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[INDEX SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 3640, July 31, 1897. 



w 



THE 



ATHENAEUM 



JOURNAL 



OF 



LITERATURE, SCIENCE, THE FINE ARTS, MUSIC, 

AND THE DRAMA. 

JANUARY TO JUNE, 

1897. 





LONDON: 

PRINTED BY JOHN EDWARD FRANCIS, ATHEN^UM PRESS, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE. 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C., 

BY JOHN C. FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS AND NEWSMEN IN TOWN AND COUNTRY. 
AGENTS FOR SCOTLAND, MB8SR8. BELL & BRADFUTE AND MR. JOHN MENZIES, EDINBURGH. 



MDCCCXCVIl. 



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U 

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[SUPPLEMENT to tht ATBZSMUH with No. 3W0, July II, 1897 



SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENiEUM with No. 3640, July 31, 1897) 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 

JANUARY TO JUNE 
1897. 



LITERATURE. 

Reviews. 

Abrahams's (I.) Jewish Life in the Middle Age?, 274 

Ackroyd's (L. G.) Homer's Wine, &c, 209 

Acts of the Privy Council, Vol. XIII., 1581-1582-Vol. 

XIV.. 1586-1587, 575 
Adcock's (A. St. J.) Bast- Bod Idylls, 837 
Alexander's (Mrs) A Golden Autumn, 145; Mrs. Crich- 

ton's Creditor, 739 
Allen's (G.) Historical Guides : Paris— Florence, 443 
Almack's (B.) Bibliography of the Eikon Baailike.llO, 186 
Almanach Hachette, 16 
Amicis's (E. de) La Lettera Anonima, 507 
Annual Charities Register and Digest, edited by Loch, 347 
Annual Register for 1896, 713 
Ante-Nicene Library, edited by Menzies, 505 
Apollonius of Perga, by Heath, 376 
Aristophanes : Plutus, ed. Quinn, 212 ; ed. James, 838 
Armaille's (Comtesse d') Une Fiancee de Napoleon, 507 
Armstrong's (A.) Under the Circumstances. 375, 446, 480 
Arnold's (T. W.) The Preaching of Islam, 438 
Ashby-Sterry's (J.) A Tale of the Thames, 45 
Ashton's (J.) The Devil in Britain and America, 9 
Atkinson's (C. M.) The Magistrate's Annual Practice for 

1895, 47 ; for 1897, 311 
Atteridge's (H.) Towards Khartoum, 245 
Axon's (W. B. A.) Bygone Sussex, 211 
Ayroles's (J. B. J.) La Vraie Jeanne d'Arc, 737 

Bacon's Eseays, edited by West, 839 

Bacon's (G. F.) Dinah Fleet, 442 

Baden-Powell's (B. H.) Indian Village Community, 307 

Baden-Powell's (Col. R. S. S.) The Matabele Campaign, 

1896, 574 

Badminton Library : Poetry of Sport, by Peek, 179 
Bagguley's " Sutherland " Process for Bindings, 679 
Baildon's Select Cases in Chancery, 1364-1471, 575 
Baker's (J.) The Gleaming Dawn, 44 
Bally's (S. B.) German Commercial Correspondence, 180 
Bannister's (S.) Contest over the Ratification of the 

Federal Constitution of Massachusetts, 676 
Baptist Handbook for 1897, 83 
Barere, Memoirs of, translated by Payen Payne, 840 
Bir-Hebraeus's (Mar G. J.) Laughable Stories, translated 

by Budge, 346 
Baring-Gould's (S.) Guavas the Tinner, 503 
Barrett's (F.) A Misting Witness 309 
Barrie's (J. M.) Margaret Ogilvy, 82 
Baruch, Apocalypse of, translated by Charles, 345 
Bazin's (R.) De Toute son Arae, 537 
li< anhari.aiH, Hortense de, by D'Arjuzon, 541 
Bed-, edited by Plummer, 79,313, 381 744, 809, 841 
Behenna's (K.) Sidartha, 112 
Bell's (Sir J.) Glasgow, its Municipal Organization, &c, 

410 
Belloc's (Madame) A Passing World, 776 
Benecke's (E. F. M.) Women in Greek Poetry, 375 
Ben'dst's (C.) La Crise de I'Btat Moderne, 649 
Benson's (A. C.) Lord Vyet, and other Poems, 307 
Benson's (E. F.) The Babe, B.A.. 178 
Berard's (V.) La Politique du Sultan, 377 ; La Turquie et 

l'Hellenisme Contemporain, 511 ; La Macedoitie, 743 
Bertheroy's (J.) La Double Joug, 740 
Berwick's (J.) The Secret of Saint Florel, 675 
Besant's (Sir W.) A Fountain Sealed, 772 
Bibliography: Bibliographica, Parts VII. and VIII , 15; 

Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, Vol. II. 

Part II., Vol. III. Part I., 15, 50; The Works of John 

and Charles Wesley, by Green — Institut International 

de Bibliographic : Bulletin — Bibliographiederschwei- 

zerischen Landeskunde, ed. Brandstetter and Graf — 

Bibliographic de l'Anarchie, by Nettlau, 648 
Bickerdyke'8 (J.) Wild Sports in Ireland, 740; Daughters 

of Thespis, 804 
Bigham's (C.) A Ride through Western Asia, 830 
Bire's (E.) Diary of a Citizen of Paris during "the 

Terror," translated by De Villiers, 108 
Bjbmson's (B.) The Fisher Lass, 210, 314 
Blackmore's (Capt.) The British Mercantile Marine, 182 
Blailand's (Rev. G. C.) 'Mayflower" Essays on the 

Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 677 
Bois's (J.) Pnere. 540 
Boldrewood's(R) My Run Home, 803 
Bolland's (E. I). C.) D.rothy Lucas, 44 
Booksellers' Cata'ogues, 48, 213, 312, 377, 478, 776 
Booksellers' Review, The, Nos. I. and II., 415 
Booih's(C) Lite and Labjur of the People in London, 

Vol. IX, 541 ' 



Boswell, James, by Leask, 277 

Bosweirs Life of Johnson, edited by Birrell, 82 

Bourinot's (Dr. J. G.) Canada, 613 

Bovet's (Mile. M. A. de) Partie du Pied Gau«he, 413 ; 

La Jeune Grece, 808 
Bowen, Lord, Biographical Sketch, by Cunningham, 16 
Braddon's (Miss) Under Love's Rule, 536 
Bradsbaw's (Mrs. A. S.) False Gods, 675 
Brath's (S. de) The Foundations of Success, 612 
Brett's (R.I The Yoke of Empire, 148 
Brewer's (J. F.) The Speculators, 375 
Brink's (B. ten) History of English Literature, Vol. III., 

142 
British Golf Links, edited by Hutchinson, 713 
British Imperial Calendar, 83 
British Moralists, edited by Selby-Bigge, 534 
Broughton's (Rhoda) Dear Faustina, 772 
Brown's (V.) My Brother, 113 
Browne's (T. B.) The Advertiser's ABC, 182 
Browning's (H. E.) A Girl's Wanderings in Hungary, 305 
Bruce's(C) All in All, 413 
Bryan's (W. J.) The First Battle, 676 
Buch iii's (J.) Musa Piscatrix, 236 
Buckland's (A. W.) Margiret Moore, Spinster, 309 
Bugge's (S.) Norges Indskrifter med de asldre Runer, 

Part II., 775 
Bund's (J. W. W.) The Celtic Church of Wales, 800 
Burchett's (G.) The Yoke of Steel, 178 
Burden's Official Intelligence for 1897, 615, 653 
Burdett's (H. C.) Hospitals and Charities for 1897, 840 
Burgin's (G. B.) Tomalyn's Quest, 81 
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, 83 
Burke's (C.) Flowering of the Almond Tree, 678 
Burns, The Poetry of, Centenary Edition, edited by 

Henley and Henderson, Vol. III., 304, 378 
Burroughs's (J.) A Year in the Fields, 148 
Burton, Lady Isabel, the Story of her Life, by Wilkins,679 
Burton, Capt. Sir Richard, True Life of, by Stisted, 182 
Byers's (N. R.) A Doubtful Loss, 146 
Byington's (Rev. Dr.) The Puritan in England and New 

England, 676 
Byron, Lord, Works of, ed. Henley: Letters, 1804-1813, 

7,50 

Csesar : Gallic War, Book VI., ed. Brown, 212 
Caillard's Report on Ottoman Public Debt, 614 
Calendar of Close Rolls. 1327-1330, 276 
Calendar of the Inner Temple Records, edited by Inder- 

wick, Vol. I., 10 
Calvert's (A. F.) The Exploration of Australia, 443 
Cameron, Richard, Life of, by Herkless, 182 
Cameron's (Mrs. L.) Two Cousins and a Castle, 146 
Campbell's (F.)The Theory of National and International 

Bibliography, 311 
Campbell's (Prof. L.) Sophocles in English Verse, 213 
Capus's (G.) A travers la Bosnie et l'Herzegovine, 148 
Carey's (R. N.) The Mistress of Brae Farm, 442 
Carlyle's Sartor Resartus, edited by MacMeehan, 541 ; 

Montaigne and other Essays, 713 
Carman's (Bliss) Behind the Arras, 408 
Carnarvon's (Lord) The Defence of the Empire, edited 

by Sir G. Clarke, 277 
Carr's (Mrs. C.) Cottage Folk, 712 
Cassell's Guide to London, 713 
Cassidy's (J.) The Gift of Life, 772 
Catalogues : Manuscripts, &c, in the Grenville Library 

— Facsimiles of Autographs in the Department of 

Manuscripts, British Museum, 505 ; I Codici Francesi 

della R. Biblioteca Nazionale di S. Marco in Venezia, 

by Ciampoli, 506 
Cathcart's (G.) Federal Defence of Australasia, 477 
Catholic Directory, The, 16 
Causton's (J. F.) A Modern Judas, 375 
Cervantes's Don Quixote of the Mancha, translated by 

Shelton, 143 
Chambers's Handbook for Eastbourne, 649 
Chambars's (R. W.) The Maker of MoonR, 46 
Channing's United States of America, 1765-1865, 676 
Chapman's (A.) Wild Norway, 767, 812 
Chaurapanchasika, The, tr. Sir E. Arnold, 639, 617 
Chesson's (W. H.) A Great Lie, 647 
Chevrillon's (A.) Romantic India, tr. Marchant, 443 
Cbolmondeley's (M.) A Devotee. 413 
Christian's (E. B. V.) Short History of Solicitors, 310 
Christian's (S.) A Pot of Honey, 611 
Church's (R. W.) Occasional Papers, 275 
Clark's (K. M'C.) Maori Tales and Legends, 180, 224 
Clarke's (Lieut-Col. Sir G.) The Navy and the Nation, 

212 Imperial Defence, 679 



Clarke's (H. E.) Poems and Sonnets, 540, 715 

Clarke's (I.) The Episode of Alethea, 537 

Clergy Directory, The, 312 

Clergy List, The, 679 

Clifford's (H.) In Court and Kampong, 831 

Clowes's (W. L.) The Naval Pocket- Book, 149 

Clowes (W. L.) and others' The Royal Na,vy, Vol. I., 

569,651 
Cobban's (J. M.) Wilt Thou have this Woman! 537 
Coghlan's Statistical Account of Australasia, 478 
Cohen's (B. A.) The Law of Copyright, 807 
Coignet, Captain, Soldier of the Empire, Narrative of 

ed. Larchey, tr. Mrs. Carey, 148 
Coleridge's (E. P.) Res Romanae, 540 
Collatio Codicis Lewisiani rescripti Evangeliorum Sacro- 

rum Syriacorum, edited by Bonus, 806 
Colmore's (Mrs. G.) Poems of Love and Life, 209 
Colmore's (G.) Love for a Key, 649 
Compleat Angler, ed, by Lang — ed. by Le Gallienne, 

Parts I.-IX.— Facsimile Reprint of First Edition, 

Preface by Le Gallienne, 236 
Conant's History of Modern Banks of Issue, 742 
Condorcet, La Marquise de, by Guillois, 837 
Conway (Sir W. M.) and others' The First Crossing of 

Spitsbergen, 799 
Cool's (Capt. W.) With the Dutch in the East, translated 

by Taylor, 710 
Cooper's (E. H.) Mr. Blake, of Newmarket, 611 
Corradini's (E.) Santaraaura, 182 
Correspondance Diplomatique du Comte Pozzo di Borgo 

Vol. II., 507 
Cotterell's (Mies C.) An Impossible Person, 538 
Coubertin's Souvenirs d'Amerique et de Grece, 649 
Couch's (Miss L. Q.) Man, 113 
Cox's (H.) Are We Ruined by the Germans] 278 
Cox's (T. A.) Practical School Method, 612 
Craik's (H.) English Prose Selections, Vol. V., 83 
Crane's (S.) The Little Regiment, &c, 245; The Black 

Riders, &c, 540 ; The Third Violet, 678 
Crawford's (F. M.) A Rose of Yesterday, 772 
Cresswell's (H.) Without Issue, 804 
Crockett's (S. R.) Lads' Love, 441 
Croker's (B. M.) Beyond the Pale, 503 
Cromer, Lord, a Biography, by Traill, 713 
Crommelin's (May) Half round the World for a Hus- 
band, 81 ; Over the Andes, 345 
Crooke's (WJ The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of 

Northern India, 836 
Cross's (M. B.) Blind Bats, 207 
Crump's (A.) Wide Asunder as the Poles, 242 
Cullingworth's (W.) Life's Golden Age, 209 
Curtis's (E.) His Double Self, 804 
Cuthell's (E. B.) Sweet Irish Eyes, 573 
Cyprian, his Life, &c, by Benson, 531 
Cyril's Alethea, 180 

Dale's (Darley) Stella's Story, 13 

Dalziel's (L. B.) The Story of Bell, 81 

Daneon's (J. T.) Our Commerce in War, &c, 649 

Dante : Enciclopedia Dantesca, by Scartazzini— Studies 

in Dante, by Moore— Pensieri sull' Allegoria della 

Vita Nuova, by Papqualigo, 242 
Dauze's (P.) Index Biblio-Iconographique, 311 
Davey's (R.) The Sultan and his Subjects, 613 
Davidson's (G.) The Garden of Time, 45 
Davidson's (M.) The Annals of Toil, 277 
Davis's (R. H.) Soldiers of Fortune, 838 
Dawe's (W. C.) Kakemonos, 444; Captain Castle, 612 
Dawson's (A. J.) In the Bight of Benin, 444 ; Mors 

Sentiment, 538 
Debenham's (M. H.) Holiday Tasks, 45 
Debrett's House of Commons and the Judicial Bench for 

1897, 148 
De Brosses, Selections from the Letters ef, translated by 

Lord Ronald Gower, 341 
Demosthenes against Conon and Callicles, ed. Swift, 212 
De Quincey's Lyrics in Prose, ed. Johnson, 213 
Devlin's Municipal Reform in the United States, 478 
Dewar's (O. A. B.) The Book of the Dry Fly, 608 
Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames, 713 
Dickson's (M.) The Saga of the Sea Swallow, 45 
Dictionaries : English and German Languages, by 

Schmidt and Tanger— Nuovo Dizionario Italiano- 

Tedesco e Tede«co-Italiano, by Rigutini and Bulle, 47; 

Compendious Svriac Dictionary, by Mis* J. P. Smith, 

346; Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, by Sweet, 610 
Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Sidney Lee. 

Vol. XLV1II.-L.. 607 
Dichl's (A. M.) A Last Throw, 617 



IV 



THE ATHENAEUM 



[SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENjEUM with No. 3640, July 31, 18*7 

January to June 1897 



LITERATURE. 

ReTlawa— eontinurd. 

Dobion'g (A.) Eighteenth Century Vignette?, Third 
Series, 8 

Dod's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, 16; Parlia- 
mentary Companion for 1897, 148 

Doudney's (S.) Pilgrims of the Night, 740 

Douglas"! (M.) For Duty's Sake, 14 

Dowden's French Revolution and English Literature, 679 

Dowling's (R.)Old Corcoran'g Money, 739 

Downe's (W.) The Bloom of Faded Years, 114 

Dowson's (EJ Verse-, 210 

Doyle's (A. Conan) Uncle Bernac, 675 

Draycott's (A.) Copyhold Enfranchisement with refer- 
ence to the Copyhold Act, 1894, 838 

Dubois's (F.) Timbuctoo the Mysterious, tr. White, 411 
Duncan's Rural Rhymes and the Sheep Thief, 540 
Du Toit's Rhodesia Past and Present, 679 
Eardley-Wilmofs (Capt. 8.) The British Navy, 840 
Earle's Colonial Days in Old New York, 677 
East India Company : Letters received from its Servants 

in the East, Vol. I. 1602-1613, 340 
Eastlake's (F. W.) Heroic Japan, 643 
Easton's (H. T.) Banks and Banking, 742 
Ecclesiasticus, Original Hebrew of a Portion of, edited by 

Cowley and Neubauer, 372 
Edwards's (E. J.) The Story of an African Crisis, 346 
Egbert's (Prof. J. C.) Introduction to the Study of Latin 

Inscriptions, 212 
Egils Saga Skallagrimssonar, ed. J 6nsson— Translated by 

Green, 774 
Eldridge'e (R. F.) The Kestyng of Cather Castle, 611 
Ellis's (F. E.) Sir Kenneth's Wanderings. 209 
Ellwood's (Rev. T.) Lakeland and Iceland, 413 
Emile-Soldi's La Langue Sacree : La Cosmoglyphie, 278 
Eminent Persons : Biographies reprinted from the 

♦Times,' 1893-4, Vol. VI., 444 
Encyclopaedia of Sport, 347 
English Catalogue of Books, 212 
English Dialect Dictionary, Part II., ed. Wright, 414 
Escott's Social Transformations of the Victorian Age, 708 
Essays in Liberalism, by Six Oxford Men, 414 
Euripides : trans. Way, 506 ; Troades, ed. Tyrrell, 839 
Everard's Golf in Theory and Practice, 245 
Everett-Green's (E.) Squib and his Friends, 14 
Every Girl's Book, ed. Mrs. M. Whitley, 14 

Farjeon's (B. L.) The Betrayal of John Fordham, 12 

Fasnacht's (G. E.) French Lessons for Middle Forms, 839 

Fendall's (P.) Out of the Darkness, 375 

Fenn's (G. M.) Cursed by a Fortune, 44 

Fenwick's History of the Ancient City of Chester, 674 

Feret's (L'Abbe P.) La Faculte" de Theologie de Paris : 

Moyen Age, 645 
Ferguson's (V. M.) Life Again, Love Again, 574 
Fields's (Mrs.) Authors and Friends, 414 
Fifty-two Stories of Pluck, &c, for Girls, 14 
Fibb wick's (H.) Pleadings and Depositions in the Duchy 

Court of Lancaster, Vol. I., 575 
Fitz-Gerald's (G. B.) A Fleeting Show, 805 
Fitz-Gerald's (S. J. A.) The Zankiwauk and the Blether- 
witch, 14, 87 
Fleming's (Mrs.) A Pinchbeck Goddess, 413 
Fletcher of Saltoun, by Omond, 677 
Fletcher's (J. S.) Ballads of Revolt, 678 
Floran's (M.) Adopted, 711 
Florian, Fables of, tr. Sir P. Perring, 539 
Forbes's (A.) Cumps, Quarters, and Casual Places, 574 
Forbeg's (Mrs. W.) Blight, 739 
Foreign Office List, ed. Sir E. Hertslet, 377 
Foreign Siatasmen : Maria Theresa— Joseph II., by 

Bright, 441 
Forster's (J.) From Grub to Butteifly, 504 
Fort's (P.) Ballades Franchises, 507 
Foster's (A. J ) The Chiltern Hundreds, 575 
Foster's (11.) Commentaries on the Constitution of the 

United States, Vol. I., 808 
Fothergill's (C.) A Matter of Temperament, 412 
France's (A.) L'Orme du Mail, 178 
Frater's Philosophy of Theism, Second Series, 408 
Frazer's (J. G.) Scenes of Familiar Life, 180 
Freeman's (E. A.) Sketches in Normandy and Maine, 443 
French Homonyms, &c, ed. De Larmoyer, 541 
French Plays for Schools, ed. Mrs. Frazer, 541 
French Prose Composition for Middle Forms, by Dubamel 

and Minssen, 541 
Frere'g (W. II.) The Marian Reaction in its Relation to 

the English Clergy, 306 

Gallon's (Tom) Tatterley, 241 

Garden of Romance, chosen and edited by Rhys, 477 

Gardiner's (L.) The Sound of a Voice, 604 

Garnett'g (L. M. J.) New Folk-lore Researches, Greek 

Folk-poesy, ed. Stuart-Olennie, 778 
Garran's (R. R.) The Coming Commonwealth, 507 
Garrett's The Story of an African Crisis, 346 
Gasquefs (F. A.) The Old English Bible, &c, 833 
Gearey'g (C ) Two French Queens, &c, 836 
Gebbart's (£.) Moines et Papes, 476 
Genealogist, The, New Series. Vol. XII., 277 
Geoffroy's (Q.) L'Enferme, 83 

Gerard s (D.) Angela's Lover, 649; A Spotless Reputa- 
tion, 773 



Gerard's (F. A.) Some Fair Hit crnians. 1 1^ 
Gerrare's A Bibliography of Guns and Shooting, 179 
Qibbon, Edward, Autobiographies of, ed. Murray — 

l'rivate Letters of (175.1-1794), ed. Prothero, 107 
Gibbs's (II.) A Long Piobalion, 711 
Gissing's (A.) The Scholar of Byttate, 241 
Gissing'g (G.) The Whirlpool, 536 
Gladstone, Rigbt Hon. W. E. : The Political Life of, 

ilimtrated Irom 'Punch,' 679; Gleanings of Pa*t 

Years. 743 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, edited by Phillimore, 

Vol. VI., 211 
Go'ldard's (W.) A Satirycall Dialogve, ed. Farmer, 835 
Good'oe's (A. C.) College Girls 311 
Gordon, Life of, by Boulder, 177 
Gordon's (J.) The Village and the Doctor, 344 
Gough's (Gen. Sir C.) The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars, 801 
Gould's (Nut) Town and Bush, 276 
Gowing's (Mrs. A.) Gods of Gold, 12 
Graham's (A.) The Victorian Era, 840 
Graham's (P. A.) The Red Scaur, 12 
Grant's (C.) Stories of Naples and the Camona, 244 
Grant's (Sir M. E.) Notes from a Diary, 239 
Great Public Schools, by Various Authors, 78 
Greenstock's (W.) Single Term Latin Readers, 212 
Grceuwood's Library Year-Book, 1897, 212 
Gregorovius's (F.) History of the City of Rome in the 

Middle Ages, translated by Hamilton, Vol. III., 500 
Greville's (Lady B.) The Home for Failures, 12 
Grimme's (H.) A Theory of the Hebrew Accents and 

Vowel-Signs, 771 
Grimsbaw's (B. E.) Broken Away, 611 
Guerin's (C.) Le Sane des Crepuscules, 540 
Guerre et Marine, 346 

Guerres de la Revolution : Part XI., Hondechoote, 346 
Guiraud's Fustel de Coulanges, 278 
Gunter's (A. C.) Don Balasco of Key West, 540 
Gurteen's The Epic of the Fall of Man, 499 
Gyp's Joies d' Amour, 537 

Halcombe's (C. J. H.) The Mystic Flowery Land, 147 

Hamerton's (P. G.) The Mount and the City of Autun, 648 

Hamilton's (C.) Which is Absurd, 113 

Hamilton's (M.) McLeod of the Camerons, 182 

Hannan's (C.) Chin-Chin-Wa, 505 

Hardy's (T.) The Well-Beloved, 471 

Hare's (A. J. C.) The Rivieras, 245 

Harper, Hugo Daniel, Memoir of, by Lester, 410 

Harper's (M. M'L.) Rambles in Galloway, 211 

Harraden's (B.) Hilda Strafford, &c, 413 

Harris's (Mr. and Mrs.) Letters from Armenia, 442 

Harris's (J. C.) The Story of Aaron, 46 

Hart's (Mrs. E.) Picturesque Burma, 673 

Hatton's (J.) The Dagger and the Cross, 611 

Hayes's (Capt. H.) Points of the Horse, 148 

Hennessey's (J. D.) An Australian Bush Track, 276 

Henry's (T. J.) Claude Garton, 113 

Henty's (G. A.) The Queen's Cup, 112 

Herbert's The Chronicles of a Virgin Fortress, 108 

Herfords (C. H.) The Age of Wordsworth, 377 

Heroes of the Nations : Robert the Bruce, by Maxwell, 572 

Heslop's (O.) Bibliographical List of Words illustrative 

of the Dialect of Northumberland, 413 
Higgin's (L.) Cousin Jem, 574 
Hill's (J.) Dinah Fleet, 442 
Hinde's (S. L ) The Fall of the Congo Arabs, 203 
Hodgetts's (E. A. B.) Round about Armenia, 146; A 

Russian Wild Flower, 647 
Holdsworth's (A. E.) Spindles and Oars, 574 
Holland's (E.) The Evolution of a Wife, 81 
Hooley's (E. T.) Tairigal, 477 
Hope's (A.) Phroso, 343 
Hornung's (E. W.) My Lord Duke, 803 
Houghton's (A. E.) Gilbert Murray, 309 
Housman's (L.) Green Arras, 41 ; Gods and their Makers, 

614 
How's History of Rome to the Death of Caesar, 144 
Howe's Classified Directory to the Metropolitan Charities, 

83 
Howells's The Landlord at Lion's Head, 678 
Hume's (F.) A Marriage Mystery — Tracked by a Tattoo, 

80 
Humphreys's (A. L.) The Private Library, 710 
Hungerford's (Mrs.) A Lonely Girl, 13; Lovice, 647 
Hunt's (Dr. J.) Religious Thought in England, 182 
Hunt's (L.) The Months, edited by Andrews, 541 
Hunter's (Sir R.) The Preservation of Open Spaces and 

of Footpaths, 208 
Hunter's (Sir W. W.) The Thackerays in India, and 

some Calcutta Graves, 111, 149 
Hutchinson, Thomas, Life of, by Hosmer, 43 

Indermaur's Manual of the Principles of Equity, 47 
Indian Calendar, by Sewell and S'aukara Dushic, 775 
Innes's (A. D.) The Sikhs and the Sikli Wars, 801 
Innes's (General McLeod) The Sepoy Revolt, 477 
Invasion Austro-Prussienne, ed. Pinsjaud, 808 
Irwin's (H. C.) A Man of Honour, 112 
I-tsing's A Record of the Buddhist Religion, translated 
by J. Takakusu, 142 

Jacobs'* (W. W.) Many Cargoes, 244 
Jacob-en's Siren Voices, tr. Robertson, 210, 314 
James's (A.) Plutus of Aristophanes up to Date, 838 
James's (H.) The Spoils of Poynton, 308 
James's (>V.) The Will to Believe, 711 



Jebb'l Mi-. << ) Some Unconveutonal People, 213 

Jell's (E. A. ) Eileen's Journey, 45 

Jenkms's (K.) I'antala-, 'J75 

J mine's (J. K.) Sketches in Lavender, 840 

Ji v iirt's Introduction to the Hittory ol Heligion. 11 

Jewett's (S. O.) The Country of the Pointed Fir-, :;11 

Jitta's (D. J.) La Codification du Droit Intel national de 

la Failiite, 838 
Jocelyn s (Mrs. R.) Only a Flirt, 739 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets, ed. Waugh, 82 
Johnson's (C.) What They Say in New England. 774 
Johnston-Smith's (F. J.) The Captain of the "Doluhii.."' 

Ac, 540 
Jdkai's (M.) The Green Book, tr. Mrs. Waugh— 'Mid-t 

the Wild Carpathians, 839 
Jollivet's LeB Anglais dans la MeJiterrai.ee, 1794-1797 : 

un Royaume Anglo-Corse, 377 
Journal of Education, ed. Storr, Vol. XVIII., 48 
Jowett, Benjamin, Life and Letters of, by Abbott and 

Campbell, 437 
Jussetand's (J. J.) The Romance of a KiDg's Lif--, trans- 
lated by M. R., 82, 150 

Keasbey's (Dr.) The Nicaragua Canal and the Monroe 

Doctrine, 83 
Keiubtley's (S. K.) The Last Recruit of Clare's, 443 
Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landel, and Official 

Classes 312 
Kelly's (Mrs. T.) A Leddy in her Ain Richt, 376 
Kenealy's (Miss A.) Belinda's Beaux, 712 
Kent's (J.) Records and Reminiscences of Goodwool 

aid the Dukes of Richmond, 373 
Ker's (W. P.) Epic and Romance, 474 
Kernahan's (C.) Captain Shannon, 743 
King's (Mrs. R. M.) Italian Highways, 147 
King-ford's (Dr.) The History of Canada, 613 
Kingsley's (M. H.) Travels in West Africa, 173, 278 
Knight's (E. F.) Letters from the Sudan, 244 
Knight's (G.) The Windg of March, 740 

Lander's (H.) Weighed in the Balance, 309 

Lane's (E. W.) Cairo Fifty Years Ago, edited by Stanley 

Lane-Poole, 147 
Lang's (A.) Pickle the Spv, 141 
Lang's (Rev. C. G.) The Young Clanroy, 376 
Langbridge's (F.) The Dreams of Dania, 804 
Langlois's (C. V.) Manuel de Bibliographie Historiqu ■ , 

311 
Larking's (Col. C.) Of the Deepest Dye, 112 
Laurie's (J. S.) The Story of Australia, 244 
Lea's History of Auricular Confession, Vol. III., 181 
Leach's (A. F.) English Schools at the Reformation, 

1546-8, 272, 348, 417 
Lean's Royal Navy List, 149, 576 
Le Breton's (J.) Miss Tudor, 773 
Le Clerc's (M. E ) Sworn Allies 504 
Lee's (Vernon) Limbo, and other Essays, 802 
Lefroy, Edward Cracroft, Life, &c, by Gill, 677 
Le Gallienne's Quest of the Golden Girl, 843 
Legge's (A. E.) Wind on the Harp-string*, 209 
Leigh's History of Rome to Death of Caesar, 144 
Lejeune, Baron, Memoirs of, tr. Mrs. Bell, 346 
Lepsius's Armenia and Europe, ed. Harris. 182 
Leroy-Beaulieu's (P.) Les Nouvelles Society Anglo- 

Saxonnes, 743 
Lilburn's (A.) The Borderer, 113 
Linton's (Mrs. L.) 'Twixt Cup and Lip, 244 
Literary Year-Book, 1897, ed. Aflalo, 212 
Little's (Mrs. A.) A Marriage in China. 504 
Lo Ige's Peerage and Baronetage for 1897, 114 
Loir's (M.) Au Drapeau ! 346 
Longus's Dapbnis and Chloe, tr. Amyot, 538 
Loti's (Pierre) Ramuntobo, 476 

Lovenjoul's La Veritable Hietoire de ' Elle et Lui,' 346 
Low's Handbook to the Charities of London, 576 
Lucan, The Pharsalia of, tr. Ridley, 736 
Lyall's (D.) The Land of the Leal, 14 
Lynch's (H.) Jinny Blake, 675 
Lys's (C.) The Dunthorpeg of Westleigh, 413 
Lytton's (Bulwer) Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings, 

edited by Gomme, 713, 744 

M 'g Merlin, 81 

McCarthy's (J.) A History of our own Times from 18S0 

to the Diamond Jubilee, 735 
McCorquodale's Railway Diary for 1897, 48 
Macdonagh's (M.) The Book of Parliament, 34t> 
Macdonald's (R. F.) Practical School Method, 612 
Machiavelli, by Rigbt Hon. J. Morley, 776 
Mackail's (J. W.) Odysseus in Phaeaeia, 506 
Mackny's The Bronte* : Fact and Fiction, 808 
Mackinnon's (J.) Braefoot Sketches, 574 
Maclareti's (Ian) Kate Carnegie, and those Ministers, 14 
Macleod's (Miss F.) Green Fire, 376 
MacMahon's (E.) The Touchstone of Life, 537 
Madden'g (J.) The Wilderness and is Tenant*, 773 
Maeterlinck's Treasure of the Humble, tr. Sutro, 644 
Malay's (Sir W.) The Fall of a Star, 804 
Maban's (Uapt. A. T.) Life of Nebon, the Embodiment 

of the Sea Power of Great Britain, 497 
Mait and's (F. W.) Domemiay Bo.ik and Beyond, 274 
Maliett's (J. R.) A Life s History, told in Homely 

Verse, 539 
Malot's (MadHme H.) L' Amour Dominateur, 207 
Marie Antoinette, Lettres de, edited by M. de la Roche- 
ton© and Marquis de Beaucourt, 837 



SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 3640, July 31, 1897] 

January to June 1897 INDEX OF CONTENTS 



Marmery's (J. V.) Wit, Wisdom, and Folly, 48 
Marson's (C. L ) Turnpike Tales, 244 
Marston's War, Famine, and our Food Supply, 477 
Martin's (Mrs. H.) Gentleman George, 310 
Mason's (A. B. W.) The Philanderers, 803 _ , 

Maspero's (G.) Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de 1 Orient 
Classique— The Struggle of the Nations, Eiypt, Syria, 
and Assyria, ed. Sayce, tr. Mrs. McClure, 535 
Mathers's (H.) The Juggler and the Soul, 44 
Matheson's (Rev. G.) The Lady Ecclesia, 541 
Mathews's (W.) Nugae Litterariae, 83 
Maughan's ( W. C.) Annals of Garelochside, 211 

Maxwell's (Sir H.) A History of Dumfries and Galloway, 
42, 116 ; Robert the Bruce, 572 

Meade's (L. T.) A Little Mother to the Others— Merry 
Girls of England, 14 

Meaux's (Vicomte de) Montalemberr, 743 

Mendh*m's (C. A.) A Troth of Tears, 835 

Mermeix's Le Transvaal et La Chartered, 148 

Merrick's (L.) Cynthia, 112; One Man's View, 804 

Meyer's Konvereations-Lexikon, Vol. XIII., 47; Vols. 
XIV. and XV., 743 

Meynell's (A.) The Children, 537 

Michael's (W.) Englische Geschichte im achtzehnten 
Jahrhundert, Vol. I., 501 

Middleton's Student's Companion to Latin Authors, 212 

Miles's (W.) Along the Medway, 713 

Mill, J. S., Early Essays by, selected by Gibbs, 273 

Miller's (E.) The Sport of the Gods, 178 

Mills's (E. J.) My Only Child, 209 

Mills's (J. R.) Student's Companion to Latin Authors, 212 

Milman's (H.) The Garden of Peace, 45 

Milman's (Miss) Through London Spectacles, 277 

Mimande's (P.) Forcats et Proscrits, 777 

Miniken's (B. M. M.) An English Wife, 178 

Mitford's (B.) The Sign of the Spider, 81 

Mockridge s (Canon) Bishops of the Church of England 
in Canadi and Newfoundland, 613 

Moncreiff's (Hon. F.) The Provost-Marshal, 180 

Monod's (Gabriel) Portraits et Souvenirs, 837 

Moore's (F. F.) The Jessamy Bride, 536 

Morgan's (Rev. J.) A Trip to Fairyland, 741 

Morrah's (H.) The Faithful City, 537 

Morris's (W.) The Well at the World's End, 237 

Moulton's (Mrs.) In Childhood's Country, 538 

Muddock's (J. E.) Without Faith or Fear, 113 

Miihlbrecht's (O.) Die Biicherliebhaberei am Ende des 
19 Jahrhunderts, 312 

Miiller's (Mrs. Max) Letters from Constantinople, 344 

Miiller's (Right Hon. Prof. F. Max) Contributions to the 
Science of Mythology, 313, 407 

Munby's (A. J.) Ann Morgan's Love, 539 

Municipal Year- Book of the United Kingdom for 1897, 
edited by Donald, 541 

Munster's (Countess of) Ghostly Tales, 244 

Murray's Cyclist's Road-Book, 649 

Murray's (D. C.) A Capful o' Nails, 309; A Rogue's Con- 
science, 647 

Murray's (G.) History of Ancient Greek Literature, 475 

Nansen's (Fridtjof) Farthest North, 235 
Napoleon Bonaparte, Life, by Sloane, Vol. II., 346 
Nelson, The Life of, the Embodiment of the Sea Power 

of Great Britain, by Capt. Maban, 497 
Nemo's A Mere Pug, 45 
New Editions, Reprints, &c, 16, 48, 83, 114, 148, 182, 

213, 245, 278, 3 1 2, 347, 377, 415, 444, 478, 507, 576, 614, 

649, 679. 713, 776, 840 
Newton-Robinson's (C.) Ver Lyrae, 209 
New Zealand Official Year-Book for 1896, 478 
Nicholson's (J. L.) After Long Waiting, 112 
Nisbet'8 (H.) I he Swampers, 276 
Norris's (VV. E.) Clarissa Furioea, 374 
Northall's (G. F.) A Warwickshire Word-Book, 413 
Notes on Political Economy, b08 

Observances of the Augustinian Priory at Barnwell' 
Cambridgeshire, edited by Clark, 767, 842 

Official Year-Book of the Church of England, 346 

O'Grady's (S.) The Flight of the Eagle, 533 

Ohnet's (G.) Le Cure" de Favieres, 835 

O'Leary's Recollections of Fenians and Fenianism, 342 

Oliphant's (Mrs.) The Ways of Life, 712 

Oliver k Boyd's Edinburgh Almanac, 83 

Ollivier's Marie-Magdeleine : Recit de Jeunesse, 242; 
Louis Napoleon et le Coup d'etat, 840 

Orpen's (Mrs.) Perfection City, 540 

Orred's (Meta) Glamour, 343 

Oscar's (A.) Captain Kid's Millions, 742 

Osmaston's (F. P.) Dramatic Monologues, 540 

Ossian, The Poems of, tr. by Macpherson, 16 

O'Sullivan'g (V.) A Book of Bargains, 712 

Ouida's Le Selve, 145 ; The Massarenes, 536 

Owen's (Rev. E.) Welsh Folk-lore, 538 

Owen's (J. L.) The Great Jekyll Diamond, 676, 715; 
Piccadilly Poenv, 741 

Owen's (M. A.) The Daughter of Alouette, 46 

Pacata Hibernia, edited by O'Grady, 439 

Pain's (A.) St Eva, 5u3 

Paine. Thoma«, The Writings of— Rights of Man, edited 

by C.nway, 830 
Paleologue's (M. ) Sur leg Ruines, 207 
Palgrave's (F. T.) Landscape in Poetry, 643 
Parish Registers of Dalston, Cumberland, ed. Wilson, 276 



Parker's (Mrs. K. L ) Australian Legendary Tales, 180 
Parkes's (Sir H.) Sonnets, 209; An Emigrant's Home 

Letters, 507 ; Life of, by Lyne, 576 
Paston's (G.) The Career of Candida, 112 
Pater's (W.) Essays from the ' Guardian,' 769 
Paterson's (A.) For Freedom's Sake, 46 
Paton's (J.) Glasgow, its Municipal Organization and 

Administration, 410 
Peard's (F. M.) The Career of Claudia, 503 
Peels (Sir R.) A Bit of a Fool, 241 
Pegge's (S.) Two Collections of Derbicisms, edited by 

Skeat and Hallam, 413 
Pellatt's (T.) The Witch-Finder, 179, 217 
Pemberton's (Max) Christine of the Hills, 503 
Ptnderel's (R.) As a Roaring Lion, 574 
Pendleton's (J.) The Ivory Queen, 476 
Perceval's (H.) In a Country Town, 611 
Perris's (G. H.) The Eastern Crisis of 1897, 808 
Petofi, Memoirs of. by Ferenczi, 832 
Philip and Alexander of Macedon, by Hogartb, 609 
Philips's (F. C.) A Full Confession, 740 
Phillips's (F. E.) The Knight's Tale, 611 
Phillpotts's (E.) Lying Prophets, 241 
Pbilpofs (Mrs. J. H.) The Sacred Tree, 206, 317, 348 
Pickering's (S.) Margot, 413 
Pinnock's (J.) Benin, 777 
Pitt Press Series: Alcestis of Euripides, ed. Hadley — 

Lucani de Bello Ciuili Liber VII., ed. Postgate — 

Tacitus, Histories, Book I., ed. Davies, 211 
Platts's (W. C.) The Tuttlebury Tales, 244 
Plumer's An Irregular Corps in Matabeleland, 776 
Pocock's (R.) The Dragon Slayer, 46 
Poire's (E.) L'Emigration Franchise, 477 
Political Pamphlets, selected by Pollard, 679 
Politics in 1896, an Annual, ed. Whelan, 212 
Pollock's (Sir F.) A First Book of Jurisprudence for 

Students of the Common Law, 838 
Pontoppidan's The Promised Land, tr. Mrs. Lucas, 210 
Post's (W. K.) Harvard Stories, 743 
Praed's (Mrs. C.) Nulma, 675 

Pratt's (E.) Pioneer Women in Victoria's Reign, 679 
Prevost's (F.) False Dawn, 804 
Prevost's (M.) Dernieres Lettres de Femmes, 838 
Prior's (J.) Ripple and Flood, 739 
Pryce's (R.) Elementary Jane, 573 
Public Schools Year-Book, 212 
Pugh's (E.) The Man of Straw, 344 
Putnam's (Miss I.) Songs without Answer, 741 

Quinn's (R.) Mostyn Stayne, 743 

Ralph's (J.) Alone in China, 47 

Rampini's History of Moray and Nairn, 738 

Ramsay's (W. M.) The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, 

Vol. I., Part II., 671, 745 
Ramsden's (J.) The Bronte Homeland, 808 
Rawnsley's (Rev. H. D.) Ballads of Brave Deeds, 209 
Raymond's (W.) Charity Chance, 344 
Read's (O.) The Jucklins, 612 

Rees's (C. A.) Chun Ti-kung, his Life and Adventures, 504 
Rees's (W.) Gwen and Gwladys, tr. Evans, 539 
Reports of State Trials, New Series, Vol. VII., 1848 to 

1850, edited by Wallis, 498 
Rhodes, Cecil, by Imperialist and Jameson, 377 
Riordan's (R.) Sunrise Stories, 13 
Rita's Kitty the Rag, 146 

Ritchie's (F.) Easy Greek Grammar Papers, 212 
Roberts's (Lord) Forty-one Years in India, 39, 75 
Roberts's (M.) The Western Avernus, 773; Maurice 

Quain, 803 
Robertson's (G. C ) Elements of Psychology — Elements 

of General PhiloEOpby, e lited by Davids, 472 
Robertson's (Sir G. S.) 1 he Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush, 205 
Robins's (G. M.) The Silence Broken, 834 
Robinson's (B. F.) Rugby Football, 312 
Robinson's (C. H.) Specimens of Hausa Literature, 45 
Rodkinson's (M. L.) The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 1,806 
Roma, 614 

Royal Navy, The, by a Lieutenant, 840 
Ruling Cases, arranged by Campbell, Vols. VII., VIII., 

IX., 310 
Russell's (F.) Out of the Darkness, 375 
Russell's (R. H.) The Edge of the Orient, 344 
Russell's (W. C.) A Noble Haul, 649; The Last Entry, 

772 
Ryland's Events of the Reign, 1837-1897, 840 

Sabrina's The Lilies, and other Poems, 209 

Sacred Books of the East : Gaina Sutras, ed. Jacobi, 836 

Sacred Books of the Old Testament : Part I., The Book 

of Genesis, ed. by Ball— Part XVIII., The Book of 

Daniel, ed. Kampbausen, 806 
Sagon's (A.) An Australian Duchess, 504 
St. Aubyn's (Alan) A Proctor's Wooiiijr, 13 
Saint-Aulaire's (Comte de) Lettres de Vieillards, 213 
S. Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi Liber de 

Catechizandis Rudibus, edited by Fausset, 113 
St. Boniface, by Rev. 1. G. Smith, 113 
Saint Margaiet, The Gospel Book of, ed. Forbes- Lcith, 40 
St. William of Norwich, Life and Miracles of, edited by 

Jefsopp and James, 440 
Saintsbury's (Prof.) The Flourishing of Romance and 

Rise of Allegory, 571 
Salmone's The Fall and Resurrection of Turkey, 148 
Samuel-ion's (J.) The Civilization of our Day, 48 
Scalpel's A Doctor's Idle Hours, 840 



Schlumberger's (G.) L'Epopee Byzantine a la Fin du 

Dixieme Siecle, 805 
Schopenhauer's System in its Philosophical Significance, 

by Caldwell, 204 
Schreiner's (O. ) Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland, 

271 
Schwill's(F.) Europe in the Middle Age, 570 
Scot, Michael, The Life and Legend of, by Brown, 677 
Scott's (G. F.) The Track of Midnight, 838 
Scottish Poetry of the Eighteenth Century, edited by 

G. Eyre-Todd, 709 
Scully's (W. C.) The White Hecatomb, &c, 837 
Sergeant's (A.) The Idol Maker, 241 ; In Vallombrosa, 803 
Serraillier's (L.) Vocabulaire Technique des Chemins de 

Fer, 839 
Shand's (A. I.) The Lady Grange. 740 
Sharp's (W.) Madge o' the Pool, 444 
Sherard's (R. H.) The White Slaves of England, 614 
Sherer's (J. W.) A Princess of Islam, 740 
Shield's (A.) The Squire of Wandales, 81 
Short Notices, 48, 84, 114, 149, 183, 213, 245, 278, 312, 347, 

377, 415, 444, 478, 508, 541, 576, 615; 649, 679,713, 743, 

777, 808, 840 
Sidgwick's (A.) A First Greek Reading Book, 212 
Siepmann's (C.) Public School German Primer, 180 
Simmel's (Q.) The Will that Wins, 178 
Simmons's (Field-Marshal Sir'L.) Military Organization, 

477 
Simpson's (W.) The Buddhist Praying-Wheel, 471 
Sinigaglia's Climbing Reminiscences of the Dolomites 

tr. Vialls, 77 
Sin of Angels, The, 276 
Sintram, 539 

Skeat's (Rev.iW. W.) A Student's Pastime, 372 
Skrine's (J. H.) Joan the Maid, 741 
Slater's (J. H.) Book- Prices Current, Vol. X., 311 
Smith, Adam, Lectures of, ed. Cannan, 741 
Smith's (A. Df) Through Unknown African Countries, 371 
Smith's (C.) The Backslider, 112 
Smith's (E. B.) My Village, 148 
Smith's (G.) Guesses at the Riddle of Existence, 339 
Smith's (H.) Steps to the Temple of Happiness, 538 
Snaith's (J. C.) Fierceheart the Soldier, 804 
Soldi's La Langue Sacrea : La Cosmoglyphie, 278 
Songs from the Greek, translated by Sedgwick, 507 
Sophocles : The Plays and Fragments, edited by Jebb, 

Part VII. The Ajax, 646 
Spectator, Selections from.the, ed. by Evans, 540 
Sportsman in Ireland, by a Cosmopolite, 740 
Stables's (Dr. G.) Every Inch a Sailor, 14 ; The Rose of 

Allandale, 148 
Stafford's (J.) Carlton Priors, 711 
Statesman's Year-Book for 1897, edited by Keltie, 444 
Statham's (Mrs. H.) Flix and Flox, 14 
Statbanrs (R.) South Africa as It Is, 277 
Steevens's (G. W.) The Land of the Dollar, 182 
Stephens's (R.) Air. Peters, 711 
Stevenson's (R. L.) Songs of Travel, 208 
Stocktons (F. R.) Mrs. Cliff's Yacht, 540 
Stoddard's (W. O.) Chumley's Post, 46 
Stoker's (Bram) Dracula, 835 
Story of the Nations : Canada, by Bourinot, 613.; British 

India, by Frazer, 775 
Strachey's (St. Loe) From Grave to Gay, 614 
Stredder's (E.) The Hermit Princes, 13 
Street's (G. S.) The Wise and the Wayward, 310 
Street's (L.) Nell and the Actor, 537 
Stuart's (E.) Arrested, 309 
Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastic!, Vol. IV., 505 
Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Augustus, ed. Shuckburgh, 176 
Surridxe's (H. A. D.) Cyrus, 376 
Swahili, Books in, 45 

Sweet's (H.) Student s Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, 610 
Swift, Prose Works of, Vol. I., edited by Scott, 768 

Taine's (H.) Carnets de Voyage : Notes sur la Province, 

1863-1865, 345 
Takayanagi's (T.) Sunrise Stories, 13 
Tangye's (H. L.) In South Africa, 147 
Tarbet's (W. G.) In Oor Kailyard, 376 
Tarver's (F.) Vingt Ans Apros, 180 
Taylor's (H. O.) Ancient Ideals, 245 
Temne, Hymns in, compiled by Manka and Alley, 45 
Temple's (G.) Glossary of Indian Terms, 776 
Temple's (Sir R.) Sixty Years of the Queen's Reign, 776 
Tennyson, The Bibliography of, 311 
Thatcher's (O. J.) Europe in the Middle Age. 570 
Thomas's (A.) In the Land of the Harp and Feathers, 

244; Essentially Human, 573 
Thompson's (F.) New Poems, 770 
Thomson's (A.) Principles of Equity and the Equity 

Practice of the County Court, 838 
Thomson's (II. C.) The Outgoing Turk, 643 
Thornton's (Col. T.) A Sporting Tour, edited by Sir II. 

Maxwell, 179 
Thr.nd of Gate, The Tale of, Englished by Powell, 376 
Thurn and Taxis's (Princess Mary of) Travels in Un- 
known Austria, 146 
Thursfield's (J. R.) The Navy and the Nation, 212 
Tiffany's (F.) This Goodly Frame the Earth, 147 
Tinseau's (L. do) Dans la Brume, 773 
Toeqiievillo, Alexis de, et la Democratio Liberate, by 

D'Eichthal, 83 
Topelius's (Z ) Fairy Tales from Finland, (r. Christie, 181 
Tottenham's (B. L.) A Venetian Lovo Story, 12 



VI 



THE ATHENAEUM 



(8UPPLEMETT to the ATHENAEUM with No. 3640, July 31. 1897 

January to June 1897 



LITERATURE. 

Reviews— continued. 

Toutce'g (Commandant) Dahome, Niger, Touareg, 413 

Townsend's (E. W.) Ohimmie Fadden, 540 

Trehern'a (0.) Tlio Old EcstaaieB, 844 

Trial (.1 Shama Charuu Pal, fill 

Troubadours, Lives of tin", translated by Farnell, 77(5 

Troubridgo's (Lady) Paul's Btepmotber, 712 

Tryon, Vice- Admiral Sir George, Life of, by Hear- Admiral 

FitaQerald, 3o3 
Turgenev's (I.) Virgin Soil, trans, by Mrs. Garnett, 839 
Twain's (Mark) Tom Sawyer, Detective, &c, 244 
Tytler's (S.) Lady Jean's Son, 207 

Umber's (G.) Ayrshire Idylls of other Days, 14 
University College of North Wales, Calendar, 183 

Vanderem's (F.) Les Deux Hives, 476 
Vauban, Life of, by Michel, 346 
Vaughan, Henry, Poems of, edited by Chambers, 802 
Veitch's (J.) Border Essays— Memoir, by Bryce, 176 
Victoria, Queen, Diamond Jubilee Life of, by Latey, 743 
Victoria University, Calendar for 1897, 182 
Village Politician, A, edited by Buckmaster, 277 
Villani's Croniche Florentine, Selections from the first 

Nine Books, trans, by Selfe, edited by Wicksteed, 242 
Virgil, Eclogues of, translated by Sir O. Morgan, 736 
Vogue's (Vicomte M. de) Jean d'Agreve, 344 

Waddell's (L. A.) The Buddhism of Tibet, 836 

Waller's (S. E.) Sebastiani's Secret, 412 

Walmesley's (0.) Mining Laws of the World, 46 

Warden's (F.) The Mystery of Dudley Home, 241 

Warden's (G.) The Wooing of a Fairy, 309 

Watson's (K.) Litanies of Life, 712 

Watson's (S.) History of the Literary and Philosophical 

Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 210 
Watts-Dunton's (T.) Jubilee Greeting at Spithead to the 

Men of Greater Britain, 829 
Way's (A. S.) Tragedies of Euripides in English Verse, 

Vol. II., 506 
Wells's (H. G.) The Plattner St>ry, 837 
Weston's (Miss J. L.) The Rose-tree of Hildesheim, 741 
Wharton, Philip, Duke of, by Robinson, 83 
Whitaker's Titled Persons, 1897, 312 
White's (W.) The Inner Life of the House of Commons, 

edited by McCarthy, 678 
Whitfield's (E. E.) Precis Writing, 840 
Whitney's On Snow-Shoes to the Barren Grounds, 773 
Who 's Who for 1897, edited by Sladen, 415 
Willing's British and Irish Press Guide, 278 
Wills's (C. J.) The Yoke of Steel, 178 ; His Dead Past, 835 
Wilson-Barker's Manual of Elementary Seamanship, 182 
Wilson (Sir C.) and others' The Illustrated Bible 

Treasury, 806 
Wilson's (Sir R. K.) A Digest of Anglo-Muhammadan 

Law, 807 
Winter's (W.) Gray Days and Gold, 245 
Wolff's (H.) Employers' Liability, 245 
Women of Colonial and Revolutionary Times in America : 

Eliza Pinckney, by Ravenel — Mercy Warren, by 

Brown, 676 
Wood's (General Sir E.) Achievements of Cavalry, 707 
Wood's (W.) Barrack and Battlefield, 613 
Woodhouae's Monasticism, Ancient and Modern, 181 
Worthington's (D.) Equal Shares, 442 

Year-Booka 16 Edward III., Part I., 576 

Yeats's (W. B.) The Secret Rose, 671 

Yonge's (C. M.) The Pilgrimage of the Ben Beriah, 573 

Yorkshire Writers : Richard Rolle of Hampole and his 

Followers, ed. Horstman, Vol. II., 377 
Yoshiaki's (Yamada) Heroic Japan, 643 
Young's (E.R.) Three Boys in the Wild North Land, 613 

Z***'8 (Major) La Guerre de la Succession d'Autriche 

(1740-1748), 808 
Zangwill's (L.) A Nineteenth Century Miracle, 803 

Poetry. 

Parables concerning Ilyas the Prophet, No. 2, by T. 

Watts-Dunton, 347 
Watts, George Frederick, R.A., by A. C. Swinburne, 278 

Original Papers. 

Arabic Dictionary, A New, 778 

Barbour's • Bruco ' and the Disputed ' Legends,' 279 

Bede, Venerable, An Alleged Error of, 744, 809, 841 

Bibliographical Society, 50 

" Bookmaker's Bar," 215 

Book Rest, A, 651 

Book Sales of 1896, 49, 85 

Browning, Robert, Bibliography of the Writings of, 17 

' Burns, The Centenary,' 378 

Byron's Letters, 50 

Chaucer, Junius's Edition of, 779 

Chaucer and King Rene of Anjou, 510 

'Chaurapanchasika, The,' 617 

Coleridge on Spinoza, 680 

Coleridge's Notes on Comic Literature : a Find, 86 

Conqueror, Coronation of the, 214 

Cromwell's Speeches, 313, 347 



Defoe the Rebel, 745 

Decrees for Women at Cambridge, 314 

' Dictioiary of National Biography,' 480, 509, 542, 616,714 

' Dumfries and Galloway,' 116 

D'Urte, Pierre, 651 

Ecclesiasticus in Hebrew, Rocontly Discovered Fragment 

of, 445 
Education, Technical and Secondary, 841 
Englieh History, An Obscure Point in, 479, 512 
4 English Schools at the Reformation,' 348, 417 
Enigma, An Anglo-Saxon, 543, 682 
Gibbon's Library, 744 

Gray's ' Elegy,' An Undescribed Edition of, 445 
Head Masters' Conference, 16 
Hilary, Bishop of Cliicliester, 115 
Historical Manuscripts Commission : The Hodgkin 

Collection, 314 ; The Harley Papers, 811 
Indian Problems, 48 
Junius's Edition of Chaucer, 779 
Kingsley's (Mjsb) ' Travels in West Africa,' 278 
Lamb's (John) ' Poetical Pieces,' 150, 183, 246 
Literary Agents, Lord Brougham on, 348 
Literary Congress, International, 578 
Literary Expenses in St. Margaret's, Westminster, 

through Reformation Times, 777 
Lost Manuscript, A, 842 
Lytton's (Lord) Harold, 744 
Maspero's (Prof.) ' Struggle of the Nations,' English 

Translation of, 18, 49, 84, 115, 149, 183 
Melanchthon, 214 
Milton, A Tract attributed to, 183 
Minucius Felix, The Date of, 745 
' Mirror of Jus'ices, The,' 185 
More, Sir Thomas, Thomas Stapleton's Copy of the 

Works of, 215 
Nelson's ' Autobiography,' 682 
Paris, Notes from, 315 
Pepys's (Samuel) Will, 214 
Phillipps Manuscripts, Sale of the, 714 
Poet's Grievance, A, 544 
Prior, Matthew, as a Book-Collector, 810 
Prothalamia, Two, 378, 415, 446, 480, 510, 544, 577 
Publishing Season, 246, 314, 349, 380, 417, 446, 510, 544 
Roe, Sir Thomas, 809 
' Romance of a King's Life,' 150 
Royal Historical Society : New Publication?, 651 
'Sacred Tree, The,' 317, 348 
St. Patrick, 313, 381 
Sales, 184, 246, 315, 349, 350, 380, 480, 510, 651, 683, 714, 

810 
Scrinia, 842 
'Siren Voices,' 314 

Spanish Armada, Destruction of the, 348, 416, 508 
Stevenson, R. L., A Letter of, 280 
Tennyson, Bibliography of the Writings of, 417, 479 543, 

681, 715 
' Testament of Love,' 184, 215 
Tbackerays, The, in India, 149 
Tiele, Prof., and Mr. Max Miiller, 318 
' Travel and Big Game,' 543, 577 
Ubaldino and the Armada, 508 
' Under the Circumstances,' 446, 480 
Verlaine Monument, 479 

Obituaries. 
Adams, W. T., 511. Angerstein, W., 779. Aumale, 

Duo d', 650. Baines, E. M., 780. Banks, Mrs. 

Linnaeus, 618. Baur, Dr. W., 653. Berardi, M., 545. 

Bernays, Prof. M..317. Beatuzhev-Ryumin, Count, 115. 

Biart,L.,419. Blackwood, Miss, 51. Boycott, Capt., 842. 

Brewer, Dr. C, 381. Churton, Canon, 715. Dalgleiah, 

Dr. W. S.,247. Davies, Mrs. J., 510. Davies, W~., 652. 

Deecke, W., 87. Edmonds, C, 117. Empson, Mrs., 

812. Fischer, J. G., 684. Fulford, Rev. W., 416, 446. 

Goulburn, Dr., 618. Gowans, J., 87. Gregor, Rev. 

Dr. W., 216. Guille, T., 51. Harrison, R., 50. 

Heaton, Mr., 618. Heaviside, Canon, 350. Hewlett, 

H. G., 313. Hirzel, Dr. L., 780. Holsten, Dr. K., 186. 

Hungei ford, Mrs., 151. Jacox, Rev. F., 216. Kohler, 

Prof. A., 351. Kohler, O., 812. Krez, C.,419. Lamb, 

Mr., 618. Land, Pr.f. J. P. N., 615. Lembcke, E., 448. 

M'Call, H., 382. Macleod, N., 653. Maikow, A. N., 

448. Martin, J. B., 419. Mas-Latrie, Count, 51. 

Maunsell, Mr., 87. Menzel, Dr. K., 653. Perry, 

Archdeacon, 217. Pbilippi, R., 812. Pitman, Sir 1., 

151. Pocock, Rev. N., 349. Pulsford, Dr., 715. 

Radintzky, A., 511. Read, General M., 17, 350. 

Reynolds, Rev. S. H., 217. Rittershaus, E., 350. 

Roberts, C, 185. Rosenthal-Bonin, H., 546. St. 

David's, Bishop of, 117. St. David's, Dean of, 350. 

Sandtrs, Dr. D., 382. S'atherberg, K. H., 118. 

Schober, Frau von (Thekla von Gumpert), 432. 

Shirreff, Miss E., 419. Stefani, Signor, 530. Storr, 

W.,580. Thomas, Rev. L., 652. Tomlinson, Dr. C, 

247. Twiss, Sir Travers, 117. Wallace, Piof.. 281 

Wiedermann, Dr. T., 247. Wilbour, C. E., 85. Wilson, 

Dr., 684. Ziletmann, E. K., 186 
Gossip. 
Parliamentary Papers. 20, 87, 118, 151, 186, 217, 247. 

281, 317. 351, 382, 419, 448, 482, 546, 580, 618, 653, 

684, 715, 746, 812 
Knighthood conferred on Dr. J. T. Gilbert, 51 
Monument to Haunch Heine near Elberfeld, 87 



St. Andrews University and the University College of 
Dundee, 151 

Histories! M mufcripts Commiasion, 216 

London Association of Corrector! of the Presi, Forty- 
third Annual Report, 281 

Booksellers' Provident Institution, Report— The EnglUh 
Dialect Society, 316 

Newsvendora' Institution, Annual Meeting, 350 

Selden Society, Annual Meeting, 381 

Publishers' Association, Annual Meeting, 448 

London Library, Report, 684 



SCIENCE. 

Reviews. 

Anthropological Institute, Journal, 512, 782 
Astronomical Journal, 449 
Astronorniache Nachrichten, 119, 319, 383, 449 
Bailey 'b (J. B.) Diary of a Resurrectionist, 812 
Barrett'a Lepidoptera of British Ielanda, Vol. III., 546 
Beaz'ey's (C. R.) The Dawn of Modern Geography, 715 
Bedells (F.) The Principl-s of the Trans r ormer, 152 
Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch for 1899, 249 
Brooksmith's (E. J.) Woolwich Mathematical Papers, 382 
Browne's (M.) Taxidermy and Modelling, 748 
Bulletin Astronomique, 319 
Butterfield's (W. J. A.) Chemistry of Gas Manufacture, 

282 
Cambridge Natural History, Vol. IT., 318 
Cape of Good Hope, Astronomer's Report for 1896, 814 
Cassell's Gazetteer, Vol. IV., 351 
Comey's Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities : Inorganic, 

282 
Comptes Rendus, 152 

Croll, James, Autobiographical Sketch of, ed. Irons, 74 
Cunningham's (J. T.) Natural History of Marketabl 

Marine Fishes of the British Islands, 547 
Dodwell's (R.) Pocket County Companion : Devonshire, 

Norfolk, Derbyshire, Berkshire, 781 
Edwards's (J.) The Hemiptera-Homoptera of the British 

Islands, 546 
Euclid's Elements of Geometry, V., VI., by Taylor, 382 
Folk-lore, 512 

Furneaux's (W.) Life in Ponds and Streams, 318 
Greene's (Dr. W. T.) Feathered Frieuds, 547 
Hackel's (E.) The True Grasses, 546 
Hahn's (E.) Die Haustiere und ihre Beziehungen zur 

Wirtschaft des Menscben, 748 
Halford, Sir Henry, Life of. by Munk, 482 
Hampson's Fauna of British India : Moths, Vol. IV 

546 
Handbook of Mental Arithmetic, 382 
Harper's (A. P.) Pioneer Work in the Alps of New 

Zealand, 217 
Harvard College Observatory, Annual Report, 548 
Heawond's (E.) Geography of Africa, 780 
Henslow's H >w to Study Wild Flowers. 546 
Hertwig's (O.) The Biological Problem of To-day, 

translated by Mitchell, lb6 
Howe's (H. A.) A Study of the Sky, 618 
Jackson's (D. C. and J. P.) Alternating Currents and 

Alternating Current Machinery, 448 
Jee's (Sir Bbagvat Sinh) A Short History of Aryan 

Medical Science, 813 
Jessop'B (C. M.) Elements of Applied Mathematics, 332 
Kappel's (A. W.) British and European Buttarflies and 

Moths, 843 
Keane's (A. H.) Southern and Western Asia, 118 
Kirhy's (W. E.) British and European Butterflies and 

Moths, 843 
Kirby's (W. F.) A Handbook to Lepidoptera, Vol. III., 

546 
Lang's (A.) Text-Book of Comparative Anatomy, trans- 
lated by H. M. and M. Bernard. Part II., 186 
Lodge's (A.) Mensuration for Senior Students, 389 
Longmans' Junior School Mensuration, by Beard, 389 
Luoas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, 

Vol. IV., Parts I. and II., 760 
Lydekker's (R.) Geographical History of Mammals, 747 
Mackay's (J. C.) Liaht Railways, 248 
Mayo's (C. H. P.) Elementary Algebra, 382 
Melbourne Observatory, Thirtieth Report of the Board 

of Visitors. 152 
Memorie della Societa de^li Spettroscopisti Italiani, 249, 

618, 748, 843 
Menschutkiu's (N.) Analytical Chemistry, tr. by Locke, 

281 
Miall's (L. C.) Round the Year, 419; The Natural 

History of Aquatic Insects, 842 
Morris. Francis Orpen, a Memoir, by his Son, the Rev. 

M. C. F. Morris, 249 
Museums Association, Report of Glasgow Meeting, by 

Howarth and Platnauer, 119 
Nautical Almanac and Ephemeris for 1900, 152 
Paris Observatory, Annates, 618 ; Rapport Annuel, by 

Loewy, 843 
Paris Society of Anthropology, Bulletin*, 782 
Philips' Handy Reference Atla*, by Ravenstein, 351 

New Handy General Atlas of the World, 780 
Plants of Manitoba, 419 



I 



SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENjEUM with No. 3640, July 31, 1897] 

January to June 1897 INDEX 



OF CONTENTS 



vn 



Prince's (C. L.) Meteorological Summary for 1896, 383 
Pritchard, Charles, D.D., Memoirs of, compiled by his 

Daughter, 51 
Pullar's (Mrs. A.) Geometry for Kindergarten Students, 

382 
Pye-Smith's (P. H.) The Lumleian Lectures on certain 

Points in the j32tioIogy of Disease, 813 
Red Deer : Natural History, by Macpherson ; Deer- 

Stalking, by Cameron; Stag-Hunting, by Viscount 

Ebrihgton ; Cookery, by Shand, 511 
Royal Natural History, ed. by Lydekker, Vols. V. and 

VI., 547 
Sandeman's (G.) Problems of Biology, 20 
Saunders's (E.) The Hymenoptera Aculeata of the 

British Islands, 842 
Schlich's Manual of Forestry : Vol. V. Forest Utilization, 

by Fisher, 547 
Scott's (D. H.) An Introduction to Structural Botany, 

Part II., 419 
See's (Dr. T. J. J.) Researches on the Evolution of the 

Stellar Systems, Part I., 249 
Sharp's (A.) Bicycles and Tricycles, 580 
Starr's (M. A.) An Atlas of Nerve Cells, 186 
Swann's(H.K.)A Concise Handbook of British Birds, 748 
Swiss Folk-lore Society, Journal, 512 
Thacber's (J. B.) The Continent of America, 118 
Thomson's (J. A.) Natural History of the Year, 547 
Victoria Regina Atlas, 351 
Wallis-Tayler's (A. J.) Modern Cycles, 580 
Ward's (R.) Records of Big Game, 318 
Washburn Observatory of the University of Wisconsin, 

Publications, Vol. X. Part I., 249 
Welsford's (J. W.) Elementary Algebra, 382 
Wethey's (E. R.) A New Manual of Geography for 

Middle and Higher Forms, 119 
Witchell's (C. A.) The Evolution of Bird-Song, 747 
Year-Book of the Learned Societies, 747 
Year-Book of Treatment for 1897, 747 
Zimmermann's (Dr. A.) Botanical Microtechnique, 546 
Zoological Record, 1895, 249 

Original Papers. 

Anthropological Notes, 512, 781 

Astronomical Notes, 119, 152, 249, 383, 814, 843 

Banks, Sir Joseph, Journal, 52 ; The Papers of, 547 

Crocodiles, Mythic Singing, 716, 748 

Jungfrau Railway, The Proposed, 618 

Publishing Season, 351, 448 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 781 

Royal Society's Projected Catalogue, 716 

Sale, 483 

Societies. 

Anthropological Institute — 283 

Archaeological Institute — Mr. G. E. Fox on Uriconium, 
219; Mr. H. P. Fitzgerald Marriott on Family Por- 
traits at Pompeii, 352 ; Mr. C. E. Keyser on Alder- 
maston Church, Berkshire, 512; Mr. Talfourd Ely on 
Wreaths and Garlands, 684. Also 782 

Aristotelian— Elections, 219, 318, 483, 748; Mr. L. T. 
Hobhouse on some Problems of Conception, 318; 
Hon. B. Russell on the Relations of Number and 
Quantity, 483. Also 88, 421, 620, 685, 844 

Asiatic— Surgeon-Captain F. H. B. Brown on the Ruins 
of Diraapiir in Assam, 420 

B bliographical- Mr. R. Steele on Early Books on 
Arithmetic, 283 ; Mr. G. J. Gray on William Pickering, 
421 6 

British Archaeological Association— Mr. Patrick on the 
Discovery of a Roman House at Burham, Kent, 249 ; 
Miis E. Bradley on London under the Monastic 
Orders, 282. Also 352, 420, 748, 782 

Chemical— Elections, 352; Anniversiry Meeting, 483. 
Also 153, 283, 620, 717, 782 

Entomological— Annual Meeting, 153 ; Elections, 219. 
383, 421, 685. Also 283, 548, 814 

Geographical— Elections, 420, 512, 653, 684 ; Anniversary 
Meeting, 684 

Geological— Elections, 20, 88, 187, 249,351,420, 548, 653, 
684, 782, 843 ; Anniversary Meeting, 282 

Hellenic— Prof. P. Gardner on a Stone Tripod at Oxford, 
and on the Mantinean Basis, 250 ; Miss Harrison on 
the Danaides, 513 

Historical— Elections, 154, 449, 580, 717, 844 ; Anniver- 
sary Meeting, 283 

Huguenot— Elections, 119 

Institute of Actuaries— Annual Meeting, 815 

Institution of Civil Engineers— Elections, 88, 187, 318 
483 ; Annual General Meeting, 580. Also 21. 119. 15i' 
219, 283, 384, 449 

Linnean- Elections, 88, 420, 449, 513, 619, 685, 814; 
Mr. W. C. Worsdell on the Development of the Ovule 
of Christisonia, a Genus of the Orobanchese, 88 i 
Anniversary Meeting, 814. Also 187, 318 

Mathtmalical— Elections, 119, 384, 613. Also 250, 685, 

olu 

Meteorological— kunxx&l Meeting, 119. Also 250, 548, 685, 

AWmetftc— Elections, 163,283, 420; Annual General 
Meeting, 843. Also 619, 717 



Philological — Prof. McCormick on Chaucer's ' Troilus,' 
187 ; Prof. G. Foster on the Text and Versification of 
Sir Thomas Wyatt's Poems, 513; Dr. Murray's Report 
on the Dictionary, 580; Anniversary Meeting — Prof. 
Skeat on the Proverbs of Alfred, 654. Also 383 

Physical— Elections, 250. Also 154, 319, 384, 449, 513, 
685, 748, 815 

Royal— Elections, 351, 782; Anniversary Meeting, 782. 
Also 153, 187, 218, 249, 282, 318, 383, 420, 449, 684 

Royal Institution— Elections, 187, 318 ; Annual Meeting, 
620 

Society of Antiquaries — Elections, 153, 352; Prof. J. 
Ferguson on the Secrets of Alexis, 249; Mr. G. 
Grazebrook on Mediaeval Surnames and their Various 
Spellings, 282 ; Mr. F. M. Nichols on the Date of the 
Birth of Sir Thomas More, 449 ; Anniversary Meeting, 
619; Mr. W. Gowland on the Dolmens and Burial 
Mounds in Japan, 619, 653. Also 187, 218, 383, 483, 
717, 782 

Society of Arts— 154, 187, 219, 250, 318, 384, 421, 449, 
483, 620 

Society of Biblical Archceology — Anniversary Meeting, 88. 

Also 187, 318, 483, 620, 748 
Society of Engineers -187, 318, 483, 620, 815 
Statistical— 119, 250, 580, 717, 814 
Zoological- 153, 219, 283, 352, 421 , 513, 654, 717, 782, 844 

Obituaries. 

Bartlett, A. D., 684. Bois-Reymond, Prof. E. du, 21. 
Casella, L. P., 581. Chamberlin, H. B., 748. Clark, 
A., 814. Cloizeaux, M. des, 654. D'Abbadie, A., 419. 
Drummond, Prof. H., 383. Elger, T. G. E., 119. Elias, 
N., 748. Freeman, Rev. A., 814. Fresenius, Prof. 
K. R., 813. Haerdtl, Baron E. von, 514. Hale, H., 
152^ Jlilger, A., 581. Hogg, Dr. R., 421. Kenngott, 
Dr., 421. Miiller, Fritz, 783. Nevill, H., 581. Newton, 
Sir E., 580. Sachs, Dr. J. von, 748. Saint-Martin, 
L. V. de, 52. Stone, E. J., 653. Sylvester, Prof., 382, 
421. Tunuer, Prof. P. R. von, 815. Walker, General, 
52. Weierstrass, Prof., 283 

Gossip. 

Award of the Medals and Funds of the Geological 

Society, 88 
New Observatory at Rossgen, Saxony, 188 
Award of the Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society 

to Prof. Barnard, 219 
Award of the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society to Dr. 

J. G. Agardh, 685 



FINE ARTS. 
Reviews. 

Academy Notes, No. 23, 719 

Architectural Review, Vol. I. No. 1, 22 

Art Journal, 1896, 22 

Art Schools of London, edited by Mackenzie, 450 

Bengal, Revised List of Ancient Monuments in, 719 

Boutmy's Le Parth6non et le Genie Grec, 515 

Brown, Ford Madox, a Record of his Life and Work by 

Hueffer, 284, 352, 423 
Catalogues : Maiolica and Enamelled Earthenware of 
Italy in the Ashmolean Museum, by Fortnum, 450; 
Greek Coins in the British Museum, by Head, 844 
Cathedrals : Westminster Abbey, by the Dean of Canter- 
bury—York Minster, by the Dean of York— Winchester, 
by Benham— St. Alban's Abbey, by Liddell— Canter- 
bury, by the Dean of Ripon— Norwich, by the Dean of 
Norwich— Gloucester, by the Dean of Gloucester- 
Salisbury, by the Dean of Salisbury — Canterbury- 
Salisbury— Chester, by Hiatt— Rochester, by Palmer 
—Oxford, by Dearmer— Wells, by Clarke— St. Asaph, 
by Bax, 750 
Cave's (H. W.) The Ruined Cities of Ceylon, 514 
Chalmers, George Paul, and the Art of his Time, by 

Pinnington, 548 
Clarke's (S.) Wall Drawings and Monuments of El-Kab : 

The Tomb of Sebeknekht, 484, 623 
Classical Sculpture Gallery, 1896, Parts I. and II., 251 
Crane's (W.) Of the Decorative Illustration of Books Old 

and New, 188 
El-Bersheh, Part II., 484 

English Society sketched by G. du Maurier, 845 
Fletcher's Foreign Bookbindings in British Museum, 718 
Freshfield (E.) jun.'s Communion Plate of Parish 

Churches in the County of London, 21 
Furniss's (H.) Pen and Pencil in Parliament, 846 
GalerieComique du Dixneuvieme Siecle, Nos. 1 to 6, 252 
Gardner's (ti. A.) A Handbook of Greek Sculpture, 

Parts I. and II., 421 
Gardner's (P.) Sculptured Tombs of Hellas, 250 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Vols. XV. and XVI., 121 
GolenischefFs Assyrian Monuments preserved in the 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 615 
Houghton, Arthur Boyd, Introductory Essay by Hous- 

tnan, 515 
Inwards's (R.) Turner's Representations of Lightning, 

99 

James's (E. B.) Letters, Archaeological and Historical, 

relating to the Isle of Wight, 188 
Langdon's (A. G.) Old Cornish Crosses, 119 



Mackenzie's (Sir J. B.) The Castles of England, 154 

Magazine of Art, 1896, 22 

Meyer's Handbook of Art Smithing, trans. Gardner, 815 

Morgan's Recherches sur les Origines de l'Egypte, 815 

Munkacsy's Souvenirs : L'Enfance, 189 

Miintz's (E.) Les Tapisseries de Raphael, 88 

Naville's (E.) The Temple of Deir el Bahari, Part I., 

484 
Nisbet's (H.) A Plain Guide to Oil Painting, 816 
Oxford Characters, Lithographs by Rothenst.-in, Text by 

York Powell and Others, 251 
Pageant, 1897, 22 
Pictures of 1897, 719, 753 
Posters in Miniature, 549 
Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the 

Distribution of Science and Art Grants, 719 
Rivoli's (Due de) Les Missels imprimes a Venise de 1481 

a 1600, 783 
Robert's (C.) Achtzehntes Hallisches Winckelmann3- 

programm, 550 
Royal Academy and New Gallery, 719 
Stokes's (M.) Notes on the Cross of Cong, 53 
Spenser's Faerie Queene, edited by Wise, pictured by 

Crane, 845 
Swannell's (M.) Black-Board Drawing, 816 
Tylor's (J. J.) Wall Drawings and Monuments of El-Kab ■ 

The Tomb of Sebeknekht, 484, 623 
Vanity Fair Album, Vol. XXVIII., 22 
Venus and Apollo in Painting and Sculpture, edited by 

W. J. Stillman, 749 
Year's Art, 1897, 120 

Original Papers. 

Alexandria, Ancient, 752 

Athens, Notes from, 24, 450, 4S5 

Buddha's Birthplace, The Discovery of, 319 

Burne- Jones's (Sir E.) Pictures at the New Gallery, 515 

Byron, The Raeburn, 23 

Cairo, The Citadel of, 848 

El-Kab, Excavations at, 623 

Greek Inscriptions at Clandeboye, 688 

Hook's (Mr.) Pictures, 484 

Mycenaean Datings, 550, 624 

New Prints, 189 

Paine, Thomas, Romney's Portrait of, 848 

Peterborough Cathedral, 23, 54, 121, 191 

Pompey's Pillar at Alexandria, 285, 485, 516, 551 

Sales, 55, 90, 122, 156, 190, 221, 253, 286, 320, 354, 386, 422, 

451, 485, 516, 551, 586, 587, 623, 657, 689, 722, 753, 786, 

817, 849 
Serangeum in the Piraeus, 385 
Silchester Excavations of 1896, 721 
Vitruviana, 516, 586 

Exhibitions. 

Agnew & Sons' (Messrs.) Galleries : English Drawings, 

Burlington Club : Mr. A. W. Hunt's Water Colours, 90 

European Enamels, 786 
Dowdeswell's (Messrs.) Galleries: Sketches by Mr. J. 

Aumonier of Old Brighton Pier, 2S5 
I'udley Gallery : Landscape Exhibition, 24 
Fine-Art Society : Mr. A. W, Rimington's Drawings, 285 ; 

Mr. Du Maurier's Drawings, 320; Mr. Swan's " Wild 

Beasts," 423; Works of Mr. Jan van Beers, 658; Mr. 

F. A. Rawlence's Drawings of the Riviera, 818 
Goupil Gallery : M. R. Billotte's Landscapes in Oil, 658 ; 

Mr. J. B. Knight's Works, 817 
Grafton Gallery : Mr. Fori Madox Brown's Works, 220 
Graves's (Messrs.) Gallery, 658; Society of Miniature 

Painters— War Paintings, 786 
Guildhall, Loan Exhibition of Pictures at, 485 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours, 384 
New Oallery : Winter Exhibition, Mr. Watts's Pictures, 

23, 89; Summer Exhibition, 585, 686 
Obach's(Mr.) Gallery, 785 
Royal Academy : Winter Exhibition, Lord Leighton's 

Pictures, 53, 189, 252, 320; Summer Exhibition. 581. 

654, 750, 784, 846 
Salons, The, 620, 656, 687, 719, 816 
Society of Painters in Water Colours : Special Exhibition, 

155; Summer Exhibition, 621 

Obituaries. 

Aquila, Count of, 354. Bent, Theodore, 657. Black- 
burn, H„ 387. Blondel, P., 551. Boyce, G. P., 221. 
Creeny, Rev. W. F., 551. Doucet, L., 156. Francais, 

F. L., 752. Franks, Sir A. W., 720. Glndbach, Prof. 
B., 25. Guerard, H., 451. Heyden, A. J. von, 818. 
Hoffman, M., 689. Holloway, C. E., 387. Hook, 
Mrs.. 320. Knight, C. P., 156. Lambert, E. P., 624. 
Liitzow, K. von, 587. Madrazo, L. do, 287. Meuron, 
A. de, 486. Patrick, Cochran, 387. Ponno, C. O. de 
551. Phipps, C. .1., 722. Pille, 0. H., 364. Robert- 
son, Canon S., 354. Robinson, G. T., 658. Scott, 

G. O., 668. Simpson, Dr. S., 451. Yon, E. C, 451 

Gossip. 

National Oallery : Acquisitions, 55, 253, 286, 763 

Louvre : Acquisitions, 91, 156, 191, 551 

Royal Academy : Elections, 121 

Gloucester Cathedral, the Lady Chapel, 122, 166 

Restoration of the Hotel de Ville of Louvain, 1M 

Destination of the Hertford Collection, 886 

National Portrait Gallery : Acquisitions, 320 



Vlll 



THE ATHENAEUM 



[SUPPLEMENT to th» ATHEN^CM with No. 3W0, July SI, IWI 

January to June 1897 



FINE ARTS. 

GOSBlp cont i mini. 
Sir E. Poynter's ' The Beginning of the End,' 336 
Bequests to the Egypt Exploration Fund, 423 
Luxembourg : Acquisitions, 486 
Report for 1896 of the Director of the National Gallery, 

517 
Excavations at Silcheeter, 623 



MUSIC. 

Reviews. 



Biilow, liana von, Early Correspondence of, edited by 

hid Widow, translated by Bache, 123 
Burns, The Songs of, Symphonies by Lees, Notes by 

Shelley, 518 
Dittersdorf, Karl von, Autobiography of, translated by 

Coleridge, 753 
Halle. Sir Charles, Life and Letters of, 25 
Jubilee Music, 551,819 
Lowe's (C. E.) A Chronological Cyclopaedia of Musicians 

and Musical Events, 518 
Matthew's (J. E.) The Literature of Music, 55 
National Festival Music, 551, 819 
Riemann's Dictionary of Music, tr. by Shedlock, 354 
Schumann's (R.) Four Studies and Three Sketches for 

Pedal Piano, 518 
Short Notices, 55 
Stainer's (J.) A Few Words to Candidates for the Degree 

of Mus.Bac.Oxon., 518 
Tschaikowsky's (P.) Twelve Pieces for the Pianoforte- 
Select Pieces for ditto, 518 
Wagner's Heroines, by Constance Maud, 123 

original Paper*. 
Berlioz's ' Les Troyens a Carthage,' 452 
Feis Ceoil, The, 723 

Incorporated Society of Musicians, 25, 56 
Sale, 850 

Operas, Concerts, flee. 
Atkinson's (Miss E. A.) Pianoforte Recital, 254 
Bach Festival, 486, 517 
Bamett's (Miss E.) Pianoforte Recital, 659 
Bispham's (Mr. D.) Concert, 658 
Bohemian String Quartet, Concerts, 287, 388, 423 
Butt's (Miss C.) Concert, 689 
Carl Rosa Opera: ' Tannhauser,' 'Romeo and Juliet,' 

•La Vivandiere,' 122; 'Faust,' 'Die Meistersinger,' 

' Mignon,' ' Cavalleria Rusticana ' and ' Pagliacci,' 

' Carmen,' 157 ; ' The Valkyrie,' 191 
Cathie's (Mr. P.) Violin Recital, 488 
Clinton's (Mr. G. A.) Concert, 488 
Cohn's (Mr. I.) Brahms " In Memoriam " Concert, 659 
Crystal Palace Concerts, 320, 355, 387, 423, 486, 517, 551 
D'Albert's (Mr. E.) Pianoforte Recital, 723 
Dalton'8 (Miss D.) Concert, 453 
Danks (Miss M.) and Gee's (Miss H.) Recital, 518 
Eibenschutz's (Miss I.) Brahms Pianoforte Recital, 320 
Esposito's (Signor M.) Pianoforte Recital, 625 
Faure and Wolff's (MM.) Concert, 787 
Fitzner Viennese Quartet, Concert, 788 
Frickenhaus's (Madame) Pianoforte Recital, 453 
Gabrilowitsch's (M.) Pianoforte Recital, 787 
Gompertz's (Mr. R.) String Quartet Concerts, 157, 287 
Goodson's (Miss K.) Pianoforte Recital, 787 
Greene (Mr. P.) and Bor wick's (Mr. L.) Recitals, 287, 355 
Guildhall School of Music : Concert, 755 
Halle's (Sir Charles) Manchester Concerts, 56, 123, 223, 

287 
Hambourg's (Mr. M.) Pianoforte Recital, 320 
Handel Festival, 818, 849 
Hare's (Miss A.) Pianoforte Recital, 356 
Hausmann (Herr R.) and Wild's (Miss M.) Concert, 356 
Henschel's (Mr.) Concerts, 122, 222, 287, 320, 387, 423, 

486 
Highbury Philharmonic Society: Allon's 'The Oak of 

Geismar,' 157 ; Mendelssohn's ' Athalie,' 355 
Hillier's (Mr. L. H.) Concert, 388 
Hyllested e (Herr A.) Concert, 624 
Jubilee Concerts, 849 
Kneisel Quartet, Concert, 755 
Kowalski's (M. H.) Concert, 388 
Kruse's (Herr) Concert, 755 
Lamond's (Mr. F.) Pianoforte Recitals, 122, 157, 191, 

222, 624 
Lamoureux Concerts, 423, 452 
London Ballad Concerts, 253 
Magpie Madrigal Society : Concert, 723 
Manchester, Theatre Royal : English Version of Puccini's 

' La Boberoe,' 587 
Manna's (Mr.) Benefit Concert, 587 
Marchesi's (Madame) Vocal Recitals, 423, 453, 691 
Masbach's (Herr V.) Pianoforte Recital, 787 
Melba's (Madame) Concert, 787 
Mottl's (Herr F.) Concerts, 387, 452; Grand Wagner 

Concerts, 517, 658, 689 
Motto's (Miss MJ Concert, 287 
Musical Artists' Society : Concert, 388 
Olson (Miss M), Barnes (Miss E.), and Phillips's 

(Mr. C.) Recital, 288 



O'Moore's (Miss E.) Concert. 287 

Ortmans's (Mr. R.) Concert, 453 

Paderewaki's (M.) Pianoforte Recitals, 517, 819 

Pancera'i (Mile. E.) Pianoforte Recital, 723 

I'liilharmonic Concerts. 423, 486, 624. 722, 787, 849 

Popular Concerts, 26, 55, 91, 122, 157, 191, 254, 287, 320, 

355, 388, 453, 486, 517 
Prince of Wales's Theatre : Pac'r's ' II Maestro di 

Cappella,' 254 
Promenade Concerts, 26, 55, 91, 123, 222, 253, 320, 355, 

337, 423, 452, 486, 518 
Queen's Hall Choral Society : ' Elijah,' 56, 754 ; Saiut- 

Saens's ' Samson et Dalila,' 355 ; ' St. Paul,' 691 
Richter Concerts, 722, 754 

Ross and Moore's (Messrs.) Pianoforte Recital, 587 
Royal Academy of Music : Concerts, 321, 488 
Royal Amateur Orchestral Society : Concerts, 222, 691 
Royal Artillery Band : Concert, 453 
Royal Choral Society : ' The Messiah,' 56 ; Schubert's 
' Song of Miriam,' ' Israel in Egypt,' 157 ; Dr. Parry's 
' Job,' 453 ; Grand Commemoration Concert, 658 
Royal College of Music : Concerts, 423, 850; Brahms 

"In Memoriam " Concert, 787 
Royal Opera, Covent Garden : ' Faust,' 658,689; ' Romeo 
et Juliette,' 658, 722, 787 ; ' Tannhauser,' 658, 754 ; 
' Aida,' ' Les Huguenots,' ' Carmen,' 689 ; ' Manon,' 
722; 'Lohengrin,' 722, 754; ' L'Attaque du Moulin,' 
754; ' La Traviata,' 787; ' Die Walkiire,' ' Tristan und 
Isolde,' 818 ; ' Siegfried,' State Performance. 849 
Sarasate's (Senor) Concert, 819 
Sevadjian's (M.) Recital, 755 
Soci^te des Instruments Anciens, Concert, 755 
Sterling's (Madame A.) Concert, 123 
Stock Exchange Orchestral Society : Concert, 222 
Such's (Mr. H.) Violin Recital. 659 
Symphony Concerts, 191, 222, 287, 320, 423, 486, 587, 624, 

658, 689, 722, 754 
Tua's (Signora T.) Violin Recital, 157 
Walenn Chamber Concert, 587 
Werner's (Herr T.) Violin Recital, 355 
Westminster Orchestral Society : Concerts, 453, 754 

Obituaries. 

Bazzini, Signor A., 254. Best, Mr., 690. Betts, Mrs. P., 
223. Brahms, Johannes, 487, 588. Castelmary, M.,254. 
Grammann, C., 223. Lockwood, E., 587. Mancio, F., 
223. Smythson, M. A., 26. Sp*rk, Dr., 819. Tours, 
B., 388. Wynne, Madame E., 157 

Gossip. 

'The Messiah 'at the Queen's Hall on Christmas Day, 

25 
Three Cycles of ' Der Ring des Nibelungen ' at Berlin, 56 
" Grand Opera," so called, in Cape Town, 123 
Handel's Oratorio 'Hercules' at Leipzig — Schubert 

Centenary Celebrations, 191 
Ash Wednesday Concerts of Sacred Music, 321 
' Fervaal ' at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, 388 
Good Friday Concerts of Sacred Music, 552 
Sir Arthur Sullivan's Music to ' Victoria and Merrie 

Englan 1 at the Alhambra, 723 
Promenade Concerts at the Earl's Court Victorian 

Exhibition, 787 



DRAMA. 

Reviews, 

Beesly's (A. H.) Danton, 552 

Boll's (Mrs. H.) Fairy Plays and how to Act Them, 158 

Besant's (Sir W.) The Charm, and other Drawing-Room 

Plays, 158 
Brownie, by Misses Sargent, MacKenzie, and Woodward, 

255 
Castle's (E. J.) Shakespeare, Bacon, Jonson, and Greene, 

861 
Deighton's (K.) The Old Dramatists : Conjectural Read- 
ings, 755 
Dowson's (E.) The Pierrot of the Minute, 626 
E. L. M.'s Hugo of Avendon, 724 
English Historical Plays, arranged by Donovan, 255 
Henley's Deacon Brodie, 256 ; Beau Austin, 322 
Ibsen's (H.) John Gabriel Borkman, trans, by Archer, 

519 ; Gleanings from, edited by Keddill atid Standing, 

851 
Jones's (H. A.) Michael and his Lost Angel, 519 
Martin's (J.) Nos Auteure et Compositeurs Dramatiques : 

Portraits et Biographies, 755 
Moyes's (Dr. J.) Medicine and Kindred Arts in the Psiys 

of Shakespeare, 255 
New Editions, 255 
Pailleron's Pieces et Morceaux, 322 
Pollock's (W.) The Charm, and other Drawing-Room 

Plays, 158 
Shakspeare : The Whitehall, Vol. VII., 265; Vol. VIII., 

765 ; Avon Edition, 755 
Smith's (L. H.) Sophocles and Shakspere, 192 
Sollene's (E.) My Theatrical and Musical Recollections, 

266 
Stevenson's (R. L.) Deacon Brodie, 255 ; Beau Austin, 

322 
Temple Dramatists : Arden of Fevereham, ed. Bayne — 

The Two Noble Kinsmen, ed. Herford — Dr. Faustus, 

ed. Gollancz, 765 



Webster's The Duchess of Main, ed. Vaughan, 256 
Weil's (H.) Ktudes sur le Drarae Antique, 852 
Whitty's (Mrs. I.) Short Pl-ys and Charade, 15S 

Original Papers. 
' Iphigeneia at Aulis,' 819 
Theocritui on the Stage, 852 

Theatres. 

Adelphi— 'All that Glitters is not Gold '—' Black-Eyed 
8usan,'26; Gillette's ' Secret Service," 691 ; Musset's 
' Lorenzaccio ' (Madame Bernbardt's Performances), 
820, 850 

A venue— Huan Mee's'A Man about Town,' 56; Home's 
' Nelson's Enchantress,' 254, 288 ; Horner's ' On 
Leave,' 552; Lumley'B ' Belle Belair,' 724 

Comedy— Burnand's ' The Saucy Sally,' 356 ; Payne's 
' Byeways,' 388 

Court— Mrs. Beringer's 'A Bit of Old Chelsea '—Revival 
of ' Sweet Nancy,' 223 ; Echegaray's ' Mariana,' trans- 
lated by Graham, 288 ; Revival of Pinero's ' The 
Hobby Horse,' 691 ; Robertson's ' Caste,' 788, 819 

Criterion— Robertson's ' Society,' 124, 168; 'Rosemary. 
256; Jones's ' The Physician,' 453; 'David Garrick,' 
820 

Drury Lane—' Aladdin,' 26 

Gaiety—' Trial by Jury,' 660 

Oarrick — Justin Huntly McCarthy's 'My Friend the 
Prince,' 254 ; ' The Man in the 8treet,' 256 

Globe— Jerome and Phillpotte's ' The Mac Haggis,' 321 ; 
Woidville's 'Confederates,' 322, 626; Flaxman and 
Younge's 'Mr. Sympkyn,' 626; Ibsen's ' A Doll's 
House,' 659; lb-en's 'Wild Duck,' 692; Wi liam- 
eon's 'Queenie,' 756; Miss Burney's 'Settled out 
of Court,' 788; Murray and Shine's ' An Irish Gentle- 
man,' 819 

Grand— Merivale'B ' All for Her,' 692 

Haymarket — Grundy's ' A Marriage of Convenience,' 788 

Her Majesty's— Opening, 588; Parker's 'The Seits of 
the Mighty,' 625, 756 ; Mendes's ' The Old Clo' Man,' 
659, 692 ;' Trilby,' 788; 'The Red Lamp,' 'The 
Ballad-Monger,' 788, 819 

Lyceum—' Cymbeline,' 26, 158; Wills's ' Olivia,' 191 ; 
Revival of 'King Richard III.,' 321; Sardou and 
Moreau's 'Madame Sans-Gene,' translated by Carr, 
519 

Zyric—Barrett's 'The Daughters of Babylon,' 223; « The 
Manxman,' 552; Revival of Knowles's * Virginius,' 659 ; 
' Othello,' 724 

Olympic— Collingham's 'The Pilgrim's Progress,' 26; 
Philips and Merrick's ' The Free Pardon,' 191 ; 
Buchanan and Marlowe's 'The Mariners of England,' 
356 ; ' Hamlet,' 660 ; ' Antony and Cleopatra,' ' The 
Merchant of Venice,' 724; 'Macbeth.' 756 

Opera Comique — Miss St. Ruth's ' The Key to King Solo- 
man's Riches ( Limited ),' Burnand's ' Bet^y,' 26 
' East Lynne,' 520 

Prince of Wales's— ■« A Pierrot's Life,' 56, 92; Doyle's 
'Story of Waterloo,' ' Pygmalion and Galatea,' 756 

Princess's — 'Two Little Vagabonds,' 124; Barnard's 
' The County Fair," 788 ; ' In Sight of St. Paul's,' 852 

Royalty — Lartand Dickinson's ' A Court of Honour,' 692; 

Mile. Jane May, 692, 724, 756, 788 
St. James's—' As You Like It,' 192 ; Stoddard's ' Tess of 
the D'Urbervilles,' 322; Pinero's ' The Princess and 
the Butterfly,' 453 
Shaftesl ur y— Woodgate and lerton's ' The Sorrows of 

Satan,' 91 
Strand— Macdonough's 'The Prodigal Father,' 192: 
'My Aunt's Advice,' 288; 'The Queen's Proctor, 
552; Trevor's 'Dr. Johnson,' 588; Ibsen's 'John 
Gabriel Borkman,' 625; Bourchier's ' All Alive Oh I ' 
820 
Terry's — ' Love in Idleness ' — Mrs. O. Beringer's ' Holly 
Tree Inn,' 26 ; ' Delicate Ground,' 92 

Vaudeville— ' Round a Tree,' 158 ; Peile's ' Solomon's 
Twins,' 660 

Obituaries. 
Barry, S., 388. Betty, H. W., 256. Buckler, P.. 6o0. 
Cardm, Mrs. J., 153. Gatti, A., 92. God. rev, O. \V., 
520. Jacobson. Dr. E, 224. Lloyd, Madame, 552. 
Morre, K., 322. Plessy, J., 756. Wolter, C, 820. 
Younge, W., 56 

Gossip. 

Mr. W. Archer on the ' Blight of the Drama,' 56 

First Night " Obstructionists," 92 

The Production of New Plays by Syndicates, 124 

Mr. Melford's 'Sleeping Dogs' at the New Theatre, 
Cambridge— Balla's Suicide ci the Stage, 158 

Admiral Field on 'Nelson's Enchantress,' 288 

' Antony and Cleopatra ' at the Queen's Theatre, Man- 
chester, 322 

Mr. Pemberton's ' Henry Esmond ' at the Lyceum 
Theatre, Edinburgh, 388 

Mr. Bernard Shaw's ' The Devil's Disciple ' at the Bijou 
Theatre, Hammersmith, 626 



MISCELLANEA. 

• Atys,' The, 724 

Little Silverhair and the Three Bears, 124, 224 

• Prelude, The,' 322 



THE ATHENAEUM 

journal of (ZBngltei) antr foreign Etterature, detente, tfte &im &rt& Jflugtc anfcr tfre Uratm 



No. 3610. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1897. 



