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Vol. II-Part II. 


0. B. WILSON, m.a„ 





[ p ™— Indian, fa. if ; English, M*.] £ 5 L 


published at the Bengal * Boos D*f6t , 
Writer*' Buildings, Caloutta. 



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At the time of Mr. Wilson's unexpected death in 
1904, the present volume was in an advanced state of 
preparation. Even the introduction had been printed, 
with the exception of the last two chapters; and 
fortunately the manuscript of the unprinted portion 
was found among the author's papers. As a student of 
the same period of Indian History, and one who took 
a sympathetic interest in Mr. Wilson's work, I share the 
opinion of the surviving members of his family that so 
much valuable material, the fruit of great labour and 
strenuous research, ought to be made available for those 
interested in the subject. Difficulties arose which have 
caused regrettable delay ; these having now been over- 
come, I have been asked to contribute a few words by 
way of preface. 

Charles Robert Wilson, M. A., D. Litt., born in London 
in 1863, was educated at the City of London School 
whence, on gaining the Carpenter Scholarship, he pro- 
ceeded to Oxford. There he won an open scholarship at 
Wadham College. In 1886 he graduated with first class 
honours in the Final Schools. Soon after taking his 
degree, he entered the Indian Educational Service. He 
l>egan his work in 1887 as Professor at Dacca College, 
and in 1895 was transferred to a similar position in 
the Presidency College at Calcutta. For some years he 
was Principal of the Government College, Bankipur 
(Patna), and then acted as an Inspector of Schools. In 
all these positions he acquired the confidence of his 
u peri or s and the respect of the students. At the time 
oi his death he was the Officer in charge of the 


Records of the Government of India. For many years 
he enjoyed excellent health, and seemed destined to 
carry to completion a career so successfully commenced. 
At last the Anglo-Indian's most insidious enemy, malaria, 
fastened upon him, and in spite of visits to Darjeeling 
and Ceylon, he was unable to shake it off. As a last 
resource he was sent home: but it was too late. He 
died in London on July 24th, 1904, at the early age of 
forty- one. 

Allowing for his comparatively short life, most of it 
passed under the constant pressure of arduous official 
duties, Mr. Wilson's literary output was considerable ; 
nor was it of a light or perfunctory nature, the mere 
amusement of a cultured mind's idle hours. It involved 
laborious hunting among dusty manuscripts and singular 
perseverance in following up and unravelling the most 
unpromising clues. Wilson during his annual trips to 
Europe must have visited nearly every part of England 
in pursuit of exact biographical details about the earlier 
Anglo-Indian worthies, whose names appear in the records 
he was studying. No trouble seemed to him too great 
to secure this object. The result is before us, and he 
is assured of a permanent place in the small band of 
similar seekers, alongside of Ta.lboys Wheeler, A. T. 
Pringle, J. M. Campbell, E. T. Atkinson and G. W. 

For he evidently held, as many others do, that for 
the time being the available sources for the purely 
literary treatment of history have been exhausted. 
To secure any profitable extension of our knowledge, at 
any rate in the Indian field, we must devote 
ourselves to the consultation of original records. 
Like C. R. Wilson, we must strive at sifting, arrang- 
ing and publishing the documents. It is the only way 
in which we can get a little nearer to the past and 


thus in the limited degree which is possible, learn 
the truth about it. In short, history must be first dealt 
with as a science, a record of facts, before any attempt 
con be made to turn it into literature or a branch of 
Belles Zettres, The merits of Wilson's work in this 
direction have been recognized by his University, which 
granted him his Doctorate in Literature, as he told me 
himself, after an examination founded on his own "Early 
Annals of the English in Bengal." 

So far as known to me he is the author of the 
following :— 

(1) Articles on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta 
printed in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 

(2) List of the Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in 
Bengal, foolscap folio, Calcutta, 1896. 

(3) "The Early Annals of the English in Bengal," 
Vol. I, 1895, Vol. II, Part I, 1900. 

(4) " Old Fort William in Bengal " in the " Indian Kecords" 
series, 1905, 2 volumes 8° (Murray.) 

He also wrote an article on Bibi Juliana in the 
Indian Church Quarterly Review for October 1900, and 
contributed several articles to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in Calcutta. 

In the Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society fcr 
January 1897, I inserted a review of the first volume 
of his " Early Annals of the English in Bengal." 
This appreciation of his book led to Mr. Wilson 
seeking me out on his next visit to England. From 
that time I received an annual visit from him and we 
maintained a constant correspondence on the subjects 
he was interested in. In this way I came to see the 
continuation of the "Early Annals'* iu proof and was 
able to contribute information from native historians 


and other sources which was not accessible to the 
author, being outside the limits of his special studies. 
The topographical notes to the " Surman Diary " are 
mostly by Mr. Wilson, while the rest were directly or 
indirectly furnished to him by me. 

The volume now published, forming volume 2, Part 
II, of the " Early Annals of the English in Bengal '' 
is devoted to the story of the Mission sent by the 
Company's officials in Calcutta to Furrukhsiyar, the 
Great Mogul. It is compiled from the Consultations of 
the Government at Calcutta, the Diary kept and Consul- 
tations recorded by the Envoys, and copies of their 
letters to the three presidencies. These different series 
of documents are taken in chronological order and com- 
bined into one continuous narrative. In this way it 
becomes possible for the first time to follow the develop- 
ment of events beginning with the instruction, of July 
1715, down to the conclusion of the Mission and its 
arrival in Calcutta in December 1717. Some of the 
letters and proceedings have been printed by J. Talboys 
Wheeler in his " Early Records of British India " 
(Calcutta, 187 8 J ; but that fragmentary narrative will 
be entirely superseded by Mr. Wilson's compilation. 
The main points of the story, with their appropriate 
historical background, are admirably set forth in Mr. 
Wilson's full and lucid introduction, to which nothing 
need be added here. 

The " Diary " is interesting for more than one 
reason. It is an almost photographic picture of an 
Oriental court, seething as usual with intrigue and a 
mere battle ground of personal ambitions. We also 
obtain an insight into its perverse ingenuity in prevari- 
cation and procrastination. The record also makes us 
acquainted with a sturdy Englishman, John Surman, 
who though young in years and untried in great affairs 


rose nobly to his responsibilities. We see, too, how 
difficult it is for the European and the Eastern man 
to work together on a footing of equality. Sarhad, the 
shifty Armenian, if left to himself, might have succeeded 
by his own devious ways ; on the other hand, Surman 
would certainly have done better if unhampered by 
Sarhad as a colleague. Placing the two men together 
on such a footing was a fatal mistake, and but for 
Surman's dogged persistence, this would have entirely 
wrecked the enterprise. The much-abused Wazir, Qutq- 
ul-Mulk, Sayyid * Abdullah Khan, is also shown in an 
unexpectedly favourable light ; for instead of resenting 
the Envoys' long neglect of him, he acted, when at 
length applied to, with unusual vigour, showed no sign 
of offended dignity, and above all demanded nothing 
for himself. 

On every ground I heartily commend this book to 
the notice of all serious students of Indian history. 

October 1907. W. Irvine. 




The embassy conducted by John Surman to the court of the 
emperor FarrukhsJyar was the most important step taken by the 
English in Bengal from the foundation of Calcutta by Charnock to the 
conquest of Bengal by Clive. To appreciate it rightly, we must review 
briefly the whole course of the relations between the Mughal court and 
the English. 

When the English first came to India, the Mughal empire was at 
its best. Here was a powerful centralised monarchy, very different 
from the petty barbarous kings of the Spice Islands over whom the 
Dutch were accustomed to domineer. It seemed clear that the correct 
attitude to assume towards such a power must be that of peaceful 
merchants, who aimed at nothing more than to pursue their trade in 
quietness and safety under the protection of the great Mughal. 
In pursuance of this policy in January, 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was 
commissioned by James I ' to be ambassador to the great Mughal ' at 
the expense of the company. 1 In September, 1615, he arrived at 
Surat, where he found the English already established in a command- 
ing position. The power of the Portuguese in these parts had been 
overthrown by the victories of Best in 1613 and of Downton at the 
beginning of 1615 ; and the trade was about to pass into the hands of 
the English, who had already been granted permission to settle at Surat 
by the Mughal governor in recognition of their superiority.* The 
object of Sir Thomas Eoe's embassy was to make good the footing thus 
obtained and to secure the Indian trade to the English company by 
treaty with the Mughal. With these views, the ambassador betook 

i Hunter's History of British India, II, 60 ; and my Early Annalt of the Englith in 
Bengal I, 152, 163. The whole story of Sir Thomas Roe's negotiation! will be found in Tht 
Embat$y of Thomas Rot by William Foster, 1899, Hakluyt Society, 2 vols. 

» Hunter's Hut cry of British India, H, 49, 50. 

himself to the imperial court at Ajmer, and openednegotiations. He 
proposed that the English should be allowed to establish factories at all 
ports of the Mughal empire, and particularly in Gujarat, Bengal and 
Sindh; and to trade inland, free of transit tolls, on payment of an import 
duty of 3 1 per cent, on goods and 2 per cent, on treasure. 1 But the 
court of JahangJr held very different views. They knew nothing about 
treaties and ambassadors. The Mughal was absolute. It was his to grant 
trade privilege:: ; it was his to annul them. The importance of Surat 
for the Mughal government arose from the fact that it was the port o 
departure for pilgrims to Mecca. The Portuguese were infidel idolaters 
whose piratical ways hsd greatly increased, the dangers of the pilgrimage 
to the holy places. The English were infidels of another eort It 
appeared that they were at once able to keep the Portuguese in check 
and willing to trade peaceably with the empire. Their agent, a we 1- 
educated well-mannered man, was soliciting for favours from the 
imperial throne. In these circumstances the court was naturally 
disposed to be indulgent. Sir Thomas Hoe obtained, not a treaty or 
comprehensive grant of privileges such as he proposed, but a limited 
permission for the English to reside at Surat and trade in the country. 2 
In other words, Roe completely failed in his negotiation. The few 
concessions obtained through him were insignificant in comparison with 
the time and money spent in obtaining them. The Old Company had 
learnt a lesson. Never again did it require the services of a royal 
ambassador. It was satisfied for the future to carry on its negotiations 
with Indian rulers for the extension of its trade through commercial 

As time passed and the English extended their settlements along 
both the coasts cf India, they learned a seoond lesson. Towards the 
end cf the seventeenth century the Mughal empire began to disinte- 
grate. Local rulers in outlying parts of the empire found that the 
control of the central power was growing slacker and that they could 
do very much as they pleased. The more enterprising naturally began 
to plunder their neighbours, and the English found their trade impeded 
at overy turn by vexatious exactions. Bitter experience showed them 
that no engagements and no orders were of avail against local lawless- 
ness. They were therefore driven to the conclusion that they must 
protect themselves. They must break with the Mughal government 

1 Tluntcr'e History' of Brit %h India. II, 52. 

2 n., 12. 


and must seize and fortify suitable posts to be trade centres in the 
different parts of India. The company, therefore, renounced its former 
policy of peaceful trade, and adopted instead the policy advocated 
by Hedges and Charnock, and above all by the brothers Childjthe polioy 
of fortified settlements. 1 

The change, as we have seen, was announced in the year 1686. At 
first the new policy seemed to meet with little success The English 
were forced to leave Bengal ; their factories were seized at Surat, 
Masulipatam and Vizagapatam; and Bombay was attacked. But in the 
end the policy took effect. The wealth brought into the imperial treasury 
by the English trade was too valuable to lose, and the imperial govern- 
ment, always anxious for the safety of the pilgrim seaway to Mecca, 
was naturally eager to conciliate a naval power like the English and to 
secure their help in keeping the sea clear of pirates. When, therefore, 
Sir John Child solicited peace in December, 1689, the emperor was quite 
ready to grant it, though on apparently hard terms. 2 The English, 
having made submission and promised to pay a large fine, were osten- 
sibly permitted to resume their former status of peaceful traders and no 
more. In reality, the English returned, not to resume their former 
status of peaceful traders, but to establish themselves[in fortified settle- 
ments. It was the Mughal, not Sir John Child, who had actually 

The Old Company had barely begun to enjoy the fruits of its late 
struggle when it was, as we have seen, confronted with a rival, the 
new English Company, and the recently adopted trade policy of 
establishing fortified settlements, or cautionary towns, was opposed by an 
alternative plan for establishing diplomatic relations with the Indian 
government by means of consuls and by the maintenance of an embassy 
at the imperial court. With these proposals the Old Company had no 
sympathy. They had tried a royal embassy once and it had proved a 
mostly failure. They held with John Beard that a strong fortification 
was better than an ambassador. 3 But the idea had become a main 
pillar in the trade policy of the New Company. 4 Accordingly, the three 
Presidents sent out by the New Company to Bengal, Madras and 
Bombay, Sir Edward Littleton, John Pitt and Sir Nicholas Waite, were 
invested with consular powers, and William Norris M.P- for Liverpool 

1 My English in Bmgal, I, 88—90, also Hunter'a History of British India, II, 240—245, 

■ lb., 122, 123, also Hunter's History of British India, II, 265 

1 My English in Bengal, I, 168; 

1 Hunter's History of Briiiih India, IF, 340. 


was created a baronet and sent as the King's ambassador extraordinary 
to the Mughal on a salary of £2,000 a year to be paid by the New 
Company. 1 

Nothing could be more injudicious than the selection of these new 
representatives of England, nothing could be more disastrous than the 
results of their interference in India. 2 The three consuls were dismissed 
servants of the Old Company, faithless, incompetent and violent. The 
ambassador, though honest and able, was inexperienced, profuse and 
hasty. 3 Y/herever the three consuls went they did nothing but stir up 
enmity, strife and confusion. 4 They made the most reckless and 
damaging accusations. Sir Nicholas Waite, even, had the folly to write 
to the emperor accusing the Old Company's servants, his fellow country- 
men, of being thieves and confederates with pirates. 5 Thus the worst 
suspicions were aroused and the English fell everywhere into discredit. 
The wild accusations of Sir Nicholas Waite were the immediate cause 
of the ruin of the Old Company's establishments in Western India 
and of the failure of the embassy of Sir William Norris. 

That conscientious but misguided man, as we have seen, listening 
to the foolish counsels of John Pitt, had at first chosen Masulipatam as 
his starting point, and landed there on September 25, 1699, on the 
same day of the same month that Sir Thomas Eoe had landed in Surat, 
eighty four years before. 6 It was only after wasting large sums of 
money and months of valuable time that the ambassador found out 
his mistake. It was not till the end of 1700 that he reached Surat; 
it was not till January 26, 1701, that he set out for the Mughal's camp. 
At Burhanpur he insulted the grand vizier of the empire, Asad Khan, 
by refusing to pay him a visit ; at Panalla, which he reached in April, 
he was received by the wornout emperor with politeness but without 
enthusiasm." His fine clothes and show of pomp, his titles of baronet 
and king's ambassador extraordinary made no impression upon the 
imperial court. For them he was merely an infidel, the vakil, or attor- 
ney, of a body of infidel merchants suing for trade privileges. The 
one point of interest to be determined was whether the infidel English 

1 Hunter's History of British India, II, 349-50. 

s lb., 337 8. 

s lb., 3;>9. 

■ lb , v,38-49. 

• to , 342. 

« lb., 351. 

? 11 ■, 852-3 ; fclso roy English in BengtJ, I, 153. 

were, like the infidel Portuguese, no better than pirates, or whether they 
could be utilized to police the sea and keep open the pilgrim way to 
Mecoa. In an early letter to the emperor, before the arrival of the 
embassy, Sir Nicholas Waite had offered that the security of the Indian 
seas, which had hitherto been guaranteed jointly by the English, French 
and Dutch should be entrusted to the English alone who would under- 
take to suppress all piracy. Aurangzeb remembered this rash offer and 
when the embassy arrived, made the carrying of it into effect an 
indispensable condition to the granting of any rescripts or far mans for 
trade. 1 Thus the whole negotiation was rendered abortive from the 
first, for it was absolutely impossible for the English company to give 
any such guarantee, and the burden of such an undertaking would 
have been absolutely ruinous. In vain did Norris negotiate and offer 
bribes. The imperial court knew its own mind. There were other 
European nations anxious to trade with India besides the English. 
There was another English company with which the emperor had 
long had relations. With so many competitors for imperial favour 
the bidding ought to be good. The new English company was much 
mistaken if it thought it would get its privileges for nothing. If the 
royal ambassador would not accept the condition of the seas, well, he 
knew the same way back to England that he came. 

Out of patience and out of funds, Sir "William Norris abruptly left 
the court in November, 1701. The results of his negotiations were disas- 
trous. Already the English at Surat, together with Sir John Gayer, the 
president at Bombay, and his wife, had been arrested and imprisoned, 
and their goods confiscated. Now, ten days after the ambassador's 
abrupt departure, an imperial proclamation was issued ordering the goods 
and persons of the English to be everywhere seized, a blow which fell 
mainly on the New Company on the east side of India, where it had no 
fortified settlements such as Fort William or Fort St. George.* Tho 
ambassador himself was detained by the vizier at Burhanpur for 
nearly three months. In the middle of 1703 he set sail for England, 
baffled and discredited, with health broken. He died at St. Helena of 
dysentery. 3 

Such being the disastrous results of the second royal embassy to 
tho Mughal, there could no longer be any doubt that the Old Company 

J Hunter's Hittory of India, II, 355-7. 

* H>. t 361-2, also coy English in Bengal, I, 160 1, 

a Huut«r'i Hittory of India, II, 358-61 ; alio my Englith in Bengal, 1, 154, 


had been right in their views as to the proper way of protecting their 
trade, and the United East India Company accepted the policy of forti- 
fied settlements as the approved and established policy to be followed 
by the English in India. But fortified settlements cost money to keep 
up and must be supported hy revenues. Consequently, the English had 
no sooner got their fortified settlements in Madras, Bengal, and Bombay 
than they began to consider whether they could not add to them a 
certain amount of the adjacent territory from which they might draw 
sufficient revenues for the upkeep of their fortresses. To do this they 
must needs approach the Mughal, for the land of India was his alone, 
and it was his to make grants of territory great or small. 

The idea of sending an embassy to the Mughal court to secure 
such territorial concessions to the company first occurred to Governor 
Pitt. 1 In the year 1708, the emperor Shah 'Alam in the course of his 
quarrel with his brother Karn Bakhsh was drawn into Southern India 
and was thus brought comparatively near to Madras. It happened too 
that Governor Pitt was on very friendly terms with Ziau-d-din Khan, 
the dlwdn of the country of Chlnapatam, a nobleman of consideration 
and influence at court, whose uncle had been vizier and his father- 
in-law governor of Kashmir, and who himself had been promoted 
by 'Alamglr and appointed deputy steward of the imperial household. 2 
The moment, therefore, seemed opportune for sending an embassy. In 
1708, letters on the subject passed between Pitt and Ziau-d-din in which 
the wishes of the English were explained and their claims urged. 
During the first half of the year 1709 a sumptuous preseut was got 
ready, part of whioh was actually sent by sea to Masulipatam, intended 
for the king at Golconda. But after the defeat of Kam Bakhsh 
the king withdrew from the south, and in September Pitt was deprived 
of his office. Consequently the whole scheme dropped for the time,' 
and the present which Governor Pitt had got together was transferred 
to Calcutta 4 

i See English in Bengal, I, 183-4. 

* See note at page 261 of the Diary which follows. 

* See English in Bengal, 1, 184 ; also pages 261—266 in tbe Diary which follows, 
« i-ee English in Bengal,II, I, xxiii. 



In 1710, Ziau-d-dm Khan was sent to Bengal as governor of Hugli 
and admiral in the Bay, and negotiations for set. ding an embassy to 
the emperor were revived. At the request of the English Companv 
Ziau-d-din Khan wrote to Prince 'Azmxu-sh-shan, the nominal governor 
at Bengal, then with the emperor, asking him to procure froo> his father 
a farman for the British trade and intimating that the English had got 
ready a present which they desired to forward to the imperial court. 
In May, 1711, the English presid nt, John Russell, and three members 
of his council were summoned to Hugli to hear the prince's answer. 
The prince was an old friend of the E' glish and appeared ready enough 
to procure the farman, hut he wanted details. How was the farman to 
be worded, and what was the value of the gifts they offered in return ? 
To serve their present need the prince was sending his nishdn, or grant, 
to trade according to their formei liberties, and Ziau-d-dJn Khan wished 
to know how much they would give him for getting it. The English 
astutely replied that they wou'd be better able to judge of the worth 
of the nishdn when they had perused it. Neither were they prepared 
to reply definitely as to the provisions of the farman till they heard 
from Surat and Fort St. George. 1 Meanwhile, in August, they wrote 
again to the prince reminding him of their expectati( ns of obtaining 
a farman through his favour and promising to seud to the court their 
'small and inconsiderable present.' But until they could be made so 
happy as to lay it at his "feet, they asked for an injunction on the 
dhcan to abstain from molesting their trade. 2 In October, however 
Ziau-d-din Khan having been removed from the government of Hugli, 
they thought it best to come to teims with the dlwdn (Murshid Qull 
Khan). 8 Towards the end of the year instructions were received from 
Madras explaining the requirements cf that presidency. 4 

* English in Bengal, II, I, 14. 

" If., 22-3. 

» /&.. 28. 

4 Sse the appendix to the Diary, pp. 255-259. 


At the beginning fff the year 1712, the present, which liad been 
carefully revised, was lying, packed in boats, ready to go up the river, 
and the council was considering whom to send with it as ambassadors, 
when the news came that the emperor had died at Lahor. 1 The usual 
dynastic disputes followed. -For a time the eldest son Jahandar held 
the imperial power, and in July the English ventured to send him a 
letter explaining their intention of sending a present to Delhi and 
obtainiqg an imperial farman. But, by the end of the year Jahandar's 
course was run, and with the aid of the Sayyad brothers 'Abda-llah and 
Husain 'All, his nephew Farrukhsiyar had seated himself on the 
peacock throne. Again the time seemed opportune for approaching the 
Mughal. Jalandar had favoured the Dutch, whose embassy under 
Kettler, originally pent to Shah 'Alam, had, during his successor's 
short reign, obtained important concessions. 3 But Farrukhslyar, liko 
his father 'Azimu-sh-shan, was the traditional friend of the English 
in Bengal, who had sent him toys and presents as a boy, who -had 
secured from his father the grant of the three villages of SutanutI, 
Calcutta and Govindpur, and who now hoped to secure from the son 
still larger concessions of territory and trade privileges. Accordingly, 
in March, 1713, the president and council at Calcutta wrote to the 
emperor, explaining that the present and the embassy were now ready 
to set out, and asking that orders should be sent to the local governors 
to convoy them through the Extent of their governments. They also 
referred to the obstructive action of the diicdn, Murshid Q-uli Khan, 
and asked for an imperial order ad interim to permit their business 
to go on as formerly. 3 

The English, however, did not at this time rely wholly on the 
reasonableness of their representations and the intercession of Ziau-d- 
din Khan. They attempted to improve upon Governor Pitt's -diplo- 
matic methods. The Dutch, so it was said, had obtained their recent 
concessions from Jahandar mainly through the instrumentality of cer- 
tain Armenians at Delhi, and the English were resolved to do the same. 
They therefore allowed the great Armenian merchant at Calcutta, 
Khwajah Sarhad, to enter into private negotiations with the court 
through padre Daniel and various others of his fellow countrymen 
in Delhi. In so doing the English were ill-advised. Padre Daniel and 

» English in Bengal, II, I, xxiii and 41-43. 

« See Valentijn't Oudt en, Nituio Ost-Inditn, Dordrecht, 1726, TV, 282-307. Also the appen- 
dix to the Diary. 

* English is Bengal, II, I, 111-2, 


iiia friends knew muoh better how to extraot money from their credu- 
lous employers than how to win concessions from the Mughal govern- 
ment. They had no reputation and no influence. Their only skill 
was simple lying. Yet at first they seemed to succeed. Through 
their agency, letters were sent to the prinoipal court officials, informing 
them that the English merchants had a present for his Majesty ready 
in Bengal, but were hesitating about sending it, as they were under 
serious apprehensions that they might fail in their suit to the imperial 
throne and their business might miscarry. They wished to have some 
•security before they parted with their present, and requested an order 
for freedom of trade in Bengal. It was further represented that the 
Armenian merchant Khwajah Sarhad had the entire management of 
the present and could practically dispose of it as he pleased. He 
engaged to forward the present immediately and come with it himself 
if the order for freedom of trade were only granted. 1 These represent- 
ations were orowned with an immediate and probably unexpected 
success. The mention of presents consisting of cloth, silks and 
•brocades, fire-arms, spirits and perfumes, glassware, olockwork and other 
toys, appears to have aroused the curiosity of the imperial court, for 
in such matters Farrukhsiyar was little better than a child, and it 
appears to have been thought quite worth while to gratify the English 
-at Calcutta with an order for freedom of trade, if only this wonderful 
•present could be brought to Delhi. 

Accordingly, in Ootober, 1713, orders were received in Calcutta 
under the seal of Taqarrub Khan, the lord steward, directed to the 
governors of Bengal, Patna, Allahabad and Akbarabad ordering them 
to guard the present through their several governments till its arrival 
with the English embassy at oourt. 2 In January, 1714, a further 
order arrived from Delhi, forbidding Murshid Qui! Khan to interfere 
with the English trade which was to pass with the same custom and 
privilege as in former days. 3 On the receipt of this last order, the 
•council thought it politic to make great publio rejoicings in Caloutta 
and they now at length turned their serious attention to the sending 
of the long deferred embassy with their present to the Mughal. 

On January 5, 1714, the council entered upon an anxious debate as 
to which of the Company's servants should be selected for sending to 
Delhi. A minority maintained that it would be disrespectful to the 

i Diary, 149. 

» Engliih in Bengal, II, I, 143. 

> 71. 163 

great Mughal if the head of the embassy were not a civil servant of 
high standing and a member of the council ; but the majority, probably 
quite rightly, maintained that these distinctions of rank were nothing 
to the Mughal, who would regard even a peer of the greatest monarchy 
in Europe as infinitely beneath him, and, consequently, that it would 
suffice to leave the conduct of the embassy to a junior civil servant 
provided he was able and well qualified. 1 A second point of difficulty 
arose from the faot that none of the Company's servants appear to 
have had a sufficient mastery of the Persian language to conduct the 
negotiation unaided. Had the embassy been despatched from Madras, 
it had been intended to supply this defect by employing the great 
Italian traveller Manucci 2 But Manucci was now too old 3 , and 
it was hopeless to think of finding in Calcutta any European 
of similar abilities and qualifications. The only suitable person for 
the business was the Armenian merchant Khwajah Israel Sarhad, 
the nephew of the celebrated ]£hwajah Fanus Kalantar. Khwajah 
Sarhad had been for many years well acquainted with the English 
and their affairs. 4 lie had been to England at one time with his 
uncle, and must have known something of the English language, though 
he was not able to read or write it. 5 He had been resident in Calcutta 
probably from its foundation. In 1697-8 he had taken a prominent 
part in the negotiations with Prince 'AzImu-sh-Bhan which had resulted 
in the acquisition of the three villages of Calcutta, Sutanuti, and Govind- 
pur. At the same time he had become personally known toFarrukhsIyar, 
then a handsome boy of fourteen, fond of all kinds of games and physical 
exercises, and had made him presents of guns and toys. 6 The English 
were ready to believe that Khwajah Sarhad was still a perso?ia grata to 
the emperor, and that it was at any rate partly for old acquaintance sake 
that he had already granted so favourable a reception to the representa- 
tions made by Sarhad on behalf of the English. It is not surprising 
then that Khwajah Sarhad was given a place in the embassy ; the 
appointment in fact must have seemed inevitable. Nevertheless, although 
the English were not at this time aware of the disreputable charaoter 

I English in Bengal, II, I, 154-5. 

1 My authority for this statement is an extract from a private letter from the late A. T. 
Pringle to Mr. Irvine, which he has kindly communicated to me. [1 have since found the 
official entry ; it is dated the 14th January 1712. in the time of President Edward 
Harrison.— W. I.] 

3 He is said to have died an octogenarian in 1717. So Mr Irvine tells me, 

* Diary, I, 200. 

* Appendix to the Diary. 

« English in Bengal, II, I. 7. 


of Sarhad's agents at Delhi and the dishonourable nature of their 
methods of negotiation, yet they seem to have had no high opinion of 
Sarhad's private character and to have distrusted him from the first. 
It was agreed that he would require oareful watching and that the 
English members of the mission would have to keep one eye on the 
Mughal and the other on the Armenian. ' 

The terms agreed upon with Sarhad, under which he received his 
appointment to the embassy, are recorded in the consultation of January 
27. First, if all the privileges the Company have at any time hereto- 
fore enjoyed in the Mughal's dominions be confirmed in the new farmdn, 
and if he gets our bounds enlarged as far as we desire, that is, north- 
ward to near Barn agar, eastward to the lake, and southward to 
Kidderpur, and that the shore on the side of the river opposite to this 
place be also granted to us, also if he endeavour earnestly to get the 
grant of Divi Island near Masulipatam which the president and 
council at Madras desire may be obtained for that presidency, his 
reward is then to be fifty thousand rupees ; but he is to have nothing 
if he fails in these points. Secondly, if he procures the privilege for 
our nation to trade custom free at Surat, which he will attempt, he is to 
have fifty thousand rupees more for that seiviee; but, if he fails in that 
he is not to have the reward. He is nevertheless to endeavour to get 
the custom we pay at that port reduced to 2\ per cent. 2 

The Company's servants first nominated to the embassy were John 
Surman, chief, John Pratt, second, Edward Stephenson, third. 8 But, 
on January 27, the order was revised. Khwajah Sarhad was appointed 
second, John Pratt third, and Edward Stephenson secretary and 
accountant. 4 Finally, on March 4, as Pratt desired to be excused from 
proceeding to Delhi, Edward Stephenson was once more made third 
and Hugh Barker secretary in the negotiation at the Mughal's court. 5 

The members of the embassy, as thus finally constituted, presented 
some sharp contrasts of character. The selection of the chief seems to 
have been in every way happy. John Surman, if we may judge from 
the scanty notices we have left of him, was one of those men, none too 
common in the service of the Company at this time, who, like Charnock 
preferred publio interests to private, who were more intent on the 
establishment of the English trade and the English position in India 

i English in Btngal, II, I, 157 ; see also the instructions in the appendix to the Diary, 
2 English in Btngal, II, I, 158. 
» lb., 153-4. 

* Ib u 158. 

* II., 165. 


than the building up of their own fortunes, a man of great ability and 
of great integrity, of strong passions and a strong will, a man, as the 
Indians say, of great hearts Of middle class origin, born probably 
in London, the son of John Surman, coaehmaker, and his wife Susanna, 
John Surman was elected a writer on December 20, 1706. 2 The usual 
age for candidates for the writership was 17 years, and we shall not err 
greatly if we assume this to have beenSurman's age at the time. Ou 
December 23, the court accepted as his securities Henry Watts, citizen 
and innholder, and John Surman, citizen and coachbuilder, the young 
man's presumptive father. At the same time the newly elected writer 
was ordered to take passage on the Dutchess for the Bay of Bengal. 3 The 
Dutchess sailed on February 20, 17 07, 4 and John Surman arrived 
writer in Bengal on August 19, 1707. 5 On January 30, 1710, he was 
Bent to Patna, 8 and on April 19, 1712, though not out of his writership, 
was taken into the council at Patna as being ' very sufficiently quali- 
fied to give his advice and every way fit to assist in these troublesome 
times.' 7 How qualified to advise, how fit to take charge of the 
highest interests of the Company, the history of the embassy will the 
more clearly show. 

The third in the negotiation, Edward Stephenson, was a character 
oast in a more ordinary mould. Honest and capable, no doubt, he 
was without that conspicuous ability and zeal for the public service 
which distinguish John Surman. He was content to do his duty and 
get rich quietly. Consequently he succeeded in satisfying his masters* 
retiring with a fortune to die many years afterwards in England at 
the age of 72, well off and highly respected. 8 Edward Stephenson was 
born in Cumberland in 1691, his baptism being recorded in the parish 
register of Crosthwaite on the 8th October of that year. His father 
was Edward Stephenson of Keswick. Through his mother Rebecca, he 
was connected with the Winders of Lorton and of the City of London. 
On November 3, 1708, the court of directors read a petition from 
Edward Stephenson, then seventeen years old, * praying to be enter- 

i Bengal Public Consultation for July 26 and August 23, 1725. 
« Court Boot, XLII, 422. 
» lb., 428. 

* Her Log. 

» English in. Bengal, U, I, 205. 
« Jb., I, 327. 
: Jb., 11,1,53. 

• I have given a short account of the personal history of Stephenson in my article An 
v%rc4ordtd Governor of Fort William in Bengal, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society oj Bengal, 
LXYH, I, 13?— 17 . 


tained a writer in the Bay or elsewhere,' and ordered the committee 
of accounts to examine the petitioner's qualifications. 1 On November 
24, Edward Stephenson was elected a writer in the Company's 
service. 2 On December 17 following Mr. Samuel and Mr. Jonathan 
TVinder were accepted as his securities. 3 He arrived writer in Bengal 
on February 2, 1710. 4 In the seventy-fifth paragraph of the general 
letter from Bengal to the court of direotors Edward Stephenson was 
specially commended. 5 On this account he was advanced a year in 
service by the court and made a faotor from February 2, 1714. 6 In 
the embassy he adequately supported his chief, but it is not likely that 
he could have ever replaced him. 

The secretary, Hugh Barker, was in many ways the antithesis of 
John Surman. Well-connected and possessing in consequence some 
influence with the court of directors, he appears to have been an 
unprofitable servant of the Company, neglectful of its interests, using 
whatever abilities and opportunities he had solely for his own advant- 
age. The court books show that Hugh Barker first petitioned to enter 
the Company's service on December 8, 1710. 7 He was elected writer 
on December 15, 8 and on December 22, Eichard Barker of Great 
Horwood and Arthur Crabb of Alisbury were accepted as his securities. 9 
He too 1 *: his passage on the Aurengzebe 10 and arrived writer in Bengal 
on August 17, 171 1. 11 During the negotiation, he seems to have dis- 
charged his duties satisfactorily under the supervision of Surman and 
Stephenson. It wa8 subsequently, at Patna, that the defects in his 
moral character showed themselves, and the council was constrained to 
dismiss him from the service. Restored again through hia influence 
with the directors, he returned to Bengal to pursue his evil ways 
as before, and ' met with a wretched end.' 18 * 

i Court Book, XLII],23l. 
« Court Book, XLIII, 275. 
3 lb., 344. 

* English in Bengal, II, I, 2C5. 

* lb., 379. 

* General Letter to Bengal, dated January 13, 1714, paragraph 68. 
7 Court Book, XLIV, 235. 

» lb., 249. 
» 76., 260. 
1' Bngtith in Bengal, II, I, 341. 

11 ]K , 93 and 205. 

12 Thia view of Barker's character is partly based on the notioes of him in the records and 
partly on the first letter from Captain Fenwick on the Company's Affairs in Bengal found 
in the Orme Collections at the India Office. India VI. Of Surman, Fenwick says, • He 
was a valuable man to them [i.e., the Company], and would have made Bengal flourish had 
te lived, but the Directors and a lady's cruelty in England hastened his death.' 


One more appointment to the embassy remains to be noticed, 
the doctor, William Hamilton. Of his early history I have already 
written at length, 1 tracing his descent from the Hamiltons of Dal- 
zell, and suggesting that he originally took service in 1709 on the 
Sherborne bound for India in the hopes of speedily making a fortune 
and returning to marry his cousin Anna. Of considerable ability, but 
wanting in decision and hopefulness, William Hamilton had well 
nigh brought his life to utter ruin when he deserted his ship at 
Cuddalore in May, 1711. His appointment to the embassy gave him 
an opportunity of retrieving his past, and he availed himself of it 

During the first months of the year 1714, notes of preparation for 
Delhi are found in the Consultations book. Payments are recorded to 
John Burnell 2 far having ' with great care and ingenuity perfected 
a map of the world in two rounds six foot two inches diameter curiously 
embellished with gold and silver,' also to Mirza Ibrahim 3 for writing 
the title and names of places in Persian. The clocks belonging to the 
present were so numerous that it was found necessary to send a clock- 
maker with them to the court 4 to take care of them and repair any 
damage that might happen in the way. Various additions were also 
thought of ; at one time more silks and cloth, arms, clocks and toys ; 5 
at another time two japanned copper fountains and a double-barrelled 
gun ; 6 and finally fifty more chests of Shiraz wine. 7 Allowances were 
made to Stephenson and Hamilton 8 to provide themselves with 
necessaries, and Es. 5,000 were advanced to provide carpets, quilts 
and kitchen necessaries which could not be got at Patna or elsewhere. 9 
The garrison was increased by fifty men so as to allow of a suitable 
escort of 300 men being sent with the boats. 10 On April 19, the 
soldiers were marched on board and the boats started on their way. 11 
In May, the two royal macebearers arrived at Hugli with a gold dress 
of honour for the president and a silver one for • Khwajah Sarhad, 

1 Englith in Bengal, II, I, yii-xiii. 
a lb., 160. 
s lb., 153. 

* lb., 165. 

* lb., 158-9. 
« lb., 169. 

■ lb., 170. 

* lb , 162. 
9 lb., 169. 

" /*«, 168. 
» 11., 171. 



which were received in Calcutta on June 1 with a great public 
display and marks of rejoicing. 1 

The ambassadors received full instructions from Madras and Bombay 
as well as from Calcutta. 2 They took with them notes of the proceed- 
ings of Sir William Norris, and of the Dutch embassy to Shah 'Alam 
and Jahandar under Kettler. They took with them the originals of 
the most important grants made to the English in Bengal. The final 
letter of instruction, dated May 13, 1714, is clear and full, giving us 
even a list of the servants allowed with their wages, including a 
trumpeter and six soldiers in decent habits to attend Mr. Surman. The 
different books to be kept by the embassy and its procedure were 
carefully specified. In case of Surman's death, it was ordered that 
Stephenson should succeed as chief. Four sets of goods separately 
listed were sent with the embassy. First, there were the goods and 
rarities comprised in the king's present valued at lis. 1,02,472-11-4. 
Other goods valued at Es. 1,08,2 ltf-1 1-3 were intended principally for 
presents to the court nobles, but could be used to supplement the 
imperial present, if necessary. Amongst these goods was included a 
stock of wine and other liquors. A third set of goods, valued at 
Es. 29,958-4-0, consisted of cloth and other articles needed for the 
personal service of the embassy. Lastly the embassy took with it 
forty-seven bales of Bengal piece goods to sell on account of the 
merchants, Surman receiving 2 per cent., Sarhad 2 per cent., and 
Stephenson 1 per cent, of the proceeds. The embassy had been strictly 
forbidden to take merchants' goods from Patna to Delhi. The depar- 
ture from the rule in the case of Calcutta was justified on the plea that 
it would save the exchange, as the money realised by the sale of the 
goods could be used to pay the ourrent expenses of the embassy, while 
the merchants could be repaid in Calcutta. 

i 2h., 175. 

2 Ajspondix at the end of tho Diary. 



Before following the ambassadors to Patna and thence to Delhi,, 
it will be convenient to take a brief survey of the condition of affair* 
at the Mughal court. As we have seen, Far rukhsiyar ' had been 
raised to the throne through no merits of his. He owed his sudden 
elevation to the intercession of his mother, and to the attachment 
of the Sayyad brothers to his father's memory. Physically strong 
and handsome, he was intellectually weak and morally depraved. 
Accordingly, all his most noticeable characteristics are connected with 
his excellence of body. 3 He was naturally fond of wrestling, archery, 
hunting, horsemanship, polo-playing, and other soldierly exercises. 
He had an extraordinary fondness for horses. Several thousands of 
them, we are told, stood in his private stables, and a select number were 
tethered under the balcony of his sleeping room. He could call every 
horse and its syce by name, and noticed at once any change in a 
horse's condition. He was also fond of fine clothes, and liked to dress 
in gold embroidered raiment edged with gold lace. 8 Generally he 
was profuse and liberal in his living and expenditure. Such qualities 
recommended him at all times to the favour of the lower classes, and 
they would make him as a prinoe popular with his immediate com- 
panions. The English, we may be sure, were taken with his good 
looks and fondness for manly exercises. But such qualities were not 
sufficient for the master of a great empire. As a ruler Farrukhsiyar 
displayed nothing but weakness. Feeble in intellect, cowardly, 
false, and faithless, no one could either fear him or like him. On 
becoming emperor, there were two courses of action open to him with 

l Mr. It-riiie thinks that Farrukhsiyar wai born on Ramezan 19, 1094 i.e., September 1, 
1683. See hit article on Tht Later in the Journal of tht Ativti* Society •/ Btngal, 

3 Mr. Irvine speaks of him in one place in the same article as 'a strong man, perhaps 
the handsomest and most powerfully-built of Babar's race that had erer occcupied the 

* Mr. Irvine's article on T\t Later Mufjkilt in the Jtvrrtil of the Atiatic Asvwfy of 
Bengal LXXill, I. 


reference to the Say y ad brothers, Abdullah Khan and Husain 'Ali. 
Following the diotates of gratitude and prudence, he might have left 
these powerful ministers to pursue their own way, contenting himself 
with the outward show and the name of emperor. But, according to 
the customs of his day and country, Farrukhsiyar would have com- 
mitted no exceptional crimo, and would have displayed no extraor- 
dinary ingratitude, if he had turned upon the two Sayyad brothers as 
soon as he became king, and dismissed them, or even put them to 
death. 1 So had the great Akbar done; and so would Farrukhsiyar 
have done, had he been strong enough to follow the advice of the 
favourites who surrounded him, of whom the principal were Khan 
Dauran, Mir Jumlah, and Taqarrub Khan. 

Khwajah A'sirn, Samsamu-d-daulah, Khan Dauran, Bahadur, 
Mansur Jang, was the son of Khwajah Qasim of Agra, his ancestors 
having emigrated from Badakhshan. He began life as a trooper in the 
regiment commanded by 'Azimu-sh-shan, but when the prince went up 
to the court, Khwajah A'sim had remained in Bengal with Farrukhsiyar 
over whom he gained great influence. He was the companion of the 
young prince's amusements, wrestling, archery and the like. In the 
end he proved to be the evil genius of Farrukhsiyar and of Muham- 
mad Shah after him. The other two favourites were men of much 
less importance. 'Ubaidullah, Mir Jumlah, a native of Samarkand, 
born about 1670-71 had come to India in the reign of Aurangzeb. 
He was appointed qdzi, first at Dacca, and afterwards at Patna ; and, 
while in Bengal, succeeded in ingratiating himself with 'Azimu-sh- 
shan, and afterwards with Farrukhsiyar, who made him ddrdghah of the 
khawds, or pages. Mir Muhammad Ja'far of Shiraz, entitled Taqar- 
rub Khan, was steward to Farrukhsiyar while a prince in Bengal and 
had shown himself friendly to the English. "When Farrukhsiyar 
became emperor, Muhammed Ja'far naturally became lord steward. 3 

Naturally, too, when Farrukhsiyar became emperor, the small 
group of men, who had known him from childhood, and who were 
on intimate terms with him, were anxious to get their full share of the 
loaves and fishes of office, and were aggrieved at seeing some of the 
most considerable appropriated by the Sayyads and their partisans. 
Afraid to take any open step, they gathered round Farrukhsiyar in 
seoret and filled his ears with complaints and suspicions. 

i Mr. Irvine's article on The Later Mughals in the Journal of the Asiatic Society J > 
Stngal, LXX1II, 1. 

» See footnote* in the Diary at pages 48, 54 and 101. 


The result was that the emperor's relations with his two great sup- 
porters and most powerful ministers were from the first hopelessly pre- 
judiced. Even before he arrived at Delhi, Farrukhsiyar had begun to 
look with suspicion on the Sayyads. He had no sooner agreed to the 
appointment of 'Abdullah as wazxr than he began to repent of it. 
Husain 'All warned his brother that he judged from Farrukhslyar's 
talk that he was a man who paid no regard to the claims of services 
rendered, a man void of faith, a breaker of his word and altogether 
without shame 1 . This singularly clear-eight ed estimate of character 
was almost immediately confirmed by an open difference of opinion 
between the king and the wazir. The king wished to make Chhabllah 
Ram diicdu of the khdlisah, and Af?al Kh an, sadru-s-sudur. But the 
tcazir had already assigned these posts to Lutfullah Khan and Amjad 
Khan, and fell into a violent passion at the idea of setting aside 
these appointments. A compromise was agreed upon allowing 
Lutfullah to be diwdn, while Af?al Khan was made mdru-s-sudur, 
but the ill feeling between the emperor and the Sayyad brothers 
remained 2 . 

Early in Farrukhslyar's reign it was found necessary to proceed 
against the rajah of Jodhpur, A jit Singh, who had taken ad- 
vantage of the late confusion to eject the imperial offioers from his 
oapital and prohibit the oall to prayer. At first it was intended that 
the emperor should command in person. But he was not ap- 
parently in good health. Consequently the command was given to 
Husain 'Ali, Khan Dauran being appointed to act as the deputy of 
Husain 'AH at court and second bakhshi*. Husain 'Ali left Delhi in 
December, 1713, and vigorously attacked the rajah's forces during the 
first months of 171 4*. At last Ajit Singh was constrained to come 
to terms ; and agreed to give one of his daughters in marriage to 
the emperor, and to allow his son to aocompany I^ueain 'All to the 
oourt promising to attend himself also when summoned 5 . 

Meanwhile 'Abdullah, the tcaslr, immersed in pleasure at Delhi, 
left all business matters to his deputy Ratn Chand ; and the emperor 
renewed his plots to destroy the two Sayyads. For the moment all 
xeal power passed into the hands of the favourite Mir Jumlah, but in 

l Mr. Irvine's artiole on The Later Mughal s in the Journal of ikt Atiatit Sotieiy 0/ 
Bengal, LXXII, I. 42-3. 
» lb., 43-4. 
■» lb., 45. 

* lb., 46-7. 

* 16., 48-9. 


July, at the request of his brother, IJusain 'All returned to Delhi, 
and the emperor's plots all came to nothing. 1 Towards the end of 
the year 1714 a pretended reconciliation was effeoted between the 
emperor and the two Sayyads*. In December, Mir Jumlah 
was sent away to be governor of Bihar 8 . IJusain 'All also 
took leave on his appointment as governor of tte Deocan, but 
he does not appear to have aotually started till the end of March, 1715. 
He left, threatening to return in twenty days if his brother were 
annoyed or Mir Jumlah recalled 4 . He had hardly departed when 
Daud Kh an was appointed to Burhanpur, one of the Deccan govern- 
ments, with secret instructions from the court to resist IJusain 'All 
and kill him if possible*. 

Such were Farrukhslyar's devices to get rid of his too powerful 
minister IJusain 'All. Against his wazir, 'Abdullah, he continued to 
devise abortive plots, and to solioit support from any noble or offioial 
whom he supposed likely to help him. His favourite device, however, 
was to assemble suddenly a band of followers and with them to rove 
about in the neighbourhood of the capital, ostensibly for the purpose 
of hunting, but really, it would seem, in the hope of somehow sur- 
prising the wazir and seizing his person. But the wazir, though 
lethargic and careless, was not altogether so neglectful of what was 
passing as to be taken unawares by Farrukhsiyar. 

» Mr. Irrine'a article on The Later Mvghalt in the Jovrnal of the Atiatic Sotiety of Bengal, 

LXXII, I, 49-51. 

» lb.. 58w 

' lb., 68-9. 

* lb., 60. 

• lb., 60. 



The Surman diary opens on August 15, 1714, at Patna, where the 
English emhassy were waiting for the arrival of the promised esoort 
from the king to go with them to Delhi. The present was by this time 
gathered together, filling every available corner of the Patna faotory 
besides several small houses hired to receive it. On September 1, 
Surman, Stephenson, Barker, and Hamilton, with all their belongings, 
removed to a separate residence of their own, where they not only 
enjoyed greater dignity and freedom of action, but were also better able 
to take stock of their extensive collections. 1 Towards the middle of 
October they wore joined by Khwajah Sarhad. 2 Very little was left to 
oomplete the present. A few alterations in the shape of the flint- ware, 
a few out-glass bottles and cases, a few silver pots and pans, candlesticks 
and maces, 3 and there it stood ready for transport, cloths and silkstuffs, 
spirits and perfumes, crookery and cutlery, fire-arms and cannons, sixty 
tons of delights for the Mughal and his court. 4 

The modern traveller from Patna to Delhi makes the journey 
with perfeot ease in less than twenty-four hours, and, even if he thould 
wish to bring with him a ship-load of luggage, the time of transport 
would hardly exceed a week. The embassy to Farrukhsiyar with a far 
smaller burden could not reach the capital in less than ten months. 
Of these it took three to drag its slow length along the imperial road ; 
the other seven were spent in preparations to start, preparations 
required for safety no less than honour. 

The ambassadors thought it necessary to wear the finest olothes pro- 
curable and to provide themselves with silver plated palanquins. 5 Their 
servants were decked with handsome liveries, and many of their retinue 
were carried in litters. Before Mr. John Surman, as chief of the 

1 Diary, 2. 

» /J.,6. 
i lb., 6, 7. 

* A hundred wagons, ea jb carrying 16 mant, were required for the Company's presents, 
tee foot-note 5 on page xiiii, Reckoning the bazar man as 82 lbs. the total weight would be sixty 

t on.s 
» Diary, 11. 


embassy, were borne two flags displaying the Union Jack, and the same 
honour was allowed to Khwajah Sarhad as principal agent and inter- 
preter. 1 Two seta of tents were bought, one for present use, and one 
for sending on a stage in advance to be ready for the next day. 2 No 
less than a hundred and sixty bullock-wagons, each creaking beneath 
a load of more than half a ton, were required for the whole stock of 
their goods, 3 whioh, in addition to the king's present, included a large 
consignment of private merchandise. 4 For their other transport there 
were fifteen camels, ten carts, and twenty-two oxen to tug the guns. 5 
A still larger retinue of servants followed the embassy, including a 
trumpeter and six soldiers, a clockmaker, four smiths, ten carpenters, 
thirty spadesmen and twelve hundred porters, besides wagoners and 
drivers. 6 

The safeguarding of so rich a convoy could not but be a matter of 
the greatest anxiety to Surman and his colleagues. Owing to the 
dissolution of the Mughal rule, and the consequent carelessness or 
weakness of every one in authority, bands of armed robbers infested 
every road and every province of the empire. The Ujainis, who 
harboured in the hills to the south of Gaya, were the dread of travellers 
from Patna to Benares. 7 Mewattis lurked in the ravines on the road 
between Musanagar and Agra; 8 and rebellious Jats plundered pilgrims 
on their way to Mathura, seizing and holding townships close to the 
imperial capital itself. 9 

It was in inducing the Mughal court to provide for the safe 
conduct of the present that the English achieved their first diplomatic 
successes. Already, as we have seen, in October, 1713, orders on the 
subject had been received in Calcutta from Delhi, requiring all the local 
governors to guard the treasure |through their several governments. 10 
The orders reoeived in Patna a year later went a good deal further. 
As early as September it was reported that the king had deoided 
to eend an escort for the present. In October definite information 

1 Diary, 8. 
The Diary more than one* mentions the pethkhana. See for instance pages 226" and 233. 
At page 10 is a list of seme of the tents purchased. 
3 Diary, 8. 

* Probably only a hundred wagons were required for public purposes. See note 4 on pag 

* Diary, 7, 8. 

« lb., 7, 8, 275. 
7 lb., 12, 20, 24. 
» 76, 42 

* Irvine's Later Mughali, section 19, in the Journal of ke Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

»° Enylitk in, Bengal, II, 1, 148. 


reached Patna that his majesty had oommanded a chela of the court 
with a mace-bearer to go with the ambassadors, and had sent instruc- 
tions to the governors and ditodns of every province on the road to 
defray their travelling expenses. 1 At the end of the month the chela 
and two mace-bearers arrived at Patna with the emperor's orders. 2 

The concession of the travelling expenses of the embassy was said 
to be due to the influence of the grandees at court who were friends of 
Khwfijah Sarhad. But, according to Surman and Stephenson, Khwajah 
Sarhftd had no friendship, and at this time hardly any acquaintance, 
with any of the court grandees. His only connections were with padre 
Daniel and a few other disreputable Armenians. 3 These men, acting 
presumably on the instructions of Sarhad, and fortified by promises 
of large sums of English money, began to make a great noise in the 
city during the last months of the year 1713. Padre Daniel did not 
scruple to declare that the English present was worth fifteen or even 
thirty lacs of rupees. 4 At the end of the year, when Husain 'All left 
Delhi to go against Ajit Singh and the court favourites made their 
effort to seize command of the government, Khan Dauran thought he 
would do something to please the king and show his ability. It occurred 
to him that it would be a good thing if he could get the credit of 
introducing an embassy with so rich a present to Delhi. He therefore 
enquired of the Armenians, through his follower Sayyad Salabat Khan, 
whether the present was really of such great value. A written declara- 
tion was handed in to the lord steward's office that the present amounted 
in value to fifteen lacs of rupees, and a large bribe was given to old 
Salabat Khan. In this way Khan Dauran was convinced that the pre- 
sent was really a matter of great importance and induced the emperor to 
grant the payment of the travelling expenses of the embassy 5 - 

It is clear that wholesale lying of this description, though it might 
secure temporary advantages to the English embassy, would in the end 
bring it into complete discredit ; and, even as it was, the advantages 
secured were not so great as they seemed. On October 29, when the 
chela actually reached Patna bringing the royal orders to the governor, 
the divan, and the buyutdt, the first two officials were absent from the 
city 6 and the third began to raise objections. The list of wagons and 

i Diary, 5. 
» lb., 6. 

» See their letter of December 20, 1716, in the Diary, 147 to 159. 
* Dior , 149. 

5 lb. 

t> Diary, •• 


porters presented to him for sanction was stamped with the sign mark 
of John Surman, whereas the king's order referred to Khwajah 
Sarhad. 1 When this difficulty was removed, alterations were proposed 
in the number and size of the wagons asked for. 2 A few days later, the 
ditcan in his interview with Sarhad demanded a detailed account of the 
goods to be carried, and objected to providing wagons or porters for 
any merchandise which did not form part of the present 3 . At first 
Sarhad consented to strike off sixty wagons and three hundred porters 
from the list 4 , but on reflection he decided that it would be better to 
ask the king's officers to provide for the whole of the transport. 5 
Meanwhile the diicdn and the buyutat were disputing as to who should 
pay the bill and at the same time objecting that the embassy ' was in 
no readiness to proceed \ 6 Upon this they were told that the embassy 
would certainly start on January 11, 1715, and, accordingly, on that 
day Surman and his followers left the city and went to their tents 
under an escort of two hundred horsemen 7 . But they were not yet 
to proceed. The nabob Ghairat Khan, being a Barhah Sayyad, nearly 
related to the wazlr, was not likely to forward any business set on foot 
by Khan Dauran, or supposed to redound to that noble's credit at 
Court. He therefore now raised objections, urging that as he himself 
was about to leave the government of Bihar, having been replaced by 
Mir Jumlah, he could not take the responsibility of allowing either the 
imperial treasure or the embassy to proceed to Delhi. 8 After six weeks 
of disputes, he consented to pass orders for its dispatch. 9 Two months' 
pay was given for the porters, and an escort of two hundred horse pro- 
mised, which eventually dwindled down to fifty horse and fifty foot. 10 

The English, impatient at these numerous delays, were content to 
go on any terms. For the first part of the way they felt tolerably 
safe. A judicious letter and presents of cloth, fire-arms, and other 
useful articles of western manufacture had been pent to Sidisht 

» 26., 8. 
» lb. 

a lb., 9. 

' He originally asked for 160 wagon*, see Diary 8. From this it may be inferred 
thai only a hundred wagons were required for the Company's presents. Again, at p. 33 of 
the Diary, the merchants' good* overladen are reokoned to weigh 910 mam. This is practioally 
fifty seven wagons of 18 man* each. 

* Diary, 13 

• lb., 14 

7 lb., 14, 19 
■ lb., 19. 
» lb. , 23. 
" /*., 23,24. 


NSrayan, the new chief of the Ujainiyah clan, who, with 14,000 horse 
and 80,000 foot, held command of all the way to Sassaran, and he had 
in return assured both the nabob and the English that he would not 
touch the king's present. 1 It seemed needless to wait for any further 
escort or any more money from the nabob. The English therefore 
gave advances to their retinue and on March 3 arrived at Xaubatpur, 
a closely built town some fifteen miles to the south-west of Patna. 

But here fresh circumstances arose to cause delay. Already, on 
more than one cccasion, Khwajah Sarhad had exhibited a disposition 
to assert his authority over the whole course of the negotiations. He 
now refused to leave Patna and join his colleagues, professing to be 
still negotiating for an escort, as he was afraid of the bandits on the 
road, and to be still in expectation of obtaining further advances from 
the king's officers. The English attributed all this to sheer perversity 
and entered a protest against their colleague for his delays. 3 But in 
the expectation of further advances time proved Sarhad to be right, and 
the English might have inferred as much from the obvious embarrass- 
ment which Sarhad's persistency caused the nabob, who thought that 
he had got rid of the embassy cheaply and was consequently extremely 
angry at finding them still on his hands. The deputy of the buyutdt 
was ordered to go out in haste and speed the parting merchants. 
Sarhad instigated the king's chela and the two mace-bearers to stop 
him, but he escaped them and arrived at Naubatpur on Maroh 22. 
Close at his heels came Khwajah Sarhad. 4 

At the consultation held next day, March 23, Sarhad produoed a 
letter from padre Daniel at Delhi, which might well have given rise to 
misgivings in the minds of the ambassadors. 5 The English, though as 
yet they knew it not, had been misdirected from the first by their 
Armenian agents and had begun their negotiations at Delhi upon alto- 
gether wrong lines. Like Jugurtha at Eome, they thought that at 
Delhi everything was for sale. But the high officers of the Mughal 
government, though not averse to receiving presents, as the custom was, 
were not easily to be bribed into disregarding the interests of the state. 
The Mughal government itself, too, was complicated, and, after its kind 
nighly developed. It was split up into numerous departments each 

» Diary, 12, 25. 
» lb., 24, 25, 
' lb., 24, 28. 
• Jb. 28, 29. 
* J b., 29, 30. 


having its own sphere, guided by rulings and precedents, and by state 
maxims and political doctrines of its own. The great offices of the 
government were at this time held by the Sayyad brothers, 'Abdullah 
Khan, Qutbu-l-Mulk, the icazir, and Husain 'All, Amlru-l-umara, the 
ohief bakhshi. These men and their followers were the real substantial 
rulers of India ; beside them Farrukhslyar, and his favourites, Khan 
Dauran and Mir Juinlah, were mere shadows. The English were seek- 
ing to obtain farmdns, or imperial rescripts ; and it was a settled rule of 
the Mughal government that all applications for far nidus must be 
made through the toazir. The present icazir, 'Abdullah Khan, was all 
powerful in the state and was deoidedly friendly to the English. Why 
then did they not address themselves to 'Abdullah Khan, the wazir who 
alone could get them what they wanted ? "Why did they instead go to 
Khan Dauran and his worn-out old follower Sayyad Salabat Khan ? 
Khan Dauran it is true was the favourite of the emperor, but as a man 
he was vain, silly, and weak ; and as an official he was but the subordinate 
of IJusain 'All. He had no special interest in the English. If he 
oonsented to be their patron and to introduce their embassy, it was for 
the purely selfish object of gaining a little favour with the emperor by 
bringing something new to amuse him. But the English ambassadors 
knew nothing of all this. Their ideas of the Mughal government were 
derived from their Armenian agents, whose ideas were in turn derived 
from the merchants and shopkeepers in Delhi. Ignorant people seem 
always unwilling to believe that government is guided by settled prin- 
ciples. They prefer to suppose that bribery and personal influence 
can carry any measure. Earrukhslyar and his favourites with their 
profuse expenditure were at all times popular with the common people, 
who would naturally exaggerate the influence of a man like Khan 
Dauran. The English ambassadors at the beginning undoubtedly had 
their full share of these illusions, and the process of their disillusionment 
was slow and painful. It began, or should have begun, with this letter 
of padre Daniel. 

The main object of the letter was to deter the English from having 
any communications with their old friend Ziau-d-din Khan or with the 
icazir. Their only friends and patrons were to be Khan Dauran and 
§alabat Khan ; and these persons could be approached only through 
friendly Armenians. Padre Daniel appealed to his former successes in 
confirmation of his statements. He was the real friend of the English. 
When their enemies had said it was not worth while spending a lac cf 
rupees for a present worth two lacs, he had magnified the value of th.o 


present and declared it to be worth from ten to fifteen lacs. No elchi had 
ever been granted suoh favours since Tamerlane. But his efforts would 
be of no effect if the English began to write to Ziau-d-din Khan and 
Monsieur Martin, the king's doctor, as John Surman had already done. 
Instead of this they ought to write letters of thanks to his friends, the 
grandees at court, who had already done so much. 1 

Whatever else might have been gathered from this letter, it might 
certainly have been inferred that Daniel was a man with no regard 
for the truth, and it might have been considered whether such an one 
was fit to be entrusted with the honour and interests of the English at 
Delhi. But the English in reply were content to say that Daniel was 
misinformed in supposing that they had entered into negotiations with 
any other parties, and that they would write to Khan Dauran and 
§alabat Kh&n. At the same time, they pointed out that he was 
altogether wrong in asserting that the present amounted to ten or 
fifteen lacs of rupees, and that such statements were highly improper in 
the king's darbar. 2 

After spending a few days at Naubatpur, Khwajah Sarhad returned 
to Patna, and renewed his negotiations to obtain a further advance of 
money, negotiations in which he at last succeeded. 

1 Diary, 29, 60. 
a lb., 31, 3:'. 



Delay breeds de^y. Whilst Sarhad was negotiating in Patna fresh 
obstacles sprang up at Naubatpur. The wagoners and porters hired 
for the three months' journey to Delhi were to be paid in advance 
by instalments. In accordance with this arrangement, two months' pay 
had been given to the porters at the beginning of March, and a further 
sum of two thousand rupees had been made over to the embassy which 
was to be paid to them on reaching Allahabad 1 . Owing to Sarbad's 
protracted negotiations, the beginning of April found the embassy 
still at Naubatpur, and the porters, seeing that they would be 
required to undertake a two months' journey with only one month's 
pay in hand, not unnaturally grew mutinous, and demanded a further 
advance of money. The hardship of the wagoners was still more real. 
Five months ago, the embassy had decided to hire wagons 2 . A 
month later, it had begun to load the goods 3 . Then it had deolared 
that the journey and the payment of wages should begin from 
January 11 ; but in February the wagons still stood laden with goods, 
many of them rotting in the rain. 4 It is therefore not surprising that, 
when the deputy of the buyutat arrived at the end of March, and 
tendered them an advance of two months' pay, their patience gave way, 
and they demanded compensation for the past demurrage, and for the 
extra loads of private merchandise with which the English had 
burdened the wagons. It was not till after a good deal oi discussion 
that the deputy of the buyutUt was able to arrive at a satisfactory 
settlement of these claims. The English agreed to pay the wagoners 
for all excess weight of merchandise, at the rate of three hundred rupees 
a ton, and gave them a promissory note for the demurrage due from 
their first decampment. 5 The porters were induced to give an obligation 
to proceed, on being lent twenty four thousand rupees, and receiving a 
promise of twenty thousand rupees at Allahabad, which was to be 
reached in forty-eight days. 6 

1 Diary, 23 and 3. 
■ lb., 5. 
J 26., 9. 

* lb., 22. 

* lb., 34, 35. 
« lb. 36. 


On April 7, the long caravan left Naubatpur, 1 and moved along the 
road to the south-west, which skirts the eastern bank of the Son river, 
the golden Eranoboas of the Greeks. In addition to the escort pro- 
vided by the government and a small body of European soldiers, the 
English had taken into their service fifty horse and four hundred foot 2 . 
They had also, as has been said, done their best to propitiate their local 
Fra Diavolo, Sidisht Narayan. For these reasons, or else because 
the attention of the Ujainis was engaged in other matters, the embassy 
proceeded on its way unmolested. 

On April 14, they reached Grhatauli, 3 a village standing on the bank 
of the Son, some two miles north of the point where it is crossed by the 
grand trunk road. On April 17, Khwajah Sarhad joined the embassy. 
He had been fairly successful in his negotiations, and had brought with 
him nearly ten thousand rupees. He had also been to the camp of 
Mir Jumlah, the discredited court favourite who had come to take over 
the government of Patna, and Mir Jumlah had given him a letter to 
Khan Dauran, and had said that he had also written to the king on behalf 
of the English. "With Sarhad had come the mihmandar, a hundred 
horse and a hundred foot. But Sarhad did not think it safe to proceed 
even with this additional escort, and it was resolved to make an attempt 
to gain the protection of Ghairat Khan, the returning ex-governor of 
Patna, at any rate as far as Benares 4 . 

On April 21, the Son was crossed, and their feet were set on the 
great highway leading from Bengal to the north-west 5 . At Sasseram, 
not far from the road, the lion king who made it lay buried in his island 
tomb. A little further on were the tents of Mir Jumlah. But the 
English preferred the living dog to the dead lion, and, while they 
hurried past Sasseram, deemed it ' an absolute neoessity ' to visit Mir 
Jumlah in a body, and gratify him and his officers with costly gifts 6 . 

On May day, the travellers reaohed the Karmnasa, the boundary 
between the provinces of Allahabad and Bihar, a polluting river, 
abhorred by pious Hindus, which destroys the merit of all good works. 
The guilty king, Trisanka, so runs the legend, who tried to make 
himself equal with the gods, hangs, head downwards, between earth 
and heaven, above the stream, and taints its waters with the foul drops, 

l Diary \ 37. 
> lb., 15. 

* lb., 37. 

* lb. 

* lb. t 33. 



which fall from him in his torment. Fortunately, at this time of the 
year, the bed of the river would be nearly dry, so that the most 
orthodox might well cross it without wetting their feet. A single day 
sufficed for the passage ; and, on May 4, the caravan arrived at the banks 
of the Ganges, over against Benares. 1 

Viewed from the spot where they stood, the sacred city is a 
picturesque and imposing spectacle. The lofty cliff overhanging the 
ourving river, crowned for three or four miles with temples and palaces, 
the varied nights of massive steps descending to the sacred stream, the 
thronging multitudes of worshippers, all combine to form a delightful 
and fascinating picture of surpassing loveliness. What emotions might 
we not expect the English ambassadors to feel on beholding for the 
first time one of the most beautiful of the many beautiful cities of the 
north-west ! But,[if they felt them, they certainly kept their feelings to 
themselves. The entries in the diary are most prosaic and businesslike. 
For four days, or more, they were ferrying over their goods. On May 
8, a prodigious storm of wind and rain did some damage. On May 9 
they passed the city of Benares 2 . 

Somewhere about Benares the embassy seems to have fallen in with 
Ghairat Khan, the late governor of Patna, whoseplace had been taken 
by Mir Jumlah. The English travelled for many days in his company • 
but, at Allahabad, finding the rate of progress rather too slow thev 
respectfully took leave of his honour, and resolved once more to go on 
their way alone 3 . Ghairat Khan was anxious to keep them with him 
in order that he might have the credit of bringing the present safe to 
Delhi, and it was not without some difficulty that they were able to 
leave Allahabad. At the instigation of Ghairat Khan, differences onoe 
again arose between the embassy and its servants. On May 22 
the porters, discontented with the scanty allowance given them by the 
government, set upon Khwajah Sarhad, pelting him with stones and 
were only pacified by receiving a donative of thirty-six thousand rupees 
from Mr. Surman. 4 On May 25, when the embassy had got beyond 
the city of Allahabad, the wagoners refused to proceed any further 
and began to desert their wagons. They demanded the immediate 
payment of the demurrage promised them, amounting to Es. 1,970 for 
56 days, and Surman was again forced to relax his purse strings 5 . 

1 Diary, 39. 
* lb. 
m 3 lb., 40, 41. 

* lb. 
4 A, 41 42. 


For more than a week the caravan proceeded smoothly and contented- 
ly over the hot tongue of land, to the west of Allahabad, till, on June 6, 
it reached Mfisanagar, an ancient town standing on the banks of the 
Jumna, not far from its confluence with the Sengar. 1 In the neighbour- 
hood of these two large streams the country beoomes wild and rugged. 
Here, according to the old proverb, many a battle and many a kingdom 
have been lost and won ; and the deep ravines, now the haunt of the 
deer and the leopard, were in the times of Farrukhsiyar the lurking 
places of predatory races, thieves, and cattle-lifters. The whole road to 
Agra, it is said, was infested with Mewatis, and it was not until the 
English had reinforced their armed escort with an additional party of 
forty-five foot soldiers that they allowed their lengthy caravan to pass 
over the great five-arched bridge which spans the Sengar at Chapar- 
ghatta. 1 Grood fortune still attended them; and, on June 16, they 
reached I'timadpur, twelve miles from Agra, without having met any- 
thing worse than a storm of rain. 3 The founder of the town, rtimad 
Khan, the servant of Akbar, lay buried here, and beyond the camping 
ground, near the road, was the great reservoir of water which he con- 
structed. The rustics call it the old woman's pond, and still tell how, 
in the troubled days that are past, an ancient witch would crouch on its 
south-west side, watching for unwary travellers, ready to give the 
signal for attack, if she thought them an easy prey. On this occasion 
the witch could not have been at her post, or her judgment failed her. 
One robber came to the camp ; but the English killed him. 

On June 17, the embassy reached Kajghat, over against the red fort 
of Akbar, and received the news that Queen Anne was dead. They 
proclaimed King George with due ceremony, and crossed the river to 
Agra 4 . To the modern traveller the road from this point onwards 
to Delhi is full of charm and interest. Passing by the splendid 
pyramid-like tomb of the greatest of the Mughals, in two marches you 
reach the sacred city of Mathura, rich in Buddhist and Hindu anti- 
quities ; from whence a magnificent and almost unbroken canopy of 
over-arching boughs stretches for thirty miles towards the imperial 
city. But for the earlier travellers the journey was cheerless and unin- 
teresting, and the country a howling wilderness, overrun with maraud- 
ing Jats. At intervals, massive, fort-like hostelries with battlemented 

» Diary, 43. 
» lb., 4. 
* lb. 


walls, flanking turrets, and high arched gateways, offered shelter from 
the dangers of the night. But, with all these means of defence, the 
road was never safe for a force of less than five himdred, and it is on 
record that, in tlie days of Jahangir, a caravan waited for six weeks in 
Mathura, gathering strength to proceed. On June 27, while the 
English lay at Chaumuha, 1 one of the five cities of refuge on the way to 
Delhi, gangs of armed robbers attacked the oamp three times in the 
night, but were beaten off, with the loss of five men wounded. On 
July 3, the embassy was at Farldabad, a small town sixteen miles south- j 
west of Delhi, and were met by padre Stephanus, who brought dresses 
of honour from the king, one for Surman, and one for Sarhad. 2 The 
next day, they reached the great bridge of eleven arches to the south of 
Humayun's tomb, and ' prepared ' for their ' entry.' 3 

The Dutch embassy to Bahadur Shah, in 1711, had entered Lahor 
with much state, and the English ambassadors were similarly anxious 
to 'aggrandise their first appearance'. They wished to be creditably 
received by some high functionary, and to be allowed to visit the king 
before proceeding to the house which had been prepared for their 
entertainment, and in these respects their wishes were gratified. A 
captain of two thjusand, bringing with him two elephants and flags 
escorted them to the city with two hundred horse and foot and a noise 
of drums and trump. At the outward gate, they were met by Sayyad 
Salabat Khan, whose guests they were to be, by whom they were con- 
ducted to the imperial palace. On the way, in order to create a favour- 
able impression, they scattered handfuls of money in the streets. At 
the palace, they were presented to their great friend Khan Dauran. 
About nor-n, the emperor showed himself in the hall of audience, and 
the English, introduced by their patron Khan Dauran, presented his 
majesty with Governor Hedges's letter, and with their first offering of 
rare and costly things, a thousand and one pieces of gold, a table clock 
set with precious stones, a unioorn's horn, a gold escritoire, a large piece 
of ambergris, a silver ewer and basin, and a map of the world. The 
king, in return, invested Surman with a robe of gold zarbaft and a 
jewelled plume, and Sarhad with an equally rioh dress and dagger. 
Then the ambassadors withdrew to their own quarters, where Salabat 
Khan entertained them with a great dinner and afterwards visited them 
in the evening. 4 

1 Diary , 44. 

* lb., 45. 
s lb. 

* lb., 45 to 47. 



All this was well enough: but the false position in which the 
English had been placed by their Armenian representatives now began 
to make itself felt. According to the established etiquette of the 
Mughal court, the person next to be visited after the king was the 
tcazir, and the ambassadors had further strong reasons for doing so, in 
as much as he was not merely an all-powerful minister, but was also 
well disposed to the English, and the only proper channel through 
which requests for far mans could be made. But their Armenian 
advisers, with that preference for b ckstairs influence and irregular 
procedure which characterises the lower classes, entirely misrepresented 
the state of afiairs at Delhi, maintaining that the uazir was only titular 1 
end that the executive power lay chiefly with Khan Dauran, the deputy 
bakhshi. The English ambassadors accordingly considered themselves 
bound to invert the correct order of their visits of ceremony, and agreed 
to deliberately insult the chief personage in the state by first visiting 
his younger brother's deputy, Khan Dauran, and afterwards the watir* 
the high steward, and their old friend Ziau-d-din Khan. 2 

But if the English ambassadors supposed that through the singular 
influence of Khan Dauran their negotiations would be speedily brought 
to a favourable conclusion, the events which almost immediately 
followed their arrival should have begun to open their eyes. Scarcely 
had they been a week in Delhi, when the restless Farrukhsiyar took it 
into his head to go on one of his many expeditions, and to wander 
forth from the city upon the northern road. 3 At first he declared that 
he was going to worship at a local shrine ; then he pretended that he 
was on his way to Ajmer, or Labor. 4 The ambassadors, alarmed at the 

iDiary, 48. In his letter dated July 17, 1715, Diary, 50, 51, Surman says that the methods 
they are taking are consistent with the advice and counsel of ?igu-d-dln Khan. But in thia 
he must have been mistaken. I can hardly believe that ?i5u-d-dln Khan, who was a friend 
of the loculr, and knew the true state of affairs at oourt, can have thought it wise to negleot 
the v>ai\r and go to KhSn Dauran. 

» Diary, 48, 50. 

• lb., 50. 

* lb., 56. 


prospect of another toilsome march, in the train of the Mughal, deter- 
mined to give the greater portion of their present at once. The king, 
however, changed his mind. He merely intended to go to Panrpat to 
pray at the tomb of Bu-'Ali Qalandar, and he sent back the English 
clocks to keep in good order till his return to the city. ' In these 
circumstances, the ambassadors sent their tents to join the imperial 
camp, concluding ' that it was necessary to attend his majesty ia the 
journey,' 2 and were rewarded during the next three weeks with numerous 
opportunities of making their obeisance to the king on the road. 8 

It is clear, from their correspondence at this time, that the king was 
not thinking about them. ' We now continue in the camp,' they write 
on August 4, 4 ' leaving Mr. Stephenson and Mr. Philips to take care of 
what goods remain in the city, and, in case that the king should pro- 
ceed farther, that they concert measures to bring the goods after us. 
We are in this interval preparing petitions to be delivered to his 
Majesty, hoping we shall do something for our honourable masters that 
has not been yet obtained. The patronage and management of this 
negotiation is in the hands of the greatest favourite at court Khan 
Dauran, and under him of Sayyad §alabat Khan, withal we being no 
ways unmindful of our old friend Ziau-d-din Khan, without whose 
advice we enter upon nothing. But he being at present in a low 
station is not able to obtain the king's ear. However we are satisfied 
that, whatever lies in his power, he does and will assist us, but 
particularly in the wazir's darbdr. 

' Husain ' All Khan Bahadur, Amiru-1-umara, is lately gone into 
the Deccan country, having the entire command of all that part of 
this kingdom. Your Honour and Council have doubtless heard how 
great he has made himself, even to vie with the commands of his 
Majesty, as lately appeared in the disputes between himself and 
Mir Jumlah, whilst at court, when he obliged his antagonist, contrary 
to the king's desires, to remove from the Court to Patna, where by 
the interest of Amiru-1-umara, and his own mismanagement, he is 
quite ruined.' 

' We have advices here,' they continue at the end of the month, 5 
' that Husain ' All Khan and Daud Khan are come to a rupture in 
Burhanpur, so that it's likely a battle will ensue, the latter having 

i Diary, 5 1, 56. 
» lb., 58. 
* lb., 57. 
b Jb., 5. 


engaged many of the Deccan country to his party. It's whispered 
at this court that this is a design laid to involve Husain ' Ali Khan in 
trouble and retrench his grandeur which of late has not been very 

1 The king proceeding no further than Panipat, returned to the 
city on the 18th instant ; but, being a little disordered in his health, 
has not made any public appearance, so that we have not had an oppor- 
tunity to deliver the remaining part of our present, or commence our 

A letter, dated October 6, gives the conclusion of the contest in 
the Deccan. 1 'Your Honour and Council will have heard of the 
death of Daiid Khan in Deccan, slain in a battle with Amiru-1-umara. 
This has given a great deal of uneasiness to this court, it being quite 
otherwise laid by the king and his favourites ; and that which was 
designed for Aniiru-1-umara's ruin has proved a great addition to his 
former glories. The king at first seemed to resent it to his brother 
[the icazir], who not taking it so patiently as he expected, he has 
altered his resolution to sending Ijlusam 'All Khan a sar-o-pd and 
other marks of favour.' 

If the English were not beginning to see the necessity of concili- 
ating the wazir, they must have been blind indeed to the signs of 
the times. 

From his accession, Farrukhsiyar seems to have been in indifferent 
health, and it has been suggested that physical debility and degener- 
ation may account in part for the weakness of mind and character 
which he displayed as a ruler. 2 However that may be, towards the end 
of the year 1715, the emperor's complaints reached a climax, which 
produced unexpected consequences for the English mission. For some 
time past, Hamilton, the doctor to the embassy, had been in request at 
the Mughal's camp and court. At first he was ordered to ' give physic ' 
to the high steward, 3 with whom he took up his residence, 4 but 
whose distemper he pronounced incurable. 5 In August, on his return 
to Delhi, the king was found to be suffering from swellings in the 
groin and put himself in Hamilton's hands with the most beneficial 

1 Diary, 73. 

- IrTine's Later ilvjfhal*, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengml .LXXHJ, I. 

3 Diary, 54. 

* n , 59. 
5 f*., 72. 


results. 1 In a few weeks time, he was sufficiently recovered to be 
married to the Jodhpur princess, the daughter of A jit Singh. The 
young bride should have been brought to the court in the year 1714 
by Husain ' All, but he had not been able to remain long enough in 
Rajputanah to do so. In May, 1715, when Husain s Ali had set out 
for the Deccan, the emperor's maternal uncle, Shaistah Khan, had been 
sent to bring the princess from Jodhpur, and arrived with her on 
September 13. She was conducted to the house of Husain 'All where 
she was treated as if she had been his own daughter, and, in the absence 
of Husain 'All himself, preparations for the wedding were at onoe 
made by his brother, the wazlr. Four days later, the emperor repaired 
to the house of the icazir, where the princess was admitted to the Moslem 
faith, and the marriage rite was celebrated by Shariyat i£han, the 
ohief qdzl.* * 

But, at this point, further ceremonies and rejoicings were stayed 
by the renewed indisposition of the emperor, and recourse was again 
had to the English treatment which had before proved so satisfactory. 
On October 3, the empress — mother herself sent for Dr. Hamilton, and, 
with Khwajah Sarhad to interpret, a long conference was held on the 
subject of his Majesty's health. 3 This time the king was suffering 
from a violent pain which he feared would turn to fistula. The disease, 
whatever it was, taxed all Hamilton's skill for nearly two months, 
during which he was doubtless exposed to much misrepresentation 
and/ jealousy. The introduction of a new physician could not have 
been pleasing to the king's French doctor Monsieur Martin, or to the 
Hindu and Muhammadan practitioners at the court, and it seems to 
have excited the suspicions of the populace. On one occasion, as 
Hamilton was ' coming from the fort at night, his head was cut 
with a pebble, of which the king being informed, he ordered search 
to be made for the offender and gave the doctor people for his protec- 
tion.' 4 On another occasion, in consequence of a rumour that the king 
had died under the surgeon's hands, the house of the English ambas- 
sadors is said to have been surrounded by an angry mob, who were only 
to be appeased by Farrukhsiyar's showing himself from a gallery of 
the palace. 5 At length on November 20, all the plasters having been 

i Diary, 58 

a Irvine's Later Mvghals Chapter IV, Section 17, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, Vol. LXXII, Pt. I, page 61. 
s Diary, 72. 
*Ib., 75. 
Scott'a Ferishta II, v, 139, edition of 1794, in the account of Ferokh'sere. 


removed, the king washed himself, and received the congratulations 
of the whole court. 1 A week later, he publicly presented Hamilton 
with a jewelled plume, a vest, two diamond rings, an elephant, horse and 
five thousand rupees. 'His Majesty further, ordered buttons for a 
whole suit of clothes to be made of gold, and set with diamonds, and 
rubies, as also the handles of all his small instruments of solid gold. 
Khwajah Sarhad, having been very assistant during the king's illness, as 
interpreter received a vest and an elephant.' 2 Three days afterwards, 
Monsieur Martin had given him 'a vest, elephant, and a thousand 
rupees, a favour purely owing to his Majesty's generosity, and because 
he was his servant.' 3 

'1 he king being thus restored to health, the court and city turned 
their attention to the interrupted marriage ceremonies. On December 1, 
the wedding gifts, lavishly provided by the empress — mother, were sent 
to the bride, with a numerous escort of nobles, who were royally enter- 
tained by the wazlr. ' Husain ' All,' says the historian, 4 ' who thought 
his honour concerned, as the princess had been brought to court by 
his means, made it a point to give that solemnity all the magnificence 
for whi ch Hindustan is famous ; and he made such preparations for the 
bride and the bridegroom as exceeded all that had ever been heard of 
in the capital, as well as that had been done for the greatest rajas and 
kings of the Deccan, or for even the magnificent emperors of Hindus- 
tan. The furniture, jewels, and illuminations surpassed by much 
anything that had been done by the emperor himself. As soon as night 
came on, an infinity of fires and imitative stars threw cut at once such a 
blaze as seemed to dispute pre-eminence with the starry host of the 
firmament, and to reproach it with its inferior twinkling. "Whilst arti- 
ficial parterres, by the variety qf their colours, gave the beholder 
an idea of the celebrated garden of Irem. Pleasures and shows of all 
soils, as well as splendid entertainments, followed each other with so 
uninterrupted a profusion, that the lowest man in the city could 
partake of them, as well as the highest. Surprise, delight, and hilarity 
pervaded all classes. Such were the throngs and the crowds of 
attendance, and such the concourse of spectators, that the streets 
and markets of such an immense city seemed to have become 

1 Diary, 76, 77. In the letter on page 77 the date is given as November 23. 

* Dtary, 76. 
» lb , 77. 

* Seru-l-mvtaalharin. Reprint of Raymond's translation, Calcutta, 1902, I, 76. 


narrower, and each of them more uneasy than the heart of a lover in 
despair.' On December 7, the whole city and palace were illuminated 
At nine in the evening, Farrukhslyar, seated on his sed ia ge&tatorio, or 
moving throne, left the palace by the Delhi gate, in a splendid 
procession for the house of the wazir, whence he returned late at 
night with his bride, re-entering the palace by the Lahor gate 
At the tcazir's, some new ceremonies of Hindu origin were 
introduced, in addition to those usual at Moslem weddings. A 
mixture of rosewater, sugar and opium was offered to the guests to 
drink, which caused remark. There was also a gold plate, with five 
divisions, filled with precious stones, diamonds in the first division 
rubies in the second, emeralds in the third, topazes in the fourth, and 
in the fifth and central division, large and valuable pearls. The 
popular rejoicings continued for another week and were not concluded 
till December 15. 1 On December 28, Hamilton received a dress of 
honour, horse and a thousand rupees from the empress mother . 
Khwajah Sarhad, and Monsieur Martin, received each a dress of honour 
and five hundred rupees 2 . 

1 Irvine's Later Mughals in the Journal of tht Asiatic Society of Bengal, LX.VII, I, 61, 62. 
* Diary, 79. 



The English ambassadors were now in a position of great advantage 
for pursuing their mission. That they stood high in the favour of the 
court there could be no doubt. But they must have stood almost as 
high in the favour of the wazir, for the marriage of the king with the 
Jodhpur princess was a point of importance to the Sayyad brothers, and 
the marriage might never have been completed but for the skill of 
Hamilton. If , therefore, the English had at this time preferred their 
requests to the emperor through the wazlr, we can hardly doubt that they 
would have been most favourably considered and readily granted. Un- 
fortunately, the English had been from the first diverted from the proper 
course by their Armenian agents, and, since their arrival at Delhi, had 
already taken several further steps in the wrong direction. 

Their original petition to the king had been prepared as long ago 
as August last. It contained nineteen articles, of which the first eight 
related to Bengal. In them the English sought for a fresh imperial 
far man, confirming the previous grant of the right of free trade in 
Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, and the nishdn, allowing them to rent the 
three villages of Sutanuti, Calcutta, and Grovindpur. They further 
asked that they might be permitted to acquire on similar terms thirty- 
eight other villages, adjacent to Calcutta, and also some thirteen acres of 
land for a factory at Patna. They suggested that the town of Calcutta 
ehould be renamed Farrukhbandar, and that the three villages, with the 
thirty-eight new villages, should be combined into a single pargana to 
be called Farrukhabad. They desired permission to buy goods at 
Hugli without hindrance, and freedom generally from vexatious cesses 
and dues. They required that three days a week should be set apart at 
the Murshidabad mint for coining bullion, that the dlwan should be 
oontent with copies of their grants and not insist on seeing the originals, 
and that the government should take steps to prevent the local 
robberies to which trade was everywhere exposed. Three articles 
followed of a more general nature, praying that Madras rupees might 
psas current like those of Surat, that help might be given to English 


ships in distress at sea, and that absoonding servants or debtors of the 
Company should be handed over to the Company's authorities. Turn- 
ing to the Ooromandel Coast, the English not only asked that their 
former commercial privileges should be confirmed, and, in particular, that 
the five villages of Madras and the territory of Fort St. David should 
be granted them again, but also sought to acquire villages in Vizaga- 
patam, and the island of Divi near Masulipatam. The last three articles 
were concerned with the western side of India, and more especially with 
Surat. These articles demanded that the trade at that port, in consi- 
deration of the annual payment of a lump sum, should be declared 
custom free, that a site should be given for a factory, and a large plot 
of ground for a garden, and that the passes of the English chief should 
proteot the Company's agents from being molested. 1 

The petition, it appears, was, in the first instance, shown privately to 
Taqarrub Khan, the high steward, who caused it to be examined and 
redrafted in a condensed form, as the king objected to lengthy, tedious 
documents. The proposal to rename the town of Calcutta and the 
pargana was struck out, as being liable to give rise to awkward ques- 
tions. 2 On November 15, when the king was pronounced completely 
cured, the English took the opportunity of giving him the remainder 
of the present, only reserving a small part for the occasion of the 
marriage ceremony. At the same time they delivered their petition, 
not to the tcazlr, the only proper channel for requests for farmdns, but 
to Khan Dauran, the deputy bakhshi? He presented it to the king 
in December when the marriage ceremonies were finished, but it was 
returned with orders that it should be examined and noted upon by the 
officers of the diwdnl or treasury. 4 

This was hardly what the English had expected. They had been 
led to believe that Khan Dauran was all powerful with the king, and 
they expected that a petition presented by him would have been almost 
immediately granted. They could only account for the delay by 
supposing that Khan Dauran had allowed himself to be influenced by 
other subordinates than Salabat Khan, subordinates whom the embassy 
had thitherto neglected. According to the explanations put forward by 
Surman and Stephenson, Eajah Grujar Mai, dncdn-i-tan, and the wakil, 
Nath Mai considered that they had had too small a share in the profit 

1 Diary, 69 to 65. 
■ 2b., 74. 
» 74., 76. 
• lb., 79. 


which §alabat Khan had made out of the English. When consulted 
by Khan Dauran, they advised the reference to the treasury out of spite. 1 
Surman and Stephenson now perceived that t'.e comments passed on 
the articles in the petition by the treasury clerks must have an impor- 
tant effect upon the issue of the case, and that a great advantage would 
be gained, if those comments were favourable. They, therefore, urged 
Sarhad 'to take particular care' of the treasury officers, and were assured 
by him that all would be well. 2 The event was a bitter disappointment. 
Sarhad failed to perform what he had promised. The petition was 
returned by the treasury clerks with unfavourable comments. 3 In this 
form it was presented by Khan Dauran to the emperor, who, on 
January 27, 1716, signed and returned the documents, accepting the 
answers suggested by the treasury against the several articles. 4 The 
result was that, while the emperor conceded a good many matters of 
minor importance, the weightiest part of the petition was not granted. 5 
The request for a farmdn was ignored, and the ambassadors had to 
begin thoir negotiations afresh. 

On January 2), a second petition of seven articles was drawn up 
and sent to Khan Dauran for presentation. 6 In the first five articles, 
the English renewed their request for far mans confirming the grant of 
free trade in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, and granting them a house and 
garden in Surat, the territory in Yizagapatam and the island of Divi, 
and the thirty-eight villages in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. At 
Divi island they promised to make a harbour, which, they said, consider- 
ino- there was no port to shelter ships on the Coromandel coast, would be 
a particular advantage to his Majesty's dominions. As for the villages 
near Calcutta, unless these were granted by & farmdn, no one would let 
the Company acquire them, nor would the ditoan give any assistance. 
The last two articles contained new requests for ' the liberty of a mint 
in Bombay' and ■ for redress to those barbarities committed by rogues 
round Calcutta.' 

At this juncture, the course of the negotiations was for the time 
interrupted by renewed disturbances at the court. It had been part of 
the arrangement, which settled the first set of differences between the 
Sayyads and the emperor, that Mir Jumlah should remain at Patna. 

Diary 105, 112. 

11., 112 

lb., 81-3. 

II., 84-5, 91—3, 

11., 16*. 

lb., 86-90. 


But, owing to his reckless management, there, he was unable to meet the 
pay of a turbulent force of Mughal troops, that he had taken into his 
service. Partly to escape from their demands, and partly, as was 
believed, in obedience to secret instructions from the emperor, he 
suddenly left his government at the end of the year 1715. As far as 
Benares, he came openly. After that, to avoid all chance of being 
stopped by the icazir, he travelled as quickly as possble in a covered litter 
and secretly arrived at Delhi on the night of January 6. The waxir 
at once went to the emperor, and threatened him with the return of 
Husain 'All, and the emperor, in a fright, sent peremptory orders to 
Mir Jumlah to withdraw to Lahor. But days passed by, and 
Mir Jumlah procrastinated. At length his Mughal troops broke into 
revolt, and attacked the houses of the nobles. After a month of license 
and disturbance, they could only be got rid of by the payment of 
ten lakhs of rupees. Mir Jumlah was deprived of his offices and titles, 
and ordered to proceed to Lahor. On February 22, Nizamu-1-mulk 
conducted him on the way as far as Narela. 1 

In this same month February, 1716, it was the fortune of the 
ambassadors to come face to face with the representatives of that 
Indian sect, which has been in the end most closely associated with 
the fortunes of the English in India, the last to dispute with them for 
empire, the first to help them in reconquering it. For many years 
the Sikhs had been giving trouble to the Mughal government. On 
the death of Guru Gobind Sing, in 1708, it might have been expected 
that these troubles would cease. But his followers and family almost 
immediately brought forward a man, who exactly resembled the dead 
guru, and who claimed to be the guru restored to life. The false 
guru, -whose real name appears to have been Bandah, after routing the 
faujddr of Sonpat in a sudden attack, made his way to the hills north- 
east of Sir hind. Forty thousand men soon gathered round him. 
With these he attacked and took the town of Sirhind. The old faujddr 
was killed by a musket shot, and his body hung to a tree. The town 
was given up to pillage for four days, during which the Sikhs com- 
mitted exoesses of every kind. The outbreak soon grew to such dimen- 
sions, that it became necessary for the emperor in person to march 
against the Sikhs and their new guru, whom he came upon at the fort 
of Lohgarh, between Nshan and Sardhana. 2 In the fighting which 
ensued, the fort was taken ; but, through the devotion of his followers, 

1 Irvine, Later Mughalt, IV, 22, in the " ournat of tht Atialic Society of .Bengal ; also 

Diary, 79, 83, 95, 96. 
' [ ? Ambalab. W, I.] 


the guru escaped. Consequently, the troubles of the Mughal govern, 
ment began all over again, and fresh efforts were necessary to crush 
Bandah. At last, after years of fighting, Bandah was shut up in Gur- 
daspur, a small town forty-four miles north-east of Amritsar. Closely 
besieged for eight months, during which they were reduced to unspeak- 
able extremities, on December 7, 1715, the very day of Farrukhsi- 
yar's bridal procession, Bandah and his followers were forced to surren- 
der unconditionally to 'Abdu-s-samad Khan, the imperial general, who 
ordered that some two or three of them should be at once executed, 
and the rest kept to be exhibited in the capital and there solemnly put 
to death. The triumphant entry of the conquerors into Delhi took place, 
according to the Surman diary, on February 17, 1716. 1 The ceremonial 
on this occasion was copied from that observed after the capture of 
the Maratha, Sambha Ji. Malice did its utmost to cover the vanquished 
with ridicule &nd shame. First came the heads of the executed Sikhs, 
stuffed with straw, and stuck on bamboos, their long hair streaming 
in the wind like a veil, and along with them, to show that every living 
creature in G-urudaspur had perished, a dead cat on a pole. The 
teacher himself, dressed out of mockery in a turban of red cloth, em- 
broidered with gold, and a heavy robe of brocade, flowered with pome- 
granates, sat in an iron cage, placed on the back of an elephant. Behind 
him, stood a mail-clad officer, with a drawn sword. After him, came the 
other prisoners, seven hundred and forty in number, seated two and 
wo upon camels without saddles. Each wore a high fool's cap of 
sheep skin and had one hand pinned to his neck, between two pieces of 
wood. Many were also dressed in sheep skins with the woolly side 
turned outwards. At the end of the procession rode three great nobles, 
Muhammad Amin Khan, sent by the emperor to bring in the prisoners, 
Kamru-d-din, his son, and Zakariya Khan, his son-in-law, who being 
also the son of ' Abdu-s-samad Khan had been deputed to represent 
his father at the ceremony. The road to the palace, for several miles, 
was lined with troops and filled with exultant crowds, who mocked 
at the teacher and laughed at the grotesque appearance of his followers. 
They wagged their heads and pointed the finger of scorn at the poor 
wretches as they passed. ' Hu ! Hu ! infidel dogworshippers, your day 
has come Truly retribution follows on transgression, as wheat springs 
from wheat, and barley from barley.' Yet the triumph could not have 
seemed quite complete. Not all the insults that their enemies had 

1 Diary, 95. 


invented could rob the teacher and his followers of their natural dignity. 
Without any sign of dejection or shame, they rode on, calm, oheerfub 
even anxious to die the death of martyrs. Life was promised to any 
who would renounce their faith, but they would not prove false to their 
guru, and at the place of suffering their constancy was wonderful to 
look at. ' Me, deliverer, kill me first,' was the prayer which constantly 
rang in the ears of the executioner. One there was, a young man, an 
only son, whose widowed mother had made many supplications to the 
Mughal officers, declaring that her son was a Sikh prisoner, and no 
follower of the guru. A release was granted and she hastened to 
the prison-house to claim her son. But the boy turned from her to 
meet his doom, crying, ' I know not this woman. What does she want 
with me ? I am a true and loyal follower of the guru.' For a whole 
week the sword of the executioner did its butcher's work. Every day 
a hundred brave men perished and at nightfall the headless bodies 
were loaded into carts, taken out of the cif y, and hung upon trees. It 
was not till June 19, that Bandah himself was led out to execution, all 
efforts having failed to buy him off. They dressed him, as on the 
day of his entry, set him again on the elephant, and took him away to 
the old city, where the red Qntb niinar lifts its proud head of white 
marble over the crumbling walls of the Hindu fortreses. Here they 
paraded him round the tomb of the late emperor, Bahadur Shah, and 
put him to a barbarous death. First, they made him dismount, placed 
his child in his arms and bade him kill it. Then, as he shrank with 
horror from the act, they ripped open the child before its father's eyes, 
thrust its quivering flesh into his mouth, and hacked him to pieces limb 
by limb. l 

1 Irvine, Political History of the Sikhs, in the Asiatic Quarterly for January and 
April, 1894, 420—31, and Guru OoMnd Singh and Bandah, in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, for 1894, 1, 112- 143. Also Diary, 86-97. 



During these two months the English made practically no progress 
with their second petition. The reason is obvious. Khan Dauran, their 
patron, had done all that he was capable of doing. He could not pro- 
cure them the farmdns they required. Salabat Khan, in whose house 
Surman lived, might well have told them the truth. But the old man 
was too eager to make all the money he could out of his credulous 
clients, and too anxious to pose as their patron. He took good care, 
therefore, not to disabuse the English, and allowed them to attribute the 
delay in their business to anything but the right cause. It was said 
that Khan Dauran was a man of dilatory habits. He never gave audi- 
ence in public to persons who wished to see him on business. The only 
way to speak with him was to catch him as he passed from his rooms 
to his palanquin. Even Salabat Khan had very few opportunities 
of seeing him in private. 1 Consequently, almost all their communica- 
tions had to be made in writing, a slow, but by no means sure method 
of negotiation. Besides, the aggrieved subordinates, who had spoilt the 
first petition, were still unwilling to bring the English affairs to a 
speedy conclusion, considering that by gaining time they would also 
gain money. 2 

As a matter of fact, though the English would not understand it, 
there was only one course to be taken with reference to their irregular 
application ior farmans. As Khan Dauran's advisers correctly pointed 
out, it was not for him to persuade the king to agree to a second petition 
conceding the very points which had been just refused ; the whole 
business should properly be referred to the wazir* In these views Khan 
Dauran naturally acquiesced. One day, towards the middle of March, 
when Sarhad, paying his respects as usual to his patron, ventured to 
remind him of the second petition,the great man suddenly became frank. 
'Petition!' cried he, 'What petition? Have I not done all your 

i Diary, 97, 99, 100. 

* Ih„ 106, Hi. 

3 lb , 98-100. 


business P' Khwajah Sarhad tried to explain, but before he could say- 
many words, Khan Dauran got into his palanquin and wentjaway. 1 On 
March 21, after waiting nearly two months, the English received back 
their second petition with the direction to apply to the wazir. 2 The 
advice was sound, but the English would not tako it. They clung 
obstinately to their original erroneous views. 

Meanwhile, on March 19, the king had left the city on the 
pretence of hunting. 3 This gave Salabat Khan fresh opportunities for 
intrigues, ostensibly for the benefit of the English, but really for the 
benefit of his own pocket. 

According to his own story, on March 23, having occasion to eat 
and sleep in the same place with Khan Dauran, he took the opportu- 
nity of enlarging upon the griefs of the ambassadors. 'It was by 
your kindness/ he told his lordship, ' that the English after waiting 
many years were encouraged to bring their present to the court and 
to enter upon their negotiations. You promised to protect them and 
to grant all their reasonable demands. All their addresses to his 
majesty have been by your means. You yourself have had the credit 
of delivering in their present, the like of which has never been made by 
any European nation to the kings of India. They are therefore natu- 
rally concerned at finding their papers turned over to the wazir. How 
can they go to him with any honour to themselves, or to you ? What 
can they expect except to be treated as cast-off favourites? They are 
not aware of having done anything to deserve this punishment, and they 
hope that you will reconsider their case. In short, they depend entirely 
on you, and are resolved not to go to the wazir. If you will not prose- 
cute their business, they will leave Delhi, and negotiate no more.' 
Moved by this discourse, Khan Dauran, according to Salabat Khan, 
agreed to take back the papers, and get the second petition signed by 
the emperor, as soon as the hunting should be over ; and the English, 
with much satisfaction, resumed their misdirected negotiations. 4 

Twenty days later a fresh check occurred. A quarrel arose between 
the dependants of their patron and those of another great noble, 
Muhammad Amin Khan, as they were coming from audience with the 
king, which, as soon as their masters had withdrawn to their tents, 
developed into a down-right fight. The two sides assailed each other 

i Diary, 100. 
» lb., 98—9. 
s lb., 98. 
* lb ; 103-4, 


for two hours with small arms, bombs and great guns. At last, after 
some hundred men had been killed, they were parted by messages from 
the emperor and by the mediation of other nobles. But the emperor, 
incensed at such insolence, reduced the dignities and privileges of all 
concerned, among whom was Khan Dauran. For a moment it seemed 
that the patron of the English might be overtaken by the same fate as 
Mir Jumlah . But in a few days the imperial anger cooled and he was 
restored to his former position. 1 About the beginning of May, he again 
took into consideration the English petition, and promised to carry the 
business through, provided he could get the wazir to act with him. 3 He 
knew, of course, that, without the intervention of the wazir, there could 
be no grant of farmdns, but the English ambassadors were still 
persuaded that it was all a question of personal influence and bribery. 
When, therefore, the articles of their second petition were again referred 
to the treasury, or diwdni, they determined to deal liberally with all the 
officers concerned. To I'tisam Khan, the diivdn-i-khdlisah, they offered 
seven thousand rupees ; to the head clerk, Bhog Chand, ten thousand 
rupees; and to the subordinates twelve hundred. 3 Surman and Ste- 
phenson were of opinion that no means should be left untried to secure 
the writers in the treasury, but Khwajah Sarhad while he considered 
it beneath him to go to the office himself, refused to allow any Hindu 
xcakil to be employed in the business. His obstinacy called forth a 
protest from Surman and Stephenson at the beginning of June, but 
with littls result. 4 For weeks the ambassadors were fed upon the most 
extravag&nt hopes by Sarhad and the Indian officials. The most 
favourable remarks were recorded against the articles in the petition, 
inconvenient documents w*? r e to be withheld, and everything asked for 
was to be granted. 5 It was not till July 15 that Surman and Stephen- 
son discovered that the Armenian had deceived them throughout in the 
affair, and that the treasury was no more favourably disposed towards 
them than before. Their requests for farmdns had been flatly refused. 
The dticdn-i-khdlhah recommended that the grants to be made in com- 
pliance with the two petitions should take the form of orders from the 
wazir, which would carry no weight in the distant provinces of the 
empire. 6 

1 Diary., 102—4. 
a lb., 108. 

3 ib., 109—10, lie. 

< lb., 311— 4. 

* lb., 114, 116, 118—20. 

6 76., 121—8. 



