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Catena & u t e a. 








VOL. I. 

5cconO tuition. 


ioiin B1NR1 lvo JAMES P LKK1 

ah im \ 1 > 

W\! 1 2 1934 

9 9 

Jiintrt by B 


The following Compilation not being admissible into the 
Library of the Fathers from the date of some few of the 
authors introduced into it, the Editors of the latter work 
have been led to publish it in a separate form, being assured 
that those who have subscribed to their translations of the 
entire Treatises of the ancient Catholic divines, will not feel 
less interest, or find less benefit, in the use of so very judi- 
cious and beautiful a selection from them. The Editors refer 
to the Preface which follows for some account of the nature 
and characteristic excellences of the work, which will be 
found as useful in the private study of the Gospels, as it is 
well adapted for family reading, and full of thought for those 
who arc engaged in religious instruction. 

Oxford, May 0, 1841. 

. C3EL5 

By a Catena Patrum is meant a string or series of pas- 
sages selected from the writings of various Fathers, and ar- 
ranged for the elucidation of some portion of Scripture, as 
the Psalms or the Gospels. Catenas seem to have originated 
in the short scholia or glosses which it was customary in 
MSS. of the Scriptures to introduce between the lines or on 
the margin, perhaps in imitation of the scholiasts on the 
profane authors. These, as time went on, were gradually 
expanded, and passages from the Homilies or Sermons of 
the Fathers upon the same Scriptures added to them. 

The earliest commentaries on Scripture had been of this 
discursive nature, being addresses by word of mouth to the 
people, which were taken down by secretaries, and so pre- 
served. While the traditionary teaching of the Church still 
preserved the vigour and vividness of its Apostolical origin, 
and spoke with an exactness and cogency which impressed 
an adequate image of it upon the mind of the Christian Ex- 
positor, he was able to allow himself free range in handling 
the sacred text, and to admit into the comment his own par- 
ticular character of mind, and his spontaneous and indivi- 
dual ideas, in the full security, that, however he might fol- 
low the leading! of his own thought* in unfolding the words 
of Scripture, his own deeply fixed views of Catholic, truth 
would bring him lafe home, without Overstepping the limils 
of truth and sobriety. Accordingly, while the early leathers 
manifest a most remarkable agreement in the principles and 

i, PREFAi 

the substance of their interpretation, they have at the same 
time a distinctive spirit and manner, by which each may 
be known from the rest. About the vith or viith century 
iginality disappears; the oral or traditionary teach- 
which allowed scope to the individual teacher, became 
hardened into a written tradition, and henceforward there is 

a Uniform invariable cliara< well M substance of Scrip- 

ture interpretation. Perhaps we should not err in patting 
G-n gory the Great as the last of the original Commentab 

for though very numerous commentators on every book of 
Script uri- continued to be written by the most eminent doctors 
in their own names, probably not one interpretation of any 
importance would be found in them which could not be tr; < 
to some older source. So that all later comments are in fact 
Catenas or selections from the earlier Fathers, whether they 
lent themselves expressly in the form of citations from 
their volumes, or are lections upon the Lesson or I I for 

the day, extempore indeed in form, but as to their materials 
drawn from the previous studies and stores of the expositor. 
The latter would be better adapted for the general reader, 
the former for the purposes of the theologian. 

Commentaries of both el; i \ y numerous. Fabri- 

cius ks of several hundred MS. Catenas in the Royal 

Library of France. According to Wolf and Cramer 1 ' the 
earliest compiler of a Greek Catena was QScumenius, in 

the ixth or xth century; for the claims of OlympiodorUfl 

the nth to hi- tin- author of the Catena on Job, have been 
disproved by Patricius Junius, in his edition. (Loud. L687.) 

Bui though this may be the fil .'cna, the practice 

of compiling commentaries hail been in use much earlier. In 
the Bast, ESustathius of Antioch in the ivth, ami Procopius 
of Q .1 the beginning of tin vith, collected "the int 
pretati ancients;" and in the West, the Corn- 

on the Gospelfl w hich go audi r the name of Bede, 

(A 1>. 700,) arc but a summary ol the authorised intcrprcta- 

ich information on the Mibjrct. 


tions chiefly drawn from S. Augustine, S. Leo, &c v and even 
S. Jerome describes his Commentary on Galatians as a com- 
pendium of former writers, chiefly Origen. 

It may be added, that the same change took place in 
dogmatic teaching, as in the exposition of Scripture. This 
indeed was still more to be expected, for the issue of con- 
troversies and the decrees of Councils had given to the 
doctrinal statements of the Fathers an authority, or rather 
prerogative, which was never claimed for their commentaries. 
Accordingly, S. John Damascene's work on the Orthodox 
Faith in the viiith century is scarcely more than a careful 
selection and combination of sentences and phrases from the 
great theologians who preceded him, principally S. Gregory 
Nazianzeu. A comment or scholia by the same author 
upon S. Paul's Epistles have come down to us, which are 
mainly taken from S. Chrysostom, but with some use of 
other expositors. 

All such commentaries have more or less merit and use- 
fulness, but they are very inferior to the ' Catena Aurea/ 
which is now presented to the English reader : being all of 
them partial and capricious, dilating on one passage, and 
passing unnoticed another of equal or greater difficulty ; 
arbitrary in their selection from the Fathers, and as com- 
pilations crude and indigested. But it is impossible to read 
the Catena of S. Thomas, without being struck with the 
masterly and architectonic skill with which it is put together. 
A learning of the highest kind, — not a mere literary book- 
knowledge, which might have supplied the place of indexes 
and tables in ages destitute of those helps, and when every 
thing was to be read in unarranged and fragmentary MSS. — 
but a thorough acquaintance with the whole range of eccle- 
siastical antiquity, so as to be able to bring the substance 
of all that had been written on any point to bear upon the 
text which involved it — a familiarity with the style of each 
writer, so as to compress into few words the pith of a whole 
page, ami a DOWl Icar and orderly arrangement in this 

mans of knowledge, are qualities which make this Catena 

b 2 

if PREFA( 

perhaps nearly perfect as a conspectus of Patristic intcrprc- 
on. impilati thibit research, industry, learn- 

ing; bat this, though b mere compilation, evinces a masterly 
command over the whole subject of Theology. 

The .t rived that it reads as a running com- 

mentary, the 1 extracts being dovetailed together by 

the compiler. And it consists only of extracts, the com_ 
piler introducing nothing of his own but the few connecting 
particles which link one extract to the next. There 
also a few quotations headed ' Glossa,' which none of the 
editors have been able to find in any author, and which 
from their character, being briefly introductory of a new 
chapter or a new subject, may be probably assigned to the 
compiler; though even this is dispensed with whenever it 
is possible: when a Father will furnish the words for such 
transition or connection, they are dexterously introduced. 
In the Gospel of S. Matthew there are only a few other 
passages which seem to belong to S. Thomas. These arc 
mostly short explanations or notes upon something that 
Seemed to need explanation in some passage quoted, and 
which in a modern book would have been thrown into the 
form of a foot-note. An instance of this may be seen in 
p. 105. The only important passages of this kind are some 
Glosses on chap. xxvi. 26, which will be noticed in their 

This continuity is expressed in the title which the Author 
gives his work in his dedication to Pope Urban 1\.. 'expo- 

sitio continua:' the term Catena was not used till after his 
death. De Kubcis the Venetian editor speaks of a MS. 
of the xivth century in which it is so entitled, but the 
earlier editions have cither ' ( i lossa Continua/ or 'Conti- 
nuum.' The tl is broken into paragraphs loi 

j the ihortesl le^s than a vcr>e, the longest twenty 

rerses, and tie m of each portion follows this order : 

— First, the transition from the last paragraph to that under 

. if they .,!«• ( the harmony with the chronol 

oi the other Evangel ihewn, s. Augustine (de Consensu 


Evangelistarum) being the authority used for this : then 
comes the literal, or, what is called, the historical exposition. 
Where different Fathers .have given different explanations, 
they are introduced generally in the order of the most ob- 
vious and literal first, and so proceeding to the most re- 
condite, by the words ' Vel aliter.' Then if any important 
doctrine hinges upon any part of the passage or comma, 
selections are given from the most approved treatises on the 
subject; e.g. on chap. v. 17, a lengthened summary of the 
arguments against the Manicheans from Aug. cont. Faust. ; 
on chap. xi. 21. long extracts from Aug. de Bono Perseve- 
rantise ; on viii. 2. a short passage from Damascenus de Fid. 
Orth. as if for the purpose of referring the reader to a treatise 
which contains a full discussion of the doctrine implied in 
the words, ' And He stretched forth His hand, and touched 
him ;' on xiii. 29. on the question of toleration, Aug. ep. ad 
Vincentium is quoted. And the comment on the portion is 
wound up with what is variously called the mystical, moral, 
allegorical, tropical, tropological, or spiritual sense. The 
peculiar exposition of Origen, which seems to hold a mean 
place between the historical and the authorized mystical 
interpretation, is accordingly often inserted between these. 

The quotations do not profess to be made with scrupulous 
adherence to the words of the original. But they are not 
(a very few excepted) abridgments in the words of the 
compiler, but condensations in their own language. How 
admirably this is done may be seen by any one who will 
take the trouble of collating a few pages of some of the 
more diffuse writers, e.g. S. Chrysostom or Origen, with the 
Catena. For instances particularly in which a sentence is 
made up of clauses gathered from distant pages, see the 
summary of the Sermon on the .Mount, chap. vii. in fin., and 
a quotation from Chrysostom on chap, xxiii. ~ ; <k 

>v i> it the case with this Catena as it, seems to be with 
■ 'her, that some one commentary has been taken as 

a nucleui or basis, into which other extracts bave been 
i ted. Dr. Crami , that Chi I be staple 


of .-ill ■ eels Catem i on 8, Matthew; but though 8, 

mas held ' m in such m that lie i rfc d 

tid * 111; ( ryaoel »mi librii in Matthseum 

quam poasidere fruiqne Lntetia Parisiorum/ (prssf. Ben.] 
though he lias drawn upon the Homilies very largely, it is 
no more than he lias done upon nearly all the principal 

commentaries, [f any book might he inppoaed to have 1 

guide more than another it would be Elabanus Bfanrnaj 
though we should not say that lie quoted any other writers 
mediately through ELabanua, yel this compiler seems often 
to have guided him to quotation* in S. Augustine, Gregory} 
and the general treatises of the Latin Fathers. 

With respect to the fidelity of the references, putting aside 
the connective} GlossSB which may probably be assigned to 
S. Thomas himself, there are very few (as far as the trans- 
nit herto proceeded) which it has not been | 
sible to find. Of tin ae arc epioted from 8. Angti 

Sermons, and among the multitude of doubtful and spurious 
compositions of this class, it is probable that the extracts 
to which they b ion be found, though it was scarcely 

worth whi pend much time in the search of a few un- 

important passages. But there are two pa of serious 

momentj one on Matt. xvi. IS. the other on Luke wii. 19. 
quoted from S.Cyril, which require a remark. The first 
affirming tin 4 supremacy of the sn< - of S. Peter is 

quoted from 'Cyril, in lib. Thee. 1 but occurs do whore in 
8. Cyril's writin Accordingly it has been made the 

in d work of an old charge againsl 8. Tl - (lately 
: ived by I rman writ e Ellendorf Hist. Blatl 

which however 1 n amply refuted by Guj 

and Nicolai, In the dedication to another of his works, 

'Opusculum i I .m' addressed to Pope 

i \ . he Hum . llentia vestra mihi 

turn diligenter | . in quo inveni quamplurima ad 

utilia. Considi ravi autom quod (jus 

1 impediri propter qusedam in 

aud J, Patrum contenta, quse dubia ease videntur. 


The other passage is affirmatory of Transubstantiation, and 
quoted from S. Cyril without any specification of place ; 
on this Father Simon (Hist. Crit. c. 33.) observes, that 
S. Cyril's commentaries on the New Testament have come 
down to us imperfect, and this very passage occurs quoted 
under the name of Cyril in, the second part of the Greek 
Catena of Possinus. (in Matt, xxvii. 28.) The words f imo 
quern bibas quern manduces/ on chap. v. 27. are not in 
the earlier editions of the Catena, but were inserted (per- 
haps by the Louvain Editor) from the original text of S. 

Of the authors cited, the Catena contains nearly all that 
is material in S. Chrysostom's Homilies on S. Matthew, 
S. Jerome's Commentary, S. Hilary's Canons, and the Glossa 
Ordinaria all through the Gospel. The Latin commentary 
of Pseudo-Chrysostom is cited fully till about the middle of 
chap, viii., after whicli it is cited more rarely. At this place 
the Benedictine editor notes a hiatus in some of the MSS. of 
Chrysostom. S. Augustine de Cons. Ev. and In Sermonem 
Domini in Mont, are nearly incorporated into the Catena, 
and from ch. xvi. to the end, Origen's Commentaries on 
S. Matthew. 

It is generally supposed that Aquinas was ignorant of 
Greek, and that therefore he must have quoted the Greek 
authors in Translations; but his own words in his dedication 
to Pope Urban seem to imply otherwise. 'Interdum etiam 
sensum posui, verba dimisi, praecipue in Ilomiliario Chry- 
sostomi propter hoc quod est translatio vitiosa.' That for 
Chrysostom he used neither the version of Anianus, (as the 
Benedictine editor of Chrys. supposed,) nor the current 
Latin version, is evident on the slightest comparison with 
his quotations. However this may be, lie has in several 
instances quite missed the -f the Greek. 

The Catena begins to quote Origen's Commentary on 
latt. at chap, xvi., though our fragment of it begins as 

early M chap. xiii. It USCI the Old Interpretation, which 

Iluct conjecturi to ha q the irork of Bellator, or of 

viii PREFACE. 

some contemporary of Cassiodorus. This rersion will be 
found in the Ben. Ed, of Origen, and it according to Huet 
barbaroni and full of errors. 

Great accidental value is given to many of the ineditcd 
Greek Catenas by the extracts which they contain from lost 
works; in this on S. Matt, are quoted two writers, whose 
works do not seem to have been printed. The first is Re- 
miginSj which is frequently cited throughout. The com- 
mentary on S. Matthew of Remigius, a Monk of Auxerre in 
the ixth century, is extant in MS. in several libraries, but 
the only part of it which has ever been printed is the Pre- 
face, in Fontani Novas Eruditorum Deliciae, Florence 17!> :> >. 
One short passage concerning the dates of the Gospels, 
which is quoted in S. Thomas's Proem, is not fouud in this 
Preface, but a passage iu S. Thomas's Proem to S. Mark 
(piotcd from Remigius super Matt, occurs in it. This 
would be proof enough of the identity of the Remigius of 
the Catena with the ineditcd Commentary described by 
Fontani Bnt he has also printed in the same volume 
several homilies of Remigius, which he says are only ex- 
tracts or abridgments (apOCOpss) of the Commentary. On 
Comparing these with the quotations in the Catena, they 
answer exactly to that description, the substance is the same, 
the words only a little different. 

1 1 ay mo i> much more rarely quoted. The quotations do 
not pond with the 'Homilies on the Gospels' printed 

with his name at Paris, L545, but there is much the same 

kind of resemblance between them, as between the quota- 
tions and the Homilies of Kemigius. It may perhaps be 
conjectured, that he also may have written a commentary of 
which the Homilies ;uv abridgnici 

. who as will as Haymo Wl holar of 

lin, wrote one of the moat lull and valuable eommenta- 

i 8. Matthew extant. It contains copious extracts 

Latin Fathers, inch, he says, 'quantum mini 

rii monastics servitutis retinaoulis Licuit, et 

pro Dutrimento panrulorum quod non parram nobis ingerit 


molestiara et lectionis facit injuriara/ (he seems from this 
to have been Abbot at the time he wrote,) but interwoven 
with the extracts is much original matter of his own, ( non- 
nulla quae mihi Author lucis aperire dignatus est c / which 
he distinguishes by the note 'Maurus' on the margin. In 
the only printed edition of his works, there is a hiatus of 
several pages in chapp. 23. and 24. and another in chap. 28. 
1 quae inter excudendum a militibus omnia vastantibus de- 
perdita sunt.' 

S. Jerome speaks of his own commentary on S. Matthew 
(in the preface to Eusebius), as having been written off very 
hastily in the short space of a fortnight — and as being 
entirely his own, if for no other reason, from his want of 
leisure to read the numerous commentators even then 
existing on the Gospels. He names Origen's twenty-five 
volumes, and as many homilies on S. Matthew only ; Theo- 
philus Antioch., Hippolytus Martyr, Theodorus, Apollinaris, 
Didymus, Hilary, Victorinus, Fortunatianus. He says also, 
f historicam interpretationem digessi breviter, et interdum 
spiritualis intelligentiae flores miscui, perfectum opus re- 
servam in posterum.' 

The Enarrationes in Matthaeum printed as the work of 
the Archbishop Anselm (Cologne, 1612) are ascribed by 
Cave to Anselm Laudunensis, and by others to William of 
Paris, who died in 1249. This is partly a compilation and 
partly original. It does not seem used in the Catena, but 
it has been referred to in this translation as containing 
many passages cited in the Catena, under the title Gloss., 
and which appeared to have been drawn by both authors 
from some common source. 

The Glossa Ordinaria seems to have been a brief Catena, 
compiled from the Fathers by Strabus, a Monk of Fulda, 
a pupil and amanuensis of Rabanus Maurus. Among the 
extracts, he seems to have inserted short observations of his 

' Great part of tin- Introduction of Epiotlo dedicatory to Bp, Aocaj how 
It ibenoa dei i method of com- is tin- to be explain* 

pilatiOQj in won! for word wil 


own, distinguishing them by the title of 'Glossa.' Even 

of these the substance seems to have been drawn from the 

Fathers, or rather from that received mode of interpreting 

riptnre and Fathers which was traditionally preserved in 

the Schools. These portions (in whatever degree original) 

*rot the name of Glossa. Ordinaria say the editors, (Douay, 
1617,) "quia illam posteri omnes tanquam officinam eccle- 
BiaBticorum seusuum consulere solebant." It is sometimes 
cited under the title of * auctorita 

The Glossa Interlinearis is ascribed to Ansclm Laudu- 
iiensis early in the xiitli century, and Mas intended to 
accompany the common editions of the Bible written in 
a small hand in the vacant spaces between the lines. 

A few passages are quoted from Bedc. Of these some arc 
from his Homilies on the Gospels, some from his Commen- 
tary on Luke. There is among Bcde's works a Commentary 
on S. Matthew, and in one or two instances this is referred 
to by Nicolai, but on looking at the quotations in older 
editions of the Catena, it is merely 'Bed. in Ho, 
many quotations of Remigius and Kabanus, whieh agreed in 
sense with this Commentary on Matthew, the mark r e Beda' 
has been added, because he Mas the earliest author in which 
the translator found them; but an inspection of this Com- 
mentary Mill make it very doubtful whether it is Bede's. 
First, he does not mention it in the catalogue which he gives 
of his own works at the end of the II; 1. (p. 222. ed. 

Smith. ) Secondly, those on Mark and huke (whieh 1 
mention there; are introduced by Epistlea to Aeea, Bishop of 

Hexham. Thirdly, tl.< i of tl different, being 

full and COpioUS, that on Matthew short, and '} 

Fourthly, comparing Babanus' numerous quotations from 

e, tiny seem to be all taken from t iments on the 

Uel p: irk and Lake. But a great deal of 

what veil as original in Rabaaus coincides with the 

1 Mb. in question. N it an abridg- 

I 111 <>( R r did they only both draw upon their 

i ■ Ions "i the Fat bi rs f I i s. Paul's 


Epistles printed among Bede's Works, and which is a com- 
pilation chiefly from S. Augustine, seems to have been proved 
by Mabillon to be the work of Florus the Deacon, (Mab. 
Vet. Analecta, i. 12.) The following extracts from Bede's 
Preface to S. Luke illustrate the manner of compiling such 
Commentaries then in fashion. Bede excused himself from 
the task because it had been so fully performed by Ambrose. 
Acca answers that there were many things in Ambrose so 
eloquent and high, that they could only be understood by 
Doctors, and something weaker was wanted for the un- 
learned; that S. Gregory had not been afraid to rifle all the 
Fathers for his homilies on the Gospels, and in short it might 
be said of every thing with the comic poet, 'Nihil sit dictum 
quod non sit dictum prius/ Bede then describes the method 
he had pursued ; " Having gathered around me the works 
of the Fathers, truly the most worthy to be employed in 
such a task, I set myself diligently to look out what S. Am- 
brose, what Augustine, what Gregory most keen-eyed, (as 
his name signifies,) the Apostle of our nation, what the 
Translator of the Sacred Story Jerome, and what the other 
Fathers have thought upon the words of Luke. This I 
forthwith committed to paper either in the very words of the 
author, or where abridgment was needed in my own. To 
save the labour of inserting a reference to the author in each 
case in my text, I have marked the first letters of his name 
in the margin, being anxious that noue should take me for 
a plagiarist, endeavouring to pass off as my own the words 
of greater men." Vol. v. p. 215. ed. Col. 

The Translation has been made from the Venetian edition 
of 1775, which professes to give the original text of the 
Catena without the alterations of Nicolai. For by the re- 
peated reprints — and no book went through more during 
the two first centuries after the invention of printing — the 
had become so corrupt — " tain frequentes in earn imp* 
sf rant et t;nn enonncs eorrupteho, tot depravatie voces, tot 

involufa: conttractionct, tot perturbatse phrases, tot pro- 

sertirn l MUtonhus autoritates adulterate, tot viti* 


tot mutilati textns, tot indices omissi vol prsepos- 

annotati, tot hiantes ct imperfect i - oocurn bant 

ut eas mirer tam impense laudari potuisse quae tarn turpi- 
ter sberrassent»" (Prsef Nicol.) Nioolai therefore in 1657 

undertook a recension of the text, for which he employed, 
not MSS. or early editions of the Catena, (the Venetian 
editor thinks it probable that he used only two editions, 
one a Parisian, the other an Antwerp,) but had recourse to 
the authorities themselves ; his aim being, not so much to 
give it as it came from S. Thomas, but to improve the i 
fulness of the work, as what it is indeed, a complete sylla- 
bus of Catholic theology. But as the Venetian edition is 
wretchedly printed, it has been corrected throughout by 
a reference to Nicolai, (ed. Lugd. 168G,) and the references 
have all been verified afresh and adapted to the best editions 
of the Fathers. No reference lias been given to any passj 
which the translator has not verified for himself substantially 
in its own original place ; but in those places only in which 
there was any doubt or dilliculty about the meaning, or 
where an important doctrine was involved, or any important 
variety of reading between the two editions of the Catena, 
has he attentively collated the p: of the Catena with 

the original; in a very lew has he introduced any alteration 
or addition from the originals, and that has been some- 
times noticed in the note. Where a reference could not 
be found, it has been marked 'noil oeeurrit ;' of these the 
majority are those GI0SS8B which are most probably to be 
ascribed to s. Thomas j of the 1 me hail escaped the dili- 

gent Nicolai, only one or two which Xic. had marked 

onnd, the present translator has not been able to find. 
Where no note of reference is put, it is to be understood 

that the p is in c;< M in the auth inmentary 

on that chapter and VCTSe of S. M;iM.; as the only noti 

renoe tO which must have been ' m Locum/ it was thought 

a perpetual repetition of that note was needless. To aid in 

mug to S. Chrya the QUE llomily has been 

given :•' the first place wh tern d to. 

PREFACE. xiii 

The references to Scripture have been verified anew, (those 
in the Psalms conformed to the numeration of the English 
Bible,) and many more given which the previous editions 
omit. The text of the Gospel commented upon is given 
from the E. V. ; but all passages quoted in the body of 
the comment are translated from the Latin as there given, 
which is often important when the remarks are upon words 
which have no equivalent in our version, e. g. ' supersub- 
stantialis' in c. vi. 11. There is no uniformity in the editions 
in the mode of printing the sacred text. The MSS. and 
earlier editions do not contain it, so that it is probable that 
it was so published by Aquinas, especially as nearly the 
whole is worked into the series of comment ; the next class 
of editions have the sacred text, occupying a small space 
in the centre of the upper part of the page, and the Catena 
arranged around it ; and at last the commata or paragraphs, 
which it was clearly S.Thomas's intention to make, were 
divided, and in some editions the portion of text was in- 
serted between them, in others each, chapter was printed 
at the head of its own comment, divided into the same 
paragraphs, with letters referring to the paragraphs of the 

It only remains to add, that the Editors are indebted for 

the Translation of St. Matthew, as well as for the above 

introductory remarks, to the Rev. Mark Pattison, M.A., 

Yellow of Lincoln College. 

J. II. N. 


With the Editions of their Works referred to in the Translation. 

Origen, Presbyter of Alexandria, A.D. 230. Ed. Ben. Par. 1753. 

Pseudo-Origen Homilia? sex ex diversis locis collector. Merlin, Par. 1512. 

S. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, A.D. 243. Oxford Translation, 1839. 

Eusebius, Archbishop of Csesarea, A.D. 315. Oxford, 1838. 

S. Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria, A.D. 326. Ed. Ben. Par. 1698. 

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, A.D. 340 — 530. Paris, 1615. 

S. Hilary, Bishop of Poictiers, A.D. 354. Ed. Ben. Par. 1693. 

S. Gregory of Nazianzus, Abp. of Constantinople, A.D. 370. Col. 1680. 

S. Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, A.D. 370. Paris, 1615 . 

S. Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, A.D. 374. Ed. Ben. Par. 1686. 

S. Jerome, Presbyter and Monk of Bethlehem, A.D. 378. Verona, 1735. 

Nemesius, A.D. 380. Apud Bibl. Patr. Grose. Paris, 1624. 

S. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, A.D. 396. Ed. Ben. Par. 1679—1700. 

S. John Chrysostom, Abp. of Constantinople, A.D. 398. Ed. Ben. Par. 


S. Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria, A.D. 412. Paris, 1638. 

S. Maximus, Bishop of Turin, A.D. 422. Paris, 1614. 

Cassian, Presbyter and Monk of Marseilles, A.D 424. ) Bibl. Patr. 

S. Peter Chrysologus, Archbishop of Ravenna, A.D. 433. ) Col. 1618. 

Council of Ephesus, Canons of, •) . ^ .„, T , 7 ... n 

__ _ \ A.D. 431. ap. Labbe Concilia, Par. 1671. 

Theodotus of Ancyra, ) 

8. Leo I. Pope, A.D. 440. Venice, 1783. 

Gennadius, Presbyter of Marseilles, A.D. 495. llamb. 1614. 

S. Gregory I. Pope, A.D. 590. . Ed. Ben. Paris, 1705. 

S. Isidore, Archbishop of Seville, A.D. 595. Col. 1617. 

Bede, Venerable, Presbyter and Monk of Yarrow, A.D. 700. Col. 1612. 

S. John, Presbyter of Damascus, A.D. 730. Paris, 1712. 

Kabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mayence, A.D. 847. Col. 1626. 

Ilaymo, Bishop of Halberstadt, A.I). 853. ) T „ T . , 

-r, • • >> i ■ ,r , r » i -rv ««« > » orks not printed. 

KemiglUf, Presbyter and Monk of Auxerre, A.D. 8S0. ) 

M Orlinari.i, in ninth century. Z/Utid. L589, 

.is Kalbertus, A.D. 850. 

Lanfraac, Ajchbiihop of Canterbury, A.I). L080. 

S. Antrim , Aiehbiehop of Canterbury, A.D. 109 Col. L612. 

Glo:isa luterlinearis, in twelfth century. Lugd, I 


Bibl. Patr. 




Isaiah xl. 9. 

Go up to the top of the mountain, thou that preachest glad 
tiding* in Sion ; lift up thy voice with might, thou that 
preachest in Jerusalem : cry aloud, fear not : say to the 
cities of Judah, Behold your God ! Lo, the Lord God 
shall come with power, and His arm shall have dominion ; 
Lo, His reward is with Him, 

The Prophet Isaiah, a manifest preacher of the Gospel, 
briefly expressing the loftiness, the name, and the substance 
of the Gospel doctrine, addresses the evangelic teacher in the 
person of the Lord, saying, Go up to the top of the moun- 
tain, tyc. 

But to make our beginning with the title, The Gospel. 
Augustine. The word ' Evangelium/ (Gospel,) is rendered Aug. 
in Latin ' bonus nuntins,' or ' bona annuntiatio,' (good news.) p™)™ 
It may indeed be used on all occasions whenever any good "«2, 
is announced ; but it has come to be appropriated to the 
announcement of the Saviour. Gloss. Those who have 
related the birth, deeds, words, and sufferings of the Lord 
JeSM Christ, are properly styled Evangelists. ChrySOSTOM. Chrys. 
For what is there that can equal these good tidings? God on . Jj? "• 
earth, man in heaven ; that Long war ceased, reconciliation i. 2, 
made between God and our nature, the devil overthrown, 
death abolished, paradise opened. These things, so far beyond 
our merits, art,- given us with all fulness; not for our own 

toil or labour, but because we ate beloved of God. 

Aic. Wi. God in many ways heals the souls of men, ac- Aug. U 

Cording to tin; timei and the seasons which are ordained by His " |^ •' 
VOL, i. i'. 

2 PBBFA4 B K) 'HI I I- 

marvellous wisdom, yet has He in no way mot ficently 

provided for tjie human race, than when the Very Wisdom of 
God, the Only Sun of one substance and coeternal with tl 
Father, BtOOped to take upon Him perfect man, and tl rd 

Was made flesh and dwelt among us. 1 I ereby He made manii' st 
how high a place among creatures had human nature, in tl. 
Pwudo- He appeared to men as Very Man. PfeBUDO-Al ■. Q d I 

S U £ de made man ' tliat ma0 migtt hc made (: ° (1 " Gl08B; 1: 
Natir. part Of the glad tidings that should be preached, the Prophet 

• ix ' foretells Baying, Behold, your Hod, $c. Leo Pope; For tl. emptying of Himself, by which the Invisible made Himself 
xitm!* Visible, and the Creator and Lord of all thin to 

become one of us mortal creatures, was a Btooping of II is 
mercy, not a failing of His power. GLOSS; Therefore that 
the Lord should not be supposed to be present in such a Wl 
that there should be any thing lost of His power, the 
Aug. Prophet adds, The Lord shall come with i 

iS? shewing Himself to men in the flei L By the 

■ . unspeakable power of God, it was wrought, that while \ 

v."' Man was m the inviolable God, and very God in paw 

*- x[x ' 3 ' flesh, th >wed npon man, glory through Bhan 

Aug. immortality through punishment, life through death. 

Vc " For blood that was without sin being Bhed, the bond of all 

11,11 , • i i r in 

Meritu, men's sins was done away, by which men were before new 

ii • ;jU • captive by the Devil. Gloss; Therefore because men, having 

been delivered from sin by virtue ofChrist suffering, »e the 

Of God, it follows, And Hi* arm shall he 

i . ; In Christ then w; ti us this wonderful deliverance, 

Vhin * that on our passible nature the condition I ttld 

not abide, which His impassible BSS< :ul admitted, and 

that by that which could not die, that which was I ight 

loght to life. Gloss; And thus through A is 

opened to us the entrant amortal glory, concerning which 

it follows, I >, Hi* "' ;// ' lI " ,! •" th:lt > Dan 

wliicfa Hie eaks, Your reward it abundant m H 

The promise ternal life and the kingdom of 

ren belongs to t rtament; in theOld 

ntained premises of temporal thin 

-o then ei ang ching delivers to us four tin. 


concerning Christ ; the Divinity that takes upon it, the 
Humanity that is taken upon it, His Death by which we 
are delivered from bondage, His Resurrection by which the 
entrance of a glorious life is opened to us. On this account it 
is represented in Ezekiel under the figure of the four animals. 
Gregory; The Only-begotten Son of God was Himself verily Greg, 
made Man; Himself condescended to die as the sacrifice of HonfV 
our redemption as a Calf; He rose again through the power 
of His might, as a Lion ; and as an Eagle He ascended 
aloft into heaven. Gloss ; In which ascension He shewed 
mauifestlv His Divinity ; Matthew then is denoted bv the 
Man, because he dwells chieflv on the humanity of Christ ; 
Mark by the Lion, because he treats of His Resurrection ; 
Luke by the Calf, because he insists on His Priesthood; John 
by the Eagle, because he describes the sacraments of His 
Divinity. Ambrose ; And it has happened well that we Ambros. 
set out with delivering the opinion that the Gospel according in °L™' 
to Matthew is of a moral kind, for morals are the peculiar pref. 
province of man. The figure of a Lion is ascribed to Mark, 
because he begins with an assertion of His Divine power, 
saving, The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ the Son 
of God. The figure of the Eagle is given to John, because 
he has described the miracles of the Divine Resurrection. 
Grkg. These things the commencement of each of the Gospel Greg. 

Til ' 

books testifies. Because lie opens with Christ's human gene- l bUp ' 
ration. Matthew is rightly designated by a Man; Mark by a 
Lion, because he begins with the crying in the desert; Luke 
by a Calf, because he begins with a sacrifice ; because he 
takes his beginning from the divinity of the Word, John 
is worthily signified by an Eagle. Aug. Or, Matthew Au*. 
who has chiefly represented the regal character of Christ, is g^" 11 " 
I ignated by a Lion ; Luke by a Calf, because of the Priest's Evang, 
victim ; Mark, who chose neither to relate the royal nor the 
priestly lineage a , and yd is clearly busied about His human 
nature, is designated by the figure of a Man. These three 
animals, the Lion, the Man, the Calf, walk on the earth, 
whence these tin Qgelists arc mostly employed about 

those things which Christ wrought in the flesh. But John, 

* The original text of Aagottine bee ■iceidotelem vol oonetorationem \i 
bore, " ne<|u<- itirpem regiam doom cognationem/' 

B 2 


a>> t lie Eagle, soars oil high, and with most keen ryes of the 
heart beholds the light of unchangeable Truth. Prom which 

we may understand, that the other three Bvangelistfl ace OC- 
cupied about the active, and John about the contemplative, 
life. The Greek Doctors by the Man understood Matthew, 
because lie has deduced the Lord's lineage according to the 
flesh ; by the Lion, John, because as the lion strikes terror 
into the other beasts by his roaring, so John struck tenor into 
all heretics; by the Calf, they understood Luke, because the 
calf was the victim of the Priests, and he is much employed 
concerning the Temple and the Priesthood; and by the 
Eagle they understood Mark, because the eagle in the 
Divine Scripture is used to denote the Holy Spirit, who 
spake by the mouths of the Prophets; and Mark begins 
with a citation from the Prophets. 
Hior. JeROME. Concerning the number of the Evangelists, it 

:«"i?t?« should be known, that there were many who had written 
Matt ad Gospels, as the Evangelist Luke witnesses, saying, Fori 
Luke 1 1 1UUC ^ 1 as i" ( " n .l have taken in hand, <\<-., and as hooks 
remaining to the present time declare which divers authors 
have set forth, therein laying the foundation of many 
heresies; such as the Gospel according to the Egyptians, 
according to Thomas, Matthias, and Bartholomew b \ that of 
the twelve Apostles, and Basilides, and Apelles, and others 
whom it would be long to reckon up. But the Church, 
which LS founded by the Lord's word upon the rock, sending 
forth, like Paradise, its four streams has tour corners and four 
rings by which as the ark of tin 1 covenant, and the guardian 
of the Law of the Lord, it is carried about on mo\ cable c 

'■ These apocryphal comp extant] ami is one of 

elsewhere mentioned bj at Alex, tip ofour Saviour's inl 

(Strom, ni. i (in which seem to be thi 

Luc. i.) Bueebittl (lli>t. iii. 25.) I -pel according to the 

I , In- \ tlian.-tsius ( SynODS. 7<i. ) Cyril TweWl 

tech. iv. I phaniua as the celebrated (> ording to 

( 1 1 i : . i.'j. n. *j.) \ . I. m-. i. the Nasarenes, or H< 

2.) ami I.isius in hare been prior to the inspired < 

ii- and afterwards corrupted by the Bbion- 

is supposed to be one of the works ites, I i was a I and 

red to in the beginning of St. Luke. \ M ionite. Little ia known 

1' i by the G oi the I according thiaa, 

ami S There and Bartholomew ; the 

seein to 

I homes, l c Some read ' iinmubilib . 

d earlier 


staves. Aug. Or, Because there are four quarters of Aug. 
the world, through the whole of which Christ's Church is if con !' n 

° . . Evan. l. 2. 

extended. In learning and preaching they had a different 
order from that they had in writing. In learning and 
preaching they ranked first who followed the Lord present 
in the flesh, heard Him teaching, saw Him acting, and by His 
mouth were sent to preach the Gospel ; but in penning the 
Gospel, an order which we must suppose to have been fixed 
by Heaven, the first place and the last place were filled out 
of the number of those whom the Lord chose before His 
passion, the first by Matthew, the last by John ; so that the 
other two, who were not of that number, but who yet followed 
Christ speaking in them, were embraced as sons, and placed 
in the middle between the other two, so as to be supported by 
them on both sides. Remigius. Matthew wrote in Judaea 
in the time of the Emperor Caius Caligula; Mark in Italy, at 
Home, in the time of Nero or Claudius, according to Raba- 
nus ; Luke in the parts of Achaia and Bseotia, at the request 
of Theophilus ; John at Ephesus, in Asia Minor, under Nerva. 
Bede. But though there were four Evangelists, yet what they 
wrote is not so much four Gospels, as one true harmony of 
four books. For as two verses having the same substance, non occ. 
but different words and different metre, yet contain one and 
the same matter, so the books of the Evangelists, though 
four in number, yet contain one Gospel, teaching one doc- 
trine of the Catholic faith. Chrysost. It had indeed been chrys. 
enough that one Evangelist should have written all ; but sup * 
whereas four speak all things as with one mouth, and that 
neither from the same place nor at the same time, nor having 
met and discoursed together, these things are the greatest 
test of truth. It is also a mark of truth, that in some small 
matters they seem to disagree. For had their agreement been 
complete throughout, adversaries might have supposed that 
it was by a human collusion that this was brought about. 
Indeed in essentials which pertain to direction of life, and 
preaching the faith, they do DOt differ in the least thing. And 

if in their account! of miracles, one tells it in one way, another 

in another, let not this disturb von ; but think that if one had 

told all, the other three would have been a needles! superfluity; 

had they all written different things, there would have been no 

FBI FA< B TO i in: Gk 

room for proof of their harmony. And if their account differs 
in times or modes, this does not hinder the truth of the facts 
themselves which they relate, as shall be shewn below. 

Aug. Aug. Though each seems to have followed an order of 

sup * narration of his own, vet we do not find any one of them 
writing as if in ignorance of his predecessor, or that he left 
out some things which he did not know, which another was 
to supply; but as each had inspiration, he gave accordingly 
the cooperation of his own not unnecessary labour. 

Gloss. Gloss. But the sublimity of the Gospel doctrine consists, 

Ubi sup. . i . a ti 

first, in its preeminent authority. Arc For among all 
the Divine instruments which are contained in Holy A\' rit, 
the Gospel has justly the most excellent place; its first 
preachers were the Apostles who had seen the Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ present in the flesh; and some of 
them, that is, Matthew and John, published each a b >ok of 
such things as seemed good to be published concerning Him. 
And that it should not be supposed, that, as far as relates 
to receiving and preaching the Gospel, it makes any dif- 
ference whether it is announced bv those who followed Him 
during 1 1 is sojourn in the flesh, or by those who faithfully 
believed what they heard from others, it is provided by Divine 
Providence through the Holy Spirit d , that a commissioi 
well of writing as of preaching the Gospel, should be bestowed 
on some out of the number of those that followed the first 
Apostles, (ii.oss. And thus it is clear that the sublimity of 
the authority of the Gospel is derived from Christ; this is 

proved by the words of the Prophet cited above, Gfo up to the 
top of the mountain* For Christ Is that Mountain of whom 

I .2,2. the same Isaiah speaks, And there shall l,c in the last (I 

a mountain j>i I /'■ Lord in tin top of the 

mountains i that is, upon all the saints who from Christ the 

uutain an called mountains; for of His fulness have 

we all d. \nd rightly is that. Go thou up upon a high 

mount ain } addressed to Matthew. who, as had been foretold, 
in his own person saw the deeds of Christ, and heard His 

'sine. Am.. Tins should la 1 considered which to many 

great difficulty, why the Lord Himself wrote no- 

thing, so that we are obliged to give our belief to others who 

d A clause is inserted lure fro riginal to complete the 


wrote of Him. Gloss. But we ought not to say that He wrote 
nothing, seeing His members have written those things 
which they learned by the dictation of their Head. For 
whatever He would have us to read concerning His actions 
or His words, that He enjoined upon them to write as His 
own hands. 

Gloss. Secondly, the Evangelic doctrine has sublimity of 
strength ; whence the Apostle says, The Gospel is the power Rom. 1, 
of God to the salvation of all that believe. The Prophet also ' 
shews this in the foregoing words, Lift up thy voice with 
might; which further marks out the matter of evangelic 
teaching, by that raising the voice which gives clearness to the 
doctrine. Atjg. For the mode in which Holy Scripture is put Aug. ad 
together, is one accessible to all, but thoroughly entered into E ° U 3* 
by few. The things it shews openly, it doth as a familiar friend 
without guile speaking to the heart of the unlearned, as the 
learned. The things it veils in mysteries, it does not deck 
out in lofty speech, to which a slow and unlearned soul would 
not dare to approach, as a poor man would not to a rich; 
but in lowly phrase it invites all, whom it not only feeds 
with plain truth, but exercises in hidden knowledge; for 
it has mutter of both. But that its plain things might 
not be despised, these very same things it again withholds; 
being withheld they become as new ; and thus become 
new they are again pleasingly expressed. Thus all tempers 
have here what is meet for them; the bad are corrected, 
the weak are strengthened, the strong are gratified. Gloss. 
But because the voice when raised on high is heard further 
off, by the raising of the voice may be denoted the pub- 
lication of the Gospel doctrine; because it is given to be 
preached not to one nation only, but to all nations. The 
Lot /'reach the Gospel to every creature. G&egoby ; Greg. 

ry creature nuiy be meant the Gentiles. ]5 * ' ■ 

Glo s. The Evangelic doctrine has, thirdly, the loftiness ofHomil. 
liberty. k\ <■. Under the Old Testament because of the pro- 2 8. 

la and the threatening of temporal evils, Aug. eon. 
the temporal Jerusalem begets slaves; but under the New j _,'' 
tament, where faith requires love, by which the Law * *»ph. 
be fulfilled not more through (car of punishment, than 

lj the eternal Jerusalem begets 


freemen. Gloss. This excellence of the Gospel doctrine the 
Prophet describes when he Cry aloud, fear not* 

It remains to see to whom, and for what purpose, this (Jo-pel 
iiicr. was written. Jerome. Matthew published hii Gospel in 
ad'i'ifsei) «J ll,uca > ni the Hebrew tongue, for the sake of those of the 2 
< who believed in Jerusalem. Gloss. For having first preached 

Ordinary. t ] 1(l (j ()S p ( .j [ n Judaea, being minded to pass to the Gentiles, 
he first pat in writing a Gospel in Hebrew, and left it as 

a memorial to those brethren from whom he was departing. 

For as it was necessary that the Gospel should be preached 

for confirmation of the faith, so was it necessary that it 

Paendo- should be written to oppose heretics. PsEl DO-CHEY8. Mat- 
Chryt, . . it- • i n 

Comm, tnew lias arranged his narrative m a regular scries ot events. 

in Matt. Pirat, the birth, secondly, the baptism, thirdly, the tempta- 
tion, fourthly, the teachings, fifthly, the miracles, sixthly, the 
passion, seventhly, the resurrection, and lastly, the aseension 
of Christ; desiring by this not only to set forth the hist 
of Christ, but to teach the order of evangelic life. It is nought 
that we are born of our parents, if we be not reborn again of 
God by water and the Spirit. After baptism we must i 
the Devil. Then being as it were superior to all temptation, 
he is made fit to teach, and if he be a priest let him teach, 
and commend his teaching, as it were, by the mirach 
a good life; if lie be lay. Let him teach faith by his w i 
In the end we must take our departure from the stage of this 
world, and there remains that the reward of resurrection and 
glory follow the victory over temptation. 

GLOSS. Prom what has been said then, we understand the 

title Gospel, the substance of the Gospel doctrine, the emblems 

of tlu- writers of the Gospel, their number, their time, language, 

discrepancy and an tent; the sublimity of the <• 

doctrine; to whom this addressed, and the method 






Ver. 1 . The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, 
the Son of David, the Son of Abraham. 

Jerome. 'The face of a man' (in Ezekiel's vision) signifies Ez. i. 5. 
Matthew, who accordingly opens his Gospel with the human ] ^ er ' in ro " 
genealogy of Christ. Rabanus. By this exordium he shews Comm. 
that it is the birth of Christ according to the flesh that he 
has undertaken to narrate. Pseudo-Chrysostom. Matthew Pseudo- 
wrote for the Jews, and in Hebrew a ; to them it was unne- tL^j] 
cessary to explain the divinity which they recognized ; but in Matt. 
necessary to unfold the mystery of the Incarnation. John 
wrote in Greek for the Gentiles who knew nothing: of a Son 


of God. They required therefore to be told first, that the 
Son of God was God, then that this Deity was incarnate. 
Rabanus. Though the genealogy occupies only a small 
part of the volume, he vet begins thus, The book of the 
generation. For it is the manner of the Hebrews to name 
their books from that with which they open ; as Genesis. 
Gloss. The full expression would be This is the book 0/ Gloss. 
the generation ; but this is a usual ellipse; e.g. The vision of l inana * 
/ aiah s for, ' This is the vision.' Generation, he says in the 
singular number, though there be many here given in succes- 
sion, as it is for the sake of the one generation of Christ that 
the rest are here introduced. Cbbtsostom. Or he therefore Chryi, 
•ntitlei it, 'I'Ik' book of the generation, because this is the sum H 

Mum. in 


of the whole dispensation, the root of all its blessings; uz. Hom.iL 

1 [t smim to In th general witness written b ifter the Greek. This 

of antiquity thai H copy w;ih interpolated by tho 

copy ot St Matthew' • Gospel, whet ei Ebion 


that Hod became man ; for this once effected, all other things 
followed of course. Rabanusj II. . I \ of the 

generation Christ, because be knew it was written, 

f The I f the generation of Adam.' JIc begins thus 

then, that he may oppose 1 i hook, tl Adam 

to the old Adam, for by the one were all thing >red 

which had been corrupted by the other. .1 read 

in Mm. in Isaian, 11 ho shall (lea, -re His generation? But it does not 
j | follow that the Evangelist contradicts the Prophet, or tinder- 
's what he declares impossible; Un- I-aiah is Bpeakio 
the it ion of the Divine nature; St. Matthew of the in- 

tuition of the human. Cbrys. And do not consider this 
■mall thing to hear: for truly it is a marvellous 
thing that God should descend to be born of a woman, and 
to have as His ancestors David and Abraham. Rbmigi 
Though any affirm that the prophet (Isaiah) does -peak of His 
human generation, we need not a to his enquiry, /- 

shall declare it? "No man;" but, "Very few;" be [atthew 

and Luke have. RabANUG rag, 0) Christ, he 

expresses both the kingly and priestly office to be in Him, 
for Jesus, who first bore this nan., after Moses, the first 

who was leader of the children of Israel ; and Aaron, anoii. I 
by the mystical ointment, was the first priest under the 
Hi- Law. HlLABT j What God conferred on those, who, by the 

anointing of oil, were consecrated as kings or priests, this the 
Holy Spirit conferred on the Man Christ; adding moreover 
' a purification. The Holy Spirit cleansed that which taken 
of the Virgin Man \alted into the Daily of the Saviour, 

and this is that anointing of the Body of th flesh 

whence He was called Christ b . Because the impious craft 

Of th. ,,,1-n of the seed I .d, 

he add f I),/ rid, ; ) (un , { 

m I w.»rk com- I p]« of the Word 

r out i' 

in In like ma 


it, tl 

Hi a 

. as 

VER. 1. ST. MATTHEW. 11 

But why would it not have been enough to name one of them, 
David alone, or Abraham alone? Because the promise had 
been made to both of Christ to be born of their seed. To 
Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth Gen. 22, 


be blessed. To David, Of the jruit of thy body will I set upon Ps ' -^ 
thy seat. He therefore calls Christ the Son of both, to shew H. 
that in Him was fulfilled the promise to both. Also because 
Christ was to have three dignities; King, Prophet, Priest; 
but Abraham was prophet and priest ; priest, as God says to 
him in Genesis, Take an heifer ; Prophet, as the Lord said Gen. 15, 
to Abimelech couverning him, He is a prophet, and shall G ' en 2 o 
pray for thee. David was king and prophet, but not priest. 7 - 
Thus He is expressly called the son of both, that the three- 
fold dignity of His forefathers might be recognized by 
hereditary right in Christ. Ambrose ; He therefore names Ambros. 
specially two authors of His birth — one who received the 111 — 110 ' 
promise concerning the kindreds of the people, the other who 
obtained the oracle concerning the generation of Christ ; and 
though he is later in order of succession is yet first named, 
inasmuch as it is greater to have received the promise con- 
cerning Christ than concerning the Church, which is through 
Christ; for greater is He who saves than that which is saved. 
►ME. The order of the names is inverted, but of necessity ; 
for had he written Abraham first, and David afterwards, he 
Mould have to repeat Abraham again to preserve the series 
of the genealogy. Psetdo-Cilrys. Another reason is that 
royal dignity is above natural, though Abraham was first in 
time, yet David in honour. 

Gloss. But since from this title it appears that the whole 
book is concerning Jesus Christ, it is necessary first to know 
What we must think concerning Him; for so shall be bel 
explained what this hook relates of Him. Arc Ccrinthus An?. 


,i and Ebion made Jons Christ only man ; Paul of Samo- J, 1 ^ A u \' 

, following tl. d ("mist not to have had an ex- 

nce from eto rnity. but to have begun lo be from His birth 

' ' n '°" 
of the Virgin Mary; he also thought Him nothing more than 

was afterwai firmed by Photinus. 

I apneni. 

The Apostle John, seeing long before; by the {Athan. 
Holy Spirit, this madness, rouses him from his deep vo j* ^ 

, by tl. :^ r of his roice, saying, /// thev>* 


John i, i. beginning was the Word. He therefore, who in the beginning 

was frith God, could not in this last time take the beginning 

of His being from man. He laja further, (let Photinus hear 

John it, his words,) Father, glorify Me with that (/lory which 1 had wiih Thee before the world was* A\ a. The error ofNestorius 

Haros.19. NKlSj that he taught that a man only was horn of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary, whom the Word of God received not into Unity 

of person and inseparable fellowship \ a doctrine which Catho- 

Cyr. lie ears could not endure. Ctbil OF Ai.i.x amuiia. Saitli the 

nachoi Apostle of the < >uly-begotten, Who being in the form of Ooa\ 

Egypti. thuufiht it no robbery to be equal with God. "Who then is this 

I 1 ' 1 *) C 

who is in the form of God? or how emptied He Himself, 
and humbled Himself to the likeness of man? If the above- 
mentioned heretics dividing Christ into two parts, i.e. the 
.Man and the Word, affirm that it was the Alan that was 
emptied of glory, they must first shew what form and equality 
with the Father are understood to be, and did exist, which 
might Buffer any manner of emptying. But there is no ei 
ture, in its own proper nature, equal with the Father; how 
then can any creature be said to be emptied? or from what 
eminence to descend to become man? Or how can he be 
understood to have taken upon Him, as though He had not 
at first, the form of a servant ? But, they say. the Word being 
equal with the Father dwelt in Man born of a woman, and 
this is the emptying. I hear the Son truly saying to the 
John 11, Holy Apostles, If any man love Me, he will keep My saying; 
and My Father will lore him, and He will come nnto h'nn, and 
make Our abode with him. Hear how He saith that He and 
the Father will dwell in them that love Him. Do you then 
suppose that WC sluill grant that He is there emptied of His 
glory, and has taken upon Him the form of a servant, when 

lie makes Mis abode in the hearts of them that lore Him? 

Or the Holy Spirit, dors lU fulfil an assumption of human 
Isi.l. flesh, when lie dwells in our hearts? [SIDOR] ; But not 

N'VV,. ' '* to mention all arguments, let us bring forward that one to 

iv. l o 

which all arguments point, that, for one who was God to 

assume a lowly guise both has an obvious use, and is an 

adaptation and in nothing contradicts the course of nature. 

But for one who is man to speak things divine and super- 
natural is the highest presumption ; for though I king may 

VER. 1. ST. MATTHEW. 13 

humble himself, a common soldier may not take on him the 
state of an emperor. So, if He were God made man, all lowly- 
things have place; but if mere man, high things have none. 
Aug. Sabellius they say was a disciple of Noetus, who taught Aug. de 
that the same Christ was one and the same Father and Holy asres " ■ 


Spirit. Pseudo-Athan. The audaciousness of this most insane Athan. 
error I will curb bv the authority of the heavenly testimonies, J? gl1, 

"J j j lapsens. 

and demonstrate the distinct personality of the proper sub- (ibid. 
stance of the Son. I shall not produce things which are liable p ' ' 
to be explained away as agreeable to the assumption of 
human nature ; but shall offer such passages as all will allow 
to be decisive in proof of His divine nature. In Genesis we 
find God saying, Let Us make man in Our own Image. By this 
plural number shewing, that there was some other person to 
whom He spoke. Had He been one, He would have been 
said to have made Him in His own Image, but there is an- 
other ; and He is said to have made man in the Image of that 
other. Gloss. Others denied the reality of Christ's human Gloss. 
nature. Valentinus said, that Christ sent from the Father, non occ ' 
carried about a spiritual or celestial body, and took nothing 
of the Virgin, but passed through her as through a channel, 
taking nothing of her flesh. But we do not therefore believe 
Him to have been born of the Virgin, because by no other 
means He could have truly lived in the flesh, and appeared 
among men; but because it is so written in the Scripture, 
which if we believe not we cannot either be Christians, or be 
saved. But even a body taken of spiritual, or ethereal, or 
clayey substance, had He willed to change into the true and 
very quality of human flesh, who will deny His power to do 
this? The Manichaeans said that the Lord Jesus Christ was 
a phantasm, and could not be born of the womb of a woman. 
But if the body of Christ was a phantasm, He was a deceiver, 
and if a deceiver, then He was not the truth. But Christ is 
the Truth; therefore His Body was not a phantasm. GLOSS. Gloss. 
And as the opening both of this Gospel, and of that accord- non occ * 
ing to Luke, manifestly proves Christ's birth of a woman, 
and hence His real humanity, they reject the beginning of 
both these Gospels, Aug. Faustna affirms, that "the Gospel Ang.cont 

both begins, and begins to be so called, from the preaching of 

1 i. < i: \i\ i. 

Christ 8 , in which He no where affirms Himself to have 1 

1) in of men. Nay, so far i^ this geneal om being part 

ipel, that the writer dors not vent ititle 

it; beginning, 'The book of the generation/ not 'The book 

ipel.' Mark again, who cared not to write of the 

eration, but only of the preaching of the Son of God, 

which is properly The Gospel, begins thus accordingly, The 

of Jesus Christ the Son of God. Tims then, all that 

Matt 4,17. we read in Matthew before the words, began to preach 

the Gospel of the kingdom, is a part of tl , not of 

the Qospel. I therefore betook myself to Mark and John, 

with whose prefaces I had good reason to tisfied, as l 

introduce neither David, nor Mary, nor Joseph." To which 

Augustine replies, What will he say then to the Apostle's 

'j Tim. words, Remember lh Hon oj Christ of I 

2> 8- of David according to my (>'usjjc/. But the Gospel of the 

Apostle Paul was likewise that of the other A] . and of 

all the faithful, as h( Whether I, or they, thus have we 

preached the Gospel. 

de A i (.. The Ariana will not have the Father, Son, and Holy 

,il! ' J:,# Spirit, to he of one and the same Bubstance, nature, and 
exisU QCe ; but that the Son is a creature of the Father, and the 
Holy Spirit a crentui i.e. created by the Son; 

further, they think that Christ took the flesh without a soul. 

1 I. de But John declares the Son to be not only God, but even of 

'j nn. i. g. t j i(v s;illlc BU b8tance as the Father; for when he had said, The 
Word was God, he added, all th\u : , adt hij Him; 

whence it is clear that lie was not made by Whom all things 
were made; and if not made, then not created; and tl 

one substance with the Father, for all that is not of 

td. cont one sub with the Father 18 creature. 1 know not what 

1 1; - hem Hi the person of the Mediator has conferred upon us, if 

1 1. redeemed not our better part, but took upon Ilim our flesh 

only, which without the soul cannot have conscious I the 

lefit. But if Christ came tQ which had perished, 

\';i. 1 1. But 

, . thej reject 

And tli*. M 

VER. 1. ST. MATTHEW. 15 

the whole man had perished, and therefore needs a Saviour ; 

Christ then in coming saA*es the whole man, taking on Him 

both soul and body. How too do they answer innumerable Id.Lib.83. 

objections from the Gospel Scriptures, in which the Lord u 8 ^ st ' 

speaks so many things manifestly contrary to them ? as is that, 

My soul is sorroivful even unto death, and, / have power to lay Matt. 26, 

down Jly life ; and many more things of the like kind. Should J 8 : 1Q 

they say that He spoke thus in parables, we have at hand 18. 

proofs from the Evangelists themselves, who in relating His 

actions, bear witness as to the reality of His body, so of His 

soul, by mention of passions which cannot be without a soul ; 

as when they say, Jesus wondered, was angry, and others of 

like kind. The Apollinarians also as the Arians affirmed that Id. de 

Christ had taken the human flesh without the soul. But aexes * * 

overthrown on this point by the weight of Scripture proof, 

they then said that that part which is the rational soul of man 

was wanting to the soul of Christ, and that its place was filled 

by the Word itself. But if it be so, then we must believe 

that the Word of God took on Him the nature of some brute 

with a human shape and appearance. But even concerning 

the nature of Christ's body, there are some who have so far 

swerved from the right faith, as to say, that the flesh and the 

Word were of one and the same substance, most perversely 

insisting on that expression, The Word was made flesh; which 

they interpiet that some portion of the Word was changed into 

i, not that lie took to Him flesh of the flesh of the Virgin' 1 . 

< We account those persons mad who have suspected Cyr. Ep. 

that so much as the shadow of change could take place in the ^ntiooh' 

nature of the Divine Word ; it abides what it ever was, neither torn, r,.^ 

is nor can be changed. Li:o; We do not speak of Christ as Le ^ E ' 

man in such a sort as to allow that any thing was wanting 59. ad 

to Him, which it is certain pertains to human nature, whether [ dj V ' ]K 

soul, or rational mind, or flesh, and flesh such as was taken J?;^ 

. Palest. 

of the Woman, not gained by a change or conversion of the 

Word into flesh. These thi' ors, that thrice false 

heresy of the Apollinarists has brought forward. Eutyches 

also chose out this third dogma of ApollioariSj which denying 

u SotneoftheApollinariai I. doctrine wai aftei d t<> the 

vi'l. I ,!. ii. p. <>'.) I. \ . i Tap . in But} ch. 

] . Iiulz. 'J iv. Theod. ll.' i. Lv, l I, 

1G qospi i \< « ordhtg ro i hap. i, 

the verity of the human body and soul, maintained that our 
Lord Jesus Christ was wholly and entirely of oik 
though the Divine Word had changed itself into flesh and 
soul, and as though the conception, birth, growth, and such 
like, had been undergone by that Divine I which was 

incapable of any such changes with the very and true flesh; 
for Mich as is the nature of the Only-begotten, such is the 
nature of the Father, and such is the nature of the Holy 
Ghost, both impassible and eternal. But if to avoid being 

driven to the conclusion that the Godhead could feel Buffer- 
ing and death, he departs from the corruption of Apolliie 
and should still dare to affirm the nature of the incarnate 
Word, that is of the Word and the flesh, to he the same, he 
dearly falls into the insane notions ofManichsBUS and Marcion, 
and believes that the Lord Jons Christ did all Ilis actions 
with a false appearance, that J I is body was not a human 
body, but a phantasm, which imposed on th - of the 

Id. Ep, beholders. But what Butychea ventured to pronounce as an 
Julian, episcopal decision, that in Christ before His incarnation « 
two natures, but after 11 is incarnation only one, it beho 
that he should have been urgently | r the reason 

of this his belief. I suppose that in Usin<j such language he 
supposed the soul which the Saviour took, to have had its 
abode in heaven before it was born of the \ train Mary . 
This Catholic hearts and ears endure not, for that the 1 
when He came down from heaven shewed nothing of the 
condition of human nature, nor did lie take on 1 1 i 1 11 any 
that had existed before, nor any flesh that was not taken of 
the flesh of His mother, Thus what was justly condemned 

in Origen f , must needs be rebuked in Eutyches, t<> wit. that 
our sonls before they were placed in our bodies had actions 
not only wonderful but various. R.EMIG. These hert 
therefore the An sties overthrow in tin' opening of their 

Gospels, as Matthew in relating how Hi- derived His descent 

from the kings of the J< vra proves Him to have been truly 

man and to have hail tine flesh. Likewise Luke, when he 

inion, which inroh 1 rait 

ri.itiiMn. the hi- n. l. i. I 

im, is imputed to . 17. Periarch. ii. (i. u. 

I Leon. 

ii. Ephnem, Antioch. ap. Phot. p. 6 

VER. 2. ST. MATTHEW. 1 7 

describes the priestly stock and person ; Mark when he says, 
The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God ; 
and John when he says, In the beginning was the Word; 
both shew him to have been before all ages God, with God 
the Father. 

2. Abraham begat Isaac ; and Isaac begat Jacob ; 
and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren. 

Aug. Matthew, by beginning with Christ's genealogy, Aug. De 
shews that he has undertaken to relate Christ's birth according Evan.ii.1. 
to the flesh. But Luke, as rather describing Him as a Priest 
for the atonement of sin, gives Christ's genealogy not in the 
beginning of his Gospel, but at His baptism, when John bare 
that testimony, Lo,He that taketh away the sins of the world. John 1,29. 
In the genealogy of Matthew is figured to us the taking on 
Him of our sins by the Lord Christ; in the genealogy of 
Luke, the taking away of our sins by the same; hence Matthew 
gives them in a descending, Luke in an ascending, series. 
But Matthew, describing Christ's human generation in de- 
scending order, begins his enumeration with Abraham. 
Ambrose. For Abraham was the first who deserved the Ambros. 
witness of faith; He believed God, and it was accounted to ™ g°" 
him for righteousness. It behoved therefore that he should lib - ii} - 
be set forth as the first iu the line of descent, who was the 
first to deserve the promise of the restoration of the Church, 
In thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. And it 
is again brought to a period in David, for that Jesus should 
be called his Son; hence to him is preserved the privilege, 
that from him should come the beginning of the Lord's 
genealogy. Chkysost, Matthew then, desiring to preserve Chrys. 
in memory the lineage of the Lord's humanity through the om ' ,u * 
succession of His parents, begins with Abraham, saying, 
Abraham begat Isaac. Why docs he not mention Ismael, 
his first-horn? And again, Isaac begat .Jacob; why does he 
not speak of Bsaa his first-born? Because through them be 

could not have come down to David. GLOSS. Yet he names Glo 

<ill the brethren of Judah with him iu the lineage, Ismael 

and Ivsau had not remained in the worship of the true God; 

but the brethren of .Judah were reckoned in God'i people. 

VOL. I c 


Chrp. Chrybost. Or, lie names all the twelve Patriarchs tbat he may 
lower that pride which is drawn from ;i line of nohlt itry. 

For many of these were born of maidservants, and yet were 

Patriarchs and heads of tribes. Gloss. But Jndah is the 
Only one mentioned byname, and that because the Lord n 
descended from him only. Hut in each of the Patriarchs we 
must note not their history only, but the allegorical and moral 
meaning to be drawn from them ; allegory, in seeing whom 
ach of the Fathers forcshewed ; moral instruction in that 
through each one of the Fathers some virtue may be edified 
in us either through the signification of his name, Or through 
his example *. Abraham is in many respects a figure of Christ, 
and chiefly in his name, which is interpreted the Father of 
many nations, and Christ is Father of many believers. 
Abraham moreover went out from his own kindred, and abode 
in a strange land; in like manner Christ, leaving the Jewish 
nation, went by His preachers throughout the (lentil 
Pseudo-Chrys. Isaac is interpreted ' laughter/ but the 
laughter of the stints is not the foolish convulsion of the lips, 
but the rational joy of the heart, which was the mystery 
of Christ. For as he was granted to his parents in their 
extreme age to their great joy, that it might be known 
that he was not the child of nature, but of grace, thus 
Christ also in this last time came of a Jewish mother to be 
the joy of the whole earth; the one of a virgin, the other 
of a woman past the age, both contrary to the expectation 
of nature. Bemig. Jacob is interpreted ' supplanter,' and it 
p i.i8 43. is said of Christ, Thou hast cast down beneath Me them that 
rose up against Me. P8EUDO-ChRTS, Our Jacob in like 
manner begot the twelve Apostles in the Spirit, not in the 

flesh ; in word, not in blood. Jndah is interpreted 'con- 
fessor/ for he was a type of Christ who was to be the confessor 
of His Father, as He spake, I • e t Father, Lord of 

hea\ d earth. Gloss. Morally; Abraham signifies to 

us the virtue of faith in Christ n example himself, as it 

* Origen contrid that 1 . p. I 18. Bj themoi it meant, 

thr< •■ f Scripture, the name implies. 

or historical, the moral, and the myiti- cation of the text; by mystical, one 

oal "i ipiritual, I 'linn to the which interpre t* it of thi* invisible and 

three parts of man, body, si.ii!. and the .spiritual world. 
spirit. Horn, in L de Princip. 

VER. 3 — 6. ST. MATTHEW. 19 

is said of him, Abraham believed God, and it was accounted 
unto him for righteousness. Isaac may represent hope ; for 
Isaac is interpreted 'laughter/ as he was the joy of his 
parents; and hope is our joy, making us to hope for eternal 
blessings and to joy in them. Abraham begat Isaac, and faith 
begets hope. Jacob signifies Move,' for love embraces two 
lives ; active in the love of our neighbour, contemplative in 
the love of God ; the active is signified by Leah, the contem- 
plative by Rachel. For Leah is interpreted f labouring 11 / for 
she is active in labour ; Rachel ' ' having seen the beginning/ 
because by the contemplative, the beginning, that is God, is 
seen. Jacob is born of two parents, as love is born of faith 
and hope ; for what we believe, we both hope for and love. 

3 — 6. And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar ; 
and Phares begat Esrom ; and Esrom begat Aram ; 
and Aram begat Aminadab ; and Aminadab begat 
Naasson ; and Naasson begat Salmon ; and Salmon 
begat Booz of Rachab ; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth ; 
and Obed begat Jesse ; and Jesse begat David the 

Gloss. Passing over the other sons of Jacob, the Evangelist 
follows the family of Judah, saying, But Judah begat Phares 
and Zara of Thamar. Aug. Neither was Judah himself 
first-born, nor of these two sons was either his first-born ; he XT i$ 
had already had three before them. So that he keeps in that 
line of descent, by which he shall arrive at David, and from 
him whither he purposed. JEROMB. It should be noted, 
that none of the holy women are taken into the Saviour's 
genealogy, but rather such as Scripture has condemned, that 
lie who came for sinners being born of sinners might so put 
away the sins of all; thus Ruth the Moabitess follows among 
the rest. AMBROSE. But Luke has avoided the mention ofAmbroe. 
these, that he might set forth the series of the priestly race ^ 
Immaculate. But the plan of St. Matthew did not exclude the 

'■ Leah, full of labour j Jerom. '/<• fte.) Jerom. fMdL, who ■> 'I"' 

nomin. llrbr. from ns /. '" weary <m> \ interpretation in the text, from 71S") 

self. ;il i -I y?n (nVnn. beginning). 

1 Rachel, a: i). xxxi. 8 T ' : 

r ° 

'J:) EtDING i" < hap. i. 

righteousness of natural reason; for when lie wrote in his 
Gospel, that lie u ho should take on Him the sins of all, was 
born in the flesh, was Bubjecf to wrongs and pain, he (lid not 
think it any detraction from 1 lis holiness that lie did not refuse 

the further humiliation of a sinful parentage. Nor, again, would 

it shame the ( 'hurch to be gathered from among sinners, when 
the Lord 1 1 imsclf was horn of sinners j and , lastly, that the be- 
nefits of redemption might have their beginning with I lis own 
forefathers : and that none might imagine that a stain in their 
blood was any hindrance to virtue, UO 1 any pride them- 

selves insolently on nobility of birth. Chrtbost. Besides this, 
it shews that all are equally liable to sin; for lure is Thamar 
accusing Judah of incest, and David begat Solomon with 
a woman with whom he had committed adultery. But if the 
Law was not fulfilled by these great ones, neither could it be 
by their less great posterity, and so all have sinned, and the 
Ambros. presence of Christ is become necessary. AMBROSE. Observe 
*" that Matthew does not name both without a meaning; for 
though the object of his writing only required the mention of 
Pharos, yet in the twins a mystery is signified; namely, the 
double life of the nations, one by the Law, the other by Faith. 
PsETJDO-CHItYS. By Zarah is denoted the people of the Ji 
which first appeared in the light of faith, coming out of the 
dark womb of the world, and was therefore marked with the 
scarlet thread of the circumciser, for all supposed that they 
were to be God's people; but the Law was set before their 
face as it had been a wall or hedge. Thus the Jews were hin- 
dered by the Law, but in the times of Christ's coining the 
hedge of the Law was broken (low n that was between 'Jew s ami 

Eph.2,14. Gentiles, as the Apostle speaks, Breaking down the middle nail 
of partition ; and thus it fell out that the Gentiles, who were 

signified by Phares, U IOOU U the Law w as broken through by 

Chi immandmeuts, first entered into the faith, and after 

followed the ' Gloss. Judah begat Phares and Zara be- 

hewent into Egypt, w hit her they both accompanied their 

father. In Egypt, Phares begat Esrom; and I 

d {linn : . [ram begat . (mi bninadab begat Naaeeon ; and 

then Moses led them out of Egypt. I O was head of the 

tribe of Judah under Moses in the desert, where he begat 

Salmon; and this Salmon it was who, as prince of the tribe 

VEIt. 3 — 6. ST. MATTHEW. 21 

of Judah, entered the land of promise with Joshua. Pseudo- 
Chrys. But as we believe that the names of these Fathers 
were given for some special reason under the providence of 
God, it follows, but Naasson begat Salmon. This Salmon 
after his father's death entered the promised land with Joshua 
as prince of the tribe of Judah. He took a wife of the name of 
Rahab. This Rahab is said to have been that Rahab the harlot 
of Jericho who entertained the spies of the children of Israel, 
and hid them safely. For Salmon being noble among the 
children of Israel, inasmuch as he was of the tribe of Judah, 
and son of the prince thereof, beheld Rahab so ennobled 
through her great faith, that she was worthy whom he should 
take to wife. Salmon is interpreted ' receive a vessel V P er - 
haps as if invited in God's providence by his very name to 
receive Rahab a vessel of election. Gloss. This Salmon in 
the promised land begat Booz of this Rahab. Booz begat 
Obeth of Ruth. Pseudo-Chrys. How Booz took to wife 
a Moabitess whose name was Ruth, I thought it needless to 
tell, seeing the Scripture concerning them is open to all. 
We need but say thus much, that Ruth married Booz for the 
reward of her faith, for that she had cast off the gods of her 
forefathers, and had chosen the living God. And Booz received 
her to wife for reward of his faith, that from such sanctified 
wedlock might be descended a kingly race. Ambrose. But Ambros. 
how did Ruth who was an alien marry a man that was a Jew ? u * sup * 
and wherefore in Christ's genealogy did His Evangelist so much 
as mention a union, which in the eye of the law was bastard? 
Thus the Saviour's birth of a parentage not admitted by the 
Law appears to us monstrous, until we attend to that declara- 
tion of the Apostle, The Law was not given for the righteous, 1 Tim. l, 
but for the unrighteous. For this woman who was an alien, 
a Moabitess, a nation with whom the Mosaic Law forbad all 
intermarriage, and shut them totally out of the Church, how 
did she enter into the Church, unless that she were holy and 
unstained in her life above the Law ? Therefore she was 
exempt from this restriction of the Law, and deserved to be 
numbered in the Lord'a Lineage, chosen from the kindred of 
her mind, not of her body. To Ha she is a great example, for 

k ]"rabtt7- Probably n MOt Cb. a tmmI ; perhaps |HD b HB73i 

22 008PBL v i" CH \r. I. 

that in her was prefigured the entrance into the Lord's Church 
of all of us who are gathered out of the Gentiles. Jj bomb. 

Is. l(j, 1. Ruth the Moabitess fulfils the prophecy of Isaiah, Semi forth, 
Lord, the Lamb that shall rule over the earthy out of the 
rock of the desert to the mount of the daughter of 8km, 

Gloss. Jesse, the father of David, has two names, being 

is. ii, i. more frequently called [aai. But the Prophet lays, There 

shall coim- a rod from the Stem of Jesse ; therefore to sin 
that this prophecy was fulfilled in Mary and Christ, the 
Evangelist puts .Jesse. Remio. It is asked, why this 
epithet King is thus given by the holy Evangelist to 
David alone? Because he was the first king in the tribe 
of Judah. Christ Himself is Phares ' the divider,' as it is 
Mat.2.5,3;5. written, Thou shall divide the sheep from the goats ; lie is 
Zech.6,12. Zaram ', ' the east/ Lo the man, the east is His mime ; He ii 
[•.40,2. Esrom m , 'an arrow,' He hath set me as a poUshed shaft. 
R \i;\\. Or following another interpretation, according to the 
abundance of grace, and the width of love. He is Aram n the 
Is. 42, 1. chosen, according to that, Behold My Servant trhom I have 
chosen. He is Ami nadab, that is 'willing ,' in that He BaySj 
Is.51, 6. I Will freely sacrifice to Thee. Also He is Xaasson p , i.e. 
'augury,' a> He knows the past, the present, and the future; 
John 8, 1 1. or, Mike a serpent,' according to that, Moses lifted up the 
serpent in the wilderness. He is Salmon'', i.e. 'that feel- 
Luke s, cth/ as He said. / feel that power is //one forth OUi of 

■*■ Me. Gloss; Christ Himself espouses Rahab, i. c. the Gentile 

Church; for Rahab ■ is interpreted either ' hunger,' or 'breadth,' 
or ' might ;' for the Church of the Gentiles hungers and thirsts 
after righteousness, and converts philosophers and kings by 

the might of her doctrine. Ruth is interpreted either ' seeing 1 
or 'hastening'/ and denotes the Church which in purity of 

heart - 1, and hastens to the prise of the heavenly call. 

Hi mil. Christ is also Boos 1 , because \\c is strength, for, 

1 rr*1 : in Zech. <i. Is. it ii fTDS" q Anil to Jei 

ITTSTIi m •• |I "" 1 VTli end r 3m» to be wide or broad 3m 

ime. night, 33ni hunger]. 

tjp, to be lofty ; ?id. infr. j>. . from nK~\ and 

3T3^DP, Sly people it w bapi tHTl for the leoood. 

ron ra"Wj romei perkepe t^a== 

;rr: ■ n BWT3 wgui from yL, ■■ >«" ta^"with 

si rpente ; and bo ' *. . ,. 

1 might. 

VER. 3 6. ST. MATTHEW. 23 

When I am lifted up, I will draw all men unto Me. He is John 12, 
Obeth, ' a servant"/ for, The Son of man came not to be M ^ t 2 o 
ministered unto, but to minister. He is Jesse, or e burnt x / 28. 
for, / am come to send fire on earth. He is David y, ' mighty Luke 12, 
in arm/ for, The Lord is great and powerful ; ' desirable/ Ps * 2 4 8 
for, He shall come, the Desire of all nations ; ' beautiful to Hag. 2, 7. 
behold/ according to that, Beautiful inform before the sows Ps. 45,3. 
of men. Gloss. Let us now see what virtues they be which 
these fathers edify in us ; for faith, hope, and charity are the 
foundation of all virtues ; those that follow are like additions 
over and above them. Judah is interpreted ' confession/ of 
which there are two kinds, confession of faith, and of sin. If 
then, after we be endowed with the three forementioned 
virtues, we sin, confession not of faith only but of sin is 
needful for us. Phares is interpreted ' division/ Zamar 
' the east/ and Thamar * bitterness ■/ Thus confession begets 
separation from vice, the rise of virtue, and the bitterness 
of repentance. After Phares follows Esron, ' an arrow/ for 
when one is separated from vice and secular pursuits, he 
should become a dart wherewith to slay by preaching the vices 
of others. Aram is interpreted ' elect' or ' lofty a / for as soon 
as one is detached from this world, and profiteth for another, 
he must needs be held to be elect of God, famous amongst 
men, high in virtue. Naasson is ' augury/ but this augury is 
of heaven, not of earth. It is that of which Joseph boasted 
when he said, Ye have taken away the cup of my Lord, where- Gen.44, 5. 
with He is wont to divine. The cup is the divine Scripture 
wherein is the draught of wisdom ; by this the wise man 
divines, since in it he sees things future, that is, heavenly 
things. Next is Salomon b , ' that perceiveth/ for he who studies 
divine Scripture becomes perceiving, that is, he discerns by 
the taste of reason, good from bad, sweet from bitter. Next 
k)OZj that is 'brave/ for who is well taught in Scripture 
becomei brave to endure all adversity. Psbudo-Chrys. 

This brave one is the son of Kahab, that is, of the Church; 
for Rahab signifies ' breadth' or 'spread out/ for because the 

u 1ZYJ, Ob«d ; »nd m .1 Jit. 81, 16; Ho 12, 16. 

i Al [J ;,,,., • Lofty, from BPPI- 

y And si, Jen b n'^LP' P**C*J and hu Jerome. 

1 -*-— ♦* J r|, bitterne--' -, lioin — % Z 


Church of the Gentili led from all quarters of the 

rth, it is called 'breadth.' Gloss. Then follows Obeth, 

i.e. 'servitude/ for which none is fit but he who is Strong j 

and tins servitude is begotten of Ruth, that is r haste/ for 

it behoves a slave to be quick, not slow. PsBUDO-ChRYS. 

They who look to wealth and not temper, to beauty and not 
faith, and require in a wife such endowments as are required 

in harlots, will not beget sons obedient to their parents or 
to (iod, but rebellious to both; that their children may be 
punishment of their ungodly wedlock. Obcth begat Jesse, 
that is ' refreshment/ for whoever is subject to God and his 
parents, begets such children as prove his • refreshment.' 
GLOSS. Or Jesse may be interpreted ' incense c .' For if 
we serve God in love and fear, there will be a devotion in 
the heart, which in the heat and desire of the heart offers the 
sweetest incense to God. But when one is become a fit 
servant, and a sacrifice of incense to God, it follows that 
lie becomes David, (i.e. 'of a strong hand,') who fought 
mightily against his enemies, and made the Idumeans tri- 
butary. In like manner ought he to subdue carnal men 
to God by teaching and example. 

G — 8. David the king begat Solomon of her that 
had been the wife of Urias ; and Solomon begat Eto- 
boam ; and Roboam begat Abia ; and Abia begat 
Asa ; and Asa begat Josaphat. 

The Evangelist lias now finished the first fourteen genera- 
tions, and is come to the second, which consists of ro\al 

personages, and therefore beginning with David, who was the 

first king in the tribe of Judah, he calls him David the k'uuj. 
\io. Since in Matthew's genealogy is shewed forth the 

J? ?** taking on Him by Christ of our sins, therefore he descends 
from l »avid to Solomon, in whose mother David had sinned. 
Luke ascends to David through Nathan, for through Nathan 

the prophet (iod punished David's sin; because Luke's ge- 
f. Lib. ncal to shew the putting aw ay of our sins. Id. That 

i t. ii. 


I i low, p, 29. n. i. 

VER , 8 — 11. ST. MATTHEW. 25 

is it, must be said, through a prophet of the same name, for 
it was not Nathan the son of David who reproved him, but 
a prophet of the same name. Remig. Let us enquire why 
Matthew does not mention Bathsheba by name as he does 
the other women. Because the others, though deserving of 
much blame, were yet commendable for many virtues. But 
Bathsheba was not only consenting in the adultery, but in 
the murder of her husband, hence her name is not introduced 
in the Lord's genealogy. Gloss. Besides, he does not name 
Bathsheba, that, by naming Urias, he may recal to memory 
that great wickedness which she was guilty of towards him. 
Ambrose. But the holy David is the more excellent in this, Ambros. 
that he confessed himself to be but man, and neglected not to ubl sup ' 
wash out with the tears of repentance the sin of which he 
had been guilty, in so taking away Urias' wife. Herein 
shewing us that none ought to trust in his own strength, 
for we have a mighty adversary whom we cannot overcome 
without God's aid. And you will commonly observe very 
heavy sins befalling to the share of illustrious men, that they 
may not from their other excellent virtues be thought more 
than men, but that you may see that as men they yield to 
temptation. Pseudo-Chrys. Solomon is interpreted ' peace- 
maker/ because having subdued all the nations round about, 
and made them tributary, he had a peaceful reign. Boboam 
is interpreted ' by a multitude of people,' for multitude is the 
mother of sedition ; for where many are joined in a crime, 
that is commonly unpunishable. But a limit in numbers is 
the mistress of good order. 

8 — 1 1 . And Josaphat begat Joram ; and Joram begat 
Ozias ; and Ozias begat Joatham ; and Joatham 
begat Achaz ; and Achaz begat Ezekias; and Eze- 
kias begat Manasses ; and Manasses begat Anion; 
and Anion begat .Josias ; and Josias begat Jechonias 
and his brethren, about the time they were carried 
away to Babylon. 

JbROMX. In the fourth book of Kings we read, that Oclio- 

uas the ion of Joram. On his death, Jotabeth, sister of 


Ochozias and daughter of Joram, took Joasli, lier brother's 
son, and preserved hi m from the slaughter of the royal seed 
by Athalias. To Joash succeeded his .son Amasias ; after 
him his bod Azarias, who is called Ozias; alter him his son 
Joatham. Thus you see according to historical truth there 
were three intervening kings, who are omitted by the Evan- 
gelist. Joram, moreover, begot not Ozias, but Ochozias, 
and the rest as we have related. But because it was 
the purpose of the Evangelist to make each of the three 
periods consist of fourteen generations, and because Joram 
had connected himself with Jezebel's most impious r 
therefore his posterity to the third generation is omitted in 
tracing the lineage of the holy birth. HlLABY. Thus the 
stain of the Gentile alliance being purged, the royal race is 
again taken up in the fourth following generation. PsEUDO- 
Curys. What the Holy Spirit testified through the Prophet, 
saying, that He would cut off every male from the house 
of Ahab, and Jezebel, that Jehu the son of Nausi fulfilled, 
and received the promise that his children to the fourth 
generation should sit on the throne of Israel. As great 
a blessing then as was given upon the house of Ahab, so 
great a curse was given on the house of Joram, because of 
the wicked daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, that his sons to the 
fourth generation should be cut out of the number of the 
Kings. Thus his sin descended on his posterity as it had 

Bzod. 20, been written, I will visit the sins of the fathers upon the chil- 
dren unto the th/n/ and fourth [feneration. Thus see how 
dangerous it is to marry with the seed of the ungodly. 

Aug. AUG. Or, Ochozias, Joash, and Amasias, were excluded 

Amis " t from the number, because their wickedness was continuous 

Vtt N - and without interval. For Solomon W8S Buffered to hold the 

kingdom tor his father's deserts, Etoboam for his Min's. But 

these three doing e\il successively were excluded. This then 

i> an example how a race l*- cut oil' when wiekedness i> 

w n therein in perpetual succession. And Ozia* begat Joa- 
tham ; and Joatham begat AchaZ ; and AckoZ heijat Kzehias. 
Gloss. This ESzekias \kis he to whom, when he had no 

Is. 88,1. children, it was said, Set thy la, use in order, for tliou sfialt 
die. lie Wept, not from desire of longer life, for he knew 
that Solomon had thereby pleased God, that he had not 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 27 

asked length of days ; but he wept, for he feared that God's 
promise should not be fulfilled, when himself, being in the 
line of David of whom Christ should come, was without 
children. And EzeTcias begat Manasses ; and Manasses 
begat Anion ; and Anion begat Josias. Pseudo-Chrys. But 
the order in the Book of Kings is different, thus namely ; 2 Kings 
Josias begot Eliakim, afterwards called Joakim; Joakim 
begot Jechonias. But Joakim is not reckoned among the 
Kings in the genealogy, because God's people had not 
set him on the throne, but Pharaoh by his might. For 
if it were just that only for their iutermixture with the 
race of Ahab, three kings should be shut out of the number 
in the genealogy, was it not just that Joakim should be 
likewise shut out, whom Pharaoh had set up as king by 
hostile force ? And thus Jechonias, who is the son of Joakim, 
and the grandson of Josiah, is reckoned among the kings as 
the son of Josiah, in place of his father who is omitted. 
Jerome. Otherwise, we may consider the first Jeconias to 
be the same as Joakim, and the second to be the son not the 
father, the one being spelt with k and m, the second by ch 
and n. This distinction has been confounded both by Greeks 
and Latins, by the fault of writers and the lapse of time. 
Ambrose. That there were two kings of the name of Ambros. 
Joakim, is clear from the Book of Kings. And Joakim slept " ^ c ' 
with his fathers, and Joachin his son reigned in his stead. 2 Kings 
This son is the same whom Jeremiah calls Jeconias. And 
lightly did St. Matthew purpose to differ from the Prophet, 
because he sought to shew therein the great abundance of the 
Lord's mercies. For the Lord did not seek among men 
nobility of race, but suitably chose to be born of captives and 
of sinners, as He came to preach remission of sin to the 
captives. The Evangelist therefore did not conceal either of 
these; but rather shewed them both, inasmuch as both were 
called Jeconias. Remiq. But it may be asked, why the 
Evangelist sayi they were born in the carrying away, when 
they were born before the carrying away. He says this because 
they were born for this purpose, that they should be led 
Captive, from the dominion of the whole nation, for their own 
and Others 1 sins. And because Qod foreknew that they were 


to be carried away captive, therefore lie says, they were born 
in the carrying away to Babylon, Hut of those whom the 
holy Evangelist placet together in the Lord's genealogy, it 

should be known, that they were alike in good or ill fame. 
Judas and his brethren were notable for good, in like nianin r 
Phares and Zara, Jechonias and his brethren, were notable 
for evil. GLOSS. Mystically, David is Christ, who overcame 
Golias, that is, the Devil. Urias, i.e. God is my light, is 
Is. 14, 14. the Devil who says, / will he like the Highest. To Him the 
Church was married, when Christ on the Throne of the 
majesty of II is Father loved her, and having made her 
beautiful, united her to Himself in wedlock. Or Urias is the 
Jewish nation who through the Law boasted of their light. 
From them Christ took away the Law, having taught it 
to speak of Himself. Bersabce is 'the well of satiety,' that 
is, the abundance of spiritual grace. Ki.mic;. Bersabee is 
interpreted 'the seventh well/ or 'the well of the oath ;' by 
which is signified the grant of baptism, in which is given the 
gift of the sevenfold Spirit, and the oath against the Devil is 
made. Christ is also Solomon, i.e. the peaceful, accord- 
Eph.2,14. ing to that of the Apostle, He is our peace Roboam 
is, 'the breadth of the people/ according to that, Many shall 
come from the East and from the West, Rabax. Or, 'the 
might of the people/ because he quickly converts the people 
to the faith. RsMIO. He is also Abias, that is, 'the Lord 
Matt. 23, Father,' according to that, One is //our Father mho is in 
John 19 heaven. And again, Ye call me Master and Lord. He is also 
1; - Asa \ that is, 'lifting up/ according to that, Who tuketh uwa// 

the tins of the world. He is also Josaphat, that is, ' judging. J 

John5,22. for, The Father hath committed all judi/ment unto the Son. 

John s, is. He is also Joram, that is, 'lofty.' according to that, No man 

hath ascended u/> to htuun. hut He that came doie/i from 

heaven. He ii also Osias, thai is, 'the I. rd'a strength/ foi- 
l's. 1IH, The Lord is mif strength anil my praise. He is also Jotham f , 

,. , ln 1() that is, 'completed/ or 'perfected/ for Christ it the md of 

c ypttf ~*Si: the well of tlie o.ali : Uhnesa of the people. Eeclao. xlvii 
,i • Jerome ; a» if from HD3= Stt?2; 

»._;., bu! SOS means h i.liv>u-ian. 

b , ,_ ' Ami bo Jerome, from £^jH- 

/ V 

\ KQE 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 29 

the Law. He is also Ahaz g , that is, 'turning/ according to 

that, Be ye turned to Me. Raban. Or, 'embracing/ because Zech.1,3. 

None knoweth the Father but the Son. Remig. He is also Matt. 11, 


Ezekias, that is, ' the strong Lord/ or, ' the Lord shall 

comfort/ according to that, Be of good cheer, I have overcome John 16, 

the world. He is also Manasses, that is, ' forgetful, or, ' for- 

gotten/ according to that, I will not remember your sins Ezek. 28. 

any more. He is also Aaron h , that is, 'faithful/ according 

to that, The Lord is faithful in all His words. He is also Ps. 145, 

i i 
Josias, that is, ' the incense of the Lord 1 / as, And being in an Li j ke 22 

agony, He prayed more earnestly. Raban. And that in- 44. 
cense signifies prayer, the Psalmist witnesses, saying, Let my Ps. 141,2. 
prayer come up as incense before Thee. Or, ' the salvation 
of the Lord/ according to that, My salvation is for ever. Is. 55. 
Remig. He is Jechonias k , that is, ' preparing/ or ' the Lord's 
preparation/ according to that, If I shall depart, I will also John 14,3. 
prepare a place for you. Gloss. Morally ; After David fol- 
lows Solomon, which is interpreted 'peaceful/ For one then 
becomes peaceful, when unlawful motions being composed, 
and being as it were already set in the everlasting rest, he 
serves God, and turns others to Him. Then follows Roboam, 
that is, 'the breadth of the people/ For when there is no 
longer any thing to overcome within himself, it behoves a man 
to look abroad to others, and to draw with him the people of 
God to heavenly things. Next is Abias, that is, 'the Lord 
Father/ for these things premised, He may proclaim Himself 
the Son of God, and then lie will be Asa, that is, ' raising up/ 
and will ascend to His Father from virtue to virtue : and He 
will become Josaphat, that is, 'judging/ for He will judge 
others, and will be judged of none. Thus he becomes Joram, 
that is, 'lofty/ as it were dwelling on high; and is made 
Oziah, that is, ' the strong One of the Lord/ as attributing 
all his strength to God, and persevering in his path. Then 
follows Jotham, that is, ' perfect/ for he groweth daily to 
greater perfection. And thus he becomes Ahaz, that is, 
' embracing/ for by obedience knowledge is increased accord- 

* TFS> to s'i/.-' or Ik/'kI ; M) Jerome. from ntTN, fire in the ritual icrvioe, or 

11 A itTOOg mountain; .1 It j n , , n -•-, Lrv. xxiv. 7. 

•w root. ITTOS*! " 1| "- I- 1 "' 1 ' '■ taMMn th," 

' A Mcrificc to thi Lord, -Jerome; al o " preparetb." 

30 GOM-i.i. \< t OKDING TO I BAP. I. 

ing to that, They have proclaimed the worship of the Lord, 
and have understood His doings. Then follows Bzekias, that 
is, 'the Lord is strong,' because lie understands that God 

Btrong, and BO turning to Hi^ love, lie becomes Manasses, 
'forgetful/ because lie gives up as forgotten all worldly 
things; and is made thereby Anion, that is, •faithful,' for 
whoso despises all temporal things, defrauds no man of his 
goods. Thus he is made -losing that is, 'in certain hope of 
the Lord's salvation;' for Josias is interpreted 'the salvation 
of the Lord/ 

12 — 15. And after they were brought to Babylon, 
Jcchonias begat Salathiel ; and Salathiel begat Zoro- 
babcl ; and Zorobabel begat Abiud ; and Abiud begat 
Eliakim ; and Eliakim begat Azor ; and Azor beirat 
Sadoc ; and Sadoc begat Achim ; and Achim begat 
Eliud ; and Eliud begat Eleazar ; and Eleazar begat 
Matthan ; and Matthan begat Jacob. 

Pseudo- Pseudo-Chrys. After the carrying away, he Sets Jeconiah 

ubi'iun. a o {U " n > a s now become a private person. AjCBBOBBJ Of whom 
Jer.22,30. Jeremiah speaks, Write this man dethroned; for there 
shall not spring of his seed one sitting on the throne of 

David. How is this said of the Prophet, that none of the 
seed of Jeconias should reign? For if Christ reigned, and 
Christ was of the seed of Jeconiah, then has the Prophet 
spoken falsely. But it is not there declared that there shall 
be none of the seed of Jeconiah, and so (lnist is of his seed ; 
and that Christ did reign, is not in contradiction to the pro- 
phecy : for He did not reign with worldly honours, as \\c 

John is, said, My kingdom is not of this world* Psrudo-Chkys. 

Concerning Salathiel 1 , we ha\c read nothing either good or 
bad, but we suppose him to have been a holy man, and in 
the captivity to have constantly besought God in behalf of 

afflicted Israel, and that hence he was named Salathiel, 
'the petition of God".' Salathiel het/<>t Zorobabel, which is 
interpreted 'flowing postponed/ or, 'of the confusion,' or 
here, 'the doctor of Babylon V 1 have read, but know not 

1 '' "SVlVSw. 'I have asked of C Sotl." 

Hot lulliul in : ioil, . h r i> i i t 

VER. 12 — 15. ST. MATTHEW. 31 

whether it be true, that both the priestly line and the royal 
line were united in Zorobabel ; and that it was through him 
that the children of Israel returned into their own country. 
For that in a disputation held between three, of whom Zoro- 
babel was one, each defending his own opinion, ZorobabePs 
sentence, that Truth was the strongest thing, prevailed ; 
and that for this Darius granted him that the children of 
Israel should return to their country ; and therefore after 
this providence of God, he was rightly called Zorobabel, 
'the doctor of Babylon/ For what doctrine greater than 
to shew that Truth is the mistress of all things ? Gloss ; 
But this seems to contradict the genealogy which is read 
in Chronicles. For there it is said, that Jeconias begot l Chron. 
Salathiel and Phadaias, and Phadaias begot Zorobabel, and ' * 
Zorobabel Mosollah, Ananias, and Salomith their sister. 
But we know that many parts of the Chronicles have been 
corrupted by time and error of transcribers. Hence come 
many and controverted questions of genealogies which the 
Apostle bids us avoid. Or it may be said, that Salathiel l Tim. 
and Phadaias are the same man under two different names. ' 4 * 
Or that Salathiel and Phadaias were brothers, and both had 
sons of the same name, and that the writer of the history 
followed the genealogy of Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel. 
From Abiud down to Joseph, no history is found in the 
Chronicles; but we read that the Hebrews had many other 
annals, which were called the Words of the Days, of which 
much was burned by Herod, who was a foreigner, in order 
to confound the descent of the royal line. And perhaps 
Joseph had read in them the names of his ancestors, or 
knew them from some other source. And thus the Evan- 
gelist could learn the succession of this genealogy. It 
should be noted, that the first Jeconiah is called the re- 
surrection of the Lord, the second, the preparation of the 
Lord. Both are very applicable to the Lord Christ, who 
declares, 1 am the resurrection, and the life ; and, i" go to John 11, 
prepare a place fit you. Salathiel, i.e. ' the Lord is my peti- J^' m , , ., 
tion/ is suitable to 1 1 im who said, Holy lather, keep them John 17, 
v/ifji/t. 77/o// has/ ghfen Me. ReMIG. He is also Zorobabel, *• 

perhaps from ^f, "crown}" yft, Ch. traeted, bound ;" hence another of the 

"flowed, pour- -I away;" Sy r . "con- meaning* in the 1 


Matt. 9, that is, ' the master of confusion,' according to that, Your 

Matter eateth with publicans and s. He i^ Abiud, 

John lo, that is, 'He is my Father,' according to that, / and the 
Father are One. II<' ii also Eliacim , that is, 'God the 

John 0,64. I J t\ i \ cr, * according to that, I to ill revive h'mi again in the 
last day. He is also Azor, that is, 'aided,' according to that, 

John 8, 29. lie ivho sent Me is with Me. lie is also Sadoch, that is, 

1 Pet. 3, ' the just/ or, 'the justified/ according to that, He icas de- 
livered, the just for the unjust. He is also Achim, that is, 

Matt. 12, 'my brother is He/ according to that, Whoso doeth the will 
of Mij Father, he is My brother. He is also Eliud, that is, 

John 20, « He is my God,' according to that, My Lord, and my ( >o<l. 
Gloss. He is also Eleazar, i.e. 'God is my helper,' as in 
the seventeenth Psalm, My God, my helper. He is also 

Eph. i, 8. Mathan, that is, ' giving/ or, ' given/ for, He nave gifts for 

John 3, 16. men ; and, God so loved the world, that He gave His only- 
begotten Son. Hemic*. He is also Jacob, 'that snpplanteth/ 
for not only hath He supplanted the Devil, but hath given 

Luke io, His power to His faithful people; as, Behold I have given 
you power to tread uj)o?i serpents. He is also Joseph, that is 

John 10, < adding/ according to that, I came that they might have life, 
and that they might have it abundantly. 

RABAN. Hut let us see what moral signification these 
names contain. After Jcconias, which means 'the prepara- 
tion of the Lord,' follows Salathicl, i.e. 'God is my petition/ 
for he who is rightly prepared, prays not but of God. Again, 
he becomes Zorobabel, 'the master of Babylon/ that is, of 
the men of the earth, whom he makes to know concerning 
God, that He is their Father, which is signified in Abiud. 
Then that people rise again from their vices, whence follows 
Eliacim, 'the resurrection/ and thence rite to good woi 
which is Azor, and becomes Sadoch, i.e. ' righteous / and 
then they are taught the love of their neighbour. He is my 
brother, which is signified in Achim ; and through love to 

God he says of Him, * M\ God/ which EUind signifies. Then 

follows Llcazar, i.e. ' God is my helper;' he recognizes God as 

his helper. But whereto he tends 18 shewn in Matthan, which 

i^ interpreted 'gift/ or 'giving-/ for he looks to God as his 
benefactor; and as he wrestled with and overcame his vices 

' . OMT S- "God Will raise up." 


in the beginning, so he does in the end of life, which be- 
longs to Jacob, and thus he reaches Joseph, that is, ' The 
increase of virtues/ 

16. And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, 
of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. 

Gloss. In the last place, after all the patriarchs, he sets 
down Joseph the husband of Mary, for whose sake all the 
rest are introduced, saying, But Jacob begot Joseph. Je- 
kome. This passage is objected to us by the Emperor Ju- 
lian in his Discrepancy of the Evangelists. Matthew calls 
Joseph the son of Jacob, Luke makes him the son of Heli. 
He did not know the Scripture manner, one was his father 
by nature, the other by law. For we know that God com- 
manded by Moses, that if a brother or near kinsman died Deut. 25. 
without children, another should take his wife, to raise up 
seed to his brother or kinsman. But of this matter Africanus 
the chronologist p , and Eusebius of Csesarea, have disputed 
more fully. Euseb. For Matthan and Melchi at different Euseb. 
periods had each a son by one and the same wife Jesca. Eccles. 
Matthan, who traced through Solomon, first had her, and died »• 7. 
leaving one son, Jacob by name. As the Law forbade not a 
widow, either dismissed from her husband, or after the death 
of her husband, to be married to another, so Melchi, who 
traced through Matthan, being of the same tribe but of an- 
other race, took this widow to his wife, and begat Heli his 
son. Thus shall we find Jacob and Heli, though of a differ- 
ent race, yet by the same mother, to have been brethren. One 
of whom, namely Jacob, after Heli his brother was deceased 
without issue, married his wife, and begat on her the third, 
Jo>eph, by nature indeed and reason his own son; where- 
upon also it is written, And Jacob begat Joseph. But by the 
Law, he was the son of Heli; for Jacob, being his brother, 
raised up seed to him. Thus the genealogy, both as recited 
by Matthew, and by Luke, stands right and true; Matthew 
saying, And Jacob begot Joseph; Luke laying, Which WCS 

the son, as it was ruppoeed, (for he adds this withal,) of Joseph, 

v in his Bp idem, vi'l. Kouth, Reliq., vol. Li. p. 111. Africiumi 

lived in the second century. 

VOL. I. I> 


which was the son pfHeJi, which was the son ofMelehi. Nor 
could he have more significantly or properly expressed that 
way of generation according to the Law, which was made by 
a certain adoption that had respect to the dead, carefully 
Leaving out the word begetting throughout even to the end. 
Aug. De Augustine. He is more properly called his son, by whom he 

Kvang. Avas adopted, than had he been said to have been begotten of 
"• 2 - him of whose flesh he was not horn. Wherefore Matthew, in 

saying Abraham begot Isaac, and continuing the same phi 
throughout down to Jacob begot Joseph, sufficiently declares 
that he gives the father according to the order of natun 
as that we must hold Joseph to have been begotten, not 
adopted, by Jacob. Though even if Luke had used the word 
begotten, we need not have thought it any serious objection; 
for it is not absurd to say of an adopted son that he is be- 
Euseb. ubi gotten, not after the flesh, but by affection. Euseb. Neither 
sup " does this lack good authority; nor lias it been suddenly 

by us for this purpose. For the kinsmen of our Saviour ac- 
cording to the fleshj either out of desire to shew forth this 
their so great nobility of stock, or simply for the truth's sake, 
Aug, De have delivered it unto OS. \\ «■. And suitably does Luke, who 
E 00 ** relates ( 'hrist's ancestry not in the opening of his ( fospel, but 
ii. 4. at Ins baptism, follow the line of adoption, as thus more 

clearly pointing Him out as the Priest that should make 
atonement for sin. Tor by adoption we are made the sons of 
God, by believing in the Son of God. lint by the I 
according to tin 1 flesh which Matthew follows, wo rather 

that the Son of (iod whs for us made man. Luke sufficiently 

•as that he called Joseph the son of lleli, he was 
adopted by lleli, In ...i. \dain the son ofGod, which 

he was by grace, as he in Paradise, though he lost it 

Chrys. afterwards bj sinning. Chkysost. Having gone through all 

Hum. iv. jj l(> ;ill( . ( .. trv allt i ,.u t ii> ( l in Joseph, he adds, The husband 

Maty, thereby declaring that it was for her sake that he was 

included in the genealogy. Jerome. When you hear this 
woid husband, do not Btraight bethink you of wedlock, but 
remember tin- Scripture manner, which calk as only be- 

Otn. Dt trothed husband and wife. Gennadixts. The Son of God v, 

born of* human tlesh, that is of Mary, and not bv man ; 

Dog. 2. 

the way ot nature, as Lbiou say8j and accordingly it i 

VER. 16. ST. MATTHEW. 35 

ficantly added, Of her Jesus was born. Aug. This is said Aug. De 
against Valentinus, who taught that Christ took nothing of 
the Virgin Mary, but passed through her as through a channel 
or pipe. Id. Wherefore it pleased Him to take flesh of the 
womb of a woman, is known in His own secret counsels ; 
.vhether that He might confer honour on both sexes alike, by 
taking the form of a man, and being born of a woman, or from 
some other reason which I would not hastily pronounce on. 
Hilary. What God conveyed by the anointing of oil to those Hil. 
who were anointed to be kings, this the Holy Spirit conveyed No^Vt 
upon the man Christ, adding thereto the expiation ; where- Vet - Test - 
fore when born He was called Christ ; and thus it proceeds, 
who is called Christ. Aug. It was not lawful that he should Aug. De 
think to separate himself from Mary for this, that she brought e°"„* 
forth Christ as yet a Virgin. And herein may the faithful ii- 1- 
gather, that if they be married, and preserve strict continence 
on both sides, yet may their wedlock hold with union of love 
only, without carnal ; for here they see that it is possible that 
a son be born without carnal embrace. Aug. In Christ's Aug. De 
parents was accomplished every good benefit of marriage, c"ncup l . 
fidelity, progeny, and a sacrament. The progeny we see in »■ li- 
the Lord Himself; fidelity, for there was no adultery; sacra- 
ment, for there was no divorce. Jerome. The attentive 
reader may ask, Seeing Joseph was not the father of the Lord 
and Saviour, how does his genealogy traced down to him in 
order pertain to the Lord ? We will answer, first, that it is 
not the practice of Scripture to follow the female line in its 
genealogies ; secondly, that Joseph and Mary were of the 
same tribe, and that he was thence compelled to take her to 
wife as a kinsman, and they were enrolled together at Bethle- 
hem, as being come of one stock. Aug. Also, the line of de- Aug. ubi 
scent ought to be brought down to Joseph, that in wedlock no sup * 
wrong might be done to the male sex, as the more worthy, 
provided only nothing was taken away from the truth ; because 
Mary was of the seed of David. Id. Hence then we believe td. non 
that Mary ill in the line of I)avid; namely, because we be- 
lieve the Scripture which aflirms two things, both that Christ 
of tin; seed of Darid according to the flesh, and that 
lii- should he conceived of* Mary not by knowledge of man, 

but as yet a Virgin, Tjh; Council or Ephbrji. Herein we 

i) 2 


36 GOSPEL a< ( 0RD1NG 10 I HAP, I. 

must beware of the error of Nestorius, who thus speaks; 

"When Divine Scripture is to speak either of the birth of 

Christ which i^ of the Virgin Mary, or Jlis death, it is never 

seen to put God, but either, Christ, or Sun, or Lord ; since 

these three are significative of the two natu onetimes of 

this, sometimes of that, and sometimes of both this and that 

together. And here is a testimony to this, Jacob begot Joseph 

the husband of Mnrij, of whom WOS born Jesus, who is called 

Christ. For God the Word needed not a second birth of a 

VigiL woman." Pseudo-Ai q. Bntnot one was the Son of God, and 

l^'a'p c ' another the son of a man ; but the same Christ was the Son 

Au£. t. 8. of both God and man. And as in one man, the soul is one and 
p. 45. 

the body is another, so in the mediator between God and man, 

the Son of God was one, and the son of man another ; yet of 
both together was one Christ the Lord. Two in distinction 
of substance, one in unity of Person. But the heretic objects ; 
" how can you teach Him to have been born in time whom 
you say was before coeternal with His Father? Lor birth is 
as it were a motion of a tiling not. in being, before it be born, 
bringing about this, that by benefit of birth it come into 
being. Whence it is concluded, that He who was in being 
cannot be born; if He could be born He was not in tx ing. M 
(To this it is replied by Augustine;) Let us imagine, as many 
will have it, that the universe has a general soul, which by 
some unspeakable motion gives life to all seeds, so as that 
itself is not mixed up with the things it produces. When 
this then parses forth into the womb to form passible matter 
to its own uses, it makes one with itself the person of that 
thing which it is clear has not the same substance. And 
thus, the soul being active and the matter passive, of two 
substances is made one man, the soul and the flesh being 
distinct ; thus it is that our Confession is, that that soul is 
born of the womb which in coming to the womb we say con- 
ferred life on the thing conceived. He. 1 sa\ al to be 

born of 1 1 i> mother, w ho shaped to 1 (imself a body out of her, 
ill which lie might be born; not as though before He was 

born, His mother might, as far as pertained to Him, not 
have been in being. hi like* manner, yea in a manner yel 
more incomprehensible and sublime, the Son of God was 

born, by taking on llim perfect manhood of His Mother. He 


who by His singular almighty power is the cause of their being 
born to all things that are born. 