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40 Students will be admitted in September. 1897. The Secretary of 
State will offer them for Competition Twelve Appointments as Assistant 
Engineers in the Public Works Department, and Three Appointments 
as Assistant Superintendents In the Telegraph Department— For par- 
ticulars apply to the Secretarv, at the College. 

CTaralogncs. 

ELLIS & E L V E Y, 

Dealers in Old and Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Engravings. 

NEW CATALOGUE of CHOICE BOOKS and 

MANUSCRIPTS iNo. 81). post free, Sixpence. 

NEW CATALOGUE of RARE PORTRAITS and 

PRINTS (No. 4), Including a large COLLECTION of 
MUSICAL PORTRAITS, post free. Threepence. 

NEW CATALOGUE of RARE BOOKS on MUSIC 

(No. 2) in preparation. 

20, New Bond-street, London, W. 

THIRST EDITIONS of MODERN AUTHORS, 

J. including Dickens. Thackeray. Lever, olnsworth; Books illus- 
trated by O and K. Croiksbanlt, Phlx, Etowlandson. Leech, Ac lie 
largest and choicest Collection offered for gale In Hie World. Cata- 
loguee issued and sent post tree "" application. Hooks bought — 
\\ ii ii ii c Bpxni in, ST, New Oxford street, London. \\ i 

NEW CATALOGUE (No. 10) now ready. Choice 
Engravings. Drawings ami Books Constable's English Land- 
scape— Turner's Liber BtudTorum Drawings bj Turner Trout. Hunt, 
Cntman. Ac— Works by Professor Rusk In Posl dee. Sixpence.— Wm. 

\\ i t, Church-terrace. Richmond, Surrey 

FOREIGN BOOKS and PERIODICALS 
promptlv supplied on moderate terms. 
CATALOGUES on application 

DULAU & CO :I7. Ml HO -SQUARE. 



w 



ILLIAMS cc NOR GATE, 

IMPOUTT.ltS OF FOREIGN HOOKS, 
14, Henrietta street. Cnvenl garden, London , SO, Booth Frederick- 
street, Edinburgh | and 7, Broad Street, oxford. 
CATALOGUES on application. 



T II E A Til KXvEUM 



N 3010, Jan. 2, '97 



ju.t pnnllabod, gratis u 
pATALOGUE of BOA ROB and VALUABLE 

\ Hooks 

Including Americana- Crulk«hanklana -Early Illuminated and Other 

Ms- -lull W»r Tracls — Drawings o[ Portraits — Original Wool 

w . , \ DaanmO, Mi.iiinii t itrMl « 



H 



OOK8 at SB per oent [id. in the U.) DISCOUNT. 



HARBISON • BOMS, "' Ball Mall, allow the above Discount on all 
the New Christinas and Nee N .-ur < ; 1 1 : I 

■■ \s nh i lit- exception ol n<»ii.s published at net prices. 
a large atook t<> seleot front 

Former Season s Rooks, suitable lor Village Libraries, at Irom 
nl Discount 



CHEAP BOOKS.— THREEPENCE DISCOUNT 
in the SHILLING allowed Irom the published price of nearly 
all New Hooks, lllbles. Praycr-Books, and Annual Volumes Orden 
by post executed bv return CATALOGUES "I Now Hooks and Re- 
mainders gratis and postage free.-On.asaT A Fi*ld, 67, Moorgate- 
street, London, B.C. 

BOOKPLATES DESIGNED and ENGRAVED 
in Hest Style on Wood. Copper, or Steel. Specimens sent 
on application. One shilling each Set, »1j : (1) Modern Heraldic; 
C>) Mediaval ; (Sj Non - Heraldic — THOMAS MOHI.NO, £>•-', High 
Holborn, London, W.O. Established \1'.'\ 

A LEAFLET on BOOK-PLATES sent free. 

MUDIE'S 

SELECT 

LIBRARY. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS from ONE GUINEA per Annum. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. 

Books can be exchanged at the residences of Sab- 
scribers in London by the Library Messengers. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS from TWO GUINEAS 
per Annum. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. 

COUNTRY SUBSCRIPTIONS from TWO 
GUINEAS per Annum. 



MUDIE'S FOREIGN LIBRARY. 

All the Best Works in French, German, ItaliaD, 
and Spanish are in circulation. 

CATALOGUES of English or Foreign Books, 
Is. Qd. each. 

Prospectuses and Clearance Lists of Books on Sale, 
postage free. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY, Limited, 
30 to 34, NEW OXFORD-STREET, London. 

Branch Offices:— 

241, Brompton-road ; and 48, Queen Victoria- street, 

E.C. (Mansion House End). 

Also 10-12. Barton Arcade, Manchester. 

rpHE HANFSTAENGL GALLERIES, 

16, PALL MALL EAST 
(nearly opposite the National Gallery). 

THE NATIONAL GALLERY SERIES. 

NOW READY, 

In PERMANENT CARBON PRINT, FIFTY REPRODUCTIONS 

Irom PICTURES In the BRITISH SCHOOL. 

Priee Six Shillings eacb. 

J. M. W. TURNER. 



CONSTABLE. 

GAINSBOROUGH. 

LAWRENCE. 



LANDSEER. 
REYNOLDS. 
ROMNEY. 



HOGARTH. 

THREE HUNDRED SUBJECTS Irom the FOREIGN SCHOOLS 
already issued in several sizes. 

An extensive COLLECTION from CELEBRATED WORKS of the 
OLD MASTERS in the principal CONTINENTAL GALLERIES. 

NINE THOUSAND REPRODUCTIONS from PAINTINGS by the 
LEADING ARTISTS of the DAY. 

CATALOGUES POST FREE. 



'P II 



A U 1 I V P B C M P A N V 
in VI 1 1: THE ATTENTION 01 u:n-i- aUTHOBB, 
AND t>i BESS TO i Mi. lit 

PERMANENT PROCESSES of PHOTOGRAPHIC 

REFBODCCTION, combining great range Of lone eltirt with 
accurate monocln " |ui--enlation and artistic ei pics-ion 

The AUTOTYPE SOLAR or CARBON PRO< 

for the reproduction in permanent pigments of Oil Paintings, 
Drawings in Water Colour, Pencil, Crajon, Indian Ink, Ac. 

ACTO-GRAVURE. The Autotype Company's Pro- 

ct~s of Photographic Engraving on Copper, yielding result- re- 
sembling Mezzotint Engravings. 
The Company has successfully reproduced several important Work! 
by this process, including Portraits I y Sir J K. Mil!ai«. t R.A.. J. 
Fettle. lt.A , W W. Onlasi, B A . 1 Boll, B A , the Hon Jno Collier, 
Sir G Held, P H S A ; also Examples of Gainsborough, Turner, Con- 
stable, Schmalz, Douglas, Draper, Ac. 

The AUTOTYPE MECHANICAL PROCESS 

(Sawyer's Collotype) for Hook Illustrations of the highest class. 
Adopted by the Trustees of the British Museum, many of the 
Learned Societies, and the Leading Publishers. 



Examples of Work may be seen, and terms and prices obtained, at 

THE AUTOTYPE FINE-ART GALLERY, 

74, NEW OXFORD-STREET, LONDON. 



MESSRS. KARSLAKE & CO. will next week 
exhibit in their window a Series of Original Drawings by Paul 
Braddon' illustiating the HAUNTS of THACKERAY.— 81, Charing 
Cross-road. W.C. 

rpHE AUTHOR'S HAIRLESS PAPER-PAD. 

J- (The LEADENHALL PRESS, Ltd., 50, Leadenhall-street, 
London. E.C.) 
Contains hairless paper, over which the pen slips with perfect 
freedom. Sixpence each. 5s. per dozen, ruled or plain. 

H. SOTHEJRAN & CO. desire to pur- 
chase the following named Books, and 
will be pleased to receive details of any, 
together with the prices, addressed to 
l\0, Strand, W.C. 

ABBOTSFORD CLUB.— The Presentation in the Temple. 
ANDKONICUS, 1661. 
BANISH'D DUKE, 1640. 
BANCROFT —Sertorius. 
BANKS— Destruction ol Troy. 

BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE ol PRINTED BOOKS. — Ac- 
cessions only, or a Set. 
CARLELL .— Heraclius. 
CARTWKIGHT.— Heroic Lover, 1661. 
COOK —Love's Triumph. 
COTTON —Horace, 1671. 
DANCER.— Agrippa, King of Alba. 
DEFOE— Robinson Crusoe, First Edition. 
EDEN— The State of the Poor. 
FAN SHAWE.— Love for Love's Sake. 
FATAL JEAI.OUSIE.1673. 
FAULKLAND— Marriage Night, 1664. 
FEIGN'D ASTROLOGER, 166S. 
FLEC'KNOE.— Erminia, 1661. 
GOFFE — Selimus. 

GOLDSMITH— Vicar of Wakefield, First Edition. 
GOMBERVILLE— Polexandre. 
HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS PUBLICATIONS. -Any Volumes or 

Famphlets. 
HERRICK.— Hesperides, 1648. 
HEYWOOD— Spider and the Flie, 1556. 
HOWARD.— Duke of Lerma. 

KEATS.— Lamia, or any Works (First Editions) by Same Author. 
KILLIGREW (W.) — Ormasdes— Pandora— Selindra— Siege of Urbin 

— Imperial Tragedy. Folio, 1666. 
LOWER— Amorous Fantasme. 
Horatius. 1656". 
Noble Ingratitude. 
LEANERD— The Counterfeits, 1679. 
MORE (Sir T.).— Works. 
MILTON— Paradise Lost, 1667. 
NEWCASTLE (DUCHESS of).— Plays, folio. 
PORDAGE— Herod and Mariamne. 
POWELL.— Treacherous Brothers. 
KAVENSCROFr — Italian Husband. 
RELIGIOUS REBEL, 1671. 
ROXHURGHE CLUB— De Guilleville's Pelerinagc de la tie 

Humaine. 
ROYAL SOCIETY of EDINBURGH TRANSACTIONS.-A Set, or 

vol. 30 only. 
SAINT CICILY, 1666 
SAUVIGNY.— Les Dorados de la Chine. 
SCUDERY— Artamenes, or the Grand Cyrus. 
SETTLE.— Cambyses, 1675. 

Conquest of China. 
Empress of Morocco. 
Female Prelate 
Distressed Innocence. 
Ambitious Slave. 
SHAKESPEARE.— Works, 1623. 
Poems, 1640. 
SHELLEY —Posthumous Poems, or any Volume (First Editions; by 

Same Author. 
BTEGE of CONSTANTINOPLE, 1675. 
sl'KNSER— Fairy Queen, 1590-6. 
STAPLETON .— Hero and Leander, 166ft 
SWIN HOE.— Unhappy Fair Irene. 
TATE —Loyal General. 
TENNYSON.— 1 he Promise of May. 

The Throstle. 

The Sailor Boy. 

The Lover's laic, Moxon, 181". 

The Last Tournament. 

Enid and Nimuc. 

The True and the False. 

Poems, 1833, boards. 
UNGRATEFUL FA Vol KITE, 1664. 
WALTON'S Angler, Third Edition. 
WESTON.— Amazon Uueen. 
Will TAKER— Conspiracy. 



TO INVALIDS. — A LIST of MEDICAL MEN 

[I part 
full paniculais and terms, wm gratis 



In all parts willing to HI PATIEWTS, giving 
— ■'- The list Includes Private 



A»jlum». Ac Bchools al«o re< ouiwended — Addresa Mr. O B Bunt*. 
H, Lancaster-place. Blrand, W C. 

LUJRNI8HED APARTMENTS in one of the 

I" rUNBRIDGB WELLS South aspect. 

good vm» three minutes' walk from the town and common Suitable- 

i,i month. -\Snu It <. . in. Clarenionuroa: \ eUa. 



<Salts bj Ruction. 

FRIDA F M-S I . 
Photographic Apparatus— Lanterns and Slides— ScitnUju: In- 
struments— Eleclricals— awl a quantity (f Household furni- 
ture, the J'roptrt;/ "fa Genileinan, deceased. 

MR. J. 0. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION at hie Greet Boonu H K:uf»- garden, 

onFRXDAl MEXT, January t). at half- past l.'o clock precisely 

On >ie« the day prior 2 till 5 and morning of Kale, and catalogues, 
had. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE. MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will hold the following SALES 
by AUCTION at their Great Rooms King-street, Bt James s-square, the 
Sales commencing at 1 o clock precisely — 

On WEDNESDAY, January 6. ETCHINGS and 

ENGRAVINGS. 

On THURSDAY, January 7. and Following Day, 

OBJECTS ol ART and DECORA I IVI. n RN1TURE. the Property of a 
LADY, deceased 

On FRIDAY, January 8, OBJECTS of ART and 

DECORATION, from numerous Private Sources. 

On SATURDAY, January 9, PICTURES by 

OLD MASTERS, from numerous Private Sources. 



The Collection of Armour and Arms of H err ZSCHJLLE. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE. MANSON U WOODS 
respeetfuUy give notice that they will SELL by AUCTION at 
their Great Rooms. King-street Si James g-agnaff ■ on WJNDA.T. 

Januarv 26, and Four Following Days and on M iMM V Tehran I at 
1 o'clock precisely, the valuable I OLLECTION of AHMOIR. ABMS, 
and EQUIPMENTS Ol Herr ZSCHILLE, comprising a very complete 
Series of Swords from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century- 
choice examples of Heavy Fighting Swords, Foining Estocs. Landj-recht 
Swords Rapiers, and Dress Swords of the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries, including an Italian Sword of the early part of the 
Sixteenth Century, chiselled and gilt Bronze Hill, and engraved Calendar 
Blade— a verv fine Rapier of the end of Hie Sixteenth Century, chiselled 
and damascened with Gold and Silver— Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century 
Daggers-Stilettos— Venetian Cinquedeas includinga very fine example 
with cngiaved and gilt Blade and Cuir Houilli Scabbard, by Ercolo da 
Fideli-Helmets from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Ceniunes-Close- 
Helmets — Salades — Tournament Helmets— Engraved and Embossed 
Morions- an Embossed Casque of Classical Form, damascened and 
plated with Gold and Silver-Breast Plates of various period a- 
uauntlets and Tilting Pieces-Pavis-Shiclds and Hondache-Painted 
Tournament and Arches Shields-a Circular Rondache of Blued steel 
damascened with Allegorical Subjects in Gold and Sliver- 1 ifieenth 
and Sixteenth Century Halberds, Guisarmes, Spetums \ oulges, and 
Glaves, many finely engraved with Family Arms- Crossbows and 
Arbalests of fine quality-Guns, Rities. and Pistols by Celebrated Makers 
—Hor'e Armour Bits, and Saddles, including a Carved Stags Horn, 
Saddle of the end of the Fourteenth Century— Boar Spears- Hunting 
Swords-and Two Hunting Horns of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Centuries Most of the preceding objects have been purchased from 
the Londesborough. Mevnck, De Cosson. Gimpel, and other celebrated 
Collections The whole ol the Collection was exhibited at the Chicago 
Exhibition, and part of the Collection at the Imperial Institute. 

Catalogues may be had, price Sixpence i Illustrated Catalogues, price 
Hall a (iumea. 



FAIRFIELD, LIVERPOOL. 

By Order of the Executors of the late JAMES HAR VEY, Etq. 

13, HOLLY-ROAD. 

MONDAY, January 11, and Following Days, commencing- 

each day at 11 o'clock. 

THOMAS WHITEHEAD & SONS respectfully 
announce that they are instructed to SELL by AUCTION .at the 
Residence as above the whole of the excellent and sulwtantial Hoi st- 
Hol D FURNITURE two fine-toned Cottage Pianofortes, the extensive 
LIBRARY of RARE HOOKS, of upwards of 10000 volumes, covering 
even Important branch of scientific and literary research and 
imiuirv and comprising many Works of Theology. Morality, and Meta- 
physics-Natural Philosophy— Astronomy and Meteorology-Medicine. 
Suigerv Anatoniv, and Physiology — Chemistry-Natural History ol 
Man and the Lower Animals-Conchologv-Botany and Vegetable Phy- 
siology— Agriculture and Gardening— the Microscope— General History 
and Chronology— Wars. Rebellions, and Mutinies — Biography— Anti- 
quities-Topography— Geography— Voyages and Travels— Politics— Law 
and Jurisprudence — Political Economy and Commerce — Language. 
Lo-ic and Rhetoric-Education-Tales. Novels, and Romances-Poetry — 
the" Drama-Gastronomy-Cookery-Table-Talk-Painting - Engraving 
— Sculpture — Music — Engineering— Games-and Miscellaneous The 
following is a brief selection from the names of authors —lardner, 
Faradav Cavallo. Thomson, Reichembach. Arnold, Bacon, Whewell. 
Humboldt. Herschel. Licbig. Huxley. Miiller, Wohler. £ r " s<,n ' n »: 
Daw Tvndall. Aristotle, Beckstein. Bewick (British Birds and 
Quadrupeds), Burton. Lane (Arabian Nights). Lyell. 1 harles Y> aterton, 
Wvville Thomson. Mantell.W. Cobbett. Hunsen. Robertson. Rawlinson. 
Boswell Frolesart , chronicles of England, France, and Spain). Guir.ot, 
Harriet Ma.tnuau. J. R. Green. Hallam Napier, Michelet, \ oltaire. 
Burke Carlyle SYashington Irving, Lanfrey (Fall of Napoleon ) Pres- 
COtt Rankc (The Popes), Hommerson. Montesquieu. Gibbon 'Koman 
Empire . Soulhev, Swift, Jerrold. Jerdan. Scott, Basil Hal . Mitford, 
smiles. Glcig. Bedc. Lacroix Middle Ages) Dr. W Smuh. Maury. 
Captain Coot. Barth. Turner, Bryant. Bartlett Roberts. Dr ("arus. 
Fonblanqne, lturnand. Captain Becchey. Pirn. Bonomi. Sir s Baker. 
iuirckhar.it. Drake. Dr w8olf. Trollope. 1-arry. Babbage Leigh Hunt. 
O Cruikshank. C. Dickens, R. Chambers. Holmes (Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table), C. Lever, Jules Verne. Washington Irving. Smollett. 
Dumas Disraeli. James. Ouida. DorC. Boccacio (Decameron i. Defoe 
Works of), southey, Max O'Rell. Bret Harte. Mark Twain, \icior 
Hugo Harrison Ainsworth. Erckmann-Chatrian. Marryat. G. Meredith, 
KlnTreley Addison. Blomflcld, Goldsmith (Poems, illustrated by Bewick), 
Bdwln Arnold, RossetU, Oaslan, Milton. Pope, lennyson Fenc on 
Wordsworth Hume. Lytton, Dean. Herodotus Josephus Martial, 
Plutarch. Pindar, the Latin and Greek Classics, the English l lassies. 
Ac A considerable number of rare Old Folios, some in vellum-fine 
Old Illustrated Bil.les-and a valuable Old Miliary , Ordnance i Map ,01 
Trance in 02 volumes, which the late Count Von Moltkc made an effort 
to secure just before the outbreak of the Franco-German war. 

Also SILVER and SILVER-PLATED GOODS - Gold and Silver 
Watches-a fine collection of Chemical Apparatus and Chemicals— 
Scientific Instruments- valuable Microscope- and Spoetroscopes-costly 
Microscopic Cabinet, fitted with sliding drawers, containing numerous 
Natural lEstorj Slides Ol special interest and iW^jfr"'' .^"U"? 
and Water-colour Drawings by G Sholders. J Deffell Fran f ois, F. J. 
Rallton, J. Callow, George Cruikshank, and other Masters 

The BOOKS will be SOLD on MONDAY and TUESDAY. January 11 
and 12. 

On view on Friday and Saturday. January 8 and iVfrom^ W . to 1 Tour 
and on the mornings of Sale, when Catalogues may be obtaine.. at the 
residence, or earlier on application to the Avctio.neebs, 67, Hanover- 
street, Liverpool. Telephone 133s). 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



WILLIS'S ROOMS, KING-STREET, ST. JAMES'S-SQUARE, 
LONDON, S.W. 

An interesting Collection of Old Highland Weapons and Arms — 
Pictures — Drawings— Proof Engravings — a Library of about 
1,000 Volumes of Books — Clocks — Bronzes — and Decorative 
Property, formerly the Property of the late Col. GOItHON 
CAMPBELL, of Glenlgon aud Troup, N.B., from whence 
the major portion of the Property was removed some few 
years since. 

MESSRS. EOBINSON & FISHER are favoured 
with instructions to SELL, at their Rooms, as above, on WED- 
NESDAY, January 6, and Following Dav, at 1 o'clock precisely each day, 
FURNITURE and EFFECTS — Weapons — Arms — Pictures— Water- 
Colour Drawings— tine Proof F.ngravings— Books— and Portraits, many 
of the Articles relating to the 1745 Rising connected with the Campbells, 
Drummonds, Grants, Dalrymples, Bngstocks, and other Highland 
Families. 

May be viewed two days prior, and Catalogues had. 

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE. 

No. 975 JANUARY. 1897. 2s. 6J. 
Contents. 
The GREAT SIBERIAN IRON ROAD. By J. Y. Simpson. With Map. 
TWENTY YEARS of REVIEWING. By Professor Saintsbury. 
HALCYON DAYS. By the Author of ' Mona Maclean.' 
A SOLDIER'S CHRONICLE. By Sir Herbert Maxwell. 
DARIEL: a Romance of Surrey. By R. I). Blackmore. 
The REGISTRATION of WOMEN TEACHERS. 
The BISHOP'S PLOT. By Andrew Lang. 
"JO REGGELT! " A Hungarian Love-Story. 
The PSYCHOLOGY of FEMINISM. By Hugh E. M. Stuttield. 
IS IRELAND REALLY OVERTAXED? 
The LAND of SUSPENSE : a Story of the Seen and Unseen. 
A FRESH START. 

"William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh and London. 

Monthly, price Half-a-Crown. 

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. 



Contents for JANUARY. 
The POLITICAL NEW YEAR By E J Dillon. 

ARMENIA and the FORWARD MOVEMENT. By G. W. E. Russell. 
The PAPAL BULL. By Sydney F. Smith, S.J. 
RELIGION and ART. By W. Hoi man Hunt. 
The COMMERCIAL EXPANSION of JAPAN. By H. Tennant. 
ETHICS and LITERATURE. By Julia Wedgwood. 
RECENT DISCOVERIES in BABYLONIA. By A. H. Sayce. 
The SOLDIER and his MASTERS. 

CHARITY ORGANISATION ; a Reply. By H. and B. Bosanquet. 
ERYTHREA. By W. L. Alden. 
BACTERIA and BUTTER. By G. Clarke Nuttall. 

The SYREAN MASSACRES : a Parallel and a Contrast. By William 
Wright, D.D. 

MONEY and INVESTMENTS. 

London : Isbister & Co., Limited, Covent-garden, W.U. 



T 



HE EXPOSITOR. 

Edited by the Rev. W. ROBERTSON NICOLL, MA. LL D. 

Price One Shilling. 

Now ready for JANUARY". 

THE NEW VOLUME COMMENCES WITH THIS NUMBER. 

Contents. 

1. "The MIND of the MASTER." By the Right Rev. G A. Chadwick, 

D.D., Lord Bishop of Derry and Raphoe. 

2. CHRIST'S ATTITUDE to HIS OWN DEATH. By the Rev A. M. 

Falrbalrn. D.D. LL.D., Principal of Mansfield College, Oxford. 

3. CHRISTIAN PERFECTION. 1. The Word "Perfect" in the New 

Testament. By the Rev. Joseph Agar Beet, D.I). 

4. NOTES on OBSCURE PASSAGES of the PROPHETS. By the 

Rev. Professor T. K. C'heyne, D.D , Oxford. 
6. ST. JOHN'S VIEW r of the SABBATH REST. By the Rev G. 
Matheson, MA. D.D. F.R 8.E. 

6. The LINGUISTIC HISTORY of the OLD TESTAMENT, and 

MAURICE VERNE'S DATING of the DOCUMENTS. By the 
Rev. Professor E. Konig, D 1) , Rostock. 

7. ON DR. SCHURERS REPLY. By Professor W. M. Ramsay. 

D.C.L. LLD. " 

8. The PRIEST of PENITENCE. By E. N. Bennett, MA, Hertford 

College, Oxford. 

NOTE on the MEANING of the WORD aiwviog. Tty the Rev. 
J. H. Wilkinson, M.A. 

London : Hodder & Stoughton, 27, Paternoster-row. 



T 



HE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

DEVOTED TO 

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, ART. AND POLITICS. 
Price One Shilling net. JANUARY, 1897. 
Contents. 
The Story of an Untold Love 1-7 Paul Leicester Ford. 
A Century of Social Betterment. John Bach McMaster. 
Emerson, Sixty Years After. I, John Jav Chapman. 
The House of the Silent Years. Li/.ctte Wood worth Reese 
Dominant. Forces in southern Life w P.Trent. 
Cheerful Yesterdays. III. Thomax Wentworth Higginson 
Memorials of American Authors Joseph Edgar Chamberlin 
The Juggler. IV Charles Egbert Craddock. 
Park-making as a National Art Mai y Caroline Robbins. 
A Convent Man-Servant Mary HartwelJ Catherwood. 
James Lane Allen Edith Baker Brown 
The Poetry of Rudyard Kipling. Charles Eliot Norton. 
Mi Bodkin's Political Writings 
Men and Letters — 

Verbal Magic. Bradford Torrev. 

Upon a Missing Word Owen VVister. 

Conversations with Mr. Lowell. 
Comment on New Books. 
The Contributors' Club -Out of the Frozen North— Imagination 

and Courage— The Idealist and her Victim— The Arcadian 

Mixture— A Farce In Little 

London Gay & Bird, 22, Bedford-street, W.C. 



JOURNAL of the INSTITUTE of ACTUARIES. 

W No. CLXXXIV. JANUARY, 1897. Price 2s. 6d. 

Contents. 

Opening Address by the President, Mr T K Young, on the Nature and 
History of Actuarial Work as exemplifying the Mode of Develop- 
ment and the Methods of Scion e 

Mr, Thomas G. Ackland on d j An Investigation of some of the Methods 
for De'lurlng the Rates of Mortality, and of Withdrawal in > eai s 
"I Duration , with (2) the application of such Methods to the Com- 
putation of the Rates experienced, and the Special Benefits granted 
by Clerks' Associations (Concluded). With Discussion 

I he Institute of Actuaries. 

Loudon : C. & E. Layton, Farrlngdon-strcet. 



HHE NINETEENTH 
L for JANUARY 



CENTURY 



COMMENCES A NEW VOLUME. 

The RECENT PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. By the Right Hon. 

Leonard Courtney, M.P. 
The LIBERAL LEADERSHIP. By the Rev. Dr. J. Guinness Rogers. 
NURSES A LA MODE. By Lady Priestley. 
The BURIAL SERVICE. By Professor St. George Mivart. 
The VERDICT on the BARRACK SCHOOLS. By Mrs. S. A. Barnett. 
The FRENCH in MADAGASCAR. By the Rev. F. A. Gregory. 
A NOTE on the ETHICS of LITERARY FORGERY. By the Hon. 

Emily Lawless 
The DAME de CHATEAUBRIANT. By the Count de Calonne. 
IRELAND and the NEXT SESSION. By J. E. Redmond, M.P. 
The EDUCATIONAL PEACE of SCOTLAND. By Thomas Shaw, 

Q.C. MP. 
ENGLISH ENTERPRISE in PERSIA. By Francis Edward Crow 

(British Vice-consul at Teheran). 
The MARCH of the ADVERTISER. By H, J. Palmer (Editor of the 

Yorkshire Post). 
NAPOLEON on HIMSELF. By G. Barnett Smith. 
FRENCH NAVAL POLICY in PEACE and WAR. By Major Charles a 

Court. 
MR. G. F. WATTS, R.A. : his Art and his Mission. By M. H. 

Spielmann. 

London : Sampson Low, Marston & Co , Ltd. 



REVIEW 



THE FORTNIGHTLY 

-L for JANUARY 

COMMENCES A NEW VOLUME, 

AND CONTAINS 

DR CORNELIUS HERZ and the FRENCH REPUBLIC. By Sir E. J. 
Reed, K.C B. F.R.S. 

The BLIGHT on the DRAMA. By William Archer. 

The POSITION of MR. RHODES. By Imperialist. 

A VISIT to ANDORRA. By Harold Spender. 

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A HARDY NORSEMAN. 



a Modern Englishman. 

IN the GOLDEN DAYS. 
WON BY WAITING. 
TO RIGHT the WRONG. 



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London : CHATTO k WINDUS, 111, St. Martin's-lane, W.C. 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENJEUM 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1891 



CONTENTS. 

Mr. Henley's Byron 

Eighteenth Century Vignettes ... ... ... 

A Book on Demonology 

Early Records of the Inner Trmple 

An Introduction to the History of Religion 

New Novels (The Betrayal of J.hn Fordham ; The 
Home for Failures; The Red Scaur; Gods of Gold ; 
A Venetian Love Story ; A Lonely Girl ; A Proctor's 
Wooing ; Stella's Story) 12 

Two Books about Japan 

Books for the Young „'. 

Scottish Stories "-. 

Bibliography 

Our Library Table— List of New Books ... ... 

The Hkad Masters' Conference; General Mere- 
dith Read, F.S.A.; A Hibliography of tub 
Writings of Robert Browning; The English 
Translation of Prof. Waspeko's 'Struggle of 
the Nations ' 16. 

Literary Gossip ... .',, 

Science— Problems of Biology; Societies ; Meet- 
ings; Gossip 20 

Fine Arts— The Communion Plate of the County 
of London; Annuals; Peterborough Cathe- 
dral; The Raeburn Byron; The New Gallery; 
Notes from Athens ; Gossip 21- 

Music-Sir Charles Halle; The Incorporated 
Society of Musicians; Gossip; Performances 
Next Week 25- 

Drama— The Week; Gossip 



PACJB 

7 

x 



10 

11 



-21 



-24 



LITERATURE 



The Works of Lord Byron. Edited by "Wil- 
liam Ernest Henley.— Letters, 180^.-1813. 
(Heinemann.) 

There is plenty of work for two or three 
competent editors to do during the next 
few years for the text of Byron's writings 
and the elucidation and illustration of 
his poetry and prose ; but it is not 
quite clear that Mr. Henley and his 
publisher have been well advised in en- 
tering upon so serious an undertaking as 
an edition of all Byron's writings available 
for their use, prose and verse, just when the 
public has become sufficiently alive again to 
the importance of Byron to be greatly in- 
terested in the question, "What will Mr. 
Murray and Lord Lovelace do in the finai 
edition of the poetry which they are said to 
have in hand ? " It is beyond question that 
a very heavy labour of minute research, 
requiring great judgment and experience, 
awaits the man who is to deal worthily with 
the family archives and the masses of mate- 
rial stored at Albemarle Street in connexion 
with the poetry alone. An expert and a critic 
in one is, however, needed for the work, if 
it is to be done properly. Mr. Henley, so 
far as elucidation and illustration are con- 
cerned, has an open field and is fully 
equipped. The copyright of Moore's con- 
tributions of material by or about Byron is 
extinct, as is that of a vast number of Byron 
books of more or less consequence ; but the 
proper settlement of the text is hampered by 
restrictions that an editor must either ignore 
and leave his work imperfect, flout and risk 
a lawsuit, or arrange with constituted 
authorities. 

Mr. Henley in his preface says that his 
edition of Byron's prose will be "divided 
into (1) Letters; (2) Journals and Memo- 
randa; and (3) Miscellanies— as tho epistle 
to Roberts, the 'Vampire' fragment, the 
'Observations upon "Observations,"' and 
the like." The text is stated to be "re- 
printed from Moore, from Dallas, Leigh 
Hunt, J. T. Hodgson, and the rest," and 
all Mr. Henley seems to claim for his edition 
is that, " incomplete as probably it is, it 
is practically the first reissue on novel and 
peculiar lines which has been attomptod 



for close on seventy years." The first 
instalment is a thick volume of 490 pages, 
of which 290 are devoted to the text of 
certain letters written by Byron to various 
correspondents during the years from 1804 
to 1813. Most of the remainder is devoted 
to the annotation of the same. The letters 
themselves are in a clear and readable 
type ; but the comment is printed in too 
small a size for comfort even to unimpaired 
eyesight. Indeed, although this comment 
is but a pot pourri, it is like the best pots 
pourris, well spiced, and deserved a better 
treatment at the printer's hands. 

The letters printed by Moore are here 
given without the interruption of Moore's 
setting; but of that setting a great deal 
is retained, mixed up with other ex- 
tracts, in Mr. Henley's notes. There is 
astonishingly little in the letters them- 
selves with which the Byron reader is 
not already familiar, for by "Dallas, 
Leigh Hunt, J. T. Hodgson, and the rest," 
we are to understand that Mr. Henley has 
been digging (1) in those three rich volumes* 
which the Eev. A. E. C. Dallas published 
in Paris in 1825, being restrained by an 
injunction of the Court of Chancery from 
publishing the work in England ; (2) in 
'Lord Byron and some of his Contem- 
poraries,' published by Leigh Hunt in 
1828 ; and (3) in the 'Memoir of the Eev. 
Francis Hodgson, B.D., Scholar, Poet, and 
Divine, with Numerous Letters from Lord 
Byron and Others,' two volumes, which 
Hodgson's son, the Eev. J. T. Hodgson, 
published through Messrs. Macmillan & Co. 
no longer ago than 1878. 

Letters No. 51 and No. 52 read a little 
unfamiliarly, and we find from an un- 
obtrusive note at p. 333 that "certain 
sentences" are "here restored from the 
originals in Mr. Alfred Morrison's Collec- 
tion of Autographs." This is a somewhat 
provoking confession, because if Mr. Henley 
was able to arrange with the proprietors of 
the copyright for power to avail himself of 
an autograph collector's courtesy in respect 
of these two letters, why, one wonders, 
could not similar arrangements have been 
made as to other letters of which the holo- 
graphs are extant and the printed text is 
lamentably defective through omission and 
manipulation ? 

However, this instalment of the text of 
Byron's letters must not be taken too 
seriously. Mr. Henley's notes, on the 
other hand, are of really sterling value, for 
they are full of brilliant pictures and marked 
by praiseworthy erudition. So far as they 
are gathered from "Moore, Leigh Hunt, 
J. T. Hodgson, and the rest," there is too 
great a proneness to break off in the middle 
of an extract with an impatient " &c," as 
if the condescension of quoting at all were 
a great strain upon our commentator. The 
whole series of these notes would not ex- 
actly make a book ; but it would be an 
agreeable experiment to try what good 

* The title, which tells a tale essential to be known, is as 
follows: "Correspondence of Lord Byron with a Friend, 
including hj 8 Letters to his Mother, written from Portugal,' 
Spain, Greece, and the Shores of the Mediterranean In 1809, 
ikio, and 1811. Also Recolleotloni of i lie Poet, By the late 

R. O. Dallas, Kn<| The Whole forming an Original Memoir 

of Lord Byron'a Life, from 1808 to lsi i. And a Continuation 

and Preliminary Statement of the Proceedings by which the 
Letter* were suppressed in England at, the Suit of Lord 

Byron s Executors. By the Bev. A. R. Dallas [8 vols. 

I'-'nio.l Paris, published by A. k W. Oalignani, at the 

English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish Library. 
18, Rue Vivii-niic, 1836." 



reading they would make if printed with 
due elimination and revision, in bold type, 
in a handy volume apart. The brief studies 
or memoirs of the many men and women 
forming the Byron circle, or mentioned by 
him to his several correspondents, are as 
graphic and well compacted as need be; 
and we would commend specially to the 
reader's attention those on Dallas (p. 309), 
Harness (p. 311), Jackson the pugilist 
(p. 316), Francis Hodgson (p. 319), Hob- 
house (p. 321), Augusta Leigh (p. 364), 
Moore (p. 378), Southey (p. 388), Gait 
(p. 402), the Countess of Jersey (p. 403), 
Lady Caroline Lamb (p. 407), Scott (p. 415), 
and Eogers (p. 433). That on Leigh Hunt 
(p. 435) shows too much animus even for 
the purposes of Mr. Henley's obvious 
"hero-worship" for Byron. Indeed, im- 
partiality is not to be reckoned among Mr. 
Henley's foibles ; he is a good honest 
hater, and his Byron worship is somewhat 
of that curious strain which excludes not 
only Byron's enemies, but his opposites— 
as Shelley. In fact, his notes, in spite of 
their brilliant qualities, are by no means 
free from faults and flaws. "We mention a 
few points which have struck us on a first 
perusal. 

At pp. 299-300 the reader is told of the 
'Fugitive Pieces,' Byron's first book, the 
renowned quarto of 1806, that it 

"was printed for him by Ridge of Newark in 
the November of the same year ; but the issue 
was burned— so thoroughly was the thing done 
that only one copy is known to exist— at the 
request of Becher, who found a certain number, 
' To Mary ' unduly voluptuous in intention and 
effect." 

This not very clearly expressed sentence, 
which we give precisely as punctuated in 
the book, is clear in one point, at all events, 
viz., that only one copy is known to exist. 
Moore's statement on the subject is that 
two, or at the most three, escaped the 
Becher-Byron holocaust. Thus far Moore's 
statement has not been shaken. " Two, or 
at the most three," expresses admirably the 
publicly known state of the case to - day : 
Becher'sown copy, another complete copy, 
and an imperfect one (wanting the peccant 
poem) are still in existence. The quarto 
has also been reprinted privately in beauti- 
ful type facsimile. 

In annotating at pp. 303-4 the early 
caricature sketch of Dr. Butler, under the 
name of "Pomposus," Mr. Henley might 
have remarked that Byron was already 
borrowing from Churchill, who, in the satiro 
of ' The Ghost,' had given the same name, 
though in its Italian form " Foniposo," 
to Dr. Johnson. At pp. 315-16 is a note 
on Samuel Jackson Pratt, which does not 
mention the poem called ' Bread ; or, the 
Poor,' popular in its day, finely illustrated, 
and serviceable to Shelley in compiling the 
notes to ' Queen Mab,' although a line of 
identification would have been useful, as 
the book has many titles : ' Cottage Pic- 
tures ; or, the Poor,' on the title-page; 
' Bread ; or, tho Poor,' in the headlines ; 
'The Poor; or, Cottage Pictures,' at foot 
of tho engravings. Shelley cites tho poem 
as 'Bread; or, the Poor.' There is also a 
small sin of commission here, as well as 
that of omission : Mr. Henley makes tho 
tii.ni whom he goes a little out of his way to 
vilify a Buckinghamshire man, " born at 



s 



T II !•: A T II E NM-: U M 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



St. Ives (Books)." No such place is known 
to geographers; ami St. Ives in Huntingdon- 
shire claims the honour, such us it is, of 
boinjj Pratt's birthplace. 

The masterly littlo sketch of Gilford at 
]>. 326 — one of tho best of such vignettes — 
would have boon truer in its sense of pro- 
portion had there boon an allusion to 
lla/litt's wonderful ' Lottor ' and Leigh 
Hunt's ' lltra-Crepidarius.' Mr. Henley 
nood not allow prejudice against Hunt to 
deprive him of a telling illustration. And 
after all, if Gilford did good service to 
literature against the Dolla-Cruseans and 
Poter Pindar, Hunt did better in fore- 
stalling tho scorn of Mr. Henley him- 
self for this contemptible thing Gifford, as 
ho clearly did in his very clever, if not 
sufficiently venomous poem. Perhaps it 
would have been better for Mr. Henley's 
case against Hunt if he had stated it a 
little less strongly ; for Hunt, with all his 
faults, was a good fellow on the whole, 
and still has numerous living relations and 
friends who cherish his memory. 

At p. 331 'The Battle of the Nile ' might 
fairly have been expected to find a place 
among Sotheby's " mediocre verse," of 
which there is such a curious display. 

Accuracy in quoting his hero's own 
poetical works is not to be reckoned among 
Mr. Henley's strong points. At p. 346, in 
illustration of the passage in which Byron 
tells his friend Francis Hodgson how " two 
days ago" he "swam fromSestos to Abydos," 
the editor mentions " the lines in ' Don 
Juan ': — 

A feat on which ourselves we rather prided 
Leander, Ekenhead, and I did." 

The misquotation not only destroys the 
metre, but does away with the exquisite 
drollery of the real passage, which is 
(canto ii. stanza cv.) : — 

A better swimmer you could scarce see ever, 
He could, perhaps, have pass'd the Hellespont, 

As once (a feat on which ourselves we prided) 

Leander, Mr. Ekenhead, and I did. 

The note on Byron's reference to "Ana- 
creon Moore's new operatic farce " is hardly 
sufficient. Hodgson, it seems, had fore- 
stalled Thomas Hood in the very punster's 
motive of that immortal piece of imagina- 
tive wit ' The "Wee Man ' ; and in elucida- 
tion of Byron's reply all that Mr. Henley 
says is : — 

"This [the farce] was 'M.P., or the Blue- 
stocking,' produced at the Lyceum, 9th Septem- 
ber, 1811. The author was far from proud of 
his work. But eight songs from it are included 
in his ' Works'; and poor enough they are." 

Now ' M.P. ; or, the Blue-stocking,' was 
not merely produced on the stage in 
September, 1811, but was published as 
a book the same year with a preface 
dated the 9th of October, and, whether 
in pride or in humility, signed in full 
by Thomas Moore. In the same year, too, 
ho issued a separate pamphlet containing 
tho lyric portions only, without the prose 
substance of the farce. Both book and 
pamphlet are scarce, but not so scarce that 
an editor has a dispensation to leave them 
unfound and unnoticed. 

Bishop "Watson is dismissed with dispro- 
portionate brevity in the note (pp. 387-8) 
to Byron's record that ho has read " Watson 
to Gibbon." It would have been at least 
interesting to find the bishop identified as 



tho s.niio notablo ecclesiastic who wrote the 
'Sermon and Appendix of Strictures on the 
Frenoh Revolution,' which called forth from 
Wordsworth one of his best proso works, 
tho ' Apology for tho French ltevolution,' 
written in 1793, but not published till 
1870, when Dr. Grosart did a service to tho 
world by giving it from the manuscript in 
his edition of ' Wordsworth's Prose Works.' 
On Byron's good, sensible, worldly- 
minded letter to tho Quaker poet Bernard 
Barton, printed at pp. 199-201, there is, of 
course, a note, but not, to our thinking, one 
quite adequate to the occasion. "Do not 
renounce writing," says Byron, " but never 
trust entirely to authorship. If you have a 
possession, retain it ; it will be like Prior's 
fellowship, a last and sure resource." Mr. 
Henley does not suggest that "pos- 
session" is a mistake of some one's for 
profession, though the moral which he 
points in recording (p. 413) that Barton 
was " forty years clerk in a bank at 
Woodbridge " of course illustrates "pro- 
fession." The only works he mentions are 
'Metrical Effusions' (1812), 'Poems by an 
Amateur' (1817), and 'Poems' (1820). 
Barton's books and biography literally 
bristle with literary allusions and con- 
nexions ; but " being," as Mr. Henley 
says, " a very amiable and respectable man, 
as well as a writer of not displeasing 
mediocrity," there was no sufficient induce- 
ment to take the trouble of stating the good 
man's career proportionately. His con- 
nexion with Edward Fitzgerald might, 
however, have been mentioned with ad- 
vantage. 

Loyalty to Byron or any other poet need 
scarcely bind a commentator to take at his 
idol's valuation every one who has to be 
dealt with. When Byron writes (p. 235) 
to Mr. Murray, "I presume all your 
Scribleri will be drawn up in battle 
array .... Mr. Bucke, for instance," it is 
not incumbent on the commentator, how- 
ever staunch to his hero, to dismiss the 
allusion to Charles Bucke with — " For an 
account of this scribbler's quarrel with 
Edmund Kean, see Hawkins, ' Life,' &c, 
ii. chapters v. and vi.," and a few lines of 
caustic remark from Scott to Southey, as 
Mr. Henley does at p. 232. " Any school- 
boy " can translate Scriblerus into scribbler. 
It is quite right, of course, to refer to 
F. W. Hawkins's book, but justice de- 
mands that Bucke' s version of the quarrel 
should bo cited as well as that of Kean's 
advocate. See also the preface to Charles 
Bucke's tragedy of ' The Itabans.' 

Why, at pp. 438-9, 'The "Living Dog" 
and "The Dead Lion"' should have been 
quoted from a copy incorrectly made by 
Augusta Leigh, and now in Mr. Alfred 
Morrison's great collection of autographs, is 
not altogether evident, and it has tempted 
Mr. Henley into the inaccurato subheading 
" Thomas Moore to Leigh Hunt." The verses 
were not addressed to Leigh Hunt — could not 
be in the nature of things ; and, for the 
rest, Mrs. Leigh, without preserving a single 
variant of oven the most trifling significance, 
made such bad slips of transcription that 
Mr. Henley had to remedy some of them by 
interpolations in brackets. If ho did not 
liko to bo boholden to Moore's ' Satirical 
and Humorous Poems ' for his extract, he 
might have gone back either to the Times, 



where the piece iir^t appeared, or to the 
'Odes upon Cash, Corn, Catholics, and 
other .Matters,' in which Moore reprinted 
it anonymously in 1828. ne would not 
n have had to submit to the damage 
which Mis. Leigh's careless copying did to 
the brilliant Irishman's brilliant rapier- 
thrust. By the omission of the pause and 
one comma from the last line, the best 
quatrain in the poem — though the coarsest 
— is unfortunately spoilt in the Le-igh- 
Ilenley version. 

When all is said, the book is still one 
with which we cannot but desire to "part 
friends." Tho letters themselves are mostly 
good reading. The editor has culled from 
Moore, Scott, Pogers, Hobhouse, Scrope 
Davies, "and tho rest," a great mass of 
printed or reported utterances which are 
also quite interesting ; and the best of his 
own vignettes are excellent pieces of writing, 
and do him no little credit. 



Eighteenth Century Vignettes. Third Series. 
By Austin Dobson. (Chatto & Windus.) 

Mr. Dobson' s new volume of ' Eighteenth 
Century Vignettes ' enables his readers 
once more to renew their acquaintance 
with an epoch now eminently in fashion. 
They can frequent its theatres and other 
places of amusement, mix in its fashion- 
able or literary society, be present at a state 
trial before the peers in Westminster Hall, 
or attend the sales of famous libraries at 
Mr. Samuel Baker's auction rooms in York 
Street, Covent Garden ; they can see some- 
thing, too, of the eighteenth century book- 
sellers, and look in at one or two of the 
printers' " chapels " from which were issued 
the pamphlets of Swift and Defoe and the 
poems of Prior and Pope. Those who 
are interested in the topography of old 
London may, with Mr. Dobson as their 
guide, stroll through Covent Garden and its 
neighbourhood as it existed in the days of 
Hogarth. After inspecting the old church 
of St. Paul's, and hearing of the distin- 
guished men who have found a last rest- 
ing-place, though not a quiet one, in its 
graveyard, the would - be antiquary can 
wander on through the neighbouring streets, 
where Mr. Dobson will point out the 
houses of interest and tell him a good deal 
more gossip about their former inhabitants 
than these worthies ever thought would be 
revealed to a curious world. There is, as 
everybody knows, a great deal to be said 
about a region so full cf literary and his- 
trionic associations, and no one could wish 
for a better cicerone than our author. 

One of the most interesting vignettes in 
the volume is a description of M. Grosley's 
' Londres,' a work describing the author's 
experiences during an eight weeks' visit to 
London in the early part of 1765. M. 
Grosley knew nothing of our language, but 
this ignorance was, he thought, an advan- 
tage, as "his inability to understand our 
tongue did but enhance and intensify his 
native acuteness of vision." He was cer- 
tainly a keen observer with a strong sense 
of the ridiculous, and during his stay 
in London he had many opportunities of 
making use of his natural endowments. 
" M. Grosley," writes Mr. Dobson in a 
passage which affords a good specimen of 
his style, 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



9 



" was fortunate in happening upon an unusually 
eventful time. Already King George had been 
attacked by the first of those mysterious ill- 
nesses which ultimately incapacitated him as a 
practising monarch, and to this, during M. 
Grosley's sojourn among us, was to follow the 
second Regency Bill, with all its anti-Bute 
plotting and counterplotting. Then Lord Byron 
had killed his cousin Mr. Chaworth, of Notting- 
hamshire, in a quarrel at the Star and Garter in 
Pall Mall, and the galleries had already been 
erected for his lordship's trial by his peers in 
Westminster Hall. Moreover, the Spital6elds 
weavers were to make new demonstrations 
against the clandestine importation of French 
silks, marching in their thousands under black 

banners It is true that at this date some 

notable and notorious persons were unavoid- 
ably absent from London. Mr. Laurence 
Sterne, for instance, who had not long 
published vols. vii. and viii. of ' Tristram 
Shandy,' was at the Bath, and Mr. Garrick 

was at Paris Mr. Whitefield was still 

in America ; Mr. John Wilkes was luxuriat- 
ing at Naples ; and Miss ' Iphigenia ' Chud- 
leigh had betaken herself to the German 
waters. On the other hand, there were rumours 
that Rousseau was coming to England, and 
(perhaps) the Due de Nivernais ; while if 
Roscius was not rejoicing his admirers in Drury 
Lane, Foote would soon be delighting the de- 
votees of broad -grin at the little theatre in the 
Haymarket. At Vauxhall and Ranelagh the 
season was approaching ; and the exhibition of 
the Society of Artists at the Great Room in 
Spring Gardens was on the point of opening.'' 

Of these opportunities of studying the 
manners and customs of the English 
M. Grosley made a good use, and except 
■with the lower classes his experiences of our 
country were not unfavourable. But his 
eccentric costume, his lean and bony figure, 
the unnatural pallor of his complexion, and 
his "visage d'extreme onction," as he calls 
it, attracted very unpleasant attention from 
the mob. " My French air," he says, " drew 
upon me, at every corner of the street, a 
volley of abusive litanies, in the midst of 
which I slipped on, thanking my stars that 
I did not understand English." 

M. Grosley was an assiduous attendant at 
the theatres, where he admired the tragic 
pieces, but formed a poor opinion of our 
comedies. His judgment, he tells us, was 
in both cases due, in Lord Chesterfield's 
opinion, to ignorance of our language, but 
this touch of epigrammatic wit should 
probably be credited to the witty Frenchman 
himself. At Lord Byron's trial M. Grosley 
was impressed by the stately ceremonial 
and the splendour of Westminster Hall, 
but his attention appears to have been a 
good deal taken up by the Westminster 
boys seated on the steps of the throne, 
munching apples, and throwing the strips 
of peel into the curls of the Lord High 
Steward's periwig. Mr. Dobson gives the 
name of the Lord High Steward as Robert 
Henley. It was not, however, Lord Henley 
but the Earl of Northerton who presided 
at Lord Byron's trial. Tho intelligent 
tourist was of course taken to hear the 
debates in Parliament, and he thought 
the speeches of the peers better de- 
livered than anything he had heard on 
our stage. In the Lower House he was 
not fortunate enough to hear Pitt, and 
thought little of the eloquence of those 
members who spoko when he was present. 
"They stood up," he says, " and addressed 
them to the Speaker's chair {bureau du 



Spile), with legs apart, one knee bent, and 
one arm extended, as if they were going to 
fence." This description of the position 
assumed by our parliamentary orators is 
extremely happy, and it may be added that 
this ungraceful attitude is still rigidly ad- 
hered to by many members of the Commons 
in our own day. We learn from Mr. Dobson 
that M. Grosley was surprised 

"that the pious salutation of any one who 
sneezed, which still prevailed in his own country, 
had been abolished in England by the use of 
snuff. He was given to understand that to 
salute a snuff-taker in these circumstances was 
like complimenting him on the colour of the 
hair of his wig. That colour, by the way, he 
announces in another place, was usually reddish 
brown, being chosen as least affected by the 
mud and dirt of the streets." 

Mr. Dobson gathers from this ingenuous 
explanation that some of M. Grosley's 
obliging informants must occasionally, in 
eighteenth century parlance, have treated 
him to a bite. We do not quite agree with 
this suggestion. M. Grosley's remarks 
were more probably inspired by his own 
sense of humour. 

A highly readable vignette in this new 
series contains a description of Puckle's ' Club, ' 
a dull book in itself, which has, however, 
provided Mr. Dobson with an opportunity 
of imparting some amusing gossip to his 
readers. One witty aphorism quoted here 
from Puckle, but taken by him, it maybe sus- 
pected, from some earlier source, is uttered 
by "Pake," a member of a convivial club 
assembled at the Noah's Ark. He inveighs 
against matrimony, which, he declares, men 
praise as they "do good mustard, with 
tears in their eyes." Mr. Dobson' s own 
copy of Puckle is the identical little 12mo. 
deposited on April 29th, 1713, at Lincoln's 
Inn, where, according to a MS. inscription 
in the volume, it was "Entered & Registered 
according to y e Statute." The margins, 
moreover, are covered witlx additions and 
corrections, apparently in Puckle's own 
handwriting. By consulting various out- 
of-the-way sources Mr. Dobson has been 
able to frame quite a connected account of 
Puckle's career, and has even discovered an 
advertisement in the Spectator of June 25th, 
1712, offering a reward for a pearl necklace 
lost by him, "in or near" Mr. Edward 
Smith's house near Uxbridge. 

Molly Lepel — the well-known maid of 
honour, afterwards the wife of Lord Hervey 
— forms the subject of another vignette. It 
opens with a capital story of one of the 
royal coachmen at old Leicester House, who 
bequeathed 3001. to his son on condition 
that he should never marry a maid of 
honour. Lady Hervey was one of the 
most fascinating women of her time. She 
knew everybody worth knowing, and was 
liked by everybody whom she knew ; but 
the records of her life are too devoid of 
episodes to furnish materials for a lively 
sketch. Mr. Dobson is inaccurate in stating 
that Pulteney was a visitor at Lady Hervey's 
house in St. James's Place, both beforo and 
after his elevation to tho peerage. Pulteney 
was created Earl of Bath in 17.42, and Lady 
Hervey's name does not appear in tho rate- 
books as occupier of the houso for somo 
yoars after that date. But this is a trifling 
inaccuracy. A moro serious slip, however, 
occurs in tho samo vignette, whero Mr. 



Dobson, in alluding to Hampton Court, 
speaks of it as "Wren's formal palace by 
the Thames." It is true that Wren rebuilt 
two of the courts, but what remains of the 
old building is a fine relic of the great car- 
dinal's magnificence, and one of the best 
examples extant of the domestic architec- 
ture of the early Tudor period. 

It is to be hoped that this may not be the 
last series of ' Eighteenth Century Vignettes,' 
and when three or four more volumes are 
published Mr. Dobson would render a ser- 
vice to those interested in the subject if 
he would issue a general index to the whole 
work, to serve as a sort of encyclopaedia 
of eighteenth century lore. 



The Devil in Britain and America. By John 
Ashton. (Ward & Downey.) 

Althovgh Mr. Ashton presents a formid- 
able list of books, in Latin, French, German, 
Dutch, and English, " consulted and used in 
this work," his readers may be inclined to 
think that in many cases the use and con- 
sultation must have been rather perfunctory. 
The works are supposed to be set forth in 
order of their publication. At the end of 
those issued in the sixteenth century we come 
to "Malleus Maleficarum. De lamiis et 
strigibus et sagis aliisque Magis & Demo- 
niacis eorumque arte potestate & poena. 
2 torn. Francofurti, 1600. 8vo." — in 
other words, Sprenger's famous work with 
the name of the author omitted, and rele- 
gated to the last year of the sixteenth 
century, whereas the Grand Inquisitor of 
Germany flourished in the fifteenth. This 
particular edition is, indeed, an amplified 
reissue of Sprenger's work. He who does 
not know the date of his ' Malleus Male- 
ficarum ' can hardly have a profound 
acquaintance with the history of demono- 
logy and witchcraft. And what is to bo 
thought of a writer on the subject who 
appends this note to one of his stories ? 
" The writer was the Rev. Joseph Glanville, 
M.A., F.R.S., Chaplain in Ordinary to 
King Charles II., Rector of the Abbey 
Church, Bath, and a Prebendary of Wor- 
cester." So much and no more. In truth, 
Mr. Ashton' s book itself makes no profession, 
or nothing beyond a profession, to knowledge 
of this wider kind. It is not to be con- 
founded with the philosophical chapters on 
the subject in Mr. Lecky's ' Rationalism ' 
nor with Michelet's wonderful ' La Sorcicre'; 
not even with Mr. Moncuro Conway's book 
on the devil ; for Mr. Ashton's titlo itself is 
a little misleading. What the book really 
is, as readers of the author's other books 
might expect, is not a history of the belief 
in Satan, but a highly interesting collec- 
tion of witch trials and stories of pos- 
session in England and America from 
the sixteenth century downwards, drawn 
in the majority of cases from pamphlets 
and chap-books, and illustrated for the most 
part by reproductions of tho small wood- 
blocks with which such chap-books aro 
often adorned. The bibliography at tho 
end is certainly not without value, so far 
as it is really germane to the matter of the 
volume ; but half a dozen books, such as 
Olaus Magnus, Bodin, tho ' Mallous Male- 
ficarum,' &c, should have been omitted. 
What, for instance, can be the use of going 
to the 'llistoriado Gentibus Soptentriona- 



10 



T II E A Til KXyEUM 



libus' (in translation) for nn account of tho 
witches in Norway during the Saga era, 
and making no mention of tho many delight- 
ful witch atoriea in the Icelandic Sagas 
themseh 

" Witchcraft," in tho modern senso of tho 
word, is a very different subject for study 
from "demonology" in its wider acceptation. 
Mr. Ashton shows a sense of tho diil'eronce. 
"At what date," he says, " the higher cult 
of sorcery or magic became tho drivel known 
as witchcraft is uncertain." But this implies 
an exaggeration on the other side. There 
is no dato, because there is no clear lino of 
demarcation. Superstitions which arc con- 
temptible in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries have a certain impressiveness and 
a certain grandeur in the twelfth or thir- 
teenth. But to give not tho devil only but 
his judges their due, the Middle Ages were 
really not so degradedly superstitious on 
these matters as the dawn— nay, as the full 
day — of the Renaissance. Mr. Lecky's well- 
known history, which to the majority of Eng- 
lish readers probably represents the philo- 
sophy of witchcraft, is a little misleading 
upon this point. The writer had a proposition 
to establish— the steady growth of rationalism 
out of the belief of niedimval Christianity. 
It was, too, his first important book, and it 
was necessary for him to be picturesque. 
Nobody who has read them can forget the 
magnificent passages in which the attitude 
of the mediaeval mind towards miracle, 
and, by implication, towards witchcraft, or, 
again, the effects of the Black Death and 
the dawn of scepticism, are described in 
Mr. Lecky's work. No doubt, to give a 
rotundity to this proposition and to this 
picturesque narrative, witchcraft ought to 
have been extremely prevalent in the 
Middle Ages. But as a fact the traces of 
it are far fewer then than in more enlightened 
ages. It is only at the dawn of the Re- 
formation that enactments against it appear 
in our statute-books. Mr. Lecky places the 
culmination of the dread of witchcraft in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The 
truth is, however, that there is not very 
much to be learnt about witchcraft, even 
on the Continent, prior to the publication of 
Sprenger's book towards the end of the 
fifteenth century. But, after all, Mr. Lecky 
has only been following the lines marked 
out by Michelet. The latter traces the 
career of the witch throughout the Middle 
Ages ; but his documentary evidence, even 
for the " Sabbat," is not of the Middle Ages. 
English witchcraft, for which the documents 
are comparatively modern, has little to say 
to this impressive superstition of 
Devil's Sabbath, which in origin 
character is undoubtedly mediaeval. 

The trial for witchcraft of Joan of . 
is by far the most memorable process of the 
kind of which there are any records. Joan 
was condemned as a heretic, and burnt 
as a witch. Tho trial, though at tho 
instance of the English, was conducted at 
Rouen and according to French law. It 
therefore does not fall within the scope 
of Mr. Ashton's book. A short account 
is given of the trial of Eleanor Cobham, 
Duchess of Gloucester, which is familiar 
enough to everybody. Mr. Ashton's witch 
anddevilstones are not arranged in anything 
approaching to chronological order. The 
history of the Good Devil of Woodstock, 



y*3610, Jan. 2, '97 



the 
and 

Arc 



which likewise is familiar to every reader 
of Scott, appears almost at the beginning of 

the Look. As this is one of the \. iv few 
which are not, technically speaking 
of witchcraft, Mr. Ashton probably pk 
it where ho does to justify his wide-reaching 
title; for, of course, tho proceeding 
" Funny Joe" date from near the end of tho 
heyday of witch trials. Nowadays, as little 
evidence is required for tho commonplace 
source of extraordinary phenomena as in a 
more superstitious age sufficed for their super- 
natural origin ; otherwise, as Mr. Andrew 
Lang not long since pointed out, the story of 
" Funny Joe "—first presented about a hun- 
dred years after the occurrences it was sup- 
posed to explain— would not have found such 
ready acceptance. The great era for witch 
trials was the end of the fifteenth century 
and the first half of the sixteenth. James L, 
as we know, had a special nose for a witch. 
One wonders if Reginald Scot's courageous 
and sensible ' Discoverie of Witchcraft ' did 
anything to lessen the zeal of judges and jury, 
or whether the lot of the " poor, old, lame, 
fowl and blear eyed women," who, as he 
says, " are the sort of such as are said to be 
witches," would have been even worse than it 
was during that miserable century if he had 
never written. What a satire upon the 
whole theory of the covenant with Satan are 
these sentences of his ! — 

"These miserable wretches are so odious 
unto all their neighbours and so feared as few 
dare offend them or deny them anie thing they 
aske ; whereby they take upon them ; yea and 
some times thinke, that they doo such things 
as are beyond the abilitie of humane nature. 
These go from house to house, and from doore 
to doore for a pot full of milke, yest, drink or 
pottage or some such releefe ; without the 
which they could hardlie hue: neither obtaining 
for their seruice and paines nor by their art, nor 
yet at the diuel's hands (with whom they are 
said to make a perfect and visible bargaine) 
either beautie, monie, promotion, welth, wor- 
ship, pleasure, honor, knowledge, learning or 
anie other benefit whatsoeuer." 

Mr. Ashton refers only incidentally to 
that infamous scoundrel Matthew Hopkins, 
the Suffolk witch-finder. And when we 
come to his American section we find it 
sadly summary. The celebrated Salem per- 
secution is represented by only part of the 
report of one trial and by a list of names. 
These are the last executions for witchcraft 
among tho English-speaking people, and 
for these America, Samuel Farris, of Salem, 
Connecticut, and in a less degree Cotton 
Mather, bear tho blame. In this dying 
flicker of superstition twenty-five persons 
— mostly women — were hanged, one old 
••oman died in gaol, and one man for re- 
fusing to plead was pressed to death. 

Mr. Ashton's book cannot be described 
either as scholarly or exhaustive. Its use- 
fulness as a work of reference is largely 
diminished by the loose way in which the 
materials are arranged and the absence of 
an index. There is no list of illustrations. 
Tho frontispiece, ' Facsimile of the only 
known Specimen of the Devil's Writing,' 
gives tho book a touch of vulgarity. But 
it is a meritorious compilation ; and con- 
sidered as a book written essentially for the 
general reader, and the rather indolent one 
" at that," it is far from unacceptable. 



A Calendar of the Inner Temple J: 
Edited by I'. A. Enderwiok, Q.O.— Vol. I 
U Hen. I'll. [1505)- tf Flit. (Itfl 
Sotheran & Go 

This volume forms the first of a series to 
be issued by tho Society of the Inner 
Temple for tho purpose of making known 
to tho general public the valuable records 
preserved in that ancient pi -co of learning. 
If succeeding volumes are as well edited 
this one, and prove to possess equal intei 
a hearty welcome is assured to them. In- 
deed, the interest of further instalments of 
this work promises to be greater than that 
which we find here, for Mr. Inderwick has 
had the most difficult portion of his labour 
at the outset, many of tho earlier records 
haying perished. With much pains and 
skill he has surmounted all obstacles, and, 
with the help of many writers, from Chaucer 
to those of the present day, he has prepared 
an introduction to this volume which in great 
measure fills up the gaps just alluded to, 
and has presented us with the history of the 
Inner Temple from its earliest days to the 
close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

That "things are not what they seem" 
may be illustrated by glancing first at the 
list of Inner Temple records and then by 
perusing the pages of this volume. Nothing 
could well be more uninviting and drier 
than a catalogue of Acts of Parliament, 
Admission Books, Bar Bonds, Bench Table 
Orders, Certificate Books, Account Books, 
and so on, but an examination of these 
records throws a flood of light on matters 
of importance, not only to legal students, 
but to all writers on the ecclesiastical, social, 
and literary history of our country. The 
calendar, which forms the body of this 
volume, has been made, with all his cus- 
tomary carefulness and ability, by Mr. W. 
Page, F.S A., and he has also prepared an 
admirable index and glossary to the work. 

The Inner Temple may well be proud of 
its records, which go further back than 
those of any of the Inns of Court, Lincoln's 
Inn only excepted. Several of the earlier 
records were destroyed in one or other of 
the numerous fires to which the Temple was 
subject both before and after the Great Fire 
of 1G6G. Wat Tyler and his followers, in 
1381, burnt, as Thomas of Walsingham 
tells us, "many muniments which the 
lawyers had in their custody." Mr. Inder- 
wick has much to say of the various Inns 
of Chancery and of the four great Inns of 
Court. He writes pleasantly of the ancient 
days when the Society of the Inner Temple 
held their premises by agreement with the 
Knights Hospitallers, a state of matters 
which continued until the dissolution of the 
latter body in or about 1540, after which 
date the Society held as tenants at will from 
the Crown. He describes the various build- 
ings of the Temple — the Church, the Hall, 
the Chambers ; he pictures the garden and 
the trees, the courts, and the signs over the 
houses. Shakspeare, in describing the 
scene between Somerset and Flantagenet 
in tho Temple Garden, refers to the sniall- 
ness of the Hall in the words which he 
assigns to Suffolk. Mr. Inderwick dis- 
courses on tho advance made in legal train- 
ing at his Inn during the century covered 
by his volume. The shadowy curriculum 
of miscellaneous study that Fortescue speaks 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



11 



of had given place to a more definite system, 
initiated by Queen Mary and regularized by 
Coke and his immediate predecessors. We 
have full accounts of the Benchers, Trea- 
surers, Governors, Headers, Auditors, Pen- 
sioners, and of the several other officers of 
the Society. The governing body sat in 
" Parliaments," and their Acts fill a large 
number of volumes. These Acts dealt not 
only, as is generally supposed, with such 
matters as admissions and calls and the 
appointment of officers, but with various 
ecclesiastical and social questions regarding 
the tenants of the Inner Temple. Of bonds, 
and deeds, and leases, we read enough, but 
the picture drawn by Mr. Inderwick has 
several living personalities, and festivity is 
by no means absent. Take William Erme- 
sted, who was Master of the Temple by 
deed dated March 2nd, 1542. This ecclesi- 
astic accepted the new Prayer Book under 
Edward VI., turned round again under Mary 
Tudor, and made a third change of religion 
under Elizabeth, dying in 1560, when 
he was succeeded by Dr. Alvey. Mr. Inder- 
wick gives a very fair summary of the 
religious ordinances of the period comprised 
in his book, so far as the Inn was concerned, 
and where he has been able to complete his 
cases by drawing on the documents in the 
Public Eecord Office, he has wisely filled in 
his characters. Thus certain members of 
the Inn were, in 1569, convicted of not 
resorting to the church at the accustomed 
times, and of not receiving the communion 
there. One of them, Robert Atkinson, 

" saith that in the vacation times he hath 
usually gone to the church in the country, and 
saith he hath not gone so often to church since 
he hath been a practitioner," 

an excuse not unknown in the present day. 
Another member, Thomas Greenwood, 

" hath seldom gone to the church by reason of 
the multitude of causes since he was a practi- 
tioner, but he saith his prayers privately in 
his chamber," 

which excuse may also apply to modern 
times. In the records of the Inner Temple 
Mr. Inderwick has made an interesting dis- 
covery. It is that on January 28th, 1581/2, 
Sir Francis Drake was specially admitted a 
fellow of the Society " upon a fine at the 
discretion of the treasurer." Drake had 
recently returned from his voyage round the 
world, and his ship, the Golden Hind, was 
lying in the Thames, an object of universal 
admiration. 

There is much in this volume about the 
banquets and revels given from time to 
time in the Temple, and also about the plays 
there represented. On Twelfth Night of 
1560 or 1561 the first dramatic performance 
of one of the earliest English tragedies, 
' Gorboduc,' took place in the Inner Temple 
Hall. One of its authors was the dis- 
tinguished jurist Thomas Norton, a Puritan, 
who had been tutor to the Protector Somer- 
set's children, and had translated into 
English Calvin's ' Institutions of the Chris- 
tian Peligion.' In 1568 the play of 
'Tancred and Gismund' was produced, 
Elizabeth herself being present. Among 
the miscellaneous entries in these Inner 
Temple Records are orders against the 
wearing of cloaks, hats, &c, in the church, 
buttery, or hall, under a penalty of 6*. &d. ; 
prohibitions against going into the City 
with hats, boots, and spurs, unless the 



wearers are riding out of the town ; against 
playing dice or cards in the hall, or else- 
where in the house, under pain of fine and 
expulsion; against "shooters with guns" 
within the Inn ; against disclosing the 
secrets of the Parliament : against coming 
into the hall with any weapon, except the 
dagger and the knife, under penalty of 51. ; 
an order that no married man should be 
eligible as a butler of the Societ} r , and that, 
if a butler married after appointment, he 
should lose his post ; an order regulating 
the allowance of beef and beer to the gar- 
dener, and ordering "all broken bread and 
drink with the chippings " to be distributed 
among the poor ; and numerous others. 

Enough has been said to show that, while 
describing the studies and life of the students 
and lawyers of the Inner Temple, these 
records are of interest to others besides 
members of the compiler's profession. We 
can cordially commend his volume (for the 
printing and binding of which a word of 
admiration must not be omitted), and we 
shall look forward to the due arrival of its 
successors. 



Introduction to the History of Religion. By 

F. B. Jevons, M.A. (Methuen & Co.) 
Writers of "introductions" to scientific 
subjects are usually expected to supply 
milk for babes. Mr. Jevons's ' Introduc- 
tion to the History of Peligion ' is by no 
means "very popular milk"; on the other 
hand, it is uncommonly strong meat. Mr. 
Jevons belongs to the anthropological 
school, and leaves aside the speculations, 
for example, of Prof. Max Midler. He has 
not even very much to say about Mr. E. B. 
Tylor, but is a follower of Prof Robertson 
Smith and Mr. Frazer, who again proceed 
directly from Mr. McLennan, though they 
are both more leaimed and more critical 
than that brilliant pioneer. As to Mr. 
Herbert Spencer, Mr. Jevons reverses his 
theory that ancestor worship is the origin 
of religion : — 

" The notion that gods were evolved out of 

ghosts is based on an unproved assumption 

The fact is that ancestors known to be human 
were not worshipped as gods, and that ancestors 
worshipped as gods were not believed to have 
been human." 

Mr. Jevons begins with the "calling 
forth of the belief in supernatural power " 
— its " calling forth," not its creation — by 
the violation of " laws on which man could 
count, and sequences which he habitually 
initiated and controlled." Such events 
seemed to him " supernatural," caused by 
" a mysterious power." With that power 
man, to servo his private ends, would try 
to enter into friendly relations, regarding 
the power as exercised by "a spirit having 
affinity to his own." All things were, of 
course, animated to the mind of this early 
thinker, but were not necessarily " super- 
natural." " The spirits were not in them- 
selves supernatural spirits," and only 
became so when man believed them to 
exorcise " supernatural power." Ho would 
endeavour to locate the power, and did so in 
animals, or in a common ancestor of his 
and of a given species of animal. When he 
tried to control and direct the power, as by 
sympathetic magic, lie was doing something, 
in his opinion, rather scientific than super- 
natural. Thus you put sharp stones in an 



enemy's foot - tracks for the purpose of 
laming him by sympathy. That is, in your 
state of knowledge, as scientific, and as 
little supernatural, as if you gave your 
enemy a dose of arsenic. Thus magic is 
not the root of religion, for religion 
is offended by the assumptions of the 
sorcerer. Yet, as in Chaldaoa and in the 
very mixed faith of Iamblichus, religion 
and magic may find a modus vivendi. 

Mr. Jevons next asks how man conceived 
of the environing personalities, not himself. 
He follows Mr. Tylor' s theory of dreams as 
the source of the savage's mental picture of 
his own spirit. The spirit is detachable in 
dream, trance, and death ; it may return from 
the grave, and receives a friendly welcome 
if it does so. That welcome (which is not 
worship) is extended to " supernatural 
spirits," and then is worship. That wor- 
ship is again transferred to natural spirits 
of the ancestral dead. 

Mr. Jevons now turns to taboo, which, 
he says, is not derived from fear of evil 
spirits. He derives it, oddly enough, from 
a feeling that " some things must never be 
done," and this feeling is a "'primitive' 
sentiment, a tendency inherent in the mind 
of man .... it is prior to, and even contra- 
dictory of, experience." " The sentiment is 
neither exclusively moral, religious, nor 
social." Against this opinion the argu- 
ments are obvious. Let us take a case or 
two. "You must not eat poison berries," 
that is a prohibition, not a taboo. But " you 
must not hear the crying of the wild fowl 
on the Loch of Tara " (if you are an Irish 
king), that is a taboo. Why must you not ? 
Nobody knows ; but we cannot say that such 
senseless prohibitions are devoid of a (sup- 
posed) experimental foundation. Perhaps 
once a king was \mlucky when the fowls 
were crying on the loch. Therefore — post 
hoc et ergo propter hoc — no king must run tho 
risk again. Probably all taboos are based 
on a supposed experience, or (as many are) 
on some real though remote or unavowable 
practical reason. The reason in the case 
of not eating poison berries is obvious, 
capable of being tested, and so needs no 
"supernatural" sanction, or taboo. But 
when the prohibition was originally based 
on a supposed experience, on a fantastic 
theory, incapable of test, or was not con- 
venient to be divulged, then tho super- 
natural sanction of taboo was called in. 

This theory of taboos wo prefer to a mystic 
a priori " tendency inherent in the mind of 
man." However, taboo, bringing contagious 
punishment, interested all the community in 
its preservation, and produced "the concep- 
tion of social obligation." The time came 
when the mechanical, inevitable, contagious 
action of taboo was taken up into religion, 
and regarded as the prohibition of a god 
who had a reason for his negative command. 
The more religion advanced, the more rational 
becamo tho god, and, in proportion, tho 
irrational taboos died out under the intluenco 
of individual religious reformers, till only 
rational and morai prohibitions remained in 
force (as taboos) by a process of "super- 
natural selection." 

Mr. Jevons now turns to totemism as the 
first effort made by man to establish friendly 
society with supernatural forces. Man had 
no associations except with blood kin or 
persons adopted into tin 1 blood kin by the 



12 



T II E AT II EN M V M 



N 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



blood covenant. Ee oonceiv <! that all 
other animated things, thai Lb, everything, 
existed in societies similar to his own. Ee 
had Mood Feuds villi beasts, and ho also 
made covenants with species of beasts and 
plants. These species woro of his totem and 
hoof theirs. Ho and his totem had a common 
ancestor. lie may not kill or eat his totoin, 
and now at last, in the totem, " he has gained 
the supernatural ally he sought." But why 
should he think a hear or crane supernatural 
at all, especially if he adopted the attitude of 
tho Psychical Society (as he did, ex hypothesi), 
regarding his uncle's ghost as perfectly 
"natural," and no more "supernatural" 
than his living aunt? How does the 
friendly hear, quite natural, become the 
" totem god" or "clan god," who is super- 
natural? Why is "a species of natural 
objects conceived of as superhuman " ? 
Apparently Mr. Jevons thinks that the 
common ancestor (a bear) of all bears and 
men of the bear totem i~, deified somehow 
and is the desired "supernatural ally." It 
may be our stupidity, but we cannot follow 
the argument nor see where or how "the 
supernatural " comes in. 

AVe found man impressed with a sense 
of the supernatural by " the cussedness of 
things." Wo found him trying to " locate" 
the power which works unlooked-for phe- 
nomena. He knew of spirits galore, and 
regarded all things as animated, but he 
did not "locate" the mysterious power in 
spirits. He made alliance with a species of 
animals, and "located" the supernatural 
in his and their common ancestor — perhaps 
a lobster, and this ancestral lobster evolved 
into a totem god. Now, when you have 
once got a totem god you can anthropo- 
morphize him, and then deanthroponior- 
phize him, and so forth, till you have a 
spiritual god. But we do not accept, or 
even understand, Mr. Jevons's theory of 
how this totem god was arrived at and 
regarded as " supernatural." 

Space does not permit us to follow 
the survivals of totemism, the doctrine 
(much like Eobertson Smith's) of sacri- 
fice, the essays on the mysteries and 
fetishism, and the conclusion. From 
this we learn that early man " sought 
to reconcile his internal and external 
experience by identifying the porsonal 
divine will, which manifested itself to 
his inner consciousness, with one of the 
personal agents in the external world that 
exercised an influence on his fortunes," 
and these agents he supposed to be 
animals, hence totems. This is 
rather hazy. Again, Mr. Jevons writes, 
"In tho stage of totemism the clan 
has but one totem, one tribal god," which 
is a fallacy. In each local group or tribe, 
socially united, and making up a clan, there 
are several totems ; hence it is most unlikely 
that such a community cherished one 
animal all over their range of country, and 
thus, as Mr. Jovons supposes, introduced 
the domestication of animals. His book con- 
tains many ingenious apergus, but for an 
introduction it is too involved, and in our 
opinion too fantastic, while the logic in 
several places is either not clear or not con- 
vincing. For an introduction also it is 
too advanced, and in its theory does not 
seem sufficiently coherent or adequately 
bottomed on facts. 



But, though tho volume appears rather to 
miss its mark as an introduction, as an 
essay on comparative religion it is a work 
which no student can afford to neglect. The 
author is no blind follower of any ma 
and differs often from Mr. Frazer. The 
chapters on "Monotheism" and "The 
Evolution of Belief "are excellent in tone 
and spirit, suggest ideas new to many con- 
fident prattlers, and are far removed from 
tho old reproach against tho irreverence of 
anthropology. 



NEW NOVELS. 
The Betrayal of John Fordham. By B. L. 

Farjeon. (Hutchinson & Co.) 
Two-thirds of Mr. Farjeon's book is a lurid 
temperance tract. John Fordham is betrayed 
into marriage with a confirmed dipsomaniac, 
and the rivalry and interested hatred of his 
stepmother and half-brother induce them to 
take the part of the terrible wife, and to mis- 
represent the frequent scenes of noise and 
riot to the husband's disadvantage. So far 
there is little characterization, the principal 
impression made being that of the extreme 
weakness of the husband's conduct in face of 
so obvious a conspiracy. The other third is a 
very readable detective story. A good deal 
of skill is expended on the murder in the 
lonely house at Liverpool. And so com- 
plicated are the circumstances surrounding 
it that it is not till the last lines of the last 
chapter that we are enabled, by the aid of a 
model detective, to trace the guilt of the 
crime to its proper authors. The revelations 
of Jack Skinner, couched in a dialect savour- 
ing strongly of shilling tickets to Kempton 
Park, and the self-betrayal of Madame 
Loubert through the comic scene in Soho, 
are the "pick of the basket" in a literary 
sense. The position of Ellen Cameron, "a 
woman who did," will be variously estimated. 
On the whole, if the earlier and polemic 
portion had been obliterated, Mr. Farjeon 
might have been congratulated on a success 
in his original manner. 

The Home for Failures. By Lady Violet 

Greville. (Hutchinson & Co.) 
If Lady Violet Greville intended, as we 
must suppose, to write a tragedy, she 
should have chosen some other title than 
one which inevitably conveys tho idea of 
extravaganza. Neither do the opening 
chapters, which are sufficiently absurd, 
though without being amusing, prepare us 
for the melancholy conclusion of the story. 
It must, however, be admitted that Oriza, 
at all events, takes herself seriously when 
she offers her house and her society to a 
miscellaneous collection of men and women 
scarcely more restless and discontented with 
life than is their hostess. The results of 
this preposterous scheme show a certain 
insight into a section of humanity that is 
morbidly introspective and entirely devoid 
of humour ; but the author has neither the 
stylo nor the experience to cope with such a 
difficult subject, and the "failures" are 
for the most part unattractive and unin- 
teresting. Tho Hon. Eachel Cator, whose 
good senso has unhappily so littlo influence 
upon her friend, is the one person in the 
book with any claim to vitality. We should 
have been glad to hear more of her and 
less of her " bike," which latter is fast 



ming a tiresome intrusion in a class of 
fiction that aspires above all to be modern. 

The Red Scaur : a Novel of Manners. By 

P. Anderson Graham. (Longmans & Co.) 

Tins is an old-fashioned leisurely story 

which will afford small satisfaction to the 

reader who approaches it in a hasty and 
inconsiderate spirit. Tho "manners" re- 
ferred to are those of a remote village in 
Northumberland some fifty and more years 
ago, and tho perpetual digressions to pic- 
tures of local customs and individuals can 
be the readier forgiven in one who has such 
an intimate love and knowledge of country 
life, and such a charming manner of portray- 
ing it, as Mr. Graham. The reader who has 
any sympathy with tho subject can hardly 
fail to hear the rush of the Skelter, or to 
feel the fresh air from the Cheviots on his 
face, any more than he can withhold his 
affections from old John Harbottle, the 
honest shepherd of the burn, or even from 
the reprobate Billy "White. But he will 
have to wade through long-winded chapters 
concerning persons of a previous generation, 
and follow the corrupt ascent of Adam 
Harbottle from hind to farmer, before he is 
allowed to proceed to the main plot and 
the main persons. These, when reached, 
with pretty Lil and her lovers (of whom the 
narrator is one) as central figures, provide 
some very stirring incidents ; but owing to 
the absence of concentration, or rather to 
the author's overmastering passion for his 
own subject, the general impression left by 
the book is one of a series of delightful open- 
air scenes rather than that of a connected 
story. 

Gods of Gold. By Mrs. Aylmer Gowing. 

(White & Co.) 
We will do Mrs. Aylmer Gowing the justice 
to suppose that she meant to give her story 
a highly moral tone. This, however, has not de- 
barred her from letting her readers into some 
astonishing secrets, from the dressing-room 
of the American heiress to the vestry of the 
Anglican priest, and in the latter case these 
do not edify as they were obviously in- 
tended to do. When " Society's Belle, the 
peerless Ruby Lynndale," is jilted by her 
aristocratic lover in favour of Yankee 
money-bags, she puts on a black dress, and, 
at " Godma's " advice, flies from her creditors 
to the long-suffering poor in the East-End. 
Here, as was easily foreseen, she falls in 
love with a young priest of saint - like 
appearance and ritualistic views. How her 
affection is reciprocated, and how the poor 
young man flies, like his predecessors in 
history, to escape the temptress in the 
desert, his shocking end, and the melo- 
dramatic proceedings of the sometime 
beauty, wo leave the author to tell in lan- 
guage which is quite sufficiently florid to 
do justice to such matters. 

A Venetian Love Story. By Blanche Loftus 

Tottenham. (Osgood, Mcllvaine & Co.) 
The theme of the young woman who is 
engaged to one man, and on his removal — 
whether accidentally or in the course of his 
vocation — to a distance, goes and marries 
another, has done duty in fiction to an 
extent hardly justified by the frequency 
with which the case occurs in real life. 
The more embarrassing variety in which 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



13 



the inconstant lady is actually the wife 
of the missing man is probably far more 
often met with, but is certainly less popular 
with novelists. Miss Tottenham tells the 
old tale once more, largely, it would seem, 
as an excuse for descriptions of Venice, in 
which city, we may presume, she has re- 
cently made some stay. So have others, 
and some of them have also described it. 
The practice is a snare. It may please the 
writer, but it bores the reader, and in the 
present case rather predisposes him to take 
a less favourable view of the story than 
it deserves. When he finds the walls of 
Burano shimmering twice in one chapter, 
and the tower of old Torcello standing 
lonely and dark against the shadowy blue 
outlines of the Alps, when the golden light 
of the afternoon was deepening over the 
lagunes, he is inclined to think that Mr. 
Euskin has done all this once for all, and 
to turn to something fresh. Eeally, how- 
ever, the story is well told, and if it could 
be compressed into one-third of the space 
it now occupies, by the excision of Torcello, 
Burano, and other accessories, it would 
doubtless be popular. Of course, it suffers 
from the objection to which most studies on 
the same theme are open — that the second 
man is in every respect, save mere physical 
development, the superior of his unlucky 
predecessor in the lady's affections ; and the 
reader is consequently apt to condone the 
infidelity in consideration of the wisdom 
shown by the fickle damsel in getting out 
of a bad bargain. The author, we suspect, 
feels this, and therefore thinks it necessary 
to counteract any sympathies by insisting 
on her heroine's less amiable qualities, 
though until the catastrophe arrives, 
nothing that she tells us of her is incon- 
sistent with the career of a well-conducted 
young person enough. Hence a want of 
*' convincingness " which rather takes the 
edge off the tragedy. 



Mrs. 



Hungerford. 



A Lonely Girl. By 

(Downey & Co.) 
The author of this story is, we fear, past 
repentance, or we would urge her to con- 
sider how much her often touching love 
stories lose by the rough clowning which 
passes for wit among her young men and 
maidens. In the present case we have a 
party assembled at an Irish country house, 
and besides the horse-play, which wo believe 
is considered humorous in circles which aim 
at high fashion, there is the clumsy joker 
who never would be missed, but whom we 
never fail to meet in Mrs. Hungerford's 
pages. In the present case he is called 
Owen Magrath, and his banjo, his jests, and 
himself are equally intolerable. We also 
have the loud, fat Irish matron, whose per- 
sonal defects are insisted on as suggestive of 
mirth. Here she iscalled Madam O' Flaherty, 
and is as vulgar as usual. On the other 
hand, the "lonely girl" herself is all that is 
desirable, and the lover who, more by luck 
than good guidance, relioves her solitary 
6tate, is a passable jeune premier. SirLucicn, 
the wicked uncle, is too unmitigated in his 
avarice and tyranny. 

A Proctor's Wooing. By Alan St. Aubyn. 

(White & Co.) 
' A Proctor's Wooino ' is anothor of Alan 
8t. Aubyn's fictions of university life, and 



it shows all the qualities and defects of its 
precursors. The author is more original in 
some of his (or her) statements in respect 
of Cambridge manners and customs, and in 
certain points of Euglish syntax, than in 
devising names for the characters of the 
story, some of which are taken in full from 
living persons not unknown to fame. As 
for the originality of statement and implica- 
tion, we learn for the first time that young 
women at Newnham are undergraduates, 
and that they expect degrees — as of course 
they would if they were really undergra- 
duates. We hear of frequent visits made 
by men to Newnham and women to St. 
Crispin's, of a duel with pistols between 
undergraduates, and of other things which 
would have been exceedingly improbable, 
if not absolutely impossible, at any rate 
in the undergraduate days of the present 
writer. Clearly the author would not be 
ill advised in selecting a different set of 
surroundings and characteristics, in which 
slight errors of detail might be less con- 
spicuous, wherewith to eke out a very 
respectable talent for romance. 

Stella's Story. By Darley Dale. (Virtue 

&Co.) 
It is not every young lady whose lover, 
having married some one else from motives 
of duty, finds himself within a few months 
enabled, owing to a colliery explosion, to 
return to her and resume with a more for- 
tunate result the relations temporarily in- 
terrupted by his aberration into the paths 
of self-sacrifice. On the other hand, it may 
be said that not every young man owns a 
colliery where matters are conducted in the 
casual fashion that seems to have prevailed 
in Mr. Paul Benson's pit. "Lying on 
their backs in all directions," we read, 
" were a number of almost naked men ; in 
their caps they wore lighted candles." 
Setting aside the physical difficulty of wear- 
ing a lighted candle in your cap when you 
are lying on your back, we may observe 
that, with this easygoing use of naked 
lights at the "face," the accident which 
terminated the short married life of the first 
Mrs. Benson was bound to occur early and 
often, and further that somebody would 
hardly in real life have escaped a trial for 
manslaughter. Before "Darley Dale" 
makes anothor story turn on the chances 
of coal-mining, she had better ascertain a 
little more about the way in which that 
industry is carried on. In the presence of 
such a monstrous bit of carelessness as that 
we have pointed out, it is hardly worth 
while to remark that there are no such 
places in Venice as the "Eiva de Schiavone " 
or the " Scuola di San Eocca," and that the 
student of architecture does not look for 
the "Early English" style in France. 
Otherwise the book is commonplace, and 
the business of the twin sisters and their 
lovers is occasionally a trifle vulgar. 



TWO BOOKS ABOUT JAPAN. 

The Hermit Princes: a Tale of Adventure in 
Japan, by Eleanor Stredder (Nelson & Sons), 
is a confused story, or rather a scries of 
scenes in which an English boy wrecked 
upon the coast of Ainuland ; a ci-devant 
Daimio, rejoicing in the extraordinary title or 
namo Go-lnkyo, who manages to keep up his 
train of " yaconins " and much of his former 
state under the new regime ; and a variety ' 



of anachronistic Japanese, play their several 
parts. The adventures are anything but thrill- 
ing, and the local colour and properties are 
taken from current books on Japan, which 
accounts for their being about as real as the 
trappings of Gilbert and Sullivan's ' Mikado.' 
To those who know something of Japan 
such names as "Ottena," "O Ginka San," and 
"Archikaga," such expressions as " nam honto," 
mistakes like "Jesu Sama " for Jizo Sama, 
and the strange reproduction of the alphabet- 
quatrain "Iroha," &c, on p. 252, will suffi- 
ciently indicate the competence of the author 
to execute the task she has undertaken. 

Sunrise Stories, by Roger Riordan and T. 
Takayanagi (Kegan Paul & Co.), is a book 
of a very different order from ' The Hermit 
Princes.' The score of tales and sketches 
of which it consists, though inferior from 
a literary point of view to Mr. Mitford's 
charming 'Tales of Old Japan,' are more 
interesting in that they convey a much more 
adequate notion of Japanese legend and fiction 
than was possible twenty years ago. Some of 
the prettier myths are shortly narrated ; ex- 
amples are given of the style and substance of 
the mediaeval monogatari; portions of the well- 
known TosaNikki(Tosa Journal) are condensed ; 
of the universally popular ' Chiushingura ' the out- 
line is told ; and of one of the best, perhaps (but 
not the very best), of the novels of Bakin — " the 
Japanese Scott " — a brief epitome is presented. 
The best of these stories are undoubtedly the 
'Chiushingura,' or 'Loyal League,' long since 
translated by Mr. Dickins, and Mistress Ail's 
half-regretful narrative, told in early Tokugawa 
days, of the bloody times of her youth, 
when the great Gongensama extinguished the 
rivalry of the feudal barons and closed the 
long struggle that began with the wars between 
Satsuma and Hideyoshi, to end in the supremacy 
of the Tokugawa house that was to endure for 
nearly two centuries and a half, itself to cease 
with the re-enthronement of the Mikado, 
heralded by the cannon of Commodore Perry. 
But more interesting still than the stories, 
which, despite a certain quaintness of concep- 
tion, are equally wanting in point, humour, 
pathos, or skill in narration — to tell the truth, 
Japanese literature, with rare exceptions, is 
insufferably dull and prolix— are Mr. Taka- 
yanagi's own recollections of the last years 
of old Japan, with which the volume closes. 
" Each day," to make one quotation, 
"awakened by the noise of a universal clapping of 
hands— the entire population of the city greeting 
the morning sun— he [the present writer, Mr. 
Takayanagi] has risen to an early breakfast of tea 
and salt prunes, intended more as a sort of sacra- 
ment to purify the soul than as food to nourish the 
body. After the daily hot hath and worship at the 
household shrine of Buddha came a more substantial 
meal of bean soup, hoiled rice, and pickled radishes 
[the famous daikon, of which the odour, Miss 
Bird tells us, has made many a brave man lie,'] ; and 
then the walk to school through the walled Samurai 
quarter, a belt of cultivated ground aud scattered 
dwellings drawn close around the castle, ami itself 
enclosed on all sides by the multitudinous roofs of 
the city. Bach house "stood in its own rice-fields 
and vegetable gardens, irrigated by channels drawn 
from the river, which here came out to the light 
after a subterranean course through the lower town 
[Saga in Hizen]. The stream circled through the 
castle moat, gay in summer with the huge pink 
blossoms of the "lotus, and passed out again in dark- 
ness, running under crowded streets and close- 
packed houses. The citizens were required to 
show their wooden paSB-ticketa at the gates before 
they were permitted to enter the castle precincts. 
At school we were taught to read and write Chinese 
as well as Japanese, and on cold winter nights, in a 
big annex to the school building, we practised 
fencing with bamboo swords and wooden spears, 
and also wrestling in the Japanese manner, calcu- 
lated to give strength and suppleness to everv 
portion Of the body. In summer we had mimes of 
polo, and were taught to shoot with bow and arrow 

from horseback, in fact we were (mined as though 
we were still in the Middle Ages." 
It is to be regretted that Mr. Takayanagi re- 
peats the stupid libel on the murdered English- 



11 



T II E A T II E X .!•: M 



\ 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



man Richardson, whom he charges with tho in- 
eredibly silly exploit of "spurring his hone in 
a spirit of bravado [though accompanied byalady | 
into tlic ninks of a [Daimio's] procession " num- 
bering Borne thousands of retainers. The absolute 
groundlessness of this accusation is sufficiently 
Bhown in tho despatches of the period, and 
more recently in tho ' Life of Sir Harry Parkes.' 
Tho authors, who see in Japan a country that 
OOmeS as near as possible in this imperfect 
world to the ideal condition of altruism, regard 
its literature as one of form without much sub- 
stance. Korea, China, and Formosa may have 
something to say to the former assertion ; with 
the latter we agree, but the form is "common 
form." Of Lieut. Dickens's translation of the 
' Taketori Btonogatari' we have not heard. 
We have seen one by Mr. Dickins, who trans- 
lated the ' Chiushingura.' The versions given 
of some of the curious prefaces to the ' Fugaku 
Hyakkei ' (' Hundred Views of Fuji ') seem 
to have been taken from the translation of 
Hokusai's celebrated work published some 
years ago, with some alterations, but no ac- 
knowledgment — a proceeding not out of 
keeping with the American origin of the book 
before us. 



BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

Flix and Flox, by Mrs. Heathcote Statham 
(Blackie & Son), is a pretty tale of a tiny brother 
and sister who, in their beautiful Cornish home, 
learned to think for others and to do what they 
could for the little children pent up in the 
slums of great cities. 'Flix and Flox' is a 
very small book, but it is all good, and, 
moreover, it is attractive. — Miss E. Everett- 
Green in Squib and his Friends (Nelson & 
Sons) furnishes a delightful glimpse into 
child life. Squib, " the odd one " in his 
family, is not an ordinary lad. He is one who 
thinks and has the power of expressing his 
thoughts. He is a brave and engaging little 
fellow, and attracts to him friends worth having, 
and the story of his doings with his friends is 
worth reading. 

When readers hear that Every Inch a Sailor 
(Nelson & Sons) is from the pen of Dr. Gordon 
Stables, they will know what to expect. Frederick 
Augustus Norval Gay is as frank and as brave 
and as capable as all the Doctor's heroes, and 
his adventures are every whit as marvellous as 
those over which boys are accustomed to pore. 
When they first make Fred's acquaintance he is 
a lad of twelve, living in a beautiful and 
luxurious home ; but the spell of the sea 
is on him, and he breaks away. — For Duty's 
Sale (Jarrold & Sons) is a collection of 
"stirring stories of noble lives " told by Miss 
Mary Douglas, who begins the tale with 
that "friend of the friendless," Lord Shaftes- 
bury, harks back to Nelson, Sir John Franklin, 
and John Howard, and gives also the strange 
and wonderful stories of Sister Dora and of 
Father Damien. 

The "Fifty-two Library " is growing ajiace. 
Some of its volumes are excellent, others not so 
good. Fifty-two Stories of Pluck, Peril, and 
Romance for Girls (Hutchinson & Co.) must fall, 
we are afraid, into the second class. Some of 
the tales are interesting enough, but many of 
them are trivial and hardly worth telling. — 
L. T. Meade is certainly more successful when 
she deals with children than when she attempts 
to grapple with that very difficult creature 
the grown - up girl. A Little Mother to the 
Others (White & Co.) is the history of four 
fascinating little mortals, who surely have not 
merited their cruel fate. Their mother dies, 
their father goes off to the Himalayas, and they 
are left to the care of a well - meaning, 
but hard - hearted aunt, from whom they 
are stolen by gipsies, and then sold to 
circus folk. In spite of all these woes the 
book is quite charming, and will certainly 
be attractive to those who care for chil- 
dren, if not to the children themselves. — 



.1/. | , ;/ QirU Of England, by the same author 

(Oaasell & Co.), is of quite a different type 
The girl heroines — who, by the way, are 
ii .i particularly merry— being bereft of their 

parents and guardians, seek in divers ways to 
maintain themselves. The best of them take 
to fanning, but the least interesting goes to 
London to write for a livelihood. We heat a 
good deal more of her than of her country sish 
and what we hear we do not much like. There 
is a good deal of mysterious and involved family 
history in 'Merry Girls of England'; the 
mystery has nothing to do with the literary 
Barbara and her farm sisters. Altogether the 
story does not hang together too perfectly, and 
we much prefer the tale of the stolen children 
with all its cares and sorrows. 