It is at this point, I take it, that the English threw away the last 
shreds of their long-perishing belief in Khwajah Sarhad and his 
Armenian friends. Padre Daniel they must have found out as soon as 
they arrived at Delhi, xt must have been pretty clear, from the first, 
that he was a liar and a rogue, who spent all the money he could get 
on drunkenness and debauchery. As time went by at Delhi, Kh wajah 
Sarhad's character appeared in hardly any better light. Without 
scruples as to truth or honesty, he evidently paid but little regard to 
the business of the English Company, and was intent upon his own 
interests, which required a prolonged stay in Delhi. 1 The delay in the 
negotiations disconcerted him not a whit ; one would suppose that he 
was secretly glad that it should be so. Nor was he the least abashed 
when detected in his ignorance, or in the lies by which he tried to 
conceal it. He avowed that he had deliberately deceived the embassy 
as to the ill success of their negotiations in order that they might not 
be melancholy. 2 Surman and Stephenson appear to have been at their 
wits' end. At one time, they allowed it to be blown abroad that they 
were going away, as they could not obtain what they came for. 3 At 
another time, they had thoughts of going to the tcazlr, whom they had 
taken very particular care to satisfy, as they supposed, of their respect 
towards him, though they still thought that he had no real power. 4 
But in the end, like true Englishmen, they refused to admit their defeat, 
and determined to continue in pressing for their farmdns through the 
mediation of Khan Dauran. 

Good fortune favoured their persistency. About the time that the 
diwan-i-khalisdh gave the embassy its latest rebuff, disquieting news 
reached Delhi from Surat. The governor of the great western port, 
Haidar Qull Khan wrote to the king and Khan Dauran that the 
English were seriously discontented, and that if they were not speedily 
satisfied they would withdraw, and Surat would be ruined. The letters 

i Diary, 147—59. 

>/&., 123. 

*Jb., 124. 

*lb., 126. The ignorance of the English ambassadors as to the real position of affairs at 
the court is remarkable ; but perhaps we should not be surprised at it, as they were the movest 


were sent by Haidar Quli to his agent at court, Rae Kirpa Ram, who 

determined to turn these warnings to his own advantage. The Mughal 

government had always been solicitous as to the state of trade and 

navigation on the west side of India. Fears upon this score had, before 

now, made the great Aurangzeb lay aside his purposes against the 

English, and yield to their demands ; and there could be little doubt that 

similar considerations would influence the court of Farrukhsiyar. Rae 

Kirpa Ram saw that the English stood a very good chance of gaining 

all their points. He, therefore, lost no time in throwing out hints that, if 

he were properly rewarded, he would be able to materially assist the 

embassy, and Surman, though aware of the real cause of t these overtures 

thought it well not to discourage a new ally. Kirpa Ram's professed 

help, though it does not seem to have effected much, at least served to 

show which way the wind was blowing. 1 The letters from Surat were 

delivered to the emperor, and to Khan Dauran, with the most surprising 

and gratifying results. After some delay, on August 25, Sarhad had a 

private interview with Khan Dauran,the first he had ever been granted. 2 

The articles in the petition were read over, and the objections raised by 

the diwdni set aside. Then, after further delay, the second petition 

originally drawn up in January, was submitted to the emperor, and on 

October 7, was returned with most favourable orders. 3 In only two 

points were the English demands left unsatisfied. The government 

still hesitated to grant them the house in Surat and the thirty-eight 

villages in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. For these Khan Dauran 

recommended a separate petition, which he promised should be favourably 

considered. The ambassadors accordingly presented a third petition of 

two articles, but, at the same time, determined to proceed with the 

articles already granted, without waiting for the results of the dilatory 

diplomacy of Khan Dauran. 4 They had at length learnt some wisdom. 

They knew that at the Mughal Court ' every thing runs in its proper 

and set channel,' 5 and at the beginning of November they brought 

Sarhad to confess that their petitions must first go to the wazlr and 

receive his persual and approbation. 6 

On November 10, the lists of articles were all submitted by tho 
diwanl to the icazir, who, nfter perusing them, ordered the diwaa-ihhalkah 
to carry them immediately to the emperor, to get them signed, which 

i Diary 125, 129, 132. 
2/6., 131. 
*Ib., 136-7. 
*!>,., 138—40. 
6 /6., 153. 
«i*., 140. 


was aooordingly done. 1 When once they had gone to the tvazlr and put 
their business upon a proper footing, it proceeded with a rapidity 
whioh astonished the English ambassadors. So difficult is it to per- 
suade men that it is really easier to go right than wrong. ' We 
might have excepted the wazir,' they observed, ' in whose power it was, 
would have stopped our business on this occasion or caused many 
delays, the sure way to squeeze a sum of money, which must have 
been very large. But he has behaved himself with far more gener- 
osity, our papers no sooner reaohing his hands, than they received 
despatch'. 2 Yet in spite of this experience we shall find Surman and 
Stephenson perversely adhering to the view that the high Mughal 
officials were accessible only by bribes, and, still more perversely, 
expecting that Khan Dauran, in whose power it was not, could forward 
their business, while they turned to the icazir, in whose power it was, 
with the greatest reluctanoe. 

On November 20, orders were issued from the treasury to the secre- 
tary's offioe for the preparation of three imperial far mans incorporating 
the most important articles in the petition, 3 and on December 27, drafts 
of these farmdns were submitted to the emperor for his approval which 
he granted three days later. 4 The whole month of January 1717 
was taken up with making fair copies, and with procuring the imperial 
signature. A number of orders were also made out enjoining the exe- 
cution of particular provisions in the farmdns. 5 

On February 1, the far tram being perfectly finished were sent to 
Afzal Kh an the sadru-s-sudur, or imperial almoner, whose business 
it was to affix the great seal. 6 The seal it appears was actually kept 
by a bey am or princess and, when required, was sent by her to the im- 
perial almoner by the hand of a eunuch. These officials all expected 
presents, and the formality of tffixing the great seal cost the embassy 
twelve thousand rupees paid to the imperial almoner and his subordi- 
nates, besides other gifts to the tegam and her entourage 1 On March 
27, the tcazir's seal was added on the reverse of the farmdns, 6 and on 
April 10, they were placed in Surman's hands by Khwajah Sarhad. 9 

i Diary, 140-1. 
3 lb., 142-3. 
s lb., 142-7. 

* lb., 161-2. 
» lb., 170-2. 

• lb., 173. 

J It., 175-6. 

8 lb., 181-3. The watlr had his seal ' affixed without askiog a farthing ' The ambassador* 
explain this by referring to the go.d fortune of the Company ! To the lait they refused to 
admit the foolishness of neglecting the icouir for Kl an Dnuran, 

9 Diary, 184. 


The ambassadors had applied for their dismissal on February 20 
as soon as they knew that the great seal would be placed on their 
three farmdns, but the end of their labours was not yet. No less than 
three months were spent in wearisome and meaningless formalities 
without which they could not go. In conformity with the farmdns, 
orders signed by the wazlr had to be issued to various local officers and 
these were delayed by the clerks in the treasury office. A fourth 
far man in answer to the letter from Governor Hedges had to be drawn 
up, signed and sealed. Lastly the Emperor, the wazir and Khan Dau- 
ran had each in turn formally to dismiss the members of the embassy 
with suitable presents, whioh gave rise to many nice questions of distri- 
butive justice. 1 Salabat Khan was anxious, or professed to be anxious, 
that the English should be dispatched with at least the same honours 
as had been shown to the Dutch and Portuguese in the previous reign. 
The Emperor and Khan Dauran argued that the example of the usurp- 
ing Jahandar counted for nothing, and that it would be a dangerous 
precedent to make too much of European ambassadors. On April 
18, when the list of honours was announced, it was , found that while 
the Bengal president was to receive an elephant more than the general 
of Batavia, Mr. Surman and his companions were to get less than the 
Dutch. 2 In their eagerness to go the ambassadors, though surprised at 
this treatment, after making a quadruple present, would have raised no 
objections ; but Salabat Khan, professing to consider that his honour 
was in question, angrily insisted that Surman should have an extra 
horse and a dagger, and in deference to his wishes the concession was 
made. At the same time the Emperor stipulated that these presents 
Bhould not all be made to Surman on the same day. At one reception 
he was to have the horse and dagger, and at the next his plume and 
robe of honour. The other members of the embassy were to receive 
dresses of honour only. 3 For these distinctions they had in the end to 
give handsome gifts to the superintendent of elephants, the keeper 
of the robes, and the jewel and perfume offices. 4 

i Diary, 178, 182, 186-92, 208-209, 212. 

2 lb., 191. 

» lb., 192-195. 

» lb., 196-197, 201-207. 


A.t length on Thursday May 23, Surman reoeived his first instal- 
ment of parting honours, the promised dagger and horse. 1 On the 
following Thursday the whole embassy repaired for the last time to 
the court of public audienoe, where the railed enclosures were as usual 
thronged by Indian nobles covered with gold and jewels, glittering 
in the bright sunshine which the purple awnings only partially kept 
out. Once again the curtains were drawn aside from the royal alcove 
above them and they saw the Emperor Farrukhsiyar on his peacock 
throne. John Surman wasjduly invested with his robe and plume, and 
dresses of honour were put upon Stephenson and the others. Then one 
by one they made their obeisance to the throne and passed from the 
Oourt, the last being Hamilton to whom Farrukhsiyar was so much 
indebted. The doctor, though he had been consulted by the wazlr, 
had not seen his imperial patient in private for more than a year, and 
seemed to have passed out of remembrance. He was moving on like 
the rest when an order from the throne suddenly stopped him and 
directed him to resume his place. The robe bestowed on him merely 
betokened the royal favour, but did not permit him to leave. The 
King rose. The curtains were drawn. The audience was over 2 . 

Only those who have spent long years on the burning plains of 
India can fully realise with what intensity the exile comes to long for 
the fresh breezes of his native land. Far over the seas at Bothwell, 
in bonnie Scotland, brothers and sisters, an honoured father, and a 
promised bride were waiting anxiously for the doctor's return, and 
what could the Mughal offer him to tempt him to stay away loDger ? 
Three times or more did old §alabat Khan entreat him after leaving 
the court of andience to remain in Delhi, but Hamilton continued 
obstinate. ' No '; he said, ' if the king will have me he may keep me 
in irons. But I will not accept his bread, much less his service. ' There 
was nothing for it but to importune the emperor to let him go, and with 
their usual wrongheadedness the embassy turned to Khan Dauran for 
help. That Mr. Lofty at first refused to speak on the subject or to 
have any thing to do with it. But at the persuasion of Salabat 
Khan he directed the ambassadors to apply to the wazir, as they should 
have done in the first instance, and promised to help in interceding 
for Dr. Hamilton. 3 

i Diary, 196. 
a lb., 198-200. 


On June 4, the whole oase was laid before the tcazir, who offered to 
use his utmost efforts to get the dootor's release. He accordingly 
forwarded to the emperor a copy of Hamilton's petition, enforoing it 
with a pathetic address of his own writing. The imperial answer soon 
came back. ■ Since he is privy to my nakedness and perfectly under- 
stands his business, I would very willingly have kept him and would 
have given him whatever he asked. But seeing he is satisfied with no 
terms, I agree to it, provided that after he has gone to Europe, 
procured such medicines as are not to be got here, and seen his wife and 
children, he returns once more to visit this court. Let him go'! 1 

The English now turned their attention to the necessary pre- 
parations for the journey back to Calcutta. Carts were hired for their 
tents and camels bought for their baggage. An escort of fifty horse 
and four hundred foot was considered necessary to protect the caravan 
from the perils of the way 2 . On June 16, they were granted passes 3 . 
Soon after the farman to Governor Hedges was completed. The 
remaining orders relating to Calcutta and the adjacent villages were 
signed and Dr. Hamilton gave a formal obligation to return under his 
seal 4 . On June 30, they received their dismissal from the wazir and on 
July 11, from Khan Dauran 5 . On July 18, Mr. Surman after taking 
leave of Salabat Khan and recommending Mitr Sen, the English 
attorney and representative at Delhi, to his favour, quitted the city 
and arrived at Barapula where the tents were pitched 6 There was, 
however, one member of the embassy who was by no means so eager 
to bid adieu to the Mughal and all his court. Khwajah Sarhad, who had 
for many months been on bad terms with his colleagues, now declared 
that he could not go with them unless certain accounts amounting to 
nineteen thousand rupees were paid him in full. From the very 
beginning of the negotiations they had suspected him, and we have 
seen that as time went on their suspicions had been strengthened and 
confirmed. Very soon after their arrival at Delhi they had discovered 
that his influence with the Mughal court and his knowledge of its 
customs had been greatly over-estimated. The marks of consideration 

* Dia, y, 200, 202-3. 
s lb., 199. 

» lb., 206. 

* lb., 206-8. 
» lb., 208-9. 

* lb., 210-2, 


and favour which he had prooured for the embassy had been obtained 
by wholesale lying and by grossly exaggerating the value of the 
presents. The great nobles at Delhi neither knew nor cared for him. 
His Armenian friends were worthless rogues whose only object was to 
plunder the English as they had already plundered the Dutch. Daniel 
was a notorious evil-liver and a scandal to his nation and religion. 
Sarhad himself, though he professed to be ashamed of the folly aud 
debauchery of the priest, made no pretentions to virtue. ' If we 
succeed,' he used to tell the ambassadors, ' there will be no enquiry into 
our conduct. If we fail, I shall go off to Persia, and you may go 
where you please.' In practice he proved utterly incompetent, always 
promising but never performing. He refused to employ any of 
the Hindu agents whom the ambassadors brought with them. He 
persistently misled them as to the proper oourse of the negotiation. 
Hardly any part of the success which^had been achieved could be said 
to be due to him. Now that the business was settled, instead of 
assisting the embassy, he was actually impeding its departure on the 
frivolous pretext of a difference about a few thousand rupees 1 ; his real 
purpose being, as the ambassadors believed, to get himself made an 
imperial merchant and to be sent to Europe to make various purchases 
for the Mughal. The ambassador, therefore, having failed to satisfy 
him with an offer of fifteen thousand rupees drew up a protest in 
which they condemned him as disobedient and unfaithful, and deprived 
him of his dignities and allowances as an English representative 2 . 

On July 25, the English moved from Barapula to Faridabad 
whence they dispatched their protest against Sarhad before starting on 
their journey 3 . Final instructions were also sent to their attorney 
and representative at Delhi, Mitr Sen 3 . Eeaching Mathura on July 30, 
they found the neighbouring distriot full of rebellious Jats, and accord- 
ingly orossed the Jumna and proceeded down the left bank of the river 
to Agra, which they reached on August 3 4 . Hitherto the travellers 
had been much distressed by excessive heat, but at this point the 
weather ohanged. Torrents of tropical rain fell, leaving the roads 
deep in mud through which the camels and oxen slowly made their way, 
slipping and stumbling at almost every step 5 . The road, too, was best 

i Diary, 212, 214. 
*lb., 219. 
>lb., 218-21. 
*lb., 223. 
Hb„ 228. 


with Mewattis. The first day after leaving Agra, a band of these cut- 
throats on horseback fell upon the tents, "which had been sent on in 
advance under an escort of twenty or thirty guards. After a fight 
which lasted some four hours their chief received a fatal wound in his 
chest, and they galloped off, and the English saw them no more 1 . On 
August 26, they arrived at Allahabad where the Hindu governor 
received them with much ceremony and twice entertained them with 
a dinner of dishes cooked in the Muhammadan style 2 . Oa August 27, 
haviog made the governor a suitable present, they crossed the Ganges 
and proceeded on their way. The river was again crossed at Benares 
on September 5 3 . On September 21, after much suffering from very 
bad weather and muddy ways, they reached Patna 4 . 



At Patna the embassy of necessity made a prolonged halt. They 
had to wait for the boats which they expected from Calcutta for their 
conveyance; they had also to see if arrangements could be made to 
resettle the English factory and to reoover the outstanding debts of the 
Company. The English ambassadors had represented to the emperor 
that in Patna, where the English had long had a factory, instead of 
occupying a hired building with precarious tenure they should be given 
a permanent habitation, and had asked for the house of the late 
Muhammad Muzaffar, which was imperial property 5 . To this the 
emperor had agreed, provided they raised no additional walls nor any- 
thing like fortifications 6 ; and an order had accordingly been issued to 
the governor of Patna 7 . But Surbaland Khan, the governor, was not 
on good terms with the English ambassadors. The story runs that 
Mr. Surman, after all the honours he had received at Delhi, expected 
the compliment of a first visit from Surbaland Khan, a concession 
which the governor, as the representative of the emperor in Bihar, 

iDiary, 226. 
m„ 229. 
3/6., 231. 
</&., 234. 
*;&., 60. 
676., 84, 91. 
7/6., 171, 176. 

could not possibly make. The Diary shows that he certainly expected 
the English to visit him and ask for the house. When the English 
vakil applied for it to the buyutdt, Surbaland Khan is reported to have 
answered, ' Should I now give them the house, what have I left to say to 
them when they make me a visit' 1 . But the English, it seems, declined 
to make the visit, the reason given in the Diary being that a visit 
implied a peshkash of sixteen thousand rupees. 'On these conditions a 
factory might be resettled here, but without any prospect of recovering 
the former debts, the persons being all either dead or insolvent.' On 
due cODsideration the ambassadors found that their longer stay would 
be a fruitless expense of time and money, wherefore, on September 
30, they agreed to wait no longer for the convoy from Calcutta but 
to hire boats and leave the place with the utmost expedition 2 . 

On October 7, a letter arrived from the president and council telling 
them that a party of soldiers was on its way to escort them and 
directing them to await their arrival, and in the meantime to get posses- 
sion of the house and recover the Company's debts. But the embassy 
were impatient and perverse. They again recorded that no compulsion 
could be used to recover the debts without the naudbs assistance but 
the naudb, so far from assisting them, would not comply with the king's 
order permitting them to have the house. They could not have the 
house, said the naicdb, unless they at once settled a factory in it and 
unless they gave a peshkish of sixteen thousand rupees. So the 
English ambassadors decided that they could not wait for the Caloutta 
boats which would probably take two months to arrive, very likely 
meeting with some trouble in the way, « which is not to be feared in our 
passage down seeing we have the king's gurzbarddr, chelah, and dastaks 
to accompany us, besides the character his majesty has been pleased to 
give us in the list 3 . 

On October 21, they left Patna and proceeded down the river. 
Tho gurzbarddr with the elephant and horses made the same journey by 
land, keeping paoe with the boats as far as Eajmahal 4 . On November 
1, the embassy reached Gangaprasad, where they met Ensign Grammon 
with the boats and soldiers sent up from Cacutta. On the afternoon of 
November 3, they reached Eajmahal. The gurzbarddr with the 

i Diary, 234-5. 
*lb., 235, 244-5. 
3/6., 237-8. 
*lb., 243. 


elephant and horses was sent on to make the beet of his way towards 
Hughli, ten days beiDg allowed for the journey, and accordingly 
rejoined the embassy, on November 13, at Ambua 1 . 

Tne journey from Patna had been saddened, perhaps hastened, by 
the illness of the doctor, William Hamilton, who must have succumbed 
to the hardships of the road from Delhi. Soon after leaving Patna, on 
Ootober 27, at Surajgarha, near Monger, Hamilton made his will, ' on 
the boats going for Bengal' 2 . The boats sped well and brought him to 
Calcutta, not indeed in time to sail by any ship to his native Scotland 
and recover life and hope, but at least in time to die amidst his friends, 
on December 4, and be buried beside Job Charnock in the graveyard 
south oi the fort 3 . 

On November 16, it was decided that the president and four 
members of the council should proceed up the river to receive the 
Jarman and imperial gifts 4 . For this purpose it was not absolutely 
necessary that they should go more than five or six miles fiom the 
fort, but in view of the importance of the occasion they consented to 
go beyond even Hughli to r lriveni. Before their teits, according to 
the prescribed custom, a space of some three hundred yards was enclosed 
with old screens. Within this enclosure, on November 20, the 
reoeption of the far man took place in the presence of a large and 
respectable body of witnesses. Besides the farm an there were gifts, a 
vest, a dagger, a neck ornament and an elephant, with attar of roses, 
shawls and satins. They were given with the farman by the 
yurzbarddr, and before receiving each gift the president made the 
customary obeisance 5 . In return, costly presents were made to the 
Mughal officials 6 , and with these ceremonies the embassy concluded. 

At the close of the Diary the ambassadors observe that 'since the 
trade of Europeans in these parts there have been sundry attempts of 
this kind, but the grants obtained have been of very little value though 

iDiarp, 248-9. 

*£nyli»h in Bengal II, I, 293-5. 

^Calcutta Review, April, 1903, 296-312. " In 1786 when digging to foundations of the 
steeple of St. John's Church the masons brought to light the tombstone of the gieat doctor. 
Warren Hastings, who was familial with the story of the embassy, wished the n.emorial to be 
placed in the centre nich of the entrance to the church and the letters gilt, but it is now in 
the Charnock Mausoleum." 

*3nglith in Bengal, II, I, 286. 

* Diary, 250-1. 

*£ngluh in Bengal, II, I, 289-90. 


at muoh superior expence' 1 ; and it might be maintained that the grants 
obtained in this case were of very little value too. It is true that in 
Bengal the English were for a long while unable to make good the 
privileges conceded to them by Earrukhsiyar. This may be explained 
partly by the astuteness of the native rulers, partly by the complications 
which arose out of the struggles first with the Ostenders and afterwards 
with the Marathas, partly too by the natural unwillingness of the 
Company's servants to quarrel with the local government to the detri- 
ment of their own private business. Nevertheless the embassy was a 
real step in advanoe. It legalised the whole of the English position in 
India. In Bengal it placed the looal government technically in the 
wrong so long as the farman and orders of the emperor were disregard- 
ed, and it consequently furnished the English with a^standing quarrel 
whioh they might take up at any time. This they at last did after the 
catastrophy of the Black Hole, and the withholding of the rights won 
by Surman was the ground put forward by Olive, when he broke with 
Siraj-ud-daulah and entered upon the conquest of the country. The 
soldier completed and more than completed what the ambassador 




15 Aug. 17 U to U Dee. 1717; 



1. Consultations. 


Mr. J no « Surman & Mr. Edwd. Stephenson. 

" Having received a letter from the Hon ble President & Counoill, 

dated the 22 nd July, inclosing Copy of instructions, whioh impowers 

us to negotiate the business of the Hon ble united East India Company 

att the Court of the Emperour of Indostan ; 


August 15th 1714. having particularly examined these instructions, 

and finding that the Hon ble Presid* & Councill, 
have very straitly limited the attendance that shall proceed with us ; we 
conclude they have an opinion that the Nabob of this province will 
grant us force sufficient for our safe conduct thro' itt. By the small 
care he took of the Present in itt's way up from Bengali ; We 
have good reason to beleive his future assistance will be much of the 
same nature; and that no Risque may be run, and the Hon bIe 
Pres dt - & Councill nott depend on such hopes ; Conclude that we write 

1 This diary has been carefully summarised by Orme (See Orme Collections, Vol. VII. 
pp.1693 — 1711). He notes the names of the agents in the embassy and continues : "They 
were all at Patna, January 1st 1714-15. But delays from the Nabob of Patna and his 
officers, and the tricks of Seerhaud, the roguery and obstinacy of the carriers and other 
impediments prevented them from beginning their march before the 7th April, when the 
whole was at Bicherum serays [Bikrara SarSe]." See also rough notes by Orme in the Orme 
Collections O. V., Vol. 12, pp. 25-52 and 78-89. Orme personally consulted Edward Stephenson 
about the embassy in January 1765. 

* Mr. John Surman, Mr Edw a - Stephenson, Mr. Hugh Barker, with Dr. Hamilton, and 
Cojah Seerhaud [KhwSjah Sarhad] were at Patna waiting for an escort from the King before 
proceeding to Delhi. The Diary commences on the 15th of August 1714. 



a letter to them, giving a full account of the Above-mentioned : 
for although they have not possitively limited us, to any certain rules ; 
butt that on necessity we have power to alter them ; Tett since the 
difference will be so great, and haviDg time sufficient ; think itt our duty, 
first to receive farther instructions. 

The Hon ble President & Councill having permitted us to remove 
to another house if we Judge convenient Ordered that a proper house 
be Enquired after and the Councill advised of itt." 

" Pursuant to the Hon ble President & Councills permission ; In case 
we should Judge convenient to hire a house ; We 

September 1st. rs 

have this day contracted for One att 50 per 
mensem. The reasons for our living apart are as follows. 

"Seeing we are to appear in this publick station; Our stay in this 
factory must be attended with severall inconveni- 

lrt'7. J 

ence3 ; as particularly the Awe We are in (as 
Merchants) from the Government hindering us in our preparations 
which otherwise we Can't be liable to. 

"There is nott roome in this factory for the bulk of the Present, for 

which reason houses have been already hired to 

receive itt. Whereas the present House we have 
taken is able to contain the whole, and sufficient to make all prepara- 
tions for our proceedure, vhich would be impossible for us to doe 

* Itt is absolutely necessary that we appear in a more publick manner 

than it's possible to doe att present ; that we may 
^ 7 ' have the greater respect from the government ; and 

that our affairs here may be more successfully negotiated, Seeing the 
post we are now in att this Factory can nover be adequate to the Charac- 
ter we receive by this imployment, butt may be a means of being lightly 

" Having received news that two Soorzeb-jLidars [gurzbarddr] from the 
King, with Ceerpaws \_sar-o-pd] and a Cunger \_hhanjar] are on their 
way hither ; Ordered that preperations be made for our departure 
hence, that peons and servants, be suitably entertained, and that our 
Equipage bo decent, and handsome, according to the Honourable 
President and Councils instructions: there being att present no 
farther occasion. 

Th9 Honourable President and Councill in theirs of 27th Ult°- 
having enclosed three Husbull Hoocums [hasbu-l-hukms], one of which 


was for Gyrutt Cawn [Ghairat Khan], 1 Nabob of this provinoe, with his 
forces to conduct us through itt : Agreed The said Husbull Hoocum 
\hasbu-l-hukm] be nott delivered till We appear in a publick station. 

Agreed that three soldiers be detained, more than what allowed : Viz*' 
1 for a Gunner, 1 Tailor, and 1 in Case of mortality ; and that the Presi- 
dent and Oouncill be advised of our reasons on this head." 

" The other house being cleaned out, and fitt to receive Goods ; Agreed 
We first send the liquors, till such time more 
Peons are entertained; and that those now in 
service, goe to guard itt. 

This day, Anoop Chund [AnGp Chand] presented himself, to serve as 
Vakile \_vaklf\, assistant to Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] in this 
negotiation : Upon Enquiry, finding him to be a Person of some 
substance, and Clear reputation ; being particularly commended for his 
Eloquence, and learning, sufficient for this undertaking ; We doe think 
him a proper person. He is att present troubled with the Barbeirs, 2 
therefore as yett unfitt for any publick address: However, we shall 
dispence with that for some time, in hopes of his recovery j considering 
him the fittest person in this place, and nott knowing any to oompare 
with him for such an Employ. Agreed that we advise the Honourable 
President and Councill of itt, and the reasons we had to choose him." 

" Agreed that the Vakile [vakil] visitt the Nabob, and that he take 
One Gold Moor [muhr] and five rupees for a 
present, and ten rupees to be disbursed among the 
Servants ; that he tender our service, and deliver the Husbull-Hoooum 
\hasbu-l-hukm~\ from Caun-dora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur] 
withall endeavouring to gain a possitive answer from the Nabob, 
wether he will grant us forces, sufficient for a safe conduct, through his 
province, pursuant to the several! orders from the King, already 
delivered him, under the seales of Cuttbullmooluok, Omeerallomrah, 
Meer Jemla, and Cutturub Caun [Qutbu-1-Mulk, Amlru-l-Umara 
Mir Jumla and Taqarrub Khan]." 

1 Sayyad Ghairst Kh5n, Bgrha, son of Rayyad Nasrullah, SsdSt Khan, by sister of the 
two Sayyads. He was killed on the 8th Oct. 1720, while attempting to avenge his uncle, 
Husain ' All Khan's assassination. 

2 According to Hobson Jobson "barbiers" was formerly current in the East "as the 
name of a kind of paralysis, often occasioned by exposure to chills." Sir Joseph Fayrer 
regards it as "the dry form of beri-beri." Mr, W. Irvine, to whom I am indebted for many 
valuable uotas en the names of persons and things in the following pages, thinks that a 
paralysed man would hardly have been selected for an appointment involving a long journey 
and much work, and suggests that " barbiers " here stands for bawuslr, pronounced babastr, 
or babes, meaning piles, 

B 2 

4 PATNA, OCTOBER, 1714. 

11 Pursuant to our former Consultation, Our Vakile visitted the Nabob, 
where he was handsomely received ; and the 

October 7th. 

second visitt delivered the Husbull-Hoocum, 
{Jiad'U-l-hukm^ being assured that so soon as [we] were iu a posture to 
leave this place, "We might depend on his protection, and that he would 
see us safe conducted thro' his jurisdiction " 

" In the interim of these 3 days disputes, there has been a rumor 
spread of Gyrutt Cauns [Ghairat Khan's] being displaced, and that Ali- 
Esgar-Caun ['All Asghar Khan] 1 is constituted his successour. Upon 
large Enquiry into the truth of itt, We have very Good reason to beleive 
it: Seeing Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Khan] himself talks of departing 
hence in less than 20 days To proceed with him would be absolutely 
the safest conveyance we could meett with, butt seeing his stay is so 
short, and we so bare of necessaries, for so long a Journey, this project 
is Utterly impracticable. Wherefore we qught to prepare against the 
worst, and look out for another opportunity : for which reasons Agreed> 
that [we] write a complymentary letter to Monsieur Martin 2 att Dilly, 
[Delhi] to be dispatched this day, by a nimble Gossid [gd&id'], 
acquainting him with this turn of affairs here, which he can't be 
ignorant off, that we were conscious that our generall Dusticks 
[dastaki] were nott sufficient commission to the new Subah \_Subaddr~\ 
on his arrivall ; in order to a safe conveyance through this province, 
advising him withall that the way between this place and Bannarass 
[Benares] was of no little Risque unless secured by a good guard. 
Agreed that this letter be translated into Latin by Hugh Barker, and 
that another letter be wrote to the same purport, in Persians; that 
Padree Daniell be also wrote to this effect, and that we acquaint. 
Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] of this turn of affairs, desiring he 
would advise what other friends he has made att Court to carry on 
this negotiation and that he himself write to them. " 

" The Cossid [qdsid~\ that brought the Honourable President and 
Councills last Packett, informing: us that Cojah 

October 10th. . . 

Seerhaud [ Kh wajah Sarhad] was arrived att 
Boglepore [Bhagalpur] ; We have taken into consideration, the great 
risque of passing the Chuckwars, who (as we are credibly informed) 

1 Afterwards Kh5n ZamSn ; died 29th Jan. 1743. He was the son of K5r X^lab Khgn. 
AnjHrl, MewStl, a favourite of BahEdur Shall. 

" ; Monsieur Martin, a French physician, died at Dehli in Zu-1-qa'dah, 1140, i.e. June, 
July, 1728. He was prominent in Bahadur Shah's reign at the time of the Dutch embassy, 
working actively against them. He waa called in to attend Muhammad ShSh several times 
early in that re : gn. 

PATNA, OCTOBER, 1714. * 

are returned to their old station att Samboe [Samba!], and consequently 
as capable as ever to aot villainously, should they take a fancy to seize 
the person of Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad], knowing he belongs 
to the EDglish, whose boates have this two years passed by force. 
We are nott well satisfied with the Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs] 
protection : For all which reasons, and to discharge the duty incumbant 
on us, Agreed that we immediately write him a letter, advising that 
he ought nott to risque his person farther than what was absolute 
necessity, and that our Opinion is to leave the boates with the Goorze- 
burdars, and himself come overland." 

2. Diarv. 
October 17th. " Arrived Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]* " 

3. Consultations. 

*" In the Wacka [vaqdyd '] sent us by the Nabob, there is news that, 
att the desire of Padree Daniel, Aurruff Chilah, 
[' Arif chela] with a Goorzeburdar \_gurzbarddr\ 
was ordered to Patna, for the more safe conveyance of the English 
and Kings present to Court ; Seeing the Said Padree had complained, 
by Caundora's [Khan Dauran's] means, that only the want of Carriage 
and assistance did now detain them. Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad], since his arrivall, has informed us ; that he has advices from 
Padree Daniel of 50 days date, that he has obtained from the King 
an order for a Chilah \cheld~] and Goorzeburdar \_gurzbarddr\ to come 
to us, with seerpaws [sar-o-pds'] and a Cungee [khanjar]. Also 
that the King outt of his great favour had sent orders on every Subah 
\_subaddr~\ and Duan [diwdri] to defray our Carriages and expences; 
and by another letter from Cojah [ Kh wajah] Petrus to his Gomasto 
[gumdshstah] here, confirming that news, that Papers were sealed, and 
the Chilah etc. would be dispatched in a day or two. These advices 
have been renewed for this five or six days, all which time we have 
waited for their arrivall with impatience, reflecting that every day now 
lost is more than ten att another time : for which reason, and nott to 
be tardy in our preparations, which will att least take up six weeks, the 
Cold weather coming on with our daily expences; and lastly if the 
Kiug has issued outt such orders, We reasonably beleiving they will be 
to receive Specie and nott to have carriages delivered us, by which our 
Honourable masters may be no loosers, by any before-hand Preparations ; 
Agreed, that we commence to hire Carriages, and that the Carriers 

6 FATNA, OCTOBER, 1714. 

who have for severall days presented themselves, be now sent for, and 
an agreement made with them for 100 Carriages." 

" Doondy Chowdry [Dundi Chaudhrl,] Cheif of the Carriers, with 20 
„ , M . others, has this day been with us, and have agreed 

October 23rd. . ' ° 

to prepare 100 Carriages on the following terms : 
att 11 Currt. Rupees per 1 Md. 5 Sr., Each carriage to carry 25 Mds. 
with 4 oxen ; all to be in readiness in 6 weeks : In case of which, and 
the fault being ours, in nott proceeding ; then we are to pay them 
demurrage according to Custom. They are by agreement to receive 
7500 rupees before hand, 10,000 rupees more in the interim, and on 
their departure; the remaining 10,000 rupees to be paid on their way 
between this place and Dilly as there shall be occasion. Ordered that 
they give obligations for the above mentioned, and that 1005 rup s - be paid 
them, and the rest of the money payable before hand, in small parcells : 
bo that the opportunity of getting ready may nott be lost, nor in case of 
the Goorzeburdars [gurzbardars] timely arrivall much money Expended." 

4. Diary. 

"This day arrived Aurruff Chilah ['Arif chela] with the Kings 
orders and a Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] from Caun- 
dora [Khan Dauran], which was received by 
John Surman without any Ceremony." 

5. Consultations. 

"Yesterday Mahumud Arruff Chilah [Muhammad 'Arif chela'] 
arrived with the Kings orders on the Nabob 
Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Khan], Duan Esgar 
Caun [diwan Asghar Khan] and Bootade Mullah Nosseer [buyutdti 
Mulla, Nasir]. The two former nott being in the City ; Order'd that 
Mahumud Aurrufi Chilah ['Arif chela], Adge Omud [Ha ji Ahmad], 
and Golam Hossein [Ghulam Husain], Goorzeburdars \_gurzbarddrs] goe, 
and deliver his majestys order to Mullah Nosseer [Mulla Nasir], 
demanding a ready comply ance, and intimating that seeing the King 
had issued outt such gracious orders, The fault of any longer stay 
would be entirely theirs, and for which they must be accountable. 

Ordered that a list of what carriages we esteem necessary for the 
present be prepared and sent to the Bootade \buyutati]. 

Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] informing us that the Flint 
"Ware in the Present would be of no value, unless putt into a better 
shape, and seeing a possibility with a small expence to render itt very 

PATNA, OCTOBER, 1714. 7 

acceptable ; Agreed that proper Workmen be sent for, and that they 
follow Oojah Seerhauds [Khwajah Sarhad] directions in this Affair. 

There being severall sorts of Fine Oiles, Otter I'itr] and Drams 
which must of necessity be divided into a great many parcells, and 
should be putt into handsome bottles and Cases, in order to their 
better acceptance; withall this place being noted for curiositys of 
this nature, and consequently a small sum thus Expended appearing 
large and agreeable att Court, Agreed That 1000 or 1500 Rupees (butt 
no farther), be laid out in making Diamond Cutt glasses, and bottles, 
Otterdaneys ['itrddnis] and Gilt Ware, after the English Fashion, and 
that the Care of this devolve on Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah SarhadJ. 

There being still an oocasion to make sundry neoessaries In Silver ; 
Agreed that the Bullion bought by Edward Pattle etc., and sent us 
be given outt, and made into the following particulars — 

1. Aftoa and Chillumchy [dftdbd and chilamchi], 

1. English Coffee Pott. 

1. D° Country fashion. 

1. Small Chafendish and Lamp for Spiritts. 

1. Large Soop- Spoon. 

2. Candlesticks. 
2. Salt sellers. 

1. Porringer. 

2. Bandizers, 1 large, 1 small. 
12. Plates. 

4. Small dishes. 

1. Large Soop-dish. 

2. Middling and 2 large dishes. 

1. Mussall and Teeldanny [mttsh'al and tel-ddni\. 
1. Mussal with 2 branche 
1. Phanoose [fdnus] . 

1. Tea pott and Canister. 

2. Chubdars Sticks [chobddr sticks]." 

" The following list being drawn out, and sealed by M r John Surmans 

November 2nd, 17H. seal > 0rdered tnat tne Groorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs] 
carry itt to the Bootade [buyutati] who has 
demanded itt, viz*- 

100 Carriages each to carry 25 mds. 
1200 Cohars [kahdra], 
15 Camells. 
10 Hackeries. 


22 Oxen for the Guns. 
30 Bildars [beZdars]. 
10 Carpenters. 
4 Smiths. 
The Bootade [buyut&ti'j refused to accept the Abovementioned 
Phirds [fards], unless sealed by Cojah Seerhaud | Khwajah Sarhadj, 
whose name was solely expressed in the Kings orders : To which 
the Groorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs] answered ; That John Sarman being 
Cheif, itt was customary for all Papers to receive his impression, and 
that the Kings orders did nott so much respect the Seal as the 
ensuing Present. This nott proving satisfactory to one insisting 
as a Servant on the letter of Said orders, M r John Surman, That 
our Honourable Masters might nott be impeded from receiving this 
benefitt, offered as some alleviation, That his own seal should be 
att the Top and Cojahs [Khwajah's] att the bottom of Said Phird 
\_fard~\ : butt that this may be no future President, Agreed, That 
Padree Daniel, by the first Oossid [qdsid] to Court be forbid men- 
tioning Seerhaud, or att least without giving the Preheminence to John 
Surman, in all orders that may come from thence. This was agreed 
to by the Bootade [buyutdti] with the following alterations only. 
Instead of 100 Carriages at 25 mds per Carriage, 160 at 16 mds, and 
that Seerhauds seal be altered to Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]." 
" Cojah Seerhaud [ Kh wajah Sarhad] advising us, that he wore Union 
Flaggs 1 in Hugly has desired the same liberty 
here. Itt is the Opinion of Mess 1 " 3 John Surman 
and Edward Stephenson that where the Companys business may call 
him apart, there is an absolute necessity off his appearing in some 
State; Yett retaining a destinotion to the Cheif; There being no great 
necessity for itt att present, and nott to disgust M r Pattle, while 
in this place ; withall the Case being Altogether new, no Second Ever 
carrying them ; They have desired him nott to insist on itt, butt referr 
itt to the Honourable President Etc. whose orders shall be obeyed." 
"The 7 th Inst. Oojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhadj visitted the 
Duan [diwdn'] and Bootade [buyutati], where he 
was very handsomely received. The Duan 
\diwan~] demanded an Account of the Kings present, which Seerhaud 
refused, pretending Every thing was sealed up, he nott being Em- 
powered to open itt ; butt desired the Duan \d\wdn~\ to follow the 
letter of the Kings orders, Intimating that nothing hindred our 

i This union flag was not the present union jack, but an earlier flag in which the 
St. George's and St. Andrew's crosses were combined. 


proceedure butt want off Carriage for the Present, which we expected 
would be in readiness by the first of next moone. The Duans [dlican's] 
reason for this demand was the apprehension of Merchants Goods 
being carried Under protection of the Kings orders ; for which he 
should in some measure be accountable ; Whereas the delivery of such 
list would Endemnifie him. Seerhaud answered That the English 
nation (He hoped) had gott such an Established reputation, as nott to 
need supports of that nature, off which his Majestys present favour was 
a plain Instance ; besides that we should be very f earf ull of putting his 
Majesty to any unnecessary Charge : He farther added, that upon a 
strict Calculation, We found that 60 Carriages and 300 Cohars \kahar&\ 
might be deducted from the former list : Wherefore we desired the first 
might be restored, and another received in its roome, which was done 
accordingly by the Goorzeburdars (gurzbarddrs), as mentioned in our 
former consultation. 

For the furtherance of a letter to our Nabob who is still abroad, 
brought from Court by Aurruff Chilah [' Arif chela'] ; Agreed that one 
Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr], and Said Chilah [chela] attend him, and 
waite for what orders shall issue from thence. 

Carriages being arrived to receive their loading, and there nott being 
servants sufficient to attend their Carrying out ; Agreed that more 
Peons Etc be entertained according to the pressing occasion. 

Ordered that Goods be loaden on the Carriages, as they come in, 
with All Expedition." 

6. Diary. 
" Received a letter wrote in English from Monsieur Martin, att Dilly ; 
A private Account off which is gone to the Honble. 

November 19th. r . ° 

President and Councill att Fort William and 
Signed by Messrs Jno. Surman and Edward Stephenson." 

" An account off the Carriages as they were 

November 23rd. ,,,*,«.,, 

loaded and Carried out 

Nov. 14 ... ... 30 

. 15 ... ... io 

16 ... ... 11 

17 ... ... 12 

18 ... ... 6 

19 ... ... 3 

20 ... ... 5 

22 ... ... 2 


10 PATNA, NOVEMBER, 1714. 

7. Consultations. 

" The Nabob being come into the City ; to hasten the preparations for 
our departure we think itt absolutely necessary 
that he be visitted. Agreed that he be visitted and 
be desired to grant a greater force than he has already ordered. 

Tents necessary for our selves and Attendants in some measure 
being provided, Agreed that Mr. John Surman pay for them outt off the 

Vizi :— 

1 Tent with redd lining ... ... 205 

1 do Small, Chints do ... ... 65 

1 do do do ... ... 61 

1 do do redd lining ... 65 

6 Cnnnauts [qanats'] Chints ... ... 162 

Necessary Tent ... ... 40 

1 Tent 5 Gur. redd lining ... ... 130 

1 do 4 do do ... ... 120 

4 Cunnauts Currowa \_qanats of kharwa'].,. 104 

1 do Green ... ... 17-4 

1 Small Tent ... ... 80 

1 Canopy Chints lining ... ... 35 


November 28th. 

u Considering that severall off the Companys Debtors have been 
seized by Edward Pattle etc., which being com- 
plained off to the Goverment, they were demand- 
ed out off their hands, And nothing being procurable in the publick 
Courts of Justice; "We have desired M* Pattle, &c as consent and 
advice to Seize said Debtors, "Well knowing that our present station frees 
us from those apprehensions which attend a Factory off Merchants ; that 
so by using a little severity, we might gett in att least part of the Debts : 
Agreed that Peons be Employed to seize them as Speedily as possible ; 
Especially Dunnysaw [Dhani Sana], and Acrum [Akram], who are the 
only persons judged responsible. As itt is believed the Government 
will take notice off itt, Agreed that Seerhaud inform the Nabob, that 
despairing to obtain our Debts here, we are resolved to Carry them with 
us to Court." 


8. Diary. 

November 28 th "Account off Carriages continued. 

Not. 25 ... ... 4 

26 ... ... 3 

28 ... ... 4 


9. Consultations. 

" Considering Every body Ought to make a handsome appearance, and 

Mess rs Hamilton and Barker nott having Pallan- 

keens yett provided ; Agreed that they be made, 

and slightly plated with Silver ; and that M r - John Surman give money 

outt off the Cash for that use." 

" Pursuant to a former Consultation, having Seized Caungee [KMnji] 
and Dunnysaws Son, [Dhani Saha] the Companys 

DecembGr 8th.» 

Debtors, with Sooty Deloll [Suti, dalaT\, a Debtor 
off M r - Lloyd deceased; and used them with some severity: these 
thorough-pac't Rogues, nott Easy to be brought to reason, have rather 
than pay 500 Rupees off Debts, chose to spend so much in the Durbar 
\_darbar\* Their friends gott together, and raised all the Salt Merchants, 
and Cashmeerys [Kacmiris], to complain to the Nabob, hindering his 
going to prayers ; For which reason, he sent to desire tbat the prisoners 
Might be delivered to Sheak Esaw [Shaikh Isa], who should see us 
paid; by which meanes, the ill name would be taken from both off us. 
Upon due consideration, itt is the Opinion off us all, that they be delivered 
for the following reason, That by any meanes we ought nott to disoblige 
the Nabob ; for although itt's likely, since we are going to Court, he may 
nott care to Force us ; Yett he may privately be more detrimentall to our 
Masters Affairs, Farr exceeding any advantages that may arise from Said 
Debtors. We have advised Mess ra Pattle and Pratt of this : The former 
only dissents, So ordered that Caungee, Dunnysaws son [KMnji, Dhani 
Sana's son], with Sooty Deloll [Suti, dalaf\ be delivered, and that Cojah 
Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] carry them with him to Sheak Issa [Shaikh 

12 PATNA, DECEMBER, 1714. 

" The Eugenes [UjainI*] ' molesting Merchants and travellers on the 

road toBanarrass, i Benares] which we must pass: 
December 12th. . . \ 

We have considered whither we ought intirely 

to rely on the promiss off the Nabob for his protection ; or do something 

for our selves ; by presenting the Cheif of them, Sedistenaran [Sidisht 

Narayan]. We have approved off the latter. Agreed that the following 

things be delivered by M r - Edward Stephenson, that they be made tip, 

and that the Kings Chilah, [chela], one Horseman and ten peons be sent 

thither ; and that a Complimenting letter be wrote, and delivered to the 

Chilah. The present to be viz*- 

yds. n'ls. 

Broad Cloth Scarlett 11 14 is 

10 guzz. 

Green Fine 11 14 ., 

10 do. 

Aurora 1 1 14 

10 do. 

Imbost Ordinary 11 14 

10 do. 

Yellow Ordinary 6 ... 

5 do. 

1 Fuzzee 2 

1 Pair Horse-pistolls 

1 Pair pockett do. 

2 perspect: Glasses 

2 Magnifying and Multiplying 

; Glasses. 

2 Triangle Glasses, 1 Burning 


3 Penknifes, 3 pair Sizars. 

10 S r Flint Ware. 

u The business off Seizing the Debtors, having made some noise in the 
City, and represented by the Merchants as a hardship ; We Fearing 
that they are gathering names to a protest; Agreed that Padree 
Daniel be advised thereof, by a Nimble Cossid [qasid] ; that he Endeavour 
to gett an order from the King concerning this buisness, and for Fear off 
Miscarriage, that Duplicates of said Letters be sent by another Cossid 
\_qdsid\ and that Seerhaud Endeavour to obtain that this affair be duely 

1 Mr. Irvine says that the Ujainiyah clan had long been practically independent, only pay- 
ing revenue under compulsion. Rajah Rudar, descended in the fifth generation from the first 
Ujainiyah rajah of Bbojpur, rebelled against Auiangzeb, and was joined by the neighbouring 
zamindars. On this account he was deposed and the chiefship was given to his brother, 
ancestor of the present houses of Dumriion and Jagdispur. While Aurangzeb was absent in the 
Deccan, Dhir, a distant cousin of the rajah, descended in the sixth generation from the saire 
ancestor, seized many zamindaris, and maintained a force of about 14,000 horse and 80,000 
foot. Dhir died of fever in 1712, and was succeeded by Sidisht Narayan, his second but eldest 
surviving son. 

2 Fuzzee is perhaps meant for fusil, i.e. a matchlock. 

PATNA, DECEMBER, 1714. 13 

entered in the Swana [savdnih], getting recommendatory letters from 
Meer-Jemla's [Mir Jumla's] and Caundora's | Khan Dauran's] Brother, 
who are in the place. 

To show the World, that our stay here proceeds only from the 
dilatoriness off the Government's preparations ; Ordered that what Tents 
are ready, be sent outt with a Fitt Number off peons to guard them." 

"The Soldiers wanting Cloths, itt being very Cold, and withall 
necessary that they make a handsome appearance, 

December 25th. ■* - ' - rr . ' 

Agreed that Each off them have Coates given 
them, and that Mr. Stephenson deliver outt Cloth for that use. 

In a former Consultation we agreed nott to take any more Carriages 
from the Kings officers, than what were absolutely necessary for the 
Carriage off the present. This day Seerhaud has been with the Bootade, 
[buyutati] and there Agreed to receive as many Carriages as were 
necessary for all the goods. His reasons for so doing are as follows ; 
That finding there might be plague and trouble from the Nabob, Duan 
[dlwotti] etc. On our leaving this place ; as likewise in the way, where 
those private Carriages might be distinguished; Since they would give 
Dusticks \_dattaki\ for no more than what were paid for by the Kings 
officers. This was done without our knoledge and consent. In case 
hereafter there may be any trouble on this head att Court, Agreed 
that 9 rs - a Maund be Charged on all private Goods, and that money 
either pay for the Carriages to the King, or be Employed in Bribery." 

10. Consultation. 

" The Honourable President &c M letter, dated December 15 th was 
produoed and read. Coiah Seerhaud rKhwaiah 

December 31st. £ • ,_ . * , L J 

barnadj having tor these tew days shown himself 
very much discontented, and privately said that unless he had the 
Entire management of the Durbar [darbdr], he would nott proceed; He 
was now desired to Explain himself. Concerning the 20000 rupees he 
Affirmed to be promised him by the Honourable President and Councill, 
he received a finall answer, That they neither promised anything off 
that Nature nor would now give itt. Seerhaud Explains himself in this 
manner, That Seeing the Councill had nott thought fitt to Allow him the 
Sum above-mentioned, Yett he hoped att his return in consideration off 
his good Services, he should receive itt in Culcutta, So that he disputes 
no farther att present on this head : Butt his immediate demands are, 
that none off us should offer to interferr in the buisness off the Durbar 

14 PATNA, DECEMBER, 1714. 

[darbdr], which did Entirely depend on him alone. That no papers or 
letters should be sealed with John Surmans Impression, and In Fine 
that unless all this was allowed, he would nott Stirr a Step, or till such 
time as he received farther Instructions from the Honourable President 
and Oouncill ; Upon which The Companys General Instructions were pro- 
duced, and Examined ; butt all would nott avail. He having repeted his 
deniall to proceed with us, "We demanded a delivery off all the Companys 
letters and papers to the King and Officers att Court, which he readyly 
comply'd with. Agreed that the Honourable President and Councill 
be fully advised off Every Particular, and that we waite their farther 

On Christmas-day Seerpaws \_sar-o-pas~] being given to the Goorze- 
burdars [gurzbarddrs'], Agreed that they be allowed. 

Sitteringes [shitranji] for the OrdiDary Spreadings off the Tents 
being bought ; Agreed that M r Jn° Surman pay for them. 

The Government having absolutely refused to Furnish us with 
Camells, none being to be hired, and they being very necessary, Agreed 
that 7 or 8 more be bought, iff procurable. Bought viz* : — 

Its. A. P. 

1 Sorrell Horse ... 460 12 6 

1 Bay do ... 228 

1 Sorrell Tangon 1 ... 120 

808 12 6 

2 Oxen ... ... ... 20 

828 12 6 

Agreed that they be paid for by M r Jno. Surman." 

"After many disputes with the Duan \dlwan~\ and Bootade 
[buyutati]) who have been quarrelling with one another Concerning the 
agreement, and paying for the Carriages ; withall objecting that we are 
in no readiness to proceed, having demanded the reason of Such delay, and 
also that we would sett a day from which The Carriages and Cohars 
[kaMrs] should commence : That whatever Cheats they have putt upon 
us, and still Seem to be hatching, may nott lye att our doors, Agreed 
that an obligation be drawn in Persians, That we are in perfect readiness 
for our proceedure ; That we desire The Wagoners and Cohars [kahars] 
may commence their pay from 11th off January Ensuing, and that in 

1 Tangon ia fingan, a hill pony. 

PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 15 

Case we did nott proceed to our Tents and on onr Journey, Whatever 
Demurrage might acorew from our farther Stay, we did Efl join our Selves 
to pay : That this be Signed by Mr. John Surman and Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah SarhadJ, that itt be given to the Bootade, [buyutati]> and that 
Seerhaud acquaint the Buxie [bakhshi] with itt : Agreed also that 
M r John Surman and Cojah [Khwajah] Seerhaud pay Said Buxie 
\bakhshi] a visitt in form, he being Meer Jemla's [Mir Jumla's] Bro- 
ther, and take their leave ; by which meanes our departure will be 
Entered in the Wacka [vaqa l yd~], and so Clear us from any Aspersion 
that may be flung on us, by the Villany off the Duan [diwan~\ and 
Bootade [buyutdt]. 

Considering our great Number of Carriages and Doolys [dolls], 
likewise our Journey being Subject both to publick and private Robberies ; 
and although itt's probable we may have some force from the Govern- 
ment for our protection; Yett being off opinion that our main 
dependance is on our Servants which after Serious consideration, 
we find cannott be Supply'd by less than 400 Peons, and Buxeries, 
\_Baksarls] 1 and 50 Horsemen; Agreed that they be entertained by little 
and little, till the time off our Departure. 

Bought Camells 2 451-5-6. Agreed that M r Jno Surman 

pay for them. 

Papers rec 1 * from Seerhaud — 

1 parcell ... ... 10 pers : pap : 

D° ... ... 4 Eng s - concerning Towns. 

D<> ... ... 8 letters to Court." 

11. Secret Consultation on the 1st January, 1715. 

"Yesterday morning, after receipt off a letter from y e Hon ble Presid* 
and Councill, off y° 15 th Ult -; wherein we had a particular answer to 
ours off Nov r - 22 d ; att which time Seerhaud informed us, that he was to 
receive 20,000 E. s - in broad Cloth, on arrivall off y° Kings orders, for 
defraying y e Carriage, off y e Present, out off his Treasury ; and that he 
had advised the Hon ble President and Councill by a letter, that in case 
itt was nott performed, he would proceed no farther, in y e Companys 
service ; The Hon ble Presid*- Etc. actually denying any Such promise, in 
y e letter above-mentioned ; Pursuant to their orders, we soothed him with 
fair words, butt withall demanded his answer, to that head. Seerhaud 

1 Baksaris, i.e., men of Baksar, generally armed with matchlocks. 

16 PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 

Slightly evaded this former demand ; Saying, that he was assured y e 
Good offices, he should doe att Court, would induce them on his return, 
to what they did nott att present agree to : Butt that what he immedi- 
ately demanded was this ; That neither M r - Surman or any one Else 
should interferr in any buisness, off y e Durbar ; That all letters, or 
papers should receive no other impression butt his own ; and in generall 
requiring, that this Affair should remain entirely under his management- 
'Tis true he offered to give an Account off Every thing to y e board, Yett 
in case off any dissent, he was resolved to doe itt on his own head, and 
for which he pretended to be accountable to none, but y e Hon ble 
President Etc in Oulcutta. These offers nott being consonant to our 
Generall Instructions, with y° private orders we have received, occa- 
sioned many disputes ; as likewise y e produce off said General Instruc- 
tions, which were read, and thoroughly Explained, yett availed nothing, 
he still persisting in his obstinaoy ; withall that unless a thorough conces- 
sion was made him, he would nott stirr a step out off Patna. These 
strange notions obliged M r - John Surman immediately to demand all 
the President Etc as Letters to the King and other Officers att Court ; which 
he delivered as per Diary. Itt is our opinion, he has some other reasons 
more prevalent, than what he has offered in Councill : viz t# The hopes 
off carrying Merchants Goods under protection of y e Present, which he 
has frequently desired, butt could never obtain our consent to; being 
possitively contrary to our instructions, we well considering y e Risque 
off y e Present, and our selves by having them in our Company, with y e 
trouble that may arise att Court, for carrying them, and which he himself 
confirmed in a former Consultation : There being severall Armenians 
that he has brought up and designs to carry with him, besides other 
Merchants with whom he has contracted to carry their goods, and in 
which finding himself baulkt off our Consent ; we beleive has been y e 
occasion off his waving y e 20,000 R% and making a further pretence, 
for his longer stay, till such time as he should receive farther Authority 
from Culcutta. We agreed to advise y e Hon ble President and Councill 
off this Affair ; He also promising to show what letters he wrote on 
that occassion, which finding him to have failed in, by sending his 
Cossid [qdsid] away privately. We Endeavoured by Spyes, and other 
Secrett methods to pry into his actions, which confirmed us in our 
abovementioned opinion ; That his design is purely to delay our 
proceedure, nott having intentions for our Masters interest. 

Our private Emissaries have now brought us an Account, that he 
has secretly dispatched a Cossid [q&sid] to Court, We know no reasons 

PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 17 

for itt, beleiving there was nott any great necessity : Yett we have this 
Jealousy, that there can be nothing for our Masters interest, seeing he 
did nott think fitt to advice us off itt. Itt is our buisness to consult 
y 6 Good off y e Affair we have in hand ; The Tents and Carriages 
being out, a sufficient guard being with Each ; This, with y e House- 
peons, and o'her preparation to so great a Journey, occasions a very 
great Expence, which ought to be mitigated, as much as possible, by 
our short Stay. — 1 st Itt is our opinion, that the Hon ble President and 
Councill will never give him y e Authority he pretends to : 2 dlv That itt 
is for y e Companys advantage y e Sooner we depart hence ; by which 
nott only a farther Expence will be prevented, butt bis designes, iff any 
bad, averted. 3 dl y That he has very much hindred us already, but 
nott permitting y e Bootade [buyutdt'i] 1 , to pay y e Carriers and Cohars 
\kahdrs] ; and Lastly for a generall remedy, to apply our selves 
privately to y e Nabob, and other Officers, as ocoasion offers, Either 
by fair words, or bribes ; Even to force us to a departure, from this 

John Surman. 
Edward Step hen son. 

12. Co.vsiliations. 

"The person formerly designed for Yakile [vaklT], Anoopchund 
[Anup Chana], continuing still so infirm, that an 
entire relyance cannot be putt in him, for fear off a 
disapointment ; "With this consideration, we have looked out for another 
to supply his place, His name is Mollookchund [Malik Chand], by cast 
a Surrouck 2 , He has been brought up to this buisness all his life, in the 
Service off most off the Omrahs [umarA], who have been in these parts, 
being off a very good address, and one whose reputation we have nott 
in the least found to be tainted ; Agreed that he be taken into the 
Service to act in the buisness off the Durbar [darbdr'] under Cojah 
Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhaud] : He has agreed for 100 Rupees per 
Mensem, butt Expects to be Supply'd with Cohars [kahdrs] for his 
Pallaokeen 2 Servants and 1 Mussalehy [mash' alchi']. Considering 

1 Providing carriage at Court was the business of the Kh5ns5m5n, or Lord Steward, and 
tho provincial BuyutSti being an official of that department, it naturally fell ou him to 
provide the carts and bearers at Patna. 

* A Sarawak, a caste of mahajane, marwarig by race, and Jains by religion. 

18 PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 

Mollookchund [Maluk Chand] is nott sufficient, we have taken another 
to assist in the Durbar ; His name is Ramchund Ponditt [Earn Chand, 
pandit], by cast a Bramin; He is particularly recommended by 
M r Surrnan, in Every respect qualified for a head Vakile, butt the want 
of the Persian Language, and may be off very good service, nott only 
in the Durbar, butt on other Accounts ; For which reasons, having butt 
one Vakile, we take him into the Service to serve under Seerhaud in the 
Durbar, or any other buisness he shall be ordered to. 

Agreed that he have 80 Rs pr. mo., and Pallankeen for his Journey ; 
to commence from tho time off our departure, In the Interim, to 
receive 30 Rs pr. mo. from 15th Ult°, he having assisted from 
that time. 

The Honourable President and Councill having allowed Seerhaud 
2 flaggs, pursuant to their orders, he has liberty to wear them." 

" Pursuant to a private Consultation off the 1st Instant, Having 
Endeavoured by private meanes, to know whither 

January 3rd. 

itt was possible to hasten our departure, which the 
Nabob has Encouraged us to, butt Expects a present, nothing being to 
be done without itt ; Agreed that AI r Edw* 1 - Stephenson deliver out the 
following things Viz 1 . — 

Imbost Broad Cloth 

... 1 p s 2 p s Ordiny Green, 

Fine Eedd do 

.„ 2 

Yellow do 

... 1 


... 1 

Middling Green 

... 3 

Ordiny Eedd 

... 1 

Total ... 9 ps 11. 

Horse pistolls 1 p r - pockett pistolls 1\ p r - 
Bluderbuss 1 Guns 1 penknives 3. 
Mag : Mult : Glass s : 2 Sizars 3 p r - 
Triangle Glass 5 : 2. 

Finding the Nabob will be contented with this present, we think itt 
more to the Creditt of the Negotiation, that itt be made in (roods, rather 
than money ; and likewise that the value canno f ,t be so considerable, as 
to make us pause in giving itt ; Since we have so just reason to beleive 
our stay has been cheifly caused by Seerhaud, or att least that his 
Dilatoriness very much contributed thereto. Agreed that itt be done as 

PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 19 

privately as possible, that so we may the better reap the advantages 
of itt." 

13. Diary. 


January 7th. 

January 9th. " M r Phillips arrived from Culcutta. 

"Messrs Pattle and Pratt departed for 
Culcutta." » 

January 10th. 

14. Consultation. 

To-morrow being the day designed to proceed to our Tents, 
according to a former obligation, given to the 
Bootade \buyutat\ setting a day from whence the 
Carriers and Cohars [kahars] shou'd commence ; Agreed that all things 
be in readiness, and that we proceed accordingly." 

15. Diary. 

"Att four aclock came to our Tents, being accompany 'd by 200 
Horse off the Nabobs, who immediately left us 

January 11th. , 

on our arnvall. 

16. Consultations. 

" This day Seerhaud informed us, that the Nabob being turned out, 
The treasure would nott proceed, for fear off any 

January 15th. , ^ 

accident, m ltts way to lllabas ; That ltt was 
disputed between the Nabob, Duan [diicdn'], and Buxie [bakhshi] who 
should provide the Convoy, and what was sufficient for the carriage of 
itt; That the Nabob himself would depart after the 13 th off Next 
Moone; That since the Treasure was stopt, he beleived they would 
nott admitt off our proceedure: Withall the Question being putt 
whither we should consent to a farther stay, so as to proceed with the 
Nabob; or endeavour to depart, which would oblige them either 
actually to Stop us, or give some forces for our protection ; Concluded on 
the Latter as the most proper ; and that the Goorzeburdars [gurzbardars] 
be ordered to endeavour that the Carriages and Doolys [dolls'] be 
brought to the Tents, as soon as possible ; that we may be in perfect 
readiness for our departure." 

1 Pattle and Pratt arrived at Calcutta on the 14th January, see Vol. II, Pt, 1, § 893. 
Pattle died at Calcutta on the 3rd March, 1715, see t&. § 901. 

c 2 

20 PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 

u Mess 1 " 8 Stephenson, Hamilton, and Barker having desired that the 
Honourable President and Councill might be 

January 24th. . . . ° 

acquainted with their small allowance for Clothes, 
in order to some addition ; Hoping att least that said allowance may be 
doubled : We thinking itt very reasonable, Agreed that we write the 
Honourable President and Council! in their behalf, and send them a 
Copy of their reasons on that head, viz*- 

1 st The absolute necessity off making a handsome appearance, in 
all places where we shall come, which was the reason off doubling the 
Honourable Companys allowance in the first Expence off their apparell; 
Wherefore now humbly desire itt may be allowed, SeeiDg itt is an 
Expence which otherwise there would Lave been bo necessity for ; 
Withall the present Employ off our Honourable Masters taking us from 
any prospect off private advantage. 

2 dl y Being reasonably apprehensive our Journey will be much longer 
than formerly judged by the Honourable President &C 3 - our daily Expence 
Striking very deep, and the first provision being near Spoiled, Hope they 
may have a Speedy Supply, nott being in such great circumstances, to 
doe itt immediately themselves. 

Dead 1 Turkey Horse ... «... 277 

1 Small Do ... ... 145 


Agreed that itt be wrote off to Profntt & Loss. 

There has been disputes for some time between the Nabob, Duan 
\dhcdn~] and Buxie, \bakhshi] concerning the dispatch off the Treasure, 
with which we had hopes to proceed : The Duan and Buxie were 
against the dispatch of itt for fear of itt's being plundered by 
(Sedistenaran & the Eugenes [Sedisht Narayan and the Ujainis], who 
were now grown desperate; Since Meer Jemla [Mir Jumlah] was 
coming with a great force to Suppress them: That Itt was nott unlikely 
butt he might plunder the Treasure, & with that money raise forces, 
and give a greater trouble to the Kings army : That in case the 
Nabob would permitt the Treasure to lye in the Fort, they would 
give him a receipt, Butt he refused to Comply, sending his Brother 
Haddy Caun[HajiKhan] with 500 Horse, and SOOBuxeries [Hahsaris] 
to protect the Treasure. We are informed they will all this day meett 
tt the Buxies [bakhshi's] : Agreed that Seerhaud goe thither, and that 

PATNA, JANUARY, 1715. 21 

iff possible he gett a permission for our departure along with, the 

Treasure: — 

Bo* 3 Camells ... ... ... 685 8 9 

1 Do ... ... ... 172 10 6 

1 Do ... ... ... 162 8 3 

1,020 11 6 

Po* 1 Pyed Tazzy 1 ... ... 387 15 6 

Horses 1 Grey Turkey ... ... 266 10 6 

1 Tangon for the Sold 1 " 8 ... ... 132 6 

1 Do for Seerhaud ... ,„ 222 2 

1,007 32 
The amo* off Cattle being Eupees ... ... ... 2,028 7 6 

Agreed that M r Jno. Surman pay for them out off the Cash." 

17. Diary. 

"The treasure arrived from Shaster Cauns [Shaistah Khan's]. 
Garden 2 att Allum Gunge The Nabob has 

January 25 th. 

ordered his brother with 400 Horse & 400 peons 
as a Convoy to the Treasure, butt designs nott to admitt off our 
departure yett." 

" The Treasure arrived att the Cozzys [Qazl's] 
Garden." 3 
" The Nabobs brother arrived att his tents with the Treasure. The 
Bootade [buyuttitt] has reed. 20,000 Es. on our 
acoount butt has nott yett paid out any consider- 
able Sum. Arrived a Cossid \_qasid~] from Padree Daniel. By wch. 
came a letter from Caundora [Khan Dauran] as also another from Syud 
Sallabutt Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] to M r Surman. The padree 
gives an Aocount off 2,000 Es. Expended att the time off the late 
Gesson [jashan~\ att Court." 

" This morning Seerhauds Tent was sent to Aurungabad. 4 The 
Bootades [buyut tit's"] writer was here to take an 
Account off the Carriages. All merchants Goods 

1 Tazzy is tazl, an Arab horse. 

' There is still an old garden just east of Alamganj in Patna city, but this it appears was 
not ShSistah Khan's. This garden is said to have become a j heel with a mound at its S. W 
corner. On the north there is a thakurbari of long standing. 

3 Qazlbagh is a mahalla in thSna Alamganj. There is no trace of any garden here, only a 
grave of earth called the Q5zl SSheb's grave. The name of the Q5zl is unknown, but it is 
said to have been his wish that his grave should be of earth, so that even the poorest might 
keep it in order. The grave is an object of reverence to both Hindus and Moslems. 

* Perhaps a village about 2 miles south-east of Phulwari now commonly called Naurang*. 

22 PATNA, FEBRUARY, 1715. 

Bro* baok from the Treasure, the Government designing that shall pro- 
ceed alone." 

18. Consultation. 

"Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] having pursuant to a former 
consultation, been with the Nabob and Buxie 

January 29th. 

[bak/ishi], to endeavour iff possible to gain our 
dispatches with the Treasure, Informes us that the thing was impractic- 
able, they not permitting any Carriages to proceed with The Treasure, 
nor even us, til] they were assured that had reached Sarsewrong 
[Sahasram] ; when the Nabob promised we should be dispatched : To 
show that we were unwilling to stay behind, Yesterday we, by a full 
consent, ordered some off our Tents to be carry 'd a Coarce [kos] on 
their way beyond the place where the Treasure was then Encamp'd,- 
designing to have proceeded thither our selves ; Butt were forbid by 
the Nabob and Buxie [bakhshl], for which reason now think itt 
improper, nott being willing to bring matters to an Extremity ; Agreed 
that we continue where we are." 

19. Diary. 

January 29th. « The Treasure gone to Pulwarry [Phulwari.] '• 

30th. a The Treasure gone from Pulwarry. " 

Seerhaud rec d a letter from Gauzeaudy Caun [Ghaziu-d-din Khan] 1 , 

who Sent a Cossid [gdsid'j on purpose Assuring 

him that should the Present meett with any 

impediments in the way he would be serviceable with the King. 

Sedistenarans [Sidisht Narayan's] Yakile going to clear the Trea- 
sure thro' his Masters Jurisdiction came here, when he assured us off 
great Friendship respecting our Journey." 

" Severall carriages wett, and we beleive 
damaged by the Great rain." 

" This night theives breaking in upon some 

Merchants Goods, near our Camp, had carried off a 

Good Booty ; butt being pursued by our people, forsook their plunder." 

20. Consultation. 

" This day Seerhaud informes us, that he was Strenuously advised, 

bothbv the Duan [dlwdnl and Buxie [bakhshi], to 
February 20th. .f L , J . L „ J ' 

be quiok m our departure ; relying no iartner on 

1 Most probably this is Ahmad Beg, Ghazlu-d-dla Ktan, BahSdur, Ghalib Jang, nicknamed 
iosah or goat beard. He died at Delhi on the 7th Oct. 1726. 

TATNA, FEBRUARY, 1715. 23 

the fair promises off the Nabob ; and In case he did nott give forces, 
so soon as the Squabble was Ended with the Carriers, to proceed with- 
out them. Itt is our opinion their advice is wholesome, and ought to 
be followed : Butt are very apprehensive the Nabob will by some indirect 
meanes hinder the Bootade \bayutati\ from paying the Carriers ; notwith- 
standing the Cohars [kahars] have received two months pay. Agreed 
that Seerhaud promise the Bootade [buyuidW] a Small present, on 
condition that our buisness be immediately finished ; That we may 
by any meanes gett hence, either with or without Force, Seeing our 
arrivall att Court this season depends upon itt." 

21. Diary. 

" This night a large Tent Burned, Taking fire accidentally by the 
Lamp ; little other damage besides what was nott 

February 21st. . „ r ' „ ° 

in Chests. 
" Seerhaud visitted the Nabob, where were the Bootade [buyut&ti], 
Cozzy \qazi] and others, after severall disputes 

February 22nd. , L * " J ' * 

he obtained leave for our departure. He was 
promised 200 Horse as Convoy to Sarsewrong [Sahasram], and 50 to 
Illabas [Allahabad]. The Nabob likewise sent his Gassowl [yasawaT] 
to hasten the Bootade [buyutati]." 

" Seerhaud took his leave off the Nabob, The 

Tent att Aurungabad gone on to Pulwarry [Phul- 

February 24th. 


22. Consultation, 

" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] having been at the Buxies 
[bakhzh? s~\, was informed, that unless we did 

February 25th. . 

proceed immediately, there might something 
happen in the Space of two days, which would disappoint our Journey 
for this Season ; Seerhaud communicated this news to us by letter, 
Joining his own opinion to that of the Buxie [bahhshl] ; Agreed that 
we decamp to morrow on Seerhauds note, and proceed to Pulwarry 
[Phulwaii], there Expecting the Issue off our Affairs in the Patna 
Durbars [darbars]. 

In consideration that money beforehand must be given to our 
Horsemen, Peons, and other Servants, on our first Setting out ; Agreed 
that they have all 2 months pay given them, butt to commence from 


the first of the Ensuing month, as per Agreement, and with the advice 
and desire of Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad], That wee may not 
Loose any time." 

23. Diary. 
" Arrived att Pulwarry rPhulwarll with all the 

■February 26th. J \ „ 

damages and Doolys \_dofosj. 

" Arrived with our Tents and Present att Nobat- 

March3rd. _ 

pore [Naubatpurj 
March 5th " Seerhaud Sent the Nabohs Dastiok [dastak] 

for the way." 

" Dispatched a Cossid [ qdsid] to Padree Daniel 
to prevent more bills of Exchange. 
The Oheif carriers kept in prison here, in order to finish their 

" Wrote a note to Seerhaud, advising him to come out, leaving the 

Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs] behind ; and iff after 

we had gone two days Journey they could nott 

obtain any convoy, then to come after us, giving the Kings Dewhy." l 

" Received a note from Seerhaud that after much trouble, he says, 

50 Horsemen and 50 peons were obtained from 

Nobatpore, March 10th, 

the Nabob : He farther adds, that iff all things 

are ready, he will come out to morrow, iff not, then the day 


24. Consultation. 

"We have now received a note from Seerhaud off the following 
contents : That the Nabob having: sent his forces 

Nobatpore, March 12th. ' - • . ° 

to us, he went to take his leave on the Buxie 
\bahhshi\ who was against our Immediate proceedure, without a better 
Guard, or till such time as Meer Jemlah [Mir Jumla] arrived on this 
side Illabas [Allahabad] ; That all the Kings Phowdars [faujd&ri] on 
the road had fled, for fear of the Eugenes [Ujainia] and so we should 
hazzard the loosing our Present. This advice (as he writes) was 
strengthened by Caun Chund, Sheak Esaw, Futtechundsaw, and Lolgee 
[Khan Chand, Shekh Isa, Fath. Chand Saha and Lalji] ; wherefore he 
recommended itt to our consideration, withall desiring orders, whither 
he should stay, and follow their advice, or come out, we being con- 
tented to run any hazzard with the present convoy ; he promising 

1 The phrase stands for duhui denu, crying for the King's justioe. 


implicite obedience. We have examined the passengers on the road, 
and find that Merchants Goe and come without any more Extortion 
than Usnall. Itt is our opinion we ought to proceed for the following 

1 st That as we have had a great deal off trouble, with the Carriers 
and Cohars [kah&rs], the first of which have nott yett received their 
money, our longer stay must rekindle the quarrell about demurrage, 
which we fear cannot be ended without a great expence out off our 
Masters pockett : and farther, in case we do nott arrive att Court this 
season, itt is a query whither the King will be att the Double Expence 

2diy That our Horsemen, peons, and Servants have commenced 
double pay from the 1 st Instant, which raises a vast Expence. 
Note ; this was by Seerhauds advising that all was finished. 

3 dl y That unless we proceed immediately, 'twill be impossible to 
reach Court this Year ; The consequence off which must be unnecessary 
and Great Expences, the Eisque off damaging our present, butt above 
all the fear of nott succeeding in our design, itt being next to an 
impossibility to keep the Court in good temper, as appears by what hag 
been done hitherto. All these things being considered, we conclude 
that our farther stay is off the worst consequence, That the risque is 
only what Expence we may be att with the Eugenes [Ujainis], (and 
that supposed) we having received Court Dustick *ldastak~] and the 
Nabobs assurance, that we shall nott be molested. We find by Seer- 
hauds note that he is near overcome by the perswasion off the Buxie 
[lakhshl] etc ; for which reason Agreed that a note be wrote to him, 
possitively to come out; whioh in case he refuses, that be is answerablo 
for any ill that may ensue by our farther stay." 

25. Diary. 

u Arrived the Convoy consisting of 50 Horse and 50 Peons. Att 
2 a Clock received a note from Seerhaud, he savs 

March 13th. • ' J 

he will come to morrow, butt makes no Excuse 
for nott coming immediately, notwithstanding the possitive order for 
that purpose." 

26. Consultation. 

" Seerhaud nott having thought fitt to obey the summons sent him 
the 12 th inst., has instead thereof answered 

March 14th. _ - 

by Uuerks and Interrogations altogether un- 
reasonable. Pursuant to the Honourable President and Councill of 
Culcutta's commission and instructions, having ordered that every 


thing should be transacted according to the result off a Consultation ; 
We very well considered the risque off the road etc, att the time off our 
Summons to Seerhaud ; wherefore his refusing to comply therewith 
is unanswerable. The Charge off the Carriage being paid out of the 
Kings treasure, gives an opportunity to Seerhaud att this present to 
consult his own private interest, and we although dissenting are nott 
capable of breaking any measures he has taken ; He being ordered by 
the Honourable President and Councill to act as head Vakile [vakil], 
and from which we have no authority to suspend him, unless by a 
speciall order from thence. Itt is now a duty incumbant on us, in respect 
both to our Employers and our Selves, to be cleared off any ill conse- 
quence that may Ensue, which can be no otherwise effected, than by 
prostesting against Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]. Agreed that we 
draw out a prostest against him ; that one Copy be hereunto annexed, 
and another sent to the Honourable President and Councill, to which 
we referr our Selves. " 

27. Protest against Cojah Seerhaud. 

" Whereas the Hon ble President and Council off Fort William, by 
171% their GeneraU instructions, dated May 13 th 1714., 

March 14th have Empowered Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah 

Nobatpore. Sarhad], to act in consort with us, as 2 nd In Counoill, 

and head Vakile; pursuant thereto he has been often called on to 
act in that Station ; which tho he never perfectly acquiesced in y e limita- 
tions off said orders ; Yett his obstinacy was never more barefaced, and 
off worse consequence, than whatt attends y e Present Juncture off Affairs. 

" 1st Att y e pressing instigation off Seerhaud, strengthened by Buxies 
[bahh-slfi 's] advice, (as he writes) we came to Pulwarry, and from thence 
to Nobatpore: The quarrell with y e Carriers being near adjusted, and 
that off y e Collars [kahars] already over ; withall the Nabob having 
been prevailed on, to send 50 Horse and 50 Peons for our protection 
thro' his province. 

"Sedistenaran [Sidisht Narayan] has given assurances both to y e 
Nabob, and us, that he will nott touch y e Kings Present; butt only 
receive his Jemidarry 1 from Merchants Goods ; wherefore should we stay 
any longer, the Quarrells with y e Carriers and Cohars \kahars~\ about 
demurrage would be rekindled; and how ready y e Kings officers are to 
pay itt, we are very well acquainted—. Besides, y e meer Waiting for 
Meer Jemlahs [Mir Jumlah's] arrivall, would disappoint our reaching 
Court this Season ; and so consequently very much hazzard ye Success 

1 Zamlrtdari, that is dues as zamiaddr. 


off our Hon ble Masters buisness, by nott Striking while y e Iron is Hott ; 
"with this Certainty off 6 Months Expence altogether Unnecessary. 

" That itt is more for our Hon bl ° Masters Interest and Honour, 
to risque any Expence off y e road, than stay, and In y e least hazzard 
our buisness, by nott arrivall. 

For y e reasons above-mentioned, Seerhaud has been possitively 
ordered to leave Patna, and in case he did nott, or occasioned our farther 
stay, that he was answerable for all y e ill consequences that might 
Ensue. Seerhaud has nott only refused these our orders, butt has 
hindered y e Bootades Gomasto [buyutat's gumashtati] from coming to 
finish y e business off the Carriage ; withall endeavouring to gett our 
convoy recalled by y e Nabob. He has nott thought fitt to give any 
reasons for his non Compliance, (we believe there are none) : wherefore 
he is occasion off our farther unnecessary Expence, and all other ill 
consequences "that may accrew by our longer stay ; and accordingly 
we Protest Against you Seerhaud Israel, and Your Proceedings, for y° 
following reasons. 

1 st On y e quarrell that must necessaryly ensue with y e Carriers 
and Cohars, [kahars] for demurrage in case we doe nott 
proceed immediately, or r ott arrive att Court this season. 

2nd That on our leaving Pulwarry, which was by Seerhauds 
advice, himself promising to come the same day ; The pay 
off Horsemen, Peons etc a Servants is doubled, amounting 
to a very great Expence. 

3 rd That waiting for Meer Jemlahs [Mir Jumlah'sJ arrivall, 
will putt us out off a capacity to arrive this Season ; The 
ill consequence off which will be y e damage off y e Present, 
A vast Expence, and very probably y e entire overthrow off 
our buisness. 

4 th Being assured that Seerhauds Stay is occasioned by Mer- 
chants Goods ; Severall Carriages off which are arrived in our 
Camp, taking his name on them : Wherefore beleive he has 
ende avoured to gett y e Dustick [dadafc] and convoy recall'd, 
resolving to waite Meer Jemlahs [Mir Jumlah's] arrivall 
when y e road may be clear enough for his purpose, but nott 
consonant to our Masters Interest. 

For these reasons, and whatever else may, or can be alledged against 
you, for your breaking y e orders, and instructions off y e Hon ble 
President and Councill off Fort William, In our own name to clear our 
selves off any damage that may ensue and in y e name off Our Hon ble 


Employers, "We protest against You Seerhaud Israel, and Affirm and 
Declare by these presents, that you are y e actuall occasion of y e Double 
Expence which has commenced from our arrivall, from Pulwarry, and 
off all other damages off weight, and Charge that may accrew by our 
farther Stay here, and for which you are obliged to answer. 

Whereas nott having y e usuall forms off Protests by us, According to 
y e law ; we Affirm that this ought to be, and is as good in every respect, 
as iff done in y e letter off y e laws off England. 

Wittness our Hands, and Dated att 

Nobatpore March 14 th 171 4. 
A true Copy, 

Hugh Barker Sec 1 ?-" 

28. Diary. 

"Meer Jemlah [Mir Jumlah] is arrived att Attayah [Itawah or 

March 14th Itayah], and his Aftally consisting off 12000 

Horse att Shasadpore [Sbahzadpur] SedisteDarans 

[Sidisht Narayan's] Forces in Possession off Sarsawrong [Sahasram] ; 

y e Kings Phowsdar [faujddr], who was displaced some time agoe, 

being Fled to Banarass." 

" Received notes from our Yakiles [vakils]. They write the Nabob is 
„ . .„ very Angry we doe nott proceed with the convoy 

March 19th. J 

he sent us. lhe Bootades Gomasto [buyutad's 
gumdshstaK] had come out, butt was prevented by the Goorzeburdar 
[gurzbardar] and Chilah [chela], who were Mohussells [muhassals'] 1 on 
him ; we suppose they had their instructions from Seerhaud." 

29. Consultation. 

"Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] being just arrived from the 

March 22nd. The Evea- City, The protest given against him, bearing date 

the 14th Instant was read, and fully explained 

to him. He now alledges that his notes were nott answered, and by 

that meanes, would evade the possitive order to come out. He being 

required to give his reasons for his nott complying, Answers that they 

were four days Agoe, £ent to the Honourable President and Councill 

off Culcutta." 

30. Diary. 

" The Bootades Gomasto [buyutati's gumdsh&lah] arrived from the 
City, having sett out att Mid-night to escape 

March 22nd. * % ° r 

the Goorzeburdars [gmzbarddrt] whom Seerhaud 

* Persons deputed to worry a man into paying a due or complying with an order. 

NALBATPUR, M\RCH, 1715. 29 

Sett over him to prevent his coming". Seerhaud and the Goorzeburdars 
[gurzbarddrs] arrived without giving any notice off their coming ; Butt 
we conjeotured right, that the Gomastoes [gumashstahs] coming would 
bring Seerhaud, Seeing He laboured so much to prevent itt. He 
brought a letter from the Padree, off which shall speak in the consul- 
tation to be held to-morrow." 

31. Consultation. 

" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] having delivered a letter from 
Fadree Daniel, which being translated into 

March 23rd. „,.,«,,., * « , , 

English, Ordered that a Copy be here inserted. 

To Mr. J, Surman and Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]. 

1 My True and well beloved Disciples, after the kind salutations from 
Padree Daniel, I advise you, that two years are now Elapsed, since 
upon your desire I first entered into your buisness. God be thankt, 
whatever orders You desired from the King, you have and will obtaine. 
God prosper Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur] and 
Sellabutt Caun [Sayyed Salabat Khan], who have comply'd with all 
my desires, introducing my petitions to the King as you will clearly 
perceive by the orders already Sent. They daily enquire after your 
departure, saying that whatsoever you desired has been sent you, where- 
fore your long stay seemes Strange. By the Grace off God and the 
favour off the Nabob, the Charge off your Carriage has been obtained: 
A favour never "before conferred on any one from the time off Tamerlane. 
This is purely owing to the Grace off God and favour off the 
Nabob. Besides this our Enemies represent that the Charge off the 
Carriage will amount to near a Leek off Rupees and that the whole cost 
off the present cannot Exceed two. To this I answered, that an Enemy 
was nott to be beleived, That itt was the English Elchi [ambassador] 
and that the amount off the Present could nott be less than 10 or 15 
Leek. I was doing these things, as will more plainly appear by the 
Enclosed note; when itt Seems, within a small time Mr. J no Surmans 
letter to M ons r - Martin arrived. He wrote that his patrons were the 
Yizier and Buxie, Omeerall Omrah ; [Amiru-1-Umara] and by whose 
meanes all orders that came were obtained : no letter off thanks either 
to Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur] , or Sellabutt Caun 
[Salabat Khan] arriving ; For which reason they have been very angry 
with me ; That for your account so many orders had been granted, 
which was never done to any Elchi, since Tamerlane ; That we have 
apply'd our Selves to your buisness, and that after You had gained 


your point such letters were very Surprizing. 'Tis for this reason, 
Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur] is very much displeased. 
I returned answer that these were stories entirely raised by enemies, 
That I would dispatch a Cossid \_qasid'], that should go in 17 days, and 
return in as many; andt hat whatever answer was given I would inform 
him off. Itt seemes there were Severall things wrote in a letter to 
Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d-din Khan] ; Said Caun [Sayyad Khan] sent that 
letter to Sallabut Caun Behauder [Salabat Khan Bahadurj 1 who shew'd 
itt me, at which I was very much ashamed. I represented that itt was 
entirely false ; that the English Elchy had no dependance on any one 
besides Caundora [Khan Dauran] and Sallabut Caun f Salabat Khan] ; 
I farther added, that I was only a praying Faquir, and that 'twas nott 
my buisnes3 to be a Vakile ; That indeed I had received a great many 
Letters from Cojah Seerhaud [Khwafah Sarhad], who is my disciple, 
for which reason I entered upon the English Elchy s buisness ; that 
these men are unacquainted with lyes, knowing butt one word, and 
Except the Assistance of this patronage, know no other ; and iff they 
Employ me in this buisness, can know no other ; and should the buisness 
in the End point to Jumdah-Tulmooluck 2 and Omeerall-Omrah, 3 yett 
all gratefull acknowledgment is certainly due to the place off their 
first address. In what thing has there been any neglect, that such 
letters are sent ? Iff you have any caution on my account, for God sake 
acquaint me, that I may wash my Self clean off this buisness, and that 
I may nott a Second time be disgraced by Omrahs [umara'j, that are 
equall to Princes; Or iff you design Monsieur Martin for the 
Management off this buisness, advise, that I may have no farther 
trouble. Iff I am to have itt, then write an Arrezdaust [* arzcldsW] 
to Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur] and Sallabutt 
Caun [Salabat Khan] gratefully acknowledging their Favours and that 
Padree Daniel daily advises of their continuance. 

I am Your Slave ' 

This letter containing reflections on Jno. Surman as if he had wrote 
to Zeaudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-dln] & Mons r Martin that he had no obliga- 
tions to Caundora behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur], butt was entirely 

1 Mir Abu-1 Hasan Sayyad Salabat Khan Bahadur, Mujahid Jang. On 7 Jamadi I 1128, 
i.e. 29 or SO April, 1716, N, S., and 18 or 19 April, O. S., he was appointed ' arz-i-mukarrar. 
He was an old man, and died at Shahjahanabad, 26 Ramajan, 1136, i.e. 17 June 1724 N. S. 
at the age of about eighty lunar years . 

2 i.e., Jamdatu-1 Mulk, a title of the vizier. 

3 »'.€,, Amlru-l-Umara, premier prince, a title of Husain 'Ali Khan, 


obliged to the Vizier and Buxie [bahhshl i.e. Husain 'All Khan] for 
which reason Caundora [Khan Dauran], had sent for the Padree, (as 
he writes) and shewed him the letter being very much displeased; Jno. 
Surman affirms this to be false, and appeals to all the English Gentle- 
men with him, (who very well know what letters he has wrote) that 
he did nott write any thing of that nature either to Mons r Martin or 
Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d-din Khan]. He owns a letter to Mons 1 ' Martin, 
Jointly with M r Stephenson, butt it was only concerning Hodgee 
Omud [Haji Ahmad] ; The answer to which was transmitted to the 
Hou ble President & Councill in Fort William. Wherefore what 
the Padree has wrote, is a palpable Falsity. 

The Bootades Gornasto [buyutdtVs gumdshstdfi] being arrived in 
the Camp, with a design to finish the buisness off the Carriers and 
Cohars [kahdrs] which is likely to be made up, the Dumurrage from the 
1st off the month Excepted : Itt is our Opinion that Seerhaud had better 
Stay with us that we may be altogether, more proper for frequent Con- 
sultations ; Butt that the Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs'] be sent to the 
Duan \_dtivdit'] and Buxie [bak/is/il - ], to endeavour the obtaining the 
Demurrage above-mentioned." 

32. Consultation. 

" In our consultation off the 23 rd Inst. There being a letter produced 
from Padree Daniel to M r Surman and Cojah 

Nobatpore, March 25th. 4rn,-.,*\fl t J1 W I 

Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad], We have now very 
well considered itt. Agreed That the following answer be given to itt. 
"That M r J. Surman never wrote either to Mons r - Martin, or Zeaudy Caun 
[Zeyau-d-dln Khan] concerning the management off the Companys 
Affairs att Court, and much less concerning any thing Asserted in his 
letter. That he should nott creditt things off this nature, without better 
grounds than what appeared att present. That asserting our present to 
amount to 10 or 15 Leek off rupees was a very great error, such expres- 
sions being highly improper in the Kings Durbar ; Butt as we were 
incapable either to add to, or diminish from the present we had received, 
So on our Arrivall att Court the same should be punctually delivered. 
He advising that he has been obliged, the Expence in obtaining the 
Severall orders sent from Court Excepted, to give under his hand and 
Seal obligations to the officers in post, for payment off certain Sums off 
money and Goods on our arrivall : We desire to know by what authority 
he made this step, Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] denying the 
giving any Such orders.' That a particular account be given off the 


reason off our Stay ; and although we know no reason why Oaun-dora 
[Khan Dauran] and Sallabutt Caun [Salabat Khan] should be so angry* 
as he affirms, Yett according to his desire, Agreed that letters be wrote 
to them with a full account why we have been detained so long, and a 
gratef ull acknowledgment off Their Favours ; and that copys off said 
letters be sent to the Honourable President and Councill. 

Being in a readiness to proceed, whenever the Government will vouch- 
safe to dismiss us, we s* all now make some addition to the pay off our 
Mutsuddys [mutasaddis], and Persian Secretary; Agreed that Otmaram 
[Atmaram] have 85 Rupees per Month, Kissengiben [Krishnajivan] 
20 Eupees, and Momudy [MuhumdiJ 30 Rupees to commence from the 
1st Instant. 

Omerseign [Amar Sing] being arrived in the Camp, is endeavour- 
ing to make up the buisness off the Carriers and Cohars [kah&rs], 
which is so perplexed That they refuse to stirr on any other terms, 
than the payment off their demurrage from the time off our first 
arrivall att Pulwarry [Phulwarl]. We having also, received answer 
from the Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr] and Yakile, that the Duan 
[ditc&n] had possitively denyed the payment of any demurrage, 
withall itt being the Generall opinion that we shall never obtain itt ; 
Agreed that we endeavour to compose this buisness, still leaving 
roome, that in Case it should be allowed hereafter, itt may nott be to the 
Detriment off our Honourable Masters. For we are well assured, that 
a Neglect in these differences would in a very little time bring them 
past redress. 

"We find the Carriers demands amount to this, viz*- 
1 st A payment for what carriages laden, beyond the Kings Custom, 
which was occasioned by a mistake in our generall calculation off the 
weight off Goods, and was considerably encreased by what received from 
Patna Factory. 

2ndiy a. payment of all demurrage, commencing From February 
26 th , the time off our first decampment to this Instant. 1 

Agreed that the first demand be paid out off the Merchants Goodss. 
This will partly repay the 2500 Rupees due to our Honourable Masters. 
The remainder being ballanced by account demurrage. 

Agreed also that we see them paid their demurrage either out off 
our own Cash or the Kings treasury. 

1 As far as I can understand the details of these transactions, this condition was not 
accepted by the carrien. They demanded demurrage from the 11th January and eventually 
got it. 


The difference with the Cohars [k<'hdrs~\ is a thing off far greater 
consequence, and to adjust which we are att a stand, they having 
reoeived and Commenced t Months pay from the Date abovementioned ; 
so that more than half is already Expended, and they in an uproar for 
more money. 

Being informed that Seerhaud had received 2000 Siccas from 
the Bootade [buyutdti] account the 3 Months pay off the Cohars [kahdrs], 
payable att Illabas [Allahabad] He now owns the receipt off itt, and 
that he had given his receipt to the Bootade [buyutdti]. Butt that Sum 
being demanded off him he said he had itt nott with him, but promised 
to deliver itt the Following day, which when received, Ordered that 
itt be brought to Account Cash. 

The Carriers being accountable for Rs 266 1 -9 pursuant to a former 
contract; & there being now moneys sufficient to dear that acco* 
Agreed that M r E. Stephenson oreditt them by the Following heads 

Merch ts Goods for 91 M ds overladen att 10 Rs 

pr. Mdis ... ... ... 910 

Demurrage 1 in part due to them ... ... 1,751 9 

2,661 9 

Itt being impossible att present perfectly to adjust the Acco* off 
Dumurrage, The Charging the Merch ts with their Dividend is also 
referr'd till another opportunity. 

Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] Assents to this Consultation, 
a sentence in the third paragraph Excepted (Viz* Itt is the Generall 
opinion) Said Seerhaud Affirms that itt [demurrage money] is 
procurable, for which purpose he will speedily return to the City." 

33. Diary. 

March 26th. " Seerhaud returned to the City." 

" Seerhaud writes The Duan [ditvdn] will give us a Convoy in Case 
March 28th. we take on our Selves the risque off the road." 

1 I do not understand how this demurrage is calculated. At the rate of Rs. 35 a day it 
would practically be the demurrage for 50 days ; but according to this consultation demurrage 
was to be paid only from the 26th February. Thus on the 25th March there would be only 
28 days' demurrage due. That the rate was Rs. 35 a day is proved by the payment made to 
the carriers on the 25th May. 


34 naubatpur, april, 1715. 

34. Consultation. 

" Itt was In a former Consultation Agreed by a majority, That 

April 1st. Seerhaud should remain with us, and that the 

Nobatpore, Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs'] with a Vakile should 

be sent to endeavour the obtaining an allowance off Demurrage, and 

Convoy. However Seerhaud thought fitt to give no compliance, butt 

returned to Patna the 2b th Ult°. There being no other method 

to prevent this butt force, which we judged improper to make use off ; 

and he affirming' he only went to take leave off the Buxie [Bakhshi], 

with reitterated promises to return the 3rd day, we rather Suffered, than 

consented to his going : Yett he has nott kept his word. 

The Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs'] on their arrivall att the City having 
received a clear answer from the Duan [dlicdn], that he would pay no 
demurrage, without a possitive order from the King, we were well 
convinced what we had to depend on. Yett that Seerhaud might nott 
be backward in amusing us with Shows off the Companys Interest, 
He for three or four days Successively wrote us, nott to intermeddle in 
this affair, requiring att the Same time a Calculation off the Demurrage, 
under M r Surmans Seal, on delivery off which, he affirmed the money 
to be forth coming out off the Kings treasury. We must here observe 
that when he was with us it was unanimously agreed, that the payment 
off this money lay letween the King and ourselves. We are well 
assured he has no grounds for Such advices. However we sent him 
the Calculation he required ; Upon receipt off which, he betook himself 
to this last, but indifferent shift for farther delay : The Duan [dlicdn] 
saying we had no buisness to be concerned about the Demurrage, but 
that iff his Majesty was for the hasty arrivall off the Present, the Cohars 
[kah drs] and Carriers might be sent with itt in Chains. These foolish 
flights were so farr from convincing us, that we were Assured every thing 
was going to ruin, unless Suddainly retrieved. The carriers refusing 
to Stirr, and the Cohars [kakdrs] to take up their burdens, without 
matters were in some measure adjusted. 

Omer Seign [Amar Sing], who has been indefatigable in adjusting 
the present differences, has communicated a Scheem to us, according to 
which he says the Carnages will be finished, Viz 1 - 1 st To pay for what 
overladed on Each Carriage beyond the kings Custom att 10 Eupees per 
Maund. 2 ndl y To Engage the payment off Demurrage from the time of 
our first decampment either from the king according to his Custom, or 
from our Selves according to that off Merchants. That we give them 


n note for this ; In return off which, Each Carrier will sign a discharge. 
This being conformable to a project agreed to, in a Consultation off the 
25 th Ult°. butt nott then completed, by reason off the differences among 
the Carriers them Selves. Agreed that itt be now putt in Execution, 
and that Seerpaws [sar-o-pds'j be given to Each Ohowdry [chaudhan J, 
and Turbetts l to Every Carrier with 50 Rupees for a treat. 

Omerseign [Amar Sing] having Such Success with the Carriers, 
Agreed, that he undertake to compose matters likewise with the Cohars ; 
"We being off opinion, itt is for the Interest off our Hon bIe Masters to take 
them before their 2 M os are Expired, notwithstanding itt may att present 
Seem Expensive : for should we Stay never so little longer, we may be 
obliged to pay the whole over again, which according to the kings Cus- 
tom is 7 rupees per maund to Each Cohar [kakdr~]." 

April 3rd, 

Guarding us." 

April 5th. 

35. Diary. 

"One hundred Buxeries \Baksaris] armed 
from the Duan \dncan\ under a pretence off 

"Last night Esgar Caun [Asghar Khan] was 
in Possession off the Fort off Patna." 

36. Consultation. 

" The buisness off the Cohars [kdhars] has given us more trouble, than 
Nobatpore, wa3 reall y Expected, they demanding their pay, 

Apriii 6th. an( j w ki e h n ott being comply'd with by the Gov- 

ernment, has putt us to the Utmost Extremity. This is purely owing 
to our Stay. All the arguments possible have been used to convince them 
that the large pay they had received was nott designed for maintainance 
during their Stay, but that another account must be made up for that 
time, according to what Customary in Patna, we nott having perfectly 
commenced our Journey. Butt their being so great a Number, and with- 
all so refractory, no reasons could work on them; neither would they 
come to any Agreement. "We would willingly, considering their great 
necessity, have lett them had a months pay att 2 rupees per month butt 
that was altogether rejected. The Bootades Gomasto [buyutdti's gumdsh- 
tah~\ now informs us, that since the Government have refused to adjust 

1 i.e. , turbans. 

D 2 


this matter, by paying more money out off the kings treasury ; Itt was 
nott feasible to be entirely made up here : wherefore itt would be best for 
us to leave off the project off any immediate adjustment, butt endeavour 
to proceed without itt. He farther adds, that iff we would lend the 
Cohars [kahars] 2400 Eupees they would give an obligation to proceed 
without any farther demands, till they arrived att Illabas [Allahabad], 
iff itt be within the Space of one Month eighteen days, when they would 
Expeot the 2000 Siccas, that Seerhaud has received ; waiting for the 
remainder off their 3 Months pay till they reached Agra : and after- 
wards, on the finishing their Accounts att Dilly, they will repay what 
money we advanced them. We lament the misfortunes that have 
attended our proceedure, they being entirely owing to Seerhauds 
management. What his designs are God knows, butt they seem to us, 
far from the Interest of our Honourable Masters. However Seeing 
things are come to this pitch, That unless we are in a Capacity by making 
up this buisness, to proceed, we shall find a stop to our Journey in an 
improper place, When the Governments money will be expended and 
their Demands tribbled ; We judge this the best opportunity, (Seeing we 
shall be compell'd att last to do itt) to lay hold off the least Expence, 
Wherefore Agreed that Mr. John Surman pay the Sum abovementioned 
to the Gohars [kahars], and receive the necessary notes from them: 
That ordinary Seerpaws \_sar-o-pds) and Turbetts be given to theCheifs 
and 50 Eupees to Feast them. 

In the management off this buisness Seerhaud has shown himself very 
free from any apprehensions off the ill consequences, that must attend our 
delay, and Seemes Satisfied with the Slight answers off theDuan [d\wan~\ 
and Buxie \bakshV', as iff itt were possible for men to labour without 
Sustenance, and be carried in Chains ; when they will come to no conclu- 
sions concerning our Convoy, or any thing Else, still putting us off From 
to day till to morrow, which has run on Six weeks Successively, and yett 
our Affairs nott Seeming in the least advanced. We trust the manage- 
ment of this Affair will have the approbation off our Honourable 

We assert this to be entirely owing to Seerhaud, and for these 
reasons, we can have no confidence in him ; and as we may att present 
say the Camp is, in some measure, under our command, Agreed that we 
proceed forthwith, and that a Summons be sent to Seerhaud and the 
Goorzeburdars [gurzbardars] immediately to leave the City and come 
to us." 

bikram sarle to ghatauli, april, 1715. 37 

37. Diary. 
"Arrived att Bickerum Surray [Bikram 

April 7th. 

Sarae]." 1 
April 8th. "Arrived att Moblapore [Mohibalipur]." 2 

April nth. "Arrived att Arwell [Arwal]. 3 This is a place 

where Sedistenaran [Sidisht Narayan] has a strong Fort and Good 

April 12th. " Arrived att Aganuer [ Aganaur]." 4 

April 13th. " Arrived att Doudnagur [Daudnagar]." 5 

April i4th. " Arrived att Gotowly [Ghatauli] 6 on the Bank 

off the Soane [Son]." 
April 17th. "Arrived Cojah Seerhaud, 7 with M. Mosoud 

[Muhammad Mas'ud] our Memaundar [niih- 

38. Consultation. 

"Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] being arrived, now delivers the 
money which he rec d from the Bootade \buyutati~\ 

Gotowly. April 20th. J L J J 

amounting to 7737 Sice 8 of the 3 rd and 4 th Years 
Stamp. He acknowledges to have rec d 9737. Butt the remain 8 
2000 Rs being demanded, He promises to Acco* for itt. With Cojah 
Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] is Arrived M. Mosaud [M. Mas'ud] with 
100 Horse, & 100 more Peons. As he does nott think itt safe for us to 
proceed under his protection alone ; Agreed that M r - J. Surman and C : 
Seerhaud visitt Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Kh an], who is Encamped 
near us, to endeavour gaining his protection att least as farr as 

1 BikrSm SarSe, an outpost in thana Paliganj parganna Ballia, 26 miles from Patna. 

2 Mohibalipur is 13 miles and 22 chains beyond BikrSm SarSe, but in the same thana and 

3 Arwal, on the Son, a thana in the JahanSbSd subdivision, was formerly celebrated for its 
sugar and paper manufactories. 

