially Christian sense 
of paKcipios : comp. Rev. xiv. 13 
p,aKapioi ol vtKpol ol ev Kvpia aTTodviq- 
(TKovrei oTrdprt. In 43 he applies 
the epithet to Moses; in 55 to 
Judith. The word continues to be 
used occasionally of the living, e. g. 
Alex. Hieros. in Euseb. //. E. vi. 11 
8ia KXi]p.(VTos Toil nuKdpiov 7rp6(r/3v- 



repov, and even in later writers. 

9. Trpcoroz/] 'yfrj/ and foreniost\ re- 
ferring to the position and promi- 
nence assigned to this topic in the 
First Epistle to the Corinthians. It 
does not seem to be quite correct to 
explain the word with different com- 
mentators either (i) Of time purely, 
in which case it adds nothing to h 
dpxi) TOV evayyeXiov ; or (2) of qttality 
purely, as if it signified the primary 
value and excellence of the injunc- 
tion. 

fV apxh K.r.X.] i.e. ' in the first days 
of the Gospel, soon after your con- 
version.' The expression occurs in 
S. Paul himself, Phil. iv. 15. See 
also the note on Polyc. Phil. 1 1 ' in 
principio'. It is quite impossible that 
apxj} TOV evayyeXiov can mean (as 
Young, Cotelier, and others suppose), 
'the beginning of his epistle' as 
containing his evangelical teaching 
(Iren. iv. 34. i 'legite diligentius id 
quod ab apostolis est evangelium 
nobis datum'). 

11. Trepi avTov re k.t.X.] I Cor. i. 
10 sq. The party whose watchword 
was e'ya> XpicTTov is passed over in 
silence by Clement, because the men- 
tion of them would only have com- 
plicated his argument. Moreover it 
is not probable that their exact theo- 
logical position was known to him or 
his contemporaries. 

12. Trpoo-KX/o-ets] See above on J5 21. 



144 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLVII 



7rp6a'K\ia-is eKeivt] y]ttov djuapriav vjuuv 7rpo(rr]veyKev' 
7rpo(reK\i6r]T6 yap a.Troa'ToXoi^ iJ.efJLapTvpr)fJLevoL<5 Kal 
dvdpi SeSoKf/xacr/xeVo) Trap avTo7s. vvvi he Karavor]craTe 
TLve^ vfjid^ diearTpeyjyav Kal to (re/uLvov Trj^ Trepi/BoriTOv 
(piXadeXcpLas vjulmv efxeKacrav. ai(rxp(^ dyawrjTOi, Kai 5 
Xiav ai(rxp(^} k^<^i dva^ia Trjs ev Xpio'Ttp dyioyrjs, 
dKOvecrdai Trjv (SefiaiOTaTrjv Kai dp-^aiav KopivOiwv 6k~ 
KXrjcriav hi eV rj duo TrpocrcoTra (rraaia^eiv 7rpo<i Tovi 
7rp6<rf3vTepov9. Kal avrt] rj aKor] ot jjiovov 6i<s rifjid^ ^X^' 

I 7r/3ocrKXc(ris] irp6(XK\r]ais C; irpoaKK-qaeL^ A. ^rroi'] A; iJTTova, C, and 

so apparently S. irpoffrjveyKev] A; iirrjveyKe C, and so apparently S. 

2 irpoaeKkWyfTe] A; irpoueK'K'rjdrjTe C. /lefiapruprj/j.^vois] AS; dedoKifxacxfiivoi.^ 
C, which reads conversely ixeixapTvpr]/j.iv({j for 5e5o/ci/xacr/a^i/y in the next line. 

3 Trap' avTo2s] AS ; Trap'' avrGiv C. 4 Trepi^orjTov] AC ; om. S translating 
^epaioTaTTjv, as if /Se^atoVrjTa. 5 e/xeloiaav] e/jLiwa-av A. alcrxpa., dyaTTjjroi] 
AC ; om. S. 6 Xpia-T<^'\ AC; add. Irjcrou S. dywyrjs] AS; dydTrrjs C. 



2. ^ffiapTvprjfxevois] ' attested, fa- 
mous^ : see the note on 17. So Ign. 
Eph. 12 nnvXov...Toi) iJL{fj,apTvprifi,4vov. 

3. aiiSpt SeSoKi^acr/iefcp] ApoUos 
therefore is not regarded as an Apo- 
stle ; see Galatians pp. 96, 98. 

4. TO aejJivov c.r.X.] Comp. I wcrre 
TO crefivov kol TTfpi^orjrov Koi Tvacriv av- 
Bpoorrois d^iayanrjTov ovofia vpiitv fieyd- 
XcBj ^\a(T(^r]ixr)6f]vai. 

5. alcrxpo- <ai- Xiav al^xpa] Comp. 
53 fTTLcrTaade Ka\ KaXcos inicTTacrOe. 
See also Theoph. ad Autol. i. 17 Kokh. 
Kai Ka\a Xiav, Hippol. p. 36 (Lagarde) 
Travra jxev KoXa Ka\ KoXa Xiav to. tov 
Qeov, Clem. Recogn. iii. 25 ' Ignoras, 
O Simon, et valde ignoras', and per- 
haps Hermas Matid. viii. ov boKel a-oi 
ravra irovrjpa eivai Ka\ Xiav Tvovrjpa rots 
dovXois TOV Qeoi) ; (if this be the right 
punctuation). The very words alaxpd 
Ka\ Xiav alaxpa occur in Maximus (?) 
on Jude 7 in Crajner's Catena p. 

157- 

6. dywy^s] ^ edt(catio)i\ Uraimng\ 
as below 48. The word is used 



commonly of any systematic disci- 
plinary or scholastic training. 

7. a.Kovfa-6ai\ i.e. 'It is a disgrace- 
ful state of things, that it should be 
reported^ the word aKoveo-^at being 
dependent on al(Txpa...Ka\ dvd^ia. I 
mention this, because the construc- 
tion is generally mistaken ; some 
editors wanting to understand del 
and others substituting daoveTai for 
dKoveadai. For the plural alcrxpa 
K.T.X. see Jelf's Gramm. 383. 

dpxaiav'\ This epithet seems not to 
be consistent with the very early date 
which some critics would assign to 
Clement's epistle : see i. p. 364 sq, 
and the notes on 5, 44. 

8. 7rpoo-a)7ra] ^persons', or rather 
'ringleaders''; as in i. See the 
note on Ign. Magn. 6. 

9. OKO))] Thus it was a rumour or 
report which had reached the ears of 
Clement and the Roman Church re- 
specting the feuds at Corinth; like 
those earlier accounts of irregularities 
in the same Church which reached 



XLVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



145 



10 pt^cev aWa Kal eU tov^ eTepoKXivel^ vTrap^ovra^ d(p' 
rjjucoi^f wcrre Kal ^\aa-(pr] juLLa^ eTrKpepecrdai ra dvofj-aTi 
Kvpiov dia Tviv vjJLerepav dcppoG'vvriv, eavToi^ he klv^uvov 
eire^epya^ecrSaL. 

XLVIIl. 'E^dpcDjuev ovv TovTO ev Tayei kul Trpocr- 

15 Trea-wjULev tm ZecTroTr] Kai KXaucrcojuLev iKeTevovTe<i auTov, 
OTTft)? iAeft)9 yeuojuevo^ iTriKUTaWayf] i^fXiv Kai 7rt Trji/ 
(refjivriv Tf]9 (J)i\ade\(pia<s t^julmv dyvrji/ dytoyrju diroKaTa- 
aTricrrj rifjid^. TrvXr) yap diKaiocuvri^ dvetoyvla eh ^corjv 

7 Kal] AC; om. S. 11 Tifiuv] AS; v/xQv C. 12 eauTots 8^] A; eavTo?s 

re C; etvobis ipsis S. 16 I'Xews ytvbfj.ivo'i] A; yevbiievo'S tXewj C. V'"] 

AS; vfuv C. iirl T7]v K.T.\.] S tra.ns\a.tes \oo5e\y resftf/ta( izos ad prion-m zV/am 

modestiaiJi nosfi'am ainoris frateriiitatis et ad piirain illam conversationcin, but this 
probably does not represent a various reading. 17 T]\x(hv\ AS; vix.(hv C. 

18 Vas] AS ; vim% C. dj/e^wa ets fwV] A; et's fwV o.vei^'^vta. CS. 



the ears of S. Paul (i Cor. v. i oXws 
aKoviTai. K.T.X., xi. 1 8 aKoixxt (TXi(T\iaTa 
K.T.\., comp. i. 11). It is quite a mis- 
take to suppose that the Church of 
Corinth had formally and by letter 
asked advice; see the note on i 

10. eTepoKXivels] See the note on 
11- ^, 

'so that y Oil heap blasphemies''; em- 
(peptadai being middle as frequently 
elsewhere, and the subject being vixas 
or possibly rovs erepo/fXtveTs imapxov- 
Tas. Comp. Rom. ii. 24 to yap ovop.a 
Toi) Qf oil S(' vp.as ^Xaa^-qpLeirai iv rots 
eduecriv, Ka6a)S yeypanrai. 

12. Kivhwov] i.e. the danger of in- 
curring God's wrath, as ^ 14 klv8vvov 
vTToia'op.fv pLiyaVi 4^ toctovtco fiaXXov 
vnoKflp.e6a Kivbvva. 

13. eTre^fpya^fo-daL] ' withal to cre- 
ate''; for this is the force of eV/, as in 
Demosth. de C07: p. 274 iv S' firt^tip- 
yacraro toiovtov o Trao-t roTs TrpoTtpnis 
enedrjKe Ti'Kos. Here eavTo7s will be 

equivalent to vfilv avrols : see the note 
CLEM. II. 



on 32 and Winer xxii. p. 163. 

XLVIIl. 'Let us put our sin away. 
Let us fall on our knees and implore 
God's pardon. Righteousness in 
Christ is the only gate which leads 
to life. Is any one faithful, wise, 
learned, energetic, pure ? He should 
be the more humble in proportion as 
he is greater. He should work for 
the common good.' 

16. fTTiKaTaXXay^] While no other 
instance of the verb eVtKaraXXno-o-eH' 
is given in the lexicons, the sub- 
stantive appears in Theophrast. Cha- 
ract. 26 Tov \akKOV rrjv (niKaTaWayjjv, 
where it seems to signify 'the dis- 
count'. 

TTjv a-efivriv k.t.X.] The expression 
is copied by Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 

17 (p. 613) r) (Tfp.VT] OVV TTJS (j)i\avdpoi- 

TTias Koi ayvf] dyayrj Kara tov K\r]p.VTa 
TO Koiva(f}{\es frjrei, where the insertion 
of Kal relieves the sentence. Comp. 
the words at the close of this chapter. 
^Ayayrj is ' condiict\ as in '^ XT- see 
also 2 Tim. iii. 10, Esth. ii. 20, x. 3, 
2 Mace. iv. 16, vi. 8, xi. 24. 

10 



146 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLVIII 



avrr], Kadw^ yeypaTTTai' 'ANoi^Axe moi hyAac aikaiocynhc, 
i'na eiceAOoiN eN aytaTc elOMoAorncooMAi toj Kypi" <>-Yth 
ri nVAH TOY Kypi'oy, Ai'kaioi eiceAeYCONTAi eN ay'th. ttoX- 
\(jov ovv TTvXodv dv6Myviwv, rj ev ^LKaiocrvvr] avTrj ecTiv 
>7 eV XpiG'Tw, ev r] /ULUKapioi Trotj/re? ol elcreXdouTe^ kui 5 

I avTTj'] A ; icrrlv a^jT-q C, and so apparently S. avoi^are] AC ; aperi S. 

1 'lva\ S Clem ; oni. AC. See the next note. i^o/jL6\oyT]awfjt,ai AS ; ef o,aoXo- 

yndofjiai. C with Clem. See above, l. p. 143. 5 r[\ AC; cm. S apparently. 

9 diaKpiaet^ C; diaKpiaKpicrei. A, as read by Tischendorf; see prol. p. xix. As far 
as the c he appears to me to have deciphered the MS correctly. Jacobson, instead 
of cei, reads it cm. This seemed to me more like the traces in the MS, but I 
could not see it distinctly. See below. rJTU} yopybs ev ^pyocs, tJtco d7i'6s] 

Clem (see below) ; ^Vw ayvos AC. S has sii homo {quispiani) Jidelis, sit validus. 



1. 'Avoi^are k.t.X.] From the LXX 
Ps. cxviii. 19, 20, word for word. This 
passage, as far as rJTco yopyos Iv epyois, 
is loosely quoted with interpolations 
of his own by Clem. Alex. Strom, i, 
7 (P- 33^ sq), who gives his authority 
as o KX?7^r;s eV Trf wpos Kopivdiovi eVi- 
a-ToXfj. Elsewhere Strom, vi. 8 (p. 
772), after quoting Ps. cxviii. 19, 20, 
he adds (by a lapse of memory) e^rj- 
yovfitvos Se to prjTov tov Trpo(f)r]Tov 
Bapvd^as eirKpepei, IIoXAgSi' TrvXav 
avea)yvi(ov...ol elaeXdovres, though a 
few sentences below he cites the words 

eoTO) Toivvv TTicrros . . . ixakXov p.L^a)i> 
ehai, as from 'Clement in the letter 
to the Corinthians'. His two quota- 
tions do not agree exactly either with 
the original text of Clement or with 
one another. These facts make it 
clear that he cites chiefly from me- 
mory, and this must be borne in 
mind in using his quotations to cor- 
rect the text of the Roman Clement. 

2. f^op,oXoyT](T(op.ai\ The best MSS 
of the LXX have (^ofxoXoyria-ofiai, 
which is substituted for the conjunc- 
tive by most editors here, but e'^o- 
IxoXoy^aanai will stand; see Winer 
xli. p. 300. Hilgenfeld inserts "tva 
before etVfX^coV, following Clem. Alex. 
Strom, i. 7 (p. 338); but the quotation 



of the later Clement is much too 
loose to be a guide here, and he pro- 
bably inserted the tva to improve the 
grammar of the sentence. 

3. TToXXcoj' ovv TTvXav /c.r.X.] Per- 
haps a reference to our Lord's saying. 
Matt. vii. 13, 14. 

5. 7? eV XpioTcp] John X. 9 eyco elfii 
17 dvpa, Hermas Sifu. ix. 12 ?) TrvXij 6 
vlos TOV Qeoii eVri (and the whole sec- 
tion), Ign. Philad. 9 avTo^ &>v 6vpa tov 
TTUTpos, Clem. Hom. iii. 52 Sta tqvto 
avTos aXr]6f]s wv TTpo(pvTT]s eXeyev, 'Eyw 
elfii 7j TTvXr] Trjs ^(orjs k.t.X., Hegesipp. 
in Euseb. H. E. ii. 23 aivayyeiXoy 
r\pXv TLs 1] 6vpa TOV 'irjaov. 

6. oa-LOTTjTi K.T.X. ] Thc usual com- 
bination of oa-ios and dUaios. See 
the note on ii. 5. 

7. tJto) Tis TTiaTos K.r.X.] i.e. ' If a 
man has any special gift, let him 
employ it for the common good, and 
not as a means of self-assertion.' 
The same gifts of the Spirit are enu- 
merated, though in the reverse order, 
in I Cor. xii. 8, 9 w f^^v yap 8ia tov 
TTvevp.aTos b'lboTai Xoyos (Tocplas, aXXco 
Be Xoyos yvaxreois KUTa to avTo Trvfiifia, 
eTepco TTicTTts ev rcS avT<a TTvevp-aTi. 
Unless Clement is using this lan- 
guage without warrant, the temper 
of the factious Corinthians of his 



XLVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



147 



KaTevdvvovre^ ttjv wopeiav avTwv iv 6(TL0Tf]TL Kal 
hiKaiocrvi't], aTapa-^co^ iravTa e7rLTe\ovvTe<s. r]T(t) ti^ 
7ri<Tr6<s, fiTW hvvaro<5 yi/wo'iv e^eiTreTv, r]TU) (TO(po^ ev 
diaKpicrei Xoycov, tjrco yopyo^ eV epyoi^, rirco dyi^os' 
10 TOG-ovTU) yap lucdWov Ta7reivo<ppove7u 6(pi\etj bcra) 

scientiam possidcat (possidebit), lahoret [laborabii) sapiens in interpretatione verb- 
onim, sit piirus in operibiis. This represents substantially the same Greek with 
AC, except that lyVw Si^faros '^v!ii(jiv i^enre'iv, tJto} <jo<pbs k.t.X. must have been 
corrupted into ^w duvaros, yvucriv gfet, iroveiTio (ro^os, as Bensly points out. 
10 Toao^TLiJ yap'] AS; Clem Tocro6T(p (om. yap) C; toctovtov tis Anton Max. 
yap] AS; om. C. rairei.voippovel.v o^etXet] AC Clem; d(pel\ei raireLvocppovelv 

Anton Max. ; dub. S. 6<j)el\ei] ocpiXei A. fcy] AC Clem ; Saov Anton Max. 



time must have closely resembled 
that of their predecessors in S. Paul's 

age. 

8. yvaaiv e^iine'iv] ' to litter, ex- 
pound a yvaxTii, i.e. 'to bring out the 
hidden meaning of a scripture'. For 
this sense of yvaxm see the note on 
Barnabas 6. The possession of 
yvwa-is was an old boast of the fac- 
tious Corinthians, i Cor. viii. i, 10, 
II, xiii. 2, 8; and the vaunt has not 
without reason been attributed espe- 
cially to the party among them which 
claimed as its leader Apollos, the 
learned Alexandrian, 'mighty in the 
scriptures' (Acts xviii. 24). 

9. SiaKpi'o-et] The reading of A 
(if it be correctly given bt-aKpiaKpiaiv) 
is a corruption of dtaKpia-iv ( = Sta- 
Kpia-l) which itself arose out of 8ia- 
Kpiai and this out of Siofcpto-et : see 
for other instances of a like error the 
note on dvaa-Tija-oiiai 15. Otherwise 
8t.aKpi<Te(Tiv might be read (see above, 
I. p. 120, for similar corruptions), as 
the plural SioKpiVei? occurs Rom. xiv. 
I diuKpia-eis biaKoyLaixwv, I Cor. xil. lo 
8iaKpi(T(ii TTvevp.aTU)V. 

TjTM yopyos] ''let him be energetic'. 
In later writers yopyos is 'active, 
quick, strenuous'; e.g. Uion. Hal. 
de Comp. Verb. p. 133 (Reiske) to 
p.iv avriiv \tQ)V /cwXwi'] yopyorepov to 



8e IBpabvrepov, Epict. Diss. ii. 16. 20 
eV fj.ev rfj cr;^oX^ yopyoi Kal Kara- 
yXoaaoi, iii. 12. JO aa-Kr^aov, fl yop- 
yos el, \oi8opovp.evos avex.^<T6m k.t.X., 
M. Antonin. xii. 6 el ovv yopybs el, 
TavT-qv depcnrev(Tov. The departure 
in the later usage of the word from 
its Attic sense 'terrible' is noted by 
the old lexicographers. The pas- 
sage is twice quoted by Clem. Alex., 
Strom. \. 7 (p. 339) avTiKa o KXt?^??? ev 
TT] TTpos Kopivdlovs eniaToX^ kuto Xe^iv 
(f)r]ai, Tas 8ia(f)opas eKTidefxevos twv 
KaTo. TTju KKXr](Tiav SoKifxayv, ' Hrco tis 
TTKTTos, i]Ta) BvvaTos TIS yvaxriv i^eLnelv, 
TjTo) aocf)bs ev SiaKplaei Xoycov, tjtco 
yopybs iv epyois, and Strofu. vi. 8 (p. 
722 sq) ecrrco to'ivvv ttkttos o tolovtos, 
eVro) hwaros yvaxTiv e^enrelv, rjTco ao- 
(})us ev diaKpicrei Xoyaiv, tJtco yopybs ev 
epyois, r;rco dyvos' ToaoiiTa) yap fiaXXov 
TaTreivocf^povelv oipeiXei, ocra SoKet p.dX- 
Xov p.ei^(x)v elvai- 6 'KXrjprjs ev Trj npbs 
Kopivdiovs 4)t](tL The correction 
adopted in the text (after Hilgenfcld) 
seems to be justified by these two 
quotations. It does not however 
find any support in our existing au- 
thorities. The reading of the MS 
may be explained as arising out of a 
confusion, the transcriber's eye pass- 
ing from one similar ending to an- 
other. 

10 2 



148 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[XLVIII 



^OKeT /utaWov juei^MU elvai, kul (^riTelv to KOivwcpeXes 
Tracriv Kai jut] to eavTOV, 

XLIX. 'O e;^wj/ d<ya7rf]v ev Xpi<TTw 7roit]craTM Ta 
Tov Xpio'TOv TrapayyeXfJiaTa. tov decTjULOv Trj^ dyairr]^ 
Tov Oeov tU ^vvaTai e^riyrjcracrdai ; to (jLeyaXeiov Ttj^ 5 
KaWovfj^ aVTOV t/? dpK6TOS 6^6i7r67v*^ TO v^o^ el's 6 
dvayei ^; dyctTrr] dv6Kdit]yt]T0V ecTTiv. dyairr] KoWa 
rifjid^ TM Oew' dyaTrr] KaXvTTTei TrXrjdo^ djuapTiwv 
dyaTTf] iravTa dve')(eTai, TrdvTa fiaKpoOvfJiei' ovZev /3a- 

I txel^osv'] AC Clem; om. Anton Max. 3 ttoitjo-cItw] CS. So also 

Tischendorf reads A, but other collators give it TriprjcraTW. I could not satisfy 
myself. On the first two inspections I inclined to TriprjaaTu, but on the last to 
iroLTjaaTd}. There are various readings iroiQfjLev, r-rjpiS/xev (both well supported) in 
I Joh. V. 2. 6 apKerbs] ACS. Bryennios represents C as omitting apKerbs, 

but this is a lapse of the pen. 7 earlv. ayairrj'] A; iarlv 7} dyairr, C. 



I, fiaXKov yi-ei^av] See Matt, xxiii. 
II. For the double comparative see 
the note on Philippians i. 23. An- 
tonius Melissa Loc. Comm. ii. 73 (34) 
and Maximus Serjn. 49 both quote 
this sentence as from Clement in a 
somewhat different form, to(tovt6v tis 
fiaXkov o(f)eiXei Tmreivocfipovf'iv, ocrov 
8oKel pioXXov elvuL : but they cannot 
be regarded as independent authori- 
ties for omitting /xe/^wv, since in such 
collections of excerpts the later com- 
piler generally borrows directly from 
his predecessor : see PhiHppia?is p. 
251, note 2. The Syriac connects 
Hak\ov with hoKei. 

^qreiv K.r.X.] I Cor. X. 24 fiT]8f\s 
TO eavTOV ^rjTeiTO) dWa to tov (Tepov, 
and t3. ver. 33 t^V Cv"^^ ''o ffJ^avTov 
<TVfjL(popov aXka to Tav noWav. For 
CriTelv TO eavTov see also I Cor. xiii. 5, 
Phil. ii. 21. 

TO Koiv(ocf)\es] ' the common ad- 
vantage'' ; comp. Philo de Joseph. 
II. p. 47 M- ^'o- TO KOivdi^ikk^ cfiddvovTa 
Tovs aXXovi, M. Anton, iii. 4 ;^copis 
/ieyaXr/s Koi Koiv(o(fi('KovsdvayKT]s.,Apost. 
Const, vi. 12 (Tv^rjTovvTes npos to 



Koivai<f>\es. 

XLIX. ' Who shall tell the power 
and the beauty of love ? Love unites 
us to God : love is all enduring: love 
is free from pride and vulgarity: 
love brooks no strife or discord. In 
love all the saints were perfected. 
In love God took us to Himself. 
In love Christ gave His body for 
our bodies and His life for our lives.' 

3. 'O 6X0)1' K.T.X.] This resembles 
our Lord's saying in John xiv. 15 eav 
ayarraTe /Lie, Tas VTo\as tos ifxas Triprj- 
o-eTe (v. 1. TT^prjaaTi) : COmp. I Joh. v. 

13- 

4. TOV Seo-^w] i.e. 'the binding 
power': comp. Col. iii. 14 ttjv aydirrjv 
Q eaTiv cnjv8e(rp.os Trjs TfXeioTTjTOS. 
This clause is quoted by Jerome ad 
Ephes. iv. i (vii. p. 606) 'Cujus rei et 
Clemens ad Corinthios testis est, 
scribens Vmculum charitatis Dei qui 
{quis) poterit enarrare ? ' 

6. apKeros ^enre7v] Previous edit- 
ors had misread the MS A, and writ- 
ten dpKfl, (wv eSet, eliTflv. For the 
construction of dpKero? see i Pet. iv. 3. 
The word occurs also Matt. vi. 34, 



XLIX] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



149 



10 vavcrov eV dydTrrj^ ovdeu V7rep^(pavov' djaTrtj cr^ia-fjia 
ouK ex^h dydirri ov crraa-id^eL, dyaTrt] iravra ttoieT ev 
ojuovoia' ev rr] dyaTrrj eTeXeiwdria'av Travre^ o\ 6K\eKT0i 
Tov Oeou' ^tx dydirn^ ov^ev evapeaTOV icTiv rw Oew* 
ev dyaTrrj rrpoo'eXdlSeTO tjjud^ 6 ^ecnrorr]^' hia Trjv 

i^ dyaTrrjv, rjv 'e(T)(ev Trpo^ f]fjid<i, to aljua avrou edooKev 
VTvep rjjucov 'hicou^ Xpio'TO^ 6 Kvpio^ rifj-wv ev SeXtjjULaTi 
OeoVj KUL Trjv (rdpKa VTrep Tf]<s (TapKO<s rifj.wv Kai Tr]V 
yj/'Uxvi' VTrep twv yp-v^f^^v rifJLwv. 

The whole of the preceding passage is disturbed in CS by false punctuation. 
8 TrXriOo's] AC ; but S translates N115J' ' vmrutn: 13 oi)Uu...t(^ Gey] AC, 

and so Clem (except that he omits ^cttlv) ; Deo placere nemo potest (as if oi)5efi 
ei)ajOeo-Teti' karw ry 9e(J) S. 14 ^A^as] AS; i-^as C. 15 ^5w/cec] A; 

didujKev C. 16 i/irep 7]fxuiv T7;(roOs Xpta-T6s] AS ; itjaovs xptcTTos virep rj^wv C. 

18 tQv i/'i/xwj'] AS ; T^s i'vxv^ C. 



X. 25, Hermas Vis. ill. 8. 

TO v-^os K.T.X.] See the elabo- 
rate metaphor in Ign. Ephes. 9 ava- 
(jiepofievoL els ra i''^tj 8ia rrjs iirjx^avris 
^Irjaov XpuTTov k.t.X. The passage of 
Clement from this point, as far as 
T^s ^aaiXeias roii XpicrTov ( 5'-')) i^ 
loosely quoted and abridged by Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. 17 (p. 613 sq). 

8. ayanT) KakvnTfi k.t.X.] ' //trows 
a veil over, omits to notice, forgets, 

forgives'. The expression is taken 
from I Pet. iv. 8 (comp. James v. 20), 
which again seems to be a loose quo- 
tation from Prov. x. 12, where the 
original has WV^^'h^ 'all sins' for 
'a multitude of sins', and the Lxx 
rendering is still wider, iravras 8e 
Tovs /ii) (pikovfiKoiivras KaXvnTei (f)iXia. 
For this Hebrew metaphor of ' cover- 
ing' see Ps. xxxii. i, Ixxxv. 3, Neh. 
iii. 37 (iv. 6). 

9. dycnrr] Trdvra at'e;^;eTai] An imi- 
tation of I Cor. xiii. 4, 7, 17 dyanr] 
jxaKpodvfjLe^. . .Trdvra aT(yei...7ravTa vno- 
p,Vt : and indeed the whole passage 
is evidently inspired by S. Paul's 
praise of love. The juxtaposition of 



the language of S. Paul and the lan- 
guage of S. Peter is a token of the 
large and comprehensive sympathies 
of one who paid equal honour to 
both these great Apostles ( 5), though 
rival sectarians claimed them for their 
respective schools. See Galatians p. 
323, with notes above 12, 33. 

jSai/auo-oi/] ' coarse, vulgar, self as- 
serting, arrogant\ See the note on 
d^avaicTdis 44- 

10. (Tx^o-pa ovK e'xei k.t.X.] The ex- 
pressions are in an ascending scale 
(i) 'knows nothing of outward 
schisms'; (2) 'does not even foster 
a factious spirit'; (3) 'nay, preserves 
entire and universal harmony'. 

12. eTeXeicodrja-ap] I John iv. 18 6 8e 
(fio^ovfievos ov TereXeiaTai ev rfj ayanr]. 

14. 8ia Tf}v dydnr^v /c.t.X.] Comp. 
John XV. 12, Gal. ii. 20, Ephes. v. 2. 

17. Ka\ TTjv adpKa] Wotton quotes 
Iren. v. I. l tw I8ia> a'lpaTi Xvrpooaape- 
vov T^pas TOV Kvpiov Koi Sovtos ttjv 
^vxv^ virep Ta>v rjpeTepcov \lrvxoc)V Koi 
TTjv (rdpua Tr)v euvTOV dvTL tu)v rjpeTepav 

a-apKwv, which seems to have been 
taken from this passage of Clement. 



I50 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[l 



L. OpuTe, dyairriToi, Trtos jjieya Kal davfjcacTTOv 
eoTTiv r] ctyciTn], Kal Trjs reXeiOTrjTO^ avTrj^ ouk ecTTLV 
i^riyrjo'L^' ti^ iKavo^ ev avTrj evpeOrjvaif el {jlyi ob<i av 
KaTa^iwo'r] 6 0eos ; decojueda ovv Kal alriofjieda (xtto 
Tov eXeov^ avTOv, iW tV dydirr] evpeOw/uLeu ^i'xa irpoo"- 5 
KXicreu)^ di/6pco7rivt]s ducojuot. al yeveal irdaai diro 
'A^ajUL 'ecos Ttjcrde y'ljuepa^ TraprjXOov, dW ol ev dyaTrrj 

1 i] aYttTT?;] A; dydin] C. ai/Trjs A; avrov C. S translates ejusdeni [ipsiics) 

perfectionis. It seems to have had a.irr\s and made it agree with reXetoTTjToj. 
oiK iarw /c.t.X.] AC ; S translates non est sen?io ulliis sufficiens ut iiiveniatur, thus 
reading i^riyrjais ns and making iKavbs feminine. 3 e^rjy7](ns] e^Tjyrjcretcr A. 

ei fiT]] AC ; S apparently adds iv dyaTrrj koI, but a false punctuation has confused 
the translation of the whole context. ovs av Kara^Lihcrri] Tischendorf seems to 

N 
have rightly deciphered A as reading oycakat&Iicoch, though the superscribed 

N is not distinct. 4 Karaf tcitr?;] S ; /caraSiw^ t; C. For the reading of A see 
the last note. 5ew/te^a] supplicenms S; ^a A; deo/xeda C; I had conjec- 



L. 'In this marvellous love let us 
pray God that we may live. We can 
only do so by His grace. Past 
generations, thus perfected in love, 
now dwell in the abodes of bliss, 
awaiting His kingdom : for He has 
promised to raise them again. Happy 
are we, if we pass our time here in 
harmony and love. For then our sins 
will be forgiven us : we shall inherit 
the blessing promised to the elect of 
God through Christ.' 

2. TTjs TeXeioTTjTos K.T.X/\ See I John 
iv. 18 ov TfreXeicoTai iv rrj dyant], above 
49 ereXfiddrja-av, and below ol iv 
dydnrj TeXeicodevres ; comp. i John ii. 
5, iv. 12. 

3. iv avrfi i5p.] Comp. Phil. iii. 9. 
6. al yeveai ndaai] Comp. 7 els 

TCLS yeveds nacras. 

8. -}((iipov ev(Te^a>v'\ ''the place as- 
signed to the pious\ like rov d(f){c\6^- 
vov TOTTOv rrjs 86^r]s 5> Or rov I8pv- 
fifvov avTols TOTTOV 44- See the note 
on 5, and comp. Iren. v. 31. 2 (quoted 
by Wotton here) at ^vxal direpxovrai 
els TOV [aopaTOV] ronov tov dpKTfievov 



avTois dnl) tov Qeov, KaKel fiexpi t^s 
dvacrTdaecos (fioiTaai, Trepi/xeVoutrat ttjv 
dvdfTTaaiv k.t.X. See also Apost. 
Const, viii. 41 Xf>>pos eva-e^atv dvei- 
fiivos K.T.X., Lebas-Waddington Asie 
Alineiire Inscr. 168 eva-e^ewv x^P^^ 
be^aTo rrda-i (f)iXov. For x^pov evae^wv 
the existing text of Clem. Alex, has 
Xcipciv eva-ejBav, ' the country, the 
realms of the pious', which suggests 
a more sensuous image, conveying a 
notion similar to the 'Elysian fields'. 
The one might be translated 'locus 
piorum', the other 'campus piorum '. 
But x^pos, rather than x'^P^i accords 
with the language of the Roman 
Clement elsewhere. A place in Si- 
cily, named after two brothers famous 
for their piety, was called indiffer- 
ently 'Evae^cov X'^P^ ^^^ 'Evaefiav 
Xapos ; see Bentley's Dissert, on Pha- 
lar. V (l. p. 238, ed. Dyce). 

9. eV Tri iTna-Konfj K.r.X.J Luke xix. 
44 Toi/ Kaipov Trjs iTna-KOTTTJs crov, I Pet. 
ii. 1 2 8o^dcra>aiv tov Qeov iv rjfjiepq. im- 
crK0Trr]s, Wisd. iii. 7 '^^i iv Kaipw im- 
aKonrjs avToiv dvakuij.\lrovcriv, Polycra- 



^] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



151 



Te\eico6evTe^ Kara. Ti)V rod Oeov X^P^^ 'exovcriv x^P^^ 

evcref^Mi'' ot (papepcodrjo'ovTaL ev Trj iTricTKOTrf] rf]^ f3a- 

10 (TiXeia^ Tov Oeov. yeypaTrrai yap' EiceAeexe eic ta 

TAMeiA MIKpON OCON OCON, eOOC OY HApeASH H dpfH KAI 
BYMOC MOY, KAI MNHCGHCOMAI HMepAC ATAOHC KAI ANACTHCCO 

YMAc eK TOON eHKooN YMooN. fxaKapiOL r)fJiev, dyain^TOL, 

el ra 7rpo(rTdyfiaTa tov Oeov eTroiovjuei/ ev ofJiOvoLa 

15 dyciTrris, ets to dcpedrjvaL riijuv hi dya7rr]<s Ta^ djuapTia^. 

tured deJjfieOa (ed. i). odv] AC ; add. dyaTryjTol S. atVw/xe^a] AS ; 

ahoifieda C. 5 avrov] AC ; tov Qeov S. Trpocr/cXt'o-ews] A ; TrpoaKXyjcTeais 

C ; adhaerentia S. On this itacism see above, 47. 7 rriahf. iifxipas] A ; 

TTJs T)fxpa% T'qcrde C ; while Clem has rijade ttjs rjfiipas. The reading of S is inde- 
terminable. 9 01] AS; 01 de C. 10 Oeov] CS; -Y A; Tischendorf 
reads XY 5 but I could only see Y) the first letter being hopelessly blurred. 
eiaiXdere] CS ; eiffe\.... A. It is quite possible that A read eiaeXOe with the 
LXX, but the other authorities point to el<Ti\6ere. 1 1 ra/xeta] ra/xia A ; 
Tap-iela C. 12 dvpi.6s\ dv... A; 6 0v/x6s C. 13 vi^ev] CS ; icr/xep A. 

15 TJfUv] AS ; V/MV C. 



tes in Euseb. H. E. v. 24 nepLfiivcov 
Tf]v OTTO Tcov ou'pai'coj/ iTVL(TKonr]v ev fj (k 
vfKpav avauTTjcreTai,. 

10. EtVeA^ere K.r.X.] A combination 
of passages. The opening is taken 
from the LXX Is. xxvi. 20 e'icre\6e els 
TO. Tajiela crov, dnoKkelaov rrjv dvpav aov, 
aTV0Kpv^r]6i fxiKpov ocrov bcrov, ea>s av 
Tvapekdr} tj opyrj Kvplov : the close pro- 
bably from Ezek. xxxvii. 12 dva^u 
vfias eK Twv fjLvrjfiaTMv vficov. The in- 
termediate words Kal fjLvrja-dijcropLai 
ijixepas dyadr^s are not found any- 
where. They may possibly be in- 
tended to give the general purport 
of the promise which they introduce : 
see a parallel instance in 52. The 
combination of the two passages 
from different prophets was probably 
suggested by the verse in Isaiah 
which immediately precedes the 
words quoted, dvaaTijaovTm ol veKpol 
Ka\ iyepOrjaovrai ol ev to'is pLvrffieiois (Is. 
xxvi. 19). Comp. 5 Esdr. ii. 16 'et 
resuscitabo mortuos de locis suis et 
dc monumcntis educam illos etc' 



II. ranela] ''the inner chmnber\ 
"nn. On the form see Lobeck Phryn. 
p. 493, Paral. p. 28. The same ten- 
dency to elide the t before et appears 
in vyeia 20. In 21 however our 
chief MS writes rapneia. 

oaov oo-ovl Comp. Heb. x. ;^y (with 
Bleek's note). 

dpyrj Koi Ovfios^ opyrj is the settled 
temper, ' anger' ; 6vpi6s the sudden 
outburst, ' wrath '. See the distinc- 
tion in Trench's A^. T. Syn. ist 
ser. xxxvii, and to the passages 
there collected add Joseph. B. J. ii. 
8. 6 dpyr]s TapLtai SiKatot dvfiov KadeK- 
TiKoi, Hermas Mand. v. 2 ex he ttjs 
TTiKpias dvfios, eK Se rov dvp-ov dpyi^, 

K.T.X. 

14. enoiovpLev] If the reading be 
correct, the point of time denoted in 
ea-pLev must be the second advent, so 
that the deeds of this present life are 
regarded as past. 

ev ofiovoia dydrrrjs] 49 dyaTrrj ndvTa 
TTOiet ev op,ovoia. 

15. 81 dyanrjs] ' through God's lovc\ 



152 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[L 



'yeypaTTTUL yap' Makapioi (Ln A(t)e9HCAN ai anomi'ai kai 

a)N eneKAAY(})OHCAN ai AMApriAr MAKApiOC ANHp of OY ^AH 

AoriCHTAi Ky'pioc AMApTiAN oyAe ecTiN eN Tcp CTOMATi ayt[oy] 
AoAoc. ovTO<s 6 /uLaKapKrjuos eyeveTO eirt tovs eKXeXey- 
fxevov^ viTO Tou Qeov dia 'Irjcrou XpiCTToO tou Kvpiov 5 
tjfjLcov, ip ri ho^a eU tovs alcoi/a^ tcov ulcovcov. d/ULrjv. 

I /ua/c<ptoi] fj-aKaKapioi A. 2 o] A; (^ CS. There is the same v. 1. in 

the LXX. 5 Tov Oeov] A ; Qeov C. 7 TrapeTriaa/xev Kai eTroirjcrafievI 

CS ; -irape.../j.v A. See the lower note. 8 aipedrivai. ijfuy] CS, and so pro- 

bably A. See the lower note. 10 t^s iXTridos] AC ; spei nosfrae S, but it 

probably does not represent a different Greek text. 1 1 (p6^ov] AC ; add. 



of which we become partakers by 
ourselves living in love. There is 
the same transition from the be- 
liever's love to God's love in 49 

8ix^ ayaTTJ/y k.t.X. 

I. MaKupioL K.T.X.] From the LXX 
of Ps. xxxii. I, 2, word for word, as 
read in A (S writes a(f)fidT](rav). For 
ov B has a. In Rom. iv. 8 it is a 
question whether ov or w is the cor- 
rect reading. 

4. ovTos 6 fxaKapicrixos] Suggested 
by Rom. iv. 9, where after quoting 
the same passage from the Psalms 
S. Paul continues, o fiaKapiap,6s ovv 
OVTOS (n\ Trjv irepiToijLTjv k.t.X. For 
fiaKapia-jibs see also Rom. iv. 6, Gal. 
iv. 15 (note). 

7. TTapenea-aiiev koI eTroirjaapev] 
There can be no doubt about the 
reading of our two new authorities; 
for though the last word indeed, as 

now read in the Syriac MS, is .^^-^^ 

transgressi suvuis, the diacritic point 
has been altered and it was originally 

fecimus. But what was the 



reading of Kl The editors have 
hitherto given Trapefirjixev ; but the 
older collators Young and Wotton 
professed only to see nape...pev, and 
after C was discovered, Gebhardt 
(ed. 2), observing that nothing was 
said either by Tischendorf or by my- 



self ' de litera B adhuc conspicua', 
suggested that the reading of A was 
not Trapf(BT]pev but napenea-afKU and 
that the following words koL inonjaa- 
fiev were omitted owing to homoeote- 
leuton, for there certainly is not 
room for them. I believe he is right. 
Having my attention thus directed to 
the matter, I looked at the MS again. 
I could not discern a B but saw 
traces of a square letter which looked 
like n followed by a curved letter 
which might be e. Not satisfied 



with 



my 



own 



inspection, I wrote 



afterwards to Dr E. M. Thompson, 
now chief librarian of the British 
Museum, to obtain his opinion. He 
read the letters independently exactly 
as I had done, and says confidently 
that the reading was napeTrfo-apev. 
This reading is favoured by the words 
which follow KoXby yap dvdpwTTco e^o- 
poXoyela-dai nep). rav TvapaTTTbajxaTOiv 
(see the note on 46), as also by 
the loose paraphrase of the younger 
Clement Strovu iv. 18 (p. 614) r\v Se 
Koix ne piTTfcrr] cikcov TOiavTTj tiv\ irepi- 
(TTa(Tei dia tus TrapfpTTTcoafts roii avri- 
KSLpevov, where nepmidri seems to 
have been suggested by the associa- 
tion of sounds. 

LI. ' We must therefore ask par- 
don for our sins. Above all ought 
the leaders of these factions to deny 



Ll] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



153 



LI. ' Oaa ovv irapeirea'afjiev Kal eTroit^craiuev ^la 
Tii/os Tcov Tov dvTLKeifJLevov, d^LuxTWfjiev d(pe6r]vaL rifjiiv 
Kai eKeivoL ^e, o'lrive^ dp^rjyoi crracrews Kal hi^oo'TacrLas 
10 e'yevr]6r](Tav , ocpeiXovcnv to kolvov tPj's e\7ridos crKOTreiv. 
01 yap juLETa (f)o(3ov Kal d'yaTrt)^ TroXiTevofievoL eavTOv^ 
veXovcLV fj-dWov a'LKiai<s TrepLTriTrreiv r] toi)s 7rXt](r[oVj 

del S. 12 Qi\ov(jiv\ AC ; cogimt (coarctant) S. akias] oiKiaia A. 

Tischendorf (pi-ol. p. xix) considers that it is altered into aiKtatcr prima niami, but 
I could not distinctly see this correction. toi)s TrXTjcrio;'] AC ; rots TrXrjaiov S, 

which also omits 8e eavTuv, thus throwing the syntax into confusion. 



themselves for the common good. 
It is well always to confess our 
wrong-doings, and not to harden 
our hearts. Let us take warning by 
the fate of the factious opponents of 
Moses who were swallowed up alive 
in the pit, and by the fate of Pharaoh 
and his host who were overwhelmed 
in the Red Sea, because they har- 
dened their hearts.' 

7. 8id Tivos K.r.X.] ' dj any of the 
wiles (or of the ministers) of the ad- 
versary'. 

8. TOV dvTiKei^evov] So o di/rt'SiKos 
I Pet. V. 8, and perhaps 6 avrevepySv 
Barnab. . 2. 'O avriKeifxevos itself is 
not so used in the New Testament 
(except possibly in i Tim. v. 14), but 
occurs Mart. Polyc. 17, and in later 
writers. 

d(j)f6rjvai jj/xiv] So the lacuna in 
A is now supplied in our new 
authorities in place of crvyyvcofiijv. 
Among other suggestions I had pro- 
posed d(l)e6fjvai in my notes ; comp. 
50 *'S TO d(pedrivai rifUv...yypaTTTai, 
yap- MaKopioi a>v d(f)edr]crav K.r.X. It 
is entirely after Clement's manner to 
take up the key word of a quotation 
and dwell upon it ; see the instances 
collected above, 46. There can be 
no doubt therefore that Tischendorf 
misread A. Nevertheless he re- 
iterated the statement to which I 



took exception and said 'Emen- 
datione veteris scripturae vix opus 
est [a-vy]yv(i3n[T]v] ; literarum yi/oyp, 
pars superior in codice superest, 
quapropter de vera lectione vix du- 
bito : dubitat vero Lightf. et dicit 
etc' He took no notice of my 
grammatical objection to this con- 
struction of d^iovv. I had urged that 
the instances where d^iovv appears 
to govern an accusative of the thing 
claimed (e.g. Dan. ii. 23, Esth. v. 6, 
ix. 12, Xen. Mem. iii. 11. 12) are not 
decisive. I might have added a 
further lexical objection ; for neither 
in the LXX nor in the N.T. nor in the 
Apostolic Fathers are dvyyivuxTK^iv, 
avyyvmixT], ever said of God. The fact 
is that the MS is eaten into holes here 
and nothing can be read. The letters 
can only be conjectured from the in- 
dentations left. Dr E. M. Thomp- 
son of the British Museum whom I 
consulted and whose practised eye I 
should trust much more than my 
own, gives it as his opinion that 
(Tvyyvaprjv would not fit into these 
indentations but that a(f)fdT]vair]p.[iv] 
might. 

9. dixoa-raa-las] See the note on 
46. ^ 

10. Tu Kocvnu Tijs 'X7riSo9] Comp. 
Ign. KpJies. I v-nkp tov kolvov 6v6p,aTOs 
Kal eXTTiSos with the note. 



154 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [li 

/ixaWov 06 eavTwv KaTayviooriv (bepovcriv rj t^s irapa- 
hehofjievr]^ rifXiv /cotAw? Kal diKaicos ofiofbiavia^. Ka\ov 
<ydp ctvOpcoTTtp e^OfJioXoyelorOaL Trepl twv TrapaTrTWfia- 
Twv f] a'K\r]pvvai Tt]v Kuphiav avTOu, KaSco^ eaKXripwdf] 
ri Kaphia tmv o'Taa-ia^ovTMv irpo^ tov depdirovTa tov 5 
Oeov MwiJcrfji'' wv to Kpijua TrpodrjXov iyevrjdri. Kare- 
I3r}(rav yap ek a^ov ^coi^Te^, Kal Ganatoc noiMANe? 
aytoy'c- (papato Kai ri (TTpaTia avTOu Kal Travre^ 
ol YiyovfJievoL AiyvTrTOVy ta re a'pmata kai oi anaBatai 
avTwv, ov ^i' dWt]P TLva aWiav i/SvOicrOrjcrav ek Oct- lo 
XacTcrav epvQpav Kal diruiXovTO, dXXd did to (TKXt}- 

5 (TTacria^oPTUJv'l A ; aTa(TidvTO}i> CS, but there is a tendency in S in these cases 
to translate by a past where the principal verb is a past, as here. Oepa- 

irovTo.] AS; avdpwirop C See the lower note. 9 M-yircTov'] S; ...virrov A; 

ai/Tov C. Perhaps the archetype of C was partially erased here and ran a. .v. tov. 
dccijSdrat] ava^arais C. 10 ou] ol A. 12 airiav'\ here A; after KapSias C. 

13 7^ AiyviTTOvl yqacyv... A; At^i^Trry CS. 14 Mwu'crews] jj-Lovaeti^ A; 

2. KaKov...ri\ Matt, xviii. 8, Mark 32, 33 rjvoixdf) rj yrj koL Kariirifv avrovs 

ix. 43, 45 ; see Winer 6^;'rt;;. XXXV. ...Kal KaTejSrja-av avrol koX oaa iariv 

p. 255. avTa>v ^mvTa els a8ov. Comp. ApOSt. 

4. (TKKripvvai x.r.X.] Ps. xcv. 8; Const. \\. 1'] t^aBav kcli^ A^npihv (^(hvm 
comp. Heb. iii. 8, 15, iv. 7. Karf^Tjo-ap els adov koI pd/3Sos ^Xaa- 

5. TOV SepaTTovTo] See the various Trjcracra K.T.X. (comp. 43) ; see also 
reading in C. Moses is called av- ib. vi. 3. 

6p(07rns TOV Qeov, Deut. xxxiii. I, Josh. 7. noip.ave'i] Clement is quoting 

xiv. 6, I Chron. xxiii. 14, 2 Chron. from Ps. xlviii (xlix). 14 cos npajBaTa 

XXX. 16, Ezra iii. 2. Familiarity with eV aSrj edevTo, daparos noLfxavel avrovs. 

the phrase (which is especially The reading could not have been 

prominent in Deut. xxxiii. i, where foreseen, and the lacuna in A was 

it prefaces the Song of Moses) would supplied with KareTriep, before our new 

lead to its introduction here. Else- authorities revealed the true reading, 

where ( 53) C alters the designation 9. ra re apjiaTa koI oi dva^arai] 

dfpaucop TOV Beoii in another way. The expression is borrowed from the 

On the other hand 6fpaiTa>v tov Oeov Mosaic narrative, where it occurs 

is itself a coirimon designation of several times, Exod. xiv. 23, 26, 28, 

Moses (see the note on 4), and comp. xv. 19, Jar. li (xxviii). 22, Hagg. 

might well have been substituted for ii. 22. 

the other expression here. But the 12. ras davveTovs Kapdias] As Rom. 

preponderance of authority must be i. 21 eaKOTLo-di] ?) da-vpeTos avrcop 

considered decisive as to the reading. Kapdla. 

6. KUTe^rjo-ap yap k.t.X.] Num. xvi. LI I. 'The Lord of the universe 



Lii] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 155 

pvvBtjvai avTcov t9 dcvveTOVi Kap^ia^ jueTa to yevecr- 
Sai ra (rtiimeTa Kai ra repuTa ev yrj AlyuTTTOu did 
Tov BepaTTOVTo^ Tov Oeov Mcovaecos. 
15 LII. 'ATrpocrBerj^j ddeXcboi, 6 dea'TroTrj^ VTrdp^ei 

Twv aTravTwi/, ov^ev ou^evo^ XP^X^'^ ^^ M^ '^^ e^o- 
jULoXoyeTarOaL avTw. (pricriv yap 6 eKXeKTO^ Aavei^' 
'EloMoAorHCOMAi Tto Kypicp, KAI Apecei aytuj ynep mocxon 

NeON KepATA eK(})epONTA KAI OnAAC lAeXOOCAN nTOO)(o"l KAI 
2G eY4)pAN9H'TOOCAN. KUl TTuXlU XcyEL' YCON TCu 06 0) OyCIAN 

AiNeceooc kai AnoAoc tco yyicTcp tag ei)^d^c coy' kai eni- 



/j.(i}(TCi}s C. 16 0^5^;'] .. dev A ; om. CS. to] A ; rod C. The oudev 

has obviously been omitted by carelessness before ovSevos, and thus has necessitated 
the further change of to into tov. 17 avT<^] AC ; add. ixovov S. Aaveid] 

8d5 AC. See above, 4. 19 veov] vaiov A. 19, 20 KipaTa...ev(ppavdri- 

Tuaav'] AS; om. C. 21 2 Kai e7rt/cdAe(rat...5o|dcrets fie] AS; om. C. 

21 ewLKoKeaai] eTriKoKeae A. 



wants nothing. He demands of us 
only confession. He asks no sacri- 
fice, but the sacrifice of praise and 
thanksgiving ; for so the Psalmist 
teaches us.' 

15. 'Anpoaderjs] '' wants iiotJiiiig be- 
sidcs\ Comp. Joseph. Ant. viii. 4. 3 
aTrpnaBees yap to delov anavrcdv (with 
the context), Act. Pant, et Thecl. 
17 (p. 47 Tisch.) eeoff aTrpoorSeT?'?, 
Clem. Horn. xi. 9 6 Qihs yap dvtvSerjs 
<ov avTos ov8evos Seirai, Epist. ad 
DlOgn. 3 o iToi.r](jas TOV ovpavov kol ttjv 
yyjv Koi TvavTa ra iv avTo'is . . .ovhevos av 
avTos Trpoa8eoiTo tovtcov k.t.X., A- 
thenag. Suppl. 13 6 roxihf^ rov irav- 
Tos 8r]fiiovpyos Koi 7raTfjp...dvfv8e^s koI 
dirpo(r8eris, 29 dvev8ees...T6 de'iov, 
Resurr. J^ 12 Travro? yap iHTiv dnpocr- 
8er]s, Tatian ad Grace. 4 6 yap irav- 
Tcov avevderjs ov 8inj3\rjTf(is vcf) rjp.wv 
coy eVSfjjy, Theophil. ad Ant. ii. 10 
dviv8ir]% u)v. See also Acts xvii. 25 
with the passages from heathen wri- 
ters collected there by Wetstein. 
This was a favourite mode of speak- 



ing with the Stoics. The parallel 
passages quoted above would sup- 
port the connexion of risiv di^avTinv 
either with dnpocrBerjs or with 6 Seo-- 
TTOTTjs. The latter seems more forcible 
and more natural here, besides that 
o decrnoTTfs rav aTravrav is a common 
phrase in Clement, 8, 20, 23- It 
is however connected with 6 Seo-n-orr/s 
in the Syriac. 

18. 'E^o/ioXoyrycro/Ltat (c.t.X.J Comp. 
Ps. Ixix. 31, 32, Ka\ dpiarei Tto Geco virep 
jxoijxov VOV KfpaTa eKCpipovra Ka\ oir- 
\as' ISercoa-av k.t.X. The introductory 
words i^op.o\oyri<TOjj.aL Tw Kvpicp are 
not found in the context, though they 
express the sense of the preceding 
verse ali/ecrco TO ovofxa k.t.X., and occur 
frequently elsewhere. 

20. Qvaov K.T.X.] The first part 
6vaov...8o^da{i,s p.e occurs in Ps. xlix 
(1). 14, 15 word for word, except that 
the second aov is omitted in some 
MSS : the last clause is taken from 
Ps. li. 17 QvdLa TO) Qeo) nvevfia crvv- 
TeTpififiivou. 



156 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lh 



KAAecAi MG eN HMepA OAiyewc coy, kai eleAoYMAi' ce, kai 

AolAceic Me' eyciA r^p to) Oeo) hngyma cyNTeTpiMMeNON. 

LIII, ' Girio'Tao'de yap Kai KaXw^ eTrio'Taorde Ta<s 

lepa^ ypacbas, dyaTrriToi, Kai iyKCKvcpaTe ek ra Xoyia 

Tov Oeov' ek dvajULvrjcii/ ovv ravra ypacpofjiev. Mwv- 5 

crew? yap dua/SaiuovTO^ els to opos Kai iroiria-avTO'i 

Tecra-epaKOVTa t^juepas Kai Te(r(TepdKOVTa vvKTas ev 

vrjG'Teia Kai Taireivuicrei, e'nrev Trpos ovtov 6 Qeos' 

MooycH, MooycH, kataBhOi to ta)(oc eNTeyQeiM, on hnomhcgn 

6 Aaoc coy oyc e^HfArec eK rnc Airynroy nApeBHCAN ta)(y io 

I (jov\ A; om. S. 3 kTri(jra.(jQt\ eTTKXTaadai A. yo-p] AC; add. 

dSeX^oi S, omitting d,-yaTrriTol 1. 20; see above, 1. 4 /cat iyKSK'LKpa.Te] 

CS ; .. eKvcpare A. 5 ypdcpofxev] CS. In A only the final stroke 1, being 

part of the N, is visible (though Tischendorf says 'ante Muvcreus praecedit punc- 
tum, non 1 quod Jacobsonus videre sibi visus est'). 6 dva^alvovros] A, not 

dva^dvTos as Jacobson would read; for the 1 is distinct and cannot have formed 
the first stroke of n as he supposes; dva^dvroi C. S has a past tense, but on such 
a point its authority cannot be urged. As usual C alters the tenses where they 
do not seem appropriate; see above, i. p. 126. ets] C; ...a A; ws tt/jos (or ws 

eh) S. 7 T<T(TepdKovTa\ recrcapdKovra C in both places. In either case the 

word is mutilated in A, so that we cannot determine the form, but the preference 
of this MS for the forms in e can leave little doubt. 



I. e^eXovfiai] For this future see 
Buttmann Gr. Sprachl. 1 1, p. 100, 
Winer Gramm. xciv. Clem. Alex. 
Stf'oin. iv. 18 (p. 614), after Sia ras 
TTappLnT(o(ri,s tov dvTiKeiixevov (already 
quoted p. 152), goes on fiifirjaa/xevos 
TOV Aav\8 y^aXel '^^oyio\oyrj<TOfJ.ai k.t.\. 

avvreTptfiiMevov, Stringing together 

the same quotations as in this chap- 
ter of the Roman Clement. 

LIII. 'You are well versed in the 
Scriptures. I therefore quote them 
only to remind you. Remember how 
Moses entreated God for the people, 
how he would accept no honour for 
himself, but asked to be blotted out 
with them, if they might not be for- 
given.' 

3. iivla-TacrBe (c.r.X.] For the form 
of the sentence see the note on 47 

aiaxpa, ayaTrrjroLy koi Xiav ato'^pa. 



Tas Ifpas ypatpas^ Comp. Polyc. 
F/zzL 12 ' Confido enim vos bene 
exercitatos esse in sacris literis et 
nihil vos latet'. So 2 Tim. iii. 15 
[to] iepa ypdp.fiaTa, the only passage 
in the New Testament where this 
epithet is applied to the Scriptures. 
It occurs above 43, and in 2 Mace, 
viii. 23, and is so used both by Philo 
and by Josephus. 

4. eyKetcvcpare] See the note on 40. 

6. 7roii](TavTos] '' spent^ as several 
times in the N.T. See the references 
in Grimm's Clav. Nov. Test. s.v. iroifw 
II. d, p. 527 (ed. Thayer). 

8. iiixiv irphs avTov /c.r.X.] The first 
part, as far as p,aWou 7 tovto, is taken 
from Deut. ix. 12 14, which how- 
ever commences somewhat differently 
Kai eiVe Kvpios Trpos p. ' ' Kva.(TTr]6i,KaTa- 
^rjdi TO To-xos, the remainder following 



LIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



157 



eK THC oAOY fc eNereiAoo aytoic, enomcAN eAYxoTc x<^- 
N6^'mata. Kai etirev Kvpio<5 7rp6<s avToV AgAaAhka npoc 

Ce AHA? KAI AlC AerOON, 'EcopAKA TON AaON TOyTON, KAI lAoy 

ecTiN cKAHpoxpAXHAoc- GACON Me e^oAeepeycAi AyToyc, kai 

^5 e2AAeiV<^ TO ONOMA AYTWN YnOKATCO0eN TOY OypANOy KAI 

noih'coo ce eic IOnoc MefA kai Gaymacton kai noA'i' maAAon 
H TOYTO. KAI elneN MooycHC MhOamooc, Kypie* A(fec ThN 
AMApxiAN TO) Aao) ToyTOO V KAMe e'sAAeiyoN cK BiBAoy zoaN- 
TooN. to ixeyaXn's dyaTTfi'S, ih reXeiorrjTOs di/V7repf3\r]rov' 

9 Mmayj, Muivarj] ...a-rjfiuvffy] A; /jiwcrrj, /lucr^ C (this MS is most capricious, and 
both before and after this uses the other form fiiovaris) ; om. S. 10 (k yyjs 

AiytjiTTov] C ; eKyrja v A ; ff AlyvTrrov S, with the Hebrew. 11 eiroiriaav] 

AC (lxx a with the Hebr) ; Kai eirol-qcrav S. The Koi appears in B of the 
X^XX. x'^^^'^l^"-'^^^ AC ; xtoj/ei'/Lia (owing to the absence of rihtii) S. In the 

LXX A has x^vivTo., B xwv6v,ua with the Hebr. 14 eo-rti/] def. A ; kari CS with 

Clem. The editors (myself inchided) following Young had supplied the lacuna in 
A with \ab% from the LXX (t'SoiJ \o.h<i aKXrjpoTpdxv'^f'^ iffrtv), though Potter (Clem. 
Alex. Strom, iv. 19, p. 617) had warned them that Clement of Alexandria supplied 
the right word (eo-rti'). 'ia<jov'\ AC; koI 'iaaov S. In the LXX B has koX vvv 

iaaov. i^oXedpevcrai] ....edpevcrai A; i^oKodpevaai C ; e^oXedpeijcra} (or -\o9p6(Tw) 

S apparently. r 7 elTrev] def. A ; elTre C. ttjv afiapriav] AC; pcccatuiii 

hoc S. 19 w ii.^y6\r\%\ A ; fieydXrjs (om. w) C. 



the LXX very closely (compare also 
Exod. xxxii. 7, 8). After naXXov ^ 
TovTo the parallel narrative in Exod. 
xxxii is taken up, and the substance 
of vv. 10, 31, 32 is given in a com- 
pressed form. See Bamab. ^ 4 Xeyei 
yap ovTMS Kvpios, Mavari, Mcovaij, Ka- 
Td(3r]6i TO TO-xos, OTL ijv6fj.rj(Tev 6 \aoi 
aov ovs e^'qyayes eK yfjs Alyvirrov, and 
again S^ 14 enrev Kvpios irpos Mmvariv, 
Mcuvcrfi, Mcauo-^, Kardlirjdi to Ta^os oti 
6 Xaos (Tov ov i^rfyayes eK yfjs AlyvTTTov 
rfvofi-qcrev. The coincidence in the 
repetition of the name Mwiio-?;, Mwva-^, 
is not sufficient to show that the one 
writer was indebted to the other (as 
Hilgenfeld seems to think, here and 
p. xx) ; for, though the name is not 
repeated at this place in either of the 
Mosaic narratives, it may very easily 
have been inserted independently by 



both writers from Exod. iii. 4. 

16. davfxadTov] So quoted also by 
Clem. Alex., but it is la-xvpov in the 
LXX. The combination fieya koI 
Bavfxaa-Tov occurs also 8 26, 50. 

TToXu fioKkov rj roCro] i.e. liKelov 
TovTov, an attempt to render the 
Hebrew idiom 1300 3"1, 'greater 
than it'. See ii. 2 from Is. liv. i. 

Clem. Alex., Strom, iv. 19 (p. 617) 
avTiKa ovx o Mavcrfis k.t.X., para- 
phrases the remainder of this chapter 
from Kol firrev k.t.X., giving the same 
quotations as the Roman Clement. 

19. a> a>] According to the rule of 
the gramm.arians the interjections 
should be so accentuated, not J, J ; 
see Chandler Greek Accentiiatioii 
904, p. 246 sq. The editors here 
vary 



158 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[liii 



7rappy](Tid^eTaL OepaTTiov 7rpo<s Kvpiov, alreiTaL acpeciv 
Tw TrXrjdei rj kul eavTov i^aXeKpdfjvai jueT auTwv d^ioT. 
LIV. Tis ovv eV vfjuv yevvalo^ ; rk ev(T7rXay')(yo^ ; 
tU 7re7r\t]po<popr]iuLevo^ dyoLTrt]^ ; eWdru)' Gl cl' e'/ie 
(TTaa-L^ Kal epi's Kal cr^icriuaTa, eK')(wpw, ctTrei^i ov eav 5 
l3ov\r]G-6e^ Kal ttokm to. Tvpoa-Taa-arofJieva vtto tov 
7r\r}6ov^' fJLOVov to TroijULUiov tov XpiCTOv eiprjveveTO) 
jucTa TMU KaBeorTafjievcov irpeorfBuTepcov. touto o vroit]- 

I OepaTTUv] AS ; SeairbT-qs C. 3 V-''''] AS ; 7)ijuv C. 4 TreirKtjpocpo- 

pr}lj.evos\ AC ; flemis (impldus) S. See the lower note. 5 iKX^P'^^ AC ; 

e7w e/cxwpw (apparently) S. 6 ^oiX-qaQe] povXrjadaL A. 9 k\^os] 

K\aioa A. 10 T67ros] tottcjct A. 12 TroXireiav tov Qeov] A; rod Geoi; 



I. OfpaiTcov] Bryennios adopts the 
reading of C Sea-n-orrjs, i.e. * as a 
master'; but this does not represent 
the fact and cannot be right. 

LIV. ' Is any one noble, tender- 
hearted, loving? Let him declare 
his willingness to withdraw, that the 
flock of Christ may be at peace. He 
will not want a place of retirement. 
The whole earth will be ready to 
receive him, for T/te earf/i is the 
Lord's and the fulness thereof. This 
has been the conduct of the true 
citizens of God's kingdom in all 
ages.' 

3. Ti's ovv K.T.X.] This passage, as 
far as Kadea-Tajxevatv 7rpf(TJ3vTep<oi>, is 
quoted in a collection of extracts 
preserved by an anonymous writer in 
Syriac ; see above, i. p. 183. 

Epiphanius also {Haer. xxvii. 6, p. 
107) quotes a few words, but incor- 
rectly and at second hand (see above, 
I. p. 408 sq). He had read them in 
certain vnopLvrjiiaTia-fioi, which I have 
elsewhere (l. p. 327 sq) given reasons 
for supposing to have been the 'Me- 
moirs' {inrofivrjp,ara) of Hegesippus. 
The passage suggests to Epiphanius 
a solution of the difficulty attending 
the lists of the early Roman bishops. 
He conjectures that Clement, after 



being consecrated by S. Peter, may 
have acted as he here advises others 
to act, and have refrained from active 
ministrations {napaLTrja-nfievos rjpyei) 
till the deaths of Linus and Cletus. 
Compare Cic. pro Mil. 93 (to which 
Fell refers) 'Tranquilla republica 
cives mei (quoniam mihi cum illis 
non licet) sine me ipsi, sed per me 
tamen, perfruantur ; ego cedam at- 
que abibo.' It would seem (from 
the reference to patriotic kings and 
rulers in the next chapter) as though 
Clement had read this passage. 

There are several echoes of this 
passage in John of Ephesus (iv. 13, 
48, 60), as pointed out by Bensly. 
If these be not accidental he probably 
got them from the vTvop.vr\p.ari(Tp.o\ 
which supplied Epiphanius with his 
quotation, or from the collection which 
the Syriac writer had before him. 

4. TreTrXr] pn(})oprjpivos'\ In the New 
Testament this verb has only the 
following senses: (i) 'to fulfil', 2 
Tim. iv. 5, 17; (2) in the passive 
'to be fully believed' (e.g. Luke i. i), 
or 'to be fully persuaded' (e.g. Rom. 
iv. 21). Here, if the reading be cor- 
rect, it must be equivalent to irenXr]- 
panevos, ' filled full ' ; but of this sense, 
though natural in itself, the lexicons 



LV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



159 



eras eavTM jueya k\60<5 ev XpKTTw TrepnroirjcreTaij kui 
10 7rs TOTTOS ^eperaL avTov toy ycip KypioY y fh kai to 

nAh'poOMA AYTHC. TaVTU OL TTOXLTEVOfJieVOL Tr\V d fJiET a fJLE- 

XriTOv TToXiTeiav tov Oeov eiroirja'av kul Troitjcrovcriv. 

LV. ' ha de kul vTroBelyiuaTa edvwv eveyKoyjuev' 

TToWoi (3a(rL\e7 Kai riyovfievoL, Xoijulikov tlvos evcTTav- 

15 TO^ Kaipov, )(^pr)(riJ.oZoTf'i6evTe^ Trape^coKav iavrov^ ek 

TToXiTeiav C. 13 inrodeiy/jiaTa] AS [ribiti however being omitted); inrofivri- 

/j-ara C. iveyKw/j-eu] AC ; add. voih S. 14 ttoWoI... Kaipov] C; nmlti 

reges et magnates e principibiis pofmloriim, qui quum iempiis afflictiojiis v el f amis 
alicujus instaref pop^do S. This is unusually paraphrastic, but perhaps does not 
represent a various reading. There is however a confusion of Xoifios and Xifios. 



do not furnish any example nor have 
I succeeded in finding a distinct 
instance. In the only passage how- 
ever where it occurs in the LXX, 
Eccles. viii. 1 1 eVXrypoc^opj/^?; Kap8ia 
vlciv TOV avBpwTVOV iv avTols tov noirjcraL 
TO novTjpov, the corresponding Hebrew 
is 2? i<m, 'the heart was full to do 
etc' The word seems to be confined 
almost exclusively to biblical and 
ecclesiastical writings. 

8. KadeaTUfMevav] '"duly appointed,^ 
as described in the earlier chapters, 
43)44 (toi/s KoraaTadevTas vtt' eKfluav). 

10. TOV yap Kvpiov (c.r.X.] A noble 
application of Ps. xxiv. i. He retires 
in God's cause, and there is room 
for him everywhere on God's earth. 

11. TroXiTv6p.evoi ...TToXiTeiap] The 
idea of a spiritual polity to which the 
several members owe a duty is pro- 
minent in the context (e.g. vno tov 
ttXtjOovs), and is still further developed 
by the comparison with secular states 
and statesmen in the following chapter. 

12. noXireiavTov Qeoii] Comp. MarL 
Polyc. 17 Tr]v dveTriXrjTTTov avTov no- 
XiTelav. 

LV. ' Even heathen nations have 
set bright examples of this self-denial. 
Kings and rulers have died for the 
commonweal : statesmenhave ofthcir 



free will withdrawn into exile to lull 
factions. Among ourselves many 
have become slaves to ransom or to 
feed others. Even women, strength- 
ened by God's grace, have been brave 
as men. Judith and Esther by 
their patriotic courage delivered the 
people from slavery and destruction.' 
14. TToXXol /Sao-tXeTs k.t.X.] Stich 
feats of patriotism as were exhibited 
by Codrus, by Bulis and Sperthias, by 
M. Curtius ; 'Quantus amor patriae 
Deciorum in pectore, quantum dilexit 
Thebas, si Graecia vera, Menoeceus.' 
The Xoi^iKos TLs Kaipos is a type of 
the sort of crisis which called forth 
these deeds of heroic self-sacrifice. 
Origen (vi Joann. vi. 36, iv. p. 153) 
refers to this passage, p.e\i.apTvpr]Tai 
Se Kai napa Tols i'dvecriv oTi noWoi 
Tives, XoijjiiKciv iv(TKT]-^avT(33v iv Tois 
eavTuiv TraTpiai vo<jr]p.aTa>v, eavrovs 
iT(f)dyia vTTep tov koivov irapabeScoKaai' 
Kai TrapaSe'xfTat Tavd^ ovtcos jfyovevai 
ov< oKoyuis TTKTTevcras Toii laTopiais o 
TTiCTTos KXrjfjiris vtto IlavXov fiapTvpov- 
nepos. In several other passages also 
{c. Ccls. i. 31, I. p. 349; in Joann. 
xxviii. 14, IV. p. 393 ; ad Rom. iv. 
II, IV. p. 541) he uses similar lan- 
guage, but without mentioning Cle- 
ment's name. 



i6o 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[ 



LV 



BavaTOv, \va pvccovTai did tov eavTwv aijuaTO^ roi)? 
7ro\ira<s, ttoWoi i^e-^coptja'av idia)v ttoXewv, \va jurj 
(TTacria^coG'ii/ ettl irXeiov. eTrKTTajULeda 7roWov ev i^fjuv 
7rapahedo}KOTa<s eavTOVi ek heafjia, ottw? CTepovs XvTpw- 
(TOVTai, TToWoi eavTOVi TrapedcoKav eU douXeiav, Kai 5 
Xal3ovT6 Ta^ rijULa's avTMV eTepovs e^wfjucav. ttoXXul 
yvuaTKe^ evdwajuayOeTcraL dia Trj^ ')(^apiTO<s tov Qeov 



5 irapiSwKav] A and so S (apparently) ; ^iu)Kav C. 
C (see Bryennios Didache p. P7'). S has a singular. 
9 rrp TToXews] AC ; urbe sua S. 12 5t' aydw-qv.. 



Soi/Xe^ac] A ; Bov\eLa.s 

8 'lovM] tovSeid A. 

Xaov] AC ; propter amorem 



2. TToXXot i^e\(iipy]<Tav /c.r.X.] Like 
Lycurgus at Sparta, or Scipio Afri- 
canus at Rome. Of the latter it is 
remarked by Fell that ' dementis 
nostri fere verbis urbi valedixit, di- 
cens Exeo, si phis qtiam tibi \tibi 
quant] expedit crevV (Seneca Epist. 
86). 

3. Iv r\\ilv\ Gundert {Zeitschr. f. 
Luther. Theol. 1853, p. 649 sq) ex- 
plains this ' among us Romans,' sup- 
posing that Clement is still referring 
to examples of heathen self-devotion. 
This view is adopted by Lipsius (p. 
155), Hilgenfeld, and others. But, 
whatever may have been the miseries 
inflicted on the Roman citizens by the 
civil wars and by imperial despotism, 
the mention of slavery and ransom 
seems to be decisive against this in- 
terpretation. Here, as in the parallel 
passage 6, eV r]\ilv may refer indeed 
to Romans but to Christian Romans, 
of whom a considerable number be- 
longed to the slave class and the 
lower orders. The ransom of slaves 
and the support of captives were re- 
garded as a sacred duty by the early 
Christians generally, and the brethren 
of Rome especially were in early 
times honourably distinguished in 
this respect : see the notes on Ign. 
Suiyrn. 6 and on Rom. i. 

4. \vTp(i>(TovTaC\ This construction 



of oTTwy with a future is possible (see 
Winer xii. p. 304), though it does 
not occur in the New Testament, 
where Iva is several times so used. 
But we ought perhaps to read Xnrpw- 
acovrai, though both our Greek MSS 
have Xvrpcocroi/rai. 

6. Tcis TCfias avTwv] ^ the value of 
themselves.'' The form avrav (adopt- 
ed by Hilgenfeld) must certainly be 
rejected from the New Testament, 
and probably from Clement also : see 
above 9, 12, 14, 30, 32. 

ii^mfxicrav] The word is used se- 
veral times in the LXX and gener- 
ally as a translation of b^^xn 'to give 
to eat': comp. also i Cor. xiii. 3. 
Like so many other words (e. g. x'P' 
Ta^eadai, see the note Phlllppz'ans 
iv. 12), it has in the later language 
lost the sense of ridicule or meanness, 
which belonged to it in its origin ; 
and Coleridge's note on its 'half sa- 
tirical' force in i Cor. xiii. 3 (quoted 
in Stanley's Corinthians I.e.) seems to 
be overstrained. On the other hand, 
it is especially appropriate of feeding 
the poor and helpless, the sick man 
or the child. 

TToXXai yvvaiKfs Ac.r.X.] The whole 
of this passage about Judith and 
Esther is paraphrased by Clem. Alex. 
Strom, iv. 19 (p. 617), immediately 
after the paragraph relating to Moses 



LV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



l6l 



eTrereXecravTO ttoWol dvdpeta. 'lovdid n fJ-aKapia, ev 
(rvyKkeicrfxta ov(rr]'s rrj^ TroAews, rimcaTO irapa rcov 
CO TTpea-fivrepuDv iadfjvai avTr\v e^eXdelv els tv.v 7rap6f^l3o- 
\^v Twv dX\o(pv\iov' Trapadovcra ovv eavTt]v tw klv- 
^vv(t) e^rjXOev di djctTrriv Ttj^ TraTpldo^ Kai tov 'Xaov 
rod 6vT0<s ev crvyKXeKTiuw, Kai TrapedooKev KvpLO^ 'OXo- 
(pepvr]v ev X^'-P'- ^n^^'ic^- ov^ nTTOVL^Kol ij reXeia Kara 

civitatis patrutn suorum et propter populum S. 13 (jv^kKuc\i.(1'\ cv^KKi.aix.w A. 

14 Q-r]kda{\ d-r]Kia.(S A. 7\TT0Vi'\ -qTrovei A ; tJttov CS. 



(already quoted p. 156); and some- 
times he gives the very words of the 
elder Clement, e.g. r? reXeia Kara k'kttiv 
''Ea-drjp. But he does not acknow- 
ledge his obligation in this passage, 
though in the preceding chapter he 
has directly quoted the Roman Cle- 
ment. 

8. 'lovhXff] This passage has a 
critical value as containing the ear- 
liest reference to the Book of Judith, 
which was apparently unknown to, 
as it is unmentioned by, Josephus. 
Volkmar {Theol. Jalirb. 1856 p. 362 
sq, and 1857 p. 441 sq, Einl. in die 
Apokr. I. I. p. 28, and elsewhere), 
followed by Baur {Lehrb. der Christl. 
Dogmeng. ed. 2, p. 82, and in other 
places), Hitzig (Zeitschr. fiir Wis- 
senscJi. Theol. i860, ill. p. 240 sq), 
and Graetz {Gesch. der Juden vofit 
Utitergang etc. p. 132 sq, ed. 2, 1866), 
places the writing of that book after 
the Jewish war of Trajan, and as 
a consequence denies the authenti- 
city of the Epistle of Clement. More 
sober critics however date the Book of 
Judith about the second century be- 
fore the Christian era, e.g. Fritzsche 
Einl. p. 127 sq, in the Knrzgef. 
Handb. zti den Apokr., Ewald Gesch. 
des Volkes Isr. I v. pp. 396, 541 sq, 
Westcott in Smith''s Dictionary of 
the Bible I. p. 1174, besides R. A. 

CLEM. II, 



Lipsius {Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. Theol. 
1859, II. p. 39 sq) and Hilgenfeld {ib. 
1858, I. p. 247 sq, 1861, IV. p. 335 sq), 
who both have directly refuted Volk- 
mar's theory; and indeed the date 
and authenticity of Clement's Epistle 
are established on much more sub- 
stantial grounds than the shadowy 
and fanciful argument by which it is 
attempted to postdate the Book of Ju- 
dith. On this book see also an arti- 
cle of Lipsius Jiidische Quellcn stir 
Jtidithsage {Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. 
Theol 1867, X. p. 337 sq). For more 
on this subject see the introduction, 
I. p. 353 sq. 

12. TOV \aov\ 'the chosen peopW 
(see the note on 29), and thus op- 
posed to aKko<^vKoi. 

14. eV xfP' ^J/Xeias] Taken from 
Judith xiii. 15 firdra^ev avrbv 6 Kvpios 
iv xf'P' GrfKe'ias, xvi. 5 Ki'pios Travro- 
Kparcop rjBtTricrfv avroiis iv X^'-P'- 6rjkela^. 
The expression iv x^''?'- therefore 
would seem to be the common Ara- 
maism, equivalent to Stci : see the 
note on Galatians iii. 19. On the 
other hand the construction irapa- 

bovvai iv x^'P' (^ *'" X^P^'-^) '^ com- 
mon in the LXX as an equivalent to 
Tvapahovvai eh x^'pa^' ^-S- the same 
expression Ti^ IflM is translated first 
K(H Trape^wKfv iv x<'P'' (A) and then Ka\ 
TTiipebu>KC" fls xf'P"S' in Josh. x. 30, 32. 

II 



l62 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[LV 



TTLCTTLV ^Gcrdrjp KivdvuM eavrrjv irapefiaXev, tva to hio^e- 
KcitpvXov Tov 'IcrpariX jueWov dTroXeadai pv(rr]TaL' dia 
yap Trj'i vt]a'T6ia<s Kal Ttj^ TaTreivcoo'eio'i avTrj^ rj^nticrev 
TOV TravTeTTOTTTriv deoTTTOTrjv, Qeou twv alcovcov 69 Idcov 
TO Taneivov tyi^ yfyvx^s avTrj^ ipvcraTO tov Xaov, (Jov 5 
T^ttjOtt' eKLvhwevaev. 

LVI. Kal rifJLel<s ovv ivTv^cojULev Trepi twv ev tlvi 
TrapaTrTwjuLaTL VTrap^ovTcov, OTrws ^odfj avToTs eTneiKeia 
Kal Ta7reivo(ppoa'vvr] els to ei^ai avTOvs fir] i^/uuv dXXa 

I TO 5<j}dKdcpv\ov'\ A; d<i)dKd.(pvWov C ; tribum S. 3 ttjs raTreira-crews] 

A; TaTreti'ticrews C. 4 Ze(jTrbTy]v\ K', om. C obviously by homoeoteleuton. S 

has spectatorem universi et dominiim saeailo7-tim deum, as if the order had been 
deaTrSrTjP tCov aiwvuv 6e6v. 5 epiaaro] A; eppiaaro C. uv x^P'-^ 

iKLvSvvevcrevI AC (but eKivdivevae C) ; ex us proper quae erat {populns] i>i peri- 



culo S, probably only a mistranslation. 

I. TO SmSeKac^vAoi'] So Acts xxvi. 
7, Protev. Jacob. i ; see above to 
dcobeKcia-KrjTs-Tpov 31 with the note. 

3. r/^tcocrei/] ' desired, entreated\ 
with an accusative of the person and 
without any dependent case or clause 
expressing the thing asked : as e.g. 
I Mace. xi. 62 KOI r]^LO)a-av ol otto rd(rjs 
TOV 'icovddav Koi edaxev avTols 8e^ids, 
Clem. Horn. iii. 55 "'P''^ avTov d^icd- 
a-riTe. With an infinitive or a final 
clause added this use of d^ioiiv Tiva is 
more common. On another more 
questionable construction of d^ioiiv 
see above 51. 

4. TravTeTTOTTTrjv^ So below 64, 
Polyc. F/ii/. 7, Clem. Horn. iv. 14, 23, 
v. 27, viii. 19. The word is not found 
in the LXX or New Testament. In the 
Orac. Sibyll. prooem. 4 Trai^eTroTrrj;? 
occurs; and in heathen writers -nav- 
oTTTTjs is a common epithet of Zevs. 

Qeop Tav aicofcoi/] ^ the God of all 
the ages'' : comp. irarr^p Tmv aldvav 
35) ^acriKevs tcov almvcov I Tim. i. 
17; comp. Ps. cxlv. 13 rj ^aaiXeia 
(TOV /3ao"iXeta TravTcav rav alcovcov. The 
devil on the other hand is the god 



7 Tuiv .. .virapx6vT(i}v] AC ; qui appre- 

(2 Cor. iv. 4) or the ruler (Ign. 
Ephes. 19) of this age or seon {rov 
alavos TovTov). See also the passage 
in Clem. Hom. xx. 2 sq. 

LVI. 'Let us intercede for offen- 
ders, that they may submit in meek- 
ness and humility. Let us be ever 
ready to give and to take admonition. 
The Scriptures teach us that chas- 
tisement is an instrument of mercy 
in the hands of God, that He inflicts 
it as a fatherly correction, that it is a 
blessing to be so chastised, that the 
man who endures patiently shall be 
restored again, shall be delivered 
from all perils, shall end his days in 
peace, and be gathered into the gar- 
ner like the ripe sheaf, in due season.' 

7- eV Tivi TrapanTcofiaTi k.t.X.] See 
Gal. vi. I, of which this passage is 
perhaps a reminiscence. The i^nels 
and r]pilv seem to refer especially to 
the rulers of the Church and to con- 
trast with the vfiels, the leaders of the 
feuds, at the beginning of 57. 

8. eVteiKeia] '' a Spirit of concession\ 
See the notes on i eTnfiKrj and 13 
eVtetKeta. The context here points to 



LVl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



163 



10 Tw SeXrifJLaTL tov Oeov. outw's yap eoTTai auToT^ ey- 
Kapiro^ Kal TeXeia tj Trpos tov Oeov Kat tows dyiov<s julct 
oiKTipjiicov /ULvela. dva\d(5(x)fJLev TraiZeiav, ecj) rj ov^eh 
ScpeiXei dyavaKTeIVy dyaTrriTOi. r] vovdeTrjO'i^j rju ttolov- 
Hieda ek dWtjXovs, KaXt] eaTLV Kat virepayav M(pe\iiuL0<5' 

15 KoWa yap rjjud^ tw deXrjjULaTi tov Oeov. ovTii)<s yap 
(prjcriv 6 dyiO Xoyo^' TTAiAeyooN enAiAeyceN Me 6 Kypioc, 
KAi TO) 0(XNAT(|) of nApeAcoKeN Me. "On r<^p AfAnA KYpioc 

hensi sunt S (comp. Gal. vi. i). 8 eTrte^Keta] eirieiKia A. lO ofJrws] AC. 

Bryennios here, and again six lines below, tacitly reads ourw, and is followed by 
Hilgenfeld. C however has its usual contraction for -us, not for -w, and therefore 
agrees with A in both places. ii rj Trpbs...ayiovs] AC; sive in dcum sive in 

sandos S, as if it had read ^...^ for KoX...KaX. t6j'] A; om. C. 12 ot'/c- 

TipfjiQv fivela] oiKTeip/jLUv/jLvia A. Traideiav^ iraidiav A. 13 6<pei\ei] ocpiKet. 

A. vovO^rrjaisj vovdeTr]<reLcr A. 



its derivation and primary meaning, 
els TO el^ai avTovs k.t.X. 

10. eyKapnos koI reXet'a] See the 
note on 44, where there is the same 
combination of epithets. 

11. 1] irpos TOV Qfov K.r.X.] i.e. The 
record of them before God and the 
Church will redound to their benefit, 
and they will receive pity. The ex- 
pression Tj Trpos TOV Q{6v fiveia is al- 
most equivalent to the Old Testa- 
ment phrase p.vr)p.6(Tvvov evavTi Kvpiov, 
Exod. xxviii. 23, xxx. 16, Is. xxiii. 18, 
Ecclus. 1. 16, comp. Acts x. 4. See 

also 45 k'yypacfioi iyevovTO airo tov 
Qfoii v tS> ixvTjfioavva) avTav. 

Tovs ayiovs] 'the Christian brother- 
hood', as in the Apostolic writers : 
comp. Ign. Smyrn. i, Mart. Polyc. 
20. See 2 Cor. viii. 21. Two other 
interpretations have been proposed : 
(i) 'the saints\ i.e. the beatified dead, 
in which case -f] Trpos tovs ayiovs p-veia 
is supposed to refer to invocation of 
saints. It is needless to say that this 
idea would be an anachronism in Cle- 
ment and for some generations after. 
(2) 't/w holy angcls\ a sense which 



01 ayioi frequently has, e.g. Job 
XV. 15, Zech. xiv. 5, Ecclus. xlv. 2, 
Tobit viii. 15, i Thess. iii. 13 (pas- 
sages quoted by Hilgenfeld). This 
is a possible interpretation (comp. 
I Tim. v. 21 SiajjiapTvpopai ivwrnov 
TOV Qeov Koi XpicrTov Irjcrov Kai tcov 
i<\eKTa,v dyyeXcov), but the com- 
mon usage of 01 ayioi in the Apostolic 
writings is a safer guide. 

12. dvaXa^o)p.ev TraiSet'ai'] ' /et i(s 
receive correction'' ; comp. Heb. xii. 7 
(Is 7rai8eiav vnopiveTe k.t.X. 

13. 7; vovdeTTjo-is] On the difference 
between vovdeaia {vovdeTTjo-is) and 
waiSeta, see Trench N.T. Syn. ist ser. 
xxxii ; comp. Ephes. vi. 4. On the 
forms vovdea-'ia, vovderrfo-is, see Lobeck 
Phryn. p. 512. 

16. riatSfucui' K.T.X.] From the LXX 
Ps. cxviii. 18 word for word. 

17. "Ovyapdyana k.t.X.] From LXX 
Prov. iii. 12 word for word, as SA; 
but for Tvaihevei B has eXeyxfi. The 
Syro-Hexaplar text wavers, giving the 
equivalent to TraiSevei in the text and 
to eXeyxei in the margin. In Heb. 
xii. 6 it is quoted with mudevei as 

II 3 



1 64 THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT [lvi 

nAiAeyei, mactitoT Ae hanta yion on nApAAexexAr TTAiAeycei 
Me r^p, (pyjCTiV) AiKAioc eN fcAeei kai eAer2ei Me, |'eAeoc"|* Ae 

AMApTOOAOON MH AinANATOO THN KG^AAhN MOy. KUl TTaXlV 

Xeyei' Makapioc ANSpoonoc on HAepIeN d Kypioc, NoyOe- 

THMA Ae nANTOKpATOpOC MH AHANAINOy AyXOC f^p AAfeiN 5 

noie?, KAI haAin AnoKAOi'cTHCiN euAiceN, KAI Ai xeTpec 
AYTOY lACANTO. e?AKic e? ANAfKoaN e2eAe?TAi ce, In Ae tw 
eBAoMO) OYX AyexAi coy kakon' cn Aimo) pyceTAi ce Ik 9ana- 
Toy, In noAeMCp Ae Ik x^'P^c ciAHpoy Aycei ce* kai And 
MACTiroc r^<i>ccHC cl Kpy^ci, KAI oy MH ^oBhGh'ch KAKOON 10 

InepXOMeNOON* AAi'kOON kai ANdMOON KATAreAACH, ATld aI 

1 SIkmos] AS; K^pios C. ?\eos] e\aiocr A; ^Xeov (i.e. fKaiov) C and so S. 

See the lower note. 3 a/xaprwXQv] A; a/j.apTO}\ov C, and so S, but the singular 

depends on the absence o^rilnii. 4 of] A; ov hv C. There is nothing to repre- 

sent hv in S. 5 atravaivov] AC; rejiciat (or rejiciatniis) S, and so the Pesh. 

