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University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/p1athenaeum1906lond 




[INDEX SUPPLEMENT to the ATHENjEUM with No. 4108, July 21, 1906 



THE 



ATHENAEUM 



JOURNAL 



OF 



LITERATURE, SCIENCE, THE FINE ARTS, MUSIC, 

AND THE DRAMA. 

JANUARY TO JUNE, 

1906. 





LONDON: 

PRINTED BY JOHN EDWARD FRANCIS, ATHBN.EUM PRESS, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE. 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.G., 

BY JOHN 0. FRANCIS AND J. EDWARD FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS AND NEWSMEN IN TOWN AND COUNTRY. 
AGENTS FOR 8GOTLAND, MESSRS. BELL & BRADFUTE AND MR. JOHN MENZIES, EDINBURGH. 



MDCCCCVI. 



c3^ 



(SUPPLEMENT to tht- ATHHNA.UM *lth Bo. 410S, July, 21, 1906 



SUPPLEMENT lo the ATHENAEUM with No. 4108, July 21, 1906. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 

JANUARY TO JUNE, 1906. 



LITERATURE. 

Reviews. 

A. E. C.'s Ma Premiere Visite a Paris, 46 

A. S. and E. M. S.'s Henry Sidgwick : a Memoir, 383 

Abbott's (E. A.) Johannine Vocabulary, 103 

Abbott's (G. F.) Through India with the Prince, 478 

Abeille's (Capt.) Marine Franeaise et Marines Etrangeres, 

478 
Adams's (VV. A.) Japanese Conversation in Six Months, 

574 
Adamson's (J. W.) Pioneers of Modern Education, 41 
Addison's (A. C.) A Deathless Story, 700 
Adler's (E. N.) About Hebrew Manuscripts, GOG 
Aflalo's (F. G.) The Salt of my Life, 135 
African Languages, 44G 
Ainger*8 (A.) Lectures and Essays, 289 
Albanesi's (Madame) A Young Man from the Country, 

662 
Alden's (W. L.) Cat Tales 15 
Aldis's (J.) Madame GeofTnn, 71 
Alexander's (Mrs. F.) The Golden Book, 704 
Alison's (J.) Arithmetic for Schools and Colleges, 4G 
Allonbv's (E.) The Fulfilment, 12 
Almond of Loretto, by Mackenzie, 257 
Amateur Angler's Fishing for Pleasure, and Catching It, 

477 
Amery's The Times History of the War in South Africa, 

Vol. IV, 761 
Anderson's (J. G.) Exercices de Grammaire Franeaise 46 
Anderson's (Sir R.) Sidelights on the Home Rule Move- 
ment, 638 
Anderton's (I. M.) Tuscan Folk-lore and Sketches, 230 
Anstey's (F.) Salted Almonds, 470 
Archer's (F. B.) The Gambia Colony and Protectorate : 

an Official Handbook, 207 
Archer-Hind's (R. D.) Translations into Greek Verse 

and Prose. 261 
Argyll, George Douglas, Eighth Duke of, Autobiography 

and Memoirs, 755 
Aristotle's Theory of Conduct, ed. Marshall, 605 
Armitage-Smith's (G.) The Principles and Methods of 

Taxation, 407 
Arnold's Latin Texts : Vergil, Selections from the 
Georgics, Select Eclogues, ed. Stobart — C;vsar in 
Britain, ed. Dobson — Cicero, Pro Archia, ed. Brock, 46 
Art Typographique dans les Pays Bas, Livraison 8, 665 
Ashbee's (C. R.) Echoes from the City of the Sun, 106 
Ashmead-Bartlett's (E.) Port Arthur: the Siege and 

Capitulation, 350 
Askew's (A. and C.) Anna of the Plains, 72 
Aston's (W. G.) Shinto : the Way of the Gods, G02 
Aubert's (L.) Paix Japonaise, 543 
Aubin's (E.) Morocco of To-day, 480 
Auction Prices of Books, ed. Livingston, Vol. IV., 205 

424, 452 
Austin's (A.) The Door of Humility, 663 
Austin's (L. F.) Points of View, ed. Rook, 730 
Babar-nama, the Turki Text, ed. Mrs. Beveridge, 729 
Bacchylides : the Poems and Fragments, ed. Jebb, 30 ; 

Carmina, cum Fragmentis, ed. Blass, 004 
Baddeley's (St. Clair) Sicily, 13 

Bailey's (G. H.) Elements of Quantitative Analysis, 45 
Bakers (J.) The Inseparables, 72: The Harrogate 

Tourist Centre, 637 
Ball's (VV. W. R.) Trinity College, Cambridge, 637 
Barbauld s (Mrs.) Hymns in Prose for Children, 207 
Barines (A.) Louis XIV. et la Grande Mademoiselle, 

English Version, 262 
Baring-Gould's (S.) A Book of the Riviera 12 
Barr s (A.E.) The Belle of Bowling Green, 417 ; Cecilia's 

Lovers, 662 
Barr's (R.) The Triumphs of Eugene Valmont, 475 
Barres s Le Voyage de Sparte, 198 
Barry's (Lieut. -Col. J. P.) At the Gates of the East, 118 
Bartelot s (R. G.) The Three Dorset Captains at Trafal- 
gar, 506 
Bartholomew's (J. G ) The Historical and Modern Atlas 

ol the British Empire, 47 
Bartram's (G.) Lads of the Fancy 417 
Battersby's (P.) India under Royal Eyes, 697 
audelaire s Poems in Prose, tr. Symons, 350 
Bausteine, Part IV., 360 

Becke's it.) The Adventures of a Supercargo, 510 
Bccbe s (S. P ) Outlines of Physiological Chemistry, 15 
Beechmg , , (Canon) The Apostles' Creed, 297 
Beeton s (Mrs.) Rook of Household Management, 230 
Bell s (Mrs. A. G.) Picturesque Brittany. 636 



Bennett's (A.) Hugo, 13] 
Benson's (A. C.) From a C 



«. College Window, 606 
Benson s (E. F.) The Angel of Pain, 4 15 
Ben 8 on s ((,. |>.) Tracks in the Snow, 634 
K>-rards (V.) British [mperialism and ( ommorcial 

Supremacy, tr. Foskett, 228 
Bertrand's (A.) Versailles, 160 
Bhagavad-Gita, tr. Barnctt, 167 



Bielschowsky's (A.) The Life of Goethe, tr. Cooper, 

Vol. I., 321 
Big Game Shooting, 167 
Birmingham's (G.) Hyacinth, 323 

Blackie's English School Texts : Trips to Wonderland— 
The Taking of the Galleon— The Retreat of Sir John 
Moore, 45 
Blake, William, The Poetical Works of, ed. Sampson— 

The Lyrical Poems of, Text by Sampson, 100 
Bliss's (F. J.) The Development of Palestine Exploration, 

790 
Blyth's (J.) The Same Clay, 324 
Bodley's (J. E. C) The Church in France, 630 
Boer War: German Official History, 103; Times 

History, Vol. IV., 761 
Bond's (R. W.) Addenda, Glossary, and Index to Wil- 
liam Bercher's Nobility of Women, 74 
Book of Memory, A, compiled by Tynan, 700, 734 
Book- Auction Records, ed. Karslake, Vol. III., Part I., 

295 
Bourget, Paul, (Euvres Completes de. Vol. VI., 731 
Bowes's (R.) John Siberch : Bibliographical Notes, 

1886-1005, 795 
Boyd's (A. S.) Glasgow Men and Women, 576 
Boyd's (M. S.) The Misses Make-Believe, 356 
Boyer's (P.) Manuel pour l'Etude de la Langue Russe 
— TJn Vocabulaire Franeais-Russe de la fin du 
Seizieme Siecle, 574 
Bradby's (G. F.) Dick, 387 
Bradford's (H. N.) Macedonia, 296 
Brakspear's (H.) Waverley Abbey, 478 
Brandes's (G.) Main Currents in Nineteenth-Century 

Literature, Vol. VI., 104 
Breasted's (J. H.) A History of Egypt— Ancient Records 

of Egypt, Vol. I., 473 
Brhad-devata, The, ed. Macdonell, 166 
Brice's (S.) The Might of a Wrong-doer, 324 
Bridges's (J. A.) Reminiscences of a Country Politician, 

511 
Broadley's (A. M.) Collecta Napoleonica, 327; The 
Three Dorset Captains at Trafalgar, 506 ; The Boy- 
hood of a Great King, 730 
Brooks's (M.) The Newell Fortune, 759 
Brown's (A.) Paradise, 12 
Brown's (H. F.) In and Around Venice, 326 
Brown (R.) jun.'s Notes on the Early History of 

Barton-on-H umber, Vol. I., 7fi0 
Brown's (V.) Mrs. Grundy's Crucifix, 728 
Browning, E. B., in her Letters, by Lubbock, 119 
Browning, Robert, and Alfred Domett, ed. Kenyon, 358 
Bruckner's (Dr. A.) Geschichte der russischen Litteratur, 

10 
Buchanan, George : a Biography, by Macmillan, 788 
Buck Whaley's Memoirs, ed. Sir E. Sullivan, 725 
Buckland's (C. E.) Dictionary of Indian Biography, 479 
Buckrose's (J. E.) The Wood End, GG2 
Bucolici Grrcci, ed. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, 604 
Budge's (E. A. W.) The Egyptian Heaven and Hell, 

G33 
Bullock's (S. F.) The Cubs, 759 
Burdctt's Hospitals and Charities for 1906, 328 
Burford Papers : being Letters of Samuel Crispe to his 

Sister, by Hutton, 443 
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for 1906, 

15 
Burland's (H.) The Black Motor-Car, 758 
Burton, Sir Richard, Life of, by Wright, 420 
Bussey's (H. F.) Sixty Years of Journalism, 791 
Buxton's (B. H.) Outlines of Physiological Chemistry, 

15 
Byrde's (M.) The Interpreters, 43 
Byron, Lord, The Poetical Works of, ed. Coleridge, 14 
Calendars : Letter-Books of the City of London : Letter- 
Book G., 1352-1374, ed. Dr. Slmrpe— Patent Rolls of 
Richard II., 1391-1390, Vol. V., ed. Morris -Patent 
Rolls, 1401-14(1:., 73 
Calthrop's (1). C.) Rouge, 512 
Calvert's (A. F.) Moorish Remains in Spain, 543 
Cambridge, H.R.H. George, Duke of, Military Life, by 

Verner and Parker, 133 
Cambridge Modern History : Vol. 1 \\, Napoleon, G91 
( lambridge Theological Essays, ed. Swcte, 09 
Cambridge Year Book and Directory, 170 
Campbell's (F.) The Measure of Life, 220; Dearlove, 513 
Capcs's (B.) Loaves and Pishes, 510 
Cardiff Records, ed. Matthews, Vol. V., I7'> 
Carey's (W.) No. 101. 226 

Carls (K. A.) With the Empress Dowager of China, 106 
• 'hit's (M. B.i The Poison of Tongues, 357 
Carrigan'e (W ) History of the Diooese of Ossory, 193 
< tarter, Elizabeth, Memoir by Gaussen, 112 
Cartwright'i (T.) French 1>\ the Direct Method, 
Part III., 45 

's (A. and B.) II Youth but Knew, 174 
Castries's (Comte J |. de) lies Sources [n&Utes do 
l'llistoirc du Maroc, Vol. I., 169 



Catalogues : Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford, Vol. V., Vol. VI. Part I., by 
Madan, 599 ; Fifteenth-Century Books in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, &c., by Abbott— English 
Books in Archbishop Marsh's Library, Dublin, by 
White, 665; Coptic Manuscripts in the British 
Museum, by Crum, 792 
Catholic Directory, The, 15 
Cattier's (Prof.) Etude sur la Situation de l'Etat Indu- 

pendant du Congo, 229 
Century Bible, The : Isaiah i.-xxxix., ed. Whitehouse, 

697 
Chamberlain, Joseph : an Honest Biography, by Mackin- 
tosh, 638 
Chambers's (R. W.) The Haunts of Men, 75 
Charlemagne, Early Lives of, ed. Grant, 700 
Chesnutt's (C. W.) The Colonel's Dream, 43 
Cheyne's (T. K.) The Book of Psalms, 103 
Chronicles of London, cd. Kingsford, 132 
Churchill, Lord Randolph, by W. S. Churchill, 7 
Churchill's (W.) For Free Trade, 420 
Clark's (J. B.) Arithmetic for Schools and Colleges, 46 
Clarke, Lieut. -General the Hon. Sir Andrew, Life of, 

ed. Col. Vetch, 197 
Clarke's (G. H.) A Grammar of the German Language, 

576 
Clarke's (L.) Murray of the Scots Greys, 662 
Cleeve's (L.) A Double Marriage, G95 
Clergy Directory for 1906, 15 
Clergy List for 1906, 544 
Climenson's (E. J.) Elizabeth Montagu, the (jueen of 

the Blue-Stockings, 537, 580 
Clouston's (J. S.) Count Bunker, 758 
Cobb's (T.) Mrs. Erricker's Reputation, 226 
Cobb's (W. F.) The Book of Psalms, 102 
Cobden-Sanderson's (T. J.) The Arts and Crafts Move- 
ment, 13G 
Coggin's (F. E.) Man's Estate, 102 
Collins's (Tom) School and Sport, 576 
Colquhoun's (A. R.) The Africander Land, 163 
Colvin's (Sir A.) The Making of Modern Egypt, 296 
Connolly's (J. B.) The Deep Sea's Toll, 449; Out of 

Gloucester, 511 
Constantinople, painted by Gobel, described by Van 

Millingen, 603 
Continental Literature : Italian, 97, 127 
Conway's (Sir M.) No Man's Land : a History of Spits- 
bergen, 635 
Copinger's (W. A.) The History of Suffolk, Vol. V., 478 ; 

The Manors of Suffolk, 760 
Cornford's (L. C.) Parson Brand, &c, 667 
Cornubian Post Cards, 705 
Cowper, William, The Poems of, ed. Bailey— The Poetical 

Works of, ed. Milford, 505 
Cox's (J. C.) The Royal Forests of England, 15, 52 
Crabbe, George: Poems, Vol. I., ed. Ward, 135; Vol.11., 

ed. Ward, 731 
Cranmer-Byng's (L.) An English Rose, 664 
Crawford's (F. M.) Gleanings from Venetian History, 223 
Creighton's (Mrs.) Counsels for the Young, 71 
Creighton's (M.) Sermons on the Claims of the Common 

Life, 74 
Crespigny's (Mrs. P. C. de) The Grey Domino, 695 
Crockett^ (S. R.) Kid McGhie, 509 
Crockford's Clerical Directory for 1906, 390 
Cromartie's (Countess of) Sons of the Milesians, 729 
Crooke's (W.) Things Indian, 576 
Crosby's (O. T.) Tibet and Turkistan, 419 
Cumming's (Rev. J. E.) The Psalms, Vol. I., 103 
Curme's (G. O.) A Grammar of the German Language, 

46 
Curzon, Lord, in Tndia, 511 

Dalbiac's (L.) Dictionary of Quotations (German), 6(11 
Daly, General Sir Henry Dermot, Memoirs of, by Major 

H. Daly, 389 
Danhy's (F.) The Sphinx's Lawyer, 512 
Daniell's (W. V.) Collecta Napoleonica, 327 
D'Arcy's (R. F.) A New Trigonometry for Beginners, 

46 
Darlington's (H. A.) Last Year's Nent^, 12 
Daudct's (E.) La Tcrreur Blanche, 230 
Davey'e (R ) The Pageant of London, 756 
I laries's (A. E.) Tramway Trips and Rambles, 637 
Daviess (X. D. G.) The Rock Tombs of El Amarus, 

Part 111., 792 
Davics's (W. C.) The University of Wales and its Con- 
stituent Colleges, in 
Dawson's (F. W.) The Scar, 132 
Dearmer's (M.) Brownjohn's, 356 
Debrett's House of Commons, 360 ', Peerage, Baronetage, 

ami Knightage for 1906, L6 
Decle's (L. ) The New Russia, 762 
De Flagello Myrteo CCCLX, Thoughts and Fancies 

on Love. r,'i 182 
Dekkcr'a (T.) The Seven Deadly Sinnes of London, 321 
Demosthenes against Midiaa, ed. Qoodwin, 604 
Dent k Co.'s (Messrs.) Everyman's Library, 863, 51 I 



IV 



THE ATTTEN/EUM 



! 1 ITLEMENT to the ATIIEW^UM with Wo. 4108, July «. IX* 

January to Juhe H ,,ir » 



LITERATURE, 

Revlewi 

Diaz, Porfirio, by Mrs. Tweedie, 197 

Dickensian for 1906, L6 

Dickinson's (G. LJ A Modern Symposium, 292 

Dickinson 1 ! ill H.l Things Out ure Caaaar's, 728 

Dictionaries; \ New English, ed. Murray, Bradley, 

inul Oralgie, 363, 724; Dictionary of Quotation! 

(German), bj Dalbiao, 60] 
Diehl'i (A If.] I. to with Variations, 396 

Richard Vrateon, The Last Poemi of, selected 

end edited by Bridges, L9S 
Dod'i Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for L906, 16; 

Parliamentary Companion for 1906, 369 
Donnell's ( A. H.) Rebecca Mars 
DonOTan'l (Dick) Thurtell's Crime, 510 
Donhain'i (A.) Lea Cent Mcilleurs Poemee (Lynques) 

de la Langue Franraise, 608 
Dougall'a (L.) The Spani-h Dowry, 60S 
Douglas's (Lad v A.) The Blue Bird, 1% 
Douglas's (T.) A Golden Trust, 72 
I >\wiey's (E.) Charles Lever : his Life in his Letters, 

5 id 
Dry's (W.) Northamptonshire, 0;;7 
Dublin Review, The, 49 

Duerr's (A. E.) The Essentials of German Grammar, 46 
Duff (E.G.) and others' Hand-Lists of English Printers, 

1501-1566, Tart III., 665 
Duffs (E. G.) A Century of the English Book Trade, 665 
Duncan's (J. £.) A Summer Ride through Western 

Tibet. 334 
Duncan's (S. J.) Set in Authority, 791 
Dunning's (W. A.) Political Theories from Luther to 

Montesquieu, 297 
E. H. S.'s Henry Sidgwick, a Memoir, 383 
Eager's (M.) Six Years at the Russian Court, 448 
Easton's (M. G.) The House by the Bridge, 446 
Edwards's (A. H.) Kakemono : Japanese Sketches, 513 
Eggar's (A.) The Hfitanee, 295 

Egyptiens et Anglais, by Moustafa Kamel Pacha, 134 
Elliot's (E.) Barr & Son, 417 

Emerson's Complete Works, Centenary Edition, 472 
English Catalogue of Books for 1905, 204 
English Men of Letters : Walter Pater, by Benson, 659 
Englishwoman's Year-Book for 1906, ed. Janes, 105 
Erckmann-Chatriau's Histoire dun Homme du Peuple, 

ed. Chessex, 46 
Euripides : Essays on Four Plays of, by Verrall, 192 
Evans's (H. A.) Highways and Byways in Oxford and 

the Cotswolds, 417 
Everett-Green's (E.) The Magic Island, 634 
Eyres (A.) The Girl in Waiting, 324 
Fanshawe's (R.) Corydon, 663 
Farmer's (J. E.) Versailles and the Court under 

Louis XIV., 225 
Farrer's (R. J.) The House of Shadows, 324 
Fergusson's (R. M.) Logic : a Parish History, 357 
Fitchett's (Rev. W. H.) Wesley and his Century, 793 
Fletcher's (J. S.) The Threshing Floor, 356 
Floran's (M.) CrimineH 634 
Forbes's (A. R.) Gaelic Names of Beasts, Birds, Fishes, 

Insects, and Reptiles, 668 
Forbes's (Lady H.) Lady Marion and the Plutocrat, 662 
Ford, Richard, The Letters of, ed. Prothero, 389 
Formont's (M.) Le Baiser Rouge, 195; Le Sacrifice, 728 
Forster's (R. H.) The Arrow of the North, 132 
Fountain's (P.) The Eleven Eaglets of the West, 419 
Fowler's (E. T.) In Subjection, 634 
France's (A.) Au Petit Bonheur, 297 
Francis's (M. E ) Simple Annals, 667 
Eraser's (J. F.) Pictures from the Balkans, 606 
Eraser's (W.A) Sa' Zada Tales, 135 
Frere's (W. II.) The Principles of Religious Ceremonial, 

386 
Froude, J. A., Life of, by Paul, 164, 200 
Gallon's (Tom) Jimmy Quixote, 603 
(ialsworthy's (J.) The Man of Property, 446 
Capon's (Father G) The Story of my Life, 297 
Garrod's (H. W.) The Religion of All Good Men, 697 
Gateways, to History, Books I. — VI.. 575 
Gaussen's (A. C. C.) A Woman of Wit and Wisdom : a 

Memoir of Elizabeth Carter, 442 
Gentleman's Magazine, The, ed. Bullen, 230 
Geoffrin. Madame, by Aldis, 71 
Geography, Modern, by the Christian Brothers, 45 
Gerard a |l>.) The House of Riddles, 229 
Gerard's (M.) The Red Seal, 357 

Girdlers, London, Worshipful Company of. by Smythc 70 
Glasgow's (E.) The Wheel of Life, 416 
Glyn's (E.) Beyond the Rocks, 634 
Goethe, The Life of, by Bielschowsky, tr. Cooper Vol. I 

321 
Goethe's Iphigcneia in Tauris, tr. Dowden, 730 
Goodspeed's (G. S.) A History of the Ancient World 13 
Gordon's (S.) The Ferry of Fate, 661 
Gorst's (II.) The Fourth Party, IS 
Gorst's (Mrs. H.) The Light, 542 
Goutel's (E. II. de) Mrmoires du General Marquis 

d'Hautpoul, 134 
Gower's (E. E ) Tramway Trips and Rambles, 637 
Grappe's (G.) Lea Pierres d'Oxford, 795 



unbridge Stationers end Book- 
binden ind the First Cambridge Print John 

Biberoh ; Bibliographiosl Notes, L886 I 
i (M.) The Great Refusal, 116 
Greek Reader, Vol. II . ed. Merchant, 'u<' 

ne, Robert, The Flays and Put-ma of, ed. Collins, 
171 
Greenidge's (A. H J.) \ History of Rom.-, Vol. F, 111 
Grey'i (H. < ' Vf.) St < Silee'i of U 1. | 1 , 177 
Griffiths's (Majo A) A Royal Rascal, 72 
Qruyer'i 1 P.) Napoli on, Roi de Pile d'Elbe, 327 

Cuc-Yvillc's (A. li. de) New Egypt 420 

( ruimet'a (B.) Conferences feitea au If usee Guimet, ; 
Guirsud'a Etudes Bconomlqnee but 1' Antiquity, II 
Gunns (J.) The Infant School, ll 

(.union's (.1.) Dramatic Lyrics, 664 

it's (V.) The Comedy of Protection, tr. Hamilton, 

L34 
Haggard'i (H. R.) The Way of the Spirit, 387 
Haile's (M.) Mary ofHodena, 661 
Halls (11. P.) A People at School, 322 
Hall's (11. R.) Coptic and Creek Texts of the Christian 

Period from Ostraka, &c, 793 
Hall's (II. R. W.) Our English Towns and Villages, 576 
Hall's (W.) Tables and Constants to Four Figures. 14 
Hardy's (E. C.) Studies in Roman History, 576 
Hare's (A. J. C.) Sicily, 13 
Harper'a (C.) The Brighton Road, 513 
Harper's (S. N.) Russian Reader, adapted for English- 
speaking Students, 574 
Harradena (BJ The Scholar's Daughter, 259 
Hart- Davis's (Capt. H. V.) Chats on Angling, 477 
Hastings, Warren, Letters to his Wife, transcribed and 

annotated by Sydney Grier, 385 
Hautpoul, General Marquis d', Memoires du, by Hennet 

deCoutel, 134 
Hayes's (Dr. A. J.) The Source of the Blue Nile, 229 
Hayward's (C. F.) Our Island's Story. 47 
Healy's (C.) Mara, 445 

Healy's (Rev. P. T.) The Valerian Persecution, 759 
Hearn's (L ) The Romance of the Milky Way, &c, 

388 
Hearseys, The : Five Generations of an Anglo-Indian 

Family, ed. Col. Pearse, 74 
Hedley's (G. W.) Elementary Chemistry, Part I., 47 
Heilbronn's (E.) Das Tier Jehovahs, 666 
Heine, Heinrich, The Works of, Vol. XII., tr. Armour, 

197 
Henderson's (B. W.) At Intervals, 196 
Henderson's (T. F.) Mary, Queen of Scots: a Biography, 

319 
Henry's (V.) Precis de Grammaire Palie, 167 
Herbert, George, The English Works of, arranged and 

annotated by Palmer, 415 
Herbert's (Capt. von) By-paths in the Balkans, 448 
Herbert's (C. W.) Poems of the Seen and Unseen, 663 
Hermant's (A.) Les Grands Bourgeois, 260, 300 
Heroes of Asgard, The, ed. Earle, 45 
Hertfordshire, Old, Memorials of, ed. Standing, 477 
Higginson's (Col. T. W.) Part of a Man's Life, 134 
Hight'a (G. A.) The Unity of Will, 731 
Hill's (H.) The Avengers, 695 
Hilliers's (A.) The Mistakes of Miss Manisty, 475 
Hindlip's (Lord) Sport and Travel. 635 
Hoffcling's (Dr. H.) The Problems of Philosophy, tr. 

Fisher, 441 ; The Philosophy of Religion, tr. Meyer, 

569 
Hollams's (Sir J.) The Jottings of an Old Solicitor, 638 
Holland's (R. S.) The Count at Harvard, 542 
Holmes's (W. G.) The Age of Justinian and Theodora, 

Vol. I., 760, 798 
Holstein's (A. de) Serf Life in Russia, 448 
Holyoake's (G. J.) The History of Co-operation, 168 
Homer, by Mackail, 136; The Odyssey, Bks. IX. XVI., 

by Mackail, 664 
Hone's The Manor and Manorial Records, 761 
Hoskins's (F. E.) The Jordan Valley and Petra, 418 
Houdeau's (P.) L' Union Britannique, 134 
House of Commons in 1906, 228 
llousman's (L.) The Cloak of Friendship, 74 
Hubback's (J. II.) Jane Austen's Sailor Brothers, 420, 

452 
Hubback's (T. R.) Elephant and Scladang Hunting in 

Malaya, 176, 515, 517 
Hucffer's (F. M.) The Fifth Queen, 417 ; The Heart of 

the Country, 794 
Hughes's (J.) Liverpool Banks and Baukcrs, 1760-1S37, 

ll'.i 
Hughea-Gibb'a (Mrs.) Through the Rain, 132 
Hume's (F.) The Mystery of the Shadow, 417 
Hundred Best Latin Poems (Lyrical), selected by 

Mackail, 48 
Huneker's (J.) Visionaries : a Book of Tales, 228 
Hunter's (A. A.) The Pedigree of Hunter of Abbotshill 

and Barjarg, 169 
Hutchinson's (IF G.) Amelia and the Doctor, 6!»."> 
linden's (Baroness von) What became of Pam, 691 
Button's (R. IF) Fricf Literary Criticisms, ed. Roscoe, 

1 in 

Mutton's (\V. 11.) Bur ford Papers: being Letters of 

Samuel Crispe to his Sister, 1 1.". 
Inchbold's (A. ('.) I'hnntasma, 768 
Irish History: Reader, by the Christian Brothers, 15; 

Irish History and the Irish Question, by Smith, 48 



Iri'h I Firi-t Met Cranunar The Grammar 

of Spoken Irish -Aids to the Pronunciation of Irish, 

by the Christian Brothers, 45 
lefsndiyir's (Ibn) History of Tabarutan, ed. Browne, 

790 

1 1 11 -relies of Sea Power 
.1 mi' - (J I Stadias La fl>n lallsait. tr. Minturn, 

The Lady (fogs Peeress, 106 
Jerotn \ ■ ■■,.,11 oi the Chronicle of Eusebiua, The 

Bodleian Manuscript of, 96 
Jevono'a ill. S.) Essays on E co no m ics, (49 
Jewish Encyclopaedia, Vol. XL, 666 

Jejree'l (S. IF I Lv Karl of Rosebery. 87 
Johnson's Live* of the Poets, ed. Hill, 162 
Joliclerc'a (E.) Joujou conjugal. I 
Jones's (1). M.) A Maid of Normandy, 510 
Jones's (W. L.) The University of Wales and ita Con- 
stituent Colleges, 40 
Jonaon, Ben: Underwoods. 321 ; Songs bv, 6"7 
Julian the Apostate, by Negri, tr. Duchess Litta- 

Yi-ionti-Arese, 262 
Juvenal : D. Iunii Iuvenalis Saturae, ed. Houaman, 605 
Kajipa'B Let Youth but Know. 41 
Keatinge's (IF G.) Sea Danger, and other Poems, IM 
Kei-htley's (8. R.) Barnaby'e Bridal, 131 
Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed, and Official 

Classes for 1906, 170 
Kelly's (R. T.) Burma, 13 
Kenealy's (A.) An American Duchesa, 474 
Kennedy'a (B.) The Green Sphinx, 105 
Kenny's (L.) The Red-Haired Woman, 43 
Kent's (C- F.) Israel's Historical and Biographical 

Narratives, 102 
Killingworth'a (W.) Matsya : the Romance of an Indian 

Elephant, 230 
King's English, The, 667 
Knight's (A. E ) The Complete Cricketer. 631 
Knowles's (R. E.) St. Cuthbart's of the West, 12 
Knowling's (R. J.) The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ, 

103 
Kramer's (Miss S.) English Craft Gilds and the Govern- 
ment, 448 
La Bruyere's Les Caracttres, ed. Pellisaier, 45 
Lady of the Decoration, The, 510 
Lamington's (Lord) In the Days of the Dandies, 511 
Lane's (Mrs. J.) The Champagne Standard. 197 
Lang's (A.) New Collected Rhymes, 195, 232; Sir 

Walter Scott, 413 
Langbridge's (R.) The Ambush of Young Days, 259 
L'Armee en 1906, 512 
Larned's (J. N.) History for Ready Reference and 

Topical Reading, 763 
Latham's (E.) French Abbreviations, 763 
Latimer's (E. W.) France in the Nineteenth Century, 

1830-90, 262 
Laut's (A. C ) Vikings of the Pacific, 635 
Le Braz's (A) The Land of Pardons, tr. Gostling, 636 
Lefranc's (A.) Les Navigations de Pantagruel, 135 
Legge's (A. E. J.) The Ford. 42 
Leigh, Augustus Austen, Provost of King's College, 

Cambridge, ed. W. A. Leigh, 757 
Leigh's (Hon. M. C.) Our School out of Doors, 575 
Leland, John, Itinerary in Wales in or about the Years 

1536-1539, ed. Smith, 475 
Le Queux's (W.) The Mystery of a Motor-Car, 634 
Lespinasse, Julie de, par le Marquis de St'gur, 694 
Le Strange's (G) The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, 

729 
Lever, Charles : his Life in his Letters, by Downey, 540 
Libbey's (W.) The Jordan Valley and Petra, 418 
Liberal Magazine for 1905, 197 
Library, The, 105, 513 
Lippincott's New Gazetteer of the World, ed. A. snd L. 

Heilprin, 136 
Little's (Mrs. A.) Round about my Peking Garden, 14; 

A Millionaire's Courtship, 509 
Lloyd's (J.) The Great Forest of Brecknock, 543 
Lodge's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for 1906, 

105 
Loggan's (D.) Cantabrigia Illustrata. ed. Clark, 10 
London's (Jack) Tales of the Fish Patrol, 229 
Long's (J. L.) The Way of the Gods, 791 
Lord's ( W.) The Mirror of the Century, 730 
Lorimer's (A.) The Author's Progress, 326 
Lounsbery's (C C.) Love's Testament, 664 
Low's (S. ) A Vision of India, 606 
Lubbock's (B.) Jack Derringer, 887 
Lubbock's (P.) Elizabeth Barrett Browning in her 

Letters, 419 
Lubovius's (L.) A Practical German Grammar, Part I. 

46 
Lyull's (D.) The Sign of the Golden Fleece. 867 
Lyceum Annual. 1906, 330 
Lydgate's (J.) The Assemble of Goddes. 731 
Lyly, John, by Wilson, 7"' 
Lynd'a (R.) The Mantle of the Emperor, 759 
Maartens's (M.) The Healers. 323 
McCarthy's (J. IF) The Flower of France, 694 
Maeanlay's Essay on Clive, ed. Buller— Essay on 

Addison, ed. Winch, US 
Met 'Fllands (Rev. R.) The Church and Paruh of 

[nchinnan, 3."'7 
McCullagh's (F.) With the Cossacks, 296, 422 
Macdonald's (R.) The Sea Maid, 294 






SUPPLEMENT to the ATHEN^UMCwith No. 4108, July 31, 1908] <h .^.i*« 

January to June 1906 INDEX OF CONTENTS 



V 



McFadyen's (J. E.) Introduction to the Old Testament, 

102 
Macfall's (H.) Rouge, 542 
Macilwaine's (H.) Anthony Britten, 728 
Mackail's (J. W.) The Progress of Poesy, 3G0 
Mackay's (W.) A Mender of Nets, 475 
Mackenzie's (R. J.) Almond of Loretto, 257 
Mackinnon's (J.) A History of Modern Liberty, 538, 
I 640 
Mackintosh's (A.) Joseph Chamberlain: an Honest 

Biography, 638 
McLaren's (J.) A Grammar of the Kaffir Language, 574 
Macmahon's (E.) An Elderly Person, 667 
MacMichaePs (J. H.) Story of Charing Cross and its 

Immediate Neighbourhood, 133 
Macmillan's New Globe Readers, Book IV., 45 
Macmillan's (G. D.) George Buchanan : a Biography, 

788 
McMurry's (C. A.) Course of Study in the Eight 

Grades, 575 
McTaggart's (J. M. E.) Some Dogmas of Reliirion, 320 
Magnus's (L.) How to Read English Literature : 

Chaucer to Milton, 573 
Mahan's (Capt. A. T.) The War of 1812, 290 
Maine's (Sir H.) Ancient Law, ed. Sir F. Pollock, 419 
Maitland's (E. F.) Blanche Esmead. 474 
Mann's (M. E.) Rose at Honeypot, 166 
Marchmont's (A. W.) By Wit of Woman, 662 
Margueritte's (P.) Les Pas sur le Sable, 390 
Marie Antoinette, A Friend of (Lady Atkyns), tr. from 

the French of Barbey, 507 
Marriott's (C.) The Lapse of Vivien Eady, 356 
Marsh's (C. F.) Mr. Baxter, Sportsman, 474 
Marshall^ (A.) Richard Baldock, 634 
Mary, Queen of Scots, a Biography, by Henderson, 319 
Mary of Modena, by Haile, 661 
Mary's (J.) Le Fils d'un Voleur, 166 
Masefield's (J. and C.) Lyrics of the Restoration, 105 
Mater's (A.) L'Eglise Catholique, sa Constitution, son 

Administration, 638, 641 
Matthews's (W. H.) A Deathless Story, 700 
Maugham's (W. S.) The Bishop's Apron, 417 
Ma Vie Militaire, 1800-1810, 198 
Maxwell's (Sir H.) The Story of the Tweed, 131 
Maxwell's (W.) From the Yalu to Port Arthur, 359 
Maynard's (G.) An Illustrated Guide to Saffron Walden, 

763 
Meade's (L. T.) Victory, 357 
Meakin's (B.) Life in Morocco, 14 
Medlycott's (A. E.) India and the Apostle Thomas, 258 
Memorials of Old Hertfordshire, ed. Standing, 477 
Merimee's (P.) The Love-Letters of a Genius, tr. 

Watt, 326 
Methley's (A.) La Belle Dame, 166 
Methuen's (Messrs.) Standard Library, 390 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Sonnets of, tr. Hall, 664 
Middlemass's (J.) A Veneered Scamp, 759 
Miles's (E.) Essays in the Making, 639 
Miles's (W.) Field- Path Rambles — Canterbury and Kent 

Coast — East Surrey — Eastbourne, 637 
Miller's (E.) A Vendetta in Vanity Fair, 43 
Miltoun's (F.) Rambles in Brittany, 418 
Mitford's (B.) A Secret of the Lebombo, 12 
MoncriefTs (A. R. H.) The Highlands and Islands of 

Scotland, 570, 671, 702, 797 
Monroe's (P.) A Text-Book in the History of Education, 

43 
Montagu, Elizabeth, the Queen of the Blue-Stockings, 

by Climenson, 537, 580 
Montefiore's (D. B.) Serf Life in Russia, 448 
Moore, T. Sturge, Poems by, 664 
Moore's (F.) The Balkan Trail, 762 
Morgan-de-Groot's (J.) The Bar Sinister, 728 
Morice's (Rev. A. J.) History of the Northern Interior 

of British Columbia, 420 
Morris's (J. E.) Dorking and Leatherhead, 637 
Moule, Mary E. E., Brief Memorial of, by the Bishop of 

Durham, 75 
Moulton's (J. H.) A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 

Vol. I., 726 
Mozley's (F. W.) The Psalter of the Church, 102 
Muddock's (J. E.) For the White Cockade, 72 
Murray's (C. J.) A Grammar of the German Language, 

576 
Mjrick's (H.) Cache la Poudre, 132 

Napoleon, Roi de l'lle d'Elbe, by Gruyer. 327 

Naval Annual for 1906, ed. Leyland and Brassey, 668 

Naval Pocket-Book, The, ed. Clowes, 699 

Negri's (O.) Julian the Apostate, tr. Duchess Litta- 

Visconti-Arcse, 262 
Nesbit's (E.) Oswald Bastable, and Others, 169 
Nevinson's (H. W.) The Dawn in Russia, 730; A Modern 

Slavery, 762 
Newberry's (P. E.) Scarabs, 293, 423 
New Editions, Reprints, &c, 15, 16, 48, 49, 71, 7."), 105, 

136,263, 297. 327, 360, 390, 421, 450, 480, 514, 544, 

575, 570, 577, 007, 60s, 638, 689, 070, 763, 795 
Newspaper Gazetteer for 1900, 26 4 
Newspaper Press Directory, 1906, 355 
New Zealand Official Year- Book for 1905, 134 
Nodier's (C.) Jean Sbogar, ed. Savory, 46 
Norgate's (G. Le Gr.j Life of Sir Walter Scott, 113 
Norregaard's (B. W.) The Great Siege, 48 
Northamptonshire Families, ed. Barron, 789 



Norwich, Records of the City of, Vol. I., compiled and 
ed. Rev. W. Hudson, 571 

Notovitch's (N.) La Russie et l'Alliance Anglaise, 297 

Oman's (C.) Inaugural Lecture on the Study of History, 
322 

Onions's (O.) The Drakestone, 259 

Orczy's (Baroness) A Son of the People, 227 

Osbourne's (LI.) Wild Justice, 510 

Ottley's (Major) With Mounted Infantry in Tibet, 420 

Outram's (J.) In the Heart of the Canadian Rockies, 13 

Oxenham's (J.) Giant Circumstance, 388 

Oxford Year-Book and Directory for 1906, 105 

Palmer's (G. H.) The English Works of George 
Herbert, 415 

Parrish's (R.) A Sword of the Old Frontier, 194 

Passmore's (Rev. T. H.) In Further Ardenne, 418 

Pater, Walter, by Benson, fi59 

Paternoster's (G. S.) The Cruise of the Conquistador, 43 

Paul's (H.) Life of Froude, 164, 200 

Payoud's (J.) Le Petit de 1' Hospice, 195 

Pearce's (J. H.) The Dreamer's Book, 296 

Peaker's (F.) British Citizenship, 512 

Perplexed Parson, The, by Himself, 135 

Perrin's (A.) Red Records, 666 

Perry's (R. B.) The Approach to Philosophy, 169 

Petronius : Cena Trimalchionis, ed. Lowe— tr. Ryan, 260 

Philips' Comparative Series of Large School Maps, 47 

Phillimore's (Prof.) Index Verborum Propertianus, 260 

Phillips's (L. M.) In the Desert, 133 

Phillpotts's (E.) The Portreeve, 194 

Pictorial London, 731 

Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, ed. Skeat, 573 

Pietist of the Napoleonic Wars and After, by Princess 
Reuss, tr. by Barrett-Lennard and Hooper, 130 

Pitt, William, by Whibley, 168 

Plato : The Theatetus and Philebus, by Carlill, 605 

Plautus : The Captivi, ed. Henson, 260 

Plays and Poems of Robert Greene, ed. Collins, 471 

Poems and Extracts chosen by William Wordsworth, 
ed. Littledale, 325 

Political History of England : Vol. III. 1216-1377. 165 

Political Parables by The Westminster Gazette Office 
Boy (Francis Brown), 75 

" Pope " of Holland House, ed. Lady Seymour, 600 

Pope's (Prof. J. E.) The Clothing Industry of New 
York, 327 

Praed's (Mrs. C.) The Lost Earl of Elian, 728 

Pratt's (E.) British Canals, 763 

Prior's (M.) Poems on Several Occasions, Text edited by 
Waller, Vol. I., 325 

Pritchard's (E. M.) Cardigan Priory in the Olden Days, 
476 

Propertius : Index Verborum, by Phillimore, 260 

Pryce's (G.) A Son of Arvon, 510 

Pugh's (E.) The Spoilers, 166 

Punch Library of Humour, ed. Hammcrton, 670 

Q.'s The Mayor of Troy, 603 

Raine's (A.) Queen of the Rushes, 758 

Rawnsley's (Canon) Months at the Lakes, 637 

Rees's (A. W.) Creatures of the Night, 105 

Repplier's (A.) In our Convent Days, 104 

Rflvel's(J.) Terriens, 229 

Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada for 
the Year 1905, ed. Wrong and Langton, 448 

Reynolds's (Mrs. F.) In Silence, 259 

Richardson's (H.) An Introduction to Practical Geo- 
graphy, 47 

Rickert's (E.) Folly, 474 

Rickett's (A.) Personal Forces in Modern Literature, 757 

Ridgeway's (W.) The Origin and Influence of the 
Thoroughbred Horse, 255 

Rippmann's (W.) The Sounds of Spoken English, 573 

Rituale Armenorum, ed. Conybeare, tr. Maclean, 730 

Roberts's (C. G. D.) Around the Camp Fire, 667 

Roberts's (M.) The Blue Peter, 229 ; The Prey of the 
Strongest, 728 

Robertson's (C. G.) The Historical and Modern Atlas 
of the British Empire, 47 

Robertson's (F. W.) Twelve Sermons, selected by Allen- 
son, 577 

Rocher's (F. de) LesParticules, 603 

Rodocanachi's (E.) Le Capitole Romain, Antique et 
Moderne, 44 

Roosevelt's (President) Outdoor Pastimes of an American 
Hunter, 168 

Rose's (J. H.) The Development of the European 
Nations, 1870-1900, 723 

Rosebery, The Earl of, by Jeyes, 227 

Rosny's (J. II.) Sous le Fardeau, 132 

Routledge's (Messrs.) Universal Library, 170, 264, 121 ; 
The Muses' Library, 121 

Rowland's (II. C.) In'the Shadow, 758 

Russo-.lapanesc War : The Greal Siege, by Norregaard, 
IS ; With the Cossacks, by Met lullagh, 296, 122 ; Port 
Arthur, the Siege and Capitulation, by Ashmead-Bart- 
lett — From the Yalu to Port Arthur, by Maxwell, 359 

Rutherford's (W. G.) A Chapter in the History of 
Annotation, 570 

Ruthven's(H. C.) The Uphill Road, 769 

Sabatier's (P.) Disestablishment in France, 512 

Sabatini's (II.) Bardelya the Magnificent, 00:; 

St. Barbo'B(R.) A Spanish Web, 695 

Saintc-Bcuve's (C. A.) Portraits of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, Part I. tr. Wormeley, Part II. tr. Ives, 230 



Saintsbury's (G.) A History of English Prosody from the 
Twelfth Century, Vol. I., 629 

Salmon's (A. L.) Literary Rambles in the West of 
England, 418 

Saltus's (E.) Vanity Square, 792 

Saxelby's (F. M.) A Course of Practical Mathematics, 44 

Schillings's (C. G.) With Flashlight and Rifle, tr. White, 
476 

Science Year-Book for 1906, 16 

Schoolmasters' Year-Book and Directory for 1906, 49 

Schultz's (H.) Outlines of Christian Apologetics for Use 
in Lectures, tr. Nichols, 696 

Scots Peerage, The, Vol. III., ed. Sir J. B. Paul, 3o7 

Scott, Sir Walter, by Lang-Life of, by Norgate, 413 

Sedgwick's (A. D.) The Shadow of Life, 417 

Segur's (Marquis de) Julie de Lespinasse, 694 

Select Documents of the French Revolution: The 
Constituent Assembly, ed. Legg, 261 

Sergeant, Adeline, The Life of, by Stephens, 104 

Sergeant's (A.) The Choice of Emelia, 166 

Sergeant's (P. W.) I he Burlesque Napoleon, 262 

Shadwell's (A.) Industrial Efficiency, 660 

Shaw's (Mrs. M.) Illustres et Inconnus, 327 

Sherwood's (M.) The Coming of the Tide, 72 

Short Notices, 16, 49 

Shuckburgh's (E. S.) Greece, 43 

Siberch, John : Bibliograplrcal Notes, 1886-1900, by 
Bowes and Gray, 795 

Sicily, by Hare and Baddeley, 13 

Sidgwick, Henry : a Memoir, by A. S. and E. M. S., 383 

Siegfried's (A.) Le Canada : Les Deux Races, 444 

Sigerson's (D.) The Story and Song of Black Roderick, 
577 

Silberrad's (U. L.) Curayl, 388 

Simmons's (A. T.) An Introduction to Practical Geo- 
graphy, 47 

Sims's (G. R.) For Life— and After, 387 

Sinclair's (U.) The Jungle, 446 

Smith, Madeleine, Trial of, ed. A. D. Smith, 669 

Smith's (G.) Irish History and the Irish Question, 48 

Smith's (I. G.) What is Truth] 104 

Smith's (J. T.) A Book for a Rainy Day, ed. Whitten,14 

Smythe's (W. D.) An Historical Account of the Worship- 
ful Company of Girdlers, London, 70 

Snaith's (J. C.) Henry Northcote, 662 

Soden's (Baron H. von) The History of Early Christian 
Literature, tr. Wilkinson, ed. Morrison, 695 

Songs by Ben Jonson : a Selection from the Plays, &c., 
607 

Spender's (H.) The Arena, 572 

Spender's (R. E.) Display, 12 

Speranski's (N.) Manuel pour PEtude de la Languc 

Squire's '(C) The Mythology of the British Islands, 9 
Stacpoole's (H. De Vere) Fanny Lambert, 259 
Statesman's Year-Book for 1906, ed. Keltie and Renwick, 

698 
Steel s (F. A.) A Book of Mortals, 263 
Stephens's (W.) The Life of Adeline Sergeant, lot 
Stevens's (G. P.) The Christian Doctrine of Salvation, 696 
Stevenson's (Mrs. M. I.) Letters from Samoa, 1891-1895, 

ed. Miss M. C. Balfour, 419 
Stevenson's (P. L.) The Black Cuirassier, 662 
Stubbs's (C. W.) The Story of Cambridge, 544 
Stubbs's (W.) Lectures on Early English History, ed. 

Hassall, 384 
Studies in American Trade Unionism, ed. Hollander 

and Barnett, 479 
Sturne's (F. P.) An Hour of Reverie, 196 
Sudermann's (H.) The Undying Past, tr. Marshall, 729 
Suetonius: C. Suetoni Tranquilli de Vita Cwsarum 

Libri VIII., ed. Preud'homme, 261 
Surrey and Sussex : Camden's Britannia, 669 
Suyematsu's (Baron) A Fantasy of Far Japan, 388 
Sylva's (Carmen) Suffering's Journey on the Earth, tr. 

Nash, 263, 300 
Symons's (A.) Spiritual Adventures, 161 
Sympson's (E. M.) Lincoln, 636 
Synge's (Mrs. H.) A Supreme Moment, 226 
Syrett's (N.) Women and Circumstance, 729 

Tacitus : Annals. Books I. to VI., tr. Synionds, 605 

Tearle's (C.) Old Mr. Lovelace, 511 

Temple, Archbishop, Memoirs of, by Seven Friends 

cd. Sandford, 351, 394 
Terrage's (Baron M. de V. du) Rois sans Couronne, 763 
Terry's (C. S.) The Scottish Parliament, 191 
Thackeray, W. M.: The New Sketch-Book, compiled by 

K. S. (jarnctt, 359 
Thayer's (W. R.) A Short History of Venice, 223 
Theuriet's (A.) Mon Oncle Flo, 166 
Thomas's (A.) A Pretender, 1:;, 81 
Thread of (J old. The, 224 
Thurston's (E. T.) Traffic, 294 
Thurston's (K. ('.) The Gambler, 259 
Tibullus: Carmina. ed. Postgate, 260 
Tinayre's (M.) La Rebelle, 324 

Tinseau's (L. de) Les Etourderies de la Ohanoinesse, 132 
Tolstoy, Counl L., The Works of, tr. and ed. Wiener, 327 
Tout's (T. P.) The Political History of England, Vol, MI. 

1216 1-77. I'' ■ 
Trafford Taunton's (W ) [gdrasil, 696 
Trowbridge's (W. I!. II.) A Dazzling Reprobate, ! i 
Tuck & Sons' (Messrs. K.) Pictorial Post Cards, ,'■<■> 
Tudor Translations, 449 



[SUPPLEMENT to the ATHBNAX'M with No. 4108, July 21, 1908 



* 



T1IK ATI! KNTKUM 



January to June 1900 



LITERATURE. 

RCVieW«-i«Mfluric/. 

Turg.niilT, Ivan, The Novels and Stories of, tr. Hapgood, 

7" 
Tutin's (J. R.) The Orinda Booklets Pembroke Booklets, 

390 
Tweedie'i (Mrs. A.) Porfirio Diaz, 197 
Tynan's (K.) [nnocendea, 195j The Adventures of 

Alicia, T.'iS 

UnderhilPs (E.) The Miracles of Our Lady, :;v.i 
Upper Norwood Athenaeum, Record lor 1905, 136 
Ursine, Princess des, in Spain, The Story of the, ed. 

Hill, 359 
VacbeU's (II. A.) The Face of Clay, .Ml 
Vambery's (Prof.) Western Culture in Eastern Lands, 358 
Van Dyke's (H) Fisherman's Luck, 730 
Van Yorst's (M.) Miss Desmond, 42; The Sin of George 

Warrener. 7'.'2 
Vermeerschs (Dr.) La Question Congolaise, (>07 
Verrall's (A. W.) Essays on Four Plays of Euripides, 192 
Victoria County History: Derby, Vol. L, 128 ; Sussex, 

Vol. T. — Durham, Vol. I., 352; Lancashire, Vol. I. 

— Worcestershire, Vol. II., 539 
Yillari's (L.) Fire and Sword in the Caucasus, (11)9 
Virgil: The /Eneid, tr. Billson, 201; J-'.neid VII., 

VIII., and IX., 57(5 

Wallace's (H.) Hasty Fruit, 759 

Walpole, Horace, The Letters of, Vols. XIII.-XYL, 

cd. Mrs. P. Toynbee, 69 
Waltz's (E. C.) The Ancient Landmark, 194 
War in South Africa, by the German Great General 

Staff, tr. Col. H. Du Cane, 103 
Ward's (Mrs. H.) Fenwick's Career, 572, 667 
Ward's (Mrs. W.) Out of Due Time, 542 
Warden's (F.) Who was Ladv Thurne? 73 
Warrego's (P.) A P Autre Lout du Monde, 229 
Watson's (G.) The Voice of the South. 133 
Watson's (II. B. M.) The High Toby, 294 
Watson's (Dr. J.) The Inspiration of our Faith, 297 



Webling's (P.) Blue Jay, 357 
Welsh's (Rev. R. E.) Man to Man, 74 
Wesley and his Century, by Fitchett, 793 
Westeimarck's (E.) The Origin and Development of the 

Moral Ideas, Vol. I., 692 
Whadcoat's (G. C.) Rosamond's Morality, 73 
Whaley (Buck), Memoirs, ed. Sullivan, 725 
Whates's (H. R.) Canada : the New Nation, 699, 733 
Wheeler's (Miss) Chertsey Abbey, 15 
Whibley's (C ) William Pitt, 168 
Whisbaw's (F.) Moscow, 12 

Whisperings from the Great, compiled by Mcrcdyth, 544 
AVhiston's Josephus, ed. Margoliouth, 606 
Whites (P.) Mr. John Strood, 541 
White's (S. E.) Blazed Trail Stories, G66 
Whitehouse's (F. C.) Mark Maturin, Parson, 259 
Whiteing's (R.) Ring in the New, 633 
Whithard's (P.) George's Whims, 510 
Whitney's (C) Jungle Trails and Jungle People, 669 
Wilkinson's (R. J.) Malay Beliefs, 577 
Williams's (B.) The 7 ?me.s History of the War in South 

Africa, Vol. IV., 761 
Williams's (H. N.) Five Fair Sisters, 787 
Williams's (L. ) Granada, 542 

Wilson's (Rev. C. T.) Peasant Life in the Holy Land, 449 
Wilson's ( Vlajor-Gen. Sir C. W.) Golgotha and the Holy 

Sepulchre, ed. Col. Sir C. M. Watson, 790 
Wilson's (F. R. L.) Elementary Chemistry, Part I., 47 
Wilson's (J. C.) On the Traversing of Geometrical 

Figures, 44 
Wilson's (J. D.) John Lyly,75 
Wilson's (R.) Lingua Materna, 45 
Winbolt's (S. E.) The Latin Hexameter, 57G 
Winter's (J. S.) A Simple Gentleman, 509 
Wister's (O.) Lady Baltimore, 003 
Witt's (J. G.) Life in the Law, 793 

Woman of Wit and Wisdom, A : a Memoir of Elizabeth 
Carter, by Gaussen, 442 

Woodroffe's (D.) The Beauty Shop, 227 
Wordsworth's Literary Criticism, ed. Smith, 326; Guide 
to the Lakes, ed. De Selincourt, 5 C! 

World and its People, The 17 

Wright's (M. T.) The Tower, 095 

Wright's (T.) The Life of Sir Richard Burton, 420 

Writers' and Artists' YearJJook for 1906, 105 

Wyllarde's (D.) The Pathway of the Pioneer, 324 

Yachting Monthly, The, 544 

Yarcott's (W. G.) Pinch, Potty & Co., 729 

V car-Books of Edward III . : Years XVIII. and XIX.. 
ed. Pike, 73 

Yeats's (W. B.) Stories of Red Hanralian, 007 

Yorke s (C.) Irresponsible Kitty, 294 

Young O'Briens, The, 792 

Poetry. 

Butterfly, The : Garden Scandal, by .1. Beerbohm 515 

My Blackbird and 1, by A. P. Graves, 764 

Two Versions from the Old Irish, by A. P. Graves 137 



Original Papers. 

' Address to Lord Deninan ' Pscudo-Tcnnvsonian, 199 

' Age of Justinian and Theodora,' The, 798 

" American Advertising," 7"1 

Asloan MS., The, 122, 482, 516, 671 

Assistant Masters in Secondaiy Schools, 5<J 

Arthurian Notes, 579 

Blake, William, The Family of, 615 

" Boast," The Etvmologv of, 18 

Book Sales of 1905, 10. 78 

Booksellers' Provident Institution, 329 

British Academy, Proceedings of the, L903 I, 392 

Buchanan's ((ieor^e) Schools, 7"7 

Cambridge, Notes from. 391 

Campion and Mr. Paul, 18 

Chaucer: Chaucer's Ancestry, 233 ; " Prestes Thre'' or 

" Prest Kstre," 231, 265, 299, 329 
Classical Association, The, 4!) 
Cornwall's (Barry) Lines to Lamb, 171 
Creighton Memorial, 706 
Dante : ' Divina Commedia,' The 1477 Venice Edition, 

52, 79 : John Foxe and the ' I >e Monarchia,' 450 
Dickens : 'Curious Dance round a Curious Tree,' L08 
Dublin, Notes from, 545, 57!), 701 
Dublin Degrees for Women, 579 
Early English Drama Society, The, 80 
Eclipse, A Life of, 547 

Education in the Channel Islands, 137, 171 
Educational Notes, 51 
" Elstow," 298 
English, The Study of, 547 
Fletcher's (Giles) Version of Jeremiah, 701 
Foxe, John, and the Editio Princeps of Dante's 'De 

Monarchia,' 450 
Froude's ' Nemesis of Faith,' 109, 451 
Goethe and Heine, 265 
Gray, Thomas, in Peterhouse, 76, 107 
Harte, Bret, and San Francisco, 071 
Hemans's (Mrs.) Birth, The Year of, 18 
Henry V., The Birth- Year of, 040, 733 
'Highlands and Islands of Scotland, The,' 071. ' ( 02, 797 
' History of Modern Liberty, A,' 040 
Horse-Racing at Carthage, 298 
Incorporated Association of Head Masters, 76 
Ireland, Ancient Coalfields in, 232 
Irish Memoirs, Lost, 733 

Lamb, Charles : Reference Explained, 199, 233, 207 ; 
Some Unpublished Letters of, 545, 009, 040; More 
Eliana, 798 
Library and Educational Authorities, Conference at 

Birmingham, 578, 610 
Lytton's 'John Acland,' 300, 451 
Marlowe, Christopher, Bibliography, 18 
'Melanges Nicole,' 232 
Milton : " That Two-Handed Engine at the Door,' 1 451, 

515, 547 
Murat and Napoleon. New Light on, 732 
' New Collected Rhymes,' 232 
Notaries Public, 199 
'Open Road, The,' 671, 701, 732, 765 
' Ormulum,' where was it written? 6< »!) 
Oxford, Notes from, 360, 790 
' Piers the Plowman,' The Misplaced Leaf of, 481 
Press, International Congress for 1906 abandoned, 481 
Publishers' International Congress at Milan, 765 
Publishing Season, 199, 233, 205, 299, 329, 301, 393, 422, 

516 
Rome, Fire of, and the Christians, 108 
• Royal Forests of England, The,' 52 
Royal Historical Society, 171, 701 
Russia, 51 

Sales, 172, 234, 266, 423, 547, 609, 072, 673 
Santa Petronilla, Destruction of the Villa of, 301 
''Seladang," Hunting the, 515, 547 
Shakspeare : error in ' Census of First Folios,' 52 
State-aided Emigration, 733 
Swinton Charters, The, 138 
' Tree of Life, The ': a Correction, 233, 236 
Truman Sale, The, 234 
Two National Trusts, 071 
' With the Cossacks,' 422 

Wolfram von Eschciibach's ' Parzival,' The Author of 
the French Original of, 422, 00S 

Obituaries. 

Althof, Prof., 580. Annand, J., 201. Beerbohm, J., 510. 
Bendall, Prof. O, 331. Benecke, W., 53. Berrv, Mrs. 
(Ada S. Ballin). 010. Bever, Prof. K., 303. Bickell, 
Dr. G.. 110. Bickersteth. Dr. E. H., Old. Bierfreund, 
Dr. T., 041. Blackie, Dr. W. G., 702, 733. Blois, 
Comte de, 331. Bonwick, J., 172. Brightwen, E, 
580. Brissac, 11., 641. Brock, Mrs. C.,, 19. Brody. 
S., 81. Bruun, Dr. C, 301. Carjat, E., 363. Car- 
rington, Dean, 19. Chenai, S. J., 303. Chesson. Mrs. 
W. II., 4S3. Child, Rev. T., 395. Christ, W. von, 
235. Claudin, A., 267. Cord'homme, C-, 172. Dalev, 
V., 19. Davitt. M., 672. Dehors, Madame, 267. 
Doniol, H., 799. Drysdale, W., 109. Dull, Sir M. E. 
Grant, 78. Dunbar, P. I,, 200. Duncan, W., Mi. 
F.dmond, J. P.. 139, 170. Edwards, II. S., 110,115. 
Fenton, (I. I!., :>:;. Galwey, J., 201. Garnett, Dr. R., 
480, 517. Geikie, Rev. Dr. C, 12:",. (iloag. Rev. P. .1., 
53. Gliimer, C. von, 673. Gough, H., 639. Graham, 



Rev. H. '. 580. Greenidgc, A. II J . 328. Gricsc- 

bach, P., 395. Griming, EL, 183. Grose, Rev. 
T. II., 199. Haas, H., 19. Harper. Dr. W. R., 52. 

Hart. H., 768. llartmann, F. von. 731. Heine. Dr. 
O., 731. Henderson, J.. 207. Heyd. Prof. W., SOL 
Heyne, Prof. M., SOL Hodgetts, Commander .1. P., 
510. Holden, E. B., 799. Holyoake, (J. J.. 106. 
Horn, A. E., 207. Joubert, Carl, 235. Katech, A., 
172 Kerchove, Count O. de, 363. Kiclland, A., 
452. Lampertico, F .. 183. Lock. G. E.. I v 2. Mac- 
artney, Sir II.. 734 Madura, Dr. E. C, 580. Mario, 
BignoraJ.W., 300. Markgraf, Prof. 11., si. Meakin, 
B., 799. Menger, Prof. A., 172. Mcrcicr, P.. 14". 
Meyrick, F., is. Michel, S., 396. Niboyet. P., 707. 
Ornano, C. d', 041. Perowne, Rev. E. IF, 172. Pol- 
storff, W., 581. Poultney, A. H. t 109, 139. Reynell, 
Rev. W., 32'J. Scliurz, C., 611. Smith, Rev. IF. B0. 
Smith, Rev. Dr. T., 072. Spriggs. J. F . 734. J ris- 
tram, Rev. H. B., 330. Trotter. Coutts, 172. Uhl, 
F., 140. Vannor, G., 072. Vapereau, L. G., 518. 
Vitelleschi, Marchese, 424. Walker, D. J., 235. 
Ward, H. L. D, 138. Watt, W., 121. 
Gossip. 
Parliamentary Papers, 19, 53, 81, 110, 201, 235. 207,301, 
331, 363, 395, 424, 4S:;, 518, 548, 581,611, 042. 673, 703, 
73">, 70S, 799. Analysis of Books published in 1905, 53. 
The Edinburgh Bibliographical Society Number of 
Students matriculating at the German F'niversities, 81. 
Booksellers' Provident Institution, 110, 235,395,518, 
012, 799. Appointment of Dr. H. Jackson to the 
Greek Professorship at Cambridge— Elections to the 
Academie Franoaise, 139. Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, 200. Mr. Yates Thompson's Lecture on 
' Illuminated Manuscripts.' 234, 260. Annual Meeting 
of the Newsvendors' Benevolent Institution, 235. 
Correctors of the Press : Dinner, 300. The British 
Museum Catalogue, 303. Annual Report of the 
German Booksellers' Association, 011. Academie des 
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Award of Prizes, 041. 
Award of the First Prix Gobert to General Bonnal. 735. 
Annual Meeting of the London Library. 707- Academic 
Fran< 5 aise, Award of Prizes, 707, 799. Anniversary 
Festival of the Printers' Pension Corporation, 799. 



SCIENCE. 

Reviews. 

Astronomische Nachrichten, 84, 143, 204, 309, 399, 551, 

014, 803 
Astronomischer Jahresbericht, ed. Prof. Berbcrich, 

Vol. VII., 803 
Avebury's (Lord) Notes on the Life History of British 

Flowering Plants, 110 
Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch, ed. Prof. Bauschinger, 

803 
Bichel's (C. E.) New Methods of testing Explosives, tr. 

and ed. Larsen, 301 
Boraston's (J. M.) Nature-Tones and Undertones. 611 
Bose's (J. C.) Plant Response as a Means of Physiologica 

Investigation, 708 
Buckmaster's (G. A.) The Morphology of Normal and 

Pathological Blood, 703 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual Report. 735 
Catalogues : Collection of Birds' Eggs in the British 
Museum, Vol. IV., by Oates and Reid, 454; Fossil 
Plants of the Glossopteris Flora in the British Museum, 
by Arber, 582 
Clay den's (A. \V.) Cloud Studies, 304 
Clerke's (A. M.) Modern Cosmogonies, 51S 
Confessions of an English Doctor, 453 
Crawley's (E.) The Tree of Life, 233, 236 
Dudgeon's (L. S.) The Bacteriology of Peritonitis, 453 
Edinburgh Stereoscopic Atlas of Anatomy, Section III., 

ed. Waterston, 703 
Fernie's (VV. F.) Meals Medicinal, with "Herbal 

Simples '" (of Edible Parts), 704 
Flammarion's (C.) Thunder and Lightning, tr. Mostvn, 

364 
Folk-lore, 582. 704 

Galton's (F.) Noteworthy Families (Modern Science), 484 
Geikie's (Sir A.) The Founders of Geology, 518 
Greenwich Observations for 1903, 399 
Guppy's (H. B.) Observations of a Naturalist in the 

Pacific, Vol. II., 581 
Hall's (A. D.) The Book of the Rothamsted Experi- 
ments, 364 
Halsham's (J.) Everyman's Book of Garden Flowers, SOO 
Harris's (J. R.) The Cult of the Heavenly Twins, 483 
Harvard College Astronomical Observatory, Report, 175 
Harvard College Circular. 771 
Harvie - Brown's (J. A.) Travels of a Naturalist in 

Northern Europe. 235 
Harwood's (W. S.) New Creations in Flant Life : Life 

and Work of Luther Burbank. 395 
Heath's (T. E.) Our Stellar Universe, 800 
Hopkins's (M.) Experimental Electrochemistry, 518 
Huggins's (Sir W.) The Royal Society, 799 
Hutchinson's (J.) On Leprosy and Fish-eating, 7 || 3 
II y slop's (J. II.) Enigmas of Psvchical Research, SOO 
.lob's (II. K.) Wild Wing-. Oil" 
Kelsall's (J. F.) The Birds of Hampshire and the Isle of 

Wight, 424, 455 
Ken's (R.) Nature through Microscope and Camera, 21 



SUPPLEMENT to Hie ATHENAEUM with No. 4103, July 21, 1906] 

January to June 1906 INDEX 



OF CONTENTS 



vn 



Knipe'a (H. R.) Nebula to Man, 21 

Kodaikanal and Madras Observatories, Reports, 487 

L'Anthropologie, 82, 582 

Lick Observatory, Bulletin, 583 

Liverpool Astronomical Society, Transactions, 426 

MacC'oll's (H.) Symbolic Logic and its Applications, 396 

Hanson's (Sir P.) Lectures on Tropical Diseases, 452 

Melbourne Observatory, Annual Report of the Board 

of Visitors, 335 
Memorie della Society degli Spettroscopisti Italiani, 55, 

240, 335, 487, 583 
Merzbacher's (Dr. G.) The Central Tian-Shan Mountains, 

1902-1903, 267 
MetchnikofFs (E.) Immunity in Infectious Diseases, tr. 

Binnie, 363 
Mitchell's (Dr. C.) Illustrated Official Guide to the 

Zoological Gardens, 5S1 
Moncrieff's (A. R. Hope) The World of To-day, Vols. 

III., IV., 141 
Morat's (J. P.) The Physiology of the Nervous System, 

tr. and ed. Syers, 704 
Moye's (Prof.) A la Poursuite d'une Ombre, 268 
Munn's (P. W.) The Birds of Hampshire and the Isle of 

Wight, 424, 455 
Natal Observatory, Report of the Government Astro- 
nomer, 738 
Nautical Almanac for 1909, 204 
New Editions, 518 
Oliver's (Dr.) Maladies caused by the Air we breathe 

inside and outside the Home, 301 
Ootheca Wolleyana, ed. Newton, Part III., 453 
Osier. William," Counsels and Ideals from the Writings of, 

compiled by Carnac. 301 
Parker's (K. L.) The Euahlayi Tribe, 735 
Pike's (O. G.) Birdland Pictures, 425 
Pratt's (E. A.) The Transition in Agriculture, 548 
Prince's (M.) The Dissociation of a Personality, 549 
Rawling's (Capt. C. G.) The Great Plateau, 19 
Reinach's (S.) Cultes, Mythes, et Religions, Tome II., 

331 
Royal Statistical Society, Journal, 704 
Sargent's (P. W. G.) The Bacteriology of Peritonitis, 453 
Scherren's (H.) The Zoological Society of London, 140, 

174, 203 
Schuster's (E.) Noteworthy Families (Modern Science), 

484 
Seaman's (L. L.) The Real Triumph of Japan, 703 
Selous's (E.) The Romance of Insect Life, 20; The 

Bird Watcher in the Shetlands. 611 
Shaw (L. H. de V.) and others* Wildfowl, 395 
Spencer, Herbert, by Thomson, 800 
Telegraphic Determinations of Longitude made in the 

Years 1888 to 1902, 399 
Thomson's (A.) Herbert Spencer, 800 
Titchener's (E. B.) Experimental Psychology, Vol. II. 

Parts I. and II., 582 
Vassar College Observatory, Publications, 426 

Original Papers. 

Anthropological Notes, 82, 302, 397. 582, 704 
Electrons, The Theory of, and its Difficulties, 769, 801 
Electrons, The Shape of, and the Maxwellian Theory, 

865 
Exposition de la Socitite Franchise de Physique, 549 
Helium and the Transmutation of Elements, 301 
Le Bon's (Dr.) Theories of Matter, 202, 237, 269, 303, 

333, 366 

London, A Neglected Map of, 397 

'Magnetism, An Explanation of,' 54 

Mature, La Fin de la, 201 

Medical Societies of London, Amalgamation of the, 770 

N Rays, The Question of the, 111 

Research Notes, 81, 173, 202, 268, 366, 485, 642, 736 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 673 

Royal Society Conversazione, 611 

Stereo-Isomerism, 519 

' Zoological Society of London, The,' 174, 203 

Societies. 

Anthropological Institute— Annual Meeting, 142. Also 

239, 334, 613, 675 
Aristotelian— Elections, 21, 54, 334, 613. Also 204, 426 
Asiatic— 83, 2.38, 367 
Astronomical— Annual Meeting, 238. Also 111, 486. 

612, 737 
Bibliograph ical— 83 
British Academy— 582, 674 
British A rclvpological A ssoc iat ion — 1 1 1 , 270, 398, 

520, 643. 802 
British Xumismatic— Elections, 143, 271, 398, 550, 675 
Challenger— 175, 660 
Entomological— Annual Meeting, 111; Elections, 239, 

368,398,464 Also 613. 770 
Faradag—Vi'i, 521, 643, 802 
Geological -Elections, 54, 111, 304, 367. 425, 486, 643, 

802; Annual Meeting, 238. Also 174, 683, 7" I 
Hellenic— 112. 270, 614, 704 
Historical Elections, 112, 239, 368, 454, 643, 771 ; 

Annual Meeting. 239 
Institution of Civil Engineer* — Elections, 51, 171 

304, 426, 487; Annual Meeting, 521. Also 1 42, 239, 

334, 398 

/. in nean -Elections, 112, 270, 304, 398, 4S6, 737. Also 
54, 171 



Mathematical— Elections, 83, 613. Also 204, 334, 550, 

771 
Meteorological — Annual Meeting, 83. Also 239, 304, 

398, 486, 613, 771 
Microscopical — Annual Meeting, 142. Also 54, 304, 

426, 550, 674 
Numismatic— Elections, 111, 238, 368, 643; Annual 

Meeting, 802. Also 520 
Philological— -Dr. J. A. H. Murray on the Society's 

'Oxford Dictionary,' 333 ; Dr. H. Bradley on the M 

Words in the 'Oxford Dictionary,' 486; Annual 

Meeting, 583 ; Elections, 737. Also 83, 203 
Physical— Elections, 239. Also 143, 334, 368, 426, 643, 

704, 771 

Royal Institution— Elections, 174, 304, 426, 583, 737; 

Annual Meeting, 550 
Societg of Antiquaries— Elections, 83, 304, 802 ; Annual 

Meeting, 520. Also 21, 142, 174, 203, 333, 368, 398, 

425, 674 
Society of Bihlical Archeology— 334, 613, 771 
Society of Engineers— Presentation of Premiums, 174. 

Also 304, 426, 583, 737 
Statistical— Annual Meeting, 802. Also 520, 613 
Zoologkal-142, 239, 304, 333, 426, 520, 613, 674, 737 

Obituaries. 

Beale. Prof. L. S., 399. Boutmy, E., 143. Cornish, 
C. J., 143, 173. Cunnington, W„ 271. Curie, P., 519. 
De Ranee, C. E., 614. Goodchild, J. G., 238. Guillot, 
A., 271. Joly, C. J., 53, 55. Karlinski, Dr. F. M., 
455. Kleinwachter, Dr. L.. 521. Langlev, Prof. S. P., 
271. Lindhagen. Prof., 675. Ljubimov, N., 369. Obst, 
H., 675. Osten-Sacken, Baron K. R. von, 675. Rene- 
vier, Prof. E., 614. Russell. Prof. I. C, 705. Shaler, 
Prof. N. L., 705. Sprengel, Dr. II. J., 84. Waugh, 
Rev. W. R. M., 175. Weldon, Prof. W. F. R., 485. 
Yerkes, C. T., 21. 

Gossip. 

Award of the Medals and Funds of the Geological 
Society, 55. Parliamentary Papers, 112, 550, 643, 675, 

705, 771. Award of the Gold Medal of the Royal 
Astronomical Society to Prof. W. W. Campbell, 175. 
Award of Prizes by the French Institute. 455. Award 
of Medals and Premiums of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, 521. Ascent of the Takt-i-Suliman, 550. 
Mr. E. C. Young's Journey through Southern China 
into India, 583. 



FINE ARTS. 

Reviews. 

Allemagne's (H. R. d') Les Cartes tijouer du Quatorzit'-me 

au Vingtu-me Siecle, 455 
Amelung's (W.) The Museums and Ruins of Rome, 

English Edition, 400 
Bayliss's (Sir Wyke) Seven Angels of the Renascence, 487 
Bell's (M.) Old Pewter, 803 
Bemrose's (W.) Longton Hall Porcelain, 456 
Berchem's (M. van) Materiaux pour un Corpus Inscrip- 

tionum Arabicarum, 771 
Binns's (W. M.) The First Century of English Porcelain, 

488 
Birch's (Mrs. L.) Stanhope A. Forbes and Elizabeth 

Stanhope Forbes, 707 
Bough, Sam, by Gilpin, 272 
Brangwyn. Frank, The Work of, 175 
Brown's (G. B.) The Care of Ancient Monuments, 336 
Bumpus's (T. F.) The Cathedrals of England and Wales, 

Second Series, 426; Summer Holidays among the 

Glories of Northern France, 427 
Bunney's (M.) English Domestic Architecture of the 

Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century, 707 
Burlington Magazine, 114, 274, 402. 523, 678, 806 
Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, 

University of Glasgow, Vol. III., by Macdonald, 708 
Cathedrals of England and Wales, Part I., 707 
Colvin's (S.) Early Engraving and Engravers in Eng- 
land. 738 
Comite de Conservation des Monuments de l'Art arabe, 

Fasc. XIX., XX., XXI., 771, 806 
Cram's (R. A.) Impressions of Japanese Architecture and 

the Allied Arts, 552 
Crane's (W.) Ideals in Art, 175 
Druitt's (H.) Costume on Brasses, 707 
Erskine's (Mrs. S.) Beautiful Women in History and 

Art, 488 
Field's (II.) English Domestic Architecture of the 

Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century, 707 
Field's (W. T.) Rome, 399 
Forbes, Stanhope A., and Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes, 

by Mrs. Birch, 7< »7 
Gilbert's (G.) Cathedral Cities of England, 176 
Gilpin's (S.) Sam Bough, 272 
Goessler's (Dr. P.) Leukas-fthaka : die Ileimath des 

Odysseus, 2 to 
Graves's (A.) The Roval Academy of Arts, Vols. III. 

and IV., 205; Vol. V., 706, 741 
Greece, painted by Fulleylove, described by M'Clymont, 

803 
Greenaway, Kate, by Spielmann and Lnyard, 23 
Hirth's Fonnenschatz, 336 
Holtzinger's (II.) The Museums and Ruins of Rome, 

English Edition, 400 



Home's (G.) Normandy : the Scenery and Romance of 

its Ancient Towns, 427 
Hulme (E. W.) and others' Leather for Libraries, 241 
Hunt's (W. H.) Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite 

Brotherhood, 22, 58 
India, by Menpes, Text by Steel, 55 
Ingres, Jean Dominique : Twenty-Four Reproductions in 

Photogravure, Monograph by Alexander. 273 
Initia Operum Latinorum quas Saeculis XIII., XIV., 

XV. attribuuntur, ed. Little, 170 
Italian Lakes, The, painted by Du Cane, described by 

Bagot, 427 
Jungman's (N.) Normandy, Text by Mitton, 426, 457 
Layard's (G. S.) Kate Greenaway, 23 
Leather for Bookbinding, Report of the Society of Arts 

Committee on, ed. Viscount Cobham and Sir H. T. 

Wood. 241 
McClellan's (Mrs.) Historic Dress, 772 
Macdonald's (G.) Coin Types, 70S 
Mach's (E. von) A Handbook of Greek and Roman 

Sculpture, 804 
Macquoid's (P.) A History of English Furniture : the 

Age of Walnut, 271 
Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain 

and Ireland, Plates XXXI.-XL, 804 
Menpes's India, Text by Steel, 55 
Miltoun's (F.) The Cathedrals of Southern France, 427 
Moore's (C. H.) Character of Renaissance Architecture, 

706 
National Gallery : The Flemish School, 707 
New Editions, 457 

Noyes's (E.) The Casentino and its Story, 55 
Paston's (G.) Social Caricature in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, 240 
Prior's (E. S.) The Cathedral Builders in England, 143 
Puvis de Chavannes, Caricatures de, Preface de M. Adam, 

335 
Randall-Maclver's (D.) Medieval Rhodesia, 551 
Recy's (G. de) The Decoration of Leather, tr. Nathan, 

241 
Robinson's (F. S.) English Furniture, 272 
Salter's (E. G.) Franciscan Legends in Italian Art, 335 
Selected Drawings from the Old Masters at Christ- 
church, Oxford, described by Colvin, Part IV., 272 
Spielmann's (M. H.) Kate Greenaway. 23 
Spirit of the Age : the Work of Frank Brangwyn, 

A.R.A.. Essay by Benedite, 175 
Wyllie'8 (W. L. and M. A.) London to the Nore, 335 
Year's Art for 1906, 210 

Original Papers. 

Archaeological Notes, 57, 208, 428, 676 

British Museum, Department of Coins in the, 25, S5 

Cairo Monuments, S06 

Glass Exhibition, Proposed, 113 

National Collections, Our, 25 

National Gallery, The, 740 

Picture, An Unidentified, 114 

Quilter Sale, 457 

Rokeby Velasquez, The. 112, 554, 585 

Rome : The British School at, 113, 177, 401,490; Notes 

from. 208, 616 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 145 
Sales, 114, 145, 177. 209, 210, 242, 274, 306. 337, 370, 402, 

429, 457, 491, 522, 554, 585, 617, 644, 677, 710, 740, 

773, 806 
Turners at the " Old Masters," 113 
William the Conqueror's Thighbone, 457 

Exhibitions. 

Agnew's (Messrs.) Gallery, 206, 213 

Alpine Club, 554, 710. 773 

Baillie Gallery. 490, 618, 740, 773 

Baird-Carter's (Mr. A.) Gallery, 771 

Barbizon School, The, 127 

British Museum, Illuminated Manuscripts in the, 616 

Brook Street Art Gallery. 710 

Burlington Fine- Arts Club, 369 

Carfax's (Messrs.) Gallery, 25. 85, 178, 274, 740 

Clifford's (Messrs.) Gallery, 522 

Colnaghi's (Messrs.) Gallery, 213. 5S5, 710 

Dickinson's (Messrs.) Gallery. 370, 101,618 

Dore Gallerv, 306, 336, 370,' 400, 645, 740, 771 

Dowdeswell's (Messrs.) Galleries, 176, 210, 138 

Dudley Gallery. 77 t 

Dutch Gallery. 678 

Duveen's (Messrs. ) Gallerv. 615 

Fine-Art Society, 25. 86, 207. 210, 212, 306, 337, 430, 710 

Flemish Pictures at the Guildhall, 675 

French Gallery, 685 

Georgian England at Wbitechapcl, 488 

German Artists, Contemporary, at Knightsbridge, 709 

GrOUpil Gallery, 1 l.\ 176. 710 ' 

Grafton Gallery, 1 It. 551, 61 I 

Graves & Co.'s (Messrs.) Galleries, 114, 212, 271.337, 

370, 130,522, 664, 618,710 
Gutekunst's (Mr.) Gallery, l 15, 207. 306, 369 
Hodgkins's (Mr. V.. M.) Gallery, 710 
John's (Mr.) Etchings, ~\\'.\ 

Jordncn*. Jacob, at the Marlborough Gallery, 710 
Knocdler & Co.'s (Messrs.) Gallery, 771 
Lefi'vre Gallery, 664 
Leegatt Brothers' (Messrs.) Gallerv. 710 
Leicester Oalleries. 58, 112, 210, 212, 370, 554 
Leiguton House, 58 



Vlll 



THE A Til ENJEUM 



rSUPPLBMKNT to thr ATQENjBUM with Ho. 4108, July i'\, lftM 

JaHUABT TO Jim: 1906 



FINE ARTS, 

Exhibition! I wShnMS*. 

Maod< mINiMi. W. a .1 Gallery. 710 

M, ,„|. i'b(H "■ ''" 

Modern Gallery. 86, 306, 306, 710 

Munich Exhibition it the Qnfton Gallery, 61 I 

EnjrlUh Art Club, 806 
\< » QaJlerj • [nteraatlonal Society of Palntera Sculptors, 

iimi Gravera, 66, 11 1, 278; Bummer Exhibition, 62] 
Obaeh'i (If eatre.) Gallery, 243, 
Old Masters ut Burlington Bouasj, 24, 68, 84, 113 
painter- Etchers. 306 

Pateraon'a (Mr.) Gallery, L78, 664, 648, 710 
Rembrandt ( lallery, 7 H 
Rowley Gallery, ll I, 248, 190 

Royal Academy, Bummer Exhibition, 663, 684, 610, Ml 
Royal Soo'ety of British Artiata, 370, 100 
Royal Society of Painten in Water Colours, 771 
Ryder Gallery, 1 16, 177. 306, 370, 190, 711 
Shepherds (Heaara.) Gallery, 370. I'M 
Sulley & <\>.'s (Messrs.) Gallery, 741,804 
Twelve Club, Pictures by the, 190 
Walker's (Mr.) Gallery, 774 

Obituaries. 
Aubert. E. .T., 711. Baceani, Signor A.. 741. Baur, 
Prof. A.. 618. Bayliaa, Sir Wyke, 157. Bibari, A., -130. 
Boucher, W. H., 306. C'almels, A. C, 402. Cannicci, 
N., 140. Carriere, E., 402. Charlemont. E., 243. 
Desbrosses, J., 337. Donnelly, W. A., 25. Dutest, 
F.. 210. Edmonston, S,. 210. Flamm. Prof. A., 430. 
Fontaine, A.. 210. Gerspach, E., 458. Geruzez, V. 
("Crafty"). 710. Grivolas. P., 178. O rosjean, J., 458. 
Helvig.J., 274. Hummel, K., S00. Lebourg, C. A., 307- 
Martin-Cnllaud, M., 741. Molinier. E., 585. Moreau, 
A., 274. Peel, J.. 17S. Rodde, K. G., 403. Ross, Miss 
C. P., 145. Roubaud, A., 491. Riimann, W. von, 210. 
Soldi, E., 370. Sturm, Prof. F. ( 523. Tayler, E., 
210. Weir, H. W., 58. Wood, L. L, 146. Woods, 
T. H., 402. 

Gossip. 

French Academie des Beaux-Arts : Elections, 20. Royal 
Academy : Elections, 57. Royal Society of Painter- 
Etchers and Engravers : Elections, 85. Academie 
Royale of Belgium : Elections, 8G. Annual Banquet 
of the Royal Scottish Academy, 145. Royal Society 
of British Artists: Elections, 337. Victoria and 
Albert Museum, : Acquisitions, 402. Royal Scottish 
Academy : Elections, 403. Louvre : Acquisitions, 491, 
G45. Parliamentary Paper, 522. Second Report of 
the National Art-Collections Fund, 522. Bibliotheque 
Nationale : Acquisitions. 554. Appointment of Sir C. 
Holroyd as Director of the National Gallery, 585. 
Winners of the Medaille (VHonneur in the Salon, 
710. 

MUSIC. 
Reviews. 

Brahms Bilderbuch, ed. V. von M. zu Aichholz, 115 

Catalo<me of Manuscript Music in the British Museum, 
by Hushes-Hughes, Vol. I., 679 

Elson's Music Dictionary, 807 

Folk-Songs from Somerset, gathered by Sharp and 
Mason, Second Series, 711 

Foote's (A.) Modern Harmony in its Theory and Prac- 
tice, 807 

Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Mait- 
land, Vol. II., 458 

Musik, Die, 491 

Oxford History of Music, The : Vol. VI. The Romantic 
Period, by Dannreuther, 26 

Spalding's (W. R.) Modern Harmony in its Theory and 
Practice, 807 

Upton's (G. P.) The Standard Operas, 711 

Wagner, Richard, to Mathilde Wesendonck, tr. Ellis, 711 
Original Papers. 

London Symphony Orchestra in Paris, 58, 86, 211 

Mozart : a Correction, 211 

' Peasant Songs of Great Russia,' 741 

' Raffaello,' a New Italian Opera, 275 

Sales, 275, 586 

Schumann Festival at Bonn, 645, 678 

Operas, Concerts, &C 
Aldwych Theatre : ' Bluebell,' 86 
Bach Festival, 430 
Bach Memorial Concert, 555 
Bauer's (Mr. H.) Pianoforte Recital, 711 
Booker (Miss B.) and Harford's (Mr. F.) Concert, 403 
British-Canadian Festival Concert, 807 
Broad wood Concerts, 1 10, 210, 370 
Busoni's (Signor) Pianoforte Recital, 774 
Carreno's (Madame) Pianoforte Recital, 17^ 
Chabot's (Miss K.) Pianoforte Recital, 243 
Chartres's (Miss V.) Violin Recital, 646 
Clench (Nora) Quartet Concerts, 307, 403 
Cracroft's (Miss M.) Concert, 275 
Creatore Band Concerts, 307 
Crystal Palace : Concert, 338 
Elman's (M.) Concert, 523 
Gerhardt's (Miss E.) Recital, 7 12 
Gounod's ' Redemption ' at the Albert Hall, 275 



(\l. \. da) Pianoforte Baeisal, 712 
• - 1 1 )r B.) ( kmoi it*. 646, ' .7 '. » 
Guildhall School ol atoxic Concert, 211 
lh.hu ■ (M, it 1 Concert, 618 
II. .u, (Mlaa M.) Violin u, 
Hambourg'a (Mr. B.) RecitaJa, 648, 771 
Handel Festival, 80/ 
Handel Booiety'a ( '■•m-i-r t, 646 

His Majeety'a Theatre: Mr. Oolerldge-Taylor'a Inci- 
dental Muaie to ' Nero,' 1 16 

Holland's (Mr. T.) Concert, 248 

llon-zowski'ii (M.) ( ioncert, 646 

Joaobim Concerts, 66 1, 619 

Joachim Quartet Concerts, 623. 666 

[Ainond'a [Mr. F.) Pianoforte Recital, 712 

Landi'a (Mile. ('.) Vocal Recital, 211 

Lierbainmer's (Dr. T.) Song Recital, 371 

London Ballad Concert, 371 

London Choral Society: Sir II. Parry's 'Pied Piper of 
II iiiii-liu. " 103 

London Symphony Concerts, 114, 146, 

London Symphony Orchestra Concerts, 210, 274, 403, 742 

MacCarthy's (Miss M.) Pianoforte Recitals, 178, 211 

Mclnnes's (Mr. J. C.) Bach Concert, 275 

Malliuson's (Mr. and Mrs. A.) Recitals, 646 

Marchesi's (Madame Blanche) Concert, 586 

Mozart Commemoration by the Concert-Goers' Club, 1 10 

Naval's (Herr P.) Recitals, 586, 646 

Newman's (Mr.) Benefit Concert, 243 

Oehler's (Hcrr K.) Pianoforte Recital, 307 

Oriana Madrigal Society : Concert, 742 

Pachmann's (V. de) Chopin Recitals, 712, 771 

Philharmonic Concerts, 275, 458, 555, 711, 774 

Royal Opera, Covent Garden : 'Tristan und Isolde,' 586, 
645,711; First 'Ring' Cycle, 586; ' Der Vagabund 
und die Prinzessin,' ' Der Barbier von Bagdad,' 
Second « Ring ' Cycle, ' Rigoletto,' 618 ; ' Die Walkiire,' 
645; ' Madama Butterfly,' 'Die Meistersinger,' 678; 
'The Flying Dutchman,' 711; 'La Tosca,' ' Tann- 
hiluser,' 742; ' Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame,' 774; 
Messager's 'Les Deux Pigeons,' ' Aida,' 807 

Sauer's (Herr E.) Pianoforte Recital, 370 

Scharrer's (Miss I.) Orchestral Concert, 146; Pianoforte 
Recital, 243 

Scott's (Mr. C.) Concert, 403 

Sunderland-Thistleton Concerts, 115, 430 

Symphony Concerts, 178, 243, 307, 337, 523 

Vienna Male Choral Society: Concerts, 646, 678 

Vienna Philharmonic Society, 807 

Warwick- Evans's (Miss V.) Violin Recital, 58 

Wessely Quartet Concert, 178 

Westminster Orchestral and Choral Society : Concert, 275 

Williams's (Mr. C.) Orchestral Concert, 337 

Obituaries. 

Avensky, S., 308. Bacon, Mrs. E., 115. Blau, E., 
59. Bridge, Lady, 86. Duvernoy, H. L. C, 147. 
Holmes, H., 27. Hurlstone, W. Y., 712. Krauss, G., 
59, 115. Lemmens-Sherrington, Madame, 619. Met- 
ternich, Princess, 491. Milde, Frau R. von, 179. 
Paine, Prof. J. K., 610. Reimann, H., 679. Stratton, 
S. S., 808. 

Gossip. 

Conference of the Incorporated Society of Musicians, 86. 
Mark Hambourg Competition, Award of the Prizes, 
275. Bizet's 'Don Procopio' at Monte Carlo, 371. 
Herr Wolf-Ferrari's ' Die vier Grobiane ' at Munich, 
431. 



DRAMA. 

Reviews. 

Carliell, Lodowick : his ' Deserving Favourite,' ed. Gray, 

28 
Churchill's (W.) The Title Mart, 743 
Euripides, The Electra of, tr. Murray, 775 
Fitch's (C.) The Girl with the Green Eyes, 743 
Hazlitt's (W.) A View of the English Stage, ed. Jackson, 

647, 680 
Mantzius's (K.) A History of Theatrical Art, tr. Caasel, 

Vol. IV., 338 
Martinenche's (E.) Moliere et le Theatre Espagnol, 338 
Moliore, The Life of, by Trollope— Moliere et le 

Theatre Espagnol, by Martinenche, 338 
Shakspeare : ' Twelfth Night.' ed. Luce, 742 ; ' Othello 

Unveiled,' bv Subbarau, 743 
Subbarau's (R.'V.) Othello Unveiled, 743 
Trollopo's (H. M.) The Life of Moliere, 338 

Original Papers. 

Hazlitt's 'View of the English Stage,' 680 

' La Revolte ' and ' The Fool of the World,' 459 

Shakspeare Memorial Performances at Stratford-on- 

Avon, 687 
Sonnet d'Arvers, Le, 88, 460 
Swinburne's ' Atalanta in Calydon ' at the Scala Theatre, 

743 

Theatres. 

Ad 1 1 phi— ' Measure for Measure,' 372; Mrs. H. de la 
Pasture's ' Tho Lonely Millionaires,' 646 ; ' The 
Taming of the Shrew,' 680 

Camden— ' The Prodigal Son,' 212 ; Everyman,' 372 



tm— Buiieeque of ' Nero.' HI 

Oomedg Beryl and Hamilton - Humour,' 

Capt. Mandril's 'The Alabaster Btaircats, 276; 

Grundy's 'A Pair of Spectacles,' Drmkwater'a ' \fu-r- 

tbo 1 be Drums of Oasts, 1 

Barns 1 ' Pun. I. i/edv. and ' Josephine,' 

i [ornm 1 and Praaoray'i ' Baffles, ' 618 

Chronei ' IB HI J lliaMI,* tlTH ! ' Mrs. Oorringe'* Necklace,' 
712; Madame Jane Hading s Performances, 7 ) 1, - - 

t— Murray's ' Electra' of Euripides. 87, 840; Har. 
court h ' A < nic --tion of Age, l-'t nti - ' Thai Convict on 
the Hearth, 1 180 1 ''I he Voyasy Inheritance,' 212; 
Shaw's 'Captain Bmssbottnd - I ■: -ion,' 372, 492; 

' Hippolytoa,' MM; ' Prunella, 624 

Morton's ' The Little Stranger.' 211; Bern- 
"* 'The Whirlwind,' tr. Melvill, Courtney "a 
Tndine,' 680; Mrs. Lyttdton's 'The Macleans of 
Bairru-Bs, 775 

Drury Lane—Vim Terry's Jubilee, 743 

Duh 0/ Forlfl ■■-' All-of-a-Sudden Pegtrv,' 620; Klein'a 
'The Lion and the Mouse.' i',~'.>: 'The Marriage of 
Kitty,' 712, 744 ; Barrie's ' Pantaloon,' 7 1 U 

O ar , -Irk— 1 The Merchant of Venice,' 88, 491 ; Trevor's 
•Brother Officers.' U6; Dearden's 'The Dean's 
Dilemma,' 148, 588; 8utro's 'The Fascinating Mr. 
Vanderveldt,' 555; Francis's 'The Third Time of 
Asking,' 712 

Great Queen Street— English Drama Society : 'The 
Interlude of Youth,' 60. German Plays: 'Alt- 
Heidelberg,' 60; Stephany's 'Alma Mater,' 87; 
Stobitzer's ' Liselott,' 116 : Moser and Trotha's ' Der 
Militarstaat,' 148; Schiller's 'Maria Stuart,' 340; 
Ibsen's ' Rosmersholm,' 620 

Hallmark* t— 'The Man from Blankley's,'404; Francis'a 
' Olf and the Little Maid,' 588 

His Majesty's—' Twelfth Night." 60. 524. 550: 'Oliver 
Twist,' 'An Enemy of the People,' 88; Phillips's 
'Nero,' 147; 'The Tempest,' First Part of 'King 
Henry IV.,' 524; 'The Merry Wives of Windsor,' 
'Hamlet,' 'Julius Caesar,' 5.56; ' Capt. Swift,' 648; 
Morton's ' Colonel Newcome,' 679 

Imperial— Lothar's 'The Harlequin King,' adapted by 
Parker and Brinton, 59; Sir C. Dovlc's 'Brigadier 
Gerard,' 308; Dix and Sutherland's ' Boy O'Carroll,' 
646 

Lyric— H. B. Irving's ' Mauricette,' 431 ; Courtney'a 
' Markheim,' 492 ; ' Brigadier Gerard,' 620 ; ' Othello,' 

646, 744 

New—' Dorothy o' the Hall,' 492 

New Royalty— French Comedv Season, 59, 87,115, 148, 
179. 211, 244. 308, 680, 712, 744, 776 

St. James's — Thomas and Macarthur's ' Beside the 
Bonnie Brier Bush, ' 27; 'As You Like It, ' 60, 88, 116 ; 
Pinero's ' His House in Order,' 179 

Savoy—' Lights Out,' 88, 148: Binvon's 'Paris and 
02none.' Benson's 'The Friend in the Garden,' Shaw's 
' How He Lied to Her Husband.' 340 ; Miss Graves's 
' The Bond of Ninon,' 524 ; Askew and Knoblauch's 
'The Shulamite,' 620, 744; 'The Conversion of Nat 
Sturge, ' 648 

Scala— Wills's 'ARoval Divorce,' 87; Ibsen's 'Lady 
Inger of Ostrat,' 148 : Stange's 'The School for Hus- 
bands,' 340: Jerome's 'Susan in Search of a Husband,' 
372; McCarthy's 'The Flower of France,' 524.- In- 
corporated Stage Society: Gogol's 'The Inspector- 
General ' adapted by Sykes, Pollock's ' The Inventiona 
of Dr. Metzler.' 776 

Shaftesbury — McLellan's 'The Jury of Fate.' 27; 
Carleton's ' A Gilded Fool,' 211 ; Mrs. Ryley's ' An 
American Citizen,' 276 

Terry's — Jones's ' The Heroic Stubbs,' 147 ; Miss 
Syrett's 'The Younger Generation,' 180; Thomas's 
'A Judge's Memory,' 372; 'The New Clown,' 431; 
Gorky's 'The Bezsemenovs,' 524; Applin's 'The 
Knight of the Bath,' 556: 'Castles in Spain.' 648 
Waldorf— French and Stewert's 'Noah's Ark,' 28; 
Bowkett's 'The Superior Miss Pellender,' Knoblauch's 
' The Partik'ler Pet,' 115; 'She Stoops to Conquer,' 
212, 244; Colman's 'The Heir-at-Law,' 371: Capt. 
Marshall's ' The Second in Command,' 492 ; Herne'a 
' Shore Acres,' 647 

Wyndham's—' Capt. Drew on Leave,' 28 ; ' The Can- 
didate,' 404 ; Carton's ' Dinner for Two,' 431 

Obituaries. 
Brandon, Miss O., 5S8. Hermann, K., 60. Ibsen, H., 

647. Lejkin, N. A.. 180. Merivale, H. C, 88. Miles, 
E., 712. Owen, W. F..64S. Speidel, L, 212. Sta- 
venhagen, F., 620. Stephenson, B. C, 116 

Gossip. 
Shakspeare Commemoration at Stratford-on-Avon, 524, 
666. Shirley and Vane's ' The Spider and the Fly ' 
at the Grand Theatre, Brighton, 624 Miss Terry's 
Jubilee, 556. Mr. Cox's 'Mary, Queen of Scots,' at 
the King's Theatre. Hammersmith, 648. ' The Other 
Man's Business ' at the Fulham Theatre, 680. 



MISCELLAXEA. 

" Cain " as a Synonym of the Moon, 776 

Chaucer Bibliography, 432 

Statute of Kilkenny, 'Date of the, 744 



THE ATHEN^IUM 

f mtrrnd nf English antt Jfarrip %iUmtmt, Mtima, tljt JFiiu ^rts, Jttusk ani tlje Drama, 






No. 4080. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1906. 