17. So all the generations from Abraham to David 
are fourteen generations ; and from David until the 
carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations ; 
and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ 
are fourteen generations. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Having enumerated the generations from 
Abraham to Christ, he divides them into three divisions of 
fourteen generations, because three times at the end of four- 
teen generations the state of the people of the Jews was 
changed. From Abraham to David they were under Judges ; 
from David to the carrying away into Babylon under Kings; 
from the carrying away to Christ under the High Priests. 
What he would shew then is this ; like as ever at the end of 
fourteen generations the state of men has changed, so there 
being fourteen generations completed from the carrying away 
to Christ, it must needs be that the state of men be changed 
by Christ. And so since Christ all the Gentiles have been 
made under one Christ Judge, King, and Priest. And for that 
Judges, Kings, and Priests prefigured Christ's dignity, their 
beginnings were always in a type of Christ; the first of the 
Judges was Joshua the son of Nave ; the first of the Kings, 
David; the first of the Priests, Jesus son of Josedcch. That this 
was typical of Christ none doubts. Chrys. Or he divided the 
whole genealogy into three parts, to shew that not even by 
the change of their government were they made better, but 
under Judges, Kings, High Priests, and Priests, held the 
same evil course. For which cause also he mentions the 
captivity in Babylon, shewing that neither by this were they 
corrected. I Jut the going down into Egypt is not mentioned, 
use they were not still in terror of the Egyptians as they 
were of the Assyrians or Parthians; and because that was 
a remote, but this a recent event; and because they had not 

been carried thither for sin as they had to Babylon. Ambrose. Ambroi. 
L ' us not think this is to be overlooked, that though then- j" ;i L,,c - 

iseventeen Kings of Judaea between David and Jeconiab, 
Matthew only recount - fourteen. We must observe that there 

38 OPEL \< < ORBING I" « ii u\ i. 

might be many more successions to the throne tlian genera- 
tions of men ; for some may live Longer and I children 
Later; or might be altogether without seed j thence the num- 
ber of Kings and of generations would not coincide. Gi 

Or Ave may say, that there arc three Kings overlooked, as was 

Ambros. said ab< \mi;i:om. Again, from Jeeoniah to Joseph arc 

1 SUI> ' computed twelve generations; yet he afterwards calls these 

also fourteen. But if von look attentively, von will be able to 

discover the method by which fourteen are reckoned here. 

Twelve are reckoned including Joseph, and Christ is the 

thirteenth; and history declares that there were two Joakims, 

that is two Jeconiahs, father and son. The Eva bai 

not passed over either of these, but has named them both. 

Thus, adding the younger Jeeoniah, fourteen generations 

are computed. Pseudo-Chkys. Or, the same Jeeoniah is 

counted twice in the Gospel, once before the carrying away, 

and again after the carrying away. For this Jeeoniah being 

one person had two different conditions; before the carrying 

away he was King, as being made King by the people of 

God; but he became a private man at the carrying away; hence 

he is reckoned once anionic the Kings before the carrying away; 

Aug. D« and after the carrying away once among private men. A 

,. 011S : . Or, one of Christ's forefathers is counted twice, because in him. 

l.V. il. 1. ' 

Jeeoniah to wit, there was made a passing off to strange 
nations since he was carried to Babylon. Wherever a m 
turns out of the right line to go in any other direction there 
is an angle made, and that part that is in the angle is reckoned 
twice. Thus here is a figure of Christ, who passes from the 
iumcision to the uncircumcision, and is math- a corner- 
stone. Hemic He made fourteen generations, because the 
ten denotes the decalogue, and the four the four books of the 
Gospel; whence this shews the agreement of the Law and 
the GospeL And he put the fourteen three time's over, that 
he might shew that the perfection of law, prophecy, and 
gi In the faith of the Holy Trinity. Gloss. 

Or in this number is signified the sevenfold grace o( the 
Holy Spirit. The number is made up of seven, doubled, 
to shew thai thi of the Holy Spirit is needed both for 

SOUl and bodv to sahation. Also the genealogy Lfl divided 

into tin it portions of fourteen thus. ThefirsJ from Abra 

VER. 17. ST. MATTHEW. 39 

to David, so as that David is included in it; the second from 
David to the carrying away, in which David is not included, 
but the carrying away is included; the third is from the 
carrying away to Christ, in which if we say that Jeconiah is 
included, then the carrying away is included. In the first are 
denoted the men before the Law, in which you will find some 
of the men of the Law of nature, such as Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, all as far as Solomon. In the second are denoted the 
men under the Law ; for all who are included in it were under 
the Law. In the third are found the men of grace ; for it is 
finished in Christ, who was the giver of grace ; and because 
in it was the deliverance from Babylon, signifying the de- 
liverance from captivity that was made by Christ. Aug. Aug. ubi 
After having divided the whole into three periods of fourteen sup# 
generations, he does not sum them all up and say, The sum 
of the whole is forty and two ; because one of those fathers, 
that is Jeconiah, is reckoned twice; so that they do not 
amount to forty-two, as three times fourteen does, but 
because one is reckoned twice over, there are only forty-one 
generations. Matthew, therefore, whose purpose was to draw 
out Christ's kingly character, counts forty successions in the 
genealogy exclusive of Christ. This number denotes the 
time for which we must be governed by Christ in this world, 
according to that painful discipline which is signified by the 
iron rod of which it is written in the Psalms, Thou shalt rule 
them with a rod of iron. That this number should denote 
this our temporal life, a reason offers at hand, in this, that the 
seasons of the vear are four, and that the world itself is 
bounded by four sides, the east, and west, the north, and the 
south. But forty contains ten four times. Moreover, ten 
itself is made up by a number proceeding from one to four. 
IS. Or, the ten refers to the decalogue, the four to 
this life present, which passes through four seasons; or by 
the ten is meant the Old Testament, by the four the New* 
Remio. Bat if any, maintaining that it is not the same 
Jeconiah, hut two different persons, make the number forty 

and two, we then shall say that the Holy Church is signified ; 

'his number is tin; product of seven, and six; (for BIX 

times seven make forty-two ; | the SIX denotes labour, and the 

40 RDING i \r. I. 

18. Now Ihc 1 >i i-t li of Jesus Christ was on this 
wise: When as Ili< mother Alary was espoused to 
Joseph, before they came together, she was found with 
child of the I [oly Ghost 

Pseudo-Chrys. Having said above, andJacob begat Joseph, 
to whom Mary being espoused bare Jesus; that none who 

heard should suppose that ]Iis birth wai as that, of any 
of the forcmentioned fathers, lie cuts off the thread of his 
narrative, Baying, But Christ's generation was thus. As 
though he were to say, The generation of all these fathers 
was aa I have related it ; but Christ's was not so, but as follows, 
His mother Mary being espoused* Chbys. lie announces 
that he is to relate the manner of the generation, shewing 
therein that he is about to speak some new thing; that you 
may not suppose when you hear mention of Mary's husband, 
that Christ was born by the law of nature. R.EMIG. Yet it 
might be referred to the foregoing in this way, The generation 
of Christ was, as I have related, thus, Abraliam begat Isaac. 
Jerome. But why is He conceived not of a Virgin merely, 
but of a Virgin espoused? First, that by the descent of 
Joseph, Mary's family might be made known; secondly, that 
she might not be stoned by the Jews as an ad ult< thirdly, 

that in her flight into Egypt she might have the comfort of 
Yid. Ijxii. a husband. The Martyr Ignatius adds yet a fourth reason, 
lfl ' l namely, that His birth might be hid from the Devil, looking 
for Him to be bom of a wife and not of a virgin. PsBUDO- 
Ciiuys. Therefore b th < led and yet remaining at home; 

tor as in her who should i?6 in the house of her husband, 

is understood natural conception; bo in her who conceives 
before she be taken to her husband, there is suspicion of 
Hieron, infidelity. Jerome. It is to be known, that Helvidius, a 

Helvid Certain turbulent man, having got matter of disputation, 
iii prise, takes in hand to blaspheme against the Mother of God. 
II is first proposition was, Matthew begins thus. When site 
was espoused. Behold, he says, you have her espoused, but, 
as ye say, m,t yet committed ; but surely not espoused for any 
son occ other reason than as being to be married. Oriokn, She 
was indeed espoused to Joseph, but not united in wedlock; 
that is to say, 1 1 i ^ mother immaculate, His mother incorrupt, 

VER. 18. ST. MATTHEW. 41 

His mother pure. His mother ! Whose mother ? The mother 
of God, of the Only-begotten, of the Lord, of the King, of 
the Maker of all things, and the Redeemer of all. Cyril. Cyril. 
"What will any one see in the Blessed Virgin more than in jjj; pist '? d 
other mothers, if she be not the mother of God, but of Christ, Egypt. 
or the Lord, as Nestorius says? For it would not be absurd p ' p * '' 
should any one please to name the mother of any anointed 
person, the mother of Christ. Yet she alone and more than 
they is called the Holy Virgin, and the mother of Christ. 
For she bare not a simple man as ye say, but rather the Word 
incarnate, and made man of God the Father. But perhaps 
you say, Tell me, do you think the Virgin was made the 
mother of His divinity ? To this also we say, that the Word 
was born of the very substance of God Himself, and without 
beginning of time always coexisted with the Father. But in 
these last times when He was made flesh, that is united to 
flesh, having a rational soul, He is said to be born of a woman 
after the flesh. Yet is this sacrament in a manner brought 
out like to birth among us ; for the mothers of earthly chil- 
dren impart to their nature that flesh that is to be perfected 
by degrees in the" human form ; but God sends the life into 
the animal. But though these are mothers only of the earthly 
bodies, yet when they bear children, they are said to bear the 
whole animal, and not a part of it only. Such do we see to 
have been done in the birth of Emmanuel ; the Word of God 
born of the substance of His Father; but because He 
took On Ilim flesh, making it His own, it is necessary to 
confess that lie was born of a woman according to the flesh. 
Where seeing He is truly God, how shall any one doubt to 
call the Holy Virgin the Mother of God? Chrysologus. Chrysol. 
If you are not confounded when you hear. of the birth of God, enn ' 
let not His conception disturb you, seeing the pure virginity 
of the mother removes all that might shock human reverence. 
And what offence against our awe and reverence is there, 
when the Deity entered into union with purity that was always 
dear to Ilim, where an Angel is mediator, faith is bridemaid, 
where chastity is the giving away, virtue the gift, conscience 
thejudge,Qod the cause; where the conception is inviolateness, Cyril, 
the birth virginity, and the mother a rinriii** Cyrtl. But if F p,,t A 

n >~> Jo hi. An- 

l ii. I. of TertuUian, who, with reference ' ,.'•, / 

to tl speake of u the ' 

42 RDING 10 QHAF. I. 

wc were to say tliat the holy Body of Christ came down from 
heaven, and was not made of IIi> mothei alentinus d 

in what sense could Mary be the Mother of God? (> in The name of His Mother Lfl added, Mar//. BEDB. Marv is 

interpreted, 'Star of the Sea/ after the Hebrew; 'Mistreat,' 

after the Syiiae; as she bare into the world the Light of 
salvation, and the Lord'. GrL08S. And to whom she was be- 
trothed is shewn, Joseph. I'-i odo-Chkys. Mary was tie 
fore betrothed to a carpenter, be Christ the Spouse of 

the Church was to work the salvation of all men through 
the wood of the Cross. ChbyS. What follows 1 they 

caiiic together, does not mean before she was brought to the 
bridegroom's house, for she was already within. For it was 
a frequent custom among the ancients to have 1 their betrothed 
wives home to their house before marriage; as wc sec done 
now also, and as the sons-in-law of Lot were with him in the 
house. GLOSS. But the words denote carnal knowlco 
PSBI DO-OhBYS. That He should not lie born of passion, of 
flesh and blood, who was therefore born that lie might ' 
Au?. Dc away all passion of flesh and blood. A.UG. There W8J no 

Concnp earnal knowledge in this wedlock, because in sinful flesh 

i- 12- this could not be without carnal desire which came of sin, 

and which He would be without, who was to be without sin; 
and that hence He might teach us that all flesh which is 
born of sexual union is sinful flesh, seeing that Flesh alone 
was without sin, which was not so born. 

Pteudo- Psi i DO-Al 3, Christ was also born of a pure virgin, beca:; 

Add" 122 ^ WM lm t holy that virtue should be born of pleasure, ehaM ity 

etaL of self-indulgence, incorruption of corruption. Nor could lie 

Come from heaven but after some new manner, who can.; 

destroy the ancient empire of death. Therefore she n 
the crown of virginity who bare the King of chastity. Farther, 
our Lord loughl out for Himself a virgin abode, « herein to be 
received, that lie might she* US that God ought to be boine 

in a chaste body. Therefore He that wrote on tables 

stone without an iron pen, the same wrought in Mary by the 

happint ss of thai " ( I . which the I hi 

m their rebellii 

■ "Qod from m j nee," and 
lehiuerneuoftfa D h.stit. 

(interpret e.t,)f ii 

\, . .i . .■ ,_ .. , i . ... ., •• 



VER. 18. ST. MATTHEW. 43 

Holy Spirit ; She was found with child of the Holy Ghost. 
Jerome. And found by none other than by Joseph, who knew 
all, as being her espoused husband. Pseudo-Chrys. For, as 
a not incredible account relates, Joseph was absent when the 
things were done which Luke writes. For it is not easy to 
suppose that the Angel came to Mary and said those words, 
and Mary made her answer when Joseph was present. And 
even if we suppose thus much to have been possible, yet it 
could not be that she should have gone into the hill country, 
and abode there three months when Joseph was present, 
because he must needs have enquired the causes of her de- 
parture and long stay. And so when after so many months 
he returned from abroad, he found her manifestly with 
child. Chrysost. He says exactly was found, for so we use 
to say of things not thought of. And that you should not 
molest the Evangelist by asking in what way was this birth of 
a virgin, he clears himself shortly, saying, Of the Holy Ghost. 
As much as to say, it was the Holy Ghost that wrought this 
miracle. For neither Gabriel nor Matthew could say any 
further. Gloss. Therefore the words, Is of the Holy Ghost, Gloss, ap. 
were set down by the Evangelist, to the end, that when it nse m * 
was said that she was with child, all wrong suspicion should 
be removed from the minds of the hearers. Pseudo-Aug. Pseudo- 
But not, as some impiously think, are we to suppose, that the Se u r ^ 236 
Holy Spirit was as seed, but we say that He wrought with in App. 
the power and might of a Creator 8 . AMBROSE. That which Ambros. 
is of any thing is either of the substance or the power gancHi's. 
of that thing; of the substance, as the Son who is of the 
Father; of the power, as all things are of God, even as Mary 
was with child of the Holy Spirit. Aug. Furthermore, Aug. En- 
this manner in which Christ was born of the Holy Spirit ,0 
BUggestfl to us the grace of God, by which man without any 
preriooi merits, in the very beginning of his nature, was 
united with the Word of God into so great unity of person, 
that he wai also made son of God. Hut inasmuch at the c 88. 

whole Trinity wrought to make this creature which was con- 
ceived of the Virgin, though pertaining only to the person of 
the Sun, (for the works of the Trinity are indivisible,) why is 

• And thus 8. Hilary fpeftki ofthi ti?» ineuntit 3piritut t 

'Inn. n. J»». 

4 \ GOSPl L 

} . I. 

the Holy Spirit only named in this work? Must wo alv. 

when one of the Three ia named in any work, understand I 
Hicron. the whole Trinity worked in that? Jerome. Bui IIcl- vidiuaj Neither would the Evangelist have said Before they 
prineip. came together, if they were not to come together afterwards; 

M none would say, Before dinner, where there was to be no 

dinner. As if one should say, Before I dined in harbour, I - 
sail for Africa, would this have no meaning in it, unlets he 

were at some time or Other to dine in the harbour'.' Surely 
wc must eitherunderstand it thus, — that 6eybre,though it < 
implies something to follow, yet often is said of things that 
follow only in thought ; and it i^ not necessary that the things 
so thought of should take plaee, for that something else has 
happened to prevent them from taking place. Jerome* 
Therefore it hv no means follows that they did come together 
afterwards; Scripture however shews not what did happen. 
Kimio. Or the word come together may not m rnal 

knowledge, but may refer to the time of the nuptials, when 
she who was betrothed begins to be wife. Thus, they 

came together, may mean before they solemnly celebn 
Aug. D« the nuptial rites. AUG. How this was done Matthew omits 
j.','.' to write, but Luke relates after the conception of John, In 

»• 5 - the sixth month the Angel was sent; and again, The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee. Thia it what Matthew relates 
in these words, She was found with clii/d of the Holy Ghost. 
And it is no contradiction that Luke has described what 
Matthew omits; or again that Matthew relates what Luke 

lias omitted; that namely which follows, from Now Joi 

her husband being a just m \ that place where it ia 
of the Niagi, that They returned into t ntry 

another wnij. If one desired to d one narrative the 

two accounts of Christ's birth, he would arra; ge thus ; begin- 
ning with Matthew's words, NOW th* birth Of Christ vu 

Luke i,. r i. this wisci thru taking up with Luke, from There was in the 

■s of Herod, tO, Mary abode With her three months, and 

returned to her house; then taking up again Matthew, add, 
lid. She was found with child of the Holy Ghot 

VER. 19. ST. MATTHEW. 45 

19. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, 
and not willing to make her a public example, was 
minded to put her away privily. 

Chrysost. The Evangelist having said that she was found 
with child of the Holy Ghost, and without knowledge of man, 
that you should not herein suspect Christ's disciple of invent- 
ing wonders in honour of his Master, brings forward Joseph 
confirming the history by his own share in it ; Now Joseph 
her husband, being a just man. Pseudo-Aug. Joseph, under- Pseudo- 
standing that Mary was with child, is perplexed that it should Se "^ . 
be thus with her whom he had received from the temple of a pp- 

s 195 
the Lord, and had not yet known, and resolved within him- 
self, saying, What shall I do ? Shall I proclaim it, or shall I 
overlook it ? If I proclaim it, I am indeed not consenting to 
the adultery; but I am running into the guilt of cruelty, for 
by Moses' law she must be stoned. If I overlook it, I am 
consenting to the crime, and take my portion with the 
adulterers. Since then it is an evil to overlook the thing, 
and worse to proclaim the adultery, I will put her away from 
being my wife. Ambrose. St. Matthew has beautifully taught Ambros. 
how a righteous man ought to act, who has detected his ii# 5m 
wife's disgrace; so as at once to keep himself guiltless of her 
blood, and yet pure from her defilements ; therefore it is he 
says, Being a just man. Thus is preserved throughout in 
ph the gracious character of a righteous man, that his 
testimony may be the more approved; for, the tongue of the 
just speaketh the judgment of truth. Jerome. But how is 
ph thus called just, when he is ready to hide his wife's sin ? 
For the Law enacts, that not only the doers of evil, but they 
who are privy to any evil done, shall be held to be guilty. 
Ch&Y806T. But it should be known, that just here is used to 
denote (me who L8 in all things \irtuous. For there is a par- 
ticular justice, namely, the being free from eovetousness ; 
and another universal virtue, in which sense Scripture gene- 
rally u^es the word justice. Therefore being just, that is 
kind, merciful, he W08 minded to /nil inruij privily her who 
irding to tin; Law was liable not only to dismissal, 

but to death. Bat Joseph remitted both, as though living 
above the Law. Lor as the sun lightens up the world, 

46 6P1 L §>0 ORDIKQ TO LP, l. 

before lie shews his rays, so Christ before He was born 
caused many wonders to be seen. \< <■. Otherwise: if 
you alone have knowledge of s sin that any has committed 
against you, and desire to accuse him thereof before men, 
do not herein correct, but rather betray him. But •' 
being a Just man, with great mercy spared his wife, in this 
great crime of which he suspected her. The seeming cer- 
tainty of her unchastity tormented him, and yet because lie 

alone knew of it, lie was willing not to publish it, but to send 

her away privily ; seeking rather the benefit than the punish- 
ment of the sinner. Jsromb. Or this may be considered a 

testimony to Mary, that Joseph, confident in her purity, and 
wondering at what had happened, covered in silence that 
mystery which he could not explain. RabAVUS. lie beheld 
her to be with child, whom he knew to be chaste; and bc- 

Is. 11, 1. Cause he had read, There shall come a Rod out of tfie ti 

of Jesse, of which he knew that .Mary was come ~, and had 

Is. 7. 14 also read, Behold s a virgin shall conceive, he did not doubt 

that this prophecy should be fulfilled in her. Origi \. Hut 

if he had no suspicion of her, how could he be a just man, 

and yet seek to put her away, being immaculate ? He sought 

to put her away, because he saw in her a gn 

Gloss, ftp. to approach which he thought himself unworthy. GLOSS. 
Ansclin. /\ • i • i i • . 

Or, m seeking to put her away, he was just ; in that lie 

sought it privily, is shewn his mercy, defending her from 

disgrace j Being a just man, he was minded to j/ut her away ; 

and being unwilling to expose her in public, and so to disgrace 
Ambrot. her, he sought to do it privily. AMBROSE. But as no one 

ii" i ut I )Uts *way what he has not received ; in that he was minded 

Gloss. ]>.,it to put her away, he admits to have received her. (ii. 

:i]} : . Or, being unwilling to bring her home to his Ik. use to live 

■elm. part ' ■ o o 

iii On!. with him for ever, he WO$ minded to V%U her iiuaij privily ; 

that is, to change the time of their marriage, lor that is true 

virtue, when neither mercy 11 \ci\ without justice, nor 

justice without mercy; both which vanish when levered one 
from the other. Or he wasjust because of his faith, in that 

•J A' I r. flower (flos) wliicli is ipdkeo of in the 

s. ii. •">. .ind ! itine, (t. vi. clause following. Cyril Alex, et TJ 

ppljf tin 0OD- in loc explain it of Christ. 

the " Branch " or 

VER. 20. ST. MATTHEW. 47 

he believed that Christ should be born of a virgin ; where- 
fore he wished to humble himself before so great a favour. 

20. But while he thought on these things, behold, 
the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, 
saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take 
unto thee Mary thy wife : for that which is conceived 
in her is of the Holy Ghost. 

Remig. Because Joseph was minded, as has been said, to 
put Mary away privily, which if he had done, there would 
have been few who would not rather have thought her a 
harlot than a virgin, therefore this purpose of Joseph was 
changed by Divine revelation, whence it is said, While lie 
thought on these things. Gloss. In this is to be noted Gloss, ap. 
the wise soul that desires to undertake nothing rashly. ns * 
Chrys. Also observe the mercifulness of Joseph, that he 
imparted his suspicions to none, not even to her whom he 
suspected, but kept them within himself. Pseudo-Aug. Pseudo- 
Yet though Joseph think on these things, let not Mary the sei-m. in 
daughter of David be troubled ; as the word of the Prophet App. 195. 
brought pardon to David, so the Angel of the Saviour delivers 
Mary. Behold, again appears Gabriel the bridesman of this 
Virgin; as it follows, Behold the Angel of the Lord appeared 
to Joseph. Ambrose. In this word appeared is conveyed 
the power of Him that did appear, allowing Himself to be 
seen where and how He pleases. Raman. How the Angel 
appeared to Joseph is declared in the words, In his sleep ; 
that is, as Jacob saw the ladder offered by a kind of imagining 
to the eyes of his heart. Chrys. He did not appear so 
openly to Joseph as to the Shepherds, because he was faithful ; 
the shepherds needed it, because they were ignorant. The 
Virgin also needed it, as she had first to be instructed in these 
mighty wonders. In like manner Zaeharias needed the won- 
derful vision before the conception of his son. Gloss. The oiom. 
Angel appearing calls him by name, and adds his descent, J*J* '" , * 
iii older to banish fear, Joseph, son of David; .Joseph, as lelm. 
though he were known to him by name and his familiar friend. 

i do-Chrys. By addressing him as son of David, he sought 
to reeal to his memory the promise of God to David, that of 


Lis seed should Christ be born. Chrys. But by Baying, 
Be not afraid, he Bhews bim to be in fear that he had offended 
d,by having an adult for only aa - ich would he have 

ever thought of putting her away. Chky80loo. As her be- 
trothed husband also he is admonished not to be afraid; 
the mind that compassionates has most fear; as though be 
w re t" lay, Here ii no cause of death, but of life; she that 
brings forth life, does not d< death. Pseudo-Chrys. 

Also by the words, Fear not, he desired to shew that he knew 
the b< art ; that by this he might have the more faith in tl 
d thin. me, which he was about to speak concerning 

Ambroc Christ. Ambrose. Be not troubled that he calls her his 
."' / lu * wife: for she ia not herein robin d of her virginity, but her 

11.'). ' O » ' 

wedlock is witnessed to, and the celebration of her man 
i^ declared. JEROME. But we are not to think that sin 
to be betrothed, because she is here called wife, since we 
know that this is the Scripture manner to call the man and 
woman, when espoused, husband and wife; and this is con- 

]),„,. firmed by that text in Deuteronomy, If one find a virgin that 
22, 23. /s . fotrothed to a iiuiii in (he field, and offer violence to h< r, 

and lie with tier, lie shtill (tic, l>- tic fuith humbled /lis 

neighbour's wtfe. Chrys. lie says, Fear not to take unto 
thee; that is, to keep at home; for in thought she was already 

dismissed. l!\i;\\. Or, to take her, that is, in mum 
union and continual converse. PsEUDO-ChRYB, There were 
three reasons why the Angel appeared to Joseph with this 
message. First, that a just man might not be led into an 
unjust action, with just intentions. Secondly, for the honour 

of tin' mother herself, for had she been put away, she could 
not have been tree from c\ \\ suspicion among the unbelii \\ 

Thirdly, that .Joseph, understanding the holy conception, 

might keep himself from her with more care than before. 
He did not appear to .Joseph before the conception, that he 
should not thin. things that Xacharias thought, nor 

suffer what hi' luffered in falling into the sin of unbelief 

concerning the conception of his wife in her old age. For it 
i yel more incredible that a virgin should conceive, than 

that a woman past the age should coucei\e. OhBTS. (h', 

The Angel appeared to Joseph when he was in this perplexity, 
that his wildom might be apparent to Joseph, and that this 

VER. 20. ST. MATTHEW. 49 

might be a proof to him of those things that he spoke. For 
when he heard out of the mouth of the Angel those very things 
that he thought within himself, this was an undoubted proof, 
that he was a messenger from God, who alone knows the 
secrets of the heart. Also the account of the Evangelist is 
beyond suspicion, as he describes Joseph feeling all that a 
husband was likely to feel. The Virgin also by this was 
more removed from suspicion, in that her husband had felt 
jealousy, yet took her home, and kept her with him after her 
conception. She had not told Joseph the things that the 
Angel had said to her, because she did not suppose that she 
should be believed by her husband, especially as he had 
begun to have suspicions concerning her. But to the Virgin 
the Angel announced her conception before it took place, 
lest if he should defer it till afterwards she should be in 
straits. And it behoved that Mother who was to receive the 
Maker of all things to be kept free from all trouble. Not 
only does the Angel vindicate the Virgin from all impurity, 
but shews that the conception was supernatural, not removing 
his fears only, but adding matter of joy; saying, That which 
is born in her is of the Holy Spirit. 

Gloss. To be born in her, and born of her, are two dif- Glos?. ord. 
ferent things ; to be born of her is to come into the world ; 
to be born in her, is the same as to be conceived. Or the 
word born is used according to the foreknowledge of the 
Angel which he has of God, to whom the future is as the past. 
Pseudo-Aug. But if Christ was born by the agency of the Hil. 
Holy Ghost, how is that said, Wisdom hath built herself ^^ 
an house ? That house may be taken in two meanings. V. Test. 
First, the house of Christ is the Church, which He built p^y. 9 1. 
with His own blood ; and secondly, His body may be called 
His house, as it is called His temple. But the work of the 
Holy Spirit, is also the work of the Son of God, because 
of the unity of their nature and their will ; for whether 
it be the Father, or the Son, or the Holy Spirit, that doeth 
it, it is the Trinity that works, and what the Three do, is 
of One God. Ai <,. Hut shall we therefore say that the Holy Aug. 
Spirit is the lather of the man Christ, that as God the Father 38° 
begot the Word, so the Holy Spirit begot the man? This is 
such an absurdity, that the ears of the faithful cannot U<rfrTi\t\ 

VOL. I. I /& 

50 G06P1 L LOCORDWG TO ; u> - u 

How then do we say that Christ in born by the Holy 
Spirit,tf the Holy Spirit did not beget Him? Did He en 
Hin, ? For so four as He ii man He was created, ai the Apostle 
Rom. i,a. speaks \ Re was made of the seed of David according to the 
flesh, For though God made the world, yet is it not right 

to sav that it II the Son of Cod, or horn by Him, but that it 
was made, or created, or formed by Him. Bnt seeing that 

we confess Christ to have been horn by the Holy Sprit, and 
of the Virgin Mary, how is He not the Son of the Holy 
Spirit, and is the Son of the Virgin? It does not follow, that 
whatever is horn by any thing, is therefore to be called the 
son of that thing; for, not to say that of man is born in one 
sense a son, in another a hair, or vermin, or a worm, none of 
whieh are his son, certainly those that are born of writer and 
the Spirit none would call sons of water ; but sons of God 
their Father, and their Mother the Church. Thus Christ 
was born of the Holy Spirit, and yet is the Son of Cod the 
lather, not of the Holy Spirit. 

21. And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou 
Shalt call ilis name Jesus: lor lie shall save His 
people from their sins. 

ChBYSOST, What the Angel thus told Joseph, was beyond 
human thought, ami the law of nature, therefore he con- 
firms his Bpeech not only by revealing to him what was past, 
but also what was to come; She skull bring forth a v 
QloM.ap. GL08S, That Joseph should not suppose that he was no 

A I 

Me • longer needed in this wedlock, seeing the conception had 
taken place without his intervention, the Angel declares to 
him, that though there had been no Deed of him ID the cou- 
: ion, yet there was need of his guardianship J for the 
Virgin should bear a Son, and then he would be necessary 
both to the Mother and her Son ; tothe Mother to s.reen her 
from disgl mi to bring Him up and to circumcise 

Him. The circumcision is meant when fa 1^ And thou 

shall cull HiinanU JeSUi ; for it was usual to give the name 

in circumcision. Psbi do Chrt& He said not, Shall bear thee 

(i 6 \betk thy ir/fr shall btOT 

ton. 1 ox the woman who conceives oi herhusbandj 

VER. 22. ST. MATTHEW. 51 

bears the son to her husband, because he is more of him 
than of herself; but she who had not conceived of man, did 
not bear the Son to her husband, but to herself. Chrysost. 
Or, he left it unappropriated, to shew that she bare Him to 
the whole world. Rabax. Thou shalt call His name, he says, 
and not, " shalt give Him a name," for His name had been 
given from all eternity. Chrysost. This further shews that 
this birth should be wonderful, because it is God that sends 
down His name from above by His Angel ; and that not any 
name, but one which is a treasure of infinite good. Therefore 
also the Angel interprets it, suggesting good hope, and by 
this induces him to believe what was spoken. For we lean 
more easily to prosperous things, and yield our belief more 
readily to good fortune. Jerome. Jesus is a Hebrew word, 
meaning Saviour. He points to the etymology of the name, 
saying, For He shall save His people from their sins. Remig. 
He shews the same man to be the Saviour of the whole 
world, and the Author of our salvation. He saves indeed 
not the unbelieving, but His people ; that is, He saves those 
that believe on Him, not so much from visible as from invisible 
enemies ; that is, from their sins, not by fighting with arms, 
but by remitting their sins. Chrysolog. Let them approach 
to hear this, who ask, Who is He that Mary bare ? He shall 
save His people ; not any other man's people ; from what ? 
from their sins. That it is God that forgives sins, if you do 
not believe the Christians so affirming, believe the infidels, 
or the Jews who say, None can forgive sins but God only. Luke 5, 1. 

22. Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled 
which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, 

23. Behold, a Virgin shall be with child, and shall 
bring forth a Son, and they shall call His Name 
Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. 

Remig. It is the custom of the Evangelist to confirm what 
he sayi out of the Old Testament, for the sake of those Jews 
who believed on Christ, that they might recognise as fulfilled 
in the grace of* the Gospel, the things that were foretold in the 
Old Testament j therefore he adds, Now all l his was dour. 

i '2 

GOSPEL \< < 0RDING to < B IP. I. 

1 1 cio we luii-t enqaire why he should say all this wa 

when above he has only related the conception. It should 
be known that he lays this to shew, tlutt in the pretence of 

God a/I this WOS done before it was done among men. Or 

lie - / this was done, because he !*> relating past events; 

Gloss, ap. for when lie wrote, it was all done. GLOSS. Or, he savs, 

A .1 

all this was done, meaning, the Virgin was betroth* d. she was 

kept chaste, she was found with child, the revelation was 
made by the Angel, that it might be fulfilled winch was 
spoken. For that the Virgin should conceive and should 
bring forth would never have been fulfilled, had she not been 
espoused that she should not be stoned ; and had not her 
ret been disclosed by the Angel, and so Joseph taken her 
unto him, that she was not dismissed to disgrace and to 
perish by stoning. So had she perished before the birth, that 
Im. 7. 11. prophecy would have been made void which says. She shall 

bring forth a Son. Gloss. Or it may be said, that the word 
that does not here denote the cause; for the prophecy was 
not fulfilled merely because it was to be fulfilled. Hut it 
• !<>. is put Consecutively, as in Genesis, lie hum) the other on the 
gallows, that the truth of the interpreter might he pror 

since by the weighing of one, truth Lb established. So also 

in this place we must understand it as if it were, that which 

was foretold being done, the prophecy was accomplished. 
ChRYBOST. Otherwise; the Angel seeing the depths of the 

Divine mercy, the laws of nature broken through and i\ con- 
ciliation made, Be who was above all made lower than all; 
all these wonders, all this he comprises in that one saying, 

\ W all this hath happened; BJ though he had said, Do 

suppose that this is newly devised of God, it was del 

mined of old. And he right ly cites the Prophet not to the 
\ Lrgin, who as a maiden was untaught in Mich things, but to 
Joseph, as tO one much \ersed in the Prophets. And at first 
he had spoken of Mary as ///// infc but now in the words of 
the Prophet he brings in the word " \ irgm," that he might 
heal I In- from the Prophet . a- a thing long before determined. 
i afore to confirm what lie had said, he introduces Isaiah, 
or rather Godj for he does not Say, Which was spoken by 

ah, but, Which was spoken of the Lord l>\i the Prophet. 
n. omb. Since it is introduced in the Prophet by the words, 

. \ ii. 


VER. 22. ST. MATTHEW. 53 

The Lord Himself shall give you a sign, it ought to be some- 
thing Dew and wonderful. But if it be, as the Jews will have 
it, a young woman, or a girl shall bring forth, and not a virgin, 
what wonder is this, since these are words signifying age 
and not purity ? Indeed the Hebrew word signifying Virgin 
(Bethula) is not used in this place, but instead the word 
' Halma*/ which except the LXX all render 'girl.' But the 
word 'Halma' has a twofold meaning; it signifies both 'girl/ 
and ( hidden/ therefore ' Halma' denotes not only ' maiden' 
or 'virgin/ but 'hidden/ 'secret/ that is, one never exposed to 
the gaze of men, but kept under close custody by her parents. 
In the Punic tongue also, which is said to be derived from 
Hebrew sources, a virgin is properly called ' Halma/ In our 
tongue also 'Halma' means holy; and the Hebrews use words 
of nearly all languages ; and as far as my memory will serve 
me, I do not think I ever met with Halma used of a married 
woman, but of her that is a virgin, and such that she be not 
merely a virgin, but in the age of youth ; for it is possible for 
an old woman to be a maid. But this was a virgin in years of 
youth, or at least a virgin, and not a child too young for mar- 
riage. Id. For that which Matthew the Evangelist says, Shall In loc. 
have in her womb, the Prophet who is foretelling something 
future, writes, shall receive. The Evangelist, not foretelling 
the future but describing the past, changes shall receive, into 
shall have; but he who has, cannot after receive that he has. 
He says, Lo, a Virgin shall have in her womb, and shall bear 
a Son. Leo. The conception was by the Holy Spirit within Leo, 
the womb of the Virgin ; who, as she conceived in perfect xx jjj.'i. 
chastity, in like manner brought forth her Son. Pseudo-Aug. 1'seudo- 
II c, who by a touch could heal the severed limbs of others, in App. 
how much more could He, in His own birth, preserve whole s * 123# 
that which lie found whole? In this parturition, soundness 
of the Mother's body was rather strengthened than weakened, 
and her virginity rather confirmed than lost. THEODOTUS. Theod. 
Inasmuch as Photinus affirms that He that was now born an j n i m 

was mere man, not allowing the divine birth, and maintains Cone, 

i i r i i /• i i t Ephi ap. 

that, He who now issued from the womb was the man separate Hard. 
from the God: let bim -hew how it was possible that human '•*■ |,,)# 
'nre, born of the Virgin s womb, should have preserved the to 

Is. vii. 14. 


virginity of that womb uneorrnpted ; for tlic mother of no man 
cur yet remained a virgin. Bui forasmuch as it wai Gh>d the 
Word who now born in the flesh, lie shewed Himself 

to be the Word, in that He preserved His mother's virginity. 
For M our word when it is begot docs not destroy the mind, 
so neither docs God the Word in choosing His hirth destroy 
the virginity. Chrts. As it is the manner of Scripture to 
convey a knowledge of events under the form of a name, so 
here. They shall call His name Emmanuel, means nothing i 
than. They shall see (iod among men. Whence he say- not, 
' Thon shalt call/ but, They shall call. \\ lbah. First, Ang< Is 
hymning, secondly, Apostles preaching, then Holy Mar- 
Jerom.ii] fcyrs, and lastly, all believers. JebOMB. The IA\ and three 
others translate, 'Thou shalt call/ instead of which we have 
here, They shall call, which is not so in the Hebrew; for 
the word ' ('harathi 1 ',' which all render Thou shall call, i 
mean, ' And she shall call/ that is, The Virgin that shall con- 
ceive and shall bear Christ, shall call His name Emmanuel, 
which is interpreted, ' God with us/ Bbmig. It is s question, 
who interpreted this name? The Prophet, or the I list, 

or some translator? It should be known then, that the 
Prophet did not interpret it ; and what need had the Holy 
Evangelist to do so, seeing he wrote in the Hebrew tongue? 
Perhaps that was s difficult and rare word in Hebrew, and 
therefore needed interpretation. It is more probable that 
some translator interpreted it, that the Latins might not be 
perplexed by an unintelligible word. In this name are con- 
veyed at once the two substance i, the Divinity and Humanity 
in the one Person of the Lord .lesus Christ. He who before 

all time \\;is begot in an unspeakable manner by (iod the 
bather, the same in the end of time was made I iuel, 

that is, >,<,({ ir'ith Iff, of a Virgin Mother. This Qod with US 
may be understood in this w,y. He was made with us, 
passible, mortal, and in all things like unto us without sin ; 

or because our frail substance which He took on Him, He 
joined in one Person to His Divine substance. Jerome. 

It should be known, that the Hebrews believe this prop}] 
to refer I \ . because in his ,, 

Samaria was taken; but this cannot be established. Ahaz 

ubi sup. 

VER. 22. ST. MATTHEW. 55 

son of Jotham reigned over Judaea and Jerusalem sixteen 
years, and was succeeded by his son Ezekias, who was twenty- 
three years old, and reigned over Judaea and Jerusalem twenty- 
nine years ; how then can a prophecy prophesied in the first 
year of Ahaz refer to the conception and birth of Ezekias, 
when he was already nine years of age ? Unless perhaps the 
sixth year of the reign of Ezekias, in which Samaria was 
taken, they think is here called his infancy, that is, the infancy 
of his reign, not of his age ; which even a fool must see to be 
hard and forced. A certain one of our interpreters contends, 
that the Prophet Isaiah had two sons, Jashub and Emmanuel; 
and that Emmanuel was born of his wife the Prophetess as 
a type of the Lord and Saviour. But this is a fabulous tale. 
Petrus Alfonsus. For we know not that any man of that Petr. 
day was called Emmanuel. But the Hebrew objects, How can DiaHit.7 
it be that this was said on account of Christ and Mary, when 
many centuries intervened between Ahaz and Mary? But 
though the Prophet was speaking to Ahaz, the prophecy was 
yet not spoken to him only or of his time only ; for it is intro- 
duced, Hear, house of David-; not, 'Hear, O Ahaz/ Again, Isa. 7, 13. 
The Lord Himself shall give you a sign; meaning He, and 
none other ; from which we may understand that the Lord 
Himself should be the sign. And that he says to you, (plur.) 
and not ' to thee/ shews that this was not spoken to Ahaz, or 
on his account only. Jerome. What is spoken to Ahaz then Jemm. 
is to be thus understood. This Child, that shall be born ubi SU P* 
of a Virgin of the house of David, shall now be called Em- 
manuel, that is, God with us, because the events (perhaps 
delivery from the two hostile kings) will make it appear that 
you have God present with you. But after He shall be called 
Jesus, that is, Saviour, because He shall save the whole human 
race. Wonder not, therefore, O house of David, at the new- 
I of this thing, that a Virgin should bring forth a God, 
seeing lie hai 10 great might that though yet to be born after 
a long while, Ho delivers you now when you call upon 1 1 im. 
Ai a. Who 10 mad M to say with Maniehieus, that it is a weak Au£. 
faith DOt to believe in Christ without a witness; whereas the p^jjj. 

Apo How shall they believe on "Him of whom they , -'- ' '• 

have not heard.'.' Or how shall they hair without a preacher? R()1 

That t hose t blDgl w hich \\< re [(reached by 1 lie A poM Irs might '<', 1 k 

56 6PE1 \< ( OBDDfG CO » H w. E. 

not l)o contemned, nor thought to be fables, they are pr< 
to have been foretold by the Prophets. For though attested 
by miracli would not have been wanting men to 

ribe them all to magical power, had no1 inch suggestions 

been overcome by the additional testimony of prophecy. For 
none could suppose that long before lie was born, He had 
raised up by magic prophets to prophesy of Him. For ifwe 
say to a (.entile, Believe on Christ that lie is (iod, and he 

should answer. Whence is it that I Bhould believe on Him? 
mc might allege the authority of the Prophets. Should he 
refuse assent to this, we establish their credit from their haying 
foretold things to come, and those things baring truly come 
to pass. 1 suppose he could not but know how great perse- 
cutions tin; Christian religion has formerly Buffered from the 
Kings of this world; let him now behold those very Kings 
submitting to the kingdom of Christ, and all nations serving 
the same; all which things the Prophets foretold. He then 
hearing these things out of the Scriptures of the Propl 
and beholding them accomplished throughout the whole earth, 

i*.ap. would be moved to faith. Cioss. Tins error then is barred 
by the Evangelic ing, That it might be fulfilled which 

was spoken of the Lord by the Prophet* Now one kind of 

prophecy is by the preordination of (iod, and must needs be 
fulfilled, and that without any free choice on our part. Such is 
that of which we now speak ; wherefore he Bays, Lo t to shew 
the certainty of prophecy. There is another kind of prop] 
which is by the foreknowledge of (iod, and with this our free 
will is mixed up; wherein by grace working with as we ob- 
tain reward, or if justly deserted by it. torment. Another is 
not of foreknowledge, but is a kind of threat made after the 

JonahS. manner of men: as that, Vet forty dat/8 } and A h shall 

be overthrown: understanding, unless the Nineyites amend 

iheniseh I 

•J I. Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the 

angel of tin l. >rd had bidden him, and took unto liini 

Ills \\ i 

And knew her not till >he had brought forth 
Iki first-born Son ; and he called His name JfiSl S. 

VER. 24, 25. ST. MATTHEW. 57 

Remig. Life returned by the same entrance through which 
death had entered in. By Adam's disobedience we were 
ruined, by Joseph's obedience we all begin to be recalled to 
our former condition ; for in these words is commended to us 
the great virtue of obedience, when it is said, And Joseph 
rising from sleep, did as the Angel of the Lord had commanded 
him. Gloss. He not only did what the Angel commanded, Gloss. 
but as he commanded it. Let each one who is warned of °/ d " f ap * 

Anselm ex 

God, in like manner, break off all delays, rise from sleep, Beda cit. 
and do that which is commanded him. Psetjdo-Chrys. Took 
unto him, not took home to him ; for he had not sent her 
away ; he had put her away in thought only, and now took 
her again in thought. Remig. Or, Took her so far, as that 
the nuptial rites being complete, she was called his wife ; but 
not so far as to lie with her, as it follows, And knew her not. 
Jerome. Helvidius is at much superfluous trouble to make Jerom. 
this word know refer to carnal knowledge rather than to ac- H^' id 
quaintance, as though any had ever denied that ; or as if the c. 5. 
follies to which he replies had ever occurred to any person of 
common understanding. He then goes on to say, that the 
adverb ' until ' denotes a fixed time when that should take 
place, which had not taken place before ; so that here from 
the words, He knew her not until she had brought forth her 
first-born Son, it is clear, he says, that after that he did know 
her. And in proof of this he heaps together many instances 
from Scripture. To all this we answer, that the word { until' 
is to be understood in two senses in Scripture. And con- 
cerning the expression, knew her not, he has himself shewn, 
that it must be referred to carnal knowledge, none doubting 
that it is often used of acquaintance, as in that, The child Luke 2, 
Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem, and His parents knew not 
of it. In like manner 'until' often denotes in Scripture, as 
he has shewn, a fixed period, but often also an infinite time, 
a- in that, Even to your old age I am He. Will God then Isa. 46, 4. 

16 to l)e when they are grown old '? Also the Saviour in 
the Gospel, Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of Mat 28, 
///is world. Will lie then leave His disciples at the end of 20 ' 

the vrorld? Again, the Apostle says, lie must reign till //<• i Cor.15, 
has /j ni His enemies under His feci. Be it understood then, 1,K 

that that which if it had not been written might have been 

58 gospel m i oBDnra i<> « hap. i. 

doubted of, is expressly declared to as; other thing* arc left 
to our own understanding . So here the Evangelist informs 
us, in that wherein there might have been room for error, 
that she iras not known by her husband until the birth of 
her Son, that we might thence infer that much less was she 
known afterwards. Psbt do-Chbts. As one might say, MIc 
told it not so long as he lived;' would this imply that he 
told it after his death? Impossible. - s o it were credible 
that Joseph might have known her before the birth, while 
he was yet ignorant of the great mystery ; but alter that he 
understood how she had been made a temple of the Only- 
begotten of God, how could he occupy that'." The folio- 
of Eunomiua think, as they have dared to assert this, that 
Joseph also dared to do it, just as the insane think all men 
Jcrom. equally mad with themselves. JBBOMB. Lastly, I would ask, 
lk'lvid. 8. Why then did Joseph abstain at all up to the day of birth? 
lie will surely answer, Because of the Angel's words, Thai 
which is born in her, §c. He then who gave so much 1 
to a vision as not to dare to touch his wife, would he, after 
lie had heard the shepherds, seen the Magi, and known so 
many miracles, dare to approach the temple of God, I 
of the Holy Ghost, the Mother of his Lord? 

Pskudo-Chrys. It may be said, that know here signifies 
simply, to understand; that whereas before he had not under- 
stood how great her dignity, after the birth he then k 
that she had been made more honourable and worthy than 
the whole world, who had carried in her womb Him whom 
the whole world could not contain. GtLOSS. Otherwise; On 
account of the glorification of the most holy Mary, she could 

not be known by Joseph until the birth ; for she who had the 
Lord of glory in her womb, how should she be known 1 .' If 

the face of Mosea talking with God was made glorious, so 

that the children of Israel could not look thereon, how much 

In Other not the vision had its ( th i-t upon him up 

imp rUin point of to that time irhon it was no . 

time, but may be giving ua information ncooaaaij. Juat as if, in 

np to a point from w hiih onwards tluic a man like A.U , that, 

ulit. Suppi in consequence fid occur* 

Eel i at th ughl I he area in tim habil i 

king th.a Joaeph thould hare con- prayers till the time of his conn i 
•'il the 13 would suppoee that he left them 

a/1 .i witness ol hci off* on being convert 

would onl\ 

VER. 24, 25. ST. MATTHEW. 59 

more could not Mary be known, or even looked upon, who 
bare the Lord of glory in her womb ? After the birth she 
was known of Joseph to the beholding of her face, but not 
to be approached carnally. Jerome. From the words, her 
first-born Son, some most erroneously suspect that Mary had 
other sons, saying that first-born can only be said of one 
that has brethren. But this is the manner of Scripture, to 
call the first-born not only one who is followed by brethren, 
but the first-birth of the mother. Id. For if he only was Cont. 
first-born who was followed by other brethren, then no first- e V1 ' 
birth could be due to the Priests, till such time as the second 
birth took place. Gloss. Or ; He is first-born among the Gloss, 
elect by grace ; but by nature the Only-begotten of God the 
Father, the only Son of Mary. And called His name Jesus, 
on the eighth day on which the circumcision took place, and 
the Name was given. Remig. It is clear that this Name 
was well known to the Holy Fathers and the Prophets of 
God, but to him above all, who spake, My soul fainted for Ps. 119, 


Also to him who spake, I will joy in God my Saviour. Hab.3 18. 

Thy salvation; and, My soul hath rejoiced in Thy salvation. 

( HAP. II. 

1, Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of 
Judaea id the days of Herod the king, behold, there 
came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 

2. Saying, Where is He that is horn King of the 
Jews? for we have seen His star in the cast, and are 
come to worship Him. 

Aug. A\c. After the miraculous Virgin-birth, a God-man having 

mom occ. ^ Divine power proceeded from a virgin womb; in the 

obscure shelter of such a cradle, a narrow stall, wherein lay 

Infinite Majesty in a body more narrow, a God was suckled 

and suffered the wrapping of vile rags — amidst all this, on 
a Midden a new star shone in the sky upon the earth, and 
driving away the darkness of the world, changed night into 
day; that the day-star should not be hidden by the night. 
Hence it is that the Evangelist Bays. Now when Jesus was 
bom in Bethlehem, Remig. In the beginning of this pas- 
sage of the Gospel he puts three several things; the person, 
When Jena was horn, the place, in Bethlehem of Jurfwa, and 
the time, /'// the days of Herod the king. These three circum- 
stances verirj his words. Jbromi . We think the Evangelist 
first wrote, as we read in the Hebrew, ' Judah,' not 'Judaea. 4 
For in what other country is there a Bethlehem, that this 
needs to be distinguished as m 'Judaea?' Bui r Judah J is 
written, because there is another Bethlehem in Galilee. 
Glo«. Gloss. There are two Bethlehems; one in the tribe of 
joth. 19 Zabulon, the other in the tribe of Judah, which was before 
i >, called Bphrata. 

kvo. Concerning the idee. Bethlehem, Matthew and 
i ng, Luke agree; hut the cauae and manner of their being there, 
1 '' Lul Matthew omits. Luke again omits the account 

' he Mam. H inch Matthew gn | 


Psetjdo-Chrys. Let us see to what serves tins designation 
of time, In the days of Herod the king. It shews the fulfil- 
ment of Daniel's prophecy, wherein he spake that Christ 
should be born after seventy weeks of years. For from the 
time of the prophecy to the reign of Herod, the years of 
seventy weeks were accomplished. Or again, as long as 
Judaea was ruled by Jewish princes, though sinners, so long 
prophets were sent for its amendment ; but now, whereas 
God's law was held under the power of an unrighteous king, 
and the righteousness of God enslaved by the Roman rule, 
Christ is born ; the more desperate sickness required the 
better physician. Rabanus. Otherwise, he mentions the 
foreign king to shew the fulfilment of the prophecy. The Gen. 49, 
Sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a Lawgiver from 
between his feet , until Shiloh come. Ambrose. It is said, that Ambros. 
some Idumaean robbers coming to Ascalon, brought with |"j >41> " 
them among other prisoners Antipater a . He was instructed 
in the law and customs of the Jews, and acquired the 
friendship of Hyrcanus, king of Judaea, who sent him as 
his deputy to Pompey. He succeeded so well in the object 
of his mission, that he laid claim to a share of the throne. 
He was put to death, but his son Herod was under Antony 
appointed king of Judaea, by a decree of the Senate ; so it 
is clear that Herod sought the throne of Judaea without any 
connection or claim of birth. Chrys. Herod the king, men- 
tioning his dignity, because there was another Herod who 
put John to death. 

Psetjdo-Chrys. When He was born . . . behold wise men, 
that is, immediately on His birth, shewing that a great God 
existed in a little one of man. Rabanus. The Magi are men 
who enquire into the nature of things philosophically, but 
common speech uses Magi for wizards. In their own coun- 
try, however, they are held in other repute, being the philo- 
sophers of the Chaldaeans, in whose lore kings and princes 
of that nation are taught, and by which themselves knew 
the birth of the Lord. AUG. What were these Magi but the Aug. 


2 (I 2. 

■ The same account <>f Herod's Miat Hitu-1 ;hi [dumasan, of noble 

e is given by Africu i ,Eu sb< birth, and thai bii father Antipas was 

. i. 7 : but Jo i'|. governor of [dumata under Alexander 

xiv. 1. n. '•'> ; tie Hell. Jud. i. 'i. u. 2.) .I.tnn,) 

02 «PB1 \< ( <>i:i>i v; 10 CB IP. II. 

first-fruits of the Gentiles? Israelitish shepherds, gentile 

Magians, one from Tar, the other from near, hastened to the 

Aug. one Corner-stone. Ii>. Jesns then was manifested neither to 

200^ the learned nor the righteous; for ignorance belonged to the 
shepherds, impiety to the idolatrous Magi. Vet does that 
Corner-stone attract them both to Itself, seeing He came to 
choose the foolish things of this world to confound the wise, 
and not to call the righteous, but sinners; that nothing 
great should exalt himself, none weak should despair. GrLOSS. 
These Magi were kings, and though their gifts were three, it 
is not to be thence inferred that themselves were only three 
in number, but in them w as prefigured the coming to the faith 
of the nations sprung from the three sons of Xoah. Or, the 
princes irere only three, but each brought a large company 
with him. They came not after a year's end, for He would 
then have been found in Egypt, not in the manger, but on 
the thirteenth day. To shew whence they came it is said, from 
the East, EtEMIG). It should be known, that opinions vary 
respecting the Magi. Some say they were ('hahheans, who 
arc known to have worshipped a itar as (iod; thus their fic- 
titious Deity shew ed them the way to the true (Jod. Others 
think that thev were Persians; others again, that they came 
from the utmost ends of the earth. Another and more pro- 
bable opinion is, that they were descendants of Balaam, who 
"b. having his prophecy, There shall rise a Star out of Jacob, as 
soon as they saw the star, would know that a King was born. 
.1 1 BOMB. They knew that such a star would rise by the pro- 
phi cy of Balaam, whose successors they wore. Hut whether 
tiny win- (hahheans, or Persians, or came from the utmost 
ends of the earth, how in so short a space oftime could they 
arrive at Jerusalem'.' KiMio. Some used to answer, 'No 
marrel if thai boy who was then born could draw them so 
speedily, though it were from the ends of the earth.' (ii 
Or, they had dromedaries and Arabian hones, whose great 
swiftness brought them to Bethlehem in thirteen days. 
PsEUDO-OhBYS, Or, thc\ had set out two years before the 

Saviour's birth, .and though they travelled all that time, 
neither meat nor drink tailed in their scrips. Ki.mio. Or, 

if they irere tin- descendants of Balaam, their kings are not 
far distant from the land of promise, ami might easily come 

24, 17. 

VER. 1, 2. ST. MATTHEW. 63 

to Jerusalem in that so short time. But why does he write 
from the East ? Because surely they came from a country 
eastward of Judsea. But there is also great beauty in this, 
They came out of the East, seeing all who come to the Lord, 
come from Him and through Him; as it is said in Zechariah, 
Behold the 2Ian whose name is the East. Pseudo-Chrys. Zech. 6, 
Or, whence the day springs, thence came the first-fruits of 
the faith ; for faith is the light of the soul. Therefore they 
came from the East, but to Jerusalem. Remig. Yet was 
not the Lord born there ; thus they knew the time but not 
the place of His birth. Jerusalem being the royal city, they 
believed that such a child could not be born in any other. 
Or it was to fulfil that Scripture, The Law shall go out of Isa. 2, 3. 
Sion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And there 
Christ was first preached. Or it was to condemn the back- 
wardness of the Jews. 

Pseudo-Aug. Many kings of Judaea had been born and Pseudo- 
died before, yet had Magi ever sought out any of them for Append. 
adoration ? No, for they had not been taught that any of s f™* 
these spoke from heaven. To no ordinary King of Judaea 
had these men, aliens from the land of Judsea, ever thought 
such honour due. But they had been taught that this Child 
was one, in worshipping whom they would certainly secure 
that salvation which is of God. Neither His age was such 
as attracts men's flattery ; His limbs not robed in purple, 
His brow not crowned with a diadem, no pompous train, 
no awful army, no glorious fame of battles, attracted these 
men to Him from the remotest countries, with such earnest- 
ness of supplication. There lay in a manger a Boy, newly 
born, of infantine size, of pitiable poverty. But in that 
small Infant lay hid something great, which these men, the 
first-fruits of the Gentiles, had learned not of earth but 
of heaven ; as it follows, We have seen His star in the east. 
They announce the vision an<l ask, they believe and enquire, 
rnifying those who walk by faith and desire si^ht. 

GttBG. It should be known that the Priseillianists, heretics Greg. M. 
who believe e\< -ry man to be born under the aspect of tome j^io.™."!! 
planet, cite t h i ^ text in support of their error; the new star 
which appeared at the Lord's birth they consider to have Vi<l. contr. 
been his fate. A.UO, And, according to I'austus, this in- y. i. 


troduction of the account of the star would lead us rather 
to call this part of the history, 'The Nativity/ than r The 

sup. 2. Gospel. 1 Gregory, But far lie it from the hearts of the 

. de faithful to call any thing. Mate.' Air;. For by the word 

\!\. 'fate/ in common acceptation, is meant the disposition of 

the stars at the moment of a person'a birth or conception; 

to which some assign a power independent of the will of 

God. These must be kept at a distance from the ears of all 
who desire to be worshippers of Gods of any sort. But 
others think the stars have this virtue committed to them by 
the great God ; wherein they greatly wrong the skies, in that 
they impute to their splendent host the decreeing of crimes, 
such as should any earthly people decree, their city should 
in the judgment of mankind deserve to be utterly destroyed. 
Psei DO-Chrys. If then any should become an adulterer or 
homicide through means of the planets, how great is the 
evil and wickedness of those stars, or rather of Him who 
made them v For as God knows things to come, and what 
evils are to spring from those stars; if He would not hinder 
it, He is not good; if He would but could not, He is weak. 
Again, if it be of the star that we are either good or bad, we 
have neither merit nor demerit, as being involuntary agents; 
and why should I be punished for sin which I have done 
not wilfully, but by necessity? The very commands of God 
against sin, and exhortations to righteousness overthrow such 
folly. For where a mail has not power to do, or where he 
has not power to forbear, who would command him either 
to do or to forbear? Grkooky Nvss. How vain moreover 
is prayer for those who live by fate; Divine Providence 

is banished from the world together with piety, and man 
is made the m< re instrument «>f the sidereal motions. For 
these they say move to action, not only the bodi'.y members, 
but the thought! of the mind. In a word, they who teach 
this, take away all that is in us. and the very nature of 
a contingency; which is nothing less than to overturn all 

things. Por where will then be free will? but that which 

is in us must be free. Ai Q. li cannot be said to be utterly 
kbsurd to suppose that sidereal alllatus should influence the 

state of the body, when \\r mv that it is by the approach 
and departure of the sun that the seasons f the year are 

VER. 1, 2. ST. MATTHEW. 65 

varied, and that many things, as shells and the wonderful 
tides of the Ocean, increase or decrease as the moon waxes 
or wanes. But not so, to say that the dispositions of the 
mind are subject to sidereal impulse. Do they say that the 
stars rather foreshew than effect these results ? how then do 
they explain, that in the life of twins, in their actions, their 
successes, professions, honours, and all other circumstances 
of life, there will often be so great diversity, that men of 
different countries are often more alike in their lives than 
twins, between whose birth there was only a moment's, and 
between whose conception in the womb there was not a 
moment's interval. And the small interval between their 
births is not enough to account for the great difference 
between their fates. Some give the name of fate not only to 
the constitution of the stars, but to all series of causes, at 
the same time subjecting all to the will and power of God. 
This sort of subjection of human affairs and fate is a con- 
fusion of language which should be corrected, for fate is 
strictly the constitution of the stars. The will of God we do 
not call ' fate/ unless indeed we will derive the word from 
'speaking;' as in the Psalms, God hath spoken once, twice Ps. 62, 11. 
have I heard the same. There is then no need of much 
contention about what is merely a verbal controversy. 

Aug. But if we will not subject the nativity of any man Aug. cont. 
to the influence of the stars, in order that we may vindicate 5 aus 
the freedom of the will from any chain of necessity; how 
much less must we suppose sidereal influences to have ruled 
at His temporal birth, who is eternal Creator and Lord of 
the universe? The star which the Magi saw at Christ's 
birth according to the flesh, did not rule His fate, but 
ministered as a testimony to Him. Further, this was not of 
the number of those stars, which from the beginning of the 
creation observe their paths of motion according to the law 
of their Maker; but a star that first appeared at the birth, 
ministering to the Magi who sought Christ, by going before 
tlicin till it brought them to the place where the infant God 
the Word wt -. \cconling to some astrologers such is the 
connexion of human fate with the stars, that on the birth of 
some men stars have been known to leave their courses, and 
go directly to the new-born. The fortune indeed of him 

vol. i. v 

66 ri [ \. < ORBING It) I HAP. II. 

that is bora they suppose to be bound op with the course of 
the not that the i of tin is changed i 

the day of any □ i. [f then this star were of the 

number of those that fulfil their courses in the heavens, how 
.Id it determine what Christ should do, when it iras com- 
manded at His birth only to >UTSeP If, as 
II more probable, it was iir>t created at His birth, Christ 
iras not therefore horn because it arose, but the r 
that if ire must have fate connected with the stars, this 
did not rule Chri e, but Chrisl the ('sums. The 

object of astrology is not to learn from the Stan the fact of 

one's birth; but from the hour of their nativity to forecast 

the fate of those that are born. But these men knew 
the time of the nativity to have forecast the future from it, 
but the converse. 
.in- Gloss. r His star,' i.e. the star lie cr for a witness 

* in * , of Eimself. I To the Shepherds, A.ngels, ami the 

Gloss, ord. 

Magis bar points out Christ; to both - i the tongue 

of Heaven, since the tongue of the Prophets iras mute. The 
Angels dwell in the heavens, the - lorn it, to both th 

lore the heavens declare the </lonj of Ood. Gaso. To the 

I r. Lib. i. *^ ew8 WM<) UM ' ( ^ their reason, a rational ci an 

Hum. lo. Angel, ought to preach. But the (ientiles who knew nut to 

ion are brought to the knowledge of the Lord, 
not by words, but by signs ; to the one prop! - to the 

faithful; to the other as to the unbelievers. One 

and the same Christ is preached, w hen of pel h . by 

Apostles J when an infant, and not yet able to speak, is 
announced by a star to the (ienti I the ordei 

required; speaking pi. proclaimed a speaking 

Lord, mute signs proclaie infant. Lio. Christ 

, -j Himself, the exp< i of the nations, that innumerable 

iterity once promised to the most blessed patriarch Abra- 
ham, but to be born not after the flesh, but by the Spirit j 

therefore likened to ti r multitude, that from the 

lather of all nat; \\ an earthly but an heavenly progeny 

might be looked tor. Thus tin' heirs of that promised 
posteril at in the stars, are roused to the faith 

In the rise Of a in and where the heavens hail b 

at first called in 1 j, the aid of Heaven is cou- 

VER. 1, 2. ST. MATTHEW. 67 

tinued. Chrysost. This was manifestly not one of the 
common stars of Heaven. First, because none of the stars 
moves in this way, from east to south, and such is the 
situation of Palestine with respect to Persia. Secondly, 
from the time of its appearance, not in the night only, but 
during the day. Thirdly, from its being visible and then 
again invisible ; when they entered Jerusalem it hid itself, 
and then appeared again when they left Herod. Further, it 
had no stated motion, but when the Magi were to go on, it 
went before them ; when to stop, it stopped like the pillar 
of cloud in the desert. Fourthly, it signified the Virgin's 
delivery, not by being fixed aloft, but by descending to 
earth, shewing herein like an invisible virtue formed into the 
visible appearance of a star. Remig. Some affirm this star 
to have been the Holy Spirit ; He who descended on the 
baptized Lord as a dove, appearing to the Magi as a star. 
Others say it was an Angel, the same who appeared to the 

Gloss. In the east. It seems doubtful whether this refers Gloss, ord. 
to the place of the star, or of those that saw it ; it might 
have risen in the east, and gone before them to Jerusalem. 
Aug. AYill you ask, from whom had they learned that Aug. 
such an appearance as a star w r as to signify the birth of 374"^ 
Christ ? I answer from Angels, by the warning of some 
revelation. Do you ask, was it from good or ill Angels ? 
Truly even wicked spirits, namely the daemons, confessed 
Christ to be the Son of God. But why should they not 
hare heard it from good Angels, since in this their adoration 
of Christ their salvation was sought, not their wickedness 
condemned? The Angels might say to them, 'The Star 
which ye have seen is the Christ. Go ye, worship Him, 
where He is now born, and see how great is He that is 
born.' Leo. Besides that star thus seen with the bodily Leo, 
eye, a vet brighter ray of t rut h pierced their hearts ; they were j*"?* - 
enlightened by the illumination of the true faith. Pseudo-hu. 

They might think that a king of Judaea was born, since ^Jm V 

J ° ' ct N. 1 est. 

the birth of temporal princes is sometime! attended by aq*6& 
star. These Chaldean Magi Inspected the stars, not with 
malevolence, bat with the true desire of knowledge; follow- 
ing, it may be supposed, the tradition from Balaam ; so that 

1 2 


when they saw this new and singular star, they understood 
it to be thai of which Balaam had prophesied, at marking 
the birth of a King of .1 mi. 

Leo, ul)i Li:o. What they knew and believed might have been 

• sufficient for themselves, that they needed not to seek to Bee 

with tin bodily what they saw BO clearly with the 

spiritual. Bui their earnestnesa and pi nee to see the 

Babe was for oar profit. It profited us that Thomi 
the Lord- resurrection, touched and felt the marks of his 
wounds, and bo for our profit the Magians' eyes looked on 

the Lord in His cradle. PsEUDO-ChBYS. Were they then 

ignorant that Herod reigned in Jerusalem? Or that it is 
a capital treason to proclaim another King while one 
lives? Bui while they thought on the Kin^ to come, they 
feared not the king that was ; while as yet the}' had not 
n Christ, they were ready to die for Him. O blessed 
^Iai^i ! who before the face of a most cruel kiug, and before 
having beheld Christ, were made His confessors. 

3. "When TIcrod the king had heard th^sr thing 
he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 

4. And when he had gathered all the Chief Priests 

and Scribes of the people together, he demanded of 
them where Christ should he horn. 

.'). And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of 
Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet, 

0. And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art 
not the Least anion.: the princes of.Iuda: lor out of 

thee >hall come a Governor, that Bhall rule my people 


" ( "» Aug. i» the Magi seel a Redeemer, so Herod i 
, Buccessor. G King t he is called, though in com- 

parison with him whom they are seeking he i^ an alien and 
:t foreigner. Psiudo-Chrys. Herod wa$ troubled when he 
heard that a kinu r was horn of Jewish lineage, Lest, himself 
being an [dumssan, the kingdom should return again to 
native princes, and himself be expelled, and his seed after 

VEIL 3 — 6. ST. MATTHEW. C9 

him. Great station is ever obnoxious to great fears ; as the 
boughs of trees planted in high ground move when never so 
little wind blows, so high men are troubled with little ru- 
mours ; while the lowly, like trees in the valley, remain at 
peace. Aug. If His birth as an infant makes proud kings Aug. 
tremble, what will His tribunal as a Judge do? Let princes ^no"? 
fear Him sitting at the right hand of His Father, whom this 
impious king feared while He hanged yet on His mother's 
breast. Leo. Thou art troubled, Herod, without cause. Leo, 
Thy nature cannot contain Christ, nor is the Lord of the u ' sup * 
world content with the narrow bounds of thy dominion. 
He, whom thou wouldest not should reign in Judasa, reigns 
every where. Gloss. Perhaps he was troubled not on his Gloss. ord. 
own account, but for fear of the displeasure of the Romans. 
They would not allow the title of King or of God to any 
without their permission. Greg. At the birth of a King Greg. 
of Heaven, a king of earth is troubled ; surely, earthly E °™ g! 11 
greatness is confounded, when heavenly greatness shews i. 10. 
itself. Leo. Herod represents the Devil ; who as he then Leo, 
instigated him, so now he unweariedly imitates him. For x ^[ 2 
he is grieved by the calling of the Gentiles, and by the 
daily ruin of his power. Pseudo-Chrys. Both have their 
own causes of jealousy, both fear a successor in their king- 
dom ; Herod an earthly successor, the Devil a spiritual. 
Even Jerusalem is troubled, which should have rejoiced at 
that news, when a Jewish King was said to be risen up. 
But they were troubled, for the wicked cannot rejoice at the 
coming of the good. Or perhaps it was in fear that Herod 
should wreak his wrath against a Jewish King on his race. 
Gloss. Jerusalem was troubled with hi?n, as willing to favour Gloss, ord. 
him whom it feared; the vulgar always pay undue honour 
to one who tyrannizes over it. Observe the diligence of his 
enquiry. If he should find him, lie would do to him as he 
shewed afterwards his disposition ; if he should not, he 
would ;it least be excused to the Romans. Remig. They 
are called Scribes, not from the employment of writing, 
but from the interpretation] of the Scriptures, for they were 
doctors of tlie law. Observe, he docs not enquire ffhere 

Christ is born, but when: lie should be born; the Subtle 

purpose of ihis wot to lee if they would shew pleasure at 

7<> i" LP. II. 

the birth of their King. He calls Him Christ, I ho 

•x that the King of the anointed. Pseudo- 

Chrys. Why does Herod make this enquiry, seeing he 
believed not the Scriptures? Or if he did believe, how 
could he hope to be able to kill Him whom the Scriptures 
declared should be Kit i lie Devil instigated him, who 

believed that Scripture lies not; such is the faith of devils, 
who ai permitted to have perfect belief, even of that 

which they do believe. That they do b< it is t lie force 

of truth constrains them; that t 1 not believe, it is that 

they are blinded by the enemy. If they had perfect faith, 

they would li\e as about to depart from this world soon, not 

to possess it for ever. 

'. The Magi, judging as men, sought in the royal 

Ivv';"^ city for Him, whom they had been told was born a King. 

But lie who took the form of a servant, and came not to 

judge but to be judged, chose Bethlehem for His birth, 

Tbeod. Jerusalem for His death. Theodotus. Had Hf chosen the 

s ' "' K '• mighty city of Rome, it might hai d thought that this 

ap. ( one. 

Eph. change of the world had been wrought by the might of her 

citizens; had He been the son of the emperor, his power 

might have aided Him. Hut what was Mis choice? All 

that was mean, all that was in low esteem, that in this 
transformation of the world, divinity might at oner be re- 
cognized. Tl. lie ehove a poor woman for 111- mother, 
a poor country for His native country; He has no money, 
and this stable is His cradli ort. Rightly is He 
,' "' in born in Bethlehem, which signifies the bouse of bread, who 

vi«i. 1. said, 7 am the living bread, who c 

EiRvs. When tl, iuld have kept secret the 

i I appointed of ( rod, especially b 

foreign king, straightway they became not preacl the 

word of God. but i tery. And they not 

only display the DDJ the pa 

i. phet, \i/.. Micah. I -. He quotes this prophecy as tl 

•n. (piote who g. ad not the words. .1 i ROM] . The 

smed for ign< i the \ n - 

pie : hey said. ' Bethle- 

ra in the land of Judah.' Pseudo-Chrys. By cutting 

: t the ime the CRUSC of the DM I 

non occ. 

VEIL 3 6. ST. MATTHEW. 71 

the Innocents. For the prophecy proceeds, From thee shall 
go forth a King who shall feed My people Israel, and His 
day shall be from everlasting. Had they cited the whole 
prophecy, Herod would not have raged so madly, consider- 
ing that it could not be an earthly King whose days were 
spoken of as from everlasting. Jerome. The following is Jerom. 
the sense of the prophecy. Thou, Bethlehem, of the land of ^g 
Judah, or Ephrata, (which is added to distinguish it from 
another Bethlehem in Galilee,) though thou art a small vil- 
lage among the thousand cities of Judah, yet out of thee 
shall be born Christ, who shall be the Ruler of Israel, who 
according to the flesh is of the seed of David, but was born 
of Me before the worlds ; and therefore it is written, His 
goings forth are of old. In the beginning ivas the Word. 
Gloss. This latter half of the prophecy the Jews dropped; Gloss, 
and other parts they altered, either through ignorance, (as 
was said above,) or for perspicuity, that Herod who was 
a foreigner might better understand the prophecy; thus for 
Ephrata, they said, land of Judah ; and for little among 
the thousands of Judah, which expresses its smallness con- 
trasted with the multitude of the people, they said, not the 
least among the princes, willing to shew the high dignity 
that would come from the birth of the Prince. As if they 
had said, Thou art great among cities from which princes 
hare come. Remig. Or the sense is; though little among 
cities that have dominion, yet art thou not the least, for out 
of thee shall come the Ruler, who shall rule My people Israel; 
this Kuler is Christ, who rules and guides His faithful 
people. Chbtb. Observe the exactness of the prophecy; 
it is not lie shall be in Bethlehem, but shall come out of 
Bethlehem; shewing that lie should be only born there. 
What reason is there for applying this to Zorobabel, as 
tome do? For his goings forth were not from ever- 
lasting; nor did he go forth from Bethlehem, but was 
born in Babylonia. The expression, art not the least, 
B further proof, for none; but Christ could make the 
town whore lie iras born illustrious. And after that birth, 
there c;unc men from the Utmost ends of the earth to 

the stable and manger, lie culls Him uot 'the Sou of 

Cod,' but ///' h>i shall govern My people Israel ; 

72 SP] i, kOOORDING TO Ml \ r. n. 

for thus He ought to condescend at the first, that they 
should not ho scandalized, hut should preach such thingi 
more pertained to salvation, that they might he gained. Who 

shall rule .}/// people Israel, is said mystically, for those of 
the .lews who bettered ; for if Christ ruled not all the Jews, 
theirs i^ the blame. Meanwhile he is silent respecting the 
Gentiles, that the Jews might not he scandalized. Mark 
this wonderful ordinance; Jews and Ifagi mutually instruct 
each other ; the Jews learn of the Magi that a star had 
proclaimed Christ in the east, the Magi from the Jews that 
the Prophets had spoken of Him of old. Thus confirmed 
by a twofold testimony, they would look with more ardent 
faith for One whom the brightness of the star and the voice 
Aupr. of the Prophets equally proclaimed. Auo. The star that 

:;7i'.2; guided the Magi to the spot where was the Infant God with 
873.4. 1 1 is Virgin Mother, might have conducted them straight to 
the town ; but it vanished, and shewed not itself again to 
them till the Jews themselves had told them the place where 
Christ should he Itorn ; Bethlehem of Jiuhea. Like in this 
to those who built the ark for Noah, providing others with 
a refuge, themselves perished in the flood ; or like to the 
stones by the road that shew the miles, but themselves are 
not able to move. The enquirers heard and departed; the 
teachers spake and remained still. Even now the Jews shew 
us something similar; for some Pagans, when clear paaai 
of Scripture arc shewn them, which prophesy of Chri>t, 
suspecting them to be forged by the Christians, hare re- 
course to Jewish copies. Thus they leave the Jews to read 
unprofitable, and go on themselves to believe faithfully. 

7. Then Herod, when he had privily called the 
Wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the 

star appeared. 

8. And he Bent them to Bethlehem, and said. Go 

and search diligently tor the young- Child ; and when 
ye have found Him, bring me word again, that 1 may 
come and worship 1 lim also. 

( .i. When they had heard the king, they departed. 

VER. 7, 8, 9. ST. MATTHEW. 73 

Pseudo-Chrys. As soon as Herod had heard the answer, 
though doubly authenticated, both by the authority of the 
Priests, and the passage from the Prophets, he yet turned 
not to worship the King that was to be born, but sought 
how he might put Him to death by subtilty. He saw that 
the Magi were neither to be won by flattery, nor awed by 
threats, nor bribed by gifts, to consent to this murder ; he 
sought therefore to deceive them ; he privily called the wise 
men ; that the Jews, whom he suspected, might not know of 
it. For he thought they would incline the rather to a King 
of their own nation. Bemig. Diligently enquired; craftily, for 
he feared they would not return to him, and then he should 
know how he should do to put the young Child to death. 
Pseudo-Aug. The star had been seen, and with great wonder, Pseudo- 
nearly two years before. We are to understand that it was Se llg ' . 
signified to them whose the star was, which was visible all App. 

• . 131 3. 

that time till He, whom it signified, was born. Then as 
soon as Christ was made known to them they set out, and 
came and worshipped Him in thirteen days from the east a . 
Chrysost. Or, the star appeared to them long time before, 
because the journey would take up some time, and they were to 
stand before Him immediately on His birth, that seeing Him 
in swaddling clothes, He might seem the more wonderful. 
Gloss. According to others, the star was first seen on the Gloss. 
day of the nativity, and having accomplished its end, ceased " on occ * 
to be. Thus Fulgentius says, " The Boy at His birth Serm. de 
created a new star." Though they now knew both time pip 
and place, he still would not have them ignorant of the 
person of the Child, Go, he says, and enquire diligently of 
the young Child; a commission they would have executed 
even if he had not commanded it. Chrys. Concerning the 
young Child, he says, not ' of the King/ he envies Him the 
regal title. PSeudo-Chbys. To induce them to do this, he 
put on the colour of devotion, beneath which he whetted 
the sword, hiding the malice of his heart under colour of 

* This is written upon the notion bare taken place after the Purification, 

that the Ma^'i pre en tea them elvei to on the return of St. Mary to Bethlehem. 

Christ twelve days alt-r His birth, However, Aiitf. (Cons. Kv. ii. 11.) 

irding to i le- places it before the Purification. 

bratin rent ll eem really to 

7 i gPJU \« < 0RD1KG I < ir \v. n. 

humility. Such La the manner of the malicious, when they 

WOUld hurt any one in secret, tl,< and 

GreR. affection. Greg. He feigns ■ wish of worshipping Him 

Kv"i ' n on b' tn;it 1l( ' ma 7 discover Him, and put Him to <h 
10 8. IIimk.. The Magi obeyed t lie- ting so far as to seek the 
(I. but not to return to Herod Like in this to good 
hearers; the good they hear from nicked preachers, that 

they doj hut do not imitate their evil li 

9. And, lo, the star, which they saw in tin 

went before them, till it came and stood over where 
the young Child wa 

Pseudo-Chrts. Thia passage shews, that when the star 

had brought the Magi nearly to Jerusalem, it was hidden from 
them, and BO they were compelled to ask in Jerusalem, where 
Christ should be horn'! and thus to manifest Him to them; 

on two accounts, first, to put to confusion the Jews, inasmuch 
a^ the Gentiles instructed only by sight of a star sought 
Christ through Btrange lands, while th< who had read 

the Prophets from their youth did not I ' though 

horn in their country. Secondly, that the Priests, when asked 
where Christ should he horn, might answer to their now 
condemnation, and while they instructed Herod, they were 

themselves ignorant of Him. The star went before th<m t to 
shew them the greatness of the King. Ai <-. To perform 
due service to the Lord, it advanced slowly, leading them to 
the spot. It was ministering to Him, and not ruling His 

fate; its Light shewed the suppliants and filled the inn, shed 

r the Malls and roof that covered the birth; and thus it 
disappeared. Pseudo-Chrts. What wonder that a divine 
star should minister to the Sun of righte< out to i 

It BtOOd Over the Child's head, as it u I 

He;' proving by its place whal it had no roice to utter. 

( (ii"-\ It i- ( \ dent that the st ir must have heen in the air, 

Ansrim. all( j ( .] ()M . above the house where the Child n e it 

would not have pointed out the i 

Au , t Ami i ir is tin- way. and the way is Chr 

jp Luc. an( ] according to the raya incarnation. Christ is 


VER. 10, 11. ST. MATTHEW. 7o 

a star. He is a blazing and a morning- star. Thus where 
Herod is, the star is not seen; where Christ is, there it is 
again seen, and points out the way. Remig. Or, the star 
figures the grace of God, and Herod the Devil. He, who 
by sin puts himself in the Devil's power, loses that grace; 
but if he return by repentance, he soon finds that grace again 
which leaves him not till it have brought him to the young 
Child's house, i. e. the Church. Gloss. Or, the star is the Gloss, 
illumination of faith, which leads him to the nearest aid ; ord# 
while they turn aside to the Jews, the Magi lose it; so those 
who seek counsel of the bad, lose the true light. 

10. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with 
exceeding great joy. 

11. And when they were come into the house, they 
saw the young Child with Mary His mother, and fell 
down, and worshipped Him : and when they had 
opened their treasures, they presented unto Him 
gifts ; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. 

Gloss. This service of the star is followed by the rejoicing 
of the Magi. Remig. And it was not enough to say, They 
iced j but they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. Pseudo- 
Cm k vs. They rejoiced, because their hopes were not falsified 
but confirmed, and because the toil of so great travel had not 
been undertaken in vain. Gloss. He rejoices indeed who Gloss. 
rejoices on God's account, who is the true joy. With great 
joy, he says, for they had great cause. PsEUDO-CHRYS. By 
the mystery of this star they understood that the dignity 
of the King then born exceeded the measure of all worldly 
kings. ElBMIO. He adds (/really, shewing that men rejoice 
more over what they have lost than over what they possess. 
Leo. Though in stature a babe, needing the aid of others, Leo, 
nnable to . and different id nothing from other in-',,'"";" 1 

fonts, yet Buch faithful wit noses, shewing the unseen 1)1- s - •• ;; - 

\hieh was in Him, OUght to have proved most 

' ainly that that was the Eternal Essence of the Son of 

7C) WO TO < h \r. !i. 

God that had taken upon Him the true human nature. 
Psei i><>-( 'arts. Mary Hit mother, not crowned with a dia- 
dem or lying on a golden conch; hut with barely one gar- 
ment, not for ornament but for covering, and that mch at 

the wife of a carpenter when abroad might liave. J lad they 

therefore come to seek an earthly king, they would have 
been more confounded than rejoiced, deeming their p 
thrown away. But now they Looked for a heavenly King; 
so that though they saw nought of re that star's 

witness Bufficed them, and their eyes rejoiced to behold 

a despised Hoy, the Spirit shewing Him to their hearts in all 

His wonderful power, they fell down and worshipped, seeing 

the man they acknowledged the God. Rabanus. Joseph 

was absent hy Divine command, that no wrong suspici 
Gin might occur to the Gentiles. Gloss. In these offerings we 

Ansclm. ohscrvc their national customs, gold, frankincense, and 
various spices abounding among the Arabians; yet they 
r.rcp:. intended thereby to signify something in mystery, G] 

' Gold, as to a King; frankincene acrifice to God ; myrrh, 

»• I0, »- as embalming the body of the dead. Aug. Gold, as paid 
occ to a mighty King ; frankincense, as offered to God j myrrh, 
as to one who is to die for the sins of all. Pa 
( m: vs. And though it were not then understood what t 
several gifts mystically signified, that is no difficulty ; the 
same grace that instigated them to the deed, ordained the 
whole. R.EMIG. And it is to be known tiiat eaeli did not 
offer a different gift, but each one the three things, each one 
thus proclaiming the King, the God, and the man. Ch 
Let .Mareion and Paul of Samosata then blush, who will not 

what the Magi saw, those progenitors of the Church 

adoring God in the flesh. That lie was truly in the fl< 
the swaddling clothes and the stall prOVI that they 

worshipped Him not as mere man, but as God, the gifts 
prove which it was becoming to offer to a God. Lit the 

.lews also be ashamed, m, :ng the Ml (ring before them, 

and themselves not even earnest to tread in their path. 

Gi;i... Something further may yet be meant here. Wis lorn 
ubiiiip. * n tV j Ml ; ( , ( | by goldj as Solomon saith in thfl Proverbs, A 

21,20, treasure to be desired tin- month of the vise. By 

frankincense, which is burnt before God, the power of prayer 

VER. 12. ST. MATTHEW. 77 

is intended, as in the Psalms, Let my speech come before thee Ps. 141, 2. 
as incense. In myrrh is figured mortification of the flesh. 
To a king at his birth we offer gold, if we shine in his sight 
with the light of wisdom ; we offer frankincense, if we have 
power before God by the sweet savour of our prayers; we 
offer myrrh, when we mortify by abstinence the lusts of the 
flesh. Gloss. The three men who offer, signify the nations Gloss. 
who come from the three quarters of the earth. They open Anselm * 
their treasures, i.e. manifest the faith of their hearts by con- 
fession. Kightly in the house, teaching that we should not 
\ain-gloriously display the treasure of a good conscience. 
They bring three gifts, i. e. the faith in the Holy Trinity. Vid. sup. 
Or opening the stores of Scripture, they offer its threefold not ^s> 
sense, historical, moral, and allegorical ; or Logic, Physic, 
and Ethics, making them all serve the faith. 

] 2. And being warned of God in a dream that they 
should not return to Herod, they departed into their 
own country another way. 

Aug. The wicked Herod, now made cruel by fear, will Aug. 
needs do a deed of horror. But how could he ensnare him non occ * 
who had come to cut off all fraud ? His fraud is escaped as 
it follows, And be'nirj warned. Jerome. They had offered 
gifts to the Lord, and receive a warning corresponding to it. 
This warning (in the Greek 'having received a response') 
is given not by an Angel, but by the Lord Himself, to 
shew the high privilege granted to the merit of Joseph. 
Gloss. This warning is given by the Lord Himself; it is Gloss. ord. 
none other that now teaches these Magi the way they 
should return, but He who said, / am the way. Not that John 14. 
the Infant actually speaks to them, that His divinity may 
not be revealed before the time, and His human nature may 
be thought real. But he says, having received an answer, 
for as Moses prayed silently, so they with pious spirit had 
asked what the Divine will bade. By another way, for 
they were not to be mixed up with the unbelieving .lews. 
Cm e the faith of the Magi J they were not offended, Hirys. 

nor said within then. , What need now of flight? or 

SPEL \< 0ORD1 ! I U M . II. 

of secret return, if tins Boy be really some great one? 

is true faith; it aski not thi ii of any command, but 

obeys. PseuDO-ChBYS. Had the M aght Christ as an 

earthly King, they would nave remained with Him when 

they had found Him; but they only Worship, and go I 
way. After their return, tley continued in the worship of 
God n edfast than beforehand taught many by their 

preaching. And when afterwards Thomas reached their 

country, they joined themselves to him, and wire baptised, 
(\rerr. and did according to his preaching '. I ^ e may Learn 

Horn. in much from this return of the Magi another way. Our eonn- 

10.7. try m Paradise, to which, after we have come to the know- 
ledge of Christ we are forbidden to return the way we came. 
\\ e bave left this country by pride, disobedience, following 
things of sight, tasting forbidden food; and we must return 
to it by repentance, obedience, by contemning things of 

Bight, and overcoming carnal appetite. PsEl DO-ChKYS, It 

was impossible that they, who left Herod to go to Christ, 

should return to Herod. Tiny who have by sin left Christ 
and passed to the devil, often return to Christ ; for the inno- 
cent, who knows not what is evil, i^ easily decen d. but 

having once tasted the evil he has taken up, and remem- 
bering the good he has left, he returns in pen 
He who has forsaken the devil and come to Christ, hardly 
returns to the devil; for rejoicing in the good he has found, 
and remembering the evil he has escaped, with difficulty 
returns to that evil. 

13. And when they were departed, behold, the 

Angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, 
Baying, Arise, and take the young Child and His 
mother, and flee into Egypt, and hi' thou there until 

I bring thee word; for I Ierod will mcU the voi. 

Child to destroy Him. 

b s. T! M • at mentioned, P«endo-Hi| 

to the ] i 

VER. 13 15. ST. MATTHEW. 79 

] 4. When he arose, he took the young Child and 
His mother by night, and departed into Egypt : 

15. And was there until the death of Herod: that 
it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord 
by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called 
my Son. 

Rabanus. Here Matthew omits the day of purification 
when the first-born must be presented in the Temple with 
a lamb, or a pair of turtle doves, or pigeons. Their fear of 
Herod did not make them bold to transgress the Law, that 
they should not present the Child in the temple. As soon 
then as the rumour concerning the Child begins to be spread 
abroad, the Augel is sent to bid Joseph carry Him into Egypt. 
Remig. By this that the Angel appears always to Joseph in 
sleep, is mystically signified that they who rest from mun- 
dane cares and secular pursuits, deserve angelic visitations. 
Hilary. The first time when he would teach Joseph that 
she was lawfully espoused, the Angel called the Virgin his 
espoused wife ; but after the birth she is only spoken of as 
the Mother of Jesus. As wedlock was rightfully imputed 
to her in her virginity, so virginity is esteemed venerable in 
as the mother of Jesus. Pseudo-Chrys. He says not, 
c the Mother and her young Child/ but, the young Child 
and His mother; for the Child was not born for the mother, 
but the mother prepared for the Child. How is this that 
the Son of God flies from the face of man? or who shall de- 
liver from the enemy's hand, if lie Himself fears His ene- 
mies? First; He ought to observe, even in this, the law of 
that human nature which He took on Him; and human na- 
ture and infancy must flee before threatening power. Next, 
that Christians when persecution makes it necessary should 
not be ashamed to fly. Hut why into Egypt? The Lord, who 
keepeth not His anger for ever, remembered the woes He had 
brought upon Egypt, and therefore sent, His Son thither, 
and gives it this sign of great reconciliation, that with this 
one remedy He might beal the ten plagues of Egypt, and the 

nation that had been the persecutor of this iirst-born people, 
might be the guardian of His first-born Son. As formerly 


they had cruelly tyrannized, now they might devoutly serve; 
nor go to the Red S( a to be drowned, but be called to the 
waters of baptism to receive life. At o. Hear the sacrament 
of a great mystery. Motes before had shut up the light of 
day from the traitors the Egyptians; Christ by going down 
thither brought back light to them that sate in darkn 
lie fled that lie might enlighten them, not that lie might 
Aug. escape His foes. Id. The miserable tyrant supposed that by 

App!* tnc Saviour's COmiog he should be thrust from his royal 
throne. But it was not so; Christ eame not to hurt others' 
dignity, but to bestow His own on others. HlLABT. Egypt 
full of idols; for after this enquiry for Him among the J* 
Christ leaving Judaea goes to be cherished among nations 
given to the vainest superstitions. Jebomr. When he takes 
the Child and His mother to go into Egypt, it is in the night 
and darkness, when to return into Jiuhea, the Gospel speaks 
of no light, no darkness. PseUDO-GhbyB. The straitness of 
every pi rsecution may be called night — the relief from it in 
like manner, day. K.\i;wi -. For when tin- true light with- 
draws, they who hate the light are in darkm as, when it re- 
turns they are again enlightened. ChBYS. See how imme- 
diately on His birth the tyrant is furious against Ilim, and 
the mother with her Child is driven into foreign lands. So, 
should you iu the beginning of your spiritual career seem to 
have tribulation, you need not to be discouraged, but bear 
Bade. all things manfully, having this example. Bl or.. The flight 
v'.'J'Yn- into Egypt signifies that the elect are often by the wieked- 
"t. Deal of the bad driven from their homes, or sentenced to 
banishment. Thus lie, who, we shall see below, gave the 

command to lli^ own, When they shall persecute you in 

cilu, flee ye to mutt fur, first practised what lie enjoined, as 
a man flying before the f'aer of man on earth. He whom 
but a little befol ir had proclaimed to tlu' Magi to be 

worshipped as from heaven. EtSMlO. Isaiah had foretold 

is. i<>, i. this flight into Egypt. Lo ! the Lord shall ascend on u tight 

cloud, and shall come into . and shall scatter the idols 

of Egypt. It is the pi; if this I list to confirm all 

he mil that because he is writing to the JeWB, there- 

»e. fori' he adds, that it might be fulfilled, &C JbBOMB. Ti. 

yj^ ' is not in the 1A\; but in O.see according to the genuine 

VER. 16. ST. MATTHEW. 81 

Hebrew text we read ; Israel is my child, and I have loved 
him, and, from Egypt have I called my Son; where theLXX 
render, Israel is my child, and I have loved him, and called 
my sons out of Egypt. Id. The Evangelist cites this text, Jerom. 
because it refers to Christ typically. For it is to be observed, j" ^ 
that in this Prophet and in others, the coming of Christ and 
the call of the Gentiles are foreshewn in such a manner, that 
the thread of history is never broken. Chrys. It is a law 
of prophecy, that in a thousand places many things are said 
of some and fulfilled of others. As it is said of Simeon 
and Levi, I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Gen. 
Israel; which was fulfilled not in themselves, but in their * " 
descendants. So here Christ is bv nature the Son of God, 
and so the prophecy is fulfilled in Him. Jerome. Let those 
who deny the authenticity of the Hebrew copies, shew us 
this passage in the LXX, and when they have failed to find 
it, we will shew it them in the Hebrew. We may also 
explain it in another way, by considering it as quoted from 
2s umbers, God brought him out of Egypt ; his glory is as it Num. 
were that of a unicorn. Remig. In Joseph is figured the ' 
order of preachers, in Mary Holy Scripture; by the Child 
the knowledge of the Saviour; by the cruelty of Herod 
the persecution which the Church suffered in Jerusalem ; 
by Joseph's flight into Egypt the passing of the preachers 
to the unbelieving Gentiles, (for Egypt signifies darkness) ; 
by the time that he abode in Egypt the space of time 
between the ascension of the Lord and the coming of Anti- 
Christ; by Herod's death the extinction of jealousy in the 
hearts of the Jews. 

lfi. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked 
of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, 
and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, 
and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and 
under, according to the time which he had diligently 
enquired of the wi^e men. 

P it DO-ChBT8. the infant .Jesus had subdued I lie 
Magij not by the might of His flesh, but the grace of Hifl 
vol.. I. 

8:2 -ill. \( CORDING I" CHAP. II. 

Spirit, Herod was ercecdi/if/ wroth, that they whom lie sitting 
on his throne had no power to move, were obedient to an 
Infant lying in a manger. Then by their contempt of him 
the Magi gate further cause of wrath. For when kings 1 
wrath is stirred by fear for their crowns, it is a great and 
inextinguishable wrath. But what did he? He tent and 
tlew all the children. As a wounded beast rends whatso- 
ever meeteth it as if the cause of its smart, so he moc 
by the Magi spent his fury on children. He said to himself 
in his fury, 'Surely the ^M a^i have found the Child whom 
they said should be King;' for a king in fear for his crown 
fears all things, suspects all. Then lie sent and slew all 
those infants, that he might secure one among so many. 
Aiu. Aug. And while he thus persecutes Christ, he furnished 
an army (of martyrs) clothed in white robes of the same age 
Auir. as the Lord. Id. Behold how this unrighteous enemy m 
220 ' could have so much profited these infants by his love, as he 
App. did by his hate; for as much as iniquity abounded against 

them, so much did the grace of blessing abound on them. 
Au£. Id. O blessed infants! He only will doubt of your crown 
'".". in this your passion for Christ, who doubts that the bap: 

of Christ has a benefit for infants. He who at His birth had 
Angels to proclaim Him, the heavens to testify, and .Magi to 
worship Him, could surely have prevented that these should 
not have died for Ilim,had He not known that they died not 
in that death, but rather lived in higher bliss. Far be the 
thought, that Christ who came to set men free, did nothing 
to reward those who died in His behalf, when hanging on 
the cross lie prayed for those who put Him to death. 

EtABANTJS. Hi- is not satisfied with the massacre at Beth- 
lehem, but extends it to the adjacent villages ; sparing no 

age from the child of one night old, to that of two y< 
An-. At '•• riu- Maui had seen this unknown star in the hea\ I 

U2. ' not a low days, but two yean before, as they had informed 

App. Hi rod when hi- enquired. This caused him to fix two 

[fairs old and nndtr; M it follows, accord'nit/ to the time 

he had enquired of tin Magi* Id. Or because he feared 

or * that the Child to whom even stars ministered, might tr. 

form Hit appearand or under that of His own 

, or might conceal all tho8e of that age : hence il 

VJR. 17, 18. ST. MATTHEW. 83 

seems to be that he slew all from one day to two years old. 
Aug. Or, disturbed by pressure of still more imminent dan- Aug. 
gers, Herod's thoughts are drawn to other thoughts than c F e v Cons * 
the slaughter of children; he might suppose that the Magi, U. 
unable to find Him whom they had supposed born, were 
ashamed to return to him. So the days of purification being 
accomplished, they might go up in safety to Jerusalem. And 
who does not see that that one day they may have escaped 
the attention of a King occupied with so many cares, and 
that afterwards when the things done in the Temple came to 
be spread abroad, then Herod, discovered that he had. been 
deceived by the Magi, and then sent and slew the children. 
Bede. In this death of the children the precious death of all Bede. 
Christ's martyrs is figured ; that they were infants signifies, ^"111- 
that by the merit of humility alone can we come to the glory nocent. 
of martyrdom ; that they were slain in Bethlehem and the 
coasts thereof, that the persecution shall be both in Jerusalem 
whence the Church originated, and throughout the world; 
in those of two years old are figured the perfect in doctrine 
and works; those under that age the neophytes; that they 
were slain while Christ escaped, signifies that the bodies of 
the martyrs may be destroyed, by the wicked, but that Christ 
cannot be taken from them. 

17. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by 
Jeremy the prophet, saying, 

18. In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, 
and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping 
for her children, and would not be comforted, be- 
cause they are not. 

CHRT8. The Evangelist by this history of so bloody a Chry* 
ve, having filled the reader with horror, now again om ' IX * 
soothes his feelings, shewing that these things were not 
done be God could not hinder, or knew not of them; 

but as the Prophet had foretold. Jerome. This passage of Jerom. 
Jeremiah lias been quoted by .Matthew neither according erem< " 
to the Hebrew nor the LX2 Version. This shews that the ■'■ '■'■ 

Q Z 

84 -l'! I. \< I OBDING ro I II kF. II. 

Evangelists and Apostlefl did not follow any oik's translation, 
but according to the Hebrew manner expressed in their own 

words what they had read in Hebrew. In. By Etamab we 

need not suppose that the town of that name near Gibeafa is- 
ant j but take it as signifying 'high.' A voice was heard 
1 aloft/ that is, 'spread far and wide.' Psetjdo-Chrys. Or, 
it was heard on high, because uttered for the death of the 
'us. innocent, according to that, The oj the poor entereth 

into the heavens. The ( weeping 1 means the cries of the 

children; 'lamentation' refers to the mothers. In the in- 
fants themselves their death ends their cries, in the mothers 
it is continually renewed by the remembrance of their Loss. 
J i komi.. Rachel's son was Benjamin, in which tribe Beth- 
lehem is not situated. How then does Rachel weep for 
the children of Judali as if they were her own? We an- 
swer briefly. She was buried near Bethlehem m Kphrata, 
and was regarded as the mother, because her body was 
there entertained. Or, as the two tribes of Judah and 
Benjamin were contiguous, and Herod's command extended 
to the coasts of Bethlehem as well as to the town itself, we 

uio- may suppose that many were slain in Benjamin. Psbudo-Ai 

jj U |" r ' Or, The sons of Benjamin, who were akin to Rachel, ware 

Qnmtl formerly cut oil' by the other tribes, and so extinct both 

V. Test then and ever after. Then therefore Rachel began to mourn 

;';.''-• her sons, when she saw those of her sister cut oil' in BUch 
\ id. 

Jiulg. 20. a cause, that they should be heirs of eternal lite; for he who 

lias experienced any misfortnn tade more sensible of his 

Losses by the good fortune of a neighbour. Rbmio. The 

red Evangelist adds, to shew the greatness of the mourn- 

. that even the dead Kaehcl was routed to mourn her 
Sons, and WOUld not be comforted because tltrij r, r< not. 

Jerome. This may la' understood in two ways] either she 

thonght them dead for all eternity, so that no consolation 

could comfort lnr; or, ihe desired not to receive any 

comfort tor tho^e who she km w had gone into life eternal. 

Hilary. It could not be thai they were not who seemed 

now dead, bat by glorious martyrdom they wen advanced to 

rnal Life; and consolation is for those who have suffered 

>, not for those who haw reaped a gain, Rachel ail - 
a type of the Church Ion- barren now at length fruitful 

VER. 19, 20. ST. MATTHEW. 85 

She is heard weeping for her children, not because she 

mourned them dead, but because they were slaughtered by 

those whom she would have retained as her first-born sons. 

Rabantts. Or, The Church weeps the removal of the saints 

from this earth, but wishes not to be comforted as though 

they should return again to the struggles of life, for they 

are not to be recalled into life. Gloss. She will not be Gloss, ord. 

comforted in this present life, for that they are not, but 

transfers all her hope and comfort to the life to come. 

Rabakub. Rachel is well set for a type of the Church, as 

the word signifies 'a sheep' or 'seeing;' her whole thought Vid. note i, 

being to fix her eye in contemplation of God ; and she p ' 

is the hundredth sheep that the shepherd layeth on his 


19. But when Herod was dead, behold, an Angel 
of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in 

20. Saying, Arise, and take the young Child and 
His mother, and go into the land of Israel ; for they 
are dead which sought the young Child's life. 

EuSBB. For the sacrilege which Herod had committed Euseb. 
against the Saviour, and his wicked slaughter of the infants ,j? c t es ' 
of the same age, the Divine vengeance hastened his end; 
and bis body, as Joaephua relates, was attacked by a strange 
disease ; so that the prophets declared that they were not 
human ailments, but visitations of Divine vengeance. Filled 
with mad fury, he gives command to seize and imprison the 
heads and nobles out of all parts of Judiea ; ordering that as 
soon aa ever he should breathe his last, they should be all 
put to death, that so Judaea though unwillingly might mourn 
at his decease. Just before he died he murdered his sou 
Antipater, (besides two hoys put to death before, Alexander 
and Aristobnlus.) Such was the end of Herod, noticed in 
those words of the Bvangeliat, when lit rod was (/<■(/</, and 
such the punishment inflict d. .Ii some. Many here err from 
ignorance <>f i , supposing the ll<«<>d who mucked our 


Lord on tlio day of His passion, and the Herod whose death 

is here related, were the same. But the Herod who wa 

then made friends with Pilate was son of this Herod and 

brother to Archelans \ for Archelarts was banished to Lyons 

in (laid, and his father Herod made king in Ins room, as we 

read in Josephus, 

Pseud.)- PsBUDO-DlONYSIUS. See how Jesus Himself, though far 

De c.ii. above all celestial beings, and coming unchanged to our 

Huranh. nature, shunned not that ordinance of humanity winch He 

had taken on Him, but was obedient to the dispositions of 
His Father made known by Angels. Lor eren by An 
is declared to Joseph the retreat of the Son into Egy] ' 
ordained of the Father, and His return again to Judaea. 
Pseudo-Chbts. See how Joseph was set for ministering to 
Mary; when she went into Egypt and returned, who would 
have fulfilled to her this so needful ministry, had she not 

u betrothed? Lor to outward view Mary nourished and 
Joseph defended the Child; but in truth the Child sup- 
ported His mother and protected Joseph. Return into the 
land of Israel ; for He went down into Egypt as a physician, 
not to abide there, but to succour it sick with error. Hut 
the reason of the return is given in the words, They arc 
dead, c\c. JEROME. From this we see that not Herod only, 
but also the Priests and Scribes had sought the Lord's death 
at that time. ReMIG. But it they were many who SOU 
His destruction, how came they all to have died in so short 
a timer As we have related above, all the great men among 
the dews were slain at Herod's death. PsEl DO-ChRTS, And 
that is said to have been done by the counsel ol God for their 

Lspiring with Herod againsl tin- Lord; as it is said. // 
was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. EIsmio. Or the 

iDgeliat uses a figure of speech, by which the plural is 

or smil, used for tin' singular. These words, the Child's //'<. over- 

]/_ throw those b< who taught that Christ did not take a 

nariana. soul, but had His Divinity in place of a soul. BbDB. This 

n m " | n slaughter of the infants for the Lord's sake, tin' death of 

'"- Herod soon after, and V> return with the Lord and His 

mother to the land of Israel, is a figure shewing that all the 

persecutions moved againsl the Church will be avenged by 

the (hath 1 to ti irch, 


VEIL 21 23. ST. MATTHEW. 87 

and the saints who had concealed themselves return to their 
own places. Or the return of Jesus to the land of Israel on 
the death of Herod shews, that, at the preaching of Enoch 
and Elijah , the Jews, when the fire of modern jealousy shall 
be extinguished, shall receive the true faith. 