8 oix fi'/'erai] ovKO'^erai A; ov fiT] axj/riTai C; fzon attredabit S. Both readings 
are found in the MSS of the Lxx. h Xt/i^J] AC; add. 5^ S. 12 ov firj 

<po^r]9ys] A; oii (po^-qd-fiarrj C. Both readings are found in the MSS of the LXX. 



here : in Rev. iii. 19 both words are 
combined, iyu> oa-ovs eav <piXa, fXey;^ca 
KoX 7rai8voi. Clem. Alex. Paed. I. 9 
(p. 145) has TToiSewi, but his quotation 
is perhaps not independent of the 
Roman Clement. On the other hand 
Philo de Conj. Enid. grat. 31 (i. 
p. 544) quotes it with iXeyxei. This, 
which corresponds with the Hebrew, 
was probably the original reading of 
the LXX, and all the texts with rrai- 
^evei may perhaps have been derived 
directly or indirectly from the quota- 
tion in the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

I. IlatSei^a-et K.r.X.] From Ps. cxli. 
5, word for word, if we read i'Xaiov. 
Our chief MS however has eXatoo-, i.e. 
eXeos (for SO the scribe generally writes 
the word; see i. p. 121). On the 
Other hand, the original reading of 
the LXX was unquestionably eXaiov 
(eXaiov is the <?//, eXaios the olive- 
tree and therefore out of place here) 
as it is in SBA, and apparently in 



all existing MSS of the LXX, the He- 
brew being ipi? ; but eXaiof (i.e. eXeoy) 
might not unnaturally be substituted 
by some early transcriber on account 
of the preceding eV eXe'et. It is there- 
fore not impossible that Clement 
found this reading in his text of the 
lxx; see another instance of the 
same error above, 18 (note). For 
the curious confusion of eXeoy {eXmos) 
and eXaiov (eXeov) in the liturgies 
see Swainson's Greek Liturgies pp. 
xliii, 90, 127, 265, 331; where the 
answer of the people, eXfor, elpTJvrj, 
becomes by expansion eXeop (eXaiov) 
elp-qvrjs, dvaiav alvio-ecos. The sym- 
bolism of the oiive as denoting peace, 
and the manifold ritual uses of oil 
(see Smith-Cheetham Diet, of Christ. 
Antiq. p. 1453 sq) would assist in this 
confusion. 

4. '^aKo.pioi /c.r.X.] From LXX Job 
V. 17 26 as read in BS, with slight 
and unimportant differences. The 



LVIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



165 



eHpi'ooN Arpi'f-oN of Mh (t)oBH0HC. Oflpec fAp Afpioi eipHNey- 
coyciN cor 6?ta tncoch, oti eipHNeycei coy d oikoc" h Ae 

AlAITA THC CKHNHC COy Oy Mh AMApTH, rNOiCH Ae OTI nOAy 

15 TO cnepMA coy, ta Ae tckna coy tocnep to hamBotanon 
Toy Arpoy* eAey'cH Ae eN tacj)co cocnep cTtoc copiMoc kata 
KAipoN GepizoMeNoc, r tocnep eHMooNiA aAoonoc KA9' tOpAN 
cyNKOMic0e?cA. ^XeTrere, dyaTrrjToiy irooro^ V7rpa(r7ri(r- 
fjLO^ ecTTLV Toh TTai^evofievoL^ iiiro tou dea-noTOv Trarrip 

20 yap dya6o9 wv Traihevei ek to e\et]6r]t/ai f^juds hia tPjs 
6(ria9 Traidelas avTOu. 

LVIL ' Yjueh ovv, ol ttjv KaTa^oXr]v tP]^ o'Taaeco^ 

yap] AC; 5^ S. 13 eipyjveijaei] AC; dprjueveL S. i) 8i 8iaLTa...a/J.dpTrj] 

AC; om. S. 14 coli] AS; om. C. 15 ira/x^oTavov] LXX; ravou A; 

irafxprjTavov C. 16 i\evari] AC; but Bryennios tacitly prints iXe^aei. 

18 (Tvi'KOfMia'Oe'icral <tv (Tdeiaa A; crvyKopnadeicra C. 20 iXerjOTjvai] CS; 

...-qd-qvaL A. Tischendorf justly remarked on the common restoration vovderTidrj- 
vai; 'id vix recta, quum syllabae non ita dirimi sclent [i.e. vovdeTlrjdTjvai]. Re- 
quiritur potius simile verbum ac irTo\rjd7]vai..' 21 iraideiasl C; 7r..5tacr A. 



text of A presents considerable varia- 
tions, chiefly in adding clauses which 
are found in the Hebrew but wanting 
in BS. The points in which Clement's 
quotation agrees with A, as against 
BS (e.g. ovx ayjrfTni for ov /jlt] ayjrrjTai), 
are insignificant. 

7. e^aKis K.T.X.] For this Hebraism 
where two successive numbers are 
given to denote magnitude and in- 
crease, see Prov. vi. 16 Hebr. (six, 
seven, as here) ; Micah v. 5, Eccles. 
xi. 2 (seven, eight) ; Exod. xx. 5, etc. 
(three, four) ; Job xxxiii. 29 Hebr. 
(two, three). 

10. KOKciv] The LXX text prefixes 
drru (SB A). In the Syriac version 
aSiKcoj/ is made dependent on kukuiv 
'the evils of the unrighteous'. 

12. ^^pes yap K.T.X.] As in the vision 
of Hermas Vis. iv. i, 2, where the 
wild beast is thus pacified. 

13. r) Se St'atra] 'the abode ^ ; see 
above 39. The Hebrew is quite 



different. 

15. TO irayi^oTavov] ^ the manifold 
]ierbage\ It seems to be a arra^ 
\iyo\x.ivov till quite a late period. 
There is nothing in the Hebrew 
(QC'y) to explain the adoption of so 
unusual a word. 

16. ev rd^o)] A Hebraism for d% 
rdfpov ; see another instance on 55 

naptduxev iv X^'-P'- 

17. 6r]H(ovid] A word, it would ap- 
pear, almost confined to the Lxx, 
though drjfjLayv is as old as Homer, 
Od. V. 368. 

18. inrepaania-fjibs] ''protection^, 2 
Sam.xxii. 36, Ps. xviii. 35, Lam. iii. 64, 
Eccles. xxxi (xxxiv). 19. It does not 
occur in the New Testament. See 
the note on virepacnna-T^s above, 45. 

20. dyados tSv] ' 0/ His ki)idncss ' 
(as e.g. Ps. Ixxiii. i), corresponding 
to ov yap dyana K.r.X. above. 

LVIl. 'And do you leaders of the 
schism submit to the ciders, and ask 



1 66 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[ 



LVII 



7rou'](TavTe^, inroTci'yriTe toT^ 7rpe(rl3vTpoi<s Kai irai- 
devdrjTe els fJierdvoLaVy Kafjiy^/avTe's Ta 'yovaTa Trjs 
Kaphlas vfjiuiv' judOeTe VTroTao'a'ecrdaij diTo6efJ.evoi Trjv 
dXd^ova Kal v7repri(pavov Trjs y\co(rcrr]S vjulcov auSa- 
^eiav dfxeivov yap eoTTiv vfjuv ev tw ttoijuviu) tov 5 
XpLCTTOV fiLKpovs Kal iWoyijuovs evpeSfjvai, t] KaS' 
V7repo-)(riv doKOvvras 6KpL(pfivaL e'/c t^s eA.7rtSos avTOv. 
ovTcos yap Xeyei r) iravaperos crocbia' 'lAoy npoh'coMAi 

4 aXd^ova] AC; aXa^oveiav S. y\d)a(T7]s] A; yXwTTrjs C. 6 eXXo- 

yl^ovs] A; add. vfj-Sis C. S is doubtful. 8 'I5oi)] AC; add. yap S. 9 Si- 

5d|a;]AS; didd^ai. C. 10 vwTjKoijaaTe] AC ; vTrrjKoueTe S. 13 ijviKa civ] 

C; A; si (i^j') S. 14 iifuv pri.] AC; ufiQiv S. 15 Trapfj] C; . .prj 



A ; om. S. orav] orap A. 

pardon of God on your knees. It is 
far better that you should be of no 
account, so that the flock of Christ 
may have peace. Remember how 
sternly Wisdom rebukes the dis- 
obedient in the Book of Proverbs. 
She will laugh them to scorn when 
destruction cometh as a tempest. 
They mocked at her counsels before, 
and she will not hear them then.' 

1. vnoT. Tols Trpfcr/S-] The same ex- 
pression occurs, I Pet. v. 5. 

2. Kofi^avres fc.r.X.] Compare the 
expression in the prayer of Manasses 
{Apost. Const, ii. 22) vvv k\ivo> yow 
KupSias. So too Greg. Naz. Carm. ii. 
50, ver. 58 ovTTOTe aoi Kdp.\JAa) yovvar 
(fifis Kpa8irjs (11. p. 946, Caillau), and 
similarly Sir C. Hatton to Q. Eliza- 
beth (Froude's History xi. p. 166) 'I 
can use no other means of thankful- 
ness than by bowing the knees of my 
own heart with all humility' etc. A 
strong oriental metaphor like ' gird- 
ing the loins of the mind' (i Pet. i. 
13), or 'rendering the calves of the 
lips' (Hosea xiv. 2). 

4. akli^ova /cat vTvep7]<^avov\ See 
Trench N. T. Syft. ist ser. xxix. 

7. boKovvTas\ ''held in repute^; 
see the note on Galatians ii. 2. 



16 6\i\f/t.s'] A; add. Kal crevox'^pi-o- C, a 

TTjs eXni8os avToii] i.e. tov Xpi- 
(TTov, either a subjective or an ob- 
jective genitive, ' the hope which He 
holds out' or 'the hope which reposes 
in Him'. 

8. 77 navaperos cro0ta] The Book 
of Proverbs, besides the title com- 
monly prefixed to the LXX Version, 
Uapoipiiai or napoip-iai '2aXop,covTos, IS 
frequently quoted by early Christian 
writers as ?) navapeTos crocfiLa 'the Wis- 
dom which comprises all virtues' 
(for Travaperos comp. i) ; see esp. 
Euseb. H.E. iv. 22, where speaking 
of Hegesippus he says, ov p,6i/os 8e 
ovTos aXXa Kai F,lprjvaios Koi o nas 
rav apx^aioiv )(^opos navaperov ao(piav 
TasSoXojjLcovos TTapotp-ias fnaXovv. Some- 
times it bears the name aocpla sim- 
ply; e.g. in Just. Mart. Diai. 129 
(p. 359 a), Melito in Euseb. H.E. 
iv. 26, Clem. Alex. Protr. 8 (pp. 
67,68), Paed. ii. 2 (p. 182 ?/ 6da a-o(})ia), 
Strom, ii. 18 (p. 472), Orig. Horn. 
xiv in Gen. 2 (ll. p. 97), besides 
others quoted in Cotelier. It is a 
probable inference from Eusebius 
(11. cc.) that both Melito and Heges- 
ippus derived the name from Jewish 
sources, and this is borne out by the 
fact that the book is called noun, 



LVIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



167 



YM?N Imhc hnohc' pficiN, AiAaIoo Ae YMAC TON Imon AdfON* 
loeneiAh IkaAoyn kai oyx ynHKoycATe, kai eHereiNON Adroyc 
KAi OY npocei'xeje, aAAa AKypoyc enoieire tac bmac Boy- 
Aac to?c Ae 6M0?c eAerxoic hneiGhCATe- ToirApoYN katoc) 
TH YMerepA AnojAeiA enireAACOMAi, KAjAXApoyMAi Ae hnika 

AN epXHTAl YM?N OAeBpOC KAI WC AN ACJ)IKHTAI yM?N ACJiNCO 

15 BopyBoC, h Ae KATACTpO(t)H OMOIA KATAITlAl HApH, h OTAN 

epXHTAI YM?N eAl'yiC KAI HOAlOpKIA, eCTAI f^P, OTAN eniKA- 

familiar combination in S. Paul, Rom. ii. 9, viii. 35. S has afflidio (t?3V?1N) et 
angttstia (J^''tJ'12n) quae a proelio (X2"lp IJD^) ; where affiictio represents ^Xii/'ts 
and augnstia quae a proelio is a paraplirase of woXiopKia. The alternative that 
angiistia quae a proelio represents arevoxiiipla. /cat iroKiopKia, treated as a iv dia Svo^v, 
i? not likely. The space in A will not admit Kal (jTevox^p't-a-, and these words are 
wanting also in the LXX. eiri.KaKi<T7}ijde\ eirLKoXea-riadaL A. 



'Wisdom', by rabbinical writers (see 
Fiirst Kanon des Altai Tcstamoits^ 
186S, p. 73 sq). The personification 
of Wisdom in the opening would lead 
naturally to this designation; e.g. 
Iren. iv. 20. 3, v. 20. I, Philo de Ebr. 
8 (1. p. 362), though Philo himself 
quotes the book as irapoifilai ib. 20 
(I. p. 369). Whether the epithet 
TTavap^Tos was first used by Clement 
and derived from him by later writers, 
or not, it is impossible to say. At 
the same time the title r\ Travaperos 
aocjiia is given, not only to the canoni- 
cal Book of Wisdom, but also to the 
apocryphal Wisdom of Solomon 
(Method. Symp. \. 3, ii. 7, noted by 
Hilgenfeld ; Epiphan. de Metis, et 
Pond. 4, II. p. 162 ed. Patau ; Greg. 
Nyss. c. Eunom. vii, ll. p. 638, Paris 
1638; [Athanas.] Synops. 45, il. p. 
132 F, rr]s (ro(f)ias ^oXopiMVTos rfjs Xe- 
yopLfvrjs Tvavaplrov ; and others : and 
its title in the list of books prefixed 
to A is ao(Pia jj TravdpfTos), and to the 
apocryphal Ecclesiasticus or Wis- 
dom of Jesus the son of Sirach 
(Euseb. Chron. 01. cxx.Kvii ' quem 
vocant Panareton, Dem. Evang. viii. 
2 p. 393 \r](Tov^ o Tov 2eipa)( 6 ttjp 
KoKovjxivrjV navapfTov ao(f}iav a-vvrd^as, 



Hieron. Pro/, in Libr. Sal., ix. p. 
1293, etc.). Joannes Damasc. de Fid. 
OrtJi. iv. 17 (l. p. 284) says r\ Txavdpe- 
Tos, Tovrecrriv rj 'Eoipia tov 2oXo/Licoi/ros 
KOL rj 2o({iia TOV 'Irjaov, thus including 
both these apocryphal books under 
the term, but excluding Proverbs 
which he has before mentioned as 
TTapoifjLLai ; and so Jerome Praef. i7i 
Libr. Salom. (ix. p. 1293) ' Fertur et 
Travaperoff Jesu filii Sirach liber et 
alius \//'vSe77iypa<^of qui Sapientia Sa- 
lomonis inscribitur'. Moreover the 
name of 'Wisdom' is occasionally 
given also to Ecclesiastes (Fiirst I.e. 
p. 91) and to the Song of Songs 
(Fiirst I.e. p. 85, and Cotelier here). 
And still more generally the third 
group of the Old Testament writings, 
the dyiuypa(f)a or ypaffiela, is some- 
times called riDDn 'Wisdom' (Fiirst 
I.e. p. 55), because it comprises Pro- 
verbs and the allied books, as it is 
elsewhere called v//-aXpoi or vp.voi (see 
above 28) from another most im- 
portant component element. 

'iSoii K. r.X.] A close quotation 
from the LXX Prov. i. 23 33. The 
variations are unimportant, and not 
greater than between one MS and 
another of the LXX. 



1 68 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lvii 



AecHcGe Me, erob Ae oyk eicAKoycoMAi ymoon* ZHT^'coYCl'N 

Me KAK0\ Ka'i OYX eYpHCOYCIN' eMl'cHCAN r^p C04)IAN, TON 

Ae (})dBoN TOY KYpi'oY oy npoeiAANTO, OYAe h'OeAoN cmaTc 
npocexeiN BoyAaIc, eMYKTHpizoN Ae eMofc eAerxoYC" TOifAp- 

OYN eAONTAI THC GAYTOON OAOY TOfc., KApnofc, KAi THC 5 

eAYTOON AceBeiAC nAHcGhicoNTAi ' an9' (Ln r^p hAikoyn^nh- 
rriOYC, (})ONeY6H'coNTAi, kai eleTACMOc AceBeTc oAe?* d Ae 
eMOY akoy'con KATACKHNoiicei en' eAniAi nenoiGoac, kai hcy- 
XAcei A(t)dB(jac And hantoc kakoy. 

I fTjTiJcroi/fftJ'] ^-qrrjfTovcTi. C; fiyr A; ^rjToOcnu (?) S. 3 rod] A; om. C. 

TrpoeiXavTo] irpoeiXa... A (as in the LXX; Tischendorf who formerly read ivpoaCka 
afterwards accepted my reading of A); vpoelXovro C (see above, I. p. 127); ekge- 
runt S. 7 i^eraaiJibs dae^eis oXet] C; inqtdsitio impiortcm perdit ipsos S. 

8 7re7rot^(is] conjidens S, using the same expression which occurs just below ( 58) 
as the rendering of TreiroLdores; om. C : see the lower note. 10 iravaylu)] C; 



^enqiiiry\ Hnvesti- 
' trial and judgment', 
iv. 6. The Hebrew 



6. n\r](T6y](yQVTai\ Our principal MS 
(A) fails us at this point. The letters 
Tr\r](rdT}(Tov occur towards the end of 
the last line in a page, fol. 167 b. 
The margin is torn, so that a few 
letters have disappeared. It resumes 
again at the beginning of 64, a leaf 
having been lost ; see the introduc- 
tion, I. p. 118. 

7. e^7-acr/Lioy] 
gatioH\ i.e. 
as in Wisd. 
however is ni?Ci', 'security', i.e. 
'false confidence'; which the LXX 
translators seem either to have mis- 
read or to have connected with h'^^, 
'to ask, enquire'. In the earlier 
part of the verse the LXX departs 
widely from the Hebrew. 

8. TreTToi^cos] This word does not 
occur in the great MSS of the LXX 
( SBA) ; nor indeed, so far as I know, 
is the reading KaraaKrjvdaei iir (v. 1. 
iv) eXiridi neTToidcis found in any MS 
of this version, though avaTrava-fTai 
iv flpi]vj] TTCKoidtos appears in place of 
it in no. 248 (Holmes and Parsons), 
this last being a Hexaplaric reading 
(see Field's Hexapla ad loc). Clem. 



Alex, however clearly so quotes it, 
Strom, ii. 22 (p. 501 sq) 7? iravapeTos 
'2ocf)La Xeyfi' 'O 6e ifiov aKovaiv Kara- 
(TKrjvaxjeL in' tXTrt'Si ireTroidcoi' / yap rrjs 
iXnldos anoKaTda-Tacris oixcovvfxcos iXnls 
ftprjTai' 8ia [1. 810] Toii Karaa-Krivcocrei. 
rfi Xe^ei TrayKoXois npoaedrjKe rh Ile- 
noidas though elsewhere, Strom, ii. 8 
(p. 449), iv. 23 (p. 632), he has 
avanavdiTai eV eipiivrjs (-vrj) Trenotdas. 
It is clear that rreTroidcos is genuine 
in the text of our Clement ; since he 
dwells upon it in the beginning of 
the next chapter, KaraaKTjvaxrcofiev 
ireiToiBoTes k.t.X. For other examples 
of this manner of emphasizing the 
key-word of a quotation see the 
note on 46. From the manner in 
which Clem. Alex, begins his quota- 
tion from Prov. i. 33, it may perhaps 
be inferred that the passage of his 
elder namesake was in his mind. 

LVII I. 'Let us therefore obey, 
that we may escape these threatened 
judgments, and dwell in safety. Re- 
ceive our counsel, and you will never 
have occasion to regret it. As surely 
as God liveth, he that performeth 
all His commandments shall have 



LVIIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



169 



10 LVIII. ' Y7raK0U(TMiJ.ev ovv rw iravayicp Kal ev^o^co 
ovofJiaTL avTOv, (bvyovTe^ tu^ Trpoeiprjiuevwi dia Trj^ 
a'0(pLa9 TOT'S dTreidovo'LV aVeiAot?, \va KaTa(TKr]Vcoa'(ii}xev 
TreiroLBore^ eVz to ocniaTaTOv Trj^ fJLe<ya\iO(Tvvt]'$ avTOv 
ovofjia. de^aade tyju (TVfJifiovXnv t]iU(joVj Kal ecTTai 

15 dfjieTafjieXriTa vfjuv. ^rj yap 6 Qeo^ Kai ^r] 6 KvpiO'S 
'Irjcrov^ XpiCTO^ Kai to nvevfjia to ayiov, i] t6 ttkttis 
Kal ri eXirh twv eK\6KTwUy oti 6 7rotf](ra^ eV Tairei- 
vo(ppO(Tvvr] jUET sKTevov^ eTTLeLKeia^ djueTajUieXrjTM's t 

S translates as if ayiij). In 35 Trapdyios is fully rendered. 11 (pvySi'Tes] C; 

^evyovres (?) S. 13 ocnuTaTov] C; S renders as if 6cn.ov, but the translator's 

practice elsewhere in rendering superlatives is so uncertain, that no inference can 



be drawn as to the reading. 

^rj] CS ; Basil omits this second fij. 

and the beginning of the next. 



14 Tj/j-Qv] add. d8\(poi [p^ov] S. 



a place among them that are saved 
through Jesus Christ, through whom 
is the glory unto Him for ever.' 

10. Travaylco] So also above, 35 ; 
see the note there. 

11. TTjs (To(f>iai] Wisdom is re- 
presented as the speaker in the pas- 
sage of Proverbs just quoted. More- 
over this name ^ocj^la was given to 
the whole book ; see above, p. 166. 

12. KaTa(TKT]voo(T(x)^v] ^ dwelli)ipeacc^ . 
As the common LXX rendering of 
pK', for which purpose it was chosen 
doubtless in part owing to the simi- 
larity of sound (see the note on /^tu/io- 
(XKOTTTidev, 41), it implies the idea of 
'rest, peace'. 

15. dfxeTaiiiXrjTa] A somewhat 
favourite word of Clement, 2, 54. 
So d/aera/ieXr^Vcos, below. For the 
plural see Kiihner Grajiini. II. p. 59 sq. 

^^ yap K.T.A.] This passage is quoted 
by S. Basil, de Spir. Sanct. 29 (ni. 
p. 61) ; see above, I. p. 169, where the 
quotation is given. For the form of 
adjuration ^^ 6 ee6r...ort, 'As surely 
as God liveth...so surely', comp. ^^ 
Kuptoy ort... which occurs frequently 



Kiyptos] twice in S, at the end of one line 

in the LXX, e.g. i Sam. xx. 3, xxvi. 
16, xxix. 6, I Kings xxii. 14, 2 Kings 
v. 20, etc. So too Rom. xiv. 1 1 
^c3 e'yw, \iyei Kvpios, on ffiol k.t.X. 
(where S. Paul is quoting loosely 
from Is. xlv. 23, combining it how- 
ever with the ^o5 iya> k.t.X. of Is. 
xlix. 18); comp. 2 Cor. i. 18, and see 
Fritzsche Rotn. 1 1, p. 242 sq, in. 
p. 187. For a similar reference to 
the Trinity see above, 46. Here 
They are described as 'the faith and 
hope (i.e. the object of faith and 
hope) of the elect'; for r} re ttiWis 
K.T.X. are obviously in apposition to 
the preceding words. For iXms, 
meaning 'the object of hope', see the 
note on Ign. Magn. 1 1 'irjo-ov Xpia-rov 
TTJs fXnidos rj/icoi-; comp. i Tim. i. i. 
On the other hand the sense of ttiotis 
is different in Ign. Siiiym. 10 jy 
TiKi'ia TTicTTis, 'lijaoi/s XpicTTos (see 
the note there). 

17. t6)u f/cXeKTwi/] A favourite 
word with Clement, g i, 2, 6, 46, 49, 
52, 59- ^ ^^ ^ 

18. p,fT KTf VOVS fTTUlKeUls] Thc 

phrase occurs again below, ^ 62. It 



170 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lviii 



VTTO Tov Oeou deBojueva ^LKaiiofJiaTa kuc irpocrTayfJiaTa, 
ovTO's evT6Tayfjievo^ Kai eWoyijUO^ ecTTai ek tov dpidfjiov 
TCdv ccotojULei/wv ^id 'Irjaov XpicTTOVy hC ov ecTTLV avTw 
ri hopa ek tov^ alwva^ twp aicovcov. djurjv. 

LIX. 'Edv de TLve^ dTreidf^cruiarLV rots vtt' avTOv 5 
^L riiJicdv 6lpt]jU6V0L9, yivwcTKeTiacTav otl TrapaTTTcocreL kul 
KLV^vvu) ov jULLKpa iauTOv^ evhridovariv, rifieL<i de ddMOi 



I /cat TrpoffTdyfiaTo] C ; om. S. 

is a sort of oxymoron, or verbal para- 
dox, like 'strenua inertia', 'lene tor- 
mentum ' : for emeUeia involves the 
idea of 'concession'; comp. i Thess. 
iv. 1 1 (piXoTifieladai i]avxaC^i-v. So 
Greg. Naz. Oraf. iv. 79 (i. p. 116), 
speaking of Julian's persecution, says 
iTTieiKMs ifiia^ero. The substantive eVi- 
e'lKeia occurs also 13, 30, 56: the 
adjective imfiKijs, i, 21, 29. The fre- 
quency of these words aptly indicates 
the general spirit of the letter; see 
the note on i, and the introduc- 
tion, I. p. 97. 

2. eXXoyifxos] Used here, as in 
57, for those who have a place 
among the elect of God : see also 
44, 62. Comp. Plato Phileb. 17 E 
OVK eWoyiixov ov8 evapidyLov. 

TOV dpidfiov] As above 2, 35, 
and below 59, with the note. 

3. rav am^ofievcov] 'of those that 
are in the ivay of salvation\ as 
Luke xiii. 23, Acts ii. 47, i Cor. i. 18, 
2 Cor. ii. 15. The opposite is ol 
dnoXkiinevoi, I Cor. i. 18, 2 Cor. ii. 15, 
iv. 3, 2 Thess. ii. 10. Comp. also 
Cte/n. Horn. xv. 10, Apost. Const. 
viii. 5, 7, 8. In \he Apost. Const, vm. 
5 (comp. v. 15) the words are tov 
dpiOjxov Tmv (ra>^oniv(ov as here. 

LIX. ' If any disobey our counsels, 
they will incur the greatest peril ; 
while we shall have absolved our- 
selves from guilt. And we will pray 
that the Creator may preserve intact 



1 1 ddpavcTTov] C ; add. dens S. 

the number of His elect through 
Jesus Christ, who called us from, 
darkness to light. Open our eyes. 
Lord, that we may know Thee, who 
alone art Holiest of the holy and 
Highest of the high ; who settest up 
and bringest low ; who bestowest 
riches and poverty, life and death ; 
who art the God of all spirits and of 
all flesh; whose eye is all-seeing, 
and whose power is omnipresent; 
who multipliest the nations and 
gatherest together Thine elect in 
Christ. We beseech Thee, Lord, 
assist the needy, the oppressed, the 
feeble. Let all the nations know 
that Thou art God alone, and Jesus 
Christ is Thy Son, and we are Thy 
people, the sheep of Thy pasture.' 

5. VTT avTov] i.e. TOV Qeov. In 
the same way they again claim to 
be speaking with the voice of God 
below, 63 rot? v(j)' -qyicov yeypafjifie- 
vois 8ia TOV dyiov ivvevfxaTos ; COmp. 
56 /x^ jj/xiv aWa rw 6e\r]fxaTi tov 
Qeov. See also Ign. Philad. 7 to 
TTVevfia ov uXavaTai, aTTO Qfov bv... 

eXaXovv Qeov (fxovfj, where a simi- 
lar claim is made. 

6. TrapanTaxTfi] '/ati/t', ' traus- 
gression''; Jer. xxii. 21. Comp. Justin 
Dial. 141 (p. 371). It does not occur 
elsewhere in the LXX, nor at all in the 
N.T., though TrapaTrT(op,a is common. 
Polybius uses it several times : comp. 
also Sext. Empir. adv. Math. i. 210. 



LIX] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



171 



e.KTevr\ tyjv Z.f]a'LV Kal iKecnav Troiov/uievoL, ottco^ tov 
10 dpiOfJiov TOV KaTr]pid{J.ri{Jievov twj/ eKXeKTWv avTOv ev 
o\m tu> KOcriUM dia(pv\d^f] ddpavo'TOV 6 hr]p.LOvpyd^ 
T(Jov aTravTUiv hid tov ri'ya7ry]fJLevov Traido'S avTOu 'Irjcrov 
XpicTTOUy di' ov eKaXeaev f)/xa? aVo otkotov^ 6f? (pco^, 
diro dyi/cocrias els eTriyvooo'Lv do^r]<s dvofduTOS avTOu. 

13 Xpicrrou] C ; add. dommi nostri S. ^/xas] C ; me S ; but this is doubtless 

a clerical error in transcribing the Syriac suffix. 14 dTro] C ; koX diro S. 



7. ddaoi] As above, 46. For 
the whole expression, aSaos elvai diro 
dfiapTiai, comp. Num. v. 31. 

g. TOV dpidfjLov K.r.A.] See Rev. 
vii. 4 sq. The same phrase tov dpid- 
fiov Ta>v (KXeKTav avTov has occurred 
already 2. In one of the prayers 
in the last book of the Apostolic 
ConstitutioHS (viii. 22) we have 6 Tr]v 
TOV KocrfMov avaTacriv 8ia tcov evepyov- 
pfva>v (pavepoTTOirjcras Kal tov apiapov 
TCOV iKkeKTcov (TOV 8iacf)vXaTTa>v, where 
the expression here is combined with 
another which occurs below ( 60) ; 
thus clearly showing that the writer 
borrows directly or indirectly from 
Clement. 

11. ddpav<TTov] The word does not 
occur in the LXX or N.T. It is 
however not uncommon in classical 
writers: e.g. Dion Cass. liii. 24 
adpavcrrov Km oXoK^rjpov tm Biadoxco 
TTjv TToXiv 7rap{8(OKev, which passage 
illustrates its sense here. Comp. 
Apost. Const, viii. 12 8ia(pv\d^r]s 
aaeia-Tov. 

6 8r]pcovpyos k.t.X.] The same phrase 
occurs above 26 ; comp. 33. For 
drjfiiovpyos see the note on 20. 

12. TOV Jjyarrrjfievov naibos K.T.X.^ So 
again lower down in this chapter, 
dia ^Irjcroi) XpiaToii tov riyaTTrjp.vov 
iraibos (TOV, and 'lr/<ro{is XpiaTos 6 ttols 
aov. It is worth observing in con- 
nexion with the other coincidences, 



that these expressions 6 T^yaTrrjpivos 
(dyanrjTos) Trais (tov, 6 Trais (tov, occur 
several times in the prayers in the 
Apost. Const, viii. 5, 14, 39, 40, 41. 
Comp. also Epist. ad Diogn. 8, 
and Mart. Polyc. 14, where it is 
twice put into the mouth of Poly- 
carp, who was certainly a reader of 
Clement's Epistle. This designa- 
tion is taken originally from Is. xlii. i, 
quoted in Matt. xii. 18 Ihov, 6 n-als 
p.ov ov rjpiTL(Ta, 6 dyaTTTjTOS fiov [fis] 
ov fvdoKTja-ev Jj '^v)(i] pov ; where rrais 
is 'servant, minister' (T3y). Comp. 
Acts iii. 13, 26, iv. 27, 30. But the 
higher sense of vlos was soon im- 
ported into the ambiguous word Trais : 
e.g. Apost. Const, viii. 40 tov povoye- 
vovi (TOV TrotSos 'hjaov XpicrTov, Epist. 
ad Diogn. 8, Iren. iii. 12. 5, 6, etc.; 
and probably Mart. Polyc. 14 o tov 
dyaTn]Tov naidos (tov irjcrov Xpicrrou 
TTUTijp. And so Clement seems to 
have used the word here. 

13. KdKf(Tev K.T.X.] From i Pet. 
ii. 9 tov k (tkotovs vpai KaX(TavTos els 
Tu 6avpa(TTov avTov (j^Hs. The epithet 
davpacTTov which is wanting here is 
supplied by 36 (as read in the 
Greek MSS) dvadaKXei els TO 6av- 
pa(TTov [avTov] (j)ws, where however 
the epithet is omitted in the Syriac 
and in Clem. Alex. 

14. dyvuxTias]' studdorn ignorance \ 
a stronger word than dyvoUis : comp. 



172 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lix 



[Ao9 ^fjuv, Kupiej, iXTTi^eii' eTri to dp-^^eyovov Trdort]^ 
KTLcrea)<i bvofia crov, dvoi^a's rou^ 6(p6a\juov9 TfJ9 Kapdia^ 
ijjuwp ets TO yivcaaKeiv (re, tov (jlovov yyicton in yh^hAoIc, 
a'tion en Afioic ANAnAyoMeNON, TOV TAneiNoyNTA y'Bpin 

I A6s r)iMV, KJjOie] om. CS ; see below. 2 ovofw, <tov] C; nomen ejus 

sancticvi S ; see below. Kapbias] cordhun S. 3 o-e] C ; eum S. y;/-'7;Xo?s] 

I'l/'t'crrots C; see the lower note. 5 hi<iKvovTo.\ dissipantem S. k6vQiv\ 



I Pet. ii. 15, It occurs also Job 
XXXV. 16, Wisd. xiii. i, i Cor. xv. 34. 
See also Clem. Horn. ii. 6, iii. 47, 
iv. 8, xviii. 13, 18. 

6tj eTriyvaxTiv 86^r]s] Comp. Apost. 
Const, viii. 11 o hia Xpiarov Kripvyjj.a 
yvoiaeaiS 8ovs rifuv els iiriyvoiaiv rfjs 
crfjs 86^T]s Ka\ TOV ovofiaros (tov. 
The language of Clement here seems 
to be inspired by Ephes. i. 5 sq. 

I. eXni^etv] Some words have been 
omitted in the Greek MS, as the first 
editor has correctly seen. The words 
supplied in the text, Aos tjixIv, Kvpie, 
will suffice. The same omission 
existed also in the text from which 
the Syriac Version was made. In 
consequence of this, a-ov, a-e, ae, crov, 
eTraidevcras, i^yiacras, eripriaas, are there 
altered to avoid the abrupt transition 
from the third person to the second ; 
and at length words are inserted 
before 'A^iovnev to introduce the 
second person. On the recurrence of 
lacunae in our authorities see above, 
I. p. 145 sq. Hilgenfeld gets over 
the difficulty in part by substituting 
avoL^ov for dvoi^as: while Gebhardt 
and Harnack deny that the text is 
either defective or corrupt, and at- 
tempt to justify the transition by 
such passages as Acts i. 4, xxiii. 22, 
etc. (see Winer Ixiii. p. 725). But 
the phenomena of our two authorities 
show that Bryennios was right. 

dpxfyovov] i.e. ' Thy Name which 
was the first origin of all crea- 
tion', Trda-Tjs KTia-eas being governed 
by apx^yovov. As an active sense 



is obviously wanted, it must be 
accented dp^eyovov, not apx^yovov, 
as by Bryennios : comp. [Aristot.] 
de Mutid. 6 (p. 399 Bekker) hd 
TTjv irparrfv Ka\ dp^aioyovov alriav, 
where again we should accentuate 
dp^aioyopov, for the expression is 
synonymous with 6 rravrcov i^yep-dv 
re Kai yevirap which follows imme- 
diately after. So too perhaps even 
in Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 16 (p. 810) 
Trjv dpxeyovov i]p,pav, for just below 
it is defined as jrpcoTTjv rc5 ovri (fxoTos 
yevea-iv. but in Clem. Alex. Protr. 
5 (P- 56) TO TTvp (i)S dpx^yovov ae^ovres 
it may be doubtful whether the fire 
is regarded as a principium prifi- 
cipians {dpyeyovov)^ or a principiufn 
principiatum {dpyiyovov). In Greg. 
Naz. Op. I. p. 694 we have to 
dpx^yovov aKOTos. The word occurs 
also Iren. i. I. i (twice), I. 5. 2, i. 
9. 3, in the exposition of the Va- 
lentinian system, where likewise the 
accentuation may be doubtful. It 
is not found in the Lxx or N. T. 
Editors seem universally to accen- 
tuate it dpxeyopos (see Chandler's 
G7'eck Accentuation 467); but, I 
think, on insufficient grounds. 

2. Tovs d(f)daXp,ovs K.T.X.] suggested 
by Ephes. i. 17 sq ev iiviyvaxTei, av- 

TOV, TS-e(pa)TL(TpVOVS TOVS OCpdakfJiOVS 

TTjs Kapdias vp.av els to eldevai vftds 
K.T.X. See also above 36 rjvewxdTi- 
aav rjpiiv 01 df^idaKpoX ttjs Kapdias. 
Comp. Mart. Polyc. 2, Apost. Co?ist. 
vii. 39. 

3, yivaxTKeiv K.r.X.] Comp. John 



LIX] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



173 



5 YnepH(t)ANOL)N, TOV AiAAyoNTA Aor'CMoyc eONtoN, Tov noi- 
OYNTA TAnemoyc eic fyoc KUi Toyc y^HAoyc TAneiNoyNXA, 

TOV nAoyriZONTA KAI nT63)(IZ0NTA, TOV AnOKTeiNONTA KAI 

ZHN noioYNTA, fjiovov euepyETrjv Trvev/uLaTcov Kai Oeov 
Traa'f]^ craoKO^, tov eniBAenoNTA gn taic AByccoic, tov 



C ; avOpdsTrojv ( = av(jiv) S. 
T-qv] C ; evpeTrjv S. 



8 ^r}v irowvPTo] redimit et vivificat S. 



xvu. 3 wa yivaKTKaxTLV ere tou fxovov 
akrjdivbv Qeop. 

TOV fiovov K.T.X.] Apost. Const, viii. 
5 6 <ut' fiovos v\^icrTos...6 iv v^rfKolg 
KaroiKosv. 

{jy^ia-Tov K.T.\.] From the LXX Is. 
Ivii. 15 o v'^icrros 6 iv vyj^rjXois kut- 
oiKutv TOV alcova, ayios ev ayiois 
ovofia avTa, vrp-iaTOS V dyiois ava- 
rravofievos. So in the prayer Apost. 
Const, viii. 1 1 v\j/i(TTe iv vi\rr}\ol.s, ayie 
iv ayiois avairavofieve, doubtless taken 
from Clement. Similarly the ex- 
pression o iv ayiois dvajravofievos in 
other liturgies, I). Marc. pp. 178, 189, 
D. Jacob, p. 49 (comp. p. 29), S. 
Clirysost. p. 94 (ed. Hammond). 

I have substituted v-^jrrjXols, as the 
reading both of the LXX and of the 
Apost. Const. Moreover the Syriac 
here translates by the same words, 
XDIIttn i^Dnn, which render v^iotos, 
iv i^r]Kols., in the Hexaplaric Version 
of Is. Ivii. 15 : thus using two difter- 
ent words. This however is not de- 
cisive in itself. 

4. TOV TaneivovvTa k.t.X.J From 
Is. xiii. II vj3piv VTreprjcpavrnv Tairei- 

VUXTd). 

5. TOV bia\vovTa'\ Probably from 
Ps. xxxiii. 10 StacTKfSa^'ft ^ovkas idvav, 
d^eret he Xoyiapoi/s Xacov. 

TOV TToiovvTa K.r.X.] Job V. 11 
TOV TToiovvTa Taneivovs fls vyj/os Koi 
dTro\(t)\6ras i^fyeipovTa, Is. x. 33 Ta- 
neivmBriaovTai 01 v^l/rjXoi, Ezek. xxi. 26 
iTanfivacras to vyj/r^Xov Ka\ xjylrcoaas 
TO raneivov, lb. xvii. 24 eyw Ku/jios o 
raTTeifaJf ^vKov v^i]Kov kcli v^j/cov ^vKov 



eiepyi- 



xxni. 12, 



Taneivov. See also Matt. 
Luke xiv. 11, xviii. 14. 

7. TOV TrXovTi^ovTa k.t.X.] From 
I Sam. ii. 7 Kvpios 7rra);^ifet Ka\ irXov- 
ri'fet, Taireivol koi dw^ol. Comp. also 
Luke i. 53. See Greg. Naz. Orat. 42 
5 (l. p. 751) o TTTOixi^av Kai irKov- 
Ti^cov Qeos, 6 davaTav Ka\ ^cooyovmv 
K.r.X. 

TOV dnoKTeivovTa k.t.X.] Deut. xxxii. 
39 iyo) dnoKTevu) Ka\ ^fjv Troirjam, 
I Sam. ii. 6 Kvpios davarol Ka\ ^aoyovel: 
comp. 2 Kings v. y 6 Qeos iya> tov 
davaTmaai Kai ^cooTTOirjcrai; 

8. evepyeTrjvJ Comp. Ps. cxv. 7 irri- 
arpeylfov, yjrvx''] fiov...oTi Kvpios evrjp- 
yeTr](Te ere. So too Liturg. D. Marc. 
p. 188 \//'ii;(^? eJepyeVa. 

nvivp-aTuiv K.TX^^ Modified from 
Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16. See also 
62 heu-KOTris T(>v TTvevpaTcov Ka\ 
Kvpios Trda-rjs aapKos, with the parallels 
in the note. Comp. Littirg. D. Jacob. 
p. 45 jxvija-drjTi, Kvpie, 6 Qeos tmv irvev- 
paTOiv Ka\ irdarjs crapKos. 

9. TOV iTTi^XeTTovTa K.r.X.] Ecclus. 
xvi. 18, 19, ajSvcra-os Kai yfj craXevdi]- 
aovTOi iv Tj] iivKYKOTrfj avTov, ap-a tu 
opT] Koi Ta depeXia ttjs yrjs fv rai 
eV//3Xf\//-ai els avra Tpopco avcrcreiovTai. 
Comp. Liturg. S. Basil, p. 106 o 
Kadrfpevos ini Opovov 86^r]s Ka\ ini- 
j3Xe7Tcov d^vaa-ovs. For the unusual 
iTTifiXeneiv iv, ' to look into'. Or 
'at', comp. Eccles. ii. 11, 2 Chron. 
xvi. 9. 

TOV inoTTTriv k.t.X.] See Ps. xxxii 
(xxxiii). 13, which passage Clement 
may perhaps have had in mind, as 



174 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lix 



eTroTTTrjv dvQpcoTriviav epycov, tov tmv KLV^vvevovT mv 

(jOr]6oVf TOV TUJV AnHAniCMeNOON COOTflpA, TOV 7ravT6<s 

TTvevfiaTO^ KTiCTTrjv KUL 67ria-K07roVj TOV 7r\r]6vvovTa 
edvt] eirl yfj^ kui ek ttuvtcov eKXe^ajuevov tov^ dya- 
TTwvTa^ are ^la 'Irjcou XpiCTOu tov rtyaTrrjfJievov Tratho^ 5 
(TOiy, ^L oi y]fJLds eTraidevca^, riyiacra^y eTiiutja'a^. dpi- 



ovjuev ere, ^ea-TroTa, BohOon yevecrdai kai ANTiAHnxopA 

i^fJiMV. TOV^ eV 6\l\lrL t^/ULMV (TtOCTOV* TOVi TaTTeiVOVS 

I T&v KivdvvevSPTUv] illorum qtd affliguntur S, but it is probably a loose para- 
phrase. 5 <je\ C ; euni S. 6 crou] C ; ejtis S. i^/uas eTraidevaas, 
7]ylaaas, irlpLrjcras} instriixit nos et saiictificavit nos et honoravit nos S. ii^iov- 
(i.ev K.T.X.] S prefixes et dicemus illi cum suppHcaiione. 7 tre] so apparently 
S ; om. C. It seems to be required, as Hilg. and Gebh. have seen. UcnroTal 



he has already adopted an earlier 
verse of the same Psalm in this con- 
text. For eVoTTTr;? comp. 2 Macc. vii. 
35 TOV TTavTOKparopos enoTTTOv Qeov, 
Esther v. I rov Travrav eTroTTTTjv Qeov. 

I. TOP tUv Kivhwevovrav Ac.r.X.] 
Judith ix. 1 1 eKaTTovoav ei jBorjdos, 
avTiki^TTTmp dadevovvTcov, aTreyvaxTfievcuv 
(TKfTvacTTrjSi nnrjXnio'iJ.evcov acorrjp. For 
dvrrj'XTTKTp.evoi comp. Is. xxix. 1 9, 
Esth. iv. ad fin. See also Liturg. 
D. Marc. p. 181 j; e'XTrk t5>v aTrrjX- 
TTia-fievav (comp. Lihirg. S. Basil. 
p. 122), Act. S. Theodot. 21 (in Rui- 
nart) ' Domine Jesu Christe, spes 
desperatorum'. 

3. TTVevfiaros KTiaTtjv] Zech. xii. I 
Kvpios-.-TtXaa-crav iTvevfxa dvBpcoirov iv 
avrw. Is. Ivii. 16 TTvevfi.a rrap' efiov 
^e\ev(rerai, Koi TTVorjv iracrav eyco 
enoirjaa. In Amos iv. 13 we have eya 
...KTi^cov TTvexjjjLa, where it apparently 
means 'the wind,' but might easily 
be understood otherwise. 

iiTiaKonov^ Job x. 12 q be i-maKonr) 
(TOV e(f)v\a^e jiov to irvevixa, I Pet. ii. 
25 TOV TTOifieva Koi iwicrKOiTov Tav 
yj/vx^f iifxaiv, Wisd. i. 6 o Qe6s...Trjs 
Kapbias avTov eTricTKOTros dXrjdris. Comp. 
Liitirg. D. Marc. p. 181 enla-KOTre 
Tra(Tr]v (rapKog. 



6. d^iovfiev K.r.X.] See the prayer 
in the Apost. Const, viii. 12 ert 
a^iovfiev (re.,.0Tra)s iravTav in'iKovpos 
yevrjj wavTcov ^orjdos Ka\ avTiXrjTTTmp 
(with the context), which is evidently 
indebted to this passage of Clement. 
Comp. Ps. cxviii (cxix). 114 jSorjBos 
fxov Ka\ avTiKrjTTTcop p.ov el av. 

8. Tovs ev ffXi-^ei K.r.X.] Compare 
the prayer in Litiirg. D. Marc. p. 185 
Xvrpoxrat bearfjiiovs, e^eXov tovs 
ev dvdyKais, ireivcovTas ;^opTacrov, 
oXiyo'^lrvxovvTas irapaKaXeaov, 
TreTrXavrjiievovs eTricTTpe-^ov, ecTKO- 
Ticrp-evovs (fxoTaycoyr/crov, TreirrcoKoTas 
eyeipov, craXevofievovs (TTtjpi^ov, ve- 

voarjKOTas 'cacrai (ppovpos rj^atv 

Koi avTiX-qivTap Kara iravTa yevo- 
/ievos, where the coincidences are 
far too numerous and close to be 
accidental. See also Apost. Const. 
ii. 6. 

10. aore/3eTs] Comp. 3 ^f\Xov ahiKov 

Koi da-ejBfj dveiXrjcjjoTas. The reference 
in da-e^els is not to unbelievers, but 
to factious and unworthy members of 
the Church. For this word Geb- 
hardt {Zeitschr. f. KircJie7igesch. I. p. 
307, and ad loc.) conjectures daBevel'} ; 
and this may have been the reading 
of S. But the occurrence of tovs 



LIX] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



175 



eXericrov tov<5 TreTTTcoKora^ eyeipov toI<s ^eo/xet'ot?"' 
'io e'7rL<pdvr]6L' Tom d(Te(ie'L'i lacrai' tov^ TrXavM/uevov^ tou 
Xaov cov eTTLCTTpeylyOi/' y^opTacrov tous TreivwvTa^' \v- 
Tpuicrai TOv<i ^ecfjuov^ rifjLwv' 6^aua(rTt]crov tovs dade- 
vouvTas' TrapaKoKecrov tov^ oXiyoyp-v^ouvTa^' tnootco- 
cAN ere Traura ta gOnh, oti cy e? 6 Oedc monoc, Kai 
15 'Iriaov^ XpiCTTO^ 6 Trah crov^ kul HMeic Aaoc coy kai 

npoBATA THC NOMHC COy. 

domine bone S. 8 toi)s raireivov'i k\it)cjov'\ om. S, owing to the homceoteleuton. 

lo e-Ki(pavy\di\ C; Vi.(TTpd(pri9i S. dcrejSeZs] C; aegrotos (audeveh or vo(jo\JvTa.sT) 

S; see the lower note. 14 ere] See Bryennios Didache p. py'. It is unre- 

presented in S. 156 Trats <jov\ add. dilectus (6 r]yairr}[xivo's) S. 



aa-Oivovvrai just below is a serious 
difficulty, and on this account I have 
hesitated about accepting it. It is 
not sufficient to answerwith Harnack, 
' atrGevovvres animo, aadevels corpore 
imbecilles sunt' ; for both words are 
used indifferently either of physical 
or of moral weakness. Supposing 
that do-f/Sels' were the original read- 
ing, the rendering of S may repre- 
sent either aa-Qeveh (a corruption of 
dae^e'is) or vevoa-rjKoras (a substitu- 
tion of a familiar liturgical form, as 
appears from Z//. Z>. Marc. p. 185, 
quoted above). The Syriac word 
here, {<n''"ID, is the same as in the 
Peshito Luke ix. 2 lacrai tovs aa6e- 
vfls (v. 1. da-devovpras). Comp. Polyc. 
Phil. 6 eTncrrpecfiovTfs to. aTroTTenXavr]- 
fieva, iTVKTKfnToyLevoi tovs dadevels, 
which, so far as it goes, is in favour 
of Gebhardt's emendation. 

TOVS nXavafj-ivovs K.r.X.] Ezek. xxxiv. 
16 TO TreTrXavrjfjLevov fTriaTp'\f/(o (where 
B has TO irKavdjjLfvov dTroaTpe\l/a>). 

1 1. XvTpaaai tovs Secrjuious] The re- 
ference in this and the neighbouring 
clauses is doubtless to the victims 
of the persecution under Domitian ; 
see the note on i. The care of 
the ' prisoners ' naturally occupied a 
large space in the attention of the 



early Church in the ages of per- 
secution : comp. Heb. x. 34, xiii. 3, 
and see the note on Ign. Sniyrn. 6. 
A prayer for those working 'in the 
mines' is found generally in the 
early liturgies ; comp. Apost. Const. 
vni. 10 vnkp tSv iv p.eTc'iX\oLs KaX e^o- 
piais KaX (f)vXaKa1s Kai Seap-ols ovtchv 
8ia TO ovojj.a tov Kvpiov hirj6a>jxev, 
Liturg. D. Marc. p. 181 rolls' ev (pvXa- 
Kals T) iv fj,TaX\ois...KaTexop-^vovs irav- 
Tas eker}<TOV, ndvTas eXev6epcoaov, Lit. 

D. JaC. p. 44 jjLvricrdTjTi, Kvpce 

Xpio'Tiafoiv TCdv iv Sfafiols, t<ov iv 
(pvXaKa'is, twv iv al)(iJLaXa)aiais Koi 
i^opiais, Tav iv peTokXois Ka\ jBacrdvois 
Kai TViKpals dovXeiais ovtcov iraTepoiv Kai 
d8eXcf)av Tjfjimv. 

12. i^avda-TTjcrov k.t.A.] Comp, I 
Thess. V. 14 TvapapLvQiicrQe tovs oKiyo- 
yj/vxovs, dvTtx.'^ade tu)v dadevrnv, quoted 
by Harnack. 

13. yvcoToaav k.t.X.} I Kings viii. 
60 oTTCOS yvuKTi Trdvres oi Xaoi Trjs yfjs 
OTL Ku'ptoy 6 Qeos avTOS Qeos Kai ovk 
ecTTiv eTi, 2 Kings xix. 1 9 yvda-ovTai 
Trdaai al /SacrtAftat ttjs yrjs oti ctv 
Kupio? o Qeos povos (comp. Is. xxxvii. 
20), Ezek. xxxvi. 23 yvuxrovTai tu i'dvr] 
oTi iyci flpt Kvpios K.T.X. Comp. John 
xvii. 3. 

15. ))/ieii' K.r.A.] From Ps. xcix (c). 



176 



THE EPISTLE OE S. CLEMENT 



[lx 



LX. Cv Trjv devaov tou Kocr/uLOu (rvaTaciv ^la 
Twv evepyovfjievwv (pavepo7roLt](ra^' (Tv, Kvpie, Tt]V 
oiKoviueurjv KTi<Ta<s, 6 ttktto^ ev iracraL's tol^ yeveai's, 
diKaios ev Toh KpLfxacTLV, Bav/uiaa-TO^ ev ia-)(y'i Kat fdeya- 
\07rpe7re1ay 6 (ro(po<i ev tm KTi^eiv kul cvveTo^ ev tw 5 
Ta yevojueva idpacrai, 6 ctyaSo^ ev to?? opcojuievoi^ kul 
TTio'Tos ev TOL^ 7re7roi6o(riv eiri (re, eAefiMON kai oiKxip- 
MON, a(pe9 rjfJLLV ra? dvoixia^ rjfjiwv Kai Ta9 ddiKia^ Kat 

I 2i>] add. ycLp S. d^vaou] aivvaov C ; comp. 20, where C writes the 

word in the same way. rod Kbcrfiov] add. hujus S, as in other passages. 

5 6 (TO(})os\ C ; (TO(pos (om. 6) S. koC] C ; om. S. 7 Trtards] i?iitis [benig- 

)nis), probably xpV'''^^i S. 10 Kado.piaov^ Kadape7s C ; purifica S : see below. 

12 Kat diKaioavvrj kuI airXdrriTi] om. C ; restored by Bensly from S, which has ei 



2 yvare on Kvpios avToi iariv 6 Qeos. . . 
j)/xeT? [S] Xaos avTOv Koi 7rpo/3ara rfjs 
vofiTJs avTov : comp. zd. Ixxviii (Ixxix). 
13, xciv (xcv). 7. 

LX. ' Thou didst create all things 
in the beginning. Thou that art 
faithful and righteous and marvellous 
in Thy strength, wise and prudent 
in Thy creative and sustaining en- 
ergy, beneficent and stedfast to them 
that put their trust in Thee, merciful 
and full of compassion, forgive us 
all our offences. Reckon not every 
sin against Thy servants: but purify 
us with Thy truth and direct our 
steps in holiness. Make Thy face to 
shine upon us, and protect us with 
Thy mighty hand and Thine out- 
stretched arm from them that hate 
us. Give peace to us and to all the 
inhabitants of the earth, as Thou 
gavest to our fathers when they 
called upon Thee'. 

I. 2i/ Tf]v devaov k.t.X.] The main 
part of this sentence is borrowed in 
Apost. Const, viii. 22 (quoted above 
on 59 rov api6\iov k.t.\.). Comp. 
Wisd. vii. 17 eldevai (Tvaraa-iv k6(tjiov 
KOL evepyeiav crroixeiav. 

8ia T(ov ivepyovfiivav K.r.X.] i.e. 



'didst reveal the inherent constitution 
of the world by the succession of 
external events'; comp. Rom. i. 20. 
The word (^avepoiroiiiv is late and 
somewhat rare. 

3. O TVKTTOS K.T.X.] DcUt. vii. Q 

Qeos TTKTTos 6 (fjvXdaaaiv 8ia6i]Kr]v...els 
\i\ias yeveas. 

6. eSpaaai] Comp. Prov. viii. 25 
Trpo rov opt) ehpacrdrjvai. 

6 ayaOhs /c.r.X.] i.e. 'He is benefi- 
cent where His operations can be 
seen, and He is trustworthy where 
faith takes the place of sight'. The 
contrast here is between the things 
which are actually seen and the 
things which are taken on trust; 
comp. Heb. xi. I eanv 8e tt'kttis... 
irpayp-arav eXey)(os ov ^Xenopievcov. 
For opcopevois Hilgenfeld has epa- 
fievois; Harnack and Gebhardt (fol- 
lowed by Lipsius yen. Lit. Jan. 
13? ^"^n) read a-(o(ofievois, the latter 
having previously conjectured apicr- 
fievois {Zeitschr. f. KirchengescJi. I. 
p. 307) ; Zahn proposes 6(ri,ovp.evois 
(Gott. Get. Ans. 1876, p. 1417). There 
is no sufficient reason however for 
questioning the text. The idea, and 
in part the language, is taken from 



Lx] TO THE CORINTHIANS. 177 

Ta TrapaTrTCDjuaTa Kai TrXtjiu/jLeXeia^. jurj Xoyia-r] Tracrav 

o djuapTiap dovXcov aov kul TraidicrKwUf dXXa KaBdpLcrov 

t]jud^ Tov Kadapio'/uioi' Ttj^ crt} dX}]6eia<i, kul KATeyeyNON 

TA AiaBh'mATA f]IUL(ji)V 6N OCIOTHTI Kai ClKaLOaVVt] KUl 

aTrXoTfjTi KApAiAC nopeyeceAi Kai noie?N ta kaAa kai 

eyApecTA eNoonidN crov Kai evwTTiov tmv dp')(^ovTMV 

5 tj/uwv. vaiy ZecnroTa, 6ni(j)AN0N to npdcoonoN coy ({)' 

HMAc eic ataGa ev eiprivt], 6s to (rK67ra(r6t]vai tijuid^ th 



i7i jiistitia et in si7np!icitate. The omission is due to homceoteleuton. I have 
not inserted the prepositions, because it is a common practice of S to repeat 
them, where they are not repeated in the Greek ; see i. p. i37. i6 ev eipi^cTj] 

pads S ; but this is probably due to an error of Syriac transcription, since a single 
letter ("I for 1) would make the difference. 



Wisd. xiii. I, Ik rav opafxevaiv dyadav 
ovK 'la-xiKTav fiSevoi tov ovra ovre to2s 
epyois '!Tpocr)^ovTs eTreyvuxrav tov Te^- 
vLTTjv. The language in the latter 
part of the sentence is suggested by 
Ecclus. ii. 10 sq tIs eVeTri'crreuo-e 
Kvpico KOI KaTrjrrxvfdr] ;...8L0Tt oiKTip- 
fiaiv Kai i\(rjp.a)V o Kvpios, Kcii a(f)Lr]a'tv 
afiapTias. 

7. eXerj/xov k.t.X.] A very frequent 
combination of epithets in the LXX. 

10. Ka^apicroi/] This is perhaps the 
simplest emendation of KaSape'is, the 
reading of the MS, which cannot 
stand ; KudapLo-ov having been written 
Kaddpeiaov, and the two last letters 
having dropped out. Otherwise we 
might read Kaddprjs. Bryennios, Hil- 
genfeld, and Gebhardt tacitly retain 
Kadapels. For the expression comp. 
Num. xiv. 18 Kadapiapa ov Kadapie't 
TOV evoxov, quoted by Bryennios. 

11. Trjs afjs dXrjdeias] See John 
xvii. 17 dyiaaov avTovs ev Tij dXr]6eia 
K.T.X.; comp. XV. 3. 

KUTflidwov K.T.X.] Ps. XXxix (xl). 3 

KaTfvdvve TO. dut^rifiaTa (jlov, cxviii 
(cxix). 133 ra hiajirjp.aTd fiov KUTevdv- 
vov Kara to Xoyiov aov. The phrase 
KaTvdvviv TCI hia^r)p.uTa OCCUrs also 

CLEM. II. 



Ps. xxxvi (xxxvii). 23, Prov. xx. 24. 
The word 8ia^rifiaTa, 'steps', is rare, 
except in the LXX and writers influ- 
enced by it. 

12. ev ocnoTTjTi /c.r.X.] I Kings ix. 4 
(TV eav TTopevdfjS evcomov efxov, Kada>s 
eTTopevOrj AavelS, ev ocrioTrjTL KUpbias. 

13. TToulv K.T.X.] Deut. xiii. 18 
TTocelv TO KaXov Koi to apearov ivavTiov 
Kvplov TOV Qeov aov : comp. i3. vi. 18, 
xii. 25, 28, xxi. 9. 

15. eV(0ai/oi/] Ps. Ixvi (Ixvii). I 
eTri(})dvai to Trpoaanrov avTov efp' i^fias : 
comp. zd. XXX (xxxi). 18, Ixxix (Ixxx). 
3, 7, 19, cxviii (cxix). 135. So also 
LitJirg. D. Marc. p. 179, Apost. Const. 
viii. 18, 37. 

16. eh dya6a\ See Jer. xxi. TO 
e(TTr]piKa to rrpocrcoTrov fiov eVt rifv 
it6Xlv..,ov< els dyadd; comp. Amos 
ix. 4, Jer. xxiv. 6. For els dyaOa see 
also Gen. 1. 20, Deut. xxx. 9, etc. 
Comp. Litu7-g. D. Jacob, p. 44 
jjLvqadrjTi. . .TrdvTav els ayadov. 

aKe7raa6fivai\ For this connexion of 
(TKerrd^eiv Comp. Is. li. 16 vno rfjv 
(TKUiv TTJs x^tpos fJiov aKenaau) ae 
(comp. Wisd. v. 17, xix. 8), Deut. 
xxxiii. 27 CTKfTratrei a-e...v7ro la-^vv 
j-ipaxiovuiv devdttiv : and for the anti- 

12 



178 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lx 



Xeipi COY TH KpATAiA Kai pv(rdr\vai diro Trao'tjs dfiap- 
Tm? TO) BpAxioNi COY TO) ythAo)" Kui pvcTai rjfJLci^ 
aTTO Tiav fJLKTOVVTtav rifJid^ dBiKU)^. ^o? Ofiovoiav Kai 
elprivriv riiMV tc Kai Trdciv tol^ KaroLKOvcriv Tr}v yfji^, 
Kadu)^ d(i)Ka<s toI? TraTpao'iv tJiutoVf eniKAAoYMeN<jor4 (re 5 
avTcov Scioj^ e.N nicxei kai AAH9eiA, [ft)0"T6 crco^ecruai J7/ia?j 
vnriKOOu^ yivo/uLevov^ tw TravTOKpaTopi Kai Travaperio 

6 6<7iws] S ; om. C. This use of the adverb is characteristic of Clement ; other- 
wise I sliould have hesitated to introduce it on such authority. coo-re aib^eadai 
Tj/iias] om. CS ; see below. S renders ei in veritate oboedientes fuerunt nomini tuo 
etc., thus connecting ev aKrjOda with the following clause. 7 iravro- 
KpcLTopL Kai Travap^Tifi] The words are transposed in S, but this does not imply 



thetical x^'P' Kparaia, ^paxt-ovi ii\f/r]\a, 
Exod. vi. I, Deut. iv. 34, v. 15, vii. 
19, ix. 26, xi. 2, xxvi. 8, Jer. xxxix 
(xxxii). 21, Ezek. xx. 33, 34. 

3. Tav iiicrovvTcdu K.r.X.] Comp. 
Justin. Apol. i. 14 (p. 61) rov^ ddUcos 
fiicrovPTas ivfiOeiv Treipdnevoi, quoted 
by Harnack. 

5. eiriKoKovnevciv K.r.X.] Ps. cxliv 
(cxlv). 8 TrScri rois iuLKoKovfifvoLs avrov 
ev aXijdeia. For eV -nlarTei Kai akrjdela 
comp. I Tim. ii. 7. 

7. vTTTjKoovs K.r.X.] This might 
be a loose accusative, referring to 
the datives ^/xlv rt kui nacriv K.r.X. ; 
comp. Ephes. i. 17, 18 Scot; Vfjilv 

nvevfia (Tocfiias Tre^wTKr/xerouy 

Tovs o(f)6aXij.ovs K.r.X., Acts xxvi. 3 
eVi <roii fxeXkcov (rrjfKpov dwoXoyeladai, 
IxakLCTTa yvcoaTTjv ovra (re K.r.\., and 
see Winer xxxiii. p. 290, Ixiii. 
pp. 709 sq, 716, Kiihner il. p. 667 sq. 
But a double transition, Trarpda-iv, 
(iriKokovp.fi'cov, y(vop.vovs, would be 
very harsh ; and for reasons which 
are stated in the introduction (l. p. 
145 sq), I cannot doubt that some 
words have dropped out, such as I 
have inserted. Bryennios supplies 
Ka\ (Twaov rjiids ; Gebhardt reads 
vnrjKoois yevop.evois ; and Hilgenfeld 
alters the whole sentence. Lipsius 



(yen. Lit. Jan. 13, 1877) would insert 
eTnKaKovfj.ev ae pvcrai roiis before ev 
Trio-rei K.r.X. 

TravTOKparopi] So Hermas Vis. iii. 3 
rm prjpari tov TravTOKpdropos koi ev- 
bo^ov dvoparos. At first it had oc- 
curred to me to read iravTOKparopiK^, 
as it occurred to Gebhardt, and as 
Hilgenfeld actually reads; comp. 8 
rw TravroKparopiKw ^ovXijpaTi avToii. 
The expression navroKpaTopiKov Svopa 
occurs in Macar. Magn. Apocr. iv. 30 
(p. 225). The omission of -kw before 
Koi would be easily explained, es- 
pecially as the archetypal MS is 
shown to have been mutilated in this 
neighbourhood. But the parallel pas- 
sage from Hermas quite justifies the 
reading of the MS. In the Lxx navro- 
Kpdrcop seems to be always applied 
directly to God either as an epithet 
of Qeos or Kvpios, or independently; 
and so in Clement himself, inscr., 2, 
32. But the sense of to opofia, as 
almost an equivalent to 6 eels (see 
[Clem. Rom.] ii. 13, and the note 
on Ign. Ephes. 3), explains the ex- 
ceptional usage here and in Hermas. 

navapera k.t.X.] For this expression 
comp. 45, and for the word navdpe- 
ros the note on i. 

8. Toty re apxov(TLV K.r.X.] The 



LXl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



179 



opo/uLari crov, roi^ re apxov(riv kui tryovfj-evois tj^iov 

10 LXI. Cv, deo-TroTUf edcoKas Tr\v e^ovo-iav Tf]9 /3a- 
(TiXeias avToh hia tov fieyaXoirpeTrov^ Kal dveK^iniyri- 
Tov Kpdrov^ (TOV, eU ro yivuxTKOVTa^ rifj.d^ Tr]v viro 
a-ov avToT^ dedojuevrji/ ho^av Koi Tifiriv vTroTaarcreG-dai 
avToi^, iut]dev evavTiovfxevovi tm OeXyjfxari crov ok 09, 

any dififerent Greek text : see above, I. p. 137. Also ivavapiTt^ is translated as if 
evTifjL<{), N")p''0 (see 3). But a single letter would make the difference, NIIT'O 
excdlenti. Elsewhere 733 in^O is the translation of Tracdperos (see i, 2, 45, 
57); and the translator might here consider himself excused from the repetition of 
Kav- which occurs in both words. See also on wavayiip above, 58. 8 rots 

re] C ; /cat tois S. 10 IScoKa?] add. illzs S. 14 Sos] precanmr ut des S. 



punctuation, which I have adopted, 
was suggested to me by Hort. It 
accords with the preceding words 
evapeaTa ivanviov (jov Kai fvcomov twv 
apxavToip -qiiav ; it disposes of the 
superfluous avroh (see however 21, 
note) ; and it throws 2i; into its 
proper position of prominence ; e.g. 
60 2w TTjv aivaov k.tX. and 61 
just below, Su yap, Sea-Trora k.t.\. 
See Athenag. Sttppl. I evae^earara 
8iaK{ifxei/ovs Koi SttcmoTaTa TTpos re to 
6(lov Kai rffv vfifrepav ^acriKeiav ; 
comp. Theoph. ad Aiitol. i. 11, who 
quotes Prov. xxiv. 21 T//xa, vte, Qeov 
Kai ^aaiXea k.t.X. The previous edi- 
tors have all connected the words 
rois re apxovaiv k.t.X. with the follow- 
ing sentence, as apparently does C. 

LXI. 'To our earthly rulers, O 
Lord, Thou hast given the power, 
that we may render them due obe- 
dience in entire submission to Thy 
will. Therefore grant them health, 
peace, stability. For Thou, O 
Sovereign of heaven and King of 
Eternity, givest honour and authority 
to the sons of men upon earth. So 
guide their counsels, that they may 
administer well the power thus en- 
trusted to them, and may obtain 



Thy favour. O Thou, who alone 
art able to do this and far more 
than this, we praise Thee through 
our High-priest Jesus Christ, through 
whom be glory unto Thee for ever'. 

10. TTJs ^aa-iXeias] ^ 0/ the sove- 
reignty\ i.e. 'of the secular power'. 
For the genitive comp. Dan. xi. 20 
7rpaa(T<ov 86^av ^aaiXdas, ib. 21 eSco- 
Kiv in avTov 86^av ^acriKeias. The 
^aaiXfla is the secular as contrasted 
with the spiritual power; and, as 
such, it is frequently opposed to 
Ifpcoa-vvq, e.g. Apost. Const, ii. 34 ocrw 
"^vyj] crafiaros Kpeirrav, toctovto) Up(o- 
avvT] ^ao-tXet'as (comp. vi. 2), Test. 
Duod. Pair. Jud. 21. 

13. vTioTcKTfTicrQat avToTf k. r. X.] 
See I Pet. ii. 13, 15 i^Trorayj^Tf irlurrf 
dvdpaTTivrj KTiCTfi 8ia tov Kvpiov...oTi 
ovToos earrlv to deXrjjxa tov Qeov ; 
comp. Rom. xiii. 2 6 dvTiTaaaopevos 
TTJ f^ovcria ttj tov Qeov 8iaTayfj av- 
6e(TTr]Kev. 

14. 80s K.T.X.] In accordance with 
the Apostolic injunctions, Rom. xiii. 
I sq. Tit. iii. i, i Pet. ii. 13 sq : 
comp. Wisd. vi. i sq. See also Polyc. 
Phil. 12. For other passages in 
early Christian writers relating to 
prayers for temporal rulers, see 

12 2 



i8o 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lxi 



Kvpie, vyieiaVf eiptjmjv, ojuovoiav, eixTTadeiaVy ek to 
^i67reiv avTOv^ Trjv vtto (Tov ^e^OfxevtiP auroT^ y^yefioviav 
d7rpocrK07r(i)<s . (rv yap, ZecnroTa eirovpavLe^ iSacriXev 
Twv aliovoyVi ^/ft)9 toT^ vldl^ tcov dudpcoTrcov dopav Kai 
TLfjiriv Kai e^ovcTiav rwv eiri Ti]<s yi]^ VTrap^ovTwu' crv^ 5 
Kvpi6j cievdvvov Trjv (iovXriv avTcoi/ kuto. to kuXov kui 
evapecrrou eviainov (tov, ottws ^leTrouTe^ ev eiprivr) Kai 
TrpavTtjTi vcrj3oi Tt]v VTTO (TOV avToT^^ hehofxevtjv epov- 
(Tiav Weto orov Tvy^avwariv. 6 julovo^ dwaro's Troifjaai 
TavTa Kai 7repi(T(T0Tepa dyadd jueO' yiumv, aoi e^OfJLO- 10 

9 I'Xeti ffov TUYxdcwcrtv] tranquille co?npotes fiant auxilii quod {est) a te S, ob- 
viously a paraphrase. 13 7e!'eai'] C ; Yeceds S. 16 Kai] S ; cm. C. 
The clause is translated in S ' ei de Us (rebtis) scilicet (JT'D) quae in ea {religione), 
qticte maxime utiles sunt illis qui volunt diiigere vitam {conversationem) excellentiae 
et pietatis et juste, as if the translator had read rCbv ci^eXt/iwrdrw!' 5^ (?) iv avTr\ 
ivdpeTov. . .SLev6vPiv. At all events he must have had a text which a corrector 
had emended by striking out or altering els, so as to govern ^iov by 8lv9vviv : 



Bingham Anl. xiii. 10. 5, Harnack 
Christl. Ge7neindegottesd. p. 218 sq 
(Justin Martyr), p. 378 sq (Tertullian). 
The Apologists naturally lay stress 
on the practice, as an answer to the 
charge of sedition. 

I. iv<jTaQeiav\ ^stabiHty, ' tran- 
qnillity\ comp. 65. The word may 
mean either 'firmness, steadiness' 
as a moral quality, or ' stability' as a 
material result. The latter seems to 
be intended here : comp. 2 Mace, 
xiv. 6 ovK eaji/rej fr^v ^aaiXfiav evara- 
6elas rvxe'iv, Wisd. vi. 26 ^acriXevs 
(ppovifios evaradeia 8i]nov. 

3. aTrpoa-KOTrms] '' withotit sttini- 
bling\^ without Miy jar or collisiott^ ; 
as 20 rrfv \(iTovpyiav avrav dnpoa- 
Koncos eniTfXovcriv. 

/3ao-iXfiJ rav alcovcov] The phrase 
occurs only i Tim. i. 17 in the N.T., 
and as a v. 1. in Rev. xv. 3 ; but it is 
found in the LXX, Tobit xiii. 6, 10 ; 
see also Litiirg. D. Jac. p. 40. 
Comp. 35 nar^p rav aloivcov, 55 



Gfoff Tciv alu>vu)v. Here the Eternal 
King is tacitly contrasted with the 
temporary kings, the (BaaiXevs rmv 
alavcov with the ^acrikels tov almvos 
TovTov (comp. Ign. J^of/i. 6). 

6. Siev^vwi/] As above 20. Other- 
wise it is not a common word, and 
does not apparently occur at all in 
the LXX or N.T. 

10. fied' T]pLoiv] As Luke i. 72 
TToiTJa-ai, eXfos fieTa rav TvaripcDV T^/iui/, 
ib. X. 37, and so probably Acts xiv. 27, 
xv. 4 ; comp. Ps. cxviii (cxix). 65 
XpTjCTToTriTa enoirjaas fiera tov 8ovXov 
a-ov. It is the Hebraism DV ^E^'J?. 

11. dpxifpeas k.t.X.] See the note 
on 36. 

12. 77 86^a K.T.X.] See the note on 
20. It is a favourite form of dox- 
ology in Clement. 

13- (Is yepeav yevfwv] i.e. 'the 
generation which comprises all the 
generations' ; as Ps. ci (cii). 24 ev 
yevea yeveav to. stt] (tov : comp. Ephes. 
ill. 21 TOV alcoves Totv aiatvav. This is 



LXIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



l8l 



XoyovjueBa did tou dp-)(^iep60)^ Kal Trpoa-rarov tcov 
yfrv^cov rj/dwu ' h]O'0v Xpio'TOU, di ou col t] do^a kul 
ri fj-eyaXcaa-uvt) Kal vvv Kal eU yeveav yeveoov Kai ets 
Tom alcovas tcov alcopwv. djutjv. 
15 LXII. riepl fJLev twv dvtjKovrOJv r^ OpriarKeia rj^toi', 
Kal Tcov (aCpeXijULcurdrcoi' ek evdperov f^loi/ toT<s OeXovcTLv 
Jo"e/3w? Kal hiKaico^ hievdui'eiv [t^i/ Tropeiav ai/Twi/J, 
iKavias eTreo'TeiXajUieu vjuuVy di/dpes adeXcpoi. wepi yap 
TTiCTTeco^ Kal fxeTavoia^ Kai yi/rjcria's dyaTTt]^ Kai ey- 

see above, i. pp. 144, 145. In the Syriac we should probably read fll'T'St^l for 
niT'QK'l, i.e. in pietate ( = ei)o-e^ws) for et pietatis. 17 rr\v iropeiav avTwv] 

om. CS : see below. 19 iyKparelas] NnVljy ?]} super continentia (as if 

iiTrep iyKpareias:) S, for another preposition (7L3D de) has been used before for 
irepi. Perhaps however the insertion of a different preposition is a mere rhetorical 
device of the translator; or /V may be an accidental repetition of the first syllable 
of the following word, as the Syriac forms of the letters would suggest. We cannot 
safely infer a different Greek text. 



a rare mode of expression, the com- 
moner forms being els yevfas yeveav 
or els yei'eai' Km yeveav, which are 
quite different in meaning. 

LXII. 'Enough has been said 
by us however concerning the things 
pertaining to our religion and neces- 
sary for a virtuous life. For we have 
left no point untouched concerning 
faith and repentance and the like, 
reminding you that ye ought in all 
righteousness to pay your thanks- 
giving to God, living in harmony 
and peace and love ; like as our 
fathers behaved with all humility 
towards God and towards all men. 
And we have done this with the 
more pleasure, because we knew that 
we were speaking to faithful men, 
who had made a diligent study of 
God's oracles'. 

15. Twi/ dvr]KnvT<ov] With a dative 
as in 35 ; see the note on Ign. 
Philad. I. It has a different con- 
struction, avr]Kf.i.v eiy, 45. See the 



note there. 

TTf 6pT]crKfLa i]pi.cov] Comp. ^ 45 ''^'^ 
6pr)(TKfv6vT<av TTjv neyaXoTTpfTTrj Kol 
evbo^ov dpr)(TKeiav roii vyl/iarov. This 
passage explains the force of the 
words here : ' that befit men who 
serve the one true God'. 

16. evaperov] See the note on Ign. 
Philad. I. 

17. hi.iv6\)veiv\ The MS is ob- 
viously defective here ; and we must 
supply some such words as nji/ 
TTOpeiap avTmv (see 48), or ra 8iaf3ri- 
fxara ( 60), or perhaps with Bryen- 
nios TTjv ^ovXfjv avTciv ( 61). See 
the introduction, I. p. 145 sq. 

18. iKuvcos eVeoTeiXajuei^] Bryennios 
has called attention to the similarity 
of language used by Irenteus, when 
describing this epistle, iii. 3. 3 eVi 
TovTov ovu Tov KXrJjuei'ro?, crracrews 
ovK oXiyrjS to7s eV Kopifdo) yfvop.eur]s 
a8eX(j>ols, fTTfa-TfiXev i] iv 'Pw/lij; eK- 
iiXr)(Tia iKavo)Ta.TT]P ypcKprjv vols Ko- 
pivdiois. 



l82 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lxii 



Kpareia^ kul (ra)(ppo(ruvr]^ Kal VTrofxoufj^ TravTu tottov 
e^}]Xa(pf)a-afj.ev, vnofJUfJivricrKOVTe^ Zelv vfj.a's ev diKaio- 
o'vvr] Kal dXfjOeia Kai fiaKpodvfJiLa tw iravTOKpaTopi 
Oew oorlw^ evapecTTeiv, 6fJ.ovoovvTa<s dfivfjo'iKaKui's ev 
dydirr] Kai elprjvr] fxeTa eKrevov^ 7rLiK6iaSy Kadu)^ Kai 5 
ol 7rpod6dt]\(t)iu6voi TraTepes tijUMv evr]pe<TTf](rav TaTreivo- 
(bpovovvTe^ Ta irpo^ tov Trarepa Kai Qeov Kat ktlct- 

I TOTTOJ'] add. scripturae S. 4 eua/)ea-re?j'] S ; euxapurreZi' C : see the 

same confusion above, 41. The reading of S was anticipated by Hilg. and Gebh. 
5 Ka^wj Kai\ Kadois (om. Kal) S. 7 Qebv Kal KTiffTrjv] tmiversi creatorem 

dettin (9ebv TrayKTia-rrjv?) S ; comp. 19. 8 Trpbs] S; om. C. The authority 

of S in such a case is valueless in itself (see l. p. 137), but the preposition seems to 
be required here. 9 ijSiov] rj 5t' uv S, which translates the clause, ei haec 

tanto sint {erunt) per ea qiiae mortnimus. The translator has had a corrupt text and 
has translated it word for word, regardless of sense. eweidT^ aacpus ydeifiev 



I. navTa tottov k.t.X.] ^ we have 
handled every topic'' \ Bryennios adds 
by way of explanation, /lidXto-ra Se rQ>v 
o'yia)!/ ypacjimp, thus taking navra to- 
ttov to mean 'every passage'; and 
so it is rendered in the Syriac Ver- 
sion, 'place of Scripture'. In this 
sense tottos occurs above in the ex- 
pression iv erepo) TOTrw, g 8, 29, 46. 
But this meaning does not seem at 
all natural here, where the word is 
used absolutely. For tottos ' a topic, 
argument', comp. e.g. Epict. Diss. 
i. 7- 4 eTTiaKeyp-iv Tiva TTOiijTeov Ta>v 

TOTTCOV TOVTaV, U. ly . 3^ OTUV TOVTOV 

i KTTovri<Tp . . .TOV TOTTOV, Siud sec othcr 
references in Schweigheeuser's index 
to Epictetus, s. v. For ^rjXa(f>av 
comp. e.g. Polyb. viii. i8. 4 Traaav 
eTTivoiav (^rjXaCJia. 

4. evapea-relv] Doubtless the cor- 
rect reading, as it explains the sub- 
sequent ivrfpia-Trjo-av. For another 
example of the confusion of evapea-- 
rdv, evx^apia-reiv, in the authorities, 
see 41. 

dfivTjO'iK.a.KCL)!] See 2 a.fjiVT)<TLKaKOi 
(with the note). This word involves 
an appeal to the sufferers from the 



schisms, v/ho are bidden to harbour 
no grudge. 

5. /iera eVrei^oOs k.t.A..] See the 
note on 58, where the same ex- 
pression occurs. 

6. 01 TTpof)8T]X<j}fXeVOl K.T.X.l^ SCC 

17, 18, 19; comp. also 30 e866rj 
[7) paprvpia] Toly TTUTpdcrtv -qpcov to7s 
diKaiois, and 3 1 avaTv\i^(x>p,ev ra 
aTT ap)(Tis yevopeva' tLvos X'^P"' ^^~ 
Xoyijdr) 6 TTOTqp rjpaiv 'A^padp; k.t.X. 
For this use of TruTepes in speaking 
of Jewish worthies, see the note on 

4. ^ 

10. eXXoyipatraTOis] See the note 
on 58 eXXoyipos- 

eyKfKv(})6o-iv'\ Comp. ^ 53 KaXas 
eTTicTTaadf ras lepas ypa(f)as, dyanrjroi, 
Koi eyKfKv(f)aTe els tci Xoyia tov Qeov, 
with the note. For the word eyKVTT- 
Teiv see the note on 40. 

LXIII. 'We ought therefore to 
regard so many great examples, and 
to bow the neck in submission; that 
laying aside all strife we may reach 
our destined goal. Ye will make 
us happy indeed, if ye obey and 
cease from your dissensions in ac- 
cordance with our exhortation to 



LXlIl] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



183 



Tt]v Kai TTpO's TvavTas du6p(i}7rov<i. Kat Tavra toctoutio 
r]Biov V7rejj.vt](rajj.6v, eweidrj aacpcJo^ i]heLfJiev 'ypacpeiu 
10 rj/xa? dv^pao'LV TrKTroTs Kai eWoyijucoTaTOi^ kul iyKe- 
KV(p6(nv ei^ t Xoyia Trj^ Trai^ela^ tov Oeov. 

LXIII. QefjLLTOv ovv ecrrLV Toh tolovtols kul 
TocovTOi^ vTToheLyfJLao'Lv iTpo(Te\6ovTa<s vTroQeivai tov 
Tpa^t^Xoi' Kai TOV Trj^ VTraKofjs tottov ava7r\t}pot)(ravTa^ 

ypd<f>Lv] quia scilicet matiifeste est lis; oporttut enim (/j^v) ut scriberennis S, i.e. 
tireihT) (ja<pQs fj' Set (or ?Set) fieu yap ypdrpeiu k.t.X. Again a corrupt reading, or 
rather a false division of the words, has been translated almost verbatim. For the 
facility with which ykp might be omitted or inserted before ypdcfiw, see Ign. Roiii^. 7. 
10 eX\o7t/xwTdTots] doctis S. 13 vwoOdvai rhv Tpdx''iXov'\ inclineimis colluin 

ttosti'um et stibjiciamus nos S. 14 d.va-K\r\pii(!avTa%...riixC:v\ iniplentcs in- 

clincmur illis qui sunt duces aniniarum nostrarum S ; dva-n-X'/jpQa-aL C, omitting 
all the other words : see the lower note. 



peace. And we have sent to you faith- 
ful men who have lived among us 
unblameably from youth to old age, 
to be witnesses between us and you. 
This we have done, to show yoti 
how great is our anxiety that peace 
may be speedily restored among 
you '. 

12. ee/xtroi/] The use of this word 
seems to be extremely rare, except 
with a negative, oil Bey-iTov (e.g. Tobit 
ii. 13) or ddifiiTov (see below). 

Tois ToiovTois K.r.X.] 4.6 Toiovrois 
ovv vTToSeiyiiacriv KoXkrjdrjvai koi jj/xos 

Sei K.T.X. For TOIOVTOIS KOI ToaovTOis 

comp. ig. 

13. Trpoo-eX^oi/ras] * ]iav big acceded 
to, attended to, assented to, studied\ 
as in v^ 33 ; comp. i Tim. vi. 3 et 
Ttj eVepoStSao-KuXei Koi \Lr\ Trpocrepxerai 
vyialvovcTiv Xoyoiy. So we find irpoa- 
ipxfa-6ai dpeTjj 'to apply oneself to 
virtue', Philo dc Migr. Abr. 16 
(l. p. 449) ) irpoa-epxea-dai rois vopois 
'to Study the laws', Diod. i. 95; 
TTpocrepxfO'dai rfj aoc^ia, rrj cjiikocrocfyia, 
' to become a follower of wisdom, of 
philosophy', Philostr. Vi't. Ap. i. 2 
(p. 2), iii. 18 (p. 50), comp. LXX 



Ecclus. vi. 26 6 npocreXduv avrrj (i.e. 
Tjj (Tocf)ia) ; Trpoaepxeo-dai (f)6j3(0 Kvpiov 
' to give heed to the fear of the Lord', 
LXX Ecclus. i. 30 ; Trpoaepx^o^dai- p^- 
bev\ Tav elprjpevcov Philo de Gig. 9 (l. 
p. 267) ; Trpoa-fpxfO'dai tm Xoyw, Orig. 
c. Cels. iii. 48. These senses are 
derived ultimately from the idea of 
'approaching a person as a disci- 
ple'; e.g. Xen. Mem. i. 2. 47 tuvTrep 
eveKfi/ Kai ^ayKparet. npoarfKdov. 

vnoOelvaL tov rpa;^jXoj/] ^submit 
your neck ', i. e. ' to the yoke ' ; 
comp. Ecclus. li. 26 tov Tpaxr]Kov 
vpSiv vn66eT vtto ^vyov (comp. ib. vi. 
24, 25), Epictet. Diss. iv. i. 77 
irape8a>iias cravTov 8ov\ov, vnidrjKas 
TOV TpdxrjXov. So too Acts XV. 10 
tTTidelvai ^vyov eVt tov Tpdx>]Xov. The 
expression is used in a different 
sense in Rom. xvi. 4 inrep rfjs v/^ux^s 
pov TOV eavTcHv Tpdx^^ov vTredrjKav, 
where it means 'laid their neck on 
the block', not 'pledged their lives', 
as Wetstein and others take it. 

14. TOTTOV dvanXrjpcaaavTas^ ' to OC- 
cicpy the place ', ^fulfil the function ' ; 
comp. I Cor. xiv. 16 o dvajik^pav 
TOV Tonov TOV l8i(oTov, where the 



t84 the epistle of S. clement [lxiii 

7rpO(TK\i6t]i'ai Toh vTrdp^ovo'LV dp-)(r]'yoX'S twv y^rvx^Mv 
r}}jL(Zv, b7ra)<s jjcru^acravTe'S r^? /jLUTaLa^ cTTacrews 67ri tov 
irpoKeifJievov rjfMv ev d\r]6eia (tkottou SfX TravTO^ fJL(afj.ov 
KaTavTV]a(afjiev. ^apav "/ap kul dyaWiacLV i^fjuv irape- 
^6T6, eav v7rr]K00i yei/ojuevoi toT^ vcp' r'jjULoov yeypa/uLiuLevoi^ 5 
dia TOV dylov Trvev juaTO's eKKoyjytjre Trju dSefJUTOv rov 
^f^Xovs vfJLwv opyrv Kara rrjv evreu^iv i]u eTVOLncrafxeda 
Trepl elpf^vtj'S Kai ojuovoia^ ev Trjde Trj iTTKrToXrj . 'Gtvejul- 

2 ^cri^xatrai'res] quiesce7itcs et tranquilli S. 3 ^iw/xoi;] add. et scandalo S. 

4 ajyaKKi'X(jw'\ add. magnajji S. 5 yeypafi/JLevoLs] add. vo6is S. 7 iprev^iv] 

Syriac is JinTlW'n ]):rh pIDJ 



choice of this elaborate expression 
is probably a studied paradox to 
bring out the honourable character 
of a private station; tottos denoting 
official position or dignity (see above, 
40, and the note on Ign. Polyc. i), 
while ld(.a>TT]s implies the opposite of 
this. So too here the object may 
be to enhance the mx^ox\.'s.xv\. function 
of obedience. See Cle7n. Hovi. in. 
60 TOV ip.ov avanXripovvTa tottov, and 
comp. Joseph. B. y. v. 2. 5 arpaTuo- 
Tov ra^ip anoTrXrjpoiivTa. 