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UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. 
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A COURSE of LECTURES on PHONETICS, with special reference 
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An Inaugural Lecture, open to the Public without Fee or Ticket. 
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WALTER W. SETON, M.A., Secretary. 

NIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. 

[UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.) 
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UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS. 



rPHE 

FACULTIES OF ARTS (INCLUDING LAW), SCIENCE, 
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The SECOND TERM BEGINS on WEDNESDAY. January 10. 
New Entries will he taken for most of the Classes, 

Prospectus free from the REGISTRAR. Lyddon Hall is licensed for 
the Residence of Students. 



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EDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 

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Students can reside in the College. 

DEPARTMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN 

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Students are admitted to the Training Course in OCTOBER and 

JANUARY. 

The Course includes full preparation for the Examinations for the 
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TWO DECCAN SCHOLARSHIPS, each of the value of 222. Ids., 
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SESSION beginning OCTOBER, 1908. Candidates must hold a Degree 
or an equivalent. dPor further information apply to the HEAD OF 
THE DEPARTMENT. 



T)IRMIN<;HAM and MIDLAND INSTITUTE. 

school of MUSIC. 

\ 'isitor -Sir EDWARD ELGAR. Mus.Doc. LL.D. 

Principal -GRANVILLE BANTOCK. 

Visiting Examiner FREDERICK CORDER, F.R.A.M. 

SESSION 1905-1906. 

The Session consists of Autumn Term (September IS to Deem 

ber 16) ; Winter Term (January 13 to April 7i ; Summer Term (April H 

to June 23). 

Instruction in all Branches of Music; Students' choir and Orches- 
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Prospectus and further information may be obtained from 

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pRYSTAL PALACE COMPANY'S SCHOOL 

\J OF PRACTICAL ENGINEERING. EASTER TERM COM- 
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rpHE DOWNS SCHOOL SEAFORD, SUSSEX. 
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Bedford College. London ; The Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

EDUCATION. 
Parents or Guardians desiring accurate information relative to 
the CHOICE of schools for BOYS or GIRLS or 
TUTORS in England or abroad 
are Ini ited to call upon or send fully detailed particulars to 
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who for more than thirtyyears have been closely in touch with the 
leading Educational Establishments. 

Advice, free of. charge, is given by Mr. THRING, Nephew of the 

late Head Master of Uppingham, 36, Sackvillc Street, London. W. 



U N 



IVERSITY 



OF LONDON. 



NOTICE is hereby GIVEN that on Wednesday. March 28 
next, the SENATE will proceed to elect EXAMINERS in the 
following Departments for the Year 1906-7: 

FOR EXAMINATIONS ABOVE THE MATRICULATION, 
The Examiners appointed will he called upon to take part in the 
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attended. Full particular- can he obtained on application to ih, 
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THEOLOGY. 
Two in the Hebrev Text of the Old Testament ami the Greek Text 
.,t i he New Testament 

\RTS AND SCIENCE 

one in Mathematics I One in Experimental Physics 

MEDICINE. 

i in. in Medicine. I l ine in PathologJ 

i me in Surgerj , 

Economics. 
urn- in Public Administration and Finance. 

Candidates must send ill their names to Hie Principal, with anj 

attestation of theii qualifications they may think desirable on oi 

bcfori TUESDAY, - uarj •-•:: It Testimonials are submitted 

i In oe epic- should be t. , i w :n . i.-,l Original Testimonials should nol 
In- -cut If more than one |-',\:iiouiei>hip is applied for, a Beparati 

plete application must be forwarded for each it i- particular!! 

desired hj the Senate that no application oi any kind be made to its 
indii idicd Members 

Bj ler "t the Senate, 

Mt'l'lll'l! w. RUclvER. Principal 
I or ,i -it 3 of London. Sout I, Kensington, S.W., 
Decembct 1905 



T 



RANSVAAL 



TECHNICAL 

lull INNESB1 1:0 



tNSTITUTE, 



Hi- proposed to appoint a PROFE8SOH ol ENGLISH LANG! tid 

and LITI K VI 

The -lipeiiil ot the PrufcSDol "ill hi B00! , " i ,1110,0, 

Pi. fi renci will he given 1- 1 he I andid iti s ho >- abli to ti a, h elthi 1 
Ih-r-i- o, Mental and Mornl Philosophy 

'lb, «"il- \t Sessi, 11 MARI II 1 1 

Applii utions, togel hi 1 « ,i li Ti ■ 1 imoni d ahnuld hi set 

than JAM \ i:\ 1 1 1 to Mi \ 1:1.' 'I. UK I NO, a 

Siilisrnm Housi , Fin-bo, vCtrcu E.t nv hom forthi ■ 

tni 1. 



Yearly Subscription, free by post, Inland, 
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York Post Office as Second Class matter. 



c 



H A N G E 



OF 



A D D R E S S. 



Mr. T. FISHER UNWIN begs to announce that he has REMOVED 
his Publishing Offices from 11, Paternoster Buildings, to i A DELPHI 
TERRACE, STRAND. W.e. 



U 



NIVERSITY 



OF 



O X F R U. 



LECTURER IN HINDUSTANI. 
The Delegates for superintending the Instruction of Selei ted Candi- 
dates for the Civil Service of India will, in the course of Hilary Term. 
1906, proceed to the election of a LECTURER in HINDUSTANI in 
the UNIVERSITY. 

The Salary attached to the Lectureship is 1601. per annum, ami the 
Lecturer is entitled to demand certain fees from the persons who 
attend his Lectures. 
The Lecturer is elected annually, but is re-eligible. 
Applications, together with Testimonials, should be sent to the 
Secretary to the Delegates, F. C. MONTAGUE, M V Oriel College, 
Oxford, and should reach him not later than PEBRTJ \ l:\ l-i 
It is desirable that applicants for the Lectureship should state 
til Whether or no they are acquainted with both tin- Persian and 

the Nagari characters. 
(2) Whether or no it is their intention to reside in oxford. 



c 



U N T Y 



F 



LONDON. 



The LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL invites applications for the 
appointment ol SKCKETAKY of tin- LONDON CO! VI' \ I OTJNCIL 
SCHOOL of BUILDING, FERNDALE ROAD, BRIXTON S w. The 
person appointed will be required to be present each day r wo-thirda of 
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Canvassing,, either directly ox Indirectly, will be held to be a 
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a 1, GOMME, Clerk ot the London Countj Council 
The County Hall, Spring Gardens, s.\\\, 
.human i. L906 

ENT EDUCATION COMM ITTKK. 



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COUNT! SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, SITTINGBOI RNE 

WANTED, in JANUARY, Two assistant MISTRESSES at the 
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CATALOGUE No. 44. -Turner's Liber Studiorum, 
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Book Importers, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

NCIENT and MODERN COINS.— Collectors 



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and Antiquarians are invited to apply to SPINK & SON, 
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TO BOOKBUYERS and LIBRARIANS of FREE 
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>aks bn ^urtion. 



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Curios. 
TUESDA Y SEXT, January 9, at half-past 1! o'clock. 

R. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by AUCTION, 

at his Rooms, 38, Eing Street, Covent Garden. London, W.C, 
beautiful EMBROIDERIES, PORCELAIN, BRONZES, SCREENS, 

&, •.. from China and Japan Idols, Ornaments, Brass, and other Metal 
Ware received from Collectors Coins, Pictures, Native Weapons from 
the I longo and other Parts. 

no view Monday prior 10 1" IS and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 

application. 



Microscopes, Lanterns, Cameras. 
On FRIDAY NEXT, at half -past IS o'clock. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will SELL by AUCTION, 
at his Rooms, 88, Kins' Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C, 
MICROSCOPES, OBJECTIVES, and all ACCESSORIES by well 
known Makers Optical Lanterns, with slides In first-rate order ; also 
Cameras Lenses cinematograph Films Type-Writer Chronometer 
and Miscellaneous Property. 
On view day prior 10 to B and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 

application. 



Birds' Eggs, including an Egg of the Qrsal ■ 

Ml: .1. C. STEVENS will OFFER, s>1 bia 
I(,..iiik, M King >n, . 1.1.-11 London, Vt C. on 

M'KDNKMDAY. Jauuan . U LLECTION >f EUOH fonu 

Mi Hi:i. I. \l \N PIDHLEV, which inoluii 

ui. h ,.1 K,. man] othei 

Intereating Khj- Uaoan BOG of the GKEAT Al B oil of 

itnoih.-i \ andoi 

OatsdOgQMi in 0OQIM Of preparation, may Im- had on appli, at ion 

Books and M . including the Collection 0] tjriental 

Books and Manuscripts and the Mathematical Library of 

Ho- lots lloo. Mr. Justice <> A'/.Y EM. Y 

ME8SR8. SOTHEBY, WTLKIN80N ft BODGE 
»ill SELL bj M CTION, al thai] House, No IS, Wellington 

Street Hti I, « ' on MONDAY. Januan l», and Two Following 

Days, al I o'clock precisely. BOOKS md MANUSCK1PTH Including 
the COLLECTION uf ORIENTAL BOOKS and MANUSCRIPTS and 
the MATHEMATICAL LIBRARY of the late Hon Mi Justice 
O'KINEALY. of the High Court of Calcutta; also the LIBRARY of 
T MORSON, Esq,., of i~. Gordon Bquare. oompriaing First Editions "t 
Thackeray and Dickens numerous Works Ulustretod by Cruikahank 
lincluding some of the rarer ones), T Itowlandson, R. Seymour, Ac.— 
the Goupil Dlustrated Series Extra-Illustrated B.s.ks ; the 
LIBRARY of W. .1 PLEW8, Esq., of Colwvn Bay; and othei 
Propertiea, .omprising numerous standard Works, chiefly of M»*dcrn 
Fhlglish Writers, in most Branches of Literature 

May be vi.-wnl two days prior. Catalogues may he had. 

The Collection of Book-Plates (Ex-IAbris) of the late JAMES 
ROBERTS BROWN, Esq. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON ft HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION (by Order of the Bxecutorsl, at their 

House. No. 1:1, Wellington Street. Strand. W.C, on FRIDAY, 
January 19, at 1 o'clock precisely, the collection of BOOK- 
PLATES lEx-Lihrisi of the late JAMES ROBERTS BROWN, Esq. 
of 44, Tregunter Road, London. S.W. 

May lie viewed two days prior. Catalogues may be had. 






NOW RKAD\ 
Till. 



C 



N T E \l Mi R .\ B \ 



■it.tii- 



R }■: v 1 k W. 



■I II K RU8SI IN -" I M.I--: - Bj / 1 K 

rHK HIHTOBi "i KNOLIHH PABUAMEHTABT 
PROCKDI It I. 

■ INK ILBERT K 
AN AGNOSTICS PROGSBfa I By (f ffliam SeoM Fsjsjsjr, 
HOSPITAL FINANCE By the Hon Sydney Holland ctminujuiof 

the |y,iid,,n Hospital 
THE BANK It U I'M A OF HIOHEB CRITICISM III By Dr. 
Enid Belch 

1111. will, aVfi \ \ii.\N- (.1 PROLONGING 1.11 1.. 
Bj m JEAN FIMOT 
TARTARS AND ARMENIANS By .1 Oordon llrowi.r 

< noii n 

By A E KEETON 
STANDS Ulster WHERE IT DIDI By 8. Paraeil Kecr. 
THE UNEMPLOYED. By I iuui. 

POREIGH AFFAIRS By Dr E J. Dillon 

London: Horace MARSHALL A - 



T 



Autograph Letters and Siaiwd Documents of British and 
Foreign Sovereigns, Princes, <(c., the Property of the late 
Mr. FREDERICK BARKER. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON & HOIK; E 
will SELL hv auction [by order of the Executors), at their 
House, No. 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C, on MONDAY. 
January 22, at 1 o'clock precisely, AUTOGRAPH LETTERS and 
SIGNED DOCUMENTS of BRITISH and FOREIGN SOVEREIGNS, 
PRINCES, Ac, the Property of the late Mr. FREDERICK BARKER. 
May he viewed two days prior. Catalogues may lw had. 



Valuable Miscellaneous Books, including the Library of the 
late H. J. P. DUMAS, Esq., removed front IS, North 'Side, 
Clapham Common. 

MESSRS. HODGSON & CO. will SELL by 
AUCTION, at their Rooms, 115, Chancery Lane, W.C, OH 
TUESDAY, January 9, and Two Following Days, at l o'clock, valu- 
able MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, including the above Library and 
other Propertiea, comprising Dugdale's ttonastioon Anglicanum, 
Third Edition, 8 vols. — Ormerod's Cheshire, 3 vols., and other Topo- 
graphical and Antiquarian Books— Raynalde's Byrth of Mankynde, 
1560, and a few other Early-Printed and Curious Black-Letter Books- 
Shakespeare's Hamlet, 4to, 1676, and other Plays by Dryden, D'Urfey, 
and Shad well — Surtees' Handley Cross, First Edition, uncut — 
Chetham Society's Publications, from 1844 to 1891, 129 vols.— Huguenot 
Society's Publications, 17 vols. — Harvey's Phycologia Anstralica, 
5 vols.— The New English Dictionary, 5 vols, in 10, half-morocco — Sets 
of the Encyclopedia Britannica, ;J6 vols, morocco, and Punch, 100 vols, 
in 25, half-morocco— also Library Editions of Standard Historical 
Works, and other Books in General Literature, including the two 
scarce volumes of Gardiner's History of England |160:J-16)— a Set of 
the'Chiswick Press British Poets, inn vols, old blue morocco— and the 
British Essayists, 45 vols., uniformly bound, the Property of a LADY. 
To be viewed and Catalogues had. 



KOW KEADV 

HE BUILDER XKW FEAR'S NUMBER, 

I ;tth« i ni« Street, London, W.C.. January 6, is#06, contains :— 

on the Roof, UUan Cathedra] ; The BiooardJ Paiaee, Florence ; Part 
<.f Facade, Biena rntheriral; Piccoioinind Altar, Bleiu Cathedral tall 
the above drawn bj Mr. A. C. Oonrade ; View or the Kew War Mflictr 

(drawn by Mr. E. IJ. Ufflb) ; Sculpture, New War uflur : Kew Main'--, 
VersailloB [from Photographs); Views of "id London. Embankment 
District (from prints in the Crace Collection'; Under the Temple 
Portico [by the Editor' ; Churcfa <>i ss. Bergfui and I :istan- 

tinople, the Forerunner of St. Sophia [from measured Drawings and 
Sketches by Mr. A. E. Henderson, with Plans, Section and K»<jf Plan. 
Perspective Sections, Photographic Illustrations of Dotafl. al** various 
Details and Description in Text l ; also the Commencement of a - 
of Articles (Student's Column! on 'Mathematical Methodn and Data 
for Architects.' with other interesting matter. Iioth literary and 
artistic— From Office as above \4d. ; by post, 4>i. '. or through any 
Newsagent. 



c 



J 1ST PIBLISHKI). 
Royal 8vo, art linen, price 7*. bd. net. 
OLLECTANEA XAPOLEONICA. 



Beinp; a Catalogue of the Collection of Autographs, 
Historical Documents, Broadsides, Caricatures, Drawings, 
Maps, Music, Portraits, Naval and Military Costume- 
Plates, Battle Scenes, Views. Ac, relating to Napoleon I. 
and his 'limes (1769-1821), formed by A. M. Broadley, of the- 
Knapp, Bradpole, Dorsetshire. 

Compiled by WALTER V. DANIELL. 

Together with an Explanatory Preface and Note by 
A. M. Broadley, and a Catalogue of his Napoleonic- 
Library. 

Illustrated with a hitherto Unpublished Portrait of 
Napoleon by Detaille, from a Picture in the possession of 
1 Sir George White, Bart., and several Reproductions of rare 
Originals by permission of the Proprietors of the Kin/j. 

W. V. DANIELL, 53, Mortimer Street, W. 



M 



Modern Publications and Remainders. 
ESSRS. HODfiSON & CO. will SELL by 

AUCTION, at their Rooms. 115, Chancery Lane. AV.l'.. on 
WEDNESDAY. January l", at i o'clock, MODERN rooks and 
REMAINDERS, including an extensive Stock of the Popular Publi- 
cations of Charles Knight, Orr & Co., Ackermann, Tilt & Bogue, 
Ingrain, and others, comprising Illustrated Editions of Standard 
Poets and Novelists — Juvenile Books with coloured illustrations, 
&c, chiefly in cloth Kilt bindings— Also 50 Wallis Budge's Contendings 
of the Apostles. Ethiopic Text, with Translation. '2 vols. — 127E:irU-s 
Two Centuries of Costume in America, 2 vols. — 89 t'reswicke's South 
Africa and the Transvaal War, 8 vols, in 3, half-morocco — several 
thousand volumes of the Dome — Novels hy Popular Modern 
Authors, &c. 

Catalogues are preparing. 



SHAKESPEARE AXDTHE SUPERNATURAL. 
A Brief Study of Folk-Lore. Superstition, and Witchcraft. By 
MARGARET I, IVY. With a Bibliography hy W. JAGOAKD ! 

art linen. 2s. net ; post free. SB. '2d. 

"What B vast field is opened ap." — Leamington Courier. " This is 
indeed valuable. "— W'xtmi Press. "Shows keen research. "—Carlisle 
Journal. "A valuable bibliography. ™ — heeds M.rcury. "Careful. 
deeply thought out, and valuable." — Stratford Herald. 

SHAKESPEARE PRESS. Moorfields. Liverpool. 

TUNBRIDUE WELLS.— APARTMENTS. 
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JUST PUBLISHED, 8vo, in paper covers, is. <kl. net ; cloth, 3s. 6rf. net. 

FISCAL REFORM: 

SPEECHES delivered by the Right Hon. ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR, MP. 
FROM JUNE, 1880, TO DECEMBER, 1905. 

WITH A PREFACE. 
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LONGMANS, GREEN & CO. 39, Paternoster Row. London, E.C. 



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N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



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THE SIGNET LIBRARY, EDINBURGH. By 
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NOTES FOR A WHISTLER BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
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CHARLES ASSKLINEAU. By Col. W. F. 
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ALPINE FLORA : for Tourists and 

Amateur Botanists. By Dr. JULIUS HOFFMAN. 
Translated by E. S. BARTON (Mrs. A. GEPP). With 
40 Plates, containing 250 Coloured Figures from Water- 
Colour Sketches by HERMANN FRIESE. 8vo, 7s. lOd. 

ALPINE FLOWERS FOR GAR- 

DENS. By W. ROBINSON. Revised Edition. With 
Illustrations. 8vo, 10s. lid. 

ALPINE PLANTS. A Practical 

Method for Growing the rarer and more difficult 
Alpine Flowers. By W. A. CLARK, F.R.H.S. With 
Illustrations. In cloth, 3s. Qd. 

APPLE, THE BOOK OF THE. By 

H. H. THOMAS, Assistant Editor of the Garden, late 
of the Royal Gardens, Windsor. Together with Chapters 
by HARRY ROBERTS on the History and Cooking of 
the Apple and the Preparation of Cider. Illustrated. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 9rf. 

BAMBOO GARDEN, THE. By 

LORD REDESDALE. Illustrated by ALFRED 
PARSONS, svo, 10s. lOd. 

BEGONIA CULTURE FOR 

AMATEURS AND PROFESSIONALS. Containing 
Full Directions for the Successful Cultivation of the 
Begonia, under Glass and in the Open Air. By B. C. 
RAVENSCROFT. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Illustrated. In paper, Is. 2d, 

BOTANY, A MANUAL OF AGRI- 
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German of Dr. A. B. FRANK, Professor in the Royal 
Agricultural College, Berlin. With over 100 Illustra- 
tions. Crown Svo, 3s. 9d. 

BOTANY, A TEXT-BOOK OF. 

By Dr. E. STRASBURGER. Translated by H. C. 
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BOTANY, A YEARS. Adapted to 

Home and School Use. By FRANCES A. KITCHEN ER. 

With 105 Illustrations. Crown Svo, 5s. 3d. 

BOTANY, ELEMENTARY. By Percy 

GROOM, M.A. 3s. lOd. 

BOTANY, STRUCTURAL. By D. H. 

SCOTT, M-.A. 2 vols. 

Part I. FLOWERING PLANTS. 3s. 1W. 
Part II. FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 3s. 11,/. 

BOTANY, THE TREASURY OF. 

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N° 4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHENiEUM 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 



|PAGE 

The Life of Lord Randolph Churchill .. .. 7 

The Mythology of Britain 9 

Loggan's Views of Cambridge.. 10 

A German History of Russian Literature . . 10 
New Novels (Display ; Moscow ; Paradise ; A Set-ret 
of the Lebombo ; The Fulfilment ; Last Year's 

Nests ; St. Cuthbert's of the West) 12 

Books of Travei 12 

Our Library Table (Byron's Poetry in One Volume ; 
A Book for a Rainy Day ; Round about my Peking 
Garden ; The Royal Forests of England ; Cat 
Tales ; A Short Day's Work ; Chertsey Abbey ; 
Cotton's Montaigne ; Year- Books ; The Dickensian 14—16 

List of New Books 16 

The Book Sales of 1905 ; The Etymology of 
" Boast " ; Christopher Marlowe Biblio- 
graphy ; The Year of Mrs. Hemans's Birth ; 
Campion and Mr. Paul 16—18 

Literary Gossip 18 

Science— The Great Plateau; The Romance of 
Insect Life ; Nature through Microscope 
and Camera ; Nebula to Man ; Societies ; 
Meetings Next Week ; Gossip . . . . 19—21 

Fine Arts— Holman Hunt on Pre-Raphaelitism ; 
Kate Greenaway ; The Old Masters at Bur- 
lington House ; Our National Collections ; 
The Department of Coins in the British 
Museum ; Gossip 22—25 

Music — The Oxford History of Music; Gossip; 

Performances Next Week .. .. 26—27 

Drama — Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush ; The 

Jury of Fate; Lodowick Carliell; Gossip 27—28 

Index to Advertisers 28 



LITERATURE 



Lord Randolph Churchill. By Winston S. 
Churchill, M.P. 2 vols. (Macmillan 
& Co.) 

This long-expected biography more than 
comes up to our anticipations. Like the 
' Lord Granville ' of Lord Edmond Fitz- 
maurice, it contains some startling matter, 
which may be mentioned at once, in order 
that it may be cleared out of the way. An 
account is given — in letters, chiefly from 
Lord Randolph Churchill to Lord Salis- 
bury — of a resignation of office by the 
Secretary of State for India in August, 
1885, which raised Constitutional questions 
of high moment. The ground of the 
anger of Lord Randolph, as stated by him, 
was that the Prime Minister had forwarded 
to the Viceroy a communication from the 
Queen which " makes a proposal to which 
the responsible head of the Department 
chiefly concerned entertains the strongest 
possible objections." 

" I was not aware that it was possible. . . . 
that communications should pass between 
the Prime Minister and the Viceroy, "at the 
instance of H.M. the Queen, without the 
knowledge of the Secretary of State, on a 
matter on which the latter held very strong 
and deliberate opinions." 

It was incidentally admitted as a Con- 
stitutional principle that it was not wise 
to employ a son of a King of England in a 
political situation. The objection to the 
Bombay Command being held by a son 
of Queen Victoria was based on compul- 
sory membership of the Bombay Council, 
and was held no longer to exist when the 
Command came, by later legislation, to 



be separated from political duties. That 
the line is a thin one may be seen from 
the fact that political duties are thrown 
upon the Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, 
and that the Duke of Connaught has held, 
without objection, that Command. The 
question is one which will arise again in 
connexion with Viceroyalties, and it 
would be interesting, now that it has 
emerged from secrecy, to have it more 
fully argued. 

Except for some imperfection in the 
account given of the relation of Lord 
Randolph Churchill to the growth of 
Home Rule in 1885, the book before us 
is a piece of history to be generally trusted, 
even though it comes from the pen of 
an active politician. It is somewhat 
strange to find a member of the present 
Government writing so completely from 
the Irish Unionist point of view as does 
Mr. Winston Churchill. Not that there 
is a single sentence which is unbecoming 
to his position or which definitely commits 
him to the Unionist side : it is the tone 
that we have in view, for with politics 
we are not concerned. Indeed, the only 
passage in the volumes which is distinctly 
awkward for the present Administration 
is one which reprints a savage attack 
upon the new leader of the Liberal party 
in the House of Lords. The constant 
repetition of such phrases as " the history 
of the famous battle for the Union in 
1886 " is striking ; and so is the opinion 
of the author as to his father, stated, 
among other passages, in the following 
words : " The Union was a cause to 
which he was pledged, not only by 
memorable votes and speeches, but by 
profound and unalterable conviction." 
The account given of the change in Lord 
Randolph's Irish views, from the mild 
Home Rule of his early days, before 
Home Rule had become dangerous or 
extreme, to the ferocious opposition of 
1886 and 1893, and then of the gradual 
return to opinions similar to those of 1877, 
seems to the reader at variance with the 
boast of " unalterable conviction." 

The Duke of Marlborough when Viceroy 
writes, in reply to a violent remonstrance 
from Lord Randolph's friend Sir Michael 
Beach in regard to a speech on the Irish 
question, that his son " must either be 
mad or have been singularly affected 
with local champagne or claret .... I am 
extremely annoyed at the folly of his 
utterance." Such was the pressure upon 
the subject of the biography that he was 
forced to come down to the House of 
Commons and make a speech in which he 
ate his words. 

From 1880 to the end of 1885 there 
was consistency in Lord Randolph's 
Irish views, but this would hardly be 
gathered from the quotations in the 
book. For any darkness which may still 
hide the facts Mr. Churchill cannot be 
held responsible. He repeatedly states 
that it is upon Sir Michael Beach thai 
he has, very properly, relied. It is, 
however, obvious to those who read 
these volumes closely in connexion with 
all other letters and statements by t In- 



leading actors which have hitherto ap- 
peared, that the account of Lord Randolph 
Churchill's action in respect of Ireland in 
1885 here offered is both incomplete and 
misleading. On several occasions when 
reviewing books, such as Mr. Barry 
O'Brien's ' Life of Parnell,' in which 
the attempt has been made to tell the 
story, we have had to point out that the 
time has not yet come when it can be 
disclosed. The subject is still political, 
and has close bearing upon current 
affairs. Revelations with regard to it 
could be used, and would be certain to 
be used, as weapons in party controversy. 
This alone among the various episodes 
of Lord Randolph's career cannot yet 
be made plain to the public. 

Mr. Churchill gives us Sir John Gorst's 
interesting letter to his father of November, 
1880, as to the Irish policy suggested by 
Beaconsfield, who appears in his true 
light as the- inspirer and adviser of 
the Fourth Party. The view which was 
discussed between Lord Beaconsfield and 
Mr. Gorst at Hughenden, and between 
the Tory leader and Sir Henry Wolff at 
Curzon Street, was accepted and followed 
by Lord Randolph and his " party." 
The first words in the letter are : — 

" We ought not to pledge ourselves to 
support the Government in any coercive 
measures for Ireland. .. .B. will prevent 
Northcote, if he can, from making any 
more pledges." 

The time had not then come for the 
declaration that any section 'of the Con- 
servative party would commit itself to 
out-and-out opposition to coercion. Even 
in May, 1885, when Lord Randolph 
Churchill first declared in public that a 
new Conservative Government would not 
renew the Crimes Act, it is admitted 
that the decision could only be temporary 
and conditional. In words which may 
be those of Sir Michael Beach, we find : — 

" Was a Coercion Bill necessary ? Mr. 
Gibson .... was of opinion that it would 
not be necessary. But certainly Mr. Parnell 
could make it necessary ! " 

As early as December, 1880, Beacons- 
field had decided that it was not 
possible to take the Conservative party 
into the lobby against coercion as 
things then stood ; and in the first 
days of February, 1881, Mr. Balfour, 
who had given occasional support to the 
Fourth Party, spoke and voted for Mr. 
Forster's measures, while Lord Randolph 
Churchill spoke and voted against them. 
In 1883 Lord Randolph had ceased to 
fight against the Conservatives on this 
subject ; but he seems never to have 
changed his view, to which in later 
periods of his life he constantly recurs. 

As regards Home Rule, the explanation 
of many apparent differences is to be 
found in the fact that the phrase WBS 
used among politicians before July, 1885, 
in a wholly different sense from that in 
which it has been used since the early 
part of 1886. In 1SS3 Lord Randolph 
spoke strongly against "an Irish Parlia- 
ment," which he treated as equivalent 
to 'repeal of the I'nion.*' Rut this was 



tii ]•: at ii EN .i:r \i 



N 1080, Jan. 6, 1006 



nut m those days the signification attached 
to the words Borne Rule," winch 
stood for milder schemes. With this 
k,-v it i- possible to onlook the secret* 
of the raily summer of 1885, so far as 
they are here revealed, or have been 
previously in the memorandum <>f Mr. 

( 'liamberiain [dinted by Mr. Hairy O'Brien 

and in the letters to be found in Mr. 
Morley'a 'Gladstone 1 and Lord E. Pitz- 
maurice's 'Granville.' Mr. Winston 
Churchill, basing his argument, as he 

tells us. on the absence of documents in 
Ins father's papers, and on the recollec- 
tions Of Sir Michael Beach, suggests that 
there was no agreement made by Lord 
Randolph with Parnell 
"sufficiently definite or formal to be called 
a ' compact.' .... On the other hand, it is 
certain that he had more than one con- 
versation wit 1 1 the Irish leader; that he 
stated t<> him his opinion of what a Con- 
servative Government would do should it 
be formed ; and that he declared that he 
considered himself precluded by public 
utterances from joining a Government 
which would at once renew the Crimes Act." 

Mr. Churchill then goes on to say that 
no bargain could have been made, because 
it was not certain that Lord Randolph 
would join the new Government, that 
the Conservative party would not have 
ratified such a bargain, and that Lord 
Randolph " could not presume to speak 
in their name." In all these early 
passages, and indeed in the whole of the 
first accoun^ of the alleged compact, Mr. 
Churchill assumes that the promise was 
only upon the single head, " The Crimes 
Act," and tells us, " On some such tacit 
understanding as this Lord Salisbury's 
first Administration came into power and 
held sway." When, however, he comes 
to go over the whole ground again, in 
the second volume, he puts in a second 
of the three alleged clauses of the alleged 
compact — " An inquiry into the Maam- 
trasna case." There remains a complete 
difference of information from the various 
sources at present open as to the third 
alleged suggestion — '* A Viceroy favour- 
able to Home Rule," that is, to Home 
Rule in the milder sense attaching to the 
phrase up to the end of the summer of 
1885. 

Mr. Churchill suggests that Maamtrasna 
itself came in naturally at a later moment 
than that of the conversations between 
Parnell and his father : — 

" The new ministers had scarcely taken 
office before the shadowy relations which 
existed between the Conservative Govern- 
ment and the Irish party issued in a sub- 
stantial form." 

After a full account of Lord Spencer's 
attitude, he goes on: "Hatred of a 
Coercion Viceroy .... magnified this 
squalid tragedy into a political issue of 
importance/' Mr. Churchill truly states 
that his father 

" bad consistently supported the Irish 
demand for an inquiry. He was to defend 
in office a smaller concession than he had 
urged in Opposition. . . .He had had no con- 
fidence in the administration of Lord 
Spencer. For that reason lie had a year 
before voted in favour of an inquiry." 



It will be seen that Mr Churchill 
COmeS very near to placing the Maam- 

trasna inquiry among the faota which led 
ParneU to give hi* rapport t<> the forma- 
tion of a Conservative Administration. 

Our author then goes <>n to point out 

that "the Maamtrasna incident was a 

factor in great events .... Upon Lord 
Spencer its influence was perhaps de- 
oisive." 

The denial that there was any conces- 
sion made to I'arnell upon the third 
subject, namely, that of "a Viceroy 
favourable to Home Rule,"' is in sonic 
passages Btrong and apparently complete. 
On the other hand, we find in at least one 
passage a singular confirmation of the 
statement which, we believe, will — when 
the papers of those still living and the 
principal letters upon the subject come 
to be published — be found to be the true 
one : — 

' The appointment of Lord Carnarvon as 
Viceroy had been a part of the general 
policy of concession to Irish feeling which 
the new Government was forced to adopt. 
His opinions were known to be sympathetic 
to Irish aspirations, and he was for that 
reason agreeable to the Nationalist party. 
. . . .He. . . .was well known to be familiar 
with the machinery of subordinate legis- 
latures and Colonial Parliaments." 

These words make the reader feel that 
it was not strange that Parnell should 
have believed that the promise of "a 
Viceroy favourable to Home Rule " was 
made. It will probably be found that 
even Lord Salisbury's papers contain 
some trace of knowledge of a suggestion 
which, it is clear from these volumes, 
was not made known to Sir Michael 
Beach. Mr. Churchill reminds us by 
quotations from Lord Carnarvon that in 
1888 he revealed " the fact that he had 
acted throughout with Lord Salisbury's 
consent .... Lord Salisbury, how- ever, kept 
this matter entirely to himself." Mr. 
Churchill adds that his father was in 
the dark about the interview in the empty 
house. The statement no doubt is true, 
but does not conflict with that of Parnell 
as to the previous promise of the selection 
of a Viceroy who would at least have 
dealings with him upon the moderate 
Home Rule proposals. 

From two speeches of Mr. Chamberlain 
it is known that his scheme of 1885 was 
" a very large one." It was, however, 
a very small one when compared with 
Mr. Gladstone's Bills of 1886 and 1893. 
The phrase " Home Rule," though pro- 
bably not used of it by Mr. Chamberlain, 
was commonly used to describe it by many 
who were less careful. The denials which 
are made in these volumes on the autho- 
rity of Sir Michael Beach are in fact 
denials of that which has never been 
asserted in responsible writings — that 
there was any offer or suggestion by the 
Conservative party to Parnell in 1885 
of the consideration of that which in 
those days was called " repeal of the 
Union," and is now called Home Rule. 

The judgment on the facts as set forth 
in these volumes, even though they may 
be modified in the distant future by the 



publication of further papers, will not be 

unfavourable to Lord Randolph. But the 

attempt to claim for him on tl 

question <>f Home Rule an absolute dis- 
id of the party interests of 

moment will not bear investigation. The 
higher view i- negatived by BUOfa I I 

that to his chief lri-h friend, dated 
February, 1886, wherein he states that 

he had made up hi- mind " that if I 
Gr.O M went for Home Rule, the Oiange 
card would be the one to play. Pie 

God it may turn out the ace of trump-." 

Another matter on which there has 
been controversy, named by us in review- 
ing previous books, concerns the member- 
ship of the Fourth Party. But here 
again can be found an explanation of 
the difference of opinion which 
arisen. The " Party " led by Lord 
Randolph Churchill in the Parliament 
of 1880, and generally composed, as 
regards followers, of Mr. Gorst and Sir 
H. 1). Wolff, had a chequered existence, 
in the course of which differences of 
opinion frequently arose. It has already 
been seen that Mr. Balfour, bo far as he 
can be said to have been at any time a 
member, broke off from his supposed 
leader at a very early date. The opposi- 
tion to the leadership of the Commons 
by Sir Stafford Xorthcote. and the con- 
tempt shown for Mr. Smith and Mr. 
Sclater-Booth, were, perhaps, at one time 
common to the four members named. But 
Lord Randolph, with his two more firm 
supporters, was soon brought into conflict, 
not only with the Conservative leader in 
the Commons, but also with the Con- 
servative leader in the Lords. After the 
death of Lord Beaconsfield. in whose 
time Mr. Balfour had been free to support 
Lord Randolph, Lord Salisbury obtained 
the allegiance of his nephew. In many 
passages which relate to parliamentary 
sittings in 1880, based as they are largely 
upon the articles of Mr. Harold Gorst in 
The Nineteenth Century, Mr. Balfour is 
named as an absolute member of the 
" Party." At the same time Lord Hart- 
ington's attack upon them, which is 
quoted, picks out the three and omits 
the fourth. In a quotation from the 
language of the Liberal Whip the word 
" four " has. we think, been inserted in 
recent times; and though Mr. Churchill 
names " the four allies." and describes 
one meeting of " the Four," he admits of 
Mr. Balfour that even in 1880 " no one — 
certainly not his comrades — regarded him 
as a serious politician.*" We have shown 
how at the beginning of the Beeeion of 
1SS1 Mr. Balfour broke away from Lord 
Randolph, and he repeated his expression 
of censure on his former friend on several 
occasions in 1882. As regards 1882, Mr. 
Churchill uses the words "the Fourth 
Party, consisting of three persons." It 
is clear that Mr. Balfour may have been 
looked upon as a member of the loose 
"Party" of 1880. but not, except as 
regards the Bradlaugh case, from 1881 
to 1885 inclusive. 

The curious story of Lord Randolph's 
connexion with Egyptian affairs is not 



N" 4080, Jan. 



6, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



9 



fully developed in these volumes, but it 
is rightly stated that he was - perfectly 
honest in his belief that Arabi was " the 
head of a real nationalist movement 
directed against one of the vilest and 
most worthless Governments in the world." 
Lord Randolph went so far as to hold 
the Khedive " responsible for the mas- 
sacre " at Alexandria ; and Mr. Churchill 
further describes his father's " attacks 
upon the morality and humanity of " 
this rather weak, but just and truthful 
Khedive. In 1886 there is a long account 
by Lord Randolph of a visit paid to him 
in Paris by Count d'Aunay, an old friend 
from the Embassy in London, afterwards 
French agent in Egypt, and now a well- 
known Senator. By this time Lord 
Randolph had adopted the usual official 
views on Egypt ; and it is an odd example 
of the manner in which he used to divest 
himself of his own past that, when he 
came to pay a visit as a tourist to Egypt, 
he was astonished to find a difficulty 
made about the reception which he 
desired from the Khedive. 

Some of the best things in the book are 
to be found in Lord Randolph's letters, 
though the language, " half chaff, half 
earnest," is in some of the amusing 
passages so strong as to make short 
quotations odious. It is not always easy 
to separate the " earnest " from the chaff. 
There is a letter from the Nile, to Lord 
James, in which the politicians far off in 
London become mere " performing fleas. 
I was once a flea like you." In this 
letter there are some admirable though 
exaggerated descriptions of the pecu- 
liarities of certain statesmen. But it is 
difficult to detect the point at which the 
irony of " the eloquence of Smith " passes 
to the accuracy of " the adroitness of 
Joe." Yet three descriptions lie between, 
of which it is not easy to say exactly how 
much is intended to be accurate and how 
much ironic. 

There are few errors discoverable by 
us in the book. Sir Henry Wolff's 
" special mission " of 1885 was hardly 
" to Turkey and Egypt." He was first 
dispatched to Turkey on his way to take 
up his duties as European Commissioner 
for Reforms, in the post at another time 
held by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice. But 
it is, of course, the case that much later 
he received a wider mission, which took 
him to Constantinople in respect of 
Egyptian affairs. The proof-reading has 
been excellently performed, and we have 
noticed no slip except that of the first 
letter in the name of the well-known 
principal private secretary of Prince 
Bismarck. 

Mr. Winston Churchill was welcomed by 
us as a writer on the publication of ' The . 
Story of the Malakand Field Force.' 
Immersion in politics and constant speak- 
ing have not spoilt the capacity for style 
which he then, at an early age, displayed. 
In the work before us there are many fine 
passages, and we find it almost as a whole 
both vivid and dignified in narration, and 
here and there even noble. Occasionally 
the style drops down to slipslop, but is 
never for one moment wanting in interest 



or]in variety, and invariably rises again 
for the explanation of matters of high 
moment. It cannot be said of Mr. 
Churchill by any one, as he says of his 
father, " He cannot claim in any special 
degree the gift of letters." It is impossible 
to deny to the writer of these volumes the 
unusual combination of a most peculiar 
gift for politics and for letters. The 
temptation to use facts or to strain 
arguments for political purposes has been 
fought against throughout, and it is only 
in rare passages that we perceive criticism 
of Mr. Balfour in the guise of history of 
some one else. One curious example, 
however, concerns Mr. Churchill's own 
conflicts with Mr. Balfour :— 

" Mr. Gladstone. . . .if he had not been a 
great and famous Parliamentarian, .... 
would have tried to treat with disdain the 
arguments of unproved or youthful oppo- 
nents. He would have left the House 
during their speeches, or, ignoring their 
criticisms altogether, have contented him- 
self with replying only to the ex-officials 
on the Front Bench." 

Now that he has himself become an official 
on the Front Bench Mr. Churchill may 
be more tender. 



The Mythology of the British Islands. By 
Charles Squire. (Blackie & Son.) 

This book claims to be the first attempt 
at a comprehensive survey of the whole 
field of Celtic mythology. Though large 
portions of the Welsh and Irish romances, 
e.g., the 'Mabinogi' and the Cuchulainn 
Saga, have been placed within the reach 
of the general public, there has up to the 
present time been no systematic account 
of the subject as a whole. Those who 
have fallen under its spell, and would 
fain have understood the setting of the 
various stories and their relation to one 
another, have had no choice but to fight 
their way through elaborate treatises and 
essays read to learned societies. The 
uninitiated have only too often been 
obliged to give up the task in despair. 
The present volume is calculated to meet 
their difficulty : it will put them in 
possession of the few facts they require, 
and lead them by pleasant paths into a 
world which has hitherto been closed to 
them. 

The author does not profess to be 
writing for Celtic scholars. On the con- 
trary, he owns himself beholden to them 
for all his subject-matter, and will be 
overjoyed if he makes their studies more 
widely known. For his own part, he 
values these studies less for their scien- 
tific than for their literary interest. He 
has no wish to encroach on the domain 
of the specialist ; his aim in writing is 
to provide a handbook to " a subject 
of growing importance, to the so-called 
Celtic Renaissance, which is neither more 
nor less than an attempt to refresh the 
vitality of English poetry at its most 
ancient native fount." He insists that 
classic myth has lost much of its power 
to inspire, and that the legends of 
Asgard, from which our imaginative 



writers (Gray and Warton presumably) 
sought a fresh impulse, though un- 
doubtedly our own, are not our one 
and only heritage. Besides our Teu- 
tonic blood, we have much British 
blood in our veins ; the gods of the 
Celts were as much our gods as Thor 
and Odin ; the mythology of the Celts 
has descended to us. This claim is in 
accord with the most recent historical 
and ethnological theories, and few will 
any longer dispute it ; there is force, too, 
in his contention that the Celtic legends, 
while they rival the Greek in grace and 
picturesqueness, have this advantage over 
them, that they are the natural outgrowth 
of our soil and climate. The gods of 
the vine and olive are out of place in our 
British landscape. We feel instinctively 
that it is the meet background, not for 
Bacchus or Minerva, but for Cuchulainn 
with chin besmeared with blackberry 
juice, or Olwen with hair more yellow 
than the flower of the broom. 

The opening chapters are mainly occu- 
pied with a discussion of the sources of 
our knowledge, the manuscripts — Welsh, 
Irish, and Scotch — relating to the subject, 
and the history and religion of the ancient 
Britons. The reader is led up in this 
way to the actual stories, which, as we 
have seen, are now for the first time 
brought together in one volume. He is 
made acquainted with the Gaelic gods, 
and the giants who were their adversaries ; 
with the champions of the Red Branch of 
Ulster, the heroes of an epic second only 
to that of Troy ; and with Finn and his 
mighty men. He hears tell also of the 
great figures among the ancient Britons, 
of their old gods, and of Arthur and his 
knights, whom he will find to be no mortals, 
but members of the same mythic band. 
The final chapter relates to survivals of 
Celtic paganism in modern times. 

The book requires but little comment. 
It is well written and lucid, and leaves 
us with a clear idea of the scope of Celtic 
mythology. It is true that the author 
is inclined to assume too much, to treat 
as fact what the scholars he is following 
have merely conjectured. Sometimes, 
too, he appears to have missed their 
drift, as when, in speaking of the Celtic 
year, he tells us that the Celts called 
the spring equinox Beltane, and that the 
summer solstice, a great Celtic feast, was 
held at the beginning of August in honour 
of Lug ! But the character of the work 
being what it is, these defects need not 
be regarded as serious. The would - be 
student has only to turn to the authorities 
themselves, who are everywhere mentioned 
by name; while the ordinary reader, for 
whom it is primarily intended, will* be 
satisfied with something short of absolute 
correctness on points 01 detail. We bars 
no hesitation in recommending it to the 
inhabitants of these islands, descended 
as they are in large degree from the can* 
qnerea British who had been fused 

together under a Celtic civilization. We 
should like to see it in the nursery 
along with Cox's 'Tales of Ancient 
Greece' and the Norse Sagas. With 
such wealth at their disposal OUT children 



10 



T II E AT II EN -Kl' M 



N 40S(», Jan. 6. 1906 



could afford to dispense with manu- 

fact uit'd tan \ -Ikii >ks. 



Cantabrigia Illustrate. By David Loggan. 
Edited l>y .). W. dark. (Cambridge, 
Biacmillai) A Bowea.) 

Mk. J. \\ . Class, the Regietrary of the 
University, lias rendered no ordinary 
services to Cambridge. Long* connected as 
lie has been with the place by residence 
and family association, he has devoted 
not the least valuable of his many talents 
to the study and elucidation of its past. 
But even the great task of giving to the 
world in 1886 the • Architectural History 
of Cambridge ' of his uncle, the late Prof. 
Willis, is scarcely a more important 
service than the publication of Loggan's 
' Cantabrigia Illustrata.' 

David Loggan was of Scotch extraction, 
but is first met with at Nuffield, near 
Oxford. He was appointed engraver to 
that university, and from 1674 onwards 
he published a series of views of its 
colleges. In 1678 he went to Cambridge, 
and for twelve years occupied himself in 
engraving the prints which Mr. Clark has 
reproduced. In 1690 his work appeared, 
dedicated to William and Mary, " pro- 
fligatis ecclesiae pariter ac libertatis 
Anglican® hostibus." The real value to 
us of Loggan's performance is that it is so 
extraordinarily accurate as to give an 
actual presentation of Cambridge at the 
close of the seventeenth century. As Mr. 
Clark remarks : — 

" Would any artist have invented the 
details which abound in his engravings — the 
variety, the small differences in the arrange- 
ment of doors and windows — the laying out 
of the courts, the gardens with their flower 
beds and summer houses, the bowling 
greens, the tennis courts, — and, in a word, 
the domestic matters which speak eloquently 
of trie time when the college was the home 
of its inmates, who found within the pre- 
cincts all things necessary for their daily 
life in study, exercise, and diversion ? " 

How minute the accuracy in detail of 
Loggan is may be shown by a single 
example. Among other differences be- 
tween the seventeenth century and later 
times we may note the toleration of the 
presence of dogs in college courts. The 
old early - nineteenth - century ' Rake's 
Progress,' so familiar to Cambridge men, 
with the picture of an irate don, a shame- 
faced undergraduate, and a frantic porter, 
subscribed : — 

The Master's wig the guilty wight appals, 
Who brings a dug within the college walls, 

would have scarcely been applicable to 
the 'period of the Revolution. Dogs in 
Loggan are seen everywhere, even in the 
antechapel of King's ! In Trinity a man 
is setting his dog at a large bird ; and Mr. 
Clark has found that the college accounts 
of 1684 mention a tame eagle kept in the 
court, a curious confirmation of. Loggan's 
observant accuracy. A few years ago 
two fine ravens from Cumberland were 
given to Trinity College, and were to be 
seen in the Great Court, but their lives, 
alas ! were brief. A little earlier a large 



Muscovy duck was frequently ■ s «' ,, n "i tin- 
New Court, a profligate bird, who greedily 

devoured bread soaked in brandy, -and 
used to reel about like the ' homd 
example at a temperance uniting. 

To assist the imagination in lettering 
old Cambridge .Mr. ('lark has thoughtfully 
provided an old sixteenth-century map 
of the town, which seems to have altered 
but little in its general appearance till 
comparatively recent days; nor are there 
now wanting many traces of the aspect of 
the streets of the Cambridge of that age. 
It was but a small place, and the colleges 
must have shown to more advantage than 
at present. The fifth plate, giving two 
views of the town, is extremely interesting 
as illustrating the condition of agriculture 
at the time. The absence of hedges makes 
the country look somewhat bare ; |but, as 
Gunning (whose career at Cambridge be- 
gan about a century after Loggan had 
completed his prints) testifies, Cambridge 
had great attractions as a sporting centre, 
Coe Fen being a sure find for snipe in his 
youth. The dons even objected to building 
as spoiling their riding ground. 

Mr. Clark rightly says that Loggan's 
work " cannot be appreciated as it 
deserves, unless some college be thoroughly 
examined with the picture in one's hand." 
This we have endeavoured to do in certain 
cases, and the result fully bears out the 
truth of the dictum. It is the minuter 
details which are so instructive. Take as 
an example the tower of the University 
church (plate ix.), the turrets of which are 
seen to be adorned with small stone balls, 
in some degree resembling the larger 
ornaments of Clare Bridge. It is interest- 
ing to find that the master builder in both 
cases was named Grumbold — belonging, 
apparently, to a family of builders in the 
town. King's College was situated on a 
different side of the chapel from the 
present buildings, but the chapel itself 
was, of course, in its glory, and Loggan 
gave it ample notice. " It is," says 
Mr. Clark, " a remarkable tribute to 
the beauty of King's College Chapel that 
Loggan should have devoted three plates 
to it, at a time when pointed architecture 
was out of favour with most persons." 
The interior (plate xii.) is especially 
interesting. 

The general plan of colleges is that of a 
country house, and the arrangements of 
the majority are those of the manor 
houses of the period — Haddon Hall and 
Queen's College have several features in 
common, though in no way resembling 
one another in appearance. The collegiate 
system was, in fact, pace those of the 
millionaire class who declare Cambridge 
to be too monkish to attract their liberal, 
but somewhat errant munificence, in some 
respects in direct contrast with the 
monastic. " With the exception," Mr. 
Clark remarks, " of Trinity Hall and 
Jesus, no monastic arrangements can be 
traced in the collegiate system at Cam- 
bridge." 

In view of this fact, Loggan's plans and 
pictures become even more interesting as 
he has preserved the representation of the 
colleges at a time when the object and 



purport of their founderi were apparent' 

It would be an ingen for 

■ uho know their Cambridge well to 
name M they turn over the pages, which 
college they iUppOM L .'-'.til to have 

depicted. In tome -<■!/■, Trinity, 

st .John - and Jesus — the task would 

easy enough. But King - lave for the 
chapel, ii not recognizable; and Pem- 
broke. CorpUB, and Emmanuel, end ah 
all Caius, show how the barbarism of the 
nineteenth century has obscured the ait of 
a more civilized age. It is an appalling 
thought that some of those who enlarged 
our collegiate buildings not only died in 
their beds, but even left considerable 
fortunes. 

In one instance Loggan conspicuously 
departed from his rule of depicting 
only what he saw. Clare College, or 
rather Hall, was being rebuilt, and 
Loggan supplies the unfinished part. 
" This," it is said, " has been filled in by 
the liberal hand of the engraver, with the 
object of giving an impulse to the helping 
hands of others ; in order that the entire 
design which he displays with such 
refined art may be realized in the 
structure itself with as little delay as 
possible." 

' Cantabrigia Illustrata ' will enable 
those who are wise enough to secure a 
copy — only 500, we believe, have been 
printed — to travel back into the past, 
and see the little town and its famous 
University as it was when Bentley fought 
his enemies and crushed the wits of 
Oxford, or when Henry Esmond learnt 
the botte de Jesuite from his old fencing 
master, and Thomas Tusher won his 
fellowship on the Protestant foundation of 
Emmanuel. We see the undivided fields 
with their crops, the flocks at pasture, and 
the sportsmen returning with their game, 
the busy streets thronged with tumbrils 
and pack-horses, the wooden bridges over 
the river, the trim gardens, the prim and 
pompous dons. Their lot in that leisurely 
but learned age was perhaps not un- 
enviable ; but with all her changes the 
Alma Mater of to-day has many features 
in common with that which Loggan 
depicted and Mr. Clark has happily 
annotated for us. 



Gesckichte der russischen Litteratur. Von 
Dr. A. Bruckner, Professor in Berlin. 
' (Leipsic, Amelag.) 

Prof. Bruckner, of the University of 
Berlin, one of the foremost of Slavonic 
scholars, has shown in a previous 
book in the same series as that to 
which the present work belongs, that 
he was not merely a philologist. He 
has a hearty enjoyment of Slavonic 
literature, and is far from treating it like 
the common pedant or antiquary. The 
only rival who has hitherto appeared 
in the field of the history of Russian 
literature is .M. Waliszewski, who pub- 
lished his work in French. Like Prof. 
Bruckner, he is a Pole : but prejudices 
of race seem to have warped the judgment 
of M. Waliszewski. and from these the 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE A T H E N M U M 



11 



present author is wholly free. He is 
friendly to the Russian people ; only 
when he speaks of the Government does 
his anger break forth. His treatment 
of Pushkin is in marked contradiction 
to that of M. Waliszewski, who affords 
a complete instance of damning with faint 
praise. 

The early period of Russian literature 
is handled very briefly. It can only be 
interesting to the ethnologist and his- 
torian. The best things are the chronicles 
and the bilini, or folk-songs. The rest 
of the literature consists of translations. 
We observe that Prof. Bruckner accepts 
the ' Slovo o polku Igorieve ' as genuine, 
though its authenticity has been denied 
by some on account of the strange mixture 
of Christian and pagan ideas. 

Prof Bruckner does not conceal his 
antipathy to Byzantine culture, which 
he thinks differentiated the Russians 
from the other Slavs, with whom they 
would have blended. Byzantine litera- 
ture gave them their lives of saints and 
narrowed the breadth of their Weltan- 
schauung. The chronicles of the early 
period, including the pieces which have 
gone to make up the work assigned to 
Nestor, have a certain historical value, 



French ideas to Russian life. Tatistchev, 
the first Russian historian in any sense 
of the word, is praised by Prof. Bruckner ; 
he marks the transit from the chronicle 
stage to the writing of real history. 
The Occidentalization of Russia proceeded 
with giant strides in the reign of Catherine. 
The Imperial dilettante, as our author 
calls her, wrote comedies and essays. 

French literature, which then domi- 
nated Europe, reigned paramount in 
Russia during the eighteenth century. 
Kheraskov furnished his two vast epics in 
the style of the ' Henriade ' ; Surnarokov 
introduced the rhyming drama. The reign 
of Paul was without significance for 
literature, except that it was greatly 
depressed under the severity of the censure. 
The mummeries of the regime of Catherine, 
as Prof. Bruckner calls them, were 
partly resuscitated in the reign of Alex- 
ander I. The chief agent was Shishkov, 



who had great power as a Minister ; still, 
Romanticism began under the influence 
of Zhukovski, although he was perhaps 
anticipated by Kameniev in his ' Gromval.' 
At all events, Pushkin thought that this 
was the first distinct trace of Romanticism 
in Russia. Our author is very fair to 
Zhukovski, and recognizes his great merits 
as a translator : he especially praises the 
portions of the Odyssey which Zhukovski 
rendered into Russian as showing a true 
feeling for the original. Ryleev and 
Griboiedov meet with full praise. A 
real poet was lost by the early mental 
decay of Batiushkov. 

But it is Pushkin who evokes our 
author's amplest panegyrics, and espe- 
cially his marvellous tale in verse, ' Eugene 
Oniegin.' Of the charming character of 
Tatiana, Prof. Bruckner says : — 

" Rich and old literatures must envy 
Russian literature this portrait of a woman. 
The creation of Tatiana alone would raise 
Pushkin above all his predecessors and most 
of his successors. We find here what we 
always meet with in Turgueniev, who was 
a kind of Pushkin in prose, the insignificance 
of the man in contradistinction to the 
woman, as if the altogether subordinate 
part played by the baba or woman among the 
peasants took its vengeance on the higher 
anks of society." 



At the cost of her happiness (for she 
s still in love with him), Tatiana, with 
toman firmness, takes her revenge on 
'ugene. 
We have no space to go at length 
irough the various works of this charm- 
Ig poet, as they are criticized by Prof, 
riickner ; but we are glad to see such 
hearty recognition of his merits. Of 
e prose tales of Pushkin our author 
ys that they are rather to be considered 
pretty and sentimental anecdotes : 
us they appear to have much 
amatic power, e.g., ' The Pistol Shot ' 
d 'The Queen of Spades.' The sixth 
apter of Prof. Bruckner's work con- 
ides with a glowing and eloquent 
negyric of the great poet. 
We have no space to discuss thoroughly 
e men of the Pushkin pleiad, the chief 
whom was Lermontov. The strange, 
erratic career of Polezhaev is described 
at some length, even to the detail that 
his corpse was gnawed by rats in the 
cellar of the hospital. The poetry of 
Polezhaev is full of the most complete 
melancholy. He wishes that his soul 
could ebb from him as the smoke of the 
tobacco from his pipe. Lermontov natur- 
ally meets with his share of praise, and 
we are glad to see Prof. Bruckner eulogizing 
his clever imitation of the Russian bilina 
in the story of the merchant Kalashnikov. 
The chapter concludes with an apprecia- 
tion of the lyrics of Koltsov, who caught 
so well the tone of the Russian national 
poetry. 

After a short notice of the historical 
novelists — the imitators of Walter Scott 
— Prof. Bruckner gives a comprehensive 
criticism of Gogol. Bielinski, the greatest 
Russian critic, occupies a chapter, and 
is followed by Herzen, whose admirable 
style is praised as it deserves. Tur- 



gueniev, Tolstoy, and Dostoievski are 
discussed minutely ; nor is Saltikov 
forgotten, whose ' Provincial Sketches ' 
created such a sensation on their appear- 
ance. The " belletristic " writers of the 
second rank include the Narodniki, such 
as Reshetnikov, Levitov, Uspienski, and 
Zlatovratski. 

In the chapter on the drama are dis- 
cussed the bourgeois comedies of Ostrovski 
which meet with just praise, and the 
trilogy of Alexis Tolstoy. Nekrasov and 
others of the later lyric poets are carefully 
criticized. In the chapter on the latest 
novelists Prof. Bruckner dwells at length 
upon the inadequacy of some of the 
German translations of Russian novels. 
He severely says : " Alle Feinheiten 
des Russischen gehen im Deutschen voll- 
standig verloren." 

The latest poets of the decadent school 
are also discussed, and while writing 
this we cannot but express our grief at 
the recent death of the accomplished 
Madame Gibert {nee Lokhvitskaia). There 
have not been many female votaries of 
the muse in Russia, and Prof. Bruckner 
finds space to speak about them. In his 
enumeration of translations into the 
Russian language we rather wonder that 
he says nothing of the excellent version 
of Shelley by Balmont. The fine transla- 
tion of Shakspeare which was recently 
published in five volumes contains versions 
by many authors, most of which are very 
successful. 

We are surprised, too, that the author 
says nothing, or next to nothing, about 
Russian historical writers ; e.g., nothing 
is said of Soloviov, or Bestuzhev- 
Riumin, or Ilovaiski, or Zabielin — per- 
haps their writings seem to our author 
to belong to the category of specialists. 
He is fair, however, to Karamzin, the 
great historiographer of the times of 
Alexander I. and Nicholas, who must 
necessarily claim a position in Russian 
literature as the father of its prose. He is 
like Dryden among ourselves ; from his 
time dates a flowing prose, good for 
narrative, essays, and criticism. Karam- 
zin was liicky in escaping from the 
pedantry of Shishkov. At a critical 
period the prose of the language became 
elegant and unconstrained, and not, like 
German, a complicated labyrinth, cun- 
ningly devised by the schoolmaster. 

In conclusion we may say that the 
student of Russian literature will find 
in this book all he can expect — sound 
scholarship and sound criticism, and 
included under the latter the most geir'al 
sympathy with the authors. Their lead- 
ing works are subjected to a careful 
analysis. Prof. Bruckner seems to have 
given his sympathies as a Slav full play : 
he thinks nothing unworthy of not ire 
that affects the Slavs. Although a Pole, 
he writes of Pushkin and other great 
Russian authors as if he were a Russian. 
In so eminent a man we may reasonably 
expect the accuracy of a first-rate philo- 
logist, but we could hardly have counted 
upon such fine and penetrating en- 
thusiasm. 



12 



T II i: A T M EN .1.1 \| 



\ 1080. Jan. 6, 1 906 



NEW 



NOVELS. 
E. Spender. 



(John 



Display. 

Lai 

Mi; Spender's book 1- a jeu d'esprit, 
full of energy and ebullient with idi 
He sel "in one must think, to have 
•• high jink-,'' and he has them. Mi. 
Brakeepear, the editor of the popular 
halfpenny paper, oomes to the oonoluaion 
that Africa must hold Bomething cdiquid 
nori. afi Mr. Spender would say service- 
able tor a journalistic "sensation." This 

he discovers in the existence of More's 
Utopia in that mysterious continent. 
and an expedition is equipped to explore 
the state. Most of the characters of 
the book take part in this expedition, 
ladies not excepted, and this is the 
record of their adventures. In point of 
fact the adventures do not amount to 
much. The author is merely spending 
his high spirits on the way in satire, 
criticism, and conversational sallies. He 
is evidently young and interested in life 
and thought — points very much in his 
favour. Also, he dearly loves a quotation 
from the Latin or the Greek ; and he 
does not mind the hazards of prodigious 
farce. On the whole, his book is enliven- 
ing, but a trifle too elaborate. It is more 
valuable, perhaps, as an indication of 
talent not yet mature. 



Moscow. By Fred Whishaw. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

There is much brightness of tone and 
style in Mr. Whishaw's book, though 
it is concerned with the terrible year 
1812, and though its opening chapters 
contain two ghastly incidents of the 
relation between boyar and serf which 
have no obvious connexion with sub- 
sequent events. The main story deals 
with two sets of lovers, Russian and 
French — Vera Demidoff and Saska Maxi- 
moff, contracted in childhood, who learn 
to know each other in the stress of common 
action for their country, and Louise 
Dupre, who for love of Henri d'Esterre 
dons a blue coat and follows *him through 
the campaign. She has every qualifica- 
tion except sex, being the elder and 
more skilful daughter of an ancient 
fencing-master of Paris, whose lamenta- 
tions, when his two most accomplished 
pupils show their weakness in different 
ways, are the most agreeable of many 
comic touches which relieve the realism 
of a sombre period. 



Paradise. By Alice Brown. (Constable 
& Co.) 

This is a vernacular tale of village life 
in New England, a theme which Miss 
Brown has already treated with much 
skill. Naturally it is of a purely domestic 
character. Yet human nature is strong 
in her simple and shrewd characters. 
" Uncle Timmie," who is " righteous " 
with a view to discovering the nature 
of the rewards promised in Scripture, 
is one of the best of them : — 



•• • 1 gueec you don 1 1 »mhi to «l" anything 
verj bad, 1 interpolated Aunt N" 'I 

dunno 'a I <l". I dunno whether it'a bad 
or not, 1 laid [Jncle Timmie, obstinately. 
■ Vnywaya ; whatever ti ye can'1 do it. 
It ye want anything, that - the thing ye 
can'1 have. I righteous for nam 

over fort} year, an' I'm pretty nigh sick 
on V" 

There is more grace in the nature of 
Barbara, the product of the " poor farm 

who constructs a Paradise subjectively. 

A drunken country doctor, with a poetic 

BOUl, is the most articulate of her 

neighbours. Some words almost need a 

glossary. 

A Secret of the Lebombo. By Bertram 
.Mitford. (Hurst & Blackett.) 

When a writer has once shown himself 
capable of reaching a certain standard 
of craftsmanship, however modest a one 
it may have been, he disappoints his 
best friends in permitting the publica- 
tion under his name of anything which 
falls notably short of that standard. 
In ' Dorrien of Cranston ' Mr. Mitford 
attained a certain not unworthy level 
of literary craftsmanship. In the present 
book he falls below that standard by 
virtue of banality, trite phrases, indifi 
ferent grammar, and cheap sentiment! 
We cannot say that we have found 
pleasure in the perusal of this Soutl 
African story. 

The Fulfilment. By Edith Allonb 
(Greening & Co.) 

The disorder of Miss Allonby's min 
which led recently to her suicide, 
plainly revealed in her last novel. H 
former book, ' The Jewel - Sowers,' w 
extravagant and unintelligible ; this 
frankly something more : it is the wo 
of an unbalanced mind, and, despite t 
tragic circumstances of the author's deaf 
it is doubtful if it should have been pu 
lished. Such attention as her suicide 
directed to it can avail her nothing. Cr: 
cism can do no good in such a case, 
is enough to point out that the autl 
wrote with some idea of the picturesqi 
and with a sense of emotion. Th«. 
editorial notes, which are frequent, in- 
dicate sufficiently the futility of this 
publication. The book is divided into 
three parts, successively Earth, Hell, 
Heaven. To the middle section a note is 
prefixed stating : — 

" There is no literary link between this 
part of the story and ' Earth.' The reader 
will perceive that it is Genius who is now 
telling his experiences to Deborah. Where 
Deborah is does not seem quite clear." 

Deborah obviously stands for the author 
herself, and her life as schoolmistress, 
with her trials as a novelist, are doubtless 
drawn from personal experience. Miss 
Allonby died in order that her book might 
be issued exactly as she wrote it. Her 
editor, or her publisher, has made 
numerous deletions, so that her dying 
wish was not granted. In the circum- 
stances it was a pity to publish the book 
at all. 



I.ii*t ) ■ '-. By H. A. 1 Darlington. 

(Nisbel I 1 
Mi — reminds one of 

a p;t-i generation and other and simpler 

idea! I ! mentality beloi 

to a Bex that refuses to deal in thi 
facts of life. The Anstrul ■ ■ a 

decaying family, the head of which is 
obliged to earn a living as librarian in 

a London library. Into their phv 

a house of up-tart-, who are painted 

the author with a laudable lack of ! 
judioe. And the course of the tale 

concerns love affairs between the two 
families. The hero is called (alack !) 
Hero, and he is a nohle-minded An-truther, 
who thinks no .shame to work in the 
docks at a weekly wage. Hi- brother 
i> a much brighter person, and wiser 
in his L'f-neration. He marries the girl 
Hero wanted, and makes a fortune in 
America. But you cannot have every- 
thing in this world, as the ingenuous 
author rightly perceives, and Dennis 
does not earn the respect of his acquaint- 
ances. On the other hand, though his 
brother never grew rich and never realized 
his ambitions, he remained his parents' 
" Hero," which was his reward. 



BOOKS OF TRAVEL. 

A Book of the Biriera. By S. Baring- 
Gould. With Forty Illustrations. 
(Methuen & Co.) — Having written books 
on Brittany, on Wales and the West Country, 
Mi. Baring-Gould has now turned his atten- 
tion to the Riviera, meaning thereby both 
the Cote d'Azur and the Riviera di Pon- 
ente, the French and the Italian coasts from 
Marseilles to Genoa. Much reading and 
writing on many subjects have made of 
Mr. Baring-Gould, in Bacon's phrase, a full 
man, and for an evening's entertainment and 
instruction by the side of an olive-wood fire 
in a villa by " the tideless. dolorous midland 
sea," there could be no better companion 
than this book. For the author satisfies 
the requirements of the modern intelligent 
traveller : he not only appreciates scenery, 
but can also explain it geologically ; he 
admires the olive and the vine, and tells us 
something of their culture ; he traces the his- 
tory of the orange, and shows how, in the 



N° 4080, Jan. 6, 



1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



13 



world of vegetation, strangers from Africa, 
Asia, and Australia have occupied the best land 
and the warmest corners of the Ligurian 
coast, just as of old the Greek and Roman 
colonists shouldered out the native tribes, 
and forced them to withdraw into the midst 
of the mountains. 

From an historical point of view Mr. 
Baring-Gould has found a congenial sub- 
ject. The Ligurian coast was the warpath 
of the world for centuries. What scenes 
of ruthless warfare, of Roman civilization 
and Christian iconoclasm, has the amphi- 
theatre of Aries witnessed ! And there is 
hardly a mile of the coast without some 
association with a great name or dread 
event. One after another the conquering 
nations have come and gone : Ligurians, 
Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans, Visigoths 
and Saracens — each wave of civilization has 
broken on these shores and left behind some 
trace in words, in roads, in buildings, or in 
pagan customs that survive in Christianized 
form. The Saturnalia survive in the Feast 
•of Fools ; at Aix the Roman temple of 
Victory, which celebrated Marius's triumph 
over the Ambrons and Teutons, became the 
Christian chapel of Sainte Victoire ; and 
Mr. Baring-Gould, when referring to the 
transfer of the relics of S. Ampelio to 
San Remo, even hazards the opinion that 
the devotion to relics is also his- 
torical, and traceable to the " worship of 
ancestors that existed among the prehistoric 
races of Europe." There are places on the 
Riviera, as there are spots in Spain, like 
Cordova, where you almost seem to hear 
the tramp of Caesar's armies, or Pompey's. 
Caesar's armies marched to the sound of 
topical verses, as Virgil reminds us, and 
these verses were set, no doubt, to formal 
melodies. In a very interesting passage 
Mr. Baring-Gould traces the pedigree of 
Provencal poetry through ecclesiastical 
hymns to these folk-airs of the vernacular 
Latin, and thus illustrates his thesis that 
the familiar fringe of hotels, shops, villas, 
and casinos is but a modern edge on an 
ancient garment. 

Since Lord Brougham invented Cannes, 
most Englishmen who can afford the amuse- 
ment have invented for themselves some 
particular spot on the Riviera. Mr. Baring- 
Gould is no exception. For him the Bay 
of Cavalaire is the ideal sun-trap, where the 
icy blasts do not shrivel up the eucalyptus 
and smite down the oranges. Certainly 
Lavandou and Cavalaire are better suited 
to delicate lungs than Hyeres, " exposed 
to the currents of wind over the Crau ; than 
that blow-hole, S. Raphael, planted between 
the cheeks of the Maures and l'Esterel ; than 
Cannes, where the winds come down from 
the snows over the plains of the Siagne ; than 
Nice, with the Paillon on one side and the 
Var on the other." But M. Baring-Gould 
might have told us, as Mr. Lentheric does, 
that the bay is the site of the old Heraclea 
Caccabaria, a name which recalls not only 
the worship of Heracles, as Monaco recalls 
his Phoenician equivalent, Melkarth, Monoi- 
kos, but also the name of Carthage, Kak- 
kab6. However, the author warns us that 
he professes not to write a full history of 
the Ligurian coast, but only to deal with 
prominent incidents in that history and 
short biographies of interesting personages 
connected with it. In the matter of selec- 
tion, therefore, he has a right to be a law 
unto himself, but we wish that the Riviera 
di Ponente had been dealt with more 
adequately than it is here. True, the neigh- 
bourhood of Bordighera and Ventimiglia has 
been well described by Mr. Hamilton and 
by Mr. William Scott ; but by omitting 
such banalities as this, " In the little ceme- 



tery of Eze is laid a Swiss woman assassinated 
in 1902 by Vidal, a woman-murderer," room 
might have been found to do more justice 
to the Italian part of the coast. 

We have noticed on pp. 40, 78. 113, 127. 
1G3 a few misprints, to which the author 
may care to have his attention called. Most 
are trivial, but it is shocking to be told that 
it was for the death of Louis XIV. that 
Sieyes voted " sans phrases." A good map 
and a better index would greatly improve 
this book, which is furnished with forty 
good photographs of scenery.J 

Sicily. By the late Augustus J. C. Hare 
and St. Clair Baddeley. (Heinemann. ) — 
This new edition of Hare's guide to Sicily 
is announced as " almost entirely rewritten " 
by Mr. St. Clair Baddeley. In general the 
practical information which it contains has 
been brought up to date ; but we should 
demur to the statement that an escort of 
carabinieri is " necessary " for the latter 
part of the excursion from Palermo to 
Segesta, although the loneliness of the sur- 
roundings of the Segesta temple makes it, 
perhaps, undesirable for ladies to visit it 
unattended. The time allowed for an aver- 
age crossing from Naples to Palermo also 
seems excessive. On its historic, literary, 
and artistic sides — those on which we should 
expect to find this little volume superior 
to the ordinary guide-book — it is unambi- 
tious in plan and unequal in execution. 
While Palermo and Syracuse are accorded 
their due share of space and attention, 
many places receive perfunctory hand- 
ling. Thus Castrogiovanni — the ancient 
Henna — with its strange charm and unique 
associations, is dismissed in less than a 
single page, of which the greater part is 
filled by a long quotation from Ovid. Again, 
Mr. Baddeley undervalues, to our mind, the 
Roman remains at Catania ; and in Palermo 
itself he shows scant respect to the museum, 
and of the delightful building in which it is 
lodged he writes no word at all. Much may, 
however, be forgiven him for his hearty 
appreciation of Girgenti and Taormina ; if 
he fails to suggest the full glory of the view 
from the Taormina theatre, he is hardly to 
be blamed, since the task of description in 
this case is one from which Ruskin himself 
might have shrunk. It would have been 
well had he noted, in writing of the (so-called) 
Temple of Concord at Girgenti, that more 
than a suspicion of " restoration " attaches 
to it ; in point of untouched character, as 
of unequalled situation, the neighbouring 
Temple of Juno Lacinia is of far higher 
interest. 

The historical sketch with which the 
volume opens is clearly written, and will 
be helpful to the traveller who has not read 
Freeman ; but it is defective in one or two 
points. Even so brief an account of the 
history of ancient Sicily should make men- 
tion of the Servile Wars ; and surely some 
at least of the results of modern research 
might have been used to temper the con- 
ventional brilliancy of the portrait here 
drawn of the " Wonder of the World." These 
omissions could easily be remedied in future 
editions. We would also suggest that, 
although one does not look for impecca- 
bility of style in a guide-book, such expres- 
sions as " Goethe, scornful though he was 
at them...." and the unlucky alliteration 
on p. 35 ought to be altered. The 
photographs which adorn the book are well 
printed, and the large map of Sicily is re- 
markably clear and good. Some of the 
smaller maps — notably the plan ol Palermo 
— are drawn on so minute a scale that to 
decipher them is difficult for any eyes but 
those of youth. 



In the Heart of the Canadian Rockies. 
By James Outram. (New York, the Mac- 
millan Company.) — The reviewer is disarmed 
before he enters upon his study of this 
interesting volume by an " Apology " of 
the most sweepingly deprecatory character. 
It is stated that the writer's only claim to 
consideration is that he is an enthusiast 
in mountaineering, and that this book is 
issued with great reluctance on his part, 
as he feels that the brain collapse from 
overwork, which first drove him to the 
mountains, has " throughout hampered clear 
thought and steady composition." It is not 
an appetizing prefatory note, but the reader 
who perseveres well into the book itself will 
be rewarded for his pains with some delight- 
ful reading, and will rise from it as convinced 
of the author's ability as of his real modesty. 
His style inclines towards redundance, but 
pleasantly so, and his agreeable discursive- 
ness is not at all ill-suited to the subject. 
In the beginning there is traced the growth 
of that blend of reverential love for moun- 
tains, of curiosity, and of adventure which 
makes an ardent mountaineer. The charms 
of Switzerland are touched on affectionately, 
and reference is made to that proper hanker- 
ing after a real " first ascent " which turns 
a man's thoughts and steps westward. But 
it is not in the United States that Mr. 
Outram considers Switzerland's serious rivals 
are to be found, hunt as the mountaineer 
may among the upland solitudes of Colorado, 
California, or the icy crags of the Cascade 
range : — 

"Each contains some of the splendid features 
that are all combined within the scanty limits of 
the little European Republic, but the wondrous 
glacial fields, the massing of majestic ranges, the 
striking individuality of each great peak, the forest 
areas, green pasture lands, clear lakes, and peaceful 
valleys, are nowhere found harmoniously blended 
on the western continent until the traveller visits 
that section of the Rocky Mountains which lies 
within the wide domain of Canada. Follow Lng the 
continental watershed from Colorado northward, 
the ranges of Montana begin to display the charac- 
teristic features which culminate in the Switzerland 
of the western hemisphere. The rounded or gabled 
summits here give place to broken pinnacles, preci- 
pices rise in frequent grandeur, enormous seas of 
ice sweep from the alpine heights into the verdant 
heart of pine- and spruce-clad valleys, gemmed 
with emerald and turquoise lakelets, and silvery 
waterfalls and sparkling rivulets unite in producing 
a series of absolutely perfect mountain pictures." 

In view of the ease and swiftness with 
which the modern traveller may be trans- 
ported from, say, Pall Mall into the very 
heart of the Canadian Rockies, where, upon 
its line of route, the railway company pro- 
vides every facility in the way of hotels 
and chalets, guides, and so forth, it is 
certainly fair to hope that the magnificent 
scenery of these giant ranges will become 
more and more familiar to English moun- 
taineers. To all such potential wanderers 
we cordially commend Mr. Outram's pages. 
His counsel is sound, and his knowledge 
reaches far. His experiences with axe and 
line have been many and varied. They are 
here set forthwith a comprehensiveness rare 
in books of this class. The volume was 
well worth writing, and should win an 
extensive circle of friends in this country. 
It has some good maps and a most useful 
index. 

Burma. Painted and described by R. 

Talbot Kelly. (A. & C. Black.)— This addi- 
tion to "colour books " is by no means the 
least charming of a long list. Its preface 
is one calculated to induce good humour 
in the most captious reader, being full of a 
frank modesty, the real modesty of a capable 
craftsman. The volume is the result of a 

first visit, and not of any Laboured research : 
it is the record of fresh and vivid impressions 



1 1 



T II i: A T II EN .1: r .M 



X 1080, .1 is. 6, 1906 



made upon the mind "i a trained | »n n t • r 
Mini mi able writer of plain descriptive 

Iiroae. There are no statistics, no book- 
Mir, and little information of the sorl baaed 
upon long experienoe. There are the ou1 
standing features of a first vision ; there Lb 
a fine, an expert appreciation of the glowing 
colour of Burma; and there is sympathy. 
The resull ia something which is probably 
more Lmmediatelj pleasing and entertaining, 

1! less informing, than the records of a 

lifelong experience in Burma, and a ma 
classified facte, would have been. There 
are Beventy-five full-page reproductions of 

Mr. Kelly's pictures, and these form a very 

attractive portion of the whole work. The 
artist has not been niggardly in conveying 
the barbaric vividness, the blaze of colour, 
which greets the traveller in most parte of 

Burma : hut his landscapes in which 
nature is -ecu unforced by the hands of 
COlour-loving men and women, and seen, 
more often than not, by early morning or 
evening light — have an exquisite delicacy. 
Like most travellers in the East, Mr. Talbot 
Kelly found an unfailing fascination and 
delight in the splendid but intimate charm 
of early morning in Burma, and the imprint 
of his appreciation is written plainly in 
these pictures, and in some of the best 
descriptive passages in his book. The 
author is, naturally, less well acquainted 
with Burmese Buddhism than with Egyptian 
Mohammedanism (his previous book in this 
series, ' Egypt,' showed considerable fami- 
liarity with Arab thought and feeling), but 
his impressions of Burmese character are 
intelligent, and more often accurate than 
not. 

Life in Morocco. By Budgett Meakin. 

JChatto & Windus.)— to students of the 
iterature of Morocco, Mr. Meakin is known 
as the author of a comprehensive and 
painstaking trilogy, entitled ' The Moorish 
Empire,' ' The Land of the Moors,' and 
' The Moors.' His claim to consideration 
where North Africa is concerned is just, 
for he was virtually brought up in the 
country, and knows its native and semi- 
native life with the intimacy of experience. 
The present volume, while not without 
interest, differs widely in character from 
the solid trilogy just mentioned. Its un- 
connected and rather scrappy character 
conveys the suggestion that it represents 
what miners call a " clean-up " of all the 
odd material left over from that work. The 
author makes his acknowledgments to no 
fewer than fifteen periodicals in which 
different sections of this book have already 
seen the light, besides mentioning that four 
chapters have been extracted from an un- 
published work, apparently of fiction, and 
that three other chapters are the products 
of his wife's pen. It will be apparent, 
then, that ' Life in Morocco ' is something 
in the nature of a scrapbook of notes. 
Upon the whole, and in view of the existence 
of Mr. Meakin's trilogy, we cannot say that 
the work of rescuing these papers from 
their admittedly ephemeral form was par- 
ticularly worth doing. Some of them have 
more than passing interest, perhaps, since 
they indicate genuine familiarity with 
certain phases of life in Morocco ; but these 
have already been more carefully presented 
in one or other of the previous volumes 
from the same pen. Here actual instances 
are given, but they are instances the exact 
fellows to which we have had already in 
the works of Mr. Walter Harris, Mr. A. J. 
Dawson, Mr. Cunninghame Graham, and 
others who, without, perhaps, the prolonged 
familiarity with Morocco which Mr. Meakin 
has, have yet shown a good deal more 
power to depict the salient features of a 



landscape, an incident, or ., \i*t- 

enoe. 

OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

Tin Poetical Work* <>i Lard Byron, edited, 
with a memoir, by Erneal Hartley Coleridge 
(Murray), ia further described as "the only 

complete and Copyright text in one voluo 

It is. in fact, an admirable and probably 

final edition of the nohie poet s,i intimately 
associated with the house of Murray. Sere 

the reader will find all the new- poems 
included in the elaborate edition of I- 

1904, which we noticed at length. He will 
also find a lively and well-written memoir 
by the editor, and judicious notes to tin 
various poems, which explain all that a 
reader needs to know. The volume is 
attractively bound in blue, and marks an 
essential advance on the last of a similar 
sort received from Mr. Murray, the " Pearl " 
edition of 1902. The present issue contains 
1,041 pages of text, apart from the memoir. 

In this era of literary resurrection it was 
a happy thought on the part of Mr. Wilfred 
Whitten to reissue J. T. Smith's A Book 
for a Rainy Day (Methuen). Smith, who 
is best known as an engraver of Morland 
and others, and as the author of ' Nollekens 
and his Times,' had an extremely interesting 
individuality, as is shown in this posthumous 
work. It is nothing but a miscellany of 
information, a vast scrapbook, in the main 
topographical and antiquarian in its in- 
terest. Smith was born in a hackney 
coach in 1766, and died in 1833, and 
this olla podrida covers the whole period 
between those dates. It was apparently 
prepared for publication by the author, but 
was not issued till 1845. It has not been 
reprinted since 1861 till Mr. Whitten came 
to the rescue. He justly remarks that, 
while Smith takes no high rank as a writer, 
" he is a delightful gossip, full of his two 
subjects : London and Art." Mr. Whitten 
also is a learned and diligent student of 
London, and hence -his association with this 
edition is felicitous. " A budget of memories " 
is Mr. Whitten's summary of this book, 
and it is adequate. Smith's father was 
principal assistant to Nollekens, the sculptor, 
and Smith himself learnt in the same studio. 
After an independent career as engraver 
and antiquary he became in 1816 Keeper 
of the Prints. Nollekens, who had given 
him reason to suppose he would inherit a 
substantial legacy, died in 1823, and left 
300,000Z. ; but of this Smith received only 
100?. as an executor. Mr. Whitten attri- 
butes the eccentric biography of Nollekens, 
published five years later, to Smith's 
indignation. At any rate, it was the 
precursor of other honest biographies, in 
which veracity is " sharpened, not by 
malice." Smith's anecdotic mind and 
individuality may, perhaps, be gathered 
from his record in a friend's album : — 

"'I can boast of seven events, some of which 

great men would lie proud of : 1 received a kiss 

when a hoy from the beautiful Mrs. Rohiiismi ; 
was patted on the head by Dr. Johnson ; have 
frequently held Sir Joshua Reynolds's spectacles; 
partook of a pint of porter with an elephant ; 
saved Lady Hamilton from falling when the 
melancholy news arrived of Lord Nelson's death ; 

three times conversed with King George the 

Third : and was shut up in a room with Mr. 
Kean's linn.' " 

Here is certainly an admirable editor for 
Tit-bits. Yet Smith's knowledge, as 
recorded here, is extremely interesting to 
us to-day. He gives a list of the characters 
which Garrick assumed; also a list of 
Mrs. Siddons's parts. He sets down a 
diary of the Marylebone Gardens from the 
time of Pepys. You can dip into this 



luck] bag any where with the •> 
finding something oi interest : — 

" belie- i|,i- yeai M 

fall* .it laoe from tin- hat to tie- shoulders, and 
rolled curls on eithei tide oi the aeok ; the} 

t limed to oai I \ tin-. " 

The hook is indispensable to those who 
would reconstruct bygone days. A- the 
world passed before Smith's eye- lie recorded 

it — without method, without order, without 

vie, but always vividly and 
accurately. The haphazard, easy, fluent 

character of his gossip may he Been in his 
observation for any year. Take 1 B02, for 

example. He opens with some mora] reflec- 
tions ; izocs on to di al length a 

visit he paid to Newgate t.i see tie- execu- 
tion of Governor Wall ; after which he 
notes the selling of the fatal rope ; pa 
on, and encounters " Rosy Emma " " at 
the north-east corner of Warwick Lane " j 
reflects that once -he must have b< 
nearly as handsome a- that other Emma, 
celebrated by Gainsborough : and winds up 
by drawing a portrait of the hapless criminal. 
Hotchpotch such as this is for digging in, 
or, as the title goes, for perusal on a rainy 
day. 

The edition is handsome, and is furnished 
with many fine plates from contemporary 
sources. I s best feature, however, is un- 
doubtedly the editor's notes, which are 
elaborate and meticulous. They form an 
appendix almost as interesting and valuable 
as the text. 

Round about my Peking Garden. By Mrs. 
Archibald Little. (T. Fisher Unwin.) — In 
her knowledge of the real China, Mrs. Archi- 
bald Little admittedly stands unrivalled 
among living European women. Mrs. Little 
has even ventured, as we know from other 
writings of hers, single-handed to beard a 
Chinese mandarin in his yamen. So it is 
only natural that, being observant, she 
should be able to discuss Chinese matters 
competently. She has an additional quali- 
fication in her genuine love and sympathy 
for China and its people — a trait which, it 
is perhaps unnecessary to say, is not uni- 
versal among European residents in the 
county. ' Round about my Peking Garden' 
may be described as a collection of sketches 
of North China, somewhat loosely held 
together by the idea expressed in the title. 
The actual garden in Peking, attached to a 
house in which the author spent two summer 
months (in 1901, apparently), occupies only 
a single chapter of the book ; its immediate 
surroundings claim another ; and so, by 
way of the Peking palaces, temples, &c, 
Mrs. Little takes us to the Ming tombs, 
the Western tombs, the Mongolian Grass 
Land, the seaside resorts near Peking, 
and even to Port Arthur. This is the 
geographical distribution, so to speak, of 
the sketches. With regard to time, they 
all appear to be dated about the period of 
the last occupation of Peking by the allied 
troops, or of the Chinese Imperial Court's 
return to the capital. Internal evidence 
makes us suspect that at least one chapter 
— that of ' Five Nations' Soldiers as seen in 
China ' — was originally a topical contribu- 
tion to some newspaper. Such sections of 
the book as this are likely now to be found 
the Least interesting, except in so far as 
they carry back past or present residents in 
China to the days of the " Boxer"' troubles. 
Records of pillage and destruction play a 
very important part in Mrs. Little's pages. 
It is no exaggeration to say that in hardly- 
one chapter do we fail to find references to 
ruined temples, and stolen or pulverized 
works of art. One quotation is perhaps 
enough. Mrs. Little visits, on a hill-top, 
"a Thousand-Buddha Temple which must have 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1900 



THE ATHEN.EUM 



15 



been lovely. Inside are flower arabesques that 
•evidently Italian priests must have taught Chinese 
to design and colour. But the marble has been 
tested by fire, the Buddhas' heads knocked off, the 
arabesques discoloured. The amount of labour that 
has been expended in destruction in Peking is 
really infinite. And over the other side of the hill 
nothing has been restored since the English and 
French sacked the Summer Palace together in 18;19 
■and thought they were teaching the Chinese a 
lesson as to their superior strength. But the 
Chinese did not learn it. They were only 
additionally convinced, if that were possible, that 
all other nations outside their own were rough 
savages. They will think so more than ever now, 
if half the tales one hears are true. It does not do ! 
to think of many of them." 

[ A Frenchman once wrote of the scene of ! 
the looting of the Summer Palace at Peking 
as " a hasheesh-eater's dream." (That was, | 
of course, before the actual burning of the 
Palace, rightly or wrongly attributed to 
Lord Elgin.) In Mrs. Little's descriptions 
of profaned temples, uprooted gardens, 
broken images, and smashed screens we 
seem to see rather an art-lover's or an anti- 
quary's nightmare. Such records indeed 
provide food for thought for citizens of 
the " crusading " nations of 1900. So, too, 
does^what Mrs. Little has to say concerning 
the stoppage, by the Powers' orders, of the 
literary examinations — for five years at 
Peking and at Taiyuenfu, the capital of 
Shansi ; for one year in eight other provinces. 
In these examinations an intense national 
interest is taken in China, " possibly sur- 
passing even that felt in the Derby by 
ourselves." 

Mrs. Little, it will have been gathered, is 
not in sympathy with the way in which the 
Western Powers have acted towards China. 
She is, however, an ardent supporter of 
Christian mission work in the country, and 
believes that some day there will be "a 
great ingathering." All, whether supporters 
of the missionary or not, will welcome her 
appeal on behalf of the beautiful temple- 
buildings throughout China. Western in- 
fluence is bound to strike hard at the 
present faiths of the Chinese, and such 
buildings are thereby threatened with 
neglect and ruin, unless the love of beauty 
can save them. 

Mrs. Little's manner of writing is generally 
pleasant. She has a genuine instinct for 
description, and excels therein. She is apt 
to mar her picturesque passages by a ten- 
dency to moralizing and emotional apos- 
trophe ; and occasionally she may give 
readers a rather painful shock by the use 
of a word below the dignity of its context. 
But the excellences of her work are 
many in comparison with its few defects 
It is copiously illustrated from photo- 
graphs, of which all but two or three are 
admirably clear. For a book of this kind 
photography can best supply the illustra- 
tion required, and Mrs. Little has been 
fortunate in being able to supplement 
her own efforts by those of others who 
have visited the same places. The frontis- 
piece, a Chinese painting of a Red Button 
Mandarin in full dress, is more quaint than 
beautiful. 

The Royal Forests of England, by J. 
Charles Cox (Methuen), is one of " The 
Antiquary's Books," a series of which its 
author is the general editor. Its avowed 
object is " to set forth both the general 
and particular history of the wastes pre- 
served for royal sport throughout England 
which were under forest law." We may 
say at once that it was beyond hope 1" 
accomplish such a task within the compass 
of this volume. As Dr. Cox himself admits, 
"it would have been easy enough to have 
found original material sufficient to fill a 



volume of this size for almost each of the 
forests named therein," and it seems to 
him " almost sinful to be content with such 
brief summaries." What is really wanted 
by " the antiquary " is something between 
Mr. G. J. Turner's masterly ' Select Pleas 
of the Forest,' issued by the Selden Society, 
and a popular treatise suited for the general 
reader. He has been so dependent till of 
late on the obsolete Manwood that for such 
a work there was a real want. Dr. Cox's 
introductory chapters go some way towards 
supplying it, and have enjoyed the great 
advantage of being read in proof by Mr. 
Turner ; but the effort to embrace the his- 
tory of all the forests has compelled Dr. Cox 
to sacrifice other chapters and to cut down 
his work throughout in ruthless fashion. 
This is the more to be regretted because it 
is evident that Dr. Cox has expended much 
labour on his subject, not only among 
printed matter, but also at the Public 
Record Office, while forest lore loses at his 
hands none of its intrinsic interest. Hounds 
and hunting are discussed, together with the 
beasts of the chase, the officers and courts 
of the forest, its customs and its trees. The 
forests under our early kings were of con- 
stitutional importance, and more might have 
been said of the popular hatred the forest 
laws aroused, of the outbursts against them 
in times of anarchy, and of the royal 
treachery and oppression in connexion with 
them, even Henry II. making them a means 
of shameless extortion in 1175-6. When 
their history comes to be fully written, its 
later portions will present some ugly tales 
of private rapacity and spoliation. 

To many the numerous illustrations 
will prove an attractive feature of 
this book. The effigies and sepulchral 
slabs of forest officers displaying, as 
symbols, the forester's horn, the ver- 
derer's axe, and the bowbearer's bow and 
arrow, are of special interest. The horn, 
we think, was distinctive of more than 
" an ordinary forester." The Engaines, for 
instance, held in Northants and Hunts by 
the service of hunting the wolf and other 
beasts through four counties. This inter- 
esting office can be traced even in Domesday, 
and the holder of the lands made his return, 
in 1 1 66, among the barons, ready to perform 
his service, as the king's forester-of-fee, " his 
horn about his neck." We cannot find 
mention of the system of farming the royal 
forests for a fixed " census," from which 
tithes were paid, and are rather surprised 
that none of Dr. Nisbet's books is cited. Dr. 
Cox describes, inter alia, the manuscript of 
' The Master of Game.' 

Cat Tales, by W. L. Alden (Digby & Long), 
are in the mam broadly farcical, but very 
pleasant reading. Mr. Alden has the touches 
of artistic exaggeration and vivid slang which 
are characteristic of the best American 
humour, and easy as his writing may seem, 
it never falls into the slackness which 
abounds nowadays. We like best ' Tire 
and Sidon,' a parody of the motive of the 
Pied Piper; but the cats associated with 
sea-captains all make good yarns. There 
are some touches of real feeling here, too. 
Mr. Louis Wain is the appropriate illustrator 
of the book. 

We are very glad to see a new edition of 
A Short Day's Work, by Monica Peveril 
Turnbull (Murray). Easy as it is to be 
enthusiastic over so bright a life cut short 
by self-sacrifice, the author has generally 
(and, we think, justly) been recognized as 
one possessing unusual e;ifts. Both her 
verse and prose have the quality <>f distinc- 
tion, as well as a basis of independent 
thought which is rare among the writers of 
to-day. 



Messrs. Wells Gardner & Co. publish 
Chertsey Abbey, an illustrated volume by 
Miss Wheeler, which we commend as a 
careful study of the history of the foundation. 
Chertsey was one of the principal monasteries 
of England, but almost all vestige of its 
buildings disappeared in the seventeenth 
century. The charters and other available 
documents have been ransacked, and the 
facts are all to be found within the covers 
of the book. The abbey formed the usual 
first halt from London, or before London, 
in the journeys of the king when going and 
coming between the capital and the West. 
The condition of Sussex placed it even on 
the military road of invaders from the 
South. Just as Julius Caesar had crossed 
the Thames within what afterwards became 
the limits of the abbey lands, so William 
the Conqueror marched by Chertsey after 
the battle of Hastings. Chertsey is con- 
nected, as will be remembered, with the 
deaths and funerals of kings. To the 
archaeologist it must remain of the highest 
interest, on account of the pre-eminence 
of its tiles. A wonderful find of the old 
pavements was made there fifty years ago, 
and Cherstey tiles have since been recog- 
nized by their patterns in all parts of Eng- 
land. 

Cotton's Montaigne, 3 vols., is out in the 
" York Library " (Bell), which has been so 
deservedly praised in many quarters already 
that it hardly needs more commendation 
from us. Mr. Carew Hazlitt has done the 
work of editing the volumes well, and the 
first modern essayist who projected his ego 
over the world is now available in a delight- 
fully handy form. We suppose it is useless 
to suggest that his many imitators should 
think of his endowments and pause before 
they put pen to paper. 

We have received The Clergy Directory 
for 1906 (J. S. Phillips). This is the thirty- 
sixth issue, and the year-book has by now 
established its reputation for accuracy and 
completeness. It is not only a guide to its 
special subject, but also a valuable book of 
reference, readily yielding information on 
the parishes of England and their population 
in accordance with the latest census returns. 
As usual, we have tested it by looking up 
various names, and found it without fault. 

We have also received The Catholic Direc- 
tory (Burns & Oates), which is cheap in 
view of the amount of information which it 
contains. 

DebretVs Peerage, Baronetage, and Knight- 
age for 1906 (Dean & Son) has managed to 
include on an extra page the ' Resignation 
Honours,' and has a further list of ' Occur- 
rences during Printing,' which exhibits 
the pains taken to keep the volume up to 
date. It is, in fact, wonderfully complete 
in every way, even including a list of ' Royal 
Warrant Holders ' in the Appendix. 

Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knight- 
age for 1906 (Harrison) is before us. a stately 
record of 2,293 pages, which retains pride 
of place among books of its sort. This is 
the sixty - eighth issue. The interesting 
preface shows the care taken to secure 
revision, and we congratulate Mr. Ashworth 
P.Burke on Ins solution of the difficulties 

caused by recent changes. The notice of 

Sir John Senniker rleaton will need to be 

deleted, and is an instance of the clumsy 
administration of honours. Till recently W8 

thoughl that it was only in Btageland that 

people were made baronets withoul any 

intelligenl anticipation of such events. 
Though we cannot endorse all the early 
history of ' Burke, 1 it is laudably accurate 
hi us modern detail, and shows signs of 
being well looked after by its editor. 



16 



A T M EN -1-: I M 



\ WHO, .1 ik. • '>, 19I»0 



hint's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightagt 
for LQ06 (Whittaker A Co.) u an excellent 
example ol good work compressed within a 

moderate compass. W Iblocks are ■ 

feature of the work, and the formal m< 

dI address will be found useful. It doefl 

not note, bj the i>\. the Lord Mayor <>t 

Car. lit!. 

'/'A- >< enct rear -Book for 1906 has been 
sent to us by Messrs. King, Sell & Olding. 

This is the second annual issue. The ' Year- 
I '.. ">k ' includes an admirable Diary, which 

may well attract the unscientific; scientific 

notes anil tables, special sections on the 

advances of 1905 by competent writers, 

and a directory of periodicals, societies. 

biographies, &c. Through the front cover 
appears a date card which can be torn 
off each month. There is a full page 
to write on every day; in fact, the whole 
is admirably arranged, and the book should 
have the widest circulation, for it appeals 
to the ordinary man as well as the student. 

\\'i: welcome the bound Dickensian for 
1905 (Chapman & Hall), which is full of 
those " ana " concerning the master which 
have been eagerly sought after for many 
years. The green covers in facsimile of 
the separate issues are thoughtfully bound 
in separately at the end. Many interesting 
illustrations and portraits are included. 
The magazine is now, we imagine, an assured 
success, and, this being so, the editor might 
well introduce more modern critical matter 
of an aesthetic sort. Our own columns, by 
the by, contained a year or two ago a brief 
note about the most quoted author in the 
daily press, stating that, after investigation, 
the writer found Dickens first, and the rest 
(Shakspeare and others) nowhere. 