Every Girl's Bool;, edited by Mrs. M. Whitley 
(Routledge), is a most useful and attractive 
volume, containing information and advice from 
writers altogether competent to instruct and 
advise on "all matters connected with girlish 
sports, occupations, and pastimes." There are 
articles on gardening, on golf, on cycling — the 
last from the pen of Miss Lillias Campbell 
Davidson, the 1'resident of the Ladies' Cycling 
Association — and on all the other outdoor 
occupations and amusements which are dear to 
girls. Lady John Hay, who writes from prac- 
tical experience, gives many excellent hints as 
to poultry rearing and dairy farming — two de- 
lightful occupations, which can be developed into 
paying professions. Home studies and many 
forms of indoor occupation and amusement 
occupy due space. Mrs. Conyers Morrell, an 
acknowledged authority on needlework, has 
revised and enlarged the section devoted to 
that all-important subject. The Duchess of 
Teck gives a most interesting account of "The 
Needlework Guild," of which she is president ; 
and Lady Jeune, who knows more than most of 
us of the modern training of girls, and has, more- 
over, the gift of bright and clear exposition, 
contributes some valuable articles on home 
studies, on the duties of girls in the way of 
district visiting, teaching poor children, and 
helping to bring brightness into the lives of 
others less happily situated than themselves. 
'Every Girl's Book,' in its present form, ought 
to be widely known and studied. 

The reader is introduced to many of the per- 
sonages in The Zankiwank andthc Blether witch, by 
S. J. Adair (Dent & Co.), at Charing Cross Station, 
whither they have rushed to catch the train for 
Fableland— a very clever illustration shows some 
of them in the act. Such a set of passengers 
were never seen, and well might Willie and 
Maud think that they themselves were dream- 
ing. They sing, they dance, they rhyme, and 
make fun all through the book, with a bewildering 
effect — thewholebook, indeed, instead of onepart, 
might have been entitled ' Topsy Turvey Land.' 
It is full of gaiety and cleverness, and yet when 
we shut it we feel that " the indicative mood 
has been disturbed." To undei-stand this 
allusion the book must be read, and somehow 
we cannot help thinking we have seen the 
volume before. Many of the "pictures" by 
Mr. Arthur Rackham are good and amusing. 



SCOTTISH STORIES. 

Kate Carnegie, and those Ministers. By Tan 
Maclaren. (Hodder& Stoughton.)— Dr. Watson's 
new book should be read by all Southrons who 
care to become acquainted with the inmost 
recesses of Scotch character of the better sort. 
Some of the personages who contribute to the 
life of these sketches and serve to consolidate 
the several scenes into a connected story are of 
our old acquaintance. The saintly Marget 
and her inappreciative husband, Drumsheugh, 
Burnbrae, Hillocks, and Jamie Soutar are "all 
members of the society we wot of. Only the 
brave doctor seems missing from the familiar 
company. But his place is occupied by the 
striking figure of " Rabbi " Saunderson, a 



Bingle hearted Calvinist saint, who, if any one, 
combines the love of man with the most 

slavish dread of God. Beyond and beneath 
his superficial eccentricities — his unexhausted 
appetite for books, his indifference and absence 

of mind about domestic trifles, his indiscriminate 

charity, his habit of turning his back to the 
wind for the convenience of taking snuff, and 
then pursuing the direction in which he finds 
his face -there is suggested a spiritual conflict, of 
which the pure soul and attenuated frame of the 
Rabbi are the proper theatre. It is characteristic 
of our author's graver mood. The ways of the 
Presbytery and its clerk ; the deft formalism 
with which they minimize the presentment of 
John Carmichael for heresy which has caused the 
Rabbi so many a pang, and indirectly costs him 
his life ; the admirable description of the "occa- 
sion," or ministration of the sacrament ; the 
humours of beadles and the housekeepers of 
bachelor ministers — all these are the fruit of 
considerable observation, and in suitable instances 
abound in quiet humour. Excellent, too, is the 
account — founded, as the present writer well 
remembers, on sad fact — of the Glasgow Bank 
convulsion, a catastrophe foreseen by Dr. David- 
son's beadle, horrified at the notion that his 
master has gone "fey." ("The best o's tempts 
Providence at a time, and when a man like the 
Doctor tries to rin aifter his dog, jidgment canna 
be far off.") Many readers will still more 
appreciate the description of Perth station in 
August, and of the commanding tactician who 
brings order out of the confusion of the trains. 
We know not whether the author is aware of that 
functionary's wrath on one of such occasions, 
when a malicious traveller got the train stopped 
as it was quitting the platform, only to inquire 
sweetly, "Is this Joppie I" — a comparison of 
deadly insolence. For one of his good things, 
the absolution of the claret "after three 
several appearances," Dr. Watson should have 
acknowledged his obligation to Dean Ramsay. 
We have left ourselves no space to deal with the 
story ; but, indeed, it is of the slightest. We 
note in Janet and Donald an aptitude for the 
appreciation of Highland character not very 
common in Scotch novelists, and, on the whole, 
can honestly welcome a many-sided, if rather 
heterogeneous collection of sketches by one who 
knows his countrymen. 

George Umber, the author of Ayrshire Idylls 
of other Days (A. Gardner), is, as he says, a senti- 
mentalist. It is also clear that he is a lover of 
our eighteenth century classics, and that he has 
acquired certain mannerisms from Charles Lamb. 
Apart from this, the even flow of reflection and 
reminiscence, neither striking nor profound, 
will attract few readers, although for persons 
completely ignorant of Scotland such chapters 
as 'The Old Pew,' 'Between the Preachings,' 
Ac., may possess something of novelty. It 
may be conceded that the author's descrip- 
tive style is fluent, and that the illus- 
trations of Mr. William Findlay are passable. 
There is no excess of vernacular Scotch in the 
book, and not a grain of humour. 

The title of Mr. David Lyall's collection of 
religious stories, The Land of the Leal (Hodder & 
Stoughton), is probably used in its proper sense, 
not that unaccountably adopted by Mr. Glad- 
stone. But the series, which is strung together 
loosely through the personality of 'Lisbeth Gray, 
the pious wife of " Staneriggs " the farmer, has 
to do with Scotland, and more particularly with 
South-Country farmers, miners, and "mer- 
chants." It cannot be said that the book is 
particularly exciting or shows a great deal of 
literary power. But some of the tales are 
pathetic, notably that entitled 'One of the 
Weak Things of the World,' which might, the 
sardonic will say, have been the title of the book. 
There is not any great extravagance in vernacular 
spelling or diction, though the author's own 
narrative is amusingly full of Scotticisms. On 
the whole, the work should be popular in reli- 
gious circles. 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



15 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Bibliographica. Parts VII. and VIII. (Kegan 
Paul & Co.) — In the two parts of Biblio- 
graphica, which complete the second volume of 
this sumptuous publication, the embellishment 
of both the interiors and the exteriors of books 
occupies the greater portion of the space. Half 
of the twelve articles to be found in the 
numbers deal solely with the beautifying of 
the book, the remainder with the making of the 
book, special books, and book-publishing. Those 
beautiful productions of the Venetian craftsmen 
of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth cen- 
tury, the "Ducali," form the subject of 
an excellent article by Mr. J. W. Bradley, 
who points at the outset to the singular 
fact that at this period there is an almost 
entire cessation in the production of the 
sumptuous liturgical manuscripts which were so 
marked a feature of the immediately preceding 
age. This was not due to the absence of quali- 
fied craftsmen, but, it would seem, to a lack of 
interest at the moment in the production of such 
works, and perhaps to a slight accession of 
austerity. More probably still, however, it may 
be attributed to an increased civic activity, for 
we find that a company of craftsmen was formed 
whose work and pride it was, as hnpressors, 
stampadors, and miniators, to produce exquisite 
specimens of the book-making art. To the zest 
kindled by the inauguration of such a guild we 
most likely owe the production of the "Ducali," 
which Mr. Bradley classifies under four heads : 
"Promissioni," i.e., the oaths taken by the 
Doges; " Comissioni," the diplomas granted by 
them; " Capitolari," statutory commissions; 
and "Mariegole," statutes and regulations of 
the various orders and guilds of the province. 
The number of these documents was naturally 
considerable, and specimens have gradually 
found their way into various great libraries of 
Europe. Some idea of their character may be 
obtained from the illustrations given, which 
indicate a rare faculty for beauty of design. 

Although the decoration of religious books in 
Venice during the period referred to was some- 
what in abeyance, such work had been prose- 
cuted with great energy only a few years before. 
This activity is much in evidence in the article 
on ' The Grotesque and Humorous in the 
Illuminations of the Middle Ages,' by Sir E. 
Maunde Thompson. He accounts for the 
anachronism which is so patent in these 
productions by assuming that the illumina- 
tions had little relevancy to the matter of 
the manuscripts, and were in no sense illus- 
trations of the text. He assumes that such 
ornament was merely a matter of tradition ; and 
the recurrence, in manuscripts of different 
schools, of varieties of ornamentation distinctive 
of each school, all agreeing in their irrele- 
vancy, seems sufficient proof that the assump- 
tion is correct. The illustrations of this im- 
portant article are well selected. One cannot 
but be struck with the Japanese or Chinese 
aspect of some of these grotesques, that on 
p. 313 being the most notable instance. 

Mr. R. K. Douglas deals with ' Chinese 
Illustrated Books' in a way which leaves the 
reader somewhat undecided whether Chinese or 
Japanese artists are the better. The examples 
which he selects do not certainly suggest a very 
exalted opinion of the former, and, although they 
belong to different periods, exhibit universally 
the crudeness without beauty of line which, 
in this department at any rate, puts the Chinese 
sadly behind most other nations of whoso art in 
bonk- production anything is known. 

Of a curious and intricate subject Mr. A. W. 
Pollard furnishesan excellent account in his article 
on ' The Transference of Woodcuts in the Fif- 
teenth and Sixteenth Centuries.' It has been 
found that some of the illustrations of books 
printed in France, Germany, and Italy are 
also to be found in books printed in England, 
and the question as to the method of procedure 



is interesting enough to spur on the inves- 
tigator to fresh efforts with every new find. 
Such transferences may have been made in 
various ways : woodcuts may have been bought, 
borrowed, or stolen, and undoubtedly each of 
these three methods was adopted in various 
cases. In borrowing or buying, the original 
block or a replica of it, either in wood or 
soft metal, would be transferred ; but in the 
stealing, or, as copyright was in those days 
an unknown quantity, we should, perhaps, 
say the appropriation process, the design only 
was used, either entirely or in part, as the 
basis of a new picture, varying more or less in 
detail. A whole series of such variations has 
been traced by Mr. Pollard, and one of the 
commonest and most readily observed appro- 
priations occurs in the frequent renewals of 
designs, where the right side becomes the left 
and contrariwise. Such reversals were made in 
two ways: either by the copyist transferring the 
design to his block by pasting it on and cutting 
through the impression, or by his simply copy- 
ino- it°more or less closely from the print, and 
then cutting in the usual way. Many amusing 
instances of his researches are given by the 
author of this fruitful paper. 

The exterior ornamentation of books is 
dealt with in an article on 'The Decoration 
of Book Edges,' in which Mr. Cyril Davenport 
gives us a sketch of this form of craft work from 
its inception in the fourteenth century. Dis- 
carding the theory that the original germ of 
such decoration is to be found in the practice 
sometimes adopted of inscribing the title on 
the edges instead of the binding, when it was 
customary for books to lie on their sides, Mr. 
Davenport traces it back to the period when 
Byzantine influence in European art was still 
potent. Such decoration resolves itself into 
three divisions : in the first the edges were 
either left plain or painted a natural colour, 
upon which the design was drawn ; the second, 
in which the edges were gilded and then worked 
upon with binders' tools, towards the end of 
the sixteenth century, entirely superseded the 
first class; and the third, originating in the latter 
half of the seventeenth, reappears about the close 
of the eighteenth century in England. This last 
class, which is the most elaborate, consists of paint- 
ings of portraits, landscapes, and conventional 
and heraldic designs, which are generally only 
visible when the leaves of the book are sloped. 
Examples of each of these classes are described, 
and the descriptions illustrated with some beau- 
tiful colour reproductions. 

In 'The Book- plates of J. Skinner of Bath,' 
Mr. W. J. Hardy provides lovers of ex-libris 
with a subject deserving even closer study than 
he has himself been able at present to give to 
it. He has discovered a few more particulars 
than those given by Lord de Tabley, but even 
now the information about this excellent de- 
signer and friend of Gainsborough is but 
scanty. The high character of his work may 
be well seen in the numerous reproductions of 
book-plates from his hand which accompany the 
article. 

Two special books are dealt with in these 
numbers in 'Notes on the Latin Bible of 
Forty-two Lines, 1455,' by Mr. Russell Mar- 
tineau, and ' Puckle's Club,' by Mr. Austin 
Dobson. The former is a careful collation of 
a considerable number of copies of the Mainz 
Bible ascribed to Gutenberg, the results of 
which are somewhat remarkable, not to say 
confusing, although treated by Mr. Martineau 
in as luminous a manner as was possible 
where so much that seems unmeaning has to 
be accounted for. Mr. Austin Dobson writes 
charmingly of .lames Puckle, notary, inventor, 
speculator, and author, who in 1711 issued 
'The Club ; or, a Dialogue between Father and 
Son.' As we have spoken of him in noticing 'Eigh- 
teenth Century Vignettea' in another column, we 
need only here mention the biographical details. 
'The Club' itself, with its sub-title 'A Grey 



Cap for a Green Head,' as it first appeared 
in the edition of 1723, is bibliographically 
described and critically appraised. In both 
aspects it has a very considerable interest, 
for it ran through several editions, one of 
which was of the most sumptuous character, and 
its moral maxims are by no means inelegantly 
expressed or devoid of that humour which is 
the most effective ally of morality. 

The history of printing is further elucidated 
by part iii. of Mr. W. H. Allnutt's 'English 
Provincial Presses,' in which he treats of the 
private press of Sir Henry Savile at Eton ; the 
King's Printer at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1639 ; 
and the presses of the Civil War and the Revo- 
lution. To the description of these is added a 
valuable chronology of the provincial presses 
from the end of the seventeenth century to the 
close of the first half of the eighteenth. Mr. 
Henry R. Plomer deals with 'John Rastell 
and his Contemporaries ' in an article rendered 
possible by his discovery at the Record Office 
of an important document relating to the 
famous printing-house the "Mermaid next 
Paul's Gate." This find, which belongs to 
the years 1534-5, enables him to make an 
interesting and valuable contribution to the 
history of printing and publishing in London, 
for the details of it indicate many intricate 
customs as to the relations of printer, pub- 
lisher, and bookseller, which certainly will 
be henceforth much more easily intelligible. 
Mr. E. D. North contributes an article on 
'American Book Clubs,' which is not at all 
interesting on account of the paucity of the 
material at his command ; and Mr. Falconer 
Madan says a good word for the Bibliographical 
Society, and insists very rightly upon the ab- 
surdity of limiting the number of its members. 

Transactions of the Bibliographical Society. 
Vol. II. Part II., Vol. III. Part I. (The 
Society.)— These Transactions, although less 
elaborately printed than the numbers of 
Bibliographica, are intrinsically no less 
valuable, for some of the papers are of 
the most useful description and by their 
nature of a more exhaustive character than any 
to be found elsewhere. With the exception of 
the presidential address, which deals for the 
most part with disconnected generalities, the 
contributions to these two parts are complete 
studies on particular and erudite points in 
bibliography, which once settled are not 
likely to be dealt with again for many 
years to come. Dr. Copinger contributes a 
paper of this kind, which is added to his 
vague presidential utterance, although it has 
but the faintest connexion with it. This 
is his 'Incunabula Virgiliana,' which consists 
of a list of editions of Virgil printed during 
the fifteenth century. Mr. G. F. Bar wick on 
'The Lutheran Press at Wittenberg' throws 
into relief some curious literary piracies which 
would hardly be likely to occur to-day. 
Sermons and religious tracts formed the sub- 
ject of such proceedings then. Some good 
illustrations accompany this article as well as 
that by Mr. E. F. Strange on ' The Writing- 
Books of the Sixteenth Century.' Mr. Strange's 
researches into the history of alphabets must 
have led him into this by-path, but for the 
excursion we cannot be too grateful. Mr. (J. R. 
Redgrave deals with ' Some Early Book-Illus- 
trations of the Oppenheim Press.' in which his 
attention is very largely occupied with the work 
of Jacob Kobel. The first book printed at 
Oppenheim was in 1494, but there does not 
seem to exist any dated book of Kobel s before 
1505 or after 1524. But there is an " I. K. 
signature to many tine wood-blocks which were 
used in books printed as late as 1545, and 
Jacob Kobel, known to be an engraver who 
used to write prefaces as well as to print 
them, and was also town clerk, may possibly be 
this " 1. K.," although Mr. Redgrave is unable 
to establish the point satisfactorily. The most 
practical and valuable contribution to these 



10 



Til E AT II KWEUM 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



Tranaaetioru is tho ' List of Books and Papera 
on Printing under the Countries and Towns 
to which They Refer,' which was begnn by 
the late Talbot Bainea Reed and has been 

i- liliiiucil and edited by Mr. A. \Y. Pol- 
lard. The thanks of all bibliographers and 
librarians are duo to the editor of this list 
for the trouble spent over his task and for 
the completeness with which be has accom- 
plished it. It is a work which should cer- 
t mily be issued separately for use as a 
handbook for all cataloguers, literary students, 
librarians, and bibliographers, and we hope 
short! yjo.see it in this form. 



OCR LIBRARY TABLE. 

The second instalment of the magnificent 
edition of Mr. Meredith's complete works 
which Messrs. Constable are publishing, 
Vols. III. and IV., contains Evan Harrington. 
Those who enjoyed its perusal when it appeared 
in Once a Week must now be a limited circle ; 
" "but the book is as delightful reading now as it 
was then. 

All lovers of the country and the "happy 
garden state " will welcome the new edition of 
The Plant-lore and Garden- craft of Shakespeare, 
by H. N. Ellacombe (Arnold), which is now 
pleasantly illustrated with scenes from Shak- 
speare's country and little sketches of flowers. 
The claims of the marsh marigold to be the 
Elizabethan flower of that name are rightly 
rejected ; but the illustration (p. 165) clearly 
represents Calthn palustris, though simply 
labelled "Marigold." We may note that "keck " 
or " kex " is a term used for all the larger 
Umbellifene in their growing state. It is a pity 
that in this new edition the index, which is 
deficient, has not been improved. Read also 
Wither for " Withers " twice on p. 167. 

Sir Hknry Cunningham's excellent mono- 
graph Lord Bowen : a Biographical Sketch, is 
no doubt already known to several of our 
readers, and has now been issued for the general 
public by Mr. Murray. It well deserves a wide 
circulation, for it is an eminently readable 
memoir of a remarkable man. The frontispiece 
is a capital likeness. 

Messrs. Geddes, of Edinburgh, have pub- 
lished a pretty centenary edition of The Poems 
of Ossian, translated by James Macpherson. 
The handsome volume would be the better had 
the publishers dispensed with Mr. W. Sharp's 
injudicious introduction. Mr. Sharp is not to our 
knowledge a Celtic scholar, and even if he were 
the dogmatic tone in which he writes on the 
Ossianic question would be out of place. — The 
two newest additions to the "Canterbury Poets " 
(Scott) contain Browning's 'Pauline,' 'Para- 
celsus,' and his plays from 1833 to 1850. The 
volumes sent to us are bound in art linen, and 
contain a great deal in a small space. The 
reading public will doubtless appreciate in this 
convenient and neat form A Blot in the 'Scutcheon 
and other Poetic Dramas and Pippa Passes and 
other Poetic Dramas. Mr. Binder's prefatory 
notes are rather verbose. 

We are glad to receive again such a practical 
and convenient volume as Dod's Peerage, 
Baronetage, and Knightage (Sampson Low & Co. ). 
It is an excellent compilation, still disfigured by 
an advertisement on the back of j^s cloth bind- 
ing. — The useful Almanacli Hr^cKette (Hachette) 
is once more on our table. It is a marvel of in- 
genuity, and contains a wonderful quantity of 
information of very various sorts.— The Cut hoi it- 
Directory (Burns & Gates) has reached the 
respectable age of sixty. It is a useful and 
well- arranged handbook. 



Holme'i (H ) The Oldest Christian Oburob, er. 8vo. 3/0 cl. 

I.iil, Iuii'b (II. P.) Bermoni preached on Special Occasions, 
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cr. Bvo. .'>, cl. 

fine Art. 
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Edition de Luxe, 8vo. 105/ net. 
Poetry. 
Poerr.6, and other Verses, by H. A. R. J., cr. 8vo. 67 net. 
Watson's (W ) The Year of Shame, with Introduction by 
Bishop of Hereford, 12mo. 2/6 net. 

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E. P. Robins, 3 vols. 12mo. 21/ net. 
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FOREIGN. 
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Breviarium Ambrosianum, 4 vols. 11m. 50. 
Corpus Reformatorum : Vol. 84, J. Calviui Opera quse 

supersunt omnia, 12m, 
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Kluge (H.) : Die Schrift der Mykenier, 8m. 
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THE HEAD MASTERS' CONFERENCE. 

The Head Masters' Conference met at Rugby 
on Tuesday, December 22nd, and was received 
with the usual lavish hospitality. The attend- 
ance, however, was disappointing, quite half 
the members being absent. The meetings were 
held in New Big School, a handsome building, 
but somewhat defective in acoustic properties, 
at least when a speaker addresses the platform 
from the body of the hall. The agenda paper 
was unusually long, but many of the motions 
were merely instructions to the Committee 
which did not require much discussion. The 



moat important erenta of the meeting occupied 
only a few minutes, and arc barely noticed in 
any report. U was agreed unanimously, on 
the motion of Mr. Welldon (Harrow), that the 
Committee of the Conference should co-operate 
with that of the Head Masters' Association to 
secure the creation of a strong central Council of 
Education ; and it was agreed, also unanimously, 
on t lie motion of Dr. Gray (Bradfield), that the 
Conference should meet every alternate year 
in London. Both these resolutions are likely to 
have serious consequences in the near future. 

Proceedings began on Tuesday with a vote 
of condolence with the family of the late Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who was formerly a 
master at Rugby. Mr. Keeling (Bradford) then 
moved "That the organization of secondary 
education is a matter of pressing necessity, and 
the Government should be urged to deal with 
the question in the next session of Parliament." 
Dr. Gow (Nottingham) opposed on the ground 
that neither the country nor the profession was 
yet ready for legislation. He called attention 
to several topics of vital interest which, he 
said, had not been discussed at all, and asserted 
that the apparent unanimity of many profes- 
sional meetings was quite illusory. In this 
opinion he was supported by Mr. Selwyn 
(Uppingham), and the debate threatened to last 
the whole two days, when Mr. Welldon inter- 
vened to remind members that the Con- 
ference had passed the same resolution 
last year, and could not decently refuse 
to pass it again. After some conversation 
and a few disorderly speeches, the motion was 
carried by thirty-three votes to nine. Dr. James 
(Rugby) then moved " That the new regulations 
for Woolwich examinations will not be satis- 
factory unless the number of subjects a candi- 
date can take up is diminished by at least one, 
and that a heavy one, below the present 
number." Many animated complaints followed 
from Mr. Furneaux (Repton), Mr. Laffan 
(Cheltenham), and others ; but ultimately the 
Conference preferred a resolution, proposed by 
Mr. Bell (Marlborough), " That the new regula- 
tions for Woolwich examinations involve a 
disastrous increase of the burden of a curri- 
culum which is already too heavy for candidates 
of the required age." It does not seem to 
have occurred to anybody to remark that this 
appeal for mercy was in striking contradiction 
to the "liberty, variety, and elasticity" which, 
as we were informed at Cambridge, are cha- 
racteristic of our public schools. The discus- 
sion of private business, the dinner in Old 
Big School, and a very pleasant conversazione 
in the Art Museum concluded the day. 

Business on Wednesday was so brisk that 
seven motions were carried in little more than 
three hours. First, the Committee was in- 
structed to continue its communications with 
various bodies which undertake the training of 
teachers, and also to collect information in 
regard to the dismissal of assistant masters 
without appeal. Mr. Lyttelton (Haileybury) 
then proposed that the commanding officers of 
school volunteer corps should be asked to form 
a committee to report "on the existing con- 
dition of the school volunteer movement, and 
the means of increasing its efficiency." Mr. 
Dunn (Bath) protested against militarism in the 
schools, on the ground that it fostered the vice 
of unreasoning obedience ; but the motion was 
carried, with a rider that the War Office should 
be invited to send an assessor to the Committee. 
The perennial complaint was then renewed 
against the dates appointed for scholarship 
examinations at the universities, and it was sug- 
gested by Dr. Gray that head masters should not 
allow boys to enter for any scholarships offered 
between Michaelmas and Christmas. This 
remedy seemed likely to produce a conflict with 
parents, and was not approved ; but it was 
decided to make the usual representations to 
the college authorities. Mr. Moss (Shrews- 
bury) proposed that representations should also 



N° 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENiEUM 



17 



be made in order to secure better supervision 
of candidates for scholarships and matriculation. 
He had heard that some boys were injured by 
the unwise hospitality of their old school- 
fellows, that candidates under examination had 
been disturbed by a noise in the college kitchens, 
&c. Other head masters related other enor- 
mities, and it was agreed that the Committee 
should institute inquiries. Mr. Welldon moved 
that the Committee should consult with the 
Committee of Head Masters of Preparatory 
Schools, in order "to relieve the congestion of 
subjects" now required in examinations for 
scholarships and for entrance at public schools. 
Mr. Dunn, if we are not mistaken, contended 
that a boy should learn at first a little of a great 
many subjects, and that the proposed restric- 
tion might operate as an outrage upon the 
holiness of childhood. These opinions, however, 
were so imperfectly heard that they did not 
affect the debate. Dr. James, with the concur- 
rence of Dr. Warre (who was prevented by 
illness from attending the Conference), moved 
that, whatever else was dropped, Greek should 
still be required ; and after the original resolu- 
tion had been carried unanimously, this rider 
was also carried by eighteen votes to fourteen. 
Very few members remained to hear the motion 
of Mr. Culley (Monmouth) in favour of a 
decimal system of weights and measures, which 
was carried unanimously. The usual votes of 
thanks to Dr. James and his colleagues were 
then passed, and the Conference adjourned, to 
meet again in London next December. 



GENERAL MEREDITH READ, F.S.A. 
The death of General Meredith Read, which 
occurred after a brief illness at his residence in 
Paris on Sunday last, will be heard of with deep 
regret by the large circle of his friends in Europe 
and in America. There is something almost 
tragic in this event, which has fallen on the 
moment when the closing chapters of a work 
which had occupied many years of his life were 
under revision. 

General Meredith Read was the son of an 
eminent jurist, Chief Justice Read, of Pennsyl- 
vania (grandson of George Read, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence), and was born in 
1837. He was educated in a military academy, 
and afterwards graduated at Brown University, 
R.hode Island. He graduated at the Albany 
Law School in 1859, studied international law in 
Europe, and was admitted to the bar in Phila- 
delphia. Having removed to Albany, he was 
made Adjutant-General of New York in 18G0, 
and served through the civil war with distinc- 
tion. He afterwards became interested in early 
American history, the most important of his 
contributions being an ' Historical Inquiry con- 
cerning Heinrich Hudson, his Friends, Relatives, 
and Early Life, his Connexion with the Muscovy 
Company, and Discovery of Delaware Bay,' 
Albany, 1806 ; reprinted in abridged form 
among the Clarendon Society's Reports, 1882. 
In 1869 he was appointed United States Consul- 
General for France and Algeria, and in 1873 
Minister in Greece, a post he occupied until 
1879, and it was mainly through his endeavours 
that restrictions on the sale of the Bible in 
Greece were removed. The king conferred on 
him the Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Redeemer. General Read rendered important 
services to eminent Englishmen during that 
period, and his friendship for this country was 
accompanied by extensive studies of its history. 
While at Athens he contributed to the Archaeo- 
logical Society of Greece a memorial letter on 
'The Death of Philip Henry, Fifth Earl of 
Stanhope.' At the Gibbon Exhibition in 
London his loan of the historian's Bible attracted 
much attention. 

General Read's contributions to historical 
research, though valuable, as the columns of 
the A lh< mi am attest, have not been voluminous, 
for the reason that for many years he devoted 



his life to the large work now nearly through 
the press. An early enthusiasm for Gibbon 
led him, on his retirement from public life, to 
make a pilgrimage to Lausanne, with the result 
of a temporary residence there, and researches 
which ultimately filled one or two rooms of his 
house in Paris with historical documents and 
relics. These relate not merely to ancient 
Swiss cities and celebrities, but to those of 
Savoy and other regions, and include many 
letters of eminent men which have never seen 
the light, among these a number written by 
Voltaire. It is known to those intimate with 
General Read that he had for some twenty 
years been working on these materials, while 
also adding to them, and that the work when it 
appears cannot fail to be a monument of un- 
wearied research and labour. 

The General was a high-minded generous 
gentleman, who through his military and 
diplomatic career had preserved a youthful 
simplicity, frankness, and impulsiveness. His 
beautiful home in the Rue la Boetie was a centre 
of hospitality, and he numbered among his 
friends many French men of letters as well as 
statesmen, whom he entertained by his con- 
versation, always rich in experience and 
information. His decease will be deeply de- 
plored by those who have enjoyed his friend- 
ship, who best know his large affectionate 
heart and his perfect integrity. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WRITINGS OF 
ROBERT BROWNING. 

Part VI. — Complete Volumes op Biography 
and Criticism. 

(9.) 
Robert Browning | The Thoughts of a Poet 
on Art and Faith. | A Lecture | Delivered to 
the Birmingham Central Literary Association, 
| March 27th, 1885. | By | Howard S. Pearson. 
| Price Sixpence. | Published for the Com- 
mittee of the Birmingham Central Literary 
Association, by | Cornish Brothers, 37, New 
Street. 

Collation :— Demy quarto, pp. 27 : consisting of 
Title-page, as above (with imprint in centre of 
reverse), pp. 1-2 ; and Text, pp. 3-27. 

Issued in drab-coloured paper wrapper?, on front 
page of which is a reprint of the title. 

(10.) 

A Handbook | to the Works of | Robert 
Browning | by | Mrs. Sutherland Orr. | " No 
pause i' the leading and the light ! " | ' The 
Ring and the Book,' vol. iii. p. 70. | London : 
George Bell & Sons, | York Street, Covent 
Garden. | 1885. | [The right of translation is 
reserved.] 

Collation :— Foolscap octavo, pp. xiii and 332 : con- 
sisting of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii; 
Title-page, as above (with imprint at bottom of 
reverse), pp. iii-iv ; Preface, pp. v-vi; Errata and 
Note to 'Artemis rrologuizes,' p. vii ; p. viii is 
blank; Contents, pp. ix-xiii ; Text, pp. 1-328; and 
Index, pp. 329-332. 

Issued in olive-green cloth boards, lettered iD gilt 
across the back "Handbook | to | Robert | Brown- 
ing's | Works | Mrs. S. Orr | George Bell and Sons." 

The above is the collation of the iirst edition of 
this work ; but there have been several subsequent 
editions, in which various corrections, &c, have been 
made. 

(11.) 

Miss Alma Murray's | Constance | in | Robert 
Browning's ' In a Balcony. ' | A paper by | B. L. 
Mosely, LL. B. | Barrister-at-Law. | Read to the 
Browning Society | on the 27th of February, 
1885. | Reprinted from the Theatre for May, 
1885. j For private distribution only. | London, 
1885. 

Collation :— Octavo, pp. 8: consisting of Title- 
page, as above (with blank reverse), pp. 1-2; and 
Text, pp. 3-8. 

Issued in cream-tinted wrapper, on the first page 
of which is printed " Miss Alma Murray's | Constance 
| in | Robert Browning's ' In a Balcony.' | A paper 
by | B. L. Mosely, LL. P. | Barrister-; it-Law." 

(12.). 
Sordello's Story | RetoldinPro.se | by | Annie 
Wall | [Publishers' device.] Boston and New 



York | Houghton, Mifflin and Company [ The 
Riverside Press, Cambridge | 1886. 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. 115 : consisting 
of Title-page, as above (with '"copyright" in centre 
and imprint at foot of reverse), pp. 1-2 ; Dedication 
(with blank reverse), pp. 3-1 ; quotation from Dante 
(with blank reverse), pp. 5-6 ; aud Text, pp. 7-145. 

Issued in dark-yellow cloth boards, gilt lettered 
across the back " Sordello's Story | Annie Wall I 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co." 

(13.) 

An | Introduction | to the Study of | Robert 
Browning's Poetry. | By | Hiram Corson, LL.D. 
| Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature 
in the | Cornell University. | "Subtlest Assertor 
of the Soul in song." | Boston : | D. C. Heath 
& Co., Publishers. | 1886. 

Collation :— Crown octavo.pp. x and 338: consisting 
of Title-page, as above (with '* copyright " in centre, 
and imprint at foot, of the reverse), pp. i-ii ; Motto 
(with blank reverse), pp iii-iv ; Preface, pp. v-vii - r 
p. viii is blank ; Contents, pp. ix-x ; and Text, 
pp. 1-338. 

Issued in dark-blue cloth boards, lettered in gilt 
across the back " Introduction | to | Browning |' 
Corson | D. C. Heath & Co | Boston." 

(14.) 

Robert Browning's Poetry | "The develop- 
ment of a soul ; little else is worth study " | 
Outline Studies | Published for the Chicago- 
Browning Society | Chicago | Charles H. Ker? 
& Company | 175 Dearborn Street | 1886. 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. 50: consisting of 
Title-page (with "copyright" in centre of reverse), 
pp. 1-2 ; Contents (with prefatory note on reverse)., 
pp. 3-1 ; and Text, pp. 5-50. 

Issued in light-yellow paper wrapper, with "Robert 
Browning's Poetry " printed across centre. 

(15.) 

Sordello : | A History and a Poem. | By 
Caroline H. Dall. | Boston : | Roberts Brothers. 
| 1886. 

Collation :— Octavo, pp. 3G : consisting of Title- 
page, as above (with reverse containing notice of 
copyright, and imprint, in centre and at foot re- 
spectively), pp. 1-2 ; Prefatory " Note," pp. 3-4 ; and 
Text, pp. 5-36. 

Issued in light-grey wrapper, on front page of 
which the title is reprinted. 

(16.) 

An | Introduction | to | the Study of | 
Browning | by | Arthur Symons | Cassell & 
Company, Limited | London, Paris, New York, 
& Melbourne | 1886 | [All rights reserved.] 

Collation : — Crown octavo, pp. viii and 216 : con- 
sisting of Title-page (with quotation from Landor 
on reverse), pp. i-ii ; Dedication to George Meredith 
(with blank reverse), pp. iii-iv ; Preface, pp. v-vi ; 
Contents (with blank reverse), pp. vii-viii ; and 
Text, pp. 1-216. 

Issued in dark-green bevelled boards, lettered in 
gilt across the back "Introduction | to | Browning | 
Symons." 

(17.) 

Studies in the Poetry | of | Robert Browning 

| by | James Fotheringham | London | Kegan 
Paul, Trench & Co., 1 Paternoster Square [ 
1887. 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. xii and 382 : con- 
sisting of Title-page (with quotations on reverse), 
pp. i-ii ; Preface, pp. iii-viii : Contents, pp. ix-x •, 
Reference List of Poems, pp. xi - xii ; aud Text, 
pp. 1-382. 

Issued in dark-blue cloth boards, lettered across 
back " Studies | in the | Poetry | of | Robert \ 
Browning | Fotheringham | Kegan Paul, Trench St 
Co." The front page of cover is also lettered 
" Studies in the Poetry | of Robert Browning." 

(18.) 

Robert Browning : | Chief Poet of the Age. | 
An Essay | Addressed primarily to Beginners 
in the Study of | Browning's Poems j By | Wil- 
liam (i. Kingsland | London | J, W. .I.irvis & 
Son | 28 King William Street, Strand | 1887. 

Collation : — Square 16ino, pp. 17: consisting of 
Title- page (with blank reverse), pp. 1-2 : Dedicatory 
Sonnet " to Robert Browning " (with blank reverse), 
pp. 3-1 : and Text, pp. .'- 17. The imprint is in centre 
of reverse of last page 

issued in drab-coloured paper boards on which 
the title-page was reprinted. A portrait ol Mr. 
Browning forms the frontispiece. Thirty copies OH 
large hand-made paper were also issued. 



18 



THE ATIIENvEUM 



[Seoond Edition. | 
Roberl Browning . | Chief Poet of t li. 
By William <;. Kingaland | New Edition, 
| Wah Biographical and other Additioi 
London .1. w. . fan-is & Bon, | 28 King 
William Street, strand | 1890. 

Collation :— Small octavo, pp. vi and 136 oon> 
Bietingof Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii ; 
Title-page (with imprint on reverse), pp. iii-iv • 
Preface, pp.v-vii; Dedicatory Bonnet, p. viii ; and 
Text, pp. 1-136. The imprint is repeated at foot of 

last page. 

Issued in fawn-coloured cloth board?, lettered 
across hack " Browning | Kingsland | 1890." A por- 
trait of Mr. Browning forms the frontispiece. Fifty 
copies were also printed on large baud-made paper. 

(19.) 

Sordello | An < Outline Analysis of | Mr. 
Browning'sPoem | by | Jeanie Morison | author 
of | 'The Purpose of the Ages'; 'Gordon: an 
Our Day Idyll '; | ' Ane Booke of Ballades ' etc. 
| Vi illiara Blackwood and Sons | Edinburgh 
and London | mdccclxxxix. | All Rights 
reserved. 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. vi and 115 • con- 
sisting of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp i-ii • 
Title-page (with blank reverse), pp. iii-iv; Dedica- 
tion to the Members of the Edinburgh Women- 
Students' Browning Club, with blank reverse, 
pp. v-vi ; and Text, pp. 1-115. The imprint is at the 
foot of the last page. 

Issued in dark-red cloth boards, with trimmed 
edges, and lettered in gilt across back "Analysis I 
of | Sordello | Jeanie | Morison J Win. Blackwood I 
& Sons. 

(20.) 

Robert Browning. | Nineteenth Century 
Authors. | Louise Manning Hodgkins. I D C 
Heath & Co., Boston. [1889.] 

Collation :-Small octavo, pp. ii and 8 : consisting 
of litle-page, as above (with blank reverse), pp i-ii • 
Text, pp. 1-4 ; blank pages headed " Notes," pp 5-7 : 
and notices of the series of "Guides to the Study of 
Nineteenth Century Authors," p. 8. 

Issued stitched, without wrappers. 

(21.) 
Robert Browning | Personalia | by | Edmund 
Gosse | Boston and New York | Houghton, 
Mifflin and Company | The Riverside Press' 
Cambridge | 1890. 

Collation : -Crown octavo, pp. 9G : consisting of 
litle (with imprint in centre of reverse) np 1-2- 
Preface, pp. 3-9 (blank reverse, p. 10) ; Contents 
(with blauk reverse), pp. 11-12; Half-title (with 
blank reverse), pp. 131 i ; Text, pp. 15-96. 

Issued in Indian red cloth boards, with gilt top 
and lettered in gilt on front cover "Robert 
Browning | Personalia | By Edmund | Gosse"; also 
lettered across back "Robert | Browning | Personalia 
| Gosse | Houghton | Mifflin & Co." There is a 
portrait of Eobert Browning as frontispiece 

A portion of the impression of this book was 
purchased by f. Iisher Unwin, who issued these 
copies in London with his own imprint upon the 
title-page and upon the cover, in place of that of 
Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. as detailed above 
They were put up in vellum bevelled boards, gilt 
ettered. There were also ten copies printed upon 
large paper. * 

(22.) 

Robert Browning. | Read before the I Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool I 
April 28th, 1890. | By | Gerald H. Rendall. ' ' 

Collation :-Demy octavo, pp. Hand 20 : consisting 
of litle-page, as above (with blauk reverse? 
pp. l-n ; and Text, pp. 1-20. re\erse;, 

Issued in light mottled-grey wrapper, the front 
page of which contains a reprint of the title. 

(23.) 
Life | of | Robert Browning | by | William 

? P ^aon T/ 1 * ,^. a ter Sc0tt ' ^Warwick 
Lane. | 1890. | (All rights reserved.) 




212; Index, pp. 213-219; and Bibliography, pp. Uxxi\ 

Issued in dark-blue cloth hoards, lettered in lilt 
across the back "Life of I Robert Browning |W 

liam Sharp | Walter Scott." ol "" 

" Sl^w^E* 8 J MUe ? as 0De of the volumes of the 
Great Writers" series; and the collation Riven 
above is that of the " large-paper " edition 



N 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



(24.) 
Browning's | Message to his Time : j His l:. 
Iigion, Philosophy, and Science | By Edward 
Berdoe | Member of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons of England ; | Licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians (Edinburgh) ; | Member of 
the British Medical Association ; | etc., etc. | 

[Quotation from Emerson.] London: j Swan 
Sonnenschein & Co., | Paternoster Square. I 
1890. ' ' 

Collation :— Octavo, pp. ivand 222 : consisting of 
Title-page, as above (with imprint in centre of 
reverse), pp. 1-11 ; Dedication (with contents in centre 
of reverse), pp. iii-iv; and Text, pp. 1-222 

toned in dark-red bevelled cloth boards eilt- 
,i" e i"5 (1 across hack " Brownings | Message I to I 
Ins lime | Berdoe | Sonnenschein." 

(25.) 
Life and Letters | of | Robert Browning | by 
| Mrs. Sutherland Orr | London | Smith, Elder 
& Co., 15 Waterloo Place | 1891 | [All rights 
reserved.] 

Collation :— Large octavo, pp. xiii and 451 : con- 
sisting of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii : 
litle-page, as above (with blank reverse), pp. iii-iv ; 
Preface, pp v-vi ; Contents, pp. vii-xiii ; Text! 
pp. 1-436 ; and Index, pp. 439-151. 

Issued in dark-yellow cloth boards, gilt-lettered 

across the back "Life | and | Letters | of | Robert 

I Browning | Mrs. Sutherland Orr | Smith, Elder & 

Co. 

(26.) 

Robert Browning | and the Drama | With 
Special Reference to the Point of View afforded 
by | Miss Alma Murray's | Performances of his 
Heroines. | A Note | by | Walter Fairfax | 
London | Reeves and Turner 196 Strand | 1891. 

Collation :— Octavo, pp. 20 : consisting of Title- 
page, as above (with blank reverse), pp. 1-2; and 
Text, pp. 3-20. The imprint occurs at the foot of 
the last page. 

Issued in light-grey wrapper, on the front page of 
which the title is reprinted, and on the reverse 
an advertisement of a forthcoming work of the 
author's. 

(27.) 
A Primer on Browning | By F. Mary 
Wilson | London | Macmillan and Co. I and 
New York | 1891 | All rights reserved. 

Collation :— Small octavo, pp. viii and 218- con- 
sisting of Half-title (with publishers' monogram 
upon the reverse), pp. i-ii ; Title-page, as above (with 
blauk reverse), pp. iii-iv; Contents, pp. v-vii • 
p. vm is blank ; and Text, pp. 1-248. The imprint 
occurs at the foot of the last page. 

Issued in bright-red coloured cloth boards with 
trimmed edges, lettered in silt across the back "A 
I Primer | on | Browning | P. Mary | Wilson I Mac- 
millan & Co." Also lettered in black upon the front 
cover. 

(28.) 

Browning's | Criticism of Life | By | William 
F.Revell | Author of 'Ethical Forecasts,' etc. | 
With a Frontispiece | [Publishers' device.] 
London | Swan Sonnenschein & Co. I New- 
York : Macmillan & Co. | 1892. 

Collation :— Postoctavo.pp. xandll6: consistingof 
Half-title (with advertisements of "The Dilettante 
Library '' upon the reverse), pp. i-ii ; Title-page, as 
above (with imprint in the centre of the reverse) 
pp. ni-iv ; Dedication ("To my Wife "—with blank 
reverse), pp. v-vi; Preface, pp. vii-viii ; Contents 
(with blank reverse), pp. ix-x ; and Text, pp. 1-1 If,. 
Ihe imprint is repeated at the foot of the last page 

Issued in dark-brown bevelled cloth boards with 
trimmed edges, and lettered in gilt across the back 
• Browning s | Criticism | of Life | Revell | Sonnen- 
schein. The frontispiece is a portrait of Robert 
Browning, taken after death. 

(29.) 
Of | 'Fifine at the Fair'| 'Christmas Eve 
and Easter Day' | and | other of Mr. Browning's 
Poems | by | Jeanie Morison | William Black- 
wood and Sons | Edinburgh and London 

MDCCCXCII. 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. viii and 99: con- 
sisting of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii • 
Iitle-paee (with blank reverse), pp. iii-iv ; Dedica- 
tion to Miss Browning (with blank reverse) pp v-vi : 
Contents (with quotation from 'Easter Day' on 
reverse), pp. vii-viii; and Text, pp. 1-99. The 
imprint is at foot of last page. 

Issued in dark-red cloth boards, with trimmed 
edges, and lettered in gilt across the back " Of 



!"'!"",'• I ■ Fair | Jeanie | Morison I Win. 

i wood | ft Song." 

(30.) 

The ! Browning Cyclopaedia | A Guide to the 
Study of the Works | of j Robert Browning. [ 
With ' Copious Explanatory Notes and Refer- 
- | on all Diflicult Passages. By Edward 
Berdoe, | Licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians, Edinburgh ; Member of | the Royal 
College of Burgeons, etc., etc. | Author of 
'Browning's M ge to his Time,' 'Browning 
as a Scientific | Poet, 'etc., etc. | London : Swan 
Sonnenschein & Co. j New York : Macmillan 
& Co. | 1892. 

Collation:— Post octavo, pp. xx and 572: con- 
sisting of Half-title (with advertisement on reverse), 
pp. i-ii; Title-page, as above (with imprint at foot 
of reverse), pp. iii-iv; Dedication (with blank 
reverse), pp. v-vi: Preface, pp. vii x ; '"Unsolved 
Difficulties,'' study-books, &c, pp. xi-xx ; and 
Text, pp. 1-572. 

Issued in red cloth boards, silt-lettered across 
back "The | Browning | Cyclopedia | Berdoe | 
Sonnenschein." 

(31.) 

Lrowning Studies | being | Select Papers by 
Members | of the | Browning Society | Edited, 
with an Introduction | by | Edward Berdoe, 
M.R.C.S., &c, | Author of 'The Browning 
Cyclopaedia,' ' Browning's Message to his Time,"' 
&c, &c. | London | George Allen, 15<J, Charing 
Cross Road | 1895 | [All rights reserved.] 

Collation :— Octavo, pp. xiv and 331. 

Issued in cloth boards, lettered in gilt. The entire 
contents of this volume were reprinted for the 
Browning Society's Papers. 

(32.) 
An Introduction | to j Robert Browning. [ A 
Criticism of the Purpose and | Method of his 
Earlier | Works. | By | Bancroft Cooke, j 
London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co. | Liverpool: 
Adam Holden, 48, Church Street. | Price one 
shilling. 

Collation : -Demy octavo, pp. ii and 40: consisting 
of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii ; Title- 
page, as above (with blank reverse), pp. 1-2 ; and 
Text, pp. 3-40. 

Issued in light-grey wrapper, printed across front 
page "An Introduction | to | Robert Browning." 
Ihere is no date given. 

(33.) 
Browning | and the Christian Faith | The 
Evidences of Christianity from | Browning's 
Point of View | By | Edward Berdoe | Member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of England ; 
Licentiate of the | Royal College of Physicians 
(Edinburgh) ; | Author of | ' The Browning 
Cycloptedia,' ' Browning's Message to his Time,' 
| Etc. | [Quotation from ' A 'Death in the 
Desert.'] | London | George Allen, 156, Charing 
Cross Road | 1896 | [All rights reserved.] 

Collation :— Crown octavo, pp. xx and 233 : con- 
sisting of Half-title (with blank reverse), pp. i-ii ; 
Title-page, as above (with blauk reverse), pp. iii-iv : 
Dedication (with blank reverse), pp. v-vi : Preface, 
pp. vii-ix : p. x is blauk ; Contents (with blank 
reverse), pp. xi-xii ; Introduction, pp. xiii-xx ; and 
Text, pp. 1-233. The imprint. '• Richard Clay & 
Sons, Limited, | London & Bungay, " is placed upon 
the centre of the reverse of the last page. 

Issued in dark -green cloth boards, lettered in 
gilt across the back " Browniusr | and the | Christian 
Faith | Dr. Berdoe | George Allen." 

Thomas J. Wise. 



THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF PROF. MASPERO'S 
' STRUGGLE OK THE NATIONS.' 

The second volume of I'rof. Maspero's great 
work 'Histoire Ancienne des Peuples del'Orient 
Classique ' has just appeared in an English trans- 
lation, issued under the auspices of the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, simul- 
taneously with the French original. The object 
of the present note is to call the attention of 
English readers to the manner in which Prof. 
Maspero's text has, in certain passages, been 
surreptitiously tampered with in the translation. 

Prof. Maspero in his survey of ancient nations 
includes a sketch of the history of Israel. This 
history Prof. Maspero view s throughout from 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



19 



the standpoint of modern criticism. In his 
previous smaller work on the ancient history of 
the peoples of the East he stated explicitly that 
he adopted the historical conclusions of Reuss 
and Welihausen (fourth edition, 188G, p. 301). In 
his present work he adopts them equally, with- 
out the smallest ambiguity, and frequently in his 
notes refers to the works of these and other 
critics with approval. Such an endorsement, on 
the part of a distinguished archaeologist, of the 
conclusions of modern criticism could, of course, 
not be admitted by the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. Accordingly, without 
giving his readers the smallest hint of the fact, 
the translator, Mr. McClure, alters in his trans- 
lation the text of the passages in question, so as 
to make Prof. Maspero appear throughout as an 
orthodox traditionalist. The method principally 
adopted, when once its secret has been discovered, 
is sufficiently simple. In the text, where Prof. 
Maspero wrote "Tradition related" (or some 
equivalent phrase), Mr. McClure substitutes 
"The narrative says." In the notes, views 
expressed by Prof. Maspero as his own are 
transformed into those held by "some critics," 
without any indication whatever that they are in 
reality Prof. Maspero's as well. Occasionally, 
of course, alterations of a different kind or 
omissions are also to be met with. The reader 
will judge best of the process which has been 
followed by a few illustrations (the italics are 
in all cases my own). 



1. " Tbe Biblical narrative 
describes at length their 
marches." &c. [in the wilder- 
ness]. — P. 44n. 

" Enough can still be made 
out to give us a general idea 
of the march of the emi- 
grants." — P. 445, n. 1. 

" The Israelites did not act 
throughout with that, unity 
of purpose and energy which. 
we might at first sight have 
attributed to them." — P. 6»1. 

" And we have some details 
of his [Samson's'] history." — 
P. 70.3. 

" Story of the Levite of 
Ephraim. in which the im- 
portant historical event is the 
massacre of the pillaging 
clan by its neighbours." — 
P. 705, n. 4. 

" It contained the two 
tables of the Mosaic law." — 
P. 706. 



"The facts given in Jos. 
xviii. 1 show that, tbe date 
of its foundation there goes 
back," &c— P. 703, n. 2. 

" His [Samuel's] position 
as judge of all Israel seems 
to have developed at a later 
period." — P. 708, n. 1. 



" Les traditions recueillies 
dans leurs livres sacres de- 
crivaient longuement," &c. 

" II en reste assez sur place 
pour donner une idee gene- 
rale de la marche que Von pre- 
tait a la colonne principale des 
emigrants." 

" Israel n'agit pas avec 
autant d'ensemble et de 
vigueur qu'ils [the Hebrew 
chroniclers in the book of 
Joshua] se le figure* ent." 

"Mais le detail de Fes 
actions veritables av nt etc 
cublie de bonne heure." 

" Histoire du Levite d'Eph- 
raim, dont... . le fond ne 
renferme qu'un seul element 
historique, l'execution du 
clan piilard," &c. 

" Elle renfermait deux 
pierres sur lesquelles on crut 
plus tard que la loi avait e'te 
grave'e " (with idee for " state- 
ment " in note 3). 

" La tradition recueillie 
dans Jos. xviii. 1, en fnisait 
remonter l'ctablissement," &c. 

" Sa transformation en juge 
de tout, Israel date de I'epoque 
pmphe'tique, comme celle 
d'Eli." 

"Narrative" or "sacred writings" is also 
substituted for tradition (often with the nast 
tense), p. 679, p. 696, 1. 4, p. 709, 1. 1 ("une 
tradition moins rlatteuse "), p. 710, 1. 1, p. 710, 
note 2, and elsewhere. 

In p. 65, note 2, and on p. 70, by the sub- 
stitution of " later times" for I'epoque royale, 
the fact is concealed that Prof. Maspero holds 
the narratives of Genesis in question to have 
been composed under the monarchy. 

2. "For Wellhausen's "Sur l'age probable de 
theory of the probable date cette tradition, cf. Well- 

of this episode [(Jen. xwii ], bausen " 

cf. Welihausen."— P. 66, n. 4. 

"The episode of Othniel " repose, de l'aveu 

and Chushan-rishathaim general, mr une tradition 

ii by many critics rejected as bans valeur." 
spurious.' — P. 685, n. 2. 

" For Stade's view as to the "Sur la formation de 
later development of Judah, Jndali, ct sur I'epoque far- 
see " — P. 702, ii. 1. dive a laquellc il se constitua 

definitivemeiit tons son 
apparence historique, cf. 
Stade " 

"Budde endeavours to "Sur ces fails, qui < nt Hi 

show that these events were attribute phis tard ft la con- 
attributed at a later date to quetede Josue, cf.Budde " 

Joshua."— P. 703, n. 2. 

" Somecritics think "— "La tradition lul ntlril.ua 

I'. 71-'. plus tard " 

"1 Sam. xxiv. thought by " 1 Sum. xxiv., legende 
some writers to have been of populaire dont la redaction 
much later date."— P. 717, definitive est d'astez basse 
n. 3. i poqae." 



Other instances in which opinions expressed 
by Prof. Maspero as his own have been trans- 
formed similarly into those of "some critics" 
will be found on p. <>84, p. 686, notes 3 and 4, 
p. 693, note 3, p. 696, note 4, p. 702, line 6, 
p. 704, note 2, p. 705, note 4, p. 706, note 4, 
p. 712, notes 3 and 4, p. 714, notes 5 and 7, 
p. 715, note 1, p. 720, note 4, and elsewhere. 
P. 714, note 5, and p. 718, note 3, "imagined" 
and "pretend" are terms of disparagement in- 
troduced gratuitously by the translator : in the 
original the views expressed in these notes are 
those of the author himself. 

3. Passages in which I'rof. Maspero's recog- 
nition of the value of critical studies has been 
suppressed : — 

" Various works have ap- " On trouvera, dans l'un 
peared of late dealing with quelc nque des nombreux 
these books [Exodus to Deu- manuels publics en Al'e- 
teronomy] Horn a critical magne, l'analyse de ces 
point of view." — P. 447, n. 3. livres et les opinions cour- 
antes sur l'age des documents 
qu'il renferme." 

Here are two notes which have been omitted 
in the English translation : — 

(On the critical study of the book of Joshua) " Je me 
bornerai a prendre les re'sultats acquis par le travail continu 
de plusieurs generations et a les exposer, tout en m'excusant 
de ne pas pouvoir, faute de place, rendre a chacun la part 
qui lui revient dans ce travail de selection et de reconsiitu- 
tion historique." — P. 679, n.3. 

" Le refus qu'on lui pietedans la redaction actuelle du 
Livre des Juges viii. 22, 23, trahit, comme le feront par la 
suite les declarations de Samuel contre la royaute, l'influ- 
ence du temps oil les idees prophetiques predominaient." — 
P. t92, n. 1. 

A translation is a translation, and its sole 
raison d'etre is that it represents faithfully the 
text of the author. The effect of the alterations 
and omissions which 1 have signalized is that 
in the account which the volume contains of 
the history and literature of Israel the entire 
perspective of the author is changed : the 
reader purchases a book which professes, on 
this as on other subjects, to give him the 
opinions and conclusions of Prof. Maspero him- 
self, whereas in reality it gives him something 
altogether different. 

It is surprising that the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge should have sanctioned 
this piece of literary bad faith, and that either 
Prof. Sayce, the editor, or Mr. McClurs, the 
translator, should have lent his hand to it. If 
the Society undertook to present Prof. Mas- 
pero's work to the English public, it is clear 
that the only straightforward course for them 
to adopt was either to present it faithfully in 
every particular, or to prefix a note (which, 
however, I do not find) stating unambiguously 
that Prof. Maspero in the original work treated 
the Old Testament from a critical standpoint, 
and often expressed sympathy with critics and 
their work, but that, as they felt sure that their 
readers would be justly shocked by such views, 
they had authorized the translator to do his 
best to eliminate them. Veuax. 



Ht'tcrarrj Cfiosstp. 

Mr. Buxton Forman will shortly publish, 
a work entitled ' The Books of William 
Morris : an Essay in Bibliography,' some- 
what on the plan of his volume called ' The 
Shelley Library ' — that is to say, setting 
forth in a connected narrative the public 
appearances of the author in a way calcu- 
lated to give the student and collector such 
exact bibliographical knowledge of the 
wholo of tho printed works as the present 
age requires concerning not only great 
men like Morris, but, many minor literati. 
It is intended to give several facsimiles and 
Other illustrations, and to .add information 
about manuscripts. Oommunieations from 
tlie possessors of any of Morris's manu- 
scripts would be gratefully received ])y Mr. 
Forman, wli<> would be glad to hear, indeed, 
of any out-of-the-way items cognate to tho 



subject of a work at once narrative and 
bibliographical. His address is 46, Marl- 
borough Hill, St. John's Wood. 

Mr. S. B. Gardiner lately discovered in 
the Vatican archives a despatch written by 
Bossetti early in 1642, when he was nuncio 
at Cologne, and describing Charles I.'s plan 
for the rescue of Strafford by the aid of 
troops from Ireland and Holland. This 
evidence, which, is important as coming 
from one in the confidence of the Court, 
will be published in the January number 
of the English Historical Review. 

In the same number Mr. James Gairdner 
will continue his discussion of ' New Lights 
on the Divorce of Henry VIII.' Mr. J. B. 
Tanner writes on ' The Administration of 
the Navy from the Bestoration to the Be- 
volution'; Mr. J. H. Clapham on 'A 
Boyalist Spy during the Beign of Terror'; 
and Mr. B. Seymour Long on ' Andrew 
Jackson and the National Bank.' 

The Clarendon Bress will publish shortly 
the Hebrew original of ten chapters of 
Ecclesiasticus (xxxix. 15 to xlix. 11) lately 
discovered in the East. It was generally 
supposed that St. Jerome was the last 
scholar who saw or possessed it, until re- 
centl} r a Hebrew treatise, written by Saadiah 
Gaon (about 920 a r>.), was found, in which 
the author quotes several sentences in Hebrew 
from Ecclesiasticus. Thus the book was still 
extant at that time in Bagdad, where Saadiah 
lived. No further trace of the Hebrew text 
was discovered until about June, 1896, when 
a MS. leaf brought to England by Mrs. 
Lewis, of Cambridge, was recognized by 
Mr. S. Schechter as a portion of the long- 
lost original, and was published by him 
in the Expositor. Almost simultaneously 
nine leaves of the same MS., brought 
likewise from the East, were identified in 
the Bodleian Library. The Clarendon 
Bress is now issuing a critical edition of 
all ten leaves, consisting of the Hebrew 
original, accompanied by an English trans- 
lation and the Greek, Syriac, and Old Latin 
versions, followed by a glossary of new 
forms found in the Hebrew text, and of 
words used in new senses. A list is added 
of tho proverbs of Jesus, son of Sirach, 
genuine and spurious, found in Talmudic 
and Babbinic literature, arranged according 
to the order of tho Greek version. The 
preface gives full literary particulars re- 
specting the book. One main result of the 
new text is that it proves Sirach to have 
written classical Hebrew (with the excep- 
tion of a few New-Hebrew words). Two 
facsimile pages, the first and last of the 
Oxford fragment, are appended, showing 
marginal notes of various readings, some- 
what resembling tho Massora to the Old 
Testament. 

Me. Arthur Dasent, whose forthcoming 
book on Mayfair is now approaching com- 
pletion, would bo grateful for tho loan of 
any unpublished letters, especially of tho 
eighteenth century, referring to individual 
houses in Berkeley Square, Hill Street, 
Charles Street, Curaon Street, and tho 
neighbourhood generally. Communications 
intended for Mr. Daaent may bo addressed 
to Messrs. Macmillan. 

The Queen has just accepted the dedica- 
tion <>f the little collection oz hymns for use 
at tho celebrations of the sixtieth year of 



20 



T II E AT II KN/EUM 



X :JG10, Jan. 2, '97 



her reign, which Messrs. Bkeffington ft Bon 
will publish during this month. Among 
the writers are the Bishop of Ripon, the 
Rev - , s. J, Stone, Mr. I Ihattertoo I >i\, ''anon 
Twells, Oanon Rawnsley, &c, wliilo special 
tunes will be supplied by Sir John Stainer, 
Sir Walter Parratt, Dr. Bridge (of West- 
minster), Dr. G. Martiu (of St. Paul's), and 

others. 

The authorship of Scottish poetry threatens 
to supply matter of controversy as ex- 
haustless as tho battle of Hastings. Another 
of Prof. Skeat's verdicts is to bo attacked. 
Tho metrical ' Legends of the Saints,' ori- 
ginally attributed by the late Mr. Bradshaw 
to John Barbour, were subsequently edited 
as his by Dr. Horstmann. Contrary argu- 
ments of German birth were favoured by 
Prof. Skeat, on the strength of which the 
ascription was rejected and the legends re- 
edited as anonj-mous by Dr. Metcalfe for the 
Scottish Text Society. Mr. George Neilson 
is reassailing the question in the Scottish 
Antiquary for January. He disputes the 
validity of the rhyme-canon of Dr. Buss, and 
adduces parallels of substance and diction 
between ' The Bruce ' and the St. Ninian 
legend conclusive, in his opinion, that only 
one pen could have written both. As the 
Ninian legend has passages found verbatim 
also in another of the legends, it is in a 
sense the key of the collection, and the 
authorship of the whole will almost certainly 
depend on that of the part. 

Messrs. Lttzac & Co. write : — 

"We were much surprised to see in last 
week's issue of the Athenwum our name men- 
tioned as publishers of a work by Mr. H. W. 
Mengedott. No arrangement whatever was 
made by us as regards this or any other work 
by Mr. H. \V. Mengedott." 

Ax interesting relic of Pope and Gay has 
recently been unearthed by Mr. Buxton 
Forman in his peregrinations among the 
London bookshops. This is no other than 
the copy of Gay's ' Trivia ' presented by 
the author to Pope, the fact being authenti- 
cated by a bold inscription in Pope's hand- 
writing : "Ex dono Authoris." It is one 
of the exceedingly few copies which were 
produced on large paper, and is in beautiful 
preservation. These large - paper copies 
have more than a fancy interest ; for in 
them the woodcut scroll ornaments at the 
headings of the three books of 'Trivia' 
were superseded in favour of three charming 
oblong copper-plates, the first a pretty con- 
temporary view of London, the other two 
the Pegasus and lyre engravings which 
were used in the first complete or five-canto 
edition of ' Tho Eape of the Lock,' published 
in 1712, the year before Gay wrote his 
' Trivia.' It was of course natural that, if 
Gay had a large-paper copy at all, he should 
present it to his colleague (with Arbuthnot) 
in the production of 'Three Hours after 
Marriage'; and the book is a most interest- 
ing find. 

The Cambridge Historical Tripos examina- 
tion is henceforth to be divided into two parts, 
the latter including comparative and deduc- 
tive politics, and a select subject in the his- 
tory of thought, literature, or art. At Ox- 
ford tho Christmas examination for Mathe- 
matical Moderations has been discontinued. 

Brsnoi* Pearson during the later years 
of his life compiled a commonplace book of 



remarkable passages and striking thoughts 
which he met with in the course oi reading. 

1 1 is widow has placed thoso in tho hands of 
Mr. Elliot Stock, who will publish them 

\ciy shortly in a vohnno, with a preface by 

tho Bishop of Manchester. 

As an indication of tho continued pro- 
gress of the Finnish language as a literarj' 
\ ahicle, we note that tho number of periodi- 
cals written in Finnish and published in 
1896 was 111, of which 100 appeared in 
Fiidand and 11 abroad. In Finland were 
also published 72 periodicals in Swedish, 
and -1 in both Finnish and Swedish. 

Folk-lorists may be interested to hear 
that the Society for " Bayerische Volks- 
kundo und Muudart - Forschung," the 
foundation of which we announced some 
time ago, will shortly issue the first volume 
of its Mitteilungen. 

The Parliamentary Papers of the week 
include Reports on the Charities of Four 
Yorkshire Parishes ; and a Statistical Ab- 
stract for the Colonial and other Possessions 
of the United Kingdom, 1881 to 1895 
(Is. 2d.). 

SCIENCE 



Problems of Biology. By George Sandeman, 

M.A. (Sonnenschein & Co.) 
Tnis essay has just missed being a valuable 
contribution to a very interesting discussion. 
It gives evidence of original thought and 
wide reading, but its style is such that the 
class of readers to whom it would have 
been really useful will never master its 
contents. 

Shortly stated, Mr. Sandeman's object is 
to test the current theories of life and 
development from the point of view of 
philosophy. It was high time some one 
undertook the task, for the biologist who 
resents any intrusion of metaphysics into 
what he is pleased to consider the domain 
of fact, and looks upon the world as " made 
in compartments answering to university 
lectureships," is unfortunately no figment 
of Mr. Sandeman's imagination. It is pre- 
cisely to him that ' Problems of Biology ' 
might have been helpful, perhaps even in- 
spiring, whereas we fear that it will be 
merely unintelligible, for Mr. Sandeman 
seems to have road German until he has lost 
the power of writing English. 

His first argument is that 
"the doctrine of the independence of science 
from philosophy, always over-emphasized, has, 

in the case of biology, no meaning whatever 

the problem of philosophy as regards organisms 
is the problem of biology." 

This is rather an overstatement of the case, 
but it is pleasant to find the case stated at 
all. Having thus defined his position, Mr. 
Sandeman proceeds to review in detail tho 
chief biological hypotheses. In each case 
tho questions asked aro tho same : Firstly, 
in what, according to tho hypothesis under 
consideration, does the unity of the or- 
ganism — "the very category of biology," 
as Mr. Sandeman calls it — consist? And 
secondly, can an unassailable theory of 
tho unity — of identity in difference — bo 
built up upon the hypothesis? We agree 
with him that satisfactory answers to 
these questions aro not given by any 



hypothesis according to which the parts 
of the organism, or the organism and 
its environment, are looked upon as un- 
related particulars, acting independently of 
one another. That they postulate this 
" independence of differences" is the accu- 
sation which he brings against 1: ' ins 
of Herbert Spencer, Weismann, Naegeli, 
and Lamarck. Criticism from a new point 
of view is always interesting, and we have 
seldom read a closer piece of reasoning than 
Mr. Sandeman's account of these hypotho 
as interpreted by the light of Hegel and 
Hartinann ; only it requires the patience 
of a conscientious reviewer to follow him 
through the perplexing phraseology in 
which he clothes his argument. 

The chapter on "Natural Selection" is 
quite the weakest part of the book. Here, 
for instance, is a surprising statement : — 

"A species is at no time, in fact, more 
numerous than can be supported by its means 
of subsistence, and it seems probable that it 
never comes near to such a limit." 

"Wo suppose Mr. Sandeman means the 
individuals of a species, in which case the 
first part of the sentence is a logical quibble, 
untrue "in fact"; and we know of no 
reason why the second part "seems pro- 
bable," unless it is that Dr. Hutchison 
Stirling finds no reference to the struggle 
for existence in ' The Voyage of the Beagle,' 
a reason which is scarcely convincing. And 
this section is worse than weak, it is in bad 
taste. Only a very young man could be 
pardoned for writing as follows : — 

" And the achievement of the method 
[natural selection] is not to explain anything 
which is, but it is merely to afford us a transi- 
tion from the really unintelligible of accidental 
production, to the formally intelligible of 
conditioned existence. It enables one to follow, 
hypothetically, the production of the parts of 
the system of the body, or of the organism and 
environment, as unconditioned by the other 
parts of those systems. Then, at a certain 
point which cannot be shown as phenomenal, 
these parts come into collision with their con- 
ditions, and those only which fit the latter (that 
is, all those which exist) come to be selected. 
Thus the Darwinian thunderclap follows upon 
its proper blaze of abstraction. And all that it 
succeeds in doing is to offer to us an empty 
formula of explanation which enables us to 
explain the parts as essentially unrelated to one 
another. In this respect, and in harmony with 
the first postulate, it is an alogical principle, 
and is necessarily, as in fact, without interest to 
research." 

The average biologist is as little given to 
hero-worship as any man, but the above 
will make him rail against " ignorant 
philosophers," so that, on yet another 
ground than that of style, the barrier 
between him and Mr. Sandeman seems 
impassable. There are, however, a good 
many psychologists who understand the 
Gorman of the philosophers, though they 
accept unquestioningly the most mechanical 
theories of life from their teachers of phy- 
siology. To them we recommend Mr. Sande- 
man's essay ; and if it is not called for in 
too great a hurry, we expect to see his new 
edition largely " revised and amended." 



SOCIETIES. 

Geological.— Dec. lf>.— Dr. H. Hicks, President* 

in the cliair.— Messrs. W. A. Brend, R H. Kitson, 

J. C. E. Lawson, H. N. Perrin and J. Roberts were 

elected Fellows.— The followiog communications 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



21 



were read : 'On the Subdivisions of the Carboni- 
ferous Series in Great Britain, and the True Fosition 
of the Beds mapped as the Yoredale Series,' by Dr. 
W. Hind, -and 'Note on Volcanic Bombs in the 
Schalsteins of Nassau,' by Prof. E. Kayser, com- 
municated by the Secretary. 



Institution op Civil Engineers— Dec. 22.— 
Mr. J. W. Barry, President, in the chair. — The paper 
read was 'On Steel Skeleton Construction in Chicago,' 
by Mr. E. C. Shankland. 



Mo.v. 



MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK 
London Institution, 4. — 'Rays of Light, New and Old,' Prof. 
J. A. Fleming. 

— Victoria Institute, 4} — ' The Botany of Egvpt,' Dr Walker. 

— Geographical. 83. — 'An Expedition to the Barotse Country,' 

Capt A S. Gibbons. Mr P. C Reid, and Capt A ltertrand. 
Tues. Royal Institution, 3. — 'Light, Visible and Invisible,' Frof. 

S F. Thompson. 
Wed. Society of Arts, 7— 'The Growth and Demolition of Mountains,' 

Mr C. T, Dent 

— Geological, 8. — ' Structure of the Skull in a Pliosaur,' Mr C. W. 

Andrews; 'On the Pembroke Earthquakes of August. 1892, 

and November. 189.'!,' Mr. C Davison; 'Changes of Level in 

the Bermuda Islands,' Prof, R s T'arr. 
Thurs. Royal Institution, 3.— 'Light, Visible and Invisible,' Frof. 

S. P. Thompson. 
Fri. Astronomical, 8. 
6at. Eoval Institution, 3.— 'Light, Visible and Invisible,' Prof. 

S. P. Thompson. 



gthxttt (&oni$. 

We are exceedingly sorry to hear of the de- 
cease, at Berlin, of Prof. E. du Bois-Reymond, 
after a brief illness. He was born in 1818 at 
Berlin, and began in 1837 studying theology in 
the University there. After a year of this he 
migrated to Bonn and devoted his time to 
geology, but in 1839 the influence of Johannes 
Muller drew him back to his native city. As 
early as 1841 he began his celebrated researches 
into the electricity of nerve and muscle. His 
striking investigations in this direction attracted 
the attention of Humboldt, owing to whose 
encouragement he was able to publish his cele- 
brated ' Untersuchungen iiber die thierische 
Elektricitat,' and who welcomed him on his 
election to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 
1850. In 1858 he succeeded Johannes Muller 
in his chair. In 1868 he became Permanent 
Secretary of the Academy. His writings on 
physiology were, it is hardly necessary to say, 
numerous and important, and the physiologists 
of the present day owe him a deep debt of grati- 
tude. His lectures 'Ueber die Grenzen des 
Naturerkennens,' 'Sieben Weltratsel,' and 
'Goethe und kein Ende,' were known to all 
educated men in his own country and to many 
outside. 

The planet Mercury will be at greatest 
eastern elongation from the sun on the evening 
of the 6th inst., and will, therefore, be visible 
after sunset during the first half of the month 
in the constellation Capricornus. Venus is in- 
creasing in brilliancy as an evening star, moving 
in an easterly direction through Aquarius into 
Pisces ; she will be in conjunction with the 
crescent moon on the 6th. Mars is decreasing 
in brightness ; he is almost stationary in the 
heavens, situated in the north-eastern part of 
Taurus, and will be in close conjunction with 
the moon not long before setting on the morning 
of the 15th. Jupiter rises now about 10 o'clock 
in the evening, in the constellation Leo. Saturn 
is in the western part of Scorpio, and does not 
rise until past 4 o'clock in the morning. 

TnK elements of Mr. Perrine's new comet 
(g, 1896) to which reference was made in our 
"Notes" last week were calculated by Messrs. 
Hussey and Perrine from early observations. 
Dr. F. Ristenpart, of Heidelberg, has made 
another determination of the orbit, with the 
result that the perihelion passage took place 
on the 1st ult. The brightness continues to 
decrease ; and the comet is now situated in the 
constellation Eridanus, its approximate place 
for to-night (January 2nd) being, according to 
Dr. Ristenpart's epheineris, R.A. 3'" 33 m , 
N.IM). 90° 57', and for next Wednesday (the 
6th) 11. A. ::t,:v", N.P.D. 91° 19'. 



FINE ARTS 



The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches 
in the County of London. By Edwin 
Freshfield, Jun. (Privately printed.) 
In a former number we had the pleasure of 
noticing Mr. Freshfield's excellent work on 
' The Communion Plate of the Churches in 
the City of London.' He has now issued 
a companion volume on ' The Communion 
Plate of the Parish Churches in the County 
of London,' and it is pleasant to find it is 
to be followed by a monograph on ' The 
Church Plate of the County of Middlesex.' 
For some occult reason Mr. Freshfield has 
again chosen to print his work "privately." 
The bulk of the present as of the former 
volume is occupied by a descriptive inven- 
tory of the plate, but this is prefaced by 
an important introduction, divided into two 
sections. The first begins by explaining 
what churches are dealt with in the work 
and what are omitted. Out of upwards of 
three hundred contained within the eighteen 
rural deaneries in the county of London 
outside the City, forty-two only are parish 
churches, the rest being churches of eccle- 
siastical parishes and districts of modern 
origin, and possessing, it is presumed, no 
plate of any archaeological value. All 
these accordingly are omitted from the work 
"excepting those built under the Union of 
Benefices Act," &c. 

For historical purposes Mr. Freshfield 
divides the parish churches into two classes : 
(1) those of ancient parishes which have 
existed from time immemorial, and (2) those 
of certain statutory parishes separated from 
the ancient parishes by legislation during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Of these a table is appended, mentioning 
the parish and the date of its creation, the 
dedication and date of the church, and 
the name of its architect when known. 
Some interesting details are also supplied 
concerning the cost of the later churches. 
But the greater part of the section is taken up 
by an account of the working of the Union 
of Benefices Act, an excuse for which is 
found in the scattering of plato brought 
about by the destruction of the City 
churches. On this subject Mr. Freshfield 
entered at length in his former volume, 
and his readers will cordially agree with him 
that "every obstacle should be put in the 
way of anything like wholesale demolition." 
From the second section of the introduc- 
tion, which treats of the general cha- 
racteristics of the plate, we learn that in 
the county of London not a single medueval 
piece of plato has survived. In the City, on 
the contrary, five specimens have escaped 
destruction. In the county, too, nearly all 
the Elizabethan and Jacobean plate has 
disappeared, and the bulk of the vessels 
are post- Restoration, eighteenth century, 
or modern. The last-named, as Mr. Fresh- 
field points out, are usually copied from ono 
or two typical pieces of pre-Reformation 
plate still preserved in this country, "and 
in nine cases out of ten, where the artist 
has tried to improvo on tho old model, with 
design or detail of his own invention, tho 
result is a failure." Almost all tho plato in 
tho county of London is tho work of London 
goldsmiths, tho exceptions being some three 
or four pieces of provincial make and about 



half a dozen foreign pieces. Among these 
last are cups at Bromley and Fulham, and 
a little goblet at St. Mary-le-Strand. 

Among the materials used are a number 
of jugs, flagons, or cruets made of glass, 
no doubt because they are cheap, and 
anything is good enough for a church 
according to some people ; but the use of 
glass for chalices, as at St. James's, Clerken- 
well, is contrary to all ancient custom and 
should be avoided. 

Among the flagons there seems to be much 
diversity of shape. The prevalent pattern 
is the tankard, both of the tall type and the 
shorter, with flat lids, but in later examples 
the lid is domed. Most of the examples are 
quite plain, but an elaborate set of three 
round-bellied flagons is in use at St. James's, 
Piccadilly, and a handsome tall tankard not 
unlike the well-known Norwich and Bristol 
examples is preserved at Kensington. 

Of cups only one of the Edwardian type 
exists (at St. Margaret's, Westminster), and 
of the Elizabethan period but four have 
survived. Eleven Stuart examples, six 
made during the Commonwealth, and thir- 
teen later are all there are of the seven- 
teenth century. There are in addition to 
the cups of the usual type several others 
that are of peculiar form or of secular 
origin. At Bromley both the vessels that 
serve as chalices are secular and foreign, 
one being a tall Nuremberg cup, the other 
a small Augsburg hanap. Hampstead is 
fortunate in the possession of a very fine 
steepled hanap, made in 1629, and presented 
to the church in 1747, and Kensington has a 
cup of the same type, but without a cover ; 
it is also earlier, with the hall-marks for 
1599. At Fulham is a fine steepled cup 
with characteristic bulbed bowl and cover, of 
Nuremberg make, given in 1689; and the 
same church has also a very pretty pair of 
English cups, made in 1615, with steepled 
covers. 

The paten-covers with which many cups 
are provided, and patens proper, call for no 
general remark. They conform to the usual 
types of either a flat circular plate, or the 
same mounted on a short foot or stem. 
Only one example is earlier than 1624. A 
pretty lobed dish of Liibeck make of the 
sixteenth century serves as a paten at St. 
Mary Abbots, Kensington, and two Ham- 
burg basins with repousse, work on the rims 
are in use at St. Mary-le-Strand. A paten 
almost of mediaeval type with peculiar raised 
ornament, and the cup to which it belongs, 
also with like ornament, were given to the 
latter church in 1712. 

The almsdishes, as Mr. Freshfield points 
out, are in general extremely poor. The 
large and handsome examplo at St. James's, 
Piccadilly, made in 1683, has the Last 
Supper in high relief in tho centre, and a 
repousse border with fruit, &c. St. Mar- 
garot's, Westminster, possesses a similar ex- 
ample, though not so good and a few years 
later in date. Both measure nearly two 
feet iD diameter. 

As in most collections of plate, that in 
the churches of the county of London in- 
cludes many articles of a miscellaneous 
character, such as a rose-water ewer, two 
baptismal bowls, snufTlirtxes, chairmen's 
hammers, and tho like. Tho most remark' 
able of all is tho famous tobacco - box 
belonging to tho parish of St. Margaret, 



T II E ATI! KX.KUM 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



Westminster, The original bos is a Bmall 
one oi horn, engraved with the .-inns of tho ] 
city of Westminster and a bust of the Duke 
of Cumberland within a "f trophies, 

from a design by Hogarth. It was given 
to tin 1 parish in 1718, but has since been 
enclosed in sis Bucoeesive outer (uses, the 
surfaces of which are covered with names 
of various persons and with engravings of 
events of local or national importance. 

Tho beadles' staves in the county of 
London are considered by Mr. Freshfield to 
bo "quite as good if not better than those 
in tho City" (ate). They are over seventy in 
number, and may be divided into (1) those 
with pear-shaped knobs, (2) those sur- 
mounted by statuettes, models, or other 
devices, and (3) short maces or wands. By 
far the larger number belong to the second 
class, many excellent examples of which are 
figured in the work. Although, on the 
whole, the church plate of the county 
cannot be compared with that in the City 
as regards the antiquity of individual 
pieces or in general artistic interest, there 
are, as we have seen, many articles of 
unusual excellence. 

Mr. Freshfield's inventories, like those in 
his former volume, appear to be carefully 
and thoroughly done. They include the 
measurements, weights, hall-marks (where 
any), and short descriptions of each piece, 
and are not overburdened with unnecessary 
notes on the genealogy of the donors. A 
useful classified table of every piece of 
plate (each class arranged in chronological 
order, with diagrams of the makers' marks), 
and a list of donors of plate, conclude the 
volume. No index of the many persons and 
places mentioned in it is vouchsafed, but on 
the appearance of the volume on the church 
plate of Middlesex we are promised a general 
index to the three volumes. 

The twenty-four plates that form the only 
illustrations to this volume are collotype 
reproductions of large photographs taken 
for the purpose. Several of them — such 
as the picture of the great almsdish at 
St. James's, Piccadilly, and that of the 
curious dish at St. George's-in-the-East, 
and the groups of plate at Stepney, Ken- 
sington (St. Mary Abbots), and St. Mary- 
le-Strand — leave nothing to be desired. The 
eleven plates devoted to the beadles' staves 
are also excellent. We should, however, 
like to know why these eleven plates alone 
are numbered, while the other thirteen 
plates, which alternate with them, are not 
numbered at all. The finding of the plates 
is on this account no easy matter, and the 
difficulty is increased by the printer's stupid 
habit of not numbering the pages that 
begin with a new parish. Thus out of the 
first twenty, only 9, 12, 14, and 17 are 
paged, and of tho second twenty, only 21, 
23, 31, 35,37, and 39. Among the former 
six plates are distributed, and another six 
among the latter ; but as the index of 
illustrations refers the reader in the case of 
each of these twelve plates to unnumbered 
pages, the finding of them is rather a trial 
to one's patience and temper. Perhaps Mr. 
Freshfield will see that this defect does not 
occur in his third volume. 

The work is admirably printed and illus- 
trated throughout, and bound in unglazed 
buckram ; but wo should have liked a label 
or lettered title on the back. 



a N 9 I 1 1 

77.. Art Journal, 1896 (Virtue & Co.)i 

< ijiens with a clear and linn, but rather too 
light version of Mr. Stanhope Forbes's capital 
picture 'Forging t he Anchor.' In the first 
article thai accomplished writer Mr. Claud 
Phillips describes the collection of pictures 
formed l>y Mr. (I. McCulloch, and rightly dc- 
plores the breaking up of certain historic 
gatherings of works of art which were intact 
when Dr. Waagen took his very imperfect and 
too often perfunctory census of the art treasures 
of Great Britain. But Mr. Phillips rather over- 
estimates the value of the German critic's 
labours, and he somewhat exaggerates our loss 
of pictorial wealth. No doubt, however, we 
have parted with a number of fine things, 
and it is probable that recent social changes, 
especially the gradual impoverishment of the 
"once landed class," whose forefathers in the 
last century had knowledge, taste, and wealth 
enough to collect works of art, will 
entail still greater losses. If it is a special 
function and duty of a long- established con- 
temporary to extol with the pencil as well as the 
pen a certain number of painters whose reputa- 
tions have yet to be made, and others who are 
not likely to establish a reputation at all, then we 
are bound to say that the Art Journal of to-day 
is at once conscientious and enterprising in act- 
ing up to its honourable principles, so that we 
read in its pages of several of the illustrious 
obscure. A few papers enrich the present 
volume whose writers aim at better things and 
endeavour to direct popular taste to design of 
a high stamp. Much judgment and tact are 
shown in the engravings from some of the 
choicest contributions to current exhibitions, 
and the remarks upon them. It is pleasant, 
too, to read what Mr. George Leslie and Mr. 
F. Eaton have to tell us about 'The Royal 
Academy in the Present Century,' and there are 
several capital illustrations of sculpture, ancient 
and modern, British as well as foreign. A 
great proportion of the larger cuts and plates 
are quite up to the standard of the Art Journal. 
The articles are, as a rule, well written, thought- 
ful, and competent ; their characteristic defect 
is, as we have before said, their brevity, a 
defect which seldom fails to damp the enthusiasm 
of the writers. 

The Magazine of Art, 1S9G. (Cassell & Co.) 
— There is great improvement in the very 
numerous page cuts and plates which 
add much to the attractions of this portly 
and handsomely printed volume. Among the 
best of the plates are the frontispiece after 
M. Aubert's charming 'Country Cousins,' here 
so called ; Mr. M. Raeburn's etching of ' Green- 
wich Pensioners, ' after Millais ; and the photo- 
graph of W. Hunt's famous drawing in Mr. 
Humphry Roberts's collection entitled ' Pre- 
paring for the Soire"e. ' A special feature of the 
volume is the series of cuts after pictures and 
drawings by Lord Leighton and Sir John 
Millais, all of them characteristic and excellent, 
and employed to illustrate an elaborate and 
sympathetic set of essays by Mr. Spiel- 
mann. Similar transcripts accompany the 
notices of Sir E. Burne - Jones's studies. 
Among the most satisfactory portions of 
the letterpress are Mr. J. Guille Millais's 
papers on 'Sport in Art,' a well - treated 
and ably illustrated theme which deserves 
developing on a much larger scale than the 
Magazine could admit of ; Mr. W. Crane's dis- 
courses on ' The Influence of Architectural 
Style upon Design,' a valuable notice of an in- 
teresting matter ; Mr. J. Ward's 'Reminiscences 
of Leighton'; and Mr. J. S. Gardner's 'Iron- 
work at South Kensington.' One or two 
writers betray curious ignorance of the subjects 
they have written upon ; the most conspicuous 
of these instances is afforded by the anony- 
mous 'Was Hogarth a Plagiarist?' Another 
instance is Mr. Burtchaell's note on ' The 



Portrait of Queen Elizabeth lately discovered 

at Siena,' p. 419, the author of which did 
not know ol another version — doubtless the 
original of the picture — which lias long been in 
a renowned English gallery. A third and m 
flagrant instance is Mr. .1. Pennell's ' An ! 
periment. 1 

The Pageant, 1891 (Hem me 

respects a spasmodic magazine, replete witli 
tales of hysterical terrors and curious legends 
curiously told and wondrouslj involved. The 
'"Foreword," a laudatory note on the con- 
tributors, is hardly justified by the contents of 
the book, certainly not by its illustrations, the 
majority of which are very poor — whatever their 
originals may be. The best of tli • are 

Mr. E. G< -se's ' Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly,' 
which, though a little cynical, is a good piece of 
writing, showing humour and research, and Mr. 
A. E. Abbott's 'God gave my Donkey Wings.' 
'Virago,' by Mr. W. D. Scull, is a well-com- 
posed story. Mr. Austin Dobson's verses ' I*' 
script to "Retaliation"' deserve, if anything 
could, a place by Goldsmith's genial satire. The 
best of the cuts, all things considered, is that 
which reproduces Rossetti's very fine pen draw- 
ing of ' Hamlet and Ophelia.' That an original 
so crude and dull as Mr. C. H. Shannon's rough 
sketch of a female model resuming her garments, 
which is rather boldly called ' A Wounded 
Amazon,' should be copied at all is as surprising 
as the reproduction of ' Le Premier Bal,' by 
Mr. C. Conder, of which it is dithcult to make 
anything. On the other hand, Mr. C. Ricketts's 
' Autumn Muse ' is a very pretty design indeed, 
suggesting Rossetti. 

Vanity Fair Album. Vol. XXVIII. ('Vanity 
Fair' Office.) — No personage in Vanity Fairh&s 
been more interesting, or, we may say, better 
drawn, than Li Hung Chang, whose face 
and figure by " Guth " are really good and 
vigorous, and full of character and strength. 
Among the persons of whom we cannot 
speak from personal knowledge are several 
whom "Jehu Junior" describes as good- 
looking, handsome, and so forth. One would 
not gather this from their portraits, but it 
would be invidious to name in this connexion 
either the men or their likenesses. Fortunately 
perhaps, vol. xxviii. contains no pictures, 
true or false, of ladies ; but are we to under- 
stand that no dames or damsels have made 
themselves notorious or important during 1896 ? 
It is impossible Mr. Alfred Austin can be the 
Poet Laureate and resemble the feeble per- 
sonage who figures as No. 042 ; Mr. Hall 
Caine certainly does not look the fury he 
is represented to be in No. G51 ; Lord 
Yarborough's friends repudiate No. 661 as 
a likeness of that peer ; but No. 662 may pass 
muster as a crude likeness of Mr. H. L. B. 
McCalmont. The young Marquis of Bath need 
not complain very bitterly about No. 668 ; nor 
can Viscount Curzon reasonably object, for 
his portrait is faithful and sympathetic, one 
of "Spy's" best works; we may say the 
same of the Duke of Bedford, but the like- 
ness of Mr. \V. Woodall (679) is dull ; that 
of Mr. G. Meredith (650) is a caricature in the 
tiresome old style of Vanity Fair. One of the 
best likenesses is No. 641, of the late Mr. 
Du Maurier, by ' Spy," who maintains his re- 
putation in masculine likenesses such as No. 660, 
'Sir W. MacCormac'; but he is not likely to 
increase it by performances like ' Sam Loates ' 
(602) and ' Mr. C. C. Clarke ' (664). 

The Architectural luvieu; Vol. I. No. 1 
(' Architectural Review ' Office), is a new candi- 
date for the honours of circulation, and, so far 
as we can see, appears fully to deserve them. 
The part before us, being that for November, 
contains a well-studied and sympathetic essay 
by Mr. J. E. Newberry on 'The Work of J. L. 
Pearson, R.A.,' with special reference to Truro 
Cathedral, illustrated by a plan and numerous 
photographic views of the building within and 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



23 



without. A series of papers on the City halls 
of London, by Mr. H. D. Lowry, is accompanied 
by clever, though flimsy illustrations by Mr. J. 
Pennell ; and a competent account of the church 
of St. Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield, and 
its restoration by Mr. A. Webb, is supplied by 
Mr. C. E. Mallow. A notice of certain works 
in metal by Mr. N. and Mrs. E. Dawson is 
lightened by cuts after a number of excellent 
designs by the former. 



PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL. 

Sir Wollaston Franks, President of the 
Society of Antiquaries, has asked the Dean and 
Chapter of Peterborough to allow the pro- 
fessional advisers of the Society to make some 
further examination of the west front of the 
church, and has received a point-blank refusal. 

On Tuesday the Chapter met, and it was 
resolved : — 

" The Deau and Chapter regret that they are 
unable to accede to the request made by the Presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries for permission to 
make a further examination of the west front, with 
a view to the preparation of a specification for the 
repair of the north gable. On two different occa- 
sions during the present year they have given 
facilities to the Society for the Protection of 
Ancient Buildings to make full examinations of the 
west front, and they gave the deputation of the 
Society of Antiquaries access to every part of it on 
December 4th. But they consider that to grant the 
present request would have a siguilicance which 
did not attach to any of the former occasions." 

This, too, has a significance. It signifies that 
the Dean and Chapter have at last learnt that 
the Society of Ant quaries are very much in 
earnest, are well advised, and know quite well 
what they are about. It signifies further that the 
Dean and Chapter and the architects behind 
them, having made up their minds to pulldown, 
are afraid of the alternative plan of repair 
advocated by the Society, and hope by locking 
the door to prevent the preparation of the 
Society's specification. There is a charming 
simplicity about this which recalls the Dean 
and Chapter's first act in the discussion, when 
they proposed to consider the objections to 
pulling down after two months, and to pull 
down meanwhile. But if our information is 
correct, as we believe it is, this has been thought 
of too late, for the specification is nearly 
ready, and the further examination of the 
building was only sought for the verification of 
a few points of secondary importance. 

The resolution goes on : — 

"The Dean and Chapter were ns desirous as the 
Society of Antiquaries can be that the old work 
should, if possible, be left undisturbed, and it was 
with this end in view that they obtained a second 
professional opinion. They are now assured, not 
only by the distinguished architects whom they 
have consulted, but also by practical workers of the 
widest experience in dealing with ancient buildings. 
that the safety of the fabric is involved, and that 
the method of repair suggested by the Society is 
neither suitable nor possible in this case. They feel, 
therefore, that they would only be misleading the 
Society if they consented to an examination pre- 
paratory to a course of action which they have 
definitely decided not to adopt." 

This has ever been the burden of their song, 
but the desire to leave undisturbed which is 
accompanied by an obstinate determination to 
pull down, and a refusal even to listen to those 
who offer at their own cost to demonstrate the 
possibility of repair without pulling down, is of 
a sort which requires some education for its 
proper appreciation. And the reference of the 
matter to Mr. Pearson and Sir Arthur Blomfield 
is, as we pointed out last week, no real reference 
at all. 

The thanks of every Englishman are due to 
the Society of Antiquaries for the stand they 
have made in this matter, and for their refusal 
to accept as final any "ultimatum" of the 
Dean and Chapter so long as anything remains 
to be saved. They are fighting the cause of 
every old church in the land. Some nonsense 
has been written by ignorant people, as there I 



always is when any subject is discussed in the 
newspapers, but the proportion of it is less than 
usual, and the controversy has opened the eyes 
of thousands to the mischief which is being done 
under the name of "restoration." If every 
stone of Peterborough Cathedral be made as 
new as the front of St. Alban's, the fight will 
not have been fought in vain. But we are not 
without hope even yet that the Dean and 
Chapter may reconsider their position and may 
pause before entering upon a work the cost of 
which they have not now the funds to meet, 
and the public are not in the humour to 
find for them. Again, too, there are beginning 
to be heard ominous mutterings about the state 
of things which leaves a priceless national 
monument in the uncontrolled power of five 
clergymen who may be quite unable to under- 
stand its value and importance. And any 
flagrant abuse of that power is certain to be 
brought under notice of Parliament, perhaps 
with results which others besides the Dean and 
Chapter of Peterborough may deplore. 

THE RAEBURN BYRON. 

Athenreum Club. 
I really cannot allow Mr. Ichenhiiuser to 
shelter himself in a cloud of pointless witticisms. 
Fortunately the matter at issue is extremely 
simple. On or about October 10th that 
renowned art collector informed a journalist — 
with a view to world-wide trumpeting — that he 
possessed a portrait of Byron at the age of 
seventeen, painted by the great Sir Henry 
Raeburn. Now facts are stubborn things, and 
cannot be disposed of as easily as so-called 
"Byron relics." In my letter to the Athe- 
ncexim (November 21st, 1896) I pointed out the 
inherent improbability of any such portrait 
having been painted by Raeburn, without, of 
course, presuming to criticize the merits of the 
painting itself, which had been removed to 
America for sale purposes. It may be a genuine 
Raeburn for all I know or care, but it most cer- 
tainly is not a portrait of Byron at the age of 
seventeen nor at any other age. If Mr. Ichen- 
hiiuser has himself been deceived, I am very 
sorry for him, although it is difficult to imagine 
a gentleman of his attainments — an art collector 
of such eminence — being bamboozled by a mere 
frame with "endearing inscriptions." 

Truth told, my protest was kindly meant. 
It was an attempt to serve the public and Mr. 
Ichenhiiuser. There are shoals of so-called 
Byron portraits in the market at the present 
time. They do not all claim to be originals — 
some are modest enough to pose as copies — but 
they, one and all, claim to be veritable like- 
nesses of the poet at one period or another of 
his life. Now, in point of fact, there are very 
few genuine portraits of Byron extant, and 
those portraits are well and widely known. 
Mr. John Murray, Lord Lovelace, Lord Leigh, 
Mr. Webb of Newstead, the Lady Dorchester, 
the Lady Burdett-Coutts, Mr. Alfred Morri- 
son, Mr. Horace Kent, and the heirs of 
the Hon. Mrs. Leigh are, I believe, the sole 
possessors of portraits taken from the life in 
oils and in water colours. If any other por- 
traits exist, their habitation should be made 
known. Supposing, for the sake of argument, 
that we admit the genuineness of Mr. Ichen- 
hiiuser's Raeburn Byron, I marvel that it 
should have been taken to America. There 
are many persons in England who would have 
given a great deal of money for that conjunction 
of immortal names. But a pedigree would have 
to be produced, and many little statements 
sifted before the sale. Portraits of celebrated 
men, by painters of Raeburn \s eminence, do not 
emerge from an obscurity of ninety years with- 
out causing something like a "sensation." For 
the sake of Mr. Ichenhauser's professional repu- 
tation as a connoisseur it would be well for him 
to bring his precious Byron back to England, 
where (if genuine) it will abide for ever. 

Richard Edgcumbe. 



THE NEW GALLERY. — WINTER EXHIBITION. 
MR. WATTS'S PICTURES. 