4 AgSnSur, near the Son, lies about 12 miles S. W. of Arwal, within its jurisdiction. 
The village was once guarded by ramparts and gates. 

5 Daudnagar, a small town on the Son, 10 miles S. W. of AganSur, was founded by 
DSud Kh5n a risaldar of Aurangzeb, who gave him the pargannas of Amchha, Manora, and 
Goh as a reward for conquering Palamau. It is surrounded by a moat and till recently it 
had gates which were shut every night. It is at present a thana in the AurangSbad sub- 
division, and lies on the main road from Benares to Gaya. 

6 GhStauli, also in the AurangSbSd subdivision, lies on the right bank of the Son 12 miles 
S. W. of Daudnagar, and 5 miles N. E. of BSrun, where the grand trunk road crosses the 

7 He had been to Mir Jumla's camp, and had accompanied the caravan as far as Daud- 
nagar. Mir Jumla gave him a recommendatory letter to Khan DaurSn and an order for 
Governor Hedges. He also said that he had written to the KiDg on behalf of the English. 

88 MAKRllN TO SlSWAT, APRIL, 1715. 

39. Diary. 
" Arrived atfc Mokrain rMakrainl 1 having 

April 21st. L J ° 

crossed the Soane. 
April 23rd. " 100 Es given to the Carriers on Account." 

April 24th. " Arrived att Sarsewrong [Sahsram]." 2 

April 25th. " Arrived beyond Sarsewrong." 

"Arrived att Sabarabad [Sabarabad] ; 3 we are now taking out a 
April 26th. present for Gyrutt Oaun [Grhairat Khan]." 

M Arrived at Forokabad [Fakhrabad] 4 — Note the Nabob Angry 
April 27th. that we went beyond him." 

April 28th. " Arrived att Motany [Muthani]." 5 

40. Consultation. 
" Being arrived on the skirts off Meer Jemlahs [Mir Jumlah's] 6 
Motany. April 28th. armj ; there is an absolute necessity to visitt 
him ; nott only for the great favour he is in with the King, butt the 
Service or disservice he is capable of doing, to our Honourable Masters 
affairs in Bengali, with the hope3 off obtaining a Sunnod [sanacC] for 
our trade in that Province, for these reasons, Agreed that we all visitt 
him and that Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] go before in order to 
our Handsome reception, Itt being likewise necessary to present him 
and his officers, and particularly according to his quality. Agreed, 
that the amount, according to the nearest Conjecture, be about 4000 
rupees Invoice price." 

41. Diary. 

" Four Horsemen and Severall peons left us. 
Arrived att Sownt [Sanwat] ." 7 

1 Makrain is a small village on the west bank of the Son, below the Dehri railway bridge, a 
mile and a half north of the causeway, which carries the great trunk road. 

2 Sahsram, a wellknown place of some historical importance, is the head-quarters of a sub- 
division. Here the Emperor Sher Shah was born, and here his body lies buried in a mag- 
nificent tomb. The distance between Makrain and Sahsram is thirteen miles. 

3 SSbarSbSd an insignificant village on the grand trunk road ten miles from Sahasram. 
Here is a wall where travellers often halt. 

4 FSkhrSbSd a village on the grand trunk road thirteen miles from Sabarabad. The old 
pilgrim route to Baidyanath is said to have branched off here. 

5 MuthanI, is only two miles from Fakhr&bSd on the grand trunk road. 

6 Ubaidullah, a native of Samarqand, entitled Muta'madu-lmulk, Mu'agzam KhSta, 
Kh5n KY.anSn, Fahadur, Muzafferjung, Mir Jumlah, TarkhSnl, SuljSni. He was appointed to 
Patna as a sort of banishment, and received his last audience at Dehll on the 16th Dec. 
1714. He died in January 1732, a?ed 63 years. 

" SSnwat is ft village close to the grand trunk road seven miles from the KarmnSsa, and 
thirteen from MuthSnI. 


" Arrived att Ourrom-Nossa [Karmnasa]. This river parts the 
May 1st. Subaships off Beharr and Illaabass." 

May 3rd. " Arrived att Syud -Raj a [Sayyidraja]." l 

" Arrived att Behauder-pore [Bahadurpur] on the Bank of the 

May 4th. Ganges, over Against Banarass." 

Way 5th. " Ferrying over our Goods." 

May 6th. Ferrying over our Goods." 

May 7th. Ferrying over our Goods." 

"Last Night a prodigious Storm of Wind and Eain to the damag- 

MaySth. * n & °^ some °^ our ® ooc ^ M r Surman &c a . 

Came over the river." 
May 9th. " We passed the City of Banarass." 

"Mr Surman Visitted Gyrutt Oaun FGhairat Khan], hoping to gett 
Mayiitb. leave to goe before him, butt itt was notfc 


May 12th. "Arrived att Mohun k' Surray [Mohan ki 

Sarae]." 2 
May 13th. " Arrived att Baboo k' Surray [Babu ki 

Sarae]." 3 

May 14th. * Arrived att Madoo-Huttea [Madho Hatlya]. " * 

May 15th. "Arrived att Jugdis k' Surray [Jagdis ki 

Sarae]." 5 

" Arrived att Sidabad [Saidabad] 6 . M r Surman 
Visitted Gyrutt-Oaua [Ghairat Khan]." 

" Arrived on the Banks off the Ganges before 
Illaabass [Allahabad]." 

May 16th. 
May 17th. 

1 Sayyid raja is a bazar in the Narwan parganna of the Chandauli tahsil, 24 miles 
E. S. E, of Benares, and 8 miles E. of Chandauli, in Lat. 25 -l5'-12 v north, and Long. 
83°-23'-56" east. It -was founded nearly 400 years ago by Sayyid llaja Ahmad, whose 
tomb is still preserved and is an object of adoration. There also remain a masonry sarae and 
a well built by him. The massive ruins still found here show how imposing the buildings must 
have once been. 

2 Sarae Mohan is a village in the Kaswar Sarkari parganna of the Benares tahsil, about 
nine miles west of Benares. 

3 Sarae Babu, in the Bhadoi parganna, Konrh tahsil, and Aurai thana of the Mirzapur 
district, is situated on the grand trunk road, two miles last of the camping ground at Katka. 
There is a tank in the village with two dharamshcdas. 

4 Madho HatiyS, better known as Bazar Madho Simha, also in the Bhadoi parganna 
Konrh tahsil, and Aurai thana, is on the grand trunk road nine miles from Sarae BSbu. It 
is a centre of the Mirzapur carpet-weaving industry. 

5 Jagdis ki Sarae in tahsil Konrh, thana Gopiganj, is on the grand trunk road eleven 
miles from Madho Hatiya or Bazar Madho Simha. 

6 Saidabad is a village in the parganna of the same name in .the Handia tahsil. 

40 ALLAHABAD, MAY, 1715. 

May 18th. " Ferrying over our Goods. Seerhaud arrived." 

„ M , "Arrived between the New and old Oitv having 

May 20th. •, i . , 

passed the river. 
"The Goorzeburdars [ gurzbarddrs] gone iff possible to gett 15 days 
May 2ist. Demurrage, or what the Government will allow." 

42. Consultation. 

" Seerhaud going to visitt Seer Bolund-Caun [Sarbuland Khan] 1 
niaabass. was Dese tt by the Kings Cohars [kahdrs] (who 

May 22nd. carry our present) They pelting him with stones, 

He very narrowly Escaping with his life; For before any persons Could 
come to his Assistance, Many off his own and our Servants were 
knocked down. This Disturbance arose from the Government ordering 
butt 2000 Siccas to be paid att Illaabass [Allahabad] with which they 
nott being contented demanded more pay ; but finding no one that would 
advance them anything, After ineffectuall applications to the Govern- 
ment, they took this method. We have endeavoured to punish this 
insolence, butt there being so great a Number, and no others procurable 
in their Stead ; We have found, by the Governments advice, as well as 
our own Experience, that nothing butt mildness is to be used ; and that 
we must in some measure gratify their demands : for which reason, 
Agreed that Mr. John Surman pay them 36C0 Siccas; which when 
received tbey promise to proceed att least as far as Coora-Jehaunabad 
[Korah JahanabadJ. 2 

Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Khan], whom we have accompany ed to this 
place, being now in Mourning, for his wife's Brother (who was burned by 
a Mischance) 3 which will detain him three or four days ; We judge itt 
highly prejudiciall to our Affairs to waite his motions any longer, and 
on the Contrary, that this is the fittest opportunity to gett leave to pro- 
ceed before him, Yett as we are well Satisfied that he Expects some thing 
for civility already Shown us ; Agreed that M r - E. Stephenson make up 
the following present. — Viz*- — 

1 Sarbuland KbSn had been appointed governor of Allahabad subah from the 16th June 

2 The hahars or porters had already received an extra payment of Rs. 2,400 on the 6th 
April. They are now given extra payments of Rs. 2,000 and of Rs. 3,600. Altogether they 
had an extra payment of Rs. 8,000. This at the King's rate of payment of Rs. 7 a man was 
a little ies-s than a month's pay for the 1,200 kahars. They afterwards reckoned it as 28 
days' pay. 

3 Nuru-d-din ' All Klan, son of Nuru-d-din 'All Kl an, BSrha, died at Dihli of burns, on 
the 10th March, 1715, N.S., aged 20 years. 

ALLAHABAD, MAY, 1715. 41 

Broad Cloth (Aurora 1 ps. Fine Scarlett, Fine Green and Imbost, 
each 11 yds. 14 nils.). 

1 Chest Syrahs, 1 China Escrutore, 2 dram Cases, 
4 pistolls, 2 penknives, 2 pr. Sissars, 

3 prospecting Glasses, 2 Multiplying Glasses, 
3 Triangle Glasses, 5 pr. Spectacles, 

1 Burning Glass. 

We being informed that Seer-Bullund-Caun [Sarbuland Khan] is 
nott so civill to Europeans as other Omrahs \utitara,\> and consequently 
that itt is improper for M r - Surman to visitt him, unless assured 
off a reception like that from Meer Jemlah j Mir Jumlah] and other 
Omrahs [umard], withall there being no Absolute necessity for itt. 
Agreed Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] goe to him to desire a 
Convoy thro his jurisdiction ; We being able to govern our- Selves by 
the reception he meetts with from this haughty Nobleman. 

Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Khan J and his Brother Each of them desir- 
ing a Watch, and the things demanded being butt trifles ; Agreed that 
we buy two for them, the Companys being worth nothing." 

43. Consultation. 

"Having taken leave off Gyrutt Caun [Ghairat Khanl, we are 
now arrived beyond the City, the Cohars 
inaa SMi ahabadl [kaharz] contentedly Bringing away their 
Burdens ; Butt the Carriers after some disputes, 
Absolutely refused to proceed, running away from their Carriages. 
Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] remained there, nott beleiving they 
dared stay behind. The difference between us is this. We offered to 
pay them the ballance of our Account Demurrage, Creditting them for 
what received now out off the Kings treasury ; which was rejected, they 
demanding part off what was payable in Agra, as also a full payment 
off all Demurrage, including 11 days more than we had received from 
the Government, and which we were Unwilling to comply with 
before-hand, iff possible to be avoided. Butt they continuing Still 
obstinate, and we beleiving they were sett on by some of Gyrutt 
Cauns [Ghairat Khan] Servants, who would detain us longer : We 
think itt necessary rather to| Comply with some part of their Demands, 
than loose the opportunity off hastening our passage. The account 


being made up for 56 days demurrage; Agreed, that M r - J. Surman 
pay them 1970 Siccas on Account. 1 

Seerhaud finding a very indifferent reception from Seer Bullund 
Caun [Sarbuland Khan], Agreed that M r - Surman doe nott visitthim." 

44. Diary. 
May 26th. " Arrived at Morow [? Manauri]." 2 

"Arrived att Conkarabad [Koh Khiraj]. 3 
Severall Carriages fell and much wine broke." 

"Arrived att Shereefabad [Shazadabad or 
Shazadpur]." 4 

"Arrived att Chowbk' Surray. [Chaube ki 
Sarae]." 5 

" Arrived att Nobusta Mohun. "Sarae Mohan 
Seiimpur]." 6 

May 3ist. "Arrived att Abunagur [Abunagar]." 7 

jane 1st. " Arrived att Coorpore. [Kunwarpur]. ,>8 

Juno 2nd. "Arrived att Buckewar [Bakewar]." 9 

" Arrived att Coora-Jehaunabad [Korah Jaha- 
Ju °* 3r "' natedj."" 

June 5th. " Arrived att Gottumpore [Ghatampur]." ll 

May 27th. 
May Kth. 

May 29th. 
May 30th. 

I The carriers demanded demurrage at the rata of Rs. 35 a day for 85 days from tho 
11th January, when their pay was to begin, to the cth April. Thus the total amount due to them 
was Rs. 2,975. Of this Rs. 1,005 had been paid in advance when they were first engaged on 
October 23rd 1714. Thus a balance of Rs. 1,970 was still due to them for demurrage, i.e., prac- 
tically demurrage for 56 days. For the journey itself they were to receive altogether Rs. 27,500. 

- Manauri is the second station west of Allahabad on the East Indian Railway. 

3 Koh Khiraj, a village on the Ganges in the Kara parganna, 24 miles W. N. W. of 
Allahabad, in Lat 25° 35' 43" North, and Long. 81° 32' 42" East. 

4 Shazadpnr is situated in the Kara parganna, 33 miles N. W. of Allahabad, in Lat. 25° 
39' 13"55" North, and Long. 81° 27' -21" East. It was once a flourishing town famous for its 
stamped cloth and saltpetre, but is now rapidly decaying, 

5 Sarae Chaube was situated about a mile to the west of Ghos or about seven or eight 
mile3 to the south-east of Hatbganw. I owe this identification and the identifications of Nob. 
usta Mohun and of Coorpore, which follow, to the kindness of Mr. A. Cadell and the Board 
of Revenue of the North- Western Provinces. 

6 Nobusta Mohun, now called Sarae Mohan Seiimpur, is about eight miles to the east of 
Fathpur or Fattehpur. 

7 Abunagar, a portion of the present town of Fattehpur [Fathpur], said to have been 
founded by Abu Muhammad, son of the Nabob Abdu-s-Samad Khan, the faujdar of Sadlpur 
Pailani ia Bandelkhand, in the time of Aurangzeb. 

3 Coorpur, i.e., Kunwarpur, is about twelve miles from Fathpur along the Korah road. 
9 Bakewar i3 8£ miles east of Korah and 13^ miles N. W. of Kunwarpur. 
H On the 4th June a consultation was held at Korah Jahanub'td to consider a letter from 
Ghairat Kh'in ordering the English to wait for him. They resolved to push on to Delhi. 

II Ghatampur , the capital of the parganna of the same name, on the Mogul road, 26 miles 
from Cawnpore. 

< ^ 

Q * 

z I 

5 ^ 

00 *> 


To face page 42. 


June 6th. " Arrived att Moosanagur. [Miisanagar] ." l 

45. Consultation. 

"We are now informed that the road between this place and 

Agra is infested by Mewattys; who plunder 

Mo o Sanag ur. whomsoever they can over-power. Our Carriages 

taking a great length in their March, and the 

forces we have att present being butt small, when devided ; Besides 

which, a good party off our best Horsemen and Peons have left us. For 

these reasons, We judge itt proper to be speedily reinforced. Agreed 

that, iff we can gett a party of 25 or 30 Horse, that will proceed with 

us to Agra, for five or six hundred rupees they be entertained. A 

party off 45 peons offering their Service to accompany us to Agra att 3 

rupees per man. Agreed that they be entertained." 

46. Diary. 

- June 7th. "Arrived att Bogunee [Bhognipur]." 2 

June 8th. "Arrived att Great Secunderah [Sikandra]." 3 

June 9th. "Arrived att Nahalk' Surray [Nihal-ki- 

sarae]." 4 

" Arrived att Anuntrank' Surray [Anantram- 
ki-sarae]." 5 
June nth. "Arrived att TekDill k' Surray [Sarae Ek- 

dil]." 6 

1 Musanagar, a town in the Bhognipur parganna. on the bank of the Jumna near its 
confluence with the Sengar, 34 miles distant from Cawnpore. It is a regular halting place for 
pilgrims to Gaya. Here is an ancient temple of Mukta Devi. 

2 Bhognipur, the head-quarters of the parganna of the same name, on the Mogul road, 
41 miles from Cawnpore. It is said to have been founded by Bhog Chand Kayath to whom is 
also ascribed a large reservoir known as the Bhog Sagar. 

3 Sikandra, a town in the Derapur parganna on the Mogul road, 48 miles from Cawnpore, 
named after its reputed founder, the Sultan Sikandar Lodi. Numerous ruins attest its former 

4 Mr. C. S. Silberrad, i.c.s.j has kindly given me the following information about Sarae 
Nihal. It is situated in parganna Auraiya, mauza RSmpur Ramsahai, about 1£ miles south of 
Panhar and 5| miles east of Dalilnagar. The tahsildar says it lies on the Sher Shahi road. 
Nothing now remains but a temple and a well, but there are local traditions of other 

5 Anantram-ki-sarae lies on the road between Auraiya and Bhartua. See Indian Atlas 
Sheet No. 68 ; also the district map of Ifcawah in the N.-W. P. Gazetteer. 

5 Sarae Ekdil, a village in the Etawa parganna, 6 miles east of Etawa. It is said to have 
been originally called Rupa Sarae, but in 1632 A,D. a eunuch, named Ekdil Khan, built a new 
sarai and mosque here, and hence its name was changed. It lies a little to the south of 
the road. 

44 *A?ILABAD TO HOblJL, JUNE, 1715. 

Junel2th> "Arrived ait Fuzzelabad [FazilabadJ. 1 Re- 

ceived a Cossid | qasid] from Culcutta. " 

June 13th. "Arrived att Moorly [Murlidhar-ki-sarae]. 

Much rain fell. " 

June 14th. "Arrived att Rupus-pore [RupuspQYJ. 3 

Rain. " 

June loth. .« Arrived att Ferrozabad [Firozabad]." 4 

June 16th. U ^ rrive(i att Otmed-pore [Itmadpur]. 5 Killed 

a Rogue who came in the Night " 

" Arrived att Raj : Gott [Ra j ghat] over 

June 17th. AgaiEst Agra — King George proclaimed. The 30 

Mewattys left us." 

June 18th. "Arrived att Agra." 

June 25th. « Arrived att P : hurrah k' Surray [Farah]." 6 

June 26th. « Arrived att Azzimnagur." 

June 27th - " Arrived att Choumowah [Chaumuha] ." 7 

Dacca [dhaka, i.e., daeoits or robbers] came thrice on our Camp in 
the Night. We had 5 men wounded ; and took 2 off the Rogues, one 
off which was wounded likewise." 

June 28th. "Arrived att Dewtannah [Dotana]." 8 

June 29th - " Arrived beyond Horull [HodulJ." 9 

1 Faizu-1-abad or Fazilabad, says Mr. Silberrad, "is situated in mauza Malhajani, about 3 
to 3£ miles south-east of Jaswantnagar. All that is now left is two pukka wells and a small 
masjid ; no khera, nor do the men living have any recollection of more buildings. It lies 
between the present road from Jaswantnagar to Itawah and the railway, distant about one 
furlong from each. About a quarter of a mile further west is an old disused three-arched 
bridge over the Sarsa nodi .... known as the Banjara's bridge, they being alleged to have 
built it, as also a fine large tank near by. Doubtless the course of the old road was across this 

2 Murlidhar-ki-Sar5e, a hamlet in the Shukohabad parganna of the Mainpuri district, 9 miles 
east of Shukohabad. It was founded by Lala Murlidhar Kayath, who held office under Shan 
Jahan. Remains of a well and sarSe built by him still survive. 

3 Rupuspur lies three miles beyond Shukohabad. See Indian Atlas Sheet No. 68. 

4 Firozabad, the chief town of the tahsil of Firozabad on the Mogul road, 26 miles E. S. E. 
of Agra in Lat. 27 D -8'-37" North, and Long. 78°-25'-56" East. It contains the remains of a 
number of ancient buildings. 

3 Itmadpur, the chief town of the ItmSdpur tahsil, on the Mogul road, 12 miles E. N. E. 
of Agra in Lat. 27°-13'-50" North, and Long. 78°-14'-22" East. It is named after its founder, 
I'temad Khan, a eunuch in the service of Akbar, who is buried here. 

6 Farah, a village in the Muttra tahsil on the road to Agra, 12 miles south of Muttra in 
Lat. 27°-19'-13" North, and Long. 77°-48'-12" East. It was founded by Hamida Begam, tha 
mother of Akbar. 

7 Chaumuha, a village in the Chhata tahsil on the Mogul road, 12 miles N. W. of Muttra in 
Lat. 27°-37'-20" North and Long. 77°-37'-25" East. Here are the remains of a large masonry 
sarai said to have been built by the Nabob Asaf Khan, Manager of Sher Shah. 

8 Dotana is more than eleven miles beyond Chaumuha ; see Indian Atlas Sheet No. 68. 

9 Hodul is a small town on the trunk road from Muttra to Delhi, 36 miles from Muttra 
and 54 miles from Delhi. Here are the ruins of an old sarae and baoli, anl of a still older 
masonry tank. Close by is a copse of great sanctity called the Pando Ban. 


June 30th. " Arrived att Bramunee-kera [Bamnikhera]. 1 

Took another thief." 

July 1st. « Arrived att Pulvull [Palwal] ." 2 

J^y 2nd. « Arrived att Boghola [Baghaula]." 3 

July 3rd. "Arrived att Feredabad [Fajldabad]. 4 

Here M r Surman and Seerhaud received the Kings Seerpaws 
[aar-o pas']." 

"Arrived att Barrapoola [Barapulah]. 5 Mr. 
Philips returned from the City who went to see a 

" A list wrote of our first offering to the King, 
to be sent to Caundora." 

July 5th, 

47. Consultation. 

" Padree Stephanus having been with us att Feredabad [Faridabad], 
and brought Seerpaws [saropd ) for M r . J. Surman 

Barrapoola [Barahpulah.] an( j q^ geerhaild [Khwajah Sarhad] which 

were received with the Accustomary Ceremony. 
Methods are now to be considered, Seeing we are so nigh the 
Jmperiall City, for our publick Enterance. The Padree Assures us 
off a very handsome reception, through the favour of Caundora [Khan 
DauranJ ; withall, that we may use our own time, and manner off 
proceeding : However, that the quicker dispatch the better ; and that 
we carry somethings Curious and off value for our first offering. 
Upon Mature consideration, Agreed, That we make our Entry the 7 th 
Inst. That we desire some Munsubdars [mansabdars, minor nobles] 
may be sent to receive us creditably ; That we may be admitted to 
the Kings presence before we proceed to the house prepared for us ; 
and That for our offering the Following things be prepared, M r - J. 
Surman delivering 1001 Gold Moors [muhrs], and M r - E. Stephenson. 

1 Bamnikhera, apparently Khera sarae, six miles south of Palwal and twelve miles north of 

2 Palwal, an ancient town, dating traditionally from the times of the Mahabharata and the 
Pandawa kingdom of Indraprastha, with a large sarae and a very early mosque. It is situated 
in the Gurgaon district on the trunk road, 38 miles from Delhi. 

3 Baghaula, now a police road-post in the tahsil of Palwal. 

4 Faridabad is a small town about 16 miles S. W. of Delhi. Here are a large mosque built 
by a certain Shaikh Farid and the remains of an old sarae. 

5 BSrapulah, the long massive bridge of eleven arches, half a mile south of HumSyun'a tomb. 

46 DELHI, JULY, 1715. 

A Table Clock sett with precious Stones. 

An Unicorns Horn. 

A Gold Escrutore bought from Zeaudy Oaun [Zeyau-d-din Khan] . 

A Large Lump of Ambergrease. 

An Aftoa [qftabah a ewer], and Cbillurnchy [chilamchl, a basin] 
Man : work. 1 

The Mapp of the World. 2 

Considering some money is necessary to be flung among the Crowd 
by that means Aggrandizing our first appearance. Agreed that 
M r . J. Surman give out 200 rupees." 3 

48. Di^RY. 

" Our Drum and Trumpett permitted to the 
gate off the New City." [i.e. Shahjahanabad.] 
The King visitted ; where M r . Surman and Seerhaud received Seer- 
paws [saropds]. There were 7 Seerpaws ordered, 
but the King told Caundora [Khan Dauran], the 
rest should be given att our next appearance. Sallabutt Caun [Salabat 
Khan] Sent us a treat. We mett Caundora [Khan Dauran") att Court, 
he rec d - us very kindly." 

49. Letter I. 4 

«• To the Hon^ e Eobert Hedges Esq r - Presid* & Gov* of Fort William 
Etc Councill in Bengali. 

Hon' le Sir &, Sirs 

Our last to your Hon v etc was from Agra the 24 th Ult. which place we left 
the same day, We pass'd the Country of the Jaats [ie Jats] with Success not 
meeting with much trouble except that once in the night rogues Came on our 
Camp, but being repulsed three times they left us. We arriv'd at Phworedabad 
[Faridabad] the 3' d instant where we were met by Padre Stephanus bringing 

» That is, " Manila work," see p. 47 in the letter of the 8th July. 

2 See Vol. II, Pt. 1, §§ 811, 827. 

3 On the 14th December, 1711, the Dutch embassy to Bahadur Shah had entered Lahor in 
great style ; hence the anxiety of the English to "aggrandise their first appearance." Kamwar 
Khan says " On the 15th of this month (Rajab 1127) [that is, the 16th or 17th July 1715 N. S. 
or the 5th or 6th July O.S.] it was reported to His Majesty that Mr. John Surman and 
Mr. Edward Stephenson, English ambassadors, had arrived near the city By order of His 
Majesty, Sayyad Salabat Khan Bahadur was sent to greet and escort them. The said am- 
bassadors were brought by him to the Diwan Khas. They presented a letter with many 
foreign curiosities and rarities. From the date of presentation up to the 25th _Zu-l-hijjah 
[i.e. 21st December 1715 N.S. or the 10th December O.S.] those things were presented daily. 
Mr. J ohn Surman received a robe of gold zarbaf t of five pieces and a jewelled plume, and the 
second ambassador a robe and a jewellad dagger. " 

* This letter is to be found in the Madras Public Diary and Consultations for 2 Jan 1712 
to 29 Dec. 1715, No. 86, Range 239 in the India Office. The letter was read at a Consult- 
ation at Fort St. Goorge on Thursday Oct. 6th, 17l5, under which date it occurs. 

DELHI, JULY, 1715. 4? 

. two Seerpaws [saro i pa~\, which were receiv'd with the usual ceremony by 
John Surman and Cojee Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]. The 4 th We arrived at 
Barrapoola [Barahpulah], three Course [kos] from the City, sending the Padry 
before to prepare our deception, that if possible We might Visit the Kin? the 
first day even before We went to the house which was got for us accordingly 
the 7 th in the morning We made our entery with very good **der, there being 
sent a Munsubdar [mansabdar~] of two thousand Munsub [manxab~] with about 
200 horse and peons to meet us, bringing likewise two Elephants and Flags 
about the Middle of the City We were met by the Syud Sallabut Cawn Bahauder 
[Sayyad Salabat Khan], and were by him conducted to the palace where we 
waited till about 12 a clock till the King came out, before which time We met 
with Caundora Bahauder [Bahadur] who received us very Civilly assuring 
us of his protection and good Services. We prepar'd for our first present vizt.— 
One Thousand and One gold Mohurs, the Table clock set with precious Stones, 
the Unicorns Horn, the gold Escrutore bought from Zoudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din 
Khan], the large peice of Ambergreese the Aftoa [aftabali], and Chelumgie 
[chilamchi] Manilha work & the Map of the World, these with the Hon ble 
Govern rs Letter were presented every one holding something in his hand as 
usual John Surman Keceived a Vest and Culgee [kalagkh a turban plume, or 
ornament] Set with precious Stones and Surhand a Vest and Cunger [Manjar, 
a scimitar] Set with precious stones likewise. Considering the great pomp and 
State of the Kings of Indostan, we was very well Keceiv'd. On our arrivall 
at our house We were entertain'd by Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat 
Khan] sufficient both for us and our people, in the evening He visited us 
again and stay'd about two hours. The great favour Caundore [Khan Dauran] 
is in with the King gives us hopes of Success in this undertakeing, He assures 
us of his protection and says the King has promis'd us great favours. We have 
Bee 1 orders first to visit Caundore [Khan Dauran], as our Patron after which 
We shall be order'd to visit the Grand Vizier, and other Omrahs [umara\ 
We would have avoided this if We could fearing to disoblidge the Vizier, but 
finding it not feazable, rather than disoblige one who has been so serviceable, & 
by whose means We expect to obtain our desires We comply with it. 1 

This we dispatch by several Conveyances that your Hon 1 ' etc may have 
quick news of our arrival etc. 

Inclos'd comes Account Cash Warehouse Account Charges General with 
Copys of Consultations for the month of May 

We are 

Hon'te S r & Sirs 

Yo 1 ' most Obed* Humble Serv ts 

John Sttsman. 

Edw d » Stephenson.' 
dlllt oe sha jehannabad, 

July the 8th 1715. 

1 Khan Dauran, was only second BakhshI or Bahhshiu-l-mulk, and thus inferior in rank to 
both the vLsier and the amlru-l-vmara. 

48 delhi, july, 1715. 

50. Consultation. 

" Having visitted his Majesty, the next we ought to meett are 
his Prime Ministers ; The Cheif Among which is 
the Grand Vizier, so ought in puncto to have the 
first visitt ; ButA to perform which, we find an impossibility ; Caun- 
dora [Khan Dauran] our Patron Expecting that Lott to himself : 
neither is itt to be avoided without incurring his highest displeasure, We 
are Assured by our friends that the "Vizier is only titular, the Executive 
power lying Cheifly in the other ; So that what we are now about to doe, 
is Entirely our Interest. For which reason Agreed that we first visitt 
Caundora ; [Khan Dauran] next, the Vizier ; and Last off all Tucourrub 
Oaun [Taqarrub Khan]. 1 Mr. Stephenson delivering out the following 
things as an offering to Each Omrah [umard], 

To the Vizier — 

1 ps Ambergreace. 

1 Watch bo*- 

1 Europe twizer Case. 

1 Japan Standish. 

3 Glass Hookers \hvqqahs\ 

1 Pallan: Furniture. 

2 Patna Cases. 

To Caundora [Khan Daurau] — 

2 p r Small Japan Truncks. 

1 Fine Cutt Hooker [huqqak]. 

1 Sett Glass Pall : Furniture. 

2 Small Patna Cases. 

1 twizer Case. 

1 Silver Watch bo*- 

1 Globe Fountain bo*- 

To Tuccurrub Caun [Taqarrub Khan] — 

2 China Truncks. 

1 Silver Watch bo*- 

3 Hookers \_huqqah\ 

2 Patna Cases. 

2 Bandizas 1 Big. 

& 1 Small. 

1 Taqarrub Khan had been KhSnsSmSn, or Lord Steward, since the 11th Feb : 1713 
N.S. He died on the 1st April 1716 N.S. 

DELHI, JULY, 1715. 49 

The King being ready to leave the City, Sallabutt Caun Salabat 
Khan] has pressed us to Send him another Present as soon as possible. 

Agreed that Mr. E. Stephenson deliver out the following things 

1 pr. Kamphire Esorutores. 

2 pr. Eose Water bottles. 

2 Europe Pictures. 

A Beettle box and plate. 

3 Manila Truncks. 

1 Piece A gala wood. 
1 Perfuming pott." 

51. Diary. 

July 9th. " Yisitted Caundora " [Khan Dauran]. 

July lDth. « Visitted the Grand Vizier. 

Arrived fruitt from the King to which we paid our obeisance." 
July nth. < « Visited Tuccurrub Caun [Taqarrub Khan], butt 

he would nott accept our present." 

52. Consultation. 

" The Kings Cohars [kahars], that came with us, have, since their 
arrival, here, been very troublesome, there being 

nth ^ or ^ ^ a y s P a y ^ ue ^° ^ em ' Besides, they make 

a demand, for the time before their pay was 
commenced by the Government in Patna, which amounts to a Consider- 
able Summ. The dearness of this place makes them very insolent, and 
the Great Number of them has severall times putt us under apprehen- 
sions off being insulted, going out off our house. We are advised, by 
our friends, not to lett them Come to an Extremity nor lett them goe, 
to complain to the King ; Butt that itt will be more for our creditt, 
to make up the buisne?s att home, and give them their due pay our 
Selves. Endeavouring afterwards to gett a reimbursement from 
the Kings Consomma [Khdnsdmdn, or Lord Steward], which iff nott 
allowed, we must nott look att that Expence as unreasonable, having 
received so much from the King already. For which reasons, and 
having Convinced them, that one part off their pretensions is not due ; 
withall offering to pay them the remaining eighteen days, giving Seer- 
paws, [saropds] etc. to their Cheifs with which they are contented; 


50 DELHI, JULY, 1715. 

Agreed, that AI r John Surman pay them 5413 rupees and take a 
full discharge from them. 1 

Sallabutt Cauns house nott being Sufficient to accommodate all 
off us, Agreed that two Houses more be looked out." 

53. Diary. 
July 12th. « The King left the City. 2 " 

54. Letter II. 3 

" To the Hon™ e Kob f Hedges Esq r Preside & GoV of Fort William 
in Bengali. 

Hon- e S r - 

We have lately sent Your Hon r the good news of onr safe arrival! here, the 
visiting the King and the civil treatment we met with all which will without donbt 
be very welcome news, We have since visited several Omrahs \jimara~] as the 
Vizier Canndora [Khan Dauran], and Tackarubcaun [Taqarrub Khan], where we 
were received with all the Respect that could be expected and gives me some 
hopes that all will end well, but what gives me the most encouragement (ior I am 
well n^quainted these Nobles, as long as they are expecting to get anything are 
always complaisant) is that the methods we are at present taking, is consistant and 
with the advice & Councill of Zoudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din Khan], We visited 
that G-entleman the 11 th Cur^ and met with the same treatment He ha3 always 
given to Englishmen with the highest acknowledgements of the favours He has 
Eec'd from them, that as yet He had never been able to retaliate any of them 
but hop'd He had now an opportunity of doing Something, he pressingly advis'd 
us to do notliing without the advice Counsel and order of Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
and the main instrument of our affairs) Syed Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat 
Khan], that the turn of affairs at the Durban* oblig'd ns to it, this which he 
told us by word of mouth he wrote me when I sent your Hon s Letter to him. 
We are convinced he advises like a freind and are intent on the method, but 
at the same time very cautious how we anyways disoblige the Vizier Wee, being 
very sure that Zoudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din Khan" 1 was very intimate there, sent 
and advis'd him when we intended to visit, That He would use his interest for 
our better Eeception, intending to manage the Durbarr by his means, He assur'd 
us that We might be satis fy'd as to the important Durbarr : The good prospect 
We have of our affairs makes Coja Surhaud [Khwajah Saihad] very good 

1 They demanded pay altogether for 136 days, beginning on the 26th February. The 
King had given them three months' pay, i.e., 90 days, and they had al-o received an extra sum 
ot Its. 8,000 which they appear to have reckoned as 28 days' pay. Thus 18 days' pay whs 
owing. This was, it would seem, paid by the English at the rate of Us. 7-S-O a month a man, 
whereas the King's rate was only Rs. 7 a month for each man. 

2 According to MlrzS Muhammad, Farrukbslyar went first to the Qutb minar, then to "BSdli, 
and FSnipat. 

3 This letter was read at the same Consultation at Fort St. George as letter I, and is to be 
found in the same volume. 

DELHI, JULY, 1715. 61 

humour'd and at present tractable in hopes He shall obtain his promised Eeward, 
and considering that everything is coming to it's crisis, I take particular care that 
He remains so, and as much as possible perswade every one with me ito do the like 
which I fear gains me but little good will, but as passion must now be curb'd 
except We expect to be laught at, We must be very cercumspect in our actions 
and Councils. 

We have Received Letters from Madrass advising that Sadatulla Cawn 
[Sa'datullah Khan"! 1 had taken the strong Fort of Chingie [Jinji] and that He was 
for intrenching on the Comp' s Bounds to rupture. We hope to get orders time 
enough to go by your August Shipping, Grod send success to our affairs. I am 

Hon We S r 
Your Most Obedient Humble Servant 

John Sttbman. 
Dilly, the 17th July 1715. 
p.S. — The King for these 6 or 7 days has been out about 7 Course [kos.~\ I 
beleive We must follow in a day or two." 

55. Consultation. 

" His Majesty nott being yett returned into the City, We esteem 

• it improper to continue any longer out off his 

July 18th. presence. For which reason, Agreed that the 

Teats be sent to the Camp, and that M r Surman and Cojah Seerhaud- 

goe thither. 

Agreed that Mr. Edward Stephenson deliver out y e following 
things to be Carried to y e Camp— viz*. 

S2 Large 
1 Small 
1 Europe Fountain 
1 Toy in Case bottle 
1 Box of English Flowers 
6 China Toys — Horsemen 
1 Sword, Silver Handle 

1 G-old Watch 

2 Manila trunks — Silver hinges 
2 Amber Canisters 

12 Looking Glasses 
6 Clocks 

* This, says M r - Irvine, must be Muhammad Sa'id, Sa'datullah Khan, Bahadur, who died on 
the 5th October, 1732, while faujdur of the two Karoataks, aged about 80 years, He was of tha 
tribe of Nawayat (see Wilks, I, 226, 242). 

E 2 


DELHI, JULY, 1715. 

460 p*. Broad Cloth ordinary 

300 p s . D°- Aurora 
Fire-Armes— Viz*- 1 

! Green— 




Gun Double-barrell 
Fuzees [fusils]. 
Horse Pistolls 
Pockett D°- 

!4 Large 
3 Middling 
12 Small 

Japan Ware 1 Patch, box 
4 Nests 

4 IP- 

18 Bandizas 

Cuttlary Ware 49 Scissars 


20 Perings 

16 Cupps and j 10 [large] 

Saucers 6 small 

18 Cupps and Covers 
10 Cupps 
18 Dishes 
3 Plates 
1 Small dressing Box 

L 40 Plain 

2 large Boxes 

2 small d°- 

2 Large Dressing boxes 

2 Small d°- 

6 Large 

6 Bound 

7 Small 
Gold hinges 

1< 8 Pennives 

\ 9 Silver handles 
f 8 Kittle beaters 
6 Agatt 
4 Amber 
2 Claspt 

13 Ivory tipt with Silver 
Jo Plain Ivory 
9 Fine Cases. q*- Knives, Scissars etc 

Pockett books 

60 Knives 

12 Bazors. 



f 18 Silver handles 
I 6 Agatt d<>- 
] 14 Ivory d°- 
{12 Bed-wood 

DELHI, JCLY, 1715. 53 

56. Letter III. 1 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq 1 *- President and G-overnour of 
Fcrt William Etc. Councill in Bengali. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs, 

The last we wrote Your Honour Etc. was dated July 8 th giving an Account of 
our safe arrivall at this place and our visiting the King. We are at present but 
little able to give your Honour Etc. an Account of our Negotiation, tbe King going 
out the 11th to a place about 5 Course [kos] from hence 2 to Worship and with 
him all the Omrahs [uamra], so that little business can be expected till he comes 
back again, his Stay being longer than we imagined we intend to make him a visit 
a broad that there may be no occasion of any disgust. 

Since our former we visited the Vizier and Tuckurub Caun [Taqarrub 
Khan] which was attended with a great many Civilitys and promises of assistance 
in our affairs: likewise we paid our Respects to Zoudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din Khan] 
whose treatment was equall to the Respect he has always Shewn to Englishmen, 
assured us our affairs were in a very good state and that the design we had of 
carrying on our business by means of Caundora [ Kh an Dauran] was the only 
adviseable Way to hope for Success, for although the Vizier and Tuckurub Caun 
[Taqarrub Khan] were in the highest Posts, and our business in a great measure 
would inevitably fall into their hands yet for a Patron or one to have the intire 
management of the business, none was so fit or could do so much as Caundora 
[Khan Dauran]. We were well informed that he was very intimate with the Vizier 
for which Reason we particularly desired his Freindship, in the management of 
that Durbarr he assured us We might rest satisfied on that side, a few days, we 
hope, will bring the King to has Palace again when we shall enter upon action and 
hope erery thing will answer the expectations we have conceived from so good a 

The Padre in some of his former Letters to us while on our way Copies of 
which we have Sent your Honour Etc. did advise that he had been obliged to 
give writing under his hand and Seal to the Mutsuddies [mutasadis, officials, 
clerks] at Court, for a Certain Summ of mony and goods on our Arrivall and 
finishing the business. We have examined into that matter and are"informed, 
that 'tis to Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur], and Syud Sallabut Caun 
Behauder [Sayyad Salabat Khan Bahadur] for twenty-five thousand Rupees, 
We intend to take up this obligation as invalid, and make as good agreements 
as we can our Selves, the main reason of our doing this is that the Padre may have 
no more opportunity s of giving Notes under his hand for any thing Relating to 
our business. 

We have frequently complained to your Honour &c a . and wrote of the 

invalidity of the Letters of Creditt sent us, and of what ill consequence it might 
be in case we should be disappointed of mony when we came to Action, it being 
the main Spring of our Negotiation. Your Honour &c* did advise that you were 

"This letter was read at the same Consultation at Fort S u George as Letter I, and is to be 
found in the same volume. «_., . 

Farrukhslyar on this occasion went to the Qotb minar. See p. 50. 

•54 DELHI, JULY, 1715. 

seeking a remedy by sending fresh Letters which as yet we hare not received, as 
for those already sent, We have met with nothing but denials, Lollbeharry 
[LalTihari] refusing to let us have any money but on very unreasonable condi- 
tions, the other Joogurpursaud [Jugalprasad] remains in Agra, we did not 
enquire for him there, expecting to have found him in this place, but now perceiv- 
ing our mistake, we have wrote' to him but with little hopes of Success We 
hope your Honour &c^s first Letters will remedy this disappointment. 

Enclosed comes Account Cash Warehouse Account Charges General and Copys 
of Consultations for the month of Juue, likewise Copys of what Letters lately 
received from Bombay and Fort St. George. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most obedient humble Servants 

Cojah Suehatjp [Kbwajah Sarhad ] assent 8 John Sueman 

Hugh Babkeb Sec rv - Edwabd Stephenson." 

July 20th 1715. 

July 22nd. 
July 25th. 

57. Diary. 

"A Currant report the King designs for 

"The Doctor ordered by the King to give 
phisick to Tuccurrub Caun [Taqarrub Khan]. 1 " 

58. Consultation. 

11 For these several 1 days there has been a rnmour, that the King 

designs to proceed to Lahore. We are now very 

The King's Camp. well satisfied that he will Shortly decamp 

July 27th. from this place, Seerhaud [Sarhad] being att 

the delivery off the last goods, that were presented, 

had the opportunity, off hearing the disputes, between the King, 

Yizier, and Caundora [Khan Dauran] : wherein the King was 

possitively resolved to proceed, notwithstanding the improper Season — a 

Sufficient reason to the Contrary. He now gives out that he designs to 

proceed to Pony-punt [Panipat] and no farther. We are off opinion 

our best policy is to be always near the King, and in Case he does 

proceed to Lahore, that we might be Even then negotiating our buisness. 

Agreed that we first return to the City, and bring out whatever things 

1 Taqarrub Kh5n had sworn falsely to Zu-l-nq£r Kha.n that hu life should be spared. It is 
said by WSrid that the hand with which he took the false oath on the Qura'n began at once 
to wither. No remedies availed and he died on the 9th Kabi II, 1128, i.e. 1st April 1716 N.S. 
i.e. 21st March O.S. 

DELHI, JULY, 1715. 55 

we can. There being no absolute necessity for the King to See the 
Broad Cloth, and many other things ; Agreed, that we give notes to 
Mr. E. Stephenson according to which he may deliver goods in 
the City. 

According to Custom The Kings Chubdars \chobdars] &c. Servants 
must receive their reward. The following Summs being noted down by 
Syud SallaLut Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan]. Agreed that Mr. J. Sur- 
man pay them viz*- 

To the Kings Chubd rs 16| share ... ... ... Sice* J2S7 

Doorkeepers ... ... ... ... 450 

To other Chubdars ... ... ... ... 60 

To Caundoras [Khan Dauran's] Chubd rs and Kismutg ,s ... 300 

2037 " 

59. Diary. 

July 28th. " M rs - Woodvill 1 came here." 

60. Consultation. 
Diiiy. u M rs - Woodvill having travelled thus far, to 

u y ' complain against her husband, as she processes to 

us ; and being now in a very mean and poor Condition : We judge itt 
proper to take some notice off her ; nott outt off an apprehension off any 
Efforts she can make to the prejudice off our Honourable Masters ; butt 
because we are unwilling to have Even her name mentioned; withali 
being assured Captain Woodvill is Sufficiently responsable for any 
disbursement on her Account, Agreed that we allow her Subsistance 
whilst she is here, endeavouring to procure her return to Bengali; 
That M r - Surman for the present give her 100 rupees, and M r - Stephen- 
son Supply her with something to make Cloths." 

61. DlARY. 

" The Doctor called to the Camp by Caundora [Khan Dauran], 
July 30th. "we Suppose on the Kings account." 

ust2nd "The Kings Camp removed to Sunputt 

[Sonpat]. 2 " 

1 The name of Captain Woodville occurs frequently in the records. See ante Vols. I and II, 
Pt. 1. This is the first we hear of his family troubles. 

2 Sonpat or Sunipat, a town of great antiquity situated 28 miles north of Delhi on the old 
imperial road. It is surrounded by trees and lies on the side of a small hill formgd out of 
the ruins of old buildings. 

56 DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 

62. Letter IV. 1 

" To the Hon b ' e Edward Harrison Esq 
President and Governour of Fort S t- 
George &c* Councill 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 

A duplicate of your Honours &ca« dated January 15th Originally of the 29th 
came to hand June the 29th, 20 Coarce [bos'] distant from Dilly. "We deferred 
giving answer at that time in hopes to obtain an order on Sadatulla Cawn to attend 
it, but the removall of his Majesty from the City hindred us from commencing 
any business, so can only give your Honour &c^ an Account how things Stand 
at present. 

The 2 ad of July when we ar.ived within 12 Coarce [ios] of the City there came 
two Serpaws r jar-o-pas~^ from his Majesty which were received with the usual 
Ceremony, when we arrived within 3 Coarce [Jcos] we prepared for our Entry ; 
desiring if possible for the Credit of our Negotiation, that we might first pay 
obeisance to his Majesty and then proceed to the house provided for us which 
being concerted the 6th there came a Caun [Khan] of 2000 munsub [mansal~\ with 
200 horse, peons, elephants and flags to conduct us to the City, when we arrived 
at the Outward Gate we were met by Syud Sallabut Cawn Bahauder [Sayyad 
Salabat Khan, Bahadur] who carried us to the Kings palace. We carried with us 
some raritys which we presented, Cawndora [Khan Dauran] introducing us to the 
Royall Presence. Considering the great State with the Adoration paid to these 
Eastern Monarchs, we were as well Beceived as any European has been for these 
many years. We received Serpaws \_sar-o-pas]. There being a Culgee r kalghT]- 
set with Jewells given to John Surman and a Cunger 1M an J ar . 3 se t with Jewells 
to Surhaud [Sarhad] likewise, when we came to our house we were by the Kings 
order entertaind by Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan, Bahadur] with a 
dinner sufficient for us and all our people three days after the King left the City 
under pretence of visiting a Sacred place about 6 Coarce [&os] from thence, but 
the true Reason (we are of opinion) was to clear himself of a kind of confinement 
which he thought he suffered whilst in the Fort, afterwards on the petition of 
his Omrahs \umaraY to return to the City the time of the Bains being improper 
for travelling ; He shewed himself resolved to proceed either to Lahore or Azmere 
[AjmeT-]. Neither could all the Arguments used avert his intended journey. 
This startled us considering with how great trouble and risque we had brought 
the present thus farr, and how to carry it on at this time of the year we were some- 
thing at a Stand. At last we concluded to give the gross of our present in not- 
withstanding the King was abroad. But in delivering some of the fine Clocks they 
were ordered to be returned and kept in good order till he came back to the City, 
he having now determined only to visit a sacred place about 40 Coarce \hos] from 

1 This letter is taken from the Madras Public Diary and Consultations for 2 Jan. 
1712 to 29th Deer. 1715, No-. 86, Range 239 in the India Office. The letter was read at a 
Consultation at Fort St. George on Monday Oct. 31st 1715, under which date it occurs. 

2 Kalghi, an aigrette. 

3 Khanjar, a short sword, the origin of our word "hanger." 
* L'mara, plural of A77iir, a noble. 

DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 57 

Dilly ; After which, he would return. This Stop'dour presenting the remainder 
of onr goods. But We concluded that it was necessary to attend his Majesty in 
this Journey. We now continue in the Camp leaving M l - Stephenson and 
M r - Philips to take care of what goods remain in the City and in Case that the King 
should proceed farther that they concert measures to hring the goods after us. 
We are in this interval preparing petitions to be delivered to his Majesty hoping 
We shall do something for our Honourable masters that has not been yet 
obtained. The patronage and management of this Negotiation is in the hiinds of 
the greatest favourite at Court Caundora [Khan Dauran] ; and under him Syud 
Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] withall We being no ways unmindfull of 
our old freind Zoudy Cawn [Zeya-ud-din Kh an] without whose advice we enter 
upon nothing, but he being at present in a low Station is not able to obtain the 
Kings Ear, however we are satisfied that whatever lyes in his power he do's, and 
will assist us but particularly in the Viziers Durbarr. 

Hossein Ali-Cawn Bahauder Omeerall Omrah [Husain 'All Khan Bahadur, 
Amiru-1-umara] is lately gone into the Decan Country having the entire 
Command of all that part of this Kingdom, 1 your Honour &c& have doubtles 
heard how great he has made himself even to vie with the Commands of 
his Imperial Majesty as lately appeared in the disputes between himself and 
Meer Jemlah [Mir Jumla] whilst at Court, when he obliged his antagonist 
contrary to the Kings desires to remove from Court to Patna where by the 
interest of Omeerall Omrah [Amir-ul-umara] and his own mismanagement he 
is quite Buined, Wherefore we humbly Eecomend a very good correspondance 
with Omeerall Omrah [Amir-ul-umara] otherwise whatever We shall be able to 
do here will be off very little service before him. 

We have in a very particular manner observed what your Honour &c* s 
have wrote concerning the priviledges and accordingly have Specified them in our 
petitions As for the Towns we cannot yet advise your Honour &c» what we are 
Capable of doing till such time we find how the Court is disposed, however our 
endeavours Shall not be wanting in the minutest particular and above all for Diu 
[DM] Island. 

Concerning Sadatulla Cawns [Sa'adatullah Khan 2 ] taking the Fort of Chingie 
[Jinji] We have examined and find that as soon as the news arrived at Court that 
Bajah Suropsing [Swarup Singh] was dead orders were sent from hence to his son 
to deliver up that Government to Sadatulla Cawn [Sa'adatullah Khan] he having 
orders likewise to receive it which the Bajah not thinking fit to comply with said 
Fort was taken from him by force. This Victory in the Kings behalf has very 
much pleased this Court. We are endeavouring to get an order concerning the 
business of Fort St. Davids to be sent to your Honour &c* by the ships from 

1 Husain 'All Klan started on the 29th EabI 'I 1127 i.e. the 3rd April 1715 N. S. or the 
23rd xMarch 0. S. 

2 Sa'adatullah Khan, Muhammad Sa'Id, entitled Sa'adatullah Khan Bahadur, was of the tribe of 
Nawayat. He died on the 19th Rabi 'II, 1145, ie„ the 8th October 1732 N. S. while faujdar of both 
Kamataks, aged about SO lunar years. See Tar ikh-i- Muhammad i. His biography is given in Ma'asirut 
l-umara, II, 513, and in Wilks, I, 226, 242. 


58 DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 

We hope his Majesty will not exceed his intended Journey tut Beturn to the 
City : when we shall advise your Honour &c a # of whatever occurs. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most Obedient humble Servants 

John Subman 
Hugh Babkeb, Sec^y- Cojah Seebhaud, Assenting 

Sun-put [Sonpat] 20 Coarce \_kos] from Dilly 
August 4th 1715. 

* 63. Diary. 

August 6th. "We paid our obeisance to the King on the 

August 7th. "The Kings camp removed to Somaulk' 

Surray V 
August 8th. " The Kings Camp arrived att Pony-punt V 

" The King having worshiped att Pony-punt, [Panipat] he returned 
August ioth. to Somalk' Surray [Simbhalka Saral]." 

August nth. " The Kings Camp come to binnore. Salam- 

ed to the King." 
August 13th. " The Kings Camp come to SunpuM: [Sonpat] — 

Salamed to the King." 
August 14th. " The King arrived att Mehir Purwurk' Surray 

rAtihrparwar ki Sarai] — Much rain." 
August 15th. "The King arrived in Sh a- Jehaunabad att a 

lucky minute pitched on by his Brachmin." 
" The Doctor being seat for last night by the King; went this 
morning with Cjjah Seerhaud [Khwajab Sarhad]: 
August Dt . where he Examined two Swellings in his Groin ; 

and has now taken his Majesty under his hands, by Grods blessing, to 
recover a very much impaired constitution. 

The Omrahs [_umara\ having refused to receive any Present, without 
a particular order from the King : We have thought fitt to petition for 
Caundora, and Tuccurub Caun [Khan Dauran, Taqarrub Khan]: 

i Simbhalka ki sarSe, a road post tec miles from Panipat. 

- PUnipat a municipal town and administrative head quarters of a lashil of the same 
name situated in lat. 29° 23' X. and long. 77°1'10"E on the grand trunk road, 53 miles north 
f De'lhi a place of great antiquity, lying on a high mound composed of the debris of centuries. 
The principal ancient building is the dargah of Qalandar Sahib Bu'Ali Qalandar, a Moslem 
saint who was born in H. 602 and died in H. 724 aged 122 years. The tomb of Ibrahim Lodi, 
which stood here, was destroyed to make the grand trunk road, Panipat has witnessed at least 
three decisive Indian battles in 1526, in 1556, and in 1761. 


DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. £9 

Butt the Vizier having asked for himself, A greed thai H> E. Stephenson 
prepare the following things, which we have now determined to present 
him." 1 

64. Consultation. 

" Having drawn up our Generall petition to his Majesty in the 

Persian Language, as near as possible to the 
Dilly August 16th. . , t , . , , TT , , _ . 

instructions given us by the Honourable President 
and Oouncill off Fort William, The Honourable Governour and Couueill 
off Fort S*- George, and his Excellency the Generall and Councill of 
Bombay. Agreed, that itt be translated into English ; and After perusall, 
to be Enter 1 d in our next consultation : withall, that in the Interim 
Cojah Seerhaud | Khwajah Sarhad] shows this petition to Syud 
Sallabutt Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] and Zeaudy Caun [Zeau-d-dln 
Khan] for their Approval!," 

August 23rd. 

65. Diary. 

" The Doctor lives with Tuccurub Caun [Taqar- 
rub Khan]." 

66. Consultation. 

" The KiDgs birthday approaching, when will be great rejoicings. 
Dill y t This time will be very proper to deliver in part 

Augustisth. cff what remamg fi our present." 


Particulars as follows. 
1. " The English Company pay no Custom, in Indostan, Suratt 
Excepted. In y e Subaships off Beharr, Bengali, and Orixa They 
are Custom-Free, According to y G Phirmaund [farmdn] off y e Great 

1 A Jong list of presents is given; also lists of presents to "Syud Sallabut Caun Behaun 
der, Auphrasiob Caun, Mozuffer Caun, Caundora's Bro r -> Sha- Abbas Caun, Deputy-Droga of 
the Gooslecanna, Deebydass, Musbreif to the Goosle-Canna," 

These persons are Sayyad Salabat Kl an Bahadur, Af rasyab Kl an, Muzaffar Kl an, Kl an 
Dauran'3 brother, Shahbaz Klan, deputy daroghah (superintendent) of the ghusulkhana. 
(bathroom i.e. privy audience chamber), Debi D5s, mushrif (chief clerk) to the ghusulkhanah. 
With Salabat Kl an We are already acquainted. Suhrab, known as Mirza Ajmeri, entitled 
Afrasyab Klan, Rustam Jang, nephew of Rashld Klan had been Farrukhsiyar's instructor 
in wrestling and archery. He was third lakhshi. He died at Delhi on 21 August, 1718. 
Kl wajah Muhammad Muqini, Muzaffar Klan, was killed in the battle with Nadir Shah on 15 
gu-l-qa'dah 1151, i.e. 23 February, 1739, N. S. 

60 DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 

Aurungzebe [Aurangzeb], The Nishauns [nishdns] off y e deceased 
Azzimuth Sha, 1 Azzimtarra, 2 and Sha Suja, 3 y e Husbul Hoocum 
[hasbu-l-hukm] under Assid Cauns [Asad Khan's , 4 Seal, and former 
Sunnods and orders ; In Stead off which, to this day, they pay yearly 
3000 rupees, into the treasury of Ilugly, as a Peeshcash [ peshkasli]. 

2. In Culcutta y e Company have a Settlement D : Culcutta, 
Govindpore, and Sootaluty \_dlhl Kalikata, Govindpur and Sutauutl] ; 
which 3 towns being near y e Factory, His deceased Highness Azzimuth 
Sha ['Azlmu-sh-shan] gave to be rented by y e Company. The rent 
off these 3 towns abovementioned, according to y e Kings books, amounts 
to 119 4" 14, and Something more ; which is yearly paid into y e 
Treasury. "We humbly Petition, that y e renting off Severall other 
towns, that are near y e above towns ; and whose rent amounts to near 
or about 800 rupees may be granted to y e Company, That the Pent 
shall be yearly, and duely paid into the Kings treasury by us ; and 
that particular care shall be taken, to make them flourish. We farther 
petition, that y e town of Culcutta may have y e great name of Furruck- 
bunder [Farrukh -bandar] 5 given itt, and that the towns above, which 
are in other Pergunnas \_pargams], be made 1 Pergunua, having y e 
name given itt off Furruckabad [Farrukhabad], 5 which will be to y e 
great Honour off Your humble petitioners. 

3. In Bengali, Beharr, and Orixa The Company has Severall 
Settlements, and In Severall places. We are in hopes, by your Majestys 
Favour, to Settle others. We humbly petition, that in any place, 
where a Settlement Shall te made, 40 Beaguers [blga/is] off Ground be 
granted, by Tour Majesty, to build a house on : and in Patna where for 
y e Long time the Companys Settlement has been, they have rented y e 
house, We are in hopes, by Your Maje3tys Favour, to have y e house 
of y e deceased M : Hoduffer ("Muhammad Muzaffar], (that belongs to 
y e King), granted for our residence. 

4. The Companys Factorys are in many places very much Pestered 
with Phirmaush [farmdish], 6 and Impositions Laid on them. We 
humbly petition, that Your Majesty will be pleased to order, that in 

i Azzimuth Sha is <AzImu-sh-sh5n, second surviving son of Shah 'Alam, Bahadur Sh5h, 
son and successor of 'Alamgir Aurangzeb. 

2 Azzimtara is A'zim Shah, second son of 'Alamgir Aurangzeb. 

3 Sha Suja is Sultan Shuja', the second son of Shahjahan. 

* Asad Kl an was' 'Alamgir Aurangzeb's vaz^r from about 1682 to the end of tne reign 
(1707). He died at a great age on the 25th Jamadi II, 1128 H. (15th June 1716 N.S.). His 
name was Muhammad Ibrahim, and he was a Persian of the QazamSnlu tribe. 

s Farnikh-landar, " Fortunate Port," Farrukhabad, "Fortunate Foundation," m compli- 
ment to the Emperor Farrukhsizar. 

• Farmuish, requisitions to furnish goods for the Emperor or high officials. 

DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 61 

all places y e Company be Excepted from Phirmaush, Phowsdarry, 
Jemidarry [fatijddrt, zaminddrl~\, 1 and all other impositions ; and that 
they receive no hindrance on that Account, Their Factors Etcp. Servants 
going on in their buisness, with Satisfaction and Content. 

5. In all Subaships [mbahs] y e Companys Gomastoes [gumdshtah] 
goe backward and forward to buy and Sell, iff any thing should be 
stolen, which God forbid : We humbly petition, that Your Majesty 
will be pleased to give Strict orders, that y e - Jemidars [zamlnddrs] etc 3 " 
off those places, thoroughly Assist to have due punishment inflicted 
on those rogues, and that the Goods be returned to their right owners. 

6. In Every Subaship [subah] y e Duans [diicdns] demand a Sight 
off y e Onginall Phirmaund [farm an']; as likewise that we receive a 
Particular Sunnod [sanad] under y e Seals off y e Suba [siibahddr] 
and Duan [dzwdn] off that province. Itt is impossible to Shew y e 
Original grant in all places, (for which reason, "We humbly petition, 
that Your Majesty will order, that A Copy from y e Originall Under 
y e Cozzys [qazi's] Seal be Sufficient, and off Force, and that no one 
demand a Sight off y e Originall. Farther, that we shall receive no 
Sunnod \_sanad1 from y e Suba [subafiddr] or Duan [dtwdn], — they 
acting pursuant to y e great Phirmaund \_farmdn~\ your Majesty has 

7. In former days the Mint was Settled att Dacca and Eojamoll 
[Eajmahaljj where the Companys Gold and Silver was Coined. The 
Mint att present is in Muxodavad [Maqsudabad]. We humbly petition 
through y e favour of Your Majesty, that according to former Custom 
y e Companys Gold and Silver may be coined in y e Present mint, 
without any lett or Molestation, — that y e Mutsuddys [midasaddi~] 
off y e mint make no uncustomary demands, taking y e Mintage ODiy ; 
and that in y e Season when other Merchants goods are coining, The 
Company may have 3 days in y e week allowed to them, which will be 
a Particular Favour. 

8. Att the time of buying goods in Hugly ; Notes are Given 
by y e Droga [darcgjiih] and Mushreif [nmshrif] ; which are so tedious, 
that the Season of y e Year passes, before they can be obtained; and is a 
great imposition on y e Companys Factors. We humbly petition, that 
Your Majesty will be pleased to order, that y e Drogas [daroghali] 
permission off y e Abovementioned Port be Sufficient to bring goods 

i Fanjdari, fees or dues collected by the Faujdar or Police Magistrate. Zamlndarl, reve- 
nue demaDd from the land. 

62 DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 

from Merchants Houses to y e - Factory : by which means, we shall be 
capable to dispatch our Ships att y e Proper Season. 

9. There was a Mint settled Att Madrass in y e reign off 
Aurungzebe : The money Coin'd att which place, receives So much 
pr Cent discompt, before taken into y e treasury off any Subaship 
[subah~\, Altho' off y e Same fineness, and Goodness with Kupees 
made in Suratt, which is a considerable detriment to y e Company. 
We hope from Your Majestys Favour, to have an order on all y e 
Mutsuddys [mutamddi] off Every Subaship \subah^\ in India, for- 
bidding that imposition for y e future ; that Said money pass like that; 
coined att Suratt and other places : and that they be received by y e 
Mutsuddys \_mutasaddis \ into y e treasury like all other Siccas [silckah, 
coined money]. 

10. Itt sometimes happening att Sea, by reason off Stormes and 
Misfortunes that Ships are obliged to take Port, and are now and then 
racked. The Governours of those Ports frequently Seize without 
any reason on Such Ships and Cargoes. Ships Likewise missing their 
port, and being obliged to harbour in Chittagong, Ganjam, Namoud- 
bundee Etc a - The Governours off these places also have Seized 
both on Ships and Cargoes ; Sometimes demanding a quarter 
part Salvage, all which is to y e irreparable loss off y e Owners. 
Thro' y e Great favour off Your imperiall Majesty We humbly peti- 
tion, that Strict orders may be given to y e Mutsuddys \jnuiasaddl'] off 
all Subaships [subah~\ in Indostan, that they nowise offer to trouble, 
or molest us on this Account ; butt on y e Contrary Assist Such 
Ships as much as lyes in their Power. So that being under the Shadow 
off Your Majesty ; We may pray for length off Years and Success in 
all Your undertakings, whilst with satisfaction our trade is improved, 
to y e Great Encrease off Your Majestys Customs. 

11. There is protection given by Tour Majestys Officers to Severall 
off y e Companys Servants and those from whom debts and Accounts 
are due ; So that neither money nor Accounts are procurable. We for 
this reason, Humbly Petition, that Your Majesty would please to 
order, that whoever so deserts y e Company be sent back to y e Cheif off 
y e Factory. 

12. In y e Subaship lsQhah~\of£ Golconda [Gulkhandah or Haidara- 
bad], all y e Cornatuck [Karnatak] Country, The Upper and lower 
Country Metchlipatam [MachhlipatanamJ and Yizagapatam [Yizaga- 
patanam], in all which ports and places y e Company trade Custom free. 
Att Madrass where they pay Yearly y e Sum off 1200 Pagodas into y° 

DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 63 

Kings treasury : We humbly petition that a fresh grant he given 
according to former Custom. 

13. The Company have a Settlement Att y e Port off Yizagapatam 
[Vizagapatanam] ; for which, and four towns more Viz*- Moza [wauzd] 
Perwanna, Wooda Punda, Woodall Terra, and Maalcapour being 
near y e Company s Settlement, 4862 Rupees is duely paid into y e 
treasury off Sitta Cole, 1 being y e Yearly rent in y e Kings books. 
Amongst these, Moza Perwanna and Wooda Ponda 2 towns which pay 
900 Rupees Yearly rent, Butt are too far from y e Factory; "We humbly 
desire may be returned, and that these towns Viz*- Alipour , Dundepour, 
Jogarass and Cuperah may be granted in their Stead ; paying what is 
their Yearly rent in y e Kings books, Into y e Treasury. 

14. Divy Island near Metchlipatam [Machhlipatanam] being in y e 
hands off a rebell Poligar [pdl'igar, or local chief] Obiram [Abhi Ram], 
who Sometimes acts as a Subject ; and as often otherwise. This 
Rajah, by reason off y e desolateness cff y e place, Severall times has and 
does Even now invite us to goe, Settle and inhabitt there, that y e 
Island may flourish. His disobedience to Your Majesty, and y e ill name 
that might accrew to us, from our accepting his offer, caused us always 
to refuse him. The Annuall rent off this Island is 7000 Pagodas. 
We humbly petition, that v e renting off this Island may be granted 
to y e Company, that they make Settlements there, to y e great improve- 
ment off y e Island ; and by y e Currency off Trade, and inhabitting 
off Merchants, much Eucrease the Customs off Metchlipatam [Machhli- 
patanam] : for which we will Yearly pay y e Accustomed rent into y e 
Kings Treasury. 

15. Momud Caum Bucks, Assid Caun and Zulphacor Caun, 2 att the 
warr of Chingee 3 for Assistance in sending all sorts off Ammunition, 
Cannon and provision to y e Kings Camp, After gaining y e Victory, 
As a reward for our Services, According to Aurungzebes [Aurangzeb's] 
order, gave y e Company 5 Towns, Trivitore etca which remained in 
our Possession many Years. Itt is now 3 Years that y e Kings Officers 
have Seized on them; Since y e reign off Your Imperiall Majesty. 

1 Sitta Cole, for Sikakul or Chicacole, a town in the Gunjam district, lat. 18° 18', long. 
83° 58' (Thornton's " Gazetteer," p. 201). 

2 Muhammad Kam Bakhsh, the youngest son of the Emperor 'Alamglr Aurangzeb ; Asad 
KV5n, the v:azlv ; and Zu-fiqSr Khan, son of Asad Khan, and Mir BakhshI, or second noble, next 
in rank to the ivazlr. 

3 Jinji, a town now in the South Arcot district, lat. 12° 16', long. 79° 27', was besieged by 
the Moguls from 1690 and taken in 1694. See also Yule and Burnell, p. 801. 

64 DELHI, AUGUST, 1715. 

"What we Assisted against Your Competitor, and acted in Hugly, 
pursuant to Tour Majestys order, in helping Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d- 
din Khan with all manner of ammunition, provisions etca doubtless 
Your Majesty is nott unacquainted with. For which reason, we humbly 
petition, that those towns may be regranted to us." 

16. In y e war off Chingee, [Jinjl] y e Bebells from y e - Port off 
Cudalore Sent Provisions and Ammunition to y e Assistance off Chingee 
[Jinjl] : for which reason att that Instant, we bought the town off 
Cudalore, & some others round itt, with y e permission off y e Imperiall 
Court : that, by our meanes, the way might be Stoped; and no Provi- 
sions arrive from thence, to their Assistance. Att present Severall 
Jemidars [zamindars j etc* round that place are troubling and 
molesting us : Which obliges us humbly to petition Your Imperiall 
Majesty, to give orders to y e Officers and Mutsuddj 7 s \_mutamddis\ 
off that Province to Assist us, by which meanes we may be able to 
punish those who give us any molestation. 

17. Att the Port off Suratt, The Company in y e time off 
Sha-Jehaun [Sbah Jahan] paid 2 p r Cent Custom, In y e reign off 
Aurungzebe [Aurangzeb] 3£ p r Cent Viz* 2 Custom, and 1£ Gigea- 
In y e reign of Behauder Sha [Bahadur Shah] 2| p r Cent was ordered, 
which Custom is paid att present. We have hopes from Your Imperiall 
Favour, that as we Enjoy y e privilidge off Custom-free in other Ports, 
We may have y e Same privilidge att Suratt; and that according to y e 
Custom off Bengali, a Certain Yearly Peeshcash \_peshkash~] may be paid 
instead off Custom. The reasons are, that for these 20 Years Elapsed, 
There have been new impositions laid on, and injustice done us 
Yearly, by y e Kings Mutsuddys [mulam cldls]. The goods whose 
value is 1 rupee they prize att 2, and off which they take Custom with 
that Severity, that a duty is laid on y e very Cloths and ornaments. 
Wherefore helpless we have " been obliged for these three Years to 
withdraw that Factory, which cannot be resettled without some peculiar 
marks off Your Majestjs favour; Such as have been Shown to Bengali 

18. Our residence for many years in Suratt has been in one off the 
Kings houses, which we have rented, att present this house is gone 
to mine ; and untill Such time as Your Majesty is pleased to give itt us, 
we are uncapable to repair itt. We humbly petition a grant off itt, 
from Your Imperiall Majesty ; as also 400 Beaguers [blgahs~\ off 
Ground without y e City, whereon we may make a house & Garden that 

DELHT, AUGUST, 1715. 65 

so We may Satisfactorily Encrease our trade, bless our Benefactor, 
and wish him a long and Glorious reign. 

19. In the Subaships [subahs'} off Bengali, Behar, and Orixa 
with others in y e Kingdom off Indostan ; The Company have Sub- 
ordinate Factorys where English Men reside. There are likewise 
some places, & Aurungs [aurang~\ l where English- men cannot be sent : 
for which reason, we make agreements with y e Merchants off y e 
Country, giving impress money ; with which they goe to y e Aurungs 
[aurang~\ & buy Goods. In some places y e Kings Officers molest & 
hinder y e buying off Such goods. Wherefore we humbly petition, 
that Pursuant to y e Dustick \_dastak'] off y e Cheif off that Factory, 
the Merchants may be permitted to trade as Englishmen, and Enjoy 
their privilidges without any hinderanee." 

67. Letter V. 2 

" To the Hon" le Edward Harrison Esq. 

Presdt and G-overnour of: Fort S^ George &ca Councill 

Hon Ve Sir, &c a 

We wrote your Hon 1 &c» the 4 th instant the Originall of which was sent 
by the Returning peons, and the Copy to Bengali design'd to be forwarded by 
Shipping. This is Cheifly to Convey the enclos'd Letters, one from Syud 
Sallabutt Cawn Behauder [Salabat Khan Bahadur], another from Zoudy Cawn 
[Ziaud-dln Khan] to your Hon^s &ca as likewise recommendatory Letters from 
each to Sudutulla Cawn [Sa'datullah Khan] with whom Zeoudy Cawn [Ziau-d-din 
Khan] pretends he has a particular freindship and acquaintance so that he expects 
a great deal of notice will be taken of his Letter. 

We have advices here that Hossenally Cawn [Husain 'AH Khan] an d Dowd 
Cawn [DaudKhan] are come to a Rupture in Barrainpore [Burhanpur] 3 so that 
it's likely a battle will ensue, the latter having engaged many of the Decan 
Couatry to his party : it's Whisper'd at this Court that this is a design laid to 
involve Hosseinally Cawn [Husain 'AH Khan] in trouble, and retrench his 
granduer, which of late has net been very pleasing. 

The King proceeding no further than Pony- Punt [Panipat], return'd to the 
City the 15th but being a little disorder'd in his health has not made anypublick 
appearance so that we have not had an oppertunity to deliver the remaining 

1 Aurang, literally, "a throne," a small factory or trading- place, where orders to 
manufacture goods are given, delivery is taken of the goods and payment is made. 

2 This letter is to he found in the Madras Public Diary and Consultations for 1715 to 1719 
No, 87, Range 239, in the India Office. It was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on 
Monday the 9th January, 1716. 

3 Burhanpur, a town on the Tapti river, Lat. 21° 18' Long. 76°20'. 



part of our Present or Commence our Negotiation which shall be done by the 

We are 

Hon v ' le - S r and S™- 
Your most Obedient humble Servants 

John Sueman 
Er>w d - Stephenson." 

CojA Subhattd [Khwajab Sarhad], Assenting 

HVgh Babkbb, Sec r y 

Delhi August y e 81 st 1716. 

68. Consultation. 

" The Portugueze, Antonio Parero, that Accompany'd M rs - Woodvill 

hither, being willing to depart, on conditions 

that he may be reimbursed what money, he has 

Expended on her account. In Consideration that itt is worth a triviail 

sum to be free from his noise in this Place, Agreed that he have 

100 rupees given him, taking his discharge from any further demands.' 

69. Consultation. 

"The King designing to appear abroad, att the Close of the Fast 

Dm of Eamzan [Ramzan] 1 when there will be a 

September 15th. generall discharge of his Artillery ; "We are 

informed this will be a proper time to present our Ordinance. Agreed 

that the 8 which remain, and 2 Glass Sconces with painted frames 

be presented on that day. 

Agreed that the Vizier be visitted this Festivall, and that the follow- 
ing things be prepared as an offering — Viz^ 

1 Looking- Glassbox — bo : 

1 China Garden 

1 Large Telescope 

1 Silver beetle- box and plate 

Itt being proper at this time to present the Kings Eunuchs Agreed 
that M r - Edward Stephenson prepare the following things — -Viz* 
Dt/bbab Caxtn [Darhar KAanf — 

Broad Cloth Ordy 6 pieces. 
Aurora 2 „ 

. Fine Scarlett 1 „ 
Imbost 1 


» Ramajan, 1127H., fell between 30 August and 28 September, 1715, N. S., t'.e. 19 
August and 17 September O. S. 

3 Darb&r Khan was Nuzir or head of the Eunuchs. 



Perpettuannoes Fine redd 1 

Ord. Greeu 1 

Callimancoes Imbost 2 

Flowered I 

Pa. Goods 


4 Guzz. 

5 do- 

6 Cossaes 

6 Soosys [Susi] 1 

6 Chucklas {chaklsy 

6 Charconnas [Chaakhanah]? 

20 ps. 

Camolett ... Hair 

Swords & Sword blades 

Fire Armes ... Fuzzee [ -fusil P] 1 
Horse Pist : 2 

Pocket d°- 2 

Blunderbuss 1 

10 Guzz. 

Cutlary Ware 


Glass Ware 

5 Knives 

6 Penknives 

4 Scissars 

5 Pencil Is 


6 Triang : Glasses 
6 Mult : d>- 
10 Spectacles 
1 Spying Glass 
1 Teloscope 


6 Hookers [Ruqqah*'] 
20 Chillums [■chilam~_ 
6 Coffee Cups 
2 Rose Water bottles 

1 Bowie plate & Cover 

2 Flower potts 


1 Susi is a striped, coarse cloth, (Platts, 699) Chakld is a cloth made of silk and cotton 
(Id. 436) Ckurkhanah is cloth or muslin with chequers or squares (Id. 417). 

F 2 



Patna Cases ... 2 

Lacquf Ware 10 Cupps and Covers 
Broad Cloth ... white ... 7 Guzz. 

Liquor ... 1 Case off Brandy 

1 Carboy 1 off Pers. drams 
Persia Looking Glasses ... 2 

Etmatjd Cauk [I'timad Khan]— 

Broad Cloth 

Ordy- Red & Green 
Aurora ... 

Fine Redds ... 




Caliimancoes Imb 1 . & flow rt 



... red & Green 

• M 

10 Guzz. 



5 d°- 
P s - 

Bengali Goods 





Cbarconnas ... 


Kummums 2 ... 

40 ps 

Camoletts — Hair ... 


, 10 Guz. 

Fire Armes 



Pistolls — Horse.,. 


d°- Pockett 




Swordsl& Sword Blades 


Cutlary Ware 







A twizar Case .., 

, 1 


1 Carboy, a large glass bottle (Yule and Buraell, p. 125). 
' ' Hummum ' stand perhaps for |<mdM l\ luvgi bath towel, or waist cloth. 



Triang : Glasses 
Mult : do- 
Spying Glass 



Wax Images ... 2 
Persia looking 
Glass ... 1 

Flint Ware ... Hookers [huqqahs'] 5 

Chillums [chilams'] 10 

Coffee Cupps 10 

Pallank^ Furn. 1 

Bowls, Plates, and Covers 3 

Eose Water bottles 2 

Flower Potts 2 

Oftoa & Chil. {aftalah. 1 

and chilamchi] . 


Patna Case 
Leather Carpett ... 
Jappan Ware 


10 Cupps & Covers 
6 8«-. 

Caun — [I'tibar Khan}- 
Broad Cloth 

Ordy- Green 
Imbost ... 

• •• 

3 ps. 

2 • 10 Guji 
1 10 


Ord : 

15 Gaz 
10 do 




16 d°- 

25 Guz 


Looking Glasses small 3 

Sword Blades 
Fire Armes 

... 1 Fuzee [fusil] 
1 Pistoll 

Flint Ware 

4 Hookers [Huqqahs] 

4 ChillumB [chilams] 

2 Pigdannys \jpilcdanii] 

2 Cut la sea 


Patna Case for to putt otter I'ttr] in ... 1 
.Rarities — Spying Glasses — Great & small 
Mult: and Mag : Glasses 
Triangle Glasses 

Jappan Cupps and Covers 

Cutlary "Ware ... Knives .„ 4 

Penknives ... 4 

Scissars ... 4 




Green & Blue 

... 3 Guz. 

Persia Silk 

worsted ... 

1 p s - 
... 10 Gux. 

Bengali Goods- 

Soosies [ran] 5 p s - 
Cossaes ... 5 d°- 


Jewab Caux [Jawahir Khan] 1 . 

Broad Cloth Ordinary — Green 
Fine Scarlett 



6p s - 

i Juwahir Khan, was daroghati. of the Juwahir-khanab, or jewel House. He died on the 
7 th Shaww&l 1131H t'.e. 22 August, 1719 N. S. 





m« 15 Guz, ^ 
... 10 d°- 



... Imbost ... ... 

10 Guz. 


15 d<>- 

Fire Armes 

... 2 Horse Pistolls 
1 Fuzee [fusil?] 
1 Blunderbuss 


Swords and Sword blades ... 2 

Parities ... ... 2 Mult. Glasses 

4 Triang. d°- 

1 Tellescope 

10 Spectacles 

Flint Ware 




Hookers [Huqqahs] 

Chillums [chilam] 

Pigdannys [Pikdan] 

Bowie Plate Etc* 

Cullases [kolas, a jar or pitcher] 

Coffee Cupps 

Jappan Cupps and Covers . . . 

Patna Case 
Cutlary "Ware— 

... 10 

Knives ... 4 
Penknives 4 
Scissars „. 4 


Considering that our five best Clocks want some covering to hitt 
the Humour ofi this Country, Agreed that M r . E. Stephenson deliver 
out Persia Zeerbafts [zarbafts] 2 for this use, which in our opinion cannot 
be disposed of to greater advantage." 

Zarbaft, brocade, gold tissue, cloth of gold (Platts, 615). 


70. DlAKY. 

" Presented the King with some Wax Images. Caundora [Khan 
Dauran] refuses our present Affirming to take 
nothing from any body." 

" The rains returned immoderately with Storms which very much 

September 25th. gt p 8 Publick Durbars." 

71. Consultation. 

" M r . \Yilliam Hamilton having bro* in an Account Amount* to 
486. 12.- the bulk off which is for Medicines 

Dilly 25th Septr. ^ _ , _ 

bo*, for the Use of the King and Tuccurub Caun 
[Taqarrub Khan]: Agreed, that itt be paid, & inserted in Hugh 
Barker's AccoM 

72. Diary. 

" Presented Mons r . Martins Children 11 ps. off different Cloth by 
September 27th. Messrs Surman & Stephenson." 

" Tuccurrub Caun [Taqarrub Khan] having gratyfyd our Doctor 
_ . . on . has left him off, and taken to others, butt his 

September 30th. ' . 

distemper is off such a nature, as to be judged 

" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] and the Doctor sent for by 
. . . „ . the Kings Mother, where his Majestys Indispo- 

October 3rd. c » _. 

sition was debated. Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
tho' our Present was carried on his gate, ordered itt to be Brof again to 
our house." 2 

1 Here come lists of presents to the Chief Mutasadi and three eunuchs belonging to the 
vizier ; to " Eaja Ruttunchund [Ratn Chand], Cojah Monsure Caun f Khojah Mansur Khan], Coj. 
Dowadar Caun [Khojah Du'adar Kl an], Coj. Fuzzeut Pezeer Caun IKVojah Fasahat KJ an]." 
Also presents to " Dowst-Ali-Caun [Dost 'All Khan] Droga [darogiah] of Saum-Saum- 
Doulas [SamsSmu-d-daulah's] Top-Canna {topldvanah, artillery], to Syud Omer [Sayyad 'Umr] 
end to the Under-Mutsuddys [mutasaddis]." 

Rajah Ratn Chand, chief official of the wasir, was an Agarwal BaniyS {Rajah M baradarl, 
sub-caste) and a native of Jansath (Muzaffarnagar district). He was executed by Muhammad 
Shah on the 12th November, 1720 N. S. Khojahs Mansur Khan, Du'adar Khan, and Fasahat 
Khan must have been eunuchs, as the word Khojak denotes. Sam samu-d-daulah is another 
title of Kh5n Dauran (Khwajah A'sim), the second Bakhshi. 

a Orme observes, " But it should seem by the record that he afterwards did receive the 

DELHI, OCTOBER, 1715. 73 

73. Letter VI. 1 

" To the Hon ble Bob' Hedges Esq. 

Presid*- & Gov : r of Fort William Etc. Councill in Bengali. 
Hon b l e Sf Etc* 

Our last to your Hon 1 '- Etc* was August tbe 31 st Since which we have not 
receiv'd any Letters from your Hon 1 '- Etc* "We then adyis'dthat we had prepaid 
our General Petition we design'd to have presented it the first good Opportunity, 
but his Majesty's indisposition continuing and M r - Hamilton having him under 
care it has been thought advisable by our friends as well as our Selves to deferr 
delivering it till such time as it Shall please God that his Majesty in some 
measure return to his former State of health which advice we intend to follow 
considering that whilst he is in so much pain it can be but a very indifferent 
opportunity to beg favours of him. The first distemper the Doctor took him in 
hand for was swellings in his Groin which thanks be to God he is in a fair 
way of curing, but within these few days last past he has been taken with a 
Violent pain in bis posteriors which is likely to come to Fistula, it hinders his 
Majestie from coming out, so naturally puts a Stop to all manner of business 
wherefore must have patience perforce. 

Your Hon 1 '. Etc* will have heard of the Death of Dowd Cawn 2 in Ducan Slain 
in a battle with Omeeral Omrah [Amlru-l-umara] this has given a great deal 
of uneasiness to this Court it being quite otherwise laid by the King and his 
favourites and that which was design'd for Omeerall Omrah's [Amiru-1-umara'sl 
Ruin has proved a great addition to his former Glorys. The King at first seem'd 
to resent it to his Brother who not taking it so patiently as he expected, he has 
alter'd his Resolution to Sending Hossenally Cawn [Husain'AK Khan' i.e. tho 
Amiru-1-umara] a Seerpaw [sar-o-pa'] Etc* marks of favour; We have advis'd 
in our Letters to the Gov 1 "- & Councill of Madrass to have particular Regard to 
the Freindship of that Great Omrah otherwise whatever we shall be able to do 
here for that Coast will be of little service unless back'd with his favour. 

We have drawn bills of Exchange payable to M 1 '. James Williamson for Eup s 
Sicca five thousand five hundred, being for the Value Received here : We disiro 
your Hon 1 '- Etc* will give due payment. Gololchund Saw's [Gulalchand Saba's] 
Gomastah [gumashtah"] here has made a heavy Complaint that Your Hon 1 '- Etc* 
have accepted the bills but not paid them desiring we would write very pressingly 
to Your Hon 1 ' 8 - Etc* that they may be paid out of hand. 

Inclos'd comes Account Cash Warehouse Account Charges General, and 
Copjs of Consultations for the month of August We are 

Hon™ e - S r - & S rs - 
Your Most Obed*- humble Servants 

John Stjeman 
EDW d - Stephenson." 
Helhy Octo" y' b th . 1715. 

1 This letter was read at the same consultation as Letter V, and is to be found in the sarue 

2 D5ud Kh5n was killed on the 8th Shaban 1127, which is the 6th September 1715 N.S. 
and the 26th August 0. S. The news reached Delhi on the 8th October N. S. or the 27th 
September 0. S. 


delhi, october, 1715. 

74. Diary. 

" The Kings' Mother sent Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] and our Doctor Victualls." 

41 The price off wheat altered from 12 to 6 
Seer pf Eupee." 

" The King visitted in the Duan Coss [cucan khds]. Mons r - Martin 
has sided with the Kings Doctor against 
M r - Hamilton." 

October 7th. 

October 13th. 

October 19th. 

October 22nd. 

75. Consultation. 

" Eeceiving information that the Vizier drinks, 
We have thought itt convenient to make him a 
present off the following Liquors. 

Syrash [Shlraz] 3 Chests 
Brandy 2 Cases 
Canary 4 dozen 
Persia Drams 1 Carboy 
Fine D°- 1 Dozen " 

October 28th. 

76. Diary. 

" The King in a fair way off recovery. He was pleased to tell Cojah 
Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] that he would distinguish him and all of 
us after a very Eminent Manner." 

77. Consultation. 

" Our General Petition, after Examination and amendment, being 
returned us by Tuccurub Caun [Taqarrub Khan] ; 
we have Compared itt with the former draught, and 
find the Sence the same, tho much shorter : which 
is owing to the comprehensiveness off the Persian Language. His 
reason for this alteration is, that prolixity being tedious to his Imperial 
Majesty, he had render'd itt more compact and fitt for our Service. 
The Greatest Amendment we can discern, is Changing the Name off 
Culcutta From Furruckbunder [Farrukh-bandar], to Furruckabad 
[Farrukhabad] : That the mention off Port might nott cause his 
Majesty to send officers thither, or raise a tax on it : And indeed we 
are now sensible itt is better Laid Aside. Itt is the Generall advice off 
our Friends, to deffer the delivery off our petition till his Majesty ia 
perfectly recovered ; when particular marks off his favour are to be 

DELHI, NOVEMBER, 1715. 75 

Expected : Wherefore Agreed, that itt be deferr'd till the King 
Washes." 1 

78. Diary. 
" Our Doctor coming from the Fort att night, his head was Cutt 
with A Pebble : off which the King being inform- 
ed ; he ordered Search to be made for the Offender ; 
and gave the Doctor people for his future protection." 

79. Letter VII 2 . 

"To the Hon b ! e Edward Harrison Esq. 

President and Governour of: Fort 

St. George Etc* Councill. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs, 

The Kings indisposition has much, impeeded the forwarding of our 
Negociation ; So that want of matter has occasioned our Long Silence : We hope 
his Majesty is at present in a fair way of Recovery, which if it pleases God to 
grant, it must of necessity Redound to the Honour and Credit of our Nation, he 
having been under the Sole care of our Surgeon who has administred much to 
his Majesties Satisfaction. 

Without doubt the whole Decan Country has Rung with the Engagement and 
Victory of Omeerall Onirah [Amiru-1-umara] over Dowd Cawn [Baud Khan], 
the glory that has accru'dto that great man on this Account has been a particular 
mortification to this Court ; but however we find he is little disturb'd at it, being 
as it were too unweildy to be check'd, by any Court Favourite, or even the 
King himself. Being pretty well assured of this before, was the Reason of advising 
your Honour Etc a in our formers to keep a good Corregpondance with him : But 
that your Honour Etc* might have some grounds to go upon we thought we 
Could not doe better then gain a Recommendatory Letter to his Brother the 
Vizier in favour of the Chormandell Factorys, the Letter with it's copy for perusall 
comes inclos'd. We hope this Letter will have the design'd Effect, it being 
wrote very candidly as we esteem it in our behalf. 

The cure of his Majesty's indisposition will we hope be effected in a few 
days when we shall go on with our business, and we hope with Success, in the 
mean time, 

We are, 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most Obedient humble Servants 

Co/i.H Seeehaud [Khwajah Sarhad] assents* John Sttbman 
Hugh Babkeb, Sec^y Edwaed Stephenson." 

Delhy, Nov', the 12th 1715. 

* This refers to the ghusul-i-shifa, the first bathing after sickness. 

2 This letter was read at the same consultation as Letters V and VI and is to be found in 
the same volume. 

'" delhi, november, 1715. 

80. Consultation. 
" His Imperiall Majesty being perfectly recovered, we have received 
Orders from Caundora [Khan Dauran], to deliver 

November 15 f h. . . J 

mtne remainder on our present; promising that 
afterwards he will forward our petition. 1 " 

81. Diary. 

"Caundora [Khan Dauran] has promised when the King rewards his 
phisicians, that Mons : Martin shall not be made 
Equall with Mr Hamilton, A thing as itt is meer 
justice, so itt is a Signall honour to our Nation." 

" All plaisters being taken away the King 

November 20th. ™ . , . . .„ „ 

Washed nimseii. 
" Presented the King on the way with the Concave Glass and two 
Sconces, This being the Eed Ounarbaun [ i ldu-I- 
qurbdn] or Abrahams Sacrifice. 2 " 
" This day Doctor Hamilton, as a reward for his Services, received 
from the King, An Elephant, Horse, Seerpaw, 
Culgee [sar-o-pd, kalgi~] richly sett with Jewells, 
and two Large Diamond Rings, with 5000 rupees in ready Cash. His 
Majesty farther ordered Buttons for a whole Suit off Cloths, to be made 
off Gold, and Sett with Diamonds and Rubys ; As also the handles off 
all his small instruments off Solid Gold. Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad] having been very Assistant during the Kings illness as 
interpreter, Received A Seerpaw [sar-o-pd^, and Elephant." 

" Great preparation made for the Kings Marriage with the Rany 
[rani, the Princess of Jodtpur] that Arrived 

December 1st. , . . ■>,, 

sometime Agoe. 6 

82. Consultation. 

" Agreed that M r - Edward Stephenson prepare the 13 Cases cornished 

with Gold, and 20 plain, filled with the fine Oile 

Diiiy. mentioned in a former Consultation, and an 

December /th, ' 

addition off the Nergissa Otter, [V£r] & Hungary 
water; to be presented on his Majestys next publick rejoicing. " 

1 Here comes a otber list of presents. 

- This feast fell on the 10th Zu-1-hijjah, i.e., the 6th or 7th December N. S. or the 26th or 
27th November O. S. 

3 According to KSmwar Khan this was on the 14th Z-u-1-hijjah which is the 10th or 11th 
December N. S. and the 29th or 30th November O. S, The lady arrived in Dehli on the 23rd 
September, 1715, N. S. 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1715. 77 

83. Letter VIII. 1 

"To the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq? 
President and Governour of Fort William, 
Etc a Councill in Bengali. 


We wrote your Honour Etc* the 8 h to the l2- h and 16 h Ultimo, the latter 
part of which carried the welcome news of the Kings recovery, as a clear demon- 
stration to the world he washed himself the 23rd and accordingly received the 
Congratulations of the whole Court: As a Eeward for M'". Hamiltons care and 
success the King was pleased the 30 th to give him in Publick, Viz* a Culge 
[kalgte, aigrette] set with precious Stones, two Diamond Eings, an Elephant, 
Horse and five thousand Eupees, besides ordering at the same time all his small 
instruments to be made in Gold, with Gold Buttons for Coat, Wast Coat and 
Breeches sett witb Jewels : The same day Cojee 5'eerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 
received an Elephant and Vest as a reward for his attendance on this occasion 
Mons r Martin was to have received a reward the same day with M> Hamilton* 
but considering it was not for the Credit of our Nation to have any joyn'd 
with him especially since he had no hand in the business, We by the means of 
Cawndora [Khan Dauran] got his reward to be deferred till three days afterward 
when he had a Test, Elephant and a thousand rupees, a favour purely owing to 
his Majesties generosity, and because he was his Servant. 

We have esteemed this as a particular happiness, and hope it will prove 
Ominous to the Success of our affairs, it being the only thing that detained us 
hitherto from delivering our General Petition, so pursuant to orders We received 
from Cawndora ["Khan Dauran] the Kings Eecovery was Succeeded by the 
giving in the remainder of our Present (reserving a small part only till the 
Ceremony of his marriage should be over) and then delivered our Petition to 
Cawndora [Khan Dauran] by bis means to be introduced to his Majesty, Syud 
Sallibut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan], who has all along managed our affairs, 
under Cawndora [Khan Dauran], being at that instant and sometime before 
much indisposed we were obliged to carry it our Selves withall taking care to 
have his reecomendation Annexed : Since the delivery Cojee Seerhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad] has been frequently with Cawndora [Khan Dauran] to remind him of 
introducing it to his Majesty, but has always been informed no business can go 
forward till the Solemnization of the Kings wedding is over when he has 
promised a speedy dispatch. All Offices have been shut up for some days 
and all business in the Kingdome must naturally subside to this approaching 
ceremony, so that We cannot Eepine at the delay. 

M r - John Surman having paid into the Companys Cash the sum of two 
thousand Siccaes, We have given him a bill on your Honour Etc* for said Sum 
which We hope will be duely honoured. 

1 Th''s letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Monday, the 12th March, 
171b', and is to be found under this date in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 
to 1719, No. 87, Range 239, in tho India Office. 

78 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1715. 

Inclosed comes Account Cash, Warehouse Account, Charges Generall and 
Copy of Consultations for the month October, which we wish safe to your hands. 

We advised your Honour Etc* in our Last concerning the Merchants Goods 
and the difficulty we had to dispose of them, not knowing what hurry We may be 
in, We agreed to sell by all oppertunitys that offer, and not any Longer wait 
a greater Markett : In pursuance to which Besolution, We having lately had an 
offer for the amount of ten thousand Rupees at thirty and thirty-five pr Cent 
proffitt, We have contracted for it, but as yet not having received the money, We 
can't give your Honour Etc* a further Account till the next. 

The Rasboots [Rajputs] are likely to receive a great Honour by this Wedding, 
the King having consented to all their desires in Respect. to the ceremonials 1 and 
this evening go's on his Throne 3 attended by his whole nobility on foot, to receive 
his spouse ; All the , Fort and Street through which he passes, will be made 
resplended with innumerable Lights, and in fine, all will appear as Glorious as 
the Eiches of Indostan and two months indefatigable Labour can provide. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs, 
Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 
Cojee Sebrhaud [Khwajah SarhadJ assent? John Surman 

Hugh Barker, Sec r y Edward Stephenson." 

Delhi, December 7 th 1715. 

84. Diary. 

" Yesterday the King was married to the Great Raja Adjetseins 
December 8th. daughter. [Raja A jit Singh of Jodhpur]. 3 " 

December 12th. « The First day of the Kings rejoicing." 

December 13th. <• The Second Do " 

December 14th. " The third D°" 

December 15th. « The Fourth D? when all was Concluded. 

M rs - Woodvill Dyed, and her body sent to Agra. 4 " 

1 Khush hSl Chand, in the Nadiru-z-Zamani, tells us that the ceremonies observed wera a 
mixture of Musulman and Hindu usages. The guests were offered a drink made of rose water, 
sugar and opium, which the Rajputs pressed on the Musulmans, but which some refused to 

2 The ' throne ' was the ialhl-i-rawan, literally ' moving throne, ' a kind of sedan chair. 

3 This is misleading. The Emperor's maternal uncle had been sent to fetch the bride on 
the 15th May. On the 25th RamazSn which was the 23rd or 24th September, 1715, N. S., and 
the 12th or 13th September 0. S. she was admitted to the faith of Islam. Four days after- 
wards she was married to Farrakhsiyar by Shariyat Kh5n QSzi, that is on the 27th or 28th 
September N.S. and the 16th or 17th September 0. S. The Persian writers, however, Kamwar 
Kh5n and Mirza Muhammad, confirm the statement that great festivities took place at the 
bringing home of the bride, which they date the 21st Zu-1-hijjah which is the 17th or 18th 
December N. S. and the 6th or 7th December 0. S. The Sikh Guru Banda was captured on the 
same day. 

* Orme notes, " There was an English woman named Mrs. Woodville who had travelled 
from Surat to Delhi to complain to the Great Mogul of her husband. The embassy found her 
almost naked and clothed her. She died some time at Delhi." 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1715. 79 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] having presented our Generall Petition 

to his Majesty, Itt was returned him, the King 

said, the books should be Examined ; After which, 

itt might be bro* Again, with an Account from thence Annexed to 

Each Article." 

" This day M r - Hamilton received a Seerpaw [sar-o-pdl, Horse, and 
1000 rupees from the Kings Mother, Cojah Seer- 
haud [Khwajah Sarhad] and Monsieur Martin 
received each a Seerpaw [sar-o-pa'] and 500 rupees." 

85. Consultation. 

"Agreed that Broad Cloth, to the Amount off 2000 Rs., be given 
to the Mutsuddys [mutasadc/ls~] off the Consom- 

December 3Cth. * „ .. - 

manee [Khamaman, or .Lord otewardj, in Case 
they goe on to prize the Present as we desire ; and not otherwise." 

86. Diary. 

" A Copy off Sir William N orris's Proceedings, As also an Account 
off the late Dutch Embassy taken from the King's 

December 31st. * ° 

" The King visitted by Mr. Surman &ca Two Nights Agoe Meer 
Jemlah [Mir Jumlah] arrived In a Dooly having 
run Away from his Mutinous Army. 1 " 

87. Letter IX. 2 

"To the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq 

President and Governor of Fort William Etc* Councill. 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 

Our last to your Honour Etc* was dated the 23rd December advising 
of a Bill of Exchange drawn by us on Your Honour Etc* for five thousand Bupees 
Sicca payable to M r - James Williamson or order, which Bill we hope will meet 
with due Honour. 

As to the course of our Negotiations, vVe can give but a very Slender Account 
of their progress, for altho' our affairs are fallen into the Patronage of one of the 
most able men in this Court to dispatch them if He pleases, yet his dilatory 

1 Tbis is confirmed by Mirza Muhammad who gives as the date the 22nd Muharram, which 
is the 17th or 18th January N. S. and the 6th or 7th O. S. 

2 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Thursday 29th March, 1716, 
and is to be found under that date in the Madras Public Diary and Consultations for 1715 to 
1719, No. 87, Range 239 in the India Office, 

January 8th 171f. 

80 DELHI, JANUARY, 1716. 

method of proceeding is such as must make us pursue our designs with patience, 
for the present our Petition is returned after having passed the examination of 
the books, the nest that follows will be the Kings signing after which We shall 
take care to give your Honour Etc* a particular Account of it. 

We have lately been surprized with the Kings designs of departing from 
this place, but God be thanked, it's delayed fpr some days at least, We shall 
make the best use we can of this delay, if possible to effect our business before 
his departure, but winch, we cannot rely on. 

Two nights ago Meer Jumlah [Mir Junilah] arrived in this place attended by 
Bahauder Dill Cawn [Bahadur Dil Khan], Amonut Cawn [Amanat Khan], 
Enom Cawn Etc a . in all about eight or ten Horsemen much to the Surprize of this 
city, for 'tis but at best supposed that he has made an Elopement from his own 
Camp for fear of his Soldiers who mutinied for pay, the particulars of all wliich 
we are not as yet acquainted with, nor what reception he is like to meet with 
from his majesty. 

Edward Stephenson has paid into the Honourable Companys Cash at severall 
times the sum of Eupees eight thousand eight hundred and three, eight anna's 
being for the sale of part of the Merchants goods consign'd to us ; not having a 
sufficient quantity of Bengali goods to mix with the Presents of the ministers 
&c a Officers, we have taken of those belonging to the Merchants what were neces- 
sary, concluding that those gooda would be of more service than the ready monyi 
your Honour Etc* will perceive how they have been disposed of by the parti- 
culars of every present, set down on this Consultatiou Book, the whole amount of 
which is Eupees two thousand five hundred twenty one, being fifry per Cent 
advance upon Invoice as per agreement at their delivery, the account of which 
comes inclosed by which your Honour Etc* will perceive the ballance due to 
them is Eupees Current nine thousand One hundred and eight, three anna's. The 
Eupees which are now paid in per Bills of Exchange on your Honour Etc* are 
Allum G-Lirry ["Alamgiri] betweei. which and these Current Eupees we have now 
charged three per Cent, so that your Honour Etc* will deduct so much upon the 

M r - Edward Stephenson having paid into the Honourable Companys Cash the 
value of four thousand Eupees, we have given him a Bill of Exchange on your 
Honour Etc a payable to M 1 '- Thomas Falconer for Four thousand Sicca's which 
we hope will be honoured with due payment. 

Herewith comes Account Cash, Warehouse Account Copys of Consultations 
and charges General for the month of November. 

We are 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your most Obedient humble Servants 

Cojah Seebhacd [Khwajah Sarhad], Assents- John. Subman 

Hugh Babkeb, Sec;y JbcwABD Stephenson." 

Dilly January 8 th 



88. The fiest petition examined. 


Jan. 8th Abticles in T e Petition 

Pilly. — ~ 

1 st Article 
2nd d°- 

3rd d°- 

4th df>. 
6th d°- 

Thb Account fbom tH Kings 

6th d°- 

Nothing mentioned. 