I. npoaKkidfjvai k.t.X.] These 
words are wanting in the Greek 
MS, and I have restored them by 
retranslation from the Syriac : see 
the critical note. The \.xm.q partisan- 
ship is here tacitly contrasted with 
the false; the rightful leaders with 
the wrongful. The language is ex- 
plained by what has gone before; 
14 p-vaepov ^^Xovs apx^yols e^a- 
KoKovdilv, ^ 5 ^ iKeivoi o'lrives dpxrjyol 
Trjs (Traaecos Koi Bixoaraaias iyevrjOr]- 
crap, 47 8ia to Kai ToTe irpoa-KKiaeis 
vp.ds TrenoifjcrBai ... TrpoaeKkidi'jTe yap 
K.T.X., 50 '"''^ ^^ dyarrr] evpfdcopev Si'x" 
TTpoaKkia-fois dp6pOL>77ivr]S ap(op,ot (comp. 
21 /xJj Kara TrpocTKKiaeis:). The com- 
mand to choose the right partisan- 
ships here has a parallel in g 45 
<f>iK6p(iKot e(TTe...7repl twv dprjKOPTau 
els (ToiTrjpiup (see the note). The 



;nE^'23"l ^^JIllD. For pin: I cannot 
think of any word so probable as 
Trpoa-KKidfjvai, since p"| is a common 
translation of KXipetp, and in 21 
Trpoo-AcXi'cretj isrendered ^5DX"I Nni:3''D"l; 
though TrpocTKKiveadai, T:p6aK.\taris, are 
rendered otherwise, but variously, in 
47, 50, Acts V. 36, I Tim. v. 21. On 
the other hand XJ"l2"10 'ductores' 
might be variously rendered. It most 
commonly represents 6 ijyovpevosC^^ i, 
32, ^7 in a double rendering, 55, Heb. 
xiii. 7, 17, 24); but elsewhere riyepcov, 
KadrjyrjTtjs, odrjyoi, etc., even ^ovXevTijs. 
I have given dpxrjyos, because it 
brings out the contrast which Cle- 
ment seems to have had in his mind. 
In 14, 51, however, dpxrjyos is ren- 
dered otherwise, Nt^'n, XJK'n, and so 
commonly. 

2. a-Taa-ecos] Comp. C/eni. Honi. 
1. 4 TtS" TOLOVTdiP \oyi(rpu)P rjavxa^eiv. 
This construction follows the analogy 
of verbs denoting cessation, etc. 
(see Kiihner 11. p. 341 sq). It is un- 
necessary therefore to read 7'j(Tvxa(Td- 
arjs, as Gebhardt suggests. 

3. crKOTTup] Comp. 6 eVl top t^s 
TTiaTews ^e^oLov dpopov KaTaPT^aapep, 
and 19 f7rava8papa)pfp fTrl top i^ dpx^i 
napadedopepop rjplv Tt]i eiptjprjs (tkottop, 
which explains the idea in the wri- 
ter's mind here. The expression 



LXIV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



185 



\jyaiuL6i/ he Kal avhpa^ ttlottovs kui (raxppova^j diro veo- 
10 Tt]TO^ dvao'TpacpevTa^ ews yrjpou^ a/xe/UTrrws eV tjiuui/, 
o'ltii/6^ Kal juaprvpe's kcrovraL jueTa^v vjulcov kul tjjucov. 
TOVTO ^6 eTroLYiCTafjiev \va el^rjre oti irda'a rifjuv 
(ppovTis Kal 'yeyovev kul ecTiv 6l<s to ev Ta^ei vfxds 
6lpriv6U(rai. 

15 LXIV. AoiTTOV 6 TraVTeTTOTTTf]^ QeO'S Kal ^eCTTTOTf)^ 

Tcdv TTvevfxaTiav Kal KvpLO'i Tracrt]^ crapKO^, 6 eKXepd- 



stipplicationeni et exhortationem S- 
rivf:% /cat] S ; omj/es (om. koX) C. 

itself is perhaps suggested by Heb. 

xii. I Tpe^cofifv Tov TrpoKeifievop rifJ.1v 
ayS>va. For o-kotto;' comp. Phil. iii. 14. 

/Ltffl/xov] ^ fault, defect: see the 
note on iicoixoa-KOTTrjdev 41. In the 
Old Testament it is always a trans- 
lation of D1?D '3. blemish'. 

4. x^ptw /c.r.X.] As in Luke i. 14 
(comp. Matt. v. 12, Rev. xix. 7); see 
also Mart. Polyc. 18. This combi- 
nation of words xapa koli dyaXKlaais 
does not occur in the LXX. 

6. dia TOV dyiov nveviJiaTos] See 
the note on 59 rots vtt avrov di 
Tfixuiv (Iprjfiivois. Harnack takes these 
words with iKKo-^r^re, but this does 
not seem so natural. 

d6epiTov\ Acts X. 28, I Pet. iv. 3; 
and so too 2 Mace. vi. 5, vii. i, x. 34. 

7. ^77'Xovr] See the note on 4. 
'ivrev^iv] This should probably be 

explained of the 'appeal' to the Cor- 
inthians themselves ; see the note on 
[Clem. Rom.] ii. 19. It might how- 
ever refer to the foregoing 'prayer' 
to God for concord ; comp. e.g. i Tim. 
ii. I, iv. 5, Herm. Maud. x. 2. 

9. avhpai\ Claudius Ephebus and 
Valerius Bito, whose names are given 
below, -5 65. For the light which 
this notice throws on the early history 
of the Roman Church see the in- 
troduction, I. p, 27 sq ; and for its 
bearing on the date, see I. p. 349. 



9 5e Kttt] S ; 5e (om. koX) C. i i o'L- 

15 Aot7r6;'] C; ..iwov A; Xonrbv 5^ S, 

10. yijpovs] So Luke i. 36 ytjpei 
(the correct reading), and in several 
passages in the LXX, e.g. Ps. xci (xcii). 
14 y^pei, I Kings xiv. 4 yijpovs, 
Ecclus. viii. 6, etc., with more or less 
agreement in the principal MSS; so 
also C/e;/i. Honi. iii. 43, On this 
form see Winer Gramm. ix. p. T^ sq, 
Steph. Thes. s. v., ed. Hase. Our MS 
has alsoy^pet above in 10, where A 
reads yrjpa. 

LXIV. ' ' Finally, may the God of 
all spirits and all ilesh, who hath 
chosen us in Christ Jesus, grant us 
all graces through Christ, our High- 
priest, through whom be glory and 
honour to Him. Amen.' 

15. Aonrov\ For Xoirrov or to Xoi- 
TTov, with which S. Paul frequently 
ushers in the close of his epistles, 
see Philippians iii. i. The happy 
conjecture of Vansittart which I 
adopted in my first edition is con- 
firmed by our new authorities. 

TraireTroTTTT^s] See the note on 55. 

e6os'...rt5j/ TTVivp.aTviv /c.r.X.] Num. 
XX vii. 16 Ku/jto? o Seoy tQ>v npevfiaToov 
Koi Trdarjs aapKos (comp. xvi. 22) : see 
also Heb. xii. 9 rw naTpi toov TrpfVfid- 
Toiv, Rev. xxii. 6 Kvpios 6 0eoy tcHu 
TTVevp.aT(x)v Tuv TrpocprjTwv. 

16. o e'/cXe^fi/Liei/oy] See Luke ix. 35 
o vlds fiov 6 fKXfXfypeuos (the Correct 
reading, though there arc vv. 11, 



i86 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



[lxiv 



fjievo^ Tov Kvpiov 'Iria-ouv XpicTTOV Kal t'ljua^ hi aurou 
eh Kaov 7repL0U(TL0Vi ^wtj Trda-yj ^^vxrj eiriKeKXrifJievt] to 
HieyaXoTTpeTre^ Kal ayiov ouojua avTOu iricTTiv, (po^ov, 
eiprjuriUf V7rofJLOvr]v, juLaKpodujULiaVj eyKpuTeiav, dyveiav 
Kal crco(ppoa'vvr]i/, ek euapecTTrjo'ii' tw ovofxaTL avrov 5 

I Tjixas] AS ; 17/aets C. 3 ixeyaXoTrperres Kai 07101'] AC ; sa7ictum el deceits 

(in) magnitudine et gloriosum S; see above, I. p. 137. ipb^ov, elpi^vrjv, vtto- 

/jLov-^v] AC ; e( timorein et concordiam et amoretn et patientiam S. 4 jxaKpoOv- 

fdav] A ; /cat fAaKpodv/xiav CS. iyKpareiav, d7;'iai'] AC (but ayviav A) ; Kal 

iyKpareiav Kal ayveiav S. 5 Kal crucppoaC'viji'] AS ; ffu>(ppoa6vriv (om. koX) C. 

oj'O/aaTi] AC; add. sancto S. 6 dpx'ep^ws] AC; add. magni S. 7 hli^a\ 



IkK^ktos and aym!r]To%). So too Luke 
xxiii. 35 o Xpttrros 6 tov GfoC Ik- 
XfKTos : comp. i Pet. ii. 4 sq. Harnack 
refers to Hermes Sim. v. 2 e/cXe^a- 
ixfvos SoiiXov TLva iriaTov koI evapecrrov 
evTLjxov, where the servant entrusted 
with the vineyard represents Christ. 
It is clear from Enoch xl. 5, xlv. 3, 4, 
li. 3, liii. 6, Ixii. i, that 6 inXeKTos was 
a recognized designation of the 
Messiah. 

1. rjjias 81 avrov] Ephes. i. 4 Kad- 
as i^eki^aro t]fMa.i iv aJrtS (i.e. ev 

XptOTw). 

2. eiy \aoi> TvepLova-iov] Deut. xiv, 
4 <cu o"e e^fXe^aro Kvptos 6 Qeos crov 
yeveadai ae Xaov avra nepiovcnov ; 
comp. t'd. vii. 6, xxvi. 18, Exod. xix. 5, 
Ps. cxxxiv. 4, Tit. ii. 14 Kadapla-rf 
eavToi Xaov Trepiovcnov. In the LXX 
Xaos irepiovaios is a translation of 
nSjD Dy, the expression doubtless 
present to S. Peter's mind when he 
spoke of Xaos els Tvepmoliqa-iv (l Pet. 
ii. 9). In Mai. iii. 17 n?JD is trans- 
lated ds irfpLTTolrjcnv in the LXX, and 
Trepiovaios by Aquila. As n^JD is 
'peculium', 'opes', ("pJO ' acquisivit'), 
Trepiovcrios would seem to mean ' ac- 
quired over and above', and hence 
'specially acquired' with a meaning 
similar to the classical e^alperos. It 
was rendered at once literally and 
effectively in the Latin Bible by 
' peculiaris'. See my Revision of the 



English New Testament p. 195 sq 
(ed. 2). 

eniKeKXijp.ei'ri'] ' wkicA hath in- 
voked his naine' ; comp. Acts ii. 21, 
ix. 14, 21, xxii. 16, etc. So it is trans- 
lated actively in the Syriac. Or is it 
rather, as the perfect tense suggests, 
''which is called by his name^'i This 
latter makes better sense, especially 
in connexion with Xaos nepiova-ios ; 
but with this meaning the common 
constructions in bibHcal Greek would 
be e(^' fjv (or e'0' 7}) fTnKKXi]Tai to 

ovofia avToii (e.g. Acts XV. 17, James 
ii. 7, and freq. in the LXX), or rrj eVt- 
K.iKXr]p.vrj rw 6v6p.aTL avTov (Is. xliii. j). 
4- ayveiav Kol <Ta>(f>po(rvvr]v] So too 
/^n. Ephes. 10; comp. Tit. ii. 5 
(j-axppovas, dyvds. 

5. evapearrjo-iv] The word occurs 
Test, xii Patr. Is. 4. 

6. dp)(iepecos Kal TrpocrTaTov] See 
the note on 36 above, where the 
expression is expanded. 

7. 86^a Ka\ peyaXcoa-vvT]^ See the 
note on 20, where also these two 
words occur together in a doxology : 
comp. also 59, where nearly the 
same combination of words as here 
is repeated. In Rev. v. 13 we have 
7; Tifir] Ka\ 1] 86^a Ka\ to Kpdros els Toiis 
aimvas twv alcovcov. 

LXV. ' We have sent Claudius 
Ephebus and Valerius Bito to you. 
Let them return to us quickly accom- 



LXV] 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



187 



^id Tov dpy^iep6C09 Kai TrpocrraTOv tjjuwu 'lr](rou XpicTTOu' 
^i ou avTM ho^a Kai fji.eya\u)(rvvr], KpaTO^, Tijurjf kuI 
vvv Kai ek TravTa^ tovs aiiava^ twu aLcoi/cov. d/uLrjv. 

LXY. Tov ^6 dTrecTTaXjULet/ov^ dcp' rifjicov KXav^LOV 
10' G(br]l3ov Kai OuaXepiov BiTcova (Tvv Kai ^opTOVvaria ev 

AC; 7ra(ra 56^a S, which omits the following words koL /xeya\w(T6v7], Kpdros, ri/x-q, 
Kai fuv Kai. /cat] om. C. nfjiri] A; KalrifMri C 8 Travras] AC ; 

cm. S. 10 /cat OvaXiptov] AC; Valeruun (om. /cat) or et Alcrium S; but this 

is doubtless owing to the accidental omission of a 1 before D)'*"1X?X1 by a Syrian 
scribe. BtVwya] AC ; om. S. The punctuation of both C and S is faulty 

here, in separating names which belong to the same person. abv /cat] AC ; 

(jiiv (om. KoX) S. ^opTovvari:f\ A ; ^ovpTOXsvarii) C ; Frtitunato S. 

panied by Fortunatus, and bear glad this and allied names see above, i. 



tidings of harmony and peace re- 
stored among you. The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ be with you 
and with all. Through Him be glory 
to God for ever.' 

9. KKavhiov /c.r.X.] These two 
names, Claudius and Valerius, sug- 
gest some connexion with the im- 
perial household ; as the fifth Caesar 
with his two predecessors belonged 
to the Claudian gens and his empress 
Messalina to the Valerian. Hence 
it happens that during and after the 
reign of Claudius we not unfre- 
quently find the names Claudius 
(Claudia) and Valerius (Valeria) in 
conjunction, referring to slaves or 
retainers of the Cajsars. It is not 
impossible therefore that these two 
delegates of the Roman Church were 
among the members of ' Caesar's 
household ' mentioned in Phil. iv. 22, 
and fairly probable that they are in 
some way connected with the palace; 
see the dissertation in Philippicuis p. 
169 sq. On this subject see also the 
introduction, I. p. 27 sq. Of the two 
cognomina Ephebus is not so un- 
common. On the other hand Bito 
is rare in Latin, though commoner 
in Greek (comp. Pape-Benseler 
Wbrterb. d. Gricch. Eigentiameii s.v. 
BiTwv). For instances in Latin of 



p. 28. In Muratori, 1367 no. 12, it 
occurs as a woman's name,LONGiNVS. 

BITONI. VXORI. AMENTO. 

10. (TVV Ka\ ^oprovvaTcf] For the 
position of /cat comp. Phil. iv. 3 nera 
Ka\ KArJjLtei^Toj (quoted by Laurent 
p. 425). Hilgenfeld adds 'from the 
Assumption of Moses ^ Clem. Alex. 
Strom, vi. 15 (p. 806) crvv Ka\ tm 
XaXe^. The clever emendation of 
Davies avv Tata ^oprovvdra is there- 
fore unnecessary ; and moreover the 
testimony of A is now reinforced by 
one other Greek MS. The form of 
expression seems to separate Fortu- 
natus from Ephebus and Bito : and, 
if so, he was perhaps not a Roman 
who accompanied the letter, but a 
Corinthian from whom Clement was 
expecting a visit. In this case there 
is no improbabihty in identifying 
him with the Fortunatus of i Cor. 
xvi. 17 ; for Fortunatus seems to be 
mentioned by S. Paul (a. D. 57) as 
a younger member of the household 
of Stephanas, and might well be alive 
less than forty years after, when 
Clement wrote. It must be remem- 
bered however, that Fortunatus is a 
very common name. See above, I. 
p. 29, note 3, p. 62, note i. 

iv elp^vji /C.T.X.] I Cor. xvi. i i npn- 
nip^aTf 8e uvtov iv flp-qvjj. 



i88 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT. 



[lxv 



6if}t]i/r] juera )(^apa<s eV Ta-)(^eL dvaTrefi^aTe rrpo^ f]fj.a^, 
OTTWs OaTTOV Tt]v evKTULav Kal e7ri7ro6r]Tr}v i]juuv elprjvtjv 
Kat ofjiovoLav dTrayyeWcocrLV' eU to tu-^iov kul t) fid's 
^apfjvai TTEpl Trj^ evcTTadeia^ vfj-tov. 

'H x^P'-^ '^^^ Kvplou rifJLiov ^lr]<TOv XpicTTOv jued' ly/xwi^ 5 
Kai fxera TravTiav TravTa-x/l tcov KCKXt] juevcop vtto tov 
Oeov KOI hi avTOv' ^l ou avrio do^a, Ti/jLt], Kpdros Kal 
lieyaXuiorvvr], Qpovo^ aicovLOS, diro Tiav alwpcov eU roi/s 
aitova^ Twv aLcovvov. d/urii/. 

I dvawefj.\l/aTe] aveireixxpare A. 2 ewnro6-^T7]v] A ; ein.-Kb9r)Tov C. elp-fjvrjv 

Kal 6iJ.6voiai>'] AC; o/mvomv Kal eipijvrjv S. 3 dTrayYeXXwirtJ'] A (the first \ being 

supplied above the line but prima viami) ; dirayyeiXwaiv C. rdx'oj'] raxeto A. 

4 evcrradeias] evvTaOiaa A. 7 Kat 5t' avTOv] AS ; 5t' avrov (om. Kal) C. rt/ttr; 

...dwb Tuiu aiwuuv] AC ; om. S. As the general tendency of S is rather to add than 
to omit, the omissions in this neighbourhood (more especially in the proper names) 
suggest that the translator's copy of the Greek was blurred or mutilated in this part. 
It must be observed however that the omissions of S, here and above 64, reduce 
the doxology to Clement's normal type; comp. e.g. 32, 38, 43, 45, 50. 8 e] 

AS ; Kat ets C. 

For the subscriptions in our authorities see above, I. pp. 117, 122, 131. 
2. daTTov} This form is doubly Lobeck Paral. p. 455 sq, especially 



strange here, as it does not occur in 
the New Testament, and Clement 
uses the usual ra-)(iov two lines be- 
low. QcLTTov however is found in 
Mart. Ign. 3, 5, Mart. Polyc. 13, in 
which latter passage Qarrov and ra- 
X^ov occur in consecutive sentences 
as here. Both our MSS agree in 
reading Bottov here, and raxiov just 
below. 

evKrai'ai/] The word does not oc- 
cur in the LXX or New Testament, 
though common in classical Greek. 

ii;moQr]Tr)v\ As an adjective of 
three terminations ; comp. Barnab. 
I 77 eniTTodrJTr] oyJMS vyidv, where 
Hilgenfeld unnecessarily reads inmo- 
6r]Tos. The feminine does not occur 
in the LXX or New Testament. For 
similar instances of adjectives of 
three terminations in the New Tes- 
tament see A. Buttmann p. 22 sq ; 
and on the whole subject refer to 



P- 473 sq. 

4. eva-raBelas] ''tranquillity'' ; comp. 
Wisd. vi. 26, 2 Mace. xiv. 6. On cu- 
(TxaBfiv see the notes to Ign. Polyc. 4. 

6. Kai nera Tvavrtov k.t.X.] For a 
benediction similarly extended see 
I Cor. i. 2 aw TTacTL Tois fTnKoXoviJLevois 
TO bvojxa K.T.X. 

8. Opwos aicovios^ This doxology 
is imitated in Mart. Polyc. 21 'ir^o-oO 
y^pivrov a 1] do^a, Tifiij, fifyaXaxriivrj, 
6p6vos aicovios, ano yeveas fis yeveau. 
Here 6p6voi alcovios seems to be 
thrown in as an after thought, the 
ascription having ended with /cat 
fieyaXcocrvvrj ; and the idea of aldvios 
is prolonged by the thrice repeated 
aicdvcov, aiavas, alaii'cov. 

For the obligations of the begin- 
ning and end of this same document 
to the Epistle of Clement see Igiuit. 
and Polyc. I. p. 610 sq, ed. i (p. 626 
sq, ed. 2). 



THE SO-CALLED 



SECOND EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 



TO 



THE CORINTHIANS. 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



WE have seen that the table of contents prefixed to our leading 
MS (A) ascribes to Clement the Second Epistle equally with 
the First. On the other hand it ought to be noticed that there is no 
heading npoc KopiN0ioYC b, as the corresponding title of the First would 
lead us to expect. If we could feel sure that this phenomenon was 
not due to the mutilation of the ms (see above, i. p. 117), the fact 
would be significant. Though the scribe held the Second Epistle to 
be not only a letter of Clement, but also (as we may perhaps infer) 
a letter to the Corinthians; yet the absence of such a title might 
have been transmitted from an earlier copy, where the work was 
anonymous and not intended to be ascribed to this father. But the 
alternative supposition that the title has disappeared by mutilation is 
at least not improbable (see below, p. 199). In the later Greek ms (C) 
the second Epistle is entitled ' Of Clement to the Corinthians ', like the 
first (see above, i. p. 122). 

On the other hand the Syriac Version makes a distinction between 
the two (see i. p. 131 sq). The First Epistle is described as 'The 
Cathohc Epistle of Clement the disciple of Peter the Apostle to the 
Church of the Corinthians'; where not only is the epistle not numbered, 
but a distinguishing epithet is prefixed. In the case of the Second 
however, though the scribe makes no difference in the authorship and 
designation of the two, the title is given more simply ' Of the same 
(Clement) the Second Epistle to the Corinthians.' This distinction 
may be accidental ; but a probable explanation is, that in some Greek 
MS, from which the Syriac Version was ultimately derived, the First 
Epistle stood alone, the Second not having yet been attached to it. 

While the First Epistle is universally attributed to Clement, the 
balance of external testimony is strongly opposed to his being regarded 



192 THE EPISTLES OF S CLEMENT. 

as the author of the Second. It is first mentioned by Eusebius, who 
throws serious doubts on its genuineness [JI.E. in. 37). After describing 
the First he adds, ' I should mention also that there is said to be a 
Second Epistle of Clement (lo-riov S" ws koI Seurepa ns cTvat Xeyerat Tov 
KXijfjLevTo^ iTna-ToXrj) : but we do not know that this is recognised like the 
former (ou fxi^v i.6' o/i.otws ttJ Trporepa kol Tavrrjv yvwpLfxov cTrtora/xe^a) ; for 
we do not find the older writers making any use of it (oVt fi-qSk kol tous 
apxaiovs avrfj KXpy]iJ^^ov<i icrfxev). Then after summarily rejecting other 
pretended Clementine writings, because ' they are never once mentioned 
by the ancients ' and 'do not preserve the stamp of Apostolic orthodoxy 
intact', he concludes by referring again to the First Epistle, which he 
calls 'the acknowledged writing of Clement (>; tou KXt^/acvto? ojxoXoyov- 
fjiivr] ypa(f)7J).' And in other passages, where he has occasion to 
speak of it, he uses similar expressions, ' ^/le Epistle of Clement', 'the 
acknoivledged Epistle of Clement' {H. E. iii. 16, iv. 22, 23, vi. 13). The 
statement of Eusebius is more than borne out by facts. Not only is a 
Second Epistle of Clement not mentioned by early writers ; but it is a 
reasonable inference from the language of Hegesippus and Dionysius of 
Corinth' (as reported by Eusebius), and of Irenseus and Clement of 
Alexandria (as read in their extant writings), that they cannot have known 
or at least accepted any such epistle ^ Rufinus and Jerome use still 
more decisive language. The former professedly translates Eusebius, 
* Dicitur esse et alia dementis epistola ciijus nos notitiam non accepi- 
7}ius' ; the latter tacitly paraphrases him, 'Fertur et secunda ejus nomine 
epistola quae a veteribus reprobattir^ (de Vir. III. 15). These writers are 
not independent witnesses, but the strength, which they consciously or 
unconsciously add to the language of the Greek original, has at least a 
negative value ; for they could not have so written, if any Second Epistle 

^ Hegesippus, H. E. iii. 16, iv, 22 : was written by Clement. Thus he seems 

Dionysius, H. E. iv. 23. The words of to know of only one letter of Clement to 

the latter are tV <Tr)iJ.epov ovv KvpiuKrjv the Corinthians. The passage however 

aylav Tfiiipav Sirjydyo/JLev, iv rj dviyvufiev has been strangely misinterpreted, as 

v/xwv ry)v iiricrToXrjp, rjv 'i^ofiev del irore though tt]v irporipav meant //le former 

dvayivo:(TKovTe% vovOerela-dai, ws Kai ti}v of Clement'' s hvo epistles a meaning 

TrpoTipav 7]fuv did KXTj/xevros ypa^eiaav. which the context does not at all favour 

He is writing in the name of the Corin- and which the grammar excludes, for then 

thians to the Romans, acknowledging a we should require ttjv n-poripa.v tQv 5id 

letter which they had received from the 'KKrjp.evTO's ypa(pi.(xwv. 

brethren in Rome written apparently by ^ fjjg passages from these, and later 

their bishop Soter ; and he declares that fathers, to whom I shall have occasion 

his Church will preserve and read from to refer, are given in full above, i. p. 

time to time this second letter from the 153 sq. 
Romans, as they do the former which 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 1 93 

of Clement which might be accepted as genuine had fallen within the 
range of their knowledge. 

Early in the 9th century Georgius Syncellus still speaks of 'the one 
gemiine letter to the Corinthians' {Chro?tog. a.d. 78, i. p. 651, ed. Dind.); 
and later in the same century Photius {BibL 113) writes, 'The so-called 
Second Epistle (of Clement) to the same persons (the Corinthians) is 
rejected as spurious (ws vo'^os aTroSoKi/xa^erat).' 

Meanwhile however this epistle had been gradually gaining recog- 
nition as a genuine work of Clement. The first distinct mention of it 
as such is in the MS A, which belongs probably to the fifth century; but 
the notice of Eusebius implies that even in his day some persons 
were disposed to accept it. At a later period its language and teaching 
made it especially welcome to the Monophysites and from the close 
of the 5th century it is frequently quoted as genuine. Thus citations 
are found in Timotheus of Alexandria (i. p. 180 sq) in the middle 
of the 5th century and in Severus of Antioch (i. p. 182 sq) during 
the early decades of the 6th, besides certain anonymous Syriac 
collections (i. p. 183 sq), which may date from this latter period or 
subsequently. The doubtful reference in the Pseudo-Justin has been 
discussed above (i. p. 178 sq). To the 6th century also may perhaps 
be ascribed the Apostolical Canons, where (can. 85) 'Two Episdes 
of Clement ' are included among the books of the New Testament (see 
above, i. p. 187). About the opening of the 7th century again it 
is quoted by Dorotheus the Archimandrite (see i. p. 190); in the 
8th century by Joannes Damascenus (see i. p. 193), if indeed the 
passage has not been interpolated'; and in the nth by Nicon of 
Rh^ethus (see the notes, 3). If in the Stichometria attached to the 
Chronography of Nicephorus (tA.D. 828) it is placed with the First 
Epistle among the apocrypha, this classification does not question its 
genuineness but merely denies its canonicity. 

But what is the external authority for considering it an Epistle to the 
Corinthians ? We have seen that it is called an Epistle from the first ; 
but the designation to the Corinthians is neither so early nor so 
universal. It was not so designated by Eusebius or Jerome or 
Timotheus. But in Severus of Antioch (c. a.d. 520) for the first 
time a quotation is distinctly given as ' from the Second Epistle to 
the Corinthians '. The Syriac ms itself which contains the extract from 
Severus ' can hardly,' in Cureton's opinion, 'have been transcribed later 
than the commencement of the 8th century and might have been 

^ See the investigation above, i. p. 373 sq. 
CLEM. II. 13 



194 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

written about the end of the 6th.' In other Syriac extracts also which 
perhaps belong to the 6th century, it is quoted in this way. In the 
copy used by Photius again it appears to have been so entitled {Bibl. 
126 ySi^AtSaptov v (L KAT^/Aei/Tos hvi<no\ax tt/oos Koptv^ious /3' iv<f>ipovTO, 
compared with ld/. 113 77 Xcyoyacv?; Sevrepa Trpos tovs aiJTOv?) 3 
and John Damascene twice cites it as ' the Second Epistle to the 
Corinthians '. 

Passing from the external to the internal evidence, we have to seek 
an answer to these several questions; (i) Is it truly designated an 
Epistle? (2) Was it addressed to the Corinthians? (3) What indi- 
cations of date does it give? (4) Who was the author, Clement or 
another ? 



Having considered the external testimony, we are now in a position 
to interrogate the internal evidence. 

The questions suggested by the common attribute, ' The Second 
Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians,' are threefold; (i) Was it an 
epistle? If not, what is the nature of the document? (2) Was it 
addressed to the Corinthians or to some other Church ? (3) Was it 
written by Clement or by some one else ? In order to answer this 
last question we have to enquire what indications we find of date and 
authorship ? 

(i) The answer to our first question is ready to hand. If the First 
Epistle of Clement is the earliest foreshadowing of a Christian liturgy, 
the so-called Second Epistle is the first example of a Christian hotnily. 

The newly recovered ending has set this point at rest for ever. 
The work is plainly not a letter, but a homily, a sermon'. The speaker 
addresses his hearers more than once towards the close as 'brothers 
and sisters' ( 19, 20). Elsewhere he appeals to them in language 
which is quite explicit on the point at issue. 'Let us not think,' he 
says, 'to give heed and believe now only, while we are being admonished 

^ Grabe {Spic. Pair. i. p. 268, 300) in Clement's name. The event has 

supposed it to be a homily forged in shown his conjecture to be right as to 

Clement's name. He referred to Anas- the character of the document. In all 

tasius [Qiiaest. 96), who quotes from the other respects he is in error. The Cle- 

sacred and apostolic doctor Clement in ment of Anastasius is not the Roman, 

his first discourse {'kbyLp) concerning but the Alexandrian; and our homily 

' providence and righteous judgment,' as bears no traces of a forgery or of pre- 

showing that such homilies were forged tending to be Clement's. 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 195 

by the presbyters; but likewise when we have departed home, let us 
remember the commandments of the Lord, etc' ( 17). And again a 
little later he speaks still more definitely; 'After the God of truth, 
I read to you an exhortation to the end that ye may give heed to the 
things which are written (i.e. to the scriptures which have just been 
read), so that ye may save both yourselves and him that readeth in the 
midst of you' ( 19). These words remind us of the language in 
which Justin, who wrote within a few years of the probable date of this 
homily, describes the simple services of the Christians in his time. 
'On the day called Sunday,' he says, 'all remaining in their several cities 
and districts, they come together in one place, and the memoirs of the 
Apostles [i. e. the Gospels, as he explains himself elsewhere] or the 
writings of the Prophets are read, as long as time admits. Then, when 
the reader has ceased, the president (o Trpoeo-rw's) in a discourse (Sid 
Xo'you) gives instruction and invites (his hearers) to the imitation of these 
good things. Then we all rise in a body and offer up our prayers' 
{Apoi. i. 67, quoted in the notes on 19). Here then is one of these 
exhortations, which is delivered after the ' God of truth ' has been first 
heard in the scriptures^; and, this being so, the preacher was doubtless, 
as Justin describes him, 6 Trpoeo-rw?, the leading minister of the Church, 
i. e. the bishop or one of the presbyters, as the case might be. A 
different view indeed has been taken by Harnack. He supposes that 
the homily was delivered by a layman", drawing his inference from the 
mention of the presbyters (in 17 just quoted) as persons whom the 
preacher and his hearers alike were bound to listen to. But this 
language can only be regarded, I think, as an example of a very 
common rhetorical figure, by which the speaker places himself on a 
level with his audience, and of which several instances are furnished by 
the genuine Epistle of Clement, who again and again identifies himself 
with the factious brethren at Corinth (see the note on 17). On very rare 
occasions indeed we read of laymen preaching in the early Church ; but 
such concessions were only made to persons who had an exceptionally 
brilliant reputation, like Origen^. As a rule, this function belonged to 

^ Exception has been taken to this troduces an evangelical quotation with 

expression /uerd top Qehv t^s dXrjOeias- \iyei 6 Geo's, 13; see the note on the 

Zahn {Gi>U. Gel. Anz. p. 1418) and passage. We do not even know whether 

Donaldson [T/icol. Rev. January, 1877, the lesson to which he here refers was 

p. 46) propose X670J' for Qebv, while taken from the Old or the New Testa- 

Gebhardt suggests toVwv or tovov (TONfiN nient. 

or TONOYfor TON0N). But it is difficult ' See p. Ixxii, note ir, p. 138 (ed. 2). 

to see why our preacher should not have So also Hilgenfeld, p. 106 (cd. 2). 

used this phrase, when he elsewhere in- '' The objections raised in his case 

132 



196 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



the chief ecclesiastical officer in the congregation. A presbyter did 
not preach when the bishop was present; a deacon was for the most 
part regarded as incompetent to preach on any occasion'. 

The question therefore respecting the class of writings to which this 
document belongs is settled beyond dispute. The homiletic character 
of the work was suggested long ago by Grabe and others ; and in my 
own edition I had regarded the opinion that it was a sermon or treatise 
rather than a letter as prima facie probable, though so long as the end 
was wanting this view could not be regarded as certain". On the other 
hand the theory propounded by Hilgenfeld, that we had here the letter 
of Soter bishop of Rome to the Corinthians, mentioned by Dionysius of 
Corinth about a.d. 170, was eagerly accepted by subsequent critics and 
editors. In a courteous review of my edition which appeared in the 
Academy (July 9, 1870) Lipsius espoused this theory as probable. And 
still later, on the very eve of the discovery of Bryennios, Harnack in 
the excellent edition of the Patres Apostolici of which he is coeditor 
had confidently adopted Hilgenfeld's opinion ; ' Nullus dubito quin 
Hilgenfeldius verum invenerit,' 'mireris...neminem ante Hilgenfeldium 
verum invenisse' (prol. pp. xci, xcii, ed. i). This view was highly 



show that the practice was rare. Alex- 
ander of Jerusalem and Theoctistus of 
Ca?sarea (Euseb. H. E. vi. 19), writing to 
Demetrius of Alexandria, defend them- 
selves for according this privilege to 
Origen, as follows : Trpoai67]Ke 8e roh 
ypajxixacnv, Stl tovto ov8^ Trore rjKovcrdri 
oiiSk vvv yeyivTiTaL, to irapovTiov iwiffKOTrcov 
XaiKovi 6fii\7v, oiiK old' ottws irpocpOLvGis ovk 
aXriOr/ Xijiov. ovov yovv evpicTKOVTai ol 
imrrideioi irpos to ih(pe\e1v tov% ddeXcpovs, 
Kal wapaKoKovvTai. t^ \aip wpoaoiuKetv 
vwb tQv ayiuv e-maKoiriov, Cocrwep iv Aapdv- 
801.S EueXiTiS vrrb N^w^s Kal ev 'iKoviqi 
TlavXivos iiirb KeXcou /cat ev 2vvvd8ois 
Qeodupos virb 'Attlkov tuv fiaKapluv dSeX- 
<pwv eiKos dk Kal ev aXXots tottois tovto 
ylvecOai, ijixas Si fxr] eldivai. 

1 See Bingham Antiq. xiv. 4. 2, 4, 
Augusti Christl. Archdol. vi. p. 315 sq, 
Probst Lehre u. Gebet pp. 18 sq, 222. 

2 See esp. pp. 177, 178. I call at- 
tention to this, because my view has been 
misrepresented. Thus Lipsius {Academy, 
July 9, 1S70) wrote of me, 'He holds 



strongly with Hilgenfeld that the docu- 
ment is really a letter, not a homily.' 
So far from holding this view strongly, 
I have stated that we find in the docu- 
ment ' nothing which would lead to this 
inference,' and again that it ' bears 710 
traces of the epistolary form, though it 
may possibly have been a letter ' ; but 
I did not consider that in the existing 
condition of the work certainty on this 
point was attainable, and I therefore 
suspended judgment. When my able 
reviewer goes on to say of me ' He also 
agrees with Hilgenfeld in the opinion, 
that the epistle was composed during the 
persecution under Marcus Aurelius,' he 
imputes to me a view directly opposed to 
that which I have expressed (p. 177, ed. i), 
I think also that tlie reader would 
gather from the manner in which I am 
mentioned by Harnack (p. Ixvi, note 2, 
p. Ixxv) as ' refuting ' Grabe, that I had 
maintained the document to be an epistle 
and not a homily; though probably this 
was not intended. 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



197 



plausible and attractive ; but it was open to one objection which I 
pointed out as fatal to it. It did not satisfy the primary conditions of 
the letter mentioned by Dionysius of Corinth, which was written in the 
name of the whole Roman Church, whereas our author speaks in the 
singular throughout '. 

(ii) As regards the audience addressed by the preacher Corinth 
has highest claims. If the homily were delivered in that city, we have 
an explanation of two facts which are not so easily explained on any 
other hypothesis. 

First. The allusion to the athletic games, and presumably to the 
Isthmian festival, is couched in language which is quite natural if 
addressed to Corinthians, but not so if spoken elsewhere. When the 
preacher refers to the crowds that 'land' to take part in the games 
(eis Toi)s (jiOapTovs aywras KaraTrXiova-iv, 7) without any mention of the 
port, we are naturally led to suppose that the homily was delivered in 
the neighbourhood of the place where these combatants landed. Other- 
wise we should expect eis rdv 'Ia0fj.6v, or ets KopLvOov, or some explana- 
tory addition of the kind^. 

Second/}'. This hypothesis alone satisfactorily explains the dissemi- 
nation and reputed authorship of the document. It was early attached 
to the Epistle of Clement in the mss and came ultimately to be attri- 
buted to the same author. How did this happen ? The First Epistle 
was read from time to time in the Church of Corinth, as we know. 
This homily was first preached, if my view be correct, to these same 
Corinthians ; it was not an extempore address, but was delivered from 
a manuscript^; it was considered of sufficient value to be carefully pre- 



^ Wocher {der Brief des Clemens etc. 
p. 204) suggested that the author was 
Dionysius himself. This theory had the 
advantage of connecting it with Clement's 
genuine letter (though not very directly) ; 
and it explained the local colouring. But 
it has nothing else to commend it. 

^ Thus in Plat. Eiithyfd. 297 C vewarl, 
fioi 8oKiv, KaTaireTrXevKOTi, where the word 
is used absolutely, we naturally under- 
stand the place in which ;he speaker is 
at the time. 

^ 19 fiera. top Qebv Ttjs akyjOeias ava- 
yip d IT Ku vfuv ivTev^LV eis t6 Trpoa^x^'-" 
Tois yeypcL/uLixivois, iva Kal iavro-us <Tu>a7]Te 
Kai Tov av ay IV <j)a KovTo. ev vfuii. It is 



possible however, that the homily was 
originally delivered extetnpore and taken 
down by short-hand writers (raxvypoKpoi, 
notarii), and that the references to the 
reader were introduced afterwards when 
it was read in the Church as a homily. 
The employment of short-hand writers 
was frequent. We read of discourses of 
Origen taken down in this way (Euseb. 
/^.E. vi. 36) : and Origen himself on one 
occasion {Connn. in loann. vi. praef. , IV. 
p. lOi) excuses himself for not having 
gone on with his work by the fact that 
the 'customary short-hand writers ' were 
not there, k<x\ ol crvvridsis 5^ Taxvypaipot. 
fXTj wapovTes tov ^xecr^at tQv virayopeiKTewu 



198 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



served; and (as we may venture to suppose) it was read publicly to the 
Christian congregation at Corinth from time to time, like the genuine 
Epistle of Clement. The fact that these Corinthians took for public 
reading not only the Epistle of Clement, which might be thought to 
have acquired a peculiar sanctity by its venerable age, but also the 
much later letter of the Romans under bishop Soter, shows the practice 
of this church in reference to uncanonical documents. In this way it 
would be bound up with the Epistle of Clement for convenience. In 
such a volume as is here supposed, the Epistle of Clement would be 
numbered and entitled thus : 

KAHMeNTOC npoc KopiNBioyc 

with or without the addition eniCToAH ; while the homily which stood 
next in the volume might have had the heading 

B 

npoc KopiNGioYC 
with or without the addition Aoroc or omiAia, just as Orations of Dion 
Chrysostom bear the titles npoc AAelANApeic, npoc An&Meic; the author 
of the sermon however not being named. In the course of transcription 
the enumeration a, B, would easily be displaced, so that the two works 
would seem to be of the same kind and by the same author \ As a 
matter of fact, indications are not wanting in our existing authorities, 
that after this homily had been attached to S. Clement's Epistle it re- 
mained anonymous in the common document which contained both 
works. In the Alexandrian MS there is no heading at all to the so- 
called Second Epistle (see above, i. p. 117). This fact however cannot 



Ku\vov; comp. Photius Bid/. 121. At 
a later date this became a common mode 
of preserving pulpit oratory : see Bing- 
ham An^. xiv. 4. II. It was not un- 
common for sermons and lectures to be 
taken down surreptitiously: see Gaudent. 
Praef. p. 220 (Patrol. Lat. XX. p. 831 
Migne) ' notariis, ut comperi, latenter ap- 
positis ' (with the note). On stenography 
among the ancients see Ducange Glos- 
sarium IV. p. 642 sq (ed. Henschel) s. v. 
Nota, together with the references col- 
lected in Mayor's Bibl. Clue to Lat. Lit. 
p. 175 sq. See also Cotitemporary Re- 
view October 1875, p. 841 note. This 



alternative is suggested by Harnack 
Zeitschr.f. Kirchengesch. i. p. 268. The 
hypothesis would at all events have the 
merit of explaining the incoherence and 
looseness of expression which we find in 
this work ; but in the absence of evi- 
dence it is safer to assume that the ser- 
mon was committed to writing by the 
preacher himself. 

^ This opinion was arrived at indepen- 
dently of the remarks of Zahn {Gott. Gel. 
Anz. Nov. 8, 1876, p. 1430 sq), and I am 
the more glad to find that he accounts for 
the common heading of this sermon in a 
similar way. See also i. p. 371, note i. 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 199 

be pressed, for it seems not unlikely that the title has been cut off'. 
But in the case of the Syriac version the testimony is free from suspicion. 
Here the genuine letter is called in the heading not ' The First Epistle 
of Clement' but 'The Catholic Epistle of Clement,' as if it were the 
only known letter written by this father (see above, p. 191). In both 
cases however the scribes themselves have in some other part of their 
respective mss designated our work the Second Epistle of Clement ; 
and this fact renders the survival of the older form only the more signi- 
ficant. 

For these reasons I adhere to Corinth as the place of writing. On 
the other hand Harnack has with much ability maintained the Roman 
origin of this document^; and it is due to his arguments to consider 
them. 

The external evidence seems to him to point in this direction. He 
remarks on the fact that this writing appears to have been very little 
known in the East during the earliest ages. It is first mentioned by 
Eusebius, and Eusebius himself, as Harnack argues from his language, 
only knew it from hearsay ^ It is very far from certain however, that 
this is the correct inference from the historian's words, to-reov 8' cJs kox 
oVTepa Tis etvai Xeyerat tov K-Xyj/JievTOs iirLaToXij' ov fxrjv iff OfjiOLws ttj 
Trporepa Kat ravrrjv yvwptfxov imcTTafJieOa, on /xijSe toi)s dp-^atovs avrq 
Kf.xprjp.ivov<; ta-jjiev {H. E. iii. 38). The hearsay implied in Xeyerai 
may refer equally well to the authorship as to the contents of the 

^ This possibility was overlooked by that the space left between the top of 

me in my first edition pp. 22, 174. My the leaf and the text varies from ^ to f of 

attention was directed to it by a remark an inch. Thus the space is quite con- 

of Harnack {Z. f. A'. I. p. 275, note i), sistent with the supposition that the title 

who however incorrectly states that in A has been cut away. Moreover there is 

the First Epistle has ' page-headings over a single spot at the top of the page, 

the columns.' There is only one such which may have been the end of an 

page-heading, which stands over the first ornamental flourish under the title, though 

column as the title to the work. Having this is doubtful. 

omitted to inspect the MS myself vi'ith this The photograph for the most part 

view, I requested Mr E. M. Thompson represents these facts fairly well, 
of the British Museum to look at it and " In two careful and valuable articles 

to give me his opinion. His report is to in the Zeitschrift f. Kii-chcngeschichte i. p. 

this effect: 264 sq, p. 329 sq, as well as in the prole- 

The title to the First Epistle has small gomena to the 2nd ed. of the Patres 

ornamental flourishes beneath. Between Apostolici Ft. i, p. Ixiv sq. He stated 

the bottom of these and the text there this view first in a review of the edition 

is a space of \ of an inch. Over the o{V>xy&ximo'i\VL\}!\^TheologischeLiteratur- 

first column of the Second Epistle (where zeitungY^. 19, 1876. 
the title should he, if there were any) ' Z. f. K. I. p. 269 sq ; Prol. p. Ixiv, 

the top of the leaf is cut obliquely so note 2. 



200 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

book. In other words, Eusebius does not throw any doubt on the 
existence of such a work, but on its genuineness; and the language 
which follows suggests that the historian was himself acquainted with it. 
If the testimony of Eusebius be set aside, the earliest reference to its 
contents is found in the Qiiaest. d Resp. ad Orthodoxos 74, falsely 
ascribed to Justin Martyr'. This work is supposed to have been 
written at the end of the fourth or beginning of the fifth century, and, 
as Harnack says, unless all appearances are deceptive, to have emanated 
from the Syro-Antiochene Church". Our next direct witness in point 
of date is probably the Alexandrian MS, about the middle of the fifth 
century. From that time forward the testimonies are neither few nor 
indistinct^ 

This evidence is somewhat slight ; but it cannot be alleged against 
the Eastern origin of the work. Such as it is, it all emanates from the 
East. Neither early nor late do we hear a single voice from the West 
testifying to the existence of this Clementine writing, except such as are 
mere echoes of some Greek witness. External testimony therefore, 
though it may not be worth much, is directly opposed to Harnack's 
theory. 

From the internal character of the work again Harnack draws the 
same inference. He remarks on the close resemblances to the 
Shepherd of Hermas, and thence infers that it must have emanated 
' ex eadem communione ac societate^.' Thus he makes it a product 
of the Church of Rome. 

If these resemblances had referred to any peculiarities of the Roman 
Church generally, or of the Shepherd of Hermas in particular, the 
argument would have been strong. But this is not the case. The 
most striking perhaps is the doctrine of the heavenly Church ( 14). 
But the passage, which is quoted in my notes, from Anastasius shows 
that this distinction of the celestial and the terrestrial Church, so far 
from being peculiar, was a common characteristic of the earliest 
Christian writers. And the statement of Anastasius is borne out by 
extant remains, as will appear from parallel passages also cited there. 
Again the pre-incarnate Son is spoken of in both documents as 'Spirit'; 
but here also, though such language was repugnant to the dogmatic 
precision of a later age, the writers of the second century and of the 

^ See I. p. 178 sq, and the notes on ^ The references in my notes seem to 

16. show that it was known to a very early 

^ See the article by Gass in Illgen's writer, the author of Apost. Const, i vi. 

Zeitschr.f.d. hist. Theol. 1842, iv. p. 143 ^ Prol. p. Ixx sq: comp. Z. f. K. i. 

sq, quoted by Harnack Z.f. K. i. p. 274. pp. 340, 344 sq, 363. 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 20i 

earlier part of the third constantly use it without misgiving (see the 
note on 9). Again both writings speak of baptism as ' the seal,' and 
the exhortation to purity of hfe takes the form of an injunction to 'guard 
the seal.' But in this case likewise we have an image which is common 
in Christian writers of the second century (see the note on 7). Nor 
are other coincidences wanting, though less striking than these. 

On the other hand the two writings present marked contrasts on 
points of special prominence. There is a wide divergence for instance 
between the rigid, almost Encratite, view of the relations between the 
sexes which our Clementine author enunciates \ and the reasonable 
position of Hermas, which led the fierce Tertullian to denounce him as 
pastor moechorum^.' And again the difference of language regarding 
the relations of the two covenants is equally great. I cannot indeed 
regard the author of the Shepherd as a Judaizer, any more than I 
could regard our Clementine writer as a Marcionite : but the tendency 
of the one is to see in the Church a development of the Synagogue, 
whereas the other delights to set them in sharp contrast. And alto- 
gether it may be said that the points of difference in the two documents 
are more fundamental than the points of coincidence. 

(iii) The third question, relating to the date and authorship, receives 
some illustration from the newly discovered ending, though not so much 
as might have been hoped. Generally speaking the notices in this 
portion confirm the view which was indicated in my first edition, that 
it belongs to the first half of the second century, nor do they contain 
anything that is adverse to this view. Harnack, as the result of a 

^ 12 toOto Xe^et 'iva, d5e\(f)bs k.t.X. rrj /xe\\oij(rr] aov ddeXcp-^, as showing 

On the other hand Hennas (Aland, iv. i) that Hermas looked upon the single life 

writes 'Evr^Wofjiai aot, (prjai, ^vXaaaeLv as the ideal state, and he concludes that 

T7JJ' dyveiav Kal fxi) dva^aiviru aov eiri neither writer 'thought of stopping mar- 

Ti]p Kapdlav irepl yvfaiKos dWorpias rj riage among Christians for the present.' 

irepl TTopvelas tivos 97 wepl towvtuv tcvwu It is not clear what the words in Vis. ii. 2 

6/jLoiundTUi> wovtjpCbv TovTo yap iroiQiv may mean ; nor again is it certain that 

dfiapriav p.eyd\rjv epyd^yj- ttjs 5e crrji our Clementine preacher intended to en- 

fivrifjLoi'e^wv wdvTore yvvaiKos ovdi- force an absolute rule or to do more than 

wore dp.apT-qaeis. In this same sec- give counsels of perfection. But the fact 

tion the husband is enjoined to take back remains that the direct language of the 

into his society the wife who has been one is in favour of latitude, of the other 

unfaithful, and just below ( 4) second in favour of restraint, 
marriages are permitted to Christians, " TertuU. de Pudic. 10 'scriptura Pas- 

though the greater honour is assigned toris quae sola moechos amat...adultera et 

to those who remain in widowhood. On ipsa et inde patrona sociorum,' ib. 20 'illo 

the other hand Harnack (Z. /. K. i. apocrypho Pastore moechorum.' 
p. 348) quotes Vis. ii. 2 rj; avp-^ii^ aov 



202 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

thorough examination of the whole epistle, sets the limits of date as 
A.D. 130 160; and, if it emanated from Rome (as he supposes to 
have been the case), he thinks that it must have been written within 
the first two decades of this period, i.e. within a.d. 130 150^ 

This view is reasonable. If it were necessary to mention any limits 
of date, where so much uncertainty exists, I should name a.d. 120 140; 
but, as there is nothing in the work which militates against a still 
earlier date, so again it is impossible to affirm confidently that it 
might not have been written a few years later. The two main points 
in which the recently recovered portion strengthens the existing data 
for determining the age of the document are these. 

First. We are furnished with additional information respecting 
the relations of the author to the Canon of the New Testament. He 
distinguishes between the Old and New Testament : the former he 
styles ' the Books,' ' the Bible ' (ra /Si/SXlo), while the latter (or a part 
of it) is designated 'the Apostles' ( 14). This distinction separates 
him by a broad line from the age of the Muratorian writer, of Irenseus, 
and of Clement of Alexandria, i.e. from the last quarter of the second 
century. The fact also that he uses at least one apocryphal Gospel, 
which we can hardly be wrong in identifying with the Gospel of the 
Egyptians (see the notes on 12), apparently as an authoritative 
document, points in the same direction. The writers just mentioned 
are all explicit in the acceptance of our four Canonical Gospels alone, 
as the traditional inheritance of the Church. This argument would be 
very strong in favour of an early date, if we could be quite sure that our 
homily was written by a member of the Catholic Church, and not by 
some sectarian or half-sectarian writer. On this point there is perhaps 
room for misgiving, though the former seems the more probable 
supposition. The general acceptance of this homily and its attribution 
to Clement certainly point to a Catholic origin ; and in its Christology 
also it is Catholic as opposed to Gnostic or Ebionite, but its Encratite 
tendencies (not to mention other phenomena) might suggest the 
opposite conclusion. 

On the other hand our preacher quotes as ' scripture ' ( 6) a saying 
which appears in our Canonical Gospels. But this same passage is 
quoted in the same way in the Epistle of Barnabas, which can hardly 
have been written many years after a.d. 120 at the very latest, and may 
have been written much earlier; and even Polycarp ( 12), if the Latin 
text may be trusted, cites Ephes. iv. 26 as 'scripture.' Stronger in the same 

^ Z. f. K. I. p. 363 ; comp. Prol. to be of Roman origin, he places it not 
p. Ixxiii sq (ed. 2), where, supposing it later than a.d. 135140 (145). 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 203 

direction is the fact that in the newly recovered portion our anonymous 
author introduces a saying of our Lord in the Gospels with the words 
' God saith ' ( 13), having immediately before referred to 'the Oracles of 
God ' in this same connexion, and that he elsewhere describes the 
reading of the Scriptures as the voice of ' the God of truth ' speaking to 
the congregation ( 19). As regards this latter passage however we do 
not know whether the scriptural lessons which had preceded the delivery 
of this homily were taken from the Old or from the New Testament. 

Secondly. The relations of the preacher to Gnosticism furnish an 
indication of date though not very precise. He attacks a certain type 
of this heresy, but it is still in an incipient form. The doctrinal point on 
which he especially dwells is the denial of the resurrection of the body, 
or (as he states it) the 'resurrection of this flesh' ( 8, 9, 14, 16). As 
the practical consequence of this denial, the false teachers (10 KaKoSi- 
Sao-KaXowres) were led to antinomian inferences. They inculcated an 
indifference (aSta<^opta) with regard to fleshly lusts, and they permitted 
their disciples to deny their faith in times of persecution. This anti- 
nomian teaching is denounced by the preacher. But his polemic against 
Gnosticism does not go beyond this. There is no attack, direct or 
indirect, on the peculiar tenets of Valentinus and the Valentinians, of 
Marcion, or even of Basilides. And not only so, but he even uses 
language with regard to the heavenly Church which closely resembles 
the teaching of Valentinus respecting the son Ecclesia (see the note 
on 14), and which he would almost certainly have avoided, if he had 
written after this heresiarch began to promulgate his doctrine ^ In like 
manner the language in which he sets the Church against the Synagogue 
would probably have been more guarded, if it had been uttered after 
Marcion had published his Antitheses in which the direct antagonism 
of the Mosaic and Christian dispensations was maintained. As it is a 
reasonable inference from the near approaches to Valentinian language 
in the Ignatian Epistles that they were written in the pre- Valentinian 
epoch ^, seeing that the writer is a determined opponent of Gnosticism, 
and would not have compromised himself by such language after it had 
been abused, so also the same inference may be drawn here. 

These considerations seem to point to a date not later than a.d. 140: 
and altogether the topics in this homily suggest a very primitive, though 
not apostolic, age of the Church. Whether we regard the exposition of 
doctrine or the polemic against false teachers or the state of the Christian 

^ This argument drawn from the rela- Z.f. K. i. pp. 359, 360. 
tion of the writer to Gnosticism is justly ^ See Ignat. and Polyc. i. p. 374, ed. i ; 

insisted upon by Harnack Prol. p. Ixxii, p. 385, ed. 2. 



204 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

society or the relation to the Scriptural Canon, we cannot but feel that 
we are confronted with a state of things separated by a wide interval 
from the epoch of Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria. At the same 
time other arguments have been alleged in favour of an early date, which 
will not bear the stress that has been laid upon them. Thus it is said 
that the preacher betrays no knowledge of the writings of S. John, or pos- 
sibly even of S. Paul'. As regards S. John, I have called attention to an 
indication that our author was not unacquainted with the Fourth Gospel 
(see the note on 17), though the inference is not certain. As regards 
S. Paul, I cannot see any probable explanation of his appeal to 'the Apo- 
stles' as supporting his doctrine respecting the heavenly Church, except 
that which supposes him to be referring to S. Paul, and more especially 
to the Epistle to the Ephesians not to mention echoes of this Apostle's 
language elsewhere in this homily I But even if it be granted that he 
shows no knowledge of the writings of either Apostle, does it follow 
that he had none ? What numbers of sermons and tracts, published in 
the name of authors living in this nineteenth century, must on these 
grounds be relegated to the first or second ! And again, if he says 
nothing about episcopacy "*, does it follow that he knew nothing about 
it, and therefore must have written before this institution existed ? 
This argument again would, I imagine, remove to a remote antiquity 
a large portion, probably not less than half, of the theological literature 
of our own age. 

But, while criticism suggests probable or approximate results 
with regard to the locality and the date, it leaves us altogether in the 
dark as respects the authorship; for the opinions maintained by the 
three editors who have discussed this question since the recent dis- 
covery of the lost ending, must, I venture to think, be discarded. All 
three aHke agree in the retention of Clement as the author, but under- 
stand different persons bearing this name. 

(i) In the first place Bryennios (p. pv&) maintains that the homily 
is the work of none other than the famous Clement whose name it 
bears, the bishop of Rome". This view however has nothing to recom- 

^ Harnack Prol. p. Ixxiii, Z. f. K. i. taken from the Old Testament) are ano- 

p. 361 sq. He regards it as vmcertain, nymous, this fact can hardly surprise us. 

though probable, that our author had ^ See the notes on 14. 

read S. Paul's Epistles. At the same ^ Harnack Prol. p. Ixxii, Z. f. K. i. p. 

time he considers it strange that S. 359. 

Paul's name is not mentioned. As most ^ This had been the view of Cotelier, 

of our author's quotations (even when Bull, Galland, Lumper, and others; who 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 205 

mend it, and has found no favour with others. Indeed all the arguments 
which, even when we possessed it only in a mutilated form, were suf- 
ficient to deter us from ascribing it to the author of the genuine epistle 
or indeed to any contemporary, are considerably strengthened, now that 
we have it complete. 

(i) The waiter delights to identify himself and his hearers with 
Gentile Christianity. He speaks of a time when he and they worshipped 
stocks and stones, gold and silver and bronze ( i). He and they are 
prefigured by the prophet's image of the barren woman who bore many 
more children than she that had the husband, or, as he explains it, 
than the Jewish people ' who seem to have God ' ( 2). On the other 
hand the genuine Clement never uses such language. On the contrary 
he looks upon himself as a descendant of the patriarchs, as an heir of 
the glories of the Israelite race ; and (what is more important) he is 
thoroughly imbued with the feelings of an Israelite, has an intimate 
knowledge of the Old Testament Scriptures (though not in the original 
tongue), and is even conversant with the apocryphal literature of the 
race and with the traditional legends and interpretations. In short 
his language and tone of thought proclaim him a Jew, though a 
Hellenist, (ii) On the difference in style I do not lay great stress ; 
because, where there is much play for fancy, there is much room 
also for self-deception, and criticism is apt to become hypercritical. 
Yet I think it will be felt by all that the language of this Second 
Epistle is more Hellenic and less Judaic, though at the same time more 
awkward and less natural, than the First, (iii) The argument from the 
theology is stronger than the argument from the style, but not very 
strong. There is a more decided dogmatic tone in the Second Epistle 
than in the First. More especially the pre-existence and divinity of 
Christ are stated with a distinctness ( i, 9) which is wanting in the 
First, and in a form which perhaps the writer of the First would have 
hesitated to adopt, (iv) The position of the writer with respect to the 
Scriptures is changed. In the First Epistle Clement draws his 
admonitions and his examples chiefly from the Old Testament. The 
direct references to the evangelical history are very few in comparison. 
On the other hand in the Second Epistle the allusions to and quotations 
from gospel narratives (whether canonical or apocryphal) very decidedly 
preponderate. This seems to indicate a somewhat later date, when 
gospel narratives were more generally circulated and when appeal could 

wrote without the light which the dis- the question, and still regarded it as an 
covery of the lost ending has thrown on epistle. 



2o6 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

safely be made to a ^uritten Christian literature. This last argument 
more especially has received a large accession of strength by the re- 
covery of the lost ending, and would be conclusive in itself The gulf 
which separates our preacher from the genuine Clement in their respective 
relations to the New Testament Scriptures (see above, p. 202) has been 
widened by the additional evidence. 

(2) On the other hand Hilgenfeld (p. xlix, ed. 2) surmises that the 
author was not the Roman Clement but the Alexandrian. He argues 
that our preacher was not a presbyter, but a catechist'. He points to 
the passage { 19) in which (as he reads it) the duty of studying 
'philosophy' is inculcated^ And, as Dodwell had done before him^, 
he imagines that he sees resemblances in this sermon to the style and 
thought of the Alexandrian Clement. He therefore suggests that this 
was an early production of the Alexandrian father. 

The inference however with regard to the preacher's office is 
highly precarious, as we have seen already (p. 195) ; nor does it 
materially affect the question. The mention of ' philosophy ' again 
disappears, when the passage is correctly read. The Syriac Version 
shows clearly that ^tXoTrovetv is the true reading, and that cjaXoaocjieLv, 
as a much commoner word, was written down first from mere inadvert- 
ence by the scribe of C and afterwards corrected by him*. Nor again 
is it possible to see any closer resemblance to the Alexandrian Clement 
in the diction and thoughts, than will often appear between one early 
Christian writer and another ; while on the other hand the difference 
is most marked. The wide learning, the extensive vocabulary, the 
speculative power, the vigorous and epigrammatic expression, of the 
Alexandrian Clement are all wanting to this sermon, which is con- 
fused in thought and slipshod in expression, and is only redeemed from 
common-place by its moral earnestness and by some peculiarities 
of doctrinal exposition. Where there is want of arrangement in the 
Alexandrian Clement, it is due to his wealth of learning and of thought. 

^ See pp. xlix, 106. He explains 14. In both cases the scribe has cor- 
17 ei 7dp ej'roXas ^X0A'''---t^''"6 TW et5c6- rected the word which he first wrote 
\wv airocnrav /cat KaTTjxeiv as referring down, and in both the correction is sup- 
to the official position of the preacher ; ported by the Syriac Version. Hilgen- 
but compare e.g. i Cor. xiv. 19, Gal. feld has consistently adopted the scribe's 
vi. 6. first writing in both cases. On p. 84 he 

^ See pp. xlix, 84, 106. has incorrectly given (ftiKoiroieiv as the 

=* Dissert, in Iren. i. xxix p. 53. correction in C. It should be <pC\oiro- 

* Compare the note on this word veiv. 
(piKoTTOvelv 19 with that on /xeTaKrjtpeTai 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



207 



In our author on the other hand the confusion is the result of in- 
tellectual poverty. Nor again is the difference between the two writers 
less wide as regards their relation to the Canon of the New Testament. 
It is true that both alike quote the Gospel of the Egyptians, and (as 
it so happens) the same passage from this Gospel. But this very fact 
enables us to realize the gulf which separates the two. Our author 
uses this apocryphal work as authoritative, and apparently as his chief 
evangelical narrative ; Clement on the other hand depreciates its value 
on the ground that it is not one of the four traditionally received by 
the Church. Our author interprets the passage in question as favouring 
ascetic views respecting the relation of the sexes : Clement on the other 
hand refutes this interpretation, and explains it in a mystical sense'. 

(3) Lastly; Harnack is disposed to assign this homily neither to 
the Roman bishop nor to the Alexandrian father, but to a third person 
bearing the name of Clement, intermediate in date between the two. 

In the Shepherd of Hermas ( Vis. ii. 4) the writer relates how he 
was directed in a vision to send a copy of his book to ' Clement,' and 
it is added, 'Clement shall send it to the cities abroad, for he is charged 

with this business ' (Trefxxj/eL ovv KXijfxr)'; ts TO.'; e$(D TTO/Vcis* eKetvo) yap 

cTriTerpaTTTai). As Hermas is stated to have written this work during 
the episcopate of his brother Pius (c. a.d. 140 155), it is urged that 
the Clement here mentioned cannot have been the same with the illus- 
trious bishop of Rome (see above, i. p- 359 sq). Thus the notice in the 
Shepherd gives us another Roman Clement, who flourished about the 
time when our homily must have been written. Here, argues Harnack, 
we have an explanation of the phenomena of the so-called Second Epistle 
of Clement. If we suppose that towards the end of the third century a 
homily known to have emanated from the early Church of Rome and 
bearing the name of Clement was carried to the East, it would not 
unnaturally be attributed to the famous bishop, and thus, being attached 



^ Stro7n. iii, 13, p. 553 (quoted below, 
p. 236 sq). Julius Cassianus, like our 
preacher, had interpreted the passage as 
discountenancing marriage ; and Clement 
of Alexandria controverts him, substitut- 
ing another interpretation. While the 
passage was still mutilated, the opinion 
was tenable that it was doubtful whether 
our author's explanation was more closely 
allied to the interpretation of Cassianus 
or to that of Clement of Alexandria, 
though I inclined to the latter supposition. 



The discovery of the conclusion of the 
passage however decides in favour of the 
former. 

It is in reference to this very passage 
from the Gospel of the Egyptians, that 
Clement of Alexandria urges in answer 
to Cassianus, kv rot% TrapaOedo/jL^voLS tq/mv 
Tirrapdiv evayyekloi^ ovk ^xoMf '''^ prjTov, 
dX\' if r(f KUT AlyvTrriovs. Thus he is 
diametrically opposed to our preacher on 
the one i)oint where we are able to com- 
pare their opinions. 



208 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

to his genuine epistle, might easily before the close of the fourth cen- 
tury be furnished with the incorrect title KXTJfxevTo<; vrpos Koptv^iovs 

This view has much more to recommend it, than the two which 
have been considered already. But the foundation on which it rests is 
inadequate. The existence of this second Roman Clement is un- 
supported; and as I have shown above (i. p. 359 sq), the reference in 
Hermas must be explained in another way'. 

As all these hypotheses fail us, we must be content to remain still 
in ignorance of the author ; nor is it likely now that the veil will ever 
be withdrawn. The homily itself, as a literary work, is almost worth- 
less. As the earliest example of its kind however, and as the product 
of an important age of which we possess only the scantiest remains, 
it has the highest value. Nor will its intellectual poverty blind us 
to its true grandeur, as an example of the lofty moral earnestness and 
the triumphant faith which subdued a reluctant world and laid it pros- 
trate at the foot of the Cross. 



The following is an analysis of the fragment : 

' My brethren, we must look on Christ as God. We must not think 
mean things of Him who has been so merciful to us, who has given us 
life and all things ( i). In us is fulfilled the saying that the barren 
woman hath many children. The Gentile Church was once unfruitful, 
but now has a numerous offspring. We are those sinners whom Christ 
came especially to save ( 2). Therefore we owe all recompense to 
Him. And the return which He asks is that we should confess Him in 
our deeds. The worship, not of the lips only, but of the heart, must be 
yielded to Him ( 3). He has denounced those who, while they obey 
Him not, yet call Him Lord. He has declared that, though they be 
gathered into His bosom, He will reject them ( 4). Let us therefore 
remember that we are sojourners here, and let us not fear to quit this 
world. Rather let us call to mind His warning, and fear not those who 
kill the body, but Him who can destroy body and soul together. All 

^ Hagemann (Ueber den ztueiten Brief the fiction, being the letter of recom- 

des Clemens, etc. in the Theolog. Qiiaiial- mendation written in the name of the 

schr. XLiii. p. 509 sq, 1861) supposed great Roman Clement. So far he antici- 

that this is the letter mentioned by Hermas pated the theory of Harnack. 
( J^is. ii. 4). He regarded it as part of 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 209 

things earthly we must hold foreign to us ( 5). On this there must be 
no wavering. We cannot serve two masters. This world and the 
other are deadly foes. It must be our choice to do Christ's will. 
Even Noah, Job, and Daniel, could not have rescued their own children 
from destruction. How shall we then, if we keep not the baptismal 
seal intact, present ourselves in God's kingdom? ( 6). The lists are 
open ; the struggle approaches. Let us crowd thither to take our 
part. Let us fight to win the immortal chaplet. But, so doing, we 
must observe the laws of the contest, if we would escape chastisement. 
A horrible fate awaits those who break the seal ( 7). Now is the 
time for repentance. Now we can be moulded like clay in the hands 
of the potter. After death it will be too late. If we keep not small 
things, how shall we be trusted with great? If we guard not the seal 
intact, how shall we inherit eternal life ? ( 8).' 

' Deny not, that men shall rise in their bodies. As Christ came in 
the flesh, so also shall we be judged in the flesh. Let us give ourselves 
to God betimes. He reads our very inmost thoughts. To those who 
do His will Christ has given the name of brothers ( 9). This will let 
us ever obey. If we fear men and choose present comfort, we shall 
purchase brief pleasure at the price of eternal joy. They who lead 
others astray herein are doubly guilty ( 10). We must not falter. The 
prophetic word denounces the double-minded ; it foretells how the 
course of things is maturing to its consummation, as the vine grows 
and ripens. God is faithful ; and, as He has promised, so will He give 
joys unspeakable to the righteous ( 11). The signs, which shall herald 
the approach of His kingdom, Christ has foretold. The hvo shall be 
one in universal peace. The outside shall be as the inside in strict sin- 
cerity. The male shall be as the female in the cessation of all sexual 
longings ( 12).' 

' Let us repent forthwith, that we may be forgiven, and God's name 
may not be blasphemed by our inconsistency. When God's oracles 
say one thing and we do another, they regard them as an idle tale 
when God's precepts tell us to love our enemies and we hate one 
another ( 13). Fulfilling God's command, we shall be members of the 
eternal, spiritual Church, which is Christ's body. This is the meaning 
of the words Male and female created He them. The Church, like Christ, 
was spiritual, and became flesh. This flesh we must keep pure, that we 
may attain to the spiritual, the immortal ( 14).' 

'Whosoever obeys this precept of chastity saves both himself and 
the preacher. This is the only return which speaker and hearer alike 
can make to their Creator. God promises an immediate answer. We 

CLEM. II. 14 



2IO THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

must close with it and escape condemnation ( 15). Therefore let us 
repent, while there is time, and obtain the mercy of Jesus. The Day 
Cometh as a heated furnace. Heaven and earth shall melt away. 
Almsgiving and love are best ; for they cover a multitude of sins ( 16). 
We are commanded to convert others ; how much more to save our 
own souls. Let us not forget the preacher's lesson, when we go to our 
homes. Let us meet more frequently together. The Lord will come 
and gather all nations, rewarding them after their works. The worm 
of the unbeliever shall never die, but the righteous shall give glory to 
Him, seeing His judgments on the wicked and His faithfulness to His 
servants ( 17). Let us be found among His thankful servants. In the 
midst of temptations, I strive after righteousness ( 18). Give heed to 
these exhortations from the Scriptures. Set an example to the young 
by your obedience. Be not offended by exhortation ; nor deterred by 
present suffering. It is the price of future glory ( 19). This life is 
only the arena ; the crown shall be awarded hereafter. Else, it were a 
matter of mere traffic' 

' To the one invisible God, who manifested truth and life to us 
through the Saviour, be glory for ever { 20).' 



[nPOC KOPIN0IOYC B.] 



I. 'A^6\(poi, ovTco^ deT rifjia^ (ppoveTv Trepi 'Irjcrov 
Xpi(TTOu, cos rrepi Oeouj ws Trepi KpiTOv ^mvtmv Kai 
vEKpiav. Kai ov ZeT tjjuas fjuKpa (ppoveTv 7Tep\ Trjs orwrri- 

[npoc KOpiN9iOYC B.] The authorities for this title will be found on i. pp. 
117, 122, 131 sq. 

I 7}nas\ S ; ijias C. 3 rjixas] S ; ^/uSs C. 



I. 'My brethren, we must think of 
Christ as God, as judge of all men. 
It is no light crime to have mean 
views of Him by whom we were 
called and who suffered for us. What 
worthy recompense can we pay to 
Him, who has given us light and 
life, who has rescued us from the 
worship of stocks and stones, has 
scattered the dark cloud that hung 
over us, has brought back our stray- 
ing footsteps, and thus has called us 
into being? ' 

I. 'A8eX4>oL K.T.X.] The opening of 
the epistle, as far as nadelp evfKa 
i^ixuv, is quoted by Timotheus of 
Alexandria (a.D. 457) as ' from the 
beginning of the Third Epistle,' 
immediately after a quotation ' from 
the First Epistle on Virginity' (see 
above, i. p. 181); and by Severus of 
Antioch (c. A.D. 513 518) as 'from 
the Second Epistle to the Corinthians' 
(see I. p. 183). It is also found in 
more than one anonymous Syriac 
collection of excerpts (see i. p. 185). 

Photius {Bibl. 1 26) remarks on the 
opening of this epistle, contrasting 



it with the First as respects its 
Christology, x] 8e bevrepa koX avrri vov- 
Qeaiav koi irapalveaiv Kpeirrovos eicrayei 
^iov Koi iv apxf) Qeov rov Xpiarov 
KTjpvaaei : see the notes on 2, 36, 
58, of the First Epistle, and the re- 
marks in I. p. 398 sq. 

2. KpiTov K.T.X.] The expression 
occurs in Acts x. 42 (in a speech of 
S. Peter) : comp. 2 Tim. iv. i, i Pet. 
iv. 5. See also Barnab. 7, Polyc. 
F/n/. 2. 

3. fiiKpa (jypove'iv'] ^ to have mean 
views.'' The Ebionites, whom the 
writer of this epistle attacks, were 
said to have earned the title of 'poor' 
by their mean and beggarly concep- 
tion of the Person of Christ ; see 
esp. Origen de Princ. iv. 22 (l. p. 183) 
01 TVT(i)\oi TTj 8iavoia E^icovalni t^s 
nraxfl-ns Trjs 8iavoias inavvpiOi, e^icov 
[]V^ii] ynp (') TTTCoxos TTapa 'E(SpaLOis 
ovnudCerai, C. Cels. \\. I (l. p. 385), ill 
Matth. t. xvi. ^ 12 (ill. p. 734) rw 
'E^ioivaim Koi TTToiXf^ovTi Vfpl rrjv els 
'lr}(Tovv TTiariv, and again in Gen. Hi 
Horn. 5 (II. p. 68); Euscb. H.E. 

iii. 27 'E/3ta)i'ai'ot;? ravrovi oiKfiw? eVf- 

14 2 



212 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[I 



pla^ i^luLcov' ev rip yap (ppoveTv nfjia's fXiKpa irepl avrov, 
fjLLKpa Kai eXTTL^OfJiev XafSeTv. Kai ol aKovovre^ w? 
Trepi fiLKpwv \afjiapTavov(TLVj Kai r^/ieis] dfiaprdvofievj ouk 
eidores ttoOev eK\t]6t]l^v Kai vtto tivo^ Kai eU 6v tottov, 
Kai oa-a vTrefJieivev 'lri<rov^ Xpia-ro^ TraOeiv eveKa riiiwv. 5 
Tiva ovv iTjueT'S auTW SwVo^ei/ avTifiia-diav ; i] riva 
Kapirov apiov ov rnjuv avTO^i ehwKev ; Trocra 3e avrw 

2 XajSeTc] A; dTro\aj3e7v C. The reading of S is uncertain, for 7lp (the word 
used here) occurs elsewhere indifferently as a rendering of both Xajx^aveiv and awo- 
\afipdveiv, e.g. below 8, 9, ii. ws Trepi] CS Sever Timoth; wawep A. 

3 dixapTdvovaLU, Kai ^/^ers] S ; om. AC : see the lower note. 7 Kapwov] AC ; 

add. offeremus illi S. This however does not perhaps imply any additional words 



(pTjIii^ov 01 TvpaiToi TTTax^s i^ai TaTreivws 
Tct Trepi Tov XpicTTov 8o^d^ovTaSi Red. 
Theol. i. 14 ot TrpatTOK^pvKei 'E^icavaiovs 
oovofxu^ov ''E^pdiKT] (jicovfj 7rTa))(ovs rrjv 
didvoiav aTTOKakovvTes tovs eva fxev Qeov 
Xeyovras elSevai Koi tov (Tcorfjpos to 
crafia fifi apvovp-ivovs ttjv 8e tov vlov 
BeoTTjTa fxri eldoTus, with Other pas- 
sages collected in Schliemann C/e- 
ment. p. 471 sq. Origen's language 
perhaps does not necessarily imply 
that he gives this as a serious account 
of the term, but only that they were 
fitly called 'poor.' Eusebius how- 
ever, mistaking his drift, supposes 
this name to have been a term of 
reproach imposed upon these here- 
tics by the orthodox ; instead of 
being, as doubtless it was and as 
perhaps Origen knew it to be, self-as- 
sumed in allusion to their voluntary 
poverty. The idea of a heresiarch 
named Ebion, which is found first in 
Tertullian {de Praescr. 33, and else- 
where), is now generally allowed to 
be a mistake. 

2. ol oKovoi/re?] ' we who Jiear^ 
according to the text of the Greek 
MSS. For the article compare Clem. 
Rom. 6 at duQiVfli ro) (r<op.aTi, and 
see below ig nrj ayavaKTV)p,ev ol 
a(To(f)oi.; but the expression is awk- 



ward and misplaced. Young sug- 
gested KaiToc which others have 
adopted, but this is not the particle 
required. The Syriac quotations of 
Timotheus and Severus have ^ and 
when we hear^ as though the article 
were absent from their text ; but, 
allowance being made for the license 
of translation, no stress can be laid 
on this fact. Photius {Bibl. 126) 
remarks on the looseness and in- 
consequence of expression in this 
Second Epistle (or rather in the two 
epistles, but he must be referring 
especially to the Second), to. ev 

avTois voTjfiaTa ippip-fiivn ttcos Kai ov 
a-vvexfj TTJV aKoXovdiaf VTvrjpxe (fivXaT- 
TovTa. Several instances of this will 
be noted below, and this passage, 
if the Greek text be correct, furnishes 
another illustration ; but the Syriac 
comes to the rescue by inserting the 
words which I have placed in brackets 
and removes the difficulty. 

6. dvTifiia-diav] The word occurs 
Rom. i. 27, 2 Cor. vi. 13, Theoph. ad 
Aidol. \\. g. Though apparently not 
common, it is a favourite word with 
our author ; see just below and 9, 
1 1. The sentiment is taken from Ps. 
Cxvi. 12 TL avTanobcoaw rw Kvpia k.t.\.; 

8. oaia] ' mercies, kindnesses^ as it 



I] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY, 



213 



ocpeiXofdev ocria; to (pws yap rifjuv e')(^apLcraTO, ws 7raTt)p 
vlou^ r\lj.a^ 7rpo(Tt]yopev(r6v, ctTroWviuevovs T^/ua^ ecrcoo'ei/. 
10 TTOLOv ovv aivov avTco hwcriiofiev rj idiarSov dvTi/uio'dia^ cov 
eXa(^OfJiev'^ Trrjpoi bvTe^ Trj diavola, Trpoo'KVVouvTe^ \Wov 
Kai pv\a KUi '^pvcTOU Kai apyvpov Kai -^oKkov, epya 
dvOpcoTTUiV Kai 6 /3io^ fj/uLwv 6A0? aWo ov^eu tjv el jjnq 
davaro^. didavpuicnv ovv wepiKeijuevoi Kai TOiavTt]^ 

in the Greek text. 5e] A ; yap S ; om. C. 8 ocpeiXofj.ev'] o<pi\o/ji,ev A. 

10 TToTov ou;'] C; TTOLOvv A; TTOiov S: see above, l. p. 144. avrc^ Suicrufiev'} 

A; 8u(T0/j.i' avrqi C. 11 Trijpol] A; caeciS; irovrjpol C. 12 Kai xp'J'^ov] 

A; xp^'^o" (om. /cat) CS. ^pyo.] AC; ^pyov S. 13 dWo ovdiv] A; 

ovdii' dWo C ; and so apparently S. 14 dfiaipuxrip] AC ; tantam obscu- 

ritatevi S. 



is used in the LXX Is. Iv. 3 (quoted in 
Acts xiii. 34 Scocro) \i[uv TCI oaia AaveiS 
TO. TTiaTo.) for Dnon : see Wolf O^r. 
P/n7o/. Tp. 1 197. In a parallel passage 
2 Chron. vi. 42 the LXX has to. eXe?;. 
In this case oe^et'Xo/iei/ will have a 
pregnant sense, ' we have recchied 
and should repay^ Perhaps how- 
ever it is simpler to take oo-m as 
' religions duties ' (e.g. Eur. Suppl. 
368 00-ta TTf^l Qiovi^. The distinction 
between ovia ' what is due to God ' 
and diKuia ' what is due to men ' is as 
old as Plato {Gorg. p. 507 b) and 
runs through Greek literature : comp. 
Trench N. T. Syn. 2nd ser. xxxviii, 
and Steph. TJies. s. vv. biKaios and 
oo-tos-. See also below, 5, 6. 

a5s TTUTTip K.r.X.] The reference 
is perhaps to Hosea ii. i kul tarat 
iv TO) roTTO) oil eppedrj avTo2s Ov Xaos 
fxov vfie7,s, eKel KXrjdtjaovTai viol Qfov 
CcovTos, more especially as applied 
by S. Paul Rom. ix. 26. See also 
the quotation in 2 Cor. vi. 18 koI 
eaofjLai, vp-lv fh rrarepa Koi vfiels eaeade 
p,oi etf v'lovi KCLi 6vyaTpas (a combina- 
tion of 2 Sam. vii. 14 and Is. xliii. 6), 
and I J oh. iii. r I'Sere noTmvrjv dydnrju 
8eda)Kev ^pdv 6 TraTTjp iva TiKva Qeoi 

K\rj6u>p,iV. 



10. dci(ra>p.ev]' can we give?' The 
reading of C disposes of the gram- 
matical difficulty presented by a 
future conjunctive, Scoaafxev ; see 
Winer Gramm. xiii. p. 89 and is 
perhaps correct. Of all such future 
conjunctives however Swo-co is perhaps 
the best supported ; see id. xiv. 
p. 95. 

11. nrjpol opTfs K.r.X.] Arist. E/h. 
A^ic. i. 10 rot J pr) TTeTrrjpdapevoLS irpos dpe- 
Ti]v, PtolemcEUS ad Flor. (in Epiphan. 
Hacr. xxxiii. 3, p. 217) pr] povov to Trjs 
'^vx^s oppa aWa Kai to tov crapaTos 
TTfTrrjpapevov. In the New Testament 
TTrjpovv, niipaxTLs, occur occasionally 
as various readings for irapovv, iraipco- 
ais, but are not well supported : see 
Fritzsche liofn. ll. p. 451 sq. 

Trpo(TKvvovvTes K.r.X.] The writer 
of this epistle therefore is plainly 
a Gentile Christian : comp. 2 ?; 
eKKkijaia rjp^v, and the introduction 
p. 205. ^ 

13. o /3toy] Their /Si'os was not fm^ 
but QuvaTos: see the note on Ign. Rom. 
7. Comp. I Tim, v. 6 ^uxra TtdvrjKfv. 
See also the passage of S. Augustine 
quoted by Harnack, Co7if. i. 6 'in is- 
tam dico vitam mortalem an mortem 
vitalem nescio.' 



214 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[I 



d^Xuo^ 'yefjLOVTe<s eV r// opaaeL, dve^Xe^afjiev dTroBefxevoL 
6K6LVO 6 TrepLKeifjieda vecpo-s Ttj avTOv deXnorei. tjXetjo'ev 
yap rifjid^ Kal cnrXayx^^^^^^^ ea-wcrev, deacrafj.evo^ ev 
rifMV iroXXriv 7rXdvr]v Kal dTrcoXeiav, Kal /urjdefjiiav iXTrioa 
exovra's ccoTr^pia's, el fjiri tyiv Trap avTOv. eKaXeaev 5 
yap tjiud^ ovK bvTas Kal tjOeXtjcrei' e'fc jur] ovtos eivai 
rjjud^. 

II. Ey^PANBHTI, CTeipA H of TIKTOYCA" pfi^ON KAI 

BOHCON, H OYK OjAlNOyCA, OTI HOAAA TA TEKNA THC epHMOY 

maAAon h THC exoycHc ton ANApA. 6 eiirev efc^pANGHTi 10 

2 T^ avTOv 6e\r)(TeL\ A ; ry, de\ri<rei avrod C ; volimtate nostra S, as if avrdv. 
4 iroKKriv 7rXd;'7;i'] AC; Jmnc oinnem [=:fantui. = To<xa.{nriv) errorem mult am S. 
eXTTida ^x^"'''"-^] C ; eXiriSavexovTea A. S evidently read as C, though it trans- 
lates by a finite verb, et quod ne una quidem spes saltitis sit nobis. 6 ya,p\ 
AC; Se S. e/c ^ij] A; iK tov /mt] C. 8 evcppa.vdriTt.'] AC; add. 



language 



I. dve^Xe'^ajiev] Comp. 9. 

cmoBeixfvoi K.T.\.^ The 
here, though not the thought, is 
coloured by Heb. xii. i too-ovtov 
exovres irepiKeijievov t^jjuv ve(^os 
fjLaprvpcov, oyKov aTrodefifvoi Travra 
K.T.X. For the construction TrfpiKelaOai 
Ti ''to be enveloped in or surrounded 
by a tiling^ see Acts xxviii. 20, Heb. 
V. 2. 

5. 'ixovra^ SC. jjjitas. 
ing be correct it is 
verned by ^eao-a/xei/oy 



by 'icraa-e, ''and this 



If this read- 
perhaps go- 
rather than 
thous'h we 



had no hope.' But exovres may be 
the right reading after all : in which 
case a word or words may have fallen 
out from the text ; or this may be one 
of the awkward expressions to which 
allusion has been already made (on 
oi aKovovres). 

eKoXeaev yap k.t.X.] Rom. iv. 17 

Philo 



'I 
ovra. 



KoXovvTos TO. p.rj ovra (os 
de Great. Princ. 7 (11. p. 367) ra yap 
p.r) ovra eKoXeaev els to eivai : COmp. 
Hermas Vis. I. i nrla-as e/c tov juj) 
6W0S Ta ovra, Mand. I TToiridas eK 



TOV firj ovTOs eis to eivai Ta iravra, 
Clem. Horn, iii. 32 tw to. p.r\ ovTa els to 
elvai (TVCTTTjcrafjLeva). 

II. 'For what is the meaning of 
the scripture, Rejoice thou barren 
that bear est not? It has been ful- 
filled in us the Gentile Church, 
which is even now more numerous 
than the Jewish. In like manner also 
it is written elsewhere, / came not to 
call just me7t but sinners. Such 
sinners were we.' 

8. Ev(f)pdv6T]Ti K.T.X.] From the 
LXX Is. liv. I, word for word. See 
the notes on Galatians iv. 27. The 
same application is also made in 
Justin Apol. i. 53, p. 88 C. Philo also 
allegorizes this text {qtiod Omn. Prob. 
lib. 2, II. p. 449), but in a wholly dif- 
ferent way. 

II. fj eKKX-qcria jJ/lkui/] i.e. the Gen- 
tile Church, called 6 Xaos ijfjiav below. 
Our author's application seems so 
far to differ from S. Paul's, that he 
makes the contrast between Gentile 
and Judaic Christendom, whereas in 
the Apostle it is between the new and 



"] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



215 



cTeipA H oy TiKTOYCA, f//xa? eiTrev crreTpa yap 7]v tj 
iKK\t](rla rtfitav irpo tov dodfjvai avTrj reKva. 6 de eiirev 
BoHcoN H oy'k oiAiNoycA, TOVTO XeyEL' Ta^ Trpoaev^a^ 
tijucoi' aVAws dvacpepeiv irpo^ tov Qeov jut], W9 al 
15 lahivovo'ai, eyKaKM/ULev. 6 he eiirev on hoAAa ta tekna 
THC epHMOY maAAon h thc exoycHC ton ANApA, eireL eptj/uio^ 
edoKEi eivuL oltto tov Oeov 6 Aaos t^^cou, vvvl he ttlct- 
Tev(ravTe<s 7r\eL0ve<s eyevofieSa tmv hoKOvvTwv e^eiv 
Qeov. Kal ETepa he ypacpr) Xeyei otl Oyk hAGon ka- 

ydp, X^ei, S. PV^ov] AC; Kal prj^ov S. 12 ijfiQv] AC; om. S. 

13 ras vpoaevxas] AC; to. irpbs ras irpoaevxO'i (or to. irphi eiJxas, as suggested 
by Bensly) S. See above, i. p. 141. 14 ai ihSlvovaai] AC; 17 u5ipovaa S. 

15 eyKaKw/j.ei'] A; iKKaKU/Mev C. 17 toO] A; om. C. 19 de] AS; 

om. C. 



the old dispensation. Justin uses the 
text in the same way as our Pseudo- 
Clement. 

14. 1J.1], cos K.T.X.] If the order of 
the words be correct they can only 
mean 'let us not grow weary, as women 
m travail grow weary' ; but it is 
strange that the writer should have 
confused his application of the text 
by this fanciful account of jj ovk ddl- 
vovcra, of which the natural explana- 
tion is so obvious. For eyKaKuipiev 
Cotelier and other editors would sub- 
stitute eKKaKwpifV, but this is a mis- 
take, as authority is against enica- 
Kelv and for eyKUKfiv : see the note on 
Galatians vi. 9. 