More than one hundred and fifty examples of 
Mr. Watts's art, sculptures as well as paintings, 
are to be seen in the New Gallery ; neverthe- 
less, the collection does not begin with the 
beginning of his career, although the earliest 
work on the walls dates from 1834, and it was 
not till 1837 that he sent his first contribu- 
tions to the Royal Academy, which were hung by 
that body when it held its first exhibition in 
Trafalgar Square. They consisted of two por- 
traits of young ladies and 'The Wounded Heron,' 
No. 3 in this gallery. The earliest finished 
picture before us is No. 7, a small half-length 
figure of Mr. James Weale ; it was painted 
somewhere about 1835, and is extremely interest- 
ing because, despite a certain timidity and 
heaviness of handling, it displays uncommon 
insight into the character of the sitter, firm- 
ness in the modelling, and distinct promise that 
the artist, who was not more than eighteen 
years old at the time, would become a good 
colourist of the school of Titian. No. 2, 
an unfinished, but, to our taste, a far better 
instance, is a very expressive and beautiful 
portrait of the artist himself "at the age 
of eighteen," the Catalogue says, while adding 
that it dates from 1834. The discrepancies of 
the dates are not so important as the differences 
of the works, which seem to indicate that 
No. 7 is an older example than No. 2, for the 
style of the latter is broader and less timid, 
and is certainly symptomatic of a freer and more 
confident mood. The earliest exhibited paint- 
ing before us is The Wounded Heron (3), a group 
of birds, which in its firmness and spirited 
touch is not unworthy of a long-practised hand. 
From the time it was at the Academy the 
artist has never been long absent from the 
public eye, having exhibited, all told, more 
than 270 pictures in London alone. The 
present, too, is the third large collection of 
his works that has been formed in the metro- 
polis, and there was also a numerous one some 
years ego made in Liverpool. It is clear, there- 
fore, that not only does our painter not fear the 
test involved in submitting to the public a large 
number of one man's works, but that the public 
appreciates such an exhibition of the works of 
one who, despite the great distinction he enjoys 
as a portraitist, has always declared that he 
" paints ideas, not objects." The fact is, how- 
ever, that, although his portraits yield to none 
in veracity and in modesty of style and execu- 
tion, they embody ideas. It is not inconsistent 
with this that a certain deficiency in what may be 
called fibre should rarely be quite absent from 
even the best of Mr. Watts's likenesses of men ; 
when women are in question no lack of senti- 
ment, beauty, or grace is felt. None of the old 
masters, in fact, has surpassed him in depicting 
ladies. 

But is this collection complete, and therefore 
thoroughly representative I It is not to be 
forgotten that, although few men have excelled 
Mr. Watts as a draughtsman, none of his 
numerous drawings appears in it. It comprises 
what is relatively but a small part of his 
output, either in portraits or in those painted 
ideas which he takes it to be his duty to pro- 
duce, although, we are sorry to say, the public 
does not agree with him in so thinking. His 
sculptures, which include equestrian statues of 
the heroic size and in a most heroic mood, are 
represented by only one bust. Even among 
the portraits we miss the likenesses of many 
famous men posterity will bo grateful for, 
among them being the best portraits ever 
painted of Browning, of Henry Taylor, of 
Guizot, of Mill, Lord Shaftesbury, Lord 

Dufferin, Lord Lytton, and Lord Sherbrooke, 

of Mr. Lecky, of Mr. Calderon, and others 
still living, and, among women, of die late 
Marchioness of Waterford and the living Mrs. 



Langtry. 



24 



THE ATHENAEUM 



X 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



\\ e may pass on to notice the other pic- 
tures which en technical or person*] grounds 
deserve attention. To tins treatment of the 
subject, the arrangemenl of the works, which is, 
on the whole, mere or less chronological, lends 
itself fairly well. No work in the South Room 
is mi interesting on its own account as the 
before- mentioned No. 2, which is described as 
a likeness of the artist, for it is treated with 
rare breadth, and a silveriness not common in 
his later days. Its softness and the clearness 
of the shadow through which the refined and 
thoughtful features are seen, are quite charm- 
ing, and we notice a strong likeness to 
Keats when a few years older. A sincere en- 
thusiasm pervades the expression, and adds 
greatly to the attractions of the picture. Of ' The 
Wounded Heron's' history we have already 
spoken. Technically it proves that the painter's 
hand had in the three years that had elapsed 
between its execution and that of this por- 
trait acquired additional firmness and pre- 
cision. The Saxon Sentinels (4), two figures, 
larger than life, may technically be said to 
herald the development of a stately sort of con- 
ventional art, distinctly academical, and akin 
rather to the Bolognese School than the com- 
bination of Venetian and Veronese art on which 
the repute of the artist now rests. The colour 
of this work glows, and its style is grandiose, 
but it is incapable of moving us. 

The draughtsmanship shows that when Mr. 
Watts painted the very striking, but un- 
finished portrait of Lady Lilford (8) he had 
not studied the Elgin Marbles in vain ; and in 
its painting and the massiveness of its model- 
ling, always a great point with Mr. Watts, there 
is not a little which reminds us of Reynolds's 
manipulation. The lady's head and the fine 
moulding of her features must have been in- 
structive to an artist who was bent on develop- 
ing his power to deal with style. 

In design and coloration the whole-length, 
life-size portrait of Mrs Nassau Senior (11) is, 
comparatively speaking, one of Mr. Watts's 
weakest works. It will be remembered that this 
lady was Millais's model for the fair matron, in 
the famous picture of 'The Rescue,' who kneels 
on the staircase and takes her two half-clad 
children from the fireman who had saved them. 
The splendour of her golden tresses attracted 
both artists. ' The Rescue ' and this portrait 
were executed at about the same time, i. e., 
in 1855 ; but Millais improved the lady's fea- 
tures, which Mr. Watts did not. She died but 
a few years since. Lady Holland (12) was painted 
in Italy, while the artist was being warmly be- 
friended by that eminent leader of society. It not 
only suggests the effect of the brilliant sunlight 
of the Riviera, but is the Lady Holland of 1843 
to the life. In fact, she thought so much of her 
protege s work that, years after, she bequeathed 
it to the Prince of Wales. The three-quarters- 
length, life-size J. Joachim (14), playing a violin, 
is one of Mr. Watts's most masculine portraits, 
dark and somewhat "sunken," as artists say 
(a circumstance most easily remedied), but, like 
the better-known contemporaneous portrait of 
Panizzi, in excellent condition. 

No. 15 is one of the best, if not the very best 
of the portraits of Tennyson. It was executed 
in 1859, and is a masterpiece of flesh painting 
as well as a perfect likeness. Una and the lied 
Cross Knight (1G) is one of the happiest of Mr. 
Watts's romantij pictures. But charming as its 
grace, movement, and bright colouring are, they 
rather diminish its virility and spontaneity ; 
in these respects it resembles The Childhood of 
Jupiter (00), When Poverty comes in at the 
Window (70), Britomart and Iter Nurse (98), 
and one or two more of his illustrative and 
anecdotic pictures — not of the allegories, which 
belong to quite a different category. Miss May 
Prinscp's portrait (21) is pearl-like in colour 
and delightful in its sweetness and purity ; 
while, painted thirty years ago, the highly 
finished and thoroughly natural likeness of the 



present Earl of Carlisle (.'{.'<), then Mr. Get 
Howard, is an exceptionally good example of 
a manner of painting .Mr. Watts seldom adopts. 

It has not, we think, been exhibited before. 

NOTES PROM ATHENS. 

AMONG the archaeological excavations of the 
last month those at Corinth and the islands of 
Then and Melos deserve especial notice. Of a 
city like Corinth, well known for its riches and 
brilliancy, which only received a temporary 
check by its destruction at the hands of Murn- 
mius, and was restored by .Julius C;esar to new 
life and something of its ancient glory as Colonia 
Laus Julia Corinthus, there was, it is ad- 
mitted, little left. The existence of the city in 
the Middle Ages, the misery and repeated 
plundering, which culminated in the disastrous 
domination of the Turks, and finally the fre- 
quent earthquakes, all contributed gradually to 
destroy the relics of antiquity. The well-known 
ruins of an old Dorian temple with monolith 
pillars and the remains of the amphitheatre 
outside the old city were the only remnants of 
early date. But the old ruins were hardly in 
better preservation at the end of the seven- 
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, as we gather from the official records 
of the Venetian archives. Only the amphi- 
theatre was in comparatively better preserva- 
tion than at present, as can be seen from the 
report which Francesco Grimani, " Provveditor 
General dell' armi in Regno," sent from Corinth 
to the Senate on September 25th, 1700, in 
which he proposed to employ the old amphi- 
theatre as a lazaretto for the plague then preva- 
lent in the district. This report, together 
with the accompanying drawing, was published 
in 1877 in the Mittheilungen des ]:. deutschen 
archdolog. Inst. Meanwhile, as the newcity 
occupied the site of old Corinth, more extended 
excavations, with the view of bringing to light 
the existing relics, were not to be thought of. 
But after an earthquake in 1857 had completely 
destroyed old Corinth, new Corinth by a law of 
May 22nd in the same year was built 6 kilo- 
metres to the north-east of the old city, and 
old Corinth was gradually transformed into a 
decaying village, which at the last census in 
1889 only numbered 883 inhabitants. This 
desertion gave a much freer hand to the advo- 
cates of systematic excavation. Such investi- 
gations have now been undertaken by the 
American School here, under the direction of 
Prof. Rufus Richardson, and the first results 
were important enough to encourage wider 
operations. 

It goes without saying that Pausanias here, 
as in all such cases, is the best guide to the 
scrutiny of the old ground, although his topo- 
graphical description is not sufficiently clear. 
Pausanias starts from Cenchrere, the harbour 
in the Saronic Gulf, proceeds along the road to 
Corinth, glances at the monuments there, and 
then describes the groupof temples situated in the 
market. Then he follows the street which leads 
to the other harbour, Lecha?um, on the Corinthian 
Gulf, and mentions also other monuments 
which were in any way connected with those to 
be found in this direction, but otherwise scat- 
tered about the city. Lastly, he gives a long 
description of the extant monuments, following 
the road that leads from the market to Sicyon, 
and passes the temple of Minerva Chalinitis 
and the group of monuments which are near it 
on his way to the Acro-corinthus. Keeping 
this route of Pausanias properly in mind, we 
see clearly that, with the exception of the 
monuments scattered about the city, which our 
guide oidy mentions casually and out of their 
place in his walk through the Leclueum Street, 
all the rest are described in groups. One suc- 
ceeds another ; we need only fix the chief 
directions and find some of the chief remnants 
to reconstruct the whole plan of the ground 
and discover all the monuments, if they are 
still in existence. When, therefore, the Ameri- 



pade hit on the theatre at tin- tirst attempt 
the discovery was important. This theatre has 
1 to the depth of L'2ft. The dis- 
covery, of which there are at present only 
few details to hand, is not only interesting in 
itself, but will serve to divulge the other build- 
which still lie underground and undis- 
covered. It is noticeable that merely the stone 
supports of the rows of • irvive from 

Greek times, and a Roman theatre of later date 
has been built on the same site. With this 
discovery, however, are connected two others, 
which will give secure indications for further 
excavation. A Greek portico 100 ft. long has 
been discovered, and at a depth of about 
7 metres a carefully plastered street has been 
laid open for about 17 metres. A number of 
very deep springs were discovered at the same 
time. Among the antiquities of importance dis- 
covered is a large vase of burnt earth, which 
has been put together out of several pieces. 

The results up to now belong only to the 
excavations which have been made. Negotia- 
tions between the American School and the 
Greek Government have ended in an arrange- 
ment to buy the fields and hand them over to 
the archreologists, who will make a systematic and 
regular excavation. The agreement as to the 
contents will be that of the French Government 
concerning Delphi. In accordance with the 
terms of this convention the ground will, in 
a short time from the present day, be purchased, 
and the excavations again begun. I hope 
that the indefatigable American investigators, 
both by the publication of their present results 
and a speedy extension of the range of their 
fortunate finds, will increase the store of our 
knowledge of the topography and monuments 
of Corinth. In my next letter I shall deal with 
the excavations at Thera and Melos. 

Spyr. P. Lambros. 



Jfi»f-^ri (gtfssip. 

The private view of the Winter Exhibition 
of the Royal Academy, consisting exclusively of 
works by Lord Leighton, is appointed for to-day 
(Saturday) ; the public will be admitted on 
Monday next. 

The admirers of W. J. Miiller and others 
who, though displeased by the mannerisms 
of his painting, yet enjoy the brightness 
of his effects, the sparkle of his colora- 
tion, and the extreme cleverness of his com- 
position, to say nothing of his distinction as 
the finest of the scenic landscapists of our time, 
will be gratified by a visit or two to the Corpora- 
tion Art Gallery at Birmingham, in which nearly 
two hundred of Midler's productions of all sorts 
and subjects have been collected. They 
comprise, with hardly an exception, the most 
attractive, characteristic, and popular of the 
painter's works. The illustrated catalogue of 
them is, in its way, a desirable possession. 

A marble bust of the Very Rev. Joseph 
Hirst is to be placed, as a memorial of that 
distinguished archaeologist, in the library of 
Ratcliffe College, Leicester, of which he was 
president. The Ratclirfian Association has 
given 501. towards the expense ; the new Bishop 
of London, Earl Percy, Lord Arundellof Wardour, 
Lord Gerard, Mr. E. Bellasis (Lancaster Herald), 
and Mr. Hellier Gosselin have also contributed. 
Subscriptions may be sent to the Rev. A. Emery 
at the College. 

The Landscape Exhibition of the current 
season in the Dudley (iallery comprises works by 
Messrs. R. W. Allan, J. S. Hill, H. McLach- 
1 an. A. D. Peppercorn, L. Thomson, and E. A. 
Waterlow. 

We regret to learn that there has been risk 
of the destruction of the beauty of that very fine 
house, the British Embassy in the Faubourg 
St. Honors, Paris, by the raising of the roofs 
of the wings en-avant-corps on either side of the 
gate, for the purpose of putting an additional 



N° 3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENJEUM 



25 



story above the present chancellerie, and one to 
match it on the other side of the court. More 
room is said to be needed ; but, if so, it would 
be wise to gain it by boarding-out the consulate 
rather than by adding a story to buildings which 
will not, architecturally speaking, bear an in- 
crease of height. If the intention to spoil the 
Embassy be not abandoned, attention will be 
called to the matter in Parliament on the vote 
for diplomatic buildings and on that for the 
salary of the Chief Commissioner of Works. 

Numerous and urgent complaints having 
been made of the essay which precedes 
the catalogue of the current exhibition of the 
Society of Painters in Water Colours, the Com- 
mittee has withdrawn it from circulation. 

The Swiss papers record the death of Prof. 
Ernst Gladbach, of Zurich, on December 2Gth, 
in his eighty-fourth year. He was born at 
Darmstadt, and was Hessian State architect 
from 1840 to 1857, when he was called to the 
Chair of Architecture in Zurich, which he held 
until his retirement in 1890. He is known for 
his writings on the history and construction of 
buildings in wood, especially by his ' Holzarchi- 
tektur der Schweiz,' which has passed through 
two edition). 

La Chronique des Arts announces that the 
Paris Salon will be opened this year, for the 
last time in the Champs Elyse'es, on April 20th 
instead of May 1st. It will be closed on June 8th. 
Pictures intended for this Salon must be de- 
livered at the Palais de l'lndustrie between 
March 5th and 10th, sculpture between the 
23rd and 27th, and architectural works on the 
28th or 29th. 



MUSIC 



Life and Letters of Sir Charles Halle. 
(Smith, Elder & Co.) 

This extremely interesting volume is edited 
by the late musician's son Mr. C. E. Halle 
and his daughter Miss Marie Halle, these 
members of his family acknowledging their 
indebtedness to Mr. C. L. Graves for valu- 
able and sympathetic assistance. It may 
safely be said that Sir Charles Halle and 
Mr. August Manns have done more for 
music in this country during the past 
thirty or forty years than any other 
foreigners who have taken up their residence 
in England. The present volume begins 
with an autobiography, which, however, ends 
with 1865, after which the son takes up the 
record of the father's life, and ends it with 
tenderness and reverence. Karl Halle was 
born on Easter morning, April 11th, 1819, 
and he says that, curiously enough, Easter 
Day fell every eleven years on April 11th 
until he was fifty-five years old. Halle has 
much to say concerning the eminent musi- 
cians he met in Paris in his early years, 
among them being Spohr, Chopin, Liszt, 
Cherubini, Thalberg, Stephen Heller, Wag- 
ner, Berlioz, and many others of lesser note. 
Referring to Berlioz, he says : — 

"There never lived a musician who adored 
his art more than did Berlioz ; he was, indeed, 
enthusiasm personified. To hear him speak 
about, or rave about, a real chef-d'cewore such as 
4 Ermida,' 'Iphigenia,' or the c minor Symphony 
was worth any performance of the same. And 
what a picture he was at the head of his orches- 
tra, with his eagle face, his bushy hair, his air 
of command, and glowing with enthusiasm. He 
was the most perfect conductor that I ever set 
eyes upon, one who held absolute sway over 
his troops, and played upon them as a pianist 
upon the key-board." 



In 1839 Stephen Heller brought to 
Halle's rooms in Paris a young musician 
named Pichard Wagner : — 

" We all liked him as a frank, amiable, and 
lively companion, modest and full of enthu- 
siasm for all that is beautiful in art. In 1876, 
when I met him at Bayreuth, his first words 
alluded to the pleasant evenings with Heller at 
my rooms in Paris ! What a difference there 
was between the man of 1839 and the man of 
1876 ! " 

The number eleven was as significant for 
Halle as that of thirteen was for Wagner, 
for he married his first wife, nee Desiree 
Smith de Pilieu, on November 11th, 1841. 
In 1847 he started "concerts de musique 
de chambre," never before attempted in 
Paris ; but in the following year the Revo- 
lution broke out, his pupils, save one, dis- 
appeared, and the master had to think what 
could be done for himself, his wife, and two 
small children. The scene is described briefly, 
but graphically, and also the wrench that 
he endured in leaving his beloved Paris for 
Englandin March, 1848. Hesaysthathe was 
far from anticipating thathe would eventually 
feel at home in England, and be proud to 
become one of her citizens, and play a 
humble, but not unimportant part in the 
development of her musical taste. What 
great benefit Halle showered on music here 
there is no need to insist upon, but he is in 
error in saying that no record could be 
found of the complete performance of a 
Beethoven sonata in London prior to 1848. 
Mr. Deakin, of Birmingham, one of the 
most erudite of musical critics, has effec- 
tually refuted this statement, though it may 
have been true concerning the late John 
Ella's Musical Union, a group of small 
pianoforte pieces being, as a rule, 
placed at the end of the programmes. At 
first the stranger's pathway was hard, but 
gradually Halle made his way, and his 
account of his first experiences in Man- 
chester, and the state of music in the centre 
of the cotton industry when he went there, 
is very amusing. Eventually, in 1858, the 
celebrated orchestral concerts were started, 
and though the outcome at first was very dis- 
couraging, appreciation gradually increased, 
and the Halle orchestra came into request 
all over the country, except in London, 
where efforts to establish it in favour did not 
win the success they deserved. This may have 
been partly because the conductor's beat, 
though by no means wanting in vigour, 
was too firm and rigid, so that his 
perfectly drilled force gave the listener 
the idea of military precision rather than 
of individual force and energy. His en- 
deavours to popularize Beethoven's sonatas 
met with no want of encouragement. Not 
only were recitals of the entire series given 
year after year, first at the Hanover Square 
Rooms, and subsequently at St. James's 
Hall, but he issued an edition of these 
immortal works superior in note accuracy 
and fingering to any that had previously 
appeared in England, and his chambor con- 
certs were also of the highest value from an 
educational point of view. Earnest as ho 
was in the interest of what he thought was 
right in musical art, ho was wonderfully 
genial as a man, abundant testimony as to 
this being afforded in the present volume. 

Mr. Charles E. Hallo speaks lovingly of 
his father's enormous capacity for work, bia 



fondness for animals, his religion as a 
Roman Catholic, and his political opinions as 
a staunch Conservative, though he had a 
fixed repugnance for the polling booth, 
which he associated with the jury box, to 
which he was, fortunately, summoned but 
once in his life. He was wont, nevertheless, 
to say — of course in jest — that nothing 
would please him better than to be im- 
prisoned as a first-class misdemeanant with 
a quantity of books which he never could 
find time to study while at large, and with 
access to a piano. More than two hundred 
pages are occupied by the letters, which are 
excellent reading, though they do not in- 
clude the correspondence with Lady Halle, 
as this is to form the subject of a second 
volume. 



THE INCORPORATED SOCIETY OF MUSICIANS. 

The Twelfth Annual Conference of this 
Association, which seems to be steadily growing 
in influence for good in the art, was held at 
Cardiff during the past week, in the Park Hall. 
At the first meeting on Tuesday the secretary, 
Mr. E. Chadfield, read the report, which showed 
that the membership had undergone a steady 
increase, and that the income was considerably in 
excess of the expenditure. Mr. W. H. Cummings 
read a thoughtfully written paper on ' Musicial 
Ethics.' He contended that teachers should, if 
possible, confine themselves to one speciality, 
though in rural districts this was, of course, 
not always possible. He earnestly advised 
young musicians to avoid bogus and shady in- 
stitutions, of which there were unhappily too 
many, and not to pay for sham titles and degrees, 
whether of home or foreign manufacture. Mr. 
Cummings also advocated general mental and 
physical culture, as tending to add immensely 
to the value of a man's musical work. In the 
afternoon Mr. John Thomas, the well-known 
harpist, read a paper on Welsh music. 

On Wednesday morning the Conference was 
continued, Dr. Bunnett, of Norwich, reading a 
paper entitled ' Reminiscences of Cathedral Life 
during the Last Half Century.' He confined 
himself to Norwich. Some amusement was 
occasioned by the narration of the various 
methods by which, in past times, boys were 
made to open their mouths when singing. Nuts 
were placed between their teeth, but, as the 
boys promptly cracked and ate them, marbles 
were substituted. Spohr was so delighted with 
the solo singing in 1839 that he began to applaud, 
but soon discovered his mistake. Everything 
was done to make the lads good solo singers, 
and their general education was sadly neglected, 
which, of course, is not so at the present time. 
Dr. Bunnett maintained that the cathedral 
school was a fine training for a young musician, 
and gave many examples. Dr. C. W. Pearce 
subsequently read a paper on 'Free Counter- 
point.' Of the remainder of the business pro- 
ceedings we must speak next week. 



gjusiral ^osstjr. 
As already announced, the triennial Handel 
Festival at the Crystal Palace this year will he 
held somewhat earlier in June than usual, 
namely, on the 11th, 14th, 16th, and 18th of 
that month. The principal artists engaged are 
Mesdames Albani, Ella Russell, Clara Samuel], 
Nordica, Marian McKenzie, and Clara Butt, 
and Messrs. Lloyd, Santley, and Andrew Black. 

The concerts at the Queen's Hall on Christ- 
mas Day and last Sunday afford eloquent 
testimony to the rapidly growing taste of the 
general public for good music. 'The Messiah 1 

attracted a very large audience on Christmas 
afternoon, and in the evening there was a fairly 
large assemblage at the concert of sacred music. 
The afternoon concert on Saturday partook more 



26 



T II E ATIIKN^UM 



N°. f }010, Jan. 2, '97 



of the nature of s balled programme, l>ut there 

wore several items in the programme OOt mi- 
worthy of the attention <>f musical amateurs; 
and the evening Promenade Concert was of the 
same oharaotez as usual, including Wagner's 

overtures to ' Tannhauser ' and 'Die Meister- 

singer'; Grieg's 'Peer * «yiit ' Suite, No. 1; 
< rounod's ' I lymne a St. Cecils, 1 for violin, harp, 
and organ ; and Liszt's ' Hungarian ' Rhapsody, 
No. 4. Such musical entertainments, given at 
a time when the art in its loftiest phases was 
formerly allowed to rest, may be regarded as a 
sign of the times. 

Wi: are much pleased to learn that the 
directors of the Royal Carl Rosa Opera Com- 
pany have arranged with Mr. H. T. Brickwell 
to give a short season of grand opera at the 
Garrick Theatre, commencing on Monday, the 
18th inst. 

The programme of the first Popular Concert 
of this year, that on Monday next, includes 
Tschaikowsky's very fine Pianoforte Trio in 
a minor, inscribed "To the Memory of a 
Hero." This work, which is rarely performed, 
is worthy to compare with the Russian com- 
poser's ' Symphonie Pathetique.' 

Mr. Marci's Alfred Smythsox, for many 
years chorus-master of the Italian opera under 
Sir Michael Costa, both at Her Majesty's and 
Covent Garden Theatres, died on Christmas 
Day, at the ripe age of seventy-nine. He ful- 
filled similar duties under the Pyneand Harrison 
management, and for a time under the Carl 
Rosa Company. The deceased musician was well 
qualified for his task, and was generally esteemed 
in the profession. 

The Weimar Goethe-Gesellschaft has just 
presented a handsome Christmas gift to its 
members in the shape of a publication entitled 
' Gedichte von Goethe in Compositionen seiner 
Zeitgenossen.' The collection, undertaken at 
the suggestion of Prof. Erich Schmidt, is pre- 
faced by a short introduction from the pen of 
Hofrath Dr. Suphan, editor of the ' Schriften 
der Goethe-Gesellschaft,' and the musical part 
has been edited with preface and notes by the 
musical writer Dr. Max Friedlaender. The 
volume, issued with the assistance of Dr. C. 
Ruland, contains the compositions of Beet- 
hoven, Mozart, Reichardt, Schubert, Zelter, 
&c, and ought to be more widely known than 
among the limited circle of the members of the 
Goethe Society. 



Mon. 
Sat. 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 
Orchestral Concert, 3.30, Queen's Hall 
National Sunday League, 7, Queen's Hall. 
Queen s Hall String Quartet Concert, 7.30. Queen's Small 

Hall. 
Popular Concert, 8. St James's Hall. 
Popular Concert, 3. St. James's Hall. 
Orchestral Concert, 8, St. James's Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

Olympic. — ' The Pilgrim's Progress,' a Mystery Play in 
Four Acts. Founded on John Bunyan's Immortal Allegory. 
By G. O. Collingham. 

Adki.phi.— ' All that Glitters is not Gold'; 'Black-Eyed 
Susan.' 

Mr. Collingham might have spared John 
Bunyan the humiliation of having his name 
associated with the operatic and spectacular 
burlesque given under the title of ' The 
Pilgrim's Progress.' No worse fault is to 
be found with the play, apart from the 
title assigned to it, than that it is inept 
and dull. With a widely different inter- 
pretation it might even have passed muster, 
since it is no whit sillier than a score 
pieces which, have done much of late to fill 
managerial pockets. In spite, however, of 
the ecclesiastical incense in which a not 
widely dissimilar production has recently 
been steeped, it is a mistake to blend re- 
ligious symbolism with terpsichorean revels. 



Especially unfair and disloyal is it to couple 

the name of one of the most zealous ot 

Puritans with a species of entertainment 
that, he would have regarded with horror 
and dismay. What greater abomination 
could Banyan have conceived than to see 
his own allegorical personages masquerad- 
ing with painted faces upon a booth at 
Vanity Fair P This species of outrage (for 
as such Bunyan must have counted it; is the 
more regrettable since it is purely gratuitous 
and superfluous. Except that the names of 
Bunj-an's characters are preserved there 
is really nothing of Bunyan in the piece. 
With a view possibly of placating the cen- 
sure, religious phraseology is avoided, and 
except the wearing by Christian of a red 
cross such as might be assigned a Crusader 
or a nurse, there is nothing to tell that the 
pilgrimage undertaken is from the City of 
Destruction to the Celestial City. With 
much more verisimilitude might the whole 
be treated as a recovered episode of the 
' Morte d' Arthur.' Bunyan's hero is a 
man such as himself, of homely condition, 
oppressed with the burden of sin and flying 
from the wrath to come. In place of the 
City of Destruction we have now the Castle 
Joyous, in which Christian is a prince 
ostentatious and lavish. No burden of 
transgression rests on his shoulders. He 
starts in rich armour to go on what, though 
beset with dangers, is a pleasure trip ; and 
while leaving behind him a mistress fair 
and princely, he indulges in all sorts of 
vulgar orgies. No sooner does Apollyon pre- 
sent himself than he is willing to take service 
with him, and the fiend has to be indis- 
creetly confidential concerning his occu- 
pations and designs to prevent him from 
becoming his lieutenant. The sorceries of 
Melusina ensnare at once his senses. The 
wine-cup is drained so soon as it is offered, 
and the painted Jezebels of Vanity Fair find 
him a willing captive. He is, indeed, as 
Byron said of himself, 

as helpless as the devil can wish, 

And not a whit more difficult to damn 
Than is to bring to land a late-hooked fish. 

This may do for Binaldo in the garden of 
Armida, but to present him as Bunyan's 
Christian is an insult to common sense as 
well as literature. That Mr. Collingham 
has been cramped in his effort by the fear 
of employing Biblical language is conceiv- 
able enough. He had better have left alone 
a theme necessarily and obviously intract- 
able and employed his machinery to illus- 
trate some tale of fairy damsels and knights 
of Logres or of Lyonesso. His subordinate 
characters are of no more vitality. Death 
is introduced to do nothing whatever but 
confront for a moment Apollyon, or tell 
those he meets that he has no immediate 
occasion for them. Malignity, a species of 
witch, comes on for the purpose of scold- 
ing the robbers of the highway, armed 
with clubs, to pilfer cheese from a wench's 
market-basket. Nothing whatever that is 
done has either interest or significance, and 
the whole is a simple spectacle with pleas- 
ing music and lovely dresses symbolical of 
nothing at all. Miss Grace Hawthorne, who 
played Christian, mistook her powers. She 
smiled affably at the personages, human, 
celestial, or diabolical, with whom she came 
into contact, and was " as meek and patient 
as a gentle stream." Mr. Abingdon as- 



iome character to Apollyon, and 
Ms Laura Johnson declaimed with pas- 
sionate v hemenoe as Malignity. The whole, 
however, claims little credit except as a 
pageant. 

On being once more dragged to light ' All 
that Glitters is not Gold,' by the Mortons, 
proves to be entirely out of date. The same 
cannot quite be said of Jerrold's nautical 
drama, now compressed into two acts. It 
has a certain breeziness and vivacity. The 
acting of Mr. Terriss as William commended 
it to the public. It obtained, however, little 
more than a success of curiosity, and is not 
likely long to uphold the fortunes of the 
Adelphi. 

SQramaiic (gossip. 

The Drury Lane pantomime of ' Aladdin : is very 
pretty, has some delightful effects, and is quite 
free from vulgarity. It will shortly be humorous, 
but was not so at the outset. Miss Ada Blanche 
as Aladdin, Miss Decima Moore as the Princess, 
Mr. Dan Leno as Mrs. Twankay, and Mr. 
Herbert Campbell as Abanazar had the most 
prominent parts. Some conjuring performances 
by M. Cinquevalli were quite marvellous. An 
aerial troupe constituted a very attractive feature. 
In a day or two the entertainment will probably 
repay a visit. 

The improvement in the condition of Sir 
Henry Irving reported from the outset is 
maintained, but no date for the actor's re- 
appearance is announced. 

'Cymbeline' was revived on Saturday last 
at the Lyceum, with Miss Julia Arthur as 
Imogen, Mr. Frank Cooper as Posthumus, 
Mr. H. Cooper Cliffe as Iachimo, and Miss 
Genevieve Ward as the Queen. 

' The Key to King Solomon's Riches 
(Limited),' produced on Christmas Eve at the 
Opera Comique, is a melodrama of the most 
conventional and commonplace kind, to which 
some scenes in Matabeleland fail to assign any 
novelty or significance. Miss Abbey St. Ruth, 
the author, took part in an interpretation no- 
wise more remarkable than the piece. 

On Tuesday 'Betsy,' Mr. Burnand's adapta- 
tion of ' BebeV by MM. Hennequin and de 
Najac, first produced at the Criterion in August, 
1879, was revived at the same house, with Miss 
Annie Hughes in place of Miss Lottie Venne as 
the seductive heroine. Mr. Welch is now the 
tutor. 

'Love in Idleness,' originally given a few 
weeks ago at Terry's Theatre, has now been 
revived as an afternoon entertainment at the 
same house, with Mr. Terry in his original part 
of Mortimer Pendlebury, and with Mr. Far- 
quhar, Mr. Sydney Brough, Mr. De Lange, 
Miss Beatrice Ferrar, and Miss Bella Pateman 
still in the cast. 

With this piece is given ' Holly Tree Inn,' an 
adaptation by Mrs. Oscar Beringer of Dickens's 
tale. The version is cleverly made, and though 
the proceedings of the juvenile lovers who 
parody the ways of their elders and elope 
to Gretna Green with their pockets stuffed 
with lollipops inspire no great measure of ad- 
miration or conviction, the whole goes with 
spirit, and constitutes an acceptable holiday 
entertainment. Miss Beatrice Ferrar, Mr. 
Sydney Brough, and Mr. George Belmore take 
part in the performance. The action is placed 
in the year 1820, and the costume of the time 
adds to the attractions of the play. 

A new comedy, in which Mr. Charles Collette 
will reappear in London, is promised for the 
18th inst. at the Strand Theatre. 



To Correspondents.— F. D.— J. H.— P. D.— E. H 
L. S.— T. 0.— H. C. B — K. D. O.— received. 
No notice can be taken of anonymous communications 



B.- 



N°3610, Jan. 2, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



27 



SMITH, ELDER & CO/S PUBLICATIONS. 



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The LIFE and LETTERS of SIR CHARLES HALLE. 

Being an Autobiography (1819-181:0), with Correspondence and Diaries. Edited by bis 

Son, C. E. HALLE, and his Daughter, MARIE HALLE. 
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THE ATHENAEUM 

journal of (ZEnglteD antr &ovti%n literature, Science, rfie dFtne ^m, JWugtc antr tf>e Slrama, 



No. 3611. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1897. 



PRICE 

THREEPENCE 

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ROYAL ACADEMY of ARTS.— The EXHIBI- 
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ROYAL SOCIETY of PAINTEKS in WATER 
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SAML. J. HO DSON, R.W.S , Secretary. 

ri^HE LATE ALFRED D. FRIPP, R.W.S. 

There will be a LOAN EXHIBITION, at the END of JANUARY, at 
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N.B. — Earlier DrawiDgs are particularly desired. 



s 



OCIETY of AUTHORS (INCORPORATED). 



President-Mr. GEORGE MEREDITH. 
FIRST LIST. 
The ANNUAL DINNER of the Society will take place on 
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The Rev. E. A. Abbott, D.D. 

Grant Allen. 

Herbert W. Allingham, F.R.C.S. 

William Archer. 

Sir Edwin Arnold, K.C.I. E., &c. 

A. VV. a Beckett. 

F. E Beddard. F.R.8. 

The Rev. Canon Bell, D.D. 

O. F Moberley Bell. 

Sir Henry Bergne, K.C.M.G. 

Mrs. Oscar Bennger. 

Sir Walter Besant. 

The Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, 

F.R.8..&C. 
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Lady Colin Campbell. 



The Very Rev. the Dean of Canter- W. E. H. Lecky 



B. L. Farjeon. 

Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. D.Sc. 

Lady Violet Greville. 

Richard Garnett, C.B. LID. 

George Gissing. 

" Sarah Grand." 

John Hollingshead. 

H. Rider Haggard. 

Thomas Hardy. 

" John Oliver Hobbes." 

Anthony Hope Hawkins. 

Jerome K Jerome. 

The Rev. Prebendary Harry Jones. 

Mrs Edward Kennard. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester. 

Mrs. E. Lynn Linton. 



bury. 

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Egerton Castle. F S.A. 
Miss cholmondeley. 
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The Hon George Curzon, M.P. 
8. R. Crockett. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Desart. 
Sir George Douglas, Bart. 
Prof E. Dowden. 



Lady William Lennox. 

The Rev. w. J. Lottie. 

J. M. Lely. 

L T Meade 

Florence Marryat. 

Justin McCarthy, MP. 

Prof J. M. D Meiklejohn. 

1 he Rev. O. H. Middleton-Wake. 

Phil May. 

George Meredith. 

Henry Norman. 

The Rt. Hon Lord Pirbright, PC. 

Prof. J. Burdon Sanderson. 

Sir Henry Thompson, F.R C.S. 



OXFORD B.A., Honours, held College Exhibi- 
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— Address Ai.eph, care of Messrs. Short & Mason, 40, Hatton-garden, E.C. 

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AMBRIDGE TRAINING COLLEGE for 

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The Council are about to appoint TWO LECTURERS (1) SENIOR 

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1 BBRUARY 15th, 1MI7, to the Phini.ii-ai., from whom the particular's 

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PRIFYSGOL CYMRTJ. 

NIVERSITY of 



WALES. 



GILCHRIST TRAVELLING STUDENTSHIP FOR TEACHERS. 

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, that in JUNE, 1897, the University 
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The condition of holding the Studentship is the investigation during 
not less than three months of an educational problem proposed or 
approved by the University, and the Candidate will be elected who, in 
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attainments and professional standing to carry out the purpose of the 
endowment. 

Further particulars, and a list of the problems proposed by the Uni- 
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JL 15, Victoria-street, Westminster, nre OPEN to RECEIVE MSS. 
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MISS DREWRY'S CLASS for the CRITICAL 
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WESTMINSTER SCHOOL. — An EXAMINA- 
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BEDFORD COLLEGE. LONDON (for WOMEN), 
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SESSION 1896-7. 
The LENT TERM will BEGIN on THURSDAY. January 14. 

LUCY J. RUSSELL, Honorarj Secretary. 

I)EDFORD COLLEGE, LONDON (for WOMEN), 

JL) York-place, Baker-street, W. 

DEPARTMENT for PROFESSIONAL TRAINING in TEACHING. 

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Head of the Department-Miss VIVIAN THOMAS B.A. 

Miss HANNAH ROBERTSON, B.A. 

The SESSION 1897 BEGINS on JANUARY 18. 

The Course includes full preparation for the Examinations for the 
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LUCY' J. RUSSELL, Honorary Secretary. 




ADVICE as to CHOICE of SCHOOLS.— The 
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ROYAL INDIAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, 
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QI-.t.lICIQUCS. 
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pATALOGUE of FRENCH ROOKS, at grcatlv 
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Dl'LM .* CO B7, Soho square, London, W. 

NEW CATALOGUE (No. 19) now ready. Choice 
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\s i i. • ■, i iitik ii terrace Richmond, Surrey, 



:;i 



THE AT II KXJEUM 



N° 3(511, Jan. 9, '97 



w 



I L L I A II B Ac NOUGAT E, 

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NEW CATALOGUE of CHOICE BOOKS and 

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NEW CATALOGUE of HAKE PORTRAITS and 

PRINTS No i Including a large COLLECTION of 

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NEW CATALOGUE of RARE BOOKS on MUSIC 

(No '.'; In preparation 

29, New Bond-street, London, W. 



M 



NKW CATALOGUE NOW HEADY. 

ESSRS. KARSLAKE will exhibit in 



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window next week ;i Series of Original Drawings by l'aul 
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61. CHARING CROSS-ROAD. W.C. 



NOW READY, 

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VV HOOKS and MANU8CBIPT8— Americana— Sports— Hlock-liooks 
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HE AUTOTYPE COMPANY, 

71, NEW OXFORD-STREET, LONDON, W.C. 



A NEW PORTRAIT of ROBERT BROWNING. 

Tainted by D. G. ROSSETTI in 1855. Reproduced in Autogravure 
from the Original in the possession of C. Fairfax Murray, Esq 
Size of work, 4J by 4J inches. Proofs on Vellum, 21s ; on Japanese, 
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G. F. WATTS, R.A.— A large Series of Autotypes 

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The ENGLISH SCHOOL of LANDSCAPE 

PAINTING, including the Chief Works of JOHN CONSTABLE, 
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DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. — An extensive 

Series of Reproductions of Studies. Sketches, and Finished Pictures 
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tion. Among those now ready are :— Rosa Triplex, The Annuncia- 
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FRENCH PAINTERS of the NINETEENTH 

CENTURY' —Permanent Carbon Reproductions of Works by JEAN 
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ABRIDGED CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 



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AN EMINENT ART PUBLICATION. 
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OF THE 

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110 Photogravures, measuring about 14 by 21 inches each, 
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Published during 1897 in Ten Parts at 6.. 6». each. 

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MONDAY. Januarv 11. and Following Day, at ten minute* na-t 1 o'l 
precisely, the LIBRARY removed fn>tti Buckingham Hall Newark, 
and other Propel t i e s , comprising iio"k* in all Branches of Literature. 
and including Gentleman's Magazine t" 1854 -l.um|»ean Magazine. 
complete sel Tenn> son's Poems, First Edition uncut— otiental Trans- 
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Art. Topograph' Ac - Miniatures and Initial Letters from Ancient 
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MESSRS. PUTTICK tc SIMPSON will SELL 
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Miscellaneous. 

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from the conntry. consisting of a l*air of Dresden Vases hnely deco- 
lated with ligure Subjects— a White and (,old Rockingham lea Service 
— also Crown Derby and other Services — Specimens "I l»r< - 
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Collection of Ex-Libris. 

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TTON of EX-LIBRIS, both English and Foreign, comprising many tine 
examples of Plates in the Chippendale, Sheraton. Pictorial, and Armorial 
Btvles Including such Specimens as the Earl of Essex. 17m— Earl of 
Winchelsea, 1704— Earl of Leicester. 1704— Thomas Parker. 1 7o»— Francis. 
Columbine. 17i«-Carolo VI, P de Ludewig, Kin-Baron Wolckhen- 
stain. 1595— Thomas Penn. of Stoke Poges, Fir«t Proprietor of PennMl- 
\ania — Scott of Balcomie — Henry Hoare. Goldsmith in London. 17' I— « 
T Wright of Downham. Suffolk. 1767— Eail of Egmont. 1736— B Baasell, 
of Lincolnes Inne. 1745-David Gairfek— W. Hogaith-John Marshall. 
AM chief Justice of United States — George I Gift Plates — Lord 
Halifax. 1702— Walpole Family, 7 Plates— Sir Fiancis Fust-Sir F Cuti- 
liffe bj Butoloud, Ac— Scotch and Welsh Plates, some fine and scarce 
—and many others. 

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English and Foreign, in all Branches of Literature, and including 
Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain 75 vols —Lodge's Portraits 
12 vols.— Burton's Arabian Nights and Supplement. 16 vols. —Suttees 
Society— Proceeding- of Institute of Ci>il Engineers— Borlase » Corn wall. 
•• vols — Marjonx Architecture Communale. l' vols —The Ibis— Harleian 
Society— Walton's Angler, Pickering's Edition, on Large Paper-- 
Novels Abbotsford Edition— Blblla Sacra, Tenet 147G -Books relating 
to Northumberland. Duiham. Yorkshire and the North of England. 
generally— lust and Esteemed Editions of Standard Authors, *c. 
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SECOND PORTION of the uell-knoun Biblical and Litur- 
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Sussex, 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
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in FEBRUARY, the SECOND PORTION of the BIBLICAL and 
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Miscellaneous Books.— FOCR DAVS' SALE. 

MESSRS. HODGSON will SELL by AUCTION, 
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January 12, and Three Following Dais, It 1 o clock. MIstF.L- 
1 S.NEOU8 BOOKS, comprising Turner Gallery. India Proofs, folio— 
Modern artists Proofs, 12 Parts -Gallery of contemporary Art, 
12 Portfolios— Raclnet, LOrnement Polychrome — Lodge s Portraits. 
l\ols -Blomefleld's Norfolk. 5 vols - Bnttons cathedrals. .. vols 4to. 
-Fine's Royal Residences, 3 vols-strutts Dress, ftc., of England. 
-, vola— Nlcolas's Orders of Knighthood. 4 vols -Cbetham Sot 
•I vol- —Rolls! iiri.nnlcs.lUivols— NcalesSeats.il vols— Humphreys, 
WestWood and Morris's Moth-. ,vc -Bree's Bird- 5 vols -Lowes 1 
- soli -Fielding- Work-. 1" vols. Large Paper -scoits Va> 
Novels 25 vols'- Ku-kins Painters, I vols.-Kelmscott Press 1- 
23 vols'- Browning - Poems IS vols.-Apperley> John Mvtton-Casa- 
nova's Memoirs 12to1s.— Voltslre Romans. *e JtoIs.— TsJes from ithe 
Viable 3 vol- -Architectural and other Engravirgs-l liotographs- 
_-c stamps-Book Platcs-Outsidc Rellecting Lamps and Mandards, 

To be viewed and Catalogues had. 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



35 



FRIDA Y NEXT.— Important Sale. 
A Steele of costly Microscopes and Apparatus from a West-End 
Optician, uho is relinquishing that department ; also about 
UO Lots of valuible Surveying Instruments by leading makers, 
the Property of a GENTLEMAN, deceased : Cameras, a 
number of expensive Lenses in various sizes, Stands, and other 
Photographic Apparatus ; and the usual Miscellaneous Pro- 
perty. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION at his Great Rooms, 3S. King -street. Cnvent- 
garden, on FRIDAY NEXT, January 15, at half-past l-'o'clock precisely. 
On Yiew the day prior 2 till 5 and morning of Sale, and Catalogues 
had. 

MESSRS. CHRTSTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully giTe notice that they will hold the following SALES 
by AUCTION at their Great Rooms, King-street, St. Jamess-square, the 
Sales commencing at 1 o'clock precisely :— 

On WEDNESDAY, January 13, OLD ENGLISH 

MEZZOTINTS and COLOURED ENGRAVINGS. 

On THDESDAY, January 14, OLD ENGLISH 

SILVER, the Property of the late CHARLES HALL. Esq ; and Silver 
IMate, Jewels, Miniatures, Snuff-boxes, Coins, &c, from various Sources. 

On FRIDAY, January 15. COLLECTION of 

FAIENCE of the late Dr. A G M EDWIN; Old French Decorative 
Furniture and Objects of Art from Private Sources. 

On SATURDAY, January lf>, the COLLECTIONS 

of MODERN PICTURES and DRAWINGS of the late E. ESCOMBE, 
Esq., and others. 

The Collection of Armour and Arms of Her r ZSCH1LLE. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their Great Rooms. King-street. St. Jamess-square, on MONDAY, 
Januarv 25, and Four Following Davs, and on MONDAY. February 1, at 
1 o'clock precisely, the valuable COLLECTION of ARMOUR, ARMS, 
and EQUIPMENTS of Herr ZSCHILLE, comprising a very complete 
Series of Swords from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century — 
■choice examples of Heavy Fighting Swords, Foining Estocs, Landsrecht 
Swords, Rapiers, and Dress Swords of the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries, including an Italian Sword of the early part of the 
Sixteenth Century, chiselled and gilt Bronze Hilt, and engraved Calendar 
Blade— a very fine Rapier of the end of the Sixteenth Century, chiselled 
and damascened with Gold and Silver— Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century 
Daggers— Stilettos— Venetian Cinquedeas includinga very fine example 
with engiaved and gilt Blade and Cuir Bouilli Scabbard, by Ercolo da 
Fideli— Helmets from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Centuries— Close 
Helmets — Salades — Tournament Helmets— Engraved and Embossed 
Morions— an Embossed Casque of Classical Form, damascened and 
plated with Gold and Silver — Breast Plates of various periods— 
Gauntlets and Tilting Pieces— Pavis— Shields and Rondache— Painted 
Tournament and Arches Shields— a Circular Rondache of Blued Steel, 
damascened with Allegorical Subjects in Gold and Silver— Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth Century Halberds, Guisarmes, Spetums Voulges, and 
Glaves, many finely engraved with Family Arms — Crossbows and 
Arbalests of fine quality— Guno, Rifles, and Pistols by Celebrated Makers 
— Horse Armour, Bits, and Saddles, including a Carved Stag's Horn 
Saddle of the end of the Fourteenth Century— Boar Spears— Hunting 
Swords— and Two Hunting Horns of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Centuries. Most of the preceding objects have been purchased from 
the Londesborough, MeyricU, De Cosson, Gimpel, and other celebrated 
Collections. The whole" of the Collection was exhibited at the Chicago 
Exhibition, and part of the Collection at the Imperial Institute. 

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N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



39 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1897. 



CONTENTS. 

Lord Roberts's Autobiography 

Facsimile of a Scottish Gospel Book 

Mr. Laurence Housman's Pofms 

A History of Dumfries and Galloway 

The Life of Thomas Hutchinson 

New Novels (Cursed by a Fortune ; The Juggler and 
the Soul ; Dorothy Lucas ; The Gleaming Dawn ; 
A Tale of the Thames ; A Mere Pug) 44 

Fairy Talks 

African Philology 

American Fiction 

Law-Books 

Dictionaries 

Our Library Table — List of New Books ... 47 

Indian Problems; The Book Salfs of 1896; Prof. 
Maspero's ' Struggle of the Nations'; Byron's 
Letters; Mr. Robert Harrison; The Biblio- 
graphical Society 43- 

Literary Gossip 

Science— Prof. Pritchard ; Sir Joseph Banks's 
Journal; Meetings ; Gossip 51 

Fink Arts— Two Pamphlets; The Royal Academy ; 
Peterborough Cathedral ; Gossip ... 53 

Music— The Week; Library Table; Gossip; Per- 
formances Next Week 55 

Drama— Gossip 



PAGE 

39 

40 
41 
42 
43 



—45 
45 
45 
46 
46 
47 
18 



LITERATURE 



Forty-one Tears in India : from Subaltern to 
Commander-in-Chief. By Field-Marshal 
Lord Eoberts of Kandahar, Y.O., G.C.B. 
2 vols. (Bentley & Son.) 

(First Notice ) 

Lord Roberts forestalls and disarms criti- 
cism by expressing a hope in his modest 
preface that those who care to read a plain 
unvarnished tale of Indian life and adven- 
ture will bear in mind that the writer is a 
soldier and a man of action. But all due 
deductions being made for minor blemishes 
of style and language, he has written a 
book which will be read with eager interest 
if Englishmen still care for military exploits. 
The campaigns are related with a breadth 
and clearness which, in these days of lengthy 
despatches and cloudy writing, it is diffi- 
cult to praise too highly. It would also 
be difficult to overstate the service which 
the author renders to the British nation 
by reminding it of the true temper and 
trustworthiness of one of its greatest weapons 
of security, the army. He makes his readers 
realize the worth of that portion which is 
recruited in India, and of the services it 
has rendered the empire. He brings home 
to them the Sepoy's patient endurance of 
privation and fatigue in the swamps of 
Burma and the snows of Afghanistan, and 
the steady valour displayed in many a hard- 
fought contest ; and in our military annals 
there is no finer tale of devotion and courage 
than the story related by Lord Eoberts of 
the native officer Subadar Euttun Sing, who 
fell mortally wounded on the glacis at Delhi. 
The peculiar charm of the book is the modest 
and generous spirit which like a golden 
thread runs through it. The gallant author 
is more anxious to refresh the memory (to use 
Burke's phrase) of his old comrades at Delhi 
and Lucknow than to relate his own adven- 
tures, and he is liberal in the credit which 
ho bestows on all who rendered him services 
w hen he commanded in the field. The perusal 
of the book enables the public to realize 
the chivalrous devotion of tho soldier for 
"Bobs." All who have ever served under 
him have seen that ho loves soldiers, that 
he respects them, and that he thinks each of 
them capable of being a hero. Tho story 



of his life should be studied by every young 
soldier, for from it he will gather that the 
secret of Lord Roberts's success is to be 
found in the care and thoroughness -with 
which he has mastered the details and ful- 
filled the duties of a profession for which 
he has a profound love. 

On the 18th of April, 1852, Frederick 
Eoberts, having been appointed to the 
Bengal Artillery, arrived at Calcutta and 
found the headquarters of his regiment 
at Dum-Dum. The pestilential climate of 
Bengal and want of society and active work 
speedily affected his spirits, and young 
Eoberts came to the conclusion that he 
could never be happy in India. Promotion 
seemed hopeless : " I was a supernumerary 
Second Lieutenant, and nearly every officer 
in the list of the Bengal Artillery had 
served over fifteen years as a subaltern. 
This stagnation extended to every branch 
of the Indian Army." Eoberts wrote to his 
father, a gallant officer who had commanded 
a brigade in the first Afghan war, begging 
him to use his influence to get him sent to 
Burma. He replied that he expected soon to 
get the command of the Peshawar Division, 
and that he would then like his son to join 
him. Four months after young Eoberts 
got his marching orders, and great was his 
joy. "Indeed, the idea that I was about 
to proceed to that grand field of soldierly 
activity, the North- West Frontier, and there 
join my father almost reconciled me to the 
disappointment of losing my chance of field 
service in Burma." Early in August Eoberts 
left Dum-Dum for Peshawar. The journe} 7 , 
which now can be done in three days by 
rail, occupied three months. As far as 
Benares he " travelled in a barge towed by 
a steamer — a performance which took the 
best part of a month to accomplish." From 
Benares to Meerut was done in a dak-ghary, 
a vehicle now as extinct as the dodo. At 
Meerut Eoberts came across for the first 
time the far-famed Bengal Horse Artillery. 

"It certainly was a splendid service ; the 
men were the pick of those recruited by the 
East India Company, they were of magnificent 
physique, and their uniform was singularly 
handsome. The jacket was much the same as 
that now worn by the Royal Horse Artillery, 
but instead of the busby they had a brass 
helmet covered in front with leopard skin, 
surmounted by a long red plume which drooped 
over the back like that of a French Cuirassier. 
This, with white buckskin breeches and long 
boots, completed a uniform which was one of 
the most picturesque and effective I have ever 
seen on a parade-ground." 

At Meerut tho metalled highway ended, 
and the remainder of the journey, about 
six hundred miles, was done in a palanquin. 
Early in November Eoberts reached Pesha- 
war. Born at Cawnpore and leaving India 
as an infant, he had enjoyed but little inter- 
course with his father, and they met almost 
as strangers. 

"We did not, however, long remain so; his 
affectionate greeting soon put an end to any feel- 
ing of shyness on my part, and the genial and 
kindly spirit which enabled him to enter into 
and sympathize with the feelings and aspirations 
of men younger than himself rendered the year 
I spent with him at Peshawar one of the brightest 
and happiest oi my early life." 

Tho son bears testimony that from his 
father he learned much about Afghanistan 
and the best mode of dealing with its 
people, thus gaining information which 



proved invaluable to him when, twenty- 
five years later, he found himself in com- 
mand of an army in that country. From 
his arrival at Peshawar until the autumn 
of 1853, Eoberts acted as aide-de-camp to 
his father, while at the same time he did 
duty with the artillery. In November he 
got the much coveted jacket, but his joy was 
somewhat lessened by the fact of the troop 
to which he was posted being stationed at 
Umballa. Life on the frontier has a charm 
for young men of the right stuff, and 
Eoberts did not wish to quit Peshawar. A 
vacancy opportunely occurred in one of the 
troops of horse artillery at the station, and 
it was given to him. The troop to which 
.he was posted 

" was composed of a magnificent body of men, 
nearly all Irishmen, most of whom could have 
lifted me up with one hand. They were tine 
riders, and needed to be so, for the stud-horses 
used for Artillery purposes at that time were 
not the quiet, well-broken animals of the 
present day. I used to try my hand at riding 
them all in turn, and thus learnt to understand 
and appreciate the amount of nerve, patience, 
and skill necessary to the making of a good 
Horse Artillery 'driver,' with the additional 
advantage that I was brought into constant 
contact with the men. It also qualified me to 
ride in the officers' team for the regimental 
brake. The brake, it must be understood, was 
drawn by six horses, each ridden postilion 
fashion by an officer." 

Fond as he was of regimental life, Eoberts, 
like all ambitious young officers, was 
anxious to join one of the principal depart- 
ments of the army, and great was his satis- 
faction when he was appointed to act as a 
deputy - assistant - quartermaster - general. 
With characteristic earnestness he threw 
himself into his new work, and quickly won 
the confidence of his chiefs. John Lawrence, 
a shrewd judge of character, met him in 
camp at Eawal Pindi, and after an inspec- 
tion offered him an appointment in the 
Public Works Department. In the chief 
spending department of the State his ideas 
would havecaused an Indian Finance Minister 
to sigh. He would have built splendid roads 
and constructed magnificent bridges, but 
the vulgar question of cost would not have 
entered into his calculation. Happily he 
refused the offer, for it meant forsaking 
soldiering, and towards the end of April, 
1857, he was ordered to report on tho 
capabilities of Cherat, a hill not far from 
Peshawar, as a sanatorium for European 
soldiers. Here he first met Nicholson, who 
was engaged in introducing peace and order 
in the Peshawar Valley : — 

"Nicholson impressed me more profoundly 
than any man I had ever met before, or have 
ever met since. I have never seen any one 
like him. He was the beau-ideal of a Boldier 
and a gentleman. His appearance was distin- 
guished and commanding, with a sense of power 
about him which to my mind was the result of 
his having passed so much of his life amongst 
the wild and lawless tribesmen, with whom his 
authority was supreme. Intercourse with this 
man amongst men made me more eager than 
ever to remain on the frontier, and I was seiz d 
with ambition to follow in his footsteps." 

But the young soldier was not destined 
to remain on the frontier. Soon after bis 
return to Peshawar tho Mutiny broke out. 

On May l-tli ho was summoned to record 
the decisions of the council of war at 
which Nicholson suggested the idea of 



10 



THE AT II ENJS D M 



N°3G11, Jan. 9, '07 



organizing a movable oolumn to suppress 

the Mutiny wliorevor it might appear in 
the Punjab. The formation of the oolumn 

was heartily approved by Sir John Law- 
renoe, and • arried into execution without 
delay. Brigadiei Neville Chamberlain was 
appointed to command it, and he chose 
the future Field-Marshal for his staff 
offioer. "When Neville Chamberlain relin- 
quished the command on proceeding to 
Delhi as Adjutant - General, Nicholson 
succeeded him, and as his staff officer 
Capt. Koberte had opportunities of 
observing closely his splendid soldierly 
qualities and the workings of his grand, but 
simple mind. " Nicholson was a born Com- 
mander," he writes, "and this was felt by 
every officer and man with the column before 
ho had been amongst them many days." 
('apt. Roberts was at the fort of Philour 
when a message came from Sir Henry 
Barnard, who commanded at Delhi, begging 
that all artillery ofiicers not doing regi- 
mental duty might be sent to Delhi, where 
their services were urgently required. 
Roberts at once felt that the message 
applied to him. Nicholson was loth to 
part with him, but he agreed that his first 
duty was to his regiment. At dawn nest 
morning he left by mail-cart for Delhi. 
He proceeded to TJmballa as fast as horses 
could carry him, but here a difficulty arose. 
He had to change mail-carts, but the seats 
in the fresh vehicle had been engaged some 
days in advance. But Roberts determined 
to get on "by hook or by crook," to use a 
classic expression from ' The Faery Queen.' 
He called on Douglas Forsyth, the Deputy- 
Commissioner, who said that he might have 
a seat in an extra cart that was leaving that 
night laden with small - arm ammunition. 
The offer was gladly accepted, and the 
journey resumed. On the evening of the 
29th of June Roberts, after a narrow escape 
of falling into the enemy's hands, reached 
our piquets at Delhi. He was told that 
the Quartermaster-General was most anxious 
to keep him in his department, but a diffi- 
culty had arisen on account of the need of 
naming some one to help the Assistant- 
Adjutant- General of the Delhi Field Force, 
and Chamberlain had thought of him for 
the post : — 

" I was waiting outside Sir Henry Barnard's 
tent, anxious to hear what decision had been 
come to, when two men rode up, both looking 
greatly fatigued and half starved ; one of them 
being Stewart. He told me they had had a 
most adventurous ride ; but before waiting to 
hear his story, I asked Norman to suggest 
Stewart for the new appointment — a case of 
one word for Stewart and two for myself, I am 
afraid, for I had set my heart on returning to the 
Quartermaster-General's department. And so it 
was settled, to our mutual satisfaction, Stewart 
becoming the D. A. A.G. of the Delhi Field Force, 
and I the D.A.Q.M.G. with the Artillery." 

This hazardous ride was one of the most 
gallant feats performed during the Mutiny, 
and the account of it printed in the appen- 
dix should bo read. 

On the 30th of June the future winner 
of the Victoria Cross first found him- 
Kelf under fire, and in the hard-fought 
encounter on the 14th of July, while helping 
the artillery drivers to keep the horses quiet 
under an incessant fire, ho suddenly felt 
"a tremendous blow on my back which made 
me faint and sick, and I was afraid I should not 



b« ftble to remain on mj horse. The p 
feeling, however, passed ott, and I managed 
stick on until 1 got hack to oamp. 1 had been 

hit close to the spine by a bullet, and the 
wound would probably have been fatal hut for 
the fact that a leather pouch for caps, which 
I usually wore in front near my pistol, had 
somehow slipped round to the hack ; the bullet 
passed through this before entering my body, 
and was thus prevented from penetrating very 
deep." 

The wound, though comparatively slight, 
kept him on the sick list for a fortnight, 
and for more than a month he could not 
mount a horse or put on a sword. He, how- 
ever, recovered in time to serve in No. 2 
Battery, which was constructed immediately 
in front of Ludlow Castle, five hundred 
yards from the Cashmere Bastion. Here he 
had a narrow escape, being knocked down 
by a round shot which came through an 
embrasure. On the morning of the assault, 
being no longer required with the breaching 
battery, he was ordered to return to staff 
duty, and accordingly joined the General 
at Ludlow Castle. Discouraging reports 
were received as to the progress of the 
assaulting columns, and Roberts was sent 
to find out how far they were true : — 

"Just after starting on my errand, while 
riding through the Kashmir gate, I observed by 
the side of the road a doolie, without bearers, 
and with evidently a wounded man inside. I 
dismounted to see if I could be of any use to 
the occupant, when I found, to my grief and 
consternation, that it was John Nicholson, with 
death written on his face. He told me that 
the bearers had put the doolie down and gone 
off to plunder ; that he was in great pain, and 
wished to be taken to the hospital. He was 
lying on his back, no wound was visible, and 
but for the pallor of his face, always colourless, 
there was no sign of the agony he must have 
been enduring. On my expressing a hope that 
he was not seriously wounded, he said : ' I am 
dying ; there is no chance for me.' The sight 
of that great man lying helpless and on the 
point of death was almost more than I could 
bear. Other men had daily died around me, 
friends and comrades had been killed beside 
me, but I never felt as I felt then— to lose 
Nicholson seemed to me at that moment to lose 
everything." 

On the morning of the 24th of September, 
whilst Nicholson's funeral was taking place, 
Roberts marched out of Delhi with the column 
that was dispatched to Cawnpore. 

1 ' It was a matter of regret to me that I was 
unable to pay a last tribute of respect to my 
loved and honoured friend and Commander by 
following his body to the grave, but I could not 
leave the column." 

Six-and-thirty years after, the present 
writer stood at the gate of the old cemetery 
near the Cashmere Gate, not far from the 
breach through which Nicholson had led his 
soldiers. In the dusk of the evening he saw 
a figure go slowly up the path leading to 
Nicholson's grave. The man placed a few 
flowers on the tomb, and remained for some 
minutes gazing at it. Then with quick, 
active steps he returned. It was Lord 
Roberts, who had come to pay his last 
tributo to his loved and honoured friend 
and commander. The next day the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of India left Delhi for 
England. 

Early on the morning of the 10th of 
Octobor, 1857, the column reached Agra. As 
the local authorities said that the enemy were 
nowhere in the neighbourhood, the Brigadier 



orders for the camp to be pitched as 
soon as the tents should arrive, and he con- 
sidered (wrongly, as Lord Roberts frankly 
admits) there was no necessity for posting 
piquets until the evening. Roberts and 
Norman (now General Sir Henry Norman) 
with a tew others got permission to break- 
fast in the fort. They had scarcely sat down 
when they were startled by the report of a 
gun, then another and another. Hurry- 
ing down the stairs, they jumped on 
their horses and galloped out of the 
fort and along the road in the dii 
tion of the firing. On reaching the scene 
of action a strange sight broke upon them. 
" Independent fights were going on all over 
the parade - ground. Here, a couple of 
Cavalry soldiers were charging each other. 
There, the game of bayonet versus sword 
was being carried on in real earnest." 
Roberts and Norman rode off in different 
directions to search for the Brigadier. While 
thus employed the former was stopped by 
a dismounted sowar, 

" who danced about in front of me, waving his 
paqri before the eyes of my horse with one 
hand, and brandishing his sword with the 
other. I could not get the frightened animal 
near enough to use my sword, and my pistol 
(a Deane and Adams revolver), with which I 
tried to shoot my opponent, refused to go off, 
so I felt myself pretty well at his mercy, when, 
to my relief, I saw him fall, having been run 
through the body by a man of the 9th Lancers 
who had come to my rescue." 
Gradually the enemy were beaten off, hotly 
pursued, and their camp captured. After 
a halt of three days the column continued 
its march, and reached Cawnpore on the 
26th of October. Here we must leave for 
the present the story of Lord Roberts's 
adventures. Some of the most exciting and 
interesting pages remain to be noticed. 

The Gospel Book of Saint Margaret. Being 
a Facsimile Reproduction of St. Margaret's 
Copy of the Gospels preserved in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. Edited by W. 
Forbes-Leith, S.J., F.S.A.Scot. (Edin- 
burgh, Douglas.) 
The preliminary investigation with a view 
to the canonization of St. Margaret may be 
seen in Theiner's ' Monumenta Yaticana.' 
According to the account written by her 
confessor, nearly eight hundred years ago, 
she "had a book of the Gospels beautifully 
adorned with gold and precious stones, and 
ornamented with the figures of the four 
evangelists painted and gilt." The author 
goes on to say that the book was accidentally 
dropped by the bearer as he was crossing 
a ford, and, after having been long sought 
for in vain, was at length discovered ; but 
instead of being completely spoilt by the 
action of the water, it was taken out of the 
middle of the stream as free from damage as 
if the water had not touched it. Only in 
the outer leaves could a slight mark of damp 
be detected. The book was to her great 
joy restored to the queen, and the chronicler 
attributes its preservation to a miracle. The 
nineteenth century may be pardoned for 
preferring to assign its discovery and its 
state of preservation to natural causes, 
especially as it was admitted at the time 
that the outer leaves were not protected 
in the same way as the interior was. The 
writer's concluding words in the original 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



41 



are : " Quare alii videant quid inde sentiant; 
ego propter Reginao venerabilis dilectionem 
hoc signum a Domino fuisse opinor." But 
though many will demur to the miraculous 
part of the narrative, there is no possibility 
of denying the truth of the story, which is 
contemporaneous with the event itself, and 
is further confirmed by the present appear- 
ance of the book after an interval of nearly 
eight hundred years. 

What became of the book during this 
long period no one knows, but that the 
identical Gospel book of St. Margaret is 
now in the Bodleian Library admits of no 
question. Its discovery was made known 
to the world by an article in the Academy 
of August 6th, 1887, by Mr. Falconer 
Madan, Lecturer on Mediaeval Palaeography 
at Oxford. It was removed from a parish 
library at Brent Ely, in Suffolk, and sold 
at Sotheb3''s, having been entered in 
the catalogue as " The Four Gospels, 
a manuscript on vellum of the four- 
teenth century, illuminated in gold and 
colours, from the Brent Ely Library." 
The book was bought for the Bodleian 
Library for 6^., nobody having any sus- 
picion of its real value. Of course, in the 
hands into which it came, it was easily 
detected, and only a few days elapsed before 
it was proclaimed to be the identical book 
of the Gospels of St. Margaret which had 
previously been lost and found. 

There are three or four internal evidences 
of its ownership, two being of the sixteenth 
century, others of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. But of more import- 
ance than these is a poem of twenty- three 
lines in hexameter verse, which exists on a 
fly-leaf before the beginning of the text. 
Appearing to have been written at the 
end of the eleventh or beginning of the 
twelfth century, it describes the loss and 
subsequent discovery of the book very much 
as the story has been related. The verses 
may have been composed by Turgot, Bishop 
of St. Andrews, the queen's confessor, but 
were certainly not transcribed by him, for 
the scribe wrote the first three lines as 
prose before he discovered that they were 
in verse, and wrote the remaining twenty 
lines properly, with a capital letter at the 
beginning of each line. 

The editor seems to us somewhat to over- 
rate the importance of this document when 
he speaks of it as "a beautiful specimen of 
the style and ornamentation of the Canute 
period" (p. 7). He quotes Prof. Westwood 
also as saying, "The text of the MS. is 
written in a beautiful minuscule hand." Its 
chief value consists in its being the earliest 
extant specimen of a pre - Reformation 
Scottish service book ; but the writing does 
not bear favourable comparison with either 
that of the Canterbury Missal or of the 
Missal of St. Augustine's Abbey, recently 
published by Mr. Martin Rule, and the 
Gospels have been carelessly transcribed, 
having about fifty mistakes of spelling, 
or omitting or supplying words. 

It may be described generally as consist- 
ing of a selection from the Gospels of the 
Missals in use at that time, most of the pages 
being more or less illuminated with letters 
of gold and other colours. It is written 
on fine vellum, the letters on the leaf 
in many cases being faintly visible on the 
other side. On the verso of tho leaf pre- 



ceding each of the four Gospels is a picture 
of each evangelist respectively, and in the 
case of St. Matthew the outline of the pic- 
ture is distinctly shown on the recto of 
the leaf, owing to the action of the water, 
but, strange to say, the colouring seems 
to have been hardly affected by it. The 
book begins with the first twenty-one verses 
of the Gospel of St. Matthew, prefaced by 
the words " Incipit euangelium secundum 
Mattheum " in vermilion (the first words 
of this, as well as of the other evangelists, 
being in large gold letters), and then pro- 
ceeds to the first extract from the Sarum 
Gospel, beginning with " Sequentia Sancti 
Euangelii secundum Mattheum." But there 
is no other instance of a Gospel being pre- 
faced by a " Sequentia," &c. The passages 
selected, with the exception of the first from 
each Gospel, which begins with the initial 
words of the Gospel, are all prefaced by the 
usual words, " In illo tempore." All the 
other Gospels, instead of having the words 
" Sequentia," &c, are prefaced simply by 
the words " Secundum Marcum," &c, in 
illuminated letters. 

The account of the Passion is given at 
full length from all the four Gospels, headed 
in gold letters " Passio Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi secundum Matheum," &c, and in 
St. Matthew's account we have the singular 
reading, " Vah, qui dcstruit templum dei et 
in tribus diebus illud reaedificat ? " with 
the same mark of interrogation which is 
always used for questions. This is the 
reading of the Codex Aureus in St. Matthew 
(though not that in St. Mark) as well as of 
other early MSS. of the Latin Gospels, and 
appears in the Westminster Missal lately 
published by the Henry Bradshaw Society. 
On the last page devoted to St. Matthew we 
have the singular mode of writing the words 
" Pra&imore," the & being made to do duty 
for the last letter of Prae and the first of 
timore. This is the only instance of the 
kind, though et in the middle or at the end 
of a word is frequently thus represented. 

When we come to the passages selected 
from St. Mark, in the illuminated part of 
the first page we find in large gold letters 
"Initium Euangelium" for Initium Euan- 
gelii; and at the "Passio Domini Jesu 
Christi secundum Marcum," in spite of 
the usual commencement, " In illo tempore 
erat pascha et azyma," the superfluous word 
" autem " is inserted from the Vulgate, 
where liturgies usually omit it. Towards 
the end of the "Passio" here we have 
again the reading, "Yah, qui destruit 
templum Dei et in tribus rliebus aedificat?" 
and this reading has not here the sanction 
of the Codex Aureus, but was once adopted 
in the original Douai version of the New 
Testament, although altered in subsequent 
editions. 

In St. Luke again we have the samo 
insertion of " autem " after " In illo 
tempore" in tho "Passio." There is 
nothing else in the passages selected from 
St. Luke to notice, except that thero are, 
perhaps, fewer mistakes of writing than in 
those of St. Mark. 

When we come to St. John, tho illu- 
minated picture of tho ovangelist is added 
on one side of the vellum, with nothing on 
tho other side. In tho second Gospel wo 
have the word " servet " written by mistake 
for nerval in the form " serv&," and in tho ! 



next page the curious appearance of the 
word " aeternam," written "a&'nam," whilst 
in the very next line the word " aeterna " 
is written at full length. The mistakes of 
the scribe in the whole four evangelists 
amount to about fifty, the most important, 
perhaps, of all being the omission of the 
words, in a Gospel from St. Mark, " et 
Maria Jacobi minoris et Joseph mater," 
which, if they had been inserted, would 
have just filled one line of the manuscript, 
a mistake evidently of the kind of " homceo- 
teleuton." Amongst other mistakes there 
are two or three omissions of the illu- 
minator to supply the capital letter at the 
beginning of a line. 

The liturgical value of these extracts from 
the Gospels is, of course, absolutely nothing, 
yet as an interesting facsimile of an ancient 
document it will be welcome to many more 
than those who may be fortunate enough 
to possess one of the 110 copies to which 
the impression is limited. In the course 
of a few years it will probabty fetch a con- 
siderable price. 

It may, perhaps, be permissible to ex- 
press regret at the editor having omitted 
the blank pages, fol. 1, lv., 2v., 21, 30, 
37v., 38, and 38v., which would have 
given a complete representation of the ori- 
ginal book, with all the disfigurements of 
800 years. We should then have been 
able to judge how far the pictures of the 
other evangelists had been represented on 
the back of the leaf, as that of St. 
Matthew has been. 

We had hoped we should have been able 
to throw some light on the copy of the 
Gospels from which these excerpts were 
translated ; but after comparing them with 
the corresponding portions of the Westminster 
Missal, with the Vulgate, and other pub- 
lished versions, and after making due 
allowance for what certainly are, or pro- 
bably may be, mistakes of the scribe, we 
cannot find that this manuscript agrees with 
any known copy. The readings for the most 
part follow the Vulgate, but there are several 
important variations from that text. A re- 
markable one is the omission of the last 
clause of the thirty-fifth verse of the twenty- 
seventh chapter of St. Matthew, whiehappears 
as taken from the Vulgate in nearly every 
modern version, but which is undoubtedly 
a mere interpolation from the parallel 
passage in St. John's Gospel, and is 
absent from all the best Greek and most 
of the early Latin manuscripts. But per- 
haps the most remarkable omission is that 
of the name of the prophet Jeremy in tho 
ninth verse of the same chapter, space being 
left for the insertion of the name. It looks 
as if the writer was aware of the mistaken 
reference, but was unwilling to substitute 
the name of Zechariah for that of the other 
prophet. It must have been a well-educated 
scribe who in the eleventh century could 
have detected tho error in the reference. 



Green Arras. By Laurence Ilousman. 

(Lane.) 
The circle of Mr. Housman's admirers 
widens slowly and Bteadily. And to them 
he owes a duty — for they expect much of 
him, and cry their expectations from the 
very housetops. Much, however, as they 
expect from him, he from his readers 



\! 



T II E ATIIENJEUM 



N 3611, Jan. 9, 



expects much more. Ee expects them to 
appreciate and follow hie i rratio evolu- 
tions, to acquiesce in his startling con- 
clusions, and, hardest of all, to assent to 
his Bomewhal capricious estimate of tho 

value of WOrds. Words arc to .Mr. ECoUS- 

niaii Bometimes mere sensuous sound values 
— sometimes symbols deeply weighted, 
myth-laden — and often he uses them to 
express ideas. Tho unsympathetic reader 
.stumbles blind and irritated among the 
wreckage of the dictionary, and only tho 
sympathetic need hope for treasure, for to 
know which of the three values attaches to 
any word or words the reader must be inti- 
mately in key with the mood of the moment. 
Mr. Housman would seem to desire recogni- 
tion in tho character of a great master of 
words. Taking him in that character, and 
allotting to the public the part of Alice, 
Lewis Carroll's dialogue will be found to 
sketch accurately the relative positions : — 

" ' When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty 
said, ' it means just what I choose it to mean — 
neither more nor less. ' 'The question is,' said 
Alice, 'whether you "an make one word mean 
so many different things.' 'The question is,' 
said Humpty Dumpty, ' which is to be master, 

that's all They've a temper some of them — 

particularly verbs, they're the proudest ; adjec- 
tives you can do anything with, but not verbs — 
however, 1 can manage the whole lot of them ! 
Impenetrability ! That's what / say.' " 
This, clearly, is what Mr. Housman says, 
and he, alas ! is not always master ; some- 
times after one of his struggles with his 
native tongue the honours remain divided. 
Perhaps one of the less pleasant feelings 
inspired by a book which, after all, has in 
it much that is quite remarkable, is the 
feeling that much must have been dropped 
between the lines during the conflict between 
the author's sense of style and his contempt 
of sense. 

"When Mr. Housman writes, as he often 
does, a poem that transports us into the world 
of dreams, he seems to claim that the words 
should only just brush the senses with a 
surface of meanings, plausibly deep or 
shallow according to the reader's degree 
of lassitude. Thus ' The Stolen Mermaid ' 
and ' The Water Ghosts ' have phrases 
which almost seem, for the sake of the 
author's delight in mere quaint decorations, 
to have left concrete meaning behind them 
— or is this betrayal of sense by sound 
merely an interesting if hazardous experi- 
ment, an attempt to pull the reader, by the 
ear, into the mood required of him ? Be 
this as it may, it is a method which will 
try even the sympathetic, and which to the 
unsympathetic is merely exasperating. We 
ourselves claim to be sympathetic. Mr. 
Housman has produced passages — some- 
times whole poems — full of music subtle 
and rich, full of thought, always fine, and 
now and then deep and high. 

The temptation of comparing Mr. Hous- 
rnan's work with the work of Bossetti may, 
for many a good year yet, be set aside. But 
one must remember — being forced to the 
remembrance by sterling qualities and 
strong defects — that here is work from a 
hand trained to express itself in two 
mediums, and borrowing qualities from the 
one for the other. Every poem or passage 
in which the author succeeds has the power 
of making us see a picture. The motaphor 
by which Antams describes to his blind 



mother the st.us reflected on the sea is 
Striking and beautiful, however out of place 

in a mythological Betting: — 

I 'liey look, and Bee my Father'* ] dUi 

shine in blue fathoms underneath the bay; 
There with Long wands like pilgrims enter they 
And feast. 

' The Gazing Faun ' supplies a fine couplet, 
where tho union of the author's two arts 
shows plainly : — 

The jilaj-ing of waters a coronal wourd 
Melodic with ripples and tendrils of sound. 

But quotation can only do injustice to a 
book full of mysterious charm, and possessed 
by a pervading atmosphere of beauty none 
the less real in that it sometimes evades 
analysis — a book of strange virtues and 
defects. It reflects, we hope with the same 
promise of ultimate performance, the quali- 
ties which in his other art have won recog- 
nition for its author — qualities, perhaps, 
pointing to final mastery, but meanwhile 
elusive and indocile, and only very reluc- 
tantly tending to put off their waywardness. 
Outwardly and visibly the book is trium- 
phant in its own type of beauty. The 
illustrations are as unequal as the verse, 
Antams being an insult to common as well 
as to aesthetic sense, and ' The Three Kings ' 
a gem of true beauty. In fine, ' Green 
Arras,' with all its faults and shortcomings, 
is the work of a poet. We cannot yet place 
him among the great ones, but his genius 
and our justice alike forbid us to class him 
with the crowd of minor poets who sing 
nowadays in thin - voiced, many - throated, 
weariful chorus, and to whose metric ail- 
ments one longs to offer the old prescrip- 
tion : " Live on sixpence a day and earn it." 



A History of Dumfries and Galloway. By 
Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P. " The 
County Histories of Scotland." (Black- 
wood & Sons.) 
Almost, if not quite, the most original 
effort in history during the last twenty 
years was a twelfth century biographical 
study in which the value, picturesque and 
human, of charter evidence was illustrated 
with unmatched force. What is true on the 
high scale holds equally in the story of a 
parish or a shire, and the like standards of 
test apply in the criticism. Sir Herbert Max- 
well's st3'le is so direct, clear, and natural 
that with a stock of patience he could have 
produced a model county histoiw ; he has all 
the necessary sympathies — the pity is he has 
not the patience. Whoever writes South 
Scottish annals without laborious use of the 
Botuli Scotia^, the Exchequer Bolls, and 
the Great Seal Register essays a perilous 
adventure. History without charters is but 
writ in sand. Sir Herbert's easy chapters 
exemplify what can be done by leaving the 
chief printed records (except Mr. Bain's 
invaluable calendars) practically out of 
account. Although Dumfries is first on 
the title-page, the stress is on Gallowa}'. 
Probably the publishers are answerable for 
coupling two irreconcilables with little ex- 
cept a boundary line in common. The author 
himself is responsible for a much heavier 
percentage of error than is excusablo in one 
of a standard series so important. It is not 
merely that a vast body of necessaiT infor- 
mation is absent which ought to have been 
compactly summarized. It is too evident 



that the omissions are explained by a hai . 
word than " f orgetf ulness." For instance, it 

is stated that Kirkcudbright, the capital of 
ra Qalloway, first became a royal 
burgh in 1 loo. It was a ro}-al burj 
under David II. After this one need not 
wonder that the charter stories of Sanquhar 
and Ann an have no mention in spite of the 
light they cast on tho influence of war and 
rebellion on burghal fortunes. The 
tutional side has no charm for a writer who 
perpetually falls out of his line of march to 
pick up some Gaelic etymology — worth a 
pin's fee usually or less. A weighty problem 
of that sort ho is apt to ignore. The odds 
are considerable that it will be news to him 
that Galloway as a bishopric contained 
three deaneries : the Desnes, the Fames 
or Farinnes, and the Rhynns — all names in 
need of rational definition. The fondness 
for Gaelic speculation might have led to 
conclusions on Celticism in Galloway; on 
the clan system, can, caupes, sorryn, and 
fachalos; on " the office of Tochiadarroche 
inNiddisdale"; and on kindly tenancy. Such 
themes are unknown here, and when a rare 
piece of racial evidence comes up it passes 
unrecognized. Thus Amulliekyn, a seven- 
teenth century surname, is misconstrued 
into Irish 0' Mulligan, whereas it appears 
in Galloway as Ap Molegan in the Bagman 
Boll, and is of prime moment as a Welsh 
or Cymric name-form in the district in the 
thirteenth century. In the adaptation of 
Skene's 'Celtic Scotland' to Galloway the 
conclusions have not been submitted to 
adequate local test. 

Most old canons change, but to tell the 
facts remains for historians. Here, unfortu- 
nately, inaccuracy is everywhere. Sulwath, 
not " Sulwe," is the typical form of the 
primitive Solway, which Sir Herbert has 
not discovered was a ford. "Yry, yry, 
Standard," was not an English war-cry in 
1138; it was a taunt to Galwegians after- 
wards. " Flores' History " is a unique 
method of citing a Bolls series volume, 
and one that tells its own tale. Skene 
wrote ' Flores Hist.,' an abbreviation re- 
cognizable by the tyro as 'Flores His- 
toriarum.' Sir Herbert, borrowing as his 
manner is, makes the reference ostensibly 
his own, and in the process corrects Skene 
by deforming the transformed "Flores" 
into a personal name ! Two invasions 
of England in 1173 and 1174 are 
rolled into one. Gilbert of Galloway did 
not pay his 1,000/. indemnity. The 
presence of Alan, Constable of Scotland, at 
Bunnymede is called "an example how 
strangely the allegiance of the Scottish 
magnates was divided." Sir Herbert has 
forgotten that the Scottish king himself 
actively sided with the barons, and that 
Magna Charta contained a clause for his 
benefit. Bardonan, said to have been in 
Qalloway, was according to the Great 
Seal Begister in (Dalton parish) Dum- 
friesshire. The Scottish hostages of 
Edward I. in 1297 did not die in Loch- 
maben Castle, which was not then a "ter- 
rible fortress " : they died in Carlisle. Sir 
Herbert has not considered the contemporary 
statement that Edward took Lochmaben 
Castle in 1298. Ho has devoted some space 
to Edward's Scottish campaign of 1300, and 
says that Annandale was laid waste and 
Galloway spared. There appears to have 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



43 



been no such devastation. Mr. Bain's 
calendar might have prevented the con- 
tinued suggestion that the garrison of cap- 
tured Carlaverock were hanged. Edward 
did not hang the constable ; it is not likely 
he would hang any of the others. Sir Her- 
bert is under the strange impression that 
the elaborate supplies for that invasion were 
of local production. That he possesses small 
acquaintance with the Wardrobe Accounts 
cited is seen from his silence about the for- 
tification of Dumfries, and his failure to 
grasp the plan of the expedition, or observe 
the presence of an English fleet in Kirkcud- 
bright Bay. Edward, he saj's, after the 
delivery of the Pope's bull to him in the 
last days of August, remained in Dumfries 
until the end of October. In fact, he was 
in Cumberland by September 2nd, army 
and all. 

Independent generalizations scarcely exist 
in the book ; the omissions are vital ; wherever 
there is detail there is blunder. Palgrave 
would have yielded a valuable list of for- 
feitures of patriots by Edward I. The grant 
of so great a fief as Annandale to the De 
Bohun family is amongst the things about 
which one wonders how they could possibly 
have been left out. It curiously resulted in the 
concurrent running for about three quarters 
of a century of an English and a Scottish 
title, complicated by a Balliol grant to 
Percy, between whom and De Bohun there 
was litigation over the right. 

Has Sir Herbert devoted ten minutes' 
investigation to the McKie, Murdoch, and 
McLurg legend about a hassock of land in 
Minnigaff granted by Bruce, "so 'tis said," 
and divided betwixt the three heroes of the 
long bow ? Is it rash to suggest that, after 
Bruce's time, before the Murdochs in Cum- 
loden there were McKies, and that before 
McLurgs in Kirouchtie there were Herons ? 
If these inferences from the Great Seal be 
facts, what becomes of the fair tradition of 
the widow's three archer-sons who mys- 
teriously managed to acquire three separate 
surnames, without Christian prefixes ? Such 
tales ought not to pass for ever as history, 
unsifted. Perhaps this one has as much 
verity as there is in Sir Herbert's date of 
1570 for the New Wark of Dumfries, a 
building named in 1506, or in that of the 
battle of Annan on Christmas Eve, 1332, 
which actually took place on December 16th. 
Edward III. did not grant a manor to Sir 
Eustace Maxwell in 1335, he only promised 
one, and Sir Eustace went back to the 
Scottish faith soon afterwards. Sir Herbert's 
entire failure to catch the sense of the 
Balliol period is seen i n his capital omission 
to observe and record that the effective 
movement to throw off the Balliol-English 
yoke in the south wa s native to Dumfries- 
shire, where William of Carruthers rose 
about 1335. Not lees disastrous is the 
absence of references, even at second hand, 
to the great body of documents on the 
occupancy by the English of their chief 
castle of Lochmaben, and their minor forts 
in Dumfriesshire and Galloway. When Sir 
Hubert finds time to glance at the Rotuli 
Scotia) he will find some really interesting 
things there. 

Sir James Lindsay could not have been 
murdered in June, 1356; at any rate, ho 
was alivo, as was h's murderer, in the 
autumn of 1357. Regarding tho Stewartry 



of Kirkcudbright, the distinctive title of 
Galloway on this side Cree, it is really 
amusing to see that Sir Herbert has yet to 
discover that, coeval if not far older, there 
was a Stewartry of Annandale as well, which 
lived on until the pi-esent century. We are 
by no means satisfied with Sir Herbert's 
account of the Gallovidian Stewartry, dating 
it categorically from 1372. It certainly was 
called a bailiary in 1426 and a constabulary 
in 1429, although the bailie of 1426 was 
steward in 1429. The murder of the Tutor 
of Bomby does not rest on Pitscottie's autho- 
rity : Buchanan mentions it. The story of 
the battle of Kirtle in 1484 loses immensely 
because the narrator knows nothing of the 
charters behind, which so dramatically 
illumine the last stand of the Douglases. 
In 1488 the battle of Sauchie is unrecorded, 
although the long spears and wild shout 
of the Dumfriesshire men determined the 
fate of James III. Relative to the clan 
fight of Maxwell and Johnstone in 1593, 
Sir Herbert has a startling ascription, 
citing the ' Lads of Wamphray ' as 
"Scott's spirited ballad." He says no 
punishment followed on Lord Maxwell's 
burning of Dalfibble. It was one of the 
two charges on which he was beheaded. 
The other was the murder of Sir James 
Johnstone in 1608, the last atrocity of a 
long feud. The late Mr. William McDowall 
— whose work on the burgh of Dumfries is 
one of the half dozen really first-class per- 
formances in local Scottish history, and 
whose labours Sir Herbert has often used 
with the scantest recognition — somehow 
overlooked the exact scene of that famous 
assassination, effected at a meeting ostensibly 
for a reconciliation. Sir William Fraser, 
writing after Mr. McDowall, has the same 
oversight. Sir Herbert — really copying, 
though professedly quoting original autho- 
rity — of course follows. The fatal tryst 
was held on the slope of Auchnane, in 
Tinwald parish, a bold ridge, visible from 
the Caledonian Railway, six miles west of 
Lockerbie. The Murder Loch near by pre- 
serves, no doubt, a record of the crime. 

The list of errors noted on a single 
perusal is yet far from ended, but Sir 
Herbert must be weary of correction. So 
are we. For anybody not primarily con- 
cerned to obtain authoritative historical 
information the book will be bright and 
readable, a not ineffective general survey of 
a long period of provincial history, with 
many biographical characterizations and 
stirring episodes vigorously written. Its 
utter inadequacy in knowledge of records, 
however, to say nothing of its besetting in- 
exactness, unfits it from seriously ranking 
as a standard county history. The biblio- 
graphy is useful, though far from complete. 
The old maps from Blaeu's atlas and the 
modern one by Bartholomew aro most 
serviceable and excellent in their several 
kinds. 



The Life "/ Thomas Hutchinson. By James K. 
Hosmer. (Boston, U.S., Houghton, Milllin 
&Co.) 

The last royal Governor of Massachusetts 
Bay was one of the great Americans of tin' 
old colonial days. His ' Diary and Letters,' 
of which the first volume appeared in 1883 

and the last in 1886, revealed (lie man to tho 



world and heightened the respect entertained 
for his memory. His ' Life,' as now written 
by Mr. Hosmer, is not a mere compilation 
from the ' Diary.' The author has drawn 
upon the archives of Massachusetts for un- 
published letters and details, and has used 
his material in a judicial spirit, which 
some of his countrymen will condemn as 
unpatriotic, but which entitles him to the 
esteem as a biographer and historian which 
the late Francis Parkman earned and 
received. 

Hutchinson's education was begun at a 
grammar school in Boston, continued at 
Harvard University, and completed after 
he became M.A., when he set himself 
to the careful study of Latin and French. 
His bent was to historical writing, and he 
set himself in early life to collect books for 
that history of Massachusetts which con- 
stitutes one of his best titles to honour and 
remembrance. His father was a merchant, 
and he learned in his father's counting - 
house the details of business and the means 
whereby to make himself independent in 
fortune. 

Having a turn for public life, he was 
elected by his fellow burgesses, in 1737, to 
represent them in the House of Assembly, 
and his first duty in that position was to draw 
up an address congratulating George II. on 
having returned from Germany in safet} r , 
despite the famous storm recorded by Lord 
Hervey. He inspired confidence in his finan- 
cial capacity. A boundary dispute between 
Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire 
requiring settlement in England, he was 
deputed in 1740 to cross the ocean, and he 
returned home, after thirteen months' 
absence, as the successful advocate of his 
native colony. In 1749 he was Speaker of 
the House. The colony was then suffering 
from a paper currency. The sound sense 
and tact of Hutchinson were exercised to 
restore specie payments and prosperity. 
His zeal for the public service was rewarded 
with threats to burn down his house. 
When everything worked smoothly he was 
popular ; till then, however, those who be- 
lieved that the shortest cut to wealth was to 
issue paper money had opposed and reviled 
him. Mr. Hosmer justly remarks that 
"democracies never appear to so poor 
advantage as in the management of finances, 
and no more conspicuous instance in point 
can be cited than that of provincial New 
England throughout the first half of the 
eighteenth century." His statement might 
be illustrated and enforced by instances of 
a later date in American annals. He is 
not unmindful, indeed, of modern history 
when he remarks concerning the Writs of 
Assistance, against which Otis thundered, 
that " freedom, to be sure, was outraged 
when a customs officer invaded a man's 
house, his castle; but high tariffs cannot 
exist without outrages on freedom." 

Tho passing of the Stamp Act was tho 
measure which led to the independence of 
the United States. It was not to the taste 
of Hutchinson, 3 - et he was unprepared or 
disinclined to oppose in an official capacity 
anything which had received legislative 
sanction. Mr. Hosmer is both full and 
candid in his comments. He points out 

thai George Grenville was most conciliatory. 

The outlay for the American civil and 
military establishments had risen from 



1 1 



Til E A Til KN.KUM 



N 3611, Jan. 9, '97 



rO,00(W. to 850,000/. a year. Ho thought 
tliat Amerioa should contribute bouio- 
tliiuLT. Ho stated tlio caso to the agents 
for the l hiof eolonios and oxprossod liis 
readiness to adopt an alternative scheme. 
Mr. Hosmei points out that if some repro- 
ation in Parliament had been allotted to 
America, no dispute about taxation would 
have occurred. Such a scheme had been 
suggested by Franklin ; Otis had favourod 
it in New England ; Adam Smith advo- 
oated it, and Grenville did not oppose it. 
Two men in America — Patrick Henr}', of 
Virginia, and Samuel Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts — had set their hearts from the out- 
set upon the severance of the colonies from 
the motherland, and their voices prevailed. 

The position of Hutchinson was most try- 
ing. He objected alike to revolution and 
tyranny. Perhaps he saw too clearly that 
the question at issue had two sides. A 
letter written to Col. "Williams on the 2Gth 
of April, 1765, reveals his character : — 

" As for those men you talk of and wish for, they 
are only to be found in Plato's Commonwealth. 
We that fancy we are most like them, although 
we durst not pursue any measure which appears 
to us to be against the public good, yet we see 
many things through a false medium, and are 
balanced, though insensibly, by one prejudice 
and another. Perhaps the case is the same 
with some who are opposite to us in public 
affairs, who vote quite different from us, and 
arc under insensible bias the other way. This 
consideration should tend to keep us from dis- 
content and disturbance in our minds when 
measures are pursued contrary to what appears 
to us to be right. Possibly we may be mis- 
taken." 

In the summer of this same year Hut- 
chinson's house at Milton was attacked 
by a mob, the furniture was destroyed, 
the manuscripts which he had been col- 
lecting for thirty years were scattered 
or destroyed, and he narrowly escaped 
with his life. His only offence was to doubt 
the wisdom of those who were openly pre- 
paring the way for rebellion and revolution. 
He was then Chief Justice ; he afterwards 
became first deputy and next Governor of 
Massachusetts Bay. In May, 1774, he 
embarked for England, having been tem- 
porarily superseded by General Gage. The 
king desired to learn from his lips the story 
of Boston. He died in London on the 3rd 
of June, 1780, at a time when a mob 
ravaged the City and destroyed the dwelling 
and papers of a greater Chief Justice than 
the first historian and last royal Governor 
of New England. 

Mr. Hosmer writes with a moderation 
which inspires confidence in his judgment. 
His references to the chief points in dispute 
aro in very good taste. The policy of send- 
ing two regiments to keep the peace in 
Boston was entirely mistaken ; but justice 
has been withheld from the soldiers, and he 
adds this tribute to the regiments concerned, 
which does as much credit to himself as to 
thorn : — 

" Few organizations of the British army have 
a record more honourable. The 14th [now the 
Yorkshire Regiment] was with William III. in 
Flanders ; it formed, too, one of the squares at 
Waterloo, breasting for hours the charge of the 
French Cuirassiers until it had nearly melted 
away. The. 2!)th [now the Worcestershire Regi- 
ment] was with Marlborough at Ramilies ; with 
Wellington in the Peninsula it bore a heavy 
part, as may be read in Napier, in wresting 



Spain from th< of Napoleon. A mistaken 

policy had put the regiments into a position 
where they deserved pity ; to fight it out with 
the mob do doubt would have been far easier 
and pleasantor than to yield. For brave soldiers 
to forbear is harder than to charge, and one may 
be sure that, in the long history of those regi- 
ments, few experiences more trying came to 
pass than those of the Boston streets." 

The particulars in this work which now 
appear for the first time complete the picture 
of tho last royal Governor, who was not 
tho least worthy of the natives of New 
England. Mr. Hosmer has executed his 
work so well that it is a model for his 
countrymen and deserves the careful study 
of our own. 



NEW NOVELS. 



Cursed by a Fortune. By G. Manville Fenn. 

(White & Co.) 
Since the days of the ill-starred Clarissa, 
few heroines have had to undergo a per- 
secution so audacious as Kate Wilton, the 
heiress in Mr. Fenn's last novel. First 
urged by an impecunious uncle, a so-called 
" squire," and his wife to endow with her 
hand their oaf of a son, then rescued 
through her bedroom window by a per- 
suasive middle-aged attorney, she is im- 
prisoned by that eminent gentleman in his 
house in Bloomsbury, and finally nearly 
loses her life by the drugs administered 
to her for the basest of purposes. For- 
tunately the oaf, who undergoes a Cymon- 
like transformation of character through 
his attachment to another maiden, and 
a gallant young doctor, who is only de- 
terred by Kate's wealth from declaring his 
virtuous passion, arrive in the nick of time 
for her rescue and the physical doubling-up 
of the limb of the law. The dialogue and 
characters are, for the most part, heartily 
vulgar, and of psychological interest there 
is little or none ; but it will be imagined 
that in the author's practised hands there 
is no lack of incident, and the story runs 
unflaggingly from start to finish. We much 
prefer Mr. Fenn in his Christmas vein, but 
if he must attempt fiction for adults, this is 
not the worst of his enterprises. 

The Juggler and the Soul. By Helen Mathers. 