We have on our table Ecclesia Antiqua, 
by J. Ferguson (Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd), 
— Can We Believe ? by C. F. Garbett and 
F. O. T. Hawkes (Masters), — Life and Death, 
by H. Allsopp (Watts), — At the Master's 
Side, by A. Deane (Wells Gardner), — Hebrew 
Ideals, Part II., by J. Strachan (Edinburgh, 
T. & T. Clark), — Constructive Democracy, by 
W. E. Smythe (Macmillan), — Government 
Regulation of Railway Rates, by H. R. Meyer 
(Macmillan), — A Manual of Carpentry and 
Joinery, by J. W. Riley (Macmillan), — 
Occult Chemistry, by Annie Besant (Theo- 
sophical Publishing Society), — Advanced Ex- 
amples in Physics, by A. O. Allen (Arnold), — 
Social Responsibilities, by H. Jones (Glasgow, 
MacLehose & Sons). — What to have for 
Breakfast, by Olive Green (Putnam), — The 
Amateur Cook, by Katharine Burrill and 
Annie M. Booth (W. & R. Chambers),— 
Queer Thing • about Sicily, by D. Sladen and 
Norma Lorimer (Treherne), — Philippine 
Life in Tou-n and Country, by J. A. Le Roy 
(Putnam), — In Japanese Hospitals during 
War-time, by Mrs. Richardson (Blackwood), 
— Cumberland, Westmorland, and Furness, 
(Blackie & Son), — The Last of the Stuarts, by 
C. Julian (Colorado, Reinert Publishing 
Company). — Poems of Trumbull Stickney 
(Houghtf)n & Mifflin), — A Medley of Verse, 
by Damon (Truslove & Hanson), — Nugce 
Sacrai et Philosophical, by some Members of 
a Common Room (Oxford, Blackwell), — 
Lyrics, by the Author of ' Erebus ' (Elkin 
Mathews),— Verses, by T. H. T. Case (Green- 
ing), — Essays for Ireland, by L. H. Victory 
(Dublin. Scaly, Bryers & 'Walker), — The 
Water Nymph, and other Poems, by A. S. 
Johnstone (Gay & Bird), — Edvard Grieg, 
by H. T. Finck (Lane), — Sliakespeare and 
the Supernatural, by Margaret Lucy, with 
Bibliography by W. Jaggard (Liverpool, 
.laggard). — Laurence Sterne in Germany, by 
H. W. Thayer (Macmillan),— .4 Stolen' Peer, 
by Guy Boothby (White),— Lady Bobs, her 



Brother, and I. by J. Chamblin (Putnam 
/ / i ( 'onst ii nee, by I.. * '. Wood 

(Headley), Tht Expiation <>i Eugene, by 
I ■'. II. Balfour (Greening), I Prophet <>i 
Wales, l>\ M. Baring (Greening), An Island 

in tin Air, by E. Lngersoi] (.Macmillan), — 

Yolanda, Maul of Burgundy, by C. Major 

(Macmillan). Minium of Clf/Si l'<e<nl. by 

Evelyn Everett Green (Melrose), TheOit 

mill It iras So, by Koma Dene ( Diane), Tht 

Pride of the Tristan //i ir/rks, by Ellen A. 
Smith (Digby <v Long), Starlight Sto\ 
l.y Hob (Do La More Press), -Tht Metal 
and the Key, by K. Ford (Diane), — D<> 
in Dogland, by (;. Kawlcnce (Diane), 7'A< 
Interlude of Youth, edited by W. Bang and 
R. B. McKerrow (Suit),— Tides of Thought, 
by H. W. Bible (Simpkin & Marshall),— 
Abyssinia: the Ethiopian Railway, by T. 
Lennox Gilmour (Alston Rivers), — / Totili di 
Xobilta nell' Italia Bizantina, by Guido 
Bonolis (Florence, Seeber), — and Theodor 
Manimsen als Schriftsteller, by Karl Zange- 
meister, edited by E. Jacobs (Berlin, Weid- 
mann). 

Among New Editions we have Pilgrim- 
Walks in Rome, by P. J. Chandlery (Manresa 
Press), — The Diary of an Old Soul, by G. 
Mac Donald (Fifield), — The Phantom Ship, 
by Capt. Marryat (Lane), — A Sentimental 
Journey, by L. Sterne (Long), — The London 
Building Acts, 1894 to 1905, edited by B. 
Dicksee (Stanford), — Men of the Covenant, by 
A. Smellie (Melrose), — A Text-Book on Gas, 
Oil, and Air Engines, by Bryan Donkin 
(Griffin), — and Banking Almanac, 1906, 
edited by R. H. Inglis Palgrave (Water- 
low & Sons). 



i II- i ■ - Munuin I 
lie.* ii - M.e m. , 
[>'An (B I \ \- ■• i 
(leolug) .,( Mi, | Argyll, Kv .1 II Hill sad oil,. 

i 



• r •• • n -•' • l\ ' . 1,1, I . I I . ] ' I ' . i I ■ i 

Lightfool i.J ), Advaui ■ -I Iritl Part II 

ii. i 






LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 

ENGLISH. 
Theology. 

Catholic Directory, 1906, 1/0 net. 

Hibbert Journal for January, 2/6 net. 

Macalpine (G. \\\), The Days of the Son of Man, ."./ 

Xisbet's Church Directory anil Almanack, 1906, i; net. 

Sermons for the People, Second Series, Vol. II., 1/ 

Law, 
Hudson (A. A.), The Law of Compensation, i vols,, 37/6 

Fine Art and Archaeology, 
Field (H.)and Bunney (M.), English Domestic Architecture 

of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 42/ net. 
Gardner (E. A.), A Handbook of Greek Sculpture, Part 11., ."> 
Macquoid (P.), A History of English Furniture, Vol. 11. 

Part X., 7/6 net. 
Mallett (W. E.), An Introduction to Old English Furniture, S 
Stein (M. A.), Report of Archaeological Survey Work in the 

North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, S 
Supplementary Papers of the American School of Classical 

Studies in Rome, Vol. 1. 

Poetry and the Drama. 
Early English Dramatists: Six Anonymous Plays, c. I.">10-:i7, 
edited by J. S. Farmer : The Dramatic Writings of .John 
Heywood, Vol. 1., edited by .J. S. Farmer, 10,6 each. 

Political Economy,, 
Tariff Commission Report: Vol. II. The Textile Trades, 

Part II., 2 li net. 

History ami Biography. 
Calendar of Patent Rolls: Edward 111., Vol. VHP, 1848- 

I860, 16/ 
Calendar of State Papers and MSS. relating to English 

Affairs existing at Venice: Vol. XII., 1610-18, L6 
Cassell'a History of the Busso-Japanese War, Vol III., 

10/ net. 
Johnson (S.), Lives of the English Poets, edited bv (i. 15. 

Hill, :i vols., :u; net. 
Lewis (G.), An Oxford Parish Priest, 8/6 net 

Mehta (Hon. Sir PherozeBh&h M.I, Speeches and Writings 

of, edited bv C. V. Chinlatnaiii, lirs. 
Renfrew, A Eiston of, by W. M. Metcalfe. 

Sussex, victoria History of the County of , Vol. L, edited by 

W. Pag.>, .11 (I 

Education. 
Schoolmasters fear-Book and Directory, 1906, 6/ net, 

Philology. 
Anderson (J. <;.), Exercices de Orammaire Francaise, I 8 
Arnold's Latin Texts: Vergil, Select Eclogues; Vergil, 
Selections from the Georgics ; Ccesar in Britain; Cicero 
pro Archia, Bd. each. 

Bucolici (incci, edited bv I', dc Wilauiow it/.Moellcndortf, 

■1 6 
French bj the Direct Method, par llclcne \i\ier, •_• ' 

New K.ngiisii Dictionary: Reign Reserve, by W. A. 

Craigji 

Science. 
Arber (E. A. N.), Catalogue of the Fos>ii Plants of the 

Glossopteris Flora in the Department of Geology, 

British Museum, 12 c. 



_ ii.-i 
^ ■■tin— i.l i. Kaaaya on Evolution ami ll 

.1 in ■ i 

I HIV l..|. 

Ward (II. M i \ Presto Start, l -■ 

Burke'i Peerage and Baronetage, the Pi ( ancfl. 
Knightage and Conipanionagi 

Gowpei II H.) I la- \n •■! attack, 10 net 

Pottrell (<;j, \Mi iunal L'uiveruitj - l 

Medical Direi lory, 1906, u net. 

Oliver .v Boyd's Edinburgh Almanack, 1906, 8/6 ni 

Posl Office Loudon Director)', 1906, 32 ; Count) suburb-, 

l.'. : Directory, with Count) Suburb 
Proceedings of tin- United State* n tional Mus-ura, 

VoL XXVIII 

whitehead (M.X Caleb Troon, 6/ 

POB1 [OH 

Poetry and the Drama. 
Cohend) (c.), Visions dUellas, Bfr. 50. 

History and Biography. 
Castries (Comte H. de), Lea Sources Inedites de 1 Hi-' 

• In Maroc, Series 1. VoL L, 1680-1660. 
Counson (AA Dante en Prance, 9m. 
Ducor(L.), Cinq Ans sons le Hamais, ::fr. 50. 

Geography and TraveL 

Dubois (M.) et Guy (C), Album Gcograpliiipif : I. I 

l.'.fr. 
Schaeck (L de), Visions de Guerre: Six Mois en Mand- 

chourie, 5ft. 

PhUology. 

Herwerdeii (II. van). Vindicia- Aristophanes), Sm. 50. 
Leeuwen (J. van), Aristophania Pax, ed., "an. 

Si-ii-nCf. 

1'relat (E.), Questions de Salubrity, 4fr. 
<iiii- ml Literature. 
Ivray (J. d), Janua Cieli, :jfr. 50. 

*„* All bunks received at the office up to Wednesday men 
trill be included in this List union previously noted. 



THE BOOK SALES OF 1905. 



The general result of the book sales held 
during 1905 may be summed up in a few 
words — an unusual number of scarce and 
valuable works, which, however, amounted 
to only about seventy all told, these, 
of course, being of the highest class ; a 
smaller number of middle-class books than 
might have been expected ; and the usual 
plethora of ordinary everyday volumes. 
Books coining within the first division are 
for the most part rapidly increasing in value, 
and will some day be practically unattain- 
able at any price ; those in the second 
fluctuate very much, though their general 
tendency has lately been downward ; while 
the third division embraces that very large 
contingent from which libraries can now be 
formed at much less cost than would have 
been possible a few years ago. It is a 
matter for congratulation that the inflated 
prices, which at one time appeared almost 
prohibitive from the standpoint of the aver- 
age collector, have for the most part been 
brought within reasonable limits. These 
remarks must, of course, be taken cum grano 
salis ; for as there are exceptions to every 
rule, so it is found on analysis that some 
books, though not of unusual importance 
from a commercial point of view, continue 
to hold their own in the market, and are 
just as costly as ever. The vast majority 
of these medium-class works have, however, 
declined in price very greatly of late, show- 
ing in that respect, as in many others, a 
marked contrast to the comparatively few 
extremely scarce and valuable books of 
which 1 have spoken. As these latter stand 
in an exceptional position, it may perhaps 
be as well to glance at them before proceed- 
ing to deal with the various sales in order of 
date. 

The sensation of the year was undoubtedly 
the discovery of a copy of the original edition 
of ' Titus Andronicus,' 1594, 4to, and its 
ultimate sale to an American collector for 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHEX.EUM 



17 



2.000Z. In all probability this amount, large 
as it is, would have been considerably ex- 
ceeded had the book, or rather pamphlet, 
been disposed of by auction in the ordinary 
way, for it is, so far as is known, unique. 
Langbaine refers to it in his ' Account 
of the English Dramatick Poets,' printed 
at Oxford in 1691, and says that it was 
printed in London in 1594, but that no 
copy appeared to be known in his day. 
If 1,1501., realized on July 13th for a 
not very good copy of the fourth 
edition of ' Richard III.,' 1605, 4to, was 
reasonable, then 2,000/. for the ' Titus 
Andronicus ' was much too little. Prices 
paid for other Shakspeareana during the 
year prove conclusively that a few hundred 
pounds, more or less, is not a matter of 
supreme interest in the face of the enormous 
competition there is for works of this class. 
On July 28th Messrs. Sotheby sold five 
' quartos, the property of Mr. George Carring- 
ton, of Missenden Abbey. They realized 
the following sums : ' Henry IV.,' 1608, 
1,000/. ; the second part of the same play, 
1605, 500/. ; ' King Lear,' 1608, 900/. ; 
« Richard II.,' 1605, 250/. ; and ' The 
Merchant of Venice,' 1652, 200/. Not 
one of these quartos was immaculate 
in condition ; not one belonged to the 
original issue ; two were imperfect. On 
July 5th Messrs. Sotheby sold for 480/. 
' The True Chronicle History of King Leir,' 
1605, 4to, the precursor of Shakspeare's 
tragedy. The title-page was in facsimile, 
and the margins of several leaves had been 
repaired. On December 9th, but a few days 
ago, the same firm obtained 1,570Z. for a 
perfect copy of the exceedingly rare first 
edition of ' Much Adoe about Nothing,' 1600, 
4to. The Heber copy sold for 18/. ; that 
belonging to the Duke of Roxburghe for 
2Z. 17s. in 1812. On December 9th, also, 
' A Midsommer Nights Dreame,' printed by 
James Roberts, 1600 — the first edition, 
according to Halliwell-Phillipps — sold for 
480Z. (several leaves repaired) ; and on the 
19th of the same month the late Sir Henry 
Irving's copy of 'Othello,' 1655, 4to, for 
200Z. This had been a present from Frank 
Marshall to the great actor, and bore a 
suitable inscription on the fly-leaf. During 
the year a number of other copies of single 
plays by Shakspeare realized from 250Z. to 
80Z. each, and these, as well as the folios, 
will be referred to in their place. 

On June 1st the Countess of Pembroke's 
' Tragedie of Antonie,' 1595, bound up with 
the 1600 edition of Mornay's ' Discourse of 
Life and Death,' changed hands at 560Z. ; 
and on the 5th of the following month 
Caxton's ' Booke called Caton,' 1483, made 
1,350Z., and Tyndale's Pentateuch, 1530, the 
first edition of any portion of the Old Testa- 
ment in the English language, 940Z. This was 
an excellent copy, though slightly defective in 
several respects. At the same sale Wycliffe's 
New Testament, a manuscript on vellum 
assigned to the year 1380, and at one time 
belonging to the daughter of Sir Thomas 
More, realized 550Z. On March 21st 450Z. 
was obtained for a rather unusual copy of 
' The Countesse of Pembroke's Arcadia,' 
1590, 4to. These large amounts are grouped 
to emphasize the position already taken up, 
viz., that, given books of great rarity occu- 
pying an advanced place in the literary world, 
hardly any sum is too much to pay for them. 
St ill, even these have not yet attained to 
the supreme exclusiveness of some of the 
incunabula. It will be remembered that 
in December. 1904, Fust & Kolioeffer's 
great Latin Psalter of 1459, printed upon 
vellum, realized no less than 4.000Z., though 
a higher price still has been obtained (Syston 
Park, 4,950/. Vide The Athenceum, Novem- 



ber 26th, 1904, p. 732). To suggest that 
books of the kind I have enumerated are 
useless, qua books, when in the hands of a 
private owner, would be heretical. It were 
better to assert roundly that a place on the 
shelves of some great public library would be 
a more suitable tribute to their importanc e 

The first sale of the year was held by 
Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on January 11th 
and 12th. It was of little interest, except, 
perhaps, as disclosing the position then of 
the Kelmscott Press. The ' Chaucer ' stood 
at 45Z., a price which dropped to 41Z. in July. 
All the Kelmscott books have greatly de- 
clined in value during the last few years, and 
in all probability have not yet touched the 
bottom. ' The Golden Legend,' 3 vols., 4to, 
has dropped from 10Z. to 5Z. ; the ' Poems 
of John Keats,' 1894, from 25Z. to 9Z. ; and 
Sir Thomas More's ' Utopia,' 1893, from 
8Z. to 3Z. All the books in the long list of 
Kelmscott publications - — even those on 
vellum, as we shall see hereafter — are appa- 
rently under suspicion, and the outlook, 
so far as they are concerned, is black in the 
extreme. Messrs. Hodgson's catalogue of 
January 24th and two following days con- 
tained some good books, among them 
Gould's ' Mammals of Australia,' 3 vols., 
imperial folio, 1863, 28Z. 10*. (morocco super- 
extra) ; Graves and Cronin's ' Works of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds,' 4 vols., 1899-1901, 
49Z. (half morocco) ; ' Engravings from the 
Works of Sir Thomas Lawrence,' published 
by H. Graves & Co. in folio without date 
(but 1835-44), 20Z. 10s. (ibid.) ; and Smith's 
' Generall Historie of Virginia,' 1632, folio, 
generally a sound copy, though the maps 
had been remargined and mounted, and 
several leaves repaired, 26Z. 10s. (morocco 
extra). The last sale of the month was 
held at Sotheby's on the 25th, 26th, and 
27th, and that also was unimportant. A 
defective and somewhat imperfect copy of 
Peter Martyr's 'Decades of the NeweWorlde,' 
1555, 4to, brought 28Z. 10s. (original bind- 
ing) ; and Mendoca's ' Historie of the Great 
and Mightie Kingdome of China,' translated 
by Parke, 1588, 4to, HZ. 15s. (stained, old calf). 
The library of the late Marquess of 
Anglesey, sold by Messrs. Christie, Manson 
& Woods on January 25th and 26th, was 
not of any special interest. A large number 
of volumes were made up in " parcels." It 
may be mentioned, however, that Shaw's 
' History and Antiquities of Staffordshire,' 
on large paper, 2 vols., folio, 1798-1801, 
brought 25Z. 10s. (half-calf, uncut) ; Pyne's 
' History of the Royal Residences,' also on 
large paper, 1819, folio, 18Z. (half-morocco) ; 
Chippendale's ' Gentleman and Cabinet- 
Maker's Director,' the third and best edition, 
1762, folio, 41Z. (calf) ; and ' Le Sacre de 
Louis XV., Roi de France,' 1722, folio, 
21Z. 10s. (contemporary morocco, with the 
royal arms of France). The sale of Feb- 
ruary 8th, and two following days, held at 
Hodgson's, was like the vast majority held 
during the year : there was very little in 
it. The first French edition of ' The 
Pilgrim's Progress ' is, however, an im- 
portant book, which should, some day, reach 
a higher price than 15Z. (vellum). It was 
printed at Amsterdam, 1685, 12mo, under the 
title ' Voyage d'un Chrestien vers l'Eternite,' 
and contains a frontispiece and some plates. 
At this sale a copy of Gould's ' Birds of 
Great Britain,' 5 vols., royal folio, 1873, 
made 51Z. (morocco extra) ; Smith's ' Cata- 
logue Raisonne,' 9 vols., 1829-42, 28Z. (cloth, 
uncut); and Coverdale's version of the 
Bible, printed at Zurich for Andrew Hester 
in 1550, 10Z. (old calf). Smith's ' Catalogue 
Raisonne,' by the way, has sold on many 
occasions lately at about thirty guineas in 
cloth. This is something in these degenerate 



days, especially where art books are con- 
cerned, for most works of that class have 
been falling in value for some time. 

A collection of books, described in Messrs, 
Christie's catalogue of February 14th as- 
being the property of Messrs. Lawrie & Co., 
late of New Bond Street, realized 1,1372.; 
and as there were no more than 149 
lots, this sale would appear, at first 
sight, to be of great importance. Most 
of the volumes were, however, brought by 
one or other of the partners in the late firm 
of Lawrie & Co., at prices which cannot be 
regarded as furnishing any real test of their 
value. They were, no doubt, of exceptional 
interest and importance to their late owners, 
who accordingly bought them back again 
at prices which no casual purchaser would 
be inclined to give. On February 15th 
some good books were sold at Hodgson's,, 
among them Chapman's ' Conspiracie and 
Tragedie of Charles, Duke of Byron,' 1608, 
4to, 20Z. (calf, a leaf missing) ; the same 
author's 'May Day,' 1611, 4to, 27Z. (calf, 
stained) ; and ' The Widdowe's Teares,' 
1612, 4to, 7Z. 15s. (some head-lines shaved, 
calf). Ben Jonson's ' The Alchemist,' 1612, 
4to, realized 39Z. (leaf defective) ; and 
Sharpham's 'The Fleire,' 1610, 4to, 10/. 
(stained, and blank leaf missing). Later 
in the month we find Burton's ' Arabian 
Nights,' 16 vols., 1885-6, selling for 29Z. ; 
Louis XIV. 's own copy of the Biblia Sacra, 
Paris, 1653, 4to, 13Z. 5s. ; Beaumont and 
Fletcher's ' Comedies and Tragedies,' 1647, 
folio, 24Z. 10s. (morocco extra, portrait 
partly inlaid); Fletcher's 'The Elder 
Brother,' 1637, 4to, with the title in capitals, 
thus showing the first issue, 12Z. 15s. 
(morocco extra) ; and Herrick's ' Hes- 
perides,' 1648, 8vo, 20Z. 10s. (defective). 
A copy in half-calf of that very scarce work 
'The Sporting Repository,' 1822, with 19 
coloured plates by Berenger and Aiken, 
realized 30Z. As much as 80Z. has been 
obtained for a clean example in the original 
boards. The late Mr. William Morris had 
the first edition in Italian of the ' Hypnero- 
tomachia ' of Poliphilus, 1545, folio, and at 
his sale in December, 1898, it sold for 31Z. 
The same book now brought 14Z. 5s., thus 
disclosing a great falling away. The truth 
is that this Italian edition is not of much 
importance, the woodcuts being copied from 
those appearing in the Latin edition of 1499, 
the one usually inquired for. 

March opened badly, and it is not until 
we come to Mr. Wickham Flower's library, 
sold at Sotheby's on March 8th and threo 
following days, that anything noticeable 
occurs. Mr. Flower's collection realized 
2,500Z. for the 910 lots, the prices being very 
evenly distributed. Bacon's ' Advancement 
of Learning,' 1605, 4to, brought 19Z. (morocco 
extra) ; Chaucer's 'Works,' 1542, folio, 34/. 
(old calf) ; ' La Divina Commedia,' printed 
at Venice in 1477, containing for the first 
time the Commentary of Benvenuto da 
Imola, 50Z. (russia gilt) ; Higden's ' Poly- 
chronicon,' printed at Southwark in 1527, 
folio, 29Z. ; Lord Lilford's ' Birds of the 
British Islands,' 7 vols., 1891-7, royal 8vo, 
50Z. (half-morocco) ; and Ventenat's ' Jardin 
de Malmaison,' 1803, imperial folio, 27Z. 
(russia extra). One or two other horti- 
cultural books appeared at this sale, as, 
for instance, Jacquin's ' Icones riantaruni 
Rariorum,' 3 vols., 1781-93, royal folio, 
301. ; and the Bame author's ' Plantarum 
Rariorum Horti Ca-sarei Selioenbrunnensis 
Descriptio,' 4 vols., 1797-1804, imperial 
folio, 28/. iOa. The Avlesford copy of 

Redoute's 'Los Liliacees/ s vols.. 1802-16, 

now brought 75/.. as against 47/. in 1888- 
Both copies were bound in morOCCO extra. 

J. Hi kihkt Slater. 



18 



A T II E \ -K U M 



S 1080, Jan. 6, L906 



I ll K ETYMOLOGY OF " BO 1ST." 
At hist wt have it ! Tin- probable origin 

<if thf word ifl well worked out in the ' New 

English I >i<t iDiiutN .' when- the oorrecl result 
in practically arrived »t. Dr. Murray shows 
thut phonetic oonsiderations connect it 
"with an (). French *boster ; but of this no 
trace has been found." 

1 have not found it in continental 
French; but it occurs in Anglo - French, 
which is still moic to the point. It is true 
that I have only found the substantive bost ; 
but this suffices. 

In the treatise of Walter de Bibbesworth 
(or Bibsworth), as printed in T. Wright's 
volume of 'Vocabularies,' p. 161, we find a 
passage which appears as nonsense by the 
omission of two fines : — 

on de coj let primerole 

K> par boat de frivole 

K par knyiicl on \\role 



Here frivole is glossed by ydel wordes, and 
the phrase " par bost de frivole " means 
" by a boast [consisting of] idle words," i.e., 
by a frivolous boast. 

There is a better copy in MS. Gg. I, 1, in 
the Cambridge University Library. It 
supplies the two missing lines : — 

On ile quiller primerole 

Pur fere cbapeua a clem descole, 

Ki par bott qui ne uaut friuole, 

K par kiiyuet nu virole, 

Souent ISeuentyj attrere femme fole ; 

i.e., " Or to gather primroses, to make 
chaplets for clerks of the school, who by 
means of a boast which is not worth a trifle, 
and by [a present of] a little knife or a 
ferrule, know how to attract a foolish 
woman." Chaucer is our witness that 
knives were acceptable presents to the ladies. 

In both MSS. the A.-F. bost may be fairly 
translated by "boast"; and thus the long- 
lost word is found. 

We sadly need a new edition of Walter de 
Bibsworth, with a collation of all the MSS., 
and including all the numerous glosses. I 
may add that Bibsworth was situate in 
Hertfordshire. Walter W. Skeat. 



i in: N BAR OF MRS. HEMANS - BIR1 H 

ll.llllp-lC.Kl. 

Tm: year of Mrs. Hemans's birth has 
been a subject of controversy. EL Pi 
Chorley, in his ' Memorials, ' makes it l T'M : 
but Mrs. Bexnans's sister gives it, as L793, 

and is followed by the 'Dictionary of 
National Biography. It now seems possible 
to decide the question definitely in favour 

of 1793, by a note in .Mr. John Kughi 
recently published ' Liverpool Hanks aud 
Bankers' (p. 80). Alter mentioning the 
failure of Charles Caldwell & Co., Mr. 
Hughes subjoins : — 

"Among the clients of C. Caldwell & Co. was 

the til Ml of Brow lie. BrOWTJ ft Co., the senior of 
whom Was the father of Felicia Dorothea Browne, 
afterwards Mrs. Heinans. Browne k Brown were 
extensive holders of cotton, and came to grief. 

The assets of the firm, and the furniture and n -i 
deuces of the partners were sold by auction. At 

the very time the Brownea were removing furni- 
ture from their house in Duke Street the future 
Mrs. Hemans was born, and her infelicitous 
arrival was a source of inconvenience to the 

incoming owner, Cornelius Bourne." 

The bankruptcy of Caldwell & Co. was 
gazetted on March 30th, 1793, and it may 
be taken as certain that their clients' failure 
must have occurred in the same year. 
Felicia Hemans's birthday was September 
25th, within four days of Michaelmas Day, 
a likely time for a removal. 

R. Garnett. 



CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The bibliography of Marlowe affixed to 
my memoir of the poet was mainly compiled 
for my own use and information. Whilst 
cordially supporting Mr. J. Le Gay 
Brereton's wish to see a fuller one, let me at 
once explain that, being neither a librarian 
nor a professional bibliographer, such a 
work is outside the scope of my literary 
labours. Sucli an inclusive production 
as that foreshadowed by the notanda 
kindly sent me by Mr. Brereton appears 
needlessly voluminous; his list includes 
some items already dealt with in 
my catalogue; poems, such as Mrs. 
Browning's ' Vision of Poets,' containing a 
few words of reference to Marlowe ; one or 
two newspaper references to the trumpery 
Canterbury memorial, which I ignored pur- 
posely ; some foreign and colonial entries 
not discoverable in the British Museum 
catalogues consulted by me; and some 
works published since my bibliography was 
compiled. Of the sundry items above 
enumerated only the last 'two appear to 
need permanent record. Leaving this, how- 
ever, to the discretion of the suggested 
compiler, I may be permitted to repeat here 
these words from my own tentative effort : 
" This is the first Bibliography that has ever 
been published of the Works of Christopher 
Marlowe. It cannot be expected that it is 
exhaustive, but it will afford a good basis for 
any further effort in the same direction." 
John H. Ingram. 



CAMPION AND MR, PAUL. 

31, Farm Street, \V. 

May I be permitted to protest against the 
grave and gratuitous charge brought against 
a man of acknowledged good name by Mr. 
Herbert Paul in his ' Life of Froude ' ? He 
states that the well-known Jesuit Edmund 
Campion, " who is regarded by thousands of 
good men and women as a martyr," came 

to England "to assassinate Elizabeth if 

opportunity should serve " (p. 140). " To 
him the removal of Elizabeth would have 
been a religious act" (p. 141). For these 
allegations — which have never been brought 
against Campion before — not one word of 
proof is offered. 

The gravity of the accusation is at once 
obvious, and its gratuitousness will be plain 
to any one who has read the life of Campion 
— that, for instance, in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography,' or even the account of 
him given by Froude. Froude made no 
such suggestion ; on the contrary, he wrote 
of the great missionary with not a little 
respect and appreciation, and his narrative, 
despite its faults, will serve to correct the 
grosser mistakes of Mr. Paul. 

But it is of the charge of readiness to 
murder alone with which I am now con- 
cerned. We have no courts of law to which 
we can carry a question of historical 
justice ; but, when a notable injury has 
been committed, we may, and should, appeal 
to public opinion. Mr. Paul has addressed 
his book to a literary audience. It remains 
to be seen whether the literary opinion of 
our day, slow though it may be to speak, 
will condone or condemn his reckless, 
injurious words. J. H. Pollen, S.J. 



ICitrranj Qfossip, 

We are very glad to hear that the new 
editor of The Gentleman's Magazine is to 
be Mr. A. H. Bullen, under whose manage- 
ment the paper will return to its high 
scholarly traditions. A pilot more skilful 



and oapabk it ooi easily found. Ai in 
early days, much attention will be given 
to literary and antiquarian ■ • h. 

The editorial officei will he at IT I 

Russell Street, W.C 

Miss Ai.k i. < I Q known as 

the author of ' A Latei PepyS,' ha- in I I 

a memoir of Bin. Elizabeth Cart 
the tranalatoi <>f Bpictetus, the friend of 
Dr. Johnson, and a prominent member of 
the Has Bleu Society. In writing this 

biography Mi>s GaUSSOU has had the aid 

of .Mr. Brudenell Garter, a descendant of 
Mrs. Carter. The book will be fully illu-- 
trated, and will be published by Messrs. 
Smith, Elder & Co., under the title of ' A 
Woman of Wit and Wisdom,' about the 
centenary of Mrs. Carter's death, which ( 
occurred on February 19th, 1806. 

Mr. Unwin has arranged to publish a 
volume by .Mrs. Mona Caird, entitled 
' Wanderings in Provence.' It contains a 
series of word-sketches of some of the 
most romantic places in that region, and 
the historical associations are related at 
length, considerable space being given to 
the troubadours. The book will be illus- 
trated from drawings by Mr. Joseph 
Pennell and Mr. Edward Synge. 

A good many people know Mr. Charles 
M. Dought} T as the author of a remarkable 
book, ' Travels in Arabia Deserta ' (Cam- 
bridge, University Press). It is therefore 
interesting to learn that Messrs. Duck- 
worth will publish immediately two 
volumes of a poem by Mr. Doughty, 
entitled ' The Dawn in Britain.' 

Under the title ' School and Sport,' 
the life experiences of a head master of 
one of our public schools will be given in 
a work by Mr. Tom Collins. It is an- 
nounced by Mr. Elliot Stock for immediate 
publication. 

Prebendary Frederick Meyrick, 
rector of Blickling, whose death occurred 
last Wednesday, was a well-known Oxford 
! man, whose ' Memories ' of life there and 
elsewhere we noticed at length on June 
17th of last year. He was in the thick of 
the Oxford Movement, and all his life 
revelled in theological controversy, to the 
literature of which he contributed largely, 
at times with a ferocity which seems 
beyond excuse. He was further, as we 
\ said in our notice of his ' Memories,' " a 
| wide traveller, accomplished linguist, and 
| practised disputant." He 
I " wrote on the Church of Spain, on the 
morality of Liguori, on Italian clerical 
1 legends, on Vaticanism, on Irish Church 
missions. A staunch upholder of the 
: English Church, as at once Catholic and 
] Protestant, primitive and reformed, he set 
up an Anglo-Continental Societj' for the 
enlightenment of foreign Catholics, and co- 
operafced vigorously with Dr. Dollinger in 
his protests against Papal infallibility." 
The wonder is that so able and accom- 
plished a man never secured promotion in 
the Church, but he lost touch with his 
friend the late Lord Salisbury when he 
voted for Gladstone at Oxford in 1865. 

In the January number of The Scottish 
Historical lu ri< w Mr. Andrew Lang begins 
a fully illustrated paper on the portraits 



N° 4080, Jan. fi, 1900 



THE ATHENiEUM 



19 



of Mary, Queen of Scots. Prof. Hume 
Brown also contributes from fresh stand- 
points an estimate of the historical 
achievement and place of the Scots 
nobility. 

Mrs. Paget Toynbee's edition of the 
« Lettres familieres de Madame du Deffand 
a Horace Walpole..' and Dr. Toynbee's 
' Vocabulary and Phrase - Book of the 
Italian Works of Dante,' which were 
originally announced for publication by 
the Clarendon Press, will be published by 
Messrs. Methuen. Mrs. Toynbee's work 
will be in French throughout, as it is 
anticipated that there will be a demand 
for the book in France. There have been 
five or six French editions of the selected 
letters published by Miss Berry in 1810, 
and the announcement of the recovery of 
the remainder, which, it was supposed, had 
been destroyed, has aroused considerable 
interest. 

An edition in twenty volumes of the 
complete works of Thoreau, shortly to 
be issued by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co., will include his ' Journal,' edited 
by Mr. Bradford Torrey, most of which 
has not hitherto been published. The 
issue is to be known as the " Manuscript 
Edition," from the fact that each of the 
six hundred sets will contain a page of 
original manuscript. There will also be a 
hundred photogravures from views taken 
by Mr. Herbert W. Gleason. 

We notice the death at an advanced 
age of Dean Carrington, rector of Bock- 
j ing, who was the author of several trans- 
lations from the French, the latest collec- 
tion of which, ' An Anthology of French 
Poetry (Tenth to Nineteenth Centuries),' 
we reviewed at some length in 1901. His 
renderings of Victor Hugo's poems had 
reached a third edition. He wrote verse 
with ease, and sometimes with grace, but 
his work suffered by his conscientious 
resolve to be literal at all costs. 

Mrs. Carey Brock, who died on 
December 30th, was well known as a 
writer of books for children. Her ' Sunday 
Echoes in Weekday Hours ' in particular 
were much read by an earlier generation. 

Messrs. Sothebv, Wilkinson & Hodge 
will sell on the 19th inst. the fine collec- 
tion of book-plates formed by the late 
James Roberts Browft, one of the founders 
of the Ex-Libris Society. His collection 
is probably the most extensive of its kind 
which has yet appeared in the auction- 
room. Fifteen of the lots comprise over 
10,000 plates, and each of these lots forms 
by itself a reasonably good collection. 
Many of the earlier plates are excessively 
rare ; and the long series of American 
plates includes many very scarce examples, 
The collection is arranged in 346 lots, 
among which are all the English books on 
the subject of book-plates. 

University College, London, an- 
nounces a course of introductory lectures 
on ' Phonetics, with Special Reference to 
English Speech Sounds,' by Dr. R. A. 
Williams, during the second and third 
terms, on Monday afternoons. The in- 



augural lecture on the 15th inst. will 
treat of the history of phonetics as a 
branch of science. 

Other lectures at the same place, of 
interest to the literary world, are on 
' Shakspeare's Plays,' by Assistant Pro- 
fessor Chambers (time to be arranged); 
' History of English Poetry,' by Prof. 
Ker, continued course beginning on Janu- 
ary 16th, and on the same day the begin- 
ning of a course on Icelandic by the same 
scholar. Prof. Brandin continues his 
course on ' French Satire in the Middle 
Ages ' on February 7th, begins ' Bertrand 
de Born,' a course on Provencal, on Janu- 
ary 17th, and starts public lectures on 
Racine andMoliere on the 27th. Principal 
Gregory Foster is dealing with ' Some 
Topics in Middle English Literature ' 
(time to be arranged), and beginning 
public lectures on ' English Literature, 
mainly Shakspeare,' on the 27th. Prof. 
Robertson begins a course on Goethe's 
' Balladen ' on the 22nd ; and Prof. 
Priebsch announces for the 17th the 
beginning of a course on ' Der Nibelunge 
Not,' while he begins public lectures on 
Goethe and Schiller on the 27th. 

Mrs. William Sharp writes to us from 
21, Woronzow Road, St. John's Wood, 
N.W. :— 

" I intend to write a memoir of my hus- 
band, and shall feel greatly indebted for the 
loan of any letters or other documents likely 
to be of service, whether of a personal 
nature, or relative to his work as William 
Sharp or Fiona Macleod. Owners may rest 
assured that every care will be taken with 
the letters, &c, and that they shall be re- 
turned in due time." 

News from Melbourne announces the 
death of Victor Daley, the well-known 
Australian poet, author of, inter alia, ' At 
Dawn and Dusk,' a book of distinct 
promise. The Daily Chronicle is in error, 
however, in stating that he wrote also 
' Fair Girls and Gray Horses,' which was 
published at Sydney in 1901, and was 
the work of the Scottish poet Mr. Will H. 
Ogilvie. 

We have received a paragraph con- 
cerning " that peculiar richness, glow of 
colour, and remarkable word-painting 

which signals out from all other 

English writers." We leave the name of 
the author a blank, and do not see how 
any competent critic could guess it. The 
futility of such sweeping statements ought 
to be evident, but we are sorry to see that 
they are taken for granted and printed by 
people who ought to know better. And 
we should have thought that the resultant 
disappointment after reading such 
" masterpieces " would make the public 
cautious about buying books so belauded, 
and that in the long run wild overpraise 
of forthcoming volumes would not be a 
good advertisement. The spread of Book 
Clubs will, presumably, have this advan- 
tage, that it will increase the reading 
public, a class which ought to have, and, 
doubtless, has (when it thinks at all) 
enough intelligence not to be humbugged 
easily more than once or twice. 

The Paris Figaro has resumed a feature 
which was exceedingly popular with its 



readers some ten or fifteen years ago — a 
literary supplement. This is issued gratis 
with its Saturday number, and the 
management have wisely decided to accept 
subscriptions for this particular issue, 
which is under the management of M. 
Francis Chevassu. Its careful and 
discriminate editing ought to recommend 
it to English readers interested in the 
trend of French literary matters. 

" Claude Farrere," the author of ' Les 
Civilises,' the Goncourt Prize volume un- 
favourably reviewed by us last week, is a 
naval officer. A previous novel by him 
dealt with the opium-smoking habits of a 
small number of French naval officers who 
have been employed in the Far East ; and 
his new book is not likely to add to his 
popularity with his comrades. 

The death, in his fifty - eighth year, 
is reported from Karlsruhe of Robert 
Haas, professor at the technical Hoch- 
schule of that town, and author of the 
well-known ' Lieder und Bilder vom 
Schwarzwald,' &c. 

Recent Parliamentary Papers include 
a reprint of the Poor Law Commissioners' 
Report of 1834 (Is. Sd.) ; Report on 
Sanitary Measures in India, 1903-4 
(Is. Sd.) ; Statistical Tables relating to 
British Colonies, Possessions, and Pro- 
tectorates, 1903 (Is.) ; National Educa- 
tion Commission, Ireland, Appendix to 
the Seventy-First Report (Is. 3d.) ; and 
List of Evening Schools under the Ad- 
ministration of the Board of Education, 
1903-4 (6d.). 

It is with pleasure that we draw atten- 
tion to a change in our imprint, Mr. J. 
Edward Francis receiving official recog- 
nition as acting with Mr. John C. Francis, 
who succeeded his father in the manage- 
ment of the paper in 1882. John Francis 
had been manager since 1831. 

SCIENCE 



The Great Plateau. By Capt. C. G. Raw- 
ling. (Arnold.) 

The latter and more important half of 
this volume describes the Gartok expedi- 
tion, which formed the closing passage in 
the history of our operations in Tibet in 
1904. The Indian Government originally 
intended, on the cessation of hostilities, 
and as soon as the Tibetans had come to 
a reasonable frame of mind, to send out 
several exploring parties for the purpose 
of clearing up unsolved geographical 
problems. Undoubtedly the most in- 
teresting of these projects was that for 
establishing in an irrefutable manner the 
identity of the Sanpu and the Brahma- 
putra, by sending a surveying party down 
the course of the great Tibetan river until 
it should reach Assam. But this inten- 
tion was abandoned, mainly because the 
Tibetan officials declared that their 
authority would not be recognized by 
the fierce independent tribes occupying 
the valley as it approached the Indian 
frontier. The same objection, how- 
ever, did not apply to sending a small 



20 



Til E A 'I'll KN.K1' M 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



party up the Sanpu, which could accom- 
plish the geographical task of tracing a 
considerable and unknown portion of the 
upper course of that river, while at the 
saint time it performed the political part 
of its mission in opening Gartok, the so- 
called capital of Western Tibet, to our 
trade under the terms of the Treaty of 
Lhasa. The arrangements made for the 
safety and comfort of this parly were 
marked by good faith, and reflected most 
creditably on the honour of the Lhasa 
ruling conclave and the hospitality of the 
Tibetan people. 

Capt. Rawling, who had previously 
explored much of the region north of 
Rudok, in Western Tibet, of which he 
gives an interesting account in the first 
portion of his book, was entrusted with 
the command of this expedition, and two 
Royal Engineer officers, Capts. C. H. D. 
Ryder and H. Wood, were appointed to 
■carry out the surveying work, which pro- 
vided much of interest and importance 
in a fresh field. Capt. Ryder had pre- 
viously done excellent work in China, and 
he subsequently received the Patron's 
Gold Medal of the Geographical Society 
for his services to science on this very 
journey. Capt. Wood is well known for 
his visit to Nepal for the express purpose 
of establishing the claims of Mount 
Everest to rank as the loftiest mountain 
in the world. The fourth English officer 
w T as Lieut. Bailey, who had worked hard 
in acquiring some knowledge of Tibetan, 
and was thus qualified to act as inter- 
preter. Hospital Assistant Hira Singh had 
charge of the medical arrangements, and 
not merely looked after the health of the 
expedition, but also attended to the cases 
of countless Tibetan patients who presented 
themselves for treatment throughout the 
journey. The trusty Goorkha Ram Singh 
(who had accompanied the author on his 
first tour), two trained surveyors, and 
five sepoys of the 8th Goorkha Regiment 
completed the party. The drivers were a 
miscellaneous assortment, including one 
Chinaman ; but they worked well together 
under the command of a Ladaki who had 
travelled with Sir F. Younghusband. 

We do not propose to attempt here 
a summary of this most interesting 
journey in a comparatively unknown 
region. The reader in search of novelty 
will hardly fail to obtain a book of 
travel among people who for the most 
part had never seen a European before, 
and Capt. Rawling's modest narrative 
will be found full of interest and 
variety. 

The story begins well with the interview 
with the Tashi Lama at Tashi Lhumpo — 
the Teshi Lumbo of Bogle and Turner. 
Nor is its conclusion, including an admir- 
able account of the ruined ancient capital 
of some unknown dynasty at Tooling, with 
its cantilever bridge across the Sutlej, less 
interesting. 

The only part that is disappointing — 
and that through no fault of the author — 
is the account of Gartok, the trade mart 
which was to be opened by our treaty. There 
the travellers found "three good -sized 



houses and twelve miserable hovels." It 
is said that this place is busier in summer, 
when it assumes the aspect of a Tartar 
encampment; but the amount of trade 
that will over be done in this region can- 
not be great, unless the goldfields of Ante- 
lope Plain and Manasarowar become an 
Asiatic Klondyke. .Manasarowar is the 
holy lake of the Tibetans and also of the | 
Hindus. Some of the Hindus with the 
party secured bottles of its water, which 
they secreted about their persons for con- 
veyance to India. Within the radius of a 
few miles round the lake are the sources 
of four of the greatest rivers in the world 
— the Indus, Brahmaputra (Sanpu), Sutlej, 
and Ganges. The exact source of the 
Indus is still unascertained, but that of the 
Sutlej was fixed by Capt. Ryder on this 
expedition. A still more interesting fea- 
ture in the scenery of this remote portion 
of Tibet is the holy mountain Kailas 
Parbat, with its snowy crest. Capt. 
Rawling writes : — 

" Kailas Parbat is by far the largest and 
highest of the many pinnacles that tower up 
in the sky from the range of mountains 
which lies to the north of the Manasarowar 
Lake ; its summit rises over 22,000 feet 
above sea-level, or some 7,000 feet above 
the surrounding plain. Figures as a rule 
convey but a vague idea to the general 
mind, and it is indeed difficult to place 
before the mental vision a true picture of 
this most beautiful mountain. In shape it 
resembles a vast cathedral, the roof of 
which, rising to a ridge in the centre, is 
otherwise regular in outline and covered 
with eternal snow. Below this so-called 
roof the sides of the mountain are perpen- 
dicular and fall sheer for hundreds of feet, 
the strata horizontal, the layers of stone 
varying slightly in colour, and the dividing 
lines showing up clear and distinct. At 
the foot of these Titanic walls a number of 
caves are said to exist, and dark and gloomy 
ravines lie on either side, while from the 
neighbouring and lesser hills rise numberless 
pinnacles and slender spires of rock. Won- 
derful is the appearance of this mountain 
in the early morning, wdien its roof of spot- 
less snow is touched by the rising sun and 
changed in hue to a soft but vivid pink, 
whilst the ravines below still hold the 
blackness of the night. As the light 
increases so do the mighty walls heighten 
in colour and form a happy contrast to 
the blue waters of Manasarowar, rippling 
in the morning breeze, changing gradually 
as one gazes from purple to brightest blue. 
No wonder, then, that this spot is believed 
by Hindus and Mahomedans alike to be 
the home of all the gods ; to them it is 
the Holy Mountain, and the most sacred 
spot on earth." 

We have referred to the complete success 
of the arrangements made by the Tibetans 
for the comfort and safety of the party. 
Not a single unpleasant incident marred 
the journey, and the author speaks in the 
most cordial terms of the whole people. 
This friendliness must be considered as 
very remarkable so soon after a sangui- 
nary and bitter campaign, and we may 
describe it as auspicious now that all pos- 
sibility of further warfare in Tibet, so far 
as we are concerned as aggressors, seems 
removed. One little fact will reveal how 
anxious the Tibetans were to please. All 
the letters for India and England posted, 



or rather handed to the Tibetan authori- 
ties en route for dispatch, reached their 
destination absolutely intact, and without 
a single miscarriage. It is only after read- 
ing Capt. Rawling's narrative of his ex- 
periences among this people, attractive 
despite their dirt, that his statements that 
"Tibet has an irresistible fascination for 
the man who has once travelled in the 
country," and that " before many months 
have passed the longing to see it once 
more returns with redoubled force," will 
be fully understood. The difficulty in 
getting into and out of Tibet is no obstacle : 
it rather adds zest to the spirit with which 
the journey is undertaken. 



The Romance of Insect Life. By Edmund 
Selous. (Seeley & Co.) — Mr. Edmund Selous 
possesses a well-merited reputation as an 
original observer of animal life ; his ' Bird- 
Watching ' fully established that position ; 
it may therefore come as a considerable 
surprise to his readers and admirers to A nnd 
him now engaged in another field, for 
the present volume is admittedly nearly a 
pure compilation, and when he draws con- 
clusions, as such an original writer cannot 
fail to do, they are based on statements 
made by others and published elsewhere. 
Mr. Selous among the birds he knows so 
well, which he can observe so intelligently, 
and concerning which he writes so tersely, 
is another author altogether from Mr. Selous 
taking observations at second hand that 
will provide material for a volume on insect 
life. A great responsibility rests upon pub- 
lishers ; they may, and often doubtless do, 
sustain a heavy loss by printing a bad book, 
but on the other hand many an author's 
reputation has been ruined by their incite- 
ment to the writer of a successful book to 
produce others quickly. At first the pub- 
lisher risks his capital ; subsequently, and 
too frequently, an author gambles with his 
name. An excellent field ornithologist is 
not necessarily an authority on insects. 
Mr. Selous states that there are some 
" 300,000 known insects " or species, and 
it might be added that these perhaps 
constitute only about one-tenth of those 
that really exist, so that this field for an 
observer is almost unlimited, while some 
of the most difficult problems in the Lives 
of animals may be solved by a real know- 
ledge of their habits and sense percep- 
tions. Are they automata ? We regard 
them otherwise, and so apparently does 
Mr. Selous, but it is only by patient and 
prolonged observations, and the repetition 
of many already recorded, that any advance 
will be made in a knowledge of what is 
styled 'The Romance of Insect Life.' 

We seem to have reached the plane in 
our study of animal life for the advent of 
a zoological Gibbon. We want both the 
man and his life-work to give us a scientific 
narrative of other animals than man brought 
tip to the level of our present knowledge, 
detailing the growth of the study, the 
various conceptions that have helped and 
obstructed it, and the assimilation of the 
vast store of facts, fancies, and theories 
which lie buried in the pages of at least a 
thousand journals and in a far greater 
number of books. What we generally 
obtain with every fresh publishing season 
is a series of books which have been derived 
from previous volumes, and will subse- 
quently serve for a similar process. While 
we starve for adequate zoological observa- 
tions, we are surfeited with zoological 
publications. 



N° 4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHENJEUM 



21 



Mr. Selous has produced an interesting 
volume, though the writings on which he 
has largely drawn — as acknowledged at the 
termination of each chapter — are few in 
number and of unequal merit ; but the 
general reader will doubtless obtain con- 
siderable information on the habits of 
insects, and, what is more, can read these 
pages without effort, for there is a charming 
absence of technicalities. However, we 
scarcely expected to read about scorpions 
and centipedes among insects, and Mr. 
Selous is, in one instance, certainly mis- 
leading. While following Mr. Buckton in 
applying the name Cicada? to the British 
Homoptera — a matter of opinion — he has 
gone further, and speaks about Cicadas in 
England, whereas there is only one species 
of Cicada found in this country. This is 
equivalent to calling all birds pheasants 
which are included in the Phasianidse. 
Among misprints we notice " Bell " for Belt, 
and " Orthoptera " for Ornithoptera. 

Nature through Microscope and Camera. 
By Richard Kerr. With 65 Photo-micro- 
graphs by Arthur E. Smith. (Religious 
Tract Society.) — In a literary sense this is 
scarcely a book at all ; its contents are 
too chaotic, its subject-matter being without 
definite plan or sequence. The photo- 
micrographs are all that can be desired, 
and Mr. Smith may be congratulated on 
his work ; but the letterpress, which is 
very largely a compilation, will, we fear, 
repel ordinary readers by its frequent use 
of technical terms, while it will be regarded 
as somewhat jejune by the better-informed 
naturalist. 

The volume opens with an introduction 
by Dr. G. Sims Woodhead, and is of a quasi- 
theological character ; it apparently regards 
" religion " and " theology " as convertible 
terms, applies the argument of design to 
some who may find that the study of natural 
science has a tendency to render them " less 
earnest in their study of religion," and appears 
to have been written without an impression 
that science is widening the religious con- 
ceptions of a large number of its students, 
even if their standpoint is of a somewhat 
anti-dogmatic character. But why is this 
question raised ? It is not usual to preface 
theological publications by an apology to 
the teachings of organic evolution, and why 
need this very harmless recital of micro- 
scopical revelations require such a prudential 
" send-off " ? Then we have the author's 
introduction, which contains the reflections 
of a modern Cassandra, and we are told 
" there are too many places of amusement 
in our cities, too many trashy and per- 
nioious novels read in our free libraries, 
too much time given to games, both in the 
upper and in the lower classes," &c, after 
which we are glad to arrive at ' Nature 
through Microscope and Camera.' 

The subjects chosen for illustration are 
of great biological diversity, ranging from 
fossil Radiolaria to human hair, from 
sections of wheat-stems to a piece of silk. 
To do justice to such themes more space 
would be required than is given to the 
letterpress, while the first-hand knowledge 
absolutely necessary for such work may be 
estimated by a reference to the learned 
simplicity of style in Huxley's classical 
lecture on a piece of chalk. Without any 
disrespect to the author, we are bound to 
say that the impression derived from his 
pages is that of having attended an ordinary 
lecture illustrated with some beautiful 
screen-illustrations. 

Nebula to Man. By Henry R. Knipe. 
(Dent & Co.) — Geology is, perhaps, of all 
branches of natural science the most poetical, 
yet the geologist is usually wise enough to 



restrain himself from expressing his reflec- 
tions in verse. The author of this large 
and handsome volume has, however, taken 
a different course. His object has been to 
give a popular sketch of the history of the 
earth and its inhabitants from the stand- 
point of evolution ; and for this praise- 
worthy purpose he has, strangely enough, 
deemed it expedient to use verse. His 
verses are printed in good type on excellent 
paper, and profusely illustrated, forming 
a quarto worthy of the drawing-room. 
There are, indeed, no fewer than seventy- 
one full-page illustrations, of which many 
are in colours, most of them being restora- 
tions of vanished forms of life. It is not 
easy to make a restoration that shall please 
a palaeontologist, but many of these are 
admirable, and reflect much credit on Mr. 
Smit, Miss Alice Woodward, and the other 
artists. Such attempts to resuscitate tin- 
life of the past serve to give reality to the 
student's reading, and when made with 
sufficient scientific knowledge are distinctly 
useful. It may be doubted, however, 
whether our data are sufficiently full to 
justify the restoration of Pithecanthropus, 
and perhaps this might well have been 
omitted. As to the text, it is not easy to 
pick out a passage which shall do full 
justice to the author, but the following 
description of some of the Pliocene mammals 
may be cited : — 

Hippopotami now breathe Europa's air. 
Coming at least to spend their summers here. 
Gone seem the dinothers to their long home, 
But on the scene have elephants now come. 

And in their ranks some bulky forms we see, 
Forerunners of the mammoths, soon to be. 
Some mastodons still here their way pursue. 
Though yielding is this " old school " ti> the new. 
Rhinoceroses here and there still roam. 
Though some, perchance, as visitors but come. 
Antelope seem now unable to retain 
Their old hold here : but though this branch may wane. 
More hopeful does the outlook seem to be 

For other branches of the family. 

It is long since we saw verse of such poor 
quality. As there are upwards of five 
thousand lines more or less like these, tra- 
cing the history of the earth from the primi- 
tive fiery mist to the modern period, we can 
hardly blame the reader if he closes the 
portly quarto before he has gone the whole 
round from nebula to man. 



SOCIETIES. 



Society of Antiquaries. % Dec. 14. - Prof. 
Gowland, V.P., in the chair. Sir John Evans road 
a note on a new Palaeolithic locality in Herts. 
He also exhibited a gold ring found in Herts, in- 
scribed + wel : WERE : him : that : wiste : -4- ro : 
whom : in-: : mights : TBISTE, and a fine gilt-bronze 
Anglo-Saxon brooch found at Tuxford, Notts. 
Mr. W. Dale read a paper on the character and 
forms of implements of the Palaeolithic age from 
the neighbourhood of Southampton^ which was 
illustrated by a fine series of specimens. The Rev. 
J. L. Thorold, through Mr. J. A. B. Karslake, 
exhibited a painted wooden box of the fifteenth 
century from Warkleigh Church, Devon, which 
had apparently been converted in Queen Mary's 
reign into a temporary tabernacle for the reserved 
sacrament. Mr. A. J. Gopeland exhibited an early 
sixteenth-century boss charged with a mitre and a 
•small armorial pendant, both found near Canter- 
bury. 

Aristotelian. Dec. 18. Prof . G. Dawes Hicks, 
V.V., in the chair. The Rev. ('•. Margolioutb was 
elected a Member. Mr. <;. K. Moore road a paper 
on • The Mature and Reality of Objects of Per- 
ception.' He said that we all believe in the exist 
once of other persons, having thoughts, reelings, 
and perceptions similar to our own, although we 
cannot observe any psyohioal states except our 
own. What reason have we for this belief! We 
have none, unless we have reason to believe thai 
the existence ol certain of the data which we do 
observe is regularly oonnected with the existenoe 

.it certain particular psychical states in other 



people. And for such beliefs, again, no one has 
any reason unless his own observations give him 
a reason for some such belief. But his observation 
of his own psychical state- can give him no reason 
for any such belief. And hence, if we have any 
reason at all for believing in the existence of other 
eras, it must be tru of the data 

which we observe, other than our own psychical 
states, do really exist. It must be true, that is 
to say, that some of the '" sensible qualities " which 
we perceive do really exist in the places which they 
seem to occupy. And the same conclusion holds 
also with regard to every kind of material object 
or event : no one has any reason to believe in the 
existence of any such object or event unless it is 
true that some of the "sensible qualities." which 
he actually sees (or perceives in any other way) do 
really exist in the positions which they appear to 
occupy. rTor is there (as has been hastily assumed 
by almost every philosopher) any fatal objection 
to the theory that what we actually see does some- 
times exist. All the supposed objections assume 
that twodifferent qualities cannot both exist in the 
same place in the same time. But (1) it is quite 
possible that, in some eases, two or more different 
qualities may exist in the same place at the same 
time; and (2) even in those cases where we may 
have reason to believe that two different "sensible 
qualities" cannot both exist in the same place at the 
same time, it remains possible that one of them 
exists there, though the other docs not — The paper 
was followed bv a discussion. 



MEETINGS NEXT WEEK. 



Max. 

Tons. 



Wkd. 

Turns 



Kit i. 



Royal Academy, 4.—' Drav Prof. G Clausen. 

Condon Institution, - st": a stu.ly 

in Present-Day Problems,' Mi w r 

Asiatic, 4.—' The Inscription on the PiprSwS Relic Vase,' Mr. 
• i- F. Fleet. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 8. — 'The Elimination of storm- 
Water from s. ■■■ - ms, Mr I> '.'. Lloyd-Davies ; 
' The Elimination ofSuspendi - idal Matters 
from Sewage, Lieut. -Col. A. Stowell Jones and .Mr. W. Owen 
Travis. 

Geological, 8.— ' The Clay-with-Flints : its Origin and Distri- 
bution, Mr A J Jukes-Browne; 'Footprints bom the 
Permian of Mansfield, Nottinghi mshire. Mi G. Sickling. 

Royal Academy, 4.- 'Drawing, Lecture II., Prof . G. Clausen 

London institution, 6. 'Richard Strauss and his Works,' 
Prof. E Markham Lee 

Institution oi Electrical Engineers, 8. Discussion on 'The 
Charing Cross C patty's City of London Works.' 

Astronomii ■ 

[nstituti t < ml Engi il Machines, 

Prof. .1. I>. Cormack St iting.i 

Philological F 'Notes on 'I ! ■ Owl and Nightingale,"' Mr. 
J. W. II. Ukins 



^rinirr (Gossip. 

Although Mr. C. T. Yerkes, like Mr. J. 
Lick, was in no sense an astronomer or man 
of science, his recent death will be mentioned 
in all astronomical publications, as he was 
the founder of the magnificent Yerkes Obser- 
vatory, the great telescope which has the 
largest objective in the world, its diameter 
exceeding by 4 inches that of the 3o-inch 
telescope at the Lick Observatory on Mount 
Hamilton. The erection of the Yerkes 
Observatory was began about ten years 
ago. and * was virtually completed in 
1897. The site is near Williams Bay, on 
Lake Geneva, in Wisconsin, about 75 miles 
from Chicago, to the University of which 
it belongs. This is not the place to dwell 
upon the important results obtained there 
under the direction of Trot. Hale, who was 
awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1904. 

The young Danish Arctic explorer Capt. 
Mikkelsen lias now secured the funds neces- 
sary for his proposed exploration of the 
Beaufort Sea, through the assistance ol the 
Royal Geographical Society and Mr. William 
Beinemann, 

The endowment fund now being raised 
for the family of the late Trot'. <;. B. Howes, 
F.H.S., will be closed shortly, and all intend- 
ing contributors are asked bo send their 
donations without delay to the treasurer, 

Mr. Frank Crisp, ai 17. Throgmorton 
Avenue, F.C. 

VmmniNd to the latest determination 

(bj Dr. Strorngren) of the orbil of Qia- 



22 



Til E ATI! KX.Kl'M 



X' 4080, Jan. 6, L906 



oobini's comet ('■. LOOS), it will not pass its 
perihelion until the 23rd Lost., at the distance 

from the sun of 0*22 in terms of the earth's 

mean distance. Its permanent designation, 
therefore, will be Comet I., 1906. It is 
nearest the earth to-day, at the distance 
1-10 on the above scale, or about 102.000,000 
miles. After the perihelion passage it will 
probably be visible to the naked eye in the 
evening, but will be best seen in the southern 
hemisphere. 



FINE ARTS 



Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood. By W. Holman Hunt, 
O.M. 2 vols. (Macmillan & Co.) 

One is inclined to believe the truth of 
Leslie Stephen's saying that " no man 
ever wrote a dull autobiography." Cer- 
tainly, if any one did accomplish this 
feat, Mr. Holman Hunt is not of 
the number. He has, indeed, a fine gift 
of narrative, and though he takes his 
time about telling his stories, and the 
reader of these two substantial volumes 
will do well to take his, no one who has 
once begun to listen to him is likely to 
ask him to stop. He has an almost 
Tolstoian eye and memory for details, 
and will tell you vividly enough how any 
one of his contemporaries of fifty years 
ago looked and spoke. He even gives, in 
a way that may not be always quite fair 
to his interlocutors, the substance of 
talks in conversational form. 

Though we have spoken of the book as 
an autobiography, Mr. Holman Hunt 
disclaims the title. It is, he says, the 
history of the Pre-Raphaelite Brother- 
hood ; but his own share in that is, by 
his own showing, so predominant that to 
call it his artistic autobiography gives the 
best idea of its scope. 

The main thesis is that of the seven 
original members of the P.R.B. all but 
three were sleeping partners, the three 
being Millais, Hunt, and Rossetti ; and 
that of these three Rossetti never under- 
stood the true gospel, but was led astray 
by ideas of mediaeval revivalism, and, 
moreover, never shared in the evangelistic 
work, slinking off into small exhibitions, 
and refusing to face the wild beasts in the 
arena of the Royal Academy. The gospel, 
therefore, was understood and preached 
only by Millais and Hunt. Millais is 
shown to have soon accommodated him- 
self to the public taste, and thus the true 
faith was embodied solely in the works 
of Holman Hunt. It is impossible to 
praise too highly the high purpose, the 
dogged perseverance, and pure British 
pluck with which our author maintained 
the unequal struggle ; and no one will 
grudge him his self-gratulation at having 
endured to the end, and finished his fight. 

What, then, was the great principle 
for which he fought so bravely — the 
principle which only he and Millais 
understood, and which he alone main- 
tained in its purity ? Here Mr. Holman 
Hunt is not so precise as we could wish. 
It is not the principle of primitive sim- 
plicity and intensity of feeling expressed 



with primitive directness, -nice Kossetti's 
early work might with propriety lay 
claim to a finer and deeper discovery of 
this notion than anything which Millais 
or Mr. Hunt produced. Rossetti's heresy 
was the use of mediaeval conceptions, 
and the neglect of a minute and particular 
record of nature. He used nature for 
his purposes, but he refused any further 
allegiance to her. From the remarks on 
Rossetti's ' Found ' — which Mr. Hunt 
judges to be the one truly Pre-Raphaelite 
picture 'that Rossetti painted, or rather 
half painted — one gathers that the gospel 
of Millais and Mr. Hunt was that of the 
particular description of natural forms, 
with a full sense of their endless variety 
rather than of their conformity to central 
types. It was, in fact, the direct opposite 
to Reynolds's theory of the generalized 
type. This record of natural form was 
not to be entirely literal : it was to be 
subservient to the expression of poetical 
ideas, though in what direction and to 
what extent the record was to be modified 
does not appear. Certain it is that Mr. 
Hunt spent many shivering nights in the 
late autumn, painting the orchard behind 
his figure of Christ in ' The Light of the 
World ' ; but it would be hard to find in 
what way he changed the literal record 
for the purpose of intenser expression of 
the idea. From his account both of this 
and other backgrounds, painted in the 
most uncomfortable and unlikely situa- 
tions, one suspects that while he painted 
them he was conscious of nothing but an 
intense desire to carry away as literal a 
record as possible of the actual positive 
facts, but that (since nothing but the 
notion that this intolerable labour and 
heroism subserved a great dogmatic reve- 
lation would have enabled him to go 
through with it) he explained his depend- 
ence on the pure matter of fact as in some 
way the result of an imaginative need. 
For us, indeed, the array of sedulously 
collected facts in Mr. Hunt's pictures is 
never entirely fused by the idea. His 
ideas are always 'deeply pondered ; some- 
times they seem far-fetched, sometimes 
sentimentally allegorical ; but they are 
never obvious or commonplace, while 
the forms in which they are expressed 
scarcely seem to be the outcome of the 
same mind, certainly not of the same mood. 
This is not, however, the occasion to 
discuss Mr. Holman Hunt's art, though 
it is necessary to say this much in order 
to weigh the claims he puts forward to 
being the only true and original Pre- 
Raphaelite. This claim he substantiates, 
indeed, if we take his definition of the 
term, since Pre-Raphaelitism becomes ' 
chiefly a matter of painting everything 
'* on the spot," and painting every part 
of the picture in full detail. But by so 
defining it Mr. Hunt lessens immensely 
the importance of Pre-Raphaelitism. By 
leaving out — correctly enough, no doubt, 
given this interpretation — Madox Brown, 
and still more Rossetti, and therefore the 
whole of the epigoni, Morris, Webb, and 
Burne-Jones, he robs us, and perhaps 
posterity, of the chief interest of the 
movement. Pre-Raphaelitism thereby be- 



comes one of many parallel streams of 
thought and modes of artistic endeavour, 
and to be frank, not the most important 
nor the most fruitful of results. 

But by what right is Madox Brown 
also eliminated I Here we touch at once 
on what seems to us the most serious 
defect in a fascinating book — the evi- 
dences of an unworthy jealousy of 
Madox Brown's share in the propagation 
of Pre-Raphaelite ideas. The question of 
priority ifl discussed at great length, and 
the way is always prepared by deprecia- 
tion of Brown's work. At a very early 
stage in his career — before even the 
' Rienzi ' was finished — Mr. Holman Hunt 
visited Madox Brown in his studio, and 
there saw the ' Chaucer ' picture. The 
design is spoken of as " a recent mark of 
academic ingenuity which Pre-Raphaelit- 
ism, in its larger power of enfranchise- 
ment, was framed to overthrow." The 
studied composition is described as arti- 
ficial and Overbeckian, and (here comes 
the strangest part) no word is said of the 
wonderful study which the picture displays 
of the effects of atmospheric colour — the 
study, already so complete in its way, 
which anticipated so much of later art. 
Mr. Holman Hunt goes even further than 
this, " I found nothing indicative of a 
child-like reversion from existing schools 
to Nature herself." and this when he was 
still at work on the * Rienzi,' which is by 
no means free from older theatrical con- 
ventions. Brow r n is described thus : — 
" There were in Brown two incongruous 
spirits, one, desire for combination with 
a power in favour with the world, the 
other in open defiance of sedate taste." 
There may be a truth in this, though 
Brown's sufferings and ill success scarcely 
suggest it ; but it surely could not have 
been more unkindly expressed. Questions 
of priority in ideas are always exceedingly 
difficult to decide, and Mr. Holman Hunt's 
claim to be the first may be correct, 
though the fact that BrowTi was seven 
years his senior is in itself slightly against 
it. But, indeed, such ideas are always 
more or less in the air, and are seized 
simultaneously and independently by 
more than one mind, and Mr. Holman 
Hunt does not, we think, improve his posi- 
tion by the evident bias against Brown of 
which this book contains too many 
examples. 

That he disagreed almost at once with 
Rossetti was no doubt inevitable ; but 
here again his praise of a great genius, 
with whom he was once on terms of inti- 
mate friendship, seems to us rather half- 
hearted, and he takes pains to show how 
much Rossetti owed to himself, how httle 
to his former master Madox Brown. That 
he owed anything to his own pupil Rossetti 
Mr. Hunt scarcely seems to contemplate, 
and yet who can doubt Rossetti's influence 
in so " mediaeval," not to say " Over- 
beckian " a design as that of ' Lorenzo 
in the Warehouse ' ? 

But let us leave this carping : Mr. 
Hunt has suffered all his life, and often 
with grave injustice, at the hands of 
critics. We have discussed these points 
only because of their great interest and 



N° 4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



23 



importance for the history of British 
art. Whoever originated the ideas of 
Pre-Raphaelitism, the story of its early 
days is intensely thrilling. The violence 
of the abuse with which these harmless 
young men were hailed is scarcely credible 
in these politer days. Certainly the critics 
have mended their manners, and it is 
curious to see how much, too, they have 
changed their position. In Mr. Holman 
Hunt's early days they were on the side 
of the public ; to-day they are almost 
entirely on the side of the artist, and their 
voice is consequently less listened to 
than when it expressed the feelings of the 
public in literary Billingsgate. 

Though they treated him ill, Mr. Holman 

Hunt speaks with moderation of the 

authorities of the Academy, but its 

•extraordinary opposition to all that is 

fresh and vital in the work of younger 

men comes out conspicuously. Millais, it 

is true, fought and cowed it, not without 

shaking of fists in the faces of elder R.A.s 

and violent language to hangers, and 

for all that it had its revenge on him in 

the destruction of his youthful ambitions ; 

and Mr. Hunt, in spite of the affection 

which he always entertained towards him, 

puts into his mouth sayings betraying 

such a cynical indifference to all but 

immediate vulgar success that one almost 

believes the phrenologist who felt his head 

in early youth, and pronounced him a 

great business man and nothing else, was 

not so far wrong, as was thought at the time. 

This of Millais and the phrenologist is 

one of many good stories of contemporaries 

with which the book abounds : the walk- 

i ing tour with Tennyson and Palgrave 

' gives occasion for several ; the picture 

] of old Trelawny sitting reading, though 

| immersed up to his neck in a lake, while 

staying at a country house, is delightfully 

ii characteristic ; and another (which we 

i will not spoil by abridgment) of Thacke- 

I ray's supposed want of genius is memor- 

I able. 

A great part of the book is naturally 
L taken up with Mr. Holman Hunt's work 
I in the East, and here the same courageous 
| tenacity which enabled him to withstand 
I alike the tyranny and the blandishments 
i of the Academy comes out in other forms. 
! The nerve with which he stuck, day after 
I day, to his painting of the scapegoat on 
I the shores of the Dead Sea, and alter- 
| nately bullied and bluffed the Arabs, 
I generally by telling them the literal truth, 
I when he was powerless and at their mercy, 
I is magnificent ; and here, as elsewhere, 
I his powers as a narrator are of a high 
order. Indeed, it is as a book of adven- 
ture — adventures with critics, adventures 
with Royal Academies, and adventures 
with Arabs — that Mr. Hunt's work is 
most to be cherished. On the side of 
aesthetics it is disappointing. From his 
early days, when he could find no great 
French artist but Delacroix (!), to the 
closing chapter, in which he abuses the 
Impressionists as roundly and as sweep- 
ingly as Dickens once abused him, .Mr. 
Holman Hunt clearly distinguishes him- 
self from the accursed tribe of art critics. 
For all that, one of them at least is deeply 



grateful to him for a vividly written and 
most entertaining memoir, and incident- 
ally for the portrait of a strenuous and 
downright Englishman who has the 
courage of his opinions — one who might 
almost stand as typical of the salient 
characteristics of the race, if it were not 
that by some odd freak the ingredient of 
Philistinism is entirely omitted. Perhaps 
his friend Millais absorbed all that could 
be found. 



Kate Greenaway. By M. H. Spielmann 
and G. S. Layard. (A. & C. Black.)— This 
record of the life and work of Kate Greena- 
way appears in an attractive form as one 
of Messrs. Black's series of books printed 
in colour. Fifty of the illustrations are 
reproduced from water-colour drawings by 
the three-colour process, which has served 
in many cases very successfully to convey 
something of the grace and delicacy of the 
originals. The work more generally familiar 
from its use in book-illustration has been 
wisety eschewed in favour of that done for 
private commissions and as gifts to friends. 
There are also many reproductions of 
sketches from Miss Greenaway's letters, 
which not infrequently display a virility 
and firmness of touch in excess of much 
of her more finished work. The volume 
contains so many of these letters that it 
forms an intimate record of her personality, 
and the more purely biographical portions 
are rounded off by a very just and temperate 
estimate of her exact place in British art. 

As she was the daughter of John Greena- 
way, a wood engraver and draughtsman of 
some prominence, it was natural that her 
talent for design should early find expression. 
She herself says in a fragment of auto- 
biography that at the time of the Indian 
Mutiny she was constantly drawing the 
ladies, nurses, and children escaping, adding 
characteristically, " Mine always escaped, 
and were never taken." May we not 
perhaps discern in this childish endeavour 
a forecast of that rose-coloured optimism 
which permeated her art ? Two years 
later, at the age of twelve, she was already 
a prize-winner in a local art school. She 
afterwards became a student at South 
Kensington, and attended classes at the 
Slade School under Legros. She de- 
signed Christmas cards and valentines, 
contributed illustrations to toy-books and 
periodicals, exhibited some water-colour 
drawings at the Dudley Gallery and else- 
where, and in 1878 published ' Under the 
Window,' a children s book of " pictures 
and rhymes." This brought her instant 
and widespread fame. A similar work, 
' Marigold Garden,' appeared seven years 
later ; and she also illustrated various 
other books for children and issued annual 
almanacs. She revolutionized children's 
dress by bringing back the bonnets and 
bodices of " yesteryear," and as her vogue 
was in part the triumph of a fashion in 
millinery, it suffered with the passing of 
the mode ; so much so that in her last 
years she felt herself to have outlived her 
popularity, and with characteristic energy 
endeavoured to make a fresh start by taking 
up oil painting. These facts are presented 
by the authors of the monograph clearly, 
sympathetically, and with jnst sufficient 
detail to imparl the requisite vitality, and 
this is further enhanced l>y the fact that 

Mr. Spielmann's share of the work is the 
tribute of a personal friendship. 

Bj permission of Elusion's representatives 
i tic volume contains no fewer than fifty of 
his letters to Kate Greenaway, these being 

only a tithe of those which he wrote 



during a period extending over nearly ten 
years subsequent to the appearance of 
' Under the Window.' These are all eventu- 
ally to be included in the memorial edition 
of Ruskin's writings, but their presence here 
invests the work with a certain separate 
and distinct interest for the student of 
Ruskin, which might, perhaps, have been 
indicated on the title-page. There is un- 
fortunately only the one side of the corre- 
spondence in existence, as Ruskin did not 
keep Miss Greenaway's earlier letters, but 
over forty are printed of those which she 
wrote during the latter years of his life, 
when, we are told, she always had on hand 
one epistle to him, to which she would sit 
down at any odd moment between meals, 
exercise, and work. Ruskin began the corre- 
spondence by sending her a long and 
whimsical series of interrogatories as to 
her belief and practice in sundry matters, 
doctrinal and artistic. Satisfied as to these, 
he set out to teach her how, by systematic 
study, to improve the artistic quality of 
her work. This relationship of teacher and 
pupil became insensibly merged in that of 
friends, without ever entirely losing its 
didactic character. He was constantly 
exhorting her to study perspective, and to 
practise from the nude — naively urging 
that she " should go to some watering- 
place in August with fine sands, — and draw 
no end of bare feet." He writes from Brant- 
wood to tell her that he has sent her two 
more sods, " more to be enjoyed than 
painted — if you like to do a bit of one, well 
and good "; and in a subsequent letter he 
is enthusiastic about her drawing of the 
leaves. On another occasion she has appa- 
rently confided an ambition, for he writes : — 

" I am very glad you want to paint like Gains- 
borough. But you must not try for it — He is in- 
imitable and yet a had master. Keep steadily to 
deep colour and Carpaccio — with white porcelain 
and Luca — you may try a Gainsborough every now 
and then for play ! " 

The expression of his delight in the pure 
feeling and delicacy of her work is frank 
and ingenuous. She sent him many water- 
colour drawings, and constantly made 
sketches in her letters to him. In writing 
to thank her for some of these from Sand- 
gate in 1888, after an illness, at a time when, 
as he says, nothing showed itself to him all 
day long but the dull room or the wild sea, 
he expresses wistfully his appreciation of 
her gifts : "I think what it must be to 
you to have far sight into dreamlands of 
truth — and to be able to see such scenes 
of the most exquisite grace and life and 
quaint vivacity." Yet nevertheless he re- 
mained to the end a mentor, and the con- 
clusion of the very latest of his letters 
contains an entirely true criticism of her 
work : — 

•• You must cure yourself of thinking so much of 
hair and hats and parasols — and attend tirst (for 
some time to come) bo toes and lingers and wrists." 

How far these promptings had effect may 
be gauged from her letters as well as from 
her later work. She writes of herself as 
seeming to want to put in shade much more 
than she used to do, and of having got to 
love the making out of form by such means. 
As an instance of this we may cite the 
pencil study of a boy for the story ' Ronald's 
Clock,' reproduced on p. 248, which in its 
exquisite delicacy suggests a study by Burne- 
Jones, for whose drawings and pictures she 

had a keen admiration. Her own sym- 
pathies were Btrongly with the Pre -Kaphael- 
ites. as is seen by numerous passages occur- 
ring in her letters, and especially with the 

earlier work of Millais ; she considered his 

'Ophelia' to be the greatest picture of 
modern times. The same sources show her 



24 



Til E A Til KX.EI.M 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



antipathies in art and literature! expressed 
often with an intense fervour <>f conviction : 
Beardsley and Marie BashkirtsefE occur as 
instances in this category. With regard to 

her work it is said with felicity and truth 
by the authors of this monograph that " she 
introduced a Pre-Raphaelite spirit into the 
art of the nursery." There indeed she 
reigned supreme. Her art possessed the 
limitations consequent upon such a position, 
and also its peculiar idyllic joyousness. She 
painted a world of roses and children — a 
world where flowers are fadeless and children 
never grow up. 



THE OLD MASTERS AT 
BURLINGTON HOUSE. 

As usual, this is the great artistic event of 
the year, and if the present show contains 
but few pieces that have already been 
accepted among the masterpieces of English 
private collections, its interest is all the 
greater from the unexpected novelty of the 
works which have been brought to light, 
some for the first time. In this respect the 
sensation of the exhibition is the large 
family group by Frans Hals, the importance 
of which was, we believe, first recognized 
by Col. Lyons and Mr. Herbert Cook. Its 
publication a year ago by the Arundel Club 
was the first general intimation that the 
most important Frans Hals in England had 
hitherto escaped the researches of con- 
noisseurs. With the exception of this noble 
work, two important Vandykes, two 
Jordaens, and a few minor Dutch works, 
the whole gallery is devoted to masters of 
the British School. Even in this there 
has been no attempt to make the exhibition 
systematically representative, or to give a 
space proportional to the importance of 
each of the greater artists. But we have 
always welcomed the somewhat casual 
arrangement of these yearly exhibitions as 
giving an opportunity for the inclusion of 
curious and unclassified works which could 
hardly find their place in any logical se- 
quence. Besides, good pictures very rarely 
hurt one another, and the large majority of 
the pieces shown this year are decidedly 
good. 

There are, it is true, a few serious excep- 
tions, and we could wish that greater care 
had been shown by the authorities to avoid 
giving the cachet of inclusion in such an 
exhibition to works of dubious authenticity. 
The most glaring example of this is in the 
second room, where there hangs a very 
imposing landscape, Rouen (No. 56), ascribed 
to Turner. That it is not by him, but a 
deliberate and very skilful forgery, is fairly 
evident to any trained eye : those who 
have studied specially the devious ways of 
imitators recognize in this the masterpiece 
of James Webb. If it were given to Its 
real author, the picture might well claim a 
right to its present position as an interest- 
ing object-lesson how far a very skilful 
imitator can go. The genuine, but rather 
hard and cold Turner of Venice (60), hanging 
near by, shows very aptly the difference 
between the loose and free touch of a real 
artist and the deliberate imitation of the 
same quality, without any real content or 
intention, which distinguishes the forger's 
work. The large landscape ascribed to 
John Crome (45) in the same gallery is not, 
perhaps, a deliberate forgery so much as 
the natural outcome of a pupil working so 
far as possible in his master's manner. Yet 
another picture in the same room, the view 
of Hampstead Heath (49), ascribed to Con- 
stable, belongs to the same dubious category. 
Except for the want of care in the admission 



of these and one or two other works, we have 
nothing but praise for the way in which 
this delightful exhibition lias been organized, 
and for the admirable arrangement and 
hanging of the pictures. 

The first room is devoted entirely to 
British painters, and rightly begins with 
Hogarth. His portrait of Airs. Desaguliers 
(2) shows him at his best, and with distinc- 
tion which few of his single heads of women 
display. It must, one supposes, be fairly 
early, for something of the Lely tradition 
still clings to it in the disposition of the 
drapery and the way of putting in the 
lights ; but we note a subtlety in the model- 
ling of the flesh and a lifelike vivacity in 
the eyes which Lely never showed, except 
in a few very early works. The colour is 
almost as dainty and tasteful as in contem- 
porary French work, but there is a virile 
sincerity which few French artists of 
the century displayed. A Hogarth of a 
more familiar kind is the Assembly at Wan- 
stead House (20), an early work, though 
certainly not, as stated, the earliest known. 
In this the background of the splendidly 
decorated room is painted with an admirable 
sense of atmospheric envelopment, and the 
individual figures are full of character and 
zest ; but Hogarth had not yet arrived at 
the power of giving life and movement to 
the composition as a whole. Another 
Hogarth, of great beauty and the most 
delicate taste, is the small portrait of The 
Painter's Wife, seated near an easel (32). 
When one looks at this exquisite picture, 
painted with the simplicity of a Dutch and 
the delicacy of a French genre painter, it 
is impossible not to wish that Hogarth's 
influence had been greater in England. 
He might, one thinks, have founded a school 
of refined and unambitious genre akin to 
the Dutch — a school in which those who 
were not fitted to follow Reynolds might 
have kept alive a better tradition than the 
sentimental and anecdotic genre that ulti- 
mately came into being as a reaction from 
the severe principles of the grand style. 

Such a genre style was no doubt attempted 
by Morland, and two excellent examples, 
the Tea-gardens (8) and the Children playing 
Soldiers (26), are here. Morland was another 
intuitive and unsophisticated genius, but he 
shows already an inclination to the prettily 
sentimental which places his work on another 
plane from Hogarth's. To the latter painter 
is also attributed a very interesting head, 
said to be of James St. Aubyn (7). It is 
very forcibly, almost brutally, painted, with 
a thick impasto quite unlike Hogarth's. It 
would be interesting to know whether the 
identity of the sitter is certainly established. 
James St. Aubyn is reported to have died 
in 1752, but the style of dress and that of 
the painting suggest a later date. We 
should think it was by some artist of Rey- 
nolds's circle who was experimenting in a 
Rembrandtesque technique. 

Among the earlier masters of the great 
period of English art Wilson holds a unique 
position, and though nothing of extraordi- 
nary quality or importance has turned up 
this year, the Lake of Nemi (4) and Cicero at 
his Villa (6) represent him well. The latter 
is rather an elaborate composition, put 
together from Italian reminiscences, but 
it is beautifully clear and cool, and, like all 
his best work, completely unified both in 
colour and tone. 

Gainsborough is seen as a landscape painter 
in an unusual vein in No. 14. This, too, 
is a purely fictitious composition, with even 
less observation of actual forms than the 
Wilsons disclose, and it has the air of being 
executed impromptu with almost the same 
care as some of his chalk drawings. It has 
certainly all the merits of such a method 



in the wonderful fluency of the touch, the 
beauty of the spacing of lights and darks, 
and the exquisite golden harmony of the 
colour. 

Entirely different, and much more modern 
in aim, are two remarkable De Winte, lent 
by Miss Tatlock : one of Lincoln (9), which, 
though much better, serves by comparison 
to support the attributions to De U'int of 
a little picture of Lincoln now to be seen at 
the Burlington Fine- Arts Club ; the other, 
a Cornfield (11), is very similar to the famous- 
picture in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
These both prove how great was De Wint's- 
facility in oils, but they also show that he 
was a very uncertain colourist, and that he 
was one of the first to give up any attempt 
at serious design in favour of a more vivid 
record of actual scenes. The ' Lincoln ' is 
very full and strong in colour, with a warm 
reddish foreground against a brilliant blue 
distance and sky ; but the harmony is not 
perfectly formed, and there is a tendency 
to sharpness in the quality of the blues. 
Nevertheless, there are some exquisite 
passages in the middle distance. In the 
' Cornfield ' the tendency is again to separate 
the colours by too wide intervals — to make 
the clouds too distinct in colour from the 
sky, and in the shadows to lose all colour in 
a neutral tone. Comparing them with the 
Wilsons and the Gainsborough, one feels 
that the material has already got out of 
hand, is no longer perfectly controlled by 
an intelligible artistic form. 

Between the De Wints hangs Mr. C. J. 
Wertheimer's splendid portrait of the 
Painter's Two Daughters (10), by Gains- 
borough. This has an almost primitive 
simplicity of treatment, a firmness of contour 
and evenness of illumination which distin- 
guish it from most of the portraits of this 
period. There is even a trifle of flatness 
in the modelling, due perhaps to over-clean- 
ing ; but for all that it is a notable work. 
It has sincerity and tenderness, and an 
absence of all bravura and dash, together 
with perfect mastery — a combination of 
qualities rare even in the best works of the 
eighteenth century. The same painter's 
portrait of Miss Adney (18) is of a very 
different, and artistically of an inferior, 
kind. It is one of those purely professional 
portraits the painting of which irked the 
painter so much. Two other portraits in 
this room are ascribed to Gainsborough. 
One of Miss Martha Ray (25) has great 
charm of colour, but seems altogether too 
wooden in the face, even for an early Gains- 
borough, though it must be admitted that 
this woodenness is curiously contradicted 
by the sensitive and nervous drawing of 
the gloved hands. On the whole, however, 
one seems reminded more of Allan Ramsay 
than Gainsborough by this picture, though 
the portrait, by the former, of Lady Erskine 
(33), at once more accomplished and weaker, 
makes the attribution to Ramsay very 
difficult. Finally, we have a portrait of 
Miss Ogle (34), to which Gainsborough's 
name is attached. It is unfinished, but the 
design is much more like a Sir Joshua, 
though the painting is certainly not recog- 
nizable as by any great master. 

Next to this hangs one of the most charm- 
ing pictures in the exhibition, the portrait 
of Mrs. Warde, by Opie (35). It is rarely 
indeed that he is seen at this level, but 
here at all events he puts the other secondary 
painters of the day — the Romneys and 
Hoppners — in the shade. With about the 
same slight sense of structural form as they, 
he shows a science of painting, a feeling 
for modulations of colour and tone, which 
proclaim him a very real artist. A powerful 
head of John Gilbert, Esq ( 1 7 ) — here ascribed 
to Raeburn, but without any visible justifi- 



N° 4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHEX.EUM 



cation — affords one of the problems of the 
exhibition. It is curiously modern in its 
treatment, and yet it has much of the 
remains of the older formula of Reynolds's 
time. There were so many artists of this 
time, hardly ever remembered now, who 
were yet capable of this, that it would 
probably be rash to give it, excellent though 
it is, to one of the great masters. Raeburn 
himself is seen well enough in the Col. Scott 
(57) and the less pleasing Mrs. Duncan (52), 
as well as in an ambitious failure, The Earl 
■of Kinnoull (70) ; but he can hardly have 
] minted the weak yet pleasant portrait of a 
girl (21) belonging to Mr. McCormick. 

Two other pictures in the first room 
deserve notice : one the sumptuous, but 
quite meaningless pastiche by Turner, Adonis 
departing for the Chase (28) ; the other Sir 
Joshua's portrait of Mrs. Gore (27). One 
imagines that here the sitter failed entirely 
to interest him, and he has, with delicate 
irony, revenged himself by giving a superb 
portrait of the lady's blue dress seen through 
a lace fichu, of the beautiful red purple of 
the chair-back, and the elaborately bound 
volume she holds in her hand. It is an 
unforgettable piece of still life. It is not 
the finest Sir Joshua in this exhibition, but 
he never showed more taste and mastery 
of his craft, or a more consummate feeling 
lor colour, than in these passages. 



OUR NATIONAL COLLECTIONS. 

The Rokeby Velasquez, whether or not 
it is acquired by the persistent and patriotic 
■efforts of the National Art Collections Fund, 
has brought to a point the problem of our 
national collections. It has long been appa- 
rent that England is falling behind her 
■competitors in the attempt to secure a 
share of the fast diminishing residue of great 
masterpieces. The sums voted by the 
Government are, it is evident, inadequate 
at a time when the price of rare examples 
has been multiplied tenfold, and a weighty 
article in the current number of The Bur- 
lington Magazine has called attention to a 
state of things which, if it be allowed to 
continue, will prove to all the world our 
indifference as a nation to this aspect of 
culture. Another contribution to the sub- 
ject was published in an article in The Daily 
Chronicle of December 21st, and it is to 
this that we desire to call attention. The 
scheme there proposed is so perfect ly 
feasible, so simple, and is likely to prove 
-o efficient that one can hardly doubt that 
it will be put into practice. The scheme 
i< to place a tax of one per cent, on all sales 
of works of art, the tax to be levied by 
means of stamps, without which the receipt 
will not be valid. It is further suggested 
that stamps of one colour should be used 
for transactions which refer to works of 
early art, say before 1820 ; and stamps of 
-another colour in cases of the sale of modern 
works. The proceeds derived from the 
-tamps for early works could be devoted 
to the National Gallery and South Kensing- 
ton ; while the income from the other 
stamps would form a much needed fund 
for the purchase of contemporary works of 
art. In this way the Tate Gallery — which 
we have always maintained should be under 
B separate administration from the National 
Gallery — might hope ultimately to fulfil 
some of the functions of the Luxembourg. 
Under good management such a fund 
might become a valuable educational influ- 
ence upon contemporary taste, as well as 
afford a much-needed •means of encourage- 
ment to artists of real, but not immediately 
recognized talent. 



The ingenious author of this scheme — a 
well-known collector who has been unfailing 
in his generous efforts for our national collec- 
tions — estimates that the total revenue from 
such a source would amount to something 
like sixty thousand pounds a year, even if, 
as seems advisable, transactions which 
concern sums under fifty pounds were ex- 
empted. And this large sum would be 
levied without inflicting a serious burden on 
any one. The rich collector who can afford 
to pay ten thousand pounds for a picture 
will not be deterred by having to pay 
another hundred to the State, accustomed 
as lie is to paying far larger amounts in 
commissions to intermediaries. Nor should 
the artist who commands large prices for 
his pictures mind sacrificing a small fraction 
for the encouragement of younger and less 
popular talent. 

The idea of the State levying toll on 
commercial transactions is in no way new 
or startling : we draw our cheques or stamp 
our receipts without grumbling at the small 
imposition, while larger transfers of property 
have to contribute increasingly large per- 
centages to the State. The only novelty 
in the idea consists in ear-marking the toll 
on a particular class of transaction for a 
similar particular national expenditure. And 
this actually would render the tax less irk- 
some. If the dealer has to pay a share of 
the State Commission, he knows at the same 
time that the money will increase State 
patronage of art proportionately, and that 
he may at any time himself benefit by that 
patronage. 

One of the best features of this proposed 
tax is that it is levied only on those who 
have the means and the desire to gratify 
a refined taste, in order that the oppor- 
tunities they enjoy may be given freely to all. 

The idea seems so eminently practical, 
and the results of its adoption so bene- 
ficent, that we have strong hopes that it 
will be put into practice. If it be not 
accepted, and if we are content to go on as 
we have been going of late, we shall prove 
to the civilized world that as a nation we 
are totally indifferent to one of the richest 
modes of expression of human aspiration, 
as well as to a great national asset. Even 
on practical grounds one may say that the 
possession of great masterpieces of art has 
been a sign of national ascendancy, and 
that the constant depletion of our collections 
is taken as a sign of its opposite. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF COINS IX THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 

We regret to find that in our notice 
of The British Numismatic Journal, on 
December 23rd, relying on the statements 
there made, some misconceptions and mis- 
statements were inadvertently admitted, 
which may have conveyed to our readers 
a wrong impression with regard to the 
honour and efficiency of the staff of the 
Coin Department of the British Museum. 



3finr-Art (ftasstp. 

Yesterday a show of water - colours 
by Mr. J. C. Dollman was opened to 
private view at the Fine- Art Society's rooms. 

Messrs. Carfax open to private view 
to-day at 24, Bury Street, St. James's, 
some pictures by members and associates 

of the Academy. 

« The forthcoming exhibition of the Inter- 
national Society a1 the New Gallery will 
contain the most important collection of 



modern continental sculpture ever got 
together in England. Rodin will exhibit 
' Le Baiser ' and a smaller work, ' Paolo and 
Francesca,' and M. Bartholome is sending 
an heroic ' Adam and Eve.' The executors 
of Constantin Meunier will contribute some 
twenty works, including his series of reliefs 
and figures glorifying labour. 

We regret to notice the death of Mr. 
W. A. Donnelly, well known alike as an 
artist and antiquary. In the latter cha- 
racter he became intimately associated in 
the public mind with the discoveries of the 
much-discussed cup-and-ring markings at 
Auchentorlie, the Roman fort at Dumbuie, 
and the crannog at Dumbuck. As an 
artist he had been for many years the 
Scottish representative of The Illustrated 
London News, and had executed several 
royal commissions for commemorative pic- 
tures of notable public events. 

Mr. Frederic Whyte. who contributed 
the article upon George du Maurier to the 
new edition of ' The Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica.' has in hand a book upon the famous 
Punch artist and novelist, which is to be 
published in England by Mr. John Murray, 
and in America by Messrs. Harper. Among 
the illustrations, which will include speci- 
mens of Du Maimer's early work, there 
will be a number of hitherto unpublished 
sketches. Mr. Whyte has Mrs. Du Maurier's 
sanction for his undertaking, as well as the 
goodwill of the artist's oldest friends. Many 
of these have been most courteous in placing 
material at his disposal in the shape of 
sketches and letters. He hopes for help 
from other correspondents of Du Maurier. 
Any letters or sketches forwarded to him, 
care of Mr. Curtis Brown, 5, Henrietta 
Street, Co vent Garden, will be carefully 
returned. 

Messrs. Duckworth are publishing 
shortly ' The Museums and Ruins of Home,' 
edited by Mrs. Arthur Strong. The book 
aims at a comprehensive view of the many 
buildings and the varied art collections. 
In the first volume Dr. Walter Amelung. 
1 Hitting together correlated works, replicas, 
copies, and fragments, brings the original 
conceptions before the reader : while in the 
second Dr. Heinrich Holtzinger is concerned 
rather with architectural art than with 
topographical science. Both volumes are 
freely illustrated. 

The eighth portfolio of the Diirer Society 
(whose address is 'A2, George Street. Hanover 
Square) is being issued to subscribers this 
week. It contains, in addition to engavings 
and woodcuts, a larger number than before 
of pictures and drawings not previously 
published. The pictures include the much- 
discussed ' Diirer the Elder ' in the National 
Gallery ; an almost unknown portrait of a 
girl, dated 1497. in a private collection at 
Paris : and a portrait of Sixtus Oelhafen. at 
Wurzburg, which may once have been a 
Diirer. but has been sadly defaced and 
repainted. The reproduction (•>{ the Last- 
named picture has been lone desired by 
students. The drawings thai arc new. in 
the sense of being absent from Lippmaim's 
publication, are at Bremen, Frankfort. 
Prague, and Milan. They are supplemented 
by some more familiar studies of fine quality, 
and by specimens of a new complete fac- 
simile in colours of the famous Prayer Hook 
ni Maximilian 1.. which Dr. Giehlow, of 
Vienna, intends to publish before long. 

Thk New Year's number ^i Tin Builder, 
published tin- week, contain- a series ol 
complete measured drawings by Mr. A. K. 
Henderson, supplemented by photographs 
and sketches of the historic church of SS. 
Sergius and Bacchus a1 Constantinople, the 



26 



TH E A Til KX.KTM 



N°4080, Jur. 6, [006 



architectural precursor of St. s< >j >hi»i. 
Among the other illustrations arc two 
sheets f>i views <>t old London in the Savoy 
and Whitehall neighbourhoods : a large 
per sp e ctiv e view ox the new War Offices, 

with separate illustrations of tht> sculpture ; 

and an original drawing by the editor. 
' Under the Temple Portico.' 

The Sooiete Nationals des Beaux -Arts 
will open its annual exhibition on Easter 
Sunday. April 1 5th. Paintings and engrav- 
tngS bj a-— 'Hint.- must be submitted on 
March - 24th : those 1>> societaires on 
March 90th and ,'ilst ; and those by artists 
who are neither must be in on March 8th or 
9th. In the section of sculpture the works 
of those who are neither associates nor 
-., ntaires must be delivered on March 16th 
or 17th ; and the same rule applies to archi- 
tects. A new section — that of Music — will 
be introduced this year, and the latest day 
for works in this class is March 17th. 

Two new corresponding members of the 
French Academic des Beaux-Arts have been 
elected in place of MM. Sacconi and Mas- 
saruni. One of these is Mr. Whitenay 
Warren, the architect, of New York ; the 
other is the Abbe Requin, of Avignon, a 
great authority on the French primitives. 

The Municipal Council of Paris, after 
having purchased the historic Hotel de 
Lauzun, are now considering the wisdom of 
selling it ; but a strong protest is being 
organized against this. All the more pro- 
minent collectors and the members of the 
Institute and of the Academie des Beaux- 
Arts are associating themselves with this 
protest ; and it would be a serious calamity 
if the marvellous interior decorations of this 
house were destroyed or removed from their 
original settings. It is suggested that, as 
the Musee Carnavalet is crowded, the Hotel 
de Lauzun should be transformed into a new 
museum. It is pointed out that there are 
many wealthy lovers of the fine arts in Paris 
who would gladly pay to preserve this fine 
house as a public museum, and that its con- 
version might be effected without any 
serious addition to the municipal budget. 



MUSIC 

The Oxford History of Music. — Vol. VI. 
The Romantic Period. By Edward 
Dannreuther. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

Before referring to the contents of this 
volume we must call to mind the fact 
that the author did not live to see his 
work in print ; nay, more, " it did not 
receive the final touch of his hand." 
Edward Dannreuther, the personal friend 
both of Liszt and Wagner, the two 
leading spirits of the romantic school 
during the second half of the nineteenth 
century, was the very man to under- 
take such a task. On the one hand, 
intercourse with such men helped him 
the better to understand their aims, yet on 
the other he was not so influenced by them 
as to weaken his critical faculty ; and 
nowhere is this more apparent than in his 
appreciation of Liszt's art-work. It is 
sad to think of the premature death of an 
accomplished musician and gifted writer, 
hut it is fortunate that Mr. W. H. 
Hadow was able to see the volume 
through the press. The manuscript was 
finished and partly revised. What Mr. 
Hadow did was to complete the revision, 



and— under verbal instruct ions from Mi. 
Dannreuther. when the latter VfJl pre- 
vented by illness from working — to make a 
selection <>f the musical examples. There 
are here and there signs that the author 
did not give his '* final touches " ; in 
some places he might have condensed, 
in others amplified ; but Mr. Hadow 
could not, of course, venture upon any 
such changes. 