The particulars off these towns are nott 
in y e books, neither were they given 
from the King. They have a Perwanna 
under Izzut Cauns [' Izzat Khan's] seal 
for them pursuant to Azzimuth Sha's 
[' Azimu-sh-Shan's] Nishaun [nishan] : 
By which itt appears 3 Towns Culcutta 
&c» In ye purgunna of Ameerabad, and 
Subaship of Bengali have been bought 
from Munoredutt [Manohar Datta], & 
other Jemidars [zamindars~\ and a Bill 
off Sale obtained, when y e Duan 
[diwari] off Bengali {gave them posses- 
sion. As for y e Other towns we have 
nott their names by which to render 
An Account. The Duan \_diic5n~] may 
be wrote to, That An Account be sent 
to Court. 

They have had no ground given them, 
N or is itt Customary to permitt them 
to build houses off Brick. Itt is Cus- 
tomary to hire houses att y e G-ood 
will off y e Droga \_daro<^haJi]. Now 
they desire ground. What the King 
pleases ? 

Our Duanny \_diwani] books have no 
Account off Houses, The Consommany 
[fchansamani] have y e - particulars. 

By his Majestys particular favour Every 
body is Excused. 

Itt is Customary that when goods are 
lost, and found Again ; That y» 
Phowsdar \_faujdar\ Examine, & look 
out for y e Owner : After which that he 
return said Goods, taking a receipt 
under y e Cozzys [jgafis] Seal. 

Nothing mentioned. 

82 DELHI, JANUARY, 1716. 

7th Article ... Itt is Customary That y e Kings Own 

Money be first Coined, and then that 
off those Merchants whoever gives in 
their Silver, itt is not usuall to regulate 
j* Days from Court. 

gth d°- ... Itt is Customary, for ye Custom-house 

Officers to inspect y e Goods ; and att y p 
lading, give notes under their Seals ; 
that att y e landing of Said Goods the 
Mutsuddys [rnutasaddis] resident may 
by such Cocketts cleare them : With- 
out all which, itt will be a Considerable 

9*h d°- ... The Suratt Enpees &c*i are fine for which 

there is no batta deducted. Those Att 
Madrass are harder for which reason 
they are refused In the Treasury. 

10th d°- ... Itt is Customary, when A ship is wrack'd, 

& y e Owner proved before y e Phowsdar 
Ifaujdar'}, that itt be returned : An 
Account being taken under y e Cozzys 
iqazi's'] Seal. 

jjth d°- ... Itt is Customary According to y e Suratt 

records ; Upon Enquiry, to return Any 
Debtor, or Servant to y e Cheif off y e 
Factory, In Case off Elopement. 

... Nothing mentioned. 

... Nothing Mentioned. 

... Nothing Mentioned. 

... Nothing Mentioned. 

... Nothing Mentioned. 

... In y e reign off Sha-Jehaun [Shah Jahan 
(1627-1658)] & Aurungzebe [Aurangzeb 
(1658-1707)] The English In ys Suba- 
ehip off Amadabad [Ahmadabad Gujarat] 
paid 3£ pr Cent Custom. They now de- 
sire, in lieu off that, to pay 3000 rs. As 
In Hugly. — To receive this Peescash 
{jpeshJcasK} (as In Bengali) instead off 
Custom will be a Great loss. Att 
Amadabad [Ahmadabad], Canibay, & 
Suratt they pay 3£ pT Cent. 


d o. 






d o. 





DELHI, JANUARY, 1716. 83 

18<h Article ... The Suratt books Contain, that Since their 

Arrirall In y* City they have lived In 
hired houses ; which has been Accustomed 
to this dajj, & for which they pay refit As 
formerly. As for y e 400 Beagues [bigahs] 
off G-round which they att present desire, 
The Govern? off that place may be 
Ordered to Examine Into, & Advife Con- 
cerning itt. 

19th d°- ... Nothing mentioned." 

89. Diary. 

" Meer Jemla [Mir Jumlah J continues in the City but in private. 

The Persian Embassadour 1 After he had received t ^ y eg j. £ rQm ^ e jQ D g g Persia ; Came to 

Court, and deliver'd with his own hand A letter from his Master to 
the King off Indostan." 

90. Consult axiom. 2 

" We have lately had intimation, that Caundoras ["Khan Dauran's] 
Mutsuddys [mutosaddzs] Expected farther presents ; 

Januai? 2?st 171$ As Also that ^ ud Salla ^t Caun [Sayyad Salabat 
Khan] was nott perfectly satisfied with y e Padrees 
Note, that was given before our Arrivall. We have thought itt our Safest 
way, on Account off these Secrett heartburnings, which hinder y e 
Currency off our buisness, to come to An Enclarissment and which we 
have effected by y e meanes off Kirperam [Kripa Earn], Syud Sallabut 
Cauns [Sayyad Salabat Khan's] Mutsuddy [mutasaddi], — Agreed that 
Padree Stephanus's Note be taken up ; & that Another, Exclusive off 
what given formerly to Caundora [Khan Dauran], Syud Sallabut 
Caun [Sayyad §alabat Khan], Or their Mutsuddys [mutasaddis'], be 
given for 144 p s . Green Broad-Cloth (the supposed Amount here 
17000 r s .) and 10,000 r s - In ready Cash. Agreed likewise, that the 
Note in A particular manner specify, That this is nott to be fulfill'd, 
till we have first Obtained Grants to all the nineteen Articles in our 

1 The Persian Ambassador's name appears to have been Mir Murtazza. He came from 
Sultan Husain Mirza, the last Safawl King, and his first reception was on the 19th Rajab 
112*6 H. (30th July 1714 N. S.). It was the first embassy to India, since the 10th year 
of Alamglr (1668.9). See also notices of this ambassador in the Calcutta Consultation Books 
for 1712 1713, Early Annals, Vol. II, Pt. I, §§ 621, 622, 623, 626, 663, 712, 723, 725, 737. 

2 In the Consultation of the 21st January mention is made of " a Grey Turkey Horse being: 
bo't for 450 Rs, and House Rent for 3 Houses Rs 4 0-3 3." 

G 2 

84 DELHI, JANUARY, 1716. 

petition ; and that no farther demands be made on us from Caundoras 
[Khan Dauran's] people : Sallabut Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] himself 
being Obliged, to take Away all Obstructions , that may happen on 
that Account. Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] has Accepted this Offer. 
Butt att y G Close off y e Agreement Kirperam [Kripa Ram] lett us 
know, that he Expected something Apart, We beleive shall be obliged 
to some Addition for him ; but as Yett that is nott Concerted." 

91. Consultation. 

" The King having signed our Generall Petition, which is now 

returned, Agreed the particulars be hereunto 

Jan! 27th Annexed. Agreed that those articles which are 

nott answered to our Satisfaction, be made into 

A new petition, with some Additionall Articles nott before presented." 

92. The first petition answered. 

Aeticles in the Signed by His Imfebiall 

Petition Majesty 

Art 1. Concerning the Phirmaund Omitted 

[farmdns] for Bengali 
Art. 2. For the Culcutta Towns The Towns that were formerly given to he 

confirmed And -the Other Towns petition- 
ed for, Iff the Ground is hought with the 
Owners consent Ordered that the Duan 
[Diwan] be wrote to, that they may 
have them. 
Art. 3. For 40 Beagues [big as] Ordered According to Custom. Granted 
For the Patna House them to live in, and repair In Case they 

build no fortifications. 
Art. 4. Concerning Phirmaush 1 All forgiven. 

Art. 6. Concerning Eobbery ... Ordered that particular Orders he given 

About itt. 
Art. 6. Concerning the Duans Ordered that the Copy off the Phirmaund 
[diwan s] Demand for [farman] Suffice. 
Originall Sunnods 
[sanads.] &c* 
Art. 7. Concerning Muxodavad "Write to the Duan [Diwan], that in Case it 
Mint. 2 is not Against the Kings Interest, to be 


» Farmdish, that is a requisition for goods made by local officers to be sent to the Court. 
* That is the mint at MaqsudSbSd or MurshidSbSd. 

^4 * 3 

^r3 , 


5 ^ 

•8 ^ 


Q 3 





7i> /actf /a^ 84. 



Abticles in the 

Signed bt His Impebiall 


Art. 8. Concerning the buying 
Goods In Hugly. 

Art. 9. Madrass Mint 

Art. 10. Concerning Ships In 

Art. 11. Concerning the Company s 
Debtors &c a . 

Art. 12. Concerning Madrass 

Art. 13. .For Vizagapatane [Vizaga- 

Art. 14. For Divy Island 

Art. 15. Concerning Madrass 5 

Art. 16. Concerning Cudalore &c a . 

Art. 17. Concerning The Surat 

Art. 18. Concerning the Suratt 


Art. 19. For priviledge to Country 

Iff nott Against the Kings intrest|; Order- 
ed to be granted. 

Granted iff the rupees" are off the same 
weight and fineness as Surat. To Com- 
mence from the 5 l ? Year. 1 

Considering they have Factorys, and trade 
over the whole kingdom, and have by 
particular kingly favours, obtained Phir- 
mands [farmans] Custom free: Ordered 
that they be Assisted on All such Occa- 


Granted According to former Custom. 

Lett the Mutsuddys [rnutasaddls] off 
that place be wrote to, That in Case itt 
is not against the Kings Int'rest and the 
welfare of the Inhabitants, that their peti- 
tion be granted. 

Write to the Mutsuddys [mutasaddt] 
there to send an Account off itt. 

The five Towns granted formerly to the 
English to be given Again. 


That a yearly peescash [peshkasJi] be 
calculated, and paid, According to the 
Amount of the English Customs att 
Suratt, In the 20 th Year off Aurungzebes 
reign. 2 

Ordered That we have itt to Live in, and 
build on ; butt without fortifications. 

Ordered that According to the English 
Cheif s Dustick, [dastak\ those Factors be 
not molested. 

1 Farruskhiyar's fifth year began on 1 Rabi 'I, 1123H., 23 February, 1716, N. S. 

2 Aurangzeb's twentieth year began the 8th November, 1676, and ended the 27th October," 
1677, N. S. His eighteenth year began the 10th December, 1673, and ended on tho 28th 
November, 1671, N. S. 

86 delhi, january, 1716. 

93. Diary. 

"Beginning to Examine the Surat Customes from the 18 th Year off 
Auruns'zebe : we find that Tear, they amounted 

January, 29th P 

to 28,000 Es. But by Examining farther, & 
Bribing the Mutsuddys [tnutasaddla] ; We hope to bring their 
representation to the King so low as to Answer our purpose." 

94. Consultation. 

" Having on Mature consideration, compleated a Second Petition, 
which is to be presented with all Speed : agreed, 
that itt be hereunto annexed. 

Agreed that M r - Stephenson prepare the Following present — 
To Nozzem Caun 1 — Poet Laureatt 

Broad cloth 

Fine ... 10 Guz 

Fire Armes 

Aurora ... 10 D° 

1 pistoll 

Imbost ... 8 D? 

3 Sword Blades 

1 Hooker \Jwqqah~\ 

1 Knife 


1 Penknife 

1 Pr. Scissars 


1 Multiplying Glass 
1 Triangular d° 
1 Spy d° 


The Second Petition 

to His Imperiall Maj: 


Jan 29*h 


"l 8t . Article 

In y e form 1 ". 

petition 1 — Genuine. 
2d d°. d°. 2— Thus That we have Examined, & taken An 

Enlarged. Account off the towns from y e Conningoe 
[q3nungtf\. The Method that was for- 
merly nsed in buying towns is as follows. 
We first Obtained a Nishaun \_nishan~] from 
Azzimuth Sha ['Asimu-sh-shan] in y e 
1st £E Zilcaud [Zu-1-qa-dah], & y e 42*. 
Year ; Then we gott a bill off sale from 
y e Jemidars [zamindars'], In Jemaudill 
Owull [Jamadiu-1-awwal] 1110 Hegira, 

' " i Is this meant for Na'Im Kh5n ? Mr. Irvine suggests that it may bo a mistake for 
Ma'Sni KhSn which was the title of Mubammad Ahsan the Court Historiographer. 



& After all a perwanna from y e Duan 
Suba [diwan of tho $ubah] In y 6 2\ off 
Shabaun [Sha'ban] & y e 42\ Year. 1 Alt 
present we hope from y 3 kings favour 
that A Phirmaund {farina 11] be Granted , 
that According to former Custom we may 
Upon y e phirmaund [far man] Obtain a 
bill off Sale, & Afterwards A perwanna 
from y e Duan [diwaii]. 
Particulars — Pergun- 
nas— Ameerabad 



Culcutta . . . 

Manpoor ... 

Nuddea ... 

8121 8 6 


1 6 

869 15 3 


5 6 

2151 13 3 


7 6 


13 6 

Yearly Bent 

3*1 Article In y e former Petition The Mutsuddys \_mut zsaddis'] off the Books 
18 th . Enlargement, have forgott to write that the house is 
For Suratt House. the Kings. That house has been given 
for our residence from the time off 
Jangeer [Jahanglr (1605-1627)], 627 rs. 
8 a. being paid As Yearly rent into y e 
Zings treasury : Butt being now very Old, 
& rainated, Said rent goes Every year in 
reparations, which is nott sufficient : & for 
building, we cannot doe itt Unless the 
King give itt us. The King having now 
Signed that we may build According to 
y e Custom of Indostan; We hope like- 
wise, to have itt given us that we may 
* build, & repair itt Accordingly. 

For A house & Garden. We Enjoy'd Godowns, & A Garden with 
Enlargement. out y e City which When ye City was 

walled round were both ruined. In y e 
31 st Year 2 of Aurungzebe 22,000 rs. was 
Ordered to be paid, in lieu off itt, out 
off y 3 Suratt Customs. We now hope 
we may have 400 Beagues \bigahs~\ with- 
out y e City, where mating A Garden & 
Godowns we may bless his Majesty. 

i These dates work out as follows. The 1st Zu-l-qa : dah, 42nd year of 'Alamgir (1109 H), is 
the 23rd May 1698 N S. ; Jam5diu-]-awwal 1110 H. is the 5th Nov. to 4th Dec. 169S N.S. ; the 
9 a d of Sha'ban of the 42nd year (1110 H.) is the 3rd Feb. 10©9 N.S. 

2 The 31st year of Aurangzeb began on the 11th July, 1687, and ended on the 30th Juno, 



4 th Article In y 8 Former 14. The delay that will attend any Answer from 
Enlarged. Divy y e Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] will mine 
Island. us. We hope hy y e Kings favour that 

A Phirmaund [farman] may be granted 
According to our petition ; & that y* 
Mutsuddy imutasaddij, on y e truth off 
our Assertion, & y e benefitt that will 
Accrew to y e Country give y* Company 
possession. In ye Mussoons [i.e. mon- 
soon], by reason off storms, Ships cannot 
Stay on y e Cormandell Coast ; Butt Goe 
to Pegu, Siam, Achine, &c* Iff the Com- 
pany Settle in Divy Island, we may make 
harbours ; & y e Ships nott depart thence 
With this prospect, The kings Country 
will be improved & j* Customs off Metch- 
lipatam [Machhlipatanam] be advanced. 
6 th Article In y e Former, 13 — The delay that may Attend any Answers 
Enlarged. Yizaga- froni thence will ruine us. What is y* 


6 4b Article Entirely new 

7 ih Article Entirely new 

Bent off those towns we Entirely Agree 
to ; not desiring that Lis majesty should 
be a looser. We hope we may obtain 
a Sunnod \_sanad^ from Court According 
to y e Kings rent. 

, In y e Island off Bombay, which is in y s 
Sea, Europe Siccas are Current, We 
hope from y e kings favour that Siccas 
may be stamped there According to ye 
Custom off Madrass. 

Iff the Gold and Silver According to y* 
Custom off Surat be good, We hope that 
all y e Mutsuddys [mutasaddisl off the 
Kingdom may be ordered to take them. 

, In Culcutta, Vizagapatam, other places, 
The Company have Settlements. Itt 
very Often happens, that Bobbery and 
Murders are Committed & y e Offen- 
ders Seized. Without an order from 
Court we are nott able to punish them; 
& Fruitlessly send them to y e Phowsdar 
[faujdar], who keeps them inprison 2 
or 3 Months without Punishment, & then 
releases them : By all which our Servants 
receive great damage. We hope there 
may be an order, thxt whatever theif is 
Seized, that we may punish him Ac- 
cording to law. By which all people will 
live att Ease." 

delhi, february, 1716. 89 

96. Diary. 

January 30th. « The Vizier Yisifcted. " 

February 2nd " ^ e ^ n S visitted In the Duan Coss [dlwan 


97. Letter X l 

To the Worshipfull 
Stephen Strutt Esq. Etc. 
Council! in Bombay. 


"Sometime ago we received yours dated November the 10' h which we 
hitherto forbore answering in expectation to give some Account of our 

Our first G-enerall Petition to his Imperial Majesty is returned and signed, 
as to what respects the trade of Surat is as follows. 

To the Free trade of Surat: ordered that in the 20 th year of Aureng 
-Zeb's reign, being at what time the English paid but two pr Cent Custom the 
amount of Customs of the English trade in Surrat be examined pursuant to which 
a yearly pishcash [peshJcasK] is to be made, and a Phirmaund [farmaii] given 
them that there be no farther molestation on that Account. 

To the ground Petition for without Surrat, and the grant of the Kings 
house in it, the former part is left unanswered, and to the latter, the house is 
granted to live in, the Mutsuddy's [mutasaddls] of Surratt being ordered to 
permitt you to build thereon, but without any fortifications. 

By the grant of having a piscash [peshJcasK] in lieu of Customs, we have 
hopes of gaining as good as a free trade supposing that the trade might not then 
be so great as lately, and accordingly have been examining the books for those 
times the only year as yet taken out being the 18 th of Aureng Zeb's reign to our 
surprize amounts to about twenty eight thousand Rupees some part of which we 
must attribute to the private trade, we shall endeavour by bribing the mutsuddys 
[mutasaddis] to aleviate the sum as much as possible before the Account reaches 
his Majesty, but being under apprehension that it will not be feasable to bring it 
down so low as five or eight thousand Rupees, which are the sums limited from 
the Honourable President and Councill of Bengali we take the opportunity to 
advise you how affairs stand at Present withall to represent our opinions on this 


That in case we can get a pishcash [pesJiJcasK] settled in lieu of Customs we 
may add to the sum of 12 or 16000 Rupees pr Annum which we beleive will 
prove no little advantage to our Honourable Masters, and as this is extensive of 
all the English trade in general to Surat, so it lies in the Honourable Companys 
breast to lay what duty's they shall think proper on all private trade, thereby 

i This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George, on Thursday, the 19th April, 1716, and 
is to be found under this date in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719, No 87, 
Range 239 in the India office. 

90 DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1716. 

contributing to pay the yearly pishcash [peshkask] abovernentioned, we desire 
a speedy answer to the article and also that they will not be to strict in the 
order thereon, but in some measure leave it to us as we shall think convenient. 

We have given a second petition to the King concerning the house in Surat 
and the ground without it for a house and Garden, desiring that the first 
may be given to the English for ever and then permission to build upon it 
which we have hopes will be granted. 

Pursuant to your late instructions concerning Bombay Rupees, we have 
likewise Petitioned for the Settlement of a Mint on that Island which we hope 
will be granted, but you may depend that all those Rupees must receive 
the King of Indostans impressions and be of like goodness with those of Surat 
which we beleive will answer the desired ends. 

This Court has been put into some disorders lately occasioned by the return 
of Meer Jumlah [Mir Jumlah] and his Army from Patna puting for the present 
a stop to our Negotiations We hope in a few days to see all blown over when we 
shall pursue our business with what energy we are capable of. 

We send this Letter by nimble Cossids [ycmrfs] to Surat in hopes to receive 
an answer in 30 or 40 days at farthest which we desire you'l contribute to by 
the quickness of your dispatches and fair promises to the returning Cossids 

We are, Worshipfull Sir and Sirs 

Your most humble Servants 

John Subman 
Dilhey Seebhaud Iseael 

Febry 3 rd Edwabd Stephenson." 


98. Diary. 

"Dyed Rey Gudsein the Deputy Duan Colsa [d'mdn of the 

khdlisah-i-sharifahl with a debauch off Drink- 
February 5tn " J 

ing. 1 " 

99. Lettkr XI. 2 
To the Honoueable 


President & Governour of Fort William 
&c* Councill in Bengali. 

Honoueable Sie and Sies 

"We wrote your Honour &c. the 8 th ult? accompanying a bill of 
Exchange for four thousand Sicca's which we hope was duly honoured. 

i Rai Gaj Singh was appointed peshkar (chief clerk) of the lhalisah on the 23rd Muhar- 
ram, 1125 H. i.e. the 18th February, 1713, N.S. 

2 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Fiiday the 4th May, 1716 ; 
and is to bo found under that date iu the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 
1719, No 8], Range 239, in the India Office. 

DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1716. 91 

Not having received any Letters lately from your Honour &c& We have 
nothing more to advise than of the progress of our Negotiation in as concise 
terms as possible. 

About a Week ago our General Petition was returned from his Majesty, the 
answers to which we shall transcribe as the petition runs. 
Article 1. By a mistake of the mutsuddys [mutasaddis~\was omitted. 

„ 2. Being for the Calcutta Towns. It was Ordered that the 3 

formerly given to be confirmed, but for the others in case they 
be bought with the consent of the Owners the Duan [Diwan] 
is ordered to be wrote to that they may let us have them. 

„ 3. Liberty is granted to build Factorys in all places where 

we desire, and for the Patna house, that was Petitioned for it 
is given us to live in and repair in case no additions are 
made neither Walls nor anything resembling fortifications. 

„ 4. Concerning Phirmaush [farmaisli], Phousdarry ffaujdari] &* 

It is granted as it is to his Majestys Subjects in General as 
well as all traders. 

„ 5, In case of being robbed or plundered. Subscribed that parti- 

cular Orders be given about it. 

,, 6. It is Ordered that a Copy of the Phirmaund [farman^ be 


„ 7. Concerning the Mint Cassimbuzar [Qasim-bazar] to have 3 days 

in a week. 

It is ordered that the Duan [diwari] be first wrote to and that 
if it is not against the Kings interest to be granted. 

„ 8. Concerning a Perwangee [parvjanagi] from the Government of 

Hugly— Ordered that it be granted if not against the Kings 

„ 9. Being for the passing Madras Rupees. It is Ordered that 

in case those rupees are altered and made of the same weight 
and fineness as those of Surat then to be received into the 
Treasury everywhere commencing from the 5 th year of the 
Kings reign. 

M 10. Being in case Ships put by at Sea. It is fully answered 

that considering we have trade all over the whole Kingdom and 
that by particular Kingly favours We have Phirmaunds 
[farmans'] Custom free, that particular orders be given that 
We be assisted on all such occasions. 

„ 11. In case of any elopement of the Company s Servants or 

debtors. It is granted. 

n 32. Concerning the trade of the Coast of Coromandell. Granted 

according to former Custom. . 

„ 13. Concerning Vizagapatam and the Towns near it. Ordered 

that the Mutsuddys [mutasaddis'] of that place be wrote to 
that in case it is not contrary to the Kings interest and the 
welfair of the Inhabitants that their Petition be granted. 

92 DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1716. 

Article 14. Being for Divy Island is thus Subscribed. Write to the 
Mutsuddys \mutasaddis] there to send an Account of it. 

., 15. Concerning the 5 Towns near Madrass. Ordered that the 

same Towns which were formerly granted be given us again. 

„ 16. Fort S f - David. The Petition granted. 

„ 17. Being for a free trade at Surat is thus Subscribed. Examine 

the custom for the 20 th year of the reign of Aurenge Zeb paid 
in that City by the English pursuant to which. — Ordered that 
a piscash \_peshkasli\ be calculated and paid yearly having a 
Phirmaund [farman] given them for it. 

„ 18. Being for Surat house and Garden. For the house it is 

Ordered to let us have it to live in and repair but prohibiting 
any Fortifications. An answer to the 400 Beagers [bigalis] 
of Ground for a Garden is omitted. 

M 19. Concerning the liberty of Country Factors — Granted that 

according to the Dustick [dastalc] of the English Cheif those 
Factors be not disturbed. 

Your Honour &c a will perceive by the notations above that we have not 
got the full answers we desired to our Petition but as it is a thing customary 
at this Court, We were not daunted at those articles which were as good 
as denied, but drew up another petition which that it might not be bulky 
We left out all but what was of absolute necessity hoping to get our meaning 
explained in orders from the Kings Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] when it arrives 
to them. 

Our Second Petition contained the following Articles. 

1. A Confirmation of ,'our Phirmaund [framan] for a free trade in Bengali, 
Beharr and Orixa which was by a mistake of the mutsudys [tnutasaddig] before 

2. That the Surat House be given us, otherwise we could not pretend to build 
upon it, and for the ground desired for a garden to shew that we hare had it by 
former custom We have mentioned that there was one belonging to the English 
which being taken in by the Walling of the City of Surat has since that time 
been lost at which time the Cheif of that Settlement petitioned Aurenge Zeb 
[Aurangzeb] that the Garden stood the Company in twenty two thousand rupees 
which Sum Aurenge Zeb [Aurangzeb] orderd to be allowed in the Customs. 

3. We have petitioned for Divy Island showing that to waite for an answer 
from thence would add a longer time to our Negotiation then we expected from the 
favour of his Majesty that the leting us have that Island would be a particular 
advantage to his Majesty s dominions considering there was no Port for the har- 
bouring of Ships on the Coast of Chormandell but that in the Munsoon time they 
were obliged to leave his Majestys dominions for want of Shelter, Bengali excepted 
and winter on the Coasts of Arracan, Pegu and the Island of Zelone, however 
in case we were permitted to rent this Island of Divy we should make a Port able 
to harbour Shipping which would of a certainty be an addition to the trade of all 
those Countrys and consequently of the Kings Customs that we dare not presume 

DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1716. 93 

to offer any thing to his Majesty but matter of Fact humbly begging the renting 
of that Island may be granted us according to the truth of our Petition. 

4. We petition again for the Towns round Calcutta that at the granting of Cal- 
cutta &ca 3 Towns it was first given in the Nishaun and then bought from the 
Owners after which admission was given by the Duan of Bengali for the renting 
of them. That in case the Towns we desired were not first mentioned in the 
Phirmaund, no one would permit us to buy, nor would the Duan anywise assist us 
in it for which reasons we humbly petitioned that those towns might be granted in 
our Phirmaund that we would get the Consent of the Owners from the several 
Jemidars [zamindars~\ and afterwards take admission from the Duan. [diwdn~]. 
To this Article we added a list of the Purgunnas. [parganas.] 

5. For Vizagapatam Towns we have likewise desired they may be inserted 
but have not laid so great a stress upon them as the above Article for fear of 
giving to much jealousie, besides we had no particular Account of the rent of 
those Towns which they desired in lieu of the old ones. 

The above articles are what we picked out from the former Petition not 
answering our purpose and to which we have added two new articles, Viz* 

6 To have the liberty of a Mint in Bombay and that in case those rupees are 
of the same fineness weight and stamp with those of Surat that they may pass 
Current in the King's dominions. 

The occasion of this Article was a Letter lately arrived from Bombay copy of 
which comes herewith. 

7. We have petitioned for Bediess to those barbarities Committed by 
Bogues round Calcutta pursuant to your Honour &c& s orders. 

This last Petition has been delivered in some days but as yet we have received 
no answer thereto, We have hopes all will be granted except Divy Island of 
which we have some mistrust We have been examining the books concerning the 
Entrys of Custom for the English at Surat, We find it is much encreased by the 
additions of private trade for the 18 th year of Aurenge Zeb's [Aurangzeb's" 1 
reigu amounts to about twenty eight thousand Bupees. We are still examining 
other years to find the least which we shall deminish as much as we can by 
bribing the mutsuddies [mutasaddis'] that we may by that means answer our 
end in a Pishcash [peshkashl. It will be a glorious thing for our Honourable 
Masters if it can be effected, but We cannot leave this article without offering 
something to your Honour &ca that has accru'd to our knowledge. The reasons 
of the great abuses committed on the English at Surat has been Cheifly occasion- 
ed by the many buyers and Sellers of Englishmen there, so that for these many 
years there has been a difference made in paying Custom from the Company and 
other English traders as at present the Companys Custom is 2| p r Cent whereas 
all other English traders pay b| p r Cent, for which We humbly presume that 
should we get the Custom turned into a yearly Pishcash [peshkash~\ there would 
be an absolute necessity to lay aside any Supra Cargo's going to that Port with 
a full power to dispose of any goods, seeing this priviledge will entirely devolve 
on the Company so that goods ought to go into their Warehouses and be disposed 
of by their Servants which will hinder any future impositions or differences, 
giving likewise an opportunity for the Company to lay any duty on those goods 
which may contribute to the Payment of the yearly Pishcash [peshkash] laid 

94 DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1716. 

on that trade We should not have so boldly offered our opinion on this head had 
not the Interest alone of our Honourable Masters obliged us to it and besides the 
unsufferable impositions that for several years past have been all on Englishmen 
in Surat which we hope will be a sufficient excuse : farther we humbly desire your 
Honour &c» will please to acquaint us in your next whether we ought or no to 
write the same to all the Companys Settlements in India. 

Your Honour &c* will observe the notice that is taken of the Madrass Eupees 
as if they were of the same fineness with those of. Surat We are in some measure 
our selves informed that they are not and that *ome Essays have been made of 
them in Calcutta so that in case the advantages are to be had from the priviledges 
we have got there is an absolute necessity of refining that Mint We are humbly 
of opinion that if those Eupees were something better [than] ordinary it would 
be of no great loss, wherefore we beg your Honour &ca will please to advise 
the Honble Governour kc* at Fort S* George on this head as we shall do by 
land as soon as we finish all the business of that Coast. 

The Mutsuddys [mutasaddW] here would have perswaded us that the King 
had granted sufficient in Eespect to the Towns round Calcutta but we being well 
acquainted with Jaffer Cawns 1 Friendship towards us made us insert it again in 
our second petition that we might have better grounds to go upon. 

Our affairs being under the patronage of Caundora [Khan Dauran] who is 
a very dilitory man, we cannot expect to have finished our negotiation so soon 
as we at first hoped for. 

"We have drawn a bill of Exchange on your Honour &ca for Six thousand Six 
hundred Siccaes payable to M r< John Pratt being for value paid into us here by 
John Surman which we hope will meet with due Honour. 

Inclosed comes Account Cash, "Warehouse Account, and Charges Generall with 
copys of Consultations for the month of December. 

"We are 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Dilly 1715/ 16 Your most Obedient humble Servants 

Feb. 7 th John Subjian 

Edwahd Stephenson. 

Cojah Seebhaud, [Khwajah Sarhad] assenting. 
Hugh Babkeb, Sec^y 

100. Consultation. 

" We are informed, on Examination off the Suratt Customs, that the 

February 7th 20 th Year of Aurungzebe amounts to 28,000 Rs 

which beiog more than we Expected, & being 

withall limitted to 5000 R3 [when we are assured itt will require A 

much larger Sum] We judge itt highly necessary to write to Bomhay, 

That is Ja'far Khan, or Murshid Quli Khan, the Treastirer of Bengal. Ja'far Khan's 
friendship is obviously a euphemism for Ja'far Khan's enmity. 


.before the time pinches us, for farther instructions. Wherefore Agreed 
that the Case be plainly Stated, -with this Addition, that we beleive a 
Peeshcash nott procurable under 12 or 15000 Rs Per Annum. " 

101. Diary. 

February 9th. " The 1 st day off the Kings rejoicing. 1 " 

Febr r loth Great Quarrells between the Syuds and 

Tartars, 2 the former has an Army off 15000 

" The King ordered all the great Guns to be planted round the 

" The Kings rejoicing continued : when we 

February llth. . .... , ,, 


February 12th. " Rejoicings." 

February 13th. " Rejoicings finished." 

" The troubles here seem to arrow to An 

February 14th. D 


February 17th. " The K 60 ^ 1 Gorow [Gurti] Arrived from 

Lahore, making his Entry on An Elephant In an 
Iron Cage. 3 " 

" The King Appeared out : and In great Passion ordered Meer 
February 18th. Jemlah [Mir Jumlah] to be turned out off the 

City, hi3 Munsub, Jaggeers [man sab, jaglrs], and 
places being taken from him." 

February 20th. " The extraordinary guards taken away from 

the Fort, and the troubles grow to a Conclusion." 

March lst " We petitioned Caundora [Khan Dauran] that 

he would gett the King to dispatch us, Seeing 

any longer Stay would ruine us." 

. „ rd * We salamed to the King on the water, when 

we presented some Glass bowles." 

" Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad Salabut Khan] 

March 8th. , » ,, 

made a Supper for us. 

1 Being the anniversary of Farrukhslyar's accession. 

2 " Tartars " means the TurSnl Mughals who had been enlisted by Mir Jumlah and taken 
to Patna. They now demanded their arrears of pay. 

3 According to KSmwar Khan the triumphal entry of the Sikh prisoners took place on the 
17th Rabi '1 1128 which is the 10th or llth March 1716 N. S. and the 27th or 28th February 
O.S. This conflict* with the entry here. Either the 17th February is a mistake for the 27th, 
or the 17th Rabl 'I is a mistake for the 7th. Amin Khan was sent to bring the Guru in preces- 
sion from 'Agharabad to the Lahorl gate of the palace. 

96 DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 

102. Lettee XII. 1 

To the Honourable Eobebt Hedges Esq. 
President and Governor of Fort William Etc. 
Councill in Bengali 


" We wrote your Honour &c a the 7 tn « Ultimo since which we have received 
no Letters. 

Your Honour &c* will doubtless have heard by flying reports the troubles 
that have possessed this place for the past month occasioned by the coming of 
Meir Jumlah [Mir Jumlah] and all his forces, as 'tis said, without the Kings order, 
all the Tartarrs [i.e. Turanls] mutinously joynd to demand their pay which they 
gave out they would force either from the Vizier or Caundora [Khan Dauran], 
This was certainly the grounds of gathering forces on # all sides the Yizier himself 
having not less than twenty thousand Horse all which continually filled the streets 
and attended him when he went to the King, Caundora [Khan Dauran] and the 
rest of the Omrahs [umara'] with their- forces, and all the Kings Tope Conna 
[tdpkliar.ah'i, kept guard round the Fort for about 20 days. The Vizier was 
obstinately bent not to pay the Tartarrs any thing without very particular 
examinations and Accounts to be made up for the plundering the Town of Patna 
which conditions the Tartars did not think to comply with till such time as they 
found the Vizier was not to be bully'd when they seemed to be willing to 
come to a composition which was effected by breaking their party, and the Kings 
orders for Meir Jumlahs [Mir Jumlah's] proceedure to Lahore. The King 
ordered Chicklis Cawn &c» - to go and see Meir Jumlah out of the City divesting 
him of all his posts at Court as also of his Munsub Jaggeers [mansabs, jagirs] 
&g* with the glorious additional titles of Nozem Cawn Behauder Cawn Cawn 
Conna Jaunney Seer Walla Shey Zuffer Jung, 3 which are ordered for the future 
never to be used it is the general observation of this City that this has only been 
a Scheme laid if possible to entrap the Vizier, and take away his life, but He has 
been so continually on his guard, that nothing could be effected, so once more 
all is calmed much to hin Honour and the entire disgrace of all Tartars in general, 
they being almost all turned out of service a few great ones excepted. Meir 
Jumlah [Mir Jumlah] is now 20 Cos of this place in his way to Lahore, at present 
without any Munsub ^mansab'] or post, but 'tis Reported he will enjoy the 
former by the Kings favour ; these troubles occasioned the shutting up allKetchrys 
[kachahri] for this month so that no business could possibly go on, in which ours 
met the same fate with the rest, being just in the same state as a month ago. 

1 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Tuesday the 5th June, 1716 ; 
and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719, No 87, 
Range 239 in the India Office. 

2 That is Chin Qilich Khan, also entitled Niz5mu-1-Mulk. On the 10th Rabi ' I, which was 
the 3rd or 4th March N. S. and the 21st or 22nd February 0. S. he conducted Mir Jumlah as 
far as Narelah, 1 6 miles north of Delhi. See Mirza Muhammad and Kamwar Khan. 

3 These titles are Mu'aezam Kh5n Bahadur, Khan KhanSn Khan Jahan, Wala Shihi, 
Mugaffar Jung. "Wala Shffhi " means personal adherent of the Emperor while still a prince* 

DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 97 

Caundora [Khan DaurSn] very frequently promises that He will make an end with 
all possible expidition, but He is such a strange dilatory man, and withall inaccess- 
able, that We have occasion to summon the utmost of our patience there is no 
help for it, for with all this dilatoriness He is the only reigning man in the 
Kings Durbar, so that We hope He will at last consider and for his own Honour 
see us handsomely dispatched with a full grant to all our petitions. 

The -great Eebel Goroo [Guru] who has been for these 20 years so troublesome 
in the Subaship \_subah~] of Lahore is at length taken with all his family and 
attendance by Abdell Summed Cawn 1 the Suba [siibahdar, i.e. governor] of 
that province, some days ago they entered the City loaden with fetters, his 
whole attendance which were left alive being about Seven hundred and eighty 
all severally mounted on Camells which were sent out of the City for that 
purpose, besides about two thousand heads stuck upon poles, being those who 
died by the sword in battle He was carried into the presence of the King, and 
from thence to a close prison, He at present has His life prolonged with most 
of his mutsuddys [mutasaddls] in hopes to get an Account of his treasure in the 
several parts of his Kingdom and of those that assisted him, when afterwards He 
will be executed, for the rest there are 100 each day beheaded. It is not a 
little remarkable with what patience they undergo their fate, and to thejlast it 
has not been found that one apostatized from this new formed Religion. 

Finding on examinatio n of the Kings books as formerly advised that the 
Customs of Surat exceed the sums we expected, We were under some appre- 
hension that in finishing this business, We should be obliged to advance a larger 
sum than We are at present empowered to, for which reason We have wrote to 
Surat a full Account of the matter desiring their permission that in case we 
should be obliged to advance upon the sum they formerly mentioned that We may 
not be stinted to less than twelve or fiften thousand rupees to which We hope We 
shall have an answer before We have any occasion for it. 

We have lately had Letters from Bombay which give an Account of the arrival 
of Charles Boone Esq? Govern* of that Island and Laurence Parker his second 
both from England We have received some news from Surat by way of Aleppo 
copy of which comes enclosed. 

We have drawn bills of Exchange to the following persons, Viz* 

1600 Siccas payable to M r - John Prat being value received from John 

6500 ditto payable to M r - James Williamson value received of M.\ 

William Hamilton. 
1500 ditto payable to M>. Thomas Faulkon value received of Mr- Edward 

550 ditto payable to Captain Harnet value received of John AlofF. 
To all which We desire your Honour &c» will give due Honour. 

1 "Abdu-s samad Khan. His original name was Khwajah 'Abdu-r-rabim ^drik^-i-Muham 
wadi). He died at Multan on the 10th Rabi 'II, 1150, which is the 6th August 1737 N, s. 
aged nearly eighty, His biography is in the Ma 'asiru-l-umaru, II, 514. 

98 DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 

Enclose'd comes Account Cash Warehouse Account Copys of Consultations 
and Charges General for the month of January. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 

Dxllt, r John Subman 

March the 10th 1715-16 \ Edward Stephenson. 

Cojee Seeehatjd assenting 
Hugh Babkeb, Secretary." 

103. Diary. 
March I2ih. "The Viz r - visitted by M r - Surman &ca." 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] pretended to know nothing off our 
Second Petition Altho in his possession ; till 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] refreshed his memory." 
March 15th. " Visitted the King in the Duan Om [cllicdn 'ani]" 

" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] and Kirperam [Kirpa Ram] 
were with Eey Beyon. 1 They were told itt was 
yesterday Agreed with Caundora [Khan Dauran], 
that Our phirds [/arils'] should he presented the King, and that 
they should be signed Cutboolmoolk [Qutbu-1-mulk]. 2 Seerhaud 
replyd ; That iff the 8 Months already pass'd had been off no farther 
benefitt in our buisness ; The other 8 Months After the Vizier, would 
Entirely ruine us. 3 " 

March 19th. « The Kings tents gone out off the City." 

104. Consultation. 

""We were informed; that Caundora [Khan Dauran] had been 
only, advised by some off his Mutsuddys [tnutamddis], 

March 2ist. that grarLt ing our last Petition would be 

improper, itt being a buisness entirely depending on the Vizier and 
the Duanny [dhvdni], wherefore itt was more fitt for him, and by 
which he himself would be cleared, to gett the Phirds \fards] signed 
Cutboolmoolk [Qutbu-1-mulk]. This was nott so private, butt we had 

i Rue-i-Rayan, the title of the Dncan-i-Khali$ak. * 

2 That is, endorsed over to Qutbu-1-Mulk, the vizier, as belonging to his department. 
" Signing Cootabalmooluck " is a literal translation of the Persian official phrase " dustkhat 
Qutbu-1-mulk kardan" i.e., to endorse on the paper as an order the word Qutbu-1-mulk, to 
indicate that the paper should be transferred to the vizier's office. This meaning of dastkhat 
Icardan, as Mr. Irvine telis me, is found repeatedly in the text-books of official forms and rules. 

3 The reply to this is obvious. The embassy instead of approaching the government 
through the proper channel, the vizier, preferred to proceed irregularly through Khan Dauran, 
Hence the delay. 

DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 99 

warning iff possible to prevent itt ; whioh we endeavoured by Consult- 
ing with Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan], and desiring his Assistance 
with Caundora [Khan Dauran]. Yett in spight of all, the Phirda 
[fards] came out signed as we Suspected. The principle Actors in 
this buisness have try'd to perswade us ; that this is the safest, & 
readyst way to gett our buisness Effected ; & that they will undertake 
to obtain more from the vizier, than can be Expected from the dila- 
toriness off Caundora [Khan Dauran]. Butt we consider this as a 
design to plunder us, when they shall have gott the buisness entirely 
into their own hands : which being premised, We resolve, when neces- 
sity obliges us to goe to the Viziers durbar, to manage the buisness 
by our own Intrest; & nott trust to those who have so palpably 
deceived us. 

In this Juncture we beleive itt necessary for Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] to proceed to the Camp, Endeavouring first to 
convince Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] how unreasonable itt is to 
throw us on the Vizier, withall insinuating, that rather than Carry the 
Phirds [fards] thus signed thither, we would risq the overthrow off the 
whole buisness. That After their having delivered our present, and 
managing our Affairs to this day ; Itt would be dishonourable to acoept 
itt. In fine, desiring him to write fully off this matter to Caundora 
[Khan Dauran], iff he could not find an opportunity to speak to him. 

Should the Scheme abovementioned fail us, Then we are oonvinced 
off the Necessity off Applying to the Vizier and his people; and indeed, 
to finish our buisness by what methods shall then appear most practi- 

The King being moved to the Camp, we esteem itt proper to Attend 
him ; nott knowing butt he intends towards Lahore, which iff true will 
require our presence for the managing our Affairs." 

105. Letter XLII. 1 

" To the Honourable Robebt Hedges Esq. 

President and Grovernour of Fort William &c* Councill in Bengali. 


We wrote your Honour &c» the 10 th Inst, advising the needfull to that time. 

We have frequently complained to your Honour &c» of the strange dilator- 
iness of our Patron Cawndora Behauder [Khan Dauran Bahadur]. He is never 
known to sit out in publick and Return answers to any manner of business, so 
that what can be said to him in the way from his apartment to his Pallanksen 
is all that can be got which is so very little for a man of great business that many 

1 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Friday the loth June 1716 and is to 
be found under that date in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719 No. 87 Range 
239 in the India Office. 

H 2 

100 DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 

days pass before an opportunity can be had even for the least answer, and to his 
own servants Syud Sailabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan], who has the manage- 
ment of our affairs under him and is as intimate as any one with him can do as 
little that way as other people, wherefore the main part of all our business has 
been managed by notes, this has been a great occasion of the dilatoriness of our 
affairs all which we were obliged to bear with abundance of patience. Still 
having very fair promises that our business should be done to our satisfaction, nay 
Cawndora [Khan Dauran] himself very often both by word of mouth and in 
several notes promised to do it. A few days ago when Seerhaud [Sarhad] went 
to pay his Respects as usual to Cawndora [Khan Dauran] and put him in mind 
of our Petition, He was very surprizingly asked what Petition ? have not I done 
all your business, to which Cojee Seerhaud fKhwajah Sarhad] answered, but the 
time and place not allowing of a further explaination He got into his Pallankeen 
and went away. This strange forgettfullness made us in very pathetick terms 
inquire of Sailabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] what we might expect after so many 
promises of having our business effected to our satisfaction when we had so long 
and patiently waited and been at so great an expence to be thus answered 
was very surprizing, and What we did not nor could not expect in the least We 
were answered that daily experience might convince us of the strange carriage 
and forgetfullness of that great man, still bidding us not to dispond, but that 
every thing would go very well after so many fair promises as we before had 
Received, this gave us but small satisfaction and the rather made us the more 
inquisitive which gave us this farther light, Viz* that Cawndora [Khan Dauran] 
had been advised by his own Mutsuddies \mutasaddis'}, that it was not his 
business to perswade the King to sign our Petition contrary to what He had 
formerly desired, but that it was better to get signed upon it Cootbulmooluck 
[Qutbu-1-mulk] whose business it was, as Vizier to advise the King what things 
were proper to be granted \is, We find this was cheifly levelled against our 
Petition for Divy Island and the ground round Calcutta now desired. We were 
in hopes that in case We could have got those Petitions granted us by the means 
of Cawndora [Khan Dauran] that afterwards the Vizier would not gain say or at 
least by a little bribery it might have passed, there has been severall endeavours 
made to get an opportunity to speak with Cawndora [Khan Dauran] so as to 
convince him but none has been procureable, We fear the Petition in this 
interim may be gone in and will come out signed as beforementioned. 

Yesterday the King contrary to the advice of the Vizier and purely on his own 
will went out a hunting and all the Omrahs [umara~\ to their Tents, the place at 
present mentioned is about 18 Cos off, but God knows what may be the design of 
it, or where he will march to, this obliges us to follow him to morrow or next day 
leaving M r . Edward Stephenson and Philips behind to take care of the Honourable 
Companys effects nere, should the Petition come out signed as abovementioned 
We shall be obliged to make a new Address to the Vizier which will not only 
protract the Negotiation but must lay us open to a denial, and at the best very 
expensive. We shall advise your Honour &c» as soon as We have any hopes of 
Success (which God send) or what We shall be obliged to receed from. 

We have this day drawn two bills of Exchange on your Honour &c& Viz* 
For 50OO Siccaes payable to M r - James Williamson for Value received from 
John Surman. 

DELHI, MARCH, 1716. 101 

For 3600 Siccaea payable to Mr. John Prat value received ;from John 

To which bills we desire your Honour &c a will give due Honour. 

Since writing the foregoing we are informed that our Phirmaunds [farmans'] 
are come out and signed Cootbulmooluck [Qutbu-1-mulk] as we expected. We 
shall endeavour to act in the present conjuncture with all possible care, and advise 
your Honour &c* of the Result." 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Dilly Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 

March the John Sxtbman 

21 st Edwabd Stephenson. 


Cojee Seebhatjd, Assenting. 

Hugh Babkee, Secretary. 

106. Diary. 
" M> Surman went to the Camp, Seerhaud 

March 23rd. „ ,.,,,, ., .,-. , „ 

[SarhadJ being gone the Day before. 
Sallabut Oaun [Salabat Khan"] having an unforeseen opportunity to 
eat and sleep in a private place with Caundora [Khan Dauran], spoke 
to the following Purpose on our behalf. ' That as we came hither by 
his means and instigation, so we depended wholy on him, As for our 
buisness we were resolved nott to goe to the Vizier, Seeing he had gott 
part of our petition granted : and to show our Entire respect, we had 
never apply'd to the Vizier, nay nott presented him, but as Caundora 
[Khan Dauran] himself directed. Wherefore iff Caundora [Khan 
Dauran] would nott prosecute our buisness we would depart hence.' 
To This he answered, ' That he would compleat our petition himself ; 
Asking withall where we lived.' — Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] told 
him we lived with him." 

" The Camp removed from Shalamar to Nerella 1 

March 24th. __ Wq galamed in the way> » 

" Tuccurub Caun [Taqarrab Khan] The kings great favourite and 

March 25th. our £ ood friend departed this life. He was in his 

life time possessed of Many great services 

Among which was Duan Colsa [ditcdn-i-kh&lisah~\ and Consomma 

khdnsdmdn~]. 2 " 

1 ShSlihmSr, a garden a few miles out of Delhi, near Sarae Badli, a'so known as ' Aghara- 
b5d. Narelah is 16 miles north of Delhi. 

a According to Mirza Muhammad, Taqarrab Khan died on Friday the 9thRabi'II 1128, 
which is said to be equivalent to the 1st or 2nd April 1716 N. S. and therefore to the 21st or 
22nd March 0. S. But if the death occurred on Friday it must have been the 23rd March 
1716 O.S. 


" Visitted the King in the Duan Coss [ducdn-i- 

March29th. ,..*' 


From the 25th the King went Every day a hunting. 

The Kings Artillery coming hither some design suspected to be 

against the Vizier." 

" Caun- Jehaun Behauder [Khan Jahan Bahadur], The Late Suba 

[sulah] off Cobull [Kabul] arrived att Court 1 

March 31st. . , . „ 

— The King gone a hunting. 
" The King went daily a hunting 'till the 4 th when he made Duan 

Apriii 1st. Coss [dlicdn-i-hhds] and we visitted him." 

<; The King returned from Nerella [Narelah] to Shalamar 

Apriii 5th. [Shalihmar]." 

107. Consultation. 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] frequently promises, when this hunting 

Apriii 8th time is finished, to compleat our buisness — for 

Shalamar. which we must waite with patience, and we doe 

continue firm in our Opinion, that this is the Only method to Obtain our 

grants, without very Eminent danger." 

108. Diarv. 
Apriii 9th. « Mj.. Surman &c. visitted the King." 

"There happened a quarrell between Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
and Mamud-Ami-Cauns 2 [Muhammad Amln 
Khan's] people, wherein the Masters so far inter- 
ested themselves, That on their arrivall at their tents Their forces 
Attacked Each other with Small Armes, Bonds 3 and some Cannon. 
After the death off 100 Men, They were att last parted by messages 
from the king, and the mediation off Other Omrahs \_umard] — This 
being very great insolence under his Majestys nose, he resented itt 
Accordingly; Cutting the munsubs [mansa Is] off all that were concerned, 
Among which was his favourite Caundora [Khan Dauran]." 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] called to Court, so 
we beleive him restored to what was taken away. 

1 'Azzu-d-daulah, Khan 'Alam, Bahadur, had been Nazim of Kabul. According to Kamwar 
Khan, on the 17th Rabi 'II, 1128, which is the 9th or 10th April 1716 N.S. and the 29th or 30th 
March O. S., he was introduced at Court by Arslan Khan who had been sent by His Majesty's 
orders to escort him. He presented 1000 gold coins, and his son Sipahdar Khan 1000 
rupees. They received in return rich dresses. 

2 Muhammad Amln Khan, Chin, Bahadur, a Turani, and cousin of Nizamu 1-Mulk. 
He was afterwards the Vizier of Muhammad ShSh, and died on the 29th Rabi *I 1133, which 
is the 27th January 1721 N. S. 

3 Apparently bans, i.t. rockets. 

DELHI, APRIL, 1716. 103 

None Under 7000 Muns: [i.e. man&aW] are permitted to wear 
fringe on their Pallankeens, and none under 4000 Muns: [mawsafcs] 
Lace or Embroidery." 

" Mamud Ami Caun [Muhammad Amln Khan] brought to Court ; 
so that the kings displeasure seems to be over ; 
Only Moradabad Phowsdarry \_favjdarl\ was 
taken from him." 

" Doctor Hamilton, for curing his Majesty formerly, In the Duan 

Coss \_diican-i-kha$\ received what was nott ready 

Apriiimh. att that time _y iz t An Atlas 1 Coate and 

Wastecoate made after the European fashion, Butt with Gold Buttons 
Sett Each with 1 Diamond and 4 Rubys. He likewise received all his 
Cases off small Instruments contained In one pretty Large Box, all 
off solid gold." 

109. Letter XIV. 2 

To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq? 

President and Governor of Fort William &c» 
Councill in Bengali. 


" Our last to your Honour &ca was March the 21st giving a particular 
Account how our affairs stood at that time, in the close We informed you that we 
heard our Phirds IfardsJ were signed but [Cut] bulmoolk. 3 which was afterwards 
confirmed by the papers themselves, this put us into a serious consideration what 
was to be acted in that Juncture. If the Papers were carried to the Vizeir and 
our business carried on that way, We should at best be esteemed as Caundoras 
[ Kh an Dauran's] cast off favorites, turned over to the goodness of the other 
whom if it were possible to engage with bribes or otherwise to get our Petition 
granted yet Caundora [Khan Dauran] who is naturally disposed to do little good 
might even then disserve us with his Majesty and so inevitably ruin our business, 
for it is certain He has such an ascendancy over the King as to dispose him 
according to his own inclinations ; these thoughts induced us to make another 
Essay of Caundora's [Khan Dauran's] generosity and give him an Account of our 
affairs, leaving the Vmer as our last Reserve, First Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad 
Salabat Khan] at our instigation wrote largely to Caundora [Khan Dauran] con- 
cerning us, but this had not the desired Effect, however this was supply'd in some 
measure by the opportunity some day3 afterwards to encounter him in private (an 
opportunity never before happening for some months) when he discoursed him 
concerning us and our affairs at large and to the following purpose. That this 
Present to his Majesty had laid by many years, no one having courage to procfesd 

1 Atlas i.e. satin. 

2 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George, on Monday the 3rd September, 1736, 
and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719 No. 87 Range 239 in the 
India Office. 

3 That is, they were merely endorsed over to the office of the vizier, Qutbu-1-mulk. 

104 DELHI, APRIL, 1716. 

in the Negotiation till incouraged by his kind promises of protection, and that 
all our Eeasonable demands should be granted, That all our adresses to his 
Majesty had been by his means : That He himself had delivered in our Present 
and such a one had never been made by any European Nation to the Kings of 
India since the Eeign of Tamerlain, that we were under great concern to find our 
papers turned over to [the] Vizeir, whither we could not go either for his or our 
own honour, seing We could expect no other usage than of cast off Favourites 
That we had not to our knowledge deserved so severe punishment, and accordingly 
hoped it would not be inflicted without a farther Scrutiny, and lastly that We were 
resolved whatever favours his Majesty would confer on us, should be by his 
means, and thai what was by him Rejected, should not induce us to apply to any 
other person 1 it seems He was not a little tickled with this discourse, but pretended 
first misinformation, that our business belonged entirely to the Duanny [diwani~] 
for which Reason He turned it over thither for examination, but since it was our 
earnest desire he woald reassume those papers, and get them signed, your 
Honour &c* will beleive that after such melancholly reflections, this for the 
present a Little revived us. 

The King removing about fourteen Course from the city we found our selves 
under an absolute necessity to attend him though it raised our expences to a very 
great pitch, fearing least they might proceed to Lahore as was publiekly given out. 
But his Majesty seemed wholly taken up with hunting, which used to engage him 
most days of the Week and then from morning till night so that there was a general 
stop to business. It was the Camp report that this Journey was designed purely 
to entrap the Vizier, However his care and precaution hindred any sinister 
Councill from taking effect, during this Encampment Coja Seerhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad] daily attended at Caundoras ["Khan Dauran's] Levy, whose only answer 
was (whenever he gave any) that We must wait till the time of hunting was over, 
when our business should be compleated, a full month has now elapsed in this 
condition ; But in the interim There happened a Quarrel between the People of 
Caundora [Khan Dauran] and Mamud Ami Caun [Muhammad Amin Khan] as 
they came from the Darbar, which after their masters got to their Tents ended 
in a downright fight, wherein they fired with small Arms, Bonds 2 and Great 
Gunns for above 2 hours notwithstanding the Kings repeated commands to 
forbear : Yet was it at last made up after about a hundred men were killed and 
wounded, the King was highly displeased with the liberty they took and resented 
it to both of them : Cut the Munsub [man$ab~\ of all the actors took tho 
trumpet 3 from his favourite, who was not admitted to his presence for 
three days, and threatn'd much more. But at present all is made up, and his 
Majesty again reconciled to them ; This being likewise over, we reitterated our 
desire to Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] to speak to Cawndora ["Kh an Dauran] 
insinuating that We could not longer support ourselves in our present necessity. 
It pleased God this morning he found an opportunity to speak to Cawndora 

1 This phrase is still common in petitions in India. An applicant to an Indian prince still states 
that, "though there are mauy other great princes and nobles in India, yet the petitioner does not 
intend to apply to them." 

* As before bans i.e. rockets. 

* " The trumpet," i.e. the right to beat drums and blow trumpets, usually styled the naqqarah 
(literally, kettle drums). This was a high honour, only granted to the greatest men. 

DELHI, APRTT., 1716. 105 

[Kh5n Daoran] (as He says) in a very ample manner, and was answered that as 
we had staid so long we must wait two days more when he would speak to his 
Majesty efficationsly in our behalf. 

We have endeavoured to dive into the reasons why Cawndora [Khan Dauran], 
after all the world knew he was our Patron should fling our Petition to Cutbul- 
moolk [Qutbu-1-mulk], and besides put such a considerable Stop to our affairs : 
There goes a report (altho' we cannot affirm the truth of every article) and not 
improbable that when our Petition first went to Cawndora ["Khan Dauran], some 
of his Mutsuddys [mutasaddls] who thought they had too small a Share in the 
proffit Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] had made of us, on examination of our 
Petition rose several objections to Cawndora [Khan Dauran] That our asking for 
Ground &C} was not fitt to be granted, this disturbed the affair so much that we 
were obliged to a second petition finding this out too late, Sallabut Cawn [Salabat 
Khan] as a means to accomplish the business, was obliged to ask their assistance 
toward signing the 2 nd Petition, which We are informed they refused, saying 
that what they had before contradicted, could not be now advised with any good 
face : and for Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] himself he had some Apprehensions 
that out of spight those Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] had acquainted Cawndora [Khan 
Dauran] with our Bribery, which prevented his appearing so boldly, as He might 
have otherwise inclined, by this means the business was apparently stopped, Yet 
to releive which and keep us in heart (For our obligation to Sallabut Cawn [Salabat 
Khan] is conditionall) the Jentue Bogues took this as a fitt oppertunity to make up 
their mouths, and so advised the signing Cutbulmoolk [Qutbu-1-mulk] telling 
Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] and us, that things would be more easily effected 
there, than with Cawndora [Khan Dauran], nay We are of opinion Sallabut Cawn 
[Salabat Khan] privately consented to it : Had We given onr consent, it is very 
probable things would not have succeeded, They having an oppertunity to 
plunder us and perhaps our whole business in danger of being overthrown. Where- 
as foreseing so many ill consequences, We got an oppertunity, without cognizance 
of the Jentu's to convince Sallabutt Cawn [Salabat Khan], that We were in 
the highway to Buin ; but desiring that by the first oppertunity He would 
endeavour to work in the same manner on Cawndora [Khan Dauran], which 
hapned according to the abovementioned Paragraph ; yet was this impossible to 
be effected with the privity of the Jentues. 

Your Honour &o. has now received a full Account of our affairs, nothing but 
Patience can serve our turn seeing our application at present to the Vizier or any- 
body else would entirely Euin us. 

We now come to answer your Honour && s of the 3 rd March which lately 
came to our hands. 

Concerning Barnasse seats [Varanasi Seth's] mony, and the Calculation your 
Honour &c* are pleased to make of Allumgeery [ 'alamgirl] Rupees, We cannot 
tell what agreement is made with him or how the mony is to be paid, whether 
Specie delivered here into Cash, or according to the Exchange of mony, the 
allowance of Excharge excepted. If the former, We have no difference hero 
between Surat and Hossanna Eupees, but are informed that the Eupees called 
here Allumgeery ['alamgiri] are the same as Pucca Hossanna in Bengali, which 
is all except new Surat Eupees. If the latter then he is to receive Sicca's in 

106 DELHI, APRIL, 1716. 

Bengali for Allumgeery [' alamgiri] paid in here, the difference here between 
Alhimgeery [' alamgiri] and Sicca's is from \ to 1 per cent Currant mony of Dilly 
nine thousand One hundred and eight three Annaes, makes Allumgeery 
['alamgiri] eight thousand eight hundred forty two, fourteen Anna's six pice 
We beleive the a,bove is sufficient to clear that Account. 1 

We observe what your Honour &c a write concerning Jaffer Cawn [Ja'far 
Khan] with the trouble he has given the Merchants We are likewise informed 
that you hare agreed to pay him fifteen thousand Rupees for the easy carrying on 
the Companys business in Bengali ; We formerly advised you that a complaint 
against him here would be to [no] purpose for which Reason We have hitherto 
evaded it. 

Concerning the Madras complaints for those towns We formerly advised your 
Honour &c a as also the,Honb' e Governour and Councill of Fort S f - George that 
Omeer All Omrah [Amlru-l-umara - ] 2 takes very little notice of any orders from 
Court and that a private letter from the Vizier was the only servicable method 
(altho' the Towns are granted when the Thirmaund [farman] is wrote) which was 
the Reason we procured it and which We hope came safe to hand, being a means to 
ingratiate our Honb e masters affairs with that Omrah \umara] : We shall be very 
carefull to observe all instructions either from Fort S ( . George or Bombay. 

About two months agoe arrived here Hossein Amidan [Husain Ahmad?] Owner 
of the Ship taken by the Danes in Bengali, We are informed He is endeavouring 
to do us all the disservice in his power : Having here forged Letters under the 
Zereef [Sharif] of Mecca's Seal to the King, Tizier and Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
that the English are Pyrats and, that the King will do well not to favour us 
Besides these there are severall other Certificates counterfeited which will be 
occasionally made use of : We shall endeavour all that is possible to Render the 
designs of that Impostor abortive. 

Inclosed comes Cash and Warehouse Accounts, Copy of Consultation and 
Charges General for February." 

We are 
Shalamar ye King's Camp Honourable Sir and Sirs 

April ye 20th 1716. Your Obedient Humble Servants 

Cojee Seebhaud, assents- John Subman 

Hdgh Babkeb, Secr v . Edw^bd Stephenson. 

110. DlABY. 

"The King sett in the Duan Coss \diwan-i-khas] — Sallabufc Oaun 
[Salabat Khan] now mighty \j disgusted att the 
Court and Caundora [Khan Dauran] . — He two 

days Agoe lost the post off Coar-Beg. 3 This Month two Men have 

been Caught in the Kings Seraglio." 

1 I understand from this calculation that 100 ' alamgiri rupees were worth 103 current 
rupees at Delhi ; and 100 sicca rupees were worth 104 Delhi current rupees. Compare the 
calculation in Letter XVI, p. 117. But in Bengal 100 sicca rupees were equivalent to 112J 
current rupees. See Vol. I, Pt. 1, p. liii. 

2 Sayyad Husain 'All Khan, the vizier's brother and governor of the Deccac. 
1 Qur Begl, superintendent of the armoury. 

Aprill 28th. 

DELHI, APRIL AND MAY, 1716, 107 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] again repeated his 
promises to Seerhaud [Sarhad]." 

111. Consultation. 

" Agreed that an Answer be sent to the Honble. Charles Boone Esq 1 ". 

Aprill 28th. Shaiamar. **' CounciU att Bomba 7, giving Our Opinion how 
matters stand in respect to Suratt &ca. 

For As much as they have mentioned their Orders from England to 

withdraw the Suratt Factory, and which they had putt in Execution 

Had nott Hydera Cooly Caun [Haidar Quli Khan] very much insisted 

on their Stay. Itt is our Opinion, that as the Honble. Company have 

no great concerns att Suratt ; should the Gentlemen there proceed to 

Bombay for A Month or two, Itt would Oblige Hydera Cooly Caun 

[Haidar Quli Khan] to write to Caundora [Khan Dauran] here, and 

without doubt very much Accelerate the Concessions att Suratt, 1 which 

have for some time found Many Objections." 

112. Diary. 

" The king made the Grand Vizier a visitt ; who, (according to the 

Country Custom) presented his Majesty with 

two Elephants, five Horses, one Saphir Necklace 

one Culgee, one Sword, one Dope, 2 two Bandizas 3 with Jewells, nine 

Bandizas with fine Cloth, and 100,000 rupees In Gold Moors [nmhrs]." 

" The King sent Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khanj victualls and made 

„ iAi him stand higher in the Duan [dlwanl than his 

May 10th. «.-»«- i - 

degree on MunsuD [mansab J. 
" Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] obliged to take the Arze Mocurrur 

['arz-i-mukarrar'], a post he has refused this eight 

ay * ' Months. 4 " 

" The King sent for Seerhaud [Sarhad] and M r . Hamilton ; being 

fearfulKthat his old sores were breaking- out. On 
May 12th Dilly. > 8 *>. vn 

Examination they iound a Pimple. 

1 Orme notes, "The threatening to withdraw the factory from Surat was one of the 
principal means of gaining the Phirmaunds." Orme Collections, VII, 1711. 

2 This is.dhop, a straight sword used as a sign of rank or dignity, sometimes called the staff 
like sword. Culgee [Might] is a plume or aigrette. 

3 " Bandiza " is probably equivalent to dastar-band, a broad piece of gold lace or gold stuff 
tied across the turban. 

4 Mr. Irvine tells me that the • arZ'i-mukarrar (lit. " repeated petition ") was an office for the 
examination of all orders, for the purpose of certifying their conformity to regulations. They 
were then presented a second time to the Emperor for confirmation or modification. Salabat 
Khan, accoiding to Mr. Irvine was appointed to this office on the 7th Jamadi I, 1128, which is 
the 29th or 30th April 1716 N. S. and the 18th or 19th April- O. S. 



108 DELHI, MAY, 1716. 

The kings Pimple broke from whence ran 

May 13th. much bk)od an( j watep „ 

"The Doctor again with his Majesty, he advised to have the Other 
„ ___* Phisicians called; Butt his Majesty would nott 

May loth. t ■ * 

hear of itt, besides he ordered great privacy.' 

113. Letter XV. 1 
To the Honotjeable "J 
Eobebt Hedges Esq. 
President and Governour 
of Fori William &c* 
Councill in Bengali. 


" We wrote yonr Honour &c» April the 20th from the Camp at Shalamar 
[Shalihmar] in which Place we continued till the 7th of May, his Majesty making 
his Entry the day following. 

This last month has elapsed with very little alteration as to the state of our 
affairs, We having not proceeded a step farther except in the fair promises of 
Caundora [Khan Dauran], which of late have been very frequent. It's now about 
a fortnight since Caundora [Khan Dauran] asked for the Petition, which was 
delivered him, We at that time hoped he would have got it signed without much 
farther examination but have proved to be mistakeni the Cheif objections made 
to the Petition were the demands of more ground round Callcutta, the Island of 
Divy, and the ground without the City of Surrat ; it has been carefully instilled 
into Caundora [Khan Dauran] that grants of this nature may be one day very 
prejudicial to the King of Indostan, first in respect to Calcutta we shall have an 
oppertunity of frequently quarrelling with the Phousdar [Jaujdar'] &c* we 
being already too strong without any Addition, and for Divy Island, were we once 
in possession of it and ever came to a Eupture with them, no Ship would be able 
to pass to or from Bengali (We are informed the King has had particular notice 
given him of this) lastly for the Ground at Surat, although it's very certain the 
Dutch had a grant for it from Mozadeem 2 that the Present Government is very 
unwilling to allow it, your Honour &c» may be very well assured all possible 
means have been used to contradict these advices, and We are of opinion that 
Caundora [Khan Dauran] may be something convinced of the reasonableness of 
our Petition, but yet he is still apprehensive that he may be reflected upon, for the 
ill consequences, which has made him resolve not to do our business purely on his 
own head as appears by his answer to Seerhaud [Sarhad], let me get the Vizier 
first to consent and act joyntly with me in this affair and I'll certainly effect your 
business to which he Added a very Solemn Asseveration. 

Our last from the Honourable President and Councill of Bombay seem to 
make a very Slight matter of the Surat Business seeing they have orders from 
England to withdraw that Factory, but for your Honour &c* 8 more Particular 

1 This letter was read at the same Consultation as Letter XIV. 
2 Mu'izzu-d-dln, JahSndar Shah. 

DELHI, MAY, 1716. 109 

observation, we herewith send Oopy of that Letter with it's answer which comes 

There has been a Eumour spread that the main reason of Canndora's [Khan 
Dauran's] putting us off so long was by his Majesty's private order, that the time 
might come about when he was first seized with the distemper last year wherein 
he would perceive whether he was perfectly clear or no, before he would dispatch 
either us or Mr. Hamilton, but for this We have no farther Authority than 
common Report, to our Surprize there is something of that nature broake out 
again what may be the end of it God knows. Mr. Hamilton has been with his 
Majesty 2 or 3 times but enjoyned the utmost Secrecy, being admitted to his 
presence thro' the Womens apartment for fear it should come to the world. 

We have drawn the following bills on your Honour &c a To John Surman 
for two thousand three hundred Sicca's payable to Mr. Williamson. 

To Edward Stephenson three thousand 3>— Barnasseseat [Varanasi Seth] 
to which we desire due honour. 

Herewith comes Account Cash, Copy of Consultations and Charges General 
for the month of March." 

Dillt We are 

May y e . 20th Honourable Sir and Sirs 

1716. Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 

John Sttbman 
Edwabd Stephenson. 

May 24«i 

114. Diary. 

" Mr. Hamilton has hoard no more from his 
Majesty ; so we beleive him perfectly well." 

115. Consultation. 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] having ordered Syud Sallabut Caun 

Behauder fSayyad Salabat Khan, Bahadur!, 

May 25th. Dilly. V; J rr ' J ' 

Atusham Caun [I'tisam Khanj 1 Duan Colsa 

[diicdn-i-khdlisah'], and Rey Eeyon \rae-rayanf Duan Tun [dlivan-i-tan~\ 

As Umpires to finish our buisness : Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad 

Salabat Khan] objected, That Eey Eeyon [Rae Eayan] had always 

perplex'd our Affairs so as nott to lett them goe forward, for which 

reason he desired, that said person might be left out off any future 

consultation. Wherefore the whole stress off our Affairs att present 

1 1'tisSm Kh5n was appointed Diwan-i-khalisah on the 7th JamSdl J, 1128, which is the 
28th or 29th April 1716 N. S. and the 17th or 18th April O.S. in succession to Taqarrab Kh5n 
deceased, who bad hell the office for two years in conjunction with that of Khunsamun. 
I'tisam Kh5n died at Jahangirnagar as Nail Governor of Bengal in Sha'ban or Bamaza'n 
1138, that is April, May, 1726. 

2 The Rue-i-Rayun was R5j5 Gujar Mai, a Saksenah Kayath by caste. He had been 
appointed Diwdn-i-Tan on the 10th Jamadl II, 1126,which is the 22nd or 23rd June 1714 . . 
He fell dead in open clarbar while reading a report to Muhammad Sh5h on the 29th EabI % 
1136, which is the 26th or 27th December 1723 N.S., aged nearly 80 years. 

110 DELHI, MAY, 1716. 

lyes on Atusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] and the Duanny [diwdni]* 
Agreed that Atusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] be presented to about 7000 
rupees, and that Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] carry the list, 
with 2 notes likewise for 6000 and 10,000 rupees to be used as he 
shall find that Omrah [iimara] inclined to bribery." 

116. Diary. 
" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] was with Autusham Caun 
[I'tisam Khan], who with Bokechund 1 told him, 

May 29th. ' / "' . , ' 

that our petition required mature consideration, 
and the books to be re-examined. The Piesent is nott given to the 
king as Seerhaud [Sarhad] pretended itt would be." 

117. Consultation. 

"Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] possitively affirms, that 

Autusham [I'tisam Khan] is nott to be bribed 2 : 

DlUy and, in the dispute, desires, that some other 

May 30th. . 

person may be sent, to endeavour finding out 
a way, which to him is nott feasible. Agreed thereto; and that 
Hamchund ponditt [Ram Chand pandit] be sent to Autusham Cauns 
[I'tisam Khan's] Servants, being priviledged to offer them to the 
amount of six or seven hundred rupees, in case their Master accepts the 
Present and Compleats our buisness. 

Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] having delivered our papers, into 
the hands off his peeshcar Bokechund [Bhog Chand], who has the 
Entire management off the Duanny [diwanl] buisness : Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] informs us, that he Expects 10000 rupees ; and desires a note 
mentioning itt's payment, on the finishing our buisness, In the Duanny 
[]. Agreed that a note be given." 

118. Diary. 

" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] carried the note to Bokechund 

[Bhog Chand]. He told Seerhaud [Sarhad], 

that he would take the money : butt refused the 

note, beleiving our words sufficient. He ordered two Copys off our 

petition to be brought, one plain, and one with the Account wrote from 

the Kings Books." 

i Bhog (or Bhuk or Phuk) Chand, a SrlbSstSb KSyath by caste, was peshkar, or head clerk, 
of the khalisah. He died on the 11th Zul-qa'dah, 1149, which is the 12th or 13th March 1737 
N.S., aged about 50 years. 

2 On the 26th Sarhad reported that I'tisgm KhSn was averse to bribery ; but on the 27th 
RSmchand, pandit, said he was to be bribed, but it must be with the utmost secrecy. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1716. Ill 

119. Consultation. 
" Autusham Caun [Ptisani Khan], the Duan Colsa [diwan-i- * 
Khalisah], in whose hands was our new petition 
Dllly having delivered itt to Bokechund [Bhog Chand"), 

to be re-examined from the kings books and 
records, We are very well Assured, that on a former occasion, we too 
much depended, on the diligence off Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad 
Salabat Khan], and Nutmull [Nath Mall] Caundoras | Khan Dauran's] 
Vakile [Wakil] ; Even to the overlooking the Duanny [diwam, 
Writers, who att that time wrote what they pleased on Each Phird 
\_fard] : According to which naturally flowed the Kings Assent 
or denyall. The seoond petition is now come upon the brink off the 
Error above-mentioned ; so in the same danger to be overthrown ; unless 
all possible means are used to prevent itt. Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad] has been Earnestly endeavouring to bring those Writers to his 
house, which they have possitively refused ; As for going himself to 
the Ketcherry [kackahri], he thinks itt beneath him ; and indeed we 
are off the same opinion. On this consideration ; we beleive our Under 
Vakile [vakil] ought to be sent into the Duanny [diwani], to take care 
off the writing on our petition ; but that he be instructed by Seerhaud 
[Sarhad], without any power to bribe, or indeed act the minutest thing 
on his own head. Agreed that Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 
take which Vakile [vakil] he pleases. 

Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] dissents from this Consultation 
Averring that iff any one Else is Employed in the Durbar buisness 
He will never stirr again in itt." 

120. Diary. 
"In the consultation for this instant, Seerhauds [Sarhad's] objection 
against the Country Vakiles [vakils'], was, that they were inclined to 
steal ; and that when they were once lett into Durbar buisness, they 
would instruct the Mutsuddys [mutasuddis], to plague us : by which 
they might reap advantage. In Answer to this itt may be properly 
asked why he makes use off the same sort off people ? Butt who are 
nott in the Honourable Companys Service ; Especially when a letter 
from the Honourable President &ca In Culcutta Dated August 9 th . 
1714 have directed that all Vakiles [vakils] be chose in Councill." 

121. Protest. 
Messrs. J. Surman and E. Stephemons Protest Against Seerhaud Israeli. 
" Where a Negotiation is so obstructed as to meett with more than 
ordinary delays, contrary to all Expectation, It's naturall for the 

112 DELHI, JUNE, 1716. 

Actors to reflect on the methods they have taken to Effect their buisness, 
and to find out iff possible the Errors they have been guilty off which 
after they have truely weigh'd, and have convinced themselves off 'Tis 
Certain all men must Allow that iff they committ the same mistakes 
over again is a double Folly and unanswerable. 

When our Negotiations first commenced we depended entirely on 
the power Syud Sallabutt Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] had with 
Caundora [Khan Dauran], and the agreement we had made with him, 
which made us neglect some off the latters servants, who have had a 
great hand in perplexing our Affairs ; purely because they were nott 
bribed, a3 they should have been. The persons meant are Rey-Reyon 
\_Rde Rdyan\ Tan Duan [Tan Diwdn] and Nutmull [Nath Mall] 
Vakile. The latter, att the delivery off our petition the first time, had 
orders from Caundora [Khan Dauran] (att their instigation) to give 
the.petition to the Duanny [dlwdni] to pass it's examination there from 
the books and records. Itt cannot be deny'd butt that these remarks 
must particularly influence Caundora [ Kh an Dauran] and the King 
to grant or nott grant what we desired. Iff we were the a convinoed 
off the truth off this ; Itt was to be sure att that time our duty, to 
take the necessary precautions, and as most off the officers in this 
Country are mercenary, and for money will doe any thing that is 
desired : To be sure they should nott have been neglected, butt well 
bribed, that they might lay a proper cement to our Foundation. Att 
that time itt is certain we were nott conscious off any Enemys in 
Caundoras [Khan Dauran's] house, and did beleive the influence he 
might have in the Duanny [dlwdni], might hinder the officers there from 
any partiality in their remarks. Yett John Surman being particularly 
convinced, that there is a great deal of difference in having a good 
commendum from the records, which would be much better, than a 
pall'd 1 account, some for, some against : Did advise Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] to take particular care off the Officers off the Duanny 
\diwdiil\ and att that time for a reason did Affirm, that this was the only 
time to Secure a good foundation ; which iff now lost would be found 
very hard to be retreived — Strenuously Affirming this Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] was desired to take the proper methods, which he 
neglecting we received the hurt before we knew off an Enemy. That is, 
our Petition returned with it's remarks upon itt, so far from truth most 
off them, that they seemed to be made by an Enemy : which, had proper 

1 Weakened, impaired, as in Shakespeare A ( and C. ii, 7, 78. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1716. 113 

means been used, must without doubt have been avoided ; and have 
hindred our Enemys from gaining weapons to fight us with, and this 
we Affirm is wholly owing to Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad]. 
There is no necessity to run thro' the course off our negotiations, 
being sufficiently remarked in this Consultation Book Butt bring itt 
to it's present state. 

After a great many putt offs Caundora [Khan Dauran] ordered his 
Vakilo [vakil] and Seerhaud [Sarhad] to goe to Autusham Caun 
[I'tisam Khan] the Duan Calsa [diiodn~i-Jchaluah], to desire his advice, 
■what ought to be allowed off our petition. Itt was with a general 
consent Agreed, we ought to secure him by any methods ; and a list off 
a handsome present was drawn out and delivered Seerhaud [Sarhad] : 
with instructions, that in case he found him mercenary to advance a 
sum off money more, off this our former consultation gives a particular 
Account, and Seerhaud [Sarhad] in that part followed his instructions ; 
Butt says, he found Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] free from tempta- 
tion : and gave our petition to his peeshcar, Rey Bokechund [Rae Bhog 
Chand], whom we also have Agreed to bribe as before. He has thrown 
the petition into the Duanny [diwani] for a Second Examination, and 
seems to bring our Affairs to the same Crisis as before in that office : 
with this Exception only, that we have satisfied Bokechund [Bhog 
Chand], and he has promised to stand our Friend. Tett as he will 
nott examine the books himself, and iff he favours, can butt only amend 
any thing done amiss, there being still a method to be used by taking 
care of the under-writers, whioh Seerhaud [Sarhad J cannot manage 
himself, because he will not submitt to goe to the office, neither is itt 
proper he should; being the buisness off an under- Yakile [vakil], who 
should Execute his orders; and to which intent we have had severall in 
our service from the beginning off our negotiation. For the above 
reasons Seerhaud [SarhadJ has been ordered to pick any one off them 
out, and make the proper use off him. He seeming unwilling to 
comply, and his disputing against itt with Such obstinacy (The main 
off which is that the Country Vakiles [vakils] are all Rogues and that 
where he has any thing to doe no one shall attend him or will he give 
him orders) and the apprehensions there are, that we may again feel 
the smart off this neglect, are willing to Clear our selves from the 
Consequence thereof!. 

The Underscribers doe protest against this unnecessary obstinaoy off 
Seerhaud [Sarhad], and doe pronounce him answerable for any thing, 
that may Attend his non-Complianoe ; and that this shall be a wittness 

114 DELHI, JUME, 1716. 

for us, and Against him upon the Examination ofi our Honourable 

A true Copy 

Hugh Barker Seo 1 ** 

122. DlART. 

Bamchund — Ponditt [Ram Chand pandit] reports from Autusham 
Cauns [I'tisam Khan's] Buxy \lakhshi] and Moonchy [munskl]. That 
their master is to he bribed; butt with the greatest privacy. They 
intimated that Seerhaud [Sarhad] offered the present too publickly, 
which might be the reason itt mett with the had reception." 

" Having sent a small petition by way off remembrance to Caun- 

dora [Khan Dauran] he returned Answer : That 

Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] , Autusham Caun 

[I'tisam Khan] and Bokechund [Bhog Chand] should meett att his 

house and finish the buisness. Seerhaud begins to confess Autusham 

Caun [I'tisam Khan] may be bribed/' 

" Bokechund [Bhog Chand] carassed (sic) Seerhaud [Sarhad] very 

much, telling him that he hoped shortly to bring 

things to that pass: That Autusham Caun 

[I'tisam Khan] shall nott only sign the Phirds \fards~] as we desire ; 

Butt that he will write on a piece off paper, to accompany our Petition 

to his majesty, by way off directory for the Royall Duskutt [dastkhat]." 

" Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] perused the Honourable Companys 

petition when Seerhaud [Sarhad] was with him. 

He liked all very well and said he would gett 

his majesty to sign the whole." 

"Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] told Seerhaud [Sarhad], that last 

night Caundora [Khan Dauran] had perused out 

petition, which he carryed to him, and that he 

with Bokechund [Bhog Chand] would now adjust the modell off the 

ensuing phirmaund [ farmdnV' 

123. Letter XVI 1 . 

To the Honotjbable Kobebt Hedges, Esq'. President and Governour of Fort. 

"William <&c» Councill in Bengali. 
Honourable Sir &c» 

" We wrote your Honour &c^ the 20 th Ult°- giving an Account of our affairs, 
since which We received your Honour &c: as - of April the 16 th which We find 

1 This tetter was read at a consultation at Fort St. George on Tuesday the eth October, 1716, and 
is to »>e round in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book lor 1715 to 1719, No. 87, Range 23& in the 
India OfBoa. 

DEtHI, JUNE, 1716. 115 

cheifly in answer to ours of February the 7 th with Notations made on the Petition 
and the Kings signing. 

In our last We advised your Honour &c a of our keeping a good correspondence 
with the Honourable Go vernour and Councill of Bombay, We have not lately had any 
Letters from thence or had occasion of writing thither, As for the Honourable 
President and Councill of 1'ort S*- George, We have not received a line from them 
since our arrivall at Dilly, and 'tis long since We have wrote them, which was 
Cheifly deferred by Reason of the backwardness of our last Petition, and dispairing 
of any answer from thence in due time, there was no absolute necessity for it, So 
soon as our Petition is Signed, we shall immediately advise them that their affairs 
may be put into such a posture as they themselves desire. 

We observe what your Honour &c» write concerning the omission of the first 
Article in the Petition, 'tis certain We owe that to those people, in whose hands 
the Phirds [fards\ were, being [not] from any omission of ours. 

We likewise observe what notations Your Honour &c» make concerning the 
ground round Calcutta. We are endeavouring to perswade the Mutsuddys 
[mutasaddis] that the Kings signing should be mentiond in the Phirmaund 
[ farman] which they seem to object against as not fit till the ground was one 
own, where as at present We had not bought it. 

Concerning Patna house which is granted to live in, Your Honour writes that 
its not worth acceptance unless as a free gift, The Mudsudys [mutasaddls] stickle 
so much at that which We desire for Surat that We did forgoe that article for fear 
of hindering that which was off much greater consequence. Besides our advises 
from Bombay and common Eeport have led us into a mistake In insisting that 
the Dutch had a house given them within and liberty for ground without the City 
of Surat from the King, for upon Examination of their Phirmaund [ farman}, 
there is not a word mentioned of it, and only a Husbulhoocum [haslu-l-hukm] 
under the Consomtnas [khansaman's] Seal, to the Phousdar [faufddr] or 
Surat, to let them have such a ones house, to live in, as likewise another in Patna 
they have likewise a garden without the City, as well as the French but is a 
permission from the Phousdar [faujdar], not a grant from the King So that if we 
obtain a grant for a house and garden without Surat it will be more than was 
ever yet given to any European nation. 

We very well Remark what your Honour &c* write concerning Madrass Rupees 
and the fineness thereof, there will be an absolute necessity to have them Refined 
to make them pass the treasury. It is a thing of that consequence that Autusham 
Caun [I'tisam Khan] informs us that Jaffar Caun [Ja'far Khan] had, in a 
particular manner mentioned it to him among other things, and that our Coining at 
Madrass was very prejudicial! to the King, and his Customs which has made 
Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] object more against our having Seperate Mints, 
than any thing Else in the whole Petition, So that this granted will very well 
compensate the Refining Madrass Rupees : and we hope the Gentlemen there will 
be of that opinion 1 . 

If it please God that We finish the payment of a yearly fishcash [peshkash] 
in Surat According to our desire, We shall pursuant to your Honour &c»s 
orders, write our opinion concerning the private trade both to Madrass and 

i See Vol. II, Ft, I. pp. liii* liv. 

116 DELHI, JUKE, 1716. 

Bombay, of which if particular notice is not taken, no private trader will ever Reap 
the Benefit of the Honourable Companys Phirmaund [farman], at Surat. 
We formerly advised your Honour &c a of the great amount of Customs at that 
place which so Startled us, that lately upon delivery of our Second Petition, 
We added that of Surrat to it, and did perswade the Examiners of the books to 
under write, that the books for the 20th year 1 were not to be found, with this veiw 
that the making of that pishcash may be rendered the more easy. 

We here inclose a particular Account of mony &c a that was given as a 
supply to M w . Woodvill but having no Receipt from her it comes attested by us 
all, which We hope will be sufficient to Regain the debt. 

Having now answered Your Honour &c a . in full We come naturally to an 
Account of our Present affairs, and what prospect We have for the future. 

Caundora [Khan Dauran] finding himself much pressed on all sides to make 
an end of our business, at last ordered, that Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan], 
Syad Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat r Khan], & -Rey Reyon [Rae Rayan] Should 
Set down, & make an end, Sallabutt Cawn [Salabat Khan] finding Key Reyon 
[Rae Rayan] might again have an opportunity to Spoil it, told the Nabob he was 
a very unfit person to meddle in this affair, having acted from the begining with a 
great deal of enmity and Spleen, and that his designs were to Ruin it, On which 
the .Nabob ordered him to be left out, and that the papers should be delivered to 
Autusham Caun [Ptisam Khan] Bokechund [Bhog Chand], the Calsa Mutsuddys, 2 
We knowing that our papers at length must go there, caused us the more easily 
to consent to it, making the necessary preparations accordingly, Via* drawing 
up a list of a handsome Present for Autusham Cawn [I'tisam Khan] with 
Resolutions to bribe him further, if to be prevailed on no other way, as also his 
Councellors, and for Bokechund [Bhog Chand] who is the head of the Ketcherry 
[kachahri] We found it necessary to promise a good Summ accordingly a note 
was carried for Rupees ten thousand on the finishing our business, and by his 
advice, to the examiners of the books &a\ writers to about 1200 Rupees This 
management has put a very good gloss on our demands, we found our Petition 
Returned from the examination of the Kings books with a quite different Air, 
find a seeming consent to all our demands, Autusham Caun [I'tisau Khan] (altho* 
he has not accepted the Present) he has been very favourable in the disputes 
which He had with Seeraad [Sarhad] and all the Calsa Mutsuddys [Malisah 
mutaxaddls] on the perusall of our Petition seeming pretty satisfied with the 
Gross of it, accordingly three nights ago he carried it to Caundora [Kh an Dauran] 
who perused it all over with it's Remarks and seemed very satisfied, Autusham 
Caun [I'tisam Khan] informed him of what We insisted on (and as we suppose) 
what was proper and what was not, the Nabob returned the Petition and told 
him that as Duan Colsa \_dlwa n-i-khalisah'], he knew best what was to be done : 
But that he would do well, to take Bokechund [Bhog Chand] and make an end 
of the business. There has been no Meeting yet so cannot advise Your Honour 

i Probably the 20th year of 'Alamgir, circa 1678, 1679 A.D. 

3 I'tisSm Kh5n and Bhog Chand are here styled the khalisah mutasaddls i.e., the secretaries 
or officer* of the Treasury. Mr. Irvine tells me that mulafaddi is quite applicable to a high 
official, and does not necessarily moan a clerk or subordinate. It is at times used for governors 
and diicaia. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1716. 117 

&c& what method they intend to take, but being satisfied that We hare laid a 
good foundation hope for the best. 

We have lately made Sale of part of the /-Siccas ... 10958 1 9<v 

Merchauts goods under our charge a particular < Allumgeer 11064 7 > 
Account 1 of which comes herewith Amounting to *• Current ... 11396 7 9* 
according to which your Honour &c a . will please to pay them, We beleive the 
owners took particular care to get a Eeasonable profit by adding it on the Invoice 
or else Certainly ther<r was never such Rubbish Sold in Bengali at such prizes, as 
plainly appeared in opening the bales for Sale, and comparing them with other 
goods. We have done our best for their advantage, and with which they ought to 
be contented. 

Thanks be to God the apprehensions We had concerning his Majestys indis- 
position are all over and He is (for ought we know) in a perfect state of 

Enclosed comes Account Cash, Copy of Consultations and Charges General 
for April. There has for this two or three months been so little expence in the 
Warehouse that We have omitted sending that Account." 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your Most Obedient Humble Servants. 

Dilly John Scbman 

June y e 24th Edwabd Stefhensok. 

Coja Seebaad assents* 
Hugh Baekee, Sec r y. 

124. Diary. 

" Seerhaud [Sarhad] says this day was finished all the Bengal 

June 25th. buisness according to our wish. 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] says, that whatever passes att these consulta- 
tions will goe into a Phirmaund [farmdn] without going first to his 
Majesty, All very uncommon ! and can only be by the Kings immediate 

Juno 29th. " MX Surman &c a visitted his Majesty. 

We hear that the grand Vizier has perused our Phirds \_fards], 
and that with a favourable aspect." 

125. Consultation. 

" The second petition having by the order off Caundora [Khan, 
Diiiy. Dauran] passed the Examination off the Books, 

Itt will be proper to insert itt, to show how the 
Mutsuddys [mutasaddis"\ upon occasion become traotable. 

1 Compare the calculation in Letter XIV, p. 106. The sum given in 'dlamgiri money 
seams to be eleven pies short. 


DELHI, JUNE, 1716. 

126. The second petition examined. 

1 st The Bengali Phirmaund [ far- 
ma n]. 

2 nd The Gulcutta Towns. They 
now make publick, that they have 
taken an account off the towns 
from the Conoingoe [qdnungo]. 
In the buisness off Culcutta 
&ca 3 Towns, They first obtained 
them to live in under the Nishaun 
[niihaii] off Azzimuth Sha 
['Azlmush-Shan], and after that 
gott a bill off sale from the 
Jemidars \zamiridars]. They 
now hope that they may have a 
phirmaund [_farman'\ after the 
Same Method. 
38 Towns ... 8121. 8. 3. 

3 rd The SurM Rouse 

Itt was Customary for the English att 
Hugly in Bengali to pay 3000 Bupees 
as a yearly peeshcash [peshkasK], In 
the 30* h Year off Aurungzebe 1 Accord- 
ing to the writing off Kuffoyt Caun 2 
the Duan [diwdn^\, there was 3§ p r ct. 
Settled as In Suratt but nott Executed. 
In the 34 ,h Year 3 itt was determined 
to take the Peeshcash ipethkash]. 

In the Subaships off Behar and Orixa 
[Orissa] they pay no Custom. 

An account off those towns is nott in the 
Books, neither did the English rent 
them as settled from Court. According 
to the Perwanna off Izzut-Caun ['Izzat 
Khan], Duan Suba [dlwan-i-subah'] off 
Bengali, and the Nishaun [nishan~] off 
Azzimuth Sha ['Azimu-sh-shan], in the 
42 nd Year of Aurungzebe 4 the English 
took them — from whence we under- 
stand, That Culcutta &C 1 three towns' 
In the pergunna off Ameerabad 
[Amlrabad] &c x In the Subaship off 
Bengali were bought from Manourdutt 
[Manohar Datta] and other Jemidars, 
[zamindars~\ that there was a bill off 
sale, and then the i)u<m Suba {dhcan-i- 
subah] settled the renting off them. 
3 Towns ... ... 1195. 6.— 

Amongst what is Customary att Suratt, 
This is inserted. That the English 
from their first arrivall from Europe 
and settling in Suratt, rented a house 
with the Owners consent, and in which 
they still continue. Att present this is 

1 The 30th year of Aurangzeb lasted from 1 Ramazan 1097H., corresponding to the 22nd 
July N. S. and the 11th July 0. S. 1686 A. D., to the 29th Sha'bSn 1098. Thus it roughly 
corresponded to the last half of 1686 A. D. and the first half of 1687 A.D. 

2 That is KifSyat Khan, who was appointed Dlwan-i-Tan in 10S0H., corresponding to 
A.D. 31 May 1669— 19 May 1670 N. S. He died, Diicun-i-Khalisdh in 1109H, corresponding 
to A.D. 19 July 1697-8 July 1698, N.S. 

3 The 34th year of Aurangzeb lasted from 1 RamazSn 1101H., corresponding to the 8th 
June N. S. and the 28th May O. S. 1690 A.D., to the 29 <* Sha'b&n 1102H. Thus it roughly 
corresponded to the last half of 1690 and the first half of 1691 A.D. 

♦ The 42nd year of Aurangzeb lasted from the 1 Ramazan 1109H. to the 29'^ ShaTjIn 
1110H. or from the 13th March 1698 A.D. to the 2nd March 1699 N.S. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1716. 


The Garden 

4 th Divy Island 

5th Vizagapatam 

6 th Bombay Mini 

7 th Theives and Boilers 

the Method. In the interregnum 1 the 
house off the deceased Etbar Caun 
[I'tibar Khan] was given to the Dutch 
to live in according to their petition. 

A Garden without the City towards 
Burriah Grate, in a place called Tungee 
was settled for laying up the English 
Ships Stores. They petition that in 
building the Citywall itt was lost, and 
desire other ground toward Etwah in 
the Roome. 

The island off Divy [Divl] is in the Sea 
near Metchlapatara [Machlipatnam], 
and in the possession of Obiram [Abi 
Bam] Poligar [Palligar] 2 a Eebell ? 
The account of this Island is nott in 
the Boohs. 

Att the Port off Vizagapatam, 6 Towns 
in the Circle of Sita Cole, [Sikakul] 3 
whose Yearly rent was 4564*7. under a 
former Captain, are inserted among the 
Papers off Maddy Caun [Mahdi Khna], 
the Sita-Cole [Sikakul] Anieen [amln] 
in the 1116 Year Fuslee. The towns 
Alipoor, Dundipoor, Currahs, and 
Currah are now wanted by the Com- 
pany in the roome of those Abovemen- 
tioned. The rent att present does nott 
amount to the writing off that Officer, 
these will pay According to the register 
off the Subaship : and hope itt may be 
inserted in the Phirmaund \_farman\ 
—Whatever is ordered. 
The Island is belonging to the English 
and Siecas passing, will be to the Kings 

That the Phowsdar [faujdar] be ordered. 
Whenever the English are Robbed or 
plundered ; that finding the theif, the 
goods be returned, and he (the theif) 
punished as an Offender, and att 

1 " The interregnum " is evidently intended for the period between the death of Bahadur 
Shah and the accession of Farrukhsiyar. They thus ignored the reign of Jahandar Shah, which 
they counted as ayyam-i-jahalat, days of ignorance. The Dutch Embassay under Ketteler 
obtained its jarman from Jahandar Shah. 

2 Palligar t the name in the Madras Presidency for local chiefs or big zamindars. 
8 This is corrupted into Chikacole just as Sutanut! is corrupted into Chutanutte* 

120 DELHI, JULY, 1716. 

•what time the English. Catch any 
theiTCS on their own ground, and 
produce them, that they, according to 
law, be punished as abovementioned. 
8 th Tie Suratt Customs ... In the time of Sha Jehaun [Shah Jahan, 

1627-1658] 2\ p T c>- was Settled, and In 
the time off Aurungzebe [1658-17(7] 
att Suratt, Cambaya and Amadabad 
[Ahmadabad] 3J, The account off the 
20th Year [1678-9], concerning the 
English Customs, is nott o to be found. 
In the 1st Year [1707-8] off Sha=Allum 
[Shah ' Alam], Upon the writing" off 
Sha-Amud [Shah Ahmad] an old 
Mutsuddy [mutasaddi] of that Port, 
The Dutch Customs were settled, att 
2\ p r c t which Continues 

Deduct 1 

In Hugly 3000 E* is paid as 
a Peescash [jpeshkasli'] " 

127. Diary. 

" Emenut Eey [Amanat Rae] has returned our Phirds [fards] to 

Bokechund [Bhog Chand]. Most off the things 

are signed to be Entered in our Phirmaund 

[/amau] and a few for which we are to have Husbul Hoocums [hasbu- 

l-huhns]. This Seerhaud [Sarhad] tells us." 

"Seerhaud [Sarhad] being att Autusham Cauns [I'tisSm Khan's] 
worked so far upon him, that he promised first 

July 8th. ■ 

to ask Caundora [Khan DauranJ, and then 
petition the King about the Suratt peeshcash [pethka&h~\. Se6rhaud 
[Sarhad] beleives it will be about 10000 rupees." 

128. Consultation. 

"Mozuffur Caun [Muzaffar Khan], Caundoras [Khan Dauran's] 

Brother 1 being to be married this Evening, and 

July »tii. we being informed, that itt is Customary for All 

the Omrahs [umara] to make presents on this 

1 KhwSjah Mustaqim, entitled Mnzaffar Kh5n Bahadur. He was killed at Karnal 
in the battle with Nadir Sh5h on the 15th Zu-1-qa'dah. 1151, which is the 23rd Febru- 
ary 1739 N.S. 

DELHI, JULY, 1716. 121 

Occasion of fine Suratt Goods &ca Agreed that a present be bought to 
About 1500 Eupees value, being one Suite for men, and one for 

129. Diary. 

" Our phirds [fards'j brought from the Ketcherry [kachahri] by Our 
. , ''.' Yakile Mittersein [vakil Mitr Sen~l, he having 

July 14th. ° 

accidentally mett with them. Butt because this is 
off great moment I shall refer itt to a Consultation to be held to morrow 

130. Consultation. 1 

" We have till now had nothing butt pleasing accounts brought us 
off the going on off our buisness, and for these 
juf^iSth. ^° da y s Elapsed nothing came out off Seerhauds 

[Sarhad] mouth, butt that all was done. Yester- 
day in the Evening we were Surprizingly convinced to the Contrary, 
by a Copy off the phirds [fards], signed by Autusham Caun [I'tisam 
Khan], brought out off the Publick Ketcherry \kachahri~] ; without any 
intimation beforehand from Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] ; and 
being in a quite different dialect from what was Expected, Itt was Sup- 
posed he might nott have received news of itt. For which reason the 
heads were immediately sent to him, which to our greater Surprize he 
immediately returned with a Copy of the whole Phirds [fards] signed, 
to us, Affirming that he had them by him some three or four days, Butt 
being himself under the greatest Concern, and having hopes to gett 
all amended before itt should come to our knowledge, was nott 
willing to lott us partake off the Secrett. This is an unanswerable 
breach off trust in him, which he must answer to Our Honourable 
Employers. Seerhaud [Sarhad] being much out off order, he cannot 
come hither, Wherefore Agreed That H. Barker goe to him, and 
make particular Enquiry how this great misfortune and disappoint- 
ment came about, and desire that for the present he would nott in 
his disputes insist too much on any off the Articles, that were nott 
off the highest Consequence, butt rather give them Up, than farther 
Irritate the Mutsuddys [mutasaddis]. His consent is likewise^to 
be desired to the sale off all the Companys Broad Cloth." 

1 Khwajah Sarhad was absent from this Consultation being "'sickatt Cojah Huc-nuzzers 


DELHI, JULY, 1716. 

131. The United Petition. 

"The 1* and 2* Petition united. 
1 st The Bengali Customs. 

2. The Bombay Bupees. 

8. Theives About Culcutta &c& 

4. Suratt House & Garden. 

6. The Vizagapatam Towns. 

6. Divy Island. 

7. The Culoutta new Towns. 

8. The Suratt Peeshcash. 

9. Customs off Fort S f . George. 

10. The Phirmaush [farmaish']. 

11. The Plundering off Goods. 

12. Fort S f . Davids and those 


13. The sending Gomastoes [gtt- 

mashtahs] to y e arrungs 
[aurangs] with y e Gov 19 . 
Dustick [dastaJc]. 

14. Showing y e Originall Phir- 

maunds [farmans] in y e Dubar. 

15. To have 40 Beagues [bigahs] 

off Ground for a Settlement. 

16. The Patna House. 

17. The Madrass Mint. 

18. The Hugly Durbar. 

Autusham Caun [I'tisSm Khan] ye 
Duan-Colsas \diwan-i-khalisaK] Signing. 

According to y e kings order give a 
Husbul Hoocum [hasbu-Uhukm] under y e 
seal off Cutbulmoolk [Qutbu-1-mulk]. 

Make an Arze. 

Ordered write to y e Phowsdar [fauj- 

According to y e Kings order, write 
to y* Phowsdar [faujdar]. 

According to y e Kings order* write to 
y e Duan Subah [diwan-i subah] off that 

According to y e Kings order write. 

According to y e Kings order, write to 
y* Duan Suba [diwan-i-subah]. 

The account off the 20th Year nott 
being to be found, write to fiydera-Cooly 
Caun [Haidar Qui! Khan, the faujdar of 
Surat] to send itt. 

According to their former Sunnod 
[sanad] give them a new one. 

According to y e Kings order write. 

According to y e Kings order write an 

Write to y e Phowsdar [faujdar] there 
to Assist them on all lawfull & just 
According to y e Kings order, write. 

According to y e Kings order, Write. 

Write to the Duans [diwans] that they 
permitt them to hire houses or Ground 
pursuant to the Custom off other places. 

According to y e Kings order, write to 
y* Duan [dlwan]. 

According to y e Kings order, write to 
y e Duan Suba [ditcan-i-?ubaA]. 

Write to y e Duan Suba [dlwan^i- 
subah] that he give orders to J* Droga 
[daroghah] off Hugly, to take care that 
these people be Favoured in any thing 
that is nott against the Kings interest. 

DELHI, JULY, 171 6. 123 

1 9. Ship-Wracks. "Write to y e Pkowsdars [faujdars] and 

Duans [dlwans] that the Kings orders 
be complyed with. 

20. Muxodavad [ Maqsudabad] According to y e Kings order write to 

Mint. y e Duan Suba \diwdn-i-subah~] that he 

settle itt for y e Kings interest. 