(Skeffington & Son.) 
" To be the little wife of a great man" was, 
in the opinion of Miss Mathers's heroine 
Ninga, "infinitely preferable to being the 
great, or say notorious, wife of a little one." 
It is sad that a young lady of such 
admirable sentiments should be tortured 
through her innocent affections by the fate 
which subjects her to the consequences of 
an unhappy scientific experiment. Mr. 
Sabine is a great surgical genius and dis- 
coverer, and has succeeded in reanimating 
the actually dead by transfusion of the 
blood of the living. It is to his caro that 
Ninga is entrusted by her father, an 
absentee in India, and in his household 
she soon reigns over the hearts not only 
of its master, but of his two pupils, the 
buoyant, generous Arthur and his dark, 
saturnine comrade Jasper, a man of more 
years and strange experience of the magical 
systems of the East. When readers find, as 
they do almost at the outset, that tho savant 
himself is the secret object of Ninga's attach- 
ment, but that his age and modosty prevent 



bis Understanding her heart, they are pre- 
pared for a triangular complication that 
promises not too smooth a course for youth- 
ful passion. But the terrific surgical secret 
that Sabine shares with his one deaf-mute 
assistant constitutes an element in the case 
that removes it from all ordinary experience. 
Miss Mathers utilizes this unholy power in 
a startling, but not inconceivable manner in 
her story, to which we refer our readers not 
only for its blood-curdbng qualities, but for 
the very womanly study of the Anglo- 
Indian maiden, whose final happiness will 
be found an actual relief. 



Dorothy Lucas. By Edgar D. C. Bolland. 

(Digby, Long & Co.) 
Mr. Bolland's story belongs to a fast 
vanishing class of fiction, in which there is 
invariably a baronet, and he, as invariably, 
a betrayer of j-outh and innocence. In this 
case we prefer to substitute "ignorance" for 
"innocence," since we cannot admit that a 
young lady who lies to her parents, and 
whose instinct does not warn her against 
meeting a man of doubtful reputation at a 
restaurant, is possessed of the latter quality. 
In fact, we consider Dorothy a vain and 
vulgar little person, quite on a level with 
her parentage. The jeune pre mier of artistic 
temperament is another familiar type, as is 
the Dissenting minister with his regrettable 
lack of principle. Finally, there is the 
deus ex machind, John Wilson, who rescues 
the maiden in distress, and sets everj'body 
right without apparent effort. From these 
elements the author has produced a not 
very well-written story, which the reader 
will feel might have been less readable 
had it also been less commonplace. 



The Gleaming Dawn. By James Baker. 

(Chapman & Hall.) 
A novel dealing with the Hussite (Mr. 
Baker prefers Husite) wars in Bohemia is 
indeed a novelty. The author interests his 
readers deeply in Zizka, Prokop, Magister 
Payne, and other Bohemians who took pro- 
minent part in the national movement follow- 
ing the treacherous execution of John Hus 
at Constance, and readers of Count Liitzow's 
recently published monograph on Bohemian 
history, noticed by us on September 19thj 
189G, will recognize many familiar names 
both of people and places. A revival 
of interest in the history of the Hussites 
is appropriate. As Mr. Baker points 
out, the doctrines of Wj'clif showed 
more vitality among the Hussites of 
Bohemia than among the Lollards of 
England. So in his excellent and interest- 
ing romance ' The Gleaming Dawn ' the 
reader is introduced to a little body of Wy- 
clifites in England and at Oxford, and soon 
accompanies them to Bohemia to fight 
against the Papists for faith and freedom. 
It will strike even the casual reader as 
extraordinary that this novel should show 
not only exciting scenes, but great 
accuracy of detail. The mere mention on 
p. 73 of the English Bible in Prague alone 
involves no little historical knowledge and 
research. The reference is quite exact 
and chronological. As a romance of the 
early part of the fifteenth century, Mr. 
Baker's novel deserves to rank high. He 
has a good story to tell, he writes well, and 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



45 



there is no cessation of the reader's in- 
terest in the events narrated. The worst 
line of the book is the first, which is a 
marvel of cacophony — " Will the world 
ever wot aught of all the wild fury," &c. 
Otherwise the book is essentially good 
literature throughout. 

A Tale of the Thames. By J. Ashby-Sterry. 

(Bliss, Sands & Co.) 
It is pleasant in winter to read of the sunny 
days of July on the Thames and of the 
love-makings of two young couples, " illus- 
trated," as the author expresses it, with 
lyrics of his own composition. The story 
and its incidents are cleverly designed as a 
setting to Mr. Ashby-Sterry's bright and 
graceful verses. One of his dramatis persona 
well recalls Mortimer Collins's poems of the 
Thames, which are too seldom read to-day. 
* A Tale of the Thames,' though short 
and slight, is eminently pleasant to read, 
-and not a page of it is disappointing. Mr. 
W. Hatherell's drawings in black and white 
are good, and form an agreeable accom- 
paniment to Mr. Ashby-Sterry's literature. 

A Mere Pug. By Nemo. (Digby, Long 

&Co.) 
It is possible to imagine the existence of 
persons who can enjoy a story narrated by 
a pug to a " delicate little terrier." The 
example of Ouida's ' Puck ' does not suffice 
to justify an unsuccessful attempt of a some- 
what similar description. The writer has a 
story to tell and there is some pathos in it ; 
but in the case of ' A Mere Pug ' the effort 
is hopeless from the start. 



FAIKY TALES. 

There is something pleasantly novel in 
Eileen's Journey, by Mr. E. A. Jelf (Murray), 
for, as the author writes, " it is a magic journey, 
in which she travels through the centuries as 
mortals travel through space." Her progres- 
sion is, of course, backwards. The journey 
is " made in search of beauty and goodness," 
and "the thread of a single fairy tale — with a 
single governing idea— is woven through the 
whole." The thread is, however, very thin, 
for, though Eileen is "personally conducted" 
by Queen Titania in a fairy chariot borne by 
eaglets to a magic train which carries her into 
the past, there is no fairy tale at all. We 
grieve to say, too, that Mr. Jelf has had to go 
back all but forty years to find any " scene " 
of sufficient beauty or goodness to justify his 
heroine's leaving the train to see it. She then 
alights at Station a.d. 1857, and witnesses the 
siege and relief of Lucknow, which are well 
described. Of course, to see many of the strik- 
ing events of history completely, weeks, 
months, and sometimes years, were required, 
and while Eileen was at Lucknow time went on ; 
but at last she returned to Station 1857, and 
once more sped backward in the century till 
«he reached Station 1845, when she alighted in 
■the frigid zone on the deck of the Erebus to 
bo present at the death of Sir John Franklin. 
To make the balance true, she visited the 
torrid zone at the moment when Livingstone 
was in the clutch of the lion. After this she 
was at the Duchess of Richmond's ball before 
Quatre Bras, saw the beginning of the War of 
Tiul. |i<ndenceandShakspeare at thcGlobe, sailed 
with Columbus, and was present at the martyr- 
dom of the Maid of Orleans and the first meeting 
of Dante and Beatrice ; she even saw Tell shoot 
his arrow, though the legend is now discredited. 
Mr. Jelf'8 book will certainly be popular with 
children, and will stimulate their love of 
reading. 



In The Garden of Peace, by Helen Milman 
(Mrs. Caldwell Crof ton) (Lane), "Fortune brings 
in some boats that are not steered." Were it 
otherwise Mrs. Crof ton's garden of peace might 
have caused her dire distress, for, as she relates, 
she and her husband went into the country to 
try to find a house, and found a garden which 
they loved and a sundial which sealed their 
fate. " It was only a glance," she writes, 

" but our hearts took root in a moment ADd the 

house? It was enough that it was trellised and 
covered with creepers ; we gave it hardly a glance, 
for we looked into the garden, and beyond the 
garden down into the valley, and to the fir woods 
where a glint of pale larch green and rose-tints told 
us the news that Spring was coming, and that the 
earth was awakening from her sleep. We listened 
to the birds, and they gave us welcome." 
" Nature," however, as we know on high autho- 
rity, "never did betray the heart that loved 
her," and all went well. No lack of care was 
shown in choosing boxes in which birds of all 
kinds could dwell comfortably; and these were 
soon filled, even though their inmates were 
subjected daily to having their roofs lifted up. 
The book is full of interesting observations on 
the ways of birds and beasts, which would have 
been more valuable had we known the district 
in which they were made. The writing, though 
sometimes very good, is unequal. 

We own to a preference for stories which, like 
The Saga of the iSea Swallow, by Miss (?) Maidie 
Dickson (Innes), begin with "Once upon a 
time." There is a pleasant sense that we 
are going to hear of "Old, forgotten, far-off 
things " ; and though "Saga" is rather a big word 
to use, Miss Dickson by no means disappoints 
this expectation. Seven Vikings, with names 
often heard in story, are on their way back to 
Norway in a ship laden with booty, when, some- 
where on the west coast of Britain, they run on 
a rock and spring a leak in their vessel. They 
make for an islet which is little more than a great 
black rock with a castle on it ; but in this castle 
is, of course, a beautiful princess, and she can 
change herself at will into a sea swallow. Her 
story is interesting, and a number of well-kuown 
legends have contributed to its existence. In 
' Greenfeather the Changeling ' Miss Dickson is 
on ground with which she is more familiar. The 
scene is laid in a village within easy access of 
fairyland. Villagelife in Ireland is well described, 
and court life in fairyland is picturesque. 

Holiday Tasks (Jarrold & Sons) has a 
business-like sound, but Miss M. H. Deben- 
ham's title is misleading. The holiday 
folk are a chance group of health seekers 
met together on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, and the task which they set each other 
is "to make up a real good fairy tale and tell it." 
They all have wits, and they all succeed, and the 
result is a charming collection of wondrous tales, 
which is sure to be popular. 

The Garden of Time (Jarrold & Sons), 
by Mrs. G. Davidson, is a kind of fairy 
tale. It is the chronicle of the adventures of 
little Daffodil, who sets out with her poodle 
Koko to pay a visit to Father Time. On the 
way she makes the acquaintance of Jack Frost, 
the Tombscratcher, the Sundog, the Man in the 
Moon, and other well-known characters, who 
say and do appropriate things like good puppets. 
Time's garden being reached, Daffodil " passes 
through the veil of memory into the vista of 
years," and then awakes, for lo ! it was a 
dream. Children have strange tastes and some 
may like this strange story, which is adorned 
with many weird pictures. 



AFRICAN PHILOLOGY. 
The S.P.C.K. send a book of easy reading 
lessons {Masomo Mepesi) in Swahili, beginning 
with short sentences and gradually progressing 
to connected stories. From the same pub- 
lishers comes a Swahili version (abbreviated 
and adapted) of 'Some Chief Truths of Be- 
ligion,' by the Rev. E. L. Cutts, under the | 



title Mambo mangine mangine makuu ya dini. 
Both these little books are printed at the Uni- 
versities' Mission Press, Zanzibar, and should 
be found very useful in the schools connected 
with that mission. 

We have also received from the S.P.C.K. Kafa 
ka Malen ka Atra Temne, a book of hymns in 
Temne, compiled by J. Manka and the Rev. 
J. A. Alley, who are the authors or translators 
of a considerable number of the hymns. The 
Temne language is largely spoken in the " Hin- 
terland " of Sierra Leone, and is the one most 
needed by C.M.S. missionaries working there. 
Cust, following F. Muller, places it (along with 
Bullom, Mende, Susu, Mandingo, Wolof, and 
others) in the northern section of the Atlantic 
sub-group of his Negro group. This group must 
be looked on as merely a provisional one for the 
reception of languages whose relations to one 
another and to other groups have yet to be de- 
termined. Bleek and Lepsius were inclined to 
think that the "Negro" languages would ulti- 
mately be found to possess Bantu affinities. 
The principal authority for this language is the 
German missionary Schlencker (died 1880), who 
published a Temne grammar and dictionary, 
and a ' Collection of Temne Fables, Traditions, 
and Proverbs ' (Triibner), and translated the 
greater part of the Bible into Temne. 

The Cambridge University Press has issued 
a handsome quarto — Specimens of Hansa Litera- 
ture, by Charles Henry Robinson, of Trinity 
College, Student of the Hausa Association. 
This book is the outcome of a movement on the 
part of the University which will be warmly 
welcomed by all students of language, and will, 
we hope, in time embrace other African lan- 
guage - groups. The MSS. from which the 
"Specimens" are printed were collected in 
Africa by Mr. Robinson and his brother, the 
late Rev. J. A. Robinson. The text is printed 
in Roman characters, with a literal English 
translation on the opposite page, and followed 
(in this edition) by facsimiles of the originals 
written in the Arabic character. The Hausa 
language is believed to be spoken by fifteen 
millions of people, and is, moreover, the lan- 
guage of trade throughout the Central Soudan, 
i.e., the region surrounding Lake Tchad. Per- 
haps Mr. Robinson's estimate of its importance 
and interest is excessive ; he thinks it is one 
of the four languages which will ultimately 
dominate the continent of Africa, the others 
being English, Swahili, and Arabic ; but some- 
thing must be allowed for the feeling of proprie- 
torship acquired by the scholar who explores 
a little - known subject. We could name in- 
dividuals who would probably make similar 
claims on behalf of Fiote, Mang'anja, or any 
tongue of which they have made a dictionary. 
Hausa has incorporated a large number of 
Arabic words, and, apart from these, shows 
certain Semitic affinities. Mr. Robinson, how- 
ever, thinks that it should rather be classed with 
the Hamitic group, though avowing that he 
does not know enough of either Coptic or Berber 
to make a satisfactory comparison with those 
languages. He does not mention the classifica- 
tion of F. Muller, who places it among the 
"Negro" tongues. Its position can hardly be 
determined without further study, to which end 
the publication of these specimens and of the 
grammar and dictionary promised shortly should 
be of great assistance. They consist of six poems 
of a gnomic and theological character, and an 
historical extract translated from the Arabic. 
Some parts of the poems are rhymed, others 
seem to follow no recognizable arrangement of 
endings. The religion depicted is of the fanatical 
type exemplified in the Soudan dervishes and the 
Emir Danfodio, the prophet of the Niger. A great 
part of Poem F is devoted to the life after death, 
and the torments allotted to unbelievers and evil- 
doers (for t he poel s morality is of an exceedingly 
practical character, and among those whom he 
denounces are the " whisperers of evil," the 
"brokers who have made unjust profits," and 



16 



THE ATIIENjEUM 



N°3611, .Tax. 9, "07 



"they who regard stealing as lawful ") are de- 
scribed in ezeeediogly il r.i^t it- language. The 
author of this and the preoeding piece is <'iu- 

siieikli Othman of s< >k<>t . ■, who died in L809, 

and appears t<> have been the apostle of [slam 

among the Rfannan A few of his lines will servi 

as a specimen of the general tone of the poems 

in their less feiocious mood : — 

off pride and evil-doing, and stealing earnest-money ; 
count 1 1 1 y oowriei full, leave aft Falsehood. 
The Mussulman who loves his brother shall share the abode 
hi Mohammed, son of Amina. 

I'.iy attention and listen to my WOndl, () Mussulmans ; that 

w hloh has been said is true. 

If then you refuse to repent (or) even to listen, when yon 

have to rise (ami leave this world), there will be 

no continuance for any one. 
If the King of the Mussulmans goes to Mecca, we must pray 

and make ready our goods (to go with him). 
Our belief is to us in the place of riches ; we cleanse our 

hearts, we repent well. 
We pray that our Lord may give us power that we may rise 

up among all the followers of Abd-el-Kadr. 



AMERICAN FICTIOX. 

The Story of Aaron. By Joel Chandler Harris. 
(Osgood, Mcllvaine it Co.) — "The story of how 
Buster John, Sweetest Susan, and Drusilla 
found their way into Mr. ThimbJefinger's queer 
country has," says the author of ' Uncie Remus,' 
" been set forth," but this is the story of Aaron, 
who was foreman of the field hands on their 
father's plantation in Middle Georgia. What 
was more important still, he was acquainted 
with the language of birds and beasts, and with 
other mightier secrets. "If you want to learn 
this language," said Mr. Rabbit, "go to Aaron, 
Son of Ben AH, take him by his left hand, bend 
the thumb back, and with your ri"ht forefinger 
make a cross mark on it. Should Aaron pay no 
attention to it, repeat the sign. The third time 
he will know it." At that time the children's 
minds were too full of other things to care about 
Aaron ; but after a while they remembered what 
Mr. Rabbit had said, and sought Aaron, and the 
result is this book. But what magician ever yet 
yielded to the first attempt to win his secrets 
from him ? As North-Country children say, 
"the third time is catchy time," and on the 
third trial Aaron yielded, and taught them how 
to converse with all the birds of the air and 
beasts of the field. Horses black and grey 
begin a story which is continued by the "track 
dog " and the white pig ; but we are bound to 
say that we think the children must some- 
times have found it a little tedious. The part 
we like best is that which tells of the rescue of 
the Teacher, and of his reappearance when 
"the army marches by." That is very good. 
The illustrations are good, too. 

Chumley's Post: a Story of the Paivnee Trail, 
by Mr. William O. Stoddard (Nimmo), may be 
described as an American version of ' Robbery 
under Arms,' minus the literary flavour and 
go-ahead vigour of that spirited romance. 
Jerry M'Cord, alias Mortimer Herries, is its 
" Captain Starlight," for the astute black-fellow 
we have the wily Pawnee, and horses instead 
of oxen are the object of their joint depreda- 
tions. It is a faithful enough presentment of 
the wild drama of the Western frontier, so far 
as its actors and incidents are concerned ; the 
noble red man appears in his proper guise of a 
thief and an assassin, with none of the glamour 
that used formerly to be thrown around his 
proceedings ; and the different types of pioneer 
settlers are evidently sketched from life. Yet 
the whole is lacking in the touch of genius with 
which "Rolf Boldrewood " handled these well- 
worn materials ; the action drags, and the 
reader's attention is diverted by unnecessary 
details, which weary without convincing him. 
Chumley, who disguises the more aristocratic 
form of his patronymic as above, is a fine figure 
of a man, and is worthy of so plucky and 
winsome a mate as Jessie Munro ; but the 
development of their love-affair is a desperately 
long business, and it requires the dogged per- 
sistence of the British schoolboy to travel to 
the conclusion thereof along the Pawnee trail. 



A wi ril of praise must be given to Mr. 0. 11. 

Stephens's capital illustrations. 

/', , Freedom' & Sake. By Arthur Peterson. 

■ml, Mcllvaine A Co.)— Mr. Peterson has, 

when he pleases, a stirring enough manner of 

telling an adventurous tale. 'For Freedom's 

Sake' is good, though the author may not be 
quite so much in vein as he has been at other 
times, and doubtless will be again. His present 
story is of the Abolitionist troubles in \W> and 
the attitude assumed by some of the men of 
Kansas versus Missourians, who sought in too 
practical a way to enforce their views on the 
slave question. The scene is laid in a small 
frontier town called Santone. Saving the pre- 
sence of Mr. Paterson's hero, it is old John 
Brown himself who is the hero of the hour. 
The doings of himself, his stalwart sons and 
followers, make a good background for Robert 
Holdenough, and are, indeed, the principal in- 
terest. Side issues and complications of various 
sorts set in at Santone. There is a moderate 
or peace party, who count their own safety and 
interest above the great principles involved in 
the skirmishes between the Missourians and the 
men of the North. The Southerners are many 
of them bullies and desperadoes working in 
the interest of their cotton lords. On the top 
of these undercurrents and confused elements 
arrives Robert Holdenough, of Boston, to take 
up land, but still more to uphold the cause of 
freedom. At this point the story opens. He 
identifies himself with John Brown's cause, 
which produces friction with peace-loving rela- 
tives of the girl of his heart. There are many 
ups and downs and some exciting episodes. 
Mr. Paterson by no means wallows in American- 
isms. He only introduces what is necessary for 
the sake of local reality and vividness of im- 
pression. 

The Maker of Moons, by Mr. Robert W. 
Chambers (Putnam's Sons), and the other stories 
contained in this volume, show the hand of a 
clever and practised writer, of more repute in 
the United States than in Europe. Mr. Chambers 
collects eight stories (the first of which supplies 
the title) abounding in adventure, excitement, 
tragedy, and horrors. For those who like such 
disturbing elements in combination these tales 
should have considerable attraction. There is 
hardly a restful page in the book. Nevertheless 
the writer's skill is undeniable. Everything in 
these stories is American, including humour, 
pathos, phraseology, and spelling. The author 
is no doubt a keen sportsman, and his expe- 
riences as a fisherman are among the best 
passages in the book. We will give no account 
of the plots of his eight short stories, beyond 
saying that they are never dull and always 
original and varied. 

The Daughter of Alouette. By Mary A. Owen. 
(Methuen & Co. )— The North American Indians 
of the Missouri district and the white settlers in 
that inclement region have provided Miss Owen 
with material for apicturesqueanddramatictreat- 
ment of the contrast between wild and civilized 
life existing almost side by side in the Far West. 
The story is full of incident and vivid colour ; 
whether it is locally accurate or not cannot be 
pronounced by, nor need it signify to, the Eng- 
lish reader. 

" Readers who knew their New York City in 
the days of Irish liberators and before the 
Tammany gang was broken up will understand 
what in The Dragon Slayer, by Mr. Roger 
Pocock (Chapman & Hall), may seem to others 
obscure. In any case it is a curious story ; it is 
curiously expressed, and is, besides, a quaint 
mixture of actuality and allegory. If it please 
him, the reader may set the symbolism on one 
side and "go" for the story itself. Even then 
he will think it a somewhat strange production, 
full of surprising people and startling events. 
Brand, the hero, an honest journalist (this is 
not a contradiction in terms, as it appears to be), 
represents the spirit of truth and unselfishness 



irarring with the elements <<f ■ corrupt civiliza- 
tion and national dishonour manifested in the 
on of a great financier. Hilda, the her' 
ids for ideal humanity rescued from 
perils of gigantic self-interest and unscrupulous 
scheming. The world's great frauds, started in 
high places by notable personages, are shown up, 
and their mysterious emissaries tracked out and 
unmasked by the powers of righteousness and 
_the courage of a trio of social reformers. 



LAW-BOOKS. 



Guide to the Mining Laws of the World. 
By Oswald Walmesley, of Lincoln's Inn. (Eyre 
& Spottiswoode.) — The idea of this book is a 
good one, and not so quixotic as some might 
imagine, for note the author's statement at 
p. 15 that nearly every country, except our 
own, has a mining code of some sort or other. 
To give some idea of the codes of other coun- 
tries, and of the codeless condition of our free 
and happy England, is the task which Mr. 
Walmesley has taken upon himself, and, as 
far as we can judge without a personal investi- 
gation of all the mines of the world, he 
has produced a very useful and instructive 
manual. The number of countries, divisions of 
countries, colonies, and other political units of 
which he treats is nearly one hundred, begin- 
ning very properly with his native country, and 
ending with Japan. The plan of the work, as 
described in the introduction, may be thus 
stated in a greatly abridged form : the author 
gives, first, in the case of each country or other 
division, the legislative features and history of 
the law ; secondly, the classification of minerals; 
thirdly, the rights of search for mines ; fourthly, 
the rules as to concessions; fifthly, the rules as 
to acquirement of easements of way and water, 
&c. ; sixthly, the rules as to inspection ; 
seventhly, the arrangements for relief in case 
of accidents ; eighthly, the constitution of the 
mining authority where such authority exists ; 
ninthly, general observations where required. 
To collect and digest such a mass of informa- 
tion must have been a work of great labour, 
and it may be hoped that the wide scope of the 
book will ensure its circulation and secure for 
the author his due reward. It is impossible, 
within our limited space, to give any general idea 
of so many-sided a subject, and we must be 
content to notice one or two interesting points 
here and there. A curious contrast is drawn 
between codeless England, " with her annual 
production of nearly 200,000,000 tons of coal, 
and huge quantities of other minerals," and 
little Lucca, with only one mine of silver lead 
and one of lignite, and an elaborate mining code 
of 115 articles ! It may be noted, however, 
that while the author, quite correctly, calls 
Lucca "a small province within a state," it is not 
so very long since she lost her independence. 
A remarkable instance of excessive codification 
is afforded by the Argentine Republic, where, 
we are told, the premature efforts of the legisla- 
ture have caused "much confusion and impedi- 
ment to a proper development of the mines." 
It seems clear that China and Japan have a 
great mining future before them, and that both 
countries have laid down rules of law on the 
subject of minerals. The vast extent of China 
involves too great a variety of law and custom 
for collection and treatment in detail in the 
small work under notice, but Mr. Walmesley 
states the general principles, extracted from 
a native treatise with the marvellous title of 
'Kin-Ting Ta-Tsing Hoy-tien Tze-ri.' The 
mineral wealth of Japan is said to be "some- 
thing enormous," the gold, silver, copper, iron, 
and coal, in certain parts, appearing to be 
" almost inexhaustible," while manganese, 
sulphur, and petroleum are also produced. An 
excellent set of rules seems to have been laid 
down, but it is only of recent origin, for, in the 
words of Mr. Walmesley, the history of the written 
mining law of Japan may be said to date from 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



47 



the "Restoration" in 1868. As regards our 
own benighted land, the book contains some 
very interesting particulars. Although (as men- 
tioned before) there is no general code for the 
•country, there are bodies of law or custom which 
regulate mining in particular parts, notably in 
the Forest of Dean, and the " Peak" and some 
other parts of Derbyshire. These are summarized 
in the "Great Britain" chapter of the work; 
it is impossible to go into such matters 
here, though the quaint terms "free miner," 
"gaveller," "meer," "freeing dish," "lot," 
" cope," " bar-master," &c, are enough to whet 
the curiosity even of a moderately inquisitive 
person. For these and other matters we must 
refer to the book itself, which, apart from its 
qualities as a law-book, must necessarily have 
attractions for all who are interested in any 
way in the progress of mining industry. The 
index is excellent. 

The Magistrate's Annual Practice fur 1895. 
By Charles Milner Atkinson. (Stevens &, Sons.) 
— The great success of the Chancery ' Annual 
Practice ' must naturally have suggested the 
publication of similar works dealing with other 
jurisdictions ; and the duties and powers of a 
magistrate are so multifarious that Mr. Atkin- 
son's book must be most acceptable, not only to 
that class, but also to the many solicitors and 
the sprinkling of barristers who practise before 
them. From the date of the preface, "October, 
1895," and from the fact that the appendix in- 
cludes portions of several Acts passed in 1895, 
we conclude that the work was prepared during 
the session of Parliament which terminated 
in that year, and that the words "last session 
of Parliament" in the preface apply to that of 
1894-5. That being so, and many decisions of 
the courts during the year 1895 being cited, the 
practitioner will be fully armed for legal conflict 
accordingtorecentjudicialandlegislative declara- 
tions of law. The author regrets that he has felt 
himself compelled, by considerations of space, 
to omit some important subjects, such as the 
Factory and Merchant Shipping Acts, and we 
share his feeling ; but the book is so ponderous, 
even without them, that we can easily understand 
his having decided to exclude them. We may, 
perhaps, suggest that a second appendix, con- 
taining alphabetical tables of the penalties 
under those and some other Acts (e.g., the Shop 
Hours Act), with references to Act and section 
in each case, would assist the many who will 
use the book, and could not increase its bulk 
very much. 

A Manual of the Principles of Equity. By 
John Indermaur. Third Edition. (Barber.) — 
This useful and compendious treatise, originally 
published in 1886, is too well known, now that 
it has fought its way to a third edition, to 
require a lengthy notice at our hands. The 
appearance of the second edition about four 
years ago constituted in itself a survival of the 
fit which proved that Mr. Indermaur had 
found an appreciative audience. The present 
edition has its raison d'etre prill ipally in the 
necessity of incorporating in all works on equity 
the provisions of the Trustee Aci, 1893, 56 & 
57 Vict., c. 53. This enactment now consti- 
tutes the statute law as to trustees. Many of 
its sections are mere re-enactments of those of 
earlier Acts, which it so far repeals ; but even 
where it exactly copies its predecessors it neces- 
sarily vitiates the references given in previous 
editions of the work ; and it is probable that it 
may have introduced new rules here and there, 
notwithstanding that it is simply called "an 
Act to consolidate." On comparing Mr. Inder- 
maur's statements of the various sections with 
the sections themselves in the 0"een's printers' 
copy we find that the reproduction is generally 
very accurate, but one or two little .slips may 
be pointed out. The statement of the section 
as to appointment of new trustees (p. 58) fails 
t" include absence from the United Kingdom 
for more than twelve months as one of the cir- 
cumstances which may justify such appoint- 



ment. This is a rather serious omission ; the 
Conveyancing and Law of Property Act, 1881, 
introduced the provision as to such absence for 
very good reasons, and a practical lawyer must 
know that the remedy thus provided may 
obviate grave inconvenience. At p. 59 the fact 
that the consent of co-trustees, &c, to the 
discharge of a trustee (when no new trustee is 
appointed) must be by deed is not noticed, 
though it is correctly stated that the declaration 
of a desire to be discharged, and the actual dis- 
charge itself, must be by deed. At p. 61 the 
statement, "A trustee has now full power to 
give proper receipts for all trust moneys and 
property of every description," is so general as 
to be scarcely intelligible ; the section referred 
to (s. 20) deals with a "receipt in writing" of 
a trustee "for any money, securities, or other 
personal property or effects payable, transfer- 
able, or deliverable to him under any trust or 
power." In the same page s. 21 is rather 
loosely set forth, and it would have been better 
to give the actual words of the legislature. In 
extenuation of such defects as these, Mr. Inder- 
maur may, perhaps, urge that no sensible and 
lawyerlike reader wouh ; rely on the mere state- 
ment of a sect on in a text-book without look- 
ing at the section itself. That is very true ; but, 
then, why does Mr. Indermaur himself often 
refer to other works (e.g., Underbill, ' Law of 
Trusts and Trustees'] instead of finding out and 
referring to the decisions or statutes on which 
the authors of those works rely ? In the case of 
Roman law we are obliged very often to treat 
the views of individual authors as our ultima 
ratio, because we find little else to go upon ; in 
English law, where every result is recorded, 
there is no excuse for quoting Mr. A. or Mr. B. 
without finding out whether he relies on autho- 
rity or merely states his own opinion. But we 
have now "growled" enough. A carefully 
prepared corrigenda sheet might sweep away all 
defects. We may conscientiously recommend 
the work, e^en as it stands, both to students, 
for whom it is primarily intended, and to 
barristers and solicitors who desire to make a 
preliminary survey before sinking shafts in the 
rich ore-bearing strata of deep legal investiga- 
tion. 



DICTIONARIES. 

FluoEl is a familiar name to most Englishmen 
who have taken up the study of German, and 
therefore we thank Messrs. Asher for having 
brought out in two handsome volumes a new 
Dictionary of the English and German Languages, 
founded on Fliigel by Dr. I. Schmidt and Dr. G. 
Tanger. Of course, as in all dictionaries " made 
in Germany," the aim is rather to help the in- 
dustrious Teuton to learn English than the less 
persevering Englishman to master German ; but 
the German-English part of the work seems to 
us useful and well arranged, although a little 
more consideration might have been paid to the 
fact that many English still study German not 
with a view to trade, but to be able to read 
German literature. However, it is a decided 
advance upon Flvigel, and the handsome pages 
and clear type reflect much credit on the pub- 
lishers. 

We have received several more parts (ten in 
all) of the Nuovo Dizionario Ttaliano-Tedesco e 
Tedesco - Italiano of Messrs. Rigutini and Bulle 
(Leipzig, Tauchnitz). The Italian-German por- 
tion of this lexicon is finished, and the German- 
Italian has begun. The former seems to be 
excellent so far as it goes. The particles 
especially, to which ordinary dictionaries pay 
too little attention, are well and clearly ex- 
plained. The tenses of defective verbs are 
also plainly stated, and this, again, is a decided 
advantage. This is a dictionary much to be 
recommended. 

The fifth edition of Meyer's Konveraations- 
Lexikon (Leipzig, Bibliographischea Ens ti tut) 
proceeds prosperously on its way. The thir- 
teenth volume begins with the North Sfi I 



(Noordzee) Canal, and reaches as far as " Poli- 
tesse." An excelient plan of Nuremberg occurs 
early in the volume ; and admirable geological 
and agricultural plans, as well as a territorial 
map and a series of historical maps, and a plate 
of " Landerwappen," illustrate the article on 
Austria. When would a London publisher think 
of introducing so many useful illustrations in an 
encyclopaedia ? Photography is also capitally 
elucidated, and the short articles on palaeography 
and Palestine deserve praise ; and there is a good 
sketch of the history of Poland, with maps 
illustrating the boundaries of that unfoitunate 
kingdom before its unscrupulous neighbours par- 
celled it out among them. The little history of 
philology on pp. 850-52 is exceedingly well 
done. Conington has, we may remark, been 
turned into "Cunington," but that is a solitary 
misprint. The article " Pferd " is also a careful 
piece of work. 

OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 
The title of Alone in China, and other Stories 
(Osgood, Mcllvaine & Co.), is a little puzzling. 
Mr. Julian Ralph travelled in China, but not 
alone, and it is impossible to find in the stories 
which he appends to his personal adventures 
any one so solitary as to answer the description 
on the title-page. But the nearest approach is 
probably the heroine of the first story. This 
lady was an American heiress who fell in love 
with a member of the Chinese Legation at 
Washington, and, in spite of her father's pro- 
tests, insisted on marrying the wily Oriental. 
The story is not a pleasant one, and the author 
describes the bride as submitting to indignities 
which it is difficult o imagine any American 
lady would endure for a moment. On the voyage 
out she discovered that her husband was bring- 
ing with him a Frenchwoman as his second 
wife, and though holding aloof from this very 
inconvenient fellow traveller, she failed to make 
the protests which might have been expected 
of her. The same relations between the three 
were continued in China, and after many vicissi- 
tudes and one attempt to run away, the Ame- 
rican wife settled down in her Chinese home, 
and became essentially Chinese. There is an 
unreality about the story which detracts from 
its interest, and it is humiliating even to be told 
of a Western lady submitting to form one of 
such a conglomerate household as that of Mr. 
Tieh. The first portion of the work contains 
an interesting and well-written account of the 
author's experiences in China. Together with 
Mr. Weldon he engaged a houseboat, and made 
a number of expeditions on the rivers of the 
central provinces. He was evidently deter- 
mined to look on the bright side of everything 
in China ; the scenery of the plains was in his 
eyes delightful, the villages were charming, the 
people good-natured and obliging, and the 
dinners cooked for him by his Chinese chef 
were equal to anything to be got at the Trois 
Frercs. This is the spirit in which he took 
up his pen ; but the stern realities interfered 
considerably with these roseate ,'iews. He 
found that the people everywhere "either 
frowned or grinned at " him, that the beggars 
were supreme in their impudence, that most 
people tried to cheat him, and that he was 
unable to believe a single word spoken by his 
attendant. But in spite of these inconsistencies, 
his account of his voyages is pleasantly written, 
and with the exception of some Transatlantic 
expressions, the literary style is all that could 
be desired. His description of Mr. Weldon, 
after having stumbled on a dead man, as going 
"about all the rest of the day with his 
entire complexion turned inside out," is neither 
graphic nor amusing : and the use of such a 

word as "brainiest*' for cleverest is certainly 
not to be commended. The stories in the later 
pari of the volume, more especially the fairy 

tales, are characteristic and well told, and the 
work throughout is admirably illustrated by 
Mr. Weldon. 



IS 



tup: athenaeum 



N°3G11, Jan. 9, '97 



Wit, U'istlcm, and Fully (Digby, Long & Co.) 
lias l)o»n sint to us in two bindings. The title 
of Mr. J. V. Marmery's volume had rather led 
us to expect some brilliant latter-day epigram! 
or another Nietzsche ; but the author has merely 
collected a series of ana, many of which are 
good reading, and retold them with local colour 
(warranted to be wholesome) or a reflective back- 
ground. This rather spoils their point, and 
gives the book the tone of 'The World of Moral 
and Religious Anecdote.' 

The OivMscti ion of our Day (Sampson Low), 
edited by J. Samuelson, is a series of essays by 
"expert writers" on the great advances in culture 
of all sorts achieved by the nineteenth century. 
The subject is a very large one, and the present 
volume, although writers of undoubted authority 
contribute to it, suffers from compression of 
space. Some of the unsigned articles seem 
hardly up to the standard of expert knowledge ; 
others of considerable interest scarcely cover the 
proposed subject ; e. g., the essay entitled ' The 
Dawn of Reason in Religion ' is chiefly occupied 
by the story of the publication of the Vedas 
and the Parliament of Religions at Chicago. 
The maps and statistics appended are striking. 

Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. have published 
a new edition of The Silence of Dean Maitland, 
with illustrations by Mr. Hamilton Jackson. 
— Miss Edgeworth's Belinda has been added 
by Messrs. Macmillan to their " Illustrated 
Standard Novels." The brief introduction by 
Mrs. Thackeray Ritchie is pleasant reading, and 
Miss Chris Hammond's illustrationsareexcellent. 
— Messrs. Routledge have issued yet another 
volume of their edition of Marryat's novels, con- 
taining The Pirate and Tlxe Three Cutters. Mr. 
Courtney supplies a sensible introduction. 

Messrs. Gibbings & Co. have reissued The 
Pilgrims Progress, with C. H. Bennett's illus- 
trations. — Messrs. Chapman & Hall have 
certainly done a marvellous feat in publishing 
The Pickivick Papers and Martin Chuzzlewit, 
well bound in cloth, at a shilling each. 

That excellent periodical the Journal of 
Education (Rice) has reached its eighteenth 
volume, and does Mr. Storr credit by the know- 
ledge and good sense it displays. 

Messrs. McCorquodale & Co. have sent us 
The Railway Diary for 1897. 

We have received the catalogues of Mr. 
Baker (ecclesiastical), Mr. Higham, and Mr. 
Hollings (good). We have also a catalogue 
from Mr. Downing and Mr. Thistlewood of 
Birmingham, Messrs. Bright of Bournemouth, 
Messrs. Deighton & Bell of Cambridge (good), 
two catalogues from Mr. Clay (general and 
chemical works) and one from Mr. Thin of 
Edinburgh, Mr. Milligan of Leeds, and Mr. 
Ward of Richmond (engravings and books, 
good). Mr. Rosenthal has sent us a catalogue 
of rare books from Munich, and Mr. Hoepli of 
Milan an elaborate book-catalogue of his pub- 
lications. 

We have on our table A Hero of the Dark 
Continent, Memoir of Rev. William Affleck Scott, 
by \V. H. Rankine (Blackwood), — The Golden 
Readers, Standard 1. (Moffatt <fc Paige), — 
Elementary Solid Geometry a>ul Mensuration, 
by H. D. Thompson (Macmillan),— The X Ray, 
or Photography of the Invisible, by W. J. Morton 
and E. W. Hammer (Simpkin), — Auto-Cars, by 
D. Farman, translated from the French by L. 
Serraillier(Whittaker), — The Earth and its Story, 
by A. Heilprin (Gay & Bird), — " Carriages 
without Horses Shall Go," by A. R. Sennett 
(Whittaker), — Transactions oj the Royal His- 
torical Society, New Series, Vol. X. (Longmans), 
— A Text-Book of Nursing, by C. S. Weeks- 
Shaw, edited by W. J. Radford (Arnold), — The 
Crystal City under the Sea, translated from the 
French of A. Laurie by L. A. Smith (Low), — 
When Arnold Comes Home, by Mary E. Mann 
(Henry), — The Piebald Horse, and other Stories, 
by A. Burrell (Fisher L'nwin), — Immensee, from 



the German of T. Storm (Glasgow, GowanR & 
(!ray), — The Haunted Manor House, and oilier 
Tahs, by Author of 'A Plight to Florida' 
(Skt -llington), — King for a Summer, by K. 
Pickering (Hutchinson), — Her Foreign Con- 
quest, by R. II. Savage (Routledge), — A Croon 
of Gold, by A. Hardy (Digby & Long), — 
When Hearts are Young, by Deas Cromarty 
(Bowden), — The 1'irate Junk, by J. C. 
Hutcheson (F. V. White), — The Farrell 
Dishonour, or Fabian's Folly, by E. M. Pledge 
(Jarrold), — The Children's Hour, edited by May 
Bateman (Simpkin), — Through their Spectacles, 
by C. Lockhart-Gordon (Jarrold), — The Luckiest 
Man in the World, by Mary Albert (Simpkin), 
— Daisies of the Dawn, by L. Cranmer-Byng 
(Roxburghe Press), — Margaret and Margarites, 
by C. S. Dickins (Low),— The Perfect Whole, by 
H. W. Dresser (Gay & Bird), — Three Dialogues 
on Pulpit Eloquence, by M. Fenelon, translated 
by the late S. J. Eales (Baker), — Die Grabschrift 
des Aberkios erkldrt, by A. Dieter ich (Leipzig, 
Teubner), — and Histoire de la Litterature Ita- 
lienne: les Premiers Siecles: Dante et ses Precnr- 
seurs, by T. Zanardelli (Saint Gilles, Brussels, 
Dekonink). Among New Editions we have 
Comedies of Courtship, by Anthony Hope(Innes), 
— The Adventures of Three Englishmen and Three 
Russians in South Africa, by Jules Verne (Low), 
— Fables and Fabulists, Ancient and Modern, by 
T. Newbigging (Stock), — The Tyrants of Kool- 
Sim, by J. M. Cobban (Henry), — The Castle 
Builders, by C. M. Yonge (Innes), — The Power 
of Silence, by H. W. Dresser (Gay & Bird), — 
and The Attitude of the Church to some of the 
Social Problems of Town Life, by the Rev. W. 
Moore Ede (Cambridge, University Press). 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 
ENGLISH. 

Theology. 
Frere's (W. H.) The Marian Reaction in its Relation to the 

English Clergy, 12mo. 3/6 cl. 
Mortimer's (Rev. A. G.) Catholic Faith and Practice, 7/6 cl. 
Sacramentarium Leonianum, edited, with Notes, by Rev. 

C. L. Feltoe, 8vo. 12/6 net. 

Law. 
Annual County Courts Practice, edited by W. C. Smyly, 

2 vols. 8vo. 25/ cl. 

Fine Art. 
Brown's (C.) The Horse in Art and Nature, Part 2, 2/6 cl. 
Nude in Art, 45 Photogravures, with Introduction by 

C. Lausing, folio, 84/ net. 
South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks : Ironwork, 

Part 2, by J. S. Gardner, cr. 8vo. 3/ cl. 
Swanne!l'8 (M.) Black-Board Drawing, 4to. 3/6 swd. 

Poetry. 
Arnold's (Matthew) Poems, selected by G. C. Macaulay. 2/6 
Austin's (A.) The Conversion of Winckelmann, and other 

Poems, cr. 8vo. 6/ cl. 
Smith's (F.) A Chest of Viols, and other Verses, 3/6 net. 

History and Biography. 
Bewe's (\V. A.) jChureb Briefs, or Royal Warrants for Col- 
lections for Charitable Objects, 8vo. 18/ net. 
Braithwaite, Martha, Record of the Life of (Loving Service), 

by E. B. Emmott, cr. 8vo. 3/6 cl. 
Curtis's (W.) A Short History and Description of the Town 

of Alton, hvo. 6/ net. 
Fenelon's Life, History of, by A. M. Ramsay, trans, from 
French Edition of 1723 by D. Cuthbert6on, ljmo. 7/6 cl. 
Holm's (A.) History of Greece, Vol. 3, 8vo. 6/ net. 
Lang's (A.) Pickle, the Spy, or the Incognito of Prince 

Charles, 8vo 18/ cl. 
Larchey's (L ) Narrative of Capt. Coignet, Soldier of the 

Empire, trans, by Mrs. M. Carey, cr. 8vo. 3/6 cl. 
Roberts's (Field-Marshal Lord) Forty-one Years in India, 

2 vols. Kvo. 36/ cl. 
Soldene's (E ) My Theatrical and Musical Recollections, 10/6 
Tha^ker'a ( A.) Narrative of my Experience as a Volunteer 
Nurse in the Franco-German War, 8vo. 3/6 Cl. 
Geography and Travel. 
Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, Part 3, folio, 3/6 net. 

Science. 
O'Donahue's (T. A ) Colliery Surveying, a Primer for Use of 

Si udents, cr. 8vo. 2,6 cl. 
Perkin(W. H.) and Lean's (B.) Introduction to the Study 

of * hemistry, 12mo. 2/6 cl. 
Scholey's (H.) Electric Tramways and Railways Popularly 

Explained, 8vo. 2/ swd. 
SeyfiVi lis (A.) The Sheep, its External and Internal Or- 
ganisation, 4lo. 3,6 bds. 

Thilology. 
Cambridge Milton for Schools : Paradise. lost. Books 0-10, 

wilh Introduction. &.C., by A. W. Verity. K'mo. 2/cl. 
Lessing's Minna von Barnhelra, edited by Rev. C. Meek, 2 6 
Malory's I.e Morte d'Arthur, Selections from, edited by 
A. T. Martin, cr. 8vo. 2 6 cl. 

General Literature. 
Cross's (M. B.) Blind Bats, cr. 8vo. 6/ cl. 
Devlin's (T. C ) Municipal Reform in the United States, 3/6 
Emerson's (P. H.) Oadba, the Guerilla Chief, a Real Romauce 
ol the Cuban Rebellion, cr. 8vo. 6/ cl. 



Harland (M ) nnd Herrlck's (C. T.j The National Cook Book. 

IT. ■ 

.Morrison's (W. D.) Juvenile Offenders, cr. 8vo. 6/ c*. 

(Criminology Series.) 
Mortimer's (Sim.) Olijt-ct L<-s»on Notes for Infants and tbo 

Lower Standards, cr. 8vo. 3/6 cl. 
Peel's (8ft K) A Bit of a Pool, cr. Mo. 6/ cl. 
Hoy's (K.) Tales of an Engineer, being r'acls and Fancies of 

Railway Life, cr. 8TO. 2 6 cl. 
Siz«r's (K.T.) Alvs of Lutterworth, cr. 8vo. 2/cl. 
Smith's (E. B ; My Village, cr. 8vo. 6, cl. 

FOREIGN. 
hrama. 
Meilhac (H.) : Ma Cousine, 2fr. 

Hxitory and Biography. 
Journal du Marechal de Castellane. Vol. 5, 18.S3-62, 7fr. 50. 
Li v. off (G.) : Michel Katkoff et son Epoque. 3fr. 50. 

General Literature. 
Content (V.) : Une Spoliation. 3fr. 60. 
France (A.) : Ditcours de Reception, lfr.; L'Orme du Mail, 

.iir. CO. 
Not (M.) : L'Assaut, 3fr. 50. 



INDIAN PROBLEMS. 

Ashcroft, Petertfield. Dec. 28, 1896. 

Will you allow me to point out that in your 
review of my third Indian problem ' Backwards 
or Forwards?' you misstate my views with 
regard to India's real scientific frontier ? The 
three problems must be taken as a whole, and 
in the first I have laid down a plan for the 
defence of the North-West Frontier which in- 
cludes all the places which you accuse me of 
wishing to abandon. 

I must also ask leave to support my opinion 
that Russia would not dare to weaken her hold 
on the Caucasus in time of war, in opposition to 
your view that that province must be regarded 
as a bulwark of her empire, by reminding you 
that, in consequence of its disturbed state, its 
garrison has quite recently been increased by 
over 18,000 men. 

Neither can I be shaken in my belief that 
Tiflis is the natural base of an expedition having 
India for its object by your remark that it 
would have the Caspian between it and India, 
for this is equally true of Astrakhan at the 
mouth of the Volga, where troops and stores 
would have to be transhipped into sea-going 
vessels, the Volga itself being always closed in 
winter by ice. That the Caucasus has been the 
base of all expeditions into Transcaspia, and 
that the latter province is garrisoned from the 
former, is in itself a proof that the Caucasus is 
the true base for a force advancing through 
Transcaspia on Afghanistan and India. 

Neither am I childishly ill - informed as to 
the recent increase in the military strength of 
Russia, and if I laid no stress upon it, that was 
because it has no bearing on the invasion of 
India, since so long as it is impossible to move 
and feed more than 30,000 or 40,000 men in 
Transcaspia or Afghanistan, it can be of no con- 
sequence to India whether the whole Russian 
army numbers one million or two million men ; 
and until the climate and general character of 
those countries are transformed, that limit will 
remain unchanged and unchangeable. Had you 
consulted any military man of experience, he 
would have told you that if the Indian army 
had been doubled in 1878-80, the Government 
could not have put a larger force into Afghan- 
istan than the 60,000 men which, for a short 
time, it succeeded in maintaining in that 
country, where Russia's difficulties in the 
matter of transport and supply would far 
exceed ours. 

Finally, I must dissent in the strongest 
manner from your contention that " if our com- 
mand of the sea is complete, the whole of the 
regular troops of the country could probably be 
employed to greater advantage in India than 
elsewhere." Do you really believe that the 
superiority of the British fleet to that of all 
antagonists could ever be rendered so pro- 
nounced, so raised above the influence of 
chance and change, that a British Government 
would dare to propose to a British Commander- 
in-Chief to trust entirely to the navy and the 
reserve forces for the security of these islands 1 
If this be so, then the last word of the forward 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



49 



policy has been spoken. I knew that there 
were men in India who contemplated locating 
the whole Indian army beyond the Indus, but 
I never dreamed that there were men at home 
who were anxious to transport the whole British 
army to India. The discovery, however, is not 
altogether unpleasant to me, since I cannot help 
hoping that this latest revelation of the lengths 
to which the supporters of the forward policy 
are prepared to carry it will help to open men's 
eyes to its inherent and dangerous folly. 

H. B. Hanna, Colonel. 

*».* We fear that Col. Hanna is even more 
prehistoric in his opinions than we supposed ; 
but we should have to repeat our long review 
in order to prove our case point by point, and 
even then he would not be convinced. 



THE BOOK SALES OF 1896. 
I. 
The usual method of ascertaining the pre- 
sumed state of the book market at any period 
of time has, for some years past, been to com- 
pile statistics and strike a series of averages, 
and though this system is open to serious objec- 
tion, it has, on the whole, a preponderance 
of convenience in its favour. That it is not 
wholly satisfactory becomes, however, clear 
enough when the principle is brought to its 
logical conclusion ; for the real object in these 
cases should not be so much to ascertain the 
value in pounds, shillings, and pence of the 
books sold, as to estimate their intrinsic im- 
portance, and it unfortunately often happens 
that large and scholarly collections are sold for 
sums which tend to reduce the average rather 
than to increase it. For instance, let it be 
granted that the portion of the library of Mr. 
William Stuart dispersed on March 6th, 1895, 
shows the highest recorded average, which I 
believe to be the case ; it must also be admitted 
that the 215 books, though they did sell for 
4,2972., or about 202. per volume, were not as 
a whole of the same importance as, for ex- 
ample, those belonging to the Syston Park 
Library, where the average works out 
at about 142., or as those forming the 
Beckford Collection, where it reached less 
than 82. The Stuart Sale was altogether 
exceptional in that four manuscripts realized 
1,7002., and six printed volumes more than 
1,0002., thus accounting for more than half the 
total sum obtained, and raising the average of 
the whole year to the extent of nearly two 
shillings. The result of the sales of 1896 also 
illustrates the unsoundness of the doctrine of 
averages in a remarkable manner. We find 
that during the year 47,268 lots of books 
yielded 80,1112. and some odd shillings, giving 
an altogether unusual average of 12. 13s. 10c/., 
the figures for 1893 being 12. 6s. 7c2., for 1894 
12. 8s. bd., and for 1895 12. lis. U. In 1895, 
as we have seen, a small sale increased the 
average on more than 47,000 lots by nearly 
two shillings, and in 1896 two volumes only 
raised it by as much as Is. 2c2. on about the 
same numerical basis. These volumes consisted 
of copies of the first edition of Chaucer's 
'Canterbury Tales,' which, though more or 
less imperfect in each instance, produced 
2,9002., thus utterly upsetting any calculation 
that can be made from the reports of the year's 
sales. Perhaps if a series of fifty years were 
taken and calculations made from the results 
obtained during that period the outcome might 
bo more satisfactory, though even this may well 
bo doubted, for some books are worth more at 
one time than another, and half a century will 
make or mar the reputation of all authors save 
the very few. I still hold to the old-fashioned 
belief that the author makes the book, and that, 
irrespective altogether of the nature of the con- 
tents, he and it together will be tried not by 
contemporary critics, whose praise or blame is 
worthless except for the hour, but by time. For 
this reason alone (and there are others) a lengthy 



calculation is as unsatisfactory as a short one, 
and the only conclusion that can be arrived at is 
that it is just as possible to ascertain the present 
state of the book market by an appeal to past 
traditions as it is to prophesy what position it 
will hold in the future. Statistics are worth 
what any individual chooses or is able to 
make of them, and the tendency is to "argue 
round about," and to end in committing one- 
self to nothing except the approximate accuracy 
of the figures. These, as gathered from four 
years' records, are thus tabulated in the new 
volume of ' Book-Prices Current' : — 

Lots of Books. Realized. Average. 

1893... 49,671 ... 66,4702. ... 12. 6s. Id. 
1894... 51,108 ... 72,4722. ... 12. 8s. 5d. 
1895... 45,431 ... 71,2292. ...12.11s. 4d. 
1896... 47,268 ... 80,1112. ... 12. 13s. IOcZ. 
The year 1896 was productive of sixty-one 
first-class sales. During the earlier months 
prices ruled low, and it was not until the open- 
ing of the season in October that they really re- 
covered themselves, a circumstance very difficult 
to account for, since books seem to sell, as a rule, 
best in June and July. Another, and far more 
important fact, has reference to the marked 
change in fashion which many of these sales dis- 
close. Some books are completely beyond the 
influence of this capricious mistress, but others 
are not, and it is melancholy to have to relate 
that early editions of the works of those com- 
paratively modern authors who once appealed 
so successfully for popular favour are obviously 
in a decline. Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, 
Albert Smith, Jefferies, and the rest have 
ceased in a marked degree, not to interest, for 
they will always do that, but to excite com- 
petition. Should any work by one of these 
authors belong to the original or an early edi- 
tion, and be in the finest possible state, then 
it will, as heretofore, command its full price ; 
but the ordinary volume, good in its way, but 
not good enough to excite the interest of fasti- 
dious and rich collectors, has fallen on evil days. 
Now, perhaps, is the time to buy, for in any 
case books of this class must, from their very 
nature, eventually rise again. The "limited 
editions "of a number of contemporary poets 
and essayists, published to compete with those 
fashionable books which only a comparatively 
few collectors could afford to buy, are now 
ignored, and need not be considered. The 
favourite and ever-living books are still those 
time - tried classics of our own and other 
countries, past and present, which celebrated 
printers sent forth from presses that creak in 
their primitive way no more, yet did their 
work so well that comparison with some of 
our modern productions were odious in the 
extreme ; literature, in all its branches, from 
the hands of masters living and dead ; books of 
travel which opened up continents we have 
since inherited ; books which describe the first 
gropings in the dark after great secrets, now as 
open as the day ; works of artistic or anti- 
quarian interest of acknowledged position ; 
books of history compiled from documents and 
other sources of information, which are now 
either lost to us or could not be traced without 
extreme labour — all these classes of books 
and many others of the same high rank may 
certainly be thought even more of in the days 
to come than they are now, but can never be 
esteemed less. 

The first sale of the year 1896 was held by 
Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on January 8th. 
It was not a particularly noticeable dispersion, 
and the prices realized were, on the whole, 
below the average. A complete set of Be A van's 
' Reports of Cases in the Rolls Court,' 36 vols., 
8vo., 1837-66, brought 20/. 10s., and Dickens's 
'Memoirs of ( Jrimaldi,' first edition, 2 vols., 8 TO., 
1838, 32. 4s. This is specially mentioned because 
it illustrates very fairly the fall that has taken 
place in the case of books of the kind. The 
copy was in the original cloth and clean, and 
the plate of ' The Last Song ' had Crowquill's 



pantomimic border. A couple of years ago it 
would have produced about 52. 5s., and might 
have sold for more. This shows a^ loss of about 
two-fifths of the value, which on other and 
abundant evidence I take to be about the extent 
of the injury inflicted by the recent change in 
fashion with regard to all books of this kind 
which have not something highly exceptional 
about them. On January 14th Messrs. 
Sotheby sold a few books belonging to the 
late Rev. T. R. O'Flahertie, among them Dr. 
Donne's 'LXXX. Sermons,' 1640, folio, which 
once belonged to Isaac Walton, and had his 
donative incription on the title, " For my de- 
serving and moste deare Ante Mrs. Susanna 
Cranmer from her dutifull and most affectionate 
nephew." This sold for 172. On the same 
occasion Ben Jonson's ' The Masque of Queenes,' 
1609, 4to., brought 202., and Morley's 'Plaine 
and Easie Introduction to Practical Musicke,' 
1608, was sold with Douland's ' Andreas Orni- 
thoparcus,' 1609, for 232. 10s. Later in the 
same month 130 volumes of the Chetham 
Society's publications (first series com- 
plete, with index, 1844-86 ; new series, 
vols, i.-xv., 1883-88) brought 172. 10s.- 
Dresser and Sharpe's 'Birds of Europe,' sixty 
parts (should be one hundred), 1871-77, 4to. r 
122. 15s. ; Dugdale's ' Warwickshire,' 2 vols., 
folio, 1730, 152. 5s. (old calf) ; Milton's ' Para- 
dise Lost,' 1667, 4to , first title-page, with the 
author's name in italic capitals, 902. ; Smith 's- 
' Catalogue Raisonne',' 9 parts, 1829-42, 8vo., 
202. 15s. ; and an imperfect copy of Eliot's 
Indian Bible, printed at Cambridge (Mass.) in 
1685, 202. Twenty copies of this work were 
published with a dedication to Charles [I., and 
sent to England as presents. One of these, in 
its contemporary morocco binding with rough 
leaves, sold for 5802. on the dispersal of Lord 
Chancellor Hardwicke's library in June, 1888. 
The scarcity consists in the dedication, copies 
without it being comparatively common. One 
of these, in the original old calf binding, sold 
for 822. on June 18th last, being the second 
and last that appeared in the sale-rooms during 
the year. J. H. Slater. 



PROF. MASPBRO'S 'STRUGGLE OF THE NATIONS.' 

My attention has just been drawn to the 
letter of Verax in your issue of the 2nd inst. 
As the translator, Mrs. McClure, is at present 
in the south of France, may I be allowed, in 
her absence, to make a few remarks in answer 
to the charges of Verax ? 

1. I must say at the outset that the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge had no- 
thing whatever to do with the modification of 
Prof. Maspero's diction in the cases cited by 
Verax. 

2. Mrs. McClure, who is alone responsible 
for the modification of the few words in the 
original, was throughout in communication with 
Prof. Maspero, without whose consent she did 
not venture to qualify any expression in the 
text. 

3. The passages cited by Verax show the 
nature of these qualified expressions. The chief 
charge of Verax is that in the English transla- 
tion " the narrative says " is substituted for 
"tradition related" of the original, or that 
" sacred writings " (a term used by Prof. 
Maspero himself elsewhere in the volume) is- 
used for "tradition" pure and simple. A 
further point is the cast of doubt thrown upon 
the views of the higher critics by such words as 
" some critics think " or " endeavour to show." 
Reuss, Wellhausen, Stade, and Budde are not 
yet, even in the eyes of theil most ardent 
admirers, infallible, and the qualification of 
their absolute statements by such words as 
"think" or "endeavour to show" is neither 
treason to them nor to Prof. Maspero who 
quotes them. At any rate, the translator had 
Prof. Maspero's permission to make these quali- 
fications, which were so few and trifling that 



50 



T II E AT II KX.K r M 



N :;i;il. Jaw 9, ? 97 



the translator did not think it oven necessary to 
mention them in t ho preface. 

4. Wli.it then are we to think of Verax'a rash 
assumption that Prof. Masperos text has in 
oertainpa igee bwn il surreptitiously tampered 
with " in tlic translation, or his charge of "lite- 
rary bad faith" without knowing more about 
the circumstances I Is this assumption in keep- 
ing with an unprejudiced mind, and in har- 
mony with I lie attitude of "the higher critie " i 

Edmund McClueb, Sec. S.P.O.K. 



IJYRON S LETTERS. 

Muswell Hill, Jan. 4, 1897. 

Permit me to protest against some two or 
three inferences in your review of the first 
volume of that edition of Byron which I am 
preparing for Mr. Heinemann. 

1. To begin with, there is "Mr. Henley's 
obvious hero-worship for Byron." But on what 
in this first volume does your reviewer ground 
his assumption that I " hero-worship " any- 
body ? In Byron's case I have simply recalled 
and revived certain circumstances, forgotten 
or ignored, which tell in his favour. Your 
reviewer may call this "hero-worship." Would 
not it be better described as "common 
honesty " ? 

2. Again, my "Byron worship is somewhat 
of that curious strain which excludes not only 
Byron's enemies, but his opposites— as Shelley." 
How doss your reviewer know I I have said 
no word in this first volume to show that my 
"Byron worship" (supposing it to exist) " ex- 
cludes Shelley." When I come to deal with 
that master lyrist your reviewer may, or may 
not, have occasion to prefer his charge. Till 
then he is himself his sole authority ; and his 
assurance, besides being distasteful to me, is 
calculated to mislead the public. 

3. Lastly, my quotation of Moore's pasquil 
against ' The Living Dog ' from a copy in the 
handwriting of Mrs. Leigh has "tempted Mr. 
Henley into the inaccurate subheading ' Thomas 
Moore to Leigh Hunt.'" It has done nothing 
of the kind. The "inaccurate subheading" is 
Mrs. Leigh's, not mine. It seemed to me sig- 
nificant that this gentle, kindly, charitable lady 
should be at the pains, not only of transcribing 
so savage a piece of satire as this of Moore's, 
but also of adding a kind of commentary. And 
I thought to interest readers by printing it as 
it left her hand. W. E. Henley. 

*** " Hero-worship " expresses our meaning 
more accurately than " common honesty " would 
have done ; indeed, the latter term would not 
have been apposite ; but we are sorry our choice 
of terms is distasteful to Mr. Henley. Shelley 
we shall be delighted to see dealt with in some 
future brilliant vignette. Of course the in- 
accurate subheading is Mrs. Leigh's, and we 
thought that its caustic quality tempted Mr. 
Henley to use it, inaccuracy and all. It seems 
that was the case ; and we still think he was 
hardly well advised. 



thi Crimean War broke out he returned to this 
country, and in L866 be published ' Notes of a 
Nine Years' Residence in Russia, i-ii to L863. 

He was for a .short time Librarian of the Leeds 

Library, and was appointed in 1*.~>7 Secretary and 
Librarian of the London Library, in succession 

to Mr. Bodham Donne, and here he remained 
until his resignation in lH'.Ki. 

One of the effects of the Crimean War was 
to injure institutions subscription to which 
was considered as a luxury, and the London 
Library suffered among others. Mr. Harrison 
found it much crippled, but he left it prosperous. 
He had a liberal share of the many qualities 
that go to make a good librarian. He was 
always accessible, and, however busy, ready to 
attend to the inquiries of the members. To 
those who required it he showed pleasure in 
supplying help, which he was well able to do, as 
he possessed a wide knowledge of the contents 
of books, and an extensive acquaintance with 
several literatures. He was one of the 
founders of the Library Association, and its 
treasurer for ten years ; he was a constant 
attendant at the meetings, which he helped 
to make a success by his genial temper 
and ready and agreeable speech. In 1891 he 
was elected President, and he presided at the 
Nottingham meeting. 

He was a fairly strong man, but he suffered 
from gout, and his health was much broken 
when he retired from the office he had filled so 
long with honour to himself and advantage to 
the institution he served. Besides the work 
already noted he wrote with Mr. Joseph Gost- 
wick ' Outlines of German Literature,' first pub- 
lished in 1873 (second edition, 1883). He edited 
Mackenzie's ' Dictionary of Universal Bio- 
graphy,' and assisted Capt. Hozier in his 
account of the Franco-Prussian War. Among 
much other literary work may be mentioned 
his contributions to the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography. ' 

His long service at the London Library 
brought him into constant association with most 
of the leading literary men of the last forty 
years, and his experiences would have furnished 
material for an interesting volume of reminis- 
cences, which he always had in his mind to com- 
pile. When, however, the leisure came to him 
his strength was no longer equal to the task. 
His work was completed before he passed peace- 
ably away, but his loss will long be felt by 
numerous friends, who will cherish his memory 
with feelings of affection and esteem. 



MR. ROBERT HARKISON. 
We regret to announce the death on Monday, 
the 4th inst., of Mr. Robert Harrison, late Secre- 
tary and Librarian of the London Library. Mr. 
Harrison was born in Liverpool, November 26th, 
1820. His father, William Harrison, was a 
member of a good Lancashire family, and his 
mother a water-colour painter of repute. She 
was an original member of the New Water- 
Colour Society (now the Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water Colours), and two of his 
brothers were followers of the same art. 

He began life as an assistant to the Lite Mr. 
Newman, the well-known parliamentary book- 
seller of High Holborn. He then settled for a 
time in Russia, where he acted as tutor in 
Prince Demidoff's family and as a lecturer in 
the St. Anne's School at St. Petersburg. There, 
in 184G, he married his wife, who survives him, 
and who went out from England to him. When 



the end of each year than when we had only L60 

members. We have the further advantage of 

a fixed income, to which we can adjust the 
expenses of our publications, and our balance 
sheet, in consequence, is always satisfactory. 
To meet the case of any especially desirable 
candidate presenting himself when there is no 
vacancy, the Council is empowered to elect not 
more than 16 candidate-members, who have all 
the rights of membership except that of holding 
office. No effort is made to fill these vacancies, 
and one of them is therefore always available 
when needed. I think that a system which 
secures these results cannot reasonably be 
charged with " absurdity," but that, on the 
contrary, it is one which other societies mi 
perhaps do well to consider. 

Alfred W. Pollard, Hon. Sec. 



THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

13, Cheniston Gardens. 
Your last week's issue, which contained a 
very kindly notice of the Transactions of the 
Bibliographical Society, contained also, in 
another review, an allusion to the "absurdity" 
committed by the Society in limiting the number 
of its members. As I was mainly responsible 
for the resolution by which this step was taken, 
may I say two words in its defence l Every one 
familiar with the history of societies knows how 
greatly they sutler from the person of transient 
enthusiasm, who becomes a member only to 
retire at the end of a twelvemonth, thereby 
breaking into a set of publications, his odd 
volumes of which promptly figure in a dealer's 
catalogue at a price which does not enhance the 
Society's credit. The only safeguards against 
this nuisance are the imposition of a heavy 
entrance fee, which would exclude many highly 
desirable members along with the undesirable 
ones, or else the adoption of some such rule as 
our own, which makes readmission sufficiently 
ditlicult to cause members to hesitate before 
lightly resigning their privileges. The first 
effect of our notice, that bookmen must make 
up their minds whether they wished to join us 
or not, was nearly to double our numbers, and 
now that the roll of the Society is permanently 
fixed at 300, we have far fewer vacancies to fill at 



Uucran} Gossip. 

The second volume of Mr. S. E. Gardiner's 
history of the Commonwealth and Protec- 
torate is now in the press ; it will bri'ig the 
story down to the summer of 16.34. Mr. 
Gardiner is also preparing for publication a 
monograph, on ' Cromwell's Place in His- 
tory,' giving the substance of six lectures de- 
livered at Oxford as Ford's Lecturer, 1896. 

The Committee of the London Library 
propose to pay o if the debentures of 12,500?. 
now due, and to carry into effect the scheme 
of reconstruction of the society's premises 
authorized by the general meetings held in 
1895 and 1896. For this purpose they in- 
tend to issue debenture stock, bearing in- 
terest at the rate of 3k per cent, per annum, 
and redeemable by annual drawings, com- 
mencing in thej-ear 1899. Proposals to this 
effect will be submitted to the general meet- 
ing to be held on the afternoon of Thursday 
next. 

Mr. Coventry Patmore died just six 
weeks ago — namely, on Thursday, the 26th 
of November. In illustration of the small 
interest which colonial society takes in con- 
temporary literary annals, a correspondent 
sends us an extract from a private letter 
received last Monday from Cape Town : — 

"I am very sorry to hear of Mr. Patmore's 
death. Your letter was the first intimation we 
received out here. The Agencies will cable if 
some moneyed Jew buys a house in Park Lane 
— but — phew ! " 

Yet one would have thought the death of 
him who wrote 'The Angel in the House' 
would have been telegraphed to the colonial 
capitals of the Empire. 

Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. will publish 
immediately in this country a collection of 
the outdoor papers of Mr. John Burroughs, 
a writer who has a high reputation in the 
United States, entitled 'A Year in the 
Fields.' The essays are illustrated by 
twenty half-tone pictures by Mr. Clifton 
Johnson, who made several visits to Mr. 
Burroughs' s home on the Hudson and to 
the home of his boyhood in the Catskills 
to obtain them. 

The Lord Mayor has consented to preside 
at the next anniversary dinner of the Printers' 
Pension, Almshouse, and Orphan Asylum 
Corporation, which has been fixed to take 
place on Tuesday, April 6th, at the Hotel 
Metropole. 

Mr. George Gissixg's new novel ' The 
Whirlpool ' will be published in the spring 
by Messrs. Lawrence & Bullen. 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



51 



The Duke of Norfolk has given the wags 
a chance to bring out once more the well- 
worn joke about "men of letters" in the 
Post Office. In choosing from his staff the 
members of the British delegation to attend 
the Congress of the Universal Postal Union 
to be held next May at "Washington, he has 
fixed upon three Post Office men who are in 
both senses "men of letters." These are 
Mr. Spencer Walpole, who, besides being 
Secretary of the Post Office, has a well- 
recognized place as an historian, biographer, 
and critic ; Mr. Buxton Forman, Assistant 
Secretary and Controller of Packet Services, 
who has edited the works of Shelley and 
Keats in season and out of season ; and 
Mr. A. B. Walkley, whose contributions to 
dramatic criticism are well known. It is 
no secret that there are many voluminous 
files of papers in the archives of the Post 
Office in which the student of the future 
may find his dry-as-dust task considerably 
lightened by the results of Mr. Walkley's 
application of his talents to some of the 
higher work connected with postal ad- 
ministration. 

"With reference to the statement recently 
made in a daily paper, that the offer of the 
Committee of the Gibbon Commemoration 
(1894) to defray the cost of a memorial 
tablet to the historian in the chapel of 
Magdalen College had been finally declined 
by the President and Fellows, we are autho- 
rized to state that the Committee have re- 
solved to expend the subscriptions remain- 
ing in their hands by presenting to each of 
the subscribers a copy of the historian's 
' Autobiography ' (which will shortly be 
edited and published by Mr. John Murray) 
as a memento of the commemoration. 

Mr. A. H. Keaxe writes : — 

"In your notice of Mr. Theal's book on 
' The Portuguese in South Africa ' (Athemetim, 
December 26th, 181)6) reference is made to the 
author's statement that Monomotapa is the name, 
not of a country, but of a paramount chief. 
Would you kindly allow me to point out that 
five years before the appearance of this work 
I was able to show, on documentary evidence, 
that ' Monomotapa was not a principality, but 
a prince — not an empire, but an emperor,' &c. ? 
(Monograph on ' The Portuguese in South 
Africa' in Mr. R. W. Murray's 'South Africa,' 
Stanford, 1891.)" 

The knighthood conferred on Dr. J. T. 
Gilbert has been well bestowed, as no one else 
among living antiquaries has done so much 
to elucidate the annals of Ireland from the 
Norman Conquest down to the Restoration. 
Among his contributions to historical 
research are his ' History of the City of 
Dublin,' in three volumes ; his ' History 
of the Viceroys of Ireland, 1 172-1509 ' ; the 
' Historical and Municipal Documents of 
Ireland, 1172-1320,' and 'National Manu- 
scripts of Ireland,' 5 vols., large folio 
(coloured plates) ; his ' History of Affairs 
in Ireland, 1641-52,' six parts, 1879-81 ; and 
his ' History of the Irish Confederation and 
the War in Ireland, 1641-49.' Besides he 
has edited the chartularies of St. Mary's 
Abbey at Dublin and Dunbrody ; the re- 
gister of the Abbey of St. Thomas, Dublin ; 
and the Calendar of Ancient Records of 
Dublin. 

A DECLARATION identical in most or all 
respects with that which was signed by the 
Irish Roman Catholic laity, demanding the 



establishment by the State of a new uni- 
versity on denominational lines, has been 
prepared for presentation to the Govern- 
ment. It is signed by about twelve peers, 
three judges of the High Court, seventy- 
two members of Parliament, and consider- 
ably more than a thousand others. We 
have already placed on record the signing 
of a similar memorial by the Roman 
Catholic bishops. 

We mentioned some time ago the notable 
increase of endowments at Cambridge during 
the previous twelve months. It seems that 
the University of Edinburgh was enriched 
in 1896 by gifts amounting to close upon 
25,000/. The annual value of university 
scholarships, bursaries, and prizes is 15,630/. 

An appeal is made for a small fund in 
order to add to the buildings of the 
Walthamstow Grammar School, founded 
by Sir George Monoux. 

Mr. Jackson, of Leeds, is preparing a 
volume of Sedbergh School songs collected 
by Mr. R. Ainslie, one of the masters of the 
school. The author illustrates it with sketches 
of the scenery of the district. 

We regret to hear of the death of Miss 
Blackwood, the clever daughter of " Old 
Ebony," who preserved for later generations 
the traditions of the days when Wilson and 
Lockhart were warring against the world in 
general, and the Edinburgh Whigs in par- 
ticular. 

TnE decease is announced of Mr. Thomas 
Guille, the founder of the Guille Library at 
Guernsey. 

We have also to record the decease of the 
learned Count Mas-Latrie at an advanced 
age. He published his ' Chronique des 
Papes, des Conciles Generaux, et des Conciles 
de France' as long ago as 1837, and he 
brought out his valuable ' Tresor de Chrono- 
logic, d'Histoire, et de Geographie du 
Moyen-;ige' as late as 1889. He wrote a 
history of Cyprus under the house of 
Lusignan ; he published a continuation down 
to 1837 of Anquetil's history of France, a 
work on the treaties of peace between the 
Mohammedans of Northern Africa and 
Christian powers, &c. 



SCIENCE 

Charles Pritehard, D.D., F.R.S., late Savilian 
Professor of Astronomy in the University of 
Oxford. Memoirs of his Life compiled by 
his Daughter. (Seeley & Co.) 
Prof. Pritchard was a unique and many- 
sided man, and it is not remarkable that 
several pens have shared in the production 
of this memorial of his life and work. Only 
the last chapter of this memoir was written 
by Miss Ada Pritehard, though she is respon- 
sible for tho arrangement of the rest, and 
the preface is from her own pen. In it she 
remarks that whilst the method adopted in 
the joint work has of necessity interfered 
somewhat with the chronological sequence 
of the chapters, it has this advantage, that 
each part of the life "has been dealt with 
by the writer best qualified to form a just 
estimate of it." 

Into the details of the biography wo do 
not proposo to enter. Tho first chapter, 
containing reminiscences of Prof. Pritehard'a 



early life, was contributed by his niece, Mrs. 
Ward. The family, she tells us, had been 
settled for three generations in Shropshire ; 
but the father of the late Professor removed 
to Brixton, where Charles (the subject of 
this notice, who was his youngest child) 
was born on February 28th, 1808. He lost 
his mother when only twelve years old, and 
after his eldest sister's marriage in 1822 his 
father returned to Shrewsbury and married 
a second time, surviving till 1859. Charles 
was left to the care of other relatives, and it 
was chiefly at the instance of his brother-in- 
law, Mr. Allan (Mrs. Ward's father), that 
means were found for sending him as a sizar 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1830 as Fourth Wrangler, and 
became Fellow of his College two years 
afterwards, having already been the author 
of a treatise on the theory of statical couples 
and of papers communicated to the Cam- 
bridge Philosophical Society. For a short 
time he was head master of a school at 
Stockwell, and for twenty-eight years of a 
newly founded grammar school at Clapham. 
Here he pursued astronomy as a parergon 
(to use his own favourite phrase), being 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
Society in 1849; and after making various 
contributions to its Proceedings, and taking 
part in the Himalaya expedition sent to Spain 
for the purpose of observing there the total 
eclipse of July 18th, 1860, he was elected 
President of the Society in 1866, holding 
that office for the usual term of two years, 
and delivering very able addresses in pre- 
senting the Gold Medal to Dr. Huggins 
and to the late M. Le Verrier respectively. 
He was ordained when he first went to 
Clapham, and resigned his mastership there 
in 1862, for reasons not necessary to mention. 
From that time he resided during eight 
years in retirement at Freshwater, in the 
Isle of Wight (where the present writer 
found him one summer's afternoon dili- 
gently assisting in harvesting a hay crop in 
his own field), from time to time taking 
part in Church Congresses and in meetings 
of the British Association (before which he 
repeatedly preached), being also appointed 
Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge in 1867. 
But in 1870 he was elected to succeed 
Donkin as Savilian Professor of Astronomy 
at Oxford. The energy with which, at the 
age of sixty-two, he threw himself into 
the work was admirable ; the new observa- 
tory for the special cultivation of astro- 
nomical physics was founded under his eye, 
being greatly helped by the late Dr. De La 
Rue's presentation of instruments, and it 
was completed in 1875. His successor, 
Prof. Turner, gives in the work before us a 
most interesting and discriminating account 
of his labours there, which wcro chiefly in 
the departments of photometry and tho 
application of photography to tho deter- 
mination of stellar parallax. In tho former 
he invented a new instrument, called tho 
wedge-photometer, with which he super- 
intended tho measurement of the relative 
brightnesses of 2,7Sl stars; and in order 
to determino as nearly as possible tho true 
value of atmospheric absorption for forma- 
tion of his scale, ho undertook a journey to 
Egypt in 1883. For his photometric work 
and the catalogue formed from it (called 
' Uranometria Nova Oxoniensis') the Royal 
Astronomical Society awarded him in 1886 






T II E A Til IONIUM 



N 3611, Jan. 0, '97 



their Gold Medal, uniting with it one to 
Prof. E. Pickering, of Elarvard College, 

Mass., for similar researches conducted by 
a different method. 

We baveleft littlo space to speak of Prof. 
Pritchard'fl theological work, which chiefly 
bore ou the relations between science and 
Scripture. The portion of the present 
volume which relates to this subject is from 
tho pen of the Bishop of Worcester (Ur. 
IVrowne). Prof. Pritcharddiodon May 28th, 
1893, and the composito memoir before us 
will be appreciated by many readers as 



giving an interesting 
remarkable personality. 



account of a very 



unlikely that lie had seen it ; but at any i 

his own paper, calculating the circumstances of 

the transit of 17<>!*, is evidently quite original, 
and BUggestfl various islands from which he 
thinks it might be observed. Of course this 
was before the voyage of Wallis in which he 
visited Tahiti and called it King (Jeorge's 
Island ; whether it was the same which had 
been discovered many years before by the 
Spanish navigator De Quiros must always 
remain uncertain. It seems to me then that 
Hornsby's paper, not Lalande's, was what first 
gave occasion to the discussion which led to the 
application resulting in Cook's voyage. 

W. T. Lynx. 



SIR JOSEPH BANKS S JOURNAL. 
21, Cautley Avenue, Clapham Common, Dec. 2i5, 1896. 

Referring to the review of Sir Joseph 
Banks's 'Journal' which appears in your issue 
of to-day's date (pp. 908-909), there are one or 
two points touched upon which may be deemed 
worthy of further elucidation. A comparison 
of the translation by M. de Freville with the 
anonymous publication of Becket & De Hondt 
shows that the French book was translated 
directly from that work, with a very few addi- 
tional amplifications by the translator. The 
suggestion that it was the work of the clerk 
Richard Orton is probable ; we find such errors 
as "Captain Cooke" for Lieut. Cook, Fuego 
is always misspelled "Feugo," details of the 
character of each anchorage are given, and the 
bearings also ; but it is silent as to the death of 
the two negroes, Banks's servants, when absent 
from the vessel in Patagonia. The first person 
is used in describing the visits paid to the con- 
vent in Madeira, as though Cook were the nar- 
rator, when not even his name is correctly cited. 
Possibly some of these slips are due to the 
haste in issuing the work, of which the intro- 
duction is dated September 28th, 1771. 

Poor as it was, Banks seems to have sent a 
copy to the Academie des Sciences, for in the 
Journal des Sgavans, Juin, 1772, pp. 344-351, 
we find an abstract of it, with a quotation from 
his accompanying letter : " C'est ainsi que 
M. Banks nous a donne un extrait sommaire de 
son dernier voyage, dont il espere que la rela- 
tion paroitra en 1773" (I. c, p. 350). Sir 
Joseph Banks was ready enough to spend money 
lavishly in acquiring material in any shape of 
natural history, but shrank from the drudgery 
of working out his results. He was content to 
amass stores for others to elaborate, but could 
not in his own person undertake the labour of 
reducing his observations to scientific order. 
In some departments he was admirably served. 
Solander, apart from his constitutional indolence 
and love for society, was an ideal naturalist, 
and his successor Dryander was even more 
remarkable for his concentration on matters 
connected with the vast and rich collections 
which it was the delight of his employer to 
bring together. B. Daydon Jackson. 



Blackheatb, Dec. 30, 189r>. 
In a notice of the 'Journal of Sir Joseph 
Hanks' which is given in the Atfienaum of the 
20th inst., the writer says that he does not 
remember to have seen, in the many accounts 
of Cook's voyages, reference to the true origin 
of his first visit to the Society Islands, which 
he takes to be the publication of a ' Me'moire ' 
by Lalande in 1704 on the forthcoming transit 
of Venus in 170!), pointing out the desirability 
of having it observed in the South Pacific 
Ocean. Now Prof. Hornsby contributed a 
much more elaborate paper to the Pliilosophical 
Transactions for 1705, which, according to 
Thomson in his ' History of the Royal Society,' 
was what led to tho Society's application to 
the king to send out an expedition to the Pacific 
for observation of the transit. Hornsby does 
not refer to Lalande's 'Me'moire,' and it seems 



*** We are pleased to find Mr. Daydon 
Jackson in agreement with our suggestion as to 
the origin of the first anonymous journal of the 
Endeavour's voyage. This publication, it may 
be remarked, is dedicated to the Lords of the 
Admiralty, to Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander ; 
whilst on p. 2 one of the publishers, Mr. Becket, 
states that he is convinced "it is the production 
of a gentleman and a scholar who made the 
voyage." Now Richard Orton was neither a 
gentleman nor a scholar, but we venture to 
adhere to our opinion that it was he who sup- 
plied the material — indeed, the use of the first 
person in certain portions of the narrative indi- 
cates direct appropriation of parts of Cook's 
official journal, which was actually transcribed 
by Orton as amanuensis of that commander. 
Whoever it was, it must have been some cne 
who remained on board the Endeavour after 
Cook and Banks had landed at Deal on the 
12th-13th July ; for the anonymous writer 
states he landed on the 15th. Now there was 
one individual who must have been particularly 
interested, beyond all others, in obtaining the 
earliest possible information regarding Cook's 
expedition. This was Alexander Dalrymple. 
It is not impossible that this eminent geo- 
grapher — who had so earnestly desired to com- 
mand the expedition to discover a great southern 
continent — might have preconcerted an arrange- 
ment with some person on board the Endeavour 
to supply him with news of the discoveries 
accomplished by Cook in advance of the official 
publication. Dalrymple's jealousy of Cook and his 
animosity towards Dr. Hawkesworth are exem- 
plified in his later publications. Mr. Jackson 
rightly conjectures that Banks sent a copy of this 
journal, when published, to the French Aca- 
demy ; and as M. de Fre'ville describes it, in 
his translation, as the journal of a "Voyage 
autour du monde, fait par MM. Banks et 
Solander," it may well be supposed that Dr. 
Solander prepared the abstract, notes, and 
emendations which subsequently appeared in 
the Journal des Scavayis. Altogether, it is a 
curious complication, which perhaps may be 
unravelled by further research. 

Mr. Lynn's proposition can hardly be sus- 
tained by his arguments. For, indeed, it was 
even before the previous transit of 1701 that 
Lalande had prepared a geographical chart, on 
which he laid down the times of ingress and 
egress of the planet on the sun's disc, calculated 
for the most favourable places on the globe for 
observations to be made by Delisle's method. 
And, as Mr. Lynn rightly observes, although 
Tahiti had not been discovered, there was good 
reason for supposing there were lands — islands, 
if not a continent — in the South Pacific suitable 
for the purpose. A ' Me'moire ' containing this 
chart was published in 1704, by which time, 
however, the French astronomer had already 
put himself in communication with sovereigns, 
ministers, and learned societies all over Europe, 
urging expeditions for carrying out these im- 
portant observations for ascertaining the sun's 
parallax. In this same year Lalande came over 
to London to confer with Maskelyne — who, it 
will be remembered, was to succeed Bliss as 
Astronomer Royal the following year. More- 
over, Lalande's intimate friend, Bougainville, 



had ten years previously been elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, so that we cannot doubt 
that when this society memorialized the British 

Government in 17<i"> Lalande's 'Me'moire 1 must 

have produced as great an effect and had as 
much weight with the authorities at the Ad- 
miralty as the paper of the Savilian Professor. 
However original Hornsby's elaborate memoir 
may have been, it seems incredible that the 
author can have been unaware of Lalande's 
publications, which had been circulated through- 
out Europe. However, apart from the above 
considerations, in our notice of Banks's 
' Journal ' we were actually led to trace the 
origin of the Endeavour's voyage by consulting 
M. de Freville's introduction to his translation 
of the anonymous pamphlet purporting to be 
Dr. Solander's journal. We hope Mr. Lynn 
may be induced to unearth from the archives 
at Greenwich Observatory some records of 
Lalande's conferences with Maskelyne which 
may elucidate this interesting subject. 



Mo.v 



MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 
London Institution, 5. — ' William Hogarth, Historian and 
Satirist ' Mr W. H. S. Aubrey. 

— Surveyors' Institution. 8— ' Ihe Future Development of the 

Surveyors' Institution. ' Mr. H. Martin 

— Aristotelian. 8 -Symposium In what Sense, U any. do Past 

and Future Time F.xist '." The President, Messrs. 6. H. Hodg- 
son and G. E. Moore. 
Tl'es. Awiatic, 4— 'The Story of Vmm Haram, translated from the 
Original Turkish,' Mr. C 1) Cobham. 

— Civil Engineers, 8— Ballot for Members, 'Superheated-Steam 

Engine Trials.' Prof. W. Hipper. 

— Biblical Archaeology. 8 — Anniversarv Meeting. 

Wkd. Society of Arts, 7.— "The Growth and" Demolition of Mountains, 

Mr C. I. Dent 
Tiit-Rs. London Institution, 6— 'The History of the Dance and its 

Mu-.ic,' Dr F J. Sawyer 

— Electrical Engineers. 8 —Inaugural Address of the President 

— Mathematical, 8 —Supplementary Note on 'Matrices,' Mr. 1. 

Brill 
Civil Engineers. 8— "Monier" Girders and Arches,' Mr. W. 
Beer. (Students' Meeting i 



Fai 



£cimct (gxrssijx. 

It is understood that Mr. H. Goss and Canon 
Fowler, who for the last eleven years have been 
joint secretaries of the Entomological Society, 
do not propose to seek re-election at the annual 
meeting of the Society on the 20th inst. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers, which 
attained its seventy-ninth anniversary on the 
2nd inst., consists, according to a list corrected 
to date, of 1,903 members, 3,833 associate 
members, 331 associates, 21 honorary members, 
and 884 students — together 0,972 of all classes, 
and representing an increase during the past 
year of nearly 3 per cent. 

The French papers say that the widow of 
Baron Hirsch is going to present two millions 
of francs to the Pasteur Institute, and is con- 
sulting the managers as to the allotment of the 
funds. 

The death is announced of General Walker, 
the American statistician and writer on finance. 
M. Nobel's bequest of his whole property 
for the promotion of science is magnificent, but 
it may be doubted whether there are not already 
enough prizes in the scientific world, and 
whether research would not have been more 
effectually aided by a different application of 
the money. 

By the death of Louis Vivien de Saint- 
Martin, France has lost the oldest and in some 
respects the most distinguished of her geo- 
graphers. Born at St. Martin-de-Fontenoy, 
Calvados, on May 22nd, 1802, young Vivien first 
went to Paris in 1814, and lived there or 
at Versailles up to the time of his death. He 
was not a great traveller like Ritter, still less 
an explorer, and won distinction solely as a 
savant and student. His first works were an 
elementary atlas and a georama (1820), the first 
globe of the kind seen in Paris. Since 1840 he had 
devoted his attention solely to geographical sub- 
jects. For a period of fourteen years (1842-50) 
he edited the Annates des Voyages. In 1845 
he commenced the publication of a ' Histoire 
Cniverselle des De'couvertes G^ographiques,' 
planned on a gigantic scale, of which only three 
volumes, dealing with Asia Minor, have ever 
seen the light. Many years of his life were 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENiEUM 



53 



devoted to the study of the ancient geography 
of Asia and Northern Africa, his principal works 
dealing with this vast subject being ' Etudes 
sur la Geographie et les Populations Primitives 
du Nord-ouest de l'lnde d'apres les Hymnes 
Ve'diques' (1860), 'Etude sur la Ge'ographie 
Grecque et Latine de l'lnde' (1858-60), and 
*Le Nord de 1'Afrique dans l'Antiquite Grecque 
et Romaine ' (1863). Between 1863 and 1875 
he published 'L'Annee Ge'ographique,' a mas- 
terly survey of geographical progress. This 
useful work was carried on for a few years 
longer by M. Maunoir and M. Duveyrier, but 
has since been discontinued. His ' Histoire de 
Geographie ' (1873) is a work of authority. In 
1874 he planned a 'Nouveau Dictionnaire de 
Geographie Universelle,' and brought out the 
first volume, but allowed this monumental work 
to be completed by his friend Rousselet. His 
'Atlas Universel de Geographie' in eighty- 
four maps, the first of which appeared in 1877, 
Is being slowly completed by M. F. Schrader. 
At the time of his death he was engaged upon a 
'Dictionnaire de Ge'ographie Historique,' the 
MS. of which has been bequeathed by him to 
the Acadernie des Inscriptions. Vivien was one 
of the founders of the Paris Geographical Society 
(1822), and at the time of his death was one 
of its honorary presidents. He was a member 
of the Berlin Academy, an honorary fellow of 
numerous learned societies, and a Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour. 

A small planet, probably to be reckoned as 
No. 426, was discovered by M. Charlois at Nice 
on the 28th ult. 

The editorship of the Astronomical Journal 
(which is henceforth to have the words "Founded 
byB. A. Gould" under the title on each number) 
has devolved upon Dr. S. C. Chandler, who has 
made many valuable contributions toits columns ; 
at his own request Profs. Asaph Hall and Lewis 
Boss are to collaborate with him in it. 

M. Poincar^ has been appointed Professor of 
Mathematical Astronomy and Celestial Mechanics 
at Paris, in the room of the late M. Tisserand. 



FINE ARTS 



TWO PAMPHLETS. 

Notes on the Cross of Cong. By M. Stokes. 
(Privately printed.) — The elaborate and delicate 
relic to which Miss Stokes has devoted this 
monograph is one of the finest works 
of its kind. It is the more interesting 
because it is dated 1123, that is, three years 
after the wreck of the Blanche Nef, and bears 
the sole record of the maker in his name, which, 
in full, was Maelisu (Maeljesu) MacBratdair 
O'Echan, together with the names of Therdel- 
buch U Chonchobair (Turlough O'Conor), King 
of Erin, who employed that goldsmith, and 
Domnall Mac Flannacan U Dubthaig (O'Duffy), 
Bishop of Connaught, who "superintended its 
execution." Whatever the last phrase may mean, 
it is an awkward one for those who persist in 
thinking that to the mediaeval workman, and to 
the workman alone, i.e., in this case O'Echan, 
is the credit due for what is nowadays so 
very oddly called "applied art." The cross 
itself is a singularly fine specimen of that late 
offdhoot of the Romano-Byzantine school of 
decorative design which under various, but not 
very different forms, flourished in Ireland, 
England, and Scandinavia, and used to be 
called Hibernian. It is of the same epoch 
as the noble chalice of St. Remi and the 
analogous shrine of St. Patrick's Bell (which 
dates from 1100), and, though resembling 
them in style, it is more refined and elaborate. 
Like other similar works, it was made to 
contain a fragment of the True Cross, 
which, in the Chronicle of Inisfallen, is said 
to have been sent to Ireland in 1123, but 
more probably at a later date. It is of the 
Latin form. The shaft is 2 ft. 6 in. high ; the 



arms extend 1 ft. 6| in. ; the material of the 
body is oak. Encrusted with plates of gilt 
copper and brass, at the intersection is a circular 
crystal, like a lens, covering an orifice intended 
to contain the relic. Prof. MacCullagh observing 
that the fragment now under the lens is of oak, 
which the True Cross was not, doubted the 
genuineness of the existing fragment. Miss Stokes, 
as in duty bound, sees no reason for hesitation 
on this account, other fragments alleged to be 
genuine being of the same sort of wood. Be- 
sides the metal plates and crystal, the Cross of 
Cong is enriched with red and green stones cut 
en caboclwn, and, in the Romano-Byzantine 
manner, set as studs, so as to protect the 
fine interlaced filigree gold work, which is 
fastened by rivets to the copper plates beneath. 
The studs were originally eighteen in number, 
arranged at regular intervals along the edges, 
and on the face of the shaft and arms of the 
cross spaces remain for nine others, which were 
placed at intervals down the centre. The filigree 
work is so exceptionally well designed and 
choicely executed as to excite the wonder of all 
who have studied it. On this point we should 
like to call attention to a circumstance which 
has never, so far as we know, been mentioned in 
connexion with Irish, Anglo-Saxon, or Scandi- 
navian filigree work, and which may serve to 
mitigate the wonder of amateurs. We refer to 
the manifest fact that in countries where cloisonnes 
enamels were designed and made, the elabora- 
tion of filigree work would of necessity come 
naturally to those who were accustomed to de- 
sign and execute cloisonnes enamels, as many 
were in Western Europe. What is filigree work 
but extremely intricate cloisonne work without 
its enamels 1 Miss Stokes rightly says that 
the reliquary which may with most profit be 
compared with the Cross of Cong is the Anglo- 
Saxon cross in the treasury of the church 
of SS. Gudule et Michel at Brussels, which 
is also believed to have been made to contain 
a fragment of the True Cross. The custom of 
shaping reliquaries in accordance with the relics 
they were to contain is observable in innumerable 
cases before monstrances came into use. Several 
instances of alleged fragments of the True Cross 
being enshrined in cruciform cases are mentioned 
by Miss Stokes ; but all shrines of this sort 
were not cruciform. Zoomorphic types occur 
in the interlacements of the filigree in the Cross 
of Cong ; these and the other details of Maelisu 
O'Echan's masterpiece are well shown in the 
plates before us. 

We are indebted to Mr. R. Inwards for a 
copy of his contribution to the Quarterly Journal 
of the Meteorological Society, No. 98, April, 
1896, which, with two diagrams, deals with 
Turners Representations of Lightning. To 
explain them we cannot do better than quote 
the opening passages, which the diagrams (1) of 
'Turner's Lightning,' as represented in his pic- 
ture of the 'Bass Rock,' and (2) of a 'Photo- 
graph of Lightning,' as taken instantaneously 
from nature, distinctly affirm. Mr. Inwards 
writes : — 

" The truth to nature of Turner's representa- 
tions of lightning has been several times men- 
tioned before the Society, but I thought it would 
be interesting to bring before the Fellows an actual 
example of Turner's work, placed side by side with 
a photograph of a real flash of lightning, presenting 
the same general character, and perhaps coming 
uuder the head of meandering lightning; at all events, 
it is a flash of that kind which seems to attempt to 
double back upon itself, and which makes many 
sudden turns before getting finally on its earthward 
course. Collated with this view is a photograph 
from the Society's collection, and which, of course, 
was taken direct from nature. It will be Been that 
Turner has caught the general form and character 
of the rapid contortions and abrupt curves of the 
lightning with a most amazing fidelity, and he 
baa even drawn the flash in several places by a 
doubled line, just as wr often see in photographs 
from nature. In fact, there is a doubled pari 
in the photograph. If the picture had been by 
anyone but Turner 1 should have put this down 
to a mere careless stroke of the brush, but being 



from the hand of so consummate a master, I can 
have no doubt that his keen eye saw the effect, 
which his swift hand almost as quickly committed 
to paper." 

And Mr. Inwards concludes his observations on 
additional instances, all equally interesting and 
conclusive, as follows : "One is inclined to take 
literally the eulogium passed by John Ruskin 
on this great master : ' Unfathomable in know- 
ledge, solitary in power sent as a prophet to 

reveal to men the mysteries of the universe.' " 



THE ROYAL ACADEMY. — WINTER EXHIBITION. 
LORD LEIGHTON'S PICTURES. 
(First Notice.) 
From this collection of more than two hundred 
works in oil none of the most important of 
the late President's pictures that are removable 
from the walls they decorate is absent, with 
the exception of the beautiful 'Wedded,' the 
gaily coloured 'Odalisque,' 'Jezebel and Ahab,' 
' Clytemnestra watching for the Return of 
Agamemnon,' ' Phryne at Eleusis,' and 
1 Antigone.' A large number, too, of his drawings 
and designs made to illustrate ' Romola ' and 
other books, very many exercises in pencil and 
silver-point — some of them most exquisite — 
and a few models in the round and relief are 
included in a comprehensive gathering which 
more than adequately represents the astonishing 
industry and skill of one of the most distin- 
guished artists England has produced in this 
century. In presence of such an exhibition the 
student will be more than ever impressed by 
Leighton's ample endowment of the indomitable 
"power of taking pains " which is said to cha- 
racterize the great masters of every art and 
science. The collection is more truly representa- 
tive of the rise and progress of the painter than 
any that has been seen before, inasmuch as it 
includes works not till now seen in London, 
the most interesting being Cimabue finding 
Giotto in the Fields of Florence (No. 177), which 
was the first work he finished, and which was 
shown at Brussels in 1850. It is an astonish- 
ing fact that the works Leighton exhibited in 
London amounted to 255. Nevertheless, his 
total output, studies of importance included, 
far exceeds this number, while some of the 
most ambitious, such as the lunettes at South 
Kensington and the fresco at Lyndhurst, are 
not reckoned in the total we have named. 