21. And he arose, and took the young Child and 
His mother, and came into the land of Israel. 

22. But when he heard that Archelaus did reign 
in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was 
afraid to go thither : notwithstanding, being warned 
of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of 
Galilee : 

23. And he came and dwelt in a city called 
Nazareth : that it might be fulfilled which was 
spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Naza- 

Gloss. Joseph was not disobedient to the angelic warning, 
but he arose, and took the young Child and His mother, and 
came into the land of Israel. The Angel had not fixed the 
particular place, so that while Joseph hesitates, the Angel 
returns, and by the often visiting him confirms his obedience. 
JoSEFHUS. Herod had nine wives, by seven of whom he had 
a numerous issue. By Josida, his first born Antipater — 
by Mariaminc, Alexander and Aristobulus — by Mathuca, 
a Samaritan woman, Archelaus — by Cleopatra of Jerusalem, 
Herod, who was afterwards tetrarch, and Philip. The three 
first were put to death by Herod ; and after his death, Arche- 
laus seized the throne by occasion of his father's will, and 
the question of the succession was carried before Augustus 
I ar. A! ne delay, he made a distribution of the whole 

of Herod's dominions in accordance with the Senate's advice. 

r 'Mat ; cially Bliai liatt. xx. 1. 10, xxri. f.5), Chrysofttom 

will C i,d ol the world and (in Matt xvii. 10), Augustine (de Civ. 

by tluir pi is I), xx. '1 ( j. Op. Impr. contra Julian, vi. 

affirmed by Tertullian (de Animal Pope Gregory (in .l<>l>. lib. xiv. 

de !(•• n n (in Joann. i. 28, in Joann. Horn. rii. I >. and Da- 

Orth. ir. '-'<> I'm.; 

88 GOSPEL \< ' ORBING TO ( n \i\ II. 

To Archelaui h< ned one half, consisting of Idumsea 

and .Iud;ra, w it 1 1 the title of telrarch, and a promise of that 

of king if he shewed himself deserving of it. The rest lie 

divided into two tet rarchates, giving (ialilee to Berod tlie 

tetrarch, Ituraea and Trachonitis to Philip. Thus Archelaua 

was after his father's death a (luarch, which kind of sove- reigntyis here called a kingdom. Aug. Here it may be asked, 

Ran HOW then could His parents go up every year of Christ*! 

ii. io. childhood to Jerusalem, as Luke relates, if fear of Archelaua 
now prevented them from approaching it? This difficulty is 
easily solved. At the festival they might escape notice in 

the Crowd, and by returning soon, where ID ordinary times 
they might he afraid to live. So they neither became irre- 
ligious hy neglecting the festival, nor notorious by dwelling 
continually in Jerusalem. Or it is open to us to und< 
Luke when he says, they went up every year, as speaking 
of a time when they had nothing to fear from Archelaua, 
who, as Josephus relal gned only nine years. There 

IS yet a difficulty in what follows; Being Warned in a dream, 
he turned aside into the parts of (ialilee. If Joseph 
afraid to go into Jiuhea because one of Herod's Miib. Arc 
laua, reigned there, how could he go into Galilee, where 
another of his sons, Herod, was tetrarch, as Luke tells US? 
As if the times of which Luke is speaking were til 
in which there was any longer need to fear for the Child, 
when even in .huhea things Mere so changed, that Ar- 
chelans no longer ruled there, hut Pilate was governor. 
Gloss. ord. GLOSS, hut then we might ask, why was he not afraid to go 
into Galil< ing Archelaua ruled there also? He could 

be hotter concealed in Nazareth than in Jerusalem, which 

the capital of the Kingdom, and whei iielaus 

constantly resident. Cbrts. Ami when be had once left 
the country of his birth, all the occurrences passed out of 
mind; the rage of persecution had been spent in Bethlehem 
and iN neighbourhood. By choosing Naiareth therefore, 

J leph both avoided danger, and returned to his country. 
Am;. This may perhaps occur to some, that Matthew 

J?' pa Hi^ parents went with the Child Jesus to Galilee 

Evan. ' 

cause they feared A.rchelaus, when it should seem most 
probable that they chose Galilee becaua h was 

VER. 21 23. ST. MATTHEW. 89 

their own city, as Luke has not forgot to mention. \Ye 
must understand, that when the Angel in the vision in Egypt 
said to Joseph, Go into the land of Israel, Joseph understood 
the command to be that he should go straight into Judaea, 
that being properly the land of Israel. But finding Arche- 
laus ruling there, he would not court the danger, as the 
land of Israel might be interpreted to extend to Galilee, 
which was inhabited by children of Israel. Or we may 
suppose His parents supposed that Christ should dwell no 
where but in Jerusalem, where was the temple of the Lord, 
and would have gone thither had not the fear of Archelaus 
hindered them. And they had not been commanded from 
God to dwell positively in Judaea, or Jerusalem, so as that 
they should have despised the fear of Archelaus, but only in 
the land of Israel generally, which they might understand of 

Hilary. But the figurative interpretation holds good any 
way. Joseph represents the Apostles, to whom Christ is 
entrusted to be borne about. These, as though Herod were 
dead, that is, his people being destroyed in the Lord's 
passion, are commanded to preach the Gospel to the Jews ; 
they are sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. But 
finding the seed of their hereditary unbelief still abiding, 
they fear and withdraw ; admonished by a vision, to wit, 
seeing the Holy Ghost poured upon the Gentiles, they carry 
Christ to them. Rabanus. Or, we may apply it to the last 
times of the Jewish Church, when many Jews having turned 
to the preaching of Enoch and Elijah, the rest filled with 
the spirit of Antichrist shall fight against the faith. So that 
part of Judaea where Archelaus rules, signifies the followers 
of Antichrist; Nazareth of Galilee, whither Christ is con- 
veyed, that part of the nation that shall embrace the faith. 
Galilee means 'removal;' Nazareth, 'the flower of virtues;' 
for the Church the more zealously she removes from the 
earthly to the heavenly, the more she abounds in the flower 
and fruit of virtues. GLOSS. To this he adds the Prophet's 
timony, laying] Thai it might be fulfilled which was spoken 
by the Prophets, 8fc. Jerome. Had he meant to quote 
■ particular test, he would not have written 'Prophets,' 
but 'the Prophet. 1 By thus using the plural he evidently 

90 l i ORD1NG in IT. M \ II Hi (i! \l\ n. 

doei not take the words of* any one p In Scripture, hut 

the sense of the whole. Nasarene is interpreted 'HolyV and 
that the Lord would be Holy, all Scripture testifies. Other- 
c ii.i. irise ire may explain that it is found in Isaiah rendered to 
the strict letter oft) rew. There ehail come a Rod out 

of the item qf Jew, and a Naiarene thai! grow out <>f hie 
roots 9 . Psbudo-Chrys. '1 hey might hai I thia in some 

Prophets who are not in our canon, at Nathan or Bl 
That there was some prophecy to this purporl il dear G 
John 1, what Philip says to Xathanacl. HtMOfwhotn M > the 

I r 

Late (ind the Prophets did write, J Nazareth* Jlcncc 

the Christiana were at first called Naaarenee, at Antioch 
Aog.dc their name was changed to that of 'Christians/ A i 

r °" s ' The whole of this history, from the account of the W 

inclusively, Luke omits. Let it be here noticed once for all, 
that cacli of the Evangelists writes as if lie were giving a 
full and complete history, which omits nothing; where he 
really passes over any thing, he continues his thread of 
history as if lie had told all. Yet by a diligent c tmparison 

of their several narratives, we can he at no loss to know 
where to insert any particular that is mentioned by one and 
not by the other. 

" N T2. Aj ii ~i::- 

11. .) 


1 . In those days came John the Baptist, preaching 
in the wilderness of Judaea, 

2. And saying, Repent ye : for the kingdom of 
heaven is at hand. 

3. For this is he that was spoken of by the 
Prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in 
the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make 
His paths straight. 

Pseudo Chrys. The Sun as he approaches the horizon, 
and before he is yet visible, sends out his rays and makes 
the eastern sky to glow with light, that Aurora going before 
may herald the coming day. Thus the Lord at His birth in 
this earth, and before He shews Himself, enlightens John by 
the rays of His Spirit's teaching, that he might go before 
and announce the Saviour that was to come. Therefore 
after having related the birth of Christ, before proceeding 
to His teaching and baptism, (wherein he received such 
imony,) he first premises somewhat of the Baptist and 
forerunner of the Lord. In those days, fyc, Remig. In vcr. l. 
these words we have not only time, place, and person, 
respecting St. John, but also his office and employment. 

: the time, generally ; In those days. Aug. Luke de- Aug. de 

ibes the time by the reigning sovereigns. But Matthew |j TM ," 
must be understood to speak of a wider space of time"-''- 

T l_ " 1 

by the phrase 'those days/ than the fifteenth year of 
Tiberius. Having related Christ's return from Egypt, 

which must be placed in early boyhood or even infancy, to 

with what Luke bas told of lli^ being in the 

92 6PB1 \< I ORDWG TO < II \T\ in. 

temple at twelve 1 years old, lie adds directly, In /hose days t 
not intending thereby onlj the days oi His childhood, hut 
all the days from His birth to the preaching of John. 
IIi.mio. The man is mentioned in the words came John, 

that is, showed himself, having abode so long in ob>eurity. 

Chryt. Chetb. I i i i r why must John thus go before Christ with 
a witness 01 deeds preaching Him.' J-irst; that we might 
hence learn Christ's dignity, that lie also, as the Father : 

Luke i, has prophets, in the w ids of Zacharias, And thou, Child, 
shali be called the Prophet of the Highest, Secondly ; That 
the Jews might have no cause for offence; as He declared, 

Luke 7, John came neither eating nor (lit ukinij, anil they sin/, lie 
hath a devil, The Son of Man came eating and drinkin;/, 
and the// say, Behold a gluttonous man. It needcth more- 
over that the things concerning Christ should be told by 
some other first, and not by Himself; or what would the 
dews have said, who alter the witness of John made c 

joim 8, plaint, Thou bearest witness of thyself, thy wi()i< <>t 

true. Rem 10. His office: the Baptist ; in this he prepared 
Anselm. the way of the Lord, for had not men been used to be 

baptized, they would have shunned Christ's baptism. His 

employment; Preaching. Raban. For because Christ was 

to preach, as soon as it seemed the fit time, that is, a 

thirty years of age, he began by his preaching to make ready 

the way for the Lord. Ki:m. The place; the desert of 

Maxim, '//'da-a. Mimmi's. Where neither a noisy mob would 

Hom. m interrupt his preaching, and whither no unbelieving hearer 

Bap. would retire; but those only would hear, who SOOght to his 

_ * preaching from motives of divine worship. Jbromb. Con- 

in is. Bider how the salvation of God, and the gl< ry of the Lord, 

is preached not in Jerusalem, but in the solitude of the 

Church, in the wilderness to multitudes. Hilaby. Or, he 

came to .Imhea, desert by the absence of Cod, UOt 
population, that the place of preaching might witn 
C ;i,, few to whom the preaching was sent Ci<«-s. The (h 

■'']'• An_ typically means a life removed from the temptations of the 

world, such as befits the penitent. 

\i i . I oil — one repent him of his former life, he cannot 

t>1 ""- in a new lite. Hilaby. He therefore preaches repent- 

ance when the Kingdom of Heaven approaches; by which 

VER. 1 3. ST. MATTHEW. 93 

we return from error, we escape from sin, and after shame 
for our faults, we make profession of forsaking them. 
Pseudo-Chrys. In the very commencement he shews 
himself the messenger of a merciful Prince ; he comes not 
with threats to the offender, but with offers of mercy. It is 
a custom with kings to proclaim a general pardon on the 
birth of a son, but first they send throughout their kingdom 
officers to exact severe fines. But God willing at the birth 
of His Son to give pardon of sins, first sends His officer 
proclaiming, Repent ye. O exaction which leaves none 
poor, but makes many rich ! For even when we pay our just 
debt of righteousness we do God no service, but only gain 
our own salvation. Repentance cleanses the heart, en- 
lightens the sense, and prepares the human soul for the 
reception of Christ, as he immediately adds, For the King- 
dom of Heaven is at hand. Jerome. John Baptist is the 
first to preach the Kingdom of Heaven, that the fore- 
runner of the Lord may have this honourable privilege. 
Chrys. And he preaches what the Jews had never heard, 
not even from the Prophets, Heaven, namely, and the 
Kingdom that is there, and of the kingdoms of the earth he 
says nothing. Thus by the novelty of those things of which 
he speaks, he gains their attention to Him whom he preaches. 
Remig. The Kingdom of Heaven has a fourfold meaning. 
It is said of Christ, as, The Kingdom of God is within you. Luke 17, 
Of Holy Scripture, as, The Kingdom of God shall be taken 2 ' 
from //o//, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth the 4,3. 
fruits thereof. Of the Holy Church, as, The Kingdom o/Matt. 25. 
Heaven is like unto ten virgins. Of the abode above, as, 
Jinny shall come from the East and the West, and shall sit Matt. 8, 
down in the Kingdom of Heaven. And all these significa- 
tions may be here understood. Gloss. The Kingdom of Gloss. 
Heaven shall conic nigh you; for if it approached not, none ' 
would bo able to gain it; for weak and blind they had not 
the w.iy, which was Christ. Arc;. The other Evangelists Aug. de 
omit thete Words of John. What follows, This is lie, \r., |.°JJ >v ' 
it is not clear whether the Evangelist speaks thcin in 
his own person, or whether they are part of John's 
Etching, and the whole from Repent ye, to llsuias flu- 

prophet, is to be tied to John. It is of no import- 

91- GOSPEL \< < ORBING I" <ll LP. III. 

ancc that he says, This is he, and not, / am he; for 

Matt 9, 9. Matthew speaking of himself says. We found a man sitting 

(it the toll-office ; not He found ma. Thoi <;h when asked 

what he said of himself, he answered, as is related by .John 

the Evangelist, lam the voice of one crying in the wilder- 

Greg. ness. Greg. It la well known that the Only-begotten Son 

J' ;';;j. n 2 is called the Word of the Father; ai in John, In the 

John i,i. beginning was the Word, Bat it is by our own speech that 

we are known ; the voice sounds that the words mi y be heard. 

Thus John the forerunner of the Lord's coming is called, 

The voice, because by his ministry the voice of the Father is 

heard by men. PsEUDO-ChbYS, The \cice W a eoiii 

sound, discovering no secret of the heart, only signifying thai 

he who utters it desires to say BOmewhat : it is the word that 

is the speech that openeth the mystery of the heart. Voice 

is common to men and other animals, word peculiar to man. 

John then is called the voice and not the word, because God 

did not discover His counsels through him, but only signified 

that I Ic was about to do something among men; but afterwards 

by His Son He fully opened the mystery of 1 lis will. 11 \ r, \ \ i s. 

He is rightly called, The voire of one crying, on account 

of the loud sound of his preaching. Three things cause 

a man to speak loud; when the person he speaks to i 

a distance, or is deaf, or if the speaker be angry ; and all these 

Gloss. three were then found in the human race. Gl068. John 

then is, as it were, the voice of the word crying. The word 

Bed*. is heard by the voice, that is, Christ by John. Bun:. In 

like manner has He cried from the beginning through 

(mi. m « 

oap.iT. 1. voice <>f all who have spoken RUght by inspiration. And yet 
i^ John only Called, The voire; because that Word which 

others shewed afar oil', he declares as nigh. Greg. Crying 
'""' " l in the desert, because ho shews to deserted and forlorn 

l. V. 1. 

7. 2. Judaea the approaching consolation of her Redeemer. Remig. 

Though as far as historical fact is Concerned, he chose the 

ih sert, to be removed from the crowds of people. What the 

purport of his cry was ; s insinuated, when he adds, Make 

tlij the trail of the Lord. PsBI DO-ChRYS. As a g 

King going on a progress is preceded by couriers to 
cleanse what is foul, repair what is broken down; so John 

preceded the Lord to cleanse the human heart from the tilth 

VER. 4. ST. MATTHEW. 95 

of sin, by the besom of repentance, and to gather by an 
ordinance of spiritual precepts those things which had been 
scattered abroad. Greg. Every one who preacheth right Greg. 
faith and good works, prepares the Lord's way to the hearts EvT'2o"3 
of the hearers, and makes His paths straight, in cleansing the 
thoughts by the word of good preaching. Gloss. Or, faith Gloss. 
is the way by which the word reaches the heart ; when the luterlin - 
life is amended the paths are made straight. 

Ver. 4. And the same John had his raiment of 
camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins ; 
and his meat was locusts and wild honey. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Having said that he is the voice of one 
crying in the desert, the Evangelist well adds, John had his 
clothing of camel's hair ; thus shewing what his life was; for 
he indeed testified of Christ, but his life testified of himself. 
No one is fit to be another's witness till he has first been his 
own. Hilary. For the preaching of John no place more 
suitable, no clothing more useful, no food more fitted. 
Jerome. His raiment of camel's hair, not of wool — the one 
the mark of austerity in dress, the other of a delicate luxury. 
Pseudo-Chrys. It becomes the servants of God to use a 
dress not for elegant appearance, or for cherishing of the 
body, but for a covering of the nakedness. Thus John wears 
a garment not soft and delicate, but hairy, heavy, rough, 
rather wounding the skin than cherishing it, that even the 
very clothing of his body told of the virtue of his mind. It 
was the custom of the Jews to wear girdles of wool ; so he 
desiring something less indulgent wore one of skin. Jerome. 
Food moreover suited to a dweller in the desert, no choice 
viands, but such as satisfied the necessities of the body. 
BABANUS. Content with poor fare ; to wit, small insects and 
honey gathered from the trunks of trees. In the savings of 
Arnulphus*, Bishop of Gaul, we find that there was a very 
small kind of locust in the deserts of Judaea, with bodies 
about the thickness of a finger and short; they are easily 
taken among the grass, and when cooked in oil form B poor 

• Arculphus, who v: ted Pi irritten from his mouth by Adamnan 

70-3; his travel-, to the Holy Land, Abbot of llii, or Iona, are itill extant. 

9G Q06FBI LI < OBDIVO 10 CHAP. ill. 

kind of food. He also relates, that in the same desert there 
II a kind of tree, with a large round leaf, of the colour of 
milk and taste of honey, BO friable M to nil) to powder in the 
hand, and thil is what is intended by wild honey. Ki MKi. 
In this clothing and this poor food, he ihewi that he sorrows 
for the sins of the whole human race. 1! L BAN US. His d: 

and diet express the quality of his inward conversation. 
His garment was of an austere quality, because he rebuked 
the sinner's life. Jerome. His girdle of skin, which E 

also hare, is the mark of mortification. RaBAN. lie ate 
locusts and honey, because his preaching was sweet to the 
multitude, but was of short continuance ; and honey has 
sweetness, locusts a swift flight but soon fall to the ground. 
EtsMIO. In John (which name is interpreted ' the grace of 
God'), is figured Christ who brought grace into the world ; 
in his clothing, the Gentile Church. Hilary. The preacher 
of Christ is clad in the skins of unclean beasts, to which the 
Gentiles are compared, and so by the Prophet's dress IS 
sanctified whatever in them was useless or unclean. The 
girdle is a thing of much efficacy to every good work, that 
we may be girt for every ministry of Christ. \'ov his food 
arc chosen locusts, which fly the face of man, and escape 
from every approach, signifying ourselves who wire borne 
away from every word or speech of good by a spontaneous 
motion of the body, weak in will, barren in works, fretful in 
speech, foreign in abode, are now become the food of the 
Saints, chosen to fill the Prophet's desire, furnishing our 
most sweet food not from the hives of the law, but from the 
trunks of wild tn 

5. Then went out to him Jerusalem, «iii(l all 
Jud&a, and all tin in round about Jordan, 

(J. And were baptized of him in .Ionian, confessing 

their sins. 

Psiudo-Chrys. Having described the preaching of John, 

lie goes on to s:iv. Tin re v< nt out f u f tnil} for his seTON life 
preached yet more loudly in the desert than the voice of 
hi- (rung. CHI I' it Iras wundcrful to sec 1UCD for- 

VER. 6. ST. MATTHEW. 97 

titude in a human body ; this it was that chiefly attracted 
the Jews, seeing in him the great Elias. It also contributed 
to fill them with wonder that the grace of Prophecy had 
long failed among them, and now seemed to have at length 
revived. Also the manner of his preaching being other than 
that of the old prophets had much effect; for now they 
heard not such things as they were wont to hear, such as 
wars, and conquests of the king of Babylon, or of Persia ; 
but of Heaven and the Kingdom there, and the punish- 
ment of hell. Gloss. This baptism was only a forerunning Gloss. 
of that to come, and did not forgive sins d . Remig. The lnterlm - 
baptism of John bare a figure of the catechumens. As 
children are only catechized that they may become meet 
for the sacrament of Baptism ; so John baptized, that they 
who were thus baptized might afterwards by a holy life be- 
come worthy of coming to Christ's baptism. He baptized 
in Jordan, that the door of the Kingdom of Heaven might 
be there opened, where an entrance had been given to the 
children of Israel into the earthly kingdom of promise. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Compared with the holiness of John, who 
is there that can think himself righteous ? As a white gar- 
ment if placed near snow would seem foul by the contrast ; 
so compared with John every man would seem impure; 
therefore they confessed their sins. Confession of sin is 
the testimony of a conscience fearing God. And perfect 
fear takes away all shame. But there is seen the shame of 
confession where there is no fear of the judgment to come. 
But as shame itself is a heavy punishment, God therefore 
bids us confess our sins that we may suffer this shame as 
punishment ; for that itself is a part of the judgment. Ra- 
i'.ANus. Rightly are they who are to be baptized said to 
go out to the Prophet ; for unless one depart from sin, 
and renounce the pomp of the Devil, and the temptations 
of the world, he cannot receive a healing baptism. Rightly 
also in Jordan, which means their descent, because they 

d So Tertullian Me Bftpt 10. 11), or implicit remission, to he realized in 

omefedr. Lncifer. 7), S. Gregory the Atonement; and S.Cyril. Hie 

(Horn, in Kvantf. vii. :',), Tbeophylact ('at. iii. 7— 9% s - Greg t Nyee. in laud. 

in Marc. ch. i. s. Augustine (de Bept Bee. t. .;. p. fr82. Vid. Dr. Pueey on 

c. Donat. v. io. ) d that 8. Beptiem, B<L2*pp«242 — 271. 

John's baptism gave a sort of suspensive 

\ Dl„ I. II 

98 6P1 I. id ORDINO i" ( H \r. in. 

descended from the pride of life to the humility of an 
honest coi t. Thus early iras an example given to 

them that are to be baptised of coi ig their sins and 

professing amendmi at. 

7. Bui when he saw many of the Pharisees and 

is come to his baptism, he said unto them, 
() generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee 

from the wrath to come ? 

8. Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repent- 
ance : 

!). And think not to say within yourselves, We 
have Abraham to our father : for I say unto you, 
that God is able of these stones to raise up children 
unto Abraham. 

10. And now also the axe is laid unto the root 
of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth 
not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into 
the tire. 

Greer. Greg. The words of the teachers should be fitted to th< % 

Past "n'i ( l u:i hty of the hearers, that in each particular it should agree 
in proi. with itself and yet never depart from the fortress of general 
OIom. edification. Gloss. It was necessary that after the teaching 
inn occ. u j,i r i 1 ] 1C llsr( | to t ] ic common people, the Evangelist should 
give an example of the doctrine he delivered to the more 
advanced j therefore he says, v ting many of the Pkarii 

[tfd.Hiip. I -i D. The Pharisees and S. i to one another; 

I'li; in the Hi- - 'divided; 1 because cho 

justification of traditions and tiny v 

( divided' or 'separated 1 from the people by this righteous- 
in the Hebrew means r just ;' for these laid 

claim to be what tiny were not, denied tin 1 resurrection of 
the body, and taught that the soul perished with the body; 

they only received tin- Pentateuch, and rejected the Prop;. 
GNom. bob Gloss. When John saw those who seemed to he of great 

consideration among the Jews conic to his baptism, he said 


VER. 7 10. ST. MATTHEW. 99 

to them, generation of vipers, SfC Remig. The manner 
of Scripture is to give names from the imitation of deeds, 
according to that of Ezekiel, Thy father xuas an Amorite ; Ezek. 
so these from following vipers are called generation of vipers. 16, 3 * 
Pseudo-Chrys. As a skilful physician from the colour of 
the skin infers the sick man's disease, so John understood 
the evil thoughts of the Pharisees who came to him. They 
thought perhaps, We go, and confess our sins ; he imposes 
no burden on us, we will be baptized, and get indulgence 
for sin. Fools ! if ye have eaten of impurity, must ye not 
needs take physic? So after confession and baptism, a man 
needs much diligence to heal the wound of sin ; therefore he 
says, Generation of vipers. It is the nature of the viper as 
soon as it has bit a man to fly to the water, which, if it 
cannot find, it straightway dies j so this progeny of vipers, 
after having committed deadly sin, ran to baptism, that, like 
vipers, they might escape death by means of water. More- 
over it is the nature of vipers to burst the insides of their 
mothers, and so to be born. The Jews then are therefore 
called progeny of vipers, because by continual persecution of 
the prophets they had corrupted their mother the Synagogue. 
Also vipers have a beautiful and speckled outside, but are filled 
with poison within. So these men's countenances wore a holy 
appearance. Remig. "When then he asks, Who will shew you to 
flee from the wrath to come, — ' except God' must be understood. 
UDO-Chrys. Or who hath shewed you? Was it Esaias? 
Surely no; had he taught you, you would not put your trust 
ID water only, but also in good works; he thus speaks, 
Wash you, and be clean; put your wickedness away from Is. l, \6. 
your souls, learn to do well. Was it then David ? who says, 
Thou shall wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow ; Ps. 51, 7. 
rarely not, for he adds immediately, The sacrifice of God is 
a broken spirit. If then ye had been the disciples of David, 
ye would have come to baptism with mournings. REMTG. 
Bat if we read) shall shew, in the future, this is the meaning, 
1 What teacher, what preacher, shall be able to give you 
such counsel, as thai ye may escape the wrath of everlasting 
damnation V A.\ <■. God is described in Scripture, from some Aug. 
likeness of effects, oo1 from being subject to such weakness, U)> 1X> ' 
as being angry, and yet is lie never moved by any passion. 5 - 

ii 2 


The word r wrath' is applied to the effects of his vengeance, 
not that (iod Buffers any disturbing affection. i. If 

then ye would escape this wrath, Bring forth fruits unit for 

c.vofr. rcjKiihiiue. Greg. Observe, he says not merely fruits of 

Et"xx repentance, but fruits meet fur repentance. For he who 1 
*>• never fallen into tilings unlawful, is of right allowed the 

of all things lawful; but if any hath fallen into sin, he 
ought BO far to put away from him even things lawful, as far 
;.- i uiscious of having used unlawful things. It is left 

then to such man's conscience to seek so much the greater 
gains of good works by repentance, the greater loss he has 
brought on himself by sin. The Jews who gloried in their 
race, would not own themselves sinners because they were 
Abraham's seed. Say not anion;/ yourselves we are Ahra- 
CMins. ham'9 teed, CHBT8. He does not forbid them to say they 
are his, but to trust in that, neglecting virtues of the soul. 
PseuDO-Chrys. What avails noble birth to him whose life 
is disgraceful P Or, on the other hand, what hurt is a low 
origin to him who has the lustre of virtue:' It is fitter that 
the parents of such a son should rejoice over him, than he 
Over his parents. So do not you pride yourselves on having 
Abraham for your father, rather blush that you iuherit his 
blood, but not his holiness. lie who has no resemblance 
to his lather is possibly the offspring of adultery. These 
Avoids then only exclude boasting on account of birth. 
Rabanus. Becan b preacher of truth he wished to stir 

them up, to briny forth Jruit meet fur repentance, he invites 

them to humility, without which no one can repent. Ki mo. 

There is a t radii ion, that .John preached at that place of the 
Jordan, where the twelve taken from the bed of the 

river had been set up by command of (iod. He might then 

ointing to these, when he said, Of these etonee, J] some. 

lli- intimat d's gnat power, who, as Be made all things 

out of nothing, can make men out of the hardest stone. 

r,! Gloss. It is faith's first lesson to believe that God is able 

to do whatever lb- will. Ghbysost. That men should be 

made out of Btonea, LI like Naae coining from Sarah's 

womb; Look info thl . MJ8 Uaiah, irhcnce ye were In ten. 

Reminding them thus of this prophecy, he shews that it is 

jS* — OF HftWt'kst" 11 *' the like might even now happen. RaBANTJB. 

Uj ( 8T - L'8 


VER. 7 10. ST. MATTHEW. 101 

Otherwise; the Gentiles may be meant who worshipped 
stones. Pseudo-Chrys. Stone is hard to work, but when 
wrought to some shape, it loses it not ; so the Gentiles were 
hardly brought to the faith, but once brought they abide in 
it for ever. Jerome. These stones signify the Gentiles 
because of their hardness of heart. See Ezekiel, / will take 
aivay from you the heart of stone, and give you the heart of 
flesh. Stone is emblematic of hardness, flesh of softness. 
Raban. Of stones there were sons raised up to Abraham; 
forasmuch as the Gentiles by believing in Christ, who is 
Abraham's seed, became his sons to whose seed they were 

Pseudo-Chrys. The axe is that most sharp fury of the 
consummation of all things, that is to hew down the whole 
world. But if it be already laid, how hath it not yet cut 
down? Because these trees have reason and free power to 
do good, or leave undone; so that when they see the axe 
laid to their root, they may fear and bring forth fruit. This 
denunciation of wrath then, which is meant by the laying of 
the axe to the root, though it have no effect on the bad, yet 
will sever the good from the bad. Jerome. Or, the preach- 
ing of the Gospel is meant, as the Prophet Jeremiah also Jer. 23, 
compares the Word of the Lord to an axe cleaving the rock. 
Greg. Or, the axe signifies the Redeemer, who as an axe of Greg. 

haft and blade, so consisting of the Divine and human nature, J? 0111 ' m 
, ° 3 Lv. xx. 

is held by His human, but cuts by His Divine nature. And 9. 
though this axe be laid at the root of the tree waiting in 
patience, it is yet seen what it will do ; for each obstinate 
sinner who here neglects the fruit of good works, finds the 
fire of hell ready for him. Observe, the axe is laid to the 
root, not to the branches ; for that when the children of 
wickedness are removed, the branches only of the unfruitful 
tree are cut away. But when the whole offspring with their 
parent is carried off, the unfruitful tree is cut down by the 
root, that there remain not whence the evil shoots should 
spring up again. Chkys. By saying Every, he cuts off all 
privilege of nobility : as much as to say, Though thou be the 
son of Abraham, if thou abide fruitless thou shalt suffer the 
punishment. RaBAKUS. There are four sorts of trees; the 

first totally withered, to which the Pagans may be likened; 

I8P1 i \< < OBDIXG CO ' B \r. in. 

the second, green but unfruitful, as the hypocrites ; the 
third, green and fruitful, but poisonous, such are hereti 
the fourth, green and bringing forth good fruit, to which are 
like tl. ; Catholics. Greg. 77 t every tree th<it 

bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut don n, and ca$t into 
the fire , because he who here neglects to bring forth the 
fruit of good workfl finds a fire in hell prepared for him. 

11. I indeed baptize you with water unto repent- 
ance: but He that cometh after me is mightier than 
I, Whi ioes I am not worthy to bear: He shall 
baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: 

12. Whose fan is in Eis hand, and he will throughly 
purge II i^ Door, and gather His wheat into the garner j 
but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable 

Gloss. Cross. As in the preceding words John had explained 

more al length what he had shortly preached in the won 
Repent ye, so now fob' more full enlargement of the 

Gre£. words, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. (him.. .John 
™\. baptizes not with the Spirit hut with water, because he 

3. had no power to forgive sins; he washes the body with 

water, hut not at the same time the soul with pardon 

Chi; of sin. Chrtsost. Tor while as yet the sacrifice had not 

'been offered, nor remission of sin sent, nor the Spirit had 

descended on the water, how could sin be forgiven? Hut 

since the .lews never perceived their Own sin, and this was 
the cause of all their evilSj John came to bring them to a 

Grcrr. scum- of them by calling them to repentance. Qrbi . Why 

u ' ' sUp ' then does he baptize who could not remit sin, but that he 1 

may preserve in ail things the office of forerunner? As his 
birth had preceded Christ's birth, so his baptism should 
precede the Lord's baptism. Psei do-Chbts. Or, John was 

sent to baptise, that to Mich M came to his baptism he 

might annoui among them of the Lord in the 

John 1, flesh, as himself testifies in another pla< at //<■ might 

Aug. in fa manifstcd to Israt /, tin ■ .;.// / COVte to baptize trit/i 

»• water, Aug. Or. he bapl ses, because it behoved Christ 

Tract, v. 

VER. 11, 12. ST. MATTHEW. 103 

to be baptized. But if indeed John was sent only to baptize 
Christ, why was not He alone baptized by John ? Because 
had the Lord alone been baptized by John, there would not 
have lacked who should insist that John's baptism was 
greater than Christ's, inasmuch as Christ alone had the merit 
to be baptized by it. Rabanus. Or, by this sign of baptism 
he separates the penitent from the impenitent, and directs 
them to the baptism of Christ. Pseudo-Chrys. Because then 
he baptized on account of Christ, therefore to them who came 
to him for baptism he preached that Christ should come, signi- 
fying the eminence of His power in the words, He who cometh 
after me is mightier than I. Remig. There are five points in 
which Christ comes after John, His birth, preaching, baptism, 
death, and descent into hell. A beautiful expression is that, 
mightier than I, because he is mere man, the other is God 
and man. Raban. As though he had said, I indeed am 
mighty to invite to repentance, He to forgive sins ; I to 
preach the kingdom of heaven, He to bestow it ; I to baptize 
with water, He with the Spirit. Chrys. When you hear 
for He is mightier than I, do not suppose this to be said by 
way of comparison, for I am not worthy to be numbered 
among His servants, that I might undertake the lowest office. 
Hilary. Leaving to the Apostles the glory of bearing about 
the Gospel, to whose beautiful feet was due the carrying the 
tidings of God's peace. Pseudo-Chrys. Or, by the feet of 
Christ we may understand Christians, especially the Apostles, 
and other preachers, among whom was John Baptist ; and the 
shoes are the infirmities with which lie loads the preachers. 
These shoes all Christ's preachers wear; and John also wore 
them ; but declares himself unworthy, that he might shew 
the grace of Christ, and be greater than his deserts. Jerome. 
In the other Gospels it is, whose shoe latchet I am not 
worthy to loose. Here his humility, there his ministry is 
intended ; Christ is the Bridegroom! and John is not worthy 
to loose; the Bridegroom's shoe, that his house be not called 
iding to the Law of Moses and the example of Ruth, 

The house of hi hi, Ihal Imlli his shoe loosed. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Dent '25, 
Bat lince DO oik: can gi?e a benefit, more worthy than he 10 * 
himself IS, nor to make: another what himself is not, lie adds, 

He shall baptize yon with the Holy (/host and with fire, 


John who is carnal cannot give spiritual baptism ; he baptizes 
with Mater, which is matter; so that he baptizes matter with 
matter. Christ is Spirit, because He is God; the Holy 
Ghost is Spirit, the soul is spirit; so that Spirit with 
Spirit baptizes our spirit. The baptism of the Spirit 
profits as the Spirit enters and embraces the mind, and 
surrounds it as it were with an impregnable wall, not 
Buffering fleshly lusts to prevail against it. It docs not 
indeed prevail that the flesh should not lust, but holds the 
will that it should not consent with it. And as Christ is 
Judge, He baptizes in fire, i.e. temptation; mere man cannot 
baptize in lire. He alone is free to tempt, who is strong to 
reward. This baptism of tribulation burns up the flesh 
that it does not generate lust, for the flesh does not fear 
spiritual punishment, but only such as is carnal. The Lord 
therefore sends carnal tribulation on His servants, that the 
flesh fearing its own pains, may not lust after evil. See 
then how the Spirit drives away lust, and suffers it not to 
prevail, and the fire burns up its very roots. JBBOMB. Either 
the Holy Ghost Himself is a fire, as we learn from the Acts, 
when there sat as it w r cre fire on the tongues of the belie\ 

Luke 12, and thus the word of the Lord was fulfilled who said, I am 
come to send fire on the earth, I will that it barn. Or, we 
are baptized now with the Spirit, hereafter with fire; as the 

1 Cor. Apostle speaks, Fire shall try every matt* work, of what 
surf it is''. Chrts. He does not say, shall give you the 
Holy Ghost, but shall baptize you in the Holy Ghoet t 
shewing in metaphor the abundance of the grace. f This 
further shews, that even under the faith there is need of the will 
alone for justification, not of labours and failings j and even 
as easy a thing SS it is to be baptised, even SO BSSJ a thing 
it is to be changed and made better. By fire he signifies 
the Strength of grace which cannot be overcome, and that it 
may be understood that He makes His own people at once 

• T here ipol - inter- Athnnasius a Kp. Paul. 98. 

t. 2. p. 128. I'd. Hon.). of /«•/, 
1 1 ;v. in . of the b] , 8. Ji rome, 

Irs of this i'i'< ; In S. Ambrose (in perhaps, (in [sai. 1. tin..) and al- 
I I, .uniitlv. II:'. itin :tml Pope QttgOTJ, of a 

I • 1 2 )i of I 

' Tin* sentence is not here found in 
eophylaet (ia loc.), and Pseudo- the original. 

VER. 11, 12. ST. MATTHEW. 105 

like to the great and old prophets, most of the prophetic 
visions were by fire. Pseudo-Chrys. It is plain then that 
the baptism s of Christ does not undo the baptism of John, 
but includes it in itself; he who is baptized in Christ's name 
hath both baptisms, that of water and that of the Spirit. 
For Christ is Spirit, and hath taken to Him the body that 
He might give both bodily and spiritual baptism. John's 
baptism does not include in it the baptism of Christ, because 
the less cannot include the greater. Thus the Apostle having 
found certain Ephesians baptized with John's baptism, bap- 
tized them again in the name of Christ, because they had not 
been baptized in the Spirit : thus Christ baptized a second 
time those who had been baptized by John, as John himself 
declared he should, / baptize you with water; but He 
shall baptize you with the Spwit. And yet they were 
not baptized twice but once ; for as the baptism of Christ 
was more than that of John, it was a new one given, not the 
same repeated. Hilary. He marks the time of our salva- 
tion and judgment in the Lord ; those who are baptized in 
the Holy Ghost it remains that they be consummated by 
the fire of judgment. Rabanus. By the fan is signified the 
separation of a just trial ; that it is in the Lord's hand, means, 
'in His power/ as it is written, The Father hath committed 
all judgment to the Son. Pseudo-Chrys. The floor is the 
Church, the barn is the kingdom of heaven, the field is the 
world. The Lord sends forth His Apostles and other teachers, 
as reapers to reap all nations of the earth, and gather them 
into the floor of the Church. Here we must be threshed 
and winnowed, for all men are delighted in carnal things as 
grain delights in the husk. But whoever is faithful and has the 
marrow of a good heart, as soon as he has a light tribulation, 
neglecting carnal tilings runs to the Lord ; but if his faith 
be feeble, hardly with heavy sorrow ; and he who is altogether 
void of faith, however he may be troubled, passes not over to 
Gk>d. The wheat when first threshed lies in one heap with 
chaff and ifraw, and is after winnowed to separate it; so the 

* Two sentences about rebaptizin <<• controversialist! upon the Arian 

wanting in some oopiei of the original, question. It may l>c observed thai the 

are omitted by Aquinas. This comment Bunomiani rebapticed, and that the 

on St. Matthew has apparently pas t>nd General Council rejeoti their 

successively through the hands of op- baptism. 

K5P] L 4i i" ( HAP. HI. 

faithful are mixed up in one Church with the unfaithful ; but 
persecution comi irind, that, tossed by Ch m, they 

whose hearts were separate before, may be also now sepa- 
rated in place. He shall not merely cleanse, bat throughly 
cleanse; therefore the Church must needs be tried in many 
wayi till this be accomplished. And first tl. i winnowed 

it, then the Gentiles, now the heretics, and a time 

shall Antichrist throughly winnow it. For M when the 
blast is gentle, only the lighter chaff is carried off, but the 
heavier remains; so a Blight wind of temptation carries off 
the worst characters only; but should a greater storm arise, 
even those who seem stedfast will depart. There ii i 
then of heavier persecution that the Church should be 
cleansed. Bemig. This ilis floor, to wit, the Church, the 
Lord cleanses in this life, both when by the sentence of the 
Priests the bad are put out of the Church, and when they 
are cut oil" by death. ELABAN. The cleansing of the floor 
will then be finally accomplished, when the Son of Man 
shall send Ilis Angels, and shall gather all offences out of 
Greg. Ilis kingdom. Greg, a ter the threshing i^ finished in this 
xvxiv. 5 l*fej Ul which the grain now groans under the burden of the 
chaff, the fan of the last judgment shall so separate bet v. 
them, that neither shall any chaff pass into the granary, nor 
shall the grain fall into the fire which consumes the chaff. 
HlLABT. The wheat, i.e. the full and perfect fruit of the 
believer, he declares, shall be laid up in heavenly barns; by 
the chall" he means the emptiness of the unfruitful. BaBAN. 
There is this difference between the chaff and the tares, that 
the chall" is produced of the same B& he wheat, but the 

tares from one of another kind. The chaff therefore a.e 
those who enjoy the Sacraments of tin' faith, but are not 
solid; the tares are those who in | ui as well as in 

works are separated from the lot of the good. Etmio. The 
unquenchable lire is the punishment of eternal damnation; 
either because it never totally d< or consumes those it 

has on, i'il on. but torments them eternally ; or to dis- 

mish it from purgatorial fire which is kindled for a time 
and again extinguished. 
. (],• A- «.. It any asks which were the actual word- spoken by 
John, whether tl, ted by Matthew, or by Luke, or by 

VER. 13 15. ST. MATTHEW. 107 

Mark, it may be shewn, that there is no difficulty here to him 
who rightly understands that the sense is essential to our 
knowledge of the truth, but the words indifferent. And it is 
clear we ought not to deem any testimony false, because the 
same fact is related by several persons who were present in 
different words and different ways. Whoever thinks that the 
Evangelists might have been so inspired by the Holy Ghost 
that they should have differed among themselves neither in 
the choice, nor the number, nor the order of their words, he 
does not see that by how much the authority of the Evan- 
gelists is preeminent, so much the more is to be by them 
established the veracity of other men in the same circum- 
stances. But the discrepancy may seem to be in the thing, 
and not only in words, between, I am not worthy to bear His 
shoes, and, to loose His shoe-latchet. Which of these two 
expressions did John use ? He who has reported the very 
words will seem to have spoken truth; he who has given 
other words, though he have not hid, or been forgetful, yet 
has he said one thing for another. But the Evangelists 
should be clear of every kind of falseness, not only that of 
lying, but also that of forgetfulness. If then this discrepancy 
be important, we may suppose John to have used both 
expressions, either at different times, or both at the same 
time. But if he only meant to express the Lord's greatness 
and his own humility, whether he used one or the other the 
sense is preserved, though any one should in his own words 
repeat the same profession of humility using the figure of the 
shoes ; their will and intention does not differ. This then is 
a useful rule and one to be remembered, that it is no lie, 
when one fairly represents his meaning whose speech one is 
recounting, though one uses other words ; if only one shews 
our meaning to be the same with his. Thus understood it is 
a wholesome direction, that we are to enquire only after the 
meaning oi* the speaker. 

13. Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto 
Jolm, to be baptized of him. 

1 I. But John forbad Him, saying, I have need to 

be baptized of Thee, and eomest Thou to me? 

108 006PBI \< I OBDIVG DO COB kP. III. 

L5. And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it 
to be so now: for thus it beoometh us to fulfil all 
righteousness. Then he suffered Him. 

Gloss. non Gloss. Christ having been proclaimed to the world by the 
preaching of His forerunner, now after long obscurity will 
manifest Himself to men. Remxo. In this verse is contained 
person, place, time, and oilicc. Time, in the word Then, 
RaBAN. That is, when lie was thirty years old, shewing that 
none should be ordained priest, or even to preach till He 
be of full age. Joseph at thirty years was made governor of 
Egypt ; David began to reign, and Ezekiel his prophesying at 

Chrys. the same age. Chrys. Because after His baptism Christ was to 

' put an end to the Law, He therefore came to be baptized at this 

age, that having so kept the Law, it might not be said that He 

cancelled it, because He could not observe it. PsEl no- 

Ciirys. Then, that is when John preached, that He might 

confirm his preaching, and Himself receive his witness. 

But as when the morning-star has risen, the sun does not 

wait for that star to set, but rising as it goes forward, 

gradually obscures its brightness ; so Christ waited not for 

John to finish his course, but appeared while he yet taught. 

Remio. The Persons are described in the words, came Jesus 

to John; that is, God to man, the Lord to His servant, the 

King to His soldier, the Light to the lamp. The Place, from 

Galilee to Jordan. Galilee means c transmigration. ' Whoso 

then will be baptized, must pass from vice to virtue, and 

humble himself in coming to baptism, for Jordan means 

Ambro- 'descent.' AMBROSE. Scripture tells of manv wonders 

Blaster. , . . i ... i , 

Serm. x.5. Wrought at \arious times mthis nvi r ; as that, among Others, 

Ps. 111. 3. in the Psalms, Jordan iras driven backward*} before the 

water was driven back, now sins are turned back in its 

current j as Elijah divided the waters of old, so Christ the 

Lord wrought in the same Jordan the separation of sin. 

Aug. unn Remio. The office to be performed; thai He wdgki he bmp- 

, ro . tized of him ; not baptism to the remission of sins, bat to 
■["*• leave the water sanctified for those after to be baptised. 

xii. 4. A.1 Qi The Saviour willed to be baptized not that He might 

VER. 13 — 15. ST. MATTHEW. 109 

Himself be cleansed, but to cleanse the water for us h . From 
the time that Himself was dipped in the water, from that 
time has He washed away all our sins in water. And let 
none wonder that water, itself corporeal substance, is said to 
be effectual to the purification of the soul ; it is so effectual, 
reaching to and searching out the hidden recesses of the 
conscience. Subtle and penetrating in its own nature, made 
yet more so by Christ's blessing, it touches the hidden 
springs of life, the secret places of the soul, by virtue of its 
all-pervading dew. The course of blessing is even yet more 
penetrating than the flow of waters. Thus the blessing 
which like a spiritual river flows on from the Saviour's 
baptism, hath filled the basins of all pools, and the courses 
of all fountains. Pseudo-Chrys. He comes to baptism, that 
He who has taken upon Him human nature, may be found to 
have fulfilled the whole mystery of that nature ; not that He 
is Himself a sinner, but He has taken on Him a nature that 
is sinful. And therefore though he needed not baptism 
Himself, yet the carnal nature in others needed it. Ambrose. Ambro- 
Also like a wise master inculcating His doctrines as much Sg r s ^ r * 
by His own practice, as by word of mouth, He did that xii. l. 
which He commanded all His disciples to do. Aug. He Aug. in 
deigned to be baptized of John that the servants might see T ° r *"£' v#3# 
with what readiness they ought to run to the baptism of the 
Lord, when He did not refuse to be baptized of His servant. 
Jerome. Also that by being Himself baptized, He might 
sanction the baptism of John. Chrys. But since John's bap- Chrys. 
tism was to repentance, and therefore shewed the presence om * XIU 
of sin, that none might suppose Christ's coming to the 
Jordan to have been on this account, John cried to Him, 
/ have need to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to me ? 
As if he had said, Pseudo-Chrys. That Thou shouldest 
baptize me there is good cause, that I may be made righteous 
and worthy of heaven ; but that I should baptize Thee, what 
cause is there? Every good gift comes down from heaven 
upon earth, not ascends from earth to heaven. Hilary. 
John rejeets Him from baptism as God; He teaches him, 

h This is the doctrine of 8. Aw-tin,}; Ambros. iii Luke !!• 88, &C. \'<\ 
ill Joan. iv. IK Oj>. Imp. contr. Julian Vid. l'us. y 00 Baptism, |>. 'J7!», td.2* 

110 G06FBI U < OBDIKG i«> CB IP. HT. 

that it ought to be performed on Him as man. Jerome. 
Beautifully said ia that now, to shew that as Christ was 
baptized with water by John, so John must be baptized by 
Christ with the Spirit. Or, suffer now that I who have 

taken the form of a servant ihould fulfil all that I ate; 

otherwise know that in the day of judgment thon must be 

baptized with my baptism. Or, the Lord says, 'Suffer this 
now; I have also another baptism therewithal T must be 
baptized; thou baptizesl Me with water, that 1 may baptize 
thee for .Me with thy own blood.' PsBUDO-ChRYS. In this 

lie shews that Christ after this baptized John j which is ex- 
pressly told in some apocryphal books 1 . Suffer now that 
I fulfil the righteousness of baptism in deed, and not only in 
word ; first submitting to it, and then preaching it ; for SO it 
becomcth us to fulfil all righteousness. Not that by b» 
baptized He fulfils all righteousness, but so, in the same 
manner, that is, as He first fulfilled the righteousness of 
baptism by His deeds, and after preached it, so lie might all 
Acts i, i. other righteousness, according to that of the Acts, All th'i 

thut Jesus began both to do and to tench. Or thus, (ill r'ujlit- 
eousness, according to the ordinance of human nature; as 
He had before fulfilled the righteousness of birth, growth, 
and the like. HlLARY. For by Him must all righteous 
have been fulfilled, bv whom alone the Law could be ful- 
filled. Jerome. Righteousness; but he adds neither 'of the 
Law;' nor 'of nature,' that we may understand it of both. 
Remig. Or thus; It becometh us to fulfil all righta 
that is, to give an example of perfect justification in baptism, 

without which the gate of the kingdom of hca\en is not 
Opened. Hence lot the proud take an example of humility, 
and not scorn to be baptized by My humble men ben when 
they Bei Mr baptized by John My servant. That is true 
humility which obedil inpanies; as it Continues, 

then he suffered Hun, that is, at last consented to baptize 


1 A . Jquiv.r ri- nirmf. If in QUI 7. It 

I ri->, in tin | km hi t< | ion familiar with tl.< 

Itetht r t'. 
Austin, &c, bat lis . 1 ertalL L2. 

.i| ptrently without reason i rid. 

VER. 16. ST. MATTHEW. Ill 

16. And Jesus, when He was baptized, went up 
straightway out of the water : and, lo, the heavens 
were opened unto Him, and He saw the Spirit of 
God descending like a dove, and lighting upon Him. 

Ambrose. For, as we have said, when the Saviour was Ambro- 
washed, then the water was cleansed for our baptism, that SernT* 
a laver might be ministered to the people who were to come. xii. 4. 
Moreover, it behoved that in Christ's baptism should be 
signified those things which the faithful obtain by baptism. 
Pseudo-Chrys. This action of Christ's has a figurative mean- 
ing pertaining to all who were after him to be baptized ; 
and therefore he says, straightivay He ascended, and not 
simply He ascended, for all who are worthily baptized in 
Christ, straightway ascend from the water; that is, make 
progress in virtues, and are carried on towards a heavenly 
dignity. They who had gone down to the water carnal and 
sinful sons of Adam, straightway ascend from the water 
spiritual sons of God. But if some by their own faults make 
no progress after baptism, what is that to the baptism ? 
Rabanus. As by the immersion of His body He dedicated 
the laver of baptism, He has shewn that to us also after 
baptism received the entrance to heaven is open, and the 
Holy Spirit is given, as it follows, and the heavens were 
opened. Jerome. Not by an actual cleaving of the visible 
element, but to the spiritual eye, as Ezekiel also in the 
beginning of his book relates that he saw them. Pseudo- 
Chbys. For had the actual creation of the heavens been 
opened, he would not have said were opened to Him, for a 
physical opening would have been open to all. But some 
one will say, What, are the heavens then closed to the eye 
of the Son of God, who even when on earth is present in 
heaven ? But it must be known, that as He was baptized 
according to the ordinance of humanity that lie had taken 
on Him, so the heavens were opened to His sight as to 
human nature, though as to His divine He was in 
heaven. R.EMIG. But wax this then the first time that the 
heavens were opened to Him according to His human na- 
ture? The faith of the Church both believes and holds that 
the heavens were no less open to Him before than after. 

112 6PBL \e< 0BDIMC CO CHAP. III. 

It is tliercforc said here, t hat the heavens were opened, 
because to all them who arc bora again the door of the 
kingdom of heaven is opened. Pseudo-Crrys. Perhaps 

there were before some unseen obstacles which bind< 
the souls of the dead from entering the skies. I suppose 
that since Adam's sin no soul had mounted the dries, but 
the heavens were continually closed. When, lo ! on Christ's 
baptism they were again opened ; after lie had overcome by 
the Cross the great tyrant death, henceforward the heaven, 
nevermore to be closed, needed not gates, so that the Angels 

Ps. 24, 7. say not, ' Open ye gates/ for they were open, but take away 
the (jates. Or the heavens are opened to the baptized, and 
they see those things which are in heaven, not by seeing 
them with the bodily eye, but by believing with the spiritual 
( \ e of faith. Or thus ; The heavens are the divine Scriptures, 
which all read but all do not understand, except they who 
have been so baptized as to receive the Holy Spirit. Thus 
the Scriptures of the Prophets were at the first sealed to the 
Apostles, but after they had received the Holy Spirit, all 
Scripture was opened to them. However, in whatever way 
we interpret, the heavens were opened to Him, that is to 
all, on His account; as if the Emperor were to say to any 
one preferring a petition for another, This boon I grant not 

Gloss. to him but to you; that is, to him, for your sake. Gi 

Or, so bright a glory shone round about Christ, that the 
blue concave seemed to be actually cloven. Chrts, But 
though you see it not, be not therefore unbelieving, for in 
the beginnings of spiritual matters sensible visions are always 
offered, for their sakes who can form no idea of things that 
have no body ; which if they occur not in later times, yet 
faith may be established by those wonders once wrought. 
B.BMIO. As to all those who by baptism are born again, the 
door of the kingdom of heaven is opened, so all in baptism 
receive the gifts of the Holy Spirit. 

Aug. App. Aug, Christ after He had been once born among men, is 

ISA 1. born a BOCOlld time in the sacraments, that as we adore Him 

then born of a pure mother, so we may now receive Him 

immersed in pure water. His mother brought forth her Son, 

and is yet rirginj the wave washed Christ, and is holy. 

Lastly, that Holy Spirit which was present to Him in the 

VER. 16. ST. MATTHEW. 113 

womb, now shone ronnd Him in the water, He who then 
made Mary pure, now sanctifies the waters. Pseudo-Chrys. 
The Holy Ghost took the likeness of a dove, as being more 
than other animals susceptible of love. All other forms of 
righteousness which the servants of God have in truth and 
verity, the servants of the Devil have in spurious imitation ; 
the love of the Holy Spirit alone an unclean spirit cannot 
imitate. And the Holy Ghost has therefore reserved to 
Himself this special manifestation of love, because by no 
testimony is it so clearly seen where He dwells as by the 
grace of love. Raban. Seven excellencies in the baptized Raban. 
are figured by the dove. The dove has her abode near the sei' m . n " 
rivers, that when the hawk is seen, she may dive under 
water and escape ; she chooses the better grains of corn ; she 
feeds the young of other birds; she does not tear with her 
beak ; she lacks a gall ; she has her rest in the caverns of the 
rocks ; for her song she has a plaint. Thus the saints dwell 
beside the streams of Divine Scripture, that they may escape 
the assaults of the Devil ; they choose wholesome doctrine, 
and not heretical for their food ; they nourish by teaching 
and example, men who have been the children of the Devil, 
i. e. the imitators ; they do not pervert good doctrine by 
tearing it to pieces as the heretics do ; they are without 
hate irreconcilable ; they build their nest in the wounds of 
Christ's death, which is to them a firm rock, that is their 
refuge and hope ; as others delight in song, so do they in 
groaning for their sin. Chrys. It is moreover an allusion 
to ancient history ; for in the deluge this creature appeared 
bearing an olive-branch, and tidings of rest to the world. 
All which things were a type of things to come. For now 
also a dove appears pointing out to us our liberator, and for 
an olive-branch bringing the adoption of the human race. 
Aug. It is easy to understand how the Holy Ghost should 
laid to be sent, when as it were a dove in visible shape ,r, "-"- fi 
descended OH the Lord ; that is, there was created a certain 

appearance for the time in which the Holy Spirit might be 
visibly shewn. And this operation thus made visible and 

offered to mortal view, is called the mission of the Holy Spirit, 

not that His invisible substance was teen, but that the hearts 
of men might be roused by the external appearance to con- 

VOL. F. i 

1 14 6PKL kOOOBDD I B \I\ III. 

template; the idimtii eternity. Yet this creature in the shape 
of which the Spirit appeared, was not taken into unity of 
person, aa was that human shape taken of the Virgin. I r 
neither did the Spirit hless the dove, nor unite it with Him- 
self fof all eternity, in unity of person. Further, though 
that dove Ifl calle 1 the Spirit, so far as to shew that in this 
dove was a manifestation of the Spirit, yet can we not say 
of tin- Holy Spirit thai He is God and dove, as we say of 
the Son that lie is (Jod and man; and yet it is not as we 
say of the Son that He i^ the Lamb of dud, as not only has 
John Baptist declared, hut as John the Evangelist saw the 
vision of the Lamb slain in the Apocalypse. For this was 
a prophetic vision, not put before the bodily eyes in bodily 
shape, but seen in the Spirit in spiritual images. But con- 
cerning this dove none ever doubted that it was seen with 
the bodily eye; not that we say the Spirit is a dove as we 
I Cor. 10, say Christ is a Rock; (for that Hock was Christ.) For that 
llock already existed as a creature, and from the resemblance 
of its operation was called by the name of Christ, (whom it 
figured;) not so this dove, which was created at the moment 
for this single purpose. It seems to me to be more like the 
flame which appeared to .Moses in the bush, or that which 
the people followed in the wilderness, or to the thundering! 
and lightnings which were when the Law was given from the 
mount. For all these were visible objects intended to signify 
- mething, and then to pass away. For that such forms have 
been from time to time seen, the Holy Spirit is said to have 
been sent ; but these bodily forma appeared for the time to 
shew what was required, and then ceased to be. JbBOMB. 
It -:\\v on the head of JeSUS, that none might suppose the 
voice of the Father spoken to John, and not to the Lord. 

17. And lo a voice from heaven, Baying, Thia is 

My beloved Son, in whom 1 am well pleased. 
Am,. Not as before by Moses and the Prophets, neither 

"°"' ' in type Or figure did the Lather teach that the Son should 
come, but openly shewed Him to be already come, This is 
My Son, 1 1 1 1 \i;v. Or, that from these things thus fulfilled 
upon Christ, we might learn that after the washing of water 

VER. 17. ST. MATTHEW. 115 

the Holy Spirit also descends on us from the heavenly gates, 
on us also is shed an unction of heavenly glory, and an 
adoption to be the sons of God, pronounced by the Father's 
voice. Jerome. The mystery of the Trinity is shewn in 
this baptism. The Lord is baptized ; the Spirit descends in 
shape of a dove; the voice of the Father is heard giving 
testimony to the Son. Ambrose. And no wonder that the Ambro- 
mystery of the Trinity is not wanting to the Lord's laver, Serm.x. 
when even our laver contains the sacrament of the Trinity. 1 - 
The Lord willed to shew in His own case what He was 
after to ordain for men. Pseudo-Aug. Though Father, Son, Pseudo- 
and Holy Ghost are one nature, yet do thou hold most firmly p- u ig ent . 
that Thev be Three Persons ; that it is the Father alone ^ Fide 

' ad Pe- 

who said, This is My beloved Son ; the Son alone over whom trum. c. 
that voice of the Father was heard ; and the Holy Ghost 9 * 
alone who in the likeness of a dove descended on Christ at 
His baptism. Aug. Here are deeds of the whole Trinity. Aug. de 

Trin iv 

In their own substance indeed Father, Son, and Holy Spirit 21. 
are One without interval of either place or time ; but in my 
mouth they are three separate words, and cannot be pro- 
nounced at the same time, and in written letters they fill 
each their several places. By this comparison may be under- 
stood how the Trinity in Itself indivisible may be manifested 
dividedly in the likeness of a visible creation. That the 
voice is that of the Father only is manifest from the words, 
This is My Son. Hilary. lie witnesses that He is His Son Hilar, 
not in name merely, but in very kindred. Sons of God are d .f jj 111, 
we many of us ; but not as He is a Son, a proper and 
true Son ; in verity, not in estimation, by birth, not adoption. 
Aug. The Father loves the Son, but as a father should, not Aug. in 
l master may love a servant ; and that as an own Son, not tr oa "4* 
an adopted; therefore He adds, in whom I am well-pleased. 11. 
BsHIG. Or if it be referred to the human nature of Christ, 
the sense is, I am pleated in Him, whom alone I have 
found without sin. Or according to another reading, 
// hath pleased Me to appoint Him, by whom to per- 
form those thing! I would perform, i.e. the redemption 
Of the human race. AUG. These words Mark and Luke Aug. da 
give in the lame way; in the words of the voice that came £° D y , ,, 
from Heaven, their expression varies though the sense is the 

1 2 

1 <V 


same. For both the WOl Matthew gives them, This is 

My beloved 8on } and as the other two, Thou art My belc 
Son, express the m in the speaker; (and the hea- 

\i nly voice, DO doubt, uttered one of these,) but one 
an intention of addressing the testimony thus borne to the 
Son to those who stood by; the other of addressing it to 
Himself, as it' speaking to Christ He had said, This it My 
Sun. Not that Christ was taught what He knew before, but 
they who stood In heard it, for whose sake the voice came. 
Again, when one says, in whom I urn well-pleased ; another, 
/'// Thee it hath pleased J/c, if you ask which of these was 
actually pronounced by that voice ; take which you will, 
only remembering that those who have not related the same 
words as were spoken have related the same sense. That 
God is well pleased with His Son is signified in the fn 
that the Father is by the Son pleased with men is com eyed 
in the second form, in Thee it hath weU-pleattd Jfe. Or 
you may understand this to have been the one meaning of 
all the Evangelists, In Thee have I put My good pleasnrOj 
i. e. to fulfil all My purpose. 


1. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the 
wilderness to be tempted of the Devil. 

2. And when He had fasted forty days and forty 
nights, He was afterward an hungred. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The Lord being baptized by John with 
water, is led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be baptized 
by the fire of temptation. ( Then,' i. e. when the voice of 
the Father had been given from heaven. Chrys. Whoever Chrys. 
thou art then that after thy baptism sufferest grievous trials, .P. 10 ' 
be not troubled thereat ; for this thou receivedst arms, to 
fight, not to sit idle. God does not hold all trial from us ; 
first, that we may feel that we are become stronger ; secondly, 
that we may not be puffed up by the greatness of the gifts 
we have received; thirdly, that the Devil may have experi- 
ence that we have entirely renounced him ; fourthly, that 
by it we may be made stronger ; fifthly, that we may 
receive a sign of the treasure entrusted to us ; for the 
Devil would not come upon us to tempt us, did he not 
see us advanced to greater honours. Hilary. The Devil's 
snares are chiefly spread for the sanctified, because a victory 
over the saints is more desired than over others. Greg. Greg. 
Bome doubt what Spirit it was that led Jesus into the desert, Ev. 16 l« 
for that it is said after, The Declf took Htm into the holy city. 
But true and without question agreeable to the context 
is the received opinion, that it. was the Holy Spirit; that 
II i^ own Spirit should lead llini thither where the evil 
spirit should find Him to try Him. AUG. Why did He An 

offer Himself to temptation? That He might be our mediator ii nn ' 
in vanquishing temptation not by aid only, but by i cample. 

I' DO ' . He irai led by the Holy Spirit, not ;in an 

118 Q08P1 : \ TO i" ' UP. !▼• 

inferior at the bidding of a - For wo say /cr/, not 

only of him who is constrained by a stronger than he, but 

also of him who is induced by reasonable persuasion; as 

Andrew found hit brother Simon, and brought him to -A 

Jbromb. Led, not against His wiD, or as a prisoner, but 

by a desire for the conflict. Psetjdo-Chbyb. Tlic Devil 

comes against men to tempt them, but since lie could not 

come against Christ, therefore Christ came against the Devil. 

Crcfr. GREG. \Yc should know that there are three modes of 

i P« temptation; suggestion, delight, and consent; and we when 

we are tempted commonly fall into delight or consent. bee 

being born of the sin of the flesh, we bear with us whence we 

afford strength for the contest; but God who incarnate in 

the Virgin's womb came into the world without sin, carried 

within Him oothing of a contrary nature. He could then 

be tempted by suggestion; but the delight of sin never 

gnawed His soul, and therefore all that temptation of the 

Devil was without not within Him. Ciikys. The Devil is 

wont to be most urgent with temptation, when he sees us 

solitary; thus it was in the beginning he tempted the 

Woman when he found her without the man, and now too 

the occasion is offered to the Devil, by the Saviour's being 

led into the desert. 

Ciloss. Gloss. This desert is that between Jerusalem and Jericho, 

s'liii.' 1 where the robbers used to resort. It is called llammaim, i. e. 

'of blood,' from the bloodshed which these robbers car 

there; hence the man was said (in the parable) to have 

fallen among robbers as he went down from Jerusalem to 

icho, bearing a figure of Adam, who was overcome by 

daemons. It was therefore fit that the place where Christ 

caiiie the Devil, should be the same in which the Devil 

in the parable overc .nan. Pseudo-Chbys. Not Christ 

only is led into the desert by the Spirit, but also all the 

> Of God who have the Holy Spirit. For they an not 

Content 0, hut the Holy Spirit stirs them to take up 

Some great work, i. e. to go out into the desert where they 

shall meet with the Devil; (ov there is no unrighteousness 

wherewith the Devil i^ pleased. For all good is without 
flesh and the world, because it is not according to the 

will of the flesh and the world. To Mich a desert then all 

VER. 1, 2. ST. MATTHEW. 119 

the sons of God go out that they may be tempted. For 
example if you are unmarried, the Holy Spirit has in that 
led you into the desert, that is, beyond the limits of the 
flesh and the world, that you may be tempted by lust. But 
he who is married is unmoved by such temptation. Let us 
learn that the sons of God are not tempted but when they 
have gone forth into the desert, but the children of the Devil 
whose life is in the flesh and the world are then overcome and 
obey ; the good man, having a wife is content ; the bad, though 
he have a wife is not therewith content, and so in all other 
things. The children of the Devil go not out to the Devil 
that they may be tempted. For what need that he should 
seek the strife who desires not victory ? But the sons of God 
having more confidence and desirous of victory, go forth 
against him beyond the boundaries of the flesh. For this 
cause then Christ also went out to the Devil, that He might 
be tempted of him. Chrys. But that you may learn how 
great a good is fasting, and what a mighty shield against the 
Devil, and that after baptism you ought to give attention to 
fasting and not to lusts, therefore Christ fasted, not Himself 
needing it, but teaching us by His example. Pseudo-Chrys. 
And to fix the measure of our quadragesimal fast, He fasted 
forty days and forty nights. Chpys. But He exceeded not 
the measure of Moses and Elias, lest it should bring into 
doubt the reality of His assumption of the flesh. Greg. Greg. 
The Creator of all things took no food whatever during Ev j 6 #5< 
forty days. We also, at the season of Lent as much as in 
us lies afflict our flesh by abstinence. The number forty 
is preserved, because the virtue of the decalogue is fulfilled 
in the books of the holy Gospel; and ten taken four times 
amounts to forty. Or, because in this mortal body we con- 
sist of four elements by the delights of which we go against 
the Lord's precepts received by the decalogue. And as we 
tran the decalogue through the lusts of this flesh, it 

is fitting that ire afflict the flesh forty-fold. Or, as by the 
Law ire offer the tenth of our goods, so we strive to offer the 
tenth of our time. And from the first Sunday of Lent to 
the rejoicing of the patchal festival is a space; of six weeks, 
or forty-two days, lubtracting from which the six Sundays 
which are not kept there remain thirty-six. Now as the year 

120 IP] i. in < ORD] ' < HAP. iv. 

consists of three hundred and sixty-live, by the affliction 
of these thirty-sii we ^ r ive the tenth of our year to God. 
Aug. Lib, Am.. Otherwise; The sum of all wisdom is to be acquai 

' * M Ulst " a it li the Creator and the creature. The Creator is the 
Trinity, father. Son, and Holy Ghost; the creatu. urtly 

invisible, — as the soul to which w< 50 a threefold nature, 
as in the command to love God with the whole heart, mind, 
and soul,) — partly risible as the body, which we divide into 
four elements; the hot, the cold, the Liquid, the solid. The 
Dumber ten then, which stands for the whole law of life, 
taken four times, that is, multiplied by that number which 
we assign for the body, because by the body the law is 
obeyed or disobeyed, makes the number forty. All the 
aliquot parts in this number, viz. 1, 2, 4, 5, S, 10, 20, taken 
together make up the number 50. Hence the time of our 
sorrow and affliction is fixed at forty days ; the state of 
blessed joy which shall be hereafter is figured in the quin- 
quagesima] festival, i.e. the fifty days from Master to Pentc- 
Aurr. t. Auo. Not however because Christ fasted immediately 

Sjyi after having received baptism, are we to Buppose that He 
established a rule to be observed, that we should East imme- 
diately after 1 1 is baptism. But when the conflict with the 
tempter is sore, then we ought to fast, thai the body may fulfil 
its warfare bv chastisement, and the soul obtain victory bv 
humiliation. Psi rno-Ciiuvs. The Lord knew the thoughts of 
the Devil, that he sought to tempt Him; he had heard that 
Christ had been born into this world with the preaching of 
Angels, the witness of shepherds, the enquiry of the Magi, 
and the testimony of John. Thus the Lord proceeded against 

him, not as God, but as man, or rather both 1 and man. 

For ID forty days of fasting not to have been an humjicd was 
not a» man; to be ever an hunt/red was not M God. tie 
was an fmngred then that the God might not be certainly 
manifested, ami so the hopes of the Devil in tempting Him 
be extinguished, and His own victory hindered. Hllaby. 

lie was an Iniiii/rrd, not during the forty days, but after 
them. Therefore when the Lord hundred, it was not that 

the effects of abstinence then first came upon Him, but that 

His humanity WM Lefl I own Strength. For the Devil 

- to be orercome, not b\ the God, but by the flesh. By 

VER. 3, 4. ST. MATTHEW. 121 

this was figured, that after those forty days which He was 
to tarry on earth after His passion were accomplished, He 
should hunger for the salvation of man, at which time He 
carried back again to God His Father the expected gift, the 
humanity which He had taken on Him. 

3. And when the Tempter came to Him, he said, If 
Thou be the Son of God, command that these stones 
be made bread. 

4. But He answered and said, It is written, Man 
shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that 
proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 

Psetjdo-Chrys. The Devil who had begun to despair 
when he saw that Christ fasted forty days, now again began 
to hope when he saw that He was an hungred ; and then the 
tempter came to Him. If then you shall have fasted and 
after been tempted, say not, I have lost the fruit of my fast; 
for though it have not availed to hinder temptation, it will 
avail to hinder you from being overcome by temptation. 
Greg. If we observe the successive steps of the temptation, Greg, ubi 
we shall be able to estimate by how much we are freed from sup * 
temptation. The old enemy tempted the first man through 
his belly, when he persuaded him to eat of the forbidden 
fruit ; through ambition when he said, Ye shall be as gods ; 
through covctousness when he said, Knowing good and evil ; 
for there is a covetousness not only of money, but of great- 

i, when a high estate above our measure is sought. By 
the same method in which he had overcome the first Adam, 
in that same was he overcome when he tempted the second 
Adam. He tempted through the belly when he said, Com- 
mand that these stones become loaves ; through ambition 
when he said, If Thou, he the Son of God, cast Thyself down 
from hence ; through covetousness of lofty condition in the 
words, All the$e thing* will I give Thee. AlfBBOSS. UoAmbros. 

nis with that which hud once been the means of his .. 2' 

° C. IV. 6. 

victory, the palate;; If Thou be the Sou, of (Sod, command thai 
e$ become loaves. What meant such ;i beginning 

this, but that he knew that the Son of God was to conic, 

yet believed not that He WBM come on account of His fleshly 

122 Q08PBL .\( i 0BD1KG 10 OHAP. IV. 

infirmity. His speech ii in part t hat of an enquirer, in part 
that of a tempter; he professes to believe Him God, lie 

strives to deceive Him a> man. IIii.akv. And therefore in 
the temptation lie makes a proposal of such a double kind bv 
which His divinity would be made known by the miracle of 
the transformation, the weakness of the man deceived by the 
delight of food. JsBOMB. Hut thou art caught, O Enemy, 
in a dilemma. If these stones can be made bread at His 
word, your temptation is vain against one so mighty. If lie 
cannot make them bread, your suspicions that this is the Son 
of ( iod must be vain. 

I'm i DO-CHBYB. But as the Devil blinds all men, so is he 
now invisibly made blind by Christ. He found Him an 
fin n;i red at the end of forty days, and knew not that He had 
continued through those forty without being hungry. When 
he suspected Him not to be the Son of God, he considered 
not that the mighty Champion can descend to things that be 
weak, but the weak cannot ascend to things that are high. 
We may more readily infer from His not being an fumy ml 
for so many days that He il (iod, than from His being 
(iii hungrcd after that time that He is man. But it may be 
said, Moses and Elias fasted forty days, and were men. But 
they hungrcd and endured, He for the space of forty el 
hungred not, but afterwards. To be hungry and yet ret 
food is within the endurance of man; not be hungry be- 
longs to the Divine nature only. JsBOMB. Christ's purpose 
Leo; was to vanquish by humility ; LsOj hence He opposed the 

adversary rather by testimonies out of the Law, than by 
miraculous powers; thus at the same time giving more 
honour to man, ami more disgrace to the adversary, when 

the enemy of the human race thus seemed to be o ve r come by 

Greg. man rather than by (iod. GrBO. So the Lord when tempted 

Qbiiup. ] )v t | H> Qgyjj answered only with precepts of Holy Writ, and 
lie who could have drowned His tempter in the abyss, dis- 
played not the might of 1 1 is power ; giving us an example, 
that when we Buffer any thing at the hands of evil men. 
We should be stirred up to learning rather than to revenge. 

Psbi do-Chbts, He said not, ' I live not,' but, Man doth not 
tin ti;/ bread alone, that the Devil might —till ask. //' Thou lie 

the Son qfOod, It' lie- be (iod, it is as though lie shunned 

S< nn. 39, 

VER. 5 7. ST. MATTHEW. 123 

to display what He had power to do ; if man, it is a crafty- 
will that His want of power should not be detected. Rabanus. 
This verse is quoted from Deuteronomy. Whoso then feeds c. 8, 3. 
not on the Word of God, he lives not ; as the body of man 
cannot live without earthly food, so cannot his soul without 
God's word. This word is said to proceed out of the mouth 
of God, where He reveals His will by Scripture testimonies. 

5. Then the Devil taketh Him up into the holy 
city, and setteth Him on a pinnacle of the temple, 

6. And saith unto Him, If Thou be the Son of 
God, cast Thyself down ; for it is written, He shall 
give His Angels charge concerning Thee : and in their 
hands they shall bear Thee up, lest at any time Thou 
dash Thy foot against a stone. 

7. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou 
shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 

Pseudo-Chrys. From this first answer of Christ, the Devil 
could learn nothing certain whether He were God or man ; 
he therefore betook him to another temptation, saying within 
himself; This man who is not sensible of the appetite of 
hunger, if not the Son of God, is yet a holy man; and such 
do attain strength not to be overcome by hunger; but 
when they have subdued every necessity of the flesh, they 
often fall by desire of empty glory. Therefore he began 
to tempt Ilim by this empty glory. Jerome. Took Him, 
not because the Lord was weak, but the enemy proud ; he 
imputed to a necessity what the Saviour did willingly. 
RABANU8. Jerusalem was called the Holy City, for in it was 
the Temple of God, the Holy of holies, and the worship of 
the one God according to the law of Moses. Remig. This 
shews that the Devil lies in wait for Christ's faithful people 
even in the sacred places. GREGORY. Behold when it is said Greg, 
that this God was taken by the Devil into the holy city, 1 ' ' sup * 
pioui tremble to hear, and yet the Devil is head and 

chief among the wicked; what wonder that He Buffered 

Himself to be led up a mountain by the wicked one himself, 

who suffered Himself to be crucified by his members. Gloss. Gioss.ord 



1 2 1 »P] L \" ORDING < l! \I\ IV. 

The Devil places us on high places by exalting with pride, 
that he may dash us to the ground again. Rbmo. The 
pinnacle is the seal of the doctors; for the temple hud not 
a pointed roof like our houses, but was flat on the top after 
the manner of the country of Palestine, and in the temple 
were three stories. It should be known, that the pinnacle 
was on the floor, and in each story was one pinnacle. 
Whether then he placed Him on the pinnacle in the I 
story, or that in the second, or the third, he placed Him 

Gloss. whence a fall was possible. Gloss. Observe here that all 
these things were done with bodily sense, and by careful 
comparison of the context it seems probable that the Devil 
appeared in human form. Psi DDO-ChRTS. Perhaps you 
may say, How could he in the sight of all place Him bodily 
upon the temple? Perhaps the Devil so took Him as though 
He were visible to all, while He, without the Devil being 

Gloss, np. aware of it, made Himself invisible. QLOS8. He set Him on 
a pinnacle of the temple when he would tempt Him through 
ambition, because in this seat of the doctors he had before 
taken many through the same temptation, and tli 
thought that when set in the same seat, He might in like 
manner be pulled up with vain pride. Jbbomx. In the 
several temptations the single aim of the Devil is to find 
if He be the Son of God, but he is so answered as at last 
to depart in doubt; he says, Cast Thyself, because the voice 
of the Devil, which is always calling men downwards, lias 
power to persuade them, but may not compel them to fall. 
PsEUDO-Chrys. How does lie expect to discover by this pro- 
position whether He be the Son of God or notP for to 
fly through the air is not proper to the Divine nature 1 , tor it 

is not useful to any. If then any were to attempt to fly 

when challenged to it, he would be acting from ostentation 

and would so belong rather to the Devil than to (^od. [fit 

is enough to B Wise man to be what he is. and he has no 

wi>h to seem what he is Dot, how much more should the 

Son of God hold it not Decessarv to shew what He 18: He 
Of whom none can know s () much as \\v is in Himself P 
Ami But as Satan t rausliguivs himself into an Angel 

of light, and spnads a snare for the faithful, even from 
divine Scriptures, so now he uses its texts, not to instruct 

VER. 5 7. ST. MATTHEW. 125 

but to receive. Jerome. This verse we read in the ninetieth Ps. 91, 11. 
Psalm, but that is a prophecy not of Christ, but of some 
holy man, so the Devil interprets Scripture amiss. Pseudo- 
Chrys. For the Son of God in truth is not borne of Angels, 
but Himself bears them, or if He be borne in their arms, 
it is not from weakness, lest He dash His foot against a 
stone, but for the honour. O thou Devil, thou hast read 
that the Son of God is borne in Angels' arms, hast thou not 
also read that He shall tread upon the asp and basilisk ? But 
the one text he brings forward as proud, the other he omits 
as crafty. Chrys. Observe that Scripture is brought forward 
by the Lord only with an apt meaning, but by the Devil 
irreverently ; for that where it is written, He shall give His 
Angels charge over Thee, is not an exhortation to cast Him- 
self headlong. Gloss. We must explain thus ; Scripture Gloss, ap. 
says of any good man, that He has given it in charge to e m# 
His Angels, that is to His ministering spirits, to bear him 
in their hands, i. e. by their aid to guard him that he dash 
not his foot against a stone, i. e. keep his heart that it 
stumble not at the old law written in tables of stone. Or 
by the stone may be understood every occasion of sin and 
error. Rabak. It should be noted, that though our Saviour 
suffered Himself to be placed by the Devil on a pinnacle of 
the temple, yet refused to come down also at his command, 
giving us an example, that whosoever bids us ascend the 
strait way of truth we should obey. But if he would again 
cast us down from the height of truth and virtue to the 
depth of error we should not hearken to him. Jerome. The 
false Scripture darts of the Devil He brands with the true 
shield of Scripture. Hilary. Thus beating down the efforts 
of the Devil, He professes Himself both God and Lord. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Yet He says not, Thou shalt not tempt Me 
tby Lord God ; but, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy 
(Jfjd ; which every man of God when tempted by the Devil 
might say ; for whoso tempts a man of God, tempts God. 
Rabantjs. Otherwise, it was a suggestion to Him, as man, 
that He should seek by requiring some miracle to know 
the greatness of God's power. AUG. It is a part of sound Aug. con, 
doctrine, that when man lias any Other means, ho should ng 
not tempt the Lord his God. Tin. on. And it is to tempt Tbeod 

lion 000, 


God, in any thing to expose one's self to clanger without 
cause. Jbbomb. Ii should be noted, that the required \ 

arc taken from the hook of Dciih ronomy only, that lie 

might shew the sacraments of the second Law. 

8. Again, the Devil taketh Him up into an exceed- 
ing high mountain, and sheweth Jliin all the king- 
doms of the world, and the glory of them ; 

9. And saith unto llim, All these things will 1 
give Thee, if Thou wilt fall down and worship me. 

10. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, 
Satan : for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord 
thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve. 

11. Then the Devil leaveth llim, and, behold, 
Angels came and ministered unto llim. 

PsEUDO-ChbTB, The Devil, left in uncertainty hy this | 
cond reply, passes to a third temptation. Christ had broken 
the nets of appetite, had passed over those of anihition, he 
now spreads for Him those of covctoiiMiess j he taketh Him 
vp into a very high mountain, such as in going round about 
the earth he had noticed rising ahove the rest. The higher 
the mountain, the wider the view from it. He shews Him 
not so as that they truly saw the very kingdom*, cities, 
nations, their silver and their gold; but the quarters of the 
earth where each kingdom and city lay. As suppose from 
some high ground I were to point out to you, see then lies 
Rome, there Alexandria; you are not supposed the 

towns themselves, but the quarter in which they lie. Thus 
the Devil might point out the several quarters with his fin 

and recount in words the greatness of each kingdom and its 
condition; for that is said to he shewn which is in any way 

Oritf. presented to the understanding. Origin. We are not to 

l'l'.Mi.'.a) SU 1T ,,M> tMat *hen he shewed Him the kingdoms of the 

world, he presented before Sim the kingdom of Persia, 

for instance, or India; hut he shewed his own kingdom, 
how he reigns in the world, that is, how some arc governed 

hy fornication, s,, 1)lt . 1 )V avarice. ReMIO. By their ylunj, 

VER. 8 — 11. ST. MATTHEW. 127 

is meant, their gold and silver, precious stones and temporal 
goods. Eaban. The Devil shews all this to the Lord, not 
as though he had power to extend His vision or shew Him 
any thing unknown. But setting forth in speech as excellent 
and pleasant, that vain worldly pomp wherein himself de- 
lighted, he thought by suggestion of it, to create in Christ 
a love of it. Gloss. He saw not, as we see, with the eye of Gloss, ord. 
lust, but as a physician looks on disease without receiving 
any hurt. Jerome. An arrogant and vain vaunt ; for he 
hath not the power to bestow all kingdoms, since many 
of the saints have, we know, been made kings by God. 
Pseudo-Chrys. But such things as are gotten by iniquity 
in this world, as riches, for instance, gained by fraud or 
perjury, these the Devil bestows. The Devil therefore can- 
not give riches to whom he will, but to those only who are 
willing to receive them of him. Remig. Wonderful in- 
fatuation in the Devil ! To promise earthly kingdoms to 
Him who gives heavenly kingdoms to His faithful people, 
and the glory of earth to Him who is Lord of the glory of 
heaven ! Ambrose. Ambition has its dangers at home ; Amb. in 
that it may govern, it is first others' slave ; it bows in flattery ^ c ' c * 1V * 
that it may rule in honour ; and while it would be exalted, 
it is made to stoop. Gloss. See the Devil's pride as of old. Gloss, non 
In the beginning he sought to make himself equal with 
God, now he seeks to usurp the honours due to God, saying, 
If Thou wilt fall down and worship me. Who then worships 
the Devil must first fall down. 

PseuDO-Chbyb. With these words He puts an end to the 
temptations of the Devil, that they should proceed no fur- 
ther. JxROMB. The Devil and Peter are not, as many sup- 
pose, condemned to the same sentence. To Peter it is said, 
Get thee behind Me, Satan ; i. e. follow thou behind Me who 
art contrary to My will. But here it is, Go, Satan, and 
M not added ' behind .Me,' that we may understand into 
the fire prepared for thee and thy angels. Remig. Other 
copies read, Get thee behind Me; i.e. remember thee in 
what glory thou VTMt Created, and into what misery thou 
batt fallen. PsEl DO-Ch&TS. Observe BOW Christ when Him- 
self suffered irrong at the hands of the Devil, being tempted 
of him, laying. If Thou be. the Son of Ood, cast Thyself down, 


128 008PKL 1000RDIFG TO CHAP. IT, 

vet was not moved to chide the Pevil. But now when 


the Deri] QSnrps the honour ofGodj lie is wroth, and drives 
him away, laying, Go thy way, Satan; that we may learn 

by His example to hear injuries to ourselves with mag- 
nanimity, but wrong! to God, to endure not so much as 
to hear ; for to be patient under our own wrongs is pra 
worthy, to dissemhle when Qod is wronged is impiety. 
.1 1 ROME. When the Deri] lays to the Saviour, If Thou wilt 
fall down dud worship me, lie is answered by the contrary 
declaration, that it more becomes him to worship Jesus 
Aug. as his Lord and God. Aw.. The one Lord our Qod is 
Serm. ^ 1C Holy r Lrinit v, to which alone we justly owe the service 
Anan. f piety. In. By service is to be understood the honour 
All(r (le due to God ; as our version renders the Greek word ' latria,' 
Civ. Dei, wherever it occurs in Scripture, by 'service* (servitus), but 
that service which is due to men (as where the Apostle bids 
slaves be subject to their masters) is in Greek called ' dulia ;' 
while ' latria,' always, or so often that we say always, is 
used of that worship which belongs to God. PSEl DO-Chbtb. 
The Devil, we may fairly suppose, did not depart in obedit 
to the command, but the Divine nature of Christ, and the 
Holy Spirit which was in Him drove him thence, and then 
///r Devil left Him. Which also serves for our consolation, 
to see that the Devil does not tempt the men of God so 
long as he wills, but so long as Christ suffers. And though 
lie may suffer him to tempt for a short time, yet in the 
end lie drives him away because of the weakness of our nature. An.. After the temptation the Holy Angels, to be 
1**2] ' dreaded of all unclean spirits, ministered to the Lord, by 
which it was made yet more manifest to the dSBB&OnS how 

at was His power. Psbudo-Chkys, lie- says m»t r Angela 

descended from heaven,' that it may he known that they 
were e\er on the earth lo minister to Him, but had now by 
the Lord's command departed from Him, to gifC opportu- 
nity for tin' Denl to approaoh, who perhaps when he saw 

Him surrounded by Angela would not have come near Him. 
But in what matters they ministerial to Him, we cannot, 
know, whether in the healing disc; I purifying sonls, 

or casting out dsamonsj for all these things He does by 

the ministration of AngelSj so that what they do, Himself 

VER. 11. ST. MATTHEW. 129 

appears to do. However, it is manifest that they did not 
now minister to Him because His weakness needed it, but for 
the honour of His power ; for it is not said that they ' suc- 
coured Him/ but that they ministered to Him. Gregory. Greg, non 
In these things is shewn the twofold nature in one person j ££ g^ i. 
it is the man whom the Devil tempts ; the same is God to 8. n. 24-. 
whom Angels minister. Pseudo-Chrys. Now let us shortly j, i. n . ifi 
review what is signified by Christ's temptations. The fast- 
ing is abstinence from things evil, hunger is the desire 
of evil, bread is the gratification of the desire. He who 
indulges himself in any evil thing, turns stones into bread. 
Let him answer to the Devil's persuasions that man does 
not live by the indulgence of desire alone, but by keeping 
the commands of God. When any is puffed up as though 
he were holy he is led to the temple, and when he esteems 
himself to have reached the summit of holiness he is set on 
a pinnacle of the temple. And this temptation follows the 
first, because victory over temptation begets conceit. But 
observe that Christ had voluntarily undertaken the fasting; 
but was led to the temple by the Devil; therefore do you 
voluntarily use praiseworthy abstinence, but suffer yourself 
not to be exalted to the summit of sanctity ; fly high-minded- 
ness, and you will not suffer a fall, ^he ascent of the moun- 
tain is the going forward to great riches, and the glory of this 
world which springs from pride of heart. When you desire 
to become rich, that is, to ascend the mountain, you begin to 
think of the ways of gaining wealth and honours, then the 
prince of this world is shewing you the glory of his kingdom. 
In the third place he provides you reasons, that if you seek 
to obtain all these things, you should serve him, and neglect 
the righteousness of God. Hilary. When we have over- 
come the Devil and bruised his head, we see that Angels' 
ministry and the oflices of heavenly virtues will not be want- 
ing to us. A 10. Luke has not given the temptations in the Aug. de 
same order M Matthew j so that we do not know whether g° n ".j lf; 
the pinnacle of the temple, or the ascent of the mountain, 
was first in the action ; but it is of no importance, so Long as 

it is only clear that all of them were truly (lone. Gi. 
Though Luke's Ordei is the more historical, Matthew m * 

relates the temptations as they were done to Adam, 
vol.. r. K 

130 P0 < FF\]>. IV. 

12. Now when Jesilfl had heard that John was cast 
into prison, He departed into Galilee; 

13. And Leaving Nazareth, lie came and dwelt in 
Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the 
borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim : 

14. That it might he fulfilled which was spoken 
by Eisaias the prophet, sayii 

15. The land of ZabuloQ, and the land of Xephtha- 
lim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of 
the Gentiles ; 

1G. The people which sat in darkness saw great 
light; and to them which sat in the region and 
shadow of death light is sprung up. 

RabANUB, Matthew having related the forty days' fast, the 
temptation of Christ, and the ministry of Angels, proceeds, 
Jesus having heard that John was cast into prison. Psbi do- 
Ciiivvs. By (iod without doubt, for none can effect any 
thing Bgailist B holy man, unless Ciod deliver him up. He 
withdrew into Galilee, that is, out of Jiuhea; both that lie 
might reserve His passion to the tit time, and that lie might 
Chryi. set us an example of flying from danger. Chbys. It is not 
Horn, xiv blameworthy not to throw one's self into peril, but when one 
has fallen into it, not to endure manfully, lie departed from 
Jiuhea both to soften .Jewish animosity, and to fulfil a pro- 
phecy seeking moreover to fish for those n of the 
world who dwelt in Galilee. Note also how when lie would 
depart to the Gentiles, Me received good ea'i>r from the 
Jews; His forerunner was thrown into prison, which com- 
mon, ap. pelled Jesus to pass into Galilee <>f the Gentiles, Q 
" st '"* lie came as Luke tareth, where He had I 
brought up, and there entering into the synagogue, He r 

an I ipi ke many thil r which th( :ht to throw Him 

down from the rock, and thence He went to Capernaum \ 
for which Matth< s has only, And leaving the town ofNaza- 

Gloss, ord. t'<th, He, riuimn. GlOC this 

a village in Galilee near Mount Tal I apernaum a town 
in CJalilcc of the Gentiles near the L Gennesaretj 

VER. 12 — 16. ST. MATTHEW. 131 

this is the meaning of the word, on the sea coast. He 
adds further in the borders of Zabulon and Naphtali, where 
was the first captivity of the Jews by the Assyrians. Thus 
where the Law was first forgotten, there the Gospel was first 
preached; and from a place as it were between the two it 
was spread both to Jews and Gentiles. Remig. He left one, 
viz. Nazareth, that He might enlighten more by His preach- 
ing and miracles. Thus leaving an example to all preachers 
that they should preach at a time and in places where they 
may do good, to as many as possible. In the prophecy, the 
words are these, At that first time the land of Zabulon and Is. 9, l. 
the land of Naphtali was lightened, and at the last time 
was increased the way of the sea beyond Jordan, Galilee of 
the Gentiles. Jerome. They are said at the first time to Hieron. 
be lightened from the burden of sin, because in the country ™ ' s ™' 
of these two tribes, the Saviour first preached the Gospel ; 
at the last time their faith was increased , most of the Jews 
remaining in error. By the sea here is meant the Lake of 
Gennesaret, a lake formed by the waters of the Jordan; on 
its shores are the towns of Capernaum, Tiberias, Bethsaida, 
and Corozaim, in which district principally Christ preached. 
Or, according to the interpretation of those Hebrews who 
believe in Christ, the two tribes Zabulon and Naphtali were 
taken captive by the Assyrians, and Galilee was left desert; 
and the prophet therefore says that it was lightened, because 
it had before suffered the sins of the people; but afterwards 
the remaining tribes who dwelt beyond Jordan and in Sa- 
maria were led into captivity; and Scripture here means 
that the region which had been the first to suffer captivity, 
HOW was the first to see the light of Christ's preaching. The 
Nazarenea again interpret that this was the first part of the 
country that, on the coming of Christ, was freed from the 
errors of the Pharisees, and after by the Gospel of the Apo- 
stle Paul, the preaching was increased or multiplied through- 
out all the countries of the Gentiles. Gi.oss. Hut Matthew (Moss. ;ip. 

here so quotes the pai i to make them all nomina- nie m ' 

tive CI ferring to one verb. The land of Zabulon, 

and the land of Naphtali, which ii the way of the sea, and 
which is beyond Jordan, viz. the people of Galilee of the 

LtileSj the people which walked in darkness. I i, ord, 

B 2 

L82 6pi i a i obding ro ch u\ iv. 

Note that there are two Galilee*; one of the Jews, the other 
of the Gentiles. This divisioo of Galilee had d from 

Solomon's time, who gave twenty lee to Ilyram, 

King G part was afterwards called Galilee of the 

Hieron. Gentiles; the remainder, of the Jews. JEROME. Or we must 
read, beyond Jordan, of Galilee of U io, I mean, 

that the people who either sat, or walked in darkness, 1 

n light, and that not a faint Light, as the light of t : 
phets, but a great light, as of Him who in the Gospel sp 
thus, J am the light of the world. Between death and the 

shadow of death I suppose this difference; deatli is said of 
such as have gone down to the grave with the works of deatli ; 
the shadow of such as live in sin, and have not yet depai 
from this world; these may, if they will, yet turn to repent- 
ance. Pseudo-Chbyb. Otherwise, the Gentiles who wor- 
shipped idols, and (hemons, were they who sat in tin 
of the shadow of death ; the Jews, who did the works of the 
Law, were in darkness, because the righteousness of I 
w as not yet manifested to them. ChryS. Hut that you may 
learn that he speaks not of natural day and night, he calls 

the light, a great light, which is in other pli lied the 

true light ; and he adds, the shadow of death, to explain what 
lie means by darkness. The words arose, and shincd, si 
that they found it not of their own seeking, but God Him- 
self appeared to them, they did not first run to the light ; 
men were in the greatest mi before Christ's eon,. 

they did not walk but sate in darkness ; which \\a> a s 
that they hoped for deliverance; for as not knowing \ 
way they should go, dint in by darkness tiny sate down, 

having now no power to stand. By darkness he means here, 
error and ungodlin< 

Baban.ap. I!\i.\\. In allegory, John and tin of the Propfa wew t j ic x >efore tin- Word. When prophi 

sed and WSS fettered, then came tin 1 Word, fulfilling 
t the Prophet had sp.-ken of it. lie departi 

Galilee, i.e. from fi tire to verity. Or, into tin 1 Church, 
which is a passing from vice to virtue. I reth is iu- 

ireted 'a flower,' Capernaum, 'the beautiful villa 
lie left therefore the Bower of figure, (in which was 

ally intended the fruit of the !.} and came 

VER. 12 — 16. ST. MATTHEW, 133 

into the Church, which was beautiful with Christ's virtues. 
It is by the sea-coast, because placed near the waves of 
this world, it is daily beaten by the storms of persecution. 
It is situated between Zabulon and Naphtali, i. e. common 
to Jews and Gentiles. Zabulon is interpreted, 'the abode 
of strength ; J because the Apostles, who were chosen from 
Judaea, were strong. Nephtali, ' extension/ because the 
Church of the Gentiles was extended through the world. 
Aug. John relates in his Gospel the calling of Peter, Aug. de 
Andrew, and Nathanael, and the miracle in Cana, before i{ 01 ^' v * 
Jesus' departure into Galilee ; all these things the other 
Evangelists have omitted, carrying on the thread of their 
narrative with Jesus' return into Galilee. We must un- 
derstand then that some days intervened, during which the 
things took place concerning the calling of the disciples 
which John relates. Remig. But this should be considered 
with more care, viz. that John says that the Lord went 
into Galilee, before John the Baptist was thrown into 
prison. According to John's Gospel after the water turned 
into wine, and his going down to Capernaum, and after 
his going up to Jerusalem, he returned into Judaea and 
baptized, and John was not yet cast into prison. But 
here it is after John's imprisonment that He retires into 
Galilee, and with this Mark agrees. But we need not 
suppose any contradiction here. John speaks of the Lord's 
first coming into Galilee, which was before the imprisonment 
of John. He speaks in another place of His second coming John 4, 3. 
into Galilee, and the other Evangelists mention only this 
second coming into Galilee, which was after John's im- 
prisonment. EUSEB. It is related that John preached the Euseb. 
Gospel almost up to the close of his life without setting jy' 04 
forth any thing in writing, and at length came to write for 
this The three first written Gospels having come to 

his knowledge, ho confirmed the truth of their history by his 
y ; but there were yet some things wanting, 
lly an aCCOant of what the Lord had (lone at the first 

inning of !iis preaching. And >t is tine that the other 
three Gospels leem t<> contain only those things which 

I don" in t!, r in which .John the Bapti8l was 

put into prison, 01 ited. For Matthew, after the 

13 t RDING 10 < II \r. IV. 

temptationj proceeds immediately! Hearing that John 
delivered up; and Mark in like manner. Luke again, even 
before relating one of Christ's actions, tells that Herod had 

shut up John in prison. The Apostle John then was re- 
qu' i put into writing what the preceding Evangelists 

had left out before the imprisonment of John; hence he 
says in his Gospel, tku beginning of miracles did ■, 

17. From that time Jesus began to preach, and to 
say, Repent: for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand. 

Pseudo-Chbvb. Christ's Gospel should be preached by 
him who can control his appetites, who contemns the 

(Is of this life, and desires not empty honours. / 
this time began Jesus to preach, that is, after having been 
tempted, lie had overcome hunger in the desert, des] 
covctousness on the mountain, rejected ambitious desires 
in the temple. Or from the time that John was delivi 
up ; for had He begun to preach while John Mas \i I 
preaching, He would have made John be lightly accom 
of, and John's preaching would ha- w thought super- 

fluous by the side of Christ's teaching; as when the BUn 
t the same time with the morning Star, the star's 
brightness is hid. Ohrts, Tor another cause also lie 
did not preach till John was iu prison, that the multitude 
might not be split into two parties; or as John did no 
miracle, all men would have been drawn to Christ by His 
miracles, RaBAN. In this lie further teaehes that none 
should despise the words of ;i person inferior to him; 
> the Apostle, //' any thing d to him that 

sits, let the first hold his peace. B, He did 

wisely in making now the beginning of Bis preach 
that lie should not trample upon John's teaching, but 

that lie might the rather confirm it and demonstrate him 

bave been a true witness. Jerome. Shewing 

thereby that He was Sen of that same Cod whose prophet 
John Was ; and th He says, / >/> . 1 ' 

Chryb. lie does not straightway preach righteousness 

which all knew, but repentance, which a 1 ! needed. Who 
then dared i J, but am Dot able".'' 

VER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 135 

For repentance corrects the will; and if ye will not re- 
pent through fear of evil, at least ye may for the pleasure 
of good things; hence He says, the kingdom of heaven is 
at hand; that is, the blessings of the heavenly kingdom. 
As if He had said, Prepare yourselves by repentance, for the 
time of eternal reward is at hand. Remig. And note, He 
does not say the kingdom of the Canaanite, or the Jebusite, 
is at hand ; but the kingdom of heaven. The law promised 
worldly goods, but the Lord heavenly kingdoms. Chrys. 
Also observe how that in this His first address He says 
nothing of Himself openly ; and that very suitably to 
the case, for they had yet no right opinion concerning 
Him. In this commencement moreover He speaks nothing 
severe, nothing burdensome, as John had concerning the 
axe laid to the root of the condemned tree, and the like; 
but he puts first things merciful, preaching the glad tidings 
of the kingdom of heaven. Jerome. Mystically interpreted, 
Christ begins to preach as soon as John was delivered to 
prison, because when the Law ceased, the Gospel com- 

18. And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw 
two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his 
brother, casting a net into the sea : for they were 

19. And He saith unto them, Follow Me, and I 
will make you fishers of men. 

20. And they straightway left their nets, and 
followed llim. 

21. And going on from thence, He saw other two 
brethren, James the son of Zebcdee, and John his 
brother, id a ship with Zebedee their father, mending 
their nets ; and 1 le called them. 

22. And they immediately left the ship and their 
father, and followed I lim. 

i do-Chrys. Before Ee spoke or did any thing, Christ 
called Apostles, thai neither word nor deed oi 1 1 ia should be 

L36 i" CHAP. TV, 

bid from their knowledge, so that they may n ft or wards say 

Acta 4, with Confidence, What we liar.' seen and heard, that ice 

cannot but speak. K.\ The sea of Calilcc, the lake 

of Gennesareth, the sea of Tiberiaa, and the salt lake, arc one 

Ola and the same. GLOSS. He rightly goes to fishing 

when about to fish for fishermen, Rjbmig. Glow, thai is, not 

so much with the bodily eye, as spiritually viewing their 

hearts. Chbys. He calls them while actually working at 

their employment, to shew that to follow Him ought to be 

prefi rred to all occupations. They were just then easting 

a n. / into the sea, -which ; > l: r < id with their future office. 

Aup:. Auo. lie chose not kings, senators, philosophers, or 

197 # 2. orators, but He chose common, poor, and untaught fishcr- 

Anp. men. Id. Had one learned been chosen, he might have 

\' m attributed the choice to the merit of his learning. Hut our 

tJ (hi 1 1 II . o 

viii. 7. Lord Jesus Christ, willing to bow the necks of the proud, 
Bought not to gain fishermen by orators, but gained an 
Emperor by a fisherman. Great was Cyprian the pleader, 
but Peter the fisherman was before him. PfiBl DO-Chi 
The operations of their secular craft were a prophecy of their 
future dignity. As he who his net into the m 

knows not what fishes he shall take, so the tcacln tfl the 

net of the divine word upon the people, not knowing who 
among them will come to Cod. Those whom God shall 
abide in His doctrine. Remio. Oft a the Lord 

peaks by Jeremiah. / will send My fishers among yon, a 

] "- they shall catch you. Gloss. Follow Me, not so much with 

r lj n< your feet as in your hearts and your life. PKBUDO-ChBTS. 

hers of men, that is, teachers, that with then' tad's 

d you may eateli men out of this world of storm and 

danger, in which men do not walk but are rather borne 

along, the Devil by pleasure drawing them into sin where 

men devour one another as the Btronger tishes do : iker, 

withdrawn from hence they may live upon the land, being 

(irr;i members of Christ's body. Greq. Peter and Andrew 

n had sen Christ work no miracle, had heard from Him no 


i. word of the promise of the eternal reward, ingle 

bidding of the Lord they forgot all that they had teemed to 

id straightway left tin , and 

In which deed we OUght rath idcr their wills than 

YER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 137 

the amount of their property. He leaves much who keeps 
nothing for himself; he parts with much, who with his pos- 
sessions renounces his lusts. Those who followed Christ 
gave up enough to be coveted by those who did not follow. 
Our outward goods, however small, are enough for the Lord ; 
He does not weigh the sacrifice by how much is offered, but 
out of how much it is offered. The kingdom of God is not to 
be valued at a certain price, but whatever a man has, much or 
little, is equally available. Pseudo-Chrys. These disciples 
did not follow Christ from desire of the honour of a doctor, 
but because they coveted the labour itself; they knew how 
precious is the soul of man, how pleasant to God is his 
salvation, and how great its reward. Chrys. To so great 
a promise they trusted, and believed that they should catch 
others by those same words by which themselves had been 
caught. Pseudo-Chrys. These were their desires, for which 
they left all and followed ; teaching us thereby that none 
can possess earthly things and perfectly attain to heavenly 

Gloss. These last disciples were an example to such as Gloss, ap. 
leave their property for the love of Christ ; now follows an Anselm - 
example of others who postponed earthly affection to God. 
Observe how He calls them two and two, as He afterwards 
scut them two and two to preach. Greg. Hereby we are Greg. 
also silently admonished, that he who wants affection towards JJ on1, !?, 
others, ought not to take on him the office of preaching. 
The precepts of charity are two, and between less than two 
there can be no love. Pseuoo-Ciiiiys. Kightly did He thus 
build the foundations of the brotherhood of the Church on 
love, that from such roots a copious sap of love might flow 
to the branches; and that too on natural or human love, 
that nature as well as grace might bind their love more 
firmly. They were moreover brothers; and so did God in 
the Old Testament lav the foundations of His building on 
Mid Aaron, brothers. But as the grace of the new 
'anient is more abundant than that of the Old, therefore 
the firtf people were built upon oik; pair of brethrenj but the 

new people upon two. They were mending I heir nets, a 
proof of the extremett indigence; they repaired the old 

because they had not u he-nee they should buy new. And 

138 OOflPEL lOOOBDIlfG TO rnvr.iv. 

what shews their great filial j)ioty, in this their great poverty 
ed not their father, but carried him with them in 
their resael, not that lie might aid in their labour, hut h 

enjoyment of hit Bons' presence. Chrys. It is no small 
sign of goodness, to bear poverty easily, to live by hon 
labour, to be hound together by virtue of affection, to keep 
their poor father with them, and to toil in his service. 
PseuDO-Chrys. We may not dare to consider the former 
disciples as more quick to preach, because they were easting 

their nets; and these latter as lest active, because they were 
\( t making ready only; for it is Christ alone that may know 
their differences. But perhaps we may say that the first 
were Casting their nets, because Peter preached the Gospel, 
but committed it not to paper — the others were making ready 
their nets, because John composed a Gospel. He cut ltd 
than together, for hy their abode they were fellow-towns- 
men, in alfection attached, in profession agreed, and united 
by brotherly tenderness. He called them then at once, that 
united by so many common bh lit not be 

separated by a separate call. CHRYS. lie made no promise 
to them when He called them, as He had to the former, for 
the obedience of the first had made the way plain for them. 
Besides, they had heard many things concerning Him, as 
being friends and townsmen of the others. 