The subject of this volume — " so closely 
in touch with the actualities of present- 
day musical life," to quote from the 
author's preface — is naturally of special 
interest. During the so-called Romantic 
Period we find a change from the formal 
to the characteristic, and, as a natural 
result, a tendency towards programme 
music, and we are now witnessing the 
results of the seed sown by Berlioz, Liszt, 
and Wagner, both as regards form and 
contents. When the ' Oxford History ' 
was first planned, the intention was to 
end the present volume with Schumann ; 
but modification of this idea was found 
necessary, and the author's final touches 
might very probably have resulted in 
interesting comments concerning the sym- 
phonic works of Richard Strauss. The 
term " romantic," used for the period 
from Weber onwards, is not incorrect; but, 
when it is opposed to " classical," one is 
apt to regard the latter as expressive of 
music without a programme. Our author, 
however, while recognizing romantic senti- 
ment in the old masters, and even that 
they worked, to use Beethoven's familiar 
phrase, to a picture in their mind, dis- 
tinguishes between music following estab- 
lished laws of structure and that of which 
the form and contents are determined by 
some poetic basis. And already in the 
introductory chapter he tells us that, in 
spite of many excesses, there has been 
distinct gain. The reader must at once 
perceive that there will be many an " if " 
and " but " when the chief works of the 
period are passed in review. 

Weber in his ' Freischutz, ' and still 
more in his ' Euryanthe,' led directly to 
the romantic operas of Wagner. As 
regards instrumental music, however, he 
was not in favour of specific titles. He 
intended to give headings to the different 
sections of his famous Concertstiick, but 
" I particularly dislike all musical pictures 
with specific titles," so he wrote to 
Rochlitz, " yet it [the scheme] irresistibly 
forces itself upon me, and promises to 
prove efficacious." And the Concertstiick 
was published without the headings. 
Schumann, again, was cautious in this 
matter. In many cases — so he declared 
— the music was first written, and titles 
thought of afterwards. 

'" Berlioz and Liszt," as our author truly 
remarks, 

" are the most conspicuous and thorough- 
going representatives of programme music. 
i.i. instrumental music expressly devised to 
illustrate in detail some play or poem, or 
some succession of ideas or pictures." 

Yet while acknowledging the originality 
and high aims of the former, he considers 
his disposition as " poetically imaginative 
rather than musical " ; while of the latter. 



in reference to bis Poemefl S\ mphoniques, 
we read that M the musical growth ifl 
spoilt or perverted by some reference to- 
extraneous ideas"; also that 'every- 
where the programme stands in the way, 
and the materials refuse to coalesce."" 
And then this sentence : — 

" Both masters may have erred in their 
method ; and programme music, as they 
conceived it, may in the end prove to have 
been a dubious hybrid of insufficient 
vitality," 

shows pretty clearly Dannreuther's atti- 
tude towards programme music. He- 
admires the delightful genre pictures, the 
' Marche de Pelerins ' and Serenade in 
Berlioz's ' Harold ' Symphony, and Liszt's 
" little masterpiece ' Orphee ' " ; but in 
these, as in Mendelssohn's ' Melusine ' 
and ' Hebrides ' Overtures, " the title 
contains all that the composer deemed 
needful to guide the audience." 

In pianoforte literature of the period,. 
Chopin's music is remarkable for its 
romantic character, yet, as our author 
notes, in the Sonata in B flat minor there 
is "no hint as to the composer's meaning 
in the title of any of the movements " ; 
neither is there in the Ballades, the 
Nocturnes, and the Barcarolle, pieces 
which must surely have had some 
poetical basis. 

The triumph of romanticism in operatic 
music begins with W 7 eber's success, ' Der 
Freischutz. ' Weber led to Wagner, and, 
quite apart from the intrinsic value of 
his operas and music-dramas, the latter 
has exerted a beneficent influence on 
modern art : the stilted form of opera 
has almost ceased to exist ; com- 
posers are no longer the slaves of great 
singers. In song, too, romanticism, which, 
virtually began with Weber and 
Schubert, has triumphed. Heine spoke 
of Mendelssohn's " aggressive predilec- 
tions for classical models " ; and even 
a greater than Mendelssohn, and one 
whose music was largely of t he- 
programme order — i.e., Beethoven — 
was loth to depart from recognized form*. 
Both may have been too much under the 
influence of the past. The doctrine of 
finality in art is false : changes must 
come, but they should be gradual. In 
spite of all the clever, and in many- 
instances interesting, programme music 
which has been written by Berlioz r 
Liszt, and their followers, there seem to- 
us no more satisfactory specimens than 
the * Hebrides ' Overture and the great 
' Leonore,' No. 3. And our opinion is in 
agreement with that of our author. His 
book ends with these weighty words con-- 
cerning illustrative music, which. 

" on the instrumental side, apart from 
design, is in pursuit of a false ideal : it is 
the satyr Marsyas, imitating on his flute the 
music of his native uplands, and doomed to 
destruction if he challenges the golden lyre 
of Apollo." 



iHusical 0>ossip. 

The dates of the seven concerts of the 
ninety-fourth season of the Philharmonic- 
Society are as follows : February 27th, 



N°4080, Jan. 6, 1906 



THE ATHENJEUM 



27 



March 15th, April 5th, May 2nd, 17th, and 
31st, and June 14th. Engagements have 
been made with the violinists Miss Marie 
Hall and Mischa Elman ; and with the 
pianists Madame Teresa Carreno and MM. 
York Bowen, Richard Buhlig, Ernst von 
Dohnanyi, Raoul Pugno, and Emil Sauer. 

Edvard Grieg and his wife will visit 
London in the spring. Two concerts at the 
Queen's Hall are to be devoted entirely to 
the music of the great Norwegian composer. 
At the first, on May 17th, the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra will be under his direction ; while 
at the second, on May 24th, he will appear 
as pianist. It is to be hoped that Mrs. 
Grieg, * who is an able and sympathetic 
interpreter of her husband's songs, will be 
able to take part in these concerts. 

At Miss Mary Cracroft's concert at the 
iEolian Hall on February 24th will be per- 
formed two songs and a pianoforte solo by 
Debussy. The programme will include some 
of Rachmaninoff's Preludes (Op. 23), also 
several new English songs. 

In addition to what was said in The 
Athenaeum of December 23rd respecting the 
two concerts at the Theatre du Chatelet, 
Paris, with the London Symphony Orchestra 
and the Leeds Choir, it may be noted that 
M. Andre Messager will conduct Saint-Saens's 
1 Phaeton,' the Scherzo from Dr. Cowen's 
* Scandinavian ' Symphony, Strauss's ' Don 
Juan,' and the ' Meistersinger ' Overture ; 
and M. Ed. Colonne, Berlioz's ' Benvenuto 
■Cellini ' Overture. The rest of the music 
will be under the direction of Sir Charles 
Stanford. 

We regret to learn that Miss Muriel Foster 
has been ordered by her medical adviser to 
take three months' complete rest ; she is 
suffering from the effects of a severe attack 
of influenza. She cannot, therefore, fulfil 
her engagements in America and Germany, 
but hopes to be well enough to take part in 
the Cincinnati Festival next May. 

M. Gailhard's term of six years as lessee 
of the Paris Grand Opera expired on Decem- 
ber 31st, but it has been renewed for one 
year by the Minister of Fine Arts. Wagner's 
'Meistersinger' (' Les Maitres Chanteurs ') 
is to be revived this month, with Mile. 
Lindsay as Eva, and M. Delmas as Hans 
Sachs, while the tenor Muratore will imper- 
sonate Walther for the first time. 

The opera season begins at Monte Carlo 
on February 3rd. The novelties will be Saint- 
Saens's ' L'Ancetre ' and Bizet's recently 
discovered ' Don Procopio.' 

Henry Holmes, the violinist and com- 
poser, died last month at San Francisco, aged 
sixty-six. 

At a recent Ysaye concert at Brussels 
two orchestral novelties by Flemish com- 
posers were produced : a ' Homeric ' Sym- 
phony, by L. Mortelmans, and a symphonic 
tone-poem, ' Lalla Rookh,' by J. Jongen. 

Two novelties were produced at the Paris 
Opera Comique on December 26th. The 
first was a musical comedy in one act, 
■entitled ' La Coupe Enchantee,' music by 
M. Gabriel Pierne ; and the second ' Les 
Pecheurs de Saint-Jean,' in four acts, words 
by M. Henri Cain, music by the well-known 
composer and organisl M. Charles M. Widor. 
There is a notice of both works, signed 
Arthur Pougin, in Le Menestrel of Decem- 
ber 31st. The writer recognizes the gifts 
of M. Pierne as composer, but in this 
instance neither the character nor the colour 
of the music satisfies him. On the other 
hand, he gives high praise to M. Widor, and 
considers that the new opera will add greatly 
to his reputation. 



A statue of the Danish national composer 
Hartmann, who died a few years ago, aged 
ninety-seven, was unveiled at Copenhagen 
on the 29th ult 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 
Sin. Sunday Society Concert. 3.30. Queen's Hall. 

— Sunday League, 7. Queen's Hall. 

Sat. Chappell's Ballad Concert, 3, Queen's Hall. 

— Miss Edith Parsons s Pianoforte Recital, 3.30. .Eolian Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

St. James's. — Beside the Bonnie Brier 
Bush. A Dramatized Version in Four 
Acts, by Augustus Thomas and James 
Macarthur, of Ian Maclaren's Work so 
Named. 

The task of dramatizing the popular 
tales of Ian Maclaren is necessarily diffi- 
cult. Two, or even three, "single gentle- 
men rolled into one," according to the 
fancy of George Colman the younger, are 
not more manageable than the same 
number of stories similarly treated. The 
arrangement in the present instance is 
singularly inexpert. A number of 
Scottish folk, gentle and simple, have 
apparently no occupation in life except 
to dawdle on and off the stage at the 
volition of the adapters. A love interest 
of a kind is provided, and proves even 
moderately sympathetic. So soon, how- 
ever, as it is obtained, it is dismissed, 
and there are long wastes on which we 
see nothing whatever of the only cha- 
racters in whom it is possible to feel the 
slightest interest. Against the fact that 
we are constantly reminded of other pieces 
we urge no protest. It is true that there 
are reminiscences in turn of ' The Heart 
of Midlothian,' ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' 
and other works. To resemblances of 
this kind, in times in which invention is 
rare on the stage, we must needs be 
tolerant if we are to have any drama 
at all. The central character, however, 
of ' Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush ' — the 
man for the sake of whom what might 
have been a gracious idyll is converted 
into a psychological study — has in the 
play no such consistency as distinguishes 
his predecessors. " Douce " Davie Deans 
is a pragmatical, obstinate creature, for 
whom, on account of his sorrows, we feel 
a certain amount of solicitude ; while 
the Vicar of Wakefield is a delightful and 
lovable being whom the fine art of Irving 
ultra - sentimentalized. Lachlan Camp- 
bell, on the other hand, as he has the 
grace to discover, is a Pharisee, and 
something also of a curmudgeon, whose 
relenting to his daughter is no more 
comprehensible than is his first attitude of 
unmerited resentment and arraignment. 
That he banishes from his house, in a 
manner equally callous and inconceivable, 
a daughter who is, in fact, guiltless of 
any offence, is a departure from the 
original due to the dramatists, or more 
probably the impersonator of the part, 
and nowise to the novelist, who shows 
her as reluctant as Lord OUin's daughter 
to face "an angry father." We are dis- 



posed, indeed, to attribute to the initiative 
of Mr. Mollison whatever is least accept- 
able in the play. Moved by a natural 
and, in a sense, laudable ambition to 
create a strongly marked and powerful 
character, he has centred the interest of 
the plot on a man who never approaches 
our sympathies or touches our hearts. 
In a conventional sense his acting may 
be clever, but it is marred by that excessive 
deliberation which is a great and growing 
vice of our stage. Other parts are credit- 
ably played, and the scenes between 
Flora Campbell, the heroine, as played 
by Miss Lilian Braithwaite, and young 
Lord Hay, as impersonated by Mr. 
Henry Ainley, have even a measure 
of fragrance. Miss Lettice Fairfax, Mr. 
Charles Groves, Mr. Sydney Brough, Mr. 
Frank Cooper, and Miss May Harvey are 
excellent ; and Mr. Alec Thompson makes 
a figure of fun of a bibulous and slothful 
postman who devotes to the neglect of 
his duties every moment of leisure or 
supposed occupation. Some vacillating 
and precarious dialect is heard, but the 
characters generally are as unsuggestive 
of Scotland, either Highland or Lowland, 
as they can well be. It is to be feared 
that the only chance of popularity consists 
in substituting love scenes for those of 
paternal wrath and injustice, and convert- 
ing, as has been said, into a pleasing idyll 
what is an unpleasing drama. 



Shaftesbury. — The Jury of Fate : in 
Seven Tableaux By C. M. S. McLellan. 

Mr. McLellan's new play, the title of 
which awoke many pleasurable expecta- 
tions, ends in disappointment and defeat. 
It furnishes opportunity for one or two 
pretty scenes, preaches a gloomy but 
familiar moral, and is devoid of either 
sympathy or sequence. A " creepy " 
feeling is now and then engendered when 
we are conscious that in the darkness 
an embodied fate is hunting down its 
victim. Its terrors are, however, as a 
rule, unrealized, and there is not a moment 
when the feelings are gripped. So much 
is wrong in the conception that the task 
of indicating error seems almost useless. 
First of nil comes the fact that the separate 
scenes are so disconnected and fragment- 
ary that interest has not time to accumu- 
late or shape itself. So frankly detestable 
is the central figure that one could almost 
as soon make a hero of Iago or of Barnes 
Xewcome. No comprehensible motive 
seems to animate most of the characters : 
the imaginary effects remain vague and 
unrealized ; and even the moral appears 
to dismiss from human action the sense 
of responsibility. Opportunities arc 
scarcely afforded for acting, and the most 
arduous efforts of the various exponents 
leave us unmoved. A certain measure of 
uncanniness is displayed by Mr. H. B. 
Irving. No sign of struggle is. liowe\er. 

apparent, Man is not shown, as in 
the romantic drama, at war with circum- 
stance, but, as in the classical drama, .is 
its slave. ( 'ircumstauce may. of COUT86, 

be regarded as atavism or heredity. Call 



28 



T II !■: ATM KN'.EUM 



N 1080, Jan. 6, 1906 






it what we will, the it-suit ifl alike un- 
worthy. In place of psychologioal treat- 
ment. BUch a< the theme demands, we 

are given the most oommonplaoe and 
illogical melodrama. The case is Boaroely 

Strong enough to justify the applica- 
tion of the Horatian maxim v<c detU 
itlter ri t n o god docs intervene, unless, 
indirectly, the discredited deity whose 
shrine is at Lampeacus. We own to B 

feeling of keen disappointment, report 
concerning the story in connexion with 
its title having led as to hope for a study 
on the lines of " St. Leon,' if not on those 
of the " Peau de Chagrin. 1 Miss Lilian 
McCarthy maintains her reputation, and 
Miss Chrystal Berne makes an agreeable 
debut. Sir. Irving's repudiation of sym- 
pathy is destructive of interest; and Mr. 
Matheson Lang never acquires bold enough 
upon our regard to render us very careful 
as to bis fate. 



Lodoicick CarlieU : his 'Deserving Favour- 
ite: Edited by C. H. Gray. Pb.D. (Chicago, 
University Pre--.) — Lodowick Carliell (or 
Carlell, as be is more generally called) was 
Master of the Bows and Groom of the 
Chamber to Charles I. and his queen, and 
he wrote plays which were received " with 
great applause,'' though a modern critic, 
Mr. F. G. Fleay (' Biog. Chron. Eng. Dram.'), 
dismisses them somewhat contemptuously. 
"The value.'" he says, "of Carlell's works 
is simply negative : they show what rubbish 
was palatable to Charles and Henrietta." 
Other critics have been more lenient in their 
judgment, and though it must be admitted 
that his works are, not calculated to arouse 
the enthusiasm of any, it may at least be 
said that they have the negative merit of 
being clean and wholesome rubbish. To the 
bulk of our readers, we fear, Carliell is but a 
bare name ; for his plays have never been 
collected or reprinted ; he has not been 
fortunate enough to gain admission for even 
a single play to Dodsley's or any other collec- 
tion of old plays ; and Charles Lamb either 
never met with him or did not think Carliell 
worthy of a single extract for his delightful 
volume of ; Specimens.' Nevertheless stu- 
dents and lovers of the British drama must 
always welcome the bringing to light of a 
new " old play," and Dr. Gray is therefore 
sure at least of their thanks for this edition 
of ' The Deserving Favourite.' We trust he 
may be able to realize his hope of reprinting, 
at some future time, the remaining plays — 
some eight in all — of his author. Dr. Gray 
prefaces his reprint with a biography of 
Carliell, a discussion of his plays in general, 
and a chapter on the sources of this play in 
particular. His work is deserving of all 
praise. 



£iramattr (Oosstp. 

i 

'Noah's Ark,' announced as a fairy play 
in two acts, by Percy French and Brenden 
Stewert, given on Monday afternoon at the 
Waldorf Theatre, will be amusing when 
played more slowly. Miss Madge Lessing 
is agreeable as the heroine, and Mr. Paulton 
droll as a Pirate Doll. 

According to existing arrangements 
Mir. George Alexander will appear at the 
St. Jami b'8 Theatre on the 1st of Febru- 
ary, necessitating in so doing the with- 
drawal at a previous date of ' Beside the 
Bonnie Brier Bush.' His return to his own 
theatre will take place, as previously 



.■miiouiiced, ill Mr. l'inero's ' His BOUM in 
Order,' in which he will Im\<- the Support 
..! MJSS Irene Vui il >nmli. .Miss Bella Pateinan, 

Miss Beryl Faber, and Messrs. Berber! 
Waring, LyaU Bwete, Vivian Reynolds, and 

Nigel l'ln\ fair. 

The Scala Theatre contemplates a Beries 
of revivals of spectacular and romantic 

drama, to begin on the L3th inst. with A 
Royal Divorce,' by W. ,; Wills, a piece in 
which on September loth, 1891, Mr. Murray 

t larson appeared at the Olympic as Napoleon, 
to the Josephine of Miss Hawthorne. 

BANISHED by the action of a theatrical 
trust company from the regular theatres of 
some of the Southern States of America, 
Madajne Bernhardt is giving performances 
in a huge tent originally occupied by 8 circus 
company. With this she travels by special 
train over the long distances sometimes 
separating Southern cities. 

On Monday ' Capt. Drew on Leave ' was 
transferred to Wyndham's Theatre. The 
only change in the cast consisted in the 
appearance of Mr. Edmund Maurice in the 
part previously played by Mr. Louis Calvert. 

' A Qi'estion of Age,' the new comedy 
of Mr. Robert Harcourt, will be produced 
at the Court Theatre on February 5th, 
Miss Fanny Brough and Mr. Frederick Kerr, 
who join the company, having important 
parts in it. When, on the following 12th, 
' The Voysey Inheritance ' goes into the 
evening bill, Mr. Kerr will appear in it also. 

On the loth inst. ' Lights Out ' will be 
transferred to the Savoy Theatre, with Miss 
Eva Moore, Mr. H. V. Esmond, and Mr. 
Charles Fulton in their original parts, and 
Mr. Leslie Faber, who has replaced Mr. 
H. B. Irving as Lieut, van Lauffen. 

Thursday, the 25th inst., is fixed for the 
production at His Majesty's of Mr. Stephen 
Phillips's ' Nero.' The cast (the principal 
features in which have been previously 
announced) will comprise Mr. Tree as Xero, 
Mrs. Tree as Agrippina, Miss Constance 
Collier as Poppaea, Miss Dorothea Baird as 
Acte, Mr. Fisher White as Seneca, Mr. Lyn 
Harding as Burrus, Mr. C. W. Somerset as 
Tigellinus, Mr. Esme Percy as Britannicus, 
Mr. James Hearn as the Astrologer, and 
Mr. Robert Farquharson as Anicetus. 

A Danish author, Baron Rosenkrantz, has 
just got his novel ' Royal Love,' the story 
of Anne Boleyn, dramatized in an English 
version, which may be performed at the 
Imperial Theatre. 



To Correspondents. EL n. S. a. k. s.~f. f.— 
received. <;. N. - Certainly. .1. II. Not possible. 
.NO notice can i>e taken of anonymous communications. 



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contains, in addition to a great variety of similar Notes and Replies, 
Articles of Interest on the following Subjects. 



SECOND S 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERARY HISTORY. 

Campbell, Keats, and Virgil — Allusions in Carlyle — Casanoviana 
— Authors of the Chaldee MS. — CLauceriana — Chorley on the 
Birth of Edward VII. — Civil List Pensions — John Cleave and 
the Taxes on Knowledge — Coleridge as a Translator — County 
Histories — Cowper on his own Immortality — Daniel's ' Sonnets 
to Delia' — Danteiana — De Quincey's Syntax — Dibdin Biblio- 
graphy — Dickensiana — Drydeniana — Edition, its Meaning — 
George Eliot and Mark Rutherford — ' Field ' Jubilee — 
Fielding's 'Tom Jones' in France — Edward FitzGerald and 
E. M. Fitzgerald — Percy Fitzgerald's ' Pickwickian Manners 
and Customs ' — Florio's ' Montaigne ' — Fly-leaf Inscriptions. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Dorothy Cecil — Job Charnock, Founder of Calcutta — Chester- 
field on Beau Nash — Col. T. Cooper — General Cope — Defoe's 
Last Descendants — Notes on the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' — Ralph Dodd and the Thames Tunnel — Date of 
Robert Dodsley's Death — Due d'Enghien's Death — Chancellor 
Silvan Evans — Fahrenheit and his Thermometer — Flaxman's 
Wife — Ugo Foscolo in London — Lady Elizabeth Foster — 
Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat — Epitaph on Mary Frith (" Moll 
Cutpurse"). 

CLASSICAL SUBJECTS. 

" Bernardus non vidit omnia " — " Comes jucundus in via pro 
vehiculo est " — " Cane decane canas " — " Crescit amor nummi " 
— " De male qusesitis vix gaudet " — " Dies creta notandus " — 
" Est rosa flos Veneris " — " Furem pretiosa signata sollicitant." 

ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS. 

Queen Candace — English Cardinals — Organs destroyed by 
Cromwell — Chalice as Race Cup— Childbed Pew — Chi-Rho 
Monogram — Modern Instrumental Choirs — Clipping the Church 
— Smallest Church in England — Deflected Chancels — Devil's 
Door in Churches — Clergymen as Duellists — Papal Bull against 
a Comet — Use of the Cope — Crosier and Pastoral Staff — Date 
of the Crucifixion — Clandestine Marriages in Curzon Chapel, 
Mayfair — Defender of the Faith — Epitaph at Doncsister — 
Bleeding Image in Christ Church, Dublin — Title of Bishop of 
Durham — Easter and the Full Moon — Eucharist eaten by Mice. 

FINE ARTS. 

Miniature of Mrs. C. Arbuthnot — Architectural "Follies" — 
Artists' Mistakes — Portraits of Joanna Baillie — Books illus- 
trated by Blake — Buss's Illustrations of Dickens — Christ as an 
Infant at the Breast — Portraits of Dante — George Dawe, R.A. 
— Desborough Portraits — Lawrence's Picture of Countess of 
Derby — Portraits of Female Fighters — Marjorie Fleming's 
Portrait. 



ELECTION. 

FOLK-LORE and POPULAR ANTIQUITIES. 

Child's Caul — Childbirth Folk-lore — Christmas Decorations — 
Coal as a Charm — Cure by Hand of a Corpse — Crossing Knives 
and Forks — Cup-turning in Fortune-telling — Devil as a Black 
Dog — Drowned Bodies Recovered — Evil Eye — Fire kept 
Burning — " First Foot " on New Year's Day — First Flesh-eater 
— Flogging at the Cart-tail — Flower Game — Football on Shrove 
Tuesday — Footprints — Coins in Foundation Ston&s — French 
Robin Hood — Freund Hein in German Folk-tales — Friday 
Superstition. 

GENEALOGY and HERALDRY. 

Carey Family — Carson Family — Centenarians — Knightley 
Charleton, of Apley Castle — Chelsea Borough Arms — Bridget 
Cheynell — Brothers and Sisters with same Christian Names — 
Citizen Baronets — Right to Cockades — Cogan Peerage — 
Commonwealth Arms in Churches — Continental Heraldry — 
John Crewe, three of the Name — De Liancourt, four of the 
Name — Arms of the Dominican Order — Dowager Peeress's 
Title — Arms of Dutch East India Company — Dutton Family 
and Arms — Edgett Family — Foreign Arms in England — The 
Title Esquire — Eton College Arms — Family Crests — Fir-cone 
in Heraldry — Fleetwood Pedigree — Le Neve Foster Arms and 
Motto. 

HISTORY: ENGLISH, IRISH, and SCOTTISH. 

The Cabinet and the Constitution — Canute and the Tide — 
Queen Caroline's Trial — King's Champion — Genuine Relics of 
Charles I. — Charles II. 's Hiding-places — Death of Princess 
Charlotte — Conservative as Political Term — Coronations of 
Victoria and Edward VII. — Cromwelliana — English Contingent 
in the Last Crusade — British Prisoners in France — Snow at 
Battle of Edge Hill— Edward VII.'s Title in Scotland— Scandal 
concerning Elizabeth — Executions at Tyburn — Fathers of the 
House of Commons — The National Flag — Flemish Weavers in 
England — Northern Fighters at Flodden — Irish Brigade at 
Fontenoy — Lines on Frederick, Prince of Wales — French 
Prisoners of War in England. 



MUSIC AND THE 
Early Mention 



DRAMA. 

of Actresses — The Dresden Amen — First 
American Theatrical Company in England — Mrs. Charlotte 
Atkyns -Baoon-Shakespeare Controversy — John Bland. Edin- 
burgh Actor — Mrs. Patrick Campbell styled "Cceli Regina" — 
Cervantes on the Stage — Musical Settings of Cowley's Poems — 
Exeter Theatre in 1348 — Blanche Fane, Actress — Farquhar'a 
4 Beaux' Stratagem.' 



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REMINISCENCES OF A Dl I'LOM ATIST. IV. 
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\ Sentimental Comedy. 

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Author of 'Deborah of Tod's,' 'Cornelius.' 'Peter's 

Mother,' &C 

second IMPRESSION. 

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BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 
33 SACKVILLE STREET. PICCADILLY, W. -EVEXIXll 
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read I— l" 'ST. CI. ETHER. HIS CHAPEL AND HOLY WELLS.' 
by Mrs COLLIER. •_>. THE CURTIAN LAKE,' by Dr. RUSSELL 
FORBES. GEO. PATRICK, Hon. Sec. 

ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
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An ORDINARY MEETING of the SOCIETY will be held on 
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N T V E R S I T Y OF LONDON. 



U 

The COURSE of LECTURES on COMPARATIVE Psychology 
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Tin- "Herbert Lloyd Pension Fund provides 95Z. per annum f..i 
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Mr. Herbert Lloyd, who was a generous in-net.. 
this Institution, and wb 

The "Hospital Pensions consist of an annual contribution, 
whereby Sir lleno Charles Burdett and his co-directors generously 

i i i toe Year to ■ Man. under 
conditions laid do" n ir I: 

W. WLLKIE JONES. Secretary. 

EDUCA I [ON. 
Parents or Guardians desiring aceurate infor tion relative to 

the* lion i: ,.i Sl'HOO] 8 foi BOI a oi GIRLS oi 
TUTORS in England or abroad 
are Ini Ited to i all upon "i send full 

M BSSRH G VBBIT 18, TURING ft CO., 

who for more than thirtj years have ' D closely in touch with the 

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rpo ARMY CANDIDATES. SCHOLARSHIPS. 

_I_ THREE SCHOLARSHIPS, of the annual value of SOL, 501., 
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The Examination will begin on THURSDAY. January 18, and 
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TDIRMINOHAM and MIDLAND INSTITUTE. 

SCHOOL OF MUSK 

Visitor— Sir EDWARD Kl.t.AR. Mus Doc LL.D. 

Principal— GRANVILLE BANTOCK. 

Visiting Examiner— FREDERICK CORDER, F.R.A.M. 

SESSION 1905-1906. 
The Session consists o< Autumn Term [September 18 to Decem- 
ber 161 ; Winter Term (January 15 to April 7' : Summer Term (April 9 
to dune 23). 

Instruction in all Branches oi Music; Students Choir and orches- 
tra ; chamber Music ; Fortnightly Rehearsals ; Concerts; and Opera. 
Prospectus and further information may be obtained from 

ALFRED HAYES. Secretary. 



u 



NIVERSITV OF LONDON. 



NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that on WEDNESDAY, March 28 
next, the SENATE will proceed to elect EXAMINERS in the 
following Departments for the Year 1906-7 :— 

FOR EXAMINATIONS ABOVE THE MATRICULATION. 

The Examiners appointed will be called upon to take part in the 
Examination of both Internal and External Students. The remunera- 
tion of each Examincrship consists of a Retaining Fee for the year, 
and a i<m ruin payment for Papers set. Answers marked, and Meetings 
attended. Full particulars can be obtained on application to the 
Principal. 

THEOLOGY. 

Two in the Hebrew Text of the old Testament and the Greek Text 
of the New Testament. 

ARTS AND SCIENCE. 

One in Mathematics. I one in Experimental Physics, 

MEDICINE. 
One in Medicine. one in Pathology, 

one in Surger] 

Economics 

i toe in Public Administration and Finance. 
Candidates must send in their names to the Principal, with any 
attestation of their Qualifications they may think desirable, on oi 
before TUESDAY, January 23. If Testimonials arc submitted. 
three copies should be forwarded. Original Testimonials should not 
be sent. If more than one Examinership i- applied for, a separate 
complete application must be forwarded for each It is particularly 
desired by the Senate that no application of any kind be made to its 
individual Members.) 

By order of the Senate, 

uiTHUR w. RUCKER, Principal 
University of London. South Kensington, S.W.. 
December, 1905. 



c 



O U N T Y 



O F 



L N D N. 



The LONDON COUNTY i OUNCIL invites applications for the 
appointment of SECRETARY of the LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL 
SCHOOLof BUILDING, FERNDALE ROAD, BRIXTON, S.W. The 
person appointed « ill be required to be present each day two-thirds of 
the hours during which the School is open, and on Saturdays, His duties 
will Include the collection of Fees, the issue of Tickets to the 
Students, the can- of Registers, preparation of claims for Govern 
men) Grant, and the conduct of Routine Correspondence. 

Experience of the Administration of Technical Schools of similar 
Educational Institutions will be required. 

The Salary will be 1501. per annum, rising by annual increments of 

12/ la.-, to 800Z. per annum 

Th,- person appointed will be subject to the usual conditions 
attaching to the service of the Council, particulars ,,f which are 
i ..ni unci in the form of application, and he will be required to take- 
up his duties immediately. 

Applications must be made on the official forms, to be obtained from 
the Clerk ol the London Counts Council. Education Offices, Victoris 
Embankment. WO., and which must be returned not later than 
10A.n.on WEDNESDAY, January 17, 1906, accompanied by copies of 
not more than three recent Testimonials. 

Canvassing, eithei directij or indirectly, will be held to be a 
disqualification for appointment. 

(, L. GOMME, Clerk of the London County Council 

The County Hall, Spring Gardens, S.W., 
January l, 1906. 



T 



UK UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD. 



The UNIVERSITY of SHEFFIELD proposes to appoint a PRO- 
FESSOR i>( EDUCATION. 



ticulars as to duties, salary, ftc., apply to 

\\ \l 



GIBBONS, Registi u 



HARTLEY UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, 
SOI I'll WII'Ton 

The COl v II, invites applications for the appointment of PRO" 
FF.SSOli ul i: I >l < ITION and M VSTER ol MUi Hon 

< ommencing minimum Sal 

Applications, giving particulars of age, training^ qualifications, and 
experience with coi I Testimonials, must be - 

the PRINI IPAL on oi baton JAM u:\ 

Further particulars >» itained on application I 

REGISTR \K 



A 



SHTON UNDER I. , NE EDUCATION 

COMMITTEE 

The HIGHER EDUCATION SUB-COMMITTEE require thi 
service! ol an ASSISTANT MIT MASTER t«i ti ich Ut gcnerall] 
and IrtGcometrj at the HEOINBOTTOM SCHOOL ol \KT IDay 
I VSHTON 1 \hi:i; IA Ni: SEi ONH WW D\\ 
SCHOOL Candidates must hold some of the Board ol Edu< 
r. , ...-in/I -I lunlifli ttlonsl hers Salary 1301 pet annum 

VimlieatioiiH, stating qualifications (ether 

with i opii - '■' On.-, re, enl '!'•-• irned 

should reach the SECRETARY OK EDUCATION, Vshtoi 
not l-it i ih m noon on - v'i'i Ri> u i uiu urySO, 



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SEARCHES at British Museum and other 
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LITERARY RESEARCH undertaken at the 
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TRANSLATION. Revision, Research, Reviewing, 
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Smnisli inglo-Saxon. Special subjects. Mythologj and Literature 
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TRAINING for PRIVATE SECRETARIAL 
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TYPEWRITING. The WEST KENSINGTON 
OFFICES Authors MSS., Translations, fti Legal am ■ 
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A 



UTHORS' Mss.. 9rf. per I.ihki words. 

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cutci M I. 1, . 7, Vi rnon Road . now ki 

olaph.no S \\ 



\ ITHOHS'MSS., NOVELS, STORIES, PI. U S, 

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Nil i vM BRIDGE TYPE U 111 M\i, M.l n. n 
delphi, «.' 



:;i 



TH E AT II EN .v:r M 



N 1081, .Jan. 13, L906 



rpHE AUTHOR'S AG! ENCTS Brtabluhed 1879. 

I II.. u luthon mpahlvrrnr. 

IMMI.I.I..K 

M, A M II la. II 

MR QEORGE LARNER, Aeeuuntant and 
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Print 

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Uou ^ _ 

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\ KENDAL l N..I.WI' 
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/ and ftemat 



,1 1 ingament 

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HH PE \('H. ST. Pelvoir Street, Leicester, 
. taues CATALOGOB8 of MSB and RAM IBOOK8 post free 
to CoUectow No. U contain, a number o ,"'' ' j, ' ^i, t tl ■ 
[ncnnables and EngUsb Books, just purchased at^ 8al< 
Marcel Schwob library, Paris, and othei sources Inroad. 

CM \ 1 .1 m . I • K \< 1. 4 f. -Turner's Liber St udiorum, 
Encland and Wales, and other Emgrarings Lucas ; Mcz/ntints 
after Constable Etchings ta WhtattotA SSSST'&ta^wSffi by 
Ti,..,,..,. Burne-Jones Ruskan, fcc. Ulustrated boom "' ■ 

iViiVkiiV I'.!'! fST Stapence.- WM. WABD, 2, Ohurch Terrace, 
Richmond, Surrey. ___ 

THE INTERNATIONAL BOOK CIRCULAR, 
No. hi. containing a Speaal AxUcle, ^ed 'MODERN 
VIEWS of KI.LiTKIclTY and MATTER/ by Prof. AUFMD W. 
PORTER Specimen Copies gratis WJXLIAMS * MOBttAAJS, 
Book Importers, 14, Henrietta Street. Covent liardcn.JW.t. 



rpHE following CATALOGUES of SECOND- 

J_ HAND BOOKS, which have recently been published, will tie 
sent gratis to any address on api lication :— 
No. i". NATURAL SCIENCES. 
No ii PINE AN1> BTANDARD BOOKS. 
No. 12. PHH080PHT AND ECONOMICS 

No. 13. BOOKS RELATING TO CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY, in- 
cluuing Text and Commentaries and School Editions 
in preparation. 
No. 16. MATHEMATICAL. ISecond Catalogue.) 
No. 16. ECONOMIC. (Second Catalogue.) 

W. HEFFER & suns. Second-hand Booksellers, Cambridge. 
Librarians and Bookbuyers generally aire invited to send Lists of 
rants. Over 100,000 Volumes in Stock. 

BERTRAM 1) O B E L L, 
SECOND-HAND BOOKSELLER and PUBLISHER, 
77. Charing Cross Road, London, W.C. 
A large Stock of old and Kan- Books in English Literature, 
i„;.,„,li„. Poetry and the Drama-Shak, ispeari ana- First Editions io| 
Famous Authors Manuscripts- -HlustratM Books, Ac. (.AlALOOUita 
free on application. 



A 



NCIENT and MODERN COINS.— Collectors 



_i. and Antiquarians are invited to apply to 'SPINK . A SON, 
Limited for Specimen Cora (gratis) of their NT MISMATK < IRCl 

At The finest Greek, Roman, and English Corns on View and for 
Sale it Moderate Pricess-SPINK ft SON, Limited, Experts, Valuers, 
*',,d Catalo^iersV 18, 17, and is. Piccadilly, London. W. Established 
upwards of a Century. 



rpi'Xr.HIDCK WELLS. APARTMENTS. 
_L Comfortably Furnished Sitting Room and One Bedroom. 
Pleasant and central. No others taken.— B, H., 66, Grove Hill Road, 
Tunbridge Wells. 



J^alUs b^ Ruction. 

Books ami Manuscripts, including the Collection of Oriental 
Books and Manuscript* and the Mathematical Library oj 
the lot. Hon, Mr. Justice &KINE ALT. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON & HODGE 
will SEXX by AUCTION, at their House, No. L8, Wellington 
Street Strand W.C. on MONDAY. January 16, and Two Following 
Oars at [o'clock precisely, BOOKS and MANUSCRIPTS, including 
Hi,: mi I.I.Ki TION of ORIENTAL BOOKS and MANUSCRIPTS and 
the MATHEMATICAL LIBRAR1 of the late Hon. Mr. Justice 
OKINEALY. of the High Court of Calcutta ; also the I.ILHAIU oj 
T MORSON Esq of 42, Gordon Square, comprising First Editions ol 
Thackerai and Dickeiu numerous Works Illustrated by Cruikshank 
[including some of thi rarer ones), T. Rowlandson, R. Seymour, Ac. 
the Gounil Illustrated Series Extra-Illustrated Looks; tlie 
LIBRARY of w -i PLEWS, Esq., of Colwyn Hay: and other 
Properties comprising numerous Standard Works, chiefly ol Modern 
English Writers, in most Branches of Literature. 

May tie v ii-M id. I 'lit ill. utiles may lie had. 

The Collection of Book-Plates (Ex-Libris) of the late JAMES 
ROBERTS BROWN, Esq. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY. WILKIXSONct HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION (by Orderof the Executors), al theii 
House No 13, Wellington Street, Btrand. W.C, on FRIDAY, 
Januan 19 at 1 o'clock precisely, the COLLECTION of BOOB 
PLATES Ej Libris ol the late JAMES ROBERTS BROWN, Esq., 
ol 14, Tri juntei Road, London. 8.W, 

Maj I"- riewed two days prior. Catalogues may be had. 

Autograph Letters and Signed Documents of British and 
Foreign Sovereigns, Princes, dec, thi Property of the late 
Mr. FREDERICK BARKER. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON & HODGE 
will SELL by AUCTION (by order of the Executors), at their 
House No. 13, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C, on MONDAY, 
Januan 22 at 1 o'clock precisely, AUTOGRAPH LETTER8 and 

SIGNED DOCUMENTS ol BRITISH I FOREIGN SO\ EREIGNS, 

PRINCES, ftc, the Property of the late Mr, FREDERICK BARKER. 
May lie viewed two dies prior. Catalogues may !„■ had. 



KSSRH HODGSON fl CO. will SELL l>y 

Ruoms, lit < bai V.< 

Till KSli \ \ Januan 1- mil I olio* I k. Mi 



M 



\ 1 , 1 |,'N it th, n It- ■ Lane. W.I 



IIO11KS ami 1:1 \l \l Mil .1:- In, lud 1 
Poiiulnr Publications of Charles KniKbt. « KilrrAd It ' 
Till \ ItoKU, liignun mil uthen oom|>rUliui Illiutrated Editions 
,,| Stamlard PocU and Novelists Juveutli Books »uli oolourad 
lllustrationa .v> • hleflj In 1 loth Kilt blmlini 
A, k, 11,1,101 - World in Mlntatun 

,,f the Ai-'~tl.- Ethlopl, Text, with Translation 2 vol" 
'l«,, 1,1,1,1,1.- ,,1 Costume In America, 2 vols 80 Creswicke's Sooth 
\iu, 1 and the Transvaal War, •■ >"ls in 1. balf-moj 
thousand volumes ol the Dome Novell bj Populai Modern 
A ol hors, Ae. 

To Ik- viewed and Cataloguai had 

Valuable /.""■ Books, including the Library at •• 
retiring from Practice handsome Carved, Oak Bool 
and other Library and Offlee Furniture. , 

MESSRS. HODCSON ft CO. will SELL by 
AUCTION, ai th.ii It,,., in-. 11:, Chancery tone, w > si 
Tin: END OF JANUARY, valuable l.v\t BOOKS, comprl 
Set ol Hi, La« Reports, New Series, from 1875 to 1B06. 247 vols half- 
call Law Journal Reports, from the commencement in 1822 to 
Reports in Kin^- Bench. Common Pleas, and Exchequei Election 
and Crown Cases Recent Editions ,,t Text-Books ; alio a largi and 
handsome Carved Oak Winged Bookcase, Mahogany Tables, and ..tln-r 
Library and Office Furniture, 

paring. 



Valuable Miscellaneous Books, including Books from th. Col- 
lection oj the late Sir ROBERT SMIRKE (the Property oj 
a Lady), and the Library oj the lot.' if, 1 /.77V/; C. MET- 
CALFE, Esq. (ii;i order of the Executor). 

MESSES. HODCSON ft CO. will SELL by 
AUCTION, at their Rooms, 115, Chancery Lane, W.C, on 
WEDNESDAY, January 31, and Two Following Days, valuable 
MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, Including Architectural, Topographical, 
and Genealogical Works Gould's family ol Trogons Reicnenbach's 
[cones Florae Germanices, 22 vols., and other Natural History Booki 
Notes and Queries 77 vols., with indexes— Books with Coloured Plates 
First Editions ol Modem Authors ; also handsomely bound BOOKS 
from the COLLECTION of the late Sit ROBERT SMIRKE, removed 
from Canterbury, the Property of a LADY. 

1 lataloguee are preparing. 



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Birds' Eggs, including on Egg of the Great Auk. 
R. J. C. STEVENS will OFFER, at his 

Rooms, 88, Kins street, Covent Garden, London. W.C, on 
WEDNESDAY, January 17. the COLLECTION of EGGS formed by 
the late Mr. HL'LL.MAN PLDSLEY, which includes a line Series of 
08preys, a Clutch of fees of the American stint, and many other 
interesting Eggs. Also an EUG of the GREAT ACK. on account of 
another Vendor. 

Catalogues, in course of preparation, may he had on application. 

Scientific Instruments, Cameras, .(<•. 
FRIDAY NEXT, at half-past IS o'clock. 
R. J. C. STEVENS will OFFER, at bis 

Rooms, 88, King Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. a large 
number of fine PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS and LENSES, 
SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS. OPTICAL GOODS, and a quantity of 
valuable MISCELLANEOUS GOODS. 

On view day prior 2 to 5, and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
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rpHE GEOGRAPHIC \l. JOURNAL. P 

I I ANUABT 

ON THE NEXT GREA1 ARCTU DIBCOYER1 o„ l^aufort Kea. 

Till: 1 S VON RICHTHOFES o\ ANTAI 

PLOH \\ li 
TRAVEL AND BXPLOR VTIoN IN THE SOUTHERN 'A PA 

ALP- Li thi R< r. \ \ M it li 1 lllu.ti 

Map 
A JOUBNEYTOTHE LOR I AN BW IMP i'.IMl U! U( A. 

1 1 ■ ■ .1 w II Broun Mitl, s Illiii-tiatioiu an-i 

Map 

ON Till: HIBTORl ..I THE NILE AND ITB VALLEY. 

l:. w I 11.011. li B. Load LRJI.M t I: <■ - 

1 UfAL IRRIGATION IN Tilt: PUNJAB Bj Qapt < 11 Buck. 

I \ pun sb I 1, r, . - -i- , V\ ■ 

NATURAL MOUNDfi in I M'E ( "l/>^\ Bj Hmast H I. 
s, 1 Gra- 

h.ilii-towii. 

THE GEOGRAPHII M. I \> IX IN AN ARID < LI MATE. Bj 

REl ntWB 

OORRESPOM-KNi E 1 „• - Ity W. II. Shrub- 

sole 
MEETINGS OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 

-I sJSION 
GEOGRAPHII ai. LITERATURE OF THE month. 
NEW MAPS 

.IM/'.s 
map OF Tin: PUNJAB 

M W OF THE 901 THKI'.N .1 kPAMESE U.I- 
SKETCH-MAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE JOURNEY OF LIEUT.- 
1 hi. W II. BROUN To THE LORIAN SWAMP. 

EDWARD STANFORD, 12, IS, 14. I>.ng A H • 



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THE ATHENiEUM 



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N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



39 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
. 39 

. 40 
41 



Jebb's Bacchvlides 

The University of Wales 

Three Books on Modern Education 
New Novels (Miss Desmond : an Impression ; The 
Ford ; The Red-Haired Woman ; A Vendetta in 
Vanity Fair ; The Interpreters ; The Colonel's 
Dream ; The Cruise of the Conquistador ; A Pre- 
tender) 42—43 

Books for Students 43 

Publications for Schools 45 

Our Library Table (The Fourth Party ; The Great 
Siege ; Irish History and the Irish Question ; ' In 
Memoriam ' with Tennyson's Annotations ; The 
Treasure of the Humble ; The Hundred Best Latin 
Poems ; My Schools and Schoolmasters ; The 
Schoolmasters Year - Book ; " The Library of 
Modern Classics " ; The Dublin Review) . . 48—49 

List of New Books 49 

The Classical Association ; The Assistant Masters 
in Secondary Schools ; Educational Notes ; 
'Russia'; Mr. Lee's 'Census of Shakespeare 
First Folios ' ; The 1477 Venice Edition of the 
'dlvina commedia'; 'the royal forests of 

England' 49—52 

literary gossip 52 

Science — Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S. ; 'An Ex- 
pl\nvtion of Magnetism'; Societies; Meet- 
ings Next Week ; Gossip 53—55 

Fine Arts— Colour Books ; The New Gallery ; 

Archaeological Notes ; Gossip . . . . 55—57 
Music — The London Symphony Orchestra in 

Paris; Gossip; Performances Next Week 58—59 
Drama — The Harlequin King; French Comedy 
Season ; The Interlude of Youth ; As You 

Like it; Gossip 59—60 

Index to Advertisers GO 



LITERATURE 



Bacchylides : the Poems and Fragments. 
Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and 
Prose Translation, by Sir Richard C. 
Jebb. (Cambridge, University Press.) 

This edition, long expected and now sadly 
welcome, crowns the series of publications 
relating to works of Greek literature re- 
covered from Egyptian papyri during the 
last fifteen years. Three works of first- 
rate importance for Greek literary history 
have been thus gained during this period : 
Aristotle's ' Constitution of Athens,' the 
Mimes of Herondas, and the poems of 
Bacchylides. In each case the course of 
development has been curiously similar. 
In each case the papyrus has been 
acquired by the British Museum, and the 
editio princeps has emanated thence ; in 
each case the bulk of. the subsequent 
criticism, which has brought the text of 
the new author to an approximately 
settled state, has proceeded from Germany; 
and in each case what may be called the 
full-dress edition, with its apparatus of 
introductions, critical notes, and com- 
mentary, has been the work of England. 
It is noteworthy, moreover, that in each 
case this full-dress edition has been pro- 
duced by a Cambridge scholar. Oxford 
has had a predominant share in the dis- 
covery and first publication of Greek 
papyri ; but when they have once been 
published, the resident scholars of that 
university have apparently washed their 
hands of them, and taken no part in the 
subsequent labours connected with them. 
For the standard commentary on the ' Con- 
stitution of Athens ' we have to look to 



Dr. Sandys (though with regard to textual 
matters the last word at present is with 
Mr. Kenyon's Berlin Academy edition) ; 
for that on Herondas to Mr. Nairn ; while 
that on Bacchylides has now been most 
worthily supplied by the late Greek pro- 
fessor at Cambridge. 

All scholars who are acquainted with 
Jebb's monumental Sophocles (and what 
scholar is not acquainted with it ?) 
will know what to expect from his edition 
of Bacchyhdes. They will be prepared 
for the full introduction (in this case 
occupying 240 pages), in which is to be 
found all that is to be said about the 
poet's life and literary characteristics, the 
manuscript in which his poems are pre- 
served, and the contents and character of 
the poems ; for a carefully edited Greek 
text and critical notes, in which account 
is taken of all that has been written on 
the subject at home and abroad ; for a 
translation into correct and graceful 
English ; and for an elaborate explanatory 
commentary, overflowing (in the case of 
the more difficult passages) into appen- 
dixes. All this they will look for and will 
find. We have not a little sympathy with 
those who hold that commentaries nowa- 
days are overdone, and that an author can 
be read with more pleasure and profit if 
explanatory notes are reduced to a 
minimum ; but if we are to have com- 
mentaries which aim at noticing every 
point that can be noticed in connexion 
with an author, such work can hardly be 
done more thoroughly and sympathetically 
than it has been here. 

The extant poems of Bacchylides reach 
a total of about 1,300 short lines ; and in 
a volume of 524 pages these may seem to 
be somewhat overlaid by commentary. 
None the less it would be a mistake to 
suppose that Jebb is ever either dis- 
cursive or irrelevant. The introductions 
and notes are strictly to the point, ex- 
cept, perhaps, for a slight tendency to 
repeat in the commentary what has been 
said in the critical notes ; but if every 
point suggested by the poems is to be 
touched upon — doubtful readings, dialect, 
style, metre, myths, archaeology, parallel 
passages, and the rest — and if due atten- 
tion is to be paid to the various opinions 
expressed by other scholars, the resulting 
volume cannot but be of considerable 
size. And there is at any rate this to 
be said for it : that there is no subject 
bearing upon the criticism of Bacchyhdes 
which the student will not find duly 
treated in these pages. They form, in 
fact, a standard edition of the poems 
which is likely to hold that position for 
many years to come. 

It is late in the day to be speaking of 
Jebb's merits as an interpreter of classical 
Greek literature; were they not (with 
other qualities) recognized and registered 
in the select circle of the Order of Merit I 
It is true that the simplicity of Bacchylides 
makes no such demand on the delicate 
skill of the interpreter as the subtlety of 
Sophocles, and that there are few passages 
of which the text is intact where the 
meaning remains seriously doubtful. On 
the other hand, the mutilated condition 



of the papyrus makes frequent demands 
on an editor's sense of style and language, 
and this is a department of scholarship 
in which Jebb was admittedly a master. 
He is careful to say that, where the text 
is lost or greatly mutilated, any supple- 
ment that is suggested is offered only as 
an illustration of the sense to which the 
evidence of the context points, not as a 
restoration of the text for which full con- 
fidence can be claimed. It is, indeed, 
hopeless to expect a modern scholar to 
divine precisely the words which an 
ancient poet would have used, unless the 
circumstances limit the field of conjecture 
very narrowly ; but several passages 
could be indicated in which Jebb has 
at least written verses which Bacchyhdes 
might, we think, have been glad to sign. 
We are inclined to select the eighth ode 
(that to Automedes) as a particularly 
favourable specimen of the editor's re- 
constructive skill. 

It is obviously impossible to notice here 
all the points of interest suggested by 
Bacchyhdes and his editor ; but a few 
matters of detail may be noted. In the 
bibliography the volume of MM. d'Eichthal 
and Reinach might be included among the 
editions of selections as well as among the 
translations, and the beautiful illustra- 
tions with which it is adorned deserve 
especial mention ; in particular, the repro- 
ductions of Greek vases illustrating the 
two Theseus odes might be referred to along 
with those published by Mr. A. H. Smith 
in The Journal of Hellenic Studies. A 
large number of conjectural supplements 
are not assigned to any author in the 
apparatus criticus. Presumably they are 
due to the first editor, and it would, of 
course, be superfluous to record this fact 
in the case of all the more obvious restora- 
tions ; but a general statement as to the 
practice adopted, either in the preface or 
at the beginning of the apparatus, would 
have removed all doubt. We venture to 
question the rendering of i. 37-40, " those* 
gifts which Apollo bestowed on Pantheides 
in respect to the healer's art and the kindly 
honouring of strangers." The idea that 
hospitality is a grace bestowed by the 
gods seems alien to the spirit of Bacchy- 
lides, if not to that of Greek poetry in 
general, and we should prefer to translate 
" on account of his works of healing and 
his kindly hospitality." In i. 65 does not 
tvfjLapeiv represent "ease" rather than 
" opulence " ? Mortals find no satisfaction 
in mere easy comfort, but crave always for 
something just beyond. It is the spirit 
of Wendell Holmes's poem : — 

I only ask that Heaven may send 

A little more th.in I run spend. 

At v. 67 it is. noteworthy that Jebb has 
abandoned his proposal to read dpyeoras, 
as epithet of ave/uos, in place of dpyjj<rr<£s : 
the latter is certainly tin- more picturesque 
word (" the gleaming headlands of Ida "). 
At v. 164 Jebb definitely rejects the 
rendering " one should speak that which 
is likely to have effect." for \PV K( "'" 
Xtyav o ti Kal [uWu rcActv in favour of " m 
man should speak of that which he can 
hope to accomplish." He accepts Blass's 
amalgamation of odes vii. and viii. (as 



in 



T II E A T II EN .i: U M 



N t081, Jan. 1.3, 1906 



numbered in the ulitii) prinri ps) a.s a 
■ingle ode. :unl thenceforward gives a 

double cumbering of theodee. If this is 

nerally adopted by s< Ik dais, it would 

be bettor definitely to drop the original 
numbering henceforth, bo as to avoid the 

cumbrousness of the double numeration. 
At i\. 12 he makes out au excellent case 

for Blass's ingenious emendation of naxn 

(=kr T m, a word vouched for by Ilesv- 
ohius) for the MS. waurl. At s. 110-20 

(one of the most dillieult passages in the 
poems) he now believes vpoyovoi or wpoy6va>v 
to be metrically impossible, and proposes 
wph van? iavapivav. Apart from the 
metrical difficulty, it may be questioned 
whether such a genitive absolute is in the 
manner of Bacehylides. At xv. 1 it is 
dillieult to find a supplement which gives 
a sufficient number of feet without an 
excessive number of letters; but Jebb's 
reading, \\\<tiio\> [!*■' etfi'"]. hrel, is open to 
objection on the score of euphony. The 
book is admirably printed throughout, and 
we have .noticed only three misprints : 
7rpo(j-6</>wi'ei for 7rpocr0ali£t in the note on 
viii. 15, a comma for a full stop at the 
end of x. 58, and a superfluous iota sub- 
script in AapTiySa, xiv. 6. 

With the appearance of this stately 
and complete edition (" totus, teres atque 
rotundus ") Bacehylides may fairly be 
said to have entered into the full citizen- 
ship of the noble company of classical 
poets. Of his position in their ranks there 
is little that is new to be said. Eight 
years' study has done little or nothing to 
alter the impressions left by the editio 
princeps, and indeed embodied in the 
introduction to that volume. Bacehylides 
is not one of the masters of Hellenic 
poetry. In particular, he does not bear 
comparison with the poet with whom 
one inevitably compares him, his con- 
temporary and rival, Pindar. He has 
nothing of the power and majesty of 
^Eschylus, the fire and splendour of Pindar, 
the subtlety and perfect adjustment of 
means to ends of Sophocles. He lacks 
originality in all directions. But on his 
own lower plane he has merits which a 
self-conscious and artificial age should be 
slow to decry. He has simplicity, direct- 
ness, grace, and picturesqueness of phrase. 
He is not afraid of telling a straight- 
forward story in a straightforward way ; 
and his choice of epithets (in which he 
abounds) shows a feeling for colour and 
for natural scenery. 

If we wish to realize the artistic and 
poetic value of this simplicity and direct- 
ness, it is instructive to compare Bac- 
ehylides with another Greek poet with 
whom we have recently been able to make 
acquaintance through the discovery of a 
papyrus manuscript in Egypt — Timotheus 
of Miletus. Writing only about half a cen- 
tury after the death of Bacehylides, Timo- 
theus stands at the very antipodes of style. 
Every phrase is contorted ; every word, 
almost, is metaphorical, and the meta- 
phors are in the worst possible taste. 
Simplicity and directness are deliberately 
avoided; every -entcnee must be un- 
natural and striking. And the result is 
a poem which so skilled a scholar and 



translator as Wilamowita fads frankly 
untranslatable into any modern lango 

and which tan certainly be read with no 

pleasure. The highest sentiment which it 
evokes is an amazed amusement, speedily 

degenerating into disgust, at such verbal 
gymnastics. Turn hack from the |Vi-e 
01 Timotheus to the two odes which 
Bacehylides addressed to Hiero, or the 
two upon the subject of Theseus, and you 
feel how immeasurable is the superiority 
of simplicity, even in a somewhat con- 
ventional and commonplace mind, over 
the tricks and contortions of a charlatan. 
In Timotheus the characteristic Greek 
excellence, the sense of style and of mode- 
ration, is wholly lost; but Bacehylides, 
with all his limitations, has his heritage 
in the true Hellenic spirit, which is the 
imperishable soul of literature. 



The University of Wales and its Constituent 
Colleges. By W. Cadwaladr Davies and 
W. Lewis Jones. (Robinson & Co.) 

To most people it may seem all too early 
to write a history of the University of 
Wales. Its charter was granted only in 
1893, and it was not until two or three 
years later that the new University got 
into anything like working order. Its 
three constituent colleges were, it is 
true, already in existence ; but of these 
even the pioneer college of Aberystwyth 
had only just attained its majority, while 
the other two had not entered on their 
teens. But if the University itself does 
not yet call for a history, the movement 
which culminated in its establishment 
transcends in historic interest anything 
else that Wales has experienced since the 
religious revival of the eighteenth century. 
The present work is therefore more the 
history of a movement than of an 
institution : its subject is scarcely less 
comprehensive than the history of learn- 
ing in Wales, of which the University is 
but " a symbol and a manifestation." 
This view enhances the importance of the 
Welsh University as a factor in the national 
life, and gives it a unique position among 
modern universities, as being "in a very 
real sense, the expression of a ' people's 
will.' " The authors, indeed, claim that 
" the Welsh University is the embodiment 
of the genius of a race, and the final expres- 
sion of a national tradition of learning " 
which has survived the vicissitudes of cen- 
turies. The opening chapters are therefore 
fittingly devoted to a rapid survey of the 
course of this development from early 
British times to the Victorian period. 
The conspicuous landmarks in it are the 
unrealized projects for founding a Welsh 
University, associated with the names of 
Owen Glyndwr, Henry VII., and Richard 
Baxter respectively ; Thomas Gouges 
abortive attempt, in the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century, to organize a 
system of popular education : and the 
more successful labours of Griffith Jones 
in establishing " circulating " schools in 
the following century. 

The modern history of the subject 
virtually begins, however, with the 



appointment in l s W oi ( iommissii 
inquire into the educational condition of 
the Principality. The fierce oontrovi 
which raged round then reports led m 
to institute s comparison between Wales 

and other parte of the Dinted Kingdom 

their respective mean- of instruction ; 
and the fa<t that Wale- had no equivalent 
to the recently established Queen's Col- 
leges of Inland, or to the Dhiversitie 
Scotland —all of them state-aided in 
some form or other seems t.i have sug- 
gested to Leading Welshmen, 

almost simultaneously, the idea of pro- 
vincial colleges or of a d« . ee-g ring 
University for Wale-. Though a scheme 
for a partial realization of this idea was 
actually prepared in 1854. the outbreak 
of the Crimean War and the more pressing 
needs of primary education prevented for 
a number of years all further progress in 
the matter. In 1802 the movement 
received a fresh stimulus : the idea of a 
national University began to take hold of 
the popular imagination ; and after ten 
years of the most persistent propaganda 
the end of the fir>t -tau r e was reached 
when, in October, 1872. the University 
College of Wales was opened at Aber- 
ystwyth. Then followed another ten 
years of heroic effort, during which the 
Welsh people, by their voluntary contri- 
butions, not only maintained the College 
without assistance from any public fund, 
but also restored its fabric after a dis- 
astrous fire. 

The story of these early strugg: 
which constitute what has been described 
as " the romance of Welsh education," 
is full of fascination, and is told in these 
pages — all too briefly, in our opinion, 
although with deep sympathy and a 
restrained enthusiasm. But for the titanic 
labours of Sir Hugh Owen and the first 
Principal of the College, the whole move- 
ment would probably have collapsed ; and 
the writers justly observe that. 

* if it is no exaggeration to say that without 
Sir Hugh Owen the University College of 
Wales would never have been established, 
it is certainly less to say that it would never 
have readied its twentieth birthday but for 
Thomas Charles Edwards." 

The establishment in 1882-3 of the two 
younger colleges of Cardiff and Bangor — 
to which, as ultimately also to Abery>t- 
wyth. an annual Government grant was 
allocated — at last rendered possible the 
establishment of a national University of 
a federal type. In connexion with this 
final stage of the movement, a third name, 
that of Principal Viriamu Jones, is honour- 
ably mentioned. From him came the first 
call to united action between the colic. 
and he more than any one else was 
responsible for the Welsh conception of 
the function and organization of their 
University. It is true thai the recent 
abandonment of the federal principle in 
the case of the Victoria University has 
already led a few to question the wisdom 
of retaining that principle in Wales. 
Owing to the great distance and the poor 
railway facilities between the three con- 
stituent colleges, the federal system, in 
its working, is not only costly, but also 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



41 



involves a " serious drain upon the time 
and the physical and mental energies of 
those who are compelled to work it." 
Nevertheless the prevailing opinion un- 
questionably is, in the words of Sir Richard 
Jebb, that " the drawbacks of the federal 
system are outweighed by the fact that 
the existing University stands for all 
Wales, and has the undivided support of 
Welsh sentiment behind it " ; and, as the 
authors add, " the main disability of the 
University and of its colleges at the present 
time arises not so much from the federal 
system as from their common poverty." 

As to this latter question, the position 
would have been made much clearer if 
the authors had offered a summarized 
balance-sheet or a statement as to the 
chief items of expenditure for any given 
year. Among other minor omissions in 
the work is the absence of any reference to 
the place occupied by athletics at the 
colleges, and to the social life of the 
students generally. The college songs 
deserved mention, especially that of Aber- 
ystwyth — ' The College by the Sea.' And 
how is it that no reference is made to Sir 
Lewis Morris's stirring ode in celebration 
of the King's installation as first Chan- 
cellor of the University ? 

In addition to views of the three 
colleges, the illustrations include photo- 
graphs of the King in his robes as Chan- 
cellor, of the late Sir Hugh Owen, and of 
the University seal, which was designed 
by Burne-Jones. The colleges do not 
seem to have yet adopted any coats of 
arms — a strange omission for people who 
in the past laid great stress on heraldry. 
Like all the other members of this series, 
the volume is well printed and has an 
attractive appearance. It would, in our 
opinion, make a most suitable prize-book 
for pupils in the higher forms of the 
secondary schools of Wales. 



MODERN EDUCATION IN HISTORY 

AND PRACTICE. 

Pioneers of Modern Education. By John 
William Adamson. (Cambridge, Uni- 
versity Press.) 

Let Youth but Know. By Kappa. 
(Methuen & Co.) 

The Infant School. By J. Gunn. (Nelson 
& Sons.) 

Prof. Adamson directs our attention to 
the men of the seventeenth century, and 
gives a lucid and sympathetic account 
of the thoughts and deeds of these 

■ " pioneers," and we must admit that to 
the efficiency of many of their schemes 
this century has not yet attained. The 
renascent vigour and enthusiasm of the 
period between 1600 and 1700 was suc- 
ceeded by the lethargy of a century that, 
so far as educational progress is concerned, 
was dull, if not retrograde, so that we 
now seem obliged to begin over again, 
feeling but little practical advantage 
from the preceding age. The period 
under consideration may from certain 
standpoints " be regarded as peculiarly 



French"; that is to say, the schemes 
prepared in France, and their realization 
in practice by French ndividuals and 
communities, are more humane — tend 
more to promote what we suppose 
Matthew Arnold meant by " sweetness 
and light " — than the contemporaneous 
plans and work in our own island and 
elsewhere. 

The views of Milton on education 
largely dominated the pedagogic thought 
of the time, but his influence on actual 
school work made itself felt through 
the teachings of his " most distinguished 
pedagogic disciple, Comenius " ; and both 
in Great Britain and Germany there 
was a puritanical leaven in school re- 
formers which kept them, or tended to 
keep them, aloof from " worldly folk," 
and they declined to admit that at any 
rate one of the great objects of education 
is to enable men and women to '* enjoy 
leisure nobly " ; for, as Prof. Adamson 
tells us, " Pietism agreed with Comenius 
that the paganism of Greek and Roman 
literature made both dangerous instru- 
ments of Christian education." This 
austere opinion was held more or less 
strongly, sometimes perhaps half uncon- 
sciously, by English educational reformers, 
but it found no place in the French mind, 
and in France the value of literature and 
its fitting place in education were un- 
grudgingly recognized from the first. 

Great skill is shown by Prof. Adamson 
in so displaying the thoughts and sug- 
gestions of the great educational philo- 
sophers of the century — Milton, Comenius, 
Montaigne, and others — that readers out- 
side the walls of schools and class-rooms 
will be interested in them. He also 
introduces his readers to two success- 
ful schoolmasters who were reformers 
of method and advocates of greater 
comprehensiveness in school curricula. 
Bacon and other thinkers, Brinsley, Hoole, 
Comenius, and the more enlightened 
schoolmasters urged the expediency of 
widening the curriculum by the inclusion 
" of the mother tongue at least among 
living languages, of mathematics, of 
natural science, of geography, and similar 
branches of knowledge." These reforms 
were greatly hastened by the advocacy 
of Montaigne and other distinguished 
Frenchmen ; and to them is largely 
due the establishment of " courtly 
academies," where the training was 
specially adapted to the needs of cour- 
tiers, men of affairs, and men of 
action rather than of pure scholars, 
logicians, and grammarians. Similar in- 
stitutions were introduced into Germany 
under the patronage of the Protestant 
Courts there, and one or two were planted 
in England. " Courtly education and 
scholastic education therefore fell apart," 
at any rate for a time, " the collocation 
of scholar and gentleman being a later 
and an English conception." While the 
Academie Royale and kindred foundations 
and the Ritterakademien were training 
sons of nobles and wealthy gentlemen, 
two remarkable sets of schools were 
instituted in France and Germany respec- 
tively, the one by St. Jean Baptiste de 



la Salle, founder of the Institute of the 
Brothers of the Christian Schools, the 
other by A. H. Francke, Professor of 
Divinity at Halle. Both are living insti- 
tutions to-day, but with diminished energy: 
the Halle institutions have been absorbed 
into the national system of Prussia, and 
the activity of the Brothers of the Chris- 
tian Schools has been restricted by recent 
legislation. 

The general conclusions of the author's 
historical studies are pleasantly sum- 
marized in a very readable final chapter ; 
and the last paragraph encourages us 
to hope " that the struggle of Classics v. 
Science is drawing to a close " — a hope 
that would be speedily realized if educa- 
tional authorities and legislators were 
actuated by the wise and tolerant philo- 
sophy of Montaigne ; but are they ? 

The practical use of present education 
is considered by Kappa, who is clearly 
not a schoolmaster by profession. He 
tells us that when he determined to 
write on education he was confronted 
by the question, " Shall I read, and then 
write ? or write, and then read ? Happily 
for his readers, he chose the latter alter- 
native. Had he made any extended ex- 
cursion into the arid domain of pedagogic 
literature, his own essays might have 
become as dull as many of the volumes 
he would have perused ; as it is, they are 
brilliant, interesting, and, we are able to 
add, convincing. Kappa, we gather, has 
been through the usual educational mill 
himself, and so speaks with considerable 
certainty of the working of the machine 
and of the product it turns out ; but his 
experience is, we venture to think, some- 
what exceptional if he has met many 
undergraduates like the Oxbridge one, 
whom he skilfully portrays in his opening 
chapter. Young men of whom this is a 
typical representation may, and no doubt 
do, exist, but at present they are certainly 
few, although " absorption in childish 
things " — to wit, " Greek accents and 
bowling averages " — will surely tend to 
their multiplication ; nor is Kappa wholly 
innocent of exaggeration in stating that 
the studies of Oxbridge leave successive 
generations of undergraduates in sheer 
blindness to the splendours of their en- 
vironment in life. 

" The fundamental task of a liberal 
education " is, we read, " to awaken and 
to keep ever alert the faculty of wonder 
in the human soul." From this we see 
that the " youth " concerning whom, and 
for whose educational benefit, Kappa 
writes is the fortunate generation that 
goes to a great public school, and sub- 
sequently, in all probability, to a uni- 
versity — most likely to Oxbridge. The 
scholar in a primary school must of 
necessity face the coming struggle for 
existence with more than the faculty of 
wonder, or he will be in immediate danger 
of experiencing hunger ; and indeed the 
faculty of wonder will not suffice, either, 
for the public-school boy or undergraduate. 
Wonder may well remain passive ; and 
Kappa himself recognizes its insufficiency 
when he recommends a training that will 
enable the schoolboy to realise something 



T II E A T II EN .v:r M 



N 1081, .J\n, 



13. L906 



of the umlil a- it is, and to divine some* 
thing of what it must be. Existing 
Bystexni profess, at Least, to do tins ; bnt 
we are thoroughly at one with Kappa in 
thinking thai they do it meagrely, un- 
interestingly, and inefficiently. History 

and SOienoe, Ul the wide sense and with 
the wide scope assigned to them in t! 

essays, are the Bubjeots on which a boy's 
attention should he concentrated. The 
author makes no attempt to compile a 
manual of method, and, if we mistake not, 
he disclaims all practical acquaintance 
with teaching ; nevertheless, he makes 
numerous suggestions which, if followed, 
would very greatly enhance the value of 
the work done in our schools ; and he 
shows conclusively, and in eloquent 
passages that have the ring of sincerity 
and enthusiasm, that the scholars' interest 
would be keen in lessons planned and 
given in accordance with his views. He 
does not, moreover, fall into the unwisdom 
— now not infrequent — of advocating that 
education should be all play and no work. 
" A due proportion of drudgery is an 
essential in education " ; without it, the 
disciplinary value of schools is lost. 
During a certain number of hours daily, 
boys should be made to face difficulties 
strenuously, and to master uninviting, 
necessary details and facts ; but " the 
remaining school hours" should be "dis- 
tinctly pleasant to every intelligent and 
well-disposed boy." 

No writer on educational matters does 
well to avoid two subjects much in public 
thought at present — we mean athletics 
and ethics. These are discussed in 
the last two essays, and the treatment 
is eminently sane and right-minded. All 
actual play has Kappa's hearty sympathy. 
But he adds (and all reasonable, healthy 
opinion must be with him, although this 
opinion avails but little at the present 
time) : — 

"It is the inversion of reason, whereby 
games become the main business of life, to 
which all intellectual interests are openly 
subordinated, that I regard as noxious to 
the individual, and perilous to the body 
politic." 

Absorption in athletics becomes almost 
inevitably absorption in " sport," with its 
concomitant — gambling. Kappa adds a 
postscript ' On Bullying ' which may 
make boys and some masters alter their 
thoughts on this subject. There is much 
to interest boys, parents, and school- 
masters in these two concluding chapters ; 
and indeed the whole book is worth read- 
ing. 

The object of much of the discussion in 
speech and writing concerning the infants' 
schools in this country seems to be how 
to adapt the young pupil to the system 
of training that his elders have laid down 
for him, the central fact in the discussion 
being the curriculum, and not the pupil. 
Mr. Gunn has, he tells us, made an attempt 
" to discuss education from the central 
standpoint — the child to be educated." 
Mr. Gunn's method of treatment is cer- 
tainly the more logical ; and it is interest- 
ing to observe that just because it is more 
logical and more true to nature, it is vastly 



more illuminating, and will be found more 
serviceable to teachers, as well ;i- more 

helpful to managers. The infant wh 
requirements are here considered i~ not 
the " average infant, but just the 
ordinary human child from the age at 

which he can with advantage attend an 
infants' school to the age of seven or 
perhaps eight, when he leaves it for the 
boys' school. This young person, essen- 
tially unmoral (not immoral), with little 
or no conscience, under the influence of 
natural instincts, ceaselessly active during 
waking hours, the main requirement of 
whose nature is freedom to grow in all 
ways, needs far more individual attention 
than do his elder brothers and sisters, 
and pines and becomes developed in 
wrong directions if treated as an average 
being. All averages presuppose extremes, 
but in this case the extremes are very 
wide apart, and therefore distant from 
the mean. On this consideration depends 
an important reform advocated by all 
authorities — the diminution in number 
of the infants under the care of one class 
teacher, so that each little pupil can 
receive more of the teacher's attention. 

Mr. Gunn makes much of the educa- 
tional advantage of play — that is, of games 
and occupations that the teacher is clever 
and sympathetic enough to control and 
direct, without any considerable inter- 
ference with children's spontaneity in 
carrying them out. The hardest of 
all things for an infant is to sit still ; 
and herein lies one of the greatest diffi- 
culties of an infant teacher's professional 
work — the children cannot, she must not, 
sit still. The teacher must foster the 
pupil's activity and maintain his interest 
in his occupation without inducing in 
him any overstrain (either conscious or 
unconscious) of his powers or any undue 
fatigue. Information is not mainly, or 
even largely, the function of the infants' 
school ; the really important thing re- 
quired is simply growth — intellectual, 
moral, but mainly physical growth — in 
a healthy, formative, and not too stimu- 
lating environment. 

" The chief difference between the Infant 
School and the Infant Playground ought 
to be that the former has a lower roof than 
the latter ; for the rest, the less division 
between them the better." 

Mr. Gunn summarizes the teachings of 
the " prophets of the infant school " 
from Comenius to Herbart, and points 
out the direct bearing of their philoso- 
phical views upon the everyday routine of 
the ordinary infants' class. The teaching 
of this part of the volume — indeed 
that of the whole work — is of practical 
value ; and we should be glad to believe 
that the paragraphs on ' General Culture 
of the Teacher ' and ' Professional Litera- 
ture and Study ' were thoughtfully read 
by young teachers in all infants' class- 
rooms. 

The advice offered regarding the efficient 
teaching of subjects of instruction when 
at last the time — and this time will be 
quite late in the school life of an infant — 
arrives for subjects to be considered at 
all by the teacher in arranging the daily 



occupations of her pupil-, is jadicioOl and 
valuable. Bat in the organization and 

arrangement of the work of her classes 
the infants' teacher most never lose sight 

of Broebel'fl fundamental law of unity 
in education. Thifl law, as Mr. Gunn 
enunciates it, is of undoubted tenth and 

practical value : — 

" Education by detached subject* is a 
fallacy. Only so far as each part is rela 
to every other part is knowledge really 
effective in developing the individual as a 
whole." 



NEW NOVELS. 



By 



M ias Desmond : an Impression. 
Marie Van Vorst. (Heinemann.) 

Miss Van Vorst has little that is new to 
offer in her story. The hero, a wicked 
young Englishman of the sort familiar to 
the reader of Ouida, loves, and is loved by, 
a young lady from New England, who has 
been brought up after the strictest manner 
of the Puritans, and knows absolutely 
nothing of the world. The pair meet in 
Switzerland, where the Puritan is visiting 
a decidedlv disreputable niece, who is on 
far too friendly terms with the bad young 
man. Hardly has he declared his love for 
the Puritan before he weakly consents to go 
out in a motor-car with the niece. The 
car goes over a precipice, and the niece is 
badly hurt. Thereupon her mother — who 
is another of the discarded flames of the 
hero, and even more disreputable than her 
daughter — appears on the scene, and 
informs him that, inasmuch as he has com- 
promised her daughter by falling over a 
precipice in her company — a proceeding 
which is evidently much more compro- 
mising than any other form of impro- 
priety — he must marry her. This his 
sense of honour, which is preternaturally 
acute, compels him to do. The Puritan 
returns sadly to New England, and culti- 
vates flowers until the niece dies, and the 
bad young man crosses the sea to marry 
her. Neither the plot nor the characters 
are strikingly original. Miss Van Vorst's 
grammar is not immaculate, and the 
French, with which the conversation of 
her worldly women is thickly strewn, is 
calculated to give pain to any patriotic 
French person who may happen to read 
the book. The heroine, however, is clearly 
drawn. 

The Ford. By A. E. J. Legge. (John 

Lane.) 
In execution, if riot perhaps in conception, 
this novel is decidedly above the average. 
Its central theme certainly is one of the 
merest commonplaces of fiction, but the 
side-issues introduced are treated with a 
measure of originality which gives dis- 
tinction to the book as a whole. Nearly 
all the characters attain a respectable 
level and extend over a fairly wide range. 
The grey-haired inheritor of an important 
property, disillusioned, yet not embittered, 
by a previous life of struggling poverty ; 
the self-made man of letters ; the East- 
End missioner with his " half -professional, 
half-angelic smile," and his slangy but 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENvEUM 



43 



devoted curate, strike us as especially 
sympathetic and interesting figures. The 
dialogue is frequently good, and gives 
evidence of thoughtfulness and careful 
workmanship. 

The Bed-Haired Woman : her Autobio- 
graphy. By Louise Kenny. (John 
Murray.) 

Here is a story curiously told rather than 
a really curious story. The author writes 
with self-confidence, and her descriptions 
have some fancy and originality. Occa- 
sionally the construction of a sentence 
is not absolutely sure. She knows how 
to reveal the heart of a man or a 
woman, though she is not always happy 
in action. It is impossible to accept the 
conversation of some children of tender 
years as probable, or even possible, but 
the book has something in it suggestive of 
promise. 

A Vendetta in Vanity Fair. By Esther 
Miller. (Heinemann.) 

Two rivals — fashionable women both — 
are the heroines here. The account of 
their attempts to " best " one another — 
the expression is put into their mouths by 
the author — is lively enough, though 
rather vulgar reading. But " those who 
know " say that it is a vulgar epoch, so one 
is not surprised at lack of refinement in 
novels. 

The Interpreters. By Margaretta Byrde. 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

An impression of it having begun in the 
wrong place strikes the reader of this book. 
The impression does not disappear with 
the unfolding of the tale. It contains a 
good many elements and ideas, spiritual, 
moral, and mental, and a most ethereal 
invalid beloved of all. There are mining 
episodes and disasters (as befits a story 
the scenes of which are laid in Wales), 
not without effects of realism, though 
realism is not always the strong point. 



The Colonel's Dream. By Charles W. 
Chesnutt. (Constable & Co.) 

Regarded merely as a piece of fiction, 
' The Colonel's Dream,' which deals with 
the colour problem in America, has a 
number of defects. The narrative not 
infrequently drags, and the character- 
drawing is sometimes wanting in clear- 
ness. Yet the book, thoughtful, sym- 
pathetic, picturesque, is distinctly worth 
reading. Col. French, having amassed a 
fortune in New York, goes down South to 
his native town, where he makes an earnest 
effort to improve the condition of the 
negro population. He strives to abolish 
the debt laws that rob them of liberty ; 
but the forces of prejudice are too strong 
for him, and he abandons his projects in 
despair. The character of the Colonel, 
benevolent, manly, energetic, is finely 
drawn ; and several of the situations 
have real dramatic power. Though the 
Colonel's projects end in failure, the note 
of the book is not wholly one of despair. 



The Cruise of the Conquistador. By G. 
Sidney Paternoster. (' The Car Illus- 
trated.') 

This story is something like a resurrection 
or a sequel. Its forbear was a sensational 
motoring romance, ' The Motor Pirate.' 
That delectable narrative dealt with the 
adventures of a land pirate in a motor- 
car ; this one unfolds further adventures 
of the same truculent hero in an eighty- 
foot, gold-coated motor-boat, capable of 
something over forty knots an hour at sea. 
It is natural that so absorbing a sport 
as motoring should develope a litera- 
ture of its own, and doubtless the journal 
responsible for this particular example has 
satisfied itself that such productions are 
good for the special trade concerned. The 
motorist is apt to be whole-souled in his 
devotion to his machine ; and gears, igni- 
tion systems, expanding clutches, and the 
like, become for him the most fascinating 
topics of conversation. This story is 
stirring and sensational stuff, well up to 
the level of the exciting magazine serial, 
and full of ingeniously devised contre- 
temps. It is not strong in characteriza- 
tion or literary style ; but it has go and 
vigour. 

A Pretender. By Annie Thomas. (John 
Long.) 

This story contains a specimen of a 
scheming worldling, aged seventeen, born 
and brought up in a country vicarage, 
from which she springs fully equipped to 
meet the exigencies of modern life and 
social adventure. She is, in fact, the true 
adventuress en herbe. She is much too 
replete with physical attraction to bring 
peace of mind in her wake. But the 
reader is not perhaps so convinced of her 
charms or of her snares, or indeed of her 
reality, as the men and women who 
surround her. Still, there is a good deal 
of unpleasant vigour in the author's way 
of presenting her. If this sort of girl is 
going to be the future heroine of many 
novels — and she is not the first of the 
genus we have met — what is to become of 
one's ideal of true girlhood? 



BOOKS FOR STUDENTS. 

Under this heading we include books 
likely to be useful to teachers, and more 
advanced volumes, though some of them 
are obviously "school-books" as well. 

HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY. 

A Text-Book in the History of Education. 
By Paul Monroe, Ph.D. (New York, the 
MacmiUan Company.) — Within the limits of 
some 800 pages this volume is a successful 
attempt to present to intending teachers 
all that is most important in the history of 
education from primitive times onward. We 
have tested in detail specimen periods, 
both ancient and modern, and found the 
treatment just and suggestive. The author 
may be said to have realized his aims, 
which are to furnish an adcqiiate body of 
historical facts, to suggest interpretations 
of the facts, to give a flavour of the original 
sources, to deal with tendencies rather than 
with persons, to show tho connexion between 
educational theory and actual school work. 



and to suggest relations with present 
educational work. Thus the book is admir- 
ably suited in scope and aims to the needs 
of training colleges and established teachers, 
to whom a great service hee been rendered 
by the careful selection of really important 
movements and persons illustrative of those 
movements. We cordially approve of the 
following : — 

" More is to be gained through very definite 
conceptions concerning a comparatively few leaders 
than through a mass of more or less unrelated 
detail concerning great numbers of those who 
from the particular point of view of the text are 
comparatively unimportant. " 

The book is thoroughly practical, being 
divided into well-marked paragraphs and 
sections ; and as it aims at being suggestive 
rather than exhaustive, it should commend 
itself to teachers. 

Greece (from the Coming of the Hellenes 
to a.d. 14). By E. S. Shuckburgh, Litt.D. 
" The Story of the Nations Series." (Fisher 
Unwin.) — This volume is the first of two in 
this series devoted to the history of Greece, 
the second, which is also by Dr. Shuckburgh, 
being intended to carry the " story " down 
to a.d. 1453. The present book, how- 
ever, has a subject with which that of no 
other volume can possibly compare ; and 
for a short account not only of Greek history, 
as we have been accustomed from our 
schooldays to understand the phrase, but 
also of Greek art, letters, antiquities, and 
topography, Dr. Shuckburgh's work is of 
outstanding excellence. The illustrations 
are numerous, and are of the right things. 
The history is unexceptionable, and we may 
note that full use is made of recent disco- 
veries in Crete as to the pre-Mycenaean age, 
and that the final chapter, on the ' Intel- 
lectual Life of Greece,' is written with much 
freshness and taste. The main outlines of 
the familiar story — the Persian invasions, 
Athens in the time of Pericles, the Pelopon- 
nesian War, the Macedonian supremacy — 
are clearly drawn, and considerable detail 
is sketched in as well. The author's learn- 
ing is successfully devoted to enabling the 
reader to obtain a firm grasp of the events 
narrated rather than to perplexing him 
with discussions. 

A History of the Ancient World. By G. S. 
Goodspeed, Ph.D., Professor of Ancient 
History in the University of Chicago. (Con- 
stable & Co.) — No teacher who is really in 
earnest can afford to ignore, or consent to 
forfeit, the personal relationship which 
exists between his pupils and himself : to 
him and to them it lends the one touch of 
nature which makes the whole world of 
learning kin to young intelligence. At the 
same time, the wise teacher will welcome a 
labour-lightening book of this kind, which 
may help him to put his class at once upon 
speaking terms with a great subject, but 
leaves the inspiration and interpretation of 
it to his discretion, and indeed depends 
upon him (as the author remarks) for its 
usefulness. 

The subject is here treated in three broad 
divisions. The first is concerned with the 
Eastern empires, from earliest Babylonia 
and Egypt to Persia : the Becond with the 
Greek empires : the third with the empire 
of Pome, to the coronation of Charlemagne. 
Each division is introduced by a preliminary 
survey, and concluded by a general review, 
witli suggestions for exercises and private 
reading, enlarging into comparative studies 
the topics which nave already been treated 

in the intervening sections, and read about 
or discussed in accordance with detailed 
suggestions given at the end of each. At 
the end of the book is found a carefully 
compiled list of accessible works likely to 



1 1 



T II i: AT II K\ .K u M 



N 1081, Jan. L3, L906 



be useful to 1 1 u >^< ■ who, In rs or 

student-, desire to pursue the subject further. 

The narrative, written quite anpreten 
tiously in concise and comprehensive pars 
graphs, keeps the main points religious, 
political, economic, artistic, intellectual, 
domestic free From confusion, and sue.. 
fully safeguards the continuity of the whole. 
Practical utility isassistedbj numerous ci 
referenoes, by marginal headings in good, 
clear type, and by s full index, which is 
accentuated, in order to keep the pronun- 
ciation of ancient names correct . 

There is an abundant Bupply of maps and 
plans : of the former, some are printed in 
Btrong contrasts of colour (e.g., the centres 
of Mycenasan civilization are indicated in 

red. where the rest of the land is white and 
the .Korean Sea is hlack), which enable the 
eye to form an instantaneous impression of 
tin' areas concerned. Unfortunately, the 
pleasure of looking at the maps is frequently 
marred by inaccurate priirting. The import- 
ance of teaching the eye in history, as well 
as in geography, is further appreciated in 
the seven chronological charts, where similar 
DBS is made of colour, and (we are glad to 
see) parallels of political with literary and 
artistic history are indicated. 

Of illustrations there are a couple of 
dozen, not put in to make the book more 
attractive, but skilfully chosen to represent 
(often by suggestive juxtaposition) that 
which is typical of the various races and 
civilizations, in physiognomy, sculpture, 
architecture, and decoration. By a wise 
arrangement, these illustrations are ex- 
plained in an appendix of their own. 

The author is sincerely to be commended 
for his effort to present, simply and effect- 
ively, the main outlines of ancient history, 
and for his evident desire to assist true 
teaching in its development of individuality. 
We can safely say that his book (in which 
there are just 500 pages) does not, like some 
historical manuals, pretend to ignore the 
magnitude of the subject : rather, by ever 
opening up new avenues of study, he incul- 
cates in teacher and taught the same modesty 
which he undoubtedly feels himself, and 
" succeeds in serving the cause of sound 
historical learning in high schools and 
academies," as he desires to do. 

Etudes Economiques sur V Antiquite. Par 
Paul Guiraud, Professeur a la Faculte des 
Lettres de l'Universite de Paris. (Paris, 
Hachette et Cie.) — The economic aspects — or 
rather should we say? the economic bases — 
of ancient history are not infrequently for- 
gotten or neglected by thinkers and writers 
who assign to each people and period a 
particular scene and part in the drama of 
human life. Yet, as M. Guiraud reminds 
us in a comprehensive and well-written 
introduction, we may generally find in eco- 
nomics the coefficient, if not the primary 
cause, of most great political developments 
in the history of Greece and Rome : thus 
Athens was enterprising in commerce and 
finance as well as responsive to artistic 
influences, and the trade of Rome followed 
closely the flag of imperial conquest and 
administration : — 

"Les GreC8 n'auraient. pas propane dans tout 
l'Orient leur langue et lour culture, rile n'avaient 
pas eu le genie du commerce, et le.s Romans 
n'auraient pas oonqttis le iiiondc s'ils M'avaicnt pas 
tHe aprcs au gain." 1'. 2fi. 

And the decline in each case was equally 
inseparable from economic evolution. 

This interdependence of politics and 
economics is well worked out in six studies 
(all except one reprinted from reviews), 
entitled as follows : ' L'Evolution du Travail 
en Grece,' ' L'Impot sur le Capital a Athenes,' 
' La Population en Grece,' ' L'Tmpot sur le 



Capital -win la Republicans Elomaine, 1 ' Kio- 
to-ire dim Financier Remain,' ' L'lmperial- 
isms Romain.' The personality of labour 

is thus treated according to ( Ireek examples, 

the imperialism of capital according to 

I ;. iman. 
The underlj ing defect of labour in < Ireeoe, 

.is Men m its status under monarchic, 

aristocratic, and democratic administration, 

is held to have been had organization, which 

rendered possible such errors as the social 

confusion between free worker- and slaves : 
" le travail descendant dun degre dans la 
hierarchic sociale chaque fois qu'une ols 
nouvelle montait dim degre dans la 
hierarchic politique." So at the last 
citizenship came to mean little more than 
the privilege of idleness. A similar miscon- 
ception of the problem of capital at Athens ' 
led to the alienation of riches from the needs 
of the State ; and thus it is not incorrect 
to regard the apathy with which Demos- 
thenes reproached his countrymen — their 
unwillingness to serve in person or in purse 
— as resulting largely, even chiefly, from 
economic causes. 

In the case of Rome the taxation of capital 
was occasionally dangerous, but never dis- 
astrous : the tributum ex censu was treated 
throughout as a purely administrative ex- 
pedient, which was rendered less and less 
necessary as conquests multiplied and 
revenues increased, and was abolished 
altogether in 167 B.C., when a reserve fund 
was formed out of the proceeds of ^Emilius 
Paulus's victory over Macedon. 

The sixth chapter, in which the career of 
C. Rabirius Postumus is related, is intended 
to explain by a typical example the influence 
exercised on Mediterranean politics by a 
great financier ; and the way is thus pre- 
pared for an effective study of Roman 
imperialism in its economic aspects. The 
conclusion of the matter is summed up in 
the following sentences : — 

" L' Empire, com me on voit, fut a Rome le fruit 
naturel de 1'imperiaJLisme, de meme epie l'im- 
perialisme fut la consequence de 1'etat eeonomique 
de la societe. Entre tons ces faits il y eut un lien 
tellement etroit, qu'etant donne le point de depart, 
il semble (pie tout le reste devait suivre." — P. 292. 

M. Guiraud has the Frenchman's eye for 
main ideas and also skill of exposition ; and 
in these studies he has certainly treated, 
with a straightforward simplicity as attrac- 
tive as it is scholarly, subjects which are 
sometimes apt to be spoilt by the excessive 
technicality of the mere specialist. 

Le Capitole Romain, Antique et Moderne. 
By E. Rodocanachi. (Paris, Hachette et 
Cie.) — This is a useful book of reference for 
information about the Roman citadel itself, 
its palaces and museums ; it is conveniently 
divided into three sections, dealing severally 
with ancient, mediaeval, and modern times. 
Authorities are liberally supplied in the 
notes, where (as often in French works of 
the kind) the printing of Greek and Latin 
leaves something to be desired. The illus- 
trations are numerous and interesting, but 
for quicker reference there should have been 
a list of them. And what is a restoration of 
the Temple of Jupiter Stator (p. xxxvi) doing 
in this Capitoline galley ? The three appen- 
dixes contain an historical sketch of the 
church of Sta. Maria Aracceli ; the Latin 
oration delivered by Petrarch when he was 
crowned as a poet ; and the pronouncement 
of Pope Benedict XIII. against the " game 
of loto," a form of lottery which on one 
occasion realized as much as half a million 
crowns for Papal charities ! 

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE. 

On the Traversing of Geometrical Figures, 
by J. Cook Wilson (Oxford, Clarendon Press), 
is rather a curious book. We suspect that 



tin- 'i of utility never i to the 

aut hor <it t in- really int< rest ; h ; 

and. indeed, it i- difficult even to imagine 

any practical application of hi- hes. 

But science i- mil ot surprises. These 
seemingly useless investigation! in the 
bypaths of geometry might conceivably 
-t to some observant physicist an 
explanation of certain chemical or el< I ■■! 
phenomena, a clear comprehension ok which 

might eventually lead to important prac- 
tical applications. The general problem 
which the author -et himseii to investigate 
is " to describe or traverse continuously every 

hie- of a given figure without going over 

any line twice, the describing point being 
always kept on a line of the figure till the 
whole has been traversed." In by far the 
greater number of cases this cannot be don.- ■ 
and then the problem i- to traverse once the 
greatest number of lines possible, if we 
take any simple boundary containing the 
points A and B, and draw any line, straight 
or curved, from a to b, every line can be 
traversed in the manner prescribed, pro- 
vided we start from a or b, but not other- 
wise. If we take a boundary containing 
three points, a, b, c, and from a draw lines 
to B and c, every line can be traversed once, 
provided we start from b or c. But if the 
boundary contain four points, a, b, c, d, 
with the lines ab and CD, all the lines cannot 
be traversed as prescribed : one line at least 
will always remain untraversed. This is the 
case also in the particular puzzle wliich 
appears to have given rise to the author's 
investigation. Here the given figure is a 
square with its two diagonals, and on each 
side of the square is described either a 
triangle or a semicircle. The author attacks 
the general problem from three different 
points of view, and arrives at the same 
results from each. The first method is 
" analytical " ; the second " constructive " ; 
and in the third he applies the principle of 
" duality." We have certainly found the 
book interesting, and we recommend it to 
the curious. 

A Course of Practical Mathematics. By 
F. M. Saxelby. (Longmans & Co.) — As its 
title indicates, the object of this work is not 
so much to teach abstract mathematical 
reasoning as to show how to apply the 
principles and formulae already known to 
the practical problems which face the engi- 
neer, the land surveyor, &c. But the author 
has not by any means neglected theory, and 
in this lie has done wisely. Even from the 
narrowest utilitarian standpoint, theory 
should, as far as possible, go hand in hand 
with measurement and verification. With 
reference to the analytical methods of diffe- 
rentiation in particular, the author says, and 
says truly, that 

"it too often happens that a student who W'gins 
with these acquires merely a fatal facility in 
differentiation, regarding it asa mechanical juggling 
with symbols, hut having no conception n its 
relation to experience." 

The course is somewhat extensive, beginning 
w -ith logarithms and trigonometry, and end- 
ing with some differential equations of applied 
physics. Mathematical tables to four figures 
are added at the end. We are rather sur- 
prised to find that though in these the sines, 
cosines, &c, of angles are given, the loga- 
rithms of the sines, cosines, fee., are not 
supplied. It is true that, since the logarithms 
of the so-called " natural numbers " are also 
given, the logarithms of the sines. Are., are 
not absolutely indispensable, but they con- 
siderably abbreviate the calculator's labour 
iii the solution of triangles. 

Tables and Constants to Four Figures. By 
William Hall. (Cambridge, University 
Press.) — Very little can be said of these 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENJEUM 



45 



tables, except that they are clearly printed 
and only occupy sixty pages, preceded by 
nine pages of notes and explanations. They 
include a Traverse Table, Logarithms, Anti- 
logarithms, Log. Sines, &c, Log. Haversines, 
Star's Refraction, and some others. In the 
compilation of these tables the author has 
evidently taken great care to ensure 
accuracy. 

Outlines of Physiological Chemistry. By 
S. P. Beebe, Ph.D., and B. H. Buxton, 
M.D. (New York, the Macmillan Company.) 
— This little book is an attempt to deal 
directly with questions bearing on the theo- 
retical side of physiological chemistry, with- 
out entering into details as to laboratory 
work. The authors, the Physiological Che- 
mist to the Huntington Fund for Cancer 
Research and the Professor of Experimental 
Pathology at the Cornell Medical College, 
confine themselves to animal physiology. 
Some knowledge of inorganic chemistry is 
assumed, and for the book to be of any 
educational use some knowledge of organic 
chemistry must be possessed. We do not 
think that the work is likely to be of use 
to any large number of students, although 
to seme it may be suggestive. In some 
parts too much is taken for granted and it 
is too sketchy. The nomenclature does not 
always commend itself, especially for use on 
this side of the Atlantic ; thus basic sub- 
stances are spelt without the final e, as amin, 
amid, &c. ; and although we are told 
" alcohols are always designated by the 
suffix ol,'" yet the word glycerin is used 
throughout. Some inexact and misleading 
expressions occur ; thus we are told (p. 21) 
that, in determining the phosphorus con- 
tents of a substance, " the phosphorus is 
oxidised to phosphoric acid and precipitated 
as insoluble magnesium phosphate and the 
amount of P calculated. In the words of 
the chemist, it is estimated as PoO.,." On 
p. 47 we learn that the carbohydrates " are 
normal chains of C atoms containing H and O 
in the proportion of water " ; this is hardly 
a sufficient definition, On p. 76 an incorrect 
formula is supplied for stannous chloride, 
leading to a wrong and very misleading 
equation. H B O (p. 168) is not a good 
symbol for oxyhemoglobin. The chapter 
on the proteids is one of the best. In the 
last chapter, on disease and immunity, we 
have a sketch of Ehrlich's theory of the 
action of antitoxins, and here the authors 
truly remark : " Ehrlich has been obliged 
so to extend and complicate his theory to 
meet all the requirements, that it is becom- 
ing doubtful if it will stand the strain much 
longer." The index is much too scant. 
On p. 35 occurs a somewhat quaint expres- 
sion : — 

" These [hydrocarbons] likewise form long series 
of oxidation and substitution products, but the 
compounds formed are of little interest to physio- 
logical chemists, who do not deal in gases and 
miners] oils. " 

Elements of Quantitative Analysis. By 
G. H. Bailey. (Macmillan.) — In practical 
chemistry nothing is so essential as accuracy, 
and this can only be secured by adopting 
correct methods at the beginning of work in 
the science. Those students who follow the 
course arranged in the manual under review 
cannot fail to lay a good foundation for 
future analytical work, and we unreservedly 
pronounce this the best book that we have 
seen on the subject. 

The learner is not here supplied with 
tables of diroctions to be followed in various 
operations, and left to ascertain for himself 
the reasons for the procedure adopted : on 
the other hand, the most complete explana- 
tion is afforded of every process, from filtra- 
tion to the analysis of soaps. The book is 



bound to become a favourite with those 
engaged in practical chemistry. 