21. The Companys Debtors. According to the Kings order write. 
22. M adrass 5 Towns. According to y e Kings order settle itt 

as in y e time off Allumgecr [' Jlamgir]." 

132. Interview with sarhad. 

" 0. Seerhauds [Sarhad's] Answers to some questions Asked him by 
H. Barker, who was sent to him pursuant to a Consultation y Q 15 th 

Quest. — Why he concealed this last progress off the phirds [fards] 
from Mess rs . Surman and Stephenson ? 

Ans. — Purely that they might nott become Malanoholly. 

Quest. — What was to be done in the present Juncture off Affairs? 

Am. — Bokechund [Bhog Chand] has promised his Assistance to 
make Autusham Oaun [I'tisam Khan] change y° word Husbul Hoocum 
[hasbu-l-hukm] into that off a Phirmaund \_farmdn\ and lastly that we 
should have 2 Phirmaunds \farman\ 1 Grounded on Azzimuth Shas 
['Azmm-sh-shan's] Nishaun [nhh&n], and 1 on y e King off Golcondas 
Phirmaund [farmtn~\. 

Note. —Upon my particularly asking y e method to be pursued, he returned no Answer to 
ye purpose. 

Quest. — What was to be done in respeot to Suratt? Seeing Mess rs ' 
Surman & Stephenson are off Opinion, That iff a peescash [peshkasJi], 
nor 2 per Cent (calculated on y e Cheifs Invoice) can be obtained, That 
then all that respects that quarter be entirely relinquished. 

Ans. — I am off the same opinion. 

Quest. — On Consideration that y e Great quantity off the Companys 
Broad Cloth may be some hinderanoe to us When we prepare for 
a Journey, Either on y e finishing y e buisness or a determinate 
Answer ; doe you consent to y e speedy sale off itt ? 

Ans. — I doe. 

Note. — This was with some reluctancy, he saying a great deal would be Expended Among 
ye Mutsuddys [mutofaddis] instead off Money. 

Quest. — Shall we acquaint Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] with our 
great disaster ? 

124 DELHI, JULY, 1716. 

Am. — Lett itt be defirred till I have had A Conference with 
Autusham Oaun [Ptisam Khan] and Bokechund [Bhog Chand], when 
we may Act as shall then seem proper." 

133. Diary. 
" Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] and Mullookchund [Mallik 
Chand] having drawn up a paper importing that 
we were Surprized to See our Expected Phirmands 
\_farmani\ turned into Husbull Hoocums \Jiasbu-l-hHkmf\, That the 
delay in writing to Suratt would ruine us, and in short nothing was 
done as we desired, or had been promised, butt withall to beg Autusham 
Caun [Ptisam Khan] (to whom itt was directed) to regulate the Phirds, 
\_fards\ and that Mullookchund [Mallik Chand] was ready to answer 
any objections, during Seerhauds [Sarhad's] Absence, who was much 
indisposed. This Mullookchund [Mallik Chand] Carried with him to 
Autusham Cauns [Ptisam Khan's], who in a dispute told him we Could 
nott have the Phirmaunds \_farmans] we proposed. Mullookchund 
[Mallik Chand] then said that any thing Else would be off no Service to 
us. Bokechund [Bhog Chand] att this meeting seemed Against us." 
" M r - Surman told Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] how we had been 
„ , ' , used, As Also blew itt Among his Servants that 

July 23rd. p ° 

Since we could nott Obtain what we came for, we 
were going away. When this indirectly reaches Sallabut Cauns 
[Salabat Khan's] Ears, Itt may have some good Effect, Seeing itt will 
bring him under some Concern for his 35,000 rupees. Itt is to be Noted 
that Nobody Assists us butt for their own Ends. Great Rain for Severall 

" Sucb prodigious rain that about 2300 Souls 

July 24th. r & 

have been destroyed by the fall off houses." 
"Seerhaud [Sarhad] went to the Duan [diwdn~] iff possible to meett 
Caundora [Khan Dauran] and Autusham Caun 

July 26th. t u J 

[Ptisam Khan] together, itt happened According* 
butt the former made signs to Seerhaud [Sarhad] nott to speak. To 
supply this disappointment Seerhaud [Sarhad] went to Caundoras 
[Khan Dauran's] house, where altho he had time three or four times 
to repeat our misfortunes by the Duan-Colsas [diwan-i-khalteah's] 
behaviour, Yett the Nabob did nott answer so much as one Syllable. 

Bokechund [Bhog Chand] says nothing butt a messenger from 
Caundora [Khan Dauran] can help us, so we beleive that what 
Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan's] did was by the Great-Mans 

delhi, july and august, 1716. 125 

134. Consultation . 

" We have for some time been informed that there was Such a 

person as Eejkirperam [Kae Kirpa Bam], who 

had a very great influence on Caundora 

("Khan Dauran]. This man Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 

recommends as the last person to he made use off in that house. 

He says he had private intimations that he offered to finish 

our buisness in a small time. Agreed that Seerhaud [Sarhad] goe 

to him and try what is to be accomplished by his means." 

135. Diary. 

11 Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] hearing (we suppose) that we were 

going away, lett Mr. Surman know that he was 

nott in Fault, Laying itt on Cojah Seerhaud 

[Khawajah Sarhad], butt in this Seerhaud [Sarhad] must be justified, 

and the Nabob condemned." 

"Caundora [Khan Dauran] this day accosted Sallabut Caun 
[Salabat Khan], and asked why the Embassadour 
was disgusted, To which he replyed, that we 
being flung from door to door till our buisness was spoiled, were 
resolved to depart hence; Caundora [Khan Dauran] said be should 
make much off us, and that The King had spoke to him to hasten our 
dispatch — and att last upon the insinuations oft' Sallabut Caun 
[Salabat Khan], He Ordered the Phirds ifards] to be brought when 
Only they two would make An End off them— att the same time 
sending some fruitt to Mr. Surman. 

Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] acknowledges that the New 
Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] contributed to bring things to so Favourable an 
Aspect, and the best is, he does nott Suspect we hold a private 
correspondance with him.*' 

136. Letter XTO. 1 
To the Honbie Robert Hed3ES Esq 1 " 

President and G-overnour of 

Fort William &c* Councill in Bengali. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

" Our last to your Honour &c a . was dated June the 24th, since which on the 
17th July We have received Your Honour &cas f the 23rd and 29th May to 
which We shall Keply. 

1 This letter was read at the same consultation as Letter XVI. 

126 DELHI, AUGUST, 1716. 

We observe in the former part of your Honour &c a .s first letter it is Supposed 
that We had flown to the Patronage of the Grand Vizeir, in our former Letters, We 
have given your Honour &c* a very particular Account why we did net follow 
that Method. We still have great Reason to be satisfyed in our Conduct on this 
occasion, and do beleive it must be used only as our last Stake by no means 
applying to any other person so long as We have the least glimpse of hopes to 
effect our business by the hands of Caundora [Khan Dauran]. It is certain your 
Honour &c* have a very true notion of that Nobleman and is the same that the 
whole Court here have of him. There's no one follows and makes addresses to him 
out of love, but fear, and he serves us only as he uses the Eest of the world, with 
all these endowments He carries an arbitrary Command over all the Officers at 
Court, neither is there one in it (the Vizier excepted) that dares do any thing 
without first his knowledge and consent, if they Should, the presumption would be 
Repaid with the imediate loss of their posts and the Viziers cheif Mutsuddys \muta- 
saddW] (Viz* Duan Colsa and Tunke Duan) 1 are entirely under his command, so 
that the poor Vizier has but the Title with very little of the Authority ; However 
having a very great mistrust that We may one day be obliged to go to the Vizier 
to try the Extent of his power in case Caundora [Khan Dauran] do's nothing for 
us : We have from our very arrival taken very Particular care not in the least to 
disoblige him, but on the contrary He is acquainted and (We beleive) satisfyed of 
our Respects towards him, and as He is not a little noted for being avaritious, We 
took care whenever we went to him, Never to go empty handed, but with some 
little rarity or other, endeavoured to oblige him, which has been always answered 
with greater Candour and Civility than We could really expect, Our last Letters 
carried down a very pleasing Account of our affairs, which continued for some 
time, till at last all our joy came to nothing, and from the greatest hopes brought 
to the very brink of dispair of doing any thing, to be breif Attesham Cawn the 
Duan Colsa [I'tisam Khan, the dhcan-i-khalisah] signed our Petition as 
follows. — 

1. Concerning the Bengali Cus. Signed according to the Kings orders, 

toms. give Husbulhockum [hasbu-l-hukm] 

under the Seal of Cootbulmooluck 

2. The Bombay Rupees. Signed, make an Arrezee ['arzij. 

3. The Theives about Calcutta. Ditto, ordered Write to the Phous- 

dars \_faujdars], 

4. Surat house and Factory. Ditto, according to the Kings order 

Write to the Phousdar [faujdar]. 

5. The Vizagapatam Towns of Ditto, according to the Kings order 

that place. Write to the Duan Suba [diwan-i- 


6. Divy Island. Ditto, according to the Kings order 


i That is, " the Vizier's chief muia^addls viz. the dvmn-i-khalisah and the tan-ka-ducan." 
The tan-ka-dhvan was the second dlican who held charge of the jaglr or assigned revenue 



7. The Calicutta new Towns. 

8. TheSurrat Pieaeaah \_feshkath'\. 

9. The Customs of Fort S f - 

10. The Phirmaush [farmaish]. 

11. The Plundering of goods. 

12. Fort S f - David and those 


13. The sending Gomastahs [gum. 

ashtdhs] to the Aurangs 
[aurangs] with the Gover- 
nonrs Duslick [dastak~\. 

14. Shewing the Original Pbir- 

maund [farmdns] in the 

15. To hare 40 Begaes [higahs] of 

Ground for a Settlement. 

16. The Patna House ... 

17. The Madrass Mint 

18. The Hughley Durbar 

19. Ship "Wrecks 

Signed according to the Kings orders 

Write to the Duan Suba [diwSn-i' 

Ditto, The Account of the 20 th year not 

being to be found, Write to Hyder 

Cooly Cawn 1 to send it. 
Ditto, according to their former Sunods 

give them a new one. 
Ditto, according to the Kings orders 

Ditto, according to the Kings, orders, 

Write an order. 
Signed, Write to the-Phousdarr [faujdar] 

there to assist them on all occasions in 

any thing that is right. 
Signed, according tp the Kings order 


Signed, according to the Kings orders 

Signed, Write to the Duans [diwdns] that 
they permit them to hire houses ox 
ground pursuant to the Custom of 
other places. 

Signed. According to the Kings orders, 
write to the Duan [diwdn]. 

Ditto, According to the Kings orders, 
Write to the Duan Suba [diwan-i. 
Ditto, Write to the Duan Suba 
[diwan-i-subah] that He give order to 
the Droga [ddrog^jh] of HugLly to 
take care that nothing be dons contrary 
to the Kings Interest, and that these 
people be favoured, and do accord- 

Signed, Write to the Phousdars 
[faujddrs] and Duans [diwdns], that 
the Kings orders be oomply'd with. 

1 Aqa Muhammad Riza, IsfarSinI, entitled Mu'izzu-d-daulah Haidar Qull Khan, Bahadur, 
rose to he Mir Atash and was for a time Nazim of Gujarat. On the 3rd Mubarram 1128, which 
is the 28th or 29th December, 1715, N. S. and the 17th or 18th December, 0. S., he was made 
Mutasaddl of Bandar Surat and Faujt'.&r of Sorath in the Subah of Ahmadabad Gujarat. In 
Sha'ban, 1138, which corresponds to April 1726 N. S., a ihas hut in which he was sleeping 
caught fire and he was burnt to death. 

128 DELHI, AUGUST, 1716. 

20. Muxadavad [Maqsudabad] Mint Signed, According to the Kings orders, 

Write to the Duan Suba [diwan-i- 
subah~] to settle it, for the Kings 

21. The Company's Debtors ... Signed, According to the Zings order 


22. Madrass 6 Towns ... ... Ditto, According to the Kings orders, 

Settle it as in the time of 
Allumgeer ['Alamgir]. 

Your Honour <tc* will conceive how Strangely We were Startled at this news, 
when We had such daily advices from Seerhaud [Sarhad] that all was done, nay to 
the very last, but what was worse than all, We received the papers out of the 
Ketcherry [kachahr'i] from other hands, which He owned afterwards was 
known to him 3 or 4 days before ; The only Reason He gave for this unaccount- 
able concealment was, that since Attesham Cawn [I'tisam Khan] had so deceived 
him, He was resolved not to be communicative, till he had tryed all possible 
means to retrieve it, and by that means hinder the great concern and Chagrin that 
must necessarily seize us on such disappointments ; We are unacquainted with 
what answer he can give himself, or our Honourable Masters, for such an apparent 
breach of trust, In fine, after this was publickly known Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
frequently went to Attesham Cawn [I'tisam Khan] who he now owns, told him 
that if We had a Phirmaund \_farman~] already, We Should have another 
according to it. 

We are very conscious the Phirmaund [farmon"] We have is of very little 
consequence and hardly worth being accepted; to Receive Husbulhookums 
[hashu Z-huknu] would be a President that was never made yet, and would have 
a very bad influence upon futurity. Complaints were made to Cawndora 
[Khan DaurSn] with as little Success as formerly, and likewise to Syud Sallabut 
Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] from whom We expected little assistance : with 
all We were so bold to threaten We would leave the place, But since We were in 
hopes to Receive an answer from Your Honour &c* in so small a time, We esteemed 
it most proper, not to execute so bold an Action (Whereon depended the Welfare of 
all our Honourable Masters Settlements in India) till We had Received very 
Particular instructions from Your Honour &c. We do beleive such an attempt 
might have good success, since they are sufficiently apprehensive, what damages 
We are able to do them at Sea, and We are assured it is only the fear of that which 
will ever bring them to a complyance, without any notice of the great Presents, 
that have been made them, and the long time We have been attending at Court. 
We desire your Honour &c» will please to weigh every Step, We have made from 
the beginning of this Negotiation ; We have upon all occasions used the Utmost 
precaution, and what We hope has been approved of but at present We are at a 
Stand, the many and suddain revolutions in our affairs from topsie turvy, give 
us warning to have very little dependance on the fair promises of these great men, 
So desire Your Honour &C*? very particular Instructions in your first on all that 
We have Wrote about. 

DELHI, AUGUST, 1716. 129 

Not knowing what Streights We may be put under or how soon the King may- 
leave the City, We beleive for our Honourable Masters Interest, that the les 
goods are left in their Godowns the better, for We find the mutsnddys [muta 
saddis] are much better pleased with Ready money than Braad cloth, since the 
vast quantity that has been disposed of in this City has made a meer drug of it 
For which Reason We have agreed and ordered Mr. Stephenson to dispose of most 
of the Honourable Companys Broad cloth, by the first oppertunity at the market 
price, that We may be lisjht and Ready on all occasions. 

We have for sometime been told, that there was such a person as Bay 
Kirperam [Bae Kirpa Bam] in Caundora's [Khan Dauran's] house, upon whose 
words he laid a very great Stress having oftener access to his private Consulta- 
tions than any One else whatsoever, Our affairs at that time were so involved with 
Atteshim Cawn [I'tisam Khan] <ftc a . that We had not time to try him till now 
which happened on the following occasion ; In our la*t Letter to the President 
&c» at Bombay , We intimated t hat as they had orders from England to with- 
draw the Surat Factory, We did beleive had the Cheif of Surat insisted more 
upon his departure, when his Stay was desired by Hyder Cooli Cawn [Haidar 
Quli Khan] he would rather than let them leave the City have wrote to Court 
about it : '1 he answer to our Letter we here inclose by which your Honour &c» 
will see, they did give orders to the Cheif of Surat, to reiterate their remon- 
strances to Hyder Cooli Cawn [Haidar Quli Khan], which had the desired 
effect, For (as We are informed) Hyder Cooli Cawn [Haidar Quli Khan] imme- 
diately writ to the King and Caundora [Khan DauranJ, that Should they not be 
satisfyed here, and leave the City of Surat, that Port would be Buined, This 
letter arrived much about the time, Our last foil was given by Attesham Cawn 
[I'tisam Khan], and We upon the new Scheem of employing Kirperam [Kirpa 
Ram], who has the entire management of all Hyder Cooli Cawn? [Haidar Quli 
Khan's] business here with Caundora [Khan Dauran] and the King ; So having 
this plauseable pretence to go upon, He very readily entered into our business, 
but as yet denies to appear in it publickly. This has been so brought about that 
our friend Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan], has nuuself desired that this man 
might be employed ; In fine Ray Kirperam [Kiroa R,am] delivered Byder Cooli 
Cawns [Haidar Quli Khan] letter to Caundora L^an Dauran] and (as He says) 
to the King, which not a little Start[l]ed the former and produced this effect, 
That when Sallabutt Cawn [Salabat Khan] went the next morning to the Durbar, 
Caundora [Khan Dauran] asked him why n e were disgusted, with the reason 
of it, Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] answered that He had information We 
were preparing for our departure without any farther concern for the affair We 
came about, Seeing We had so little notice taken of us that the Nabob had 
thrown our business from door to door, till it was quite Spoiled, and He ought 
to consider that We were called by him alone, and till such time as He would 
undertake our business so farr as to compleat it himself, Without flinging it 
abroad to People, who would not consult his honour, We would not be satisfied. 
Caundora [Kh an Dauran] bid Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] do all He could to 
satisfy us, and desired him to bring our Petition to him again, when only them 
two would finish all in a few days, and at the same [time] ordered a dish of fruit 


130 DELHI, AUGUST, 1716. 

to be sent to John Surman ; This new Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] makes great 
promises, how soon every thing shall be done, but withall will expect to be 
largely rewarded, as yet We are not acquainted with the heighth of his demands. 

If this project answers expectation, your Honour &c* may expect a flying 
Cossid [qasi<f\ to bring the good news, till when We have no further to add on 
this Head. The following persons having paid the summs under written into the 
Honourable Companys Cash have desired bills of Exchange of this Instant on the 
Honourable President & CouncilL 

John Surman 4000 Sicca's payable to Mr. James Williamson. 

Edward Stephenson 5000 Sicca's payable to Mr. Thomas Falconer. 

f 7000 Sicca's payable to Mr. James Williamson. 
Hugh Barker ■> 

Cojah Seerhaud 450 Sicca's payable to Ballean his Gomasto [gum- 


We likewise drew a bill of Exchange payable to Seerhauds [Sarhad's] 
Gomasto [gumashtah'] June the 14th for three hundred and fifty Sicca's, which was 
omitted in our last. 

To all these We desire your Honour &c a will give due Honour. 
Enclosed comes Account Cash Warehouse Accounts Copys of Consultations and 
Charges General for the months of May & June." 

We are 
Honourable Sir & Sirs 

D ILIi Y Your Most Obedient Humble Servants. 

August 1st 1716. John Sttbman 

Edwabd 8tbphenson. 

Cojah Ssebhattd consents 
to the signing this General 

Hugh Babkbb Sec T y. 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Please to pay these Cossids [qasids^ 25 Rupees l " 

Hugh Babkbb, Secretary. 

137. Diary. 

«* For this four days nothing remarkable— Only that there has been 
August 6th. prodigious Eain." 

" Caundora [Khan Dauran] narrowly Escaped being killed by a 

August 16th. Sepys Katarry 2 who wanted pay." 

" Itt is rumoured About the City that we are going, which report 
August 24th. can have no ill Effect. 

» Twenty-five rupees for couriers ; to-day the postage would be a few annas, and the 
documents would reach Calcutta in less than 48 hours. 

J A st>«/rt * hatorl. The kalari was a small latdrah or dagger. 


This Evening Sallabut Caun [§alabat Khan] Carried Cojah 
Seerhaud fKhwajah Sarhad] to Caundoras [Khan Dauran V] house, 
where was held a Consultation on our phirds [fords']." 

138. Consultation. 
u After a great many delays, Last night was the only time That 
Dm Ever Cojah Seerhaud fKhwajah Sarhad] could 

August 25th. gett admittance to Caundora ("Khan Dauran] 

i£ private, being introduced there by Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad 
Salabat Khan]. Caundora [Khan Dauran] was pleased to say he would 
now sign Our Phirds [fords'], and make an End off our buisness, butt 
he desired that Nothing would be insisted on, that might hereafter call 
his prudence in question for allowing itt. To which Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
Answered ' That we should nott dare to petition for any Such thing, 
That in Case there was any part off our petition, that was Either Contrary 
to former Custom or prejudicial! to the Kings reall Interest, we would 
waive itt, and that he was there ready to Answer any insinuations, that 
might be made to the Nabob on that Account/ The Phirds [fards] 
were then immediately produced and read over by Eey Eeyon [E-ae 
Kayan], who did nott forget to be as 111 humoured as formerly, 
However, Caundora [Khan Dauran] was att that time better disposed 
than to be immediately influenced by him. 1 

139. Diary. 

" The King made Gesson 2 for three days — when Mr. Surman &o » 

August 27th. visitted him." 

"Visited the Grand Vizier, When was Carried A Fine Case, Fine 
Lace and Ribbon and three pieces China Silk. 
p ™ er j ' He is much indisposed, and we beleive will CJall 

Mr. Hamilton." 

140. Letter XVIII. 3 

To the Honourable Edwabd Habbisost Esq. 

President and Governour of Fort S*. George Ac" 1 - Councill. 


"It is long since We wrote your Honour Ac" 1 - occasioned Cheifly by 
the little progress We have made in the Negotiation We have entered into, As We 

> Here follows a copy of thefardt ligned which is repeated in the letter below. 

2 Jashan, rejoicings, festivities. 

3 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Monday the 10th December, 
1716, and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book fior 1715 to 1719, No. 87, 
Range 239 in the India Office. 

j 2 

132 DELHI, SEPTEMBER, 1716. 

have from time to time given a very particular Account of the Course of this 
Affair to the Honourable President and Councill of Bengali, without doubt you 
have Eeceived the same from them upon all occasions and consequently the last 
which "We wrote them from hence, will be communicated to your perusall, This 
dispair was occasioned by our having consumed much time and money, without 
making any farther progress than the many promises and Shifts of these inconstant 
Courtiers, which tended in the end meerly to Show us that they were made to 
get the Present from us, and then for our business which We came about Shuffle 
us off from one to another, till being quite Wearied out, We should Accept of 
anything. We found the only thing that touched them was the apprehensions they 
had, in case We were Eealy disgusted, We might do them such damage at Sea as 
might by that means alone bring them to Reason The Honourable Charles Boone 
Esq* &c a - Councill of Bombay advising us that pursuant to the orders they had 
Eeceived from our Honourable Employers, they had withdrawn Surat Factory, and 
accordingly had given orders to Mr. Clerke Ac -1 , to Eepair to Bombay, Upon 
the knowledge of which Hydra Cooly Cawn [Haidar Quli the new 
Phousdar [faujdar] sent for them and with a great many fair promises, prevailed 
on them to stay till such time he should Write to the Honourable Charles 
Boone Esq r . which occasioned Mr. Clerkes permission to stay till such time as 
they could judge of our Success here. We found this [the] fittest opportunity 
We could have to Startle our Patron Caundora [Khan Dauran] into some Reason- 
able compliance, the Port of Surrat being immediately under his care and 
Hyder Cooly Cawn [Haidar Quli Khan] the Phousdarr [faujdar~] thereof, being 
not only a particular favourite of his, but of the King himself so that 
whatever He should write would have a very considerable influence upon 
our Suocess here, upon these considerations we wrote the Honourable President 
and Councill of Bombay that it was our opinion in Case the Factory of Surrat 
was offered to be withdrawn under the pretence that We were disatisfyei 
here that Hyder Cooly Cawn [Haidar Quli Khan] would be so farr from allowing 
of it, that He would immediately write this Court to give us full satisfaction 
Accordingly it happened, for Hyder Cooly Cawn [Haidar Quli Khan] as soon as 
ever He had Eeceived intimation of it wrote to Cawndora [Khan Dauran] and 
the King the ill consequences that might attend that Port in case We should 
leave it, and We at the same time took particular Care to let the world know 
our disgust here All this immediately reached his Majestys Ear, who questioned 
Cawndora [Khan Dauran] about us, and as he himself confessed, ordered him 
to grant all our demands, We were in great hopes that this would have been 
followed with punctuallity, but instead of that to our sorrow We found the 
same excuses and Shifts Eenewed, of to day and to morrow, it should be done, 
which made us conclude that now there was no other practicable way remaining 
but that most desperate Eemedys which might have the best influence Vizt 
Actually to leave the City in a disgust which would make them beleive a Rupture 
might follow, but as this would have been a very bold Action in it self, so it 
might have very different Consequences upon all the Companys settlements in 
India, for which reason we did not think our selves sufficiently Authorized to 
put in Execution without first advising with those G-entlemen who gave us our 

DELHI, SEPTEMBER, 1716. 133 

Commissions the Honourable President and Councill in Bengali. "We are still 
of the same opinion that in case they don't think fit to be as good as their 
words, that the only way to make them comply is to put in practice the methods 

About twenty five days ago Caundora [Khan Dauran] was pleased to admit 
Coja Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] in private the only time that has ever happened 
during our fourteen months Stay here, he then promised He would make an end of 
our business, but he desired that nothing might be insisted on that might Beflect 
on his prudence for granting of it, Seerhaud [Sarhad] answered We should not 
dare to demand anything that was Contrary to Former Custom, or prejudiciall to 
the Kings Eeal interest, and that He was there ready to answer any insinuations 
that might have been made to the Nabobs on that .Account Accordingly our 
Petition was immediately produced Bead over and examined when it was ordered 
to be signed as follows. — 

Bengali and Beharr Customs. G-ive a Phirmaund [farman], 

Bombay Mint, concerning the coin- Gire Strict orders on the Mutsuddys 

ingofmony. [mutasaddis]. 

Calcutta &ca Eogues. Give Strict orders to the Subahs [suhahs] 

of those provinces. 
The House and ground at Surrat. Let them buy IcObeages \bigahs~] instead 

of what they had before, give a Sunnod 

\_sanad~\ from theDuan \dlwari\ for it. 

For the house, Petition again. 
The Yizagapatam Towns. Two of the five Towns being returned 

back, give a Phirmaund [farman'] for 

the rest. 

Note.— The Reason for the delivery up of those Towns was the permission We had from your 
Honour &ca for so doing since they would not give others in their Stead and our beleif by consent- 
ing thereto other more important Articles.might be obtained for our Honourable Masters. 

Divy Island, Give a Sunnod from the Duanny. 

The Callcutta new Towns. Give another Petition to his Majesty. 

Surrat Peescash. Take an obligation that they are content 

to pay 10,000 Bupees Peeshcash, 
and give them a Phirmaund 

so that at this rate there remained only two things, Viz* having the Callicutta 
Towns entered in the Phirmaund and to the gift of the Surrat house, about 
which Cawndora promised He would speak to the King and then sign and deliver 
them, this has passed twentyfive days without either his speaking to the King 
or we hearing any news of the Papers which make us sometimes think that this 
was only intended as a trick to keep us easy, God send it may prove otherwise, 
If it should your Honour &c* may depend the news shall fly by the nimblest 
Cossids, in the mean time We waite with patience till We have Beceived an 
answer to our Letter to the Honourable President and Councill in Calcutta. 

We have had the best opportunity in the world of trying the fickleness and 
unfaithfullness of this Court to the last, they have nothing but their own Interest in 
view without the least Spark of Honour or gratitude, The Person that Bules this 
Court at present with an unbounded Sway is Cawndora Bahauder our Patron, 

184 DELHI, SEPTEMBER, 1716. 

It may be properly said he does what he pleases with the King and Government 
not only the Vizeir but all the Officers at Court can do nothing with tho King 
without him, at the same time with this great Authority he is the most dilatory 
person in the world, hardly ever sits out to transact any publick affairs as Your 
Honour &c» may observe by the Single opportunity that Seerhaud had to be with 
him during the space of 14 months, and so he serves every body else, who are 
obliged to sue for his Assistance, and although it is so difficult to bring him to 
do any good, yet mischeif he has at hand, for he takes particular care to let them 
know the length of his Authority who presume to make their Addresses other- 
ways, The Persian Embassadour by his lightness of behaviour has confirmed the 
truth of this, Cawndora having particularly abused him He has Received hit 
Audience of leave from his Majesty now these five months, 1 but as yet cannot 
get an answer to his Letter, a Receipt for his Present or what else He desires, 
and at present he is as near obtaining it as he was before to all Outward 
appearance, In fine the business of the whole Kingdom in General is dispatched 
much after the same nature and these examples very well demonstrate the 
looseness of the Present Government Our patience is almost weary'd out, God 
grant so much trouble and fatigue may receive it's desired Effect, which we 
shall think our selves sufficiently rewarded for so long and to us unprofitable 

We are, Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Dilit Your Most Obedient Humble Servants, 

Sept. 15 th 1716. John Stjeman 

Edwaed Stephenson." 
Coja Seebhattd Assenting. 
Hugs Babkeb Secretary. 

141. Letter XIX. 2 

To the Honoubablb Edwabd Habbison Esq? President and Governour of 
Fort St. George &c* Councill. 

Honourable Sie and Sibs 

" Since writing the foregoing, is come ta hand duplicate of your Honour 
&c»s dated November the 19 th as also Duplicate dated June the 19 th . The Orig- 
inals of neither being as yet come to hand, We Suppose it May happen by the 
miscarriage of the Kings Gusburdarrs \_gurz bardars, mace-bearers] or what other 
Messengers might have been made use of Seing the way from Madrass by Land 
hither is very dangerous. 

For a particular Account of the State of our affairs We referr your Honour 
&c* to our foregoing ; We are not able to add any thing thereto. 

We are glad to hear that your Honour &c* have been so happy as to keep 
all Quiet hitherto, God grant it may continue. 

Herewith comes an answer to the Letters wrote by the Honourable Edward 
Harrison Esq? to Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] and Zeody Cawn 

1 The ruJcksat or audienco of leave taking of the Persian ambassador was granted on the 5th 
RabI 'II, 1128, which is the 18th March O.S. 

1 Read at the same Consultation as Letter XVIII. 

DELHI, SEPTEMBER, 1716. 135 

[Zeyau-d-din Khan] We suppose the lattor has been very particular in giving 
an Account of our affairs, he has but very little power to do either good or bad 
to our negotiation, If he had We have Eeason to fear he would show as little 
Generosity as any of the Cast, who are truly treacherous and only observient 
to their own Interest. 

We take particular notice of your Honour &C™ Observations on all that Relates 
to your Presidency. As for the first concerning the Madrass Rupees We find that 
the Mutsuddys [muta$addis~\ were deceived in asserting that they were worse 
than those of Surratt. It would be sufficient if only the Grant could be obtained 
for it since the difference will be disputed in the Mints of Bengali &c*- 
However should a dispute arise here We are sufficiently armed with reasons 
sent from your Honour &c* and transmitted to us by the Honourable President 
&c» of Bengali. 

We Shall if possible get distinct Phirmaunds \_farmdns] for Bengali Madrass 
and Bombay and to be effected without too much trouble, if not We Shall 
than joyn all together, taking particular care that all which is perfectly granted 
may be inserted. As for the rest, they will be in Sunnods [sanads] under the 
Viziers Seal. 

Concerning the Vizagapatam Towns, your honour &ca will perceive a clear 
answer in the foregoing, so that you may have Sufficient time to prepare for their 
Surreudry, when they shall be demand[ed] by the Government. 

Divy Island your Honour &c» will see is granted if our freind Caundora 
i"Khan Dauran] continues but as good as his word, upon whom alone depends the 
good or bad Success of this Embassy. 

We observe what your Honour &c» are pleased to order how the. five Towns 
Shall be inserted in our generall or particular Phirmaund [farman]. We are not 
able to inform Your Honour &c. how that will be digested till such time as the 
Papers being to Bun in the Offices when we Shall have a particular Begard to 
your Honour &c M instructions on this head. 

Concerning the Surrat Peeshcash and the Regulations of that trade which We 
humbly proposed to the Honourable President &ca in Bengali, We shall not at 
present make any addition, till such time as what We have already Signed is 
Confirmed. If it be so 'twill be glorious to our Honourable Masters and to the 
benefit and Honour of the English trade in generall to that Port, so without doubt 
worthy the determinations of our Right Honourable Employers." 

Dilly. We are 

September 16th Honourable Sir and Sirs 

1716. Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 

Coja Seeehaud Assenting John Svsuas 

Hugh Bakkeb Secretary Edwaed Stephenson. 

142. Dury. 

" Mr. Hamilton has been with the Vizier, butt 
has nott yett gott him under his hands." 



September 27th. 

"Seerhaud [Sarhad] returning from Caundoras [Khan Daur&n] 
says ; The Nabob told him he had sent our papers, 
among many Others under A Cover to his Majesty, 
and that there was no fear, because he had fully acquainted his Majesty 
with all Articles that appeared the least difficult." 

" House rent being now adjusted between y e Christian and Maho- 
metan Calculations, y e particulars are Here in- 
serted, pursuant to a Consultation y e 6 th Instant — 

House Rent. 

September 30th, 

To Cash July 












Batta on 1535 nott 
3 p.c. 

Ballance paid in Sept r - 






420 3 3 

329 9 6 

329 9 6 

329 9 6 

329 9 

329 9 6 

329 9 6 

charg'd @ 

4,344 11 9 


4,3»0 11 9 
608 8 3 

By C. Seerhauds first 
House from 9th July I 
to Jan. 23<i- pd. pr- 
Moone from 17th 
Rujub lEajabl to 8 
Suphur [Safar] 
mo. days. ■ 
6 21 

Enteiing money 

By E. Stephensons House 
from 3iitb July to 
ye Last August p'» 
Moone from 9th Sha- 
baun [Sha'ban] to 23 

m. d. r. 

is 13 14 @ 120 ... 

Entering Money 

By C. Seerhauds other 
House from 10th 
Aug. to 31 fit c'o. p a. 
ye Moone from 20th 
Shabaun [Sha'ban] 
to 23 Rauizan 
m. d. r. 

13 3 att 200 

Entering money 

Batta 3 per cent ... 


522 10 6 


552 10 6 



4853 10 6 
U5 9 6 


143. Consultation. 

M We have just now (thanks be to God) received our petition from 
Diiiy Caundora Behauder [Khan Dauran, Bahadur], 

signed by his Imperiall Majesty, and which being 
perused, we find itt answers our End In Every respect, two articles, 
Viz* for more ground round Culcutta and the gift off the Suratt house, 
Excepted. On the Former, the King having signed A Grrant only for 
800 rupees, Itt is our Opinion that we ought to petition again for that 
article, trying att the same time to succeed by all possible means, butt 
without any impediment to the bulk off our Affairs : As for the Suratt 
house Itt is nott worth the while to petition again — For the papers that 



are already signed, we doe Esteem itt proper to deliver them mto the 
Duanny [*»*»»]; and that Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] take 
the proper methods to have them pass that Ketcherry [kachahri] with 
all Expedition." 

144. Letter XX. 1 

To the Honoueablb Robeet Hbdges Esq : \ 
President and Governour of Fort William I 
&e» Councill in Bengali. \ 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
"Our last to your Honour &c» were the 15 th and 16 th Ult° We are now to 
•advise that after a great many fair promises Caundora [Khan Dauran] has in 
some measure been as good as his word, this Instant having sent us our papers 
Signed by the King which are as follows 2 — 

The Bengali free Trade ... Signed. Give a Phirmaund [farman]. 

Surrat Customs ... ... Since they agree to pay a Yearly Piscash 

[peshkash] of 10,000 Rupees give a Phirmaund 
[ farman]. 
Give a Sunnud [sanad] from the Duanny 

For the Currency of Bombay Rupees, give Parti- 
cular orders to the Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] 
. Beside the three old Towns, give them two 
Towns more to the value of 800 Eupees among 
the others they Petition for 
,. Instead of what was formerly let them buy 160 
beages [bigahs] of ground and give them a 
Sunnud [sanad] for it from the D nanny 

Write to Hyder Cooly Cawn [Haidar 
Quli Khan] that instead of Exbar Cawns 
house he give them Another which after he 
has pitched upon advise the Court that a 
Sunnod [sanad] may be given. 
... They Relinquish two of the five Towns they 
have for the Remaining give them a Phir- 
maund [farman]. 
... Give particular orders to the Subahs [subahs] 

Divy Island 
Bombay Mint 

Calcutta Towns ... 

Surrat house and Ground 

The Yizagapatam Towns 

The Rogues 

i This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Monday the 10th December, 1716, 
and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719 No. 87, Bange 239 in 
the India Office. 

» This petition is entered in|the diary on October 17th, under the heading, " The Second Petition 
•igned by his Imperial Majesty." 

138 DELHI, OCTOBER, 1716. 

By the foregoing Your Honour &c* will perceive that they are Signed much 
after the same nature as we advised in our last, only the Surrat house and Calicutta 
Ground which they seem to have Shifted ofE instead of granting as was promised. 
For the house We shall say no more about it and for the ground only just try if it 
can be obtained, or Receive an answer so as not to impede the going on of the 
business. As the Case Stands We hope We have a great deal of Eeason to 
Congratulate your Honour &c* (as We do) upon this occasion God grant it 
may be Seconded by the Eeceipt of Phirmaunds [farmans] &c» necessary papers 
to attain which our utmost dilligence shall not be wanting. 

Whether it will be improper to keep all this good news a Secret from the 
Government of Bengali and Surrat till We have secured the Grants here, Your 
Honour &c& will be the best judges. We mention this for fear if it should be 
blazed about, it might Egg Jaffer Cawn [Ja'far Khan! or Hydra Cooly Cawn 
[Haidar Quli Khan] to impede it, When We have the Grants it will be too late 
for them. 

We are 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Dilly Your Most Obedient Humble Servants 

October V s . 7th 1716. John Subman 

Edwabd Stephenson 
Coja Seebhaud, Assenting. 
Hugh Babkeb, Secretary .- 

145. Letter XXI. 1 

To the HoNor/BABLB Eobeet Hedges EsqB") 
President and Governour of Fort William f 
and Councill in Bengali. J 


"We wrote your Honour &ca the 7 th Instant of which the Accompanying is 
Duplicate. The last night Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] had an opportunity 
to be present in private with Caundora [Khan Dauran] Sallabut Cawn [Salabat 
Khan] being likewise there, who spake to the Nabob Concerning the Suratt' house 
and Calcutta ground which were not fully granted in the Petition that lately 
came out from his Majesty desiring that if possible he would get it again aigned 
to our satisfaction ; Cawndora [Khan Dauran] ordered Seerhaud [Sarhad] to draw 
up another Petition immediately which He promis'd he would in a small time 
get Signed and See us dispatched. We are too much acquainted with his 
dilatory temper to beleive him entirely, So Shall not waite the coming out of these 
Petitions but deliver into the Duanny [ditcani] those Phirds [fards] which have 
been already signed to our satisfaction that they may be going forward, and at the 
same time be endeavouring to get these Petitions granted. Should we particu- 
larly obtain that for the Calicutta Towns, very well, otherwise We shall make use 
of the Phird [fard} which belongs to the first or Second set, as We beleive 

i This letter was read at the same Consultation as Letter XX. 



it for the Interest of our Honourable Masters. We have no farther to add at 
present but that 

We are, 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your Most Obedient humble Servants 
Dilly John Stjbman 

October y® 1 1 th Edwabd Stephenson." 

Cojah Seebhaud assents* 
Hitgh Babkeb, Secry 

146. The Third Petition. 
Dill* The Thibd Petition to Fubbuksmb [FabbuxhsIyab]. 

October 23 rd 


1 st Article 

"Concerning the Grant for renting the 
towns near Culcutta Ac* which have 
been long rented by y e Company, The 
Kings signing was — That, besides the 
three old towns, they have two more, 
among those they petition for, Amount- 
ing to 800 rupees — The Awfull pre- 
sence, to which all people address & 
obtain their desires, is Exquisitely 
munificent, & we likewise from far 
are come to approach his Majesty. 
The Whole rent we Agree to, that has 
been wrote according to y* Conningoes 
[qSnuTigo'i] papers. Itt is y 6 Custom 
among Christians that in whatsoever 
place they have Factorys, One or two 
Coarce [kos] all round has been made 
use off, for Gardens, Out houses, to 
pass to and from during y* rains : and 
among places rented by other Jemidars 
[zamindars] Murder & theiving some- 
times happens, Wherefore we humbly 
petition, that all those towns we have 
desired may be rented by y e Company 
That we may live, take our diversions, 
and goe and Come in Safety, without 
any other prospect off proffitt or dis- 
advantage. Farther, by this means ye 
Country will become more inhabited. 
We hope from y e Kings favour that a 
Phirmaund \_farman'] may be granted 
for those towns according to y* Yearly 

340 DELHI, NOVEMBER, 1716. 

rent.— 38 Towns— 8121 . . 8 . .3. 
2 nd Article Concerning the Grant off the Suratt 

house, which had been settled for the 

English to live in, from y e time off 

Jehaun-geer [Jahanglr], We humbly 

petitioned, that we could nott repair it 

unless itt was given us.being att present 

Extremely out off order, The Xing 

signed — That Hyderacooly Caun 

[Haidar Qui! Khan] should be wrote 

to, In the roome off Etbar Cauns 

[I'tibar Khan's] house to look out for 

another, for an English Factory, and 

write hither— Etbar Cauns [I'tibar 

Khan's] house from y e time off Sha- 

allum [Shah A'lam] was given to 

be lived in by ye Dutch, we having 

nothiDg to doe with itt. From the 

time Above mentioned the Kings 

house has been settled for our living 

in, & for whose Yearly repairs we 

Sustain damage. We hope itt may be 

given us." 

147. Diary. 

"King Furruckseer [Farrukhslyar] has forbid 

all Gentiles riding in pallankeens. " 

"Seerhaud [Sarhad] has had Copys of thePhirds [fords'] with 

October 31st. their signing by the Duan Colsa \_diuqn-i-khdli- 

mh.~\ The Suratt and Bengal Phirmaunds \_farmdm'\ are passed, The 

Madrass Phirmaunds \_farmans] with many other Articles waite a 

Second meeting." 

"Seerhaud [Sarhad] has now confessed, that the Seaw [slydhah] 

cannot be given, without our petitions First going 

to the Vizier, and receiving his perusall and 

" The Phirds [fards] were all [carried to the Grand Vizier from the 

Duanny [diicdni], who according to his kind 

disposition, After perusing them, Ordered the 

Duan Colsa [diicdn-i-khdlisah~\ to carry them immediately to the King 

and gett them Signed, which was done accordingly. For the Vizier 

as is usuall making a mark to petition, so his Majesty Signed his Assent 

to all that those papers contained." 

delhi, november, 1716. 141 

148. Consultation. 

" Oojah Seerhaud [Khwajah SarhadJ having brought us copy off 
our petition signed by y e Duan Colsa [diwdn-i- 
November 6 t h Jchali&aK], we find itt done as much to our satis- 

faction as could be Expected— There still remains 
The Seaw \_siyahah~\ for a Phirmaund [farmari], & y e orders for y e 
writing Sunnods [sanads] for what is nott Entered therein, to be 
received from y e Duanny [d%wdnl~] i Seerhaud [Sarhad] informs us this 
may be done in a small time, for which reasons we delay our advices 
to y e Hon^ le President & Oounoill in Bengali, till matters are con- 
firmed by y e receipt off y e Seaw [siydhah~\ Abovementioned." 

" The Phirds [fards~\ being come out from the King, were carried 
November nth. to Emenut — Bay [Amanat Eae] the Hazure- 


149. Letter XXII. 1 


President and Governour of Fort William C 
in Bengali. j 


"Being under a necessity of dispatching a Cossid (qasid) account of Govern- 
our Harrison's Affairs and having a small matter of good news, I found it could 
not be omitted. 

Our whole Petition has been signed afresh by Attesham Cawn [I'tisam Khan! 
about 10 days agoe as well to our purpose as could be expected, but before they 
could proceed any farther there was a necessity to receive the Vizier's approvall, 
accordingly it was carryed there yesterday, and was received very candidly but 
pursuant to custom must again go to the King, but that there might be no loss of 
time the Vizier kindly ordered the Duan Colsa [dlwan-i-khalisaK] to carry them 
himself thither 2 and get them signed, which was accordingly done, so I hope 
now they are pretty well passed, next Follows the Vizier's Signing, and then 
we shall get the orders for drawing up the Phirmaund \_farman\ which as soon 
as received we shall Dispatch a General Cossid [qasid'] with the good news, 
and our Monthly Accounts till when I humbly referr and remain 

Hon. Sr 

Tour most devoted Humble Servant 

Dilly John St/bman." 

Nov' y? 12th 

1 This letter was read at the same Consultation as Letter XXIII. 

2 That is, to the Kin . 

142 delhi, november, 1716. 

150. Consultation. 

" The day off the Kings jesson yashu'] 1 coming on we shall be att 

November 13th a P* 11 ^ * or a P ro P er present on that occasion ; and 

there being two mne large Lookingglasses Offered 

to sale, Agreed that M r . J. Surman pay 600 Sicca Eupees for one of 

them, and that itt be presented accordingly." 

151. Diary. 
" M r . Surman &c? visitted the Grand Vizier, who told M r . Surman 
that all our buisness was done, Upon which 

November l?tb. ~ 

the Duan Colsa [diwan-i-khalisah~] said we 
might have the Seaw, [siy&hah~\ and goe about the Phirmaund \farmdfi] 
to morrow. Att this Seerhaud [Sarhad] replyed There were a few 
small things nott yett adjusted, when Bokechund [Bhog Chand] went on, 
and said we wanted to have them in the Phirmaund [farma>i]. To all 
which the Vizier Kindly answered, That iff they were small they 
should be entered out off hand, and iff large they should be brought to 
him and he would sign them." 

"The Phirds [farda] from Emenut-ray [Amanat Eae] being by 

Boguechund [Bhog Chand"] carried to Autusham 

November 18th. ^ <-* i r-ra- - ' «i 

Caun Duan Calsa [i'tisam Khan, diicdn-i-kha- 
lisah,~\ he was for having butt 4 Articles entered in the Phirmaund 
[farman] According to the Kings Signing; butt by the perswasion 
of our Friend Bokechund [Bhog Chand] he att last Agreed to 8 
Articles. After this Bokechund [Bhog Chand] Signed on the first 
phird [fard] — According to the Books — and on the Last made his 
mark. Then Emenut-ray [Amanat Eae], dated the phirds (fardu), 
and wrote on the back — For the Secretarys office — We shall now see 
what Emenut Eay (Amanat Eae) will doe for us, For itt seems Easy 
(and Seerhaud [Sarhad] says he has promised) to Change or Alter any 
off the middle phirds [fards]. The King sett out in Formall Jesson 
[ja$hii] when M r . Surman &o? carried a large Looking- Glass." 
152. Consultation. 

" Co jah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] has now delivered us from the 
Duanny [dlwanl\ The Seaw [siydhah'j for a 
Phirmaund \_farmdn~\ Compleated. 2 

November 20th. 

1 Jathn, a solemn feast, an anniversary celebration. On this occasion the feast was the 
• Idu z-zuha which fell this year on November 14. 

* The" details of the siyahah, or draft, are here given. I have omitted them as they are 
repeated in Letter xxiii. At the end of these details cornea the remark, "For those that 
remain there will be orders iven for the writing off their Sunnods {lanadt) in the Duanny 

DELHI, NOVEMBER, 1716. 143 

We might have Expeoted the Vizier in whose power itt was, would 
have stop'd our buisness on this occasion or caused many delays the Sure 
way to squeeze a Sum off money, which must have been very large. 
Butt he has behaved himself with far more generosity, Our papers 
no sooner reaching his hands, than they received dispatch ; whioh 
encourages us to beleive he will not be hereafter troublesome. 

Our buisness may be now properly said to have received a Good 
Foundation, God Grant a happy conclusion to the whole. Agreed That 
a perfect account be immediately transmitted to the Honourable Presi- 
dent and Councili in Bengali. 

There now remains to bring the whole into Form, and as the wording 
off the Phirmaunds [farmdns'] &C? papers will lye in those writers hands, 
who are employed to draw them up ; "We are very well acquainted that 
money is the most Efficacious method that can be used ; the Stinting off 
which would become now great Extravagance. Wherefore Agreed 
That Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] adjust matters with the 
Writers off the Secretarys office, and those off the Duanny [diwdni] ; 
That nothing may be wanting to have all prosperously concluded." 

153. Letteb XXIII. 1 

*• To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq? Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable United Company of Merchants of Eng- 
land trading to the East Indies &c a Council in Bengali. 


We wrote your Honour &c a the 24th Ultimo in which we particularly re- 
counted the State of our Affairs for that time, Since which our whole Petition, 
after some Stragglings, received it's Notations from Attesham Caun [I'tisam 
Khan] the Duan Colsa [diwan-i-khalisah~\ and are as follows. 2 

Bengali free Trade According to the Imperial Order write. 

Bombay Mint ... According to the Imperial Order give an Hookum [hukm] 

for the Setling a Mint. 

1 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Monday the 28th January 
1717, and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1716 to 1719 
No. 87 Ronga 239 in the India Office. It is also found in the Copy Book of Letters received 
from Mr. Surman etc. at the Mogul's Court, commencing the 21st November 1716, ending 
November the 16th 1717, No. 31 Received per Hannover 29th July 1713. This book is cata- 
logued at the India Office as " Letters from Mr. Surman at the Mogul's Court to the Governor 
and President of the Council in Bengal, 21st November, 1716, to 15th November 1717, 
Home Series— Miscellaneous No. 70." 

* Thiii» entered in the Diary on the 12th No?ember ai " Heads of th.9 Unittd Petition 
■igned by the Duan Colia [dwan-t-£A«h>i&]." 




Surat House and 

Divy Island 

Madrass and Gorman- 
del Trade. 

Calcutta Tcwns 

Vizagapatam Towns 
Surat Customs 

Phi rmaush [ far ma- 
isK] &C» 

Phundering Goods ... 

Patnah House 
Madrass Eupees 

Muxodavad [Maqsu- 
dabad] Mint. 

Company's Debtors ... 

Madrass 6 Towns ... 

Fort S*- Davids 

According to the Imperial Order write. 

According to the Imperial Order, write to the Mutta- 
suddies (mutasadls) there, that they permit them to 
build upon the former House, which is now granted to 
live in, according to the Indian Architecture likewise to 
buy 150 Bega's (biffahs) of Ground to keep Ships Stores 
in, instead of their Garden which they had formerly 
without the City, and was taken in by making the Wall, 
in this do not hinder them. 

Write to the Muttsuddies (mutasadls) there to take an 
Obligation from the English Company for the Kinga 
rent (Jummah) 1 and grant them the Possession of that 

According to former Custom that it be granted. 

. According to the Imperial Order, Write. 

Note, this was sign'd upon the former Petition, wherein 
the King has permitted the Possession of all the Towns 
in case they are bought with the Owners Consent. 
According to the Imperial Ordeis give Seaw [siyahah'] 

for the three remaining Towns . 
According to the Imperial Orders, give the Seaw 
[siyahah] for a Phirmaund Tfarman] that they take 
a yearly Piscash \jpeshkash~] of 10,000 rupees. 

According to the Imperial Orders give the Seaw, [siya. 
hah'] that Phirmaush \_farmdish~] &c* is pardon'd. 

According to the Imperial Order act, and according to 

former Phirmaunds \_far7navs'] give them the Saw 

\_siyahah~] for a Phirmaund [farman~\. 
According to the Imperial Order write to the Duan 

Subah (diwdn-i subah). 
According to the Imperial Orders write to the Duans 

\_diwans~], that if the Madrass Eupees equall the Surat 

Ones in Weight and goodness, for any Batta they must 

not be molested. 
According to the Imperial Order, write to the Duan 

Subah [diwdn-i-subah.~] 

According to the Imperial Order write. 

According to the Imperial Order, write that according 

to the custom of Allumgeer (A'lamgir) it's granted. 
According to the Imperial Order, write. 

1 Jama, total assessment, 

DELHI, NOVEMBER, 1716 145 

Sending Gomastahs According to the Imperial Orders, write to the Duan 

[gumdshtahs] to the that it be granted, according to the Custom of Hugly 

Aurungs [aura?igs], 

with the Governf' 8 

Dustick (dastah). 
Copy of the Phir- According to the Imperial Order write. 

maund [farman]. 
Forty Bega's (bigahs) Write to the Duans [dlwan] that where they have a 

of Ground to build mind to Settle a new Factory it be granted according 

Factories. to the Factories of other Places. 

Hugly Durbar ... "Write to the Duan Subah [diw3n-i-subah]. 

Ship "Wrecks ... According to the Imperial Order write. 

Of these 22 Petitions IB are as the King Signed at first, and the other 7 are 
what were re-signed, which we sent last down, so your Honour &c» will easily 
Join, the King's and Duan Colsa's [diwan-i-hhalisah' '*] Signings together, by 
which you may have a true Notion of the Affair. The passing of this great Gulph 
was very pleasing to us, of which we shou'd have given your Honour &c? an 
immediate Account but being willing to see all thoroughly cleared from the 
Duanny [ditvani], we proposed dispatching all at once. 

After Attesham Caun [Ttisdm Khan] had Signed the Papers they were ordered 
to be brought the Vizier, which gave us some Apprehension (as he had oppor- 
tunity and Authority) that he might make some Exception, but it pleased God the 
Fortune of our Honourable Masters prevailed, and the good Vizier immediately 
Signed, and as it is customary for such Papers to be re-signed by the Imperial 
Hand, he considered the long Stay and Expence we had been at, and ordered the 
Duan Colsa [dl loan-i-khalisah] immediately to carry them to the King, and get 
them passed once more, which was done accordingly at first Sight, this last was a 
finishing Stroke, and in our Opinion confirmed all that was granted before. 

The next thing was to get an order from the Duanny [diwani] (which they call 
Seaw) 1 upon the Head Secretary, who is to write the Phirmaund [farman], the 
Vizier was pleased in our presence to order it to be immediately given us, we 
thank God, we have received it, the following things are ordered to be 
entered in the Phirmaund [farman] according to the Kings signing, Bengali 
&ca free Trade, Surat Piscash [peshkash], Cormandel free Trade, Vizaga- 
patam 3 Towns, Madrass Eupees, Phirmaush [farmaish], 40 Bega's [bigahs'] 
of Ground, Copy of the Phirmaund i. farman], these 8 at first appeared as allowed 
off by the Duan Colsa [dlwan-i-khalisah], but Seerhaud [SarhadJ by means of the 
Duanny [diwarii] Writers, brought these 5 following, Madrass 5 Towns, Calcutta 
3 old, and 38 new Towns, Bombay Mint, Company's Debtors and Servants and 

"We are now making the proper Provision to have the Phirmaunds [farmdva] 

drawn up, consisting of these 13 Articles, but as yet we have not concluded 

whether to have a Single Phirmaund [farman] or have three, as the- working 

of it may prove beneficial to the Interest of our Honourable Masters, that shall 

1 Siyahah, a draft or rough copy. 


146 DELHI, NOVEMBER, J 716. 

certainly be chosen, we hope our next will carry the Copy of it, as it is foul 
drawn up, and that to arrive them time enough in Calcutta to be remitted home 
to England by the l&M Ship, which will without doubt be very Satisfactory to 
our Honourable Masters, the remaining nine articles which are not entered in the 
Phirmaund [formaii], we are to reeeive Sunnods [sanads] for under the Viziers 
Seal, and the Secretarys of the Duanny \_ducani\ have orders to draw them up, 
these may be finished in a Small time, but Phirmaunds [farmans] being Subject 
to Several formabties, will be something longer. 

We have received your Honour &c<w dated the 24 - h September chiefly in 
answer to ours of August 1 st your Honour &ca's Opinion of what we then 
wrote is particularly observed, but believe that Letter was taken in the Strongest 
S ence, we never intended to put those Designs in Execution, without the utmost 
Extremity, and when no other way was left, or Composition could be made, even 
of effecting the half of what we petitioned for, it was this intention that made ug 
write to your Honour <tc # that we might be always ready Arra'd, and we do 
assure that easie Arguments, all the Presents you have sent, the vast Sum of 
money and time that have been expended on this Embassy have had very little 
affect on this Court, and they would have shamm'd us off with very little, had 
not Hydracooley Caun [Haidar Qui! Khan] wrote from Surat, that we would 
directly leave that City. Thanks be to G-od the case is now altered, as there is no 
such disease there can be no occasion for such remedies, every thing seems now 
upon a firm Establishment, it's true a few formabties may take up some time, 
but a little patience and good Bribery, we hope will bring what is happily begun 
to a Good Conclusion. 

"We have observed your Honour &c a ' 8 Notations upon what was formerly 
Signed on our Petition by the Duan Colsa [diwdn-i-lehali&ciK], among which your 
Honour ica conceive where it is wrote, "write to the Duan Subah \_diwan-i- 
subaK] or Phousdar [faujdar]," that the business is Suspended for their Judge- 
ments, whereas it is quite otherwise, wheresoever the King or Duan Colsa 
[diwan-i-Malisah'] has wrote so it is perfectly granted, as your Honour &c* 
will hereafter see, when the Grants are wrote under the Vizier's Seal, they will 
be directed to the several Duan Subahs [diican-i-subali], and those that followed 
them, that Such Petitions are granted. 

It is certain our Stay here has been longer than could have been expected by 
any one, and thereby the Expence of this Negotiation much enhaune'd, which we 
have endeavoured to retrench as much as possible from the very beginning, we 
have nothing but barely what is necessary, our Account be our Witnesses and 
your Honour &c» our Judges, whether we have been guilty of any Extravagan- 
cies, considering the. Place, the Number of EngHshmen, and any attendance to 
mate a creditable appearance at this Court. Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 
says bis Allowance is too small and hopes to have an Addition to it now or at 
his return. 

Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] Solemnly protests that he will never mingle 
any forreign affair with those of tmr Honourable Masters, if he does he must be 
a&sverable for it. 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 147 

We have drawn a Bill of Exchange for 2900 Sicca's, payable to M r - James 
Williamson to which we desire your Honour &c. to give due Honour. 

Herewith come Accounts Cash, Warehouse and Charges General and Copies of 
Consultations which we wish safe to your Hands, and are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most humble Servants 
John Submaw 
Edwabd Stephenson." 
Cojah Sttbhaud assenting 
Hugh Babkeb Secretary 
Dilly, November 21 st 1716. 

154. Diary. 

" We hear the 3 phirmaunds [farmdns] are done and Carried to 
Ecklaus Caun [Ikhlas Khan] off which Seerhnud 

December 18th. _ 

[Sarhad] bro*' us the Uopys and read them over. 
All was as well as possible, Butt itt must be observed in the Madrass 
phirmaund [ farman\. Itt mentions we should be free, pays* 1200 
pagod 8 . On Conditions that itt had been Formerly Customary. 
This was the article that Caused so much delay among the Moonchys 
Mutsuddys \_munsMs mutasadis~]. For we had no Sunnods [sanads] 
to Strengthen itt and only the King of Q-olcondas phirmaund [ farmdn\ 
which is nott Esteemed here off Much consequence." 

u Seerhaud [Sarhad] made some propositions to Endeavour that 
Divy Island might be inserted in the phirmaund* 
[farmdns']. Butt as the thing Appears impossible 
to us ; We shall att present take no farther notice off itt, Yett in the 
mean time Seerhaud [Sarhad] has free ^liberty to make the Experi- 

155. Lbtteb XXIV. 1 
"To the Honourable Robbbt Hedges Esq? Govern? 
of Fort William and President for Affairi of the 
Honourable English Eait India Cempany &c» 
Councill In Bengali. 

Honoubablb Sib and Sibs 

It is long since we troubled your Honour &ca with a Letter of this Kind 
there being no great occasion for it but considering upon your Honour &c*'* 
frequent Orders private instructions from the beginning and our own Honour we 
beleive it immediately requisite to display our Companion Cojah Seerhaud 

i Taken from the "Copy Book of letteri received from Mr Surman etc. at the Mogul's 
Court," mentioned abort. 

K 2 

148 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

[Khwajah Sarhad] in his true Coulours, our publique Consultation Book and 
Diary will be found something bare on this head by reason his seeing and perusing 
the whole was unavoydable to let him know we were Conscious to all his Tricks 
and Villianies and to hare pen'd them down in Publick might have made him 
deiperate and thereby added fuel to the Flame with which he had been possessed. 
This has been Sufficiently remedied by our private Notations and particularly at 
large by the Secretary H. Barker. Twas these Considerations that made us 
conceal from him our knowledge of his Designs, past Transactions and Behaviour 
being truely satisfied that the day would Come for our ample Justifications, and 
the Villian be suitably rewarded, to this End we shall endeavour to sum up our 
Allegations against him with as much particularity as our Notes memory and 
daily observations can instruct by entirely waving his personal deserts from us, by 
his continued slights and abuses, and we take this Liberty to Assure your Honour 
&c» that no desire of revenge shall make us swerve from the Truth or by any 
feigned Story to aggravate his Crimes to be punctuall in this and that you may 
have a perfect Notion of what we're agoing to relate, we must desire that your 
Honour Ac 1 . 1 look back on our first Arrivall at this Place from which Time we 
Shall begin our Intended Narration. It's likewise necessary to remember the 
vain promises of this Gentleman that all was to be done purely by. his Friends at 
Court alone which without doubt was the greatest Encouragement for the 
Honourable President &c» sending the Present to his Majesty giving So great a 
Charge to Seerhaud [Sarhad] and the Promise of so large a Eeward on Conditions 
of Success this seemed in some measure to be Confirmed by the receipt of those 
good Husbullhookums [hasb-ul-hulms^ that were sent from Court before hand, 
and next by the gift of our Carriage from his Majesty Upon our Arrivall 
at Court we dived into the mistery at onoe We found Seerhauds [Sarhad's] great 
Friends, 6uch as Tuckerubcawn [Taqarrub Khan] Cawndora [Khan Dauran], 
Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan]and his Particular Friend Cojah Manour [Manawar] 
turned into a Simple Armenian Padrec and two or three sharp Eogues to assist 
him who having considerably chowsed the Dutch in whose Business they were 
imployed had laid a design to serve us after the same manner this scheem seemed 
presently broken for the Padree who was their Cheif discovered himself to be 
Such an Ass at the first few visits we were obliged to make that not we alone 
but Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] himself was ashamed of him, and he who 
formerly extolled his Interest and Behaviour to Such a prodigious height was now 
perfectly abashed by such a mean disappointment add to this his extraordinary 
Bottishness in being drunk once or twice daily with his disapperance which 
made us suspect much more and occasioned us to make a farther Enquiry 
when upon the whole we found he was a very lewd debauchee so not only a 
name to his gown but by his private walk to Brothells and such like places a 
meer Scandall to Christianity. 

On the intended beginning of this Negotiation we find he has received orders 
from Cojah Seerhaud ["Khwajah Sarhad] who sent him a Letter to Tuckurub 
Cawn [Taqarrub Khan], Abdoola Cawn ['Abdullah Khan], Hosseinally Cawn 
[Husain 'All Khan], Meer Jumlah [Mir Jumlah], Cawndora [Khan Dauran] and 
Cojah Manour [Khwajah Manawar] to inform them that the English hada 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 149 

Present for his Majesty ready in Bengali : but being under Some Apprehensions 
of a Miscarriage in the Business we were willing to have Some Security before 
they parted from it, that they requested to have a Husbulhookum [hasb-ul-hukni] 
for a free Trade in Bengali &c» sent them which if granted Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
engaged to have the present immediately forwarded that he would Accompany 
it and should have the Intire management of it himself, disposing of all at 
his" own pleasure this project took in Some places and by the management 
of the Gentues with Mons? Martin obtained those Husbulhookums [hasb-ul- 
kukm] which your Honour &c a received and were immediately followed by 
• Seerpaws (sar-o-pa) and G-oorzebudars [gurzbardarsj to receive and Conduct the 
present. Seerhaud [Sarhad] when in Calcutta had no reason to promise, that the 
Carriage should be given but having instructed the Padree to pursue it with this 
Threat the present should be forwarded on no other Conditions, The Vackeels 
[waklls] were all at a stand till by chance they fell in with Syud Sallabut Cawn 
[Sayyad Salabat Khan], Meer Jumlah [Mir Jumlah] and Hosseinally [Husain 'All 
Khan] leaving the Court at this Juncture Cawndora [Khan Dauran] became 
ambitious to show his Master his abilitys our present made a great noise at that 
time and was the more aggrandized by the Padrees folley who according to the 
humour he was in avowed it to amount to 15 or 30 lack [lakh] Eupees all which 
he wrote in a Persian Letter he had been advised of and upon Syud Sallabut 
Cawns [Syyad Salabat Khan's] particular Enquiry into the truth of it he offered 
a note under his hand as an enforcement to what he asserted The old Syud 
[Sayyad] had too much sence to permit him however there was a Note given 
into the Consommany 1 that it amounted to Lacks which pleased Sufficiently 
after the Syud [Sayyad] had satisfied his avaritious Tastes with some presaat 
bribes and a Promise of a Larger withall to have the entire management of our 
business he imbarked in it and by his Perswasions prevailed on Cawndora 
[Khan Dauran] to do the like by this means his Majesty was perswaded to give 
the Charge of the Carriage blinded with the Prospect of so large a present at a 
small Expenee The several Bills paid by your Honour <fcc a and us with the 
Padree's note for 25,000 Eupees the amount kept Secret till our Arrivall were 
the only Friends Seerhaud [Sarhad] could get for this, and the other Concessions 
above mentioned, indeed we were afraid of finding larger Sums so complied with 
this designing to Change the note which was afterwards performed, but with the 
Addition of more broad Cloth seeing they insisted that that note was purely for 
the gift of the Carriage when Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] first began to 
quarrell with this priest, we were now and then diverted in the Padree's merry 
moods by his reviling Seerhaud [Sarhad] with his lying Letters, scheemes and 
orders, particularly one which cannot be omitted, his writing to the Padree to 
petition the King that he had four Years ago brought this Present near Lahore for 
Behauder Shaw [Bahadur Shah] whose Death interferring and Moezzudeen 
[Mu'izz-ud-din Jahandar Shah] having sacrificed all his Brothers he was resolved 
the Murtherer of Arimuth Shawn ['Azimu-sh-Shan] should never have the 
Possession of it, but that returning by the way of Suratt and from thence to 

1 The Ehamdmanl. the office or department of the Lord Steward, to which pertained all the 
■tore house* and magazine*, tht provisioning and supplying ot the Court. 

150 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

Bengali, the Present was reserred for him alone This was such a notorious lye 
that even the Padree himself was ashamed of. 

Pursuant to your Honour a ' 8 &c^> Orders some Time after our Arrivall we 
began to discourse with the Padree concerning his Account that we might know 
how he had disposed of the Large Sums which he had received from us the Delays 
that here ensued made us Conclude that said Account was then to be made up as 
they should think fitt among themselves The very demanding of it put the 
Padree to a stand for having other Scheems in his head he desigued by the 
frequent Management of the Business to have scotted of the Debts which his 
Former debauchery and Folly had led him into in this finding his Mistake he 
fell roundly to work on the Account as the only way to be revenged the first 
demand on us was for 1200 rs, which being rejected a month or two afterwards 
we heard to the amount of 7000 rupees and that the Account was delivered into 
Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad], we endeavoured by all possible Means to get 
Sight of it, but to no purpose telling Seerhaud [Sarhad] he would in the End be 
answerable for it and that the sum of 17,000 rupees could not be ballanced by 
saying the Expence amounted to 24,000, wherefore there was no other way for 
his own clearance than by Submitting it to examination this business at Last 
reached Syud Sallabut C'awn's [Sayyad Salabat Khan's] Ears, who taking notice 
of it said he always took the Padree for a man of Integrity but that now since 
be had made such Extravagant Demands there must Certainly be a piece of 
Roguery in it, and as it was Impossible for him to have expended near that Sum, 
bo instead of receiving anything he ought to be swinged the Nabob's Mutsuddy 
[mutasadi] Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] was of the same opinion Mons. Martin took 
Care to let us know that Liquor and a Common Strumpet who had culled him had 
Carryed away best part of the mony all this when told to Cjjah Seerhaud 
["Kh wajah Sarhad] had not the least Influence For there was no Account to b» 
had, nevertheless the Padree being in debt some means must be found out 
for his Eebuf we then enquired of the Gentues that attended him and had the 
main Hand in our business (one of whom we had then Entertained) he was 
attacked both with mileness and severity to discover what he knew as to 
the Sums he could give no Account, neither did he know what Bills the Padree 
drew they being drawn and the Advises sent in the Armenian Language, he 
says he frequently advised him to give a full Account to us in Persians, as he 
did to Seerhaud [Sarhad] but without Effect In this he wis true for when- 
ever any Bill Came there was never any mention of [it] in Persians and 
only what we received from Seerhaud [Sarhad] that so much Money had been 
expended on such a business it is certain we hindered the Draught of greater 
Sums by refusing Payment to one of the first Bills. The Gentue whose name 
is Mittersein [Mitr Sen], informed us that what the Padree received here from 
his Armenian Brethren was in goods and not Specie so that as 1< 0'J rupees was in 
his distress depreciated to 4 or 600 rupees ready Cash the debt with Interest 
and Ixehango was on the Contra advanced to 160fJ This was admirable 
dispatch, and what we Suspected to have some truth in it further he Confessed 
that when the Padree was in Cash there was always merry doings it being 
Supposed that the Gentue had given us some Information Seerhaud [Sarhad] for 

Delhi, December, 1716. 151 

6 or 8 months has neither taken notice of nor employed him in any Manner of 
Business altho at first-picked out by himself as the fittest Person for his Assist- 
ance we have hinted above that on the Payment of any Bill drawn by the Padree 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] advised us that it was on such and such an occasion among 
which the bill for 2000 rupees was for a pretended Present to the King during the 
Jesson [jasfai] upon Enquiry we found there was such Design on Foot a Glass 
being bought for 1200 rupees whose intrinsick worth was 400 rupees besides some 
other small Things the G-lass was returned being carried too late the other 
Particulars upon Examination of present Office we found delivered amounting to 
500 rupees according to the most Extravagant Calculation This was a blot no 
one could answer the next thiDg we took in hand was what wrote down for 
Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] he was as Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] says Charged upwards 4500 rupees we received particular 
Information on this Head so do beleive 3000 rupees to be the very outside 
during this Intervall the Padree threatned to go down to Bengali where he 
would make his demands sometimes to Suratt and sometimes complain to his 
Majesty C : Hocknuzzer with the plea of Charity pressed us very hard in 
the Padrees behalf but finding himself denyed was not a little disgusted last of 
all C : Phanoose [Khwajah Fanus] 1 was Esteemed the properest man to work 
upon us but the Padree not appearing according to appointment that was laid 
aside also however this man when alone some Other day discoursed on that 
Subject in a method very foreign to what we had formerly heard, Viz* something 
concerning Cojah Serhauds [Khwajah Sarhad's]' Orders and Letters to tho 
Padree which would have been further explained had not the Accidentall 
Coming of C Seerhaud [Sarhad] prevented it whether he heard or only suspected 
the discourse we cannot tell but are certain he has hindered Phanoose [Fanus] 
from coming any more near us, in short we have very good Information that 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] was liberal in his Orders to the Padree wherefore if his 
Account is extraordinary large he had Authority for the Expending it For the 
Honour of the Armenians in generall the Padree dares neither show nor publickly 
own it and Se«rhaud [Sarhad] to screen himself frequently coaxes him with 
fair promises at Least, for we have been told the Padree threatens to advise 
the Church of it How this Affair will be Concluded we cannot judge but suppose 
the Orders will be at last produced and Cojah [Khwajah] Obliged to become 
responsible this is the State of the Case as it has hitherto reached our Knowledge 
and in which we have been the more particular beleiving some Day or another 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] will be called to Account for it. 

We observed in a Letter of Instructions from your Honour &c a to us that 
Cojah Manour [Khwajah Manawar] is particularly recommended to have a great 
hand in the Management of our business wherefore we were to Comport our- 
selves towards him accordingly. To the Letters that were produced before your 
Honour &c a as sent from him we take this to be the fittest opportunity to 
unfold the Cheat Cojah Manour [Khwajah Manawar] had never the least hand 
in our business neither has he been any ways capacitated during this Kings Eeign 

1 Khwajah Fanus was a painter brought from Surat to Court by Farrukbsiyar's special 
order. The Court Historiographer, Muhammad Ahsam, Ijad, has a long descant on the 
marvels of FSnus' pictures. 

152 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

He is one Thousand Munsub [Mansab,] and Governor of the Tombs in Agra, but 
as he is in disgust with the Court Seldom or Never goes near it, its no wonder 
that Seerhaud [Sarhad] produced Letters from him seeing he had the Impudence 
to Confess to us that having all sorts of seals ready he could make Letters 
in what stile and from whom he pleased which he had often done when the 
Honourable President and Council! were dispirited, there are many men in the 
World that have been guilty of those things, but very few who have been so 
enormously wicked and shameless as to own and defend it. 

Upon due Consideration we found the Stress of our Business at first depended 
on Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] which made us the more solicitous to oblige 
him and the old Gentleman being Jealous that we might make our Application 
elsewhere has kept John Surman in the best part of his own house what means 
did Seerhaud [Sarhad] leave unattempted for his remove affirming it not to 
lay in this man's Power to Effect our Business sometimes applying to one some- 
times to another of Cawndora's [Khan Dauran's] Servants without any manner 
of Success if we desired him to go to the Bay Baya [Bae Bayan] or Nutmull 
[Nath Mall] whom we found to have obstructed the Business endeavouring to 
bring them over by Bribery he would make us fair promises but was sure to 
forget it when our first Petition was delivered in and by Cawndora [Khan 
Dauran] sent to the Duanny \_dirvant] records to receive its remarks, we Earnestly 
desired Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] to take Care that what was wrote 
thereon might be in our Favour, to which he made the Accustomary Answer 
to be sure never fear, I will do it and at the same time never took the least notice 
of it yet deceiving us with some Story or other till all was Spoild and then 
came with the Excuse, How could I help it the ill Consequences of this have been 
long since apparent to your Honour &c» Viz* the weightyest part of our 
Petition not granted, and we led in a String for 8 Months longer which we 
passed over with a Deal of uneasiness altho no Stone was left unturned for our 
Eeleif Al\ the Arguments Seerhaud [Sarhad] could muster for our forsaken (sic) 
Syud Sallabut Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] provd fruitless now asserting his 
Incapacity and at another Time his Boguery these delays being only designed to 
squeeze more money from us then again that Cawndora [Khan Dauran] wanted 
a Lack of Bupees we had various Seheems laid for a new Pahon [patron?] 
nay he carried the matter so far as to Spend 7 days in drawing up a new Petition 
when nothing would Serve him but it must be delivered to Etmaund Cawn 
[I'timad Khan] one of the Eunuchs and from which he was not easily diswaded 
in fine his being so very Pragmatical in such like particulars has given us more 
trouble and uneasiness than Cawndora [Khan Dauran] by his delays. 

The Business of Attesham Cawn [Ptisan Khan] presents itself nest to our 
View, There Cojah [Khwajah] had a Sea of Durbar to swim in going backward 
and forward daily and acting just as he pleased for two or three Months together 
wo had a Parcell of fine Stories brought us how that all was done that the 
Honourable Companys business was effected according to his Wish sometimes 
it was sign [ed] at others we should have the Papers delivered us and the 
Seaw [Siya hah} for the Phirmaund [farman} without its going either to the 
King Vizier or Cawndora [Khan Dauran] His daily possitiveness made us look 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 153 

about we were to!d this being contrary to all rule and Custom was impossible 
to be done at this Court where everything runs in its proper and Set Channell 
if any of these Arguments were used to him against the Probability of his 
Storys he would Storm fall into a • Passion and to be revenged of us Neglect 
the Companys Business for 4 or 5 days afterwards when onr Business came to a 
Crisis in the Duanny Ketcherry [diwani kachahrt] our Vackeels [toakils] one of 
brought us the Papers as they had been signed by the Duan Colsa \_diwan-i- 
l]ialisah~], had not this been happily discovered God knows what farther ill 
Consequences might have ensued for it is Certain Seerhaud [Sarhad] would never 
have revealed [it] so long as his Folly had any hopes to retrieve it and [in] th e 
midst of this AffairBoguechund [Bhog Chand] the Duan Colsa' 's[ditvan-i-khalisah' *] 
Peescar \j>e$hka?'2 discovered a very unsettled Carriage wherefore upon mature 
Consideration we found it absolutely necessary that he should be bribed the 
result of this was that Seerhaud [Sarhad] informed us he had made it up for 
10,000 rupees but that Muttsuddy \rnutasadi\ refusing to take the Note that was 
offerd, caused us to Suspect there was not a compleat Adjustment however his 
Superiour obstinacy prevailed over those Fears till we received a palpable Foil and 
then to his Former Excuse how Could I help it they told me so the receipt of 
this disappointment and the Strange Carelessness of our Patron Cawndora [Khan 
Dauran] occasioned what we wrote your Honour Ac* August the 1 st in which 
was a double Intention one to use upon the last Extremity, and the other to 
make Seerhaud [Sarhad] become more Subject to our Commands for altho' he 
might delay the business to serve his own privatey Ends or gratify his Obstinacy, 
yet the least Tryal of disgust in the Court must Euin him past redress how 
unaccountably he signed the Letter we Cannot Tell but his refusing to sign the 
Same to Bombay was much more unanswerable this Shows the man and what 
little regard he has for his Word. 

Your Honour &c a . will find by our Consultation Book what Vacqueels 
[xcaJclls] we brought with us from Patna which we designed should have been 
employed by, and received Orders from Seerhaud [Sarhad] pursuant to your 
Honour &cas Instructions having used all possible means to accomplish the 
particular we found Seerhaud [Sarhad] Obstinately averse to it and altho brought 
to an open dispute your Honour &c a . s Orders produced together with the absolute 
necessity at that Time yet Sooner than Show the least Compliance he under 
went a Protest as for orders they have always been his least Concern and for 
protest he did not Value fifty he has farther told us that if any Vacqueel 
(wakxl) was employed he would from that moment wash his Hands Clean of 
the Companys Business and we might take care of it our Selves our General 
affairs at that Time being in a most distracted posture we esteem it policy 
not to insist farther on this Occasion altho in the Bight but rather Comply 
with an Obstinate Fool than by a Longer dispute render that irrecoverable which 
was before in so bad a Condition however to pursue his wonted Absurdityg 
seven days were not elapsed before he pickt out one of the Vackeels (wakilt) 
himself giving him his Orders and again in a Fortnights time Could not 
bear the sight of him one while his block headed Armenians were made vacqueels 
{waJcili) and swore to be the fittest men and at another Time Chubdars and 

154 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

Kismutgars 1 went down for which there was'always an Excuse ready your 
Honour &c» must suppose us men of very little or very great Spirits to suffer all 
this without sometimes breaking out its true we were now and then over Come 
hut them he took Care to make us remember it and the Honourable Companys' 
Business, was sure to pay a seven days Tribute to the Villaines Kevenge, in fine none 
of our Servants were employed in any affair of Consequence and to turn them 
away such a distance from home would have been great injustice as well as wrong 
policy for as the keeping them obliged Seerhaud [Sarhad] to be upon his guard so 
he knew them to be true to us and did advise of all Occurrences that Came 
to their knowledge every thing carried this Face till the time came for our Papers 
to move towards the Duanny Ketcherry (dhcani kacliahrl) and writing the 
Phirmaunds [farmans], and Perwannaes {jpartcanahs] when finding himself 
at a stand he was obliged to call the Gentue to his assistance to make Choice 
of ours was to fear discovering what he wished to Continue a Secret and 
perfectly lay open his Indirect Practices besides your Honour &ca must know 
he mightily effects working miracles and making the plainest things appear 
misticall only to be unravelld by his superior Genius and Experience to supply 
this dificiency a Gentue of his own was provided whom he employd privately 
but that not Serving he was obliged to choose another of a great Eank who 
was ordered every where as he thought fit tons he often denied it and as frequently 
Said he would trust none of them this touching our own Vacqueels (wakUs) very 
sensibly a heavy Complaint was made we found they had too much reason, yet as the 
Season was improper to take notice of it so we promised they should loos Nothing 
by their good demeanour and that a Time might be found to reward them which 
would redound much more to their Honour and Advantage By this means we 
pacified them who serve Cheifly for Spyes on the others Actions and in which 
his own Servants are of Excellent Service for it being Contrary to his nature 
to be good to anyone so hardly paying their Wages its not likely that he should 
bv any reward secure them to his Interest. 

It may not be improper to launch into the Story of the new Kirperam [Kirpa 
Earn], the Secret part of which is not entered in our Consultation Eook this 
man was proposed by Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] as a Sheet Anchor and 
the ultimate means to effect our business with Cawndora ["Khan Dauran] and that 
be would give us our Phirmaunds \_farmans] &c* Grants signed and sealed in 
the Space of eight days and while this was promised with so much fire and Energy, 
poor Sallabut Cawn [Salibat Khan] must be laid aside as a tool good for nothing 
but blotted with the Characters of Fool and Rogue-Hydera Cooli Cawn [Haidar 
Quli Khan] having wrote of our design to withdraw the Suratt Settlement 
gave Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] an Opportunity to Speak of our Business we 
were of Opinion Seerhaud [Sarhad] was Convinced of this m[ans] feigned abilitys 
by his Countryman called Hocknuazer who represented him as an Instrument 
not only Capable to effect the Honourable Companys Business but very proper to 
be employed in his own private Affairs We at first Consented to the Pursuit 
meerly because Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] approved it, and th»t he might 
Serve to Startle Cawndora [Khan Dauran] into a better opinion of our Petition, 
1 Chobdar* and khidmatgars, mace-bearers and home-servants. 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 155 

but we were in a Short Time sensible of bis small abilitys to do us any Service 
and that our Cheif Dependance was on tho Old Staff Sallabut Cawn [Salabat 
Khan] during this Project we were pressed to Come to an Agreement of what 
Snm we would give in Case the .Business was Effected and to Perswade us to 
deliver a Note, All the most possitive arguments were fetch'd that Kirperam 
[Kirpa Earn] bad undertaken it would go tbro' Stictch (sic) and was to bave 
the Petition dolivered himfor Examination with abundance of such idle Stor[i]es, 
our Judgements were not to be wrongd with appearances especially after so much 
Experience of the Person who gave the recommendum instead of the promised 
despatch of 8 days 6 weeks were elapsed without so much as receiving the 
Petition from Cawndora [Khan Dauran] nay when the matter Came in dispute 
and the Concessions were made by the means of Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] 
he was not only absent but bad just before declared he would have nothing to 
do in our Business till tbe Papers were Signed nevertheless Cojah Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] as obstinalely as ever asserted all to be done by Kirperam 
[Kirpa Ram] and that he would stop it till he was satisfied which brought us 
to the resolution mentioned in our Consultation Book September the 17 as 
this was to no purpose so the Close Viz* that the Phirds I fords'] signed by the 
King should be delivered to him was more false than the rest, they being by 
Cawndora [Kh an Dauran] Orderd to be opened in the Presence of Syud Sallabut 
Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] after that we lay quiet for some time but expecting 
a Storm from that Quarter we Soothed him and promised him a handsome 
Present w for the Services he has done us altho he himself had not been so 
punctuall to affect all by his own means these Overtures proved insufficient, 
for we were told he expected 10,00U rupees Affirming that he had done all and 
insinuations were made that in Case of our non Compliance he might feign 
Letters from Hydera Oooli Cawn [Haidar Qui! Khan] which might have quite 
different Effects from the former Upon Enquiry we found these Storys perfectly 
Contrived to get a Large Sum of Money from us not so much for the Sake 
of our Honourable Masters as for the Airy Scheems of Seerhaud s [Sarhad's] 
own Voyage to England this is the true State of the Affair at present what may 
be the Conclusion shall be duely advisd hereafter. 

We have just touched in our Consultation Book on the Projects of Cojah 
Seerhauds [Khwajah Sarhad's] going to England and there buying rarietys for 
the King of Indostan as for our private Letters they may have made frequent 
mention of it its now our duty to disclose without reserve what we know of this 
his dealing [?] Two Years have been a Continued Series of this light discourse 
what the King had promised e're we arrived at Court his Character to the King 
of England and what voyages he was to make in Europe with a long List of 
Raritys to be provided and the great profitts to be raised on that Account} add to 
this many other Favours which he had to desire here This Relation was duoubled 
(sic) to all the Courtiers and Eunuchs in the City with the hopes that some lucky 
Chance might carry it to the Kings Ear however being disappointed he drew the 
whole Scheem up in writing but would never Show us the whole having seen 
the Barietys that are Contained therein we Shall repeat them as near as occurs 
to our memory Viz* a Throne and Chair of Amber, A Throne and Chair of 

156 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

Chrystall, fine large glass conts very Large looking Glasses China Tiles sufficient 
for a Palace a Mill to coin money costing 20,000 rupees which goes without 
fire or other trouble and the workmen to be brought with him, to bring Founders 
who shall recast all his Majestys heavy Artillery to greater Advantage and 
Easiness of Carriage to cast Mortars and their Shells bringing Ingineers with 
them these are the Cheif Articles of his proposition besides many other small 
rarieties whieh the King may desire and as the prosecution of this affair will 
require a round Sum of ready Cash so he expocted an order for the Receipt 
of the Hughly Customs and other orders on all Europeans for his Transportation 
and the English in particular for his return Seerhaud [Sarhad] upon his Arrival 
here finding his project for so much specie would fail raised another that might 
Serve his turn. The having a Present Sent to the King of England and Company 
of Traders with Phirmaunds [farmans] mentioning Seerhaud [Sarhad] to be the 
Kings royall Merchant bound to England where he was to buy him rarietys 
and that if any of those Goods were prohibited by our Laws they should be 
dispensed with on this Occasion he received Liberty to return and bring the 
above mentioned rarietys with him on any of our Ships this is an abstract of 
what he showed us and is entered in our Consultation of July the 9 th when We 
"Wholy rejected it as having no Orders nor Authority from your Honours 
&c* for our Compliance we have since received animadversions from your 
Honour &c* on that head which were duely explained to him at which time 
putting on a Self denying Countenance he protested never to address the King or 
incumber our Honourable Masters affairs with his own this we know to be 
notoriously false seeing we are this moment Satisfied he pursues it and has 
delayed the Generall Affair purely on that Account he is frequently so 
rain as to tell us he is in daily Expectation the King would send for him 
since he is sure his Majesty is so muoh delighted with his Propositions that 
more than he can wish will be granted and then (Says he) you'll find what 
you have lost by not coming in with my designs of aggrandizing the English 
Nation and Company nay I am afraid the Governour and Council will force me 
to it at last and in the mean time you have neither Power nor means to prevent 
it we have hitherto found nothing Substantial! going forward all continues "Wind 
Kirperam [Kirpa Ram] was the last Ingineer whom we now find succeeded by 
Sallaly Cawn [Jalal Khan"! this man is to prevail on Etmaud Cawn the Cheif 
Coi ■} to hatch his unnaturall birth to which end the Sum of 6000 rupees has 
been proposed The Cawn \hhan\ is a perfect Mogull and the Coj : [khojah'] as 
true a Courtier wherefore till we see it done there is no Credit to be given and 
as yet it is not began we shall not want Advices and endeavour the Prevention 
Bhould it prove the old Story nothing being more Certain than that the Conse- 
quences will carry more stings than appear at Present. 

On the presenting our first petition Seerhaud [Sarhad] was very uneasy that 
we would not ask for 12,000 rupees in new Towns the Event has proved us in the 
right but his Superlative Obstinacy will never Submit to Conviction he drew up a 
Petition wherein he desired the remaining 4000 rupees for himself besides all 

1 I'tim d Khfcn, the chief hhojah or eunuch. 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 17J 6. 157 

those which belong to Sultan Mahmud who he said was dead this Project delayed 
our Generall Affair some time he waiting with great Uneasiness an Answer to his 
Letter which he wrote Concerning that Zemidar's Ground [?] we Suppose this 
Petition is to attend tho other and is as likely to meet with success. 

Your Honour Ac* upon Seerhauds [Sarhad's] leaving Calcutta, gave a Con- 
siderable Sum to supply him with Apparell fit to make a handsome Appearance 
and Suitable to his Character besides an handsome Monthly Allowance for his 
attendance &c» Expences to what use he has and does put this money we are still 
igonorant, but for Cloths he has none that are tollerable the Seerpaw [sar-o-pa~\ 
which he has received being Excepted and as they are known by their Scantiness 
so it is very mean to wear them in fine he has been so entirely Scandalous in 
his Apperance as has been a Shame to us all nay our Common Vacqueels 
\waklls] make a much better, his monthly Allowance is managed with the Same 
Penurious Hand he keeps not half the number of Servants and these so hardly 
paid as few Continue with him 2 Months together "We have made a near 
Enquiry into his Monthly Expences where we find according to the most 
Extravagant Calculation they Cannot Exceed 500 rupees Yet to ub with a 
Prodigious Assurance he affirms that he Spends 1500 rupees and that he has 
a long Account to demand because the Batta of the Eupees could not be 
excused him, he has refused to receive his allowance threatening with much 
bitterness to draw bills on your Honour &c* to receive Interest from the time 
his money became due with these and many such strange obstinate Humours 
does he daily plague us Occasions so very small and insignificant that any man 
of Spirit would be ashamed off he has got another very pretty way of perplexing 
the Cause and raising difficultya out of nothing Alliban Sultan and Bustums 
Affair at Surat was suposed would do us much mischeif the business of Hossein 
Amidan and the Danes was to risque the Success of the Present affair we were told 
what Complaints were made to the Vizier and Orders obtaind on Jaffer Cawn 
[Ja'far Khan] &c a but were so happy as to hear of it from no other hand however 
on the least offer to dispute Seerhaud [Sarhad] became enraged and imputed all 
to our Ignorance besides all this we were frightned with Hobgoblin Stories of 
M rs - Woodvill Captain Penuce's Banyan Sultan Surang and one more who would 
Complain against us here with the great Trouble and risque we should run on 
these accounts his Vain Lying is as bad the other way for besides his Voyage to 
England Sweden and Denmark he is after receipt of our Phirmaunds Ifarmans] 
&c a Grants to make them first Current in Bengali then to proceed to Bombay 
and Surat and afterwards to Madras in all which places he is to do the like 
giving the Honb le Company possession of Divy the whole to be Compleated 
before his departure for Europe nay he asserts that in Case he does not under- 
take it the Grants will be of no manner of use there not being another Man in 
India who is Capable to perform it he Frequently tells us what great Favour 
he may expect from his Majesty in a Few days how the King is to call for him in 
the Publick Duan (dhoan) and how great they are to be all Lyes forged that 
very minute so light and vain that we are even ashamed to repeat them yet 
ore his daily practice in discourse. 

158 DELHI, DECEMBEB, 1716. 

His pretended Knowledge of the Court and its Customs without being really 
acquainted with the least Title has been very prejudiciall to our Affairs and we 
as often deceived as ever we trusted to it He never took the least Care to oblige 
the Mier Toosein 1 or his Assistance who are present before his Majesty which very 
much lessened the notice that might have been taken of us and laid us open to 
Insults which never happened when we took Care of it our Selves. 

What proves most grievous to us is his frequent protestations never to take the 
least notice of any orders that may Come from your Honour &c* or any other 
Settlement nay not only to profess but Actually to be as good as his Word as for 
us he has very little Uneasiness, will tell only what he pleases and take our Advice 
as he thinks fitt. 

These things added together we think picture out a man truely discharged 
from his Conscience Honourand Religion with the fear of Punishment for all which 
he has got some Convenient Logicisms For Religion and Conscience he believes 
every man receives his Reward and punishments in this world so no Fear of 
futurity For honour and a good repute that is as you shall conceive it saying all 
the world is alike outward show excepted and for the Fear of Punishment he 
ballances all by saying if our business Succeeds your Honour &c a will never make 
an Examination into his or any one's behaviour if we fail then he for Persia and 
we where we please. 

It may be wonderd in so long an Accusation that we have not described his 
embezzling any of our Honb le Masters money or goods he has had but very 
Little opportunity but we beleive he would not have Stuck at this could he have 
found a Companion in his Villany now is the time of bribing with ready money 
so if he has any such designs this is the Season to effect it however he can do 
nothing considerable, but it must reach our Ears and we shall note it down in a 
very particular manner. 

Fearing we have by our prolixity trespassed to much on Your Honour &c» s 
patience We shall not descend to farther Particulars but only make some general 
[Remarks It is Certain Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] was furnished with 
abilities sufficient to do much good among which was his Knowledge of the differ- 
ent Interests of our Honble Masters and what was wanting for the benefitt of 
trade in India So our Petitions owe their Composing cheifly to him but that all 
iB all the advantage that can be possibly reapd from Seerhaud [Sarhad] He can 
never answer our Honourable Masters intentions as Yacqueel [icaMf] in these 
parts notwithstanding the vast Charge they have and will be at on his Account 
for that Business is purely appropriated to the G-entues without whom nothing 
is to be done However he has been so far from owning this opinion that bigotted 
to his own knowledge pretended Experience and distrust of their honesty he fell 
into uncommon roads and where [he] Continued through obstinacy till there 
remaind not any glimpse of Success at least without a prodigious expence All must 
carry a deep Face of policy and 5 days protracted to 15 to make the plainest 
things intricate without any visible amendment but these actions have frequently 
■avoured of deceit he having Sold our Honourable Masters to make the greater 

1 The mir tezak, i.e., the master o! the ceremonies or chamberlain, 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 159 

improvement of their Allowance We are perfectly unacquainted with the good he 
has done in Generall but do not question he has taken Care to call every thing 
his own and stand fast to the Old maxim alls well that ends well be it attained at 
any rate. 

We humbly appeal to your Honour &ca for Justice and desire con- 
Bidering [what] we must have all undergone for above those two Years what 
advantages lost by not having those opportunitys of trade to which our 
Service entitle us and otherwise what the least of us would have enjoyed 
had not we Come on this occasion besides the great Expence we have been 
obliged to be at out of our own Pocketts for apparell &C* [at] this dear Court 
and without which we should have made but indifferent Eepresentatives of our 
Country in so pompous an Assembly So much going out of one hand and so 
little coming into the other will make a Ballance on the wrong side of our Stock 
if not reimbursed by your Honour &c* as well for our Loss of Time as for 
Expences and insted of Cojah Seerhauds [Khwajah Sarhad's] Leek of Eupees 
the only reward we want is that your Honour &c^ are satisfied with our beha- 
viour and will give us a pla[udit] as good Actors which being what we hoped for 
has encouraged [us to] pursue this negotiation thro' so many troublesome tra[cks] 
and windings now So near its desired End, God grant that all may be concluded 
to the Glory and Honour of our Nation and Interest of our Masters are the 
hearty desires of 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your most obedient Humble Servants 

John Subman 
Transcribed by Thomas Moobb. Edwabd Stephbnson 

Hugh Babkeb 
Examined by John Dix. Thomas Phillips." 


December 20* 1716. 

158. DlARTT. 

D cember 25* 

11 This being Christmasday an Entertainment 
made for all the Christians in the Court." 

157. Consultation. 

" The King has ordered his Tents out off the City, and gives 
out that he proceeds to them himself tomorrow 
with an intention to hunt. As yett we see no 
absolute necessity to Follow him and thereby Enhance our Expences, 
butt having Tents and Camells ready Agreed that they be sent out, 
And what small addition of Servants are necessary that they be 
taken in." 

160 DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 

158. Lettbb XXV 1 . 

" To the Honourable Robebt Hedges Esq? Governour 
of Fort William and President for Affairs of the 
Honourable united Company of Merchants of Eng« 
land trading to the East Indies &c a Council in Bengali. 

" Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Our last to your Honour Ac* was the 21 s TJlt.- we were in hopes much 
sooner than this to have repeated the Good News but the Strange dilatoriness 
that attends all manner of business here has kept us also at a Snails Pace, 
so that we fear the present Cossids [gawds'] will not be able to reach your last 
Europe Dispatches, however the three Phirmaunds [fdrmcLns~} for Bengali Madrass 
and Surat, being drawn up in the Secretary's Office and approved of by the Meer 
Monchoo, 2 by whom they were sent in to his Majesty for his Approbation 
likewise, we have taken Copies thereof and now send them for your Honour 
&c a ' 8 Perusal, ifc being already finished by all the under Muttsuddies \mutasadls] 
we are under no Apprehensions of any Alterations to our Disadvantage. As soon 
as it pleases God that they come out Signed by his Majesty, we shall take care 
to dispatch the Good news with the greatest Expedition, but not expecting it to 
reach the Bengali Shipping, we do at this time dispatch the same good news 
with Copies of the Phirmaunds (farmans) to the Honourable the President and 
Council of Bombay, in hopes that a Conveyance may be met with from that 
Quarter. So soon as these Papers come out approved by his Majesty they will 
be wrote over fair, then carried to the Vizier for his Seal, and lastly to the 
Office where they will receive his Majesty's great Seal. 

The Duanuy \_diwani~] Sunuds are all wrote over fair, but not yet Signed by 
the Duan Colsa [diwan-i-TchalisaK], we don't remit their Copies, besides their not 
being of so great Consequence. 

The Kings Tents are gone out of the City to morrow is the day appointed for 
his Majesty to follow them the report is he goes to Hunt where he went last 
Season, this will add something to the natural delays of this Court, but the 
seeming good Posture of our Affairs at present give us courage to pursue a 
Glorious Conclusion with our Accustomary Patience. 

November 29 th came to hand your Honour &ca's of date October 30 th with 
the enclosed Paragraphs of a Letter from Fort Sf George, we find the Strange 
Slowness of our Cossids (gasids) has occasioned your Honour &c a to be longer 
in those melancholly Apprehensions than the real cause of our Affairs would allow, 
so that Letter requires no farther answer than a reference to our Dispatches since 
that time for better news. 

Four Months are now elapsed Since Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 
refused to take his monthly Allowance, by reason he would not suffer the batta 

i This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St George on Monday the 
4th March, 1717, and is to be found in the Madras Diary and Consultation Book for 1715 to 
1719, No. 87, RangeJ 239 in the India Office. It also occurs in the " C> py Book of letters 
received from M r Surman etc. at the Mogul's Court " mentioned above, I. O., Home Series. 
Miscellaneous No. 70. 

2 The mxr mumhi, i.e., the person charged with drafting formal letterss and commands, 

DELHI, DECEMBER, 1716. 161 

to be cut on Allumgeery {A'lamglrl) rupees, yet lately he has received his money, 
and we have agreed to refer this Affair to the Decision of your Honour &c» 

John Surman having Paid the Sum of twenty Seven thousand Siccas into the 
Honourable Company's Cash Account the Honourable Edward Harrison Esqr 
we have given him a Bill of Exchange the 22 nd Inst, payable to the Honourable 
Robert Hedges Esq? and Mr. Henry Frankland which we hope your Honour 
&c* will duely Honour. 

Enclosed comes Accounts Cash, "Warehouse and Charges General with Copies 

of Consultations for the last Month. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Dilly Decf 27 th 1716. Your most obedient humble Servants." 


The foregoing is Copy of what we wrote your Honour &ca Yesterday. The 
Cossida [cjasids~\ that carried it are just now returned, being plundered of their 
Letters &ca by some Mewatties about 15 Coss off this Place, for which reason not 
to delay them anv longer we immediately dispatch them again, and do enclose other 
Copies of the Phirmaunds \_farmans~\ which we hope will meet with better fortune. 
Copies of our Accounts &e* we hope to dispatch in a few days, with the Good news 
of the Kings having approved the Phirmaunds [forma ns\. 

We are, Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your most obedient humble Servants 
Dilly Decf 28 th 1716. John Subman 

Cojah Seeehaud assenting Edwabd Stephenson." 

H. Babkeb Secretary. 

159. Letteb XXVII 1 . 


"We wrote your Honour &c» the 27 th enclosing Copies of the Phirmaunds 
[farmans] our Account &c* of which the Cossids \_qasids~] being Plundered we 
dispatcht a Duplicate with another set of Phirmaunds ifarmans] the 28 th of both 
which the foregoing are Copies. 

This chiefly Serves to impart the Good news to which we your Honour &c. 
received last night from the Camp by Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad], that the 
King had Signed the Phirmaunds [farmans] which came out sometime yesterday. 
That ten of the Sunnods \_sanads~\aire Signed by the DuanColsa [diwan-i-khalisah~\ 
and sent to the Visier for his Seal, the others which remain are expected to be in 
the same forwardness a few days hence. 

Enclosed comes Account Cash, Warehouse Charges general and Copies of the 

Consultations, all which were before lost, with both Copies of the Phirmaunds 


We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most obedient bumble Servants 

Dilly Dec 31 st 1716. John Subman 

Edwabd Stephenson." 
C. Seeehatjd 

Hugh Babkeb, Sec 1 "?. 

1 Read at the same Consultation as Letter XXV. 

January 3rd 17-—=- , 

162 delhi, january, 1717. 

160. Diary. 

16 " Mr. Sum: an dc* went to the Camp, and 

Salamedto the King upon his March to Polta. 1 
Syud Caun Jaun 2 was dispatched hence to Assist against the Jaats, 
and Naar Caun 3 to Bring Eaja Adjetseen to Court." 

161. The three Farmans. 

"A Translate off three Phirmaunds [farmans] Granted to the Eight 
6 Honb le English East India Company for a free 

trade By Furruekseer [Farrukhsiyar] King off 

Dilly, January 171 


162. Bengall Behar and Okixa. 

To all Governours and their Assistants, Jaggeerdars \_jayirdars] 
Phowsdars [faujddrs], Corrorys [frro/v], 4 Guards on y e roads & rivers, 
and Jemidars [zimlndars], off y e Subaships off Bengali, Behar and 
Orixa, that Are att present and shall be hereafter, The Port off 
Hugly &c a ports off these Subaships. Lett them live always in 
hopes off the Kings Favour, and by these presents know That att this 
time off conquest and being conquerour Mr. John Surman and Cojah 
Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] Factors to y e English Company have 
humbly petitioned to the throne off Justice that according to y e 
Nishaun \_nishdn~\ off him who is pardoned and has power in heaven, 
pleased with y e Love off God, The Saintlike King who is in heaven 
The will off God is great and so is y e word, (Azzimuth Shaun) 

1 MirzS Muhammad says Farrukhsiyar started on the 7 th January 1717 N. S. (27 Dec. 
1716 O S) and camped at Mnsjid Mochiyat. Polta probably is meant for Pslam, a small place 
about 12 miles S. W. of Dilhi, to which Kamwar Khan says the expedition proceeded. It 
figures in the saying which satirized the pompous titles of the emperors in their decadence. 
Shuk-i u'lam, az Dihll tu Pulam — " Lord of the World, as far as Palam." 

2 Sayyad Muzaffar Khan BSrbah, maternal uncle of ' Abdullah Kh5n, the vizier, 
had lately been created Sayyad KhSn Jahan. The date of his despatch according to the 
Persian historians was tbe 30th Muharram 1129 H. i.e. 3rd Jan 1717. He hid been 
summoned from Ajmer where he was governor. He died while in charge of the Dilhi 
fubak on the 12th ShawwSl 1132 H. t'.e. 6th August, 1720. 