PgEl DO-ChryS. There arc three things which we must 
leave who would come to Christ; carnal actions, which arc 
signified in the fishing nets; worldly substance, in the ship; 
parents, which are signified in their father. They left 
their own vessel, that they might become governors of the 
v\ of the Church ; they Left then- nets, as having no 

Longer to draw out fishes on to the earthly shore, but men 

to the heavenly; they left their father, that they might 

become the spiritual fathers of all. Hilary. By this 

that they hit their occupation and their father's bouse 
we are taught, that when \\ o would follow Christ we 
should not be bolden of the cans of Secular life, or of 
the society of the paternal mansion. E&RMIG. Mystically, 

by the sea is figured this world, because of its bitterness 
and its tossing wi ilea is interpreted, 'rolling.' 

or ' a a In d shews the eh, ' iie world. 

VER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 139 

Jesus walked by the sea when He came to us by in- 
carnation, for He took on Him of the Virgin not the 
flesh of sin, but the likeness of the flesh of sin. By the 
two brothers, two people are signified born of one God 
their Father; He saw them when He looked on them in 
His mercy. In Peter, (which is interpreted ' owning/) 
who is called Simon, (i. e. obedient,) is signified the 
Jewish nation, who acknowledged God in the Law, and 
obeyed His commandments ; Andrew, which is interpreted 
1 manly' or ' graceful/ signifies the Gentiles, who after 
they had come to the knowledge of God, manfully abode 
in the faith. He called us His people when He sent the 
preachers into the world, saying, Follow Me ; that is, leave 
the deceiver, follow your Creator. Of both people there 
were made fishers of men, that is, preachers. Leaving 
their ships, that is, carnal desires, and their nets, that 
is, love of the world, they followed Christ. By James 
is understood the Jewish nation, which through their 
knowledge of God overthrew the Devil ; by John the 
Gentile world, which was saved of grace alone. Zebedee 
whom they leave, (the name is interpreted flying or fall- 
ing,) signifies the world which passes away, and the Devil 
who fell from Heaven. By Peter and Andrew casting 
their net into the sea, are meant those who in their early 
youth are called by the Lord, while from the vessel of 
their body they cast the nets of carnal concupiscence 
into the sea of this world. By James and John mending 
their nets are signified those who after sin before adversity 
come to Christ recovering what they had lost. Raban. The 
two vessels signify the two Churches; the one was called 
out of the circumcision, the other out of the uncircum- 
cision. Any one who believes becomes Simon, i. e. obedi- 
ent to God ; Peter by acknowledging his sin, Andrew by 
enduring labours manfully, James by overcoming vices, 
GtLOBB. and .John that be may ascribe the whole to God's Gloss. ap« 
grace. The Calling of four only is mentioned, as those 

preachera by whom God will call the four quarters of the 
world. Hilary. Or, the number that was to he of the 
Evangelists i- figured. Remio. Also, the four principal 

Virtu ned ; lVudi nee, in Peter, I'mm 

140 ELDING TO rn \v. TV. 

confession of Clod; Justice, we may refer to Andrew, for 
liis manful deeds; Fortitude, to .lames for nit overthrow of 
the Devil j Temperance, to John, for the working in him 
of divine grace. Ai <.. It might move enquiry, why John relates that near 
?°j! T ' Jordan, not in Galilee, Andrew followed the Lord with 
another whose name he does not mention; and again, that 
Peter received thai name from the Lord. Whereas the other 
three Evangelists write that they were called from their 
fishing, sufficiently agreeing with one another, especially 
Matthew and Mark; Luke not naming Andrew, who is 
however understood to have been in the same vessel with 
him. There is a further seeming discrepaney, that in Luke 
it is to Peter only that it is said, IFenccfortk thou slmlt Catch 
> ; Matthew and Mark write that it was said to both. 
As to the different aceount in John, it should be carefully 
considered, and it will be found that it is a different time, 
place, and calling that is there spoken of. For Peter and 
Andrew had not so seen Jesus at the Ji rdan that they 
adhered inseparably ever .Iter, but so as only to have known 
who He was, and wondering at Him to have gone their way. 
Perhaps lie is returning back to something he had omitted, 
for he proceeds without marking any difference ot time, Am 
lie walked by the sea of (1 alike. It may be further asked, 
how Matthew and Mark relate that He called them sepa- 
rately two and two, when Luke relates that .lames and John 
being partners of Peter were called as it were to aid him, 
and bringing their barks to land followed Christ. We 
may then understand that the narrative of Luke re^ 
to a prior time, after which they returned to their fishin 

usual. For it had not been said to Peter that he should no 
more catch fishes, as he did do ion, 

but that Ik 1 should ratcJt men. Again, at a timt this 

happened thai call of which Matthew and Mark speak; for 

they draw their ships to land t<> follow Him. not as careful 
to return again, but only an\ ; MS to follow Him when He 

bids them. 

23. And JeSUS went about ;.ll (;,ili' 

111 their Byi . ami preaching the ( I of 

VER. 23 — 25. ST. MATTHEW. 141 

the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and 
all manner of disease among the people. 

24. And His fame went throughout all Syria : and 
they brought unto Him all sick people that were 
taken with divers diseases and torments, and those 
which were possessed with devils, and those which 
were lunatick, and those that had the palsy ; and He 
healed them. 

25. And there followed Him great multitudes 
of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and 
from Jerusalem, and from Judaea, and from beyond 

Pseudo-Chrys. Kings, when about to go to war with 
their enemies, first gather an army, and so go out to battle ; 
thus the Lord when about to war against the Devil, first 
collected Apostles, and then began to preach the Gospel. 
Remig. An example of life for doctors ; that they should 
not be inactive, they are instructed in these words, And 
Jesus went about. Pseudo-Chrys. Because they being weak 
could not come to their physician, lie as a zealous Physician 
went about to visit those who had any grievous sickness. 
The Lord went round the several regions, and after His 
example the pastors of each region ought to go round to 
study the several dispositions of their people, that for the 
remedy of each disease some medicine may be found in the 
Church. Remig. That they should not be acceptors of per- 
sons the preachers are instructed in what follows, the whole 
of Galilee. That they should not go about empty, by the 
word teaching. That they should seek to benefit not few 
but many, in what follows, in their synagogues, Chbys." By 
which too Ho shewed the Jews that He came not as an 
enemy of God, or a seducer of souls, but as consenting with 
His Father. RbmIO. That they should not preach error nor 
fable, but sound doctrine, is inculcated in the words, preach- 
iiuj tin: Gospel of the kingdom, 'Teaching' and 'preaching' 

' A p 'in.'il. It is of no doctrinal import* 

Nicolai's edition which i» nut in the* ance. 

L42 no to xp. iv. 

differ; teaching refers to things present, preaching to thi 
to come; lie taught present command] and preached 

future promises. Psbudo-Chrts. Or, He taught natural 
righteousness, those tilings which natural reason ti 
as chastity, humility, anil the like, which all men of them- 
to be goods. Such things arc necessary to he 

taught not so much for the sake of making them known 

as for stirring the heart. For beneath the prevalence 
carnal delights the knowledge of natural righteousn 
forgotten. When then a teacher beg denounce carnal 

sins, his teaching docs not bring up a new knowledge, hut 

lis to memory one that had hi i gotten. Hut He 

preached the Gospel, in telling of good things which the 
ancients had manifestly not heard of, as the happiness of 
heaven, the resurrection of the dead, and the like. Or, lie 
taught by interpreting the prophecies concerning Hiim 
lie preached by declaring the benefits that were to come 
from Himself. Kkmig. That the teacher should study to 
commend his teaching by his own virtuous conduct 
conveyed in those words, healing every sort of diteai 
malady among the people; maladies of the body. a of 

the soul. Psi D~DO-ChRY8, Or. by we may understand 

any passion of the mind, as avarice, lust, and such like; by 
malady unbelief, that is, weakness of faith. Or, the d 
are the more grievous pains of the body, the maladies the 
slighter. As He cured the bodily pains by virtue of 1 lis divine 
power, so He cured the spiritual by the word of His mercy. 
He first teaches, and then performs the cures, fort? 
First, that what is needed most may come first ; i\)v it is the 
word of holy instruction, and not miracles, that edify the 
mdly, I Lching ia commended by miracles, 

not the convene. ( We must consider that when M 

great change is being wrought, as the introduction of a new 
polity, God is wonl to work miracles, giving pledges of His 

power to these who are to nv, i\e His law s. Thus w hen 11 I 
WOUld make man. lie first Created I world, and then at 

Length gave man in paradise a law. When He would dis- 
pense a law to the holy Noah. He shewed truly gnat S 
ders; ;ni(! again when Hi- was about to ordain the Law 

for the .lews, lie shewed great prodigies, and then at 

VER. 23 25. ST. MATTHEW. 143 

length gave them the commandments. So now when abont 
to introduce a sublime discipline of life, He first provided 
a sanction to His instructions by mighty signs ; because the 
eternal kingdom He preached was not seen, by the things 
which did appear, He made sure that which as yet did not 
appear. Gloss. Because preachers should have good testi- Gloss, ap. 
mony from those who are without, lest if their life is open nse m# 
to censure, their preaching be contemned, he adds, And the 
fame of Him went abroad through all Syria. Raban. Syria 
here is all the region from Euphrates to the Great sea, from 
Cappadocia to Egypt, in which is the country of Palestine, 
inhabited by Jews. Chrys. Observe the reserve of the 
Evangelist ; he does not give an account of any one of the 
various cases of healing, but passes in one brief phrase an 
abundance of miracles, They brought to Him all their sick. 
Remig. By these he would have us understand various but 
slighter diseases ; but when he says, seized with divers sick- 
nesses and torments, he would have those understood, of 
whom it is subjoined, and who had daemons . Gloss. ' Sick- 
ness' means a lasting ailment ; ' torment' is an acute pain, as 
pleurisy, and such like ; they who had daemons are they who 
were tormented by the daemons. Remig. ' Lunatics' are so 
called from the moon ; for as it waxes in its monthly seasons 
they are tormented. Jerome. Not really smitten by the 
moon, but who were believed to be so through the subtlety 
of the daemons, who by observing the seasons of the moon, 
sought to bring an evil report against the creature, that it 
might redound to the blasphemy of the Creator. Aug. Dae- Aug. de 

Civ Dei 

mons are enticed to take up their abode in many creatures, xxi ' G# ' 
(created not by themselves but God,) by delights adapted to 
their various natures ; not that they are animals, drawn by 
meats; but spirits, attracted by signs which agree with each 
one'i taste. Baban. Paralytica are those whose bodies have 
their n< lackened or resolved, from a Ore k word signi- 

fying this. PgBi DO-CheYS. In some places it is, lie cured 
mam/; but here, lie cnri'd them, meaning ' all ;' as a IICW 

physician first entering a town cures all who come to him 
to b od opinion concerning himself. Chrys. lie 

quires no direct profession of faith from them, both because 
He had not yet given them any proofs of 11 is miraculous 


power, and because in bringing their sick from far they liad 
shewn no small faith. RABAN. The crowds that followed 
Him consisted of tour sorts of men, some followed for the 
heavenly teaching as disciples, some for the curing of their 
diseases, some from the reports concerning Him alone, and 
curiosity to find whether they were true ; others from envy, 
wishing to catch llim in some matter that they might act 
Him. Mystically, Syria is interpreted ' lofty/ Galilee, ' turn- 
ing/ or 'a wheel:' that is, the Devil and the world; the 
Devil is both proud and always turned round to the bottom ; 
the world in which the fame of Christ went abroad thn 
preaching : the diemoniacs are the idolaters ; the lunatics, 
Gloss. ap. the unstable; the paralytics, the slow and careless. Gi 

The crowds that follow the Lord, are they of the Church, 
which is spiritually designated by Galilee, passing to virtu- 
ousness; Decapolis is he who keeps the Ten Command- 
ments; Jerusalem and Judaea, he who is enlightened by the 
\i>ion of peace and confession; and beyond Jordan, he who 
having passed the waters of Baptism enters the land of pro- 
mise. R.EMIG. Or, they follow the Lord from Galilee, that 
is, from the the unstable world ; from Decapolis, (the country 
often towns,) signifying those who break the Ten Com- 
mandments; and from Jerusalem, because before it was pre- 
served unhurt in peace; and from Jordan, that is, from the 
confession of the Devil ; and from beyond Jordan, they who 
were first planted in paganism, but passing the water of 
Baptism came to Christ. 


1. And seeing the multitudes, He went up into 
a mountain : and when He was set, His disciples 
came unto Him. 

2. And He opened His mouth, and taught them, 

3. Blessed are the poor in spirit : for theirs is 
the kingdom of heaven. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Every man in his own trade or profession 
rejoices when he sees an opportunity of exercising it ; the 
carpenter if he sees a goodly tree desires to have it to cut 
down to employ his skill on, and the Priest when he sees 
a full Church, his heart rejoices, he is glad of the occasion to 
teach. So the Lord seeing a great congregation of people 
was stirred to teach them. Aug. Or He may be thought to Aug. de 
have sought to shun the thickest crowd, and to have ascended ?°"g 
the mountain that He might speak to His disciples alone. 
Chrys. By not choosing His seat in the city, and the market Chrys. 
place, but on a mountain in a desert, He has taught us to do 
nothing with ostentation, and to depart from crowds, above 
all when we are to be employed in philosophy, or in speaking 
of serious things. Remig. This should be known, that the 
Lord had three places of retirement that we read of, the 
ship, the mountain, and the desert; to one of these He was 
wont to withdraw whenever He was pressed by the mul- 
titude. JEROME. Some of the less learned brethren suppose 
the Lord to have spoken what follows from the Mount of 
Olives, which is by no means the ease; what went before 
and what follows fixes the place in Galilee. a Mount Tabor, 

* .Mount Tabor is moitciil by the Mount. The mount of the Beatitu 

i is .Hid by tradition coming down Recording to modern traveller! lies 

to the pn to be tl of near to C pernaum, and ten railei 

th<- 'I Jerome north of Mount Tabor. See Gr< .wii, 

i only author ■ !. ii. 204 ; Pocooke'n D< crip. 

ol it as the scene ol" the Sermon on the of the Eattj vol. ii. 07. 

VOL. I. L 

"1 16 gPJ r. \< OORDIHG TO CHAP. V, 

wc may suppose, or any other high mountain. ChRYS. JFe 
uscriulfil a moii at it i a, first, that He might fulfil the pro- 
Is. 40, 9. phecy of Esaias, Get thee up into a mountain; secondly, 
to shew that as well he who teaches, as he who hears the 
righteousness of God should stand on an high ground of 
spiritual virtues; for none can abide in the valley and speak 
from a mountain. If thou stand on the earth, speak of 
the earth ; if thou speak of heaven, stand in heaven. Or, 
lie ascended into the mountain to shew that all who would 
learn the mysteries of the truth should go up into the Mount 
P§. 68, of the Church of which the Prophet speaks, The hill of God 
is a lull of fatness. HlLABY, Or, He ascends the mountain, 
because it is placed in the loftiness of His Father's Majesty that He gives the commands of heavenlv life. An.. Or, He 
Dom.'in ascends the mountain to shew that the precepts of righteous- 
Mont. i. i. n css given by God through the Prophets to the Jews, who 
were yet under the bondage of fear, were the lesser com- 
mandments ; but that by His own Son were given the greater 
commandments to a people which lie had determined to 
deliver by love. JEROME. He spoke to them sitting and not 
standing, for they could not have understood Him hail He 
appeared in His own Majesty. Arc. Or, to teach sitting is 
the prerogative of the Master. HU tUidplei came to Him, 
that they who in spirit approached more nearly to keeping 
His commandments, should also approach Him nearest with 
their bodily presence. EU.BANU8. Mystically, this sitting 
down of Christ is His incarnation; had He not taken 
Aii^.de on Him, mankind could not have come unto Him. A i'). ^ causes a thought how it is that Matthew relates this 
sermon to have been delivered by the Lord sitting on the 

mountain; Luke, as He stood in the plain. This diversity 
in their accounts would lead us to think that the occasions 
were different. Why should QOt Christ repeat once more 
what He said before, or do once more what He hail done 
before? Although another method of reconciling the two 
may occur to us ; namely, that our Lord was first with His 
disciples alone on some more lofty peak of the mountain 
when He chose the twehc J that He then descended with 
them not from the 1 mountain entirely, but from the top to 
some expanse of level ground in the side, capable of holding 

VER. 1 — 3. ST. MATTHEW. 147 

a great number of people ; that He stood there while the 
crowd was gathering around Him, and after when He had 
sate down, then His disciples came near to Him, and so to 
them and in the presence of the rest of the multitude He 
spoke the same sermon which Matthew and Luke give, in 
a different manner, but with equal truth of facts. 

Greg. When the Lord on the mountain is about to utter Greg. 
His sublime precepts, it is said, Opening His mouth He taught t °™ ' 
them, He who had before opened the mouth of the Prophets. 
Remig. Wherever it is said that the Lord opened His mouth, 
we may know how great things are to follow. Aug. Or, Aug. de 
the phrase is introductory of an address longer than ordi- j^JJ j^ 
nary. Chrys. Or, that we may understand that He some- 
times teaches by opening His mouth in speech, sometimes 
by that voice which resounds from His works. Aug. Who- Aug. ubi 
ever will take the trouble to examine with a pious and sober sup * 
spirit, will find in this sermon a perfect code of the Christian 
life as far as relates to the conduct of daily life. Accordingly 
the Lord concludes it with the words, Every man who hear- 
eth these ivords of Mine and doeth them, I will liken him to 
a wise man, §c. 

Aug. The chief good is the only motive of philosophical Aug. De 
enquiry; but whatever confers blessedness, that is the chief jv* 'J e1 ' 
good ; therefore lie begins, Blessed are the poor in spirit. 
Id. Augmentation of ' spirit' generally implies insolence and Id. de 
pride. For in common speech the proud are said to have k N [™[' j"j 
a great spirit, and rightly — for wind is a spirit, and who 
docs not know that we say of proud men that they are 
'.swollen,' 'puffed up.' Here therefore by poor in spirit 
arc rightly understood ' lowly/ ' fearing God/ not having 
a puffed-up spirit. Chrys. Or, He here calls all loftiness 
of soul and temper spirit; for as there are many humble 
against their will, constrained by their outward condition, 
they have no praise; the blessing is on those who humble 
themselves by their own choiee. Thus He begins at once 
at the loot, polling up pride which is the root and source of 
all evil, setting up M its opposite humility as a firm foun- 
dation. If this bo well laid, other virtues may be firmly 
built thereon; if that be lapped; whatever good you gather 

148 Q06PBL \< < ORBING 10 CH LP. v. 

upon it perishes. Pseudo-Chrys. Blessed err tin poor in 
spirit*, or, according to the literal rendering of the Gi 
1 they who beg/ that the humble may learn that they should 

be ever begging at God's almshouse. Tor there are many 

naturally humble and not of faith, who do not knock at 
God'fl almshouse: but tluv alone are humble who are so 
of faith. CHRTS. Or, the poor in spirit may be those who 

fear and tremble at God'i commandments, whom the Lord 
by the Prophet Isaiah commends. Though why more than 
simply humble? Of the humble there may be in this place 

Aug. obi but few, in that again an abundance. Ar<.. The proud - 

an earthly kingdom, of the humble only is the kingdom of 
Heaven. P&El DO-ChEYS, For as all other vices, but chiefly 
pride, casts down to hell; so all other virtues, but chiefly 
humility, Conduct to Heaven; it is proper that he that hum- 
bles himself should be exalted. The poor Ml spirit 
are those who embrace a voluntary poverty for the sake of 

Ambros. the Holy Spirit. AMBROSE. In tin 1 eye of [leaven blessed- 

ciWj i. 16 11( ss begins there where misery begins in human estimate n. 
Glos . GLOSS. The riches of Heaven are suitably promised to those 

mtcr m. w j iq a j ^^ p rc; . c . ut , irc Ul poverty. 

5. b Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit 
the earth. Ambrose. When I have learned contentment in poverty, 

c. r. 20. ^ IC noxt ksson is to govern my heart and temper. lor 
what good is it to me to be without worldly things, unless 
I have besides a meek spirit'.' It suitably follows, there- 

Aup. fore, Blessed are tin meek. Aug. The meek are they who 
M '.'.' ' i "., resist not irrongs, and L r i\e way to evil; but orei evil 

Amhros. of good. Ambrose. Soften th refore your temper that you 
u ! M11> " be m»t angry, at hast that you be angry, and sin no/, [I 
a noble thing to govern passion by reason; nor is it ■ 

• l li ' hc.iti «• roi' veiici t and /> according to the On 

— and bftl U ii. il Dote, 'Hint all the Latin lathers (with I 

tur imi. G prion pf Hilary on Pa. 118.) follow- 

— bal S. i i it i «_r t 

in;' it :n.i\ be remarked morOOTtf b Verses 4 ami ."> ed in 

tint the anthur followi the order of the Vulg. 

VER. 5. ST. MATTHEW. 149 

virtue to check anger, than to be entirely without anger, 
since one is esteemed the sign of a weak, the other of 
a strong, mind. Aug. Let the unyielding then wrangle Aug. ubi 
and quarrel about earthly and temporal things, the meek are sup " 
blessed, for they shall inherit the earth, and not be rooted 
out of it ; that earth of which it is said in the Psalms, Thy Ps. 142.5. 
lot is in the land of the living, meaning the fixedness of 
a perpetual inheritance, in which the soul that hath good 
dispositions rests as in its own place, as the body does in 
an earthly possession, it is fed by its own food, as the body 
by the earth; such is the rest and the life of the saints. 
Pseudo-Chrys. This earth as some interpret, so long as 
it is in its present condition is the land of the dead, seeing 
it is subject to vanity; but when it is freed from corrup- 
tion it becomes the land of the living, that the mortal may 
inherit an immortal country. I have read another expo- 
sition of it, as if the heaven in which the saints are to dwell 
is meant by the land of the living, because compared with 
the regions of death it is heaven, compared with the heaven 
above it is earth. Others again say, that this body as 
long as it is subject to death is the land of the dead, 
when it shall be made like unto Christ's glorious body, 
it will be the land of the living. Hilary. Or, the Lord 
promises the inheritance of the earth to the meek, mean- 
ing of that Body, which Himself took on Him as His 
tabernacle ; and as by the gentleness of our minds Christ 
dwells in us, we also shall be clothed with the glory of 
IIi> renewed body. Ciirys. Otherwise; Christ here has 
mixed things sensible with things spiritual. Because it 
is commonly supposed that he who is meek loses all that 
he possesses, Christ here gives a contrary promise, that he 
who is not forward shall possess his own in security, but 
that he of a contrary disposition many times loses his 
soul and his paternal inheritance. But because the Pro- 
phet had laidj The meek shall inherit the earth, lie used P§. 86, 11. 
6 well-known words in conveying Mis meaning, (n.o^s. GHoM.ord. 

The meek, who bare possessed themselves, shall poss. 

the inheritance of the Father; to j)us>e<s i^ more 

than to haw, many things which we lose iiu- 

mediatelj . 

L50 SPM \« - ORDING ro < II LP. v. 

4. Blessed are they that mourn: for they Bhall l>e 

Ambros. AMBROSE. When you liavc done thus much, attained 
both poverty and meekness, remember that you are a tin- 
ner, mourn your Bins, ;^ He proceeds, Ble$$ed arc they that 

mourn. And it is suitable that the third blessing should be 
of those that mourn for sin, for it is the Trinity forgives 
sin. HILARY. Those that mourn, that is, not loss of kindred, 
affronts, or losses, but who weep for past sins. Pa i do- 
Chry8. And they who weep for their own sins are blessed, 
but much more so who weep for others' sins; so should all 
teachers do. Jerome. For the mourning here meant is not 
for the dead by common course of nature, but for the (had 
in sins and vices. Thus Samuel mourned for Saul, thus the 
Apostle Paul mourned for those who had not performed 
penance after uncleanness. Pseudo-Chrys, The comfort of 
mourners is the ceasing of their mourning; they then who 
mourn their own sins Bhall be consoled when they have 
received remittance thereof. C h k\ -. And though it were 
enough for such to receive pardon, yet He rests not His 
mercy only there, but makes them partaken of many com- 
forts both here and hereafter. Qod'l mercies are always 
greater than our troubles. Psettdo-Chrys. 15ut they also 
who mourn for others' sins shall be comforted, inasmuch as 
they Bhall own God's providence In that worldly generation, 
understanding that they who had perished were no! of God, 
out of whose hand none can snateh. For these Leaving 
mourn, they Bhall be comforted in their own blessedi, 

Aug. Ai o. Otherwise; mourning is Borrow for the loss of what is 
.'*■"., dear; but those that are tamed to God lose the things ti. 

thev held dear in this world ; and as thev have now no 


longer any joy in such things as before they had joy in, their 

row may n i be healed till th( re ii formed within them 

a love ■ ,ial things. They shall then be comforted by the 

Holy Spirit, who is th chiefly called The Paracl 

that is, 'Comforter; hal for the h>^s of their temporal 

. they Bhall gain eternal joys. (im^. Or, by liiourn- 

ing, two KiiuN of Borrow are intended ; one for the miseri 

of this world, one for lack of heavenly things; so la! 

VER. 6. ST. MATTHEW. 151 

daughter asked both the upper and the lower springs. This 
kind of mourning none have but the poor and the meek, who 
as not loving the world acknowledge themselves miserable, 
and therefore desire heaven. Suitably, therefore, consolation 
is promised to them that mourn, that he who has sorrow at 
this present may have joy hereafter. But the reward of the 
mourner is greater than that of the poor or the meek, for to 
rejoice in the kingdom is more than to have it, or to possess 
it ; for many things we possess in sorrow. Chrys. We may 
remark that this blessing is given not simply, but with great 
force and emphasis; it is not simply, 'who have grief/ but 
who mourn. And indeed this command is the sum of all 
philosophy. For if they who mourn for the death of children 
or kinsfolk, throughout all that season of their sorrow, are 
touched with no other desires, as of money, or honour, burn 
not with envy, feel not wrongs, nor are open to any other 
vicious passion, but are solely given up to their grief; much 
more ought they, who mourn their own sins in such manner 
as they ought to mourn for them, to shew this higher 

6. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst 
after righteousness : for they shall be filled. 

Ambrose. As soon as I have wept for my sins, I begin to Ambros. 
hunger and thirst after righteousness. He who is afflicted ubl sup * 
with any sore disease, hath no hunger. Jerome. It is not 
enough that we desire righteousness, unless we also suffer 
hunger for it, by which expression we may understand that 
we are never righteous enough, but always hunger after works 
of righteousness, Pseudo-Chrys. All good which men do 
not from love of the good itself is unpleasing before God. 
He hungers after righteousness who desires to walk according 
to the righteousness of God; lie thirsts after righteousness 
who desirea to get the know lodge thereof. Chrys. lie may 

ii either general righteousness, or that particular virtue 4 Kao6\ou 

which is tin: opposite Of COTetOUSness. As lie was going on a P (T71 ' 

peak of merer, He shews beforehand of what kind our 
mercy should he, that it should not he of the gains of plunder 
or COVetOUSnesSj hence lie ascribes to righteousness that 

] ■ 2 6PJSL \< < OBDtNG PO I ffAP. S . 

wbicfa is peculiar to avarice, namely, to hanger and thirst. 
HiiiAKY. The bleasednesa which lie appropriates to those 

who hunger and thirst after righteousness shews that the 

deep Longing of the saints for the doctrine of God shall 

receive perfect replenishment in heaven ; then they shall be 

filled. Ps] i DO-Chryb. Such is the bounty of a rewarding 

God, that His gifta are greater than the desirea of the saints. 

Aug. ubi Ai (.. Or lie Bpeakfl of food with which they shail be filled at 

Bu ^' this present; to wit, that food of which the Lord spake, My 

il is to (h) the will of My Father, that is, righteOUSneSSj 

and that water of which whoever drinks it shall be in him 

a fell of water springing nj> to life eternal. Chrys, Or, 

this is again a promise of a temporal reward j fur as & 

Ousnesa is thought to make many rich, lie atlirms on the 

contrary that righteousness rather makes rich, for He who 

loves righteousness possesses all things in safety. 

7. Blessed arc the merciful : for they shall obtain 

Gloss. Gloss. Justice and mercy are so united, that the I 

ought to be mingled with the other; justice without mercy 
is cruelty; mercy without justice, profusion —hence II 

miaeri- on to the one from the other. RkMIG. The merciful is he 
who has a sad heart; he counts others' miaery his own, 
and i> sad at their grief as at his own. JEROME. M 
1 lie is not s;iid only of alms, but is in everv sin of a brother, 

A,,-. if we bear one another's burdens. A.UO. He pronoun 

Qbirap. those blessed who succour the wretched, because they are 

rewarded in being thei delivered from all misery; as 

it follows, for they shall obtain mercy, Hilary. So greatly 
is God pleased with our feelinga of benevolence towarda all 

Q, lie will bestow His own mercy only on the mer- 
ciful. Chrys. The reward fa ems at first to be only 
an equal return; but indeed it is much more; for human 

i divine men not to be put on an equality. 

. Gloss, Justly is mercy dealt out to the merciful, that tl 
should receive more than they had deserved; and as he 

who has more than enough r< more than he who has 

VER. 8. 



only enough, so the glory of mercy is greater than of the 
things hitherto mentioned. 

8. Blessed are the pure in heart : for they shall 
see God. 

Ambrose. The merciful loses the benefit of his mercy Ambros. 
unless he shews it from a pure heart; for if he seeks to Jj ^ 
have , whereof to boast, he loses the fruit of his deeds; the 
next that follows therefore is, Blessed are the pure in heart. ~\ 
Gloss. Purity of heart comes properly in the sixth place, Gloss, ap. 
because on the sixth day man was created in the image of r nse m * 
God, which image was shrouded by sin, but is formed anew 
in pure hearts by grace. It follows rightly the before- 
mentioned graces, because if they be not there, a clean heart 
is not created in a man. Chrys. By the pure are here* 
meant those who possess a perfect goodness, conscious to 
themselves of no evil thoughts, or again those who live in 
such temperance as is mostly necessary to seeing God, ac- 
cording to that of St. Paul, Follow peace with all men, and 
holiness, icithout which no man shall see God. For as there 
are many merciful, yet unchaste, to shew that mercy alone 
is not enough, He adds this concerning purity. Jerome. 
The pure is known by purity of heart, for the temple of 
God cannot he impure. Pseudo-Chrys. He who in thought 
and deed fulfils all righteousness, sees God in his heart, for 

hteousness is an image of God, for God is righteousness. 

far as any one ha3 rescued himself from evil, and works 
things that are good, so far does he see God, either hardly, 
or fully, or sometimes, or always, according to the capa- 
bilities of human nature. But in that world to come the 
pure in heart shall see God face to face, not in a glass, and 
in enigma as here. Aug. They are foolish who seek to sec Aug. 
God with the bodily eye, leeing He is seen only by the j, 
heart, ai it is elsewhere written, Tn singleness of Heart seek \ ns&. l, l. 

ye Him; the heart is the same as is here called the 

heart. In. Bat if spiritual eyes in the spiritual body . 
shall be able onrj I o much as they we now have can ._., 

tee, undoubtedly God will not be able to be seen of them, [d , 

eeing God ii the reward of faith; to which I'lnlnyr fr '"- *^* 

'rm. in 
out. i. 2. 

(fiv. Dei, 

lion occ. 


Acts i-5, 9. hearts arc made pure by faith, as it is written, cleansing their 

hearts by faith ; but the present verse proves this still more strongly. Id. No one Beeing God can be alive with the life 

men have on earth, or with these our bodilv senses. Unl 

xii.26. one die altogether out of this life, cither by totally departing 
from the body, or so alienated from carnal lusts that he may 

truly Bay with the Apostle, whether in the body or out of the 
body, I cannot tell, he is not translated that he should sec 

Gloss. this virion. GLOSS. The reward of these is greater than the 
reward of the first; being not merely to dine in the King's 

court, but further to sec His face. 

9. Blessed are the peacemakers : for they shall he 
'called the children of God. 

Ambros. AMBROSE. AYhen you have made your inward parts clean 
nbisup. from every spot of sin, that dissensions and contentions may 
not proceed from your temper, begin peace within yourself, 
Aug. Civ. that so you may extend it to others. Aro. Peace is the 
Dei, mx. fj XC( ] ncss of order; by order, 1 mean an arrangement of 
things like and unlike, giving to each its own place. And 
as there is no man who would not willingly have joy, so is 
there no man who would not have peace; since even those 
who go to war desire nothing more than by war to come 
pacifici. to a glorious peace. JEROME. The peacemakers are pro- 
nounced blessed, they namely who make peace first within 
their own hearts, then between brethren at variance. For 
what avails it to make peace between Others, while in your 
An?. own heart arc wars of rebellions vices. An.. The peaee- 

Moiit i"'' ,n:i ^ irs within themselves arc they who having stilled all 

disturbances of their spirits, having subjected them to reason, 
have overcome their carnal desires, and become the kingdom 

of God. There all things are so disposed, thai that which 
is most chief and excellent in man, governs those parts 

which we have in common with the brutes, though they 

;le against it ; nay even that in man which is excellent 

is subjected to a yet greater, namely, the very Truth, the 

i of God. For it would not be able to govern what 
is inferior to it, if it were not subject to what is above it. 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 155 

And this is the peace which is given on earth to men of 
good will. Id. No man can attain in this life that there Aug. Re- 
be not in his members a law resisting the law of his mind. tract - 1 - 19 « 
But the peacemakers attain thus far by overcoming the lusts 
of the flesh, that in time they come to a most perfect peace. 
Pseudo-Chrys. The peacemakers with others are not only 
those who reconcile enemies, but those who unmindful of 
wrongs cultivate peace. That peace only is blessed which 
is lodged in the heart, and does not consist only in words. 
And they who love peace, they are the sons of peace. 
Hilary. The blessedness of the peacemakers is the reward 
of adoption, they shall be called the sons of God. For God 
is our common parent, and no other way can we pass into 
His family than by living in brotherly love together. Chrys. 
Or, if the peacemakers are they who do not contend one 
with another, but reconcile those that are at strife, they are 
rightly called the sons of God, seeing this was the chief 
employment of the Only-begotten Son, to reconcile things 
separated, to give peace to things at war. Aug. Or, because 
peace is then perfect when there is no where any opposition, 
the peacemakers are called the sons of God, because nothing 
resists God, and the children ought to bear the likeness of 
their Father. Gloss. The peacemakers have thus the place Gloss, ap. 
of highest honour, inasmuch as lie who is called the king's Anselm - 
son, is the highest in the king's house. This beatitude is 
placed the seventh in order, because in the sabbath shall 
given the repose of true peace, the six ages being passed 

10. Blessed are they which are persecuted for 
righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of 

Chrys. Blessed arc they who suffer persecution for righie- 
outness' soke, that is for virtue, for defending others, for 
-,-, for all these things are spoken of under the title of 
righteousness. This follows the beatitude upon the peace- 
makers, that ire may net be led to suppose that it is good 
• peace at .'til times. A.uo. When peace is once firmly srri.,. in 

Munt. i. 2. 



< ii \r. v. 

3, 2. 3. 

established within, whatever persecutions lie who has been 
cast without raises, or carries on, lie increases that glory 
which is in the sight of God. Jerome. For righteousm 
sake lie addi expressly, for many suffer persecution for their 

sins, and are not therefore righteous. Likewise consider how 

the eighth beatitude of t lie true circumcision i> terminated 

vid. iM.ii. by martyrdom. Pseudo-Ckbys. He said not, Bleated arc 
they who Buffer persecution of the Gentiles; that we may 
not suppose the blessing pronounced on those only who are 
persecuted for refusing to sacrifice to idols; yea, whoever 
Buffers persecution of heretics because he will not forsake 
the truth is likewise bleated, seeing he sutlers for righteous- 
ness. Moreover, ii' any of the great ones, who seem to be 
Christians, being corrected by you on account of his sins, 
shall p( rsecute you, you are blessed with John the Baptist. 
I'm' if the Prophets arc truly martyrs when they are killed 
1 y their own countrymen, without doubt he who suffers 
in the cause of God has the reward of martyrdom though 
lie Buffers from his own people. Scripture therefore d 
not mention the persons of the pi rsecutort, but only the 
LSe of persecution, that you may learn to look, not by 
whom, but why you suffer. Hilary. Thus, lastly, He in- 
cludes those in the beatitude whose will is ready to Buffer 
all things for Christ, who is our righteousness. For ti. 
then also is the kingdom preserved, for they arc in the 
Contempt of this world poor in spirit. Arc. Or, the eighth 
beatitude, as it were, returns to the commencement, because 
it skews the perfect complete character. In the 6rst then 
and the eighth, the kingdom of heaven is named, for the 
' n go to make the perfect man, the eighth manifests and 
\ proves bis perfectness, that all may be conducted to per, 
' tion by these Btej 

Amt.ros AnBEotE, Otherwise; the first kingdom of heaven was 
promised to the Saints, in deliverance from the body; the 
rod, that after the resurrection they should be with Christ. 
It after your resurrection you Bhall begin to pots m the 

th delivered from death, and in that possession shall 

find eo ofort. Pleasure follows comfort, ami Divine mercy 

pleasure. Bui on whom (i mercy, him He calls, and 

he whom lb- calls, beholds 1 1 mi that called him. He who 


obi sup, 

iii Lue. 

\i. 23. 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 157 

beholds God is adopted into the rights of divine birth, and 
then at length as the son of God is delighted with the riches 
of the heavenly kingdom. The first then begins, the last is 
perfected. Chrys. Wonder not if you do not hear f the 
kingdom' mentioned under each beatitude ; for in saying 
shall be comforted, shall find mercy, and the rest, in all these 
the kingdom of heaven is tacitly understood, so that you 
m ust not look for any of th e things of sense. For indeed he 
would not be blessed who was to be crownecTwith those things 
which depart with this life. Aug. The number of these sen- Aug. ubi 
tences should be carefully attended to ; to these seven de- sup * 
grees of blessedness agree the operation of that seven-form 
Holy Spirit which Isaiah described. But as He began from 
the highest, so here He begins from the lowest; for there 
we are taught that the Son of God will descend to the lowest ; 
here that man will ascend from the lowest to the likeness of 
God. Here the first place is given to fear, which is suitable 
for the humble, of whom it is said, Blessed are the poor in 
spirit, that is, those who think not high things, but who fear. 
The second is piety, which belongs to the meek ; for he who 
seeks piously, reverences, does not find fault, does not resist; 
and this is to become meek. The third is knowledge, which 
belongs to those that mourn, who have learned to what evils 
they are enslaved which they once pursued as goods. The 
fourth, which is fortitude, rightly belongs to those who hunger 
and thirst, who seeking joy in true good?, labour to turn 
away from earthly lusts. The fifth, counsel, is appropriate 
for the merciful, for there is one remedy to deliver from so 
great evils, viz. to give and to distribute to others. The sixth 
is understanding, and belongs to the pure in heart, who with 
purged eye can see what eye seeth not. The seventh is 
wisdom, and may be assigned to the peacemakers, in whom 
is no rebellions motion, but they obey the Spirit. Thus 
Uie one reward, the kingdom of heaven, is put forth under 
various names. In the first, as was right, is placed the king- 
dom of heaven, which is the beginning of perfect wisdom; 

as If it should he laid, The fear of the Lord U the beginning 

of wisdom. To the meek, an inheritance, as to those who 
with piety ieek the execution of a father's will. To those 

that mourn, comfort, as to persons who know what th 

158 8P] i. \< I ORDING 10 « ii \i\ v. 

had lost, and in what they were immersed. To the hungry, 
plenty, as a refreshment to those irho labour for salvation. 

To the merciful, mercy, that to those who have followed 
the best counsel, that may be shewed which they have 

shewed to others. To the pure in heart the faculty of see- 
ing God, as to men bearing a pure eye to understand the 
things of eternity. To the peacemakers, the likeness of 
God. And all these things we believe may be attained in 
this life, as we believe they were fulfilled in the A] 
for as to the things after this life they cannot be expla- 
in any words. 

11. Blessed are ye, ^lien men shall revile you, and 
persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against 
you falsely, for My Bake. 

12. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad : for great is 
your reward in heaven : for so persecuted they the 
prophets which were before you. 

Rabanus. The preceding blessings were general; He now 
begins to address His discourse to them that were present, 
foretelling them the persecutions which they should Buffer 
Aug. ubi for His name. Art.. It may be asked, what difference tin 
sup * is between 'they Bhall revile \oii/ ami 'shall speak all manner 

of evil of you/ to revile, it may be said, being but to speak 
evil of. But a reproach thrown with insult in the fact 
one present is a different thing from a slander east on the 

character of the absent. To persecute includes both open 

violence and secret wares. P81 I DO-ChBYS. 1 > u t if it be true 

that he who offers a cup of water does not Lose Ins reward, 
consequently he who has been wronged but by a single word 
of calumny, shall not be without a reward Hut that the re- 
Filed may ha\e a claim to this blessing, two thingl are m ■ 

sary, it must be false, and it must be tor Qod'i sake; other- 
wise hi' has not tin* reward of this blessing: therefore He 

Aug. adds, falsely, for My take, Ai<;. This 1 suppose was added 
Monti?* because of these who irish to boast of persecutions and evil 

reports of t hi ir shame, and therefore claim to belong to Christ 
because many evil thingl are said of them; but either these 

VER. 11, 12. ST. MATTHEW. 159 

are true, or when false yet they are not for Christ's sake. 
Greg. What hurt can you receive when men detract from Greg. 
you, though you have no defence but only your own con- jg^J. 11 } 
science ? But as we ought not to stir up wilfully the tongues 9- 17. 
of slanderers, lest they perish for their slander, yet when 
their own malice has instigated them, we should endure it 
with equanimity, that our merit may be added to. Rejoice, 
Pie says, and exult, for your reward is abundant in heaven. 
Gloss. Rejoice, that is, in mind, exult with the body, for Gloss, ap. 

your reward is not great only but abundant in heaven. Aug. 

J & Au 

Ansel m. 

Do not suppose that by heaven here is meant the upper Serm. in 
regions of the sky of this visible world, for your reward is ] VI ° nt - 
not to be placed in things that are seen, but by in heaven 
understand the spiritual firmament, where everlasting right- 
eousness dwells. Those then whose joy is in things spiritual 
will even here have some foretaste of that reward ; but it 
will be made perfect in every part when this mortal shall 
have put on immortality. Jerome. This it is in the power 
of any one of us to attain, that when our good character is 
injured by calumny, we rejoice in the Lord. He only who 
seeks after empty glory cannot attain this. Let us then re- 
joice and exult, that our reward may be prepared for us in 
heaven. Pseudo-Chris. For by how much any is pleased 
with the praise of men, by so much is he grieved with their 
evil speaking. But if you seek your glory in heaven, you 
will not fear any slanders on earth. Gim.'. oily. Yet ought Greg, 
we sometimes to check our defamers, lest by spreading evil eJJJj, 11 } 
reports of us, they corrupt the innocent hearts of those who (J - 17« 
might hear good from us. Gloss. He invites them to pa- Gloss. 
tience not only by the prospect of reward, but by example, non occ# 
when He adds, for so persecuted they the Prophets who were 
before you. Rbmig. For a man in sorrow receives great 
comfort from the recollection of the sufferings of others, 
who ' before him as an example of patience; as if He 

had said, Remember that ye are His Apostles, of whom also 
they were Prophet I ■ . . At the same time He signifies 
Hi* equality il] honour with His Father, as if He had said, 

Ai they suffered for My Father, so shall ye suffer for Me. 
And in laying, The Prophets who were before you, He 
teaches that they themselves are already become Prophets. 

160 Q06P1 I kOOORDING TO I n kP. v. 

Aug. ubi AUG. Persecuted He | .urallv, comprehending both re- 

proaches and defamation of character. 

13. Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the >alt 
have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted . ; 
it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be east out, 
and to be trodden under foot of men. 

Chryjs. When He had delivered to His Apostles such sub- 
lime precepts, so much greater than the precepts of the Law, 
that they might not be dismayed and say, How shall we 
be able to fulfil these things*." lie soothes their fears by 
mingling praises with His instructions, saying, Ye are 
the salt of the earth. This shews them how necessary 
were these precepts for them. Not for your own salvation 
merely, or for a single nation, but for the whole world is 
this doctrine committed to you. It is not for you then 
to flatter and deal smoothly with men, but, on the contrary, 
to be rough and biting as salt is. When for thus offend- 
ing men by reproving them ye are reviled, rejoice ; for this 
is the proper effect of salt, to be harsh and grating to the 
depraved palate. Thus the evil speaking of others will 
bring you no inconvenience, but will rather be a testimony 
of your firmness. HlLABY. There may be here seen a 
propriety in our Lord's language; which may be gath< 
by considering the Apostles' office, and the nature of 
salt. This, used as it is by men for almost every pur- 
pi Be, preserves from decay those bodies which are sprinkled 
with it; and in this, as well as in every sense of its 
flavour as a condiment, the parallel is most exact. The 
Apostles arc preachers of lua\cnl\ things, ami thus, as 
it weir, salten frith eternity; rightly called the salt uf 

the earth) as by the virtue of their teaching, they, 

were, salt and preserve bodies for eternity. ElEM1G. M 

over, salt is changed into another kind of substance by 

three means, water, the heat of the sun, and the breath 

of the wind. Thus Apostolical men also were changed 
into spiritual regeneration by the water of baptism, the 
heat of love, and the breath of the Holy Spirit. That 

heavenly wisdom also, which the Apostles preached, dries 

VER. 13. ST. MATTHEW. 161 

up the humours of carnal works, removes the foulness and 
putrefaction of evil conversation, kills the work of lustful 
thoughts, and also that worm of which it is said their worm Is. 66, 24. 
dieth not. Remig. The Apostles are the salt of the earth, 
that is, of worldly men who are called the earth, because 
they love this earth. Jerome. Or, because by the Apostles 
the whole human race is seasoned. Pseudo-Chrys. A doctor 
when he is adorned with all the preceding virtues, then is 
like good salt, and his whole people are salted by seeing 
and hearing him. Remtg. It should be known, that in the 
Old Testament no sacrifice was offered to God unless it were 
first sprinkled with salt, for none can present an acceptable 
sacrifice to God without the flavour of heavenly wisdom. 
Hilary. And because man is ever liable to change, He 
therefore warns the Apostles, who have been entitled the salt 
of the earth, to continue stedfast in the might of the power 
committed to them, when He adds, If the salt have lost its 
savour, wherewith shall it be salted? Jerome. That is, if 
the doctor have erred, by what other doctor shall he be 
corrected ? Aug. If you bv whom the nations are to be Aug. 
salted shall lose the kingdom of heaven through fear of MonU .ft 
temporal persecution, who are they by whom your error 
shall be corrected ? Another copy has, If the salt have lost 
all sense, shewing that they must be esteemed to have lost 
their sense, who either pursuing abundance, or fearing lack 
of temporal goods, lose those which are eternal, and which 
iiK.n can neither give nor take away. Hilary. But if the 
doctors having become senseless, and having lost all the 
savour they once enjoyed, are unable to restore soundness to 
things corrupt, they are become useless; and are thence- 
forth Jit only to be cast out and trodden by men. JEROME. 
The illustration is taken from husbandry. Salt, though it be 
necessary for seasoning of meats and preserving flesh, has 
no further use. Indeed we read in Scripture of vanquished 
citi< i with salt by the victors, that nothing should 

thenceforth grow there. QlOSS. When then they who are Gloss, ap. 
the heads have fallen away, they are lit for no use but to be A,li>clni - 
cast out from the office oi teacher. 1Iii.\i:v. Or even c 

out from the Church'i -tore rooma t«> be hodden under foot 
by those that walk. he that suffers persecution \ 

VOL, I. IU * 

1G.2 G08PBL A<(ouniv. 10 OHAF. T. 

is trodden under foot of men, but lie who through fear of 
persecution folia away. For we can tread only on what is 
below us; but be is no way below us, who however much be 
may suffer in the body, yet has bis heart fixed in heaven. 

14. Ye are the light of the world. A city that is 
set on an hill cannot be hid. 

Gloss. As the doctors by their good conversation are the 
salt with which the people is salted ; so by their word of doc- 
trine they are the light by which the ignorant are enlightened. 
Pseudo-Chrys. But to live well must go before to teach well; 
hence after He had called the Apostles the salt, He goes on 
to call them the I'ujht of the world. Or, for that salt pre- 
serves a thing in its present state that it should not change 
for the worse, but that light brings it into a better state by 
enlightening it ; therefore the Apostles were first called 
with respect to the Jews and that Christian body which had 
the knowledge of God, and which they keep in that know- 
ledge; and uow light with respect to the Gentiles whom they 
Aug. ubi bring to the light of that knowledge. Aug. Bj the world 
6Up * here we must not understand heaven and earth, but the men 

who are in the world ; or those who love the world for whose 
enlightenment the Apostles were sent. Hilary. It is the 
nature of a light to emit its rays whithersoever it is carried 
about, and when brought into a house to dispel the darkm ss 
of that house. Thus the world, placed beyond the pah' of 
the knowledge of God, was held in the darkness of ignorance, 
till the light of knowledge was brought to it by the Apostles, 
and thenceforward the knowledge of God shone bright, and 
from then- small bodies, whithersoever they went about, light 
is minitfc red to the darkness. IiI.mio. For as the sun sends 
forth his beamt, BO the Lord, the Sun of righteousness, sent 
forth His Apostles tQ dispel the Dight of the human race. 
ChbTSOOTi Mark how great His promise to them, men who 
were searce known in their own country, that the fame of 

them should reach to the ends of the earth. The persecul 

which Hi* had foretold, were not able to dim their tight, yea 
they made it but more conspicuous. Jkkome. He instructs 
them what should be the boldness of their preaching, that as 

TEE. 14. ST. MATTHEW. 163 

Apostles they should not be hidden through fear, like lamps 
under a corn-measure, but should stand forth with all con- 
fidence, and what they have heard in the secret chambers, 
that declare upon the house-tops. Chrysost. Thus shewing 
them that they ought to be careful of their own walk and 
conversation, seeing they were set in the eyes of all, like 
a city on a hill, or a lamp on a stand. Pseudo-Chrys. This 
city is the Church of which it is said, Glorious things are Ps. 87, 3, 
spoken of thee, thou city of God. Its citizens are all the 
faithful, of whom the Apostle speaks, Ye are fellow-citizens Eph. 2, 
of the saints. It is built upon Christ the hill, of whom 

Daniel thus, A stone hewed without hands became a great Dan. 2, 

mountain. Aug. Or, the mountain is the great righteousness, . ' 

. . . Au g- 

which is signified by the mountain from which the Lord is ubi sup. 

now teaching. Pseudo-Chrys. A city set on a hill cannot 

be hidden though it would ; the mountain which bears 

makes it to be seen of all men ; so the Apostles and Priests 

who are founded on Christ cannot be hidden even though 

they would, because Christ makes them manifest. Hilary. 

Or, the city signifies the flesh which He had taken on Him ; 

because that in Him by this assumption of human nature, 

there was as it were a collection of the human race, and we 

by partaking in His flesh become inhabitants of that city. 

He cannot therefore be hid, because being set in the height 

of God's power, He is offered to be contemplated of all men 

in admiration of His works. Pseudo-Chbys. IIow r Christ 

manifests His saints, suffering them not to be hid, lie shews 

by another comparison, adding, Neither do men liyht a lamp 

to put it under a corn-measure, but on a stand. Cintvs. Or, 

in the illustration of the city, He signified J I is own power, 

by the lamp He exhorts the Apostles to preach with boldness; 

■I though He said, 'I indeed have lighted the Lamp, but that 

it continue to burn will be your care, not for your own lakes 

Only, hut both lor otheri who shall receive its light and for 

God'l ^lory.' PsBl DO-OhbTS, The lamp is the Divine word, 

of which it is laid, '/'/<// word is a lamp unto my feet, Tiny r s . hd, 

who Light this lamp sire the father, the Son, and the Holy l0 '' 

Spirit A' *.. \\ itli what meaning do we suppose the u< rds, 
to put it under a com-SMMtirs, were said? To expreii con- 

Oeaiment limply, or that tin; corn-measure, has a special 

M 2 


signification P The putting the lamp under the corn-measure 
means the preferring bodily ease and enjoyment to the duty 
of preaching the Gospel, and hiding the light of good teaching 

under temporal gratification. The corn-measure aptly denotes 
the things of the body, whether because our reward shall be 

2 Cor. 5, measured out to us, as each one shall receive the things done 
in the body ; or because worldly goods which pertain to the 
body come and go within a certain measure of time, which is 
signified by the corn-measure, whereas things eternal and 
spiritual are contained within no such limit. He places his 
lamp upon a stand, who subdues his body to the ministry I f 
the word, setting the preaching of the truth highest, and sub- 
jecting the body beneath it. For the body itself serves to 
make doctrine shine more clear, while the voice and other 
motions of the body in good works serve to recommend it 
to them that learn. Pseudo-Chrys. Or, men of the world 
may be figured in the corn-uK-asure as these are empty above, 
but full beneath, so worldly men are foolish in spiritual things, 
but wise in earthly things, and therefore like a corn-measure 
they keep the word of Cod hid, whenever for any worldly 
cause he had not dared to proclaim the word openly, and 
the truth of the faith. The stand for the lamp is the Church 

Vid.PhiL which bears the word of life, and all ecclesiastical persona 

2 15 

Hilary. Or, the Lord likened the Synagogue to a corn- 
measure, which only receiving within itself such fruit as was 
raised, contained a certain measure of limited obedience. 
Ambros. AMBROSE. And therefore let none shut up his faith within 
jion occ. j. nc lm . asurc of the Law, but have recourse to the Church in 

Bedcin which the grace of the sevenfold Spirit shines forth. BEDS. 

, Or, Christ Himself has lighted this lamp, when He filled the 
quoad ' ° ' 

mi earthen vessel of human nature with the lire of His Divinity, 

which He would not cither hide from them that believe, nor 
put under a bushel that is shut up under the measure of the 
Law, or confine within the limits of anv one oration. The 
lampstand is the Church, OH which Hi* set the lamp, when 
He affixed to our foreheads the faith of His incarnation. 

Hilary. Or, the lamp, i. e. Christ Himself, is set on its stand 

when He was suspended on the Cross in HiN passion, to 
give light for ever to those that dwell in the Church; to give 

litjht, lie says, to all that arc in the house. Ai <.. Tor it 

VER. 17 19. ST. MATTHEW. 165 

is not absurd if any one will understand the house to be the 
Church. Or, the house may be the world itself, according to 
what He said above, Ye are the light of the world. Hilary. 
He instructs the Apostles to shine with such a light, that in 
the admiration of their work God may be praised ; Let your 
light so shine before men, that they may see your good works. 
Pseudo-Chrys. That is, teaching with so pure a light, that 
men may not only hear your words, but see your works, that 
those whom as lamps ye have enlightened by the word, as 
salt ye may season by your example. For by those teachers 
who do as well as teach, God is magnified; for the discipline 
of the master is seen in the behaviour of the family. And 
therefore it follows, and they shall glorify your Father which 
is in heaven. Aug. Had He only said, That they may see Aug. 
your good tvorks, He would have seemed to have set up as Monti. 7, 
an end to be sought the praises of men, which the hypo- 
crites desire ; but by adding, and glorify your Father, He 
teaches that we should not seek as an end to please men 
with our good works, but referring all to the glory of God, 
therefore seek to please men, that in that God may be glori- 
fied. Hilary. He means not that we should seek glory of 
men, but that though we conceal it, our work may shine 
forth in honour of God to those among whom we live. 

1 7. Think not that I am come to destroy the Law, 
or the Prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to 

18. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and 
earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass 
from the Law, till all be fulfilled. 

19. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these 
it commandments, and .shall teach men so, he shall 

be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but 

win, i shall do and teach them, the same shall he 

called great in the kingdom of heaven. 

Glo8& Having now exhorted Hii hearers to undergo alio 
things for righteousness' sake, and also uol to hide irhat they " 
should receive ; bnl to Learn nunc (broth* ike, that they 

166 iRDlHG K) I HAT. \ . 

may teach others. Be now goes on to tell them what they 
should teachj m though He had been asked, 'What is this 
which you would uot have hid, and for which you would 
have all things endured ? Are you about to speak any tiling 
beyond what is written in the Law and the Prophets? 1 hence 
it is He >ays, Think not I hat I am come to su hi erf the Law 
or the Prophets. PsEUDO-ChBTS. And that for two reasons. 
First, that by these words He might admonish His disciples, 
that as He fulfilled the Law, so they should strive to fulfil 
it. Secondly, because the Jews would falsely accuse them 
subverting the Law, therefore He answers the calumny 
beforehand, but in such a manner as that He should not be 
thought to come simply to preach the Law as the Prophets 
had done. Bbmio. He here asserts two things; He denies 
that He was come to subvert the Law, and affirms that He 
Aug:. was come to fulfil it. Aug. In this last sentence again there 
Mont, i. s. i s a double sense; to fulfil the Law, either by adding 
something which it had not, or by doing what it com- 
Cbrys. mauds. Chrys, Christ then fulfilled the Prophets by ac- 
*j ia complishing what was therein foretold concerning Him- 
self — and the Law, first, by transgressing none of its pre- 
cepts; secondly, by justifying by faith, which the Law could 
not do by the letter. 
Aug. Art.. And lastly, because even for them who wore under 

Faust £racc, it Was hard in this mortal life to fulfil that of the I 

xix. 7. Tli<)H shalt not lust. He being made a Priest by the sacrifice 

et son. . 

of His flesh, obtained for us this indulgence, even in this ful- 
filling the Law, that where through our infirmity we could 

not, we should be strengthened through His perfection, of 

whom as our head we all are members, lor so I think must be 
taken these words, to fulfil the Law, by adding to it, that is, 

such thin-- as I H hei c 'Utribute to the explanation of the old 

glosses, or to enable to keep them. Porthe Lord has shewed 
us thai i ven a wicked motion of* the thoughts to the wrong 
i brother i> to be accounted a kind of murder. The I 

Also teaches ii\ that it is better to keep near to the truth 

without swearing, than with a true oath to come near to 
blasphemy, In. Hut bow, ye Manichasans, do you n.»t receive 

the Law and the Propfa eing Christ here says, that lie 

ibvert but to fulfil them' To this the heretic 

VER. 17 — 19. ST. MATTHEW. 167 

Faustus a replies, Whose testimony is there that Christ spoke 
this ? That of Matthew. How was it then that John does 
not give this saying, who was with Him in the mount, but 
only Matthew, who did not follow Jesus till after He had 
come down from the mount ? To this Augustine replies, 
If none can speak truth concerning Christ, but who saw and 
heard Him, there is no one at this day who speaks truth 
concerning Him. Why then could not Matthew hear from 
John's mouth the truth as Christ had spoken, as well as we 
who are born so long after can speak the truth out of John's 
book? In the same manner also it is, that not Matthew's 
Gospel, but also these of Luke and Mark are received by us, 
and on no inferior authority. Add, that the Lord Himself 
might have told Matthew the things He had done before He 
called him. But speak out and say that you do not believe 
the Gospel, for they who believe nothing in the Gospel but 
what they wish to believe, believe themselves rather than the 
Gospel. To this Faustus rejoins, We will prove that this 
was not written by Matthew, but by some other hand, un- 
known, in his name. For below he says, Jesus saiv a man Mat. 9, 9. 
sitting at the toll-office, Matthew by name. Who writing of 
himself says, l saw a man/ and not rather l saw me ?' Augus- 
tine; Matthew does no more than John does, when he says, 
Peter turning round saw that other disciple whom Jesus loved ; 
and it is well known that this is the common manner of 
Scripture writers, when writing their own actions. Faustus 
again ; But what say you to this, that the very assurance that 
He was not come to destroy the Law and the Prophets, was 
the direct way to rouse their suspicions that He was? For 
He had yet done nothing that could lead the Jews to think 
that thil was His object. Augustine; This is a very weak 
objection, for ire do not deny that to the Jews who had no 
understanding, Christ might have appeared as threatening 
destruction of the Law and the Prophets. Faustus; Hut 

what if the Latf and the Prophets do not accept this f'ulfil- 

according to that in Deuteronomy, These command' 

* I of M ■• in A' • i, p if nt ; and in his work against lum 

of in- answers li in triatim. in this waj 
m- the- treatise ol Fauitui i> preserved 

m urcr, and il am his oji- 

1 OS 008PB1 \' I okimv i I (HAP. v. 

merits thai T give unto thee, thou thalt keep, thou shaft not add 
y thing to them, nor take away. Augustine; Here Faustua 

docs not understand what it is to fulfil t lie Law, when he 
supposes that it moat be taken of adding words to it. The 
fulfilment of the Law is love, wliieh the Lord hath given in 
Bending Hi- Holy Spirit. The Law is fulfilled either when 
the things there commanded arc done, or v hen the thing! 
there prophesied come to pass. Faustus; But in that we 
confess that Jesus was author of a New Testament, what 
else is it than to confess that He has done away with the 
Old ? Augustine ; In the Old Testament were figures of things 
to come, which, when the things themselves were brought in 
by Christ, ought to have been taken away, that in that rery 
taking away the Law and the Prophets might he fulfilled 
wherein it was written that God gave a New Testament. 
Faustus; Therefore if Christ did say this thing, He either 
said it with sonic other meaning, or lie spoke falsely, (wliieh 
God forbid,) or we must take the other alternative, IN' did 
not speak it at all. But that .le^iiv spoke falsely none will 
aver, therefore He cither spoke it with another meaning 
lie spake it not at all. For myself I am rescued from the 
necessity of this alternative by the Maniclucan belief, which 
from the first taught me not to b« Ti those things which 

arc read in Jesus' name as having been spoken by Him; 
for that there be many tares which to corrupt the good 
d some nightly sower has scattered up and down through 
nearly the whole of Scripture. Augustine ; Manichaeus taught 
an impious error, that you should receive only so much 
of the <■ >spel as does not conflict with your heresy, and 

not receive whatever d ailliet with it. We have 

Gal. l, 8. learned of the Apostle that On- caution, '•' 

unto you a I than that ?/•< have 
let him be e 1 . 'id also has ex- 
plained what the tai iiifv. not things false mixed 

with the true Scriptures, :i interpret, but men who 

children of the wicked one. FaustUS ; Should a .lew 
then enquire Of you why you do not keep the preeepts 
of the Las and the Tiophets whieli Christ here 1 d 
lb- came not to destroy but to fulfil, von will be dr 

either to accept an empty superstition, or to repudiate 

YER. 17 — 19. ST. MATTHEW. 169 

this chapter as false, or to deny that you are Christ's 
disciple. Augustine ; The Catholics are not in any difficulty 
on account of this chapter as though they did not observe 
the Law and the Prophets; for they do cherish love to 
God and their neighbour, on which hang all the Laiv and 
the Prophets. And whatever in the Law and the Prophets 
was foreshewn, whether in things done, in the celebration 
of sacramental rites, or in forms of speech, all these they 
know to be fulfilled in Christ and the Church. Wherefore 
we neither submit to a false superstition, nor reject the 
chapter, nor deny ourselves to be Christ's disciples. He 
then who says, that unless Christ had destroyed the Law and 
the Prophets, the Mosaic rites would have continued along 
with the Christian ordinances, may further affirm, that 
unless Christ had destroyed the Law and the Prophets, 
lie would yet be only promised as to be born, to suffer, 
to rise again. But inasmuch as He did not destroy, but 
rather fulfil them, His birth, passion, and resurrection are 
now no more promised as things future, which were sig- 
nified by the Sacraments of the Law; but He is preached 
as already born, crucified, and risen, which are signified by 
the Sacraments now celebrated by Christians. It is clear then 
how great is the error of those who suppose, that when the 
signs or sacraments are changed, the things themselves are 
different, whereas the same things which the Prophetic ordi- 
nance had held forth as promises, the Evangelic ordinance 
points to as completed. Faustus; Supposing these to be 
Chi limine words, we should enquire what was His 

motive for speaking thus, whether to soften the blind hos- 
tility of the .J WS, who when they saw their holy things trod- 
den underfoot by Him, would not have bo much as given 
Him a hearing; or whether He really said them to in- 
m ho of the Gentiles should believe, to submit to 
the yoke of the Law. If t ] i i -s last were not His design, 
then the first must bave been; nor was there any deceit 
or fraud in such purp For of laws there be three 

lOli The first that of the Hebrews, called the law 0/ Rom. 8,2, 

tin diid deaths by Paul; the second that of the Gentiles, 
which he calls the law of nature, saying, By nature the Ron 
Gentile* do the deals of the law; the third, the Ian of 

]70 GOSPEL AC00BDIH6 TO fil.vr. v. 

truth, which lie names, The law of the Spirit of life. 

Also there are Prophets aome of the Jews, such as are 

Tit, 1, 12. well known; Otheri of the Gentiles as Paul speaks, A 

prophet of their own hath said; and others of the truth, 
Mat. 23, of whom JesUS speaks, / send unto yon vise men and 

prophets. Now had Jetui in the following part of this 
Sermon brought forward any of the Hebrew observances 
to shew how He had fulfilled them, no one would have 
doubted that it was of the Jewish Law and Prophets 
that He was now speaking; but when He brings forward 
in this way only those more ancient precepts, Thou shalt 
not kill, Thou shalt not commit adultery } which were pro- 
mulged of old to Enoch, Seth, and the other righteous 
men, who does not see that He is here speaking of the 
Law and Prophets of truth ? Wherever He has occasion 
to speak of any thing merely Jewish, He plucks it up 
by the very roots, giving precepts directly the contrary ; 
for example, in the case of that precept, An eye for an 
eye, a tooth for a tooth. Augustine; Which was the Law 
and which the Prophets, that Christ came not to subvert 
tint to fuljit, is manifest, to wit, the Law given by Mo 
And the distinction which haiistus draws between the 
precepts of the righteous men before Moses, and the 
Mosaic Law, affirming that Christ fulfilled the one but 
annulled the other, is not so. "NVc affirm that the Law 
of Moses was both well suited to its temporary purpose, and 
was now not subverted, but fulfilled by Christ, as will 
be seen in each particular. This v\as not understood by 
those who continued in such obstinate ('nor, that they 
compelled the (ientiles to Judaize — those heretics, 1 mean, 

who were called Naaarenea. 

PsEUDO-ChbYS. lint Since all things which sheuld befal 

from the rery beginning of the world to the end of it. were 

ill type and figure forcshc\\n in the Law, that God may not 

be thought to be ignorant of any of those things thai take 

place, He then Ion- here declares, that heaven and earth 
should not paai till all things thus fofJesheWO in the Lai 

should have their actual accomplishment. Kimu.. .hum 

is a Elebrei word, and may be rendered in Latin, r vi 
'fidenter,' or 'fiat; 1 that is. 'truly,' 'faithfully,' of 'so be 

VER. 17 19. ST. MATTHEW. 171 

it.' The Lord uses it either because of the hardness of 
heart of those who were slow to believe, or to attract 
more particularly the attention of those that did believe. 
Hilary. From the expression here used, pass, we may sup- 
pose that the constituting elements of heaven and earth 
shall not be annihilated b . Hemic But shall abide in their 
essence, but pass through renewal. Aug. By the words, Aug. 
one iota or one point shall not pass from the Law, we must ^ rm * ? n 8 
understand only a strong metaphor of completeness, drawn 
from the letters of writing, iota being the least of the letters, 
made with one stroke of the pen, and a point being a slight 
dot at the end of the same letter. The words there shew 
that the Law shall be completed to the very least matter. 
E-abax. He fitly mentions the Greek iota, and not the He- 
brew jod, because the iota stands in Greek for the number 
ten, and so there is an allusion to the Decalogue of which 
the Gospel is the point of perfection. Pseudo-Chrys. If 
even an honourable man blushes to be found in a falsehood, 
and a wise man lets not fall empty any word he has once 
spoken, how could it be that the words of heaven should fall 
to the ground empty ? Hence He concludes, Whoso shall 
break the least of these commandments, fyc. And, I sup- 
pose, the Lord goes on to reply Himself to the question, 
Which are the least commandments? Namely, these which 
I am now about to speak. Chrys. He speaks not this of 
the old laws, but of those which He was now going to enact, 
of which He says, the least, though they were all great. For 
M He so oft spoke humbly of Himself, so does He now speak 
humbly of His precepts. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Otherwise; the 
precepts of Motel are easy to obey; Thou shall not kill, 
Thou shall not commit adultery. The very greatness of the 
crime is a check upon the desire of committing it; therefore 
the reward of observance is small, the sin of transgression 

it. Bui Christ 9 ! precepts! Thou shall not he angry, 

Thou shall not last, are hard to obey, and therefore in their 

i srd they are j^reat, in their transgressionj 'least/ It is 

thus He ipeakfl of these precepts of Chri8t, such as Thou 

shall not be angry t Thou shall not Inst, as ' the least ;' and 

■ '.filil. li : M.i, ut ..ibiti.ui.ui - 1. it ,i . ■• •olvendju* 

1 72 GOSPBL \« 0OBD1NG 10 CHAP. v. 

they who commit these lesser sins, arc the least in the. 
kingdom of God; that is, he who lias been angry and 
not sinned grievously is secure from the punishment of 

eternal damnation; vet lie docs not attain that glory which 
Aufr. they attain who fulfil even these least. Arc Or, the pre- 
cepts of the Law are called 'the least,' as opposed to Christ's 
precepts which are great. The least commandments are 
signified by the iota and the point. He, therefore, who 

breaks the in, and t caches men so, that is, to do as he does, 
sltall be called least in the kingdom of heaven. Hence we 
may perhaps conclude, that it is not true that there shall 
Gloss, ord. none he there except they be great. Gloss. By 'break/ is 
meant, the not doing what one understands rightly, or the 
not understanding what one has corrupted, or the destroy- 
ing the perfectness of Christ's additions. Chbts. Or, when 
you hear the words, least in the kingdom of heaven, imagine 
nothing less than the punishment of hell. For He oft uses 
the word 'kingdom/ not only of the joys of heaven, but 
of the time of the resurrection, and of the terrible coming 
Greg, of Christ. GkEG. Or, by the kingdom of heaven is to be 
i\ xiM nnderstood the Church, in which that teacher who breaks 
a commandment is called least, because he whose life is 
despised, it remains that his preaching be also despised. 
HlLAKT. Or, He calls the passion, and the cross, the least, 
which if one shall not confess openly, but be ashamed of 
them, he shall be least, that is, last, and as it were no man ; 
but to him that confesses it lie promises the great glory of 
a heavenly calling. JeroMB. This head is closely connected 

with the preceding. It is directed against the Pharisees, who, 

despising the commandments ol'Cod, set up traditions of their 
own, and means that their teaching the people would not a\ail 

themselves, if they destroyed the very hast commandment in 

the Law. We may take it in another sense. The learning 
of the master if joined with Mil however small, loses him the 
highest place, nor does it avail an\ to teach righteousness, if 
he destroys it in his life. Perfect bliss is for him who fulfils 

Aug. in deed what he t aches in word. Am.. Otherwise; In 

Mip * breaks the least of these c<n,>, mind meats, that is, of BflTo* 

Law, and teaches nun so, shall be called the least; but he 

> shall do (these least), and so teach, shall not iim 

VER. 20 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 173 

be esteemed great, yet not so little as he who breaks them. 
That he should be great, he ought to do and to teach the 
things which Christ now teaches. 

20. For I say unto you, That except your right- 
eousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes 
and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the 
kingdom of heaven. 

21 . Ye have heard that it was said by them of old 
time, Thou shalt not kill ; and whosoever shall kill 
shall be in danger of the judgment : 

22. But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry 
with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of 
the judgment : and whosoever shall say to his brother, 
Raca, shall be in danger of the council : but who- 
soever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of 
hell fire. 

Hilary. Beautiful entrance He here makes to a teaching 
beyond the works of the Law, declaring to the Apostles that 
they should have no admission to the kingdom of heaven 
without a righteousness beyond that of Pharisees. Chrys. 
By righteousness is here meant universal virtue. But ob- 
serve the superior power of grace, in that He requires of His 
disciples who were yet uninstructed to be better than those 
who were masters under the Old Testament. Thus lie does 
not call the Scribes and Pharisees unrighteous, but speaks of 
their righteousness. And see how even herein He confirms 
the Old Testament that lie compares it with the New, for the 
greater and the less are always of the same kind. PsEUDO- 
Chbts. The righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees are 
the commandments of Moses j but the commandments of 
Christ are the fulfilment of that Law. This then is 1 1 is mean- 
ing; Who Id addition to the commandments of the Law 
shall not fulfil My commandments, shall not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven. For those indeed bsvi from the punish- 
ment due to ti >rs of the Law, but do not bring into the 
kingdom; hut My commandments both deliver from punish* 

] 7 1 G06PEX \< I OBDING It) OH \l\ v. 

ment, and bring into the kingdom. Bnt seeing that to bi 

the least commandment* and not to keep them are one and 

the same, w liy doei I le say above of him that breaks the com- 
mandments, thai he shall be the least in the kingdom of heaven t 
and here of him who keeps them not, that he shall not enter 
into the kingdom of heaven? See how to be the Least in the 
kingdom is the same with not entering into the kingdom. 
For a man to be in the kingdom is not to reign with Christ, 
but only to be numbered among Christ's people; what He 
says then of him that breaks the commandment- is. that lie 
shall indeed be reckoned among Christians, yet the least of 
them. But he who enters into the kingdom, becomes par- 
taker of 1 1 is kingdom with Christ. Therefore he who docs 
not enter into the kingdom of heaven, shall not indeed have 
a part of Christ's glory, yet shall he be in the kingdom of 
heaven, that is, in the number of those over whom Christ reigns as King of heaven. Aug. Otherwise, unless your 
( iv Dei, r iyht eousness exceed the righteousness of the 

Pharisees, that is, exceed that of those who break what 
Mat. 23,3. themselves teach, as it is elsewhere said of them, They sav } 
and do not ; just as if lie had said, Unless your righteous- 
ness exceed in this way that ye do what ye teach, you shall 
not enter the kingdom of heaven. We must therefore under- 
stand something other than usual by the kingdom of heaven 
here, in which are to be both he who breaks what he teaches, 
and he who does it, but the one least, the other great ; this 
kingdom of heaven is the present Church. In another sense 
is the kingdom of heaven >poken of that place where none 
enters but he who does what he teaches, and this is the 
[d. oont Church as it shall be hereafter. In. This expression, the 
xu. 81. kingdom of heaven, so often used by our Lord, I know not 
whether any one would find in the books of tin* Old To 

ment. It belongs properly to the New Testament revelation, 
kept for Mis mouth whom the Old Testament figured as 
a King that should come to reign over His servants. This 
end, to which its precepts were to be referred, was hidden 
in the Old Testament, though even that had its saints 

who looked forward to till ation that should be made. 

QIom. GLOSS, Or, we may explain by referring to the way in 

nun occ. >v j llc h the Scribes ami Pharisees understood the Law, not to 

VER. 20 22. ST. MATTHEW. 175 

the actual contents of the Law. Aug. For almost all the Auar. cont. 



precepts which the Lord gave, saying, But I say unto you, x ^ st 

are found in those ancient books. But because they knew 
not of any murder, besides the destruction of the body, the 
Lord shews them that every evil thought to the hurt of a 
brother is to be held for a kind of murder. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Christ willing to shew that He is the same God who spoke 
of old in the Law, and who now gives commandments in 
grace, now puts first of all His commandments, that one Vid. Mat. 
which was the first in the Law, first, at least, of all those ' * 
that forbade injury to our neighbour. Aug. We do not, Aug. de 
because we have heard that, Thou shalt not kilt, deem it j ^ e1 ' 
therefore unlawful to pluck a twig, according to the error of 
the Manichees, nor consider it to extend to irrational brutes ; 
by the most righteous ordinance of the Creator their life and 
death is subservient to our needs. There remains, therefore, 
only man of whom we can understand it, and that not any 
other man, nor you only; for he who kills himself does 
nothing else but kill a man. Yet have not they in any way 
done contrary to this commandment who have waged wars 
under God's authority, or they who charged with the ad- 
ministration of civil power have by most just and reasonable 
orders inflicted death upon criminals. Also Abraham was not 
charged with cruelty, but even received the praise of piety, 
for that he was willing to obey God in slaying his son. Those 
are to be excepted from this command whom God commands 
to be put to death, either by a general law given, or by 
particular admonition at any special time. For he is not 
the slayer who ministers to the command, like a hilt to one 
smiting with a sword, nor is Samson otherwise to be ac- 
quitted for destroying himself along with his enemies, than 
because he was so instructed privily of the Holy Spirit, who 
through him wrought the miracles. Chrys. This, it was 
Haul hij them of old time, shews that it was long ago that they 
had received this precept. lie says this that He might 
route His iloggith hearen to proceed to more sublime pre- 
cepts, as a teacher might say to an indolent boy, Know yon 
not how long time you have spent already in merely learn- 
ing to ipell? In that, / say unto you, murk the ant hoi it y 
of the legislator, none of the old Prophets spoke thus; but 

17b' 8P] i H I ORDING DO ' HAP. v. 

rather, Thus toith the Lord, Th lervants repeated the 

commaoda of their Lord; Be as a Son declared the will 
of J I is Father, which was also 1 1 is own. They preached 
to their fellow servants; He as master ordained ■ law 
Aag.dc His slaves. A.UO. There arc two different opinions among 

ix^i L1 ' philosophers concerning the passions of the mind: the Stoics 
do not allow that any passion is incident to the Ifise man; 
the Peripatetics affirm that they are incident to the wise 

man but in a moderate degree and subject to reason j 
for example, when mercy is shewn in such a manner that 
justice is preserved. But in the Christian rule we do not 
enquire whether the mind is first affected with anger or with 

row, but whence. Psei do Chrts. He who is angry with- 
out cause shall be judged; but he who is angry with cause 
shall not be judged. For if there were no anger, neither 

ching would profit, nor judgments hold, nor eii 
controlled. So that lie who on just cause is not angry, is 
in sin; for an unreasonable patience sous vice-, breeds I 
leasness, and invites the good as well as the bad to do evil. 
JSBOMB. Some copies add here the words, without can 
but by the true reading the precept >lc unconditional, 

and anger altogether forbidden. For when we are told to 
pray for them that fM rsecute US, all occasion of aimer is 
taken away. The words without canst' then must be erased, 
for the wrath of man worketh no/ /he righteousness of doit. 
Ps] i do-Chrys. Yet that anger which arises from just a 
is indeed not anger, but a sentence of judgment. for a: 
properly means a feeling of passion; but he whose a: 
arises from just cause does not suffer any passion, and is 

Aug. Re- rightly said to sentence, not to be angry with. Art;. This 

"'also we affirm should be taken into consideration, what is 
being angry with a brother; tor Ik 1 i^ not angry with a 

brother who is angry at his offence. IK' then it is win; 

i- angry without cause« who is angry with his brother, and 

Aii^.do not with the olfenee. In. Hut to be angry with a brot 
xir. 9. ' to tnc 1 11( 1 tnat n(> nia . v ' H ' tedi there i> no man of 

Isoin Eph.iv, 31 \ p the word on the ground of i ■ 

the lame *)>< akii 

i. 19 ( 'assian • ami Versii - ment 

! ' ■ : ::s. ; M > S. I 

follow. Vid. Wetstein. in loc., who would 

VER. 20 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 177 

sound mind who forbids. Such sort of motions as come 
of love of good and of holy charity, are not to be called 
vices when they follow right reason. Psetjdo-Chrys. But 
I think that Christ does not speak of anger of the flesh, 
but anger of the heart j for the flesh cannot be so disciplined 
as not to feel the passion. When then a man is angry but 
refrains from doing what his anger prompts him, his flesh is 
angry, but his heart is free from anger. Aug. And there is Aug. 
this same distinction between the first case here put by the fojJiont 
Saviour and the second : in the first case there is one thing, i- 9. 
the passion ; in the second two, anger and speech following 
thereupon, He who saith to his brother, Raca, is in danger of 
the council. Some seek the interpretation of this word in 
the Greek, and think that Raca means ragged, from the 
Greek pdfcos, a rag. But more probably it is not a word of 
any meaning, but a mere sound expressing the passion of 
the mind, which grammarians call an interjection, such as 
the cry of pain, 'hen/ Chrys. Or, Racha is a word signi- 
fying contempt, and worthlessness. For where we in speak- 
ing to servants or children say, Go thou, or, Tell thou him ; 
in Syriac they would say llacha for 'thou/ For the Lord 
descends to the smallest trifles even of our behaviour, and 
bids us treat one another with mutual respect. Jerome. Or, 
i ha is a Hebrew word signifying 'empty/ 'vain;' as we 
might say in the common phrase of reproach, ' empty-pate/ 
1 rve that He says brother; for who is our brother, but 
he who has the same Father as ourselves? PSEUDO Cm; 
And it were an unworthy reproach to him who has in him 
the- Holy Spirit to call him 'empty.' Aug. In the third Aug. ubi 
i are three things; anger, the voice expressive of anger, SUi '' 
and a word of* reproach. Thou foot. Thus here arc three 
different d< of sin; in the first when one is angry, hut 

I ion in his heart without giving any BlgD of it. 

If again he suffers any -omul expressive of the passion to 

i bim, it is more than had lie silently suppressed the 

j BTj and if he speaks a word which conveys a 

din i reater sin. Psbi do-Cheys. Bat 

empty who has the Holy Spirit, s ( , none is a fool 

who has tin- knowledge of Christ; and if Racha 
'empty,' it is one and the same thing, as far as the meaning 

. I. N 


of the word goes, to lay ELacha, or 'thou fool.' But there 
is a difference in the meaning of the speaker; for Etacha 
was a word in common use among the Jews, not expi 
ing wrath or hate, but rather in a light careless way expr 
ing confident familiarity, not anger. But you will perhaps 
cha is not an expression of wrath, how is it then 
a sin? Because it is said for contention, not fur edifica- 
tion ; and if we ought not to speak even good words but 
for the sake of edification, how much more not such as 
Aug. ubi are in themselves bad? Aug. Here wo have three arraign- 
8up * incuts, the judgment, the council, and hell-fire, being dif- 

ferent stages ascending from the lesser to the greater, lor 
in the judgment there is yet opportunity for defence ; to 
the council belongs the respite of the sentence, what time 
the judges confer among themselves what sentence ought 
to be inflicted ; in the third, hell-fire, condemnation is 
certain, and the punishment fixed. Hence is seen what 
a difference is between the righteousness of the Pharii 
and Christ j in the first, murder subjects a man to judg- 
ment ; in the second, anger alone, which is the least 
the three degrees of sin. Raban. The Saviour here names 
the torments of hell, Gehenna, a name thought to be de- 
rived from a vallcv consecrated to idols near Jerusalem, 
and filled of old with dead bodies, and defiled by Josiah, 
as we read in the Book of Kings. Chbtb. This is the 
first mention of hell, though the kingdom of Heaven had 
been mentioned some time before 1 , which shews that the 
gift of the one comes of His love, the condemnation of 
the other of our sloth. Many thinking this a punishment 
too severe for a mere word, say that this was said figura- 
tively. But I fear that if we thus cheat ourselves with 
Words lure, wo shall suffer punishment in deed there. 
Think not then this too heavy a punishment, when 
many Bufferings and sins have their beginning in a word; 

a httle word has often begotten a murder, and overturned 

whole citi And vet it is not to be thought a little 

word that denies a brother re;ison and understanding by 
which We are nun, and differ from the brutes. I'm m>o- 
Ciiuvs. /// danger <>f the council; that is, accord: ng to 
the interpretation given by the Apostles in their (on- 

VER. 23, 24. ST. MATTHEW. 179 

stitutions,) in danger of being one of that Council which 
condemned Christ e . Hilary. Or, he who reproaches with 
emptiness one full of the Holy Spirit, will be arraigned in 
the assembly of the Saints, and by their sentence will be 
punished for an affront against that Holy Spirit Himself. 
Aug. Should any ask what greater punishment is reserved Aug. ubi 
for murder, if evil-speaking is visited with hell-fire ? This sup * 
obliges us to understand, that there are degrees in hell. 
Chrys. Or, the judgment and the council denote punish- 
ment in this world • hell-fire future punishment. He de- 
nounces punishment against anger, yet does not mention 
any special punishment, shewing therein that it is not 
possible that a man should be altogether free from the 
passion. The Council here means the Jewish senate, for 
He would not seem to be always superseding all their esta- 
blished institutions, and introducing foreign f . Aug. In all Aug. ubi 
these three sentences there are some words understood. In sup ' 
the first indeed, as many copies read without cause, there 
is nothing to be supplied. In the second, He who saith 
to his brother, Iiacha, we must supply the words, ivithout 
cause; and again, in He who says, Thou fool, two things are 
understood, to his brother, and, without cause. And this 
forms the defence of the Apostle, when he calls the Galatians 
fools, though he considers them his brethren ■ for he did it 
not without cause. 

2^. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, 
and there remembered that thy brother hath ought 

linst thee ; 

2 4. Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go 
thy way ; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then 
Come and offer thy gift. 

A.TJG. If it be not lawful to be angry with a brother, or Aug. 

Serin, in 

Ifont i. 
' Thii remark ii not found in the itit. iii. II. Tin e quoted in 10. 

II .It. xwi. 19 i tumid in ('■ nst it. 

. how- viii. 2 -. rid. ■ i I er. i)i ert. ix. ; 
. I. [gn., j). l. c l fin. 
again tl.. I is ' In this quotation only thf If 

found in* ' . though tentoncc ib found in CLrya. 

, . quoted; vid. Cofc n- 

180 6PBL \< I ORDING 10 I LP, \ , 

to say to lii iii Racha, or Thou fool, much less is it lawful 
to keep in the memory anything which might con 
anger into hate. Jerome. It is not, If thou hast ought 
iinst thy brother; but, If tiny brother hat ought against 
thee, that the necessity of reconciliation may DC more im- 

Ang. ubi perative. Aug. And he 1ms somewhat against ni when 
*" we have wronged him; and we hare somewhat against 

him when he has wronged ns, in which case there were 
no need to go to he reconciled to him, seeing we had 

only to forgive him, as we desire the Lord to forgive OS. 
1'm.i D0-ChrT8. But if it is lie that hath done von the 
wrong, and yet you be the first to seek reconciliation, 
you shall have a great reward. Chkys. If love alone is not 
enough to induce us to be reconciled to our neighbour, 
the desire that our work should not remain imp and 

Greer. especially in the holy place, should induce us. Greg. Lo 
in Etech ^ c * s 110 ^ 'rilling to accept sacrifice at the hands of those 
vili. 9. w} 10 are at variance. Hence then consider hoi I an 

evil is strife, which throws away what should be the means 
of remission of sin. P8EUD0-CHRY8. Bee the mercy of God, 
that lie thinks rather of man's benefit than of His own 
honour; lie loves concord in the faithful more than offer- 
ings at His altar; for so long as there are dissensions among 
the faithful, their gift is not looked upon, their prayer is 
not heard. For no one can be a true friend at the same 
tone to two who are enemies to each other. In like manner, 
we do not keep our fealty to God, if we do not love His 
friendfl and hate His enemies. But such as was the otlcnec, 
such should also be the reconciliation. If you have offended 
in thought, be reconciled in thought ; if in words, he re 
ciled in words; if in deeds, in deeds be rec nciled. For so 
it is in every sin, in whatsoever kind it w smitted, in 

that kind is the penance done. Hilary, He bids us when 
peace with our fellow*men is restored, then to return to 

peace with God, passing from the love of men to the love 
Aug. ubi of God; then go mul offer thy gift, Ai <.. If this direction 

M1] '' be taken Literally, it might lead some to suppose that this 

ought indeed to be so done if our brother is present, for 
that DO long time can be meant when we are bid to 1. 
our offering there before the altar. Tor if he be abs< nt, or 

VER. 25, 26. ST. MATTHEW. 181 

possibly beyond sea, it is absurd to suppose that the offer- 
ing must be left before the altar, to be offered after we have 
gone over land and sea to seek him. Wherefore we must 
embrace an inward, spiritual sense of the whole, if we would 
understand it without involving any absurdity. The gift 
which we offer to God, whether learning, or speech, or what- 
ever it be, cannot be accepted of God unless it be supported 
by faith. If then we have in ought harmed a brother, we 
must go and be reconciled with him, not with the bodily 
feet, but in thoughts of the heart, when in humble contrition 
you may cast yourself at your brother's feet in sight of Him 
whose offering you are about to offer. For thus in the same 
manner as though He were present, you may with unfeigned 
heart seek His forgiveness; and returning thence, that is, 
bringing back again your thoughts to what you had first 
begun to do, may make your offering. 

25. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles 
thou art in the way with him ; lest at any time 
the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the 
judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast 
into prison. 

26. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no 
means come out thence, till thou hast paid the utter- 
most farthing. 

HiLART. The Lord suffers us at no time to be wanting in 
peaceablenesa of temper, and therefore bids us be reconciled 
to our adversary quickly, while on the road of life, lest we 
into the season of death before peace be joined be- 
tween Of, Jkuomk. The word liere in our Latin books is 
r consentiens,' in (J reck, evvo&v, which means, 'kind/ 'bene- 
volent.' Ai Q, Let ns see who this adversary is to whom WO Aug. 

bid to be benevolent. It may then be either the Devil, s ', ,]u ; " l 

Mont. i. 

oi man, or the flesh, or (iod, or His commandments. But 11. 

1 do d e can be bid be benevolent or agreeing 

with the Devil; for where there II good will, there is friend- 
ship, and no one iril] itfy that friendship ihould be made 
with th< ■ I j. i, or that it it well to agree with him, having 


once proclaimed war against him when we renounced him ; 
nor ought we to con-cut with him, with whom had we n< 
contented, we had never come into such circumstance*. 

l Pet 6.8. Jerome. Some, from that verse of Peter, Four adver s a r y 
the Devil, tyc. will have the Saviour's command to he, that 
wc should he merciful to the Devil, not Causing him to 
endure punishment for on i ai be puts in our 

way the incentives to vice, if we yield to his suggestions, lie 
will he tormented for our Bakes. Some follow :i more forced 
interpretation! that in baptism we have i '.' us made 

a compact with the Devil by renouncing him. [fwe 
this compact, then we arc agreeing With our adversary, and 

Au£. ubi shall not be cast into prison. A\ c. I do not see again how 
it can be understood of man. For how can man he said 
to deliver us to the Judge, when we know only Christ as the 
Judge, before whose tribunal all must be sisted. How then 
can he deliver to the Judge, who has himself to appear before 
Him? Moreover if any has sinned against any by killing 
him, he has no opportunity of agreeing with him in the I 
that is in this life, and yet that hinders not but that he may 
he rescued from judgment by repentance. Much leas 
see how wc can be bid be agreeing with the flesh ; for they arc 
sinners rather who agree with it; but they who bring it into 
subjection, do not agree with it, but compel it to agree with 
them. JsROMB. And how can the body be Cast into pri 
if it agree not with the spirit, seeing soul and body must go 
together, and that the flesh can do nothing but what the - 

Aug. ubi shall command? Ac. Perhaps then it is (Iod with whom 

Ml1 '* arc here enjoined '■ lie may lie said to be our 

adversary, because wc have departed from Him by sin. and 
He reeisteth the proud. Whosoever then shall not have 

been reconciled in this life with God through the death of 
I lis Son, shall be by 1 Km delivt 

thi whom Hi- has committed all judgment. And 

man may be said to be /'// the uuij with (iod, because He is 

pywhere. But if we like not to say that the wicked arc 
with (iod, who is everywhere pn as we do not say that 

the blind are with that light which i^ everywhere around 

m. there only remains the law of (iod which we 

understand by our adversary. Por tins law is an advei 

VER. 25, 26. ST. MATTHEW. 183 

to such as love to sin, and is given us for this life that it may- 
be with us in the way. To this we ought to agree quickly, 
by reading, hearing, and bestowing on it the summit of 
authority, and that when we understand it, we hate it not 
because it opposes our sins, but rather love it because it 
corrects them ; and when it is obscure, pray that we may 
understand it. Jerome. But from the context the sense is 
manifest ; the Lord is exhorting us to peace and concord with 
our neighbour ; as it was said above, Go, be reconciled to thy 
brother. Pseudo-Chrys. The Lord is urgent with us to hasten 
to make friends with our enemies while we are yet in this 
life, knowing how daugerous for us that one of our enemies 
should die before peace is made with us. For if death bring 
us while yet at enmity to the Judge, he will deliver us to 
Christ, proving us guilty by his judgment. Our adversary 
also delivers us to the Judge, when he is the first to seek 
reconciliation ; for he who first submits to his enemy, brings 
him in guilty before God. Hilary. Or, the adversary de- 
livers you to the Judge, when the abiding of your wrath 
towards him convicts you. Aug. By the Judge I under- Aug. 
stand Christ, for, the Father hath committed all judgment jofmY* 
to the Son ; and by the officer, or minister, an Angel, for, 22 - 
Angels came and ministered unto Him ; and we believe that 
lie will come with His Angels to judge. Pseudo-Chrys. 
The officer, that is, the ministering Angel of punishment, 
and he shall cast you into the prison of hell. Aug. By the Aug. ubi 
prison I understand the punishment of the darkness. And sup ' 
that none should despise that punishment, He adds, Verily 
I sag unto thee, Thou shaft not come out thence till thou hast 

! the very last farthing. Jbbomb. A farthing is a coin 
containing two mites. What He savs then is, ' Thou shalt 
not go forth thence till thou hast paid for the smallest sins.' 
A' Q. Or it is an expression to denote that there is nothing Aug. ubi 
that shall go unpunished \ SB we say r To the dregs,' when sup ' 

ire speaking of any thing so emptied that nothing is left 
in it. Or by the la$t farthing may be denoted earthly sins, quadrant, 
I- or the fourth and last element Of this world is earth. Paid, 

that is, in eternal punishment; and /////// used in the same 

as in that, 8it 'I'Ii'jii on My right hand until I make P§. 1 10, l. 
Thy em Fhy footstool ; for lie does not cease to reign 


when His enemi pat under His feet. So here, until 

thou hast paid, is as much as to say. Thou shalt never come 
out thence, Tor that he is always paying the very last farthing 
while he ia enduring the everlasting punishment of earthly 

sin^. Psi SRYS. Or, [£ you will make your pe 

in this world, you may receive pardon of even the heai 
ofli hut if once damned and east into the prison of 

hell, punishment will bo exacted of you not for grievous Bins 

only, hut for each idle word, which may he <i I by the 

very last jar thing. Hilary. For because charity 'h a 

multitude of sins, we shall therefore pay the last farthiii 
punishment, unless by the expense of charity we redeem the 
fault of our sin. PsEUDO-CH&YS. Or, the prison is worldly 
misfortune which God often sends upon sinners. Ohrts. 
Or, He here speaks of the judges of this world, of the way 
which leads to this judgment, and of human prisons; thus 
not only employing future but present inducements, as those 
things which are before the eves affect us mo Paul 

Rom. 13, also declares, //' thou doest ant for the power, for he beareth 

4. . 

not the sword in rani. 

27. Yc have heard that it was said by them of old 
time, Thou shalt not commit adultery : 

28. But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh 
on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery 
with her already in his heart. 

< Chrys. The Lord having explained how much is oon- 

1 '.'. ln - tinned in the first commandment, namely. Thou shalt not 

X V II. 

kit/, proceeds in regular order to the second. Thou 

Sinn. ix. 8 fan /l0 / commit adultery, th Thou shalt go no where 

but to thv lawful wife. For if von exacl I 

u ought to do the same, for the husband ought to go be- 
fore the wife in virtue. It ii a shame ()V the husband to 
thai this . >le. Why not the husband as well as 

wife? And let not him that is unmarried suppose that he 
does not break this commandment by fornication ; you kn >w 
the price wluicwiih you have been boil JTOU know what 

VER. 27, 28. ST. MATTHEW. 185 

you eat and what you drinks, therefore keep yourself from 
fornications. Forasmuch as all such acts of lust pollute and 
destroy God's image, (which you are,) the Lord who knows 
what is good for you, gives you this precept that you may 
not pull down His temple which you have begun to be. Id. Aug. cont. 
He then goes on to correct the error of the Pharisees, ^"^i 
declaring, Whoso looketh upon a woman to lust after her, 
hath committed adultery already with her in his heart. For 
the commandment of the Law, Thou shalt not lust after thy Exod. 20, 
neighbour's wife, the Jews understood of taking her away, 7 * 
not of committing adultery with her. Jerome. Between 
ttclOos and TrporrdOeia, that is between actual passion and the 
first spontaneous movement of the mind, there is this differ- 
ence : passion is at once a sin ; the spontaneous movement 
of the mind, though it partakes of the evil of sin, is yet not 
held for an offence committed 11 . When then one looks upon 
a woman, and his mind is therewith smitten, there is pro- 
passion ; if he yields to this he passes from propassion to 
passion, and then it is no longer the will but the opportunity 
to sin that is wanting. Whosoever, then, looketh on a woman 
to lust after her, that is, so looks on her as to lust, and cast 
about to obtain, he is rightly said to commit adultery with 
her in his heart. Aug. For there are three things which Aug. 
make up a sin ; suggestion either through the memory, or Mont i. 
the present sense; if the thought of the pleasure of in- 12 » 
diligence follows, that is an unlawful thought, and to be re- 
st rained ; if you consent then, the sin is complete. For 
prior to the 6rst consent, the pleasure is either none or very 
slight, the consenting to which makes the sin. Imt if con- 
proceeds on into overt act, then (ksirc seems to be 
ated and quenched. And when ion is again re- 

ted, the contemplated pleasure is gri ater, which previous 
to habit formed was but small, but now more difficult to 

iic Greg. Imt whoso casts his eyes about without f ; r.^. 


* .* ,il, The word is more commonly •,] plied to xx '- ~« 

Lord, i and 

k 1 nt in which 1 1 1 ^ soul was affecti il 

by wliat in • came 7rui'm. I a 

in II nn it 

owed, or v> is a wp Vid. 8. 

■ are ■>! .Irion . in Matt. I -I'- 


186 6P1 I. • NO TO CHAP. V. 

caution will often be taken frith the pleasure of sin, and 
ensnared by desires begins to srish tor what he would not. 
Greafl is the strength of the flesh to draw us downwards, 
and the charm of beauty once admitted to the heart 
through the eye, is hardly banished by endeavour. We must 
therefore take heed at the first, we ought not to look 
upon what it is unlawful to desire. Tor that the heart 
may be kept pure in thought, the eyes, as being on the 
watch to hurry us to sin, should be averted from wanton 
looks. Chrys, If you permit yourself to gaze often on 
fair countenances you will assuredly be taken, even though 
you may be able to command your mind twice or thrice. 
For you are not exalted above nature and the strength 
of humanity. She too who dresses and adonis hen 
for the purpose of attracting men's eyes to her, though 
her endeavour should fail, yet shall she be punished 
hereafter; seeing she mixed the poison and offered the 
cup, though none was found who would drink thereof. 
For what the Lord seems to speak only to the man, is 
of equal application to the woman; inasmuch as when 
He speaks to the head, the warning is meant for the 
whole body. 

29. And if thy right eye oflend thee, pluck it out, 
and cast it from thee : for it is profitable for thee 1 

that one of thy members should perish, and not that 
thy whole body should be cast into hell. 

30. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it oft', 
and cast it from thee : lor it is profitable lor thee 

that one of thy members should perish, and not that 

thy whole body should be east into hell. 

non GLOSS, Because we ought not only to avoid actual sin, 
occ * but even put away c\cry occasion of sin, therefore having 

taught that adultery is to be avoided not in deed only, 
but in heart, lie next teaches us to cut off the occasions 
of sin. Pseudo-Chrys. Hut if according to that of the 
Prophet, tfa i whole part in our body t it is needful 

that mc cut oil' cwr\ lunb that \\v haw that the punishment 

VER. 29, 30. ST. MATTHEW. 187 

may be equal to the depravity of the flesh. Is it then 
possible to understand this of the bodily eye or hand ? 
As the whole man when he is turned to God is dead to 
sin, so likewise the eye when it has ceased to look evil 
is cut off from sin. But this explanation will not suit 
the whole; for when He says, thy right eye offends thee, 
what does the left eye? Does it contradict the right eye, 
and it is preserved innocent? Jerome. Therefore by the 
right eye and the right hand we must understand the love 
of brethren, husbands and wives, parents and kinsfolk; 
which if we find to hinder our view of the true light, we 
ought to sever from us. Aug. As the eye denotes con- Aug. 
templation, so the hand aptly denotes action. By the eye J^™' m 
we must understand our most cherished friend, as they *• l3 - 
are wont to say who would express ardent affection, 'I 
love him as my own eye/ And a friend too who gives 
counsel, as the eye shews us our way. The right eye, per- 
haps, only means to express a higher degree of affection, 
for it is the one which men most fear to lose. Or, by 
the right eye may be understood one who counsels us 
in heavenly matters, and by the left one who counsels in 
earthly matters. And this will be the sense ; Whatever 
that is which you love as you would your own right eye, 
if it offend yon, that is, if it be an hindrance to your true 
happiness, cut it off and cast it from you. For if the 
right eye was not to be spared, it was superfluous to 
k of the left. The right hand also is to be taken of 
a beloved assistant in divine actions, the left hand in 
earthly actions. Pseodo-Chrtb. Otherwise; Christ would 
have us careful not only of our own sin, but likewise 
that even they who pertain to us should keep themselves 

from evil. Have you any friend who looks to your matters 
our own eye, or manages them as your own hand, if 
you kBOW of any scandalous or base action that he has 
dom him from you, he is an offence; for ire shall 

account not. only of our own sins, hut also of lUCh 
Of those of OUT neighbours as it is in our power to 

hinder. Hilary. Thai i more lofty step of innocence 
appointed us, in that ire are admonished to keep free, i 
onk ir»iii -in ourselves, hut from such as might touch 


from without. Jerome. Otherwise; Aj above He had 
placed last in the Looking on a woman, so now the thought 
and sense straying hither and thither He calls 'the i 
By the right hand and the other parts of the body, Be 

means the initial movements of desire and affection. 
PsEI DO-ChrTS. The eye of flesh is the mirror of the inward 
eye. The body also has its own sense, that is, the left 
eye, and its own appetite, that is, the left hand. Hut 
the parts of the son] are called right, for the soul was 
created both with free-will and under the law 
ncss, that it might both see and do rightly. lint the 
members of the body being not with free-will, but under 
the law of sin, are called the left. Yet He does not bid 
us cut oil" the sense or appetite of the flesh ; we may 
retain the desires of the flesh, and yet not do thereafter, 
but we cannot cut off the having the desires. Hut when 
we wilfully purpose and think of evil, then our right 
desires and right will offend us, and therefore lie bids 

us cut them oil'. And these we can cut off. because our 

will is free. Or otherwise; Everything, however u r <>od in 
itself, that offends ourselves or others, we ought to cut off 
from us. For example, to visit a woman with religions 
purposes, this good intent towards her may be called a 
right eye, but if often visiting her I have fallen into the 
net of desire, or if any Looking on are offended, then the 
right eye, that is, something in itself good, offends me. 
the right eye is good intention, the fight hand is good desire. 
Gloss. ord. (ii.oss. Or; the right r//c is the contemplative life which 
offends by being the cause of indolence or self-conceit, 
in our weakness that we are not able to support it unmixed. 
The right hand is good works, or the active life, which 

offends us when we are ensnared by society and the business 
of life. It then aov one Lfl unable to sustain the eontem- 
plative life, let him not slothfully rest from all action; or on 
the other hand while he is taken up with action, dry up the 

fountain of sweet contemplation. Rbmig. The reason why 

the liuht eye and the right hand are to be 1 cast awav is 
subjoined in that, Fbr it is h> - v. P-i t DO-ChRTO. 

as we . ne of another, it is better that 

should be saved without some one of these members, 

VER. 31, 32. ST. MATTHEW. 189 

than that we perish together with them. Or, it is better 
that we should be saved without one good purpose, or one 
good work, than that while we seek to perform all good 
works we perish together with all., 

31. It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away 
his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement : 

32. But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put 
away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, 
causeth her to commit adultery : and whosoever shall 
marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. 