PUBLICATIONS FOR SCHOOLS. 

ENGLISH AND IKISH. 

Lingua Materna. By Richard Wilson. 
(Arnold.)— We have found this an excellent 
book on the teaching of English in schools, 
whether primary or secondary. The author, 
who is full of good suggestions as to class- 
room methods in grammar, composition, and 
literature, rightly claims that the scientific 
study of the mother tongue affords a mental 
stimulus of a sound and strengthening 
character, and is a subject admirably 
adapted to the training of the individual 
in citizenship. He is also right in laying 
great stress on right methods in the pre- 
liminary preparation of the child mind to 
appreciate true literature. " This work," 
he says, " requires teachers of the highest 
quality and attainments, as it is usually 
much more difficult in the primary school 
than in others ; and such posts ought to 
be coveted by the profession, as well as 
well paid both in money and in honour." 
We commend the book to the teaching pro- 
fession, and hope that the day of the special- 
ist English teacher may soon come. May 
he be a man after the heart of Mr. Wilson ! 

The Heroes of Asgard, edited by M. R. 
Earle, Macaulay 's Essay on Clive, edited 
by H. M. Buller, and Macaulay's Essay on 
Addison, edited by R. F. Winch, form part 
of the " English Literature for Secondary 
Schools " series, published by Messrs. Mac- 
millan. ' The Heroes of Asgard ' is a collec- 
tion of tales from Scandinavian mytho- 
logy, and should prove fascinating reading 
for those for whom it is intended. The 
introduction contains a really excellent and 
attractive exposition of the Northern myths, 
and there are illustrations, two of which 
set out the Norse idea of the universe — 
Yggdrasil the World-Ash, Asgard, Midgard, 
and Utgard. The notes are not too numer- 
ous, and there is a glossary of Old Norse 
proper names. — Macaulay's essay on Clive 
is furnished with an introduction of some 
length, designed to put the student on his 
guard against Macaulay's more than occa- 
sional bias. Notes, too, are more of a 
necessity in this case, and they are suffi- 
ciently full, without being overburdened 
with information. — The essay on Addison 
has a very brief, though adequate intro- 
duction, and the notes are generally satis- 
factory, though we would point out that the 
note on ' The Vicar of Wakefield ' (p. 59, 
1. 17) occurs twice over, and Troy (p. 32, 
1. 24), if it requires a note at all, demands 
something more than " an ancient town of 
Phrygia, on the coast of Asia Minor." 
Each volume contains a glossary of " Harder 
Words," questions, subjects for essays, and 
a list of books to aid further study. 

We are very glad to see in Messrs. Blackie's 
" English School Texts," edited by Dr. 
W. H. D. Rouse, Trips to Wonderland : from 
Lucian, which means ' The True History.' 
' Icaromenippus,' and 'The Cock' in the 
animated rendering of Hickes (1634). We 
expect the best results from this cheap little 
series, if boys will only take to it as they 
should. 

We have received two further specimens 

of the same series, The Taking of 
the Galleon and The Retreat of Sir John 
Moore. The former is an extract from 
'Anson's Voyage round the World,' dear 
to boys of a couple of generations ago : the 
latter from the more recently published 



memoirs of Robert Blakeney. Both are of 
absorbing interest, and both will demonstrate 
to the youthful mind that truth can on 
occasions be at least as exciting as fiction. 
Each volume is furnished with a short 
but adequate introduction, and the absence 
of notes will probably lead to a more careful 
and enjoyable study of the narratives. 
The little books are attractive in appear- 
ance, and form a welcome addition to this 
excellent series. 

We have received Book IV. of Macmillan' s 
New Globe Readers. It contains a taste of 
Norse mythology, and extracts from Frois- 
sart, Cervantes, Blackmore, and Tennyson, 
to say nothing of Kingsley, Longfellow, 
Christina Rossetti, Jules Verne, Ballantyne, 
and many others, each selection being pre- 
faced, generally, by a very brief notice of 
its author or origin. A fair proportion of 
the pieces included are suitable for recitation, 
and in addition to these extracts, the aim 
of which is presumably the encouragement 
of a taste for literature, there are others 
designed to instruct — notably a description 
of the dragon-fly, and a short but extremely 
interesting account of " submarines." The 
harder'words are explained at the end, in a 
vocabulary which is in the main satisfactory, 
though, assuming that " empire " is a 
" harder word," we should have thought 
it scarcely simplified by the explanation 
" rule, dominion." The notes are suffi- 
ciently elementary and unobtrusive, and 
the illustrations are adequate. Altogether 
the Reader should serve its purpose admir- 
ably. 

A First Irish Grammar, The Grammar 
of Spoken Irish, Aids to the Pronunciation 
of Irish, Modern Geography, and the Irish 
History Reader, are productions of the 
Christian Brothers, published by Messrs. 
Gill & Son, of Dublin. They may be taken 
as fresh evidence of the vitality of the Irish 
renascence, and, naturally enough, they 
make Ireland and the Catholic religion the 
centres of all things. Considered from this 
standpoint, they are temperately written. 

FRENCH. 

French by the Direct Method. By T. 
Cartwright. (T. C. & E. C. Jack.)— We 
have before us the third part of this excellent 
adaptation of the well-known German work 
of Rossmann and Schmidt, whose chief aim 
is to give in the minimum of time a practical 
knowledge of the language, by insisting on 
the main principles, and relegating irregu- 
larities and grammatical subtleties to a later 
period. In the part before us the exercises 
are specially designed to illustrate the uses 
of the past participle, the subjunctive, and 
the infinitive. The fact that 1 50, 000 copies 
of the original work have been sold in Ger- 
many, where it has been selected by the 
Board of Education, speaks for itself. The 
first two parts have been adopted in so 
many of our higher schools that their suc- 
cessor is sure of a good trial. 

The Reader, by H. Vivier, which is pub- 
lished as a companion to the series, supplies 
in easy French the outlines of the history, 
literature, and geography of France, to- 
gether with a few interesting chapters 
portraying modern life in that country. 

Les Carartcrcs ; ou, LeS Mteurs </<' ce 
Steele. (Macmillan.) — The unique work of 
La Bruvere is so well known to students of 
French literature of the seventeenth century 

that this selection, edited by M . Eugene 

I'ellissier. and forming the first volume of 

" Biepmann's Classical French Texts," should 
be cordially received both by teachers and 
taught. Le1 us quote the --pinion of M. 



in 



Til E AT J I EN T;r M 



N 1081, Jan. 13. 1!""; 



\ ail< r\ Radol <»n tins 1 1 tun' in author's 
u . .ik : — 

"Voulas-voua fain un Lnventaire dea riohesaea 
de notre langue, en TOules-voua oonnattre toua lea 
toon, toua lea mouvementa, toutea Lee figures, 
tmu . pas ii"i- .mi' de 

reoourir & cent volumes; liaez, reuse* La Bruyere." 
It is not merely on aocount of the unrivalled 
literary talent of tin- great writer that we 

urlrnnii' the present adaptation of liis classic; 

for the minuteness of detail w itli which he, as 

a true artist, portrayed the men and women 
of liis hl'i'. and the very satire which roused 
BO much hostility among liis contemporaries, 

make bis work exceptionally attractive. 

The present edition is supplied with 
useful notes, and appendixes contain- 
ing excellent material for translation into 
idiomatic French. 

Jean Sbogar. By Charles Nodier, edited 
by D. L. Savory. — Histoire d'un Homme du 
Peuple. By Erckmann-Chatrian, edited by 
R. E. A. Chessex. (Oxford, Clarendon 
Press.) — These books are favourable speci- 
mens of the " Oxford Modern Frencli Series," 
edited by M. Leon Delbos, whose ' General 
Preface ' is a sound exposition of sensible 
views. The annotation is brief, but satis- 
factory ; and we are pleased to see, at the 
end of each volume, a ' Bibliography ' of the 
writings of the authors chosen. In the 
hands of a capable teacher this series ought 
to do very well. 

Exercices de Grammaire Francaise. By 
J. G. Anderson. (Methuen.) — The compiler 
of these exercises is so well known both 
as a successful teacher and as an exacting 
examiner that his publication awakens 
more than ordinary interest. Mr. Anderson, 
even in an examination paper on Frencli 
grammar, must be original, and the same cha- 
racteristic pervades the book imder review. 
In conjunction with a good grammar the 
little volume will be of great service to most 
classes in schools, as the exercises pass by 
easy gradations from simple accidence to 
the difficulties of syntax and punctuation. 
We think that the inclusion of translation 
from English into French would have been 
an improvement, and would have led to a 
more general adoption of the book. 

Ma Premiere Visite a Paris : being an 
Illustrated French Beading-Book for Begin- 
ners. Par A. E. C. (Oxford, Clarendon 
Press.) — As a chronicle of a child's impres- 
sions of Paris, expressed in thoroughly 
modern French, this book is well enough 
calculated to serve its purpose, though 
scarcely, we think, for literal " beginners," 
who, in spite of the copious vocabularies 
supplied, will sometimes find the language 
rather beyond their powers of translation. 
The excellence of the type deserves special 
praise. 

GERMAN. 

A Practical German Grammar, Beader, 
and Writer : Part I. Elementary, by Louis 
Lubovius (Blackwood & Sons), aims at 
supplying the beginner with all the material 
necessary for acquiring a sound working 
knowledge of the spoken and written idiom ; 
and the method employed for this end seems 
to us on the whole distinctly judicious. We 
have now indifferently reformed the purely 
grammatical system formerly current in our 
schools, but whether we should reform it 
altogether, as certain partisans of the new 
movement uphold, is still open to doubt. 
Mr. Lubovius, at any rate, has not found the 
two systems wholly incompatible, and the 
present handbook is really a compromise 
between them. Of its two distinctive 
features — that " German is as much as 
possible taught through German," and that 
' only the normal and most necessary 



grammatical form- are dealt with system- 
atically"- most people nowadays will 
thoroughly approve. The simplification of 
the grammar has been well done, and the 
whole volume i- evidently the work of one 

who has had much practical experience m 
teaching. 

.1 Grammar of tin German Language, 

designed for a Thorough ami Practical Study 
of tin Language a.s spoken and written Today. 
By George (). Curme. (New York, the 

.Macmillan Company.) — The student of a 

foreign language) even though be may be 

well advanced, will often find that in tin- 
matter of grammar a treatise written in his 
own tongue is more convenient and helpful 
than any other. So far as German is con- 
cerned, however, we have hitherto not been 
too well provided for in this country. There 
are, no doubt, three or four good German 
grammars by English or American authors ; 
but they are all to a certain extent ele- 
mentary, or at least restricted, in character, 
and in the absence of a really comprehensive 
book on the subject the student or teacher 
has had to apply to some such work as that 
of Blatz. The present volume thus supplies 
a real want, and supplies it very adequately, 
for Mr. Curme has spared no pains in the 
execution of a most laborious task. He has 
not contented himself with merely presenting 
in English form the standard views of 
German scholars and grammarians, but has 
also treated his subject to some extent from 
an independent standpoint, for even in 
grammar it is possible to be original now 
and then. As the title indicates, the scope 
of the book is confined to the New High 
German period, the historical side of German 
grammar being only incidentally dealt with, 
but within these limits the treatment is very 
full. The great mass of material necessary 
for the compilation of such a work has 
been well arranged, and illustrative quota- 
tions are lavishly provided. The latter are 
chosen from an exceptionally wide range 
of modern authors, and illustrate the col- 
loquial usages, as distinguished from the 
" correct " language of the classical litera- 
ture, far more thoroughly than any other 
English work with which we are acquainted. 
This is an excellent feature, especially in 
these days, when literature affects the lan- 
guage of common life so largely. Altogether 
the book is one of real merit, and a copious 
index completes its value as a work of 
reference. 

The Essentials of German Grammar, by 
Alvan Emile Duerr (Ginn & Co.), is by no 
means the worst attempt we have seen to 
provide in a moderate compass all the gram- 
mar necessary for pupils in secondary schools. 
The omissions have been made with discre- 
tion, though personally we think they 
might have been even larger. However, 
on that point, as Mr. Duerr says, no two 
opinions are alike, and of course every 
teacher has it in his power to amplify or 
curtail according to his own judgment. 
Certainly the little book is intelligently 
arranged, and will give any scholar who 
works through it conscientiously as much 
grammatical knowledge as he is likely to 
need. It seems, we may add, better 
adapted for school use than for private study. 

LATIN. 
Arnold's Latin Texts : Vergil, Selections 
from the Georgics, edited by J. C. Stobart ; 
Vergil, Select Eclogues, edited by the same ; 
Caesar in Britain, edited by J. F. Dobson ; 
Cicero, Pro Archia, edited by Margaret 
Brock. — This series (of which the general 
editor, Mr. A. E. Bernays, is a competent 
scholar) supplies short texts for lower forms, 
sufficient to provide one term's work. Each 



Text has a vocabulary. We should much 
pn :■ uid, to 

notes and no vocabulary, for we think b 

should use then- dictionaries ua early as 

Eible, and thus unconsciously gain □ 
nowledge of word and idiom than n every- 
thing were ready for their hand. Looking out 
"res" for instance, they may see that it 

means more things than the little ' Vocabu- 
lary ' to the ' Pro Archia ' indicate*. Apart 
from the featun oentioned, the little 

books seem likely to \n dly popular, 

as they are very cheap. The mtroducti 
are brief and to the point, though occasion- 
ally they might have been couched in 
simpler Ian: Vergil admittedly imi- 

tates Theocritus." For small boys the 
adverb is needless. To talk of " the purpurei 
panni" in the ' Georgie- is to suppose a 
knowledge of the ' Ars Poetica ' which isJ 
absurd. Miss Brock also uses rather ela- 
borate phrases at times. Perhaps the 
average boy is cleverer than he used to be, 
and will appreciate adult phraseology ; but 
a considerable experience of school-books 
leads us rather to believe that young scholars 
fresh from fine degrees have no great experi- 
ence in teaching lower forms, and conse- 
quently do not realize that the small boy's 
knowledge of English is very different from 
that of the undergraduate. 

MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE. 

Arithmetic for Schools and Colleges. By 
J. Alison and J. B. Clark. (Edinburgh, 
Oliver & Boyd.) — Notwithstanding the large 
number of books on this subject that have 
recently appeared, the compilers of the 
volume under review are to be congratu- 
lated on having made a valuable addition 
to the list. The theory of arithmetic has 
here received far more attention than is 
usually given to it, a fact which will render 
the book most serviceable for students who 
have the teaching profession in view. 
Following the modern trend of mathe- 
matical thought, the authors have not 
hesitated to introduce algebraical symbols 
where the employment of these conduces 
to simplicity of explanation. By an 
early application of logarithms — for ex- 
ample, to solutions of problems on com- 
pound interest — the student learns to avoid 
much loss both of time and of temper. 
j With special pleasure we note the excellence 
of the chapters which consider the com- 
mercial applications of arithmetic, for on 
every page they reveal the work of an expert 
in the subjects dealt with. Foreign money 
and exchanges are explained with a thorough- 
ness and clearness not to be found in any 
similar work, while the mensuration given 
is sufficient for all practical purposes. A 
collection of miscellaneous examples of 
increasing difficulty forms a suitable ending 
to a most useful book, rendered all the 
more acceptable by its systematic arrange- 
ment and the employment of various kinds 
of type. 

A New Trigonometry for Beginners. By 
R. F. D'Arcy. (Methuen.) — In compiling 
this little book for the use of those pupils 
who possess only a rudimentary know- 
ledge of geometry, the author has had in 
view the requirements of candidates for the 
Cambridge Previous. For such as attack the 
subject for no other purpose than passing 
so easy an examination the book may provide 
the means of attaining the end desired. We 
cannot, however, commend it to those who 
intend to take up trigonometry with the 
intention of mastering the subject, the author 
having omitted many points which are 
essential in laying a good foundation for 
subsequent work ; we refer to the circular 
measure of angles, the thorough explanation 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



47 



of logarithms and their use, and the complete 
investigation of solutions of triangles. The 
only other point that calls for comment 
is the want of clearness in the letters and 
figures in many of the diagrams, which are 
in some cases irritatingly small and indis- 
tinct. 

Elementary Chemistry : Progressive Lessons 
in Experiment and Theory. Part I. By 
F. R. L. Wilson and G. W. Hedley. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) — We can congratulate the 
boys at Charterhouse and at Cheltenham 
College on having as science masters the 
authors of this laboratory book. The aim 
of the authors has been the cultivation in 
the minds of the boys of a scientific habit, 
through the medium of chemistry, rather 
than the mere acquisition of the facts of 
the science. Greater elasticity in the sylla- 
buses of most examining bodies has rendered 
it possible to strive seriously after the 
achievement of this aim. The requirements 
include the careful performance of experi- 
ments, the correct observation of results, 
means of inducing thought about the work 
and its results, and opportunity for applying 
original thought to the solution of problems. 
The plan of this book seems eminently suited 
to help cowards these ends, and we under- 
stand it has been tested and found successful 
at the public schools mentioned. Only one 
small objection, and that really a commenda- 
tion in disguise, might be made, and that is as 
to the title of the book : it does not contain 
any chemistry. Probably Parts II. and III. 
will. This part deals with some elementary 
mensuration and physics, an acquaintance 
with which is necessary for a proper study 
of chemistry. We find clear instructions as 
to experiments on the measurement of 
length, area, and volume, such familiar 
objects as a halfpenny and a penny being 
introduced ; on the construction of simple 
apparatus, with simple glass working ; on 
simple effects of heat, and on thermometers ; 
on the chemical balance ; on the measure- 
ment of density ; on solutions ; on crystal- 
lization ; on some properties of air and 
liquids ; and on the identification of sub- 
stances by their physical properties. 

The boy who does with care even a frac- 
tion of the experiments here set forth, and 
works the problems set, will be well fitted 
to go on with the study of science, whether 
of chemistry or physics, and will be in a 
better position to deal with everyday pheno- 
mena in an intelligent manner. Science 
masters in general will find this introduction 
to practical science teaching very helpful, 
and we look forward with interest to the 
publication of Parts II. and III. 

GEOGRAPHY AND MAPS. 

An Introduction to Practical Geography. 
By A. T. Simmons and H. Richardson. 
(Macmillan.) — Every teacher of geography 
will admit that the usual answer given by 
a boy, when asked why he does not take 
kindly to this subject, is that it is so uninter- 
esting. Is not this a sufficient condemna- 
tion of the crude methods employed in 
teaching it ? The authors of the work 
before us have clearly demonstrated that, 
with a well-regulated practical course, a 
large store of geographical knowledge may 
be imparted in a manner most interesting 
to boys. Particularly useful will be found 
the numerous data and meteorological 
statistics given for advanced scholars, 
while the sections dealing with the physics 
and chemistry of geography will be welcome. 
We commend this excellent book to the 
attention of school authorities, but fear that 
the amount of time demanded by so much 
practical work will be an obstacle to its 
general adoption. 



The World and its People. Geography 
Readers. 2 vols. (Nelson & Sons.) — Those 
who are familiar with standard geographical 
works will have little difficulty in identify- 
ing the different quarries in which the un- 
named authors of the present series of readers 
have mined very freely, though with a vary- 
ing degree of success. Here and there the 
lack of any real geographical training 
comes out clearly. Thus we read that 
in the temperate lands there is only one 
harvest a year, and that as a remote con- 
sequence of this the inhabitants " unite into 
clans, tribes, and states," a grotesque mis- 
application of the methods of anthropo- 
geography which might well bring that 
young and struggling subject into disre- 
pute with teachers. Nor would any trained 
geographer have written that " the Barren 
Lands in the north of North America pro- 
duce nothing but lichens and mosses, while 
the corresponding parts of South America 
contain great grassy plains, and some of the 
densest tropical forests in the world." Those 
parts of the books, however, which needed 
merely the putting of accessible information 
into a fresh form are well done, and the 
coloured illustrations are in many cases very 
pretty. 

Our Island's Story. By C. F. Hayward. 
(T. C. & E. C. Jack.)— No efforts have been 
spared to render this little volume a favour- 
ite with young pupils, the leading incidents 
in our annals being described in the simplest 
of language, and special attention being paid 
to cause and effect. 

Excellent illustrations are supplied to 
assist in gaining clear ideas of the more 
important persons and events ; the only 
objection we raise is that the rich colouring 
of some of the plates may give a very false 
impression of the conditions of life in the 
early periods of our history. Apart from 
this the book is attractive, being printed in 
clear type on good paper. 

Philips' Comparative Series of Large 
School Maps: British Isles (Scale 1 : 750,000); 
Asia (Scale 1 : 6,000,000) ; South America 
(Scale 1 : 6,000,000) ; World (Scale at 
Equator 1 : 21,000,000).— These maps have 
a superficial resemblance to one of the best 
series of German wall-maps, but a closer 
examination shows that in construction 
and in the selection of data they are not 
copied from this source, but are indepen- 
dent works, though no doubt inspired by 
it. The resemblance is mainly in the 
use of an analogous scheme and tone of 
colour. The deep and shallow seas are 
dark and light blue respectively ; the low- 
lands, under 600 feet, are green ; the high- 
lands, over 3,000 feet, are dark brown ; and 
intermediate lands are two shades of brown. 
The employment of green and brown for 
different elevations, though now common, 
is open to some objections. The abrupt 
transition from green to brown is apt to 
raise very curious notions in children's 
minds. Much better effects are undoubtedly 
obtained by using a gamut from a white or 
light yellow to a dark brown, such as that 
which was formerly used on German wall- 
maps. Accepting the colour-scheme, we 
consider that a distinction should have been 
made between land under and over 6,000 
feet. Then the great areas of Tibet and 
Bolivia, and the line of the loftiest ranges, 
would stand out more clearly. It is 
true, by the use of hill - shading, which 
is very properly adopted in addition to 
colours between contour lines, this is almost 
neutralized in the case of mountain chains, 
but not in the case of the vast plateaus. 
The choice of features to be emphasized and 
of names to bo inserted is on the whole good. 
Too much is made of the higher ground 



between the Ganges and Indus basins ; too 
little of some of the heights in England 
which are just over 600 feet, the colouring 
of which would have made the features of 
the country more evident. 

Among the good points of the series are 
the small-scale politically coloured maps, 
quite sufficient for ordinary school purposes ; 
the sections across the continents or coun- 
tries ; and the small inset of England and 
Wales on the same scale as the large map, 
where that area does not otherwise appear 
on the map. 

The world sheet deserves special mention, 
and on the whole is the best wall-map of 
the world we know. The oval map on 
Mollweide's projection occupies the greater 
part of the sheet ; the Old and New World 
hemispheres are shown on Lambert's pro- 
jection ; the British and United States 
territories on a Mercator map ; and north 
and south polar maps, on rather a small 
scale, are in the upper corners. If the 
hemispheres had been coloured to show 
vegetation as well as ocean currents, it 
would have added to the value of the map. 

In some other minor points the series 
might be amended. The projection used 
should be stated on other than the world 
maps, and each map should be dated. 
Taken altogether, this is the best and 
most reasonably priced series of maps 
issued in this country ; and their cost 
might be considerably reduced, without 
lessening their usefulness, if the publishers 
would issue them unvarnished, but mounted 
and dissected so as to fold into six or nine, 
as is done in the case of most German wall- 
maps. 

The Historical and Modern Atlas of the 
British Empire, by C. Grant Robertson and 
J. G. Bartholomew (Methuen & Co.), will be 
of great value to those concerned with tliL 
study of the history of the Empire. The 
maps appear, upon the whole, admirably 
adapted for their purpose ; and, in combining 
information as to physical features and pro- 
ducts with political boundaries, the authors 
are doubtless on the right track. Such work 
exposes itself, of course, to criticism of de- 
tails. The rough-and-ready methods of the 
map-maker lend themselves with difficulty 
to the confusion resulting from the existence 
of rival claims to the same territories. No 
attempt is here made to mark such rival 
claims, and the result is often very unsatis- 
factory : e.g., in the map of British North 
America in 1841 the boundary between the 
British possessions and the Lhiited States is 
calmly placed as it was settled five years 
later, in 1846. The map does not even mark 
the significant name " Oregon "; and New 
Caledonia exhibits definite boundaries, 
though at the time it was only the resort of 
the fur traders, and cannot be claimed as a 
British colony till the foundation of British 
Columbia at a later date. We think it mis- 
leading, considering the vague knowledgo of 
the time and the claims of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, to draw a distinct line of 
boundary between the Hudson's Bay Terri- 
tory and the North-West Territory. On the 
map it appears as if the Red River Settle- 
ment (which, by the way, is not marked) 
belonged to the North-West Territory, as 
opposed to Rupert's Land or the Hudson's 
Bay Territory ; but in fact the grant to 
Selkirk was, of course, from the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and his interests were bought 
back by them in 1834. The maps of British 
North America in 1791 and 1841 convey a 
very false idea of what really happened. 
The student would infer a great western 
development, which did not really take 
place. The dates 1791 and 1841 are significant 
on account of the Constitutional Act. which 



L8 



'I'll E A Til EN .KIWI 



N W81, Jan. i:{, 1906 



founded the two ( 'nimdns, and of the 
subsequent union: hut they have little 
geographical significance. It would have 
been better to give a map of Canada under 
the Quebec Act, to compare with ite boun- 
daries under the 1783 settlement. Again, 
the value of the map of the North American 
colonies, 1756-63, is seriously diminished by 
the absence of any suggestion of rival claims. 
It is surely wrong to place the date 1628 by 
North Carolina ; it is true that there was an 
abortive grant of that date, but North 
Carolina, a-s a British colony, belongs to the 
grant of 1083 to Ashlev and his associates. 
The maps of India in 1707, 1765, 18.05, and 
1858 are especially useful, as illustrating the 
political history ; and, in spite of small 
omissions and mistakes, the atlas thoroughly 
deserves a wide popularity. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

In reviewing last week Mr. Winston 
Churchill's life of his father we mentioned 
the composition of "the Fourth Party," 
and stated that the account given was based 
upon the articles by Mr. Harold Gorst in 
The Nineteenth Century. This gentleman 
now publishes through Messrs. Smith & 
Elder a volume entitled The Fourth Party. 
He points out that " the original material 
on which this more comprehensive account of 
the Fourth Party has been founded was 
contributed to The Nineteenth Century 
Review in the form of articles." Mr. Gorst, 
as we have already said on two occasions, 
makes his father's " Party " consist of " the 
four belligerent Tories " who, according to 
him, formed " a definite political compact." 
In another passage he alludes to them as 
fcsing " inspired by a definite policy." This 
view we have contradicted, and continue to 
oppose, in the interests of historical veracity, 
and we do not find it necessary to go beyond 
the pages of Mr. Harold Gorst himself to 
prove our case. Even when he is writing 
of 1880, the one session in which Mr. Balfour 
acted with the three members, among 
whom for five years he sat, Mr Gorst quotes 
with approval Mr. Lucy's happy phrase 
describing Mr. Balfour as " the odd man of 
the Fourth Party." Mr. Gorst rightly says 
that the present Conservative leader " always 
thought it impolitic to give any handle to 
the supposition that the Conservative party 
was a house divided against itself," a " con- 
viction " which had a " dampening effect." 
The others " were perfectly well aware of 
his views on the subject of the Fourth Party." 
His attitude " was certainly not " that " gene- 
rally adopted by the famous group below 
the gangway." It was in the session of 
1880 that Mr. Balfour, if ever, can be said 
to have belonged to Lord Randolph's 
party, yet it is of that very session that 
Mr. Gorst writes : " Mr. Balfour had not 
yet fully imbibed the democratic principles 
which were to be " their " guiding star." 
Mr. Gorst reaches his ninth chapter before 
he admits " the first quarrel." Yet even 
this began in 1880, " at the close of the 
session." Immediately after Christmas 
" the quarrel developed into a serious one 
— . . there were no more dinners, or minia- 
ture Cabinet councils." When, later, Lord 
Randolph reconstituted his little combina- 
tion, Mr. Balfour cannot be said to have 
acted with him. The quarrel had concerned 
at one time Ireland, at another democracy. 
When closure became the leading Parlia- 
mentary subject, Mr. Gorst states that " the 
Fourth Party attacked " the Tory leaders. 
" Three of its members— the fourth disagreed 
— drew up a comprehensive indictment. . . . 
Mr. Balfour, the member of the Fourth 



Party who had disagreed with the policy 
adopted by his colleagues," fought them 
publicly. "They were also not altogether 
unanimous on the subject of Sir s. worth- 
cote's personal merits. ... with .Mr. Balfour 
a different motive was in operation." Yet 
"the four colleagues— or at least three of 
them — continued to act together with un- 
abated vigour." In the session of L883 " it 
neither suited Mr. Balfour, nor could he 
have been expected, to act with Lord Ran- 
dolph and the Fourth Party in the new 
circumstances that had arisen .... .Mr. Bal- 
four gradually dissociated himself from his 
colleagues," and sometimes "opposed them 
actively." In the session of 1884 Mr. Gorst 
names " the Fourth Partv — now consisting 
of Lord R. Churchill, Sir H. Wolff," and the 
author's father ; nevertheless Mr. Balfour 
" continued to sit " between or among them. 
In the great struggle called " the final 
victory " over the official ring " Mr. Balfour 
canvassed actively in the interests of the 
official candidate " against Lord Randolph, 
who beat him. Thus the Fourth Party 
"achieved final victory in their struggle 
with the Conservative leaders for influence 
and power," and " gained the objects for 
which it had fought." We prove our case 
from the mouth of Mr. Gorst himself. 

Messrs. Methtjex & Co. publish an 
excellent Port Arthur volume under the 
title The Great Siege, by Mr. B. W. Norre- 
gaard. It is a pity, indeed, that so good a 
book comes late among the volumes upon 
the subject, and follows, after a long gap, 
the almost simultaneous publication of three 
works dealing with the same topics which 
we reviewed at length. Almost the only 
point upon which we are disposed to question 
the conclusions to which our author has come 
concerns the Japanese cavalry : he has that 
low opinion of them which was universal 
before the war, but does not attempt to 
meet the arguments which have been based 
by other writers upon their success against 
both Russian regular cavalry and Cossacks. 

Mb. Goldwin Smith publishes through 
Messrs. T. C. & E. C. Jack Irish History 
and the Irish Question, in regard to which 
little fault can be found with his " attempt 
to trace the general course of the history," 
until, indeed, we come to 1885. Gladstone's 
action is made to appear more sudden than 
it was by the words " turned round and 
coalesced with Parnell." It is not possible 
to treat 1885 and 1886 historically without 
an explanation of the Randolph Churchill 
and the Carnarvon episodes, to which we 
alluded in our review of Mr. Churchill's 
volumes. While, however, Mr. Goldwin 
Smith writes rather as a Unionist politician 
than as an historian at this one point, he 
will be thought by Unionists to travel 
dangerously far in the Home Rule direction 
in his last pages. He suggests, by way of 
" devolution " and " local self-government," 
that the Irish members should " sit annually 
at Dublin," and seems to share Lord Dun- 
raven's view. 

The Tennysonian will be eager to read 
once more In Memoriam, "annotated by 
the author," which appears beautifully 
printed in the familiar green covers (Mac- 
millan). It is true that a good deal of the 
right meaning of the poem has by now 
penetrated even the brainpan of stubborn 
commentators, but it is well to have 
assurance made doubly sure by the poet's 
own testimony, carefully presented by Lord 
Tennyson, and to have allusions which no 
one could settle fixed once for all. Some 
of the matter printed here has appeared in 
the ' Memoir,' or in sources less accessible ; 
in other points, especially the classical 
references, explanations have already been 



Overdone. But here, at any rate, at the end 
of the right text is gathered, without fuss or 
verbosity, the essential commentary. It 
opens with views of the poem by (Madstone, 
Henry Bidgwick, and Westcott, and includes 
some interesting testimony concerning 
; Tennyson's views of religion. We do not 
. by the by, the remark he made to Mr. 
Knowles, recorded, we think, in Tfie Nine- 
teenth Century (January, 1803), that " In 
Memoriam ' is more hopeful than I am." 
This, of course, may have been true of his 
mood of the moment, though not of his 
belief as a whole. 

To pass to details, the " stepping-stones " 
of i. refer to Goethe. The " plane of molten 
glass " in xv. is a calm sea. The " forgotten 
fields " of xli. still remain obscure, though 
the late Sir Richard Jebb is quoted as 
giving an explanation which is, we may add, 
shared by Prof. A. C. Bradley. Lxiv. — on 
the man " Who breaks his birth's invidious 
bar " — was written, we learn, when Tenny- 
son was walking up and down the Strand 
and Fleet Street ; while the beauties of 
lxxxvi. were those of Barmouth. Prof. 
George Darwin bears tribute to the accuracy 
of the expression " The stillness of the 
central sea " in exxiii. A few references 
are given to earlier poets, but this kind of 
note could have been largely increased. 
Thus we can hardly dissociate 

Let darkness keep her raven gloss 

from Milton's 

Smoothing the raven down 
Of darkness till it sniil'd (' t'onius.' 251). 

But Tennyson's well-known sensitiveness on 
the subject of such correspondences may 
well have reduced the record of them here, 
and he was certainly right in complaining 
that such parallelisms were overdone. 
After all, " appropriate things are meant to 
be appropriated," and it could not be said 
of our great stylist, as it was of an un- 
fortunate minor poet, that he touched 
nothing which he did not deform. 

Mr. Stttro's translation of Maeterlinck's 
essays The Treasure of the Humble has been 
reprinted by Mr. Arthur L. Humphreys in 
the " Belles-Lettres " section of " The Royal 
Library," which means, to put it briefly, 
that we have an exquisite book in a form 
worthy of its contents. All book-lovers 
must rejoice in the care and taste that go 
to the making of " The Royal Library," 
which is beautiful, yet in no way pre- 
tentious. On Mr. Sutro's version we wrote 
at length in 1897, when it first appeared. 
It is sufficient to say here that we regarded 
the book as " in some respects one of the 
most important, as it is certainly the most 
purely beautiful," of Maeterlinck's works. 
We hope it will fall into many hands in 
this delightful form. Not the least of the 
merits of " The Royal Library " is that it 
is light in hand. We sometimes doubt if 
the ordinary large editions de luxe, in spite 
of their advantages, can ever be read with 
comfort, unless one has a " literary 
machine " instead of a hand to hold them, 
and that is a luxury beyond most of us. 

The anthology of The Hundred Best Latin 
Poems {Lyrical), selected by Mr. J/W.Mackail 
(Glasgow, Gowans & Gray ; London, Brim- 
ley Johnson), should be a delight to every 
cultivated man. It costs only sixpence in 
paper, and it might be used with great 
advantage in the higher forms of schools, 
as it includes poems like the ' Pervigilium 
Veneris,' which are unknown, we dare say, 
to many classical masters. Mr. Mackail has 
a rare gift of taste, and prints, besides much 
of Horace and Catullus, a piece each from 
Claudian, Pentadius, Petronius, Prudentius, 
and Statius, while there are five selections 
each from Seneca and Boethius. 






N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHEXJEl'M 



49 



We are pleased to see a new edition of 
Hugh Miller's My Schools and Schoolmasters 
(Edinburgh, G. A. Morton), a story of the 
fifties, which will well bear re-reading, being 
full of interesting characteristics of Scottish 
life and manners, told in straightforward, 
racy fashion. The introduction suffieiently 
indicates Miller's merits and defects. He has 
passed away as an influence, but this record 
of his life will always, we think, retain a 
delectable freshness. 

We have received The Schoolmasters 
Yearbook and Directory for 1906 (Sonnen- 
schein). This is the fourth annual issue of a 
useful educational guide. ' The Directory of 
Schoolmasters ' and ' List of Secondary 
Schools,' are full, and generally accurate in 
detail ; they fail, however, to include some 
important private schools and their masters, 
e.g., Mr. A. H. Evans's at Horris Hill, New- 
bury. We are pleased with the ' Biblio- 
graphy of Educational Books,' which shows 
judgment. The review of the year is again 
ably done, and the book keeps up the record 
of the increasing number of educational 
associations. 

Mr. John Long has added to his capital 
" Library of Modern Classics " Tom Brown's 
Schooldays and A Tale of Two Cities. The 
illustrations and introduction to the former 
are good ; but we find nothing about the 
date of Dickens's story or its sources, and 
the pictures here have a hazy effect which 
is not pleasing. 

The January number of The Dublin Review, 
under Mr. Wilfrid Ward's editorship, reaches 
a high level of interest, and should be wel- 
come to all cultivated people. Dr. Gasquet 
writes on his experiences in America ; Mrs. 
Meynell has a poem. ' Manning and Glad- 
stone ' is an interesting article on a new life of 
the former now in the press. There is a long 
article on 'St. Thomas Aquinas and Medie- 
val Thought.' Prof. J. S. Phillimore writes 
on ' The Greek Anthology ' in a fantastic 
style which spoils his scholarship. 

We have on our table The Origin of Wor- 
ship, by Rafael Karsten (Wasa, F. W. 
Unggren), — Should Clergymen Criticise the 
Bible ? by the Bishop of Ossory and others 
(Nisbet), — The Russo-Turkish War, 1877, by 
Major F. Maurice (Sonnenschein), — Bio- 
graphic Clinics, Vol. III., by G. M. Gould 
(Rebman), — Life and Letters of John Colling- 
wood Bruce, by Sir G. Bruce (Blackwood), — 
On Centenarians, by T. E. Young (C. & E. 
Layton), —Trial of the City of Glasgow Bank 
Directors, edited by W. Wallace (Sweet & 
Maxwell), — The Passing of the Precentor, by 
D. Fraser (Bagster), — A Practical Guide to 
the Death Duties and Death Duty Accounts, 
by C. Beatty (Effingham Wilson), — Hints on 
Building a Church, by H. P. Maskell 
('Church Bells' Office), — British Imperialism, 
by Baron F. von Oppenheimer, translated 
by D. Hayman (Owen), — The Teaching of 
Modern Languages, by C. Brereton (Blackie), 
— Fragments Relating to Barton-on-H umber, 
by T. Tombleson (Barton-on-Humber, Ball), 
— Via Crucis, by W. Hall (Routledge), — A 
Harvest of Idleness, by Agnes R. Howell 
(Norwich, Goose), — Stvdies in Browning, by 
Susan Cunnineton (Sonnenschein), — Poems 
of Love, by G. K. A. Bell (Routledge),— 
Love's Metamorphosis, by T. Folliott (Fifield), 
— The Three Resurrections and the Triumph 
of Maeve, by Eva Gore-Booth (Longmans), 
The Faithless Favourite, by E. Sauter (St. 
Louis, At the Sign of the Leech), — Leaves of 
Holly, by F. Gurney (Elkin Mathews), — 
Midsummer Eve, by G. Bottom ley (Harting, 
Petersfield, Guthrie),— The Well of the Saints, 
by J. M. Synge (Bullen), — To Modern 
Maidens, by a Modern Matron (Simpkin & 
Marshall), — Rob Lindsay and his School, by 



One of his Old Pupils (Bagster), — A Sicilian 
Marriage, by D. Sladen (White), — and 
Abrege du Journal du Marquis de Dangeau, 
edited by E. Pilastre (Paris, Firmin-Didot). 



Vol 



III., 

A. Lane, 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 
ENGLISH. 

Theology. 
Baptist Handbook, 1906, 2 6 net. 
Bible (H. W.), Tides of Thought. 4 

Carmichael (F. V. ), Sermons on Different Subjects, 2 ti net. 
Congregational Year-Book, 1906, 2 
Pastor's Diary and Clerical Record, 1906, 2 ti net. 
Peabody (F. G.), Jesus Christ and the Christian Character, 

6 8 net. 
Stapleton (Mrs. B.). A History of the Post-Reformation 
Catholic Missions in Oxfordshire, 10/6 net. 
La it: 
Alford (C. J.), Mining Law of the British Empire, 8 ti net. 
Briggs (W.), The Law of International Copyright, Id 
(Joddard (Mgr.), Manual of Ecclesiastical Law and Prac- 
tice. 1 net. 

Fine Art and Archirolngy. 
Ishain (S.), The History of American Painting, 21 net. 
Stephens (H. H.), Black-Board and Free-Ann Drawing, 
4 (i net. 

Poetry and the Drama. 
Beglev (Rev. Y\\), Bacon's Nova Resuscitatio, 

5/ net. 
Burns (R.), Selected Poems, Introduction by 

1 (i net. 
Debenham (M. H.), Dialogues, Duologues, and Monologues, 

1 6 
Fitch (Clyde), The Girl with the Green Eyes, :i net. 
Madonna of the Poets, gathered by A. Bartle. 2 (i net. 
Piatt (I. H.), Bacon Cryptograms in Shakespeare, and other 

Studies, .V net. 
St. John (C), Henry Irving, 1/net. 

Music. 
Bison's Music Dictionary, by L C. Bison. 
Hathawav (J. \V. G.), How Sweet the Moonlight sleeps upon 

this Bank ! 1/ 
Tarnowski (Count S.), Chopin as revealed by Extracts from 
his Diary, 2 6 net. 

Bibliography. 
Franklin (Benjamin), List of Papers in the Library of 
Congress. 

Philosophy. 
Hbffding (H). The Problems of Philosophy, translated by 
G. M. Fisher, 4 (i net. 

Political Economy. 
Balfour (A. J.), Fiscal Reform, 2/6 net. 
Hare (H. K.). Tariff without Tears. 1 net. 
History and Biography. 
Archer (F. B.), The Gambia Colony and Protectorate, in net. 
Ardill (J. R.), Forgotten Facts of 'Irish History. 2 ti net. 
Briscoe (J. P.). Bypaths of Nottinghamshire History. :i ti net. 
Chronicles of London, edited by C. L Kingsfdrd, 10 B net. 
Churchill (W. S.), Lord Randolph Churchill, 2 vols., 88/ net 
Franklin (15.), Writings, collected by A. EL Smyth, Vols. I. 

and II., each 12 (i net. 
Gorst (H K.), The Fourth Party. 7/8 net. 
How;ird-Flaiiders(\V.), King, Parliament. ami Army. 7 ti net. 
MacMichael (J. H), Hie Story of Charing Cross and its 

Immediate Neighbourhood, 7'ti net. 
Norregaard (B. \\\), The (ireat Siege, Investment, and Fall 

Of Port Arthur. 10/6 net. 
Smith (Goldwin), Irish History and the Irish Question, 

6/ net. 
Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. New Series, 
Vol. XIX. 

Geography and Travel. 

Colquhoun (A. R.), The Africander Land, 16' net. 

Geographical Journal, Vol. XXVI., 15/ 

Havell (K. R.). Renares. the Sacred City, 12 ti net. 

Lippincott's Pronouncing (Jazetteer, edited by A. and L. 
Heilprin, 42 net. 

Sports and Pastimes. 

Crowther (S.)and Ruhl (A.), Rowing and Track Athletics, 
- net. 

Philology. 

Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius, by R. Kill's, s; ti 

Krckniann-Cha trinn (}■'..), Histoire dun Homme du People 
editeil by R. K. A. Chessex. :i 

Grandgent (C. H.I. An Outline of the Phonology and Mor- 
phology of Old Provencal, (>/ net. 

Ma dan (A. ('.). Senga Handbook, 2/6 net. 

McLaren (J.\ A Oram mar of the Kaffir Language, .". 

Nodier (('.). Jean Sbogar, edited by D. L Savory, 2/ 

Pratt (A.) and Ere (A.), A Modern English Crammar, 
:i (i net. 

Smith (A. ID. A First V ear's French Book on the Oral 
Method. 1 ti 

Tibullus, edited by J. IV PosOJeeB, 1/B 
Science. 

Boole (M. V..). Logic taught by Love, 8/8 net.. 

Clerke(A. M.), Modern Cosmogonies, '. ti net. 

Dixon (W. K.). A Manual of Pharmacology, l.'.'net. 

Geological Survey of India, Records of. Vol. XXXII. 

Part iv., ir. 

Buggard fW. R»), A Handbook of Climatic Treatment, 

including Balneology, 12 ti net. 
Jordan (I). S. ). A Cuido to the Studv of Fishes, 2 vols., 

60 neb 
Kellogg (V. I.. I American bi u e c t u , 21 net. 
Loekwood'a Builder's, Architect's, Contractor's, and 

Engineer's Price-Book for L9D8, edited by F. T. W, 

.Miller. I 
MacCofl tilt. Symbolic Lngfc and its Applications, 4 (i net. 

Pinpoint (A. B . >. The Blemanta of Geometry in Theory and 

Practice, 2 ' 
Recetrl Advances in Physiology and Bio-Chemistry, edited 

b| L. Hill, 1- net. 
Schoneld (A. T-), The Management of a Nerve Patient. 
'•/ neU 



J ii ten He Books. 
Adams (H. C), Tales of the Civil Wars, 2 
Archibald (G. H.). Bible Lessons for Little Beginners, 

Second Vear, 2 (i 
Harvey (T. F:.). Poor Raoul. anil other Fables. 1 ti net. 
Nursery Rhyme Plays. 2 net. 

General Literature. 
Campaign Guide, IVhk;. 5 net. 
Cleeve(L). Soul Twilight. 6/ 
Cross (Victoria), Six Women, (i 
Dawson fF. W.). The Scar, ti 
Dickens (C), A Tale of Two Cities. 2 net. 
Fox (A. W.), The Rating of Land Values, 3 8 net. 
Hughes (T.l. Tom Brown's Schooldays, 2 net. 
Huneker(.L), Visionaries, 6 

Leahy (A. HA Hemic Romances of Ireland, Vol. II.. :'. net. 
Little Book of Graces, 2 6 net. 
Macmillan's New Globe Readers, Book III.. 1 2 
Maeterlinck (Mi, The Treasure of the Humble, ti net. 
Myrick (II.), Cache la Poudre. 7 ti 

Scott (Sir W.), Ivanhoe. edited bv Fanny Johnson. 1 ti 
Sergeant (A.), The Choice of Emelia, 6 
Summer Nosegay (A), by a North-Country Rambler. :5 ti 
Sylva (Carmen). Suffering's Journey on the Earth, translated 

by M. A. Nash. 3 i; net. 
limine (G), A Lost Cause, 1 
Willing's Press Guide, 1986, 1 
Wittigschlager (\V.\ Minna. Wife of the Young Rabbi, 6/ 

FOR EKi N. 

Fine Art ami Arc/urology. 
Bouchot (H.). Les Primitifs Francais. 4fr. 
Naue(A. W.), Beiti-ig zurpraehistorischenTenninologie. 5m. 
Rosenthal (L), Gericault, 3fr. 50. 

Drama. 

Truffier ( J. ), Athenes et la Comedie F'raneaise. 2fr. 

History and Biography. 
Boschot (A.), La Jeunesse dun Romantique : Hector 

Berlioz, 1809-81, 4fr. 
(ioutel(K. H. de), Memoires du General Marquis Alphonse 

iniautpoul, 17SV)-1S6.">. 7fr. 50. 
Moustafa Kamel Pacha. Egyptaens et Anglais. :ifr. 59. 
Nachotl (<).), Ceschiehte v. Japan: Vol. I. Book I. Die 

I'rzeit. 9m. 
Pastor (L.), Ceschichte tier Papste seit tlem Ausgang des 

Mittelalters : Vol. IV. Part I. Leo X.. 8m. 
T;inzer(A.), Die Geschichte der Juden in Tirol u. Vorarl- 

berg. Parts I. ami II., 17m. 
Thirion (H.), Matlame tie Prie, 16S4S-1727. 7fr. 50. 

Foljc-lore. 
Jubainville (H. d'Arbois de). Les Druides et le- Dienx 

Celtiques a Forme d'Aniinaux, 4fr. 
Sports, 
Allemagne (II. R. d'), Les Cartes a jouer du Quatorzicme an 

Vingtieme Steele, 2 vols., GOfr. 

General Literature. 
Doumer (P.), Livre tie mes Fils, Sfr. 
Jaloux (F..), Le Jeune Hounne an Masque. :>fr. 50. 
Paris-Hachette. 1906, Sfr. 75. 
Rosny (J. HA Sous le F'ardeau. 3fr. 58. 
Salomon (M.). L'Esprft tin Temps, :ifr. 50. 
Tinseau(L. de), Les Ktourderies de la Chanoines.se, Sfr. 50. 

*»* All books received at the ofice up to Wednesday morning 
trill be included in this List unless previously noted. 



THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION . 

The general meeting of the Classical 
Association of England and Wales was 
held on the oth and 6th inst. at King's 
College, London, under the presidencv of 
Dr. S. H. Butcher. The Chairman "first 
offered a graceful tribute to the memory of 
Sir Richard Jebb, who had allowed himself 
to be nominated for the office of President. 
He reminded his hearers that all of them 
were in some sense Jebb's disciples, and 
owed him a priceless debt of gratitude for 
opening up new regions of Greek literature, 
and enlarging their conception of what 
classical learning could become. He doubted 
if any textual critic had ever combined such 
brilliancy and such divining skill with so 
large and sane and sympathetic a judgment ; 
and in the field of beautiful composition he 
ventured to believe Jebb was without a 
rival. Ho was in the best sense an anima 
naturaliter (iraca. The Association also 
deeply regretted the loss of another of its 
Vice-Presidents. Dr. D. B. Monro. 

The Report of the Council showed a steady 
increase in membership, and among other 
matters expressed cordial thanks to Dr. .1. V. 
Postgato. who retires from his arduous duties 
as one of the hon. secretaries, after two \ 
of devoted service. The committee ap- 
pointed to consider the introduction of a 
uniform pronuneiat ion of Latin was not in 
a position to report. 

After the election of Lord Cur/on as I 'resi- 
dent for the ensuing year, of Vice-Presidents, 



50 



fHE ATHENAEUM 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



six members of Council, and other officers, 
it was agreed on the proposal of Dr. Postgate 
to alter the name of the Association to " The 
Classical Association," by the omission of 
the words " of England and Wales." Prof. 
Conway then proposed that the Council 
should be empowered to present a memorial 
to the Secretary of War representing that 
the present examinations of candidates for 
the military colleges are of an injurious 
character, and virtually exclude from a 
military career all boys on the classical 
sides of public schools. It was thought by 
some that the War Office should be asked 
without ambiguity to restore Latin as an 
obligatory subject; but Prof. Conway's 
motion was finally adopted. 

In his paper on ' The Religion of Prehistoric 
Greece,' illustrated by lantern-slides, Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth expressed the view that, as 
the result of recent research, writers will 
in future be more cautious in talking about 
Oriental and Asiatic influences. Excava- 
tions at Cnossus had produced phenomena 
in comparison with which anything Phoe- 
nician yet discovered was modern. 

At Friday evening's conversazione Prof. 
Clifford Allbutt entered a strong plea for 
the speaking of Latin in the class-room, 
urging that our possession of a foreign 
language which we can speak, and in which 
therefore we think, is very different from 
that of another language which appears 
to us only in the simulacrum of a book. 
By the act of speaking, a language becomes 
built into and integrated with the fabric 
of a part of the brain, and Latin is a tongue 
which can, by speaking, be built intimately 
into the very nature of the pupil. 

At Saturday's meeting the committee 
nominated to consider by what methods 
those employed in classical teaching could 
be kept in touch with recent discovery and 
investigation recommended the publication 
every autumn of a report on the progress 
of classical studies in the various branches 
of literary history, comparative philology, 
archaeology, &c. This was adopted, as was 
also a more elaborate document from the 
committee which had considered the spelling 
and printing of Latin texts for school and 
college use._* The main recommendations 
were : — 

" That in texts of Latin authors intended for 
the use of beginners the quantity of long vowels 
be marked except in syllables where they would 
be also 'long by position.' 

" That v and u be continued in use to distinguish 
the two sounds of Latin u in books intended only 
for beginners, but that,/ be discontinued altogether. 

"That it is desirable that a hand list of the 
words in which the natural length of a vowel in a 
syllable where it would be ' long by position ' is 
definitely established should be prepared and 
issued by the Association for the use of teachers." 

Beyond this, a small pamphlet will be 
issued containing a statement of the present 
principles governing Latin orthography, the 
spelling recommended for adoption in school 
texts being that of the epoch of Quintilian, 
or the earliest attested spelling of subsequent 
times. Detailed recommendations were also 
given in certain cases of variation occurring 
in a large number of words. 

Perhaps the most important business 
before the meeting was the report of the 
committee appointed to consider in what 
respects the present school curriculum in 
Latin and Greek can be lightened and the 
means of instruction improved. Their 
interim report, which was debated for over 
two Hours, is a careful document based on 
the cpllection of much information. In 
dealing with boys' schools it proceeds : — 

" It seems that, in view of the legitimate claims 
of other subjects, the amount of time devoted to 
the study of classics on the classical side of boys' 



public schools is as great as can reasonably be 
expected : bul the Committee is of opinion thai 
time and effort might be saved and better results 

obtained by certain changes in the method of 
teaohing < Ireek. 

'• The system of classical teaching in most schools 

seems to he directed towards the ultimate pro- 
duction of a certain number of finished scholars 
both in Latin and in Greek, educated for the most 
part on what maybe called linguistic lines, <'.*., 
with special attention to grammar and composition. 
But while it is right that elementary Latin should 
be studied partly (though not exclusively) as a 
linguistic discipline, the Committee thinks that it 
is unnecessary and undesirable in the ease of the 
average boy to apply precisely this method of 
teaching to Greek also. 

" The education in Greek of the average boy, 
with whom in this report we are mainly concerned, 
should, in the opinion of the Committee, be directed 
to the reading and appreciation of Greek authors, 
together with such study of grammar and simple 
exercises in writing (ireek as may be desirable as 
a means to this end. For the training of such 
boys in the principles of language and the acqui- 
sition of the linguistic sense, it is generally admitted 
that Latin is the proper vehicle. And if this kind 
of training has been thorough, it should be possible 
for boys when they begin Greek to apply the 
linguistic experience acquired through their train- 
ing in Latin to the study of Greek, and to pass at 
an early stage to the reading of Greek literature." 

The main contention of the Committee, 
as presented by Prof. Sonnenschein, was 
that Greek composition in the proper sense 
was not an end of school study for the 
average boy in the lower and middle forms. 
Two resolutions were submitted : — 

" Resolution I. That in the lower and middle 
forms of boys' jjublie schools, whereas Latin should 
be taught with a view to the correct writing of the 
language as well as to the intelligent reading of 
Latin authors, Greek should be taught only with a 
view to the intelligent reading of Greek authors. 

" Resolution II. That the Association petition 
the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge to take 
into consideration the abolition of the separate 
Greek grammar paper at Responsions and the 
Previous Examination respectively, and the sub- 
stitution for it of an easy paper in unprepared 
translation." 

Of these the former, altered by the omis- 
sion of the clause referring to Latin, was 
carried with two dissentients, the latter 
with one. 



THE ASSISTANT MASTERS IN 
SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

Members of this incorporated Associa- 
tion from all parts of England and Wales 
met on Friday last week in St. Paul's School, 
Hammersmith, under the presidency of the 
Chairman of the year, Mr. C. H. Greene 
(Berkhamsted). 

The retiring treasurer, Mr. Paterson 
(Mercers'), in presenting his report referred 
to the healthy state of the finances shown 
by the balance-sheet. 

Mr. Coxhead (Liverpool), the outgoing 
Chairman, reviewed the work of the past 
year, regretting that success had not attended 
their efforts to secure the federation of the 
various bodies interested in secondary edu- 
cation. This failure was due to a lack of 
professional spirit, arising from indefinite- 
ness of aim, overlapping, isolation, and pre- 
judice ; this was particularly injurious at 
the present time, when the Government was 
entering more largely into the sphere of 
secondary education, and united effort was 
demanded by the true interests of the pro- 
fession. The sinking of prejudices, the raising 
of the standard of attainments, the spread 
of educational ideas and methods, would be 
best secured by concerted action of the 
different bodies, and their own Association 
would not relax its efforts in this direction. 

A strong appeal was made to the men 



teaching in our great public schools. W T as 
it from prejudice that they stood aloof from 
this Association, which was doing such useful 
work ? In the present year every effort 
would be made to secure the membership of 
these masters, whose responsibility was pro- 
portional to their power of doing good 
work. The Board of Education was cen- 
sured for its attitude in regard both to the 
Teachers' Register and to the question of 
appeal. 

The case of dismissal at Warwick School 
was next introduced by Mr. Somerville 
(Eton), who pointed out the injustice of 
the principle involved. An animated dis- 
cussion followed the speech of Mr. Riches, 
bursar of the school, who attempted to 
defend and justify the action of the head 
master, Mr. Keeling. It was unanimously 
resolved, 

" That this meeting strongly protests against the 
indefensible and unjust conduct of the governing 
body of Warwick School in refusing to give Mr. 
Richardson the opportunity of being heard in his 
own defence, and emphatically condemns the prin- 
ciple that a master should be dismissed for not 
introducing pupils to the school." 

Mr. Pruen (Cheltenham), in proposing 
that the attention of the new Government 
should be called to the serious condition of 
the Register of Teachers, declared that the 
Register was at present virtually a dead 
letter ; while Mr. Heath (Birmingham), in 
seconding, denounced the Board of Education 
as guilty of a breach of faith with the pro- 
fession in inducing teachers to pay fees for 
registration, and then refusing all recogni- 
tion of the Register in schemes of schools, 
&c. The motion was unanimously carried. 

Mr. Page (Charterhouse) next moved 

"That this meeting welcomes the proposal for a 
Federal Council of Secondary Teachers, as likely 
to promote the co-operation of all associations of 
secondary teachers in advancing the general in- 
terests of education." 

Having urged the importance of secondary 
education, and shown how our national 
greatness is dependent on it, he declared that 
joint action was essential to remedy " the 
delightful confusion of admired disorder " 
existing in our public schools. He enu- 
merated as the outside forces affecting 
education, the wishes of parents, the medical 
men, the psychologists, the theorists in 
education, the specialists in the various 
subjects, the different governing authorities, 
the War Office, and lastly outside examina- 
tions. While assistant masters were ex- 
pected to give their attention to all these, 
they themselves, though doing nine-tenths 
of the work in our schools, had no voice in 
the affairs of their profession. They must 
hammer away at the Board of Education, 
whose treatment of the important deputa- 
tion of head and assistant masters was 
described as the minimum of personal 
courtesy in conjunction with the maximum 
of official insolence. The motion, seconded 
by Mr. Montgomery, was adopted nem. con. 

The meeting then adopted a resolution, 
proposed by Mr. Somerville and seconded 
by Mr. Thompson (Plymouth), welcoming 
the proposal to establish a joint examination 
to qualify for matriculation in the uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge, and 
hoping that the standard of such an exam- 
ination would be higher than that of Respon- 
sions and the Previous Examination. 

At the afternoon meeting a large concourse 
of assistant masters and others interested in 
teaching assembled to hear Lord Roberts 
explain his scheme for strengthening our 
national defences by the introduction of 
rifle-shooting and military drill into the 
curricula of our schools. The veteran field- 
marshal affirmed that we ought always to 
be ready to put in the field an army of 



X°4081, Jax. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



51 



; 500,000 men, and to effect this the youths of 
our schools should not only be taught to 
shoot, but also urged to regard this as a 
patriotic duty. The great drawback to 
efficient training was the length of time 
required for it, and the consequent 
interference with a business career, if this 
training was taken after schooldays were 
over. This objection might be to a great 
extent overcome by taking instruction 
in rifle-shooting and military drill whilst 
still in statu pupillari. The thorough train- 
ing in these subjects would tend to develope 
the character of the boy, even though he 
might never need to bear arms in the defence 
of his country. Having given an outline 
of what was being done in this direction 
at our large public schools, and having 
shown that great progress was being made 
in the various cadet corps, Lord Roberts 
reminded the assistant masters of their 
duty to the country'; it was to instil 
patriotism, to inculcate a lofty idea of 
self-sacrifice, and the conviction that skill 
in the use of the rifle was a duty 
to the empire. He was sure that the 
boys would prove, morally, mentally, and 
physically, better men. He assured his 
audience that the only means of avoiding a 
lengthy period of training or conscription 
was to adopt the course he recommended. 
He was convinced from experience that 
much of the time now devoted to classics 
might with greater advantage be given to 
such subjects as history, geography, and 
science. Support should be given by the 
War Office and the Treasury ; sanction 
should be granted to the formation of corps 
of not fewer than twenty members ; a rifle 
or carbine should be issued free for every 
fifteen boys, with free ammunition under 
conditions ; and all corps should be under 
responsible officers. 

Canon Lyttelton did not wish to criticize 
or traverse the statements of Lord Roberts, 
but admitted that on certain points raised 
he was not in full agreement with him. He 
suggested that the most practical method 
of dealing with the subject would be to 
make rifle-shooting compulsory for a certain 
block of boys or section of the school, so 
that every pupil would have to pass through 
it. He would recommend another course 
at a later period of the school career to 
strengthen the earlier work. The announce- 
ment by the head master of Eton that the 
boys of that noted school were to begin 
rifle-shooting in a few months elicited much 
applause. Further support to the proposal 
was given by Major Hoare (Haileybury), 
Mr. Kinman (Hertford), and Major Somer- 
ville (Eton). 

Lord Roberts, in reply to a hearty expres- 
sion of thanks, hoped that the movement 
would result in the supply of a larger 
number of officers from the Universities. 



EDUCATIONAL NOTES. 

A correspondence has been started in 
The Times by some doctors who wrote con- 
cerning the hours of sleep allotted to school- 
boys. It seems as if the present race were 
less hardy than its predecessors. But 
perhaps the real point is that boys do not 
get the sleep they are supposed to have 
because the older among them sit up to 
strange hours. This was certainly done in 
public schools in the writer's day, and the 
investigating Committee of the Head Masters' 
Conference may be reminded that the modern 
system does not encourage supervision by a 
dormitory master. 

It is now generally recognized that educa- 
tion is forced on youngsters who are not fit 



for it. The boy who takes too many' sub- 
jects too early is passed in the race by the 
other who was taught things later and more 
gradually. It seems clear from ample in- 
vestigation that the boys who began Greek, 
say, at six years of age, are at sixteen no 
better off than the boys who began it at 
twelve or thirteen. 

We are sorry to notice that the Head 
Masters' Conference either did not under- 
stand or did not appreciate the important 
memorandum recommending a joint exami- 
nation, to be held at schools qualifying for 
matriculation at Oxford or Cambridge. We 
hope that this scheme will have the fullest 
consideration, for here, as elsewhere, co-ordi- 
nation tends to simplify matters, while a 
reasonable check on premature specializa- 
tion will be afforded. 

The public schools which award scholar- 
ships to young boys would do well not to con- 
fine themselves to a knowledge of classics, or 
■whatever the special subject may be. The 
examination in other subjects should not be 
a farce, as it often is. We understand that 
in some of our great schools combined classics 
and mathematics can secure a scholarship. 
This arrangement ought to be widely adopted 
by examiners for scholarships of all kinds, 
for early confinement to one special line is 
a great menace to the chance of a liberal 
education which every boy of ability ought 
to look forward to. 

We are glad to see that the Association 
of Assistant Mistresses in Public Secondary 
Schools, which meets to-day, is asking for 
an extension of registration which will 
include a large number of teachers engaged 
in kindergarten and other forms of element- 
ary teaching. Other resolutions concern 
freedom of movement for duly qualified 
teachers from one class of school to another ; 
the requirement of a year's " recognized " 
training as well as a year's " recognized " 
satisfactory teaching experience for both 
grades of the Register ; and the presence 
of a due proportion of registered teachers 
in secondary schools before such schools are 
recognized as eligible for Government grants. 
It is not easy, without going into technical 
details, to exhibit striking features from the 
thick Blue - book of ' Statistics of Public 
Education in England and Wales, 1903-4-5.' 
The strength of the female side in education 
is shown, however, by the fact that it 
represents 21,848 recognized pupil-teachers 
in public elementary schools, as against 
4,468 males. The statistics of " schools of 
art " give 230 schools in 1903-4, which is 
one less than the figures of 1902-3, but the 
number of students is higher — 52,634 to 
49,121. The number of technical institu- 
tions receiving grants in 1903-4 was only 19. 
In ' Special Optional Courses ' new ideas 
are visible in the headings ' Rural Subjects,' 
' Domestic Science and Household Manage- 
ment (for Women),' and ' Advanced Instruc- 
tion in some Recognized Subject of Handi- 
craft.' The numbers here are very small, 
as might be expected, but a useful beginning 
has been made. 

The ' General Table of Ordinary Public 
Elementary Schools ' gives the following j 
figures : Council schools, 6,145, accommo- 
dating 3,172,622 children; and Voluntary! 
schools, 14,082, accommodating 3,688,859. 
These' figures do not deal with higher ele- 
mentary schools, schools for defective 
children, and " Certified Efficient " schools. 

The most striking feature of the report | 
for the year 1905 by Dr. Struthers on 
' Secondary Education (Scotland) ' is the ■' 
failure of the scheme for Commercial 
Certificates. It is suggested that the co- 
operation of merchants should be sought 
in settling the curriculum and " extending 
some sort off practical encouragement to 



boys to equip themselves properly before- 
theyX enter an office." The Edinburgh and 
Leith Chambers of Commerce have begun 
to form a committee for this purpose. The 
" Higher Grade Schools " established by 
the Code of 1899 have risen from 31 in 1900' 
to 131 in 1905, but co-ordination of autho- 
rities is needed, since they are, it appears, 
entering into unnecessary competition with 
good secondary schools. The teaching of 
English was strongly urged by Sir Henry 
Craik, and appears to be advancing slowly* 
We learn that 

"a large percentage of the Honours candidates 
who wrote on Montrose confused him with Claver- 
house. Similarly William the Lion was dis- 
cussed on the supposition that he was William the 
Conqueror, while one candidate — an Edinburgh 
candidate, too — went sn far as to ascribe to Jeanie 
Deans the exploit of Jenny Geddes." 

The " Religious Question in Schools " is 
too complicated to be dealt with briefly. 
We may, however, direct attention to an 
article on that subject in the current 
Hibbert Journal, and to a memorandum 
recently issued by the Rationalist Press 
Association, which states that religion 
would be best taught by parents, or r 
where parents are incompetent, by the 
churches to which they belong. This is a 
sensible, but perhaps an ideal counsel. 
But it is certain that the " Conscience 
Clause " is unfair as marking out children 
for possible ridicule or unpleasant notice. 
The memorandum mentions that " lessons 
on the duties of citizenship and humanity " 
are moral in effect, and " are already 
employed in some 3,000 public elementary 
schools, including no less than 1,270 schools 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire alone." 

Can essential virtues be separated now 
from Christianity, or inculcated equally 
well " without some metaphysical or theo- 
logical views of morality " ? That is the 
big question — a question which at present 
we cannot undertake to answer. 



' RUSSIA.' 



,,-We have received a long letter from the 
author of the above book (reviewed by us 
on December 30th), thanking us for the 
notice, but bringing forward numerous objec- 
tions. We can give only a selection of the 
points raised, but in no case has injustice 
been done to the author by omissions. We 
number the points, and insert our reviewer's 
reply to them at the end. 

Hotel de Malte. Hue <le Richelieu, Paris, .Tan. 3rd, 1908. 

1. With regard to the " strange seated 
stone figures " to which your reviewer refers, 
I fancy he can only have seen them in his 
dreams. I have no recollection of seeing 
them during my travels in Russia. The 
stone figures that I have described were 
standing, not seated. 

2. Your reviewer complains of " a want 
of careful attention " in my allusion to the 
church ohants. I should like to tell him that 
the words are quoted exactly as I and main- 
others have heard them scores of times. 
The continuous repetition of the two words 
given in my book has a most comic effect 
on the ears of a stranger, which it is unfor- 
tunately impossible for me to reproduce. 

3. The fault which your reviewer finds 
with my index is unanswerable, I admit, but 
I had nothing to do with its compilation, 
and was prevented by want of time from 
going through it before publication. 

4. Vmir reviewer has not only misread, 
but he misquotes what I say about the win 
of colonists cooking the food and waiting 
on their husbands' guests. I have nowhere 
stated that this is a practice among Russians: 



52 



THE ATHENJET/M 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



it is purely German, and found only among 
< lermans, and imported by them into Russia; 
but never in any case imitated i>\ the 
Russians, l have visited Canada and the 

United States, and cini assure VOUT reviewer 

that the position of women in these countries 
is^very different. 

5. Again, " the depreciation of French 
caricature," which " will not bear investiga- 
tion," is merely an interesting quotation 
from a book published in 1873, in spite of 
the fact that it is criticized as coming direct 
from myself. 

G. Your reviewer goes on to remark," We 
do not understand the references to the 
Si i uve family, the generations appearing 
to be confused." He may be interested to 
hear that all the facts I have given were 
taken dowm from Prof. Struve's own lips 
at his own table (in Kharkoff ). 

7. The misspelling of the name Cathcart 
is due to the fact of my having copied the 
inscription, letter for letter, from that hero's 
tomb in Sebastopol. 

8. With regard to Parker, I was not the 
only person who heard Tolstoy's remark 
concerning him, and I could easily convince 
your reviewer that the Parker referred to 
was the American Parker. 

Annette M. B. Meakin. 

Our reviewer's replies are as follows : — - 

1. The figures, which still abound in the 
Steppe north of the Sea of Azof, look as 
though seated. See also Custine. It is 
probable that the art of the " barbarian " 
sculptors was not equal to the task of 
making them seem to stand on feet. 

2. The closing words of the verses of all 
the litanies are not those given by the author. 

3. Authors ought to insist on having a 
good index, especially if they are not novices. 

4. Our point was that the practice is as 
common and necessary in the " back blocks " 
of Australia, Canada, and the United States 
as it is in Russia, whether among German 
Russians or among Russians. There was 
no quotation of the words. 

5. Why is the passage quoted with appa- 
rent approval if not endorsed ? 

6. We showed by dates the impossibility 
of the great Struve, the astronomer, being 
in the author's mind. 

7. The author repeatedly writes in her 
own person of the well-known general after 
whom the famous hill was named, with the 
same misspelling. 

8. It is quite possible that our conjecture, 
named by us as such, was wrong. 



MB, LBE'6 'CENSUS OF SHAKESPEARE 
FIRST FOLIOS.' 
108.V, Lexhum Gardens, Kensington, \\\, January 5th. 

Mrs. Letter, of Washington, calls ray 
attention to an error of description, which 
it is right that I should correct without 
delay, in the account that I have given, in 
the ' Census of Shakespeare First Folios,' of 
the copy which the late L. Z. Leiter acquired 
of the late Bernard Quaritch in August, 1888, 
and which is now Mrs. Leiter's property. 

In accordance with information supplied 
me by a member of the late Mr. Leiter's 
family, I stated in the ' Census,' which was 
published in 1902, that this copy lacked 
the preliminary leaf headed ' A catalogve 
of the seuerall Comedies, Histories, and 
Tragedies contained in this Volume.' A 
recent examination of the copy by Mr. 
Morrison, of the Congress Library at 
Washington, shows that the ' Catalogue ' 
leaf is among the preliminary leaves, though 
it is not in the precise place in which it is 
usually found. Mrs. Leiter's copy ought, in 



view of Mr. Morrison's report, to occupy a 
far more distinguished place in my' Census ' 
than the one which I have allotted to it. 
With the exception of a slight repair in the 
last leaf, the volume is quite perfect, and 
ought to be included in Class I. of the 
'Census,' instead of in Class II. 

I have already expressed to Mrs. Leiter 
my regret that I should have under-esti- 
mated the interest of the copy, which, as I 
have already stated, is one of the very few 
still retaining the original binding. 

Sidney Lee. 



THE 1477 VENICE EDITION OF THE 
•DIVINA COMMEDIA.' 
Fiveways, Burnham, Bucks, January 8th, 1906. 

It may be worth while to point out that 
Mr. Slater is in error, in his description (in 
his article on 'The Book Sales of 1905' in 
to - day's Athenceum) of the 1477 Venice 
edition of the ' Divina Commedia ' as " con- 
taining for the first time the Commentary 
of Benvenuto da Imola." It is true that 
the Italian commentary contained in that 
edition is attributed to Benvenuto in a 
sonnet printed at the end of the volume. 
But this is a false attribution. Benvenuto 
wrote in Latin, and his commentary (excerpts 
from which were printed by Muratori) was 
not printed in full until 1887, in which year 
it was published at Florence in five hand- 
some volumes at the expense of Mr. William 
Warren Vernon. The Italian commentary 
in question, which was reprinted in a some- 
what different form in the 1478 Milan 
edition of the ' Divina Commedia,' was 
written by Jacopo della Lana, of Bologna. 
The subject is discussed at length by Signor 
Luigi Rocca in his ' Di Alcuni Commenti 
della Divina Commedia ' (pp. 127ff.). 

Paget Toynbee. 



'THE ROYAL FORESTS OF ENGLAND.' 

Your reviewer expresses surprise that I 
have not cited from Dr. Nisbet's books. In 
common with every one else of intelligence 
who is interested in modern forestry and 
arboriculture, I regard Dr. Nisbet as facile 
princeps on all such subjects. I have 
read and enjoyed almost everything he has 
written. But I am not aware of anything of 
his that throws any light whatever on the 
subject of my book. J. Charles Cox. 



Major Martin Hume is busy with a 
book which should possess a topical as 
well as an historical interest, in view of 
the approaching Anglo - Spanish royal 
marriage. It will consist of the strange 
and romantic stories of some of the more 
interesting of the earlier Queens of Spain, 
drawn in many cases from unpublished 
sources. The share of Isabella the Catholic 
in the expedition of Columbus ; the atti- 
tude of Elizabeth of Valois towards her 
stepson Carlos, and the reason of her pre- 
mature death ; the action of Elizabeth of 
Bourbon in the overthrow of Olivares ; 
and the vagaries of Luisa Isabel of 
Orleans and other ladies will be dis- 
cussed, with many points which remain 
problematical. The book will be pub- 
lished in the early autumn by the firm of 
E. Grant Richards. 



Mr. Unwin will publish in the spring 
a book entitled 'The Continental Out- 
cast : Land Colonies and Poor-Law Relief,' 
by the Rev.W. Garble, of the ('lunch Army, 
and his son Mr. Victor W. Carlile. It 
contains an account of visits paid by the 
authors last summer to the famous labour 
colony of Merxplas, in Belgium, and to 
similar institutions in Holland. Germany, 
and Denmark, together with a number of 
practical suggestions for the improvement 
of English methods of dealing with the 
unemployed, the aged poor, tramps, and 
beggars. 

Mr. Murray is issuing ' Monographs,' 
by Sir Theodore Martin, which con- 
sist of sketches of Garrick, Macready, 
Rachel, and Baron Stockmar, based on 
Quarterly articles. ' Things Indian,' by 
Mr. William Crooke, the accomplished 
editor of ' Hobson Jobson,' will be looked 
for with eagerness ; and ' Jottings of an 
Old Solicitor,' by Sir John Hollams, 
represents expert knowledge and reflec- 
tion reaching over a period of sixty years. 
' The History of the Papacy in the Nine- 
teenth Century,' by Dr. Nielsen, trans- 
lated by Canon A. J. Mason and others, 
introduces to the English public a Danish 
author who is both lively and erudite. 

Mr. Arthur D. Innes has edited for 
the Cambridge Press Burke's speeches on 
American taxation and conciliation of the 
colonies. 

In an appendix to his edition of the 
oration of Demosthenes against Midias, 
shortly to be issued by the same Press, 
Prof. W. W. Goodwin illustrates the 
peculiar character of the -po(3o\r) by 
treating it in connexion with the 
et'crayytAta and other special forms of 
public suits in which the authority of the 
State appears. 

Mr. E. Temple Thurston, author of 
' The Apple of Eden,' has just finished 
another novel. It is entitled ' Traffic,' 
and will be published by Messrs. Duck- 
worth & Co. about February 21st. 

Mr. Ford Madox Hueffer's new novel 
1 The Fifth Queen,' which is to be pub- 
lished next month by Mr. Alston Rivers, 
is, although complete in itself, to be 
regarded as the first instalment of a 
trilogy dealing with little-known episodes 
in the short career of Katharine Howard. 

Mr. Alston Rivers has also in the 
press a book entitled ' The Heart of 
the Country,' in which Mr. Hueffer 
supplements his ' Soul of London ' by a 
survey of rustic life and problems. 

We notice the death last Wednesday of 
Dr. William Rainey Harper, who had been 
President of Chicago University since 
1891. He was only forty-nine, but had 
already made his mark in Biblical litera- 
ture and Oriental languages. He was 
Professor of Hebrew on a Baptist 
foundation at Chicago, 1879-86, Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages at Yale, 
1886-91 ; and Professor of Biblical Lite- 
rature, 1889-91. He was head Professor 
of Semitic Languages at Chicago, and pub- 
lished books on ' Elements of Hebrew,' 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 

Hebrew ' Syntax ' and ' Vocabularies,' ' An 
Introductory New Testament ' with R. F. 
Weidner, and two manuals on Latin with 
I. B. Burgess. He was an associate editor 
of The Biblical World and the American j 
Journals of Theology and Semitic Lan- [ 
guages. 

The Oxford University Press is about 
to issue ' Scenes from Old Play books,' 
arranged as an introduction to Shakspeare 
by Mr. Percy Simpson. This book is an 
attempt to solve in practical form some 
of the difficulties involved in a first read- 
ing of Shakspeare, and is for young 
readers. The only notes are stage notes, 
and these have been lavishly supplied. 

Mr. Murray is publishing for the 
Government of India an abridged ' Official 
Account of the Second Afghan War, 1878- 
1880.' Among the fiction he announces 
are the first novel of Mr. Basil Lubbock, 
' Jack Derringer,' and ' The Hatanee,' 
by Mr. Arthur Eggar, a novel of British 
Burma. 

Mr. W. C. McBaest is to lecture to the 
Old Glasgow Club on Monday on ' The 
Literature o'f Old Glasgow.' A number 
of old Glasgow books in choice bindings 
will be on view. 

Last Monday died in Newcastle Mr. 
William Duncan, who must have been 
one of the oldest of journalists, having 
reached the patriarchal age of ninety- 
nine. Born and bred at Aberdeen, which 
produces its full quota of strong and 
vigorous men, he was for thirty years sub- 
editor of The Newcastle Chronicle, and 
wrote lives of Joseph Cowen and George 
Stephenson. 

Another venerable figure is lost by the 
death of Mr. George Pv. Fenton, of the 
Middle Temple, who was for forty-four 
years on the Parliamentary staff of The 
Times. 

In Chambers' 's Journal for February 
Mr. F. Whitehouse describes ' The Bash 
Vourmak,' or striking of the head 
amongst Mohammedans at Constantinople. 
A writer who records Ruskin's opinions, 
received in conversation, upon ' The 
Hurry and Bustle of Modern Life,' adds 
much of his own, and criticizes motor- 
cars and modern architecture. 

Next week we shall print the first of 
two papers on Gray at Peterhouse, em- 
bodying the results of special research by 
Dr. T. A. Walker. Dr. Walker has in 
the press a ' History of Peterhouse,' in 
the well-known series of " College His- 
tories," and has an excellent subject in 
the oldest of Cambridge foundations. 

The author of ' Latin Hexameter 
Verse,' Mr. S. E. Winbolt, is about to 
publish immediately with Messrs. Blackie 
.& shorter book entitled ' The Latin 
Hexameter.' The former work being 
adapted mainly to the needs of teachers, 
the forthcoming one is intended for the 
use of sixth-form boys, and fitted to a 
■course of six terms. It will be interleaved 
with blank pages, so that a pupil may 
conveniently embody notes drawn from 
his own reading. 



THE ATHEN^UM 



53 



Mr. Walter A. Locks has written a 
series of historical stories connected with 
old Ilford and its neighbourhood. It is 
announced under the title ' A Maid in 
Armour, and other Tales of Old Ilford,' 
by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

The very interesting analysis of books 
of the year issued by The Publishers'' 
Circular is now out. The total of books 
is 8,252, as against 8,334 in 1904. Theo- 
logy has increased — 745 volumes against 
666. Educational works show a decrease 
of 102 ; and there has been a lesser isssue 
also of political and commercial books and 
reprinted novels. The new novels are 
1,733, as against 1,731, so that the figure 
remains curiously steady. The totals of 
history and biography, and books on the 
arts and sciences, are also virtually un- 
changed. In belles-lettres the books reach 
381, as against 220 last year, a consider- 
able advance. Poetry and drama, and 
geography and travel, also show a slight 
increase. 

The feature of this list, as of all recent 
lists, is the predominance of fiction. 
What reader, however quick and practised, 
can expect to cope with an average of 
thirty-three new novels a week, and give 
during the same period a glance at twelve 
reprinted ones ? Yet we are told that 
some unfortunate moderns make the 
attempt, and even call the result criticism. 

The death is announced in Edinburgh 
of the Rev. Paton J. Gloag, author of 
several theological works, commentaries, 
and translations. He was born at Perth 
in 1823, and was successively minister of 
Dunning, Blantyre, and Galashiels, from 
which he retired in 1890. 

In the spring a novel may be looked 
for entitled ' Stymied ! The Story of a 
Short Summer Sojourn in St. Andrews.' 
The author is Mr. Murray-Maitland. 

A Swedish translation of Mr. Gosse's 
' History of English Literature,' under- 
taken by the Swedish poet Herr K. G. 
Ossian - Nilsson, is about to appear in 
Stockholm. It will be published by the 
well-known firm of Messrs. Bonnier. 

Among Royal Institution arrangements 
are the following : — On Tuesday next 
Prof. E. H. Parker will deliver the first 
of three lectures on ' Impressions of 
Travel in China and the Far East.' On 
Thursday Canon Beeching begins a course 
of two lectures on Shakespeare ; and on 
Saturday Mr. J. E. C. Bodley delivers 
the first of two lectures on ' The Church 
in France.' On January 26th Mr. A. C. 
Benson will lecture on Walter Pater. 

The death, in his sixtieth year, 
is reported from Cassel of Wilhelm 
Benecke, editor of the Hessenland, and 
author of a number of novels and of a 
history of the Royal Theatre at Cassel. 

Several of the Paris papers have 
given currency to the rumour that M. 
Brunetiere is about to resign the editor- 
ship of the Revue des Dru.r Monde*, which 
he has directed since 1893, and to which 
he has been a contributor for thirty years. 
It was even stated that his successor 



would be either M. d'Haussonville or 
M. de Vogue ; but in an interview pub- 
lished in the ficho de Paris M.iBrunetiere 
makes it clear that he has no intention of 
resigning his post. 

The Parliamentary Paper of the week 
of the most interest to our readers is the 
Historical MSS. Commission Report on 
the Manuscripts of the Duke of Rutland 
preserved at Belvoir Castle. Vol. IV. 
(25. 9d.). 

SCIENCE 



CHARLES JASPER JOLY, F.R.S. 

No college has been more severely tried 
by the loss of eminent men in recent years 
than Trinity College, Dublin. In addition 
to other great misfortunes, it has lost George 
Salmon, George Fitzgerald, and Charles Joly 
within four years. The first had attained 
the ripeness of full age. but though he was 
long past scientific work, his house was the 
meeting-place of the learning of Europe, and 
there was hardly a term in which some 
scholar from England or from Germany did 
not come to see the great old hospitable man. 
George Fitzgerald was second only to Lord 
Kelvin in lus influence on modern science ; 
and now Charles Joly, the one man who 
promised to keep his college in contact with 
European mathematical research, has been 
carried off (on the 4th inst.). by results 
from typhoid fever, in the prime of life. 
He was just beginning to make his in- 
fluence felt, not only by his publication 
and expositions of Hamilton's epoch- 
making work, but also by his constant 
contact with Cambridge and with foreign 
mathematical scholars. Apart from all 
this, he had great and peculiar qualities. 
There are others who may rival him as 
mathematicians ; the College has possessed 
them for generations ; but in the burning 
problem of University reform this was the 
man of enlightened views, of broad European 
experience, who would in coming years have 
stimulated wise changes, and who would 
have helped to save his College both from 
stupid adherence to effete traditions and 
from dangerous innovations. As such he 
cannot be replaced till some new man of 
his outstanding merit arises, and there 
seems little chance that such a one will be 
found for some years to come. This is 
what must be said regarding the public loss 
resulting from his deplorable death. 

To speak calmly of his personal character 
is not easj- for those who loved and honoured 
him, and who stood but yesterday beside his 
open grave. He had not the commanding 
personality of Fitzgerald, and did not obtain 
his Fellowship without a hard struggle ; but 
this was due, as his friends well knew, to his 
constant pursuit of general reading, and 
so that wearisome trial, which often saps 
the originality and impairs the character of 
promising men. left him still fresh in intellect, 
and open to wider interests. Within a few 
years his reputation obtained for him the 
Andrews Chair of Astronomy, carrying with 
it the title of Astronomer Royal in Ireland. 
and he settled with his young wife at the 
Observatory, which removed him to some 
extent from daily i n t er cours e with his 
colleagues, but also from the petty frictions 
and distractions of tutorial life. 

He ent er e d on his new duties with zeal, 
beeame a leading spirit among the serious 
members of the British Association, and 
travelled often and far with astronomical 
expeditions, and to take part in the foreign 



54 



Til E AT II KN'iEUM 



X K)81. Jan. l.'i, 1900 



con. of int'ii of Boienoe. rhia wide 

ezperianoe taught him to fear that the once 
Eamoua Dublin school of mathematics was 
becoming provinoial and narrow a ten de n c y 
which he earneetlj strove to counteract. 
Senoe to the old-fashioned majority in the 
College he often seemed visionary, to some 
even dangerous, for lie always , advocated 
Lohanl reforms in what he believed the 
obsolete methods of higher education, which 
led to obstacles to research. His mild and 
gentle manner was in some contrast to the 
advanced nature of his views, and he never 
expressed himself violently, even when his 
moral indignation was roused by the mis- 
oonduot of a superior, or the mismanage- 
ment of College affairs. He was waiting, 
with patient impatience, for the day when 
the voice of the reformer would no longer 
be the voice of one crying in the desert . 

But now a cruel fate has taken him from 
his unfinished labours, from his wife and 
little children, from all the friends who 
based high hopes upon his future. These 
hopes were well founded, for as his presence 
did not manifest at first sight the high 
quality of his intellect, so the work he has 
left is indeed but an earnest of what he would 
have done in years to come. Fortunately, 
the public can judge thej justice of i. this 
estimate by his ' Elements of Quaternions ' 
(1905), which shows him a master of the 
highest region in pure mathematics. The 
Royal Society and the Royal Irish Academy 
have been long familiar with his abstruse 
papers. M. 



* AN EXPLANATION OF MAGNETISM.' 

After the appearance of the article- under 
this heading in The Athenceum of Decem- 
ber 2nd, Sir Oliver Lodge wrote to us the 
following letter, which is the o-ne^alluded to 
in ' Research Notes ' of the 23rd; of last 
month : — 

Marieinont, Kilghaston, December 13th, 1905. 
It is astonishing how in this country the work 
of Englishmen seldom attracts attention until a 
foreigner takes it up ; and then it is universally 
attributed to that foreigner. Your article of 
date December 2nd contains nothing new to 
English physicists. M. Langevin obtained it all 
from Cambridge, it is due chiefly to Prof. Larmor 
and others of the Cambridge school, and wlmt you 
call an obiter dictum of M. Langevin. is a definite 
and certain mathematical proposition, made in 

England. Oliver Lodge. 

Since then we have heard from Sir Oliver 
Lodge, referring us to Philosophical Trans- 
actions, 1894 A, pp. 806-18, and 1897 A, 
pp. 286-8, for evidence in support of his 
contention that M. Langevin obtained his 
theory from Cambridge. 

The writer of the article in question sends 
us the following comments £. • 

Sir Oliver Lodge's references are taken 
from two papers by Dr. Larmor, both 
headed On a Dynamical Theory of the 
Electric and Luminiferous Medium ' In 
that published in 1894 Dr. Larmor defines 
an atom of matter as a " vortex-ring in the 
present rotational aether with intrinsic 
rotational strain constituting electric charge " 
and developes the theory of electrons, or, 
as he calls them, " discrete electric nuclei," 
revolving within the vortex-ring, pretty 
much as it has since been accepted by Prof. 
u (1 Thom8on an d others. He also says 
that "it is essential to any simple elastic 
theory of the a-ther that the charge of an 
ion shall be represented by some permanent 
state of strain of the aether, which is asso- 
ciated with the aether and carried along 
with it, and that " such a strain-configura- 
tion can hardly be otherwise than sym- 
metrical all round the ion." In his com- 



munication of isiiT, written in view of If, 
Curie's discover] that the paramagnetic 
state varies inversely to the absolute 
temperature, lie says that Curie's law 

indicates that the same is sensibly 
Hue for all paramagnetic media at high 
temperatures : at lower temperatures they 
gradually pass into the ferromagnetic con- 
dition," and that " the controlling force 
[in a ferromagnetic body] that resists 
the orientating action of the field is 
practically wholly derived from the mag- 
netic interaction of the neighbouring 
molecules." But this must be considered 
as in some sort superseded by the publica- 
tion of ' /Ether and Matter ' in 1900, which 
Dr. Larmor declares in his preface to be in 
part " a restatement in improved form of 
investigations already developed in a series 
of memoirs, Phil. Trans. A. 1894-6-7." In 
this last book he states (p. 343) clearly 
enough that " it appears incidentally that 
the conception of paramagnetism which con- 
siders it to be due to orientation of the 
molecule as a whole by the magnetic field, 
as if it were a rigid system, is not valid 
except as a very rough illustration" ; and 
(p. 344) that " the exceptionally great 
magnetic coefficients of iron, nickel, and 
cobalt at ordinary temperatures may possibly 
be explained as an effect of molecular co- 
hesion or grouping." I do not see how 
this bears out Sir Oliver Lodge's contention 
that M. Langevin obtained all his theory 
from Cambridge, and it would be interesting 
to know if Dr. Larmor himself considers 
that M. Langevin has plagiarized, either 
consciously or otherwise, from his published 
researches. 

I do not yield to Sir Oliver Lodge in 
patriotism, and I should at all times be 
naturally inclined to prefer the work of an 
English scholar to that of one of any other 
nationality. But it seems to me that some 
continental nations — especially the French 
and Dutch — have a great advantage over 
us in that they always take pains to state 
their scientific propositions clearly and with 
precision, in opposition to the unnecessarily 
technical and confused language in which 
our men of science, at Cambridge and else- 
where, clothe their thoughts. This reproach 
cannot be brought against Sir Oliver Lodge, 
who, when either speaking or writing on 
physical subjects, is always clearness itself. 
But if he could persuade some of his col- 
leagues to state their theories with some 
attention to literary form, he would go far 
towards making English science at once 
more popular and better understood, both 
here and on the Continent, than it is at 
present. At a tune when Mr. Haldane's 
British Science Guild is calling upon the 
nation to extend the methods of science 
beyond its own borders, such an effort is 
especially needed, and it is not, perhaps, 
too much to ask that those who require 
their countrymen to think scientifically 
should themselves endeavour to write 
lucidly. By so doing they would form 
the bridge between literature and science 
for which some of us have long hoped. 



SOCIETIES. 



Okoi.oiikwi.. />,,-. 2o. Dr. J. E. Marr. Pre- 
sident, in the chair. -Mr. T. F. Sibly was elected 
8 Fellow ; and Prof. Louis Dollo, of Brussels, and 
Dr. August Rothpletz. of Munich, were elected 
Foreign Members. The following communicat ions 
were read: 'The Highest Silurian Rocks of the 
Ludlow District," by Miss (}. L. Ellcs and Miss 
1. L. Slater, and 'The Carboniferous Rocks at 
Rush. co. Dublin,' by Dr. C. A. Matley, with an 
account of the faunal succession and correlation 
by Dr. A. Vaughau. Prof. <>. F. Wright, in ex- 
hibiting a map of the Lebanon district, gave an 



interesting description of the evidence which he 
found, in a recent journey to that district, as to the 
height and extent of the terminal moraine. lie 
remarked also that the water-level in the Jordan 
valley stood, in comparatively recent times, 7"»o 
feet higher than at present, and this he conni 
with the glaoiation on the an a. \ > rj small climatic 
change.-, would be sufficient to Btart the Lebanon 

glacier again. 

I.inmxn. Dee. 21.— Mr. C. B, Clarke, v. P.. 
in the chair. Viscount Mountmorres and Mr. J. 
Stuart Thomson were admitted Fellows. Mr. < I 
Druery exhibited an aposporous Beedling of Poly- 
podium vulgart, with a frond bearings well-del 

plot hallus at the tip. He al-o showed 8 new 

ot apospory in Cyatopteris montana. The ('hair- 
man and Prof. •!. Bretland Farmer contributed 
some critical remarks. Dr. A. B. Rendle gave & 
report of the International Botanical Congret 
Vienna in June last, at which he was the S 
delegate, and which was attended by more than 
600 botanists from all parts of the world. — The 
discussion was opened by the Chairman and 
tinned by Dr. Stapf, Lieut. -Col. Brain, Mr. J. 
Hopkinson. Mr. F. X. Williams, the General 
Secretary, and Mr. H. Groves. — A paper was read 
from Dr. Fritz Kranzlin. entitled ' Cyrtandreas- 
Malaya- Insularis Nova?,' founded on specimens in 
the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, K> w. 
— Messrs. H. and .T. Groves contributed a paper 
'On Characea- from the Cape of Good Hope col- 
lected by Major A. H. Wofley-Dod, R.A.,' illus- 
trated by the specimens themselves. 



Microscopical. — Dec. 20. — Dr. 1). H. Scott, 
President, in the chair. — The President called 
attention to a donation of slides prepared by 
Andrew Pritchard about fifty yean ago. They 
had been presented to the Society by Mr. N. 1). F. 
Pearce, and were exhibited in the room. Mr. 
Rheinberg described an exhibit consisting of about 
twenty photographs of diatoms taken by the 
Zeiss apparatus, designed by Dr. August Kohler, 
of Jena, for photomicrography with ultra-violet 
light. A photograph of Amphipleura pt llucida, 
taken with oblique illumination, showed the 
diatom clearly resolved into dots. — Mr. dirties 
said the photograph of Amphipleura resolved into 
dots was one of the finest yet shown, but it was 
not the first time this diatom had been so resolved, 
for a photograph showing the dotted structure was 
made by Mr. Gifford, and Dr. Spina showed the 
diatom itself at one of the Society's meetings; the 
resolution was not. however, in cither case so 
distinct as in the photographs exhibited by Mr. 
Rheinberg. — A paper on 'A Fern Fructification 
from the Lower Coal Measures of Shore, Lanca- 
shire.' was read by Mr. I). M. S. Watson, who 
exhibited a large section of the coal under the 
microscope, with lantern-slides in illustration of 
his paper. — The paper was followed by a discus- 
sion, in which the President, Prof. F. W. Oliver, 
and Nr. E. A. Newell Arber took part. 



Institution of Crvn, Engineers. ./'//>. f). — 
Sir Alexander Binnie. President, in the chair. — 
Two papers were read, namely, "The Elimination 
of Storm-Water from Sewerage Systems,' by Mr. 
D. E. Lloyd- Da \ ies. and •The Elimination OI Sus- 
pended Solids and Colloidal Matters from Sewage,' 
by Lieut. -Col. A. S. Jones and Mr. YV. (). Travis. 
— It was announced that 4S Associate Members 
had been transferred to the class ot Members, and 
that - 2() candidates had been admitted as Students. 
The monthly ballot resulted in the election of J 

Members and "is Associate Members. 



Aristotelian.- -Jan. I.— Dr. Hastings Bashdall, 
President, in the chair. — Mr. B. Duniville was 
elected a Member.— Mr. J. Solomon read a paper 
on 'Is the Conception of Good [Indefinable.?' The 

predicate " good." though not definable as a com- 
plex of partial concepts, is not properly assimilated, 
as Mr. Moore in ' Rrincipia Ethica 'assimilates it, to 
such simple predicates as ••yellow." For '•yellow 

is not merely simple in itself, but is apprehended by 

a simple function; while '•good" is object of 
apprehension to a complex function, which admits 
of definition. This function is what is commonly 
called reason ; and from Aristotle to Sidgwick it 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



oo 



has been admitted that "good" is apprehended by 
reason. All that needs to be added to this is that, 
discarding the old unintelligible views of reason as 
an organ of faculty, or " lumiere naturelle," we 
should recognize that by reason we really mean the 
exercise of a complex function constructing out of 
the remembered past and the imagined future. 
The larger part of the paper was devoted to main- 
taining (after Hoffding) the entire subjectivity of 
the moral criterion, its entire dependence on the 
individual. For all moral approval or judgment of 
"what ought to be" is at bottom a liking, pro- 
pensity, tendency — only one which deserves to be 
called rational, because it is comprehensive, sys- 
tematic, and on the whole permanent. — The paper 
was followed by a discussion. 



MEETINGS NEXT WEEK. 



Sit. 



Royal Academy, 4.—' "0_uality" in Colour,' Prof. G. Clausen. 

Bibliographical, 5.— ' An Episode in Anglo-French Biblio- 
graphy UtilOi,' Mr. Sidney Lee. 

London Institution, 5.— 'Notes on the Port of London,' Mr. 
J. G. Brood-Bank i Tracers Lecture. I 

Surveyors' Institution. 8. — 'Modern Surveying Instruments,' 
Mr. A. T. Walmisley. 

Geographical. 8.30.—' British East African Plateau Land and 
its Economic Conditions.' Major A. St. Hill Gibbons. 

Roval Institution, 5.—' Impressions of Travel in China and the 
Far East,' Lecture I., Prof. E. H. Parker. 

Colonial. 8.—' The Progress and Problems of the East Africa 
Protectorate.' Sir C. Eliot. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, B.— Discussion on ' The Elimi- 
nation of Storm- Water from Sewerage Systems' and 'The 
Elimination of Suspended Solids and Colloidal Matters from 
Sewage.' 

Zoological. S.:S0.— ' Bones of the Lynx from Cales Dale, Derby- 
shire.' Mr. W. Storrs Fox : ' Mammals from South Johore and 
Singapore collected by Air. C. B. Kioss,' Mr. J. L. Bonhote ; 
'Contributions to the Anatomy of the Ophidia.' Mr. F. E. 
Beddard ; ' Minute Structure of the Teeth of Creodonts,' Mr. 
i' S T. .in.--. 

Meteorological, 7. SO.— Annual Meeting. ' Meteorology in Daily 
Life. Mr. R. Bentley. 

British Archwolodcil Association, 8.— 'St. Clether, his Chapel 
and Holy Wells,' Mrs. Collier; 'The Curtian Lake,' Dr. 
Russell Forbes. 

Entomological. 8.— Annual Meeting. 

Folk-lore, 8.— Presidential Address. 

Microscopical. 8.— 'The Life and Work of Bernard Renault,' 
the President. 