3 Nahdr KhSn was believed to have great influence with A jit Singh. The rajah had 
employed his good offices three or four years before in securing terms from Husain ' All Khan 
when Marwar was invaded. Apparently ho waR a Shekhzadah of Hansl. He was sent a 
favjdar of Sambhar and dlwan of Ajmer on the 29th Safar 1135 H. i.e. 28th November, 1722. 

Shortly afterwards he was basely murdered with twenty five others by Ajlt Singh on the 
29th Rabi • I 1135 H. i.e. 27th December, 1722, and his camp was plundered. 

* Krori, the Famil-gvi&r of the A,ln-i-Aklarl (II, 43, Jarrett), a collector of revenue, 
■ubsequently styled lcrori, sea H. M. Elliot, " Supplemental Glossary," p. 235 $. v. Croree. 
" Guards on ye roads and rivers " represent rshddrs and gvzarbans of the Persian original. 

DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 163 

['Azimu-sh-shan], 1 & Sunnods [sanads] formerly received ; Custom ia 
pardoned the English Company, the port off Suratt Excepted. In t° 
port off Hugly a peeshcash (peshkash) off 3000 Ks. is paid into y° 
Kings treasury in lieu off Customes. They petition that according 
to former Sunnods [sanads] they may be favoured with y e Kings 
Phirmaund [farman]. The universall Commander gives this particular 
order which y e world Obeys " That all goods and necessarys which their 
"Factors off the Subaships, ports and round About, bring or carry away 
*' Either by land or water, Know they are Custom free, That they buy 
" and Sell att their pleasure. Take the Accustomary 3000 Eupees and 
" demand no more on Any Account and Iff att any time or place their 
" Goods should be stole, Endeavour to find them out, punishing the theif 
" and returning them to their due owner, and In their Settling Factorys 
" att any place, their Goods and Necessarys, buying and Selling, Lett 
" them be assisted according to Justice, That iff any Merchants Weavers 
'■* or others become Debtors, they pay their Factors their due according to 
"a Just Account, nott suffering any one to hurt or Injure said Factors, 
"and for the Customes on Wood (Cutborrah) &c? that no one molest 
"their boates or those hired by them." They Still petition the Clean 
[clear ?] high and lofty throne " That in y e Subaships and Duannys 
[diwdiris] The Originall Sunnods [sanads] are demanded, and that 
others be given thereby Itt is nott Feasable to produce y e Originalls 
in Every place." We desire that a Copy under y e Cozzys [qdzi's] 
Seal be allowed off ; y e originalls nott being demanded ; nor we 
forced to receive others thereby from y e Subab, In Culcutta there 
is a settled Faotory off the Companys. The renting off Culoutta, 
Sootalooty, and Govindpore In y e Pergunnas Ameerabad &c? in 
y e Subaship off Bengali, bought from y e Jomidars [zaminddrs], was 
formerly granted them 1195-6 the Yearly rent being paid into the 
Kings treasury. They desire that 38 towns, rent 8121-8 near those 
Abovementioned may be granted them and that the yearly rent 
be duely paid into y e treasury. The most Just order is given " That 
"the Copy under y e Cheif Cozzys (qazi's) Seal be Sufficient. 
"That the towns already bought doe remain in their possession 
" according to former Custom, and that the renting off y e Adjacent 
J* towns is granted, they being bought from y e Owners, and then 
"permission given by the Subah and Duan [dltcdn]." They Farther 
petition that from y e reign off Allumgeer [A'lamglr] The treasurys 
off .other Subaships take discompt upon Siocas made att Madrass . 

1 That is, the Emperor's father. 

164 DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 

The Silver off those Rupees is now the same with that off Suratt, 
by which they Sustain loss. They desire } e Kings Order may 
be given That in Case y e Coin is off the same fine[n n es3 with 
that off Suratt and other places, they be nott troubled for any dis- 
compt. Iff any off y e Company's Servants become Debtors, and 
Endeavour to run away, to See them delivered to y e Cheif off y e 
Factory, and By reason off Customes off Phowsdarry \_f&tijdarl\ &c* 
that is forbid The Companys Gomastoes \_gumdshtahs\ and Servants are 
very much troubled, please to pardon itt. The Imperiall order 
is strictly given, "That from the 5th Year off this Glorious reign 1 
" iff the Silver coined att Madrass be as good as that coined att the 
"Port off Suratt doe nott demand any discompt, and whomsoever 
" off y e Companys Servants being Debtors want to run Away 
" that they be Seized and delivered to y e Cheif off the Factory. For that 
" which is forbid (abob Memnoowa) [^abicab-i-mamnu i ah] Phowsdarry 
" \_faiijlarl\ &c* doe nott molest them for itt." They likewise petition 
That y e Company baving Settled Factorys in Bengali Behar and Orixa 
doe design to Settle others and accordingly desire that in any place 
where a Factory sball be appointed 40 beagues [blgahs] off Ground 
be Granted from the King for that use. That att Sometimes Ships 
are Obliged by Storms and winds to run Ashore and are wreckt. The 
Governours off ports injuriously Seize upon y e Goods and att some 
places demand y e fourth part. In the Island off Bombay belonging to 
y e English. European Coin is Currant, That according to y e Custom off 
Madrass they may coin Siccas. The Order which all ought and doe 
obey is given. " That according to y e Custom off other Factorys in 
" other Subaships Execute itt. That these people have dealings at all 
" ports and att this Court having very favourable Phirmaunds 
" [farmdns] Granted in which Custom is Excused. Take particular 
" Care off all wrecks and goods so lost by Storm belonging to them, 
" and In y 9 Island off Bombay iff the Siccas be coined According to 
"y s Siccas off Indostan Lett them pass Currant." 

To all these grants according to this Phirmaund \_farm6n~] 
which is Enlightned, " Obey forbear and forbear to act contrary to y° 
" Imperiall and Strict order, Nor Every Year demand A New Sunnod 
ti [sanad~\. Off this take particular Notice. — The 4 th day off Suffur 

l Tb* 5"» year began on the l«t R a bi' I, 1128 H., equivalent to the 13th February, 1713 

DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 165 

" [Srtfar~\.—Qto& has finished with Glory & Success — In y e 5 th Year off 
this Glorious Reign. 1 " 

163. Hyderabad [Haidarabad]. 

"To All Governours &o? Jaggeerdars [jagirdars'], Phowsdars 
[faujddrs], Currorys (kroris), To All Guards by land and water; To all 
Jemidars 1 [zamindars] ; who are and shall be hereafter off the Subaship 
of Hyderabad (Haidarabad) ; Bo always in hopes off the Kings favour, 
and by these presents know that att this time off conquest and being 
Conquerour Mr. John Surman and C. Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] 
Factors to y e English Company by y e meanes off the Approachers 
off that throne whose foundation is as Stable and unmoveable as ^the 
firmament, have made their petition to the Clean, high, and Lofty 
presence. That in the whole Subaship off Hyderabad [Haidarabad] 
the Companys trade is Custom-Free, and Att Chinapatam (Madrass) 
They pay 1200 Pagodas yearly into y e Kings treasury, Desire to 
have itt according to Custom, and that they be favoured with the Kings 
Phirmaund [farmdii] for itt. According to y e Kings books itt is 
known, and is petitioned for, That they pay y e Above-mentioned 
Summ into y e Kings Treasury. The order which all doe and ought 
to obey is strictly given " That according to former Custom doe, That 
all Goods and necessary s off their Factorys att y e ports off the Suba- 
" ship, and round About be brought and Carryed Away Either by land 
"or Water: Know that y e Custom is pardoned. That they buy and 
"sell att their pleasure. Att Chinapatam according to Custom take 
"1200 Pagodas, besides this demand no more on Any Account. Iff 
" att any time or place Any off the English Goods are lost, Use your 
" Endeavour to find them punishing y e Robber and returning y e Goods 
" to their true Owner. In their Settling Factorys att all places, In their 
" Goods and necessarys, buying and Selling, You Assist them on 
" all Just accounts and Iff any Merchants or Others become Debtors, 
" According to a true adjustment pay their Factors their due, and nott 
"Suffer any one to hurt or Injure Said Factors." They also petition 
for the Imperiall Assent That in y e war off Chingee [Jinjl] 5 towns 
were given y e Compary As A Gratuity by King Aurungzebe for 
Conveying off Ammunition and provisions into ye Kings Camp, Tur- 
watore &c^ , which they possessed for a long time. Itt is now 3 Years 

1 The 4th Safar of the 5th year, 1129 H, corresponds to 7th January 1717 O. S. The 
same date is given in Fraser " Nadir Shah," p. 53. In the Orme collections onefarman is 
dated 27th Mubarram or seven days earlier. 

166 DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 

Since the Kings officers have retaken possession. In this Glorious Eeign 
att y e time off the pretender According to the Imperiall order they Ass- 
isted Zeaudy Caun [Zyau-d-dm Khan] att y e port off Hugly with 
ammunnition &c? using their utmost Endeavours They doe petition The 
towns may be returned to their possession as formerly. This mirac- 
ulous and Grand Phirmaund [fanndti] is Granted. " That According to 
y e Custom off Allumgeer [A'lamgjr] The possession be given them." 
They likewise petition to those who stand on y e Foot-step off y e Sublime 
throne, That att y e port off Vizagapatam there is a Settlement off 
the Companys. Vizagapatam and 4 towns more are Near the Factory 
for which they pay yearly Eent 4862 Eupees According to the 
Ancient rites into y e treasury of! Cittacole [Slkakol]. Among the 
Above-towns The too far distant Villages off Purwanna and "Wboda- 
pondee whose rent is 900 E? they desire may be returned. The Im- 
periall Order is given " That 3 off y e 5 towns continue ; 2 off which, 
being deducted, they deliver up." They likewise petition that in y a 
Subaships and Duannys [dlicdnls] they demand y e Original! Grant, and 
to give another thereby, Itt is nott feasable to produce y 6 Originall in 
Every place. They humbly desire that a Copy under y e Cozzys [gazi's] 
Seal be Sufficient, without demanding \ e Originall; and that Neither 
the Subah nor Duan [chicwi] insist to give another thereby. European 
Coin is Currant in y e Island off Bombay which belongs to y 6 English. 
That Eupees be coined According to y e Custom off Madrass. That 
whoever off y e Companys Servants becoming Debtors Endeavour to run 
away, they be Sent to y e Cheif off the Factory, and For Phowsdarry 
\_faiijddri] &c? which is forbidden (Abob Memnoowa) [abicab-i-mam- 
nu'ahj 1 by which the Factors and dealers with y e Company are troubled, 
be repealed, The Order which y 9 world Ought and does Obey is 
given " That y e Copy under y e Cheif Cozzys \_qafis~] Seal is Sufficient, 
" That in y e Island off Bombay Siccas made according to those off 
" Indostan pass Currant — That whosoever off the Companys Servants 
u being Debtors, want to run away ; Seize and deliver them to y e Cheif 
" off y e Factory, and That for what is forbidden (Abob Memnoowa) 
u [abxcab-i-mannu i ah\ no one trouble them." They have farther 
petitioned to those who stand on y e steps off the throne which the 
Kings presence Graces, That v° Siccas ooined Att Chinapatam are 

i Theie were long lists of these " prohibited imports *'; for examples, see note 2 on page 171. 
Fcpijdwrx means here various market dues, ferry fees, and so forth levied by the fuujdirt and 
not by the revenue officer*. 

DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 167 

discompied in y e treasury off other Subaships. The Silver coined there 
att present is as good as what Coined att y e Port off Suratt, which 
occasions a great loss. Please to order that iff they are Standard and 
as good as those off Suratt and Other places ; no discompt be taken. 
That in Bengali, Behar, Orixa, Chinapatam, Vizagapatam &e? The 
Company have Factorys Settled and are willing to appoint others. They 
petition that 40 beagues [blgahs] off Ground may be given to Enclose a 
house in any place where they shall make A Settlement, And as Ships 
are Sometimes obliged by Storms and wind to run Ashore, and are 
wreckt : The Governours off Ports injuriously seize on y** Goods and In 
some places demand a Fourth part. The Imperial! Order is given — 
" That from y e 5 th Year off this Glorious Reign, Iff y e money coined 
" Att Chinapatam be off the same weight and fineness off those off the 
"port off Suratt, doe nott molest them for y e discompt. According to 
"y e Custom off other Factorys grant. This notion has dealings in all 
"ports and att this Court, having very favourable Phirmaunds [farmdns] 
" Granted in which Custom is Excused. Take particular care of all 
" wrecks ; and Goods, so lost by storm, belonging to them. 

" To All these orders contained in this Phirmaund [/or;wd/»], which 
" ought to be Adored, render Obedience, and not Every Year demand 
" A New Sunnod. Off this take particular notice. — 

The 4 th day off this M° Suff ur (Safar) God has finished with Glory 
and Success— In the 5 th Year off this Glorious Reign. 

164. Amadavad [Ahmadabad] 

To all G-overnours &c* Jaggeerdars f j agirdars], Phowsdars \_fauj- 
dars] , Corrorys [krorls] To all Guards by Land and water, To all 
Jemidars [zemindars], who are att present and shall be hereafter 
In the Subaship off Amadavad [Ahmadabad], The fortunate port 
off Suratt and Cambay — Be always in hopes off the Kings favour 
and know by these presents That att this time off conquest which 
carrys y 6 Ensign off victory Mr. John Surman and C. Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad") Factors to y e English by y e means off those 
who stand on the Steps off the throne which y e Kings presence graces 
have made their petition. That y e Custom ony 9 Goods off English- 
men is Excused all Over this Kingdom, Except att y e fortunate port 
off Suratt, and att Said port from y e time off him who is pardoned and 
has power in heaven, The King who is an Inhabitant off the heaven 
off heavens God grant his resting place be there and that he remain 
pure (Sha Jehaun) 2 per Cent was y e Settled Custom, and in y* time 

168 DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 

off him whose Strength is devine the Saint-liko inhabitant off heaven. 
Be good from y e present to Eternall happiness (Aurungzebe) 3J per 
Cent was Settled, being Excused in all other places, In y e time off the 
King who is pardoned and whose resting place is heaven Surrounded 
with y e favour off God, who is gott in possession off heaven as his first 
Stage— God protect His Spiritt (Behauder Sha) 2 i per Cent wasatt last 
Settled, continuing to this time. That Factory by reason off y e Op- 
pression off the Mutsuddys [mutasadls] there has been withdrawn 
these 3 Tears. In y e Subaships of Eehar and Orisa no custom is 
paid, Att y e port off Hugly in y e Subaship off Bengali, A peesheash 
off 3000 rupees is paid instead off Custom They petition that according 
to y e rule off Other ports, A peesheash may be Settled att Suratt 
instead off Customes. They Assent to y e payment off a Yearly peesh- 
eash off 10,000 rupees — The order which all, doe and ought to Obey is 
Sfrietly given, " That Since they consent to pay a peesheash of 10,000 
"rupees, Take itt yearly in y e port off Suratt, and besides this, molest 
" them on no Account. The Goods and necessarys off their Factors Att 
" the ports off this Subaship and round About, to bring and carry away 
"by land and Water, Know y e Custom is pardoned. That they buy 
"and sell Att their pleasure, and iff att any time or plaee any off their 
"Goods are lost, Use ycur endeavour to find them punishing j e J 
" Robber and returning the Goods to their true owner. Att any placo 
" where they Settle a Factory, Buy and Sell ; That you Assist tbem 
"on all Just occasions and Iff any Merchants or others become Debtors 
" According to a true Adjustment give the English Factors their due 
" nott Suffering any one to hurt or injure Said Factors, " They Also 
petition that in y e Subaships and Duannys [dncanis] they demand 
y e Originall Grant, and that the Subahs and Duans (diiedns) give us 
another thereby, Itt is nott f easable to produce y e Originall in Every 
placo wherefore humbly desire that a Copy under y e Cozzys [ga^j's] 
Seal be sufficient, Originall not demanded, nor y e Subah nor Duan 
[divcaii] insist to give Another thereby. In y e Island off Bombay be- 
longing to y e English European Coin is Currant, That rupees Be 
made there according to those coined Att Madrass, That, whosoever 
off y e Companys Servants becoming Debtors endeavour to run away, be 
sent to y e Cheif off the Factory, & That Phowsdarry [faujddri] &ot 
forbidden (abob Memnoowa) [abicd.-i-mamnu l ah] by which y e Com- 
panys Factors and Dealers Are molested, be repealed. The Imperial! 
Strict order is given, "That y e Copy Under the Cheif Cozzys [ja?i's] 
" Seal is sufficient, In y e Island off Bombay Siccas made as those off 

DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 169 

"Indoston to pass Currant To Seize and deliver to ye Cheif off 
" y e Factory whomsoever off the Companys Servants that are Debtors 
" and run away & That no one trouble them for what is forbidden 
" (Abob Memnoowa) [abicdb-i-maMnu'ah']" They have likewise 
petitioned those who are in y e presence, That y e Company have Fac- 
torys in Bengali Behar and Orixa, and are willing to Settle others 
Wherefore in any place where Such Settlement shall be made, they 
desire 40 beagues [bxgahs] to be given from y e King to Enclose a house, 
and Att some times Ships by storms and wind are drove on Shoar 
and wreckt, when y e Governours off ports injuriously Seize on y° 
Goods, and In some places demand y° fourth part The Imperiall 
Order is given " that according to y e Custom off other Factorys In 
" other Subaships, Execute. This Nation that has dealings in all ports 
" and att this Court, hath obtained a miraculous phirmaund [_farmdn~\ in 
" which Custom is Excused. Take care off All wrecks and goods so 
"lost by Storm, belonging to them." " To all these orders according 
"to ye Phirmaund [farmdn] which ought to be adored, render 
" obedience and nott Every year demand a new Sunnod. Off this take 
" particular notice." The 4th day off the Month Suffur [Safctr]. God 
has finished with glory and Success — In y e 5 th Year off this Glorious 

165. The Grand Viziers Titles, 
wrote on tb back off each phirmaund ifa&mlxl. 

Under The protection off the Mountain off vast riches — In whom 
the King putts his confidence — Cheif off the Nobles off the Greatest 
port — Conspicuous Among the Great — The great protectour off the 
Country and it's riches — The Opener off the way to Fortune and 
riches — Master off the Sword and Pen — The light and Exalter off the 
Spear and the Order — Yizier off a true Judgement — Unalterable — 
Cheif off the Country — Prime Minister in whose hands is all power — 
Yameneel Doula Behauder — The Generall Conquerour and faithfull 
Friend — The Mirror off all Yiziers. 

170 delhi, january, 1717. 

164. Consultation. 
"Att a Consultation present — 

Dilly, Jan. 4«? 171f. , r x _ _ . „ r 

* Mr Jn? Surman Cheif 

C. Seerliaud and M. r . Edward Stephenson. 

The Phirmaunds [far mans] being passed those people who drew 
them up, and partly wrote over flair, C. Seerhaud proposes that Colnine 
[Kamal Nain], and Grungaram [Ganga Earn] receive some more off 
their Agreement, desiring \f Summ off 1250 Siccas, as Also 500 
rupees ffor Emenutray [Amanat Rae], Agreed thereto and that 
M? J. Surman pay y? money. 

Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] has lately been very 
pressing ffor the remainder of! the contract, both by y! application off 
his Servants here, and to Seerhaud [Sarhad] in y? Camp, with y? 
pretence off very urgent necessity. Agreed that H* J a ? Surman pay 
y* Summ off 3000 rs. 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] proposes a small present for y! Cozzy [qdzi], 
off whom some use will be made in y? taking Copys Off our Phirmaunds 
\_farmans] &c* Agreed That MT Edward Stephenson deliver y? fol- 
lowing things — 

Broad Cioth — ImboBt 











165. Diary. 

"The Phirmaunds [farmdns] are all wrote over 

January 7th q^ being |, roug |, t to ^ Qw US J> 

10th "Seerhaud [Sarhad] tells us 10 Perwannas 

[paricdnas] have received y? Viziers Seal, and that 
14 More are passed Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan]." 

" Seerhaud [Sarhad] this Evening brought home 

January 11th 

the Hollowing perwannas — 

L LV.yy Island present [&] to Come 4. Plundering Goods pres* & to come 
2- Fort St Davids towns d? 5. Madrass 5 Towns d° 

3. Bombay mint d° 6. Suratt house On Hyderacooly Caun 

[Haidar Qui! Khan] 

7 Shipwrecks — present and to come 

8 Governours Pustick \dastalc] d? 

9- Musadavad [Maqsudabad] Mint — Ickerum Caun [Ikram Khan]." 



" Futtecaun [Fath Khan] brought y? two remaining Articles, which 
13th Caundora [Khan Dauran] gott Signed by his 

Majesty and delivered to Syud Sallabut Caun 
[Sayyad Salabat Khan], butt there being One town more added, and the 
Suratt house only given to live in, Those Phirds \_fardi\ were off 
no manner off Use ; Especially Seeing we made a much better progress 
without them." 

" Mr Surman &o» went to the Camp where they 
Salamed to his Majesty." 

" The Togerah [tughra] 1 is putt upon All the 
Phirmaunds [farm&ns]." 

" The following Perwannas [parwdnas] are just 
oome out Sealed by y 6 . Vizier — 

January 14th 

January 15th 

January 17th 

1. Madrass 5 Towns On Sadatulla Caun [Sa'datullah Khan] 

2. Patna House — present and to Come 

3. Ground 40 Beagues [bigahs] d? 

4. Copy off the Phirmaund [farmdn] d? 

5. Abob Memnoowa [abwdb-i-mamnu'ah] 2 d° 

6. Vizagapatam 3 towns &°. 

7. Madrass ffree trade — Sadatoola Caun [Sa'datullah Khan]. 

8. Muxadavad [Maqsudabad] Mint — present and to come 

9. Fort S* Davids towns — Sadatoola Caun [Sa'datullah Khan]." 



Jan. 17«J 

166. Consultation. 

" Att a Consultation present — 
Mr Jn? Surman Cheif 
C. Seerhaud and Mr E. Stephenson — 
C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] has desired that 473 rs. be paid to Colnine 
[Kamal Nain] and Gungeram [Ganga Earn], being (as he says) y? 
remaining part off their Agreement, and that they have no ffarther 

There are 18 perwannas [ parwdnas'] sealed by y? Grand Vizier, butt 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] informs us that to render them Authentick they 
must be signed by some off the Subanavises [subahnavis] &c a off y? 

1 The imperial signature. 

2 Literally, " forbidden taxes." For lists of such items Mr. Irvine refers to Jarrett's 
Ain-i-akbar'i, II, 66, and E Thomas Revenue Resources of the Mughal Empire, 5 and 17. A still 
more detailed list for ' Alamglr's reign will be found in British Museum, Oriental Mss, No. 1641, 
fcl. 136a. 

172 DELHI, JANUARY, 1717. 

Duanny Ket cherry [d'ncdni kachaknlf which he will gett done when 
he goes to the Camp and in y? interim draw out Copys under y? Cozzys 
[gdzfs] Seal. To this End — wanting some small Surum Agreed that 
228 rs. he given him ffor y? Cozzys [qdzi's'] Seal. 

The King Still continues att Shalamar [Shalihmar], 1 butt we 
hear that he intends for Sewly. 2 Our fair phirmaunds \_farmdns] only 
want y? Yiziers title, and Considering y? Strange dilatoriness off all 
buisness here, Agreed that C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] repair to the Camp 
Alone, there being att present no Absolute necessity ffor all our leaving 
y? City, thereby to Enhance our Expences. 

However upon a ffarther remove off y e King, or other weighty 
occasions we may soon repair thither. 

C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] being now proceeding to the Camp, and the 
Phirmaunds \_Jai maws] so near done that they must off Necessity fiFall — 
To y? Sudder-A-Suddool [sadru-s-sadur'] 3 in a flew days, to receive the 
Rings Broad Seal, "We have reason to Expect much trouble and Expence 
flrom that Quarter. However to anticipate any inconveniences Ordered 
that C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] inform himself off y? proper methods to be 
used, Endeavouring to insinuate an Acquaintance att that Office ; that 
y? way may be prepared ffor y? receipt off Our phirmaunds [farmdn*] 
Advising us Accordingly." 

167. Diary. 
" The Phirmaunds I farmdns ] have been with 

January 21st . ' , 

y? person that writes y? Yiziers titles, 

" The King <irone ffrom Shalamar I Shalihmar] 

January 22nd „ L J 

toNerella [Narela]. 4 " 

" Our Phirmaunds f farmdns ] are gone in to his 

January 23rd L *^ J o 


" Sundry advices say our Phirmaunds \ far- 

January 27th J J L 

mdn8] are Come ffrom his Majesty Approved 
and the phird \_fard~\ signed." 

"The Kings Tents gone to Sunputt [Sonpat] 

Autusham Caun [I'tisam Khan] refuses to Sign 
7 Perwannas \_paricana%\" 

1 See abore on the 8th April 1716. 

2 Sewly is frequently named by Kamwar Kl:5n. It lay to the north of Delhi between 
Sonpat and the river J umna. 

3 The sadru-s-sadur t head of heads, was superintendent of charitable and religious endow- 
ments. At this time the office was held by Maulvi Sayyad Afz*l Klan. Bahadur, Sadr .lahan, 
who Lad been Farrukhsiyar's tutor. Apparently he kept the seal as a person especially trusted 
by the emperor. 

4 See above on the 8th April, 1716. 

DELHI, FEBRUARY, 1717. 173 

168. Consultation. 

"Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] being come ffrom the Camp 
gives the ffollowing Account. The Phirmaunds 
[farmdns] being perfectly flinished are Going to 
the Sudder-A-Suddool [sadru-s-sadur] ffor the Seal. That having had 
severall meetings with that Omrahs peeshcar \_nmaras peshkdr], they were 
yett come to no manner off Agreement. That he had Offered to 5000 
rupees, that Mutsuddy [mutasaddl] descending no lower than 25 000. 
In ffine that itt was Seerhauds [Sarhad's] opinion this Affair mi»ht be 
concluded ffor 10,000 rupee3. We are well convinced off the necessity 
to purchase that Omrahs [iimaras] friendship att any rate, Indulging 
his sordid avaritious temper ffrom the great flavour shown him by his 
Majesty. The Account off the Portugueze phirmaund [.farmdns] is still 
fresh in Every ones memory, which, After itt was brought to the present 
Crisis, was lost ffor want off timely bribery to this Nobleman. A 
precaution sufficient to prevent our Splitting on the Same rock ! 

"Wherefore We Agree Seerhaud [Sarhad] may Offer as ffar as 10,000 
rupees to be paid, so soon as the phirmaunds [farmdns] are Sealed. 

We doe all Agree that as soon as the Seal is on the phirmaund 
[farmdns] Itt will be high time to petition ffor our dispatches. Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] desires to know att what time and in what method he may 
prepare the way. Agreed that the most Expeditious way is to be 
consulted. We Suppose Every thing will be done near to fformer 
Custom, so that by endeavouring att Extravagancys, much time may 
be lost to little or no purpose, 

We have received news the Kings tents are removed to Sunputt 
[Sonpat], This ffrequent motion, but, still to a Greater distance causes 
us to Suspect some design ffarther than meer hunting : and the Distance 
off Seerhaud [Sarhad] ffrom us must upon any Emergent occasion 
cause delays. Wherefore Agreed that Mr. Surman &c? remove to the 
Camp to be ready on all occasions ; and Thatt Mess 1 "? Stephenson and 
Philips remain in the City to Look after the Honourable Companya 
Affairs there. As ffor what small addition off peons &c? are necessary 
ffor the houses and to attend in the Camp Agreed that they 
be entertained." 

169. Diary. 
" The King has gott another, wife ffrom 

February 4th » 



February 5th " Mr Surman Arrived att the Kings Camp 

iu Sunputt [Sonpat]." 
"The phirmaunds [farm ana] being returned ffrom the King 

February 6th t0 Ecklaus Caun [™a? Khan],* he seals them 

up with a phird [fard'j; and sends them to 

Sudder-A-Suddool [sadru-s-sadur']. The phird [fard] contains that 

the King having perused the phirmaunds [farmans] he was ordered to 

send them to him fror the Great Seal." 

" The King has sent ffor his Tents and throne 

February 7th ... . , . , 

designing to keep his jesson [jashati] 2 here. 
Hossen-Ali-Cauns [Husain 'All Khan's] fforces have defeated the 
Great Raja Sougee [Sahuji] 3 &c* Decan Eebells." 

170. Consultations. 
" Pursuant to a fformer consultation in the City, All means possible 
have been used to bring the Sudder-A-Suddool 


King's Camp [sadru-s-sadur] to some reason, and offers already 

made to 10,000 Rs., butt with which he is nott 

satisfied. To prevent ffarther delays and ffor fear off accident we have 

been obliged to advance. Seerhaud [SarhadJ now tells us itt is finished 

as ffollows 

Sudder-A-Suddool [sadru-s-sadur] ... Cash 6000 Es 

Goods 4000 

Peeshcar \jpeshkar\ ... ... 3000 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] moreover says, this will be considerably lighten'd 
by the price off the Goods that are to be given. Agreed that this 
money be paid to bribe him to our Interest. Butt as this great man off 
the law has butt little ffaith he demands to have 6500 Currant Rupees 
before he will petition his Majesty. We Are obliged to comply with 
him in this Also. Agreed that Mr Stephenson be wrote to, That he 
pay his Servants the Summ off 6500 Rupees. 

i Ikhlas Khgn was Mir Munshl. He was a converted Khatri, and a native of KalSnaur 
in the Punjab. He died on the 2nd Jamadi II, 1140 H. i.e. the 4th January, 1728. His 
biography is in Ma'usiru-l-umaru, I, 350. 

2 The jathan, or festivities for the anniversary of the accession of the king, lasted from 
the 15th to the 23rd Rabil, 16th February to the 24th February. 

3 The Maratha Rajah SShu was defeated by Rajah Muhkam Singh, an officer of Husain 
'All Khan. The official report of this was received at court on the 5th Rabi'1, 1129 H. t.«. the 
6th February. 

SONPAT, FEBRUARY, 1717. 175 

The petition whioh went in to his Majesty ffor the seal is (God be 
thanked) att Last come out, so the phirmands 

February 19th [farmdns] will proceed to be seal'd. The seal 

lyes in the hand off a Lady under the Sudders 
[satfr's] Seal, butt kept in the Seraglio; There is an Eunuch to open itt, 
and another person to putt itt on. 1 These Expeot Each their parti- 
cular perquisite, Amounting in all to seven or eight hundred rupees. 

"We hope in a day or two to See the Phirmaunds [farmdns] come 
out sealed, which Encourages us to desire our dispatches ffrom his 
Majesty. Agreed that Seerhaud [Sarhad] draw up a petition to his 
Majesty, and that, After Approvall, Itt be delivered to Sallabutt Caun 
[Salabat Khan] and Caundora [Khan Dauran]." 

171. Diary. 

"To our Inexpressible Satisfaction our Phirmaunds [farmans] with 
the Kings Broad Seal upon them were brought 

February 23rd t O Show US." 

172. Letter XXYII. 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq 1 . Governour of Fort "William and 
President for Affairs of the Eight Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies &c» Council in Fort William. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
We wrote your Honour <&c? the 27 l . h 28 t . h and 31 ".* December the last of 
which carried the good News that his Majesty had Approv'd the Draughts of our 
Phirmaunds [farmans], the Month of January was intirely taken up, in compleat- 
ing the fair Phirmaunds [farmans], putting on the Toogarah, [tughra] and then 
passing his Majesty's Perusal with an Order for their proceeding to the Seal 
which the King Granted. We forbore at that time writing your Honour &c? 
till we had pass'd this latter but great Gulph. The great Seal is under the care 
of the Chief Priest (Suddera-Suddool) [sadru-s-sadur] who having been the 
Kings Tutor from his Infancy, and being a very particular Favourite, has doubt- 
less a very great ascendancy over him, and which he carrys to that Pitch as to Seal 
what Phirmaunds [farmans] he pleases, upon our first Arrival here, we heard of 
a Proof of his Authority, seeing the Purtuguese Padre, who came as Envoy from 
Goa, after he had compleated his Business and got his Phirmaund [farman] ready 
for the Seal, the High Priest because not satisfied as he expected took care to 
ruin the Affair, and the Padre was forc'd to return to Goa, leaving his Phirmaund 
[farman] behind him, this and many other Instances made us very cautious how 

1 These details as to how the 3eals were guarded are curious and suggestive. 

2 This letter is found in the ' Copy Book of Letters received from Mr Surman &c? at the 
Mogulls Court ', Home Series, Miscellaneous, N° 70, at the India Office. 



to manage'tliis Business, but being certified tbat Bribery was the only practicable 
method, there needed no Consideration whether this was a proper occasion to be 
sparing of our Honourable Masters Money. In fine after an Hesitation of 12 
Days, this matter was brought to a Conclusion at the expence of 12000 rupees 
for him and his Chief Gentue Peeschar \j>eshlcar~}, besides some other expences 
which must naturally ensue to the Begum who keeps the Seal the Eunuch that 
passes between with some other under officers ; another Petition was made to 
his Majesty from this Office which came out Sign'd, and now the Phirmaunds 
[farmans~] are Seal'd and will be return'd hence to the Secretary in order to 
their going to the Tizier for his Seal. We have yet no reason to apprehend 
any trouble from that Quarter. God grant our Expectations may be answer'd. 

TTe enclose Copys under the Cozzee's [_qazi's] Seal of 25 Sunnods isanads], 
which have received the Viziers Seal, viz' 

.N? 1. Bombay Mint- 

2. Surat House and Ground 

3. Surat free Trade 

4. Coppy under the Cozzees 

[qazi's] Seal 

5. Fort St Davids Towns- 

6. Muxodavad [Maqsiidabad] 


present and to come 

on Saddatoola Caun [Sa'datullah. 

present and to come 

7. Forbidden 


Divy Island — 
Ground, 40 Bega's — 
Plundering Goods — 

13. Companys Gomastaes — 

14. Surat free Trade- 

things (Abob present and to come 




15. Bengali free Trade— 

16. Divy Island— 

17. Fort S* Davids Towns- 

18. Surat House — 

19. Madrass free Trade— 

20. Madrass 5 Towns — 

21. Madrass Rupees — 

22. Madrass free Trade — 

23. Vizagapatam Towns — 

24. Patna House — 

25. Madrass 5 Towns — 

[Maqsudabab] on Ickerum Caun [Ikram Khan], 

present and to come. 


on Hyderacooly Caun [Haidar Qull 

present and to come, 
on Awooroody Caun [Anwaru-d-din 

present and to come, 
on Hyderacooly Caun [Haidar Quit 

present and to come, 
on Saddatoola Caun [Sa'datullah 

present and to come, 
on Saddatula Caun [Sa'datullah 

present and to come. 

SONPAT, FEBRUARY, 1717. 177 

There Still remains 7 unfinish'd, which the Duan Colsa [diw3n-i-kh5lisah] 
under some pretence or other has refus'd yet to Sign/ viz. 

2 for the Calcutta Towns, 1 Vizagapatam 3 Towns, 1 Eogues, 

1 G-overnours Dustick [dastaJc], 1 Companys Debtors, 1 Patna 

House on the Duan [dlwan] : means are using to get these likewise Compleated, 
an Account of whioh we hope will be carried by our next Dispatches. 

Finding our Business so happily drawing near a conclusion, we have esteem'd 
it a fit opportunity to desire our dispatches from his Majesty, and to which end 
a Petition was 3 days ago deliver'd to Caundora [Khan Dauran], which we 
shall follow with the Utmost Diligence, seeing this will of itself require some 
time, besides your Honour &c? have the Character of our Dilatory Patron in 
several of our former Letters, considering all this with the Season of the Year, # 
we find it will be impossible to reach Bengali before the rains are commenc'd, 
wherefore we propose to take our Passage from Patna by water, and accordingly 
desire your Honour &c? would Supply us with Budgerows, the difficulty will be 
small in sending them up, seeing we hear Seerbullund Caun [Sarbuland 
Khan] has pretty well clear'd the way. 

In our formers we advised of the Kings leaving the City, his Majesty 
continued about a Month on the Skirts, diverting himself with Hunting, so that 
most of the Mutsuddies [mutasaddls] with whom he had Business remain'd in 
Dilly, but as soon as we found his Majesty mov'd to a greater distance, and there 
being certain rumours of his continuance or going on, we without more delay 
remov'd to the Camp the 4 th Inst, leaving Mess rs Stephenson and Phillips 
behind us in the City, there are a great many flying reports in the Camp, but to 
all appearance there is no long Journey intended, neither will he return to the 
City immediately, by our next Letter we hope to give your Honour &c* some 
insight of the time of our Departure, which we shall endeavour to make as 
quick as our Affairs will permit. 

Enclosed comes Accounts Cash and Warehouse; charges general and Copies 
of our Consultations for the Month of December. 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your most obedient humble Servants 

Sun-put John Sctbman 

Feb. 23 : 171f . Edwabd Stephenson 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

We have received your Honour &c a : s Letter February the 6 th bearing date 
January 5 th and shall follow all Orders contained therein. 

John Subman 
Edw* Stephenson" 

173. Diary. 
" The Kings Camp removed ffrom Nerella 
March 6th [ Nare la] to Shalamar [Shalihmar J." 


178 shIljhmXr, march, 1717. 

"M r Surman being this Evening with Sallabutt Caun [Salabat 
Khan], The Syud [Sayyad] told him he had 
pressed hard upon Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
ffor Our Quick and honourable dispatoh. That he had showed him a 
List off what was given to the Portugueze and Dutch Embassadors att 
their departure, the whole being Effected by a woman (Bibee Juliana) 1 
and what might nott we Expect After so gloriousa present, so much 
trouble and Expence, with the Assistance off so great A Patron ? Caun- 
dora [Khan Dauran] insisted a little whether itt was customary to 
return an Answer, to Our Honourable Presidents Letter, ffrom his 
Majesty; Butt this will be granted Seeing both the Portugueze and 
Dutch received it." 

174. Letter, XXVIII. 2 . 

" To the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq? President," and G-overnour of Fort 
William &c? Council for Affairs of the Honourable., united Company of 
Merchants of England trading to the East Indies. 


Our last to your Honours &c* was the 23 cl Ult° when we advis'd of the 
Phirmaunds [far marts'] having received the Kings Seal that they were 
next to be carryed to Eilasse Caun [Ikhlas Khan] and from thence to the 
Visiers for his Seal, we likewise enclos'd Coppy of the]^25 Sunnods [sanads] 
under the Cozzee's [_qazis'\ Seal, which we hope arriv'd in good time. 

This serves to advise your Honour &c? that we have drawn tbe following 
Bills which are to be paid 70 days after Date in Siccas of the 6 th Years Stamp 
and 10£ Massa [_masha] for the Value received here Viz* — 

From John Surman payable to M r James Williamson for 1300 Sicca's. — 

From Bewsing [ Bhao Singh] payable to Sawbiparry [sahu beopart] for 5000 

25 th February Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] payable to his Gomastah 
[gumashtah] Callam 450 Sicca's. 

1 Bibi Juliana, whom the Dutch envoys styled Donna Juliana, was a Portuguese lady 
employed in the harem. After occupying a conspicuous position at the Mogal court from the 
days of Bahadur Shah onwards, she died at the age of 75 in Rabi'I, 1147 H, i.e. July, August, 
1734. There is a Persian account of her, of which copies exist in the British Museum library, 
Add. MSS. 14,374, foil 2—11, and at King's College, Cambridge, Pote Collection No 29. A 
French translation of the latter by E. H. Palmer was published in Kouvelles Annates des 
Voyages, 6 me serie, 1865. Her story is also told in Colonel Gentil's Memoires stir I'lndous- 
tan, Paris, 1822, pp. 367 — 380. I owe this information to;.Mr. Irvine. I have given the 
outlines of Bibi Juliana's life, as far as can be gathered from these sources, in an article 
published in the Indian Church Quarterly Review for October, 1900. 

• s This letter is found in the ■ Copy Book of Latters received from Mr Surman &c» at the 
Megulls Court,' Home Series, Miscellaneous, No. 70, at the India Office. 

shIlihmSr, march, 1717. 179 

To all which we desire your Honour Ac? will give due Honour. We aro not 
able to give any Account of onr further Proceedings in the Grand Affair, but 
hope our next will carry the Good news of its Conclusion. 

We are Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most obedient humble Servants 
Kings Camp C. Subhattd John Sttbman 

near Shallamar. Hugh Babkee Sec 1 * Edwaed Stephenson." 

March 9 th 1716/7. 

175, Diary. 

"The Grand Yizier visitted and presented according to a fformer 

March 12th consultation. That Great man off himself said all 

our Phirmaunds \_farmans'] were finished— The 

Kings Tents come into the City, and Itt is Expected he will follow 


" We hear his Majesty wants to make One Enoytulla Caun 
['Inayatullah Khan] 1 , Duan Calsa \dlican4- 

March 18th ; " m L - 

khdlisan], a post he had enjoyed many years 
under AUumgeer [' Alamgir], and the whole reign off Behauder Sha 
[Bahadur Shah], Butt the man refuses to Accept itt without being made 
Deputy Vizier, and a power given to doe as he thinks fitt, with many 
other Such Extravagant demands, all which we hope will prevent his 
being Employ'd. For the Yizier and Oaundora [Khan Dauran] 
will have nothing to doe. However as our buisness is almost finished, 
we hope no Alteration may be made 'till the Viziers Seal is on our 
papers, when itt will be out off any ones power to give us any 

"Sallabat Caun [Salabat Khan] says Cooshalchund [Khashhal 
Chand] 2 told Oaundora [ Kh an Dauran], upon 
his asking for the Arze ['arsl] for our dispatch, 
That what was designed ffor Our H— Presid* should be inserted in the 
Seaw [siya/iah] for the Phirm* [ farman~\. To which Oaundora [Khan 
Dauran] replyed That He would clear that matter to day. Our Vakile 
[vakil] bro* quite another Story from Cooshalchund [Khushhal Ghand] 
who said he had no opportunity to deliver the papers, besides that he 

* ' Inayatullah Khan, Kashmiri, was made dlrraa-i-khaliaah and d'uvin-i-tan on \,he 1st 
Jamadl I, 1129 H. i.e. the 2nd April, 1717. He died on the 21st Rabl'I, 1138 H., i.e. the 16th 
November, 1725. His biography is in Ma'asiru-l-umara, II, 828. 

2 Khushhal Chand was the peshkar of the mir lakhthx, Kh5n DaurSn. 

M 2 

180 shSlihmXr, march, 1717. 

must know what the Dutch present was — and what they rec? what we 
were to receive, and what was Our present : An account off which he 
had sent for from the Consommany \khdnsdmdni\, which must off 
necessity take up some days 1 . 

Instead off Carrying the Phirmaunds [farmdns] to the Vizier ; 
JEcklaus Caun [Ikhlas Khan], Arshed Caun [Irshad Khan], Colnine 
[Kamal Nain] & Gungaram [Ganga Earn] are all gone to the City 
this morning being thursday; and nott to return till Saturday: A 
miserable misfortune to see our stay so unreasonably Lengthen'd. 

Sallabat Caun [Salabat Khaa] has promised to carry C. Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] to Caundoras, [Khan Dauran's] to endeavour the making 
an End off the Phirml [farmdn'] and present for the H b ? e Govern? 

17G. Consultation. 
"There has been 25 perwannas [partcdnas] done ffor some months, 

Except their signing by some off the Writers. 
March 22nd. Seerhaud [Sarhad] has been frequently pressed 

to bring them to a period, butt without any 
Success, he pretending to Stay till the rest are done and then com- 
pleating all together. Itt is Our Opinion they are nott a moment 
longer to be left to uncertaintys, and the more att present seeing 
we have warm information that Enoytulla Caun [' Inayatullah Khan] 
will be Duan-Calsa [diwdn-i-khdlisah j, off whose Character we have 
too great a knowledge to leave any thing to his decision or flavour. 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] has for a long time told us the six remaining 
Perwannas \_parwanai\ were done Butt as yett we see nothing off itt. 
We doe believe itt the proper'st way to Stick close to Boquechund 
[Bhog Chand] 2 , nott leaving him 'till those Are finished likewise, 
and Altho' nott according to our wish, That they be done as he 
pleases; rather than lye any longer in Suspence." 

177. Diary. 

" Having fresh advices That Enoytella Caun ['Inayatullah Kh an] 

would certainly be Duan Colsa [diwdn-i- 

March 22nd BaRfa*! Seerhaud [Sarhad] was pressed to gett 

the 25 perwannas signed by the proper writers. They only write that 

1 It was maintained that the Dutch were not to be a precedent, because (1) Mu'izzu-d- 
din was a usurper, and (2) the English present was four times as great as the Dutch. Surnian 
represented that they did not want riches, but would be glad to go with a sar-o-pa for himself 
and the Governor. He was anxious to be gone on account of the coming of the rains. 

2 Bhog Chand was pcMar of the klidlisah. 

shIlihmar, march, 1717. 181 

they are according to the Books, butt without itt they cannot be shown 
Any where." 

"Gungaram [Ganga Ram] being in y e City, indisposed with a 

March 23rd pain ^ ^™ E ^ es ' Seernaud [Sarhad] went to 

Ecklauscaun [Ikhlas Khan] to gett another man 
ordered to Supply his post att y e Yiziers, butt he was answered that 
Gungaram [Ganga Earn] being Peeshoar [peshkdr] off y© liussalaw 
[risdlah] we must have patience, 'till his return. This answer caused 
Great uneasiness, which was heigthen'd by a report, That His Majesty 
had ordered Enaam Caun [In'am Khanj to Carry Enoytulla Oaun 
[* Inayatullah Khan] to y e Vizier, & tell him he hid made him 
Duan Calsa & Tan [diican-i~khalisah and tan] as being a man off great 
Experience. To w c ^ The poor Vizier (They say) out off ffear to 
displease his Majesty consented. We considered That iff the Viziers 
seal should be putt into his hands (as has sometimes happened) we 
should run a Great risque ffor Our phirmds [farmans] To remedy 
This, Gungaram [Ganga Ham] must by any meanes & with y e Utmost 
Expedition be bro* out. Wherefore C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] will proceed 
to y e City to morrow morning, to Endeavour, to gett him out, and 
Even by a handsome bribe to ffinish y° buisness, when all our ffears 
will be over Except ffor the remaining Duanny Sunnods [cliwanl 
sanads] off Which there is little hope. 

" Enoytulla Caun ['Inayatullah Khan] is Accounted Strict, averse 
to bribery, and perfectly knowing in the Customes and Government 
off this Kingdom, wherefore itt would have been impossible under his 
management to have obtained those grants, to possess which we have 
now so ffair a prospect." 

"This day the Vizier gave an order to have the Phirmaunds 

If arm mis'] sealed. The 25 perwannas [panvdnas] 

were all carried into the Duanny Ketcherry 

[diwanl kachahri] for the Subanavises [subahnavis's] mark, viz*., 

They are according to the books — A small trifle will obtain this." 

178. Consultation. 

" The Phirmaunds [far mans] having received the Grand Viziers 

Seal, There now remains nothing butt an Arze 

MarSth [<arzi] to be wrote from Ecklaus Caun [Ikhlas 

1717- Khan] to his Majesty, for their delivery to us* 

We hope this will be ffinished in a few days, so shall defer writing tho 

Honourable President and Councill till said petition comes out." 

182 SHlLIHWAR, MARCH, 1717. 

179. Diary. 
" Our dispatches are delay'd till precedents are Sound in the reigns 
of Allumgeer [' Alamgir] and Behauder Sha [Bahadur Shah], for w<* 
one Boputray [Bhopat Rae] is searching the Consommany [khansamani] 
records in the City. M r . Surman has promised this man a small 
Gratuity in case he is Expeditious." 

180. Letter XXIX. 1 

" To the Honourable Chaeles Boone") 
Esq r . President and Governour of ^ 
Bombay. J 


Your Honour Ac*?' 8 dated January the 27 th came to hand in due time 
by which we are glad to find that the draughts of the phirmaunds I far marts'] 
approved by his Majesty arrived in Time, and that a translate theieof would' be 
sent home to our Honourable Masters which was what we extremely desir'd, 
seeing those forwarded to Bengali arriv'd after their last dispatches, which was 
January the 16 th , without doubt it will be very pleasing news to our Honourable 
Masters to ear what they are likely to possess, and what we hope will in a great 
measure hanswer the money that has been expended. 

Ever since our last his Majesty has continued delighting himself in his 
Encampment, hunting within 20 cos of the City, and where we have Attended 
about two months, the frequent motion of the army and the fatigues of the camp 
have added to the natural dilatoriness of this Court ; our great desire to draw 
near a Conclusion made us defer writing till now, the Phirmaunds [farmans] 
after they were drawn up fair were again sent in for his Majesty's perusal, and 
to receive his order to be sent for the Great Seal, which he graciously granted' 
and they accordingly went in to the keeper, we were forc'd to stop his mouth 
with a large bribe, being a Gentleman who would otherwise have endeavour'd to 
ruin what we have so long been employ *d about, but being Satisfied of the bribe 
he naturally fell in with our interest and petition'd his Majesty for the Seal who 
ordered it to be affixe'd, which was done the 23 rd ultimo, from thence the Phir. 
maunds [farmans] were return'd to the Secretary, who according to custom sent 
them to the Vizier for his seal on the back ; we had some small apprehensions that 
this was a Gulph not very easily pass'd over, the Vizier being remarkable for his 
Avaritious Temper, the sight of the Phirmaunds [farmans'] did certainly bring 
it into his mind, and they met with many putoffs from today and tomorrow, 
for some time, but our frequent presents, and the respect we have paid him, with 
a few good words from the brib'd Mutsuddys [mutasaddls] who were present 
at last overcame him, and the Fortune of our Honourable Masters has been very 

1 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George, on Thursday, the 6th of June, 
and is to be found in the Madras Public Consultation Book for 1715 to 1719, Range 239, No. 87, 
at the India Office. 

shIlihmar, march and A?Kir, 1717. 


Conspicuous on this occasion; the Vizier Sign'd a paper to have a Seal affiVd 
without asking a Farthing, accordingly the Seal was put on the 27 th instant and 
so retum'd again to the Secretary's office, there only now remaining a petition 
to be wrote from thence for our possession, the same Success has likewise 
attended the Sunods Isanads^, We hope a few days will put us in possession^ of 
all, when we shall take care to transmitt you copys, under the Cozzj's [qa ? *'*]. 
Seal of what relates to your Settlement. 

As soon as the broad Seal was affix'd to the Phirmaunds [farmansl we 
consider'd our business as Finish'd, and accordingly petition'd for leave to 
depart ■ but our Strange dilatory Patron, who never does anything in hast has 
not as vet effected it; he has indeed promised that as soon as his Majesty goes 
in to the city he will get us dispatch'd very honourable. We are ob ig d to 
have patience but hope it cannot be long, when we shall do our Selves the.honour 
to write to you again, in the interim, 

We are 
King's Camp Your obedient humble Servants 

March sotb CoJEE jS E EBHAiri> Assenting John Sueman 

W. (,„„._ Edwabd Stephenson." 

Hugh Baekeb, beery. 

181. Diary. 

« Seerhaud [Sarhad] tells us That After much trouble, and for fear 

off a new Duan Calsa \dlwan-i-hhahmh] which 

March 3ist would ren der his contract hazzardous, Boguechund 

fBhog Ohandl att Last agreed to theperwanna (£hr*ft] f^f\ 
Lijnog vuau ^ , So signing upon that and the 

cutta towns as itt was ^^ ^" to t J h J s >? they are ready 
Other perwannas [jparwanaa] Accoramg io ^ 
. n Ti ^ fVkq<* 1 diwan-i-khdlisah 's feigning. 

•S2SK2K& i^- e— ■«. tSJS 

The Grand Viziers petition signed by the limg. 
April M where in was contained an Order for IP. Hamil- 

• •» TTi, Uncle Syud-Caun Jehann [Sayyad Khan Jahan] ; 
ton to vxsitt E» Uncle by ^ ^^ ^.^ 

S,r otn 8 :!^ Masters interest exacting a compliance, 
^ Hamilton W iU sett forward tomorrow_ ^ 

"^ K ^ to TlSa"Xh [ Hi -s constituted Oalsa 3rd [auiuq and Tan Duan P**"**^ and 

Su ba !»*») * «^ He^rtedJor^Cit^^^ 

« ieB e o, z*-?l*£?3£ ££«=■ .. s» «M. i- *-*« - 

lingered near Delhi tor wo 
a»t<e, p. 45. 

184 DELHI, APRIL, 1717. 

Syud Sallahutt Cauns [Sayyad Salabat Khfin's] petition, and his 
Majestys order, M r . Surman &c* went to See the noted Garden 
Called Shalamar [S^alihmar] from whence after dinner, proceeded 
to the City." 

" The Grand Yizier very well pleased when he 

heard M r . Hamilton was gone to See his Uncle." 

" M r . Hamilton returned to the City, Itt was only the Omrahs 

{umard's] wife who was indisposed, She is to 

come to the City likewise for her cure, while 

Syud-Caun-Jehaun [Sayyad Khan Jahan] proceeds against the 


182. Letter XXX. 1 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq G-overnour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies &ct Council. 


This serves to accompany a Bill of Exchange drawn on your Honour 
&c? for twentyfive Thousand Sicca Eupees of 10| Massa [masha] and the 6 th 
Year, payable 70 Days after date to Sawbiparry \_sahu beopartj or Order, being 
for value received here from Murlidar Bawsein Decanny Eay [Murlidhar Bhao 
Singh Dakhini Eae] Factors to Kissoray Kissenchund[Keshu Eae Kishn Chand], 
to which we desire your Honour &c* will give due Honour, being, 

Dill Honourable Sir and Sirs 

April 9th 1717. Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Subman 
Hugh Baekee SecT. Edwabd Stephenson 

183. Letter XXXI. 2 

M To the Honoubable Eobeet Hedges Esq? G-overnour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Eight Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies &c* Council in Fort William. 

before^ Letter is found in the < Copy Book of Letters receded from Mr. Surman ' as noted 

1717 ST T h / Sl ^ ter 7 aS / ead , at ^ C ° nSUltati0,lat Fort St. George on Monday, the 21st July 
1717. It is therefore found in the Madras Consultation p™l- *J* i • a V « „ , 

<if Letters. ^tuias vonsunation Book and also in Surman's Copy Baok 

DELHI, APRIL, 1717. 185 


Our last to your Honour &c? wag February 23 rd which carried the good 
news of the Broad Seal being clapt on the Phirmaunds [farmansi], which we hope is 
duely arriv'd from that Office, they were carried to have the Eessalaw [risalah}, 1 
Viz', the Grand Visiers Seal on the back, the obtaining of which took up the 
whole Month of March, considering the Kings being in the Camp so near the 
City, the Muttsuddies \mutasadd\s] missed no opportunity to regale themselves 
at their own Houses, the Kings going daily a Hunting, and sometimes the 
Visiers not Sitting out may have been the cause of so great a delay, besides this 
we cannot answer, but the Visier may have had some small Sticklings whether he 
should on this Occasion require a Bribe or not, For the Phirmaunds [farma its'] 
were Several times carried and return'd without receiving their full Approval, 
but in the End this great Minister answerd the Opinion we Always had of him, 
The Fortune of our Honourable Masters carrying the day, he sign'd a Paper 
for the Seal the 27 th which was affixed the day following without any Alterations, 
altho' it was reported that Eey Eeyon [Bae-i-Bayan] and Eajah Eul- 
lunchund [Eatn Chand], at that Instant did make some Offers to the Contrary, 
but which however prov'd ineffectual, we shou'd at that time have given your 
Honour &c? the good news, but being so near the finishing, we were willing to 
detain our dispatches a few days longer till the Phirmaunds [farmans~\ were 
deliver' d, but first there was to be another Petition wrote to the King that they 
were ready, and his orders expected thereon, which was sent in to his Majesty 
the 2 ad and came out Sign'd the 7 th and this day the Phirmaunds [farmans'] 
were brought home intirely finish'd by Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] and 
deliver'd to M r Surman pursuant to your Honour Act' 9 Orders, we do not 
detain this Cossid [qasid] any longer for the Sake of Transmitting Copies under 
the Cozzee's [gnzi '*] Seal which may take up a few days, your Honour &c? may 
be sure the utmost precaution shall be taken therein, and for the Security of 
those precious Papers, which have been obtained at so much expence, of our 
Honourable Masters and Trouble to our Selves, we shall contribute all that lies 
in our Power. 

We herewith enclose Copies under the Cozzee's \_qazi's] Seal of 25 Perwannas 
[parwanasl, being the same we formerly sent down, the Originals are finish'd 
except one Writers Signing them, which Seerhaud [Sarhad] Says will be done 
either today or tomorrow when they will be delivered as the Phirmaunds 
[farmans], the remaining 7 Perwannas [panvanas] as yet are not done, Attesham 
Caun [I'tisam Khan] while he remained Duan Colsa [dltcan-i-JchalisaK] refusing 
to Sign them without some Alterations which were not fully compleated till the 
late revolution in the Duanny \_diwani~], Seerhaud [Sarhad] tells us they will 
be done in a few days but a Small matter must be first expended. 

The most active part of the Ministry here has of late received a very great 
Turn, by the displacing of Attesham Caun Duan Colsa [I'tisam Khan, d'twan- 
i-Malisah], and Eey Eeyon Duan Tun [Bae-i-Bayan, tan-ka-d'ucan], his 

w — — 

1 Risalah means faculty. "In the ritalah of so-and-so " is a technical phrase meaning 
' within the official competence of so-and-so." 

18G DELHI, Al'RIL, 1717. 

Majesty giving those posts to Enoitoola 1 Caun ['Inayatullah Khan] who is 
lately come from Mecca as a Master fit to retrieve the Troubled State of his 
.Kingdom, he was possess'd of these Posts for many Years in the time of 
Allumgeer ['Alarogir] and the same all the Reign of Behauder Shaw [Bahadur 
Shah], noted for his Knowledge in the Affairs of this Kingdom his great Severity 
and utter Refusal of any Sort of Bribery whatever, at the Beginning of this 
Kings Reign, his Son Edatoola Caun [Hiday atullah Khan] 2 was Consomma 
\1c]vansaman\, but falling under the Suspition of the Reigning Favourites, they 
Sacrificed him 3 to their own Security, and so sent the father 4 to Mecca, 
his Majesty finding the many Complaints made from all Parts, the great want of 
Treasure, and in fine Strange Confusion every thing was in made him look round to 
find out if possible a fit Man to retrieve it. This Man they say was first propos'd 
by Ameenoo dy Caun [Arninu-d-din Khan] 5 and afterwards so well fix'd in his 
Majestys Thoughts, that all the Instances us'd by the reigning Ministers could 
not avert him from it, Enoitoola Caun 1 ['Inayatullah Khan] himself was very 
hardly brought to, considering the great risq [risk] he must run by disobliging 
the reigning Favourites, and to act for the Kings Interest, which were perfectly 
inconsistent so that before he wou'd accept the Post, he made a great many 
Objections Viz' , the Protection of Cutbulmooluck [Qutbu-1-mulk] , to have a 
considerably Sum of money paid down out of the Kings private Treasury as he 
shou'd require it, and that no man shou'd offer to interfere in his Business, all 
which his Majesty readily granted, and purely in obedience to the Kings Com- 
mand, was by the Yisier for the present, Our Patronjs not to be fathom'd. but it 
is Suppos'd this Alteration has dipt his Wings in a great measure, the third In- 
stant he received a Seerpaw \_sar-o-pa] as Duan Colsa Duan Tun, and Subah of 
Cashmeer, 6 we have very good reason to be extraordinary glad to find our Honour- 
able Masters Affairs want none of his Assistance, and we believe we dare venturo 
to say, he is too well acquainted to have pass'd such Papers of which his Predeces- 
sors knew less the Consequence, and we hope it's too late for him to make any 
Enquiry after them. 

We have not as yet been able to make any great progress in our dispatches, 
our Strange dilatory Patron is the occasion of it, he puts us off from the Camp 
to the City, promising with many Asseverations he wou'd do it on our Arrival there, 
his Majesty came in the third Inst., but as yet we have seen nothing but fair 
Promises, we shall leave no Stone unturn'd to get away, with the utmost Expedi- 
tion but at present must have patience. 

Your Honour &c a .' 8 dated February 12 th came to hand March the 18 th 
we humbly propose the foregoing as a Sufficient Answer thereto, everyone being 

1 This is the reading of the Madra3 copy. The copy in Mr. Surman's hook is written care- 
lessly and gives ' Edttoola' which is obviously wrong. 

2 Hidayatullah Khan was executed by Farrukhsiyar's order on the 2nd Rabi 'I 1125H. i.e. 
the 18th March, 1713. 

3 The copy in Mr. Surman's book omits ' him. ' 

• This is the reading ofthe Madras copy, rn Mr. Surman's Copy Book of Letters ' the father ' 
has been corrupted into ' further. ' 

s Ammu-d-din Khan died on the 2Sth Safar 1150H. i.e. the 16th June 1737 aged a little 
over sixty-five lunar years. His biography is in Ma'asiru-l-umara, I, 357 , 

« See p. 179 above, note 1, also p. 183. 

DELHI, APRIL, J 717. 187 

to the utmost of their Endeavour willing to obey all orders your Honour &c» 
shall impose on them. 

"We have drawn the following Bills of Exchange. 

April 9 th , 25000 Sicca's payable to Sawbiparry [sahfi, beopari] or order, for 
value received of Murlidar Bowsing, Duckeneray, [Murlidhar Bhao Singh 
Dakhini Eae] Factors to Kisseray Kissenchund [Keshu Eae KishnChand]. 

April 10- ,h , 2000 Sicoa's payable toM r . James Williamson, value received from 
M r . William Hamilton. 

To which we desire your Honour Sect to give due Honour. 

M r . Edward Stephenson having Paid into [cash] the Sum of 3986-6-3 Current 
Eupees, Account Merchants goods Sold we desire your Honour &c will make 
that Sum good to them in Calcutta. 

Enclos'd comes Accounts Cash, Warehouse and Charges General with Copies 
of Consultations and Diary for the Months of January and February which we 
wish safe to your Honour &c? and are 

Dilly, April 10th 1717. 

/- Hon b A e Sir and Sirs 

C. Seebhaud ) Your most obedient humble Servants 

Hugh Babkeb Sec 17 v. John Stjeman 

Edwaed Stephenson." 

184. Consultation Extraordinary. 

A^m y i3th "^ an Extraordinary Consultation held Dilly 

1717. Aprill 13*1? 1717 an & present U v . Jn? Surman 

Cheif M. r . E. Stephenson H. Barker & M. r . T. Philips. 

C. Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] has heen Lately tampering in Secrett 
by Second hands with J. Surman concerning a Scheme which he has 
laid to gain some money, which he proposes to be divided between 
them. Upon Examination itt was nott found Standard Either in honour 
or Honesty. To make Every thing plain itt is more proper to take all 
from it's beginning and Explain Each particular Sojne three days since 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] sent for Otmaram [Atma Earn] Our Mutsuddy 
\_muiasaddf\ and in private told him to acquaint J. Surman " That itt 
" was impossible any one could take so much pains without the hopes off 
"gaining something. That he had formerly in Patna made a very 
"handsome offer. That by y? protecting and bringing up off Merchants 
" Goods a considerable Summ might have been gained 50,000 rupees att 
" least, That he had concerted Every thing, and that the gains might 
"have been divided at J. Surmans pleasure, Butt falling out, for meer 
" spight he had nott only refused itt, butt would nott suffer any Goods to 
" be brought by our Convoy, and thereby broke all his measures which he 

188 DELHT, APRIL, 1717. 

"had concerted. Seerhaud [Sarhad] Added, "That what was past was 
"past, That he was certain Jn? Surmans private Expences must amount 
"to About 10 or 12000 rupees," That iff he might be permitted he could 
" find a method to reimburse him, without loss off time, Hinderance 
" off y? buisness, or prejudice to Our Masters. In fine in 8 days to gain 
"att least 40,000 rupees which to be divided half and half, or otherwise as 
" Jn? Stirman should think fitt. This is y? bulk off y? first opening, to 
which as a meanes to deceive J. Surman returned the following answer, 
" That what was over was over, That he retained no malice That the 
" occasion off his refusing his proposition in Patna was Our Masters 
"prohibition, andwithall to desire he would Explain the present Scheme, 
"off all this Jn? Surman acquainted Edward Stephenson. He returned 
answer "He could by private meanes gain a good Summ from his 
"Majesty for our Expences att our departure, That he would Effect itt 
" in 8 days without y e . Assistance off Caundora [Khan Dau ran] and 
" Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan]. To which J. Surman desired time 
to consider, and he consulted. Butt y? next day Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
opened itt to J. Surman himself and was very pressing for his consent. 
" That he would gett y? money by Caundoras [Khan Dauran's] 
" meanes thro' Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] That Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d- 
"din Khan] and Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] should speak, 
" That itt would hasten our dispatches, That J. " Surman should 
"have f, Cojah Seerhaud -|, and Edward Stephenson £ To receive 
"itt publickly, & That iff y? Councill should nott allow off itt, 
" The worst could be to return itt. Jn? Surman returned no possitive 
answer, butt that he would consult Edward Stephenson and then advise. 
Butt nott being willing to keep this as a secrett to our selves itt is 
likewise made pubiick, H. Barker and M* T. Philips called to this con- 
sultation and desired to give their advice freely on this occasion. Thus 
having laid down y? particulars off this Story, we infer y? Question to 
be contained under y? following heads. 

1. Whether itt is reasonable to Suppose y? King will make Such 

a Grant, After so much generosity off giving us Bar- 
bardarry [bar-bardari'] (Carriage)? 

2. That in case itt should happen to be obtain'd, whether itt is 

consistant with Our Honour to receive itt and putt itt in 
our pocketts ? 

3. Whether there is any appearance off prejudice to permitt him 

to use his Endeavours on any terms ? 

DELHI, APRIL, 1717. 189 

To this We Answer 

1 st . To us itt seems impossible to obtain any thing, His Majesty 
nott being so free off his money ; and his favourite (Our 
Patron) not so Easyly brought over to Such Grants. So 
that this Scheme carrys a very sandy foundation : and 
Expect to have y e . first blast oversett itt. 
2nd ^y e are g opinion that money so given for Our Expences 
(as itt must be iff Obtain'd) ought to be applyed to that 
use and putt into Our H. Masters Cash. "We publickly 
profess that what Summs we shall so receive into our 
Hands, we shall use thus, and iff Seerhaud [Sarhad] does 
Otherwise he must be answerable for itt. Butt for y? 
present we conclude itt necessary to hide our intentions 
from him, Least he should grow desperate, and by other 
Clandestine meanes involve our Masters Affairs in more 
troubles ; and no prospect off any advantage. Whereas, 
The present Scheme should itt Succeed, Att least the share 
assigned for us will goe into y? Cash, and iff we can, y? 
whole. We determine itt is his great necessity for 
money drives him on these Expedients ; off which so long 
as he has y e . least glimpse, he may be quiet ' till we receive 
our dispatches, have y? papers, and so become Clear off 
his Clutches. 
3 r £ We cannot foresee any ill Aspect in y! permitting him to 
try to Satisfy his wants by this Supply, Since in reality 
we have very little dependance on him in gaining our 
dispatches, butt By Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad Salabat 
Khan], with whom Jn° Surman Cultivates a Good under- 
standing, Whereas Seerhaud [Sarhad] says this must be 
done by Kirperam [Kirpa Earn], and by permitting him, 
Kirperam [Kirpa Earn] can never Speak ill off us ; being 
in hopes we shall come to his beck, which has been so long 
refused, and as yett unconcluded. Iff Cojah pursues this 
matter with Success Our H. Masters will be y? Gainers. 
Iff itt fails we are Still pursuing y? meanes we Esteem 
proper for Our dispatches by y? Assistance off Syud 
Sallabut Caun [Sayyad Salabat Khan] who has hitherto 
done all our buisness. From these ratiocinations we make 
this Inference, and doe Agree That Jn° Surman may 

190 DELHI, APRIL, 1717. 

seemingly grant A Compliance and by little and little 
gett farther into his intentions. Butt as a publick Testi- 
mony off our designs that we abhor any such practices, 
we have held this Extraordinary Consultation." 

185. Letter XXXII. 1 

"To the Honourable Robebt Hedges Esq? G-overnour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England trading to the East Indies &c? Council — In Bengali— 


The Bearer hereof being design'd for Bengali, we take this to be a Secure 
opportunity to transmit to your Honour &c a Copys of the three Phirmaunds 
[farmans] under the Cozzee's [qazi's] Seal, Viz^ 1 for Bengali, 1 for Hyderabad, 
1 for Amadavad 2 , wishing all safe to your Hands, 

We are 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 
Your most obedient humble Servants 
Dllly * C. Seebhaud John Subman 

pn ' Hugh Babkeb, Sec^y Edwabd Stephenson 


186. Diary. 
April 2ist » Easter Day." 

Caundora [Khan Dauran] with ffrivolous Ex- 
pn n cuses putts off Our dispatch from day to day." 

"Sallabut Caun [Salabat' Khan] on one side gives us Great En- 
couragement, When Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
p on the other putts us off by a pretended Forgett- 

fulness " 

" This being Thursday and Duan-Om [diwdn-i- l &m~\ (att which time 

Embassadours are Usuall dispatched) Sallabut 

Caun [Salabat Khan] pressed Caundora [Khan 

Dauran] to send us away. Butt Caundora [Khan Dauran] Excusing 

itt, we find the Necessity to waite another week." 

"Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] finding Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
so very dilatory, became Angry, and told him 

April 27th 

that iff we were nott to goe, We ought to 
have a house and monthly Expences Allowed us, Upon tlus Caundora 
[Khan Dauran] swore he would Make an End to day." 

' This letter is foxind in the ' Copy Boc k of Letters receive fr M . Surmau.' 
* Ahmadlbad, Gujarat, the ribah in which Surat was situated, 

DELHI, APRIL, 1717. 191 

" The King having signed the Phirds [fards ] which Caundora 

[Khan Dauran] presented him for Our Dispatoh, 

April 28th They werQ gent tQ Syud g^iabut Caun [Sayyad 

Salabat Khan] and from thence to M r . Surman." 

First Phird \_fard~]. 
For The Honourable Bobert Hedges Esq. President off Bengali. 
Guzzaratt [Gujarat] Goods 100 p? 
Otter \_Htr] 50 Tola [tolaK] 

Jewells. Cunger and Fool-katerry [khanjar and fil kofdri] 

with a pearl-Tossell pudduck 
Elephant [baggage elephant]. 

Second Phird [fard~\. 

For the Envoy &c- 

M r . John Surman 

A Seerpaw 


A Culgee 


Cojah Seerhaud 

A Seerpaw 

[ sar-o-pd] 

M r . E. Stephenson 

A Seerpaw 


Mess rs . Hamilton, Barker, 

& Philips 

4 Seerpaws 


For the Honourable Madras President A Seerpaw 


For the Honourable Bombay President A Seerpaw 


It must be here observed That the Honourable Bengali President 
receives an Elephant, above what given to the Generall off Batavia ; Butt 
M r . Surman &c- Less than what was given to the Dutch Legates by 
Mouzzedeen [Mu'izu'd-dln]. This was indeed Surprizing, considering 
Our Quadruple present, with the Services that had been done his Majesty, 
Butt Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] who beleived his honour att Stake, 
was in A perfect rage. Wherefore M? Surman considering, That Salla. 
but Caun [Salabat Khan] might endeavour to gett things altered, 
and thereby Occasion a certain delay without a good prospect off Success, 
Att Least that could compensate the loss off time, The rains Approach- 
ing, he sent A Messenger to entreat him nott to meddle any more to 
have things Altered, butt Lett all the King had signed remain. ' That 
' we came here to spend Our Masters money In doing their buisnesp, not 
' to heap up riches, nor depending to have Our Labours Crowned with 
1 honour here, butt att a return by Our directors. Wherefore Seeing we 

* had happyly finished Our Errant, Altho The King had nott shown the 
1 expected Generosity, Yet our Longer iStay would lay an indelible blott 

* upon our reputations. Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] replyed ' That 

192 DELHI, APRIL AND MAY, 1717. 

1 Since Mr Surman desired, he would Speak no more about itt,' Butt we 
suspect he will nott keep his word. All this we Cheifly impute to the 
niggardliness of Gaundora [Khan Dauran], and doe beleive the King 
Granted whatever he asked for." 

" Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] (as was Suspected) Attacked Caun- 

A P rii30th d ° ra [Khan Dauran] in the Durbar [darbdr~\. 

Itt is certain the Latter spoke only for a Seerpaw 

\sar-o-pd~] and Culgee \hd&$ for M r . Surman ; wherefore he was now 

desired to speak again to his Majesty. Butt he replyed doe you speak, 

and I will stand hy. Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] said. "That 

besides the misfortune off being taken from his Eoyal presence The 

Elchy was sorry he could nott depart with the same honours the Dutch 

had formerly." Here he mentioned the particulars — Upon this his 

Majesty Looked toward Caundora [Khan Dauran] and gave a nod. 

After this Sallabut Caun [§alabat Khan] forbid Cooshalohund 2 to 

proceed with the former Seaw [siydhafi], butt to waite fresh Orders 

from Caundora [Khan Dauran]. Note — Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad 

Salabat Khan] did this off his own head." 

" Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] sent M? Surman word he had gott 

the horse and Cunger [khanjar~\ to be Entered. 

This Omrah \_umard~\ is so nice off his own honour 

as to be almost angry with M r . Surman for nott being more Sollicitous 

to have things augmented." 

"M r . Surman &c* visitted Caundora [Khan Dauran]. Caundora 

[Khan Dauran] made Subah of Guzarat, and 

Caun-Jehaun-Behauder Subah off Agra. 3 " 

May 4th « The King gone on the sand with his women." 

M 5th " M r . Surman presses Sallabut Caun [Salabat 

Khan] to make Caunlora [Khan Dauran] fix 

a day for our dispatch from the King." 

" Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad §alabat Khan] accosting Caun- 

Way 6th ^ 0ra [Kh^n Dauran] too warmly in the Durbar 

[darbdr] concerning our dispatches, the Latter 

went Away angry, which must cost us some days longer. This may 

be imputed to the possitiveness of Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] for 

some Alterations." 

i Kalghi,, an aigrette with jewelled locket. 

2 Khuahhal Chand, the peshkar of the mir bakhshi. 

3 According to Kamwar Khan , Khan Dauran was appointed Governor of Gujarat on the 
1st Jamadi II, 1129 H. i. e. the 2nd May, 1717. But he gives A'zzu-d-daulah Khan ' Alam, 
instead of Sayyad Khgn Jahan aa the governor appointed to Agra Akbarabad. 

DELHI, MAY, 1717. 193 

"His Majesty again upon the sand 1 with his 
women, So no buisness going forward." 

" M r . Surman this Evening visitting Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] 
he received the following Account. Caundora 
[ Kh an Dauran] asked his Majesty what he pleased 
to order for the English Elchy, That Sail abut Caun [Salabat Khan] 
was ooncerned his Majesty had nott consented to his petition. Upon this 
the King turning to Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan], said Itt was nott 
Customary to give so many things att a despatch, there being no pre- 
cedent, but Mouzzedeen [Mu'izzu-d-din] which Signified nothing; 
Nevertheless for his sake he would now give itt. He ordered att the 
same time That M r . Surman should come the Next Duan-day, [diwari] 
and receive A Horse and Cunger [khanjar], and then the Ensuing Duan 
\_aiwdn~\ That he and hisBretheren should he dispatched according to the 
former Seaw [siydhah] wherein was contained the Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] 
and Calgee [JcalgM]. Iff this prove true we may Expeot our dispatches 
the next week/' 

" M r . Surman &c* Expected to have been dispatched to day but 

m 12th were disappointed, tho' Sallabut Caun [Salabat 

Khan] promised itt. Cooshalchund [Khushhal 

Cband] said he could nott give the Seaw \jiydhah~\ for the Cunger 

[khanjar j and Horse 'till he had spoke Again to Caundora [Khan 


" This day Caundora [Khan Dauran] ordered the Seaw [siydhah'] 

mentioned yesterday which was by a Chubdar 

[chobddr] sent to Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan], 

Our Vakiles [vakils] being dilatory in this Affair, M r . Surman rattled 

them Accordingly. For the things might possibly have been given 

to day." 

" The King Abroad with his women. The 
Seaw [siydhah] delivered into the proper Offices." 

" Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] called M r . Surman to Caundoras 

[ Kh an Dauran], saying he should now receive 

ay his horse and Cunger [khanjar]. M r . Surman 

went to the Duan-Om [divdn-i-'dm] accordingly, butt was disappointed. 

God knows the reason." 

1 On he sandy banks of the Jumna below the fort at Delhi. 


194 DELHI, MAY, 1717. 

"Sallabut Oaun [Salabat Khan] Again called M'. Surman &c* to 
to the Durbar [ddrbar\ itt being Thursday and 
May let Duan Om [dlican-i- i am"\. Butt more strange than 

before M r . Surman received Another disappointment, altho Sepedar 
Caun [Sipahdar Khan] was present, and the Buxys peeshcar [bakhslas 
veshkdr] told Cauniora [Khan Dauran] the Horse and Cunger 
[teanj'ar] was ready. This was as hard As Surprizing, Seeing what 
M r . Surman was to have, was the rumour off the whole Durbar [darbar]. 
Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] is here Cheifly in fault, for nott well- 
adjusting this matter beforehand with Caundora [Khan Dauran], butt 
making us to run fruitlessly up and down, and by that meanes become 
Extreme light." 

"His Majesty on the Sand with his women, and as a mark off 
his Arbitrary power turning all people Out 
off the Adjacent houses." 

187. Letter XXXIII. 1 

To the Honottbablb Kobebt Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort "William 
and President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants 
of England trading to the East Indies &c a Council in Bengali. 


We wrote your Honours &c? the 9 th April to accompany a Bill of 
Exchange payable to Sawbiparry [sahu beopari], for the value received here from 
Murlidar, Bawseinr Decanny Eay [Murlldhar Bhao Sen Dakhini Eae], and at large 
the 10 th D? carrying the good news that the Phirmaunds [far mans] were intirely 
finish'd and deliver'd in &c? with enclosure of our Accounts &c> for the 
Month of January and February, we again wrote by M r . Coock bound for Bengali 
the 15 th D? chiefly to accompany Copys of the Phirmaunds \_farmans] which 
were deliver'd him as (in our Opinion) a very safe Conveyance. 

"We were in hopes by this Letter to have given your Honour &c? an 
Account that we had received our dispatches from his Majesty, but as there is 
very little to be depended on here, so we find our Selves on this Account under 
no Small Disappointment having never Suspected this trifling matter cou'd have 
taken up so much time, Our Experience on this Occasion has taught us, that 
the least Affair cannot be transacted here without the Solemnity of a long and 
tedious Attendance, thereby enhaunching the favours they grant as to make them 
hardly worth receiving, our Diary for the Month of April, may be a more proper 
Index, than what can be contain'd in this Letter. We hoped all bad been 
concluded with the Month, not being much concern'd with the Kings deter- 
mination for our Dispatches altho' not with the same Honour that was granted 

1 This letter was read at a Consultation at Fort St. George on Saturday, the 17th August, 1717 
It li consequently found in the Madras Consultation Book as well as in the Copy Book oi Letters from 
M». Surman. 

DELHI, MAY, 1717. 105 

the Dutch by Mozzudeen [Mu'izzu-d-din, Jahandar Shah]. Wherefore we 
desir'd Sallibutcaun [Salabat Khan] not to request an addition, being Satisfled 
such pursuit must be attended with loss of time and consequently become 
expensive to our Honourable Masters, he promis'd very fairly but being nettled 
at the Disappointment, and that a Woman (such as Bibbe Juliana) shou'd be able 
to do that for the Dutch with a Quarter of the present, which was not in his 
power to effect for us with Such advantageous pleas; made him Storm in 
private, and resent it to Caundora [Khan Dauran] in very pathetick Terms, neither 
would he desist, on which Caundora ["Khan Dauran] made him Speake to the 
King himself his Majesty disputed making the Addition of Gunger [khanjar] and 
Horse for M ! '. Surman, as an ill precedent for futurity, but in the End granted 
it with this Salvo, that it shou'd be given some Duan [diwan] before the time 
of our Dispatches, that it might remain upon the records as a mark of his 
favour, and not to be challeng'd by other Nations. We have exerted our Selves 
to the Utmost on this Occasion in hopes of a speedy Dispatch, so the disappoint- 
ment can't be laid at our Doors, and we hope our Precedent Behaviour is 
evident proof that no outside Vanity or Expectations cou'd make us Swerve 
from our Honourable Masters Interest. 

The Phirmaund \_farman ] in answer to our President's Letter, Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] tells us has pass'd the Kings As3ent, and is writing fair over. And 
the Order for the HonW? Robert Hedges Esq 1 ? Present being gone into the 
Consomany \Jchansamani~], it's n w ten days since an Arze Arze ['ar?il went from 
that Place to his Majesty which is not yet return'd, when it does the Consomma 
[Mansaman] must give a Dustick \_dastaJc~\ on the Several Officers which at best 
will take up some time. 

J he 6 remaining Perwana's [pirwa nets'] are after much difficulty Sign'd 

and Seal'd by the Visier, Copys of 4 of which under the Cozzee's [q&f \'s\ 

Seal come enclos'd the other two being Seal'd up Vizt 

e present and to come 
2 Calcutta Towns ... J Ickeram CaUn [Akram gh an] 

1 Patna House ... Esgar Caun [ Khan] 

1 Companys Debtors ... Present and to come 

The 2 which are Seald are for the Rogues on Jaffereaun, [Ja'far Khan], and 

for Mobaris-Caun 1 Subah of Golcondah, we likewise enclose another set of 

Copys of the Phirmaunds [farmans~] under tne Cozzees [qazi's'] Seal. 

We have drawn the following Bills of Exchange payable 70 Days after date 

Viz* 2100 Sicca's to M* James Williamson, value received from John Surman 

600 Sicca's to Mons. r la Bat payable to John Flemmingo 

To both which we desire your Honour &c* will give Due Honour. 

1 Mubariz Kh5n, fUbahddr of Gulkanda. Khwajab Muhammad, Mubariz Khan, ' Imadu-I- 
Mulk, Hizbar Jang, was a native of Baliih,. His first title was Amanat Khan. Under his second 
title ' Shahamat Khan' he was appointed governor of Haidarabad on the 17th RabI 'II 1125, 
or the 12th May, 1713 N. S. He was a son-in-law of * Inayatullah Khan Kashmiri. Ob the 
23rd Muharram, 1137, or the 11th October 1724 N. S., he was killed in a battle against 


196 DELHI, MAY, 1717. 

Herewith comes Accounts Cash, Werehouse, Charges General and Copys of 
Consultations for the Months of March and April. 

We are 
Dilly. Honorable Sir and Sirs 

May 19* 1 ? Your most obedient humble Servants 

1717. John Sueman 

Edwaed Stephenson." 
188. Diary. 

" The King sett Duan [diwaii] butt nothing done. "We beleive 
the CungerT Maw/a/] nott yett shown his Majesty, 
ay Butt the Droga [darogbah] off the Stables has 

received particular orders concerning the Horse." 

" 0. Fanoose 1 An Armenian who came from Suratt, and is Enter- 
tained here as the Kings painter, (we hear) has 
complained to his Majesty Against us, How 
that 13 Years Agoe he Lost some Oorall &c Goods att Bombay which 
were brought in a ship from Persia 2 ." 

" Having advico Sepedar Caun [Sipahdar Khan] had shown the 

Jewells to his Majesty, MF Surman &c* returned 

to the Duan-Om [dlwan ( am~\ being Thursday, 

when M. T . Surman received aCunger \_khanjar~] Sett with precious Stones 

and a Horse, paying the Acoustomary, and necessary Obeisance." 

189. Consultation. 

"We are obliged to comply with the unreasonableness of the 
Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] Office, that we may getfc Our 

May 27th \ * J ' , . \ * 

dispatches by any meanes, and ltt is tor this reason 
alone that we consent to the payment of 740 rupees to those Gripers, 
no remedy being to be had. This may serve as a very pretty 
instance, how the Kings orders are minded, Even upon the Spott." 

190. Diary. 

" Mr Surman &c? visitted the Grand Vizier. They desired his 

permission to be dispatched from his Majesty, to 

which he readyly consented, saying iff he was in 

the Duan \_dlwati\ he would Speak to the King in their behalf. Then 

he ordered them, now their buisness was done, to visitt him frequently, 

without bringing any thing." 

1 Muhammad Absan, Ij5d, the court historiographer, devotes several pages of highly- 
ornate prose to the wonders shown in jvhwSjah Fanus' pictures. 
a The complaint was ap ntly frivolous and came to nothing. 

DELHI, MAY, 1717. 197 

" This morning Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] wrote a note to 
Caundora [Khan Dauran], to know whether 
we should come to the Durbar [da>bdr], and 
withall desired, that Chilahs [chclahs] might be appointed, to gett 
ready the Seerpaws [sar-o-pds~\. Upon receipt off this Caundora 
[Khan Dauran ordered Ooochalchund [Kushhal Chand] to gett 
Every thing ready, and that the Elchy [elchi | should be present in the 
Duan [ducdn]. Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] advised M> Surman 
off what passed, and of the necessity for him &c? to go to the Durbar 
[dar bar J. Butt that iff he was nott dispatched he should nott be Angry, 
Seeing men off 5000 Muns b . ! have attended severail weeks when 
their Seerpaws [sar-o-pds] have nott been ready. This message with 
the little probability off Chilahs [chelds] from Caundota [Khan 
Dauran], made M r . Surman Send a Vakile [vakil] with 300 rupees 
to the Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] Office to tempt them, and orders nott to stand 
for 200 rupees Extraordinary in Case the Vests were biought ready 
into the Duan [diwdn] today. 

His Majesty Setting in the Duan Om [due an l dm] being Thursday 
M r . Surman &c* went accordingly to receive their dispatches. M r - J. 
Surman receive 1 a Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] and Calgee [kalgM], Every one 
Else a Seerpaw [sar-o-pd], "When Doct^ Hamilton was making the 
proper Obeisance for his Seerpaw [sar-o-pd ], the King Suddenly and 
Unexpectedly sent orders from the Throne to Lett Every one Else goe 
out off the Duan [duo-.m] (as the custom is for those that are 
dispatched) butt to place him Again in his Station, the Seerpaw 
[sar-o-pd'] being a mark off the Roy all ffavour, and nott for his depar- 
ture : which orders were obey'd accordingly. When his Majesty rose 
up, Seerhaud [Sarhad| went to enquire off Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
the reason, why the Doctor was nott dispatched ? to which Caundora 
[Khan Dauran] reply 'd, ' I have spoke to the King twenty times 
concerning this Affair, and can Speak no more, unless you have a mind 
to make me rediculous. "Wherefore do You petition his Majesty.' 

In the Evening M r - Surman went to Sallabut Caun [Salabat 
Khan] (who went nott to the Durbar [darbdr] today) and After 
acquainting him with the matter, begg'd he would use his utmost 
Endeavours with Caundora [Khan Dauran] to gett the Doctor dis- 
patched ; for that he would by no meanes be perswaded to Stay, That 

1 An abbreviation of munsub, i «., man^db. 

198 DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 

all the flavours and riches the King could heap on him would prove no 
manner off Allurements, — that iff the KiDg had a mind to keep him he 
must send Goorzeburdars [gurzbarddrs] and putt Irons on his Leggs, 
and that Even then he would nott so much as accept off the Kings bread 
much less his service. The Old Syud [Sayyad] Asked two or three 
times whether nothing could prevail, but when he was answered No •* 
He promised to be very importunate with Caundora [Khan Dauran], 
and Even to fall at his ffeett to Obtain itt. 

Syud Omer [Sayyad ' UmrJ Sent the Consommany Dusticks 
[khdnsdmdni dctstaks] Signed to Sallabut Caun [Salabat Kh an] who 
gave them to M r - Surman." 

" The King abroad with his Women. 

Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] went to Caundoras, [Khan Dauran J 
, , , where he talked off M r - Hamiltons Affair, much to 

Juue 1st 

the Same Effect as we had told him. Caundora 
[Khan Dauran] replyed the King was obstinate, he having severall 
times already Endeavoured to disswade him from itt. That his Advice 
was for M r - Surman to goe to the Yizier, and Engage his intercession 
with his Majesty, which when sett on ffoot, he himself would find an 
opportunity to Speak Effectually. Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] said 
he wonder'd he should send the Elchy to the Viziers, since he had yett 
never asked any ffavour or had anything to doe with him Since his 
arrivall and therefore was now likely to meet with a repulse. Caundora 
[Khan Dauran J said Lett them goe, and In case of refusall I will 
doe itt myself. 

The Bootades [buyutdPs] seal must be on our Dusticks 

"The Elephant Droga [d&roghaK] accepted the Eustick [dastak] 

without the Bootades [ buyutdt's] seal ; Butt the 

Others being rejected, Our Yakile [vakil] went 

to Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d-din Khan] 1 , desiring his eeal. He replyed 

there must be first a petition sent to his Majesty." 

1 Zeyau-d«din Khan had been appointed Ivyututi at Court on the 22nd gu-l-qa'dah H27, 
%.*. the 8th November, 1715. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 199 

191. Consultation. 1 

"Having received our dispatches 2 from his Majesty, Itt is our 

buisness to Leave this place with the Utmost 

JU DMy. d Expedition, the necessary preparations being made 

accordingly. Agreed that a sufficient number off 

Carriages be hired, as the best proposition for Our Tents. Butt as 

Camells are the most Expeditious and therefore proper for Our Own 

and Servants necessarys, Agreed that a convenient number be bought. 

The hire off such cattle proving very Extravagant. 

The "Way between this place and Coora-Jehaunabad [Korah Jaha- 
nabad], butt more Especially Agra, being very much infested by 
Jaats [Jats] and Mewattys [Mewatls] ; we shall want a sufficient 
fforce to protect what has been obtained with so much pain and trouble, 
which att least must be Equall to what came up with us : Viz*- 50 
Country Horsemen and 400 peons and Burkundass [barqandas]. Butt 
that we may have an opportunity to pick those which are Good Itt is 
thought convenient to begin taking them in, by Little and Little, and 
nott att once to receive what we can gett, att any rate they please 
to impose upou us. 

M r - Hamilton being entirely averse to obey the Kings orders by 
his stay, unless Iforced thereto ; Itt is our buisness to weigh this Affair 
in respect to Our Honourable Masters. We find few dare speak to the 
King for his Clearance. On the Other side we are satisfyed That should 
he be kept by force, His stay would be no longer than the first oppor- 
tunity to Elope. For such a burning desire reigns in him after his own 
Country, that neither promises nor threats can avail any thing. All 
this being duely promised, we doe Esteem a modest denyall att present 
much better than a Seeming complyance, which can contribute nothing 
to his deliverance. For should he be kept by fforce and Afterwards 
Escape, The King might very likely vent his Anger on our Honour- 
able Masters Settlements, Supposing us Assistant and consenting 
thereto: On the Contra, should he by chance have leave to depart, 
we are all Cleared : Iff nott, His ffortune is try'd, and we honestly 
discharged Our Selves, to the King, Our H : Masters and him 

1 This consultation is signed by Thos, Phillips " during the iu disposition of M r - Hugh 
Barker Cojah Seerhaud assenting." Phillips continues to sign up to and including the consult- 
ation of the 5th July. The consultation of the 12th July is signed by Hugh Barker as Secre- 
tary. " C. Seerhaud consents to the purport of this consultation, though the fair copy was not 
perused by him." 

2 In this and other similar passages " our dispatches " ia evidently a rendering of the 
word ruihsat, " formal dismissal or leare to depart." 

200 DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 

also. Besides there is 110 absolute necessity off making appli- 
cation in our Own names, his own being Every way the most proper. 
And we are well-nigh Assured there will be no fforce in the Case, 
Butt that his Majesty used this as his Last Effort to Engage his 
stay, which when he finds his stiff aversion to, he will wave itt. 
Agreed That a pathetick petition be drawn up in his name, and that we 
pay the Vizier a visitt and present itt, Acording to the advice and 
order off Our patron Oaundora [Khan Dauran]." 

192. Diary. 

" M? Surman &c* carrying Mr. Hamiltons petition to the Grand 
Vizier, He read itt over with great Attention and 

June 4th . . . 

immediately ordered another oi the same Unect 
to be wrote and addressed to his Majesty, vhich was to be transmit- 
ted with one from himsef . The Vizier said measures must be taken 
to release the Doctor, without displeasing his Majesty." 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] meeting Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d-din Khan] 
he was told the Dusticks [^dostaH'] should be 
signed this morning; butt att the same time said 
What will you give me Nothing ? which Seerhaud [Sarhad] Evaded 
with a Jest. The Vakile [vaW] going afterwards to the Ketcherry 
[kackahri], The Dusticks [dastaksj were sealed and Delivered, after 
many ffrivolous Excuses off a petition &c a . 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] says he gave a petition for the Doctor to Col 
Manovr, i^Manavvar], which is addressed to the Kings mother.- Butt 
this Affair being very ticklish, few care to Embaik in itt. However 
the Eunuch promises to speak about itt." 

"The Elephant-Droga [ddroghaK] Speaking to his Majesty concern- 
ing Our Honourable Presidents Elephant, Itt 

June 6th ° r 

was ordered That the Oonsomma \khdnsdmdn\ 

Sett a prioe, and then make his report in a petition. To remedy the 

delay that must necessaryly attend Such Measures, M.\ Surman 

proposes to give Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] a petition (desiring 

a price may be sett) to present his Majesty tomorrow and gett Signed 


The Viziers petition came out sign'd from the King as follows — 

" Since he is privy to my nakedness and perfectly understands his 

buisness, I would very willingly have kept him, and given him 

whatever he should have asked ; Butt seeing he is satisfyed with no terms, 

1 Co. for cojah, i.e. hhqjah, a eunuch. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 201 

1 Agree to itt, provided, After he has gone to Europe, procured Su< h 
medicines as are nott to be gott here, and seen his wife and Children, 
he return once more to visitt this Court: Let him goe." 

We have for some time had reports of a Biragy [bairagi] being 
here to Complain That a parcell off Diamonds were taken from him by 
Gov r Pitt about 10 Years agoe; for which he gave him a bill for a Leek 
[lakh] off E s on M r Pattle in the Patna-ffactory, That going there, and 
the ffactory being withdrawn, He found nobody. Wherefore he went 
to Oulcutta, & there making known the Story to Govern 1 " Hedges, he 
demanded a Sight off the note. Butt the Byragy [bairugi] having 
private information off his intentions to seize the note and keep him 
prisoner, he privately gott out off the place, and came here to Complain. 
This person has been found often att the Viziers gate by our Vakiles 
[vakils'], & when M r Surman &c* was there Last, he attacked Seerhaud 
[_Sarhad] showing him a Letter which he desired him to open, in which 
he would find the truth off the Story. Seerhaud j Sarhad] Agreed 
in Case there were half a dozen substantial Witnesses of what itt 
contain'd : butt otherwise nott. With this Answer he went Away. To 
day he went into the Viziers Audolett ['jddlat] and made a publick 
complaint to the tenour Abovementioned. The Vizier bid Mittersein 
[Mitr Sen] carry the man to the Flchy and content him, butt upon the 
Vakiles [vakils] coming out to look for him he was nott to be found." 

193. Consultation. 

" We find the Offices from whence we are to receive the present for 

the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq? very 

juneV dilatory in delivering the Severall particulars 

1717 . ' 

and that when induoed thereto, unless bribed 

they will give Goods of no value. That we may nott be detained on 

this account, and to obtain what is Good in its kind, we doe beleive 

itt highly necessary to bribe the Officers, the strictest orders off the 

King here being hardly obey'd without itt. 

Ordered That these Affairs be adjusted by the Vakiles [vakils] 

There has been an Agreement with the Carriers for 10 Carriages 
with 4 Oxen from hence to Patna att 95 Rs Each & 5 Carriages with 

2 Oxen att 47 £ To march hence in 20 days Or Else pay demurrage 
att 8 Es and 4 Annas pr day. All stops Excepted that may be 

202 DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 

occasioned by the violence off the Eains. Agreed that 209 Bs be 
paid beforehand." 

194. Diary. 
" M r . Surman gave Sallabut Caun [Salabat 

JuDe ith . L • 

Khan] the three following petitions. 

1. To his Majesty for a price to the Elephant. 

The other two to Oaundora [Khan Dauran] for Goorzeburdars 
[gurzbarddrs] and Chilah [cheld], and for way-dusticks [dastaksl and 
Husbullhoocums [Iiasbu-l-hukms] on the Severall Subahs [subadars] 
These Last being delivered, Oaundora [Khan Dauran] order'd 
Cooshalchund [Khushhal Chand] to give the Seaw [siyahali] for the 
Goorzeburdars [gurzbardirs and Chilah [cheld] and to write the Dusticks 
[jlastaks] aDd Husbullhoocums [hailu-l-hukms].'" 

195. Letter XXXIV. 1 

" To the Honourable Kobert Hedges Esq. Governoar of Fort William 
and President for Affairs of the Honourable United Company o£ 
Merchants of England trading to the East Indies &c* Council In 
Fort William. 

Honourable Sir and Sibs 

Our last to your Honour &c* was dated the 18 1 ? Ult? 2 enclosing four Copies of 
the remaining Perwannaes [_i?aricanas], Tiz^ Calcutta Towns 1 present and to 
come, for D. 1 on Eckeramcaun [Akram Khanj, Patna House 1 on Esgar Caun 
[Asghar Khan], Companys Debtors one, as also a set of Copies of the Phirmaunds 
[farrnans] under the Cozzees Iqazi's'] Seal, by that Conveyance we likewise sent 
our Accounts Cash, Warehouse and Charges General with Copys of our Consulta- 
tions for the Months March and April, which we hope will arrive in due time, 
having already sent two Sets of the Phirmaunds ifarmans'], we shall not repeat 
them till we hear they are arriv'd or farther Orders, we now send foure more of 
the above-mention'd Perwannaes [parwanas']. 

The 23^ Ult° John Surman received from his Majesty an Horse and Cunger 
[khanjar], as was preappointed, and the 30 th D. we were sent for by Caundora 
[Khan Dauran], to receive our Dispatches, which we had accordingly, a Seerpaw 
Isar-o-pa] and Culgee [kalgki~\ being given to John Surman, Seerpaws [sar-o-pSs] 
to Surhaud [Sarhad] and Edward Stephenson, as likewise to the rest of our 
Companions, we were orderd to pass, one by one to our Obeysance then to move 
from -he Duan [d%v>Sn], we did so: but when it came to MF Hamiltons Turn 
he was told the King had granted him a vest as a Mark of his Favour but not for 
his Dispatch, so was order'd up to his Standing again, whilst he was performing 
this, the King got up. We were highly Surpriz'd at this unexpected Motion, not 

1 This letter was read at a consultation at Fort St. George on Monday, the 9th September, 
1717. It is also found in the Copy Book of Letters from Mr Surman. 
3 The date should be the 19^. 

DELHr, JUNE, 1717. 203 

having the least Notice o? it till that Minute either from our Patron or any to 
Authority, it being near a twelve Month since MT Hamilton had been in private 
vfith his Majesty, and in all this time not the least notice taken, vfe were very 
much concern'd at his Detainment, and the more because we were assur'd of his 
firm Aversion to accepting the Service, even with all its Charms of vast pay Honour 
&c? that if the King did detain him by force, if he out-liv'd the Trouble of his 
Esteem 'd Imprisonment, he might be endeavouring at an Escape, which everyway 
had it's ill Consequences, to free our Honourable Masters from any Damages that 
might accrue to them, from the Passionate Temper of the King, our Patron Caun- 
dora was applyed to for leave, twice or thrice he positively denied to speak, or 
even have a hand in this Business till our Friend Syud Sallabut Caun [Sayyad 
Salabat Khan] had an Opportunity to lay the Case open to him, when ho order'd 
us to speak to the Visier, and if by any means we cou'd gain him to intercede, 
hat he would back it, nay if the Visier refused, he wou'd make one Effort for 
the Doctor himself, nay Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] promis'd to convince the 
King himself in case of any Delay, pursuant to our Patron's Directions we made a 
Visit to the Visier the 4$ h and laid the case Open to him in a Petition from 
M? Hamilton, of how little Service he could be without any Physick, Language, 
or Experience in the Country Medicines or their Names, besides which the Heart- 
breaking distractions off being parted for ever from his Wife and Children 1 wou'd 
be insupportable, and intirely take away his Qualifications for the Kings Service, 
that under the favour of his Majesty Clemency, with the utmost Submission he 
desir'd he might have leave to depart with us, from our Selves we informed the 
Visier, that we shou'd have esteem'd this as a very great Honour, but finding the 
Doctor under these Troubles not to be perswaded, we were oblig'd to lay the case 
before his Majesty, and that in this case none so proper as himself, withal that 
we humbly desir'd he would use his Intercessions to the King that his Majesty 
mi°ht be prevail'd upon to dispatch him. The good Visier readily offered to use 
his utmost Endeavours, and Since the case was so, the Business was to gain the 
Doctor's Dispatch without displeasing the King, and order'd a Petition to be 
drawn up to his Majesty in the same Form, as that given to himself directed to 
the King and sent him, which he wou'd forward with one from himself ; it 
was sent him and the Visier was as good as his word, writing a very pathetick 
address to his Majesty, enforcing M. Hamiltons reasons, and backing them with 
his own Opinion M That it was better ta let him go. The King return'd an 
Answer which came out the 6 th as follows, '* Since he is privy to my nakedness 
and perfectly understands his business, I wou'd very fain have kept him, and 
given him whatsoever he shou'd have ask'd, but seeing he can't be brought on 
any Terms to be content, I agree it, and on condition that after he has gone to 
Europe, procur'd such Medicines as are not to be got here, and seen his Wife and 
Children, he return to visit the Court once more, let him go. We hope in God 
this Troublesome Business is now blown over. 

1 No mention of wife or children is made in Hamilton's will ; and, as I read Hamilton's 
personal history, they were really prospective. His desire was to return home to be married ; 
bat perhaps for the sake of argument with his Majesty, it was thought better to assume 
that the doctor was so already. Hamilton's hypothetical wife and children were, no doubt, 
strong points in the grand vizier's pathetic address. 

204 DELHI, JUNK, 1717. 

The Phirmaund \_farman\ for the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq. is wrote 
fair and gone to the Suddera-Suddool [sadru-s-sadur] for the broad Seal, it's 
open and will haTe the Visiers Seal on it, and is more like a General Phirmaund 
{farman\ than an Answer to a Letter, so without doubt will be of great Service. 

The Present order'd for the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq., the Consomma 
[khansaman] has given his Dusticks idastaks] for the Delivery of the Goods, 
on the Several Officers, we are getting them in as soon as possible. 

The rains are setting in here, but however we intend to leave this Place with 
all the Expedition we can. preparing Carriage and taking in Servants, altho' 
it may be impossible to March when the Waters are up, but it's absolutely neces- 
sary to leave this Place, Tho' our Journey may be Stopt at Agra. 