Gloss. The Lord had taught us above that our neigh- Gloss. 
hour's wife was not to be coveted, He now proceeds to teach 
that our own wife is not to be put away. Jerome. For 
touching Moses's allowance of divorce, the Lord and Saviour 
more fully explains in conclusion, that it was because of the 
hardness of the hearts of the husbands, not so much sanc- 
tiouing discord, as checking bloodshed. Pseudo-Chrys. For 
when Moses brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, they 
were indeed Hebrews in race, but Egyptians in manners. 
And it was caused by the Gentile manners that the husband 
hated the wife ; and if he was not permitted to put her away, 
he was ready either to kill her or ill-treat her. Moses there- 
fore suffered the bill of divorcement, not because it was a 
good practice in itself, but was the prevention of a worse 
evil. JIii.AiiY. Hut the Lord who brought peace and good- 
Mill on earth, would have it reign especially in the matri- 
monial bond. Aug. The Lord's command here that a wife 
i- not to be put away, is not contrary to the command in the p aUit 
Law, as Manichaus affirmed. Had the Law allowed any x:x - '-«'• 
who would to put away his wife, to allow none to put away 
were indeed the very opposite of that. lint the difficulty 
which Mo* ireful to put in the way, shews that he WM 

no good friend to the practice at all. Poi he required a bill 
of divorcement, the delay and difficulty of drawing out 
which would often cool headlong rage and disagreement 
cially as by the Hebrew oustonij it was the Scribes 
alone who were permitted to use the Hebrew Letters, in 

190 tBDnra 10 i hap. v. 

which they professed a lingular skill. To these then the 

law would send liim whom it bid to give a writing of di- 
vorcement, when he would put away his wife, who medi- 
ating between him and his wife, might set them at one 
again, unless in minds too wayward to he moved by coun- 
sels of peace. Thus then He neither completed, hy adding 
words to it, tin; law of them of old time, nor did He destroy 
the Law given hy .Moses hy enacting things contrary to it, as 
Manichssus affirmed; hut rather repeated and approved all 
that the Hebrew Law contained, so that whatever lie spoke 
in His own person more than it had, had in view either 
explanation, which in divers ohseure places of the Law was 
greatly needed, or the more punctual observance of its enact- 
Ang. ments. Id. By interposing this delay in the mode of putting 

ilont.i.i l. * wa 7i the law giver shewed as cle irly as it could he shewn 
to hard hearts, that lie hated strife and disagreement. The 
Lord then so confirms this backwardness in the 1 
to except only one case, the of fornication ; evt iy i 
inconvenience which may have place, He bids us hear with 
patience in Consideration of the plighted troth of wed- 
lock. PseUDO-Chkts. it we ought to hear the harden - 
Gal. 6, 2. strangers, in obedience to that of the Apostle, Beat J 

another's burdens, how much more that of our wives and 
hushands? The Christian husband ought not only to keep 
himself from any defilement, hut to be careful not to give 
others occasion of defilement ; for so is their sin imputed to 
him who gave the occasion. Whoso then hy putting away 
his wife gives another man occasion of committing adulter}. 
Aug. is Condemned tor that crime himself. Ai i . He 

u ! sup ' declares the man who marries her who is put away an 
adulterer. CHRYS, Say not here. It Is enough her hush 

lias put her away; for even alter she is put away she 

Aug. Continues the wife of him that put her away. Ai (.. The 

ubi sup. Apo>tle has fixed the limit here, requiring her to absb d 
from a fresh marriage as I i her husband lives. A 

hi-- death he allows her to marry. But if the woman may 
not marry while i, ner husband is alive, much less 

may she yield herself to unlawful indulgences. Bui this 

iiniand of the l.oid, forbidding to put away a wife, 
is not broken hy him who lives with her not carnally 

VER. 31, 32. ST. MATTHEW. 191 

but spiritually, in that more blessed wedlock of those that 
keep themselves chaste. A question also here arises as to 
what is that fornication which the Lord allows as a cause 
of divorce ; whether carnal sin, or, according to the Scrip- 
ture use of the word, any unlawful passion, as idolatry, 
avarice, in short all transgression of the Law by forbidden 
desires. For if the Apostle permits the divorce of a wife if 
she be unbelieving, (though indeed it is better not to put her 
away,) and the Lord forbids any divorce but for the cause of 
fornication, unbelief even must be fornication. And if un- 
belief be fornication, and idolatry unbelief, and covetousness 
idolatry, it is not to be doubted that covetousness is forni- 
cation. And if covetousness be fornication, who may say of 
any kind of unlawful desire that it is not a kind of forni- 
cation ? Id. Yet I would not have the reader think this Aug. 
disputation of ours sufficient in a matter so arduous ; for not . j 1 ™^' 
every sin is spiritual fornication, nor does God destroy every 
sinner, for He hears His saints daily crying to Him, Forgive 
us our debts; but every man who goes a whoring and for- 
sakes Him, him He destroys. Whether this be the fornica- 
tion for which divorce is allowed is a most knotty question — 
for it is no question at all that it is allowed for the fornica- 
tion by carnal sin. Id. If any affirm that the only fornication Aug. lib. 
for which the Lord allows divorce is that of carnal sin, he * ult " a 
may say that the Lord has spoken of believing husbands and 
wives, forbidding either to leave the other except for forni- 
cation. Id. Not only does He permit to put away a wife Aug. 
who commits fornication, but whoso puts away a wife by N j ( '|" t ' m 
whom he is driven to commit fornication, puts her away for i- 16". 
tin; cause of fornication, both for his own sake and hers. 
Id. Ho also rightly puts away his wife to whom she shall 
. I will not be your wife unless yon get me money by p. is. 
robbery ; or fthould require any other crime to bo done by 
him. If tin; husband hero be truly penitent, ho will cut oil' 
the limb that oil': adi him. In. Nothing can be more uiijiM A 
than to put away a wife lor fornication, and yourself to be '^j,','','' '" 
guilty of that sin, for then is that happened, ll'licrriii thou '• I* 

judgest another, thou condemrusi tin/self. When He says. 
And It* who marrieth her who it put away, committeth adul- 
tery, a question arises, does the woman also in thi i 


( HA 1 

amit adultery? For the Apostle dii ther thai she 

remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband. 
i*> this difference in the separation, namely, which of them 

Was th( of it. If the wife put away the husband and 

marry another, she appears to have left her first husband 
with the desire of change, which is an adulterous thought. 
But if she have been put away by her husband, yet he who 
marries her commits adultery, how can she be quit of the 
same guilt? And further, if he who marries her com 
adultery, she is the cause of his committing adultery, which 
is what the Lord is here forbidding. 

33. Again, ye have heard that it hath been Baid by 
them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but 
shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: 

34. But I say unto you, Swear not at all ; neither 
by Heaven ; for it is God's throne : 

35. Nor by the earth; for it is lli> footstool: 
neither by Jerusalem ; for it is the city of the gl 

3G. Neither shalt thou swear By thy head, because 
thou canst not make one hair white or black. 

37. But let your communication be, Yea, j 
Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh 
of evil. 

non occ. 

(ii.oss. The Lord has hitherto taught to abstain from in- 
juring our neighbour, forbidding anger with murder. Inst 
with adultery, and the putting away ■ irife irith a bill of 
divorce. He now proceeds to teach itain from injury 

to God, forbidding not only perjury ai an evil in itself, but 
d all oaths as the cause of evil, saying, Ye have heard it 

said Inj them of old shalt not fot i WeOT till/self. It is 

0.19,12. written in Leviticus, Thou shalt not fortWeOT th'/sili 

and that they should not make goda of thi ore, 

they are commanded to render to God their oaths, and not 

to 8W( ar by any creatui to the Lord thy oaihi; that 

if you shall hav( don to swear, vim shall iwear by 

VER. 33 — 37. ST. MATTHEW. 193 

the Creator and not by the creature. As it is written in 

Deuteronomy, Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and shalt c 6, 13. 

swear by His name. Jerome. This was allowed under the 

Law, as to children ; as they offered sacrifice to God, that 

they might not do it to idols, so they were permitted to 

swear by God ; not that the thing was right, but that it were 

better done to God than to daemons. Pseudo-Chrys. For 

no man can swear often, but he must sometimes forswear 

himself; as he who has a custom of much speaking will 

sometimes speak foolishly. Aug. Inasmuch as the sin of Aug. 

perjury is a grievous sin, he must be further removed from p aU st. 

it who uses no oath, than he who is ready to swear on every xix - 23 - 

occasion, and the Lord would rather that we should not 

swear and keep close to the truth, than that swearing we 

should come near to perjury. Id. This precept also con- Aug. 

firms the righteousness of the Pharisees, not to forswear ; ^ont. i. 

inasmuch as he who swears not at all cannot forswear him- 17 - 

self. But as to call God to witness is to swear, does not the 

Apostle break this commandment when he says several times 

to the Galatiaus, The things which I write unto you, behold, Gal. 1,20. 

before God, I lie not. So the Romans, God is my witness, 

whom I serve in my spirit. Unless perhaps some one may 

say, it is no oath unless I use the form of swearing by some 

object; and that the Apostle did not swear in saying, God is 

my witness. It is ridiculous to make such a distinction ; yet 

the Apostle has used even this form, / die daily, by your 1 Cor. 15, 

boasting. That this does not mean, your boasting has caused 

my dying daily, but is an oath, is clear Iron the Greek, 

which is vi) iijv v/jL€T€pav KauyyGLV. Jo. Hut what we could All ^ r - (,c 

r i • Mciulac. 

not understand by mere words, from the conduct ot the saints 15. 
may gather in what m lould be understood what 

bt easily be drawn the contrary way, unless explained by 

1 mple. The Apostle ha- used oaths in his Epistles, and by 

I u> how that ought to be taken, / say unto yon, 

or ik, 1 ni nil, namely, lest by allowing ourselves to swear 

at. ;iil we come to readme^ in -wearing, from readiness W6 

oe to a babit of swearing, and from a habit of swearinj 

into perjury. And no the ApOStle in nut, found to I . 

i an oath but only in writing, tl, iter thought and 

caution which that requires not allowing of slip oi the tongue. 

\Ol. I. o 

194 008P1 L \< OORDING 10 ( B vr. v. 

Yet is the Lord 9 ! command so universal, Sircar not at all, 
that He would seem to have forbidden it even in writing. 
But since it would be an impiety to accuse Paul of having 
violated this precept, especially in his Epistle*, we qulsI un- 
derstand the word at all as implying that, as far as lie- in 
your power, you should not make a practice of swearing, not 
ami at it as a good thing in which you should take delight. 
Au 'A- Id. Therefore in liis writings, as writing allows of greater 

pauit circumspection, the Apostle is found to have Used an oath in 
xix. 23. several places, that none might suppose that there is any 
direct sin in swearing what is true ; but only that our weak 
hearts are better preserved from perjury by abstaining from 
all swearing whatever. JbbOMB. Lastly, consider that the 
Saviour does not here forbid to swear by Clod, but by the 
Heaven, the Earth, by Jerusalem, by a man's head. For 
this evil practice of swearing by the elements the Jews had 
always, and are thereof often accused in the prophetic 
writings. For he who swears, shews either reverence or 
love for that by which he swears. Thus when the .lews swore 
by the Angels, by the city of Jerusalem, by the temple and 
the elements, they paid to the creature the honour and wor- 
ship belonging to God ; for it is commanded in the Law 
Aug. that we should not swear but by the Lord our God. Al O. 

Mont " " l ® r ; It is added, By the Heaven, §c. because the Jews did 
i- 1 7. not consider themselves bound when they swore by such 
things. As if lie had said, When you swear by the Heaven 
and the Earth, think not that you do not owe your oath 

to the Lord your God, for you are proved to bare sworn 

by Him whose throne the heaven is, ami the earth His foot- 
>1 ; which is not meant as though Gfod had such limbs 
set upon the heaven and the earth, after the manner of 
a man who is Bitting; but that seat signifies (ion's judg- 
ment of US, And since in the whole extent of this univet>e 

it is the heaven thai has the highest beauty, God is said to 

upon the heavens RS shewing divine power to be more 
excellent than the must surpassing show of beauty; and He 
is said to stand upon the earth. M putting to lowest use 

a lesser beauty. Spiritually by the heavens are denoted holy 

ill, by the earth the sinful, seeing He tltat is spiritual 

•2. i"». judgeth all thiiK/s. But to the sinner it is said, Earth thou 

VER. 33 — 37. ST. MATTHEW. 195 

art, and unto earth thou shall return. And he who would 
abide under a law, is put under a law, and therefore He 
adds, it is the footstool of His feet. Neither by Jerusalem, 
for it is the city of the Great King ; this is better said than 
1 it is Mine ;' though it is understood to mean the same. 
And because He is also truly Lord, whoso swears by Jeru- 
salem, owes his oath to the Lord. Neither by thy head. 
What could any think more entirely his own property than 
his own head ? But how is it ours when we have not power 
to make one hair black or white ? Whoso then swears by 
his own head also owes his vows to the Lord ; and by this 
the rest may be understood. Chrys. Note how He exalts 
the elements of the world, not from their own nature, but 
from the respect which they have to God, so that there is 
opened no occasion of idolatry. Rajbanus. Having forbid- 
den swearing, He instructs us how we ought to speak, Let 
your speech be yea, yea ; nay, nay. That is, to affirm any- 
thing it is sufficient to say, ' It is so :' to deny, to say, * It 
is not so.' Or, yea, yea ; nay, nay, are therefore twice re- 
peated, that what you affirm with the mouth you should 
prove in deed, and what you deny in word, you should not 
establish by your conduct. Hilary. Otherwise ; They who 
live in the simplicity of the faith have not need to swear, 
with them ever, what is is, what is not is not; by this their 
life and their conversation are ever preserved in truth. Je- 
romi:. Therefore Evangelic verity does not admit an oath, 

* the whole discourse of the faithful is instead of an 
oath. Aug. And he who has learned that an oath is to be Aug. nbi 
reckoned not among things good, but among things neces- sl11 '* 
sary, will restrain himself as much as he may, not to use an 
oath without necessity, unless he sc i loth to believe; 

what it is for their good they should believe, without the; 

Urination of an oath. Tins then i> good and to be de- 
sired, that our conversation be only, yea, yea ; nay, nay; for 

U is mart than tins cometh of evil. That is, if you 
compelled to , yon know that it ii by the necessity 

of their weakness to whom you would persuade any thing; 
which weakm orely an evil. What is more than tins 

e\il; not that you do evil in this just UM of an oath 



to persuade another to something beneficial for him: but it 
it ;ni evil in him whose weakness thus obligi to n-e 

an oath. GhBYB. Or; of evil, that is, from their w cak i 

to whom the Law permitted the use of an oath. Not that 
by this the old Law is signified to be from the Devi), but 
lie leads us from the old imperfection to the new abund- 

38. Ye have heard that it hath been said. An eye 
for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth : 

39. But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil : 
hut whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, 
turn to him the other also. 

40. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and 
take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. 

41. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, 
go with him twain. 

42. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him 
that would borrow of thee turn not thou away. 

Gloss, non Gloss. The Lord having taught that we are not to offer 
injury to our neighbour, or irreverence to the Lord, now 
proceeds to shew how the Christian should demean himself 

Aug. cont. to those that injure him. Ave. This law, Kij, for <//<-, tooth 
a *2& f or t 00 ^*' **■ enacted to repress the Uames of mutual hate, 
and to be a check on their undisciplined spirits. For who 
when he would take 4 revenge, ^;h ever content to return just 

much harm as he had received? Do we nut tee men who 
have suffered some trifling hurt, straightway plot murder, 

thirst for blood, and hardly find ewil enough that they can 
do to their enemies for the satisfying their rage? To this 
immeasured and cme] fury the Law puts bounds when it 
enacts a tc r talinnis ; that is that whatever WTOUg or hurt 
any man has done to another, he should sutler jnM the same 

in return. This is not to encourage but to check rage; for 
it does not rekindle what was extinguished, but hinders the 

flames already kindled from further Spread. It enacts a just 


VER. 38 — 42. ST. MATTHEW. 197 

retaliation, properly due to him who has suffered the wrong. 
But that mercy forgives any debt, does not make it unjust 
that payment had been sought. Since then he sins who 
seeks an unmeasured vengeance, but he does not sin who 
desires only a just one ; he is therefore further from sin who 
seeks no retribution at all. I might state it yet thus; It 
was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not take unequal 
retaliation ; But I say unto you, Ye shall not retaliate ; this 
is a completion of the Law, if in these words something is 
added to the Law which was wanting to it ; yea, rather that 
which the Law sought to do, namely, to put an end to 
unequal revenge, is more safely secured when there is no 
revenge at all. Pseudo-Chrys. For without this command, 
the commands of the Law could not stand. For if accord- 
ing to the Law we begin all of us to render evir for evil, we 
shall all become evil, since they that do hurt abound. But 
if according to Christ we resist not evil, though they that 
are evil be not amended, yet they that are good remain good. 
Jerome. Thus our Lord by doing away all retaliation, cuts 
off the beginnings of sin. So the Law corrects faults, the 
Gospel removes their occasions. Gloss. Or it may be said Gloss, non 
that the Lord said this, adding somewhat to the righteous- occ " 
ness of the old Law. Aug. For the righteousness of the Aug. 
.Pharisees is a less righteousness, not to transgress the mea- j^ont' \ n 
sure of equal retribution ; and this is the beginning of peace ; 19. 
but perfect peace is to refuse all such retribution. Be- 
tween that fir^t manner then, which was not according to 
the Law, to wit, that a greater evil should be returned for 
a le>>, and this which the Lord enjoins to make His dis- 
ciples perfect, to wit, that no evil should be returned for evil, 
a middle place i> held by this, that an equal evil should be 
irned, which was thus the passage from extremest discord 
itremest peace. Whoso then first does evil to another 
departa farthest from righteousness ; and who does not first 

do any wrong, but when wronged repays with a heavier 

. hai departed somewhat from extreme injustice; he 
who n mly what he has received, gives up yet some- 

thing more, for it were bat itrid right that he who is the 
ihoold receive a greater hurl than he inflicted* 
ousnesi thai partly begun, He perfects, who is 


come to fulfil the Law. The two steps that intervene Tic 
Leaves to be understood; for there is who does not r 
much, but less; and there is yet above him, he who repays 
not at all ; yet this seems too little to the Lord, if you be not 
also ready to suffer wrong. Therefore He says not, Ren 
not evil for evil, but, Resist not against evil t not only repay 
not what is offered to yon. but do not resi-t that it should 
not be done to you. For thus accordingly lie explains 
that saying, If any man smite thee on thy right check, 
offer to him the /eft also. Which as being a high part 
of mercy, is known to those who serve such as they love 
much; from whom, being morose or insane, they endure 
many things, and if it be for their health they offer them- 
selves to endnre more. The Lord then, the Physician of 
souls, teaches His disciples to endure with patience the 
sicknesses of those for whose spiritual health they should 
provide. For all wickedness comes of a sickness of the 
mind; nothing is more innocent than he who is sound 

An jr. dc and of perfect health in virtue. Id. The things which 

Mendftc arc ( ] one D y f], c Saints in the New Testament profit ' 
examples of understanding those Scriptures which arc mo- 
delled into the form of precepts. Thus we read in Luke; 

Luke 6, Whoso smiteth thee on the one cheek, turn to htm the 
other atso. Now there is no example of patience more 
perfect than that of the Lord; yet He, when He was 

John 18, smitten, said not, ' Behold the other cheek/ but, If I 
hare spoken amiss, (/erase Me wherein it is amtSS; hut if 

well, why smitest thou Met hereby shewing us that that 
Aug. turning of the other cheek should be in the heart. In. 

.' ,'* Tor the Lord was ready not only to be smitten 00 the 

19 - other cheek for the salvation of men, but to be crucified 

with His whole body. It may be asked, What doe* the 

riu r ht check expressly Aj tin* face is that whereby 

any man is known, to he smitten on the face is accord- 
to the Apostle to be contemned and despised. But 

as we cannot say f right lace,' and 'left i. and yet we 

have a name twofold, one before God, and one before the 

world, it is distributed as it were into the right cheek, and 
left cheek, that whoever of Christ's disciples is d 

for that he is a Christian, may be ready to be yet more 

VER. 38 — 42. ST. MATTHEW. 199 

despised for any of this world's honours that he may 
have. All things wherein we suffer any wrong are divided 
into two kinds, of which one is what cannot be restored, 
the other what may be restored. In that kind which cannot 
be restored, we are wont to seek the solace of revenge. 
For what does it boot if when smitten you smite again, 
is the hurt done to your body thereby repaid to you? 
But the mind swollen with rage seeks such assuagements. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Or has your return blow at all restrained 
him from striking you again ? It has rather roused him 
to another blow. For anger is not checked by meeting 
anger, but is only more irritated. Aug. Whence the Lord Aug. 
judges that others' weakness should rather be borne with ^™ t " | n 
compassion, than that our own should be soothed by 20. 
others' pain. For that retribution which tends to cor- 
rection is not here forbidden, for such is indeed a part of 
mercy; nor does such intention hinder that he, who seeks 
to correct another, is not at the same time ready himself 
to take more at his hands. But it is required that he 
should inflict the punishment to whom the power is given 
by the course of things, and with such a mind as the fattier 
has to a child in correcting him whom it is impossible he 
should hate. And holy men have punished some sins with 
death, in order that a wholesome fear might be struck into 
the living, and so that not his death, but the likelihood of of hii sin had he lived, was the hurt of the criminal. 
Thus Eliaa punished many with death, and when the dis- 
ciples would take example from him they were rebuked by 
the Lord, who did not censure this example of the Pro- 
phet, but their ignorant use of it, seeing them to desire the 
punishment not for correction's sake, but from angry hate. 
I >nt after lie- had inculcated love of their neighbour, and 
had ^iven them the Holy Spirit, there wanted not in- 
itancei of inch vengeance; as Ananias and his wife who 
down dead at the words of Peter, and the Apostle Paul 

delivered tome to Satan for the destruction of the flesh* 

I uc, with a kind of blind opposition, rage against 

temporal pnnishmenti of the old Testament, not know- 

with what mind they were inflicted. Id. But who 

that i^ of lober mind wonld say to Lm;^, It ii nothing *K 

200 ■ io >kdiwo ro ch w. v. 

of your concern who will live religiously, or who profam 
It cannot even be said to them, that it is not their con- 
,i who will live chastely, or who anchastely. It is in- 
deed better that men slionld 1)0 led to serve (iod by right 

teaching than by penalties] yet has it benefited many, as 
experience has approved to OS, to he first eoereed by pain 
find fear, that they might he taught after, or to he made 

conform in deed to what they had learned in words. 

The better men indeed are led of love, but the more part 

of men are wrought on by fear. Let them learn in the 

b of the Apostle Paul, how Christ first constrained, and 

An?. after taught him. Id. Therefore in this kind of injuries 

Monti L w hich are wont to rouse vengeance Christians will observe 

20. such a mean, that hate shall not be caused by the injuries 

they may receive, and yet wholesome correction be not 

foregone by Ilim who has right of either counsel or 

power. Jeromx, Mystically interpreted; When we arc 

smitten on the right cheek, He said not. offer to him 

thy left, hut the other; for the righteous has not a left. 

That is, if a heretic has smitten OS in disputation, and 

would wound us in a right hand doctrine, let him be 

Aug. witli another testimony from Scripture. A\< . The ot 

Mip * kind of injuries arc those in which full restitution 
be made, of which there are two kinds : one re 
money, the other to work; of the fust of these it is He 
speaks when lie continues, WhoftO will me tfo thy 

coat, let him. have (hi/ cloak Hkctr'tse. As by the cheek 

are denoted such injuries of the wicked as sdmit of no 

it ut ion but revenge, so by this similitude of the gar- 
it^ iv denoted sueh injury as admits restitution. And 

tin- the 1 former, 1^ rightly taken of preparation ot' 

the heart, not of the show of the outward action. And 

what i> commanded respecting our garments, is to be 

observed in all things that by any right we call our own 

in worldly property. For it' the command be expressed in 

these necessary articles of life, how much more does it 
hold in the of siipeitluit e^ and luxuries'-' And 

when lie lavs, lie who will 8U6 (Inc. He clearly intends 

to include every thing for which it is possible that we 
should la* sued. It may be made a question whethei it 

VER. 38 4.2. ST. MATTHEW. 201 

is to be understood of slaves, for a Christian ought not to 
possess his slave on the same footing as his horse; though 
it might be that the horse was worth the more money. And 
if your slave have a milder master in you than he would 
have in him who seeks to take him from you, I do not know 
that he ought to be given up as lightly as your coat. 
Pseudo-Chrys. For it were an unworthy thing that a be- 
liever should stand in his cause before an unbelieving judge. 
Or if one who is a believer, though (as he must be) a 
worldly man, though he should have reverenced you for the 
worthiness of the faith, sues you because the cause is a 
necessary one, you will lose the worthiness of Christ for the 
business of the world. Further, every lawsuit irritates the 
heart and excites bad thoughts; for when you see dishonesty 
or bribery employed against you, you hasten to support your 
own cause by like means, though originally you might have 
intended nothing of the sort. Aug. The Lord here forbids Aug. 
His disciples to have lawsuits with others for worldly pro- 7 ^ c nr * 
perty. Yet as the Apostle allows such kind of causes to 
be decided between brethren, and before arbiters who are 
brethren, but utterly disallows them without the Church, it 
is manifest what is conceded to infirmity as pardonable. 

a. There are, who are so far to be endured, as they rob Greg. 
of our worldly goods: but there are whom we ought to _ °J{ ,o 
hinder, and that without breaking the law of charity, not 
only that ire may not be robbed of what is ours, but lest 
they by robbing others destroy themselves. We ought to 
much more for the men who rob us, than to be eager 
lave the inanimate things they take from us. When 
c with our neighbour is banished the heart on the mat- 
ter of worldly possessions, it is plain that our estate is more 
loved than our neighbour. 

A.UG. The third kind of wrongs, which is in the matter of An?, 
labour, consists of both BUCh as admit restitution, and such s ' ""• in 

—or with or without revenge — for he who forcibly L •!'• 

nice, and makes him give him aid Bgainsl 

1 d cither be punished for his crime, or return the 

labour. In this kind of wrongs then, the Lord teaches that 
the Christian mind Is most patient, and prepared to end u 

I ; I ( a man t onsl ruin llu c In </<> With 


him a mile, go with him yet other tiro. This likewise is 

i) icant not so much of actual service with your feet, as of 

Chrys. re adiness of mind. CHBTS. The word here used signifh 

xvHi!" drag unjustly, without cause, and with insult. Arc Let us 

Aug. ubi suppose it therefore said, do with him other (WO, that the 

Dumber three might be completed; by which number per- 
fection is signified; that whoever does this might remember 
that he is fulfilling perfect righteousness. For which reason 
He conveys thifl precept under three examples, and in this 
third example, lie adds a twofold measure to the one single 
measure, that the threefold number may be complete. Or 
we may so consider as though in enforcing this duty, lie 
had begun with what was easiest to bear, and had advanced 
gradually. For first lie commanded that when the right 
cheek was smitten we should turn the other also ; therein 
shewing ourselves ready to endure another wrong less than 
that you have already received. Secondly, to him that would 
take your coat, lie bids you part with your cloak, {or garment, 
as some copies read,) which is either jui t a loss, or 

perhaps a little greater. In the third He doubles the ad- 
ditional wrong which He would have us ready to endure. 
And seeing it is a small thing not to hurt unless yon further 
shew kindnesses, lie adds, To him that asketk of thee, (/ire. 
PseuDO-ChbySi Because wealth is not ours but God's; 
God would have us stewards of His wealth, and not Lords. 
JEROME. If we understand this only of alms, it cannot stand 
with the estate of the most part of men who arc poor; c 
the rich if they have been always giving, will not be able to 
Aug. ubi continue always to give. Ave Therefore, He says not, 
6U V" 'Give all things to him that ask> ;' but, dire to < nry one 

that askeih; that you should only give w hat you can give 

honestly and rightly. For what if one ask for money to em- 
ploy in oppressing the innocent man r \\ hat if he ask your 

Consent to unclean sin? We must give then only what will 

hurt neither ourselves 01 others, as far as man can judge; 

and when you have refused an inadmissible request, that you 
may not scud awa\ empty him that asked, shew t he righteous- 
ness of your refusal ; and such (.Direction of the unlawful pe- titioner will often lie a better gift than the granting his suit. 

In. For with more benefit is food taken from the hungry, if 

VER. 38 — 42. ST. MATTHEW. 203 

certainty of provision causes him to neglect righteousness, 
than that food should be supplied to him that he may con- 
sent to a deed of violence and wrong. Jerome. But it may 
be understood of the wealth of doctrine : wealth which never 
fails but the more of it is given away, the more it abounds. 
Aug. That He commands, And from him that would borrow Aug. 
of thee, turn not away, must be referred to the mind ; for ^™" ? n 
God loveth a cheerful giver. And every one that receives, 20. 
indeed borrows, though it is not he that shall pay, but God, * ^ on l 
who restores to the merciful many fold. Or, if you like 
to understand by borrowing, only taking with promise to 
repay, we must understand the Lord's command as em- 
bracing both these kinds of affording aid ; whether we give 
outright, or lend to receive again. And of this last kind of 
shewing mercy it is well said, Turn not away, that is, do not 
be therefore backward to lend, as though, because man shall 
repay you, therefore God shall not; for what you do by 
God's command cannot be without fruit. Pseudo-Chrys. 
Christ bids us lend but not on usury; for he who gives on 
such terms does not bestow his own, but takes of another; 
he looses from one chain to bind with many, and gives not 
for God's righteousness sake, but for his own gain. For 
money taken on usury is like the bite of an asp; as the asp's 

on secretly consumes the limbs, so usury turns all our 
possession! into debt. Aug. Some object that this command Aug. 
of Christ is altogether inconsistent with civil life in Common- iiE'o 
wealths; Who, say they, would Buffer, when he could hinder 
it, the pillage of his estate by an enemy; or would not re- 
pay the evil suffered by a plundered province of Rome on 
the plunderers according to the rights of war? lint these 

septs of patience are to be observed in readiness of the 
heart, and that mercy, not to return evil for evil, must be 
always fulfilled by the will. Vet must we often use a merci- 
ful sharpness in dealing with the headstrong. And in this 
way, if the earthly commonwealth will keep the Christian 
commandments, eren war will not be waged without good 
charities, to the establishing among the vanquished peaceful 
harmony of godliness and righteousness. For that nctorj 
beneficial to him from whom it snatches licence to sin; 
since nothing is more unfortunate for sinners, than the good 

201< G08PBL \< I ORDING 10 I B LP. v. 

fortune of their sins, which nourishes an impunity that 
brings punishment after it, and an evil will is strengthened, 
it were some internal enemy. 

43. Ye have heard that it hath hecn said, Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. 

I I. But I Bay unto you, Love your enemies, 
hlrss them that curse you, do good to them that 
hate you, and pray for them which despitclully use 
you and persecute you ; 

45. That ye may be the children of your Father 
which is in heaven: for He makcth His sun to 
rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain 
on the just and on the unjust. 

46. For if ye love them which love you, what 
reward have ye? do not even the Publicans the 
same ? 

47. And if ye salute your brethren only, what 
do ye more than others? do not even the Pub- 
licans so ? 

48. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father 
which is in heaven is perfect. 

Gloss. Gross. The Lord Las taught above that we must not 

non occ. ]( . Msf ()MC u ] 1() () j]\. rs :inv injury, but must be ready I 

to suffer more; He uow further requires as to shew to 
them that do us wrong both love and its effects. And 
as the things that have gone before pertain to the com- 
pletion of the righteousness of the Law, in like manner 
this last precept is to be referred to the completion of the 
law of love, which, according to the Apostle, is the fulfilling 
dc of the Law. Am.. That by the command. Thou $hali 
love tlni neighbour, all mankind were intended, the I 

( hrist. 

shewed in the parable of the man who was left half dead, 
which teaches us that our neighbour is every one who 

may happen at any time to .stand in need of our ofl 

of mere} ; and tins who dors not see must be denied to 

VER. 43 48. ST. MATTHEW. 205 

none, when the Lord says, Do good to them that hate 
you. Id. That there were degrees in the righteousness Aug. 
of the Pharisees which was under the old Law is seen j£™|' j n 
herein, that many hated even those by whom they were 21. 
loved. He therefore who loves his neighbour, has ascended 
one degree, though as yet he hate his enemy; which is 
expressed in that, and shalt hate thy enemy; which is 
not to be understood as a command to the justified, but 
a concession to the weak. Id. I ask the Manichseans why Aug. 
they would have this peculiar to the Mosaic Law, that C p"*' st 
was said by them of old time, thou shalt hate thy enemy ? *ix. 24. 
Has not Paul said of certain men that they were hateful to 
God ? We must enquire then how we may understand 
that, after the example of God, to whom the Apostle here 
affirms some men to be hateful, our enemies are to be hated ; 
and again after the same pattern of Him who maketh His 
sun to rise on the evil and the good, our enemies are to be 
loved. Here then is the rule by which we may at once hate 
our enemy for the evil's sake that is in him, that is, his 
iniquity, and love him for the good's sake that is in him, 
that is, his rational part. This then, thus uttered by them 
of old, being heard, but not understood, hurried men on 
to the hatred of man, when they should have hated nothing 
but vice. Such the Lord corrects as He proceeds, saying, 
i" say auto you, Love your enemies. He who had just 
declared that He came not to subvert the Law, but to 
fulfil it, by bidding us love our enemies, brought us to 
the understanding of how we may at once hate the same 
man for his sins whom we love for his human nature. 
QL068. But it should be known, that in the whole body of Gloss, 
the Law it is no where written, Thou shalt hate thy enemy. 01 

I be referred to the tradition of the Scribes, who 
thought good to add this to the Law, because the Lord 

bade the children of Israel pursue their enemies, and 
roy Amalek from under heaven. PsEUDO-ChBYS. As 

that, Thou shalt not lust, was not spoken to the flesh, 
but to the spirit, so in tins the flesh indeed is net able 
to love it> enemy, but the spirit is able; for the love 
and hate of the flesh ll in the sense, but of the spirit is 
in the understanding. If then we feel hate to one who 


has wronged us, and yet will not to act upon that feeling, 
know that our flesh hates our enemy, but our soul lo 
Greg. him. i o. Lovr to an enemy is then observed when 

xxii. li. W(> are ll °t sorrowful at his success, or rejoice in Ins lull. 
We hate him whom we wish not to be bettered, and 
pursue with ill-wishes the prosperity of the man in wb 

fall we rejoice. Yet it may often happen that without 
any sacrifice of charity, the fall of an enemy may gladden 
us, and again his exaltation make us so r ro wfu l without 
any suspicion of envy; when, namely, by his fall any 
deserving man is raised up, or by bis success any un- 
deservedly depressed. But herein a strict measure of 
discernment must be observed, lest in following out our 
own hates, we hide it from ourselves under the specious 
pretence of others' benefit. We should balance how much 
we owe to the fall of the sinner, how much to tbe justice 
of the Judge. For when the Almighty has struck any 
hardened sinner, we must at once magnify His justice as 
Judge, and feel with the other's Buffering who perishes. 
Gloss.ord. Gi.oss. They who stand against the Church oppose her 
in three ways; with hate, with words, and with bodily 
tortures. The Church on the other hand loves them, as 
it is here, Love your enemies; does good to them, as it 
is, Do good to them that hate you ; and prays for them, 
as it is, Pray for them that perm CUtt you and accuse you 
falsely. JEROME. Many measuring the commandments of 
God by their own weakness, not by the strength of the 
saints, hold these commands for impossible, and say that 
it is virtue enough not to hate our enemies; but to love 
them is ;i command beyond human nature to obey. But 

it must be understood that Chi ist enjoins not impossibilities 
but perfection. Such was the temper of David towards 

Saul and Absalom ; the Martyr Stephen also prayed 
Rom. 9, :j. his enemies while they stoned him, and Paul wished him- 
self anathema for the sake of his persecutors. Jesni both 
Luke 23, taught and did the 4 same, saying, 1'a/her, fun/ ire tic 

"' far they know not what they do, Ai< 

hir. are examples of the perfeci sous of Q-odj > this 

should every believer aim, ami seek by prayer to God, and 

struggles with himself to raise his human spirit to this 

VER. 43 48. ST. MATTHEW. 207 

temper. Yet this so great blessing is not given to all 
those multitudes which we believe are heard when they 
pray, Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. 
Id. Here arises a question, that this commandment of Aug. 
the Lord, by which He bids us pray for our enemies,-^"' 1 " 
seems opposed by many other parts of Scripture. In 21. 
the Prophets are found many imprecations upon enemies ; 
such as that in the 108th Psalm, Let his children be Ps. 109, 9 
orphans. But it should be known, that the Prophets are 
wont to foretel things to come in the form of a prayer or 
wish. This has more weight as a difficulty that John says, 
There is a sin unto death, I say not that he shall pray l John 
for it ; plainly shewing, that there are some brethren for * * 
whom he does not bid us pray ; for what went before was, 
If any know his brother sin a sin, fyc. Yet the Lord bids 
us pray for our persecutors. This question can only be 
resolved, if we admit that there are some sins in brethren 
more grievous than the sin of persecution in our enemies. 
For thus Stephen prays for those that stoned him, because 
they had not yet believed on Christ ; but the Apostle Paul 2 Tim. 
does not pray for Alexander though he was a brother, but ' 
had sinned by attacking the brotherhood through jealousy. 
But for whom you pray not, you do not therein pray 
against him. What must we say then of those against 
whom we know that the saints have prayed, and that not 
that they should be corrected, (for that would be rather 
to have prayed for them,) but for their eternal damnation ; 
not as that prayer of the Prophet against the Lord's 
betrayer, for that is a prophecy of the future, not an im- 
precation of punishment ; but as when we read in the 
Apocalypse the Martyrs' prayer that they may be avenged. Rev.c, io 
Hut wc ought not to let this affect us. For who may 
dare to affirm that they prayed against those persona them- 
selves, and not against the kingdom of sin? For that would 
be both a just and a mereiful avenging of the Mail;. 

to overthrow that kingdom of sin, under the continuance 

of which they endured all those e\ils. And it is overthrown 
by I ion of tome, and damnation of such M abide m 

sin. DOCS not Paul seem to you to haw: avenged Stephen 

on his own body, M he spcah «, / chastise iii if huihj, a^fjTu^j I e 

8 y^ 


GOSP] I \< ' OKDIXG 1" 


(hi i 
N. i 

1 ratione 


Serai, in 

i. 23. 

. 1. 2 


ubi Ml}). 

if into subjection. Pseudo-Aug. And the souls of them 

that arc slain cry out to be avenged; as the blood of Abel 

i out of the ground not with a voice, but in spiri 
An the work is said to laud the workman, when he delights 
himself in the view thereof; for the saints are not 
impatient as to urge on what they know will come to 
pass at the appointed time. ChBTS. Note through what 

- we have now ascended hither, and how He has 
us on the wry pinnacle of virtue. The first step is, not 
to begin to do wrong to any; the second, that in avenging 
a wrong dom; to us we be content trith retaliating equal; 
the third, to return nothing of what we have suffered ; 
the fourth, to offer one's self to the endurance of evil \ the 
fifth, to be ready to suffer even more evil than the Oppre* 
desires to inflict \ the sixth, not to hate him of whom we 
sulfcr such things; the seventh, to love him ; the eighth, to 
do him good; the ninth, to pray fur him. And because 
the command is great, the reward proposed is also great, 
namely, to be made like unto (Jod, Ye shull be the sons of 
your Father which is in heaven. 

Jerome. For whoso keeps the commandments of God is 

thereby made the son of Clod; he then of whom He 1 
speaks is not by nature His son, but by his own will. An.. 
Alter that rule wc must here understand of which John 
speaks, He //are them pOW€T to be made the so, 
One is His Son by nature; we arc made sons by the power 
which we have received; that is, so far as we fulfil those 

things that we are commanded. So Hi" Bays not. Ho ti 

things because ye are sons; but. do these things thai 

may become sous. In calling us to this then, He calls u 

Ihs Likeness, for lie saithj He His mm to rise on 

the righteous and the unrigl By the sun we may 

Understand not this visible, but that of which it is said, 
, To you that fear the name of the Lord, the Sun of rit/htt 

I shall arise ; and by the rain, the water of ti. line 

of truth; for Christ was seen, and was preaeiieil to good as 
Well as bad. II u \; tun and rain ha\e reference 

the baptism with water and Spirit Aug. Or we may 
take il o\' this visible sun, and of the rain by which the fruits 

ait nourished, SJ the wicked mourn in the book of Wisdom, 

VER. 43 — 48. ST. MATTHEW. 209 

The Sun has not risen for us. And of the rain it is said, Wisd.5,6. 
I will command the clouds that they rain not on it. But Is. 5, 6. 
whether it be this or that, it is of the great goodness of God, 
which is set forth for our imitation. He says not, 'the sun/ 
but His sun, that is, the sun which Himself has made, that 
hence we may be admonished with how great liberality we 
ought to supply those things that we have not created, but 
have received as a boon from Him. Id. But as we laud Him Aug. 
for His gifts, let us also consider how He chastises those 9 3 pi 2.' 
whom He loves. For not every one who spares is a friend, 
nor every one who chastises an enemy ; it is better to Vid. Prov. 

07 C 

love with severity, than to use lenity where with to deceive. ' 

udo-Chrys. lie was careful to say, On the righteous and 
the unrighteous, and not ' on the unrighteous as on the 
righteous;' for God gives all good gifts not for men's sake, 
but for the saints' sake, as likewise chastisements for the 
sake of sinners. In bestowing His good gifts, He does not 
separate the sinners from the righteous, that they should 
not despair; so in His inflictions, not the righteous from 
sinners that they should be made proud ; and that the 
more, since the wicked are not profited by the good things 
they receive, but turn them to their hurt by their evil lives ; 
nor are the good hurt by the evil things, but rather profit to 
increase of righteousness. Aug. For the good man is not Aug. de 
puffed up by worldly goods, nor broken by worldly calamity, j 'g' ei * 
But the bad man is punished in temporal losses, because he 
HTupted by temporal gains. Or for another reason He 
would have good and evil common to both sorts of men, that 
good things might not be sought with vehement desire, when 
they were enjoyed even by the wicked; nor the evil things 
shamefully avoided, when even the righteous are afflicted by 
them. GLOSS. To love one that loves us is of nature, but to Gloss. 
love our enemy of charity. //' ye love them, who /ore you s """ OC0, 
wluti reward have ij< , '. > to wit, in heaven. None truly, for of 
such i* I, Ye have received your reward. But tin 

thing! we ought to do, and not leave the other undone. 

Raban. If then linneri 1m- led by nature to show kindness 
t<> thot< that love them, with how much greater show of 
affection oughl you not to embrace even those that do not. 
love your I 1 it follows, Do not even the publicans eat 


The publicans are those who collect the public imposts ; or 
perhaps those who pursue the public business or the ^ain of 
this world. Gloss, But if you only pray for them that are 

your kinsfolk, what more has your benevolence than that of 
the unbelieving? Salutation is a kind of prayer. &ABAN. 
Ethnici, that is, the Gentiles, for the Greek word tOvos is 
translated ' gens' in Latin; those, that is, who abide such 
as tiny were born, to wit, under sin. RbmIO. Because the 
utmost perfection of love cannot go beyond the love of 
enemies, therefore as soon as the Lord has bid us love our 
enemies, lie proceeds, Be ye then perfect, as your Father 
which is in heaven is perfect. He indeed is perfect, as 
being omnipotent ; man, as being aided by the Omnipotent. 
For the word ' as ' is used in Scripture, sometimes for 
Josli. 1,5. identity and equality, as in that, As I was with Motes, to 
will I lie with thee ; sometimes to express likeness only, 
as here. Ps#ODO-Chrys. For as our sons after the flesh 
resemble their fathers in some part of their bodily shape, 
so do spiritual sons resemble their father God, in holiness. 


1. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, 
to be seen of them : otherwise ve have no reward of 
your Father which is in Heaven. 

Gloss. Christ having now fulfilled the Law in respect of Gloss, 
commandments, begins to fulfil it in respect of promises, 
that we may do God's commandments for heavenly wages, 
not for the earthly which the Law held out. All earthly 
things are reduced to two main heads, viz. human glory, 
and abundance of earthly goods, both of which seem to be 
promised in the Law. Concerning the first is that spoken 
in Deuteronomy, The Lord shall make thee higher than all c. 28, 1. 
the nations v;ho dwell on the face of the earth. And in the 
same place it is added of earthly wealth, The Lord shall 
male thee abound in all good things. Therefore the Lord 
now forbidfl these two tilings, glory and wealth, to the atten- 
tion of believers. Chi; vs. Yet be it known that the desire of Chrys, 
funic is near akin to virtue. Psettdo-Chrys. For when any ^ 
thing truly glorious is done, there ostentation has its readiest 
-ion; so the Lord first shuts out all intention of seeking 
glorj He knows that this is of all fleshly vices the most 

dangerous to man. The servants of the Devil are tormented 
by all kinds of vices; but it is the desire of%mpty glory that 
torments the servants of the Lord more than she servants of 
the Devil. Aug. How great strength the love of human An 

ie feels, but he who baa proclaimed war against j ',,',' ^'i. 
it. For though it, is easy for any not to wish for praise ,r "'- ;;|s - 
when it is denied him, it, is difficult Dot to be pleased 
with it. when it is offered. Chkts. Observe how lie has 
begun a.^ it were d< cribins ome heat hard to be dis- 

n"" '-' ' " w.v. ,... 

i 2 


cerned, and ready to steal upon him who is not greatly 
OD his guard against it ; it enters iii secretly, and carries off 
insensibly all those things that are within. Psbudo-Chbys. 
And therefore he enjoins this to be more carefully avoided. 
Take hied that ye do not your righteousness before men. It 
is our heart we must watch, for it is an invisible serpent that 

WC have to guard against, which secretly enters iii and 
seduces; but if the heart be pure into which the enemy lias 
succeeded in entering in, the righteous man soon feels that 
he is prompted by a strange spirit ; but if his heart were full 
of wickednesses, lie does not readily perceive the suggestion 
of the Devil, and therefore He first taught us, Be not angry, 
Lust not, for that he who is under the yoke of these evils 
cannot attend to his own heart. But how can it be that we 
should not do our alms before men? Or if this may be, how- 
can they be so done that we should not know of it ? For if 
a poor man come before us in the presence of any one, how- 
shall we be able to give him alms in secret? If we lead him 
a^ide, it must be seen that we shall give him. Observe 
then that He said not simply, Do not before nun, but 
added, to be seen oftlivm. He then who doe* righteousness 
not from this motive, even if he does it before the ey« 
men, is not to be thought to be herein condemned ; for he 
who docs any thing for God's sake, sees nothing in his heart 
but God, for whose sake he does it; as a workman has 
always before his eyes him who has entrusted him with the 
0reg, work to do. GftEG. If then we seek the fame of giving, we 
■ or ' V1 "' make even our public deeds to be hidden in His sight ; for if 
herein we seek our own glory, then they are already ea^t out 
of His sight, even though there be many by whom they are 
unknown. It belongs only to the thoroughly perfect, to 

suiler their deeds to be seen, and to receive the praise of doing 
them in such sott that they are lifted up with do secret ex- 
ultation; whereas they that are weak, because they cannot 
attain to this I contempt of their own fame, must needs 

Aug. hide those good deeds thai they do. Ai <;. In saying only, 

'.'.", That ye be seen of men. without any addition, He seems to 

Mont. 11.I. • 

have forbidden that we should make that the end of our 

Gal. 1,10. action-. I' r tj e Apostle who declared, If I yet pleased nun, 

I ihould not be the servant of Christ ; says in another place, 

VER. 2 — 4. ST. MATTHEW. 213 

I please all men in all things. This he did not that he might l Cor. 10, 

please men, but God, to the love of whom he desires to turn 

the hearts of men by pleasing them. As we should not think 

that he spoke absurdly, who should say, In this my pains 

in seeking a ship, it is not the ship I seek, but my country. 

Id. He says this, that ye be seen of men, because there are Aug. 

some who so do their righteousness before men that them- g "™" 

selves may not be seen, but that the works themselves may 

be seen, and their Father who is in heaven may be glorified ; 

for they reckon not their own righteousness, but His, in the 

faith of whom they live. Id. That He adds, Otherwise ye shall Aug. 

not have your reward before your Father who is in heaven, Montii.l. 

signifies no more than that we ought to take heed that we 

seek not praise of men in reward of our works. Pseudo- 

Chrys. \Vhat shall you receive from God, who have given 

God nothing? What is done for God's sake is given to God, 

and received by Him ; but what is done because of men is 

cast to the winds. But what wisdom is it, to bestow our 

goods, to reap empty words, and to have despised the reward 

of God ? Nay you deceive the very man for whose good 

word you look; for he thinks you do it for God's sake, 

otherwise he would rather reproach than commend you. 

Yet must we think him only to have done his work because 

of men, who does it with his whole will and intention 

governed by the thought of them. But if an idle thought, 

seeking to be seen of men, mount up in any one's heart, but 

is resisted by the understanding spirit, lie is not thereupon 

to be condemned of man-pleasing; for that the thought 

Came to him was the passion of the flesh, what he chose was 

the judgment of his soul. 

2. Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not 
sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do 
in the synagogues and in the Btreets, that they may 
have glory of men. Verily I say unto yon, They 

have their reward. 

3. But when thou <loe>t alms, let not thy lefl 
hand know what thy right hand doeth ! 


1. That thine alms may be in secret: and thy 

Father which Beeth in secret Himself Bhall reward 
thee openly. 

Anpr. Arc Above the Lord had spoken of righteousness in 

Mont.ii.2. general. He now puisnes it through its different parts. 

i ado- PsBl DO-ChKYS, He opposes tliree chief virtues, alms, pray< r. xv a,1< ^ fasting, to three evil things against which the Lord 

undertook the war of temptation. For He fought for us in 

the wilderness against glutton}' ; against covet* - on the 

mount ; against false glory on the temple. It is alms that 

BCatter abroad against covetousness which heaps up; fasting 

against gluttony which is its contrary; prayer against false 

glorjr, seeing that all other evil things come out of evil, this 

alone comes out of good ; and therefore it is not overthrown 

but rather nourished of good, and has no remedy that may 

Amino- avail against it but prayer only. Ajibbosiastbb. The sum 

Corn'm in °* a ^ Christian discipline is comprehended in mercy and 

Tim. 4, 8. piety, for which reason He begins with almsgiving. PsBl I - 

Chrys. The trumpet stands for every act or word that 

tends to a display of our works; for instance, to do alms 

if wc know that some other person is looking on, or at the 

request of another, or to a person of such condition that 

he may make us return ; and unless in such cases not to 

do them. Yea, even if in some secret place they are done 

with intent to be thought praiseworthy, then is the trumpet 

Aug. ubi Bounded. Aug. Thus what lie says, Do not wound a trust* 

** pet before thee, refers to what He had said above, / 

heed that ye do not your righteoutnea befin Ji bomb. 

He who sounds a trumpet before him when he does alms 
l- B hypocrite. Whence He adds, us the h>//)UC/'ites do. 

Isi.l. NiD. The name ' hypocrite ' is derived from the appearance 

l ' lv ' n * x- of those who in the shows arc disguised in masks, variously 

ex A 

Serin. coloured according to the character they represent, some- 
times male, sometimes female, to impose on the spectators 

Aug. ubi while they act in the games. Ai>.. As then the hypociv 
M1,) ' (a word meaning * one Who feigns/) as personating t he cha- 

racter- of other in. ii. act parts which arc not naturally their 
own — for he who personal ncmnon, is not really Aga- 

VER. 2 — 4. ST. MATTHEW. 215 

memnon, but feigns to be so — so likewise in the Churches, 
whosoever in his whole conduct desires to seem what he is 
not, is a hypocrite ; he feigns himself righteous and is not 
really so, seeing his only motive is praise of men. Gloss. Gloss. 
In the words, in the streets and villages, He marks the public non 0CI 
places which they selected; and in those, that they may 
receive honour of men, He marks their motive. Greg. It Greg. 
should be known, that there are some who wear the dress ?y r ' xxx1, 
of sanctity, and are not able to work out the merit of per- 
fection, yet who must in no wise be numbered among the 
hypocrites, because it is one thing to sin from weakness, 
another from crafty affectation. Aug. And such sinners Aug. 
receive from God the Searcher of hearts none other reward zt Tva ' . m 

Mont. H.2. 

than punishment of their deceitfulness ; Verily I say unto 
you, They have their reward. Jerome. A reward not of God, 
but of themselves, for they receive praise of men, for the 
sake of which it was that they practised their virtues. Aug. Aug. ubi 
This refers to what He had said above, Otherivise ye shall SU P* 
have no reward of your Father which is in heaven; and He 
goes on to shew them that they should not do their alms as 
the hypocrites, but teaches them how they should do them. 
Chrys. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand 
doethf is said as an extreme expression, as much as to say, 
If it were possible, that you should not know yourself, and 
that your very hands should be hid from your sight, that is 
what y<m should most strive after. Pseudo-Chrys. The Apo- 
! in the book of the Constitutions, interpret thus ; The 
right hand is the Christian people which is at Christ's right 
hand ; the left hand is all the people who are on His left 
hand, lie means, then, that when a Christian docs alms, 
tin- unbeliever ihonld not sec it. Aug. But according to Aug. ubi 

this interpretation, it will be no fault to have a respect to ,up * 

pleasing the faithful; and yet we are forbidden to propose 

be end of any good work the pleasing of any kind of nun. 

if you would have men to imitate your actions which 

may he pleasing to them, they must he done before unhc- 

lievi .veil as beliei If again, according to another 

interpretation, we talc the 1<I*l hand to mean our enemy, ami 

that oar enemy should not know when we do our alms, why 

210 TO CHAP. VI. 

did the Lord Himself mercifully heal men when the Jews 

were Btanding round Him? And how too must we deal with 

ProT. 25, our enemy himself according to that precept, If thy enemy 

hunger, feed him? A third interpretation is ridiculous; that 
the left hand signifies the wife, and that because women 

are wont to be more close in the matter of expense out of the 
family purse, therefore the charities of the husband should 
he from tin; wife, for the avoiding of dom< "rife. 

Bui this command is addressed to women as well as to men, 
what then is the left hand from which women are hid to 
conceal their alms? Is the husband also the left hand of the 
wife? And when it is commanded such that they enrich 
each other with good works, it is clear that they ought not 
to hide their good deeds; nor is a theft to be committed to 
do God service. But if in any case something must needs 
he done covertly, from respect to the weakness of the other, 
though it is not unlawful, yet that we cannot suppose the 
wife to be intended by the left hand here is clear from the 
purport of the whole paragraph; no, not even such an one 
a- lie might well call left. But that which is blamed in hy- 
pocrites, namely, that they seek praise of men, this you are 
forbid to do; the left hand therefore seems to signify the 
delight in men's praise; the right hand denotes the purpose 
of fulfilling the divine commands. Whenever then a d< 
to gain honour from men mingles itself with the conscience 
of him thai docs alms, it is then the left hand knowing what 
the right hand, the right conscience, does. Let not the left 
hand know, therefore. what the right hand doeth, mean-. 

not the desire of men's praise mingle with your conscience. 

Bui Our Lord does yet more Strongly forbid the left hand 
alone to work in us, than its mingling in the works of the; 
right hand. The intent with which He said all this is 
in that He adds, Hint your almt nun/ he /</ I that i>. in 

that your good conscience only, which human eye cannot 

. nor words disc >ver, though many thing said falsely 

of many. Bui your good conscience itself is enough for you 

towards deserving your reward, if you look for your reward 

from Him who alone ('an see your conscience. This is that 

Hi- adds, And your Father which eeeth in secret ehall 

VER. 5, 6. ST. MATTHEW. 217 

ward you. Many Latin copies have, openly a . Pseudo-Chrys. 
For it is impossible that God should leave in obscurity any 
good work of man; but He makes it manifest in this world, 
and glorifies it in the next world, because it is the glory of 
God ; as likewise the Devil manifests evil, in which is shewn 
the strength of his great wickedness. But God properly 
makes public every good deed only in that world the goods 
of which are not common to the righteous and the wicked ; 
therefore to whomsoever God shall there shew favour, it will 
be manifest that it was as reward of his righteousness. But 
the reward of virtue is not manifested in this world, in which 
both bad and good are alike in their fortunes. Aug. But in 
the Greek copies, which are earlier, we have not the word 
openly. Chrys. If therefore you desire spectators of your 
good deeds, behold you have not merely Angels and Arch- 
angels, but the God of the universe. 

5. And when thou pray est, thou shalt not be as 
the hypocrites are ; for they love to pray standing in 
the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that 
they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, 
They have their reward. 

G. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy 
closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy 
Father which is in secret ; and thy Father which seeth 
in secret shall reward thee openly. 

Pseudo-Chrys. Solomon says, Before prayer, prepare thy Pseudo- 
BOul. This he docs who comes to prayer doing alms; for non ry ^' c> 
good works stir up the faith of the heart, and give the soul Ecclut. 
Confidence in prayer to God. Alms then are a preparation for 
prayer, and therefore the Lord after speaking of alms proceeds 
accordingly to instruct us concerning prayer. Aug. lie docs Aug. 
not now hid OS pray, hut Instmcta us how we should pray; MonUi.8. 

as above II« did Dot command us to do alms, hut, shewed 
the manner of doing them. P&eudo-Chbys. Prayer is as it 

» q I it Il'im.iii. ■>■ ddi thai tha 

1 1 USS. omit, but .ill the pn 

a, II omits it 
W. t- iii v. 18. 


were a spiritual tribute which the soul offers of its own 
bowels. Wherefore the more glorious it is, the more watch- 
fully ought we to guard that it is not made vile by being 
done to be seen of men. Chrys. He calls them hypocrites, 
because feigning that they are praying to God, they are 
looking round to men; and, He adds, they love to pray in 
the synagogues, Psbudo-Chryb. 13ut I suppose that it is 
not the place that the Lord here refers to, but the motive 
of him that prays; for it is praiseworthy to pray in the con- 
Ps.68,26. gregation of the faithful, as it is said, /// your Churches bl 

ye God. Whoever then so prays as to be seen of men docs 

not look to God but to man, and so far as his purpose is 

concerned he prays in the synagogue. But he, whose mind 

in prayer is wholly fixed on God, though he pray in the 

synagogue, yet seems to pray with himself in secret. In the 

corners of the streets, namely, that they may seem to be 

praying retiredly; and thus earn a twofold praise, both that 

Gloss. ord. they pray, and that they pray in retirement. GLOSS. Or, the 

corners of the streets, are the places where one way en 

another, and makes four CTOSS-ways. Psbudo-Chrts. He 

forbids us to pray in an assembly with the intent of being 

seen of that assembly, as He adds, that they may be 

of men. He that prays therefore should do nothing lingular 

that might attract notice; as crying out, striking his bi\ 

An-, ubi or reaching forth his hands. Aug. Not that the mere bring 

sup * seen of men is an impiety, but the doing this in order to be 

seen of men. CHRYS. It is a good thing to be drawn away 

from the thought of empty glory, but especially in prayer. 

For our thoughts arc 1 apt to stray of themseh es ; if then we 

address ourselves to prayer with this disease upon US, how 

Aug. ubi shall we understand those things that are said by us P A' 

,up " The privity of Other men is to be so far shunned by US, as it 

leads US to do any tiling with this mind that we look for the 

fruit of their applause. Pseudo-Chrtb. Verity I say ////to 

you, They hare received their ft/run!, for every man where he 

sows there he reaps, therefore they who pray because of 
men, not because >d, receive praise of men, not of God. 

CHRYS. He say-, h vived, because dod was ready to 

give* them that reward which comes from Himself, but they 
prefer rather that which comes from men. He then goes on 

VER. 5, 6. ST. MATTHEW. 219 

to teach how we should pray. Jerome. This if taken in its 
plain sense teaches the hearer to shun all desire of vain 
honour in praying. Psetjdo-Chrys. That none should be 
there present save he only who is praying, for a witness im- 
pedes rather than forwards prayer. Cyprian. The Lord has Cypr. Tr. 
bid us in His instructions to pray secretly in remote and vn " * 
withdrawn places, as best suited to faith ; that we may be 
assured that God who is present every where hears and sees 
all, and in the fulness of His Majesty penetrates even hidden 
places. Pseudo-Chrys. We may also understand by the door 
of the chamber, the mouth of the body; so that we should 
not pray to God with loudness of tone, but with silent heart, 
for three reasons. First, because God is not to be gained 
by vehement crying, but by a right conscience, seeing He 
is a hearer of the heart ; secondly, because none but thyself 
and God should be privy to your secret prayers ; thirdly, 
because if you pray aloud, you hinder any other from praying 
near you. Cass i an. Also we should observe close silence Cassian, 
in our prayers, that our enemies, who are ever most watch- ix ° 3 ^' 
ful to ensnare us at that time, may not know the purport 
of our petition. Aug. Or, by our chambers are to be un- Aup\ ubi 

-rood our hearts, of which it is spoken in the fourth sup * 
Psalm; What things ye utter in your hearts, and wherewith Ps. 4, 4. 
ye arc pricked in your chambers. The door is the bodily 
senses ; without are all worldly things, which enter into 
our thoughts through the senses, and that crowd of vain 
imaginings which beset us in prayer. Cyprian. What in- Cvpr. Tr. 
sensibility is it to be snatched wandering off by light and V1U 
profane imaginings, when you are presenting your entreaty 
to the Lord, as if there were aught else you ought rather 
to consider than that your converse is with God! J low 
can you claim of God to attend to you, when you do not 
attend to yourself? This is altogether to make no provision 
against the enemy ; this is when praying to God, to offend 

God's Majesty by the ne- leet ful ncss of your prayer. Ai Q, uW 
The door then must be shut, that is, we must resist the 
bodily that we may address our leather in such 

spiritual prayer made in the inmost spirit, where 

we pray to Him truly iu secret. Remio. Let it he enough 
for you that He alone petitions, who knows the 

220 G06PBL A( < ORDIHG TO (HAT. VI. 

secrets of all hearts; for lie "Who sees all things, the same 
shall Listen to jroUi CHSYS. lie said not ' shall freely give 

thee/ but, skull reward Hue; thus lie constitutes Himself 
your debtor. 

7. But when yc pray, use not vain repetitions, 
as the heathen do: for they think that they shall 
be heard for their much speaking. 

8. Be ye not therefore like unto them : for your 
Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before 
ye ask Him. 

Aug. ubi Aug. As the hypocrites use to set themselves so as to he 

SUI)# seen in their prayers, whose reward is to he acceptable to 

men; so the Ethnici (that is, the Gentiles) use to think that 

they shall be heard for their much speaking; therefore He 

Cassi.m, adds, When j/e prat/, do not ijc use liuimj irords. CaSSIAN, 

ix. 36. ^ e should indeed pray often, but in short form, lest if we 

be long in our prayers, the enemy that lies in wait for us, 

Aup. might suggest something for our thoughts. Aug. Yet to 

130, 10. continue long in prayer is not, as some think, what is In 

meant, by using many words. For much speaking is one 
thing, and an enduring fervency another. For of the Lord 
Himself it is written, that lie continued a whole night in 
prayer, and prayed at great length, setting an example to OS. 
The brethren in Egypt are said to use frequent prayers, but 
those very short, and as it were hasty ejaculations, lest that 
fervency of spirit, which is most bchoveful for us in prayer, 
should by longer continuance be violently broken off. Serein 
themselves sufficiently ihew, that this fervency of spirit, 
it is not to be forced it' it cannot last, so it' it has lasted is 

not to be violently broken oil'. Let prayer then be without 

much speaking, but not without much entreaty, it' this fer- 
vent spirit can be supported; for much speaking in prayer 

IS to u>e in a necessary matter more words than necessary. 

But to entreat much, is to importune with enduring warmth 

of heart Him to whom our entreaty is made; for often is 

this business effected more by groans than words, by weep- 
ing more than speech. Chkys. Hereby Be dissuades hum 

VER. 7, 8. ST. MATTHEW. 221 

empty speaking in prayer; as, for example, when we ask 
of God things improper, as dominions, fame, overcoming 
of our enemies, or abundance of wealth. He commands 
then that our prayers should not be long; long, that is, 
not in time, but in multitude of words. For it is right 
that those who ask should persevere in their asking; being 
instant in prayer, as the Apostle instructs; but does not 
thereby enjoin us to compose a prayer of ten thousand 
verses, and speak it all; which He secretly hints at, when 
He says, Do not ye use many words. Gloss. What He Gloss. ord. 
condemns is many words in praying that come of want of 
faith ; as the Gentiles do. For a multitude of words were 
needful for the Gentiles, seeing the daemons could not know 
for what they petitioned, until instructed by them ; they 
think they shall be heard for their much speaking. Aug. Aug. ubi 
And truly all superfluity of discourse has come from the sup# 
Gentiles, who labour rather to practise their tongues than 
to cleanse their hearts, and introduce this art of rhetoric 
into that wherein they need to persuade God. Greg. True Greg. 
prayer consists rather in the bitter groans of repentance, v °v.. 9 „ 
than in the repetition of set forms of words. Aug. For we Aug. ubi 
use many words then when we have to instruct one who is SUi) * 
in ignorance, what need of them to Him who is Creator 
of all things? Your heavenly Father knoweth what ye have 
need of before you ask Hun. Jerome. On this there starts 
up a heresy of certain Philosophers who taught the mistaken Epicu- 
dogma, that if God knows for what we shall pray, and, before reans * 
ire ask, knows what we need, our prayer is needlessly made 
to (Mic who has such knowledge. To such we shortly reply, 
That in our prayers we do not instruct, but entreat ; it is 
one tiling to inform the ignorant, another to beg of the un- 
derstanding : the first were to teach ; the latter is to perform 
nrice of duty. CHBYS. You do not then pray in order to 
li God your wants, but to move Ilim, that you may be- 
come lii> friend by the importunity of your applications to 
I Inn, that you may be humbled, that you may be reminded 

of your miis. \\ <.. Nor OUght we to use Words in seeking to Aug. ubi 

obtain of Ood what ire would, but to seels with intense and ' ttp ' 

lit application of mind, with pure love, and Suppliant , 

spirit. In. Hut even with words we otiLrht at certain period! 



to make prayer to God, that by these signs of things wc may 

keep ourselves ID mind, and may know what progress we 
have made in such desire, and may stir up ourselves more 
actively to increase this desire, that alter it have begun to 

wax warm, it may not be chilled and utterly frozen up by 
divers caret, without our continual care to keep it alive. 
Words therefore are needful for us that we should be moved 
by them, that we should understand clearly what it is 
ask, not that we should think that by them the Lord is either 
Aug. instructed or persuaded. In. Still it may be asked,, what is 

5? ni ! , . , - n - the use of prayer at all, whether made in words or in medi- i J 

tation of things, if God knows already what is necessary for 

us. The mental posture of prayer calms and purities the 
soul, and makes it of more capacity to receive the divine 
gifts which are poured into it. For God does not hear us 
for the prevailing force of our pleadings j He is at all times 
ready to give us His light, but we are not ready to receive it, 
but prone to other things. There is then in prayer a tinning 
of the body to God, and a purging of the inward eye, whilst 
those worldly things which wc desired are shut out, that the 
eye of the mind made single might be able to bear the single 
light, and in it abide with that joy with which a happy life 
Lb perfected. 

0. After this manner there fore pray ye : Our Father 

which art in Heaven, Hallowed be Thy name. 

(;io SS . Gloss. AmODgsl His other saving instructions and divine 

■ v P r - lessons, wherewith He counsels believers, lie has get forth 
for us a form of prayer in few words; thus giving us con- 
fidence that, that will be quickly granted, for which He 
x.'Xx. would have us pray so shortly. CTPRIAN. He who gave to 
us to live, taught us also to pray, to the end, that spear 
to the father in the prayer which the Son hath taught, wc 

may receive a readier hearing. It is praying like friends and 

familiars to oiler up to Gtod of His own. Let the Father 

recognise the S n'a words when we offer up our prayer; 

and seeing we have Him when we sin for an Advocate with 

the Father, Kt as put forward the words ofourAdvoc 

VER. 9. ST. MATTHEW. 223 

when as sinners we make petition for our offences. Gloss. Gloss, ord. 
Yet we do not confine ourselves wholly to these words, but 
use others also conceived in the same sense, with which our 
heart is kindled. Aug. Since in every entreaty we have first Aug. 
to propitiate the good favour of Him whom we entreat, and ]^™t'. ^"4 
after that mention what we entreat for ; and this we com- 
monly do by saying something in praise of Him whom we 
entreat, and place it in the front of our petition ; in this the 
Lord bids us say no more than only, Our Father which art 
in Heaven. Many things were said of them to the praise of 
God, yet do we never find it taught to the children of Israel 
to address God as ' Our Father ;' He is rather set before 
them as a Lord over slaves. But of Christ's people the 
Apostle says, We'have received the Spirit of adoption, where- Rom. 8, 
by we cry Abba, Father, and that not of our deservings, but 15, 
of grace. This then we express in the prayer when we say, 
Father; which name also stirs up love. For what can be 
dearer than sons are to a father ? And a suppliant spirit, in 
that men should say to God, Our Father. And a certain 
presumption that we shall obtain ; for what will He not 
give to His sons when they ask of Him, who has given them 
that first that they should be sons ? Lastly, how great anxiety 
possesses his mind, that having called God. his Father, 
he should not be unworthy of such a Father. By this the 
rich and the noble are admonished when they have become 
Christiana not to be haughty towards the poor or lowly born, 
who like themselves may address God as Our Father ; and. 
they therefore cannot truly or piously say this unless they 
acknowledge such for brethren. Chrys. For what hurt 
does such kindred with those beneath us, when wc arc 
all alike kin to One above us? For who calls God Father, 
in that one title confesses at once the forgiveness of sins, 
the adoption, the heirship, the brotherhood, which he h:is 
with the Only-begotten, and the gift of the Spirit. For 

none can call God Father, but he who lias obtained all 

these blessings. In a two-fold manner, therefore, he moves 

the feeling of them that pray, both by the dignity of Him 

who ii prayed to, and the greatness of those benefits 
which we gain by prayer. Cyprian. We say not My Pa- Cypr. 

tlnT, bin On,- luii her, for the teacher of peace and master 


of unity would not have men pray singly and severally, since 
when any prays, he is not to pray for himself only. Our 
prayer IS general and for all, and when we pray, we pray 
not for one person but for us all, because we all are one. 
So also lie willed that one should pray for all ding as 

Himself in one did hear us all. PseuDO-Chrys. To pray 
for ourselves it is our necessity compels us, to pray for 

Gloss. ord. others brotherly charity instigates. Gloss. Also because 
He is a common Father of all, we say, Our Father; not 
Ma Father, which is appropriate to Christ alone, who is 
J lis Son by nature. PseUDO-ChbTS. Which art in heart// 
is added, that we may know that we have a heavenly 
lather, and may blush to immerse ourselves wholly in 

Cassian, earthly things when we have a Father in heaven. CASSIAN. 

- ° l' 1 " And that we should speed with strong desire thitherward 

IX. 10. *■ ° 

where our Father dwells. Cmivs. In heaven, not confining 
God's presence to that, but withdrawing the thoughts of 
the petitioner from earth and fixing them on things above. 

Au£. Aug. Or; in heaven is among the saints and the righteous 

Mont.iLfi mcu '> for God is not contained in space. For the heavens 
literally are the upper parts of the universe, and if I 
be thought to be in them, then arc the birds of more del 
than men, seeing they must have their habitation nearer to 

Ts. 31, 18. God. But, God is nigh, it is not said to the men of lofty 
stature, or to the inhabitants of the mountain tops ; but, 
to the broken in heart. But as the sinner is called ' earth,' 

Gen. 3, 19. as earth thou art, and unto earth thou must return, so 
might the righteous on the Other hand be called ' the heaven.' 
Thus then it would be rightly said Who art in heaven, for 

there would seem to be as much difference spiritually be- 
tween the righteous and sinn> locally, between heaven 

and earth. With the intent i .lying which thing it is, 

that wc turn OUT faces in prayer to the east, not as though 
God \\;ts there only, deserting all other parts of the earth; 
but that the mind may be reminded to turn itself to that 
nature which is more excellent, that is to God, when his 
body, which i- turned to the 1 more excellent body 

which is of heaven. For it is desirable that all, both small 

and great, should h; hi conceptions of God, and there- 

fore lor such M cannot fix their thoughts on spiritual natures, 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 225 

it is better that they should think of God as being in heaven 
than in earth. 

Aug. Having named Him to whom prayer is made and Aug. ubi 
where He dwells, let us now see what things they are for sup * 
which we ought to pray. But the first of all the things that 
are prayed for is, Hallowed be Thy name, not implying that 
the name of God is not holy, but that it may be held sacred 
of men; that is, that God may be so known that nothing 
may be esteemed more holy. Chrys. Or ; He bids us 
in praying beg that God may be glorified in our life; as 
if we were to say, Make us to live so that all things may 
glorify Thee through us. For halloived signifies the same 
as glorified. It is a petition worthy to be made by man 
to God, to ask nothing before the glory of the Father, but to 
postpone all things to His praise. Cyprian. Otherwise, we Cypr. Tr. 
say this not as wishing for God to be made holy by our vn ' '" 
prayers, but asking of Him for His name to be kept holy in 
us. For seeing He Himself has said, Be ye holy, for I also Lev.20,7. 
am holy, it is this that we ask and request, that we who have 
been sanctified in Baptism may persevere such as we have 
begun. Aug. But why is this perseverance asked of God, Aug. de 
if, as the Pelagians say, it is not given by God ? Is it not ^ on ' Pcrs " 
a mocking petition to ask of God what wc know is not given 
by Ilim, but is in the power of man himself to attain? Cy- Cypr. ubi 
PRIAN. Forthia we daily make petition, since wc need a daily sup * 
sanctification, in order that we who sin day by day, may 
cleanse afresh our offences by a continual sanctificatiou. 

1 0. Thy kingdom come. 

Gloss. It follows suitably, that after our adoption as sons, Gloss <ml. 
k a kingdom which is duo to sous. Arc;. This Aug. 
i> not so said as though God did not now reign on earth, or MonUi.d. 

bad not reigned over it always. Come, must therefore be 

be manifested to men. For none shall then ho 

ignorant of His kingdom, when Bis Only-begotten not in 

understanding only, hut in visible shape shall come to judge 

the quick and dead. Tin- day of judgment the Lord teaches 

shall thi when the Gospel shall have been preached 

to all nations ; which tin; tins to the hallowing of < mxI's 

\ol„ i. 

226 GO0PKL LOCORDIHG 10 chap. VI. 

name. JsBOMB. Either it is a general prayer for tlie king- 
dom of the whole world that the reign of the Devil may 
cease; or for the kingdom in each of us that God may reign 
there, and that sin may not reign in our mortal body. 
Cypr. Ctpbiah. Or; it is that kingdom which was promised to us 
by God, and bought with Christ's blood; that we who before 
in the world have been servants, may afterwards reign under 
Aujr. the dominion of Christ. Aug. For the kingdom of God will 
180.11. come whether we desire it or not. But herein we kindle our 
desires towards that kingdom, that it may come to us, and 
Cassian. that we may reign in it. Cassian. Or; because the Saint 
• iV knows by the witness of his conscience, that when the 
kingdom of God shall appear, lie shall be partaker therein. 
Jerome. But be it noted, that it comes of high con- 
fidence, and of an unblemished conscience only, to pray 
for the kingdom of God, and not to fear the judgment. 
Cypr. ubi Cvi'itiAX. The kingdom of God may stand for Christ llim- 
sup * self, whom we day by day wish to come, and for whose 

advent we pray that it may be quickly manifested to US. 
As lie is our resurrection, because in Him we rise again, 
so may lie be called the kingdom of God, because w« 
reign in Ilim. Rightly we ask for God's kingdom, that i>, 
for the heavenly, because there is a kingdom of this earth 
beside. He, however, who has renounced the world, is 
superior to its honours and to its kingdom ; and hence he 
who dedicates himself to God and to Christ, longs not for 
the kingdom of earth, but for the kingdom of Heaven. 
Au£. Arr;. When they pray, Let thy kingdom come, what else 
Per*. 2. ( ^° they pray fol who are already holy, but that they may 

persevere in that holiness they now have given unto them? 

For no otherwise will the kingdom of Qod come, than as 
it is certain it will come to those that persevere unto 
the end. 

Thy will be done in earth as it is in Heaven. 

Aujr. Id. In that kingdom of blessednesi the happy life will 

srrin. in | )( , ma( j ( . perfect in the Saints as it now is in the heavenly 
Mont ' 

li.6. Angels; and therefore after the petition, Thy kingdom c 

follows, Jny will be dune us in /u<u-</t, to in unlit. That 

VER. 10. ST. MATTHEW. 227 

is, as by the Angels who are in Heaven Thy will is done 
so as that they have fruition of Thee, no error clouding 
their knowledge, no pain marring their blessedness ; so may 
it be done by Thy Saiuts who are on earth, and who, as 
to their bodies, are made of earth. So that, Thy will be 
done, is rightly understood as, ' Thy commands be obeyed ;' 
as in heaven, so in earth, that is, as by Angels, so by men ; 
not that they do what God would have them do, but they do 
because He would have them do it ; that is, they do after 
His will. Chrys. See how excellently this follows ; having 
taught us to desire heavenly things by that which He said, 
Thy kingdom come, before we come to Heaven He bids us 
make this earth into Heaven, in that saying, Thy will be 
done as in heaven, so in earth. Jerome. Let them be put 
to shame by this text who falsely affirm that there are daily 
falls in Heaven b . Aug. Or; as by the righteous, so by minas 
sinners ; as if He had said, As the righteous do Thy will, su 1 ?' u ' 
so also may sinners; either by turning to Thee, or in re- 
ceiving every man his just reward, which shall be in the 
last judgment. Or, by the heaven and the earth we may 
understand the spirit and the flesh. As the Apostle says, 
In my ml nd I obey the law of God, we see the will of God Rom.7,25. 
done in the spirit. But in that change which is promised 
to the righteous there, Let Thy will be done as in heaven, so 
in earth ; that is, as the spirit does not resist God, so let the 
body not resist the spirit. Or; as in heaven so in earth, as 
in Christ Je>us Himself, so in His Church; as in the Man 
who did His Father's will, so in the woman who is espoused 
of Him. And heaven and earth may be suitably understood 
as husband and wife, seeing it is of the heaven that the earth 
brings forth her fruits. Cyprian. We ask not that God may Cypr. ubi 
do His own will, but that we may be enabled to do what sup# ' 
He wills should be done by us; and that it may be done in 
us ue stand in need of that will, that is, of God's aid and 
protection; for no man nig by his own strength, but 

i lafe in the indulgence and pity of God. Ohrtb. I 

in Cj ril. IIi( r. iii. ~> \ II'i< t. Origenian. 
tid ii. .">. n 16] •.. in prim. mood. 

dc Angelii iii i. 

228 igPBl k( < OBDIKO CHAP. VI. 

virtue is not of our own (Hurts, but of grace from above. 
Here again is enjoined on each one of us prayer for the 
whole world, inasmuch as we are not to say, Thy will be 
done in me, or in us ; but throughout the earth, that error 
may cease, truth be planted, malice be banished, and virtue 
Au ~- return, and thus the earth not differ from heaven. Aug. 

(le Don. .ill • ™ l 

Pen. a. Prom this passage is clearly shewn against the Pelagians 

that the beginning of faith is God's gift, when Holy Church 
prays for unbelievers that they may begin to have faith. 
Moreover, seeing it is done already in the S why do 

they yet pray that it may be done, but that they pray that 
they may persevere in that they have begun to be? Pbei i><»- 
Ciirys. These words, As in heaven so in earth, must be taken 
as common to all three preceding petitions. Observe also 
how carefully it is worded; He said not, Father, hallow Thy 
name in us, Let Thy kingdom come on us, Do Thy will 
in us. Nor again; Let us hallow Thy name, L< titer 

into Thy kingdom, Let us do Thy will; that it should not 
Beem to be either God's doing only, or man's doing only. 
But He used a middle form of speeeh, and the impersonal 
verb; for as man can do nothing good without God's 
aid, so neither docs God work good in man unless man 
wills it. 

11. Give us this day our daily bread. 

An?. Aug. These three things therefore which have been asked 

]'].-, in the foregoing petitions, are begun here on earth, and 

according to our proficiency are increased in us; but in 
another life, as we hope, they shall be everlastingly | 
Bessed in perfection. In the four remaining petitions we 
ask for temporal blessings which arc necessary to obtain- 
ing the eternal; the bread, which II accordingly the next 

petition in order, is a necessary. Jerome. The Greek word 
here which we render f supersubstantialis, ' s sSroouciot, The 

I A \ often make nse of the word irepiovaios, by which we 

find, on reference to the Hebrew, they always render the 

word 80ffolm e . Symmachns translates it t^aiperos, that is, 

r nVnD on **«m''< t <<'S vid. imi.' c on Dogin. t. iv. pp. 200, 201. i & Antwerp. 
Cyi riii. i i. I v. and Pete* )7,,u - 

VER. 11. ST. MATTHEW. 229 

{ chief/ or ' excellent/ though in one place he has inter- 
preted ' peculiar/ When then we pray God to give us our 
1 peculiar* or f chief ' bread, we mean Him who says in the 
Gospel, I am the living bread which came down from heaven. John6,;5i. 
Cyprian. For Christ is the bread of life, and this bread Cypr. ubi 
belongs not to all men, but to us. This bread we pray sup * 
that it be given us day by day, lest we who are in Christ, 
and who daily receive the Eucharist for food of salvation, 
should by the admission of any grievous crime, and our 
being therefore forbidden the heavenly bread, be separated 
from the body of Christ. Hence then we pray, that we 
who abide in Christ, may not draw back from His sancti- 
fication and His body. Aug. Here then the saints ask for Aug. 
perseverance of God, when they pray that they may not pg r ^°£* 
be separated from the body of Christ, but may abide in 
that holiness, committing no crime. Pseudo-Chrys.* 1 Or by 
' supersubstantialis' may be intended ' daily/ Cassian. In Cassian. 1 
that He says, this day, He shews that it is to be daily taken, ° ,1X ' * 
and that this prayer should be offered at all seasons, seeing 
there is no day on which we have not need, by the receiving 
of this bread, to confirm the heart of the inward man. Aug. Aug. 
There is here a difficulty created by the circumstance of jSJjJ'^V 
there being many in the East, who do not daily communicate 
in the Lord's Supper. And they defend their practice on 
the ground of ecclesiastical authority, that they do this with- 
out offence, and are not forbidden by those who preside over 
the Churches. But not to pronounce any thing concerning 
them in either way, this ought certainly to occur to our 
thoughts, that we have here received of the Lord a rule for 
prayer which we ought not to transgress. Who then will 
dare to affirm that we ought to use this prayer only once? 
Or if twice or thrice, yet only up to that hour at which 
we communicate on the Lord's body? For after that we 

can: ', Give US this day that which wo have already 

j ired. Or will any one on this account be able to 
compel us to celebrate this lacrament at the close of the 
day? Ca fan. Though the expression to-day may be an- c 
derstood of this present life; thus. Give ai this bread while u ! * up * 

tranflatM ' quotidUuu i'>t>ffryv< 


230 -I'll. A( < ORDIKG : CHAP. VI. 

wo abide in this world. .1 1 We may aPo interpret 

tlic word ( SUpersubstantialis' otherwise, as tliat which is 

above all other substances, and more excellent than all crca- 

Ang. tnrcs, to wit, the body of the Lord. Arc Or by daily we 

may understand spiritual, namely, the divine precepts which 
""• wc ought to meditate and work. C We call it our 

x.xiv. 7. 

bread, yet pray that it may be given OS, for it is Clod's 
to give, and is made ours by our receiving it. Jbbome. 
Others understand it literally according to that saying of 
the Apostle, Having food and raiment, let us tl h he 

'tent, that the saints should have care only of present 
food; as it follows, Take no tJioityht for the more \\ <.. 

130 ii. S° that herein we ask for a sufficiency of all things neces- 
sary under the one name of bread. Psbudo-Chbtb. \Yc 
pray, Give us this day our daily bread, not only that we may 
have what to eat, which is common to both righteous and 
sinners; but that what we eat we may receive at the hand of 
God, which belongs only to the saints. For to him I 
giveth bread who earns it by righteous means; but to him 
who cams it by sin, the Devil it is that gives. Or that inas- 
much as it is given by God, it is received sanctified ; and 
therefore He adds our, that is, such bread M we have 
prepared for us, that do Thou give us, that by Thy giving it 
may be sanctified. Like as the Priest taking bread of the 
laic, sanctifies it, and then offers it to him ; the bread ind 
is his that brought it in offering, but that it is sanctified 
is the benefit from the Priest, lie says Our for two reasons. 
First, because all things that God gives us He gives through 
us to others, that of what we receive of Ilini we may impart 
to the helpless. AYJioso then of what he gains by his own 
toil be DOthing on others, eats not his own bread only, 

but others' bread also. Secondly, he who cats bread 

righteously, cats his own bread; but he « ho eats bread 

with sin, eats others 1 bread. Auo. Some one may perhaps 

«""•..„ find a difficulty in our here praying that we may obtain 
Al. nit. ii. i . i . fc> 

necessaries of this life, such I and raiment, when the 

instructed US, Bt not ye careful what ye shall eat, 
or wherewithal ye shall he clothed. Put it is impossible not 
to be Careful about thai tor the obtaining which ui 

Id. Put to wish lor the necessaries of life and no n. 

VER. 12. ST. MATTHEW. 231 

is not improper ; for such sufficiency is not sought for its 
own sake, but for the health of the body, and for such garb 
and appliances of the person, as may make us to be not 
disagreeable to those with whom we have to live in all good 
reputation. For these things we may pray that they may 
be had when we are in want of them, that they may be kept 
when we have them. Chrys. It should be thought upon 
how when He had delivered to us this petition, Thy will be 
done as in heaven so in earth, then because He spake to men 
in the flesh, and not like angelic natures without passion or 
appetite, He now descends to the needs of our bodies. And 
He teaches us to pray not for money or the gratification of 
lust, but for daily bread ; and as yet further restriction, He 
adds, this day, that we should not trouble ourselves with 
thought for the coming day. Pseudo-Chrys. And these 
words at first sight might seem to forbid our having it pre- 
pared for the morrow, or after the morrow. If this were 
so, this prayer could only suit a few ; such as the Apostles 
who travelled hither and thither teaching — or perhaps none 
among us. Yet ought we so to adapt Chrises doctrine, that 
all men may profit in it. Cyprian. Justly therefore does the Cypr. Tr. 
disciple of Christ make petition for to-day's provision, without 
indulging excessive longings in his prayer. It were a self- 
contradicting and incompatible thing for us who pray that the 
kingdom of God may quickly come, to be looking unto long 
life in the world below. Pseudo-Chrys. Or; He adds, daily, 
that a man may eat so much only as natural reason requires, 
not as the lust of the flesh urges. For if you expend on one 
banquet as much as would suffice you for a hundred days, 
you are not eating to-day's provision, but that of many days. 
Jebomb. In the Gospel, entitled The Gospel according to 
the Hebrews, 'snpersubstantialis 1 is rendered r mohar/ that 
to-morrow's;' so that the sense would be, Give us to-day 
to-morrow*! bread; i.e. for the time to come. 

12. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our 

Ctpriak. A: pply of food, next pardon of sin is asked Cjrpr. Tr« 

for, that lie who i> fed Of God may lire in God, and not 

23:2 GOSPEL uiokihv. to chap, vi, 

only the present and passing life be provided for, but the 

rnal also; whereunto we may come, if we receive the 

pardon of OUT sins, to which the Lord gives the name of 

Mat 18, debts, as lie speaks further on, I forgave thee all that debt, 

because thou desiredst me. How well is it for our need, how 
provident and saving a thing, to be reminded that we are 
Binnera compelled to make petition for our offences, so that 
in claiming God's indulgence, the mind is recalled to a re- 
collection of its guilt. That no man may plume himself 
with the pretence of innocency, and perish more wretchedly 
through self-exaltation, he is instructed that he commits sin 

Aug. cle every day by being commanded to pray for his Bins. A.T7G. 

I on. en. \\^\ x fijj s weapon the Pelagian heretics received their death- 
blow, who dare to say that a righteous man is free altogether 
from sin in this life, and that of such is at this pre 
time composed a Church, having //cither spot nor wrinkle. 
Chrys. That this prayer is meant for the faithful, both the 
laws of the Church teach, and the beginning of the prayer 
which instructs us to call God Father. In thus bidding the 
faithful pray for forgiveness of sin, lie shews that even after 

Cypr. baptism sin can be remitted (against the Novatians). 

ubi sup. ]» K1AX# J[ e then who taught us to pray for our sins, has pro- 
mised us that His fatherly mercy and pardon shall ensue. 
But He has added a rule besides, binding us under the fixed 
condition and responsibility, that we are to ask for our 
to be forgiven in such sort as we forgive them that are in 

Greg. debt to us. Greg. That good which in our penitence we ask 

J -," ' x ' of God, we should first turn and bestow on our neighbour. 

An-. Aug. This is not said of debts of money only, but of all 

Montii.8. things in which any sins against us, and among these also 
of money, because that he >ms against you, who does not 
return money due to you, when he has whence he can return 
it. Unless you forgive this Bin you cannot say, Forgic 
our debts, as /re fun/ire our < t. i ' DO-ChRTS. With 

what hope then docs he pray, who cherishes hatred against 
another by whom he has been wi \ AjS he prays with 

a falsehood on his lips^ when hi . I forgi\e, ami does 

not in i^s indulgence of God, hut no indnlg< 

i^ -ranted him. There are many who, being unwilling to 
that i. gainst than, will not use this 

VER. 13. ST. MATTHEW. 233 

prayer. How foolish ! First, because he who does not pray 
in the manner Christ taught, is not Christ's disciple ; and 
secondly, because the Father does not readily hear any 
prayer which the Son has not dictated ; for the Father 
knows the intention and the words of the Son, nor will He 
entertain such petitions as human presumption has suggested, 
but only those which Christ's wisdom has set forth. Aug. Aug. 
Forasmuch as this so great goodness, namely, to forgive 73 " c ur * 
debts, aud to love our enemies, cannot be possessed by so 
great a number as we suppose to be heard in the use of this 
prayer ; without doubt the terms of this stipulation are ful- 
filled, though one have not attained to such proficiency as 
to love his enemy; yet if when he is requested by one, who 
has trespassed against him, that he would forgive him, he 
do forgive him from his heart ; for he himself desires to be 
forgiven then at least when he asks forgiveness. And if one 
have been moved by a sense of his sin to ask forgiveness of 
him against whom he has sinned, he is no more to be thought 
on as an enemy, that there should be any thing hard in 
loving him, as there was when he was in active enmity. 

13. And lead us not into temptation. 

Pseudo-Chkys. As Ho had above put many high things 
into men's mouths, teaching them to call God their Father, 
to pray that His kingdom might come; so now He adds 
a lesson of humility, when lie Bays, and lead us not into 

nptatUM, A i 0. Some copies read, Carry us not 1 , an Aug. 
equivalent word, both being a translation of one Greek Vi' ri1 !' "\, 

1 } o Mont. H.9. 

word, elcreveytcys. Many in interpreting say, ' Sudor us not ' bferaa. 
to he led into temptation/ as being what is implied in 
the word lead. Fur God does not of Himself lead a man, 
but him to be led from whom Jle has withdrawn 

aid. CYPRIAN. Heroin it is shown that the adver- Cypr. Tr. 

can nothing avail against us, unless God first permit 
him ; 10 that all OUT fear and devotion OUght to be ad- 

i to God, A'-.. Bat it is one thing to be led into Aug. nbi 
ptation, anotl tempted; for without temptation p ' 

Done can be approved, either to himself or to another; but 
fully known to God before all trial. Thi i 


vc do not licrc pray that wc may not be tempted, but 
we may not be led into temptation. As if one who was to be 
burnt alive should pray not that he should not be touched by 
fire, but that he should not be burnt. For we are then led 
into temptation when such temptations befal us as we are not 
Au£. able to resist. AUG, When then we say, Lead us not into 

130*11 temptation! what we ask is, that we may not, deserted by 
II is aid, either consent through the subtle snares, or yield to 
Cypr. the forcible might, of any temptation. CYPRIAN. Ami U 
1 sup * praying we are cautioned of our own infirmity and weakness, 
lest any presumptuously exalt himself; that while a humble 
and Submissive confession comes hist, and all is referred to 
God, whatever we suppliantly apply for may by His gracious 
Aup. favour be supplied. Aug. When the Saints pray, Lead Ml 
Pcrs. 5. n °t * n t° temptation, what else do they pray for than that they 
may persevere in their sanctity. This once granted — and 
that it is God's gift this, that of Him we ask it, shews — none 
of the Saints but holds to the end his abiding holiness; for 
none ceases to hold on his Christian profession, till he be 
first overtaken of temptation. Therefore W k not to be 

led into temptation that this may not happen to us ; and if it 
does not happen, it is God that docs not permit it to happen ; 
for there is nothing done, but what lie either does, or Buffers 
to be done. He is therefore able to turn our wills from evil 
to good, to raise the fallen and to direct him into the way 
that is pleasing to Himself, to whom not in vain we plead, 
Lead us not into temptation. For whoso is not led into 
temptation of his own evil will, is free of all temptation; i'ow 
Jas. 1, H. each man is tempted of his own Inst. (iod would have us 
pray to Ilim that wc may not be led into temptation, though 
lie could have granted it without our prayer, that we might 
be kept in mind who it is from whom we receive all bem 
Let tin 4 Church therefore observe her daily prayers; she 
prays that the unbelieving may believe, therefore it i^ I 
that turns men to the faith j she prays that the believers may 
persevere; God gives them perseverance even unto the end. 

Bui deliver us from eviL Amen. 

Ai <.. We ought to pray nut only that we may not be led 

ul)i blip. 

VER. 13. 'ST. MATTHEW. 235 

into evil from which we are at present free; but further 
that we may be set free from that into which we have al- 
ready been led. Therefore it follows, Deliver us from evil. 
Cyprian. After all these preceding petitions, at the con- Cypr. TV. 
elusion of the prayer comes a sentence, comprising shortly V11, 18, 
and collectively the whole of our petitions and desires. For 
there remains nothing beyond for us to ask for, after peti- 
tion made for God's protection from evil ; for that gained, we 
stand secure and safe against all things that the Devil and 
the world work against us. What fear hath he from this life, 
who has God through life for his guardian? Aug. This peti- Aug. 
tion with which the Lord's prayer concludes is of such ex- 13 p lst J2 
tent, that a Christian man in whatever tribulation cast, will 
in this petition utter groans, in this shed tears, here begin 
and here end his prayer. And therefore follows Amen, by 
which is expressed the strong desire of him that prays. Je- 
rome. Amen, which appears here at the close, is the seal 
of the Lord's Prayer. Aquila rendered ' faithfully' — we may 
perhaps ' truly.' Cyprian. We need not wonder, dearest bre- Cypr. ubi 
thren, that this is God's prayer, seeing how His instruction SUp * 
comprises all our petitioning, in one saving sentence. This 
had already been prophesied by Isaiah the Prophet, A short Is. 10, 22. 
work will God make in the whole earth. For when our 
Lord Jesus Christ came unto all, and gathering together the 
learned alike and the unlearned, did to every sex and age set 
forth the precepts of salvation, He made a full compen- 
dium of His instructions, that the memorv of the scholars 
might not labour in the heavenly discipline, but accept 
with readiness whatsoever was necessary into a simple faith. 

And whatever other words we may use, either intro- Aug. 
ductory to quicken the affections, or in conclusion to add to HS*!* 
them, we say nothing more than is contained in the Lord's 
Prayer if ire pray rightly and connectedly. Fur he who 

■-, Glorify Thyself in ail nations, as Thou art glorified Boeltu, 
among us, what else does he say than, Hallowed be Thy ' 

name.' lie who prays, Shew Thy face and ice shall be safe, I's. so, .?. 
what is it but t<> nj t Lei Thy kingdom come? To say, Direct l\. lift, 

Ceording t<> Thy word, what is it more than, Thy *■ 
//■/// be done ' T<> lay, Gfive me neither poventy nor riches, r, ,,, 
what else ii it than, Give us this day our daily bread} 


Pi. lsi, l. Lord, remember David and all his mercifulness / and, 
Pa. 7, i. If I have returned evil for evil, what else but, Forgive 

us (j/ir debts even as we foryive our debtors ? He who 
says, Remove Jar from me all greediness of twit//, what 
else does he say, but Lead us not into temptation t 

Fs. 59, 1 if c; w ] 10 s: lV s, Save "/a, my God, from my I . what 

else docs he say but Deliver as from evil t And if you 
thus go through all the words of the holy prayers, you will 
find nothing that is not contained in the Lord's J 'raver. 
Whoever then speaks such words as have no relation to this 
evangelic prayer, prays carnally ; and such prayer I know 
not why we should not pronounce unlawful, seeing the Lord 
instructs those who are born again only to pray spiritually. 
But whoso in prayer says, Lord, increase rny riches, add 
to my honours; and that from desire of such things, not 
with a view to doing men service after God's will by such 
things; I think that he finds nothing in the Lord's Prayer on 
which he may build such petitions. Let such an one then 
be withheld by shame from praying for, if not from desiring, 
such things. But if he have shame at the desire, yet desire 
overcomes, he will do better to pray for deliverance from the 
evil of desire to Him to whom we say, Deliver as from evil, 
Aug. In. This number of petitions seems to answer to the seven-fold 
Mont. number of the beatitudes. If it is the fear of (jod by which 
ii. u. arc m;i d c blessed the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven, let us ask that the name of God be hallowed 
among men, a reverent fear abiding for ever and ever. \( it 
be piety by which the mtek are blessed, let us pray that His 
kingdom may come, that we may become merk, and not 
resist Him. If it be knowledge by which the// that mourn 

are blessed, let us pray that His will may be done as in hea- 
ven so in earth ; for if the body consent with the spirit as 
does earth with hea\en, we shall not mourn. If fortitude be 
that by which the// that hunger art blessed. Let us pray that 
our daily bread be this day given us, by which we may come 
to full saturity. If it is counsel by which blessed are the 
m< rcifil, for the// shall obtain mere//, let us forgive ch 

that our debts maj be i as. If it be understanding 

by which they of pure heart are bbssed, let us pray that we 

be no! hd into temptation. Lest we ba?e a double heart 

VER. 14, 15. ST. MATTHEW. 237 

in the pursuit of temporal and earthly things which are for 
our probation. If it be wisdom by which blessed are the 
peacemakers, for they shall be called the sons of God, let 
us pray to be delivered from evil ; for that very deliverance 
will make us free as sons of God. Chrys. Having made us 
anxious by the mention of our enemy, in this that He has 
said, Deliver us from evil. He again restores confidence by 
that which is added in some copies, For Thine is the kingdom, 
and the power, and the glory, since if His be the kingdom, 
none need fear, since even he who fights against us, must be 
His subject. But since His power and glory are infinite, 
He can not only deliver from evil, but also make glorious. 
Pseudo-Chrys. This is also connected with the foregoing. 
Thine is the kingdom has reference to Thy kingdom come, 
that none should therefore say, God has no kingdom on 
earth. The power, answers to Thy will be done, as in earth 
so in heaven, that none should say thereon that God cannot 
perform whatever He would. And the glory, answers to all 
that follows, in which God's glory is shewn forth. 

14. For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your 
heavenly Father will also forgive you : 

15. But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, 
neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 

Eaban. Bv the word Amen, He shews that without 
doubt the Lord will bestow all things that are rightly asked, 
and by those that do not fail in observing the annexed 
condition} For if ye forgive men their sins, your heavenly 
Father will a/so forgive you your sins. Aug. Hero we •}' 

nld not overlook that of all the petitions enjoined by the Mont. 
Lord, He judged that most worthy of further enforcement, "• lL 
which relates to forgiveness of sins, in which He would have 

u> merciful ; which is the only means of escaping misery. 
I' ' D0-ChRY8. He does not say that (Jod will first forgive 
and that we should after forgive our debtors. Por God 
knows how the heart of man is, and that though 

they Should have received forgiyeneSI thenisches, yet they 

do not forgive their debtors j therefore He instructs ui B 

C. 7. 


Aug. to forgive, and \vc shall be forgiven after. Arc "Whoever 

74. does not forgive Inm that in true sorrow seeks forgiven 

let him not suppose that his sins are by any means forgi 

Cypr. Tr. of the Lord. Cyprian. For no excuse will abide you in 
the day of judgment, when you will be judged by your own 
sentence, and as you have dealt towards others, will be dealt 

Ps. 83, with yourself. Jbbomb. Hut if that which is written, / 
said, Ye arc f/ods, but ye shall die like men, is said to those 
who for their sins deserve to become men instead of gods, 
then they to whom sins are forgiven are rightly called men. 
Chrys. He mentions heaven and the Father to claim our 
attention, for nothing so likens you to God, as to forgive 
him who has injured you. And it were indeed unmeet should 
the son of such a father become a slave, and should one 
who has a heavenly vocation live as of this earth, and of this 
life only. 

16. Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypo- 
crites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their 
faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily 
I say unto you, They have their reward. 

PsEUDO - Chrys. Forasmuch as that prayer which 
offered in a humble spirit and contrite heart, shews | 
mind already strong and disciplined; whereas he who 
is sunk in self-indulgence cannot have a humble spirit 
and contrite heart; it is plain that without fasting pn 
must be faint and feeble ; therefore, when any would pray 
for any need in which they might be, they joined fasting 
with prayer, because it is an aid thereof. Accordingly the 
Lord, after His doctrine respecting prayer, adds doctrine 

concerning fasting, saying, When ye fast, be not ye a$ the 

hypocrites, of sad coinitciiance. The Lord knew that vanity 
may spring from every good thing, and therefore bids ill 
root out tht' bramble of vain-gloriouMiess which springs in 
the good soil, that it choke not the fruit of fasting. For 

though it cannot be thai Casting should not be discovered in 

any one, yet it is better that lasting should shew you, than 

that you should she? your fasting. But it is impossible 

VER. 16. ST. MATTHEW. 239 

that any in fasting should be gay, therefore He said not, Be 
not sad, but Be not made sad ; for they who discover them- 
selves by any false displays of their affliction, they are not 
sad, but make themselves; but he who is naturally sad in 
consequence of continued fasting, does not make himself sad, 
but is so. Jerome. The word exterminare, so often used 
in the ecclesiastical Scriptures through a blunder of the 
translators, has a quite different meaning from that in which 
it is commonly understood. It is properly said of exiles 
who are sent beyond the boundary of their country. Instead 
of this word, it would seem better to use the word demoliri, 
( to destroy,' in translating the Greek afyavl^eiv. The hypo- 
crite destroys his face, in order that he may feign sorrow, 
and with a heart full of joy wears sorrow in his countenance. 
Greg. For by the pale countenance, the trembling limbs, Greg. 
and the bursting sighs, and by all so great toil and trouble, 44 ° r " ylu ' 
nothing is in the mind but the esteem of men. Leo. But Leo, 
that fasting is not pure, that comes not of reasons of conti- %!SS£ n 
nence, but of the arts of deceit. Pseudo-Chrys. If then he iv. 5. 
who fasts, and makes himself of sad countenance, is a hypo- 
crite, how much more wicked is he who does not fast, yet 
assumes a fictitious paleness of face as a token of fasting. 
Aug. On this paragraph it is to be specially noted, that not Aug. 
only in outward splendor and pomp, but even in the dress of j^™" j" 
sorrow and mourning, is there room for display, and that the 12. 
more dangerous, inasmuch as it deceives under the name of 
God's services. For he who by inordinate pains taken with 
his person, or his apparel, or by the glitter of his other 
equipage, is distinguished, is easily proved by these very 
circumstances to be a follower of the pomps of this world, 
and no man is deceived by any semblance of a feigned 
sanctity in him. But when any one in the profession of 
Christianity draws men's eyes upon him by unwonted beg- 
gary :unl slovenliness in dress, if this be voluntary and not 
Compulsory, then by his Other Conduct may be seen whether 
he does this to be sren of men, or from Contempt of the iv- 

finements of dress. &bhiq. The reward of the hypocrites/ 

is -hewn, when it is added, That th'ij iiimj set in to mm 

to fmt; verily I $ay unto you, They have then- reward; that 

is, that reward for which they looked. 


17. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, 
and wash thy faee ; 

18. That thou appear not unto men to fast, but 
unto thy Father which is in secret ; and thy Father, 

which sccth in secret, shall reward thee openly. 