Society of Aits, s.— 'The Scientific Assets of Voice Develop- 
ment.' Dr. W. A. Aikin. 
. Royal Academy. 4.— The Relative Importance of Subject and 
Treatment,' Prof. G. Clausen. 

Royal. 4.30. 

Society of Arts, 4.30.— 'The City of Calcutta,' Mr. 0. E. Buck- 
laud". 

Historical. 5— 'The Study of Nineteenth-Century History.' 
Mr. P. Ashley. 

Royal Institution, 5. — ' Shakespeare,' Lecture I., Canon 
iieeching. 

London Institution, 6.— 'Russian Broadsides and Illustrated 
Prints, Mr. M (tester. 

Linnean. 8.— 'The Life-Historv of ttOfgaritifera paruueta.' 
Mr. A. W. Allen; Some Endophytic Algse,' Mr. A. I). 
< i>tt"ii ; ' Jacobsons Organ of Sphenodon,' Dr. R. Broom. 

Society of Arts, 8. — ' High-Speed Electric Machinery, with 
i.il Reference to Steam-Turbine Machines,' Lecture I.. 
Prof. S. P. Thoinpson (Howard Lecture). 

Chemical. 8.30.— The Refractive Indices of Crystallizing Solu- 
tions. Messrs. II. A. Miers and F. Isaac; 'The Determina- 
tion of Available Plant-Food in Soils by the Use of Weak 
Acid Solvents.' Part II.. Messrs. A. I). Hall and A. Amos : 
'The Action of Ammonia and Amines on Diazobenzene 
Pic-rate,' Messrs. O. Siltierrad and G. Rotter; and numerous 
other Papers. 

Society of Antiquaries, 8.30— 'The Ceramic Art in Ancient 
Japan,' Dr. N. Gordon Munro; 'An English Chalice and 
Paten of the Fifteenth Century.' Rev. E. II. Willson. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 8. — Discussion "ii 
'Behaviour of Materials of Construction under Pure Shear.' 
Paper on ' Worm Contact,' Mr. E. A. Bruce. 

Royal Institution. 9.— "Some Applications of the Theory of 
Electric Discharge to Spectroscopy,' Prof. J. .1. Thomson. 

Roval Institution, .:.— 'The Church in France,' Lecture I., Mr. 
/. E. C. Bodley. 



%tuntt (Sossip. 

We may mention a few facts supplement- 
ing the personal notice of Prof. Joly which 
we also include this week. He died in the 
forty-second year of his age, having been 
born at Tullamore on June 27th, 1864. His 
early education was obtained at Galway 
Grammar School, after which he passed 
through Trinity College, Dublin, and spent 
also some time at Berlin University. He 
became Royal Astronomer of Ireland in 
1897 ; with that post are united the Andrews 
Professorship of Astronomy at Dublin Uni- 
versity, and the Directorship of the Dunsink 
Observatory. In addition to the practical 
work involved in these, Prof. Joly wrote 
largely on mathematical subjects, especially 
on quaternions, a branch of analysis which 
owes its origin and its name to one of his 
predecessors, Sir William Rowan Hamilton, 
whose great work upon it appeared in 1866, 
the year after the death of the author, who 
worked at it nearly till the end. 

In view of the decision to appoint a 
Royal Commission on Canals, * Our Water- 
■ways,' to be published by Mr. John Murray 



for Mr. U. A. Forbes and Mr. W. H. R. 

Ashford, will be of interest. Many people 
besides Mr. Carnegie have wondered that 
our elaborate canal system, which cost so 
much money, is being allowed in many cases 
to go to rack and ruin. The present con- 
dition of inland navigation, and the merits 
of the various schemes suggested to improve 
it, will be fully discussed. 

Mr. Murray will also issue ' The Transi- 
tion in Agriculture,' by Mr. Edwin A. Pratt, 
which records many remarkable facts and 
figures. Special attention is paid to the 
problem of small holdings. 

The Cambridge University Press will 
shortly issue Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer's ' History 
of the Planetary Systems from Thales to 
Kepler.' The book embodies an attempt 
to trace the history of man's conception of 
the universe from the earUest tunes to the 
completion of the Copernican system. 

Messrs. Duckworth & Co. are issuing 
immediately ' The British Woodlice,' a 
monograph of the terrestrial Isopod Crus- 
tacea occurring in the British Islands, by 
Mr. Wilfred M. Webb and Mr. Charles 
Sillem. Twenty-five plates and fifty-nine 
figures will be included in the text, the 
substance of which lias appeared in The 
Essex Naturalist. 

The Geological Society will this year 
award its medals and funds as follows : the 
Wollaston Medal to Dr. Henry Woodward ; 
the Murchison Medal to Mr. C. T. Clough ; 
the Lyell Medal to Prof. F. D. Adams, of 
Montreal ; and the Prestwich Medal to Mr. 
William Whitaker. The Wollaston Fund 
goes to Dr. F. L. Kitchin ; the Murchison 
Fund to Mr. Herbert Lapworth ; the Lyell 
Fund to Mr. W. G. Fearnsides and Mr. 
R. H. Solly ; and the Barlow-Jameson 
Fund to Mr. H. C. Beasley. 

The new and fully equipped laboratories 
in connexion with Edinburgh University, it 
is expected, will be formally opened in the 
spring. 

Some particulars are given in the Indian 
papers of the adventurous journey from 
China to India, via Tibet, of Count de 
Lesdain and his wife. Leaving China 
proper, they entered the Gobi desert, and, 
after making a circuit round Koko Nor, 
reached the salt swamps of Tsaidam. They 
next visited the sources of the Yangtse, 
and during this stage of their journey 
entered a region absolutely without inhabi- 
tants. For seven weeks they did not 
encounter a single human being. In another 
part of their journey they traversed a mud 
plateau nearly 20,000 feet high, and lost 
all their baggage animals but six during 
the crossing. They then passed a succession 
of lakes until they came to Tengri Nor, and 
on reaching the Sanchu river they followed 
its valley to a point near Shigatse, which, 
however, they did not visit. They con- 
tinued their route into India by Gyantse 
and the Chumbi valley. The Tibetans 
were friendly throughout the journey, and 
the travellers attributed this attitude to 
the good effect of the Younghusband expe- 
dition. 

It is reported that, besides the comet 
mentioned in our ' Science Gossip ' on the 
23rd ult. as having been discovered at Flag- 
staff, another was afterwards noticed on 
the same plate. But no further information 
has been received of either of these bodies ; 
nor has the redetection of Barnard's peri- 
odical comet of 1892 been confirmed. The 
strong moonlight this week has made 
cometary observations difficult. 

We have received the twelfth number 
(with the index) of vol. xxxiv. of the 



Memorie della Societd degli Spettroscopisti 
Italiani, which contains the completion of 
Signor Bemporad's paper on the theory of 
astronomical refraction ; a note by Prof. 
Ricco on the international scheme for 
co-operation in solar research ; and a con- 
tinuation of the spectroscopic images of 
the sun's limb to the end of 1903. 

A new small planet was photographically 
discovered by Prof. Max Wolf at the Konig- 
stuhl Observatory, Heidelberg, on the night 
of the 17th ult. 



FINE ARTS 



COLOUR BOOKS. 

India, by Mortimer Menpes ; text by 
Flora Annie Steel, is a volume of Messrs. 
A. & C. Black's series illustrated in colour, 
of which it may be said that, ordinarily, 
the chief attraction lies in the sketches. If 
they are artistic and pleasing, the text is of 
minor importance. But that cannot be 
affirmed in the present case, for the reading 
is at least as attractive as the illustrations, 
whilst the balance of profit lies with the 
text. The sketches, which are undoubtedly 
clever, vary considerably in merit and in 
suitability for reproduction by the method 
employed. In la general way it may be 
said that the cleaner the colouring the 
better is the plate or illustration ; but 
clean work does not necessarily involve 
crude work. As a rule the yellows are too 
purely gamboge in character, a shade by 
no means predominant in India. What 
we mean may be seen in ' A Street Corner, 
Peshawur,' and in ' A Woman at the Well, 
Jeypore'; the > greenish yellow pervades 
the picture. The buffaloes and figures in 
'Leisure Hours' are drawn with great 
fidelity. 

Mrs. Steel's work, as indicated, is excel- 
lent ; from her sketch of the country, the 
people, their religions, arts and crafts, 
buildings, &c, enough may be learnt to 
provide the average reader with material 
for conversation on the subject of our 
great dependency, with the comfortable 
feeling that so long as he keeps within her 
limits he is reasonably safe. 

The Casentino and its Story. By Ella 
Noyes ; illustrated in Colour and Lme by 
Dora Noyes. (Dent & Co.)— If it be true 
that modern travelling, with its time-saving 
appliances of fast trains, through tickets, and 
guide-books, and its dutiful adherence to 
the beaten tracks of the world, has in great 
measure ruined the romance of pilgrimage, 
it is at least a comfort to know that there 
are still wanderers, with no particular time 
to save, nor desire to cling to the mam roads 
of sightseeing, who can linger lovingly about 
the retreats of reminiscence, and relate m 
sympathy what thev have seen and learnt, 
for the benefit of those who will rather read 
than run. There is just this sense of sym- 
pathy — not aggressive nor insistent, but 
gracious and delightful— in this book about 
the Casentino. It* story of 'The \ alley 
Enclosed ' is a pleasure to read, as it takes 
us hither and thither, from place to place 
and from time to time, from the service of 
the sword and the Cross in the Middle Ages 
to the utterly simple life and worship of 
the contadini to-dav. The central chapter 
is naturallv devoted to 'The Rock of San 
Franceaso ; : and shows a deep conscious- 
ness of the peculiar sanctity which has clung 
ever to La Yerna. The next chapter, 
' Dante in the Valley." is also full of interest 
for all who would study the mood and the 
verse of the great Florentine in exile. 



5(5 



Til E A Til EN -Kl M 



\ hi.si, Jan. 13, 1906 



The cult m rid illustrations are really beauti- 
ful : whatever the subject a glimpse oi 
lulls and lull i"w H-. a sweep of river, a 

village itreet, an interior of church or house. 

■ vintage scene the artist baa inv ent ed i1 
with an atmosphere rich in breadth and 
dignity, in warmth and simplicity, which 

teatifiee it- own faithfulness to the tjcvi its loci. 

But waa il ool a pity to print 'Eons Sarni' in 
a frontispiece representing the source ol the 

Arno '.' The little black-and-white drawings 
are helpful as to details ; and the map is 
clear, but. alas ! it has no scale. The 
preface contains a few hints about ways and 
inns. 



THE NEW CALLEHY. 

Thi: International Society has never had 
a more interesting show than that now to 
be seen at the New Gallery. Nor has the 
Gallery itself ever been seen to such advant- 
age. The impression on entering the hall 
is that of wonder how such simple means as 
have been taken should produce such an 
extraordinary change. The hall lflas good 
proportions, which were previously obscured 
by garish ornament and colour, and the 
present tenants, by taking out the coloured 
glass and covering the walls and the balcony 
with plain white hangings, have given it an 
unexpected dignity and grace. Against the 
dull w'hite of the background the sculpture 
shows to perfection. We appreciate the 
relief without the fiercely accented contour 
which newly cut white marble has upon a 
dark or uneven background. A few bay- 
trees placed among the sculpture relieve 
the monotony, and give a perfectly just 
accent to the whole scheme of decoration. 

The resulting impression is so agreeable 
that the critic is almost in danger of being 
misled into the idea that the hall is filled 
with masterpieces. This it is not, but 
nevertheless the average is extremely high — 
higher than in any exhibition of modern 
sculpture which we remember to have seen 
in London. Along one wall are arranged a 
series of bronzes by Meunier, a posthumous 
tribute to his talent we welcome, consider- 
ing how little in his lifetime he was seen 
and appreciated in England. None of these, 
perhaps, impresses one as showing a great 
creative genius, but, on the other hand, 
none fails of a fine scholarship and a genuine, 
if somewhat derivative feeling for plastic 
design. Among the most striking are the 
Femme du Peuple (No. 15) and the Min eur 
a la Lanterne (32). Then there is Mr. E. P. 
Warren's version of Rodin's Le Baiser (1), 
a marble replica which scarcely does more 
than indicate the great beauty of the design. 
The surface quality seems to us dull and 
mechanical when compared with the Paolo 
and Francesco (69), in which one notes the 
peculiar atmospheric quality of surface 
which M. Rodin has aimed at so success- 
fully in his later marbles. This is a work 
which strains at the limits of plastic expres- 
sion, so completely are all accents and 
divisions of planes suppressed, so entirely 
is the appeal made by the direct effect of a 
complex and elusive, but wonderfully sus- 
tained rhythm. 

There are two important works by M. 
Bartholome : an almost classic Jeune Fille 
se coiffant (2), and a colossal Adam 
and Eve (3) which is much more rugged 
and realistic, but with the particular note 
of pathos which one associates with the 
artist admirably expressed. Indeed, if we 
may trust a first impression, we have never 
seen anything by him so masterly and so 
nearly approaching to a real sense of style. 

Two exhibits by an artist whose work we 
have never noticed before, M. Hoetger, 



seem to us axtremeli in tere sting. One is a 

nude torso (-Jtili. baa other a head (53). 
Tli<-\ both show Strong reminiscence- i>t 

sarh art the lirst of Greek, the second oi 
Gothic The torso, in tact, has something 

ot the archaistie effect of the SgUBea ascribed 
fee I'asitele-. |, u t with a vigour and vitality 
which one does not usually associate with 
such stylistic essays. It is impossible to 
speak with assurance from such a limited 
acquaintance with an artist's work, but we 
are inclined to expect much from M. Hoetjjer 
in t he future. 

Another young artist, .Mr. Paul Martlett, 
exhibits a great many small bronzes, which 
range over a variety of subjects. He shows 
a strong feeling for the decorative possi- 
bilities of bronze, and great technical skill 
in his control of the surface quality, the 
colour and patina of his little pieces. In 
fact, he has set himself to emulate the per- 
fection of Oriental bronzes, but he appears 
to us at present to be almost entirely experi- 
menting, and more the ingenious craftsman 
than the creative artist. This, however, is 
one method of approach to great art, and 
one too little in favour in modern times, 
so that we welcome this attempt to find 
out the secrets of the material of expression. 

Mr. Charles Ricketts, who is perhaps the 
most varied and accomplished technician in 
England, has of late turned his attention 
also to sculpture, and his bronzes have 
appeared from time to time in small exhibi- 
tions. Nothing that we have seen so far 
comes up to the level of the small figure of 
Silence (52). The form has great beauty 
and unity of silhouette, and the drapery is 
disposed with Mr. Ricketts's intense and 
instinctive feeling for rhythm. The fact 
that it is so entirely draped is in its favour, 
for he appears to us to treat the nude 
in sculpture too much in the wilful and 
a priori method which drapery alone permits. 
— Mr. Wells continues to do excellent work, 
though his range of feeling and invention 
is strictly limited. His statuette of a Wood- 
cutter (60) is perhaps a sign of new develop- 
ment ; while his First Steps (59) is the most 
masterly variation he has made of his usual 
theme. — We have never seen anything so 
serious and accomplished by Mr. Tweed as 
the head of Old Netvman (44) ; and Mr. 
Stirling Lee's portrait head (12) is admirable 
as treatment of marble, though a little want- 
ing in the sense of style. 

We have dwelt thus at length upon the 
sculpture because it seems to us much 
more significant, so far as contemporary 
effort goes, than the painting in the adjoining 
galleries. The real interest of the paintings 
centres round the pictures contributed from 
the Bernheim collection in the North Room, 
and many of these are by deceased masters, 
some of whom, like Manet, have already 
taken on the air of Old Masters. Here, 
indeed, certain aspects of the Impressionist 
School are seen as never before in London. 
There were, it is true, a few of M. Cezanne's 
works at the Durand Ruel exhibition in 
the Grafton Gallery, but nothing which gave 
so definite an idea of his peculiar genius 
as the Nature Morte (199) and the Pay sage 
(205) in this gallery. From the ' Nature 
Morte ' one gathers that Cezanne goes back 
to Manet, developing one side of his art to 
its furthest limits. Manet himself had more 
than a little of the primitive about him, 
and in his early work, so far from diluting 
local colour by exaggerating its accidents, 
he tended to state it with a frankness and 
force that remind one of the elder Breughel. 
His Tete de Femme (188) in this gallery is 
an example of such a method, and Cezanne's 
' Nature Morte ' pushes it further. The 
white of the napkin and the delicious grey 
of the pewter have as much the quality of 



positive and mteii-e local colour as the vivid 

green of the earthaovwars j and the whole 

r— tod With insistence on the decorative 
\ allies of these opposition-. Light and shade 
are subordinated entirely to this aim. Where 

the pat tern requires it . the shadow b or white 
an pamted black, with total indi ff ere nc e to 
those laws ol appearance which the scientific 

irony of the Impressionist School has pro- 
claimed to be eSBi ntial. in the ' I'aysage ' 
we find the same wilful opposition of local 
colours, the same decorative intention ; but 
with this goes a (piite extraordinary feeling 
for light. The sky and its reflection in the 
pool are rendered as never before in land- 
si ape art. with an absolute illusion of the 
planes of illumination. The sky recedes 
miraculously behind the hill-side, answered 
by the inverted concavity of lighted air in 
the pool. And this is effected without any 
chiaroscuro — merely by a perfect instinct 
for the expressive quality of tone values. 
We confess to having been hitherto sceptical 
about Cezanne's genius, but these two pieces 
reveal a power which is entirely distinct 
and personal, and though the artist's appeal 
is limited, and touches none of the finer 
issues of the imaginative life, it is none the 
less complete. 

Renoir is here seen almost as well as at 
Durand Ruel's. He, indeed, represents the 
antithesis to Cezanne in his mode of expres- 
sion. Here local colour counts for nothing, 
and silhouette is everywhere lost in a mist 
of hatched strokes ; but from this mist there 
emerges an undeniable impression of life 
and of a curious lyrical sentiment. Le Bal 
(203) and the Paysage (212) are both, in 
their curiously realistic way, poetical. — 
By Degas there are two pieces which show 
his extraordinary power. One, the Savoisi- 
enne (209), might almost be overlooked at 
a first glance, so matter-of-fact, almost 
commonplace, is the general effect. But 
a longer study reveals beneath the tight, 
unemphatic presentment a supreme mastery 
of modelling, a classic perception of pure 
form. The other, Les Blanchisseuses (204), 
is more interesting and more dramatic, 
though here, too, that intellectual aloofness 
which characterizes Degas's attitude is 
apparent. The strange and uninviting 
colouring of this study does in the end 
resolve itself into a clearly intentional and 
deliberate harmony. 

The other Impressionists — Monet, Sisley, 
and Pissarro — scarcely interest us so much, 
and the examples shown add nothing to 
what is familiar to all English amateurs. 
On the other hand, Forain has never been 
seen so well as a painter in this country. 
Daumier is clearly the point of departure 
for his art : his satire is finer, more malicious, 
but infinitely less genial and human. But 
for all that one would not miss the fine dis- 
crimination of types, the sharp and delicate 
certainty of touch, seen in such a piece as 
Les Avocats (195). — Besides the picture we 
have mentioned, Manet is represented by a 
delightful little seapiece, Le Bain (184), two 
figures on the seashore, and by a large 
canvas, Le Linge (177), a woman and child 
by a washtub in an orchard. Nothing can 
be imagined more full of life and colour 
than the child, with its doll-like stiffness 
of pose and its bright intense eyes, or more 
genial than the figure of the woman. It is 
an idyllic genre piece, painted not in the 
style one usually associates with such, but 
with a large generalization of form and a 
bluntly direct statement of the central 
facts, such as might in other times and in 
other intellectual circumstances have made- 
a great heroic composition. Here, as always 
with Manet, however much the accidental 
facts of plein air painting may seem to 
have occupied his attention, he really has 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



57 



larger conceptions in view ; unlike Monet, 
he is always the artist first and a naturalist 
by the way. 

It is inevitable, with such interesting and 
already historic material in the exhibition, 
that the work of contemporary British 
painters should be somewhat overshadowed. 
And indeed, for the most part, the pictures 
shown here have rather negative than 
positive merits. Admirably and spaciously 
hung as they are, they produce, with their 
discreet tonality and non-committal state- 
ments, a very agreeable impression ; but 
the more one examines them, the less one 
finds of sustained and decided interest. 
Mr. Strang has made an heroic attempt in 
his Sea Pool (147) at clearness and gaiety 
of colour ; but the composition of the two 
figures has an abstract and theoretical air, 
the despair of the nude figure being as in- 
explicable as the vehement straining of her 
companion under the weight of a loose piece 
of 'drapery. 

Mr. C. Shannon sends an important 
picture, the Mill Pond (222), which we feel 
ought to move us more than it does. Here 
again the composition is extremely learned ; 
it shows the subtlest refinements, the most 
careful rejections of the obvious. And yet 
from this deep research no motive that is 
directly inteUigible to us emerges. We 
recognize and admire the intention, and 
yet we scarcely find ourselves sharing the 
mood. The same artist's other work, a 
portrait of The Hon. Mrs. Goldmann (140), 
has a delicate grace and a refined interpreta- 
tion of character ; but the want of relief, 
either plastic or decorative, becomes pain- 
fully apparent on this large scale. 

Mr. Ricketts's Good Samaritan (224) is 
very powerful and largely handled in its 
design, and, although it is almost too remi- 
niscent of Daumier, has a certain intimacy 
and tenderness in the conception of the 
two figures (particularly in the wounded 
man's head) which make it a personal and 
genuine interpretation of the drama. As 
usual in Mr. Ricketts's paintings, the land- 
scape is entirely abstract, yet is not only 
very beautifully painted, but also singularly 
right in its relation to the theme. His other 
picture, The Expulsion of Heliodorus (153), 
is the most unreserved fantasia he has 
hitherto painted. Here Delacroix replaces 
Daumier as the point of departure, though 
this influence is overlaid by many others, 
not the least of which is that of Mr. Ricketts's 
own earher style of linear design, which 
lias hitherto not made itself felt in his paint- 
ing. The action is vehement, but not exactly 
clear, except for the delightfully witty inven- 
tion of the priest creeping towards the fallen 
figure to recover the treasure, even before 
his celestial protectors have completed their 
triumph. 



ARCH^OLOGICAL XOTES. 

The thoughtful article by M. de Morgan 
in the current number of the Recueil de 
Travaux is full of interest not onlj r for 
Assyriologists, but also for all those who 
have endeavoured to trace man's earliesl 
efforts to preserve inscribed records for the 
use of posterity. He tells us that, of the 
three separate systems of early writing 
known to us, the Egyptian hieroglyphics 
were speedily debased by the use of more 
tractable materials than the stone or wood 
on which they wore originally carved, until 
they lost all but a distant resemblance bo 
the original characters; while the Chinese, 
from a similar cause, became mere groups of 
commas arranged in a conventional order. 
On the other hand, the writers of cuneiform, 
having in the clay used by them a medium 



occupying a middle place between the 
excessively hard stone and the easily stained 
papyrus or paper, preserved more com- 
pletely in their cursive writing the trace 
of the original pictographs than did the 
Egyptians or Chinese ; and M. de Morgan 
thinks that he is able to reconstitute some 
of these on the tablets of uncertain age dis- 
covered by him at Susa, which he calls 
proto-Elamite. Thus he thinks he can 
identify in the groups of wedges the repre- 
sentation of different forms of pottery, of 
plants, of forks, combs, and axes, and of 
harps, bows, and arrows, besides some 
more doubtful animal forms. The instru- 
ment used for producing these was, in his 
opinion, a style of prismatic form ending 
in a triangular point. The source of the 
clay used is still problematical, as he found 
by experiment that that actually existing 
in the country is unfit for the purpose, 
having too great a proportion of sand to 
bake or dry well. 

Another notable work by the same author 
is that just published on ' Les Recherches 
Archeologiques,' which seems to have origin- 
ally appeared in the enterprising publication 
called La Revue des Idees. He here marks 
the distinction between the Babylonian and 
the Egyptian records, in that the first 
named were consciously historical and were 
written for the sake of posterity, while the 
last give, as the others do not, scenes from 
the daily life of the people. He thinks, too, 
that many of the facts of Babylonian history 
may be explained by the theory that the 
different provinces of Mesopotamia were at 
one time separated from each other by 
great tracts of water ; and he throws 
some doubt upon the generally received 
notion that the Egyptian fellah is a better 
workman for explorers than the Chaldean 
Arab. Having tried many different 
races, he comes to the conclusion that a 
few Greek or Italian "navvies" would do 
more work than several times their 
number of Orientals, and it is not im- 
possible that such gangs may in time be 
organized. He also gives detailed instruc- 
tions for the systematic attack on the site 
of an ancient town or village, and even 
suggests several such as likely to yield a 
profitable crop of antiquities ; while he 
concludes with a dissertation upon ancient 
mines, quarries, and lines of communication, 
with many practical hints on the conveyance 
and preservation of objects discovered, and 
some brief remarks on the best means of, 
publication. If he is a little too much in- 
clined to counsels of perfection, the book 
is yet one that no working archaeologist can 
safely neglect. 

The annual Archaeological Report of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund is now out. The 
chief article is M. Xaville and Mr. Hall's 
account of their work at Deir el-Bahari, and 
is well illustrated by photographs. Much 
shorter articles by Mr. Xathan Davies, Prof. 
Petrie, and Drs. Grenfell and Hunt on the 
different works entrusted to them follow ; 
and then comes Mr. Griffith's record of 
Egyptological work during the past year. 
which forms, as usual, rather dry reading. 
He is, however, unexpectedly sound in his 
remarks upon the attempts of the German 
professors Dr. Mahler, Or. Meyer, and Dr. 
Sethe to " settle," arbitrarily and in a 
pontifical manner, the lines of Egyptian 
chronology, and suggests that there are pos- 
sibly factors in the- problem yet unrevealed 
which may upset all previous calculations. 
The reports of Mr. Garstang, Mr. Weigall, 
M. Legrain, and Mr. Quibell are incorporated 
with this part of the Report, and form, with 
Mrs. Petrie's storyof the work of the Egyptian 
Research Account, a tolerably complete 
record of the excavations of the past year. 



Many of the publications reviewed have 
already been noticed in The Athenceum ; 
but this part of the work is well and care- 
fully done, and with a more evident striving 
after impartial criticism than was noticeable 
in former years. The chapter on Graeco- 
Roman Egypt by Dr. Kenyon is. as visual, 
a model of what such work should be, but 
calls for no special remark ; while in Mr. 
Crum's equally excellent chapter on Chris- 
tian Egypt we can only notice a very brief, 
but sharp and just criticism of some recent 
work of M. Revillout. We are sorry to 
notice that the chapter on Arab Egypt has 
this year dropped out. 

It is reported that the excavators under 
the direction of the Service des Antiquites 
at Zawat el-Aryan, near Abusir, have brought 
to light a magnificent tomb of a king of the 
second dynasty, but details are lacking. 
Otherwise little of the result of this season's 
exploration has yet reached this country. 
At Deir el-Bahari the work seems to have 
been confined to the tracing of architectural 
details, but M. Xaville is now on his way 
thither, and his arrival will no doubt give 
things an impetus. Prof. Petrie is reported 
to be at Tell el-Yahudiyeh. but, so far. to 
have found nothing. Mr. Ayrton, on the 
other hand, working for Mr. Theodore Davis 
at Biban'el Moluk, is said to have discovered 
the mummy of Siptah Mineptah. 

A disagreeable instance of the " ratten- 
ing " propensities of a certain class of 
German professor has come to light in the 
attack lately delivered by Prof. Seybold, of 
Tubingen, upon our countryman Mr. Evetts's 
' History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria,' 
now in course of publication. Prof. Seybold, 
in a letter to the Revue Critique, lately 
accused Mr. Evetts of plagiarism, of being 
a very poor Arabic scholar, of not knowing 
a word of Coptic, and of other high archaeo- 
logical crimes and misdemeanours. In a 
reply to this, which lias necessitated the 
publication of a special supplement to the 
review named. M. Xau takes up the cudgels 
in defence of Mr. Evetts. and shows, with 
chapter and verse, that it is Prof. Seybold, 
and not Mr. Evetts, who is in fault. His 
concluding remark is that there are about 
Arabia thousands of camel-men and donkey- 
drivers who are better acquainted with 
Arabic grammar and literature than the 
professor who thus takes upon himself to 
lecture others. As will be seen from this 
specimen, Dr. Xau does not mince matters. 

A careful series of articles by Mr. E. X. 
Gardiner, in The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
on ' Greek Wrestling,' deserves more ex- 
tended notice than we can at present give 
to it, but the likeness of some of the " locks " 
here figured to those used in the Japanese 
jiu-jitsu may be mentioned. 



3finr-Art (Gossip. 

• 

Last Monday Mr. Edward Stott, painter, 
and Mr. F. Vv. Pomeroy, Bculptor, were 
elected Associates of the Royal Academy : 
and Mr. Frank Short and Mr. William 
Strang. Associate-Engravers. 

On Tuesday evening Mr. Solomon J. 
Solomon, painter, was made K.A. ; and 
Herr Josef Israels, painter, and Mr. Augus- 
tus Saint Gaudens, sculptor, were elected 
Honorary Foreign Academicians. 

Tin: Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society 
hold the private view of their eighth -how 
to-day. 

The late Mr. Staate Forbes formed a 
collection of over a hundred examples of 
drawings in chalk and charcoal bj Jean 






58 



THE ATII EN .KUM 



X-4081, Jan. !■'*, 1906 



l-'nmcois Millet. This is shortly to be dis- 
persed, and has been placed in the hands 
of Messrs. Ernest Brown & Phillips, who 
will exhibit it in the Leicester Galleries, 
Leicester Square, for about four weeks from 
Monday next. The famous pastel of 'The 
elus ' will be on show, also several 
finished chalk drawings of subjects which 
Millet never painted in oils. 

At the Leicester Galleries are also being 
shown from to-day onwards French illus- 
trated books of the eighteenth century, and 
a series of water-colours entitled ' Idylls 
of the Country,' by Mr. W. Lee Hankey. 

The spring exhibition of the Royal Scot- 
tish Academy will open on the 27th inst. 
The works on loan include pictures by 
Mr. E. A. Abbey, R.A., Mr. J. S. Sargent, 
R.A., Mr. J. M. Swan, R.A., Mr. Mark 
Fisher, and Mr. E. Stott, A.R.A. 

The first Leighton House exhibition of 
works by artists resident in Kensington — 
who include Mr. J. D. Batten, Miss E. F. 
Brickdale, Mr. Walter Crane, Mr. A. Drury, 
A.R.A., Mr. Holman Hunt, Mr. John Lavery, 
Mr. C. Ricketts, Mr. C. H. Shannon, Mr. 
Byam Shaw, Mr. Hamo Thornycroft, R.A., 
and others — wdll be held from Monday next 
until the end of March. 

Fob more than a hundred years there 
has been a Scottish School of Painting. 
Raeburn and Wilkie gave this school its 
characteristics ; and these two, together 
with many others connected with the 
history of art in Scotland, will be dealt 
with by Mr. William D. McKay in ' The 
Scottisli School of Painting,' which is in 
preparation for Messrs. Duckworth's well- 
known " Red Series." 

The death of Mr. Harrison W. Weir on 
Thursday last week, at the age of eighty- 
one, removes a veteran whose gifts as a 
draughtsman and animal painter were more 
widely appreciated in earlier days than now. 
He was one of the original staff of The 
Illustrated London News, and one of the 
most prolific of supporters of illustrated 
journalism in general. He was a pioneer in 
accurate drawing from nature, and many 
readers now no longer young will remember 
with pleasure his ' Animal Stories, Old and 
New,' ' Our Cats, and all about Them,' 
' Bird Stories,' and other volumes which 
included engravings with his familiar signa- 
ture. ' Our Poultry, and all about Them,' 
was the work of which he was most proud, 
and on which he lavished many years of 
labour. He began exhibiting oil pictures 
in 1843, and showed such work frequently 
at the Society of British Artists and the 
Royal Academy. 

The reviewer of Mr. Holman Hunt's book 
writes : — 

"I find that, by a slip which I unfortunately 
had not the opportunity of correcting, I wrote 
'Delacroix !' instead of 'Delaroohe!' in my review. 
It is needless to say that both my criticism and my 
exclamation mark would have ceased to apply had 
Delaroohe been correct." 

Mr. W. Barclay Squire writes : — 
"It may be worth pointing out that the Duke 
of Northumberland's 'Portrait Group' by W. 
Dohson (No. 105), now exhibited at Burlington 
House, is incorrectly described in the Catalogue. 
The figure on the left, in white satin, holding a 
sketch in his hand, represents Sir Balthazar 
Gerbier, and not Dohson, as stated in the Cata- 
logue. The central figure, dressed in red, is that 
of the painter. Reference to the ages of Gerbier, 
Dohson, and Cotterell should have been sufficient 
to correct the misdescription." 

We referred in these columns on Febru- 
ary 18th, 1905, to the fact that Mr. Charles 



Freer, of Detroit, had offered bis collection 

of pictures to the I " r i 1 1 < . 1 States; but for 
some reason the Smithsonian authorities at 
Washington seem reluctant to accept this 
princely gift, which includes a building to 
cost half a million dollars, and so the offer 
may be withdrawn. As is well known, the 
strength of the collection lies in the Whistlers. 
The pictures are valued at over 000,000 
dollars. 

A commission has been formed in Paris 
for the purpose of promoting a law with 
regard to the " droits des artistes sur leurs 
ceuvres pendant leur vie et cinquante ans 
apres leur mort." The Minister of Public 
Instruction and Fine Arts is in favour of 
some such law, particularly with regard to 
rights of reproduction. There are, however, 
obvious objections to any such scheme. 

The Italian nation has presented M. 
Loubet with an interesting souvenir of his 
official visit to Rome in the form of a picture 
depicting an incident in that journey by a 
young Italian artist, Joseph Aprea, who 
is only twenty-seven years of age. This 
artist has already obtained several successes. 
In 1895 he exhibited at Milan a picture 
called ' Mater Afflictorum,' which attracted 
a great deal of notice. One of his pictures, 
' The Dying Christ,' was purchased by the 
Italian Government, and is now in the 
Gallery of Modern Art at Naples. In 1904 
the Government purchased another of his 
pictures, ' Love and Psyche,' for 24,000 lire. 



'MUSIC 

LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

IN PARIS. 

The decision of the London Symphony 
Orchestra to give two concerts in Paris 
was a bold one, for although it is undoubt- 
edly a fine body of players, the French 
capital can also boast of good orchestras. 
Then, again, the programmes contain several 
British works, and it cannot be said that 
the Parisians have hitherto shown any 
eagerness to become acquainted with our 
home produce. But the visits of French 
orchestras and French conductors to London 
have shown that between the two countries 
there has been for some time an entente 
cordiale in musical as well as political 
matters ; and it is pleasant to note that 
at the concerts in question all the orchestral 
numbers, except one, are being performed 
under the direction of M. Andre Messager 
and M. Edouard Colonne. 

The concerts are being given with the 
assistance of three hundred picked members 
of the Leeds Musical Festival, and, as 
eminent foreign critics have acknowledged, 
the Continent has no choir equal to it. 
Union is strength, and the London Sym- 
phony Orchestra plus the Leeds singers 
makes, we imagine, success doubly sure. 
It may be noted that this is not the first 
visit of an English choir to Paris. Mr. 
Joseph Proudman, who may be regarded 
as a pioneer in such undertakings, took 
over a Tonic Sol-fa choir. There was a 
competi^'on at the International Exhibition 
of 1867, but the choir, being a mixed one, 
was excluded ; its singing, however, at- 
tracted special notice, and a prize was 
awarded to it by the Emperor Napoleon. 
Then in 1878 a programme entirely devoted 
to " English " music — a, term too narrow 
for some of the composers represented — 
was given -under the direction of Sir Arthur 
Sullivan, with the assistance of Henry 
Leslie and his choir. Of the concert one 
French critic remarked : " There are fine 



things and charming pages in that Music 
of which we know so little." Orlando 
Gibbons, Purcell, and Samuel Wesley were 
each represented by their best music ; of 
modern composers there were G. A. Mac- 
farren, Balfe, Sterndale Bennett, Vincent 
Wallace, and Sullivan. Virtually only two 
of these names — Balfe and Sullivan — are 
now seen on concert programmes. Gibbons 
and Wesley still stand for what is noble in 
British musical sacred art. It was perhaps 
wise on the present occasion not to devote 
the whole of the programmes to British 
music, and yet on such a rare occasion not 
only would it have been pardonable, but 
also a much more comprehensive scheme 
might have been drawn up, including speci- 
mens of rising composers. 

The first concert took place on Wednesday 
afternoon. M. Loubet was present, and 
there was a large and appreciative audience, 
comprising many distinguished French mu- 
sicians. ' La Marseillaise ' opened the first 
part, and though the Leeds Choir sang with 
good will, the tone of the voices was some- 
what disappointing ; this was through no 
fault of the singers, but they were placed 
right at the back of the stage, and there 
was a consequent lack of brilliancy. This 
w y as still more perceptible in their rendering 
of Sir Hubert Parry's setting of ' Blest Pair 
of Sirens ' ; it did not excite the same 
enthusiasm that it does when sung at Leeds 
— we refer to the singing, quite apart from 
the stately setting of the words. As this, 
with the exception of ' La Marseillaise,' was 
the only number in the first part in which 
the Leeds Choir was engaged, the great 
reputation which it enjoys must have 
seemed to many of the audience somewhat 
exaggerated. But in Bach's unaccompanied 
motet for double choir " Singet dem Herrn 
ein neues Lied " the singers, by their fine 
rendering of the very difficult music, roused 
the enthusiasm of the audience. It was 
altogether a grand performance. They had 
further opportunity of show T ing their power 
in " The horse and his rider " from ' Israel 
in Egypt ' ; and in our National Anthem, 
with which the concert ended. 

M. Andre Messager conducted Saint - 
Saens's symphonic poem ' Phaeton ' ; Sulli- 
van's dainty ' Dance of Nymphs and Shep- 
herds ' from ' The Tempest ' music by which 
the composer first made a name ; Sir 
Alexander Mackenzie's expressive ' Bene- 
dictus,' and Dr. Cowen's clever Scherzo 
from his ' Scandinavian ' Symphony ; also 
Strauss's ' Don Juan ' and Wagner's ' Die 
Meistersinger ' Overture. 

The fine playing of the London Symphony 
Orchestra was much admired. Sir Charles 
Villiers Stanford conducted the Parry ode, 
the Bach motet, and the Handel chorus, 
and he had every reason to be pleased with 
the reception given both to him and to the 
choir. He appeared, too, as a composer, 
and conducted with success the Andante 
and Finale from his ' Irish ' Symphony, one 
of his ablest works. Of the second concert 
we shall speak next week. 



I&ustral (Oasstp. 

Miss Vera Warwick-Evans, a young 
violinist who has been trained at the Royal 
College of Music, gave a recital at Steinway 
Hall last Tuesday evening. She has a well- 
developed technique, and her performances 
of such exacting compositions as Bach's 
' Chaconne ' and Joachim's ' Variations * 
proved satisfactory both as regards exe- 
cutive skill and insight into the require- 



N°4081, Jan. 13, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



59 



merits of the music. Miss Warwick-Evans 
evidently possesses strong musical feeling. 

When Mozart as a boy visited Italy, 
Hasse, the most popular and the most 
influential opera composer of the day, is 
said to have declared that " the boy will 
soon throw us all into the shade." An inter- 
esting article, ' II Ragazzo Mozard,' signed 
Dr. Carl Mennicke, in the first January 
number of Die Musik, gives some letters 
by Hasse addressed to his friend Abate 
-Giovanni Maria Ortes, to which attention 
was first drawn by G. M. Urbani de Gheltof 
some years back. In the first (Septem- 
ber 30th, 1769) Hasse speaks of having 
made the acquaintance of " Herr Mozard " 
and his talented boy, whom he proclaims 
a "wonder," but fears he will be spoilt by 
his father's flattery. In a later letter 
{March 2nd, 1771) he again refers to some 
well-meant, though foolish conduct on the 
part of the father, but adds : "I have, 
nevertheless, such a good opinion of the 
boy so gifted by nature, that I hope, in 
spite of the father's influence, he will not 
fail, but become ' un brav' uomo.' ' From 
some such remark must have come the 
saying above mentioned. 

A second opera festival will be held at 
Sheffield from February 26th to March 3rd. 
Eight performances will be given by the 
Moody-Manners Company, the list of operas 
including ' Figaro,' ' Flying Dutchman,' 
[ Tristan,' ' Siegfried,' ' Carmen,' ' Eugen 
Onegin,' ' Philemon and Baucis,' and ' Grey- 
steel,' a new opera by Nicholas Gatty. 

The next novelty at the Paris Opera 
Gomique will be M. Camille Erlanger's 
| Aphrodite.' The libretto, by M. Louis de 
Gramont, is based on the novel by Pierre 
Louys, which appeared about ten years ago 
in the Mercure de France. 

The death is announced of Edouard Blau, 
who wrote many libretti, including those of 
r Eselarmonde,' " ' Le Cid,' ' Le Roi d'Ys,' 
and ' Werther ' ; and also the words of 
■Cesar Franck's symphonic poem ' La Re- 
demption.' 

The death is announced of the stage 
singer Gabrielle Krauss, in her sixty-fourth 
year. She was born at Vienna, and studied 
at the Conservatorium of that city, making 
her debut there, at the age of eighteen, in 
Rosaini's ' William Tell.' She took part in 
Gounod's ' Polyeucte ' and ' Sapho,' and in 
Saint-Saens's ' Henri VIII.,' when these 
operas were produced at Paris. 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 



Sin. 



Fumlay Society Concert, 8.30, Queen's Hall. 

Bandar League Concert, 7, Queen's Hall 

,li-- I Uraxendale's Concert. X. Stein war Hall, 
liss Ethel Leginska - Pianoforte Recital, 3, Bechetein Hall. 
Tin as London leailemv of M u~i. Concert. », Steinwav Mill 
Fbi. Miss Hilda Barnes s Violin Rei it.il, H SO. IV, h-t. in Hall. 

Madame Ethel Hueonin - Voi al Kccital. S, .Eoliari Hall. 

Mr. Lomond - Pianoforte Rei ital, 3, Bechstein Hall. 

Mozart v '" iet j . S, Portman Rooms. 

Hvmphonv Concert, 3, Queen » Hall 

rrence Kellie - Song Rei ital, 3 30, Steinwaj Hall. 






DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

Imperial. — The Harlequin King : a " Mas- 
querade " in Four Acts. By Rudolph 
Lothar. Adapted by Louis N. Parker 
and Selwyn Brinton. 

Not wholly pleasant to the occupant is 
sometimes the " fierce light that beats 
upon a throne." In The Maid's Tragedy ' 
of Beaumont and Fletcher, Charles II. 
. not unnaturally disapproved of the assas- 



sination by Evadne of the monarch whose 
mistress she had been, fearing, it is sup- 
posed, that the act might establish an evil 
precedent. An altered termination was 
accordingly substituted by Edmund Waller 
for that which had displeased the 
Court. With a certain difference, history 
repeats itself, and ' The Harlequin King ' 
of Herr Lothar — which shows a supposed 
monarch beguiled, with a purpose of 
murder, into the bedroom of an actress 
whose honour he has attempted — though 
it has been given in various German 
country towns, and has reached Paris and 
London, has been prohibited in Vienna 
and Berlin. Something more than a mere 
example of attempted regicide lies at the 
root of ' The Harlequin King.' The 
purpose of the original piece is in the main 
satirical, and the conditions attendant upon 
royalt} 7 , as the word is understood in a 
country where the established government 
is supposed to be " despotism tempered by 
assassination," are depicted with a cynic- 
ism so frank that apprehension may well be 
begotten. What the adapters can do to 
diminish the crudity of the treatment has 
been done. As much pageantry as the sub- 
ject can receive is introduced ; a mordant 
satire is announced under the promising, 
but misleading description of a '' masque- 
rade " ; and such sentimental aspects as 
the play presents are shown " for all they 
are worth." Nothing, however, of a 
masquerade is there. Histrionic exposi- 
tion of passion and suffering is furnished. 
Murder and adultery stalk through the 
land. The shrine of Peor and that of 
" Moloch homicide " are erected in the 
same palace, " Lust hard by Hate." A 
cowering, furtive figure presents itself, an 
eidolon in the apparel of royalty ; but 
the play has no more of masque or revel 
than have the grim conceptions of the 
danse macabre, and the proper title for the 
piece might well be that anticipated by 
Lovell Beddoes in ' Death's Jest Book.' 
As romance, however, the whole was 
accepted, and the more banal aspects of 
the story pleased a public which its deeper 
lessons would be slow to reach. Whether 
the purpose which commended the theme 
to Herr Lothar was the same which ani- 
mated Hugo in writing ' Ruy Bias ' is 
not clear. The analogy between the two 
pieces is remarkable. In the latter we 
see the queen of the most state -ridden 
Court in Europe avowing openly her love 
for a self-proclaimed lackey ; in the former 
we find the government of a mediaeval 
State lapsing into the hands of a profes- 
sional mountebank. 

Modified, and to a certain extent emas- 
culated, as it is, the play stimulates, though 
scarcely in a fashion that can be wholly 
gratifying to the author. It is, moreover. 
well played, from the standpoint accepted. 
There is something Fechterlike about Mr. 
Waller's performance of the Harlequin 
raised, by an act of all-but-justifiable 
homicide, fcp the throne. A charming, 
but rather modern presentation of Colom- 

bine is given by Miss Evelyn Millard. Mr. 
Norman McKinnel acts with remarkable 
breadth and virility as a species of Russian 
grand duke, according to popular concep- 



tions of that character ; and Miss Mary 
Rorke as a blind queen shows admirable 
style. The scenes — confined to the first 
two acts — in which she appears convey 
an idea of the influences of Maeterlinck. . 



New Royalty. — French Comedy Season : 
La Souris, en Trois Actes. Par Edouard 
Pailleron. — Decore, Comedie en Trois 
Actes. Par Henri Meilhac. 
A promising start has been made by the 
new Theatre Francais in London. Not 
quite a masterpiece is ' La Souris of M. 
Pailleron, but it is an agreeable, and, as 
regards its main interest, idyllic work, and 
is admirably acted. When first presented 
at the Comedie Franchise on Novem- 
ber 18th, 1887, it had a magnificent cast, 
including M. Worms as the hero (its soli- 
tary male character), Mile. Reichemberg 
as the souris (so called on account of her 
noiseless and shrinking ways), Miles. 
Bartet, Broisat, Samary, and Celine 
Montaland. In London M. Pierre Mag- 
nier replaces M. Worms, acting in admir- 
able style ; while Madame Rejane assigns 
unexpected importance to the part of 
Pepa Rimbault, a vulgar and passably 
immodest product of Seville and Batig- 
nolles. These parts were played to per- 
fection, others being well interpreted by 
Miles. Mareelle Lender and Suzanne Avril. 
On the playbill are printed the dedicatory 
lines addressed by M. Pailleron to Mile. X.: 

De cette simple et tendre et chaste comedie 
Vous etes l'heroine, et je vous la dedie. 
Cest mi roman d'amour qui se passe entre nous, 
Un tvve — pleio de vmis, mais ignore 1 de vous, — 
Car j'ai si bien cache ee que j'ai voulu (aire, 
Que iiiuii leuvre au grand jour gardera bod mystere, 
Et, nieine en la voyant, vims ne saurez jamais 
Que e'est vous dont je parietal que je vous aimais. 

It is scarcely theatrical criticism, but it is 
a matter of considerable literary interest, 
to point out the striking resemblance in 
sentiment and expression between these 
verses and a memorable sonnet of Felix 
Arvers : — 

Mon ame a son secret : ma vie a sun nivstere, 

l*u amour eternel en un moment concu : 
Le mal est san-- espoir aussi j'ai du le taire, 

Kt eelle qui la fait n'a jamais rien su. 
Helas ! j'aurai passe pies d'elle inapereu. 

Toujours a ses cotes el pourtant solitaire : 
Et j'aurai jusqu'au bout fait mon temps sur la terre, 

N'osant rien demande et n'ayant rien recu. 

Pour elle. quoique Dieu l'ait fait douce et tendre. 
Kile suit son chemin, distraite et san- entendre 

( !e murmure d'amour si iulevd [elev6! ] sur ses pas. 
A l'austere devoir pieusement fidele, 
Elle dira. lisant ses vers tout remplis d'elle. 

"Quelle est (lone cette fellime';" et ne enm- 

prendra pas. 

We will consummate the impertinence 
of the entire proceeding by venturing on 
a free and inadequate rendering of the 
sonnet in question : — 
One sweet. sad secret holds my heart in thrall : 

\ mighty love within my breast has grown, 

Unseen, unspoken, and of uo one known : 
And ut mj sweet, who gave it, least oi all. 
Close as the shadow that doth by her fall 

I walk beside her evei more alone, 

Till to the end m\ wcaix days li.ive tli.wn. 

With naught t.i hope, to wail tor, t" reoalL 

For her, t li< »nurli God hath made her kind as sweet, 

Selene she mOV68, QOr heat- &DOUt her teet 

These waves <>t love which break and overflow. 
Yea ' she will read these lines, where men may see 
A whole ''••■ - longingB, marvelling, " Who is she 

Thai nni' can move him?" and will never know. 






T II i: A T II l.\ .1. I M 



N K»81, Jan. l.'V 1 



\\ j Mi -illiin- nluli- t any 

aid from i 

I i, , : • • . \ 

,a<l all the \Mt ami 

<1 from tin- > loston 
•i. in us blending <«f 
mtliiiic tluit might almost be 
<1 prurience, it might nave strayed 
the pn nd one was 

(lisjK.sril to -> iutim/i- u I u>t her theauthi 
name might not be « 'harlee ( '-'IK- or < lauds 

. ot tl<- Crebillon. At anj i 
the i i miracle of veiled impropriety, 

and "f suggestion which, in the band 
Madame rw jane j"< - n> i urn) I"- 

ealization. Madame Rejane was the 
I in * hirh tin- intention of 
tin- author MTins fully carried out. If 
only for thr sake <>f contrast, we should 
like • - i 'ii>i- m the role. 



vt (,H i fi '.'In Iitt-rlude of 

Youth. 

Tin: English Drama Society, a body which 

aims apparently at wearing the mantle of 

defunct Mermaid Society on 

Monday afternoon at the Great Queen 

el Theatre a performance of 'The 

Interlude of Youth,' an anonymous work 

which amon- moralities came not very 

fai aft ivmaii.' It has much in 

common in subject, and a little in 

tim-nt. with " Lusty .Inventus.' and is 

written in verse of BOme flexibility. Not 

quite the first time is it that the play has 

n given for a solitary occasion. Its 
interpreters choose to remain, like the 
author of the play, anonymous. Their 
performance, consisting mostly of pos- 
turing and rec|tation,V was reverential 
and imprec One or two further 

presentations of a work which casts a 

.lit tight upon mediaeval methods 

Jit with advantage he attempted. 



- . Jamxs's.- .! 9 )'"(/ Lih It. 

much fragrance clings to ' As You 

Like It * that no performance of it fails to 

administer a large measure of delight. 

atmosphere of Shakspeare's comedy 

i- monopolized by Bhakspeare. It is a 

land of enchantmenl in which, to use 

I ' none durst walk save 

he. That the performance given on 

I teeday afternoon at the St. James's, and 

ted, i 1 - ideal may not he said. 

It may, however, be seen with pleasure. 
Mi-- Lilian Braithwaite ae Rosalind, Miss 
Lattice Fairfax a- Celia, Mr. Henry Ainlej 

Orlando, Mr. Mollison as .Jacques, and 
Mr. < L ;i r 1< - i - as Touchstone are in 

the main satisfactory, and the whole must 

hi- regarded ae i reditable. 



Hamilton .Mi \.u itli, 

Mi \t i,. I Strw ail . 10 

worthy ol tin- attention of some manage 

i. ok "Ut lor it tiov< li \ . 
' \n 1 1 1 101 1 in mi ' liun been I at 

tin- ( treat Q irith Ben 

Amu I »r. .1 iiltmr, in \\ Imli In- 

pre\ ioualj -■•■ n I r&uletn M 
made a delightful Kathie, unci Hen II 
k an acceptable Prince Karl Heinrieh. 
I'w 1 1 1 1 n Nii.nr ' wa I on Monde] 

ui Hi- Maji 1 ■ < iitiv. vrith Mi. Tree a* 

Mah oho. \1 1- In. a- \ 11 ila, M Coiisl 
CoUier as i>li\m. and Mr. Lionel Bi 
.by. 
Vahxous deviosi are in oontemplation 
with a view tn oombal tin- ohanged condi- 
tions of iournalistio labour in connexion 
with tlir theatre. The early hour- of 
publication render difficult tin task of 
supplying in a daily periodica] an adequate 
int lit a piece produced tin- previous 
evening. It seems a-- it tin- Parisian iminw 
of inviting critics to a bears al will 

l.c frequently adopted. On opening T< 1 

Theatre Mr. .Ian.- Welch will, it is said. 

begin, for one at least, his per- 

formance at seven o'clock instead of eight, 

thus giving an hour- extension to tin- tunc 
at the disposal of the report) 

Wkdnksiiay next will witness the I n-LTlIl- 
DJng of Mr. Cyril Maude's tenure oi the 

Waldorf Theatre, when that actor and ktiss 
Winifred Emery will appear in " The Superior 
Mifla PellensW,' by Mr. Sidney Bowkett. 

The farce of ' The Partik'ler I'd ' will also 
he given. 

Ix the forthcoming production at the 
Court Theatre of Prof. Gilbert Murray's 
rendering of ' Klectra." Mi-> Edith Wynne 
Matthison will he Klectra : Mi-- Edith 

Olive, Clytemnestra : Mr. Baroourt Wil- 
liams, Orestes; Mr. .1. BE. Barnes, an old 

man ; and Miss Gertrude Scott, leader of 
choru<. 

1 La Mokt nr Tintaoii.ks ' of Maurice 
M.e terlinck ha- been given in Paris at the 
Mathurin- by a company comprising Me-- 
dames Georgette Leblanc, Nina Russell, 
and Ine- Devrias, and M. Stephens Austin. 

death, in his fifty-seventh year, is 
announced from Frankfort of Karl Her- 
mann, an actor of much distinction, and 
author of 'Die Technik des Sprechens,' 
which has passed through many editions. 

Gerhart Jlvt i'tmann linn written a 
play called ' Pipa Dances,' which will be 
performed during January at the Leasing 
Theater, Berlin. 



Dramatic (H c g i p . 

• \ ..I III Mill II.' II thle. net 

P.i-rjl an. 1 Hamilton. 

On Monday afternoon at the 

a t Inn ami iatli«r OOnVt n- 

tional piece, derived from a story which 

•a tin- light, Ian 1- brightlj 

written, and proved vastly entertaining. 

It wa- admirably played bj Miss Meryl 



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UrgeM ma .1 -t i ..II.. 1 1. .ii offered lot Bala In the World OATA 

I.l HI I KM i— U..I anil will post free "ii application Book* Boi 
IVALTEH I SPENCER, 27, Nov Oxford Street, London, u C 



H|[. PEACH, 87, Belvoir Street, Leicester, 
. Issues CATALOGUES of M8S and RARE BOOKS pott free 
lector*. No. n contain! ■ number ol Interesting and ran 
In. iiii.iM.n and English Books, just pnrchased nt the Sale oi the 
Marcel Schwob Library, Paris, ana other sources Abroad. 



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ALLOW A V & PORTER, Booksellers, 

Cambridge, 

NKW CATALOGUE OP BOOKS In all Branches of Literature, 
Including Books under Headings of Art, Brewing, Angling, Classics, 
Mathematics, Theology, Ac, i»'-t free. 

T( M '. 1 : 1 1 > ( ; ]•; w e l L s. — a p a r t m e n T s. 
Comfortably Furnished Bitting-Room and One Bedroom. 
Pleasant and central No others taken.— 1!. II.. 66, Grove Hill Road, 
Tunbridge Wells. 



&aks hi Ruction. 

Valuable Law Books, inetudxng the Library of n Barrister 
ring from Practice— handsome Carved Oak Bookca.se, 
ami other Library and Office Furniture. 

MESSRS. HODGSON & CO. will SELL by 
U'ction. at their Rooms, 116, Chancery Lane, w<'. on 
KHI1> VY, January 26, at l o'clock, valuable LAW BOOKS, comprising 
a Set of the Law Reports, New Series, from 1876 to 1906, 247 vols, half- 
call i-i» Journal Reports, from the commencement in l82Stol866— 
Reports in King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer— Election 
and Crown Cases— Recent Editions of Text-Books jalso a law and 
handsome Carred <>ak Winged Bookcase. Mahogany Tables, and other 
Library and Office Furniture— Prints ami Engravings. 
Catalogues on application. 

Valuable Miscellaneous Boohs, including Books from the Col- 
lection of the late Sir ROBERT SMIRKE (the Property of 

a Latin), Portion of the Library of the late JOSEPH 
GOVILT, and the Library of the late WALTER C. MET- 
CALFE, Esq. (by order of the Executor). 

MESSRS. HODGSON & CO. will SELL by 
AUCTION, at their Rooms, 116, Chancery Lane. W.C, on 
WEDNESDAY, January 31, and Two Following Hays, valuable 
MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, comprising Genealogical, Topographical, 
and Architectural Works, including eraser's Family of Elpninstone, 
2 vols., and Papworth and Morant's Dictionary of Arms— Gould's 
Family of Trogons— Reichenbach's [cones Flora' Germanics, Coloured 
Plates, -*J vols., and other Natural History Books — Astronomical 
Society's Monthly Notices, ji vols.. 1827-60— Pitt-Rivers's Archaeo- 
logical Works, B vols.— Huskin's Modern Painters. Complete Edition, 
Large Paper 8 vols -Mrs. Frankaus John Raphael Smith, with the 
Portfolio of Engravings -a Set of the studio to lliw. and other Modem 
Fine Art and Illustrated Books — Hui ton's Arabian Nights, with 
Letchford's Illustrations, IS vols, in morocco ease— handsome Sets of 
Sett Dickens, Lytton, and others, in calf and morocco bindings— 
Walnole's Letters, the New Edition. Large-Paper Copy, 16 vols.— 
Books with Coloured Plates— First Editions of Dickens, Thackeray. 
Swinburne, Stevenson, and others— Encyclopaedia Britannica, Tenth 
Edition. 36 volt half-morocco: also BOOKS from the COLLECTION of 
the late Sir ROBERT SMIRKE, removed from Canterbury, the 
Property of a LADY. 

( catalogues on application. 

LEEDS. 

Highly interesting Sole of the Antiquarian and Artistic 
Property of the late J. 11. WURTZBURG, Esq., J. P., 
to br removed from Frens, Ben Bhydding, to the East 
Parade Auction Rooms, Leeds, for convenience of Sale 

(by order of his Executors). 

MESSRS. EEPPER & SONS beg to announce 
their Instruction! to SELL by AUCTION; on WEDNESDAY 

and Tlll'KSIiAV, January ::i and February 1, in their Rooms, 
EAST PARADE LEEDS, the very varied and valuable ANTI- 
QUARIAN and AUTISTIC PROPERTY collected by the deceased, 
amongst which will be found:— 

B0 8EP1 \ DRAWINGS of <»I.I» LEEDS, by W. Braithwaite. 

About mo OLD ENGRAVINGS, PRINTS. 4c. 

A number oi charming WATER COLOURS, by J. N. Carter, Gilbert 
Foster W, T. Webb, W. S. Wright. John Storey, and others. 

The major portion of the LIBRARY of BOOKS, including 
numerous Topographical Works, relating chiefly to Yorkshire. 

A large number of AUTOGRAPHS, including those of Queens Anne 
and Victoria and Napoleon Buonaparte Old Deeds, Letters, News- 
papers, and oiber interesting M88. and Printed Matter 

A COLLECTION of GOLD, SILVER, and COPPER COINS, 
TOKENS, and WAR and COMMEMORATION MEDALS. 

Catalogues i(W. each] will be readv next Saturday, and may be had of 
thi \i CTIONEERS. . , , , _ , 

on view on Tuesday, January ■■". in the sale Rooms. East Parade. 

Leeds. 



DUBLIS. 

VALUABLE COLLECTION of JEWELS, OLD 

V SILVER PLATE. Including an almost unique William and 

Mary Toilet Service- t Georgian Dinner Service of :i dozen Plates, 

n shaped Dishes, and Set of Entree Dishes en Suite— Pistol fflandle 

Table Knives, several Salvers and Waiters. Tea I'm of tine form. 
Silver (iilt Dessert Sets. Pair of lofty Flagons, bo.— fine old Sheffield 

Plated Ware Two large Panels of old French Tapestry (Boucher 
Subjects) an exquisite Enamel Miniature of Francis I.. 

Emperor of Austria. Father of Marie Antoinette, by Ronquet— Oil 
Paintings Engravings -valuable Collection of Gold, Silver, ami 
Bronze Medals and Coins Musical Instruments, including Violins by 
Guamerins, Feebler, and others Violas -Violoncello by Rantmann, 
Ac To be told by Auction at the sale Rooms. <i. Upper Ormond 
Quay on WEDNESDAY, February I, 1906, the above valuable Pro- 
perty in portion hv direction of FLORENCE, VISCOUNTESS MAS- 
SEBEENE and FEB It Alt D. and the remainder removed from a Man- 
sion in Hie County Louth'. Catalogues will be ready for distribution 
one week preceding Sale. — BENNETT A SON. Auctioneers, 6, Upper 

Ormond o.imy. 



n and 8\ and 

Pot ■ ■ /-. . the Pi ,■•. ■ ol 'if late 

i/ / REDBRICK BARKER 

\\ esshs. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON* HODGE 

'»• will BELL by ACl TION ihj ordei of the Kiecutori . »t their 
No i.i. Wellington Street, Strand Vv I v ,UK\ 

■ I" k |.i..,-.lv M |..i,n A j-| i i.i 

SIGNED I MINTS. ,t BRITISH and F"i:l h,\ tDVKRI 

PKl.M E>. A. . the Propertj -f the lata Hi I REDEUII K BARKER. 
Hay be Tiered. Qataloi . had. 

i Portion of the Library of the lot* I: 1/ I: BURRELL, 
Esq., and a Portion of the Library oj '//•• Hon. Mr. J 

/'.I ) 

MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON ft HODGE 
will SELL by All TK.N. at th. h House, No 13, Well 
Street, Strand, W C. on MONDAY, January 29. and Two Foil 
Days, ill I o'clock precisely, BOOKS and MANUSCRIPTS. Inclu 
Portion oi the LIBRARY ol the lata Rei H J G PHASER of 
"Bramblya Basingstoke, oompriaing Mrs. Inchbald't British Theatre 
Valpys Shakespeare, IS v..l» - Elizabethan Dranutii I 

Work Cheat Book- relating to the East Poems by J. it . First 

Edition. Presentation Copy, with an Inscription Punch, im vol., 
1841 :>i ; the Property of the late It M. R. BURRELL. Esq. sold by 
Order of the Executors), including Seebohm't British Birds, 4 vol.. 
the Writings of Dickens and Tnackenu Surtees'i Sporting Novell 
First Editions — Works on Natural History and Botany, including 
Gould's Birds of (ireat Britain- Dallaway'i Sussex, a Special < opy 
Extra illustrated. 4e. ; the Property of G. ST. JOHN BRENON 
containing Hv.es Beaumont and Fletcher. Best Edition, and the 
Works oi Marlowe, Peele, Middleton, and other Early Dramatic 
Literature -Freeman't Norman Conquestv.6 vols.— Pinlay'i Greece, 
? vols- Prescott't Works, is vols— Ranke't England, 6 volt and other 
standard Works, 4c; a Portion of the LIBBABY of JOHN w. 
TRIST, Eta., F.S.A., including Works on Numismatics — Books ot 
Prints, and Publications on Art and Archaeology— Portraits and 
Engravings— Books with Coloured Plates, &<•.; a Portion of the 
LIBRARY of the Hon. Mr. Justice DAY, deceased [removed from 
Beaufort House, co. Kerry), containing Scott's Novels, "Abbotaford 
Edition '-the Bibliographical Writings of T. F. Dibdln— Early Printed 
Books— Milton's Paradise Lost, Fir-t Edition- Theology, Biography, 
Ac; other PROPERTIES, including Shakespeare's works. Fourth 
Folio— Lepsius's Deiikmaeler, 12 vols. — Sanders Keichcnhachia, 4 vols. 
—Early Tracts, Ac. 

May be viewed two days prior. Catalogues may be had. 



Valuable Books ami Autographs, including the Library of 
F. THORNTON, Esq. 

MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON will SELL 
by AUCTION at their Galleries, 47. Leicester Square, W.C, on 
THURSDAY, January 25, and Following Hay, at ten minutes past 

1 o'clock precisely, valuable BOOKS, including Bow landsons Loyal 

Volunteers, Coloured Plates — Ackermann's Westminster Abbey, 

2 vols. — Lowes Ferns, 8 vols.— Manuscripts on Vellum, with Minia- 
tures—Martial Achievements of Great Britain — Biblia Polonica, 1661— 

Sharpe s English Poets, 70 vols, morocco gilt — Naval Chronicle. 
4H vols.— The Mcynellian Science, 1848— S-.vilts Gulliver's Travels. 

2 vols. First Edition — Mather's Tryals of New England Witches and 
Further Account— L'Art de la Lutte, Plates by Remain de Hooghe — 
an extensive Series of Play-bills of Drury Lane and Covelit Garden 
Theatres — Skelton's Charles I., .Japanese Vellum Copy — Works on 
Costume with Coloured Plates— Horsfields Sussex. 2 vols— Fielding's 
English Lakes. Coloured Plates— Bray ley and Buttons Surrey— 
Pabcontographical Society's Publications— Hogarth's Works— Middle- 
ton's Grecian Remains in Italy, Coloured Plates— tine Examples of 
English and Foreign Bindings— Works from the Early Foreign Presses 
—First Editions of Modern Poets and Novelists— Standard Works on 
the Fne Arts, Science, Theology, Travel. &e. -, also AUTOGRAPH 
LETTERS and DOCUMENTS, including specimens of Geo. 
Washington, Lady Hamilton, Lord Nelson, R. Southey, C. Dickens. 
Sir W. Scott, Queen Elizabeth, and many other interesting items 
including a large quantity- Of Correspondence addressed to the late 
J. Northcote, K.A. 

Catalogues on application. 

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS 
respectfully f&Ye Notice that thev will hold the Following 
SALES by AUCTION, at their Great Rooms, King Street, St. James's 
Square, the Sales commencing at 1 o'clock precisely :— 

On MONDAY, January '22, MODERN PIC- 
TURES and DRAWINGS of W. MARTEN SMITH. Esq.., and the 
late 0. WENT WORTH WASS, Esq. 

On TUESDAY, January 23, ENGRAVINGS 

of the EABLY ENGLISH SCHOOL and MODERN ETCHINGS. 

On WEDNESDAY, January 24, DECORATIYE 

and USEFUL SILVER PLATE of G. B. WIELAND, Esq., deceased, 
and OLD ENGLISH SILVER from numerous sources. 

On FRIDAY, January 26, ORIENTAL FORCE- 
LAIN of S. BAERLEIN. Esq.. 

On SATURDAY, January 27, ANCIENT and 

MODERN PICTURES and WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS, the 
Property of Mr. J. J. WIGZELL, 

Microscopes, Lanterns, Cameras; a Gardner Machine Gun, 

suitable for Vac/its, dc. 

On FRIDA 7 SEXT, at half-past IS o'clock. 

MR, J. C. STEVENS will SELL by AUCTION, 
at his Rooms. ::n. King Street. Covent Garden. London. W.C, 
MICROSCOPES, Objectives, and all Accessories by Well-known 
Makers Optical Lanterns with Slides in first rate order ; also Cameras, 

Lenses, cineiiiatograi.h Films, Typewriter, and Miscellaneous Property, 
On view day prior 10 to .">, and morning of Sale. Catalogues on 
application. 



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rpHE HOME COUNTIES MAGAZINE. 

JL JANUARY, 1006. 

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Ham House and its Owners Quarterly Notes Gravescn.l- In the 
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67 



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N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



69 



SATURDAY, JANUARY ,.'0, 1006. 



■84 



CONTENTS. 

Pi 
The Letters of Horace Walpole 

A New Translation of Turgenieff 

The Company of Girdlers 

Madame Geoffrin and her Salon 

New Novels (A Golden Trust ; Anna of the Plains ; 
For the White Cockade ; The Inseparables ; The 
Coining of the Tide ; A Royal Rascal ; Who was 
Lady Thurne ? Rosamond's Morality). . .. 72- 

Calendars and Year-Books 

Our Library Table (Sermons and Selections of 
Creighton ; The Hearseys ; Man to Man ; The 
Cloak of Friendship ; Marie Antoinette ; Addenda 
to Bercher's ' Nobility of Women ' ; The Haunts of 
Men ; Mary Moule ; John Lyly ; Costumes of High- 
land Clans and Regiments ; Political Parables) 74- 

List of New Books 

Thomas Gray in Peterhouse ; Incorporated 
Association of Head Masters ; Sir Mount- 
stuakt Grant Biff ; The Book Sales of 
1905; The ]477 Venice Edition of the 'Divina 
Commedia ' ; The Early English Brama 
Society 76- 

Literary Gossip 

Science — Research Notes; Anthropological 

Notes; societies; Meetings Next Week; 

Gossip si- 

Fine Arts — The Old Masters at Burlington 

House ; Academicians at the Carfax Gallery ; 

The Department of Coins in the British 

Museum ; Gossip S4- 

Music— London Symphony Orchestra in Paris; 

Gossip; Performances Next Week .. 86- 
Drama — French Plays; Alma Mater; A Royal 

Divorce ; The Electra of Euripides ; Le 

Sonnet dArvers ; Gossip 87- 

Index to Advertisers 



LITERATURE 



The Letters of Horace Walpole. Vols. XIII.- 
XVI. Edited by Mrs. Paget Toynbee. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 

With these four volumes Mrs. Paget 
Toynbee completes her great task, which 
has been probably one of the most formid- 
able of its kind in our time. As she began 
she went on, and the conclusion maintains 
her high level of editorial efficiency. The 
notes remain what they started with 
being — adequate, and not officious ; 
friendly guides, and not encyclopaedic 
notices. One reads Walpole for his 
own sake, and he is sufficiently explana- 
tory himself at times to render an inter- 
preter unnecessary ; but when there is 
any doubt as to his meaning Mrs. Toynbee 
is at hand (or rather at foot) to make the 
necessary explanations. Thus Walpole 
in a lengthy letter to the Countess of 
Upper Ossory recounts the beginnings of 
his friendship with the Miss Berrys, and 
our editor merely adds a few posthumous 
details, and makes a correction :— 

" It was not Mr. Berry's father who dis- 
inherited him, but liis maternal uncle, Mr. 
Ferguson, a successful Scotch merchant, 
who made a large fortune, and purchased 
the estate of Raith in Fifeshire." 

The coping - stone of this editorial 
work is naturally the index, which forms 
the sixteenth volume, and unfortunately 
has been the cause of differences between 
Mrs. Toynbee and the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press. Mrs. Toynbee, pre- 
paring an index on her own lines, desired 



the postponement of the publication for 
a few months. The Delegates could not 
see their way to adopt this course, and 
Mrs. Toynbee then handed over her work 
to others. She states that her plan was 
subjected to alterations, and disclaims 
responsibility. From a note by the Dele- 
gates we gather that the Rev. Andrew 
Clark completed the indexing of persons, 
and Messrs. Greentree, Berry, and Bell 
assisted with the other indexes ; and the 
Delegates express regret that " the amal- 
gamation of the new matter with that 
furnished by Mrs. Toynbee, and the com- 
pression of the three indexes within the 
limits of the volume, have necessitated 
alterations of her work." It is certainly 
to be deplored that so important and 
laborious a work has not been crowned 
by a complete index. That supplied 
cannot be regarded as worthy of a great 
scheme. A correspondent points out that 
Anglo-Mania (vi. 341), London Fog(x. 169), 
and Influenza (xii. 262), are all missing ; 
nor is there sufficient reference to bio- 
graphical particulars. The sixteenth 
volume comprises " addenda et corri- 
genda," genealogical tables, a list of 
correspondents, and three indexes of per- 
sons, places, and subjects. 

With Walpole's advancing years his 
correspondents undergo a slight change, 
but he is already an old man now, since we 
resume in the year 1783. The three epis- 
tolary volumes cover the time between 
that year and the year of Walpole's 
death, 1797. By that time he had 
enjoyed the honours of his earldom a 
few years, and was, in Donne's fine 
phrase, ebbing out " with those that 
homeward go." He has still his old 
confidant, Sir Horace Mann, at the other 
end of the post ; the Countess of Upper 
Ossory also is faithful ; the Rev. William 
Mason appears with periodicity, and Han- 
nah More grows more prominent. Walpole 
suffers no change, unless it be that he is 
a little sweetened with old age. At 
least his letters have the look of it some- 
times, and he does not seem to take quite 
the malicious joy in the humours and 
scandals of society that he was wont to 
take. The Walpole of seventy is cer- 
tainly not the Walpole of thirty. His 
manners are as fine as ever, but he rings 
a little more sincere, as when he writes 
to " Saint Hannah " : — 

" In truth I am nauseated by the Madams 
Piozzi, &c, and the host of novel-writers in 
petticoats, who think they imitate what is 
inimitable, ' Evelina ' and ' Cecilia.' Your 
candour, I know, will not agree with me, 
when I tell you I am not at all charmed 
with Miss Seward and Mr. Hayley piping 
to one another : but you I exhort, and 
would encourage to write ; and flatter 
myself you will never be royally gagged 
and promoted to fold muslins ; as lias been 
lately wittily said on Miss Burney, in the 
list of five hundred living authors. Your 
writings promote virtues; and their in- 
creasing editions prove their worth and 
utility. If you question my sincerity, can 
you doubt my admiring you, when you 
have gratified my self-love so amply in 
your ' Has Bleu.' Still, as much as [love 
your writings, I respect yet more your heart 
and your goodness. You aro so good that 



I believe you would go to heaven, even 
though there were no Sunday, and only 
six working days in the week." 

In these volumes most human interest 
centres in the Berry correspondence. 
The " Berries " occupied a big position 
in Walpole's later years. He was seventy 
when he made the acquaintance of those 
two girls of twenty-four and twenty-five ; 
and he came to depend upon their affec- 
tion increasingly. He paints their por- 
traits in an enthusiastic letter to the 
Countess of Upper Ossory : — 

" Mary, the eldest, sweet, with fine dark 
eyes, that are very lively when she speaks, 
with a symmetry of face that is the more 
interesting from being pale ; Agnes, the 
younger, has an agreeable, sensible counten- 
ance, hardly to be called handsome, but 
almost." 

The first time he sat by Mary he 
" found her an angel both inside and 
out " ; and we have no doubt as to 
which of the two was his favourite. 
Walpole was a connoisseur of beauty 
beyond contradiction, but we are bound 
to say that the miniatures of the sisters 
by Miss Mee, reproduced in these volumes, 
do not altogether suggest the charm 
they had for Walpole. They are two 
comely young women, but how did they 
accomplish the storming of Walpole's 
heart ? They are to him " dearest angels " ; 
he claims them as his wives, and reproaches 
them for their silence. It is all in his old 
way ; the habit is inveterate : — 

" In France, where nuptiality is not the 
virtue most in request, a wife will writ© 
to her consort, though the doux billet should 
contain but two sentences, of which I will 
give you a precedent. A lady sent the 
following to her spouse : ' Je vous ecris, 
parce que je n'ai rien a faire ; et je finis, 
parce que je n'ai rien a vous dire.' 

Is there anywhere his equal at this 
light badinage ? Yet his alfection was 
no light matter. Shortly after his acces- 
sion to the title through the death of his 
dissolute nephew, some insinuations on 
the nature of his relations witli the young 
ladies were made in a public print, and 
Mary Berry apparently resented this, and 
sought to terminate the close friendship. 
This set Walpole in a panic. " My dearest 
angel," he writes ; and he pleads : — 

" Is all your felicity to be in the power of 
a newspaper ? who is not so ? Are your 
virtue and purity, and my innocence about 
you ; are our consciences no shield against 
anonymous folly or envy ? Would you 
only condescend to be my friend if I were a 
beggar ?.... For your own Bake, for poor 
mine, combat such extravagant delicacy, 
and do not poison the few days of a life 
which you, and you only, can sweeten." 

Sincere distress rings in those clamant 
sentences. The old man was losing his 
daughters. Mrs. Toynbee states in a 
note, "on the authority of Miss Berry's 
maid, who survived to L896 or 1S97, that 
Walpole offered his ' hand and heart ' to 
Mary Berry, and his ' hand and coronet ' 
to Agnes Berry — doubtless with a view 
of securing their constant society." This 
might very well have been done in exten- 
sion of that badinage so characteristic of 
him. But one doubts the value of a 



70 



tii i«: Arii EN ;1-;um 



N 1082, Jam. 20, L906 



statement made after a long lapse of 

tunc l>\ a woman who must 1 1 . i \ < ■ been 

young when the two Berrya were old 
women. The Berry episode remaina no 
puzzle, and is only interesting because 
it happened to a man of Walpole's tem- 
perament. 

In this definitive edition it was probably 
considered necessary i<> include <-\ ery scrap 
thai Walpole wrote. Yet there is no vital 
interest in such correspondence as ; — 

Mr. Walpole, being now muoh better, 
will be glad of the honour of Boeing Sir 
John Kcnn any morning after eleven that 
he is at leisure. 

The last Letter in this correspondence 
is numbered 3021, and is addressed to 
his old friend the Countess of Upper 
Ossory, who had been showing his " idle 
notes" to others. It was written but a 
few weeks before his death. He remon- 
strates with her for so doing, and 
deprecates himself as some one past his 
time. He is regarded by his fourscore 
nephews and nieces, who are brought to 
visit him once a year, as a Methusalem 
to stare at ; and he begs to be let 
alone : — 

"I shall be quite content with a sprig of 
rosemary thrown after me, when the parson 
of the parish commits my dust to dust." 

These volumes are his rosemary, and 
we cannot conceive that the world will 
ever forget them. 



The Novels and Stories of Ivan Turgenieff. 
Translated from the Russian by Isabel 
Hapgood. 16 vols. (Dent & Co.) 

In these well-printed and handsome 
volumes Miss Isabel Hapgood gives us a 
complete translation of the works of 
Turgenieff, thereby entering into com- 
petition with the version of Mrs. Garnet t, 
which first occupied the field. There was 
need of a translation into English of 
the writings of one of the foremost 
novelists of his time, and this was to a 
certain extent furnished by Mrs. Garnett. 
The present version, however, by Miss 
Hapgood is more extended, as it includes 
all the well - known works, with the 
addition of a few writings of minor 
importance which had not been before 
translated. We have thus the most 
complete translation which has been 
issued. The tales were known to 
many who were unacquainted with 
Russian by means of French versions, 
some of which were good and some indif- 
ferent. There appears to be no truth in the 
story that many of these versions were 
inspired by Turgenieff himself. 

The volumes of Mrs. Garnett's trans- 
lation have been reviewed from time 
to time by us. Her version is in 
elegant English, and perhaps in this 
respect superior to that of Miss Hapgood, 
who indulges in an occasional American- 
ism. But on the whole the translation 
of the latter is distinctly good, and she 
has the advantage of giving more notes 
than her English rival. The introductory 
remarks to each volume contain very 
useful matter, on the circumstances in 



which eaoh novel appeared and the 
opinions of the authors countrymen and 

i ontemporariee, especially in the 
Fathers and Children : and Virgin Soil.' 

\\ ■ know that .Miss BapgOOd 1- well 

acquainted with the Russian langu 
ana Russian literature from her book on 
' The Epic Songs of Russia,' which met 
with considerable success. It is not 

always easy to get an exact equivalent 
in Knglish for the titles of some of the 
novels, but we cannot applaud the render- 
ing 'A Nobleman's Nest,' though it i- 
literal ; nor is odnodvorets, in ' The 
Memoirs of a Sportsman,' adequately 
translated "freeholder." lint the choice 
of English word- in both these cases is very 
limited. 

The little biographical notices intro- 
duced into each volume are valuable and 
suggestive. A great deal of the writing 
of Turgenieff is essentially autobiogra- 
phical, although he sometimes denied it. 
We are surprised that Miss Hapgood has 
never lighted on — at all events, makes no 
allusion to — the valuable papers which 
appeared, not long after the novelist's 
death, in the Viestnik Yevropi, by Madame 
Zhitov, who was the adopted daughter of 
Turgenieff's mother, and tells many highly 
dramatic anecdotes. These interesting 
papers have never been translated into 
English. From them we learn that the 
story of Mumu is indubitably based 
on actual facts, and that the author's 
mother was the cruel mistress who 
caused the tragedy. So also in the 
striking article on death in ' The 
Memoirs of a Sportsman,' we find the 
story of the strong - minded lady who 
paid the priest for his offices at her bed- 
side, even when in articulo mortis : she 
was Turgenieff's grandmother. He wishes 
to show in what a stoical manner Russians 
can die. There are, also, many allusions 
in the minor sketches to the author's 
father. The traditions of the glories of 
the reign of Catherine, in ' The Memoirs 
of a Sportsman ' and other tales, were 
derived at first hand from family serfs — 
perhaps the old family doctor, who, 
although a well-educated man, was still 
a serf, and liable to the rudest outbursts 
of Madame Turgenieff's temper. When- 
ever the life of the great novelist is written, 
these papers must be carefully studied. 

The Russian authors and men of action 
alluded to in the text are generally 
noticed in a conscientious manner by Miss 
Hapgood, and with remarkable accuracy. 
Perhaps we might have had more of such 
guidance, for how little do names such as 
Novikoff mean to the English reader — or 
that of Venelin, who may be said to have 
discovered the Bulgarians ! KatranotT. 
the Bulgarian alluded to in the introduc- 
tion to ' On the Eve,' will be found duly 
chronicled among Bulgarian authors in 
the 'History of Slavonic Literatures' by 
Pi pin and Spasovich. But undoubtedly 
these notes show a good deal of reading. 
We have remarked only one slip. ' The 
Prisoner of the Caucasus,' by Pushkin, 
is assigned to Lermontov. 

As regards a general criticism of Tur- 
genieff, it is too late in the day to attempt 



one. It may fearlessly be -aid that he 

taken In- place a- a classic. \\ < 

in entire agreement with the eloquent 

-. by Mi . Henry Jamea w hich int 
duces tin- translation. One of the last 
occasions on which Turgeniefl w 
in public in England was in 1879 at 

Oxford, when he had a D.C.L. (not LL.D., 
a- Mi BapgOOd say-, which i- not an 

Oxford degree) conferred upon him. All 
were struck with the noble appearance of 
this generouc and ij mpathetic man. whom 
Mr. Jamea ha- so well described. Poor 
years afterwards he was to expire from a 
most painful disease. But he had written 
enough to secure a deathless name, not 
merely in the literat ure of hi- ow n country, 
but also in that of the whole civilized 
world. His women may be ranked with 
those Shakspearean type- which fill us 
with wonder. Liza, Irene, and Helen 
may be classed with Cordelia, Imogen, 
and Juliet. No Russian author has ever 
brought before us so forcibly the charac- 
teristics of the landscape of his country. 
Throughout the tales there is a weird 
pathos such as we hear in the compositions 
of Chopin — 

The still, -ad music of humanity. 

We ought to add that each volume of 
this translation contains a characteristic 
and well-executed illustration. 



An Historical Account of the Worshipful 
Company of Girdlers, London. By W. 
Dumville Sinythe. (Chiswick Press.) 

The Girdlers' Company originally existed 
as a fraternity which looked upon St. 
Laurence as its patron saint, and, as 
such, assumed for its coat of arms the 
martyr's emblem, the gridiron on which 
he was slowly done to death. It became 
an incorporated company by charter of 
Henry VI. in 1449 ; and with the Girdlers 
were included the Pinners and also 
the Wire-workers by charter of Queen 
Elizabeth in 1568. This amalgamation 
of crafts gave rise to so much friction 
between the craftsmen and the governing 
body of the Company that Charles I. 
was induced in 1640 to allow the Pinners 
to sever their connexion with the Girdlers, 
whilst granting a fresh charter to the 
Girdlers and Wire-workers apart from the 
Pinners. The Wire-workers, who were 
closely associated, if not indeed identical, 
with the Plate-workers, appear to have 
remained nominally a branch of the 
Girdlers' Company at least as late as 
the Company's last Charter, granted in 
1685, although in the Appendix to the 
Report of the Livery Companies' Com- 
mission of 1880 we find the Tinplate- 
workers, otherwise Wire-workers, claiming 
to be a chartered company by virtue of 
a grant made to them by Charles II. in 
December, 1670. 

The articles manufactured by artisans 
of the Girdlers 1 Company were many 
and various, embracing as they did, in 
addition to girdles proper, such things 
as garters and buckles for personal wear 
as well as fish-hooks, needles, sieves, and 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



1 



household utensils, including dripping- 
pans. Certain ordinances for regulating the 
" mistery " were approved by Edward III. 
-soon after his accession. These forbade 
the " garnishing " of girdles with lead, 
pewter, or tin, or other " false thing," 
and authorized the appointment of 
searchers to see that the ordinances 
were duly observed. In 1344 a fresh 
set of ordinances were approved by the 
Court of Aldermen, among them being 
one forbidding men of the mistery to 
work either at " roset " or " tirlet." 
Mr. Smythe confesses himself unable to 
■explain these terms It may be a satis- 
faction for him to learn that just about a 
century later this ordinance was repealed 
at the express wish of members of the 
■Company, on the ground that the terms 
were to them of that day " so strange " 
that they had no knowledge of them. 

The chief sources of information con- 
sulted by Mr. Smythe (apart from the 
Company's own records) appear to be 
the printed ' Memorials of London ' com- 
piled by the late Mr. H. T. Riley, for the 
Corporation of the City, in 1868 from 
the so-called " Letter-Books " preserved 
at the Guildhall ; the several Calendars 
of the same books in course of publi- 
cation, on behalf of the same body, at 
the present time ; and a Calendar of 
Wills proved and enrolled in the Court of 
Husting between 1258 and 1688. It is 
not at all clear that he has personally 
examined any original records other than 
those of the Girdlers' Company, although 
his style might at times give one a con- 
trary impression. However this may be, 
for the early history of the Company he 
is almost entirely indebted to the City's 
publications just mentioned, the Com- 
pany's own minute-books prior to 1622 
having been either lost or destroyed. 

The earlier surviving minute-books of 
the Company disclose the existence of 
considerable dissension between the crafts- 
men and the governing body, the former 
complaining of the laxity of the latter 
in enforcing the ordinances of the mistery. 
Fines were thereupon imposed on those 
who produced bad work, but this mode 
of promoting efficiency was objected to 
by the craftsmen, who on several occa- 
sions appealed to the Court of Aldermen, 
but without effect. Another grievance 
that the craftsmen had, or thought they 
had, was not being allowed to make 
search for bad workmanship on their 
own account. Whilst the governing body 
expressed themselves as willing to call 
in a number of craftsmen to assist in 
making search, they emphatically de- 
clined to give craftsmen liberty to search 
by themselves. This formed a bone of 
contention for several years, and " put 
the Company to great charges." At lengt li 
a compromise was effected, and a new 
charter was obtained in 1640 (as already 
mentioned) embodying the (runs on 
which all parties were agreed. 

During the troublous times of the 
Civil War the Company found itself un- 
able to meet the numerous calls made on 
its funds, and its plate bad to be sold, and 
money raised by summoning "yeomen" 



of the Company to take up their livery, 
and imposing fines on those who refused. 
The Company's hall was destroyed in the 
Great Fire of 1666, and was not rebuilt, 
for lack of money, until 1681. Mr. 
Smythe gives an interesting account of 
the so-called " magic carpet " presented 
to the Company by Robert Bell in 1634, 
and now hanging on the north wall of 
the Company's hall, having luckily escaped 
the Great Fire. For many years it lay 
on one of the Company's tables, and 
little notice was taken of it. Recent 
investigations, however, in the books of 
the old East India Company have estab- 
lished its identity with a carpet made at 
the royal factory at Lahore for Robert 
Bell, whose arms it bears, together Avith 
the arms of the Girdlers and two bales 
of merchandise stamped with Bell's initials 
and trade-marks. 

All this, and much more, is pleasantly 
set out in Mr. Smythe's pages, but his 
work is more suited for popular reading 
than for the serious student, who requires 
that dates of charters, &c, should be 
accurately given, and extracts correctly 
printed. In such matters we find Mr. 
Smythe somewhat careless, whilst the 
index to his work appears to have been 
compiled by a novice. 



Madame Geoffrin : her Salon and her 
Times. By Janet Aldis. (Methuen & 
Co.) 

There is a considerable class of persons 
— victims of a prejudice having its roots 
far back in the seventeenth century — 
whose principles will by no means permit 
them to confine their reading, as their 
inclination bids, to works of fiction. In 
order to tranquillize their consciences, 
these people keep a " solid " work — the 
latest biography, the newest popular book 
of travels, the freshest modern abridgment 
of some old-time memoir — continually on 
hand. About Balzac or George Meredith 
there is always a lurking suspicion of 
frivolity ; but in the most trivial ' Life 
and Letters,' or the least substantial 
rechauffe of bygone gossip, they find a 
safe resting-place for the intellect and a 
shelter from all moral misgivings. By 
such readers as these the volume before 
us will be warmly appreciated. It does 
not offer a living picture of the society 
with which it deals, nor even of any indi- 
vidual belonging to that society. But it 
treats of an interesting age ; its pages 
teem with famous names ; and the scraps 
of information of which it is made up are 
of exactly the right kind. That is to say, 
they will add nothing to the student of the 
eighteenth century in France, while they 
meet perfectly the needs of those who 
would like to know something about thai 
century without studying it. 

We doubt, however, any general par- 
ticipation in the author's unqualified 
enthusiasm for her principal subject. 

As a personality, a-; a social phenomenon, 
still more as a social type modified by 
peculiar circumstances, Madame Geoffrin 
is interesting. But hers is not a figure 



which lends itself to the heroic style 
of portraiture ; on a moral pedestal 
it appears sadly out of place. Yet 
on a moral pedestal Miss Aldis would 
fain raise and maintain it. She 
has built up a touching belief in her 
heroine's greatness of soul, and clings to 
it in face of well-established facts and 
unimpeachable contemporary testimony — 
in face of Madame Geoffrin's acknowledged 
lack of enthusiasm for great causes, of the 
cold-heartedness which could find Vol- 
taire's impassioned plea on behalf of the 
tortured and oppressed victims of t3^ranny 
and obscurantism " crazy " and " com- 
mon," of the self-regarding timidity which 
declined to imperil personal popularitjr on 
behalf of the closest friend ; even in face 
of the visit thrust upon a reluctant royal 
host, and the Masses secretly attended lest 
religious practices, necessary to one who 
desired to stand well both with Heaven 
and the Encyclopedists, should have the 
fatal issue of driving from her salon the 
brilliant band of free-thinkers who were 
its chief ornament. Miss Aldis sees, appa- 
rently, no inconsistency in the lofty 
morality which excluded Madame 
d'Epinay from a dinner - table at 
which the Due de Richelieu was 
permitted to sit, and nothing doubt- 
ful in the substitution of the muti- 
lated edition of Montesquieu's ' Lettres 
Familieres ' for the genuine article. 
Yet she reports the latter transaction 
at length ; indeed, to her honour be 
it said, there is nowhere in her book 
any attempt to wrest facts in favour 
of her theory. Occasionally her whole- 
hearted championship leads her to under- 
value the force of the circumstances that 
helped to shape the remarkable social 
career of the daughter of Rodet, the 
Dauphin's valet de chambre ; thus she 
ignores as far as possible the fact that 
Madame Geoffrin's salon " derived " from 
that of Madame de Tencin. Once or twice 
it makes her slightly unfair to persons : 
it does not, for instance, strike her that, 
since Rulhiere had not " his price " for 
the manuscript which displeased Cathe- 
rine of Russia, he was wholly within his 
rights in resenting Madame Geoffrin's high- 
handed demand that he should name it 
forthwith before a gathering of their 
common friends. 

After so much indiscriminate Incense- 
burning, it is a relief to turn to the calm, 
if slightly cruel judgment of Horace Wal- 
pole, his well-bred impatience of Madame 
Geoffrin's readiness to lay down the law. 
his contemptuous dismisssal of her claims 
to taste in art. (It says much for Miss 
Aldis's candour that she has not shrunk 
from inserting letters which take so little 
favourable a view of her heroine.) Wal- 
pole. was. of course, far too clever to he 
blind to Madame Geoffrin's pood qualities 

— her shrewdness, common sense and t act : 
for these he gives her due credit. Hut 

his testimony, like Mai'montel's. i< fatal 

to the cult which Mi>s Aldis seeks to 
establish. 

In spite of the pains taken with Madame 
Geoffrin, it cannot with truth he said that 
she emerges from our author's hand- 



72 



T I! E A T II E X .K I' M 



\ 



1082, -I ur. 20, L906 



ling a very lifelike figure, This is partly 
owing t<> her biographer's anxious at- 
tempt- to soften angles and lighten 
shadows ire bare onlj to turn to Mar- 

montcl. who was at m> such |»ains, to 

the woman in her habit as she lived 
partly to the fart that grasp of character 

i- not a Strong point with Mi— Aldis. 
Diderot and I) Alembert appear fre- 
quently in tin- course of her story: but 
they remain shadows to the end. Konte- 
nelle and Grimm are somewhat better 

" materialized," ohiefly l>\ the help of con- 
temporary descriptions; Mile, de I'Espi- 
nasse, on the other hand, is totally out 
of drawing. It seems incredible that any 

one who has read the famous 1,'Kspinasse 
love-letters (as Miss Aldis has apparently 
done) — those endless variations on a single 
art <l, <■'! ur : " Je vis, toute en vous ; 
j'existe parce que je vous aime " — should 
refuse to believe in the reality of the 
writer's passion for the man to whom they 
are addressed. 

A chronicle of this sort should be salted 
with humour, if possible. In the present 
work that attractive quality is not con- 
spicuous, for we can hardly suppose that 
the author intended to amuse us by her 
grave assurance that Madame Geoffrin 
"never quite approved of Diderot. There 
are several repetitions which more careful 
proof - reading would easily have 
discovered. We cannot commend the 
style of the book, which is un- 
pleasantly jerky ; the French phrases 
which besprinkle its pages are so 
persistently misspelt as to raise a doubt 
whether the printer is in every case 
responsible for the error. Miss Aldis is 
fond of describing Madame Geoffrin as a 
" saloniere " (sic) — a word sanctioned 
neither by Littre nor the Academic. The 
feminine form of " salonnier " denotes a 
" lady- reporter " of art exhibitions — not at 
all the kind of person Miss Aldis has in 
view. 



NEW NOVELS. 



A Golden Trust. By Theo. Douglas. 
(Smith, Elder & Co.) 

We have here a story which, in common 
with many latter-day novels, shows in 
its beginning a promise scarcely fulfilled 
by the conclusion. There is perhaps no 
great originality in the conception of the 
wrecker's lost treasure and the adventures 
which befall those seeking it, yet the 
quaint atmosphere of over a hundred 
years ago, and the grey East Coast land- 
scape, flanked by the wintry sea, are sug- 
gested with much charm and distinction. 
But when the tale is half way through, we 
are suddenly transported to Paris, and 
the Paris of the year 1792 has loomed 
too large in the fiction of the past to be 
a theme easy of manipulation. Robes- 
pierre with his humanitarian views, 
Madame Roland and her salon, the 
10th of August, and the massacres of 
September— all these things impress us 
with something of the tediousness of a 
more than twice-told tale. We are spared 
the guillotine, however, and for this for- 



bearanoe tin; author i- fairly entitled to 
Borne measure i >i gral itude. 



A a /in i,i iln Plains. By Alice and Claude 
kakew. (White & Co.) 

In Bpite of the melodrama of its opening 
pages, this is a romance of real human 
interest stimulated by a pervading atmo- 
sphere of wide-rolling veldt. Michael 
O'Donoghan (we are told that he i- an 
Irishman, but there is little to betray his 
nationality save his patronymic), after- 
some preliminary knocks from unkind 
fate, finds himself installed as overseer on 
a Boer farm under a stern old fanatic. 
The old man is no new type, neither is 
this our first introduction to Tante Sarah, 
his second wife, coarse, vindictive, and 
elemental ; but little Anna, the daughter 
of an earlier marriage, is as fresh as Eve 
herself, and, mainly on her account, the 
book is worth reading. The staginess of 
the first chapter and the vague chaos of 
the last are to be regretted, but the central 
figure is an illuminating study of girlhood 
and womanhood, 



For the White Cockade. By J. E. Muddock. 
(John Long.) 

Mr. Muddock is always a good story- 
teller, but on this occasion has not, 
perhaps, chosen the best field for his 
powers. His period is that of the rising 
of '45, but he has not attempted any 
general view, confining himself to the last 
wiles and gloomy fate of that arch- 
intriguer, the twelfth Lord Lovat. His 
portrait of Mac Shimi is well drawn on the 
conventional lines, and he appears to 
have studied the style of diction of his 
hero. One fancies that, had he had access 
to the quaint domestic letters from Lovat 
to his son's " governor," he would hardly 
have converted " little Sandy," or " the 
Brig," as his father called him, into an 
imaginary Angus, supposed to have been 
killed by a fall in escaping from Stirling 
Castle. The real son died a general in 
the Dutch service. Sybilla, too, " my 
daughter Siby," died unmarried. There 
is no harm in marrying her to a chivalrous 
English officer, except for the reminiscence 
of ' Waverley.' Her adventures and 
escapes are excellently set forth, but we 
do not think she would have put on thick 
boots to dress the part of a Highland 
dairy-maid ; and we must protest against 
broad " Lallands " in the mouth of a 
Highland prophetess like Miriam. 



The Inseparables : an Oxford Novel of 
To-day. By James Baker. (Chapman 
& Hall.) 

Mr. James Baker is the author of several 
stories which have been accepted as suc- 
cessful, so that he may be said to have 
gauged the requirements of a section of 
the reading public in the matter of fiction. 
It is not the most intellectual section to 
which he makes his appeal — but neither 
is it the section which finds enjojunent 
only when wild incident follows hot-foot 



upon wild incident. Here he presents 
a \uriety of characters, but differentii 
them more by descriptions of theii doit 

than by any re\ elation of what they ai>-. 