17. OTTO TOV eeoC] For the pre- 
position after eprjfios comp. Jer. xxxiii 
(xl). 10 (otto dvdpconav Kal KTtjvav), 
xxxiv (xli). 22 (dyro tcou KaToiKovvrcop), 
xliv (li). 2 (aTTo ivoUcjiv). The word 
involves a secondary idea of J'^'z/^rrt<:e, 
and so takes diro. 

18. Tv\doves\ Writing about this 
same time, Justin Martyr gives a si- 
milar account of the greater numbers 
of the Gentile Christians: Apol.x. 53 
(p. 88 B) Trkilovas re kolX dXrjtieaTtpovs 



Tovs i^ fdvau juiv dirh 'lovdaiav koI 
^afxapecov 'S-piariavovs eldores. 

Tcov BoKovvrav e)(fif Sew] Hil- 
genfeld quotes from the Pracdicatio 
Petri in Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 5 
(p. 760) /LiT^Se Kara 'lovdaiovs cre^eaOe ' 
KOI yap eKeivoi, fiovoi, olop-evoi tov 
Qeov yivcocTKeiv, ovk eTriaTavTai 
(comp. Orig. zu Joann. xiii. 17, iv. 
p. 226). 

19. eVepa 8e ypa<\)r]\ Thus the 

Gospel, treated as a written docu- 
ment, is regarded as Scripture like 
the Old Testament. Comp. Barnab. 
4, and possibly i Tim. v. 18. See 
above, the introduction p. 202. 

OVK ^kdov .r.X.] The quota- 
tion agrees exactly with S. Mark ii. 
17, but might also be taken from S. 
Matthew ix. 13 ov yap ^Kdov k.t.X. 
On the other hand in S. Luke (v. 32) 
the form is different, ovk tXrjXvda Ka- 
Xeaai diKaiovs aXXa dfxupTcoXovs fls 
fieTavoiav. Comp. also Barnab. 5 ovk 
r]X6ev KaXeaai, diKaiovs dXXu dfiapTOi- 
Xovs (where the words els p.eTdvoiav, 
added in the late MSS, are wanting in 
{<), and Justin Apol. i. p. 62 C ovk r]A- 
Qov K. d, a. dp,, els peTUvoiav. 



2l6 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[n 



AecAi AiKAi'oyc, aAAa amaptooAoyc. tovto Xeyei, oti Set 
TOi)? aTToWvfJievov^ crui^eLV' eKeivo <yap ecTTiv fj.e'ya Kal 
SavfJiaarTOV, ov Ta ecTcoTa (TTrjpL^eiv dWa ra ttitt- 
TOVTa. o'vTMS Kal 6 Xpio'TO^ t]6e\tT(ri/ (rtoaai tu 
dTToWu/uLeva, Kal ecruxrev ttoXXov^, i\6cov Kal KaXeaa^ 5 
iljULas i]^r] dTroWvfJLevovi. 

III. TocTOVTOv ovv eA.60? 7roir](TavTO<5 avTOv eU 
rifj.d<s' TrpcoTOv fiev, oti i^juleT^ ol ^aivTes toT<s v6Kpoh 
6eo7s ov Ovojuev Kai ov irpoo'KVvovfjiev avToT^j dWa 
eyvcojuev di avrov tov TraTspa Tfjs dXrideia^' tis rj 10 
yvwci^ t] TTjOOS avTOV, r] to fxr] dpveio'dai di ov eyvcofJLev 
avTOV'^ Xeyei he Kat avTO^' Ton d/woAorHCANiA Me [eNoa- 

4 oi/Tws] ovrco C. Xpiarbs] AS ; Ki^ptos C. 7 ovv] AC ; om. S. 

Aeos] eXatotr A. 9 Kal ov irpocrKvvovfiev aurots] AS ; om. C. dXXa] 

AC ; S translates as if it laad read ^Tretra 5e 6'rt ; see above, i. p. 142. 10 tIs] 

AC; Ti's 5^ S. II yvuffis] yvwaeia- A. i] irpbs avTov] AS; t^s dXrj- 

dela's C : see above, I. p. 127. ^] AC ; cm. S. apveladai.'] add. avrbv C. 

The testimony of S cannot be alleged in such a case. 12 avTov] AS; om. C. 

evuTTiov Tuv dvdpdnruv] AC ; om. S. 13 auTov] AC. S adds etiaiii 



4. o-wo-ai K.r.X.] Luke xix. lo r(K6^v 
o vios TOV avdpcoTTov ^rjTfjaai Kal crtoo-ai 
TO dnoXcoXos (compare the interpola- 
tion in Matt, xviii. 11), i Tim. i. 15 
I. X. rjkOev els tov Koarpiov dpiapTatKovs 
craxrai,. 

in. 'Seeing then that He has been 
so merciful and has brought us to 
know God, wherein does this know- 
ledge consist but in not denying Him 
by whom we were brought? If we 
confess Him, He will confess us be- 
fore the Father. This we must do, 
not with lips only but in our lives.' 

8. ToTs veKpols deols] Wisd. xv. 1 7 
dvTjTos 8e cSf veKpov epyd^eTai x^P^'-^ 
dvopLOLs' KpeiTTCov ydp ecrri Tav af^acr- 
pLUTuv avTov, a>v avTos /xef e^rjaev eKeiva 
8e ovdeTTOTe. 

12. Xeyei 8e Kat avTos /c.r.X.] Nicon 

(see above on the First Epistle 14, 
15) quotes this passage from the 



Second Epistle^ koI 6 Kvpios Xe'-yei 
Tov opioXoy^aavTa. . .TOV iraTpos /xou' iv 
Tivt, 8e...Tciv ivToXwv. Cotelier (on 
Clem. Rom. 14) mentions the fact, 
but does not give the quotation in 
full. 

Ilov 6pLoXoyr)cravTa /c.r.X.] A free 
quotation of Matt. x. 32 (comp. Luke 
xii. 8). 

evcoTTiov K.r.X.] The omission in S 
is probably correct, the words having 
been inserted by scribes from a well- 
known evangelical passage, Luke 
xii. 9. For a similar instance, where 
S preserves the true reading, see 
Clem. Rom. 46. Our preacher is in 
the habit of dropping out words in 
his quotations, and presenting them 
in skeleton. 

14. f'av ovv] ' zy after all, if only.^ 
For similar instances of the use of ovv 
see Hartung Partikcl. ll. 11. 



IV] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



217 



niON TOON ANGpOOnCONl], OMOAorHCOi) AyTON eNobniON TOY HATpdc 

Moy. ovTO^ ovv icTTiv 6 juicrOo^ rj/utov, eau ovv o/ulo- 
15 \oyt](T(v/uu di ov ecrcodtjimev. ev tlvl ^e avrov ofj-oXo- 
you/ueu', ev tw TroieTv a Aeyet kul fjir) irapaKOveiv aurov 
Tiav evToXwv, kul /ut] /uiovov xeiAeciN ayton timan clWa 
el oAhc KApAiAc KAi 62 oAhc thc Aianoiac. \eyeL ^6 Kal 
ev Tuj 'Ha'aLa' '0 Aaoc oytoc to?c xeiAeciN /we tima, h Ae 
20 KApAiA AYTooN noppoo AnecTiN An' eMoy. 

IV. Mi] fjiovov ovv avTov KaXcHjuev Kvpiov, ou 
yap TOUTO cwarei rlfjici^, \eyeL yap' Oy ttac 6 AerooN 
MOi, Kypie, Kypie, C(jo0hc6Tai, aAA' 6 noic2)N thn AiKAiocyNHN. 
wcTTe ouVf dhe\(poi, ev rots epyoi's avTov ofJLoXoywfxeVf 

ego {Kayuj) as in Matt. x. 32. 14 fiov\ AC; om. S. 6 fuaObs rjfiQv] 

AC; Dierccs magna S. ouy] A; om. CvS. 17 omtov ri.ixd,v\ AC; dcbe- 

mus invocare {vocare) cum S, as if d<pei\ofj.v axirbv iTriKaXeladai {KoXeiv). 18 rrjs] 

A; om. C. dLavoias] AC ; dwd/ieui; S. 5e] yap AS; om. C. 19 6] 

o (i.e. ov) A. 20 avTwv] AS ; oJroO C. direaTiv] A; aireaTii' (or eariv) 

S; direaTTji' C. 21 ovv] AS (?) ; om. C. 22 adocrei] AC; au^ei S. 

24 avTov} avTOJv A. 6/ioXo7W/xej'] A ; d/xoXoyqcrufxev C. 



18. e'l uXt]s K.T.X.] A reference 
ultimately to Deut. vi. 5 ; but as both 
words 8iavoias and KupSlas do not 
seem to occur in tiiat passage in any 
one text of the lxx, we must suppose 
that the writer had in his mind the 
saying rather as it is quoted in the 
Gospels, esp. Mark xii. 30 e^ oXrjs 
TrjS Kapdlas aov koI i^ oXrjs Trjs \j/'vxv^ 
crov Kai e^ oXt]s rrjs diavoias aov Koi e^ 
oXtjs TTJs laxvos aov (comp. Matt. xxii. 
S7, Luke X. 27). 

19. 'O Xaos ovTos K.r.X.] From Is. 
xxix. 13, modified by the form in 
which it is quoted in the Gospels ; 
see the note on the genuine Epistle 
of Clement 15, where again it is 
quoted in almost exactly the same 
form as here. 

IV. 'It is not enough to call Him 
Lord. We must confess Him by our 
works, by love and purity and guile- 



lessness. We must not fear men 
but God. For Christ Himself has 
warned us that, though we be His 
most familiar friends, yet if we do 
not His commandments. He will re- 
ject us.' 

22. Oi; nas 6 Xeymv k.t.X.] From 
Matt. vii. 21 oO nas 6 Xeyav fxoi, Ku- 
pie, Kv'pte, etueXevcrerat els rfju ^aai- 
Xfiav Twv ovpavav, dXX' 6 noiav ru 
6eXT]fia Tov TTOTpos p.ov rov ev vols 
ovpavois (comp. Luke vi. 46 quoted 
below). Justin {Apol. i. 16, p. 64 a) 
gives the exact words of S. Matthew 
(except ovxi for ov). Clem. Horn. viii. 
7 has ri p,e Xeyeis Kvpie, Kvpie, koi ov 
TToiels a Xe'-yw ; which closely resembles 
Luke vi. 46 ri 8e p.f (caXfire, Kvpie, 
Kvpie, Koi ov TTOielre a Xeyio; COmp. 
Clem. Horn. viii. 5 ovhe iv rc5 iviareveiv 
8i8acrKaXois Kiii Kvpiovs avTOVs Xeyeiii 
1] aoiTn^pia yiverai. 



2l8 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[iv 



eV TM dyairav eavTOvSj eV tm fit] /uLoixacrdaL jULri^e 

KUTaXaXeiv aWriXoiv jmride ^tjXovv, dXX' iyKparel^ 

eii/ai, eXer]fiova, ctyaOov^' kul avfjLTraa'^eLV dXXtjXois 

ocpeiXofjiev, kul jiit] (piXapyvpeTv. iv tovtol^ toT^ epyoi^ 

ojuoXoycojuev ovtov kul jur] ev toTs euavrioi^' Kal ov 5 

del i^juds (pof^eiardaL tov<s dv6pcu7rou<s judXXop, dXXa rov 

Qeov. hia TOVTO, ravTa vfJLtav Trpacro'ovTVdv, einev 6 

KvpLO^' 'Ean HTe weT eMOY cyNHrMeNoi en tco KoAnto Moy 

K<\"i MH noiHTe TAC gntoAac Moy, AnoBAAo) YMAC ka) epc2) 

I a/yairav AC ; add. toi>s TrXrialov Tjfxuv (lis S : see above. 4 6(pl\opi.ev] 

o<f>i.\o/iev A. 7 Vfji.u3i>] A; rjfiuv CS. 8 Kipios] AC; Irjaovs S. 

eV T(^ KoXirq) /xov] AC; m uno sinu S. 9 Trot^re] A; TrotijcrijTe C. 12 Trap- 



I. iir]hi. KaTokakfiv K.r.X.] James 
iv. II fJ-r) KaraXaXelre dXXr]\ci)i'. See 
also Hermas Afand. 2 npatTov jikv 
fxrjdevos KaraXaXei, with the whole 
section. 

3. dyadovs] '' kmdly, bencficcntil 
as Tit. ii. 5, i Pet. ii. 18; and so pro- 
bably I Thess. iii. 6. 

5. ov hii i]fjias K.T.X.] Comp. Acts 
iv. 19, V. 29. 

8. 'Eav rJTe k.t.X.] Not found in 
the canonical Gospels, and perhaps 
taken from the Gospel of the Egyp- 
tians, which is quoted below ; see 
5,8,12. The image and expressions 
are derived from Is. xl. 11 tw ^paxlovi 
avTov avva ^ei apvas Kai iv tm KoXiroi 
avTov ^aarda-fi. The latter clause, 
though absent in BSA, is found in 
several Mss (see Holmes and Par- 
sons), in other Greek Versions, and 
in the original ; and must be sup- 
posed to have been known to the 
writer of the Gospel in question. For 
the expression awdyetv iv KoXna, ' /<? 
gather in the lap^ see Lxx Prov. 
XXX. 4 (xxiv. 27). The image is car- 
ried out in the language of the next 
chapter, ea-eade los dpvia k.t.X. 

10. vTrdyere k.t.X.] The parallel 
passage in S. Luke xiii. 27 runs koI ipd, 



Aeyo) vfjiiv, ovk oida [wjnas] TTodev iare' 
aTr6<TTT}Te an e/xoO Trdvres ipyarai a8i- 
Kias. This is much closer than Matt, 
vii. 23. The denunciation is taken 
from Ps. vi. 9 OTrooTjyre an ifiov ndv- 
Tes oi ipya^ofxevoi ttjv dvofiiav. Com- 
pare the quotations in Justin Apol. 
i. 16 (p. 64 b) KCLi Tore ipa> avTols' 
'Ano^^apeLTe dn ijxov, ipydrai rfjs avo- 
p.ias, Dial. 76 (p. 301 d) /cat ip5> avToii- 
'Avaxiopelre an ijj.ov. See WestCOtt 
Canon p. 125 sq (2nd ed.). 

V. ' We must break loose from 
the ties of this world. The Lord has 
warned us, that here we shall be as 
lambs among wolves; that we have 
cause to fear the perdition of our souls 
rather than the murder of our bo- 
dies. Our life here is brief and 
transitory ; our life in heaven is eter- 
nal rest. Therefore should we look 
upon ourselves as aliens to the 
world.' 

12. Tr]v napomiav] ' 07(r sojourn- 
ing in,'' i.e. 'our dalliance with': see 
the note on napoiKovvres in the open- 
ing of the First Epistle. 

15. "Eaeade k.t.X.] This is a close 
parallel to Luke x. 3 dnoa-TeXXo) vfids 
CCS apvas iv p,i(rco Xvkwv (comp. Matt. 
X. 16). As however Peter is not men- 



V] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



219 



ioY'w?N" YTTArere An' eMoy, oyK oiAa ymac noGeN ecre, eppATAi 

ANOMIAC. 

V. 'Odev, dhe\(poi, KaraXel^avTe^ Tr]v wap- 

OlKiaV TOV KOCTfJ-OV TOVTOV TTOLfJO'CdfXev TO deXrjfJia TOV 

KaXeaavTO^ nfJLci^, Kai jur) (pof^rjOcojixev e^eXBeiv e'/c rov 

i^ KOCTjULOV TOVTOV. XeyEi yap 6 Kvpio<s "EcecQe <hc ApNiA eN 

Mecco AyKooN' aTTOKpiQeh he 6 flsTpo's uvtm Xeyer 'Ean 

OYN AlACnApAf OOCiN 01 AyKOI TA ApNIA; eLTTeV 6 ' IrjCOV^ TOO 

rieTpa)' Mh (})oBeicecjocAN ta apni'a Toyc AyKoyc meta to 
Ano0ANe?N AYTA. KAI YMeic M h' 0oBe?c9e Toyc AnoKreNNON- 



oi/c/a?'] AC ; Trapoi/xlav S. 
A; airoKTivTas C. 



19 (poel<Tde\ (po^eiadai. A. 



airoKrivvovTai] 



tioned in the context, and as the con- 
tinuation of the quotation is not 
found in the canonical Gospels, the 
whole passage was probably taken 
from some apocryphal source, per- 
haps the Gospel of the Egyptians : 
see the note on 4, 8, 12. As the 
same metaphor of the lambs occurs 
in the apocryphal quotation just above 
( 4), they were probably taken from 
the same context. Photius {Bibl. 
126) remarks on the number of apo- 
cryphal quotations in this Second 
Epistle, 7rXi7i' on p-qra rtva ms airo rfjs 
deias ypacpfis ^evi^ovra napeicrayei, av 
ovS' 1] TTpcoTT] (nrrjXkaKTO TravreXais. 
(For apocryphal quotations in the 
First, which however are chiefly from 
the Old Testament and therefore not 
so prominent, see the notes 8, 13, 
17, 23, 29, 46.) 

19. Koi vnfls K.T.X.] The apocry- 
phal citation again runs parallel to 
the canonical Gospels, Matt. x. 28 
KM firj (po^elcrdf cnro ru>v (nroKTevvovraiv 
TO (Tcofia, TTjv 8e ylfvxT]!' fir) dvvap.evQ}v 
aTTOKTelvaL ' (Pof^rjdrjTf fie fxaWnv rov 
8vvaiu.evov [koI] y^rvxh'" 'f"' a-u>p.a airoXe- 
crai iv ytivvrj, Luke XII. 4) 5 M'7 4^o(irj- 
dfjTe cmo Toiv anoKTevvovrMV to (tui/jlu 
KOi lX(Ta TllVTU fxrj eXOVTMV n(pi<T<TUT(p6v 



TL TTOiTJaai' VTTodei^o} 8e viiiv Tiva cpo^r]- 
6rJTe. (f)oj3j]6r]Te top fj.eTa to dnoKTflvai 
e^ovTU i^ovar'iav efi^aXeiv eh Tr]v yiev- 
vav vai, Xeyco Vfjuv, tovtov ipojSijdriTe. 
The saying is quoted also in C/em. 
Horn. xvii. 4 juij (jioj^rjdfjTe dnb tov 
anoKTevvovTos to crco/xa tt] de ^v^f/ p^rj 
dwap-evov Ti noifjaai' (f)o(iir]6riTe 8e tov 
8vvap.evov koL aSpa koi yjrvxrjv els ttjv 
yeevvav tov nvpos jBaXelv, and in Justin 
Aj>o/. i. 19 (p. 66 B) p,rj cf)oliiela6e tovs 
dvaipovvTas iip,ds koi peTci tuvtu prj 
bvvapivovs Ti noiijaai, eine, (^ojirjO^re 
8i TOV peTa TO dnodaveiv dvvapevov Kai 
y\rv\r]v /cat crco/na els yeevvav epfiaXe'iv. 
The points of coincidence in the 
quotations of the Clementine Homi- 
lies and Justin with our pseudo-Cle- 
ment are worthy of notice, but they 
seem to be accidental. The expres- 
sion els TTjv yeevvav Toi) Tvvpos (in the 
quotation of the Homilies) might 
have come from Matt, xviii. 9 (inter- 
polated in the parallel passage Mark 
ix. 47). For the amount of variation 
which may arise accidentally, see a 
parallel instance given by Westcott 
Canon p. 116; and it is instructive 
to observe the variations in two quo- 
tations of this very saying in Clem. 
Alex. Exc. Thcod. p. 972 4>o^tj6r]T 



220 



THE EPISTI.es OF S. CLEMENT. 



[V 



TAc YMAC KAi mhAen y^'\u AyNAMeNOYC noielN, aAAa (|)oBe?c6e 

TON MeXA TO AnoeANeiN YMAC eyONTA eloyCIAN YTXlf^C KAI 

ccloMAToc, TOY BAAe?N eic reeNNAN nYpoc. Kai yii/(joa'K6Te, 
ddeXcboi, OTL ri 67ri^t]iuila r] ev rw Kocr/mcp tovtm tt]^ 
crapKO^ TavTt]^ fjUKpa eorTiv Kai oXiyo-x^povio^' r] oe 5 
eirayyeXia tov XpicTTOv fieydXt] Kai davjuacrrri ecriv, 
Kai dvcnravcTL's Trj^ jueXXovct]^ fia(nXeias Kai ^Mrj^ 
alcoviov. TL ovv earlv 7roir](ravTa<s e7riTV)(eiv avrHov, 
el jULrj TO ocr/ws Kai diKalco^ dvao'Tpecpeadaij Kai ra 
KOor/JLiKa ravTa ws dXXorpia r]'yei<j6ai Kai fjit] e7ndvfJ.eLV lo 

I ^ojSelo-^e] (po^eiadai A. 3 irvpos] AC ; om. S. 6 e7ra77e\ta] 

e7ra77eXeta A. XpiaTOu] C ; Kvplov S. iffTiv] AC ; om. (apparently) 

S. 7 dvaTrava-is'] A; ij dvdiravais C. 8 TL..iin.TVxeit>] AC; quid 

igitur est id quod facit ut attingatis S. The translator seems to have had irotrja-av 
for iroiTjcravTas in his text, and to have wrested the grammar to make sense of 
it. II yap T(fJ] A; ry yap C. eTrt^D^etj'] eindvixei. A. raOra] AS; 

avTO. C. 13 X^7et 5e] AC; \^7et yap Kai S. 14 edv] C; add. ovv 



yovv, Xe'yei, tov fxeTci davarov hwajxevov 
Koi i^v\rjv /cat aafxa els yeevvav jSaKe'iv, 
and p. 981 o (ToiTrjp Xeyet (jio^elcrdai, 
Sell/ Tuv ^vvcijxevov ravTTjv Trjv "^vx^^^ 
Kol TovTo TO aafxa to yp'vxtKov iv yeivvrj 
diToXea-ai: comp. also Iren. iii. 18. 5 
' Nolite timere eos qui occidunt cor- 
pus, animam autem non possunt 
occidere ; timete autem magis eum 
qui habet potestatem et corpus et 
animam mittere in gehennam.' 

dnoKTevvovTas] The passages quot- 
ed in the last note show that the 
substitution of diroKTelvovTas is quite 
unnecessary. For the form dnoKTev- 
veiv see Winer xv. p. 95 (note), A. 
Buttmann p. 54. 

4. 7/ eVtSiy/xia] ' sojourn ' : comp. 
napeTTibrjfjLOi Heb. xi. 1 3, I Pet. i. I, 
ii. II. See the note on rrapoiKLav 
above, which contains the same idea. 

7. Koi dvdnav(Tis] ''namely, rest.^ 
For this use of Km see the notes on 
Galatians vi. 16. 

8. Ti ovv K.T.X.] ' What then is it 



possible for us to do that we may ob- 
tain them, but to walk holily and 
righteously.^ Thus rS, which some 
would substitute for ro, interferes with 
the construction. For oo-iwyKat hiKalas, 
implying duties to God and to man 
respectively, see the note on ocria 
I : comp. 6 e^ovTes o<na Koi diKuia. 

VI. 'Our Lord has told us that 
no man can serve two masters. There 
is a direct antagonism between the 
world present and the world to come. 
We cannot keep the friendship of 
both. Let us then, if we would de- 
liver ourselves from eternal misery, 
obey the command of Christ and 
follow after the heavenly life. Even 
Noah, Job, and Daniel, it is written, 
could not by their righteous deeds 
rescue their own children. How then 
shall we enter the kingdom of God, 
if we keep not our baptismal vows.?' 

13. OuSeiy k.tX] Luke xvi. 1 3 
ovdels olKeTTjs dvvuTai dvai Kvpiois 
8ovXV(iv...ov Svvacrde Qea dovXfveiv 



VI] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



221 



avTooV, iv yap tw eTriBviJieLv i^jua^ KTtjO'aa'dai ravra 
dTTOTrLTTTOiueu rr]^ ohov Ttj^ diKaias. 

VI. Aeyei de 6 Kvpio^' OyAeic oiKeTHc Aynatai Arci 
KYpi'oic AoyAeyeiN. eciv rifjiei^ deXwfJiev Kai Oecp dovX- 

15 6V61V Kai jaajULOiva, dorvfJiCpopov rifxiv ecrriv. ti r^p to 
oc{)eAoc, eAN tic ton kocmon oAon KepAncH thn Ae s^yX^^'^ 
ZHMIOO0H; ecTTLV ^e oi)to9 6 alwv Kai 6 imeWcov ^vo 
e^dpol' 0VT09 Xeyei idLOi^xeLav Kai (pOopav Kai (piXap- 
yvpiav Kai d7ra.Tr]v, CKeTvo^ de tovtois aTroraarcreTai. 

20 ov hwdfjeda ovv Tcdv ^vo (piXoi eivar ^ei he f]fj.d^ tovtw 
aTTOTapafjievov^ eKeivio ^pdcrdai. olujiaeBa oti (3eXTiov 

S. 16 t6v Kocr/JLOV 6\ov] rov KhcTfiov (om. oXop) C ; 07nncm hunc mundtim S, 

but the insertion of htmc probably does not imply any different reading from A : 
see above, i. p. 141, and comp. below 19. 17 ^tjiUiw^^] AC; pcrdat 

(perhaps dTroX^o-jj) S. 18 koX <pdopav] AC; om. S. 19 To&rots] AC; 

TOis Toiovroi.^ S. See conversely below on p. 222 1. 8. 21 xpS(T<?at] A; 

XPV<^6ai- C. oiiifieda] old/Meda ACS. S also adds 5^ ddeXcpol, 



KOL fiaficovq. The words are the same 
in Matt. vi. 24, excepting the omis- 
sion of olKiTTjS. 

15. tI yap TO ocjifXos K.r.X.] See 
Matt. xvi. 26, Mark viii. 36, Luke ix. 
25. The quotation here may have 
been derived from either S. Matthew 
or S. Mark, though it differs slightly 
from both. The divergence from S. 
Luke is greater. The saying is quoted 
also by Justin Apo/. i. 15; but Jus- 
tin's quotation, while combining dif- 
ferent features of the three canonical 
Gospels, does not reproduce the 
special peculiarity {ti to ot/jeXos-;) of 
our pseudo- Clement. 

17. ((TTiv ovTOs 6 alav k.t.X.] 
See the notes on Galatiaiis i. 4. Com- 
pare also Clem. Horn. viii. 21, xx. 2. 

18. <^6opav\ Either (i) corrupt- 
7iess, prq/li^acy generally, as in 2 Pet. 
i.4, ii. 12, 19; or (2) in a more special 
sense, as Plut. Crass, i ttjv alriav ttjs 
(pdofms (iTroXuo-a/xevos-, Afor. p. 89 B 
Kj)ifif]vni (/)<9(Y)(if. The connexion with 



fioixeia here points to this latter sense; 
comp. Barnab. 10 ov imtj yivr) fiolxos 
ovde (pdopfvs, Philo de Spec. Les;. 1 1 
(11. p. 310 M) d8e\(f)ov /xeV /cat avyyeves 
d8iKT]na fioixfias (jidopa, Epictet. Diss. 
ii. 22. 28 (iKparety Kai jioixovs Koi 
(pdopfls, Iren. I/aer. i. 28. i, Clem. 
Horn. iv. 16, 24. 

20. roiiro) d-noTa^ap.kvov{\ ''btddl7tg 
farewell to this.'' Act. Paid, et Thecl. 
5 oi dTTOTa^d/xevoi tm KocrfJia) tovtco, Ign. 
Pliilad. 1 1 dT7ora^d\}.ivoi tm ^tw. The 
word is fairly common in the New 
Testament ; see Lobeck Phryfi. p. 23. 

Xpa.cr6ai\ '' consort with as a friend,' 
according to a common sense of the 
word. The editors have substituted 
XP^vQo-L for the reading of the older 
MS; but there is sufficient authority 
for xpna-dai in later writers : see Lo- 
beck Phryn. p. 61, Buttmann Ansf. 
Sprachl. 105 (l. p. 487), Veitch Ir- 
regular Verbs s. v. xp(^fi^'^n^.. For the 
form in a comp. (Tvyxpnadai Ign. A fagn. 
3, TTapaxp'UT6ai A post. Const, vi. 10. 



222 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[VI 



icTTiv Tcx evOa^e fxicrfja'ai, otl fJiiKpa Kai 6\i'yo)(povia Kai 
(bdapTa' eKELva Ze d<ya7rrj(rai, to. dyada Kai aCbdapTa, 
7roiovPTe yap to OeXi^fJia tov Xpiarov evprjcroiuev dva- 
Travciv el de lUfj'ye, ovBev rifjid^ pvcrcTai e/c Ttjs alcoviov 
KoXd(re(i)9, eav TrapaKOvcrwfjiev twv evToXwv avTov. 5 
Xeyei ^e Kai ri <ypa(pt] ev tm ' le^eKiriX, on 'Ean anacth 
Nooe KAI 'lobB ka) Aanih'A, of pycontai ta tskna aytojn ev 
TYJ al-)(^fJiaXM(TLa. el de Kai ol toiovtoi hiKatoi ov 

2 ayadcL Kai] ayada toi AC ; om. S. Here probably the reading of C is to be 
preferred: for (i) It is more forcible in itself: (2) It explains the omission in S. 
3 yap] AS ; om. C. avdiravcnv] AC ; add. tjuae illic S, as if it had read ry\v 

sKel, but this may be only a translator's gloss. 4 r//xas] AC ; om. S. 

6 5^] AC ; yap S. iv ry] AC ; rod S. 8 alxfJ-aXucrig.] C ; atxM'^^wcrta 

A. ol TOLovTOi] AC ; odroi S : see conversely above on p. 221 1. 19. diKaioi] 

AC; om. S. ov d^vavrai.] here, A; after 5t/cato(ri5;'ats in C; but S has appa- 



4. alaviov KoXdaems] The ex- 
pression occurs Matt. xxv. 46. 

6. v Tw 'l6^eKtr;X] Abridged from 
Ezek. xiv. 14 20, being taken es- 
pecially from ver. 14 eav waiv ol rpels 
avdpes ovtoi iv (xeVo) avTr]S Ncoe Kai 
AavirjX Ka) 'ico^, and ver. 18 ov fif/ pv- 
aovrai vlovs Koi dvyarepas. The W^ords 
ev Tj] alxnakaxTia are the writer's own 
addition and should not be treated 
as part of the quotation. It is worth 
noticing also that the order of the 
three names, which has given rise to 
so much speculation among modern 
critics, is changed by the pseudo- 
Clement, and a chronological se- 
quence is produced. The same order 
of the names appears in Apost. Const. 
ii. 14. Chrysostom also makes the 
same change in two passages quoted 
by Cotelier, Horn, xliii in Gen. (iv. 
p. 436) and Exp. in Ps. xlviii (v. p. 
210). 

9. hiKaio(TvvaLs\ The plural, as 
in Deut. ix. 4 (v. 1.), 6, i Sam. xxvi. 
23, Ezek. iii. 20, xxxiii. 13, Ecclus. 
xliv. 10. 

II. TO ^aaiKeiov] ^ the kingdo?n,' 



as in Test, xii Patr. Jud. 17, 22, 23, 
Orac. Sib. iii. 159, Gaius (Hippoly- 
tus.'') in Euseb. H. E. iii. 28, Hip- 
pol. Fragm. 59, 103, 105 (pp. 162, 
181, 182, Lagarde), Euseb. H.E. viii. 
17, Epiphan. Haer. li. 9 (p. 432). 
Thus there is ample authority for 
this sense of (BaaiKfiov. Galland, 
desirous of retaining the more usual 
meaning 'a palace,' supposes the 
writer to refer to the parable of the 
marriage feast given by the king, 
Matt. xxii. 11, 12. If so, we might 
suppose that he explained the wed- 
ding garment of baptism, which is 
mentioned just before. But the refer- 
ence seems improbable. This more 
usual meaning of jSaa-ikeiov would 
have a parallel in S. Anselm Otr 
Deus homo ii. 16 'ut nuUus palatium 
ejus ingrediatur.' 

12. TtapaKk^To^ ''advocate^ as it 
should always be translated in the 
New Testament. This is one coin- 
cidence of language in our pseudo- 
Clement with S. John : see esp. i 
J oh. ii. I TvapaKkryrov %yop.iv -npos rov 
naripa. So above 3 tov narepa Trjs 



VIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



223 



ovvavTai rals eauTwv ^iKaiocrvvai^ pvcracrdai to. tekvu 
10 avTwv i^juei'Sf eav jurj Tr]ptj(r(jo/uLev to f^aTTTKTiuLa dyvov 
Kal dfjiiavTOv, Troia 7r67roi6r]aei eKreXevcrojueOa ek to 
(iaaiXeiov tov Oeov ; t] r/s tjfxwv 7rapdK\i]T09 ecTTui, 
eav fxf] evpeQoifJiev epya 6;^oi/Te9 ocia Kal diKaia ; 

VIL ' Mo'Te ovVf d^eXcpol juoVy dyitiVKrwfj.eOa^ 

15 et^ore? otl ev )(ep(riv 6 dyiiv, kui oti ek tows (pdap- 

TOi/s dy(Jova<i KaraTrXeovo'LV ttoWo/, a'W ov Troti/res 



rently the same order as A. 9 pvcracrOai rh. r^Kva] A ; to. riKva piaacrdai C. 

10 avrCju] A; om. CS. /3a7rT(T/ia] AC ; add. quod accepimus S. 14 ou;'] 

A; om. CS. /xou] A; om. C. As S always adds the possessive pronoun 

where the vocative d8e\(poi stands alone in the Greek, its testimony is of no value 
here: see above 6. 16 KaraTrXiovcTLv] AC; ccrtajtt ^ or^bivi^ovTaC) S, but 

it probably does not represent a different reading in the Greek. Lower down 
S translates KaTairXevcrufiev descendamus in certamen. 



a\T}deLas, and see on this subject 
Westcott Canon p. 157 sq. 

13. o(TLa Kal dlKaia] See the notes 
on I, 5- 

VII. 'Therefore let us prepare for 
the struggle. In the Isthmian games 
many enter the lists, but not many 
are crowned. In this our immortal 
race we should all strive to win. In 
the earthly contests he who breaks 
the rules is scourged. What then 
shall befall those who in their heaven- 
ly course swerve from the right path? 
Their worm, it is written, dieth not, 
and their fire is not quenched.' 

15. ff x^po""' o aywi'] ' T/ic contest 
is at Jiand^ as Xen. Cyr. ii. 3. 2 "hv- 
8pfi (pi\oi, o fiiv ayav iyyvs rjfJ-'i-v '. 
comp. Clem. Rom. 7 6 avrhs rj^iiv 
ayav eVtKeirai. The reading AfcoN 
for AicoN is doubtless correct, and 
this is not the only instance of the 
confusion of the two words : see Hase 
and Dindorf Steph. Thes. p. 593 s.v. 
dywi/, and to the references there 
given add yEsch. Again. 495, and 
see 4 Mace. ix. 23, xi. 19. For V 
Xfpo-iv, ' at hand,' see Plut. Vit. Cleoni. 



22 ovK eXaTTOva t^? eV x^P*^' dvcrrvxiai^, 
Vit. Brut. 36 iv x^P^'-v '^x'^^ '''"^ vnep 
rav okav TTpa^eis, etc. : compare vtto 
X^^pa, Hermas Vis. iii. 10 (with the 
note). 

on fls Toi's (pdaproiis K.r.X.] An 
echo of I Cor. ix. 24, 25 Travres ^ev 
Tpfxovcnv, els 8e Xa/x^avfi to ^pa^el- 
ov and iKeivoi fiev ovv iva (f)6apTov 
<TTe(f)ai'ov \d^co(Tiv, ijfiels Se acjidapTov. 
Comp. Lucian Anachars. 13 fine fioi, 
napTes avra \ap.^avo\jcnv 01 dyoovKTrai ; 
2. ovdafxais aWa fis e^ ciTravrcov o Kpn- 
Trjcras avrav (a passage of which the 
context presents several coincidences 
with S. Paul ; see Clark's Pelopoji- 
nesus p. 50), Seneca Ep. Ixxviii. 16 
' Athletae quantum plagarum ore, 
quantum toto corpore excipiunt ? 
ferunt tamen omne tormentum glori- 
ae cupiditate; nee tantum, quia pug- 
nant, ista patiuntur, sed ut pugncnt... 
nos quoque evincamus omnia, quorum 
praemium non corona nee palma est 
etc' 

16. KaTmrKlovcriv] ''resort'; comp. 
Plut. Mor. p. 81 E Kma-nKe'iv yap ((firj 
Tovi noXXdvs erri rrxo^rfv Adtjva^f. 



224 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



t 



VII 



Kai Ka- 



(TTecpavovvTai, el jut] ol TroWa Kowiaa'ai/Te^ 
\a) dyoiVLaajULevoi. i^juieTs ovv dywvLO'uifj.eQa, \va iravre^ 
a'T6(pavco6(djULei/. wo'Te decojULev tyjv ohov Tt]V evde^av, 
ctycova rov dcpdapTOv, Kai ttoWoi ek avrov KaraTrXeu- 
criafjiev Kai dycouicrwiueda, \va Kai (TTe(j)ava)6(i)iuL6v' Kai 5 



I el ixT)] AC ; [Oc/Jir] A) add. solum S. 
curramus); 0Q/Ji,ev AC. See the lower note, 
S. 5 Kai pri.] AC; om. S. 

Compounds of nXelv are sometimes 
used metaphorically, as eWXeTy (He- 
rod, iii. 155 i^eTrXcocras raiv (fypevav), 
aTTOTrXeii/ (Aristoph. Fr. II. p. 907 Mei- 
neke dnoTrKeva-Te ovv eVt rov vvfx(f>iov), 
dianXelp (Plato Phaed. 85 D hianXiv- 
crai Tov ^lov). But KaraTtKeiv can 
hardly be so explained here; and we 
must therefore suppose that the allu- 
sion is to the akiepKr]s 'icrOfiov deipas 
(Pind. Isthtn. i. 10), which would na- 
turally be approached by sea. Livy 
(xxxiii. 32) describes the Isthmian 
games as 'propter opportunitatem 
loci, per duo diversa maria omnium 
rerum usus ministrantis, humano 
generi concilium.' In these later 
days of Greece they seem to have 
surpassed even the Olympian in im- 
portance, or at least in popularity : 
comp. Aristid. Isthm. p. 45 eV rr) koK- 
\i(TTr] T(ov TravTjyvpecov rrj^e Kol ovo/xacr- 
TOTaTT) K.T.X. (see Krause He/Zen. ll. 2. 
p. 205 sq). If this homily was ad- 
dressed to the Corinthians (see 
above, p. 197), there would be singular 
propriety in this image, as in S. Paul's 
contrast of the perishable and im- 
perishable crown likewise addressed 
to them, or again in the lessons which 
Diogenes the Cynic is reported to 
have taught in this city during the 
Isthmian games, maintaining the 
superiority of a moral over an athletic 
victory (Dion Chrysost. Orai. viii, 
ix). 

I. Koniaa-avrfs] A word used 
especially of training for the contest : 



3 Oiufiev] conj. (so too S distinctly 

4 els avrbv] AC ; m certamen 

d7Wj'((ru)yU.e^o] AS ; ayvLaihfi.eda. C. 

see the notes on Ign. Polyc. 6 and 
Philippians li. 16. For the connexion 
here comp. i Tim. iv. 10 koi Kowiapev 
Kai dya)i/L^oiJ.fda (the correct reading). 
3. deoifjLev] For the accusative 
after this verb see Lobeck Para/. 
p. 511: comp. also Cic. O^. iii. 10 
' stadium currit ' (from Chrysippus). 
The reading of the Greek MSS, 
6mp.ev, can hardly stand. It is 
explained as referring to the dya>- 
vodea-ia ; but in this case the 
dymvoOiTrjs should be God Him.self 
(see Tertull. ad Mart. 3) ; and 
moreover daijiev riji/ 686v is in itself 
an awkward expression. Gebhardt, 
having read Becofiev in first edition, 
has returned to 6cop.ev in his second, 
being apparently persuaded byBryen- 
nios. But the argument of Bryennios 
appears to me to be based on a mis- 
conception. He urges that we can- 
not read 6ea>p,ev on account of the 
words immediately following, kol 
TToXAot els avTov KaranXevawnev, and 
he argues 6 8e apn dya>VL(6p.vos XP^^dv 
OVK exft els rov dya)va KareXdelv, as if 
the reading 6ecop.ev involved a hys- 
teron-proteron. But in fact this 
clause introduces an entirely new 
proposition, of which the stress lies 
on noWoi ; 'let us not only take part in 
this race {6e(>>fiev ttjv 686v), but let us 
go there z;t great numbers and con- 
tend {ttoKKoX Ka7an\ev(T<i)p.ev kcli dycovi- 
(Tuip.eda).'' On the Other hand it has 
not been shown that Oelvai rfjv 686v 
or TOV dywva can be said of the com- 



VIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



225 



1 ^t] cvvajueda ttuvts^ a'Te(pavo)6i]uai, Kav eyyv^ 
Tov o-TCCpapov yepw/uLeda. eihepai tj/ua^ ^e?, on 6 top 
(pdapTOP dycopa dycDPi^ojuepo^f idp eupedfj (pQe'ipuiP, 
^acTTiycodel's a'lperai kul e^co jSdWeTai tov crTaBiou. 
10 Ti 00KeiT6 ; 6 top Trj^ dcpOapcr'ia^ dyuipa (pOeipa's, t'l 



7 d5hai] A; add. 5^ CS. 6] here A; before aywvi^bnevo%, C. 

doKeirai A. (pdetpas] A; (pOeipuv C, so apparently S. 



lO SoKeire] 



batants themselves. Bryennios in- 
deed explains it dcofxev tavTo'is tj 
Trpo^coVf^a, but this explanation stands 
self-condemned by the necessity of 
using either the reflexive pronoun 
(iavTo^s) or the middle voice {vpo- 
6(i>fj.f6a) to bring out the sense. The 
construction which we have here 
occurs from time to time with 6eeLv, 
but is more common with rpix^iv, 
because the verb itself is more com- 
mon ; e.g. Heb. xii. i Tpfxap.ep tov 
TTpoKfififvov rjfiiv aya>va (see Bleek's 
note). Polybius (i. 87. i, xviii. 35. 
6) has the proverb rpix^iv rf^v fo-xdrrjv. 

5. Ka\ el prj dvvdfMeda k.t.X.] This 
seems to point to some public recog- 
nition of those who came nextafterthe 
victor. In the Olympian chariot races 
there were second, third, and fourth 
prizes; but in the foot racesthenotices 
of any inferior prize or honourable 
mention are vague and uncertain : 
see Krause Hellen. 11. i. p. 170 sq. 
This passage is quoted loosely by Do- 
rotheus Doctr. xxiii coy Xtyet /cni o ayios 
KXr;^7yr, Kaj/ /xi) aTe(j)ava>Tai res, dWa 
(nrov8aaei /j,i) p.aKpa.u evpeOfjvai rap are- 
(pavovfievdiv. 

6. Kav f'yyvi k.t.X.] See Joseph. 
B.J, 1. 21. 8 a&Ka fieyicTTa Trpo6f\s ev 
019 Oil fjiovov ol viKavrei dWa Kai 01 /xer' 
avTOvs Kai ol rpiToi tov j3ao"iXtKoO 
TrXoiJrov p.eTe\dp.j3avov. Comp. Apost. 
Const, ii. 14. 

8. (^^eipwi/] ' vitiating.'' The word 
is used of violating the conditions of 
the contest, e.g. by making a false 

CLEM. II. 



start or cutting off a corner or trip- 
ping up an adversary or taking any 
underhand advantage : comp. Epi- 
phan. Haer. Ixi. 7 7rapa(p0f[pas dymua 
6 ddXrjTTjs /iocrT(.;(^6is eKjSaXXerai tov 
dyavos (quoted by Cotelier). The 
word is specially chosen here for the 
sake of the neighbouring (fidapTov 
d(f)6apa-ias. See Chrysippus in Cic. 
O^. iii. 10 'Qui stadium currit, eniti 
et contendere debet, quam maxinie 
possit, ut vincat ; supplantare eum 
quicum certet aut manu depellere 
nullo modo debet : sic in vita etc.', 
Lucian Cat. iion tern. cred. 12 o /xeV 
dyados 8poiJivs...T(a n\r)crLov ov8ev 
KaKovpyel. ..6 8e kokos eKelvos Koi ava6\os 
dvTayoovKTTfjs. . .eVl ttjv KOKOTexvLuv fTpa- 
TTSTO K.T.X. The turn given to the 
image in (pdelpav was perhaps sug- 
gested by 2 Tim. ii. 5 01! aTe(pavoiiTai 
eav ixTj vop,ip.cos dOXrjcrrj (comp. Epictet. 
Diss. iii. 10. 8 86s fioi dTr68(i^cv el 
voyiip.(iiS rjdXrjcras). 

9. p.acrTiyu)6eis] i.e. by the pa^8ov- 
xoi or, as they are sometimes called 
(e. g. Lucian Herntot. 40), paariyo- 
4>6poi. Pollux (iii. 153) furnishes also 
a third name, fjLa<TTiyov6p,oi. Compare 
Herod, viii. 59 eV roio-t a'ycoo-t ol npoe^- 
avKTTapevoi pani^ovTai, Thucyd. v. 50 
eV TW dydvi vtto tojv pa^8ovxu>v nXrjyas 
eXajBfv, Lucian adv. Indoct. 9, Piscat. 
33. On these police see Krause Hel- 
len. II. I. pp. 112 sq, 139, 142, 144, II. 
2. p. 46 sq. See Schweighaeuser 
on Epictet. Diss. iii. 15. 5 (p. 689). 

al'perat] ' is removed.'' 

15 



I 



226 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[vii 



rrraOeiTai ; twv yap jur] Tt]pr](ravTcov, (prja-iv, rrjv acppa- 

yToa 6 ckcoAhI aytoon oy reAeyTHcei kai to nyp aytoon 
oy cBecGHceTAi, kai ecoNTAi eic opAciN nACH CApKi. 

VIII. 'OJs o\Jv ecTfJiev eiri yri's, /.i6Tavori(rii)iuLv' 
TT^Aos yap eafiev ek Tr]v X^^P^ '^^^ Texvirov. bv 5 
TpoTTOV yap 6 Kepafiev^, eav mroirj (TKevo's Kai eV rals 
X^p(ytv avTOv dia(rTpa<pfj t] cvpTpif^fj, TraXiv avTO 
di/aTrXdcrcreL' eav ^e 7rpo(p6da't] ets Triv KajjiLvov tov 
TTvpo'i avTO ^aXeTVf ovketl (3or]6r](rei auTM' ovtco^ kul 
iljULeJ^f ews ecTfJiev eV tovtm tw KoaiuLa}, ev Trj crapKi 10 

I Tra^etrat] A; ireiaeTai C. 2 rb irvp auTwc] AS ; to vvp (om. avrCiv) C. 

6 TToi.-^'l A ; TTOLrjcrrj C, but the present tense is wanted here ; see below. kclI] 

here, A ; before diacTrparpTJ, CS thus altering the sense. iv] A ; om. C ; S is 

doubtful. 7 ^] AS ; om. C. 8 ai/aTrXdcrcret] A ; dvavXaffet. C. 

TOV TTvpbs] AC ; om. S, but see the next note. 9 j3a\e'Lv'] AC ; add. ei com- 

burat id et pereat (perdahir) S. It is not probable however that any corresponding 



I. rrjv o-^paytSa] By a compari- 
son with 6 eav pLTj TTiprjcrcoiJLfv to /3a7r- 
Tiafia, it appears that baptism is here 
meant by the seal. So again 8 rq- 
prjcrare rfjv cr^paylSa acrniKov. Comp. 
Hermas Sitn. viii. 6 elXrjcjioTfs rrjv 
crfppayida Koi redXaKOTes aiWrjv Kol pr] 
TTjp-qa-avTei vyirj k.t.X-, Sim. ix. 1 6 or- 
av Se Xa/3?; ttjv (T<^pay1ba...r) acfipayls 
ovv TO vBcop iaTiv k.t.X., also Sim. 
viii. 2, ix. 17, 31, C/ef/i. Ho7n. xvi. 19 
TO (Tcopa cr(j)payl.8t peyia-Tt] SiarervTrco- 
pfvov (with the context), Aci. Paul. 
et Thecl. 25 povov 86s poi Tfjv ev Xpicr- 
Tw a-(f)paylda, Hippol. Antichr. A,l 
(p. 119, Lagarde), Cureton's Ancient 
Syriac Documents p. 44. So of Aber- 
cius it is said {Ign. andPolyc. I. p. 496) 
\apiTpav (TCppayeldav e)(OVTa. Suicer 
s.v. quotes Clem. Alex. Qidsdiv. salv. 
39 (P- 957), Stro/n. ii. 3 (p. 434), and 
later writers. Barnabas 9 speaks 
of circumcision as a o-^payly after S. 
Paul, Rom. iv. 1 1 . But it may be ques- 
tioned whether S. Paul {a-cppayia-dpevos 
2 Cor. i. 22, comp. Ephes. iv. 30) or S. 



John (Rev. ix. 4 Tfjv a(l>payl8a Toii Oeov 
eVt Twv peTaTTOiv) used the image with 
any direct reference to baptism. 

2, 6 aKcoXrj^ K.T.X.] An accurate quo- 
tation from the Lxx of the last verse 
of Isaiah (Ixvi. 24) o yap aKuXr]^ avTMP 
K.T.X. The denunciation is uttered 
against rwf av6pcc7Ta>v Tav irapa^e^rj- 
KOTcov, and the context does not con- 
tain any reference to the broken seal. 

VIII. 'We are as clay in the 
hands of the potter. At present, if we 
are crushed or broken, He can mould 
us again ; but when we have been once 
thrown into the furnace, nothing will 
avail us. Therefore let us repent in 
time. After death repentance is too 
late. Let us keep the flesh pure now, 
that we may inherit eternal life here- 
after. This is our Lord's meaning, 
when He says, // _ye kept not that 
which is small, who shall give yojt 
that which is great f^ 

4. 'Q.S ovv] ' While then.' For this 
sense of c<5s see 9 $ exopev Kaipov, 
with the note. 



VIIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



227 



a eirpapajjiev 7rovr]pa fueravorja'Miuiei/ i^ b\t] Trj'i Kap- 
hia<5, 'iva crcodcojULev vtto tov Kvpiov, eco9 e^ojuev kul- 
pov iJLeTavoia<s' fjtera 'yap to e^eXdelv rifjid<i e/c tov 
Koa/uov, 0VK6TL ZwaixeOa eKei e^oiuoXoyricracrdai i] fde- 
15 Tavoelv (ETL. cocTTe, ddeXcpol, 7roir](TavTe^ to 6e\r]juia 
TOV 7raTpo<s Kai tyiv arapKa dyv^v Tript](TavTe<i kul tws 
evToXa^ TOV Kvpiov (pvXa^auTe's Xri\}yoiue6a ^(i)t]v aicu- 
VLOv. Xeyei 'yap 6 Kvpiov ev tw evayyeXiM' Ei to 

MIKpON OYK eTHpHCATe, TO MefA TIC YMIN AOOC6I; AefOO 

words stood in the Greek text. /SoTj^^tret] A; 07)6el CS. oOVajs] A; 

0VT03 C. II a] C; si quid S. t^s] A; om. C. 12 ?ws] A; 

diitn S ; ws iri. C. ixP-^^ Kaiphv^ A; Kaipbv ^x^Mf C. 13 /ierai/ofaj] 

AS; om. C. tov k6uixov\ AC; Trjs aapKos S. 14 i^oixo\oyriffa<T9aC\ 

AC; add. super nostris peccatis S. 15 7rotT70'acTes] AC; add. 0?;' (?) S. 

16 crdp/ca] C ; aapKav A; add. rifj.Cjv S. 



5. TTJjXos yap f(Tfj.fV (c.r.X.] The 
image of Jeremiah xviii. 4 6, adopt- 
ed by S. Paul Rom. ix. 21. The pre- 
sent passage is suggested rather by 
the prophet than by the Apostle. 
The image is drawn out in Test xii 
Pair. Nepht. 2, and in Athenag. 
Stippl. 15. 

6. TToiT) (TKevos Koi K.r.X.] There 
can be no doubt that the more 
graphic reading of A is correct. 
The very point of the comparison is 
that the breakage happens zji the 
making {ttoitj), happens under tlie 
hands of the potter (eV rai% ^tpaXv 
avTov 8ia(TTpacf)^), and not afterwards, 
as T!Oiriarj...Ta'ls ^fpcr"' avrov kcli 8iaa- 
Tpa(f)fj would imply. 

7. avvTpi^^] Rev. ii. 27 coy to, 
(TKCVT] TO KepajiiKa crvvrpifieTai. 

ndXiv avTo di/aTrXdo-crei] Hilgen- 
feld refers to Theoph. ad Autol. 
ii. 26 Kadanep a-Kfvos ti, enav nXaadfu 
alriav rivn o-^,^, ava)(a>vev(Tai. t) ava- 
TrXdcrcTfTat eif to yeveadai Kaivhv koi 
oKoKkr^pov ; see the references there 
given by Otto. 

8. (av be jTpQ<^6a(TT) k.t.X.] ' IVhen 






He has once cast it into the fiery 
ftirtiace, He will no tnore come to its 
rescue? 7rpo(l)daveiv occurs Matt. xvii. 
25 and several times in the LXX. 

16. Trjv aapKa ayvrjv ac.t.X.] Act. 
Paul, et Thecl. 5 fiaKapioi ol ayvrjv rrjv 
actpKa TTjpi^cravTes, 12 ttjv aapKa firj 
p-oKvvriTe aXXd TTjpTjarjre ayvqv. 

18. Et TO piKpov K.T.X.] Probably 
a quotation fused from Luke xvi. 10 
6 TTKTTos fP eXaxt'crro) koi ev ttoXXw mcr- 
Tos ecTTiv, Koi 6 ev eXa^'CTTa) ciSlkos koL 
ev 7roXXo5 d'StKoy eaTiv' el ovv ev rca 
dSt'/co) papLcova Tricrroi ovk eyeveade, to 
a\r]6iv6v TLs vpiv TTKTTevaei ; and Matt. 
XXV. 21, 23, eVl oXiya rjs ttkttos, en). 
TToXXwi' ere KaTaarTijao). Irenosus (ii. 34- 
3) cites it somewhat similarly, ' Si in 
modico fideles non fuistis, quod mag- 
num est quis dabit vobis.-" The quo- 
tation of our Clementine writer may 
perhaps be taken from an apocryphal 
gospel (see the notes on 4, 5, 12) ; 
but the passage of Iren;eus, who can 
hardly have borrowed from an apo- 
cryphal source, shows how great di- 
vergences are possible in quotations 
from memory, and lessens the pro- 

152 



228 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[viii 



CTOC eCTIN 



6'ti d nicTOc eN IAaxictco kai eN noAAw ni- 



apa ovv TOVTO Xeyer Tr]pr]craT Tr]v 
(rdpKa dyvnv kul Trjv (TCppaylZa dcnriXov, \va Tr]V 
\cuuiVLOv\ ^(orjv dTroXaf^cojULev. 



I 7roX\y]AC; iroXXots S. 
lower note. 

bability of this solution. Hilgenfeld's 
inference (p. xxxix), ' Irenaeus hac 
epistula quamvis nondum Clementi 
Romano adscripta usus esse videtur,' 
seems to me quite unwarranted by 
the coincidence. We have in fact a 
similar coincidence in Hippol. Haer. 
X. 33 (p. 336) Iva eVi TW [xiKpa iriaros 
fvpedflsKoi TO fieya TricrTevdfjvai, dvvrjd^s- 

2. apa ovv] A favourite colloca- 
tion of particles in S. Paul : see Fritz- 
sche on Rom. v. 18. The accentua- 
tion apa ovv is erroneous. 

TOVTO Xe'yei] 'He means this'': as 
in 2 (twice), 12. See the note 
on Galatians iii. 1 7. The words there- 
forewhichfollowought not to be treat- 
ed as an apocryphal quotation, as they 
are by several editors and others. 

3- acnvCkov] For Trjpelv acrniXov 
comp. I Tim. vi. 14, James i. 27. 

4. alcivLov] The omission in the 
Syriac is probably correct ; comp. 
14 ToaavTTjv Bvvarai 7; crap avTT] 
fiCTaXa^elv ^corjv k.t.X., I 7 a-vvriyp.evoi 
ap,ev eir\ ttjv ^(oi]v. The epithet may 
havebcen inserted from the expression 
just above, XTjyj^op.eda ^cofjv aldviov. 
Similarly in John xx. 31 alcoviov is 
added after (a>^v by XCD etc., and 
in I Tim. vi. 19 ttjs alcoviov ^(ofjs 
(from ver. 12) is substituted for the 
less usual Trjs ovrcos fwiys by several 
authorities. In Luke x. 25 Marcion 
read (afjv without alaviov (see Tertull. 
c. Marc. iv. 25), and so one Latin copy. 

anoKafiaip.iv'] ''secure! The pre- 
position implies that it is already 
potentially our own, so that we are 
only recovering a right: see Gala- 
tians iv. 5 with the note. 



4 diroXciSw/xe;'] A; aTroXa^yjre CS ; see the 

The licence in the change of per- 
sons {rrip-qa-are, dnoXd^cdiiev) has of- 
fended the transcribers here, though 
occasionally indulged in even by 
the best writers in all languages, 
e.g. Jeremy Taylor Works vi. p. 
364 ' If they were all zealous for 
the doctrines of righteousness, and 
impatient of sin, in yourselves and 
in the people, it is not to be im- 
agined what a happy nation we 
should be.' See also e.g. Rom. vii. 
4 (6avaT(odT]T, Kap7ro(f)opi](r(t)Hv, viii. 
15 i\a(3fTe, Kpa^opfv, and frequently 
in S. Paul. 

IX. ' Do not deny the resurrection 
of the body. As we were called in 
the flesh, so also shall we be judged 
in the flesh. As Christ being spirit 
became flesh for us, so shall we in 
the flesh receive our recompense. 
Let us love one another; let us make 
a return to God for His goodness. 
What must this return be? Sincere 
repentance and unceasing praise 
the praise not of our lips only, but of 
our hearts and of our actions.' 

5. Kat pfj XeyeTO) Tis k.t.X.] This 
passage, as far as dnoXTj-^ofieda top 
fiiaOov, is quoted in several collections 
of Syriac fragments, immediately after 
the opening sentence of this epistle : 
see the note on the beginning of i, 
and comp. I. p. 185. The sentence 
fis Xpicrros...7//ias eKaXeaev is also 
quoted by Timotheus of Alexandria ; 
see I. p. 180. 

avTT] r; (Tap^ k.t.X.] Difficulties 
on this point were very early felt and 
met by S. Paul, i Cor. xv. 12 sq. A 
little later the precursors of Gnosti- 



ixj 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY 



229 



5 IX. Kai jurj Xeyeru) ti^ vfjitdv^ oti avTt] r] crap^ 
ov KpiveruL ovhe dvicTTaTai. yvwre' ev tlvi e(rwdr]Te, 
ev TLVi dve(i\e^aTe, el firi ev Trj aapKi TuvTrj ovres ; 

5 Tis] AC ; S translates, as if it had read /xijSet's. 6 ovd^] A; oUre C. 



cism boldly maintained that the only 
resurrection was a spiritual resurrec- 
tion (2 Tim. ii. 18). It afterwards 
became a settled tenet of the Gnostic 
sects to deny the resurrection of the 
body : see Polyc. P/ti7. 7 os av fiedo- 
SfVT] ra Xoyia rov Kvpiov Tvpos Tas I8ias 
f7ri6vfiias koI Xe'yj; firjre afacrracnv iirjTe 
Kplaiv elvai, Justin Dial. 80 (p. 306 d) 
et yap Koi crvve^aXeTe u/xeTs rtcrt Xeyo- 
p.ivois Xp(,(rTiavols...oi koL Xeyovcrt p-fj 
fivai veKpav dvaaraaiv dXX' afia ra 
anodvrj<TK.eiv ras yj/vx^s avrav avakap,- 
^aveadai, els tov ovpavov, p.r] VTroXa^rjTe 
avToiis Xpi(TTi.avovs k.t.X., Iren. ii. 31. 
2 TocrovTOV de aTTo^eovcri tov veKpov 
iyeipai.Mt ne quidem credant hoc in 
totum posse fieri ; esse autem resur- 
rectionem a mortuis agnitionem ejus, 
quae ab eis dicitur, veritatis' (comp. 
V. 31. I, 2), Act. Paul, et Thecl. 14 
T]piis ere 8t8a^opfv, fjv Xe'yei ovros dva- 
(TTaaiv yfvecrdai, on r]8r] yeyovfv (<j) ois 
fXop.ev TeKvoii, Koi dviarapuQa Qtov eVf- 
yvaKOTfs aKrjBfj, Tertull. de Res. Cam. 
19 ' Nacti quidam sollemnissimam 
eloquii prophetici formam, allegorici 
et figurati, non tamen semper, resur- 
rectionem quoque mortuorum mani- 
festo annuntiatam in imaginariam 
significationem distorquent etc.,' with 
the following chapters. 

From this doctrine the antinomian 
Gnostics deduced two consequences; 
(i) That the defilement of the flesh is 
a matter of indifference, provided 
that the spirit has grasped the truth. 
Against this error is directed the 
warning Hermas Sim. v. 7 rrjv crdpKa 
(TOV Tavrrjv (pvXaaae Kadapav koi dpiav- 
Tov, Iva TO nvevfia to KUTtvoiKovv iv 
avTTJ pLapTvpija-r] avTrj koI biKuiuiBfi 
(TOV T] (rdp^- ^XtTTf p.T]TroTf dvajifi eVi 



TTjv Kaphlav crov ttjv adpKa aov rav- 
Trjv (ftdapTTjV elvai Ka\ napaxpricrr] 
avTTJ iv fiiacrpS tivi k.t.X. So too 
Ps.-Ign. Tars. 2 eTepoi 8e [Xeyovo-n/] 
OTi 1] aap^ avTT} ovk fyeiperaL, koL 8f2 
d7roXav(TTiKov ^iov ^fjv Kai p,eTL4vai. 
See also Orig. e. Cels. v. 22. This 
practical consequence our writer 
seems to have distinctly in view 8j 
9. (2) That it is legitimate to decline 
martyrdom and to avoid persecution 
by a denial of Christ with a mental 
reservation. Rightly or wrongly this 
charge is constantly brought against 
them by their antagonists. Thus 
Agrippa Castor, writing against Basi- 
lides (Euseb. H.E. iv. 7), represented 
him as teaching d8ia(f>ope2v etScoXo^u- 
TOiv dnoyevopivovs nai e^op,vvpevovs 
dTrapa(f)vXdKTcos ttjv tt'kttlv Kara Toiis 
Tav 8i(oypa)v Kaipovi : and Iren. Haer. 
iii. 18. 5 'Ad tantam temeritatem pro- 
gressi sunt quidam ut etiam martyres 
spernant et vituperent eos qui prop- 
ter Domini confessionem occiduntur 
etc' (comp. i. 24. 6). This is a con- 
stant charge in Tertullian. See on 
this subject Ritschl Altkath. Kirche 
p. 495 sq. This view again seems to 
be combated by our writer, 4, 5, 
7, 10. 

Schwegler Nachap. Zeitalt. I. p. 
453 sq maintained that the expres- 
sion in our text is directed against 
docetic Ebionism. He is well re- 
futed by Hilgenfeld Apost. Vat. 
p. 115 sq. 

7. ev Tivi] ' in ivhat^ not ' in 
whotn' as the following el prj iv tt} 
anpKi shows. 

dj/e/3Xe-v//are] 'ye recovered your 
sight^ ; comp. ^5 I roiavTrjs dxXvos 
yep.ovTei iv Trj opd(rei dve^Xei\rap.ev k.t.X. 



230 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[IX 



^e? ovv rijULas ws vaov Oeov (puXacceiv Tt]v crapKu' 
bv TpoTTOV yap ev rfj (rapKi eK\t]dr]T, Kal ev Trj 
crapKL eXevaeade. el XpLCTO^ 6 Kvpio^, 6 cwcras 
rifia^, wv fjLev to irputTOv TrvevjULa, eyeveTO crap^ Kai 
ouTws rifJLa^ eKaXeaev, ovtco^ kul t^jULeT^ ev Tavrrj Trj 5 
(TapKL d7ro\r]^6iJLe6a tov fiLcrdov. dyaTraJjuev ovv d\- 
\^\ov^, OTTO)? eXOio/uLev TravTes ek ttiv ^ao-iXeiav tov 
Oeov. (t} e'y^ojuiev Kaipov tov laSfjvai, eTrfSw/iei/ iav- 

2 Kal ev Trj ffapKl...b cwaas] AC; et in carne venit christiis dominiis {nosier), 
ttnus existens, is qui salvavit S. This may be explained by the obliteration of some 
letters, so that eXeiyo-eo-^e was read e\...6e, and translated as if ^X^e. 3 eXeii- 

aecrde] eXevcreadai A. el] Fragm Syr ; eh ACS Timoth : see the lower 

note. 4 Trvevfj-a] AS ; X670S C : see above, I. p. 125, for the motive of this 

change. iyivero] AC ; add. 5^ S Timoth Fragm-Syr. cap?] AC ; in 

carne S Timoth Fragm-Syr. koX oCrws] A ; koI oxjtus Kal C. 5 iKd- 



I. toy vaov Qeov k.t.X.] See Ign. 
Philad. 7 7171' crapKa vfiSv cos vaov Qeov 
TrjpeiTe: comp. I Cor. ill. 16, 17, vi. 
19, 2 Cor. vi. 16, and see Ign. Ephes. 
9. 15 (with the notes). 

3. eKev(Te(T6e\ Not, I think, et? 
jr^v ^aaikeiav tov Qeov, as Harnack 
takes it, but els ttjv kp'ktlv. 

el XpioTTos K.r.X.] The reading et 
for eiff, now supported by ample 
authority, is evidently required by 
the context. Mill and others would 
have read as, which gives the same 
sense. Editors quote as a parallel 
Ign. Magn. 7 els Icttiv 'irjaovs Xpicrros, 
but ety is quite out of place here, 
though appropriate there where the 
writer is dwelling on unity. It is 
possible that the reading of A 
eiC arose out of IIC i.e. et 'I;;o-o0ff, 
or 6I0IC i.e. et o \r]fTovs. The confu- 
sion would be easier, as the preceding 
word ends in G. 

4. $>v \j.ev\ As though the sentence 
were intended to be continued in a 
participial form yev6p.evos be. 

TO TTpwTov nvevp.a] The doctrine 
of the pre-existence of the Son, as 



the Logos, is here presented in a 
somewhat unusual form; comp. how- 
ever Hernias Sifn. v. 6 to wvevp.a to 
ayiov, to wpoov, to KTLcrav naaav ttjv 
KTia-iv, KaTMKKrev 6 Qebs els aapKa rjv 
i^oxikeTO, ix. I eKelvo yap to -rrvevpa 
6 vios tov Qeov eaTiv, Theoph. ad Au- 
to/, ii. 10 ovTos ovv (ov Tvvevp.a Qeov koI 
apx^l Kot aocfiLa Koi 8vi>afiis w//'icrTou 
KaTrip)(eTo els tovs 7rpo(J3r^Tas Kol St 
avTav e'XaXei /c.r.X., TertuU. adv. Marc. 
iii. 16 'spiritus Creatoris qui est 
Christus,' Hippol. c. Noei. 4 (p. 47 
Lagarde) Xoyos arap^ i^v, Trvevpia rjv, 
bvvap.is ^v K.T.X. See especially Dor- 
ner Lehre von der Person Christi I. 
p. 205 sq. 

8, ths exojxev Koipov] ^ while we 
have opportunity'' : comp. Gal. vi. 10 
(with the note), Ign. Srnyrn. 9 ws 
en Kaipov exofiev. Another instance 
of coy, 'white,' occurs above, ^ 8. 

10. 7rpoyp{o<TTT]s] Justin Apol. i. 44 
(p. 82 b), Tatian adGraec. 19, Theoph. 
ad Autol. ii. 15. 

11. Ta ev fcapSia] 2 Chron. xxxii. 31 
elhevai to. ev ttj Kapbia avTov, Deut. 
viii. 2 biayvctXTdrj ra iv ttj Kapbia aov. 



ix] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 23 1 

Tovs TM depajreuovTi Oew, di^Ti/uicdiai/ uvtm ^iSoVres* 
10 TToiav ; TO jueTavofjcraL ep elXiKpivov^ Kapdia<s' Trpo- 
'yvwo'Tri'i yap ecmv tcov iravTUiv kul elBcos t]iu(Jou to. 
v Kaphia. hcdjjiev ovv avTM aivov alcovLOv, jurj drro 
CTOjuaro^ fjLOVOV dWa Kal diro Kaphia^, 'iva rifjid^ 
Trpocrhe^tjTai W9 vlov'S. Kal yap eiirev 6 Kvpios' 
15 'AAeAc})oi Moy oyTOi eiciN 01 noioyNTec to OeAHMA Toy 
nATpdc Moy. 

Xeaev] AC ; add. exisieus in came (wV kv rfj aapKl) S, but this may be only a gloss 
of oiVws and probably does not represent any additional words in the Greek text. 
ovtcjjs sec] A ; ovtu C, 6 dTro\7]ip6/jLeda] aTro\T]\po/J.ai9a A. ovv] AS ; 

om. C. 9 T(^ depaTrevovTi.] AC ; add. uos S. lo eiXiKpi.i'ovs] 

CkLKpivovcr A. 1 1 TO. ev Kaphia] raevKapdia A ; ra eyKapSia C ; ea quae in 

corde nostrtuii S. 12 axvov aiihviov\ mwviov (om. mvov) A; atuov (om. aluviov) 

CS. 13 iifias] AC; Kal i]/xds S. 15 iroiovvres^ irovvTea A, 



I Sam. ix. 19, etc. Hilgenfeld reads 
Ta ivKapbia, saying of A ^evKdp8ia (s. 
eyKapdia) c. Cod., Jun., ev KopBia ceteri 
edd.' But, inasmuch as an iota sub- 
script or adscript never appears in 
MSS of this date, the transcriber could 
not have written eV KapS/a otherwise 
than he has done. Moreover, since ev 
Kap8ia and ev rfj Kap8ia occur number- 
less times in the LXX, whereas the 
adjective eyKap8ios is not once found 
there, this reading seems to me im- 
probable. In Clem. Alex. Facd.i. 3 (p. 
103) I should be disposed conversely 
to read diopav to. ev Kapdia (for eymp- 
bia) Xo'yoy. The word eyKap8ios how- 
ever is legitimate in itself. 

12. alvov alcovLov] This is doubtless 
the right reading ; see above, i. p. 
120 and the note on evpe'tv below 
10. Comp. Apost. Const, iii. i tov 
aloivtov enaivov. 

15. 'A8eX(j)oi fiov K.T.X.] Matt. xii. 
49 'Sou j; f^']''"'lP Mf"^ '^f"' o' d8eX<poi 
fiQv' ooTts yap av Trot^cr/y to deXrjpa tov 
naTpos p.ov tov ev ovpavols, avTos fiov 
d8eX(f>6s Koi d8eX(jiri kol pj^Tijp e'crrtV 
(comp. Mark iii. 35) ; Luke viii. 21 



ixrjrrjp fiov Koi a8e\(j}oi p,ov ovtol elcriv, 
ol TOV Xoyov Toi) Qeov uKovovTes koi 
TToioiivTes. Epiphanius, Haer. xxx. 14 
(p. 139), gives the saying Qvto'l elaiv 
ol d8eX(f)oi [iov koi t; ii^ttjp, ol iroiovvTes 
Ta deXrjpaTa Toi) TfciTpos fiov, as it is 
assumed, from an Ebionite gospel 
(Westcott Canon p. 160, Hilgenfeld 
Apost. Vat. p. 122) ; but I do not think 
his language implies more than that 
the Ebionites allowed the saying to 
stand in their recension of the Gos- 
pel, and he may be quoting loosely 
from the canonical Evangelists. A 
still wider divergence from the ca- 
nonical passages is in Clem. Alex. 
Ed. Proph. 20 (p. 994) dyei ovv els 
eXevdeplav ttjv tov narpus crvyKXrjpovo- 
fiovs vlovs KOI (fiiXovs' A8eX(poi pov 
yap, (prjcTLv 6 Kvpios, Ka\ crvyKXrjpovopot. 
ol rroLouvres to deXrjfia tov iraTpos 
fjLov, where the context shows that 
avyKXr^povopLoi is deliberately given as 
part of the quotation. Omitting Kal 
orvyKXrjpovopoi and inserting ovtoL elcriv^ 
it will be seen that this form of the 
saying agrees exactly with our pseudo- 
Clement's quotation. 



232 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[X 



X. ''OOa-re, dde\<pOL julou, iroLncruyiuei/ to 6e\r]^a 
Tov Trarpo^ tov KaXearavro^ i^indsj 'iva ^rjcriofiev, kul 
liui^oifjiev fjidXKov rnv dperriv, rnv Ze KUKiav Kara- 
Xei^co/uiev ws TrpoodoLTropoi/ twi> d^apTiwv ^i/xwi/, kui 

1 dde\(poL fiov] A ; dSeX^iot (om. fxov) C ; dSeX^ot Kal d5eX0at l/xov] S. On the 
uncertainty respecting the pronoun in S in such cases see below, 13. 4 'rpo- 



X. 'Let us therefore fulfil the will 
of our Father. Let us flee from vice, 
lest evil overtake us. Let us do good, 
that peace may pursue us. They who 
teach the fear of men rather than the 
fear of God, are duly punished. And, 
if they themselves alone suffered, it 
were tolerable. But now they shall 
have a double condemnation, for they 
lead others besides themselves into 
ruin.' 

2. Iva frfo-oj/xci'] To be connected 
not with roil KoXea-avTos 7/i5s, but with 

4. TrpooSotVopoi/] ' a forerunner'' ; 
for KaKla is the evil disposition, while 
afxapria is the actual sin. On KUKia 
see Trench N. T. Syn. ist ser. xi, 
where he quotes the definition of 
Calvin (on Ephes. iv. 32) ' Animi 
pravitas quae human itati et aequitati 
est opposita et malignitas vulgo nun- 
cupata.' The substantive -npoohomo- 
pos seems to be very rare, though the 
verb Trpoodonropelv occurs occasion- 
ally. 

6. dyadoTToielv] See the note on 
the First Epistle 2 ayadonouav. 

7. fevpe'ivf] sc. lpT]vr]v ; ' J^or this 
reason a man cannot find peace.'' If 
we take the reading of the Greek MSS, 
no other meaning seems possible ; 
but it can hardly be correct. Yet 
this must have been the reading of 
S, which translates ' noti est homini 
{cuiquam) inve7iire homines illos qui 

faciunt timoreni humanicm,' as if the 
construction were ovk ta-riv av6pa>irov 
evpflv (eKeivovs) otrives k.t.X. ; but for 
. > T%N^ '^ 'gui/aciunt,' ought we not 



to read ..^r\v^ ^qui trauseunt,' 

thus more closely representing irapa- 
yovo-i, which however it mistranslates? 
Previous editors have supposed the 
error to lie in avOpanov, written ANON 
in the MS. Accordingly ANeN (i.e. 
av Qiov) has been suggested by Wot- 
ton ; OYNON (i.e. ovpavov) by Davies ; 
and AINON {alvov) by Hilgenfeld. 
But in the first correction the av is 
grammatically inexplicable ; and the 
second and third give unnatural ex- 
pressions. I believe the mistake is 
in eVPeiN, and should suggest 
eiPHNHNGYPeiN or GIPHNGYeiN, 
or still better eYHMePIN. If 
evTjfiepflv ^ to prosper' be adopted, 
the writer seems to have in mind 
Ps. xxxiv. 9 sq cfio^TjdrjTe tov Ku- 
piov iTavTfi...ovK eariv v(rrfprjp,a rois 
(})ol3ovfJLevois avTov... 4)0^01' Ku- 
plov SiSfi^a) u/xaj. ri'f i<TTi.v av6pa>7TOS 
6 6eX(ov C<B7/i', dyanw!/ ^fiepas Ibelv 
dyadds ', 
TToirjaov 

Koi hia^ov avTijv, where the coinci 
dences are striking. The contrast 
between they^^r of men and the fear 
of God., which underlies this passage, 
would naturally suggest to our author 
the words in which the Psalmist em- 
phatically preaches the fear of the 
Lord. For evr]p,epflv, evrjp.fpia, COmp. 
2 Mace. V. 6, viii. 8, x. 28, xii. 11, xiii. 
16, xiv. 14. For the manner in which 
the transcriber of our principal MS 
drops letters (more especially where 
there is a proximity of similar forms) 
COmp. 9 atuviov for aivov aldviov, 



.skkXivov (ztto naiiov Koi 
dyadov, ^rjTrjO-op flprjvrjv 



X] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



233 



5 (puycoiuev Ttjv dcre^eiaVy fjLt] ^{Jid^ KaTa\a(3t] kuku. eat/ 
yap crTTOvdaa-cojuev dyadoTroielv, ^ico^eTai rifjid^ elprivt]. 
Aia TavTtjv yap Tr]v aiTiau ovk kcTTiv ^eupeTvf dv- 



odoiiropov'] AC ; proditorem (as if irpodorriv) S 
the obliteration of some letters in the word. 
6 yap] AS ; 8e C. 

TTovvTfcr for rroioiifres, 1 1 aaovK for 
See also in the First 



This rendering again may be due to 
afMipTiuv} A; a/J.apTrj/jjiTWv C, 



as ovs OVK. 
Epistle II Tfpoyv(opiO(T, ^ 25 re- 
Xeim/Korocr, j2 rjnepacr (for Tj/xerepay), 
etc., and (if my conjecture be correct) 
40 the omission of empLeXas before 
eVtreXeZo-^ai. Lipsius {Academy July 
9, 1870: comp. Jen. Lit.., 13 Jan. 
1877) would read ovk ea-nv dprjvT] 
dvOpdnois olTives k.t.X. 

Hilgenfeld (ed. 2, pp. xlviii, jj) 
supposes that there is a great lacuna 
at this point ovk ecrnv evpflv avdpa- 
TTOf I oiTLVfS Trapayovaiv (pofSovs av- 
6p(x>invovs K.T.X. In this lacuna he 
finds a place not only for this quota- 
tion in the so-called John of Da- 
mascus (see above, I. p. 194 sq), but 
also for the reference to the Sibyl in 
Pseudo-Justin which I have discussed 
already (l. p. 178 sq). This theory 
however seems highly improbable for 
the following reasons. 

(i) Though there is good reason 
for assuming that the existing text 
is faulty at this point, the external 
facts are altogether adverse to the 
supposition that a great lacuna exists 
here, such for instance as would be 
produced by the disappearance of 
one or more leaves in an archetypal 
MS. Such an archetypal MS must 
have been of very ancient date, for 
all our three extant authorities (see 
above, I. p. 145) have the same text 
here. It is not indeed impossible 
that this archetypal MS should have 
been defective, seeing that the com- 
mon progenitor of ACS certainly had 
minor corruptions. But though pos- 
sible in itself, this supposition is 



hardly consistent with other facts. 
It is highly improbable that a long 
passage which had disappeared thus 
early should have been preserved in 
any MS accessible to the Pseudo- 
Damascene, or even to the Pseudo- 
Justin. Moreover the enumeration 
of verses in the Stichometria of Ni- 
cephorus seems to have been made 
when the epistle was of its present 
size, and is not adapted to a more 
lengthy document. In the colophon 
at the end of the Second Epistle (see 
above, I. p. 122) C gives o-n'xot Xi 
prjTo. Ke. As Nicephorus (see I. p. 
196) gives the numbers of o-tixol in 
the two Clementine Epistles as ,/3x', 
Bryennios supposes that x here is 
an error for ,/3;c',the ,/3 having dropped 
out. But, as Hilgenfeld himself has 
pointed out, as the pr^ra, or scriptural 
quotations, are given as 25, this must 
refer to the Second Epistle alone. 
When counted up, they do in fact 
amount to 25, one or two more or less, 
for it is difficult in some cases to de- 
cide whether to reckon the quotations 
separately or not. The 600 verses 
therefore must refer to the Second 
Epistle alone. I may add that this 
agrees with the reckoning of Ni- 
cephorus, which giving 2600 to the 
Two Epistles leaves 2000 for the 
First. Thus the proportion of the 
First Epistle to the Second is roughly 
as 2000 : 600, or as 10 : 3. In my 
translation the two Epistles take up 
respectively 34^ and lOj pages, these 
numbers being almost exactly as 
10 : 3. 
(2) Again ; though the two frag- 



234 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[X 



Bpuiirov, OLTive^ Trapayouo-L (po/Sov^ dvOpcoTrij/ov^, Trpot]- 
ptifievoL fdciWov Tr}v ii/dade ctTToXavcriv i] rr]v jueWov- 
<rav eTrayyeXiap. dyvoovcTLV yap t]\iKt]V e^ei (^aaavov 
ri evdade aTroXavcris, Kai o\av Tpv(pr]v e^^ci y\ jueWovcra 
eTrayyeXla. Kal el fjiev avTOi julovoi tuvtu eTrpacrcrov, 5 
dvEKTov r]v' vvv Ze eirLfievovo'Lv KaKodidaaKaXovvTe^ 
T9 dvaLTLOV^ ^v)(^a<s, ovK eldore^ oti Zlcct^v epovaiv 
Trjv Kplariv, avToi re Kai ol a/coJoj/res avTwv, 

XL 'Hjueh ovv ev KaOapa Kapdia ^ofAefCto/xei/ 

I Trporjprjfj.hoi] wpoaipov/Meda AC. S ti^anslates, as if it had read irpocupovfievoi, 
which was also conjectured by Bryennios. 2 a.wbXavai.v'] AS ; dvawavaLP C. 

3 eTrayyeXiavl eirayyeXeiav A. rfKiKTiv'] 7]\tjK7jv A. 4 d7r6Xau(7ts] AS; 

dvairavais C. 5 e;ra77eXta] eirayyeXeca A. 6 dveKTov ^v] AC; S 

translates erai its fortasse respiratio, but this probably does not represent any 



merits which Hilgenfeld would assign 
to this lacuna are not incongruous in 
subject, yet the sentiments in the 
extant context on either side of the 
supposed lacuna are singularly appro- 
priate to one another, and in this 
juxtaposition seem to have been 
suggested by the language of Ps. 
xxxiv. 9 sq quoted in my note. 

(3) The style of the fragment quoted 
by the Pseudo-Damascene betrays a 
different hand from our author's. Its 
vocabulary is more philosophical 
((ca^oXou, TO. (f)VKTa, vnoBecris Kal v^rj, 
TO. d(T7ra(7Ta, kut evx'>]v), and altogether 
it shows more literary skill. 

The probable account of the quo- 
tations in the Pseudo-Justin and in 
the Pseudo-Damascene is given above 
(I. p. 17^8 sq, 194 sq). 

I. otrives] '' ?nen who^ the antece- 
dent being the singular (ivdpunrov. 
This grammatical irregularity is not 
uncommon : see Jelf's Gratmn. 819. 
2. a. 

irapayova-i K.r.X.] ' ifltrodiice (instil) 

fears of men' : comp. 4 ou bfl 

Tiiias (po^elcrdai tovs dvdpcoTTOvs fiaXXou 

oKKa Tov Qeov. The passages in the 



lexicons will show that Hilgenfeld's 
correction Trapeiadyovai for Trapayovai 
is unnecessary. He rightly explains 
the words {Apost. Vat. p. 11 8) to refer 
to those Gnostics who taught that 
outward conformity to heathen rites 
was indifferent and that persecution 
might thus be rightly escaped : comp. 
KUKo'bihafTKaKovvTe'i below, and see the 
note above on 9 avrr] f\ adp^ k.t.X. 
3. enayyeXlav] i. e. the subject, 

the fulfilment, of the promise, as e.g. 
Acts i. 4, Gal. iii. 14, Heb. vi. 15. 

6. dveKTov 7?f] For the imperfect 
see Winer ^ xlii. p. 321. 

KaKo8i8aaKaXovpTesJ Ign. Philad. 2 
KaKohibadKoKLas. So KaXoSiSacrKaXov?, 
Tit. ii. 3. 

7. Biacrfip K.T.X.] For the form 
of the sentence comp. Gen. xliii. 11 
Kal TO dpyvpiov dicrcrov Xd^ere. Comp. 
Apost. Const. V. 6 koI irepois alnoi 
dnaiiXfias yevrjo'op.eda Kal dnrXoTepav 
vTroiaopLep rrjv ricnv. 

XI. ' Let us therefore serve God 
and believe His promise. If we wa- 
ver, we are lost. Remember how the 
word of prophecy denounces the dis- 
trustful, how it compares the fulfil- 



xi] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 235 

10 Tft) OecOf Kal icTOiueda dlKaiOL' iav de /urj dovXevcroj-- 
fjiev ^La Tou fir] incrTeveiv t]}j.a<i Trj eTrayyeXia tov 
Oeou, TaXaiTTcopoL ecofJieda. Xeyei yap kul 6 Trpo- 
(pr]TiKO<s Xoyo^' TfXAAinoopoi eiciN 01 AiVyxo'/ O' Aicta- 

ZONTeC TH KApAlA, 01 AefONTeC' TaYTA nANTA HKOyCAMeN 
15 KAI eni TOON HATepCON HMOON, HMgTc AE HMepAN ki HMepAC 

npocAexoMGNOi oyAeN toytcon eoopAKAMeN. 'Anohtoi, cym- 
BAAexe eAYTOYC I\h({i, AABere AMneAoN' npooTON mgn (\)yK- 
Aopoe?, 6ITA BAactoc riNeTAi, mcta tayta om^aS, gita 

different Greek. 7 dvaiTiovs] averiova A. 10 sq dovXeva-u/xev dia tou 

fir) Tncrreveiv /c.t.X.] A; Sov\ev(ro}/j.v 5ta t6 /jlt] Tricrreveiv k.t.X. C; TnffTevawfiev, 5ia 
TO 8eip iriffTeveiv k.t.X. S. 12 TaXaiTrupoi] AC; vere {dX7]dQs or Sfrws) miseri 

S. 14 TratraJA; irdXai CS. i)Kov(raixev'\ A; riKoijo/xev CS. 15 /cat] 

AC; om. S. evrt] AC; d-n-d S. 17 fjLev] AC; om. S. (pvXXopoei] 

A; (pvXXoppoei C 18 /ierd raCro] AS ; elra C. 



ment of God's purpose to the gradual 
ripening of the fruit on the vine, how 
it promises blessings at the last to 
His people. God is faithful and He 
will perform. Let us therefore work 
patiently, and we shall inherit such 
good things as pass man's under- 
standing.' 

9. Kadapa KopSta] I Tim. i. 5, 2 
Tim. ii. 22 (comp. Matt. v. 8), Her- 
mas Vis. iii. 9. 

12. o 7rpo(})r]TiKbs Ao-yoy] See 2 Pet. 
i. 19. From some apocryphal source, 
perhaps Eldad and Modad : see the 
notes on the First Epistle 23, where 
also the passage is quoted. The va- 
riations from the quotation in the 
First Epistle are these: (i) t^ Kapbla] 
rfiv yl^vxrjv (2) Traira] om. (3) j;/ieir 
Se...ea)pa/ca/x.f j/J Koi i8ov yeyrjpdKafJiev 
Koi ov8ev Tjp.'iv TOVTwv avv0^r]Kev (4) 
dvorjToi] (o dvoTjToi. (5) "ytVerat] add. 
eira (j)vX\ov, ei'ra avdos Koi. (6) ov- 
TtDj KOI K.T.X.] this close of the quota- 
tion not given. These variations are 
sufficient to show that the writer of 
the Second Epistle cannot have de- 
rived the passage solely from the 



First. At the same time the coinci- 
dence of two remarkable quotations 
in this very chapter (see below on ovs 
ovK ^Kovaev k.t.X.), which occur also 
in the First Epistle, besides other 
resemblances (e. g. 3), seems to 
prove that our writer was acquainted 
with and borrowed from the genuine 
Clement. 

The additions which some editors 
introduce into the text here {vlo\ 
after ^p.ds Se, and eVt after ecopa- 
KUfjiev) are due to a mistake. The 
traces, which they have wrongly so 
read in A, are the reversed impres- 
sions of letters on the opposite leaf 
(now lost). The photograph shows 
this clearly. 

15. rip.pav i^ r)p.ipai\ ^ day after 
day' : Num. xxx. 15, 2 Pet. ii. 8. This 
additional coincidence of the passage 
quoted with the language of 2 Peter 
(see the notes on the First Epistle, 
23) is worthy of notice. It seems 
hardly possible that the two can be 
wholly independent, though we have 
no means of determining their rela- 
tion. 