The King notwithstanding his many Oaths made to the Contrary has lately 
imposed the Gigea (Poll Tax) 1 we had some Apprehensions they were going to rip 
up old Stories but as yet it has extended no farther than a Surmise, we have 
esteem'd it for our Honourable Masters Interest not to make any Addresses to 
the King, for fear of bringing our late Grants in Question. The only Place where 
the Tax was paid by the English was at Surat, and there in Lieu of it was an 
Additional Custom which Custom being intirely taken away and a Peescash 
\j>eshkash~\ plac'd in its Stead, we hope the Phirmaund [farman~] now obtained 
will be esteem'd Sufficient to fend off this Imposition, altho' it is not improbable 
there may be some Trouble about it, shou'd it be laid on other European Nations. 

We design to write to your Honour &c a . again as soon as we leave this City, 
in the Interim we remain, 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Your most obedient humble Servants 

Dllly C. Seebhaud assenting John Stjbman 

m _ Hugh IUbeee Sec 1 ? Edwabd Stephenson 

P. S. 

Herewith comes Copy of the Phirmaund [farman] for the Honourable Robert 
Hedges Esq. in answer to his Arzdust \_'arz-dasht~] to his Imperial Majesty. " 

196. Diary. 

" The Jewell-office insists upon 800 rupees for the Value off 2,400 

rupees. The peeshcar [peshkdr~] off the Elephants 

told Our Vakile [vakil'], That our Elephant was 

only procurable in time, by a present to the Droga [dardgkah]. The 

buisness off the Cloth is made up for 250 rupees. " 

" The Affair off the Jewell-office is concluded 

June 11th . __ ,. 

for 600 rupees. 
" M r Surman &c* went to return the Yizier thanks for the Doctors 
Clearance, Cutbulmoolk [Qutbu-l-mulk] bid the Doctor to bring his 

i The reimposition of the jizyah was one of the first acts of 'Inayatulla Khau after he 
became dlican. See Khafi Khan, II, 775. 

DELHI, JUNE, 1717. 205 

Wife and ffamily with hiin. M r Surman said this great generosity off 
his Majesty in permitting the Doctor to visitt his Own Country, had so 
Obliged him, that he would make a Speedy return. Then M r Surman 
presented two petitions for Dustioks [dastaks] and Husbulhoocums 
[hasbu-l-hvkms] for the way. To this he Answer'd That Dusticks 
[dastahi J should be given As also two Husbulhoooums [ hasbu-l-hukmi] 
on Ohivileram 1 and Nosserut Year Caun 2 , Subahs \subadars~\ off 
Illaabas [Allahabad] and Agra, Butt for the Other two (meaning 
Seerbulund Caun 3 and Jaffor Caun [Ja'far Kh an]) they must goe 
to the Other (Caundoras [Khan Daman's]) house, for that he never 
wrote to them The Other petition being for a recommendatory Letter 
to Hossein-Ali-Caun [Husain 'All Khan], concerning Divy Island 
and Madrass five Towns, He immediately ordered his Moonohy [mun%hi~\ 
to write whatever should be desired. Concerning the Byragys 
[bairagi's] Affair, Itt was wished there might be a thorough Examina- 
tion and iff there was any Obligation they were ready to fulfill itt, 
Butt desiring, that, iff itt was a forged lye, he might be punished 

"Besides the Seaw [&iyahah\ Sallabut Caun [Salabat Khan] spoke to 
the Droga \ddrbg]iah~\ for a very Good Elephant, 
Butt he replyed There being none good here, he 
had sent 80 Coarce [kos~\ to Bans-Birelly 4 to bring them from thence. 
Upon Our Vakiles [vakils] saying there was a present providing for him, 
he ordered itt to be brought — The Droga [clardghiJi] off the purfume- 
Office 5 like all the rest Expects to be bribed, protending he receives 200 
rupees for Every 2 Tola His Majesty gives any Omrah [umard] ' 

1 Chhabilah Ram, Nagar, was appointed governor of Allahabad on the 28th Zu-1-hiijah, 
1127 i.e. the 14th December, 1715 and died there at the end of the year 1131 (13 
Nov.' 1718 to 2 Nov, 1719. ) His biography is in Ma'asiru-l-umara, II, 328. 

2 Ruknu-d-daulah, Sayyad Nusrat Yar Khan, Barhah, was made deputy toSamsamu-d-daulah 
at Akbarabad on the 5th Jamadi, 1127 i.e. the 28th April 1715. He was afterwards governor 
of Patna ' Azlmabad. His name was Hidayatullah, and he was a native of the village Kaithora, 
now in the Muzaffarnagar district. He died at Delhi on the 22nd Ramaaan, 1134, i.e. the 25th 
June, 1722. 

3 Mir Muhammad RafV, a native of Tun in Persia, was entitled Mubarizu-1-mulk, 
Sarbuland Khan, Bahadur, Dilawar Jang. He and prince • Azlmu-sh-shan had married sisters. 
He was appointed to Patna on the 25th Zu-1-qa'dah, 1127, i.e. the 11th November 
1715. He was superseded by Khan Zaman, Bahadur, on the 22nd Rabi ' I 1130 i.t. 
the 12th February 1718. He died at the age of 69 on the 13th Zu-1-qa'dah 1154 i.e. <he 
9tb January, 1742. Ja'far Khgn means, of course, the governor of Bengal. 

* Bans Bareli the popular name of Bareli in Rohilkhand as distinguished from Rae Bar i 
in Oudh. 

5 « The perfume office," i.e. the kariaraq-khanah, one of the many imperial iarkhanaKt 
under the Jchamaman. 

206 DELHI, JUKE, 1717. 

" The Jewells and Cloth are sett apart for the 
June 13th Honourable Robert Hedges, and Only waite his 

Majestys perusall. 
Seerpaws [sar-o-pds] for the three Honourable Presidencys were 
brought home, 440 rupees being first paid. 

M r Surman &e ? visitted Caundora [Khan Dauran] . Sallabut Caun 
Salabat Khan] says he spoke to Caun dora [Khan Dauran] about the 
Goorze-burdars [gurzbardars] but without Success. Our Tents gone 
out to Barrapoola [Barapulah.]" 

" Seerhaud [Sarhad] asked leave to give 40 or 60 rupees To the 
Begum and Eunuch for dispatch in Sealing the 
Honourable Presidents Phirmaund \_farman~] 
which was approved off." 

" The Biragy [bairdgi] sent by the hands off one of the Yiziers 
Jessowls 1 The Letter lie pretends was given him 

June 16th r ° 

by Governour Pitt. The direction was a perfect 
Scrawl, and no letters of any nation. 

A Dustick [dastak] 2 for the way and Husbulhoocnms \_haslu l- 
hukums] on the four Subahs [subahsf under the Meer Buxy [tnlr 
bakhshlj (Omeer All Omrahs [amivu-l-umara s]) seal were brought 
As likewise four Husbulhoocums [hasln-l-hukums'] under Caundoras 
[ Kh an Dauran's] Own Seal. M' Surman sending to the Vizier to 
know when he should come and take his Leave, he returned Answer he 
would first Speak to his Majesty, and then Appoint a day." 

" The Mutsuddys \_mutomdd\s] off the Jewell Office say that iff 
600 rupees be given beforehand, The J ewells shall 

June 17th , , . . ^ 

be shown his Majesty tomorrow; Otherwise not." 

" Seerhaud [Sarhad] says Caundora [Khan Dauran] has promised 

the Goorzeburdars [gurzbardars]. Seerhaud 

June 18th _ '' . . 

[SarhadJ likewise advises that he has gott all the 
Perwannas [paricanas] in his possession. 

M* J. Surman sent 600 rupees into the Jewell-office with Orders 
to deliver itt, in case the Jewells were shown the King, and given to the 
Yakile [vakil']. Butt his Majesty not setting out Sepedar Caun [Sipah- 
dar Khan] the Droga [darogjiah] was nott in the Fort; Wherefore the 
money was brought back, without Any Effect." 

1 Yasaval, an armed messenger or attendant. 

3 Dastaki a wuitten. order, from dast, the hand. 

» The four tulahs, or rather six pibafu, of the Deccan of which Husain 'All KhEn was 
then governor. Husain 'AH Khan was the first or m\r taMjAi and amiru-l-umard. His 
official seal at Court was held by the second bahhshi KhSn Dauran, as his deputy. 

DELHI, JUNE, 17.17. 207 

" The Jewells were carried to Sepidar Caun [Sipahdar Khan] in the 
June 19th Durbar [darbdr] ; butt he made a frivolous Excuse 

for nott showing them these three or four days." 

197. Consultation. 

" The Culcutta Perwannas \parwdnas] have been long in Suspence 

June 20th whether they would have been Ever gained. 

Seerhaud [Sarhad] says they are now perfectly 

done, with the Subanavises [mbahnavis] signing upon them and all the 

rest ; Butt that 600 rupees was Expended in gaining those for Culcutta 

and 800 rupees must be given for the Signing the whole." 

198. Diary. 

" The day nott being fixed for Our dispatch from the Vizier, no 
proposition can be made to Caundora [Khan 

June 20th £. * . ' 

DauranJ on that head, which JLast may take up 
some time, thereby greatly hindering our speedy departure (Hoping in 
four or five days to have nothing Else to delay us). Wherefore Mitter- 
sein [Mitr Sen] is ordered to lay our condition before Munzoor Caun 
[Manzur Khan] and desire him to represent itt to the Vizier, That he 
had been pleased to order H r - Surman nott to desire his leave, till within 
three or four days of his departure, which time being oome there was 
nothing Else to stop him, and that the Charges were very great, all 
necessary Servants being taken ir." 

" Mittersein [Mitr Sen] according to Mr. Surmans directions wrote 

a note to Munzoor Caun [Manzur Khan], which 

was by him sent in to the Vizier. He order'd a 

petition to be wrote to the King about his despatch ; Yett was there 

some demand off Security made for the Doctors return. M r - Hamilton 

gave an obligation under his own Seal." 

" The Vizier approved off the Doctors obliga- 
tion. The Vizier muoh out off order." 
" The Jewells were carryed to the King, who ordered the] Droga 
[ddroghah] to bring such things only on 
Tuesdays and Fridays." 
" The Viziers, petition is Come Out. The King has ordered him 

June 25th to give the Doctor something. 

Our Vakile [vakil] and the peeshcar [peshkdr] off the Jewell-Office 
pressed the Droga [ddroghah] to shew the Jewells, butt without Success. 
This gives us cause to Suspect he has no share in the bribe off 600 rupees." 

208 DBLHl, JUNK AND JULY, 1717. 

" The peeshcar [pe%hkar] off the Jewell-Office gives great Assurances 

June 26th that all will be finished on Friday next. 

The Vizier sent two petitions to his Majesty, One relating to 
M. r . Surmans dispatch, The other for the Doctor. The King order'd a 
Horse and Culgee [kalghfioT Mr Surman and Horse for all Hamilton 
M? Surman procured two Horses more for Seerhaud [Sarhad] and 
M r . Stephenson, for the sake of a proper Decorum to the world." 

"The Carriers demurrage commences this instant. This being the 
r no .u Day Appointed by the Vizier, M' Surman &c* sett 

June 28th . 

out, butt returned when gott half way, The Yizier 
having changed his mind and Appointed the 30 c . h Instant." 

199. Consultation. 

" We have this day received Our Dispatches from the Vizier. This 
Diiiy Minister told us that the King was resolved to 

June |o punish the Portugueze for their insolence, and 

that forces would be ordered upon Groa. He desired that the English 
•would assist upon this occasion. He was Answered, That unless we 
were at open war with them in Europe, we dare nott break the peace. 
Butt he seeming nott satisfyed with this answer proposed the French 
to Zeaudy Caun [Zeyau-d-dln Khan] ; who answered, " I shall be 
able to manage this Affair. Itt is absolutely necessary that our settle- 
ments ( ff Bombay and that Coast hear this news Wherefore Agreed that 
we dispatch itt with all possible Expedition " 

200 Diary. 

" The Vizier dispatched M* Surman &* in the following manner. 
For Mr Surman Seerpaw \_sar-o-pd\, Horse 
and Culgee [Jcalghi]. Seerhaud Seerpaw, Horse 
and Culgee \_kalg]ii~\, Mess!? Stephenson and Hamilton Seerpaws 
\_8ar-o-pds] and Horses. The Vizier Charged the Doctor to return for 
that he was his Security. He desired our Assistance against the 
Portugueze butt received the same answer as formerly. 

Note — The Culgees {ka1gi,ii\ were sent home to Mr Surman and 
Cojah Seerhaud j Khwajah Sarhad] Seeing none butt his Majesty orders 
the fixing them on peoples heads." 

" Our Friend Syud Sallabut Caun Behauder [Sayyad Salabat Khan 
Bahadur] had a son born. Being with his 
Majesty on this occasion, He was gently repri- 

DFLHI, JUNE AND JULY, 1717. 209 

manded, that M. T . Hamilton could nott be introduced (sic) to Stay. Butt 
the King spoke very favourably off the Embassy in Generall." 

201. Letter XXXV. 1 

" To the Honourable Robbbt Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England Trading to the East Indies &c a Council in Fort William. 


Having drawn a Bill of Exchange this Instant on your Honour &c* for 

twelve Thousand Sicca Rupees of lt/£ Massa [mashah'] and the 6M? Years Stamp 

payable to Sawbiparry [sahu beopari] or Order for value received here of Govind 

Hay Keerutsein [Govind Rae Kirat Sen] Factors to Kissoray Kissenchund, 

[Keshu RaeKishan Chandlwe send this to advise thereof, and shall hope for your 

Honour &c* ,s -ready Compliance. 

We are, 

Dilly Honourable Sir and Sirs 

July 5 th 

171 7t ' Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Stjbman 
Hugh Babkeb Edwabd Stephenson." 


202. Letter XXXVI. 

"To the Honourable Robebt Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England trading to the East Indies &c? Cou cil in Fort William. 

Honoobablb Sib and Sibs 

This Serves to accompany a Bill of Exchange drawn this Instant on your 

Honour &c*J for thirteen thousand Sicca Rupees of 10| Massa [mashah] and the 

6'* Years Stamp to Sawbiparry [sahu beopari] or Order, being for value receiv'd 

here from Muilidar Bawsein Decanne May [Murlidhar Bhae Sen Dakhini Rae] 

Factors to Kissoray Kissenchund [Keshu Rae Kishan Chand], we hope you will 

give due Honour to said Bill, 

and are, 

Dilly Honourable Sir and Sirs 

yjyj. Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Stjbman 

Hugh Babkeb Edwabd Stephenson." 


203. Diary. 

"M? Surman &c* were dispatched from Caundora [Khan Dauran 1 , 

MT Surman receiving Seerpaw [sar-o-pa]. Horse, 

and Culgee [kalgte, The rest Seerpaws [sar-o- 

pas], Att coming away presented some phirds [farda], About 

1 This letter end the following one are to be found in the 4 Letter Book of M r Surman. ' 


210 DELHI, JULY, 1717. 

the Goorzeburdars \gurzharddrs] receiving the Honourable Presi- 
dents phirmaund [farmdn], and Other Smaller Articles. Caundora 
[Khan Dauran] gave his Service to Our Honourable President, and all 
other chiefs in India." 

Jul 14th " The Tents all sett up in Barrapoola 

After much trouble and some Expence The Honourable Presidents 
Elephant is come home. About 300 rupees Ready money given Among 
the Drogas [ddroghah's] Servants." 

Ju] ._,. " The Honourable Presidents Jewells come 


Seerhaud [Sarhad] has, by the favour of Gungaram [Gangaram 1 , 
gott severall Copys off the Honourable Presidents phirmaund [farm an"] 
under the Cozzys [qdzi's] Seal. 

Cooshalchund [Khushhal Chand ] has given the Seaw [siyahafi] for 
another Goorzeburdar [gurtt' arudr\ called Fu> ruck-beg Caun [Farrukh 
Beg Khan"], who will proceed to Suratt." 

204. Consultation. 

"The affair of Kirperam [Kirpa ram y , concerning a former Agree- 
ment, has occasioned severall Fruitless disputes, without coming to Any 
conclusion. Seerhaud [Sarhad | now advises, That he had heretofore 
Agreed with that Mutsuddy [mutasaddi ], pursuant to consultation, to 
give from 10 to 15,000 rupees in case he Effected all our buisness ; 
butt should he only become Assistant and nott the Cheif Instrument, 
then to receive a present of 3 or 4,000 rupees. Itt is certain he 
has only conformed himself to* the Latter by showing Hyderacooly 
Cauns [Haidar Quli Khan's] Letters to Caundora [Khan Dauran] 
&c* Nevertheless, to prevent any mischeif he may doe us with 
Hydera Cooly Caun [Haidar Quli Khan] att Suratt, itt may nott be 
impolitick to advance upon the small present formerly promised him* 
This person being att first Introduced by Seerhaud [Sarhad], has from 
the beginning been entirely under his management. Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] being the proper Judge, and yett Backward to Explain 
himself, has now been the more Strenuously desired to declare what 
Sum is sufficient to be given. To which he replys, That instead off 
10j000 rupees, he will nott consent to give more than 7000 rupees, off 
which 700 must be deducted. We doe Suppose, and hope this Sum will 
prevent his enrolment among our Enemys ; For this reason Agreed that 
M r . John Surman deliver itt. 

DELHI, JULY, 1717. 211 

" C. Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] having brought in y» following 
Account to this board, Itt is Accordingly taken into Consideration 

Syrash 1 

26 Chests 

... 2600 

Arrack . . . 

. . . ... 

... 481 


... ... 

... 2400 


Fitting & making 

1 ... 688 

Camells ... 

... ... 

3 ... 532 

Padre e ... 


... 875 
Rs. 7576 

Expostulative Remarks on the Foregoing Account. 

Messrs Surman Sf Stephenson. For ye 26 Chests we are ready to 
give 60 rupees per Chest According to Mr Stephensons sale. 

C. Seerhaud. I cannot allow mine att 100 per Cent, having paid 
800 rupees freight from Bengali. 

Note. He had 10 Carriages from yf Company, and might have 
had more in case he had demanded them and Came out in time. 

Mess™ Surman Sf Stephenson. The Arrack which he charges was 
given away by him without our Cognizance. "We cannot According 
to our Instructions, allow anything, butt what is given away by a 
generall order in Consultation. 

Messrs Surman Sf Stephenson. We are willing to allow his pallan- 
keen, iff he brings in y e . particulars, The gilding with Gold 
Excepted ; for which there was no manner of Occasion. 

Messrs Surman Sf Stephenson. We are willing to allow and pay for 
his Camells on conditions off his proceedure with us ; and have provided 
more for his Use. 

C. Seerhuud. I have bought y e . Camells this year and a half for 
my own use, and have now brought in y 8 , acoouut, which ie nott 

Messrs Surman Sf Stephemon. The padree is an Affair off his own 
conclusion. And as we could never gett his acoount Specify'd in a 
former Consultation, so cannot pay y? money ; butt refer itt to 
y? Hon ble President and Councill. 

There is Likewise another Aocount of Durbar-Charges Amounting 
to 8742-2, butt being irregular, we required y<? particulars off what 
Goods he had given away. Having Little to say against itt, we are 

1 Probably tbie was ShlrSz wine in bottles. 

212 DELHI, JULY, 1717. 

ready to pay ye money on receipt oS said particulars. 0. Seerhaud 
[Khwajah Sarhad] att present refuses to take this Last, because we 
allow nott the whole. 

Three months and Eight days have been Elapsed in ' making the 
Honourable Kobert Hedges phirmaund \_farma)i] ready, which might 
have been much sooner Effected, had Cojah Seerbaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad] been hearty in the pursuit. For according to his own con- 
fession 'twas butt a work of 15 days. Having nothing left to detain 
us Longer in Dilly, we propose to Leave the City the 18 th Instant. 
Wherefore if the phirmaund [farmdn~\ is nott delivered Cojah Seerhaud 
[ Kh wajah Sarhad] must be answerable for any delay that Ensues. 

Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] replys to this Allegation, 
1 That ho has no manner off buisness, Butt that all his Accounts amount- 
ing to 19000 rupees being refused to be paid, He cannot goe with 
M? Surman, being unable to clear Accounts with his Creditors. 
Wherefore he must stay here till he hears from and is relieved by the 
Honourable President and Councill. In return to this Mess™ Surman 
and Stephenson are ready to pay what may appear reasonable, and to 
be answer'd to our Honourable Masters. For any thing Farther, there 
must be an Excuse. Butt They are well satisfyd, that is nott the 
reason: he having Enter'd into a sea off buisness off his own att the 
Court, to Effect which cannot take up Less than three or four Months.' 

205. Diary. 

" Having sent Every thing before, ~M. T . Surman after taking Leave 

off Sallabut Caun i'Salabat Khan], and recom- 
July 18th . . - * — J 

mending Mittersein [Alitr Sen] to his favour ; 

Left the City off Dilly, aud arrived in the Tents att Barrapoola 

[Ba>ahpulah]. Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] remains in the City. 

He was in the morning with 11 T . Surman, talking over his Account. 

Note. — The difference is about 4000 rupees. ~M. T . Surman asked 
whether so small a Sum could hinder his proceedure ? On which he 
affirmed that to be tne Only reason of his stay. Upon this he went 
home, and from that time never Encountr'ed any one off the Negotiation. 

Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] sent to M^ Surman for 
700 rupees more for Kirperam [Kirpar am], which he intended to save 
as Dustore [datt&ri], butt nott Allowed by that Mutsuddy [jnutasr,ddi~\. 
\\\ Surman reply'd, eend his Servant to me and I will deliver itt . 
which nott leing performed the money was Saved," 

bXrahpulah, july, 1717.' 213 

206. Letter XXXVII. ' 

To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies &c* Council. 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 

We wrote your Honour &tf the 7 th June giving an Account of our having 
received our dispatches from his Majesty &c» we also wrote your Honour Ac* two 
Letters of the 5 th Inst, to accompxny 2 Bills of Exchange, one for 13000 and 
one for 12300 Siccas then drawn, payable to Sawbiparry [sahil beopari], for the 
value received here from Gololchundsaw's [G-ulal Chand Sabu's] Factors. 

We found our Selves necessitated to take our leaves in form from the Visier 
and Caundora ("Khan Dauran], which we have at last after Several! Delays 
effected, from the Vizier the last Ult'- and from Samsama Dowlah 2 the 10 th 
Inst, after which having received the present order'd by his Majesty for the 
Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq. we found it our business to leave the City which 
accordingly we did yesterday in the afternoon, first taking our leave of Sallabut 
Cawn [Salabat Khan] and Zeudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din Khan"]. There now 
remains nothing of any business to detain us, but the Phirmaund [far<man~\ 
in answer to the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq. 18 Petition. This has been 
writing and going on according to the dilatory way of Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah 
Sarhad], above these three months, which he promis'd to do in 15 days and 
might as well have been finish'd in a Month as a year, but it being the only thing 
He had the management of in our dispatches, he is resolv'd to make that Sub- 
servient to his own Designs and we fear detain us some days, it has received 
the Kings and Visier's Seals, and Seerhaud [Sarhad] has likewise taken attested 
Copys which has been done privately, for it is to have a Cover on it and another 
Seal in Wax, to receive this it went about two or three days since, and is the 
only thing remaining, we protest against Seerhaud Israel 3 for this unnecessary 
delay, and declare that He is answerable for the Expencps we are oblig'd to be 
at in the Stay we make at present, for had we received the Phirmaund [farmon], 
we could have proceeded today. It's very plainly his fault, for instead of 
minding that, he has all along run after his own business, or otherwise had he 
attended it, according to his own confession it might have been done in a few 
days. We have told him very roundly on this occasion what he may expect, and 
what he is answerable for, for fear he might play us a Trick, of which we had some 
Suspicion, we did what we cou'd to prevent it, by getting an order for the 
Grurzeburdars [gurzbardars] to carry it with the Seerpaw [sar-o-pa~\, but his 
dustick [dastalc] as yet not being ready, he cannot go to demand it, we shall 
make the proper use of this and get away as soon as possible, for our Stay must 
be very Expensive. 

1 This letter is found in the ' Copy Book of Letters ' received from M? Surman. 

2 Samsamu-d-daulah, i.e. Khan Dauran. 

3 Here we get the full name, Sarhad Israil, or Sarhad Israel, perhaps Sarhad, the ion of 
Israel. The full name occurred before in the protest of the 14th March, 1715, p. 27. 

214 ' bIrahpulah, july, 1717. 

For some time past we have Suspected Seerhaud [Sarhad] wou'd Stay behind 
us, having entangled himself in his own and other Peoples Affairs. For his own 
he has petition'd the King to have the title of Girra-ke-rock, or Royall Merchant 
and deliver'd io a List of what rarities he is able to buy in ail Europe, Turkey, 
China and Japan, but the true design is only to get the Title of King's Merchants 
to be a Protection wherever he goes, and also a necessary thing towards Saving 
his Customs. The King Sign'd it different to his Expectation, leaving out the 
desir'd Title, and ordering the Consomman \_kha tisa ma '«] to examine what is 
proper and then to give the order for a Phirmaund \fkrman\ for that alone, for 
this month past we have been always egging him on to get in a readiness to depart 
with us, which he always promis'd but never performing, we were aware of 
that Trick of getting money from us, and then Staying behind, which finding he 
could not obtain, he brought in his Account of Durbar [darbar] Expences 
Ac? which was mostly expended by order of Consultation, and our Knowledge, for 
which reason we were ready to pass and pay it, but he had got other Demands 
which he tack'd to it, viz^ 

Syrash Wine expended and given away 26 Chests ... ... 2600 

Arrack ... ... ... ... ... ... 481 

Black Cases given away ... ... ... ... 2400 

Pallankeen fitting with Gold and mending the old one at Severall times 688 
Paid Padree ... ... ... ... ... 875 

Camels 3 ... ... ... ... ... ... 532 


In answer to this we reply'd for the Wine if he wou'd be contented as others 
had given it the Company, Viz^ about 60 rupees pT Chest, he should have it, for 
the Arrack he has expended and gave it away without our Knowledge, for the 
black cases they all cost about 503 rupees in Calcutta so the first exception is 
the extravagant rate he would impose, besides he was frequently forbid to make 
use of them on the Company's Account who shou'd not pay that unreasonable 
rate, he was advis'd to dispose of them otherwise, excepting all this if any had 
been given it being without our Knowledge or Consent, we cou'd not answer the 
passing it, for the Pallankeens &c* we were willing to allow of, except the 
Gilding with Gold Bamboes Ends, Cullasses 1 &ca. for which there was no manner 
of occasion neither was it seeming for him to use them, for the Camels we were 
willing to pay for them in case of his proceedure and have provided more for him, 
but otherwise not. The Affair of the Padre is of his own conclusion and as 
yet we cou'd [not] get any thing of that Account ; so we cou'd not pay that 
money, but refer'd it to the Honourable President and Council. When all this 
was pen'd in a Consultation, Cojah Surhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] declared that 
except all was allow'd of, he wou'd not receive what we had pass'd, and without 
the whole Sum he could not nor wou'd not proceed, but Stay till such time as he 
had receiv'd Remittances from the Honourable President and Council, Sufficient 

1 Kalat is a finiaL 

bIrahpulah, july, 1717. 215 

for the above and to enable him to come down, so at present he remains in the 
City and for his farther Intentions we dare not answer seeing he is so very 
unaccountable that the like was never heard of. • 

Your Honour &c a .' 8 dated May the 27th camo to hand the 2nd Instant. 
We formerly advis'd your Honour &c a that all the Sunnuds [sanads] were 
finished, and have sent two Setts of the 7 latter .Copys, the Originals and Copys 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] has at last deliver'd to John Surman, as also the old 
Phirmaunds [farina ns] and Papers after some put offa. 

For the Copys of the Phirmaunds [farmans] which Seerhaud [Sarhad] sent 
your Honour &c a , it was done without our Knowledge, and so Slyly that the 
Cozzees [g&fi's] mark was not on the Originals when he deliver'd them as it 
ought to have been and was afterwards, it's certain we did for some time omit 
sending your Honour &o a Copys of the Phirmaunds Ifarmans}, but it was so 
far from a Neglect that it was a Piece of Policy design'd to hasten Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] to finish the Sunnods [sanads'] and get them all Sign'd telling him that 
we woa'd not remit them till we had received the Perwannaes [parwanas] finish'd, 
which after we had wrote Your Honour &c? so often wou'd be done in a few 
days, he had Still some delay behind. This had the desir'd Effect and we hope 
your Honour &c a received the Oopys of the Phirmaunds Ifarmans] by M-' Coock 
and those sent afterwards, besides which we had some intimation, that he had 
privately got Copys and sent them down, which when he confess'd to us after- 
wards, we told him what we conceiv'd wou'd be your Honour &c a ' # s Opinion of it 
which he has now found true. 

The 3986.6 3 your Honour &c a mention of Bernasseats [Varanasi Sett's] is 
Current money of Dilly, the batta of which from new Sicca's is 3| per cent we 
have now made an End of that Affair having sold all their Goods as well as 
possibly we cou'd and adjusted their Accounts, which comes enclos'd, we desire 
your Honour &c a wou'd please to pay them their Ballance, Current money of 
Dilly, Batta as above. 

Pursuant to your Honour &c»' s Orders we have pitcht upon a Person for a 
Vaqueel [vakil] by name Mittersein [Mitr Sen], and agreed with him for 75 
rupees per Month Pay, and 25 rupees per Month allowance for petty Durbar 
[darbar] Expences, we leave him 600 rupees being 6 Months pay in the hands of 
G-ololchundsaw's [Gulalchand Sahu's] Factors, to be paid him monthly, we shall 
give him the proper Instructions before we dispatch him, for what Orders your 
Honour &c a shall think fit to give, the Letters, if deliver'd to G-ololchundsaw's 
[Gulalchand Sahu's] Factory, will reach his hands, by whose means we shall order 
him to send his to your Honour &c a we have likewise pitcht on another Shroff 
[$urraf] for Surat, but from Madrass hence there is so very little Correspondence, 
that we beleive the quickest method will be via Bengali, in our Instructions to 
him and by word of Mouth, we shall have a due regard to your Honour <&c a '» 
Orders, not to be chargeable to the Company, or offer to put them to any Expence 
without a peculiar Order. 

We hope our Stay here cannot be longer than 4 or 5 days, when we shall use 
the utmost Expedition that the Weather will permit, the Bains as yet have not 
been Severe in these Parts so may be expected violent, we fear our Arrival at 

216 bXrahpulah, july, 1717. 

Patna will be after the rains aTe over, for the Ground between that City and 
Elaabass 1 is so Swampy, besides the Rivers writ be difficult to pass, as well as the 
Rivulets, where there are no boats, by this Your Honour &c? may beleive our 
Journey will be tedious, and if that you think it convenient to have us down by 
water from Patna, it will be necessary to have good Budgrows, and as soon as 
we shall receive Advices we shall give Orders to have what other boats there will 
be occasion for to carry our Lumber. For the Companys Horses and Camels we 
beleive part of them may go off at Cassimbazar, and for what can be dispos'd of 
at Patna we shall Sell, but for to Stay on that Account will enhaunce the already 
vast Expence, we are and have been at Short Allowance of Liquor for some time, 
by the boats we hope your Honour &c? will please to consider us. 

The Roads between this Place and Agra on Account of the Rebellion of the 
Jaats [Jats] are very troublesome by reason of their Excursions, not having any 
c;her Company we are obiig'd to keep a good Force, for the Protection of those 
invaluable Jewells, but we assure your Honour &c? nothing shall be added but 
what is absolutely necessary. 

Enclosed comes Accounts Cash "Warehouse Charges general, and Copys of 
Consultations for the Month [of] May, what with the Hurry of leaving the City and 
the Indisposition of most of us, the Accounts for Jane are not done, but the next 
Cossid [qasid], which we intend to dispatch from Feredabad [Faridabad] shall 
carry them. 

Enclos'd we send your Honour &c? 3 Copys of the General Phinnaunds 
[farmans] as also 29 of the Sunnods [sanads], 

"With much ado we have got a Gurzeburdar [gurzbardar] to carry the Chief 
of Surat's Seerpaw [sar-o-pa'] for the Governour of Madrass the Gurzeburdar 
[gurzbardar'] that goes with us has orders to carry it so will be dispatcht from 

When we received our dispatches from the Vizier Azeem 2 , he told us the 
Portuguese at Goa had been guilty of a great many misbehaviours, but parti- 
cularly in abusing the Mahometans, and making them Christians by Force, which 
hip Majesty having very often Complaints of it, was now resolv'd to have 
Satisfaction, he said the Forces would be order'd to besiege that Port, that he 
expected we would give them Assistance to punish the Kings Enemies. We 
modestly answered it was not in our Power, neither durst we break the Peace 
upon any occasion, that we cou'd not Assist upon any other Conditions, than being 
at War with Portugal in Europe, notwithstanding this answer he seem'd not 
satisfied, and then proposed the French to Zeudy Caun, 3 who it's now reported 
will be made Duan of the Decan and some other Ports, he answer'd that this 
affair, were it left to him, he was able to manage. This is all that past, or that 
we have yet heard of, but not knowing how it may be pursued, and how our 

1 Allahdbid. 

a Watlr-i-'azim, the great or chief minister, that is Sayyad 'Abdullah Khan, Qutbu-1 

3 ?eyau-d-din Khan did become dlican of the Dakhin or Deccan see Ma'asiru-l-umara 

BlRAHPULAH, JULY, 1717. 217 

Settlements of Bombay and the Coast of Mallabar may Stand, or what influence 
it may have on the Trade in General, we immediately gave this Notice to the 
Honourable Charles Boon Esq' &c? Council in Bombay that they might not be 
Surpriz'd with the News by any different Way ; so pre-armed against the fore- 
coming Disturbance. 

At this last Visit from the Visier we obtain'd a very kind recommendatory 
Letter to his Brother Omeerall Omrah [Amiru-1-Umara] concerning our Trade 
in General, the renting of Divy Island, The Delivery of the 5 Madrass Towns 
&c? as also enclos'd. Transcript of what orders he desir'd might be sent to 
Saddotoola Cawn [Sa'datullah Khan] Concerning the 5 Towns and the Got? of 
Metchlipatam [Machhlipatnam] for Divy, all very Plain and full, which we 
esteeming too precious to send by a Cossid [gasi^] shall bring with us. 

We are, 
Honourable Sir and Sirs, 
Barra-Poola Your most obedient humble Servants 

July 19 th . John Suhman 


Edwabd Stephenson." 
207, Diary. 

"The phirmaund [farman] still with the Sudder 1 to be close-sealed. 
M? Surman sent 100 rupees to Decanny-Ray 
uy [Dakhini Eae] to dispatch this Affair Speedily 

under-hand among the under Officers." 

" M r . Surman wrote a note to Seerhaud [Sarhad] ccncerning the 

Honourable Presidents phirmaund, [farman] and 

sending out some Cozzvs [qdzi'g] Oopys &c^ butt 

to which he received no answer. We hear Suddanund [Sadanand] 

begins to be hard on Seerhaud [Sarhad], setting peons on his Door." 

" Golam-Hossein [Grhulam Husain] having his Dustick [dastak] ready 

July 22nd came ^° "^* Wurman, there nothing now remains, 

butt for him to return and demand the phirmaund 

[farman]. This project was concerted by Seerbauds [Sarhad's] own 

peeshcar [jpeshhdr] Decannyray, [Dakhini Eae] and Carried on by one 

Somersein [Sumer Sen] formerly Bibbee Julianas Mutsuddy [mutasaddi] ; 

the Latter having the desire off a horse and Seerpaw [sar-o-pd] for his 


M? Surman, that the world might take no Exceptions, wrote 
Again to Seerhaud [Sarhad] to the following Effect, 'tho' with Little 
hopes of Success. " That having formerly wrote for Copys off the Last 
Phirmaund [farman] he had received neither them nor an answer. 
That now he wrote again and would have him consider what he was 

218 bIraiiPulah to fakidabId, july, 1717. 

about, The phirmaund \_farman] being the only thing waited for. 
Wherefore he must Expect to answer any delay on that Account 
occasioning a daily Expence of 4 or 500 rupees ; All Horsemen pecns 
&c? being taken in." To this Seerhaud [Sarhad 1 something harshly 
replyed. "That the phirmaund r farman] was with the Sudder [sadr]* 1 
That had he the seal in his poekett you should nctt waite a moment. 
As for the Daily Expence of Horsemen &c* Why did you take them in 
till the phirmaund \_farman] was in Your band ? So you must Account 
foi itt. You having Curtailed my Account out of Spite, Am kept in 
Dilly, and must waite an answer from below ; whereby the Company 
will be putt to 20;000 rupees Expence by my going down alone." 

" Mr Wurman wrote Mullookchund [Maluk Chand] to hasten 
Decanny-Ray [Dakhini Rae] about the phir- 


maund [farman]. 
"M r . Surman Sealed up the Surat-Seerpaw [sar-o-pd^and sent itt to 
Mittersein [Mitr Sen]; with which and 200 rupees 
for Exigences Furruck-beg Caun [Farrukh Beg 
Khan] 2 will proceed when his Dustick [dastak] is ready. M r - Surmau sent 
Mullookchund [Maluk Chand J word he was resolved to move tomorrow. 
Mullookchund [Maluk Chand] wrote word this Evening " That 
Both He, Somersein, Decanny Kay, and Mitteisein [Sumer Sen 
Dakhini Rae and Mitr Sen] would be att Feredabad [Faridabad] to 
morrow. That the Phirmaund ifarmdn] was sealed and Carried from 
the Sudders [sadr's] to Ecklaus Caun [lkhlas Khan], and that Golam 
Hossein [ Ghulam Husain] had shown Ecklaus Caun [lkhlas Khan] 
his Dustick [dastak], who promised to deliver him the phirmaund 
[farman] tomorrow morning. So we hope all trouble is over, and that 
need be no Longer apprehensive of any thing from Seerhaud [Sarhad].' 
" Arrived from Barrapoola [Barahpulah at 
uy Feredabad [Far Idabad]. 

The Gentues arrived from the City. They Cannot tell whether the 
Goorzeburdar \ gitrzlarddr] has actually gott possession off the Phir- 
maund [farman]." 

208. Consultation. 
"According to the Honourable President and Councills orders to con- 
Feredabad stitute a Yakile [vah'tl] before our departure hence, 

[Faridabsd] we h ave pitched on Mittersein [Mitr Sen], as the 

•July 2oth r L -" 

most proper person within our knowledge. We 

1 The sadru-s-aadiir. 
" Farrulib. Beg Khan wa3 the imperial mace-bearer. 

faridIbad, july, 1717. 219 

have Agreed with him for 75 rupees per Month Wages besides a monthly 
allowance of 25 rupees Durbar-Expence. His Instructions being 
drawn up and Approved, Agreed that a translate be annexed to this 
Consultation. Agreed that Mr JohnSurman pay 600 rupees to Murli- 
dur Bawsein-.Pecannyrays[Murlidhar Bhao Sen Dakhini Rae] Factory, 
with orders to pay Mittersein [M : tr Sen] 100 rupees per Month till 
farther order3 from the Honourable president and Councill. 

Agreed That a protest be drawn up and sent to Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
for his disobedience in remaining behind ; and that the translate be 
annexed hereto. • 

The Phirmaund furmmi] being so far secured that the Goorzebur- 
dar [gyr%bard&r] may probably receive itt in a few days ; We are 
satisfyed nothing ought to Detain us here any longer. Agreed that we 
make the best off our way down to our Honourable Employers." 

209. Protest against Seerhaud 
Sent to him in a note from Feredabad. 

Your Letter arrived Tn BaTapoola [Barapulah], whatever occurr'd 
you wrote; off the propriety you may Judge. We hear from others 
that the phirmaund j farmftri] is seal'd and return'd to Ecklaus Caun 
[Ikhlas Khan]. The Gooizeburdar \_gurzbarddr } has gott an order 
to receive the phirmaund [fartn&n] and Accompany us Itt is certain 
he will act accordingly. We would have you consider this, because 
we ara going hence with all Expedition. Tou do nott swerve in tho 
Least from Your former behaviour. However, this Last Affair has 
nott been weigh'd Sufficiently, The Letting us depart, and staying 
behind your self, being unanswerable. Wherefore we now write, 
that you have no farther occasion for the State of Flaggs in your pro- 
cession, pray from this time Lay them Aside; and whatever Allowance 
you received from the Honourable Company is Stop'd this instant. 
According to Your advice so much money was given to Kirperam 
[Kirparam] without any advantage. We understand the answer you 
will give to this: Butt which is unwarrantable. If that Mutsuddys 
[tnutasnddls] servant had come to Mr Surman 700 rupees should have 
been paid. We Expect a recommendation from Kirperam [Kirparam] to 
Hydera Cooly Caun [Haidar Quli Khan] to arrive with us in Agra that 
so much money may nott be flung away. 

An Authentick Translation. 
Hugh Barker Sec n " 
July 25 th i717» 

220 faridabad, joly, 1717. 

210. Instructions to Miitehsein, the Honourable 


Mittersein [Mitr Sen] is appointed the Honourable Companys 
Vakile [vakil] at the Kings Durbar [durbar], His Wages being 
75 rupees per Month, besides 25 rupees for Durbar [darbdr] and other 
Expences. For this reason 60O rupees have been Lodged in tbe hand 
of Decanny-Ray Shroph [DakhinI Rae Sarrdf]* that he may receive 
a monthly allowance of 100 rupees. On the Expiration of 6 Months 
he is Jo write to the Honourable English president in Bengali, wbo 
will Supply him farther, and That he make no demand on any other 
settlementsfor his wges or other Aecounts. 

That he does nott divulge his being the Honourable Companys 
Vakile j rakil], his buisness being to transmitt the Durbar [durbar] 
news. Iff itt should happen (which God forbid) that our Factorys are 
brought into any trouble, He is Secretly to give advice. Butt he must 
take care nott to be Expensive ; seeing, without the order off the 
Chiefs, such disbursement will nott be allowed. That he obey the 
writings and orders derived to him From the Honourable Robert 
Hedges president of Bengali, The Honourable Charles Boone Att 
Bombay, and the Honourable — Collett att Madrass ; being no ways 
dilatory. That he likewise obey all Letters on the Honourable Com- 
panys Account, from the Smaller settlements ; Such as Patna, 
Cossimbuzar, Cannore, Yizagapatam, &ca That twice Every month 
he transmitt the Durbar [darbdr] news with the Waekas [wdqd'yas] to 
Bengali; delivering his letters to Murlidur Bawseen Decanny Rays 
[Murlidhar Bhao Sen DakhinI Rael Factory, and his Letters for 
Bombay to "Kissendass Bullinaut [Krishandas Ball Nath] shrops 
[mrrdfs] in Dilly. Iff itt should so happen that urgent buisness 
requires, and nott otherwise ; he is to send his Letters on the Dawk 
[dak], the Expence off which shall be allowed him. 

That he Comport himself with honesty, by which meanes-he may 
continue his post, and the Companys buisness goe on Currently. 
Such behaviour will by Gods grace meritt from the Honourable 
Company. For the rest itt is Committed to the protection Off the 

In this be very Careful. 

July 25 t > 1717. Authentick. 

Hugh Barker, Sec 17 -' 

FARIDlBlD JULY, 1717. 221 

211. Diary. 

"Arrived a note fromSeerhaud[Sarhad] with the following Account 
« That Going to the Persian Embassadours Tents 
without the City Some of the Embassadours 
people (beleivod by the Masters orders) Accosted him with Swords 
and Lattys [lathis J; breaking his pallankeen to pieces. Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
being soundly bruised, and wounded in the Forehead and hand, 
returned to the City. In this Malancholly mood he Aska M> Surmans 
advice, desiring the Doctor may be sent to cure him. Mr Surman 
only reply'd "That had he kept with us, this had nott happened. As 
for sending the Doctor, itt could nott be, seeing we should proceed 

212. Letter XXXVIII. 1 

" To the Honourable Robebt Hedges Esq. Governonr of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading To the East Indies &c? Councill in Bengali. 


"We wrote Your Honour &c* from Barrapoola [Barapulah], dated the 19 th 
Inst. Copy of which comes inclos'd. By the good Understanding that we 
have had with the Mutsuddys [mutasaddh~\ and those who have had the Cbeif 
Management in the buisness, we have got the last Seal put upon the Phirmaund 
[farman] which is returned to Ecklass Cawn [Ikhlas Khan], without so much as 
Seerhauds [Sarhad] knowing we had any thing to do in the matter. The Goorze- 
burdars Dustick [gurzbardar's dastalc] is likewise done and he has produced 
it before Ecklass Cawn [Ikhlas Khan] . We Suppose e're this he has received 
the Phirmaund [farma n~\ or will receive it, for which reason we are now making 
the best of our Way beleiving the Goorzeburdars [gurzbardars] will soon over- 
take us. Seerhaud [Sarhad] Continues obstinate remaining in the City altho 
we have wrote to him Severall Times, so has received none of the money we 
offerd him. 

We have drawn the fellowing Bills of Exchange 1156. 8 Siccas, payable 
to Mr H. Frankland received from Mr Surman. 

3000 Ditto payable to Barnarseat [Varanasi Seth] received from Mr E. 
Stephenson both which we hope your Honour &c? will duely Honour. 

Enclosed Comes Cash and warehouse Accounts, Charges General], and Copy 
[ of ] Consultations for the Month of June. 

We have just now r* ceived a Note from Seerhaud [Sarhad], he advises that 
guing to The Persian Embassadour he was abus'd to Such a Degree as not 

J This Letter is found in the ' Copy Book of Letters ' received from M r - Surman. 

July 28th 

222 faridabId to holal, july, 1717. 

only to be Severely Lattyed 1 but also wounded, we know no fa[r]ther of 
it than tbat He had no business to be from Us. 

We are 
Feredabad [Faridabad] Honourable Sir and Sirs 

July the 26 th . Your most Obedient Humble Servants 

1717. John Subman 

Edward Stephenson." 
213. DlAKT. 

11 Arrived at Pulvull [Palwal]. A Dutch soldier who came to us 
from Meer-Jemlahs [Mir Jumlah's] Camp, now 
u y ' run back to the City. 

Sent Surger Caun the Tonnadar 2 two Letters from Caundora [Khan 
Dauran] and Sallabutt Caun r Salabat Khan] Account a safe conduct." 
"Arrived at Eorull [Hodal]. 3 Mittertein [Mitr Sen I writes" word 
that the Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr] has the 
phirmaund [farmdu} in his possession and will 
proceed when his Dustick [dastak~] for the mewrah 4 is ready. He says, 
Seerhaud f Sarhad] is so Absurd, as to think of getting forces from the 
Vizier to fight the Embassadour." 

214. Letter XXXIX. 

"To the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
Tradin? to the East Indies &c? Council In Fort William. 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 

Not meeting with the Cossids [qasids] We expected we were forc'd to detain 
the Packquet till we meet with them. We have got a Pair but cant be assured 
of their Goodness being in a Strange Country, but however we dispatch'd them 
with the News of our Safety 36 Cos \kos\ from Dilly. and that we hear the 
Goorzeburdar \qurzbardar\ has receiv'd the Phirmaund \farman~\, and will be 
after us in a few days. 

We are 
Horull. Honourable Sir and Sirs 

[Hodal] Tour most Obedient humble Servants. 

July the 28*h John Subman 

3717. Edwabd Stephenson." 

i Beaten with a lathi or stick. 

2 Sanjar Khan, the thanahdar, was an officer posted at Palwal to keep the road clear as 
far as Hodal. He was a Daudzai Afghan, and held a manual of 5000. He died at Delhi early 
in Jamadi II, 1136 H., or February, 1724. 

8 Hodal is a small town fifty five miles and seven furlongs from Delhi, eleven 
miles and four furlongs from Bhamanikera, and fourteen miles and two furlongs from Chhath. 

4 Mewrah [meurah'] was the name of the post runners at the post stations. See [Block, 
mann's] Ain-i-Akbarl, I, p. 252; and Mirat-i-Ahmadi, lithographed edition, Vol II. p. 117" 

mathura to agba, july and august, 1717. 223 

215. Diary. 

July 29th « Arrived att Cbatah 1 [Chhath . " 

•* Arrived att Mutrah | Mathura]. 2 Itt is thought advisable to pass 
July 30th the river here ; Seeing the War with the Jats 

[Jats] has rendered the other way dangerous 

The phowsdar [faujdar] here paid Mr. Surman a visitt. 
Momud Arrufi Ghilah [Muhammad ' Arif chela] arrived iu 3 days 
from Diily. 

Passed the river with our whole Camp All the Gentues gone to 
worship att Binderabund [Bindraban] a holy 
August 1st « Arrived at Barowly [Baroli] 3 

Repassed the River Jemna [JamnahJ and arrived att Secunderah 

August 2nd [SikandrahJ. 4 

Arrived a Cossid ( qmid] from Dilly. Sallabut Caun [Salabat 
Kh an] writes that Grolam Hossein [Ghulam Husainl had the phirmaund 
[farmdn'] and would follow us, Furruckbeg Caun [Farrukh Beg Kh an] 
making the best of his way to Suratt. Seerhaud [Sarhad] complained 
in a petition to his Majesty against the Persian Embassadour. His 
project of fighting him is now laid aside." 

" Arrived att Agra, and again Ferryed over the Jemna [Jamnah.] 
August 3rd. The Camp is now at Vizier Cauns Cutterah. 5 

216. Consultation. 
" Wanting a Supply for travelling Expences, and the Following 
Summs being paid into Cash, Agreed that bills of 
Augt?t3rd. Exchange be given on the Honourable President 

and Councill in Bengali, VLst 

1000 Siccas — Eec4 from M . r John Surman — payable to Mr James Williamson, 
3000 d J „ ,, Kissoray Kissenchund [Kishori Krishan Chand] — to 

Saw Biparry [sahu beopart], 

1 Chhath is fourteen miles and two furlongs from Hodal, and twenty-three miles and one 
furlong N. W. of Mathura in the tashil of the same name. Lat. 27° 43'N. ; long. 77° 32' fif/'E, 
It is a good sized place with plentiful supplies and water ; the country level open and fairly 
cultivated. At the distance of a quarter of a mile there is a large sariie capable of holdiug 
two hundred men. 

2 This is, of course, the well-known city, commonly spelt Muttra. 

3 Baroli is sixteen miles from Mathura or Muttra. 

* Sikandrah Bihisbtabad, near Agra, the site of Akbar's tomb. Situated in lat. 27° 12' 
59" N., and long. 77° 59' 34" E. 

5 Wazir Khan la hairak. This enclosure was on the opposite or left bank of the Jamnah 
about a mile north of the modern railway bridge. 

224 AGRA, AUGUST, 1717. 

H. Barker wanting money for Expences, Agreed that Mr Surman 
pay him 2000 rupees. " 

217. Diary. 
" Dispatched the Following Cossids [qdsids]. One to Bombay with 
triplicate of the Last Letter, and a private Letter 

August 4th * L 

to Mr Boone concerning Seerhaud [Sarhad.J 
One to Fort William and another to Fort St George." 

218. Letter XL. 1 
" To the Honourable .Robert Hedges Esq? Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England trading to the East Indies &c* Councill in Bengali. 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 

Our last to your Honour &ca was from florull [Hodal], we have met with no 
molestation in the way After passing the river twice to avoid it we are happily 
arrived at Agra and passed it once more. As yet but little rains and hereabouts 
the Earth is parched, though we hear very much of the Swamps that are about 
60 Cos: distance, We shall endeavour by little and little to break through them 
notwithstanding it may not be so expeditious as we desire. We hear Nothing 
Farther from Seerhaud [Sarhad], but that he has wrote his Comprint to your 
Honour &c a which he designs to follow with Bills. The Business about his 
Usage from the Persian Embassadour was as formerly advised. Notliing would 
serve him at first but he would goe and fight him, and sent for Horse and Foot to 
take in accordingly, but we suppose the Fury of that Expedition went away upon 
Second Consideration. 

The Uoorzeburdar [gurzbardar'] has actually received the Phirmaund [far man] 
but stayd for his Dawk Dustick [dak dastak], so is not yet arrived though We 
expect him every day. We have a Chilah [chela] at present with us with the 
Kings Orders for our Protection but we find very Little to be depended on, our 
own Forces excepted which we hope will be sufficient for the Mewallaes 
[Mewatis] and afterwards for the Eugenes [Ujjainyas]. 2 

To Express the Violence of the Heat it is almost impossible but that Men 
Horse and Camells in these few days Journey have lost their Lives by it. 

We have drawn two Bills on Your Honour Ac* of Yesterdays date. 

1000 Siccas received from Mf Surman payable to Mr Williamson or order, and 

3000 Siccas received from Kisoray Kissenchund [Kishori Krishan Chand] 
payable to Sawbiparry [sakfc beopdri} or order, which we hope will be duely 

We are 

Agra Honourable Sir and Sirs 

August 4th Your most obedient humble Servants 

1717. John Surman 

Edwabd Stephenson. 

i This letter is entered in the " Copy Book of Letters received from M* Surman A.a a t the 
Mogulls Court," preserved at the India Office. 

* The Ujjainyas are the Bhojpur Zaxuod&rs between the Karamnasa and tbe Son rivers. 

AGRA, AUGUST, 1717. 225 

P. S. 

Suposeing these Letters may Arrive'in the Time That the Ships bound for 
Madrass may be on their departure, we hare wrote a few Lines to the Honbl B 
President and Councill of Madrass having finished the Negotiation to take our 
Leave of that Presidency. It ccmes under a flying Seal for Your Honour &c«* 

John Stjbman. 
E. Stephenson.'' 
219. Letter XLI. 1 

" To the Honourable — Collet Esqr Governour of Fort S* George, and Presi- 
dent for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
trading to the East Indies &c a Council In Madrass. 
Honourable Sir and Sirs 

The Honourable President and Councill in Bengali advises us they gave your 
Honour &c a a full Account of our Negotiation here, we had little Opportunity 
of makeing any Additions having been so full to that Presidency. Without doubt 
Your Honour &c a rejoyced at the good news of Oar having finished the difficult 
negotiation by the receivall of the Phirmaunds, Sunods [farmans, sanads] &c a 
the Copys of which have to be Sure e'er this reached Your hands. After so great 
an Expence we hope all our Honourable Masters' Settlements will begin to reap 
the Advantage and that a few Years will reimburse them. Besides the Phirmaunds 
[farmans] and Grants &c a for the Coast of Coromondall we have got a very 
Pathetick recommendatory Letter from the Grand Vizier to his Brother Omeerall 
Omrah [amiru-l-umard] which will be of very good Use, being in Particular for 
the 5 Towns and the renting Divy [Dm] Island in Generall for all their Settle- 
ments on that Coast. 

His Majesty has ordered a Seerpaw lsar-o-pa~\ for the Honourable Governour 
which we have received, and the Goorzeburdar \cjwzbar&ar\ that attends us 
down to Bengali has orders to proceed and deliver it. 

After having finished our Business we mott with great Trouble and difficulty 
in getting Clear of the Court, But God be thanked we have Effected it and our 
Departure was the 18th Ultimo, so we are Endeavouring for Bengali with the 
utmost Expedition altho' in the midst of the rainy Season. Our Companion 
Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] thought fitt to Stay behind us in truth to effect 
some business of his own, but to deceive the World he pretended we would not 
pay him what money he knew we could not answer to do. 

Being now able to lay down our Commission we think this a fitt Opportunity 
to take our leave of Your Honour &c a we hope our behaviour through the Course 
of this Negotiation will meet with Your Honour <tc«f Approbation when we shall 
have received our Beward. We return thanks for your Favours in particular, 

and Are 

Agra Honourable Sir and Sirs 

August 4 th Your most humble Servants 

17*7. John Stteman 

Edwabd Stephenson. " 

Thii Letter is to be found in the " Copy Book of Letters of Mr. Surroan 4c " as before. 


226 agra to bhognipcr, august, 1717. 

220. Diary. 

" Arrived att Raja k'-Talaw [Rajah-ka-talao] 1 . The Mewattys 
[Mewatls] in this Journey Attacked Our peesh- 

Angust 5th ' . 

canna, \_pesh&bana] butt receiving Severall wounds 
from the Defendants, They ran away. The Convoy ordered in Our 
Dusticks [dastaks~]t has been off no manner off use, Sometimes Accom- 
panying us, and Sometimes nott appearing." 

August 6th " This day made demurrage Account Rain." 

August 7th » Arrived at Shuckowabad [Shukohabad] 2 

Severall Camel Is ffell and one Quite Spoiled. 

August 8th « Arrived att Murlidur [Murlidhar-ki-sarae] 3 . 

A Thief taken, and very much whipped." 
August 9th « Arrived att Coorsina [Kursenah] 4 ." 

August 10th u Arrived att Etaya [Itawah]. 5 " 

August nth « Arrived att Buckewar [Bakewar] 6 " 

August 12th « Arrived att Nahal.k' Surray [Nihal-ki-Sarae] 7 . 

The weather very bad. 

Golam Hossein ("Ghulam Husain] arrived in 8| days from Dilly 
[Delhi] with the Honourable Robert Hedges's phirmaund [farmdn']. 
He was just too Nimble ffor Seerhaud [Sarhad], that had sent his Chubd. 
[chobddr'] with a receipt ffor itt to the Gentue off the Secretarys office." 

"Arrived at Secunderah [Sikandra] 8 , where the phowsdar \_faujdar~\ 
Sent M? Surman some Yiotualls, and appeared 

August 13th . ' rr 

very Civill and Complaisant." 
"Arrived at Boguny [Bhognipurj 9 , The Secunderah phowsdar 
[Sikandra faujdar'] conducted us to the End of Ids 
Districts ; Sending Elephant, Flaggs and Horse 

1 Rajah-ka-talao is lOf miles from Itmadpur and more than 23 miles from Agra on the road 
to Itawah. 

2 Shukohabad, the chief town of a parganna of the same name, is 25£ miles from Itmadpus 
and 30£ mi es from ItSwah. Situated in lat. 27° 6' 5" N., and long. 78° 38' 10" E. It has 
abundant supplies and a good camping ground. Named after Prince Dara Shukoh, traces 
of whose residence, garden, and wells remain. 

3 See note on page 44. 

* Kursenah is 12 ini'es from Itawah and 2 miles beyond Jaswantnagar. 

5 Itawah the chief town of the district of the same name. Situated in latitude 
26° 45' 31" N., and longitude 79° 3' 18" E. 

6 This Bakewar is a village, in the Bharthna tahsll, 12£ miles from ItSwah. A place of 
considerable antiquity, on high ground with good supplies and plentiful water. 

See note on page 43. 

See note on page 45. The Cawnpore road joins the road from Allahabad here. 

S9e note- on page 43. 

sX-nkhX to kajwah, august, 1717. 227 

August 15th « Arrived att Saunka [Sankha Janwara] 1 ." 

"Arrived att Coora-Jehaunabad [Korah Jahan- 

Augustl6th abad]V 

August 18th « Arrived att Cudjowah [Kajwab.] 3 . 

Dispatched a Cossid [qdsid'] to Fort "William. Gave Likewise a 
small Letter with the bills drawn Yesterday. 

A G-enerall Letter arrived ffrom Bombay. "Wrote to Sallabut 
Caun [Salabat Khan] and Mittersein [Mitr Sen]." 

221. Letter XLIP 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esqr G-overnour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of • the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England trading to the East Indies &c a Council!, In Bengali. 


Wb deliver this Letter for Your Honour &c a to Gololchund's [Gulalchand's] 
Factory to carry the news of our Arrivall at this City, but Cheifly designed to 
Accompany the bills of Exchange we have drawn on Your Ronour &c a payable to 
Sawbiparry [Sahu Beopari] or Order 51 days After Date. Viz. 

For 2000 Siccas Value received from Euggonautdass Jaggernaud and Colnine 
[Eaghunath, Jagadanand, and Eawal Nain] Factors to Kissoray Kissenchund 
[Kishori Erishan Chsmd] 

For 1000 Siccas Value received from Euggonautdass Jaggernaud and Colnine 
[Eaghunath, Jagadanand, and Eawal Nain] 

We have also drawn 2 Bills more, Viz* 

For 1630 Siccas payable to Mj James Williamson Value received from 
M r . John Surma n. 

For 800 ditto payable to Uddoodut [TJdu Dat] the Father of Sockdeu 
[Sukh Deo] Value received from Eissengiben [Krishacjivan] 

For Other news we referr Your Honour &c a to our own Cossid [qasid] which 
we shall dispatch as soon as we are got over the river of this City. 

Coora Jehaunabad. And are, Honourable Sir and Sirs, 

[Korah Jahanabad] Your most Obedient Humble Servants 

August 17th John Subman. 

1717. John Babkeb, Sec 1 ?* Edwabd Stephenson." 

1 Sankha J anwSra, a village 10 miles from Ghatampur on the Mogul road between Musa- 
nagar and GhStampur. It is shown in Rennell's Bengal Atlas, No. 13, Tavernier calls it 
Sanqual. Indian Atlas, sheet No. 69 has " Sookhapoor " in about the same position. 

2 See note on page 42. 

3 Kajwah, a town in the Korah tahsll, 12f miles of JahSn5ba"d, and 21J miles from 
Fattehpur. Lat. 26° 3' 10" N. ; long 80° 33' 50"E. The town retains some architectural remains 
of anciont grandeur." It was once a place of commercial importance, and is still known for 
its brass and copper ware, 

* This letter is to be found in the " Copy Book of Letters of Mr Surman & ca "no beforo. 


228 KAJWAH, AUGUST, 1717. 

222. Lettbr XLIIF 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq? Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of tbe Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England trading to the East Indies && Councill In Bengali. 


We wrote Your Honour &c a , Yesterday from Coora Jehaunabad [Korah 
Jahanabad] of which the accompanying is a Copy. With some Trouble We gott 
over that River by 12 a Clock at 2fight so we have been able to make a Journey of 
6 Cos : r Jcos] to this Place. 

Before we removed to Agra we wrote Your Honour «&c a bearing date the 
4th Inst, advising of all that happened to that place, the following Part of our 
Journey has not been troubled so much with the heat, as by deep and Slippery 
ways, occasioned by the foregoing -Rains, In which the Camells make miserable 
work, there being 2 or 3 already left thereby. Besides which our Journeys are 
much Shorten'd from 12 Cos [kos] which We designed to 6 or 7 when the 
Weather will permit us to march. Even as it is, Travelling at this Season 
Surprizes the Country People, and We are of Opinion that very good Fortune 
has attended us, The Roads we passed Last are cheifly those frequented by the 
Mewattaes [Mewatls]. The 1 st days Journey from Agra they took a Fancy to try 
the Courage of our People, by attacking our forerunning Tents guarded by 20 or 30 
Buxeries [Baksaris]. They had much about the like dumber in Horse. They 
fell too without much Ceremony and fought for about two Gurreys, [ghati]* and 
tis supposed that their Cheif having received a mortall Wound in his Breast was 
the Reason they Run away without any Other Damage then the wounding a 
Woman and 3 or 4 Oxen. They have been so kind as to keep out of Sight ever 

The Goorzeburdar [c/urzhardar] who had orders to bring the Honourable 
Presidents Phirmaund [farman] has very well answered our Expectation and 
arrived with us 7 days ago so that there is now nothing belonging to our Honour- 
able Masters Affairs left unfinished at that Court, and nothing in Seerhauds 
f Sarhad's] Hands but Copys which he obtained after a Clandestine manner As he 
would have Served the last Originall, but the Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar] who 
was thoro' paced was not to be tricked at that rate. 

The Encouragement we have had thus far in our Journey gives us Hopes of the 
HVe good Fortune for the Future, so we shall use all Possible Expedition to clear 
Our Honourable Masters from the great Expence they have lain under. 

Cudjowah, [Kajwah] We are 

August 13th Honourable Sir and Sirs 

1717. Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Busman 
Edward Stephenson." 

1 This letter is to be found in the " Copy Book of Letters from Mr Surman &c a" as before. 
A gharl is a division of time equal to about 22 minutes. 

fathpur to allahabad, august, 1717. 229 

223. Diary. 
August 19th " Arrived att Futtipore [Fathpur] 1 ." 

" Made a days demurrage, the carriages notfc 
arriving yesterday in time." 
Au a«t 2ist "Arrived att Nobusta Mohun [Sarae Mohan 

Sallmpur] 2 " 
"Arrived att Chouah k'-Surray [Chaube-ki-sarae] 3 . Mr Surman gave 

August 22nd the Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr'] 100 rupees." 

"Arrived beyond Shahzadpore [Shazadpur] 4 . Mr Surman sent the 

August 23rd Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr J [ before to Illaabad 

[Allahabad], with the Severall Husbullhooouma 

[hasbu-l-hukms] on Raja Ohivilaram [Chhabelah Ram], Account 

Convoy Boates #ca." 

Auust24th "Arrived att Allumchund k' Surray [Alam 

chandki-sarae] 5 . Much rain f fell in the Journey." 

August 25th « Arrived att Begum Surray. 6 " * 

" Arrived In Illabaad. The Suba [Subaddr j pursuant to the orders 

sent him, Ordered a man to meett us with 150 

August 26th 

Horsemen Flaggs and Elephant. 
Arrived a Cossid [qdsid] from the Honourable Preside nt and 
Councill in Fort William. 

The Subah [Subaddr] sent to compliment Mr Surman on his 
arrivall, and (Altho a Geutue) sent a treat of 44 dishes of victualls 
dressed after the Mahometan ffashion. He would have Seen Mr 
Surman, butt such Visitt was Evaded." 

"The Subah [Subaddr] repeated his Entertainment, notwithstanding 
Mr. Surmans Endeavour to Excuse itt." 

August 27th 

22 i. Consultation 
" There being nothing to clear the Great Obligation we Lye under 
to the Subah [Subahddr] ; Yett to Endeavour 

Illaabad. . ,_ , _ . A 

[Allahabad] itt by the properest Method; Agreed that 11 

Yards Imbost Broad Cloth, 2 Musketoons, 1 
Gun and 2 Pistolls be oarried and presented to his Son-in-Law, with 
a hearty acknowledgement of the ffavours we have received." 

* Fattehpur or Fatbpur is the chief town of the Fattehpur district, 72 miles from 
Allahabad, 21 miles and 3 furlongs from Kajwah. Lat. 25° 65' 18'' N.; long. 80° 52" E. 
A well known place of considerable antiquity. 

2 see note on page 42. 
s See note on page 42. 
4 See note on page 42. 

* Alam Ohand a village 18 miles from Allahabad. 

6 Sarae Begam is 8 miles from the junction of the Ganges atdth* Jamnah. 

230 allahabad, august, 1717. 

225. Diary. 
" The Carravan fferrying over the Ganges. Dispatched a Cossid 
August 27th \_qasid] to Fort William." 

226. Letter XLIY 1 

" To the Honoubable Robebt Hedges EsQr Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs Of the Honourable Company of Merchants trading 
to the East Indies &ca. Councill in Bengali. 

Hoxoubabie Sib and Sibs 

We wrote your Honour &ca from Coora Jehaunabad [Korah Jahanabad] 
August the li?, and Cudjowah [Kajwah] August the 1 8tll Advising of our 
Safe arrivall there and our Receipt of the Phirmaund [farmon] from the Goorze. 
burdar [gurzbard a r] &ca Thro* deep ways and with much trouble we Arrived Safe 
to this Place Yesterday. The Subah Eajah Chevilin [Subahdar Rajah Chhabilah 
Ram] gave us a handsome Reception by Sending Some Captains of Horse & Foot 
Elephant Flagg's Drums &ca to meet us, and at night sent an Entertainment of 
Victualls sufficient for half our Camp. Our Baggage is moved over the River 
Ganges, where we intend, God willing, to follow tomorrow and hope to be in 
readiness to march the next Day. We have strange Accounts of the deep Ways 
between this Place and Patna, however we shall endeavour to Surmount All 
Difficultys with what Expedition possible, and hope by the Time this reaches the 
Hands of your Honour &ca we may be arrived in Patna. We hope our Letters 
from Agra and Coora [Korah] have So well Apprized you of our Proceedure that 
Boats will be sent up in good Time. 

Yesterday came to hand your Honour <fccas dated July the 26*h hy which we 
are glad to find all our Letters Copys of the Phirmaunds [farmans] &ca papers 
arrived in due time. 

We particularly observe what your Honour &ca write how we are to act on 
our Arrivall at Patna but cannot omit advising your Honour &ca that most of 
the Honourable Companys Debts there have been for some Years Esteemed 
desperate, so we Cannot hope to gain an Equivalent for the Certain Expence we 
must be at in Staying to obtain them. The time we are there our utmost 
Endeavours shall not be wanting. As for the House we hope to get Possession of 
it without much difficulty, and likewise shall let the Subah [subahdar^ and Duan 
[uiwan\ know on what Terms Your Honour &ca may resetle that Factory. It 
is Certain Seerbolund Cawn [Sarbnland Khan] has imposed the Yearly Peeshcash 
[peshkasK] on the Dutch besides a much larger on a different Account. 

In our Former Letters we gave your Honour &ca a full Account of Seerhauds 
[Sarhad's] remaining in Dilly [Delhi], We have no news since our last. When 
we found he Actually remained behind we sent him a Protest from Barrapoola 
[Barahpulah] and Feredabad [Faridabad] that since He had deserted us his 
Expences from that Time would not be allowed him and that it was proper he 
should lay down his state of Flaggs &ca Since there was no farther Occasion for 

1 This letter is to be found in the "Copy Book of LetJfc'S from Mr Surnian &ca,'' as 


them. He was not backward in giving us a retorting Answer that we must be 
answerable for all his Expences since we did not Comply with bis demands. 

We have a due Sence of the great Expence our Honourable Masters hare been 
at and shall endeavour to bring it to an End as soon as possible. We bope our 
Travelling at such Time of tbe Year will be a plain Instance of our Intentions. 

When this month is finished we shall be obliged to pay our people so have 
been necessitated to draw a .Bill of Exchange for 80C0 Siccas received from 
Kissoray Kissenchund's [Kishori Krishan Chand's] Factors here and payable 
to Sawbiparry \_sahu beopdrl] or Order which we hope will be duely honoured. 

We Congratulate your Honour &ca on the Arrivall of the Europe Ships 

Elaabass [ Allahabad ] And are 

August, 27th Honot/babi,e Sib and Sibs 

1717. Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Sttbman 
Edwabd Stephenson." 

227. Diart 

" When Every thing was over, M>. Surman 
&ea passed to the Other side of the Ganges." 
August 29th « Arrived att Sydabad [Saidabad] 1 " 

August 30th . "Arrived att Jugdisk'-Surray ( Jagdls-ki-sarae] 2 " 

" The Carriages &ea nott arriving in time, 
made a days demurrage." 
" Arrived at Oumull [Almau] 3 . Arrived a Cossid \_qtisid'] from 
Culcntta. Sundry Burkundass turned out for 

August 31st 

September 1st 


September 2nd « Arrived att Babook' Surray j Babu-ki-sarae]*" 

" Arrived att Mohtm k' Surray [Mohan-ki- 

ep m er sarae] 5 Killed a Theif who came into Our Camp." 

" Arrived in Banaras9 [Benares]. "Wrote a Generall to Fort "William. 

Mr. Surman wrote concerning Jaffor Caun [Ja'far 

September 4th ^.^ ^^ ^ g^^^ Caun [ga^hat Khan] 

and Mittersein [Mitr Sen]. " 

September 5th "Mf- Surman &ca passed the Ganges." 

1 See note on page 39. 

2 See note on page 39. 

3 Almau (in the Indian Atlas, sheet No. 83. Ulniow) is a village about 7 miles from 
Jagdis-ki-ssrae, in tahsil Konrh. 

* See note on page 39. 
8 See note on page 39. 


228. Letter XLY. 1 

" To the Honoubable Robebt Hedges Esq? Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
Trading to the East Indies &c& Council! in Bengali. 

Honoubable Sib and Sibs 

We wrote You from Elaabass [Allahabad] August the 27*^ Since which, we 
received yours, dated August the 2°!?, on the 1 st of September with the inclosed 
Copy of a Letter from Mr. Feak &c* concerning the refusal! that JafEor Cawn 
[Ja'far, Khan] had made of allowing the Muxodavad [Maqsudabad] Mint and the 
Calcutta Towns the two Cheif profitable things we hare gained for our Honour- 
able Masters in Bengali. There is no one Can be better acquainted with Jaffor 
Cawn [Ja'far Khan] than Your Honour &ca. So his disobeying the Kings Orders 
is no great Eariety. Pursuant to Your Honour &ca? Orders, we have wrote to 
the Vackeel [vakil] at Court, advising him of it, that he may make his Complaint 
to his Majesty for this Breach of Orders, we have likewise wrote to the Same 
purport to Syud Sallabutt Cawn [Sayyad Salabat Khan] desiring he will Assist 
the Vackeel [vakil] in the Prosecution of that Affair. 

We have met with a very troublesome Eoad from Elaabass [Allahabad] 
hither, but however it is now over, and have now crossed the'Bannarass [Benares] 4 
river intending +o march tomorrow. We hear the roads between this place 
and Patna are very deep, So cannot Affix the Time of our Arrivall there but shall 
make it as Expeditious as possible. 

The Frequent Letters that we have wrote we hope 'arrived in due i ime so 
that the BoatB are long since dispatched to receive us in Patna. 

We are 
Bannarass Honoubable Sib and Sibs 

TBenares] Your most obedient humble Servants 

Sept: 5th John Sttbman 

17 17, Edwabd Stephenson." 

229. Diary 

September 6th "Arrived att Jugdisk'Surray [Jagdis-ki-sarae] 3 " 

"Arrived beyond Currum-Nosser [Karamnasa] 
ep em in the Subaship of Behar." 

September 8th "Arrived att Mohinia [Mohiniya] 4 " 

"Arrived att Jehaunabad [Jahanabadl 5 . 

September 9th 1 C amell Died." 

1 This letter ia to be)found in tfce Copy Book of Letters from. ii r . Surman &c» " as before. 

2 Probably the Ganges, not the Barna. 

3 This Jagdls-ki-sarSe is a village on the grand trunk road about 2 miles west of 
Chandauli, and 19 miles from Benares. It is seven miles east of the Mogul Sarae railway 
station. There is a good encamping ground here and a small bazar. 

* Mohiniya is 24£ miles from Jagd s-ki-Sar5e and 13f miles from Jah5nab5d. A small 
bazar with a good encamping ground. 

5 Jahanabffd is a village, 13 miles from Sahsram, 


" Arrived att Sarsewrong [Sahsram] 1 . Sheer-Zemaun-Caun [Sher 
Zaman Khan] lying near us with Seer Bulund 
Cauns [Sarbuland Kh an's] forces ; The Goorze- 
burdar [gurzbarddr] went to him, and Obtained some Convoy." 

"Arrived att Mokrain [Mokrain]. 2 The Caravan begun to pass the 
September nth river Soan [Son]. Much rain in the Afternoon. 

The Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr] dispatched to Patna with a 
Husbullhoocum [hasbu-l-hukm] from Caundora [Khan Dauran] to 
Seer-Bulund-Caun, [Sarbuland Khan] in order to prooure us convoy, 
and a Creditable reception into the City of Patna. M? Surman now 
wrote to the Yakile [vakil'] Roopechund [Eupchand], inclosing the 
two perwannas [parwanas] for the Patna house. The Vakile [vakil] 
is to Endeavour, to have itt putt in Our possession, on the first Arrivall. 
Gave the Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr] a Turbeti 3 and Sash." 

" M? Surman &o a . passig the river, arrived at Gotowly [Ghatauli] 4 
Sheer-Zemaun- Cauns [Sher Zaman Khan] 

September 12th 

convoy dispatched with a present 01 50 rupees. 

Much rain. A Theif killed in the night," 

" Made Demurrage Account the Bad- 
September 13th „ 

September 14th « Made Demurrage, The bad weather continu- 

ing." "Arrived thro' much rain and Dirt att 

September 15th ^ , i~Tk--j n >> 

Doudnagur [Daudnagar]. 5 
" Made Demurrage, the peshoanna [peshkhana] nott being arrived. 
September 16th The weather become fair." 

" Arrived att Ullidad k' Surray [Alidad-ki- 

" Arrived att Mohabully-pore [Mohibalipur] 6 
eptem er Eeceived a Letter from Boopechund [Eupchand.]" 

"Arrived att Nobat-pore [Naubatpur]. The Goorzeburdar 

(aurzbarddr] returned from Seer-Bulund-Caun 

ep em r [ Sarbuland Kh an] with a Munsubdar [mansabddr] 

off 1000 Muns!* [mansab] butt nott one more Horseman, the Nabob 

pretending there was no occasion for them." 

1 See note on page 38. 

2 See note on page 38. 

3 Turbett evidently for turban. 
* See note on page 37. 

» See note on page 37. 
• See note on page 37. 

September 17th 

234 PATNA, SEPTEMBER, 1717. 

"Arrived att Pulwarry fPhulwaril The 

September 20th - L J 

Dutch came from Patna to meett us. 
"Arrived safely in Patna; and now live in the house, we did 
formerly, when this negotiation commenced. 
Advised the Honourable President and Councill 
of our arrivall." 

230. Letter XLYI. 1 

"To the Honourable Bobeet Hedges Esq 1 ". [Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
Trading to the East Indies &e* Councill in Bengali. 

Honourable Sie and Sies, 

Our last to Your Honour &c» was from Bannarass [Benares] of the 5 th Instant. 
This Cheifly advises of our safe Arrivall here this morning. As yet we have 
received no Answer to our Letters wrote since our departure from Ddly [Delhi] 
so Cannot be Assured of the Boats being dispatchd this Way. We at present 
waite their Arrivall, and Your Honour <fcc a ? Orders shall be duely obeyed. 

Gololchundsaw [Gulalchand Saha] is just now come to us and Complains 
that on the Bills we wrote for 25000 siccas there has been a discompt of 2 per cent 
as he is advi«ed from Monickchundsaw [Manikchand Saha] to whom the bills 
were Sold; he desires Your Honour &ca to take a writing from his Factory theie 
to Gololchundsaw's [Gulalchand Saha's] here,[ importing that they have received 
the Bill in full as it was drawn. 

We are 


September 2ist Your most obedient humble Servants 


John Sueman 
Edwaed Stephenson" 

231. Diary 

M The Dutch made us a visitt. Roopechund [Rupehand] Employed 

about the house given us by the King. The 

Septem er a. Bootade [buyutdt] who manages all Such Affairs, 

Says he must first ask the Suba [subaddr] Seer-Bulund-Caun 

[Sarbuland Khan] ; when he will give us a Sunnod [sanad]." 

September " Seer-Bulund-Cauns Memaundar [Sarbuland 

23rd to 28th. Khan's mihmdndar] presented to About 150 


"M r Surman &c? returned a visitt to the Dutch." 
"The Bootade [buyutdt] reported to Our Vakile [vakil] the Answer 
he had received from Seer-Bulund-Caun [Sarbuland Khan]. " Should 

1 This letter is to be found ia the " Copy Book of Letters from M r Surman &c a " as bef re. 


I now give them the house, what have I left to say to them when they 
make me a visitt ? " 

232. Consultation. 
"Ten days have been Elapsed since our arrivall at this place, without 

Paina. an y si & n of ^ oates for our Conveyance down, Or 

September 30th Advices from the Honourable President and Coun- 

cill about it. From all which we doe conceive that the Little danger 
off: the way between this place and Culcutta, may have induced the 
Honourable President &c* nott to send up Boates ; and consequently itt 
becomes Our Duty to make the provision our Selves. The miserable 
Government of this place gives no Encouragement to Attempt any thing 
here. Seer Bulund Caun [Sarbuland Khan] Expects a peshcash [pesh- 
kash~] of 16000 rupees, and is besides very pressing to receive a visitt, 
accompany'd with a handsome present. On these conditions a Factory 
might be resettled here ; butt without any prospect off recovering the 
fformer Debts ; The persons being all Either dead or insolvent. On due 
consideration we find our longer Stay will be both a fruitless Expence 
off time and money ; Wherefore, Agreed that boates be hired ; Leaving 
this plaoe with the utmost Expedition." 

233. Diary. 

"The Goorzeburdar \_gurzlardar~\ going to the Wackanagar [ Wdqa'm- 
gar~] ; This Latter spoke to the Subah \Subahdar\ for an order, for our 
hiring Boates, which was granted. 

Discharged all Our Horsemen, most off Our Foot and other unneces- 
sary Servants. Those that remain to be paid according to the Patna 
Custom, Sallary; Watchmaker, and Soldiers pay for 3 Months paid 
the Last Instant." 
October 1st to 5th " Nothing remarkable." 

" We doe nott find any one inclined to Speak to Seer-Bulund-Caun 
[Sarbuland Khan] about the Patna house or 
Factory. Eoopechund [Eupchand] Even ffears 
to goe near that Durbar \darbdr~\" 

"Wrote to the Honourable President &c a . in Fort William. In the 
Evening received aGenerall Letter from Bengali. 

'October 7t ° & 

Mittersein [Mitr. Sen] writes, he has hoard Jaf- 
for Caun [Ja'far Khan] has complained to the King Against us ; butt 
that nothing is Yett ordered in our disfavour." 

236 PATXA, OCTOBER, 1717. 

" Koopechund [Kupohand] having been with the Bootade [buyutat] ; 
n t 0iL he was there told, that Seer-Bulund Caun TSar- 

October 8th L _ 

buland Khan] has ordered the house to be given 
us, on Conditions off a Factory being settled; butt that the King never 
designed, we should lett itt to hire." 

234. Letter XLVIL 1 

" To the Honourable Robert Hedges Esq 1 G-overnour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
Trading to the East Indies &c a - Councill in Bengali. 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 

We wrote Your Honour &c* the 215 Ultimo advising of our Safe 
A rrivall at this Place, we bare since that Time been obliged to draw Bills of the 
28— September for the following Sums. 

1 Bill 5000 rupees payable to Saw Biparry [sahu beopdrt] or Order received 
from Bolchund [Balchand] 

1 BiU 6CO0 rupees payable to Kissoray Gololchund [Kishori Gulalchand], 
received from Gowoldass Gossaulray [Gokal Das Khushhal Hae] to both which 
we hope your Honour &c a will give due Honour. 

We were in hopes that the Frequent Advices we gave Your Honour &c? of 
oar departure from Dilly and in our way hither might have arrived time Enough 
to have Budgerows &c* sent up for our Carriage down to Calcutta, We fear 
some of the Cossids [gas*V] may have miscarry "d and so prevented it, We have 
waited in Expectation of a Letter, but not Coming to hand we have taken a 
Besolution to leave this Place with the Utmost Expedition by getting what 
Boats &c a we can hire as the onley Expedient to finish this Expensive Journey. 
For any Business to be done here, in getting in the Company's Debts which 
your Honour &c a formerly ordered we find nothing to be done with Seerbolund 
Cawn [Sarbuland Khan] without Expence. If we should pay him a Visitt, make 
a Present and move to settle a Factory here as he thinks fitt we beleive the 
Possession of the house might be obtained but as Yet we can get no answer. 
Yonr Honour &c a gave us particular Orders to acquaint the Subah [subakdar'] 
and Duan [diwan] on what Conditions a Factory might be resettled. The Duan 
[diican'j and all other Officers have not the least authority under Seerbolund 
Cawn [Sarbuland Khan] who manages every thing himself and instead of the 
Cut-Barrers 2 which was formerly paid to the Prince, he has laid the same Imposi- 
tion on all the Merchants here under another name called Budrucka. 3 From the 
Dutch he has taken instead of their former Peeshcash [jpeshkash~] of 10,0C0 rupees 
13,200 rupees After imprisoning their Servants 2 months and stopping their laden 
boats above one, Besides 50,000 rupees which he has Extorted from them within 
this Twelve month. We have endeavoured to let him know Your Honour 

1 This letter is to be found in the ''Copy Book of_ Letters from M* Surman &c^ " as 

2 Possibly Jchat-bardr, i.e. " obtaining the issue of a letter/' apparently a fee levied on 
the i ssue of an order. 

s Probably ladraqafi, an escort, or i ■ . \cj. 

PATNA, OCTOBER, 1717. 237 

&o a ? propositions, but as yet have not found a Servant or other in his whole 
Durbar [darbar] who dare represent the matter to him taking it as entirely 
impossible to be Effected, and our being necessitated to Stay here gives no little 
Umbrage that a design of Settling a Factory is at the bottom, all which together 
will make us the more Expeditious to get away. 

"We have disposed of a good part of the Camells but we find Horses here at 
a very low rate so we shall send them over land with the Elephant for the 
Honourable President under the Care of the Goorzeburdar, [gurzbardar~] we 
are quite unacquainted how Horses may sell at Muxodavad [Maqsudabad] so 
desire Your Honour Ac*? Orders whether any may be left there or all sent to 

Patna We are 

October 7- Honourable Sir and Sirs 

1717. Your most obedient humble Servants 

John Stxbman 
Edwabd Stephenson." 

23-5. Consultation. 
"Thk 7!£ att night arrived a Letter from the Honourable President 
and Counoill, Dated September 19 th importing 

October 10th Patna. ^ ft ^^ Qff soldier8 ^^ BudgerOWS was 

coming for us ; and that we should remain in Patna till their arrivall, 
getting in the mean time possession off the house, and recovering what 
debts due to the Honourable Company. The many fformer Letters 
from the Honourable President and Councill giving intimation, and 
our own desires Spurring us on, to come to a Conclusion of this Charge- 
able negotiation ; we resolved to Leave this place with all possible 
Speed : to which end we have already laid out money for Boates, to 
carry us down ; and entertained best part off the peons and Buxerys 
necessary for the occasion. Wherefore our readiness to leave this 
place will be in a Weeks time. 

The Honourable Companys Debtors are either dead- or insolvent. 
As for compulsion there is none to be usee!, without the Nabobs 
Assistance ; which is so far from being Granted ; That he does nott 
Comply with the Letter off the Kings orders in permitting us to have 
the house, Saying, " Itt was nott given us to be Lett out, butt that a 
Factory might be settled therein ; on which conditions we might have 
itt." Butt this must be understood on the payment off the former 
16000 rupees peshcash [peshkash'] ; and nott what the Honourable 
President and Councill are in hopes of. So the design of settling that 
Factory is rendered Abortive. By what is abovemention'd, Our 

238 PATNrA, OCTOBER, 1717. 

ffarther Stay in Patna plainly appears to be of no service to Our 
Honourable Masters affairs, butt will on the Contrary prove Ex- 

Two months must be Elapsed before the Culeutta Boates can 
possibly arrive att this place ; Very likely meeting with some trouble 
in the way; which is nott to be feared in our passage down, Seeing we 
have the Kings Groorzeburdar [gurzbarddr], Chilah \_chela~\ and Dustichs 
[dastaks] to accompany us, besides the Character his Majesty has been 
pleased to give us in the Last. We conclude and Agree to depart 
hence with the Utmost Expedition, Conceiving itt most for the Interest 
of Our Honourable Masters. 

The Patna Shrophs [sarrdfs] will write to their Correspondants 
nott to trust Seerhaud [SarhadJ with money Account the Honourable 

Agreed that a ffarther Account of Seerhauds [Sarhad's] Behaviour 
be given to the Honourable President &c* , being a Continuation 
of the Separate Letter, dated December 20 th from Dilly." 

236. Diary 

" The Dutch report the following Advices from Dilly — That the 

King Upon the Grand Seigniours Complaint, has 

forbid the sale off Saltpetre to any Christians 

That the phowsdar \Jaujdar~] off Metchlipatam [Machhlipatanam] 

complained to the King off Divy [Divi] Islands being granted to the 


1 Camell Lame left with Gololchundsaws [Gulalchand Sana's] 
Factois at Coora Jehaunabad [Korah Jahanabad] to be sold, and 5 
Camells left with Euggoe-ponditt [Raghu pandit] in Futtua [Fatuha] 
for the same end." 

" We heard Seer-Bulund-Caun [Sarbuland Khan] would send to 
October 20tu search our Boates, butt itt proved a story." 

237. Letter XLVIII 1 

"To the Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq*. Governour of Fort William and 
President of Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of England 
Trading to the East Indies &c& Councill In Bengali. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs 

We wrote your Honour <fec» the 20 th December very particularly concerning 

the Behaviour of Cojah Seerhaud [Khwajah Sarhad] during the Course of this 

Negotiation to that Time. We find our Selves obliged to continue the Thread 

1 This letter is to be found in the " Copy Baok of Letters of W. Surman &c a " as before. 

PATNA, OCTOBER, 1717. 239 

of that discourse to the finish of it which now God be thanked is happily come 
to pass. 

We shall pursue it with our wonted Ingenuity and for to make every thing 
the more plain first add to those things which Seem to be left unfinished in the 
last, and then enlarge upon what farther Misdemeanours he has committed. 

Concerning the Entrance into the business we find nothing to add. But the 
first remark we have to make is on Padree Daniell Who after a great many Huffs 
and Threatnings of what he wonld do in Case we did not comply with his 
demands became very quiet Seerhaud [Sarhad] used to tell us he had satisfyed 
that he had paid him about 800 rupees down in hand and had given him an 
Obligation that in Case he had not full Satisfaction from the Councill of Calcutta 
he would pay him out of his own Pockett the Sum of 3000 rupees, we seemed 
very well satisfyed with this and indeed told Cojah [Khwajah] it would be for 
his Honour not to suffer him to Complain in any Durbar [Darbar] of us altho' we 
could not Agree to his unreasonable demands, and to hope to get any redress 
by Complaint he knew was but a Folly which Advice I beleive he took after he 
had tryed his own Strength and found he was able to do nothing. The Padree 
suspecting Cojah [Khwajah] at our departure from Dilly seemed to have a desire 
to come along with us, and indeed did offer that in case we would promise our 
Endeavour to procure him satisfaction he would. Our Answer was that it was 
our Opinion he had much better follow Seerhauds [Sarhad's] Fortunes if he 
had any Intentions for Bengali, and that we think is all we can add to this 

"When we were on our Departure and he squabbling with us for money 
amongst the rest (but not mentioned in his demand) he wanted truely us to pay 
for the Vackeel [vakil} that he had employed very barefacedly affirming he 
deserved a handsome reward. We were very well acquainted with the man 
who had been a good Spy to Us, but could not wrong our Judgments so much as 
to Consent to it when we had as good Servants in the House in the Honourable 
Companys pay, and we could at That Time tell him his own and how much in 
this particular Case he had broke through the Honourable President and 
Councills Orders. He answered that it was very well, since we would not he 
would do it himself, and as for anything Else he had very little Apprehensions. 

We wrote Your Honour &c* at large about the new Eirperam [Eriparam] 
Our Agreement with him and what we thought of that business, since the 
writing of that Letter, we found ourselves strictly pursued for a large Sum of 
money nothing less than 1000 Cold Moors [muhrs~] would appease. A great 
many reasoning And excuses were made use of but to little purpose Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] insisting either to give the whole sum or else a finall Answer refusing 
at any Consultation to give his Opinion of the matter, at the Same Time threatening 
what great mischeif would attend his disgust that So much money was In reality 
too much, But what Sum he deserved and would Content him he would not 
Name yet was Continually bringing Duns to our door as a proof how much he 
was plagued. For the Conclusion of this Affair we humbly referr to our Consul- 
tation July the 15*11 Our True Keason for Consenting to the Payment of so much 

240 PATNA, OCTOBER, 1717. 

money was the Apprehension we had that he might d» some dis-service to the 
Factory at Suratt. The entire Government of that Province being under Hydera 
Cooli Cawn [Haidar Qnli Khan] and his Business solely in the Hands of the 
Kirperam [Kriparam]. 

Concerning Seerhaud's [Sarhad's] proceeding to England and buying Rarietys 
we have wrote at large in that Letter. The true reason of his staying behind 
is to pursue this project without any Apprehensions of being hindered by us. 
Zeaudy Cawn [Zeyau-d-din Khan] at last has been the Cheif i'rotector of this 
scheme and had at about the time of our departure proposed to his Majesty 
something of this Story Again and that a small matter might be sent as a Present 
to the Honourable English Company. He intimated to us that he wished we 
would Stay to receive it but we were too well acquainted with the Expence of 
Dilly and the Time Trouble and Charge there would be to get it after granted 
as well as the small Value the Things would be of, for any such Bait to take besides 
we Considered what little Credit was to be given to the best of them all. We 
since hear Seerhaud [Sarhad] in the Pursuit of his Old scheme has brought his 
Ends about. The [King?] has granted as follows— 

To the Honourable Company— 

3 Diamonds 


Boddala 1 &c» 


Baftaes and Mamodays ... 
Rose Otter 25 Polla 



To Govemour Pitt whom he Stiles Vizier Azzeem 2 of England. 

3 Diamonds ... ... 2,000 

Boddala ... „. 2,000 

4,000 rups. 

But refused to give him his so much desired Phirmaund \_farmdn] till such 
Time he arrived in Europe procured the Barietys and advised of their readyness 
when he should have it Sent him, but for the present only a Husbullhookum 
[hasbu-l-hukum] is ordered. Seerhaud [Sarhad] is not contented with this, but has 
drawn up another Petition and has taken Care to make this appear quite different 
to his Bretheren in all Places that they may resound it to his Creditors but what 
we have lost above is the last advice from Mittersein [Mitr Sen] 

In our Former Letter amidst such a Tract of Villainies, we Could not Accuse 
him of misemploying any of the Companys Money or Goods, but we have 
found by the Sequell it was only for want of an Opportunity. For in the first 
Sum of money which was designed for Boquechund [Bhogchand] out of 180 K) 
rupees he had a design to steal 10,000 rupees. The necessity there was for the 

1 Badlah, cloth of gold. 
3 Watlr-i-'azim.' 

PATNA, OCTOBER, 1717. 241 

Agreement our Consultations will witness Knowing what great Service that Mut- 
suddy [mutasaddi] could Do us at that Inst, we did not hesitate in the Least to 
Comply with Seerhaud's [Sarhad's] demands when he said it was necessary and 
Indeed 8C00 rupees was reckoned a very small Summ for so great a Man. So 
Seerhaud [Sarhad] had here a good Opportunity to do as his inclinations directed 
him but it was impossible for him to do it So privately but that it Came to our 
Knowledge before he could have the Impudence to ask for the money or indeed 
that we would give it, he was apprized of our Knowledge of the matter. We 
were well pleased to find It hindered him from his pursuit, so in a sort of a 
bravado of what he had done for the Honourable Company in saving them so 
much money (which was never lost) he delivered back the obligation and owned 
the other deceit of 5600 rupees with the Sudder Suddool [sadru-s-sudur'] 
which was of much worse consequence than the Other, for tlte Phirmaund 
[farman] was detained about 20 days in a very Ticklish time which must be pure 
design of delaying for when we put him to it in an hour's Time 'twas made up when 
he bragg'd of his Dexterity in doing it and showed great satisfaction in having 
(as he thought) deceived us. We are satisfyed your Honour &c? will take this 
Story and everything else in its due Sense. 

The strange delays very much hindered the business and so Enhaunced un- 
accountably the Charge. It's impossible for us to give your Honour &.ca a 
Eelation of every two or three days that he has by his ill Humour and obstinacy 
flung away, when his Majesty was in the Camp and our business on the Tenters 
nothing could hinder him from his feasting and Junketting which two or three 
days Every weak were Sacrificed and once eight days together, and at that Time, 
Enoitoola Cawn ['Inayatullah Khan"! was upon the Point of being made Duan 
Colsa [dtwan-i-khalisaK]' and the Phirmaund [farman] had not received the 
Viziers Seal, Besides this the Calcutta Towns with Six other Terwanne [parwcin- 
as] were refused to be signed by the Duan Colsa [dlwan-i-khalisah] and so very 
near sacrificed, being at last done clandestinely by Attesham Cawn [I'tisam Khan] 
the Lord knows how and the money that was expended, had it been taken 
Care of before hand might hive been Saved, and they securely done with the 
rest So he deserves to pay for his Obstinacy and all that Charge must be 
placed to his Account. 

Nothing would serve for one while but that he would gett a Phirmaund 
r f arm an] for Divy [Divi] Island, Patna and Suratt house, Bengali Mint and 
Fort S* David Towns instead of the Duanny Sunnods [dhvani sanads] which 
we had obtained He never went upon any such new invention, but we presently 
suspected he had some other design than the publick good. We consented so 
far to it that in case it might not be prejudicial! to the main Affair otherwise 
not we esteeming it a Thing noways feasible. This matter was carried on some 
time and we heard no more of it till about two Months after when he was hot 
after it again even to the neglect of our great Affairs So he was forbid to pursue 
it any farther. He promised to obey ; about twenty days af cerwards he seemed 
ready to burst with the news, saying he had got a Grant for the Phirmaund 
[ farman]' We were very well pleased with the Thoughts of his having Qrco 

243 PATNA, OCTOBEB, 1717. 

in his Life done good by breaking of orders, but alass when we Came to examine 
into it nothing but Flash. 

After this he Could not be contented but he must have 25 Villages more 
which were the 4000 rs. [PJ we left out and to make it the more easily granted 
he would get them in the Honourable Bobert Hedges Phirmaund [far man'] 
notwithstanding we told him to desist, for since there was no hopes of Obtaining 
them it was only exposeing us. However he still privately pursued it till 
he was baffled and if ever he does procure the grant it Cannot be otherways than 

Every thing being finished we had pannick Fears concerning the Originall 
Phirmauuds [farmans] and Sunnods [sanads~]. He never directly denied the deliv- 
ery of them but by his put offs from today and tomorrow, still keeping Something 
undone under pretence of delivering the whole together made us suspect he had 
some ill design that way and there was no method to hinder them from Coming 
into his hands. We used a great many arts to get them from him. It pleased 
God that wc had no Necessity to use rougher means for he delivered them all 
with this Insolent Saying If he had a mind to plague the Company there were 
means enough and they could never esoape his Hands. That more had been 
obtained for their Service than his Contract obliged, so he would have a 
Proportionable Beward or Else he might be troublesome to them. 

In his last Demand for money Your Honour &c» will see he Charges for 
Black Cases 2400 [rupees] besides Arrack and his Wine. The Black Cases ho 
brought up frcm Calcutta and Cost there about 500 rupees, We questioned 
his Intention from the first of being very unreasonable in any thing the Company 
might be obliged to buy of him so was always upon our Guard to hinder him 
and for all the many Pretences he made that nothing Else would go down with 
the Mutsuddys [mutasaddti] we Knew it was only a trick to get them off, so 
by no moans we would not Consent to it, but told him the Company would never 
pay him at so Extravagant a rate and advised him to dispose of them among his 
Bretheren where he pretended he could have 40 rupees per Case. Except what 
he drank he disposed of none for at least 15 months when [all] at once we heard 
they began to fly about to every one that wanted liquor and then required of 
us to pay for them at his own Bate. 

Coming upon the Business of our dispatch from his Majesty, our Intentions 
being to proceed with the utmost Expedition whether we received those accus- 
tomary Favours or no and his being quite different was the reason we employed 
him a6 little as possible in that Affair, So ho had only the Phirmaund [fannan] for 
the Honourable Bobert Hedges Esqr to get ready, which your Honour &c? will find 
by our Former Letters was so long delayed that he had an Intention either we 
Bhould Stay for it or Else leave it behind, when we found an Evasion for that by 
getting an Order for The Goorzeburdar [jurilardar] to receive it and when he had 
it in his possession, Seerhaud [Sarhad] would have fain brought him to his Lure 
by fair promises, but we had prepared the Goorzeburdar [gurtbardar'] who knew 
ium very well that he did not betray his Trust but brought the Phirmaund 
\farm9n\ to us being very well aeeurd of a good reward for this Service. In 

PATNA TO RIbpOrI, OCTOBER, 1717. 243 

the Phirniaund [farmSn] Seerhaud [Sarhad] took Care to have his name very 
particularly mentioned, as if all the Business had been done by his Management 
alone. 'Tig very likely had we went about it, it might hare been hindered at 
the Expence of some time and money, besides exposing the Nakedness of our 
Family which we always endeavoured to hide from the World, We wav'd the 
Prosecution leaving all to the Judgment of your Honour &c? 

In a Private Consultation of the 13^ April the Story of gaining 60,000 rupees 
to be divided among us is related at large, it wants no farther addition then that 
it came to nothing, as have a great many of his other Projects, wherefore it only 
serves in this Place as a Memorandum and to fill up tbe.number of his misde* 

In these our two Letters we have Endeavoured to point out this unacoountable 
Man's Aotions. As we have not added any thing of ourselves we hope we have not 
omitted any thing of Consequence. We heartily Recommend the Examination of it 
to Your Honour <&c a not doubting but every one will receive bis reward 
actordiDg as he has merited. All our Ambition is to beJAcoounted 

Your Honours &C 18 
Faithfull and obedient humble Servants 
John Scbman 
Edwabd Stephenson." 
October 20^ 

1717. ^ 

238. Diary 

"Left the City off Patna, and Arrived at 

October 21" Ray-poora [Kaepura] » 

The Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr') Elephant and Horses made the 

game Journey by Land ; and will Continue to keep paoe with us till 

our Approach near Rauge-Mahall [Rajmahal]." 

239. Consultation 
ootober 22»d « r^^ Q Letter mentioned the 10 th Inst, being 

tRKptojJ wrote and approved, with the Following Ad- 

ditionall heads, Agreed that itt be dispatched— Viz. - 

1 st His requiring the Company to pay his Vakile [vakil], 

2 nd Boguechund [Bhogohand] and the notes for 18,000 rs. 

3 rd His untimely ffeasting in the City. 

4th His project to putt Divy [DlvlJ &0 in the phirmaund 

[fartn&n ]. 
5 th To gett 4000 rupees towns for the Honourable President. 
6*h His preposterous Account and refusing to take what allowed 

I RWpura is in the FatubS tMna of the Barb subdivision, 9 miles from Patna. 

- Q 2 

241 RIepOrX, OCTOBER, 1717. 

7 th The Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr'] getting the phirniaund 

[farm&n] and Seerhauds [Sarhad's] disappointment. 
8 th The project for 50,000 rupees from the King." 

240. Letter XLLX 1 

" To the HoNOTTfiABLB Kobebt Hedges Esqr Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants of 
England Trading to the East Indies &o> Councill In Bengali. 


Our last was October the 7 th after which dispatch came to hand your Honour 
&c? 3 dated September the 19 th by this we observe your orders to wait in Patnafor 
the Arrivall of the Soldiers design'd hither for our Convoy. We find our Letters 
dispatch'd in the way were very long in their passage : so that the boats will not 
arrive so soon as wieh'd for. After waiting some time we Surmiz'd your Honour 
&c* might think the Sending boats and Soldiers unnecessary, the accustom'd 
troubles of the way from hence to Eajamall [Rajmahal], being much clear'd by 
the present Subah [subahddr], and finding we were able to doe nothing for the 
Service of Our Honourable Masters in Patna for reasons mention'd in our former 
Letter, we took a resolution to leave the place as the only way to save Expences, 
and accordingly had advanc'd money both for boats and men before your Honour 
&c a . s Letter arriv'd when it was too late to recede. 