Pour young Oxford men form the central 

character-- the hero, the villain, the 

victim, and a somewhat shadowy fourth, 

the most influential of all, who 

disappears out of the pages in an urn 
plained fashion and remains only a« a 
subtle telepathic influence. Mr. Baker, 
when he attempts to describe crude 
crime or to indicate psychological pheno- 
mena, is not convincing. A- the teller 
of a pleasant modern story, showing vice 
vanquished and virtue triumphant, Mr. 
Baker may be Baid to have succeeded with 
this novel; but reader- with a taste for 
the literary graces will regret a score of 
offences against them — such tautology 
" there is a great deal of vicarious suffering 
goes on to benefit other folk " ; unm 
w r ord-coining, and the too frequent use 
of " ere," which is made to mean both 
" ever " and " before." 



The Comiiuj of the Tide. By Margaret 
Sherwood. (Constable & Co.) 

A strong love of nature is a conspicuous 
feature of a large proportion of the numer- 
ous novels now imported from America. 
It is displayed most lavishly in ' The 
Coming of the Tide,' a simple love story 
with one dramatic situation. The story 
is not uninteresting, and the character- 
ization is not wanting in vivacity ; but 
the book is marred by its pretentious 
descriptions of scenery. The heroine has 
an unpleasant habit of talking confiden- 
tially to the sea, and the narrative is re- 
peatedly broken by lengthy observations 
on such familiar topics as " the mystery 
of infinite distance " and " the joy of the 
oncoming wave." There is, however, 
enough merit in the book to justify the 
belief that the author may write a much 
better novel when she has acquired more 
restraint. 



A Royal Rascal. By Major Arthur Grif- 
fiths. (Fisher Unwin.) 

The sub-title of this well-written novel is 
' Episodes in the Career of Col. Sir Theo- 
philus St. Clair. K.C.B.' Though it pos- 
sesses the inevitable defect of episodic 
stories — a lack of continuity of interest — 
' A Royal Rascal,' with its exciting adven- 
tures by land and sea and its excellent 
series of historical portraits, is decidedly 
readable. The story, which derives it< 
title from the sobriquet earned by the 
Colonel's regiment in the Peninsula, opens 
at Gibraltar, where young St. (lair wins 
his commission by detecting a plot against 
the garrison, and closes at Waterloo, where 
his last adventure costs him a limb. Wel- 
lington. Napoleon, Sir John Moore, Mar- 
shal Ney, and Sir David Baird are among 
the figures of whom vivid glimpses are to 
be caught in the Colonel's company. The 
book, while containing much that is attrac- 
tive to readers of all ages, is particularly 
suited for bovs. 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



TH'E ATHEN^UM 



73 



Who was Lady Thurne ? By Florence 
Warden. (John Long.) 

Miss Warden's latest novel bears the 
marks of perfunctory work. It is not 
new in idea, nor is it conscientious in 
elaboration. The author does not take 
the trouble to render the events probable. 
It is not explained how the first Lady 
Thurne was shipwrecked, and why she 
lost her memory ; nor is it explained why 
her husband, believing her dead, married 
again. The second Lady Thurne has a 
lover, and the first Lady Thurne endea- 
vours to save her from him and herself, 
which does not strike us as very convincing. 
Moreover, she refuses to reveal herself to 
her husband to spare him and his children. 
This is a case of ' Enoch Arden ' on the 
feminine side. What is most inexplicable 
is that the lady is not recognized after six 
or seven years' absence either by her 
schoolfellow or her husband. To be sure, 
she has been in an asylum and her hair is 
white, but she is only twenty-nine. How- 
ever, she succeeds in regaining some of 
her youthful brightness, and detection 
comes, with a train of consequences. It 
is not necessary to say that the author 
manages to solve the problem in a satis- 
factory way for the virtuous people. 



Rosamond's Morality. By Gordon C. 
Whadcoat. (Greening & Co.) 

This is a love story in thirty-two " talks," 
and all the talking is done by the two 
lovers. At first, when Cecil and Rosa- 
mond are boy and girl, the dialogue has a 
dainty kind of humour, but as the story 
developes it loses its attractiveness. The 
characters are wanting in vitality. Rosa- 
mond has a worthless cousin whom she 
hates, but, believing that she alone can 
reclaim him, she deems it her duty to 
marry him. Hence the loquacity of the 
lovers before they make each other happy. 
Mr. Whadcoat, whose earlier novel, ' His 
Lordship's Whim,' gave promise of some- 
thing much better than ' Rosamond's 
Morality,' was ill-advised to write a dia- 
logue story. He has not at present the 
craftsmanship for so delicate a piece of 
work. 



CALENDARS AND YEAR-BOOKS. 

In his Calendar of Letter-Books of the City 
of London : Letter-Book 0, 1352-1374 (printed 
by order of the Corporation) Dr. Reginald 
Sharpe opens up to scholars a new instal- 
ment of the rich treasures of the City 
archives of which lie is the custodian. 
The editing and the introductory matter 
are on the whole competent, but it may be 
complained that Dr. Sharpe does not always 
give us quite as much help as he might render. 
Some references are indefinite. When a 
document is dated "the Monday after the 
Feast of St. Michael, 28 Edward III.," the 
editor tells us that the feast of the archangel 
is on September 29th, but does not tell us 
what was the exact date of the Monday 
after Michaelmas in the year 1354. Wc 
do not see great use in printing in the 
margin (lie occasional headings in Latin 
and old French, when the documents 
themselves are summarized in English in 



the text. Some of the annotations are 
rather vague^asTthat, for instance, which 
tells us that in 1373 " the marriage of the 
Duke of Lancaster to Constance of Castile 
....had driven the actual King of Castile 
to join forces with the King of France." 
There was no mystery about Thoresby's 
translation from Worcester to York, as the 
note on p. 5 would almost suggest. Though 
not enthroned till 1354, he was translated 
by provision on October 23rd, 1352, three 
months after the death of his predecessor. 
" Franche prison" (p. 31) surely does not 
mean a " prison for freemen." The peace 
proclaimed on November 6th, 1360, was 
not the " peace signed at Bretigni " 
(p. 123), but the definitive treaty con- 
cluded at Calais. A little more trouble 
in ascertaining the modern forms of 
names would have made the elaborate 
index more valuable. On the other hand, 
Dr. Sharpe is to be commended for the 
pains he has taken to indicate where 
documents have been printed already, and 
for refusing to set forth at length such as 
are already easily accessible. 

The fifth volume of Mr. G. J. Morris's 
Calendar of the Patent Rolls of Richard II. 
(1391-1396) appears three years after his 
fourth instalment of this important collection 
(Stationery Office). The documents sum- 
marized include many which throw light 
on the practical difficulties caused by the 
schism in the Church, as, for example, the 
inability of Cistercian houses to elect fresh 
abbots since the abbot of the mother house 
of Citeaux was a " schismatic," whose juris- 
diction they were not permitted to recognize. 
A large proportion of the patents, as usual, 
illustrate the chronic, disorders of a mediaeval 
State, as, for instance, the interesting entry 
on p. 605 which describes a Lenten riot at 
Oxford against the Welsh students, in which 
bands patrolled the streets crying in English, 
" War ! War ! Slay, slay the Welsh dogs 
and their helps ! and whoso looketh out of 
his house, he shall be dead." Thisshowsthat 
clerks in their moments of relaxation preferred 
the vernacular to Latin. The Calendar 
also contains a fair number of earlier docu- 
ments, enrolled by way of inspeximus, as, 
for example, the two important thirteenth- 
century Hereford Charters printed in 
extenso on pp. 422-5 Mr. Morris has done 
his work well, and his index is good. None 
of the slight slips that we have noticed is 
likely to cause difficulty to any one using 
the volume. 

Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1401-1405. 
(Stationery Office.) — The contents of this 
volume cannot be said to throw fresh light 
on the political history of the period it 
covers. There are naturally, however, 
entries which remind us of the trouble 
with Glendower and the rising of the Percies : 
orders are given for the distribution of the 
four quarters of Harry Percy and the heads 
of the Baron of Kinderton and Sir Richard 
Vernon after the battle of Shrewsbury, and 
we have interesting glimpses of the forfeited 
stuffs of Harry Percy and the Earl of 
Worcester, the former " powdered with 
white turrets." Of the defeat of the French 
fleet at Portland we are reminded by the 
apportionment of the prize-money repre- 
sented by the ransoms of the prisoners. 
We hear also of the rumours of conspiracies, 
based on the belief that Richard II. was 
slill alive, culminating in the arrest of the 
Esses abbots of Colchester, Si. Osyth's, and 

Beeleigh in 1404. The burgesses of Col- 
chester had, shortly before, been excused 
from sending representatives to Parliamenl 
for six years in consideration of their costs 

" in the enclosure of the town with B w .ill of 

stonoand lime" against "the king's enemies." 



For the history of religious houses and for 
the foundation of chantries the Patent Rolls 
are always of great value, but they are not 
helpful for the Lollard movement, though 
we find a notable protection (Novem- 
ber 22nd, 1401) for Nicholas Hereford, who 
" is manfully opposing the disciples of Anti- 
Christ who strive to attract not only laymen, 
but even clergy and literates, to their 
heresies." The student of municipal history 
should note the confirmation of an old 
charter granted by an Earl of Pembroke 
to Tenby, with the power, in addition, to 
elect mayor and bailiffs ; also the grant of a 
gild merchant to Cirencester in 1403, and 
a curious lease from the Bishop of London 
to the men of Maldon of his buildings and 
his rights in that town. At Maldon, as at 
Colchester, there was then a " Motehall," 
and, as at Ipswich, " Portesmanmersh " 
shows us there were " portmen." In 1401 
there is a curious order for the " usher 
of the company of ' la Gartier ' within the 
castle of Wyndesore," concerning his duties 
and the custody of the black rod. It is 
to the rolls of the early part of the fifteenth 
century that we must look for light on a 
process still somewhat obscure, the diffe- 
rentiation of the peerage ; for it was only at 
this late period that lords and commoners 
began to be clearly distinguished by their 
styles. It is evident from the volume before 
us that the " chivaler " of writs of summons 
was applied broadcast, whether those so 
styled were ever summoned or not ; and 
although at first sight it might be supposed 
that "lord" was already the regular style 
of a lord of Parliament, careful study of 
these pages shows that the style was used 
haphazard, as in the cases of John de Lovell, 
" chivaler," and John, lord of Lovell ; 
Richard Grey and Richard, lord of Grey. 
The process as yet was inchoate. It is still 
necessary for historical students to look 
right through these excellent calendars in 
order to discover what of interest they 
contain ; and it is to be wished that where 
early charters, such as that of Earl Simon 
of Northampton, are recited, they should 
be specially indexed under ' Charters.' Paper 
and print strike us as hardly worthy of the 
labour lavished by the Record Office staff 
on such volumes as this. 

In his Year-Books of Edivard III. : 
Years XVIII. and XIX., in the Rolls 
Series (Stationery Office), Mr. L. O. Pike 
gives us a further instalment of his excellent 
and scholarly work. It is not the editor's 
fault that " unexplained delays " have 
retarded the appearance of this volume, 
and he tells us that he has long had another 
ready for the press. It is so important for 
our knowledge of medi;eval history that 
more of these priceless records should see 
the light in modern editions that we cannot 
but re-echo Mr. Pike's complaint. It is 
much to be regretted if financial considera- 
tions cause the publication of this series 
to be postponed longer than is necessary. 
If the Selden Society can produce a volume 
a year, it. is not very creditable that the 
State publications should Lag behind those 
of a private body. In his interesting 
though brief introduction Mr. Pike discourses 
Upon what he calls "the legal and other 
curiosities" revealed in his texts, and does 
not scorn to note the jests of the judges, 

their disagreements with each other, their 
snubs to irrepressible counsel, their occa- 
sional lapses into the vernacular, and the 
other traits which render these private 
reports so much more human than most 
official records of the Middle Ages. <>i 
special importance are the remarks on the 
stnt us of villeinage, which is frequently 

illustrated by the cases recorded in this 

9 



I 



T II e atii EN .i:r M 



N in-.'. .I-,-.. •.',). t906 



Milium'. \\'r oannol agree, however, with 
Mr. Pike thai a "clenoua" is aeoeaaarilj 
a person "admitted ii ■ i < > holj orders," and 
we i ii 1 1 1 _' i 1 1 « ■ In- is not quite clear as t<» the 
wide meaning of " clergy " daring the four 
teenth century. Anil we should be more 
thoroughly com Lnoed <>t' tin- argument which 
In- borrows from ETleta, thai it was the duty 
nt a bishop to degrade tin' cleric of villein 
origin it he were disobedienl or ungrateful to 
Ins lord and manumitter, if any case could 
be produced of such a degradation having 
been actually accomplished by an ecclesi- 
astical court. Verj interesting, however, 
an- the analogies between the villein who 
becomes a clerk and the villein who becomes 

a knight. And we are not sure that the 
hut that a man's surname was (been is 

conclusive evidence that he was of " peasanl 
extraction." We have again only to praise 

Mr. Tike's texts and translations, and to 
express our appreciation of the skill and 
labour involved in extracting from the 
records of the trials a large amount of 
personal and detailed information, not 
given in the reports because it illustrated 
no legal points likely to interest practi- 
tioners in the courts. 



OUR LIBRARY TABLE. 

.Mrs. Crkighton has done very well in 
publishing her husband's sermons to under- 
graduates in a separate volume, called The 
Claims of the Common Life (Longmans). 
They are models of what such sermons 
should be, and are replete with all that 
wealth of insight and sympathy which made 
the great bishop what he was. Xo better 
leaving present could be given to a serious- 
minded schoolboy than this book. It may 
safely be said that if he is not interested in 
these sermons he never will be in any. 
They may be read with advantage not only 
by undergraduates, but also by every one 
who has ever been an undergraduate. We 
have said so much at different times of the 
characteristics of the man who has been 
termed the "greatest man in the English 
Church since the Reformation " that it is 
needless to do more than call attention to 
the volume. 

We should like to do the same, only even 
more emphatically, for the little book 
Counsels for the Young (Longmans), which 
Mrs. Creighton has compiled, largely from 
the two volumes of the biography. That 
work is one of the most interesting of 
recent biographies, but there are many 
for whom it is too long, and this little 
book contains in a few pages virtually 
all the bishop's thoughts on the most im- 
portant topics, and is the quintessence of 
Ins philosophy of life. We think it may he 
more useful than anything else he ever 
wrote. Compiled nominally for the young, 
it would be equally or nearly equally valuable 
for people of mature or middle age. Its 
influence, we predict, will be wide, and in 
many ways it is becoming evident that 
Creighton's power to help his countrymen 
is greater now that he is gone than it was 
even in his lifetime. 

The Hearseya : Five Generations of an 
Anglo-Indian Family. Edited by Col. Hugh 
Pearse. (Blackwood & Sons.) — When re- 
viewing the ' Memoirs ' of Col. Gardner, also 
edited by Col. Pearse (Athenaeum, June 25th, 
1808), we expressed regret that further par- 
ticulars of the careers of European adven- 
turers who had served under Asiatic rulers 

had not been published. Since their daj's 
times have changed, and the stories of men 



who entered the service oi Ranjit Pinch In 
the Punjabi the Nizam in Baidarabad, 
Bindhia in Gwalior, and other.-, are increa 

illgly diffiCuU to collect. Hence v. ■ w.| 

come the preaenl volume, partly bees 

of the stories of the earlier Ihar-iys or 

Seroys, members of a Cumberland family 

Connected with India since the middle of 
the eighteenth century, hut chiefly heciiu > 

of the autobiography of Sir John B. Sean 
which is by fax the most interesting part of 
the I look and fills over one-third of its pa. 
It was apparently dictated to his daughter 

towards the end of his life, and is a remark- 
able testimony to the excellence of his 
memory and his powers of description. lb 
seems equally at homo when telling of his 
birth at Midnapur in 1793, accompanied as 
that event was by a portentous combat in 
the verandah between a large Newfoundland 
dog and a panther, presaging a career of 
strife and adventure ; and in recording 
minutely the circumstances of a duel, and 
the accounts of armies and battles in which 
he took part. Then, as now, " transporta- 
tion " was a chief problem difficult of 
solution. 

Besides Sir John's history, the story of 
his relative and father-in-law, Hyder Young 
Hearsey, is told ; it recalls the adventures 
of the Skinners, for both obtained large 
tracts of country, which they administered, 
and both married native ladies. Hearsey, 
indeed, bought the parganas (division of a 
district) of Dun and Chandi, and sold the 
latter at an excellent profit to the East India 
Company. For the Dun, however, he seems 
never to have had any consideration, though 
it is now of great value. In 1812 he accom- 
panied Moorcroft, the well-known traveller, 
to Lake Manasarowar in Tibet, near the 
sacred Kailas Mountain, whence the waters 
on our side flow by the Sutlej and Indus to 
the Arabian Sea, and on the other side by 
the Tsangpo, or Brahmaputra, to the Gulf of 
Bengal. 

The stories of the Hearseys are connected 
and introduced by short narratives of events 
in India at various times ; thus there are a 
few pages about the Punjab and the Sikh 
wars, reasonably correct except, perhaps, 
that the praise of Lord Gough's generalship 
is as much too flattering as contemporary 
opinion was the reverse ; and a few pages 
are devoted to the Mutiny. The volume is 
well produced ; paper and type are excellent. 

Man to Man. By the Rev. R. E. Welsh. 
(Hodder & Stoughton.) — Few men know 
better than Mr. Welsh, the author of ' God's 
Gentlemen ' and ' The Relief of Doubt,' what 
qualities should go to make up a young man, 
and few are more likely to be listened to 
by an audience of young men. He is a 
sound thinker, engagingly frank, knows well 
the fevers of young blood, and holds up 
consistently high ideals. Moreover, he is a 
bright writer, able on most occasions to give 
a sentence or a thought some original turn. 
He has, too, at his command a fund of tell- 
ing illustration. We would gladly put this 
volume into the hands of our sixth-form 
public-school boys and our undergraduates, 
and would further venture to commend it 
to those who have the privilege of preaching 
in school chapels. Mr. Welsh gauges well 
the drift of our times, especially in their 
want of individuality : — 

" bank and outspoken individuality, running 
into extravagance, lias its own risks, but it will be 
only too well oarved and cut down to the ruling 
standard in oourse of time. Greater in these re 
taxing days in the risk of being an ape of others, 
a chameleon thai takes its colour from n s surround 
ings, an easy prey of the social drift." 

Our educational system has much to answer 
for in this relation, and it is foolishly thought 



that change, ( ,f school curricula may 
things right. We do not want a curriculum 
planned to promote individuality, but rather 
some l'ir,u,<i voids jirohmuUz in a bo 
day, in which he may be I' it to himself, the 
un. and the air. Very timely are the pro- 
m these pages against "dulcet feeble- 
ol character." 

77c Cloak of Friendship, by Laurence 
Housman (John Murray), contains seven 
little itoriea of folk-tale design and al l e g or i c 

import, written in the author's well-known 
style. ' Damien. the Worshipper,' is perhaps 
the rnosl characteristic. Damien is a shep- 
herd of a district which might be on the 
borders of the Roman Oampagna, in the 
Middle Ages. iJevoted to St. Agnes, he 
takes part, in his own person, in the 
legendary incidents of her life, even down 
to the extinguishing by the miraculous in- 
tervention of a fall of snow of the flames 
of the fire lit to burn him. He is pursued 
with love by a beautiful pagan who sells 
images. His devotion to the saint preserves 
him from her wiles, but her beauty en- 
slaves the town populace to such an extent 
that at a great Church festival she is ac- 
claimed as the Madonna, and, by a sequence 
of ideas which lias not been uncommon in 
literature or in fact, the worship of the 
Holy Mother turns into acclamation of the 
pagan Venus, mother of Love. Even the 
Church dignitaries join in the procession in 
her honour, and it is Damien who throws 
over her car and brings destruction upon 
her following. For this he is condemned 
as a wizard to be burnt alive, and to his 
prison comes the pagan image-seller, Love, 
to release him ; but he, making the sign of 
the cross upon her, refuses to purchase 
freedom by worshipping her, and, escaping 
his death by the miracle already referred 
to, returns to his sheep and his adoration 
of St. Agnes. 

The story of « The Cloak of Friendship ' 
itself, laid in Finland, gives the faculty of 
speech and character to beasts. ' The House 
of Rimmon ' is a study of a priest of 
pagan times inwardly persuaded of the 
truth of Christianity, though the later 
religion has died of persecution in his land. 
Gradually he endows his god, Rimmon, 
with the attributes of Christ, and, on the 
second coming of a Christian mission, 
Rimmon goes down to meet their ship and 
is engulfed, while " the ship and its croziered 
Pilot came on," applauded by the former 
worshippers of Rimmon, who accept the 
incidents as signs of the supersession of 
Rimmon himself. 

The other stories are just as full of gentle 
mysticism, and the occasional use of col- 
loquial words would jar upon the poetic 
interest, were it not that the characters are 
always simple, though the meaning of their 
words and actions is more transcendent than 
their appearance. The yearnings are the 
yearnings of children, not the less complex 
because they are put forward with the 
apparent inability of children to express 
things not entirely understood even of the 
author. 

Marie Antoinette, by Pierre de Nolhac 
(Arthur L. Humphreys), is a beautifully 
printed and bandy edition of the large and 
splendidly illustrated work brought out 
seven years ago by Messrs. Goupil & Co. 
It will be welcomed by many. 

Addenda. Glossary, and Index to WiUiom 
Bercher's Xobilit;/ of Women. By R. War- 
wick Bond. (Koxburghe Club.) — We are 
glad to see this complement to a volume 
reviewed by us (October 8th, 1904), and to 
observe that Mr. Bond has been able to 
make use of and supplement the additional 
sources of information then pointed out. 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



75 



Mr. Marlay, the donor of the work, has 
prefixed to it a reproduction of a very grace- 
ful sketch by Stothard, which might have 
been designed for the place it occupies. On 
p. 8 Mr. Bond has inadvertently put Hilary 
as January 11th instead of the 13th, probably 
misled by the fact that Hilary term has 
begun on that date since 1831. Before then 
it began on the 23rd. With regard to 
Barker's property, there can be no doubt 
that a search (which would be a serious 
undertaking) through the sheriffs' accounts 
would find some trace of him, as he evidently 
had property in the Crown's hands from 
1571-2, the time of his condemnation, to 
1574, when he was pardoned. 

The. Haunts of Men. By Robert W. 
Chambers. (Fisher Unwin.) — Mr. Cham- 
bers fully understands the essentials of a 
good short story, though he has a tendency 
to overload it with phrases such as " sheered 
to the earth in glimmering swathes as gilded 
grain falls at the sickle's sparkle." Many 
years have gone by since he first pictured 
life in the Quartier Latin, the scene of three 
of the dozen stories in this collection, but 
the canvas remains almost photographic in 
its detail. The adventure of the ' Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary ' during a mellow 
period of maudlin incapacity is excellent of 
its kind, and a fair example of the author's 
humour. The greater number of the stories 
are inspired by incidents in the American 
Civil War : some — such as ' Yo Espero ' 
and ' The God of Battles ' — are pathetic ; 
others — for example, the history of the 
presentation cat which turned out to be a 

skoonk " — have a boisterous jocularity of 
their own. All are obviously meant to 
appeal primarily to the American reader. 

The Bishop of Durham has written a 
touching Brief Memorial of Mary E. E. 
Moule (S.P.C.K.), a sweet and saintly girl 
whose early death from consumption was 
deeply regretted by all who knew her. 
Seldom do we meet with so bright a picture 
of fortitude and serene faith under trial. 
Some of her verses here printed show that 
she had the gift of expression which cha- 
racterizes all the Bishop's distinguished 
family. She had true humility, too, which 
is, perhaps, a rarer gift. 

John Lyly. By John Dover Wilson. 
(Cambridge, Macmillan & Bowes.) — The 
value of this essay is out of all proportion 
to its length. It cannot fail to interest all 
who care for the historical development of 
literature. Mr. Wilson establishes the enor- 
mous influence of ' Euphues,' and clearly 
proves its significance ; he does not attempt 
to say much of its value as a work of art. 
It seems, however, that he is going too far 
when he asserts that Euphuism is at the 
bottom of the development of English 
prose style. That it was the first experi- 
ment in decadent aestheticism is probably 
true enough. But can Mr. Wilson show 
that what Matthew Arnold called " the 
prose of the centre " owes much to Euphu- 
ism, except so far as both were influenced 
by Ciceronian models ? Where is the 
Euphuism in the prose of Dryden or Swift, 
of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, of Newman, 
or Froude, or Arnold himself ? The further 
discussion of the origin of the English novel 
and of comedy is also of great value and 
interest. But why does Mr. Wilson omit 
to remark that Gascoigne's satire ' The Steel- 
Glasse ' is the earliest extant piece of blank 
vorse ? The book, however, is throughout 
so suggestive and stimulating that we can 
only advise the reader to buy it. It is a 
pity that there are so many capital I's ; 
and also that tho famous motto of tho 
house of Austria is given in a form which does 
pot scan. 



We are glad to see Mclan's set of cos- 
tumes of The Highland Clans and Regiments 
of Scotland (Gay & Bird) reproduced in an 
acceptable form, with the historical letter- 
press brought up to a modern standard of 
accuracy by " Fionn " (Mr. Henry Why te). 
Mclan is generally excellent, but the Glen- 
garry figure in the first number is an un- 
fortunate exception. 

Political Parables, by The Westminster 
Gazette Office Boy (Francis Brown), published 
by Mr. Fisher Unwin, is as amusing to Tories 
and friends of Mr. Balfour as to the Liberals 
whose opinions it reflects. At the beginning 
and end the inside of the cover represents 
the flood of the election, but in it Mr. Balfour 
has already found a life-belt of safety. 



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re 



T II R A 'I'll EN .i:r M 



N W82, Jan. 20, 1906 



THOM \S GRAY in PETERHOUSE. 

i. 
'I'h i: pil Mm in the ( Cambridge shrine of 
Graj Lb wonl to wend bia waj to Pembroke, 
where he may Bee the fine modern busi oi 
the poet and rooms which he once inhabited, 
lit- may glanoe en route at a bar in a Peter 
house window, Inn he nol uncommonly 
evinces considerable Burprise when informed 
that Peterhouae lias other claims upon Graj 
than those repreaented by that iron frame- 
work; that ii was in Peterhouae that Gray 
obtained the education that Cambridge 
afforded him; that for some twenty years 

— and those the years in which he earned 

his title to fame lie was a member of the 
Peterhouae community ; and that it was 
only to seek a quiet Lodging for the close 
of a working Lifetime that be crossed the 

road to the College with whose name his 
has of lato been habitually and well-nigh 
exclusively associated. Recent search 
amongst documents reposing in Peterhouse 
throws some not uninteresting light upon 
the career of Gray. 

It is well known that Gray came up to 
Cambridge from Eton. It is equally known 
that in his early correspondence Gray reflects 
with no little bitterness upon the Cambridge 
which met his undergraduate view, its 
" owls " and " doleful creatures." 

Upon such evidence, and upon that of an 
incident of twenty-one years later, a recent 
biographer has thought proper to represent 
Gray as a divinely endowed scholar of fine 
ta>tes launched into the abode of barbarians. 
In adjudicating upon an indictment, how- 
ever, we do well to consider the character 
of the witness. Now Gray was the victim 
of unfortunate domestic circumstances. His 
father, Philip Gray, lost money in business 
and was estranged from his wife. It was 
to his mother, Dorothy Antrobus, who 
joined her sister in the conduct of a millinery 
establishment, that the future poet was 
indebted for his education. It was to Eton, 
where his mother's brother, Robert Antrobus, 
was usher, that he was first sent. It was 
through the Antrobus and Etonian con- 
nexion that Gray subsequently entered at 
Peterhouse. Robert Antrobus was a Fellow 
of Peterhouse. The Rev. Thomas Richard- 
son, D.D., Master of Peterhouse from 1G99 
to 1733, was a Fellow of Eton, and during 
his Mastership several Etonians of note 
had entered at the College. 

Gray entered as a Pensioner of Peterhouse 
in 1734. The record in the Admission Book 
runs as follows : — 

'•1734. Jul. 4"'. Thomas (hay. Middlesexiensis, 
in Behold publicS Etonensi institutus annosque 
natus is (petente Tutore suo) censetur admissus 
ad iiiciisani Pensionariorum sub Tutore et Fidejus- 
Bore M 1 " Birkett, sed ea Lege ut brevi se sistat in 
( iollegio el examinatoribus se probet." 

Notwithstanding Gray's early proficiency 
in classical learning and his later encyclo- 
paedic knowledge, it would seem that he 
was in the first instance lacking in some 
of the equipment deemed necessary for 
entrance upon the academic career. It is 
noteworthy that he, in his early correspond- 
ence with West, expresses a distaste for 
mathematical studies. However, on Octo- 
ber 9th, 1734, immediately after coming 
into residence, he satisfied the- examiners. 

At a later period, and Subsequent to his 
succession to his paternal inheritance, Gray 
liked, we are told, to be looked upon as a 
private gentleman pursuing study tor his 
pleasure, but the narrowness of his initial 
circumstances seems to be shown by the 
next entry in the College books : — 

"Oct. 17, 1731. Thomas day, Middlesexiensis, 
in sclmla publieS Etonensi institutus admit t it ur ad 



locum Bibliotista; ex fundationo Kpiscopi Dunel 

1 1 1 ■ 1 1 -i ■ <|iii in 1 1 1 1 1 >• i t. unit Thoma I loi ft- 

li.itui i Him li.f \ ii e candidal ua e soholi 
I taneh »i nominal 

fiKO. Tin I I 

• Bibju ii . I tec. Ben. 
M in. Ooi i . Dec. .Inn'." 

The Bible clerkahip or scholarship in 

question was one of five founded at Peter- 
houae by a former Master, John Cosin, the 
famous Royalial Biahop of Durham, and 

by him connected with the schools of Durham, 

Northallerton, and Norwich. For his nomi- 
nation Cray w as doubtless indebted to GeOTge 

Birkett, Senior Dean, a Northumbrian from 

Cosin's diocese, who was, as appeals from 
the Admission record, his Peterhouse Tutor. 
The scholarship was worth £10 per annum, 
with an extra allowance of five shillings on 
Founder's Day. Gray's tenure of the Cosin 
Bcholarahip was short. 

Under date July 12th, 1734, below the 
provisional admission of Gray, appears in 
the College Admission Book the entry: — 

"Gulielmua Halo, Armiger, Middlesexiensis, in 
sclmla publica Etonensi institutus annosque natus 
IS, examinatus approbatur admittiturque ad 
mciisam Pensionariorum (M™ Collegii absente) Bub 
Tutore et Fidejussore M" 1 Birkett." 

Under his last will the Venerable Bernard 
Hale, D.D., Master of Peterhouse and Arch- 
deacon of Ely, who died in 1663, had founded 
seven scholarships in the College. To these 
his executors subsequently added an eighth. 
The nomination to the scholarships was 
vested in the heirs at law T of the founder. One 
scholarship was offered each year to candi- 
dates from Hertford School ; in default of a 
locally qualified competitor, the patron w r as 
free to choose " the best grammar scholar " 
he could find elsewhere. 

In June, 1735, Gray was nominated by 
William Hale to a vacant Hale Scholarship, 
wdiich was made tenable until the taking of 
the M.A. degree : — 

"Junii 27 rao 173.1 Thomas (day. Middle- 
sexiensis (nominante eum <;ul">° Hale, Armig r ), 
admittitur ad locum Bibliotistse ex Fundatione 
W. D ra Hale quem nuper tenuit Joannes Baldwin 
possidendum (nisi per eum steterit quominus) 
usque dum cooptandus sit in ordinem Magistrorum 
in Artibus." 

The term of tenure indicated w r as the 
longest allowed by the founder, and the 
award is unique amongst contemporary 
appointments to Hale Scholarships. The 
term may mark appreciation of the scholastic 
merits of Gray ; it may also represent the 
ardour of the admiration of his county 
neighbour, late schoolfellow, and present 
fellow-freshman. In any event, a Bible 
clerkship of 20 marks per annum was 
evidently welcome to Gray. He held it until 
he went down in 1738. 

It may be interesting, as illustrative of 
the cost of eighteenth-century education, 
to reproduce some of the College accounts 
of Gray. In his first year Gray's expendi- 
ture was very modest, the item " Sizings," 
which represents specially ordered " extras " 
in dietary, amounting to a few shillings only. 

In later undergraduate years ho was more 
luxurious. In respect of the year 1736-7 
the Bursar presented to Mr. Birkett the 
following bills on account of Cray : — 

Quarter to Christmas. 1736. 

( 'i immons, Hi weeks ... 
Sizings ... 
Detriments 

Sacrist ... 

Coals 

Tahlech .til 



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Hall Punish mi 



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f. 


<l. 


10 


1 


is 


.") 


in 


•_> 


o 


4 



:{ 1<I 



Quarter to Michaelmas, 1 T-*>7 

t; 

< lommons, ) n eeks ... ... 

Sizings ... ... ... ... 

Detriments ... ... ... 

Sacrist ... ... ... ... 

Tax 1 

Lecturer ... ... ... II 



B t 


d. 


!l 


4 


.-> 








7 





4 





11* 





8 



2 16 Hi?. 



T tal for the year. L'14 s-. s\,l. 

Some of these charges, such as those for 
Sacrist (i.e. College Chapel support) and 
Detriments (i.e. general College mainten- 
ance), were, like many modern College 
payments, fixed terminal fees. 

Per contra, Gray was allowed, as Halt- 
Scholar, for the year 1736-7 : — 

£ -. i 

Quarter to Christmas, Hi weeks... 2 11 3 

Quarter to Lady Day, 13 weeks... 3 6 8 

Quarter to Midsummer. 13 weeks 3 6 8 

Quarter to Michaelmas, 4 weeks... 1 (» 8 



m 



1 



These accounts show the student of the 
eighteenth century to have been more 
regularly resident than his successor of 
to-day. The scholarship of 20 marks was 
obviously assigned as for 52 weeks. It 
should be remarked that the Tutor's accounts 
do not represent total outlay for the year. 
Certain annual charges, such as rent of 
rooms, were collected in an independent bill. 

Next year Gray resided in the four 
quarters from Michaelmas to Michaelmas 
6£ weeks, 13 weeks, 9 weeks, 1 1 weeks, 
respectively. His bill reached a total of 
£14 135. 1H<L He paid " Petizants " as 
an absentee on Whit Sunday. His scholar- 
ship revenues for the same period were 



£1 13s. 3fd., £3 6s. 8d., £2 



Ud., 



£2 16s. A\d. ; total, £10 2s. 5\d. T. A. W. 



INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF 
HEAD MASTERS. 

The annual general meeting of the Incor- 
porated Association of Head Masters was 
held on Friday and Saturday in last week 
at the Guildhall. A fair number of schools 
was represented, but it may perhaps be 
inferred, from complaints made in the 
course of the debates about " oligarchical 
government," that the attendance would 
have been more numerous and influential 
if there were not -rightly or wrongly — an 
impression that the ad minist ration of the 
Association is concentrated in too few hands. 

Mr. .lames Kasterbrook (Owen's School, 
Islington), the President, in his address 
sketched the history of the Association, and 
claimed that it had been a great factor in 
making the general public take an interest 
in secondary education, and in bringing 
together those responsible for it. The Act 



N° 4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENiEUM 



77 



of 1902 had not yet done so much as was 
hoped for the proper organization of higher 
education. Local authorities had been so 
occupied with elementary education that in 
many instances they had not touched the 
question. In other cases secondary schools 
of an inferior type — secondary only in name 
— had been set up, and the Association 
wished to put on record that they considered 
this policy was not in the true interests of 
secondary education. The policy of the 
Board of Education with regard to the train- 
ing of pupil - teachers in secondary schools 
was admirable. The pity of it was that the 
material was so poor. This was all the more 
strange as the prospects of elementary 
teachers were distinctly better than those 
of masters in secondary schools. The supply 
of masters for secondary schools was de- 
cidedly dwindling and degenerating. What 
was wanted was that an efficient assistant 
master might see a career before him with 
a fair competency in his later years, even 
though he might never become a head 
master. A well-considered pension scheme 
would work wonders. The desiderata of 
secondary schools were larger and better- 
paid staffs, and a simplification of the 
curriculum. Schools had to teach so many 
subjects at the same time that there was a 
danger of boys leaving school without know- 
ing any one subject well. The majority of 
local authorities were either unable or un- 
willing to put secondary schools on a sound 
financial footing, and an increased Treasury 
grant was urgently wanted. 

The Board of Education regulations for 
secondary schools formed the first subject 
for consideration, and the following resolu- 
tions were discussed : — 

1. "That the current regulations of the Board 
of Education for secondary schools are tending to 
undue restriction of the freedom, variety, and 
elasticity which are desirable in the ease of public 
secondary schools." 

2. "That the policy of minute regulation of 
details of school work pursued by the Board of 
Education constitutes a grave danger to secondary 
schools." 

3. "That the Board of Education he urged to 
amend the regulations for secondary schools so as 
to permit schools taking special courses throughout 
(a) to have a first and second year course common 
to all boys, (l>) to admit both a Science and 
Literary course in the third and fourth year." 

4. "That in the award of grants special con- 
sideration should be given to the case of schools 
formerly called ' A Schools,' of which the efficiency 
is threatened by the reduction of payments." 

5. "That discretionary power should be given 
to schools to enter pupils for external examinations 
in the first and second years of the course." 

The first was moved by Dr. McClure 
(Mill Hill), who stated that while they appre- 
ciated the enormous difficulty with which 
the Board of Education had been faced, 
and therefore did not come forward as carp- 
ing critics, they were bound to protest 
against a course of action which was fraught 
with great dangers to those schools which 
were doing the best work. The second was 
moved by Mr. Telford Varley (Winchester), 
who condemned the increasing tendency to 
stereotype methods and repress individuality. 
Both were carried nem. con. The third, 
moved by Mr. W. R. Carter (Watford), was 
referred to the Council. The fourth, moved 
by Mr. W. H. Barber (Leeds), and the fifth, 
moved by Mr. A. E. Shaw (Thame), were 
carried, the latter, however, only by a 
narrow majority . 

On tin- in. >t ion of the Kev. J. Went 
(Leicester), the following resolution was 
added to the series : — 

"That, with the purpose of diminishing the pie 
sent excessive requirement a made during t be school 
year by the Board of Education and by Local 

auth orities for statistics to be furnished by 



secondary schools, the Association should endeavour 
to obtain an effective unification of such require- 
ments." 

A conference between the Board of Educa- 
tion and delegates from local authorities 
and educational associations was suggested. 
The question of the necessity of State 
aid for secondary schools was next vigor- 
ously discussed, and the following resolution 
was eventually unanimously agreed to : — 

' ' That, while gratefully recognizing the desire 
of the Board of Education to co-operate with head 
masters in the improvement and extension of 
secondary education, this Association is of opinion 
that additional State aid is required to maintain 
and develope the efficiency of already existing 
secondary schools." 

In the course of the debate Mr. Varley, who 
introduced the question, complained that 
secondary schools all over the country were 
languishing for want of sufficient financial 
support. Reliance on the rates in many 
districts had virtually broken down, and 
it was a mistake to look to this source for 
everything. The Government should pro- 
vide a definite secondary education policy. 
Mr. E. F. M. MacCarthy (Birmingham) 
agreed that the cry of the burden of the 
rates was killing education at present, and 
the ratepayer should not be driven too hard. 
Secondary education, so far as State aid 
was concerned, was in a worse position now 
than it was before the Act of 1902. Mr. 
R. C. Gilson (Birmingham) was of opinion 
that the training of pupil - teachers should 
be a national charge. Mr. P. Wood (Dar- 
lington), whe moved the resolution in its 
final form, deprecated the apparent hostility 
to the Board of Education in some of the 
speeches delivered. 

Canon Bell referred to the proposed fede- 
ration of secondary teachers, and moved 

"That this Association approves of the proposal 
to form a Federal Council composed of representa- 
tives of the chief bodies of secondary teachers." 

This was carried by a large majority, in 
spite of the strong opposition of Mr. Gilson, 
who said he had never been able to see any 
advantages that would accrue from federa- 
tion. The officers, however, in spite of 
representations that the matter was urgent, 
were, on the motion of the Rev. W. Madeley 
(Woodbridge), forbidden to take any step 
which would commit the Association to any 
definite policy until endorsement was given 
to the proposals at the next annual general 
meeting. In the speeches made on this 
topic the charge that the Association was 
" oligarchically " governed was boldty made. 

A letter from Dr. Warre on Military Train- 
ing in Schools was read, and it was agreed 
to procure the statistics asked for. The 
efforts of the Classical Association to maintain 
classical education in secondary schools and 
to improve the methods of classical teaching 
were approved ; and, bolder and perhaps 
better informed as to its objects than the 
Head Masters' Conference, the Association 
passed a resolution in favour of the proposed 
joint Matriculation Examination for the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The 
re-election of Canon Swallow and Dr. 
MacClure as honorary secretaries, and the 
election of Mr. W. G. Rushbrooke (St. 
Olave's) as treasurer, brought the proceed- 
ings of the first day to a close. 

Oil the second day the resolution sub- 
mitted by Dr. Flecker (Cheltenham), 

"That this Association regrets the tep taken 
by the War Offioe to insist on the inspection oi 
schools of which pupils intend i i compete for 
entrance to Woolwich and Sandhurst, and pai 
ticularly deprecates the publication of an official 
list of schools which Bubmit to such inspection," 

was rejected by an immense majority, only 
the mover voting in its favour; but the 



same mover obtained unanimous approval 
of a resolution 

"That this Association reaffirms its conviction 
that a system of school certificates should be 
established by University authorities acting under 
a board of control, and its regret that there is as 
yet no adequate decrease in the number of 
examinations for entrance into professions." 

The education of pupil teachers was the 
next subject of discussion, and it was eventu- 
ally agreed — 

1. "That intending pupil-teachers should, as 
far as possible, enter secondary schools not later 
than the age of twelve years, if not already 
attending such schools, and remain there until the 
age of sixteen and then attend a secondary school 
as half-timers." 

2. "That the inspection of pupil teachers in 
secondary schools should be restricted to His 
Majesty's inspectors of secondary schools." 

The first resolution was moved by Mr. R. E. 
Steel (Northampton), and the second by 
Mr. R. C. Gilson (Birmingham). 

Higher elementary schools formed the 
subject of the next debate, which created 
more general interest than anything else in 
the course of the meetings. Mr. S. Wells 
(Battersea) moved — 

1. " That this Association generally approves of 
the new Higher Elementary School Minute, 
believing that a properly organized system of 
education should provide for schools having aims 
and specialized curricula according to the minute, 
and intended for pupils who enter the lower ranks 
of industry and commerce at the age of about 
fifteen, and for whom a secondary school course, 
with its different aim and later leaving age, is 
consequently unsuitable. " 

2. "That in approving the curriculum of a 
higher elementary school the Board of Education 
be asked to adhere to the requirement of a 
specialized course of one or two years having a 
definite relation to the chief occupations of the 
district in which the school is placed, and not to 
sanction such a curriculum as is general or 
secondary in aim and character." 

3. " That in view of the comparatively recent 
definition and organization of secondary schools, 
and of the fact that many existing secondary 
schools doing good work are unable to at once 
meet the requirements of the Board with regard to 
the 'leaving age,' this Association urges the 
Board, before sanctioning the opening of higher 
elementary schools in the same district, to con- 
sider fully how far such secondary schools in ay at 

least temporarily supply the specialized curriculum 

of a higher elementary school." 

The mover said that the new higher ele- 
mentary school would occupy a place 
between the elementary school and the 
secondary school, and its curriculum should 
have a definite relation to the immediate 
future work of the scholar. The Board of 
Education should take care that it should be 
of a special technical character, and that the 
higher elementary school should not be 
allowed to develope into an inferior second- 
ary school. 

The majority of the members present 
were obviously of opinion that there wore 

no guarantees thai such would be the case, 
and that the establishment of higher ele- 
mentary schools would introduce serious 
overlapping with existing secondary schools. 
Mr. W. A. Knigh! (Bruton) thought higher 
elementary schools would extinguish many 

secondary schools, especially in rural dis- 
tricts. Mr. Gilson said thai if was not true 
thai we suffered in this country from 

want of manual skill on the part of our 

workmen, bul what ought to be done was 

to make the workmen a little more intelh 
gent. Nb higher elementary schools could 

give manual training in trades : real manual 

training was given in the workshops. They 

wanted an improvement in the tops of ele- 
mentary schools, but not such schools as 
were contemplated in tho minute of the 



\s 



TH E ATI! EN .KIWI 



X M)82. Jan. •><>, 1906 



ii. I of Education. The mover said he 
was willing to in-' it the words "in large 
oentree ol population after the word 
bools " ; but the majorit} were di U t 
mined to express their disapproval <>f the 
proposal! and, rejecting the previous ques- 
tion, and an appeal by Canon Swallow, 
carried the amenamenl moved by Mr. Knight, 
■ llmi tins Association regards with appre- 

henaion the new Higher Elementary Sol 1 Minute, 

believing thai the promoters of the A.ol of 1902 
intended t" assist existing Beoondarj aohoola, and 
partionlarh urges the Board ol Education no1 to 
Banotion higher elementary aohoola in areas whioh 
already supplied «nli seoondary Bohools." 

The following resolutions wore thou agreed 

to after a short discussion : — 

l. "Thai it is advisable thai steps be taken t<> 
collect data of the physical oondition and growth 

nt pupils in secondary schools." 

•J. "Thai the Association reoognizes the im- 
portance of the recent medical pronouncement on 
hours of sleep in schools, and requests the Council 

to give the matter careful consideration." 

.'{. "That in the interests of national welfare 
the influx of pupils from public elementary to 
secondary schools should be encouraged." 

After the usual votes of thanks the Con- 
ference closed. 



SIR MOUNTSTUART GRANT DUFF. 

By the death last Friday week of Sir 
Mountstuart Grant Duff we lose an accom- 
plished man who combined to a remarkable 
degree the interests of politics, practical 
government, and literature in a wide sense. 
Born on February 21st, 1829, he was the 
son of the distinguished Bombay civilian 
who wrote the ' History of the Mahrattas,' 
while his mother was a daughter of the 
author of the ' Materia Indica,' Sir Whitelaw 
Ainslie. Educated at Edinburgh Academy 
and Balliol, where he took a Second Class in 
1850, he was called to the bar in 1854. "The 
chief interests of his life," however, were, as 
he said, " politics and administration," 
which he was able to indulge as Under- 
Secretary of State for India, 1868-74 ; Under- 
Secretary for the Colonies, 1880-1 ; and 
Governor of Madras, 1881-6. He was 
member for the Elgin Burghs from 1851 to 
1881, and his 'Elgin Speeches' (1871) 
hardly, perhaps, had the effect on the 
Empire which the orator himself supposed. 
He wrote Lives of Sir Henry Maine (1892), 
Kenan (1893), and Lord de Tabley (1899). 
He published also ' Notes of an Indian 
Journey' (1876) and 'Miscellanies, Political 
and Literary ' (1879). 

More than all these, however, his ' Notes 
from a Diary ' are likely to keep his name 
before the public. He was, in fact, gifted 
with that all-round accomplishment which, 
backed by assiduous curiosity concerning 
the many interests of life and remarkable 
vitality, makes a diarist. His ' Notes ' 
reached fourteen volumes, and actually 
extend from the New Year's Day in 1851 
when he had just taken his degree at Oxford, 
and reached Avignon on his way to see 
Rome, to a period fifty years later, Janu- 
ary 23rd, 1901, when the Privy Council 
took the oaths to King Edward VII. These 
'Notes' are not concerned with politics, 
and he adds in t he Preface to his last volumes 
(1905) that "in most lives. .. .there are 
whole tracts of interests, lying outside the 
boundaries of the chief ones." Such ex- 
tended versatility is, however, a very rare 
equipment, and IS felicitous when it is com- 
bined with literary instincts and unwearied 
diligence. To degenerate into miscellaneous 

information which nobody wants except the 
class who rejoice in Tit-Hits and their like 



.Imi.-t ini \ [table in such a MM N 
it often, perhaps, that such 11 mind reveal- 
real critical power in many directions. In 

competence and confident xnolism, ai in 
the caricature of " Uncle Joseph " in 'The 
Wrong Box,' seem perilously reads to 
encroach on the all-round man. Bui Sir 

Mountstuart was a keen, if not an excellent, 
classical scholar and historian ; he travelled 

frequently on the Continent, and he 
moved in the besl society of his time, or, at 

least, the best informed. So his budgel of 
amusing and interesting things, even if 
some of them are vieux jeu, holds many pa 
which are both enlightening and valuable. 
Mingled with much of merely antiquarian 
value are the graces of scholarship in Latin 
jest ; striking, though occasionally pre- 
judiced, characters of famous men ; and an 
extraordinary keenness about such varied 
allurements as sermons, coincidences, last 
words, stories about gems, and botany. The 
last was one of his pot pursuits, and he 
thought nothing of going a long way by 
train to see a special wild flower when he 
was advanced in years. 

It is impossible to smile perpetually on 
such botanical details in print, to admire 
the taste which preferred the lyrics of 
Mrs. Hemans to those of Christina Rossetti 
— difficult not to grow weary of the over- 
laudation of the ' Recit d'un Sceur,' or other 
forgotten luminaries of an earlier time. But 
on the whole the diarist, engaged with The 
Club, with the Dilettanti, busy with Cicero 
or the latest book, in any place or company 
likely to yield matter of interest, trium- 
phantly extracts the good thing to be had, 
and reveals himself as a master of omnivo- 
rous gusto. He did not expect that his 
' Notes ' would survive in entirety, but they 
offer things which will run, in the phrase of 
Ennius, " lively o'er the lips of men " for 
many years, and we dare say that in the 
future they will be graced with a commentary, 
and lead to strange theories or unjustified 
conclusions. To prevent such a catastrophe 
we hope to see soon a memoir of the diarist, 
presenting a fair account of his frailties, 
merits, and prejudices. He has left us, at 
any rate, books that are worth several bales 
of belauded fiction. He is not a Greville or 
a Pepys, but he philosophized in society 
(which means, as Goethe said, " to talk with 
vivacity about insoluble problems ") as well 
as any one ; he was always kindly ; he was 
not frightened into bitterness or silence by 
the stress and complexity of modern life ; 
and he coped with " the modern malady of 
unlimited appreciativeness " as well as any 
sufferer from it can hope to do. 



THE BOOK SALES OF 1905. 

11. 

On March 21st and four following days 
Messrs. Sotheby held a most important 
miscellaneous sale. The 1,346 lots in the 
catalogue realized very nearly 8,500/., a 
sum distributed very evenly, so that there 
are comparatively few high prices to record. 
A copy of Ben Jonson's ' VVorkes ' on large 
paper, 1616, brought 29/. 10s. (morocco 
extra). Only three or four perfect copies 
on large paper are known, and this one 
would have brought more but for the 
fact that several leaves had been supplied 
from the smaller edition of the same date. 
The identical copy appeared again on 
December 8th, when it realized 24/. Spen- 
ser's ' Faerie Queene,' 2 vols., 1590 96, 
brought 76/. (old calf; the Welsh words 
on p. 332 of vol. i. printed, and several 
leaves supplied from another edition). A 
collection of works from the Kelmscott 



all printed on vellum, realized con- 
liderabl] feet than they would have done 
a 1. a 1. The 'Chancer,' for bv 

lold for no more than 30b/., as 

againsf 5101. a1 the Ellis sale in November, 

1901 ; and ' S\ r Ysambracc ' for no 11. 
than ~>l. 5s.. a- against -"/. In some 
ni-tain. - the disproporl ion was not so 
marked, but the depression was neverthe- 
less great throughout. Notice should be 
taken of a work printed at Paris in 1584, 
under the- title ' I).- PJ.d d« •- Hois et de la 
Justice. ' This tract fetched 18/. 15*.; it 
is important, as it has lately been pr ov ed 
to be written by Montaigne. At this same 

sale several tracts by George Keith sold for 
substantial amounts. These are rlnnortd 
among Americana. Special mention must 
also be made of Seymour Haden's ' Etudes 
a 1'Eau-Fortc,' 1866, folio, which brought 
159/. Two hundred and fifty copies of 
this series were announced, but only 180 
appeared, as some of the more delicate 
plates failed. Stephen Harrison's ' Seven 
Archs of Triumph,' n.d. (1603), folio, is 
rarely met with. A copy of the complete 
work, consisting of the engraved title-page 
and a plate illustrating each of the tri- 
umphal arches erected in honour of James L, 
realized 50/. Among other important works 
the editio princeps of the ' Imitatio Christi ' 
sold for 125/. ; Purchas's 'Hakluytus Post- 
humus,' 5 vols., 1625-6, the vellum covers 
perfectly fresh and clean, 110/. ; Cover- 
dale's Bible, printed at Antwerp by Jacob 
van Meteren, October 4th, 1535, 80/. (im- 
perfect, as usual : this was the Ashburnham 
copy, 96/.) ; Herrick's ' Hesperides,' first 
edition, 1648, 75/. (contemporary morocco); 
Shakspeare's Second Folio. Robert Allot, 
1632 (131 b .y 8 Jin.), 108/. (some leaves 
mended) ; and the Fourth Folio, 1685, 47/. 
(portrait rubbed). Several valuable manu- 
scripts were also sold. Keats's first draft 
of ten stanzas of ' Isabella ; or, the Pot of 
Basil,' realized 215/. ; the original MS. of 
Charles Reade's ' Hard Cash,' 95/. ; Thacke- 
ray's original MS. notes for lectures on ' The 
Four Georges,' 199/. ; and part of his ' Pen- 
dennis ' (18 pages only), 290/. An imperfect 
copy of the first edition of Shakspeare's 
' Poems.' 1640, brought 205/. (original sheep., 
5* by 3| in.). 

To do more than refer in a very casual 
way to the large and noteworthy library 
of the late Mr. John Scott would be im- 
practicable. The sale commenced at Sotheby's 
on March 27th, and continued for eleven 
days, the 3,523 lots bringing 18.259/. During 
the last hundred years but sixteen sales held 
in this country have realized more. Exactly 
a hundred pages of ' Book-Prices Current ' 
are occupied by the report, and some excep- 
tionally high prices are recorded, as for 
example, 101/. for a copy of the first edition 
of John Stubbs's 'Discoverie of a Gaping 
Gulf,' 1579, which in ordinary circumstances 
brings a little more than 30/. Mr. Scott had 
two Caxtons, both incomplete. One, the 
' Chronicles of England,' 1482. realized 102/. 
(165 leaves onlv) ; and the other, the ' Poly- 
chronicon' of*Higden, c. 14S3, 201/. (406 
leaves only). Another old English book, 
' Bartolomeus de Proprietatibus Rerum,' 
translated by John of Treves and printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde, without date, folio, 
sold for 251/., and would no doubt have 
brought more, had it not been rebound in 
modern russia. Berthelet's edition of the 
same work, 1535, folio, brought 25/. The 
collection of books and manuscripts relating 
to Mary. Queen of Scots, was probably the 
most extensive in private hands, and it was 
a pity that it had to be broken up. The 
collection of works on shipping, navigation, 
and the navies and naval affairs of aU 
countries was also most extensive anc 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



79 



important. As announced in The Athen- 
ceum at the time, these books were offered 
in one lot at the reserve price of 1,000?., 
and were eventually bought on behalf of 
Mr. Charles C. Scott, son of the late owner, 
for 1,510?. Among the other books sold 
on this occasion was a vellum copy of ' De 
Re Militari ' of Robertus Valturius, 1472, 
folio, which realized 200?., notwithstanding 
the fact that five leaves had been supplied 
from a copy on paper. Knox's Liturgy, 
' The Book of Common Order,' printed at 
Edinburgh by Bassandine in 1575, 8vo, 
made 109?. (contemporary Scotch calf) ; 
the excessively rare first edition of the 
' Basilikon Doron,' 1599, small 4to, 174?. ; 
Hamilton's ' Catechisme,' 1552, small 4to, 
14:11. (russia extra) ; and Gawin Douglas's 
' Palis of Honoure,' printed by Copland in 
small 4to, without date (but 1553), 95?. 
This copy brought SI?, at the Ashburnham 
sale. Many other high prices were ob- 
tained for the scarce works which abounded 
in this library. 

The next few sales recorded were com- 
paratively unimportant, but on May 25th 
and two following days Messrs. Sotheby 
offered an extensive collection of books by 
or relating to Shakspeare, his works, times, 
and influence on subsequent writers. The 
catalogue of this sale is replete with refer- 
ences to old or modern authors who may 
be taken to be associated in some way with 
the great dramatist. It will doubtless have 
been preserved, since it is of great educa- 
tional value and excellently compiled. More 
than 6,5001. was realized for this collection, 
a copy of the Second Folio selling for 225?. 
(some leaves repaired) ; a sound example 
of the Third Folio (12 J by 8£ in.) for 500?. ; 
and an equally good copy of the Fourth 
for 130?. ' Romeo and Juliet,' 1637, 4to, 
brought 1201. (unbound, mended) ; and 
' Othello,' 1630, 4to, 90?. (a number of 
leaves in facsimile). Other substantial 
amounts abounded ; e.g., 401. for Allot's 
' England's Parnassus,' 1600, 12mo (mended); 
68?. for the first English translation of ' Don 
Quixote,' 2 vols., 4to, n.d. and 1620 ; 55?. 
for Herrick's ' Hesperides,' 1648, 8vo ; 100?. 
for Painter's ' Pallace of Pleasure,' 2 vols., 
1569, small 4to (title to vol. i. in facsimile), 
and 220?. for another copy of Spenser's 
'Faerie Queene,' 2 vols., 1590-96 (the Welsh 
words printed). A copy with the blank 
spaces for the Welsh words realized 160Z. 

On June 1st several of Blake's works 
were sold at Sotheby's. ' The Marriage of 
Heaven and Hell,' no imprint, brought 
150?. (this was Lord Crewe's copy, which 
realized 260?. at his sale) ; ' Visions of the 
Daughters of Albion,' 1793, 105?. ; and 
'The Book of Thel,' 67?. This sale 
realized nearly 6,000?., a considerable 
proportion of which was, however, ob- 
tained for autograph letters and manu- 
scripts, some of the latter being of very 
considerable literary interest, as, for example, 
Bret Harte's ' A Ward of the Golden Gate,' 
on 144 folios, which brought 51?., and De 
Quincey's 'Journal, written during the Year 
1803,' 74 leaves, 66?. This brings us to the 
very extensive portion of the library of Mr. 
Joseph Knight, which was sold at Sotheby's 
on June 19th and five following days. Many 
of the books were sold together, and the 
2,007 lots catalogued comprised an enormous 
number of volumes, probably some 35,000 
or 40,000 (one estimate placed the number 
at 50,000), gathered with great judgment. 
From the point of view of the collector of 
books, and not merely of curiosities, this 
collection was one of the most notable offered 
for sale during recent years, and might well 
have been secured en bloc, if that had been 
possible. The total realized was 2,155?. | 



The Latin edition of Bacon's works, edited 
by Rawley, and printed at Basle in 1623, 
during the lifetime of the author, small 
folio, sold for 64?. (original vellum). This 
edition contains the editio princeps of the 
' De Augmentis,' and may have been 
privately issued. At any rate, it is very 
rarely met with. The rest of the season 
was occupied in selling collections of a 
miscellaneous character, from which, how- 
ever, some valuable books peeped here and 
there. The majority of these were alluded 
to in the first part of the former article, and 
need not be mentioned again. On June 29th 
and later Ben Jonson's Latin Bible, having 
his signature and an inscription in his hand, 
brought 54?.; a complete set of Lever's works, 
all first editions, 52 vols., morocco extra, 100?.; 
the ' Opere ' of Metastasio, 12 vols., 4to, 
1780-82, morocco extra, with the arms of 
Marie Antoinette as queen on the sides, 
165?. ; and the ' CEuvres de Racine,' 3 vols., 
8vo, 1767, with the same arms, 91?. Shak- 
speare's' King John,' 1622, 4to, brought 
79?. on July 19th ; and on the 28th a Fourth 
Folio, 1685, 110?. (damaged). 

The new season, hereafter to be quoted 
as that of 1905-6, opened slightly before the 
usual time at Messrs. Hodgson's, but nothing 
of much importance is noticeable till Novem- 
ber 1st, when that firm sold the library of 
the late Rev. F. Procter and other properties. 
Mr. Thwaite's ' Jesuit Relations and Allied 
Documents,' 73 vols., 1896-1902, stands 
steady at 24?. 10s. ; and mention must be 
made of ' A Compendious Treatise on 
Modern Education,' 1802, 30?. (boards). This 
book, which is exceedingly scarce, contains 
eight coloured plates by Rowlandson. Another 
scarce work called ' The Twelve Moneths,' 
small 4to, 1661, by Matthew Stevenson, 
sold for 23?. 10s. The library of the Earl 
of Cork and Orrery, sold by Messrs. Christie, 
Manson & Woods on November 21st, will be 
well within the recollection. It was at this 
sale that 2,600?. was paid for an illuminated 
MS. — ' Le Livre de Rustican,' probably the 
finest work of its kind in existence — and 
285?. for the identical Book of Common 
Prayer which Charles I. " carried with him 
wherever he travelled, even to the day of 
his Death." This takes the mind back to 
that gold pattern five-broad piece which the 
king also carried with him wherever he went, 
and which he handed to Bishop Juxon on 
the scaffold outside Whitehall. Mr. Hyman 
Montagu had it at last, and at one of the 
sales of his coins — that of November 13th, 
1896 — it realized the largest amount ever 
paid up to that time, and perhaps since, 
for a single specimen, viz. 770?. 

On November 22nd and two following 
days Messrs. Hampton & Sons sold the 
library of the late Sir Joseph Hawley. 
This sale was held at Leybourne Grange, 
Mailing, near Maidstone, The books were 
of a general character, useful rather than 
rare. Purchas's ' Hakluytus Posthumus,' 
5 vols., folio, 1625-6, fetched 50?. (morocco 
by Pratt) ; and Smith's ' Generall Historie 
of Virginia,' 1624, folio, 127?. (old calf). It 
is but seldom that this book is found in 
perfect condition, one or more of the four 
maps being nearly always in facsimile. It 
is recorded that Sir Edward Bunbury's 
perfect copy realized 2ot?. in July, 1896. 
Thirty years before that the price stood at 
about 10?. 

Three sales of considerable importance 
complete the series. Some of the high- 
priced books from that of December 6th 
and three following days (Sotheby's) have 
already been mentioned, and the report 
which appeared in The Athcna-urn of Decem- 
ber 16th is sufficiently recent to render any 
further remarks unnecessary. Tho same 



may be said of Sir Henry Irving's library 
(Christie's, December 18th and 19th), and 
the collection of military, mathematical, 
and miscellaneous works from the library 
of the Royal Military College at Camberley 
(Hodgson's, December 20th and 21st,) 
which brought the year's sales to a close. 
That the result of these sales, some fifty 
in number, has not been good, is perfectly 
clear on analysis. As already stated, an 
unusual number of very scarce and valuable 
books have found their way to the auction- 
rooms, but the vast majority were of a 
very ordinary character, and brought much 
less than they would have done three or 
four years ago. On going through so much 
of the last published volume of ' Book- 
Prices Current ' as relates to the sales held 
since January and the new one now in course 
of preparation, which completes the record, I 
find that about 120,000?. has been realized 
from first to last, and that, if the sixty very 
high-priced books are left out of the calcu- 
lation, the average is no higher than about 
2?. 5s. — the lowest since 1896, when it stood 
at 1?. 13s. 10c?. This is, of course, very satis- 
factory from the point of view of the buyer, 
and is accounted for by the fact that just 
at the moment there is no " craze " to 
chronicle, and consequently no inflation of 
prices observable anywhere, except in a 
few instances which do not affect the book- 
collector of average means. In what direc- 
tion he will next turn his steps it is impos- 
sible to say with any pretensions to accuracy, 
but if a guess might be hazarded, it may be 
towards a class of books hitherto somewhat 
neglected, namely, books written and pub- 
lished by our kinsmen across the seas. To 
think " imperially " is but the prelude to 
some form of practical appreciation which 
will assuredly manifest itself sooner or later. 
J. Herbert Slater. 



THE 1477 VENICE EDITION OF THE 
'DIVINA COMMEUIA.' 

Wood End, YVeybridge. 

The fact that the commentary to Vindelin 
da Spira's edition of the ' Commedia ' 
(Venice, 1477) was that of Jacopo della 
Lana, and not that of Benvenuto of Imola, 
has of course long been familiar to all people 
interested in the matter. It is noted, for 
instance, in the introduction to Dr. Carlyle's 
' Inferno,' first published in 1848. But it 
has always been assumed that the mistake 
arose from a claim made in the sonnet 
(" vehement and helpless verses," Dr. 
Carlyle calls it) which serves as colophon 
to the book. I do not feel sure that this 
was intended. The sonnet opens with 
some lines on Dante, and proceeds : — 

D' Imola Benvenuto mai fla pi ho 
D' ctevna fainn, che sua mansuets 
Lyra opero, commentando il poets 
Per cm il testo a noi <■ Intellective 

If the writer of these lines was, as seems 
probable, the Cristoval Berardi of Pesaro 
who is in the next tercet spoken of as the 
" indegno correttore " who looked after the 
edition, it seems incredible that he should 
have been mistaken as to the source of the 
comment. I have always taken the lines 
quoted as merely acompliment to Benvenuto, 
who well deserves it. Why Lann's com- 
mentary should have been chosen to accom- 
pany the text one cannot say. Possibly 
his were the fashionable notes at that day, 
and Vindelin, like a prudent publisher, may 
have looked chiefly to his sales. 

The mistake, anyhow, is very early. In 

my own OOpy some sixteenth-century owner 
has been at tho trouble of writing a title- 
page in fine Gothic letters, in which the 



BO 



Til E A Til EN .i:r M 



N I"-/. Jan. 20, 1- 



oommentari i i oribed i" Benvenuto. It 
would l>i- interesting t<> know it the oopj 
referred to bj Mr. Slater had been similarly 
treal L J. Bxttleb. 



INK i:.\i;n ENGLISH DRAMA SOCIETY. 
L8, r.ui > street, Bloomabury, W.C 
Mai I ask the courtesy of publication for 
our or two items of possible interest ? 

1. The next two volumes of the *' Early 

Dramatists Series " of this Society, are now 
ready, and will bo issued immediately — 
'Anonymous Plays,' Series III., and 'The 
Dramatic Writings of K. Wever and Thomas 
[ngelend.' The first named includes 
(amonpl five other plays) ' Gammer Gur- 
t on's Needle ' ; and, through the courtesy 
of Dr. Bradley and Messrs. Maemillan & Co., 
I am able to summarize the evidence to date 
in favour of and against Dr. Bradley's ascrip- 
tion of this play to William Stevenson v. 
"M 1 W. Sftill], M 1 of Art," together with 
facsimile title-pages illustrating one of Dr. 
Bradley's points. 

2. Prof. Ward, in his introduction to the 
farewell volume issued by the Spenser 
Society, mentioned a " MS. Index and 
Glossary " to John Hey wood's ' Works,' 
which, prepared and promised in 1807, had 
unfortunately been lost. It is now found. 
While preparing my edition of Heywood's 
' Proverbs, Epigrams, and Miscellanies ' for 
the E.E.D.S., I received not a little courtesy 
from Mr. C. W. Sutton, the librarian to the 
Manchester Corporation. Amongst other 
things sent "as of possible utility " was 
what proved to be the MS. volume in ques- 
tion. I immediately recognized the hand 
of Dr. Furnivall ; and Mr. Sutton's replies 
to my remarks and inquiries soon established 
the identity of the volume. No one, I am 
sure, will be more pleased than Dr. Furnivall 
himself to know that work done thirty years 
ago, apparently to no purpose, will after all 
be utilized ; especially as he has recently, 
in company with Mr. Sidney Lee, Mr. A. H. 
Bullen, and others, shown his sympathy 
with our efforts by consenting to become one 
of the honorary vice-presidents of the Early 
English Drama Society. 

John S. Farmer. 



Not long since it was said that all 
the clever young men were on the Tory 
side. Thisjias certainly not^been true 
of recent years, and the Parliament now 
being elected can already boast a literary 
distinction on the Liberal side unknown 
to its predecessor. Mr. Winston Churchill 
lias signalized his accession to his new 
faith by publishing the book of the 
season ; and Mr. A. E. W. Mason, who 
has won a manufacturing constituency, 
has reached the pleasant position of a 
popular novelist. Mr. Herbert Paul is 
well known in the literary world. 

Of the younger men, Mr. Hilaire 
Belloc has written brilliantly on many 
subjects, including some excellent verse, 
both of a light and serious kind. Mr. 
C. F. G. Masterman, who looks after the 
literature of The Daily News, is effective 
both as speaker and writer. He made a 
stir by that striking little book 'The 
Abyss,' and recently published 'In Peril 



of Change. 1 Mr. <■. p. Qoooh is a Cam- 
bridge historian, and baa written 'The 
History of English Democratic [deal in 
the Seventeenth: Century ' and ' Annals of 
Politics and Culture, I $2-1899.' 

Mi:. ( '. W. I'.(A\ i.km \\. u ho i- alflO 
among the new members, was originally a 

compositor on Tht Daily Tdegra/ph, and 

holds the position of secretary of the 
London Society of Compositors. 

In TheCornhitt Magazine for February 
■ From a College Window ' deals with the 
writing of books. In 'Freeman versus 
I'Youde ' Mr. Andrew Lang revives an old 
question, a new one being ^discussed in 
' Grandeur et Decadence de Bernard 
Shaw,' by "A Young Playgoer." In 
'George Eliot's Coventry Friends' Mr. 
W. H. Draper presents a memory of the 
last century, while ' Society in the Time of 
Voltaire,' by Mr. S. G. Tallentyre, con- 
cerns a very different period. Poetry is 
represented by Mr. A. D. Godley's 
' Pegasus, Quiet in Harness.' 

The opening article in the February 
Independent Review will be ' The Revolu- 
tion of the Twentieth Century,' by Mr. 
W. T. Stead. Mr. G. L. Dickinson will 
follow with an essay entitled ' Quo Vadis V 
a plea for consideration of the ultimate 
ideals which should underlie political con- 
troversy. Mr. G. L. Strachey is writing 
on Sir Thomas Browne, and Mr. A. Tho- 
rold on ' Maeterlinck as a Moralist.' 
Among the other contributions will be 
' Flowers and the Greek Gods,' by Miss 
Alice Lindsell ; ' Leonidas Andreieff,' by 
Mr. Simeon Linden ; and ' From the 
Second to the Third Reform Bill,' by Mr. 
Graham Wallas. 

Mr. Filson Young is at present en- 
gaged on a ' Life and Account of the 
Voyages of Christopher Columbus,' which 
the firm of E. Grant Richards hopes to 
have ready for publication in the autumn 
of this year. English literature on the 
subject of Columbus's life is comparatively 
meagre, partly owing to the fact that 
most of the original documents are widely 
scattered throughout Spain and Italy. As 
there is reason to believe that English 
collectors have in their possession a good 
many original charts and documents 
relating to Columbus's voyages, Mr. 
Filson Young hopes that any who have 
materials of the kind will assist him by 
communicating with him on the subject 
at the address of his publisher. 

Messrs. Macmillan & Co. expect to 
have the 'Memoir of Archbishop Temple,' 
in two volumes, ready about the middle 
of February It is, as we have already 
announced, the work of seven friends. 

Another biography of interest is an- 
nounced by the same firm — that of 
Henry Sidgwick, written by his widow 
and his brother Mr. Arthur Sidgwick. 
The materials for their account are an 
autobiographical fragment dictated by 
Sidgw ick in his last illness; a journal kept 
between 1884 and 1892, and sent at in- 
tervals to John Addington Symonds at 
Davos ; and a large number of letters 
lent by relations and friends. The book 



will probably be ready about the same 
time as the life df Temple. 

'I'm. Rev. .1. X. Figgis, ReCtOl <>f .Main- 
hull, has been entrusted by Lord Acton 
with the ta-k of completing the edition of 
his father's ' Lec< ures and I It i — 

hoped, if possible, to publish the Cam- 
bridge lectures in a very tew months. 
These lectures alone will Buffioe to refute 

the idea that Acton was a man who talked 
about erudition, but did nothing, foi they 
are likely to prove the most valuable COn- 
t ribul ion to the philosophy of history pub- 
lished in this country 01 recent years. 
.Mr. Figgis is laying aside a book of his 
own on " Political Thought in the Fif- 
teenth and Sixteenth Centuries' in order 
to complete the Acton remains a- speedily 
as possible. 

A new story by -Mi. Robert Hichens is 

to appear in the autumn, its title will, 
it is said, be ' The Call of the Blood,' and 
ene of action Sicily. 

Besides their "Early Dramati-ts 
Series," the Early English Drama Society 
have in preparation photo-litho, collotype, 
or photogravure facsimiles of rare books 
and manuscripts in all departments of 
literature. The size, script or print, and 
other details of the originals will be 
followed. The volumes proposed for this 
year are Massinger's ' Believe as You 
List,' ' Ralph Roister Doister,' and 
' Gammer Gurton's Needle.' The con- 
ditions of publication are too elaborate to 
be exhibited briefly. 

Mr. Sidney Lee. in the paper which 
he read last Monday before the Biblio- 
graphical Society, on early translations of 
English books into French, noticed in- 
cidentally the impossibility of pursuing 
his research exhaustively in this country, 
owing to the small number of early 
French publications of the kind in the 
British Museum or any other public 
library. At the British Museum the gaps 
in this department of foreign literature 
are very numerous, and it is, unfortu- 
nately, by no means the only department 
of the sort which betrays deficiencies. It 
is to be hoped that some systematic 
efforts will be made to remedy this defect 
in the library. 

Mr. Arthur Lewis writes from Wincot, 
Chorleywood, Herts : — 

"The death of the Rev. Basket! Smith, 
F.R.G.S., on Friday, the 12th inst., deprives 
tin 1 world of one of its ablest lecturers, and 
his friends of a most genial and interesting 
personality—a vigorous thinker, an admir- 
able raconteur, and a humourist of the best. 
But of all he had to tell us, nothing was so 
peculiarly his own subject as that life in the 
Holy Land, to which he lirst went as com- 
panion of Laurence Oliphant, with whom 
upon Mount Carmel he lived so long. How 
much we wish now — too lata! — that we 
had induced him to put on paper the 
whole story of thai solitude of two among 
the Syrian Druses! Some aspect of that 

strange experience he wrote in the form of 
fiction in his "For God and Humanity: a 
Romance of Mount Carmel': but the 
intimate facts of Oliphant's life near Haifa 
have yet. perhaps, to be extracted from the 
papers of his friend now lost to us. May 
this some day be done 1 " 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



81 



Mr. Smith was, we may add, the author 
of Murray's Handbook to Syria and 
Palestine. 

At last week's meeting of the Edinburgh 
Bibliographical Society, Mr. Robert Steele, 
of the London Bibliographical Society, 
read a paper on ' Materials for the History 
of the Lithuanian Bible.' This transla- 
tion, of which only two or three fragments 
are known, is one of the puzzles of inter- 
national bibliography, made none the less 
difficult because its literature is found in 
such languages as Polish, Lithuanian, 
Russian, and Bohemian. Mr. Steele ex- 
pressed the belief that the Lithuanian 
Bible was never completed or published, 
and that it was printed in London. Of 
the few proofs which got into circulation 
some two or three still exist. 

A meeting of the friends of the late 
Dr. William Hastie, Professor of Divinity 
in the University of Glasgow from 1895 
to 1903, was held last week, when certain 
memorials of the Professor were handed 
over to the University. These included 
a marble bust of Prof. Hastie, a lecture- 
ship to which an appointment will 
be made triennially, and 600 valuable 
volumes from the Professor's library. 
Principal Story, who presided at the 
meeting, paid a high tribute to Dr. Hastie's 
versatility as scholar and writer, philo- 
sopher and poet. 

Dr. Wallis Budge, of the British 
Museum, has made a translation of, and 
written a commentary on, the curious 
Egyptian books known as ' The Book of 
what is in Hades ' and ' The Book of the 
Gates ' respectively. These two works 
give pictures of the life after death which 
differ in many respects from that which 
can be drawn from the more generally 
known ' Book of the Dead,' and they are 
a good deal later in date, not having been, 
apparently, reduced to writing until the 
eighteenth or nineteenth dynasty. Dr. 
Budge's translation will be published 
early next month by Messrs. Kegan Paul 
& Co., and will form the first English 
version of these books which has yet 
appeared. 

We find that in our last issue we have 
given Mr. John Long as the publisher of 
' A Pretender,' by Annie Thomas, whereas 
Messrs. Digby, Long & Co. are the pub- 
lishers. We are very sorry to notice this 
mistake, which we rectify as soon as 
possible. 

During the occupation of the Straits 
Settlements by the Portuguese and the 
Dutch during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries a number of notable men 
of both nationalities died and were buried 
in Malacca. Many of their tombs survive 
to the present day. Mr. R. N. Bland lias 
written a volume under the title ' His- 
torical Tombstones of Malacca,' contain- 
ing the most interesting of the epitaphs, 
with numerous photographs. A short 
introduction gives historical references to 
the monuments. Mr. Elliol Stock is the 
publisher. 

Temple Bar for February contains a 
paper on Richard Jefferies by Mr. 



Edward Thomas, dealing with his strong 
personality both as a man and a writer. 
Mr. Cecil Chesterton, in ' The Comedy of 
Elections,' shows how locality affects the 
views and temperaments of electors. Miss 
Netta Syrett describes ' The Fascination 
of a Doll's House,' which is not Ibsen's ; 
and Miss V. H. Friedlaender in ' The 
Little Lad ' shows the attraction the sea 
has for the children of seamen. Miss C. S. 
Foster contributes a poem called ' The 
Eastern Exile.' 

The Home Counties Magazine, which 
has just completed its seventh volume, 
will in future be published by Messrs. 
Reynell & Son, of Chancery Lane. The 
new editor is Mr. W. Paley" Baildon, 
F.S.A. 

Mr. Alston Rivers announces for 
publication next month a number of 
Thackeray essays, now collected for the 
first time, and edited by Mr. Robert S. 
Garnett, entitled ' The New Sketch-Book.' 

The presentation to Mr. Walter Wells- 
man to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of 
' The Newspaper Press Directory,' of 
which he has been so long editor, will 
take place at a luncheon at De Keyser's 
Royal Hotel" at one o'clock on Tuesday 
next, when r Sir William Treloar will 
preside. 

The candidates for the Regius Pro- 
fessorship of Greek at Cambridge have to 
expound some Greek for the benefit of 
members of the Senate, and are now 
announced as follows. Prof. Ridgeway 
on January 23rd takes a passage of the 
' Supplices ' of iEschylus ; Dr. Jackson 
on January 25th part of Plato's ' Cra- 
tylus ' ; Dr. Adam on the same day a 
fragment of Pindar ; and Dr. Verrall on 
the 26th a passage of the ' Eumenides ' 
of iEschylus. Dr. S. H. Butcher is not, 
as was suggested in some quarters, a 
candidate for the Greek Chair. 

Dr. Oscar Levy some time ago made 
an appeal in our columns to friends of 
Stendhal to contribute to a memorial to 
him. He now informs us that a monu- 
ment is about to be erected in France, and 
that M. Adolphe Paupe, the secretary of 
the committee who are arranging it, is 
bringing out a new annotated edition of 
Stendhal's letters. This will be published 
shortly, and will contain 560 letters, instead 
of the 272 in the Calmann-Levy edition. K - 

The manuscripts of Victor Hugo, 
scrupulously preserved by the late Paul 
Meurice in his house in the Rue Fortuny, 
are, in accordance with his wishes, to be 
transferred in a week or two to the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. This has been 
decided in a conference with the poet's 
executors and M. Henry Marcel, the direc- 
tor of the French National Library. The 
transference will not affect the greal 
edition of Hugo's works now in progress, 
for the new editor, M. Gustave Simon, will 
have free access to the various manuscripts 
until his task is completed. Although 
nominally public property from the 
moment they are received at the Biblio- 
theque Nationale, they will presumably 

not be open for inspection for some vcars. 



The one important exception is the manu- 
script of ' Hernani,' which was given to 
the Comedie Francaise by the expressed 
desire of Hugo. 

According to the official fists just 
issued 42,390 students matriculated at 
the German universities during the winter 
term, showing an increase of 2,674 as 
compared with the corresponding term 
last year. Of these, 8,081 are at Berlin, 
5,147 at Munich, 4,224 at Leipsic, 2,908 
at Bonn, and 1,443 at Heidelberg. There 
are 1,908 women studying at the univer- 
sities, but only a small proportion of these 
are matriculated students. 

The death, in his sixty-eighth year, is 
announced from Breslau of Prof. Hermann 
Markgraf, director of the town library, 
and author of several interesting works, 
dealing chiefly with the history of Silesia. 

A prominent Hungarian journalist has 
passed away, at the age of sixty-seven, in 
Siegmund Brody, editor of the Neue Pester 
Journal. Brody, who was of very humble 
origin, first took up the study of medicine ; 
but the dissecting-room proved too much 
for his nerves, and he turned to journalism, 
where his practical business capacity and 
instinct for discerning what the reading 
public required, soon enabled him to raise 
his paper to eminence. He is said to 
have possessed a singular power of dis- 
covering talent in others, but to have 
been unable to retain his contributors, 
owing to his petty ways in dealing with 
them — a peculiarity combined with 
generosity as a philanthropist^ _He was 
the first journalist to become^a~member 
of the House of Magnates. 

The only Parliamentary Paper of general 
interest to our readers this week is a Re- 
port on the London County Council Rules 
as to Employment of School Children (3d.). 

Next week we shall pay special atten- 
tion to Theological Books, and also insert 
our annual notice of Italian Literature, 
which has been unavoidably delayed. 



SCIENCE 



RESEARCH NOTES. 

In his Presidential address to the Rontgen 
Society on the 4th inst. Prof. Soddy " put 
the dots on the i's " of Prof. Rutherford's 
investigations into the transformations of 
radium, which were referred to in these 
Notes some months back (see The Athenosum, 
No. 4063). Prof. Soddy told his hearers 
that the Alpha-particle expelled from radium 
was an atom of helium, and that it is the 
loss of successive atoms of the same sub- 
stance that brings about the seven changes 

which have already been observed, antl (he 

eighth which botli lie and Prof. Rutherford 
agree takes place. Thus the expulsion 
of the first atom of helium changes radium 

into the gaseous emanat ion which Sir William 

Ramsay calls ex-radio, and reduces the 
atomic weight from 225 to 221. The loss 
of another atom produces radium A (atomic 
weight 217). the film of " imparted activity.*' 

invisible and imponderable, which ex-radio 

leaves upon any solid object with which 

it is long enough in contact and which emits 

Alpha rays only. Radium P (atomic weight 



82 



T II E A Til KN'.KT M 



\ U)82, Jam. 20, 1906 



213) is rayless, hut chan;.'' • in .t I >. .1 il twenty 

minutes into radium <'. whioh emits, aooord 
ing to Prof. Rutherford, Upha, Beta, and 
Gamma rays alike, changing in rather 
than half an hour into radium l> (atomic 
wi dghl 200). This, which forma the active 
principle of radio active lead, is also rayleas, 
and takea forty yean to undergo its nexl 
transformation and beoome radium E. The 
radiations of this arc of Beta and Gamma 

rays only, bul in six days it beoomee radium 
!•'. which Prof. Rutherford identities with 
the polonium of Madame Curie and the 

radio-tellurium of Prof, Bfarckwald. As 

this also expels an Alpha or helium particle, 
it should by analogy form radium (!, with 
nil atomic weight of 205. But this, l'rof. 

Soddy agrees with Prof. Rutherford, is 
sufficiently near to the atomic weight of 
lead (206*7) for lead to he regarded as the 
final product of the transformations. Thus, 
the problem of the alchemists has been solved, 
not by us, but by Nature; and could we 
find out how to hasten the process, we 
should have at our disposal forces compared 
with which all those hitherto handled by 
man are trifling. The sudden disintegration 
of 30 milligrammes of radium would, says 
Prof. Soddy, about equal the explosion of a 
hundredweight of dynamite. Wherefore it 
is to be hoped that the discovery will not 
be made just yet. 

If the view of the phenomena above 
given be correct — as to which the curious 
can consult The Philosophical Magazine for 
September of last year — the position of 
helium among the elements becomes ex- 
tremely curious. We already know that 
it cannot be liquefied, having resisted all 
the processes to that end which have proved 
effectual with oxygen, nitrogen, and even 
hydrogen ; and that its rate of diffusion is 
more rapid than that of any other known 
substance. Yet it is impossible to obtain 
proof of its existence otherwise than with 
the spectroscope, and the behaviour of the 
helium emanating from radium, which dis- 
appears if left long enough in a glass bulb, 
does not seem to correspond with that pre- 
pared by Sir William Ramsay's process, 
which can apparently be retained in a 
Plucker's tube for an indefinite period. 
Dr. B. Walter has recently stated that the 
Alpha particle of polonium, which is, as 
we have just seen, according to other obser- 
vers the helium atom, renders the air 
luminescent in passing through it, and has 
a very pronounced photo-chemical effect, 
which seems to correspond to the spectral 
rays A350-A290. This effect is said to be 
more marked in the presence of nitrogen. 
Is it another case of a double spectrum ? 

Not unconnected with this, perhaps, are 
the phenomena observed by M. Charles 
Nordmann at Philippeville, in Algeria, 
during the late solar eclipse. Taking with 
him an instrument which he calls an iono- 
graph, and which apparently registers the 
number of ions present in a given portion 
of the atmosphere, he found that up to 
45 minutes after the first contact the 
number of positive ions remained normal. 
At the expiry of that time, however, they 
began to grow fewer, reaching their mini- 
mum 40 minutes after totality. Then the 
curve began to rise again, until 20 minutes 
after the last contact it had regained its 
normal value. He declares that this is in 
accord with the theories of] Dr. Lenard and 
MM. Elster and Geitel, according to which 
solar radiation plays a chief part in the 
ionization of the atmosphere. But the 
phenomenon can also be compared with 
what happens when a large Tesla trans- 
former, which appears to discharge, as has 
been noticed, only positive ions into the 



unrounding atmosphere, w maxked by a 
en on Ol metal or Other good conductor. 

Prof. Stark, of Gdttingen, baa also been 
making experiments on the Bpectrum of the 
Alpha rays, his theory being that it is the 
positive ion he calls ll the "atom-ion, "bul 
the change in nomenclature does not aeem 

to convey any additional information 

which is the carrier of the line spectrum of 
an element, while the hand spectrum is due 

to the recombination of the positive and 
negative electrons. On this theory the 
Alpha particles should emit t he line spectrum 

of the gas in which they are produced, and 
the gas itself the hand spectrum which 
should he superposed on the other. Accord- 
ing to the summary of his experiments 
which alone has reached this country, he 
finds a difference between the behaviour of 
nitrogen and that of other gases, spectro- 
scopic examination here showing the appear- 
ance of the band and line spectrum simul- 
taneously. With hydrogen, the line spec- 
trum emitted in a direction at right angles 
to the Alpha rays shows sharp lines of the 
known wavo-lene;th ; while that emitted in 
the same direction as the rays themselves 
shows, on the ultra-violet side of these, new 
and wider lines, which he thinks are due to 
displacement. The full account of Prof. 
Stark's experiments which is promised will 
be looked forward to with interest. 

Prof. E. Marx has lately made another 
attempt to measure the speed of the Rontgen 
rays by a process which he declares to be 
relatively simple, to be applicable to any 
species of radiations, and to be accurate 
within a margin of 5 per cent. According 
to this, the speed of the X-rays is equal to 
that of light, or 300,000 kilometres per 
second. With this may be read the experi- 
mental proof by Dr. W. Seitz that the 
Rontgen rays can be produced with a much 
lower voltage than is generally supposed, 
and that as long as any glow light reaches 
the anti-cathode, they will be produced 
even with an electromotive force of only 
600 volts. The difficulty that weak or soft 
rays find in penetrating the walls of the tube 
is, he thinks, the reason why this has not 
been observed before, but he points out that 
soft rays are more easily absorbed by a 
sensitized photographic plate than hard ones. 

A new species of radiation is announced 
by Dr. F. Streintz, who thinks that slow 
oxidation will cause certain metals, such as 
magnesium, aluminium, zinc, and cadmium, 
to give out rays detectable by a photographic 
plate. These rays, which he compares to 
the ultra-violet, ionize gases, as is shown by 
their action on iodide of potassium paper, 
but are incapable of penetrating more than 
a few hundredths of a millimetre of air. 
All these metals can be protected against 
oxidation by a charge of positive electricity, 
and it is suggested that this fact may be 
made use of for industrial purposes. 

Another curious discovery is that of Dr. 
Auer von Welsbach that some of the metals 
derived from the rare earths, such as lan- 
thanum, didymium, and yttrium, when 
alloyed with iron, increase, to an unexpected 
extent, its power of giving out sparks on 
concussion. Thus he finds that an alloy of 
lanthanum containing 50 per cent, of iron 
will give out long and brilliant sparks under 
the action of a steel file. These sparks 
appear to be too rapid to possess much heat, 
but if they develope sufficient to inflame a 
mixture of petrol vapour and air they might 
be of use in the motor-car industry, and the 
suggestion might be worth a few experiments. 

Lord Rayleigh has made some calcula- 
tions as to the rate at which the electrons 
are, on the electronic hypothesis, supposed 
to rotate within the atom, and has come to 
the conclusion that their motion can never 



be entirely -t< adv. HonOO, he think 

must he a tendency to radiation at all 
t iiii* . -. i i ■ r i thi lystem i- undisturbed 

by external which would aeem to 

confirm the views of M. I..- I'.on and oti 

bo the universal disintegration of msttor 

The spectrum, he suggests, mas- be due to 

the upsetting of the balance, and the fre- 
quencies will then correspond to the original 

distribution of the electrons as it I \. ••.! 

before the disturbance. He also makfii tome 
remarks as tot he frequencies of electric vihra- 
tions, and says that the principles which 
have led to the formulae he gives have 
affinity rather with the older view a- to the 
effect of electricity upon conductors than 
with that of Maxwell. All this is to be 
found in The Philosophical Magazine for 
this month. 

At the last meeting of the Royal S >< iety 
of Edinburgh Or. G. E. Fawsitt gave par- 
ticulars of some curious experiments lately 
made by him on the electrical polarity 
of metals. He found that the precious 
metals silver, platinum, and gold in their 
amorphous form were electro-positive when 
placed in dilute acid with specimens of the 
same metals which had been annealed. 
Hence it appears that the same element can 
be positive when its molecular structure is 
not crystalline, and negative when it is. 
This should give reflection to those who have 
too rashly founded arguments on the assump- 
tion that accidents like valency and polarity 
are the fundamental properties of any 
elements. F. L. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Prominent among the original memoirs 
in U Anthropologic (xvi., Nos. 4 and 5) is 
one by M. Hugues Obermaier on Quaternary 
human remains in Central Europe. He 
observes that the osseous remains of Quater- 
nary man are as rare as the archaeological 
remains are numerous, and specifies the dis- 
coveries in the caves of Sipka and Krapina 
and at Willendorf and Predmost, and the 
skeleton of Bruenn, as assuredly Quater- 
nary ; other discoveries in Bohemia, Mo- 
ravia, Austria, Hungary, and Poland he 
dismisses as erroneous, doubtful, or insuffi- 
cient. M. Armand Vire describes the Solu- 
trean cavern of Lacave (Lot), which yielded 
many objects of reindeer horn, some bearing 
carvings (one a spirited head of antelope), 
and well-worked flint implements. M. 6mile 
Cartailhac and the Abbe Breuil continue 
their account of the mural paintings and 
engravings of the Pyrenean caverns. MM. 
Anthony and Hazard furnish notes of the 
muscles of a negro who was brought to 
France from Africa, and died of sleeping 
sickness at the hospital of Auteuil. 

L'Honunc Prchistorique (1905, No. 11) 
contains a report of the proceedings at the 
inauguration of the monument to Gabriel 
de Mortillet, designed by M. A. La Penna. 
and erected in the Square des Arenes de 
Lutece, Paris, with photographs of the monu- 
ment. Upon a marble column is a bronze 
bust of De Mortillet, and in front of the 
column a figure of a young woman reading, 
typifying youth engaged in the study of the 
prehistoric, the future looking into the past. 
Between the column and the bust, forming 
a four-sided capital, are representations of 
the Chellean, Mousterian, Solutrean, and 
Magdalenian types of mankind : the first 
of pronounced simian type ; the second. 
still simian, but modified, and having better 
formed lips ; the third, a female figure, less 
prognathous than the former, and bearing 
traces of an instinct for personal adornment ; 
the fourth, a girl's head, enlarged from one 
of the figures discovered at Brassempouy. 



N° 4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



83 



and representing both physical beauty and 
intelligence. 

Mr. Rafael Karsten, of the University of 
Helsingfors, has published, in excellent 
English (Wasa, F. W. Unggren), an aca- 
demical dissertation on the ' Origin of 
Worship,' presented by him for public 
criticism on November 25th, 1905, in the 
hall of the Historico-Philological Section of 
the Philosophical Faculty of the Alexander 
University of Finland. It is the result of 
studies carried on in 1903 and 1904, mainly 
in the British Museum, at the suggestion of 
Dr. Westermarck. Mr. Karsten holds that 
in the lowest religions only those objects or 
spirits of objects from which the savage 
apprehends danger, or which in one way or 
another interfere in his welfare and destiny, 
became gods in the strict sense of the word 
and the objects of propitiation ; and that 
religious worship has originated in the 
instinct of self-preservation, out of which 
animism has grown up by degrees. He 
rejects Herbert Spencer's theory of ancestor- 
worship, except in so far as it forms a branch 
of the general animistic belief. He main- 
tains, in opposition to Robertson Smith, 
the theory that religion was born of fear, 
and holds that that writer's view of a blood 
covenant between man and the superhuman 
powers belongs to an advanced stage of 
religious evolution. The industry with 
which Mr. Karsten has pursued his studies 
may be indicated by the fact that his list 
of authorities contains 230 entries, and 
includes nearly all that has been written 
on the subject. 



SOCIETIES. 



Asiatic. — Jan. 9. — Sir Raymond West, V.P., in 
the chair.- — Mr. Fleet read a paper on the inscrip- 
tion on the relic- vase which was found in 1898 in a 
ruined stupa, or memorial mound, at Piprawa, in the 
Basti district, United Provinces of Agra and (hide. 
An ancient Pali book the ' Mahaparinibbanasutta ' 
tells us that, on the death of Buddha, his corpse 
was cremated. Everything was consumed, save 
only the bones. The bones were divided, as relics, 
into eight portions, and were distributed to various 
claimants. One portion was allotted to the Sakyas 
of Kapilavatthu on the strength of their claim, 
"The Blessed One was our chief kinsman." And 
the Sakyas built, at Kapilavatthu, a memorial 
mound over their share of the relics. It has 
hitherto been believed that the inscription on the 
Piprawa relic-vase stamps the mound in which it 
was found as the stupa which was erected by the 
Sakyas in these circumstances. Mr. Fleet now 
showed that that interpretation of the record is 
erroneous. What the record really says is : " This 
is a deposit of relics of the brethren of the Well- 
famed One, the kinsmen of Buddha the Blessed 
One, together with their sisters and their children 
and wives." And the event witli which it is in 
reality connected is a great massacre of the Sakyas 
of Kapilavatthu which was perpetrated l>v Vidfi- 
dabha, King of SavatthI, as fully recorded in the 
Buddhist hooks. The remains and relics found in 
the Piprawa Stupa are, in tact, the remains and 
relics of the townspeople of Kapilavatthu who 
were then, with a few except ions, ruthlessly 
slaughtered, men, women, and children. And now, 
for the first time, we see the meaning of the 
curious nature of the articles (numbering more than 
seven hundred) which were found in the stupa 
along with the inscribed relic-vase. Those articles 
include women's trinkets and household treasures, 
children's playthings, and, in short, many a thing 
unnecessary, if not actually unsuitable! in con 
nexion witli any enshrining of the relics of a 
teacher or a saint, but most appropriate in con- 
nexion witli whal we now see was the real State of 

the case. The value of the record, in fixing the 
position of Kapilavatthu at or verycloseto Piprawa, 

remains unimpaired. A new point of interest 

brought out by Mr. Fleet is that the record 

the origin of the tribal name of the people from 
whom Buddha sprang. The " Kinsmen of Buddha," 



Buddhassa sakiya, became the tribe, the Sakiyas, 
and then by contraction the Sakyas, of the 
traditional literature which afterwards grew up. 
And from the tribal name which thus originated 
there came the appellation of Buddha as Sakyamuni, 
"the Sakya saint," which, so far as definite dates 
go, is first found in the Rummindel inscription of 
Asdka, incised 238 years after the death of Buddha. 
A full exposition of the whole matter — including 
the proof of the meaning of the text of the record, 
and the evidence that it is the oldest Indian 
record yet obtained will be found in Mr. Fleet's 
article to appear in the January number of the 
Society's Journal. There are other mounds at 
Piprawa and in its neighbourhood which have not 
yet been examined. It is to be hoped that a 
judicious selection may be made, and that further 
explorations may be carried out. There is no 
reason why the stupa which was erected by the 
Sakyas of Kapilavatthu over their share of the 
relics of Buddha should not be found, and 
identified by some recoi'd deposited in it. — A 
discussion followed, in which Di\ Grierson, Dr. 
Hoey, Prof. Rapson, and Mr. F. W. Thomas took 
part. 

Society of Antiquaries. — Ian. 11. — Mr. W. 
Gowland, V.P. , in the chair. — This being an 
evening appointed for the election of Fellows, no 
papers were read. The following gentlemen were 
elected : Rev. R. H. Lathbury, Rev. the Hon. 
Kenneth F. Gibbs, and Messrs. Horace W. 
Sandars, M. F. Tweedie, J. MacLehose, and 
George Marshall. 



Meteorological. — Jan. 17. — Animal Meeting. — 
Mr. Richard Bentle}', President, in the chair. — 
The Council in their Report stated that the 
new scheme of lectures and exhibitions had 
been successfully inaugurated during the year, 
and that they had appointed Mr. W. Marriott 
as the lecturer. The work of the Kite Com- 
mittee had been continued, the special observa- 
tions being carried out by Mr. G. C. Simpson on 
board the Mission steamer Queen Alexandra in the 
North Sea. The number of Fellows is 674, being 
an increase of 16 on the year. — After the presenta- 
tion of the Symons Gold Medal to Sir Richard 
Strachey, the President delivered an address on 
' Meteorology in Daily Life,' in which he referred 
to the increasing interest shown throughout the 
country in the study of that science, and to 
the recent advances made in it, more especially 
in the analysis of the composition of the atmosphere, 
and in the investigation of the upper currents of 
the air. He also laid stress on the urgency of safe- 
guarding the water supply, pointing out that in 
the reign of William the Conqueror there were 
barely two millions of inhabitants in these islands, 
and no water then used for sanitation or manufac- 
tures, while to-day the population has risen to 
over forty-two millions, and most of the surface 
lands have either been drained or built over. — The 
officers and Council for the ensuing year were 
elected. 