236 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[XI 



CTA(J)Y^H HApeCTHKYlA' OyTOJyC KAI 6 AAOC MOY AKATACTAC I AC 

KAi eAiyeic 6C)(eN" eneixA AnoAHyexAi ta ataSa. ' Wo'Te, 
dhe\(poi lULOV, fir] diyl/-vx(J0iuieUf dWa eXTricravTe'i vtto- 
fxeLVMiJiev, 'Iva kul tov fJnaSov KOjULKTcofJieOa. nicxoc tar 
ecTiN 6 enArreiAAMGNOc Ta? dvTLjULaOla^ dTTodidovai ena- S 
crTii) TCdv epywi/ avrov. eav ovv 7roir}<TO}fJiev Tr]v ciKai- 
oa'vvt]v evavTLOV tov Oeouy 6Lcrt]^oiu6v ek Tt]i/ ^acriXeiav 

I ora^i/X?}] AS; ^Xaarbs C. 6 Xa6s /xov] AC; add. TrpuTov S. 2 ^Tretro] 

eirira A. 3 dXXa] dXX' C. 4 'iva] AC; om. S. 8 oCs 

ovK iJKovcrev ovde d<f>dd\fxbs eldev] AC (but A acrovK for acrovaovK) ; ociilus tion 
vidit et auris non aiidivit (transposing the clauses) S. This latter is the order in 
I Cor. iii. 9, and in Clem. Rom. 34. 9 elSei'] i^^v A. 12 eiretSr;] 



3. ^17 SiA/^vx^Mf] See the note on 
the First Epistle 11. 

4. nifTTos yap /c.r.X.] Heb. x. 23 
KKTTOS yap 6 inayyeiKdp.vos. 

5. aTTobidovai fKa(rT<o ac.t.X.] Matt. 
xvi. 27, Rom. ii. 6, Rev. xxii. 12. See 
also the quotation given in the First 
Epistle, 34. 

7. dcT'q^oiJ.ev] ' Voceni elcnjKeiv non 
agnoscunt lexica', Jacobson. It oc- 
curs as early as vEschylus, and 
several instances of it are given in 
Steph. Thes. 

8. ovs K.T.X.] See the note on the 
First Epistle 34, where the same 
passage occurs. The as should not 
be treated as part of the quotation. 

XII. 'Let us then patiently wait 
for the kingdom of God. The time 
of its coming is uncertain. Our Lord's 
answer to Salome says that it shall 
be delayed till f/te two shall be one, 
and the outward as the inward, and 
the male with the female, neither 
male nor female. By this saying He 
means that mutual harmony must 
first prevail, that there be perfect 
sincerity, and that no sensual pas- 
sion be harboured.' 

II. Ka& &pav\ '<5i?^m^5-,' 'tempes- 
tive,' according to its usual meaning ; 
e.g. Job V. 26, Zech. x. i. It is com- 



monly translated here 'in horas', 
^from hour to hour '. 

13. fTn(j)avias] This word, as a 
synonyme for the Trapova-ia, occurs in 
the New Testament only in the Pas- 
toral Epistles, I Tim. vi. 14, 2 Tim. 
i. 10, iv. I, 8, Tit. ii. 13 ; compare the 
indirect use in 2 Thess. ii. 8 rfj t'rrt^a- 
peia. Ttjs TTapovtrias avrov. 

14. vno rivoi] By Salome. This 
incident was reported in the Gospel 
of the Egyptians, as we learn from 
Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 13, p. 553 (in 
a passage quoted from Julius Cassi- 
anus), where the narrative is given 
thus: TrvvdavofiivTjs Tfjs SaXco/x/;?, Trore 
yvoicrOrjCTiTaL ra nepi cop rjpfTo, e(f)r) o 
Kvpios, "Orap to ttjs alcr\vpr]s vbvp.a 
7raTi](Tr]Te, Ka\ orap yeprjTai, ra dvo ev, 
Ka\ TO appep p,eTa ttjs drjXeias ovTe 

appep ovTe dfjKv. To this Clement 
adds iv Tols TrapaSeSo/xeVots ^h'i-p "rer- 
Tapcriv evayyeXioLS ovk e)(^ofiev to prjTOP 
aXX' P Tco Kar' AlyvTTTiovs. Similar 
passages from this gospel and ap- 
parently from the same context are 
quoted by Clement previously, Strom. 
iii. 6 (p. 532) TT] ^aXcofiji 6 Kvpios 
Trvvdavofxepi] fiexpi^ Tvore BavaTos lcr)(v- 
(ret...Me;^pis av, eiVev, vfie7s al yvvalKes 
TLKTfTe, and Strom, iii. 9 (p. 539 sq) 
KaKe'ipa Xeyoucrt to irpos 'SaXcoixrjv et- 



XIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



237 



avTOv Kal Xtjyf/^Ojueda ra-s eTrayyeXia'S, ccs oyc oy'k hkoy- 
ceN oyAe d(t)OAAMdc eiAeN, oyAe eni KApAiAN ANepconoy 
10 ancBh. 

XII. 'GKhe-^wfxeGa ovv KaO' iapav Tr]v (^aciXeiav 
Tov Oeov ev dyaTrr] Kal diKaiocrvvr], eTreidt] ovk 01- 
^afjLev Trjv rifjiepav Tf]<s eTrKpai/eia^ tou Oeov. iTrepco- 
TYjOeh yap aura's 6 Kv 



jOiOS VTTO TLVO^, TTOTE r]^eL 



A; eirel C, or so probably S. 13 eiri.(l>avdas] TrL<paviacr A. tov Oeov] 

AC ; avTOv S. eirep(0T7j6els] A; ipuTTjOels C. 14 inro tivos] AC ; add. 

Twv cLiroffToKwv S. The addition is unfortunate, for the questioner was Salome; see 
the lower note. Tj^et] AC; venii (a present) S. 



prjfitva, cov Trporepov efjLVijadrjfiev {Str07n. 
iii. 6, just quoted) " (f)fpTai 8e, olpai, 
fv TO) Kar AiyvTTTiovs evayyeXlco' (pacrl 
yap OTi avros ftTTfi/ o acorrjp, H\6ov 
KaTaXiicrai ra epya rfjs 6rjKeias...odfv 
eiKoTcos TTfpl crvvreXeias jxr^vvaavTos tov 
Aoyou, T] 'SaXapr] (prjcri' Me^^pi rivoi 01 
avOpcuTToi anodavovvTai ;. . . TrapareTTjprj- 
pevcos aTTOKpiveraL 6 Kvpios, Me)(pis 
av TLKTcocriv al yvvatKes...Ti Se; ov;^i ical 
TCI e^fji Tcov npos ^aXcoprjv flp-qpevaiv 
eT7i(f>epova-LV ol navTa paWov rj rw Kara 
TTjv dX^deiav fvayyeXiKa aToi)(i](TavTs 
Kavovi; (papevT]i yap avTfjs, KaXms ovv 
fTrolrjcra pfj TKOvaa...ape'i^Tai Xeycoii 
6 Kvpios, Tlaaav (f)aye ^OTavrjv, ttjv Se 
TTiKpiav i'xova-av pfj <pdyr]s. One of the 
sayings in the last passage is again re- 
ferred to in j5'-i-6-. Theod. 67, p. 985, oTav 
o a(OTT]p irpos ^aXcoprjv Xeyrj fiexpt t6t 
eivai BdvaTov a^pis av ai yvvalKes tiktco- 
(Tiv. There is nothing in these pas- 
sages to suggest that Clement himself 
had read this gospel (unless indeed, 
as has occurred to me, we should 
read t'l 8e ou;^i k.t.X. ; for tl 8e ; ovxi 
K.T.X. in Stro})i. iii. 9), and the ex- 
pressions Xiyovai, oipai, (fiaal, seem 
to imply the contrary; though it is 
generally assumed that he was ac- 
quainted with it. Of the historical 
value of this narrative we mayremark: 
(i) The mystical colouring of these 
sayings is quite alien to the character 



of our Lord's utterances as reported in 
the authentic Gospels, though entirely 
in keeping with the tone of Grseco- 
Egyptian speculation. Epiphanius 
thus describes this apocryphal gospel 
{^Haer. Ixii. 2, p. 514) TroXXa TOtavTa as 
iv Ttapa^vaTU) pva-TT]pico8as eK Trpocranrov 
TOV atoTfjpos dva(f)epTai. (2) The only 
external fact which can be tested 
the reference to Salome as childless 
is in direct contradiction to the cano- 
nical narratives. This contradiction 
however might be removed by an 
easy change of reading, kqXcos ovv av 
T70ir]aa for KaXms ovv iirolrjaa. The 
Egyptian Gospel was highly esteem- 
ed by certain Gnostic sects as the 
Ophites (Hippol. Haer. v. 7, p. 99), 
by the Encratites (Clem. Alex. Strom. 
11. cc), and by the Sabellians Epi- 
phan. Haer. I.e.). The Encratites 
especially valued it, alleging the pas- 
sages above quoted as discounte- 
nancing marriage and thus favouring 
their own ascetic views. This was 
possibly the tendency of the Egyp- 
tian Gospel, as is maintained by 
Schneckenburger {Ueber das Evang. 
dcr u-Egypt. Bern 1834, p. 5 sq) and 
Nicolas {Evatigiles Apooyphes p. 
119 sq) ; but the inference is at least 
doubtful. Clement of Alexandria 
refuses to accept the interpretations 
of the Encratites ; and though his own 



238 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xii 



avTOv Y] (SacriXeia, elTrev "Otan gctai ta Ayo fn, kai to 
e2oo dic TO ecoo, kai to ApceN mcta thc GHAeiAC, oyTe 
ApcGN oyTe 0hAy. Ta Ayo oe en ecTTiv, OTav XaKw- 
fjiev eavToT's d\r]6eLav, Kai ev dvci a'cojJLacnv dvuTroKpi- 
TOJS eif] fjLLa yjjrv^f). kui to ilod (he to ecw, tovto 5 

I sq TO i^(j) ws TO iaui\ AS ; to, ^^w tis to. iau C. 2 SijXetas] driKiaff A. 

3 5i;o 5^] A ; 5^ 5i5o C. 4 eai/rots] C ; avTOtcr A ; MOi^zV S, which represents 



are sometimes fanciful, still all the 
passages quoted may reasonably be 
explained otherwise than in an En- 
cratite sense. 

This quotation has a special inter- 
est as indicating something of the 
unknown author of our Second Epi- 
stle. As several of his quotations 
cannot be referred to the canonical 
Gospels (see 4, 5, 8), it seems not 
unnatural to assign them to the apo- 
cryphal source which in this one in- 
stance he is known to have used. 
This suspicion is borne out by a fact 
to which I have called attention 
above. One of our Lord's sayings 
quoted by him ( 9) bears a close 
resemblance to the words as given in 
the Excerpta Theodotij and we have 
just seen that the Gospel of the 
Egyptians was quoted in this collec- 
tion. Thus our pseudo-Clement 
would seem to have employed this 
apocryphal gospel as a principal 
authority for the sayings of our Lord. 

3. Ta hvo 8e ev] i.e. when peace 
and harmony shall reign. So the 
opposite is thus expressed in Seneca 
de Ira iii. 8 'Non tulit Caelius adsen- 
tientem et exclamavit, Die aliquid 
contra, ut duo simus'' ; comp. Plato 
Synip. 191 D 6 fpcos-'-eTn-Xfipav noiTJaai. 
ev fK 8vo2v KOL Idcraadai ttjv (^v<jiv t^v 
av6pa>TTivr]v (quoted by Lagarde J?el. 
Jur. Eccl. p. 75). 

4. ea^rois] ''to one aiiother^ as 
e.g. Ephes. iv. 32, Col. iii. 13, 16, 
I Pet. iv. 8, 10. If the reading of 



the MSS be correct, it must be aspi- 
rated avTols, and this form is perhaps 
less unlikely than in the earlier and 
genuine epistle (see the notes there 
on 9, 12, 14, etc.). The expression 
occurs in Ephes. iv. 25 XaXeirf dX?f- 
dfiav eKacrros iiera tov likTjcriov avTov. 

5. TO e^co as to eVco] Perhaps 
meaning originally 'w/ien the outside 
corresponds with the inside, when men 
appear as they are, when there is no 
hypocrisy or deception.' The pseudo- 
Clement's interpretation is slightly 
but not essentially different. This 
clause is omitted in the quotation of 
Julius Cassianus {Strojn. iii. 13, p. 
553, quoted above), who thus appears 
to have connected to. dm ev closely 
with TO appev fxeTo. Trjs drjXelas and in- 
terpreted the expression similarly. 
See Hippol. Haer. v. 18 (p. 173 sq) 
/cat euTtv dpaevodrjXvs dvvapis nal inl- 
voia, odev dWrjXois avTi(TToi)(ov(nv...ev 
ovTes...earTiv ovv ovtcos koi to cf)avev dn 
avTav, ev ov, 8110 evpicrKecrdai, dpaevoQrj- 
\vs ex<^v TTjv BrjkeLav ev eavra, a pas- 
sage quoted by this father from the 
Great Announcetnent of the Simo- 
nians. We may perhaps infer from 
a comparison of Cassianus' quotation 
with our pseudo-Clement's, that Cas- 
sianus strung together detached sen- 
tences, omitting all that could not be 
interpreted to bear on his Encratite 
views. Compare pseudo-Linus de 
Pass. Petr. Apost. (Bigne's Magn. 
Bibl. Patr. i. p. 72 e) ' Unde Domi- 
nus in mysterio dixerat : Si non fece- 



XIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



239 



Xeyer Tt]v yl^vyriv Xeyei to eaco, to Be e^io to crw- 
fj.a Xeyei. 6v TpoTrov ovv (TOv to a'ayjua (paiveTai, ou- 
Tcos Kai r\ "^vxri (tov ^f]\o^ kcTia ev Toh kuXoT's epyoL^. 



Kai 



TO ApceN MeTA THC BhAeiAc, oyxe ApceN ofxe 0hAy, 



eavToh. Sv(tI'\ A; Zvo C. 5 to i^ui\ ws to e'trco AC ; ro ?(rw ws rh ?fw S. 

6 TO ^(TU3, TO 5^ ^|w] AS ; t6 ?^w rd 5e &-w C. 7 oiJtws] ovtu C. 8 S^Xos] 

A ; StjXtj C. 9 ^ijXetas] Oi/jXiaff A. 



ritis dextram sicut sinistram et sinis- 
tram sicut dextram, et quae sursum 
sicut deorsum et quae ante sicut 
retro, non cognoscetis regnum Dei,' 
which 'appears to contain another 
version of this saying' (Westcott 
Introd. to Gospels p. 427). 

8, StJXos] The lexicons give only- 
one instance of this feminine, Eurip. 
A'led. 1 197 S^Xoy riv Karaa-raa-is. Com- 
pare TeXfiov in Ign. Philad. i. 

9. Ka\ TO (ipa-fv K.r.X.] This sup- 
posed saying of our Lord was inter- 
preted by Julius Cassianus, as for- 
bidding marriage. Whether this was 
its true bearing, we cannot judge, as 
the whole context and the character 
of this gospel are not sufficiently 
known. It might have signified no 
more than that 'in the kingdom of 
heaven there is neither marrying nor 
giving in marriage (Matt. xxii. 30),' 
or that the distinctive moral excellen- 
ces of each sex shall belong to both 
equally. Clement of Alexandria, an- 
swering Julius Cassianus, gives thefol- 
lowing interpretation of the passage : 
The male represents 6v[j,6s, the female 
iiTiBvixia, according to the well-known 
Platonic distinction; these veil and 
hinder the operations of the reason ; 
they produce shame and repentance ; 
they must be stripped off, before the 
reason can assume its supremacy ; 
then at length dnotnaaa Tov8e tov 
(Jxr]iJ.aTos CO biaKpiveTai to apptu koi to 
6PjXv, v//'VX'7 pfTaTidfTai els epcoa-iv, ov6e- 
Tepov ovcra. It appears from the con- 
text that our preacher's interpretation 



was more closely allied to that of 
Cassianus than to that of Clement. 
At the same time I have shown above 
(i. p. 408) that the statements of 
Epiphanius and Jerome, who speak 
of Clement as teaching virginity, do 
not refer to this epistle, as many sup- 
pose. And the references elsewhere 
in the epistle to the duty of keeping 
the flesh pure (g 6, 8, 9, 14, 15) are 
as applicable to continency in wedded 
as in celibate life. Comp. e.g. Ckm. 
Horn. iii. 26 yap.ov vop.iTevi...els ay- 
veiav iravTas ayei. 

This saying of the Egyptian Gos- 
pel, if it had any historical basis at 
all (which may be doubted), was 
perhaps founded on some utterance 
of our Lord similar in meaning to 
S. Paul's ovK eui apcrev Kai Brfkv, Gal. 
iii. 28. It is worth observing that 
Clement of Alexandria, in explaining 
the saying of the Egyptian Gospel, 
refers to these words of S. Paul and 
explains them similarly of the 6vp.os 
and (nidvfiia. See also the views of 
the Ophites on the dpaevodrj'Kvs (Hip- 
pol. Haer. v. 6, 7), whence it appears 
that they also perverted S. Paul's lan- 
guage to their purposes. The name 
and idea of dpcrevodrjXvs had their 
origin in the cosmical speculations 
embodied in heathen mythology ; 
see C/em. Horn. vi. 5, 12, Clem. Re- 
cogn. i. 69, Athenag. Siippl. 21, Hip- 
pol. Haer. v. 14 (p. 128). 

It is equally questionable whether 
the other sayings attributed to our 
Lord in this conte.\t of the Egyptian 



240 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xii 



TOVTO Xeyei, iva d^eXipo^ idcov d^e\(pr}V fov^euf (ppovrj 
wepi avTrj'i drjXvKOV, fxrjde (ppovfj tl Trepi avTOv dpcreviKOv. 
Tavra vpiuJv ttoiouvtwv, (pricriVf eXevcreraL t) (SacriXeia 
Tov Trarpos juov. 

XIII. 'AdeXcpoi fovvi n^n ttote fjLeTavoyiariofJiev' 5 
VYi^uifJiev 7ri TO dyadov iu6(rT0i <yap ecrfjiev TroXXfjs 
dvoia Kal TTOurjplas. e^aXelyfrco/uei/ d<p' rtjjiwv ra irpo- 

1 TovTo\ After this word A is mutilated, and the remainder of the so-called 
epistle is wanting; see l. p. 117. ovOfv (ppov^'l ovdev (ppovel C. 2 M'?^^] 

add. quuin soror videbit fratrem S. 5 'A5e\0ot ovv\ 'Ade\(poi [/J.ov] S, 

omitting ovu. As S commonly renders ddeXcpoL alone by TIS fratres mei, it is 



Gospel have any bearing on Encra- 
tite views. The words ' so long as 
women bear children' seem to mean 
nothing more than 'so long as the 
human race shall be propagated,' 
and ' I came to abolish the works of 
the female' may have the same sense. 
The clinching utterance, iracrav ^aye 
^ordvrjv, rrjv ^e niKpiav e'xovcrav fxr] 
4>ayijs, which has been alleged as 
showing decisively the Encratite ten- 
dencies of the gospel, appears to 
me to admit of a very different inter- 
pretation. It would seem to mean 
very much the same as S. Paul's 
navTa fioi f^eo'Tiu a\X ov iravra trvfi- 
(fifpei, and to accord with the Apos- 
tle's injunctions respecting marriage. 
I. ov8ev] The previous editors, 
while substituting 4>povrj for (^povel, 
have passed over ovbiv in silence. 
But with <i>povfi we should certainly 
expect fjajdep. The reading nvBfv 
can only be explained by treating 
ov8eu SrfkvKov as a separate idea, 
' should entertain thoughts which 
have no regard to her sex,' so as 
to isolate ovbiv from the influence of 
Xva ; but the order makes this ex- 
planation very difficult. The gram- 
mars do not give any example of 
the use of ov {ovbev) which is ana- 
logous ; see Kiihner 1 1 p. 747 sq, 



Winer Iv. p. 599 sq. The sentence 
is elliptical, and words must be 
understood in the second clause, 
^rjbe [aSeX(^)) Ihovcra dSeX^of] (^povfj 
K.T.\. Similar words, it will be seen, 
are supplied in the Syriac ; but I 
attribute this to the exigencies of 
translation, rather than to any differ- 
ence in the Greek text which the 
translator had. Gebhardt ingeni- 
ously reads p.r]b' rjde ; but rj8e...avrov 
does not seem a natural combination 
of pronouns here. 

3. (prjcriv] It does not follow that 
the preacher is quoting the exact 
words of the Gospel according to 
the Egyptians ; for (^r^criV may mean 
nothing more than 'he says in effect,' 
'he signifies.' See e.g. Barnab. 7 
ovVo), (^rjcriv, ol diXovres fxe Idelv k.t.X., 
a passage which has been wrongly 
understood as preserving a saying 
of Christ elsewhere unrecorded, but 
in which the writer is really giving 
only an explanation of what has 
gone before. This use of ^r\<Tlv 
occurs many times elsewhere in 
Barnab. 6, 10, 11, 12, where the 
meaning is indisputable. 

XIII. 'Let us therefore repent 
and be vigilant: for now we are full 
of wickedness. Let us wipe out our 
former sins ; and not be men-pleasers. 



XIIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



241 



Tepa djuaprtjimaTa, Kal jueTavorja'avTes e'/c ^v)(f}<s o-wdw- 
fJLev. Kal fit] yivcoimeda dvOpioTrapecKOi' jULri^e deXcojuev 
10 fjiovov eavToT^ dpecKeiv, dWa Kai T0T9 e^co di/dpcoTroi^ 
eirl Tf) ^LKaioo'vvr], 'Iva to ovo/ma hi tjnids jut] (3\acr(pt]- 
jJLriTaL. Aeyei yap Kai 6 Kvpio^ Aia hantoc to onoma moy 

3AAC(t)HMe?TAI eN HACIN ToTc eGNGCIN' Kai TToKlV OyAI Al' ON 

uncertain whether the translator has /uou in his text. 11 rh &voixa\ add. 

dominiS.- -^/iSj] S ; iixai C 12 /cat] S ; om. C. " 13 ^Xaacprj- 

/j.iTat] add. 5i' ii/j.S,$ S. TcLffip] om. S. irdXiv Oval 81' dv] S ; dib C. See 

the lower note. 



Yet we must approve ourselves by 
our righteousness to the heathen, 
lest God's Name be. blasphemed, as 
the Scriptures warn us. And how 
is it blasphemed? When the Ora- 
cles of God command one thing, 
and we do another : for then they 
treat the Scriptures as a lying fable. 
When for instance God's Word tells 
us to love those that hate us, and 
they find that, so far from doing 
this, we hate those that love us, 
they laugh us to scorn, and they 
blaspheme the holy Name.' 

5. ovv] This particle cannot stand 
after the vocative, and indeed is 
omitted in the Syriac. Perhaps ovv 
is a corruption of /xov, as a8eX<poi 
fjiov occurs several times, 9, 10, 1 1 ; 
or the scribe has here tampered with 
the connecting particles, as he has 
done elsewhere ( 7 aa-re ovv, dSeXcpol 
IMov), and in this case has blundered. 

6. v^yJAoofiev eVt k.t.X.] 2 Tim. ii. 26 
dvavi]\j/(t)aiv...fls to eKeivov deXrifia, 
I Pet. iv. 7 vij-^aTf (Is Trpoafvxds, 
Polyc. Phil. 7 v^4>opTs npos ras ev)(ds. 

7. e^aXel-^cofiev] Harnack quotes 
Acts iii. 19 fieravoijaaTt ovv Kal 
fwicTTpiy^aTe fis to e ^aXe L(f)6Jivai 
vfiav ras dfiapTias- 

9. avOpaiTrdptaicoi] Ephes. vi. 6, 
Col. iii. 22. See also the note on 
dv6p<i)iTapf<TKe'i.v Ign. Rom. 2. 



ID. eavroiy] 
CLEM. II. 



one 



anoth 



er, 



I.e. 



'our fellow-Christians,' as rightly 
explained here by Harnack; comp. 
4 ^v Tw dyandv eavrovs, 12 XaXc5/u.fv 
eavTo7s dXi^dfiav, but not 1 5. 

Tols e^o) dvdpcinois] ' ^/le heathen. 
For the expression o\ e^a see the 
note Colossians iv. 5. 

11. TO ovop.a\ ''the Nmne'' ; so 
Tertull. Idol. 14 ' ne nomen blas- 
phemetur.' For other instances of 
this absolute use, and for the man- 
ner in which (as here) translators 
and transcribers supply the imagined 
defect, see the note on Ign. Ephes. 3. 

12. Ata navTos K.r.X.] From the 
LXX Is. Iii. 5 TaSf Xeyft 6 Kvpiost Ai' 
vfias 8ia navros to ovofid fiov j3Xa- 
(Tcfyrjp.e'iTai iv rols edveaiv. The Syriac 
translator inserts fit' vp.as, and omits 
nda-iv ; but these are obvious altera- 
tions to conform to the familiar LXX 
of Isaiah. 

13. Km TTaXiv Ovai k.t.X.] I have 
adopted the reading of the Syriac 
here, because the Greek text is 
obviously due to the accidental o- 
mission of some letters (perhaps 
owing to homoeoteleuton), a common 
phenomenon in our MS. On the 
other hand it is hardly conceivable 
that any scribe or translator could 
have invented the longer reading 
of the Syriac out of the shorter 
reading of the Greek. The Syriac 
reading however is not without its 

16 



242 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xiii 



BAAC(t)HMeTT<M TO ONOMA MOy' if TLVL ^Xa(T(pr]IJieLTaL \ 

ev Tw lULt) TTOietv vfjia<i a /SouXo/uLai. Ta eOvr] yap, 
cLKOvovTa eK Tou (TrojULaro^ ij/ULwi' ra Xoyia tov Oeov, 
w? KaXa Kai fJceyaXa dav/md^ei' eTreiTa, KaTa/uaOovra 
TO. epya rjfiwv otl ovk eo'Tiu a^ia twv prjjuaTwv tov 5 
Xeyojuevy evOev ets ^Xaa-cprTfilav TperrovTaL, XeyovTe^ 
eTvai fjLvQov Tiva Kal 7rXavf]v, brav yap dKOV(ro)(nv 
Trap' rifJLtav oti Xeyei 6 Oeo^ Oy X^P'*^ ym?n ei AfAnATe 
Toyc ArAncoNTAC YMAC, aAAa X^'^P"^ ym?n ei AfAnAxe Toyc 

I ev rlvi.] add. Si S : comp. 3. 2 v/jlSLs & j3oi;Xo/xat] rjfias Sl X^yo/xev] S. 

3 -qfiuv] S; vfiQv C. 4 ^Tretra] add. 5^ S. 7 fjLu96v riva] add. delirii 

S, the word being doubtless added to bring out the force of ixvdov. 9 dXXd] 

add. Tbre S. 10 ex^poi/s] add. u/xwi' S. The addition of pronouns is very 



difficulty. If the first quotation Aia 
navTos K.T.X. is taken from Is. Hi. 
5, whence comes the second Oval 
K.T.X.? The explanation seems to 
be, that Is. lii. 5 itself was very 
frequently quoted in the early ages 
Oval 81 ov (or Si' ov) k.t.X. (see 
instances collected in the note to 
Ign. Trail. 8), though there is no 
authority for it either in the LXX or 
in the Hebrew. Our preacher there- 
fore seems to have cited the same 
passage in two different forms the 
first from the LXX, the second from 
the familiar language of quotation 
supposing that he was giving two 
distinct passages. 

I. iv Tivi K.T.X.] This is no longer 
any part of the quotation, but belongs 
to the preacher's explanation. He has 
however put the words into the mouth 
of God Himself, after his wont : e.g. 
12 ravTa vficiv ttoiovvtcov K.r.\., 14 
rrjp-qa-aTe rrjv aapKa k.t.X. The read- 
ing of the Syriac, fifj ttou'lp rji^as a 
Xeyofifv, is obviously a correction 
to overcome this difficulty. For other 
examples where this preacher begins 
his explanations with ev tivi see 
3, 9. 



3. Tct Xoyta TOV Qeov] A synonyme 
for the Scriptures ; comp. Rom. iii. 
2, Heb. V. 12; Clem. Rom. 19, 53, 
62, etc. The point to be observed 
is that the expression here refers to 
an evmigelical record : see the next 
note below. Thus it may be com- 
pared with the language of Papias, 
Euseb. H. E. iii. 39 '^aT6aios...(yvve- 
ypcv^aTo TCI Xoyta, which must have 
been nearly contemporaneous ; see 
Essays on Supernatural Religion p. 
170 sq. Similarly our author above 
I5 2 quotes a gospel as ypacfuj. 

4. eireiTa k.t.X.'\ Apost. Const, ii. 8 
o TOiovros...^Xa(T(])r]fiiav npocriTpiy^e ra 
Koiva Trjs eKKXrjcrias Koi ttj BiBaaKaXia, 
cos fir] TTOiovvTOiv eKe'iva a X(yofJ.ev elvai 
KaXa K.T.X. 

8. Xeyei 6 Gf ds] ' God sait/i.' The 
passage quoted therefore is regarded 
as one of ra Xoyta Toii Qeov. As the 
words of our Lord follow, it might 
perhaps be thought that the expres- 
sion Xe-yet d Qeos refers not to the 
Divine inspiration of the Gospel, 
but to the Divine personality of 
Christ, of whom the writer says i 
ovTus Set i]p.as (ppovelv irepX 'irjcrov 
XpiaToii <os TTepl Qeov. But, not to 



xiv] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



243 



loexOpoyc kai Toyc micoyntac yMdic TauTa OTav (xkov- 
G-wa-iv, 6aviua^ov(nv tyiv \j7rep^oXf]V Ttj^ d<ya6oTt]TO' 
orav ^6 'l^uicriv otl ou jjlovov tovs fjucTOvvra^ ouk dya- 
TTcojueu, dW on ovde roi)? dyaTrcovTa'i, KaTa<ye\co(TLV 
rif-itiov, Kai ^Xaa-cpi^fJieLTai to bvojua. 

15 XIV. ''Ma-re, ddeX(poi, 7roiovvTe<s to 6e\rjfj.a tov 
7raTp6<s rifjiwv Oeou ecrofxeda ck t^s 6KK\r](Tia^ ty^ Trpw- 
Tr}, Trj^ TTvevfJiaTLKf]^, t^s Trpo riXiov Kai a-eXrjvrjs cktict- 

common in S ; and I have not thought it necessary to record several instances 
which occur below. 13 on] om. S, perhaps owing to the exigencies of 



translation. 14 Kai] om. S. 

add. TOV XpiffTOv S. 

mention that such a mode of speak- 
ing would be without a parallel in 
the early ages of Christianity, the 
preceding to. \6yia toO Qeov deter- 
mines the sense here. 

Ou xap'f K.T.X.] A loose quotation 
from Luke vi. 32, 35 el dyaij-are roiis 
nyaTTuvTas v^as, uola Vfx'iv X'^P'-^ ia-riv ; 
...irXfjv ayanare rovs exBpovs vfiav... 
Ka\ ecrrai 6 ixiadbs vfxuiv ttoXvs. For the 
use of xfipts comp. i Pet. ii. 19, 20. 

II. dyadoTTjTos] ^ goodiiess'' m Xht 
sense of ' kindness,' ' beneficence,' 
as ayadonoulv in the context of St 
Luke (vv. 33, 35). This substantive 
does not occur in the N. T., and only 
rarely (Wisd. vii. 26, xii. 22, Ecclus. 
xlv. 23) in the LXX ; the form com- 
monly used being ayadaxrvvq. 

XIV. 'If we do God's will, we 
shall be members of the eternal, 
spiritual Church; if not, we shall 
belong to that house which is a den 
of thieves. The living Church is 
Christ's body. God made male and 
female, saith the Scripture. The male 
is Christ, the female the Church. 
The Bible and the Apostles teach 
us that the Church existed from 
eternity. Just as Jesus was mani- 
fested in the flesh, so also was the 
Church. If therefore we desire to 



\a(X(pr]fie7Tai] add. ovv S. 



rb dvofxa] 



partake of the spiritual archetype, 
we must preserve the fleshly copy 
in its purity. This flesh is capable 
of life and immortality, if it be united 
to the Spirit, that is to Christ. And 
the blessings which await His elect 
are greater than tongue can tell.' 

16. rfjs TTpcoTTjs (c.T.X.] This doc- 
trine of an eternal Church seems to 
be a development of the Apostolic 
teaching which insists on the fore- 
ordained purpose of God as having 
elected a body of men to serve Him 
from all eternity; see esp. Ephes. 
i. 3 Sq o v\oy^(Tas ijfias ev Trda-rj 
fuXoyi'a TTvevfiariK^ iv rots iirov- 
paviots iv Xpiarco, Kadds e^eXe^aro 
i]fias iv avra rrpo KarajBoXr) s Koap-ov 
...Trpoopicras rjpas fls vlodeaiav k.t.X., 
a passage aptly quoted by Bryennios. 
The language of our preacher stands 
midway in point of development, 
and perhaps also about midway in 
point of chronology, between this 
teaching of S. Paul and the doctrine 
of the Valentinians, who believed in 
an eternal teon ' Ecclesia,' thus car- 
rying the Platonism of our pseudo- 
Clement a step in advance. 

17. irpo ^Xiov K.T.X.] This expres- 
sion is probably taken from Ps. 
Ixxi (Ixxii). 5 (TvpTTapapevfl rw ijXia 

16 2 



244 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xiv 



lULevrjs' iav de fjiri iroiria'iJdfjLev to 6e\f]jj.a Kvpiov, e<rofj.e6a 
/c TY]^ ypacbf]^ Trj^ Xeyovcn^s 'EreNHGH d oTkoc iwoy 
chhAaion Ahctwn. wcrre ovv alpericroyiueda cltto Ttj^ 
KK\y]cria<s Tfjs ^0)^9 eivai, \va arcodwfiev. ovk oio/iiai 

2 K Trj9 ypa(pT]S rrji 'Keyo^a-qi] ex lis de qiiibus scriptum esi S. 3 wcrre 

ovv] C; uKxre, adeXcpoi [fiov] S, omitting ovp. See above, p. 240. 



Koi TTpb Trjs (T\T]vr]s yeveas yeveaiv 
and id. ver. ly Trpo tov rjXlov Sta/ixei/ei 
TO ovop.a avTov; for though in these 
passages, as the Hebrew shows, rrpo 
has or ought to have a different 
meaning (Aquila ets Trpoa-conov ttjs 
(TfXjyvjjy, Symmachus efitrpoadev rfj^ 
(Tf'Kr]vr}s), yet it was commonly so 
interpreted, as appears from Justin 
Dial. 64 (p. 288) aTrohe'iKvvTai...oTi 
ovTos (i.e. o XpioToy) KOI Trpo tov 
7/Xiov ^v, in proof of which statement 
he cites the passages just quoted ; 
comp. id. 45 (p. 264) OS Koi Trpo 
fa)(T(f)6pov Koi (TeXr]vr]9 -qv, 34 (p. 252), 
76 (p. 302); and so Athanasius c. 
Arian. i. 41 (i. p. 351) ft be kuI, cos 
yp^aXXei Aavlb iv rm ij38onrjKoaTa> Trpcoro) 
>//'aX/i&), Upo Toil qXiov diap-evet. to 
ovop.a avTov, koX Trpo ttjs a-eXqvrjs fls 
yeveas yeveav, Trwy iXafj,j3aviv o flx^i^ 
del K.r.X. Similarly too in his Expos, 
in Psalm. Ixxi (l. p. 897) he explains 
the two expressions, vv. 5, 17, Trpo 
alcipciv and Trpo KaTa^oXfjs Kocrp-ov 
respectively. Meanwhile Eusebius 
Comm. in Psalm, ad loc. {Op. v. p. 
800 ed. Migne) had mentioned and 
rejected this meaning ; ov yap Trpo 

Trjs creXrivr]s, tovt((TTI Tvp\v yfvecrdai 
TTjv crekrjvqv, aXX evcomov axTTrep Kai 
p,Trpo(TdV qyOVflfVOi TTJs (TfXrjvrjs. 

For the idea see esp. Hermas Vis. 
ii. 4 Tt's ovv ioTiv; (prjui. 'H 'EKKkrjaia, 
cjir](riv. cIttov ovv avTO), Aia rt ovv 
TTpea^VTspa ; 'Ort, (prjciv, TravTcovTrpcoTT] 
eKTicrdr] ' 8ia tovto Trpea^vTepa, (cat 8ia 
TavT-qv 6 Koa-fJios KaTTjpTiadq, quoted by 
Bryennios. Comp. also Orig. c. Cels. 
vi. 35, where speaking of the phrase 



aTToppolas (KKXijcrias eTTiyeiov which 
Celsus had attributed among other 
absurdities to the Christians, he 
writes, TO-xn f\i](f)6rj cltto tov vtzo tivchv 
Xeyfcrdai (KKXTjaias Tivbs eTTOVpaviov 
Koi Kpe'iTTOvos alavos anoppoiav eivai 
Trjv eVi yrjs iKKXijaiav. And see the 
passages quoted in the notes on 
Ta ^ijBXia k.t.X. and avTiTVTtov. Hil- 
genfeld quotes Clem. Alex. Strom. 
iv. 8 (p. 593) ftKWf Sc Tr\s ovpaviov 
eKKXrjorias ?) fTTiydos (this father has 
just before cited Ephes. v. 21 sq, 
Col. iii. 18 sq), id. vi. 13 (p. 793) 
al ivTavBn KaTO. ttjv f.KKX-qcriav TTpOKOTrai 
...fiifi-ijlxaTa, oipai, ayyeXiKrjs do^qs 
KOLKelvqs TTjs oiKovop.ias Tvyxo-vovcriv 
qv avap.Viv (fiaalv ai ypacjiai tovs kot 

'iX^OS K.T.X. 

2. fK TTfs ypacjiqs K.r.X.] A loose 
expression, meaning 'of those persons 
described in the Scripture '. The 
Syriac translator has paraphrased 
accordingly. The passage is Jer. vii. 
1 1 jUJ^ (TTrqXaiov XrjcrTwv o oIkos fiov, ov 
eTTiKiKXqTai to ovop,d p.ov eV ai;r<5 
K.T.X., to which also our Lord alludes 
(Matt. xxi. 13, Mark xi. 17, Luke 
xix. 46). For the application here 
comp. Apost. Const, ii. 17. 

3. tiiUTi ovv'\ A pleonasm which 
our author repeats elsewhere ; 4, 7. 

aiperto-cD/^ie^a] ' choose ', ''prefer ' ; 
a common word in the Lxx. In 
the N.T. it is found only Matt. xii. 
18, in a quotation from Is. xlii. i, 
where however it does not occur in 
the LXX. See Sturz Dial. Mac. 144. 

4. Tqs fw^y] Harnack writes 'lu- 
daeorum synagoga est ecclesia mor- 



xivj 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



245 



5 Be vjuas dyvoeiv 'on 6KK\r](ria ^w(ra cooma gctin 
XpicTOY" XeyeL yap n ypa(pr] 'EnoiHceN d Oedc ton 
ANOpoonoN ApceN KAi eflAY' TO upcTev ecTTiv 6 XpiCTTO^, 
TO 6f]\u ri eKK\r](Tla' Kal otl Ta ^if^Xla Kal 01 dirocrTO- 



8 t6 6^\v] C ; Kal t6 OrjXv S. 
prophetarum S. 

tis'. The contrast however is not 
between the Synagogue and the 
Church of Christ, but between mere 
external membership in the visible 
body and spiritual communion in the 
celestial counterpart. 

5. (j5>\ia ((TTiv Xpio-rou] Ephes. i. 
23 TT) eKKXriaia, r]Tis earlv to (rafia 
avTov; comp. id. iv. 4, 12 sq, 16, 
V. 23, 30, Rom. xii. 5, i Cor. x. 17, 
xii. 12 27, Col. i. 18, 24, ii. 19, 
iii. 15. 

6. 'ETToiTjo-d/ K.T.X.] Gen. i. 27 
eTroLrjatv o 060? tov avOpuTTOV, kut 
fiKova Oeov eivoirjaev avTov' apaev Kai 
6fj\v eTToirjaev avTovi. The applica- 
tion seems to be suggested by S. 
Paul's treatment of this portion of 
the Mosaic account, Ephes. v. 31 sq; 
where, after representing the Church 
as the body and spouse of Christ, 
and quoting Gen. ii. 24, he says, to 
fiV(TTripiov TovTO pija ecrTiv ' e'yco Se 
Xe-yo) els XpiaTov koX [is] ttjv (kkXtj- 
a'lav. 

8. Kai ort] Some words have 
evidently dropped out in the MS 
here: see the introduction, I. p. 144 
sq. The lacuna is conveniently sup- 
plied by \iyov(Tiv drjXov after avadev, 
as I have done. This seems to me 
better than the more obvious solution 
of Bryennios, who would attach this 
oTi. to the preceding vp.as dyvoeip, and 
understand merely cfyaa-i or diSnaKova-i 
or the like. The Syriac translator 
omits the on and inserts a Xeyovcri 
or some similar word. This is 
clearly an arbitrary correction. 

TCI jiifiXia Kui ol dnocTToXoi] This is 



Kai 6ti] atque etiam S. Tb. ^i^Xla] add. 

a rough synonyme for the Old and 
NewTestaments respectively. Though 
the Apostolic and Evangelical writ- 
ings are elsewhere in this epistle 
treated as ypaf^ai ( 2) and even as 
Xoyta TOV Qeoii ( 1 3), being thus co- 
ordinated in point of authority with 
the Old Testament, yet the term 
Ta (ii^Xia, 'the Books', is not yet 
extended to them. For somewhat 
similar expressions for the Old and 
New Testaments in early writers, see 
the note on Ign. Philad. 5. The 
exact mode of expression is however 
unique. The Syriac translator's 
' books of the prophets ' is the ob- 
vious gloss of a later age. 

But what Books of the Old Testa- 
ment and what Apostolic writings 
had the preacher in view.'' 

(i) As regards the O. T. the an- 
swer is partly supplied by his own 
context. In the first place the history 
of creation in Genesis is contem- 
plated. Such treatment was alto- 
gether in accordance with the theo- 
logical teaching of his age. Anastasius 
of Sinai (Routh's Rel. Sacr. I. p. 15 ; 
comp. Anastas. Op. p. 860, Migne) 
says, Ylaniov tov iravv tov 'lepanoXiTov 

TOV iv TW fTTKTTTjdlCO (fiGCTljaaVTOS, Kal 

KXTjpevTOi IlavTaivov Trjs 'Wt^ap- 
dpeoiv ifpfuis, Kal ' A.p.p,a)viov crocfxcTa- 
Tov, Tav ap)(ai(i)v Koi TrpoiTOiv avucodav 
f^rjyrjTciv, (Ii XpiaTov kuI ttjv 
fKKX-qcriav Trdaav ttjv ^at]p.fpov von- 
aavTav. We might almost suppose 
that Anastasius was here alludino- 
to our pseudo- Clement, if he had 
not in a parallel passage (p. 962 



246 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. [xiv 

\oi Trjv KK\r](riav ov vvv eivai, dWa avoi6ev \\eyov(riv, 
^ri\ov\' rjv yap irvevfiarLKY)^ ws Kal 6 'lr](rovs iijULCov, icpa- 
vepcodt] de eir ia-xaTcov twv jj/uLepwi/ 'iva i^/uLas crwa-^' 
r\ eKKXrjaria he TrvevfJiaTLKn ou(ra icpavepwdrj iv ryj crapKi 

I oi vvv'] add. dicunt S. \kyovciv S^Xoc] om. CS ; see the lower note. 

2 ws KoX 6 ^l7]<rovs rjixCiv, e^avepuOr) de k.t.X.] et vir eius autem (5^) spiritalis est, is 
qui est testis christus dominus noster, manifestatus est autem, etc. S. 3 VM^^ 



Migne), where he is again enume- 
rating ancient interpreters who ex- 
plained the statements respecting 
paradise in Genesis as eis tj]v Xpia-rov 
eKKXrialav ava(l)ep6iieva, specified KXt;- 
/ijys o 2rpci)/x are vs. He writes again 
(p. 964), 'admirabiles quos diximus 
interpretes...decreverunt...duosquos- 
dam esse paradises... terrestrem et 
caelestem, qui cernitur et qui in- 
telligitur, sicut etiam est Christus 
caelestis simul et terrestris, congru- 
enter typo duaricm ecclesiarum, ter- 
renae, inquam, et caelestis civitatis 
Domini virtutum etc' (a passage 
which illustrates the language of our 
preacher respecting the Church); 
and he himself accordingly maintains 
that whatever is said of Adam and 
Eve applies to Christ and the Church 
(e.g. pp. 999, 1007, 1027, 1050). But 
besides the Hexaemeron, our preacher 
may have been thinking of other parts 
of the O. T., such as Ps. xliv (xlv), 
in which 'the queen' was already 
interpreted of the Church (Justin 
Dial. 63, p. 2S7). So too he would 
not improbably have the Song of 
Solomon in his mind. 

(2) As regards the 'Apostles' 
again his context indicates his chief 
reference. The Epistle to the E- 
phesians seemed to him more es- 
pecially to inculcate this doctrine. 
But he would find it elsewhere. 
There are some indications that he 
was acquainted with the Epistle to 
the Hebrews ; and, if so, he would see 



a confirmation of his view in iroKei 
Qfov ^cSi/ros 'lepovijaXfjijL inovpavico... 
navTjyvpfi Ka\ eKKXrjala TrpcoToroKoiv ano- 
yey pafxfiivayv iv ovpavois (xii. 22, 23). 
Again such words as Apoc. xxi. 9, 10, 
rrjv vvfKpTjv ttjv yvvalKa tov apviov... 
rr)v ayiav 'lepovcraXrifji Kara^alvovcrav 
eK TOV ovpavoii cmo tov Geov, would 
suit his purpose admirably. 

1. ov vvv K.r.X.j ''not now for the 
first time, but from the beginning\ 
For this sense of avadev see Luke 
i. 3, Acts xxvi. 5 ; comp. Justin Dial. 
24 (p. 242) (Scrnep avcoBev eKr]pva-(TeT0, 
it. 63 (p. 286) ort avadev 6 Qeos... 
yevvciaBai avTov efitWe, where it is an 
explanation of npo e<oa(j)6pov iyivvqaa 
a-e. Harnack compares Gal. iv. 26, 
etc., but the opposition to vvv here 
suggests the temporal rather than 
the local meaning of avadev. 

2. 6 ^Itjctovs jJ/iicSi'] SC. TTvevfiaTiKos 
rjv, SO that 6 'Ijyaoi's, not rj sKiiXrja-la, 
is the nominative of e^ai/epw^r; : comp. 
9 XpioTor o Kvpios, 6 (rdaas T^fJ^'OS, 
&v p,ev TO npiiTov irvevfia, eyivcTo 
(Top^ Koi ovToas rjfxa<: eKoXeaev. For 
e(pavepcodrj fie k.t.X. COmp. I Pet. i. 
20 XpiCTTOv TTpoeyvcoa-fievov [lev npo 
KaTa^oXfjs Koa-fxov, (f)avpa>devTos fie 
eV f<T)(^aTov (v.l. e(TxaT(ov) Tav Xpo- 
va>v fit' vpLas k.t.X. 

3. fTT ((rxoTiov Tav rJ/iiepMi'] ' luhen 
the days were drawiftg to a close\ 
'at the end of all things'; a not 
uncommon Lxx expression, Gen. 
xHx. I, Deut. iv. 30 (v.l.), Dan. ii. 
28, x. 14, Hos. iii. 5, Mic. iv. i ; and 



xiv] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 247 

5 Xpi(TTOv, Sr]\ou(ra rifjuv oti, eav tl'5 i^juwu Tr]pr](rr] avrriv 
eV TV} capKi Kai jur] (pdeipr]^ dTroXfjyjyeTai avTt]V eV tco 
TTvevfJiaTL Tco ciyltp' ri <yap cap^ avrt] dvTLTV7r6<s eomv 
Tov TTvevfxaTO^' ovheU ovv to avTiTVirov (pBeipas to 

pGiv'] temporzivi S. 7 ovriri/Troj] C ; typus S, and so to wrlrvwov just below; 

but this is probably owing to the poverty of the language. 



SO 2 Pet. iii. 3, but in Heb. i. 2 the 
correct reading is eV iaxarov rmv 
r]fj,pcov. 

4. fv rfj aapKi Xpiarov] When Christ 
took a bodily external form, the 
Church did the same. Moreover this 
external form might be said to be 
iv rfj (xapKi avrov, since the Church 
exists by union with Him. 

5. Trfprja-T) avrriv] ^ keep her pure 
and undefiled ', i. e. so far as con- 
cerns his own conduct as one member 
of the body. The believer in his own 
special department is required to do 
that which Christ does throughout 
the whole, Ephes. v. 27 Trapaa-Trjcrai 
ev8o^oi> TTjv eiCKXrjaiav, firj ep^oucrai' 
(tttIXov rj pvTiba K.r.X. 

6. CLTToXrjy^ffTaL avTrjv] i. e. by being 
incorporated in the celestial, spiritual 
Church. 

8. TO avTiTviTov] ' the counterpart, 
or copy '. The Platonic doctrine of 
ideas underlies these expressions. 
The avdevTiKov is the eternal, spiritual 
archetype, the origmal doctement, as 
it were, in God's own handwriting : 
comp. Tertull. de Moiwg. 11 'in 
Graeco authentico', 'the Greek origi- 
nal', before it was corrupted by tran- 
scription ; de Praescr. 36 ' ipsae au- 
thenticae literae eorum', 'the auto- 
graph letters of the Apostles ' ; Dig. 
xxviii. 3. 12 'exemplo quidem aperto 
nondum apertum est testamentum ; 
quod si authenticum patefactum est 
totum, apertum ', where ' authenti- 
cum' is the original, and 'exemplum' 
the copy; Julius in Athan. Apol. c. 



A}'ian. 28 (l. p. 116) irpofKofiKre x^'pa 
6\6ypa<f)ov avdevTiKrjv, i. e. ' written 
from first to last by his own hand '. 
The avTtTVTTov is the material, tem- 
porary manifestation, the imperfect 
and blurred transcript oiiYiQ original : 
comp. Synes. Epist. 68 (p. 217) rots 
raxyypcK^oLS to. durlrvTra Sovvai tuv 
TOTf ypa(f)VTcov iirera^a, Epist. in 
Athan. Apol. c. Arian. 85 (i. p. 158) 
TO) avTLTvnca tov deiov ypdp.ii.arns. For 
dvTiTvTrov, thus contrasted with the 
heavenly and true, comp. Heb. ix. 24 
avTLTvna rav akr]dt.vu)v, where the 
avTiTvna are defined in the context 
as Ta i/TTO Set'y /xara tu>v iv To is ovpavols 
and the akr^divd as avra TO. iwovpavia. 
See also the anonymous Valentinian 
in Epiph. Haer. xxxi. 5 (pp. 168, 169) 
avTiTVTTOs TOV TTpoovTos 'AyivvrjTov, dv- 

TITVTTOV TTJS TTpoOlKTtJS TeTpa8oS. And 

more especially for the pseudo-Cle- 
ment's teaching here compare the 
Valentinian language, Iren. i. 5. 6 
b 8r] Koi avTo eKKkrjcriav eivai \iyovaiv, 
aVTLTVTTOV TTJs civco 'E K kXt] CT la s. 

In such senses avTiTvirov depreciates 
relatively ; and with this meaning 
the material elements in the eucha- 
rist were commonly called by the 
fathers dvTiTvrva of the body and 
blood of Christ, e.g. Apost. Const, v. 14, 
vi. 30, vii. 25 : see Suicer Thes. s.v. 
On the other hand olvtItv^ov is some- 
times opposed to Tvnos, as the fin- 
ished work to the rough model, the 
realization to the foreshadowing, in 
which case it extols relatively; comp. 
I Pet. iii. 21. 



248 THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. [xiv 

avdevTiKov imeraXriyp-eTai. apa ovv tovto Xeyei, d^eX- 



Tf]pY](raTe Ttjv aapKa \va tov Tri/ef/uaros fieTa- 



Xdl3r]T6. el Se Xeyofxev eivai tyiv (rdpKa Trjv eKKXtjCLav 
Kai TO Trvevjjia Xpia-rov, dpa ovv 6 vfipiaa^ rrju (rapKa 
vfipicreu TYiv KKXt](riau, 6 tolouto^ ovv ov jueraXr]- 5 
\l/^erai tov TrvevfxaTO^, 6 eo'Tiv 6 XpiaTOs. TOoravTf]v 
hvvaTai ri crdp^ avTri /jLeTaXa/SeTv ^corjv Kai dQavaaLav, 
KoXXr]devTO^ avTrj tov irvevfjiaTO^ tov dylov. ovt 
epeLTveiv rts hvvaTai ovt6 XaXfjcrai a HjoiMAceN d 
Kypioc TOis e/cAe/cTOiS avTOv. ' 

XV. OvK o'lofjiai he otl luiKpdv arvjUL^ovXiav eTTOif]- 
(rdfxriv irepi eyKpaTeia^, rjv Troirja-a^ ti<s ov fj.eTavor](Tei, 

I ;uTa\77i/'Tat] CS. In C however it was first written awoXrixpeTai, and ixera is 
written above by the same hand. See the note on (pi,\oTrov2v below, 19. 46 

v^pi(Tas...T7jv iKK\7]ffiav] is qtn contiiinelia affecit carnetn suam contumelia ajfecit 
carnem christi ecclesiam S. This might possibly represent 6 v^pia-as rrjv cdpKa 
[rriv Idiav, rod xP'-<^to^ '''V" cffipKa.] vjSpKxev, tt]v eKKkyjaiav, the words in brackets 
having been omitted in C by homoeoteleuton ; but I am disposed to regard it as 

I. apa ovv K.r.X.] This apparently Christ, whereas just above it has re- 
refers not to what has immediately presented the relation of the earthly 
preceded, but to an application which Church and Christ to the heavenly 
the preacher has made of an evan- Church and Christ. The insertion 
gelical text several chapters before, 8 in the Syriac does not remove the 
apa ovv TOVTO Xe'yei Tr^prjo-aTf t^v aapKa difficulty. See the criticism of Pho- 
ayvj^v k.t.\. It is almost impossible tius on the inconsequence of this 
however to trace the connexion of writer's sentiments, quoted above on 
thought in so loose a writer. i. 

3. TT^v (Tapica\ as being the body 7. p.eTaXa^elv'] With an accusa- 

of Christ. This language does not tive, as e.g. Acts xxiv. 25, and com- 

occur in 8. Paul, for in Ephes. v. 30 monly in classical writers. On the 

cK T^s aapKos avTov is an interpolation. different sense of the two cases with 

The relation of Christ to the Church this verb see Kiihner ll. p. 294 sq. 

is represented by 8. Paul as that of The propriety of the change here 

the head to the body, whereas here it will be obvious. Similarly to avdev- 

is that of the spz'n'l to the body, so tikov p.eTaXij'^fTai above, 
that ' body ' is equivalent to ' flesh '. 8. rov Trvevp,aTos tov ayiov] See 

Altogether our preacher seems to above, I. p. 125. The language here 

be guilty of much confusion in his is still more unguarded than in 9. 
metaphor in this context; for here 9. e^emelv] ^express'; Clem. Rom. 

the relation of flesh to spirit repre- 48. 
sents the relation of the Church to a riToip.a(Tev] A reference to the 



xvj 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



249 



dWa Kai eavTOV o'cocei KUfxe tov (rvjJL(iovXev(TavTa. 
(JLicdd^ yap ovK 'e(TTiv jULKpo^ TrXaucojueurjv \lyV)(^r]v Kai 

15 d7ro\\vfJLevt]V aTrocTTpe^ai ets to (rcodfjvai. TavTrjv yap 
)(^oiuLev TYiv dvTijULcrdiau diro^ovvai rw Oew tw KTicravTi 
rifj.d<Sy eav 6 Xeywv Kai dKOvcov fiera TnVrews Kai dyairt]^ 
Kai \eyr] Kai dKOvrj. efjLjjLeLvcofjiev ovv e(p' oh eTriorrev- 
arajjiev diKaioi Kai bcrioi, \va jueTa 7rappt](ria9 aLTWfJiev 

20 TOV Qeov TOV XeyovTa "Eti AaAoyntoc coy epoa iAoy iTAp- 
eiMi* TOVTO yap to prjfjLa jueyaXyj^ ecTTiv 7rayye\ia9 
(Tr]fj.eiov' eTOijuoTepov yap iavTOV Xiyei 6 Kvpi09 ets 

TO ClOOVai TOV alTOVVTO<S. TOCaUTt]^ ovv ^prjCTTOTtlTOS 

merely a paraphrastic rendering of S. ii eiroir)(TdiJ.7]v] add. vfuv S. 176 

\iyuv Kai aKOjjwv] S translates as if it had read re XeYw;/ /cat 6 olkovwi'. fiera 
TriffTeus Kai aydirrjs] cum caritate et cum fide S, transposing the words. On the 
repetition of the preposition see above, I. p. 137. 22 ets rh dLddvai tov alToCvTos] 

in illud lit det petitionem ejus cjui petit ab ipso S, thus supplying a substantive to 
govern tov ultoOvtos and mistaking the sense. 23 TO(ravTr]s . . .iJ.eTa\aixj3dvovTs] 

quotiiam igittir hac jucunditate et bonitate del jucundamur S. 

same passage of which part has been 



already quoted by our preacher at 
the end of 11. See the note on 
Clem. Rom. 34. 

XV. 'He, that obeys this exhorta- 
tion to chastity, will save both him- 
self and the preacher. It is no small 
recompense to convert and save a 
perishing soul. Faith and love are 
the only return that speaker and 
hearer alike can make to God their 
Creator. So therefore let us be true 
to our behef, for God promises an 
immediate response, declaring Him- 
self more ready to give than we to 
ask. We must not grudge ourselves 
these bounties of His goodness ; for 
as the rewards of submission are 
great, so the punishment of disobedi- 
ence is great also.' 

II. ol'o/Liat] The word has oc- 
curred twice already in this writer 
6,14. 

13. Kai kavrliv k.tX.\ I Tim. iv. 16 



Kai creavTov aaaeis Kai tovs aKovovTUs 
(TOV. See also below, 19. Harnack 
quotes Barnab. i fioKKov a-vyxaipo) 
ifiavTa eXni^cov <T<i)6r)vai, OTi dXrjdms 
iSXeTTCi) V Vfiiv eKKxvfievov.,.Trvfvfia. 

14. /jLia-doi K.r.X.] James v. 20 6 eiri- 
(TTpeyp'as afiapTcoXov eK 7r\ai>T]s odoii 
avTov crciiaei yJAvx^v eK OavaTov k.t.X. 

16. dvTiiiia-Oiav] A favourite word 
with our author, especially in this 
connexion; see the note on i. 

19. diKaioi Kai oaioi] See on I, 5. 

20. "Eti \aXovPTos K.T.X.] Is. Iviii. 
9 6 Geo? elaaKovcrfTai (rov, eTi XaXovv- 
Tos (TOV fpel Idov TvapeifjLi. Conip. 
Apost. Const, iii. 7, where, as here, it 
is quoted epco (though with a v.L), 
probably (as Lagarde points out) 
from a confusion with Is. Ixv. 24 eVi 
XaKovvTQiv avTav epco, Ti eariv; So too 
it is given ''dicam'' in Iren. iv. 17. 3, 
but ipii in Justin Dial. 15 (p. 233). 

23. Tox) airoGiTO?] SC. ety to aireiv 
' more prompt to give than the asker 



250 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xv 



jderaXafji^avovTe^ lurj (pdomicrooiuev iavroh TV')(eLv tocov- 
t(jov dyadtov, bcrr]v yap ri^ovriv e^et to. prifJiaTa tuvtu 
ToT^ TTOirjcracrii' avTa, TO(rauTt]v KaTaKpiciv e;^ei Toil's 
7rapaK0vo'a<Tiv. 

X V I. ' COcTTe, dhe\(poif d(popiui)]v \aj36uT6s ov 5 
fjLLKpav ei9 TO fxeTavoticrai, Kaipov e^^oj/res eTricrTpeyp-cojULev 
eTTL Tov KoXecravTa tijuds Qeov, ews erf ex,oiuiev tov 
7rapa^e)(^oiJievov rifjid^. edv yap TaX<s r\hv7ra6eiaL's Tav- 
Tai^ drrora^wfjieda Kal tyiv \}yv^r]u t]fxwv yiKriCTcofjiev ev 



I TocrovTwvl C; toiovtuv (?) S. 



5 d8\(poi] add. dyaTrrjToi S. 



8 vapa- 

Sexofxevop] Trarepa dex^/J-evov (IIPA for IIAPA) C ; patrem qui accipit S- ii 'I??- 

ao\j\ domini nostri iesu christi S. i6 Kpelccruv vrjffTeia irpocrevxv^] C; 



is to ask'; as in the Collect 'more 
ready to hear than we to pray '. The 
Syriac translator has misunderstood 
the sense. 

XVI. ' Therefore let us repent 
and return to God betimes. If we 
conquer our appetites and desires, 
we shall obtain mercy of Jesus. For 
be assured, the day of judgment is at 
hand ; as a heated furnace shall it 
be ; the heavens shall be fused and 
the earth shall be as melting lead; 
and all the deeds of men shall be 
revealed. Almsgiving is a token of 
repentance. Fasting is greater than 
prayer, and almsgiving than both. 
Love covereth a multitude of sins, 
and prayer delivereth from death. 
Blessed is he that aboundeth in these 
things. For almsgiving removeth 
the burden of sin.' 

5. d(f)oppLf}v Xa^opTfs] So Rom. 
vii. 8, II. Conversely d(popiJ.fjv 81- 
86vai, 2 Cor. v. 12, I Tim. v. 14, Ign. 
Tral/. 8. 

6. Kaipov xovTfs\ So 8 eojj 
exopiev Kaipou pLeravoias, 9 ws exopiev 
Kaipov TOV laOfjvai. 

"]. TOV TrapaSep^o/ifJ'Oj'] It is yet 
the Kaipos evTrpoadeKTos (2 Cor. vi. 2). 
i]8v7va6eiais] See again ^17. Not 



a Biblical word. On this word, which 
was highly distasteful to the Stoics, 
see Wyttenbach on Plut. Afor. 132 
C. It occurs at least as early as 
Xenophon, Cyr. vii. 5. 74. 

9. dwoTa^copLeda] See on 6. 

II. epxerai k.t.X.] Mai. iv. I iSou 
rjfjifpa epx^rai Kaiopievrj a5s Kki^avos. 

13. Tildes] This is obviously cor- 
rupt, though both our authorities 
are agreed. I think that for rives we 
should probably read [ai] bvvdp.eis, 
the expression being taken from Is. 
xxxiv. 4 Ka\ TaKTjaovTai Traaai al bvvd- 
pieis rav ovpavav ; comp. Apoc. Petr. 
in Macar. Magn. iv. 7 (p. 165, Blondel) 
KCLL TaKrjcreTai Traaa 8iivap,is ovpavoii. 
Where the MS was torn and letters 
had dropped out, it might easily be 
read tingc. Comp. 2 Pet. iii. 7, 10, 
Orac. Sib. iii. 689sq, Melito^/f/. 12, 
p. 432 (Otto). Though the existing text 
might be explained with Harnack and 
Hilgenfeld by the common belief in 
several heayens (comp. e.g. Orig. c. 
Cels. vi. 23), I can hardly think that 
our Clementine writer would have ex- 
pressed himself in this way, even if 
he had believed that some of the 
heavens would be spared from the 
conflagration; The pseudo-Justin 



xvi] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



251 



10 Tw /uLt) TTOielv Ta^ eTTiBviJiias avTvi's ras 7rovr]pa<s, fiera- 
Xrjyjyoiueda tov e\eov<i 'Itjcov. FivuxTKeTe he otl epxeiAi 

Yj^ri H HMepA Tt]<S KpiaeOi^ diC KAi'BANOC KAIOMeNOC, KAI 
TAKHCONTAl' tTiI/6st TOON OypANOON, KUl TTOLCTa t] <yf\ WS 

/uLoXif^o^ eTTi TTvpl Tr]K6fJLevo<s, Kai Tore (pai/rjcreTai rd 

15 Kpvcbia Kal (havepa epya twv dvdpcoTrcov. KaXov ovv 

e\riiuo(rvi/t] ws fxeravoLa djuapna^' KpeLcrcrMV vrjO'Teia 

Trpocev^fj^, eXet] fiOG-vvr] he djucporepcov ' atahh Ae ka- 

bonum jejunium^ oratio, S ; but probably |D has dropped out. This insertion 
would bring the Syriac into conformity with the Greek. 1 7 iXerjfjLocrvvr) Se] 

add. melior (Kpeidcxuv) S. 



Quaes f. ad Orthod. 74 probably refers 
to this passage : see I. p. 178 sq. 

14. /ioXt/3oy] This seems to be the 
correct form in the Lxx generally, 
Exod. XV. 10, Num. xxxi. 22, Job 
xix. 24, etc. Both /xoXt^os and /idXi/3- 
8oy are certified by their occurrence 
in metre. 

15. Kpixpia Koi (pavepci] An exhaus- 
tive expression : comp. Wisd. vii. 21 
ocra re eari Kpvnra Koi ep,(f)avTJ eyvu>v. 

Kokov ovv K.T.X.] If there is no cor- 
ruption in the text of this passage, it 
offers another illustration of the cri- 
ticism of Photius on our pseudo- 
Clement, Bid/. 126, quoted above, 
I. This however may be doubt- 
ful. The preacher seems to be 
thinking of Tobit xii. 8, 9 dyadov 
TTpocTfVxh p-iTO. vricTTeias Koi eXerjfxoiJV- 
vrjs Kal 8tKaio(Tvvr]s ... Kokov Trot^crai 
i\(r}p.o(TvvrjV rj drjaavplcrai ;^pi;(Tioi'' 
iXfrjpocriivi] yap e'/c davarov pverai Koi 
avTT] dwoKadapiel. TTaaav ap,apTiau, where 
the first sentence as read in S is 
dyadov irpoaevxh P-fTa vrjcrrelas Kal 
ikerjpocrvvq pern BiKaioavvrjs vnep dp- 
^torepa. Here the very same function 
eK davarov pve(r6ai, which our text as- 
signs to prayer, is assigned to alms- 
giving. Moreover our text having 
stated that almsgiving is greater than 
prayer immediately afterwards as- 



signs a more important work to 
prayer than to almsgiving. These two 
facts combined throw doubt on the 
integrity of the text. It would seem 
as though some words had been trans- 
posed and others perhaps omitted. 

16. coy perdvoia ci/iapri'as] ^as I'Cpent- 
ance from sin is good', if the text be 
correct ; for the sense will hardly 
allow us to translate 'as being re- 
pentance from sin'. I suppose that 
eXerjpoavvT] here has its restricted 
sense of ' almsgiving ', as in every 
passage where it occurs in the N.T. 

17. dp(f)OTp(ov] See Ecclus. xl. 
24 vrrep aptporepa eXtrjpocrvvr] pvcre- 
Toi, where however the dpcfjorepa 
are aSeX^oi kqI ^or/deia els Kaiphv 
OXLyj/eoos. 

dyaTTr] Se k.t.X.] Taken from i Pet. 
iv. 8, where it is doubtless a quota- 
tion from Prov. x. 12. See the note 
on Clem. Rom. 49, where also it is 
quoted. There can be no doubt that 
in the original context it refers to 
passing over without notice, and so 
forgiving, the sins 0/ others ; nor is 
there any reason for interpreting it 
otherwise as adopted by S. Peter or 
by the genuine Clement. In James 
V. 20 the expression koXv^h ttX^^oj 
dpapTLUiv seems still to be used of the 
sins of others, but in the sense of 



252 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xvi 



Aynrei nAfleoc amaptioon' Trpocrevxv de e'/c KaXtj^ cruvei- 
Brja-ecos e/c BavaTOv pveTai. juuKcipio^ 7ra? 6 evpeOek 
eV TovTOL's 7rXf)pf]^' e\et]jULO(ruvr} yap Koucbicfjia d/map- 
Tia^ yiveraL. 

XVII. MeTauofja-co/ULev ovu e^ oXrj's KapBiaSy 'Iva 5 
{xri Ti^ ^fjLvov 7rapa7ro\t]Tai. el <ydp eifToXds k^ojuev, 
\va Kai TOVTO TTpacrcrco/ULev, cltto twj/ elhcoXwv diroo'Trdv 

7 'iva Koi TOVTO Trpdaffu/Jievl so apparently S ; Kal tovto irpdffaofiev (om. IVa) C. 
Similar omissions of 'iva appear in AC in 48 i^oiJ,6\oyri<rufj.aL (where S is correct), 
and in S itself in ii 11 Koixiadifxeda (where AC are correct). 10 Trept] C; ad 

(adverstis) S, as if 7r/)6s: but it perhaps does not represent a different reading. 
12 Kpo<six^iv Kal irLCTTeveiv] S ; iriffTeueiv Kai TT/aocr^xeti' C. '14 els oIkov diraX- 



* burying them from the sight of 
God, wiping them out by the con- 
version and repentance of the sinner'. 
On the other hand our preacher 
seems certainly to take it as mean- 
ing ' atones for a multitude of one^s 
own sins ', as it is taken by some 
modern commentators : and so too 
Tertull. Scorp, 6. Clement of Alex- 
andria is hardly consistent with him- 
self. In Strom, ii. 15 (p. 463) he ex- 
plains it of God's love in Christ 
which forgives the sins of men ; 
whereas in Qicis div. salv. 38 (p. 
959) he takes it to mean that love, 
working in a man, enables him to 
repent and put away his own sins ; 
and so apparently in Strom, i. 27 (p. 
423). Origen In Lev. Horn. ii. 5 (il. 
p. 190) refers it to the man's own 
sins ; but the turn which he gives to 
the passage is shown by his quoting 
in juxtaposition Luke vii. 47 dcJiecovraL 
avTrjs a'l ajxapTiai al noXXai, oti TjyaTnj- 
aev TToXv an explanation which re- 
moves the doctrinal objection to this 
interpretation, though the exegetical 
argument against it from the connex- 
ion of the passage in its original con- 
text (Prov. X. 12) still remains. 

I. KoXijs <7vvfi8r]afcos] Heb. xiii. 
18. A commoner expression is dyaOrj 



avviBr](Tis ; see the note Clem. Rom. 
41. For nadapa avveidrjcris see Clem. 
Rom. 45 with the note. 

2. e'/c davarov pverai] This is said 
of fXfr]pi.o(TVPT] in Tobit iv. 10, xii. 9 
(already quoted) ; and of diKaioa-vvr], 
which also signifies 'almsgiving', in 
Prov. X. 2, xi. 4 ; but not of Trpoo-eux'?. 
See the note on koKov ovv k.t.X. above. 

3. (v] Comp. Ecclus. 1. 6 aeXT]VTf 
nXtjprjs iv i^fxepais. 

eX{T]p,oa-vvr] yap K.r.X.] Prov. xvi. 6 
(xv. 27) eXerjfjiocrvvais Koi ni<TTe(nv 
dnoKadalpovrai afiapriai, Ecclus. iii. 30 
eXerjp.oa'vvT] e^iXacrerai ap.apTl.as '. Comp. 
Dan. iv. 24 ras dp.apTias (tov iv iXerf- 
poavvais XvTpaxrai (Theod.). 

Kov({)iapa apaoTias] i. e. ' removes 
the load of sin', as with Bunyan's 
pilgrims. So 3 Esdr. viii. 83 <tv, Kv- 
pif, o KovCJ)[(Tas TCis dpapTias rjpcav, 
comp. Ezr. ix. 13 iKovcf)i.(ras i]p.cov Tas 
avop.Las. 

XVII. 'Let us therefore repent 
lest we perish. For, if we are com- 
manded to convert even the heathen 
from their idolatry, how unpardon- 
able would it be to allow the ruin 
of a soul which has once known the 
true God ! Therefore let us assist 
the weak, that we and they alike 
may be saved. And let us not give 



XVIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



253 



Kai KaTYi'xeiv, ttocto} fjiaWoi^ yfyuxfiv ^Si; yivwcTKOva'av 
Tov Oeov ou ^61 diroWvcrBai ; cvWa^co/uiev ovv eavTOL^ 
10 Kai Tovs dadevovvTa's dvayeiv rrepi to dyaSou, ottw? 
CTMdcoiuev d7ravT6<i' Kai eTTiG'Tpe^cofj.ev dWrjXovs Kai 
vovdeTYjo'wfjiev. Kai jurj fiovov ctpri hoKwiuev irpoo'e'^eiv 
Kai 7ri(TT6Uiv eu Tw vovQeTeiordai rjfid<i viro tcov Trpecr- 
jSuTepiov, dWd Kai OTav els oIkov dTraWaycoiiev, fivr]- 

XayQifxevI C; domiim diniissi fiierinins et cessaverimus ab omnibus S. The variation 
might easily be explained by an omission in C owing to homoeoteleuton, but it is 
more probably a periphrastic rendering of S to express the full force of aVaXXdr- 
reaOai: see above, I. p. 136 sq. 



heed only while we are listening to 
the instructions of our presbyters, but 
also when we have departed to our 
homes. Let us also meet together 
more frequently, and thus endeavour 
to make progress in the command- 
ments of the Lord. He has declared 
that He will come to gather together 
all nations and languages. Then the 
unbelievers shall see His glory and 
shall bewail their past obstinacy. 
Their worm shall not die ; and their 
sufferings shall be a spectacle to all 
men. Meanwhile the righteous, see- 
ing their torments, shall give glory 
to God, because there is hope for 
His true and zealous servants.' 

5. M{Tavoi](T(Ofiev /c.r.X.] The ex- 
pression fifravofiv i^ okrjs {jrjs] KopS/aj 
has occurred already 8, and will 
occur again 19 ; comp. also 9 
/xerai'o^crot e^ elXiKpivovs (capStav. 

6. TrapaTroXrjTai] 'perish by the 
ivay^ i.e. 'unexpectedly, through care- 
lessness, without sufficient cause'; as 
e.g. Lucian Gytnn. 13 opa ovbevhs 
fxeyoKov eVeKa irapaTToXXvfievas, Nigr. 
13 hihoiKa p-Tj TTapaiToXrjTUi p,eTav 
Xov6p.evoi, Hermot. 21 nepio-ylffi. jie 
irapaTToKop.evov. 

fVTokiK ^xop-fv] It was our Lord's 
command, Matt, xxviii. 19 sq ; comp. 
Mark xvi. 1 5. If we adopt the reading 



of the Greek MS, Kai tovto Trpdcrcrofxev 
must be taken as parenthetical so 
far as regards the structure, ' and we 
obey this command ' ; so that aVo- 
anav will then be governed by eV- 
ToXas f'xofiev, 

9. crvXXa^cop.fp k.t.X.J 'Let US there- 
fore assist one another, that we may 
elevate the weak also as concerning 
that which is good\ This may be the 
meaning, if the text is correct; but 
it would seem as though some verb 
had fallen out after KaL For kavroi^ 
see the note on 13 ; and for avaynv 
comp. Clem. Rom. 49. 

11. Kai fTTi(TTpe\lA(opv] to be con- 
nected with (TvXXctl3wp.ev, and not 
made dependent on onas, as it is 
punctuated by Bryennios. 

12. prj pLovov apTi ic.r.X.] This 

clearly shows that the work before 
us is a sermon delivered in church ; 
comp. 19 pfra tov Qeov ttjs dXTjdfias 
avayivaaKO) vpTiv evrev^iv k.t.X. 

13. TU)v 7Tp6cr(3vTpa)v] 'the pres- 
byters^ who delivered their exhorta- 
tions after the reading of the Scrip- 
tures; see the note on 19 piTo. 
TOV Qeov K.T.X. This sermon itself 
was obviously such an exhortation ; 
but the preacher, doubtless himself a 
'presbyter', puts himself in the posi- 
tion of his hearers and uses the 



254 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xvii 



fjLOvevtofxev rtov tov Kvpiov ivTaXjULctTcov, Kal /uLrj dvTL- 
TrapeXKw/uLeda (xtto tcov KOcrfJLLKVdv eTridv/uicoi', dWd 
TTVKVorepov Trpocrepxoiuevoi TreipwjULeda TrpoKOTTTeiv ev 
Toi^ evToXai^ tov Kvpiov, \va 7ravTe<5 to avTo (ppo- 
vovvTe<i (TWYiyfJievoL wfxev kiri Tt]v ^cot^i/. eiirev yap 6 5 

Kvpiov "EpXOMAI CYNArAre?N nANTA TA e9NH, C})YAaC KAI 

rAoaccAC TOVTO ^e Xeyei Tr]v tjjaepav Tf]<s eirKhaveia^ 
avTOVj 0T6 eX6wv XvTpwcreTai rifjid^ eKacTTOV kutu t 
epya avTOV. kai oyontai thn a62an avTOv Kai to 
KpaTOS ol dTTlCTTOl, Kai ^6VL(T6r](TOVTaL 'ihovTE^ TO /3a- lO 

3 Trpotrepxi^MfoO C ; Trpo<xevx6fJLPoi S. 7 ttjv i^fi^pav] super (dc) die S. 

9 TT/c Zbi,a.v avTov Kal to Kpdros] gloriam ejus hi robore et potestaie S. This again 
might be explained by an omission in C owing to the repetition of similar begin- 
nings of words, TT]v dd^av avrov [Kara tt]v 5vvaiJ.iv (or t7]v iax^v)'] Kal to KpaTos ; 
but such an expression in Greek would be very awkward. It is more probable 
therefore that robur et potestas is a double rendering of to KpaTos. The preposi- 



third person, by a common form of 
speech, to avoid egotism: comp. e.g. 
Clem. Rom. 63 i^a-vxao'avTfs rfjs /xa- 
ralas (TTaafcos-.-KaravTrjcrciOfjiev. 

1. avTiTrapeXKoineda] ''be dragged 
off in the opposite direction ' ; comp. 
Pers. Sat.v. 154 'duplici in diversum 
scinderis hamo'. The lexicons do 
not give this word. 

2. Koa-fiiKciiv fTndvfiiwv^ The ex- 
pression occm-s Tit. ii. 12. The word 
ko(tij.ik6s is apparently not found in 
the LXX, and only once besides (in 
a somewhat different sense) in the 
N.T., Heb. ix. i. 

3. TTVKVorepov Trpoaepxanevot] ''com- 
ing more frequently\ i.e. 'to this 
place of meeting', or perhaps 'to 
the presence of God' (comp. Heb. 
X. I, 22, Clem. Rom. 23, 29). On 
these injunctions to more frequent 
services, see the note on Ign. Eph. 
13 (TTroiiSa^ere nvKvorepov avvipxecr- 
dai ; comp. ib. Polyc. 4 TrvKvoTepov 
avvayuiyaL yivea-dcoa-av. The Syriac 
reading however may be correct. 



5. o Kvpios] Perhaps meaning 
'Christ', as Harnack takes it, re- 
ferring to 3, where Is. xxix. 13 
seems to be put into the mouth of 
our Lord. 

6. "Epxop.aiK.r.'K.'] From Is. Ixvi. 18 
epxopai (Twayayfiv iravra ra edvq Kai 
ras yXcocrcras, koI rj^ovcri Koi o\j/ovTai 
rfjv 86^av p.ov. There is nothing cor- 
responding to <pv\as in either the 
Hebrew or the LXX ; and our preach- 
er must have got it from the familiar 
combination of 'nations and tongues' 
in Daniel, e.g. iii. 7 Travra ra edvij 
(pvXai Koi yXacTcrai in the LXX. 

7. rovTO Se Xe'yei] 'd7it by this he 
means ' : see the note on 8. 

TTiv r\p.ipav K.r.X.] The same ex- 
pression has occurred 12, where 
see the note on fTTLcfyavelas. 

8. XvTpcoafTai] It is called -qixepa 
dnoXvTpoocreas in Ephes. iv. 30. For 
other passages, where dTroXvrpaxTis 
refers to the final redemption, see 
Luke xxi. 28, Rom. viii. 23. 

iKaarov k.t.X.]^ As only those who 



XVIl] 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



255 



(TiXeiov Tou Koa-juov ev tw 'lr](Tov Xeyovres, Oval yi^Tv, 
OTL av ri<i Kal ovk i^deijuieu Kal ouk eTTKTTevofieVj Kal 
ovK iTretdoiuLeda toI? 7rp6(rfivT6poi^ toi<s dvayyeWovo-iv 
rifjuv wept Tt]^ CMTtjpia^ rifiMV' kui '0 ckwAhI aytcon oy 
15 TeAeyTHcei kai to nyp aytoon oy cBecBHceTAi kai ecoNTAi 
eic opAciN HACH cApKi. Ttiv Yijjiepav K6ivr]v XeyeL Ttj^ 
Kpicr6a)<s, orav oylrovrai toi)s ei^ t]iuuv d(refit]a-avTa<i Kai 
TrapaXo'yLcrafjievov's ras evToXa^ 'lr](Tod XpLcrrov. ol 
^6 dUaiOL 6U7rpayt]G-avTe^ kui vTro/ULeLuavTes Ta<s f5a(ra- 

tion (in place of the conjunction) may then be accounted for in two ways; (i) The 
translator read /card Kpdros for Kal to Kpdros; or (2) A Syriac transcriber inadver- 
tently wrote 2 for V The latter explanation seems to be more probable: see 
above, p. 181. 10 ISdvres] C; eidores (from tSoires) S. 11 tov 

KofffJLov] mimdi hiiius S. See the note on 19 h ry Koap-Lf. ec t^ TtjctoO] om. 

S. XfYOj/res] et Umc dicent S. 17 ^M'"] S ; vfuv C. 



shall be released are contemplated, 
this must imply different grades of 
happiness. I do not see sufficient 
reason for doubting the genuineness 
of XurpwcTf TOt. 

g. Ka\ oy\rovTai\ A continuation 
of the quotation from Isaiah, the 
intervening words being a paren- 
thetical explanation. See also Matt. 
xxiv. 30, Rev. i. 7. 

10. ^evicrdrjaovTai] ^ shall be a- 
mazed\ as i Pet. iv. 4, 12. The 
active ^eviCovra, ' perplexing ', ' amaz- 
ing', occurs in Acts xvii. 20. This 
sense is found in Polybius and from 
his time onward. See also the note 
on ^evia-fiou, Ign. Ephes. 19. 

TO jSaa-iXfiou] ''the kingdojn'' or 
' sovereignity ' ; see the note on 6. 
We must understand eV rw 'It]<tov 
'in the hands, in the power, of Jesus', 
as in the common idiom eivai e'v rivi : 
see Rost u. Palm Griech. Worterb. 
s. v. iv i. 2. b. 

12. (TV r\si\ ''Thou wast He'; see 
esp. John viii. 24 ilw \xr] irivTivvrr^ri 



i 



oTt y < 



3^0 



r6 



aTTot/aviicroe (p tuis 



afiapriais vficiv, lb. ver. 28 run yvd- 
crecrde on eyoi elfj-i, xni. 19 '"a 
7ri(rTev(Trjre...ori iyu) flpn. The 
preacher seems to be alluding to 
this language of our Lord, as re- 
corded by St John. 

14. 6 a-KciXrj^ K.T.\.] From Is. Ixvi. 
24, the last verse of the prophet. 
Our preacher has already quoted 
this passage, 7 ; see the note there. 

17. orav o-^ovTai] ''when vicu shall 
see ', the nominative being sug- 
gested by the preceding ets opao-tf 
ttIkjti <Taf)Ki. For the future indica- 
tive with orav see Winer xlii. p. 388 ; 
but no dependence can be placed on 
the MS in such a case. 

18. napaXoyiaapLevovs] '' played false 
with ', ' attempted to cheat ' ; see 
Ign. Alagn. 3 tov nopaTov irapaXoyi- 
ferai (with the note). See 4 Esdr. 
vii. 72 with Bensly's note (p. 63). 

19. fVTrpayri(TavT(i\ If the reading 
be correct, it must mean 'having 
been virtuous ' and not (as else- 
where) 'having been prosperous'; 
comp. diKuionpayflv. 



256 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xvii 



vov^ Kai fjii<Tf](Tavre<s to.^ ijduTradeia^ Trj^ >p-V)(^fj<s, orav 
BeacrcovTaL tovs dcTO^^aravTa^ kul apprjcajmevovs did 
Twv XoyMv r] dia tmv epyuiv tov 'IrjcovVy ottws koXol- 
^oi/rai deivah /Sacavoi^ irvpl dcr/SecTTcp, ecrovrai dopaj/ 
didouTe<i TU) Qew avTwv, XeyovTe'i oti "GcrraL eXirU 5 
Tw dehovXevKOTi Gew e^ bXt]s Kapdia^. 

XVIII. Kat iijueis ovv <yevu)iJ.e6a eK rwv ev^api- 

(TTOVVTIOV, TMV de^OuXeVKOTCOl/ TM OeWf Kal fJLYI 6K T(J0V 

Kpivofjievcov dore^cov. Kal yap ai/ros TravOajuapTwXo'S 
odv Kai fjLt]7r(t) (pvycov tov TretpacjuoPy dXX' en wV eV 10 

2 5ta] fj 8id S. 4 TTvpl] C ; ^/ igne S. ^cTovrai] add. iv ayaWidaei S. 

5 StSocrey] S ; Solves C. 7 ouf] add. ad\<f)ol [/uou] S. 10 (pvyibv] 

(pevyuv C; S has t3vQ which perhaps represents ^uyw;/. 15 ^vrev^ivl C; 



1. jJSuTra^et'aj] See the note on 16. 

2. a(TT0)(fi(TavTa9\ '' viissed the 
mark\ ''gone astray''; see i Tim. 
i. 6, vi. 21, 2 Tim. ii. 18. The word 
is not uncommon in Polybius and 
later classical authors. 

4. "Kvpi aa-^k(TT(^ Matt. iii. 12, 
Mark ix. 43, Luke iii. 17. For the re- 
ference of pseudo-Justin to this state- 
ment see I. p. 178 sq. 

XVIII. 'Let us take our place 
with those who, having served God, 
will join in this thanksgiving. I 
myself, though I am still surrounded 
by the temptations of the devil, yet 
strive to follow after righteousness, 
that I may escape the judgment to 
come.' 

g. Trai'^a/xaprcoXoy] The word is 
not given in the lexicons. Compare 
TravdajiapTrfTOS Apost. Const. vii. 1 8, 
Barnab. 20 (where the MSS agree in 
writing it without an aspirate), TvavTa- 
diKos Philo de Great. Pr. 3(11. p. 362). 

1 1 . opycfi/ois] ' the instruments, 
engines^ ; comp. Ign. Rom. 4. The 
word does not occur in the N. T. ; 
and in the LXX it seems to be ap- 
plied only to musical instruments, 



or military engines, or the like. 
The metaphor here is probably 
military ; comp. 2 Mace. xii. 27 
fv6a8e opyavaiv Koi ^(X<ov jroXXai 
irapadea-fLs, and see Ephes. vi. 16 
TO /3eXj7 TOV TTOvrjpov [ja] TTfnvpap.iva. 
The preacher finds himself iv aficfjt- 
(SoXo), the enemy having environed 
him with his engines of war. 

12. diKaioavvrjv dicoKeiv] A phrase 
occurring in the Pastoral Epistles, 
I Tim. vi. II, 2 Tim, ii. 22 (comp. 
Rom. ix. 30). 

Kav eyyvs} ' at all events ttear, 
if I cannot actually reach it '. For 
this use of Kav comp. Ign. Ephes. 10 
Kciv eK Tciv epycov, with the note. 

XIX. ' Therefore, brothers and 
sisters, I have exhorted you to give 
heed to the Scriptures, that ye m.ay 
save both me and yourselves. Your 
hearty repentance and earnest pur- 
suit of salvation is the return which 
I ask for my trouble. Your zeal 
will thus stimulate all the young 
who have any regard for godliness. 
And let us not be annoyed when we 
are admonished and turned away 
from sin. Half-heartedness and dis- 



xix] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 257 

yuecrofs Toh opyavoL'i rov ^iaf3o\ov, CTTrov^dtco Tr]i/ 
0LKaLO(Tuvt]v hiMKeiu, OTTcos IcT'xiXTiiy Kccv eyyv^ avrfj^ 
yevea-Oai, (f)of3ovjuevo<i Trjv Kpiaiu Tt]v jueWovcrai/. 

XIX. 'COarre, dde\<poi Kai d^\(paij jueTo. tov 
15 Oeoi/ Tt}^ d\f)6eia^ di/ayivioo'Ka) vfjuv evTevpLv ek to 
Trpoae^eii/ Toh yeypajujueuoi^, \va kul eavTov^ cr(jocrt]Te 
Kui TOP dvayivuxTKOVTa eV vfjiiv fjucrdov yap airw v/ud^ 
TO jueTai/ofjG'ai e^ 6A^; Kaphia^ (riOTt]piau eavToh kui 
^(jorjv didovTa^. touto yap TroitjcravTe^ aKOirov 7rd<JLV 



siipplicatioiieiii, id est, admonitionem S; clearly a gloss. See I. p. 141. S 
governs t'^s dXrjdeias by ivrev^Lv. 17 tov dvayivtliaKovTa ev vfuv~\ me qjii lego 

vobis verba (or oracula) dei S. 19 tr/coTr^c] S ; ko-kov C. This reading of S 

was anticipated by Bensly, Gebhardt, and Hilgenfeld. 



belief obscure our sense of right and 
wrong ; and our understandings are 
darkened by our lusts. Let us prac- 
tise righteousness. Blessed are they 
who obey these precepts. They may 
suffer in this world, but they will 
reap the fruit of immortality. Let 
not the godly man be sorrowful, 
if he suffer now. An eternal life in 
heaven awaits him, where he shall 
live in bliss with the fathers, and 
where sorrow shall have no place.' 