All the world knows that Leighton's reputa- 
tion was established by Cimabue's ' Madonna' 
carried through Florence, which, as No. 65, 
occupies a leading position in Gallery III., and 
is a loan from the Queen. This work is the 
only purchase, we believe, Her Majesty ever 
made of the first contribution sent by a young 
and, until then, unknown artist to a public 
exhibition. It took the art world by storm in 
1855, and has since then more than maintained 
its reputation, and more than justified the 
Queen's judgment. It clearly indicated that, 
given health and years enough, its author 
would achieve a conspicuous position among 
the painters of the century. Great as was 
the distinction won by him at the Academy 
he was afterwards to head, there came a cold 
shadow over his fortunes when ' The Triumph 
of Music' (not 'Orpheus and Eurydice,' 
which, as No. 61, illustrates Browning in Gal- 
lery III.) followed 'Cimabue' in 1856, and, 
greatly to the chagrin of the artist, was con- 
demned by some of the critics of the day. 
Much nonsense was written about that unlucky 
work, which we remember quite well, and 
which deserved respectful treatment, even if it 
did not merit the admiration awarded to its 
forerunner. ' Tho Triumph of Music ' is not 
here. 

It is a noteworthy fact in Leighton's history 
that, while most men of his calibre and energy 
secure no small part of their reputation by the 
time they are of age, he was more than 
twenty-five years old when 'Cimabue' proved 
beyond mistake that he had attained a very high 



54 



tii !•: a t ii i-: n .1: r m 



N 3611, Jan. 9, '97 



degree of technical skill before the general 
public knew anything about him. It ia owing 
t.> this unusual circumstance that we have n<> 
experimental paintings here to comment upon, 
nor, for thai matter, any considerable develop- 
ment, nor any distinctly important change in 

his methods and style to record. And when 
once what may be called the tentative, but DOl 
immature group of Leighton's works is disposed 
of, the rest ot his paintings stand nearly on 
the same level. They differ, of course, in the 
happiness of their inspiration, in physical 
and technical beauty, in the splendour of 
their lighting, and the charm of coloration, 
which, none strove more ardently than he to 
secure; but, except in degree, the characteristic 
qualities of Michael Angelo nursing his Dying 
s. rvani (2) and The Star of B« thlehem (28), both 
of which belong to 18G2, are much the same 
as those of Flaming June (75) of 1895 and Clytie 
(GO), which, left hardly finished in 1896, is 
practically the last work Leighton touched. 

Accordingly we intend to begin by calling 
attention to the tentative works, and afterwards 
proceed to say something about the best of the 
other pictures in the order they occupy on 
the walls of the Academy. Cimabue finding 
Giotto (177) needs no further comment than 
that it bears testimony to the industry 
and success of the studies of the youthful 
Leighton in Rome, Berlin, Frankfort, and Paris. 
The names of the schools he frequented are 
enough to convince us that nothing but eclec- 
ticism could result from training so multifarious 
and models so dissimilar. In fact, the wonder 
is that anything like original genius survived 
so much teaching, and splendid as the results 
of his schooling were, there cannot be a doubt 
that it would have been much better for him 
if he had had a good deal less education. 
No. 177 exhibits his inborn sense of colour. His 
training had given him a profound knowledge 
of form, and that strong scientific feeling of 
which he had so much ensured a logical 
attention to the veracities of light and shade; 
while his liking for an artistic anecdote made 
the designing of such a theme as that he selected 
for No. 177 very easy to him. A Persian Pedlar 
(182) shows the colourist at work, and the man 
of taste diligently studying those harmonies of 
line which the draperies and posture of the 
figure and the masses of its accessories permit. 
Its date is 1852. 

Cimabue's ' Madonna ' carried through Florence 
(G5) was finished in 1855 (it was the out- 
come of long previous labour), and sent to 
the Academy, with results of which we have 
already spoken. It at present faces Daph- 
nephoria (81), finished just twenty - one 
years later, which marked the culminating 
point of his art. These works show plainly how 
Leighton delighted in painting processions. The 
continuity of Mowing lines, the repetitions of 
similar elements, and the abundant oppor- 
tunities for introducing graceful attitudes among 
figures actuated by a common motive, to say 
nothing of the stateliness appertaining to such 
subjects, had a singular fascination for him. As 
a designer of compositions of this nature, not 
even Sir John Gilbert — who loves a procession, 
especially when it involves rapid movements 
and furious gestures — has excelled Leighton 
when he had to deal with regular and gradual 
movements, more particularly if they were 
accompanied and directed by music. Owing to 
this, ' Cimabue ' and ' Daphnephoria ' were 
subjects after his own heart, and he threw him- 
self into the painting of them without the least 
regard to the rewards of the future, for he knew 
that few could buy or house the latter, and it 
is understood he got much less that 500L for 
the former picture. No doubt, too, the enthu- 
siasm of Leighton, always a genuine lover of 
his art, was fed and heightened by the idea that 
in some such picture as this he might worthily 
illustrate an event so momentous in the history 
of painting as the carrying of the great 



Bgures or parts 

they belong, and 
to some extent 



Madonna' from the /«//<</" of Cimabue t" 

the church which it was destined to adorn, 
lie was perfectly aware that since the fall of 
Koine no such honour had been vouchsafed to 
art or an artist 

There is a certain local disconnexion, not to 
say harshness, in the coloration, lights, and 
shadows of this noble work, and even the 
of the groups to which 
the groups themselves are 
isolated (a defect Leigh- 
ton avoided in later works), but they are on 
the other hand remarkable for the softness, 
breadth, and fusion of their detail. This 
softening was carried so far that many who 
objected to the artist's methods founded their 
complaints upon it, and compared the carna- 
tions of his figures to the paintings on 
plum-boxes. The carnations of nearly all the 
figures in ' Cimabue ' are, besides, rather 
opaque, the roses in their cheeks are reddish 
and spotty, while in the Mesh generally there 
is an excess of yellow and a lack of greyness. 
The local colours, too, are "cut up" to some 
extent, even more, perhaps, than the artist's 
desire to represent the brightness of Florentine 
daylight warranted. The chiaroscuro not less 
than the coloration and general treatment of 
this picture go far to prove that Leighton, 
before he painted it, had saturated his mind 
with the study of the frescoes which were daily 
before him in Tuscany and Rome. If we want 
to be sure of this we need only observe how 
brilliant is the tonality of the picture, how light 
is its background of architecture and draperies, 
and how distinctly all the figures stand upon 
that background. It is a striking merit in his 
picture that the figures really seem to move 
rhythmically to the music, and this is one 
of many proofs of his profound sympathy 
with his subject, and with the manner in which 
one of the quattrocentisti would have attempted 
this momentous theme if he had enjoyed those 
technical facilities later centuries gave to 
Leighton. Besides, the air of constraint which 
characterizes all the figures in ' Cimabue ' is 
yet another symptom of the influence of early 
Florentine design upon its artist in 1854-5. The 
composition, like the composition of the early fif- 
teenth century, resembles that of a bas-relief, and 
is without the vigour Signorelli introduced, while 
it is qui te in harmony with this sculpture-like effect 
that the draperies, ornaments, and even some of 
the attitudes of their wearers remind usof thestyle 
of Ghiberti, as developed in the later gates of 
the Baptistery, not the earlier ones which recall 
the stiffness of Masolino. Indeed, if Leighton 
had had constantly before him a picture by Pesel- 
lino, he could not have approached more closely 
the middle Florentine manner of designing and 
paintingdraperies. Finally, let us say of 'Cimabue' 
that its draughtsmanship evinces the painter's 
close study of form, and the mastery he had 
already attained in the use of the brush. That 
he was an eclectic by nature not less than by 
what were really cosmopolitan studies is obvious 
to those who carefully examine this masterpiece 
of his youth, and, as at present, have before 
them the outcome of his life's work. 

Salome, the Daughter of Hcrodias (12), which 
in chronological order is the next picture here, 
clearly shows that while working upon it Leighton 
had to a large extent freed his style from the 
trammels that timidity rather than lack of skill 
imposed upon him in ' Cimabue.' In ' Salome ' 
and in The Mermaid (.20), which followed it, the 
movements, expressions, and draperies, not less 
than the painting of the carnations, are more 
lifelike than before, the tonality is at once richer 
and more massive. In these respects the in- 
ihunce of Venice as well as the technical 
development of the artist himself are plainly 
perceptible. There is a good deal of Titiancsque 
handling in the flesh of the mermaid, and her 
exuberant forms would have been distasteful 
to Leighton when he was at work on ' Cimabue.' 
Similar qualities, but a very distinctly inferior 



a picture, the 

deserved great 

massiveness of 

points, are also 



coloration, were to be found in 'The Triumph of 
Music' and the ' l'aolo and 1 ■ which 

Leighton produced at this epoch. The passioi. 
grace of the mermaid before us indicates the 
. ;h of freedom and voluptuous feeling in 
the painter's mind. Tin; breadth, strength, and 
richness, for example, in the blue drapery, 
which is an important part of the scheme of the 
colour, far surpass whit seemed possible to 
the Leighton of earlier years. As the lightness 
of No. G5 has much of the brilliance of Florence's 
frescoes and temperas, so the limpid depth 
and lucent gloom of • The Mermaid ' belong to 
Venice, and to Venice alone. Anything like 
over-definition had vanished from Leighton's 
art by the time this picture was painted. 

Count J'n ris, coming to the house of the 
Capulets, and finding Juliet apparently dead 
(G2), although a somewhat later work, does 
not mark so much progress as 'The Mermaid.' 
Representing a theatrical performance, it is 
infected with some of the vices of theatrical 
representation ; there is a good deal of exaggera- 
tion in the attitudes the expressions (especially 
those of Count Paris and his friend, a male 
model to the life) are crude, and the influence 
of the lamp degrades the chiaroscuro and 
the light and shade of 
painting proper of which 
praise. The breadth and 
touch, which are its best 
seen to advantage in a half-length figure of a 
Roman Lady (59), painted in 1859, which is 
really a masculine and solid portrait - study 
of a magnificent Roman model. Originally 
it was exhibited as a study and called 
'La Nanna.' That opacity of the carnations 
which has offended many in Leighton's later 
work is almost as marked in this model's face 
as in the somewhat affected portrait of Mrs. . s '. 
Orr (24) painted in 1861. On the other hand, 
the bonnet and pose of her head are distinct 
evidence of Leighton's dainty taste. 18G2 
witnessed the painting of Michael Angelo 
nursing his Dying Servant (2), by no means 
a happy nor a spontaneous picture, of which 
the moribund Urbino is the least good part. It 
exhibits the defects of No. 24 in technique and 
sentiment, but hardly any of its better qualities. 
The Star of Bethlehem (28), 1862, may be grouped 
with No. 2. Together they affirm a period 
when Leighton was occupied upon some im- 
portant task, or was otherwise engaged than 
in painting. This stationary period continued, 
as it seems to us, until 1864, when Orpheus and 
Furvdice (61) indicated the beginning of a 
stronger style. The "fragment" of verse 
which Browning wrote to accompany the title 
of the picture in the Catalogue shows how the 
poet had been interested by the passion of the 
group. The face of Eurydice fascinated him as 
it does us, but that of Orpheus is less attractive, 
while the painting— vigorous and solid as it is 
— lacks much the artist was soon to gain. 



rt/TERBOROVGH CATHEDRAL. 

A protest against the needless pulling down 
of the west front has received a great many 
signatures, and as to it a quaint story reaches 
us from Peterborough. It is said that a visitor, 
talking to one of the officials there, asked whether 
a protest bearing so many well-known names 
was not entitled to some consideration, and 
received for answer that it really was of very 
little consequence, for in all the list there was 
the name of only one subscriber to the restora- 
tion fund. This is a very pretty echo of the 
Dean and Chapter's own answer to the Society 
for the Protection of Ancient Buildings early 
in the controversy, that the Society, not being 
subscribers to the work, had no claim to be heard 
about it. 

The Society of Antiquaries came forward with 
a thousand pounds in their hands, but made con- 
ditions as to the way in which it was to be spent ; 
and they, too, are refused a hearing. Who then 
will be listened to >. Apparently, they who will 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



55 



meekly lay money at the feet of the five wise 
men of Peterborough for them and their archi- 
tects to do what they like with. And yet 
subscribers do not seem to be crowding in. 

The general position remains much as it was 
last week. The Dean and Chapter still assert 
their intention to pull down the north gable, 
but at the time of our writing have not begun 
to do so. It is said that orders to begin were 
sent down from London by Mr. Pearson last 
week, but were countermanded by the authori- 
ties on the spot. If this be so, we hope that it 
may be a sign that the Dean and Chapter are 
feeling their way to a less uncompromising 
attitude, and that even yet some means may be 
found whereby they may be relieved from the 
very difficult position in which they now are, 
and the old front of the Cathedral may be saved. 
The specification prepared for the two defending 
societies will soon be printed and circulated. 
If the other side will accept it in the spirit in 
which it is offered, it may prove an eirenicon. 

Mr. Walter Rye writes : — 

'• Will not the simplest and most effective way to 
stop the proposed vandalism be for all interested in 
the preservation of the old work to issue a signed 
manifesto undertaking not to subscribe a penny 
towards the rebuilding, and for those who have 
already subscribed under a misapprehension to 
write at once and withdraw their subscriptions and 
send them to Dr. Freshfield's fund ? " 



We are glad to learn that the Royal Aca- 
demicians intend that the Winter Exhibition of 
next year, 1898, shall consist entirely of Millais's 
works. 

Messrs. Clifford & Co. exhibit at 21, Hay- 
market, until the 30th inst., a collection of 
water-colour drawings and oil paintings by the 
Misses C. E.Hughes and B. E.Lewis.— At "The 
25 Gallery," 25, Soho Square, there is an ex- 
hibition of pictures by, or attributed to, MM. 
Menzel, Toulouse - Lautrec, L. Legrand, and 
others. 

The following pictures, the acquisition of which 
by the National Gallery we have already men- 
tioned, have now been hung in their places. The 
portrait of Gainsborough's daughter, by him, is 
numbered 1482 ; his picture of Tristram and 
Fox is 1483, and his two small landscapes, 1485 
and 1486 respectively. The above have been 
judiciously placed on either side of Zoftany's 
portrait of Gainsborough, No. 1487. All these, 
parts of the Lane gift, are in Room XVI. In 
the Octagon Room the visitor will find the 
two drawings by Gainsborough, ' Rustics and 
Donkey ' and ' Study of an Old Horse. ' With 
the Lewis Fund Sir E. Poynter has pur- 
chased a portrait of Gilbert Stuart, by 
himself, No. 1480, and 'A Winter Scene,' 
by H. van Avercamp, No. 1479. The 
latter is somewhat larger than that other ex- 
ample of the same hand which was already in 
Trafalgar Square. No. 1481 is a gift, and re- 
presents 'A Philosopher,' by C. P. Bega. It is a 
fairly good specimen of his work. As to Gilbert 
Stuart, the reader will recollect a life-size, full- 
length portrait by him of Mr. W. Grant skating 
in St. James's Park, which attracted much 
attention when Lord Charles Pelham-Clinton 
lent it as No. 128 to the Academy in 1878. It 
was at first attributed to Gainsborough. 

At Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods's on 
the 6th inst. ' Partie Perdue,' by F. Bracque- 
mond, after J. L. E. Meissonier, brought 28/.; 
and '1806 (Jena),' by J. Jacquet, after the 
same, 311. 

A Correspondent writes : — 

"A life-sized marble bust of the lain Master of 
Balliol, the gift of the Jowett Memorial Committee, 
was recently placed in the picture gallery of the 
Bodleian Library. The bust has great merits : there 
is a lifelike subtlety in the modelling of the face, 
the rendering of textures is excellent, and the hair, 
iu particular, is treated with a mo8t effective sim- 



plicity. Regarded as portraiture, however, the work 
is not without weaknesses. The contrast between 
the fragile form and the massive head, which jet 
was iu perfect harmony with it, coul.1 perhaps 
hardly have been indicated by the sculptor here. 
More to the point is a certain want of that fineness, 
that distinction, which above all characterized ' the 
Master's ' face, and of the habitual look of power in 
repose. The personality suggested by the bust is 
that of a more ordinary man, alert, acute, bold, 
perhaps masterful ; and the pose, like the expres- 
sion, is full of self-confidence. But the artist, Mr. 
Hope Pinker, had to deal with a subject of more 
than ordinary difficulty, and it is perhaps ungracious 
to lay stress upon defects— or what have seemed 
to be so— where a faithful and minute record of so 
much is given. The carefully studied pedestal, of 
yellow Sienese marble, is most graceful, and well 
deserves notice. Unfortunately its effect, like that 
of the bust, is in some degree impaired by its present 
position and surroundings." 

The Pope has, by convention with the Italian 
Government, become possessed of all the pro- 
perty of the Convent of St. Francis at Assisi, 
and the schoolboys of the Collegio " Principe 
di Napoli," who, by the noise they made, used 
to disturb the monks, are to be, it seems, 
removed to another building in Assisi. 

The excavations of the Athenian Archaeo- 
logical Society near the Dipylon, after the 
discovery of the ancient road leading to the 
Academy, have brought to light the remains of 
a building which is supposed to be the temple 
of Artemis Calliste. The inscriptions found on 
the place contain some decrees relating to the 
priest of this goddess. 

From Patras the discovery is announced of a 
headless marble statue of Minerva which is a 
copy of the ' Athena ' of Pheidias. 

M. Homolle has been appointed Director of 
the French School of Athens for another period 
of six years. 

The owner of the Sciarra Collection has 
bought from the Italian Government freedom 
to deal with the rest of his property by sur- 
rendering the following works, of which more 
than one incorrect list has been published : ' A 
Magdalen,' by Guido ; ' The Life of Christ,' by 
Giotti ; ' Peasants of Arcady,' by B. Schidone ; 
'The Virgin, St. Joseph, and St. Peter, Martyr,' 
by A. del Sarto ; ' Picus changed to a Wood- 
pecker,' by G. da Carpi, and, by the same, 
' A Vestal bearing the Statue of Cybele ' ; 
' Church of the Jesuits,' drawing by Gagliardi, 
figures by A. Sacchi ; ' The Virgin with the 
Sleeping Christ,' by G. Bellini ; 'The Vision of 
Fra Francis da Celano,' by an unknown painter ; 
and a portrait of Stefano Colonna by Bronzino. 
To this ransom some sculptures in marble and 
terra cotta are added. 



MUSIC 



THE WEEK. 

Queen's Hall. — Promenade Concerts. 
St. James's Hall. — Popular Concerts. 

The prodigious Wagnerian programme 
provided by Mr. Robert Newman last Satur- 
day evening attracted an immense audience, 
and we can congratulate Mr. Henry J. 
Wood upon the steady progress made by 
his large and well-equipped orchestra. 
Several of the dozen selections from the Bay- 
reuth master were very finely pla3 r ed, 
notably the Prelude and Death Song from 
'Tristan und Isolde,' tho " Charfreitags- 
zauber " from 'Parsifal,' the Overture to 
' Die Meistersingor,' and the ' Walkiiren- 
ritt.' Other items well played were tho 
Overture to ' Der Fliegende Hollander/ 
the new Vcnusberg music from ' Tann- 
hiiuser,' and the " Trauermarsch " from 
' Gotterdammerung.' Vocal excerpts wen* 
excellently rendered by Miss Lucile Hill 
and Mr. William Ludwig. The first of tho 



Saturday afternoon Symphony Concerts at 
the Queen's Hall is to be given on the 
30th inst., when a symphony by the Russian 
composer Glazanow will be performed for 
the first time in London. 

Tschaikowsky's Pianoforte Trio in a 
minor, Op. 50, bids fair, as it deserves, to 
rank with the ' Symphonie Pathetique ' alike 
in its elegiac character and in the beauty 
and individuality of the music. The work 
was first performed in London at one of the 
late Sir Charles Halle's chamber concerts, 
and was added to the repertory of the 
Popular Concerts on January 6th last year. 
On that occasion the pianist, HerrReisenauer, 
seemed to think that the trio was a work for 
the key-board with string accompaniment, but 
Mr. Leonard Borwick last Monday evening 
was more reticent, and therefore secured a 
much better ensemble. The other performers 
were Lady Halle and Signor Piatti, and a 
finer performance of a work that improves 
greatly on acquaintance could not be 
desired. The programme commenced with 
Beethoven's Quartet in f minor, Op. 95, 
and Mr. Leonard Borwick contributed 
pianoforte pieces by Chopin and Brahms. 
Miss Evangeline Florence sang in very 
pleasant fashion an air, "Care selve," from 
Handel's ' Atalanta,' arranged by A. L. 



The Literature of Music. By James E. 
Matthew. (Stock.) — This little volume is neces- 
sarily sketchy, but not by any means trivial in 
matter. The author commences with the litera- 
ture of ancient music, and passes on to medueval 
writers, and then to works produced during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, correcting 
various errors that have found their way into 
books of acknowledged authority. Concerning 
the two celebrated histories of music by Burney 
and Hawkins, Mr. Matthew rightly records his 
verdict in favour of the latter, though Hawkins 
was an amateur and Burney a professional 
musician. He says Hawkins's style is not so 
polished, and the work possibly not such 
amusing reading as that of his rival, but 
in research and accuracy it need fear no 
comparison. Burney has never been re- 
printed, while Hawkins has been issued 
in a convenient form, with notes which more 
recent knowledge has rendered necessary, by 
Messrs. Novello, Ewer & Co. ; in this form 
it is still obtainable, and will be found most 
useful. Other chapters follow, on dictionaries 
of music, on the literature of sacred music, of 
opera, musical instruments, and the biblio- 
graphy of the art. Of Fe'tis he says that, 
although very far from being a safe guide, 
those who, like himself, have constantly con- 
sulted it for years, " must be lost in admiration 
at the depth and extent of knowledge that it dis- 
plays." The author is rather severe on Grove's 
' Dictionary,' though he admits that the work 
contains much that is useful and meritorious. 
The little volume is supplied with a copious 
index. 

We have on our table The Lute of Apollo, an 
essay on music, by CI i fiord Harrison (limes & 
Co.).; Part I. of the Plainsong if the Mass, 
adapted from the Sarum Gradual (published 
for the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society), 
and containing the principal numbers of the 
Mass in the Gregorian notation and the four- 
line staff; and Le Cycle Berlioz, the first 
volume of a series of monographs upon the work 
of the gifted if eccentric French composer, by 
J. G. Prod'hoiinno (Paris, Bibliotheque de 
['Association). The List is an essay on 'La 
Damnation do Faust,' interesting and instruc- 
tive, though it may not be possible to agree 

invariably with the author's opinions. 



56 



THE ATIIENjEUM 



N° 3611, Jan. 9, '97 



Jjflusiral (gossip. 

The Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts will be 
resumed on February 27th and will conclude on 
April 17th, Mr. August Manns's benefit concert 

being fixed fur the following Saturday. Among 

the features of the Beoond division of the s< 
will ho the interesting Schubert programme on 
February 27th, the appearance of Herr Joachim 
on March LStfa and M. Paderewski on the 
following Saturday, and the performance of 
Gounod's 'Redemption' on March 27th and 
Mr. Edward Elgar's ' King Olaf ' on April 3rd. 
Tiik Incorporated Society of Musicians vir- 
tually concluded its semi-public proceedings at 
the Cardiff Conference last week on Thursday. 
Dr. C. Vincent read a paper on the advantages 
of sight-singing from the staff, with an appeal 
to musicians to use the movable Doh system in 
combination therewith. In the afternoon Mrs. 
Roeckel addressed the meeting on "some of 
the advantages of membership " of the asso- 
ciation, proving her case eloquently and without 
difficulty. The Conference was one of the most 
successful held by the Society, which, it is plea- 
sant to say, is doing much service in the interests 
of professional and amateur musicians. 

Two new overtures from the pen of Mr. 
Herbert Bunning will be heard in London 
during the spring. A ' Dramatic Overture ' will 
be introduced at Mr. Manns's benefit concert 
at the Crystal Palace, and the other, entitled 
4 Spring and Youth,' will be performed at one 
of the Philharmonic Concerts. 

Concerts were few and unimportant last week 
until New Year's Day. Theafternoon performance 
of ' Elijah ' by the Queen's Hall Choral Society 
was very largely attended, and in some respects 
artistically successful. Miss Ella Russell was 
scarcely at her best in the soprano airs, and Mr. 
Santley was obviously out of voice at first, but 
he improved with his work. Miss Ada Crossley 
made a very favourable impression as an ad- 
vancing contralto oratorio singer, and Mr. Ben 
Davies was admirable in the principal tenor 
music. Mr. Randegger conducted with much 
spirit, but, we venture to think, took some of 
the choruses at excessive speed. 

In the evening 'The Messiah' was given, as 
usual, by the Royal Choral Society in the 
Albert Hall. Miss Anna Williams, Miss Marian 
McKenzie, Mr. Ben Davies, and Mr. Watkin 
Mills were the principal vocalists, and Prof. 
Bridge conducted the curtailed version of 
Handel's oratorio in a commendable manner. 
It may be noted that in 'Israel in Egypt,' 
which is underlined for the 21st inst. , the duet 
"The Lord is a man of war" will be given by 
two bass soloists, and not by the entire con- 
tingent of tenors and basses in the choir. 

Messrs. Plunket Greene and Leonard 
Borwick will give three song and pianoforte 
recitals at St. James's Hall on February 5th 
and 19th and March 5th, the first programme 
being devoted to the music of Schubert. 

M. Saint-Saens's Biblical opera ' Samson et 
Dalila ' seems to be coming rapidly into favour 
in oratorio form. It was given for the third 
time at Sir Charles Halle's Manchester Concerts 
on Wednesday last week, and, as already an- 
nounced, it will be repeated by the Queen's Hall 
Choral Society on Saturday afternoon next. 

Dvorak's charming overture 'In der Nat.ur ' 
was performed for the first time in Edinburgh 
by the Scottish Orchestra at Messrs. Paterson's 
sixth orchestral concert on Monday last. The 
programme-book contained well-executed por- 
traits of M. Sapellnikoff and Herr Goldmark. 

We believe that, for the first time since its 
institution, the Bristol Festival has yielded a 
profit. The accounts for the meeting held in 
October last show a balance on the right side 
of nearly 4'Sl. — not a large sum, it is true, but it 
is better than a loss, and it is, of course, quite 
independent of the 142i. collected for the local 
charities. 



The recently formed Manchester Royal Col- 
lide of Music seems to be already in a prosperous 
condition. List year 1,8212. was subscribed 
towards the funds of the institution, and the 
number of students rose to 161. 

Mr. Frederick Lamond, who has recently 
won much favour as a pianist in Warsaw and 
Moscow, will give the first of a series of recitals 
at St. James's Hall on January 19th. 

The new opera 'Messidor,' by MM. Zola and 
Bruneau, is now in rehearsal at the Paris Ope"ra, 
and will probably be produced early in February. 

TnERE seems to be irrefragable evidence that 
Beethoven's great Mass in D was tirst performed 
not in Vienna, but by the members of the 
St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society on March 
24th, 1824. The Vienna performance took place 
six weeks later. 

Three cycles of ' Der Ring des Nibelungen 
were given last month at Berlin in response to 
the Kaiser's command, and the Hoftheater was 
crowded on every evening. The Bayreuth 
traditions were observed as nearly as possible, 
and among the artists were Frau Sucher, 
Madame Gulbranson, Herr Griming, Herr Vogl, 
and Herr Lieban. Herr Weingartner is said 
to have conducted the performances with the 
utmost skill. 

Ibsen's unpleasant play ' Rosmersholm ' has 
inspired a young German composer, Herr 
Gustav Brecher, to write a symphonic poem, 
which was recently produced at a concert of the 
Liszt Verein at Leipzig, it is said with much 
success. 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 

Orchestral Concert, 3.30, Queen'B Hall. 

National Sunday League Concert. 7. Queen's Hall. 

Queen's Hall String Quartet Concert, 7 .30, Queen's Small Hall. 

Popular Concert, 8, St James's Hall. 

London Ballad Concert. 8, Queen's Hall. 
Thurs. Mr Henschel's Symphony Concert, 8, St James's Hall. 
Fri. Madame Antoinette Sterling s Concert, 3, St. James's Hall. 

Popular Concert, 3. St James's Hall 

Queen's Hall Choral Society. ' Samson and Delilah,' 3. 

Orchestral Concert, 8, St James's Hall. 

Promenade Concert, 8, Queen's Hall. 



DRAMA 



St'N. 



Mon 
Wed 



Sat. 



$ramaiir $0ssig. 

'A Man abodt Town,' a musical farce, 
produced on Saturday last at the Avenue, 
was punningly announced as by Huan Mee. 
Trivial almost beyond precedent is this piece, 
which the spirited acting of Miss May Edouin 
and the dancing of Miss Alice Lethbridge failed 
to commend. 

'A Pierrot's Life,' a play without words, 
after the fashion of ' L'Enfant Prodigue,' 
was given on Friday afternoon at the 
Prince of Wales's by a French company. It 
is curious to notice that while Pierrot, long 
popular in France, has obtained from the 
designs of M. Willette further recognition, and 
is now treated sentimentally, the character in 
England remains practically unknown outside 
the masked ball. 

A new play by Mr. Justin Huntly McCarthy 
will be the next dramatic novelty at the Garrick. 
Its performance will, however, be preceded by 
three weeks of Carl Rosa opera. 

The title of the piece with which the Strand 
Theatre (now closed) will reopen, under the 
management of Mr. John S. Clarke, is to be 
'A Prodigal Father,' which is suggestive of 
4 Un Pere Prodigue,' dramatized by Charles 
Mathews as ' My Awful Dad,' and produced at 
the Oaiety in September, 1875. Mr. Paulton 
and Miss May Palfrey, as well as Mr. Collette, 
will be in the cast. It is to be prefaced by a 
one-act piece entitled ' Home, Sweet Home,' in 
which Miss Florence Gerard (Mrs. Abbey) will 
reappear. 

Mr. W. G. Wills's adaptation of 'Esmond,' 
written for the Lyceum, has long been in 
existence, and has, we believe, been finished 
by Mr. Freeman Wills, his brother. It has not 



yet been acted. Renderings of that not too 
tractable novel are now promised in both Eng- 
land and America. That to be given in England 
is by Mr. Edgar I'emberton, and is designed for 
Mr. Edward Compton. 

Mr. Geok<;e Alexander has secured the 
rights of the adaptation by M. Armand d'Artois 
of Musset's ' Lorenzaccio,' in which Madame 
Bernhardt has been seen in Paris. The 
English version will be executed by Mr. Herman 
Bli 11 vale. 

To night is to witness the long promised pro- 
duction at the Shaftesbury of 'The Sorrows of 
Satan ' as adapted by Messrs. Herbert Wood- 
gate and Paul Berton, with Mr. Lewis Waller 
in what we suppose we must call the epony- 
mous hero. It i8a curious coincidence that just 
at the time when 'The Sign of the Cross ' is dis- 
appearing from one part of Shaftesbury Avenue 
the latest transfiguration or metempsychosis 
of the Prince of Darkness should be given at 
another. 

'The Devil's Disciple,' the scene of which 
is laid in the time of the American War 
of Independence, is the title of a new play by 
Mr. George Bernard Shaw, intended, it is to 
be supposed, for a West-End theatre. 

Mr. William Yocnge, known as an actor 
and a dramatist, died of pneumonia on Sunday 
last at Charing Cross Hospital. He wrote 
several small pieces, and played in various 
London theatres, being last seen at the Strand 
in 'Playing the Game,' a piece by himself and 
Mr. Arthur Flaxman. 

Mr. A. F. Robbins writes to point out that 
the run of ' Our Boys ' was longer than that of 
1 Charley's Aunt,' which was noted a week or 
two ago as unparalleled. 

Writing in the Fortnightly on the ' Blight of 
the Drama,' Mr. William Archer denies that 
anything more than chance is responsible for 
the fact that the fair promise of little more 
than a year ago is unfulfilled. In the plays 
by serious dramatists which failed to please 
the public he finds reasons for want of suc- 
cess in the works themselves, or in the 
circumstances that attended their production, 
such as the sudden and perplexing withdrawal 
of 'Michael and his Lost Angel.' The triumph 
of the musical comedy he contemplates with 
equanimity, regarding it as transient, and finding 
in ' The Sign of the Cross ' a far more depressing 
portent than in 'My Girl 'and 'Monte Carlo.' 
To this we would only add that there is no 
evidence of change of taste on the part of the 
public. It is not the drama that ' My Girl,' 
'The Circus Girl,' or any other girl supplants. 
It is the burlesque, the opera-bouffe, the ex- 
travaganza, which it replaces. The very oldest 
playgoer still recalls the sparkling entertain- 
ments of Planche - , given at the Olympic 
or the Lyceum ; the man in late middle 
life talks more frequently of Marie Wilton 
than of Phelps. Patty Oliver in the 
' Black - Eyed Susan ' burlesque and Lydia 
Thompson in 'Magic Toys' prepared the way 
for the Lettie Linds and other singers and 
dancers of to-day, of whom we claim no very 
close knowledge. Such reasons as exist for the 
decline of the serious drama spring rather from 
the class of subject treated than from the oppo- 
sition of the musical comedy, which from the 
Gaiety, always its home, has put out its feelers 
and seized for a while on the Garrick, the 
Prince of Wales's, the Shaftesbury, and one or 
two other houses. 



To CouKEspoMir.NTS— W. H— R. B. B.— W. J— E. P. H. 
-U. 11. P.— B. C. S.— received. 



Tkrms of Subscription by Post. 
To all parti of the United Kingdom. 

For Twelve Months 

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For Twelve Months 

For Six Months 



N°3611, Jan. 9, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



57 



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Vol. I. 

PIPPA PASSES, and other Poetic 

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Contents:— Pauline— Paracelsus— Strafford — Pippa Passes 
—King Victor and King Charles. 

These works appeared between 1833 and 1842, and are 
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Vol. II. 

A BLOT in the 'SCUTCHEON, and 

other Poetic Dramas. By ROBERT BROWNING. With 
an Introductory Note by FRANK RINDER. 

Contents .--The Return of the Druses — A Blot in the 
'Scutcheon— Colombe's Birthday— The Flight of the Duchess 
— Lurla— A Soul's Tragedy— Christmas Eve and Easter Day. 

The dates of the above Poems range from 1.-4:1 to 1860, and 
they appear in chronological order. 
BINDINGS. 

The above Two Volumes are supplied in the following 
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Til E AT II KNJET M 



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The WOMAN in WHITE. I BASIL. 

ANTONINA ; or, the Fall of Rome. HIDE and SEEK. 

The MOONSTONE, in uniform style, is in the press. 



DR. RUMSEY'S PATIENT. By Mrs. L. T. Meade and 

CLIFFORD HALIFAX, M.D. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth extra, gilt top, 6s. 
Also by Mrs. MEADE. Crown 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6rf. 
Th e V OICE of the CHARMER. With 8 Illustrations by W. Paget. 

REVENGE ! By Robert Barr, Author of ' A Woman Inter- 
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MIGHT HAVE BEEN : some Life Notes. By Dr. Joseph 

PARK ER. Crown 8vo. cloth extra, gilt top, 6s. 

SONGS of TRAVEL. By Robert Louis Stevenson. Second 

Edition. Crown 8vo. buckram, gilt top, 5s. 

WEIR of HERMISTON. By Robert Louis Stevenson. 

Crown Svo. buckra m, gilt, top, 6s. 

DIARY of a CITIZEN of PARIS during " The TERROR." 

By EDMOND B1RE. Translated by JOHN DE VILLIERS. With Photogravure 

Frontispieces. 2 vols, demy 8vo. cloth extra, 21s. 

PRICE ONE SHILLING MONTHLY. ■-«•<■ 

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 

The JANUARY Number contains a Complete Story, 

• The MADNESS of MERCY NEWDIGATE,' by Major Martin A. S. Humi , 

And the following Articles and Stories :— 

SPECTROSCOPIC DOUBLE STARS. By J. BUwdGoM.FJUL.S^A ^OOUNTBTTOW 

in the SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. By A. Ballard.-WOMEN as BOOK-LO \h BS. E \y 

lie Rev P II DItchfleld. M. A -SMUGGLING in SlSbbX. By Arthur B.-ckett.- 

C H.NKSK PUNISHMKN TS. By Edward H. ^.-WATHB-OLOOfa. B£ O. C NutuU 

H A —RICHARD WAGNER. By R. Mavnard Leonard— An ODD biOKl. U> Ar tnur 

ChrisU .her i" ,,so„ MA-A MID-COUNTRY GRETNA GREEN. By JohnHyde- 

MARYElLen! By M»'rv Hartier.-SOME HOLIDAY FREAKS. By John Peudletou.- 

The PROTECTION of BIRDS. By Sylvauus Urban. 



London: CHATTO & WINDUS, 111, St, Martin Vlanc, W.C. 



the Office. Bream's-buildings, Chancery-lane, B.C. 



Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editor" — Advertisements and Business Letters to "The 1'uhlisher " 

Printed by Joiin Edwaud Francis, Athena-urn Press, Bream's-butldinijs, Chancery-lane, B.C.; and Published by John C. Fturan at Kream's-bnlldlnpi, Chancery-iane, *->.. 
Agents for Scotland, Messrs. Bell & Bradlute and Mr. John Menzies, Edinburgh— Saturday, January 9, 1897. 



THE ATHEN^UM 

journal of <&n$\i$f) antr ^oretgn Etterature, Science, tfte dPine &rt& iflustc anb tfie l^rama* 



No. 3612. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1897. 



PRICE 

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ROYAL SOCIETY of PAINTERS in WATER 
COLOURS, 5a, Pall Mall East —LAST WEEK of WINTER 
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apply before February 5 to 8. J. HODSON, R. W.S , Secretary. 

ROYAL INSTITUTION of GREAT BRITAIN, 
Albemarle-street, Piccadilly, W. 

TUESDAY NEXT (January 19). at 3 o'clock. Professor A. D. WALLER. 
Ml) F.R S., Fullerian Professor of Physiology. FIRST of TWELVE 
LECTURES on 'Animal Electricity.' One Guinea the Course. 

THURSDAY (January 211. at 3 o'clock. Professor HENRY MIERS, 
MA. FR.S FIRST of THREE LECTURES on 'Some Secrets of 
Crystals.' Half-a-Guinea. 

SATURDAY (January 23). at 3 o'clock, CARL ARMBRUSTER, Esq. 
FIRST of THREE LECTURES on 'Neglected Italian and French 
Composers ' (With Vocal Illustrations ) Half-a-Guinea 

Subscription to all the Courses in the Season. Two Guineas 

FKID.VY EVENING (January 22). at 9 o'clock, Professor DEWAR, 
M A. LL D. F.R S on ' Properties of Liquid Oxygen.' To these Meet- 
ings Members and their Friends only are admitted. 



T 



HE DAVY-FARADAY RESEARCH LABORA- 
TORY or the ROYAL INSTITUTION. 

Directors. 

The Right Hon. LORD RAYLEIGH, MA. DC L. LL D. F.RS. 

Professor DEWAR, MA. LL.D. F.R.S. 

Superintendent of the Laboratory. 
Dr. ALEXANDER SCOTT, MA. D.Sc. 
This Laboratory, which has been founded by Dr. Ludwig Mond, 
F.RS., as a Memorial of Davy and Faraday, " for the purpose of pro- 
moting original research in Pure and Physical Chemistry," will be 
OPEN on JANUARY IS 

"Under the Deed of Trust workers in the Laboratory are entitled, 
free of charge, to Gas. Electricity, and Water, as far as available, and, 
at the discretion of the Directors, to the use of the apparatus belonging 
to the Laboratory, together with such materials and chemicals as may 
be authorized. 

All persons desiring to be admitted as workers must send evidence 
of scientific training, qualification, and previous experience in original 
research, along with a statement of the nature of the investigation 
they propose to undertake. — Further information, together with forms 
of application, can be had from the Assistant Secretary, Royal Institu- 
tion. 

KOYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
(Incorporated by Royal Charter.) 
Patron— HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 
President— The Right Hon. Sir M. E. GRANT-DUFF, G.C 8 I. 
THURSDAY, January 21, 5 p.m., at the Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn-street. S. W., the following Paper will be read : - 

'Some Survivors of the Armada,' by Major MARTIN A. S. HUME, 
F.H.HistS. 

HUItERT HALL, Director and Hon Secretary. 
115, St. Martin's-lane, W.C. 

THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY. 



The ANNUAL MEETING of the Society will be held at 22. ALBE- 
MARLE-STREET, Piccadilly, on TUESDAY. January 19. at 8 p.w., 
after which the new President. Mr. ALFRED NUTT, will deliver his 
Presidential Address, ' The Fairy World of English Literature : its 
Origin and Nature.' F. A MILNE, Secretary. 

11. Old-square, Lincoln's Inn, January, 1897. 

PRINTERS' PENSION, ALMSHOUSE, and 
ORPHAN ASYLUM CORPORATION— The Trustees and Council 
gratefully acknowledge that the Right Hon. GEORGE FAUDEL- 
PHILLIPS. LORD MAYOR, has consented to preside at the ANNI- 
VI USARY of this Corpoiation, to be held on TUESDAY, April 6. 1897 

Further particulars will be duly announced, and in the mean time the 
names of Stewards will be gladly received. 

Hy order, J 8. HODSON, F.R.8.L., Secretary. 
Cray's Inn Chambers. 20, High Holborn. 

pLASSICAL COACHING or CLASS TEACHING. 

—Miss JESSIE MONK, MA. (Lond.), Is prepared to COACH 
STUDENTS for the London University or other Examinations — 
Address Tremartu. 26, Thurlow-road, Hatiipstead, N.W. 

BELGIAN (32), Professeur diplome, seeks SITUA- 
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German, Mathera . Geog , Hist ) Five years' exper in Engl— Testi- 
monials forwarded on written application to J. L , 27, Kildare-terrace 
Hayswatcr, W. 

MR. EDWARD TURNER (for many years 
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to the Scientific I'rcss. Limited, proprietors of the Hospital, &c.) is now 
OPEN to an ENGAGEMENT Thorough knowledge of the Publishing 
Trade In all its Branches No objection to go Abroad. Highest reler- 
«nces.— Address care of \V. Muli.er, 1, Star-yard, Carey-street, W.C. 

1 FURTHER WORK WANTED by an experienced 
LADY WRITER and Teacher on Magazines and Papers. Articles 
on Houiekecping and Cookery. Practical Teacher and Cook. Two 
first-class Diplomas— F. D, 286, Belsize-road, Kilburn. 



TO PUBLISHERS.— An Oxford Man, of wide 
experience and the highest literary testimonials, desires to READ 
for al'lHLISHKR -Address X Y. Z., care of Francis & Co., Athena urn 
Press Breams-buildings, E.G. 

\V ELL-EDUCATED YOUNG GENTLEMAN, 

T » with capital, desires JUNIOR PARTNERSHIP In established 
firm of Publishers.— Address Publisuer, care of J. W. Vlckers 6 
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PARTNERSHIP. — YOUNG GENTLEMAN of 
Literary tastes willing to introduce 1,000!. in successful ANOLO- 
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.Paris Office, can address for full particulars 

xiiiEir. U, Lombard-street, EC. 



/CAPITAL, CAPACITY, and COURAGE.— A grand 

opportunity occurs of joining In a Literary venture calculated to 
bring a good and certain remuneration —Apply to Projector, care of 
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WANTED, LIBRARIAN for the BARRY 
PUBLIC LIBRARY. — Previous experience indispensable. 
Salary 90/. Applications must be sent in on or before '26th inst — Apply 
by letter Hating age and expeiience, to 1). "W. Rouerts, Esq , Public 
Library, Holton-road, Harry. 

pIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION.— Forthcoming 

V J Examination —JUNIOR ASSISTANT in the ART BRANCH of 
the SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM (18-25), JANUARY 28 —The 
date specified is the latest at which applications can be received. They 
must be made on forms to be obtained, with particulars, from the 
Secretary, Civil Service Commission, London, S. W. 



c 



CAMBRIDGE TRAINING COLLEGE for 

WOMEN TEACHERS. 
The Council are about to appoint TWO LECTURERS (1) SENIOR 
LECTURER Residence and 120!. a year. (2) JUNIOR LECTURER. 
Residence and 90!. a year. The Lecturers must have Degrees (or an 
equivalent Certificate of some University), and one of them a com- 
petent knowledge of some branch of Natural Science They must enter 
on their duties in SEPTEMBER, 1897 —Application should be made by 
FEBRUARY' 15th, 1S97, to the Principal, from whom the particulars 
can be obtained. 

IMRKBNHEAD SCHOOL.— A HEAD MASTER 

I * will be REQUIRED at EASTER. He must be a Member of the 
Church of England, and a Graduate in Honours of Oxford or Cambridge 
University. Salary 300/ a year, with Capitation Fees and Residence, 
with Boarding House attached for Forty Boys. The School Buildings 
stand in a most healthy position on Oxton Hill — Applications must be 
received before February 10 by the Secretary. W. E. Mills, 40, 
Hamilton-square, Birkenhead, from whom further information may be 
obtained. 



I 



OUGHBOROUGH ENDOWED SCHOOLS. 



GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL. 

The Governors will require, after the Easter Vacation, a HEAD 
MISTRESS for this School. 

The emoluments of the Head Mistress will be a fixed salary of 100!. a 
year and a Capitation Fee of 30s. per head, together with a good House, 
and she will have the appointment of the Assistant Mistresses, subject 
to existing engagements. 

The present number of Scholars is 110, 

Copies of the Scheme, price 6d. each, may be obtained from the under- 
signed. 

Candidates are requested to send in their testimonials not later than 
February 6 to W. EDWARD WOOLLEY, Receiver and Clerk. 

Rectory Place, Loughborough. Leicestershire. 
January 12, 1897. 



c 



CENTRAL WELSH BOARD 

FOR 

INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION. 



The Executive Committee of the Board are prepared to 
receive applications for the post of 

CHIEF INSPECTOR. 

Commencing salary 600?. per annum, exclusive of 
travelling expenses. 

Applications must be received on or before the 9th day 

of February next by the undersigned, from whom 

full particulars, with copies of the Scheme, may be 

obtained. 

A. C. HUMPHREYS-OWEN, 

Chairman, 

Qlansevern, Berriew, 

Montgomeryshire. 
January 9, 1897. 



TYPE- WRITING.— MSS. copied promptly and 
accurately. 10<f per 1.000 words. References and Samples — 
Address Miss M , 18, Mortimer-crescent, N.W. 



H^VPE-WRITING.— MSS., Scientific, and of all 

JL Descriptions. Copied. Special attention to work requiring care. 
Dictation Rooms (Shorthand Or Type-writing). Vaual terms- Misses 
E B. & I F\urir\N, Hastings House, Norfolk-street, Strand, London 
(for seven years of 34, Southampton-street, Strand). 



r FYPE-WRITING.— Over 5,000 words Is. per 1.000. 

A Special terms for larger quantities MSS caiefulty Revised. 
Testimonials, Reports, &c, duplicated. Translations— K. Qiiihm, 
8urrey Chambers, 172. Strand, W.C. 



A/1 Q TYPE-WRITTEN with care and precision 

XTJ.KJ. by experienced Typist, and returned promptly, from lOd per 
1.000 words Translations mmle. -I.in.im™, :i, Itendlcsham-road, 
London, N.B 

SECRETARIAL BUREAU.— Confidential Secre- 
tary.MIss PBTHBRBRIDGB i Natural BdeOM Tripos), tendl out 
Daily a trained stair of English and foreign Secretaries, expert Steno- 
graphers, ami Typists special staff i»t Frenen ami German Reporters. 
Literary and Oonunerelal Translations Into and from all Languages 
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writlng 

INDEXING. -SECRETARIAL Ill UI'.W n Strand, London. Trained 
staff of Indexcrs Speciality— Medical Indexing 



FRANCE. — The ATHENAEUM can be 
obtained at the following Railway Stations in 
France : — 

AMIENS. ANTIBES, BEAULIEU-SUR - MER, BIARRITZ. BOR- 
DEAUX, BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. CALAIS, CANNES. DIJON, DUN 
KIRK, HAVRE. LILLE, LYONS, MARSEILLES. MENTONE, 
MONACO, NANTES, NICE, PARIS, PAU, SAINT RAPHAEL, TOURS, 
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And at the GALIGNANI LIBRARY, 224, Rue de Rivoli, Paris. 



riWPE-WRlTING, in best style, Id. per folio 

J- of 72 words References to Authors. — Miss Gladding, 23, Lans- 



downe-gardens, South Lambeth, S.W. 



TO AUTHORS. — TYPE-WRITING.— MSS., 
however indistinctly written or intricately revised, COPIED 
under experienced literary guidance. Educated and skilled operators 
only. Is. 3d per 1,000 worn s if under 5 (XX) ; Is per 1,000 if over. No 
charge for paper. Specimens and special terms on application.— Anson's 
Type-writing Office, 63-4, Chancery-lane, W.C. 

'.TYPE-WRITERS and CYCLES.— The standard 

-L makes at half the usual prices. Machines lent on hire, sleo Bought 
and Exchanged. Sundries and Repairs to all Machines. Terms, cash 
or instalments. MS. copied from 10 J. per 1.000 words. — N. Taylor, 
Manager, National Type-Writer Exchange Co., 74, Chancery-lane, 
London. Established 1884. Telephone 6690. Telegrams, Glossator, 
London." 

AUTHORS of NOVELS and SHORT STORIES 
adapted for Serial Publication are invited to communicate with 
Mr. J. F Sraicos's Newspaper SEaiAL Agency, 21, Paternoster-square, 
London, E.C. 

SOCIETY of AUTHORS.— Literary Property. 
— The Public is urgently warned against answering advertisements 
inviting MSS., or offering to place MSS , without the personal recom- 
mendation of a friend who has experience of the advertiser or the 
advice of the Society By order G HERBERT TURING, Secretary. 
4. Portugal-street, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

N.B— The ACTHOR, the organ of the Society, is published monthly, 
price 6d., by Horace Cox, Breams-buildings, EC. 

AUTHORS should write for Prospectus of the 
LITERARY AGENCY, which offers special facilities for Publish- 
ing the Works of New Authors. Conducted by Mr. A. R. Leash, late 
Manager of Tower Publishing Co., St. Paul's Chambers, 19, Ludgale- 
hill, London, EC. 

9, Hart-street, Bloomsburt, London. 

MR. GEORGE REDWAY, formerly of York- 
street. Co vent-garden, and late Director and Manager of Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co , Limited, begs to announce that he has 
RESUMED BUSINESS as a PUBLISHER on his own account, and 
will be glad to hear from Authors with MSS ready for publication, and 
consider proposals for New Books. Address as above. 

MESSRS. DIGBY, LONG & CO., 
PUBLISHERS. 
18, Bouverie-street, London, EC, 
Invite AUTHORS (Popular or otherwise) to submit their MSS. (Fiction, 
Travel, Poetry, &c. ) for prompt consideration. 

rTHE AUTHORS' AGENCY. Established 1879. 

J. Proprietor. Mr. A. M. BURGHES, 1, Paternoster-row. The 
interests of Authors capably represented Proposed Agreements, 
Estimates, and Accounts examined on behalf of Authors. MSS placed 
with Publishers. Transfers carefully conducted. Thirty years' practical 
experience in all kinds of Publishing and Hook Producing. Consultation 
free— Terms and testimonials from Leading Authors on application to 
Mr A M. Burghes, Authors' Agent, 1, Paternoster-row. 

npO AUTHORS.— The ROXBURGHE PRESS, 

JL 15, Victoria-street, Westminster, are OPEN to RECEIVE MSS. 
in all Branches of Literature for consideration with a view to Publish- 
ing in Volume Form Every facility for bringing Works before the 
Trade, the Libraries, and the Reading Public. Illustrated Catalogue 
post free on application. 

WILL all STUDENTS and ADMIRERS of 
CHARLES DICKENS'S WORKS kindlv send their Names and 
Addresses to The Manager, The Roxburghe Press, 15, Victoria-street, 
Westminster? 



C MITCHELL & CO., Agents for the Sale and 
• Purchase of Newspaper Properties, undertake Valuations for 
Probate or Purchase. Investigations, and Audit of Accounts, &c Card 
of Terms on application. 

1" and 13. Red Lion-court, Fleet-street, E.C. 

R ANDERSON & CO.. Advertising Agents, 
• 14, COCKSPVR-STREET, CHARING CROSS, S W , 
Insert Advertisements in all Papers. Magazines. &c . at the lowest 
possible prices Special terms to Institutions. Schools, Publishers, 
Manufacturers, &c., on application. 

tl> G Y PTO LOG Y. — UN I VERSITY COLLEGE. 
J LONDON —Mr F I.I, GRIFFITH. M A . will hold CLASSI IS 
in the EGYPTIAN LANGUAGB in the BDWARD8 LlltltAKY, on 

m\ si >Mlve niiiM'Ws, oommenclng February I Beginners, 

}30 p m . Advanced students. I 80 ( II Fee One Ouinca. payable to 
I ha Sv ei i *> i * 

ADVICE as to CHOICE of SCHOOLS.— The 
Scholastic Association h* body of Oxford and Cambridge Ora- 
dnatoel irives Advice and Assistance, without charge, to l*arcnts and 
OtUU 'Hans In the selection of Schools i for Hovs or Oiils! and Tutors for 
all Examinations nt home or abroad A statement of requirements 
should be sent to the Manager, K J Bekvor, M A , 8, Lancaster-place, 

Strand London. W 0. 



I?DUOATION.— Thoroughly l.KI, I AHLE ADVICE 
J can bfl ObMnod (free of charge , from Messr* OARHITAS 

'i him no <* 00 . irho, from their MtenttTt. and portonal knowledge of 
the boil Bohooll for Hots and Girls, and •tuoeessful Tutors in Kngland 
and abroad, will f.itni«li careful ftelcctiom if supplied with detailed 
requirements — ,tr>. Sackville irtreet, W. 



GO 



THE ATIIEN^UM 



N 3612, Jan. 16, '97 



MOUNT VIEW, HAMP8TBAD. — The NEXT 
i i km will i i i. in on THURSDAY Janoan : i Reference 
kindly allowed la Professor Hu.uin Brentwood Conlston Mrs >*■ ^ <l 

< irn BU I i I i i - HI] dd i ' ofi lor Oars] I '• ham 

gardens, n \\ and others i "i Prospectus nppl) (a ■ 

i 

TREBOVIR HOUSE SCHOOL, 
_L i TreboTtr-MMd, South Knctogton, B.T4 

Principal Mi- w it CULH 

Spei - ll I ■•in-.< of I.e>t.ons, on original lines, ll Freehand Draw ink - . 
Designing and Brush Wort will be |lYen by Mi I DWIN COOKE 
Also I'lassc* Inr colour Caal and Figure Drawing, and Bketohlog from 
Katuri-, bv Mr AH rill It niiiidi III IIHE8. 

i> BBDAY8 and I mi KBDAYS throughout the Term 

♦.• Tho.M'.M TERM will COMMENCE MONDAY, January 18. 



l)OYAL INDIAN' ENGINEERING COLLEGE, 

JsV Cooper's Hill. Staines —The Course of Study In arranged to fit an 
Engineer for Employment In BUTOpe, 1 ndia, and the Colonies About 
4ii students will be admitted lu September, 1897. The Secretary of 
State will offer them for Competition Twc-lvo Appointments as Assistant 
Englncci s |n lite Public WortB Department, and Three Appointments 
as Assistant Superintendents in the Telegraph Department— For par- 
ticulars apply to the St< am wiy, at the College 

BEDFORD COM KGE, LONDON (for WOMEN), 
York-place, Baker-street, \v. 

Frincipal-M ss EMILY PENROSE. 
SESSION 1896-7. 
The LENT TERM will HBOIN on THURSDAY, January 14 Courses 
in preparation for all the Examinations in the Faculties of Arts and 
Science held by the University of London, Special Course of Scientific 
Instruction in Hygiene and Puhlic Health. 
Lectures in all ltranches of Higher Education. 

Six Laboratories open to Students for Practical Work. Art School 
open from 10 to 1. Students can reside in the College. 

LUCY' J. RUSSELL, Honorary Secretary. 

BEDFORD COLLEGE, LONDON (for WOMEN), 
York-place, Baker-street, W. 
DEPARTMENT for PROFESSIONAL TRAINING in TEACHING. 
(Recognized by the Cambridge Syndicate.) 
Head of the Department-Miss VIVIAN THOMAS, B.A. 
Miss HANNAH ROBERTSON, B.A. 
The SESSION 1897 BEGINS on JANUARY 18. 

The Course includes full preparation for the Examinations for the 
Teaching Diplomas granted by the Universities of London and of Cam- 
bridge held annually in December. — Full particulars on application to 
Miss Vivian Thomas, at the College. 

LUCY J. RUSSELL, Honorary Secretary. 

GOVERNESSES for PRIVATE FAMIL1ES.- 
Miss LOUISA BROUGH can RECOMMEND several highly 
qualified English and Foreign GOVERNESSES for Resident and Daily 
Engagements. — Central Registry for Teachers, 25, Craven-street, 
Charing Cross, W.C. 



Catalonuts. 

FIRST EDITIONS of MODERN AUTHORS, 
including Dickens, Thackeray, Lever, Ainsworth ; Books illus- 
trated by G and R. Cruikshank, Phiz, Howlandson, Leech, &c. The 
largest and choicest Collection offered for Sale in the World. Cata- 
logues issued and sent post free on application. Books bought. — 
Walter T. Spfncer, 27, New Oxford-street, London, W.C. 



w 



ILLIAMS & NORGATE, 

IMPORTERS OF FOREIGN BOOKS, 
14, Henrietta-street, Covent-garden, London ; 20, South Frederick- 
street, Edinburgh ; and 7. Broad-street, Oxford. 
CATALOGUES on application. 

ELLIS & ELVEY, 

Dealers in Old and Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Engravings. 

NEW CATALOGUE of CHOICE BOOKS and 

MANUSCRIPTS (No. 84), post free, Sixpence. 

NEW CATALOGUE of RARE PORTRAITS and 

PRINTS (No 4), including a large COLLECTION of 
MUSICAL PORTRAITS, post free, Threepence. 

NEW CATALOGUE of RARE BOOKS on MUSIC 

(No. 2) in preparation. 

29, New Bond-street, London, W. 

1UEW CATALOGUE (No. 19) now ready. Choice 

-L 1 Engravings, Drawings, and Books— Constable's English Land- 
scape—Turner's Liber Studiorum— Drawings by Turner, i'rout, Hunt, 
Cotman. Ac — Works by Professor Ruskin. Post free, Sixpence.— Wm. 
Wahu, 2, Church-terrace, Richmond, Surrey. 

FOREIGN BOOKS and PERIODICALS 
promptly supplied on moderate terms. 
CATALOGUES on application. 
DULAU & CO. 37, SOHO- SQUARE. 

/CLASSICAL BOOKS, Works of Reference, Sets, 

V_^ and Standard Works. CATALOGUE of, just ready, post free — 
E. 6. Fowi.Kit, Bookseller, Eastbourne 

MESSRS. KARSLAKE'S CATALOGUE now 
ready —Next week a Series of Drawings of the HAUNTS of 
GEORGE ELIOT will be exhibited in their window at 01, Charing 
Cross-road 

NEW CATALOG TE of OLD and CURIOUS 
BOOKS — Original Drawings by Rowlandson — Antiquarian 
Sketches by celebrated Artists — and Miscellaneous Items — CATA- 
LOGUE, one stamp, of Rf.adih, Orange-street, Red Lion-square, London. 

("tHEAP BOOKS.— THREEPENCE DISCOUNT 
J In the SHILLING allowed from the published price of nearly 
all New Books, Bibles, Prayer-Hooks, and Annual Volumes. Orders 
by post executed by return CATALOGUES of New Books and Re- 
mainders gratis and postage free— Gilbert & Fn.i.n, 67, Moorgatc- 
slrect, London, EC. 

ALL OUT-OF-PRINT BOOKS speedily pro- 
enred. Acknowledged the most expert Hook finder extant. Please 
.itatc wants to Baker's Great hookshop, IHrmingham.— Hooks llought, 
Lent, or Exchanged. 

BOCCACCIO, STRAPAKOLA, and RABELAIS. 
—FOR SALE, copies of these Hooks published by Lawrence A 
Bullen, printed on Japanese vellum, illustrated and numbered.— Apply 
A. B , C. & E. I.ayton, 68, Farringdnn. street, London, E C. 



'T H K AUTOTYPE 

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accurate monochrome representation and artistic expression. 

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for the reproduction In permanent pigments of Oil Paintings, 
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AUTO-GRAVURE. The Autotype Company's Pro- 

cess of Photographic Engraving on Copper, yielding results re- 
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The Company has successfully reproduced several important Works 
by this process, Including Portraits by Sir J E. MOWS, P.R.A , J. 
Pettle. It. A , W W. Oulets. It A , F. Roll, R A , the Hon Jno Collier, 
Sir G. Reid, P.RS.A ; also Examples of Gainsborough, Turner, Con- 
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The AUTOTYPE MECHANICAL PROCESS 

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THE AUTOTYPE FINE- ART GALLERY, 

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THE NATIONAL GALLERY SERIES. 

NOW READY, 

In PERMANENT CARBON PRINT, FIFTY REPRODUCTIONS 
from PICTURES in the BRITISH SCHOOL. 

Price Six Shillings each. 

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HOGARTH. 

THREE HUNDRED SUBJECTS from the FOREIGN SCHOOLS 
already issued in several sizes. 

An extensive COLLECTION from CELEBRATED -WORKS of the 
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NINE THOUSAND REPRODUCTIONS from PAINTINGS by the 
LEADING ARTISTS of the DAY. 

CATALOGUES POST FREE. 

FORTHCOMING. 
AN EMINENT ART PUBLICATION. 
rpHE MASTERPIECES 

OF THE 

MUSEO DEL PRADO AT MADRID. 

110 Photogravures, measuring about 14 by 21 inches each, 
directly after the Original Paintings. 

Published during 1897 in Ten Parts at 6?. 6s. each. 

8 RAPHAELS. I 15 MURILLOS. 

21 TITIANS. I 39 VELASQUEZES. 

8 RUBENSES. 

This Work is the Companion to that Superb Publication 

THE IMPERIAL HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG, 

which contains, according to eminent critics, the most 
superb Reproductions and the most faithful of the acknow- 
ledged Art Treasures in Europe. 

We shall be pleased to submit either work to any 
intending Subscriber. 

Illustrated Prospectus sent post free. 



THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPANY, 

Fine-Art Publishers, 

133, New Bond-street, London, W. 

Also at Berlin, New York, and Paris. 



H H E NUDE 



in 



ART. 



JACOB RUYSDAEL. -PANEL, size 2:U inches 
by lGi Fine Example, signed. TO BE SOLD by Private Treaty. 
—Address \V 11 . 68, Hu kinghamroad, Brighton. 



A magnificent Series of FORTY-FIVE REMARQUE PROOFS, com- 
prising the eAfl/4 tl >i itirr of the nidsl famous Modern BtUtUI 

rins work It now complete, and Bubscrintionfl will be received for it 
either hound in one Volume or in Twelve Parts. Each Plate measures 
lsy i,v i:u In over all 

Prospectus, giving full particulars, will be sent upon application to 
the Publisher, and the whole collection may be seen either at 8, Soho- 
square, or 62a, Piccadilly, w. 

Published by H. S. Nichols, 3, Soho-square, and Oka, Piccadilly. 
London, W. 



MUDIE'S 

SELECT 

LIBRARY. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS from ONE GUINEA per Annum. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. 
Books can be exchanged at the residences of Sub- 
scribers in London by the Library Messengers. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS from TWO GUINEAS 
per Annum. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. 

COUNTRY SUBSCRIPTIONS from TWO 

GUINEAS per Annum. 



MUDIE'S FOREIGN LIBRARY. 

All the Best Works in French, German, Italian, 
and Spanish are in circulation. 

CATALOGUES of English or Foreign Books, 
Is. 6d. each. 

Prospectuses and Clearance Lists of Books on Sale, 
postage free. 



MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY, Limited, 
30 to 34, NEW OXFORD-STREET, London. 

Branch Offices: — 

241, Brompton-road ; and 48, Queen Victoria- street, 

E.C. (Mansion House End). 

Also 10-12. Barton Arcade, Manchester. 

THE AUTHOR'S HAIRLESS PAPER-PAD. 
(The LEADENHALL PRESS. Ltd , 50, Leadenhall-street, 
London. E.C) 
Contains hairless paper, over which the pen slips with perfect 
freedom. Sixpence each. 5». per dozen, ruled or plain. 



TO INVALIDS.— A LIST of MEDICAL MEN 
in all parts willing to RECEIVE RESIDENT PATIENTS, giving 
full particulars and terms, sent gratis. The list includes Private 
Asylums, Ac. ; Schools also recommended. — Address Mr. G. B. Srocata, 
8, Lancaster-place, Strand, W.C. 

T^URNISHED APARTMENTS in one of the 

X? most pleasant positions in TUNBRIDGE WELLS. South aspect, 
good view, three minutes' walk from the town and common Suitable 
for winter months. — Write R. G.. 18. Claremont-road. Tunbridge Wells. 



(Sales bti ^nction. 

Miscellaneous Engravings. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
bv AUCTION, at their House, 47. Leicester- square. W.C, 
on TUESDAY. January 19 and One Following Day. at ten minutes past 
1 o'clock precisely. ANCIENT and MODERN ENGRAVINGS, com- 
prising a fine Collection of Mezzotint Portraits— Fancy Subjects by 
Rartolozzi, Singleton, Angelica Kauffman Cosway. Cipriani. Ac. — 
Scarce Caricatures after Bunbury. Gillray Ac —Old English and Conti- 
nental Views. Topographical and Architectural, relating to several 
Bnelleh Counties— Modern Engravings after Pott, Partnn. Teend King. 
Hollier, Aittiur levies, strutt. Cox. .Sic. ; also a Collection of Sporting 
Subjects after Herring. C. C. Henderson. Barber. Shaver. Gill. Lorraine 
Smith, Bateman. Ac— and WaterColour Drawings and Paintings, both 
Ancient and Modern, including many Mne Examples 
Catalogues on application. 

Postage Stamps. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
bv AUCTION, at their House. 47. Leicester-square. W.C, on 
TUESDAY, .lanuarv 19. and Following Dav. at half past 5 o'clock pre- 
Cisely, Hare BRITISH. FOREIGN, and ( (HON I AL POSTAGE STAMPS, 
offered by order of the Master in Lunacy. 

Catalogues on receipt of two stamps. 

Miscellaneous Property, including a Collection of China 
removed from nn old J'icarage in Sujffolk. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL by 
AUCTION, at their House. 47, Leicester-square. W.C. on 
FRIDAY, January 22, at ten minute* past 1 o'clock precisely MISCEL- 
LANEOl s PROPERTY, removed from the country, including a fine 
Collection of China, comprising Specimens of Sevres. Dresden, Crown 
Derby, Lowestoft Rockingham, Swan-ca. Plymouth. Ac —Antique Cut 
Glass— Silver and Sheffield Plated Goods— Coins. Jewellery. Watches. 
Ac —and Antique Furniture, including a fine Set of Chippendale Chairs, 
Bookoues i 

Catalogues on application. 

Musical Instruments. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK k SIMPSON will SELL 
bv AUCTION, at their House. 47. Leicester-square. WC, on 
1 I I 5DAY .lanuarv K nt half-past 12 o clock precisely. GRAND and 
COTTAOB PIANOFORTES by Braid. Broadwood. Kirk man. Pocock. 
Cadby, Hoehle. Collard St Col lard ltonisch— a Two-manual Organ by 
Clongh A Warren -Harps by liodd— old Italian Violins, Violas, and 
Violoncellos, Including a genuine instrument bv restore— Guitars, 
Mandolines, and Banjos Also the RETAIL STOCK of Mr E SNELL, 
of Bavswater 

Catalogues in preparation. 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



67 



Collection of Ex-Libris. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
by AUCTION, at their House. 47, Leicester-square, W.C . on 
THURSDAY, January 28. at 2 o'clock precisely, a valuable COLLEC- 
TION of EX-LIBRIS, both English and Foreign, comprising many fine 
examples of Plates in the Chippendale, Sheraton, Pictorial. and Armorial 
Styles, including such Specimens as the Earl of Essex, 1701— Earl of 
Winchelsea, 1704— Earl of Leicester, 1704— Thomas Parker, 1704— Francis 
Columbine, 170S-Carolo VI., P de Ludewig, 1719-Baron Wolckhen- 
stain, 1595— Thomas Penn, of Stoke Poges, First Proprietor of Pennsil- 
■vania— Scott of Balcomie— Henry Hoare, Goldsmith in London. 1704— 
T. Wright, of Downham, Suffolk, 1707— Earl of Egmont. 1736-R Hassell, 
of Lincolnes Inne, 1745-David Garrick— W. Hogarth— John Marshall. 
A.M., Chief Justice of United States — George I. Gift Plates — Lord 
Halifax. 1702— Walpole Family, 7 Plates— Sir Francis Fust— Sir F. Cun- 
liffe. by Bartolozzi, &c— Scotch and Welsh Plates, some fine and scarce 
— and many others. 

Catalogues may be had on receipt of two stamps. 

Miscellaneous Books. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
by AUCTION, at their House, 47. Leicester -square, W.C, on 
FRIDAY January 29 and MONDAY, February 1. at ten minutes past 

1 o'clock precisely, a COLLECTION of MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, 
English and Foreign, in all Branches of Literature, and including 
Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain. 75 vols —Lodge's Portraits. 
12 vols.— Burton's Arabian Nights and Supplement, 16 vols.— Surtees 
Society— Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers— Borlase's Cornwall, 

2 vols.— Marjoux. Architecture Communale. 2 vols —The Ibis— Harleian 
Society— Walton's Angler, Pickering's Edition, on Large Paper— Scott's 
Novels, Abbotsford Edition— Biblia Sacra, Venet 1470-Books relating 
to Northumberland. Durham. Yorkshire, and the North of England 
generally— First and Esteemed Editions of Standard Authors, &c. 

Catalogues in preparation. 

SECOND PORTION of the well-known Biblical and Litur- 
gical Library of HENRY JOHN FARMER ATKINSON, 
Esq., D.L. F.S.A., fyc, removed from Osborne House, Ore, 
Sussex. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
by AUCTION, at their House, 47, Leicester-square. W.C , EARLY 
in FEBRUARY, the SECOND PORTION of the BIBLICAL and 
LITURGICAL LIBRARY of H. J FARMER ATKINSON, Esq , 
comprising examples of many Rare Editions of the Bible. Book of 
Common Prayer, New Testament, &c, in English and Foreign Lan- 
guages—Manuscripts on vellum, with Miniatures — service Books on 
vellum— Books of Hours— Early Works with Woodcuts, &c. 
Catalogues in preparation. 

Library of a Gentleman. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
by AUCTION, at their House, 47. Leicester-square, WC, on 
WEDNESDAY, February 17. and Two Following Days, at ten minutes 
past 1 o'clock precisely, the LIBRARY of a GENTLEMAN, comprising 
standard and Valuable Works in all Branches, including First Editions 
of Dickens— Henry Irving Shakespeare, on Large Paper— Thackeray's 
Works, Edition de Luxe— Blake's Works, by Ellis and Yeats— Scott's 
Waverley Novels— Bronte's Works, Collected Edition— various Editions 
of Shakespeare— Persian Books— Works relating to Napoleon, &c. 
Catalogues in preparation. 

FRIDAY NEXT. — Miscellaneous Property. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by AUCTION, 
at his Great Rooms, 38, King-street, Covent- garden, on 
FRIDAY NEXT, January 22, at half-past '2 o'clock preciselv. about 
400 lots of PHOTOGRAPHIC and SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS, and 
Miscellaneous Property from various private sources. 

On view the day prior 2 till 5 and morning of Sale, and Catalogues 
had. 

MONDA Y, January 25. 

A General Collection of Natural. History Specimens, Curiosities, 

Heads and Horns of Animals, S;c. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL the above by 
AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38, King -street. Covent- 
garden, on MONDAY, January 25, at half-past 12 o'clock precisely. 

On view the Saturday prior 12 till 4 and morning of Sale, and Cata- 
logues bad. 

PALL MALL. — The remaining Drawings of M 'iss MATILDA 
E. WRA TISLA W, deceased ; 77,0 Sketches from the Studio 
of T. B. HARDY; and choice Artists' Proof Engravings. 

MESSRS. FOSTER respectfully announce for 
SALE by AUCTION, at the Gallery, 54. Pall Mall, on WEDNES- 
DAY NEXT, the 20th inst , at 1 o'clock precisely (by direction of the 
Executors of the late Miss WKAITSLAW). the remaining DRAWINGS, 
principally Views in Venice and Rome ; 140 Sketches by T. IS Hardy, 
Coast and Marine Views; and 50 Artists' Proof Engravings, to be sold 
without reserve to close an account. 

May be viewed Monday and Tuesday next, when Catalogues may be 
bad. 
64, Pall Mall. 



M 



The Collection of Armour and Arms of Her r ZSCH1LLE. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will PELL by AUCTION, at 
their Great Rooms, King-street. St. James's-square. on MONDAY. 
Januarv 25, and Four Following Days, and on MONDAY, February 1. at 
1 o'clock precisely, the valuable COLLECTION of ARMOUR, ARMS, 
and EQUIPMENTS of Herr ZSCHILLE, comprising a very complete 
Series of Swords from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century- 
choice examples of Heavy Fighting Swords. Foiling Estocs, Landsrecht 
Swords, Rapiers, and Dress Swords of the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries, including an Italian Sword of the early part of the 
Sixteenth Century, chiselled and gilt Bronze Hilt, and engraved Calendar 
Blade— a very fine Rapier of the end of the Sixteenth Century, chiselled 
and damascened with Gold and Silver— Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century 
Daggers— Stilettos— Venetian Cinquedeas, includingavery fine example 
with engraved and gilt Blade and Cuir Bouilli Scabbard, by Ercolo da 
Fideli— Helmets from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Centuries— Close 
Helmets — Salades — Tournament Helmets— Engraved and Embossed 
Morions — an Embossed Casque of Classical Form, damascened and 
plated with Gold and Silver — Breast Plates of various periods- 
Gauntlets and Tilting Pieces— Pavis— Shields and Rondache— Painted 
Tournament and Arches Shields— a Circular Rondache of Blued Steel, 
damascened with Allegorical Subjects in Gold and Silver— Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth Century Halberds, Guisarmes, Spetums Voulges, and 
Glaves, many finely engraved with Family Arms — Crossbows and 
Arbalests of fine quality— Guns, Rifles, and Pistols by Celebrated Makers 
— Horse Armour, Bits, and Saddles, including a Carved Stag's Horn 
Saddle of the end of the Fourteenth Century— Boar Spears— Hunting 
Swords— and Two Hunting Horns of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Centuries. Most of the preceding objects have been purchased from 
the Londesborough, Meyrick, De Cosson, Gimpel, and other celebrated 
Collections. The whole of the Collection was exhibited at the Chicago 
Exhibition, and part of the Collection at the Imperial Institute. 

Catalogues may be had, price Sixpence; Illustrated Catalogues, price 
Haifa-Guinea. 

The late BARON DE HIRSCH'S Collection of Pictures 
from Bath House* 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their Great Rooms. King-street, St. James's-square. on SATURDAY, 
February 6. at 1 o'clock preciselv (by order of the Executrix), the valu- 
able COLLECTION of ANCIENT and MODERN PICTURES of the 
BARON DE HIRSCH. deceased, removed from Bath House, comprising 
a Portrait of La Fontaine and Ten Panels illustrating La Fontaine's 
Fables, by Philip Rousseau— Portrait of Lord Mulgrave, whole length, 
by T Gainsborough, R.A.— The Love Token, by G H Roughton, R.A.— 
Fishing Boats Ashore, by E. W. Cooke, R A —View of Constantinople, 
by F Ziem— and others by R Fleury, De Keyser, J. L. David, De Noter, 
and T. Stevens, also An Interior, by G. Terburg, engraved by Wille, 
described in Smith's Catalogue— Two grand Gallery Works of F. Snyders 
—and good Examples of 

Berchem Kauffman Ruysdael 

Both Largilliere Schalcken 

Boucher Van Loo J . Steen 

Casanova F Mieris Tocque 

Coello Mytens V. Dyck 

Cuyp Nollekins Velasquez 

Drouais A. Ostade Van de Velde 

Hobbema Le Prince Verheijen. 

Pictures by Old Masters, the Property of a Gentleman. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully give notice that they will SELL by AUCTION, at 
their Great Rooms, King-street, St. James's-square, on SATURDAY, 
February 6 (after the Sale of the Pictures of the late Baron Hirsch), the 
COLLECTION of PICTURES by OLD MASTERS, the Properly of a 
GENTLEMAN, including Works by the following Artists, among 
others : — 



THE CONDUIT-STREET AUCTION GALLERIES. 

MESSRS. KNIGHT, FRANK & RUTLEY will 
SELL by AUCTION, at their Great Galleries, as above, on 
WEDNESDAY NEXT, January 20. and Following Dav. at 1 o'clock 

Srecisely. GOLD. SILVER, and BRONZB COINS — War Medals- 
ledalllons— Gold Broad of Cromwell— William III. Five-Guinea Piece 
—a Collection of rare Postage stamps— Lewis's Topographical Dic- 
tionary, 10 vols— Two One Violins— Ivory Carvings — choice Bronzes 
and China— Louis Seize Drawing-Room Suite of Furniture and Furni- 
ture de Chemim'e-Pietra Dura Cabinets— Carved Oak Library Table— 
Bartolozzi and other Engravings— Paintings by Herring, Bromley, and 
others— Service ol Sliver Spoonsand Fork*, 415 ox.— Silver Cake Basket, 
date 1700-ran- Specimen Pieces of Old Italian. Flemish, and other Lace 
—Fur TravellingCoats— a superb Snow Tiger ting— a fen Havana Cigars 
—Forty-six Dozen Champagne, Sandeman's Port, Beaune, and Claret— 
and a Quantity of other valuable Effects. 

On view two days prior Catalogues free. 
Offices and Galleries-0, Conduit-street, W. | 28a, Maddox-street, W. 

ESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 

respectfully give notice that they will hold the following SALES 
by AUCTION at their Great Booms, King-street, St. James's-square, the 
Sales commencing at 1 o'clock precisely :— 

On MONDAY, January 18, the COLLECTION 

of MODERN PICTUHB8 and DRAWINGS of P. MICHAUD, Esq , 
deceased. 

On WEDNESDAY, January 20, the COLLEC- 
TION of ENGRAVINGS after MKISSONIERof Mr. JAMES 1 1 \ <, 

On THURSDAY, January 21, ENGRAVINGS 

after Sir E. LANDSEKR, the Property of a Gentleman. 

On FRIDAY, January 22, DECORATIVE FUR- 

NITURE and OBJECT8 of ART 

On SATURDAY, January 23, MODERN Pic- 
tures and DRAWINGS of J W. LBACH ASHE, Esq., deceased. 



A. Cuyp 

J. Crdme 

J. Le Due 

J. Fyt 

T. Gainsborough 

F. Guardi 



M. Hondecoeter 
P. De Hooch 
N. Maes 
G. Morland 
A. Van der Neer 



A. Van de Velde 
Sir D. Wilkie 
R Wilson, R A. 
Wouverman 
J. Wynants. 



VOL. XV JUST PUBLISHED. 

STANDARD EDITION 

OF THE 

WAVERLEY 

NOVELS. 

In 25 MONTHLY VOLUMES. 

Each Volume containing a Photo- 
gravure Frontispiece printed on 
Japanese Vellum Paper. 

Crown 8vo. bound in art canvas, 
gilt top, price 2s. 6<i. ; 

Or in full limp leather, gilt edges, 
price 3s. 6d. 



Important Sale of a comprehensive Library. — YORK. 

MESSRS. RICHARDSON & TROTTER have 
received instructions from H. B. FTRMAN. Esq . to SELL bv 
AUCTION, at BOAVMAN'S REPOSITORY, PEARHOLME -GREEN, 
YORK, on WEDNESDAY, January 20. 1897, at 11 a m precisely, the 
valuable LIBRARY removed from «iateforth Hall, about 5,000 volumes, 
including ancient and modern Standard Works in all Branches of 
Literature, many embellished with superb illustrations and plates by 
the most eminent Artists. 

Catalogues, 3d. each, can be obtained from the Auctioneers, 14, Coney- 
street, York. 



THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW. 

Edited by I. ABRAHAMS and C. G. MONTEFIORE. 

Vol. IX. JANUARY. No. 34. 

Price 3s. Gd. Annual Subscription, post Iree, lis. 

Contents. 

"The MISSION of JI'DAISM." Recapitulation: by Oswald J Simon. 
Opinions: (1) The Rev. Dr. ADLER, Chief Rabbi; (2) Miss 
Sylvie d'Avigdor; (H) The Rev. J. Estlin Carpenter; (It Mrs. 
Nathaniel Cohen; (5) Fred. C. Conybeare; (6) The Rev Dr. Druni- 
niond ; (7, 8) The Editors ; (9) The Rev. S. Friedeberg; (10) Colonel 
A B. Goldsmld; 111) Tin' Rev Morris Joseph ; (12) H 8. Lewis; 
( 13) Lady Magnus ; (141 The Rev. Prof. I). W. Marks ; (1.1) The Rev. 
Dr. James Martincau ; (16) The Rev. L M. Simmons ; (17) The Rev. 
S Singer, (IS) Miss Anna Swanwick ; (19) The Rev. Charles Voysey ; 
(20) Lucien Wolf ; (21) I Zangwill. 

An INTRODUCTION to the ARABIC LITERATURE of the JEWS. 
I. By Dr. M Stcinschneider— UNITARIANI8M and JUDAISM. 
in their RELATIONS to EACH OTHER. By C. G. Monteflore — 
ART in the SYNAGOGUE By Prof D. Kaufmann — The TREATISE 
on ETERNAL BLISS ATTRIBUTED to MOSES MAIMUNI By 
Prof. VV. Bacher.— TRANSLATIONS of HEBREW POEMS. Trans- 
lated by Miss Nina Davis —ANOTHER WORD on the DIETARY 
LAWS. By the Rev. M. Hyamson.— The SOURCES of JOSEPHUS 
for the HISTORY of SYRIA. By ProL Adolf Buchler.— CRITICAL 
NOTICE— MISCELLANEA. 
Macmillan & Co., Limited, London. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

DECORATION of a ROOM in GRAFFITO; 
also Interiors of new Technical School. Liverpool; Peter- 
borough Cathedral; Use of Geometry in Designing Buildings with 
I Hugramg) ; Tests of Steel and Concrete Floors, &c. 

Sec the BUILDER of January 10 (4.f. ; by post, 4J<f.). 
Publisher of the nuilder. 46. Catherine-street, London, W.C. 

Now ready (RSth Year of Publication), 

THE BRITISH IMPERIAL CALENDAR and 
CIVIL SERVICE LIST for 1K'>7 Prion .1. ; with Index of 
Names. 7< ; with Index and Companion to the Calendar. Da 

Warrington * Co 2.1. Oarrlck-stroot ; Longman & Co.; Slmpkln & 
Co ; Peacock, Mansfield & Co. ; and all Booksellers. 

Just published, gvo cloth, 2s. 6,1 , postage ;w. 

NATURE and the ROOK. Village Lectures by 
the EARL of MOUNT l.DOCUMBE With Diagrams. 
London i Edward Stanford, 20 and 27, CockBpur-strcct, Charing 
Cross, s \V 



VOL. IV. JUST PUBLISHED. 

STANDARD EDITION 

OF THE 

COLLECTED 
WRITINGS 

OF 

THOMAS 
DE QUINCE Y. 

In 14 MONTHLY VOLUMES. 

Crown 8vo. cloth, gilt top, 
price 2s. Gc/. 



A. &; C. BLACK, Soho-square, London. 



G8 



THE ATHENAEUM 



N° 3612, Jan. 16, '97 



CHATTO&WINDUS'S NEW BOOKS. 



Mr. G. A. IIENTY'S New Novel, 
THE QUEENS CUP, 

is now ready, and can be sup- 
plied in 3 vols, at every Library. 

A NEW "TIMES NOVEL." 
Mrs. CROKER'S New Novel, 

BEYOND THE PALE: 

An Irish Romance, 
mil be ready at all Booksellers' 
on January 28. Crown 8vo. 
buckram, 6s. 



New 



Mrs. HUNGERFORD'S 

Volume of Stories, 

AN ANXIOUS MOMENT, 

is now ready at all Booksellers' . 
Crown 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d. 

WILLIAM WE ST ALL'S New 

Novel, 
WITH THE RED EAGLE: 
A Romance of the Tyrol, 

is now ready at all Booksellers' . 

Crown 8vo. cloth gilt, 6s. 



The NARRATIVE of CAPTAIN 

COIGNET, Soldier of the Empire, 1776-1850- 
Edited from the Original MS. by LORE- 
DAN LARCHEY, and Translated by Mrs. 
M. CAREY. With 100 Illustrations, crown 8vo. 
cloth extra, 3s. 6d. 
"A good, sound, rattling tale of thrilling adven- 
ture Like 'The Red Badge of Courage,' 'Cap- 
tain Coignet ' yields a richer fund of entertainment 
than the mere glory of romance. The actors in 
their habit as they lived play out their parts before 

us All these matters, and a thousand more 

equally torrible, and related with equal vividness, 
we find in the pages of this incomparable French 
narrative." — Morning Lead?*. 



The CRUSADE of the " EXCELSIOR." 

By BRET HARTE. With a Frontispiece by 
J. Bernard Partridge. New Edition, crown 8vo. 
cloth, 3s. Gd. 



MARK TWAIN'S LIBRARY of 

HUMOUR. With 197 Illustrations by E. W. 
Kemble. On January 21, a New Edition, 
crown 8vo. cloth, 3s. Gd. 

On JANUARY 21, a NEW EDITION, 

MRS. TREGASKISS: a Novel of 

Anglo-Auhtralian Life. By Mrs. CAMPBELL 
PRAED. With 8 Full-Page Illustrations by 
Robert Sauber. Crown 8vo. cloth, 3s. Gd. 



MESSRS. LONGMANSJfc CO.'S LIST. 

NEW BOOK BY MR. ANDREW LANG 



PICKLE T 

Or, the Incognito of 
By ANDREW 



HE SPY; 

Prince Charles. 



LANG. 

With 6 Portraits. 8vo. 18«. 
V Thi. book is not a novel. though it contain, the material, of romance. The .ubject i. the m *'**° U ' ?'""^ n ~ 
of Prince Charles from February 28, 1749. practically till hi. father", death in 1766. These ye*r. e.pecUl.y 174,- ,56 wer. 
occupied in European hide-and-.eek. The Ambassador, and Court, of Europe, and the .pie. of England. w re Wp^tffl 
in 1750 a Highland chief of the bighe.t rank .old himself to the English Government. The book contain, hi. ™P«J'»** 
letters and information, with those of another spy. James Mobr Macgregor. Bob Roy's son These, wmbmedw.thtjhe 
Stuart Papers in Her Majesty's Library at Windsor, the Letter, from English Ambassador. in the SUU Paper., tl Pol.U«l 
Correspondence of Frederick the Great, and the French Archive., illuminate a chapter .n Secret History 1 he ..ngular 
story of Macalle.ter the spy also yield, some fact., and the whole exhibit, the last romance of the Stuart., and the extreme, 
of loyalty and treason. 

GOVERNMENTS and PARTIES in CONTINENTAL EUROPE. 

By A. LAWRENCE LOWELL. 2 vol.. 8vo. 21s. hri . ft _ 

<■ Mr. Lawrence Lowell has rendered a service to the student of European politics. His; aim fa** teen * "P™^™?^ 
the relation between the development of political parties and the mechanism of modern government in the principal 
European SUU..--IW SECOND EDITION. 

The GIRLHOOD of MARIA JOSEPHA H0LR0YD (LADY 

STANLEY of ALDERLEY), a. told in Letters of a Hundred Years Ago, from 1776 to 1796. With 6 Portrait.. 
" We strongly recommend this work to those who love a racy picture of their grandparent.' lives ."-Spectator. 

DISEASES of PLANTS INDUCED by CRYPTOGAMIC PARA- 

B^c. Ph.D , Lecturer on Plant Physiology. University of Edinburgh. With 330 Illustrat.on.. 8vo. 18*. net. 

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THE ATHENJ1UM 



73 



READY on MONDAY, 2 vols. 31s. 6d. net. 

FOUR GENERATIONS OF A LITERARY FAMILY. 

THE HAZLITTS IN ENGLAND, IRELAND, AND AMERICA, 
Their Friends and their Fortunes, 1725-1896. 

By W. CAREW HAZLITT. 

WITH PORTRAITS REPRODUCED FROM MINIATURES BY JOHN HAZLITT. 



THE FIRST GENERATION. 
Origin of the Hazlitt family- Education of the Rev. William Hazlitt 
and his brother at Glasgow University — Shronell and (Joleraine 
branches— Migration of some of us to America— Service of two Colonel 
Ha/lilts under Washington— Researches of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania on our descent — Diffusion of Hazlitts through the Union 
— The Loftus Family of Wisbeach — Their intimacy with William God- 
win—The Rev. W. Hazlitt's settlement at Wisbeach as a Presbyterian 
minister (1764)— His marriage to Grace Loftus (17(16)— Connexion 
between the Families of Loftus and Pentlow of Oxfordshire— Removal 
of the Rev. W. Hazlitt to various places— Settlement at Maidstone — 
Acquaintance with lir. Priestley, Dr. Franklin, and other distinguished 
per?ons — Mr. Hazlitt takes charge of a congregation at Bandon, in 
Ireland (1780;— Intellectual value of the alliance with the l.oftuses — 
Troubles in Ireland — Cruel Treatment of American prisoners by the 
British Gairison at Kinsale— Mr. Hazlitt's active interference on their 
behalf— His representations to the Government, and change of the 
garrison— His untenable position — Determination to emigrate— Arrival 
at New York (July 26, 1783)— Immediate invitation to preach before 
the Jersey Assembly— The family proceeds to Philadelphia— Account 
of the City — Mr. Hazlitt declines the presidency of the New College 
at Carlisle — Acquisition of Friends — Family sorrows — Mr. Hazlitt 
goes to Maryland — His serious illness — Excessive kindness of his 
American friends — Heroic conduct of his eldest son — Delivery of 
lectures at Philadelphia — Refusal of otters to settle at Charlestown 
and Pittsburg— Mr. Hazlitt goes to Boston to preach (June, 1784) — 
The family quits Philadelphia (August. 1784) — Description of the 
journey to Boston— Perth Ainboy— An American breakfast more than 
one hundred years since — Burlington— Mr. Shakespeare— Rhode Island 
—New York — Providence— Jamaica Plains— Miss Hazlitt's Narrative — 
Weymouth— Agreeable Acquaintances made there— Captain Whitman — 
The Johnny cakes— General Lovell— Pictures by Copley and West— 
Glimpses of "little William "—Description of humming and other 
birds— Lectures at Boston— Severity of the winter of 1784— Hingham— 
Ebenezer Gay — Anecdotes of him — Visits to Salem and Cape Cod— Mr. 
Hazlitt prepares a liturgy lor the Presbyterian Church at Weymouth — 
He reprints some of Dr. Priestley's tracts and his own— Visit to Hallo- 
well on the Kennebec— Wild country — Wolves troublesome — Removal 
to Upper Dorchester— Some account of New England — A cat-a-mount 
(puma;— Rattlesnakes— Return of Mr. Hazlitt to England, leaving his 
family behind— His kind reception by Mr. David Lewis— John Hazlitt 
executes a pastel of Mr Ebenezer Gay— And a crayon of his sister, the 
diarist, a farewell gift to a girl friend— Preparation for departure — 
Great tire at Koston (April 10, 1787)— Att'ectionate leave-taking— Otters of 
pecuniary aid declined — Embarkation at Boston (July 4, 1787)— A fellow- 
passenger's story— Arrival at Portsmouth— Lodgings taken at Walworth 
— The Montpelier Tea-gardens— The London print-shops— Settlement at 
Weni, in Shropshire— Fondness of William for the place— Remarks on 
the American experiment — The Rev. Mr. Hazlitt's character and 
straitened opportunities — His letter on Sterne— Germs of mental 
development in him— A letter from William to his mother (1790) — 
Reason for its insertion — The writer's gradual abandonment of the 
ministry as a calling— His intellectual progress. 



THE SECOND GENERA T/ON. 

William Hazlitt still at Wem— His studies— Obscurity of the period- 
Meeting with Coleridge— Note to his father on the subject— The ' Essay 
on Human Action' on the stocks — Crabb Robinson's extraordinary 
testimony to his genius— Sir James Mackintosh's lectures in 1799— Visit 
to the Louvre in 1802— On his return Hazlitt paints portraits of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge and his son Hartley, of Wordsworth, of his own father, 
of Mr shepherd of Oateacre, and of Charles Lamb (1803-5)— His obliga- 
tions to his brother John— His dissatisfaction with himself-Relinquish- 
ment of art— Early literary work— Slender practial results— The ' Essay 
on Human Action ' completed and published (1805)— Godwin and Hazlitt 
meet again— Hazlitt's obligations to the former— Letters from Hazlitt to 
his father and others (1806-8)— The theatres visiied— Settlement in 
London— Engagement on the press-The Gallery, past and present— 
Glimpses ol the third William Hazlitt— John Hazitt's set— Attacks upon 
Hazlitt by the lories— 'Memoirs of Holcroft' published— ■ Characters of 
shakespcar s Plays '— Ciicumstances leading to the enterprise— Efforts 
of the Tories to crush it— Hazlitt's increasing work— Letter to Charles 
Oilier (1815)— Lectures at the Surrey Institution (1818-20)— Thackeray 
and his 'English Humourists '—The ' Political Essays' (1819)— Last days 
of the Kev. W Hazlitt— His death (1820)— His works— A letter from him 
to a friend (1814)— Notices of his family— Hazlitt's Lectures on poetry 
and the drama— The audience— Keats, the Landseers. Crabb Robinson, 
Talfourd. &c —An anecdote— The rupture with Leigh Hunt— Difficulties 
of Hazlitt's position — Letter to Hunt— The London Magazine — John 
Scott— His estimate of Hazlitt— Friction between the London Magazine 
and HUickwoud (1818)— Successful action by Hazlitt against Htackwood— 
Keats 's account— Letter to Scott- Hazlitt s Influential position on the 
iAmdmi MugaztM alter Scott's death— The second Blackpool affair (18»3) 

I i iter of Hazlitt to Cadell— Professor Wilson and Leigh Hunt— 
Ha/litts literary and other associates— Some of his personal and 
political drawbacks— Ili9 brother's influence on the formation of his 
circle— The Southampton Arms— Mouncey, Wells, and other visitors— 
His more habitual and Intimate acquaintances — Godwin, Holcroft 
Fawoett. Lamb, toe Montagus, the Procters. Patmore. Knowles, and 
the HcynellB— Peculiar Importance of the Reynells and the Lambs— 
Northcnte and the Iloswell Kedivivus '-Godwin-Wells— Some account 
of his last dais at Marseilles-Home — Wainewrlght— Joseph Parkes 
and "The Fight "— Patmore — Anecdotes of him— The good service 
performed by Knowles and him to Hazlitt in 1822 .T— Henry Colburn 
-ihe art of putting— Colburn and Northcote— An anecdote of Leigh 
Hunt- 1 he Court Journal and Literary Gazette— William Jerdan and the 
paper-knife school of criticism- Murke's ■ Peerage '-Hum & Blackelt 
— lhackeray's Jenkins— Mouncey — Cowden Clarkc-Hissey the pub- 
lisher— The Liber Amoris —Sheridan Knowles -Dedication to Hazlitt 
of bis play of Alfred '— Ihe first Mrs. Hazlitt and her relatives— Anec- 
dotes of her and them -Sir John stoddart— Archbishop Sumner- My 
father and I— The second marrlage-Hazlit t s tour abroad— Meeting with 
Leigh Hunt, Landor, Medwln, &c —Letters to I andor and to his own 
son— The union with the second Mrs. Hazlitt determined— The ' Life of 
Napoleon'— Letters on the subject to Hunt and Clarke— The parallel 
Lives br Hazlitt and Scott— Lamb's estimate of the former-A plea for 
the book— The author as a man of business— Some unpublished corre- 
spondence- Hazlitt's last days and death-Jeffrey's kindness- Hazlitt 
and Scott— Umb, Scott, and Godwin 8oho a fashionable address— 
Home takes the plaster cast of Hazlitt- Lines on the latter by an 
American lady -Remarks on my grandfather's character and writings 
-Alexander Ireland and his publications on him— Some particulars 
of John Hazlitt the miniaturist 



7 HE THIRD GENERATION. 

HazlIU') son His exertions to obtain employment- nulwrr-I.ytton— 
I he 'Literary ltemalnB '-Difficulties In procuring material for a 
biography of his father-Engagement on the Morning U v Mar- 
riage to Miss Keynell-The Free List-Charles Keinble- testimonies 



CONTENTS. 

from literary correspondents— Wordsworth— Haydon— The Procters — 
Anecdotes of Procter, Haydon. and Hood— Robert Chambers — My 
father's careeras a journalist and man of letters— His contact with Lord 
Palmerston— A curious contretemps— My co-operation in literary work— 
My father edits a book for the Duke of Wellington through Murray- 
How the terms were fixed — Dinner-hour in those days — Tennyson 
referred to— My father at Chelsea— The German Beeds— Carlyle— His 
wife— Carlyle's reference to my grandfather— His position as a historian 
— Anecdote of him and Tennyson— Turner at Chelsea— Buskin's opinion 
of him— Hazlitt's judgment of Turner's later style— Cremorne Gardens 
—John Martin the artist— His work on Metropolitan drainage- 
Changes in Chelsea— The Chelsea Bun House— The river and my rowing 
experiences— I join the Merchant Taylors' eight— Gordon Cumming— 
The Keynells— Their descent and connexions— The house in Piccadilly 
—Some account of the old printing-office, its staff, and its surroundings 
— The Mating Calendar and the ' Hellman's Verses' printed there — The 
'Lounger's Commonplace Book' and its author— George Frederick 
Cooke, the tragedian, a journeyman at Mr, Reynell's— Origin of swan 
& Edgar's — Tattersall's — Bullock's Museum — Many of Byron s, 
Shelley's, and Keats's books produced by my grandfather Reynell — 
Benjamin West, R A.— My mother— Charles Kemble's idea about her — 
The Examiner— My recollections of the early staff— Professor Morley — 
My uncle Reynell's youthful associations— Keats— His 'Endymion* — 
Lamb and the * delect British Poets '—John Forster— 'I heir acquaintance 
with the Mulreadys— its source— S. W. Reynolds, the engraver- Glimpse 
of Westbourne Grove— The two Coulsons— John Black— His connexion 
with the Morning Chronicle— How he lost it— Jeremy Bentham— His 
habits and his visitors— Voelber's Gymnasium— The Reynells meet Lord 
Clarendon and his brother there— Place, the tailor and pamphlet-col- 
lector, who married Mrs. Chatierton — The Westminster .Renew— Robert- 
son— Henry Cole— Cole and the Exhibition of 1851— Joseph Cundall— 
Neal (Krother Jonathan)— sir John Bowring— Lord Brougham— His first 
brief— Leigh Hunt— Account of his last days and his death at my uncle 
Reynell's house— Anecdotes of him— His story about Sheridan Knowles 
—His family— Thomag Scott of Rams gate— Particulars of his personal 
history— His connexion with Bishop Colenso— The Court of Bankruptcy 
— My father's legal experiences and friends— Baron Grant— Vice-chan- 
cellor Bacon— Mr. Commissioner Goul burn— Hazlitt Road, West Ken- 
sington— Lord Kenyon— Lord Brougham— Lord Chancellor Westbury— 
Lord Coleridge— Mr. Justice Hawkins— Serjeant Wilkins— Street and 
the Law Courts— Baxter and the Tichborne case— Sir Charles Lewis, 
M. P. —Illiteracy of Lawyers— My father and George Henry Lewes— John 
Payne Collier— The Second Shakespear Folio— The Club founded by 
Jerrold and his friends — Its distinguished members and guests — 
Thackeray— The melodists and other entertainers— Charles Dickens the 
younger, my father. Holl, and Dillon Croker— Hazlitt's Wiltshire songs 
— 'The Wiltshire Convict's Farewell '—A general favourite— Anecdotes 
of Jerrold— sir B W. Richardson— Dr. Diamond— Farther glimpses of 
John Hazlitt the painter— Sundays at Twickenham House— Account of 
the house, ics contents and its visitors— Sir Frederick Pollock— Hep- 
worth Dixon— Dr. Doran— The Fasti of Our Club—* shakespear at Our 
Club,' 18(30— Evans's. 