Philological. Jan. 12.— Rev. Prof. Skeatin the 
chair. — A paper by Dr. T. K. Abbott, of Dublin, 
'On an Marly Lai in-Knglish- Basque Dictionary." 
was read by Dr. Kurnivall. Edward Lhwyd, the 
Celtic antiquary, 1670-1700, imagined that close 
affinities existed between Irish and Basque, and 
seems to have directed the compilation of a Latin- 
English-Basque dictionary which is among his 
MSS. in Trinity College. Dublin. The compiler 
did not know Latin. He took Leicarraga's transla- 
tion in tin- dialed of bower Naval re. of the New 

Testament (printed 1571), made from the Genevan 
French Testament, and collated it with the 
English Authorized Version, So he naturally 

came to grief. Many of the examples cited will 

lie found in Dr. Abbott's paper vaNoteaand Queries 

for August I9thlast. Mr. .1. \V. H. Atkins read 

'Some Notes on "The Owl and Nightingale.'" The 
two thirteenth-cent ury MSS. were stated to be inde- 
pendent copies, since the later one. .1 (MS. Jesus 
('oil. 29), supplies certain lines which are wanting 
in ( ' ( MS. Cotton Calig. A. i\. ). .1 is also free From 
certain abBurd forms found in (': while 1. 1721. 
inserted in C after 1. 1735, i correctly placed in .1. 
A further comparison of the MSS. buows thai •! is 
greatly inferior to C, and that its inferiority arises 
from systematic scribal alteration. .1 persistently 



omits unimportant monosyllabic words, which are 
not always necessary for the sense, but which the 
metre requires. In the same MS. the word-order 
is occasionally varied, not always for the better ; 
and there also occur eight instances of indefensible 
alteration of verbal flexion. Still more frequently is 
the diction of C altered ; and such rhymes as manne: 
barme (389-90), hue.: teone (457-8), of J, as con- 
trasted with manne : banne, leue : reue, of C, illus- 
trate the nature of these substitutions. With 
regard to the language, it was suggested that the 
regularity of the orthography of J is due to the 
scribal methods already mentioned. Such J rhymes 
as hayhte : wrauhte (105-6), lifdayt : islawe 
(1 141-2), alongside those of C, hayfe : wra$te, -daje : 
islawe, seem to point to a falsification brought 
about in the course of adapting the original forms 
(such as those of C) to a certain orthographical sys- 
tem. O. E. to is with one exception self-rhyming : 
it does not appear to have fallen together as yet 
with O.E. e. Similarly O.E. long as and ea are self- 
rhyming, and were therefore possessed of distinct 
sound-values. In 1. 14 breche (C) might be retained 
in preference to beche (J). Parallel forms exist in 
Germanic and Mod. English dialects, and breche on 
the whole seems to suit the context better than 
beche. Spene (165), with loss of d after n, is not 
necessarily due to analogy with M.E. went, wende. 
It more probably represents the beginning of an 
independent linguistic tendency, the effects of which 
are frequently found in M.E. and also in Mod. Eng. 
dialects (S. and S.W. ). Faleici (456), cf. iredi 
(488) : both are clue to analogy with O.E. adjectives 
in -ig. On account of the numerous feminine 
rhymes in the poem (masc. : fern. =1:3*7) — more 
numerous than in certain sections of Chaucerian 
verse — that Chaucerian characteristic need not be 
due to Italian influence, for no such influence is at 
work here. It might easily be the mere result of 
setting English words (with accent on the first 
syllable) to the iambic metre, for unless the final 
word of a line were monosyllabic, as a rule a 
feminine rhyme wovdd be formed. As to the mean- 
ing which underlies the poem ; it is a debate con- 
cerning two distinct types of poets and poetry (cf. 
11. 927-8 and 1339). Its ultimate intention is to 
bring before English readers the merits of the new 
love-poetry, and, while recalling the virtue of the 
earlier didactic kind, to advocate the adoption of 
love as a legitimate theme of the native poetry. 



Mathematical. — Jan. 11. — Prof. A. R. Forsyth, 
President, in the chair. — Miss Hilda Phoebe 
Hudson, Mr. W. F. S. Churchill, and the Hon. 
B. A. W. Russell were elected Members. — The 
President referred to the loss sustained by the 
Society by the death of Prof. C. J. Joly, and gave 
an account of his scientific work.- — The following 
papers were communicated : ' On the Monogeneity 
of an Algebraic Function,' by Dr. H. F. Baker, — 
' On the Diffraction of Sound by Large Cylinders,' 
by Mr. J. \Y. Nicholson, — and 'On the Expression 
of the so-called Biquaternions and Triquaternions 
by ineans of Quaternary Matrices,' by Mr. J. 
Brill. — Dr. E. W. Hobson made an informal com- 
munication ' On the Representation of Functions 
of Real Variables.' 



resi - 



Bibliographical. -/bb, 15. — Mr. Faber, lYe; 

dent, in the chair. Mr. Sidney bee read a paper on 

'An Episode in Anglo-French Bibliography (1610).' 

After alluding tot lie numerous English translations 
from the French during the sixteenth century, Mr. 
bee showed that while More's 'I'topia' and some 

other works originally written in Latin, mostly 

by Scottish professors, had been translated into 

French, the only vernacular literary works (as 
opposed to political manifestoes) which found 
French translators were those of .lames I., and for 
their publication in French the king himself 
arranged. In 1610, however, Hall's 'Characters' 
(the first of the numerous imitations of Theo 
phrastus) was translated by the Sieur I )e Tourvel, 



and to Windebank are preserved in the Record 
Office, lie was a friend of Cotgrave, and a pane 
gyrical letter From Ins pen appears m all the 
earlj editions of the dictionary. He seems to have 
been oonoerned with the Frenoh translations of 
James I. 's works, and one of Ins letters complains 

thai his journeys to France with this object had 



84 



T II K AT II EN -K I M 



N 1082, .i-n. 20, 1006 



been left unrewarded, Thii translation bj I >• 
Tourvel proved tl ' onch 

ve r s io n s ol Ball's worki some printed it l 
others st Paris, the latter being the more inti 
Ing, u produoed without, ana even in -|nt< of, 
In lei/. ( (reene'a ' Panda to wt 
translated into French, and enjoyed a considerable 
populai itj in l ■ nun \ and a half. In 

li.r.i Ba essayi were published at Paris in a 

version whioh was reprinted in 1021 and 1622, and 
had reai bed it- seventh edition in Hi.'iT. The same 
translator, Baudonin, also brought onl a French 
version "i 'The \\'i-cl"in of the Ancients' almost 
simultaneously with it-, publication in English in 
London. The chief other works "t Bacon also 
found Frenoh translations, and several ol his Latin 
writings appeared in Fundi earlier than in 
Enghan. Lord Herbert of Cherbury'a 'De Veri- 
tate' «,i- published in Paris in Latin in 1624, and 
a French translation appeared in 1636. No 
English translation lias yet been undertaken. In 
1624-5 two French versions of Sidney's 'Arcadia' 
appeared simultaneously, and a bvelj quarrel 
ensued between its translators. 'The Man in the 
Moon, 1 liv Francis Godwin (1638), and 'The World 
in the Moon' (1638), by Bishop Wilkins, were also 
translated, and exercised a considerable influence 
on French literal inc. Thus the rendering nt 
English literary works in prose into French, which 
began in 1610, soon established itself as a custom, 
and in the eighteenth century became a factor of 
the greatest importance in the development of 
French thought, though English poetry and 
English drama attracted lint little attention. — 

Dr. Garnett, Mr. Steele, and Mr. Almack took 
part in the discussion. 



MEETINGS NEXT WEKK. 



M..v 



Ti iv 



London Institution, 6. — 'The inner life of the House of 

imons, i *i W. us. Aubrey. 
Sociological, s 'Sociolo Academic Subject, 1 Prof. 

l! U. Werdey. 
Royal Institution, s, ' impressioni "i" Travel In Chins and tin- 

K.ii i ii . Prof, E. il Parker. 

— Institution of Civil Engineers, 8. Discussion on "The Blimiinv 

t i. >i» of Storm-Water from Sewerage 8ystenu' and 'The 
Elimination of Suspended Solids and Colloidal Matters from 
Sewage. 1 

— Ajithropologioal B^0.— Annual Meeting; President's Address, 

'Copper and i t > Alloys in Antiquity 
Wed. British Numismatic, 8. — " Coinage at St. David's in the Time of 
William L,' the President ; A Remarkable Penny of Alfred 
the Great,' the Direi tor 

— Qeological, B. -'The Buttermere and Ennerdale Qranophyre,' 

Mr. It. II. Rastall: 'The igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Hocks of Uangynog, Caermarthenshire,' Messrs. T. 
Crosbie Oantrill and H. B. Thomas. 

— Society of Arts, 8. 'The Planting of Waste Lands for Profit,' 

Dr. J. NIebet, 
Tin rag. Royal 

— Royal Institution, 6.— 'Shakespeare,' Lecture II., Canon 

Seeching. 

— London Institution, 8. -'Legal History of Trades LTnionism,' 

Mr M. N. Drucquer. (Travers Lecture.) 

— Institution of Electrical Engineers, 8.—' Technical Considera- 

tions in Electric-Railway Engineering,' Mr. P. W. Carter. 

— Society of Ait-, B.— "High-Speed Electric Machinery, with 

Special Reference t«» Steam Turbine Machines,' Lecture II.. 
l'rof. s. P.Thompson. iHoward Lecture.) 

— s.niety of Antiquaries, 8.30.— ' Westminster Hull ami Palace,' 
Mi W It. LeUiaby. 

Institution of civil Engineers, B.— 'Prince of Wales Pier, 
Falmouth,' Mr. T. 1!. Qrigson ; ' Perro-Conorete Pier al I'm 
fleet' Mr. II. o. II. Btheridge IStudents Meeting.) 

Royal Institution, 9 -'Waltei Pater, Mr. A. C. Benson. 

Mathematical, 3. Animal Meeting. 

Koyal institution, 8. — 'The Church in Prance,' Lecture II.. 
Mr ,i B. 0. Bodley. 



Em. 



Srtitntt O3055ip. 

The death occurred suddenly on Sunday 
last, in Pimlico, of Dr. Hermann Johann 
ftprengel, a scientific writer of note, who dis- 
covered the value of lyddite as a powerful 
explosive. Dr. Sprengel was horn near 
Hanover, and had his education in Germany, 
but settled in London in 18G2. 

A m.w small planet was discovered photo- 
graphically by l'rof. Max Wolf at the Kbnig- 
Btunl Observatory, Heidelberg, on the 27th 
ult. Amongst those registered there by Hen 
Kopff on the same night was one which 
had been discovered visually by Mr. J. H. 
Metcalf at Taunton, Mass., on the night of 
December 5th. 

Dr. Stbomoben publishes in No. 40<>."> of 
the Astronomische Xarliriclil.cn a continua- 
tion of his ephemeris of Giacobini's comet 

(c, 1905). Alter passing its perihelion early 

next week, ii will probably be visible to the 

naked eye in the evening, situated in the 

south-western part of the constellation Capri- 

COmUS, so that it will he low in the heavens 
as seen in any part of Europe. 



FINE ARTS 

■■ ♦ 

Till] old MASTERS vi 

i;i i:i.i\(. ion iiui BE. 

(Second N 

Tiir second room at Burlington IL" 
mainly devoted to Victorian nit. Wilkie 
is seen at In best m a brilliant pasticht ol 
Teniers, Sheep washing (No. 17). and as a 

genera] imitator of the Dutch in an exquisite 

composition. The Errand l><>!/ (•'{"). His 
more original style of genre, seen in The 
Rabbit on the Wall (68), is incomparably li 
artistic. The curious failure of the sense of 

fine colour and rich tone which befell artists 

in the first hah' of the nineteenth century Lb 
manifest in the dull accomplishment of 
Herring, Webster, Stark, and Vincent ; 

while the abysmal depths to which artistic 

intelligence sank are seen in Sir E. Land- 
seer's Cat's-paw (50). Perhaps the most 
novel picture, though by no means the best, 
in this room is the Hilton, Portraits of Mrs. 
de Wint and her Daughter (02). This is 
handled with a mastery of the brush which 
still recalls Kaeburn. but the pink-and-white 
flesh and the blankness of the design already 
prepare the way for the later Millais and Mr. 
James Sant. 

It is a relief to hasten to the third gallery. 
dominated as it is by Reynolds's triumphant 
portrait of Dr. John Ash (73). It is one 
of those splendid compositions, at once 
simple and rich, which show that Reynolds 
had acquired a greater command of artistic 
resource, and used it with a more unerring 
taste, than any other British painter. This 
is worthy almost of Titian or Rubens, and 
scarcely another portrait painter can lay 
claim to have given so much pictorial 
splendour to the subject. The building-up 
of the design upon a diagonal line is masterly 
in its art and in the subtle concealment 
thereof ; and the colour-scheme is wrought 
out with such unity that one is conscious 
not so much of colours, rich though they 
are, as of colour. Reynolds's own portrait 
of himself (86) is another masterpiece of 
perfectly unified handling, and here again 
the colour becomes entirely elusive, so that, 
while one has an impression of intensity 
and richness, one could scarcely name a 
single tint. The sumptuous portrait group 
of Jane, Countess of Harrington, and her Two 
Sons (87), is pitched in a different key, more 
obvious in its effects, and for once Reynolds 
seems to have sacrificed distinction of style 
to a vivid impression of life in the head of 
the Countess. He redeems himself from 
this charge in the delicately refined portrait 
of Miss McQitt (SO), where French rather 
than Italian or Flemish influences seem to 
prevail. Of great interest as portraits 
d'apparat are the two gigantic canvases of 
George, III. and Queen Charlotte (82 and 84), 
which are, we believe, the result of Key- 
nolds's refusal to continue his office of Presi- 
dent of the Academy unless he was at least 
once called upon to paint its royal patrons. 
In spite of their magnificence and tin' extra- 
ordinary technical skill they display, they 
are uninspired and laboured productions, and 
might well justify the king in preferring 
Gainsborough's more spontaneous attitude. 

Of the Gainsboroughs in this room, and 
indeed in the whole exhibition, the finest 

is Col. Shuttleworth's portrait of Oiardini 

(78). It is one of the purest and most perfect 

expressions of Gainsborough's genius. The 

gesture <>t the hands and the play of the 

features have the momentariness ^i life 

itself: the colour, with its daring scarlet 
ami pale luminous tlesh with bluish shadow-. 



idinarily happ> I ■ ■ ' • thing in the 

•ht, but it i- the rightnesa of 
instinct, and ict oi calculation: and it i- 

. -ised wit h so delicate, rapid, and flatter- 
ing h touch that one (eelfl us though the 
painter had only to think the vi-mn, and it 

there upon the canvas ; hand.-, brushes, 

and paint- seem toolfl tOO clumsy for such a 

re-uh. Very different, much 1. — sductive, 

but noble and sincere none the less, i- Mr. 

Fairfax Mm' igfa of Thomas 

Havtland ('.Mi. an earlier, more careful work, 

but showing already in the hands Grains- 
borough's tremulous certainty <>f touch. 
The Duke of Rutland's landi 7 'hi 

Woodcutter's Home (05), in spite oi certain 
exquisite passages in the figures and in the 
extreme distance, is too coppery in tone to 

• her. 

The post of honour at this end of the 
gallery is given to an early copy oi Van 
Dyck's portrait of The DuJa of Richmond. 
The original, which belonged to Lord Mcthuen 
is now in the Metropolitan Museum. New 
York. The present version, though quite 
respectable as a copy, can hardly claim 
anything of Van Dyck's handiwork. On 
the other hand, Col. Warde'.- St. Sebost 
(97) — hitherto, we believe, unknown to 
connoisseurs — is an interesting early at- 
tempt at a subject which fascinated thearti-t. 
In tiiis he has not arrived at an entirely satis- 
factory disposition of the figures. The horse- 
man to the right is scarcely a part of the 
composition, and seems drawn with un 
tainty for that reason. On the other hand, 
there are passages — such as the gaily dressed 
negro boy with the sheaf of arrows and the 
reflection of the white cloth in the execu- 
tioner's armour — which are painted with 
intense delight and certainty of effect. But 
of all the Van Dycks here the quite early 
portrait of Snyders's Wife (104) is the fin 
Indeed, it ranks high among all the works 
of this period. The cold grey colour-scheme, 
with its inky distance and slaty curtain, is 
as original as it is perfect, and against this 
the flesh tells with a relief and luminosity 
that are marvellous. The near neighbour- 
hood of a very fine Dobson, Portraits of Sir 
C. CotiercU, W. Dobson, and Sir Balthazar 
Gerbicr (105), raises some interesting points 
of comparison. No doubt Van Dyck him- 
self had lost, by the time Dobson was under 
him, something of the full force and intensity 
of his early manner ; but with Dobson 
everything is still further smoothed down: 
the drawing becomes more stylistic, and the 
modelling, even, polished and unaccented. 
But for all that Dobson's is a fine picture, 
painted with careful taste and a manly- 
sense of character. 

We have only alluded in passing to the 
great Franz Hals which hangs on this wall. 
It is described as a Portrait Croup of the 
Painter and his Family (102). The man's 
face is certainly like Hals as seen in the 
Amsterdam picture of himself and his second 
wit'.-, but the likeness is by no means abso- 
lute. The woman in Col. Warde's picture 
is evidently not the Lysbeth Keyniers of the 

Amsterdam picture, so that, if this picture 
is of Hals and his family, she must be 
the first wife. But this makes it clear 
that the picture cannot properly be called 
Eals's family. Hals married his first wife. 
Anneke Hermans/., in Hill, and she died 
in 1616, so that the son horn in the first 
year could not possibly in his mother's 
lifetime have attained the age here repre- 
sented. On the whole, then, we must decide 
that, in spite of a certain likeness in the man's 
face to Hals himself, another title must be 

Found for this remarkable picture. The 

Canvas has at one time been folded in half. 
and has Buffered considerably in the central 
portion ; but otherwise it is a magnificent 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



85 



example of Hals's handling at its boldest. 
The splendid assurance and the certainty 
with which the simplest means are made 
to convey so vivid and intense a present- 
ment are admirable ; so, too, are the daring 
economy of colour on so large a scale, and 
the genuinely humorous and naive interpre- 
tation of life. But the picture fails to please 
entirely as a composition. The figures — 
each excellent by itself — are related with too 
little art for the picture to have great deco- 
rative charm, and the marvellous success 
in mere verisimilitude appears too slight a 
motive to justify this grand scale. 

Before leaving this gallery to treat in a 
subsequent article of the more modern 
painters, we must notice the Earl of Darnley's 
Jordaens, a portrait of The Artist's Wife 
(103). The man behind is somewhat feebly 
modelled, but the woman's figure — painted 
in variations upon scarlet and with large 
aggressive modelling — gives the measure of 
Jordaens's very individual talent. It would 
not have been such as it is without Rubens ; 
still, it is no mere adaptation, but another 
vision which Rubens could not himself have 
conceived. If, as we believe, the Lady with 
a Dog (99) is also by Jordaens, he was not 
always so well able to assert himself against 
the pervading influence of his greater rival. 



ACADEMICIANS AT THE 
CARFAX GALLERY. 

The announcement that the Carfax 
Gallery, hitherto associated with the younger 
school of English painting, had invited 
members of the Royal Academy to exhibit 
onjjits walls, has aroused no little curiosity, 
further piqued by the simultaneous report 
that the painters of the New English Art 
Club and others who are, so to speak, " of 
the Opposition " are to have their work 
hung at Messrs. Agnew's. The latter show 
has been postponed ; but the Carfax Gallery 
has already opened its doors. We do not 
know that the Gallery is to be congratulated 
on what many will think a desertion of its 
colours. But the Academicians can con- 
gratulate themselves on being seen really 
to advantage, instead of in the jostling 
crowd and glare of Burlington House. 
Here the pictures have elbow-room and 
pleasant relief in a well-chosen background 
of quiet colour. Yet the effect of the collec- 
tion is not striking. It is true that it does not 
represent the utmost of which the present 
members of the Academy are capable, and 
Mr. Orchardson is absent. But it reflects 
in small the general atmosphere of the 
regular Academy exhibition, its variety and 
incoherence of aim and method. 

What does the Academj' stand for ? 
What tradition does it uphold ? What 
does it inculcate on its students ? A visit 
to the Carfax Gallery ought to enable one 
to find some answer to these questions ; but 
we fear they remain purely rhetorical. 
Some traces of a tradition linger in the work 
of Mr. Sant, who sends a picture called A 
Fair Disputant (No. 13). The hands and parts 
of the dress are finely painted, and we find 
delicacy and expressiveness both in the 
drawing and in the handling of the pigment ; 
but the face is uninteresting. Next to this 
hangs a study of two children reading by 
firelight (19), by Mr. Bramley. The paint 
is laid on frankly and directly — that is, 
with entire sacrifice of luminosity. It is 
undeniably clever, and sonic years ago such 
work could have been called novel, though 
now it has a " day before yesterday " air. 
The Royal Academy may prido itself on 
its enlightened liberality in encouraging 
modern phases and advanced movements ; 



but unfortunately its efforts to catch up 
with popular opinion are nearly always 
belated. It would earn much more respect 
if, instead of making what appear to be more 
or less unwilling concessions to outside 
movements, now in one direction and now 
in another, it moved on a line of its own. 
We would rather see it given over to aca- 
demic art, capable of being reproached for 
the academic weaknesses of dryness, austerity, 
and coldness, if it fostered the academic in- 
sistence on strenuous discipline and severity 
of draughtsmanship. Whistler disliked the 
art of Ingres ; yet he wished he had been his 
pupil, he felt how much that severe training 
would have strengthened him. But even 
more than such discipline we should welcome 
a devotion to the principles upheld by the 
Academy's first and greatest President. The 
artist who reigns in Sir Joshua's place con- 
tributes a water-colour of Bamborough 
Castle (6). It would be unfair to judge this 
as if it were an important work ; but un- 
deniably it would have shocked Reynolds, 
for it contravenes his habitual precept to 
concentrate severely on essentials, and avoid 
that "high finishing of the parts" which, 
as he says, so far from being really 
conscientious, can be done " in ease and 
laziness." The Castle on its seamed crags 
is a magnificent subject. Cotman's small 
etching proves how impressive it can be 
made. Sir Edward Poynter's treatment is 
different. The Castle itself is in a back- 
ground of veiled atmosphere, and one 
carries away an impression chiefly of red- 
roofed barns and cows in a meadow. The 
bold disdain of conventional perspective in 
these roofs, which recede in beautiful parallel, 
is a welcome touch of vivacity in a drawing 
which, it must be confessed, inclines to 
tameness. 

Under this hangs what is probably the 
best thing in the room, a small portrait 
group (7) — not a recent work — by Sir 
Laurence Alma Tadema. Great subtlety 
and quiet skill are shown in the modelling 
of these heads in luminous shadow, their 
eyes fixed on the picture before them, of 
which the spectator sees the back. Yet 
here again the evenness of finish all over 
the painting prevents the real charm of the 
picture from telling as it ought. Emphasis, 
fire, concentration ; something expressed 
at the cost of a sacrifice, but expressed with 
passion and conviction — this is what one 
looks for in the work of artists who claim 
to be leaders ; but this is what is painfully 
lacking from the typical Royal Academy 
picture of to-day. Hence the vigour and 
dash of Mr. Sargent's sketch of a Venetian 
interior (17) are indeed refreshing. It is a 
pity that Mr. Farsons's landscape (8) — so 
thorough and admirable up to a certain 
point — has not just the extra gust of energy 
to make it a fine picture. Of Mr. Leader 
and Mr. MacWhirter it is unnecessary to 
speak : they follow their chosen ideals with 
unswerving loyalty. 

Mr. Solomon is an able draughtsman and 
an accomplished handler of paint : but he, 
too, might learn from Reynolds some of the 
reasons why he fails in imaginative subjects. 
His Psyche ( 1">) is a clever painting of a nude 
figure ; but in an ideal subject we demand 
infinitely more. Forms and features that 
suggest only a pretty model, quite out of 
relation with the attempt at imaginative 
background, tin- light of common day (as 
it comes into the studio) — those have no 

power to cany us into the world where 
Psyche lives. To think for the briefest 

moment of Watts's picture is to feel a kind 
of indignation thai Psyche — ono of the 
most adorable creations of the human mind. 

Vanima sempKcetla che ea nulla -should he 

handled so cheaply. Sir W. B. Richmond 



has been better advised in his treatment of 
the legend of Phaethon (1). He has made 
Phaethon himself an insignificant figure, and 
painted a vision of earth and (we suppose) 
moon rolling among clouds, while the white 
horses of the sun-chariot stagger and stumble 
in the blue above. Sir William Richmond's 
work would always be more enjoyable if 
we did not feel its derivativeness. In 
gravity of mood and dignity of design his 
two upright Assisi landscapes (23 and 26) 
are, however, among the best things in the 
room. Mr. Clausen sends four contribu- 
tions of various dates and manners — none 
of them really adequate to represent his 
talent, but all good and the work of a serious 
artist. Another of the strongest artists of 
the present Academy, Mr. Swan, is also not 
at all typically represented by his Mole- 
Catchers (35). Mr. Hubert von Herkomer 
sends a brilliant Spanish study (33) ; Mr. 
Wyllie an ugly Pool of London subject ; 
Mr. Napier Henry two water-colours which 
look like oils ; and Mr. Frith an oil (30) 
which looks like a highly finished water- 
colour. Mr. Gow's largish canvas of a trivial 
incident (10); Mr. Macbeth's most adequate 
illustration of an absurdly sentimental 
drawing-room song (9) ; Mr. Solomon's 
admirable stage " super," labelled St. George 
(21) ; and the rich streaks of colour in Mr. 
Hacker's thoroughly decadent La Cigale (4) 
attract attention, and should prove popular. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF COINS IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 

The British Numismatic Society, 
43, Bedford Square, W.C. 

In your issue of the 6th inst. under this; 

heading you say :— 

"We regret to find that in our notice of The 
British Numismatic Journal, on December 23rd, 

reiving on the statements there made, some 
misconceptions and misstatements were inad- 
vertently admitted, which may have conveyed to 
our readers a wrong impression with regard to the 
honour and efficiency of the staff of the Coin 
Department of the British Museum." 

As the writer of the article in The British 
Numismatic Journal referred to, I should be 
obliged if you or the Department will say 
what statements it contains which could 
lead to either misconception or misstate- 
ment. I am at a loss to understand any 
such suggestions, as each and every offmy 
criticisms were based on the authority of 
the officials of the Coin Department them- 
selves, as testified by (1) their writings, (2) 
their publications, (3) their replies to my 
inquiries, (4) their information supplied to 
the Blue-books. If, therefore, they will 
specify any alleged inaccuracy on my part. 
I will vouch it by quoting my authority. 
P. Caklyox-Brittox. 



Jfiur-Art ©OSStp. 

Yesterday and to-day was the private 

view of an exhibition of water-colour draw- 
ings of ' Gardens ' by Mr. George S. Elgood 

at the Fine-Art Society's rooms. 

Thh private view of the eleventh annual 
exhibition of tin- Royal Society n\ .Miniature 

Painters takes place to-day at the Modern 
Gallery, New Bond Street. The exhibition 

will he open to the public from Monday 

next to February 24th. 

At the last meeting of the Council of the 
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and En- 
gravers Miss Ethel Stewart was elected an 
\ jociate. 



.X(i 



T II E A T II EN -i: I' M 



X K)82, Jah. 20, L906 



K oonnezion with the exhibition of the 

■>taats I'orbcs collection of Millet din-.' 

now being held at the Leioeeter Galleriea, 

Mi 1 [< incmann announces a volume of fifty 

facsimile reproductions of Millet's drawings. 

The edition i-- limited to 300 copies, and will 
1m- published in the Bpring. 

'I'm: new Foreign Associates of the Fine- 
Art section of the Academic Itoyale ot Be] 

gium are MM. Jean Paul Laurens, II. Sfesdag, 

Rodin, and Sir Aston Webb. 

A\ interesting discovery has just been 

made in Parte a series of 85 copperplates 

by Rembrandt, including such important 

ones ns 'The Descent from the Cross,' 'The 

I U Burrection of Lazarus, 1 ' The I leath of the 

Virgin,' ' Dr. Faust,' &C. Out of the collec- 
tion 45 have been found to be in perfect con- 
dition. It has been presented to the Kyks 

Museum by the proprietors of IS Artiste, but 
a limited number (100) of examples on 

Japanese paper will be offered for subscrip- 
tion at l,000fr. per album. The collection 
is said to have belonged to Mariette, who 
was " Controleur General de la Grande 
Chancellerie de France " and a collector 
and author. He died in 1774 ; but we 
have not found any entry in his sale of 
1768, nor in either of the sales in the year 
after his death, to correspond with these 
copperplates. Their history will probably 
be fully discussed in the preface which will 
accompany the above-mentioned limited 
issue of the reprint. 

The existence of several almost unknown 
drawings by Fragonard is reported. In the 
library of the Faeulte de Medecine at Mont- 
pellier there are seven drawings by this artist 
— six in red chalks and one in bistre. The 
public library at Besancon contains over 
thirty drawings by Fragonard, bequeathed 
in 1819 by the artist's friend the architect 
Paris. Some of these were probably in- 
tended for illustrations to La Fontaine's 
* Contes,' and they will for the first time be 
exhibited to the public, with other drawings 
by artists of the eighteenth century, at the 
forthcoming Exposition Retrospective des 
Arts Comtois, to be held at Besancon under 
the direction of MM. Georges Berger and 
Henri Bouchot. 

The Metropolitan Museum of New York, 
which is showing an enterprise very different 
from the apathy of our own authorities, has 
just secured M. Leon Lhermitte's picture 
'Chez les Humbles,' which figured in last 
year's show of the Societe Nationale. 



MUSIC 



LONDON [SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
IN PARIS 

The second London Symphony Concert 
at the Chiitelet Theatre on Friday, the 12th 
inst., attracted a ver^v large audience, and 
the | programme gave far better oppor- 
tunities to the Leeds singers. It opened 
with Berlioz's ' Benvenuto Cellini ' Over- 
ture, ' given under the direction of M. 
Edouard Colonne, who is in strong sym- 
pathy with the music of the great French 
master ; and at the close not only the 
audience, but also the orchestra, gave him 
a special welcome. ' The Challenge of Thor,' 
from* Sir Edward Elgar's 'King Olaf,' 
though well sung, was scarcely impressive ; it 
was only a brief excerpt, and more- 
over it does not represent the com- 
poser at his later and stronger period. 
The difficulty of selecting anything from 
'The Dream of Gerontius ' or from 'The 
Apostles ' is. however, self-evident. On 



tin- other band, the- three movements — 

lie, 1 l-aeryinosa,' and ' ( MTer- 

torium ' Erom Sir Charles Villier Stanfoi 
Requiem ' gave a fair idea of the oompo 
reoenl art work. The ohorus and the 

soloists Miss Perceval Allen, Madame 

M.irie Brema, and Messrs. John Coatee and 
Plunkel Greene were all (and very natu- 
rally) determined to render justice, BO far 
as lay in their power, to the coiupo 

work. French critics cannot fail to recog- 
nize the masterly writing, but it will be 
curious to hear what they think of Sir 
Charles Stanford's music, which in itfl 
sedateness is so different from that of French 
composers. We shall hope next week to 
quote from one or two notices by 
well-known French critics. The ' Sanctus ' 
from Bach's B minor Mass was superbly 
sung, yet, owing to the drawback men- 
tioned last week, the choral singing seemed 
shorn of some of its brilliancy and power; 
the performance, however, evidently gave 
high satisfaction. After a short pause came 
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, and the three 
instrumental movements proved a triumph 
for the orchestra ; the rendering of the 
Scherzo was particularly fine. A French 
musician with whom we conversed after the 
concert was specially pleased with Sir 
Charles's tempo for the slow movement ; the 
French conductors, he inferred, made of the 
movement a " linked sweetness long drawn 
out." The choral part was very good, the 
high and long-held A of the sopranos being 
remarkably firm in tone. The soloists were 
the same as in the ' Requiem.' After the 
symphony ' La Marseillaise ' was sung, 
followed by ' God save the King.' Then 
there was hurrahing and frantic applause — 
for some time, indeed, the excitement was 
intense. It was gratifying to find that the 
bold step on the part of the London Sym- 
phony Orchestra was so successful. The 
demonstrations of approval should not, 
however, be misunderstood ; a great part 
was obviously intended for the fine playing 
and the fine singing. 

It remains to be seen how far the exhibi- 
tion of British musical art was appreciated 
by the public and the critics. The pro- 
grammes were not all that could be desired ; 
but, let us add, P t here were many practical diffi- 
culties, and moreover there was evidently a 
desire to introduce as many British names 
as possible into the programmes. LeMenestrel 
of January 14th, in a sympathetic notice of 
the first concert, says : " We cannot quite 
understand why works like Saint-Saens's 
' Phaeton,' Strauss's ' Don Juan,' and the 
' Meistersinger ' and ' Cellini ' Overtures 
figured in the programmes." The reason, 
however, is simple : the London Symphony 
Orchestra of course wished to show what 
they were capable of doing. We have spoken 
about the disadvantage at which the choir 
was heard ; but the orchestral players, 
though in front, were all on a level, whereas 
M. Colonne's orchestra is arranged in tiers, 
whereby much more sonorous effect is 
obtained. 



iHusical (Gossip. 

' Bluebell,' which is now being given at 
the Aldwych, was spoken of in our dramatic 
column, when it was produced in 1901. as 
one of the prettiest of Christmas entertain- 
ments. We wish to say a word about the 
music, which, if in one or two places not far 
removed from the commonplace, is as a 
rule refined and very daintily scored. There 
really seems a genuine attempt in it to rise 
above the ordinary dance rhythms prevalent 
•n musical comedy. 



\ imi b read at the Lowestoft oonfei 

of the Incorporated Society of Musicians 
aroused inten -t and provoked discussion. 
I >r I-'. .). Sawyer'i subject was 'Modem 

Harmony a- exemplified in the Works of 
Blgar, St ran-, and DebuSSy, 1 three promi- 
nent men, "all earnestly desirous of ad- 
vancing our e> which can at 
stand still."' He reminded those who scofl 
.■i modern music of Elusion's saying, "The 

gibes of one gen. ration are the seeds from 

which spring the praises of the next"; but 
Dr. Cummings in the discussion quoted 
Edward Poynter, who, in a lecture recently 
delivered at the Royal Academy of Art, 

advised his hearers "not to be misled by 
eccentricity." it i- certainly well to i. 
abreast of the times, but not to be carried 
away by mere novelty ; and, like some, to 
look upon the masters of the past as little 
more than Stepping-stones hading to the 
mixed art of the present day. 

An interesting paper was read by Mr. 
Clifford Edgar before the members of the 
Musical Association last Tuesday. It was 
entitled ' Mozart's Early Efforts in Opera,' 
and illustrations, instrumental and vocal, 
were given from works known only by name 
to many musicians. 

The Xora Clench Quartet announces a 
series of six chamber concerts at the Bech- 
stein Hall on the evenings of February 5th 
and 19th, March 5th, 19th, and 27th, and 
April 0th. The scheme includes, in addition 
to various standard classical works, quartets 
by Hugo Wolf and Debussy, Sir Charles V. 
Stanford's Pianoforte Quintet in d minor, 
and Mr. Josef Holbrooke's Quintet for horn 
and strings. 

A Vocal Recital, given at the Erard 
Rooms in Paris on the 11th inst., deserves 
a word of mention. The artists were 
Madame Marie Brema, Miss Rose Ettinger, 
and Messrs. John Coates and Francis Braun. 
The programme was of exceptional merit, 
and the artists met with great and de- 
served success, especially Mr. John Coates, 
who sang in Paris for the first time. 

Mozart is being specially honoured at 
Ratisbon this week. The ' Zauberflote ' was 
announced for yesterday, ' Don Juan ' is to 
be given to-day, and ' Figaro ' to-morrow, 
by members of the Munich, Vienna, and 
Dresden court opera-houses respectively. 
General musikdirektor Mottl has been invited 
to conduct all three performances. The 
AUgemeine Musik - Zeitung notes the fact 
that the birth-house of Schikaneder, who 
wrote the libretto of the ' Zauberflote,' is 
still standing in Ratisbon. 

Madame Wanda Landowsea, the cele- 
brated performer on the harpsichord, gave a 
recital at Vienna last month with the 
following original and attractive title: 'Pas- 
toral Music of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, 
and Eighteenth Centuries." 

We learn with deep regret of the death of 
Lady Bridge, wife of Sir Frederick Bridge, 
organist of Westminster Abbey 

The Tdgliche Rundschau ""recently pub- 
lished three hitherto unknown letters from 
Richard Wagner to Ferdinand Luube. The 
latter had taken Wagner under his pro- 
tection in early days, and had written in 
the Zeitung fur die elegant* Welt a highly 
favourable notice of Wagner's symphony 
produced at Leipsic in 1S33. For years 
they were on very friendly terms, as the 
firsl two of the above-named letters show. 
But a scathing criticism by Laube of the 
•Meistersinger' put a sudden end to the 
friendship. The last letter, written from 
Lucerne, runs as follows : — 

Dbab Laube ! 1 should feel greatly obliged to 
you if yon would use your influence at the Leipsic 



N°4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



87 



Stadttheater so that my operas may never he given 
there again. In anticipation of a friendly fulfil- 
ment of my request, I remain yours truly, R. W. 

Laube, it may be added, was director of 
thetheatre in question. 



PERFORMANCES NEXT WEEK. 



Sun. 



Mon. 

Tuns. 



Wed. 
Thi-rs 



Sat. 



Sunday Society Concert. 3.30, Queen's Hall. 

Sunday League Concert, 7, Queen's Hail. 

iMr. F. Warren's Song Recital, 8.30. .Eulian Hall. 

Miss Sunderland and Mr. Thistleton's Old Chamber Music 

Concert, 4, Broadwood'B. 
Alma Mater Male Chorus, K. Bechstein Hall. 
Mr. Theodore Bvards Concert, 8.30, Bechstein Hall. 
Mile. Marie Dubois and Mr. .Ian Hambourg's Pianoforte and 

Violin Recital. :>,. .Eolian Hall. 
Miss Barbara Thornlev s Pianoforte Recital, 3, Bechstein Hall. 
Mr. B. Ansell's Concert. 8.16, Stcinway Hall. 
Royal Choral Society. 8, Albert Hall. 
Broad-WOOd Concert. 8.30, /Kolian Hall. 
Cnappell's Ballad Concert, ;>. Queen's Hall. 
Popular Concert for Children and Young Students. :i, Steinway 

Hall. 
Miss Agnes Fencing's Pianoforte Recital, 8.30, .Eulian Hall. 
Scotch Concert. 7.OT. Albert Hall. 



DRAMA 



THE WEEK. 

New Royalty. — Heureuse, Comedie en 
Trois Actes. Par Maurice Hennequin 
et Paul Bilhaud. — La Rafale, Piece en 
Trois Actes. Par Henry Bernstein. — 
Le Paon, Comedie en Trois Actes et en 
Vers. Par Francis de Croisset. 

First given at the Paris Vaudeville on 
February 26th, 1903, ' Heureuse ' suc- 
ceeded in provoking to a species of hostile 
comment a portion of the ordinarily lenient 
Parisian press, and was, in one quarter 
■at least, taxed with Sadisme. It is, 
indeed, more than a little repellent, and 
it needs the eminent gifts of Madame 
Rejane to secure a condonation of the 
liberties it takes. Though announced as 
a comedy, it was played as broad farce, and 
as such only could it obtain acceptance. 
The theme seems to have been suggested 
by ' Divorcons,' but the treatment goes 
far beyond that of M. Sardou's in some 
respects epoch-marking work. Weary of 
a husband whom, on account of his addic- 
tion to bucolic pursuits, she pronounces 
a rustre, Gilberte de Chateau-Laplante 
tells him that she has taken a lover, and, 
with some little difficulty, induces him 
to believe and divorce her. In the 
second act we discover her married to 
what is in England called the co- 
respondent. She is, however, as far 
removed as ever from being happy, and 
applies to herself the lex talionis in a 
fashion not previously essayed. Having 
cuckolded — euphemisms are in this case 
futile — husband number one witli husband 
number two, she, so to speak, retraces her 
steps, and cuckolds number two with num- 
ber one. A proceeding of the kind clearly 
escapes the charge of incest, but seems 
hardly less repugnant to social or ethical 
teaching. By rendering it in her broadest 
style Madame Rejane contrived t<> mitigate 
its unpleasantness. In so doing she was 
supported by M. Pierre .Marnier, who 
succeeded M. Dubosc as husband number 
one, and played in similar fashion, 
Madame Suzanne Avril resumed her 
original part of Helene Grisolles. The 
play commended itself to a public which 



readily accepts anything with a foreign 
cachet. 

' La Rafale ' is one of the latest and 
most gruesome of the social satires of 
M. Bernstein. It was given at the Gym- 
nase Dramatique so lately as October 20th, 
and did something to establish the reputa- 
tion of Madame Simone le Bargy. A 
world more despicable than that into 
which M. Bernstein introduces us has 
seldom been presented, and a story more 
repellent has rarely been told. Married 
by her father to the worthless trans- 
mitter of a noble name, Helene, the 
heroine, makes no attempt to take her 
union seriously, but furnishes herself with 
a lover even more despicable than her 
husband, since he is a professional gambler 
and not far from a blackleg. A crisis 
soon arises. Robert — so the lover is called 
— has lost at baccarat not only all he him- 
self possesses, but also a large sum of trust 
money, and is face to face with open dis- 
honour. Vainly Helene tries to obtain the 
required sum from her father or from the 
sale of her jewels, and she has ultimately 
to secure it as the price of her shame 
from a cousin-lover she has formerly 
rejected. Possessed of the sum thus 
earned, she hastes to Robert's room in 
time to hear the pistol shot with which 
he ends his crapulous existence. Repel- 
lent as is this story, it gives rise to some 
powerfully written and eminently dra- 
matic scenes, the best of which is that 
between father and daughter, when from 
her eagerness and passion the former 
learns her secret and chides her, only 
to be rebuked by her for the loath- 
some marriage contract to which she has 
been subjected by him. Madame Rejane 
was scarcely seen at her best in the part 
of the heroine, the creator of which, 
as has been said, was Madame Simone le 
Bargy. M. Pierre Magnier as the lover 
acted with admirable brightness and 
precision. 

Had ' Le Paon ' of M. de Croisset, first 
produced at the Comedie Francaise on 
July 9th, 1 904, continued as it opened, it 
might have been regarded as a master- 
piece. It begins, however, with a story, 
its hold of which in progress it relin- 
quishes ; its verse is facile rather than 
inspired ; there are periods when a sense 
of dullness is begotten ; and its characters 
are not true to themselves. At the most, 
then, it can be credited with being a 
pretty, agreeable, and fantastic enter- 
tainment. The Baron de Boursoufle, 
known for his vanity and braggart airs 
as " le paon," has bet his friend De Brecy 
a thousand francs that he will, within a 
week, win an avowal of love from 
Annette, the innkeeper's pretty niece. 
The wager he wins by paying the girl 
extravagant compliments, derived prin- 
cipally from the poets. She accompanies 
him to Paris, where he tries, on the shortest 
notice, to bring her out as a great artist, 
but fails, owing to her nervousness. In 
the end he falls in love with and marries 
her. M. de Feraudy gave a fine piece of 
acting as the peacock ; and Mile. Marie 
Leconte was full of archness and charm 
as Annette. 



Great Queen Street. — Alma Mater, in 
Four Acts. By Victor Stephany. 

The new play by^Herr Stephany given 
at the Great Queen Street Theatre may 
be regarded as an amalgam of ' Alt- 
Heidelberg ' and ' Zapfenstreich,' but is 
inferior in treatment, as in interest, to 
either. It was noisily played, and can 
scarcely be regarded as a satisfactory 
specimen of German acting. Fraulein 
Margarete Russ maintained, however, the 
precedency among her companions which 
she has established. 



La Scala. — A Eoyal Divorce : a Drama 
in Five Acts. By W. G. Wills. 

As a popular and spectacular treatment 
of the later life of Napoleon, ' A Royal 
Divorce,' produced at the Olympic on 
September 10th, 1901, has some merit. 
As drama it is of small account, and as 
history of none. It has now been pro- 
vided with an altered termination by 
Mr. George Gervaise Collingham, showing 
Napoleon on July 31st, 1815, in Plymouth 
Harbour, and produced at the Scala 
Theatre with Mr. Frank Lister as Napoleon, 
Miss Edith Cole as Josephine, Mrs. Cecil 
Raleigh as Marie Louise, and Miss Mary 
Jerrold in the sympathetic little part of 
Stephanie de Beauharnais. A favourable 
reception was awarded, and the theatre 
seems to have found the class of pieces 
for which it is best adapted. 



Court. — Afternoon Performance: The 
Electra of Euripides. 

In producing, in a rendering by Prof. 
Gilbert Murray, the ' Electra ' of Euri- 
pides, the management of the Court 
Theatre lays a further obligation upon 
the scholars who seek for the master- 
pieces of classic tragedy the added viva- 
city of interpretation. Not so well as in 
the edifices in Orange or Avignon may 
we realize the features of an open-air 
performance on the Acropolis ; but a 
representation such as was given on 
Tuesday conveys the best idea to be 
obtained, under unprosperous conditions, 
of an Attic performance. Compared with 
'The Libation-bearers' of /Eschylus and 
the ' Electra ' of Sophocles, which deal 
with the same subject, as well as with 
the ' Hippolytus ' and ' The Trojan 
Women,' the ' Electra' of Euripides 
seems tame, spiritless, and undramatic. 
The mere task of perusal is not, indeed, 
wholly inspiriting. When given, however, 
as at the Court, with a competent Orestes 
and an admirable Electra— with a Cly- 
temnestra who is pleading, and a chorus 
which in a shuddering fashion shares the 
malignity as well as the craving for 
justice of Electra the severe, relent- 
less tragedy asserts itself, and the whole 
impassions "and thrills. The appearance 
of the Dioscuri at the close was well 
arranged, and the rhymed and rhythmic 
chant of the chorus was impressive. One 
can fancy the influence of the former 
augmented by means known to the his- 



^s 



T II E AT II EN Ml) M 



N M)82. Jam. 20, 1906 



trions, but the genera] effect wsb o 
powering and the ezeoution worthy. 

Prof. Murray's translation, which is 
that used, is lofty, grave, and solemn, 

oonveying an adnuraole idea of the 
obligations of Hamlet to Orestes, and 

the less direct, hut not less sensihle in- 
debtedness oi Milton to the author. The 
final address of the chorus : — 

Farewell, farewell ! Bat he who oan so fare, 
And Btumbleth not on miaohief anywhere, 

ed i 'ii cut li is he ; 

recalls to as the no less magnificent closing 
chorus of ' Samson Agonistes,' beginning, 

All i- beat, though we oft doubt, 
and ending with the noble lines telling 
how He His servants 

With peace ami ((insulation hath dismissed, 

And calm of mind, all passion spent. 



I.K SONNET D'ARVERS. 

7i, Grosvenor Road, Highbury, .V 
Nul doute que la dedicace en vers a 
Mademoiselle X. dont Pailleron a fait 
preceder sa piece ' La Souris ' ne fut inspiree 
par le celebre sonnet d'Arvers. II n'y a pas 
jusqu'a la difference de la forme qui ne fasse 
ressortir l'identite de la pensee, la parente de 
sentiment et d'expression des deux morceaux. 
Mais l'interet litteraire de la question n'est 
point epuise par ce rapprochement. II reste 
un autre a constater. II n'y a pas que 
Pailleron qui a pris son bien ou il l'a trouve, 
car le sonnet d'Arvers n'est pas plus original 
que la dedicace de 'La Souris.'. .. .Ovez 
plutot. J 

Bst-il tonrment plus rigourenx 

Que de bruler pour une belle 

Et n'oser declarer sea feux : 

Hi las ! tel esl mon sort affreux ! 

Quoiqueje sois tendre et fidele, 
L'espoir, qui des plus malheureux 
Adoui it la peine mortelle, 
Ne saurait me flatter comme eux. 

Et ma contrainte est si cruelle 
Que celle vers qui vont mesvoeux 

Lira cc ivcit amoureux 

s.ins savoirqu'il est fait pourelle. 

C'est moins beau peut - etre, mais il est 
loisible de supposer que c'est a ces 
quatrains presque oublies que nous sommes 
redeyables du sonnet qui, inspire par eux, a 
inspire a son tour les vers de Pailleron. 

Et l'auteur de ces quatrains ? 

Un nomme Cocquard, tout court. lis se 
trouvent, parait-il, dans un petit volume 
intitule ' Poesies de Cocquard,' Francois 
Desventes, Editeur, Dijon, 1754. 

A tout seigneur tout bonneur. 

D. X. Samson. 



Oram at ic Out;, '.up. 

At His Majesty's ' Oliver Twist ' has been 
played on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, 
and ' An Enemy of the People ' during the 
remainder of the week. Mr. Tree announces 
a forthcoming revival of 'Macbeth,' with 
himself as the Thane, and Miss Constance 
Collier as Lady Macbeth, Mr. Lyn Harding 
as Macduff, and Mr. Basil (Jill as Malcolm. 

'What's the Matter with London?' 
is not, as might be supposed, a conundrum 
suggested by the elections.but the title of a 
new play by Judge Parry and Mr. Mouillot. 
which is to be tried in the country with a 
view to its ultimate production in London. 

' As You Like It,' with the cast already 
announced, has been transferred from the 
afternoon to the evening bill at the St. 
James's. 



\. English adaptation "t 'Alms Mater/ 
the production <>f which is noticed above, 
i^ promised for tin- approaching spring. 

Tin: Mi i:i ii wr oi Vim.i ' is given this 

evening at the Garrick for the last time, i> 
run of over a hundred performanoei would 
at no distant date have been considered mar- 
vellous. Mr. Bourchier contemplates a re- 
vival of 'Much Ado about Nothing.' When the 
run concludes of ' Brother Officers, ' Mr. Leo 

Trevor's military comedy, which is to be 

revived on Monday, Mr. Bourohier will play 

the hero of Mr. Alfred Sutro's new comedy 

'The Fascinating Mr. Vanderveldt,' a | 

which will fir-t be jeen in America. 

Lights Out ' was transferred on Monday 
bo the Savoy, Miss Eva Moore, Mr. Churles 
Fulton, and Mr. H. V. Esmond retaining the 
principal characters. 

Tin: season of French plays at the Royalty 
will be suspended at the close of February, 
to begin again on May 28th, when M. 
Coquelin will appear with the company of 
the Gaite. 

Mii. Axfbed Sitro's comedy 'The Walls 
of Jericho ' has obtained a warm welcome in 
the Hague and other Dutch towns. 

Herr Ludwto Barnay, the well-known 
German actor, has come out of his retire- 
ment to undertake the management of the 
Schauspielhaus, Berlin. 

' The Merchant of Venice,' which has 
run for fifty nights at the Deutsches Theater, 
Berlin, will soon give place to ' Twelfth 
Night.' 

The death occurred last Sunday evening 
of the author and dramatist Herman Charles 
Merivale, at the age of sixty-seven. Never 
in the first rank; he had considerable success 
with some of his pieces for the stage, such as 
'Fedora,' from Sardou, and ' Ravenswood,' 
from Scott's novel ' The Bride of Lammer- 
moor.' 'The Don' is perhaps the best 
known of his comedies. 



Erratum. — P. 59, col. 
dem md; read </ nande 



:i, in line s of the sonnet for 



To Correspondents.— G. n. S. — J. R. — received. 
R. B.— Writing. R. F. G.— Not suitable for us. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. 



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NEW TESTAMENT CHRONOLOGY: 

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N° 4082, Jan. 20, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



91 



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contains, in addition to a great variety of similar Notes and Replies^ 
Articles of Interest on the foi lowing Subjects. 

THIRD SELECTION. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY and LITERARY HISTORY. 

Translations of Galen — Books on Gaming — John Gilpin's Route 
to Edmonton — Mrs. Glasse — 'Globe' Centenary — Goethe — 
Oliver Goldsmith — Thomas Gray — Greene's ' Frier Bacon and 
Frier Bongay ' — Grub Street — A. H. Hallam's Publications — 
Harvey, Marston, Jonson, and Nashe — Hawker of Morwen- 
s tow — Heber's ' Racing Calendar ' — George Herbert's Proverbs 

Herrick — Heuskarian Rarity in the Bodleian — ' Historical 

English Dictionary ' — Hood's ' Comic Annual.' 

BIOGRAPHY. 

" The Starry Galileo " — Letters of German Notabilities — W. E. 
Gladstone — Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey— Duchess of Gordon — 
Duke of Grafton and Lord Thurlow— Thomas Guy's Will — Nell 
Gwyn — Serjeant Hawkins — Sir John Hawkwood — Sir Richard 
Hotham — Victor Hugo. 

ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS. 

Genesis i. 1 — Nameless Gravestones — Greek Church Vestments 
— Hagioscope or Oriel — Heretics Burnt — Hexham Priory and 
the Augustales — Holy Communion, Substitutes for Bread — 
Honest Epitaphs — Huxley on the Bible — ' Hymns Ancient and 
Modern.' 

FINE ARTS. 

Gainsborough's lost ' Duchess ' — Grinling Gibbons's Statue of 
James II. — Sir John Gilbert's Drawings in the ' London 
Journal ' — Miss Gunning's Portraits — Haydon's Historical 
Pictures — Pictures by Sir G. Hayter — Hogarth — Holbein 
Portraits — Hoppner Portraits. 

PHILOLOGY and GRAMMAR. 

Caimacam or Kaimakam — Camelry — Cecil, its Pronunciation 
— Celtic Words in Anglo-Saxon Districts — Chaperon applied to 
Males — Chic recognized by the French Academy — Chi-ike — 
"Chink" of Woods — Comically — Corn-bote — Creak as a Verb 
— Crowdy-mutton — Deadfold — Dewsiers — " Different than " — 
Dive, Peculiar Meaning — Dude — Electrocute — English Accentu- 
ation — Ey in Place-names — Fashion in Language — Fearagur- 
thok, Irish Word — Felibre — Filbert — Flapper, Anglo-Indian 
Slang— Irish " Flittings"— Floyd v. Lloyd— Folk or Folks— 
Foulrice — Frail — Gallant, its Varying Accent — Gallimaufry — 
Gambaleery — Gaol and Goal — Garage — Gavel and Shieling — 
Ghetto— Ghost-words — " Good afternoon " — Doubtful Grammar 
in A.V. and Prayer Book — Greek Pronunciation— Gutter- 
snipe — Gwyneth — Halsh — Hattock — Help with an Infinitive — 
Helpmate and Helpmeet — Henbane — Heron — High-faluting — 
Hooligan — Hopeful and Sanguine — Huish — Hullabaloo — 
Hurtling. 



Daughter 



of 



Boat Sonjj ' — 



PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS. 

" Cambuscan bold " — " Carnage is God's daughter n — " Chalk on 

the door " — " Lug the coif " — " Comparisons are odious " 

« Crow to pluck"— "Crying down credit "—" Cutting his stick" 
— "Who sups with the devil" — " Down to the ground" — "Dutch 
courage" — "Embarras des richesses"— "English take their 

pleasures sadly" — "Enjoy bad health" — "Fall below par" 

"Farewell, vain world "—" Fegges after peace"—" Fert, Fert,. 
Fert," on Italian Coins—" First catch your hare " — " Flea in 
the ear'' — " Forgive, blest shade" — French Sermon in Proverbs- 
— Familiar French Quotations — " God works wonders now and 

then "— " Gone to Jericho "— " Green grief to the Grahams" 

" Grass widow "—Gratitude Defined — " Green-eyed monster " 
— " Heart of grace "— " Hook it "— " Hop the twig "— " Horse- 
marine." 

SONGS, BALLADS, and NURSERY RIMES. 

"Ask nothing more of me, sweet" — 'Bailiff's 

Islington ' — ' Beggar's Petition ' — ' Canadian 

'Charlie is my Darling '—' Cherry Ripe '— ' Comin' thro' the 

Rye'—' Dulce Domum '— " Gentle shepherd, tell me where "— 

"God bless the King! — I mean the Faith's defender" "I 

dwelt in a city enchanted " — " I '11 hang my harp on a willow 
tree " — " In the days when we went gipsying." 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Acacia in Freemasonry— Adelaide Waistcoat— Adulation Extra- 
ordinary—Old Advertisements— ^Eolian Harp, its Construction 
—Albino Animals Sacrificed — Ale, Bottled, Burton, and 
" Lanted "—Anagrams on Various Subjects— Apostle Spoons- 
Athens, the City of the Violet Crown — Autographs, how 
to keep them — Bagman, for Commercial Traveller— Bank 
of England and Heberfield— First Lady Barrister— Birch-sap 
Wine— Ancient Boats Discovered — Bows and Arrows last used 
in War— Bread by Troy Weight— C.I. V. Nicknames— Originator 
of Christmas Cards— Beginning and End of Centuries— Clerks 
in Chancery— Chess Legend— Chimneys in Ancient Houses- 
Introduction of Chocolate — Twenty-four-hour Clocks — Con- 
vivial Clubs— Local Names for the Cowslip— Earliest Cricket 
Match— Death from Fright— Dutch Fleet captured by Cavalry 
—Standing Egg— Brewers' " Entire"— Earliest Envelopes- 
Epigrams and Epitaphs— Farthings Rejected— Feeding- Bottles 
First Used— Five o'Clock Tea— Flats in London— Flaying Alive 

— Franciscans v. Freemasons— Earliest Funeral Cards Gas 

and Locomotive — Gates on Commons — Genius and Large 
Families— Gentleman Porter— Germination of Seeds— Slang 
for Gin— Gipsy Wedding and Funeral— Golf and Pall-mail— 
Goths and Huns— Guillotine— Gun Reports— Hair Powder last 
Used— Hansom Cab, its Inventor— First Silk Hat in London. 



Published by JOHN C. FRANCIS, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, E.C. 



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whole removed from Charlton Road. Blackheath, which will he 
SOLD bj AUCTION by Messrs. 

TTNIGHT, FRANK & RUTLEY, at their 

wJ; v ,'":',\7' ?• Colldult *"''■'■»■ ■""! »*. Maddos Street, w„ on 
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On MONDAY, January 29, MODERN PIC- 

RE8 and hi;a\\ in(,s. 



TIRES 



On TUESDAY, January 30, ENGRAVINGS of 
BARLY ENGLISH SCH , Turner's Liber Studioram. 

On FRIDAY, February % OLD ENGLISH 

■RNlTCRKan.l .i!,|. ni:rssi:i,s TAPESTRY, the Property of 
; Hon. Mrs RKEFFINOTON BMYTB - Poroelain, Deooratlve 
lectS, and V uriiilure. 



FUR 

the 

Object 



On SATURDAY, Februan ::, MODERN pic- 
tures and drawings, the Probity of a tk-ntleman and others. 



[ P I: 1/ /; l:r i:i:il.l., 

i and a Portion q/ths 1 Bon. M 

/' i i 

MRF SOI HEBY, WILKINSON I BODGE 
Mill M I I. I v ll'CTKl Wellington 

sir. .t -ii mil \\ i on MOND> . ml T»n K..1 

I it I ofl.Kk prccl.ch RooKHun.l M ANl'KCItlPTH. inch 

l'ortl. L1IIHAKY ol H.. l.,i. It. i .-.Ii. I 

.--t..k.-. comprising Mn ImhUld « llrltl.h Tl 

Val| 1 Itll Kll/.tln I I, .1 

I ooki relatiiu to the East Poema bj J. I; 
■ ■ii Copy, v»nd an [nMTiptioii Punch, 104 
i-li 'M ; lie I K. M. It. HURKKLl 1 old by 

Ordi i ■■< Hi. I ■ ., i [IritUh Itll 

the Writings oj Dickens and Tin. k. Novels, 

« ..is- on Natural Histoi ■■ and ' ludlng 

Gould 
Extra lllusti i ON, 1 

ContaJllillg ■' "lit and l Ii n. and the 

\\..ik- .a Marlowe, Peel. 11 id die ton, and other Earl) l)i 
Literatun Freeman's Norman Conquest. 6 roll 
? »ol« I'M -. .ii - Works. 12 vols.- Bankc's England, l vol 

rd Works, to ; Portion of th< LIBRARY of the Hon Mr. 

Justice DAY, deceased Iremoved from Beaufort House, oo Kcrryl, 

Scotl - Novels, " Ablwtsford Edition "—the Bibliographical 

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1 i in-i Edition Theology, Biography, to ; othci PROPE1 
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MESSRS. SOTHEBY, WILKINSON ft EODGE 
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Autograph Letters and Signed Documents relating to 
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Highly interesting Sale of (he Antiquarian and Artistic 
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which will be found :— 

Ii4 SEPIA DRAWINGS, principally of OLD LEEDS, l.y W. 
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28 oil. PAINTINGS and 23 WATER-coLorR DRAWINGS, pre- 
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J.i snt clitt'c. w. s. Webb, E. c. Booth, Gilbert S. Wright, P. Wouvermans, 
E. T. Jones, 4c. 

Ovar 600 Framed and Unframed old ENGRAVINGS, principally 
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A number of Original PENand-INK and PENCIL SKETCHES, and 
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number of Yorkshire Topographical Works interesting Books 
relating to Leeds Thoresby Society Publications Royal Historical 
Society Transactions Yorkshire Archaeological, Camden Society, and 
other Antiquarian Works many old and Curious Rooks and 
Pamphlets Che Encyclopaadia Britannica, Ninth Edition, wiili die 
new 'Times' additional volumes 1361 an Original Edition of Oliver 
Twist. Educational and statistical Works, and General Literature. 

A large number of AUTOGB aim is, including those of Queens Anne 
and Victoria, Qeorge ill . Napoleon Buonaparte, Frederick the 

Great, l.onisXIll and XIV. of France. Dean Swift. Cardinal Wise- 
man, and Rev. Joseph Priestley— Old Deads, French and German 
Letters. Newspapers, and other interesting MSS. and Printed Matter 

A COLLECTION of GOLD, SILVER, and COPPER COINS 
TOKENS, and WAR and COMMEMORATION MEDALS. 

A small quantity of old CHINA and BRONZES, WTIoi R 
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Vakta ' ii ;/.' pull M 

Ml: .1 ' SI I. VIA- W1 il Oil l 

KlttDAl I 

i - A Nai) Pal 



ill. - 



/ / Phot liic 

Appai ■ 

IlilhA ) ■ .rk. 

Ml:. .1. C. 81 EVENS will OF] I l: »( hk 
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OlTII \l. I VN'l 1 IN- hi : -I.I J.i - 
and I 

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■ on. 

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DUBLIN. 

VALUABLE COLLECTION of JEWELS, OLD 

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Silver (iilt I ii Beta, Pair of lofty Flagons, ic— fine old Sheffield 

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Subjecte) — an exipiisite Enamel Miniature of Francis I., 
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Paintings — Engraving raluahle Collection of Gold. Silver, and 

Bronze Medals and Coins— Musical Instruments, including Violins by 
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perty la portion hy direction of FI.oRl'.Ni E. VIS SS MA8- 

SEREENE ami FERRARD, and the remainder removed from a Man- 
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one week preceding Sale. — BENNETT i Son. Auctioneers. 6. Upper 
Ormond Quay. 



s 



D 



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ft 



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THE EXTINCTION OF THE ANCIENT HIER- 

ARCHY. An Account of the Death in Prison of thi 
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THEODORE of STUDIUM : his Life and Times. Rev. 
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Illustrations to Shakespeare's JULIUS CJESAR. 

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CONTEXTS. 

1. Jeremiah's Jerusalem. 

By the Rev. Prof. G. A. SMITH, D.D. LL.D. 

2. The Son of Man as the Light of the 

World. 

By the Rev. ARTHUR CARR, M.A., formerly 
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3. The Amorite Calendar. 

By the Rev. C. H. W. JOHNS, M.A., Queen's 
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4. Notes from the Lecture - Room of 

Epictetus. 

By the Rev. EDWIN A. ABBOTT, M.A. D.D. 

5. The Scribes of the Nazarenes. 

By .T. H. A. HART, M.A., Fellow of St. John's 
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T!y the Rev. DAVID M. McINTVRE, M.A., 
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By the Rev. H. W. CLARK, M.A. 

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By the. Right Rev. G. A. CHADWIOK", D.D., 
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LECTURES ON ENGLISH 
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N° 4083, Jan. 27, 1906 



THE ATHEN^UM 



97 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1906. 



99 
100 
102 
102 
103 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Recent Italian Literature 97 

Cambridge Theological Essays 

New Editions of Blake's Poetry 

Aids to the Old Testament 

The Psalms 

The New Testament 

Our Library Table (The German Official View of 
the War in South Africa ; Main Currents in Nine- 
teenth-Century Literature ; In our Convent Days ; 
The Life of Adeline Sergeant ; What is Truth? The 
Green Sphinx ; Creatures of the Night ; Lyrics of 
the Restoration ; The Marriage of Heaven and .ff3 
Hell ; Lodge's Peerage and other Year- Books ; The 
Library) 103—105 

List of New Books 100 

George Jacob Holyoake ; Thomas Gray in Peter- 
house ; The Fire of Rome and the Christians ; 
'A Curious Dance round a Curious Tree'; 
Froude's 'Nemesis of Faith' .. .. 106— 109 

Literary Gossip 109 

Science — Lord Avebury on British Flowering 
Plants; Societies; Meetings Next Week; 
Gossip 110-112 

Fine Arts— Millet Drawings at the Leicester 
Galleries ; The Rokeby Velasquez ; The 
British School at Rome ; The Turners at 
the "Old Masters"; Proposed Glass Ex- 
hibition ; An Unidentified Picture ; Sales ; 
Gossip 112—114 

Music— London Symphony Concert ; Gossip ; Per- 
formances Next Week 114—115 

Drama — The Superior Miss Pellender ; The 
Partik'ler Pet ; Brother Officers ; French 
Plays; Liselott ; Gossip 115—116 

Index to Advertisers 116 



LITERATURE 



ITALIAN LITERATURE. 

The appraisal of literature, in face of 
such a deluge of books, is a most difficult 
problem for the student and the librarian. 
Even more serious will it become in the 
future, when, owing to the increase of 
international points of contact, every 
student is obliged to know everything 
that is printed and published throughout 
the world ; because certain nations and 
certain peoples that as regards know- 
ledge are now, as Carlyle said, dumb 
giants, will make their voices heard in 
that future concert which will, I fear, 
much"resemble the Tower of Babel. 

In Italy the great reviews have abolished 
the bibliographic bulletin, which, however, 
served as a guide to those who could not 
see everything for themselves. The pub- 
lishing houses send to the complaisant 
journals anticipatory critiques, all nicely 
printed, of books "just out " ; and with 
us also the reader does not know whom 
to believe, and thinks twice before buying 
a book, and then does not do so at all, or, 
if he has a particular desire to read 
it, waits to borrow it from a friend. 
Twenty-five years ago, when we had a 
true literary activity, there were journals 
like the Fanjulla della Domenica, like the 
Preludio, that exercised a real literary 
dictatorship. The lashes of the Fanfulla 
delta Domenica will remain classic. Now- 
adays there is less need of these exemplary 
punishments, because the quality of pro- 
duction has somewhat improved, and there 
is greater respect for art and science ; 



but we lack the work of any one 
who conscientiously appreciates current 
literature. The best judges would be 
the publishers, if all had the culture and the 
taste of Piero Barbera, who 
the house of from the archives of his pub- 
barbera lishing house has collected 
curious and important mate- 
rials for the history of the works published 
by his father Gaspero and by himself in 
the twenty-five years from 1854 to 1880. 
These ' Annali Barberiani,' which have 
been printed for private circulation, form 
a precious document for the literary 
history of the prime of the past century, 
as well as a delightful and attractive work. 
In reading them we take part in the 
making of each book ; we see discussed 
by the author and the publisher the pur- 
pose, the form, and the price ; we share 
in the difficult negotiations respecting the 
compensation due to the author ; and 
finally the sincerity of the younger 
Barbera reveals the secret of the number 
printed of each work and the commercial 
success that it had. To tell the truth, 
in looking through these ' Annali,' we 
learn how few are the fortunate books, 
in contrast with the many that a publisher 
is obliged to print ; and of those elect the 
copies printed have been only a few 
thousand, apart from scholastic books, 
to which the house of Barbera owed much 
of its prosperity. Felice Le Monnier, of 
whom Gaspero Barbera was at first the 
partner and then the adventurous rival, 
founded his fortune on political publica- 
tions, upon that patriotic literature which 
was chiefly valued because it was pro- 
hibited, and it is astonishing to find 
that the works of the poet Giovanni 
Battista Niccolini, now forgotten, had an 
enormous success. The ' Annali Bar- 
beriani ' show us what a good influence 
a publisher can have upon young authors. 
Men like Giosue Carducci or Edmondo De 
Amicis had the good fortune to receive 
from the Barbera their first encourage- 
ment and hard cash. To this house 
the correspondence of its authors is a 
source of sincere pride, since it brings 
together the finest names of Italy, from 
Massimo d'Azeglio and Gino Capponi to 
Giovanni Prati and Giacomo Zanella, 
besides the two named above ; and side 
by side with these Italian names I find 
those of Samuel Smiles, William Smith, 
and George P. Marsh, whose scholastic 
works have had a large circulation amongst 
us. 

But those times were not as ours 
even for the publishers : there was no 
rivalry, and production was limited in 
comparison with demand. To-day the 
contrary is the case, whilst the number 
of readers does not increase in propor- 
tion : newspapers, occupations, sport 
and travel offer distractions from serious 
and quiet reading ; so-called light lite- 
rature invades the field, and good and 
useful books remain modestly in hiding, 
ignored by the majority. And for (his 
reason I am obliged to make diligent and 
minute research, and to mention as many 
works as possible worthy of study, which 
otherwise would pass unobserved. 



This year we have a moderate harvest : 
nothing very extraordinary, but a number 
of important works. 

Apparently the Italians are beginning 
to belie their reputation of not believing 
in geography, and of being 
geography one of the European peoples 
and travel least given to travel. Nar- 
ratives of travel are begin- 
ning to be well received and circulated, as 
the chairs of geography are beginning to 
have a special importance in university 
teaching, where twenty years back they 
did not exist. I shall mention various 
books of travels : Enrico Catellani,' L' Es- 
tremo Oriente e le sue Lotte,' an exhaustive 
work on China, dealing with its various 
states, its public law, its ideal and practical 
life, its politics, and its relations with 
Europe ; Carlo Rossetti, ' Corea e Co- 
reani ' ; Salvatore Minocchi, ' Per la 
Manciuria a Pechino ' ; T. Carletti, ' I 
Luoghi Santi ' (Judcea), a book of thought 
and feeling, with descriptions of countries 
and customs, and beautiful illustrations ; 
Vico Mantegazza, ' L' Altra Sponda,' 
which deals with Italy and Austria on 
the Adriatic, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and 
Albania; Licurgo Santoni, 'Alto Egitto 
e Nubia ' ; Giusseppe Caprin, ' LTstria 
Nobilissima ' ; Ruffillo Perini, ' Di qua 
dal Mareb ' ; and ' Le Valli di Lanzo,' a 
most valuable and useful publication 
issued by the Club Alpino. Lastly I 
must mention a very fine ' Atlas of Africa " 
in thirty-six maps, published by the 
Istituto d' Arti Grafiche of Bergamo, 
from original researches. To geographical 
literature belongs the artistic volume 
' Figure e Paesi d' Italia,' by Mario 
Protesi, a romancist and novelist of re- 
fined taste and polished style. Loreto 
Pasqualucci, the librarian at our Foreign 
Office, has compiled an ' Annual Review of 
Italy as regards Exports and Imports,' 
which deserves to be studied by mer- 
cantile men and statisticians, on account 
of the fullness and soundness of his in- 
formation. Englishmen should read a 
volume by Achille Tanfani, ' Nel Paese 
delle Stravaganze,' which treats of London 
life and of the spirit of association of the 
Anglo-Saxons, and of their clubs, among 
which, says the author, some are bizarre. 

In theology there are very few works, 
because religious problems seem little 
adapted to the minds of Italians. I may 
therefore, without further comment, pass 
to law, in which we have numerous 
some possessing singular 
interest because they deal 
with questions new or pecu- 
liar to our country. On 
Roman law studies abound : in honour 
of Senator Vittorio Scialoja, one of the 
luminaries of the University of Rome, on 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of his teach- 
ing was published a collection of mono- 
graphs in two volumes with the title 
' Studi di Diritto Romano, di Diritto 
Moderno, e Storia del Diritto' ; Roberto 

Bozzoni published at Naples a work of 
his on ' Medical Men and Roman Law ' ; 
and Giovanni Paochioni, an Italian pro- 
fessor at Innsbruck, there printed his 
'Course of Roman Law,' which in the 



publications, 



law 



'.!> 



T II E AT II KN .K I' M 



\ 1083, Jan. 27, L906 



first volume treat* of the constitution 

and the -<>ii! es oi lam . Another notable 

c--.iv mi the l,i-ii>i\ '.i li\\ i- thai <>f 
Enrico Loncao, ' Stat.-. ( 'h!. • Famiglia 

in Si ilia dalla ( 'adiita d< II' I m pern 

Romano al Regno Nbrmanno, 1 of which 
the first volume has appeared, dealing 
with the barbarian invasions and the 
kingdom of the Goths. But perhaps of 
more interest for English readers will be 
other monographs on subjects of greater 
actuality. A question of some political 

importance lias inspired the study of 

Giuseppe Francese on 'The .Juridical 

Personality of the Catholic Church,' 
while questions that interest other coun- 
tries also are developed by Dionisio An/.i- 
lotti in the volume " II Diritto Inter- 
nazionale nei Giudizi Intend.' Another 
book of a political character is ' The 
Indemnity to Deputies, 9 studied by the 
Deputy Nerio Malvezzi -now that the 
Socialists are opposed to the non-payment 
of members compensated only by free 
transit on railways and mail steamers. 
We have in this section a work of great 
value, due to the illustrious professor 
Cesare Lombroso, on 'The Psychiatrico- 
legal Report with Methods for compiling it, 
and Penal Casuistry Classified Anthropo- 
logically,' with the addition of a glossary 
of criminal anthropology by C. Leggiardi- 
Laura. Allied to this is the book of Luigi 
Anfosso on ' Legislation relating to Lunatic 
Asylums or to Lunatics,' a commentarv on 
the law of February 14th, 1904. In Italy 
these works have a particular interest. 
But for foreign jurists a greater curiosity 
will be the volume of Giuseppe Cesare 
Pola entitled ' Commento alia Legge sulla 
Condanna Condizionale,' a law similar to 
the French one that bears the name of 
Berenger, and that, promulgated on 
June 26th, 1904, has here acquired the 
name of the "law of pardon." Senator 
Carlo Francesco Gabba, who is the pride 
of the Ateneo of Pisa, has published a 
valuable volume entitled ' Nuove Ques- 
tioni di Diritto Civile.' On the law concern- 
ing accidents to workmen we have two good 
commentaries by Guido Bortolotto and 
Arnaldo Agnelli. In 1904, besides this 
law, promulgated on January 31st, which 
is of great importance for what the 
Americans call " industrial betterment," 
we had the law for public charity of 
July 18th, the purposes of which Carlo 
Schanzer and Camillo Peano have ex- 
plained in an elaborate commentary. On 
the legal, economic, and administrative 
scope of our railways there is a good 
little treatise by Filippo Tajani, entitled 
' Le Strade Ferrate in Italia.' 

On archaeology there is not an abundance 
of publications, at least in book form. In 

addition to the learned 

fine arts studies of Luigi Adriano 

and Milani, ' Monumenti Scelti 

archaeology del R. Museo Archeologico 

di Firenze,' and the collec- 
tion edited by him, ' Studj e Materiali 
di Archeologia e Numismatica,' which 
already numbers three volumes, and the 
various monographs that see the light in 
the Proceedings of our academies, I may 
mention a volume by V. Malfatti on ' The 



Roman Ship- of the hake of Wini ; a 

valuable monograph by Jacopo Gelli on 
'The Siilanese vrquebus, Industry, Trade, 
and Use of Firearms in Lombardy ' ; two 
Btudies by Senator Lues Beltrami, the 
restorer of the Castello Bforzesco of Milan. 

on " Angera and its Rook ' and on ' Arona 
and its Art Monuments ' ; and one by 
Attilio Rossi on Santa .Maria in Vultu- 
rella.' near Tivoli. 

On the history of art hooks are copious 
— more so than would have been expected 
some years ago. But art has now become 
fashionable : it is spoken of in elegant 
drawing-rooms, and many gentlemen have 
devoted themselves to this kind of " sport," 
which is less dangerous than others. More- 
over, some excellent art critics have formed 
a school, and we are to-day as far from 
the vacuous generalities of the acade- 
mician as from the rhetoric of the amateur. 
Great strides have also been made in the 
technique of illustration, so that we 
find printed cheaply, with a wealth of 
reproductions, solid works of an incon- 
testable scholarly value. I mentioned in 
my last article the Istituto di Arti Grafiche 
at Bergamo and the house of Fratelli 
Alinari at Florence as worthy of high 
praise for the elegance of their 
editions : this time I may add that both 
these houses seek to maintain this pre- 
eminence. Corrado Ricci, the indefatig- 
able director of the Florence Galleries, 
edits for the Istituto of Bergamo two 
collections, one of illustrated monographs, 
and the other entitled " Italia Artistica," 
which are as good as this kind of publica- 
tion can be, both in substance and in form. 
Many strangers who come to Italy are 
surprised by the clearness of the illustra- 
tions and the moderateness of the price, 
and some shrewd English publisher should 
acquire the right of translation. In the 
first of these collections Ricci has published 
a study on ' The Artistic Collections of 
Ravenna,' and Ugo Monneret de Villard 
a bit of his handiwork on ' Giorgione da 
Castelfranco.' Ricci gives trustworthy 
notices of Ravenna artists, while De Villard 
offers reproductions of the works that 
certainly belong to Giorgione, and ex- 
pounds them with the help of documents. 
In the same way Francesco Malaguzzi- 
Valeri in another volume analyzes the 
works, studies, and tendencies of G. 
Antonio Amadeo, the active sculptor and 
architect, whose name is connected with 
the Carthusian monastery and the Duomo 
of Pavia, the Duomo of Milan, and who 
represents the characteristics of Lombard 
art at its best period. Corrado Ricci, 
who organized the exhibition of ancient 
art held at Siena in 1904, has sought to 
perpetuate the remembrance of it in his 
volume ' II Palazzo Pubblico di Siena e 
la Mostra d'Arte Antica Senese,' which is 
one of the best illustrated of this splendid 
collection. In " Italia Artistica," the 
following new volumes are to be had : 
' Prato e i suoi Diutorni,' by Enrico 
Corradini ; ' Gubbio,' by Arduino Cola- 
santi ; ' Perugia,' by R. A. Gallenga- 
Stuart, a young student passionately fond 
of art ; ' Vicenza,' by G. Pettina ; ' Pisa." 
by Igino B. Supino ; and ' Da Comacchio 



ad Argenta,' by Antonio Beltramellu 
Prom Prof. I B Supino, the wo rth y 
Director of our National Museum, 
have a work of paramount importai 

Arte Pisana, 1 divided into tine.- parts — 
architecture, sculpture, and painting. The 
chapter on architecture is the newest and 
most practical in tin-- conscientious p 
of work. In that on sculpture Supino 
speaks at length of Niccola Pisano ; that 
on painting deal- with Giunta di Ciu- 

dettO del Colic the first painter of 

the thirteenth century who emerged 
from Byzantinism, and the work of 
Francesco di Traino Traini, the author 
of several of the disputed ! of the 

Camposanto. 1 must mention some other 
hooks, worthy of note : the volume of 
Vittorio Alinari. ' Eiglises et Couvents de 
Florence,' richly illustrated ; that of A. 
Rocca villa, ' L'Arte nel Biellese ' ; the 
' Pagine d'Antica Arte Fiorentina ' of the 
illustrious philosopher Alessandro Chiap- 
pelli ; and vol. iv. of the ' Storia dell' 
Arte ' of Adolfo Venturi. 

I was able to say in 1904 that we had 
a conqueror and a masterpiece. At present, 

if there is no master- 
poetry and piece, I have to note a new 
the drama victory by Gabriele d'An- 

nunzio with his drama ' La 
Fiaccola sotto il Moggio,' which is terrible 
in its tragedy. In comedy I have to 
record ' Fiamme nelT Ombra,' by Enrico 
Butti, and ' La Crisi,' by Marco Praga, 
two good productions. But the best 
authors are either silent or are about to 
vanish from this world's scene, and the 
blanks are not easily filled. In the 
field of poetry no new laurels have 
been gathered : D'Annunzio has not 
recently published any verses ; Giovanni 
Pascoli and Giovanni Marradi are pre- 
paring new volumes. The most active 
writer is Giulio Orsini, the grey-haired 
young poet, whose sixty-five years have not 
deprived him of poetic fire nor of fresh 
inspiration, as is proved by his latest 
volume, ' Jacovella.' A gentle lady 
writer, Teresah, has offered ' Nova Lyrica,' 
and from Trieste Riccardo Pitteri has 
sent us his harmonious verses ' L' Olivo,' 
and Signora Nella Doria Cambon her 
odorous ' Petali al Vento.' Francesco 
Pastonchi, who has restored recitation, or 
rather the delivery of verses, to a place 
of honour, has published some new ones, 
as usual, very fine, in the volume * Sul 
Limite dell' Ombra. 1 

To the " Annali Barberiani ' I need not 
recur. In addition to this fine contri- 
bution to the history of 
bibliography modern literature I must 
\nd mention the " Lexicon Typo- 

pal.eographv graphicum Italia- ' of Giu- 
seppe Fumagalli, which is 
a valuable geographical repertory, of 
service for the history of typography in 
Italy. It not only completes, but also 
in some parts corrects, the work of Des- 
champs which forms the supplement to 
the 'Manuel du Libraire ' of Brunet. 
The volume of Fumagalli is embellished 
with a quantity of reproductions and fac- 
similes, and is of real importance to 
bibliographers. It is also necessary to 



N°4083, Jan. 27, 1906 



THE ATHENAEUM 



99 



record ' Un Decennio (1893-1904) di 
Bibliografia Dantesca,' described and illus- 
trated with some diligence by G. L. Pas- 
serini and C. Mazzi ; and the ' Biblio- 
grafia ragionata per servire alia Storia 
di Napoleone II., Re di Roma, Duca di 
Reichstadt,' of Baron Alberto Lumbroso. 
Among minor bibliographies I may mention 
' II Tricolore Italiano,' a bibliographical 
essay by Orazio Viola ; the ' Bibliografia 
Generate Parmense ' of Stefano Lottici 
and Giuseppe Sitti ; the ' Dizionario 
Biografico dei Parmigiani Illustri ' of 
Ambrogio Pariset ; and the ' Nuovo 
Annuario della Stampa Periodica d' Italia.' 
In palaeography there is a solitary, but 
most important work, ' I Papiri della 
Collezione Fiorentina,' published by G. 
Vitelli, to whom it is due that Italy has 
participated in the discoveries of the 
waste-papyrus baskets of Egypt. 

Books of philosophy are meagre. Worthy 
of note are the study of Benedetto Croce, 
' Lineamenti di una Logica 
philosophy come Scienza del Concetto 
Puro ' ; that of A. Marucci 
on ' The New Philosophy of Criminal Law'; 
and various special monographs, such as : 
Giovanni Gentile, ' Dal Genovesi al Gal- 
luppi,' a picture of the changes of thought 
in the kingdom of Naples from 1750 to 
1850 ; Rodolfo Mondolfo, ' Un Psicologo 
Associazionista ' ; Benedetto Pergoli, ' II 
Condillac in Italia ' ; and E. Santamaria, 
'Le Idee Pedagogiche di Leone Tolstoi.' 
Original and weighty is the study of Sante 
De Sanctis, ' La Mimica del Pensiero,' 
which is a development of a celebrated 
book by Darwin ; and also noteworthy 
are those of Luigi Valli, ' II Fondamento 
Psicologico della Religione,' and Giuseppe 
.Zuccante, ' Fra il Pensiero Antico e il 
Moderno.' 

Social problems seem to Italians more 
attractive than philosophical speculations. 

In this class we have various 
political interesting studies, and 
economy among the first are those of 

Francesco Saverio Nitti, a 
young and energetic Neapolitan professor 
and politician He has thoroughly studied 
two great problems, that of the distribu- 
tion of wealth in Italy, and that of the 
nationalization of hydraulic forces, and 
has compiled two weighty works. The 
industrial transformation of Naples, which 
is in course of accomplishment, is the 
fruit of the tenacious endeavours of this 
powerful intellect, full of bold thought and 
profound teaching. We have other books 
of a financial character, such as the study 
of Guido Sensini on ' The Variations of 
the Economic State of Italy in the Last 
Thirty Years of the Nineteenth Century,' 
that of Jacopo Tivaroni on ' Direct Taxes 
on Income,' and that by G. Fontana on 
' The Systematic Classification of the Italian 
Tributary Institution.' Other mono- 
graphs, rather of an historical character, 
are those of Emilio Conti on ' Funded 
Property in the Past and flic Present' 
and of Gino Arias, ' II Sistema della ( 'osl il u- 
zione Economica e Sociale Italiana nell' 
Eta dei Comuni.' A present-day subject 
is treated in the monograph of Carlo ('ar- 
eola on ' Industrial Syndicates ' and that 



of Antonio Agresti, ' L' Internazionale 
Verde,' or the International Institute of 
Agriculture, proposed by David Lubin, 
and initiated by the King of Italy. I may 
mention as a curiosity the book of A. R. 
Levi, 'Come una Nazione diventa grande,' 
which, as you may imagine, treats of 
your country's affairs. 

Next week I shall conclude my article 
with a notice of History, Belles-Lettres, 
Fiction, &c. Guido Biagi. 



Cambridge Theological Essays. Edited by 
H. B. Swete, D.D. (Macmillan & Co.) 

This volume is not destined to make a 
sensation. Therein lies its value. It 
will arouse neither the enthusiasm nor 
the antagonism of the general public, as 
did ' Lux Mundi,' ' Contentio Veritatis,' 
and that almost forgotten display of fire- 
works 'Essays and Reviews.' It is not the 
production of a single school of thought. 
The first essayist is a strongly convinced 
High Churchman, but Canon J. M. Wilson 
is also among the contributors. Nor is 
there any unity in st3de. The noble and 
dignified rhetoric of the Master of Trinity 
and the brilliant epigram of Dr. Foakes- 
Jackson are far removed from the dry 
scholasticism of Dr. Caldecott or the 
rugged baldness of Dr. Askwith. Indeed, 
except in the case of the two essays 
above mentioned, and perhaps those of 
Mr. Bethune - Baker and the Master of 
Pembroke, we fancy that the reader will 
find little difficulty in avoiding the 
dangers supposed by Acton to lurk in 
"the charm of literary beauty and style." 
Some of the essays are, we think, scarcely 
intelligible except to persons of consider- 
able reading in philosophy. 

Yet for all this, and possibly because 
of it, we fancy that, better than any of 
its competitors, this volume will advance 
what, in the words of its editor, is the 
most important work now lying before 
theology — " to assimilate the new views 
of truth suggested by modern knowledge, 
without sacrificing any part of the primi- 
tive message." While it does not complete 
this task, it sets forward some of the main 
lines on which Christianity is likely to be 
justified to thoughtful and cultivated men. 
Even to agnostics it should be of service ; 
it will help to show them what religion 
means to a number of men whose work 
in different lines is sufficient evidence that 
faith does not mean to them the suppres- 
sion of reason, but rather its conse- 
cration and development ; for the various 
writers, however widely divergent may 
be their theological and even their 
philosophical views, are at one in this, 
that they are all what the French term 
intellectuels. 

We cannot, of course, either describe 
or criticize these essays in detail. But 
we may indicate those which are most im- 
portant and freshest. Many —like those of 
Prof. Barnes on the Old Testament, and 
Mr. J. 0. F. Murray on the miracles 
do little more than repeat statements and 
arguments familiar already to readers of 
this kind of literature. Dr. Robinson's 



paper on prayer is well argued, but we do 
not know that it is very original, or that 
in substance it contains much more than 
the early essay of G. J. Romanes on the 
subject. His account of the controversy 
of the seventies, and the general tone of 
the discussion, are, however, illuminating. 
Dr. Mason's essay on the primitive portrait 
of Christ is also very freshly and pleasantly 
written, and has distinct value. 

But the most useful and original of the 
contributions are those of Dr. Cunningham 
on ' The Christian Standpoint ' ; Dr. 
Foakes-Jackson on ' Christ in History ' ; 
and Mr. Bethune-Baker on ' Christian 
Doctrines and their Ethical Significance.' 
It is these which really give the book its 
importance. In the first place, all are 
written in a way to be apprehended of the 
people. The " general reader," if he will 
not be deluded by mere rhetoric, will 
certainly not be repelled by 'any techni- 
calities of language or allusion, or annoyed 
by any roughness of style. While Dr. 
Foakes-Jackson's essay is not merely 
lucidly, but brilliantly written, Dr. Cun- 
ningham's is in some ways the most 
original, and his discussion affords another 
witness of the breadth of his mind, chiefly 
known for studies of a very different 
nature. The real gist of his argument 
is the need of emphasizing the fact that 
the religious consciousness in claiming 
recognition cannot be adequately criti- 
cized merely from without. Either God, 
in the Christian sense, can be an object 
of knowledge, or He cannot. If not, of 
course the religious consciousness is a 
form of delusion akin to that of persons 
in a lunatic asylum, who imagine they 
are daily conversing with friends who are 
either dead or absent. If, however, 
Christians, and indeed all believers, are 
not deceived, their knowledge, though a 
real knowledge, is of that kind which 
intimate friends have of one another : it 
depends on sympathy and mutual like- 
ness ; and it can never be fully demon- 
strated, or even described, to those who 
are different, and it is never completed, 
but ever developing : — 

Man partly is, and wholly hopes to be. 

Yet this knowledge of some person or 
persons is not merely present, but is the 
most real and active power in the life of 
an immense number of men and women. 
We are convinced that this analogy, the 
argument from the knowledge which 
springs of human love, is the only means 
whereby a personal faith can be ade- 
quately defended. As Creighton put it : 
" The joy of lite lies in self-knowledge, and 

love is the one key to that knowledge 

The love of parents, the love of friends, the 
love of married life, the love of Cod all are 
but stops in one great process whereby one 
wins oneself." 

We cannot here develope this point; 

only we must notice Dr. Cunningham's 
essay as a distinct step forward. The 
defenders of Christianity, since the seven- 
teenth century at any rate, till well 

into the nineteenth -have suffered from 
two main defects, which have been largely 
disastrous : they have allowed their oppo- 
nents to choose the ground, and since the 



100 



THE AT II KN'jEUM 



N e 4083, Jan. 27, 1006 



days (if the Deists ha\e adopted an apolo- 
getic tone, almosl abjeol at timet 
though Christianity were t<> beg for scanty 
recognition at the bands <>f rationalists. 
Now, it the Christian faith be n<>t a delu- 
siun. it Lb the orown and completion of 
knowledge, the right course of human 
development not a mere pensioner on 
the bounty of science, indulged grudg- 
ingly with the Lowest place at the feast 
of reason. Secondly, and Largely owing to 
the academic atmosphere it lias breathed, 
apology is too apt to forget sin. or to 
thrust it into an appendix. Sin. or at 
Least its consciousness, is an awkward 
fact for idealist philosophy : which finds 
it very convenient to establish its system 
first, and to account for evil later. We do 
not say that Christian writers do this, but 
we think far too many agree on the line 
acceptable to persons possessed of high 
ideals, to whom the grosser passions 
make small appeal, and sin seems little 
worse than measles. A man so austere 
as Kant may be excused for a very 
imperfect recognition of a fact sadly 
evident to less fortunate persons. It is 
a great pity that so many apologists 
themselves Lived sheltered lives, and were 
content, not to ignore, but to place on 
the winn;s. what ought to be in the fore- 
front of the battle. The question lately 
raised, " Can man sin against God ? " 
goes to the root of the matter ; and 
everything depends on the answer. Now 
Dr. Cunningham, starting from the per- 
sonal basis of the religious consciousness, 
puts this fact (or feeling) in its right place, 
although we wish he had been followed 
by a more adequate account of the Atone- 
ment than that offered by Dr. Askwith. 
Whatever form it eventually takes, this 
doctrine of the Cross of Christ will fill 
a more, not a less prominent place in the 
thought of the future than it has in the 
past, especially with the last two genera- 
tions, which have been occupied largely 
with other topics. 

Mr. Bethune-Baker's essay, again, is 
valuable for its insistence on two points. 
The first is the absurdity of supposing 
that doctrine can have no influence on 
ethics, and that the rules of conduct will 
remain the same, whatever be the system 
of belief adopted by men. The appari- 
tion in the serene firmament of philosophy 
of that strange meteor Nietzsche is the 
best proof of this ; and Mr. Bethune- 
Baker does well to point the moral of 
this intellectual comet's story — a story now 
often retold by Mr. John Davidson and 
others. Secondly, Mr. Bethune-Baker in- 
sists on the importance of distinguishing 
between Christian conduct — which is essen- 
tially and in idea a life inspired by love to 
a Person — and codes of ethics of all kinds. 
Probably one of the least valuable results 
of the influence of some forms of philosophy 
upon religion has been the willingness to 
identify Christian ethics with a mere code, 
and so to subject them to the destructive 
ciiticism of writers like Mr. G. E. Moore, 
to whom codes of ethics, categorical 
imperatives, and the like, are food for 
mockery, much of it legitimate. Per- 
sonal affections he does not mock at, but 



considers a •' true good*'; and these 
are I be ee tenoe of ( Ihrisl Lan et bics 
although, ot course (in the oa e of a 
christian), Mi Moore believee theii Object 

i o be non-existent . In Mr. Bethune-Baki 

iv we find the personal appeal and the 

importance of Bin adequately recognized. 

('anon Koakes-, Jackson's essay gOOS a 

step further. It is by implication an 

attempt to answer the objection that 
Christianity at its best is but an episode 
in the story of human life, an episode which 
is fast becoming a mere survival. He 
attempts to set forth the Incarnation as 
the true philosophy of history. The idea 
is not new, and the essay makes no claim 
to add to our knowledge of facts. But 
as an interpretation of them, freshly and 
brightly written, and as a mingling of 
genuine thought with erudition, it is in 
some respects the most valuable in the 
book, as it certainly is the most suggestive. 
We are very glad to see that Canon Foakes- 
Jackson realizes the significance of Mr. 
J. M. Robertson's writing. That ex- 
tremely able and bitter anti-Christian 
critic has seen that, if the records be in 
any way trustworthy, we are, in Canon 
Jackson's words, " driven by the investi- 
gation of the Human Christ to acknow- 
ledge that he must be also Divine " ; and 
since to Mr. Robertson the one alterna- 
tive is impossible, the other is adopted 
of denying the historicity of Jesus in 
toto. Such is the result of the purely 
rationalistic position, only very few people 
have the candour or logical fearlessness of 
Mr. Robertson, and consequently disguise 
it from themselves. 

We will conclude with a quotation 
which expresses the net result of the whole 
situation as here conceived : — 

" How few thinking people, to take but 
the simplest instances, are now able to 
accept the Mosaic cosmogony as literally 
true, or to acknowledge the inerrancy of 
Holy Scripture in the sense which would 
have satisfied our forefathers ! The question 
therefore that the men of our generation 
have to decide is briefly this : — Does the 
surrender of these things imply the aban- 
donment of Christianity ? The answer to 
it seems to depend on what we consider to 
be the essence of the religion of Christ. If we 
consider that Christ is His own evidence 
and needs not that any man bear witness 
of Him, all these matters, however inter- 
esting, are unessential, and then we can 
survey the battle with the feelings of a 
commander whose lines of communication 
with an impregnable fortress and illimitable 
supplies are secure. But if we regard our 
Faith as a system of doctrines resting on 
the authority of the past, a scheme of 
salvation elaborately constructed out of 
infallible Scriptures, an ecclesiastical organi- 
sation fixed and unalterable since the days 
of the Apostles, or a stereotyped theory 
of the Universe, we are compelled to admit 
that the least fragment cannot be removed 
from the structure without endangering the 
whole." 

We have said enough to indicate that 
these essays are in the best sense apologetic 
— not, that is, an elaborate argument in 
defence of Christianity as a defendant in 
a trial, but the setting forth of a definite 
view of the meaning of life and the 
nature of all knowledge — a view based on 



personalities and their intercourse I- 
those m whom such a \hu i- already 

implicit in their thought and practice the 

book will serve the great end of making 
i! explicit . and showing it 

in the sphere of religion ; to those who 

bave already rejected such a view it 

can make no appeal, and may teem 

merely silly. I >w1 it has the great merit 
of attacking the problem in the right way, 
and not attempting, like some apologies, 
to prove too much, or taking, like others, 
a low and pleading tone of expostulation. 
The attitude of faith ought to be one of 
certainty, leading to triumph — not that 
of an Old Bailey barrister asking for an 
acquittal, and hoping no more than that 
the jury will disagree. 



The Poetical Works of William Blake. 

Edited by John Sampson. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 
The Lyrical Poems of William Blake. 

Text by John Sampson. With an 

Introduction by Walter Raleigh. (Same 

publishers.) 

Mr. Sampson's edition of Blake is a 
masterpiece of editing, and Blake, of all 
modern English poets, was most in need 
of a good editor. The text of Blake, as 
it can be read in the two most accessible 
editions — Mr. W. M. Rossetti's in the 
" Aldine " series, and Mr. W. B. Yeats's 
in " The Muses' Library " — differs widely, 
and in neither edition does it even profess 
to be printed as Blake wrote it. It is 
to D. G. Rossetti that we owe the recovery, 
if not almost the discovery, of Blake ; it 
is to Mr. Swinburne that we owe the most 
generous and penetrating study of his 
work that has yet been made. Yet it is 
to Rossetti, and in a minor degree to Mr. 
Swinburne, that we owe that adulteration 
of the original text which has left it, as 
Mr. Sampson truly says, " a sort of poor 
palimpsest where each new owner has 
overwritten his own poetry." The text 
of Mr. Yeats is more faithful than that of 
Mr. Rossetti, but it rearranges the mate- 
rial with much freedom, omits and emends 
many poems, and contains numerous 
inaccuracies. " It will be seen," say&