14. ahiK(^oi KOI dde\(f)ai] Comp. 
20. So Barnab. i v'loi /cat 6vya- 
Tepa, Rel. Jiir. Eccl. p. 74 (Lagarde). 

[lira TOV Qeov ac.t.X.] i.e. 'After 
you have heard the voice of God 
in the Scriptures', as it is rightly 
explained by Bryennios. The ser- 
mon or exhortation followed imme- 
diately after the reading of the 
Scriptures in the weekly gatherings 
of the early Church : Justin ApoL 
i. 67 (TweXevcTis yiverai, Kai ra arrofivrj- 
fiovevfjLaTa Tav anocTToXaiv rj ra avy- 
ypdiifj-ara rdv n f)o(j)r]TU)v uvayivcocrKfTut, 
(lexpis iy^cDpa' eiru, Travcrd/xeVou roil 
nvayivaxTKOVTOi, 6 TvpoecTTcas 8ia \oyov 
rfjii vnvdenriav Km TTpoKKiqaiv ri)? T(7iv 

CLEM. n. 



KoKav TovTcov nifii^crecos TTOiflrai ; Orig. 
C. Ccls. ili. 50 '^ol St avayvcoapuTcov 
Kol 810 Ta>v els avTa dirjyi^aecou rrporpe- 
TTovres pev eVt tjji/ els tov Qeov rav 
oXcov evaej^eiav Koi tus avvOpovovs tov- 
TTj dpeTas, cnroTpeTTovTes 8e k.t.X. ; Apost. 
Const, ii. 54 j^tfra Tr]v dvayvcoaiv koI 
Trjv ^akpahiav Kai ttjv eVi rms VP"- 

(fia'is 8i8aaKaXiav. See also the notes 
on ^ ly pfj fiovov apTi K.T.X. and the 
introduction, p. 195. For the ex- 
pression o Qeos TTJs dXrjdelas see 
3 '''o'' iro-Tepa rrfs dXrjdeias (comp. 
20). Its use here as a synonyme 
for the Scripture is explained by the 
preacher's language above 13, tu 
Xoyia TOV Qeov, Xeyei o Qeos. 

15. evTev^ivl ' appcaV ''entreaty''; 
as e.g. Justin Apol. i. i (p. 53), 
Joseph. Ant. xvi. 2. 5, Philo Vit. 
Moys. iii. 32 (l. p. 172), and so most 
frequently in classical authors. For 
its commoner sense in Christian 
writers, 'supplication to God', see 
the note on Clem. Rom. 63. 

16. lvaKa^K.TX^, Comp. Ezek.iii.2i. 
18. peTuvofjaat. k.t.X.^ See the notc 



17 



258 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xix 



Toh veoL^ drjoroiixev Toh I3ov\oiul6vol9 Trepi Tr]u 6vG-t(3eiau 
Kai TY]v )(^pr](TTOTr]Ta tov Oeou (piKoiroveiv. Kai fj-t] 
dr]d(ji)<s e;^w/xei/ Kai dyavaKTcojULev ol d(TO(pOL, brap rt? 
)/jia vovSeTt] Kai 67ri(rTpe(pr] aVo rf] ctdiKia^ el's Tt]U 
hiKaio(Tvvriv. eviore yap womjpa TrpacrcrovTes ov yivco- 5 
(TKOfjiev hid Ttjv diyp-v^iav Kai dTricTTiav Tt]V evov<Tav ev 

TOT^ (TTf]66a'LU t]IJ.(jOU, Kai eCKOTl'cMeGA THN AlANOIAN VTTO 

TMV eTTidvfjiiwv Tcov juaTaicov. TTpa^co/uLev ovv Tr]v hi- 
KaiocnJvr]i/ 'iva ek reXo^ (raidwfxev. /uaKapioi 01 tovtoi^ 
viraKOUovTe'i Toh 7rpo(TTayiuaoriu' Kav oXiyov -x^povov 10 

2 0tXo7roj'e?;'] manifestent amorem laboris S : see Michaelis in Castell. Lex. Syr. 
p. 656. The scribe of C has first written (piXoaocpelv, but has afterwards corrected 
it so as to be read (biXoirovelv. See p. 206. 3 ol dVo^ot] C ; tanquatn illi in- 

sipieiites S. 5 hioTi\ S; ivia. C. 11 t(^ /cicr/xy] S; add. tovti^ C. I have 

the less hesitation in striking out to{it(^ here because the general tendency of S is 
to insert the pronoun, not to omit it, in this connexion : e.g. 5, 19, 38, 60, ii. 18. 
addvarov'] S ; 5e ddvaTov C. The correction was obvious, even before the reading 
of S was known ; and the only question was whether to read tov 5' addvarov or 



2. ^iKonove'iv'l Ecclus. Prol. ruiv 
Kara rrjv epfirjveiav Tr<pi\onovr]nevcov. 
The word occurs in classical writers 
of the best age. 

3. ^T] dyavaKTCd^fv] Clem. Rom. 
56 naibe'iav e<p fj orSfif 6(f)e!Xi 
dyavaKTe7v. 

ol aao(f)oi] ''fools that ive are\ for 
this is the force of the article ; comp. 
I ot aKovovTe^ (with the note). For 
aaro(t)o^ comp. Ephes. V. 15. It seems 
not to occur again in the Bible 
(except Prov. ix. 8 in A, where there 
is nothing corresponding in the He- 
brew) ; and is not very common 
elsewhere. 

6. Sl^/rvxtaJ'] As above 11 /n?) 
StAJ/vxw/ief. See the notes on Clem. 
Rom. 11,23. To the references there 
given add Barnab. ig ov fifj Sf^vxrjo-Tjs 
TTOTfpov earai t] oil. 

7. aK0Ti<Tfi(6a fc.r.X.] From Ephes. 
iv. 17, 18, ev fxa.TaioT'qri tov poo's av- 
rmv, eViforw/LieVot (V. 1. eaKOTUTfievoi) 



rjj diavoia ; comp. Clem. Rom. 36 ?) 
aavveros Koi eo'KOTCoixevr] 8iavoia tjixuiv. 
10. oXiyof ;^poi'oi/ k.t.X.] Comp. 

1 Pet. i. 6 okiyov apTi, el 8eov, Xvni]- 
devres, v. lo oXiyov Tradovras. For 
KaKoiradelv see 2 Tim. ii. 9, iv. 5, 
James v. 13 ; comp. avyKUKOTraddv, 

2 Tim. i. 8, ii. 3. 

1 2. Kapnov Tpvyrj(rov(TLV^ Hos. x. 1 2 
aneipare eavTols els diKaioarvvrjv, rpv- 
yqaare els Kapnov ^w^s. 

13- jiaKapLOi avTov /c.r.X.] See Hip- 
pol. ite Univ. p. 69 (Lagarde) r^ rSiv 
Trarepav 8iK.aL0)v re opcofMevrj oyj/is Tvciv- 
Tore fMeibia avap.ev ovrwv rrjv fxera 
TOVTO TO x^^pi-ov avanavcnv Kai alcoviav 
dva^ia)ai,v...aWa koi ovtol \^ol a^LKoi] 
TOV Tcov TTUTe pmv x^pov Kai tovs 
diKaiovs opSai, /cat en' avrS tovto) 
KoXa^o fievo I.. .Kai to acop,a...8vvaTos 
6 Qeos avafiiaxras dOavarov noieiv, 
and lower down dnocjidey^ovTai 
(fxovrjv ovTcos XeyovTe i, AiKala trov ) 
Kpia-is, and again to nvp aa-fSea-Tov 



xx] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 259 

KaK07ra6f]a'(t)a'iv ev tw Ko<Tfxw, tov dQavarov Tt]^ ava- 
(TTacrew^ Kapirov Tpvyrjcrovo'iu. jur] ovv XuTreicrdu) 6 eu- 
(refi/j^, eav eTri rdi^ vvv ^(povoi^ TaXanrcoprj' juaKcipio^ 
avTov dvafxevei ')(pouo9 ' eKelvo^ ctvoi juETa twu TraTcpcou 

15 cti/a^ico(ra<i eu(ppav6t]creTaL 6is toi^ d\v7rY]T0v alwva. 

XX. ' AWa jULtj^e eKelvo Tf]v ^idvoiav vjjlwv Tapacr- 
(reVfoj, OTi fiXeTTO/uev tou^ dhiKOv^ irXovTOvvra^, Kai 
(TTevo^wpovjuevou^ tov^ tov Oeou dovXovs. Tria-Tevcojuev 
ovv, ddeXcpoi Kai ddeX(pai ' Oeou ^covto^ Trelpav ddXov/mei'y 

20 Kai yvjULva^oiueda tw vvv fSico \va tw jueXXovTi crTecpavo)- 



rbv dOdvarov. For another instance of the same error comp. 36 davdrov yvdiaeui 
for dOavdrov yvuicreus in S itself. 12 Tpvyricrov(ni''l delectahutttnr...in S, i.e. 

Tpv<prj(rovcTLv; for the same word (DD3) and its derivatives are used to translate 
Tpvcp-q, 10, and rpvfpri, ivrpvcpau 2 Pet. ii. 13. 14 e/celvos] S attaches this 

to xpo^os and pmictuates after TraT^pwv. 16 pLTjdi eKe2vo...Tapa<xaTa}] CS (hut 

S has -qfjLQv) /XT] Tapa<x<jT03 ri]v Kapdiav vp-Qiv Rup 783. 18 in(TTevunev~\ S; 

wiaTevoixev C. 19 Geou] Srt deoxj S. 



8iafi(Vfi...(TKa>\ri^ 8e Tis '4)xnvpos k.t^. 
(comp. 17). These resemblances 
suggest that our Clementine homily 
was known to this writer. 

15. dva^Lco(Tai\ 2 Macc. vii. 9 cltto- 
davi'ivras rjpias vTvep tcov avrov vofioov 
els alciviov ava^iaxriv C<^^s J^/xas ava- 
(TTTjcrei. 

cikv7:r]Tov\ ^inaccessible to sorrow', 
stronger than akvivov ; comp. Clem. 

Horn. Xi. 17 (TVV rjpuV TOV ClKvTTOV 

alava Kkrjpovopirjcrai. 

XX. ' Be not dismayed, if you see 
wrong-doers prospering, while the 
servants of God are straitened. Be- 
lieve it, this present life is the arena 
of our conflict ; the crown will be 
awarded in the future. Our reward 
is not instantaneous. If it were so, 
then the pursuit of it would be a 
matter of traffic and not of piety.' 

' To the one invisible God of truth, 
who sent us a Saviour and through 
Him manifested truth and life to us, 



be the glory for ever.' 

16. 'AXXfi ixrj8e (Kf'ivo k.t.X.] This 
passage is quoted loosely and with 
some omissions in the Sacr. Parall. 
(MS Rupef), which bear the name 
of Joannes Damascenus, Op. ll. p. 7S3 
(Le Quien) ; see above, I. p. 193 sq. 
It will be seen that in the quotation 
the original words are altered, so as 
to conform to well-known scriptural 
passages ; e. g. /x?) Tapaaa-erco rfjv 
Kap8iav vfiap is substituted for prj^e 
iKeivo Trjv didvoiav vpatv rapacrcriTQ}, 
after John xiv. i, 27 ; and evae^eiav 
is substituted for deoa-f^eiav, after 
I Tim. vi. 5. 

19. Tretpai^] For the accusative after 
ddXe'iv comp. e.g. Plato Le^. viii, 
p. 830 A, Plut. FzV. Dcmetr. 5 ; and 
for such accusatives generally see 
Kiihner ll. p. 264. For an elaborate 
application of the same metaphor 
see 7. 



'7- 



26o 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



[xx 



Sw/ULev. ov^ek tcov ^LKalaji/ Ta-^vv Kapirov eXa^ev, dW 
EKdex^Tai avTOv. el yap tov fJLiorQov toov ^iKaicov 6 
Qeo^ (TVVTOfioo^ aTrehi^ov^ evdeco^ iiuTropiav y](TKOVfjiev Kai 
01) deocre^eiav e^OKOVfiev yap eivai diKaioi, ov to 
ei/o-e/Ses dWd to Kep^aXeou diwKOvre^' Kai dia tovto 5 
deia KpiG-i^ ef^Xayfyev Trvevpta fjcr op ^iKaioVj Kai e'/Sa- 
pvvev decTjuoT^. 

Tm fjiOVM Qeia dopdru), irarpi ri]^ dXrjOeia^, tw 
e^aTrocrTeiXauTt rffjuv tov crcoTfjpa Kai dp-^^nyov Tm 
dcbdapo'ia^, hi ov Kai icpavepcocrev rjfMV Tr]V dXriQeiav lo 

I Tttxi'i'] C Rup ; celeriter [raxu) S, using the same adverb which renders (tvvto- 
/Aws just below. 3 (rvvTofnas dweSiSov, ei)^^ws] CS ; evdeus diredidov Rup. 

4 ov deoa^^etav] CS ; ovk evai^eiav Rup. ov rd] CS ; ov 5ia to Rup. 5 eu- 

o-e/3es] C Rup ; deoae^h S. 7 beaixots] S ; 5e(J-,u6s C. 8 t'^s aXij^ei'as] 

add. domini nostri iesu christi (in apposition) S. 9 y}ij2v rbv awTTJpa Kai apxv 



4. 6fO(re^Lav] See I Tim. ii. 10. 
It occurs occasionally in the LXX. 

5. 8ia ToiiTo K.r.X.] i. e. ' on ac- 
count of these sordid motives Divine 
judgment overtakes and cripples the 
spirit of a man, seeing that it is not up- 
right, and loads it with chains'. The 
word jiXanrdv is used especially of Di- 
vine vengeance surprising its victim, 
checking and maiming him in his 
mid career; e.g. Hom. Od. i. 195 
aWa vv TOV ye 6eo\ ^XdirTovcri KeXevdov, 
ib. xiv. 178 Toxj 8e Tis ddavdrcov ^XdyJAe 
(j)pevas, Xen. Symp. viii. 43 r)v fifj 
Qebs ^Xdnrr], Plut. Vt't Cacs. 45 vivo 
Geoii [LokiGTa jiXaTrrofieva) rfjv yvcjfMrjp 
eoLKws k.tX, Trag. in Lycurg. c. 
Leocr. p. 159 orav yap dpyr] hatpovav 
^Xdnrrj TLvd, tovt avro TTparov, e^afl)- 
lupelTai (ppevav tov vovv tov ecrffXov 
K.T.X., and so frequently. Sordid 
motives bring their own punishment 
in a judicial blindness (/SXaTrrfi rrvev- 
pa). The aorist here has its common 
gnomic sense, and is the most ap- 
propriate tense : see Kiihner Ti. p. 
136 sq. Previous editors seem to 



have mistaken the sense. Bryennios 
says pr] ov diKaiov, TOVTeaTiv, a'StKcoy, 
but it is not clear what he means. 
Hilgenfeld reads Secrpovs, and ex- 
plains 'Christiani non omni ex parte 
justi persecutionem gentiliuni patie- 
bantur'. Harnack, misled by the 
aorist, says 'auctor diabohtin respi- 
cere videtur,quem tamquam avaritiae 
principem et auctorem hie infert (?)... 
censuit igitur, diabolum. jam hoc tem- 
pore catenis onustum esse'. He might 
have cjuoted Wolsey's warning to 
Cromwell in Henry VIII, ' By that 
sin fell the angels'. 

8. To) povcxi 0ew dopdT(ii\ Comp. 
I Tim. i. 17 dopaTca p6vu> Qea. 

Trarpi r^s dXrjdeias] As in 3. So 
also o Qeos Trjs dXrjdeLas 1 9. The 
Syriac translator takes ' the Truth ' 
here to denote Christ Himself (John 
xiv. 6); comp. Orig. c. Cels. viii. 63 
vno TOV 0fo{) KCLi Tjjs povoyevovs avTca 
dXrjdflas. So Papias (Euseb. H. E. 
iii. 39) speaks of Christ's personal 
disciples as receiving commandments 
OTT oOr^s Tri<i nXrjdeias. 



xx] AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 26 1 



> / 



T(t)U ULtOVCOV. afJLt]V. 

ybv Trjs d(p9ap(Tias] salvatorem et priiicipciii vitae et salntis nostrae S. 1 1 '^mr\v\ 

C ; ddectationein (XDD13) S ; which word elsewhere is a rendering of Tpvipy] (see 
above, 19) or of aTroXaucis (see i 20). aury y\ 56fa] atque etiam jesu christo 

domino nostra cum spiritti sancto gloria et honor et impcrium (i.e. 77 56|a /cat 17 rt/^ij 
KoX TO Kparos) S. 

9. Tov a-onTTipa K.r.X.] Acts V. 3 1 pias. Comp. Epist. Vienn. 17 (in 

apyr\yov Kai (xarfjpa compared with Euseb. H. E. V. i) ap^yov t^s fw^s 

iii. 15 Tov dpxrjyov rfjs fcoi^s : see also tov Qeov. 
Heb. ii. 10 tov apxrjyov TTJs craTrj- 



The lacuna in the Alexandrian Manuscript. 



Page 




Page 


5- 


1 [TTpoc] KopmSiOYC 

2 'H iKKXrj cna . . .7] irapoi- 


34- 




Kovaa ['Poj/XTyv 


35- 


6. 


1 Trj 7ra potKOv cry 

2 T^yt aa/jiev oi<;...tov Kvpiov 




7- 


3 7/jU,]c3v...[xaptS iJ]/xti/...7rai'- 

To[/cpaTo]pos 
5 [Aia Tas] al(fiVLSiov<;...\ye- 






vo/^JeVas 


36. 


8. 


1 Trept TTTCJcrets... vo/x it,op.i.v 

2 imroLrj aO at 

3 7ra]p' iJ^iv... T 17s re 




12. 


2 V7roTao-[o-]oj'Tes 




13- 


3 Xap,/3a[v]oi'Te5 


37. 


1 6. 


I ap[/<]oiJ/xevot 




25- 


16 Atct ^i7Xov /cat (f)96vo v ol 






p.iyL\aTOL 


40, 




17 (TTvA. ot eStw i^0'>^o'ai'...'a)S 


41, 




OavdTo[y rjOX-qaav 


48 




18 Trpo o^^a/\p,c5[v t^/awv] ... 






aTTOCTToAoD S 




26. 


1 llerpovj os...oup( [eva oujoe 

2 iJ7r[7;i'yKev] ttoVous- . .p-aprv- 

pTjcra'; 




27. 


3 o</)etX[op,evov] . . . 8ta ^rjXo[^u 


49 


28. 


I /cat eptr TlauXos... vrre- 
Set]^ev 




29. 


2 [(f)vya\8ev0et<i . . . y[evo]ju.evos 




30- 


1 i V Trj Sutrct 





34. 2 /caT?;i/T7j[o'av] 



4 to{}t[o] 

5 OCTTCCOV p.[ou] 

9 i57ro/AVi;<rKov[Ts] 

10 trKa/x/x,a[Ti] 

1 1 e7rt/ct[Tat] . . . /cevas [xat] 

1 2 eX^a)[|aev] 

1 3 '^{v'^ 7rapa8d]cret)s . . . [xat 

tSa)]p,v 

1 [/cat Tt 7rpo]cr8eKTOV . . . toC 

7rot[?^'o-avT]os 

2 [aTei^tor]w/xev...[Kat yv]w/xev 

3 Tw e(5 [Kat 7raTp]t avrov 

4 [(rcoT]T7ptav...Ta) /co[crp.]a) 

5 [Ste/\.^]a>/xev...[Kat] Karap-d- 

6iap.tv 

6 yevea [Ka]t...eSu)[K]V 
9 [8]tAe;(^a)p.ev 

10 [at] dp.apTLaL. . .vfJitZv [wsJ 

5 [Trpos (re t(r^A.]^ov 

6 \yrj<: >/)u,(3v] . . . o yap )8a[(n- 

XeiJS ovJtws 

7 to"^/\^ov [p.V ot avJSpes 

8 [ct/XXa eii^e]aJS...7ropvov[Tat 

ttJ oS(3] 

9 v[aXXa|] 

. 10 y[tvoi;]cr/cov(ra...oTt [Kuptos 
o 0eos] 
1 1 I'/itv [rrjv tto^Xlv ravTqv. 
Omitted in the colla- 
tion. For TToXtv C has 
yrjv 



264 

Page 
49. 



THE EPISTLES OF S 



12 o [Tpo]ixos .Tol<; Ka[TOl]- 

KOIKTLV 

1 3 -y6v['>;Tai] 

51. 9 aiTo[S] 

1 1 8LKaL0(rvv\r]v\ 

52. I 8t8a(r/<oj[v]...[o{;]Tcos 

2 e\776[^]Te...w[s] TTOtetTC 

3 TroLrjO-rjcreTai v[x\2v] ..8ody]- 

(TTai [rJ/xtv] 

4 Kpt^rycr[cr^ cus xjPV^'^^''^' 

eade.. ;(pr;[crTev^'7]creTai 

5 /x,[TperTe] 

6 [rawT^ T]]7...7rapayyX[/xa- 

crtv] 

7 eau[TOt)S ei]s 

8 [6Vra]s...au[To{) rJaTreivo- 

cf)pOVOVVTi<; 

9 [<^770-t]v yap . . [e7rt]^Xei//o) 

10 [>70-]v;(tov 

1 1 [St]/<atov 

15 [xjai TTCtXtV 

1 Trj yXwcrcriy av[T]a)v 

2 [a]wT(3v 
13 KaT>yy[opct A.eya)v]...a7r6 pu- 

7r[oi; 0^8' a;'] 

1 avro[{5] . . . v oXw [tw 

2 oiKO)] avrov...[i57r->yp](rtas 

3 A[t'yu7rTov]...[atKi]cr/AaTwv 

4 KciKepi/os] 

5 ep,[eya] Xopr]p.6vr]aev ... i [tti 

riys] (idrov 

6 8t8o[/jte]vou . . .7r/x,7r[ets] 
65. 7 ySp[a]8i;yXwCTCTOs 

67. 15 e^aAen^[oi/] ...ei/ /Ao[i] 

17 a7ro[pt]i/'J^s...['<atT0 7rVu]p,a 

18 avTave[A7js air l^jxov . . .Trjv 

ayaX[Atacrti/ 

1 9 r\ov (TUiTTjpiOV . . . [r;ye/Ao]- 

vikZ 

68. I StSa[^wavd]/A0us...d[CTe/3et]s 



53- 

55- 
56. 

63- 
64. 



F S, 


. CLEMENT. 


Page 

68. 


2 


pvaai fjLe 




3 


rrjs (TUiT r]pLa<;... ayaA. A.ia- 
crcrat... 8t/< aioavvrjv 




4 


av]ot^ets 




5 


avay y eXei...?; ^ eXrjaa^ 


70. 


4 


/A7ro8i[^]ovTa. . .ao-Te[p]c()j/ 




5 


Starayr^V [ajuroii 




6 


7r]upK/Sacrews. . . [to]vs 7rt- 
TTayp,eVous 


79- 


17 


7rp dcrwTTOv 8e 




18 


TOV e^oAe]^peI}o-at.../xv;- 
/x. ocrvi/ov 




19 


d 8[tKatos]...avT[o{) Kai ck 
Tracrolv 




20 


a UTOi) epu craTO 




22 


/u,acr[Tiys] . . . X[7rt'^ov]Tas 




23 


KDKXwcre I 




24 


K[ai ciepJyeTiKos 




25 


TTt TOV? (^oj^OVjxivOVi 




26 


T^TTtWS T6 Kat...aUT OV 




27 


Trpocrep)(^ofMevoL['S 


82. 


8 


Ttjv a7rap)(rj v 




9 


e/c i/eK[pc3i/ 




10 


Kara Kai pov ...}yp,ep[a Kai 


83. 


11 


8->;Xo{)o-[tv] . . . 




12 


7;[p,pa] lTrep\^f.rai Xa- 

/3co]p,ev 




13 


TToJs Kttt TlVa TpOTTOV 




14 


i^-^XOev 6 a Tretpcov... e/ca- 
aro V 




15 


TTc (Toi/ra 




16 


8t aXverai ...tj fxeya Xetd- 
T]r?s 




17 


avicr TrjcTLV 




18 


7rXet[ova 




19 


t8oj /xev... yij/ 6p.(.vov 




20 


toJttois 


89. 


20 


Xjeyet 




21 


K at iKOLfjiijOrjv 




22 


i$T] y epOrjv... Ka l irdXiv 



THE ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT. 



265 



Page 




i'age 






90. 


I T>7 V crapKa fxov 


113- 


18 


?y fxQv ...eretKTiK ws 


97- 


24 7re7roi^?70-[6ws ytvwJo-Kcov 


114. 


I 


e7nTeXo[i](jiv . . . 7rai'T[s 


98. 


I TjBe (OS TTpoarjye TO...TaireL- 


IIS- 


12 


oAo[v 




vocjip oavvrjs 




14 


oA[oi/ 




2 aij[ToD 8t' aSeA]<^ov 


116. 


I 


V7roTacro-eo-^[(u 




3 Trpos AafSav ... iS66 rj avTw 




2 


Ka^a)[s 




4 Tov ^lapayX 




8 


/xapTi;petT[a) 




5 eav Tt<;...el\tKpLV <2s 




9 


|U, ap TvpfxaOaL 




6 jU,e yaAeia . . . 8e8o/xe I'coi' 




10 


' 1 V / r w 
7/TCOj Kat...ytl/<jU(7[K0Jl/ OTt 




7 ipt[s 


117. 


II 


er epo^... avTO) Tr]v...d.va- 




8 XecTovpy ovv res 






Xoyi crw/x t^a 


100. 


5 7rt(TT[e]ws 




12 


TTOt'as [uXt^s 




9 a-ya^o7roti[as 




13 


Ti[ves et]o-?yA^a/xei' . . . [ek 


lOI. 


10 8cr7roT['>;s 






TTO 6 ov 




1 1 /xera KTveia[s 




14 


irXa eras 




12 ctya^ 01' 




15 


et(j>;]yayei/ . . . [Trpojerot/xa- 




138 ecTTTO Tr;s . . . ep yois 






cras 




14 auT[ou] sec. 




16 


avTjov . . .[rav^TU 




15 larrrjpKTf. v 




17 


cfyeiXofJiev 




1 6 o-d[v6o-i 8teKo]o-/>(,7;crev . . . 




18 


av T<3 




hu)((i)\pL(TtV 


118. 


I 


a cf>pov'; 




1 7 [eTTt t]oV 


121. 


8 


i KeX vaev 


102. 


I ^011 Xr]ixa Tos 


131- 


16 


Kol eVtJSei^aro 




2 av T]7^ c5a... Star a^ci 




17 


Ttts o-<^pa]yt8as...T}}[i/(rKy- 




3 OdXaa (Tav k al...7rpohr]p.L- 






v?;v 




ovpyr] eras 




18 


7rpo6[rAei' ras] pd/SSov; 




4 [8v]va/x,et 




19 


p[a/38os] . . .(3e(SXa\(TTrjKvla 




5 Ktt I . . . avdptiiir ov 




20 


7rp[o7jSet 


105. 


1 1 \Tr\\rj6o<i 




21 


/xe'AAeti/ [eo-o-^at 


113- 


10 K ai TTjv Kara. (r)^earLV...T rj<; 




22 


' r 1 ' " r 
aK[aTacrTaJo-ta... ouTw s 




yv^] 




23 


e7rotj77o-V...T[o ovo]/xa 




11 ai;[TOi'- /<a^ou]...ews av [^w 




24 


fjLovov [Qeov 




I 2 TOUS l^OpOV^ (TOV VTTOTTO- 


136. 


3 


TToXiTevofxev ous 




8tO V TWV TTO 8cuV 




5 


^iAoVeiK[ot 




136 X^P^'- o.vTiraucr o/x,evot] 




6 


Twi' avrjKovToyu ...iv kckv- 




...^eA7^/xa[Tt 






(fta^re 




14 avToC 




7 


Tas Tou TTi/ev/xaros 




15 ai/8[ps d8eX]</)0t 


137- 


8 


OTt ou]8ev...7rapa7re[7rot77 - 




16 eKTveiu s ev Tois a/xw/xots 






fjievov 




1 7 [auTOti] . . . o-T/ja[Tei;o]|U,Vous 




9 


ov^ eJupT/o-CTe 



266 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



Page 




Page 




137- 


10 dTrof3e[(3Xr][Ji.'\iuovs ... [eSt - 


154. 


6 




u>xdr]crav 




7 




1 1 VTro aVo[/xa)]i/ 








12 dv^oatwv . . . VTTO Tra pa v6- 




8 




fXWV 




9 




13 [uJtTO TWV...[d]vt\77(j!)OTWI/ 






138. 


I euKXews... Ti yap 




10 




2 [e]/3A776lr? 




II 




3 [^] 'Avavtas 






139- 


1 1 [7ra]vapeTU) 


155- 


12 




12 1^ 8o^[a ei]s...T(J3i' at[wi/wi/ 




13 




13 a fXTjv... I 8e T;7ro[jii e- 








vovres 




14 


140. 


4 K oXXr]0(JilXV 






150. 


3 cvp[^-^i'ai 




15 




4 0" 8ew/xe Oa...o.Tr 6 




16 




5 ToO A.e]oi;s...[i5p^oj^v 




17 




6 dvOpoi TTtvy^s ...TTaora t otto 




18 




7 'A8a/x,] a)S...7rap'7[X^oi/ 




20 


151- 


8 TeXia)^ei'[Tes ...e'x'^ iJO"ii/ 




21 




9 (^avp[a)^7^o-ov]Tai ... jSacri- 


156. 


3 




X[6t'as 




4 




10 TOL [e]o{i...to-X[^Te 




5 




1 1 oo-ov oo-[ov 








12 ^i;[p,os]...'>7/u.p[as 




6 




13 /C TCOl' OrjKljiv 








1 4 [Trpoo-Jray/xaTa . . . e[i/ d]ju.o- 




7 




vota 








15 a<^^-i7[vat 




8 


152. 


I d\_(f)f\Or](rav 








2 iireKa[\v^(fi9r]aav . . . d\vr]p 




9 




3 a/xapTta[v].,.auT[o{) 








4 [7e]''ero 




10 




6 )7/x[c3v]...a[tw]vwi/ 


157- 


II 


153- 


7 "Otra 01) P" 7rap neaa fjiev 




12 




8 [to]{; di/Ti/c[t)U,]i'Oi;...[a<^- 




13 




6r}vaL -qfuv 




14 




9 otVt[v]S dpxqyl^ol 








10 yv ?^ Q-qaav 




15 


154- 


3 Tw V TrapaTTTW/xaTwu 







[xpt ]p,a. . . Kar/3[>7]o-av 
^a)[v]TS . . . Od[vaTo<; ttol- 

fxavet 
a]i;TOus...crTpa[Ttd aurjou 
rjyovfxe^voL AiyJvTTTow . , . 

[dvajSaJrat 
[ama]v 
[fpv^pjdv. . .[to CTKX^rjpvvOy- 

vai 
do"u[vTov]s 
[tci crrjixjeLa [kui].. Aiyv- 

[tttod] 
[toC 6]pd7rovTos...[M]cji)- 

o"aj[s] 

[o] S0-7r0T1JS 

[oi'JSev. . . [|]o/aoAoyto-^at 

[o ]kA.KTOS 

^o^oXoy7yo-o[p.]ai 

7r[d]Xtv 

at[i/e](jea)s 

e7rio-Tacr[^ rd]; 

[/cat eyKjcK^j^aTC 

[oi! ets d]va'^v7^crti'...Tau- 

ra [ypd^oyuev] 
dva/3at [ vo VTOS e t] s . . . tto t?^'- 

orav[Tos 
Tecrcrep] ttKO VTa .... Tecr[o-cpd- 

KOVT\a 

[Kttt TaTreivJwcret . . . auTov [o 

eo's] 
[Mcoi;]o-7y Mwi;o"i7. . .[to Tai^os] 

evTeu^ev 
[d Xads cr]ou...[Aiyi)7rTo]u 
eK [ti^s dSou] . . . [e7rotij(ra]v 
[xat eiTreJv. . .XAdX7^[Ka7rpos] 
[ewpttKa] tov Xaov 
[eo"Ttv or] KX7}poTpd)(r]Xos . . . 

[p, e^oXje^peCcrai 
i^a^XeLij/ix) tJo 6vo[X.a...vTro- 



THE ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT. 



267 



Page 

157. 16 [ere ets ej^i'os. ..[Kai ttoXJu 
17 [koi ciTrev M]wi;cn7S...Kupie 

165. 15 [to o-Trep/Aa tod] Tci Se TCKva 

...[to irafj-f^o^Tavov 

16 iX^va^T] 8e ev TaJ^w.. .wpt- 

/xo[s KttTa 

17 /<ai]jOOi'...t3(T[7r6p ^?/jU.w]i'ta 

18 (rv\vK0[J.i^(76eiaa ... ayair-q- 

[toi ttoo-os] 

1 9 T[ors TraiSeDjo/xeVots ... Se- 

o-7ro'[Toi; Tra-njp 

20 yap] aya^os...7rat8c[i;et] ts 

t[o eAe]?7^i7i/ai 

2 1 7r[ai]Setas 

2 2 [ti^s] TTctcrews 

166. I U7roTa[yr;]T ... 7rat[8ei;]- 

2 Ka/xi^ai'[Ts] 

4 av^a8[eta]i/ 

5 [ev] T<3 TTot/xvi'a) 
8 Trpor]aofJ.a\^L 

167. 9 v/xr]v...[8e i;/x.a]s 

10 e7r[et8r; eKaA.ow]...u7r7^/<oij- 

cra[Te Kat e^Tet]voi/ 

1 1 ou [7rpo(7et)(T] . . . e7ro[tetTe 

Tas e/xas] 

1 2 e)U,[ots Ay;)^ots] . . . Toiya- 

[poSi/ Kayo)] 

13 a7rwXet[a cTrtyeXacroJ/xai . . . 

14 av] ep;(r;Ta6. ..oXe^po[s kol 

cos av a]^i'K7^Tat 

15 ^[o'pv^os t] S]..,K[a7atyt8t 

Tra]prj 



Page 

167. 16 i;/A[tv ^Ai;/fts]...y[ap, oTai/ 

77 1] KaXicrqade 

168. I [ovK io-a]Koucro^ai...^T;T[j/- 

o-ouo-tv] 

2 up7^[o-oi;o-ti']...[TOv 

3 (^o']/3oi/ 7rpOt'Aa[l/TO 

ovSe\ 

4 7rpoo-ep([tv/3ouXars].../Aoi;[s 

fiXfiyi^ovs] 

5 Tv\_'^ EavTwv] . . . [xat tt^s 

6 lavTtiJv]...7rX->^o"^>jo-ov[Tat... 
At this point the ms breaks off 

until 

185. 15 ...Xo]t7rov...0eos [kol] 
1 6 [7ra]a-r;s 

186. I ^Tojv Kuptov 

2 [et]s Xaov...[t/']i;;(T7 

3 /AeyaXo[7r]pe7res. . . [7r]t'o-Tti' 
218. 4 o^tXo[p,eF]...T[ovTots] 

5 [aVTOv] KOL 

6 To[vs] aV^pOJTTOUS 

7 8[ia] . . . 7rpao-o-ov[Tco I/] 

8 e/Ao[{!]...yU,o[{)] 

9 /^oL'^l 

2 21. 14 SouXei;e[ri']...8[oi;X]euetv 

15 a(TV[j.(})o\^p^ov 

225. I o"Te^a[v] w^i^vai 

235- II ['^^] eTrayyeXi'a 

12 TaXat7rcop[ot]...7rpo[<^iy]TtKos 

13 eto-[tv] 

14 t[i7] Kap8t'a...7ra[vTa] 

15 7ra[T]poJv 

239. 6 ^[w] 

8 ev T[ors] KaXots 

240. I tout[o... 
Here the ms ends. 



THE EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



Corrigenda in the collation of the Constantinopolitan ms [C]. 



Page 






48. 


8 


aXX' eO^eco? 


70. 


I 


ovpavoL (om. ot) 


72. 


2 


TrapareOaiJiiva 




3 


OUTWS 


74- 


3 


Kaipov Kat 


93- 


I 


TTOV OVV TtS 


96. 


I 


/Lttapas Kttt (om. re) 




2 


fjiWa's re Kal 


125. 


4 


evapeo-TeiTU) tw eu 




7 


i'8\e;!(')^(T/xo{; 


143- 


12 


aXXd 7; Trpoa-KXtcns 


156. 


3 


KaXws (om. Kai) 




5 


Trpos avafxvrjo-iv 



TRANSLATIONS, 



THE EPISTLE OF S. CLEMENT 

TO 

THE CORINTHIANS. 



THE Church of God which sojourneth in Rome to the 
Church of God which sojourneth in Corinth, to them 
which are called and sanctified by the will of God through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Grace to you and peace from Al- 
mighty God through Jesus Christ be multiplied. 

I. By reason of the sudden and repeated calamities and 
reverses which are befalling us, brethren, we consider that we 
have been somewhat tardy in giving heed to the matters of 
dispute that have arisen among you, dearly beloved, and to 
the detestable and unholy sedition, so alien and strange to 
the elect of God, which a few headstrong and self-willed 
persons have kindled to such a pitch of madness that your 
name, once revered and renowned and lovely in the sight of 
all men, hath been greatly reviled. For who that had sojourned 
among you did not approve your most virtuous and stedfast 
faith ? Who did no^ admire your sober and forbearing piety in 
Christ ? Who did not publish abroad your magnificent disposi- 
tion of hospitality ? Who did not congratulate you on your 
perfect and sound knowledge ? For ye did all things without 
respect of persons, and ye walked after the ordinances of God, 
submitting yourselves to your rulers and rendering to the older 
men among you the honour which is their due. On the 



2 72 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

young too ye enjoined modest and seemly thoughts: and 
the women ye charged to perform all their duties in a blame- 
less and seemly and pure conscience, cherishing their own 
husbands, as is meet ; and ye taught them to keep in the rule 
of obedience, and to manage the affairs of their household in 
seemliness, with all discretion. 

2, And ye were all lowly in mind and free from arrogance, 
yielding rather than claiming submission, more glad to give tJian 
to receive, and content with the provisions which God supplieth. 
And giving heed unto His words, ye laid them up diligently 
in your hearts, and His sufferings were before your eyes. 
Thus a profound and rich peace was given to all, and an 
insatiable desire of doing good. An abundant outpouring also 
of the Holy Spirit fell upon all ; and, being full of holy counsel, 
in excellent zeal and with a pious confidence ye stretched out 
your hands to Almighty God, supplicating Him to be propi- 
tious, if unwillingly ye had committed any sin. Ye had conflict 
day and night for all the brotherhood, that the number of His 
elect might be saved with fearfulness and intentness of mind. 
Ye were sincere and simple and free from malice one towards 
another. Every sedition and every schism was abominable to 
you. Ye mourned over the transgressions of your neighbours : 
ye judged their shortcomings to be your own. Ye repented 
not of any well-doing, but were ready unto every good work. 
Being adorned with a most virtuous and honourable life, ye 
performed all your duties in the fear of Him. The command- 
ments and the ordinances of the Lord were wintten on tJie 
tables of your hearts. 

3, All glory and enlargement was given unto you, and 
that was fulfilled which is written ; My beloved ate and drank 
and zvas enlarged and waxed fat and kicked. Hence come 
jealousy and envy, [and] strife and sedition, persecution and 
tumult, war and captivity. So men were stirred up, tJie mean 
against the honourable, the ill-reputed against the highly-reputed, 
the foolish against the wise, tJie young against the elder. For 
this cause righteousness and peace stand aloof, while each 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 273 

man hath forsaken the fear of God, and become purblind 
in the faith of Him, neither walketh in the ordinances of His 
commandments nor liveth according to that which becometh 
Christ, but each goeth after the lusts of his evil heart, seeing 
that they have conceived an unrighteous and ungodly jealousy, 
through which also deatJi entered into the world. 

4. For so it is written, And it came to pass after certain 
days that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice 
nnto God, and Abel he also brougJit of the firstlings of the sheep 
and of their fatness. A nd God looked upon A bel and upon his 
gifts, but unto Cain and unto his sacrifices He gave no /teed. 
And Cain sorrowed exceedingly, and his coimtenance fell. And 
God said nnto Cain, Wherefore art thou very sorroivfidf and 
zv/terefore did thy countenance fall ? If thou hast offered aright 
and hast not divided aright, didst thou not sin ? Hold thy peace. 
Unto thee shall he turn, and thou, shalt rule over him. And 
Cain said unto Abel his brother, Let us go over tmto the plain. 
And it came to pass, wJiile they ivere in the plain, that Cain 
rose 2ip against Abel his brother and slew him. Ye see, brethren, 
jealousy and envy wrought a brother's murder. By reason of 
jealousy our father Jacob ran away from the face of Esau his 
brother. Jealousy caused Joseph to be persecuted even unto 
death, and to come even unto bondage. Jealousy compelled 
Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt, while 
it was said to him by his own countryman, Who made thee a 

judge or a decider over us ? Wouldest thou slay me, even as 
yesterday thou slctvest the Egyptian ? By reason of jealousy 
Aaron and Miriam were lodged outside the camp. Jealousy 
brought Dathan and Abiram down alive to hades, because they 
made sedition against Moses the servant of God. B}- rea.son 
of jealousy David was envied not only by aliens, but was 
persecuted also by Saul [king of Israel]. 

5. But, to pass from the examples of ancient days, let us 
come to those champions who lived very near to our time. Let 
us set before us the noble examples which belong to our 
generation. By reason of jealousy and envy the greatest and 

CLEM. II. 18 



2 74 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

most righteous pillars of the Church were persecuted, and 
contended even unto death. Let us set before our eyes the 
good Apostles. There was Peter who by reason of unrighteous 
jealousy endured not one nor two but many labours, and thus 
having borne his testimony went to his appointed place of glory. 
By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed 
out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been 
seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been 
stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the 
noble renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught 
righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the 
farthest bounds of the West ; and when he had borne his 
testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world 
and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable 
pattern of patient endurance. 

6. Unto these men of holy lives was gathered a vast multi- 
tude of the elect, who through many indignities and tortures, 
being the victims of jealousy, set a brave example among 
ourselves. By reason of jealousy women being persecuted, after 
that they had suffered cruel and unholy insults -fas Danaids and 
Dircae-|-, safely reached the goal in the race of faith, and received 
a noble reward, feeble though they were in body. Jealousy 
hath estranged wives from their husbands, and changed the 
saying of our father Adam, TJiis iiozv is bone of my bones and 
flesh of my flesh. Jealousy and strife have overthrown great 
cities and uprooted great nations. 

7. These things, dearly beloved, we write, not only as 
admonishing you, but also as putting ourselves in remembrance. 
For we are in the same lists, and the same contest awaiteth us. 
Wherefore let us forsake idle and vain thoughts ; and let us 
conform to the glorious and venerable rule which hath been 
handed down to us ; and let us see what is good and what is 
pleasant and what is acceptable in the sight of Him that made 
us. Let us fix our eyes on the blood of Christ and under- 
stand how precious it is unto His Father, because being 
shed for our salvation it won for the whole world the grace 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 275 

of repentance. Let us review all the generations in turn, 
and learn how from generation to generation the Master hath 
given a place for repentance unto them that desire to turn 
to Him. Noah preached repentance, and they that obeyed 
were saved. Jonah preached destruction unto the men of 
Nineveh ; but they, repenting of their sins, obtained pardon of 
God by their supplications and received salvation, albeit they 
were aliens from God. 

8. The ministers of the grace of God through the Holy 
Spirit spake concerning repentance. Yea and the Master of the 
universe Himself spake concerning repentance with an oath ; 
Fo7% as I live, saitJi the Lord, I desire not the death of the sinner, 
so much as his repentance ; and He added also a merciful judg- 
ment: Repent ye, O house of Israel, of yonr iniquity; say unto 
the sons of My people. Though your sins reach from the earth 
even unto the heaven, and thoicgh they be redder than scarlet and 
blacker than sack-cloth, and ye turn unto Me with your zvhole heart 
and say Father, I ivill give ear tmto you as unto an holy people. 
And in another place He saith on this wise, Wash, be ye 
clean. Put away your iniquities from your souls out of My sight. 
Cease from yotcr iniquities ; learn to do good ; seek out judgment ; 
defend him that is zuronged : give judgment for the orphan, and 
execute righteousness for the ividoiv ; and come and let us reason 
together, saith He ; and though your sins be as crimson, I ivill 
make them white as snoiu ; and though they be as scarlet, I ivill 
make tJiem white as wool. A nd if ye be willing and zvill hearken 
unto Me, ye shall eat the good things of the earth ; but if ye be not 
willing, neither hearken 2into Me, a sword shall devour you ; for 
the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things. Seeing then that 
He desireth all His beloved to be partakers of repentance. He 
confirmed it by an act of His almighty will. 

9. Wherefore let us be obedient unto His excellent and 
glorious will ; and presenting ourselves as suppliants of His 
mercy and goodness, let us fall down before Him and betake 
ourselves unto His compassions, forsaking the vain toil and the 
strife and the jealousy which leadcth unto death. Let us fix 

182 



276 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

our eyes on them that ministered perfectly unto His excellent 
glory. Let us set before us Enoch, who being- found righteous 
in obedience was translated, and his death was not found. 
Noah, being found faithful, by his ministration preached regene- 
ration unto the world, and through him the Master saved the 
living creatures that entered into the ark in concord. 

10. Abraham, who was called the 'friend,' was found faithful 
in that he rendered obedience unto the words of God. He 
through obedience went forth from his land and from his 
kindred and from his father's house, that leaving a scanty land 
and a feeble kindred and a mean house he might inherit the 
promises of God. For He saith unto him ; Go forth from thy 
land and from thy kindred and from thy father s ho2ise unto the 
land which I shall show thee, and I will make thee into a great 
nation^ and I will bless thee and ivill magnify thy name, and tJiou 
shall be blessed. A nd I will bless them that bless thee, and I zvill 
curse them that curse thee ; and in thee shall all the tribes of the 
earth be blessed. And again, when he was parted from Lot, God 
said unto him ; Look up with thifie eyes, and behold from the 
place where thou now art, unto the north and the south and the 
sunrise and the sea ; for all the land which thou seest, I will give 
it unto thee and to thy seed for ever ; and I will make thy seed as 
the dust of the earth. If any man can count the dust of the earth, 
then shall thy seed also be counted. And again He saith ; 
God led Abraham forth a7td said unto him, Look up unto the 
heaven and count the stars, and see whether thou canst count them. 
So shall thy seed be. And Abraham believed God, and it zvas 
reckoned unto him for righteousness. For his faith and hospitality 
a son was given unto him in old age, and by obedience he 
offered him a sacrifice unto God on one of the mountains which 
He showed him. 

11. For his hospitality and godliness Lot was saved from 
Sodom, when all the country round about was judged by fire 
and brimstone; the Master having thus foreshown that He 
forsaketh not them which set their hope on Him, but appointeth 
unto punishment and torment them which swerve aside. For 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 2-]^] 

when his wife had gone forth with him, being otherwise-minded 
and not in accord, she was appointed for a sign hereunto, so 
that she became a pillar of salt unto this day, that it might 
be known unto all men that they which are double-minded 
and they which doubt concerning the power of God are set for 
a judgment and for a token unto all the generations. 

12. For her faith and hospitality Rahab the harlot was 
saved. For when the spies were sent forth unto Jericho by 
Joshua the son of Nun, the king of the land perceived that 
they were come to spy out his country, and sent forth men to 
seize them, that being seized they might be put to death. So 
the hospitable Rahab received them and hid them in the upper 
chamber under the flax-stalks. And when the messengers 
of the king came near and said, TJie spies of our land entered 
in nnto thee : bring them forth, for the king so ordereth : then 
she answered, TJie men truly, wJiom ye seek, entered in nnto 
me, but they departed fortlizvitJi and arc journeying on the way ; 
and she pointed out to them the opposite road. And she 
said unto the men, Of a surety I perceive that the Lord your 
God delivereth this city unto you; for the fear and the dread of 

you is fallen upon the inhabitants thereof. WJmi therefore it shall 
come to pass that ye take it, save me and the house of my father. 
And they said unto her, // shall be even so as thou hast spoken unto 
us. Whensoever therefore thou perceives t that we are coming, thou 
shall gather all thy folk beneath thy roof and they shall be saved ; 
for as inany as shall be found without the house shall perish. 
And moreover they gave her a sign, that she should hang out 
from her house a scarlet thread, thereby showing beforehand 
that through the blood of the Lord there shall be redemption 
unto all them that believe and hope on God. Ye see, dearly 
beloved, not only faith, but prophecy, is found in the woman. 

13. Let us therefore be lowly-minded, brethren, laying 
aside all arrogance and conceit and folly and anger, and let 
us do that which is written. For the Holy Ghost saith. Let 
not the ivise man boast iti his wisdom, nor the strong in his 
strength, neither the rich in his riches ; but he that boasteth let 



278 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

him boast in the Lord, that he may seek Him out, and do judg- 
ment and righteousness ; most of all remembering the words of 
the Lord Jesus which He spake, teaching forbearance and long- 
suffering : for thus He spake ; Have mercy, that ye may receive 
mercy; forgive that it may be forgiven to you. As ye do, so 
shall it be done to you. As ye give, so shall it be given unto you. 
As ye judge, so shall ye be judged. As ye show kindness, so shall 
kindness be showed unto you. With ivhat measure ye mete, it 
shall be measured withal to you. With this commandment and 
these precepts let us confirm ourselves, that we may walk in 
obedience to His hallowed words, with lowliness of mind. For 
the holy word saith, Upon ivJioin shall I look, save upon him 
that is gentle and quiet and feareth Aline oracles f 

14. Therefore it is right and proper, brethren, that we 
should be obedient unto God, rather than follow those who 
in arrogance and unruliness have set themselves up as leaders 
in abominable jealousy. For we shall bring upon us no com- 
mon harm, but rather great peril, if we surrender ourselves 
recklessly to the purposes of men who launch out into strife 
and seditions, so as to estrange us from that which is right. 
Let us be good one towards another according to the com- 
passion and sweetness of Him that made us. For it is written : 
The good shall be dwellers in the land, and tJie innocent shall be 
left on it ; but they that transgress shall be destroyed utterly from 
it. And again He saith ; / saw tJie ungodly lifted up on high 
and exalted as the cedars of Lebanon. And I passed by, and 
behold he was not ; and I sought ou,t Ids place, and I found it 
not. Keep innocence and behold uprightness ; for tJiere is a 
remnant for the peaceful man. 

15. Therefore let us cleave unto them that practise peace 
with godliness, and not unto them that desire peace with dis- 
simulation. For He saith in a certain place ; This people honouj'eth 
Me with their lips, but their heart is far from me ; and again, 
They blessed with their mouth, but they cursed with their heart. 
And again He saith, They loved Him with their mouth, and 
with their tongue they lied unto Him ; and their heart zvas not 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 279 

itpriglit with Hint, neither were they stedfast in His covenant. For 
this cause Let the deceitful lips be made dumb, which speak iniquity 
against the righteous. And again ; May the Lord utterly destroy 
all tJie deceitfid lips, the tongue that speaketh proud things, even 
them that say, Let us magnify our tongue ; our lips are our own ; 
who is lord over us ? For the misery of the needy and for the 
groaniibg of the poor / will now arise, saith the Lord. L will set 
him in safety ; I will deal boldly by him. 

16. For Christ is with them that are lowly of mind, not 
with them that exalt themselves over the flock. The sceptre 
[of the majesty] of God, even our Lord Jesus Christ, came not 
in the pomp of arrogance or of pride, though He might have 
done so, but in lowliness of mind, according as the Holy Spirit 
spake concerning Him. For He saith ; Lord., who believed our 
report? and to whotn was the arm of the Lord revealed? We 
announced Him in His presence. As a child zvas He, as a root in 
a thirsty ground. There is no form in Him, neither glory. A nd 
we beheld Him, and He had no form nor comeliness, but His form 
was mean, lacking more than the form of men. He was a man of 
stripes and of toil, atid knowing how to bear infirmity : for His 
face is turned away. He ivas disJionoured and held of no account. 
He beareth our sins and sufferetJi pain for our sakes : and zve 
accounted Him to be iji toil and in stripes and in affliction. And 
He tvas zvounded for our sins and hath been afflicted for our 
iniquities. The chastisement of our peace is upon Him. With 
His bruises we zvere healed. We all went astray like sheep, 
each man went astray in his own path : and the Lord delivered 
Him over for our sins. A nd He opoieth not His mouth, because 
He is afflicted. As a sheep He tvas led to slaughter ; and as a 
lamb before his shearer is dumb, so openeth He not His mouth. 
Ln His humiliatio7t His judgment was taken away. His genera- 
tion who shall declare? For His life is taken atvay from the 
earth. For the iniquities of my people He is come to death. 
And I will give the wicked for His burial, and the rich for 
His death ; for He wrought no iniquity, neither zvas guile found 
in His mouth. And the Lord desireth to cleanse Him from 



2 8o S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

His stripes. If ye offer for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived 
seed. And the Lord desireth to take away from the toil of His 
sold, to show Him light and to mould Him with understand- 
ing, to justify a Jtist One that is a good servant unto many. 
And He shall bear their sins. Therefore He shall inherit many, 
and shall divide the spoils of the strong ; because His soul zuas 
delivered unto death, and He was reckoned among tlie transgres- 
sors ; and He bare the sins of many, and for their sins was He 
delivered up. And again He Himself saith ; But I am a zvorm 
and no man, a reproach of men and an outcast of the people. All 
tliey that beheld me mocked at me; they spake with their lips ; 
they wagged their heads, saying. He hoped on the Lord ; let 
Him deliver him, or let Him save Jiim, for He desireth him. 
Ye see, dearly beloved, what is the pattern that hath been 
given unto us ; for, if the Lord was thus lowly of mind, what 
should we do, who through Him have been brought under the 
yoke of His grace ? 

17. Let us be imitators also of them which went about in 
goatskins and sheepskins, preaching the coming of Christ. 
We mean Elijah and Elisha and likewise Ezekiel, the pro- 
phets, and besides them those men also that obtained a good 
report. Abraham obtained an exceeding good report and was 
called the friend of God ; and looking stedfastly on the glory 
of God, he saith in lowliness of mind, But I am dust and ashes. 
Moreover concerning Job also it is thus written; And Job 
was righteoics and unblameable, one that was true and honoured 
God and abstained from all evil. Yet he himself accuseth 
himself saying, No man is clean from filth ; no, not tlwugh his 
life be but for a day. Moses was called faitJiful in all His 
house, and through his ministration God judged Egypt with 
the plagues and the torments which befel them. Howbeit 
he also, though greatly glorified, yet spake no proud words, but 
said, when an oracle was given to him at the bush, Who am I, 
that Thou sendest me ? Nay, I am feeble of speech and slow of 
tongue. And again he saith, But I am smoke from the pot. 

18. But what must we say of David that obtained a good 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 281 

report ? of whom God said, / Jiave found a man after My 
heart, David the son of Jesse: with eternal merey have I 
anointed him. Yet he too saith unto God ; Have merey upon 
me, O God, according to Thy great mercy ; and according to 
the multitude of Thy compassions, blot out mine iniquity. Wash 
me yet more from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my 
sin. For I acknozvledge mine iniquity, and my sin is ever 
before me. Against Thee only did I sin, and I wrought evil in 
Thy sight ; that Thou may est be Justified in Thy words, and 
mayest conquer in Thy pleading. For behold, in iniquities was 
I conceived, and in sins did my mother bear me. For behold 
Thou hast loved truth : the dark and hidden things of Thy 
ivisdom hast Thou showed unto me. Thou shall sprinkle me with 
hyssop, and I shall be made clean. Thou shall wash me, and I 
shall become whiter than snozv. Thou shall make me to hear 
of Joy and gladness. The bones which have been humbled shall 
rejoice. Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all 
mine iniquities. Make a clean heart within me, O God, and 
renew a right spirit in mine inmost parts. Cast me not awajr 
from Thy presence, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from nie. 
Restore unto me the Joy of Thy salvation, and strengthen me zuith 
a princely spirit. I will teach sinners Thy ways, and godless 
men shall be converted unto Thee. Deliver me froin bloodguilti- 
ness, O God, the God of my salvation. My tongue shall rejoice 
in Thy righteousness. Lord, Thou shalt open my mouth, and 
my lips shall declare Thy praise. For, if Thou hadst desired 
sacrifice, I zvould have given it : in ivhole burnt-offerings Thou 
tvilt have no pleasure. A sacrifice unto God is a cotitrite spirit ; 
a contrite and humbled heart God will not despise, 

19. The humility therefore and the submissiveness of so 
many and so great men, who have thus obtained a good report, 
hath through obedience made better not only us but also the 
generations which were before us, even them that received His 
oracles in fear and truth. Seeing then that we have been par- 
takers of many great and glorious doings, let us hasten to re- 
turn unto the goal of peace which hath been handed down to 



282 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

us from the beginning, and let us look stedfastly unto the 
Father and Maker of the whole world, and cleave unto His 
splendid and excellent gifts of peace and benefits. Let us 
behold Him in our mind, and let us look with the eyes of 
our soul unto His long-suffering will. Let us note how free 
from anger He is towards all His creatures. 

20. The heavens are moved by His direction and obey Him 
in peace. Day and night accomplish the course assigned to them 
by Him, without hindrance one to another. The sun and the 
moon and the dancing stars according to His appointment circle 
in harmony within the bounds assigned to them, without any 
swerving aside. The earth, bearing fruit in fulfilment of His will 
at her proper seasons, putteth forth the food that supplieth 
abundantly both men and beasts and all living things which 
are thereupon, making no dissension, neither altering anything 
which He hath decreed. Moreover, the inscrutable depths of the 
abysses and the unutterable statutes of the nether regions are 
constrained by the same ordinances. The basin of the boundless 
sea, gathered together by His workmanship into its I'eseYvoirs, 
passeth not the barriers wherewith it is surrounded ; but even 
as He ordered it, so it doeth. For He said, So far sJialt thou 
come, and thy waves shall be broken within thee. The ocean which 
is impassable for men, and the worlds beyond it, are directed 
by the same ordinances of the Master. The seasons of spring 
and summer and autumn and winter give way in succession 
one to another in peace. The winds in their several quarters 
at their proper season fulfil their ministry without disturbance ; 
and the everflowing fountains, created for enjoyment and health, 
without fail give their breasts which sustain the life of men. 
Yea, the smallest of living things come together in concord and 
peace. All these things the great Creator and Master of the 
universe ordered to be in peace and concord, doing good unto 
all things, but far beyond the rest unto us who have taken 
refuge in His compassionate mercies through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, to whom be the glory and the majesty for ever and ever. 
Amen. 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 283 

21. Look ye, brethren, lest His benefits, which are many, 
turn unto judgment to all of us, if we walk not worthily of 
Him, and do those things which are good and well-pleasing in 
His sight with concord. For He saith in a certain place, TJie 
Spirit of the Lord is a lamp searcJwig the closets of the belly. Let 
us see how near He is, and how that nothing escapeth Him of 
our thoughts or our devices which we make. It is right there- 
fore that we should not be deserters from His will. Let us rather 
give offence to foolish and senseless men who exalt themselves 
and boast in the arrogance of their words, than to God. Let us 
fear the Lord Jesus [Christ], whose blood was given for us. Let 
us reverence our rulers ; let us honour our elders ; let us instruct 
our young men in the lesson of the fear of God. Let us guide 
our women toward that which is good : let them show forth 
their lovely disposition of purity ; let them prove their sincere 
affection of gentleness ; let them make manifest the moderation 
of their tongue through their silence ; let them show their love, 
not in factious preferences, but without partiality towards all 
them that fear God, in holiness. Let our children be par- 
takers of the instruction which is in Christ : let them learn how 
lowliness of mind prevaileth with God, what power chaste love 
hath with God, how the fear of Him is good and great and 
saveth all them that walk therein in a pure mind with holiness. 
For He is the searcher out of the intents and desires ; whose 
breath is in us, and when He listeth, He shall take it away. 

22. Now all these things the faith which is in Christ con- 
firmeth : for He Himself through the Holy Spirit thus inviteth 
us : Come, my children, hearken unto me, I will teach yon the 
fear of the Lord. What man is he that desireth life and 
loveth to see good days ? Make thy tongne to cease from evil, 
and thy lips that they speak no guile. Turn aside from evil 
and do good. Seek peace and ensue it. The eyes of the Lord 
are over the righteotts, and His ears are ttirned to their prayer. 
But the face of the Lord is upon them that do evil, to destroy 
their memorial from the earth. The righteous cried out, and 
the Lord heard him, and delivered him from all his troubles. 



284 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

Many are the troubles of the righteous, and the Lord shall de- 
liver him frotn them all. Then again ; Many are the stripes of 
the sinner, but them that set tJieir hope on the Lord mercy shall 
compas^. about. 

23. The Father, who is pitiful in all things, and ready- 
to do good, hath compassion on them that fear Him, and kindly 
and lovingly bestoweth His favours on them that draw nigh 
unto Him with a single mind. Wherefore let us not be 
double-minded, neither let our soul indulge in idle humours 
respecting His exceeding and glorious gifts. Let this scrip- 
ture be far from us where He saith ; Wretched are the double- 
minded, which doubt in their soul, and say, These things we did 
hear in tlie days of our fathers also, and beJiold we have grown old, 
and none of these things hath befallen us. Ye fools, compare your- 
selves unto a tree ; take a vine. First it sheddeth its leaves, then 
a shoot Cometh, then a leaf then a floiver, and after these a 
sour berry, then a full ripe grape. Ye see that in a little 
time the fruit of the tree attaineth unto mellowness. Of a 
truth quickly and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, the 
scripture also bearing witness to it, saying; He sJ tail come quickly 
and sJiall not tarry ; and the Lord shall come suddenly into His 
temple, even the Holy One, tvJiom ye expect. 

24. Let us understand, dearly beloved, how the Master 
continually showeth unto us the resurrection that shall be here- 
after ; whereof He made the Lord Jesus Christ the firstfruit, 
when He raised Him from the dead. Let us behold, dearly 
beloved, the resurrection which happeneth at its proper season. 
Day and night show unto us the resurrection. The night falleth 
asleep, and day ariseth ; the day departeth, and night cometh 
on. Let us mark the fruits, how and in what manner the 
sowing taketh place. The sower goeth forth and casteth into 
the earth each of the seeds ; and these falling into the earth 
dry and bare decay : then out of their decay the mightiness of 
the Master's providence raiseth them up, and from being one 
they increase manifold and bear fruit. 

25. Let us consider the marvellous sign which is seen in 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 285 

the regions of the east, that is, in the parts about Arabia. 
There is a bird, which is named the phoenix. This, being 
the only one of its kind, liveth for five hundred years ; and 
when it hath now reached the time of its dissolution that it 

r 

should die, it maketh for itself a coffin of frankincense and myrrh 
and the other spices, into the which in the fulness of time 
it entereth, and so it dieth. But, as the flesh rotteth, a certain 
worm is engendered, which is nurtured from the moisture of 
the dead creature and putteth forth wings. Then, when it is 
grown lusty, it taketh up that cofiin where are the bones of its 
parent, and carrying them journeyeth from the country of 
Arabia even unto Egypt, to the place called the City of the 
Sun ; and in the day time in the sight of all, flying to the 
altar of the Sun, it layeth them thereupon ; and this done, it 
setteth forth to return. So the priests examine the registers 
of the times, and they find that it hath come when the five 
hundredth year is completed. 

26. Do we then think it to be a great and marvellous thing, 
if the Creator of the universe shall bring about the resurrection 
of them that have served Him with holiness in the assurance 
of a good faith, seeing that He showeth to us even by a bird 
the magnificence of His promise .'' For He saith in a certain 
place; And Thou shalt raise me up, and I will praise Thee ; and 
I went to rest and slept, I was awaked, for Thou art zvith me. 
And again Job saith ; And Thou shalt raise this my jlesJi which 
hath endured all these things. 

27. With this hope therefore let our souls be bound unto 
Him that is faithful in His promises and that is righteous in 
His judgments. He that commanded not to lie, much more 
shall He Himself not lie : for nothing is impossible with God 
save to lie. Therefore let our faith in Him be kindled within 
us, and let us understand that all things are nigh unto Him. 
By a word of His majesty He compacted the universe; and by 
a word He can destroy it. Who shall say unto Him, What 
hast Thou done ? or zvJio shall resist the might of His strength ? 
When He listeth, and as He listeth, He will do all things ; and 



286 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

nothing shall pass away of those things that He hath decreed. 
All things are in His sight, and nothing escapeth His counsel, 
. seeing that The heavens declare the glory of God, and the fir- 
mament proelaimeth His Jiandiwork. Day icttereth word ttnto 
day, and night proelaimeth knowledge nnto night ; and there 
are neither words nor speeches, whose voices are not heard. 

28. Since therefore all things are seen and heard, let us 
fear Him, and forsake the abominable lusts of evil works, 
that we may be shielded by His mercy from the coming 
judgments. For where can any of us escape from His strong 
hand .-' And what world will receive any of them that desert 
from His service .'* For the holy writing saith in a certain 
place ; Where shall I go, and where shall I be hidden from Thy 
face ? If I ascend into the heaven, Thou art tJiere ; if I depart 
into the farthest parts of the earth, there is Thy right Jiand ; if 
I make my bed in the depths, tJiere is Thy Spirit. Whither then 
shall one depart, or where shall one flee, from Him that 
embraceth the universe .- 

29. Let us therefore approach Him in holiness of soul, 
lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, with love towards 
our gentle and compassionate Father, who made us an elect 
portion unto Himself. For thus it is written : WJien the Most 
High divided the stations, when He dispersed the softs of Adam, 
He fixed the boimdaries of the nations according to the fiumber 
of the angels of God. His people Jacob became the portion 
of the Lord, and Israel the measurement of His inheritance. 
And in another place He saith ; Behold, the Lord taketh for 
Himself a nation out of the midst of the nations, as a man taketJi 
the firstfruits of his threshing-floor ; and the holy of holies 
shall come forth from that nation. 

30. Seeing then that we are the special portion of a Holy 
God, let us do all things that pertain unto holiness, forsaking 
evil-speakings, abominable and impure embraces, drunkennesses 
and tumults and hateful lusts, abominable adultery, hateful 
pride ; For God, He saith, resisteth the proud, but giveth grace 
to the lowly. Let us therefore cleave unto those to whom 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 287 

erace is o-iven from God. Let us clothe ourselves in con- 
cord, being lowly-minded and temperate, holding ourselves aloof 
from all backbiting and evil speaking, being justified by works 
and not by words. For He saith ; He that saitJi mucJi shall 
hear also again. Doth the ready talker tJiink to be righteous? 
Blessed is the offspring of zvoma^t that liveth but a short time. 
Be not thon abundant in zvords. Let our praise be with God, 
and not of ourselves : for God hateth them that praise them- 
selves. Let the testimony to our well-doing be given by 
others, as it was given unto our fathers who were righteous. 
Boldness and arrogance and daring are for them that are ac- 
cursed of God ; but forbearance and humility and gentleness 
are with them that are blessed of God. 

31. Let us therefore cleave unto His blessing, and let us see 
what are the ways of blessing. Let us study the records of the 
things that have happened from the beginning. Wherefore was 
our father Abraham blessed } Was it not because he wrought 
righteousness and truth through faith } Isaac with confidence, 
as knowing the future, was led a willing sacrifice. Jacob with 
humility departed from his land because of his brother, and went 
unto Laban and served ; and the twelve tribes of Israel were 
given unto him. 

32. If any man will consider them one by one in sin- 
cerity, he shall understand the magnificence of the gifts that are 
given by Him. For of Jacob are all the priests and levites who 
minister unto the altar of God; of him is the Lord Jesus as 
concerning the flesh ; of him are kings and rulers and governors 
in the line of Judah ; yea, and the rest of his tribes are held in 
no small honour, seeing that God promised saying, Thy seed 
shall be as the stars of heaven. They all therefore were glorified 
and magnified, not through themselves or their own works or 
the righteous doing which they wrought, but through His will. 
And so we, having been called through His will in Christ Jesus, 
are not justified through ourselves or through our own wisdom 
or understanding or piety or works which we wrought in holi- 
ness of heart, but through faith, whereby the Almighty God 



288 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

justified all men that have- been from the beginning ; to whom 
be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

33. What then must we do, brethren? Must we idly 
abstain from doing good, and forsake love .-* May the Master 
never allow this to befal us at least ; but let us hasten with 
instancy and zeal to accomplish every good work. For the 
Creator and Master of the universe Himself rejoiceth in His 
works. For by His exceeding great might He established the 
heavens, and in His incomprehensible wisdom He set them in 
order. And the earth He separated from the water that sur- 
roundeth it, and He set it firm on the sure foundation of His 
own will ; and the living creatures which walk upon it He com- 
manded to exist by His ordinance. Having before created the 
sea and the living creatures therein, He enclosed it by His own 
power. Above all, as the most excellent and exceeding great 
work of His intelligence, with His sacred and faultless hands 
He formed man in the impress of His own image. For thus 
saith God ; Let us make man after our image and after our like- 
ness. And God made man ; male and female made He them. 
So having finished all these things. He praised them and blessed 
them and said, Increase and multiply. We have seen that all 
the righteous were adorned in good works. Yea, and so the 
Lord Himself having adorned Himself with works rejoiced. 
Seeing then that we have this pattern, let us conform ourselves 
with all diligence to His will ; let us with all our strength work 
the work of righteousness. 

34. The good workman receiveth the bread of his work with 
boldness, but the slothful and careless dareth not look his em- 
ployer in the face. It is therefore needful that we should be 
zealous unto well-doing, for of Him are all things: since He fore- 
warneth us saying, Behold, the Lord, and His reward is before His 
face, to recompense each man according to his zvork. He exhort- 
eth us therefore to believe on Him with our whole heart, and 
to be not idle nor careless unto every good work. Let our boast 
and our confidence be in Him : let us submit ourselves to 
His will ; let us mark the whole host of His angels, how they 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 289 

stand by and minister unto His will. For the scripture saith, 
Ten thousand times ten tJioiisands stood by Him, and tJionsands of 
thousands mijiistered unto Him : and tJiey cried aloud, Holy, holy, 
holy is the Lord of Sabaoth ; all creation is full of His glory. 
Yea, and let us ourselves then, being gathered together in con- 
cord with intentness of heart, cry unto Him as from one mouth 
earnestly that we may be made partakers of His great and 
glorious promises. For He saith, Eye hath not seen, and ear hath 
not heard, and it hath not entered into the heart of man, what 
great things He hath prepared for them that patiently await Him. 
35. How blessed and marvellous are the gifts of God, dearly 
beloved ! Life in immortality, splendour in righteousness, truth in 
boldness, faith in confidence, temperance in sanctification! And 
all these things fall under our apprehension. What then, think 
ye, are the things preparing for them that patiently await Him .? 
The Creator and Father of the ages, the All-holy One Himself 
knoweth their number and their beauty. Let us therefore con- 
tend, that we may be found in the number of those that patiently 
await Him, to the end that we may be partakers of His promised 
gifts. But how shall this be, dearly beloved } If our mind be fixed 
through faith towards God ; if we seek out those things which 
are well pleasing and acceptable unto Him ; if we accomplish 
such things as beseem His faultless will, and follow the way of 
truth, casting off from ourselves all unrighteousness and ini- 
quity, covetousness, strifes, malignities and deceits, whisperings 
and backbitings, hatred of God, pride and arrogance, vainglory 
and inhospitality. For they that do these things are hateful to 
God ; and not only they that do them, but they also that consent 
unto them. For the scripture saith ; But unto the sinner said 
God, Wherefore dost thou declare Mine ordinances, and takest My 
covenant upon thy mouth ? Yet thou didst hate instruction, and 
didst cast away My words behind thee. If tJiou sawest a thief, tJiou 
didst keep company ivith him, and with the adulterers thou didst 
set thy portion. Thy mouth mtdtiplied ivickedness, and thy tongue 
wove deceit. Thou sattest and spakest against thy brother, and 
against the son of thy mother thou didst lay a stumbling-block. 
CLEM. II. 19 



290 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

TJiese tilings thou hast done, and I kept silence, Tho7i thonghtest, 
unrighteous man, that I should be like unto thee. I will convict 
thee, and will set thee face to face with thyself. Now understand 
ye these things, ye tJ tat forget God, lest at any time He seize you as 
a lion, and there be none to deliver. The sacrifice of praise shall 
glorify Me, and there is the zvay wherein I will show him the 
salvation of God. 

36. This is the way, dearly beloved, wherein we found our 
salvation, even Jesus Christ the High-priest of our offerings, the 
Guardian and Helper of our weakness. Through Him let us 
look stedfastly unto the heights of the heavens; through Him 
we behold as in a mirror His faultless and most excellent 
visage ; through Him the eyes of our hearts were opened ; 
through Him our foolish and darkened mind springeth up 
unto [His marvellous] light ; through Him the Master willed 
that we should taste of the immortal knowledge ; Who being the 
brightness of His majesty is so much greater tJian angels, as 
He hath inherited a more excellent name. For so it is written ; 
Who maketh His angels spirits and His ministers a flame of 

fire; but of His Son the Master said thus; TJiou art My Son, 
I this day have begotten Thee. Ask of Me, and I will give Thee 
the Gentiles for Thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for 
Thy possession. And again He saith unto Him ; Sit Thou on 
My right hand, until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy 
feet. Who then are these enemies ? They that are wicked and 
resist His will. 

37. Let us therefore enlist ourselves, brethren, with all earn- 
estness in His faultless ordinances. Let us mark the soldiers 
that are enlisted under our rulers, how exactly, how readily, how 
submissively, they execute the orders given them. All are not 
prefects, nor rulers of thousands, nor rulers of hundreds, nor 
rulers of fifties, and so forth ; but each man in his own rank 
executeth the orders given by the king and the governors. TJic 
great without the small cannot exist, neither the small without 
the great. There is a certain mixture in all things, and therein 
is utility. Let us take our body as an example. The head 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 291 

without the feet is nothing ; so likewise the feet without the 
head are nothing : even the smallest limbs of our body are 
necessary and useful for the whole body : but all the members 
conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be 
saved. 

38. So in our case let the whole body be saved in Christ 
Jesus, and let each man be subject unto his neighbour, ac- 
cording as also he was appointed with his special grace. Let 
not the strong neglect the weak ; and let the weak respect the 
strong. Let the rich minister aid to the poor ; and let the poor 
give thanks to God, because He hath given him one through 
whom his wants may be supplied. Let the wise display his 
wisdom, not in words, but in good works. He that is lowly 
in mind, let him not bear testimony to himself, but leave testi- 
mony to be borne to him by his neighbour. He that is pure in 
the flesh, let him be so, and not boast, knowing that it is Another 
who bestoweth his continence upon him. Let us consider, 
brethren, of what matter we were made ; who and what manner 
of beings we were, when we came into the world ; from what a 
sepulchre and what darkness He that moulded and created us 
brought us into His world, having prepared His benefits afore- 
hand ere ever we were born. Seeing therefore that we have all 
these things from Him, we ought in all things to give thanks to 
Him, to whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

39. Senseless and stupid and foolish and ignorant men 
jeer and mock at us, desiring that they themselves should be 
exalted in their imaginations. For what power hath a mortal ? 
or what strength hath a child of earth .? For it is written ; T/iere 
was no foi'in before mine eyes ; only I heard a breath and a 
voice. What then ? Shall a mortal be elean in the sight of the 
Lord; or shall a man be nnblameable for his works'? seeing 
that He is distriistftd against His servants, and notetJi some 
perversity against His angels. Nay, the heaven is not clean in 
His sight. Azvay then, ye that dzvell in houses of clay, whereof, 
even of the same clay, zve ourselves are made. He smote them 
like a moth, and from morn to even they are no more. Because 

19 2 



292 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

they could not succour themselves, they perished. He breathed 
upon them and they died, hecatise they had no wisdom. But call 
thou, if perchance one shall obey thee, or if thou shalt see one of 
the holy angels. For wrath killeth the foolish ma7i, afid envy 
slayeth him that is gojte astray. A nd I have seen fools throwing 
out roots, but fortJiwitJi their habitation was eaten 2ip. Far be 
their sons from safety. May they be mocked at tJie gates of 
inferiors, and there shall be none to deliver them. For the things 
which are prepared for them, the I'ighteous shall eat ; but they 
themselves shall not be delivered from evils. 

40. Forasmuch then as these things are manifest beforehand, 
and we have searched into the depths of the Divine knowledge, 
we ought to do all things in order, as many as the Master hath 
commanded us to perform at their appointed seasons. Now the 
offerings and ministrations He commanded to be performed 
with care, and not to be done rashly or in disorder, but at fixed 
times and seasons. And where and by whom He would have 
them performed, He Himself fixed by His supreme will : that 
all things being done with piety according to His good pleasure 
might be acceptable to His will. They therefore that make 
their offerings at the appointed seasons are acceptable and 
blessed : for while they follow the institutions of the Master 
they cannot go wrong. For unto the high-priest his proper 
services have been assigned, and to the priests their proper 
office is appointed, and upon the levites their proper minis- 
trations are laid. The layman is bound by the layman's 
ordinances. 

41. Let each of you, brethren, in his own order give thanks 
unto God, maintaining a good conscience, and not transgressing 
the appointed rule of his service, but acting with all seemliness. 
Not in every place, brethren, are the continual daily sacrifices 
offered, or the freewill offerings, or the sin offerings and the 
trespass offerings, but in Jerusalem alone. And even there the 
offering is not made in every place, but before the sanctuary in 
the court of the altar ; and this too through the high-priest and 
the aforesaid ministers, after that the victim to be offered hath 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 293 

been inspected for blemishes. They therefore who do any thing 
contrary to the seemly ordinance of His will receive death as 
the penalty. Ye see, brethren, in proportion as greater know- 
ledge hath been vouchsafed unto us, so much the more are we 
exposed to danger. 

42. The Apostles received the Gospel for us from the Lord 
Jesus Christ ; Jesus Christ was sent forth from God. So then 
Christ is from God, and the Apostles are from Christ. Both 
therefore came of the will of God in the appointed order. Having 
therefore received a charge, and having been fully assured through 
the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ and confirmed in the 
word of God with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went 
forth with the glad tidings that the kingdom of God should 
come. So preaching everywhere in country and town, they ap- 
pointed their first-fruits, when they had proved them by the 
Spirit, to be bishops and deacons unto them that should believe. 
And this they did in no new fashion ; for indeed it had been 
written concerning bishops and deacons from very ancient 
times ; for thus saith the scripture in a certain place, / zvill 
appoint tJieir bishops in righteonsness and their deacons in faith. 

43. And what marvel, if they which were entrusted in Christ 
with such a work by God appointed the aforesaid persons } 
seeing that even the blessed Moses who was a faithful servant 
in all His house recorded for a sign in the sacred books all 
things that were enjoined upon him. And him also the rest of 
the prophets followed, bearing witness with him unto the laws 
that were ordained by him. For he, when jealousy arose con- 
cerning the priesthood, and there was dissension among the 
tribes which of them was adorned with the glorious name, com- 
manded the twelve chiefs of the tribes to bring to him rods 
inscribed with the name of each tribe. And he took them and 
tied them and sealed them with the signet rings of the chiefs of 
the tribes, and put them away in the tabernacle of the testimony 
on the table of God. And having shut the tabernacle he sealed 
the keys, and likewise also the doors. And he said unto them, 
Brethren, the tribe zvhose rod shall bud, this hath God chosen to be 



294 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

priests and ministers unto Him. Now when morning came, he 
called together all Israel, even the six hundred thousand men, 
and showed the seals to the chiefs of the tribes, and opened the 
tabernacle of the testimony, and drew forth the rods. And the 
rod of Aaron was found not only with buds, but also bearing 
fruit. What think ye, dearly beloved .-' Did not Moses know 
beforehand that this would come to pass .-' Assuredly he 
knew it. But that disorder might not arise in Israel, he did 
thus, to the end that the Name of the true and only God might 
be glorified : to whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

44. And our Apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ 
that there would be strife over the name of the bishop's office. 
For this cause therefore, having received complete foreknow- 
ledge, they appointed the aforesaid persons, and afterwards they 
provided a continuance, that if these should fall asleep, other 
approved men should succeed to their ministration. Those 
therefore who were appointed by them, or afterward by other 
men of repute with the consent of the whole Church, and have 
ministered unblameably to the flock of Christ in lowliness of 
mind, peacefully and with all modesty, and for long time have 
borne a good report with all these men we consider to be un- 
justly thrust out from their ministration. For it will be no light 
sin for us, if we thrust out those who have offered the gifts of 
the bishop's office unblameably and holily. Blessed are those 
presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure 
was fruitful and ripe : for they have no fear lest any one should 
remove them from their appointed place. For we see that ye 
have displaced certain persons, though they were living honour- 
ably, from the ministration which they had -f respected -f- blame- 
lessly. 

45. Be ye contentious, brethren, and jealous about the 
things that pertain unto salvation. Ye have searched the 
scriptures, which are true, which were given through the Holy 
Ghost ; and ye know that nothing unrighteous or counterfeit is 
written in them. Ye will not find that righteous persons have 
been thrust out by holy men. Righteous men were persecuted. 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 295 

but it was by the lawless ; they were imprisoned, but it was by 
the unholy. They were stoned by transgressors: they were slain 
by those who had conceived a detestable and unrighteous jea- 
lousy. Suffering these things, they endured nobly. For what 
must we say, brethren ? Was Daniel cast into the lions' den by 
them that fear God ? Or were Ananias and Azarias and 
Misael shut up in the furnace of fire by them that professed 
the excellent and glorious worship of the Most High ? Far be 
this from our thoughts. Who then were they that did these 
things .'' Abominable men and full of all wickedness were 
stirred up to such a pitch of wrath, as to bring cruel suffering 
upon them that served God in a holy and blameless purpose, 
not knowing that the Most High is the champion and pro- 
tector of them that in a pure conscience serve His excellent 
Name : unto whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. But 
they that endured patiently in confidence inherited glory and 
honour ; they were exalted, and had their names recorded by 
God in their memorial for ever and ever. Amen. 

46. To such examples as these therefore, brethren, we 
also ought to cleave. For it is written ; Cleave 7into the saints, 
for they that eleave unto them shall be sanctified. And again 
He saith in another place ; With the gtdltless man tJiou shalt 
be guiltless, and with the elect thou shalt be elect, and zvith the 
crooked thou shalt deal crookedly. Let us therefore cleave to the 
guiltless and righteous : and these are the elect of God. Where- 
fore are there strifes and wraths and factions and divisions and 
war among you } Have we not one God and one Christ and 
one Spirit of grace that was shed upon us } And is there not 
one calling in Christ } Wherefore do we tear and rend asunder 
the members of Christ, and stir up factions against our own 
body, and reach such a pitch of folly, as to forget that we are 
members one of another .<* Remember the words of Jesus our 
Lord : for He said, Woe unto that num. It were good for him 
if he J tad not been born, rather than that he should offend one 
of Mine elect. It were better for him that a mill-stone zvere 
hanged about him, ami he cast into the sea, than that he should 



296 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

pervert one of Mine elect. Your division hath perverted many ; 
it hath brought many to despair, many to doubting, and all 
of us to sorrow. And your sedition still continueth. 

47. Take up the epistle of the blessed Paul the Apostle. 
What wrote he first unto you in the beginning of the Gospel ? 
Of a truth he charged you in the Spirit concerning himself 
and Cephas and Apollos, because that even then ye had made 
parties. Yet that making of parties brought less sin upon you ; 
for ye were partisans of Apostles that were highly reputed, 
and of a man approved in their sight. But now mark ye, who 
they are that have perverted you and diminished the glory of 
your renowned love for the brotherhood. It is shameful, dearly 
beloved, yes, utterly shameful, and unworthy of your conduct 
in Christ, that it should be reported that the very sted- 
fast and ancient Church of the Corinthians, for the sake of 
one or two persons, maketh sedition against its presbyters. 
And this report hath reached not only us, but them also which 
differ from us, so that ye even heap blasphemies on the Name 
of the Lord by reason of your folly, and moreover create peril 
for yourselves. 

48. Let us therefore root this out quickly, and let us 
fall down before the Master, and entreat Him with tears, that 
He may show Himself propitious, and be reconciled unto us, and 
may restore us to the seemly and pure conduct which belongeth 
to our love of the brethren. For this is a gate of righteous- 
ness opened unto life, as it is written ; Open me the gates of 
righteousness, that I may enter in thereby and praise the Lord. 
This is the gate of the Lord ; the righteous shall enter in thereby. 
Seeing then that many gates are opened, this is that gate which 
is in righteousness, even that which is in Christ, whereby all 
are blessed, that have entered in and direct their path in 
holiness and righteousness, performing all things without con- 
fusion. Let a man be faithful, let him be able to expound 
a deep saying, let him be wise in the discernment of words, 
let him be strenuous in deeds, let him be pure; for so much 
the more ought he to be lowly in mind, in proportion as he 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 297 

seemeth to be the greater ; and he ought to seek the common 
advantage of all, and not his own. 

49. Let him that hath love in Christ fulfil the command- 
ments of Christ. Who can declare the bond of the love of 
God ? Who is sufficient to tell the majesty of its beauty ? 
The height, whereunto love exalteth, is unspeakable. Love 
joineth us unto God; /ove covereth a i/mltitude of sins; love 
endureth all things, is long-suffering in all things. There is 
nothing coarse, nothing arrogant in love. Love hath no di- 
visions, love maketh no seditions, love doeth all things in con- 
cord. In love were all the elect of God made perfect ; without 
love nothing is well-pleasing to God : in love the Master took 
us unto Himself; for the love which He had toward us, Jesus 
Christ our Lord hath given His blood for us by the will of God, 
and His flesh for our flesh, and His life for our lives. 

50. Ye see, dearly beloved, how great and marvellous 
a thing is love, and there is no declaring its perfection. Who is 
sufficient to be found therein, save those to whom God shall 
vouchsafe it .- Let us therefore entreat and ask of His mercy, 
that we may be found blameless in love, standing apart from the 
factiousness of men. All the generations from Adam unto this day 
have passed away : but they that by God's grace were perfected in 
love dwell in the abode of the pious ; and they shall be made 
manifest in the visitation of the kingdom of God. For it is 
written : Enter into the closet for a very little while, until Mine 
anger and My zvrath shall pass away, and I will remember a good 
day, and will raise you from your tombs. Blessed were we, dearly 
beloved, if we should be doing the commandments of God in 
concord of love, to the end that our sins may through love be 
forgiven us. For it is written ; Blessed are they whose iniquities 
are forgiven, and zuhose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to 
whom tJie Lord shall impute no sin, neitJicr is guile in his mouth. 
This declaration of blessedness was pronounced upon them that 
have been elected by God through Jesus Christ our Lord, to 
whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

51. For all our transgressions therefore which we have com- 



298 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

mitted through any of the wiles of the adversary, let us entreat 
that we may obtain forgiveness. Yea and they also, who set them- 
selves up as leaders of faction and division, ought to look to the 
common ground of hope. For such as walk in fear and love desire 
that they themselves should fall into suffering rather than their 
neighbours; and they pronounce condemnation against them- 
selves rather than against the harmony which hath been handed 
down to us nobly and righteously. For it is good for a man 
to make confession of his trespasses rather than to harden his 
heart, as the heart of those was hardened who made sedition 
against Moses the servant of God ; whose condemnation was 
clearly manifest, for they went down to hades alive, and death 
shall be tlieir shepherd. Pharaoh and his host and all the rulers 
of Egypt, tJieir cJiariots and their horsemen, were overwhelmed 
in the depths of the Red Sea, and perished for none other reason 
but because their foolish hearts were hardened, after that the 
signs and the wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt 
by the hand of Moses the servant of God. 

52. The Master, brethren, hath need of nothing at all. 
He desireth not anything of any man, save to confess unto 
Him. For the elect David saith ; / will confess nnto the Lord, 
and it shall please Him more than a young calf that groiveth 
horns and hoofs. Let the poor see it, and rejoice. And again 
He saith ; Sacrifice to God a sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows 
to the Most High : and call npon Me in the day of tJiine afflic- 
tion, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me. For 
a sacrifice nnto God is a broken spirit. 

53. For ye know, and know well, the sacred scriptures, 
dearly beloved, and ye have searched into the oracles of God. 
We write these things therefore to put you in remembrance. 
When Moses went up into the mountain and had spent forty 
days and forty nights in fasting and humiliation, God said 
unto him ; Moses, Moses, go down quickly hence, for My people 
whom thou leddest forth from the land of Egypt have wrought 
iniquity : they have transgressed quickly ou-t of the way which thou 
didst command unto them : they have made for tJiemselves molten 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 299 

images. And the Lord said unto him ; / have spoken itiito thee 
once and tzvice, saying, I have seen this people, and behold it is 
stiff-necked. Let Me destroy thevi utterly, and I luill blot out 
their name from under Jieaven, and I will make of thee a nation 
great and wonderful and numerous more than this. And Moses 
said ; Nay, not so, Lord. Forgive this people their sin, or blot 
me also out of the book of the living. O mighty love ! O un- 
surpassable perfection ! The servant is bold with his Master ; 
he asketh forgiveness for the multitude, or he demandeth that 
himself also be blotted out with them. 