THE FOURTH GENERATION. 

Childhood of the writer— Merchant Taylor's School— The old-fashioned 
regime— What I learned there, and did not learn — Anecdotes of the 
place and the masters— Bemarks on University Education— The treat- 
ment of the classical writers- Dr. Bellamy— The Rev John Bathurst 
Deane— The Merchant Taylors' Company— The War ufhee in 1864— Sir 
Robert Hamilton— My intimacy with him and his famiy— Abuses in the 
service and mismanagement of our military affairs — Recollections of 
two years' stay in the War Office— My Irish programme— Hamilton's 
tale of second-sight — My Venetian studies— Macaulay and Ruskin — The 
librarian at St. Mark's— A little incident on the Piazetto— My maiden 
literary publication-Murray's proposed 'Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy '—My ' Early Popular Poetry '—The ' Letters ' of Charles Lamb — 
The two concurrent editions by Canon Ainger and the wiiter— Observa- 
tions on the Canon's treatment of the subject, and attitude toward me 
—Mischief arising from imperfect and unfaithful texts— The Canon's 
lost opportunity— His want of care, knowledge, and experience— Tal- 
fourd and the 'Letters'— My other literary efforts— Bibliographical 
labours— Samples <xf my correspondents — The western sunurbs of 
London— Their aspect half a century since— The made ground in 
Knightsbridge, Battel sea, Westminster, and elsewhere — Delahaye 
Street and the chief pastrycook of Charles II.— Long Ditch— Gradual 
formation of highways and growth of buildings— The ancient water- 
ways in Knightsbridge and old Brompton— Carriers' carts, waggons, and 
coaches— Some account of the system and its incidence — Suggestion as 
to Shakespear — The primitive omnibus — That which ran to Edmonton 
in Charles Lamb's time— Loneliness and insecurity of the suburban roads 
—Anecdote of Hazlitt— Precautions against highwaymen and footpads 
— Notting or Nutting Hill— Waggon-houses at Knightsbridge. and on 
the Oxford and Uxoridge Roads— Changes on the northern side of the 
Metropolis— The scattered markets— Their value— That at Knights- 
bridge— Snipe in Tutlull Fields and at Millbank— Partridges, snipe, and 
rabbits on Barnes Common— The turnpikes — Those at Hyde Park Corner 
and Tyburn, &c — The Farmer of the Gates— Knightsbridge— Original 
levels and boundaries— Traces of it in 1371 and 15-6— Knightsbridge 
Green— The old watch-house— Old Brompton— Brompton Row— Some of 
its early inhabitants — Count Rumford— Anecdote of the Duchess of Kent 
—Mrs, Lloyd of Crown Court— Grove House— William Wilberforce — 
Elliot's Fine Pits— John Hunt— Some account of Faulkner the historian 

— Bell and Horns Lane— Pollard's School Gore Lane— Charles Mathews 
—Robert Cruikshank —Sir John Fleming's daughters— Cromwell House 
—Brompton Vale— Chelsea Pound— Curious discovery there— Vestiges 
of Chelsea Common — Brompton nurseries— Walnut-tree Walk— The 
Bull— Gunter the pastrycook— Krompton Heath— Thistle Grove— Little 
Chelsea— Purser's Cross— Anecdotes of the Duke of York and Duke of 
Wellington— Thomas \\ right, F 8 A , and Madame Wright— The Carter 
Halls at the Rosery— Anecdote about Tennyson— Guizot at Old Bromp- 
ton— An original letter from him to my father— Gloucester Lodge- 
George Canning — Don Carlos— Braham the singer— Brompton " parlia- 
ment "—A mysterious resident in BiomptonVale — The Spagnolettis — 
The Holls— Henry Holl the actor— His circle— O. V. Brooke— Holl as a 
mimic and storyteller Dickens and Forster— Some ascount of the latter 
—Frank Holl, it. a.- Dr. Duplex- The Hymns— H. J Byron and his 
family— Early development of a dramatic taste— As a medical student— 
My peculiar Intimacy with blm Our evenings together— People I met 
at his home story Ol him and Arthur Kketchley— Byron'* earliest 
love affair — The Bancrofts- Mary Wilton at the strand— Robertson 
—Anecdotes of Byron one of his last sayings— * BoblDSOU Crust. e ' 
and Mis« lArkin — ' ( upid and Psyche'— The old actors at Brompton 

- John Reeve— Llston The KeelejB Mrs Cbatterton-Some account 
of Mr and Mrs Keelcy — The barrens Characters playd iy old 
Mr 1 arren Contretemps at, a dinner parly at Thnrloe l'laco— Durrant 

Cooper, .? s \. jhs oanartU— One about Lhe Queen end Prince albeti 

William Fanen the younger sir Henry Irving— Webster and Harley 
Anecdote* of both Buckttone ■ As an actor— 'I he short- petti coat, move- 
ment— Madame Vestrls and Miss Prisellle Korton— Menkln'i Maseppa— 
Mrs, Fit/u Lilian] i he Bpsnlsh i tanoan Behind the Rcones at fatrold*! 



benefit— Charles Mathews and his second wife — Edward Wright — 
Paul Bedford— The Adelphl melodrama — The more modern pantomime— 
A daily incident at Old Brompton— The French Plays and the Ethiopian 
serenaders at the St. James s— The Kenneys— The Baron de Merger — 
His father and Napoleon I.— My visit to the Chateau of Plessis-Barbe, 
near 'lours— De Merger and the Third Empire— My first acquaintance 
with the illustrated French literature— Dumas— Henri Miirger's ' Sc6nes 
de la Vie Boheme ' — Compared with Du Maurier's ' Trilby * — Saxe 
Bannister— His Life of Paterson, founder of the Bank of England— Mrs. 
AstoratOld Brompton— Her relationship to the Reynells— John Jacob 
Astor— Origin of his fortune— Kensington— A relic of St. Mary Abbot's 
—Norland House and its spring— Former solitariness of the neighbour- 
hood—General Fox— Carl Engel — The Bowmans — Fulham — Walham 
Green and the vicinity— Prima'val forest — State of the roads between 

Fulham and the adjacent places— C Cottage— Captain Webb, the 

highwayman— Specimens of the caxtseries with A at C Cottage- 
Anecdotes related by both of us of our professional and other acquaint- 
ances— Lock— Sir Matthew Thompson— Brunei— cockburn— George and 
Robert Stephenson— Thomas Brassey— Lord Grimthorpe— Some of ray 
tales— Earnshaw the chronometer-maker — Tom Sayers the pugilist — 
Watch-house in Marylebone Lane— Glyn the banker— Laura Bell — 
Skittles— The Leicestershire set— The Bell at Leicester— Captain Haymes 
— Story of a Bishop at Harrogate— An adventure at York— George 
Tomline— Some account of him and his father— The Paston Letters— 
Harrington the pickpocket— A curious shop in Seven Dials— Hammer- 
smith— Turnham Green— Linden House— Its association with a cause 
c^lt-bre—Dr. Griffiths andhis distinguished friends— Origin of lis fortune 
— Thomas Griffiths Wainewright, the poisoner— Putney — Ladies' Schools 
—The Trimmers — Fairfax House— Madame Darau da's— Alterations in 
the High Street— Remains of an ancient building — The rivulet down tbe 
street— Tokenhouse Yard— Morris and his father— Anecdote of them 
relative to the occupation of Paris in 1815— Edward Gibbon's birthplace 
— Roehampton — Wandsworth — The "Black Sea " — Beauties ol the 
neighbourhood — Wimbledon Common— Its historical interest and im 
pottance— Barnes— Explanation of the discovery of Roman coins there— 
The Royal Family— The library given by George IV to the nation— The 
Duke of Sussex— The Queen— The " Jubilee " coinage— Our obligations 
to Her Majesty— Orders of Merit for civilians— Penalty of along reign— 
The Queen thinks a book too dear— The offer of Her Majesty to pay 
income-tax — A cuiious disillusionizing glimpse — The Royal Family as 
people of business— The Prince Consort— The Albert Memorial— A few 
particulars and anecdotes — Princess Beatrice at Darmstadt — The 
Battenbergs and Eatenborgs— The Duke of Cambridge— The Kaiser — 
"l.e Grand Monarque " — Caroline Bonaparte — Louis XVIII. — Nicholas 
of Russia and his son— Sir Roderick Murchison— Napoleon III and my 
fatht-r— The Emperor s alleged parentage— Sir Robert Peel in 1817— Mr. 
Gladstone— My pamphlet on public affairs (18S0) — General Gordon — 
Illustrations of Mr. Gladstone's acquaintance with Ireland and its 
events — Sir Henry Taylor— General Cunningham— Lord Rosebery — Tbe 
Primroses of Adelaide, .-outh Australia— A Scottish friend's recollections 
of them and other early colonists— Draper, the chaplain of the London 
—Instances of Longevity— The Tollemaches— Our great families— Mr. 
Evelyn, of Wootton— A visit to the house- The library — Martin Tupper 
—Charles Mackay — Literary jottings— Shakespear — The Shakespear 
Papers — Shakespear and Bacon— The * Sonnets'— Yorick— Tennyson — 
Some new particulars of him and his father— Longfellow— Browning— 
The poet and Lord Coleridge— The Browning Society—The arrange- 
ments for his interment — Amusing anecdote — The Trinity College MS. 
of Chaucer— Halliwclls ' Shakespeariana '— A curious episode at his 
daughter's wedding— Dr. Ingleby— The 'Hatless Headman'— G. A. Sala 
—Alexander Ireland — Literary acquaintances — 1 he Rev. Thomas 
Corser — UlS early knowledge of our family at Wem — Mr. James 
Crossley— A Milton anecdote — The Rev. Alexander Dyce— My personal 
contact with him— The Rev John Mitford — Henry Bradshaw— My 
obligations to him— His peculiarities— Henry Huth— Sketch of his Life 
My long and intimate acquaintance with him— His earliest experiences 
as a collector— His library catalogue— Mrs. Huth— Huth's indifferent 
health— Circumstances of his death — My conversations with him on 
various subjects— Herbert Spencer— The Leigh Hunt memorial— Huth's 
liberality ol character and feeling— I he Tyssens— F W. Cosens— what 
he said to me about himself— His taste for Spanish literature and early 
English books— His generous contribution to the Stratford-on-Avoh 
Fund— A strange mistake by a noble lord— The first book printed at 
New York— Mr. E. P. Shirley— Value of pamphlets illustrated— David 
Laing— His varied acquirements and disinterested character— A member 
of the old Scottish school— His literary performances— What they cost 
him and what he gained by them— Sir Walter Scott's " Dear George "— 
Relics of Sir Walter— The Britwell Library— Its origin and fortunes- 
Samuel Christie-Miller — His criticisms on the books — Indebtedness 
of the library to the Heber sale — Frederic Locker- Lampson — His 
advantages as a man of fortune -Comparison of himself with Henry 
Huth— His vers de soctM — As a man — As a buyer — Locker's father 
and brother — The Mutual Admiration Society — Robert Hcrrick 
and the Perry -Herricks of Beaumanor Park, Loughborough — My 
visit to the house — 'Cherry Ripe ' — Dorothy King— To keep a 
tiue Lent '—Other book-collectors of my time— R S Turner— K H 
Lawrence — story of Ruskin and the Oypriot antiquities of 
Cesnola— The Freres of Roydon Hall— Their literary associations— A 
portion of the 'Paston Letters' sold with the library— My Cornish 
acquaintances— Llanhydrock — Mr. and Mrs Agar-Robartcs — Thomas 
Couch of Bodmin and Jonathan Couch of Polperro— Henry Bewell 
Stokes, the poet— My conversation with him about I ennyson— The 
pack-horse road and the British huts near Bodmin Mr Aldrich of 
Iowa, a friend of Jefferson Davis and an autograph-collector, at Barnes 

— The auction-rooms— Development and machinery ol salefl by auction 
—The cataloguer-Inlluence of sale-catalogues on prices origin of my 
career as a bibliographer— Sotheby's— Account of some of the early 
sales there — strange personality of " Mister " Sothoby— I'he WoUkOBtoa 
sale In 1856— How it came about— Persons whom l have met at Sotheby's 
—A recollection of 1858— George Daniel of Cationbury Some account 
of him and his books— His visit to Charles Mathews the elder at High- 
gate— He tells me a story of Charles lamb Samuel Addington— His 
extraordinary character as a collector— His method of buying-Com 
pared with Quarltch- The Sixpenny Solicitor- Booksellers ai Sotheby's 
■ Curious methods ol bidding— The bundle-hunter, past and present — 
His fallen fortunes— The smaller room at sothoby s Anecdote of a 
Bristol Teapot— One or two coin-collectors — Lord Ashburnham- How- 
he lost his first collection Edward Wigan — 1 Must i at inn of his 
enthusiasm- The Blenheim sale I be Mat Ibornugh gem S -The Althorp 
Librarv-'l ho House in Leicester Square Us history and development 

— Beniarkable sales which have been held by Messrs Puttick & 
Simpson Honks Mnnu-enpln - Aulogmphs My obligation* to the 
bouse Tbe Soniei s Traits I he British Mii-eimi My recollection of 

tbe old building and beading Room Members "i the itafl whom I have 
known Panisn and the New General Catalogue Sir Henry F.I lis— 
George Bulleo Granville Collection Mr Granville and my father— 
The ftcqucntcrs of the Beading Boom- Mr. Oladstonel flews about 

the Museum Btafl Proposed Insulation of the national collections— 
Publishers Dlflerenl schooli oi t] pes George RonUedfn - Henry 
George Bohn GeonrewUHi I llterari sdrenture some other bnok- 
sellen The Laadennall and CornhlU schools of painting— The ettttums 
dr (im i be illustrated Copy, 



GEORGE REDWAY, Hart-street, Bloomsbury. 



74 



Til E AT II ENJSUM 



N 5012, Jan. 16, '97 



RICHARD BENTLEY & SON'S LIST. 



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N° 3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



75 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1897. 



CONTENTS. 

Lord Roberts's Autobiography 

Mountaineering in the Dolomites 

The Great Public Bchools 

Mr. Plummer's Bede 

New Novels (A Marriage Mystery ; Tracked by a 
Tattoo; Half round the World for a Husband; 
The Sign of the Spider; Tomalyn's Quest; The 
Squire of Wandales ; The Story of Bell ; The Evo- 
lution of a Wife ; Merlin) 80 

johnsoniana 

Scottish Literature 

Our Library Table — List of New Books ... 83 

Prof. Maspero's 'Struggle of the Nations'; Mr. 
C. E. Wilbour ; The Book Sales of 1896 ; Cole- 
ridge's Notes on Comic Literature ... 84 

Literary Gossip 

Science— Societies; Meetings; Gossip 

Fine Arts — Raphael's Tapestries ; The New 
Gallery; Gossip 

Music— The Week; Gossip; Performances Next 
Week 

Drama— The Week; Gossip 91 



PAGE 

75 

77 
78 
79 



-86 



88—90 



LITERATURE 



Forty -one Tears in India : from Subaltern to 
Commander-in- Chief. By Field-Marshal 
Lord Roberts of Kandahar, V.C., G.C.B. 
2 vols. (Bentley & Son.) 

(Second Notice.) 

On the 26th of October, 1857, the movable 
column arrived at Cawnpore, and for the first 
time Lord Roberts heard the details of that 
great tragedy, and saw the sights which had 
driven our soldiers mad. But the day after the 
arrival of the Delhi column orders reached 
Hope Grant from Sir Colin Campbell to get 
into communication with the Alambagh, a 
garden house surrounded by a lofty wall, 
where Havelock and Outram had left their 
sick and wounded and spare stores. On the 
31st of October Hope Grant left Cawnpore 
and crossed the Ganges, but the next day the 
Brigadier was bidden to halt until the Com- 
mander-in-Chief should arrive. On the 9th of 
November Sir Colin joined the column accom- 
panied by his chief of the staff, Brigadier- 
General Mansfield. The following morning 
arrived Kavanagh, the brave Irishman, who, 
disguised as a native, had passed through 
the enemy's lines. He brought a letter 
from Outram stating his views with re- 
gard to the route that should be fol- 
lowed by Sir Colin Campbell, in which 
the line proposed was clearly marked. 
Sir Colin readily accepted Outram's plan 
of advance, and strictly adhered to it. 
On the morning of the 12th the column 
began its march to the Alambagh, and after 
halting there for two days to perfect the 
smallest detail, Sir Colin Campbell set 
forth for the relief of the Residency. By 
noon on the 14th he had occupied the 
Dilkusha and Martiniere, where he fixed 
his headquarters. The next day was de- 
voted to making preparations for a further 
advance. In the evening Roberts was told 
that the Commander-in-Chief desired his 
presence at the Martiniere. On reporting 
himself to his Excellency, Sir Colin Camp- 
bell informed him that he was not satisfied 
that a sufficient reserve of small - arm 
ammunition had been brought with the 
force, and that the only chance of getting 
more in time was to send back to the Alam- 



bagh for it that night. Sir Colin asked 
Roberts if he thought he could find his way 
back in the dark. "I answered, 'I am 
sure I can.'" The Commander-in-Chief 
impressed upon him strongly the necessity 
for caution, told him that he might take 
what escort he thought necessary, but that 
whatever happened he must be back by 
daybreak, as he had signalled to Outram 
that the force would advance on the morrow. 
The old Scotsman grimly desired that 
the ordnance officer whose fault it was 
that sufficient ammunition had not been 
brought should go back with Roberts and 
be left at the Alambagh. Accompanied 
by the unfortunate ordnance officer, Young- 
husband, Gough, two squadrons of cavalry, 
and 150 camels, Roberts started at 9 p.m. 
for the Alambagh. After an adventu- 
rous ride in the dark, the Alambagh was 
reached, and at dawn he returned with the 
ammunition, and as he rode up to the 
Martiniere he could see old Sir Colin, only 
partially dressed, standing on the steps in 
evident anxiety at his not having arrived. 
He congratulated him on the success of the 
expedition, and told him to get something to 
eat as quickly as possible, for they were to 
start directly the men had breakfasted : — 

"I went off to the Artillery camp, and 
refreshed the inner man with a steak cut off a 
gun bullock which had been killed by a round 
shot on the 14th." 

As soon as the men had breakfasted on 
the 16th the force advanced. Roberts was 
ordered to accompany the advance guard, 
behind which rode Sir Colin, who had 
Kavanagh with him, as his general know- 
ledge of the locality proved of great service. 
As the force was feeling its way along 
a narrow and tortuous lane it reached 
a corner which turns sharply to the left, 
and winding round it the British were 
suddenly deluged by a storm of bullets 
from the Secundar Bagh. The bank was 
so steep that it seemed impossible for 
artillery to ascend it. But men and 
horses did manage to clamber up it, 
the guns opened fire, and in an hour a 
breach was made. The bugle sounded for 
the assault : — 

" It was a magnificent sight, a sight never to 
be forgotten — that glorious struggle to be the 
first to enter the deadly breach, the prize to the 
winner of the race being certain death ! High- 
landers and Sikhs, Punjabi Mahomedans, 
Dogras and Pathans, all vied with each other 
in the generous competition. A Highlander was 
the first to reach the goal, and was shot dead as 
he jumped into the enclosure ; a man of the 
4th Punjab Infantry came next, and met the 
same fate. Then followed Lieutenant Cooper, 
of the 93rd, and immediately behind him his 
Colonel (Ewart), Captain Lumsden, of the 
30th Bengal Infantry, and a number of Sikhs 
and Highlanders as fast as they could scramble 
through the opening. A drummer-boy of the 
93rd must have been one of the first to pass 
that grim boundary between life and death, for 
when I got in 1 found him just inside the 
breach, lying on his back quite dead — a pretty, 
innocent-looking, fair-haired lad, not more than 
fourteen years of age." 

A party made a rush for the gateway, the 
doors of which wore on tho point of being 
closed, when a Mohammedan (Mukarrab 
K han by name) 

" pushed Inn loft arm, on which he carried a 
shield, between them, thus preventing their 
being shut ; on his hand being badly wounded 



by a sword-cut, he drew it out, instantly thrust- 
ing in the other arm, when the right hand was 
all but severed from the wrist. But he gained 
his object — the doors could not be closed, and 
were soon forced open altogether, upon which 
the 4th Punjab Infantry, the 53rd, 93rd, and 
some of the Detachments, swarmed in." 

Roberts entered immediately behind the 
storming party, and the scene that ensued, 
he states, " requires the pen of a Zola to 
depict." The pen of Tolstoi would do it 
more justice : — 

"The rebels, never dreaming that we should 
stop to attack such a formidable position, had 
collected in the Sikandarbagh to the number of 
upwards of 2,000, with the intention of falling 
upon our right flank as soon as we should 
become entangled amongst the streets and 
houses of the Hazratganj. They were now com- 
pletely caught in a trap, the only outlets being 
by the gateway and the breach, through which 
our troops continued to pour. There could 
therefore be no thought of escape, and they 
fought with the desperation of men without hope 
of mercy, and determined to sell their lives as 
dearly as they could. Inch by inch they were 
forced back to the pavilion, and into the space 
between it and the north wall, where they were 
all shot or bayoneted. There they lay in a heap 
as high as my head, a heaving, surging mass of 
dead and dying inextricably entangled. It was 
a sickening sight, one of those which even in 
the excitement of battle and the flush of victory 
make one feel strongly what a horrible side 
there is to war. The wretched wounded men 
could n^t get clear of their dead comrades, 
however great their struggles, and those near 
the top of this ghastly pile of writhing humanity 
vented their rage and disappointment on every 
British officer who approached by showering 
upon him abuse of the grossest description." 

After the capture of the Secundar Bagh the 
troops, fighting for every inch of the ground, 
proceeded to the Shah Najaf mausoleum, 
enclosed by high masonry loopholed walls, 
and reached it as the afternoon was waning. 
Sir Colin Campbell desired to carry it 
before nightfall, and Barnston was in- 
structed to bring up his battalion of de- 
tachments under cover of the guns. As the 
troops advanced in skirmishing order their 
leader fell, and it was seen that the men 
were wavering : — 

"Norman [General Sir Henry Norman] was 
the first to grasp the situation. Putting spurs 
to his horse, he galloped into their midst, and 
called on them to pull themselves together ; the 
men rallied at once, and advanced into the 
cover from which they had for the moment 
retreated. I had many opportunities for noting 
Norman's coolness and presence of mind under 
fire. On this particular occasion these qualities 
were most marked, and his action was most 
timely." 

More infantry were brought up without 
avail. The afternoon was passing away, 
and it seemed essential to carry the Shah 
Najaf. The old chief placed himself at 
the head of the 93rd, and under a heavy fire 
led them to some cover in close proximity to 
the walls. Tho naval guns woro dragged 
by the soamon and tho Madras Fusiliers 
close to tho walls, and commenced to breach. 
The enemy at length lost heart, and fled 
out the other side, so that an entrance was 
effected without difficulty. 

Night came on, and the troops lav 
down in linos with their arms. Next 
morning tho contest was renewed. Eire 
was opened on tho moss-houso, and in tho 
afternoon it wns captured. As from (hence 
the advancing troops could seo tho British 



70 



T II E A Til KN JKUM 



N 3612, .Ian. 16, '97 



flag flying on the positions captured by Sir 
J. Outram the previom day, Lord Roberta 
states Sir Colin Campbell ordered him to 
procure a regimental colour and place it on 
ono of the turrets of tho building : — 

"I rode oil* accordingly to the 2nd Punjab 
Infantry, standing close by, and requested the 
Commandant, Captain Green, to let me have 
one of his colours. He at once complied, and I 
galloped with it to tho mess-house. As I entered, 
I was met by Sir David Band (one of Sir Colin's 
Aides-de-camp), and Captain Hopkins, of the 
53rd Foot, by both of whom I was assisted in 
getting the flag with its long staff* up the incon- 
veniently narrow staircase, and in planting it on 
the turret nearest the Kaiserbagh, which was 
about 850 yards off. No sooner did the enemy 
perceive what we were about, than shot after 
shot was aimed at the colour, and in a very few 
minutes it was knocked over, falling into the 
ditch below. I ran down, picked it up, and 
again placed it in position, only for it to be 
once more shot down and hurled into the ditch, 
just as Norman and Lennox (who had been sent 
by Sir Colin to report what was going on in the 
interior of the Kaiserbagh) appeared on the roof. 
Once more I picked up the colour, and found 
that this time the staff had been broken in two. 
Notwithstanding, I managed to prop it up a 
third time on the turret, and it was not again 
hit, though the enemy continued to tire at it 
for some time." 

Norman and Roberts obtained permission 
to accompany Havelock to the Residency, 
and the autobiography gives a graphic 
account of the sight which they saw as 
they entered it. When the news of General 
Windham's reverse reached the retiring 
army, Sir Colin Campbell, becoming im- 
patient to learn the exact state of the case, 
desired Roberts to ride on as far as he could 
to the river, and if he found the bridge 
broken to return at once, but if it were 
■still in existence to cross over, try to 
see the general, and bring back all the in- 
formation he could obtain. Roberts started, 
took two sowars, found the bridge intact, 
pushed across, and got into the entrench- 
ments. He was about to return to head- 
quarters, when loud cheers broke from the 
men, caused by the appearance of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Sir Colin Campbell, having 
grown impatient, had pushed on with his 
staff. An excellent description of their 
ride is to be found in General Sir Henry 
^Norman's able lecture on ' The Relief of 
Lucknow.' Sir Colin Campbell, having 
dispatched the women, children, and 
wounded to Allahabad, attacked and 
defeated the Gwalior contingent. Roberts 
watched the advance as one of the 
chief's staff, and took part in the chase 
after the flying enemy, which the old chief 
himself headed. 

On the 23rd of December Sir Colin 
•Campbell commenced his march towards 
Fatehgarh ; and on the morning of the 2nd 
of January, 1858, a strong force of the rebels 
were found posted at the village of 
Khudaganj. As our troops advanced 
the enemy hastily limbered up their guns 
and retired. A hot pursuit followed : — 

"The chase continued for nearly five miles, 
until daylight began to fail and we appeared to 
have got to the end of the fugitives, when the 
order was given to wheel to the right and form 
up on the road. Before, however, this move- 
ment could be carried out, we overtook a batch 
of mutineers, who faced about and fired into the 
squadron at close quarters. I saw Younghusband 
fall, but I c ;uld not go to his assistance, as at 



that moment ono of Ins BOWUTt was in dire peril 
from a sepoy who was attacking him with his 
fixed bayonet, and had I not helped the man 
and disposed of his opponent, he must have 
been killed. The next moment I descried in 
tho distance two sepoys making off with a 
standard, which I determined must be captured, 
so I rodo after the rebels and overtook them, 
and while wrenching the staff out of the hands 
of one of them, whom I cut down, the other put 
his musket close to my body and fired ; for- 
tunately for me it missed fire, and I carried off 
tho standard." 

acts 



A briof note states: "For these two 
I was awarded the Victoria Cross." 

When it was decided that the siege of 
Lucknow was to be undertaken at once, 
Sir Colin Campbell issued a general order 
detailing the regiments, staff, and com- 
manders who were to take part in it. Major- 
General Hope Grant was appointed to the 
command of the cavalry division, and Roberts 
remained with him as Deputy-Assistant- 
Quartermaster-General. He commends the 
scientific manner in which the siege opera- 
tions were carried out by Robert Napier, 
and also the good use which Sir Colin 
Campbell made of his powerful force of 
artillery. He, however, blames Sir Colin 
for checking Outram' s proposed advance 
across the iron bridge, which would have 
rendered the defeat of the enemy more 
complete. The capture of Lucknow found 
Roberts feeling the ill effects of exposure 
to the climate and hard work, and the 
doctors insisted on a trip to England : — 

" On the 1st April, the sixth anniversary of 
my arrival in India, I made over my office 
to Wolseley, who succeeded me as Deputy- 
Assistant - Quartermaster - General on Hope 
Grant's staff, and towards the middle of the 
month I left Lucknow." 

The well-earned rest was enjoyed in the 
county of Waterford, where his father was 
at the time residing. On the 17th of May, 
1859, he was married to her " without 
whose loving help my ' Forty-one Years in 
India ' could not be the happy retrospect it 
is." On the 30th of July, 1859, Roberts 
and his wife returned to India. In 1863 
he was again employed on active service 
in the Umbeyla expedition, of which 
he gives an interesting account. The 
Commander - in - Chief sent in his name 
for a brevet, " but the Viceroy refused to 
forward the recommendation, for the reason 



that I was ' too junior to be made a 
lieutenant-colonel.' I was then thirty- 
two ! " During the Abyssinian expedition 
Major Roberts served as senior staff officer 
at Zula, and after Magdala was taken, Sir 
Robert Napier made him the bearer of his 
final despatches. On reaching London he 
took them to Sir Stafford Nortkcote, then 
Secretary of State for India, who, after read- 
ing them, asked him to take them without 
delay to the Commander-in-Chief : — 

"There was a dinner-party, however, that 
night at Gloucester House, and the servant told 
me it was quite impossible to disturb His Royal 
Highness ; so, placing my card on the top of 
tho despatches, I told the man to deliver them 
at once, and went back to my club. I had 
scarcely reached it, when the Duke's Aide-de- 
camp made his appearance and told me that he 
had been ordered to find me and take me back 
with him. The Commander-in-Chief received 
me very kindly, expressing regret that I had been 
sent away in the first instance ; and Their Royal 
Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, 



who were present, were most gracious, and 
asked many questions about the Abyssinian 
Expedition." 

Towards the end of February, 18G9, 
Roberta returned to Simla, and two years 
after he took part in the Lushai expedition, 
and a OB. was conferred on him for his 
services. In 1875 Lord Napier nominated 
him to the coveted post of Quarter- 
master - General. The next year he accom- 
panied the Commander-in-Chief to Bombay 
on the eve of his departure, and while he 
was bidding Lord Napier farewell, the 
Orontes steamed into the harbour with Lord 
Lytton on board : — 

" Little did I imagine when making Lord 
Lytton's acquaintance how much he would have 
to say to my future career. His Excellency 
received me very kindly, telling me he felt that 
I was not altogether a stranger, as he had been 
reading during the voyage a paper I had written 
for Lord Napier, a year or two before, on our 
military position in India, and the arrangements 
that would be necessary in the event of Russia 
attempting to continue her advance south of the 
Oxus. Lord Napier had sent a copy of this 
memorandum to Lord Beaconsfield, by whom it 
had been given to Lord Lytton." 

Lord Roberts maintains, as most men who 
have studied the subject maintain, that Lord 
Lytton's frontier policy, though at the time 
much misunderstood and criticized, was in 
essentials sound. But these are matters 
which must be left for final settlement in 
the calm court of history. When the 
second Afghan war began General 
Roberts, on account of the ability he had 
shown as Quartermaster - General, was 
appointed to command the Kuram field 
force, taking its name from one of the 
passes through which our forces invaded 
Afghanistan. To take a man from the 
desk to command an army in the field is 
a hazardous experiment, but in this case it 
was fully justified by success. On the 
21st of November, 1878, he made his first 
advance into Afghanistan, and nine days 
afterwards he found the enemy in large 
numbers well posted in tho Peiwar Kotal. 
"It was indeed a formidable position," and 
General Roberts determined to turn it by a 
flank movement. After considerable diffi- 
culty this was done with success, and General 
Roberts found no enemy up to the Shutar 
Gardan Pass to oppose his advance to Kabul. 
The Ameer, hearing of the successful 
advance of the English columns, quitted 
Kabul for Turkistan. On January 21st, 1879, 
death put an end to the troubles of Shere 
Ali, and Yakub, his son, reigned in his 
stead. On the 2Gth of May, at Gandamak, 
a treaty was signed in the British camp by 
the Ameer and by Major Cavagnari on 
behalf of the British Government. Roberts 
returned to Simla, and he was deep in 
the work of the Army Commission when 
news came of the massacre of our envoy 
at Kabul. Immediate steps were taken 
to retrieve the disaster. General Massy 
was ordered to seize again the Shutar 
Gardan Pass, and General Stewart was 
told to reoccupy Kandahar, which had 
been almost entirely evacuated. On the 
29th of September General Roberts again 
took command of the Kuram force, which 
advanced as rapidly as possible, and on the 
evening of October 5th the village of Char- 
asiab, eleven miles from Kabul, was reached, 
and a stirring narrative of the fight which 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHENiEUM 



77 



ensued fills several pages. At Charasiab, as 
in every battle of the campaign, there were 
some fine examples of individual heroism. 
Private MacMahon, of the 72nd Highlanders 
— who bore the brunt of the fighting almost 
single-handed — scaled a hill, on the crest of 
which was a sungur filled with men. Major 
White (now General Sir George White, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army), 
of the same regiment, not caring to expose 
his men on a particularly steep bit of ground 
which was enfiladed by a few Afghans, 
posted in rear of some rocks, took a rifle 
from one of his men, and stalked the 
enemy single-handed. Both men received 
the Victoria Cross. 

After Charasiab the enemy made no 
further stand, and General Roberts took 
possession of Kabul one month after the 
murder of Cavagnari, and for two months 
after the entry of the English into the 
Afghan capital no apprehension was enter- 
tained of any organized resistance to the 
occupation. Men are apt to forget that no 
one decisive battle ever subdued a brave 
and warlike nation. The work of the 
Normans only began after Senlac. In 
December tidings of general disaffection 
among the tribes began to reach the in- 
vaders, and to check the growing discontent 
a grand review of all the troops at Kabul 
was held on the 9th. The same afternoon 
a brigade was sent due west to Arghandeh 
to drive back the Afghan general, Mahomed 
•Jan, who was reported to be attempting a 
junction with the Kohistanis from the north. 
On the next day General Baker's brigade 
marched south to Charasiab. General 
Massy was told 

*' that he was to advance cautiously and quietly 
by the road leading directly from the city of 
Kabul towards Arghandeh, feeling for the 
•enemy ; that he was to communicate with Mac- 
pherson and act in conformity with that officer's 
movements ; and I impressed upon him that he 
■was on no account to commit himself to an action 
until Macpherson had engaged the enemy." 

General Massy, Lord Eoberts states, did not 
follow the route he was told to take, and 
marching straight across the country he 
found himself face to face with the enemy 
before he could join Macpherson. General 
Roberts, warned by the firing that an en- 
gagement was taking place, galloped across 
the Chardeh valley, and on gaining the open 
ground beyond the village of Bhagwana, he 
flaw that 

•"an unbroken line, extending for about two 
miles, and formed of not less than between 9,000 
and 10,000 men, was moving rapidly towards 
me, all on foot save a small body of Cavalry on 
their left flank— in fact, the greater part of 
Mahomed Jan's army. To meet this formidable 
array, instead of Macpherson 's and Massy 's 
forces, which I hoped I should have found com- 
bined, there were but 4 guns, 198 of the 9th 
Lancers under Lieutenant-Colonel Cleknd, 40 
of the 14th Bengal Lancers under Captain 
Philip ^ Neville, and at some little distance 
Cough's troop of the 9th Lancers, who were 
•engaged in watching the enemy's Cavalry." 

The fight went on the whole day, and at 
dusk the little force had foiled the enemy's 
attempt to reach Kabul. But their standards 
.floated on the hills around, and next day 
attacks were made in order to dislodge the 
enemy from them. The Afghans were im- 
mensely superior in numbers and fought woll, 
while nothing could be finer than tho pluck 



displayed by our men ; they were, however, 
called on to carry positions which they had to 
give up immediately afterwards on account 
of the overwhelming force brought against 
them, as was the case at the conical hill of 
which Lord Roberts supplies a vivid descrip- 
tion. After three days of combat he had 
to retire to his cantonments at Sherpur, two 
miles north of the city, and was compelled 
with five thousand men to defend a position 
nearly five miles long, some two miles of 
which had no further protection than a 
slight shallow trench, hastily constructed at 
a critical moment. On the 23rd of Decem- 
ber the enemy made a desperate effort to 
take the entrenchment by assault, but were 
repulsed by the steady fire of the de- 
fenders. Then news reached them of the 
approach of Gough's reinforcing column, 
and they dispersed, and our troops were once 
more in Kabul. During the winter months 
General Roberts strengthened his position. 
In May, 1880, Ayub Khan, the brother 
of Yakub, marched on Kandahar, and at 
the end of July news reached Kabul of 
the Maiwand disaster. On the 6th of 
August the Kabul-Kandahar field force 
began its famous march. On August 31st 
Sir Frederick Roberts reached Kandahar, 
and on September 1st he defeated Ayub 
outside the walls. In order to relieve 
the garrison General Roberts had given up 
all reliance on a base of operations, and 
with a force of ten thousand men marched 
through the heart of a hostile country 
three hundred and eighteen miles in twenty- 
three days. Such a feat will always be 
remembered. Its accomplishment was 
greatly facilitated by the previous daring 
march of Sir D. Stewart from Kandahar to 
Kabul, and the generous manner in which he 
handed over his tried troops to Sir Frederick 
Roberts. President Lincoln, on hearing a 
discussion as to the respective merits of 
Sherman and Grant, remarked, "I should 
have thought there was sufficient glory to 
cover both." There is quite sufficient glory 
to cover both Sir Donald Stewart and Lord 
Roberts. 

At the close of the Afghan campaign Sir 
Frederick Roberts returned to England, and 
" was feted and feasted to almost an alarm- 
ing extent." In 1881 he went to the Cape 
of Good Hope, having been nominated by 
Mr. Gladstone's Government Governor of 
Natal and Commander of the Forces in 
South Africa on the death of Sir George 
Colley and the receipt of the news of the 
disaster at Majuba Hill : — 

" While I was on my way out to take up my 
command, peace was made with the Boers in 
the most marvellously rapid and unexpected 
manner. A peace, alas! 'without honour,' to 
which may be attributed the recent regrettable 
state of affairs in the Transvaal— a state of 
affairs which was foreseen and predicted by 
many at the time. My stay at Cape Town was 
limited to twenty-four hours, the Government 
being apparently as anxious to get me away from 
Africa as they had been to hurry me out there." 

On the 27th of November, 1881, he 
roturned to India as Oommander-in-Ohiof 
of the Madras Arm}', having refused the 
appointment of Quartermaster-General at 
the Horse Guards. Two years after he 
succeeded Sir Donald Stewart as Com- 
mander - in - Chief in India. During the 
eight years he held that responsible offico 



he laboured strenuously to make the army 
he commanded as perfect a fighting machine 
as possible, and to improve the con- 
dition of the British soldier and the 
Sepoy. As head of the executive 
he never let any petty jealousy ob- 
struct the difficult and delicate path of 
army reform ; but in conjunction with 
General Chesney, a great administrator and 
man of genius, he, with characteristic 
loyalty, materially helped to carry out those 
military reforms which marked the adminis- 
tration of Lord Lansdowne. In 1893 Lord 
Roberts's splendid career of forty-one years 
in India came to a close, and he left the 
land in which he had worked so long, having 
won the love of the soldier and Sepoy, the 
attachment of the native chiefs, and the 
admiration and confidence of the European 
community. 



Climbing Reminiscences of the Dolomites. By 
Leone Sinigaglia. With Introduction by 
Edward J. Garwood. Translated by M. A. 
Vialls. (Fisher Unwin.) 
To judge by the issue of volumes dealing 
not with mountains, but with "mountaineer- 
ing" (the distinction is real and deep), it 
would almost seem that mountaineers were 
becoming as numerous as verse- writers, and 
that, like minor poets, they bought one 
another's works. Their case is the more 
remarkable, for the purchase must involve 
a far heavier charge both on their purses 
and their bookshelves. The last of the 
portly volumes dedicated to modern moun- 
taineering is a translation from the Italian. 
Signor Sinigaglia is an ardent climber, and 
he has written what is purely a climber's 
book. He is clear, accurate, and modest in 
his account of his own doings, and he knows 
all about his predecessors' ascents. His 
chapters might rank as excellent articles in 
any Alpine club journal, or would serve as 
first-rate material for a ' Climber's Guide.' 

Within the limits he sets himself his work 
is well done. These limits are, however, 
narrow in more senses than one. His 
climbs were all in the Cortina and Sexten 
districts, and his descriptions are confined to 
his climbs. He tells his readers, it is true, of 
"visions of magnificent valleys rich with lofty 
aged pines, of deep emerald-green lakes, of white 
villages with stately campaniles and shining roof 
tops, of the distant clear Dolomite spires in a 
thousand shapes, with bold pinnacles, indented 
crests, irregular towers, needles, and precipitous 
walls, all of the strangest form and colour, out- 
lined on the transparent sky of Tyrol." 
But this is the only distant or general view 
the reader gets of the region, and it is on 
the last page. His interest is elsewhere 
claimed for the solution of 
"new problems in steep, often appallingly 
steep, walls, aerial crests, strange chimneys, 
and dizzy traverses, that need serious, intense, 
and energetic application to overcome." 
Here is a specimen problem : — 

"Dimai, alone and unroped, as is his invari- 
able way when climbing, attacks this slab of 
rock. We note from the beginning that our 
brave guide is obliged to make violent efforts 
to drag himself up, working with finger-nails, 
elbows, and knees sticking close to the rock, 
making extraordinary exertions, ami yet gaining 

ground with unusual slowness I go up in my 

turn. Following the example of the guides, I 
have put on the ' Kletterschuho ' [string shoes], 
but (uidooked-for mischance !) there is nothing 



78 



THE A T II E N M U M 



N°3G12, Jan. 10, '97 



then i. ui stick to from the base upwards of the 
rook slab, so smooth its surface. By dint of 
frantic working of knees and elbows, with linger 

tips fixed in the limited and awkward holds, 
I succeed in making way, though slowly, up this 
terrible rock-face, and after much hard work, 
Crawling penitent-wise, I get near the guides. 
Oragamen should arrange to climb this toilsome 
rock- face — fortunately not a dizzy one, otherwise 
it would be very bad — without shoes. At any 

rate it could easily be avoided But every 

good climber will look upon it as a duty to 
attempt it." 

Surely this is the very midsummer madness 
of climbing, mountaineering in extremis ! 
Yet the reader is told that such delights 
have moved the hearts of at least five ladies, 
one of them an Italian duchess, "to figure 
wonderfully as impromptu climbers." Pos- 
sibly the perils were chiefly for their leaders, 
for in much Dolomite climbing it is on the 
leader that the strain chiefly falls. 

Those who care for the conscientious 
record of a cragsman's adventures will find 
plenty of excitement in the two hundred 
pages of Signor Sinigaglia's volume. By 
way of contrast they may turn to the topo- 
graphical description of the noble Pelmo, 
which has no charms for the new school, 
and is libelled in a most unfortunate plate. 
The famous corner described by Mr. Ball 
and in Mr. Douglas Freshfield's ' Italian 
Alps ' has been " simplified for the benefit 
of families and young people," and the 
mountain, we are told, is now, "from a 
climber's point of view, devoid of interest, 
the ascent being in fact nothing more than 
an ordinary constitutional." 

The views, copiously supplied, have been 
well selected as illustrations of the text ; 
but they have been chosen without any eye 
to composition or artistic effect, which may 
be Btudied even in dealing with photographs. 
They miss the characteristic beauty of the 
region and the grandeur of its loftier 
summits, though some of them do partial 
justice to the quaintness of outline of the 
"Little Dolomites," amongst which the 
author finds his most fascinating problems. 
The frontispiece is a fine photogravure, but 
the process employed for the rest of the 
plates has in no case produced pleasing 
results, and in many has entirely failed. 
An adequate and intelligible district map 
has been supplied, and the translation is 
readable, spirited, and as a whole gram- 
matical. "Monaco" on p. 19 should 
obviously be Munich. 

The volume is introduced to English 
readers — perhaps needlessly — by Mr. Gar- 
wood in a somewhat lengthy preface, dated 
from Advent Bay, Spitzbergen. Owing, 
possibly, to his temporary distance from a 
library, Mr. Garwood has hazarded some 
statements which a further consideration of 
facts and dates might have led him to 
modify. His opening sentence, if not abso- 
lutely inaccurate, will certainly convey an 
erroneous impression to most readers. 
Seventeen years ago, he says, "the list of 
Dolomite peaks of which the ascent had 
been authentically recorded was not an ex- 
tensive one, and comprised for the most 
part the loftiest summits only in each group 
of the district." Any one who cares to 
count up the peaks ascended before 1880 
and the "Little Dolomites" climbed since 
will recognize the injustice Mr. Garwood 
has done to the work of his predecessors. 



Mr. (larwood is, it would appear, but im- 
porfectly acquainted not only with the 
recorded foats, but also with the " ex- 
pressed opinions," of some of the older 
generation of mountaineers. Ho fancies 
that they maintain that "to the enjoyment 
of mountain climbing as a sport difficulties 
of ascent, such, that is to say, as are due to 
steepness of inclination or absence of hand 
and foot hold, aro not essential"; that such 
difficulties "are to be condemned as requiring 
gymnastic exercises degrading to the dig- 
nity of the true mountaineer." Mr. Garwood 
may be reminded of a passage in an Alpine 
classic — the late Mr. J. Ball's ' Eastern Alps ' 
(edition 1868, p. 511):— 

" It must be owned that the chief inducement 
to the ascents of the peaks of this region [the 
Cortina Dolomites] is in the climb itself. When 
the cragsman has acquired a little familiarity 
with the rock, so as not to feel uneasy in places 
where the surface is rotten and pieces are 
detached by the hand, he gets to prefer dolo- 
mite climbing to all other rock work, finding it 
provide far more of excitement and variety than 
the crystalline slates or even granite." 

The old mountaineer can enjoy, and has 
enjoyed, the "sport" of a hard wrestle 
either with rocks, or with iceslopes, or 
with storm and wind. He is not as 
a rule encumbered with any morbid 
feelings about his own or his comrades' 
dignity. If Mr. Garwood will include in 
his definition of difficulties those of snow 
and ice and weather, the old mountaineer 
will certainly agree with him that there is 
no "sport" in pounding up Mont Blanc or 
the Ortler on a fine day. But to their true 
lovers (and herein is the root of the difference) 
the mountains are more than a gymnasium, 
and mountaineering is more than a sport : it 
is a branch of travel, and a gate to new forms 
of natural beauty. And in the recent 
specialization of mountaineering — in the 
tendency to look on proficiency in rock 
scrambling as constituting a qualification 
for any mountain ascent or exploration, and 
in the consequent decay in icecraft among 
both guides and mountaineers — the pioneers 
of the Alps recognize not only a danger in 
the future, but the cause of several recent 
and most lamentable catastrophes. A crags- 
man is not necessarily a mountaineer, and 
is often without many of the most essential 
qualities of an explorer. 



Great Public Schools. By Various Authors. 

(Arnold.) 
Ten public schools, their history, their 
sports, and their normal life, are described 
in this volume with varying degrees of 
fulness. The ten selected are Eton, Harrow, 
Charterhouse, Cheltenham, Rugby, Clifton, 
Westminster, Marlborough, Haileybury, 
Winchester. Most readers, we think, will 
wonder, not without reason, that no place 
has been found in such a hierarchy for 
St. Paul's and Shrewsbury. Chronologically 
also the order seems fantastic : to begin 
with Eton, to put Clifton before West- 
minster, to end with Winchester, is to make 
a mere tangle of history ; if the list does 
not begin at the end, it certainly ends at the 
beginning. Neither is the book properly 
brought up to date. Whatever may have 
been the case when Mr. Maxwell Lyte wrote 
the first paper, on ' Eton College : Historical 
and Descriptive,' he would not now pro- 



claim that the venerable Fellow, Mr. Wilder, 
" still survives" (p. 24). In the third paper 
Mr. Alfred Lyttelton will shudder at finding 
himself responsible for calling a well-known 
institution at Eton " the parliament of 
'Fop' " (p. 40), though he almost deserves 
his disaster for completely misunderstanding 
Matthew Arnold's joke about "the young 
barbarians," and protesting that Eton boys 
are civilized, whatever Ox nians may be I 
Mr. Arnold by " barbarians " meant aris- 
tocrats, as distinguished from " philistines" 
and " populace." Etonians with a sense of 
humour may well pray to be saved from 
their friends. 

Nevertheless, a book which contains the 
excellent paper on 'Rugby School, 1567- 
1842 a.d.,' by "Tom Brown" (an excellent 
portrait of whom forms the frontispiece of 
the volume) ; the pleasant sketch, all too 
short, of 'Harrow School, 1829-1889,' by 
the present Master of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge (pp. 77-86) ; the introduction by tho 
late Lord. Selborne to Mr. Gale's account of 
Winchester — in which, by a strange slip 
(p. 309), the numbers of the school are 
exaggerated by nearly one hundred ; and 
the vivid account of Westminster, by Mr. 
Russell Barker, beautifully illustrated by 
Mr. Railton — such a book, we say, is in- 
teresting to any public-school man. If there 
is a fault common more or less to all these 
papers, it is one which is, perhaps, akin to 
a virtue. They are written by enthusiasts, 
who touch too gently, or not at all, on 
the seamy side of public - school life and 
the historic scandals of old institutions. 
Mr. Mowbray Morris, for instance, on p. 53, 
dismisses the darker side of his subject by 
murmuring, "We have changed all that 
now, and no one and nothing is served by 
raking together these 

Portions and parcels of the dreadful past." 
This natural mood of retrospective tolera- 
tion has given a long lease to barbaric 
survivals : few places have suffered so 
much as public schools from the want of a 
healthy breeze of outside opinion. Their 
reform has been tardy and partial, through 
the want of humour and the rigid oppres- 
siveness that always characterize an athletic 
regime. 

Few non-Etonians, we suspect, know how 
narrowly Eton on several occasions escaped 
the wrath or greed of the monarchy. 
Edward IV. — regarding it as "a Lan- 
castrian foundation " — was within an ace 
of suppressing it ; Henry YIII. and his 
successor both meditated its plunder, but 
stayed their hands ; Queen Elizabeth was 
contented to impose upon it " a layman and 
an alien" — Henry Savile, of Merton Col- 
lege — as Provost, and, as it turned out, a 
right good one ; later on, Bacon was nearly 
elected, but Sir Henry Wotton was pre- 
ferred. But no monarch or Protector did 
Eton such disservice as her own collegiate 
Fellows. Generous as individual Fellows 
were, the collective body was sordidly 
rapacious. Less than sixty years ago, " the 
interests of the scholars were sacrificed to 
those of the Provost, Fellows, and head 
master" to such a degree that the life of 
a colleger was "almost intolerable." In 
1 84 1 matters had reached such a pass that, 
notwithstanding the prospective advantages 
of being on the foundation, there were 
thirty-five vacancies and only two candidates'. 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHEN.EUM 



79 



The older foundation of Winchester suffered 
in precisely the same way, to a more recent 
date still, from the absorption of its revenues 
by a handful of non-resident Fellows, and 
the consequent squalor of the life in college 
and the crippling of the educational re- 
sources of the school. The moral of these 
things is plain — a foundation for the instruc- 
tion of youth cannot prosper on the leavings 
of a body of Fellows without duties. If 
these older and richer foundations seem only 
just to have held their own against more 
modern and less richly endowed rivals, it is 
fair to remember how their resources were 
absorbed, and what sorry examples were set 
before them. 

Mr. Thornton writes pompously on the 
■early history of Harrow. To the defects of 
his style let this specimen testify. A certain 
Dr. Snape 

"took part in what is known as the Bangorian 
controversy, wherein the right of the clergy to 
transfer allegiance from their legitimate rulers 
to those who reigned by national choice, rather 
than hereditary position, was, if nominally 
on grounds purely ecclesiastical, practically 
challenged by Hoadly, Bishop of Bangor." 

If only the Master of Trinity had corrected 
the style of this paper, as well as supple- 
mented it by his interesting sketch of recent 
Harrow ! 

In the case of four schools — Eton, 
Harrow, Cheltenham, and Rugby — special 
chapters on athletics have been contributed, 
by the Rev. S. James, Mr. P. H. Marti- 
neau, Mr. E. Skirving, and Mr. Lees 
Knowles, M.P., respectively ; they are 
pleasant and genial records, but mono- 
tonous in their character. Mr. Knowles, 
perhaps, hits off the style suitable to such 
things best; the story with which he con- 
cludes, of the interview between his head 

master and a certain H , is amusingly 

laconic: "H , I think. H , you 

run ; so did I. You hold the school-bags, 

H ; so did I. You don't work, H ; 

I did. You must. Good morning." Mr. 
Lee Warner writes a pleasant paper on the 
last fifty years of Rugby ; but to describe a 
certain period of the school as one in which 
" by its very successes it had somewhat 
spent its strength "is an unwise euphem- 
ism. All schools have had such periods; 
but they will do well to think of them, and 
speak of them by the right name. Mr. L. 
Huxley describes Charterhouse and its his- 
toric removal to the Surrey hills, its life 
and its admirable library, very agreeably 
and without prolixity. 

Educationally speaking, the most in- 
teresting feature of the volume is the testi- 
mony it bears to the modern or Victorian 
public schools. The chapters on Chelten- 
ham, Clifton, Haileybury, and Marlborough 
—why has Wellington no place here ? — 
will remind people of a most remarkable 
development. None of these schools is 
sixty years old, yet they are already level in 
the race — to say no more— with the oldor 
foundations in many essential respects. The 
fact is that neither a wealthy foundation 
nor oven an historic background can be 
regarded as an unmixed advantage to insti- 
tutions which are naturally tempted to indo- 
lence and pride. Even of these papers, 
written for the most part in a sensible 
though enthusiastic tono, a foreign Matthew 
Arnold would be tempted to say, We see 



your public schools, but are they always at 
play ? We see beautiful pictures of their 
buildings — have you nothing to tell us of 
their aspirations and ideas ? 



Yencrabilis Baedae Historiam JEcclesiasticam 
Gcntis Anglorum, Historiam Abbatum, JEpis- 
tolam ad Ecgbertum, una cum Historia 
Abbatum Auctore Anonymo ad fidem Codi- 
cum Manuscriptorum denuo recognovit, Com- 
mentario tarn critico quam historico instruxit 
Carolus Plummer, A.M. 2 vols. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

In the interval between publishing the text 
of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and preparing 
a full commentary upon it, Mr. Plummer 
has applied himself to the historical works 
of Bede, deeming, not without reason, that 
a critical edition of them forms an in- 
dispensable preliminary to a proper in- 
vestigation of the sources of the earlier 
portions of the Chronicle. Such an edition 
he has now produced, and for it he deserves 
the hearty gratitude of all students of the 
origines of English history. To say, as he 
says, that it is the first critical edition since 
Smith published his in 1722 is to under- 
state its merits. Mr. Plummer has examined 
no fewer than forty-five manuscripts, while 
Smith contented himself with four. He has 
found that these forty-five arrange them- 
selves in three classes, according as they 
follow the pattern of the Moore MS. at Cam- 
bridge (Kk. v. 16) or that of the Cottonian 
MS. Tiberius C. ii., or contain a conflate 
text. The result of this examination is to 
prove, as the late Father Stevenson had 
independently discovered, that the first class, 
headed by M, offers the text of a first edition 
of the ' Historia Ecclesiastica,' finished in 
731, while the second class, that of C, repre- 
sents a second edition completed in 734. 
Mr. Plummer has furnished a full and careful 
description of the manuscripts he has in- 
spected, and our only complaint about this 
part of his work is that he has thought it 
desirable to indicate them in most cases by 
a single initial, denoting the place or the 
collection in which they are now preserved, 
and to distinguish different manuscripts 
in the same place or collection by inferior 
numerals. Now inferior numerals are 
not only difficult to read and to remember, 
but are extremely liable to be misprinted. 
Nor was it at all necessary thus to reduce 
the symbols to their smallest dimensions, 
since Mr. Plummer has collated only the 
four leading manuscripts. It is confusing to 
have twenty- one Oxford manuscripts all 
denoted by (0 1? 0.,, &c), when most of 
them might have been more clearly repre- 
sented by abbreviations like " Hatt.," 
"Dou.," "Fairf." (for the Hatton, Douce, 
and Fairfax MSS.), and "Ball.," "Line," 
" Mert.," &c. (for the various college 
MSS.). 

Since, however, Mr. Plummer has done 
so much, it is, perhaps, hypercritical to 
object to small details ; nor do we at all 
think ho has erred in collating through- 
out only a small number of manuscripts. 
Modern editors aro too apt to suppose that 
a complete collation of everything obtain- 
able is absolutely essential to the production 
of a critical text ; whereas a trained scholar 
who has four manuscripts before him of the 
very century in which his author wrote is 



perfectly able after scrupulous examination 
to relegate all the remainder to the category 
of transcripts taken directly or indirectly 
from these four. We may illustrate this 
fact by some remarks concerning one manu- 
script which stands probably next in date 
to the four here collated, but which Mr. 
Plummer has not inspected, though by 
means of a catalogue he has been enabled 
to judge its general affinity correctly (see 
his introduction, p. xcix, n. 3). We refer 
to the Berne MS. 49, a volume written in 
the ninth century, and formerly belong- 
ing to the famous monastery of Fleury. 
Mr. Plummer sets out five leading tests 
whereby to distinguish the earlier (M) 
edition from the later (C). In all these 
the Berne MS. agrees with M. Now the 
Harleian MS. 4978 is believed by Mr. 
Plummer to be "unquestionably a direct 
transcript from M." It contains at the 
end of the ' Historia Ecclesiastica ' pieces 
from Isidore and Gregory II., and it 
was, in Mr. Plummer' s opinion, the 
scribe of the Harleian manuscript (H„) 
who inserted the same extracts at the end 
of M. They are also found, in the same 
position, in the Berne MS. "The most 
decisive evidence of copying," says Mr. 
Plummer, "is given by those instances in 
which the scribe of Hi has misinterpreted 
the reading of M." He gives two speci- 
mens, in which exactly the same mistakes 
appear in the Berne MS. All three manu- 
scripts agree in abbreviating quotations 
from the Bible, and they abbreviate in the 
same manner. The two younger manu- 
scripts, moreover, agree in incorporating 
in the text additions which M has in the 
margin {e.g., lib. ii. 10, p. 102, n. 4). Mr. 
Plummer cites also nine cases in which the 
clerical blunders of M are repeated in H x . 
In every one of these the Berne MS. origin- 
ally presented the same reading ; only in 
three of them the error has since been 
found out and corrected. There are other 
readings which seem to show that the 
Berne MS. stands midway between M and 
Hi — in other words, that H x was actually 
transcribed from it. How else are we to 
account for the fact that both Berne and 
Hi have written in lib. iii. 11 (p. 149, n. 6) 
" ille " instead of illo, and that both have 
corrected the word into ilia, except on the 
supposition that the scribe of H, was copy- 
ing the text of Berne, and did not notice the 
correction until he had written the blun- 
dered word? Again, in the same page, 
" the scribe of M at first wrote sanitati" for 
sa)iati (n. 9) ; so did the Berne scribe, but 
he erased the letters it, and the mistake 
does not appear elsewhere. In lib. ii. 17 
(p. 120, n. 1) M has " spatia " instead of 
spatiis; Berne likewise has " spatia," which 
has been corrected into spatiis by a 
later hand; and Hi has spatiis over 
an erasure. In lib. v. 8 (p. 295, n. 2) 
Berno alone follows M in the reading 
"sacerdos," but it has the last three letters 
erased. Two other instances may be added 
which cannot bo verified in Mr. Plummer's 
edition, since ho does not profess to have 
collated Hi throughout. First, in lib. iv. 13 
the Berne MS. by an accidental confusion 
roads " coiberi haec que post Cantuariua ad 
austor " instead of " cohiberi ; siquidem 
divertous ad provinciam Australiuui 
Saxonum, quae post Cantuarios ad aus- 



so 



THE A TH I-IX^UM 



N*3612, Jan. 10, '07 



trum." II, lias tried to rnako sonse of the 
Berno words by writing " oohiberi sic quo 

{)08t cantuarios ad austor." Secondly, in 
ib. ii. 18 Berne and II, alone, so far 
as wo know, make a now chapter begin 
with tho letter of Honorius, " Diloctissimo 
fratri." 

Ono single reading that wo have noticed 
may seem opposed to our hypothesis, which 
is that H,, which comes undoubtedly from 
a French monastery, is a direct transcript, 
not of M, but of tho Floury book now pre- 
served at Berno. In lib. iii. 20 M has "menses 
uii" corrected into " iiii," and Berne has 
" ui," while II,, according to Mr. Plummer, 
has "scptem" written in full. But no 
data are so insecure for establishing the 
relations of manuscripts as those offered by 
numerals. It is a curious illustration of the 
difficulty presented even by the simplest 
figures that not only Mr. Flummer but 
also Profs. Mayor and Lumby comment on 
the passage to which we have referred on 
the assumption that Bede says " seven " 
when the text they print says " four." 

The facts that have been brought out may 
serve to show that there is still something 
left for gleaners after Mr. Plummer ; and 
yet all that we have elicited affects nothing 
of the real words of Bede, but merely the 
precise relation of one derivative of M to 
another. It may not be out of place to add 
that the other Berne MS. (No. 363) cited as 
one of the ' Historia Ecclesiastica ' cannot 
claim that character. Six leaves of that 
volume (ff. 188b to 19-la) contain a mere 
epitome of part of lib. i., and end abruptly 
at the words "in membris meis " in the 
middle of ch. xxvii. (p. 61, 1. 5 from foot, in 
Mr. Plummer' s edition). The only point of 
interest about the fragment is that it was 
written in the eighth century, and shows 
how quickly Bede's history won its way as 
a text- book which might be summarized for 
educational purposes. 

In printing his text Mr. Plummer 
has introduced the convenient innovation 
(familiar from an analogous practice in the 
' Monumenta Germaniae ' and in the Polls 
Series) of using italic type "to indicate 
those parts of Bede's work which are derived 
from previously existing materials, so far as 
these have come down to us." It was un- 
lucky, however, that he was not made aware 
of one important and highly interesting 
source until it was too late to embody its 
results except in the form of addenda to 
vol. i. and of an appendix to vol. ii. We 
refer to the oldest life of Gregory the Great, 
written by a monk of Whitby, which was 
published by Taul Ewald from a St. Gall 
manuscript in 1886, and from which Bede 
obtained a great part of his information 
about the Popo. It is heie, for instanca, 
that we find for the first time the famous 
story of Gregory and the English boys at 
Pome : — 

" Cumque responderent, Anguli dicuut.nr illi, 
de quibus sumiis, ille dixit Angeli Dei. Deimle 
dixit, Hex gent-is illius quomodo iiominatur f Et 
dixerunt Aelli. Et ille ait, Alleluia! lans cnim 
Dei esse debet illic. Tribus quoque illius nomen 
de qua erant proprie requisivit. Et dixerunt 
Deire. Et ille dixit, De ira Dei covfugieutes ad 
/idem." 

What is strange is that Mr. Plummer has 
not yet discovered that tho relevant portions 
of Ewald's publication were all printed by 



Sir John Sooley in tho English Jlmtorical 
J!,n,u- for INS* (vol. iii. 805-810). 

Tho text of Bedo is provided with mar- 
ginal headings of contents, and so are — 
which is a very convenient innovation — tho 
notes in the second volume. Perhaps tho 
editor adopted tho idea from Profs. Mayor 
and Lumby, who, however, made use of the 
loss practical method of indicating tho lead- 
ing point in a number of notes on a given 
page by means of the headline. From their 
edition of books iii. and iv. Mr. Plummer 
has naturally derived great assistance ; but 
there is no sign of servile copying, and he 
has wisely abstained from repeating a large 
part of the endless references, many of which 
are only remotely connected with the subject 
in hand. Still, it is only fair to add that 
the commentary of the Cambridge scholars, 
with its helpful prefatory notices to each 
chapter, is by no means superseded by the 
briefer and more business-like exposition 
which we owe to Oxford. Nor is Mr. 
Plummer himself exempt from the tendency 
to digression and unnecessary illustration. 
It is impossible not to regret that the notes 
are put in a separate volume, as though Bede 
were a class-book for schools. Had the work 
appeared in demy octavo, there would have 
been plenty of room for the notes at the 
foot of the page in a single volume, and 
the editor would have been compelled to 
exercise more self -repression ; he would, 
moreover, have saved himself the labour 
of compiling a distinct index for each 
volume, where both from the nature of the 
case to a great extent repeat one another. 

It is impossible here to linger over the 
innumerable points of interest that arise 
out of the commentary. We must content 
ourselves with a couple of examples. Since 
Loofs wrote his remarkable dissertation on 
the ancient British and Scottish churches, 
scholars have been gradually coming to 
acquiesce in the view that St. Patrick is in 
reality the Palladius of Bede, i. 13. But 
Mr. Plummer, unless we are mistaken, has 
the credit of discovering the origin of the 
name Patricius, which first appears in 
Tirechan. "It is quite possible" — so the 
editor modestly puts forward a brilliant 
hypothesis — 

" that the statement of Tirechan, 'Paladius 

qui Patricius alio nomine appelabatur,' may 
ultimately rest on some confused reminiscence 
of the present chapter of Bede, and that the 
words 'qui et patricius fuit,' which belong to 
Aetius, have got attached to Palladius, and this 
may be the starting-point of later developments. 
Saints have been created out of less. We have 
seen the origin of St. Amphibalus from 
St. Alban's cloak (c. 7) ; and a St. Pontiolus has 
been evolved from a false reading of ttovtioXm 
for 7toti6\u>v (=Puteoli) in the Antiochene 
Acts of St. Ignatius." 

A quotation from the chapter of Bede in 
question will enable the reader to judge 
the character of this conjecture : — 

"Cuius anno imperii VIII. Palladius ad 
Scottos in Christum credentes a pontifice 
Romanae ecclesiao Celestino primus mittitur 
episcopus. Anno autem regni eius XXIII., 
Aetius vir inlustris, qui et patricius fuit, 
tertium cum Simmacho gessit consulatum." 

To those who are acquainted with the 
style of writing of the age and with the 
perverse practices of transcribers the sug- 
gestion will, we think, appear to possess a 
high degree of probability. But it does 



not involve, as Mr. Plummer seems to say, 
a doubt as to " the rerj existence of 

Patrick." It onlj' denies the existence of 
a 1'atrick, the "Patricius eecundus" of 
Tirechan, distinct from Palladium 

Mr. Plummer has some valuable remarks 
on tho question whether the Upper Thames 
valley belonged to Wessex or Mercia. Mr. 
James Parker in his ' Early History of 
Oxford' maintained that when the West- 
Saxon king Cwichelm made a treaty with 
Penda of Mercia in 628 " there is not much 
doubt that the Thames was the stipulated 
southern boundary of Mercia," so that 
Birinus, the first bishop of the West 
Saxons, established his see on Mercian 
territory. It does not need much know- 
ledge of our early ecclesiastical system to» 
perceive that such an hypothesis is in- 
credible. But when was the strip of land 
north of the Thames lost by Wessex ? The 
usual opinion is that this did not happen* 
until the battle of Bensington in 777. On 
the other hand, it is certain that Wulfhere- 
invaded Wessex in 661, and a Bishop 
Aetla is found at Dorchester in Oxfordshire- 
notlong afterwards, at a date when the West- 
Saxon see is known to have been placed at Win- 
chester. Consequently this Aetla is usually 
regarded as the same person as Haedde of 
Winchester. Mr. Plummer, however, un- 
willing to charge Bede with this confusion 
of names, suggests (on book iv. 23) that 
Ethelred of Mercia "may well have con- 
tinued Wulfhere's policy of curtailing 
Wessex . . . and gained possession of Dor- 
chester " not long after his accession in 675 y 
so that Aetla's establishment as bishop was 
a direct sequel to this (supposed) victory. 
Mr. Plummer thinks it probable that Caed- 
walla of Wessex, after he came to the- 
throne in 686, "recovered this and other 
districts belonging to Wessex," and "that 
consequently the Mercian bishopric of Dor- 
chester disappeared after a very few years- 
of existence." The theory certainly deserves- 
consideration ; it has the advantage of 
removing all the difficulties in our data, but 
it has also the disadvantage of postulating 
an unrecorded conquest and reconquest. 

The book is exceedingly well and accu- 
rately printed, and the errata we have 
observed are hardly worth drawing attention 
to. It may, however, be noted that in the- 
introduction (p. civ, n. 1, 2) Lupus of Fer- 
rieres is twice called Lupus of Ferrara ; and 
readers will be surprised to find the famous* 
Codex Laudianus of the Acts and Epistles 
obscurely referred to (p. liv) as "a MS-, 
now existing in the Bodleian Library," with 
a foot-note, "Laud. Greek, No. 35." The- 
introduction as a whole is an important con- 
tribution both to the life of Bede and to* 
the criticism of his writings. 



NEW NOVELS. 



A Marriage Mystery. By Fergus Hume. 

(Digby, Long & Co.) 
Tracked by a Tattoo. By the same author. 

(Warne& Co.) 
Mi:. Fergus Hume has undoubtedly been 
endowed with a talent for stories of crime, 
and he shows wisdom in devoting himself to- 
this class of fiction. It must be enough to 
say, without revealing the bold solution of 
it, that 'A Marriage Mystery ' is ingeniously 
put together. The mystery is of course a 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



81 



murder. In the working out of the plot 
the author cleverly tries to make the reader 
fix the crime first upon one character and 
then upon another, but there is one detail 
which seems weak. Much depends on the 
exact time at which the murder was com- 
mitted. This is supposed to be made certain 
by a doctor's opinion. A doctor would 
hardly pretend to be certain from the 
appearance of a corpse that death took 
place at a moment which could be made 
precise within half an hour, and even if he 
were prepared to come to such a decision, 
a court of justice would certainly not accept 
his opinion as conclusive. A thoroughly 
good detective story should not leave ragged 
ends like this. There is, however, another 
point in which Mr. Hume is not quite suc- 
cessful. To make a satisfactory novel of 
this kind it is necessary to rouse strong 
interest in some direction. One wants the 
characters, or some of them, to be fasci- 
nating or at least strikingly lifelike, but 
Mr. Hume does not succeed in enlisting the 
reader's sympathy for any character. He 
makes one say, " I certainly should like to 
know, but really I don't much care which 
of them did it." 

Madaline Garry substituted her own child 
for the legitimate son of Sir Francis Fel- 
lenger. But that baronet before his death 
had had the rightful heir tattooed with a 
cross on the left arm, and wrote an account 
of the transaction and his suspicions of 
Madaline's designs. To make things all 
right, he naturally concealed the document 
in a secret drawer in a cabinet, where it was 
a million to one against its ever being dis- 
covered. On this common-sense foundation 
Mr. Hume has built yet another detective 
story. The murder in Tooley's Alley is suf- 
ficiently mysterious, and it must be admitted 
that the multiplicity of the characters, and 
the reasons which involve almost all of them, 
one after the other, in suspicion of a guilty 
connexion with the crime, are most plausibly 
and artfully adduced. Not until the fall of 
the curtain does the reader discover that a 
doubt he had of the young solicitor, princi- 
pally on the ground that there is no sufficient 
reason for his introduction otherwise, is justi- 
fied by the event. Mr. Hume's new book is 
good of its kind, but we wish even Mr. Fauks 
would talk a little better. "I'm agree- 
able " may do for him in his professional 
capacity, but Ilixton is supposed to speak 
like a gentleman. 

Half round the World for a Husband. By 

May Crommelin. (Fisher Unwin.) 
Like Bessie Bell and Mary Gray, Ann and 
Anita were two bonny lasses. They were 
also much alike ; and when Anita was to 
leave her English school and return to Chili 
to bo married to a man she had never seen, 
it occurred to her as a happy thought to 
send her bosom friend instead, first to the 
betrothal by proxy and then upon the 
voyage. How this meritorious scheme suc- 
ceeds is the topic of the story, which con- 
sists principally of descriptions of West 
Indian and South American life and 
scenery — descriptions which we are bound 
to say are graphic and interesting. If the 
absurdity of tho plot can be condoned, we 
l add that Ann Montague is a very nice 
girl, and deserves the fortunate result of 

Also the vulgar 



her travels and troubles. 



Lothario of her outward voyage seems 
likely to be appropriately punished by 
the stout lady of colour who " owns him." 

The Sign of the Spider. By Bertram Mitford. 

(Methuen & Co.) 
This is a story of South African adventure 
of a very blood-curdling order. It matters 
little that the character who occupies the 
position of hero is a rather blackguardly 
class of man. Adventures are, of course, to 
the adventurous, and among the adventurous 
there is a fair proportion of such heroes. 
Nor is it an outrage to probability that our 
hero, though a married man, should make 
love with more or less success to girls civi- 
lized and uncivilized, nor that he should in 
the end come to wealth and happiness. 
But in the most terrible of his adventures 
the power of shuddering horror demanded 
of the reader is a little overtaxed. This is 
when a savage tribe puts the hero into a 
pit with a cavern conveniently attached, 
where dwells a nasty creature, nasty and 
awful beyond all things — a spider larger 
than life, as big in fact as a bear and as 
shaggy, with "the head of a devil, the 
body and legs of a spider," flail - like 
tentacle or tentacles, and nippers. One 
readily agrees with the author when he 
says, rather tamely, " No, it was no ordinary 
thing this fearsome monster." The hero is 
of course saved, partly by his own vigour 
and power of will, and partly by the help 
of a lady, a sort of dusky princess, with 
"shapely shoulders which glistened light 
bronze in the moonlight." Still, with all 
its absurdities of detail and of style, Mr. 
Mitford' s story is in its way exciting. 

Tomahjrts Quest. By G. B. Burgin. (Innes 

& Co.) 
Mr. Burgin's sprightly and vivacious style 
would make almost any story readable. The 
present one is sufficiently exciting in itself 
to meet the most exacting demands ; in- 
deed, something less reminiscent of the fairy 
stories of one's youth would have preserved 
the denoument from a strong suspicion of 
extravagance. Tomalyn Crane is a manly 
and altogether delightful youth who goes 
out to Turkey in search of adventures as 
the private secretary of Tomkins Pasha. 
His desires are amply fulfilled, and 
his loves, his daring exploits, and per- 
petual hairbreadth escapes from Russian 
and Armenian intrigues are all related in 
the breeziest fashion, with plentiful touches 
of genial humour, and provide the plea- 
santest pastime for a couple of leisure hours. 
So real and vivid is the character-drawing 
of the principal personages, and so skilfully 
are the episodes introduced, that it is quite a 
disagreeable shock to find so childish a device 
resorted to for the dinou'ment as the species 
of conjuring trick which transforms an 
admirable but plain girl into a beauty at 
the expense of her wicked but lovely rival, 
in order that Tomalyn may live happily 
ever afterwards. Even this lapso into extra- 
vagance, however, cannot materially injure 
a tale so witty, wholesome, and well written. 

The Squire of Wandalcs. By A. Shield. 

(Methuen & Co.) 
I >ri: old friend Bluebeard in tho dress of a 
modern young man is a truly astounding 
apparition. Mr. Ninian Scrope, however, 



plays the part with great spirit — so much so 
that the nursery hero's matrimonial exploits 
grow pale and insignificant when compared 
with those of his successor. The reader 
who can keep count of his wives and 
victims must have a strong head and an 
appetite for forcible-feeble sensationalism 
beyond the ordinary capacity. Personally 
we prefer the original Bluebeard ; he was- 
a great deal more amusing than the Squire* 
of Wandales, and there was not so much, 
of him. 

TJie Story of Bell. By L. Beith DalzieL 

(Ward & Downey.) 
Little is exacted of the average domestic 
story, except that it should supply plenty 
of sentimental romance of the sound, whole- 
some, and legitimate order. ' The Story of 
Bell,' while full of the necessary exuberant 
sentimentality and highflown aspirations, 
has egregiously strayed from its proper 
track in the matter of plot. A mild touch 
of fin-de-siccle freedom is nauseously out of 
place in this order of novel, which is certainly 
little if it is not strictly wholesome. That 
the heroine should continue to cherish an, 
unlawful attachment for her cousin's hus- 
band after his marriage, and that her senti- 
ments should be reciprocated, is sad indeed. 
Moreover, there is absolutely a mutual con- 
fession of the same, and heroics run wild 
over a situation which a young girl might 
consider doubtful reading for her mother. 
Of course little harm is done, beyond an? 
inevitable death, or rather suicide ; but 
strong matters need strong handling, and 
Bell — for all the adjectives lavished upon 
her — has not received it. 



The Evolution of a Wife. By Elizabeth 

Holland. (Milne.) 
This "romance in six parts" appears to be- 
the first novel published by its author. She- 
would have been better advised to have 
reduced it to one-third of its present lengthy 
when it might have had some chance of 
success. As it is, the book presents itself 
as a lengthy task. It requires resolution 
and much perseverance to follow the 
fortunes of the heroine throughout nearly 
four hundred large and closely printed 
pages of diffuse and wandering narration,, 
interspersed with an unconscionable propor- 
tion of English-French schoolroom jargon. 
"Madame a l'air si fatigue," observes 
the heroine's maid, to which her mistress- 
replies, "Et tu aussi." It is to be hoped 
the Grey Sisters who kept the convent 
school at Altenbourg were not responsible 
for their ex-pupils' conversational exploits. 
The English in which the book is written 
is decidedly slipshod, and the whole is 
ill arranged and involved. Some of tho 
domestic scenes in the old Swiss town are- 
pretty and lifelike ; the same can scarcely 
be said for the feudal lair of the Austrian 
counts and the heroine's experiences there. 

Merlin : a Piratical Lore Stud//. By Mr. 

M . (Beeman.) 

For lovers of adventuro who are not par- 
ticular as to tho form in which it is con- 
voyed to thorn, ' Merlin ' will provide an 
entrancing hour. There is a variety and 
ingenuity in tho oxporionces which befall 
Mr. Smith and a lady, during their flight in 
a canoe across tho ocean, well calculated 



82 



Til E AT II KN'.K I.: M 



X 3612, .Ian. Hi. »9? 



to take the reader'a breath away. As for 

the " lovo study," that Bido of tho Btorj 
resembles rather tho ravings of delirium 
than any connected romance. This is no 
doubt intentional, ainoe Merlin, alius Mr. 
Smith, whether millionaire, pauper, pirate, 
adventurer, or meohanioal gonius (and it is 
difficult to classify him), is certainly mad. 
And his madness would be permissible, 
even interesting, were his frenzies expressed 
in bettor and less inflated English. In this 
particular tho narrator and heroine of the 
tale is, unfortunately, his equal. Indeed, 
her vanity and egotism go far to spoil the 
effect at some of the most thrilling points 
in their adventures, when the action is 
arrested to make way for her own unlikely 

emotions. Mr. M has undoubtedly a 

vivid imagination and an intimate know- 
ledge of those enchanted Southern seas ; 
besides which he is an authority upon ships. 
Had he confined himself to these matters, 
and omitted the melodrama on land, his 
book would have had greater merits. 



JOHNSONIANA. 

Johnson's Lives of the Poets. A New Edition, 
with Notes and Introduction by Arthur YVaugh. 
Vols. III.-VI. (Kegan Paul & Co.)— When 
this edition originally made its appearance, we 
reviewed its first and second volumes at length. 
All we have now to do is to announce its com- 
pletion. The sixth and last volume has a "note 
on the portraits," which was much needed, and 
an excellent index. Mr. Waugh seems to have 
adopted one of our suggestions, in so far as he 
has moderated the zeal of his notes without 
curtailing their usefulness. To certain of the 
obscurer authors his annotations supply matter 
of positive bibliographical novelty. The ex- 
tremely rare 1714 edition of Oldisworth's 'Life 
of Edmund Smith ' has probably never before 
been collated with Johnson's account, and the 
notes to Congreve are luminous. In writing of 
Prior and Gay, Mr. Waugh adopts the latest 
discoveries of Mr. Austin Dobson and others. 
We notice a bad misprint in the sixth of Pope's 
Epitaphs. This edition is, however, a highly 
creditable performance, and it is not too much 
to say that it presents the most useful as well 
as the most agreeable form in which Johnson's 
? Lives of the Poets ' now lies upon the market. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. Edited by Augus- 
tine Birrell. 6 vols. (Constable & Co.)— This 
also is a pretty book, light to handle, clear to 
read, bound in scarlet and gold, with an un- 
usually happy design upon the back. But from 
the editorial point of view there is little to be 
said for it. Mr. Birrell's idea of editing a book 
is to write a short entertaining essay and let 
the text take care of itself. It is to be feared that 
this agreeable essayist is too deeply occupied 
with his other numerous avocations to bestow 
much thought on his literary undertakings. If 
he had had time to read his proofs, would he 
have opened his essay by the cryptic remark 
that "Carlyle observed in that manner of his 
which has now become part of our incorporate 
existence " 1 There are too many instances of 
similar carelessness in writing. We know not 
what there is in Mr. Birrell's lazy, happy-go- 
lucky attitude to literature which annoys us. 
He confesses that he has no appetite for any 
serious form of study or research, and yet he 
pushes in to do the very work which requires 
the labour of the scholar. He should go on 
writing his pleasant little essays, and leave the 
English classics alone. His notes are extremely 
few, and add little or nothing to the usefulness 
of the text. But although Mr. Birrell might 
have been better occupied elsewhere, his pub- 
lishers have produced a really pretty and handy 
edition of Boswell's 'Life.' 



il ll llihl:\n UK. 
OPUfXOHa will vary as to the taste of a work 
like Margaret Oguvy, l>y Mr. J. M. li.irrie 
(Hodder a Stoughton), which deals without 

scruple with relations so intimate and tender 
as those between a mother and her son; 
but there is no doubt that, if so delicate a 
task should ever be publicly undertaken, Mr. 
Bailie's treatment of it is marked by that 
appreciation of wise simplicity and that sym- 
pathetic grasp of domestic details which have 
distinguished the series of books he has devoted 
to the setting forth of the humours and virtues of 
his humbler countrymen. This book has much 
of the charm of its predecessors, and has the 
added virtue of being entirely and obviously a 
sincere study from the life. The motives which 
have urged him to a task at first sight so incon- 
sistent with the reticence in matters of feeling 
which is at least as salient a characteristic of his 
countrymen as their essential tenderness appear 
to be various : first, a praiseworthy zeal for 
the due recording of a character which seems 
singular in its combination of shrewdness, 
mirthfulness, and piety ; next, the acknowledg- 
ment of a debt to one who was at once his 
stimulus and his model ; thirdly, perhaps, a 
desire for the commemoration of a distinctively 
Scottish virtue, which to some extent is suffer- 
ing eclipse from the modern tendency to pub- 
licity and gregariousness in the life of the 
craftsman : — 



"With so many of the family, young mothers 
among them, working in the factories, home life is 
not so beautiful as it was. 8o much of what is great 
in Scotland has sprung from the closeness of the 
family ties ; it is there I sometimes fear my country 
is being struck." 

Certainly this memoir of the gentle peasant 
woman Margaret Ogilvy (Mr. Barrie sticks 
to the old Scots style in retaining his 
mother's maiden name), whose counterfeit pre- 
sentment looks demurely at us from the frontis- 
piece, from the days when the little girl of 
six in a pinafore carried her mason father his 
dinner in a "flagon" to those last ones when, 
with the old christening robe in view, she passed 
away in the ripeness of old age, is eloquent of 
family love and filial devotion and respect. 
Even a more interesting figure is that of the 
pious daughter who predeceased by only 
three days the mother to whom she had 
consecrated her life and strength. To his 
mother it is clear Mr. Barrie owed not only 
inspiration, but information and correction in 
producing the marvellous miniatures of cottage 
life which have made his genius known. Her 
aspirations and fears for him, her dread of the 
seductions of town life, her fierce maternal 
jealousy of the greater fame of Stevenson (whose 
works she averred were worthless until she was 
detected reading them in secret), her conviction 
that "those weary books" were undermining 
her son's health, and her alternations of intense 
pride in his achievements, make up a very 
pleasant picture of devoted motherhood. Yet 
it is notable that her influence in a literary 
sense was not that of hereditary culture— it was 
her tenacious memory, her intuition of character, 
that rendered her more inspiring than many an 
instructed authority. Without these gifts her 
faculty of rapid reading (though " with ten 
minutes to spare before the starch was ready 
she would begin the ' Decline and Fall ' — and 
finish it, too, that winter") would have little 
availed the future novelist. Incidental scenes 
of family life give scope at times to humour of 
the usual flavour. When our author is en- 
trusted, like the henpecked "goodman" in the 
old song, with the housework of the day, and 
distinguishes himself by polishing the kitchen 
grate with one of the new table-napkins, the 
duologue between mother and sister is charac- 
teristic : — 

" ' Woe 's me 1 that is what comes of his not letting 
me budge from this room. O, it is a watery Sabbath 
when men take to doing women's work 1' 'It 
defies the face of day, mother, to fathom what 



makei bfm to leneeless.' ' Obj it's that weary 

v tiling. ' " 

• domestic critics, however, were proud of 
their hero, and soon became more appreciative 
than the "devout lady" who, when asked how 
she was getting on with one of Mr. Barries 
books, replied : — 

"Sal, it's dreary, weary, uphill work, but 1 I 
wrestled through with tougher jobs in my time, and, 

!. I II wrestle through with this on 
Into the more sacred penetralia of this remark- 
able piece of family history we forbear to follow 
the biographer. 

The Romance «f a King's Life, by J. J. 
Jusserand, translated from the French by 
M. R., revised and enlarged by the author 
(Fisher Unwin), has a fitting frontispiece in 
Pinturicchio's picture of ^Eneas Sylvius before 
King James I. The background, meant to re- 
present Scotland, is far too beautiful for that 
country as seen by telescope from Paris — a 
desperate land of boundless moor, songless 
except for the cawing of crows, with its houses 
built of irregular stone without mortar and 
roofed with heather, a land, indeed, where 
heather is the great friend, without which human 
life would cease. Besides heather, there was 
but one friend, " one single ally, distant France. " 
M. Jusserand himself is the pleasantest of proofs 
that distant France has not yet ceased to furnish 
allies to a Stuart king. It was kind of him to 
relieve his sombre Scottish landscape with a 
quotation from Bartholomew Anglicus, who was 
complimentary enough to think that the people 
were extremely handsome in body and visage, 
though they did wear a garb that did not set 
them off to advantage. There is, notwithstand- 
ing, some geographical injustice in shifting the 
Highland border-line about fifty miles too far 
north and deporting the Wall of Antonine 
bodily into North England. The substance of 
this sketch of the energetic career of King 
James is a paraphrase of the ' Kingis Quair ' 
combined with an account of the mission of 
Regnault Girard to Scotland in 1435-1436 for 
the purpose of taking back to France the 
Princess Margaret, who was to become 
Dauphiness. The sober student who has read 
the admirable article which M. Jusserand con- 
tributed some time ago to the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury will greatly regret that he did not transcribe 
much more of the text of the Parisian MS. on 
Girard's mission for the present booklet, which, 
though bright and eloquent, is somewhat lacking 
in substance. Half idyl, half tragedy, James's life 
was too eventful to compass within a hundred very 
small pages and not be inadequate in every aspect. 
The protracted correspondence in our columns 
last summer naturally left some expectancy 
when it closed with the announcement that the 
forthcoming translation of ' Le Roman d'un Roi 
d'Ecosse ' would contain a definite deliverance 
on the vexed question of King James as author. 
It is therefore not without surprise that we read 
in the appendix a mere reference to that corre- 
spondence, repeating the author's view that 
Mr. J. T. T. Brown's negative thesis, though 
very cleverly maintained, is untenable. Dif- 
ferences between French and English, however, 
show a frank recognition that some things have 
happened since 1895. Alterations in detail are 
made full of quiet significance. The French 
book contained many allusions to Windsor, 
which in 1895 was the accepted scene of 
the romance of James. In English these dis- 
appear : for " le poete de Windsor" the 
translation has "the poet of the 'Kingis 
Quair.' " The revised list of James's prisons 
also illustrates the change. His capture the 
French original assigned to April 12th, 1405 ; 
so does the English version ; but the French 
stated that previously Hotspur's son had been 
a playfellow of the prince at St. Andrews. 
This the translator drops, no doubt because of 
the awkward bearing of the known fact that 
Percy arrived in Scotland in June, 1405. As re- 
gards the year of capture M. Jusserand appears to 



N° 3612, Jan. 16, ? 97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



83 



be making a futile though gallant stand against 
the best chronological authority. Exception 
must assuredly be taken also to his ranking 
John Major as the best informed of the old 
historians of Scotland. Certainly his being a 
first-rate witness against Mr. Brown is enough 
to merit the tribute of M. Jusserand's 
admiration, but with the dispassionate critic 
that will scarcely be enough. Considered in 
its application to him as historian, Buchanan's 
cruel epigram — solo cognomine Major— was not 
so very far from the truth about his former 
master, who, he said too sweepingly, had not a 
sound page in a whole book. The question 
whether or not there was peace at the time of 
James's capture is in a measure involved in the 
dispute about the date. There might, if not 
with material profit, at any rate without 
irrelevance, have been cited the odd French 
tale that King Henry IV., in spite of a special 
safe-conduct granted, detained the prince after 
his father King Robert's death, on the ground 
that the safe-conduct was in the name not of the 
King of Scotland, but of the King of Scotland's 
son ! This subterfuge of state, though not 
historic, was worthy enough of the crafty 
Bolingbroke. A line might have been spared 
to show that King James's daughter narrowly 
escaped in 1436 a repetition of her father's 
experience of capture by English ships. They 
lay in wait in the Channel to intercept her 
convoy off the "Rase de la Bretaign " (the 
" raiss" of Brittany named in Barbour's 'Bruce'), 
but the princess, defying for once the ill luck 
of her house, completed her voyage. In the 
poetical-prose rendering of the ' Kingis Quair ' 
is plainly to be found the reason why the 
author elected not to discuss at length within 
the same covers the problem of authorship. 
Rhetorical periods, graceful in themselves, can 
ill brook to be punctuated with the deadly com- 
ment of a doubt. Probably it was wiser to 
leave the reader to wrestle with it for himself 
with such valuable antecedent aids as our own 
columns have furnished, and in the hope that 
some day soon a decisive grammarian may 
arrive. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

The lives of eccentric noblemen have for 
some time been a favourite subject with Mr. 
J. R. Robinson, who must have found the 
task of writing on Philip, Duke of Wharton, 
1608-1731 (Sampson Low & Co.), congenial. 
No biography of this strange individual has 
appeared since the brief memoir published 
shortly after his death. There is, in fact, 
nothing of much importance to be told of this 
brief record of folly and vice. Owing to the 
services of his father, Thomas, Marquis of 
Wharton, the reputed author of 'Lillibullero,' 
the future duke's career began under favourable 
auspices. The highest rank in the peerage was 
conferred on him while still under age, and 
before he had been able to render any services 
deserving such an honour. He was said, how- 
ever, to be an orator, and this reputation is to 
some extent confirmed by the published version 
of his speech in the House of Lords during 
the debate on Atterbury's attainder. With the 
prestige of his rank, and with the advantages 
which ho possessed for public life, Wharton 
might have been highly distinguished in par- 
liamentary life ; but the career of an English 
statesman was not suited to his reckless cha- 
racter. He soon plunged into a life of profligacy, 
became President of the Hell Fire Club, and 
in his more serious moments wrote bitter 
attacks in Mist's Journal on the king and 
Walpole. This, however, did not satisfy his 
craving for notoriety, and after running through 
the greater part of his fortune, he went to the 
Continent to offer his services to the Pretender. 
To show that ho was really in earnest, ho joined 
the Spanish army as a volunteer, and served 
against his own countrymen at the siege 



of Gibraltar. Notwithstanding this outrageous 
conduct, he was treated with great lenity by the 
English Government, and it was intimated to 
him that if he sued for the royal clemency, he 
might still hope for forgiveness. Nothing, how- 
ever, could persuade him to abandon his mad 
projects, which constantly involved him in debts 
and difficulties. It was at one time even reported 
that he was obliged to earn his livelihood by keep- 
ing a school at Rouen, where his friend Mist 
was supporting himself by driving a hackney 
coach. Ill health was before long added to 
Wharton's other troubles, and on May 31st, 
1731, he died in his thirty-third year, without 
a friend by his side, at a Benedictine monastery 
in Catalonia. Mr. Robinson has shown conspicu- 
ous industry in searching for information for his 
work, but it must have been rather a hopeless 
task. The one romantic episode in Wharton's 
life was his marriage at Madrid. He had fallen 
in love with a maid of honour at the Spanish 
Court, but for some time he could not obtain 
permission to make her his wife, and he showed 
such deep sorrow at his disappointment that 
the queen at last relented and gave her consent 
to the marriage. It was not, however, a happy 
one, and Wharton, after neglecting his wife 
for a few years, left her a widow in the most 
abject poverty. Mr. Robinson writes that after 
Wharton's death the duchess came to London, 
"for what purpose it is difficult to say." 
Her object was, of course, to obtain a portion 
of her husband's property. Apparently she 
was not successful, and if the newspapers of 
that day are to be trusted, the estate forfeited 
by the duke's attainder was restored by the king 
to his two sisters. Mr. Robinson has managed to 
produce a fairly readable volume, and in his 
own peculiar style he has enlivened it with 
many allusions to Wharton's distinguished con- 
temporaries. 

Mr. Craik has brought his English Prose 
Selections (Macmillan) to a close with a fifth 
volume of extracts from writers of the present 
century. The selections are very well chosen, 
and include writers so recently dead as Steven- 
son and Pater. The introductions to the authors 
are luminous, considering their brevity, and 
many of them (such as Mr. Beeching's on New- 
man and Prof. Raleigh's on Stevenson) distinctly 
felicitous. It is surprising to read that Dickens 
has " left behind him no special congregation of 
admirers," and Froude (in spite of Mr. Dodds) 
is certainly "a master of style" in the best 
sense. A proper sense of proportion in such a 
book is difficult to realize, but Beaconsfield ought 
certainly not to have more space allotted to him 
than Thackeray and Lamb, and twice as much 
as Froude and Stevenson ! The admirable if 
unequal Hazlitt deserves to furnish more select 
English prose than the stilted Milman or 
Harriet Martineau. 

The Niigcc, Litterarice of Mr. William 
Mathews (Sampson Low & Co.) are exceed- 
ingly well intentioned, but essentially common- 
place. A writer who talks of " Rome's 
charming lyrist, Horace," was evidently well 
fitted to be "librarian of the Young Men's 
Library Association in Chicago, some thirty 
years ago," but he need not have printed a 
volume of nearly 350 pages on ' The Credulity 
of Scepticism,' 'The Pleasures of the Table,' 
' Revivals of Religion,' and other novel topics. 