Gloss, ap. Gloss. The Lord having taught us what we ought not to 
nsc in. ( | Q ^ nQW j )roCTC( ] s to teach us what we ought to do, sayii 

When thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face, 

Aag. Aug. A question is here wont to be raised; for none surely 
sup * would literally enjoin, that, as we wash our faces from daily 
habit, so we should have our heads anointed when wc 1 
a thing which all allow to be most disgraceful. Ps kudo- 
Cm u vs. Also if He bade us not to be of sad countenance 
that we might not seem to men to fast, yet if anointing 
of the head and washing of the face are always observed 
in fasting, they will become tokens of fasting. Jbbo 
But He speaks in accordance with the manners of the 
province of Palestine, where it is the custom on festival days 
to anoint the head. What He enjoins then is, that when we 
are fasting we should wear the appearance of joy and glad- 
ness. Pskudo-Cmkys. Therefore the simple interpretation 
of this is, that is added as an hyperbolical explanation of 
the command; as though He had said, Yea, so far should 
ye he from any display of your fasting, that if it might be 
(which yet it may not be) so done, ye should even do such 

Chrys. things as are tokens of luxury and feasting. Ciikys. In alms- 
giving indeed, lie did not say simply, 'Do not your alms 
before men, 1 hut added, Mo be seen of them.' Hut in fasting 
and prayer He added nothing of this sort; because alms 
cannot be so done as to he altogether hid, fasting and prayer 
can he so done. The contempt of men's praise is no small 
fruit, for thereby we are freed from the heavy slavery of 

human opinion, and become properly workers of virtue, 

loving it for itself and not for others. For as mi 1 esteem it 
an affront if wc arc loved not for ourselves hut for others' 
sake, so OUghl we not to follow virtue on the account of 
these men, nor to obey God for men's sake hut for His own. 
Therefore it follow! here, BtU to thy Fat fur which sccth in 

Horn, xx. 

VER. 17, 18. ST. MATTHEW. 241 

secret. Gloss. That is, to thy heavenly Father, who is un- Gloss, ord. 
seen, or who dwells in the heart through faith. He fasts to 
God who afflicts himself for the love of God, and bestows on 
others what he denies himself. Remig. For it is enough for 
you that He w T ho sees your conscience should be your 
rewarder. Pseudo-Chrys. Spiritually interpreted — the face 
may be understood to mean the mental conscience. And as 
in the eyes of man a fair face has grace, so in the eyes of 
God a pure conscience has favour. This face the hypocrites, 
fasting on man's account, disfigure, seeking thereby to cheat 
both God and man ; for the conscience of the sinner is 
always wounded. If then you have cast out all wickedness 
from your heart, you have washed your conscience, and fast 
well. Leo. Fasting ought to be fulfilled not in abstinence Leo. 
of food onlv, but much more in cutting off vices. For when 5f rnr V m 

- ; ° Quadr. 

we submit ourselves to that discipline in order to withdraw vi. 2. 
that which is the nurse of carnal desires, there is no sort of 
good conscience more to be sought than that we should 
keep ourselves sober from unjust will, and abstinent from 
dishonourable action. This is an act of religion from which 
the sick are not excluded, seeing integrity of heart may be 
found in an infirm body. Pseudo-Chrys. Spiritually again, 
thy head denotes Christ. Give the thirsty drink and feed 
the hungry, and therein you have anointed your head, that 
is, Christ! who cries out in the Gospel, In that ye have done Mat 25, 
this to i) in- of the least of these 31 y brethren, ye have done it to 
M<-. I For God approves that fasting, which before Greg. 

-yes opens the hands of alms. This then that you deny Ev! > xt!l6 
yourself, bestow on another, that wherein your flesh is 
afflicted, that of your needy neighbour may be refreshed. 
AUG. Or; by the head we rightly understand the reason, Aug. ubi 
pre-eminent in the soul, and rules the other SU1 '* 
>f the man. Now anointing the head has some 
i rejoicing. Let him therefore joy within himself 
of his fasting, who in fasting turns himself from 
doing the will of the world, that lie may be subject to Chi 
I Behold how every thing in the Now Testament is Glow. ord. 

skeo Literally. It irere ridiculous to be red 

With oil when ■ ; but li IS la.ho\ ( I ul for the mind to la: 

anointed with the spirit of 1 1 i -. low, in whose sufferings we 

VOL* i. ic 


ought to partake by afflicting ourselves. V -Oiiiiys. 

And truly we ought to wash our face, hut to anoint, and 
not to wash, our head. For as long as we are in the 
body, our conscience is foul with sin. But Christ who is 
our Ik ad has done no sin. 

19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, 
where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieve 3 
break through and steal : 

20. But lay up for yourselves treasures in Heaven, 
where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where 
thieves do not break through nor steal : 

21. For where your treasure is, there will your 
heart he also. 

Ciirys. TYhen He has driven away the disease of vanity, 

Tie does well to bring in speech of contempt of ricl 

For there is no greater cause of desire of money than Love of 

praise ; for this men desire troops of slaves, horses accoutred 

in gold, and tables of silver, not for use or pleasure, hut I 

they may he seen of many; therefore lie / up 

Aug. for yourselves treasure 011 earth. Aro. For if any does a 

if™* If work with the mind of gaining therein* an earthly good, how 
Mont 11. 00. . . 

13. will his heart he pure while it is thus walking on earth? 

For any thing that is mingled with an inferior nature is 
polluted therewith, though that inferior he in its kind pure. 
Thus gold is alloyed when mixed with pure silver; and in 
like manner our mind is defiled hy lust of earthly things, 
though earth is in its own kind pure. Pbeudo-Chbts, Other- 
wise; As the Lord had above taught nothing concerning 
alms, or prayer, or fasting, hut had only checked a prei 
of them, lie now proceeds to deliver a doctrine of three 
portions, according to the division which He had before 
made, in this order. Pint, a counsel that alms should he 

done; second, to shew the benefit of almsgiving ; third, that 
the fear of poverty should he do hindrance to our purpose 
of almsgiving. Chrys. Saying, Lay not up for your* 
treasure on earth, He adds, where rust and moth deei 

in order to shew the insecurity of that treasure that IS b 

VER. 19 21. ST. MATTHEW. 243 

and the advantage of that which is in Heaven, both from 
the place, and from those things which harm. As though 
He had said : \Yhv fear vou that vour wealth should be 
consumed, if you should give alms? Yea rather give alms, 
and they shall receive increase, for those treasures that are 
in Heaven shall be added to them, which treasures perish if 
ye do not give alms. He said not, You leave them to others, 
for that is pleasant to men. Raban. Here are three precepts Raban. 
according to the three different kinds of wealth. Metals are JJJ n " 
destroyed by rust, clothes by moth ; but as there are other 
things which fear neither rust nor moth, as precious stones, 
He therefore names a common damage, that by thieves, who 
may rob wealth of all kinds. a PsErno-CintYS. Another read- 
ing is, Where moth and banqueting consume. For a three- 
fold destruction awaits all the goods of this life. They 
either decay and are eaten of moths as cloth ; or are con- 
sumed by their master's luxurious living; or are plundered 
by strangers, either by violence, or pilfering, or false accu- 
sation, or some other unjust doing. For all may be called 
thieves who hasten by any unlawful means to make other 
men's goods their own. But you will say, Do all who have 
these things, perforce lose them ? I would answer by the way, 
that if all do not, yet many do. But ill-hoarded wealth, you 
have lost spiritually if not actually, because it profits you 
not to your salvation. Raban. Allcgorically ; Rust denotes 
pride, which obscures the brightness of virtue. Moth, which 
privily eats out garments, is jealousy, which frets into good 
intention and destroys the bond of unity. Thieves denote 
heretics and demons, who are ever on the watch to rob men 
of their spiritual treasure. HlLAKY. But the praise of Hea- 
ven it eternal, and cannot be carried off by invading thief, 
nor consumed by the moth and rust of envy. Aug. By Aug. 

ven in this place I understand not the material heavens, y\l\[\' In 
for ev< ry thing that has a body is earthly. But it behoves "• l*» 
that the whole world be despised by him who lays np his 

B in that Heaven, of which it is said, The hi'dfcii <>f \\. 11,3, 

///■(>> Lord's, that is, in the spiritual firmament. 

/ anil earth shall pass away; but ire ought not to Mat. 24, 

place our treasure in that which pa way, but in that 


■ 2 

244 GOSPEL A((oi:i)l.\r; TO (HAP. VI. 

which abides for ever. Psbudo-Chbys. Which then is bet- 
ter? To place it on earth where its security is doubtful, or 
in Heaven where it will be certainly preserved? AVhat folly 
to leave it in this place, whence you must soon depart, and 
not to send it before you thither, whither you are to go? 
Therefore place your substance there where your country is. 
Chrys. But forasmuch as not every earthly treasure is de- 
stroy ed by rust or moth, or carried away by thieves, He 
therefore brings in another motive, For where 'jour treasure 
is, there will your heart be also. As much as to say; Though 
none of these former losses should befal you, you will yet 
sustain no small loss by attaching your affections to thi. 
beneath, and becoming a slave to them, and in falling from 
Heaven, and being unable to think of any lofty thing. 
Jerome. This must be understood not of money only, but of 
all our possessions. The god of a glutton is his belly ; of 
a lover his lust; and so every man serves that to which he 
is in bondage; and has his heart there w T herc his treasure is. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Otherwise; He now teaches the benefit of 
almsgiving, lie who places his treasure on earth has no- 
thing to look for in Heaven; for why should he look up to 
Heaven where he has nothing laid up for himself P Thus 
he doubly sins ; first, because he gathers together things 
evil; secondly, because he has his heart in earth: and BO on 
the contrary he does right in a twofold manner who lays up 
his treasure in Heaven. 

22. The light of the body is the eye : if therefore 
thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of 


23. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall 

be full of darkness. If therefore the li^lit that is in 

thee be darkness, how great is that darkness ' 

Ciikys. Having spoken of the bringing the understanding 
into captivity because it Mas not easy to he understood of 

many, lie transfers it to a sensible instance, saying. The 

light of I 'hi/ body l$ thy ct/c. As though He had said, If you 
do not know what is meant hy the loss of the understanding, 

VER. 22, 23. ST. MATTHEW. 245 

learn a parable of the bodily members ; for what the eye is 
to the body, that the understanding is to the soul. As by 
the loss of the eyes we lose much of the use of the other 
limbs, so when the understanding is corrupted, your life is 
filled with many evils. Jerome. This is an illustration 
drawn from the senses. As the whole body is in darkness, 
where the eye is not single, so if the soul has lost her 
original brightness, every sense, or that whole part of the 
soul to which sensation belongs, will abide in darkness. 
"Wherefore He says, If then the light which is in thee be 
darkness, hoiv great is that darkness ! that is, if the senses 
which are the soul's light be darkened by vice, in how great 
darkness do you suppose the darkness itself will be wrapped? 
Pseido-Chrys. It seems that He is not here speaking of 
the bodily eye, or of the outward body that is seen, or He 
would have said, If thine eye be sound, or weak; but He 
says, single, and evil. But if one have a benign yet diseased 
eye, is his body therefore in light ? Or if an evil yet a sound, 
is his body therefore in darkness ? Jerome. Those who 
have thick eye-sight see the lights multiplied; but the single 
and clear eye sees them single and clear. Chrys. Or ; The 
eye lie speaks of is not the external but the internal eye. 
The light is the understanding, through which the soul sees 
God. He whose heart is turned to God, has an eye full of 
light; that is, his understanding is pure, not distorted by 
the influence of worldly lusts. The darkness in us is our 
bodily senses, which always desire the things that pertain 
to darkness. "Whoso then has a pure eye, that is, a spiritual 
understanding, preserves his body in light, that is, without 
sin; for though the flesh desires evil, yet by the might of 
divine fear the soul resists it. But whoever has an eye, that 
an understanding, either darkened by the influence of the 
malignant passions, or fooled by evil lusts, possesses his 
body in darkness: he does not resist the flesh when it lusts 

after evil things, because ho has no hope in I leaven, which 

hope aloe us the strength to resist desire. Bilary. 

Otherwise; from tin; office of the light of the eve, lie 

calls it the Light of the heart ; which if it continue single and 
brilliant, will confer on the bodj the brightness of the eternal 
light, and pour again into the corrupted flesh the -j>l« ndor of 


origin, that is, in the resurrection. But if it be obscured 

by mii, and evil in will, the bodily nature will yet abide 
Aug. ubi subject to all the evils of the understanding. Aug. Other- 
u ^ mix;; by the eye here we may understand our purpose j if 

that be pure and right, all our works which we work 

according thereto are good. These lie here calls the body, 

Col. S, 6. as the Apostle speaks of certain works as members; Mortify 

your members, fornication and nncleunness. Wc should look 
then, not to what a person does, but with what mind he 
does it. For this is the light within us, because by this we 
Eph. 5, see that we do with good intention what we do. For all 
which cloth make manifest is light. But the deeds them- 
selves, which go forth to men's society, have a result to 
us uneertain, and therefore He calls them darkness ; as 
when I give money to one in need, I know not what he will 
do with it. If then the purport of your heart, which you 
can know, is denied with the lust of temporal things, much 
more is the act itself, of which the issue is uncertain, defiled. 
For even though one should reap good of what you do with 
a purport not good ; it will be imputed to you as you did it, 
not as it resulted to him. If however our works are done 
with a single purport, that is with the aim of charity, then 
Aug. are they pure and pleasing in God's sight. Aug. But 
Mendac. w h* cn Jirc known to be in themselves sins, arc not to be done 
7. as with a good purpose; but such works only as are either 

good or bad, according as the motives from which they are 
done are either good or bad, and are not in them : i i > ; 

as to give food to the poor is good if it be done from merciful 
motives, but evil if it be done from ostentation. Hut such 
Works as ure in themselves .sins, who will say that they are 
to be done with good motives, or that tiny are not sins P 
AY ho would say, Let us rob ; h, thai we may haw 

Greg. g 1V( ' tO the poor'.'' 1 i; if the light that is in 

w ' thee, that is, if what we have begun to do well, we Overcloud 

ii, with evil purpose, when we do things which we know to 

ig. be in the nisei 1 great is the darkness I Rkmig. 

Otherwise; faith is Likened to a light, because by it the 
ord. goings of the inner man, that is, action, are Lightened, that he 

p iiii, should not stumble according to that, Thy word is a light to 

fat. If that then be pure and single, the whole body is 

VER. 24. ST. MATTHEW. 247 

light; but if defiled, the whole body will be dark. Yet 
otherwise ; by the light may be understood the ruler of the 
Church, who may be well called the eye, as he it is that 
ought to see that wholesome things be provided for the 
people under him, which are understood by the body. If 
then the ruler of the Church err, how much more will the 
people subject to him err? 

24. No man can serve two masters : for either 
he will hate the one, and love the other ; or else 
he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye 
cannot serve God and mammon. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The Lord had said above, that he that has 
a spiritual mind is able to keep his body free from sin ; and 
that he who has not, is not able. Of this He here gives 
the reason, saying, No man can serve two masters. Gloss. Gloss. 
Otherwise ; it had been declared above, that good things non occ * 
become evil, when done with a worldly purpose. It might 
therefore have been said by some one, I will do good works 
from worldly and heavenly motives at once. Against this 
the Lord says, No man can serve two masters. Chrys. Or Chrys. 
otherwise; in what had gone before He had restrained the n " xxl " 
tyranny of avarice by many and weighty motives, but He 
now adds vet more. Riches do not onlv harm us in that 
they arm robbers against us, and that they cloud our under- 
standing, but they moreover turn us away from God's ser- 
vice. This He proves from familiar notions, saying, No man 
two matters; two, He means, whose orders arc 
contrary; for concord makes one of many. This is proved 
hat follows, for cither he will hate the one. He men- 
tions two, that we may sue that change for the better is easy. 
if one were to give himself up in despair as having been 

made B to riches, namely, by loving them, he may 

hence learn, that it is possible for him to change; into a 

better - not submitting to Midi slavery, 

but by . Or; He seems to allude to two 01( 

dill'. L i ikI who serve freely for """ 

, another irh lely from tear. It' then one 


serve two masters of contrary character from love, it must 
be that lie hate the one ; if from fear, while he trembles 
before the one, he must despise the other. But as the world 
or God predominate in a man's heart, he must be drawn 
contrary ways; for God draws him who - Him to 

things above; the earth draws to things beneath ; therefore 
He concludes, IV cannot nerve God and mammon. J. 
Mammon — riches are so termed in Syriac. Let the covetous 
man who is called by the Christian name, hear this, that he 
mnot serve both Christ and riches. Yei He said not, 
lie who has riches, but, he who is the servant of riches. 
For he who is the slave of money, guards his m mey as 
a slave; but he who has thrown off the yoke of his sla\ 
Gloss. onl. dispenses them as a master. Gloss. By mammon is meant 
the Devil, who is the lord of money, not that he can be- 
stow them unless where God wills, but because by means of 
Aug. them he deceives men. Aug. Whoso serves mammon, (that 

MonL in ls > riehes,) verily serves him, who, being for desert of his 
u. 14. perversity set over these things of earth, is called by the 
Lord, The prince of this world. Or otherwise; who the two 
masters are lie shcus when He He cannot serve I 

and mammon, that is to say, Cod and the Devil. Either 
then man will hate the one, and love the other, namely ( I 
or, he will endure the one and despise the other. For he who 
is mammon's servant endures a hard master; for ensnared 
by his own lust he has been made subject to the Devil, and 
loves him not. As one whose passions have connected him 
with another man's handmaid, suffers a hard slavery, vet 
loves not him whose handmaid he loves. But He said, will 
despise, and not will hale, the other, for none can with a 
right conscience hate God. But he despises, that is ; fears 
Him not, as being certain of His gondii. 

25, Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for 
lir life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink ; 
nor yel lor your body what ye shall put on. [fl 
the life more than meat, and the body than raimeo 

Aug. The Lord had taught above, that whoso desires to 

'• ; " Love God. and to take heed not to offend, should not think 

Mont. ' ' 

ii. i 

VER. 25. ST. MATTHEW. 249 

that he can serve two masters ; lest though perhaps he may 
not look for superfluities, yet his heart may become double 
for the sake of very necessaries, and his thoughts bent to 
obtain them. Titer ef ore I say unto you, Be not ye careful for 
your l life what ye shall eat, or for your body what ye shall x ^uxh- 
put on. Chrys. He does not hereby mean that the ] spirit 
needs food, for it is incorporeal, but He speaks according 
to common usage, for the soul cannot remain in the body 
unless the body be fed. Aug. Or we may understand the Aug. 
soul in this place to be put for the animal life. Jerome. u l sup ' 
Some MSS. add here, nor what ye shall drink h . That which 
belongs naturally to all animals alike, to brutes and beasts 
of burden as well as to man, from all thought of this we are 
not freed. But we are bid not to be auxious what we 
should eat, for in the sweat of our face we earn our bread ; 
the toil is to be undergone, the anxiety put away. This 
Be not careful, is to be taken of bodily food and clothing ; 
for the food and clothing of the spirit it becomes us to be 
alwavs careful. Aug. There are certain heretics called 
Euchita3 c , who hold that a monk may not do any work even 8eres# ' 
for his support; who embrace this profession that they 
may be freed from necessity of daily labour. Aug. For they Aug. 
gay the Apostle did not speak of personal labour, such as Monaco 
that of husbandmen or craftsmen, when he said, Who will not l et se( i- 

2 Thess. 

•/•, neither let him eat. For he could not be so contrar}' ^, 10. 
to the Gospel where it is said, Therefore I say unto you. Be 
.1 r tin fnl. Then fore in that saying of the Apostle we are 
to understand spiritual works, of which it is elsewhere said, 
/ have planted, Apollos watereth. And thus they think them- 1 Cor. 
- obedient to the Apostolic precept, interpreting the'' 
pel to of not taking care for the needs of the body, 

and the Apottle to Bpeak of spiritual labour and food. First 
let DJ DT0T6 that the Apostle meant that the servants of God 
should labour with the body. He had said, Ye yottrsrlrrs 

know ho\ "jid to imitate u$ in I /mi we were not trouble* 

I. properly of the fourth 

, followin 'it theii name 

•.ft' n t;i! v. ii h 

-I and i, it Dot di Died, the i 

■ ii. 


ne among you, nor did we eat any mans bread for nought ; 
but travailing in labour and. weariness day and night, that we 

might not be burdensome to any of you. Not thai we I 
not power, but that we might offer ourselves as a pattern to 
you which ye should imitate. For when we were anion// 
you, this ice taught among you, that if a man would not 
work, neither should he eat. What shall we say to this, 
since lie taught by his example what he delivered in precept, 
in that he himself wrought with his own hands. Th; 
Acts 18, 3. proved from the Acts, where it is said, that he abode with 
Aquila and his wife Priscilla, labouring with them, for they 
-were tent-makers. And yet to the Apostle, as a preacher of 
the Gospel, a soldier of Christ, a planter of the vineyard, a 
shepherd of his flock, the Lord had appointed that he should 
live of the Gospel, but he refused that payment which was 
justly his due, that he might present himself an example to 
those who exacted what was not due to them. Let tl 
hear this who have not that power which he had ; namely, 
of eating bread for nought, and only labouring with spiritual 
labour. If indeed they be Evangelists, if ministers of the 
Altar, if dispensers of the Sacraments, they have this power. 
Or if they had had in this world possessions, whei 
they might without labour ha\e supported themselves, and 
had on their turning to God distributed this to the n< 
then were their infirmity to be believed and to be borne 
with. And it would not import whatever place it was in 
which he made the distribution, seeing there is but one 
Commonwealth of all Christians. But they who enter the 
profession of God's service from the country life, from the 
workman's craft, or the common labour, if they work 
are not to be excused. Tor it is by no means fitting that 
in that life in which senators become labourers, there should 
labouring men become idle; or that where lords of farms 
Come having given up their luxuries, there should rustic 
slaves Come to find luxury. JL>ut when the Lord Bays, Be 
not ye cartful, lie dors not mean that they should not pro- 
cure such th: - they have need of, wherever they may 
honestly, but that they shouid not look to these th, 
and should not for their sake do what they ai. inanded 
to do in preaching the Gospel; for this intention lie had a 

VER. 26, 27. ST. MATTHEW. 251 

little before called the eye. Chrys. Or we may connect the 
context otherwise ; When the Lord had inculcated contempt 
of money, that none might say, How then shall we be able 
to live when we have given up our all ? He adds, Therefore 
I say unto you, Take no thought for your life. Gloss. That Gloss. 
is, Be not withdrawn by temporal cares from things eternal. lnterlin - 
Jerome. The command is therefore, not to be anxious what 
vje shall eat. For it is also commanded, that in the sweat of 
our face we must eat bread. Toil therefore is enjoined, 
carking forbidden. Pseldo-Chrys. Bread may not be gained 
by carefulness of spirit, but by toil of body ; and to them 
that will labour it abounds, God bestowing it as a reward 
of their industry ; and is lacking to the idle, God with- 
drawing it as a punishment of their sloth. The Lord also 
confirms our hope, and descending first from the greater to 
the less, says, Is not the life more than meat, and the body 
than raiment ? Jerome. He who has given the greater, 
will lie not also give the less? Pseudo-Chrys. For had 
lie not willed that that which was should be preserved, He 
had not created it; but what He so created that it should be 
preserved by food, it is necessary that He give it food, as 
long as He would have it to be preserved. Hilary. Otherwise; 
Because the thoughts of the unbelievers were ill-employed 
respecting care of things future, cavilling concerning what is 
to be the appearance of our bodies in the resurrection, what 
the food in the eternal life, therefore He continues, Is not the 
life more than food? lie will not endure that our hope should 
hang in care for the meat and drink and clothing that is to 
be in the resurrection, lest there should be affront given to 
Him wlio has given us the more precious things, in our being 
iuus that lie should also give us the lesser. 

I. Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, 

neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your 

venly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much 

y ? 

'±1 '. Which of you by taking thought can add one 

cubit unto ! 

r budo-Cu iving confirmed our hope by this arguing 


from the greater to the less, lie next confirms it by an 

argument from less to greater, Behold the fowls of the air, 

Aug. they SOW not, neither do they reap. Air,. Some argue 

j! ()p \ that they ought not to labour, because the fowls of the air 
Dfonaeh. J 

23. neither sow nor reap. Why then do they not attend to that 

which follows, neither gather into barns? Why do they 

seek to have their hands idle, and their storehouses full? 
Why indeed do they grind corn, and dress it? For this do 
not the birds. Or even if they find men whom they can 
persuade to supply them day by day with victuals ready 
prepared, at least they draw water from the spring, and 
on table for themselves, which the birds do not. But if 
neither are they driven to fill themselves vessels with water, 
then have they gone one new step of righteousness beyond 
Vid. Acts those who were at that time at Jerusalem, who of corn sent 
11, 29 - to them of free gift, made, or caused to be made, lo; 

which the birds do not. But not to lay up any thing for the 
morrow cannot be observed by those, who for many days 
together withdrawn from the sight of men, and suffering 
none to approach them, shut themselves up, to live in much 
fervency of prayer. What? will you say that the more 
holy men become, the more unlike the birds of the air in 
this respect they become? What He says respecting the 
birds of the air, He says to this end, that none of His ser- 
vants should think that God has no thought of their wants, 
when they see Him so provide even for these inferior crea- 
tures. Neither is it not God that feeds those that earn their 
bread by their own labour; neither because God hath said, 
Ts. 50, 15. Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I trill deliver lliee, 
ought the Apostle therefore not to have fled, but to have 
remained still to have been seized, thai (iod might save him 
as lie did the Three Children out of the midst of the fire. 
Should any object in this sort to the saints in their flight 
from persecution, they would answer that they OUght not to 
tempi God, and that (iod, if He pleased, would so (\o to 
deliver them as lie had done Daniel from the lions, Peter 
from prison, then when they could no longer help them- 
selves; but thai in having made (light possible to them, 
should i\\v\ be saved by flight, it was by (iod that they 

were saved. In Like manner, such of Clod's servants ;b have 

VER. 26, 27. ST. MATTHEW. 253 

strength to earn their food by the labour of their hands, 
would easily answer any who should object to them this out 
of the Gospel concerning the birds of the air, that they nei- 
ther sow nor reap ; and would say, If we by sickness or any 
other hindrance are not able to work, He will feed us as He 
feeds the birds, that work not. But when we can work, we 
ought not to tempt God, seeing that even this our ability is 
His gift ; and that we live here we live of His goodness that 
has made us able to live ; He feeds us by whom the birds of 
the air are fed; as He says, Your heavenly Father feedeth 
them. Are not ye of much greater value ? Aug. Ye are of Aug. 
more value, because a rational auimal, such as man is, is jjJJJJj [•* 
higher in the scale of nature than an irrational, such as are 15. 
the birds of the air. Id. Indeed a higher price is often Aug. de 
given for a horse than a slave, for a jewel than for a waiting JUiq* 1 ' 
maid, but this not from reasonable valuation, but from the 
need of the person requiring, or rather from his pleasure 
desiring it. Pseudo-Chrys. For God created all animals 
for man, but man for himself; therefore by how much 
the more precious is the creation of man, so much the 
greater is God's care for him. If then the birds without 
toiling find food, shall man not find, to whom God has given 
both knowledge of labour and hope of fruitfuluess? Jerome. 
There be some who, seeking to go beyond the limits of their 
fathers, and to soar into the air, sink into the deep and are 
drowned. These will have the birds of the air to mean the 
is, and the other powers in the ministry of God, who 
without any care of their own are fed by God's providence. 
But if this be indeed as they would have it, how follows it, 
said to men, Are not ye of more worth than they? It must be 
taken then in the plain sense; It' birds, that to-day are, and 
to-morrow are not, he nourished by God's providence, without 

thought or toil of their own, how much more men, to whom 

HILARY. It may he said, that under 

the name of birds, \\c exhorta ns by the example of the 

unclean spirits, t<> whom, without any trouble of their own in 

og it, provision of life is given by the power 

rnal Wisdom. And to had as to i . i". r this t<> the un- 

m spirit Ids, Are not ye of much more value 

than they? Thus shewing the great interval between pietj 

2."j4 gospel accorde ciiaf. vi. 

Gloss. and wickedness. ( Tic teaches us not only by the 

non occ instance of tlio birds, but adds a, farther proof, that to our 

being and life our own care is not enough, but Divine 

Providence therein works ; saying, Which of yon by taking 

thought ran add one cubit to his stature? Psi.rnn-' 
1'or it is God who day by day works the growth of your 
body, yourself not feeling it. If then the Providence of God 
works thus daily in your very body, how shall that same 
Frovidcnce withhold from working in necessaries of Li 
And if by taking thought you cannot add the smallest part 
to your body, how shall you by taking thought be altogether 
Au£. saved? Aug. Or it may be connected with what follow- 
Mont n as though He should say, It was not by our care that our 
15. body was brought to its present stature; so that we may 

know that if we desired to add one cubit to it, we should not 
be able. Leave then the care of clothing that body to Him 
who made it to grow to its present stature. IIii.uiy. Other- 
wise; As by the example of the spirits lie had fixed our 
faith in the supply of food for our lives, so now by a decision 
of common understanding He cuts off all anxiety about 
supply of clothing. Seeing that He it is who shall raise in 
one perfect man every various kind of body that ever drew 
breath, and is alone able to add one or two or three cubits 
to each man's stature; surely in being anxious concerning 
clothing, that is, concerning the appearance of our bodies, 
we oder affront to Him who will add so much to each man's 
Aus. <1c stature as shall bring all to an equality. Are,. Hut if Christ 
xxii \6* rnsc a £ a ' u w '* n the same stature with which He died, r 

impious to say that when the time of the resurrection of all 
shall come, there shall be added to His body a bigness that 
it had not at His own resurrection, (for Me appeared to His 
disciples with that body in which lie had been known 
among them,) such that He shall be equalled to the tallest 
among men. [f again we say that all men's bodies, whether 
tall or short, shall be alike 1 brought to the size and statin 
the Lord's body, then much will perish from many bo. 
though lie has declared that not a hair shall fall. It 
remains therefore that each be raised in his own stature — 
that stature which he had in youth, if he died in old age ; if 
in childhood that stature to which he would have attained 

VER. 28 30. ST. MATTHEW. 255 

had he lived. For the Apostle says not, ' To the measure of 

the stature/ but, To the measure of the full age of Christ. Eph.4, 13. 

For the bodies of the dead shall rise in youth and maturity, 

to which we know that Christ attained d . 

28. And why take ye thought for raiment? Con- 
sider the lilies of the field, how they grow ; they toil 
not, neither do they spin : 

29. And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon 
in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 

30. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the 
field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the 
oven, shall Pie not much more clothe you, O ye of 
little faith ? 

Chkts. Having shewn that it is not right to be anxious Chrys. 
about food, He passes to that which is less; (for raiment is om - XXIh 
not so necessary as food ;) and asks, And why are ye care- 
ful ivherewith ye shall be clothed? He uses not here the 
instance of the birds, when He might have drawn some to 
the point, as the peacock, or the swan, but brings forward 
the lilies, saying, Consider the lilies of the field. He would 
prove in two things the abundant goodness of God ; to wit, 
richness of the beauty witli which they are clothed, and 
the mean value of the things so clothed with it. Aug. The Aug. 
thin anced are not to be allegorized so that we enquire n 0nt% 'ij, 

what is denoted by the birds of the air, or the lilies of the 15 - 
field; they are only examples to prove God's care for the 

»re for the less. Pseudo-Chrys. For 
lilies within a fixed time arc formed into branches, clothed 
in whir . and endowed with sweet odour, God conveying 

by mm i operation, what tin; earth had not given to the 

root. But in all the tame perfectnets is observed, that they 

may not be thought to ! en formed by chance, but may 

.Mown* rdered by God's providence. WhenHesays, 

They /oil //of, II< r the comfort of men ; Neither do 

tiny spin, for the women. ChRTS. He forbids not labour, 

'Mi h which is thirty three ;" vi.l. BUhop 


but carefulness, both here and above when lie spoke of 
GIom. non sowing. G-L088. And for the greater exaltation of God's 
providence in those things that arc beyond human in- 
dustry, He adds, / say vnto yon, that Solomon in all his 
glory loas not arrayed like one of these. JEROME, lor, 
iii Booth, what regal purple, what silk, what web of divers 
colours from the loom, may vie with flowers? What work of 
man has the n-d blush of the rose? the pure white of the 
lily? How the Tyrian dye yields to the viol t alone 

and not words can express. Cheys. Al widely as truth 
differs from falsehood, so widely do our clothes differ from 
flowers. If then Solomon, who was more eminent than 
all other kings, was yet surpassed by flowers, how shall 
you exceed the beauty of flowers by your garments ? And 
Solomon was exceeded by the flowers not once only, or 
twice, but throughout his whole reign; and this is that lie 
says, In all his glory ; for no one day was he arrayed as 
are the flowers. Pseudo-Chrys. Or the meaning may be, 
that Solomon though he toiled not for his own raiment, yet 
he gave command for the making of it. But where com- 
mand is, there is often found both offence of them that 
minister, and wrath of him that commands. When then any 
are without these things, then they are arrayed as arc the 
lilies. Hilary. Or; By the lilies are to be understood the 
eminences of the heavenly Angels, to whom a surpassing 
radiance of whiteness is communicated by Clod. They toil 
not, neither do they spin, because the angelic powers received 
in the very first allotment of their existence such a nature, 
that as they were made so they should ever continue to be; 
and when in the resurrection men shall be like unto Ail 
He would have them look for a cover angelic glory 

by this example of angelic excellence. Pseudo-Chrys, If 
God then thus provides for the flowers of the earth, which 
only spring up that they may be seen and die, shall lie 
rlook men, whom lie has created not to be Been for a 
time but that they should he for ever? JEROME. To-morrow 
iu Scripture is put Cor time future in general. Jacob - 
Gen. 30, So shall my rir/hlcuus/Hss answer for me to-morroir. And 
iu the phantasm of Samuel, the Pythoness Bays to Saul, To- 

1 Sam. ' ' ' 

28,19. morrow shall thoa be with mt. GLOSS, Some copies have 

VER. 31 — 33. ST. MATTHEW. 257 

into the fire, or, into an heap, which has the appearance of 
an oven. Chrys. He calls them no more lilies, but the 
grass of the field, to shew their small worth ; and adds more- 
over another cause of their small value; which to-day is. 
And He said not, and to-morrow is not, but what is yet 
greater fall, is cast into the oven. In that He says, How 
much more you, is implicitly conveyed the dignity of the 
human race, as though He had said, You to whom He has 
given a soul, for whom He has contrived a body, to whom He 
has sent Prophets and gave His only-begotten Son. Gloss. 
He says, of little faith, for that faith is little which is not 
sure of even the least things. Hilary. Or, under the sig- 
nification of grass the Gentiles are pointed to. If then an 
eternal existence is only therefore granted to the Gentiles, 
that they may soon be handed over to the judgment fires; 
how impious it is that the saints should doubt of attain- 
ing to eternal glory, when the wicked have eternity bestowed 
on them for their punishment. Remig. Spiritually, by the 
birds of the air are meant the Saints who are born again in 
the water of holy Baptism e ; and by devotion raise them- 
selves above the earth and seek the skies. The Apostles are 
said to be of more value than these, because they are the 
heads of the Saints. By the lilies also may be understood 
the Saints, who without the toil of legal ceremonies pleased 
God by faith alone; of whom it is said, My Beloved, who Cant.2,16. 
feedeth among the lilies. Holy Church also is understood 
by the lilies, because of the whiteness of its faith, and the 
odour of its good conversation, of which it is said in the same 
place, As the lily among I he. thorns. By the grass are de- 
noted the unbelievers, of whom it is said, The grass hath Is. 10, 7. 
dried "/j, and the flowers thereof faded. By the oven eternal 
damnation; so that the sense be, If God bestows temporal 
goods on the unbelievers, how much more shall lie bestow 
on you eternal good 

31. Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall 
we cat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal 
shall we be clothed? 

• Vid. L iry Hymn, DtfU Pot< 

VOL. I. s 


32. (For after all these things do the Gentiles 
seek :) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye 
have need of all these things. 

33. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and His 
righteousness ; and all these things shall he added 
unto you. 

Glos?. Gloss. Having thus expressly cut off all anxiety con- 

uon occ cennng food and raiment, by an argument drawn from 
observation of the inferior creation, He follows it up by 
a further prohibition ; Be not ye therefore careful, Baying, 
What shall we eat, what shall we drink, or wherewithal 
shall we be clothed ? Remig. The Lord repeated this, that 
He might shew how highly necessary this precept is, and 
that He might inculcate it more strongly on our hearts. 
Raban. It should be observed that He does not say, Do 
not ye seek, or be thoughtful for, food, drink, and raiment, 
but what ye shall eat, what ye shall drink, or wherewithal 
ye shall be clothed. Wherein they seem to me to be con- 
victed, who, using themselves the usual food and clothing, 
require of those with whom they live either greater sump- 
Gloss, tuousness, or greater austerity in both. Gloss. There is 
also a further needless solicitude wherein men sin, when 
they lay by of produce or money more than necessity re- 
quires, and leaving spiritual things, are intent on these 
things, as though despairing of the goodness of God; this 
is what is forbidden; for after all these things do the O'e/i- 
tilcs seek. Pseudo-ChryS, Since their belief is that it is 
Fortune and not Pro\ idence that has place in human affairs, 
and think not that their lives are directed by God'a coun- 
sel, but follow the uncertain chance, they accordimrlv fear 
and despair, as having none to guide them. Hut lie who 
believes that lie is guided by God'a counsel, entrusts his 
provision of food to God'a band; as it follows, fur your 
Father knoweth that ye hare need of these thinj/s. Chi:v\ 
He said not f God knoweth,' but, Your Father knoweth, in 
order to lead them to higher hope ; for if lie be their Father, 
lie will not endure to forget His children, since not even 
human lathers could do so. lie says, That ye have need of 

non occ. 

VER. 31 — 33. ST. MATTHEW. 259 

all these things, in order that for that very reason, because 
they are necessary, ye may the more lay aside all anxiety. 
For he who denies his son bare necessaries, after what 
fashion is he a father? But for superfluities they have no 
right to look with the like confidence. Aug. God did not Aug. de 
gain this knowledge at any certain time, but before all time, 13> 
without beginning of knowledge, foreknew that the things of 
the world would be, and among others, both what and when 
we should ask of Him. Id. As to what some say that these 
things are so many that they cannot be compassed by the x ij/i 8# ' 
knowledge of God; they ought with like reason to maintain 
further that God cannot know all numbers, which are cer- 
tainly infinite. But infinity of number is not beyond the 
compass of His understanding, who is Himself infinite. 
Therefore if whatever is compassed by knowledge, is bound- 
ed by the compass of him that has the knowledge, then 
is all infinity in a certain unspeakable way bounded by 
God, because it is not incomprehensible by His knowledge. 
Nemesius. That there is a Providence, is shewn by such Nemes. 
signs as the following; The continuance of all things, of ct „^42 
those things especially which are in a state of decay and 
reproduction, and the place and order of all things that exist 
is ever preserved in one and the same state; and how could 
this be dune unless by some presiding power? But some 
affirm that God does indeed care for the general continuance 
of all things in the universe, and provides for this, but that 
all particular events depend on contingency. Now there are 
but three reasons that can be alleged for God exercising no 
providence of particular events ; either God is ignorant that 
it is good to have knowledge of particular things; or He is 
unwilling; or He is unable. But ignorance is altogether alien 
from blessed substance; for how shall God not know what 
man knows, that if particulars were destroyed, the 
whole would b troyed? But nothing prevents all indi- 
viduals from perishing; when no power watchi r them. 
If, again, He be unwilling, this must be from one of two 
I one; inactivity, or the meanness of the occupation. But 
inactivity is produced by two things; either we are drawn 

Mid im; pleasure, or hindered by some fear, neither of 

which can be piously supposed of God. If they affirm that it 


would he unbecoming, for that it is beneath such blessed- 
ness to stoop to things so trifling, how is it not inconsistent 
that a workman overseeing the whole of any machine, leaves 
no part however insignificant without attention, knowing the 
■whole is but made up of the parts, and thus pronounce God 
the Creator of all things to be less wise than craftsmen? 
But if it be that lie is unable, then is He unable to bestow 
b( uefits on us. But if we are unable to comprehend the 
manner of special Providence, we have not therefore any 
right to deny its operation; we might as well say that, 
because we did not know the number of mankind, therefore 
there were no men. Pseudo-Chrys. Thus then let him 
who believes himself to be under the rule of God's counsel, 
commit his provision into God's hand ; but let him meditate 
of good and evil, which if he do not, he will neither shun the 
evil, nor lay hold of the good. Therefore it is added, Seek 
ye first the kingdom of God, and J/is righteousness. The 
kingdom of God is the reward of good works; His righteous- 
ness is the way of piety by which we go to that kingdom. 
If then you consider how great is the glory of the Saints, 
you will either through fear of punishment depart from evil, 
or through desire of glory hasten to good. And if you 
consider what is the righteousness of God, what lie loves, 
and what He hates, the righteousness itself will Bhew you 
His ways, as it attends on those that love it. And the 
account we shall have to render is not whether we have 
been poor or rich, but whether we have done well or 
Gloss. ill, which is in our own power. Gross. Or, He 

His righteousness, as though lie were to say, ' Ye are 

made righteous through Ilim, and not through you. 

T , i DO-ChRTS. The earth for man's sin is aeeursed that it 

should not put forth fruit, according to that in Gent 

Oen. 8,1 7. Cursed is the ground la thy works; but when we do well, 

then it is blessed. Seek righteousness therefore, and thou 

shalt not Lack food. Wherefore it follows, ami all these 

Aug. things shall be added unto you. AUG. To wit, these tem- 

isioni m l )(), ' a l g ()(,( l s which are thus manifestly shewn not to be 

ii. Iti. such goods as those goods of ours for the sake of w hieh 

We ought to do Well; and vet they are Decessaiy. The 

kingdom of God and His righteousness is our good which 

VER. 34. ST. MATTHEW. 261 

we ought to make our end. But since in order to attain 
this end we are militant in this life, which may not be lived 
without supply of these necessaries, He promises, These 
things shall be added unto you. That He says, first, implies 
that these are to be sought second not in time, but in value; 
the one is our good, the other necessary to us. For example, 
we ought not to preach that we may eat, for so we should 
hold the Gospel as of less value than our food; but we 
should therefore eat that we may preach the Gospel. But 
if we seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, 
that is, set this before all other things, and seek other things 
for the sake of this, we ought not to be anxious lest we 
should lack necessaries; and therefore He says, All these 
things shall be added unto you; that is, of course, without 
being an hindrance to you : that you may not in seeking 
them be turned away from the other, and thus set two ends 
before you. Chrys. And He said not, Shall be given, but, 
Shall be added, that you may learn that the things that are 
now, are nought to the greatness of the things that shall be. 
Aug. But when we read that the Apostle suffered hunger Serm. in 
and thirst, let us not think that God's promises failed him; \( ^' 
for these things are rather aids. That Physician to whom 
we have entirely entrusted ourselves, knows when He will 
give and when He will withhold, as lie judges most for our 
advantage. So that should these things ever be lacking to 
us, (as God to exercise us often permits,) it will not weaken 
our fixed purpose, but rather confirm it when wavering. 

34. 'lake therefore no thought for the morrow: 
for the morrow shall take thought for the things of 
itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. 

Gloss. Haying forbid anxiety for the things of the day, Glow. ap. 

He DOW forbids anxiety lor future things, such a frnit less ' Mv m * 
'Is from the fault of men, in these words, He 
>//' an i 'tuns ulj'jii; the mOTTOW. JBBOME. To-morrow in 

Scriptui .Hies time future, as Jacob in Gem lySj 

To-morrOW shall mi/ rii/lilr<jiisncsH hiur me And in the On 

phanta Quel the Python* to Saul, To-morrow «* 

2H, 1!>. 


shall thou he with me. lie yields therefore iinto them that 
they should care for things present, though He forhids them 
to take thought for tilings to come. For sufficient for us is 
the thought of time present; let us leave to God the future 
which is uncertain. And this is that He says, The morrow 
shall be anxious for itself ; that is, it shall bring its own 
anxiety with it. For sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. 
My evil He means here not that which is contrary to virtue, 
but toil, and affliction, and the hardships of life. Chrys. 
Nothing brings so much pain to the spirit as anxiety and 
cark. That lie says, The morrow shall be anxious for 
itself, comes of desire to make more plain what He speaks; 
to that end employing a prosopopeia of time, after the prac- 
tice of many in speaking to the rude populace; to impress 
them the more, lie brings in the day itself complaining 
of its too heavy cares. Has not every day a burden enough 
of its own, in its own cares? why then do you add to them 
by laying on those that belong to another day? PsEUDO- 
Chbys. Otherwise; By to-day are signified such things as are 
needful for us in this present life; To-morrow denotes those 
things that are superfluous. Be not ye therefore anxious for 
the morrow, thus means, Seek not to have aught beyond that 
which is necessary for your daily life, for that which is over 
and above, i.e. To-morrow, shall care for itself. To-morrow 
shall be anxious for itself, is as much as to say, when you 
have heaped up superfluities, they shall care for themselves, 
you shall not cniov them, but thev shall find manv lords 
who shall care for them. Why then should you be anxious 
about those things, the property of which you must part 
with? Sufficient for the day is its own evil, as mueh as to say, 

The toil you undergo for nea ssaries i^ enough, do not toil for 
Aug. things superfluous, Am.. Or otherwise; To-morrow ia said 
ubiBup. on |y of time where future succeeds to past. When then we 

WOrk any good work, \\ e think not of eart lily but of heavenly 

things. The morrow shall be anxious fin* Useff, that is, Take 

food and the like, when you ought to take it, that I8j when 

necessity begins to call for it. For sufficient for the day is 
its men evil, that i^. it is enough that necessity shall compel 

1 » take these things; He calls it cril, because it is penal, 

inasmuch as it pertains to our mortality, which we earned 

VER. 34. ST. MATTHEW. 263 

by sinning. To this necessity then of worldly punishment, 
add no further weight, that you may not only fulfil it, but 
may even so fulfil it as to shew yourself God's soldier. 
But herein we must be careful, that, when we see any 
servant of God endeavouring to provide necessaries either 
for himself, or those committed to his care, we do not 
straight judge him to sin against this command of the Lord 
in being anxious for the morrow. For the Lord Himself, 
to whom Angels ministered, thought good to carry a bag 
for example sake. And in the Acts of the Apostles it is 
written, that food necessary for life was provided for future 
time, at a time when famine threatened. What the Lord 
condemns therefore, is not the provision of these things after 
the manner of men, but if a man because of these things 
does not fight as God's soldier. Hilary. This is further 
comprehended under the full meaning of the Divine words. 
We are commanded not to be careful about the future, be- 
cause sufficient for our life is the evil of the days wherein 
we live, that is to say, the sins, that all our thought and 
pains be occupied in cleansing this away. And if our care 
be slack, yet will the future be careful for itself, in that 
there is held out to us a harvest of eternal love to be pro- 
vided by God. 


1. Judge not, that ye be not judged. 

2. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be 
judged : and with what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured to you again. 

Aug. ubi Arc. Since when these temporal things are provided 
SU] * beforehand against the future, it is uncertain with what 

purpose it is done, as it may he with a single or double 
mind, He opportunely subjoins, Judge not. PsbudO-Chbys, 
Otherwise; He has drawn out thus far the consequences 
of His injunctions of almsgiving; He now takes up those 
respecting prayer. And this doctriue is in a sort a con- 
tinuation of that of the prayer ; as though it should run, 
Forgive us our debts, and then should follow, Judge not, that 
ye be not judged. Jbbomb. But if He forbids us to judge, 
how then does Paul judge the Corinthian who had com- 
mitted uncleanness ? Or Peter convict Ananias and Sap- 
phira of falsehood ? PSBUDO-CHBYS. But sonic explain this 
place after a sense, as though the Lord did not herein forbid 
Christians to reprove others out of good will, but only in- 
tended that Christians should not despise Christians by 
making a show of their own righteousness, hating others 
often on suspicion alone, condemning them, and pursuing 
private grudgei under the show of piety. Chbys. Where- 
fore lie does not say, ' Do not cause a sinner to cease/ but 
do not judge; that is, be not a bitter judge; correct him 
indeed, but not M an enemy seeking revenge, but as a phy- 
sician applying a remedy. Pbbi do-Chbyb. But that not 
even thus should Christiana correct Christians is shewn by 
that expression, Judge not. But if they do not thus cor- 


rect, shall they therefore obtain forgiveness of their sins, 
because it is said, and ye shall not be judged ? For who 
obtains forgiveness of a former sin, by not adding another 
thereto ? This we have said, desiring to shew that this 
is not here spoken concerning not judging our neighbour 
who shall sin against God, but who may sin against our- 
selves. For whoso does not judge his neighbour who 
has sinned against him, him shall not God judge for his 
sin, but will forgive him his debt even as he forgave. 
Chrys. Otherwise; He does not forbid us to judge all sin 
absolutely, but lays this prohibition on such as are them- 
selves full of great evils, and judge others for very small 
evils. In like manner Paul does not absolutely forbid to 
judge those that sin, but finds fault with disciples that 
judged their teacher, and instructs us not to judge those 
that are above us. Hilary. Otherwise ; He forbids us to 
judge God touching His promises; for as judgments among 
men are founded on things uncertain, so this judgmeut 
against God is drawn from somewhat that is doubtful. And 
He therefore would have us put away the custom from us 
altogether j for it is not here as in other cases where it is 
sin to have given a false judgment; but here we have 
begun to sin if we have pronounced any judgment at all. 
Aug. I suppose the command here to be no other than Aug. 
that we should always put the best interpretation on such j^™' m 
actions as seem doubtful with what mind thev were done. "• l8 - 
But concerning such as cannot be done with good purpose, 
as adulteries, blasphemies, and the like, lie permits us to 
judge; but of indifferent actions which admit of being done 
with either good or bad purpose, it is rash to judge, but 
especially so to condemn. There are two cases in which 
ihoold be particularly on our guard against hasty jud^- 
menttj when it does not appear with what mind the action 

done ; and when it does not yet appear, what sort of 
man any one may turn out, who now serins either good or 
bad. Wherefore we should neither blame those thing! of 
which we know with what mind they are done, nor so blame 

c thingl which arc; manifest, as though we despaired of 
I Aery. Here one may think there is difficulty in what 

follow*! Wiik what judgment ye judge ye ihall be judged* 


If we judge a hasty judgment, will God also judge us with 
the like? Or if we have measured with a false measure, is 
there with God a false measure whence it may be measured 
to us again? For by measure I suppose is here meant judg- 
ment. Surely this is only said, that the haste in which you 
punish another shall be itself your punishment. For in- 
justice often does no harm to him who suffers the wrong ; but must alwavs hurt him who does the wronj?. Id. Some 
xxi. 11. ' sa y> How is it true that Christ says, And with ivhat measure 
ye shall mete it shall be measured to you again, if temporal 
sin is to be punished by eternal suffering? They do not 
observe that it is not said the same measure, because of the 
equal space of time, but because of the equal retribu- 
tion — namely, that he who has done evil should suffer evil, 
though even in that sense it might be said of that of which 
the Lord spoke here, namely of judgments and condemna- 
tions. Accordingly, he that judges and condemns unjustly, 
if he is judged and condemned, justly receives in the same 
measure though not the same thing that lie gave; by judg- 
ment he did what was unjust, by judgment he suffers what 
is just. 

3. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy 
brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in 
thine own eye ? 

4. Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me 
pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a 
beam is in thine own eye ? 

5. Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of 
thine own eye ; and then shalt thou see clearly to 
cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye. 

Aug. Id. The Lord having admonished us concerning hasty 

Mont aiu ^ Unjust judgment j and because that they are most given 

ii. 18. to rash judgment, who jndge concerning things uncertain; 

and they most readily find fault, who love rather to speak 

evil and to condemn than to cure and to correct; a fault 

that springs cither from pride or jealousy — therefore lie 

VER. 3 — 5. ST. MATTHEW. 267 

subjoins, Why seest thou the mote in thy brother's eye, and 
seest not the beam in thy own eye ? Jerome. He speaks of 
such as, though themselves guilty of mortal sin, do not for- 
give a trivial fault in their brother. Aug. As if he perhaps Aug. ubi 
have sinned in anger, and you correct him with settled sup * 
hate. For as great as is the difference between a beam and 
a mote, so great is the difference between anger and hatred. 
For hatred is anger become inveterate. It may be if you are 
angry with a man that you would have him amend, not so if 
you hate him. Chrys. Many do this, if they see a Monk 
having a superfluous garment, or a plentiful meal, they break 
out into bitter accusation, though themselves daily seize and 
devour, and suffer from excess of drinking. Pseudo- Chrys. 
Otherwise ; This is spoken to the doctors. For every sin is 
either a great or a small sin according to the character of 
the sinner. If he is a laic, it is small and a mote in com- 
parison of the sin of a priest, which is the beam. Hilary. 
Otherwise; The sin against the Holy Spirit is to take from 
God power which has influences, and from Christ substance 
which is of eternity, through whom as God came to man, 
so shall man likewise come ' to God. As much greater then ' al. fiet. 
as is the beam than the mote, so much greater is the sin 
against the Holy Spirit than all other sins. As when unbe- 
lievers object to others carnal sins, and secrete in them- 
selves the burden of that sin, to wit, that they trust not the 
promises of God, their minds being blinded as their eye 
;nt be by a beam. 

PftBl no-Cm: vs. That is, with what face can you charge 
your brother with sin, when yourself are living in the same 
or a yet greater sin? Aug. "When then we are brought Aujr. 
under the necessity of finding fault with any, let us first 'jj™|' )" 
Consider whether the sin be such as we have never had ; lfc 

>ndly that we are yet men, and may fall into it; then, 
whether it be one that we have had, and are now without, 
and then let our common frailty come into our mind, that 
pity and not hate may ^o before correction. Should we 
find ourselves jn the same fault, let us not reprove, but 

m with the offender, and invite him to struggle with us. 
Seldom indeed and in ea^es of great necessity ifl reproof to 
be employed; and then only that the Lord may be seiud 


and not ourselves. Psetjdo-Ciirys. Otherwise; How say est 
thou to thy brother; that is, with what purpose? From 
charity, that you may save your neighbour? Surely not, for 
you would first save yourself. You desire therefore not to 
heal others, but by good doctrine to cover bad life, and to 
gain praise of learning from men, not the reward of edifying 
from God, and you are a hypocrite ; as it follows, Thou hypo- 
Au ?- _ crite, cast first the beam out of thine own eye. Aug. For to 

Serm. in . 

Mont. reprove sin is the duty or the good, which when the bad do, 

lu 19 - they act a part, dissembling their own character, and as- 
suming one that does not belong to them. Oiirys. And it 
is to be noted, that whenever lie intends to denounce any 
great sin, He begins with an epithet of reproach, as below, 

Mat. 18, Thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that . debt ; and so 
here, Thou hypocrite, cast out first. For each one knows 
better the things of himself than the things of others, 
and sees more the things that be great, than the tilings 
that be lesser, and loves himself more than his neighbour. 
Therefore He bids him who is chargeable with many sins, 
not to be a harsh judge of another's faults, especially if they 
be small. Herein not forbidding to arraign and correct; 
but forbidding to make light of our own sins, and magnify 
those of others. For it behoves you first diligently to 
examine how great may be your owu sins, and then try 
those of j r our neighbour; whence it follows, and then shall 
thou see clearly to cast the mote out of thy brother's eye. 

A «g- Aug. For having removed from our own eye the beam of 
envy, of malice, or hypocrisy, we shall see clearly to cast 
the beam out of our brother's eve. 

ubi sup. 

6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, 
neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they 
trample them under their feet, and turn again and 
rend you. 

Aug. obi Aug. Because the simplicity to which lie had been di- 

SU1> * recting in the foregoing precepts might lead some wrongly 
to conclude that it v>as equally wrong to hide the truth as to 
utter what was false, He well adds, Wire not that which is 

VER. 6. ST. MATTHEW. 269 

holy to the dogs, and cast not your pearls before swine. 
Psecdo-Chrys. Otherwise ; The Lord had commanded us to 
love our enemies, and to do good to those that sin against 
us. That from this Priests might not think themselves 
obliged to communicate also the things of God to such, He 
checked any such thought saying, Give not that which is 
holy to the dogs; as much as to say, I have bid you love 
your enemies, and do them good out of your temporal goods, 
but not out of My spiritual goods, without distinction. For 
they are your brethren by nature but not by faith, and God 
gives the good things of this life equally to the worthy and 
the unworthy, but not so spiritual graces. Aug. Let us see Aug. 
now what is the holy thing, what are the dogs, what the ^onl" "* 
pearls, what the swine. The holy thing is all that it were »i 20. 
impiety to corrupt ; a sin which may be committed by the 
will, though the thing itself be undone. The pearls are all 
spiritual things that are to be highly esteemed. Thus though 
one and the same thing may be called both the holy thing 
and a pearl, yet it is called holy because it is not to be cor- 
rupted; and called a pearl because it is not to be contemned. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Otherwise ; That ivhich is holy denotes bap- 
tism, the grace of Christ's body, and the like; but the mys- 
teries of the truth are intended by the pearls. For as pearls 
are inclosed in shells, and such in the deeps of the sea, so 
the divine mysteries inclosed in words are lodged in the deep 
meaning of Holy Scripture. Chrys. And to those that are 
right-minded and have understanding, when revealed they 
appear good; but to those without understanding, they seem 
to be more deserving reverence because they are not under- 
stood. Aug. The dogs are those that assault the truth; the Aug. ubi 
swine we may not unsuitably take for those that despise the sup * 
truth. Therefore because dogs leap forth to rend in pieces, 
and what they rend, suffer not to continue whole, lie said, 
( not that which is lujly to the dogs; because they strive 

to the utmost of their power to destroy the truth. The 
same though they do not assault by biting as dugs, yet do 

they defile bj trampling upon, and therefore He said, Cast 
not your pearls before twine* Rabax. Or; The doga are 

rued to their \omit; the swine not yet returned, hut 

wallowing in the mire of vices. Psbudo-Chrys, Otherwu 


The dog and the swine are unclean animals ; the dog indeed 

in every respect, as he neither chews the end, nor divides 

the hoof; but swine in one respect only, seeing they divide 

the hoof, though they do not chew the cud. Hence I think 

that we are to understand by the dog, the Gentiles who are 

altogether unclean, both in their life, and in their faith; but 

by the swine are to be understood heretics, because they 

seem to call upon the name of the Lord. Give not therefore 

that which is holy to the dogs, for that baptism and the other 

sacraments are not to be given but to them that have the 

faith. In like manner the mysteries of the truth, that is, the 

pearls, are not to be given but to such as desire the truth and 

live with human reason. If then you cast them to the swine, 

that is, to such as are grovelling in impurity of life, they do 

not understand their preciousness, but value them like to other 

worldly fables, and tread them under foot with their carnal 

Aug. ubi life. Aug. That which is despised is said to be trodden under 

sup * foot: hence it is said, Lest perchance the// tread them under 

Gloss. foot. Gloss. lie says, Lest perchance, because it may be that 

inter m. thev will wisely turn from their uncleanness *, Aug. That 

Aug. . J 

ubi°sup. which follows, Turn again and rend you, He means not the 

pearls themselves, for these they tread under foot, and when 

they turn again that they may hear something further, then 

they rend him by whom the pearls on which they had trode 

had been cast. For you will not easily find what will please 

him who has despised things got by great toil. Whoever then 

undertake to teach such, I see not how they shall not be trode 

upon and rent by those they teach. Pseudo-Chrts. Or; The 

swine not only trample upon the pearls by their carnal life; 

but after a little they turn, and by disobedience rend those 

who offend them. Yea often when olfended thev brine false 

accusation against them as sowers of new dogmas. The 

dogs also having trode upon holy things by their impure 

actions, by their dispu tings rend the preacher of truth. 

ChrYB. Will is that said, Lest they turn; for thev feign 

meekness that they may Learn; and when they have learned, 

they attack. PsEl DO-ChryS. With good reason He forbade 

pearls to be given to swine. For if they are not to be 

before swine that are the less unclean, how much more are 

■ The (Jlu-s. has 'quia aon potion!*' 

VER. 7, 8. ST. MATTHEW. 271 

they to be withheld from dogs that are so much more un- 
clean. But respecting the giving that which is holy, wa 
cannot hold the same opinion; seeing we often give the 
benediction to Christians who live as the brutes ; and that 
not because they deserve to receive it, but lest perchance 
being more grievously offended they should perish utterly. 
Aug. We must be careful therefore not to explain ought to Aug. ubi 
him who does not receive it ; for men the rather seek that sup *' 
which is hidden than that which is opened. He either 
attacks from ferocity as a dog, or overlooks from stupidity as 
swine. But it does not follow that if the truth be kept hid, 
falsehood is uttered. The Lord Himself who never spoke 
falsely, yet sometimes concealed the truth, as in that, I have John 16, 
yet many things to say unto you, the which ye are not now 
able to bear. But if any is unable to receive these things 
because of his filthiness, we must first cleanse him as far as 
lies in our power either by word or deed. But in that the 
Lord is found to have said some things which many who heard 
Him did not receive, but either rejected or contemned them, 
we are not to think that therein He gave the holy thing to 
the dogs, or cast His pearls before swine. He gave to those 
who were able to receive, and who were in the company, 
whom it was not fit should be neglected for the uncleanness 
of the rest. And though those who tempted Him might 
perish in those answers which He gave to them, yet those 
who could receive them by occasion of these enquiries heard 
many useful things, lie therefore who knows what should 
be answered ought to make answer, for their sakes at least 
who might fall into despair should they think that the ques- 
tion proposed is one that cannot be answered. But this only 
in the case of such matters as pertain to instruction of sal- 
vation ; of things superfluous or harmful nothing should be 
said ; but it should then be explained for what reason we 
lit not to make answer in such points to the enquirer. 

7. Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye 
shall find; knock, and it Boall be opened unto you: 

For every one that asketh receiveth; and he 
thai <'tli findeth; and to him that knocketh it 

shall be opened. 


Jerome. Having before forbidden us to pray for things of 
the flesh, He now shews what we ought to ask, saying, Ask, 
Aug. ubi and it shall be given you. Aug. Otherwise ; when He com- 
sup * manded not to give the holy thing to dogs, and not to cast 

pearls before swine, the hearer conscious of his own ignorance 
might say, Why do you thus bid me not give the holy tiling 
to dogs, when as yet I see not that I have any holy thing? 
He therefore adds in good season, Ask, and ye shall receive. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Otherwise; having given them some com- 
mands for the sanctification of prayer, saving, Judge not, He 
adds accordingly, Ask, and it shall be girt m unto you, as though 
He were to say, If ye observe this mercy towards your ene- 
mies, whatever seems to you shut, knock, and it shall be 
opened to you. Ask therefore in prayer, praying day and 
night; seek with care and toil ; for neither by toiling only in 
the Scriptures do we gain knowledge without God's grace, 
nor do we attain to grace without study, lest the gift of God 
should be bestowed on the careless. But knock with prayer, 
and fasting, and alms. For as one who knocks at a door, 
not only cries out with his voice, but strikes with his hand, 
so he who does good works, knocks with his works. But you 
will say, This is what I pray that I may know and do, how 
then can I do it, before I receive ? Do what you can that 
you may become able to do more, and keep what you know 
that you may come to know more. Or otherwise; having 
above commanded all men to love their enemies, and alter 
enjoined that we should not under pretext of love give holy 
things to dogs ; He here gives good counsel, that they should 
pray God for them, and it shall be granted them ; let them 
seek out those that are lost in sins, and they shall find them ; 
let them knock at those who are shut up in errors, and God 
shall open to them that their word may have access to their 
souls. Or otherwise; Since the precepts given above were 
beyond the reach of human virtue, lie sends them to God to 
whose grace nothing is impossible, saying, Ask, and it shall 
be given you, that what cannot be performed by men may be 
fulfilled through the grace of God. For when God furnished 
the other animals witli swift foot, or swift wing, with elaws, 
'virtus- teeth, or horns, lie so made man that He Himself should 
rid. Ps. be man's only 'strength, that forced by reason of his own 

18, 1. 

VER. 7, 8. ST. MATTHEW. 273 

weakness, be might always have need of his Lord. Gloss. Gloss 
We ask with faith, we seek with hope, we knock with love. ord ' 
You must first ask that you may have ; after that seek that 
you may find; and lastly, observe what you have found that 
you may enter in. Aug. Asking, is that we may get healthi- Aug. 
ness of soul that we may be able to fulfil the things com- Mont, S 
manded us ; seeking, pertains to the discovery of the truth. 21. 
But when any has found the true way, he will then come 
into actual possession, which however is only opened to him 
that knocks. Id. How these three differ from one another, Aug. 
I have thought good to unfold with this travail ; but it were i# \g* c 
better to refer them all to instant prayer ; wherefore He after- 
wards concludes, saying, He will give good things to them that 
ask Sim. Chrys. And in that He adds seek, and knock, He 
bids us ask with much importunateness and strength. For 
one who seeks, casts forth all other things from his mind, 
and is turned to that thing singly which he seeks ; and he 
that knocks comes with vehemence and warm soul. Pseudo- 
Chrys. He had said, Ask, and ye shall receive ; which sin- 
ners hearing might perchance say, The Lord herein exhorts 
them that are worthy, but we are unworthy. Therefore lie 
repeats it that He may commend the mercy of God to the 
righteous as well as to sinners; and therefore declares that 
every one that asketh receiveth ; that is, whether he be righ- 
t ous or a sinner, let him not hesitate to ask ; that it may 
be fully seen that none is neglected but he who hesitates to 
ask of God. For it is not credible that God should enjoin 
on men that work of piety which is displayed in doing good 
to our enemies, and should not Himself (being good) act so. 
Ai <>. Wherefore God hems sinners; for if He do not hear Aug. 
sinners, the Publican said in vain, Lord, be merciful to j™ '22 
me a sinner; and by that confession merited justification. 1;5 - 
Id. Be who in faith offers supplication to God for the,;" 

necessities of this Life is heard mercifully, and not heard Aug. 

mercifully. lor the physician knows better than the sick gen! P 2l2 
man what IS good for his sickness. lhit if he asks that 

which God both promises and commands! his prayer shall 

itcd, for lo?e thai] i what, truth provides. In. Ug. Up, 

lint the Lord i> good, who often ^ r i\i> 01 not. what we"' ' 

would, that II \ lint we should rather prefer. 

VOL. i. i 


Aug. Id. There is need moreover of perseverance, that we may 

Mont ti rcce ' vc what we ask for. Id. In that God sometimes delays 

21. His gifts, He but recommends, and does not deny them. 

Serfn 61 ^ 01 ^ ia ^ wmca * s l° n g looked for is sweeter when obtained ; 

5. but that is held cheap, which comes at once. Ask then and 

seek things righteous. For by asking and seeking grows 

the appetite of taking. God reserves for you those things 

which He is not willing to give you at once, that you may 

learn greatly to desire great things. Therefore we ought 

always to pray and not to fail. 

9. Or what man is there of you, whom if his son 
ask bread, will he give him a stone ? 

10. Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent? 

11. If ye then, being evil, know how to give good 
gifts unto your children, how much more shall your 
Father which is in heaven give good things to them 
that ask Him ? 

Aug. Aug. As above He had cited the birds of the air and the 

Mont. ii. lilies of the field, that our hopes may rise from the less to 
21 * the greater; so also does He in this place, when He says, 

Or what man among you? Pseudo-Chrys. Lest perchance 
any one considering how great is the difference between 
God and man, and weighing his own sins should despair of 
obtaining, and so never take in hand to ask ; therefore He 
proposes a comparison of the relation between father and 
son ; that should we despair because of our sins, we may 
hope because of God's fatherly goodness, ('mas. There 
are two things behoveful for one that prays ; that he ask 
earnestly; and that he ask Mich things as he ought to ask. 
And those are spiritual things ; as Solomon, because he 
asked sneh things as were right, received speedily. PsEUDO- 
Chkvs. And what are the things that wc ought to ask, 
lie shews under the likeness of a loaf, and a fish. The loaf 
is the word concerning the knowledge of God the Father. 
The stone is all falsehood that has a stumbling-block of 
offence to the soul. RsMIG. By the fish we may under- 
stand the word concerning Christ, by the serpent the Devil 

VER. 9 11. ST. MATTHEW. 275 

himself. Or by the loaf may be understood spiritual doc- 
trine ; by the stone ignorance ; by the fish the water of 
Holy Baptism ; by the serpent the wiles of the Devil, or 
unbelief. Raban. Or ; bread which is the common food 
signifies charity, without which the other virtues are of no 
avail. The fish signifies faith, which is born of the water 
of baptism, is tossed in the midst of the waves of this life 
and yet lives. Luke adds a third thing, an egg, which sig- Luke 11, 
nines hope ; for an egg is the hope of the animal. To cha- 
rity, He opposes a stone, that is, the hardness of hatred ; 
to faith, a serpent, that is, the venom of treachery ; to hope, 
a scorpion, that is, despair, which stings backward, as the 
scorpion. Remig. The sense therefore is ; we need not fear 
that should we ask of God our Father bread, that is, doctrine 
or love, He will give us a stone ; that is, that He will suffer 
our heart to be contracted either by the frost of hatred or 
by hardness of soul ; or that when we ask for faith, He will 
suffer U3 to die of the poison of unbelief. Thence it follows, 
If then ye being evil. Chrys. This He said not detracting 
from human nature, nor confessing the whole human race to 
be evil; but He calls paternal love evil when compared with 
His own goodness. Such is the superabundance of His love 
towards men. Pseudo-Chrys. Because in comparison of 
God who is pre-eminently good, all men seem to be evil, as 
all light shews dark when compared with the sun. Jerome. 
Or perhaps He called the Apostles evil, in their person con- 
demning the whole human race, whose heart is set to evil 
from his infancy, as we read in Genesis. Nor is it any Gen. 8, 22. 
wonder that He should call this generation evil, as the 
Apostle also speaks, Seeing the days are evil* Aug. Or;Eph.5, 16. 
He calls evil those who are lovers of this age : whence also A , 11 "' 

llln iup. 

the good things which they give are to be culled good 
according to their sense who esteem them as good; nay, 
even in the nature of things they are goods, that is, tem- 
poral goods, and such as pertain to this weak life. Id. For A "- r - 
that good thing which maket men good is (iod. Gold and 01, j. 
win good thingi not ai making you good, but at with 

them you may do good. If then we he evil, ye1 at baving 
tber who is good let ui not remain ever evil. Aug, if 

then we being evil, know how to give that whieh is asked M-mt. ii 

. n 21. 



of us, how much more is it to be hoped that God will give 
us good things when we ask Him? PseuDO-Chryb. He 

says good things, because God does not give all things 
Gloss. ord. to them that ask Him, but only good things. Ghoss. Fur 

from God we receive only such things as are good, of what 

kind soever they may seem to us when we receive them ; 

for all things work together for good to His beloved. 

Remig. And be it known that where Matthew says, lie 
Luke 11, shall give good things, Luke has, shall give J lis Holy Spirit. 


But this ought not to seem contrary, because all the good 
things which man receives from God, are given by the grace 
of the Holy Spirit. 

12. Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that 
men should do to you, do ye even so to them : for 
this is the Law and the Prophets. 

Aug. Aug. Firmness and strength of walking by the way of 

wisdom in good habits is thus set before us, by which men 
arc brought to purity and simplicity of heart ; concerning 
which having spoken a long time, lie thus concludes, All 
things whatsoever ye would, §c. For there is no man who 
would that another should act towards him with a double 
heart. Pseudo-Chrys. Otherwise ; He had above com- 
manded us in order to sanctify our prayers that men should 
not judge those who sin against them. Then breaking the 
thread of His discourse He had introduced various other 
matters, wherefore now when lie returns to the command 
with which He had begun, He says, All things whattOi 
ye would, fyc. That is; I not only command that ye judge 
not, but All things whatsoever ye would that men should do 
unto you, do ye unto them; and then you will be able to 

Gloss, ord. pray so as to obtain. Gt>0SS. Otherwise; The Holy Spirit 
is the distributor of all spiritual goods, that the deeds of 

chanty may be fulfilled ; whence He adds, All things tin re- 

forc, fife. dims. Otherwise \ The Lord desires to teach that 
men ought to Beek aid from above, but at the same time to 
contribute what lays in their power; wherefore when He 
had said, A*k t seek, and knock, lie proceeds to teach openly 

VER. 12. ST. MATTHEW. 277 

that men should be at pains for themselves, adding, Whatso- 
ever ye would, §c. Aug. Otherwise; The Lord had promised Aug. 
that He would give good things to them that ask Him. But g^™' 
that He may own His petitioners, let us also own ours. For 
they that beg are in everything, save having of substance, 
equal to those of whom they beg. What face can you have of 
making request to your God, when you do not acknowledge 
your equal ? This is that is said in Proverbs, Whoso stoppeth Prov. 21, 
his ear to the cry of the poor, he shall cry and shall not be 
heard. What we ought to bestow on our neighbour when 
he asks of us, that we ourselves may be heard of God, we 
may judge by what we would have others bestow upon us; 
therefore He says, All things whatsoever ye would. Chrys. 
He says not, All things whatsoever, simply, but All things 
therefore, as though He should say, If ye will be heard, 
besides those things which I have now said to you, do this 
also. And He said not, Whatsoever you would have done 
for you by God, do that for your neighbour; lest you should 
say, But how can I ? but He says, Whatsoever you would 
have done to you by your fellow-servant, do that also to your 
neighbour. Aug. Some Latin copies add here, good things*, Aug. 
which I suppose was inserted to make the sense more plain. j^ rm t ' ■? 
For it occurred that one might desire some crime to be 22. 
committed for his advantage, and should so construe this 
place, that he ought first to do the like to him by whom he 
would have it done to him. It were absurd to think that 
this man had fulfilled this command. Yet the thought is 
perfect, even though this be not added. For the words, All 
tilings whatsoever ye would, are not to be taken in their 
ordinary and loose signification, but in their exact and 
proper sense. For there is no will but only in the good ; in imt vid. 
the wicked it is rather named desire, and not will. Not that - x g T ™\ 
the Scripture! always observe this propriety; but where need 
there they retain the proper word so that none other 
Deed be understood. Ctpbiak. Since the Word of God, the Cypr. 

Lord Jesm Christ came to all men, He summed up all His 

com man da in one precept. Whatsoever ye would Unit mm 

sl/o//lil do to you, do ye also /o them ; and adds, for flits is 

tin' Law olid tin- Prophete. Pseudo-Cheyb. Por whatsoever 

< •, pri 11 In.) .1 1 1 1 1 the Latin HS8. 


the Law and the Prophets contain up and down through 

the whole Scriptures, is embraced in this one compendious 

precept, as t lie innumerable branches of a tree 8 ;>ring from 

Greg. one root. Greg. He that thinks he ought to do to another 

as he expects that others will do to him, considers verily 

how he may return good things for bad, and better things 

for good. Chrys. AY hence what we ought to do is clear, as 

in our own cases we all know what is proper, and so we 

Aug. cannot take refuge in our ignorance. Arc This precept 

??""' !? seems to refer to the love of our neighbour, not of God, as 

.Mont. u. ° 

22. in another place lie says, there are two commandments on 

which hang the Law and the Prophets. But as He says 
not here, The whole Law, as He speaks there, He reserves 
a place for the other commandment respecting the love of God. Id. Otherwise; Scripture does not mention the love 
n.vm. Q £ q 0( ^ where it says, All things whatsoever ye would; be- 
cause he who loves his neighbour must consequently love 
Love itself above all things ; but God is Love ; therefore he 
loves God above all tilings. 


13. Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the 
gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruc- 
tion, and many there be which go in thereat : 

14. Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the 
way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that 
find it. 

Aurr. Aug. The Lord had warned us above to have a heart single 

„"!' ! M and pure with which to seek God ; but as this belongs to but 
22, few, lie begins to speak of finding out wisdom. For the search- 

ing out and contemplation whereof there has been formed 
through all the foregoing such an eye as may discern the nar- 
row way and strait gate ; whence He adds, Enter i/c in at the 
GloMuord. strait gate. GLOSS. Though it be hard to do to another what 
you would have done to yourself; yet so must we do, that 
we may enter the strait gate. Pseudo-Chryb. Otherwise; 
This third precept again is connected with the right method 
of fasting, and the order of discourse will be this; Hut thou 

VER. 13, 14. ST. MATTHEW. 279 

when thou fastest anoint thy head; and after comes, Enter 
ye in at the strait gate. For there are three chief passions 
in our nature, that are most adhering to the flesh ; the de- 
sire of food and drink ; the love of the man towards the 
woman ; and thirdly, sleep. These it is harder to cut off 
from the fleshly nature than the other passions. And there- 
fore abstinence from no other passion so sanctifies the body 
as that a man should be chaste, abstinent, and continuing in 
watchings. On account therefore of all these righteousnesses, 
but above all on account of the most toilsome fasting, it is 
that He says, Enter ye in at the strait gate. The gate of 
perdition is the Devil, through whom we enter into hell ; 
the gate of life is Christ, through whom we enter into the 
kingdom of Heaven. The Devil is said to be a wide gate, 
not extended by the mightiness of his power, but made 
broad by the licence of his unbridled pride. Christ is said 
to be a strait gate not with respect to smallness of power, 
but to His humility ; for He whom the whole world contains 
not, shut Himself within the limits of the Virgin's womb. The 
way of perdition is sin of any kind. It is said to be broad, 
because it is not contained within the rule of any discipline, 
but they that walk therein follow whatever pleases them. 
The way of life is all righteousness, and is called narrow for 
the contrary reasons. It must be considered that unless one 
walk in the way, he cannot arrive at the gate ; so they that 
walk not in the way of righteousness, it is impossible that 
they should truly know Christ. Likewise neither does he 
run into the hands of the Devil, unless he walks in the way of 
sinners. GL088. Though love be wide, yet it leads men from Gloss. ord. 
the earth through difficult and steep ways. It is sufficiently 
difficult to cast aside all other things, and to love One only, 
not to aim at prosperity, not to fear adversity. Ciirys. But 
leeing He declares below, My yoke is pleasant, and My 
burden light, how is it that He says hero that the way is 
strait and narrow? Even here He teaches that it is Light 
and pleasant ; for here is a way and a gate as that other, 
winch is called the wide and broad, has also a way and a 

Of these nothing is to remain; but all pass away. 

to |>;i^s through toil and sweat, and to arrive at a good 
end, namely life, is sufficient .solace to those who undergo 


these struggles. For if sailors can make light of storms 
and soldiers of wounds in hope of perishable rewards, much 
more when Heaven Lies before, and rewards immortal, will 
none look to the impending dangers. Moreover the very 
circumstance that He calls it strait contributes to make it 
easy; by this lie warned them to be always watching; this 
the Lord speaks to rouse our desires. He who strives in 
a combat, if he sees the prince admiring the efforts of the 
combatants, gets greater heart. Let us not therefore be sad 
when many sorrows befal us here, for the way is strait, but 
not the city ; therefore neither need we look for rest here, 
nor expect any thing of sorrow there. "When He says, Few 
there be that find it, He points to the sluggishness of the 
many, and instructs His hearers not to look to the prosperity 
of the many, but to the toils of the few. Jerome. Attend to 
the words, for they have an especial force, many wall- in the 
broad way — few find the narrow way. For the broad way 
needs no search, and is not found, but presents itself readily ; 
it is the way of all who go astray. Whereas the narrow 
way neither do all find, nor when they have found, do they 
straightway walk therein. Many, after they have found the 
way of truth, caught by the pleasures of the world, desert 

15. Beware of false prophets, which come to you 
in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening 

16. Ye shall know them bv their fruits. Do men 
gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? 

17. Even so every good tree bringeth forth good 
fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. 

18. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, nei- 
ther can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. 

19. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit 
is hewn down, and east into the fire. 

•JO. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. 

Pseudo-Chbts. The Lord had before commanded His 
Apostles, that they should not do their alms, prayers, and 

VER. 15 20. ST. MATTHEW. 281 

fastings before men, as the hypocrites ; and that they might 
know that all these things may be done in hypocrisy, He 
speaks saying, Take heed of false prophets. Aug. When the Aug. 
Lord had said that there were few that find the strait gate ^™] j£ 
and narrow way, that heretics, who often commend them- 23. 
selves because of the smallness of their numbers, might not 
here intrude themselves, He straightway subjoins, Take heed 
of false prophets. Chrys. Having taught that the gate 
is strait, because there are many that pervert the way that 
leads to it, He proceeds, Take heed of false prophets. In 
the which that they might be the more careful, He reminds 
them of the things that were done among their fathers, 
calling them false prophets ; for even in that day the like 
things fell out. Pseudo-Chrys. What is written below that 

the Law and the Prophets were until John, is said, because Matt. 11, 

there should be no prophecy concerning Christ after He 

was come. Prophets indeed there have been and are, but 

not prophesying of Christ, rather interpreting the things 

which had been prophesied of Christ by the ancients, that 

is by the doctors of the Churches. For no man can unfold 

prophetic meaning, but the Spirit of prophecy. The Lord 

then knowing that there should be false teachers, warns 

them of divers heresies, saying, Take heed of false prophets. 

And forasmuch as they would not be manifest Gentiles, but 

lurk under the Christian name, He said not ' See ye/ but, 

Take heed. For a thing that is certain is simply seen, or 

looked upon ; but when it is uncertain it is watched or 

narrowly considered. Also lie says Take heed, because it 

is a sure precaution of security to know him whom you 

avoid. But this form of warning, Take heed, does not imply 

tbat the Devil will introduce heresies against God's will, 

bat by His permission only; but because He would not 

choo rrants without trial, therefore lie sends them 

temptation; and because He would not have them perish 

through ignorance, He therefore warns thcrn beforehand. 

Al-o that no heretical teacher might maintain that lie spoke 
1 .entile and Jewish teachers and not of them, lie 
adds, 7/V/o /•/,,///< to you M shrrp's riot '////if/. Christians ;nv 
failed sheep, and the sheep's clothing is a form of Chris- 
tianity and of feigned religion* And nothing so easts out 


all good as hypocrisy ; for evil that puts on the semblance 
of good, cannot be provided against, because it is unknown. 
Again, that the heretic might not allege that lie here speaks 
of the true teachers which were yet sinners, lie adds, But 
inwardly they arc ravening wolves. ]>ut Catholic teachers 
should they indeed have been sinners, are spoken of as 
servants of the flesh, yet not as ravening wolves, because 
it is not their purpose to destroy Christians. Clearly then 
it is of heretical teachers that lie speaks; for they put on 
the guise of Christians, to the end they may tear in pieces the 
Christian with the wicked fangs of seduction. Concerning 
Acts 20, such the Apostle speaks, / know that after my departure 


there will enter among you grievous wolves, not sparing the 
flock. Ciirys. Yet He may seem here to have aimed under 
the title of false prophets, not so much at the heretic, as at 
those who, while their life is corrupt, yet wear an outward 
face of virtuousness ; whence it is said, By their fruits ye 
shall know them. For among heretics it is possible many 
times to find a good life, but among those I have named 
Aug. never. Aug. Wherefore it is justly asked, what fruits then 
Mont ii" ^ c W0ll ld have us look to? For many esteem among fruits 
24. some things which pertain to the sheep's clothing, and in 

this manner are deceived concerning wolves. For they prac- 
tise fasting, almsgiving, or praying, which they display before 
men, seeking to please those to whom these things seem 
difficult. These then are not the fruits by which He teaches 
us to discern them. Those deeds which are done with good 
intention, are the proper fleece of the sheep itself, such as 
are done with bad intention, or in error, are nothing else 
than a clothing of wolves; but the sheep ought not to hate 
their own clothing because it is often used to hide wol\ 
AY hat then are the fruits by which we may know an evil til B? 
Gal. 5, in. The Apostle Bays, The works of the flesh are manifest, which 
are, fornication, uncleanness, ,w. And which are they by 
which we may know a good tree? The lame Apostle teach 
saying, Tlie fruits of the Spirit arc love, joy. peace. PsiUDO- 
Chrvs. The fruita of a man are the confession of his faith 
and the works of his life ; for he who utters according to (!od 

the words of humility and a true confession, is the sheep ; 
but he who against the tmth howls forth blasphemies again 

VER. 15 20. ST. MATTHEW. 283 

God, is the wolf. Jerome. What is here spoken of false pro- 
phets we may apply to all whose dress and speech promise one 
thing, and their actions exhibit another. But it is specially 
to be understood of heretics, who by observing temperance, 
chastity, and fasting, surround themselves as it were with 
a garment of sanctity, but inasmuch as their hearts within 
them are poisoned, they deceive the souls of the more simple 
brethren. Aug. But from their actions we may conjecture Aug. 
whether this their outward appearance is put on for display. non occ * 
Tor when by any temptations those things are withdrawn or 
denied them which thev had either attained or sought to 
attain by this evil, then needs must that it appear whether 
they be the wolf in sheep's clothing, or the sheep in his 
own. Greg. Also the hypocrite is restrained by peaceful Greg, 
times of Holy Church, and therefore appears clothed with xx ° r ;' 14 
godliness; but let any trial of faith ensue, straight the 
wolf ravenous at heart strips himself of his sheep's skin, and 
shews by persecuting how great his rage against the good. 
Chrys. And a hypocrite is easily discerned; for the way 
they are commanded to walk is a hard way, and the hypo- 
crite is loth to toil. And that you may not say that you are 
unable to find out them that are such, Pie again enforces 
what He had said by example from men, saying, Do men 
gather grapes of thorns, or Jigs of thistles ? Pseudo-Chrys. 
The grape has in it a mystery of Christ. As the bunch 
sustains many grapes held together by the woody stem, so 
likewise Christ holds many believers joined to Him by the 
wood of the Cross. The fig again is the Church which 
binds many faithful by a sweet embrace of charity, as the fig 
contains many seeds inclosed in one skin. The fig then has 
these significations, namely, love in its sweetness, unity in 
the close adhesion of its seeds. In the grape is shewn pa- 
tience, in that it is cast into the wine-press — joy, because 
wine maketh glad the heart of man — purity, because it is not 
mixed with water — and sweetness, in that it delightcth. The 
thorns and thistles are the heretics. And .as a thorn or a 
thistle hat sharp pricki on every part, so the Devil's lerrants, 
on irhatsot oa look at them, are full ofwickednt 

Thorns and thistlei then of 1 his sort Cannot hear the fruit s 

of the ('lunch. And baring instanc id in particular trees, as 




Serin, in 
ii. 25. 
vid. infr. 

Aug. de 
Civ. Dei, 
xii. 4. 


Serin, in 
ii. 25. 

the fi^, the vine, the thorn, and the thistle, He proceeds to 
shew that this is universally true, saying, Thus every good 
tree bringeth forth good fruit, but an evil free bringeth forth 

evil fruit. Auo. In this place we must guard against the 
error of such as imagine that the two trees refer to two 
different natures; the one of God, the other not. But we 
affirm that they derive DO countenance from these two trees; 
as it will be evident to any who will read the context that 
lie is speaking here of men. Id. These men of whom we 
have spoken arc offended with these two natures, not con- 
sidering them according to their true usefulness; whereas it 
is not by our advantage or disadvantage, but in itself con- 
sidered, that nature gives glory to her Framer. All natures 
then that are, because they are, have their own manner, their 
own appearance, and as it were their own ] harmony, and are 
altogether good. Chbys. But that none should say, An 
evil tree brings forth indeed evil fruit, but it brings forth 
also good, and so it becomes hard to discern, as it has a 
two-fold produce ; on this account he adds, A good tree 
cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can att evil tree bring 
forth good fruit. Aug. From this speech the Manic 1 : 
suppose that neither can a soul that is evil be possibly 
changed for better, Dor one that is good into worse. As 
though it had been, A good tree cannot become bad, nor a 
bad tree become good ; whereas it is thus said, A good tree 
cannot bring forth evil fruit, nor the reverse. The tree is 
the soul, that is, the man himself; the fruit is the man's 
works. An evil man therefore cannot work good works, nor 
a good man evil works. Therefore if an evil man would 
work good things, let him first become good. But as Long 
as he continues evil, he cannot bring forth good fruits. Like 
as it is indeed possible that what was once snow, should 
cease to be so ; but it cannot be that snow should be warm ; 
so it is possible that he who has been evil should be so 
no longer ; but it is impossible that an evil man should 
do good. For though he may sometimes be useful, it is not 
he that docs it, but it comes of Divine Providence super- 
intending. K\r.\\. And man is denominated a good tree, 
or a bad, after his will, as it is good or bad. His fruit is his 
works, which can neither be good when the will is evil, 

VER. 15 20. ST. MATTHEW. 285 

nor evil when it is good. Aug. But as it is manifest that all vid. Op. 
evil works proceed from an evil will, as its fruits from an j^/V" 
evil tree ; so of this evil will itself whence will you say that it 40, &c. 
has sprung, except that the evil will of an angel sprung from 
an angel, of man from man? And what were these two 
before those evils arose in them, but the good work of God, 
a good and praiseworthy nature. See then out of good arises 
evil ; nor was there any thing at all out of which it might 
arise but what was good. I mean the evil will itself, since 
there was no evil before it, no evil works, which could not 
come but from evil will as fruit from an evil tree. Nor can 
it be said that it sprung out of good in this way, because it 
was made good by a good God ; for it was made of nothing, 
and not of God. Jerome. We would ask those heretics 
who affirm that there are two natures directly opposed to 
each other, if they admit that a good tree cannot bring forth 
evil fruit, how it was possible for Moses, a good tree, to sin 
as he did at the water of contradiction? Or for Peter to 
deny his Lord in the Passion, saying, I know not the man? 
Or how, on the other hand, could Moses' father-in-law, an 
evil tree, inasmuch as he believed not in the God of Israel, 
give good counsel? Chrys. He had not enjoined them to 
punish the false prophets, and therefore shews them the 
terrors of that punishment that is of God, saying, Every tree 
that bringeth nut forth good fruit shall he hewn down, and 
cast into the fire. In these words He seems to aim also 
at the Jews, and thus calls to mind the word of John the 
Baptist, denouncing punishment against them in the very 
same words. For he had thus spoken to the Jews, warning 
them of the axe impending, the tree that should be cut down, 
and the fire that could not be extinguished. But if one will 
examine somewhat closely, here are two punishments, to be 
cut down, and to be burned ; and he that is burned is also 
altogether cut out of the kingdom j w Inch is the harder 
punishment. Many indeed (ear no more than hell; but I 
say that the fall of that glory is a far more bitter punishment, 
than tin - of hell itself. For what evil great or small 

would not a lather undergo, that In: might B6C and enjoy 

a most dear son ? Let nsthen think the same of that glory; 
for i ;i bo dear to bii father as is the rest of the 


good, to be deceased and to be with Christ. The pain of 
hell is indeed intolerable, yet are ten thousand hells nothing 
to falling from that blessed glory, and being held in hate by 
Gloss. non Christ. Gloss. From the foregoing similitude lie draws 
the conclusion to what He had said before, as being now 
manifest, saying, Therefore by their fruits ye shull know 

21. Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, 
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven ; but he that 
doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven. 

22. Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, 
have we not prophesied in Thy name ? and in Thy 
name have cast out devils ? and in Thy name done 
many wonderful works ? 

23. And then will I profess unto them, I never 
knew you : depart from Me, ye that work iniquity. 

Jerome. As He had said above that those who have the 

robe of a good life are yet not to be received because of the 

impiety of their doctrines; so now on the other hand, He 

forbids us to participate the faith with those who while they 

are strong in sound doctrine, destroy it with evil works. 

For it behoves the servants of God that both their work 

should be approved by their teaching and their teaching by 

their works. And therefore He says, Not every one that 

saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, enters into the kingdom of hec 

Chrys. Chrys. Wherein He seems to touch the Jews chiefly who 

xx?v" placed every thing in dogmas ; as Paul accuses them, If 

Rom. 2, 17. thou art called a Jew, and restest in the Law. PsKl DO- 

CHRYS. Otherwise; Having taught that the false prophets 

and the true are to be discerned by their fruits, He now goes 

on to teach more plainly what are the fruits by which we are 

Aug. to discern the godly from the ungodly teachers. Aug. For 

Sera. even in the verv name of Christ we must be on our guard 
in Mont. J \ ° 

ii. 24 against heretics, and all that understand amiss and love this 
world, that we may not he deceived, and therefore He aays, 

hot every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord. But it may 

VER. 21 23. ST. MATTHEW. 287 

fairly create a difficulty how this is to be reconciled with 
that of the Apostle, No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, l Cor. 
but by the Holy Ghost. For we cannot say that those who ' ' 
are not to enter into the kingdom of heaven have the Holy 
Spirit. But the Apostle uses the word ' say/ to express the 
will and understanding of him that says it. He only pro- 
perly says a thing, who by the sound of his voice expresses 
his will and purpose. But the Lord uses the word in its 
ordinary sense, for He seems to say who neither wishes 
nor understands what he says. Jerome. For Scripture 
uses to take words for deeds ; according to which the Apo- 
stle declares, They make confession that they know God, Tit. 1, 16. 
but in works deny Him. Ambrosiaster. For all truth by Ambr. 
whomsoever uttered is from the Holy Spirit. Aug. Let us ^"cor. 
not therefore think that this belongs to those fruits of which 12 » 3 « 
He had spoken above, when one says to our Lord, Lord, n ^' oc 
Lord; and thence seems to us to be a good tree; the true 
fruit spoken of is to do the will of God ; whence it follows, 
But who doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven, 
he shall enter into the kingdom of heaven. Hilary. For 
obeying God's will and not calling on His name, shall find 
the way to the heavenly kingdom. Pseudo-Chrys. And 
what the will of God is the Lord Himself teaches, This is, John 6,40. 
He says, the will of Him that sent Me, that every man that 
seeth the Son and believeth on Him should have eternal life. 
The word believe has reference both to confession and con- 
duct. He then who does not confess Christ, or does not walk 
according to His word, shall not enter into the kingdom of 
heaven. Ciikys. He said not he that doth My will, but the 
will of My Father, for it was fit so to adapt it in the mean 
while to their weakness. Hut the one secretly implied the 
Other, seeing the will of the Son is no other than the will of 
the Father. Auo. Hereto it also pertains that we be not Aug, 

i by the name of Christ not only in such as bear the jfont." 1 
name and do not the deeds, but yet more by certain works >'•-■'• 
and mirael' h as the Lord wrought because of the unbe- 

lieving, but yet warned us that we should not be deceived by 

such to mppote that there was invisible wisdom vrhere was 
a visible miracle; irherefore He adds, saying, Many shall say 
to Me in thai 'lay. Chrys, See how He thus secretly brin 


in Himself. Here in the end of I lis sermon He shews 
Himself as the Judge. The punishment that awaits sinners 
He had shewn before, but now only reveals who He is that 
shall punish, saying. Many shall say to Me in that day. 
Pseudo-Chrys. When, namely, He shall come in the ma- 
jesty of His Father; when none shall any more dare with 
strife of many words either to defend a lie, or to speak 
against the truth, when each man's work shall speak, and his 
mouth be silent, when none shall come forward for another, 
but each shall fear for himself. For in that judgment the 
witnesses shall not be nattering men, but Angels speaking 
the truth, and the Judge is the righteous Lord; whence He 
closely images the cry of men fearful, and in straits, saying, 
Lord, Lord. For to call once is not enough for him who 
is under the necessity of terror. Hilary. They even assure 
themselves of glory for their prophesying in teaching, for 
their casting out daemons, for their mighty works ; and 
heuce promise themselves the kingdom of heaven, saying, 
Have we not prophesied in Thy name? Cm; vs. But there 
are that say that they spoke this falsely, and therefore were 
not saved. But they would not have dared to say this to 
the Judge in His presence. But the very answer and ques- 
tion prove that it was in His presence that they spoke thus. 
For having been here wondered at by all for the miracles 
which they wrought, and there seeing themselves punished, 
they say in wonderment, Lord, have we not prophesied in Thy 
name ? Others again say, that they did sinful deeds not while 
they thus were working miracles, but at a time later. But 
if this be so, that very thing which the Lord desired to prove 
would not be established, namely, that neither faith nor mi- 
racles avail aught where there is not a good life ; as Paul 
l Cor. also declares, If I hare faith that I may remove mountains. 

13 2 

' ' but hare not charity, I am nothing. P&BUDO-Chrys. But 
note that lie says, /'// My name, not in My Spirit; for they 
prophesy in the name of Christ, but with the spirit of the 
Devil; such are the diviners. But they may be known 
by this, that the Devil sometimes speaks falsely, the Holy 
Spirit never. Howbeit it is permitted to the Devil some- 
times to speak the truth, that he may commend his lying by 
this his rare truth. Vet they east out (heinous in the name 

VER. 21 — 23. ST. MATTHEW. 289 

of Christ, though they have the spirit of His enemy; or 
rather, they do not cast them out, but seem only to cast them 
out, the daemons acting in concert with them. Also they 
do mighty works, that is, miracles, not such as are useful 
and necessary, but useless and fruitless. Aug. Read also Aug. ubi 
what things the Magi did in Egypt in withstanding Moses. sup ' 
Jerome. Otherwise; To prophesy, to work wonders, to cast 
out daemons by divine power, is often not of his deserts who 
performs the works, but either the invocation of Christ's 
name has this force, or it is suffered for the condemnation 
of those that invoke, or for the beuefit of those that see and 
hear, that however they despise the men who work the 
wonders, they may give honour to God. So Saul and Ba- 
laam and Caiaphas prophesied; the sons of Scaeva in the 
Acts of the Apostles were seen to cast out daemons; and 
Judas with the soul of a traitor is related to have wrought 
many signs among the other Apostles. Chrys. For all are 
not alike fit for all things ; these are of pure life, but have 
not so great faith ; those again have the reverse. Therefore 
God converted these by the means of those to the shewing 
forth much faith ; and those that had faith He called by 
this unspeakable gift of miracles to a better life ; and to 
that end gave them this grace in great richness. And they 
say, We have done many mighty works. But because they 
were ungrateful towards those who thus honoured them, it 
follows rightly, Then will I confess unto you, I never knew 
you. Jerome. Emphatically, Then will I confess, for for 
long time lie had forbore to say it. Pseudo-Ciiuys. For 
great wrath ought to be preceded by great forbearance, 
that the sentence of God may be made more just, and the 
death of the sinners more merited. God docs not know 
sinners because they are not worthy that they should be 
known of God; Dot that He altogether is ignorant concern- 
ing them, but because ile knows them not for His own. 
lor God knows all men according to nature, but He seems 
not to know them for that lie loves theni not, as they seem 
not to know God who do not serve Him worthily. CHBTS. 
Hi tO them, / never knew you, as it were, not at the 

day of judgment only, hut not even then when vc were 
working miracles. For there are many whom He has now 
vol. i. u 


in abhorrence, and vet turns away His wrath before their 
punishment. Jerome. Note that He says, I never knew you, 
as being against some that say that all men have always 

Greg.Mor. been among rational creatures a . Greg. By this sentence it 
is given to us to learn, that among men charity and humility, 
and not mighty works, are to be esteemed. Whence also 
now the Holy Church, if there be any miracles of heretics, 
despises them, because she knows that they have not the 
mark of holiness. And the proof of holiness is not to work 
miracles, but to love our neighbour as ourselves, to think 
truly of God, and of our neighbour better than of ourselves. 

Aug. cont. Aug. But never let it be said as the Manichees sav, that the 


^ 4/ eg ' Lord spoke these things concerning the holy Prophets ; He 
spoke of those who after the preaching of His Gospel seem 
to themselves to speak in His name not knowing what they 
speak. Hilary. But thus the hypocrites boasted, as though 
they spoke somewhat of themselves, and as though the 
power of God did not work all these things, being invoked ; 
but reading has brought them the knowledge of His doc- 
trine, and the name of Christ casts out the daemons. Out of 
our own selves then is that blessed eternity to be earned, 
and out of ourselves must be put forth something that we 
may will that which is good, that we may avoid all evil, and 
may rather do w T hat He would have us do, than boast of that 
to which He enables us. These then He disowns and banishes 
for their evil works, saying, Depart from Me ye that work 
iniquity, Jerome. He says not, Who have worked, but, who 
work iniquity, that He should not seem to take away repent- 
ance. Ye, that is, who up to the present hour when the 
judgment is come, though ye have not the opportunity, yet 
retain the desire of sinning. Pseudo-Chrys, For death 
separates the soul from the body, but changes not the pur- 
pose of the heart. 

24. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of 
Mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise 
man, which built his house upon a rock : 

" Origen was accused of saying that partakers of the Divine Word or H 
all men wore from their birth inwardly son. Vid. Jerome, Ep. ad Avit. 

VER. 24 — 27. ST. MATTHEW. 291 

25. And the rain descended, and the floods came, 
and the winds blew, and beat upon that house ; and 
it fell not : for it was founded upon a rock. 

26. And every one that heareth these sayings of 
mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto 
a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand : 

27. And the rain descended, and the floods came, 
and the winds blew, and beat upon that house ; and 
it fell : and great was the fall of it. 

Chrys. Because there would be some who would admire 
the things that were said by the Lord, but would not add 
that shewing forth of them which is in action, He threat- 
ens them before, saying, Every man that hears these words 
of Mine, and does them, shall be likened to a wise man. 
Pseudo-Chrys. He said not, I will account him that hears 
and does, as wise ; but, He shall be likened to a wise man. 
He then that is likened is a man ; but to whom is he 
likened? To Christ; but Christ is the wise man who has 
built His house, that is, the Church, upon a rock, that is, 
upon the strength of the faith. The foolish man is the 
Devil, who has built his house, that is, all the ungodly, 
upon the sand, that is, the insecurity of unbelief, or upon 
the carnal, who are called the sand on account of their 
barrenness ; both because they do not cleave together, but 
arc scattered through the diversity of their opinions, and 
because they are innumerable. The rain is the doctrine 
that waters a man, the clouds are those from which the 
rain falls. Some are raised by the Holy Spirit, as the 
Apostle> and Prophets, and some by the spirit of the 
Devil, as arc the heretics. The good winds arc the spirits 
of the difl'erent virtues, or the Angels who work invisibly 
in the of men, and lead them to good. The bad 

winds are the unclean spirits. The good floods arc the 
Evangelists and teachers of the people; the evil floods 
arc men full of an unclean spirit, and overflowing with 
many words; such arc philosopher! and the other profes- 
of worldly wUdom, out of whose belly come risers of 

dead water. The Church then which Christ has founded, 

i 2 


neither the rain of false doctrine shall sap, nor the blast 

of the Devil overturn, nor the rush of mighty floods remove. 

Nor does it contradict this, that certain of the Church do 

fall ; for not all that are called Christians, are Christ's, 

2 Tim. 2, but, The Lord knows them that are His. But against that 
19 . 

house that the Devil has built comes down the rain of 
true doctrine, the winds, that is, the graces of the Spirit, 
or the Angels ; the floods, that is, the four Evangelists and 
the rest of the wise ; and so the house falls, that is, the 
Gentile world, that Christ may rise; and the ruin of that 
house was great, its errors broken up, its falsehoods laid 
open, its idols throughout the whole world broken down. 
He then is like unto Christ, who hears Christ's words, and 
does them ; for he builds on a rock, that is, upon Christ, who 
is all good, so that on whatsoever kind of good any one shall 
build, he may seem to have built upon Christ. But as the 
Church built by Christ cannot be thrown down, so any 
such Christian who has built himself upon Christ, no ad- 
Rom.8,35. versity can overthrow, according to that, Who shall sepa- 
rate us from the love of Christ ? Like to the Devil is he 
that hears the words of Christ, and does them not. For 
words that are heard, and are not done, are likened to sand, 
they are dispersed and shed abroad. For the sand signifies 
all evil, or even worldly goods. For as the Devil's house is 
overthrown, so such as are built upon the sand are destroyed 
and fall. And great is that ruin if he have suffered any- 
thing to fail of the foundation of faith; but not if he have 
committed fornication, or homicide, because he has whence 
he may arise through penitence, as David. Raban. Or the 
great ruin is to be understood that with which the Lord will 
Mat. 25, say to them that hear and do not, Go ye into everlasting 
41 * fire. JEROME. Or otherwise; On sand which is loose and 

cannot be bound into one mass, all the doctrine of heretics 
is built so as to fall. Hilary. Otherwise; By the showers 
lie signifies the allurements of smooth and gently invading 
pleasures, with which the faith is at first watered as with 
spreading rills, afterwards comes down the rush of torrent 
floods, that is, the motions of fiercer desire, and lastly, 
the whole force of the driving tempests rages against it, 
that is, the universal spirits of the Devil's reign attack it. 

VER. 28, 29. ST. MATTHEW. 293 

Aug. Otherwise ; Rain, when it is put to denote any evil, is Aug. 
understood as the darkness of superstition ; rumours of men Mont, in 
are compared to winds ; the flood signifies the lust of the fin * 
flesh, as it were flowing over the land, and because what is 
brought on by prosperity is broken off by adversity. None 
of these things does he fear who has his house founded upon 
a rock, that is, who not only hears the command of the Lord, 
but who also does it. And in all these he submits himself 
to danger, who hears and does not. For no man confirms 
in himself what the Lord commands, or himself hears, but 
by doing it. But it should be noted, that when he said, He 
that heareth these words of Mine, He shews plainly enough 
that this sermon is made complete by all those precepts by 
which the Christian life is formed, so that with good reason 
they that desire to live according to them, may be compared 
to one that builds on a rock. 