54. Who therefore is noble among you ? Who is com- 
passionate ? Who is fulfilled with love ? Let him say ; If by 
reason of me there be faction and strife and divisions, I retire, 
I depart, whither ye will, and I do that which is ordered by 
the people : only let the flock of Christ be at peace with its duly 
appointed presbyters. He that shall have done this, shall win 
for himself great renown in Christ, and every place will receive 
him : for the earth is the Lords and the fulness thereof. Thus 
have they done and will do, that live as citizens of that kingdom 
of God which bringeth no regrets. 

55. But, to bring forward examples of Gentiles also; many 
kings and rulers, when some season of pestilence pressed upon 
them, being taught by oracles have delivered themselves over to 
death, that they might rescue their fellow citizens through their 
own blood. Many have retired from their own cities, that they 
might have no more seditions. We know that many among our- 
selves have delivered themselves to bondage, that they might 
ransom others. Many have sold themselves to slavery, and re- 
ceiving the price paid for themselves have fed others. Many 
women being strengthened through the grace of God have 
performed many manly deeds. The blessed Judith, when the 
city was beleaguered, asked of the elders that she might be 
suffered to go forth into the camp of the aliens. So she 
exposed herself to peril and went forth for love of her country 
and of her people which were beleaguered ; and the Lord de- 
livered Holophcrnes into the hand of a woman. To no less 



300 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

peril did Esther also, who was perfect in faith, expose herself, that 
she might deliver the twelve tribes of Israel, when they were on 
the point to perish. For through her fasting and her humiliation 
she entreated the all-seeing Master, the God of the ages ; and 
He, seeing the humility of her soul, delivered the people for 
whose sake she encountered the peril. 

56. Therefore let us also make intercession for them that 
are in any transgression, that forbearance and humility may 
be given them, to the end that they may yield not unto us, but 
unto the will of God. For so shall the compassionate remem- 
brance of them with God and the saints be fruitful unto them, 
and perfect. Let us accept chastisement, whereat no man ought 
to be vexed, dearly beloved. The admonition which we give one 
to another is good and exceeding useful ; for it joineth us unto the 
will of God. For thus saith the holy word ; TJie Lord hath 
indeed chastened me, and hath not delivered me over nnto death. 
For whom tJie Lord lovetJi He cJiastenetJi, and sconrgeth every 
son whom He receiveth. For the righteous, it is said, shall chasten 
me in mercy, and shall reprove me; bnt let not the fmercyf of sin- 
ners anoint my head. And again He saith ; Blessed is the man 
zvhom the Lord hath reproved, and refnse not thoii the admojiition 
of the Almighty. For He canseth pain, and He restoreth again : 
He hath smitten, and His hands have healed. Six times shall 
He rescue thee from afflictions : and at the seventh no evil 
shall touch thee. In famine He shall deliver thee from death, 
and in ivar He shall release thee from the arm of the szvord. 
And from the scourge of the tongue shall He hide thee, and thou 
shalt not be afraid when evils approach. TJiou sJialt latigh at the 
unrighteous and wicked, and of the wild beasts thou shalt not 
be afraid. For wild beasts shall be at peace zuith thee. Then 
shalt thou know that thy house shall be at peace: and the abode 
of thy tabernacle shall not go wrong, and thou, shalt knozv that 
thy seed is many, and thy children as the plentcoiis herbage of 
the field. A nd thou shalt come to the grave as ripe corn reaped 
in due season, or as the heap of the threshing floor gathered 
together at the right time. Ye see, dearly beloved, how great 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 301 

protection there is for them that are chastened by the Master : 
for being a kind father He chasteneth us, to the end that we 
may obtain mercy through His holy chastisement. 

57. Ye therefore that laid the foundation of the sedition, 
submit yourselves unto the presbyters, and receive chastisement 
unto repentance, bending the knees of your heart. Learn to 
submit yourselves, laying aside the arrogant and proud stub- 
bornness of your tongue. For it is better for you to be found 
little in the flock of Christ and to have your name on God's 
roll, than to be had in exceeding honour and yet be cast 
out from the hope of Him. For thus saith the All-virtuous 
Wisdom ; Behold I will pour out for yon a saying of My breath, 
and I will teach yon My zvord. Because I called and ye obeyed 
not, and I held out zvords and ye heeded not, but made My coun- 
sels of none effect, and tvere disobedient unto My reproofs ; there- 
fore I also will laugh at your destrtiction, and zvill rejoice over you 
when ruin cometh upon you, and when confusion overtaketh you 
suddenly, and your overthrow is at hand like a whirlwind, or 
when anguish and beleaguerment come jipon yo?i. For it shall 
be, when ye call upon Me, yet will I not hear you. Evil men shall 
seek Me, ajid shall not find Me : for they hated wisdom, and 
chose not the fear of the Lord, neither tvould they give heed unto 
My counsels, but mocked at My reproofs. Therefore they shall 
eat the fruits of their own way, a)id shall be filled ivith their 
own ungodliness. For because they wronged babes, they shall be 
slain, and inquisition shall destroy the ungodly. But he that 
heareth Me shall dwell safely trusting in hope, and shall be quiet 
from fear of all evil. 

58. Let us therefore be obedient unto His most holy 
and glorious Name, thereby escaping the threatenings which 
were spoken of old by the mouth of Wisdom against them 
which disobey, that we may dwell safely, trusting in the most 
holy Name of His majesty. Receive our counsel, and ye 
shall have no occasion of regret. For as God liveth, and the 
Lord Jesus Christ liveth, and the Holy Spirit, who are the 
faith and the hope of the elect, so surely shall he, who with 



302 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

lowliness of mind and instant in gentleness hath without regret- 
fulness performed the ordinances and commandments that are 
given by God, be enrolled and have a name among the number 
of them that are saved through Jesus Christ, through whom is 
the glory unto Him for ever and ever. Amen. 

59. But if certain persons should be disobedient unto the 
words spoken by Him through us, let them understand that 
they will entangle themselves in no slight transgression and 
danger ; but we shall be guiltless of this sin. And we will 
ask, with instancy of prayer and supplication, that the Creator 
of the universe may guard intact unto the end the number 
that hath been numbered of His elect throughout the whole 
world, through His beloved Son Jesus Christ, through whom 
He called us from darkness to light, from ignorance to the full 
knowledge of the glory of His Name. 

[Grant unto us, Lord,] that we may set our hope on Thy 
Name which is the primal source of all creation, and open the 
eyes of our heart, that we may know Thee, who alone abidest 
Highest in the high, Holy in the holy ; who lay est knv the inso- 
lence of the proud ; who scatterest the iinaginings of nations; who 
settest the lowly on high, and bringest the lofty low ; who makest 
rich and makest poor ; who killest and makest alive ; who alone 
art the Benefactor of spirits and the God of all flesh ; who 
lookest into the abysses, who scannest the works of man ; the 
Succour of them that are in peril, the Savionr of them that are 
i7i despair ; the Creator and Overseer of every spirit ; who mul- 
tipliest the nations upon earth, and hast chosen out from all 
men those that love Thee through Jesus Christ, Thy beloved 
Son, through whom Thou didst instruct us, didst sanctify 
us, didst honour us. We beseech Thee, Lord and Master, to 
be our Jielp and succour. Save those among us who are in 
tribulation ; have mercy on the lowly ; lift up the fallen ; 
show Thyself unto the needy ; heal the ungodly ; convert the 
wanderers of Thy people ; feed the hungry ; release our 
prisoners ; raise up the weak ; comfort the faint-hearted. Let 
all the Gentiles know that Thou art God alone, and Jesus 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



j^j 



Christ is Thy Son, and we arc TJiy people and the sheep of Thy 
pasture. 

60. Thou through Thine operations didst make manifest 
the everlasting fabric of the world. Thou, Lord, didst create 
the earth. Thou that art faithful throughout all generations, 
righteous in Thy judgments, marvellous in strength and ex- 
cellence, Thou that art wise in creating and prudent in esta- 
blishing that which Thou hast made, that art good in the 
things which are seen and faithful with them that trust on 
Thee, pitiful and compassionate, forgive us our iniquities and 
our unrighteousnesses and our transgressions and shortcomings. 
Lay not to our account every sin of Thy servants and Thine 
handmaids, but cleanse us with the cleansing of Thy truth, 
and gidde our steps to walk in holiness and righteousness 
and singleness of heart, and to do sncli things as are good 
and well-pleasing in Thy sight and in the sight of our rulers. 
Yea, Lord, viake Thy face to shine tipon us in peace for our 
good, that we may be sheltered by Thy mighty Jiand and 
delivered from every sin by Thine uplifted arm. And deliver 
us from them that hate us wrongfully. Give concord and 
peace to us and to all that dwell on the earth, as Thou gavest 
to our fathers, %vhen they called on Thee in faith and tnttJi 
with holiness, [that we may be saved,] while we render obedi- 
ence to Thine almighty and most excellent Name, and to our 
rulers and governors upon the earth. 

61. Thou, Lord and Master, hast given them the power 
of sovereignty through Thine excellent and unspeakable might, 
that we knowing the glory and honour which Thou hast 
given them may submit ourselves unto them, in nothing re- 
sisting Thy will. Grant unto them therefore, O Lord, health, 
peace, concord, stability, that they may administer the go- 
vernment which Thou hast given them without failure. For 
Thou, O heavenly Master, King of the ages, givest to the 
sons of men glory and honour and power over all things that 
are upon the earth. Do Thou, Lord, direct their counsel ac- 
cording to that which is good and well-pleasing in Thy sight, 



304 S. CLEMENT OF ROME 

that, administering in peace and gentleness with godliness the 
power which Thou hast given them, they may obtain Thy 
favour. O Thou, who alone art able to do these things, and 
things far more exceeding good than these for us, we praise 
Thee through the High-priest and Guardian of our souls, Jesus 
Christ, through whom be the glory and the majesty unto 
Thee both now and for all generations and for ever and ever. 
Amen. 

62. As touching those things which befit our religion and 
are most useful for a virtuous life to such as would guide 
[their steps] in holiness and righteousness, we have written fully 
unto you, brethren. For concerning faith and repentance and 
genuine love and temperance and sobriety and patience we 
have handled every argument, putting you in remembrance, 
that ye ought to please Almighty God in righteousness and 
truth and long-suffering with holiness, laying aside malice and 
pursuing concord in love and peace, being instant in gentle- 
ness ; even as our fathers, of whom we spake before, pleased 
Him, being lowly-minded towards their Father and God and 
Creator and towards all men. And we have put you in mind of 
these things the more gladly, since we knew well that we were 
writing to men who are faithful and highly accounted and have 
diligently searched into the oracles of the teaching of God. 

63. Therefore it is right for us to give heed to so great and 
so many examples, and to submit the neck, and occupying the 
place of obedience to take our side with them that are the 
leaders of our souls, that ceasing from this foolish dissension we 
may attain unto the goal which lieth before us in truthfulness, 
keeping aloof from every fault. For ye will give us great joy 
and gladness, if ye render obedience unto the things written by 
us through the Holy Spirit, and root out the unrighteous anger 
of your jealousy, according to the entreaty which we have made 
for peace and concord in this letter. And we have also sent 
faithful and prudent men that have walked among us from 
youth unto old age unblameably, who shall also be witnesses 
between you and us. And this we have done that ye might 



TO THE CORINTHIANS. 305 

know that we have had, and still have, every solicitude that 
ye should be speedily at peace. 

64. Finally may the All-seeing God and Master of spirits 
and Lord of all flesh, who chose the Lord Jesus Christ, and us 
through Him for a peculiar people, grant unto every soul that is 
called after His excellent and holy Name faith, fear, peace, 
patience, long-suflering, temperance, chastity and soberness, that 
they may be well-pleasing unto His Name through our High- 
priest and Guardian Jesus Christ, through whom unto Him be 
glory and majesty, might and honour, both now and for ever 
and ever. Amen. 

65. Now send ye back speedily unto us our messengers 
Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, together with Fortunatus 
also, in peace and with joy, to the end that they may the 
more quickly report the peace and concord which is prayed 
for and earnestly desired by us, that we also may the more 
speedily rejoice over your good order. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you and with all 
men in all places who have been called by God and through 
Him, through whom is glory and honour, power and greatness 
and eternal dominion, unto Him, from the ages past and for 
ever and ever. Amen. 



CLEM. II. 20 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 



BRETHREN, we ought so to think of Jesus Christ, as 
of God, as of the Judge of quick and dead. And 
we ought not to think mean things of our Salvation : for 
when we think mean things of Him, we expect also to receive 
mean things. And they that listen as concerning mean things 
do wrong ; and we ourselves do wrong, not knowing whence 
and by whom and unto what place we were called, and 
how many things Jesus Christ endured to suffer for our 
sakes. What recompense then shall we give unto Him ? 
or what fruit worthy of His own gift to us ? And how 
many mercies do we owe to Him ! For He bestowed the 
light upon us ; He spake to us, as a father to his sons ; He 
saved us, when we were perishing. What praise then shall we 
give to Him.'' or what payment of recompense for those things 
which we received .'' we who were maimed in our understanding, 
and worshipped stocks and stones, gold and silver and bronze, 
the works of men ; and our whole life was nothing else but 
death. While then we were thus wrapped in darkness and 
oppressed with this thick mist in our vision, we recovered our 
sight, putting off by His will the cloud wherein we were wrapped. 
For He had mercy on us, and in His compassion saved us, 
having beheld in us much error and perdition, even when we 



AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 307 

had no hope of salvation, save that which came from Him. For 
He called us, when we were not, and from not being He willed 
us to be. 

2. Rejoice, tJiott barren that bearest not. Break out and cry, 
tJioii that travailest not ; for more are the cJiildre7i of the desolate 
than of her that hath the hjcsband. In that He said, Rejoice, thon 
barren that bearest not, He spake of us : for our Church was 
barren, before that children were given unto her. And in that 
He said, Cry aloud, tJiou that travailest not. He meaneth this ; 
Let us not, like women in travail, grow weary of offering up our 
prayers with simplicity to God. Again, in that He said, For 
the children of the desolate are more than of her that hath the 
husband, He so spake, because our people seemed desolate and 
forsaken of God, whereas now, having believed, we have become 
more than those who seemed to have God. Again another 
scripture saith, / came not to call the righteous, but sinners. He 
meaneth this; that it is right to save them that are perishing. 
For this indeed is a great and marvellous work, to establish, not 
those things which stand, but those which are falling. So also 
Christ willed to save the things which were perishing. And He 
saved many, coming and calling us when we were even now 
perishing. 

3. Seeing then that He bestowed so great mercy on us; 
first of all, that we, who are living, do not sacrifice to these dead 
gods, neither worship them, but through Him have known the 
Father of truth. What else is this knowledge to Himward, but 
not to deny Him through whom we have known Him .'' Yea, 
He Himself saith. Whoso confesseth Me, Him zvill I confess 
before the Father. This then is our reward, if verily we shall 
confess Him through whom we were saved. But wherein do 
we confess Him .- When we do that which He saith and are not 
disobedient unto His commandments, and not only Jiojiour Hint 
with our lips, but with our wJiole heart and with our whole mind. 
Now He saith also in Isaiah, This people honoureth Me ivith their 
lips, but their heart is far from Me. 

20 2 



3o8 AN ANCIENT HOMILY 

4. Let us therefore not only call Him Lord, for this will not 
save us : for He saith, Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, 
Lord, shall be saved, but he that doeth righteousness. So then, 
brethren, let us confess Him in our works, by loving one another, 
by not committing adultery nor speaking evil one against 
another nor envying, but being temperate, merciful, kindly. 
And we ought to have fellow-feeling one with another and not 
to be covetous. By these works let us confess Him, and not 
by the contrary. And we ought not rather to fear men but 
God. For this cause, if ye do these things, the Lord said. 
Though ye be gathered together with Me in My bosom, and do not 
My commandments, I will cast you away and tvill say tmto you. 
Depart from Me, I know yoti not ivhence ye are, ye workers of 
iniquity. 

5. Wherefore, brethren, let us forsake our sojourn in this 
world and do the will of Him that called us, and let us not be 
afraid to depart out of this world. For the Lord saith. Ye shall 
be as lambs in the midst of wolves. But Peter answered and said 
unto Him, What then, if the wolves shoidd tear the lambs? Jesus 
said unto Peter, Let not the lambs fear the wolves after they are 
dead; and ye also, fear ye not them that kill you and are not able 
to do anything to you; but fear him that after ye are dead hath 
power over sotd and body, to cast them into the gehenna of fire. 
And ye know, brethren, that the sojourn of this flesh in this 
world is mean and for a short time, but the promise of Christ is 
great and marvellous, even the rest of the kingdom that shall be 
and of life eternal. What then can we do to obtain them, but 
walk in holiness and righteousness, and consider these worldly 
things as alien to us, and not desire them.'' For when we desire 
to obtain these things we fall away from the righteous path. 

6. But the Lord saith, No servant can serve two masters. If 
we desire to serve both God and mammon, it is unprofitable for 
us : For what advantage is it, if a man gain the whole world ajtd 
forfeit his soul? Now this age and the future are two enemies. 

The one speaketh of adultery and defilement and avarice and 



BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR. 309 

deceit, but the other biddeth farewell to these. We cannot 
therefore be friends of the two, but must bid farewell to the one 
and hold companionship with the other. Let us consider that 
it is better to hate the things which are here, because they are 
m.ean and for a short time and perishable, and to love the things 
which are there, for they are good and imperishable. For, if we 
do the will of Christ, we shall find rest ; but if otherwise, then 
nothing shall deliver us from eternal punishment, if we should 
disobey His commandments. And the scripture also saith in 
Ezekiel, Though Noah and Job and Daniel sJioiild rise up, they 
shall not deliver their cJiildren in the captivity. But if even such 
righteous men as these cannot by their righteous deeds deliver 
their children, with what confidence shall we, if we keep not our 
baptism pure and undefiled, enter into the kingdom of God ? 
Or who shall be our advocate, unless we be found having holy 
and righteous works .'' 

7. So then, my brethren, let us contend, knowing that the 
contest is nigh at hand, and that, while many resort to the cor- 
ruptible contests, yet not all are crowned, but only they that 
have toiled hard and contended bravely. Let us then contend 
that we all may be crowned. Wherefore let us run in the 
straight course, the incorruptible contest. And let us resort to 
it in throngs and contend, that we may also be crowned. And 
if we cannot all be crowned, let us at least come near to the 
crown. We ought to know that he which contendeth in the 
corruptible contest, if he be found dealing corruptly with it, is 
first flogged, and then removed and driven out of the race-course. 
What think ye t What shall be done to him that hath dealt 
corruptly with the contest of incorruption .-' For as concerning 
them that have not kept the seal, He saith, Their worm shall not 
die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be for a 
spectacle unto all flesh. 

8. While we are on earth, then, let us repent: for we are 
clay under the craftsman's hand. For in like manner as the 
potter, if he be making a vessel, and it get twisted or crushed in 



3IO AN ANCIENT HOMILY 

his hands, reshapeth it again ; but if he have once put it into the 
fiery oven, he shall no longer mend it: so also let us, while we 
are in this world, repent with our whole heart of the evil things 
which we have done in the flesh, that we may be saved by the 
Lord, while we have yet time for repentance. For after that we 
have departed out of the world, we can no more make confession 
there, or repent any more. Wherefore, brethren, if we shall have 
done the will of the Father and kept the flesh pure and guarded 
the commandments of the Lord, we shall receive life eternal. 
For the Lord saith in the Gospel, If ye kept not that which is 
little, who shall give tmto yoit- that zvhicJi is great ? For I say 
ujito yon that he which is faithful in the least, is faitJ^fnl also in 
vinch. So then He meaneth this, Keep the flesh pure and the 
seal unstained, to the end that we may receive life. 

9. And let not any one of you say that this flesh is not 
judged neither riseth again. Understand ye. In what were ye 
saved .- In what did ye recover your sight } if ye were not in 
this flesh. We ought therefore to guard the flesh as a temple of 
God : for in like manner as ye were called in the flesh, ye shall 
come also in the flesh. If Christ the Lord who saved us, being 
first spirit, then became flesh, and so called us, in like manner 
also shall we in this flesh receive our reward. Let us therefore 
love one another, that we all may come unto the kingdom of 
God, While we have time to be healed, let us place ourselves in 
the hands of God the physician, giving Him a recompense. 
What recompense .- Repentance from a sincere heart. For He 
discerneth all things beforehand and knoweth what is in our 
heart. Let us therefore give unto Him eternal praise, not from 
our lips only, but also from our heart, that He may receive us as 
sons. For the Lord also said. These are My brethren, ivhich do 
the will of My Father. 

10. Wherefore, my brethren, let us do the will of the Father 
which called us, that we may live; and let us the rather pursue 
virtue, but forsake vice as the forerunner of our sins, and let us 
flee from ungodliness, lest evils overtake us. For if we be dili- 



BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR. 311 

gent in doing good, peace will pursue us. For for this cause is 
a man unable to attain happiness, seeing that they call in the 
fears of men, preferring rather the enjoyment which is here than 
the promise which is to come. For they know not how great 
torment the enjoyment which is here bringeth, and what delight 
the promise which is to come bringeth. And if verily they were 
doing these things by themselves alone, it had been tolerable: 
but now they continue teaching evil to innocent souls, not 
knowing that they shall have their condemnation doubled, both 
themselves and their hearers, 

11. Let us therefore serve God in a pure heart, and we 
shall be righteous; but if we serve Him not, because we believe 
not the promise of God, we shall be wretched. For the word of 
prophecy also saith : Wretched are the double-minded, that doubt 
VI their heart and say. These things we heard of old in the days 
of our fathers also, yet ive have waited day after day and have 
seen none of them. Ye fools ! compare yourselves unto a tree ; 
take a vine. First it slieddeth its leaves, then a shoot cometh, after 
this a sour berry, then a full ripe grape. So likewise My people 
had tumidts and afjiictions : but afterward they shall receive good 
things. Wherefore, my brethren, let us not be double-minded 
but endure patiently in hope, that we may also obtain our 
reward. For faithfid is He that promised to pay to each man 
the recompense of his works. If therefore we shall have wrought 
righteousness in the sight of God, we shall enter into His 
kingdom and shall receive the promises which ear hath not 
heard nor eye seen, neither hath it entered into the heart of man. 

12, Let us therefore await the kingdom of God betimes in 
love and righteousness, since we know not the day of God's 
appearing. For the Lord Himself, being asked by a certain 
person when His kingdom would come, said, When the two shall 
be one, and the outside as the inside, and the male with the female, 
neither male nor female. Now the two are one, when we speak 
truth among ourselves, and in two bodies there shall be one 
soul without dissimulation. And by tJie outside as the inside He 



312 AN ANCIENT HOMILY 

meaneth this : by the inside He meaneth the soul and by the 
outside the body. Therefore in like manner as thy body 
appeareth, so also let thy soul be manifest in its good works. 
And by the male with tJie female, neithe)'- male nor female. He 
meaneth this; that a brother seeing a sister should have no 
thought of her as of a female, and that a sister seeing a brother 
should not have any thought of him as of a male. These things 
if ye do, saith He, the kingdom of my Father shall come. 

13. Therefore, brethren, let us repent forthwith. Let us be 
sober unto that which is good : for we are full of much folly and 
wickedness. Let us wipe away from us our former sins, and let 
us repent with our whole soul and be saved. And let us not be 
found men-pleasers. Neither let us desire to please one another 
only, but also those men that are without, by our righteousness, 
that the Name be not blasphemed by reason of us. For the Lord 
saith, Every way My Name is blasphemed among all the Gentiles; 
and again, Woe tmto him by reason of whom My Name is blas- 
pJtemed. Wherein is it blasphemed? In that ye do not the 
things which I desire. For the Gentiles, when they hear from 
our mouth the oracles of God, marvel at them for their beauty 
and greatness ; then, when they discover that our works are not 
worthy of the words which we speak, forthwith they betake 
themselves to blasphemy, saying that it is an idle story and a 
delusion. For when they hear from us that God saith, // is no 
thank unto yon, if ye love tJiem tJiat love yon, but this is thank 
unto you, if ye love your enemies and them that hate you ; when 
they hear these things, I say, they marvel at their exceeding 
goodness ; but when they see that we not only do not love 
them that hate us, but not even them that love us, they laugh 
us to scorn, and the Name is blasphemed. 

14. Wherefore, brethren, if we do the will of God our 
Father, we shall be of the first Church, which is spiritual, which 
was created before the sun and moon ; but if we do not the will 
of the Lord, we shall be of the scripture that saith. My house was 
made a den of robbers. So therefore let us choose rather to be of 



BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR. ^n, 



3^3 



the Church of hfe, that we may be saved. And I do not sup- 
pose ye are ignorant that the living Church is the body of 
Christ: for the scripture saith, God made man, male and female. 
The male is Christ and the female is the Church. And the Books 
and the Apostles plainly declare that the Church existeth not 
now for the first tinne, but hath been from the beginning : for she 
was spiritual, as our Jesus also was spiritual, but was manifested 
in the last days that He might save us. Now the Church, 
being spiritual, was manifested in the flesh of Christ, thereby 
showing us that, if any of us guard her in the flesh and 
defile her not, he shall receive her again in the Holy Spirit: 
for this flesh is the counterpart and copy of the spirit. No 
man therefore, when he hath defiled the copy, shall receive the 
original for his portion. This therefore is what He meaneth, 
brethren ; Guard ye the flesh, that ye may partake of the spirit. 
But if we say that the flesh is the Church and the spirit is Christ, 
then he that hath dealt wantonly with the flesh hath dealt wan- 
tonly with the Church. Such an one therefore shall not partake 
of the spirit, which is Christ. So excellent is the life and immor- 
tality which this flesh can receive as its portion, if the Holy 
Spirit be joined to it. No man can declare or tell those things 
which the Lord hath prepared for His elect. 

15. Now I do not think that I have given any mean counsel 
respecting continence, and whosoever performeth it shall not 
repent thereof, but shall save both himself and me his coun- 
sellor. For it is no mean reward to convert a wandering and 
perishing soul, that it may be saved. For this is the recompense 
which we are able to pay to God who created us, if he that 
speaketh and heareth both speak and hear with faith and love. 
Let us therefore abide in the things which we believed, in 
righteousness and holiness, that we may with boldness ask of 
God who saith. Whiles thoii art still speaking, I will say, Be/iold, 
I am here. For this word is the token of a great promise : for 
the Lord saith of Himself that He is more ready to give than 
he that asketh to ask. Seeing then that we are partakers of so 



314 AN ANCIENT HOMILY 

great kindness, let us not grudge ourselves the obtaining of so 
many good things. For in proportion as the pleasure is great 
which these words bring to them that have performed them, so 
also is the condemnation great which they bring to them that 
have been disobedient. 

1 6. Therefore, brethren, since we have found no small 
opportunity for repentance, seeing that we have time, let us 
turn again unto God that called us, while we have still One 
that receiveth us. For if we bid farewell to these enjoyments 
and conquer our soul in refusing to fulfil its evil lusts, we shall be 
partakers of the mercy of Jesus. But ye know that the day of 
judgment cometh even now as a burning oven, and the powers of 
tJie heavens shall melt, and all the earth as lead melting on the 
fire, and then shall appear the secret and open works of men. 
Almsgiving therefore is a good thing, even as repentance from 
sin. Fasting is better than prayer, but almsgiving than both. 
And love covereth a imdtitude of sins, but prayer out of a good 
conscience delivereth from death. Blessed is every man that 
is found full of these. For almsgiving lifteth off the burden 
of sin. 

17. Let us therefore repent with our whole heart, lest any 
of us perish by the way. For if we have received commands, 
that we should make this also our business, to tear men away 
from idols and to instruct them, how much more is it wrong 
that a soul which knoweth God already should perish ! There- 
fore let us assist one another, that we may also lead the weak 
upward as touching that which is good, to the end that we all 
may be saved : and let us convert and admonish one another. 
And let us not think to give heed and believe now only, while 
we are admonished by the presbyters ; but likewise when we 
have departed home, let us remember the commandments of the 
Lord, and not suffer ourselves to be dragged off the other way 
by our worldly lusts ; but coming hither more frequently, let us 
strive to go forward in the commands of the Lord, that we all 
having the same mind may be gathered together unto life. For 



BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR. " 315 

the Lord said, / co7ne to gather together all the nations, tribes, and 
languages. Herein He speaketh of the day of His appearing, 
when He shall come and redeem us, each man according to his 
works. And the unbelievers shall see His glory and His might : 
and they shall be amazed when they see the kingdom of the 
world given to Jesus, saying, Woe unto us, for Thou wast, and 
we knew it not, and believed not ; and we obeyed not the 
presbyters when they told us of our salvation. And TJieir 
worm shall not die, and tJieir fire shall not be quenched, and they 
shall be for a spectacle unto all flesJi. He speaketh of that day of 
judgment, when men shall see those among us that lived ungodly 
lives and dealt falsely with the commandments of Jesus Christ. 
But the righteous, having done good and endured torments and 
hated the pleasures of the soul, when they shall behold them 
that have done amiss and denied Jesus by their words or by 
their deeds, how that they are punished with grievous torments 
in unquenchable fire, shall give glory to God, saying. There will 
be hope for him that hath served God with his whole heart. 

18. Therefore let us also be found among those that give 
thanks, among those that have served God, and not among the 
ungodly that are judged. For I myself too, being an utter sinner 
and not yet escaped from temptation, but being still amidst the 
engines of the devil, do my diligence to follow after righteousness, 
that I may prevail so far at least as to come near unto it, while 
I fear the judgment to come. 

19. Therefore, brothers and sisters, after the God of truth 
hath been heard, I read to you an exhortation to the end that 
ye may give heed to the things which are written, so that ye 
may save both yourselves and him that readeth in the midst of 
you. For I ask of you as a reward that ye repent with your 
whole heart, and give salvation and life to yourselves. For 
doing this we shall set a goal for all the young who desire to 
toil in the study of piety and of the goodness of God. And let 
us not be displeased and vexed, fools that we are, whensoever 
any one admonisheth us and turneth us aside from unrighteous- 



3l6 AN ANCIENT HOMILY. 

ness unto righteousness. For sometimes while we do evil things, 
we perceive it not by reason of the double-mindedness and un- 
belief which is in our breasts, and %ve are darkened in onr under- 
standinghy our vain lusts. Let us therefore practise righteousness 
that we may be saved unto the end. Blessed are they that obey 
these ordinances. Though they may endure affliction for a short 
time in the world, they will gather the immortal fruit of the 
resurrection. Therefore let not the godly be grieved, if he be 
miserable in the times that now are : a blessed time awaiteth 
him. He shall live again in heaven with the fathers, and shall 
have rejoicing throughout a sorrowless eternity. 

20. Neither suffer ye this again to trouble your mind, that 
we see the unrighteous possessing v/ealth, and the servants of 
God straitened. Let us then have faith, brothers and sisters. 
We are contending in the lists of a living God ; and we are 
trained by the present life, that we may be crowned with the 
future. No righteous man hath reaped fruit quickly, but waiteth 
for it. For if God had paid the recompense of the righteous 
speedily, then straightway we should have been training ourselves 
in merchandise, and not in godliness ; for we should seem to be 
righteous, though we were pursuing not that which is godly, but 
that which is gainful. And for this cause Divine judgment over- 
taketh a spirit that is not just, and loadeth it with chains. 

To the only God invisible, the Father of truth, who sent 
forth unto us the Saviour and Prince of immortality, through 
whom also He made manifest unto us the truth and the heavenly 
life, to Him be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



II. 
HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 



THE PERSONALITY and life of Hippolytus are beset with 
thorny and perplexing questions on all sides. Of what country 
was he a native ? Where and how did he spend his early life ? Under 
what influences was he brought in his boyhood and adolescence ? Was 
he a simple presbyter or a bishop? If the latter, what was his see? 
Of the works ascribed or attributed to him, how many are genuine? 
What were his relations to the Roman See ? Was he guilty of heresy 
or of schism? If the one or the other, what was the nature of the 
differences which separated him ? Was this separation temporary or 
permanent? Was he a confessor or a martyr, or both or neither? 
What was the chronology of his life and works ? More especially, at 
what date did he die? Has there, or has there not, been some con- 
fusion between two or three persons bearing the same name ? What 
explanation shall we give of the architectural and other monumental 
records connected with his name ? 

These questions started up, like the fabled progeny of the dragon's 
teeth a whole army of historical perplexities confronting us suddenly 
and demanding a solution when less than forty years ago the work 
entitled Philosophumena was discovered and published to the world. 
To most of these questions I shall address myself in the dissertation 
which follows. The position and doings of Hippolytus are not uncon- 
nected with the main subject of these volumes. In the first place ; 
whereas the internal history of the Church of Rome is shrouded in 
thick darkness from the end of the first century to the beginning of the 
third, from the age of Clement to the age of Hippolytus scarcely a 
ray here and there penetrating the dense cloud at this latter moment 
the scene is suddenly lit up with a glare albeit a lurid glare of light. 
Then again ; we have some reason for believing that the earliest 
western list of the Roman bishops may have been drawn up by Hip- 



3l8 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

polytus himself, and it is almost absolutely certain that the first con- 
tinuator of this list, in whose work the earliest notice of Hippolytus 
occurs outside his own writings, was a contemporary (see above, i. 
p. 255, p. 259 sq). The questions asked above have not indeed in 
very many cases any immediate connexion with the matters with which 
we are directly concerned ; but they hang very closely together one 
with another, and this seemed a fit opportunity of placing before the 
reader the results, however briefly, yet with some sort of completeness, 
of the investigations and discoveries which have been stimulated by the 
publication of the Philosophuniena. 

I. 
ANCIENT REFERENCES TO HIPPOLYTUS. 

Following the course which I have pursued in other cases, I shall 
here gather together the ancient documentary evidence and traditions 
relating to Hippolytus, considering that I shall best consult the con- 
venience of my readers as well as my own, by so doing. At the head 
of these are placed the references from Hippolytus himself to his own 
life and writings. In so doing I shall take the liberty of assuming pro- 
visionally the Hippolytean authorship of several writings, deferring the 
reasons for so assigning them till the proper occasion. The cross-refer- 
ences from the one to the other in these writings are the most import- 
ant and unsuspicious evidence of authorship. I shall also include some 
notices of Gaius the Roman presbyter, a contemporary of Hippolytus ; 
because the two are frequently confused in ancient authorities so 
much so as to arouse the suspicion that Gaius was only another name 
for Hippolytus, and that he had no distinct personality. This question 
also I shall discuss presently. 

These notices will be cited in the discussions which follow as AR, 
with the number and letter, and {where necessary) the page. 

I. Hippolytus [c, a.d. 230], 

() Refutatio Haeresium i. prooem. (p. 2, Miller). 

OuSei/a /xvdov twv Trap' "EXXijcri vevofXLcrixivwv TrapaiTrjreov. TrtaTo. yap 
Kol Tct dcrvaTara avTwv Soyjaara rjyr]Tiov 8ta ttjv virep(3d\\ov(Tav tcov alpe- 
Tt/c(5i/ /xavLav, ot Bid to crtwTrav aTrOAcpuTrrctv re ra apprjra cavTwv ixvcTTTjpia 
ivojxLa6r](rav ttoXXois edv crefSeiv wv Koi TraXat /xcTptto? ra SoyfjiaTa i^eOe- 
jXi-Oa, ov Kara Xctttov e7ri8ct'.^avT?, aXX' dSpofxepws eXey^avre?, fjirjSkv d^LOv 
qyrjH'dyL^voL ra dpprjTa auTwv is <^t3s ayeiv, ottw; 8i' alviyfidrwv tjfxwv IkB^- 
fjivwv Tct Bo^avra aurots alrr^vvOivre^ jUi^TTore Kai ra apprfTa i^enrovreii 
ddeov; eTrtSet^w/ACV, TraiJO-covTai [ti] t^s dXoyicrTOv yv(j}fir]<; kol ddefiiTov 7rt;^ct- 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 319 

pjj'crca)?. aXX' cttci opaJ ixrj 8ucra)7rou/AeVovs avTOv'i rrjv rjfieTepav eTriciKetav 
/AT^Se Xoyt^o/AeVors, ws cog fx.aKpoOvfXl vir avrQv fiXa(r(firjixovixevo<;, ottws r/ 
atSeo-^evTs fjieTavoyjcrwaLV 7} cTrt/AeivavTes SiKatws Kpi6(2cn, /Jiacr^eis 7rpoifx.i 
Set^wv airwv ra diropprjTa p.vcrTrjpia...Tavra 8e eVepos ovk eXc'y^ci ^ to ei/ 
iKKXrjcriq. irapahoOlv aytov Trvcvyixa, oii tt;xovt9 Trporepot 01 aTroo-ToXoi p,T- 
Socrav Tots op^ws TreTrto-TCVKo'o-tv wi/ Ty/xeis StaSoxoi ruyxavovres ti^s T 
avTT/s vdptTO? p,TexovTes apxicparctas re Kat SiSao-KaXtas Kat ^povpoi Trj<; 
cKKXT/o-tas XiXoyia-jxevoi ovk ocjiOaXfJiQ vvcrTa^ofxev ovSk \6yov 6p66v 

{TUsHTiOfliV K.T.X. 

This extract is taken from the text of Diel's Doxographi Graeci (Berolin. 1879); 
the remaining extracts, from the edition of Duncker and Schneidewin. 

{b) Ref. Haer. vi. 42 (p. 202). 

Kat yap Kat o p,aKaptos Trpecr/JuVepos Eipi^vatos TrapprjaiatTepov tw 
eXeyxo) 7rpo(rVcx^'5 TOtarra \oi;crp.aTa Kat aTroXrTpwo-cts i^Wero, a'Spo- 
fiKpi(jrpov ciTTwv a Trpdcro-ova-LV, ots cvtv^ovtcs rtves avTwi/ rjpvrjVTaL outws 
TrapetXT^c^eVat, det dprfxaOai fjiav6dvovTs. 8to t^povTis 17/*''' yeyevrjraL dKpi- 
(SecTTepov iTTLtriTrjaaL Kat aj/cvptv XtTrro/Aepws, a Kat ev tw Trpwru) Xorrpo) 
irapaStSoacrt k.t.X. 

((t) i?(?/: i7<7^r. vi. 55 (p. 221 sq). 

"^A TrapaTiOivai (jlol ovk ISo^^cv, ovra cf>Xvapd kol d(TV(nara, r]Sr] tov fiaKa- 
p'lov irpea^vTspov 'ElprjvaLOv Setvws Kat -rreTrovrjixevu)? ra 8o'yp,aTa aiJTaiV 8te- 
Xey^avTos, Trap' ov koI aurwv e^eup>/p,aTa [TrapetXT^c^a/xev] eTrtSetKvvvres 
avToiis IIv^ayopetoK <j!)tXocro(^tas Kat ao-rpoXoywv Trepicpytas raCra (T(^(.Tpt- 
(Ta}x.ivov<; cyKaXetv Xpto-Tw raiJTa TrapaSeSwKcVat. 

(^) i?<?/: ZT^^r. ix. 6, 7 (p. 278 sq). 

IIoXXot} tolvvv toS Trept 7rao-wv atpeVewv ycvop-eVou i^'p.tv ciycovos fxrjdiv ye 
dvciiXiyKTOV KaraXtTroCo-t, TreptXetTreTat vCv d /i-eyto-Tos aywv, iK^Lrjyrja-aG-Oai 
KoX SteXe'y^at ras e(/)' >J/xtv eTravaoraVas atpeVets, 8t' tof TtV? a/^aPets Kat 
ToXixrjpol Stao-KcSavvvctv l-n-e\f.iprj(rav Trjv cKKXiycrtav, fxiyi(nov Tapa^ov Kara 
irdvTa TOV Koupiov iv irdai Tots Trto-rots e/x^aXXovTes. Sokci yap 7rt T7/v 
JpvT^ydv Twv KaKwv yf.vofx.ivqv yvw/Aijv 6p[x-i](TavTa<; SteXe'y^at, Ttvcs at TauTi;? 
apvat, ottos cvyvcoo-TOt at cKc^uaScs aur^s diracn yevofxevat KarafjipovrjOuia-L. 

Veyivy]TaL rts oVd/xart Noryro's, tw yeVet S/Avpvatos. outos elo-rjyrjaaTO 
aipecTLV Ik tcov 'HpaKXetTou Soypartov ou StctKoi/o? Kat fxaOrjrrjs yivcraL Eittl- 
yovds Tts Touvo/xa, os tt7 'Pcop-r; iTTLSrjfxrj a a<i cTreo-Tretpe tt/v a^eov yvwp-rjv. w 
fxaO-qrevcra^ KXeofJiivrjs, kol yStw Kat TpoTrw aXXoVptos t^s eKKXTjcrtas, Kpa- 
Tvve TO Sdyp-a, Kar' cKCtvo KatpoS Zecjivpcvov SteVetv vop.t^ovTos Tr?v iKKXrjCTLav, 
civSpos tStojTOU Kat ato-xpoKtpSous- [os] tw KepSet Trpoo-<^pop,eV(j) Tret^dp,vos 
o-wcYwpet Tots TTpoo-toDcrt tw KXeop.eVet fji.a6r]TVa6ai, Kat avros VTroavpo- 



320 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

fievos T<3 )(povw cTTi Ta avrd wp/xrjTO, cv/xjSovXov Kai o"waytuvio"ToS tcoj/ KaKuv 
ovTos auTw KaXXticTTOu, ov Tov ^Lov KoX Trjv ecf)evp$eLa-av aipecnv /xer ov ttoXv 
iKBrjarofiai. TovTUiv Kara. 8ia8o;(}^v Sufieive to StSacrKaXetov KpaTWO/xevov 
Kttt cTrav^ov 8ia to (TwaLpeaOai avTOts tov Zicfivplvov koI toj/ KaXXto'TOv, 
KaiTOL rjjxw ixrj^iiTOT <Tvy)(U)prj(rdvT(iiv, aXXa 7rAcio"TaKts dvTLKaOecrTwTwv 
Trpos avTOvs Kai StcXeyl-avTcoi' koi aKOVTas /?tao"ayu,eva)v tt^v aXrjBuav o//,oXo- 
yeiv oY Trpos /x.v c3/Dai/ at8ov/AVOi /cat {itto t^s dXrjOiias crvvayo'/ACvoi o5/aoXo'- 
yorv, /LACT oi ttoXi; Se 7ri tov avTov (Sopfiopov dveKvXiOVTO. 

(e) Ref. Haer. ix. 8 (p. 280). 

AXX ci Ka.1 Trporepov e/cKeiTat v<^' yjjxwv iv TOts ^iXoo'o^ov/xevois 17 So^a 
HpaKXetTOu, aXXa ye Sokci TrpocravaTrapa^drjvaL kul vvv, ottojs 8ta tov cyyt- 
ovos eXey^ou (^avcpco? SiSai^^aio-ii' 01 toi'tou vo/ai'^ovtc? XpiorToO etvai fiaOrj- 
Tas, ov/c ovTa?, aXXo, tov o"kotivov. 

(/) J?e/. Haer. ix. ii- 13 (p. 284 sq). 

TavTT^v TT^v alpecTLV CKpctTvve KaXXio-T09, dvrjp iv KaKia Travovpyos koi 
TTOtKiXo? Trpos TrXavr^v, 6rjp(OfXvo<s tov t^s iTTLCTKOTrr}'; Opovov. tov Zt^vpu'ov, 
avSpa t8iwT?;v Kat dypdp,p.aTOv koX drreipov T(J3v iKKXrjanaa-TLKwv opcov, ov 
TTiiOdiv Sofxacn kol dTraLTtjaecTLV dTreip7]ixevaL<; ^yev eis o c^ovXcto, oi'Ta 8o)po- 
XrjTTT'qv KoX (f)iXdpyvpov, tTreiO^v det (rrdaw; e/x/JaXctv dvafxicrov Tt3v aSeX^wr, 
avTos Ta ap.(f)OTepa fJ^epi] vcrrepov KcpKWTretots Xoyoi? Trpos cavTOv (faXiav 
KaTa(TKva^u)V, kol TOts /x.ev dXT/^ctav [Xeycov o/xotal (fipovovai ttotc kut' iStav 
TCI 0[X0La <fipovLV [Xeywv] -q-rrdra, -rrdXiv S' av tois Ta 2a/3eXXtov o/x.otws, ov 
Ktti avTov i^ecTTrjcre SvvdfXvov KaropOovv. iv ydp tw v^' rjfxm' irapaLveLaOai 
OVK i(TKX7]pvvTO, tjviKa St cvv T<3 KaXXiVTO) ifxova^ev, vtt avTov dveo^etCTo 
Trpos TO Soy/xa to KXcoyacvovs piweLV (jid(TKOVTO<; rd ofxoia c^poveiv. d 8e 
TOTC )u,ev Ti}v Travovpytav avTOV ovjc evdet, av^is Se eyvw, ws St?/y7^0"o/xai yacT* 
ov TroXv. avTOv Se tov Zec^vpivov Trpodycov Brjixoaia eireiOe Xcyetv 'Eyw otSa 
va edv Xpto'TOV 'It^o^ovv, Kai TrXT/v avTOv CTcpov ovSeva yevrjTov kol Tradrj- 
Tov TTore 8e Xeywv Ov;^ d IlaTiyp aTre^avev, dXXct o Yios* ovtcos aTravo^TOv 
TT/v (TTacnv iv tw Xaw 8teTT]pr]aev ov Tci voyp-ara yvdvTcs y]fii<i ov o"vvc;^to- 
povp.v, cXey^ovTcs Kat dvTLKa9i<Trdp.e.voi vTrep ttjs dXT/^etas" os ets airovoiav 
;(a)pwv Std to TrdvTas avTOv rjj vtroKpiatL crvvTp6;^tv, 77/Ads Se ov, aTrc/ca'Xet 
ly/Acis St^e'ovs, iiifxuiv vrapa ^tav tov ev8o/xv;^ovvTa avTw tov. tovtov tov fiiov 
8oKt yj/juv dyairtjTov iKOicrOai, Trct KaTa tov avTov )^p6vov Tjfuv eycyovci, 
OTrws Std TOV (}>avrjvai tov tolovtov ttjv avaaTpocfttjv cvcTrtyvwo'TOS /cat Ta^^a 
TOts vovv ^ovo"tv cvrjOrji yivrjTai -q 8ta tovtov iTnKeyf.iprjp.ivq atpeo^is. ovtos 
ip.apTvpr]crv CTrt <J>ovo-Ktavov iirdp-^ov ovtos 'Fwfxrjs' o Bk Tpoiros Trjs avTov 
/LtapTvptas Totoo^Sc 7]v 

OiKCTTjs cTvy^ave KapTro^opov tivos avSpos TruTTOv ovTos k t^s Kai- 
o"apos otKtas. tovtw d Kap7ro<^opos, aT 8>; ws TrtoTW, ^prjp.a ovk oXtyov 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 32 1 

KaT7rio"TucrV, iTrayyet\dfJievo<; KepSos Trpoaoiaeiv e/c Trpay/Aareia? rpaTre^i- 
TtJC^S' OS Xa(3(ii)v TpuTre^av lire)(eipr}(Tv iv rrj Xeyofxevji Trta-KLvfj TrovirkLKr], w 
ovK oXtyat TrapaOijKai tw ^p6v(o iwiaTevOyjaav vtto ^-qpwv Koi aSeXffxJUi' ivpo- 
(T^rjfxaTi Tov Kapnocfiopov. o 8e i$a(f>avLcra<; ra irdvTa rjirop^i. ov ravra 
Trpa^avTO<; ovk eXiTrei' os dirayyeiXr] xw Kap7ro</)op<i)' o Sc c<^i7 aTrairftv 
Aoyows Trap avrov. ravra crui'tSojv o KaXXtoros kol tou irapd tou Secnrorov 
Kivovvov V(^opwyu,vos, ctTTtSpa rrjv (jmyqv Kara 6d\acr(rav 7rotou/xvos' os 
cuptov TrXotov 1/ Tw IIopTa) eroifjiov Trpos ai/aywy)yv, ottov cTTjy^avc ttXcov, 
avepy) 7rXTJ(Top.evos. aXX' ovSe ovtws Xa^eu' SeSiTT^Taf ov yap cXtTrev 6s 
aTrayyetX?^ tw Kap7ro</)opa) to yeyevr]p.ei'Ov. 6 Se c7rio"Tas Kara tov Xifxiva 
iTretparo iirl to TrXoiov opjxdv Kara \ja\ jjie^r]vvp.va' rovro oe t^v cotos ev 
fi(7io riS XifievL. TOV 8k 7rop^p.ea>s jSpaSwovTOS i8a)v troppoidev o KaXXitrTos 
TOJ/ SecTTTOTy^v, ojv CI' T(3 TrXoi'o) ;<at yvov<; iavrov avreLXfjcfydai, -q^ei^Tqa-f. tov 
^yjv Kol eo'^^ara Tavxa Xoytcrct/xevos ppnj/ev eavrov eis tt^v ddXaacrav. ol Se 
vavTtti KaxaTTr/STyo-avTes cts Ta o-Kd<f)r] aKovra avTov dveiXovro, Ttoi' 8e (xtto 
Ti^s y^s /xeyaXa f^oojvTMV Kal ovtws tw Seairorrj TrapaSo^cfs iTrav7]^0rj eis 
ttJv 'Pw/xTyi/, 01' d Seo^TTOTTjs ets TTicrrpivov KareOero. )(p6i'ov Se SteX^dvTos, oJs 
cv/A^aiVei ycvecrOat, 7rpoaeX66vT<; ctSeX^ot TrapcKoXow tov Kap7ro(^opoi/, 
OTTOJs iiaydyr] Trj<; KoXacrews tov Spa7rerr]v, cf)d(TKOvre<; avTov d/AoXoyeiv ex^"' 
TTapa TLcri )(p7]fia aTroKci/xevov. d 8e KapTroc^dpos, ws cvXa/^T/s, tov p,v iStov 
tXeycv at^etbeiv, tcov 8e TrapaOrjKMV (fipovrit,eiv ttoXXoi yap avTw aTrt/cXaiovTO 
XeyovTes, oTi T(3 avTov Trpoa-y^rjfxart iTTLO'revcrav tui KaXXtcrTO), d TTeincrrevKei- 
<rav KaL TrcicrPets iKeXevcrev e^ayayetv avTov. d 8e /ATjSev et^wv aTroStSdvat, 
Kat TraXtv aTroSiSpaaKciv ju.iy Svva/xcvos Sict to cf>povpL<T0aL, ri^Q'rjv Oavdrov 
7revo7jo-, Ktti aafi/Sdrco (TKr]\pdixevo<i aTrtcvai ojs eVt ^^pewcrTas, (jjpfJirjcrev eirl 
Ttjv avvayoiyrju twv 'lovSat'wv crvvqyjxeviav, Ka\ o^Tas KaT0"Tao"ta^ev avTwv. 
ol Se KaTao-Tao-tao-^cvTes vir avrov, evvySptcravTes avrov Kat TrXyjyas efxf^oprj- 
cravTCS ecrvpov eTrt tov 4>ov(JKiavdv tirap-^ov ovra rfjs ttoXcws. aTreKpivavro 
oe ToSe* 'Pw/xatot o"vv;!(ojp'70"av 'qixlv tovs TraTpwovs vdp,ovs 8r]fxo(TLa. avayt- 
vtDCTKeiv, oi^Tos 6e 7reto"eX^cuv ckwXvc /caTao'Tao-ta^wv yjfxwv, cfiao-KOJV eivat 
XptoTTiavos. TOV Se ^ovcTKtavov Trpd firifjLaro<i rvy^vovro<i /cat TOts vtt 'Iov- 
oatujv Xcyo/aevots KaTa rov KaXXtcTov dyava/cTovvTos, ovk eXiTrev d aTray- 
yetXas to) K.apTrocj)6pio rd irpacrarofxeva. 6 8e cr7revo"as iTrl ro Prjfxa rov 
eTTapxov e/8oa- Aeo/xat, Kvpte 4>ovo"Ktavc, )u,7^ crv avTo) -rrLcrreve, ov yap icrri 
XptcTTtavos, dcjiopfi-qv 8k ^rjrii Oavdrov -^prjixard fxov iroXXd a<^avto"as, ojs 
aTToSet'tw. Twv Se 'lovSatwv virofioXrjv rovro vofXLcrdvruiv, ws ^v^tovvtos tov 
KapTTOc^dpov ravry rfj Trpo<j>d(TL efeXea^ai avTdv, p,aXXov eTrtc^^ovws KaTC- 
ySdwv TOV lirdp-)(pv. 6 Se Ktvr/^eis vtt* avTwv, //.acTTiy coo-as avTOv eScoKCV ets 
jLteTaXXov SapSovias. /xeTa ^pdvov Se Irepoiv eKei dvTwv fxaprvpuyv, OeXijaaaa 
7} MapKta epyov Ti ayaOov ipydo-aaOai, ovcra c^tXd^eos TraXXaK?; Ko/xdSov, 
Trpoo-KaXecra/Ae'vTy rov p,aKaptov OvtKTopo, dvTa kivicrKOTrov rrj<; iKKX-qo'ias Kar 

CLEM. II. 21 



322 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

tKcij/o Kaipov, kinqpuyra, Tivcs etev kv ^apSovta ^aprvpe?. o Se TravTcoT aVa- 
Sous Ttt 6v6[xaTa, to tou KaXXtcrrov ovk cScokev, i8w5 to, rcToXp-Tj/Aeva Trap' 
avrou Tu^ovCTa ow t^s a|-t(oo"6a)S >; MapKta Trapa tou Ko/aoSou, StSojcrt tijv 
aTToXvcrt/AOV e7rtcrToXi)v 'YaKtv^o) Ttvi o-TraSovrt Trpccr/^DTepcj, os Xa^wv Stc- 
TrXeucrev cts ti)v SapSovtW, /cat aTroSovs tw xar eKCtvo Kaipov t^s ^copas 7rt- 
TpoTTeuovTt a7rXv(r tous /j.dpTvpa'i TrXrjv tot) KaXXtcrrov, o Se yovuTrcTwr 
Kttt SaKpuoJv iKeVcve Kai avros rv^etv aTroXiJcrco)?. SvcwTn^^cts oSv o 'Yokiv- 

^09 a^ioi Tov liTLTpoTTOv , <^a(TK(jiv 6pe{j/a<; ctvai Map/cia?, Tacro"Oyu.evos 

avT(3 TO OKtvSvvov o Se TreicrOeis an^Xvcre koI tov KaXXtcrTOv. ov Trapaye- 
vo/xivov 6 OvtKTtop iravv rj^$TO Itti tw yeyovori, aXX' eTrel V(nrXay^vo<s ^v, 
T](TV)(acre' (jjvXacrcrofjievos Se tov vtto ttoXXwv oveiSov (ov yap ^v fxaKpav rd 
VTT avTOv TeToXfxrjixiva), Tt Se Kai tov KapTro^opov avTiiriTTTOVTOS, TrifXTrei 
avTov Kara/xiveLV iv Av^eto), opiaa^ avTw firjvtalov ti eKTpocf)'^';. fJieO' ov 
KOLfx.rjO'LV Zec^vptvos a-wapafxevov avTOv a')(0}v Trpos ttjv Karao^Tao'iv to5 
kXt/pou, iTLixrjae tw tStco KaK<S, koI tovtov p-eTayaywv aTro toS 'AvOeiov i? to 
KOLfxrjTTqpiov KaTe(TTr)(7v. w del crvvwv Kai, Ka^ojs (jiOdaa^ irpouTTOv, vtto- 
Kptcret avTov ^epaTreuwv, iirjcjiavLcre p.'JTC Kptvat ra Xcyo'p,eva Swa/xevoi/ /xt^tc 
voowTa TTjv ToS KaXXtVTOu iTTcfSovXrjv, Travra avT<2 Trpos d yjSeTO op.tXovvTOs. 
owTco /xcTci T1/V TOU Ze(fivpLVOV TeXcvTTjv vo^at^wv TeTv^T^/cevai ov iOrjpaTO, rov 
^a/SeXXiov d-Trewcrev aJ9 /at) cf>povovvTa op^ws, SeSoiKcos ep,e xat vofJiit,(x)v ovtw 
Svvao-^ai aTroTpLij/auOai T'qv Trpos Tas KKX->^crt'as Karrfyopiav, ws fiiy aXXoTptws 
(f>pov(av. ^v ovv yoj^s Kai Travovpyos Kai ctti xpovw crvvrjpTracre ttoXXovs. 
I^^wv Se Ktti TOV lov yKip.cvov v T7J KopSia, Ktti v^a)s /xrjSev cppovwv, dfia 
8e Kai aiSov/xevos Ta dXrjOrj Xeyeiv, 8ia to ZrjjJioaia iqfjuv oveiSi^ovra eiTreiv, 
Si6eOL eo'TC, aXXa Kai Sia to vtto tov '^afSeXXiov (Tv;^vws Kar'qyope'iaBaL o5s 
TrapajSdvra Trjv TvpwTrjv ttlcttlv, ec^evpev aipeo^iv ToiavSe, Xe'ywv tov Aoyov 
avTov tvai viov, avTov Kat narepa ovofxaTt fxkv KaXovjxivov, ev Se ov to 
Trvv/jia aSiaipcTov* ovk aXXo civat irarepa, aXXo Se viov, v Se Kai ro avro 
V7rapviv Kai Tci TravTa ycyueiv tov Oclov TTvev/^aTos Ta t avco Kai KaTW Kat 
eivai TO V rrj TrapOivo) (xapKwOkv irv.vp.a ov;^ CTcpov Trapa tov TraTepa, aXXa 
ev Ktti TO avTo. Kai tovto civai to clprjixevov ov ttio-tcvcis oti cyco iv 
T<3 TraTpl Kai d irarrjp iv ifxoL; to /xev yap /SXeiro fxevov, OTrep icTTiv 
dvOpwTTO'S, TOVTO elvai rov vlov, to Se iv T(S vtw ^(oprjOkv Trvevfxa tovto eivat 
TOV TraTepa- ov yap, (ftrjaLV, ipw Svo 6eov<;, iraTcpa Kai vlov, dXX tva. o yap 
iv avTcS yevd/xevos TraTrjp Trpoo-Xa^Sd/xevos tt/v crdpKa iOeoTroirjcrev ivwcra? 
eavTto, Kai iTToCrjcrev ev, ws KaXeiaOai TraTepa Kai vlov eva uOv, Kai tovto ev 
ov Trpdo'toTrov /a?) Svvao^^ai eivat 8vo, Kai ovtws tov TraTepa crvp-TreTr-ovOevai t(S 

vloi- ov yap OeXet Xeyciv tov TraTepa TreTrovOevai Kai ev eivai TrpoaioTTOv 

CK<^vyetv Trjv els tov TraTepa l3Xaa(f>r]ixiav o avorjTOS Kai ttoiklXos, o avw KaTw 
CTKeSa^wv j3Xaa(f>rjiJ.La<i, i'va fxovov KaTa Trjs dX-qOeias Xeyetv 8ok-^, ttotI fxev 
eis TO SajSeXXiov 8dyp.a e/ATriTrTWV, ttotc Se eis to eoSoVov ovk aiSeiTat. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 323 

ToiavTa 6 y6r]<; ToXfx-qcra'i crvvea-TijcraTO StSacrKaAetov Kara i^s iKK\r](TLa<; 
ouTcos StSa^as, Ktti TTjOWTO? Toi TT/Dos Ttts T^Sovois Tots av^ptuTTOts CTvy^wpeiv 
eTrevorjcre, Xeytov -rraaLv vir avTOv afjiUaOat afj.apTia<;. o yap Trap erepo) tlvl 
(Twayo/Aevos /cat Xeyo/xevos Xpio-riavos et ti av ap-aprrj, t^aa-iv, ov Xoyt^erai 
auTw 17 dfiapTia, el Tr/aocrSpa/xot t^ toi) KaXA-tcrToi; o-)(o\f]. ov to) opw apc- 
(TKOfievoL TToWol (TvvLSrj(TLV 7re7rX>7yoTS a/xa re Kat utto ttoXAwv aipecrcwv 
dtro/^XrjOevTes, Ttve? 8e Kai 7rt Karayvwcrei iK(3Xr]T0L rrj's iKKXy}(TLa<; v(f> t^/xcov 
yevofcevoi, Trpo(r)(U)py](ravTe<; avrois cTrXi^^wav to SiSaaKaXeiov avTOv. outo? 
iSoy/jLaTLcrev ottws el eTriV/coTTOs d[xdpTOt tl, el Kat Trpos ^avaTov, /at^ Setv 
KaTaridecrdaL. ctti totjtou rjp^avTO lirifTKOiroL kcu TrpecrjSvTipoL Kai StaKovoi 
Stya/xot Kai Tptya/xoi KaOidTaa-dat ets KXijpov^- et Se Kat tis ei' KAiypw cuv 
yaixoiT}, fj.evetv rov tocovtov iv toJ KXrjpw ws /at; iqjj.apTqKOTa' etti tovto) 
(f>d(rKOiv clpyjaOaL to utto tou ctTrocToXoi; prjOev (Tv Tts et o Kptvwv aA- 
Ao'Tpiov otKCTT/v; ctAAtt Kat TrapajBoXriv twv ^t^aviW Trpos toCto ecj^y; 
Acyecr^af ae^eTC Tct ^i^avta o^vvav^ctv tw ctltw, TovTecTiv iv rrj ck- 
KXyjaia tovs dp-apTavovTa?. aAAa Kat Tr;i/ kijSwtoi' toi) Nwe ets ofJLOLWfxa 
iKKXr)(TLa<; e(j>r] yeyovevat, V 17 Kat Kwes Kat AijVot Kat KopaKCS Ka\ iravra ra 
Kadapd KoX aKdOapra' ovto) cftacrKUiV Setv etvat iv iKKXrjcTLa op,oto)S" Kat ocra 
Trpos toSto SuvaTos ^v crwdyeLV outws T]pp.r]vev(rv, ov 01 aKpoaTat ycrOivre's 
TOts 8oy/Aao"t 8ta/jtevoio"ti/ e/XTrat'^oi'Tes lavTots tc kui ttoAAois, wv tw StSacTKa- 
Aetw (Tvppiovariv o')(Xoi, 8t6 Kat TrAry^wovTat yavptwfxevoL iiri o;(Aots 8ta Tas 
TySovas, as ov crvvex<^pi^o-ev 6 Xptoro's* ov KaTae^poj/iyoravTCS ovSev a/xapTeiv 
KwAvoDcri, c})d(XK0VTe<; avrov d<^Uvai Tots euSoKovo-t. Kat yap Kat yuvat^ti/ 
i-rreTpeij/ei', et avavSpot etev Kat rjXiKLa ye eKKatotVTO ava^to, 77 eavTwv a^iav fxrj 
(3ovXoLVTO KaOacpetv Sta to voixi/jlw; ya[X7]0rjvai, ;>(etv eva ov dv alpyja-iovTai 
(TvyKOLTOv, etTC olKTy}v etTe eAew^epov, Kat tovtov KptVctv avTt avSpos /x,-); 
vo/xo) yeyafji.r]iMivr)v. ivOev rjp^avTO CTrt^etpetv incrTai Aeyop,vat aTOKtots ^ap- 
lxdKOi<; Kat TreptSecp-eto-^at Trpos to Tct auAAa/x/3ai/op.eva KarafSaXXeiv, 8ia to 
/utT^Te eK Sov'Aoi; (3ovXe(r0aL e;)(etv TeVvov /XTyTC e^ ewreAoCs, Sta t?/v o-uyyeVetav 
Kat vTrepoyKov ovaiav. opdre ets oo-?jv acrejSeiav i\(x)pr]a-ev o ai'o/xos p-ot^^ctav 
Kat (f>6vov iv Tw avT(3 Si8ao"Ka)i/- Kat eTrt TOUTOts TOts roXp.7]fx.a(iLv eavTovs ot 
dirrjpv6pLaap.V0L KaOoXLKrjv iKKXyjaiav oTroKaAetv eTrtxetpouo-t, Kat Tives vop,t- 

^OVTS V TrpCtTTetV CrWTp;(OUO-tV aVTOtS. CTTI TOUTOU TrpoJTWS TT0Ap,17Tat 0K- 
Tcpov aVTOtS fiaTTTKTfXa. 

TauTa p,v ovv d ^avp,acriwTaTOS KctAAtcrTOS o-weo-TTycraTO, ou otajucvet to 
SiSao-KaAetoj/ cjivXaacrov Tct e^r; Kat t7;v Trapd^oaiv, p.17 StaKpivov Ttcrt Set 
Koii/wvctv, Trao"t 8' dKp!.TM<i wpocrcfiepov rrjv Koivwviav a<^ ou Kat ti^v toC ovo- 
p,aTos fxeria-)(ov iTriKXrjaLv KaXcLcrOat Sid tov irpuiToaTaTrjcravTa twj' toiovtwv 
c'pywv KaAAto"Tov KaAAio"Ttavot. 

TouTov KaTti TravTtt tov Koafiov SirjX'f]0eLa"r]<; t^s StSacrKaAtas, cj'tSwv tt/j' 
Trpay/AaTetav av7)p 8oAtos Kai aVovo/as ye'/xwj/, 'AAKt^taSiys Tts KaAoup.evos, 

21 2 



324 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

OLK^ov iv 'ATra/Aeia riys Svpt'as, yopyorepov eavTov Kot ivcjjveompov iv KU|8eiai? 
KpiVas Tov KaXXiCTTOV, iTrrjXOe Trj 'Pw/aij (jyepuiv /3i(3\ov Tivd, <j)dcrKwv Tavrrjv 
aTTO "^Tjpwv Trj<% HapOta? TrapetXr/t^eVai tlvoL dvSpa St'Katov 'HX^ao-a't. 

(g) Ref. Haer. x. 15 (p. 310). 

1. TaSc tv(TTiv iv Trj SeKaTrj tov Kara Trao'cov alpeaewv eXcy^^ov 

2. iTTLTOfxr/ iravTwv twv (f)LXoao(f>oiv, 

3. iirtTOfjirj TracroSv [twv] alpecrewv, 

4. Kai CTTt Tracrt, Tts o T17? a\7]6eta^ Xoyos. 

5. TOV Xajivpivdov Twv aipeVewv ov jSt'a hiapprj^avTe^, aXXa /aovw 
Xcy;(() dXrjOe[a<; Swa'/xet StaXwavTCS, irpocrifxev enX ttjv rfj<; dXrj6La<; arro- 
Sei^iv K.T.X. 

{/i) Ref. Haer. x. 6 (p. 311). 

Sv/A7rpiXa/3ovTe? TOt'vvv Ta iravroiv twv Trap EXXryo't (ro<f)wv ooyixara eu 
reacrapcTL (BilSXioL^, rd 8c T015 aipecriapx^i? ev TrevTC, vvv tov Trcpt aXrjOcia^ 
Xoyov ev a eTTtSei^o/xev, dvaKe<^aXaLovfxevoi irpioTOV Tct Tracrt ScSoKrjfjieva. 

(i) Ref. Haer. x. 30 (p. 331). 

'Hcrav 8e ovtoi 6/3 I^vt;, <Sv Kai Ta ovo'^aTa eKTeOeifieOa iv cTepats ^t/3Xoi?. 

(/^) ^^. Zra<fr. X. 32 (p. 334). 

Et <f)LXoixa6rjcrov(rL Koi Tas tovtojv ovo"tas Kat Ta? aiTtas tt^s KOTa TravTa 
Sr)fj.iovpyM<; iint,T]Ty]aovcnv, ctcrovTai cvtut^ovtcs rjixwv /3t/3Xco Trepif^ovcrr; 
Ilept TT^s Tou TravTOs ouo-taq* to Se vvv iKavov eivat iKOeaOai Ta? at- 
Tta?, as ov yvovTs 'EXXyyves KOfJixf/ijo t<3 Xoyu) Ta (Jf-ipf] t^s KTitreo)? cSo^acav 
TOV KTLcravTa ayvorjcravTe?. 

(/) >?^. Haer. x. 34 (p. 338). 

TotovTOS o Trepi to ^etov dXr]6r]^ Xoyos, w av^pwTroi ' EXXt^vcs t xai /?ap- 
(iapoL, XaXSatot' T /cai 'Ao"crvptoi, AtyvTTTioi Te Kai AtjSvcs, 'IvSoi T Kat 
AWlottci;, KeXTOt te Kat ot cTTpaTryyovvTes AaTtvot, TravTCS t ot tt^v EvpwTnjv 
'Acriav tc Kat AtySviyv KaTotKOvvTes, ots o'v//./3ovXos eyw ytvo/xat, cf>LXav6pw7rov 
Xoyov virap-^wv p,a^7yTi;s Kat c^tXav^pcoTros, ottws TrpocrSpa/xovTCs StSa^^^i^TC 
Trap' tJ/awv, Tts o ovtws eos. 

2. Chair of Hippolytus [c. a.d. 236 ?]. 

The date of the statue of Hippolytus will be discussed hereafter. 
It is sufficient to say here that it must have been erected within a few 
years of his death. He is seated on a chair, of which the base is 
inscribed on the back and two sides. The inscription on the back, 
which is curved, is here marked A. It stands on the right-hand side 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 325 

of this curved back to one facing the same way as the statue, and is 
mutilated. The left-hand side of the back was without any inscription. 
The inscriptions on the right and left sides (the spectator still facing 
the same way), which are straight, are here marked B, C, respectively. 
The positions of the inscriptions may be seen from the engravings of 
the chair in Fabricius i. p. 36 sq. For the inscriptions themselves see 
also Boeckh-Kirchhofif Corp. Inscr. Graec. 8613 (iv. p. 280). 



[npoc Toyc ioyAaJioyc 

[nepi oikongmJiac 

[ic Toyc y]aAmoyc 

[eiC THN er]rACTplMY0ON 
5 Y^ep TOY KATA 100 

ANHN 

eYArreAioY KAi Ano 

KAAYH'6<JiiC 

nepi XApiCMATooM 

10 AnOCTOAiKH HApAAO 

CIC 
XpONIKCON 

npoc cAAhnac 

KAI npoc HATOONA 
15 H KAI nepi TOY HANTOC 

npoTpenTiKoc npoc ce 
BnpeiNAN 
AnoAei2ic xpoNOON 

TOY nAC)(A 
20 KATA CN TOJ niNAKI 

OoAAI IC nACAC TAC fpA 
4)AC 
nepi By KAI CApKOC 
ANACTACeOOC 
25 nepi TAfAeuY KAI 

noOCN TO KAKON 

In 1. 1 the remaining letters niighl be pari of -/xas or -/xtas or -j/tas. In 1. 14 
vaTwva is obviously an error for irXaTwva. In 1. 20 Kara is apparently an error for 
Kara ra and not for Kada (as taken by Kirchhoff). In 1. 21 if tlie first word is cor- 
rectly read wdai, the second is is an itacism for ets. 



326 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

B. 

eroyc a BaciAgiac AAeiANApoy AYxoKpATopoc ere 
Nero H Ai TOY nAC)(A eiAoic AnpeiAiAic caBBato> cm 
BoAiMoy MHNoc reNOMeNoy ecTAi toic e2HC ereciN ka9 
ooc ynoxeTAKTAi eN too hinaki ereNero Ae eN toic nApoa 

XHKOCIN KAGOOC CeCHMeiCOTAI AnONHCTIZecGAI Ae 

Aei oy AN eNnecH KypiAKH 

After this follow the tables for the calculation of the Passover ac- 
cording to a cycle of sixteen years. The times of the celebrations of 
the Passover mentioned in the Old Testament are noted by the side 
of the respective days from the eloAoc down to the nAOoc xpicxoy. 
Seven cycles are given so as to exhibit the relations of the days of the 
week to the days of the month. 

C. 

eTei AAelANApoy KAiCApoc 

TOO A ApXH 
AI KyplAKAl TOy nAC)(A KATA GTOC 

AI Ae nApAKeNTHceic AHAoyci thn Aicnpoe?. 

Then follows a table in which the days of the month on which 
Easter Day falls are given for 112 (i.e. 16x7) years, i.e. from a.d. 222 
to A.D. ^;^^, calculated in accordance with the above cycle. The Sis 
TTpo c| is the bissextum, and the irapaKevTrja-ei^ ('marks in the margin') 
here promised are omitted by the carelessness of the stone-cutter, 
though the leap-years are marked in the previous table of cycles 
bySS. 

3. EUSEBIUS [c. A.D. 325]. 

(a) Histor. Eccles. ii. 25, 

Oi'Scv 8' rjTTOv KOI iKK\r](TLacrTiKo<; dvrjp, VaLo<; ovofxart, Kara Zecf>vp2vov 
PwyLtaiwv yeyovw<; Ittlctkottov 6s ir] TIpoKAo) tt^s Kara <I>pvyas Trpo'icTTafjievm 
yviofxri^ yypac/>cos 8iaX;(^ls avra Brj ravTa wepl twv tottidv, ev6a tcoj/ 
eip7]ixV(x)v aTTOCTToXcDV Ta lepa (TKrjvwfxaTa Karare^eirai, <^7ycrtv 

'Eyci Se Ta rpoiraia twi/ airofTToXdiv e^j^o) Set^at. eav yap ^cXt^ctj^s 
(XTrekOuv iirl roy Bart/cavov rj ctti tt^v dSov ttJv 'ficrrtav, evpiycrets rd rpo- 
iraia twv ravT-qv iSpvcrafxevwv ttjv iKK\r)crLav. 

{b) Hist. Eccl. iii. 28. 

Kara tous SeSiyXco/AeVors yjiovovi erepas aLpia(ii<; dp)(r]y6v yevecrdai 
K.-)]pLv6ov Kapi.L\y](^ap.v. Patos, ov c^tovas rj^r) Trporepov TTapariOiLfJiai, ev 
rfi (f>poixvr] avTov t,y]Trj(rL ravra -nrepl tov avrov ypa^ef 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 327 

'AXAa KOL K.y]ptvOo<i 6 8l aTroKaXvif/(j)v ojs viro airocTToXov fxeyaXov 
yeypafXfjiei'wv TeparoAoytas ^^/x.ii' cos Si' dyyeXoiV aurw SeSety^u-eVas if/evoo- 
fievo<; iireLcrdyei, Xeywv fXiTa Tr]v avaaraaiv eTTLyeiov eivai to /SaaiXeLOV 
Tov XptcTTOu, KOL irdXiv iiri$Vfxi.aLS kol T^Soi'ats iv lepoucraXryyu, ttjv aapKa 
iroXvTf.vofjLivrjv hovXevuv. koi i)(Opos virapxiav rais ypa<f>a'i<; tov fov 
dpLOfxov ^iXtovTaeTtas iv ya/xw eopr-^s OiXwv irXavdv /Vcyei yiVecr^ai. 

{c) Hist. Eccl. iii. 31. 

Kai kv T(2 ratou 8e, ov fjLLKp<2 rrpoaOev ifxvr](rOr]fjiv, SiaXoyo) JJp6kXo<;, 
Trpos ov eTTOieiTO T17V ^ijTtjcrLV, irepl t^s ^iXtTTTroi; Kai t<uv Ovyaripaiv avrov 
TeXevrrj? crvvdSiov tois CKTC^eto'iv outw cftrjciv 

Mera tolItov 8e 7rpo(f>7]TtSe<; TeVo-apes at <l>iXi7r7rou yeyevrjvTai iv 'lepo- 
TToXet Tjj /caret tt^v 'Ao^tav o ratios aurwv eo^Ttv cKet, Kat o tow TraTpos 



auTwv. 



(^) ZT/i-/. ^<r^/. vi. 20. 

HKfia^ov 8e Kara tovto TrXetous Xoytot Kat iKKXrjcriacrTiKOi avopes, tov 
Kat iTTtaroXd';, as Trpds oiXXt^Xous 8te;)(apaTT0v, Tt vvv aw^Ofxeuos evpeiv 
iVTTOpov. at Kat ts >/p.as ifjivXd-^Orjaav iv rfj Kar AlXiav /StfSXLoOrjKrj Trpos 
TOV rrjvLKdSe ttjv avToOi SteVoi/Tos iKKXr]<Tiav 'AXe^avSpov iwiaKevacrOeicrr), 
d({> ^s Kat auTOt Tcts vXas t^s p-erd ;^ctpas UTro^ecrews e^rt TauVo o^wa- 
yayetv 8e8i;i'//A^a. toxStwi' BiypuXXos cvv 7rt(TToXats Kat <rvyypap.p,aT(av 
Sta^opoDs (^tXoKaXtas KaTaXeXotTrei'. 7rto"K07ros 8 oiros '^v Ttov Kara 
BocTTpav 'Apa/3wv ojcraijTcos Se Kat IttttoXdtos, erepas ttou Kat awTos Trpo- 
eo-TOJS iKKXrjata^. ijXOe Se ets tj/acis Kat ratou XoytcuTaTor arSpos 8taXoyos 
eTTt 'Pw/xTys Kara Z(f>vplvov Trpos IIpoKXov T57S Kara ^puyas atpeVecos VTrep- 
fJia^ovvra KCKivrj/xeVos, ev o) TtSv 8t ci'avrtas rryv Trept to crvvTaTTeiv Katvas 
ypa^as irpoTriTeidv re Kat roXpiav iiTi(TTop.i^wv twv tov lepov awoaToXov 
SeKaTpiwv p.6vwv eTrtcTToXcov p.vr]p.ovevL, Trjv wpo'i E^patous p.'j; (Tvvapi6p,7]aa<; 
Tats XotTrats* evret Kat cts 8ei;po irapa Pcoyaatwv rto-tv ou vo/x,t^Tat tot) 
a7roo"ToXoTj Tvy;^avtv. 

(^) ^/5/. ^(T^/. vi. 2 2. 

ToT S^Ttt Kat IttttoXvtos cui/TttTTwv /ACTtt 7rXcto"T(ov aXXwv VTroixvrj[xaT(DV 
Kat TO rrepi toy TTACYA ir^iroir^Tai. avyypaixp.a, iv w twv )(pov(jDV dvaypa- 
<fir]v iKOip.f.vo'; Kat Ttva Kavova KKat8eKaTi7pt8os Trepl tov TTa(T\a Trpo^ets 7ri 
TO TrpwTov Tos AXf^avSpov avTOKpaTopo'S tovs ;)(povovs Trtptypae^et. twi/ 8e 
XotTTcuv avTOi) avyypap.p.dT(x)v Ta ets >;/xas X6'(VTa cVti TaSe" eic THN 
elAHMepON, IC TA MCTA THN elAhMSpON, npOC MApKIOONA, 

eic TO ACMA, eic MepH toy lezeKmA, nepi toy nAC)(A, npoc 

ATTACAC TAC Aipe'ceiC" TrXeto-Ta T XXa Kat Trapa TToXXots evpots dv 
awt,op.va. 



328 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

4. LiBERIAN ChRONOGRAPHER [a.D. 354]. 

(a) Depositio Mariyrwn (see above, i. p. 251). 

Idus Aug. Ypoliti in Tiburtina et Pontiani in Calisti. 

There is reason to believe that this notice is not later than a.d. 335 
(see 1. p. 250, 264) and may have been much earher. 

{b) Catalogus Episcoporu^n (see above, i. p. 255). 

Eo tempore Pontianus episcopus et YppoUtus presbiter exoles sunt 
deportati in Sardinia in insula nociva, Severo et Quintiano cons. 
[a.d. 235]. 

This notice in all probability dates from about a.d. 255 (see i. p. 
263). 

5. Epiphanius [c. a.d. 375]. 

Haeres. xxxi. 35 (p. 205). 

'Hymeis ^\ apKCcr^evTes rots t Trap' ly/Awv \e.ypCiuiv oXtyots ko-i toi? vttq 
Twv riys aXiy^eia? (rvyypa<f>ewv tovtu)v XexOucri re koI avvTayOfla-i, koI 
d/3covTs OTt aXXot TreTrovrjKacrt, cjirjfju Se KXt^/at^s kol Eip^^vatos Kai IttttoXvtos 
Koi aXXot TrXet'ous, o\ /cat OavfiaaTw^; ttjv Kar aurwv TreTrotijvrat avarpoTrrjv, 
oil Travu Tt TO) Ka/Aarw Trpoo-^eivai, ws TrpoetTrov, T^deXTJcrajxev, LKavw6evTs rots 
7rpocLpr]fx.evoL<; avSpacrt k.t.X. 

6. Apollinaris? [c. a.d. 370]. 

Mai Scrip f. Veter. Nov. Collect, i. p. 173. 

'A7roXtvaptou...Evo"e/3ios o Ila/xt^tXou Kai IttttoXutos o ayiajraros ctti'- 

(TKOTTOS 'PcojLirjs aTTciKa^oucn Ti^v 7rpoKifiev7]v Tov ^ajSov^oSovocrop opaaiv rrj 

Tov Trpo<fir]Tov AaviT^X oirTaaia. 

A comment on Daniel ii. 34 in a Catena; see Lagarde p. 171. Reasons will be 
given below (p. 431 sq) for questioning the ascription to Apollinaris. 

7. Damasus [a.d. 366 384]. 
(a) Inscriptio in Coemeterio Hippolyti. 

HIPPOLVTVS FERTVR PREMERENT CVM JVSSA TVRANNI 
PRESBYTER IN SCISMA SEMPER MANSISSE NOVATI 
TEMPORE QVO GLADIVS SECVIT PIA VISCERA MATRIS 
DEVOTVS CHRISTO PETERET CVM REGNA PIORVM 
QVAESISSET POPVLVS VBINAM PROCEDERE POSSET 
CATHOLICAM DIXISSE FIDEM SEQVERENTVR VT OMNES 
SIC NOSTER MERVIT CONFESSVS MARTYR VT ESSET 
HAEC AVDITA REFERT DAMASVS PROBAT OMNIA CHRISTVS 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 329 

This inscription is preserved in a S. Petersburg MS (formerly of 
Corbei, and afterwards of S. Germain des Pres) which contains a 
sylloge of inscriptions, and is described in Bull, di Archeol. Crist. 
1 88 1, p. 5 sq. The sylloge is printed in De Rossi's Inscr. Christ. Urb. 
Rom. II. p. 82, where also (p. 72 sq) it is described. A full account of 
this particular inscription, which appears on fol. 24 sq, is given in the 
same Bull. I.e. p. 26 sq. It is headed Xn sco i^spoltto mavtgrac, and by 
an error of the scribe the last line of another inscription, belonging to 
the martyr Gordianus (see pp. 14, 39), ' Praesbiter ornavit renovans 
vicencius ultro' has been attached to it. In 1425 the reigning Pope 
Martin V issued an order that marble and other materials might be 
taken from the desolate and ruined suburban churches to construct the 
pavement of S. John Lateran ; and accordingly De Rossi has found 
and deciphered three fragments of this very Damasian inscription from 
the cemetery of Hippolytus embedded in the pavement of this distant 
basilica. 

{b) Inscr iptio altera in eodem Coemeterio. 

LaETA DEO PLEBS SANCTA CANAT QVOD MOENI.A CRESCVNT 

Et renovata domvs martyris [hippJoliti 

RNAMENTA OPERIS SVRGv[nT AVCTORE DAMJASO 

Natvs qvi antistes sedis a[postolicae] 

1 NCLITA PACIFICIS FACTA Es[t HAEC AVLA TRIVMPHIS] 
S ERVATVRA DECVS PERPETv[aMQUE FIDEM] 

HAEC OMNIA NOVA QUAEQVE VIDIS Le[o PRESBYtJeR H0RN.\T, 

where the first six lines give an acrostich Leonis, and quaeque is 
contracted into qq in the inscription itself. Damasus is described as 
' natus antistes,' because his father had been ' exceptor, lector, levita, 
sacerdos,' as Damasus wrote in another inscription {Bull, di Archeol. 
Crist. 1 88 1, p. 48); and thus he himself was, as it were, born to his 
future high office in the Church. 

This inscription is given by De Rossi in the Bull, di Archeol. Crist. 
1883, p. 60 sq (comp. ib. 1882, p. 176). It was found in the vestibule 
leading to the crypt of S. Hippolytus. 

8. HiERONYMUS [a.D. 378 400] 

{a) De Vir. Til. 59. 

Gains sub Zephyrino, Romanae urbis episcopo, id est, sub Anto- 
nino, Severi filio, disputationem adversus Proculum, Montani sectato- 
rem, valde insignem habuil argucns eum temcritatis super nova pro- 
phetia defendcnda, et in eodem volumine epistulas quoque Pauli trede- 



330 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

cim tantum enumerans quartam decimam, quae fertur ad Hebraeos, 
dicit non eius esse; sed apud Romanos usque hodie quasi Pauli apo- 
stoli non habetur. 

{b) De Vir. III. 6i. 

Hippolytus, cuiusdam ecclesiae episcopus nomen quippe urbis 
scire non potui in ratione paschae et temporwn canone scripsit et usque 
ad primum annum Alexandri imperatoris sedecim annorum circulum, 
quern Graeci eKKAiAeKAerHpiAA vocant, repperit, et Eusebio, qui super 
eodem pascha decern et novem annorum circulum, id est, eweaKatScKae- 
rrjpiSa composuit, occasionem dedit. Scripsit nonnuUos in scripturas 
commentarios, e quibus haec repperi : in Ifexaemeron, in Exodum, in 
Canticuni Canticoruin, in Genesitn, in Zachariam, de Fsalmis, in Esaiani, 
de Daniele, de Apocalypsi, de Froverbiis, de Ecclesiaste, de Saul et Pythonissa, 
de Antichristo, de Resurrectione^ contra Marcionem, de Pascha, adversjis 
Onmes Hereses, et npocoMiAiAN de Laude Do^nini Salvatoris, in qua 
praesente Origene se loqui in ecclesia significat. Huius aemulatione 
Ambrosius, quem de Marcionis heresi ad veram fidem correctum dixi- 
mus, cohortatus est Origenem in scripturas commentarios scribere, 
praebens ei septem et eo amplius notaries eorumque expensas et librari- 
orum parem numerum, quodque his mains est, incredibili studio cottidie 
ab eo opus exigens. Unde et in quadam epistula ipyoSMKTrjv eum 
Origenes vocat. 

(c) Epist. xxxvi. 1 6 ad Damasum (i. p. 169, Vallarsi). 

Quoniam autem poUiciti sumus et de eo quid significaret in figura 
adjungere, Hippolyti martyris verba ponamus, a quo et Victorinus 
noster non plurimum discrepat ; non quod omnia plenius executus sit, 
sed quod possit occasionem praebere lectori ad intelligentiam latiorem ; 
' Isaac portat imaginem Dei Patris, Rebecca Spiritus Sancti, etc' 

After this follows a long quotation from Hippolytus in which the history of Esau 
and Jacob is figuratively explained. The letter was written a.d. 384. 

(d) Epist. xlviii. 19 ad Pammachium (i. p. 232, Vallarsi). 
Scilicet nunc enumerandum mihi qui ecclesiasticorum de impari 

numero disputarent, Clemens, Hippolytus, Origenes, Dionysius, Euse- 
bius, Didymus, nostrorumque Tertullianus, Cyprianus, etc. 

Jerome is defending himself against a charge of misinterpretation affecting the odd 
and even days in the account of the Creation in Genesis. This letter was written A.D. 

393- 

(e) Epist. Ixx. 4 ad Magnum (i. p. 429, Vallarsi). 

Hunc [Clementem] imitatus Origenes decern scripsit Stromateas, 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 331 

Christianorum et philosophorum inter se sententias comparans...Scripsit 
et Miltiades contra Gentes volumen egregium. Hippolytus quoque et 
Apollonius, Romanae urbis senator, propria opuscula condiderunt. 

Jerome is defending himself against the charge of desecrating theology by illustra- 
tions from secular literature. This letter was written a.d. 397. 

(/) Epist. Ixxi. 6 ad Lucinium (i. p. 434, Vallarsi). 

De sabbatho quod quaeris, utrum ieiunandum sit \ et de eucha- 
ristia, an accipienda quotidie, quod Romana ecclesia et Hispaniae 
observare perhibentur, scripsit quidem Hippolytus vir disertissimus ; et 
carptim diversi scriptores e variis auctoribus edidere. 

This letter was written in the year following the preceding, A.D. 398. 

{g) Epist. Ixxxiv. 7 (I. p. 529). 

Nuper sanctus Ambrosius sic Hexaemeron illius [Origenis] conipi- 
lavit, ut magis Hippolyti sententias Basiliique sequeretur. 
This letter is assigned to a.d. 400. 

{]i) Covivi. in Daniel, ix. 24 (v. p. 689). 

Hippolytus autem de eisdem hebdomadibus opinatus est ita; 
'Septem hebdomadas ante reditum populi etc' 

(/) Conim. in Matt. i. praef. (vii. p. 7). 

Legisse me fateor ante annos plurimos in Matthaeum Origenis 
viginti quinque volumina...et Theophili Antiochenae urbis episcopi 
commentarios ; Hippolyti quoque martyris et Theodori Heracleotae, 
etc. 

This commentary was written a.d. 398. 

(k) Chronicon 11. p. 179 (ed. Schone). 

Geminus presbyter Antiochenus et Hippolytus et Beryllus episcopus 
Arabiae Bostrenus clari scriptores habentur. 

A notice under Ann. Abr. 2244, Alexandr. 6. 

9. RuFiNUS [tA.D. 410]. 

Hist. Eccl. vi. 16. 