Messrs. Putnam's Sons publish a handsome 
volume by Dr. Keasbey, The Nicaragua Canal 
and the Monroe Doctrine, which is really a 
history of the Clayton - Bulwer Treaty and 
an American view of its present position. The 
surrender to the United States with regard to 
Venezuela is a sign that we are now far from 
the days when Liberal and Conservative Govern- 
ments alike— Lord Granville, Mr. Gladstone, 
and Sir William Harcourt as strongly as Lord 

Salisbury — repudiated the intervention of the 

States in the affairs of Central and South Ame- 
rica. The author of the work before us elabo- 



rately defends the somewhat Punic position 
that the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty should be let 
alone by the United States for the present, with 
the certainty that when the time comes for 
action on the completion of the canal it can be 
denounced with impunity ; and his conclusion is 
that "the United States, by constructing the 
Nicaragua Canal, and by establishing their 
prestige along the course of the westerly route, 
may, despite the present integrity of the 
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, well hope to force the 
ultimate recognition of their Monroe doctrine 
and control the western gateway to the Pacific." 

There is no sufficient ground for the appear- 
ance of Alexis de Tocqxieville et la Democratic 
Liberate, a study from the pen of M. Eugene 
d'Eichthal, published by M. Calmann Levy. 
The book is partly made up out of works of 
Tocqueville which are easily accessible to the 
reader, and mainly out of the conversations 
with Nassau Senior. The manner in which 
the extracts are strung together, and the notes, 
are both of them fair and intelligent ; but the 
whole volume does not add to our knowledge 
of Tocqueville, and there is no original matter 
in it except a few extracts from a not particularly 
important series of letters which has not yet 
seen the light, and which the author has, 
apparently, not been allowed to use except to 
a very limited extent. 

Under the title of L'Enferme, M. Gustave 
Geoffroy has' written a volume, published by 
the Bibliotheque Charpentier, which forms a 
life of the well-known revolutionist Blanqui. 

Jack is the last addition to Mrs. (?) Ensor's 
translations of Daudet's novels published by 
Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. This edition, which 
fills two volumes, has Myrbach's illustrations. 

A second edition has appeared of Ferdinand 
Lotheissen's excellent Geschichte derfranzosischen 
Litteratur im XVII. Jahrhundert (Vienna, 
Gerold's Sohn), a work well known as a most 
conscientious and trustworthy handbook to the 
Augustan age of French literature. A brief 
biography accompanies this reprint, from which 
we learn that Lotheissen's father was a judge 
in Hesse-Darmstadt, and that the future bio- 
grapher of Moliere acquired a taste for the stage 
by attending the performances in the grand- 
ducal theatre of his native town. 

The "Gadshill" edition of Dickens's works 
of course begins with the Pickwick Papers, and 
reflects credit on Messrs. Chapman & Hall. 
The type is excellent, the paper good, the illus- 
trations are the original ones. Mr. Lang's 
introduction is piquant and shrewd, but perhaps 
the allusions to Sir Walter are a little too 
numerous, and the same pleasant writer's notes 
are worth looking at. Altogether in these two 
volumes this new edition has made an excellent 
start. 

Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage 
(Harrison) is once more on our table. Sir 
Bernard's son is now the editor of this standard 
work. We hope it will prosper under his 
supervision as it did under his father's. The 
part relating to the present century is admir- 
able. Some of the genealogies are in need of 
the new broom's attention. 

An old friend has revisited us this season 
in the shape of Oliver <(• Boyd's Edinburgh 
Almanac (Simpkin & Marshall;, one of the best 
books of the kind published anywhere. It does 
credit to the old-established firm whose name it 
bears. — The British Imperial Calendar (War- 
rington & Co.)— it used to be called "Royal" 
— is another representative of the old school of 
almanacs which deserves favourable notice. — 
Mr. Howe's Classified Directory to (he Metro- 
politan Charities (Longmans & Co.), an excel- 
lent compilation, has reached its twenty second 
year.— 2ne Baptist Handbook for 1891 (Veale, 
Chifferiel & Co.) is another well-compiled annual. 
We cannot say much for the architectural merits 
of the new chapels of which views are given. 
Only one or two appear to be successful. 



8i 



Til E A Til KN^EUM 



N°3012, Jan. 16, '97 



W ■ have (jii diir table Australian JVriten, 
by J. F. Desmond Byrne (Bentley), — Nui>o- 
leon's Opera-Glass, <tn Histrionic Study, by Low 
Rosen (Mathews), Tht Story of Extinct Civili- 
ns of the East, by EL E. Anderson (Nswnes), 
— The H'risli I. unit Commission: a Digest <>f its 
Report, by D. Lleufer Thomas (Whittaker & 
Co.),— Stories from WaveHey fa* Children, by 
H. Gassiot, .Second Series (Black), — The World 
Beautiful, by Lilian Whiting, Second Series 
(Low),— A Mixed World, by A. Pohl (Stock), 
— The American Heiress, by the Princess deBourg 
<Digby & Long),- Belial's Burdens, by J. F. Sul- 
livan (Dent), — Quo Vadis, by H. Sienkiewicz, 
translated from the Polish by J. Curtin (Dent), 
— Bhymes from a Rhyming Forge, by Evanus 
the Song Smith (Birmingham, Cornish Brothers), 
— A Lover's Breast-Knot, by Katharine Tynan 
(Mathews), — Echoes from the Mountain, by 
C. E. D. Phelps (Putnam), — The Supremacy and 
Sufficiency of Jesus Christ, by Ignotus (Black- 
wood), — The Gospel for an Age of Doubt, by 
Henry Van Dyke ( Macmillan), — and Laureates 
of the Ci'oss, Six Sermons, by the Rev. Aubrey 
N. St. John Mildmay (Stock). Among New 
Editions we have A History of Nottingham- 
shire, by C. Brown (Stock), — The Invasion of 
India by Alexander the Great, with an Intro- 
duction by J. W. M'Crindle (Constable), — 
Fancy Dresses Described, by A. Holt (Deben- 
ham & Freebody), — Le Probleme de la Mort, 
by L. Bourdeau (Paris, Alcan), — and There was 
<swice a Prince, by Mary E. Mann (Henry). 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



ENGLISH. 

Theology. 

Browne's (A. H.) Wearied with the Burden, a Book of Daily 

Headings for Lent, cr. 8vo. 4/6 cl. 
Gibson's (E. C. S.) The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church 

of England, Vol. 2, 8vo 7/6 cl. 
Hort's (F. J. A.) Village Sermons, cr. 8vo. 6/ cl. 
Johnson, Wm. and Lucy, Missionary Life of, Faithful unto 

Death, edited by P. Doncaster, cr. 8vo. 3/6 cl. 
Mantle's (J. G. i Better Things, a Series of Bible Readings on 

the Epistle to the Hebrews, cr. 8vo. 2/6 cl. 
Our Christian Year, Lessons for Elder Scholars, by a Teacher, 

cr. 8vo. 5/ cl. 
Pulpit Commentary : Vol. 1. Genesis, 8vo. 6/ cl. 
Sacred Books of East. : Vol. 42, Hymns of the Atharva-Veda, 
translated by M. Bloomfield, 8vo. 21/ cl. ; Vol 46, Vedic 
Hymns, translated by H. Oldenberg, Part 2, 8vo. 14/ cl. 
Young's (Kev. W. H.) How to Preach with Power, 6/ cl. 

Fine Art and Archceology . 
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Colls's (W. L.) Pictorial Photographs, a Record of the 

Photographic Salon of 1896. 63/ net. 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Maiolica and Enamelled 

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Crafts, cr. 8vo. 2/6 cl. 
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Poetry and the Drama. 
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Bibliography. 
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Political Economy. 
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History and liiography. 
bonder's (Lieut.-Col. C. R.) The Latin Kingdom of Jeru- 
salem, 1099-1291, cr. 8vo 7/6 net. 
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biographies, ed. by J. Murray, 8vo. 12,' cl.; Vols. 2 and 3, 
Private Letters, edited by R. E. Prothero. 8vo. 24/ cl 
ilazlitt's (W. C.) Four Generations of a Literary Family 

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Philology. 
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Tubeuf'a (Dr. K. Preiherr von) Diseases of Plants induced by 

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Weilbacb (Dr. J ) and Hermann's (Prof.) The Mechanics of 

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PROF. MASPERO'S 'STRUGGLE OF THE NATIONS.' 
Mr. McClure does not, I am glad to see, 
dispute the facts of my allegation, though he 
not unnaturally seeks to minimize their im- 
portance. It is not difficult to show that his 
excuses are inadequate. 

1. I made no assumption as to the truth 
of the critical opinions referred to ; they 
may be as mistaken as it pleases Mr. 
McClure to believe. Prof. Maspero, how- 
ever, accepts them as true, and in his 
original work makes it manifest to all that 
he adopts them as the basis of his entire 
representation of Israelitish history. This is 
I what I contend should have been clearly and 



truthfully indicated to the reader in the trans- 
lation. If I were to translate a work on, bay, 
geology, and on certain controverted points 
were to alter systematically the author's text, 
for the purpose of concealing his opinions, and 
making it express or accord with opinions of 
my own, and were then to publish rny trans- 
lation under the author's name, without any 
indication of what I had done, I should clearly 
be acting disingenuously towards the public. 
And this is what has been done in the case of 
the S.P.C.K.'s translation of Prof. Maspero. 
In the case of the former volume (the ' Dawn 
of Civilization '), with some historical conclu- 
sions in which the editor did not agree, the 
author's text was left unaltered ; but the editor 
signified his dissent in the preface. This was a 
simple and straightforward course ; and it is im- 
possible to understand why, if there were parts 
of the present volume with which the editor 
disagreed, the same course was not adopted 
again. 

2. The alterations were not "few and 
trivial," but numerous and important ; they 
were made systematically, and their effect is 
completely to alter Prof. Maspero's presenta- 
tion of the history. Indeed, if they had not 
been deemed important by those who desired 
them, we may feel quite sure that they would 
not have been introduced. 

3. My use of the word "surreptitious" 
implied no "rash assumption"; I was speak- 
ing, of course, from the point of view of 
the English public, who will naturally sup- 
pose that "the history of the Hebrews to 
the eighth century B.C.," which the Society's 
advertisement of the volume states that it 
contains, is the history as written by 
Prof. Maspero, whereas it is in reality, 
in many important particulars, a different 
history, which has been substituted for his 
history without the reader's knowledge. The 
fact that Prof. Maspero gave permission for 
the alterations to be made does not affect the 
question. No doubt he did not foresee the 
inconsistencies in which this permission would 
land him. As it is, he is teaching in France 
and England two contradictory things at the 
same time : in France, for instance, he says 
that the real details of Samson's history 
were early forgotten, in England he says that 
we possess some details of them ; in France 
various narratives are described as "legends" 
or " traditions," which in England are related 
as sober history. A better reductio ad absurdum 
of the position in which Mr. McClure's excuse 
places the Society could not be imagined. The 
fact of the permission having been granted 
ought, of course, to have been mentioned 
openly. 

As I said, my argument implied no assump- 
tion as to the correctness of the critical con- 
clusions in question. As, however, Mr. McClure 
has made some remarks upon them in this 
regard, I may be permitted to do the same. 
It seems to me, then, that their adoption by a 
man of the acknowledged historical power and 
insight possessed by Prof. Maspero is an in- 
dication that they contain, to say the least, a 
larger element of truth than Mr. McClure is 
disposed to concede to them. And there are 
some who will be surprised that if (as the 
advertisement quoted above states) Prof. Mas- 
pero can treat the mention of the Israelites by 
Merenphtah with his "usual acumen," this 
acumen should desert him in his treatment of 
other periods of their history, and that the con- 
clusions to which it has there led him should 
bo the one part of the volume withheld from 
the English public. Yerax. 

P.S. — Mr. McClure seeks to throw the 
responsibility for the alterations upon the trans- 
lator. But the Society is, I presume, respon- 
sible for the acts of its accredited agents, and it 
argues a strange laxity of method if, in a book 
published by it, changes of this kind could be 
introduced without its knowledge and sanction. 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHENiEUM 



85 



MR. CHARLES B. WILBOUR. 
The death of one who was so well known a 
figure in Egypt will be felt beyond the large 
circle of his attached friends, but by none more 
than by those friends who profited by his 
accurate learning, and by the large generosity 
with which he dispensed it to all who sought 
his advice. Mr. Wilbour was a citizen of 
Rhode Island, but for some time past had 
spent part of the year in Paris, and part in his 
hospitable dahabiyeh, the Seven Hathors, on 
the Nile. There he had collected a choice 
library of Egyptological books, together with 
many inscriptions, Greek and Egyptian. Not only 
did he read hieroglyphics with unusual facility, 
but he had made a special study of the Ptolemaic 
epoch of that script, which is well known to be 
the most complicated and difficult of compre- 
hension. On these matters it was my privilege 
to ask his aid, and never did he fail me in his 
learning and his kindness. It is but recently that 
he sent me the news, so strange and important 
to Ptolemaic history, that Arsinoe II. had died 
in the fifteenth year of her husband's reign, 
and not at some much later date. This he had 
found, and read beyond question, in a newly 
discovered fragment of the Mendes stele. This 
is but one specimen of his value as a student 
of Greek Egyptology. But his gentle and 
genial nature attracted all who met him, espe- 
cially the natives, who were much impressed 
by his venerable appearance, and who familiarly 
called him Abu Duggan (the Father of the 
Beard). Three years ago I spent some weeks 
with him in Nubia, and have now before my 
mind's eye the quiet and deliberate humour 
wherewith he tempered the rash enthusiasm of 
his ardent companions. Like most Americans, 
he was a Home Ruler on principle, and there- 
fore opposed to the English domination in 
Egypt, but I never heard him speak in favour 
of the French as an alternative. He seemed to 
believe in the possibility of native self-manage- 
ment. Modesty and want of ambition pre- 
vented him from giving to the world under his 
own name the stores of knowledge he had 
acquired. He is, therefore, only known, 
beyond his circle of friends, by the select few 
through whom some of that knowledge filtered 
into books. To these his loss is irreparable. 

J. P. Mahaffy. 



TUB BOOK SALES OF 1896. 



II. 



Very few really important books are notice- 
able until the Tudor Frere Sale, held by 
Messrs. Sotheby on February 14th and three 
subsequent days. On that occasion 1,074 
lots of books sold for 3,748/., among them an 
additionally illustrated copy of Ames's ' Typo- 
graphical Antiquities,' which Mr. Quaritch 
secured for 248L; Blomefield's 'Norfolk,' 
6 vols., folio, 1739-75, 361. (old calf) ; first edi- 
tions of 'Eastward Hoe,' 'Westward Hoe,' 
and 'Northward Hoe,' three fine copies 
of plays by George Chapman, Ben .Tonson, 
and John Marston respectively, 251. ; a 
quarto volume of rare tracts, including Naun- 
ton's ' Fragmenta Regalia,' first edition, 1642, 
Blount's 'Hospital for Incurable Fooles,' 1600, 
and Nicholas Breton's ' A Poste with a Madde 
Packet/ 1602, 77L ; Herrick's ' Hesperides,' 
first edition, 1648, with the engraved frontis- 
piece by Marshall, 441. (old calf) ; Ben Jonson's 
' His Case is Altered,' 1609, and the same 
author's 'The Alchemist,' 1612, both first 
editions, stitched in one volume, vellum, 
31/. ; more rare tracts in one volume, 4to., 
including Jhone's ' Booke of Honor and 
Arni.s,' 1690, Robin Greene's ' Groatsworth 
of Wit,' first edition, 1592, and the Bam 6 
author's ' (J host - Haunting Coney Catchers,' 
1626, 80/. ; Orme's 'Oriental Field Sports," in 
the twenty original numbers, 1807, oblong 
folio, 17/. (one plate missing) ; Ovid's ' Meta- 
morphoses,' " mythologized and represented in 



figures by G. Sandys," Oxford, 1632, folio, 31/. 
(large copy, old English ornamented calf) ; and 
Adrian Poyntz's ' New and Singular Patternes 
and Workes of Lumen,' 1591, 4to., an un- 
bound copy with the original stitching, 12/. 
At this same sale an original copy of ' Pericles,' 
imprinted at London for Henry Gosson, 1609, 
4to., sold for 171/. Daniel's copy of 'Pericles ' 
sold for 841. ; and by way of contrast it may 
be mentioned that at the Roxburghe Sale in 
1812 a good and perfect example, dated 1608, 
realized but 11. 15s. This was the only acknow- 
ledged Shakspearean quarto that came to the 
hammer during the year, though mention may 
be made of 'The Two Noble Kinsmen,' 1634, 
4to., 9/. 5s., and 'The Merry Divel of Ed- 
monton,' 1617, 4to., which are sometimes 
associated with the name of the great dramatist. 
This last-named piece was bound up with a 
number of extremely scarce tracts by Thomas 
Middleton, Rowley, Nat. Field, and other play- 
wrights of the age, which realized altogether the 
substantial sum of 1221. 

The last days of February saw a large copy 
(8j in. by 5 in.) of Burns's 'Poems,' Kilmarnock, 
1786, which sold for 121?. In the following 
June another copy (8£ in. by 4§ in.) only 
brought 70/. ; but some of the leaves had been 
torn and soiled. This latter, however, was a 
book with a pedigree, for it had once belonged to 
Miss Cream, who was the daughter of the land- 
lord of the Gardenston Arms Inn, where Burns 
slept in the September of 1787. Very probably 
the poet had given it to her, for her name was 
on the title-page in a hand very like his own. 
Other important books sold about this time com- 
prise 'The Humourist,' 4 vols., 12mo., 1819-20, 
55/. (original pictorial boards, unopened); a 
complete set of Cruikshank's ' Comic Almanac,' 
nineteen parts, 1835-53, 20/. 10s. ; an inflated 
copy of Forster's 'Life of Dickens,' with many 
hundred autograph letters (thirty-six of Dickens 
himself) and views inserted, 252/. ; and Gold- 
smith's 'The Traveller,' first edition, 1764, 8vo., 
96/. (morocco extra by Riviere). This edition 
of ' The Traveller ' is in its way a curiosity, for 
until quite recently the edition dated 1765 was 
considered to be the first. The only other copy 
of the 1764 edition known is in the collection of 
the late Mr. Locker-Lampson, who described it 
in his catalogue as "unique." Thackeray's 
' Second Funeral of Napoleon ' has now dropped 
to something less than 201., but the Snob and 
the Goumsman still continue to flourish. The 
first-named periodical is complete in eleven 
numbers, printed on papers of various colours, 
and the Gownsman in seventeen numbers. 
A set of the two in the original wrappers has 
sold by auction for as much as 125/., which, 
curiously enough, was the precise amount realized 
on this occasion for the twenty-eight numbers, 
bound up in contemporary boards. Then comes 
one of the imperfect 'Canterbury Tales,' first 
edition, 1478 (?), to which reference has already 
been made, 1,020/. Blades gives the collation 
as 372 leaves, and several were missing from 
this copy. In the face of such a price as this 
Nathaniel Morton's 'New England's Memoriall,' 
1669, 4to., 501. (original sheep), passes almost 
unnoticed. The previous occasion on which a 
copy of this scarce book had been sold by auction 
was in December, 1893, when it realized 47/. 
(half morocco). 

The Biblical and liturgical library of Mr. 
H. J. F. Atkinson contained a very extensive 
assortment of Bibles in English, Latin, German, 
and other languages, but unfortunately many of 
them were sadly imperfect. A copy of Cover- 
dale's Bible of 1535 brought 165/., though 
several leaves were missing and a con- 
siderable number, including the title, in 
facsimile. Only one or two perfect copies 
of this Bible are known. A complete copy of 
" the Wicked Bible" (1631), as it was christened 
by the late Mr. Stevens, sold for 10'. 10a. 
About six other copies have been unearthed 
since Mr. Lenox, of New York, acquired what 



was at the time supposed to be a unique speci- 
men. This Bible obtained its name from the 
circumstance of its being filled with gross and 
scandalous typographical errors, not the least 
reprehensible of which is the omission of the 
word " not " in the Seventh Commandment. 
The whole edition of 1,000 copies was ordered 
by the Star Chamber to be destroyed. One of 
the two block-books sold during the year ap- 
peared in this sale. It was a very early German 
Dance of Death in folio, but not being of the 
first importance, and being sold " with all 
faults," only produced 101. 10s. The other block- 
book went for 3201. on November 28th. It 
was catalogued as ' Historia Conceptionis B. 
Mariae, seu de Generatione Christi,' 1471, small 
folio. A question was raised in the room 
whether one leaf was not in facsimile, and this 
example was also sold "with all faults." 
Among the New Testaments dispersed at the 
Atkinson Sale were imperfect copies of Tyndale's 
version of 1536, small 4to., 23/., and Coverdale's 
version of 1538, printed at Paris by Regnault, 
24/. 10s. A very imperfect copy of the ' Golden 
Legende,' 1527, small folio, Wynkyn de Worde, 
realized 14/. This library contained much that 
was exceptionally interesting and — mutilated. 

On March 19th and following days a library 
of considerable importance came into the market. 
It was described as belonging to a "collector, ' 
who, judging from the varied nature of the books 
sold, must have been a man of immense ver- 
satility. A good copy of " Joy full Newes out of 
the New- found Worlde, Englished by John 
Frampton," 1596, 4to., realized 10/. ; Higden's 
'Polychronicon,' printed by Caxton in 1482, 
folio, but wanting all after folio 343, 166/. ; 
Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales,' fifth edition, 
printed in folio by Pynson in 1493 (?), 200*. Of 
this edition the Althorp copy is the only 
perfect one known. Of the first edition of 
1478 (?) one perfect copy is in the library of 
George III., British Museum, and another at 
Merton College. Of the second edition, folio, 
1481, but one perfect copy is known. Other 
books worthy of special notice disposed of on 
this occasion included Folengo's ' Histoire 
Macaronique,' 2 vols., 1734, 8vo., 281. (morocco 
extra by Boyet) ; the first edition of Goldsmith's 
'Deserted Village,' 1770, 4to., 451. (calf extra 
by Bedford); De Maumont's Works of St. Justin 
in French, Paris, 1559, folio, bound by Nicholas 
Eve and decorated with scroll tooling, interlaced 
and bearing the motto of Grolier, "Portiomea 
Domine sit in Terra viventium," 921. ; the 
' Epistolte ' of St. Jerome, printed at Mayence 
in 1470, with the arms of Fust and Schoiffer in 
red, 801. ; a fine copy (128| mill.) of the rarest 
of the Elzevir editions of the 'Imitatio Christi,' 
Leyden, no date, 10/. ; the romance of 
chivalry called after Lancelot du Lac, 3 vols, 
in 1, Paris, 1533, folio, 171. 10s. (morocco extra) ; 
'Paradise Lost,' 1667, 4to., having on the first 
fly-leaf " For my loving ffriend Mr. Francis Rea 
Booke binder in Worcestershire," and on the 
next fly-leaf " Presented unto me by the Author 
to whom I gave 2 doubl Souveranges," 851. ; a 
copy of the first edition of Florio's ' Essayes 
of Montaigno, 1603, folio, 23/. 10s. ; and an ex- 
tremely important collection of statutes printed 
by Machlinia in 1480, folio, 2751. In 1893 a 
copy of this book, with all faults, brought 85/. 

The portion of the library of the late Prof. 
Huxley which had been bequeathed to him by 
Mr. Anthony Rich contained nothing of in- 
terest, and the same must be said of several 
other collections dispersed in the last days of 
March and beginning of April. At the Duke 
of Leeds Sale, held on April 15th, a copy of 
the first English translation (by Shelton) of 
'Don Quixote,' 2 vols., 1612-20, 4to., brought 
351.; and Wycherley'a ' Miscellany Poems ' on 
largo paper, 1704, folio, 46'. (old morocco extra). 
Later in the same month a scries of 58 vols, of 
the " Auctores Classici Or.-vci," Paris, Didot, 
1842 51, realized 161. 10s. (half calf); and 
175 vols, on large paper of Valpy's " Delphin " 



SG 



Til K ATHKN^UM 



N*3612, Jan. 16, '97 



and " Variorum Classics," 1819 90, 251. (russia 
eztra,a fine Bet). Each of Valpy's " Delphin 
Clasaiofl ' was published at 12. lOa. (large paper), 
and a set numbers ill vols., a state of things 
which disoloses a dreadful fall. .Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's 'Graphic Works,' 3 vols., 1820 .'!<;, 

original edition, brought 54/.; but it would not 
seem to have been a complete copy, as it is 
described as containing only 308 plates (should 
be 356, exclusive of engraved titles). 

The late Lord Coleridge's library, which was 
dispersed by Messrs. Sotheby on May 4th 
and four following days, was of a very interest- 
ing and scholarly character, though it did not 
contain much of value in a pecuniary sense. 
There was a long series of Browning's 
works, mostly presentation copies ; a good 
specimen of the ' Nuremberg Chronicle,' 1493, 
folio, 202. ; a nearly perfect series of publications 
issued by the Early English Text Society, 
1864-94, 382. 10s. ; Gould's ' Monograph of the 
Trochilidie,' with Sharpe's supplement, 1861-87, 
372. 10s.; 'Purchas his Pilgrimes,' a fine and 
perfect copy, in 5 vols., 1625-26, folio, 672. 
(morocco extra by Riviere) ; Wilkins's ' Con- 
cilia Magnse Britannia?,' 4 vols., 1737, 231. 
(morocco extra) ; and many of the works of 
Ruskin and other art critics, poets, and essay- 
ists of the present century. On May 4th 
Messrs. Puttick & Simpson sold ' The Byble in 
Englishe,' printed by Whitchurche on the 
29th of December, 1549, folio, for 251. ; a good 
copy of 'Sunday under Three Heads,' in the 
original wrapper, for 8'. 15s. ; and a slightly 
imperfect copy of a Book of Hours, 1529, 4to., 
Paris, Regnault, for 392. 10s. Every one will 
naturally remember the Crampton Sale, held 
at the commencement of June. This was one 
of those modern libraries which are founded 
mainly on the scarcest editions of the scarcest 
books by English authors of the present cen- 
tury, and some of the prices realized were very 
remarkable. ' Pauline ' went for 1452. ; Byron's 
'Poems on Various Occasions,' Newark, 
1807, for 452.; the 'Hours of Idleness,' 
1807, large paper, original boards, for 201. ; 
and 'English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
1811, 8vo., 291. (morocco extra). This, though 
described as the fourth edition, was perhaps the 
fifth, a very important point, because according 
to some bibliographers the fourth edition of 
1811 and a fifth of 1812 (as they say) are quite 
distinct, and it was the latter which was so 
effectually suppressed that only a single copy 
escaped destruction. I cannot pretend to argue 
this point, especially as the subject was very 
comprehensively dealt with recently in the 
Athenceum, (May 5th, 19th, and 26th, and June 2nd, 
1894). 'The Waltz,' 1813, 4to., sold for 55Z. 
(half calf) ; Coleridge's ' Poems on Various 
Subjects,' first edition, 1796, 201. (calf, original 
receipt for thirty guineas inserted) ; ' Robinson 
Crusoe,' 1719, 'Farther Adventures,' 1719, and 
'Serious Reflections,' 1720, 3 vols., 8vro., 751. 
(calf extra); 'The Vicar of Wakefield,' Salisbury, 
1766, 652. (morocco extra) ; and another copy 
of Milton's ' Paradise Lost,' 1667 (the third and 
last sold during the year), 902. (morocco extra). 
Perhaps the most noticeable book in the whole 
collection was Shelley's ' QEdipus Tyrannus ; or, 
Swellfootthe Tyrant,' first edition, 1820, a most 
rare book, only two or three copies being known, 
and no other sale being recorded during the past 
ten years. The price realized was 1302., and 
for this the purchaser must thank the Society 
for the Suppression of Vice, which frightened the 
author into burning his tragedy. Tennyson's 
'Window,' 1867, and 'The Victim,' 1867, both 
appeared at this remarkable sale, and realized 
522. and 752. respectively ; while Wordsworth's 
' Grace Darling,' which was privately printed at 
Carlisle in 1838, brought 322. 

On June 18th the second copy of Burns's 
'Poems,' Kilmarnock, 1786, came to the 
hammer as stated ; and Grafton's Bible, 
"fynisshed in Apryll," 1539, brought 702. 
(rough calf, some leaves torn). Then comes 



Chaucer's ' Canterbury Talcs,' 1478(7), to which 

referenoe has already been made, 1,8802. This 

is the identical hook which it was proposed to 
present to Mr. Bayard, and which by this time 
In- would have received had the fates been pro- 
pitious. At the same sale (the best of the whole 
year from a monetary standpoint, 1,699 lots 
having realized more than 8,5002.) the copy of 
Eliot's Bible which brought 822. was sold, and also 
a number of important Books of Hours. Then 
we must note Holinshed's 'Chronicles,' 1577, 
folio, 362. ; Hubbard's 'Narrative of the Troubles 
with the Indians,' 1077, 4to., 1112.; 'The Boke 
of Common Praier,' printed by Whitchurche in 
1552, 242. (some leaves mended, others in fac- 
simile) ; a Second Folio Shakspeare, 1632, 752.; 
a Third Folio, 1664,432. (six leaves in facsimile); 
and a Fourth Folio, 1685, 342. During the year 
the First Folio has sold but once, and the copy 
was imperfect, 1702. ; the Second Folio appeared 
on eight occasions, the Third on one, and the 
Fourth on eight. Fifteen pounds seems a large 
sum of money to pay for Stevenson's ' The 
Charity Bazaar'; but the particular copy was 
one of a very small number which the author 
signed when resident in Samoa. 

Nearly all the books in the library of Sir 
Thomas Lauder were remarkable primarily for 
their bindings, the names of Clovis Eve and Le 
Gascon being frequently met with. So also the 
Bunbury Sale in July contained several very fine 
specimens of bibliopegy. Cowley's ' Works,' 
1681, folio, in contemporary English morocco 
covered with a blaze of gilt tooling in panels, 
sold for 1262., and there were several specimens 
of the skill of Roger Payne. The season closed 
with prices which, on the whole, were low, but 
some exceptional books must be noticed. These 
include a special copy of Hanmer's ' Shake- 
speare,' 6 vols., 4to., 1744, 1602. ; Smith's 
' Historie of Virginia,' 1625, folio, 2042. (the 
four maps genuine and in a fine state) ; Saxton's 
maps, 1579, folio, 202. 5s. (slightly mended, but 
complete) ; Lafontaine's ' Contes et Nouvelles 
en Vers,' 2 vols., 1762, 8vo., 2002. (first proofs 
before all letters, Pixerecourt's copy of the 
celebrated " Fermiers Ge'neraux" edition); 
Laudonnier's ' L'Histoire Notable,' 1586, 8vo., 
562. ; ' The Acts and Laws of the Province of 
the Massachusetts Bay,' 1726, folio, 642. ; and 
a complete copy of Reeve's 'Conchologia 
Iconica,' 20 vols., 1843-78, 872., half russia. 

Possibly, on a very minute survey of the year's 
book sales, a survey which should omit no single 
volume of the least importance, there would be 
one book which would even then stand out above 
the rest in the estimation of the majority of 
Englishmen, notwithstanding the fact that there 
are many others which brought larger amounts. 
This is the first edition of Walton's ' Complete 
Angler,' a copy of which, in the original sheep 
binding as issued, recently sold for the very 
large sum of 4152., being an advance of 100 
guineas on the price previously obtained for a 
copy in a similar state (3102., March 4th, 1891). 
Just now a great deal of attention appears to 
be directed to the angler's Bible, and the 
number of contemplative men anxious to possess 
it in the original is so great that it would be 
highly indiscreet to assert that the high-water 
mark of enthusiasm has yet been reached. 
In conclusion, attention must necessarily be 
directed to two separate collections of works 
relating to the languages, history, and topo- 
graphy of Spanish America, one of which was 
dispersed on January 29th, and the other on 
November 5th. The two together only con- 
sisted of 472 lots, producing 6361., and no sensa- 
tional prices were obtained on either occasion. 
The books were, however, highly unusual, and 
in several instances unique or nearly so, and 
for that reason merit a special word of recog- 
nition in the interests of those who affect this 
class of literature. 

A general survey of the book sales of 1896 
does not disclose much of superlative interest 
and importance, and no great ancestral library, 



such as we may expect U> see in the market 
this year, has been dispersed for a long time. 
To be in a position to form an extensive collec- 
tion of books, or, indeed, anything else, should 
be a matter for congratulation, and if the 
ancient form of the law of entail could be 
applied to goods and chattels and enforced, it 
would perhaps, under those circumstances, be 
possible to found an everlasting library which 
would pass religiously en bloc from one genera- 
tion to ai. other. Nothing short of this will, 
apparently, be sufficient to protect any library, 
be it extensive or the reverse, a single moment 
after the founder of it has passed away. There 
are, of course, exceptions, but they are ex- 
tremely few in number — so few that the private 
collections now existing in this country which 
have seen even three generations of owners 
can be counted upon the fingers and are so 
insecure that any day may be their last. In- 
deed, the vast majority of those sold by auction 
carry with them patent evidence that they are 
not fifty years old ; and so the wheel goes 
round. J. H. Slater. 



SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE'S NOTES ON COMIC 
LITERATURE: A FIND. 

Helen's Bay, Co. Down. Jan. 1, 1897. 

Referring to the interesting article in the 
Atheweum of December 26th, p. 906, under 
the above heading, I would, with permission, 
beg leave to say that I have a book anno- 
tated in a very similar manner, also by Cole- 
ridge. It is a folio copy of Raleigh's ' History 
of the World,' 1614, in fine condition. Appa- 
rently it was once owned by Thos. Poole, of 
Nether Stowey, Coleridge's friend, as it bears 
his signature on one of the fly-leaves. 

The ink in which the notes are written has 
faded to a reddish brown, but the writing is 
easily read. Some of the notes are of only a 
line or two, others extend nearly the whole 
length of the margin, as you describe. 

The book has been rebound, but the binder 
was merciful and spared the margins, leaving 
the notes untouched. There are also a few 
pencil marks thus X. 

La yens Mathewson. 



Ht'tcrari} (Gossip. 

An article from the pen of Canon MacColl 
on ' The Musulmans of India and the 
Sultan ' -will appear in the next number of 
the Contemporary Review. The article aims 
at showing that the Mussulmans of India 
are no more interested in the Sultan than in 
any other Mussulman sovereign ; that the 
Sultan is in no sense Khalif or Commander 
of the Faithful, and was never acknow- 
ledged as such in India ; that in fact the 
Khalifat has been extinct for centuries ; 
and that to admit the doctrine that the 
Sultan of Stamboul possesses any claim 
on the allegiance of Indian Mussulmans 
would be a most dangerous poHcy, and has 
never been countenanced by any of our 
responsible statesmen. 

The first annual volume of ' Sale Prices ' 
will be published by Mr. Henry Grant at 
the end of the present month under the title 
of ' The Sale Prices of 1896.' The work, of 
which three quarterly parts are already in 
the hands of subscribers, gives a report of 
nearly a hundred sales by auction of auto- 
graphs, manuscripts, coins, drawings, pic- 
tures, prints, war medals, relics, tapestry, and 
a large variety of general objects of artistic 
and antiquarian interest, with the amounts 
realized and the purchasers' names. The index 
is, it is promised, to be full, and the work 
is to be extensively annotated throughout. 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



87 



The book is produced under the editorship 
of Mr. J. H. Slater, the editor of 'Book- 
Prices Current.' 

Madame Belloc, whose volume called ' In 
a Walled Garden ' was much liked last 
summer, is going to issue a similar book 
next spring. Its title is ' The Passing 
World.' 

The Delegates of the Clarendon Press 
have asked the Rev. Henry A. Eedpath, 
Dr. Hatch's fellow labourer in preparing 
the concordance to the Septuagint which is 
just finished, to add to it a complete ono- 
masticon. 

Messrs. Puttick & Simpson purpose in- 
augurating a new departure in auctions by 
holding a sale exclusively composed of 
book-plates on January 28th. Although 
the collecting of "ex-libris" has long 
been in vogue, they have hitherto oc- 
curred in the sale-room merely in small 
quantities, intei'poiated amongst property 
of a different character. The present sale, 
therefore, has the interest of being one by 
which in many cases a standard of price 
will be fixed, and the auctioneers are 
hopeful that it may attract, appealing 
as it does not merely to the herald or 
genealogist, but also to the county historian, 
the student of design, and the lover of 
engravings. 

Mr. A. J. Butler writes : — 

"Without wishing in any way to impair the 
value of the documentary evidence on which 
Prof. A. H. Keane was able live years ago to 
show that ' Monomotapa was not a principality, 
but a prince ; not an empire, but an emperor,' 
I would venture to quote in this connexion a 
passage written not five, but forty years ago. 
' In reference to the name Monomotapa, ' says 
Livingstone, ' it is to be remembered tliat 
Mono, Moene mean simply chief, and con- 
siderable confusion has arisen from naming dif- 
ferent people by making a plural of the chief's 

name the same,' he adds, 'as if we should 

call the Scotch the Lord Douglases ' (' Mis- 
sionary Travels,' ed. 1857, p. 617). Of course, 
1 do not know what evidence experts want, but 
to the plain man Livingstone's statement, based, 
I presume, on some knowledge, seems fairly 
'documentary.' " 

Messrs. Smitii, Elder & Co. will shortly 
publish a first novel by Mr. Archie Arm- 
strong, entitled ' Under the Circumstances.' 
Its author has hitherto been chiefly known 
through his short stories and verse con- 
tributed to the magazines and newspapers, 
and he has had some experience in journal- 
ism. He wrote the libretto of ' Dan'l's 
Delight,' which was acted not long ago at 
the St. George's Hall by the German Reed 
Company. 

Messrs. Jones & Evans, booksellers, of 
Queen Street, Cheapside, inform us that they 
have had stolen from their shop two of the 
scarcest of the Kelmscott Press books, viz., 
' King Florus ' on vellum, and the same on 
paper. The vellum issue was but twelve 
copies in all, and both disappearing together 
shows that the thief was educated enough 
to know the value of his bag. Both copies 
bore identifiable private marks. 

The death is announced of Mr. Maunsell, 
proprietor and editor of tho Dublin Daily 
Express. — We have also to record the 
decease of Mr. James Gowans, the well- 
known second-hand bookseller in St. John's 
Wood. Mr. Gowans was born near Edin- 



burgh, and was for some years sub-editor of 
the Courant, and contributed, says the Scots- 
man, to Blackivood'' s Magazine. He was for 
many years Secretary of the Mechanics' 
Library in Edinburgh, and subsequently 
became a bookseller in London. He was a 
man of considerable reading, and wrote a 
volume on ' Edinburgh in the Days of our 
Grandfathers.' 

Mr. Parker's translation of ' The Works 
of Dionysius the Areopagite,' which we 
have already announced, is to appear before 
long. 

The indefatigable Mr. W. B. Hutton, of 
St. John's College, Oxford, is going to pub- 
lish a monograph, through Messrs. Long- 
man, on ' The Church of the Sixth Century.' 
The same publishers promise ' Joy : a Frag- 
ment,' by the late Mrs. Sidney Lear. A 
short memoir of the lamented author is to 
accompany it. 

The County Council of Carmarthenshire 
is anxious to turn Llandovery School, which 
celebrated its jubilee the other day. into an 
intermediate school. This would mean a 
total change in the system of education 
pursued. There are now many intermediate 
schools in Wales, but there are only three 
or four schools that, like Llandovery, send 
any number of boys to Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and this Llandovery does with 
signal success. It would be a retrograde 
step to interrupt the successful career of so 
well-managed a school. 

Messrs. Smith & Elder did quite rightly 
in raising the question, as they did the other 
day with regard to the Review of Reviews, of 
the right of a reviewer to make inordinately 
lengthy extracts. If a book is readable, there 
is no doubt that a certain amount of quota- 
tion helps the sale. Sometimes, perhaps, 
the passages quoted are the only lively ones 
to be found in the work noticed ; but even 
if the critic says so, the public does not 
realize it, and feels a wish to see the 
volumes. But the habit of excessive quota- 
tion, which has been on the increase for 
some years past, is certainly detrimental to 
publishers, as it tends to exhaust the reader's 
curiosity, and encourages the growing habit 
of contenting oneself with glancing at the 
reviews of new literature. We are glad the 
Publishers' Association took a part in the 
matter. Possibly it may be of use after all. 

Mr. S. J. Adair Fitz-Gerald tells us we are 
in error in thinking that we have seen ' The 
Zankiwank and the Bletherwitch ' before. 
It is quite new. "Perhaps," he adds, 
"your reviewer remembers a previous fairy 
tale of mine in a similar vein ; I refer to my 
' Wonders of tho Secret Cavern.' " 

Dr. Wiliielm Deecke, of the German 
Gymnasium at Mulhouse, who died at 
Strasbourg on January 3rd after a dan- 
gerous surgical operation, was one of the fore- 
most authorities upon ancient Etruria and 
the Etruscans. He was born at Lubeck in 
1831, where his father was public librarian. 
In 1877 he edited the second edition of 
X. 0. Midler's ' Dio Etrusker.' His own 
series of ' Etruskische Forschungen ' were 
issued at intervals from 1875 to 1880. From 
1881 to 1884 he collaborated with Pauli in 
tho publication of tho successive parts of tho 
' Etruskische Studion.' In 1871, when tho 
Germans annexed Alsaco, he was appointed 



co -rector of the Lj'ceum at Strasbourg, 
where he stayed for ten years and did 
valuable service in the matter of school 
reform. His extremely independent criti- 
cism of the educational plans of Manteuffel, 
the imperial viceroy, was the cause of his 
leaving Strasbourg. 

The Leyden Society for the Reproduction 
of Ancient Manuscripts is about to issue a 
photographic copy of the oldest known 
manuscript of Horace, the Berne MS. 363. 
Prof. Hagen, of Berne, is at work upon an 
essay dealing with the scientific importance 
of the MS. for the criticism of Horace and 
its special palreographical value. 

The stamp duty on newspapers, which in 
Austria has greatly impeded the development 
of the press, is to be abolished at the beginning 
of next year. Those papers which are not 
published more frequently than thrice a week 
will be exempt from stamp duty next March. 

The inhabitants of Sackingen, in the 
Grand Duchy of Baden, intend erecting a 
monument in honour of Victor Scheffel, who 
made their town famous. 

It is reported that the Pope thinks of 
founding an international university at 
Assisi (Universita, internazionale Cattolica). 
We should think this most unlikely. The 
little Umbrian town is not suited for such a 
purpose. 

The Frankfurter Zeitung records the 
astounding news that Heinrich Heine has, 
after all, a monument in Germany. It is 
near the manufacturing town of Elberfeld, 
but we regret to say that it consists of a 
heap of stones only, from the midst of 
which rises a bare flagstaff. One of the 
larger stones bears the inscription, " Dem 
Andenken Heinrich Hemes," and another 
contains the first four lines of a poem from 
the ' Harzreise,' beginning with the words : 

Auf die Berge will ich steigen. 
On a third stone are carved the letters 
" S. v. d. H.," which are the initials of 
Freifrau Selma von der Heydt, who had 
the moral courage to brave her countrymen 
by erecting a monument, though a primitive 
one, to the greatest lyric poet of modern 
times. 

We are glad to learn, from reports received 
from Bangkok, that the Siamese Government 
is breaking with old traditions in assisting 
in the preparation of a semi-official yearly 
publication in English, in which tho new 
laws passed since the opening of the Legis- 
lative Council in January, 1895, are to be 
given in an English translation, together 
with statistics regarding agriculture, trade, 
and population. The first short introduc- 
tory volume, resuming previous legislation 
up to 1895, is to appear in the Siamese new 
year, April, 1897. 

The Parliamentary Tapers of the week 
include a Return giving a List of those 
Buildings of Architectural and Historic 
Interest in the United Kingdom of which 
the Structure and Fabric are maintained 
by the War Office (lrf.)j Report of the 
Departmental Committee on Reformatory 
and Industrial Bchools, Vol. II. Evidence 
and Index (8*. 9d.) ; and two further reports 
on Yorkshire charities. 



88 



THE A Til ENJEUM 



N°3612, Jan. 1C, '97 



SCIENCE 



SOCIKTIBS. 
QBOLOOK M..—./tut. »'>.— Dr. II. Hicks, President, 
in the obair. — Messrs. B. Bonthrone, II. a. Pringle, 
and T. P. Prout, and the Ix.-v. J. N. vanstone were 
elected Fellows, If. B. Dapont, of Brussels : I»r. A. 
Frit-cli, of Prague ; Prof. A. de Lapparenr, of Paris: 
nnd Dr. II. Reusob, of Cbristiania, were elected 
Foreign Member!- ; and Prof. A. Hyatt, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., a Foreign Correspondent of the 
Society. — The following communications were read : 
'On the Structure of the Skull of a Plioeaur,' by Mr. 
0. W. Andrews,— ' On the Pembroke Earthquakes 
of August, 18'J2, and November, 1893,' by Mr. C. 
Davison, — and ' Changes of Level in the Bermuda 
Islands,' by Prof. It. 8. Tarr, commuuicated by the 
Secretary. 

I.ixnean.— -D<c 17.— Dr. A. Giinther, President, 
in the chair. — Mr. F. Roner was admitted, and Sir 
W. Roberts and Mr. J. H. Burrage were elected 
Fellows- — Messrs. J. Green and J. H. Gardiner ex- 
hibited a series of sciagraphs of British batrachians 
and reptiles in which the details of the skeleton were 
very sharply defined, and its relation to the external 
outline well shown. These sciagraphs.as well as those 
of a series of mollusca also exhibited, were taken 
with a Crookes's tube of the ordinary focus pattern, 
actuated by a powerful induction-coil giving Sin. 
sparks, and the prints were made from untouched 
negatives. — Prof. Howes offered remarks on the 
series of batrachians and reptiles, and Mr. B. B. 
Woodward commented upon the details of struc- 
ture made apparent in the sciagraphs of mollusca. 
— Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited a supposed hybrid 
between the common brown hare (Lepiis timidvs) 
and the Irish hare iLepttt variabilis) recently 
obtained in Carnarvonshire, where the latter species 
bad been introduced in 1878. He compared it with 
examples of both the above-named species, and con- 
trasted their distinguishing peculiarities, pointing 
out the intermediate characters exhibited by the 
hybrid. — The President thought that too much 
stress should not be laid upon external appearance 
and colour ; that the question of hybridity should 
rather be determined by comparing the relative 
measurements of the leg-bones ; and that the Irish 
hare should be compared in detail with the bare of 
Southern Europe (Z. vieridionalis or mediter- 
raneiix). — Prof. Howes drew attention to Nathusius's 
observations upon the Peyer's patches of the lepo- 
rines, and pointed to the necessity for examination 
of the viscera.— Mr. B. Hamilton was inclined to 
regard the supposed hybrid as an example of the 
ordinary brown hare turning white in winter, 
hitherto unnoticed in this country. — Mr. T. 
Christy inquired what position the so - called 
Belgian bare or leporine occupied in relation to the 
question of hjbridity, and was answered that the 
popular notion of that animal being a hybrid 
betweeu hare and rabbit was fallacious, since it 
was nothing more than an overgrown tame rabbit 
coloured like a hare. — Mr. B. B. Woodward gave a 
demonstration, illustrated with lantern-slides, of 
M. F. Bernard's researches into the development 
of the binge of bivalve shells.— On behalf of Dr. 
A. J. Ewart, a paper was read in continuation of 
one previously communicated by him and entitled 
'Further Observations on Assimilatory Inhibition.' 
— Mr. W. C. Worsdell gave the chief facts of a 
paper dealing with the 'Development of the Ovule 
of Christisonia, a Genus of the Orobancbea;.' Re- 
ferring to Prof. Koch's detailed account of the 
development of the ovule of Orobanche, he re- 
marked that Christisonia as a parasitic plant was 
of such interest, and differed so much in its vegeta- 
tive structure from Orobanche, that it seemed to 
be worth while to record the facts of its embryo- 
logical development. A brief description of the 
vegetative parts of the plant was then given ; these 
were the rhizome-like, anastomosing network of 
roots bearing tubers at intervals, from which latter 
the exogenously-formed baustoria are produced. 
The haustoria penetrate the roots of the bamboo 
or Btrobilanth, upon which the plant is parasitic. 
The lateral roots and the stems are derived endo- 
genously ; the latter grow rapidly, and after pro- 
ducing the flowers die at the end of the season. 
The flower resembles, in its main features, that of 
Orobanche. The ovary in one species is unilocular 
throughout, in another species it is bilocular below and 
unilocular above ; the placenta: are two in number. 
By the aid of blackboard drawings the author then 
described the development of the embryo-sac and 
the embryo. This was shown to follow essentially 
the same lines as in Orobanche. Its main features 
were : the origin of the archesporium from a h\ po- 
dermal cell ; the casual occurrence of a double arclie- 
sporium ; the absence of tapetal cells ; the division 
of the archesporium into four cells, the lowest of 
which subsequently grew into the embryo-sac (an 



anomaly was observed in one ovule, in which two 

of the uppermost cells persisted as rudimentary 

in one of which the nucleus had divided into 

four) ; the large sice of th>- lynergidis, as compared 

with that of the coir' -ponding cells at the antipodal 
end ; the outgrowth of the embryo from the ovum 
as an elongated unicellular structure; the fuion 
of the polar nuclei ; the early stages in the 
formation of the endosperm ; the sequence of 
cell-divisions in the developing of embryo and 
the irregularity of these ; the extremely rudi- 
mentary character of the embryo as compared with 
ordinary dicotyledonous plants, this being perhapt 
even more pronounced than in Orobanche. Finally, 
it was pointed out that in a great many plants the 
vegetative aud the reproductive organs have not 
always, by any means, a parallel development. A 
striking instance of this was to be seen in Christi- 
sonia. In this plant the vegetative structure was 
of an abnormal and reduced type, and remarkably 
different from that of other phanerogams; while, 
on the other hand, the structure and developmentof 
the embryo-sac bad remained essentially of the same 
normal type as in the majority of dicotyledons. — 
The paper was criticized by Dr. D. H. Scott. — On 
behalf of Dr. L. 0. Howard, entomologist to the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, a paper was read 
'On the Chalcididic of the Island of Grenada, West 
Indies,' dealing with the Chaleidids collected by 
Mr. H. H. Smith, under the auspices of the British 
Association Committee for investigating the fauna 
and flora of the West Indian islands. The collec- 
tion consisted of from COO to 700 specimens, and 
comprised six new genera and seventy-two new 
species, which were described. The geographical 
relationships of the group were discussed. 

Institution of Civil Engineers— Jan. 12.— 
Mr. J. W. Barry, President, iu the chair.— It was 
announced that seventeen Associate Members had 
been transferred to the class of Members, and that 
seventeen candidates had been admitted as students. 
—The monthly ballot resulted in the election of nine 
Members and of thirty-seven Associate Members. — 
The paper read was ' On Superheated- Steam Engine 
Trials,' by Prof. William Ripper. 



Tin us. Chemical, 8— 'Studies of the Properties of Highly Purified 
Mihslanre* ,' Mr W A Shenstorie . ' Ac-lion of lna*U.M- on 
starch Part III ,' Messrs A K Ling nnd I I. Inker. The 
solution llenhllr and ( uv> if lUs!u< kik Power of Ixitro**-, 
I- .uIomv and InYert-SagAi Meeeri Jl J Brow a Q H 
Morris, and J H Millar, 1« 1 1 » ii'.i ■ ■■» ol Maolunu, fait 1 1 ,' 

Mr a o PerUn 

— Linncan »— 'Origin of the Corpu$ eaUotum,' Dr (J V. Smith ; 

' Minnie structure of the >er,ou» sjtletu of the Mollusca,' 
lir J Oilchrlbl 
Far Physical. S -An Kihlbition of tome Simple Apparatus' Mr. 
W l< Croft, • I he Passage of hlectricit) ihrougij C,a*es,' Mr. 
B C. Half 

— Imyal Institution. 9 — • Properties of Liquid Oxjgcu, Prof. 

lie war. 
lloyal Institution. 3 —' Neglected Italian and French Com 
posers,' Mr 0. Armbrueter 



Society of Biblical Archaeology.— Jan. 12. 
— Anniversary Meeting.— Sir P. le Page Renouf, 
President, in the chair.— The Secretary's Report for 
the year 1896 was read.— The following officers and 
Council for the current year were elected : Presi- 
dent, Sir P. le Page Renouf ; Vice-Presidents, the 
Lord Archbishop of York, the Marquess of Bute, 
Lord Amherst of Hackney, Lord Halsbury, W. E. 
Gladstone, A. Cates, F. D. Mocatta, W. Morrison, Sir 
C. Nicholson, A. Peckover, and Rev. G. Rawlinson ; 
Council, Rev. C. J. Ball, Rev. Prof. T. K. Chevne, 
T. Christy, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, C. Harrison, G. Hill, 
Prof. T. H. Lewis, Rev. A. Lowy, Rev. J. Marshall, 
C. G. Montefiore, W. L. Nash, Prof. E. Naville, 
J. Pollard, E. B. Tylor, and E. T. Whyte ; Hon. 
Treasurer, B. T. Bosanquet ; Secretary, W. H. 
Rylands ; Hon. Secretary for Foreign Correspon- 
dence, Rev. R. Gwynne ; Hon. Librarian, VV. Simp- 
son. 

Aristotelian. — Dec. 14. — Mr. B. Bosanquet, 
President, in the chair.— Mr. E. Thurtell and Miss 
Dawson were elected Members. — Mr. J. E. McTag- 
gart read a paper 'On Hegel's Treatment of the 
Categories of the Subjective Notion.' 

Jan. 11.— The President iu the chair.— Papers were 
read by the President and Messrs. S. H. Hodgson 
and G. E. Moore on the question, 'In what Sense, 
if any, do Past and Future Time Exist ? ' 



MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WFKK 
Mon. Victoria Institute, 4J.-On the Assouan Embankment,' Prof 
Hull 

— London Institution, 5 — ' Experiences at the Afghan Courts, 

Mr J. A Gray. 

— Society of Aim, 8 — ' Material and Design in Pottery, 

Lecture I.. Mr W Burton (Cantor Lecture ) 

— Instituto of British Architects, s. — President's Address to 

Students 
Tits, ltoyal Institution, 3 -'Animal Electricity, Prof AD Waller 

— Statistical. 5J. — ' Local Death-Kales in England and Wales in the 

Ten Years lusl-tni.' Mr 1 A Welton 

— Civil Engineers, 8 —Discussion on ' Superheated Steam Engine 

Trials.' 

— Folk-lore, 8 -Annual Meeting ; Presidential Address 

— Zoological, 8}.-'Kevi?ion ol the West-Indian MJcrolepldoptem, 

with Description of New Species.' Lord Walsinghaiu , • Points 
In the Anatomy of the Manatee lately living in the SocletJ a 
Gardens,' Mr v. v. Beddard; ' classification of the Primates 
from the Ophthalmoscopic Appearance of the Fundus oculi,' 
Dr (J L Johnson. 
Wxd. Meteorological. 7j —Annual General Meeting; Presidents 
Address on ' shade Temperature.' 

— Entomological. 8 —Annual Meeting 

— Society ol Arts, 8 — ' The Holler ltoatof M. Begin. 1 M E.Gauticr. 

— Microscopical, 8.— Annual Meeting; Preeldents Address 

— Geological. 8 —Glacial Phenomena of Pjl.ro, on- Age in Hie 

Varanger Fjord,' and 'The liaised Reaches and Glacial Deposits 
of the Varanger Fjord,' Mr a strahan; -The Subgenera 
Pctaiogiaptus and cephalogreptua, MlasG I. Ellei 
Tiuus ltoval Institution, 3. -'Some Secrets of Crystals,' Prof. H. A. 
Miers 

— It oval 4 J 

— Historical. 5 —'Some Surylvors of the Armada,' Major M A S 

Hume 

— London Institution, O.-'llie Aitand Craft ol Glass-Making,' 

Mr H J. Powell. 

— Numismatic, 7. 



£tiintt (gossip. 

The fiftieth annual general meeting of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers will be 
held on the evenings of the 4th and 5th of 
February, at 25, Great George Street. The 
annual report of the Council will be presented, 
and the annual election of the President, Vice- 
Presidents, and members of Council, and the 
ordinary election of new members will take 
place on Thursday. The papers to be read and 
discussed, as far as time permits, are : ' Fourth 
Report to the Alloys Research Committee,' by 
Prof. Roberts - Austen ; ' Partially Immersed 
Screw-Propellers for Canal Boats ; and the 
Influence of Section of Waterway,' by Mr. H. 
Barcroft ; and ' Mechanical Propulsion on 
Canals,' by Mr. L. S. Robinson. 

The report of the Committee which has been 
inquiring into the expenditure of the Central 
College of the City and Guilds of London Insti- 
tute, as compared with the results obtained, 
has now been presented to the Governors of 
the Institute, by whom the Committee was 
nominated. The report is regarded as decidedly 
favourable, and is not expected to lead to any 
significant changes. 

The Professor of Rural Economy at Oxford 
invites support outside the University for & 
scheme which would have the effect of making 
agricultural science one of the subjects of ex- 
amination for the University degree. 

The Geological Society will this year award 
its medals and funds as follows : the Wollaston 
Medal to Mr. W. H. Hudleston ; the Murchison 
Medal and part of the fund to Mr. H. B. 
Woodward ; the Lyell Medal and part of the 
fund to Dr. G. J. Hinde ; the Bigsby Medal 
to Mr. Clement Reid ; the proceeds of the Wol- 
laston Fund to Mr. F. A. Bather ; the balance 
of the proceeds of the Murchison Fund to Mr. 
S. S. Buckman ; and the balance of the pro- 
ceeds of the Lyell Fund to Mr. W. J. Lewis 
Abbott and Mr. J. Lomas. 

Ox January 5th a monument in honour of 
the geologist Jaccard was unveiled in the Eng- 
lish garden at Locle, in Canton Neuchatel. 

Three small planets were discovered by M. 
Charlois at Nice on the night of the 31st ult. 
If all recent announcements prove to be really 
new, these will raise the number found in 189& 
to 20, and the whole number known to 420. 

Although but little has been seen of the sun 
lately, a rather remarkable group of spots was 
noticed on his disc at the end of last week. 
Wc are now nearly half way between epochs of 
maximum and minimum abundance. 



FINE ARTS 

Les Tapisseries de Raphael an Vatican et dans 
les Principalis Jlusces ou Collections d« 
V Europe : Etuds Ifistorique et Critique. 
Par Eugene Miintz. (Paris, Eothschild.) 
Fkom its very handsome form and appear- 
ing at the present time, it may be assumed 
that the publisher of M. Eugene Miintz's 
new work, ' Les Tapisseries de Raphael,' 
intended it to obtain some share of the 
patronage bestowed on that class of litera- 
ture, the primary aim of which is to serve 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHEN^UM 



for New Year's gifts. As the mention of 
the gift-book, with its usually smart and 
frequently gaudy cover, its illustrations to 
match, suggests the proverbial apples of 
the Dead Sea, it is only fair to say that M. 
Eothschild's volume is not of this calibre. 
The cover is, indeed, ornamental, but it is 
the masculine ornament of the Italian Re- 
naissance, of the period of its matured 
practice, and before it had lost its original 
restrained grace of design. And when on 
turning over the pages the wealth of 
Raphaelesque invention stands revealed, 
there is then no hesitation in pronouncing 
to what category the work belongs. M. 
Rothschild is generally credited with a 
tolerably accurate knowledge of the artistic 
leanings of the book - purchasing public. 
That he should place this one in the market 
at this season may be accepted as denoting 
the existence of a class which still retains a 
high standard of taste. 

The chief interest of the present work, of 
course, centres on the Cartoons of Raphael. 
Hence it is with more than ordinary autho- 
rity that M. Miintz discusses his theme. 
He is the author of a ' Life of Raphael ' 
which stands in the front rank of the 
numerous biographies of the painter; he 
has written a history of tapestry which is 
accepted as a text-book ; and he is further 
as familiar with the Vatican as he is 
with the palace, of the collections of which 
he is the keeper. Readers of ' Raphael, sa 
Vie, son CEuvre, et son Temps,' will remember 
the admirable description and criticism of 
the Cartoons contained in that work. So 
also will those who know ' La Tapisserie ' 
recall the reference to the tapestry for 
which the Cartoons were painted ; this series 
is known as the Acts of the Apostles, there 
being also two other series of the Raphael 
cycle at the Vatican, the Scenes from the 
Life of Christ and the Children at Play 
(the Giuochi di Putti), the two latter copied 
from designs by the pupils of Raphael. 
The ' Tapisserie,' however, is a general 
history of tapestry, consequently the notices 
of these particular examples are naturally 
condensed, while in the present volume, 
besides being discussed in detail, the designs 
are reproduced in text illustrations. When 
stating the end and aim of his work, M. 
Miintz claims with pardonable pride : 

"C'est la premiere fois que Ton verra reunis, 
en reproductions impeccables, obtenues a l'aide 
des proce"des les plus perfectionne's, les cartons 
de Londres et les tapisseries du Vatican, avec 
leurs incomparables bordures, ainsi que les 
nombreuses esquisses originales qui ont servi 
a preparer ces chefs-d'oeuvre. Mais la ne se 
borne pas l'ambition de l'auteur et de l'editeur : 
lis ont groupe'autour des Actes des Apotres, non 
seulement tous les documents graphiques de 
nature a en Judder ou a en completer 1'histoire, 
mais encore les differentes suites qui se re'clament 
du nom de Raphael : les Scenes de la Vie du 
Christ, les Enfanta jouant, et plusieurs autres 
tentures peu connues ou meme incites. C'est 
(lone un veritable corpvs qui est offertau lecteur. 
Raphael, comnie tout ce qui est grand et beau 
a trouve" des de'tractcurs en cette fin de sieclc! 
Leurs attaques ne meritent pas do nous arreter 
(en quoi importent-elles a la gloire du maitre ?), 
mais elles ont fourni l'occasion de reprendre a 
nouveau l'analyse du cycle pathe-fique entre 
tous qui sappelle les Actes des Apotres. !>,■ 
nombreux documents, ignores jusqu'ici, out 
I"' mis de rajeunir un theme qui paraissait 



89 



Students of the art of Raphael will re- 
member that the known drawings and studies 
from his hand belonging to his latest period 
are relatively few, especially when compared 
with those of his earlier years. The few, 
however, that we do possess exhibit con- 
summate mastery of drawing. He coidd 
still, when occasion required, by the flow of 
that exquisitely delicate line, design figures 
infused with a refinement of sentiment 
recalling the virginal purity of his early 
Madonnas. Or when the motive required 
the displayof energetic action we see at 
once that with unerring stroke precisely the 
right point is reached. He never missed 
his grip, or weakened its hold by overstrain. 
Reproductions of a few of the drawings of 
this class from various collections are given 
by M. Miintz, and, needless to say, they are 
of infinite service in studying the finished 
compositions. In the same way the insertion 
in the text illustrations of ancient work 
which had been assimilated by Raphael, 
like the ' St. Paul visiting Peter in Prison,' 
from the Brancacci Chapel, enables the 
reader at a glance to estimate its relation 
to the figures in the Cartoons; in this 
instance it is, of course, the Apostle in the 
'Paul preaching at Athens.' The same 
system is continued in the examination of 
the Scenes from the Life of Christ and the 
amorini at play. Of the latter series a 
reproduction of eight charming panels of 
tapestry in the possession of the Princess 
Mathilde adds considerably to the interest 
of the volume. 

Respecting the reproductions of the Car- 
toons themselves, which are in photogravure 
from negatives taken at South Kensington 
Museum, it is evident that no pains have 
been spared in their execution. In some 
qualities of the design a degree of 
accuracy is arrived at which could be 
obtained by no other method. Certain 
qualities, as those of air and light and 
colour, can never be attained by the means 
of printer's ink, although they may, 
perhaps, be suggested by the hand of a 
skilful engraver. However, in whatever form 
they are presented, they will always remain 
the most valued and, in the best sense of the 
word,the most popular productions of pictorial 
art. Protestants and Catholics alike accept 
them as the highest representation of typical 
events in the New Testament history. They 
express the deepest convictions of the Chris- 
tian faith. Their appeal to the heart is 
more simple and direct than any words 
uttered since those which fell from the lips 
of the Divine Teacher. 

M. Miintz quotes a fine appreciation of 
the Cartoons from the pen of H.R.H. tho 
Duke d'Aumale : — 

"Les cartons qui sont, avec les marbres du 
Parthenon, ce que l'Angleterre possede de plus 
beau en fait d'art, et qui, dans l'ceuvre de 
Raphael, n'ont peut-etre de supe'rieur que les 
' Stances ' du Vatican." 



It might, perhaps, be advanced that in some 
respects they touch a higher point than the 
frescoes of tho Stanze. The latter scarcely 
reach their breadth of treatment or noblo 
simplicity of form, nor do thoy always 
display the dramatic directness of inven- 
tion, nor, surely, their sublime pathos of 
expression. 



THE NEW GALLERY. — WINTER EXHIBITION. 

MR. WATTS's PICTURES. 

(Second and Concluding Notice.) 

Resuming our notes, we may start from the 
exquisitely toned portrait of Miss May Prinsep 
(No. 21); and passing the impressive and original 
Rider on the White Horse (24), Eider on the 
Bed Horse (28), a second Rider on the White 
Horse (31), and The Rider on the Black Horse 
(32), a fine series of illustrations of the Apoca- 
lypse, which ends with the Rider on the Pale 
Horse (36), hardly so successful a work as its 
fellows, and yet by no means without poetical 
feeling, we come to the brilliant and solidly 
painted portrait (life-size, half-length) of Blanche, 
Dowager Countess of Airlie (34), which illustrates 
the influence on Mr. Watts of the art of other 
masters than Titian and Tintoret, who are more 
especially his models. In No. 34 the firmness 
and crisp modelling, the brightness of the colora- 
tion, and the strength of the local colours remind 
the connoisseur of Bronzino's polished flesh paint- 
ing, and there is also present a slight infusion 
of Bordone's wealth of tone. Very natural and 
lifelike is the three-quarters-length figure (38) 
of Miss R. Gurney when a girl, in a black 
dress, leaning with one shoulder against a 
wall ; and Miss Violet Lindsay (41) is a 
characteristic portrait of a lady who is now 
known as the Marchioness of Granby and is 
herself an accomplished artist. Except for a 
certain weakness in the expression, suggestive 
of a less strenuous and masculine character than 
his ever was, the profile, life-size Sir J. E. 
Millais (42), painted in 1871, is one of the best 
likenesses extant of the great artist we lately 
lost. Comparing it with a photograph taken in 
the same year of Sir John, which now lies before 
us, we do not hesitate to assert that, in spite of 
the deficiency mentioned above, nowhere in the 
exhibition is there a more faithful and sym- 
pathetic picture than No. 42. The painting of 
the flesh is not unlike Millais 's own method of 
treating the carnations ; certainly it could not be 
fresher or more lifelike. Altogether less success- 
ful, on the other hand, is the portrait of Millais's 
forerunner in the Presidency, Lord Leighton 
(45), a work of 1890, in which the surface is 
rougher and the flesh painting is decidedly 
more opaque. The picture is less luminous 
than Mr. Watts's usually are, but it is a 
faithful likeness of Leighton as he was 
six years ago ; it shows how deeply time 
and suffering had even then told upon the 
handsome and once robust man. Somewhat 
austere and imperious, the expression of the 
face and attitude is quite in harmony with the 
dignity of the doctor's robe of red, and may, 
under the circumstances, be true to the life ; 
but it does not express the Leighton of the 
Academy, of society, and of his own studio. 
The look of reverie on the face of Mr. Glad- 
stone is less manifest than usual in No. 44, 
which shows him in a genial and placable mood. 
Passing, for the moment, a group of alle- 
gories, landscapes, portraits, and two or three 
fanciful themes, we come to the capital like- 
ness in profile to our left, painted in 18(50, of 
the Duke of Argyll (75), which is not to be 
overlooked, although close to it hangs the still 
more vigorous portrait of Mr. William Morris 
(78), which could hardly be finer, and, being 
pointed in 1880, depicts the poet at his best. 
Equally happy as a likeness and as a pic- 
ture, more subtle, as it must needs be, being a 
rendering of a character more complex and 
therefore more difficult to paint, is Sir K. Bume- 
Jones (80), which is certainly one of its artist's 
masterpieces. Mr. Watts lias not done justice 
to himself in No. 83, a work of 1804. No. 80, 
Algernon 0. Swinburne, also fails, to a certain 
extent, as a likeness, because it gives the idea of 

a more robust physique as well as a less highly- 
strung temperament than that of the author of 
' Atalanta in Calydon.' 
One of tho most important of Mr. Watts's 



00 



T II E A Til KNjEUM 



N°3G12, Jan. 16/97 



portraits <'f ladies is the life-size, full-lengtb, 
iding figure of the Hon. Mrs. Percy n ynd- 
ham ('.»•'>), in a bronae green dress brocaded with 
Bunflowere in dead gold. Tainted in 1877, 
this Lb a noble example of the artist's most 

powerful mood; his masterly troatmont of 
the masses of colour and tone is especially 
conspicuous, and the style of the portrait 
cannot bo better described than as sumptuous, 
broad, and simple. The painting of the flesh is 
remarkable for its solidity, force, and the fineness 
of its morbidezza. One of the most celebrated 
beauties Mr. Watts has painted is admirably, 
if not quite adequately represented in the bril- 
liant whole-length, seated, and life-size figure 
of The Countess Somen (103), the ' Virginia 'of 
other fine portraits of his. Wearing a silk 
dress of a bright strong blue, and holding a 
peacock fan in its left hand, this figure excels 
most even of those of the painter's works 
which owe much to the unusual brilliance and 
gaiety of their colours. One of his beautiful 
fife-size portraits in chalk (none of which is 
exhibited here) represents the countess in 
the very prime of her beauty. A faithful 
likeness and almost perfect piece of flesh 
painting is the half-length, life-size por- 
trait of Mr. Walter Crane (110), executed in 
1891, which proves how wonderfully the artist 
then retained those powers which were at their 
acme a quarter of a century before. Such long- 
enduring vigour is an astonishing fact in the 
history °oi our painter. It can be said of no 
other master, except Titian, that his hand 
preserved its firmness and felicity of painting so 
late in life. Mr. Watts has not subsequently 
surpassed this fine picture of his friend. Of 
course, he has, even since 1891, exhibited 
some noteworthy pictures, but none better. 

An interesting and good portrait in the 
North Room, painted in 1874, and best known 
from Rajon's fine etching, represents the 
Rev. James Martineau (125) in a sympathetic 
manner. A much later picture, the character- 
reading and art of which justify what we 
have said about the unabated powers of the 
artist, is the capital likeness of the Marquess 
of Dufferin (128) in a fur coat. It would 
be interesting to see side by side No. 132, 
an unfinished portrait of Sir R. Burton, and 
Leighton's likeness of the same great traveller, 
the° latest addition to the National Portrait 
Gallery, which is now (No. 48) in Burling- 
ton House. This is the last of the painted 
portraits in this exhibition. In the Balcony 
may be seen a large number of excellent 
photographs by Mr. Hollyer from many of the 
pictures which are here and some which are 
not. 

It would be unjust to Mr. Watts if we con- 
fined our attention to his portraits while 
there is before us a considerable proportion 
of those allegories to which his "prefatory 
note" in the Catalogue refers the visitor. 
Nor would it be right to omit the praise due 
to the charming exhibition of playful fancy in 
the illustrations of poetic legends and historic 
incidents which adorn these galleries. There 
are also on these walls some fine landscapes, 
conceived not in the realistic manner which 
has obtained favour in this country and 
France since the time of Constable, but 
according to the eclectic mode which agrees 
best with the artist's mind and taste. Of the 
playful fancies, the earliest is the animated and 
pretty " JIow should J your true love know?" 
(10) which dates from 1841. Una and the Red 
Cross Knight (16) possesses Spenserian grace 
and the true romantic spirit. Indeed, it is 
the best of Mr. Watts's illustrations of 'The 
Faery Qucene.' The colouring of the picture 
enhances its charm. Britomart and her Nurse 
(98), a life-size group placed before the magic 
mirror, though a more complex subject and 
not so direct a rendering, is as a picture 
finer than No. 10, and it tells its story with 
still more power, although, to our taste, the 



martial virgin's face lacks resolution and that 

expression of enthusiasm is absent which we 

expect in her. The fact is, few of us realize 

Bntomart in love. 

Uldra (27) and The Nixies' Foster Daughter 
(35) are examples of the painter's way of look- 
ing at Scandinavian legends and of his habit of 
treating them in an eclectic m anner . I Mia 
is the spirit of the iris that spans the 
waterfall, and the subject afforded the artist 
an opportunity for contrasting the vivid hues 
of the rainbow itself, the whiteness of the 
rushing stream, and the gloom of the storm 
clouds behind the half-naked spirit. 

Rain Passing Away (58) possesses grandeur 
such as few would look for in so simple a land- 
scape. It depicts a plateau so wide that, as 
Patmore wrote, 

The rainbow wholly stands within its lordly bounds. 
Under this prodigious arch of light and colour 
we have a view which suggests the hand of 
Ruysdael or De Koningh. The telling effect and 
dignity of the whole is greatly aided by the 
majestic conception embodied in the mass of 
white cumuli behind the bow. Neptune's 
Horses (59) is another and much more recent 
attempt to use natural means for the expression 
of abstract ideas, without absolutely repro- 
ducing the colours and forms of nature, or, at 
the sa°me time, completely departing from them. 
Upon the whole this picture is a most impressive 
and weird example of what a painter who is 
also something of a poet can produce with 
materials which to most men seem prosaic 
enough, if not commonplace. Of course, 
nothing is more common than to liken breaking 
waves to the horses of Neptune ; but it is the 
mysterious wizardry of the moonlight, the half- 
veiled sky, the formless mist, and the in- 
scrutable darkness of the vast ocean that com- 
bine to exalt eclectic landscape, when painted 
by one whose watchword is, "I paint ideas 
rather than facts." _ 

The Childhood of Jupiter (60), practically the 
latest of Mr. Watts's exhibited pictures— it 
was painted only last year— is already familiar 
to our readers. Suffice it to say that it is a 
fine piece of colour which reminds us of Rey- 
nolds, but that the drawing is less perfect than 
usual. Olympus on Ida (68) gave our artist 
opportunities for displaying the power he 
has often exercised of treating such subjects. 
Truly classical in a sense more applicable 
to art of the later Renaissance than to that of 
antiquity, this fine, but hardly finished pic- 
ture is conceived in Mr. Watts's least con- 
ventional strain. In this respect it may be 
classed with The Birth of Eve (87) ; the beau- 
tiful and tenderly dreaming Psyche (88) ; the 
passionate and masterly Orpheus and Eurydice 
(92) ; the Daphne (93), fading away in deathly 
pallors, a wonder of refined and graceful execu- 
tion ; and the sculpturesque face of The TI ife 
of Pygmalion (77), a piece of solid and 
splendid flesh painting. No piece here is a 
choicer example of this mood than the very 
fine Diana and Endymion (101), of which there 
is, by the way, a fine print. Here the dark 
and fluttering robes of the goddess hover- 
ing, before she kisses him, above her lover 
sleeping on the ground, the exquisite ivory of 
her flesh in which some roses are latent, the 
sweetness and ardour of her expression, the 
grace and naturalness of her attitude, not less 
than the comeliness and strength of the sleeper, 
are admirable points. Europa (104) reminds us 
throughout of Titian. Ariadne in Naxos (113) 
is a thoroughly characteristic example of a great 
painter heroically striving against the sordid 
influences of his time. 

That enthusiasm which has never failed to spur 
Mr. Watts to noble efforts is also manifest in 
a few pictures of a nondescript kind, the most 
striking of which is a large work of 1849, an 
apologue rather than an allegory, which he calls 
Life s Illusions (64). It represents Beauty, Hope, 
Ambition, and other types of human aims in life 



Boating before a cavalier in armour who chases 
B " rainbow - tinted bubble of gl'-ry/' As 
Clitics, we are most concerned with the wealth 
of colour, the strength of chiaroscuro, and the 
noble sense of style for which this striking work 
is remarkable. Most of all, technically sn 
Log, do we admire the masterly painting of the 
life-size, naked figure of the genius of Beauty. 
Mr. Watts knew his subject too well to fall into 
the common error of representing as a spectre 
that which was solid in the eyes of his cavalier. 
As to the large allegories which occupy so 
considerable a portion of the walls of these 
galleries, it is not necessary that we should do 
more than refer the reader to the interesting 
apologia offered by the artist in the prefatory 
note to the Catalogue. It contains his 
explanation of his devotion to them of much 
of his life and powers. To add anything 
further, whether we agree with him or not 
on the subject, would be quite superfluous. 
Suffice it, then, to name those allegories 
which, on technical grounds, deserve most 
of the visitor's attention : Mischief (79), 
which, as a picture, allies itself with ' Life's 
Illusions,' and the almost as noteworthy Fata 
Morgana (84), Lore and Death (126), The Cmirt 
of Death (135), The Spirit of Christianity (136), 
and Time, Death, and Judgment (144). 

gMt-Qxi gossip. 
The Burlington Club has formed a numerous 
and representative collection of the water 
colours of A. W. Hunt, to which any one 
fortunate enough to obtain a member's ticket 
will be admitted.— Today (Saturday) has been 
appointed by the Fine-Art Society for the 
private view of an exhibition of water-colour 
drawings of English landscape by Mr. Thome 
Waite, to see which the public will be admitted 
on Monday next. 

Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woons sold on 
the 9th and 13th inst. the following : T. Barker, 
' Woody Landscapes,' with figures, a pair. 189?. 
Engravings : ' The Hoppner Children ' and J The 
Douglas Children,' after Hoppner, by J. Ward, 
Sol ; ' Duchess of Devonshire,' after Downman, 
in colours, 311. ; ' Mrs. Siddons,' after Downman, 
in colours, 291. ; 'St. James's Park andTea 
Gardens,' after Morland, in colours, o4Z. ; 
'Party Angling,' and 'The Anglers' Repast, 
461 • ' Almeida,' by W. Ward, and ' St. James's 
Beauty,' after J. H. Ben well, by F. Bartolozzi, 
in colours, 25L 

All lovers of the toreutic art, as well as all 
English admirers of Benvenuto Cellini, will be 
alad to hear that Mrs. George Simonds has just 
finished her translation of Benvenuto's two 
treatises on goldsmithery and bronze-found- 
in"-. The text she has used for this pur- 
pose is that published in Florence, 1568 ; in 
the technicalities of her subject the lady has 
had the advantage of her husband's artistic 
ability and practical knowledge. These treatises 
have not been translated before into English, 
and they acquire an additional charm because 
they serve as a sort of supplement to Cellini's 
own delectable account of the casting of his 
'Perseus.' 

We have it on the best authority that not 
500/ or less— as we have always understood, 
and stated last week— but 600L was the price 
Lord Leighton received from Her Majesty for 
'Cimabue's Madonna carried through Florence. 
Mr. Bella writes from 25, Soho Square, W. : 
" Might 1 ask you to be so kind as to rectify in 
vour next issue the statement in the current one 
that the pictures exhibited at 'The 23 'Gallery are 
attributed to MM. Menzel (Hon. R.A), Toulouse- 
Lautrec, and L. Legrand ? As they are originals in 
each case, the present statement is calculated to 
impair the artistic value of the exhibition.' 
We should be sorry to impugn the genuineness 
of the pictures. As we have not seen them, we 
did not dream of doing so. 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



THE ATHENAEUM 



91 



Don Juan F. Riano writes to us : — 
"A mould has been taken for the first time of 
the statue of Meleager in the Madrid Gallery, which 
belonged to Christine, Queen of Sweden. It is con- 
sidered to be the best copy existing of the ' Diadu- 
menus ' of Polycletus. Casts can be had by applying 
to the Secretary of the Koyal Academy of San 
Fernando, Alcala 11, Madrid. The price is 100 francs." 

We trust the French nation, who may see his 
'Haidee and Don Juan,' which, we understand, 
has been accepted by the authorities of the 
Louvre, will not judge of the powers and 
technical skill of Ford Madox Brown by it. 
It is a bequest of the late Miss Blind, who 
was ill advised when she offered it. It is, under 
the circumstances, due to the reputation of the 
painter and of the English School — already 
unhappily and inadequately represented in 
Paris — that we should say this. 

The Chronique des Arts of the 9th inst. con- 
tains an important article by M. Salomon 
Reinach on the discovery and condition when 
found of the statue of the 'Venus ' of Milo. The 
learned author succeeds in clearing away much 
confusion which has gathered about the matter, 
although he does not otherwise add to our 
knowledge of the provenance of the statue, its 
attitude when perfect (a much debated point), 
and the intention of the sculptor to whom the 
world is indebted for the finest female statue. 

A memorial to Elie Delaunay has been placed 
in the museum of Nantes, his native city. In 
it is inserted a medallion likeness of the painter 
(in white marble) by M. Chaplain. 



MUSIC 



THE WEEK. 

St. James's Hall.— Popular Concerts. 
Queen's Hall.— Promenade Concerts. 

Schumann's 'Marchenbilder,' Op. 113, 
consisting of four movements originally 
composed for pianoforte and viola, the part 
for the stringed instrument being frequently 
taken by the violin or violoncello, was per- 
formed as first written on Saturday afternoon 
last at St. James's Hall, the executants being 
Mile. Ilona Eibenschiitz and Mr. Alfred 
Gibson. The charming pianist interpreted 
three of Scarlatti's pieces with all requisite 
crispness and purity of style ; and Beet- 
hoven's perennial Septet in e flat, Op. 20, 
concluded the programme. Mrs. Helen 
Trust was judicious in her selection of 
French and German songs, and artistic in 
their execution. 

On Monday Schubert's Octet, Op. 166, 
formed the central feature, and was magni- 
ficently interpreted by Lady Halle, and 
Messrs. Ries, Gibson, Clinton, Paersch, 
Wotton, Reynolds, and Piatti. Perhaps on 
no previous occasion has this work, which, 
if not specially characteristic of the com- 
poser, is a masterpiece in respect of melody 
and general beauty, been given more 
effectively. Tho programme was headed 
by Beethoven's Sonata in a for pianoforte 
and violoncello, Op. 69, which was perfectly 
played by Mile. Eibenschiitz and Signor 
Piatti ; and the last item consisted of three 
trifling pianoforte pieces by the Scandi- 
navian composer Ole Olsen, who, as wo said 
on a former occasion, seems to be treading 
in the footsteps of Grieg. Mile. Eibenschiitz 
played tho little compositions charmingly, 
and wo should liko to hear her on tho next 
occasion in some work of greater importance. 

It can scarcely be said that the music of 
the Russian composer Alexander Dargo- 
raij'&y. who was born in 181. '3 and died in 
I889j is familiar in this country. Judging 



from the piquant and well-scored trifle 
' Cosatchoque,' which was placed at the 
head of the Queen's Hall programme last 
Saturday evening, the deceased writer may 
take a fair place among the composers of 
the younger Russian school. He wrote 
three operas, the third of which, entitled 
' The Stone Guest,' is based upon the 
same legend as Mozart's ' Don Giovanni,' 
and is considered one of the most remark- 
able and advanced works of the new Mus- 
covite school. Doubtless we shall hear more 
of Dargomijsky's music in due course. 
Another novelty on Saturday was a series 
of four ballet movements from Delibes's last 
and unfinished opera ' Kassya,' which did 
not win favour in Paris, notwithstanding 
the general popularity of the French com- 
poser's music. Only the first act and a few 
pages of the second had been scored, and 
the completion of the task was undertaken 
by M. Massenet, who, judging from the 
present example, dealt with Delibes's light 
and delicate music in a somewhat too strenu- 
ous fashion, that is to say, making too 
liberal use of brass and percussion. Other 
items contributed by Mr. Henry J. Wood's 
fine orchestra were the introduction to the 
third act of ' Tannhauser,' and a familiar 
selection from the third act of ' Die Meister- 
singer.' The Concord Part-Singers, a quartet 
of male voices, created a favourable im- 
pression. 

Musical (JlxrsKig'. 

Reference to our musical calendar will show 
that the opening week of the brief operatic 
season of the Carl Rosa Company at the Garrick 
Theatre, commencing next Monday, is rich in 
interest, culminating on Wednesday in the first 
performance in London of Benjamin Godard's 
'La Vivandiere.' 

The first instalment of Rubinstein's " literary 
remains " has appeared in the journal Vom Fels 
zum Meer, under the title of ' Gedankenkorb. ' 
It consists of a number of aphorisms, the most 
characteristic of which is, perhaps, the follow- 
ing pessimistic remark: "To the Jews," says 
Rubinstein, "I am a Christian, to the Chris- 
tians a Jew ; to the Russians I am a German, 
to the Germans a Russian ; to the classical 
musicians I am a Zukiinftler, and to the 
Zukunftler a ' retrograder. ' Conclusion : I am 
neither fish nor flesh — a pitiable individual." 

The 244th concert of the South Place 
Ethical Society, Finsbury, next Sunday even- 
ing, will be devoted in part to the music of 
Schubert, in view of the centenary of the com- 
poser's birth, now close at hand. The Piano- 
forte Trio in b flat, Op. 99, and the Pianoforte 
Duet, Op. 84, are in the programme. One or 
more items by this master will be included in 
all the remaining concerts of the season, and 
on the actual anniversary, the 31st inst., the 
programme will consist entirely of Schubert's 
compositions, including the Octet in f. Mr. 
Plunket Greene will be the vocalist on this 
occasion. 

It would seem that Herr August Bungert's 
1 Odysseus' Heimkehr,' the third part of a tetra- 
logy, has very great merit, if one may judge by 
the verdict of the Dresden critics, for the score 
is not as yet to hand. 'The Homeric World' 
is the title of the complete work, which, when 
placed before musicians, will doubtless command 
attention, for Herr Bungert is said by com- 
petent judges to have the capacity to utilize 
Wagnerian methods with taste and skill. 

Somewhat characteristic information as to 
opera reaches us from Chicago. Tho Wagner 
performances have an Italian, Signor Mancinelli, 



as conductor. The Theodore Thomas orchestra 
has been engaged, a Polish tenor and an Austra- 
lian soprano will sing in German, and the 
chorus in Italian. This may fairly be deemed 
polyglot opera. 

The announcements of the current series of 
performances by the Apollo Musical Club in 
Chicago at any rate afford some evidence that 
the cause of high-class music is not altogether 
hopeless in the Western city. According to the 
prospectus, two performances of ' The Messiah ' 
were given on December 21st and 23rd ; ' The 
Rose of Sharon' is to be heard on February 11th, 
and Dvorak's 'Stabat Mater' and Goring 
Thomas's cantata ' The Swan and the Skylark ' 
at the final concert of the season. 



Mow. 
Ties. 



Fri. 

Sat. 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 
Orchestral Concert, 3.30, Queen's Hall. 
National Sunday League Conceit. 7, Queen's Hall. 
Popular Concert, South Place Ethical Society, 7. Finshury. 
Queen's Hall String Quartet Concert, 7.30, Queen's Small Hall. 
Popular Concert, 8. St James's Hall 

Carl Rosa Opera Company, ' Tannhiiuser,' Garrick Theatre. 
Mr. F Lamond's Pianoforte Recital, 3, St. James's Hall. 
Carl Rosa Opera Company, ' Romeo and Juliet,' 8, Garrick 

Theatre. 
M. Slivinski's Pianoforte Recital. 3. St James's Hall. 
Mr G. H. Mackern's Concert, 3, Queen's Hall 
Carl Rosa Opera Company, ' La Vivandiere,' 8, Garrick Theatre. 
Mr Paul Stoeving's violin Recital, 8, Steinway Hall. 
Miss Griffith's Concert, 3, Queen's Hall. 
Mr. Lawrence Kellie's Vocal Recital, 8, Steinway Hall, 
Royal Choral Society, Schubert's ' Song of Miriam ' and ' Israel 

in Egypt,' 8, Albert Hall 
Carl Rosa Opera Company, 'Faust,' 8, Garrick Theatre. 
Herr Theodor Werner's Violin Recital, 3, St James's Hall. 
Carl Rosa Opera Company, 'The Mastersingers,' 8, Garrick 

Theatre. 
London Ballad Concert, 3, Queen's Hall. 
Popular Concert, 3, St James's Hall 

People's Palace Choral Society, ' The Golden Legend,' 7 15. 
Orchestral Concert, 8, St James's Hall. 
Promenade Concert, 8, Queen's Hall. 
Carl Rosa Opera Company, ' Mignon,' 8, Garrick Theatre. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

Shaftesbury. — 'The Sorrows of Satan,' a Play in Four 
Acts. Adapted by Herbert Woodgate and Paul M. Berton 
from the Novel by Marie Corelli. 

The adaptation of ' The Sorrows of 
Satan ' has the advantage over the book 
that it is not wholly, nor even mainly, self- 
advertisement. When deprived of her comic 
environment and of her royal patronage, 
and no longer occupied in singing pious 
hymns in her own honour, Miss Mavis 
Clare, as she is called, plays a notably 
insignificant part in her own drama, the 
interest of which centres, as it rightly 
should, in Lady Sibyl, absurdly misnamed 
Lady Sybil. This not too fascinating type 
of modern womanhood, as conceived by a 
modern woman, has to be let down many 
pegs. In the novel she is described in the 
erotic strain familiar in feminine fiction, 
"her eyes alit with rapture, her lips trem- 
bling with passion, her bosom heaving." 
We hear in poetry of " Woman wailing for 
her demon lover." In Miss Corelli's prose 
she does not wail — she hungers, hungers for 
the kisses of his lips, hungers for tho clasp 
of his arms. This state of famine is, fortu- 
nately, not exhibited on the stage, whereon 
we hear a poor love-sick creature, whilo 
listening to the bitter scorn of the being 
by whom her senses have been surprised, 
moaning piteously, " I love you, I love 
you," with monotonous iteration. This 
deprives tho story of a portion of its coarse- 
ness, but is not theatrically effective. Miss 
Granville, who played the part, was appa- 
rently tortured by nervousness, and pro- 
bably will in time mako more of it than sho 
at first did. Tho death scene takes place, 
necessarily, on the stage, from tho effect of 
somo slow corrosive poison. The iv.ouiont 
before her eyes close, Rimanez, otherwise 
Lucifer, favours her with a torrifyin^ glimpso 
of his real featuros or appearanco, and she 



92 



THE ATHEN^UM 



N°3612, Jan. 16, '97 



dies in tho rain attempt to speak hie name. 
An experience kindred to this is, it will l>o 
remembered, afforded in tho book to the 
sordid mother of a moro sordid daughter. 
This scene, played well in tho main, lifted 
the play to tho highest point it attained. 
The action in the closing scene is ineffective; 
tho diabolic terrors do not impress, and 
the ma»ner in which Geoffrey Tempest, 
having proved himself base, selfish, pitiful, 
and depraved, is bidden at sword's point 
accept another chance, is incongruous and 
almost grotesque. The play is not wholly 
bad any more than the novel. It has scenes 
that aro theatrically effective, and there are 
points at which it seizes on the imagination. 
The worst point about it is the attempt to 
supply comic relief. This is the one abso- 
lutely jarring note in the play. The scenes in 
which this is done are both conventional and 
ridiculous. Mr. Bentham and Mr. Ellis, to 
whose care the hero entrusts his millions, 
have stepped out of Strand farce, and the 
Duke of Launceston belongs to Gaiety 
burlesque. Mr. Waller's presentation of 
Rimanez realizes fairly well the character 
of the fiend as conceived by Miss Corelli 
after Milton. He has not, of course, the 
splendid physical stature and beauty on 
which Miss Corelli insists, and "no deep 
scars of thunder" have "intrenched" his 
face. He looks, however, picturesque and 
fateful, and acts and speaks with the re- 
quisite mixture of cynicism and earnestness. 
The speech descriptive of his own fall 
should, instead of being conventionally 
though effectively declaimed, have begun 
conversationally. After a time, as he 
summoned back his memories, the de- 
clamatory style might be adopted. In the 
book no attempt is made to present any of 
the marks of diabolic descent. His feet are 
shapely ; the horns and tail with which 
mediaeval imagination invested him are 
non-existent or carefully concealed ; and 
he is only distinguished from ordinary 
humanity by his larger stature, shapelier 
proportions, and nobler mien. Mr. 
Waller attempts a compromise. He fur- 
nishes one proof of diabolic origin in 
sharp animal ears such as are sometimes 
ascribed to the great god Pan. This is prac- 
tically needless, perhaps even discordant. It 
is, however, far less obtrusive than are the 
cock's feather and other diabolic sugges- 
tions ordinarily assigned Mephistopheles. 
No other character except Rimanez is 
of much importance. When the puis- 
sant moral graces of Mavis Clare no 
longer combat on the side of virtue, 
one wonders from what galley Miss Corelli 
drew the despicable and sinister personages 
by which her action is supported. With the 
exception of Mavis herself and the Prince 
of Wales, who is dragged into the novel by 
the neck and shoulders, there is not a cha- 
racter of average respectability or worth to be 
seen. In assigning to Miss Sheridan the cha- 
racter of the " milk-white dove trooping with 
crows" the management does not seem to 
have been very happily inspired. The 
character was quite ineffective. One or 
two cynical speeches of Rimanez went 
well with the public. The advice to 
Geoffrey, after the detection of his wife's 
infidelity, to go on a tiger-hunting expedi- 
tion in India, coupled with the remark, "It 
is what a great many men do when their 



wives forget themselves : several well- 
known husbands are abroad just now," 
elicited a roar of laughter. Here is a hint 
to tho adapters as to the kind of comic 
relief they should seek, supposing such to 
be necessary. 

$ramatir (gossip. 

Thoroughly conventional are the lines on 
which ' A Pierrot's Life ' is constructed. It 
shows Pierrot timid in love-making, a roue and 
gambler after marriage, leaving his wife, and 
coming back, penitent and ashamed, to sue for 
and obtain pardon. The graceful movements of 
Mile. Litini as Pierrot and the comic method 
of Signor Egidio Rossi commended it to the 
public, and its reception at the Prince of Wales's 
was enthusiastic. It is asserted in the score, and 
has been repeated in some quarters, that the 
play first saw the light at the Theatre De"jazet 
on January 4th, 1893. In fact, it was produced 
on the afternoon of December 29th, 1892. The 
matter is of very little importance ; but accuracy 
is, after all, good in its way. 

Miss Ellen Terry will reappear at the 
Lyceum on the 23rd in 'Cymbeline.' A revival 
of ' Olivia ' will follow, and hold possession of 
the boards during the rehearsals of ' Madame 
Sans-Gene.' 

'The Free Pardon,' a drama by Messrs. 
Phillips and Merrick, will be the next novelty 
at the Olympic, at which ' The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress ' was played for nine nights. Miss Elinor 
Vane, Mr. Charles Sugden, Mr. Abingdon, and 
Miss Cicely Richards will be in the cast. The 
theatre will revert to the so-called popular 
prices. 

'Delicate Ground,' with Mr. Playfair and 
Miss Lena Ashwell in the principal parts, was 
revived on Monday at Terry's Theatre as the 
opening piece. Miss Lena Ashwell looked 
admirably well in the Directoire costume of 
the heroine, and acted with vivacity and 
spirit. Her associates, Mr. Arthur Playfair 
and Mr. Cosmo Stuart, were scarcely at their 
ease. The piece itself is obviously from the 
French, the original having supplied M. Sardou 
with some hints for his 'Divorcons.' 

Mr. Forbes Robertson and Mrs. Patrick 
Campbell will appear at the Avenue Theatre in 
about three weeks' time in 'The Enchantress,' 
a drama by a writer comparatively unknown to 
the stage. 

Some first-night "obstructionists" have been 
summoned by a London management and fined. 
Not a word do we wish to say in favour of those 
who go to a theatre for the purpose of making 
an uproar. Let us look, however, on the 
other side. In "the best- regulated theatres" 
a noisy claque is now generally secured. 
Whether or not it is a signed article in agree- 
ments we know not, but so soon as an act is 
over the box-keepers and attendants of every 
class come within the auditorium, and express 
" in the usual form " their contentment with the 
performance. If they neglected this duty it 
would be at their peril. By the efforts of these 
officials and the persistence of a few friends of 
the actors or the management a false appearance 
of success is often conveyed and encores are 
forced on a reluctant public. If the manage- 
ment is to express its own delight, a reasonable 
amount of dissent may surely be allowed the 
public. 

We hear of the death, in his fifty-ninth year, 
of Agostino Gatti, since 1879 joint lessee with 
his brother Stefano of the Adelphi Theatre. 
The deceased had recently returned from a pro- 
longed visit to Italy, undertaken in the search 
after the health which had failed him. 



SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO.'S 
PUBLICATIONS. 



BOOKS OF THE YEAR 1896. 



To Correspondents.-J. K.— D. B.— O. H.— H. R. W.— 
received. 
No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. 



Royal 8vo. over 220 pp., cloth limp, 58. net . 
or half-roan limp, 6s. 6d. net. 

THE 

ANNUAL 

VOLU ME 

OF the 

ENGLISH 

CATALOGUE 

For 1896 

differs from its predecessors in this respect, 
that it gives the 

FULL TITLE 

with Duplicate, and in many cases Triplicate, 
Classification under one general alphabet, of 
every book, instead of as hitherto abbreviated 
Titles, consequently 

The Bulk of the Catalogue is increased 
by over 80 pages, 

whilst the price (5s. net) remains the same. 

V WILL BE READY IN A FEW DAYS. 

BEADY NEXT WEEK. 

The RUINED CITIES of CEYLON: 

being a Description of Anuradhapura and Polonaruwa. 
By HENRY W. CAVE. MA.. Queen's College, Oxford. 
Illustrated with 50 Full-Page Woodburygravures, from 
Photographs taken by the Author. 1 vol. small 4to. 
Roxburghe