28. And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended 
these sayings, the people were astonished at his 
doctrine : 

29. For He taught them as one having authority, 
and not as the Scribes. 

Gloss. Having related Christ's teaching, he shews its Gloss. 
effects on the multitude, saying, And it came to j>ciss, when nonocc ' 
Jesus had ended these words, the multitude wondered at His 
doctrine. Rahan. This ending pertains both to the finishing 
the words, and the completeness of the doctrines. That it 
uid that the multitude wondered, cither signifies the un- 
believing in the crowd, who were astonished because they 
did not believe the Saviour's words ; or is said of them all, 
in that they reverenced in Ilim the excellence of so great 
wi-dom. PsbuDO-Chkys. The mind of man when satisfied 
onably brings forth praise, but when overcome, wonder. 
whatever ire are not able to praise worthily, we admire, 
their admiration pertained rather to Christ's glory than 

to their faith, for had they believed on Christ, they would 

not have wondered* For wonder is raised by whatever sur- 
passes the appearance of the speaker or actor j and thence 


we do not wonder at what is done or said by God, because 
all things are less than God's power. But it was the mul- 
titude that wondered, that is the common people, not the 
chief among the people, who are not wont to hear with the 
desire of learning ; but the simple folk heard in simplicity ; 
had others been present they would have broken up their 
silence by contradicting, for where the greater knowledge 
is, there is the stronger malice. For lie that is in haste to 
Aug. de be first, is not content to be second. Aug. From that which 
Ev. ii. 19. i s ncre said, H e seems to have left the crowd of disciples 
— those out of whom lie chose twelve, whom He called 
Apostles — but Matthew omits to mention it. For to His 
disciples only, Jesus seems to have held this Sermon, which 
Matthew recounts, Luke omits. That after descending into 
a plain He held another like discourse, which Luke records, 
and Matthew omits. Still it may be supposed, that, as 
was said above, He delivered one and the same Sermon to 
the Apostles, and the rest of the multitude present, which 
has been recorded by Matthew and Luke, in different words, 
but with the same truth of substance ; and this explains 
Chtys. what is here said of the multitude wondering. Chrys. He 
om.xxv. j^jjg thg cause of their wonderment, saying, lie taught them 
as one having authority, and not as the Scribes and Pha- 
risees. But if the Scribes drove Him from them, seeing 
His power shewn in works, how would they not have been 
offended when words only manifested His power? But this 
was not so with the multitude ; for being of benevolent 
temper, it is easily persuaded by the word of truth. Such 
however was the power wherewith lie taught them, that it 
drew many of them to Him, and caused them to wonder ; 
and for their delight in those things which were spoken 
they did not leave Him even when lie had done speaking; 
but followed Him as lie came down from the mount. They 
were mostly astonished at His power, in that He spoke not 
referring to any other as the Prophets and Moses had spoken, 
but everywhere shewing that lie Himself had authority; 
for in delivering each law, He prefaced it with, But 1 say 
unto you. Jerome. For as the God and Lord of Moses 
himself, lie of His own free will either added such things as 
seemed omitted in the Law, or even changed some; as above 

VER. 28, 29. ST. MA.TTHEW. 295 

we read, It was said by them of old .... But I say unto 
you. But the Scribes only taught the people what was 
written in Moses and the Prophets. Greg. Or, Christ spoke Greg. 
with especial power, because He did no evil from weakness, °[j 13 
but we who are weak, in our weakness consider by what 
method in teaching we may best consult for our weak 
brethren. Hilary. Or; They measure the efficacy of His 
power, by the might of His words. Aug. This is what is Aug. 
signified in the eleventh Psalm, / will deal mightily with «""/ ! » 
him ; the words of the Lord are pure words, silver tried in the 40. i. 10, 
fire, purified of earth, purged seven times. The mention of 1 . ^ 
this number admonishes me here to refer all these precepts 5. 6. 
to those seven sentences that He placed in the beginning of 
this Sermon ; those, I mean, concerning the beatitudes. For 
one to be angry with his brother, without cause, or to say to 
him, Racha, or call him fool, is a sin of extreme pride, 
against which is one remedy, that with a suppliant spirit he 
should seek pardon, and not be puffed up with a spirit of 
boasting. Blessed, then, are the poor in spirit, for theirs is 
the kingdom of heaven. He is consenting to his adversary, 
that is, in shewing reverence to the word of God, who 
goes to the opening His Father's will, not with conten- 
tiousness of law, but with meekness of religion, therefore, 
Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. 
Also whosoever feels carnal delight rebel against his right 
will, will cry out, O wretched man that I am! who shall de- Rom. 7, 
linr me from the body of this death? And in thus mourning 
he will implore the aid of the consoler; whence, Blessed are 
they that mourn, for they shall be comforted. What is there 
that can be thought of more toilsome than in overcoming an 
evil practice to cut off those members within us that hinder 
the kingdom of heaven, and not be broken down with the 
pain of so doing ? To endure in faithful wedlock all things 
even the most grievous, and yet to avoid all accusation of 
fornication. To speak the truth, and approve it not by 
frequent oaths, but by probity of life. But who would he 
uch toils, unless he burned with the 1<>\< 
itfa i bunger and thirst? Blessed, there* 
fore, are they thai hunger ami thirst, for they shall be filial . 
Who can i\ to take irrong from tin vreak, to offer 



himself to any that asks him, to love his enemies, to do good 
to them that hate him, to pray for them that persecute him, 
except he that is perfectly merciful ? Therefore, Blessed are 
the merciful, for they shall find mercy. He keeps the eye 
of his heart pure, who places the end of his good actions 
not in pleasing men, nor in getting those things that are 
necessary to this life, and who does not rashly condemn 
any man's heart, and whatever he gives to another gives 
with that intention with which he would have others give 
to him. Blessed, therefore, are the pure in heart, for the// 
shall see God. It must needs be moreover, that by a pure 
heart should be found out the narrow way of wisdom, to 
which the guile of corrupt men is an obstacle ; Blessed are 
the peaceful, for they shall be called the sons of God. But 
whether we take this arrangement, or any other, those things 
which we have heard from the Lord must be done, if we 
would build upon the rock. 


1. When He was come down from the mountain, 
great multitudes followed Him. 

2. And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped 
Him, saying, Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst make 
me clean. 

3. And Jesus put forth His hand, and touched 
him, saying, I will ; be thou clean. And imme- 
diately his leprosy was cleansed. 

4. And Jesus said unto him, See thou tell no 
man ; but go thy way, shew thyself to the Priest, 
and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a tes- 
timony unto them. 

Jerome. After the preaching and teaching, is offered an 
occasion of working miracles, that by mighty works following, 
the preceding doctrine might be confirmed. Pseudo-Chrys. quoad 


Because He taught them as one having authority, that He 
might not thence be supposed to use this method of teaching 
from ostentation, He does the same in works, as one having 
power to cure; and therefore, When Jesus descended from the 

nf.ii'ui, great multitudes followed Him. Pseudo-Ouigkn. Pseudo- 
While the Lord taught on the mount, the disciples were u",^ 
with ilirn, for to them it was given to know the secret things Liv - 5 - 
of the heavenly doctrine; but now as He came down from 
the mount the crowds followed Him, who had been altogether 
unable to ascend into the mount. They that arc bowed by 
the burden of sin cannot climb to the sublime mysteries. 

Bat when the Lord came down from the mount, thai is 

stooped to the infirmity and help] I of the rest, in pity 


to their imperfections, great multitudes followed Him, some 
for renown, most for His doctrine, some for cures, or having 
their wants administered to. Haymo. Otherwise; By t lie 
mount on which the Lord sate is figured the Heaven, as it 

Is. 66, l. is written, Heaven is My throne. But when the Lord sits 
on the mount, only the disciples come to Him ; because 
before He took on Him the frailty of our human nature, 

Fs. 76, 1. God was known only in Judaea; but when He came down 
from the height of His Divinity, and took upon Him the 
frailty of our human nature, a great multitude of the nations 
followed Him. Herein it is shewn to them that teach that 
their speech should be so regulated, that as they see each 
man is able to receive, they should so speak the word of 
God. For the doctors ascend the mountain, when thev 
shew the more excellent precepts to the perfect ; they come 
down from the mount, in shewing the lesser precepts to the 
weak. Pseudo-Chrys. Among others who were not able 
to ascend into the mount was the leper, as bearing the 
burden of sin; for the sin of our souls is a leprosy. And 
the Lord came down from the height of heaven, as from 
a mountain, that He might purge the leprousness of our sin ; 
and so the leper as already prepared meets Him as He came 

Pseudo- down. Pseudo-Ouigen. He works the cures below, and does 

Origen. none j n tj ie m ount : for there is a time for all things under 

ubi sup. 7 ° 

heaven, a time for teaching, and a time for healing. On the 
mount He taught, He cured souls, lie healed hearts; which 
being finished, as He came down from the heavenly heights 
to heal bodies, there came to Him a leper and made 
adoration to Him ; before he made his suit, he began to 
adore, shewing his great reverence. Psi ido-Chkys. He 
did not ask it of Him as of a human physician, but adored 
Him as God. For faith and confession make a perfect 
prayer; so that the leprous man in adoring fulfilled the work 
of faith, and the work of conn'ssion in words, he made 
Pseudo- adoration lo linn, Baying; Pseudo-OriGBN. Lord, by Thee 
Ongen. a ]j things were made, Thou therefore, if Thou milt, canst 

ubi sup. ° ' ' J ' 

male me clean. Thy will is the work, and all works arc 
subject to Thy will. Thou of old cleansedst Xaaman the 
Syrian of* his leprosy by the hand of Elisha, and now, if 
Thou wilt, Thou Canst make me clean. ChRTS. lie said not, 

VER. 1 — 4. ST. MATTHEW. 299 

If Thou wilt ask of God, or, If Thou wilt make adoration to 
God ; but, If Thou wilt. Nor did he say, Lord, cleanse me ; 
but left all to Him, thereby making Him Lord, and attributing 
to Him the power over all. Pseudo-Chrys. And thus he 
rewarded a spiritual Physician with a spiritual reward; for 
as physicians are gained by money, so He with prayer. We 
offer to God nothing more worthy than faithful prayer. In 
that he says, If Thou wilt, there is no doubt that Christ's will 
is ready to every good work ; but only doubt whether that 
cure would be expedient for him, because soundness of body 
is not good for all. If Thou wilt then is as much as to say, " 
I believe that Thou wiliest whatever is good, but I know not 
if this that I desire for myself is good. Chrys. He was ^ 
able to cleanse by a word, or even by mere will, but He put 
out His hand, He stretched forth His hand and touched him, 
to shew that He was not subject to the Law, and that to the 
pure nothing is impure. Elisha truly kept the Law in all 
strictness, and did not go out and touch Naaman, but sends 
him to wash in Jordan. But the Lord shews that He does 
not heal as a servant, but as Lord heals and touches ; His 
hand was not made unclean by the leprosy, but the leprous 
body was made pure by the holy hand. For He came not 
onlv to heal bodies, but to lead the soul to the true wisdom. 
As then He did not forbid to eat with unwashen hands, so 
here He teaches us that it is the leprosy of the soul we - 
ought only to dread, which is sin, but that the leprosy of the 
body is no impediment to virtue. Pskudo -Chrys. But though 
He transgressed the letter of the Law, He did not transgress 
meaning. For the Law forbade to touch leprosy, because 
it could not hinder that the touch should not defile ; there- 
fore it meant not that lepers should not be healed, but that 
they that touched should not be polluted. So lie was not 
| luted by touching the leprosy, but purified the leprosy by 
touching it. 1).\m\ . For He was not only God, but Damns. 

1 C 2 1 

man also, whence lie wrought Divine wonders by touch and \l\. lU u ' 
WOftL; for as by an instrument so by His body the Divine Hi. 1 5. 

were done. Chrys. But for touching the leprous 
man th none thai accuses Mini, because His hearen 

(I u ilh envy against I lim. PSEI DO- 

Chbyb. Had He healed him without •peaking, who would 


know by whose power he had been healed? So the will to 
heal was for the sake of the leprous man ; the word was for 
the sake of them that beheld, therefore He said, / will, be 
thou clean. Jerome. It is not to be read, as most of the 
Latins think, ' 1 will to cleanse thee ;' but separately, He 
first answers, I will, and then follows the command, be thou 
clean. The leper has said, If Thou wilt ; the Lord answers, 
/ will; he first said, Thou canst make me clean; the Lord 
^- spake, Be thou clean, Cilkys. Nowhere else do we see 
Him using this word though He be working ever so signal 
a miracle; but He here adds, / will, to confirm the opinion 
of the people and the leprous man concerning His power. 
Nature obeyed the word of the Purifier with proper speed, 
whence it follows, and straight his leprosy ivas cleansed. 
But even this word straightway is too slow to express the 
Pseudo- speed with which the deed was done. Pseudo-Origen. Be- 
ubi^sup. cause ne was n °t sl° w to believe, his cure is not delayed ; 
he did not linger in his confession, Christ did not linger in 
Aug. de his cure. Aug. Luke has mentioned the cleansing of this 
Ev. ii. 19. leper, though not in the same order of events, but as his 
manner is to recollect things omitted, and to put first things 
that were done later, as they were divinely suggested; so 
that what they had known before, they afterwards set down 
in writing when they were recalled to their minds. Chrys. 
Jesus when healing his body bids him tell no man ; Jesus 
saith unto him, See thou tell no man. Some say that He 
gave this command that they might not through malice 
distrust his cure. But this is said foolishly, for He did not 
so cure him as that his purity should be called in question ; 
but He bids him tell no man, to teach that He does not love 
ostentation and glory. How is it then that to another whom 
Mark 5, He had healed He gives command to go and tell it? "What 
He taught in that was only that we should have a thankful 
heart; for He does not command that it should be published 
abroad, but that glory should be given to God. He teaches 
us then through this leper not to be desirous of empty 
honour; by the other, not to be ungrateful, but to refer all 
things to the praise of God. JerOMX. And in truth what 
need was there that he should proclaim with his mouth 
what was evidently shewed in his body? Hilary. Or that 

VER. 1 — 4. ST. MATTHEW. 301 

this healing might be sought rather than offered, therefore 
silence is enjoined. Jerome. He sends him to the Priests, — 
first, because of His humility that He may seem to defer to 
the Priests ; secondly, that when they saw the leper cleansed 
they might be saved, if they would believe on the Saviour, 
or if not that they might be without excuse ; and, lastly, that 
He might not seem, as He was often charged, to be infringing 
the Law. Chrys. He neither every where broke, nor every 
where observed, the Law, but sometimes the one, sometimes 
the other. The one was preparing the way for the wisdom v ^\- 
that was to come, the other was silencing the irreverent tongue Aoo-o*it! 
of the Jews, and condescending to their weakness. Whence 
the Apostles also are seen sometimes observing, sometimes 
neglecting, the Law. Pseudo-Origen. Or, He sends him to Pseudo- 
the Priests that they might know that he was not cleansed u ^J^up 
according to the manner of the Law, but by the operation of 
grace. Jerome. It was ordained in the Law, that those 
that had been cleansed of a leprosy should offer gifts to the 
Priests ; as it follows, And offer thy gift as Moses commanded 
for a testimony to them. Pseudo-Chrys. Which is not to 
be understood, Moses commanded it for a testimony to them; 
but, Go thou and offer for a testimony. Chrys. For Christ, 
knowing beforehand that they would not profit by this, said 
not, ' for their amendment,' but, for a testimony to them ; 
that is, for an accusation of them, and in attestation that all 
things that should have been done by Me, have been done. 
But though He thus knew that they would not profit by it, 
yet He did not omit anything that behoved to be done; 
but they remained in their former ill-will. Also He said 
not, 'The gift that I command/ but, that Moses commanded, 
that in the meantime He might hand them over to the Law, 
and close the mouths of* the unjust. That they might not say 
that He usurped the honour of the Priests, lie fulfilled the 
work of the Law, and made a trial of them. PsEl DO-OriGEN. Ptendo- 

Or; offer thy gift t that all who see may believe the miracle. u i'i 1J J ( ll l ! ) " 

PSE1 DO-GhBTS. Or; lie eommands the oblation, that should 
they at to put him out, he might be able to 

say, JTou baye received gifts on my cleansing, how do ye 

now catt me out M a leper? HILARY, Or we may read, 

Which M>j<>.< commanded for a testimony ; inasmuch 


what Moses commanded in the Law is a testimony, not an 
Bede. effect. Bede. Should any he perplexed how, when the 
Do™.' 3° Lord seems here to approve Moses' offering, the Church 
Epiph. d oeg no t receive it, let him remember, that Christ had not 
yet offered His body for a holocaust. And it behoved that 
the typical sacrifices should not be taken away, before that 
which they typified was established by the testimony of 
the Apostles' preaching, and by the faith of the people 
believing. By this man was figured the whole human race, 
for he was not only leprous, but, according to the Gospel of 
Rom.3.23. Luke, is described as full of leprosy. For all have shmed, 
and need glory of God ; to wit, that glory, that the hand of 
the Saviour being stretched out, (that is, the AVord being 
made flesh,) and touching human nature, they might be 
cleansed from the vanity of their former ways ; and that 
they that had been long abominable, and cast out from the 
camp of God's people, might be restored to the temple and 
the priest, and be able to offer their bodies a living sacrifice 
Ps. no, 4. to Him to whom it is said, Thou art a Priest for ever, 
Remig. Morally; by the leper is signified the sinner; for 
sin makes an unclean and impure soul ; he falls down 
before Christ when he is confounded concerning his former 
sins ; yet he ought to confess, and to seek the remedy of 
penitence ; so the leper shews his disease, and asks a cure. 
The Lord stretches out His hand when He affords the aid of 
Divine mercy ; whereupon follows immediately remission of 
sin ; nor ought the Church to be reconciled to the same, 
but on the sentence of the Priest. 

5. And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, 
there came unto Him a centurion, beseeching Him, 

6. And saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home 
sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. 

7. And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal 

8. The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am 
not worthy that Thou shouldest come under my roof: 
but speak the word only, and my servant shall be 


VER. 5 — 9. ST. MATTHEW. 303 

9. For I am a man under authority, having soldiers 
under me : and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth ; 
and to another, Come, and he cometh ; and to my 
servant, Do this, and he doeth it. 

Pseudo-Chrys. The Lord having taught His disciples on 
the mount, and healed the leper at the foot of the mount, 
came to Capharnaum. This is a mystery, signifying that 
after the purification of the Jews He went to the Gentiles. 
Hay-mo. For Capharnaum, which is interpreted, The town 
of fatness, or, The field of consolation, signifies the Church, 
which was gathered out of the Gentiles, which is replenished 
with spiritual fatness, according to that, That my soul may Ps. 63, 5. 
be filled with marrow and fatness, and under the troubles of 
the world is comforted concerning heavenly things, accord- 
ing to that, Thy consolations have rejoiced my soul. Hence Ps. 94, 19. 
it is said, When He had entered into Capharnaum the cen- 
turion came to Him. Aug. This centurion was of the Gen- Aug. 
tiles, for Judaea had already soldiers of the Roman empire, g"™.' 
Pseudo-Chrys. This centurion was the first-fruits of the 
Gentiles, and in comparison of his faith, all the faith of the 
Jews was unbelief; he neither heard Christ teaching, nor 
saw the leper when he was cleansed, but from hearing only 
that he had been healed, he believed more than he heard; 
and so he mystically typified the Gentiles that should come, 
who had neither read the Law nor the Prophets concerning 
Christ, nor had seen Christ Himself work His miracles, lie 
came to Him and besought llim, saying, Lord, my servant 
lieth (it home sick of the palsy, and is grievously afflicted. 
Mark the goodness of the centurion, who for the health of his 
nt was in so great baste and anxiety, as though by his 
h be ibould suffer Loss, not of money, but of his well-being. 
I be reckoned do difference between the servant and the 
er; their place in this world may be different, but their 
ire is one. Mark also his faith, in that he said not, Come 

and heal him, because that Christ who stood there was present 
in every plaee ; and his wisdom, in that he said not, Ileal him 
on tbil ipot, foi he knew that He ffSS mighty to do, w i 

to understand, and merciful to hearken, therefore he did hut 



declare the sickness, leaving it to the Lord, by His merciful 
power to heal. And he is grievously afflicted; this shews 
how he loved him, for when any that we love is pained or 
tormented, though it be but slightly, yet we think him 
more afflicted than he really is. Rabax. All these things 
he recounts with grief, that he is sick, that it is with palsy ; 
that he is grievously afflicted therewith, the more to shew 
the sorrow of his own heart, and to move the Lord to have 
mercy. In like manner ought all to feel for their servants, 

Chrys. and to take thought for them. Chrys. But some say that 
he says these things in excuse of himself, as reasons why he 
did not bring the sick man himself. For it was impossible 
to bring one in a palsy, in great torment, and at the point 
to die. But I rather think it a mark of his great faith ; in- 
asmuch as he knew that a word alone was enough to re- 
store the sick man, he deemed it superfluous to bring him. 
Hilary. Spiritually interpreted, the Gentiles are the sick 
in this world, and afflicted with the diseases of sin, all their 
limbs being altogether unnerved, and unfit for their duties 
of standing and walking. The sacrament of their salvation is 
fulfilled in this centurion's servant, of whom it is sufficiently 
declared that he was the head of the Gentiles that should 
believe. What sort of head this is, the song of Moses in 

Deut. 32, Deuteronomy teaches, He set the bounds of the people ac- 
cording to the number of the Angels. Remig. Or, in the cen- 
turion are figured those of the Gentiles who first believed, 
and were perfect in virtue. For a centurion is one who com- 
mands a hundred soldiers ; and a hundred is a perfect num- 
ber. Rightly, therefore, the centurion prays for his servant, 
because the first-fruits of the Gentiles prayed to God for the 
salvation of the whole Gentile world. Jerome. The Lord 
seeing the centurion's faith, humbleness, and thoughtfuluess, 
straightway promises to go and heal him ; Jesus sait/i unto 
him, I will come and heal him. Chrys. Jesus here does 
what He never did ; He always follows the wish of the sup- 
plicant, but here He goes before it, and not only promises 
to heal him, but to go to his house. This He does, that we 
may learn the worthiness of the centurion. Pseudo-Chkys. 
Had not He said, / will come and heal Jiim, the other would 
never have answered, i" am not worthy. It was because it 

VER. 5—9. ST. MATTHEW. 305 

was a servant for whom he made petition, that Christ 
promised to go, in order to teach us not to have respect to 
the great, and overlook the little, but to honour poor and 
rich alike. Jerome. As we commend the centurion's faith, 
in that he believed that the Saviour was able to heal the 
paralytic; so his humility is seen in his professing himself 
unworthy that the Lord should come under his roof; as it 
follows, And the centurion answered and said unto Him, 
Lord, I am not worthy that Thou shouldest come under my 
roof. Raban. Conscious of his gentile life, he thought lie Raban. e 
should be more burdened than profited by this act of con- 
descension from Him with whose faith he was indeed endued, 
but with whose sacraments he was not yet initiated. Aug. Aug. 
By declaring himself unworthy, he shewed himself worthy, u ] sup * 
not indeed into whose house, but into whose heart, Christ 
the Word of God should enter. Nor could he have said this 
with so much faith and humility, had he not borne in his 
heart Him whom he feared to have in his house. And 
indeed it would have been no great blessedness that Jesus 
should enter within his walls, if He had not already entered 
into his heart. Chrysologus. Mystically, his house was Chrysol. 
the body which contained his soul, which contains within it erm * 
the freedom of the mind by a heavenly vision. But God dis- 
dains neither to inhabit flesh, nor to enter the roof of our 
body. Pseudo-Origen*. And now also when the heads of Pseudo- 
Churches, holy men and acceptable to God, enter your roof, hotT},, 
then in them the Lord also enters, and do you think of your- Div. 5. 
self as receiving the Lord. And when you eat and drink the 
Lord's Body*, then the Lord enters under your roof, and 
you then should humble yourself, saying, Lord, L am not 
worthy, For where He enters unworthily, there lie enters to 
the condemnation of him who receives Him. Jerome. The 
thoughtfalneti of the centurion appears herein, that he; saw 
the Divinity hidden beneath the covering of body; where- 
he adds, lint ipeak the word only, and my servant will 
he healed. PftBl DO-ChbYB. He knew that Angela stood by 

• " I run not worthy, Lonl, Andrewee 1 Devotion . and our Com- 

] ii'- unu in-- ; hut M liiuiiion B thy 

i ''- to lodge in a den so much ai t<> gather up the oxumbi 

or itable of brute beaete, fitc." Vi'l. under Thy Tablet Bw." 
Liturgy of St. John CJhryu. ; also Bp< 

VOL. I. 


unseen to minister to Him, who turn every word of His into 
act; yea and should Angels fail, yet diseases are healed by 
His life-giving command. Hilary. Also he therefore says 
that it needed only a word to heal his son, because all the 
salvation of the Gentiles is of faith, and the life of them all 
is in the precepts of the Lord ; therefore he continues saying, 
For I am a man set under authority, having soldiers under 
me ; and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth ; to another, 
Come, and he cometh ; and to my servant, Do this, and he 
doeth it. Pseudo-Chrys. He has here developed the mys- 
tery of the Father and the Son, by the secret suggestion of 
the Holy Spirit ; as much as to say, Though I am under the 
command of another, yet have I power to command those 
who are under me; so also Thou, though under the com- 
mand of the Father, in so far as Thou art Man, yet hast 
Thou power over the Angels. But Sabellius perhaps affirms, 
seeking to prove that the Son is the same as the Father, that 
it is to be understood thus ; f If I who am set under autho- 
rity have yet power to command, how much more Thou who 
art under the authority of none.' But the words will not 
bear this exposition ; for he said not, ( If I being a man under 
authority/ but, ' For I also am a man set under authority f 
clearly not drawing a distinction, but pointing to a resem- 
Aug. ubi blance in this respect between himself and Christ. Aug. 
If I who am under command have yet power to com- 
mand others, how much more Thou whom all powers 
Gloss.ord. serve ! Gloss. Thou art able without Thy bodily presence, 
by the ministry of Thy Angels, to say to this disease, 
Go, and it will leave him ; and to say to health, Come, 
and it shall come to him. Haymo. Or, we may under- 
stand by those that are set under the centurion, the natural 
virtues in which many of the Gentiles were mighty, or 
even thoughts good and bad. Let us say to the bad, 
Depart, and they will depart ; let us call the good, and 
they shall come ; and our servant, that is, our body, let us 
Aug. de bid that it submit itself to the Divine will. Aug. What 
Evan. ii. ^ s ncre sa ^ seems to disagree with Luke's account, When 
20. the centurion heard concerning Jesus, he sent unto Him 

u e ' ' elders of the Jews, beseeching Him that He would come and 
heal his servant. And again, When He was come nigh to 

VER. 5 — 9. ST. MATTHEW. 307 

the house, the centurion sent friends unto Him, saying, 
Lord, trouble not Thyself, for I am not worthy that Thou 
shouldest enter under my roof Chrys. But some say that 
these are two different occurrences ; an opinion which has 
much to support it. Of him in Luke it is said, He loveth 
our nation, and has built us a synagogue ; but of this one 
Jesus says, I have not found so great faith in Israel ; 
whence it might seem that the other was a Jew. But in 
my opinion they are both the same person. What Luke 
relates, that he sent to Jesus to come to him, betrays the 
friendly services of the Jews. We may suppose that when 
the centurion sought to go to Jesus, he was prevented by 
the Jews, who offered to go themselves for the purpose of 
bringing Him. But as soon as he was delivered from their 
importunity, then he sent to say, Do not think that it was 
from want of respect that I did not come, but because I 
thought myself unworthy to receive you into my house. 
When then Matthew relates, that he spoke thus not through 
friends, but in his own person, it does not contradict Luke's 
account ; for both have only represented the centurion's 
anxiety, and that he had a right opinion of Christ. And 
we may suppose that he first sent this message to Him by 
friends as He approached, and after, when He was come 
thither, repeated it himself. But if they are relating different 
stories, then they do not contradict each other, but supply 
mutual deficiencies. Aug. Matthew therefore intended to Aug. ubi 
state summarily all that passed between the centurion and sup * 
the Lord, which was indeed done through others, with the 
view of commending his faith; as the Lord spoke, / have 
not found so great faith in Israel. Luke, on the other hand, 
narrated the whole as it was done, that so we might be 
obliged to understand in what sense Matthew, who could 
not err, meant that the centurion himself came to Christ, 
namely, in a figurative sense through faith. Cm; vs. For 
indeed there is no necessary contradiction between Luke's 
statement, that Ik; had built a synagogue, and this, that he 
not ;m [trai lite; lor it was quite possible, that one who 
not a .Jew should ha\e built a synagogue, and should 
lo\c the nation. 



10. When Jesus heard it, He marvelled, and said 
to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have 
not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. 

11. And I say unto you, That many shall come 
from the east and west, and shall sit down with 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of 

12. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast 
out into outer darkness : there shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth. 

13. And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy 
way ; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto 
thee. And his servant was healed in the selfsame 

Chrys. As what the leper had affirmed concerning Christ's 
power, If Thou wilt, Thou canst cleanse me, was confirmed by 
the mouth of Christ, saying, / will, be thou clean ; so here 
He did not blame the centurion for bearing testimony to 
Christ's authority, but even commended him. Nay more; 
it is something greater than commendation that the Evan- 
gelist signifies in the words, But Jesus hearing marvelled. 
Pseudo- Pseudo-Origen. Observe how great and what that is at which 
Hom^in ^ 0f ^ the Only-begotten marvels ! Gold, riches, principalities, 
Div. 5. are i n Ui s sight as the shadow or the flower that fadeth ; in 
the sight of God none of these things is wonderful, as 
though it were great or precious, but faith only; this He 
wonders at, and pays honour to, this He esteems acceptable 
Aug. to Himself. Aug. But who was He that had created this 
^ iper faith in him, but onlv He who now marvelled at it? But 

Uen. c. ' ■ 

Man. i. 8. even had it come from any other, how should He marvel 
who knew all things future? "When the Lord marvels, it is 
only to teach us what we ought to wonder at; for all these 
emotions in Him are not signs of passion, but examples of 
a tocher. CHRYS. Wherefore He is said to have thus 
wondered in the presence of all the people, giving them an 
example that they also should wonder at Him; for it follows, 
And lie said to them that followed, 1 have not found so great 

VER. 10 13. ST. MATTHEW. 309 

faith in Israel. Aug. He praises his faith, but gives no Aug. com. 
command to quit his profession of a soldier. Jerome. This X xii. S 74. 
He speaks of the present generation, not of all the Patri- 
archs and Prophets of past ages. Pseudo-Chrys. Andrew 
believed, but it was after John had said, Behold the Lamb John 1,36. 
of God; Peter believed, but it was at the preaching of 
Andrew ; Philip believed, but it was by reading the Scrip- 
tures ; and Nathanael first received a proof of His Divinity, 
and then spoke forth his confession of faith. Pseudo- Pseudo- 
Origen. Jairus a prince in Israel, making request for his u bi sup. 
daughter, said not, l Speak the word/ but, 'Come quickly/ John 3, 9. 
Nicodemus, hearing of the sacrament of faith, asks, How can John 11, 
these things be? Mary and Martha say, Lord, if Thou hadst 
been here, my brother had not died ; as though distrusting 
that God's power could be in all places at the same time. 
Pseudo-Chrys. Or, if we would suppose b that his faith was 
greater than even that of the Apostles, Christ's testimony to 
it must be understood as though every good in a man should 
be commended relatively to his character ; as it were a great 
thing in a countryman to speak with wisdom, but in a phi- 
losopher the same would be nothing wonderful. In this 
way it may be said of the centurion, In none other have I 
found so great faith in Israel. Chrys. For it is a different 
tiling for a Jew to believe and for a Gentile. Jerome. Or 
perhaps in the person of the centurion the faith of the Gen- 
tiles is preferred to that of Israel ; whence He proceeds, 
J hit I say vnto you, Many shall come from the east and from 
tin 1 west. Aug. He says, not 'all/ but many; yet these Aug. 
from the east and west; for by these two quarters the whole gj. 4* 
world is intended. IIavmo. Or; From the east shall come 
they, who pass into the kingdom as soon as they are en- 
lightened ; from the west they who have suffered persecution 
for the faith even unto death. Or, he comes from the east, 
who has served (Jod from a child; lie from the west who 
IB decrepit age has turned to God. PsBUDO-OrIGEN. Bow Pseudo- 
then does He say in another place, that thr rhosr/t arefewf u Jj 

use in each generation there are few that are chosen, 
bnl when all 'luted together in the day of visitation 

they shall be found many. They shall tit down, not the 

ll noii mi 


bodily posture, but the spiritual rest, not with human food, 
but with an eternal feast, with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
in the kingdom of heaven, where is light, joy, glory, and 
eternal length of days. Jerome. Because the God of Abra- 
ham, the Maker of heaven, is the Father of Christ, there- 
fore also is Abraham in the kingdom of heaven, and with 
him will sit down the nations who have believed in Christ 
Aug. ubi the Son of the Creator. Aug. As we see Christians called 
sup# to the heavenly feast, where is the bread of righteousness, 

the drink of wisdom ; so we see the Jews in reprobation. 
The children of the kingdom shall be cast into outer dark- 
ness, that is, the Jews, who have received the Law, who 
observe the types of all things that were to be, yet did not 
acknowledge the realities when present. Jerome. Or the 
Jews may be called the children of the kingdom, because 
God reigned among them heretofore. Chrys. Or, He calls 
them the children of the Kingdom, because the kingdom was 
prepared for them, which was the greater grief to them. 
Aug. cont. Aug. Moses set before the people of Israel no other God 
xvi. 24. than the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and Christ sets 
forth the very same God. So that so far was lie from seek- 
ing to turn that people away from their own God, that He 
therefore threatened them with the outer darkness, because 
He saw them turned away from their own God. And in 
this kingdom He tells them the Gentiles shall sit down with 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, for no other reason than that 
they held the faith of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. To these 
Fathers Christ gives His testimony, not as though they had 
been converted after death, or had received justification after 
His passion. Jerome. It is called outer darkness, because 
he whom the Lord casts out leaves the light. Haymo. 
What they should suffer there, He shews when He adds, 
There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Thus in 
metaphor lie describes the sufferings of the tormented 
limbs; the eyes shed tears when filled with smoke, and the 
teeth chatter together from cold. This shews that the 
wicked in hell shall endure both extreme cold and extreme 
Job 24, if), heat: according to that in Job, Theij shall pass from rivers 
of snow to the scorching heat. JEROME. Weeping and gnash- 
ing of teeth are a proof of bones and body ; truly then 

VER. 14, 15. ST. MATTHEW. 311 

is there a resurrection of the same limbs, that sank into 
the grave. Rabax. Or ; The gnashing of teeth expresses 
the passion of remorse; repentance coming too late and self- 
accusation that he has sinned with such obstinate wicked- 
ness. Remig. Otherwise ; By outer darkness, He means 
foreign nations ; for these words of the Lord are a historical 
prediction of the destruction of the Jews, that they were to 
be led into captivity for their unbelief, and to be scattered 
over the earth ; for tears are usually caused by heat, gnash- 
ing of teeth by cold. Weeping then is ascribed to those 
who should be dispersed into the warmer climates of India 
and Ethiopia, gnashing of teeth to those who should dwell in 
the colder regions, as Hyrcania and Scythia. Chrys. But 
that none might suppose that these were nothing more 
than fair words, He makes them credible by the miracles 
following, And Jesus said to the centurion, Go, and be it 
done to thee as thou hast believed. Raban. As though He 
had said, According to the measure of thy faith, so be thy 
grace. For the merit of the Lord may be communicated 
even to servants not only through the merit of their faith, 
but through their obedience to rule. It follows, And his 
servant was healed in the self-same hour. Chrys. Wherein 
admire the speediness, shewing Christ's power, not only to 
heal, but to do it in a moment of time. Aug. As the Lord Aug. 
did not enter the centurion's house with His body, but g™* 
healed the servant, present in majesty, but absent in body; 
so He went among the Jews only in the body, but among 
other nations He was neither born of a Virgin, nor suffered, 
nor endured human sufferings, nor did divine wonders; and 
y< t \\a> fulfilled that which was spoken, A people that I have Vs. 18,43. 
not known hath served Me, and hath obeyed Me by the hearing 
of the ear. The .lews beheld, yet crucified Him; the world 
rd, and believed. 

14. And when Jeaus was come into Peter's house, 
J it saw hjfl wile's mother laid, and sick of a (ever. 

15. And He touched her hand, and the fever left 

: and she arose, and ministered unto them. 
A.NSBLM* Matthew baring in the leper shewn the healing 


of the whole human race, and in the centurion's servant that 
of the Gentiles, now figures the healing of the synagogue in 
Peter's mother-in-law. He relates the case of the servant, 
first, because it was the greater miracle, and the grace was 
greater in the conversion of the Gentile ; or because the 
synagogue should not be fully converted till the end of the 
age when the fulness of the Gentiles should have entered 
Chrys. in. Peter's house was in Bethsaida. Chkys. AVhy did lie 
xxvTi' enter into Peter's house? I think to take food ; for it follows, 
And she arose, and ministered to them. For He abode with 
His disciples to do them honour, and to make them more 
zealous. Observe Peter's reverence towards Christ ; though 
his mother-in-law lay at home sick of a fever, yet he did not 
force Him thither at once, but waited till His teaching should 
be completed, and others healed. For from the beginning 
he was instructed to prefer others to himself. Wherefore 
he did not even bring Him thither, but Christ went in of 
Himself; purposing, because the centurion had said, / am 
not worthy that Thou shouldest come under my roof, to shew 
what He granted to a disciple. And He did not scorn to 
enter the humble hut of a fisherman, instructing us in evt ry 
thing to trample upon human pride. Sometimes He heals 
by a word, sometimes He reaches forth His hand ; as here, 
He touched her hand, and the fever left her. For He would 
not always work miracles with display of surpassing power, 
but would sometimes be hid. By touching her body He 
not only banished the fever, but restored her to perfect 
health. Because her sickness was such as art could cure, 
]Ic shewed Ilis power to heal, in doing what medicine could 
not do, giving her back perfect health and strength at once; 
which is intimated in what the Evangelist adds, And she 
arose, and ministered to them. Jeromb. For naturally the 
greatest weakness follows fever, and the evils of sickness 
begin to be felt as the patient begins to recover; but that 
health which is given by the Lord's power is complete at 
Glow, once. G-L08S. And it is not enough that she is cured, but 
non occ. strength is given her besides, for she arose and ministered 
unto them. CHBYS. This, she arose and ministered unto 
them, shews at once the Lord's power, and the woman's 
Bede. Feeling towards Christ. Bede. Figuratively; Peter's house 

in loc. 

VEH. 14, 15. ST. MATTHEW. 313 

is the Law, or the circumcision, his mother-in-law the syna- 
gogue, which is as it were the mother of the Church com- 
mitted to Peter. She is in a fever, that is, she is sick of 
zealous hate, and persecutes the Church. The Lord touches 
her hand, when He turns her carnal works to spiritual uses. 
Remig. Or by Peter's mother-in-law may be understood the 
Law, which according to the Apostle was made weak through 
the flesh, i. e. the carnal understanding. But when the Lord 
through the mystery of the Incarnation appeared visibly in 
the synagogue, and fulfilled the Law in action, and taught 
that it was to be understood spiritually ; straightway it thus 
allied with the grace of the Gospel received such strength, 
that what had been the minister of death and punishment, 
became the minister of life and glory. Raban. Or, every Raban. 
soul that struggles with fleshly lusts is sick of a fever, but e e * 
touched with the hand of Divine mercy, it recovers health, 
and restrains the concupiscence of the flesh by the bridle of 
continence, and with those limbs with which it had served 
uii cleanness, it now ministers to righteousness. Hilary. 
Or ; In Peter's wife's mother is shewn the sickly condition 
of infidelity, to which freedom of will is near akin, being 
united by the bonds as it were of wedlock. By the Lord's 
entrance into Peter's house, that is into the body, unbelief is 
cured, which was before sick of the fever of sin, and ministers 
in duties of righteousness to the Saviour. Aug. When this 
miracle was done, that is, after what, or before what, Matthew e^H 21 

nor said. For we need not understand that it took place 
just after that which it follows in the relation; he may be 
returning here to what he had omitted above. Por Mark 
relates this after the cleansing of the leper, which should Mark l, 
seem to follow the sermon on the mount, concerning which 
M i k ifl silent. Luke also follows the same order in relating 
this concerning Peter's mother-in-law as Mark; also inserting 
it before that long lermon which seems to 1)0 the same with 
Matt he rmon on the mount. But what matters it in 

what order the evenN are told, whether something omitted 
before il brought in after, or what was done alter is told 
carl: long as in the same itOTJ he does not contradict 

either another or himself? Poi as it is m no man's power 

to choose iii what order he shall recollect the things he has 


once known, it is likely enough that each of the Evangelists 
thought himself obliged to relate all in that order in which 
it pleased God to bring to his memory the various events. 
Therefore when the order of time is not clear, it cannot 
import to us what order of relation an}'' one of them may 
have followed. 

16. When the even was come, they brought unto 
Him many that were possessed with devils : and He 
cast out the spirits with His word, and healed all that 
were sick : 

17. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken 
by Esaias the prophet, saying, Himself took our in- 
firmities, and bare our sicknesses. 

Chrys. Because the multitude of believers was now very 
great, they would not depart from Christ, though time 
pressed ; but in the evening they bring unto Him the sick. 
When it was evening, they brought unto Him many that had damons. Aug. The words, Now when it was evening, shew 
Ev^ii 22 ^ ia ^ * ne evening of the same day is meant. This would 
not have been implied, had it been only when it was 
evening. Remig. Christ the Son of God, the Author of 
human salvation, the fount and source of all goodness, 
furnished heavenly medicine, He cast out the spirits with 
a word, and heated all that were sick. Daemons and dis- 
eases He sent away with a word, that by these signs, and 
mijrhtv works, He might shew that He was come for the 
salvation of the human race. Chrys. Observe how great 
a multitude of cured the Evangelist here runs through, not 
relating the case of each, but in one word introducing an 
innumerable flood of miracles. That the greatness of the 
miracle should not raise unbelief that so much people and 
so various diseases could be healed in so short a space, he 
brings forward the Prophet to bear witness to the things 
that were done, That it might be fulfilled which was spoken 
by Esaias the Prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities. 
RabaK. Took them not that He should have them Himself, 
but that He should take them away from us ; and bare our 

VER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 315 

sicknesses, in that what we were too weak to bear, He should 
bear for us. Remig. He took the infirmity of human nature 
so as to make us strong who had before been weak. Hilary. 
And by the passion of His body, according to the words of 
the Prophet, He absorbed all the infirmities of human weak- 
ness. Chrys. The Prophet seems to have meant this of 
sins; how then does the Evangelist explain it of bodily 
diseases ? It should be understood, that either he cites the 
text literally, or he intends to inculcate that most of our 
bodily diseases have their origin in sins of the soul; for 
death itself has its root in sin. Jerome. It should be noted, 
that all the sick were healed not in the morning nor at 
noon, but rather about sunset ; as a corn of wheat dies in 
the ground that it may bring forth much fruit. Eaban. 
Sunset shadows forth the passion and death of Him Who 
said, While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. John 9, 5. 
"Who while He lived temporally in the flesh, taught only 
a few of the Jews ; but having trodden under foot the king- 
dom of death, promised the gifts of faith to all the Gentiles 
throughout the world. 

18. Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about 
Him, He gave commandment to depart unto the 
other side. 

19. And a certain Scribe came, and said unto 
Him, Master, I will follow Thee whithersoever Thou 

20. And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have 
holes, and the birds of the air have nests ; but the 
Son of Man hath not where to lay His head. 

21. And another of His disciples said unto Him, 
Lord, Buffer me first to go and bury my father. 

22. Bui Jesus said unto him, Follow Me; and let 
the dead bury their dead. 

Chrys, Because Christ not only healed tin* body, hut 
purified the soul alto, He desired to shew forth true iris- 


dom, not only by curing diseases, but by doing nothing 
with ostentation ; and therefore it is said, Now when Jesus 
saw great multitudes about Hi?n, He commanded His dis- 
ciples to cross over to the other side. This He did at once 
teaching us to be lowly, softening the ill-will of the Jews, 
and teaching us to do nothing with ostentation. Remig. 
Or; He did this as one desiring to shun the thronging of 
the multitude. But they hung upon Him in admiration, 
crowding to see Him. For who would depart from one 
who did such miracles ? Who would not wish to look upon 
His open face, to see His mouth that spoke such things? 
For if Moses' countenance was made glorious, and Stephen's 
as that of an Angel, gather from this how it was to have 
been supposed that their common Lord must have then 

Ps. 45, 2. appeared; of whom the Prophet speaks, Thy form is fair 
above the sons of men. Hilary. The name disciples is not 
to be supposed to be confined to the twelve Apostles ; for 

Aug. ubi we read of many disciples besides the twelve. Aug. It is 

Bup * clear that this day on which they went over the lake was 

another day, and not that which followed the one on which 
Peter's mother-in-law was healed, on which day Mark and 
Luke relate that He went out into the desert. Chrts. 
Observe that He does not dismiss the multitudes, that He 
may not offend them. He did say to them, Depart ye, 
but bade His disciples go away from thence, thus the crowds 
might hope to be able to follow. Remig. What happened 
between the command of the Lord given, and their cross- 
ing over, the Evangelist purposes to relate in what follows ; 
And one of the Scribes came to Him and said, Master, I 
will follow Thee whithersoever Thou goest. Jerome. This 
Scribe of the Law who knew but the perishing letter, 
would not have been turned away had his address been, 
* Lord, I will follow Thee.' But because he esteemed the 

1 literator. Saviour only as one of many masters, and was a ! man of 
the letter (which is better expressed in Greek, ypap,fiarevs) 
not a spiritual hearer, therefore he had no place where 
Jesus might lay His head. It is suggested to us that he 
sought to follow the Lord, because of His great miracles, 
for the sake of the gain to be derived from them; and was 

VER. 18—22. ST. MATTHEW. 317 

therefore rejected ; seeking the same thing as did Simon 
Magus, when he would have given Peter money. Chrys. 
Observe also how great his pride ; approaching and speak- 
ing as though he disdained to be considered as one of the 
multitude; desiring to shew that he was above the rest. 
Hilary. Otherwise; This Scribe being one of the doctors 
of the Law, asks if he shall follow Him, as though it were 
not contained in the Law that this is He whom it were gain 
to follow. Therefore He discovers the feeling of unbelief 
under the diffidence of his enquiry. For the taking up of 
the faith is not by question but by following. Chrys. So 
Christ answers him not so much to what he had said, but to 
the obvious purpose of his mind. Jesus saith unto hi?n, The 
foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the 
Son of Man hath not where to lay His head; as though He 
had said; Jerome. Why do you seek to follow Me for the 
sake of the riches and gain of this world, when My poverty 
is such that I have neither lodging nor home of My own? 
Chrys. This was not to send him away, but rather to con- 
vict him of evil intentions; at the same time permitting him 
if he would to follow Christ with the expectation of poverty. 
Aug. Otherwise; The Son of Man hath not where to lay His Aug. 
head; that is, in your faith. The foxes have holes, in your 10u> j # 
heart, because you are deceitful. The birds of the air have 
nests, in your heart, because you are proud. Deceitful and 
proud follow Me not; for how should guile follow sincerity? 

Otherwise ; The fox is a crafty animal, lying hid in Greg, 
ditches and dens, and when it comes abroad never going in xix.l. 
a fttraight path, but in crooked windings; birds raise them- 
selves in the air. By the foxes then arc meant the subtle 
and deeeitful daemons, by the birds the proud daemons; as 
though He hud said; Deceitful and proud daemons ha\c 
their abode in your heart; but My lowliness finds no rest in 
■ proud spirit. Ai <;. He was moved to follow Christ because Aug. 
of the miracles; this rain desire of glory is signified by Matt.q.5, 
the birds; but he assumed the submissivenesfl ^i' a disciple, 

h deceit. i> signified by tin; foi K.\r. w. Heretics 

confiding in their art are signified by the foxes, the e\il 

spirits by the birds of the air, who bare their holes and their 

ttj that is, their abodes in the heart of the Jewish people. 

100. 1. 


Another of Jlis disciples saith unto Him, Lord, suffer me first 
to go and bury my father. Jerome. In what one thing is 
this disciple like the Scribe? The one called Him Master, 
the other confesses Him as his Lord. The one from filial 
piety asks permission to go and bury his father; the other 
offers to follow, not seeking a master, but by means of his 
master seeking gain for himself. Hilary. The disciple does 
not ask whether he shall follow Him ; for he already believed 
that he ought to follow, but prays to be suffered first to bury 

Aug. his father. Aug. The Lord when He prepares men for the 
Gospel will not have any excuse of this fleshly and tem- 
poral attachment to interfere, therefore it follows; Jesus said 
unto him, Follow Me, and leave the dead to bury their dead. 
Chrys. This saying does not condemn natural affection to 
our parents, but shews that nothing ought to be more bind- 
ing on us than the business of heaven ; that to this we ought 
to apply ourselves with all our endeavours, and not to be 
slack, however necessary or urgent are the things that draw 
us aside. For what could be more necessary than to bury 
a father ? What more easy ? For it could not need much time. 
But in this the Lord rescued him from much evil, weeping, 
and mourning, and from the pains of expectation. For after 
the funeral there must come examination of the will, division 
of the inheritance, and other things of the same sort ; and 
thus trouble following trouble, like the waves, would have 
borne him far from the port of truth. But if you are not 
yet satisfied, reflect further that oftentimes the weak are not 
permitted to know the time, or to follow to the grave ; even 
though the dead be father, mother, or son ; yet are they not 
charged with cruelty that hinder them ; it is rather the 
reverse of cruelty. And it is a much greater evil to draw 
one away from spiritual discourse ; especially when there 
were who should perform the rites ; as here, Leave the dead 

Aug. ubi to bury their dead. Aug. As much as to say ; Thy father is 
dead; but there are also other dead who shall bury their 
dead, because they are in unbelief. Chrys. This moreover 
shews that this dead man was not his ; for, I suppose, he 
that was dead was of the unbelieving. If you wonder at the 
young man, that in a matter so necessary he should have 
asked Jesus, and not have gone away of his own accord, 


VER. 23 27. ST. MATTHEW. 319 

wonder much more that he abode with Jesus after he was 
forbidden to depart ; which was not from lack of affection, 
but that he might not interrupt a business yet more neces- 
sary. Hilary. Also, because we are taught in the begin- 
ning of the Lord's prayer, first to say, Our Father, which art 
in heaven ; and since this disciple represents the believing 
people ; he is here reminded that he has one only Father in Mat. 23, 9. 
heaven, and that between a believing son and an unbelieving 
Father the filial relation does not hold good. We are also 
admonished that the unbelieving dead are not to be mingled 
with the memories of the saints, and that they are also dead 
who live out of God ; and the dead are buried by the dead, 
because by the faith of God it behoves the living to cleave 
to the living (God). Jerome. But if the dead shall bury 
the dead, we ought not to be careful for the dead but for the 
living, lest while we are anxious for the dead, we ourselves 
should be counted dead. Greg. The dead also bury the Greg. 
dead, when sinners protect sinners. They who exalt sinners 27 ° r * 1V ' 
with their praises, hide the dead under a pile of words. 
Rabax. From this we may also take occasion to observe, 
that lesser goods are to be sometimes forfeited for the sake 
of securing greater. Aug. Matthew relates that this was Aug. de 
done when He gave them commandment that they should £° n « 23 
go over the lake, Luke, that it happened as they walked by 
the way ; which is no contradiction, for they must have 
walked by the way that they might come to the lake. 

23. And when He was entered into a ship, His 
disciples followed Him. 

'1 1. And, behold, there arose a great tempest in 
i, insomuch that the ship was covered with the 
Waves : but 1 1c was asleep. 

25. And His disciples came to Him, and awoke 
Him, saying, Lord, -ave us: we perish. 

26, And He Baith unto them, Why arc ye fearful, 
ye of little faith? Then He arose, and rebuked the 

winds and tl. ; and there was a great calm. 

*J7. But the men marvelled, Baying, What manner 




of man is this, that even the winds and the sea ohey 
Him ! 

Horn, in 
Div. vii. 




ubi sup. 

Jer. 10,13 

2 Cor. 1,8 

Pseudo-Origen. Christ having performed many great and 
wonderful things on the land, passes to the sea, that there also 
Ue might shew forth His excellent power, presenting Himself 
before all men as the Lord of both earth and sea. And when 
He was entered into a boat, His disciples followed Him, not 
being weak but strong and established in the faith. Thus 
they followed Him not so much treading in His footsteps, as 
accompanying Him in holiness of spirit. Chrys. He took 
His disciples with Him, and in a boat, that they might learn 
two lessons; first, not to be confounded in dangers, secondly, 
to think lowly of themselves in honour. That they should 
not think great things of themselves because He kept them 
while He sent the rest away, He suffers them to be tossed by 
the waves. Where miracles were to be shewn, He suffers the 
people to be present; where temptations and fears were to 
be stilled, there He takes with Him only the victors of the 
world, whom lie would prepare for strife. Pseudo-Orh;i \. 
Therefore, having entered into the boat He caused the sea to 
rise ; And, lo, there arose a great tempest in the sea, so that 
the boat was covered by the waves. This tempest did not arise 
of itself, but in obedience to the power of Him Who gave 
commandment, who brings the winds out of His treasures. 
There arose a great tempest, that a great work might be 
wrought ; because by how much the more the waves rushed 
into the boat, so much the more were the disciples troubled, 
and sought to be delivered by the wonderful power of the 
Saviour. Chrys. They had seen others made partakers of 
Christ's mercies, but forasmuch as no man has so strong a 
sense of those things that are done in the person of another as 
of what is done to himself, it behoved that in their own bodies 
they should feel Christ's mercies. Therefore He willed that 
this tempest should arise, that in their deliverance they might 
have a more lively sense of His goodness. This tossing of 
the sea was a type of their future trials of which Paul speaks, 
/ would not have you ignorant, brethren, how that we were 
troubled beyond our strength. But that there might be time 
for their fear to arise, it follows, But He was asleep. For if 

VER. 23 27. ST. MATTHEW. 321 

the storm had arisen while He was awake, they would either 
not have feared, or not have prayed Him, or would not have 
believed that He had the power to still it. Pseudo-Origen. Pseudo- 
Wonderful, stupendous eveut I He that never slumbereth nor u bUup". 
sleepeth, is said to be asleep. He slept with His body, but 
was awake in His Deity, shewing that He bare a truly human 
body which He had taken on Him, corruptible. He slept 
with the body that He might cause the Apostles to watch, 
and that we all should never sleep with our mind. With so 
great fear were the disciples seized, and almost beside them- 
selves, that they rushed to Him, and did not modestly or 
gently rouse Him, but violently awakened Him. His dis- 
ciples came to Him and awoke Him, saying, Lord, save us, we 
perish. Jerome. Of this miracle we have a type in Jonah, 
who while all are in danger is himself unconcerned, sleeps, 
and is awakened. Pseudo-Origen. O ye true disciples ! ye Pseudo- 
have the Saviour with you, and do ye fear danger ? Life it- ^^1," 
self is among you, and are ye afraid of death ? They would 
answer, We are yet children, and weak, and are therefore 
afraid; whence it follows, Jesus saith unto them, Why are 
ye afraid, ye of little faith ? As though He had said, If 
ye have known Me mighty upon earth, why believe ye not 
that I am also mighty upon the sea ? And even though 
death were threatening you, ought ye not to support it 
with constancy ? He who believes a little will be rea- 
soned with ; he who believes not at all will be neglected. 
Chjiys. If any should say, that this was a sign of no small 
faith to go and rouse Jesus ; it is rather a sign that they had 
not a right opinion concerning Him. They knew that when 
wakened He could rebuke the waves, but they did not yet 
know that He could do it while sleeping. For this cause 
He did not do this wonder in the presence of the multitudes, 
that they should not be charged with their little faith ; but 
ile takes His disciples apart to correct them, and first stills 
the raging of the waters. Then He arose, and rebuked the 
winds and the sea, and 'here was a great calm. JEROME. 

From this passage we understand, that all creation is con- 
scions of its Creator j for what may be rebuked and com- 
manded is conscious of the mind commanding* 1 do not 
mean as some hereties hold, that the whole creation is 
vol. i. ¥ 




ubi sup. 


non occ. 

ubi sup. 


ubi sup. 

animate — but by the power of the Maker things which to us 
have no consciousness have to Him. Pseudo-Origex. There- 
fore He gave commandment to the winds and the sea, and 
from a great storm it became a great calm. For it behoves 
Him that is great to do great things ; therefore He who first 
greatly stirred the depths of the sea, now again commands 
a great calm, that the disciples who had been too much 
troubled might have great rejoicing. Chrys. Observe also 
that the storm is stilled at once entirely, and no trace of 
disturbance appears ; which is beyond nature ; for when a 
storm ceases in the course of nature, yet the water is wont 
to be agitated for some time longer, but here all is tran- 
quillity at once. Thus what is said of the Father, Tie spake, 
and the storm of wind ceased, this Christ fulfilled in deed ; 
for by His word and bidding only He staved and checked 
the waters. For from His appearance, from His sleeping, 
and His using a boat, they that were present supposed Him 
a man only, and on this account they fell into admiration 
of Him ; And the men marvelled, saying, IF hat manner of 
man is this, for the winds and the sea obey Him? Gloss. 
Chrysostom explains thus, What manner of man is this ? II is 
sleeping and His appearance shewed the man; the sea and 
the calm pointed out the God. Pseudo-Origen. But who 
were the men that marvelled ? You must not think that the 
Apostles are here meant, for we never find the Lord's dis- 
ciples mentioned with disrespect; they are always called 
either the Disciples or the Apostles. They marvelled then 
who sailed with Him, whose was the boat. Jerome. But if 
any shall contend that it was the disciples who wondered, we 
shall answer they are rightly spoken of as t the men/ seeing 
they had not yet learnt the power of the Saviour. PsETTDO- 
Origen. This is not a question, What manner of man is this? 
but an affirmation that He is one whom the winds and the 
sea obey. What manner of man then is this! that is, how 
powerful, how mighty, how great ! He commands every 

* Origen is accused of maintaining 
that ilu- sun, moon, and stars had souls, 
(which had been originally created in- 
corporeal, and tor sinning had been 
united with the heavenly bodies;) that 
they were in consequence rational; that 

they knew, praised, and prayed to God 
through Christ ; that they were liable 
to sin ; and that they, and the elements 
also, would undergo the future judg- 
ment. Yid Jerom. ad Avit. 4. 

VER. 23 — 27. ST. MATTHEW. 323 

creature, aud they transgress not His law; men alone dis- 
obey, and are therefore condemned by His judgment. Figu- 
ratively; We are all embarked in the vessel of the Holy 
Church, and voyaging through this stormy world with the 
Lord. The Lord Himself sleeps a merciful sleep while we 
suffer, and awaits the repentance of the wicked. Hilary. 
Or; He sleeps, because by our sloth He is cast asleep in us. 
This is done that we may hope aid from God in fear of 
danger; and that hope though late may be confident that it 
shall escape danger by the might of Christ watching within. 
Pseddo-Origex. Let us therefore come to Him with joy, 
saying with the Prophet, Arise, Lord, why steepest Thou ? Ps. 44, 23. 
And He will command the winds, that is, the daemons, who 
raise the waves, that is, the rulers of the world, to persecute 
the saints, and He shall make a great calm around both 
body and spirit, peace for the Church, stillness for the world. 
Baban. Otherwise ; The sea is the turmoil of the world ; 
the boat in which Christ is embarked is to be understood 
the tree of the cross, by the aid of which the faithful having 
passed the waves of the world, arrive in their heavenly 
country, as on a safe shore, whither Christ goes with His 
own ; whence He says below, He that will come after Me, Mat. 16, 
let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. 
When then Christ was fixed on the cross, a great com- 
motion was raised, the minds of His disciples being troubled 
at His passion, and the boat was covered by the waves. For 
the whole strength of persecution was around the cross of 
Christ, on which He died; as it is here, But He was asleep. 
Hil ^lecp is death. The disciples awaken the Lord, when 
troubled at His death; they seek His resurrection with 
earnest prayers, saying, Save us, by rising again; we perish, 
by our trouble at Thy death. He rises again, and rebukes 
the hardnetl of their hearts, as we read in other places. 
lie (ixiniKi nils the winds, in that He overthrew the power 
of the Devil; He commanded the sea, in that Ue disap- 
pointed the malice Of the Jews; and there v/v/.v n tjreat calm, 

the minds of the disciples were calmed when they 
Id J I i-i resurrection. Beds. Or.j The boat is the pre* Efede. in 

sent Church, in which Christ parses over the sea of this 

i 2 


world with His own, and stills the waves of persecution. 
Wherefore we may wonder, and give thanks. 

28. And when He was come to the other side into 
the country of the Gergesenes, there met Him two 
possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, 
exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that 

29. And, behold, they cried out, saying, What 
have we to do with Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of God ? 
art Thou come hither to torment us before the time ? 

30. And there was a good way off from them an 
herd of many swine feeding. 

31. So the devils besought Him, saying, If Thou 
cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of 

32. And He said unto them, Go. And when they 
w r ere come out, they went into the herd of swine: 
and, behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently 
down a steep place into the sea, and perished in the 

33. And they that kept them fled, and went their 
ways into the city, and told every thing, and what 
was befallen to the possessed of the devils. 

34. And, behold, the whole city came out to meet 
Jesus : and when they saw Him, they besought Him 
that He would depart out of their coasts. 

Ciirys. Because there were who thought Christ to be 
a man, therefore the daemons came to proclaim His divinity, 
that they who had not seen the sea raging and again still, 
might hear the daemons crying; And when He was come to 
the other side in the count nj of the Gen/esenes, there met Him 
two men having daemons. Iiauan. Gerasa is a town of Arabia 
beyond Jordan, close to Mount Gilead, which was in the 

VER. 28 — 34. ST. MATTHEW. 325 

possession of the tribe of Manasseh, not far from the lake 

of Tiberias, into which the swine were precipitated. Aug. Aug. de 

Whereas Matthew relates that there were two who were-- ^' ' 

n. it. 

afflicted with daemons, but Mark and Luke mention only 
one, you must understand that one of them was a person of 
note, for whom all that country was in grief, and about whose 
recovery there was much care, whence the fame of this 
miracle was the more noised abroad. Chrys. Or; Luke 
and Mark chose to speak of one who was more grievously 
afflicted ; whence also they add a further description of his 
calamity ; Luke saying that he brake his bonds and was 
driven into the desert; Mark telling that he ofttimes cut 
himself with stones. But they neither of them say that 
there was only one, which would be to contradict Matthew. 
"What is added respecting them that they came from among 
the tombs, alludes to a mischievous opinion, that the souls 
of the dead became daemons. Thus many soothsayers use 
to kill children, that they may have their souls to cooperate 
with them ; and daemoniacs also often cry out, I am the 
spirit of such an one. But it is not the soul of the dead man 
that then cries out, the daemon assumes his voice to deceive 
the hearers. For if the soul of a dead man has power to 
enter the body of another, much more might it enter its 
own. And it is more unreasonable to suppose that a soul 
that has suffered cruelty should cooperate with him that 
injured it, or that a man should have power to change an 
incorporeal being into a different kind of substance, such as 
a human soul into the substance of a daemon. For even in 
material body, this is beyond human power; as, for example, 
DO man can change the body of a man into that of an ass. 
And it is not reasonable to think that a disembodied spirit 
should wander to and fro on the earth. T/ie souls of the Wisd.3,1. 
righteous are in the hand of God, therefore those of young 
children mmt be I0j seeing they are not evil. And the souls 

oftinnera are al once conveyed away from hence, as is clear 
from L /ants and the rich man. Because none dared to 

bring them f o Christ because of their fierceness, therefore 

(Jin to them. Th i s their fierceneM Lfl intimated w hen 

added. Exceeding fierce, $o thai no man might pass ih<it 

v:uij. Bo they who hmdeied all Othej from passing that 


way, found one now standing in their way. For they were 
tortured in an unseen manner, suffering intolerable things 
from the mere presence of Christ. And, lo, they cried out, 
saying, What have we to do with Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of 
David ? Jerome. This is no voluntary confession followed 
up by a reward to the utterer, but one extorted by the com- 
pulsion of necessity. A runaway slave, when after long 
time he first beholds his master, straight thinks only of 
deprecating the scourge ; so the daemons, seeing the Lord 
suddenly moving upon the earth, thought He was come to 
judge them. Some absurdly suppose, that these daemons 
knew the Son of God, while the Devil knew Him not, 
because their wickedness was less than his. But all the 
knowledge of the disciple must be supposed in the Master. 
Aug. de Aug. God was so far known to them as it was His pleasure 
ix?2l. e1 ' ^° De k nown y an( l He pleased to be known so far as it was 
needful. He was known to them therefore not as He is Life 
eternal, and the Light which enlightens the good, but by 
certain temporal effects of His excellence, and signs of His 
hidden presence, which are visible to angelic spirits though 
evil, rather than to the infirmity of human nature. Jebomb. 
But both the Devil and the daemons may be said to have 
rather suspected, than known, Jesus to be the Son of God. 
Hil. Pseudo-Aug. When the daemons cry out, What have we to do 

Vet; S with Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of God? we must suppose them 
N. T. to have spoken from suspicion rather than knowledge. For 
l'cor 2 8 ^ ia ^ they known Him, they never would have suffered the 
Lord of glory to be crucified. Remig. But as often as they 
were tortured by His excellent power, and saw Him working 
signs and miracles, they supposed Ilim to be the Son of 
God ; when they saw Him hungry and thirsty, and suffering 
such things, they doubted, and thought Ilim mere man. It- 
should be considered that even the unbelieving Jews when 
they said that Christ cast out daemons in Beelzebub, and 
the Arians who said that He was a creature, deserve con- 
demnation not only on God's sentence, but on the confession 
of the daemons, who declare Christ to be the Son of God. 
Rightly do they say, What have we to do with Thee, Jesus, 
Thou Son of God? that is, our malice and Thy grace have 
nothing in common, according to that the Apostle speaks, 

VER. 28 — 34. ST. MATTHEW. 327 

Tliere is no fellowship of light with darkness. Chrys. That 2 Cor. 6, 
this should not be thought to be flattery, they cry out what 
they were experiencing, Art Thou come to torment us before 
the time ? Aug. Either because that came upon them un- Au». de 
expectedly, which they looked for indeed, but supposed more vi |{ 2s! 1 ' 
distant ; or because they thought their perdition consisted 
in this, that when known they would be despised ; or 
because this was before the day of judgment, when they 
should be punished with eternal damnation. Jerome. For 
the presence of the Saviour is the torment of daemons. 
Chrys. They could not say they had not sinned, because 
Christ had found them doing evil, and marring the work- 
manship of God ; whence they supposed that for their more 
abundant wickedness the time of the last punishment which 
shall be at the day of judgment should not be tarried for to 
punish them. Aug. Though the words of the daemons are Aug. de 
variously reported by the three Evangelists, yet this is no et.& 24. 
difficulty ; for they either all convey the same sense, or may 
be supposed to have been all spoken. Nor again because 
in Matthew they speak in the plural, in the others in the 
singular number ; because even the other two Evangelists 
relate that when asked his name, he answered, Legion, 
shewing that the daemons were many. Now there was not 
far from thence a herd of many swine feeding; and the 
daemons prayed Him, saying, If Thou cast us out hence, send 
us into the swine. Greg. For the Devil knows that of him- Greg.Mor. 
self he has no power to do any thing, because it is not of "' 
himself that he exists as a spirit. Remig. They did not ask 
to be sent into men, because they saw Him by whose ex- 
cellence they were tortured existing in human shape. Nor 
did they ask to be sent into sheep, because sheep are by 
God'fl institution clean animals, and were then offered in the 
temple of God. Hut they requested to be sent into tlio 
swine rather than into any of the other unclean animals, 
this is of all animals the most unclean; whence 
also it had itfl name ' poreus/ as being 'spurcus/ filthy, 
and delighting in filthinestj and (heiiions also delight in 

the filthinesa of sin. They did not pray that they might 
I into the air, because of their eager desire of hurt- 
ing men. Ami ll< smlh mitu (Item, do. CHBY8. JutfUs mW 



not say this, as though persuaded by the daemons, but with 
^oIkovo/xwv many designs ■ therein. One, that lie might shew the 
mighty power to hurt of these daemons, who were in pos- 
session of the two men ; another, that all might see that 
they had no power against the swine unless by His suffer- 
ance ; thirdly, to shew that they would have done more 
grievous hurt to the men, had they not even in their calami- 
ties been aided by Divine Providence, for they hate men 
more than irrational animals. By this it is manifest that 
there is no man who is not supported by Divine Providence; 
and if all are not equally supported by it, neither after one 
manner, this is the highest characteristic of Providence, 
that it is extended to each man according to his need. Be- 
sides the above-mentioned things, we learn also that He 
cares not only for the whole together, but for each one in 
particular; which one may see clearly in these daemoniacs, 
who would have been long before choked in the deep, had 
not Divine care preserved them. He also permitted them 
to go into the herd of swine, that they that dwelt in those 
parts might know His power. For where He was known to 
none, there He makes His miracles to shine forth, that lie 
may bring them to a confession of His divinity. Jerome. 
The Saviour bade them go, not as yielding to their request, 
but that by the death of the swine an occasion of man's 
salvation might be offered. But they went out, (to wit, 
out of the men,) and went into the swine ; and, lo, the whole 
herd rushed violently headlong into the sea, and perished in 
the waters. Let Manichaeus blush ; if the souls of men 
and of beasts be of one substance, and one origin, how 
should two thousand swine have perished for the sake of 
the salvation of two men. Chrys. The daemons destroyed 
the swine because they are ever striving to bring men into 
distress, and rejoice in destruction. The greatness of the 
loss also added to the fame of that which was done ; for 
it was published by many persons; namely, by the men 
that were healed, by the owners of the swine, and by those 
that fed them ; as it follows, But they that fed than jleil, 
and went into the town, and told all, and concerning them 
that had the dwnions ; and, behold, the whole totcn went out 
to meet Jesus. But when they should have adored Him, 

VER. 28 — 34. ST. MATTHEW. 329 

and wondered at His excellent power, they cast Him from 
them, as it follows, And when they saw Him, they besought 
Him that He would depart out of their coast. Observe the 
clemency of Christ next to His excellent power ; when those 
who had received favours from Him would drive Him away, 
He resisted not, but departed, and left those who thus pro- 
nounced themselves unworthy of His teaching, giving them 
as teachers those who had been delivered from the daemons, 
and the feeders of the swine. Jerome. Otherwise ; This 
request may have proceeded from humility as well as pride ; 
like Peter, they may have held themselves unworthy of the 
Lord's presence, Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, Luke 5, 8. 
O Lord. Rabax. Gerasa is interpreted ' casting out the 
dweller/ or, * a stranger approaching ;' this is the Gentile 
world which cast out the Devil from it ; and which was first 
far off, but now made near, after the resurrection being 
visited by Christ through His preachers. Ambrose. The Ambr. in 
two dsemoniacs are also a type of the Gentile world; for uc * 
Xoah haviug three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, Sueur's 
posterity alone was taken into the inheritance of God, while 
from the other two sprang the nations of the Gentiles. 
Hilary. Thus the daemons held the two men among the 
tombs without the town, that is, without the synagogue 
of the Law and the Prophets ; that is, they infested the 
original seats of the two nations, the abodes of the dead, 
making the way of this present life dangerous to the passers 
by. Baban. It is not without cause that he speaks of them 
at dwelling among the tombs ; for what else are the bodies 
of the faithless but sepulchres of the dead, in which the 
word of God dwells not, but there is enclosed the soul dead 
in sins. He says, So that no man might pass through that 
i, because before the coming of the Saviour the Gentile 
world was inaccessible. Or, by the two, understand both 
rod Gentiles, who did Dot abide in the house, that is, 
did not rot in their conscience. Hut they abode in tombs, 

that is delighted themseWei in dead works, and suffered 

no man to paSI by the way of faith, which way the Jews 

trncted. Hilaky. Bj their coming forth to meet Him 
ngnined the irillingness of men flocking to the faith. 

The cUemoni teeing that tin n i no longer any place left for 


them among the Gentiles, pray that they may be suffered to 
dwell among the heretics ; these, seized by them, are drowned 
in the sea, that is, in worldly desires, by the instigations 
of the daemons, and perish in the unbelief of the rest of the 
Bede. in Gentiles. Bede. Or ; The swine are they that delight in 
filthy manners ; for unless one live as a swine, the devils do 
not receive power over him ; or at most, only to try him, 
not to destroy him. That the swine were sent headlong 
into the lake, signifies, that when the people of the Gentiles 
are delivered from the condemnation of the daemons, vet still 
they who would not believe in Christ, perform their profane 
rites in secret, drowned in a blind and deep curiosity. That 
they that fed the swine, fled and told what was done, signi- 
fies that even the leaders of the wicked though they shun 
the law of Christianity, yet cease not to proclaim the wonder- 
ful power of Christ. When struck with terror, they entreat 
Him to depart from them, they signify a great number who, 
well satisfied with their ancient life, shew themselves willing 
to honour the Christian law, while they declare themselves 
unable to perform it. Hilary. Or ; The town is a type of 
the Jewish nation, which having heard of Christ's works goes 
forth to meet its Lord, to forbid Him to approach their 
country and town ; for they have not received the Gospel. 


1. And He entered into a ship, and passed over, 
and came into His own city. 

2. And, behold, they brought to Him a man sick 
of the palsy, lying on a bed : and Jesus seeing their 
faith said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, be of good 
cheer ; thy sins be forgiven thee. 

3. And, behold, certain of the Scribes said within 
themselves, This man blasphemeth. 

4. And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, Where- 
fore think ye evil in your hearts ? 

5. For whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be for- 
given thee ; or to say, Arise and walk ? 

6. But that ye may know that the Son of man 
hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith He 
to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and 
go unto thine house. 

7. And he arose, and departed to his house. 

B. Hut when the multitude saw it, they marvelled, 
and glorified God, which had given such power unto 

Chbys, Christ had above shown His excellent power by Chrys. 
when Ht taught them (is one huviny authority ; 
in the leper, when He laid, / /ri/t, be thou clean; by the 

centurion, who nid to Him, Speak the word, ami my tervani 
shall he heated; by the tea which He calmed by a word; 
by the daemons irho confessed linn; now again, in another 
and greater w%j, lie compels His enemies to oonfess the 



equalitj 7 of His honour with the Father ; to this end it pro- 
ceeds, And Jesus entered into a ship, and passed over, and 
came into His own city. He entered a boat to cross over, 
who could have crossed the sea on foot ; for He would not 
be always working miracles, that He might not take away 
Chrysol. the reality of His incarnation. Chrysologus. The Creator 
of all things, the Lord of the world, when He had for our 
sakes straitened Himself in the bonds of our flesh, began to 
have His own country as a man, began to be a citizen of 
Judaea, and to have parents, though Himself the parent of all, 
that affection might attach those whom fear had separated. 
Chrys. By His own city is here meant Capharnaum. For one 
town, to wit, Bethlehem, had received Him to be born there; 
another had brought Him up, to wit, Nazareth; and a third 
received Him to dwell there continually, namely, Caphar- 
Aug. de naum. Aug. That Matthew here speaks of His own city, 
Ev\ & 25. an( ^ Mark calls it Capharnaum, would be more difficult to be 
reconciled if Matthew had expressed it Nazareth. But as 
it is, all Galilee might be called Christ's city, because Naza- 
reth was in Galilee; just as all the Roman empire, divided 
1 civitas. into many states, was still called the Roman city 1 . Who can 
doubt then that the Lord in coming to Galilee is rightly Baid 
to come into His own city, whatever was the town in which 
He abode, especially since Capharnaum was exalted into the 
metropolis of Galilee? Jerome. Or; This city may be no 
other than Nazareth, whence He was called a Nazarcnc. 
Aug. ubi Aug. And if we adopt this supposition, we must say that 
sup * Matthew has omitted all that was done from the time that 

Jesus entered into His own city till lie came to Caphar- 
naum, and has proceeded on at once to the healing of the 
paralytic ; as in many other places they pass over things that 
intervened, and carry on the thread of the narrative, with- 
out noticing any interval of time, to something else; so 
here, And, lo, they briny unto llim a paralytic lying on 
a bed. Chrys. This paralytic is not the same as he in 
John. For he lay by the pool, this in Capharnaum; he 
had none to assist him, this was borne on a bed. 
On a bed, because he could not walk. Cm; vs. He does 
not universally demand faith of the sick, as, for example, 
when they are mad, or from any other sore sickuess are 

VER. 1 — 8. ST. MATTHEW. 333 

not in possession of their minds ; as it is here, seeing 
their faith; Jerome; not the sick man's but theirs that 
bare him. Chrys. Seeing then that they shewed so great 
faith, He also shews His excellent power ; with full power 
forgiving sin, as it follows, He said to the 'paralytic. Be of 
good courage, son, thy sins are forgiven thee. Chrysologus. Chrysol. 
Of how great power with God must a man's own faith be, u l sup * 
when that of others here availed to heal a man both within 
and without. The paralytic hears his pardon pronounced in 
silence, uttering no thanks, for he was more anxious for the 
cure of his body than his soul. Christ therefore with good 
reason accepts the faith of those that bare him, rather than 
his own hardness of heart. Chrys. Or, we may suppose 
even the sick man to have had faith; otherwise he would 
not have suffered himself to be let down through the roof, as 
the other Evangelist relates. Jerome. O wonderful humi- 
lity ! This man feeble and despised, crippled in every limb, 
He addresses as son. The Jewish Priests did not deign to 
touch him. Even therefore His son, because his sins were 
forgiven him. Hence we may learn that diseases are often 
the punishment of sin ; and therefore perhaps his sins are 
forgiven him, that when the cause of his disease has been 
first removed, health may be restored. Chrys. The Scribes 
in their desire to spread an ill report of Him, against their 
will made that which was done be more widely known ; 
Christ using their envy to make known the miracle. Fortius 
is of His surpassing wisdom to manifest His deeds through 
His enemies; whence it follows, Behold, some of the Scribes 
said among themselves, This man blasphemeth. Jeromi;. 
We read in prophecy, / am He that blotteth out thy trans- Is. 43, 25. 
gressions ; so the Scribes regarding Him as a man, and not 
understanding the words of God, charged Him with blas- 
phemy. ISut He seeing their thoughts thus shewed Himself 
to he God, Who alone knoweth the heart; and thus, as it 
lidj By the ^amo power and prerogative by which I 
sec your thoughts, 1 can forgive men their sins. Learn 

from your own experience what the paralytic has obtained. 

When Jesus perceived their thoughts, He taid, Why think ye 

evil in your hearts? ChBYS. He did not indeed eont radict. 
their suspicions so far as they had supposed Him to ha\e 


spoken as God. For had lie not been equal to God the 
Father, it would have behoved Him to say, I am far from 
this power, that of forgiving sin. But lie confirms the 
contrary of this, by His words and His miracle ; Whether is 
it easier to say, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or to say, Arise, 
and walk? By how much the soul is better than the body, 
by so much is it a greater thing to forgive sin than to heal 
the body. But forasmuch as the one may be seen with the 
eyes, but the other is not sensibly perceived, He does the 
lesser miracle which is the more evident, to be a proof of the 
greater miracle which is imperceptible. Jkromk. Whether 
or no his sins were forgiven He alone could know who 
forgave ; but whether he could rise and walk, not only 
himself but they that looked on could judge of; but the 
power that heals, whether soul or body, is the same. And as 
there is a great difference between saying and doing, the 
outward sign is given that the spiritual effect may be proved; 
But that ye may know that the Son of Man hath power 
on earth to forgive sins. Chrys. Above, He said to the 
paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven thee, not, I forgive thee thy 
sins ; but now when the Scribes made resistance, He shews 
the greatness of His power by saying, The Son of Man hath 
power on earth to forgive sins. And to shew that He was 
equal to the Father, He said not that the Son of Man needed 
Gloss. any to forgive sins, but that He hath power. Gloss. These 
selm. n " words That ye may /enow, may be either Christ's words, or 
the Evangelist's words. As though the Evangelist had said, 
They doubted whether He could remit sins, But that ye 
may know that the Son of Man hath the power to remit 
sins, He saith to the paralytic. If they are the words 
of Christ, the connexion will be as follows; You doubt that 
I have power to remit sins, But that ye may know that the 
Son of Man hath power to remit sins — the sentence is im- 
perfect, but the action supplies the place of the consequent 
clause, He saith to the paralytic, llise, take up thy bed. 
Clirysol. Chk\s<>!.(k,is. That that which had been proof of his sick- 
1 sup * ness, should now become proof of his recovered health. And 
go to thy house, that having been healed by Christian faith, 
you may not die in the faithlessness of the Jews. Chkvs. 
This command lie added, that it might be seen there was no 

VER. 1 8. ST. MATTHEW. 335 

delusion in the miracle ; so it follows to establish the reality 
of the cure, And he arose and went away to his own house. 
But they that stood by, yet grovel on the earth, whence 
it follows, But the multitude seeing it were afraid, and 
glorified God, who had bestowed such power among men. 
For had they rightly considered among themselves, they 
would have acknowledged Him to be the Son of God. 
Meanwhile it was no little matter to esteem Him as one 
greater than men, and to have come from God. Hilary. 
Mystically ; when driven out of Judaea, He returns into His 
own city ; the city of God is the people of the faithful ; into 
this He entered by a boat, that is, the Church. Chryso- Chrysol. 
logus. Christ has no need of the vessel, but the vessel of u x sup * 
Christ ; for without heavenly pilotage the bark of the Church 
cannot pass over the sea of the world to the heavenly har- 
bour. Hilary. In this paralytic the whole Gentile world 
is offered for healing, he is therefore brought by the minis- 
tration of Angels ; he is called Son, because he is God's 
work ; the sins of his soul which the Law could not remit 
are remitted him ; for faith only justifies. Lastly, he shews 
the power of the resurrection, by taking up his bed, teach- 
ing that all sickness shall then be no more found in the 
body. Jeeomb. Figuratively; the soul sick in the body, 
its powers palsied, is brought by the perfect doctor to the 
Lord to be healed. For every one when sick, ought to en- 
! some to pray for his recovery, through whom the halt- 
footsteps of our acts may be reformed by the healing 
power of the heavenly word. These are mental monitors, 
who raise the soul of the hearer to higher things, although 
sick and weak in the outward body. Ciirysologus. The Chrysol. 
Lord requires not in this world the will of those who are u i sup * 
without understanding, but looks to the faith of others; as 
the physician docs not consult the wishes of the patient 
n sis malady requires other things. Rabw. His rising 
up is the drawing oil* the soul from carnal lusts; his taking 
up his bed is the raising the flesh from earthly desires to 
spiritual pleasures; his going to his house ii ins returning 
to l or to internal vratehfulness of himself against 

sin. Greg. < m- by the bed is denoted the pleasure of the Orta Jfor. 

body, lie IS commanded now he is made whole to bear 


that on which he had lain when sick, because every man 
who still takes pleasure in vice is laid as sick in carnal 
delights ; but when made whole he bears this because he 
now endures the wantonness of that flesh in whose desires 
he had before reposed. Hilary. It is a very fearful thing 
to be seized by death while the sins are yet unforgiven by 
Christ ; for there is no way to the heavenly house for him 
whose sins have not been forgiven. But when this fear is 
removed, honour is rendered to God, who by His word has 
in this way given power to men, of forgiveness of sins, of 
resurrection of the body, and of return to Heaven. 

9. And as Jesus passed forth from thence, He saw 
a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of 
custom : and He saith unto him, Follow Me. And 
he arose, and followed Him. 

10. And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in 
the house, behold, many Publicans and sinners came 
and sat down with Him and His disciples. 

11. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto 
His disciples, Why eateth your Master with Publicans 
and sinners ? 

12. But when Jesus heard that, He said unto 
them, They that be whole need not a physician, but 
they that are sick. 

13. But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will 
have mercy, and not sacrifice : for I am not come to 
call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 

Chrys. Chrys. Having wrought this miracle, Christ would not 

mxxx * abide in the same place, lest He should rouse the envy of 
the Jews. Let us also do thus, not obstinately opposing 
those who lay in wait for us. And as Jesus departed thence, 
(namely from the place in which He had done this miracle,) 
He saw a man tiffing at the receipt of custom, Matthew by 
name. Jerome. The other Evangelists from respect to 
Matthew have not called him by his common name, but 
say here, Levi, for he had both names. Matthew himself, 

VER. 9 — 13. ST. MATTHEW. 337 

according to that Solomon says, The righteous man accuses Prov. 18, 


himself, calls himself both Matthew and Publican, to shew * 
the readers that none need despair of salvation who turn to 
better things, seeing he from a Publican became an Apostle. 
Gloss. He says, sitting at the receipt of custom, that is, in Gloss, ap. 
the place where the tolls were collected. He was named use m * 
Telonarius, from a Greek word signifying taxes. Chrys. 
Herein he shews the excellent power of Him that called 
him ; while engaged in this dangerous office He rescued 
him from the midst of evil, as also Paul while he was yet 
mad against the Church. He saith unto him, Follow Me. As 
you have seen the power of Him that calleth, so learn the 
obedience of him that is called ; he neither refuses, nor 
requests to go home and inform his friends. Remig. He 
esteems lightly human dangers which might accrue to him 
from his masters for leaving his accounts in disorder, but, 
he arose, and followed Him. And because he relinquished 
earthly gain, therefore of right was he made the dispenser 
of the Lord's talents. Jerome. Porphyry and the Emperor 
Julian insist from this account, that either the historian is to 
be charged with falsehood, or those who so readily followed 
the Saviour with haste and temerity; as if He called any 
without reason. They forget also the signs and wonders 
which had preceded, and which no doubt the Apostles had 
seen before they believed. Yea the brightness of effulgence 
of the hidden Godhead which beamed from His human 
countenance might attract them at first view. For if the 
loadstone can, as' it is said, attract iron, how much more can 
the Lord of all creation draw to Himself whom He will ' 
Chbtb. Bat why did lie not call him at the same time with 
r and John and the others? Because he was then still 
in a hardened state, but after many miracles, and u;rcat 
fame of Christ, when He who knows the inmost secrets of 
the heart perceived him more disposed to obedience, then 
He called him. Auo. Or, perhaps it is more probable Aug. da 
that Matthew here turns back to relate something that he b t . y. 26- 
had omitted; and we may inppose Matthew to have bi 

d before the lermon on the mount ; for on the mount, 
the twelve, whom He also named Apostles, 

were chosen. Gloss, Matthew places his calling among gums. 

... ,. boh 

VOL. I. Z 



the miracles ; for a great miracle it was, a Publican becoming 
an Apostle. OmtYS. Why is it then that nothing is said of the 
rest of the Apostles how or when they were called, but only 
of Peter, Andrew, James, John, and Matthew ? Because these 
were in the most alien and lowly stations, for nothing can be 
more disreputable than the office of Publican, nothing more 

Gloss, ap. abject than that of fisherman. Gloss. As a meet return 
for the heavenly mercy, Matthew prepared a great feast for 
Christ in his house, bestowing his temporal goods on Him 
of whom he looked to receive everlasting goods. It follows, 

Aug. de And it came to pass as He sat at meat in the house. Aug. 

Ev. if. 27. Matthew has not said in whose house Jesus sat at meat (on 
this occasion), from which we might suppose, that this was 
not told in its proper order, but that what took place at some 
other time is inserted here as it happened to come into his 
mind ; did not Mark and Luke who relate the same shew 
that it was in Levi's, that is, in Matthew's house. Chrys. 
Matthew being honoured by the entrance of Jesus into his 
house, called together all that followed the same calling with 
himself; Behold many Publicans and sinners came and sat 

Gloss, ap. down with Jesus, and with His disciples. Gloss. The Pub- 
licans were they who were engaged in public business, 
which seldom or never can be carried on without sin. And 
a beautiful omen of the future, that he that was to be an 
Apostle and doctor of the Gentiles, at his first conversion 
draws after him a great multitude of sinners to salvation, 
already performing by his example what he was shortly to 

Gloss, ord. perform by word. Gloss. Tertullian says, that these must 
have been Gentiles, because Scripture says, There shall be 
no payer of tribute in Israel, as if Matthew were not a Jew. 
But the Lord did not sit down to meat with Gentiles, being 
more especially careful not to break the Law, as also lie gave 
commandment to His disciples below, Go not into the way of 
the Gentiles. Jerome. But they had seen the Publican turn- 
ing from sins to better things, and rinding place of repentance, 
and on this account they do not despair of salvation. Cb 
Tims they came near to our Redeemer, and that not only to 
converse with Him, but to sit at meat with Him ; for so not 
only by disputing, or healing, or convincing His enemies^ 
but by eating with them, He oftentimes healed such as were 

VER. 9 — 13. ST. MATTHEW. 339 

ill-disposed, by this teaching us, that all times, and all ac- 
tions, may be made means to our advantage. When the 
Pharisees saw this they were indignant ; And the Pharisees 
beholding said to His disciples, Why eateth your Master with 
Publicans and sinners? It should be observed, that when 
the disciples seemed to be doing what was sinful, these 
same addressed Christ, Behold, Thy disciples are doing what Mat. 12, 2. 
it is not allowed to do on the Sabbath. Here they speak 
against Christ to His disciples, both being the part of mali- 
cious persons, seeking to detach the hearts of the disciple 
from the Master. Raban. They are here in a twofold error; Raban. e 
first, they esteemed themselves righteous, though in their 
pride they had departed far from righteousness; secondly, 
they charged with unrighteousness those who by recovering 
themselves from sin were drawing near to righteousness. 
Aug. Luke seems to have related this a little differently ; Aug. ubi 
according to him the Pharisees say to the disciples, Why do ^. up ' 
ye eat and drink with Publicans and sinners ? not unwilling 5, 30. 
that their Master should be understood to be involved in 
the same charge ; insinuating it at once against Himself 
and His disciples. Therefore Matthew and Mark have re- 
lated it as said to the disciples, because so it was as much 
an objection against their Master whom they followed and 
imitated. The sense therefore is one in all, and so much 
the better conveyed, as the words are changed while the 
substance continues the same. Jerome. For they do not 
come to Jesus while they remain in their original condition 
of sin, as the Pharisees and Scribes complain, but in peni- 
tence, as what follows proves; But Jesus hearing said, They 
that be whole need not a physician, bat they that are sick. 
Rabajt. He calls Himself a physician, because by a wonder- 
ful kind of medicine He was wounded for our iniquities that 
might heal the wound of our sin. By the whole, He 
meani thotC who seeking fo establish their own righteousness Etom.10,8. 
have not submitted to the true righteousness of God. By 
the tick, II ns thoie who, tied by the consciousness of 

their frailty, and teeing that they are not justified by the 
1 bm it I ves in penitence to the grace of God. 

Ch&ya Saving first spoken in accordance tritfa common 
opinion, He now addresses them out of Scripture, sayn 

z :> 


IIosea6,6. Go ye, and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy and 
not sacrifice. Jerome. This text from Osee is directed 
against the Scribes and Pharisees, who, deeming themselves 
righteous, refused to keep company with Publicans and sin- 
ners. Chrys. As much as to say ; How do you accuse me 
for reforming sinners? Therefore in this you accuse God 
the Father also. For as He wills the amendment of sinners, 
even so also do I. And He shews that this that they blamed 
was not only not forbidden, but was even by the Law set 
above sacrifice ; for He said not, I will have mercy as well as 
Gloss, ap. sacrifice, but chooses the one and rejects the other. Glo— . 
Yet does not God contemn sacrifice, but sacrifice without 
mercy. But the Pharisees often offered sacrifices in the 
temple that they might seem to men to be righteous, but 
did not practise the deeds of mercy by which true righteous- 
ness is proved. Raban. He therefore warns them, that by 
deeds of mercy they should seek for themselves the rewards 
of the mercy that is above, and, not overlooking the neces- 
sities of the poor, trust to please God by offering sacrifice. 
Wherefore, He says, Go ; that is, from the rashness of fool- 
ish fault-finding to a more careful meditation of Holy Scrip- 
ture, which highly commends mercy, and proposes to them 
as a guide His own example of mercy, saying, / came not to 
Aug. ubi call the righteous but sinners. Aug. Luke adds to repent- 
sup ' ance, which explains the sense; that none should suppose 

that sinners are loved by Christ because they are sinners; 
and this comparison of the sick shews what God means by 
calling sinners, as a physician does the sick to be saved from 
their iniquity as from a sickness : which is done by peni- 
tence. Hilary. Christ came for all ; how is it then that 
He says He came not for the righteous? Were there those 
for whom it needed not that He should come ? But no man 
is righteous by the law. He shews how empty their boast 
of justification, sacrifices being inadequate to salvation, mercy 
was necessary for all who were set under the Law. Ohryb. 
Whence we may suppose that lie is speaking ironically, as 
Gen. 3, 22. when it is said, Behold now Adam is become as one of us. For 
Rom.3,23. that there is none righteous on earth Paul shews, All have 
sinned, and need glory of God. By this saying He also con- 
soled those who were called ; as though lie had said, So far 

VER. 14 — 17. ST. MATTHEW. 341 

am I from abhorring sinners, that for their sakes only did I 
come. Gloss. Or ; Those who were righteous, as Nathanael Gloss, ap 
and John the Baptist, were not to be invited to repentance. Anse m ' 
Or, / came not to call the righteous, that is, the feignedly 
righteous, those who boasted of their righteousness as the 
Pharisees, but those that owned themselves sinners. Raban. 
In the call of Matthew and the Publicans is figured the faith 
of the Gentiles who first gaped after the gain of the world, 
and are now spiritually refreshed by the Lord ; in the pride 
of the Pharisees, the jealousy of the Jews at the salvation of 
the Gentiles. Or, Matthew signifies the man intent on tem- 
poral gain ; Jesus sees him, when He looks on him with the 
eyes of mercy. For Matthew is interpreted ( given/ Levi 
' taken/ the penitent is taken out of the mass of the perish- 
ing, and by God's grace given to the Church. And Jesus 
saith unto him, Follow Me, either by preaching, or by the 
admonition of Scripture, or by internal illumination. 

14. Then came to Him the disciples of John, say- 
ing, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but Thy 
disciples fast not ? 

1 5, And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of 
the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom 
is with them? but the days will come, when the 
bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall 
they fast. 

1G. No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto 
an old garment, for that which is put in to fill 
it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made 

1 7. Neither do men put new wine into old bottles : 
else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and 
the bottles perish : but they put new wine into new 
bottle-, and both arc preserved. 

Glo i. When lb bad replied to them respecting eating Glow, ap, 
and converse irith sinners, they oezl Assault Him on the 


matter of food ; Then came to Him the disciples of John, 
saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but Thy 
disciples fast not? Jeiiome. O boastful enquiry and osten- 
tation of fasting much to be blamed, nor cau John's disci- 
ples be excused for their taking part with the Pharisees who 
they knew had been condemned by John, and for bringing 
a false accusation against Him whom they knew their master 
had preached. Ciirys. What they say comes to this, Be 
it that you do this as Physician of souls, but why do your 
disciples neglect fasting and approach such tables? And to 
augment the weight of their charge by comparison, they put 
themselves first, and then the Pharisees. They farted as 

Luke 18, they learnt out of the Law, as the Pharisee spoke, I fast 
twice in the week; the others learnt it of John. Raban. 
For John drank neither wine, nor strong drink, increasing 
his merit by abstinence, because he had no power over 
nature. But the Lord who has power to forgive sins, why 
should He shun sinners that eat, since He has power to 
make them more righteous than those that eat not? Yet 
doth Christ fast, that you should not avoid the command ; 
but He eats with sinners that you may know His grace and 

Aug. ubi power. Aug. Though Matthew mentions only the disciples 

sup ' of John as having made this enquiry, the words of Mark 

rather seem to imply that some other persons spoke of 
others, that is, the guests spoke concerning the disciples of 
John and the Pharisees — this is still more evident from 

Luke 5, Luke ; why then does Matthew here say, Then came unto 
Him the disciples of John, unless that they were there among 
other guests, all of whom with one consent put this objection 
to Him ? Ciirys. Or ; Luke relates that the Pharisees, but 
Matthew that the disciples of John, said thus, because the 
Pharisees had taken them witli them to ask the question, 
as they afterwards did the llerodians. Observe how when 
strangers, as before the Publicans, were to be defended, 
He accuses heavily those that blamed them ; but when they 
brought a charge against His disciples, He makes ana 
with mildness. And Jesus sa'ith unto them, Can the children 
of the bridegroom mourn as fang as the bridegroom is with 
thrui? Before lie had styled Himself Physician, now Bride- 
groom, calling to mind the words of John which he had said, 

VER. 14 — 17. ST. MATTHEW. 343 

He that hath the bride is the bridegroom. Jerome. Christ John 3, 29. 
is the Bridegroom and the Church the Bride. Of this spi- 
ritual union the Apostles were born ; they cannot mourn so 
long as they see the Bridegroom in the chamber with the 
Bride. But when the nuptials are past, and the time of 
passion and resurrection is come, then shall the children of 
the Bridegroom fast. The days shall come ivhen the bride- 
groom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast, 
Chrys. He means this ; The present is a time of joy and 
rejoicing ; sorrow is therefore not to be now brought forward ; 
and fasting is naturally grievous, and to all those that are yet 
weak ; for to those that seek to contemplate wisdom, it is 
pleasant ; He therefore speaks here according to the former 
opinion. He also shews that this they did was not of glut- 
tony, but of a certain dispensation. Jerome. Hence some 
think that a fast ought to follow the forty days of Passion, 
although the day of Pentecost and the coming of the Holy 
Spirit immediately bring back our joy and festival. From 
this text accordingly, Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla en- 
join a forty days' abstinence after Pentecost, but it is the use 
of the Church to come to the Lord's passion and resurrection 
through humiliation of the flesh, that by carnal abstinence we 
may better be prepared for spiritual fulness. Chrys. Here 
again lie confirms what He has said by examples of common 
tilings ; No man putteth a patch of undressed cloth into an 
old garment ; for it taketh away its wholeness from the 
garment, and the rent is made worse ; which is to say, My 
disciples are not yet become strong, but have need of much 
consideration ; they are not yet renewed by the Spirit. On 
men in such a state it is not behoveful to lay a burden 
of precepts. Herein He establishes a rule for His disciples, 
that they should receive with leniency disciples from out of 
the whole world. R.BMIO. By the old garment He means 
His disciples, who bad not yet been renewed in all things. 
Tin; patch of undressed, that is, of new cloth, means the 
. that iSj the Gospel doctrine, of which fasting is 
a portion ; and it irai not meet that the stricter ordinances 
of fasting ihould ho entrusted to them, Leal they should ho 
broken down by tin srity, and forfeit that faith which 

thoy had, .i> lie adds, // lahclli its wholeness /'rum the 




Gloss. garment, and the rent is made worse. Gloss. As much as 
Belm. ^° sa y> An undressed patch, that is, a new one, ought not to 
be put into an old garment, because it often takes away from 
the garment its wholeness, that is, its perfection, and then 
the rent is made worse. For a heavy burden laid on one 
that is untrained often destroys that good which was in him 
before. Remig. After two comparisons made, that of the 
wedding and that of the undressed cloth, He adds a third 
concerning wine skins; Neither do men put new wine into 
old skins. By the old skins He means His disciples, who 
were not yet perfectly renewed. The new wine is the 
fulness of the Holy Spirit, and the depths of the heavenly 
mysteries, which His disciples could not then bear; but 
after the resurrection they became as new skins, and were 
filled with new wine when they received the Holy Spirit 
Acts 2, 13. into their hearts. Whence also some said, These men 
are fall of new wine. Ciirys. Herein He also shews us 
the cause of those condescending words which He often 
addressed to them because of their weakness. Jerome. 
Otherwise ; By the old garment and old skins, we must 
understand the Scribes and Pharisees ; and by the piece of 
new cloth, and new wine, the Gospel precepts, which the 
Jews were not able to bear; so the rent was made worse. 
Something such the Galatians sought to do, to mix the 
precepts of the Law with the Gospel, and to put new wine 
into old skins. The word of the Gospel is therefore to 
be poured into the Apostles, rather than into the Scribes 
and Pharisees, who, corrupted by the traditions of the elders, 
were unable to preserve the purity of Christ's precepts. 
Gloss. This shews that the Apostles being hereafter to be 
replenished with newness of grace, ought not now to be 
bound to the old observances. Aug. Otherwise; Every 
one who rightly fasts, either humbles his soul in the groan- 
ing of prayer and bodily chastisement, or suspends the mo- 
tion of carnal desire by the joys of spiritual meditation. 
And the Lord here makes answer respecting both kinds 
of lasting ; concerning the first, which is in humiliation 
of soul, lie says, The children of the bridegroom cannot 
■mourn. Of the other which has a feast of the Spirit, He 
next speaks, where He says, Xo man putteth a patch of 

non occ. 



210. .;. 

VER. 14 — 17. ST. MATTHEW. 345 

undressed cloth. Then we must mourn because the Bride- 
groom is taken away from us. And we rightly mourn if we 
burn with desire of Him. Blessed they to whom it was 
granted before His passion to have Him present with them, 
to enquire of Him what they would, to hear what they ought 
to hear. Those days the fathers before His coming sought to 
see, and saw them not, because they were placed in another 
dispensation, one in which He was proclaimed as coming, 
not one in which He was heard as present. For in us was 
fulfilled that He speaks of, The days shall come when ye Luke 17, 
shall desire to see one of these days, and shall not be able. 22# 
Who then will not mourn this ? Who will not say, My tears Ps. 42, 3. 
have been my meat day and night, while they daily say unto 
me, Where is now thy God? With reason then did the 
Apostle seek to die and to be with Christ. Aug. That Aug. de 
Matthew writes here mourn, where Mark and Luke write Ev?!! 27. 
fast, shews that the Lord spake of that kind of fasting which 
pertains to humbliug one's self in chastisement ; as in the 
following comparisons He may be supposed to have spoken 
of the other kind which pertains to the joy of a mind wrapt 
in spiritual thoughts, and therefore averted from the food of 
the body ; shewing that those who are occupied about the 
body, and owing to this retain their former desires, are not 
fit for this kind of fasting. Hilary. Figuratively ; This His 
answer, that while the Bridegroom was present with them, 
His disciples needed not to fast, teaches us the joy of His 

-once, and the sacrament of the holy food, which none 
shall lack, while He is present, that is, while one keeps 

1st in the eye of the mind. He says, they shall fast when 
He is taken away from them, because all who do not believe 
that Christ i> risen, shall not have the food of life. For in 
the faith of the resurrection the sacrament of the heavenly 

id i^ received. JflROMl. Or; When He has departed 
from at for OUT sin>, then is a fast to be proclaimed, then is 

uraing to be put on. Hilary. By these examples He 

shews thai neither our souls nor bodies, being so weakened 
by inye of -in, are capable of the saerainents of the 

El a ban. The different comparison! all refer 
t<> the same thing, and yet are they different; the garment 
by which ire are covered abroad lignifiei our good irorl 


which wc perform when we are abroad ; the wine with 
which we arc refreshed within is the fervor of faith and 
charity, which creates us anew within. 

18. While He spake these things unto them, be- 
hold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped Him, 
saying, My daughter is even now dead : but come 
and lay Thy hand upon her, and she shall live. 

19. And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did 
His disciples. 

20. And, behold, a woman, which was diseased 
with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind 
Him, and touched the hem of His garment : 

21. For she said within herself, If I may but touch 
His garment, I shall be whole. 

22. But Jesus turned Him about, and w T hen lie 
saw her, He said, Daughter, be of good comfort ; thy 
faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was 
made whole from that hour. 