Unde et nos, ut fateamur quod verum est, totius huius operis 
nostri et historiae conscribendae materiam sumpsimus. Erat ergo 
inter caeteros et Beryllus scriptorum praecipuus, qui et ipse diversa 
opuscula dereliquit. Episcopus hie fuit apud Bostram Arabiae urbem 
maximam. Erat nihilominus et Hippolytus, qui et ipse aliquanta 
scripta dereliquit episcopus. 



332 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

This passage corresponds to H. E. vi. ?o of Eusebius (see above, p. 327). The 
rest of Rufinus' translation may be passed over. This extract alone is given here, 
because its looseness has apparently been the occasion of much error respecting the 
see of Hippolytus. 

10. Prudentius [c. a.d. 407]. 

Peristephanon ; De Fassione S. Hippolyti {p. 440 sq, ed. Dressel). 

Innumeros cineres sanctorum Romula in urbe 

Vidimus, O Christi Valeriane sacer. 
Incisos tumulis titulos et singula quaeris 
Nomina? difificile est ut replicare queam. 
5 Tantos iustorum populos furor inpius hausit, 
Cum coleret patrios Troia Roma deos. 
Plurima litterulis signata sepulcra loquuntur 

Martyris aut nomen aut epigramma aliquod. 
Sunt et muta tamen tacitas claudentia tumbas 
lo Marmora, quae solum significant numerum. 

Quanta virum iaceant congestis corpora acervis, 

Nosse licet, quorum nomina nulla legas. 
Sexaginta illic defossas mole sub una 

Relliquias memini me didicisse hominum ; 
15 Quorum solus habet comperta vocabula Christus, 
Utpote quos propriae iunxit amicitiae. 
Haec dum lustro oculis, et sicubi forte latentes 

Rerum apices veterum per monumenta sequor; 
Invenio Hippolytum, qui quondam schisma Novati 
20 Presbyter attigerat, nostra sequenda negans. 

Usque ad martyrii provectum insigne tulisse 

Lucida sanguinei praemia supplicii. 
Nee mirere, senem perversi dogmatis olim 
Munere ditatum catholicae fidei. 
25 Cum iam vesano victor raperetur ab hoste, 
Exsultante anima carnis ad exitium, 
Plebis amore suae multis comitantibus ibat; 

Consultus, quaenam secta foret melior, 
Respondit : Fugite, o miseri, exsecranda Novati 
30 Schismata; catholicis reddite vos populis. 

Una fides vigeat, prisco quae condita templo est ; 

Quam Paulus retinet, quamque cathedra Petri. 
Quae docui, docuisse piget : venerabile martyr 
Cerno, quod a cultu rebar abesse Dei. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 333 

35 His ubi detorsit laevo de tramite plebem, 

Monstravitque sequi, qua via dextra vocat, 
Seque ducem recti, spretis anfractibus, idem 

Praebuit, erroris qui prius auctor erat : 
Sistitur insano rectori Christicolas tunc 
40 Ostia vexanti per Tiberina viros. 

lUo namque die Roma secesserat, ipsos 
Peste suburbanos ut quateret populos. 
Non contentus hunium celsae intra moenia Romae 
Tingere iustorum caedibus assiduis. 
45 laniculum cum iam madidum, fora, Rostra, Suburram, 
Cerneret eluvie sanguinis affluere : 
Protulerat rabiem Tyrrheni ad littoris aram, 

Quaeque loca aequoreus proxima Portus habet. 
Inter carnifices et constipata sedebat 
50 Ofificia, exstructo celsior in solio. 

Discipulos fidei, detestandique rebelles 

Idolii, ardebat dedere perfidiae. 
Carcereo crinita situ stare agmina contra 
lusserat, horrendis excrucianda modis. 
55 Inde catenarum tractus, hinc lorea flagra 
Stridere ; virgarum concrepitare fragor. 
Ungula fixa cavis costarum cratibus altos 

Pandere secessus et lacerare iecur. 
Ac iam lassatis iudex tortoribus ibat 
60 In furias, cassa cognitione Tremens. 

Nullus enim Christi ex famulis per tanta repertus 

Supplicia, auderet qui vitiare animam. 
Inde furens quaesitor ait : Iam, tortor, ab unco 
Desine : si vana est quaestio, morte agito. 
65 Huic abscide caput ; crux istum tollat in auras, 
Viventesque oculos offerat alitibus; 
Has rape praecipites, et vinctos coniice in ignem : 

Sit pyra, quae multos devoret una reos. 
En Tibi, quos properes rimosae imponere cumbae, 
70 Pellere et in medii stagna profunda freti ; 

Quos ubi susceptos rabidum male suta per aequor 

Vexerit, et tumidis caesa labarit aquis. 
Dissociata putrem laxent tabulata carinam, 
Conceptumque bibant undique naufragium. 
75 Squamea coenoso praestabit ventre sepulcrum 



334 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

Bellua consumptis cruda cadaveribus. 
Haec persultanti celsum subito ante tribunal 

Offertur senior nexibus implicitus. 
Stipati circum iuvenes clamore ferebant 
80 Ipsum Christicolis esse caput populis : 

Si foret exstinctum propere caput, omnia vulgi 

Pectora Romanis sponte sacranda deis. 
Insolitum lethi poscunt genus, et nova poenae 
Inventa, exemplo quo trepident alii. 
85 Ille supinata residens cervice, Quis, inquit, 
Dicitur? afifirmant dicier Hippolytum. 
Ergo sit Hippolytus, quatiat, turbetque iugales, 

Intereatque feris dilaceratus equis. 
Vix haec ille : duo cogunt animalia freni 
90 Ignara, insueto subdere coUa iugo : 

Non stabulis blandive manu palpata magistri, 
Imperiumque equitis ante subacta pati : 
. Sed campestre vago nuper pecus e grege captum, 
Quod pavor indomito corde ferinus agit. 
95 lamque reluctantes sociarant vincula bigas, 
Oraque discordi foedere nexuerant. 
Temonis vice funis inest, qui terga duorum 
Dividit, et medius tangit utrumque latus, 
Deque iugo in longura se post vestigia retro 
100 Protendens trahitur, transit et ima pedum. 

Huius ad extremum sequitur qua pulvere summo 

Cornipedum refugas orbita trita vias ; 
Crura viri innectit laqueus, nodoque tenaci 
Astringit plantas, cumque rudente ligat. 
105 Postquam composito satis instruxere paratu 
Martyris ad poenam verbera, vincla, feras : 
Instigant subitis clamoribus atque flagellis, 

Iliaque infestis perfodiunt stimulis. 
Ultima vox audita senis venerabilis haec est : 
no Hi rapiant artus ; tu rape, Christe, animam. 

Prorumpunt alacres, caeco et terrore feruntur, 

Qua sonus atque tremor, qua furor exagitant. 
Incendit feritas, rapit impetus, et fragor urget : 
Nee cursus volucer mobile sentit onus. 
115 Per silvas, per saxa ruunt : non ripa retardat 
Fluminis, aut torrens oppositus cohibet. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 335 

Prosternunt sepes et cuncta obstacula rumpunt : 

Prona, fragosa petunt ; ardua transiliunt. 
Scissa minutatim labefacto corpore frusta 
1 20 Carpit spinigeris stirpibus hirtus ager. 

Pars summis pendet scopulis ; pars sentibus haeret ; 

Parte rubent frondes ; parte madescit humus. 
Exemplar sceleris paries habet illitus, in quo 

Multicolor fucus digerit omne nefas. 
125 Picta super tumulum species liquidis viget umbris, 

Efifigians tracti membra cruenta viri. 
Rorantes saxorum apices vidi, optime papa, 

Purpureasque notas vepribus impositas. 
Docta manus virides imitando efifingere dumos 
130 Luserat et minio russeolam saniem. 

Cernere erat, ruptis compagibus, ordine nuUo 

Membra per incertos sparsa iacere situs. 
Addiderat caros gressu lacrymisque sequentes, 

Devia quo fractum semita monstrat iter. 
135 Moerore attoniti atque oculis rimantibus ibant, 

Implebantque sinus visceribus laceris. 
lUe caput niveum complectitur, ac reverendam 

Canitiem molli confovet in gremio. 
Hie humeros truncasque manus et brachia et ulnas 
140 Et genua et crurum fragmina nuda legit. 

Palliolis etiam bibulae siccantur arenae, 

Nequis in infecto pulvere ros maneat. 
Siquis et in sudibus recalenti aspergine sanguis 

Insidet, hunc omnem spongia pressa rapit. 
145 Nee iam densa sacro quidquam de corpore silva 

Obtinet, aut plenis fraudat ab exsequiis. 
Cumque recensitis constaret partibus ille 

Corporis integri qui fuerat numerus, 
Nee purgata aliquid deberent avia toto 
150 Ex homine, extersis frondibus et scopulis: 

Metando eligitur tumulo locus ; Ostia linquunt : 

Roma placet, sanctos quae teneat cineres. 
Haud procul extreme culta ad pomoeria vallo 

Mersa latebrosis crypta patet foveis. 
155 Huius in occultum gradibus via prona reflexis 

Ire per anfractus luce latente docet. 
Primas namque fores summo tenus intrat hiatu 



336 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

lUustratque dies limina vestibuli. 
Inde, ubi progressu facili nigrescere visa est 
1 60 Nox obscura, loci per specus ambiguum, 

Occurrunt caesis immissa foramina tectis, 
Quae iaciunt claros antra super radios. 
Quamlibet ancipites texant hinc inde recessus 
Arcta sub umbrosis atria porticibus : 
165 Attamen excisi subter cava viscera montis 
Crebra terebrato fornice lux penetrat. 
Sic datur absentis per subterranea solis 
Cernere fulgorem, luminibusque frui. 
Talibus Hippolyti corpus mandatur opertis, 
170 Propter ubi apposita est ara dicata Deo. 

Ilia sacramenti donatrix mensa, eademque 

Gustos fida sui martyris apposita, 
Servat ad aeterni spem vindicis ossa sepulcro, 
Pascit item Sanctis Tibricolas dapibus. 
175 Mira loci pietas, et prompta precantibus ara 
Spes hominum placida prosperitate iuvat. 
Hie corruptelis animique et corporis aeger 

Oravi quoties stratus opem merui. 
Quod laetor reditu, quod te, venerande sacerdos, 
180 Complecti licitum est, scribo quod haec eadem, 

Hippolyto scio me debere ; Deus cui Christus 

Posse dedit, quod quis postulet, annuere. 
Ipsa, illas animae exuvias quae continet intus, 
Aedicula argento fulgurat ex solido. 
185 Praefixit tabulas dives manus aequore laevi 
Candentes, recavum quale nitet speculum. 
Nee Pariis contenta aditus obducere saxis, 

Addidit ornando clara talenta operi. 
Mane salutatum concurritur : omnis adorat 
190 Pubis; eunt, redeunt, solis adusque obitum. 

Conglobat in cuneum Latios simul ac peregrines 

Permixtim populos relligionis amor. 
Oscula perspicuo figunt impressa metallo; 
Balsama diffundunt; fletibus ora rigant. 
195 lam cum se renovat decursis mensibus annus, 
Natalemque diem passio festa refert. 
Quanta putas studiis certantibus agmina cogi, 
Quaeve celebrando vota coire Deo? 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 337 

Urbs augusta suos vomit effunditque Quirites, 
200 Una et patricios ambitione pari. 

Confundit plebeia phalanx umbonibus acquis 

Discrimen procerum, praecipitante fide. 
Nee minus Albanis acies se Candida portis 

Explicat, ct longis ducitur ordinibus. 
205 Exsultant fremitus variarum hinc inde viarum ; 

Indigena et Picens plebs ct Etrusca venit ; 
Concurrit Samnitis atrox habitator et altae 

Campanus Capuae, iamque Nolanus adest. 
Quisque sua laetus cum coniuge, dulcibus et cum 
210 Pignoribus, rapidum carpere gestit iter. 

Vix capiunt patuli populorum gaudia campi, 

Haeret et in magnis densa cohors spatiis. 
Angustum tantis illud specus esse catervis 

Haud dubiurn est, ampla fauce licet pateat. 
215 Stat sed iuxta aliud quod tanta frequentia templum 

Tunc adeat, cultu nobile regifico, 
Parietibus celsum sublimibus, atque superba 

Maiestate potens, muneribusque opulens. 
Ordo columnarum geminus laquearia tecti 
220 Sustinet, auratis suppositus trabibus: 

Adduntur graciles tecto breviore recessus, 

Qui laterum seriem iugiter exsinuent. 
At medios aperit tractus via latior alti 

Culminis exsurgens editiore apice. 
225 Fronte sub adversa gradibus sublime tribunal 

Tollitur, antistes praedicat unde Deum. 
Plena laborantes aegre domus accipit undas, 

Arctaque confertis aestuat in foribus, 
Maternum pandens gremium, quo condat alumnos 
230 Ac foveat fetos accumulata sinus. 

Si bene commemini, colit hunc pulcherrima Roma 

Idibus Augusti mensis, ut ipsa vocat 
Prisco more diem quern te quoque, sancte magister, 

Annua festa inter dinumerare velim. 
235 Crede, salutigeros feret hie venerantibus ortus, 

Lucis honoratae praemia restituens. 
Inter solemnes Cypriani vel Celedoni, 

Eulaliaequc dies currat et iste tibi. 

CLEM. II. 22 



33^ EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

Sic te pro populo cuius tibi credita vita est, 
240 Orantem Christus audiat omnipotens. 

Sic tibi de pleno lupus excludatur ovili, 

Agna nee ulla tuum capta gregem minuat. 
Sic me gramineo remanentem denique campo 
Sedulus aegrotam pastor ovem referas. 
245 Sic, cum lacteolis caulas compleveris agnis, 
Raptus et ipse sacro sis comes Hippolyto. 

11. Palladius [c. a.d. 421]. 

Hist. Lausiac. 148 {Patrol. Graec. xxxiii. p. 1251, Migne). 

Ev aXXci) yStySXiSapt'o) cTTiyeypayu.^ei'a) 'IttttoAtjtou tow yvuipLfJiov twv 
aTroaroXwv evpov hiyjyrjjxa toiovtov. 

EuycvecTaTT^ T19 koX wpaiOTaTT] Trap^eVos VTrrjpy^^v iv rfj Kopiv^w k.t.X. 

12. Theodoret [a.d. 446]. 
(a) Dialogiis i (iv. p. 54 sq, Schulze). 

TOY Ari'oy innoAYToy enicKdnoy kai MApTypoc, ck toy 
AdfOY TOY eic to Kypioc noiMAiNei mc" 

Kttt KLJ3uiT0<; Se EK $v\o}V K.T.X. 

TOY AYTOY eK TOY AoroY toy eic ton cAkanan kai thn 

ANNAN. 

Aye 817 fioL, (3 %afxovi]X, k.t.X. 

TOY AYTOY 6K TOY AdfOY toy eiC THN ApXHN TOY HCAIOY. 
AtyUTTTO) fX.V Tor KOCTfXOV OLTT^LKatre K.T.X. 

(/^) Dialogus ii (iv. p. 130 sq). 

TOY Afioy innoAyTOY enicKonoY kai MApTypoc, Ik toy 
AdroY TOY eic thn toon taAantojn Aianomh'n. 

TonTovs Se Koi TOWS CTepoSd^ows (fiija-eiev av Tts yeiTvtav k.t.A. 

TOY AYTOY eK tTc npdc BaciAi'Aa tina eniCToAflc. 

A.TTapyyjv ovv tovtov Aeyei tcov KKOLfJir]ixivu)Vj oltc TxpoiTOTOKOv twv 

VeKpWV K.T.A. 

TOY AYTOY eK TOY AdroY toy eic ton cAkanan kai eic 

THN ANNAN. 

KOL 8id tovto Tpets Kaipoi tov iviavTOv irpoeTvirovvTO cis auTov tov 
aoiTtjpa K.T.X. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 339 

TOY AYTOY eK TOY Ao'roY toy eic thn coAhn THN M6- 
TaAhn. 

'O ToV aTToXwXoTa Ik y^s TrpwTOTrXacrTOi/ av$pwTrov k.t.X. 

TOY AYTOY eK THC epMHNeiAC TOY B' yaAmoy- 

OuTOS o TrpoeXdwv ets rov Kocrfxov 0os Kai avdpuiTro<; e(fiavp(^6r] k.t.X. 

TOY AYTOY eK TOY AofOY eic ton kt ^^Xmoh. 
"'EpXeTai, eVt Tcis ovpavtas TrvXas, ayycXoi avrw o-vi/oSev'ovcri k.t.X. 

(c) Dialogus iii (iv. p. 232 sq). 

TOY AfiOY InnoAYTOY enicKonoY kai MApTYpoc eK thc 

npOC BaCIAi'Aa TINA eTTICTOAHC, 

' KiTapyy]v ovv rowrov Xeyet tcov KeKOifjirjfx^vwv, arc TrpwTOTOKOi/ tojv 

VCKpwV K.T.X. 

TOY AYTOY eK TOY AdrOY eic toyc Afo Ahctac. 
'AfxtpoTepa irapiax'^ to rov Kuptov (Tw/Aa tw koct/ao), ai/x.a to lepov Kai 
vowp TO aytov k.t.A. 

((/) Haereticae Falndae ii. 3 (iv. p. 330). 

KaTct TovTOv Se [toO KT^piV^ov] ov //.ovov ot Kpoppy]BkvT(.% (Tvviypaif/av, 
dXXd (Tvv e/cetvots Kai Taios Kai Aiovucrios d ttjs 'AXc^avSpewv cTrio-KOTro?. 

(t') Haereticae Fabulae ii. 5 (iv. p. 331). 

Kai 06o'8otos 8e d Bv^avTios o' o-kvtcvs TavTa towtu) [tw 'ApTe/xwvt] 
Tre^povT^Kws Tepas '^yijcraTO ^paTpias. tovtov 8e o Tpicr/AaKapios BiKTcop 
d t:7s 'Pwya77s eTrio-KOTros aTreKT^pu^ev, ws Trapa^apd^ai -rretpaOivTa Tr]<; (kkXt]- 
o-ias Ta Sdy/xaTtt. kutci ti7S tovtwv aipeVews 6 CMIKpoC avveypa(j>r] 
AaByPIN60C, ov TiVS 'flpiyeVovs vTroXafx^dvova-i -rroLrjfxa, dXX d x^-P'^'^Ti/p 
Xcy;(ei toijs XcyovTas. eiT 8e CKeivos eiVe aXXo? (TVVypai(/e, ToidvSe ev 
auTw SiTjyeiTai hirjyrjixa. NaTaXiov ^(^-q Tiva, k.t.X. 

if) Haereticae Fabulae iii. i (iv. p. 340 sq). 

KaTci TOVTOJV [twv NiKoXaiTWv] Ktti d 7rpoppr)6el<; crDveypai//e KXjy/ATys Kai 
EiprjvaTos Kat 'I2piyev>;s Kai 'IttttoXutos eVto-KOTros Kai jxapTvp. 

(g) Haereticae Fabulae iii. 3 (iv. p. 342). 

KaTtt 8e XIpoKXov T17S awV^s aipeVcws [t^s KaTci 4>pvya?] TrpocrTaTCV- 
cravTos (rvveypaij/i ratos, ov kol Tvpoadev fj.v7]cr6r]fx(v. 

{h) Epistolae 145 (iv. p. 1252). 

Ktti 01 TouTwv 7rpe(T/3uTcpoi 'lyvaTio? Kai HoXuKapTros Kai Eiprjvaios 

Kttl 'loUOTTU'O? Kai 'iTTTToXDrOS, (5l/ ot TtXcIOUS OVK dp)(^Lpe(liV TTpoXaf/.TTOVCTL 

p.di/ov, aXXa Kai Tiov [xapTvpwv ^tuKoa-fiovai ;(opov. 

22 2 



340 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

13. Gelasius [a.d. 492 496]. 
Bihl. Pair. viii. p. 704 (Lugdun.) : see Lagarde, p. 90 sq. 

HIPPOLYTI EPISCOPI ET MARTYRIS ARABUM METROPOLIS IN MEMORIA 
HAERESIUM; 

' Hie procedens in mundum Deus et homo apparuit etc' 

14. Andreas of CiESAREA [c. a.d. 500 ?]. 

() /;/ Apocalyps. Synops. (Cramer's Catena, p. 176). 

Ilept Se Tou ^eoTTVcvcTTov t^s (SlJSXov 6 iv ayiois BacriXetos Kal VprjyopiO? 
o ^10? Tov \oyov KOL KvpiXAos Kal IlaTrt'as koI Eipr/vaio? kol Mc^dStos kol 
'IttttoXvto?, ol iKKXrjo-LacTTiKOi Trarepcs, i)(^iyyvoL Trio-Tojcraor^ai. 

(If) In Apocalyps. xiii. i. 

Tois 8e aytots Me^oSto) kox 'IttttoXvtu) Kai erepots ets axnov tov 

dvTL^pLGTOV TO TTttpOV OrjpiOV l^L\.7]1TTai, Ik TI7S TToXvTapdxOV TOV f^LOV 

TovTov 6a\6.cT(j'q<; /cat ttoXv/cvjuovos i$px6fjiivov k.t.X. 

Hippolytus is also quoted on xiii. i8 and on xvii. lo (comp. 
Cramer's Catena, p. 385). 

15. Liber Pontificalis [c. a.d. 530, a.d.?]. 

On the two recensions of the Liber Pontificalis and their respective 
dates see above, i. p. 303 sq. 

A. Relating to S. Hippolytus. 

(a) Vita PoJttiani [a.d. 230 235] i. pp. 62, 145 (Duchesne). 

Eodem tempore Pontianus episcopus et YppoHtus presbiter exiHo 
sunt deputati ab Alexandro in Sardinia insula Bucina, Severo et Quin- 
tiano consulibus. 

The same in both recensions, but 'depoitati' for 'deputati' in the later (see above, 
I- ? 255)- 

The date of the exile does not fall during the reign of Alexander, but of Maxi- 
minus. The text of the Liberian Catalogue has 'insula nociva' (see above, I. p. 255), 
which is doubtless correct (see Duchesne's note, p. 146); but there was an island 
' Bucina' or ' Bucinna,' one of the Agates; Pliny N. H. iii. 8, 92, Steph. Byz. s.v. 
The latter however wrongly calls it a ' city ' of Sicily. 

{p) Vita Gregorii III [a.d. 731 741] i- p- 419. 
Item in ecclesia beati Genesii martyris tectum noviter restauravit; 
ubi et altare erexit in nomine salvatoris Domini Dei nostri etc. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 341 

(r) Vita Hadriani [a.d. 772 -795] i. p- 511. 

Simul et cymiterium beati Yppoliti martyris juxta sanctum Lau- 
rentiuin, quae a priscis marcuerant temporibus, noviter restauravit. 
Pari modo et ecclesiam beati Christi martyris Stephani, sitam juxta 
praedictum cymiterium sancti Yppoliti, similiter restauravit. 

{d) Vita Leonis III [a.d. 795 816] 11. p. 12. 

Fecit autem hisdem almificus pontifex in basilica beati Yppoliti 
martyris in civitate Portuense vestes de stauraci duas, unam super 
corpus ejus et aliam in altare majore. 

{e) Vita Leonis /F[a.d. 847 855] 11. p. 115 sq. 

Ipse vero a Deo protectus et beatissimus papa multa corpora 
sanctorum... infra hujus alme urbis moenia congregavit mirifice. Nam et 
corpora sanctorum martyrum iiii Coronatorum sollerti cura inquirens 
repperit; pro quorum desiderabili amore basilicam quae sanctorum fuerat 
nomini consecrata... in splendidiorem pulcrioremque statum perduxit... 
eorumque sacratissima corpora cum Claudio, Nicostrato... Ypolito 
quidem, cum suis familiis numero xviii... pariter sub sacro altare 
recondens locavit. 

ib. II. p. 125. 

Obtulit et in ecclesia beati Ipoliti martiris, qui ponitur in insula 
Portuensi, que nuncupatur Arsis, vestem de fundato habentem gam- 
madias ex argento textas i, vela de fundato numero iiii. 

There seems to be some confusion between this notice and the last in Bollinger 
p. 38. We read of ' insulam quae dicitur Assis (z^./. Arsis), quod est inter Portum et 
Hostia,' Vita Silvestri i. p. 184. The island between the two branches of the Tiber 
is clearly meant; but why it was so called, does not appear; see Duchesne's note, 
p. 199. 

B. Relating to S. Laurentius. 

(a) Vita Silvestri [a.d. 314 335] i. p. 181. 

Eodem tempore fecit [Constantinus Augustus] basilicam beato 
Laurentio martyri via Tiburtina in agrum Veranum supra arenario 
cryptae et usque ad corpus Laurenti martyris fecit gradus ascensionis et 
descensionis. In quo loco construxit absidam et exornavit marmoribus 
purphyreticis et desuper loci conclusit de argento, et cancellos de 
argento purissimo ornavit, qui pens. lib. i, et ante ipsum locum in 
crypta posuit etc. 

(l?) Vita Xysti ///[a.d. 432 440] i. p. 233 sq. 

Item fecit Xystus episcopus confessionem beati Laurenti martyris 



342 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

cum columnis porphyreticis et ornavit platomis transendam, et altare 
et confessionem sancto martyri Laurentio de argento purissimo, pens, 
lib. L, cancellos argenteos supra platomas purphyreticas, pens. lib. ccc. 

Absidam supra cancellos cum statua beati Laurent! martyris 
argenteam, pens. lib. cc. 

Fecit autem basilicam sancto Laurentio, quod Valentinianus Augustus 
concessit, ubi et optulit etc. 

(c) Vita Pelagii II \K.\y. 579 590] i. p. 309. 

Hie fecit supra corpus beati Laurenti martyris basilicam a funda- 
mento constructam et tabulis argenteis exornavit sepulchrum ejus. 

{d) Vita Hadriani [a.d. 772 795] i. p. 500. 

Fecit in aecclesia beati Laurenti martyris foris muros, scilicet ubi 
sanctum eius corpus requiescit, vestem de stauracim; et in aecclesia 
maiore aliam similiter fecit vestem. Nam et tectum eiusdem beati 
Laurenti bassilicae maiore, qui iam distectus erat et trabes eius confracte, 
noviter fecit. 

{e) ib. p. 504. 

In ecclesia vero beati Laurentii martyris atque levite foris muros 
huius civitatis Romae fecit vela etc. 

(/) ib. p. 505. 

Item ipse ter beatissimus praesul in basilica maiore, quae appellatur 
sancte Dei genetricis, qui aderat iuxta basilicam sancti Laurentii 
martyris adque levite ubi eius sanctum corpus requiescit, foris muros 
huius civitatis Romae, obtulit vela de stauracim etc. 

{g) ib. p. 508. 

Immo et porticus quae ducit ad sanctum Laurentium foris muros a 
porta usque in eadem basilicam noviter construxit. Hie idem almi- 
ficus vates eandem basilicam sancti Laurentii martyris ubi sanctum 
eius corpus quiescit, adnexam basilicae maioris quam dudum isdem 
praesul construxerat, ultro citroque noviter restauravit. Immo et 
aecclesiam sancti Stephani iuxta eas sitam, ubi corpus sancti Leonis 
episcopi et martyris quiescit, similiter undique renovavit una cum 
cymiterio beatae Cyriacae seu ascensum eius. 

{h) ib. p. 511. 

Fecit autem idem praesagus antistes in confessione beati Laurentii 
foris muros imaginem ex auro purissimo in modum evangeliorum, 
eiusdem beati Laurentii effigies continentem, etc. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 343 

1 6. Cyrillus of Scythopolis [c. a.d. 555]. 

Vita S. Euthyniii p. 82 (Hippol. Op. i. p. ix sq, Fabricius). 
Etous Tre fjLTTTOV i^rjKOdTOv TCTpaKO(TLO(TTOv Kara Tovs cruyypa^ei/ras 
)(povov<; vTTo TMV (xyLMv Trarepcov 'IttttoXvtov tov TraXaiou Kai yvwpijxov riav 

aTTOCTToXcO]/ Kttl YjTTL(j>aVLOV TOV KvTTptWTOU K.T.X. 

17. Gregory of Tours [c. a.d. 577]. 

Hisf. -Franc, i. 30 (i. p. 47 sq, ed. Arndt et Krusch). 

Sub Decio vero imperatore...Xystus Romanae ecclesiae episcopus 
et Laurentius archidiaconus et Hyppolitus ob dominici nominis confes- 
sionem per martyrium consummati sunt. 

18. EUSTRATIUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE [c. A.D. 578]. 

Adv. Psychopannychitas 19 (Hippol. Op. 11. p. 32, Fabricius). 

Aerei ToiNYN innoAyTOc 6 MApryc kai eni'cKonoc po'jMHC 
eN TO) Aeyxepcp Aopto eic ton AanihA toiayta. 

ToT \)Xv ovv crv(TTas A^apcas o-[xa rots XotTrots St Vfxvov k.t.X. 

19. Stephanus Gobarus [c. a.d. 575 600?]. 

Photius Bibiiotheca 232 (p. 291 b). 

"Ert Sc TTOtas v7ro\r]\l/L'i eax^v 'IttttoXvtos kol ETrt^ai/to? irepl NiKoXaou 
TOV evos Twv t, SiaKovwv koi otl l(r)(ypMS avrov KarayivwcrKoucrtv, k.t.X. 

"Otl 'IttttoXutos Koi Etpijvatos ttjv vrpos EySpatous eTTtaToXrjv HavXov 
OVK Ikclvov eti/at cj>aai. 

Tivas VTToXr]\pei<i c'x^'' ayiwTaros IttttoXutos Trept tt^s twv MovTavicrTwc 
aipecrews, Kat Ttvas o ev aytois T^S Nucto^t^s VprjyopLOS. 

20. Leontius of Byzantium [c. a.d. 620]. 

(a) De Sedis Act. iii. i {Patrol. Grace, lxxxvi. p. 12 13, Migne). 

'EyeVovTO St Iv tois \povoi<i rots oiTro r^s yevvT^creoDS tou Xptcrrou fJi-^XP'' 
Trj'i PaaiXiMS KwvcrTavTtVow StSacTKaXoi Kai Trarepes otSe' lyvartos o 
0(^opos, Eipr^i/atos, 'loucTTtvos ^tXocroc^os Kai fxapTVS, K.X7)fj.7]<; Kat 

'ItTTToXvTOS CTTiVkOTTOI PlOjUTJS, K.T.X. 

(Z*) <:. Nestoriuiii et Eutyclicm Lib. i (//-'. p. 131 2). 

toy AfioY innoAyToy enicKonoy kai MAprypoc eK toon 
eyAor'^N TOY BaAaam. 

Iva 8ei;(^'>j to crvvajxtfiOTepov i.'^Mv Iv eaDTw k.t.X. 



344 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

21. Chronicon Paschale [c. a.d. 630]. 

p. 12 sq (ed. Bonn.). 

'IttttoXutos roivvv 6 Trjs euo-e/Seias /Aaprvs, eTrtcr/coTros yeyoi/ws tov 
KoKovfxevov HopTov Tr\r}<jLov t^s 'Poj/xtjs, eN Tcu npoc ATTACAC TAC 
AipeceiC CYNTArMATI ypa\j/ev iirl Xc'lecos oijtws. 

'Opw )w.v ow OTt (j>iXovLKta<; TO epyov. Aeyei yap outw? ' eTroiTjcre to 
TToxr^a 6 Xpto'Tos totc ttj rffxipo. koX evraOev ' 810 Ka//. Set, ov rpowov o 
Kijptos 7rot7yo"ev, owco Trotetv TreTrXavT^Tat 8e /at^ ytvwa/cwv oTt w Katpw 
7rao-i^ev o Xpio^Tos ouk e^ayc to KaTa vo/ao7' 7rao"xa, outos yap t^v to 
ira.(T)(a. to irpoKiK-qpvyfJL^vov Kai to TeXeiov/xevov t^ (jopicTfJizvrj 7]fiepa. 

KOi TrdXiv 6 aiJTos 6N Tco TTpooTOi AofoJ TOY nep'i TOY Afioy 
nACXA cyrrp'^^M'WATOC eipy]Kv ovtws- 

OuSe ev TOts irpwroLS ovSi iv Tot? ecr^aTOts k.t.X. 

Wordsworth (pp. 51, 267) ascribes this passage to Peter of Alexandria, and so 
apparently did Biuisen (Wordsworth p. 51, Dollinger p. 19) in his earlier work, but in 
his second edition (1854) he does not say anything of the kind (i. p. 420). The 
authorship of Peter of Alexandria could only be maintained on the supposition that 
the whole passage after the mention of his name (p. 4) is his; but this is impossible for 
two reasons; (i) The writer quotes from ' the great Athanasius the luminary of the 
Alexandrian Church ' (p. 9), who was only a very little child when Peter flourished ; 
(2) He uses such language as denrapdevov /cat Kara aX'^deiav deoroKov Mapias (p. 10), 
which would be an anachronism in the mouth of Peter. A better case might be made 
out for Athanasius, but the author is probably the writer of the Chronicon Paschale 
himself. 

2 2. Concilium Lateranense [a.d. 649]. 

Labb. Cone. vii. p. 287 (ed. Coleti). 

TOY AfiOY innoAyToy enicKonoy kai MApTypoc eK toy 
nepi eeoAoriAC Adroy. 

To BiX^iv c'xei o eo's, ov to \x.r\ ^eXetv, k.t.X. 

ib. VII. p. 293. 

toy Afioy innoAy'Toy enicKonoy kai MApTypoc eK thc 
eic TO nACXA elHrHceooc. 

''OXos rjv [ev] TTatrt Kat 7ravTa;^ov, yc/xiVas 8e to irdv k.t.X. 

23. Anastasius Apocrisiarius [a.d. 665]. 
jEj>tst ad Theodos. Gangren. (Fatrol. Lat. cxxix. p. 664 sq, Migne). 

Praeterea misi ad praesens cum hac epistola mea Deo honorabilibus 
vobis...rotulam habentem testimonia ex dictis sancti Hippolyti episcopi 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 345 

Portus Romani ac martyris Christi Dei nostri...Hunc qiiippe librum 
Byzantii nobis antequam passi fuissemus delatum, cum hunc totum 
vellemus transcribere, subito juxta consuetudinem suam insistentes 
adversarii latronum more rapuerunt, et non valuimus ex ipso plusquam 
haec octo testimonia toUere. 

TOY ATioy innoAYTOY eniCKonoY ndproY, htoyn toy Ai- 

MeNOC pCOMHC, KAI MApTYpOC THC AAH0eiAC, Ik TO? KATA 
BHpOONOC KAI hAIKOC (v. 1. H A I K I'oO N c) TOON AipeTIKOON Ufpi 
GeoAoriAC KAI CApKOOCeOOC KATA CTOIXeToN AOfOY, OU r] dpxV, 
"Ayios, aytos, aytos Kvptos a-a/SawO, d(ny7/Ta) cjjaivfj ySowvra ra (jcpa^ifL top 

' A.7ripoSvvdfxw yap 6e\-^aL tov ov k.t.X. 

24. Anastasius Sinaita [c. a.d. 680]. 
(a) Hodegus 23 {Patrol. Grace, lxxxix. p. 301, Migne). 
innoAyTOY eniCKonoY pooMHC eK toy nepi ANACTAceooc 

KAI A(f)9ApCIAC AOfOY. 

EcrovTat, <J3y](Tiv, iv ttj dvacTacrei ol avOpwTroL k.t.X, 

(^) Quaestiones 41 (p. 592, Migne). 

InnoAyTOY eK toy eic to acma acmatojn. 

Kat TTOV Trdcra -q TrXovcria avTT] yvcGcrts ; ttov 8k rd [xvcTTrjpLa k.t.X. 

(c) Qiiaestiones 48 (p. 604, Migne). 

InnoAyTOY Ik toy eic ton AanihA. 

Tcov ydp (XL8r]p<j}v Kvrjfxwv twv vvv liriKpaTOVdoiv iirl rd t)(yr] TWf ttoScoi/ 

K.T.X. 

25. Pseudo-John of Damascus [c. a.d. 700?]. 
(a) Sacra Parallela Riipef. {Op. 11. p. 787, Lequien). 
TOY Afioy InnoAyTOY pooMHC. 

Tavra Se ko.t dvdyKrjv e^o/Atv SirjyrjcracrOai, ottcds ttjv VTTOVoiav, k.t.X. 
{b) Sacra Parallela Rtipef. {Op. 11. p. 781). 

InnoAyTOY enicKo'noy pooMHC nepi xpicToy kai toy anti- 
XpicToy. 

aXXa. Toirrwv Iv Trpoot/xi'o) cts Sdfav 0eov elprjixevuiV' 

26. Germanus of Constantinople [c. a.d. 720J. 
Rericm Ecel. Contempl. {Patrol. Grace, xcviii. p. 417, Migne). 

TouTO K0.1 IttttoAutos Pw/i,7^? Ktti o ctyto? KuptXAo? Xkyov(Tiv Iv TOtS 



346 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

Trept Tov KvTi^KTTOV Xoyots avTwv f.v t<3 e^aKtcr^iXtocTTw TrevraKOO'ioo'Tw 
tret Trjv jxiXkovaav irapovcxiav eaeaOai. 

See Overbeck Quaest. Hippol. p. 30 sq. 



27. Pseudo-Chrysostom [a.d. ?]. 

Z>e Pseudo-prop heiis (Chrysost. Op. viii. app. p. 79). 

noD 'lymrios to tov 0eoD oiKrjTrjptov; irov o AtovuVtos to 7rTti/ov tou 
oupavor; ttov IttttoAutos o yXuKUTttTOS Kat cwoDCTaTOs; 

This work is manifestly spurious. The reference to Dionysius the Areopagite in 
this very passage is a sufficient evidence. We have no means of ascertaining its date ; 
but it was evidently many generations later than Chrysostom. 

28. Georgius Syncellus [a.d. 792]. 

{a) Chronographia p. 674 (ed. Bonn.). 

'IttttoA-utos Upos (f)LXo(ro(f>os evrto-KOTros IIo'pTov tou Kara Trjv Vcafx'ijv 
cre^oSpa StaTrptTTcjs yjvdcL cv rfj Kara XpicTTOV (^iXocroc^ta, TrXcitrTa i^u;)(co</)A.i7 
a-vvTaTTQiv VTTOfxvrJixaTa. ei'c tc yap thn e^AHMepoN Ka'i eic TA 
MeTA THN elAHMepON, eiC noAAA Te TOJN npO(})HT(JC)N, maAicta 

lezeKii-iA KAi AanihA toon Mer^AcoN, eVi /jirjv eic ta acmata kai 

eiC aAAAC nANTOlAC HAAaIAC kai NeAC rpA4)AC, CI' oh Koi eic 

thn eN nATMcp TOY OeoAoroy ahokaAyyin, npdc MApKiooNA 

Kat TAC AOinAC AipeceiC, Kai ton, ezKAlACKACTHpiKON TOY nAC)(A 
KAN ON A ii^dero irepLypaif/as ts to TrpwTov eVos 'AXe^avSpou to9 Ma/xp,atas 
TOVTOV, Koi crvvT6p.w<; (f>avaL ^eo^paSTys 7roTa/Aos rfj cKKXijo"ta ^wvtwv vafxaruiv 
yiyove, tov fxapTvpiKOV TreptOifJievos (TT<fiavov Trpos to) Te'Aet. 

{I?) Chronographia p. 685 (ed. Bonn.). 

TTavv yap oAtyov irepl tcov KaTa TOvaBe tous XP^^^^^ tcpwv Kat fiaKapLwv 
TraTepwv lirtjxviqa'Oi.i'i, ^\.iqp.cvTO% Xf.yop.ivov ^Tpw/xaTcws, iTnroXvTov rov 
lepop.dpTvpo<;, 'AcfipLKavov tov icrToptKou, Atovvcrtou tou p.eyaAou 'AAe^av- 
Spetas, Kat oAAwv. 

29. NiCEPHORUS [t A.D. 828]. 

Antirrhetica ii. 13 {Spicil. Solcsm. i, p. 347). 

TOY Ari'oY innoAyTOY enicKonoy nopToy kai MApTypoc Ik 

TOY KATA BHpOONOC KAI hAIKIOONOC TOON AipeTIKWN AofOy Ov 
7] O-PXV' Aytos, aytos, aytos. 

To yap ajreLpov Ka-r ouSeVa Xo'yor i] jpoirov k.t.X. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 347 

30. Georgius Hamartolus [c. a.d. 810]. 

Chronicon iii. 134, p. 336 (Migne, Patrol Graec. ex. p. 521). 

Ou ijJqv Se aXka. kol 6 6uo<i 'IttttoAvtos 'Pw/x>;s Trept tov K-qpvyjxaTO<i 
KoX T-17S TeXetwo-ecos twv aTroo-ToXwv Sie^twv e^r;" 'IwavvT^s [8c] 6 dSeXcjios 
^laKojjSov Krjpva-awv iv rrj 'Acrta tov \6yov [tov evayycXiou] e^wpca-Br] iv 
UaT/xo) rrj vtjVu) vtto Ao/xeriavov /^acriXews 'Pw/trys, KaK^Wev TraXtv ets 
"Ec^ecrov ck T57S i^opia? dvaKX-qOels v'n'o l^iip/Sd kol to KaT atiTov euayyeXtov 
avyypa{pdfXVo<;, evOa kol ttjv d-TroKoXv^j/LV Oeacrafxevo^ ireXevTrjaev, ov to 
Xetij/avov ^7]Tr]6eu ov^ vpWr]. 

31. Photius [c. A.d. 850]. 

(a) Bihliotheca 48. 

'Aveyvwcr^iy 'Iwcrr/Trou nepi TOY TTANTOC, o ev aXXots dviyvMV iinypa- 
<f>6fjievov nep'i THC TOY hantoc aiti'ac, iv aXXots 8e nep'i thc toy 
TTANTOC ofciAC o-Tt 8e iv Sval XoytStoi?. SiiKwcn 8e ev avrots 
Trpos eauTOV crTaa-idt,ovTa IIXaTCJva, eXey^^ct 8e kcu Trept il/vx^j'S xai vXt^s 
Kat avao"Tao"ws 'AXki'vow aXoyws T koI if/evSw? eiTrovTa, avTei(rayet Se 
Tcts oiKetas TTcpi TowTcov Twv uTTO^eVeoJv So^as, S^lkvvctl re 7rp<Tf3vTpov 
'EXXt^vojv ttoXXo) to 'lorSatojv yevos- So^a^ei 8e o-uyKeio-^at tov dvOpwwov 
K TTUpo? Kai yi^s Kttt uSaTO?, Ktti eVt ck 7rvvp,aT0S, 6 /cat {f/v)(7]U dvo/Aoi^et. 
Trept ou TrvU/x.aT09 auTats Xe^eo^tv odtw <j>7)(n. 

TovTOV TO KvpLMTepov aveXop,vos afxa tw o"a)/AaTi eTrXao^e, Kat 8ta 
TravTos jiteXors Kat apOpov Tropetav ai^Tw KaTeo"Keuao"ev 6 tw awfxaTi 
crvfXTrXaaOiv Koi Bid TravTos SttKvov/xevov tw aurw etbet toS ISXeirofxeuov 
TwyaaTos TTUTrwTai, TT^v ovcrtav 8e ij/v^orepov iiTrap^et vrpos Ta Tpta, 8t' wv 
to (rwp,a avvrjpfjLocTTaL. 

OvTU) /xev ouv dva^LOi'i Trjs Te tcov loDSatwv Trept av^pcoTrou (^ucrtoXoytas 
Tawa etTTWv Kat tt^s oXX?;? auToS Trept tous Xoyovs aaKy](Teu)<;, 8te'^tcrt Kat 
Trept Tvys Koo"p,oyovta? Kec^aXatajSws. Trept /xevTot XptCTov toi; aXTj^tvoO 
eou ry/Awv ws eyyto"Ta ^eoXoyei, kXtjulv t auri^v ava^^eyyo/xevos Xptoroii, 
Kat TTyv CK TTttTpos a^pao"Tov yevv7^0"tv a/xe/XTTTWs avaypacjicov. O Ttvas 
to"ws Kat dp.(^tSo^etv, cJs Iwo^j/ttotj etTy to o"vp'Tayp.aTtov, avaTretcretev. ouSev 
Se TO TT^s (f)pdat(a<; auTw Trpos Tol WTrdXotTra tov avSpos aTro8er. 

Eipov Se ev Trapaypa^ats oTt ouk eWtv o Xdyo? Iwctt^ttou, dXXci ratou 
Ttvos TTpecrfSvTepov ev 'Pwfir] 8taTpt;8ovTOS, dv <^ao-t o-tjvrd^at Kat ton Aa- 
ByPINGon" ou Kat 8tdXoyos <^epeTat Trpds IIpdKXov Tti'd virepfxa^ov rijs Ttov 
MovTavto^Ttov atpeaews. aveirtypdcfiov 8e KaraXcLcjiOevTos tou Xdyou (^ao^t 
TOWS p.ev Ia)(r7^Trou eTrtypai/'at, tows Se 'louo'Ttvow tov fxdpTvpos, dXXous Be. 
l^lpyjvauw, a)0"Trep Kat tov KajivptvOov Ttvcs eTre'ypai^av 'Optyei'ovs. cTret 



348 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

Vatov iaTL Trovrjixa ttj dXrjdeLO. rov crirvTera^^oTOS tov AajSvpivuov, ws /cat 
auTos iv T<2 re'Aet tov Aa^vptvOov Sie/xapTVpaTO eavTOV civat tov nepi 
THC TOY nANTOC oyCIAC Xoyov. t 8' Tpo<; Koi ovx ovtos ia-TiV, ovttw 
/JiOL yeyoi/ev ex)8r]Xov. tovtov tov Tollov 7rpe(r(3vTp6v <^a(ji yeyevrjauaL t^s 
Kara 'Poj/xt^v eKKXr/crtas iirl OvtKTopos kol ZetfivpLVOv twv ap-)(Li.pi.oiv, X^V" 
TofrjQyjvaL 8e aurov /<at c^vcov lirLCTKoirov. cruvTctfat Se Kat erepov Xoyov 
iStcos KATA THC ApreMOONOC AipeCeOiC, KoX KATA npOKAOY ^^ O-TTOV- 
SacTTOu Movravoi; o"7roi;8atav 8taXeftv o-uvTeraxeVat, Iv rj Tpicr/cai8cKa fxovas 
eTTKTToXas dpi9p.LTaL JlavXov, ovk lyKpiVdiv ttJv TTpOS 'Fi/3paL0VS. 

{b) Bibliotheca 121. 

innoAyToy kata AipececoN BiBAiAApioN. 
'Aveyvwcr^r; /3i/3AiSaptov 'IttttoAijtou" fjiaOrjTr)<; 8e Etpr^vaiou o Itttto- 
AvTos. ^v 8e TO (TvvTayjxa Kara atpccrewi/ A^', apxrjv iroiovp-tvov Aoert- 
^eavovs, Kat p-^XP'- ^or]TOv kol NoT^Tiavwv 8taAa/x/3avoi'. Tauras Se (jtrjcriv 
eAey^ois viroj3Xr]6rjvaL o/aiAouvtos EipT^vat'ou, wv Kat avvoxj/iv o IttttoAvtos 
TToiou/xcvos Td8e TO j3lI3Xlov (firj(rl crwTTaxevat. tt^v 8e (^paatv (rac/)7^s eo-Tt 
Kal UTTOo-e/Avos Kat drrepLTTOs, el kol Trpos tci/ 'Attikov ouk 7ricrTpe^Tat 
Ao'yov. At'yei 8e a'AAa Te Ttva T17S a/<pt^etas AetTTO/xeva, Kat OTt >? irpos 
'EppaLov; iirLCTToXr] ovk Ictti tou aTrocTTo'Aoi; HaijAov. AeyeTat 8e outos 
Kal 7rpoo-o/.ttAerv tw Aaw KaTa pLip-rjcnv 'Optyevous, ou Kat arvvy]9rj<; /xaAtcrTa 
Kat lpa(JTr]<; Toiv Aoycov VTrrjpx^v, ws Kat irpoTpeil/aa-Oai avrov tt/v ^etW vtto- 
p,V7][xaTi(rat ypa<^r]v, eyKaTao-Ti/o-as avTw Kai vTroypa<^ia<; kivTa Taxyypa(^ov<; 
KoX erepov? toctovtous ypacJiovTas ets KaAAos, wv ^v Kat T17S oaTrdvT]'; auTo's 
Xppy]yo<i' Kat TaiJTa i;7r'>7pTOi;)U.vos auTw aTratTttv auTov aTrapatTT/Tw? to epyov, 
^ ou Kat epyoStojKTT/v v /Ata tojv e7rto-ToAc3i/ irapd '^piyevov; KXrjOrjvai, 
TrXetcTTa 8e kol outos Ae'yerat cruyy eypa<^va t. 

(^) Bibliotheca 202. 

innoAyToy eniCKonoy kai wAprypoc eic ton AanihA 
epMHNeiA- KAI Adroc nepi xpiCToy kai ANTixpi'cToy. 

'Ai/eyvoJcr^Tj 'IttttoAijtod eTTto^KoVoi; Kat p.dpTvpo<; kpp.iqvi.La ets tov i\avn]X. 
KaTct Ae^tv p,V ov TrotetTat T17V dvaTrrv^LV, ttAt^V tov voCv ye, ws cVos etTretv, 
ou TrapaTpe^et TroAAa p-evTot ap^atOTpoTraJS Kat ovk ts to vcTTepov SirjKpif^w- 
p,eVov KaTaAeyet. aAA' cKetvwv ouk av etr; 8tKatos Aoyov UTre'xetv " toi)s yap 
apX^v Ectopias KaTa/3aAAop.evovs ov 8tKas aTratTCtv twv Trapct/xevwv, aAA 
dya-rrdv p,aAtcrra auT^s tc t^s cTrtySoAi^; Kat e^' oo^ov av KaTaAv^i/^eojs Ttuv 
StaoTKOTTOV/Aevcuv Trpox<J>poirj. to 8e ttJv tov 'AvTtxptcrTov 7rapovo-tav, Ka^ i^v 
Kat 77 TOV aiaOrjTOv Koap-ov TOvSe crvvTcAeta to"TaTat, p.i;'8e tois jxa.dr]TaA,<; 
8eoju.eVots TOV ^(jJTrjpo's diroKaXinj/avTO';, tTa avTwv TavTrjv TrevTaKoo-tots 
Teo"tv avro Xptcrrov vrraxOivTa TrepLypdij/acrOai, wcravet twv aTro TrpwTqs tov 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 349 

Koa-fxov KaTaj3o\y]'i e^aKicr^tXtcoj/ erwi/ avvTeXovfxiviDV, kol T-qv SidXvaiv ai^roi) 
iffieaTOLvai, tovto kol ^ep/xore/aas av etr] toS TrpocrT/KOVTos yvwjxy]<;, kol -iq 
a7ro<^ao"t9 dvOpwirivy)'; dyvoms, ttA.X' ovk eTmrvoias Trjs dv(x)6ev 8ieXey;^et. ?; 
Se (f}poicns avT(a to ca^es ort /AaXicTTa oiKCtov/xevT; vrpeTroi ctv p/x,7;vta, ei Kai 
Tovs 'Attikous ot Tt /ActXa Oeafiov; Svo-WTrciTai. 

Straveyvwo-^T; avToij Kat eVcpos Ao'yos TTGpi XpiCTOf KAI ANTI)(piC- 
TOy, fi' *^ ^7 Tc avTTy Twv Aoywv i8ea StaTrpeTrct, Kal to tojv vor]fjidTO)v 
dirXov(TTep6v tc Kat ap-^aioTpoTrov. 

32. CECUMENIUS [c. A.D. QQO ?]. 

/^ Apocalyps. Praef. (Cramer's Catena p. 173). 

IIpoS TOVTOIS Ktti ItTTToXuVo) TW 'Pw/XiyS TTpoiZpi^ EN TH TOf GIC AANIhlA 

epMHNeiA AoroY- 

33. ZONARAS [c. A.D. II20?]. 

(a) Annal. vi. 4 (p. 267). 

'Ev Se Tw Trpos "EXXT^vas auTou Xoyw, o? KATA nAATCONOC cTriycypaTTTat 
nepi THC TOY HA NT dc AITIAC, ov Kttt o aytos 'IwavvT^s Aa/xao-KT^i/os /xi/etW 
TTCTTOtTyTat v T^ TTovrjOeiCTr) avT(2 ^i/3Xa) TTj KaXovfJiivji YlapdWrjXa, ravra 
(jir)(rL' TravTes ydp 8i/<atot Te Kat aSt/cot evwTrtov tou 0eou Xoyov, k.t.X. 

(/') Anna/, xii. 15 (p. 620). 

Tote Ovpfiavov rrj<; lin(TKOTrrj^ tt^s 'Pw/xatW Tro'Xews Trpoeo-TwTO? k(xi 
'IttttoXutos :7V^et avvyp tcptoTaTos Kat (70(fiwTaT0<; cTrto-KOTTOs tov kutci 'Pa'yfjirjv 
IIopTOT; yvo/xvos, OS Kat TroXXa (rvyypafXfJLara avveypdif/aro, Siac^opa tt^s 
^etas ypacjjrj? i^r]yr](rajxVO<;. 

34. SUIDAS [c. A.D. 1 1 00?]. 

p. 1058, ed. Bernhardy. 

'IttttoXutos ouTOS eypaipev eic TAC opACeiC TOY AanihA vTroixrrjiia 
KOL etc TAC nApOIMIAC COAOMOONTOC. 

35, NiCEPHORUS CaLLISTUS [c. A.D. I300]. 

Ecdes. Hist. iv. 31. 

Tots 8e KttTa Seu^pov ;(po'i'ots Kat IttttoXvtos o IIopTOK tt^s 'Pw/xTys 
eTTto-KOTTOs yeyoi'OJS dKfxdt,o)v rjv. koL 877 ttoXXwv VTTop.vr]p.aTinv o-vj/ctws 
avTU) yf.ypap.p.i\mv, kol to nep'l TOY nAC)(A eKTi^eTat (Tvyypafi/xa, iv <L twv 
vpovcDV dvaypa(f)rjx' K^ep,vos Kat Ttva Kavoi-a KKat8KaeT77ptSos Trept toC 
irdaxo- Trpo^ets eVt to TrpcoTov eTOs 'AXe^ai/Spou 7reptypa<^ct TOi)s ;(poVous. 



350 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

TCI ye fx-^v avTOv avyypdfxixaTa ravTa eicri" (3ij3Xiov eic THN ezAHIwepON' 
T(.pov eic TA MeTA e^AHM.epON" aVrtppr/riKO? npoc MApKl'oONA* 6IC 
TO ACMA TOON ACMATCON" eiC MepH TOY lezeKlHA" nepi TOY nAC)(A" 

CYNTATMA np6c nACAC TAc Aipeceic /Stw^eXeWarov nepi thc 

nApOYCIAC TOY ANTIXpiCTOY' nepi ANACTACeOOC KoX aXka TrXciCTTa. 

eic 2A)(ApiAN* nepi yaAmoon" eic ton hcaTan' eic ton Aanih'A' 
nepi AnoKAAYyeooc" nepi nApoiMiooN- nepi caoyA kai nfOoiNOC 
nepi enAiNCON toy KYpiOY hmoon incoY XP'ctoy" ^^ of^^ Trapovros 
flptyevovs wfx.i\r]a-. ri.va 8e twv (TvyypafXfxdTOiV iiriX'qiJ/LfJia c^wv, tw Trepi 
XptaTou fjiapTvptio /xera raura TeXeiw^ets tov t^s ayvotas a-rreTpLif/aTO 
fxw/xov. i^ u)v (pacrt koX QpLyevtjv ap^yjv iaxrjKivaL raig ^'ei'ais 7ri^aXXeiv 
ypa(f>als. Toaavra Se koL to. 'IttttoXiitov. 

36. Ebed-jesu [c. a.d. 1300]. 

Catalogus c. vii (Assemanus Bibliotheca Orientalis iii. p. 15). 

Ki'ptos 'IttttoXutos fxapTv^ r^.lCQflO J30CXjLilc\^At<' .^V''^ 

Ktti erria-KOTTOs eypa\j/e )Si/3Xt'ov r<lao\& poflP T*^<Vrt F>cy*.^f^<\ 

TTcpi oiKOVO/xias /cai kpjxrivdav jiX-OAO :r<'^Oji=J.lS>3 A2k..l 



Aavtv^X To{! fXLKpov koI %ov(rdvva<; 
KOL KccfiaXaia Kara ratoi; 

Koi (XTroXoytav virlp t^s aTTOKaXv- 



:^as.o rc'io^t Ar<Lu.i 

rdA-A^ .L^.n ojc\i-an*Nrao 

Ktti TOV evayyeXiov 'Iu)dvov . >^*;i r^O^OtOT^O 

TOii ttTTOO-ToXov Kttt evayycXKTToS. r^XjaxA^iOK'O KIaJluX. 

Though this Catalogue was originally written in Syriac, I have 
thought it worth while to translate the passage into Greek, so as to show 
its correspondences with other lists of Hippolytus' writings. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that oiKovo//,tas (ver. 3) is the 
right translation, the corresponding Syriac word being an ordinary 
rendering of otKovo/Ata in its technical sense referring to the Incarnation; 
see Payne Smith's T/ies. Syr. s. v, p. 818. The expression 'the little 
Daniel,' if the epithet be correctly so translated rather than ' young,' 
occurs again J5il?/. Orient, iv. p. 6, where Assemani explains it of the 
apocryphal additions to Daniel, i.e. the history of Susanna, the Song of 
the Three Children, and Bel and the Dragon, though Susanna is 
mentioned separately in the preceding line. On the other hand Wright 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 351 

{Catal of Syr. MSS of Brit. Mus. i. p. 19) gives an account of a MS 
containing the prophets of the Old Testament and other matter, which 
between Susanna and Baruch has ' Daniel the youth (so he translates 
it) concerning our Lord and the end of the world.' 



37. Inscriptions relating to reliques. 



(a) Inscriptio in Basilica S. Laurentii. 



continet hoc templum sanctorum 

corpora plura 
a quibus auxilium supplex hic 

poscere cura 
cum xisto jacet hic laurentius 

igne crematus 
et protomartir stephanus levi 

ta beatus 
post hos ipolitus collis re 
10 ligatus equorum 

cum nutrice sua cum cunc 

ta plebe suorum 
romanus miles triphomia 

virgo cirilla 
et quadraginta quos passio 

continet ill a 
justinusque sacer defunctos 

qui tumulabat 
ciriace vidua que sanctos 
20 clam recreabat 

cujus matrone fuit hec 

possessio cara 
ipsius nomen specialiter 

optinet ara 
martir ireneus qui tecum 

martir abundi 
decedens sprevit fallacis 

gaudia mundi 
vlarus et zosimus pelagius 
30 hic retinentur 

tertius et xistus cum multis 

qui reticentur 



352 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

This inscription was found in the narthex of the lower basiUca of 
S. Laurentius in 1853. It is given in De Rossi Bull, di Arched . Crist. 
i88t, p. 87. The alternate (shorter) lines are in red. It belongs to the 
xiiith century. For the reference in 'passio ilia' see below, p. 473. 
In the inscription itself, 1. 13 miles is written milex, and in 1. 29 ylarvs 

is XLARVS. 

ib) l7iscriptio in Ecclesia S. Silvestri. 

^ IN N DNI HEC EST NOTICIA NATALICIORUM 
SCORUM HIC REQUIESCENTIUM 

MENSE AUGUSTO DIE VIII NA SCORU 
QUIRIACI LARGI ET SMARAGDE ARCHEL 
DIE XIII M SS NA SCi YPPOLITI, 

where m ss means mensis suprascripti (i.e. August). This table of 
the inscription, relating to the male saints, was known long ago, and will 
be found in Muratori Nov. Thes. p. mcmlxvi. 

^ INN. DNI. HAEC. NOT. NAT. SC[aRUm] 

HIC requiescent[ium] 

MENSE AUG. D. VIII. N. SCAR. MEMMIAE 

ET JULIANAE 
D. VIII. M. SS. N. S'CAE ARTHEMIAE 



D. XII. M. SS. N. SCAE CONCORDIAE 

MENSE SEPT. D. XXX. N. SCAR SOFIAE 

PISTIS. HELPIS. ET. AGAPE 

MENSE OCT. D. XIII. N. SCAE CONCHYLE 

D. XVIII. M. SS N. SCAE TRIFONIAE 

D. XXVIII. M. SS. N. SCAE CYRILLAE 

This table, relating to the female saints, has been pieced together 
recently by De Rossi; see Bull, di Archeol. Crist. 1882, p. 39 sq. 

These were the reliques taken from the demolished and rifled 
suburban cemeteries and placed by Paul I between a.d. 757 761 in 
his monastery of S. Silvester in Capite. 

38. Itineraries. 

These extracts are taken from De Rossi Roma Sotterranea i. p. 
144 sq, where the documents are described and their dates fixed. The 
extracts are on pp. 178, 179. 



1 
i 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 353 

(a) Iti7ierarhiin Codicis Salisburgensis [a.d. 625 6 3 8]. 

Postea illam viam demittis et pervenies ad S. Ypolitum martyrem 
qui requiescit sub terra in cubiculo, et Concordia mulier eius martyr 
ante fores, altero cubiculo S. Triphonia regina et martyr, et Cyrilla 
filia eius et martyr, quas meditus Decius interfecit uxorem et filinm, 
et S. Genisius martyr. Postea pervenies ad ecclesiam S. Laurentii ; ibi 
sunt magnae basilicae duae in quarum quis speciosiorem et pausat, 
et est parvum cubiculum extra ecclesiam in hoc occidentur. Ibi 
pausat S. Abundius et Herenius martyr Via Tiburtina ; et ibi est ille 
lapis quem toUent digito multi homines nescientes quid faciunt. Et 
in altera ecclesia sursum multi martyres pausant. Prima est Cyriaca 
sancta vidua et martyr, et in altero loco S. Justinus, et iuxta eum 
S. Crescentius martyr, et multitude sanctorum, longe in spelunca deor- 
sum S. Romanus martyr. Postea ascendes ad ecclesiam S. Agapiti 
martyris et diaconi S. Syxti papae. 

In 1. 4 for 'meditus' read ' Messius ' ; in 1. 6 for 'in quarum... pausat ' read 
probably ' in quarum quae speciosior est pausat ' ; and in 1. 7 ' occidentur ' should be 
read ' occidente,' even if some greater correction is not needed. 

This is the itinerary attached to William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regitm Anglonun. 

(b) Epitome Libri de Locis Sanctorinn Martyruin [a.d. 635 645]. 
Juxta Viam Tiburtinam (prope murum civitatis ecclesia est S. 

Januarii episcopi et martyris, eademque via) ecclesia est S. Agapiti 
multum honorabilis martyrum corporibus. Et prope eandem viam 
ecclesia est S. Laurentii maior, in qua corpus eius primum fuerat 
humatum, et ibi basilica nova mirae pulchritudinis, ubi ipse modo 
requiescit. Ibi quoque sub eodem altare Abundus est depositus et 
foris in portico lapis est, qui aliquando in collo eiusdem Abundi pen- 
debat in puteum missi : ibi Hereneus, Julianus, Primitivus, Tacteus, 
Nemeseus, Eugenius, Justinus, Crescentianus, Romanus sunt sepulti, 
et S. Cyriaca, S. Simferosa, et Justina cum multis martyribus sunt 
sepulti. Inde in boream sursum in monte basilica S. Hippolyti est, 
ubi ipse cum familia sua tota xviiii martyres iacet. Career ibi 
est in quo fuit Laurentius. Ibi est Triphonia uxor Decii Caesaris et 
Cyrilla filia eius : inter utrasque Concordia et S. Geneseus, et multi 
martyres ibi sunt. 

In 1. I, 2, the words in brackets are in a later hand. In 1. 11 read 'sepultae'. 

(r) Notitia Portarum Viariim Ecclesiarum [a.d. 648 682]. 

Sexta porta et via Tiburtina, quae modo dicitur S. Laurentii, iuxta 
banc viam iacet S, Laurentius in sua ecclesia ct Habundius martyr. 
Et ibi prope in altera ecclesia pausant hi martyres, Ciriaca, Romanus, 

CLEM. II. 23 



354 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

Justinus, Crescentianus, et ibi non longe Ipolitus vel basilica S. Ippo- 
lyti, ubi ipse cum familia sua pausat, id est xviii [v. l. xxviii]. Et ibi 
requiescunt beata Triphonia uxor Decii et filia eius Cirilla et Concordia 
nutrix eius. Et in altera parte viae illius est ecclesia Agapiti martyris. 

{d) Topographia Einsiedlensis [after a.d. 750]. 

In via Tiburtina foris murum in sinistra S. Ypoliti, in dextera S. 
Laurentii. 

(e) Liber Mirahilinm Urbis Romae [later, various recensions]. 
Coemeterium in agro Verano ad S. Laurentium. 

39. Western Service Books. 

(rt) Sacramejitanum Leonianum (Muratori Liha'gia Romana Vetjis 
I. p. 400). 

Idibus Augusti. 

NATALE SANCTORUM HIPPOLVTI ET PONTIANI. 

Tibi enim, Domine, festiva solemnitas agitur, tibi dies sacrata cele- 
bratur, quam Sancti Hippolyti martyris tui sanguis in veritatis tuae 
testificatione profusus magnifico nominis tui honore signavit. 

(J)) Sacramentariiim Gregorianum (Muratori 11. p. 112). 
Idibus Augusti. 

NATALE SANCTI HIPPOLYTI. 

Da nobis, omnipotens Deus, ut beati Hippolythi martyris tui vene- 
randa solemnitas et devotionem nobis augeat et salutem. 

(yc) Missale Mixtum Mozarabicum {Patrol. Lot. lxxxv. p. 816 sq). 

Hunc [Laurentium] Hipolitus dum sibi traditum asservaret custodia 
militari etc. 

With more to the same effect. So again p. 818. 
SANCTI HYPOLITI SOCIORUMQUE EJUS. 

But this document has been added to from time to time, and contains saints of the 
13th century, e.g. Thomas Aquinas. 

{d) Breviariiim Gothicuvi Sandorale {Patrol. Lat. Lxxxvi. p. 
ii34sq). 

Aug. xiii. In festo sancti Hippolyti Martyris. 

Ferreis percalidus unguibus artifex 
Armat spiniferi spicula cardui ; 
Corrupta penitus viscera martyris 
Perfundunt rosei flumina sanguinis. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 355 

Hinc ad cornipedum terga ferocium 

Innexu religant ; tractus in aspera. 

* * * 

Christe Domine omnipotens, qui sanctum martyrem tuum Hippoly- 
tum, dum equina feritate per si)inarum traheretur acumina, etc. 

There is no trace of any connexion with S. Laurentius here, and no 
mention of any companions. 

See more on this subject in De Rossi Bullettifio p. 30 sq (1882). 



40. Calendars and Martyrologies. 

{a) Liherian Chronographer [a.d. 354]. 

Successio episcoporiim (Mommsen, p. 635 ; see above, i. p. 255). 
Eo tempore Pontianus episcopus et YppoHtus presbyter exoles 
sunt deportati in Sardinia, in insula nociva, Severo et Quintiano 
cons. [a.d. 235]; 

Depositio Marlyruin (Mommsen, p. 632 sq). 
viii Idus Aug. Xysti in Calisti 
iiii Idus Aug. Laurenti in Tiburtina 
Idus Aug. YpoUti in Tiburtina 

et Pontiani in CaHsti 
Non. Sept. Aconti in Porto, et Nonni et Herculani et Taurini. 

{b) Anciejit Syriac Martyrologv [c. a.d. 350 ?] ed. Wright, pp. 4, 8. 

Jan. 30. In the city of Antioch, Hippolytus. 
Aug. I. On the same day, the commemoration of Xystus, bishop 
of Rome. 

{c) Calendar of Polemius Sylvius [a.d. 448]. 

iiii Idus Aug. Natalis S. Laurentii mart. 
ii Idus Aug. HyppoHti mart. 

{d) Consular Fasti [a.d. 493]. 

Decio II et Rustico [a.d. 251]. 

His coss. passus S. Laurentius iii Idus Augusti. 

((?) Kalendarium Carthaginense. 

viii Idus Aug. sancti Systi episcopi et martyris Romae. 
iiii Idus Aug. sancti Laurenti. 
Idus Aug. sancti Hippoliti. 

232 



356 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

(/) Martyrologium Hieronyviianum (Hieron. Op. xi. pp. 551, 

585 sq). 

iv Kal. Febr. In Tursia, Constanti, Hippolyti episcopi de an- 

tiquis. 
iii Kal. Febr. In Antiochia, passio sancti Hippolyti martyris. 
Prid. Kal. Febr. In Alexandria, Tarsici, Zotici...Gelasi, Hippo- 
lyti, Ursini, Tyrsi. 
viii Idus Aug. Romae in coemeterio Calesti, via Appia natalis 
Sixti episcopi, et Felicissimi... Laurentii, Hippolyti, et militum 
centum sexaginta duorum. 
iv Idus Aug. Romae via Tiburtina, natalis sancti Laurentii archi- 
diaconi et martyris. In via Appia Felicissimi. Et alibi Cres- 
centiani . . . Pontiani. 
Idus Aug. Romae, natalis sanctorum, Hippolyti martyris, 

Pontiani episcopi, Cornelii, etc. 
xiii Kal. Sept. In Portu Romano, natalis sancti Hippolyti mar- 
tyris. In Sardinia natalis sancti Luxurii, etc. 
xi Kal. Sept. Et in portu Romano peregrinorum martyrum. 
X Kal. Sept. In portu urbis Romae natalis sancti Hippolyti 
qui dicitur Nunnus cum sociis suis. In Ostia 
natalis sancti Quiriaci, Archelai. 

{g) Martyrologhan Vetus Romanuin (^Patrol. Lat. cxxiii. pp. 147, 
165, Migne). 

iii Kal. Febr. Antiochiae, passio sancti Hippolyti. 

viii Id. Aug. Romae, via Appia, Xisti papae et martyris. 

vi Id. Aug. Romae, via Ostiensi, Cyriaci martyris cum aliis xxi 

quando viii die mensis Augusti reconditi sunt. 
V Id. Aug. Romae, Romani militis 

Vigilia sancti Laurentii. 
iv Id. Aug. Romae Laurentii archidiacon, martyris et militum 

clxv. 
Idus Aug. Romae, Hippolyti martyris cum familia sua, et 

S. Concordiae nutricis ejus. 

On the relations of the older Roman Martyrologies see Ignat. and Poly c. i. p. 554 
(ed. i), p. 570 (ed. 2). 

41. Florus-Beda [c. a.d. 870]. 

Patrol. Lat. xciv, pp. 827, 999 sq. 

iii Kal. Febr. [Vacat]. 

viii Kal. Aug. Romae S. Xysti episcopi. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 357 

vi Idus Aug. Natalis S. Cyriaci. 

V Idus Aug. Vigilia S. Laurentii. Eodem die Romae S. Romani 
militis, qui confessione S. Laurentii compunctus 
petiit ab eo baptizari; et mox jubente Decio 
cum fustibus exhibitus ac decoUatus est. 

iv Idus Aug. Natale S. Laurentii sub Decio ; qui post plurima 
tormenta carceris, verberum diversorum, lami- 
narum ardentium, ad ultimum in craticula ferrea 
assatus martyrium complevit. 

Idibus Aug. Romae S. Ypoliti, qui tempore Decii ligatus pedes 
ad coUa indomitorum equorum sic per carduos 
tribulosque tractus emisit spiritum; et Concor- 
diae nutricis ejus, quae ante ipsum plumbatis 
caesa martyrizatur ; et aliorum de domo ejus 
decern et noveni, qui simul decoUati sunt. 

42. Ado of Vienne [f a.d. 874]. 
Martyrologmm {Patrol. Lat. cxxiii. pp. 224, 318 sq, Migne). 

Ill KAL. FEBR. 

Passio sancti Hippolyti martyris qui Novati schismate aliquantulum 
deceptus, operante gratia Christi correctus ad charitatem ecclesiae 
rediit; pro qua et in qua illustre martyrium postea consummavit. 

VIII IDUS AUG. 

Romae, via Appia, in coemeterio Callisti, natale S. Sixti episcopi et 
martyris et in coemeterio Praetextati sanctorum Felicissimi et xAgapiti 
diaconorum ejusdem, sub Decio imperatore, Valeriano praefecto; qui 
tenuit beatissimum senem Sixtum episcopum Romanum cum omni clero 
suo et reclusit eos in custodia publica etc. 

[Sixtus, Felicissimus, and Agapitus, are beheaded with others.] 

V ID. AUG. 

Vigilia sancti Laurentii. 

Eodem die Romae, sancti Romani militis qui in confessione sancti 
Laurentii compunctus petiit ab eo baptizari, et mox jubente Decio cum 
fustibus exhibitus ac decollatus est. 

IV ID. AUG. 

Romae natale sancti Laurentii archidiaconi et martyris sub Decio. 
Cui beatus Sixtus omnes facultates ecclesiae et thesauros, pergens ad 
coronam martyrii, tradidit. 

[Hippolytus his gaoler, seeing the miracle of giving sight to the blind 
wrought by Laurentius, is converted and baptized. T,aurentiiis is 



358 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

brought before the tyrant Decius, ordered to surrender the treasures of 
the Church, and put to torture.] 

Tunc unus ex miUtibus, nomine Romanus, credidit Domino Jesu 
Christo et dixit beato Laurentio : Video ante te hominem pulcherrimum 
stantem cum hnteo et extergentem membra tua; adjuro te per Christum 
qui tibi misit angehmi suum, ne me dereHnquas. Levatus igitur beatus 
martyr de catasta et solutus, redditus est Hippolyto tantum in palatio. 
Veniens autem Romanus offerens aquam misit se ad pedes beati 
Laurentii ut baptizaretur; qui benedicta aqua baptizavit eum: quod 
factum audiens Decius jussit eum sibi exhiberi cum fustibus. Non 
interrogatus coepit clamare, Christianus sum. Et jubente Decio eductus 
foras muros portae Salariae decollatus est quinto Idus Augusti. Cujus 
corpus noctu collegit Justinus presbyter et sepehvit in crypta in agro 
Verano. 

[Laurentius then undergoes martyrdom, being roasted ahve on a 
gridiron.] 

Mane autem primo adhuc crepusculo rapuit corpus ejus Hippolytus 
et condivit cum Hnteis et aromatibus ; et hoc factum mandavit Justino 
presbytero. Tunc beatus Justinus et Hippolytus plorantes et multum 
tristes tulerunt corpus beati martyris et venerunt in via Tiburtina, in 
praedium raatronae viduae Cyriacae in agro Verano, ad quam ipse 
martyr fuerat noctu, cui et linteum dedit, unde pedes sanctorum ex- 
terserat, et illud ibi jam hora vespertina sepelierunt iv Idus Augusti. 
Et jejunaverunt agentes vigiUas noctis triduo, et muititudine Christi- 
anorum. Beatus autem Justinus presbyter obtulit sacrificium laudis, 
et participati sunt omnes. 

Eodem die Romae, miUtum centum et sexaginta quinque. Tunc 
passi sunt Claudius, Severus, Crescentio, et Romanus, ipso die quo 
beatus Laurentius, post tertium post diem passionis sancti Sixti. 

ID. AUG. 

Romae, sancti Hippolyti martyris, sub Decio imperatore, Valeriano 
praefecto. Hunc beatum Hippolytum vicarium sanctus Laurentius, 
cum apud eum esset in custodia, baptizavit. Qui de Sanctis exsequiis 
martyris post tertium diem ad domum suam rediens dedit pacem 
omnibus servis suis et ancillis, et communicavit de sacrificio altaris 
beati Laurentii martyris. Et posita mensa, priusquam cibum sumeret, 
venerunt milites et tenuerunt et perduxerunt ad Decium. Quern ut 
vidit, subridens dixit ei : Numquid et tu magus effectus es, quia corpus 
Laurentii abstulisse diceris? Sanctus Hippolytus respondit; Hoc feci 
non quasi magus, sed quasi Christianus. Decius furore repletus jussit 
ut cum lapidibus os ejus contunderetur. Et exspoliavit eum veste qua 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 359 

induebatur habitu Christiano et dixit ei : Sacrifica, et vives ; sin aliter, 
peries per tormenta sicut Laurentius. Sanctus Hippolytus dixit ; 
Exemplum nierear beati Laurentii martyris fieri, quern tu, miser, ausus 
fuisti ore pollute nominare. Extensus igitur fustibus et cardis diu 
caesus est, donee caedentes deficerent. Inde levatus est a terra, et 
jussit eum Decius vestiri militari veste qua gentilis utebatur, et dixit ei : 
Recole militiam, et esto noster amicus, et in conspectu nostro utere 
militia pristina quam semper habuisti. Cumque beatus martyr dixisset ; 
Militia mea haec est, Christianum firmum militare, unde cupio ad 
celerem palmam cum fructu venire ; iracundia plenus Decius dixit 
Valeriano ; Accipe omnes facultates ejus, et interfice eum crudeli 
exanimatione. Valerianus itaque, exquisita omni facultate ejus, invenit 
in domo Hippolyti omnem familiam Christianam, quam conspectui suo 
praesentari fecit. Et jussit beatum Hippolytum foras muros portae 
Tiburtinae cum familia sua duci. Beatus vero Hippolytus confortabat 
omnes, dicens ; Fratres, nolite metuere, quia ego et vos unum Deum 
habemus. Et decoUati sunt promiscui sexus numero decem et novem. 
Beatus vero Hippolytus ligatus pedes ad coUa indomitorum equorum, 
sic per carduetum et tribulos tractus, emisit spiritum. Nocte venit 
beatus Justinus presbyter, et collegit corpora, et sepelivit in campo 
eodem juxta Nympham, ad latus agri Verani, Idibus Augusti. 

Eodem die natale sanctae Concordiae, nutricis ejusdem beati 
Hippolyti. Cum Valerianus ad familiam beati Hippolyti sibi prae- 
sentatam dixisset, Considerate aetates vestras, ne simul pereatis cum 
Hippolyto domino nostro (/. vestro) ; respondit beata Concordia, Nos 
desideramus potius cum domino nostro pudice mori quam impudice 
vivere. Ad hoc Valerianus ; Genus, inquit, servorum nisi cum suppliciis 
non emendatur. Et jussit ut beata Concordia cum plumbatis caederetur. 
Et cum caederetur, emisit spiritum, corpusque ejus est in cloacam 
projectum. Cumque diu quaereret illud sanctus Justinus, et non in- 
veniret, ita tristis redditur ut non cessarent flere oculi ejus. Tertio 
decimo vero die post passionem sancti Hippolyti, venit quidam miles 
Porphyrius nomine, ad Irenaeum cloacarium qui occulte Christianus 
erat, et dicit ei ; Si secretum possis custodire, divulgabo arti tuae mul- 
tum ad quaestum ; ante hos dies jussit Valerianus praefectus in con- 
spectu suo quamdam creditariam Hippolyti plumbatis deficere, et corpus 
ejus in cloacam jactari : haec in vestibus suis spero quod margaritas 
habet absconsas vel aurum. Audiens haec Irenaeus, intimavit secreto 
beato Justino presbytero; (\\x\ flectens genua gratias egit Deo. Por- 
phyrius autem noctu veniens cum Irenaeo invenit corpus sanctum ; sed 
in vcstimentis nihil invenerunt. Beatus autem Irenaeus vocavit ad se 



J 



60 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 



quemdam Christianum Abundium nomine, et tulerunt corpus ejus et 
perduxerunt ad beatum Justinum ; qui gratias agens Deo illud sus- 
cepit, et juxta corpora martyrum Hippolyti et aliorum sepelivit, viii 
Kalendas Septembris. 

XV KAL. OCT. 

Item Romae via Tiburtina, ad sanctum Laurentium, natale beati 
Justini presbyteri, quern beatus Sixtus ordinavit. 

[After speaking of the relations of Justinus with S. Laurentius and 
S. Cyriaca, the account concludes :] 

Hie sanctum Hippolytum et Concordiam, Irenaeum, Abundium, 
Cyrillam filiam Decii Caesaris, martyres, et alios plurimos sepulturis 
condivit. Et persecutione Decii, Galli, et Volusiani, confessionis gloria 
insignissimus fuit. 

Romae, in crypta arenaria, sanctorum martyrum Narcissi et Cre- 
scensionis. 

VII KAL. SEPT, 

Item natalis sanctorum Irenaei et Abundi Romae ; quos Deciana 
persecutione jussit Valerianus incloacari eo quod corpus beatae Con- 
cordiae cloacam missum levaverunt. Et ipsorum quoque corpora 
levavit Justinus presbyter et sepelivit in crypta juxta beatum Lauren- 
tium. 

XV KAL. NOV. 

Item Romae sanctae Triphoniae uxoris Decii Caesaris ; quae, viro 
suo post interfectionem beatorum Sixti et Laurentii divinitus punito, 
petiit baptizari cum filia Decii Cyrilla a Justino presbytero ; et alia die 
defuncta est ac juxta Hippolytum in crypta sepulta quinto decimo Kal. 
Novembris. 

VIII KAL. NOV. 

Ipso die Romae via Salaria natalis quadraginta et octo mihtum, qui 
simul baptizati a beato Dionysio papa; et mox jubente Claudio 
imperatore decollati sunt. Quorum corpora noctu collegerunt beatus 
Justinus presbyter et Joannes, et sepelierunt in crypta cum multitudine 
Christianorum in via Salaria in clivum Cucumeris viii Kal. Novembris, 
ubi positi sunt et alii martyres centum viginti et unus. Inter quos 
fuerunt quatuor milites Christi, Theodosius, Lucius, Marcus, et Petrus. 
Hi videntes ad se venire armatos, rogabant ut primi decoUarentur. 
Scriptum in passione sanctorum martyrum Sixti, Laurentii, et Hippolyti. 

V KAL. NOV. 

Romae sanctae Cyrillae filiae Decii Caesaris quae sub Claudio 
principe jugulata et necata est gladio, ac sepulta a Justino presbytero 
cum matre sua juxta sanctum Hippolytum. 



HIPPOLYTUS OF PORTUS. 361 

43. Men^a [a.d. ?]. 

Jan. 30 (p. 230, ed. Venet. 1877). 

"A^Ar/crts rot! aytov iepofxapTvpo<; iTnroXvTov TraTra Pw/Ar/s Kat twv avu 
avTio Kei'o'ouptvou, ^ajSa'Cvov, Xpvaijs, Kat twi' Xolttwv' 
ToXfJ-y Oakaaaav 'IttttoXutos cttrSui^et 
ola KpoaivdiV tTTTros ^v Aetw Tre'Sw 

'IttttoXvtov ttovtov TpLaKOCTrj KTav pevfxa. 

AvTY) Tj upa 6jJi-qyvpi<i VTrrjp)(ev iirl rrjs ySacrtXeia? K.XavSLOv, i^yepiovevovTos 
(iiKapiov rov koL OvXttlov 'PwjxvXov KaXovp-evov Kat o /xev Kevcrovpivos, 
/Aayiorpos cSv /cat tcu ^acrtXet ayaTrco/xei/os, eVe^Sero tov XptCTToV AeXiy^oVcos 
Kat Twv XptcTTiavwi/ VTreprjo-TTi^eTO ' yvwaOel^ 8e aTrcKXetcr^Tj ev <}ivXaKy ' 
vua veKpov dvacTT'ija'as CTretcre Travras tovs (TTpaTtcuras TrtcTTCvcrat tw 
Xptcrrw' otTti/es Trpocrra^et toi; rvpavvou a7reK<^a\to"^7jo"av, /cat o"i-v aurots 
j^ fxaKapta X.pv(Trj /cat d ravTTys ijVovpyds SaySa'tVos, Trpdrepov TroXXas 
uTTo/ACtVavTes Tt/Acoptas 8ta to Sta/covetv rots aytots Kat tovs l\wpas avTuiv 
iKp.acraeiv koI iavTOvs aXetc^etF. 

Tavra jxaOwv 6 /xaKaptcuTaros TraTras 'IttttoXvtos, ^>?Xw ^eto) KLvr]9u<i, 
qXOe Koi rjXey^e tov Tupavvov Kara TrpofTwirov. 6 8e UTrep^ecras tw dv/xw 
TrpwTov /AEV auTOi' i{3acravi(r //.era tcuv aKoXout'owi/Twv avTw Trpecr^uTtpwi/ 
Kat StaKovoJV Kat tov cTrtcrKOTrov * etTa Srjcras avTwv Tas ;(tpas Kai tous TroSas 
ev T(3 ftvOw TT7S OaX(x<jar]<; eppL\f/e, koL ovtw^ CTeXettu^jycrav. 

This is found also in the Menologium of Basil {Patrol. Graec. cxvii. 
p. 285, Migne) almost verbatim) but the words toij Kat OuXTrtou 
'Pw/AuXov Ka.Xovp.kvov are omitted. Hippolytus however is called TraTra 
simply without the addition of 'Pw/at^s. 

August loth (p. 53). 

Tiiy t tou avTOu p.y]vo% p.vijp.r] twi/ dytojv p.apTvpwv AavpeuTiov o.p-^i- 

StttKovou, EwTOU TraTra Vujfxr]<s, Kat 'IttttoXvtou. 

* * * 

Tdv 'Itttto'Xijtoi/ t7r7ro8eo-/xtov /^XeVw 
cvavTtov Trao-;(ovTa ttj KXyyVet Tra^os. 
WTTTTjaav SeKaTT] Kavpivriov rjin l^uvv. 

[The charge of Xystus to Laurentius and the Martyrdom are then 
recorded as in the Latin Acts.] 

Eto-ap(6ets 877 Aaupevrtos o' ap;i(t8taKovos Kat Ta tepa )(^py)p.aTa airaiTOv- 
/jievos, am/aas d/xd^as kol Xafiwv tous ^^wXous Kat dvatryjpovs, ots SttVct/xe Ta 
'^prjp.aTa, koX rats a/xa^at? eVtCTTt/^aira?, rjyayf. Trpos TOi/ /?ao"tXa' ovs 



362 EPISTLES OF S. CLEMENT. 

ISwv Koi upyL(T9^i<; k(.\(.vi rov ayiov Aavpevriov TV^Orjvat cr^oSpojs, etra 
(i\y]9yjvai Iv ry <f)v\aKy, iv fj yevo//.evos laro vravxas ocrot Trpos o-vtov 
If^oLTOiV, (5 av exacTTOS Karerj^ero voarjixaTi. anep o Tpi{3ovvos KaXXtVtKos 
ySXeVwi/, d Kat TTj elpKTrj iiriaTaTOiv, 7rto"Teuo"c tw Xpicrrw /<ai IBairridu-q. 
fxerd TOVTo Se TraptcrTaTai d aytos Aavpei'Ttos rw /3ao"tA.t, Kai /xt) TretcrPeis 
Ova-at Tots eiSwA-ots eTrt ecr^^apas aTrXoGrat, Karw^ev vcfja-rrTOfiivov Trvpos* 
Kai eV auTTj tw ew eu;(api(TT7y(7a? d(f)rJK to TTvcvfia, Koi Ki^Seias Tiys 
d<j!)eiXo/i.ev>j vrapd toi) IttttoXtjtou rvy^avet. 

ToSto yvovs o ySacrtXevs Kat /AeraTrcyai^a/Aevos aurov eweXeuo'e Kivapats 
(nSrjpai<; fxaaTLywOrjvaL, eira tTTTrot? TrpocTdeOrjvat ayptots* t"^' wv eTrt ttoXv 
avp6p.vo<; Tw 0ew to nv^vjxa TrapiOero. XeycTat Se on ttJ e/3So/.tr/ rjixlpa 
fxerd TO Tradelv rov dyiov YtvttoXvtov Aeklos koL OiiaXXepiai/ds Ka07][XVOi ivrl 
Twv LTTTTOiv ovTwv Tov dcfiiKi.a6aL TTpos TO uiarpov i^eTTvevcrav, Kpa^a? o 
AeKtos V T']^ wpa tou Oavdrov auxov' 'fi 'iTTTroXure, ws ai;(p,aXcoToi/ ovtw 
8e8ep,eVov otTrayets p,e; eKpa^e 8e Kat o OuaXXeptaj/o's* IluptVats p.e KaT7;vais 
ouTws eXKets; toCto Se S^Xov yiyove Ka6' oXr]v Tiijv oiKovfJLevrjv, Koi iravTcs 
i(rTpeioOr}(Tav rfi ttlcttcl tov J^vpiov 7^p.cov 'It^ctoi; XpicTTOv, w 77 So^a ets tgus 
aiwvas. afjLrjv. 

The same account is given in a much abridged form in the Meno- 
logium of Basil (Patrol. Graec. cxvii. p. 580, Migne). 

44. S. Petrus Damianus [c. a.d. 1060]. 

Epistola ad Nicolaum // (Hippol. Op. i. p. xi, ed. Fabricius). 

Beatus quoque Nonus martyr, qui et Hippolytus, memoriae nostrae 
non praetereundus occurrit; qui nimirum postquam triginta milha Sara- 
cenorum ad Christi fidem efiticacissima praedicatione convertit, post- 
quam beatam quoque Pelagiam de lupanaribus ad ecclesiae pudicitiam 
provocavit, postquam denique nonnullos sanctarum expositionum libros 
luculenter expHcuit, tandem episcopatum deseruit,