Chrys. Chrys. After His instructions He adds a miracle, which 

xxxi> ' should mightily discomfit the Pharisees, because he who 
came to beg this miracle was a ruler of the synagogue, and 
the mourning was great, for she was his only child, and of 
the age of twelve years, that is, when the flower of youth 
begins; While He spake these things nnio them, behold, there came one of their chief men unto Him. Aug. This 
Ev" S ii 28 narra tive is given both by Mark and Luke, but in a quite 
different order ; namely, when after the casting out of the 
daemons and their entrance into the swine, He had returned 
across the lake from the country of the Gerascnes. Now 
Mark does indeed tell us that this happened after lie had 
recrosscd the lake, but how long after he does not determine. 
Unless there had been some interval of time, that could not 
have taken place that Matthew relates concerning the feast 
in his house. After this, immediately follows that concern- 
ing the ruler of the s\ QagOgue's daughter. W t Ik- ruler came 
to Him while He was yet speaking that of the new patch, 

VER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 347 

and the new wine, then no other act of speech of His inter- 
vened. And in Mark's account, the place where these things 
might come in, is evident. In like manner, Luke does not 
contradict Matthew ; for what he adds, And behold a man, Mat. 8, 
whose name was Jairus, is not to be taken as though it * 
followed instantly what had been related before, but after 
that feast with the Publicans, as Matthew relates. While 
He spake these things unto them, behold, one of their chief 
men, namely, Jairus, the ruler of the synagogue, came to 
Him, and worshipped Him, saying, Lord, my daughter is 
even now dead. It should be observed, lest there should 
seem to be some discrepancy, that the other two Evan- 
gelists represent her as at the point of death, but yet 
not dead, but so as afterwards to say that there came 
afterwards some saying, She is dead, trouble not the Master, 
for Matthew for the sake of shortness represents the Lord as 
having been asked at first to do that which it is manifest He 
did do, namely, raise the dead. He looks not at the words 
of the father respecting his daughter, but rather his mind. 
For he had so far despaired of her life, that he made his 
request rather for her to be called to life again, thinking 
it impossible that she, whom he had left dying, should be 
found yet alive. The other two then have given Jairus' 
words ; Matthew has put what he wished and thought. 
Indeed had either of them related that it was the father 
himself that said that Jesus should not be troubled for she 
was now dead, in that case the words that Matthew has 
given would not have corresponded with the thoughts of 
the ruler. But we do not read that he agreed with the 
Lgers. Hence we learn a thing of the highest 
necessity, that we should look at nothing in any man's 
words, but his meaning to which his words ought to be 
Bubterfient ; and no man gives a false account when he 
a man's meaning in words other than those actually 

used* Chkyb. Or; The ruler says, she is dead, exaggerating 

calamity. Aj it i> the manner of those that prefer a 
ition to magnify their d and to represent them 

as Something more than they really are, in order to gain 

compassion of those to irhora they make supplication \ 
whence he adds, ///// com€ find hii/ Thy hand upon htr l and 


she shall live. See his dulness. He begs two things of 
Christ, to come, and to lay His hand upon her. This was 
what Naaman the Syrian required of the Prophet. For 
they who are constituted thus hard of heart have need of 
sight and things sensible. Remig. We ought to admire and 
at the same time to imitate the humility and mercifulness of 
the Lord ; as soon as ever He was asked, He rose to follow 
him that asked ; And Jesus rose, and followed him. Here 
is instruction both for such as are in command, and 
such as are in subjection. To these He has left an ex- 
ample of obedience ; to those who are set over others 
He shews how earnest and watchful they should be in 
teaching; whenever they hear of any being dead in spirit, 
they should hasten to Him; And His disciples went with 
Him. Chrys. Mark and Luke say that He took with 
Him three disciples only, namely, Peter, James, and John ; 
He took not Matthew, to quicken his desires, and because 
1 arext- he was yet not perfectly minded l ; and for this reason He 
sJalc°iiie- honours these three, that others may become like-minded. 
vos - It was enough meanwhile for Matthew to see the things 

that were done respecting her that had the issue of blood, 
concerning whom it follows ; And, behold, a woman ivho 
had suffered an issue of blood twelve years, came behind 
and touched the hem of His garment. Jerome. This woman 
that had the flux came to the Lord not in the house, 
nor in the town, for she was excluded from them by the 
Law, but by the way as He walked ; thus as He goes to 
heal one woman, another is cured. Chrys. She came not 
to Christ with an open address through shame concerning 
this her disease, believing herself unclean ; for in the Law 
this disease was esteemed highly unclean. For this reason 
she hides herself. Hemic. In which her humility must be 
praised, that she came not before His face, but behind, and 
judged herself unworthy to touch the Lord's feet, yea, she 
touched not 1 1 is whole garment, but the hem only; for the 
Lord wore a hem according to the command of the Law. 
So the Pharisees also wore hems which they made large, 
and in some they Inserted thorns, But the Lord's hem was 
not made to wound, but to heal, and therefore it follows, 
For she said within herself If I can hut touch His garment, 

VER. 18 — 22. ST. MATTHEW. 349 

I shall be made ivhole. How wonderful her faith, that 
though she despaired of health from the physicians, on 
whom notwithstanding she had exhausted her living, she 
perceived that a heavenly Physician was at hand, and there- 
fore bent her whole soul on Him ; whence she deserved 
to be healed ; But Jesus turning and seeing her, said, Be 
of good cheer, daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole. 
B/ABAN. What is this that He bids her, Be of good cheer, 
seeing if she had not had faith, she would not have sought 
healing of Him? He requires of her strength and per- 
severance, that she may come to a sure and certain salva- 
tion. Chrys. Or because the woman was fearful, therefore 
He said, Be of good cheer. He calls her daughter, for her 
faith had made her such. Jerome. He said not, Thy faith 
shall make thee whole, but, hath made thee whole ; for 
in that thou hast believed, thou art already made whole. 
Chrys. She had not yet a perfect mind respecting Christ, 
or she would not have supposed that she could be hid from 
Him; but Christ would not suffer her to go away un- 
observed, not that He sought fame, but for many reasons. 
First, He relieves the woman's fear, that she should not be 
pricked in her conscience as though she had stolen this 
boon ; secondly, He corrects her error in supposing she 
could be hid from Him ; thirdly, He displays her faith to 
all for their imitation; and fourthly, He did a miracle, in 
that He shewed He knew all things, no less than in drying 
the fountain of her blood. It follows, And the woman was 
made whole from that hour. Gloss. This must be under- Gloss, ap. 
stood as the time in which she touched f he hem of His " m * 
garment, not in which Jesus turned to her; for she was 
already healed, as the other Evangelists testify, and as may 
be inferred from the Lord's words. Hilary. Herein is to 
ed the marvellous virtue of the Lord, that the 
that dwelt in His body should give healing to things 
perishable, and the heavenly energy extended even through 
o\ His garments j for God is not comprehensible 

that He should he shut in by a body. For His taking a 

body onto Him did not confine His power, hnt II i ^ power 
took npon it ;i frail body lor our redemption. Figuratively, 

this ruler h to be understood as the Law, whieh prays the 


Lord that He would restore life to the dead multitude which 
it had brought up for Christ, preaching that His coming 
Raban. was to be looked for. Raban. Or ; The ruler of the syna- 
Beda. C g°g ue signifies Moses ; he is named Jairus, ' illuminating/ 
or, 'that shall illuminate,' because he received the words 
of life to give to us, and by them enlightens all, being 
himself enlightened by the Holy Spirit. The daughter of 
the ruler, that is, the synagogue itself, being as it were in 
the twelfth year of its age, that is, in the season of puberty, 
when it should have borne spiritual progeny to God, fell 
into the sickness of error. While then the Word of God is 
hastening to this ruler's daughter to make whole the sons of 
Israel, a holy Church is gathered from among the Gentiles, 
which while it was perishing by inward corruption, received 
by faith that healing that was prepared for others. It should 
be noted, that the ruler's daughter was twelve years old, and 
this woman had been twelve years afflicted ; thus she had 
begun to be diseased at the very time the other was born ; 
so in one and the same age the synagogue had its birth 
among the Patriarchs, and the nations without began to be 
polluted with the pest of idolatry. For the issue of blood 
may be taken in two ways, either for the pollution of 
idolatry, or for obedience to the pleasures of flesh and blood. 
Thus as long as the synagogue flourished, the Church lan- 
guished ; the falling away of the first was made the sal- 
vation of the Gentiles. Also the Church draws nigh and 
touches the Lord, when it approaches Him in faith. She 
believed, spake her belief, and touched, for by these three 
things, faith, word, and deed, all salvation is gained. She 
John 12, came behind Him, as He spake, If any one serve Me, let 
26 - linn follow Me; or because, not having seen the Lord pre- 

sent in the flesh, when the sacraments of His incarnation 
were fulfilled, she came at length to the grace of the know- 
ledge of Him. Thus also she touched the hem of His 
garment, because the Gentiles, though they had not seen 
Christ in the ilesh, received the tidings of His incarnation. 
The garment of Christ is put for the mystery of His incar- 
nation, wherewith His Deity is clothed; the hem of His 
garment are the words that hang upon His incarnation. She 
touches not the garment, but the hem thereof; because she 

VER, 23 26. ST. MATTHEW. 351 

saw not the Lord in the flesh, but received the word of the 
incarnation through the Apostles. Blessed is he that touches 
but the uttermost part of the word by faith. She is healed 
while the Lord is not in the city, but while He is yet on the 
way ; as the Apostles cried, Because ye judge yourselves Acts 13, 
univorthy of eternal life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. And 46, 
from the time of the Lord's coming the Gentiles began to 
be healed. 

23. And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, 
and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, 

24. He said unto them, Give place : for the maid 
is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed Him to 

25. But when the people were put forth, He went 
in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. 

26. And the fame hereof went abroad into all that 

Gloss. After the healing of the woman with the issue of Gloss. 
blood, follows the raising of the dead ; And when Jesus was non occ * 
come into the ruler y s house. Chrys. We may suppose that 
He proceeded slowly, and spake longer to the woman whom 
He had healed, that He might suffer the maid to die, and 
thus an evident miracle of restoring to life might be wrought. 
In the case of Lazarus also He waited till the third day. 
And. wlia a He saw the minstrels and the people making a 

" ; this was a proof of her death. AMBBOSB. For by the Ambros. 
ancient custom minstrels were engaged to make lament- 8 m 
ation for the dead. Cur vs. But Christ put forth all the 
pipers, but took in the parents, that it might not be said 
that He had healed her by any other means; and before the 
i ing to life He excite* their expectations by His words, 
aid, Gfive place: for the maid is not dead, but 
ileepeth* Bidb. As though He had said, To you she is Bad* 

!, but to God who lias power to give life, she ileepi only, 

both ill soul and bod). CSBYS. By this laying, He soothes 
tin: minds of thoM that, were present, and BheWI that it is 
to Hun l ■ the dead, the like lie did ID the Cf 


John 11, of Lazarus, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth. This was also a 
lesson to them not to be afraid of death ; forasmuch as lie 
Himself also should die, He made His disciples learn in the 
persons of others confidence and patient endurance of death. 
For when lie was near, death was but as sleep. When He 
had said this, They mocked Him. And He did not rebuke 
their mocking ; that this mocking, and the pipes and all 
other things, might be a proof of her death. For ofttimes at 
His miracles when men would not believe, lie convicted 
them by their own answers ; as in the case of Lazarus, when 
He said, Where have ye laid him ? so that they that answered, 
Come and see, and, He stinketh, for he hath now been dead 
four days, could no longer disbelieve that He had raised 
a dead man. Jerome. They that had mocked the Reviver 
were not worthy to behold the mystery of the revival ; and 
therefore it follows, And when the multitude was put forth, 
He entered, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. 
Chrys. He restored her to life not by bringing in another 
soul, but by recalling that which had departed, and as it 
were raising it from sleep, and through this sight preparing 
the way for belief of the resurrectiou. And He not only re- 
stores her to life, but commands food to be given her, as the 
other Evangelists relate, that that which was done might be 
seen to be no delusion. And the fame of Him went abroad 

Gloss. into all that country. Gloss. The fame, namely, of the great- 
ness and novelty of the miracle, and its established truth ; 
so that it could not be supposed to be a forgery. 

Hilary. Mystically ; The Lord enters the ruler's house, 
that is, the synagogue, throughout which there resounded in 
the songs of the Law a strain of wailing. Jerome. To this 
day the damsel lies dead in the ruler's house; and they that 
seem to be teachers are but minstrels singing funeral dirges. 
The Jews also arc not the crowd of believers, but of people 
making a noise. But when the fulness of the Gentiles -shall 
come in, then all Israel shall be saved. Hilary. But that 
the number of the elect might be known to be but few out 
of the whole body of believers, the multitude is put forth ; 
the Lord indeed would that they should be saved, but they 
mocked at His sayings and actions, and so were not worthy 
to be made partakers of His resurrection. Jerome, lie 

lion occ. 

VER. 27 31. ST. MATTHEW. 353 

took her by the hand, and the maid arose ; because if the 
hands of the Jews which are denied with blood be not first 
cleansed, their synagogue which is dead shall not revive. 
Hilary. His fame went about into all that country ; that 
is, the salvation of the elect, the gift and works of Christ 
are preached. Rabax. Morally; The damsel dead in the 
house is the soul dead in thought. He says that she is 
asleep, because they that are now asleep in sin may yet 
be roused by penitence. The minstrels are flatterers who 
cherish the dead. Greg. The multitude are put forth that Greg.Mor. 
the damsel may be raised ; for unless the multitude of xvm ' * 
worldly cares is first banished from the secrets of the heart, 
the soul which is laid dead within, cannot rise again. 
Raban. The maiden is raised in the house with few to 
witness, the young man without the gate, and Lazarus in 
the presence of many ; for a public scandal requires a pub- 
lic expiation ; a less notorious, a lesser remedy ; and secret 
sins may be done away by penitence. 

27. And when Jesus departed thence, two blind 
men followed Him, crying, and saying, Thou Son 
of David, have mercy on us. 

28. And when He was come into the house, the 
blind men came to Him : and Jesus saith unto them, 
Believe ye that I am able to do this ? They said 
unto Him, Yea, Lord. 

29. Then touched He their eyes, saying, According 
to your faith be it unto you. 

30. And their eyes were opened : and Jesus straitly 
charged them, saying, See that no man know it. 

31. But they, when they were departed, spread 
abroad His fame in all that country. 

J i ion. The miracles that had gone before of the ruler's 

daughter, and the woman with the issue of blood, arc now 

followed by that of two blind men, that what death and dit- 
i had there witnessed, that biindnesi might now witne 
And <is Jesus paaed thence, that is, from the ruler's bou 

\OL. I. 2 A 


there followed Ilini two blind men, crying, and saying, Have 
Chryp. mercy on us, Thou Son of Lavid. Ciirys. ITere is no small 
xxxii '" charge against the Jews, that these men, having lost their 
sight, yet believe by means of their hearing only; while they 
who had sight, would not believe the miracles that were 
done. Observe their eagerness ; they do not simply come 
to Him, but with crying, and asking for nothing but mercy ; 
they call Him Son of David, because that scorned to be 
a name of honour. Remig. Rightly they call Him Son of 
David, because the Virgin Mary was of the line of David. 
Jerome. Let Marcion and Manichseus, and the other here- 
tics who mangle the Old Testament, hear this, and learn 
that the Saviour is called the Son of David ; for if He was 
not born in the flesh, how is He the Son of David? Chry^. 
Observe that the Lord oftentimes desired to be asked to 
heal, that none should think that He was eager to seize an 
occasion of display. Jerome. Yet were they not healed by 
the way-side and in passing as they had thought to be ; but 
when He was entered into the house, they come unto Him ; 
and first their faith is made proof of, that so they may re- 
ceive the light of the true faith. And when He ivas come 
into the house, the blind men came unto Him ; and Jesus said 
unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? Chrys. 
Here again He teaches us to exclude the desire of fame ; 
because there was a house hard bv, He takes them there 
to heal them apart. Remig. He who was able to i;ivc 
sight to the blind, w r as not ignorant whether they be- 
lieved; but He asked them, in order that the faith which 
they bare in their hearts, being confessed by their mouth 
might be made deserving of a higher reward, according to 
Rom. 10, that of the Apostle, By the mouth confession is made unto sal- 
vation. Chrys. And not for this reason only, but that He 
might make manifest that they were worthy of healing, and 
that none might object, that if mercy alone saved, then ought 
all to be saved. Therefore also He requires faith of them, 
that He may thereby raise their thoughts higher; they had 
called Him the Son of David, therefore He iustructs them 
that they should think higher things of Him. Thus He 
does not say to them, Believe ye that I can ask the Father? 
But, Believe ye that I am able to do this ? They say unto 

VER. 27 — 31. ST. MATTHEW. 355 

him, Yea, Lord. They call Him no more Son of David, but 
exalt Him higher, and confess His dominion. Then He 
lays His hand upon them ; as it follows, Then He touched 
their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you. 
This He says confirming their faith, and testifying that what 
they had said were not words of flattery. Then follows the 
cure, And their eyes were opened. And after this, His in- 
junction that they should tell it to no man; and this not 
a simple command, but with much earnestness, And Jesus 
straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it ; but 
they went forth, and spread abroad the fame of Him through 
the whole country. Jerome. The Lord from humility shun- 
ning the fame of His glorious works, gave them this charge, 
and they from gratitude cannot be silent respecting so great 
benefit. Chrys. That He said to another man, Go, and Luke 8,39. 
proclaim the glory of God, is not contrary to this ; for what 
He would teach is, that we should hinder those that would 
commend us for ourselves. But when it is the Lord's glory 
that is to be praised, we ought not to forbid, but to pro- 
mote it ourselves. Hilary. Or He enjoins silence on the 
blind men, because to preach was the Apostles' office. 
Greg. We must enquire how this is that the Almighty, Greg.Mor. 
whose will and power are co-extensive, should have here XIX ' 
willed that His excellent works should be hid in silence, 
and is yet preached against His will, as it w r ere, by these 
men who have received their sight. It is only that He 
herein has left an example to His servants who follow Him, 
that they should desire their own good deeds to be hid, and 
that notwithstanding they should be made known against 
their will, that others may profit by their example. They 
should then be hid by design, and published of compulsion ; 
their concealment is by our own watchfulness, their betrayal 
is for others' profit. 

Bimio. Allegorically ; By these two blind men are denoted 
the two nations of .lews and Gentiles, or the two nations of 

the Jewish race; for in the time ofBoboam his kingdom ■ 

split into two parts. Out of both nations inch as believed 

on Him Christ gave sight to in the house, by which 
and bnrchj for without the unity of the Church 

no man can be sa\ed. And they of the Jews who had 

356 GOSPBL \((()1U)IXG TO CHAP. IX. 

believed the Lord's coming spread the knowledge thereof 
throughout the whole earth. Raban. The house of the 
ruler is the Synagogue which was ruled by Moses; the 
house of Jesus is the heavenly Jerusalem. As the Lord 
passed through this world and was returning to His own 
house, two blind men followed Him ; that is, when the 
Gospel was preached by the Apostles, many of the Jews 
and Gentiles began to follow Him. But when He ascended 
into Heaven, then He entered His house, that is, into the 
confession of one faith which is in the Catholic Church, and 
in that they were enlightened. 

32. As they went out, behold, they brought to 
Him a dumb man possessed with a devil. 

33. And when the devil was cast out, the dumb 
spake : and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was 
never so seen in Israel. 

34. But the Pharisees said, He casteth out devils 
through the prince of the devils. 

35. And Jesus went about all the cities and 
villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preach- 
ing the Gospel of the kingdom, and healing every 
sickness and every disease among the people. 

Remig. Observe the beautiful order of His miracles; how 
after He had given sight to the blind, He restored speech 
to the dumb, and healed the possessed of the daemon ; by 
which He shews Himself the Lord of power, and the author 

Is. 35, 6. of the heavenly medicine. For it was said by Isaiah, Then 
shall the eyes of the blind be opened, the ears of the deaf shall 
be unstopped, and the tongue of the dumb loosed. Whence 
it is said, When the// were gone forth, they brought unto 
lii m a man dinnh, and possessed with a da'/non. JeROMK. 

Ku><phs. The Greek word here is more frequent in common speech 
in the sense of * deaf/ but it is the manner of Scripture 
to use it indifferently as either. Cm; vs. This was not a 
mere natural defect; but was from the malignity of the 
daemon ; and therefore he needed to be brought of others, 

VER. 32 — 35. ST. MATTHEW. 357 

for he could not ask any thing of others as living without 
voice, and the dsemon chaining his spirit together with his 
tongue. Therefore Christ does not require faith of him, but 
immediately healed his disorder ; as it follows, And when 
the daemon was cast out, the dumb spake. Hilary. The 
natural order of things is here preserved ; the dsemon is first 
cast out, and there the functions of the members proceed. 
And the multitude marvelled, saying, It was never so seen 
in Israel. Chrys. They set Him thus above others, because 
He not only healed, but with such ease, and quickness; and 
cured diseases both infinite in number, and in quality in- 
curable. This most grieved the Pharisees, that they set 
Him before all others, not only those that then lived, but 
all who had lived before, on which account it follows, But 
the Pharisees said, lie casteth out dcemons through the Prince 
of daemons . Remig. Thus the Scribes and Pharisees denied 
such of the Lord's miracles as they could deny; and such as 
they could not they explained by an evil interpretation, 
according to that, In the multitude of thy excellency thy Ps. 66, 3. 
enemies shall lie unto thee. Chrys. What can be more 
foolish than this speech of theirs? For it cannot be pre- 
tended that one dsemon would cast out another; for they are 
wont to consent to one another's deeds, and not to be at 
variance among themselves. But Christ not only cast out 
daemons, but healed the lepers, raised the dead, forgave 
sin-, preached the kingdom of God, and brought men to 
the Father, which a daemon neither could nor would do. 
w. Figuratively; As in the two blind men were denoted 
both nations, Jews and Gentiles, so in the man dumb and 
afflicted with the daemon is denoted the whole human race. 
HlLABT. Or; By the dumb and deaf, and dsemoniac, is 
signified the Gentile world, needing health in every part; 
for sunk in evil of every kind, they are afflicted with disease 
of erery part of the body. Rbmiq. For the Gentiles were 

(luinh; not being able to open their month in the con- 

ion of the true faith, and the praises of the Creator, or 

in paying worship to dumb idols they were made 

onto them. They were afflicted with a dasmon, because 

b) dying in unbelief thi e made subject to the po 

of il,. Devil. Hilary. Bui by the knowledge of Ood tin 


frenzy of superstition being chased away, the sight, the 
hearing, and the word of salvation is brought in to them. 
Jerome. As the blind receive light, so the tongue of the 
dumb is loosed, that he may confess Him whom before he 
denied. The wonder of the multitude is the confession of 
the nations. The scoff of the Pharisees is the unbelief of 
the Jews, which is to this day. Hilary. The wonder of the 
multitude is followed up by the confession, It was never 
so seen in Israel; because he, for whom there was no help 
under the Law, is saved by the power of the Word. Remig. 
They who brought the dumb to be healed by the Lord, 
signify the Apostles and preachers, who brought the Gentile people to be saved before the face of divine mercy. Aug. 

ii°29 V * ^ ms account °f the two blind men and the dumb daemon 
is read in Matthew only. The two blind men of whom the 
others speak are not the same as these, though something 
similar was done with them. So that even if Matthew had 
not also recorded their cure, we might have seen that this 
present narrative was of a different transaction. And this 
we ought diligently to remember, that many actions of our 
Lord are very much like one another, but are proved not to 
be the same action, by being both related at different times 
by the same Evangelist. So that when we find cases in 
which one is recorded by one Evangelist, and another by 
another, and some difference which we cannot reconcile 
between their accounts, we should suppose that they are like, 
but not the same, events. 

36. But when lie saw the multitudes, He was 
moved with compassion on them, because they 
fainted, and were scattered abroad, as sheep having 
no shepherd. 

37. Then saith lie unto His disciples, The harvest 
truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few ; 

38. Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that 
He will send forth labourers into His harvest. 

Ciikys. The Lord would refute bv actions the charge of 
the Pharisees, who said, lie cdstcUi out dannons by the 

VER. 36 — 38. ST. MATTHEW. 359 

Prince of the daemons; for a daemon having suffered rebuke, 

does not return good but evil to those who have not shewn 

him honour. But the Lord on the other hand, when He has 

suffered blasphemy and contumely, not only does not punish, 

but does not utter a hard speech, yea He shews kindness to 

them that did it, as it here follows, And Jesus went about 

all their towns and villages. Herein He teaches us not to 

return accusations to them that accuse us, but kindness. 

For he that ceases to do good because of accusation, shews 

that his good has been done because of men. But if for 

God's sake you do good to your fellow servants, you will 

not cease from doing good whatever they do, that your 

reward may be greater. Jerome. Observe how equally in 

villages, cities, and towns, that is to great as well as small, 

He preaches the Gospel, not respecting the might of the 

noble, but the salvation of those that believe. It follows, 

Teaching in their synagogues ; this was His meat, going about 

to do the will of His Father, and saving by His teaching such 

as yet believed not. Gloss. He taught in their synagogues Gloss. 

the Gospel of the Kingdom, as it follows, Preaching the non occ * 

Gospel of the Kingdom. Remig. Understand, ' of God ;' 

for though temporal blessings are also proclaimed, yet they 

are not called The Gospel. Hence the Law was not called a 

Gospel, because to such as kept it, it held out not heavenly, 

but earthly, goods. Jekomb. He first preached and taught, 

and then proceeded to heal sicknesses, that the works might 

convince those who would not believe the words. Hence 

it follows, Jfra/ing every sickness and every disease, for to 

Him alone nothing is impossible. Gloss. By disease we Gloss, ap. 

may understand complaints of long standing, by sickness L ' ll1- 

any infirmity. Remio. It should be known that those 

whom He healed outwardly in their bodies, He also healed 

inwardly in their souls. Others cannot do this of their own 

power, but can by GfooYa L r racc. ChRYB. Nor docs Christ's 

goodness real here, but lie manifests lli.^ c-ivc for them, 
opening the bowels of His mercy towards them; whence it 
follows, And seeing the multitudes, J/r had compassion upon 
them. Herein Christ shewa in Himself the dis- 

ition of the good shepherd and not thai of the hireling, 
Whj He pitied them is added, Because they were troubled 1 , 1 ftssti. 


ijacentes. and sick 1 as sheep that have no shepherd — troubled either 

Gloss, ap. by daemons, or by divers sicknesses and infirmities. Gl<»--. 
Or, troubled by daemons, and sick, that is, benumbed and 
unable to rise; and though they had shepherds, yet they 
were as though they had them not. Chrys. This is an 
accusation against the rulers of the Jews, that being shep- 
herds they appeared like wolves; not only not improving 
the multitude, but hindering their progress. For when the 
multitude marvelled and said, It was never so seen in Israel, 
these opposed themselves, saying, He casteth out dcemons by 
the prince of the dcemons. Hemic But when the Son of God 

Vid. Ps. looked down from heaven upon the earth, to hear the groans 
' 9 ' of the captives, straight a great harvest began to ripen ; 
for the multitude of the human race would never have come 
near to the faith, had not the Author of human salvation 
looked down from heaven ; and it follows, Then said He unto 
His disciples, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers 

Gloss, ap. are few. Gloss. The harvest are those men who can be 
nse m. rea p ec [ ^y ^] ie preachers, and separated from the number of 
the damned, as grain is beaten out from the chaff that it 
may be laid up in granaries. Jerome. The great har 
denotes the multitude of the people ; the few labourers, the 
want of instructors. Remig. For the number of the Apostles 
was small in comparison of so great crops to be reaped. 
The Lord exhorts His preachers, that is, the Apostles and 
their followers, that they should daily desire an increase of 
their number; Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, 
that He would send forth labourers into His harvest. Chbys, 
He privately insinuates Himself to be the Lord ; for it is He 
Himself who is Lord of the harvest. For if He sent the 
Apostles to reap what they had not sown, it is manifest that 
He sent them not to reap the tilings of others, but what He 
had sown by the Prophets. But since the twelve Apostles 
are the labourers, He said, Fray ye the Lord of the harvest, 
that lie would send labourer* into His harvest; and notwith- 
standing He added none to their number, but rather He 
multiplied those twelve many times, not by increasing their 
numbers, but by giving them more abundant grace. Remig. 
Or, lie then increased their number when lie chose the 
seventy and two, and then when many preachers were made 

VER. 36 — 38. ST. MATTHEW. 361 

what time the Holy Spirit descended upon the believers. 
Chrys. He shews us that it is a great gift that one should 
have the power of rightly preaching, in that He tells them 
that they ought to pray for it. Also we are here reminded 
of the words of John concerning the threshing-floor, and the 
fan, the chaff, and the wheat. 

Hilary. Figuratively ; When salvation was given to 
the Gentiles, then all cities and towns were enlightened 
by the power and entrance of Christ, and escaped every 
former sickness and infirmity. The Lord pities the people 
troubled with the violence of the unclean Spirit, and sick 
under the burden of the Law, and having no shepherd 
at hand to bestow on them the guardianship of the Holy 
Spirit. But of that gift there was a most abundant fruit, 
whose plenty far exceeded the multitude of those that 
drank thereof; how many soever take of it, yet an inex- 
haustible supply remains ; and because it is profitable that 
there should be many to minister it, He bids us ask the Lord 
of the harvest, that God would provide a supply of reapers 
for the ministration of that gift of the Holy Spirit which was 
made ready; for by prayer this gift is poured out upon us 
from God. 


1. And when He had called unto Him His twelve 
disciples, He gave them power against unclean spirits, 
to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness 
and all manner of disease. 

2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are 
these ; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and 
Andrew his brother ; James the son of Zebedee, 
and John his brother ; 

3. Philip, and Bartholomew ; Thomas, and Mat- 
thew the Publican ; James the son of Alphseus, and 
Lebbseus, whose surname was Thadda?us ; 

4. Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who 
also betrayed Him. 

Gloss, ord. Gloss. Prom the healing of Peter's wife's mother to this 
place there has been a continued succession of miracles ; 
and they were done before the Sermon upon the Mount, as 
we know for certain from Matthew's call, which is placed 
among them ; for he was one of the twelve chosen to the 
Apostleship upon the mount. He here returns to the order 
of events, taking it up again at the healing of the centurion's 
servant; Baying, And calling to Him His twelve disciples* 
Kemig. The Evangelist had related above that the Lord 
exhorted His disciples to pray the Lord of the harvest to 
send labourers into His vineyard; and He now seems to be 
fulfilling what lie had exhorted them to. For the number 
twelve is a perfect number, being made up of the number 
six, which has perfection because it is formed of its own 
purls, one, two, three, multiplied into one another; and the 

*T. § 


number six when doubled amounts to twelve. Gloss. And Vid. Greg, 
this doubling seems to have some reference to the two pre- Ev.xvii.l. 
cepts of charity, or to the two Testaments. Bede. For the 
number twelve, which is made up of three into four, denotes 
that through the four quarters of the world they were to 
preach the faith of the Holy Trinity. Raban. This number Cf. Ter- 
is typified by many things in the Old Testament ; by the Marc, iv.* 
twelve sons of Jacob, by the twelve princes of the children 13 * 
of Israel, by the twelve running springs in Helim, by the 
twelve stones in Aaron's breastplate, by the twelve loaves of 
the shew-bread, by the twelve spies sent by Moses, by the 
twelve stones of which the altar was made, by the twelve 
stones taken out of Jordan, by the twelve oxen which bare 
the brazen sea. Also in the New Testament, by the twelve 
stars in the bride's crown, by the twelve foundations of 
Jerusalem which John saw, and her twelve gates. Chrys. 
He makes them confident not only by calling their ministry 
a sending forth to the harvest, but by giving them strength 
for the ministry; whence it follows, He gave them power 
over all unclean spirits to cast them out, and to heal every 
sickness and every disease. Remig. Wherein is openly shewed 
that the multitude were troubled not with one single kind 
of affliction, but with many, and this was His pity for the 
multitude, to give His disciples power to heal and cleanse 
them. JeHome. A kind and merciful Lord and Master 
docs not envy His servants and disciples a share in His 
powers. As Himself had cured every sickness and disease, 
lie imparted the same power to His Apostles. But there 
wide difference between having and imparting, between 
giving and receiving. Whatever He does He does with 
the power of a master, whatever they do it is with con- 
on of their own weakness, as they speak, In the name Acts 3, 6. 
of Je$U$ rise and wM t A catalogue of the names of the 

Apoetlei is given, that all false Apostles might be excluded. 
The names of tin- twelve Apostles arc these; First, Simon 
who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother* To arras 

them in Ordei rding to their merit is His alone who 

•he secreta of all hearts. Bnt Simon i> placed 
•, having the surname of Titer given to distinguish him 

from the Other Simon mi maim d ( 'ha nana us, from t he villa 


of Chana in Galilee where the Lord turned the water into 
Rai>an. wine. Raban. The Greek or Latin ' Petrus' is the same 

P I 1 P N 3. 

as the Syriac Cephas, in both tongues the word is derived 
lCor.10,4. from a rock; undoubtedly that of which Paul speaks, And 
Remig.ap. that rock was Christ. Remig. There have been some who 
in this name Peter, which is Greek and Latin, have sought 
a Hebrew interpretation, and would have it to signify, 
'Taking off the shoe/ or 'unloosing,' or 'acknowledging.' 
But those that say this are contradicted by two facts. First, 
that the Hebrew has no letter P, but uses PH instead. 
Thus Pilate they call Philate. Secondly, that one of the 
Evangelists has used the word as an interpretation of Ce- 
Jolml,42. phas; The Lord said, Thou shalt be called Cephas, on which 
the Evangelist adds, which being interpreted is Petrus. Simon 
is interpreted ' obedient/ for he obeyed the words of An- 
drew, and with him came to Christ, or because he obeyed 
the divine commands, and at one word of bidding fol- 
lowed the Lord. Or as some will have it, it is to be inter- 
preted, 'Laying aside grief/ and 'hearing painful things/ 
for that on the Lord's resurrection he laid aside the grief 
he had for His death; and he heard sorrowful things when 
John 21, the Lord said to him, Another shall gird thee } and shall 


carry thee whither thou wouldest not. 

And Andrew his brother. Chrys. This is no small honour 
(done to Peter). He places Peter from his merit, Andrew 
from the nobility he had in being the brother of Peter. 
Mark names Andrew next after the two heads, namely, 
Peter and John, but this one not so; for Mark has arranged 
them in order of dignity. Remig. Andrew is interpreted 
'manly/ for as in Latin 'virilis' is derived from ' vir/ so 
in Greek Andrew is derived from avjjp. Rightly is he called 
manly, who left all and followed Christ, and manfully per- 
severed in His commands. Jerome. The Evangelist couples 
the names throughout in pairs. So he puts together Peter 
and Andrew, brothers not so much according to the flesh 
as in spirit; James and John who left their father after 
the flesh to follow their true Father; James the son of 
Zebedee and John his broth lie ealls him the son of 

Zebedee, to distinguish him from the other James the son 
of AlphaeoB. Chbys. Observe that he docs not place them 

VER. 1 — 4. ST. MATTHEW. 365 

according to their dignity; for to me John would seem to 
be greater not than others only, but even than his brother. 
Remig. James is interpreted ' The supplanter/ or 'that 
supplanteth;' for he not only supplanted the vices of the 
flesh, but even contemned the same flesh when Herod put 
him to death. John is interpreted 'The grace of God/ 
because he deserved before all to be loved by the Lord ; 
whence also in the favour of His especial love, he leaned at 
supper in the Lord's bosom. 

Philip and Bartholomew. Philip is interpreted, * The e Beda. 
mouth of a lamp/ or ' of lamps/ because when he had been 
enlightened by the Lord, he straightway sought to com- 
municate that light to his brother by the means of his 
mouth. Bartholomew is a Syriac, not a Hebrew, name, 
and is interpreted 'The son of Him that raiseth water 3 / 
that is, of Christ, who raises the hearts of His preachers 
from earthly to heavenl}- things, and hangs them there, 
that the more they penetrate heavenly things, the more 
they should steep and inebriate the hearts of their hearers 
with the droppings of holy preaching. 

Thomas, and Mattheiv the Publican. Jerome. The other 
Evangelists in this pair of names put Matthew before 
Thomas ; and do not add, the Publican, that they should 
not seem to throw scorn upon the Evangelist by bringing 
to mind his former life. But writing of himself he both 
puts Thomas first in the pair, and styles himself the Pub- 
Hcan ; because, where sin hath abounded, there grace shall Rom.5,20. 
much more abound. Remig. Thomas is interpreted s an Remig. 
abyss/ or r a twin/ which in Greek is Didymus. Rightly 6 eca ' 
i^ l)idymus interpreted an abyss, for the longer he doubted 
the more deeply did he believe the effect of the Lord's 
lion, and the mystery of His Divinity, which forced him 
to cry, My Lord and nuj (lad. Matthew is interpreted John 20, 

i n/ because by the Lord'i bounty he was made an ' 
I. gelist of a Publican. 

./nines the son of .Ujdiirns, and 'llniddn-us. RaBAN. This Italian. 

ii he who in the Gospels, and also in the Epistle to* ,U1,1 * 
the Galatians, ii railed the Lord's brother, fur Mary the 
of Alpha ister of Mary the mother of the 

• Or MOM «ay the ion ofTolmai ")'• 


Lord ; John the Evangelist calls her Mary the ivife of 

Cleophas, probably because Cleophas and Alphseus were the 

same person. Or Mary herself* on the death of Alphaeus 

after the birth of James married Cleophas. Remig. It is 

well said, the son of Alphceus, that is 'of the just/ or 'the 

learned f for he not only overthrew the vices of the flesh, 

but also despised all care of the same. And of what he was 

worthy the Apostles arc witness, who ordained him Bishop 

Hegesip- of the Church of Jerusalem b . And ecclesiastical history 

Euseb' among other things tells of him, that he never ate flesh, 

ii. 23. drank neither wine nor strong drink, abstained from the 

bath and linen garments, and night and day prayed on his 

bended knees. And so great was his merit, that he was 

called by all men, 'The just/ Thaddseus is the same whom 

Luke calls Jude of James, (that is, the brother of James,) 

whose Epistle is read in the Church, in which he calls him- self the brother of James. Aug. Some copies have Lebbieus; 

ii.°30. V ^ut wnoever prevented the same man from having two, or 

even three different names ? Remig. Jude is interpreted 

'having confessed/ because he confessed the Son of God. 

Raban. Thaddaeus or Lebbseus is interpreted ' a little heart/ 

that is, a heart-worshipper. 

Simon Chananceus, and Judas Scarioth, who also betrayed 
him. Jerome. Simon Chananaeus is the same who in the 
other Evangelist is called Zelotes. Chana signifies 'Zeal.' 
Judas is named Scarioth, either from the town in which he 
was born, or from the tribe of Issachar, a prophetic omen 
of his sin; for Issachar means 'a booty/ thus signifying 
the reward of the betrayer. Remig. Scarioth is interpreted 
1 The memory of the Lord/ because he followed the Lord ; 
or 'The memorial of death/ because he plotted in his heart 
how he might betray the Lord to death; or 'strangling/ 
because he went and hanged himself. It should be known 
that there arc two disciples of this name, who are types of all 
Christians ; Jude the brother of James, of such as persevere 

b Whether St. James the son of doret, and the Author of the Consti- 

Alplueus is the same as the Hi -hop tutions take the negative; so do< 

of Jerusalem is doubtful. ESusebiua is Cbrysoetom, hut qualifies his evidence 

cited on both sides the question; S. elsewhere; S. Jerome varies. Other 

Epiphanius, S. Gregory Nyssen, Tlico- Fathers are in favour of their identity. 

VER. 5 — 8. ST. MATTHEW. 367 

in the confession of the faith ; Jude Scarioth of such as leave 

the faith ; and turn back again. Gloss. They are named Gloss, non 

two and two to express their union as yoke-fellows. Aug. °. cc , 

... Aug. de 

These therefore He chose for His disciples, whom also He Civ. Dei, 
named Apostles, humbly born without honour, without learn- xvm * ' 
ing, that whatever they should do that was great, it was He 
that should be in them and should do it. He had among 
them one that was evil, whom He should use in the accom- 
plishment of His Passion, and who should be an example to 

His Church of suffering evil men. Ambrose. He was not Ambros. 

t a 
chosen among the Apostles unwittingly ; for that truth is 

great, which cannot be harmed even by having an adversary 
in one of its own ministers. Raban. Also He willed to be 
betrayed by a disciple, that you when betrayed by your in- 
timate might bear patiently that your judgment has erred, 
that your favours have been thrown away. 

5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded 
them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, 
and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not : 

6. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of 

7. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of 
heaven is at hand. 

8. Ileal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the 
dead, cast out devils : freely ye have received, freely 


Gloss. Because the manifestation of the Spirit, as the Gloss, non 
Apostle speaks, is given for the profit of the Church, after 
towing His power on the Apostles, He sends them that 
they may I B this power for the good of others; These 

twelve JestU sent forth. ChBYB. Observe the propriety of 
the time in which they are sent. After they had seen the 
dead raited, the baked, and other like wonders, and 

had had both m word and (\wc\ sufficient proof of His 

llent power, then He vends them. Ql08S. When He 0]on,Btt 
sends them, lie teaches them whither they should go, what 



they should preach, and what they should do. And first, 
whither they should go; Giving them commandment, and 
saying, Go ye not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any 
city of the Samaritans enter ye not ; but go ye rather to the 
lost sheep of the house of Israel. Jerome. This passage 
does not contradict the command which lie gave afterwards, 
Go and teach all nations; for this was before His resur- 
rection, that was after. And it behoved the coming of 
Christ to be preached to the Jews first, that they might not 
have any just plea, or say that they were rejected of the 
Lord, who sent the Apostles to the Gentiles and Samaritans. 
Chrys. Also they were sent to the Jews first, in order that 
being trained in Judaea, as in a palaestra, they might enter 
on the arena of the world to contend; thus He taught them 
Greg. like weak nestlings to fly. Greg. Or He would be first 
E° m iv in i preached to Judaea and afterwards to the Gentiles, in order 
that the preaching of the Redeemer should seem to seek out 
foreign lands only because it had been rejected in His own. 
There were also at that time some among the Jews who 
should be called, and among the Gentiles some who were 
not to be called, as being unworthy of being renewed to life, 
and yet not deserving of the aggravated punishment which 
would ensue upon their rejection of the Apostles' preaching. 
Hilary. The promulgation of the Law deserved also the 
first preaching of the Gospel; and Israel was to have less 
excuse for its crime, as it had experienced more care in 
being warned. Chrys. Also that they should not suppose 
that they were hated of Christ because they had reviled 
Him, and branded Him as demoniac, He sought first their 
cure, and withholding His disciples from all other nations, 
He sent this people physicians and teachers ; and not only 
forbid them to preach to any others before the Jews, but 
would not that they should so much as approach the way 
that led to the Gentiles; Go not into the way of the Gentiles. 
And because the Samaritans, though more readily disposed 
to be converted to the faith, were yet at enmity with the 
Jews, He would not suMVr the Samaritans to be preached to 
Gloss, ap. before the Jews. Gloss. The Samaritans were Gentiles who 
use m. j i;u j k een sc ttled in the land of Israel by the king of Assyria 
after the captivity which he made. They had been driven 

VER."5 8. ST. MATTHEW. 369 

by many terrors to turn to Judaism, and had received cir- 
cumcision and the five books of Moses, but renouncing every 
thing else; hence there was no communication between the 
Jews and the Samaritans. Chrys. From these then He 
diverts His disciples, and sends them to the children of 
Israel, whom He calls perishing sheep, not straying ; in every 
way contriving an apology for them, and drawing them to 
Himself. Hilary. Though they are here called sheep, yet 
they raged against Christ with the tongues and throats of 
wolves aud vipers. Jerome. Figuratively ; Herein we who 
bear the name of Christ are commanded not to walk in the 
way of the Gentiles, or the error of the heretics, but as we 
are separate in religion, that we be also separate in our life. 
Gloss. Having told them to whom they should go, He now Gloss, non 
introduces what they should preach ; Go and preach, saij- occ ' 
ing, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. Raban. The king- 
dom of heaven is here said to draw nigh by the faith in the 
unseen Creator which is bestowed upon us, not by any 
movement of the visible elements. The saints are rightly 
denoted by the heavens, because they contain God by faith, 
and love Him with affection. Chrys. Behold the great- 
ness of their ministry, behold the dignity of the Apostles. 
They are not to preach of any thing that can be an ob- 
ject of sense, as Moses and the Prophets did ; but things 
new and unlooked for; those preached earthly goods, but 
these the kingdom of heaven and all the goods that are 
there. Greg. Miracles also were granted to the holy preach- Greg, ubi 
ers, that the power they should shew might be a pledge of SU1> " 
the truth of their words, and they who preached new things 
should also do new things; wherefore it follows, Ileal the 
rick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out daemons. Je- 
aOMS. Lest peasants untaught and illiterate, without the 
grae ipeechj should obtain credit with none when they 

announced the kingdom of heaven, lie gives them power 
to do the thing! above mentioned, that the greatness of 
the miraclet might approve the greatness of their promises. 

Hilary. The exercise of the Lord's power is wholly en- 
trusted to the Apostles, that they who were formed in the 

image of" Adam, and the likeness of God, should now obtain 

the perfect in f Christ; and whatever evil Satan had 

VOL. I. 2 It 


introduced into the body of Adam, this they should now 
Greg. repair by communion with the Lord's power. Greg. Thes , 
Ev.xxix. signs were necessary in the beginning of the Church; the 
4 - faith of the believers must be fed with miracles, that it 

might grow. Ciirys. But afterwards they ceased when 
a reverence for the faith was universally established. Or, if 
they were continued at all, they were few and seldom; for it 
is usual with God to do such things when evil is increased, 
Greg, ubi then He shews forth His power. Greg. The Holy Church 
daily doth spiritually, what it then did materially by the 
Apostles ; yea, things far greater, inasmuch as she raises and 
cures souls and not bodies. Remig. The sick are the sloth- 
ful, who have not strength to live well; the lepers are the 
unclean in sin and carnal delights ; the daemoniacs are they 
that are given up under the power of the Devil. Jerome. 
And because spiritual gifts are more lightly esteemed when 
money is made the means of obtaining them, He adds 
a condemnation of avarice; Freely ye have received, freely 
give ; I your Master and Lord have imparted these to you 
without price, do you therefore give them to others in like 
manner, that the free grace of the Gospel be not corrupted. 
Gloss, non Gloss. This He says, that Judas who had the bag might 


not use the above power for getting money ; a plain con- 
demnation of the abomination of the simoniacal heresy. 
Greg. Greg. For He knew before that there would be some that 
Ev. iv. 4. would turn the gift of the Spirit which they had received 
into merchandize, and pervert the power of miracles iuto an 
instrument of their covetousness. Chrys. Observe how He 
is as careful that they should be upright in moral virtue, 
as that they should have the miraculous powers, shewing 
that miracles without these are nought. Freely ye have 
received, seems a check upon their pride ; freely (jive, a com- 
mand to keep themselves pure from filthy lucre. Or, that 
what they should do might not be thought to be their own 
benevolence, He says, Freely ye have received; as much 
as to say ; Ye bestow nothing of your own on those ye 
relieve; for ye have not received these things for money, 
nor for wages of labour ; as vc have received them, so give 
to others ; for indeed it is not possible to receive a price 
equal to their value. 

VER. 9, 10. ST. MATTHEW. 371 

9. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in 
your purses, 

10. Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, 
neither shoes, nor yet staves : for the workman is 
worthy of his meat. 

Chrys. The Lord having forbidden to make merchandize 
of spiritual things, proceeds to pull up the root of all evil, 
saying, Possess neither gold, nor silver. Jerome. For if 
they preach without receiving reward for it, the possession 
of gold and silver and wealth Avas unnecessary. For had 
they had such, they would have been thought to be preach- 
ing, not for the sake of men's salvation, but their own gain. 
Chrys. This precept then first frees the Apostles from all 
suspicions; secondly, from all care, so that they may give 
up their whole time to preaching the word ; thirdly, teaches 
them their excellence. This is what He said to them after- 
wards, Was any thing lacking to you, when I sent you with- 
out bag or scrip ? Jerome. As He had cut off riches, 
which are meant by gold and silver, He now almost cuts 
off necessaries of life ; that the Apostles, teachers of the 
true religion, who taught men that all things are directed 
by God's providence, might shew themselves to be without 
thought for the morrow. Gloss. Whence He adds, Neither Gloss. 
money in your ]mrses. For there are two kinds of things non occ * 
necessary ; one is the means of buying necessaries, which 
is signified by the money in their purses; the other the 
necessaries themselves, which arc signified by the scrip. 
Jr. home. In forbidding the scrip, neither scrip for your 
journey, He aimed at those philosophers commonly called Vid.Cotel. 
operate, who being despiscrs of this world, and cs- n mn# 
ing all things as nothing, yet carry a bag about with Pm*-U.I. 
them. Nor two coats. By the two coats lie seems to mean 
ange of raiment; not to bid us be content with a 
unic in the snow and frosts of Scythia, but that 
they should not carry about a change with thenij wearing 

One, and carr kbout the other as proyisiOD for the 

future Not Jt La ;i pn if Plato, that the two 

extremitiei of the body ihould be left unprotected, and 


that we should not accustom ourselves to tender care of the 
head and feet ; for if these parts be hardy, it will follow that 
the rest of the body will be vigorous and healthy. Nor 
staff; for having the protection of the Lord, why need we 
seek the aid of a staff? Remig. The Lord shews by these 
Avoids that the holy preachers were reinstated in the dignity 
of the first man, who as long as he possessed the heavenly 
treasures, did not desire other; but having lost those by 
sinning, he straightway began to desire the other. Chrys. 
A happy exchange ! In place of gold and silver, and the 
like, they received power to heal the sick, to raise the dead. 
For He had not commanded them from the beginning, 
Possess neither gold nor silver; but only then when He 
said at the same time, Cleanse the lepers, cast out dcemons. 
Whence it is clear that He made them Angels more than 
men, freeing them from all anxiety of this life, that they 
might have but one care, that of teaching ; and even of that 
He in a manner takes away the burden, saying, Be not 
careful what ye shall speak. Thus what seemed hard and 
burdensome, He shews them to be light and easy. For 
nothing is so pleasant as to be delivered from all care and 
anxiety, more especially when it is possible, being delivered 
from this, to lack nothing, God being present, and being 
to us instead of all things. Jerome. As He had sent the 
Apostles forth unprovided and unencumbered on their mis- 
sion, and the condition of the teachers seemed a hard one, 
He tempered the severity of the rules by this maxim, The 
labourer is worthy of his hire, i. e. Receive what you need 
for your food and clothing. Whence the Apostle Bays, 
l Tim. 6, Having food and raiment, let us therewith be content. And 


' again. Let him that is catechized communicate unto him 

that catechizeth in all good things; that they whose dis- 
ciples reap spiritual things, should make them partakers 
of their carnal things, not for the gratification of covetous- 
ness, but for the supply of wants. Chrys. It behoved the 
Apostles to be supported by their disciples, that neither 
they should be haughty towards those whom they taught, 
as though they gave all, and received nothing; and that 
the others, on their part, should not fall away, as over- 
looked by them. Also that the Apostles might not cry, He 

VER. 9, 10. ST. MATTHEW. 373 

bids us lead the life of beggars, and should be ashamed 
thereat, He shews that this is their due, calling them 
labourers, and that which is given their hire. For they 
were not to suppose that because what they gave was only 
words, therefore they were to esteem it but a small benefit 
that they conferred ; therefore He says, The labourer is 
worthy of his meat. This He said not to signify that the 
labours of the Apostles were only worth so much, but laying 
down a rule for the Apostles, and persuading those that gave, 
that what they gave was only what was due. Aug. The Aug. 
Gospel therefore is not for sale, that it should be preached erm * ' 
for reward. For if they so sell it, they sell a great thing for 
a small price. Let preachers then receive their necessary 
support from the people, and from God the reward of their 
employment. For the people do not give pay to those that 
minister to them in the love of the Gospel, but as it were 
a stipend that may support them to enable them to work. 
Aug. Otherwise ; "When the Lord said to the Apostles, Aug. de 
Possess not gold, He added immediately, The labourer is ^ w n \ 30 
worthy of his hire, to shew why He would not have them 
possess and carry about these things; not that these things 
were not needed for the support of this life, but that He 
sent them in such a way as to shew that these things were 
due to them from those to whom they preached the Gospel, 
as pay to soldiers. It is clear that this precept of the Lord 
does not at all imply that they ought not according to the 
Gospel to live by any other means, than by the contributions 
of those to whom they preached ; otherwise Paul transgressed 
this precept when he lived by the labour of his own hands. 
Bat He gave the Apostles authority that these things were 
due to them from the house in which they abode. But when 
the Lord has issued a command, if it be not performed, 

ii of disobedience ; when He bestows a privile 
it is in any one's power not to use it, and as it were to 
refrain from claiming his right. The Lord then having 
sanctioned this maxim, that they who preach the Gospel 
should live of the Gospel, II<'. spoke these things to the 
Apostles, that being confident they should not possess nor 
carry about with them the necessaries of life, n< ither things 
t nor things sinail. Therefore N<- adds, Nor a itaff, 



to shew that from His people all things are due to His 
ministers, and they require no superfluities. This authority 
Mark 6, lie signifies by the staff, saying in Mark, Take nothing 
but a staff only. And when He forbids them (in Matthew) 
to take with them shoes, He forbids that carefulness and 
thought which would be anxious to carry them lest they 
should be wanting. Thus also we must understand con- 
cerning the two coats, that none should think it necessary 
to carry another besides that which he wore, supposing 
that he should have need of it; for it would be in his power 
to obtain one by this authority which the Lord gave. Fur- 
ther that we read in Mark that they should be shod with 
sandals, seems to imply that this kind of shoe has a mystic 
meaning in it, that the foot should neither be covered above, 
nor yet bare beneath, that is, that the Gospel should not be 
hid, nor yet rest itself on earthly advantage. Also when lie 
forbids them to carry two coats, He warned them not to 
walk deceitfully, but in simplicity. So we cannot doubt 
that all these things w r ere said by the Lord, partly in a 
direct, partly in a figurative sense ; and that of the two 
Evangelists one inserted some things, the other other things, 
in his narrative. If any one should think that the Lord 
could not in one speech speak some things in a direct, and 
some things in a mystic sense, let him look at any other 
of His sayings, and he will see how hasty and unlearned 
his opinion is. When the Lord commands that the left 
hand should not know what the right hand doeth, does he 
think that almsgiving, and the rest of His precepts in that 
place are to be taken figuratively? 

Jerome. Thus far we have expounded by the letter; 
but metaphorically, as we often find gold put for the 
sense, silver for the words, brass for the voice — all these 
we may say we arc not to receive from others, but to 
have them given by the Lord. AVc arc not to take up 
the teaching of heretics, of philosophers, and of corrupt 
doctrine. HILARY. The girdle is the making ready for the 
ministry, the girding up that we may be active in duty; 
we may BUppoae that the forbidding money in the girdle 
is to warn us from suffering any thing in the ministry to be 
bought and sold. We arc not to have a scrip by the way, 

VER. 11 — 15. ST. MATTHEW. 375 

that is, we are to leave all care of our worldly substance ; 
for all treasure on earth is hurtful to the heart, which will 
be there where the treasure is. Not two coats, for it is 
enough to have once put on Christ, nor after true know- 
ledge of Him ought we to be clothed with any other gar- 
ment of heresy or law. Not shoes, because standing on holy 
ground as was said to Moses, not covered with the thorns 
and prickles of sin, we are admonished to have no other 
preparation of our walk than that we have received from 
Christ. Jerome. Or ; The Lord herein teaches us that our 
feet are not to be bound with the chains of death, but to 
be bare as we tread on the holy ground. We are not to 
carry a staff which may be turned into a serpent, nor to 
trust in any arm of flesh ; for all such is a reed on which 
if a man lean ever so lightly, it will break and go into his 
hand and pierce him. Hilary. Neither a staff; that is, 
"We are not to seek rights of extraneous power, having a rod 
from the root of Jesse. 

11. And into whatsoever city or town ye shall 
enter, enquire who in it is worthy ; and there abide 
till ye go thence. 

12. And when ye come into an house, salute it. 

13. And if the house he worthy, let your peace 
come upon it : but if it be not worthy, let your peace 
return to you. 

14. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear 
your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, 
shake off' the dust of your feet. 

15. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tole- 
rable for the hind of Sodom and Gomorrha in the 
day of judgment, than for that city. 

Chkys. The Lord had laid above, The workman is worthy 

of his meat; that they should not hence suppose that He 

would open all doors to them, He here commands them to 

much circumspection in the choice of a lmst, saying, 

Into what city or town ye enter, enquire who in it is worthy. 


Jerome. The Apostles, on entering a strange town, could 
not know of each inhabitant what sort of man he was ; they 
were to choose their host therefore by the report of the 
people, and opinion of the neighbours, that the worthiness 
of the preacher might not be disgraced by the ill character 
of his entertainer. Ciirys. How then did Christ Himself 
abide with the publican? Because he was made worthy by 
his conversion ; for this command that he should be worthy, 
had respect not to their rank, but to their furnishing food. 
For if he be worthy he will provide them with food, espe- 
cially when they need no more than bare necessaries. Ob- 
serve how though He stripped them of all property, He sup- 
plied all their wants, suffering them to abide in the houses of 
those whom they taught. For so they were both themselves 
set free from care, and convinced men that it was for their 
salvation only that they had come, seeing they carried nothing 
about with them, and desired nothing beyond necessaries. 
And they did not lodge at all places indiscriminately, for 
He would not have them known only by their miracles, but 
much more by their virtues. But nothing is a greater mark 
of virtue, than to discard superfluities. Jerome. One host 
is chosen who does not so much confer a favour upon him 
who is to abide with him, as receive one. For it is said, 
Who in it is worthy, that he may know that he rather re- 
ceives than does a favour. Chrys. Also observe that He 
has not yet endowed them with all gifts ; for He has not 
given them power to discern who is worthy, but bids them 
seek out ; and not only to find out who is worthy, but also 
not to pass from house to house, saying, And there remain 
until ye depart out of that city ; so they would neither make 
their entertainer sorrowful, nor themselves incur suspicion 
Ambros. of lightness or gluttony. Ambrose. The Apostles are not 
!) n 5 ^ uc ' to choose carelessly the house into which they enter, that 
they may have no cause for changiug their lodging ; the 
same caution is not enforced upon the entertainer, lest in 
choosing his guests, his hospitality should be diminished. 
When ye enter a house, salute it, sat/i/iy, Peace be to this 
<iin house. Gloss. As much as to say, Pray ye for peace upon 

the master of the house, that all resistance to the truth may 
be pacified. JEROME. Here La a latent allusion to the form 


VER. 11 15. ST. MATTHEW. 377 

of salutation in Hebrew and Syriac; they say Salemalach 
or Salamalacb, for the Greek %alpe, or Latin Ave ; that is, 
' Peace be with you/ The command then is, that on enter- 
ing any house they should pray for peace for their host ; and, 
as far as they may be able, to still all discords, so that if 
any quarrel should arise, they who had prayed for peace 
should have it — others should have the discord ; as it fol- 
lows, And if that house be worthy, your peace shall rest upon 
it ; but if it be not ivorthy, your peace shall return to you 
again. Uemig. Thus either the hearer, being predestined to Remig.ap. 
eternal life, will follow the heavenly word when he hears it ; 
or if there be none who will hear it, the preacher himself 
shall not be without fruit ; for his peace returns to him 
when he receives of the Lord recompense for all his labour. 
Chrys. The Lord instructs them, that though they were 
teachers, yet they should not look to be first saluted by 
others; but that they should honour others by first saluting 
them. And then He shews them that they should give not 
a salutation only, but a benediction, when He says, If that 
house be worthy, your peace shall rest upon it. Remig. 
The Lord therefore taught His disciples to offer peace on 
their entering into a house, that by means of their saluta- 
tion their choice might be directed to a worthy house and 
host. As though He had said, Offer peace to all, they will 
shew themselves either worthy by accepting, or unworthy 
by not accepting it ; for though you have chosen a host that 
is worthy by the character he bears among his neighbours, 
yet ought you to salute him, that the preacher may seem 
rather to enter by invitation, than to intrude himself. This 
salutation of peace in few words may indeed be referred to 
the trial of the worthiness of the house or master. HlLART. 
The Apostles salute the house with the prayer of peace; 
hat peace seems rather spoken than given. For 
their own peace which was the bowels of their pity ought 
not to rett Upon tin; house if it were; not worthy ; then 
the lacrament of heavenly peace could he kept within the 

Apostles' own bosom. Upon suv\\ as rejected the precepts 

of the heavenly kingdom an eternal curse is left by the 

departure of the Apostles, and th shaken from their 

\,nl whosoever hall not re< or l><<ir your 


words, when ye go out of that house, or that town, cast the 
dust off your feet. For he that lives in any place seems to 
have a kind of fellowship with that place. By the casting 
the dust off the feet therefore all that belonged to that 
house is left behind, and nothing of healing or soundness is 
borrowed from the footsteps of the Apostles having trod 
their soil. Jerome. Also they shake off the dust as a testi- 
mony of the Apostles' toil, that in preaching the Gospel they 
had come even so far, or as a token that from those that 
rejected the Gospel they would accept nothing, not even 
the necessaries of life. Raban. Otherwise ; The feet of the 
disciples signify the labour and progress of preaching. The 
dust which covers them is the lightness of earthly thoughts, 
from which even the greatest doctors cannot be free ; their 
anxiety for their hearers involves them in cares for theii 
prosperity, and in passing through the ways of this world, 
they gather the dust of the earth they tread upon. They 
then who have despised the teaching of these doctors, turn 
upon themselves all the toils and dangers and anxieties of 
the Apostles as a witness to their damnation. Aud lest it 
should seem a slight thing not to receive the Apostles, He 
adds, Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for 
Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that 
city. Jerome. Because to the men of Sodom and Gomorrah 
no man had ever preached ; but this city had been preached and had rejected the Gospel. Remig. Or because the 
a an " men of Sodom and Gomorrah were hospitable among their 
sensuality, but they had never entertained such strangers as 
the Apostles. Jerome. But if it shall be more tolerable for 
the land of Sodom than for that city, hence we may learn 
that there is difference of degree in the punishment of sin- 
ners. Remtg. Sodom and Gomorrah are especially men- 
tioned, to shew that those sins which are against nature are 
particularly hateful to God, for which the world was drowned 
with the waters of the deluge, four towns were overthrown, 
and the world is daily afllictcd with manifold evils. 

HlLABY. Figuratively, The Lord teaches us not to enter 
the houses or to mix in the acquaintance of those who 
persecute Christ, or who arc ignorant of Him ; and in 
< ach town to enquire who among them is worthy, i. v. 

VER. 16 — 18. ST. MATTHEW. 379 

where there is a Church wherein Christ dwells ; and not to 
pass to another, because this house is worthy, this host is 
our right host. But there would be many of the Jews who 
would be so well disposed to the Law, that though they 
believed in Christ because they admired His works, yet they 
would abide in the works of the Law ; and others again who, 
desiring to make trial of that liberty which is in Christ, 
would feign themselves ready to forsake the Law for the 
Gospel; many also would be drawn aside into heresy by 
perverse understanding. And since all these would falsely 
maintain that with them only was Catholic verity, therefore 
we must with great caution seek out the house, i.e. the 

16. Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst 
of wolves : be ye therefore wise as serpents, and 
harmless as doves. 

1 7. But beware of men : for they will deliver you 
up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their 
synagogues ; 

18. And ye shall be brought before governors and 
kings for My sake, for a testimony against them and 
the Gentiles. 

Cr£RY8. Having removed all care and anxiety from the Chrys. 
Apostles, and armed them with the miraculous powers, He 
proceeds to foretell the evils which should befal them. First, 
that they might know His knowledge of the future ; secondly, 
that they should not think that these things befel them be- 
cause of the want of power in their Master; thirdly, that 
they might not be amazed if these things had come upon 
them unexpectedly; fourthly, that after hearing these things, 
. might not be dismayed in the season of His cross; and 
lastly, that they might learn anew method of warfare. He 
ll them unprovided, bidding them look to those who 
< ivc them lor support : but rests not in that, but 

Hii power 'ill further, Lo, I send you as sheep in the 

of wolves. Where ob that He docs not. say 

but w the mil!:! of wolves i to shew lli^ 



excellent might therein, that the sheep would overcome the 
wolves though they were in the midst of them ; and though 
they received mauy bites from them, yet were they not 
destroyed, but rather convert them. And it is a much 
greater and a more wonderful power that can change their 
hearts than that can kill them. Among wolves He teaches 
Greg. them to shew the meekness of sheep. Greg. For he who 
Ev.x'vii.4. undertakes the office of preacher ought not to do evil, but to 
Buffer it, and by his meekness to mollify the wrath of the 
angry, and by his wounds to heal the wounds of sinners in 
their affliction. And even should the zeal of right-doing ever 
require that he should be severe to those that are placed 
under him, his very severity will be of love aud not of 
cruelty, outwardly maintaining the rights of discipline, and 
inwardly loving those whom he corrects. Too many, when 
they are entrusted with the reins of government, burn to 
make the subjects feel them, display the terrors of authority, 
and forgetting that they are fathers, rather desire to be 
thought lords, changing a station of lowliness into that of 
lofty dominion ; if they ever seem outwardly to fawn on any 
one, they inwardly hate him : of such He spoke above ; 
Matt.7,15. They come to you in sheep* 's clothing, but inwardly they 
are ravening wolves. For prevention whereof we ought to 
consider that we are sent as sheep among wolves, whose 
innocence we ought to preserve, not having the tooth of 
malice. Jerome. He calls the Scribes and Pharisees who 
are the clergy of the Jews, ivolves. Hilary. The wolves 
indeed are all such as should pursue the Apostles with mad 
fur} 7- . Chrys. Their consolation under their hardships was 
the excellent power of Him who sent them; wherefore He 
puts that before all, Lo, I send you. Be not dismayed, though 
you be sent into the midst of wolves ; for I am able to 
bring it to pass that you suffer no hurt, and that ye should 
not only prevail over the wolves, but be made more terrible 
than lions. But it is good that it should be thus ; hereby 
your virtue is made brighter, and My power is more mani- 
fested. Also that somewhat should proceed ironi them- 
selves, that they should not think themselves to be crowned 
without reason, He adds. Be ye therefore wise as serpents, 
simple as doves. JsBOME. Wise, that they might escape 

VER. 16 18. ST. MATTHEW. 381 

snares ; simple, that they might not do evil to others. The 
craft of the serpent is set before them as an example, for he 
hides his head with all the rest of his body, that he may 
protect the part in which life is. So ought we to expose 
our whole body, that we may guard our head which is 
Christ ; that is, that we study to keep the faith whole and 
uncorrupt. Raban. The serpent moreover seeks out narrow 
chinks through which it crawls to draw off its old skin; 
so the preacher passing through the narrow way lays aside 
the old man. Remig. Beautifully the Lord bids the preacher 
have the wisdom of the serpent; because the first man was 
beguiled by a serpent; as though He had said, The foe 
is subtle to deceive, be ye therefore wise to rescue ; he 
commended the tree, do ye also commend the tree of the 
Cross. Hilary. He first attempted the softer sex, allured 
her by hope, and promised a share of immortality. Do 
you in like manner seize every opportunity, look well into 
each man's nature and inclination, use wisdom of speech, 
reveal hope of good things to come ; that what he promised 
falsely we may preach truly according to God's promise, 
that they that believe shall be like to the Angels. Chrys. 
But as we ought to have the wisdom of the serpent, that 
we should not be hurt in any deadly part, so also we 
should have the simplicity of the dove, not to retaliate when 
we are hurt, nor to avenge ourselves on those who have de- 
signed aught against us. Remig. The Lord unites these two 
things; because simplicity without wisdom might be easily 
deceived, and wisdom is dangerous unless it be tempered 
with simplicity that does no man hurt. Jerome. The harm- 
I of doves is shewn by the assumption of that form 
by the Holy Spirit; as the Apostle speaks, In malice be ye 
children, Chrys. What is harder than these commands? 
It ii oot enough that we suffer ill, but we must not be angry 
thereat, as is the dove's nature, for anger is extinguished 
not by ai, " Pj hut by meekness. Rah an. That by the wolves 

above Se intended men, He thews when He adds, Take 

fired of men. GLOSS. Ye have indeed need to be wise as Glo*. tp. 

ts, for, as they are wont to do, they will deliver you (<> Ans,lllu 
eauncilSt forbidding you to preach in Mj Dame; then if 
not eon they will icourge you, and .-it length yt shall 


be brought before Icings and governors. Hilary. Who will 
endeavour to extort from you either to be silent or to 
temporize. Ciirys. How wonderful that men who had never 
been beyond the lake in which they fished, did not straight- 
way depart from nim on hearing these things. It was not 
only of their goodness, but of the wisdom of their Teacher. 
For to each evil lie attaches somewhat of alleviation ; as 
here He adds, for My sake; for it is no light consolation 
to suffer for Christ's sake, for they did not suffer as evil 
or wrong doers. Again lie adds, for a testimony against 
Greg. them. Greg. Either that they had persecuted to the death, 
Ev.xxxv. or that they had seen and were not changed. For the death 
2 * of the saints is to the good an aid, to the bad a testimony ; 

that thus the wicked may perish without excuse in that from 
which the elect take example and live. Chrys. This was 
matter of consolation to them, not that they sought the 
punishment of others, but that they were confident that 
in all things they had One present with them, and all- 
knowing. Hilary. And by this their testimony not only 
was all excuse of ignorance of His divinity taken away 
from their persecutors, but also to the Gentiles was opened 
the way of believing on Christ, who was thus devotedly 
preached by the voices of the confessors among the flames 
of persecution ; and this is that He adds, and the Gentiles. 

19. But when they deliver you up, take no thought 
how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given 
you in that same hour what ye shall speak. 

20. For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of 
your Father which speakcth in you. 

Chrys. To the foregoing topics of consolation, lie adds 
another not a little one; that they should not say, How shall 
we be able to persuade such men as these, when they shall 
persecute us? lie bids them be of good courage respecting 
their answer, saying, Wlien they shall deliver you up, take 
no thought how or what ye shall speak. Eemig. How or what t 
one refers to the substance, the other to the expression in 
words. And because both of these would be supplied by Him, 

VER. 21, 22. ST. MATTHEW. 383 

there was no need for the holy preachers to be anxious about 
either. Jerome. When then we are brought before judges 
for Christ's sake, we ought to offer only our will for Christ. 
But Christ who dwelleth in us speaks for Himself, and 
the grace of the Holy Spirit will minister in our answer. 
Hilary. For our faith, observing all the precepts of the 
Divine will, will be instructed with an answer according to 
knowledge, after the example of Abraham, to whom when 
he had given up Isaac, there was not wanting a ram for 
a victim. For it is not ye who speak, but the Spirit of your 
Father that speaketh in you. Remig. Meaning, Ye indeed go Remig.ap. 
out to the battle, but it is I who fight ; you utter the words, a an * 
but it is I who speak. Hence Paul speaks, Seek ye a proof 2Cor.i3,3. 
of Christ who speaketh in me? Chrys. Thus He raises 
them to the dignity of the Prophets, who have spoken by 
the Spirit of God. He who says here, Take no thought 
what ye shall speak, has said in another place, Be ye ip e t.3,l5. 
always ready to give an answer to him that demandeth 
a reason of the hope that is in you. When it is a dispute 
among friends, we are commanded to be ready ; but before 
the awful judgment, and the raging people, aid is ministered 
by Christ, that they may speak boldly and not be dismayed. 

21. And the brother shall deliver up the brother 
to death, and the father the child ; and the children 
shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to 
be put to death. 

22. And ye shall be hated of all men for My 
name's sake : but he that endureth to the end shall 
be saved. 

. Having placed the comfort first, He adds the Glots.ap, 
more alarming perils; Brother shall deliver up brother to ' 
death, and the father the 80m children shall rise against 
parents, to \ m to death. GREG, Wrongs which WG Gi 

suffer from strau pain u than those we Bun?er ev!xxxt. 

from men 00 wliov. ailed ions we had counted; for besides 8. 

bodily affliction, thi then the pi in of lost affection. 

»ice. This we see often happen in pei aor is 


there any true affection between those whose faith is different. 
Chrys. What follows is yet more dreadful, Ye shall be hated 
of all men ; they sought to exterminate them as common 
enemies of all the world. To this again is added the con- 
solation, For My name's sake ; and yet further to cheer them, 
Whosoever shall endure to the end, he shall be saved. For 
many are hot and zealous in the beginning, but afterwards 
grow cool ; for these, He says, I look at the end. For where 
is the profit of seeds that only sprout at first? wherefore 
He requires a sufficient endurance from them. Jerome. 
For virtue is not to begin, but to complete. Hemic And 
the reward is not for those that begin, but for those that 
bring to an end. Chrys. But that no man should say, 
that Christ wrought all things in His Apostles, and therefore 
it is nothing wonderful that they were made such as they 
were, since they did not bear the burden of these things, 
therefore He says, that perseverance was their work. For 
though they were rescued from their first perils, they are 
preserved for still harder trials, which again shall be followed 
by others, and they shall be in danger of snares as long as 
they live. This He covertly intimates when He says, Who- 
soever shall endure to the end, he shall be saved. Hemic 
That is, He who shall not let go the commauds of the faith, 
nor fall away in persecution, shall be saved ; he shall receive 
the reward of the heavenly kingdom for his earthly per- 
secutions. And note that 'the end' does not always mean 
Rom. 10,4. destruction, but sometimes perfection, as in that, Christ is 
the end of the Law. So the sense here may be, Whosoever 
Aug. de shall endure to the end, that is, in Christ. Aug. To endure 
xxi.25!' m Christ, is to abide in His faith which worketh by love. 

23. But when they persecute you in this city, flee 
ye into another : for verily I say unto you, Ye shall 
not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of 
man be come. 

Chrys. Chrys. Having foretold the fearful things which should 

xxxiv. come upon them after His Cross, resurrection, and ascension, 

lie leads them to gentler prospects; He does not bid them 

presumptuously to offer themselves for persecution, but to 

VER. 23. ST. MATTHEW. 385 

fly from it; When they -persecute you in this city, flee ye 
to another. For because this was the first beginning of 
their conversion, He adapts His words to their state. 
Jerome. This must be referred to the time when the Apo- 
stles were sent to preach, when it was said to them, Go 
not into the ivay of the Gentiles ; they should not fear, but 
may shun persecution. This we see the believers did in 
the beginning, when on a persecution arising in Jerusalem 
they were scattered throughout all Judeea, and thus the 
season of tribulation was made the seedtime of the Gospel. 
Aeg. Not that the Saviour was unable to protect His dis- Aug. cont. 
ciples, does He here bid them fly, and Himself give them an X xH. S 36. 
example of it, but He instructed man's weakness, that he 
should not presume to tempt God, when he has any thing 
that he can do for himself, but should shun all evils. Id. Aug. de 
He might have suffered them to lay violent hands upon - u 22. U ' 
themselves, that they might not fall into the hands of their 
persecutors. Therefore if He neither commanded nor allowed 
this mode of departure from this world to His own, for 
whom He Himself had promised that He would prepare 
an eternal mansion; whatever instances may be brought 
by the Gentiles who know not God, it is clear that this 
is not lawful for those who believe one true God. Ciirys. 
But that they should not say, What then if we fly from 
persecution, and again they cast us out thence whither we 
have fled? To remove this fear, He says, Verily I say unto 
you, ye shall not have completed, §c. that is, ye shall not have 
made the circuit of Palestine and return to Me, before I 
shall take you to Me. BABAN. Or; He foretels that they 
shall not have brought all the cities of Israel to the faith 
by their preaching, before the Lord's resurrection be accom- 
plished, and a commission given them to preach the Gospel 
throughout the world. HlLAKY. Otherwise; lie exhorts 
to fly from place to place; lor His preaching driven from 
Judaea, first passed into Greece; then, wearied with divers 

sufferings of the Apostles Up and down the eitie of Greece, 

it takes an abiding refuge in the rest of the Gentile world. 

that the (n-ntih tfl would believe the preaching 

of the Apostles, but that the remnant of tsrael should only 
at 11> id coming. He adds, Ye thall not hare 

troLi 1. 


completed the cities of Israel; i.e. After the fulness of the 
Gentiles is brought in, that which remains of Israel to fill 
up the number of the Saints shall be called into the Church 
A,, g- in Christ's future coming to erlorv. Aug. Let the servants 
of Christ then do as lie commanded, or permitted them ; 
as He fled into Egypt, let them fly from city to city, when- 
ever any one of them is marked out for persecution ; that 
the Church be not deserted, it will be filled by those who 
arc not so sought after; and let these give sustenance to 
their fellow-servants whom they know cannot live by any 
other means. But when the threatening danger is common 
to all, Bishops, clergy, and laity, let not those who have 
need of aid be deserted by those whose aid they require. 
Either therefore let them all pass to some stronghold, or 
let those who are obliged to remain, not be deserted by 
those whose province it is to supply their ecclesiastical 
needs; that they may either all live, or all suffer whatever 
their Master will have them to suffer. Remig. Be it known 
moreover, that as this precept respecting endurance under 
persecution specially belongs to the Apostles and their 
successors, men of fortitude, so the permission to fly is 
sufficiently proper for the weak in the faith, to whom the 
tender Master condescends, lest if they should offer them- 
selves for martyrdom, under the pain they should deny the 
faith ; and the sin of flight is lighter than that of denial. 
But though by their flight they shewed that they had not 
the constancy of perfect faith, yet their desert was great, 
seeing they were ready to leave all for Christ. So that if 
lie had not given them permission to fly, some would have 
said that they were aliens from the glory of the heavenly 
kingdom. JEROME. Spiritually we may say; When they 
shall persecute you in one book or one passage of Scripture, 
let us flee to other volumes, for however contentious the 
adversary may be, protection will come from the Saviour 
before the victory is yielded to the enemy. 

24. The disciple is not above his master, nor the 
servant above his lord. 

25. It is enough for the disciple that he be as his 

VER. 24, 25. ST. MATTHEW. 387 

master, and the servant as bis lord. If they have 
called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much 
more shall they call them of his household ? 

Chrys. Because it should come to pass that His disciples 
among their other persecutions should suffer loss of charac- 
ter, which to many is the most grievous of all calamities, He 
consoles them from His own example, and those things that 
were spoken of Him ; a comfort to which no other can be 
compared. Hilary. For the Lord, the Light eternal, the 
Captain of the faithful, the Parent of immortality, set before 
His disciples this solace of the sufferings that should come 
upon them, that we should embrace it as our glory when we 
are made like to our Lord in suffering ; whence He says, The 
disciple is not above his master, nor the slave above his lord. 
Chrys. L T nderstand, so long as he is a disciple or servant, 
he is not above his master or lord by the nature of honour. 
And do not here object to me such cases as rarely happen, 
but receive this according to the common course of things. 
IlKmig. He calls Himself master and lord; by disciple and 
servant He denotes His Apostles. Gloss. As much as to Gloss. ord. 
say, Be not indignant that ye suffer things, which I also 
suffer, because I am your lord, who do what I will, and 
your master, who teach you what I know to be profitable 
for you. Remig. And because this sentence seemed not 
to agree with the foregoing words, He shews what they 
mean by adding, If they have called the master of the house 
JJeclzebub, how much more they of his household ? Ciikys. 
He said not here 'slaves/ but those of his household, to 
shew how dear they were to Him; as elsewhere lie said, 
/ will not call you slaves, but My friends. R.EMIG. As much John 15, 
as to say, Ye therefore will not seek worldly honours and °' 
human glory, while you see Me pursuing the redemption of 
mankind through mocking and contumely. CHBYS. And 
He says not only, If they have reviled the master of the 
house, but expresses the w.vy words of railing, lor they had 
called Him Beelzebub. Jerome. Beelzebub is the idol of 2 Kin 
won who is called in the book of Kings, th.' God of 
,,' signifying idol; 'zebub,' a fly* The Prince 

of the daemons He Calls by the name of the foulest of id 


which is so called because of the uncleanness of the fly, 
which destroys the sweetness of ointment. 

26. Fear them not, therefore : for there is nothing 
covered, that shall not be revealed ; and hid, that 
shall not be known. 

27. What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye 
in light : and what ye hear in the ear, that preach 
ye upon the housetops. 

28. And fear not them which kill the body, but 
are not able to kill the soul : but rather fear Him 
which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. 

Remig. To the foregoing consolation He adds another 
no less, saying, Fear ye not them, namely, the persecutors. 
And why they were not to fear, He adds, For there is 
nothing hid which shall not be revealed, nothing secret which 
shall not be known. Jerome. How is it then that in the 
present world, the sins of so many are unknown ? It is of 
the time to come that this is said; the time when God shall 
judge the hidden things of men, shall enlighten the hidden 
places of darkness, and shall make manifest the secrets of 
hearts. The sense is, Fear not the cruelty of the persecutor, 
or the rage of the blasphemer, for there shall come a day 
of judgment in which your virtue and their wickedness will 
he made known. Hilary. Therefore neither threatening, 
nor evil speaking, nor power of their enemies should move 
them, seeing the judgment-day will disclose how empty, 
how nought all these were. Chrys. Otherwise; It might 
seem that what is here said should be applied generally; 
hut it is by no means intended as a general maxim, but is 
spoken solely with reference to what had gone before with 
this meaning; If you are grieved when men revile you, 
think that in a little time you will be delivered from this 
evil. They call you indeed impostors, sorcerers, seducers, 
but have a little patience, and all men shall call you the 
saviours of the world, when in the course of things you shall 
be found to have been their benefactors, for men will not 
judge by their words but by the truth of things. EsMIG. 

VER. 26 — 28. ST. MATTHEW. 389 

Some indeed think that these words convey a promise from 
our Lord to His disciples, that through them all hidden 
mysteries should be revealed, which lay beneath the veil of 
the letter of the Law ; whence the Apostle speaks, When 2 Cor. 3, 
they have turned to Christ, then the veil shall be taken away. 
So the sense would be, Ought you to fear your persecutors, 
when you are thought worthy that by you the hidden mys- 
teries of the Law and the Prophets should be made manifest ? 
Chrys. Then having delivered them from all fear, and set 
them above all calumny, He follows this up appropriately 
with commanding that their preaching should be free and 
unreserved ; What I say to you in darkness, that speak ye 
in the light; what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon 
the housetops. Jerome. We do not read that the Lord 
was wont to discourse to them by night, or to deliver 
His doctrine in the dark ; but lie said this because all His 
discourse is dark to the carnal, and His word night to the 
unbelieving. What had been spoken by Him they were 
to deliver again with the confidence of faith and confession. 
Rem 10. The meaning therefore is, What I say to you in 
darkness, that is, among the unbelieving Jews, that speak 
ye in the light, that is, preach it to the believing; what ye 
hear in the ear, that is, what I say unto you secretly, that 
preach ye upon the housetops, that is, openly before all men. 
It is a common phrase, To speak in one's ear, that is, to 
speak to him privately. Raban. And what He says, Preach 
ye upon the housetops, is spoken after the manner of the pro- 
vince of Palestine, where they use to sit upon the roofs of 
the houses, which are not pointed but flat. That then may 
-aid to be preached upon the housetops which is spoken 
in the hearing of all men. GLOSS. Otherwise; What I Bay Gloss. ord. 
unto you while you are yet held under carnal fear, that 
k ye in the confidence of truth, after ye shall be en- 
lightened by the Holy Spirit; what you have only heard, 
that preach by doing the same, being raised above your 

bodies, which are the dwi of your souls. JEROME. 

Othi j What you hear in mystery, thai teaeh in plaiti- 

ech; wh::t I have taught you In a corner of Jud 

that proclaim boldly iii all miarters of the world. ( 

\ li< : id /A- ih at bclicvcth on Me. the works thai I do Ae John 11. 


shall do also, and greater things than these shall he do ; so here 
lie shews that He works all things through them more than 
through Himself; as though He had said, I have made a be- 
ginning, but what is beyond, that I will to complete through 
your means. So that this is not a command but a prediction, 
shewing them that they shall overcome all things. Hilary. 
Therefore they cught to inculcate constantly the knowledge 
of God, and the profound secret of evangelic doctrine, to be 
revealed by the light of preaching; having no fear of those 
who have power only over the body, but cannot reaeh the 
soul; Fear not those that kill the body, but cannot kill the soul. 
Chrys. Observe how He sets them above all others, encou- 
raging them to set at nought cares, reproaches, perils, yea 
even the most terrible of all things, death itself, in comparison 
of the fear of God. But rather fear Him, who can destroy both 
soid and body in hell. Jerome. This word is not found in the 
Old Scriptures, but it is first used by the Saviour. Let us 
enquire then into its origin. \Ye read in more than one 
place that the idol Baal was near Jerusalem, at the foot of 
Mount Moriah, by which the brook Siloe flows. This valley 
and a small level plain was watered and woody, a delightful 
spot, and a grove in it was consecrated to the idol. To so 
great folly and madness had the people of Israel come, that, 
forsaking the neighbourhood of the Temple, they offered 
their sacrifices there, and concealing an austere ritual under 
a voluptuous life, they burned their sons in honour of a dae- 
mon. This place w;is called Gchcnnom, that is, The valley of 
the children of Hinnom. These things are fully described 

2 Kii)fr S in Kings and Chronieles, and the Prophet Jeremiah. God 
' °* threatens that He will (ill the place with the carcases of the 

28, 3. dead, that it be no more called Tophet and Baal, but Poly- 

•'■ '• 7, S2j andrion. i.e. The tomb of the dead. Hence the torments and 
eternal pains with which sinners shall be punished are si nified by this word. Aug. This cannot be before the soul is 
.7.' ? ei * so joined to the body, that nothing may sever them. Yet it is 

xni. 2. • ■ ° J 

rightly culled the death of the soul, because it does not live of 

God; and the death of the body, because though man does 

not cease to feel, yet because this his feeling has neither 

pleasure, nor health, but is a pain and a punishment, it is 

better named death than life. CHRYS. Note also, that lie docs 

VER. 29 — 31. ST. MATTHEW. 391 

not hold out to them deliverance from death, but encourages 
them to despise it ; which is a much greater thing than to 
be rescued from death ; also this discourse aids in fixing in 
their minds the doctrine of immortality. 

29. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and 
one of them shall not fall on the ground without 
your Father. 

30. But the very hairs of your head are all num- 

31. Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value 
than many sparrows. 

Chrys. Having set aside fear of death, that the Apostles 
should not think that if they were put to death they were 
deserted by God, He passes to discourse of God's providence, 
saying, Are not hvo sparrows sold for a farthing, and one 
of them does not fall to the ground without your Father? 
Jerome. If these little creations fall not without God's 
superintendence and providence, and if things made to 
perish, perish not without God's will, you who are immortal 
ought not to fear that you live without His providence. 
HlLABT. Figuratively; That which is sold is our soul and 
body, and that to which it is sold, is sin. They then who 
sell two sparrows for a farthing, are they who sell themselves 
for the smallest sin, born for flight, and for reaching heaven Vid.Ps. 
with spiritual wings. Caught by the bait of present pleasures, ' 
and sold to the enjoyment of the world, they barter away 
their whole selves in Mich a market. It is of the will of God 
that one of them rather soar aloft ; but the law proceeding ac- 
cording to God's appointment decrees that one of them should 
fall. In like manner as, if they soared aloft they would become 
one spiritual body; so, when sold under sin, the soul gathers 
hly matter from the pollution of vice, and there is math' 
of them one body \\ hich is committed to earth. .) erom b. That 

The hairs of your head an- all * >(/, sin 

the boundless providence of God towards man, anil a care 

peakable thai nothing of ours i> hid from God. IIm.\ 

l<»r when any thill numbered it fully watj 



over. Chrts. Not tliat God reckons our hairs, but to 
shew His diligent knowledge, and great carefulness over us. 
Jerome. Those who deny the resurrection of the flesh ridi- 
cule the sense of the Church on this place, as if we aflirmed 
that every hair that has ever been cut off by the razor rises 
again, when the Saviour says, Every hair of your head — 
not is saved, but — is numbered. "Where there is number, 
knowledge of that number is implied, but not preservation 
Aug. de of the same hairs. Aug. Though we may fairly enquire 
xxii*. 19.' concerning our hair, whether all that has ever been shorn 
from us will return ; for who would not dread such dis- 
figurement. When it is once understood that nothing of 
our body shall be lost, so as that the form and perfections 
of all the parts should be preserved, we at the same time 
understand that all that would have disfigured our body 
is to be united or taken up by the whole mass, not affixed 
to particular parts so as to destroy the frame of the limbs ; 
just as a vessel made of clay, and again reduced to clay, 
is once more reformed into a vessel, it needs not that that 
portion of clay which had formed the handle should again 
form it, or that which had composed the bottom, should 
again go to the bottom, so long as the whole was remoulded 
into the whole, the whole clay into the whole vessel, no part 
being lost. Wherefore if the hair so often shorn away would 
be a deformity if restored to the place it had been taken 
from, it will not be restored to that place, but all the 
materials of the old body will be revived in the new, what- 
ever place they may occupy so as to preserve the mutual 
Luke 21, fitness of parts. Though what is said in Luke, Not a hair 
of your head shall fall to the ground, may be taken of the 
number, not the length of the hairs, as here also it is 
said, The hairs of your head arc all numbered. Hilary. 
For it is an unworthy task to number things that arc to 
perish. Therefore that we should know that nothing of us 
should perish, we art" told that our very hairs are numbered. 
No accident then that can befal our bodies is to be feared; 
thus lie adds, Fear not, ye arc better than many sparrows. 
Jerome. This expresses still more clearly the sense as it 
was above explained, thai they should not fear those who 
can kill the body, for if the least animal falls not without 


YER. 32, 33. ST. MATTHEW. 393 

God's knowledge, how much less a man who is dignified 
with the Apostolic rank? Hilary. Or this, ye are better 
than many sparrows, teaches that the elect faithful are 
better than the multitude of the unbelieving, for the one 
fall to earth, the other fly to heaven. Remtg. Figuratively ; 
Christ is the head, the Apostles the hairs, who are well 
said to be numbered, because the names of the saints are 
written in heaven. 

32. Whosoever therefore shall confess Me before 
men, him will I confess also before My Father which 
is in heaven. 

33. But whosoever shall deny Me before men, 
him will I also deny before My Father which is in 

Chrys. The Lord having banished that fear which haunted 
the minds of His disciples, adds further comfort in what 
follows, not only casting out fear, but by hope of greater 
rewards encouraging them to a free proclamation of the 
truth, saying, Every man who shall confess Me before men, 
I also vnll confess him before My Father which is in heaven. 
And it is not properly shall confess Me, but as it is in the 
Greek, shall confess in Me, shewing that it is not by your 
own strength but by grace from above, that you confess 
Him whom you do confess. Hilary. This He says in con- 
clusion, because it behoves them after being confirmed by 
such teaching, to have a confident freedom in confessing 
God, Remig. Here is to be understood that confession 
of which the Apostle speaks, With the heart men believe Rom. 
UfUo justification, with the mouth confession is made unto ' 
saltation. That none therefore might suppose that he could 
<1 without confession of the mouth, lie says not only, 
He that §hall confess Me, but adds, before men; and again, 
lie that shall fie//// Me before men, him will I also deny 

before My Father which is in heart//. Hilary. Thia teaches 
that in what measure we have borne witness to Him 
upon earth, in the lame shall we have Hon to hear witn 

,i hi fori tllC face of < rod I lie I' at In T. < III R 


Here observe that the punishment is manifold more than 
the evil done, and the reward more than the good done. 
As much as to say, your deed was more abundant in con- 
fessing or denying Me here; so shall My deed to you- 
ward be more abundant in confessing or denying you there. 
Wherefore if you have done any good thing, and have not 
received retribution, be not troubled, for a manifold re- 
ward awaits you in the time to come. And if you have 
done any evil, and have not paid the punishment thereof, 
do not think that you have escaped, for punishment will 
overtake you, unless you are changed and become better. 
Rapan. It should be known that not even Pagans can deny 
the existence of God, but the infidels may deny that the 
Son as well as the Father is God. The Son confesses men 
before the Father, because by the Son we have access to 
Matt. 25, the Father, and because the Son saith, Come, ye blessed 
of My Father. Remig. And thus lie will deny the man 
that hath denied Tlim, in that he shall not have access to 
the Father through Him, and shall be banished from seeing 
either the Son or the Father in their divine nature. Chrts. 
He not only requires faith which is of the mind, but con- 
fession which is by the mouth, that He may exalt us higher, 
and raise us to a more open utterance, and a larger measure 
of love. For this is spoken not to the Apostles only, but 
to all; He gives strength not to them only, but to their 
disciples. And he that observes this precept will not only 
teach with free utterance, but will easily convince all ; for 
the observance of this command drew many to the Apostles. 
Hapan. Or, He confesses Jesus who by that faith that 
workcth by love, obediently fulfils His commands; he de- 
nies Him who is disobedient. 

34. Think not that I am come to send peace on 
earth : I came not to send peace, but a sword. 

35. For I am come to set a man at variance 
against his father, and the daughter against her 
mot her. and the daughter in law against her mother 
in law. 

VER. 34 — 36. ST. MATTHEW. 395 

36. And a man's foes shall be they of his own 

Jerome. He had before said, What I say to you in dark- 
ness, that speak ye in the light ; He now tells them what 
will follow upon that preaching, saying, Think not that 
I am come to send peace upon earth ; I am not come to 
send peace, but a sword. Gloss. Or connect it with what Gloss, 
has gone before, As the fear of death ought not to draw you inter m " 
away, so neither ought carnal affection. Chrys. How then Chrys. 
did He enjoin them, that when they should enter any house ^"' 
they should say, Feace be to this house, as also the Angels 
sung, Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace to men. Luke 2, 
That is the most perfect peace when that which is diseased is 
lopped off, when that which introduces strife is taken away, 
for so only is it possible that heaven should be joined to 
earth. For so does the physician save the rest of the body, 
namely by cutting off that which cannot be healed. So it 
came to pass at the tower of Babel ; a happy discord broke 
up their bad union. So also Paul divided those who were 
conspired together against him. For concord is not in all 
cases good; for there is honour among thieves. And this 
combat is not of His setting before them, but of the plots 
of the world. Jebomb. For in the matter of belief in 
Christ, the whole world was divided against itself; each 
house had its believers and its unbelievers ; and therefore 
was this holy war sent, that an unholy peace might bo 
broken through. CHRTS. This lie said as it were com- 
forting His disciples, as much as to say, I5e not troubled as 
though these things fell upon you unexpectedly; for, for 
this cause [ came that 1 might send war upon the earth — nay 
lie ^ays not ' war,' but what is yet harder, a sword. For IK; 
sought by sharpness of speech so to rouse their attention, 
that they should not fall off in time of trial and difficulty, 
or say that He had told them smooth things, and had hid 

the difficulties. For it is better to meet with softness in 

ds than in words; and therefore Ho stayed not in words, 

but showing them the nature of their warfare, He taught 
them thai it «a> more perilous than ;i < - i ^ i 1 prarj sayi 
/ am come to set a mini against his /'<i//i<r, <m>i <lnu>/lii<r 


against her mother, and daughter-in-law (/gainst her mother- 
in-law. So this warfare will be between not acquaintances 
merely, but the nearest and dearest kindred ; and this shews 
Christ's very great power; that His disciples after having 
heard this, yet undertook the mission, and brought over 
others. Yet was it not Christ who made this division, but 
the evil nature of the parties; when He says that it is lie 
that does it, He speaks according to the manner of Scripture. 

Is. G, 10. As it is written, God hath given them eyes that they should 
not see. Here is also a great proof that the Old Testament 
is like the New. For among the Jews a man was to put 
his neighbour to death if he found him making a calf, or 
sacrificing to Baalphegor ; so here to shew that it was the 
same God who ordained both that and these precepts, He 
reminds them of the prophecy, A man's foes are they of Ids 
household. For this same thing happened among the Jews; 
there were Prophets, and false Prophets ; there the multitude 
was divided, and houses were set against themselves ; there 
some believed one part, and some another. Jerome. These 

Mic. 7, 6. are almost the words of the Prophet Micah. We should 
always take note when a passage is cited out of the Old 
Testament, whether the sense only, or the very words are 
given. Hilary. Mystically ; A sword is the sharpest of all 
weapons, and thence it is the emblem of the right of au- 
thority, the impartiality of justice, the correction of offenders. 

Eph.6,17. The word of God, we may remember, is likened to a sword ; 

Heb.4,12. s0 j iere tj ic SWO rd that is sent upon the earth is His preach- 
ing poured into the heart of man. The five inhabiting one 
house, whom He divides three against two, and two against 
three, we may explain thus; The three are the three parts 
of man, the body, the soul, and the will ; for as the soul is 
bestowed in the body, so the will has power of using both 
in any way it chooses; and thence when a law is given it 
is given to the will. But this is only found in those who 
were first formed by God. By the sin and unbelief of the 
first parent, all the generations of men since have had sin for 
the father of their body, and unbelief for the mother of their 
soul. And as each man has his will within him, there are 
thus five in one house. When then we are renewed in the 
Layer of baptism, by virtue 1 of the word we arc set apart from 

VER. 37 — 39. ST. MATTHEW. 397 

our original guilt, and severed, as it were, by the sword of 
God, from the lusts of this our father and mother, and thus 
there is great discord made in one house ; the new man 
finding his foes within, he seeks with joy to live in newness 
of spirit ; they which are derived from the old stock, lust to 
remain in their old pleasures. Aug. Otherwise ; / am come Aug. 
to set a man against his father ; for he renounces the Devil in ll ^ t ' t 
who was his son; the daughter against her mother, that is, q- 3 « 
the people of God against the city* of the world, that is, the 
wicked society of mankind, which is spoken of in Scripture 
under the names of Babylon, Egypt, Sodom, and other names. 
The daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, that is, the 
Church against the Synagogue, which according to the flesh, 
brought forth Christ the spouse of the Church. They are 
severed by the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 
And a mail's foes are they of his household, those, that is, with 
whom he before lived as intimates. Raban. For no other 
mutual rights can be preserved between those who are at 
war in their creeds. Gloss. Otherwise; He means, I am Gloss, 
not come among men to strengthen their carnal affections, 
but to cut them off with the sword of the Spirit ; whence it 
is rightly added, And a man's foes are they of his household. 
Gki:g. For the subtle enemy when he sees himself driven Gre^.Mor. 

ill S 

out of the hearts of the good, seeks out those who most * * 
love them, and speaking by the mouth of those who are 
dearest, endeavours while the heart is penetrated by love, 
that the sword of conviction may pierce to the inmost 
bulwarks of virtue. 

37. He that loveth father or mother more than 
Me is not worthy of Me : and lie that loveth son or 
daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. 

38. And he that taketh not his eross, and followcth 
p He, is not worthy of Me. 

39. He that findeth his life shall lose 1 it: and he 
that loseth his life for My sake shall find it. 

Jerome. Because of what He bad said, / am not come to 
1 peace but a w>ptd % tyc, that none might suppose that 


family affection was banished from His religion, He now 
adds, lie that loves father or mother more than Me is not 

c 2, 4. worthy of Me. So in the Song of Songs we read, Order 
love in me. For this order is needed in every affection ; 
after God love thy father, thy mother, and thy children ; 
but if a necessity should occur that the love of parents and 
children comes into competition with the love of God, and 
where both cannot be preserved, remember that hatred 
of our kindred becomes 'then love to God. He forbids 
not to love parent or child, but adds emphatically, more 
than Me. Hilary. For they who have esteemed domestic 
affection of relations higher than God, are unworthy to in- 
herit good things to come. Ciirys. Yet when Paul bids us 
obey our parents in all things, we are not to marvel ; for we 
are only to obey in such things as are not hurtful to our piety 
to God. It is holy to render them every other honour, but 
when they demand more than is due, wc ought not to yield. 
This is likewise agreeable to the Old Testament ; in it the 
Lord commands that all who worshipped idols, should not 
only be held in abhorrence, but should be stoned. And 

Deut.33,9. in Deuteronomy it is said, He who saith to his father and 
his mother, I know you not; and to his brethren, Ye are 

Gloss. strangers; he hath kept Thy saying. Gloss. It seems to 
happen in many cases that the parents love the children 
more than the children love the parents ; therefore having 
taught that His love is to be preferred to the love of parents, 
as in an ascending scale, He next teaches that it is to be 
preferred to the love of children, saying, And ivhoso loveth 
son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. Raban. 
lie is unworthy of the divine communion who prefers the 
carnal affection of kindred to the spiritual love of God. 
Chrys. Then that those to whom the love of God is pre- 
ferred should not be offended thereat, He leads them to 
a higher doctrine. Nothing is nearer to a man than his 
soul, and yet lie enjoins that this should not only be hated, 
but that a man should be ready to deliver it up to death, 
and blood; not to death only, but to a violent and most 
disgraceful death, namely, the death of the cross ; therefore 
it follows, And ivhoso taketh not up his cross and follow 'cl 'h 
Me, is not worthy of Me. He had as yet said nothing to 

«on occ. 

VER. 37 — 39. ST. MATTHEW. 399 

them respecting His own sufferings, but instructs them in the 
meanwhile in these things, that thev mav the more readily 
receive His words concerning His passion. Hilary. Or; 
They that are Christ's have crucified the body with its vices Gal. 5, 24. 
and lusts. And he is unworthy of Christ who does not take 
up His Cross, in which we suffer with Him, die with Him, 
are buried and. rise again with Him, and follow his Lord, 
purposing to live in newness of spirit in this sacrament of 
the faith. Greg. The cross is so called from l torment ; Greg. 
and there are two ways in which we bear the Lord's E " m * m 
cross ; either when we afflict the flesh by abstinence ; or xxxii. 3. 
when in compassion for our neighbour we make his afflic- crucla " 
tions our own. But it should be known that there are 
some who make a show of abstinence not for God, but for 
ostentation ; and some there are who shew compassion to 
their neighbour, not spiritually but carnally, not that they 
may encourage him in virtue, but rather countenancing him 
in faults. These indeed seem to bear their cross, but do not 
follow the Lord ; therefore He adds, And folloiveth Me. 
Ciirys. Because these commands seemed burdensome, He 
proceeds to shew their great use and benefit, saying, lie 
that findeth his life shall lose it. As much as to say, Not 
only do these things that I have inculcated do no harm, but 
they are of great advantage to a man ; and the contrary 
thereof shall do him great hurt — and this is His manner 
every where. He uses those things which men's affections 
are set upon as a means of bringing them to their duty. 
Thus: Why are you loath to contemn your life? Because 
you love it ? For that very reason contemn it, and you will 
do it the highest service. Bbmig. The life in this place is 
not to be understood ai the substance, (the soul,) but as this 
cut state of being; and the sense is, Ho who findeth 
his life, i. e. this present life, he who so loves this light, 
and pleasures, BJ to desire that he may always find 
them; he -hall lose that which he wishes always to keep, and 

prepare his soul for eternal damnation. Raban. Otherwise; 

lie who seekl an immortal life, docs not hesitate to lose his 

that is, to offer it to death. Hut either sense suits equally 

well with that which follow-, And whoso shall lose his life 

for My Sake $hall find it. RjZMIG. That is, lie who in eon- 


fession of My name in time of persecution despises tliis 
temporal world, its joys, and pleasures, shall find eternal 
salvation for his soul. Hilary. Thus the gain of life 
brings death, the loss of life brings salvation ; for by the 
sacrifice of this short life we gain the reward of immortality. 

40. He that receiveth you receiveth Me, and he 
that receiveth Me receiveth Him that sent Me. 

41. He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a 
prophet shall receive a prophet's reward ; and he that 
receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous 
man shall receive a righteous man's reward. 

42. And whosoever shall give to drink unto one 
of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the 
name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in 
no wise lose his reward. 

Jerome. The Lord when He sends forth His disciples to 
preach, teaches them that dangers are not to be feared, that 
natural affection is to be postponed to religion — gold He had 
above taken from them, brass He had shaken out of their 
purses — hard then surely the condition of the preachers ! 
Whence their living ? Whence their food and necessaries ? 
Therefore He tempers the rigour of His precepts by the 
following promises, that in entertaining the Apostles each 
believer may consider that he entertains the Lord. Cm: vs. 
Enough had been said above to persuade those who should 
have to entertain the Apostles. For who would not with 
all willingness take in to his house men who were so 
courageous, that they despised all dangers that others might 
be saved ? Above He had threatened punishment to tho>e 
who should not receive them, He now promises reward to 
such as should receive them. And first lie holds out to 
those who should entertain them the honour, that in so doing 
they were entertaining Christ, and even the Father ; He who 
receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me, What honour to 
be compared to this of receiving the Father and the Son? 
HILARY. These words shew that He has a Mediator's office, 
and since He came from God, when He is received by us, 

VER. 40 — 42. ST. MATTHEW. 401 

through Him God is transfused into us ; and by this dispo- 
sition of grace to have received the Apostles is no other 
than to have received God ; for Christ dwells in them, and 
God in Christ. Chrys. A further reward also He pro- 
mises, saying, He who receiveth a prophet in the name of 
a prophet, shall receive a prophefs reward. He said not 
merely, Whoso receiveth a prophet, or a righteous man, 
but in the name of a prophet, and in the name of a 
righteous man; that is, not for any greatness in this life, 
or other temporal account, but because he is a prophet, 
or a righteous man. Jerome. Otherwise ; To this His 
exhortation to the disciple to entertain his teacher, there 
might a secret objection arise among the faithful ; then 
shall we have to support the false prophets, or Judas the 
traitor. To this end it is that the Lord instructs them 
in these words, that it is not the person but the office that 
they should look to ; and that the entertainer loses not his 
reward, though he whom he entertains be unworthy. Chrys. 
A prophefs reward, and a righteous man's reward, are such 
rewards as it is fitting he should have who entertains a 
prophet, or a righteous man : or, such a reward as a prophet 
or righteous man should have. Greg. He says not, a reward Greg. 
from a prophet, or righteous man, but the reward of a prophet Ey"i x in 
or righteous man. For the prophet is perhaps a righteous man, 12. 
and the less he possesses in this world, the greater confidence 
has he in speaking in behalf of righteousness. He who hath 
of this world's goods, in supporting such a man, makes him- 
self a free partaker in his righteousness, and shall receive the 
reward of righteousness together with him whom he has 
aided by supporting him. He is full of the spirit of pro- 
phecy, but he lacks bodily sustenance, and if the body be 
Dot supported, it is certain that the voice will fail. Whoso 
then gives a prophet food, gives hnn strength for speaking, 
therefore together with the prophet he shall receive the pro- 
phet's reward, when he ihewi before the face of God what 
bounty he shewed him. JeROHE. Mystically; lie who re- 
ceives a prophel ai a prophet, and understands him speaking 
<»i things to come, he -hall receive reward <»f thai prophet, 
The Jen i I who understand the prop! i oallj . 

do d i opbi I 'id. R i m i'.. Borne und< r 

\<-i 2d 


stand by the prophet here, the Lord Jesus Christ, of whom 
Deut. 18, Moses says, A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up 
unto you ; and the same also by the righteous man, because 
he is beyond comparison righteous. He then who shall 
receive a prophet or righteous man in the name of the 
prophet or righteous man, i. e. of Christ, shall receive 
reward from Him for love of whom he received Him. 
Jerome. That none should say, I am poor and therefore 
cannot be hospitable, He takes away even this plea by the 
instance of a cup of cold water, given with good will, lie 
says cold water, because in hot, poverty and lack of fuel 
might be pleaded. And whosoever shall give to drink to 
one of the least of these a cup of cold water only in the 
name of a disciple, verily T say unto you, he shall not Lose 
his reward. Remig. The least of these, that is, not a prophet, 
Gloss. or a righteous man, but one of these least. Gloss. Note, that 
non occ. q Q( j i 00 j is m0 re to the pious mind of the giver, than to the 
Gloss, ord. abundance of the thing given. Gloss. Or, tlw least are they 
who have nothing at all in this world, and shall be judges 
with Christ. Hilary. Or; Seeing beforehand that there 
would be many who would only glory in the name of 
Apostleship, but in their whole life and walk would be 
unworthy of it, He does not therefore deprive of its reward 
that service which might be rendered to them in belief 
of their religious life. For though they were the very least, 
that is, the greatest of sinners, yet even small offices of 
mercy shewn them, such as are denoted by the cup of cold 
water, should not be shewn in vain. For the honour i> not 
done to a man that is a sinner, but to his title of disciple. 

BS 2555 .A2 T513 1864 V. L 

pt.l IMS 
Thomas Aquinas, Saint 
Catena aurea 


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