Since our Factory has been withdrawn the Merchandize of Salt petre has laid 
Chiefly in the hands of the Dutch ; So most of our Undertakers are immediately 
Employ'd by them. The Common prize of Petre the last Year has been from lr. 12a. 
to 2r. 8a. nay 12a. and (as we are inform'd) They have been able to buy none 
without Dadney [dadni] The very Top of their Undertakers having left Consid- 
erable Debts behind them. It is the Custom of these Sort of Merchants seldom 
to Clear such Debts but run on sometimes more sometimes less seeing the Buyer 
is not able to be without them, and if the business happens to be stopt or the 
Factory withdrawn or the Kings Death, they generally all sink very little being 
to be recovered afterwards. 

The Kings Phirmaund [farman'] and the most Severe orders are little 
minded by Seerbulund Cawn [Sarbulaad Khan] as we have Fxperienc'd, we left 
no way unattempted to give him notice on what Grounds the Honourable Com- 
pany would resettle a Factory. We do beleive he has heard of it, But we could 
never get any Assurances of having itt Effected, seeing all to whom we made 
Application absolutely denyed to move therein, repressnting it as an Affair im- 
practicable. As for the House the Bootade [buyutat] gave us an answer: That 
the Subah [subahdar] order'd the House should be given us in Case we resettled 
a Factory, but that the King did not give it us to be let to hire. 

We wore told by everyone the Nabob Expected we would make him a Visit 
and withall a present. But we having no orders, and beleiving it only money 
flung away we ended one and Sav'd the other, which has not a little nettled him. 

This l6tt«r ia to bo found in the 'Copy Book of Letters received from M r , ourmac &c » as 

RIePURA. OCTOBER, 1717. 245 

We had very strick orders on him Contain'd in the Goorzeburdars [gurzbardar'a] 
and Chilahs dusticks [ehelah's dastaks] to Conduct us with a good Force thro' his 
Jurisdiction. But these met with the same reception as the rest, he absolutely 
denying to give either guard or dustick [dastak], But saying as we were on our 
way we might Securely goe about our Business without any molestation Notwith- 
standing all the noise our Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar] Could make he could 
not gett admittance to his Presence, but received the above answer from without, 
by all this your Honour &c* will judge w) ether it is feasible to settle a Factory 
during his residence. We are ordering the Vackile [vakil] to make a heavy 
Complaint att Court, and have likewise order'd the Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar] 
to write to his Droga [darogkah] who will immediately petition his Majesty, 
most orders that Came from Court are as little regarded, so that there are vast 
Numbers of Complaints against him daily, And as he does not take Care to cblige 
any one Officer at Court, It is next to impossible he Should remain long here. 

We are moving down and intend to make our Stage to day at Bar [Barh] 
and that the Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar] with the Elephant and Horses make 
the like stages with us till our Approach near JRajamoll [Bajmahal] when we 
shall Concert measures that his and our Arrivall may be about the 
Same time at Hughly by p[roper], Advices given [P giving] your Honour &c?- 
time[ly] notice to add what fuller Orders you may Judge Convenient. 

Inclos'd comes Accounts Cash Warehouse and Charges Generall with Copys 
of our Consultations for the months July and August. We should have added 
September but the Sickness that attended us as well as our Servants on coming 
off our Journey must plead cur Excuse and referr us to the next conveyance. 

In our last Letter from Mittersein [Mitr Sen], he acknowledges the Beceipt 
of ours wherein we Complain'd that Jaffor Cawn [Ja'far Khan] had not allowed 
the Mint nor the Calcutta Towns, of all which he gave a particular Account to 
our Friend Sallabut Cawn [Salabat Khan] who had given him his word to 
acquaint Cawndora [Khan Dauran] of the matter prosecuting it to the utmost. 
To this Intention he had received the Petition the Vackeel [vakil] had drawn up. 
What may be the Consequence he has not yet advis'd. He farther writes that 
about this Time Cawndora's Vackeel [Khan Dauran's vakil] had been very inqui- 
sitive after the Copy of our Phirmaund [farman] to which Mittersein [Mitr Sen] 
replyed he had it not, but for any particulars he might have them in his own 
Books. This made the other Suspect something that ought not to be was upon 
the anvill Upon enquiry into the Duanny Ketcherry | diwani kachahri] he 
could meet with nothing, But from Cawndora's ["Khan Dauran's] moonchy 
[rnutishi] he had an item That Jaffor Cawn [Ja'far Khan] had complain'd 
against Severall of our grants however that no orders were yet given to 
our prejudice, wherefore Mittersein [Mitr Sen] being now forewarn'd he would 
take the necessary Precautions. In return to this by the Shroffs [sarrafs] 
Conveyance we have given bim what advice wo are able. 

The Dutch tell us they have late Letters of about 21 days from their Vackeel 
[takil] in Dilly advising the King had received a Letter from the Grand Segnior 
complaining that he assisted the European, by letting them have the Merchan. 
dize of Salt Fetre and that he hoped he would prohibit them that Commodity upon 

246 EIepDkI to JahIngIra, October and November, 1717. 

this the King had given orders to prohibett it which may be expected here in gome 
days. We do not assert the truth of this Story, Our own Vackeel [vakil] not 
writing about it, but as theirs are the latest advices it may be so. To make it seem 
the more probable, there is an Envoy from the Zeriff [sharif] of Mecha [Mecca] 
(called Hadgee Saula) [Haji Salar] at Court who brought 75 fine Horses and who 
is very great with Enoitoola Cawn ['Inayatullah Khan] lately arriv'd from Mecca. 
This last being a great Stickler for their Superstition may possibly have obtained 
this order from the King. The Dutch likewise Show'd us another Paper being a 
sort of Address from the Phowsdar [faujdar] of Metchlipatam [Masulipatain] to 
his Majesty that they had notice the King intended to grant us the renting the pro- 
vince off Divy [Dm] that in former times all Europeans had endeavour'd to gett 
the place offering vast Summs of money for it and that in Case we had it granted us 
it would ruin the Port of Metchlipatam [Masulipatam]. Upon the phirmaund 
[farman] His Majesty sign'd, That. the Yizier petition about itt We have no farther 
design in advisiug of this than of a Story we have heard, and which we either 
Expect to have asserted or denyed by the first Advices from our Vackeel [vakil]. 
We have now drawn a Bill of Exchange for 2000 Siccas Received and payable 
to Growaldass Chevuldass which we desire may be duely Honour'd, 

and are 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 
Ray-pora [Riepura] Tour most Obedient humble Servants 

October the 23r d JoHN StTBMAN 

Edwabd Stephenson." 


241. Diary 

October 2?rd " Arrived att No adda [Nauwada] 1 " 

October 24th "Demurrage. Gentue-Holydays. The Mut- 

and 25th suddjB and Yakiles arrived from the City in the 


October 26th " Arrived att Diriapoor [Darlyapur]. 2 " 

October 27th "Arrived att Soosgurrah [Surajgarha]. 3 " 

October 28th "Arrived att MuDgeer [Munger]. Eeceived 

news that Furruckseex [Farrukhsiyar] had a Son Born 4 ." 

October 29th " Arrived att Jehaungeera [Jahanglra] 5 ." 

1 Nauwada is also in the Fatuha, thana of the Barh subdivision, 4 miles from Raepura, 

» DariyapQr is in the Barh tkina and subdivision, 23 miles from Nauwada. 

9 Surajgarha is the head-quarters of th 9 thtiJia. in the sadar subdivision of the Munger 

d'strict 21 miles sonth-west of Munger. The temple of Gaurishankar here has been almost all 

washed away by the river. A bathing festival and fair are still held. 

* This child was born on the 16th Zu-1-qadah, 1129 H. or the 11th October, 1717 N. S. 
The mother was the daughter of Sadat Khau Mazandaranl. The name given to the boy was 
Murad Shah. He died on the 11th May, 171S. N. S. 

* Sultanganj Jahanglra is in the Sultanganj thana in the sadar subdivision of the Munger 
district, 28 miles south-east of Munger. Two great rocks here jut out by the river bank, one 
U crowned by a Mcsulman mosq ae, the other by a temple of the Gaibuath S'iva. 

JahInqIra to RIjmahal, November, 1717. 24j 

October 30th " Arrived att Boglepore [Bhagalpur]." 

Ootob6r3ist "Arrived att Colgong [Kahlgaon] 1 ." 

"Arrived att Gungapursaud [Gangaprasad] 2 . No Body from Gunna 

WoTomber 1st offered to molest us, butt were rather ready to 

run from their houses. M 1 '. Gammon and his 

party arrived in the Afternoon. The Dutch Boates Att Sicry- Gully 

[Sakrlgali]. 2 " 

November 2nd "Demurrage. The Goorzeburdar [gurzbarddr], 

Elephant and Horses sent before." 

November 3rd . " Arrived over against Rauge-mahall rRaima- 


November 4th " Demurrage. The Goorzeburdar \_gurzbar dar~\ 

&o a . gone forward." 

November 5th " Demurrage. Wrote to the Honourable Pre- 

sident &c. in Bengali." 

242. Letter L. 3 

" To the Honourable Robeet Hedges Esq. Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merohants in England 
trading to the East Indies &c? Councill In Bengali. 


We gave your Honour &o? notice of our departure from Patna the 23rd 
Ultimo, Seerbolund Cawn [Sarbuland Khan] refusing to give us either Convoy 
or Dustick [dastak], it was the Generall Rumour he would send somo People 
to search our boats after goods that we might have laden'd thereon. But we 
heard afterwards that on due Consideration he orderd no body to molest us 
saying he would take his Satisfaction from the Merchants who had dealt with 
us, we Came down in very good order, neither Raja Tabossein nor other 
Phowsdars [faujdars] in the way daring disturb us. The Goorzeburdar 
[gurzbardar] and our peoplo by land were of very good Service by their apper- 
ance causing the Kings Order to be Complyed with in procuring a guard each 
night for our Security. Cunna was the only place expected would be disobedient, 
haxing stopd the Dutch boars for 9 Days and demanding a great sum of money, 
however this was like the rest, nobody appearing to impede our passage. Tho 
Surprize was on their Side (as we were afterwards advised) the Inhabitants 
leaving the place with the Apprehension of their former Usage. At onr Arrival! 

i Kahlgaon in the pargana and thana of the same name is ihe second largest town in the 
Bhagalpur district, Mabmud Shah, the last independent Kiap of Bengal, died here in A. D- 

a' Ganga-prasud, a town in tho Purniah district, 43m. S. of Purniah, Lat. 25" 10' long. 87°j38'. 

3 Sakrlgali, the narrow pass. 

t This letter is to be found in the ' Cop » ook of Letters received from Mr, Surman &ca, 

as before. 


at Gungapursaud [Gangaprasad] the 1st, we met with Mr Gammon, the party of 
Budgerows and Soldiers which your Honour &c? had sent us, and the 3rd in the 
.Afternoon arrivd before this Place. The 4th the Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar] 
Klflphant and horses left itt, they hare orders to make the best of their way 
towards Hughly, 10 days being Calculated for their Journey, So we all hope to 
be there the 13th Instant. We are in Expectation what Orders Your Honour &c% 
may please to give Concerning our farther proceedure, or how the Kings favours 
are to be received by the Honourable President. 

This Letter goes to night in a Boat as far as Convenient, we intend to 
reiterate it by a boat on our Arrirall at Ruechy or Nuddea [Nadiya]. 

Enclosed Comes Accounts Cash Warehouse and Charges Generall for|September 

which is the last heavy Account we shall send your Honour &c?, there are 

likewise the Copys of Consultations. 

We are 

Ra-jamoll [Rajmahal] . Honoubable Sib and Sibs 

.Nov. 6th Your most obedient humble Servants 

At Night. John Subman 

1717. Edwabd Stephenson.'' 

243. Diary. 

Member 6th " Arrived over Against Aurungabad [Auranga- 

bad] 1 ." 
November 7th " Arrived att Murcha 2 ." 

"Arrived att Jeiungy [Jalangl] 3 . Some Merchants Boates with the 
m ber8th Honourable Presidents Dustick [dastak], came 

into Our Company." 
November 9th "Arrived att Murgamorra [Mirgi] 4 ." 

" Arrived at Kissengunge [Kishtnagar] 5 . Wrote to the Honourable 
November loth President and Councill in Bengali." 

244. Letter LI. 6 


The Foregoing is Copy of what we wrote your Honour &c? the 6 th Instant 
The Lowness of the Waters has made the Turns of the Biver so great as very 
much to delay our Passage so that its very likely the Goorzeburdar [gurzbardar} 
may make more Speed by Land than we Can by water. We appointed him to 
meet us at Amboa where we intend to waite your Honour &c?s Orders, we 

l This place was nearly three miles W. of Suti in the MurshidSbad district. See Rennell's 
Bengal Atlas, Map No. 15. 

1 This place was nearly nine mile* S. E. of BagwangolS in the Murshidabad district. 
See Rennell's Bengal Atlat, Map No. 15. 

s Jalangi in a thdna of the same name in the MurshidSbad district lies on the Jalangi or 
KhariS river, 24" 8' 10" lat. north and 88° 44' 35" long. east. 

* Mirgi, in thuna TohSta in the MihrpuV subdivision, is nearly 20 miles S. W. of Jalangi. 

* Kishtnagar, also in thana Tehata, sometimes called Kisnganj, is 4^ miiea S. VV. of 

6 This letter is to be found in the ' Copy Book of Letters received from Mr Surman &ca. ' 
88 before. 


hope to arrive the 12 th at Night or 13 th in the Morning if the weather favours 
us. We dispatch this by a nimble Boat on purpose to give your Honour &c? 
timely advice, 

And are 

Honourable Sib and Sibs 

Your most Obedient Humble Servants 


a days Journey Edwabd Stephenson." 

above Ruehy [Beui] 1 
November the 10th 1717. 

245. Diary. 

November llth " Arrived at Ruehy [Reui]." 

November 12th " Arrived at Ambowa [Ambika] 2 " 

"The Goorzeburdar, [gurzbarddr] Elephant, 
Horses, &c? Joined us. Demurrage." 
November 14th M Nothing remarkable — Demurrage." 

u Early this morning arrived a Generall Letter from Fort William. 
Arrived att Trivenny [Trivenil. Another 

November 15th. ••» ' T -i 

General! Letter arrived from Fort "William. 
Wrote to Fort William, and dispatched Ensign Gammon with his 
party off Soldiers and Budgerows. The second and ffourth in the 
Dutch Councill Came, in the Director off Huglys name, to Welcome 
M r Surman on his arrival." 

1 Reui is the old name for Krishnagara, the city on the Jalangi, enst of Nadlya. The place 
is mentioned more than once in the Kshitis avams' dvalichartiam, or Chronicle of the family 
of Raja Krishnachandra of Navadvipa. According to this chronicle the change of name was 
made by an ancestor of Krishnachandra, Raja Rudraiaya, who ruled from 1683 to 1694. 'Reui 
iti prasiddhagrame gogopanarh babunamSdhishthanamatah prasangatih krishnauama- 
srnaranSdyartharh cha tadgramasya krishnanagareti samfigSrh chakS-a.' ' The place Reui ho 
called Krishnanagara in honour of Krishna and because many herdsmen lived there.' See 
Kshitis' avams'dvalicharitam, edited and translated by \V. Pertsch, Berlin, 1862, p. 26,11. 20, 
21, in the original, and p. 21 of the translation. 

According to the same authority Raja Kffghava, the father of Rudraraya, ' erected in the 
village called Reui a beautiful residence, and built to the east and to the west of it two palaces 
like mountains, and in the south a seraglio with a multitude of magnificent palaces.' Rudra- 
rSya, having changed the name, had erected there by a Mohammedan architect a palace, and 
built a causeway from there to S'Sntipura. From this time it seems to have been the residence 
of ths kings of Nadiya. 

The English were on good terms with the Nadiya rdjas. In particular the Chronicle states 
that Ramakrishna, the son of RudrarSya, lived in friendship with Vada SSheb, ' who at that 
time was governor of the southern foreigners in Calcutta. The latter, therefore, showed 
likewise continual friendship towards him, asd placed a garrison of 2,500 so-called "soldiers," 
who were skilled in the use ot all kinds of weapons and missiles, in Krishnanagara to execute 
the plans of Ramakrishna'. 

In March 1710 the Council went to Reui for a few days to take the air. See Vol. 1, p. 329, 
§ 372. Perhaps they were present at the festivities in honour of the birth of Krishnachandra 
in 1710. 

' Ambika ie a part of lv.tlua in the Burdwan district. It is 12 miles south of Nadiya, 

260 TRIVENf, NOVEMBER, 1717. 

246. Letter LII 1 

"To the Honoubable Kobeet Hedges Esqk Governour of Fort William and 
President for Affairs of the Honourable Company of Merchants trading 
to the East Indies &c? Councill In Bengali. 
Honoubable Sib and Sies, 

Your Honours &c* of the 12 Inst came to hand this morning early, upon 
which we immediately put our Selves in order of Eemovall and the Goorzeburdar 
\jjurzbar<Lar~\ goes to Hughly today but it being the Same person that brought the 
Governour his Seerpaw [sar-o-pa] he makes a little Hesitation, whether or no its 
proper to be given so near Calcutta, So much Ceremony being given for one 
Seerpaw [sar-o-pa~] as Coming up to Hughly &c* and there receiving it in the 
Eye of the World this may appear a slight to such Yast Favours. He says he 
shall go to the Government of Hughly and see whether any of them will attend 
him down to Calcutta to be present as is Customary at the receivall. We beleive 
we shall not find him very obstinate, and that they can have no other Keason to 
deny it but the Single Precedent of the Former Seerpaw \_sar-o-pa] y should there be 
any farther Hesitation, we shall stay a day at Hughly and wait your Honours &c* 
Orders, if not we shall Come down to the place your Honour &c? have appointed, 
we Suppose Your Honour &CJ have pitcht a Tent or Canopy with Cunnaut 
[kanatsY round it 2 or 3C0 Yds. before their other Tents to receive the Favours 
in. As for any other Ceremonies there are none only Tusleeming 3 for Each 
particular thing as often as is Customary, which as we shall have the Honour 
of being present we shall duely inform. 

Pursuant to your Honour &c Orders M Gammon with the party of men he 
brought up is on his way to your Honour <Sc 

Amboa We Are 

the 15t h Honoubable Sie and Sies 

November Your Most obedient Humble Servants 

7 in the John Subman 

morning. Edwaed Stephenson." 

247. Letter LIU 4 

"To the Honoubable Eobebt Hedges Esqr Governour 
of Fort William and President for Affairs of the 
Honourable English East India Company &c?> 
Councill in Bengali. 
Honoubable Sib and Sibs 9 
We wrote your Honour this morning in answer to a Letter dated the 12 th 
instant which we hope is arrived ere this Can reach your hands, the Occasion 
of repeating it bo soon is the receipt of your Honour &c of the 14^, in the 
former Letter we advis'd what the Goorzeburdar \gurzbardar] said when 

1 This letter is to he found in the ' Copy Book of Letters received from Mr Surman &ca ' 
as hef ore. 

» The canvas screens which form tho walls of a tent are called kanstt. Upon the receipt of an 
imperial farmdn it was usual to put up a guldl bar or red enclosure. The ceremony of receiving the 
farmin, placing it on the head and eyes, and bowing with the face towards Delhi was performed 
within this enclosure. 

That is performing the taslim or salutation, 

* This letter is to be found in the * Copy Book of Letters received from Mr. Surman &cft' f and ig 
the lMt In the vol, n point of date* 


we told him the orders you had given of having the Phirmaund [farm&n] &c? re« 
ceiyed so near Calcutta, wo durst not at that Time be so free of our Opinion 
least it might hare [been] taken as a piece of Presumption but since your Honour 
&c* have been pleas'd to give us Liberty it is now our duty. Had not the Honour- 
able G-overnour come above Hughly to receive the Seerpaw [sar-o-p5] sent by 
the King before, we don't know any Custom that obliges him to Come so farr 
it being usuall only to Send Tents out 2 or 3 Coarse [hos] from the Place of 
Residence to receive such favours as Rajahs and the Nobility of that Kingdom 
are wont to doe, we have heard G-overnour Pit[t] received a Vest from Behauder 
Shaw [Bahadur Shah] as likewise a Generall of Suratt, but never heard that Thoy 
made a Journey of 12 Coarse [kos], yet for all that as your Honour Sec 1 } have made 
a late preceedent in this Part of India upon so small an Occasion as receiving a 
Vest alone ; should not the same Respect be Shown upon this Account it might 
be taken by the Government of this Country as a Slight of the Kings Favours, 
and if ill represented to hia Majesty be of bad Consequence which Consideration 
we humbly Conceive may Countervail the loss of the Time and Charge that it 
may take to come so farr, We hope Ensign G-ammon will be with you some tim e 
to morrow, The Budgerows we shall empty and send away immediately waiting 
your farther orders at this place. 

We are 
Trivene Honourable Sib and Sies 

[Triveni] Your most Obedient Humble Servants 

Nov. the 15 John Subman 

1717. Edwabd Stephenson.'' 

248. Diary. 

November 16th "Demurrage." 

November I7ih "Demurrage. Arrived a Generall Letter from 

Fort William." 
November 18th "Demurrage." 

"Hugh Barker sent from Mr. Surman &c* to waite upon the 
November 19th Honourable Robert Hedges Esq 1 ; at Hugly." 

" The Honourable Eobert Hedges Esq r . attended by some Gentle- 
men off the Coancill, The Inhabitants off note in 
Calcutta, and Soldiers off Fort William came above 
Hugly ; where the Honourable President received The ffollowing 
things from His Imperiall Majesty Furruckseer [Farrukhslyar] by the 
Hands off a Goorzeburdar [gurzbardarl, and in the presence off the 
Wackanagar [icaqia'h&nig&r] &c* and proper Officers. 
1 Phirmaund [farmdn] 
1 Vest 
1 Cunger [khanjar] 

1 Pudduck* < Jewells * 

1 Elephant 

Otter [etc.] off Roses 50 Tola 

Shauls and Suratt Atlas [atlas, i. e. satin] 82 pieces. ' 

i Padah, an ornament for the neck, a badge, a flat plate of gold or other mot&l — So* Platts* 
Dictionary, 232, and Herklots' QciMon-e-itlam (Reprint), app..p, xxiii. 



249. Consultation. 

"Att the oommen cement off this negotiation, The Honourable 
President and Council! off Bengali gave us a 

D Fort m wiiiiam. ' Supply off Clothes and necessarys, together with 

the Gentlemen that accompany'd us ; not beleiv- 
ing this Affair would be protracted to so great a length, or that the 
Court off Indostan would become so Expensive in Outward Appearance. 
Wherefore being our Selves obliged to make up this deficiency, have 
brought nothing to Account butt the produce off the Honourable 
Companys "Warehouse. Every thing being now so happyly concluded 
and our Commission att an End, we beleive this a proper time to bring 
in an account off Extraordinary and unavoidable Expenoes, during the 

M r Jn° Surmans Acco* 
M r E : Stephensons D° 
H : Barker D° 

M r Thos. Philips D° 

5708 „ 1 „ 

811 „ 12 „ 3 

614 „ - „ - 

321 „ 13 „ — 


All which being duely Examin'd, and ffinding nothing butt what 
was really necessary on this occasion, Agreed they be paid Accord- 

Agreed That Account Current Calcutta be debted for the ffoot and 
Ballance off the flollowing Accounts As per particulars to be Entered in 

Es. A. P. 



the Honbh Presid* 
Robert Hedges Esq. 

2635 — 6 

Pallankeens — 5 ... 


the Buxy \bakhshi] 
M 1 '. Dean 

2130 — 9 

House Furniture ... 


d- d°- 

1209 6 — 


18 Horses ... ... ] 

6 Camells ... ... \ 


d • d ■>• 


2 Oxen ... ... \ 

Carpetts and Nummauts 1 ... 


d^- d 3 ' 

925 — — 



d°- d - 


Escru tores and Trunks 


The Honbl e Presid' 


1 Namad (Persian) or namdd (Urdu), a coarse woollen cloth, a felt rug. It is also applied to 
the felt cloth placed under a saddle, introduced at the time of the Crimean War. 



Es. A. p. 

Warehouse Necessarys — 

1 Large Heam ... ") 

1 Small d u - with Cop- > 

per Scales. ) 


Tho Warehouse Keep- 
er, M 1 . Brown. 

48 4 — 



d°- d ' 

261 12 — 



TheBuxy [bakhshi], 
M 1 '. Dean. 

J06 4 — 

Household Necessarys 


d rt * d • 

447 3 — 

Elephant Furniture 


d°« d * 

83 9 9 

Seerhauds Durbar [Sarhad's 

11264 2 — 

darbar~\ Boyall. 

C. Seerhaud[Sarhad]— the Ball. 


3435 9 6 

of his Acc f . 

Mr Jn? Surmans Ace*. Appa- 

399 4 — 


Mr E. Stephensons do- 

342 5 6 

Mr Wm Hamiltons d°- 

265 6 — 

H Barkers d D# 

233 7 — 

Mr Tho? Philips, d»- 

87 14 — 

Euggoe-ponditts [Raghu 


653 2 — 


Gololchund [Gulalchand] ... 


King Furruckseers [Far- "} 

rukhsiyar's] > 


599305 2 1 

Eoyall PhirmauDd [farman] j 

Agreed that all presents and Expences In Generall be creditted by 
the Eoyal Phirmaunds \_f'arm&n&] off His Irnperiall Majesty Furruckseer 
[Farrukhslyar] King off Indostan. 

To be Entered in Journall 


God be praised We have now perfectly ffinished this Grand Affair; 
and after many uneasy thoughts from all sides, have answered 
the Wishes of Every one, viz* in the delivery off the eubstantiall 
phirmaunds \_farman*') &e* Grants with their Attested Copys, to the 
Honourable Robert Hedges Esq? President and Governour off Fort 
William &c* Councill In Bengali. Itt may nott be improper, In 
concluding this Book off Consultations, to write something in reference to 
what has gone before ; Butt to Summ up or Even Abbreviate the whole, 
is as impossible, as itt is distant from Our Intentions. There is no other 
way off coming to a Clear knowledge how this grand Affair has Succeed- 
ed, than hy a Serious Scrutiny and perusall off this Book from the 
Beginning to the End, ffor whioh purpose we heartyly and Humbly 
oommend itt to the Honourable President and Councill off Bengali ,- 


For Since we have acted directly under their influence, to them Alono 
must be imputed the Glory. 

Since the trade off Europeans in these parts, there have been Sundry 
Attempts off this kind ; Butt the Grants Obtained have been off very 
little value, ' tho ' att a much Superiour Expence. May those we have 
gain'd be as Lasting as they are great is Our Earnest wishes. 

Jn° Surman 
Edw? Stephenson.' 







Geneball Instbuctions fbom t» Cheif Settlements In India. 

concebning y* negotiations att the coubt off klng 


Copy off a Paragraph from the Eon lle . President and Councill In Fort 
S*. George to the Hon 11 ". President and Councill off Bengali. 

Dated tf 9* October 1711. 
What we had to desire in y e Phirmaund [farmdn] was a confirma- 
tion off all our priviledges according to Sallabad \_sdldbad] 1 and some 
flew particular matters as per inclosed Copy off a Letter wrote by 
GovT Pitt to Zeaudy Caun, [Ziyau-d-Dln Khan] to all whioh we 
should he very glad iff our title to y e Villages off Jevinapatam 
[Chennapatnam] 2 granted by Zulphacor Caun[Zu-l-fiqar Khan] could 
be confirm'd. That we may have no more off these Chargeable disputes 
with Serroopsing [Sarup Sinha] or any other Future Govern! off 
Chingee [Jinjil. We pray God to bless your Endeavours in this 
business on whioh the ffuture prosperity off our Masters affairs does 
in a great measure depend. 

Copy L° October 23 r * 1711. 

And now having answered what contained in Yours, we shall 
only add that we have in an Enclosed Letter apart given you a 
ffull account off our Ancient priviledges on this Coast, when granted 
and how confirm'd, off which we shall dispatch you Copys in a day 
or two by land, which considering The Season we may Expect will 
reach you before this. 

i Prescriptive right. The term is derived, according to Yule's Qlottary, p. 693, from the 
Persian words sal, year, and abdd, replenished, well-filled. Apparently it had the odd 
meaning, in Mabrattah and Southern Indian usage, of 'perenuinl,' 'prescriptiTe,' 

* That is, Madras. 



An Account off our ffir&t Settlement att Fort St George with Severall privi/edges 
granted us from time to tim3 att this and other places on y e Coast off 

Anno 1643 1 Agent Ive Left Armagon to Settle in this place 2 , having a Cowl 
[qaul] from Serangoe Eoyalloo [Srirahga Kayal] Jentue 3 King off this Country, 
impowering us to build a Fort and Bulworks, to import and Export Custom 
ffree, only paying half y e Town Custom to y e Duan [dlwdn] the other half to 
be reserved to y e Company. The same Cowl [qaul] grants us all y 9 Ground 
belonging to Madrass, and giyes ffull power to Execute justice upon our own 
Inhabitants and all others that dwell among us. The Govf off Pullimully 
[Pundamalli] is strictly fforbidden from meddling with any off our Inhabitants 
as are all Juncaneers 4 from stopping our Provisions. 

In case any off our Ships were wreck'd upon y e Coast, All Goods that were 
saved to be for our own Account, and the Said Eaja obliges himself to protect 
us on all occasions to the utmost off his power. 

Some years After y e Grant off the Afforesaid Cowl [qaul], Nabob Meer 
Zumbla [Mir Jumlah] having conquered the Cornata [Karnatah] Country, for 
y e Eing off Golconda [GulkhandahJ, confirmed itt word for word in Another 
Cowl [qaul] granted by himself. 

1 This is a mistake. The year should be either 1640, when Fort St. George was founded, or 
1645, when Sri Ranga II I granted the qaul. 

* This is altogether wrong. In 1639, Thomas Ivy was agent at Masulipatam. With his per- 
mission, Francis Day, who was at this time chief at Armagon, went, in July, 1639, to the Madras 
coast, having been invited to settle there by a powerful Naik Venkatappa who was the de facto 
ruler of that country, though nominally subordinate to the titular king of Vijayanagar. Day found 
that Madras would be an excellent trade centre. The Naik gave him a favorable qaul, daled 
August, 1639. Meanwhile, Ivy had been superseded at Masulipatam by Andrew Cogan. Cogan 
supported Day's views. 

On February 6, 1640, Cogan received a doubtful letter from Surat permitting a settlement at 
Madras. ' A fortnight later Cogan and Day arrived at Madraspatam in the Eagle after dismantling 
the factory at Armagon. The erection of a fort was commenced as soon as possible, and from the 
name given to it, we may infer that psrt (perhaps the inner fort) was finished by St. Gei-rge's Day 
(23rd April).' The Court of Directors called Cogan to account for his action in founding Fort St. 
George. In August, 1643, Cogan made over the charge of the settlement to Day. On August 4, 1644' 
Day was relieved by Thomas Ivy. On November 15, 1645, a qaul for Madras was granted to Agent 
Ivy by Sri Ranga III, raja of Chandragiri, and titular king of Vijayanagar. See The Founding of 
Fort St. George, Madras, by William Foster, London, Kyre and Spottiswoode, 1902, pp. 5,6,7,8, 
13, 21, 22, 24, 32, 33 and 34. 

I am afraid that I cannot agree with Mr. Foster that the English obtained any qaul from 
Venkatapati (p. 17). There is no mention anywhere of Venkatapati, and the English had nothing 
to do with hinn. The clearest statement on the point is found in the letter quoted on p. 30. 'WH 
have bin often tymes sollicited by this kinge [Sri Ranga] to give him a visitt which was never yett 
done to him or his predecessors since our first arrivall here which is now 7 yeares allmost .... 
We are . . • resolved ... to send upp Mr. Henry Greenhill with foure other English 
souldiers for his attendance for the reconfirmation of what was granted unto Mr. Cogan by the 
great Nague, under whose protection formerly wee liv'd, but now the kinge hath taken his power 
and this cuntry from him, soe his power and protection is of noe longer vallue.' The English at 
first regarded the Naik as practically king of the country, and were contented with his q«ul. or 
qauU, if they received another in 1613 when they sent the peihkhath (p. IS), which I should think 
very doubtful. ' Those Cowles of the former King and our Nagues' (p. 26) I should regard as an 
obvious exaggeration. 

* Gentile, i.e. Hindu. 

* Collectors of chanyam or Cusf omi. 


Anno 1671. Sir William Langorn Agent entered into articles with the then 
Nabob Uecknani Caun [Ikram Khan, or Neknam Khan] to pay a certain Sum off 
1200 pagodas yearly for y e Ground rent off this place and y 1 ' towns dopending. 
The Nabob att y e same time granted a Cowl [qaul] repeating and conGrming all 
y e priviledges given us by his predecessors, which Cowl [<jattl~\ is a recitall off 
that granted by y e Jentue King only somewhat more ffully Explain'd. 

Anno 1672, Moosa Caun [Musa Khan] succeeded Yecknam Caun [Ikram 
Khan] in y e Government off y e Cornatta [Karnatah] Country under y e King 
off Golconda [Gulkhandah], and confirm'd all y e fforementioned priviledges in 
a new cowl [qaul] under his hand and Seal. 

In the Same year the King off Golconda [Gulkhandah] granted a Phirmaund 
[farmdn] to Mr Mahan [Mohun] Cheif off Metchlapatara [Masulipatam] 
and to all y e rest off the English nation, allowing them to trade Custom ffree 
through out all his dominions. 

Anno 1674. The King off Golconda [Gulkhandah] granted a Generall 
Phirmaund [farmdn'] confirming all our ancient priviledges according to 
Sallabad [sdldbdd] 1 and permitting us to build Ships any where on y e Sea 
Coast; and issued out a Husbul Hoocum \ha\bu-l-huJcrn] to all his great Officer! 
through out y e Kingdom Strictly prohibitting them from Molesting us in our 
trade by Exacting Custom or Juncan money in any off y e ports or places in his 

Anno 1676. The King off Golconda [Gulkhandah] granted a phirmaund 
[farmdn~\ to Sir William Langorn confirming all our fformer priviledges in a 
very ample manner with an addition off severall new Articles as you will see 
in y e Copy sent herewith. We have likewise added y e Copys off the fforegoiDg 
Phirmaunds [farm dins] and Cowles [qauls] for your pcrusall. 

This is all we have remaining upon record, during y e reign off the King 
off Golconda [Gulkhandah], and Itt is very strange that we have a better 
Account upon our Books off what was transacted so long agoe, than off what has 
been done these later days. However we shall proceed to give you as good an 
Account as we can pick out off abundance off Books and papers which we have 
been obliged to goe through upon this occasion ; off what has been done since 
Sir William Langorns time. 

During the Government off Agent Masters and President Gifford we find 
nothing new Except y e settling off some small Factorys to the Southward As 
Conimeer [Kunimedu], Cudalore [Kudalur], and Forto Novo under the Baja off 
Chingee [Jinji], which places being withdrawn, (Except Cudalore [Kudalur] 
off which we shall speak hereafter) there will be no occasion to say any thing off 

We remain'd in peaceable possession off our priviledges till y e Mogtill Came 
into these parts, to y e Conquest off Goleunda [Gulkhandah] and Vizapore [Bijapur] 
when MV Elihu Yale and his Councill thought itt necessary to send an Armenian 

According tc prescriptive right, perennially, perpetually. 


One Coja Avakues 1 to reside in y« Mogulls Camp as their Vakeel [vakil] to 
treat for a Phirmaund [farmdn] which was in y e year 1688. 

This Vakeel [vakil] wrote word that he hadj.brought matters very near a 
conclusion, When att the same time Letters were sent from y 8 Camp That 
Generall Child att Bombay had made a peace with y e Moors, and was to have 
a Generall Phirmaund [farmdn] from y e Mogull, in which this place and Bengal 
were to be included ; which putt a ffull stop to what Gov? Yale was then 
doing ; and y e Vakeel [vakil] was ordered to distribute no more* money till 
ffurther orders. 

All that we can find off this Phirmaund [farmdn] upon our' Books'is a very 
Slight paper containing nothing materiail to y e purpose. The next steps that 
were made towards getting a Phirmaund [farmdn], were in the year 1692 by 
M' Yale when Caum Bucksh [Kaoi Bakhsh], Assid Caun [A sad Khan] and 
Zulphacor Caun [Zu-1-fiqar Khan" were att Chingee [Jinji], 2 When Mess™ 
Trenchfield and Pitt were sent ffrom this place, to waite upon them with a consider- 
able present, Upon which they obtain'd liberty ffor our Mint with a Nishaun 
[nishdn] from y* Prince, and Phirmaund [farmdn] and Dustock [dattdk] from 
Assid Caun [Asad Khan], off which we send you Copys. And you may observe 
that a Phirmaund [farmdn] is therein promised, butt has never been 
comply ed with. 

Another Essay was made in M r Higgisons time Anno 1695 to procure a Phir- 
maund [farmdn] when Zulphacor Caun [Zu-1-fiqar Khan] was with a Camp in 
these parts Employed in y e Conquest off Ellore Butt all that Mv Higgison could 
procure was Perwannas [parudnas] to confirm our privilidges according to 
Sallabad [sdldldd], and so this matter has rested ffrom that time to this, and we 
have been pretty Easy, only upon alterations off Government, The Great Men 
have been always troublesome and Exacting off money. We have now given you 
a ffull Account of all that has ever been done, for securing our privilidges in this 

Fort S* Davids and Cudalore [Kudalur] were granted us in 1688 by Kam-Bauz 
[Kama Baja] Kaja off Chingee [Jinji], and when Zulphacor Caun [Zu-1-fiqar 
KJain] conquer'd that City he was pleased to confirm y e Grant off that and y e 
depending villages. 

Vizagapatam was granted us by Kabob Seer Lascar in y e Kicg offGolcondas time 
Anno 1682 or thereabouts, which we have enjoy'd ever since, butt never without 
great troubles ffrom y e Nabobs that govern the Carlingo [Kaliriga] Country. 

To the Hon^b John Eussell Esq? President and Governour &.c a Councill 
att Fort William In Bengal. 
Hon blb Sib and Sies 

Having acquainted you with cur Circumstances we come next to offer our 

1 [The original correspondence, wheh I have had copied for another purpose, shows that 
the name of this Armenian, employed by Governor Elihv YaJe, was Aavanucs or Abniis W. I.] 

2 Kam Bakhsh was 'Alamgir's yom gest son, Asad Kb5n was his v.azir ; and Zulfiijar-Khan 
son of Asad Khan, his Mir bakhshi. Tho investment of Jinji began in 1691, and the place »-as 
taken is January, 1698, Kara Bajchsh was j laced in command on the 6th June, 1691, N. S, 


Opinion, what we think will be best to procure for ub in y e Generall Phirmaund 

Iff we should descend to insist upon many particulars, we are advised that itt 
will be a hinderance to y e Affair in Generall, and may make them demand a much 
Larger sum than itt may be you are impowered to part with. — ■ 

Wherefore wo choose rather to have itt in generall terms That is to say a 
confirmation off our Ancient privilidges Granted by j* Jentue 1 Kings off this 
Country, renew'd by y e Kings off Golconda [Gulkhandah], Since his time by 
Severall Nabobs & Lastly by Assid Caun [Asad Khan] Zulphacor Caun 
[Zii-l.fiqar Khan! and Caum Bucush [Kam Bakhsh]. 

What ffew particulars we desire were sent yon in our fformer, however we now 
send a Copy off the Same, requesting that particular care be taken to 
confirm y e Grant off Fort S* Davids and Tevinapatam 2 , So that we may 
have no more plague with Seroopsean [Sarup Sinha] Raja off Chingee [Jinji], 
who disputes onr title to y e Villages, notwithstanding y e Grant from Zulphacor 
Caun [Zu-1-fiqar Khan]. 

And iff we are so happy as to have y e Generall phirmaund {far man], Tho' 
some off the particulars in Governour Pitts Letter should be omitted we should 
tbink y e present very well bestow'd ; iff itt amounted to double y e value off 
what itt went from hence. 

The greatest danger is their deluding us according to their old Custom with. 
Vests, Horses and a peice off ffine paper, so doubtfully and intrinsically penn'd 
that itt may be off no great signification. Butt that undoubtedly will be taken 
care off by those whom you think fitt to Employ in this important affair. 

We most sincerely wish you Success in y e undertaking, and that you may 
have y e sole honour off accomplishing what so many able and Experienced 
persons Attempted In vain. 

We ought never to dispair off Succeeding when we consider y e many ffruitless 
Endeavours to unite England and Scotland in fformer reigus, and how soonattlast 
itt was brought to perfection in this reign by willing hearts and Minds. We are 

HoN Bt . B Sir and Sibs 
Your very Humble Servants 

E. Harrison 
J. Frederick 
„„*,-, H. Davenport 

FOTt v Ge tS,7,i W.Martin 

October 23rd 1711. E.Buckley 

W. Jenningf 
W. Warr 
E. Hunt 

i Gentile i.e. Hindu. 

the city of 
iy from Eixa B . 

*„ ~f Tpvanavakkam, the Tamil name for Fort St. David, par 
Tevanambattanam, the ^^JTLn oil vaji, for 120,000 d.uclrams in 1690. 
^ hv the Company from R* ia RSjan, a eon im « j ■ 


To Mb. John Sueman &c* G-entlemen Intended to Accompany the Et Honb}e 
Comp? s Present to the Mogull. 


We fformerly sent Copys off all our Grants for the Settlements under this 
Presidency, by Ship President Anno 1711 with a letter to Explain them, We 
also sent Copys off Govern'. Pitts Letters to Zeaudy Gaun [Ziyau-d-Din Khan], 
containing what we had to insist npon particularly on this Coa st for our Hon b J e 
Masters advantage. We now send Duplicates off all those papers to the 
Hon b je President and Councill to be forwarded to you, nott doubting butt 
yonr Care will be Extended to procure as much as possible for all the Settlements 
we have in y? Mogulls Dominions. 

We have been called upon to particularize y e Names off our- Villages att Fort 
S* Davids and those 6 fformerly granted us by Doud Caun [Daud Khan] 1 near 
this place and since reassumed by y e present Nabob Sadutulla Caun [Sa'dat- 
ullah Khan]. Accordingly in y? accompanying paper you will ffind them both 
in Persian and English, as near as we can bring them to their pronunciation. 

However we are nott sure iff y? naming so many towns and villages may nott 
cause a Jealousy off their being off greater value than really they are ; Wherefore 
that matter is left wholly to your discretion, Either to name them particularly or 
mention them in generall terms, 

And tho' we have taken all these pains to collect y° Copys off our Old grants 
and priviledges, we cannot be off Opinion they will be off any further use, than 
to give you a Generall Idea off our Affairs ; so as to qualify you for discoursing 
y e ministers, & answering any objections that may be started. For we are 
Credibly inform'd that a Generall Phirmaund ifarman~\ will be ye most that can 
be obtain'd and that will be comprized in very ffew words. 

Wherefore we offer our opinion that iff you could procure y? Stile off the said 
Phirmaund [farmdn~} in relation to us to run As ffollows Viz* Confkming all our 
Old grants and priviledges on y e Coast off Cormandell, as well from y e ancient 
Kings off Golconda [Gulkhandah] ; as from Caum Bucksh, Ass.d Caun, 
Zulphacor Caun, Doud Caun L Kam Bakhsh, Asad Khan, Zu-1-fiqar Khan, Daud 
Khan] and other his Majestys Nabobs and Cheif ministers itt would answer our 
Ends as well a a iff all particulars were incerted, and save you a great deal off 
time and unnecessary trouble. 

Our ancient priviledges to be ffree of all Customes, Juncans \changams] or 
Chowkeys [chauk!s\ To have ye right off all our Ships wreck'd in the dominions 
uff his majesty &c* may be mentioned for all our Settlements in generall, and 
undoubtedly cannot be too ffully and Clearly Express'd. 

1 Mr. Irvine notes, 'Daud Khgn, son of Khizr Khan, Panni Afgh_an, entered the imperial 
s#r»ioe in the 27th year of 'Alamgir, and about 1700 became tiaib subahdur o! tho KarnStik 
under Kim Bakhsb, and then under Zu-1-fiqar Khan. He was killed in a battle with Sayyad 
9u»ain «Ali Khan, BSrhah, fought near Burhanpur on the 6th Septr 1715 N. S. This family 
w *t settled at Qamarnagar Kama! n the Madras Praeidenoy. The last N«wab rebelled in 
1888, »nd the last representatrte died in If 48. 


We believe the Hon. President and Councill in Bengali will Join with us in 
opinion, That iff possible there should be a Duplicate and Triplicate off the 
Generall Phirmannd [farmaii], One off which to be lodged att Bombay, the 
other here, to be produced whenever we are molested. 

Diu [DIvi] Island near Metchlepatam [Maaulipatam] & what y e Moors 
call Divy [DIvi] Island, has been often aimed att by y e Dutch, butt they 
could never Obtain itt. We have been Courted by y e Rajahs to settle there 
butt forbore on Accountt that we thought itt might Embroil us with the Moors 
Government. Butt iff we could gett a ^rant off itt for ever from y e King ; 
paying y e yearly rent as itt stands in his Books which is 7000 pagodas, itt would 
we are well assured in very ffew years reimburse y e whole charge off your present 
Expidition. Wherefore we must particularly recommend itt to you to endeavour 
for itt, and itt will nott be amiss iff you please to acquaint the Ministers appointed 
to treat with you ; That itt is an Island off little use to them and no trade ; butt 
we can with much Charge make it commodious for shipping in a ffew years, and 
bring a considerable trade thither to y 8 enriching his Majestys dominions as 
has Already been done in Bengali, Madrass and other places. 

No Doubt butt you carry good Mapps with you off Bengali, this and the other 
Coast, to which you will have recourse as you see Occasion. We desire to hear 
from you by way of Aurungabad which C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] can easily contrive, 
and you shall be sure off having all necessary advices from us. We most heartyly 
wish you health and Success that you may have y e Creditt of procuriag consider- 
able Advantages to our Hon b J e Masters and the British nation, which will undoubt- 
edly be rewarded with distinguishing marks off their flavour. 

We are 
4 Gentlemen 

Your affect? ffnends & Humble Servants 
E. Harrison 
W. Jennings 
Port S* George B. Benyon 

Aprill 12th W. Warr 

1714 R. Horden 

J. Smart 
T. Cooke. 


To Zeaxtdt Caun [Ziyau-d-Din Khan] Lord-High-Steward of King Sha- 

Allums [Shah 'Alain's] Household 1 
By your ffaithfuil Chubdar [chobdarj Cossae, by whom your Excelleuey sent 
ye Eoyall Husbul Hoocum [hasbu-l-hukm'j and Vest <fcc» perwannas 

I Deputy Stett ard would be more correct. Mr. Irvine notes that aocording to the native 
historians he was originally diwdn of the Chlnapatam, or Madras country. After hit unoVa 
death he wa« called to Court, on the 10th July, lb'93, N. S., given the title of Khan, and 
appointed luyutut at court, and deputy of the Lhdntdmun, or Lord High Steward, 



[parwanat] I now send this humble address which doubtless you Expected 
•ooner, and had been sent but for y« two Hollowing reasons. Your Excellency 
Enjoining Secrecy I was obliged to committ the translating off them to some 
particular ffriends which took up 14 days When ffully apprized off the purport 
thereoff, I could nott butt be Burprized att your unparalel'd Expressions off 
Friendship and invaluable honours you have done us, which so confounded my 
thoughts for some days, That I almost dispair'd off being able to acknowledge 
them by my pen or otherways. Butt then considering what a Generous 
ffriend I had mett with, who had been so lavish off his flavours to one that 
had as little power as meritt to oblige you I could no longer refrain from 
blessing my Stars, who were so propitious to me as to give me the honour off your 
ffirst acquaintance, which I esteem the happy'st fate that has attended me through- 
out j e whole course off my life, which I shall for ever remember, and that 
posterity may doe. y e same, I humble request that when you come to Golconda, 
[Gulkhandah] you will honour me with sending your picture, which I will send 
to England, and have itt copyed by y e most Exquisite Limner in y 3 world, and 
order itt to be sent me hither, Besides I will erect your Effigie ffinely cutt in 
Marble with such an inscription on itt, that y e world may know the Author off 
our happiness in these parts. 

I cannot butt blush when I think off giving you ffarther trouble, which I 
cannot avoid since you are pleased to command me in a Letter apart, wherein 
you propose severall things that I think my duty to give my thoughts thereon. 
Your Excellency gives us great hopes off the Kings Phirmaund [farmdn] when 
he comes to Golconda [Gulkhandah], where God send him safe and Victorious. 

Your Excellency writes that there must be presents for all y e Princes & 
some off the Great men ; iff you mean such as are suitable to' their birth and 
quality, 'tis impossible for us to purchase them with our Company3 Estate, who 
you know are Merchants that run great risques to gett a little, & who often 
meett with loss instead off gain. So hope, as y e presents we intend j are Suitable to 
our circumstances, they will meet with a gracious acceptance from y e ^Great King 
and princes, which putts me iu mind off what we read in History That upon many 
persons making very rich presents to a King, There happened a poor man to 
come with a drop off water, which was as acceptable[as any off their- presents 
being according to his ability. 

And ffor what Your Excellency is pleased to mention concerning Islands on 
ye Coast off Peque [Pegu], Aracan, Fort off Pollicat [Palikat] &c? we cannot 
think them usefull to us : For that we desire no more Territorys in these parts than 
what are necessary to preserve our trade & Estates from suddain insults off 
flying armys Such as Morattas [Mahrattas] &c? Yett iff his Majesty would 
bestow on us ye Island off Diu "DM] near Metchelepatam [Masulipatam], itt 
may Encourage us to revive our trade in those parts, and Cultivate itt so a's to 
make itt a proper place, to preserve itt where may be also>ade a Good port for 
the Kings and allMerchant-^hips to lye out off danger in ye'time off the Monsoon 
whicn 11 rery much wanted, the™ not being one on all this Coast. Butt then you 


say what will we give for the ffirst Second and third year. Your Excellency well 
knows that along y e Sea Coast 'tis nothing butt a heap off sand, and thai y* improving 
off itt is very Chargeable, off which we have large Experience in Chinnapatam : 
ffor that for 60 years itt was a vast yearly Charge to us, and since brings in very 
little mose than what defrays itt's Expences. So rather than making ye 
Phirmaund [farm&n] Chargeable to us, We by your Excellencys assistance 
hope his Majesty will grant itt to confirm our priviledges bestowed on us by his 
Eoyall Predecessors throughout all his Dominions, with those small additions 
I made in my fformer Letters iff they can without difficulty bo obtain'd, St for what 
you say off St Thoma I understand itt is lett att this time for 6000 pagodas per 
Annum including all y e Villages belonging thereto, Att which rate we shall be 
willing to take itt for a long term off years, & for no other end butt to procure 
our Quiet, & for Trivitore [Tiruvottiyur] 1 itt is one off y e five towns that Nabob 
Doud Caun [Daud Khan] gave us his Perwanna [partvdna] for on his departure, 
& hope we shall have y e Great Caun Behauder [Khan Bahadur] 2 to confirm 
itt hearing itt is in his Jaggeer [jagir]. 

As wo desire y 8 Phirmaund [farmfin'] to be generall I must lett you know 
how matters stand with us in Bengali and Suratt. 

In Bengali we hare y e Kings Phirmaund [far man] and Princes Nishaun 
[tiisfidn] with severall Nabobs Perwannas Iparivdnas] for being Custom-free in 
y- Kingdoms of Bengali, Behar, and Orixa upon paying 3000 rupees per annum 
Att Hugly into the Kings treasury & for our Settlement att Culcutta ; where 
we desire his Majesty would be pleased to give us leave to erect a mint to 
Coin Rupees and Moors [muhrs\ with his Eoyall Stamp according to y e true matt 
and weight off those coin'd in his Royall mint off Eajamoll [Eajmahal], which 
conveniency would very much contribute to y e encrease off that trade. I must 
also acquaint you that notwithstanding ye Eoyall Grants abovemention'd, we 
have mett with there off Late years, great abuses and obstructions to our trade 
more particularly as to Our Goods that come from Patna, Dacca, Eajamoll 
[Eajmahal], Maulda, Cossimbuzar, &ca Every little Governour having erected 
all along y e rivers Chowkeys \chauk\s\ who Exort Custom & what they 
please, & will pay no reverence to y e Eoyall Authority, In so much that our 
Goods on y e boates are often coming down 6 or 8 Months, so that we Either loose 
y e Monsoon to send them on our Ships Or they are damaged & Botten before 
they arrive. 

Then att Suratt, The Merchant is unhappy that trades to that port, and 
this I write from Experience That y e usage in y° Custom-house to most mens 
persons is so barbarous, becoming slaves rather than Merchants, & no better 
as to their Goods, where by the Kings order they pay 3£ per Cent according 
to y e value off the Goods, which they Generally rate 60 per Cent or double y e 
worth in y e Bazar, and accordingly make up their Custom Account, when in 
all parts off the world where they act with honour & justice, the Customer 
that overvalues goods is obliged to take them att that rate, and in all ports 
that are enriched and fflourshing by trade, for encouragement off which they 

1 The name is said to mean the village, «r, of the sacred Ati, or iriva. 
- [The wazir Mun'im Khun, see farther on W. I.] 


always value Goo4f lu P el ' ^ cUt lc ' Ss tuan their intrinsick value, which 
eiunases ye Custonws, by encouraging Merchants to ffrequent the port Then 
besides, Their dispatches their in their Custom-house are so dilatory, That 
our Ships of ren loose their monsoon and Merchants the Sale off their Goods ; 
So hope there may be some way ffound in a Ihirmaund [fan?,dn] that these 
Greivances may be remedyd for the Fature, which will tend greatly to 
ye honour off the King & to ye Augmentation off riches in his Country. We have 
also a Settlement at Vizagapatam where we would much Encrease our trade, iff 
his Majesty would bestow on us ye blessing off his Encouragement. We have 
for many years rented there ffour towns on y« ffollowing terms :— 

Perwanda & Wooda-poonda - Es. 900 per Annum. 

Walteero [Vaitenf > _ - 600 

Maulouporam [Malkapuram] - 90 

ffor which Villages and Vizagapatam [Visakhapstnam] together we pay yearly att 
Chicacull [Shrikakulamu]- into the Kings treasury ffour thousand Eight hundred 
and Sixty two Eupees. The two ffirst Villages for which we pay 900 rupees are 
att a great distance from Vizagapatam for which reason we are willing to quitt 
them, so that deducted there wilt be rupees 3962 which we are willing to pay 
yearly, iff Ids Majesty pleases to give us a perpetuall grant thereoff ; which will 
prevent us a great deal off trouble, that we generally meett with from New 
Officers att their first coming to ye Government. Iff the Great King pleases to 
give us two or three small towns which Join to ours, we shall always be gratefull 
tor bis Boyall flavours. 

In the King off Golcundas [Gulkhandah] time for the Encouragement off our 
Trade we were Custom-frree throughout his country — 

Your Excellency is well acquainted with our paying here 1200 pagodas per 
Annum which iff his Majesty would please to fforgive in his Phirmaund [farman], 
itt would be a great encouragement to us in our buisness. and the only meritt 
we can plead for so great flavour is that we yearly import into his Majestys 
dominions a vast Amount in Treasure and carry away nothing for itt ; but y e 
produce and manufacture off his Country. 

We are very sensible that your Excellency must have been att Charges in our 
Affairs, which we are ready to pay -with all the Gratitude mankind can be capable 
off ; and wish our Ability was Equall to our Inclination to make Suitable returns 
to y p Great Zeaudy Caun [Ziyau-d-Din Khan] for his unparalel'd ffriendship 
and ffavours, which we shall always endeavour by all means to acknowledge 
' more particularly in giving frequent instances off our duty to Sha Allum [Shah 
Alam] whom God preserve and send him a long and happy reign ; and that y e 
Noble and Generous Caun Canna, Caun Behauder [Khan Khanan, Khan 
Bahadur], 3 and our invaluable ffriend Zeaudy Caun [Ziyau-d-din Khan] may be 
always bless'd with his ffavour and Enjoy health and prosperity. 

January o'/> 170S. Thomas Pitt. 

i Commonly called Waltair. 

» Commonly called Cliicacole or in the Persian histories, SikakuL The name is sa d to 
mean the chief residence. 

3 The Wazir of Bahadur Sh5h, usually kiijwn by Lis earlier title of Mun'im Khan.. 



To his Excellency Zeaudy Caun [Ziyau-d-din Khan] Lord High Steward off 
the Kings Household. 
Tis your Noble and Generous mind that has drawn this trouble off our applica- 
tion to you, and as I wrote you in my Last Letter which I deliver' d Aga 
Makeem [iqa Muqlm], I now send our Humble petition to the King, and 
address to y e Grand Vizier Copys off which I here enclose to Your Excellency, 
humbly requesting that you will ffavour us with y e management tbereoff. 

We are nott ignorant off what should accompany such petitions and Addresses* 
but the hazzards and troubles in y e way prevent us from performing that part 
att present, In which I humbly desire your Excellency's advice and direction as 
to what would be acceptable to his Majesty The Grand Vizier and Such others 
where you think itt necessary and we shall Endeavour to procure itt iff possible. 

Your Excellency will see that we desire a Phirmaund [farmdii] to confirm our 
priviledges according to Sallabad [sdldbdd'] 1 in all his dominions, Unless his Majesty 
shall out off his Royall bounty bestow some new ffavours on us. Your Excellency 
cannot butt know that Miliapore [Mayilapur] 2 is a troublesome neighbourhood to us> 
creating always disputes and Quarrells 3 little advantageous to y e King nor will itt 
Ever be more ; which could we obtain and y e Town off Trivitore[Tiruvottiyur],on 
y e other side off us, itt would make us Easy and encrease y e riches off the King's 

And Whereas the Goods we import are generally carry ed to ye Capitall Citys 
off Golconda [Gulkhandah] Vizapore [JBijapur] &c? which trade we should much 
increase, iff there was no Custom paid upon them between this place and those 
Citys, and that y e Mettas [mittds] 4 about us, which off late years have been 
encreased were lay'd aside, which only ffind Employ for some little people, who 
destroy trade by their vexation and Extortion, and in y c main very much Lessen 
the Kings revenue. 

And we humbly desire that you would gett itt inserted in a Phirmaund [farman], 
that whenever we are so unfortunate as to loose any Ship in any part off his Ma jes- 
tys dominions, That we shall have the liberty to preserve what we can off y e wreck, 
without any molestation from y e Government, which is nott only a practice through- 
out y e world, butt y e Inhabitants are Generally commanded to assist therein., Fcr 
itt is a great hardship, That After the Great risque that people have run off their 
lives, They shall nott be att liberty to save what they can off their Estates. 

We must own with great thankfulness that this Justice has been granted 
us by fformer Perwannas [pancdnas] from Caun Behauder [Khan Bahadur] 
and y e present Nabob ; butt as itt has been fformerly disputed itt may again, 
which nothing butt y e King's Gracious Grant can prevent. 

We extremely want the Kings blessing and favour to give a new life to 
our trade ; for since your Excellency went hence this place has lost near 3 Leek 
[lakhs] Pagodas by misfortunes, and most by pirates ; So that itt is become poor 

1 See note 1 on page 255. 

* C ose to St. Thome the traditional scene ol the martyrdom of St. Thomas on the 21st December 
68 A.D. ' Mvlapur still gives a title to the Roman Catholic Bishop of the dim 

* Daud Khan's doings at St. Thom6 in 1701 and 1702, and his blockade of Madras, can le read at 
large in J fa iboys Wheeler's Madras in the Olden Time (Madrai, lsei), Vol. I, pp. 368 to 406. 

* A mitt<i is a subdivision of a district, a revenue estate. 



and nothing Can contribute to ye retreiving our Losses, butt Gods blessing, The 

Kings flavour and your Excellency s continuance in assisting. 

Here are Ships that in flew days will depart for Pegu, when shall write y* Zing 

what you advised in your fformer Letter that an Ernbassadour was coming to him. 
Caun Eehauder [Khan B&hadurJ always show' d himself a ffnend to our nation, 
whose flavours we cannot butt retain with great thankfulness, so have wrote 
him a Letter which comes herewith, and a Copy off itt in your Excellencys, so 
leave itt to your pleasure whether itt shall be delivered to him. 

Iff please God we are so ffortunate as to be bless'd with y e Kings /Favour, so as to 
obtain his Koyall Phirmaund Ifarman] We humbly Entreat Your Excellency to 
appoint an able person to see itt so fully penn'd as that itt may nott Admitt off 
any dispute from y e Nabobs and Governours where y e same is to be Executed. 
Our Dependance is entirely Upon Your Excellencys ffriendship for which w<> 
shall be always full off our acknowledgements and heartyly wish Your Excellency 
and all your ffamily health and prosperity. 

Thomas Pitt. 


August 1708. 
Madras Tovns 

Egmore • 
Persiawawh * 
Tan d ore 3 

Trivitore * 
Satangadoo 5 
Catteewaka 6 
Yassalowaudoo » 
Loneumbauka ' 

f Granted by Caum 
I Bucksh[Kani Bakhsh], 

■j Assid-C a u n ' [A 8 a d 
I Khan] and Caun Be- 

'-hauder [Khan Bahadur] 


}■ Granted by Doudeaun 

I [Daud Khan] 

Fort S'. Davids Totcns. 
Cudalore 9 "1 

Carpattefarreareoopam l0 
Cuddecalcoopam " 
Trepopilore ,a 
Surcalputt ls 
Mangeecoopam u 
Bilwarrynaltaua li 
Chnnrandulnm X6 
Ganganacoopam 17 
Vitchmere 18 
Upalwaddee 19 

Granted by 
Rama Rauz 
[Rama Raja] 

These 6 Last villages have been reassumed by ye present Nabob. 

l Erambur, the seven hamlets, a well -known Residential quarter of Madras. 
* Pura6havakkam, the village of purasku trees, now commonly spelt 'Pursewalkum.' It 
lies north of Egmore. 

3 Tandalyarpettai, the township of Tandava rayan. This quarter is on the beach, abot.t 
a mile and a half north of Fort St. George. 

4 Ti n nro ttiyu r. See note on pa^-e 263 above. 

s Shattangadu, the wood of the god ShSttan, lies about 2^ miles inland and 4 miles NW. 
of Black town. 

6 KattivSkkam, the village of the dam, close to Ennore at the mouth of the Kortaliyar 
river, north of Madras. 

7 Vyasharppadivudu, the village of Vyashan, now commonly spelt * Veysarpandy', lies 
north of Perambore. 

8 Numgum bakkam, the village of Nungama, a Telegu rCayak of olden days. It is now one 
of the principal European quart ers of Madras. 

9 Kudalur, the town at the junction of the Paravananr R. and the Gudd : lam R., Cuddalore. 

10 Perhaps Karagaravittakkuppam in the third ward of the Cuddalore Municipality. 

11 Kudikkadnkuppam, the village of the forest-dwellers by the sea. Kudikkadu is 2J miles 
SSW. of Cuddalore and 1 mile W. from the sea, and is in the third ward of the municipality. 

12 Tiruppapuliyur, the holy place of the triimpet flower and the tiger, 3 miles W. of 
Cuddalore and 3 miles fro:n the sea. This is now the new town part of Cuddalore where the 
Collector's house is situated. It gives its name ta the third division comprising the fourth and 
fifth wards of the municipal'ty. 

13 Sorakalpett in the sixth ward of the municipality. 

14 Munjakkuppam, the saffron village by the sea, 3 miles N. of Cuddalore and 2 miles W. 
from the sea. It gives its name to the fifth division or seventh ward of the municipality. 

" Vilvarryanattam in the seventh or Manjaksuppam ward. 
16 Chemmandalam in the same ward. The Lutheran Church is in this quarter. 
W Ganganakkuppam is said not to be within the municipal limits. 
* 18 Perhaps Uchimedu, the high ground, 3 miles N.-W. uf Fo _ t St. David ou the other side 
of the Panar R. 

M Cpalanadi in the seventh ward of the municipality. 



His Imperiall and most Illustrious Majesty &c a . Titles is humbly 
desired to grant ye H. Company off Merchants off England these 
following Articles off privilpdges for their ffree and peaceable Settle- 
ment and trade in his Dominions under his Royall Phirmaund 
[ farm fin J. 

1. " That the English Company, Their Cheif and Councill and All 
other servants As well English as natives off this Country, that shall 
reside either att Suratt or any other place off their settlements in his 
Majesty s dominions, and all others trading under their permission to 
be ffree in Every respect to come into and Goe out off the City and 
places where they shall settle, where, when and in Such state as they 
shall think convenient without hinderance and molestation; and that 
the offioers be fforbidden to use that indecent practice off searching 
nott used among oth r nations. 

2. " That the H. Company have ffree liberty to Settle ffactorys 
Either att Suratt, Amadavad [Ahmadabad], Cambay, Broach, Brodera 
[Barodah] 1 , Agra, Synda [Sindl] 2 or any other place or port in his 
Majeetys dominions : and to have ffree liberty to trade in them, to 
import, Export, carry up or bring down the Country, buy and sell 
without hinderance or molestation. 

3. " Twas granted by his Majestys Eoyall Ancestors Sha- 
Jehaun [Shah Jahan] and Aurungzeb [Aurangzeb] off blessed 
memory to y e Hon ble Company ; That they pay no Rbodarage [rahdfiri] 
&c. a Dutys, butt only 2 per Cent Custom on the real cost and sales off 
their Goods, Merchandize and treasure, the account to be adjusted and 
paid once a year in Surratt and nott Elsewhere ; and the Goods they 
had once paid Custom for, to pay no more, & in case off any robbery 
on their Goods The GovV or Phowsdars [faujdars] in whose 
Jurisdiction ye robbery is committed be obliged to make satisfaction 
for ye Loss, which grants desire may be confirm'd. 

4. *' By a Grant from y e Emperour S ha Jehaun [Shah Jahan] off 
blessed memory to the H. Company ; they paid Rupees 2 and f and 
no more custom or duty upon, or for Each Chest or Bale off Indico 
from their purchase att Agra, or those places where itt is made to 
their Exportation ; which priviledge desire may be confirm'd. 

1 The form ' Barodra ' or ' Warodra ' is still employed : see Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol. II. 
Mr. Irvine tells, me thatit appears on the title-page of a Gujarat! book published there in 1899. 

3 A port on the Indus, near TaUha. 


5. " That his Majesty will be pleased to grant. That what Rupees 
coin'd att Bombay, being off y e same fineness and weight as those off 
Suratt may be currant in his M ajestys dominions. 

6. " When Goods landed att the Kings Custom-house, they be 
permitted as they fformerly were, and y e Dutch now are, to be immedi- 
ately carryed into y e Oompanys Warehouse, near and over against y e 
Custom House, The Keys thereoff to be kept by his Majestys 
Officers, iff they please till y e Goods are cleared, and that y e Company 
may keep their own Servants or Booges * to carry their own Goods 
from y e boates into y e said Warehouses, the same in y e Exportation 
for y* Greater Care and Security off them, and that their affairs 
have as quick a dispatch as possible on request ; and that no Goods 
or Curiositys be taken away by y e Kings officers, who have liberty 
as other Merchants to buy what they please in y e Companys Factory. 

7. " All persons who are and shall be indebted to y e Company 
or their Servants or those trading under your licence, whether for 
Goods sold, money lent, or otherwise in trade, Iff they will nott 
adjust and satisfy y 6 same amicably that The Governour shall 
immediately compell and oblige them thereto. 

8. "That the Company be att liberty to make choice off, Employ, 
and hire what Brokers or other servants natives off ye Country they 
please, they being willing to serve them, without any Molestation 
and impediment from y e Government. 

9. " Horses brought to Suratt to be ffree off the Governours mark, 
and such as the Cheif shall find fitting for his Majestys Service he 
will send up immediately to his Majesty The others to remain for y 6 
Companys use as they think fitt. 

10. " His Majestys house the Companys people now live in and 
have from their ffirst Settlement above 120 Years to this time by a 
grant from his Majestys Royall ancestors paying Rupees ffive 
hundred Twenty seven and Twenty six pice Annually which being very 
old and Decaying, insomuch that the repairs thereoff costing his 
Majesty as much sometimes more than the rent we pay. His Majesty 
is humbly petitioned to bestow the same as a gift with what belong- 
ing to itt on ye Hon ble Company that they may build a new house 
upon itt for their Cheif and Councill and others to live in Memory off 
his Majesty. 

1 Possibly intended for bqjhiytX, a porter, from l/ojh, a load. 



11. "To have liberty to build such convenient "Warehouses as 
y e Company's buisness shall require, and y e Bricklayers, Masons, 
Carpenters, Joiners & other Handy Craft men they hire or Employ be 
nott molested or taken away by any off the Officers in y e Government. 

12. " The Ground att Swally [Suwall] granted the Honbie Company 
by his Majestys Ancestors for building upon itt such necessary Con- 
veniences to keep their stores for shipping, and goods nott for sale, and 
those that have paid his Majestys Custom to be lodged there ready for 
shipping them off as has been always usuall being nearer y e road and 
their ships than Suratt is to them ; which ground being lost by y 6 Sea 
gaining upon itt His Majesty is desired to grant y e Company another 

'peice off Ground there, About 20 Vingaes [bigahs] for y e Afforesaid 
purpose and the same liberty they ff ormerly had there. 

13. " The Peice off Ground granted y e Company for a Garden, 
which being taken away for the Kings Use by the then Governour of! 
Suratt to build y e City wall upon, His Majesty is desired to grant them 
in Liew off that,, another peice off Ground down and by y 6 river side 
About 20 Vingaes [bigahs] for a Garden & Bunder [bandar] for 
laying Up Ships, Yessells & stores in y e time off Monsoon. 

14. "All provisions off Meats, Wines, Grain, Tobacco for y e use off 
the Companys Shipping & Factorys; and all sorts off necessarys off 
Apparell, wrought plate, and other things for Service & nott for sale ; to 
be free off Custom and other Dutys as have Always been Accustomary ; 
and that their boates and Vessells may goe & come from your Bunder 
[bandar] without hinderance. 

15. " Should any difference or accident happen between his Majestys 
Subjects & the English, No officers off y e City or place shall Assault 
or Affront the English ; butt the said difference or accident shall be 
examin'd and determined by y e Gov? and y e Cheif and iff the English 
be in ffault to be punished by y e Cheif, and iff his Majestys Subjects, 
by y e Governour : Butt what difference shall happen between y e 
English and their own Servants whether English or natives ; That 
the Governour shall nott iuterfer butt to be decided by y e Cheif. 

16. " Should any English desert the Companys Service whether 
from your Settlements ,or Ships ; and run up y e Country or otherways 
Upon the Cheifs application to y e Governour off the place, that they 
be delivered up. 

17. " That the Emperour command all his Governours and Minis- 
ters whatever, inviolably to keep, and perform y e ffull purport off the 
Phirmaund [formdn] granted by his Illustrious Majesty. 



Instructions For M r . Jn°. Surman Cheif §c a Qonncill In y e Negotiation 
att the Lnperiall Court off King Furruckseer [Farrukh$it/ar~\. 

Fort William 

May 13 th . 17 U. 


We have dispatched hence under Convoy off 300 Soldiers 
commanded by Captain Henry Dallibar and the Officers under 
him, who are Ensign George Borlace, Ensign John Brown, 
Sarjeant Peter Dent, Sarjeant Nicholas Row, and Sarjeant Theophilus 
Gammon, Sundry boates for Patna, laden with Goods and 
raritys appropriated for presents ; Also goods proper for sale &<# 
consigned to you for account and risque off the Hon bl ? united 
company off Merchants off England trading to the East Indies ; 
upon y e arrivall whereof att Patna you are to consider well when and 
what way you may proceed with most safety, and when you Judge you 
may with safety, proceed without delay, taking all those Goods with 
you to y e Mogulls Court, and loosing as little time as conveniently 
possible in your way. 

We have appointed M r . William Hamilton an Able Surgeon to 
attend and take care off you in case off sickness or any unsuspected 
accident. We have also appointed a Trumpeter and Six Soldiers 
in decent habits to attend and waite on M. T . Surman. The rest off 
the soldiers and all the Officers are to return to us from Patna. 

You will observe we have made two Invoices off the Goods One 
off which No. 1 is off Goods and rarifcys appropriated for the present 
amounting to Rupees One hundred and two thousand ffour hundred 
Seventy two, Eleven Anaes and ffour pice. The other N? 2 is off 
Goods &c* proper for Sale amounting to Rupees One hundred and 
Eight thousand two hundred fforty Eight, Eleven anaes and three pice, 
Off which itt is probable you will find itt necessary to add part to the 
presents and we give you authority to doe so as your discretion shall 
guide you. Iff part off what is appropriated for presents prove improper 
for that Service, dispose off that as well as you 'can, and out off the 
other parcell putt what you shall Judge fitt instead off itt. 

We send a large quantity off wine and other liquors with you. 
Att C. Setrhaud's [Sarhad's] instigation, who affirm itt will be ye most 
Acceptable off anything to many off the Cheif Officer att Court; 


on whose Savour the Good or ill success off your buisness depends So 
much off itt as shall he neccessary for your table att Court and in your 
way thither is designed for that service, The rest to be presented to 
the best advantage you can for y e carrying on off your Affairs. Tis 
Charged in Invoice No. 2 Tis scarce needfull to tell you none off itt 
is designed for Expence att Patna Factory. 

You will find a third Invoice Amounting to Rupees Twenty nine 
thousand, nine hundred fflfty Eight, ffour Anaes ; for Cloths and neces- 
sary s &C? for service, which will be worn out or Expended. This you 
must bring to y e Creditt off Account Currant Culoutta, As well as the 
rest, Charging Durbar [darbdr~\ Royall with itt as you Expend itt. 

For Managers in this Negotiation we have appointed and Doe 
appoint H? John Surman Cheif & treasurer, Cojah Seerhaud 
[Sarhad] Second & head Vakile [vakil], Mr. Edward . Stephenson 
third in Councill, Accomptant and Warehouse keeper ; Ml Hugh 
Barker Secretary who also may be appointed to keep y e Accounts off 
Daily petty Expences, 

In case off M r . Surmans Death (which God avert) we doe appoint 
that M. r . Stephenson succeed to be Cheif, C. Seerhacd [Sarhad] to con- 
tinue Second, and M? Barker to succeed Third -in Counoill. For we 
design an Englishman to be always Cheif in this negotiation and that 
C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] continue to be Second and head Vakile [vakil']. 

In your way to the Camp Eoyall, and when arrived there, You 
are to keep a Generall Diary off all transactions and accidents relating 
to the Hon bl ? Companys Affairs or any way influencing them. This 
may well be in your Consultation Book. We also Expect from each off 
you & from M? Barker Likewise, That you keep particular Diarys off 
such transactions Accidents and observations off all kinds, whether they 
relate to our Affairs or no, As Either off you may judge worth notice. 

You are to keep up severall Books besides your Consultation Book 
and Generall Diary— Those most necessary are l? fc a Cash Book 2? 
A Waste Book in which to be noted every thing delivered out off or 
received into y e Warehouse, immediately att the time when any 
thing is delivered out or received in, Either for sale or presents, Also 
for what service, and to whom any thing is delivered. From this 
you may once a week att Leisure times fframe your Warehouse Books, 
which must be duely kept up, that you may see att all times what 
you have remaining in y e Warehouse. You must also keep Generall 
Books Journall and Leidger into which all your Accounts whatsoever 
will be brought. There must also be a book particularly for your 


daily Expences, The Amount whereoff we would have brought to 
account weekly in Your Generall Books. 

The Consultation Book ought and we Expect itt be kept ffair and 
regular ; and that you send us Copys off your Consultations and Diarys 
Express every month, Also Copy off y e Cash Account ; off these, also 
off your Generall Letters, (in which be full and Clear in giving us 
an account off the Affair in hand and what prospect you have off 
coming to a happy Conclusion) send Duplicates by Succeeding Express- 
es ; ffor some may miscarry, and iff you can find means to write us 
by y e Dawk Chowkey [dak chauki] miss no opportunity. 

Be carefull nott to have any useless contentions among your selves, 
suoh as may seem like animositys. For Such, iff any be, will be 
observed vastly to the Hon bl ? Companys prejudice : and occasion long 
delays, and greater Expence in Every Durbar \(larbar~\ ; and possibly 
hazzard the overthrow off our Affairs; and All off you (butt y e 
Aggressor Especially) will entirely fforfeit y 3 Companys flavour, and 
y e good opinion we have off your conduct and Capacity. 

Be Frugall as decently possible in all manner off Expences. For 
the Charge will be too great tho' managed with the Utmost ffrugality. 
Therefore all manner off unnecessary Expences are to be avoided. 

When any Grant is obtained gett att least a dozen Copys attested 
by y e Cozzee [<?ag»] off which send one to Bombay and one to Fort 
St George. The Originall and other Copys you are to send to us 
by sundry conveyances. 

Iff you receive orders or directions from His Excellency the Generall 
and Councill off Bombay Or from the Hon bl ? President and Councill 
att Fort S'. George, relating to any priviledges or new grants Either or 
both may desire for their Governments; or to y® confirming or Enlarging 
any priviledge they doe enjoy or have fformerly Enjoy'd Conform and 
Comply as near as possible with y e orders you shall receive from them. 

Immediately upon your arrivall att y e Camp Royali and when 
you are in y e way iff you find itt may bo, send expresses to Bombay 
and to Fort St George, acquainting y e Gentlemen att both places 
that we have ordered you to be very Exact in your Compliance with 
all such orders as you shall receive from them, relating to y e con- 
firming or Enlarging their priviledges, or for y e Obtaining any new 
Grants or priviledges which they may desire : and send them Copys 
off that part off those instructions which relate to their Jurisdiction — 

C. Seerhaud is perfectly acquainted with y e manner off addresses 
to y' King and his Cheif Ministers, his Experience has been well 


proved. We therefore depend on your prudenoe joined to his 
Experience in that matter, which we judge is better than lame endeavour 
to give particular instructions would be concerning ceremonys whioh 
we are nott so well acquainted with as he is and you all may soon be. 
"We doe nott suppose any off you enclined to Employ Durgamull 
[Durgamal] the late Vakile [vakil'] att Patna, he has been ffalse to us 
Already, Therefore iff any person recommends him as a fitt man for your 
Service, have no regard to suoh reoommendation ; for we will nott have 
him Employ'd in y® Companys Affairs upon any pretence whatsoever. 

We order that Mr Barker Your Secretary sitt att y e Councill 
Table with you when you are in consultation, and that he take minutes 
off what passes, Also that he attest 0. Seerhauds [Sarhad's] Assent 
or dissent to any vote Agreed on For because C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] 
oannot read English he will nott sign your Consultations. 

You are to resolve in consultation after mature deliberation how 
to proceed in Your Affairs, and Your proceedings must be agreeable 
with your resolutions in consultation — nevertheless 

Some particular cases may happen nott fforeseen when you sett in 
Councill, and require to be dispatched before you can meett. Iff 
sometimes such a case happens, when C. Seerhaud [Sarhad] is from 
you att y e Durbar, and iff time and money can be saved by y 9 
Quick dispatch off an Affair off Consequence, which iff delay'd might 
happen to miscarry ; We say in Such Cases and in Such alone, you 
may Allow off his acting before a resolution in Consultation : Butt 
he must give you an Account off itt att your next meeting and you must 
note itt in your consultation as transacted by him alone. 

Iff anything that we may accidentally fforgett to give you particular 
directions about in these instructions shall occur to Either off you (or 
be hinted to you by any other person) which may prove beneficiall 
to y e Companys Affairs, and be obtained without more cost than the 
benefitt will amount to ; Make use off your opportunitys to gett the 
Grant, nott waiting in such Cases for ffresh orders from us. For delays 
are dangerous, and lost opportunitys are nott Easyly rotreived. 

You are .nott on any Account whatsoever to take the Goods off 
Merchants under your protection from Patna to y e Mogulls Court. 
We prohibitt this, fearing pretences may be made, that you have 
Goods under your protection, which doe nott belong to you; and Upon 
that account you be Stop'd long and made pay severely att Some places 
as others have already been serv'd. 

We send with you 47 bales off Bengali peice Goods for sal- 
the produce whereoff is designed for part off what you shall want in 


ready money to carry on your buisness. Keep a particular & Exact 
Account off the Carriage and all Charges on them and send us that 
Account because by agreement we are to pay here what they shall 
produce clear off all Charges. We accepted off this proposall because 
itt saves the Exchange off so much and does not enerease the Companys 
Risq. A particular Invoice off these Goods, is N°. 4 The Merchants 
we havo them from allow you to draw 5 per Cent commission on their 
produce, whereoff 2 per Cent for W. Surman 2 per Cent for C. Seerhaud 
[Sarhad], and 1 per Cent for Mr Stephenson. 5,000 rupees Hoss? 
We send you in y e hands off m Stephenson, out off which he is 
allowed to disburse, what shall be necessary on y e way, which he is to 
account for with you, and pay y e rest into y e Companys Cash in 
Mr Surrnans hands for your service As you proceed from Patna. 

Before you can be able to depart from Patna, we shall send you 
Letters off Creditt to ffurnish you with what money shall be needfull 
for carrying on your negotiation att the Kings Durbars [dat bars]. 

The ffollowing list is off Originall papers relating to our ancient 
priviledges in Bengali, which we send you in C. Seerhauds [Sarhad's] 
hands, he affirming itt will be necessary they be shown att Court, to prove 
we had grants off those priviledges, which can be done no otherways, 
because Old Assid Caun [Asad Khan] (in a passion when his son 
Zulphacor Caun 1 [Zu-1-fiqar Khan] was Slain), burnt all y e records off 
the kingdom, which he had y e keeping off att that time. Be carefull 
none off those papers are Lost, and bring all back to us when itt pleases 
God you return, which God grant you may in good time with Safety 
and Success. 

Delivered Coja Seerhaud [Sarhad] — Viz* 

2 Phirmaunds [farmans] off Aurungzebe [Aurangzeb] 1 Granted 1680 y e other 1091. 

Mahumud Azzeems Nishaun [Muhammad A'zam's nithan] 1678 

Sultan Sugas [Shuja 1 ] Nishaun [nishun] - - 1655 

Ibrihim Caun [Ibrahim Khan] and Kiffort Cauns [Kifayat Khan] Perwanna artcana] 16i 

Izzutt Cauns ['Izzat Khan") perwanna [partcana] - - 1698 

Mazeem Cauns [Mu'azzam Khan's] d° 1661 

Doud Cauns [D5Qd Khan] d? 1663 

Mahumud Azzeems Nishaun [Muhammad 'Azim's niskan] 1698 

Huckecutt Cauns perwanna [Ijlaqiqat Khan's parwana] 1665 

Copy off Aurungzebes phirmaund [Aurangzeb'g farman] 

Two off Shaastah Cauns perwannas [Shaistah Khan's parwunas] 1—1664/5 & 1—1680 

Copys off Sha Jehauns [Shah Jaban's] two phirmaunds [farmans] 1—1638 & 1—1649 

Mirza Mogeia [Mirzi Ma'jizJ perwanna [parwana] 1679 

Two off Izzut Cauns perwannas ['Izzat Khan's pancana*~\ one 1697 y e other 1698. 

Seertulund Cauns [Sarbularid Khan] perwanna [parwana] 1709 

Caun Jehaun Behauders Sunnod [Klan Jahan Bahadur's tanad] 1711/2 

i Zu-1 fiqur Kl,an was killed by Farrukjisiyar's order on February 1, 1713 



A Calculation off what Servants wages to attend M? Surman &o* 
Englishmen may amount to monthly ; in which we doe nott pretend 
to be perfectly Exact, for itt must in a great measure be left to 
your discretion, because tis nott possible we can know Every thing 
that will be absolutely necessary for you, and we may as well over as 
under Calculate y* 5 Charge. This therefore is nott to be taken as 
a stated allowance butt a guess off what the Charge may amount to. 
Where you find we have reckoned upon more servants than will be need- 
full, or on greater wages for them than you must off necessity give, you 
are to correct y e mistakes off this, and iff we have reckon'd upon 
a ffew less off any kind than you ffin<J absolutely necessary to keep, 
you are nott limitted by this, butt may add so many as you ffLnd 
you cannot decently be without. 

r r. 

Kismutgars [khidmatgars~\ 



7 42 

Chubdars [chobdars] 


- - 

8 16 

Cosburdars [] 


Dolletts [dhalaitsj 


Buxerys [baksaris] 


Frosts [farrcLsh] 


Suckas Isaqqahs'] 2 




8 696 



Flag- Carriers 


Cohars [lahirs] 




Mussalchys [rnash'alchis] 



14 | 

1 Y'22 

Holocore [haldl-khor] 


7 164 




Under Vakiles [vakils'] 






Tajudy [Taju-d-din] 3 Our Aukoones [akhund's~\ Son, 


hence to be a Persian writer. He 

speaks and writes English 20 

James Graywood - Watchmaker 




Six English Soldiers in Decent habitts 


paid in Culcutta. 

1 Dhalait, an armed guard. 

2 A water-carrier, vulgarly known as a bihishti. 

8 Mr. Irvine suggests that Taju-d-din may be identified with Taju-d-din. the sen of Shiha- 
bud-din, Talish, author of the Fath'iyah-i-' ibrat'iyah, on the campaign of Mir Jumlali in Assam, 
whose son I'tisimu-d-din went to Europe in 1765 with Captain Archibald Swinton and wrote his 
travels under the title of Shigurfnamah-i-wildyat. But the father of our Taju-d-din was named 
Fazl Muhammad. See Engli$h in Bengal, I, 300. 



The t fated Allowance for C. Seerhaud \_Sarhad], 


Horse keepers & Grass-cutters 4 @ 7 28 

Cohars [kahars] 12*1 

Chubdars [chobdars] 2 

Kismutgara \khidmatgart] 6 v42 

Peons 20 

Cooks 2^ 

Mussalchys [mash'alchis] 2 „ 7 14 

Frosts ifarrctsh] 2 „ 8 16 

394 - - 

Allowance for his Dyett 260 

d for Horsekeeping 90 

> Camell d° 120 460 - 

Es. 854 - - 

Thus far in Generall, we come in j* Second place to direct what 
we desire may be granted us in a new phirmaund [_farma)i]. 

Our tfirst request is in Generall terms, That his Majesty will please 
to confirm in his Eoyall Phirmaund [farmdn] all the Grants and 
priviledges heretofore Enjoy'd by our Nation, att all places in his 
dominions, where we now have or fformerly had Settlements, 
Especially those granted us in the days off his Royall ancestor 
Aurungzebe [Aurangzeb], and since, this Generall request is already 
Granted us in Effect, In y* Husbul Hoocum [hasbu-l-hnkm~] Last received 
under y e Grand Viziers seal, which takes off y e difficulty once appre- 
hended off getting y e same flavour in a New Phirmaund \_farmari], 

Tho' this request be generall and includes all places under y e 
Government off Bombay and Fort St George as well as this Presidency, 
itt must be repeated and requested for Each particularly. 

First for Bengall. 

That you may know what to ask for, Tis necessary you be well 
inform'd what our priviledges are and on what terms we enjoy them. 

Instead off Custom we pay a yearly peeshcash [peshkash] off three 
thousand Sicca Rupees into the Kings treasury att Hugly, and we 
pay no Other Custom or duty on any Goods or merchandize which 
we import or Export, Nor on treasure Coined for us att y 6 Kings 
mint which was att Rajamoll [Rajmahal] butt is now removed to 
Muxadavad [Maqsudabad]. 

Our Goods or treasure which we send to our settlements or any 
off the Aurungs [aurangs] inland, pass on our Own Dustick 
[datiak] without Examination and back to us in y* same manner. 


Our Merchants Faotors or Agents whom we employ att the Aurungs 
[aurangs] or Elsewhere are nott to be molested or called to account 
by small officers upon ffrivilous pretences, whilst they continue in 
our Service and are Employed for us. 

Iff our Factors or Merchants Endeavour to defraud us the remedy 
is in our Own hands, we take them up and use such meanes as are 
proper and necessary to make them pay what they justly owe us. 

Convenient places and parcells off Ground were granted us to 
build and settle Factorys on, Att, or near Severall inland places off 
Note As Hugly, Cossimbuzar, Patna, Dacca, Maulda, Rajamoll 
[Rajmahal], Ballasore, Radnagur &c* which we still keep possession 
off & may settle ffactorys again att, After the King is pleased to con- 
firm all to us in his Royall Phirmaund [/ama»]. 

We hold and Enjoy three towns Namely, — De [dihi] Culcutta, 
Sootaloota [Sutanuti], & Govindpore [Govindpur], paying y e same 
yearly rent for them into the Kings treasury, which the Jemidars 
[zamindars] paid before they were granted to the English Company. 
The Grant was made att Bordwan (anno 1698) in a Nishaun [mahaii] 
from Sultan Mahumud Azzeem [Muhammad 'Agimu-sb-Shan], ffather 
off his present Majesty King Furruckseer [Farrukhsiyar] whom God 
preserve, What we desire more for Bengali is That we may have y e 
use off the Kings mint Custom ffree att Muxodavad [Maqsudabad] 
and Dacca as we had itt att Rajamoll [Rajmahal], & the same 
ffree use off y e mint att Patna Also iff itt may be obtaind. We also 
desire our bounds round us att this place may be enlarged. The 
additions we desire will amount to Eight thousand Sicca Rupees 
Yearly rent and something more, whioh added to near thirteen 
hundred Sicca Rupees which we pay yearly rent for the three towns, 
will make About Nine thousand ffour hundred Sicca Rupees per 
Annum : which we desire we may be appointed to pay in one Summ 
Yearly into the Kings treasury att some certain place, and that we 
may nott be called upon for itt before y e Day off payment by any 
Suba Duan [diicdn-i-subali] or Collector off revenues whatsoever. 

That you may perfeotly understand what additions we desire 
may be made to our present bounds, and be well understood when 
you petition for them we herewith send you a list off the towns 
we now possess and off those we desire may be added to us, with 
y« rent paid y e for same by y e Jemidars [zamindars] into y e Kings 
treasury, and we have hopes they will be granted to us; because we 
shall be punctuall in paying our rent on y e Day, and att the place 
appointed, whioh Jemidars [zamindars] are nott Always. 


Itt would be a good Advantage to the Companys Affairs iff the 
King may be prevailed with to order that Rupees Coined att Madrass 
may pass in payments off his revennes in Bengali. Endeavour att get- 
ting such an order, which we hope may be granted, because 
Madrass Rupees have y 6 Kings Stamp as well as Bengali Rupees 
and are ffull as valueable. For they are off Equall weight and fine- 
ness with them and will always be made so. 

Secondly for Bombay. 

That y e King will be pleased to confirm all y e Grants and priviledges 
enjoy'd by y e English nation att Suratt. 

The Generall and Council! att Bombay sent a particular account 
hither (some time in Sha Allums [Shah ' Alam's] reign) off what 
grants and priviledges they then desired might be obtained for them ; 
which is the best directions we can give concerning their Affairs. 
"We therefore send you a Copy off itt without altering one word. 

Their fifth head is that the King will please to grant that Rupees 
Coined att Bombay, being off the same weight and ffineness as those 
off Suratt, may be Currant in his Majestys dominions. (We judge 
itt might be well to add) and that they may pass in payments off 
his Majestys revenues att Suratt. 

Iff his Majesty will be pleased in Liew off Custom to accept off 
a moderate yearly peeshcash [peshkash] ]att k Suratt (Rupees three 
thousand is the least summ to be proposed and ffive thousand the highest 
we can give you authority to propose for that yearly peeshcash 
[peshkash] ) and order that the English may land or^ ship off their 
Goods without being any way molested or called to Accouut by 
y e Custom house officers or Any others, itt would be a noble 
grant and worth y e Expence off some money. "We would have 
you attempt y e getting itt, butt iff you find the high officers 
averse to granting itt, doe nott persist in your endeavours to obtain 
itt, For 'tis probable some off them will become enemys and oppose 
every thing we desire, iff we persist obstinately in desiring what they 
resolve shall nott be granted us. 

Iff the English Company may nott be allowed to trade Custom ffree 
att Suratt, Itt may be necessary to getttwo phirmaunds [farnidns] ; One 
for Suratt where Custom is paid; The other for y e presidencys off Madrass 
and Bengali where we pay no Custom. But this we leave to your 
own consideration. Doe a* you judge will be best for us. 



Thirdly for Fort St George. 
In a Letter for you from y e Hon bl ! President and Counoill att 
Fort 8t George, which came to our hands y° 9t h Currant att night and 
we send you with this, you have so ffuli and Clear instructions about 
their Affairs, that we doe nott see much can be added to any purpose 
on that head. We enjoin you to be very sollicitous in your endeavour 
to obtain Every thing they desire All which seems very reasonable and 
we have hopes may be obtained without muoh difficulty or trouble. 

The following list is off papers received from Fort St George whioh 

we believe may be off Good use and therefore send them to you with this. 

No. 2. Copy off what wrote by Ship President to Bengali under y e 23rd 

October 1711 accompanying y e Severall papers then sent down. 
No. 3. Packett directed to M? Jn? Surman &c? Gent? intended to 
accompany the Hon bl ? Companys present to y e Mogull, 
H 6. Copy off a Letter wrote by Gov. Pitt to Zeaudy Caun 

[Ziau-d-dln Khan] August 1708. 
M 6. Copy off OlympanasC'Alam-panah] 1 Phirmaund [farman] and Cowl 

tqauf] to Sir W? Langorn February 23 1 "* 1 1676. 
„ 7. Copy off a perwanna [parwana ] from Nabob Assid Caun [Asad 

Khan] to Governour Yale. 
„ 8. Copy oft a Dastick [ dastak ] from d° March 18th 169| 
„ 9. Copy off Prince Caum Bucksh [Kam Bakhsh] Nishaun [ nishan ] to 

Governour Yale. 
„ 10. Copy off the King off Golcondahs General Phirmaund [farman, J to 

the English nation Dec? 19*? 1674. 
„ 11. Copy off Yecknam Cauns [Ikram Khan's] Cowl [qaul] to Sr W m 

Langorn February 23 r . d -167£ 
„ 12. Copy off a Cowl [qaul~\ given by Moosa Caun [Musa Khan] to 

S? W? Langorn— A prill 13*?— 1672. 
„ 13 Copy off a Cowl [qaul] given by Serango Boyallo [S'rl Banga Eaya] 

to Agent Ivie -November 16^—1643. 
„ 14. Copy off a Letter wrote by Governour Pitt to Zeaudy Caun. 
[Ziau-d-din Khan]— January— 1708/9. 

Wishing you Good Success in this negotiation We committ yon to 
y e protection off the Almighty God and remain. 
Your Loving Friends 
R. Hedges 
A. Addams 
S. Feakie 
J. Williamson 
E. Page 
S. Browne 
J. Dean 
II. Ffrankxand 

1 [" World-protection," i.e., the ruler of a country, probably meant (from the data, 1676) 
or the then King of Gulkhandat, see anti p. 257. W. I.] 


On the opposite T 


Balica 1 


10. List or Calcutta Villager 
Culcutta Ground and Towns. 


Haurah 8 





Bamkisi e n n a • Borou 
pore* Paioan 



On the Culoutta Daoknypauk- Ameeravad 
Side parra* 

Belgassiah? ... Culcutta 

Dacknydand 8 Culcutta 

Hogulcundy' ... Paioan 
Ultadang 18 ... Culcutta 

Simliah 1 * ... Manpore 
Macond" ... do. 
Comerparra^ 3 Culcutta 
Canoergassiah* 4 Paioan 

61 11 - 

216 - 3 

237 6 



145 13 


129 14 



8 7 



89 3 



86 11 


351 13 



229 1 


277 1 3- 

383 2 9 

138 5 4 

169 14 S 

. 580 14 9 
145 2 

304 6 9 
13 10 - 

37 8 9 

376 - - 

194 1 6 
120 12 9 

37 7 - 
170 15 8 

318 - 9 

425 9 - 

137 11 a 

314 14 

81 15 & 

118 12 8 
63 10 

208 6 8 

Transported ... 


i Salikha. 
3 Haurah. 
3 Kasundlyah. 

* Ramlqriiknapur. 
6 Betor. 

* Dakshiii Tsikpadi 
» Bolgachh'ji. 

8 Dakshinidandi. 

9 Hogulkundia. 
1° Ultadanga. 

" S'inila. 
* 5 Makonda. 
13 KiLmarpada. 
u Kankurg5ohbL 



On the Culoutta Towna 


Bagmarey 1 

Aroooley 2 

Mirzapore 3 

Cooliah 6 

Tangarah 6 

Bad-sundah 8 

Shehparra 9 

Doland 10 

Bergoy 11 



Sangassey 14 
Chobogah 15 
Cherangey 16 











. Culcutta 

. do. 
. Culcutta 


. Culcutta 

Brought forward ... 3d61 8 8 

57 15 9 
115 13 

127 6 


445 3 


62 11 


166 1 


62 - 


586 8 


49 7 8 
22 11 9 

173 13 6 
118 9 10 

572 10 

228 13 3 

648 9 S 

40 8 - 

41 6 6 

111 6 8 
195 1 - 

■ — 306 7 8 

22 6 2 

213 10 1 

1 14 - 

45 15 2 












14 13 5 

74 14 - 

... 270 3 3 

... 113 4 10 

283 13 

206 14 5 


2 13- 

14 . 

89 11 


Transported ... 7071 -- 7 

1 Bagmari. 
» Arkuli. 
3 Mirzapur. 

* S'iSldaha. 

* Kulia. 

6 TaDgra. 

7 SundS. 

8 Bad Sunda ; Bad or baha outiide 

* Sekhpads. 

10 Dalanda. 
« Birji. 

12 TaltalS. 

13 Tapsia. 

" SapgachhI. 

1 5 Chobagah. 

16 Chaurangi, 
*7 Kalinga. 



On '.ha Cule-tta 


Goberah 1 

Sillampore 3 






JolaColimba 4 ... Calcutta 
Geredalparra 5 Culcutta 

Hintalee 6 




We have already Sootaloota 8 ... Ameeravad 
De Culcutta 9 ... do. 

Govindpore 10 ... Paican 

Brought forward ... 

100 1 6 
125 8 4 

11 7 3 
95 3 7 
20 8 - 1 2 10 

31 9 2 
70 4 4 

61 9 10 
167 8 8 

114 3 8 

101 3 6 

229 2 6 
252 8 - 

501 15 3 

468 9 6 

210 9 - 

100 5 - 310 14 - 

7071 - 7 

8121 8 11 

1281 6 9 

Note — Goindpore - Paican - the rent butt 
Yearly Mistake 

Es. 9402 15 

123 15 9 
86 9 3 

210 9 - 

This is what ground we desire about Culcutta may be granted to us 
in A New Phirmaund [farman~\ 

E. Hedges A. Addams 

S. Feake J. Williamson 

E. Page S. Brown 

J. Deane H. Frankland 

i Gobra 

8 Bad Dak»l ini Pandi 

3 S'rirSmpur 

* Jola Kahnga 

* Gondalpad* 

1 Chitpur 

8 Sutanuti 

9 Dibi Kalikata 
io Govindpur 

' APPENDIX. 263 


The Purport off Sir William N orris's Embassy to Allumgebr. 1 

The Earnest Petition off Sir Nicholas "Waite Generall off India and 
Councill for y e new Companys Affairs with Rustum-Back Yakile 2 

Aeticles in the Petition. Remakes fbom v.k 

Dttanny. 3 

That Sir William N orris sent by, and having 
brought a Letter and present from y e King off 
England, After his admittance to y e presence, A 
Letter and Cunger [khanjar] gone to y e King off 
England, and the new Company that came with him 
According to his Majestys order had marked out 
places both in y e City and Country We hope that 
we may obtain a phirmaund [farman'] for Bengali, 
Suratt and Metchlipatam [Masulipatam] with other 
places hereafter mentioned, receiving no molesta- 
tion. We will on such conditions pay 100,000 Bs. 
into y e Suratt Treasury Farther — That we Ser- 
vants being newly come hither from our Own 
Country, are unacquainted with what ffavours have 
been conferrd on Europeans ; Wherefore we hope 
iff there is any thing omitted in our petition itt 
may be specify'd in Our phirmaund [farman]. 
That y e Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] may act accord- 

2 William King off England has Established In Suratt & Bengali from 
a new Company, whose people are Sent into y e time off Jehaungeer, Sha- 
Suratt, Bengali, Metchlipatam [Masulipatam] and Jehaun [Jahangir, Shah Jahan] 
other Subaships We hope his Majesty will order and all present The English 
y e New Company (id est their Merchants) may Dutch & French have had 
settle Factorys both in Citys and ports all over the settlements, Butt y e Account 
Kingdom, & that their Gomastoes [gumdshtahs] off them is nott here. That, for 
goe & Come to buy & sell goods without any y e Europeans in Madrass, they 
molestation, obtained a phirmaund [farman] 

according to y 8 sunnod [sanad] 

off AboolHossen[Abu-l Hasan] 4 , 

3. When houses or ground for Factorys within They fformerly obtained a 

and without y e City are hired That the owners phirmaund [farman} An Account 

i 'Alamgir. 

* Rustam Beg wahll. 

3 Dlwanx. 

4 The Qntb Shahl king of Golconda who came to the throne in 167^. 


t»™„,-.~,, Ebmaeks fbom tb 

Abticles in the Petition. Duanht. 

may be fforbid to raise their rent after any repara- off which is nott to be found. 

tions or building thereon, & Lett them to other According to y e earnest petition 

people, making any disputes. off the new Company Dainot 

Caun [Diyanat Khan] took 
care that they should nott be 
4. That 20 beagues [ligahs] off Ground may be They had fformerly a phir- 

given without y e City for interment off the Dead, maund [farmdti] on this Ac 

count Copy off which is nott 
to be found. 
6. That Goods brought on y e old English They formerly obtained a 

Companys and Dutch ships, was putt in a Godown phirmaund [farman] butt y e 

apart, and the Keys lodged in y e hands off the Copy is nott to be found. 

Custom-house Mutsuddys [mutasaddls] till y e 

Custom was paid. We having now rented y e 

houses off Mahumud Zad [Muhammad Zahid] and 

Others, In which places are sett apart for Godowns, 

hope that our Goods may be brought Hither, and 

the Keys remain in y e Accustomary officers 

hands, by which y e rent will be saved and tbe 

Goods Look'd After. 

6. In Suratt The Ground that is without y e That in y e 31 s .t year 1 y e Old 
City on y e Banks off the Kiver Tupty [Tapti], be- Company petitioned that they 
longing to Abdell Suffa ['Abdu-s-safa] Dutch had made a Garden without y e 
Merchant butt formerly the Kings is now Empty City, which was taken away by 
We desire we may have itt for a Garden and to ye walling in oH: the City & 
lay up our Ships Stores. on which 22000 rs. had been 

Expended. His Majesty order- 
ed that Summ should be cutt 
out off y e Customes. By which 
we judge they had a Garden. 

7. In Swally on the banks off the river The That the French Ever enjoy'd 
Old English Company, Dutch and French Enjoy'd this formerly no account is to 
places to lay up their Ships necessarys. That be found. Butt that Dainot 
one part which fformerly belonged to y e Dutch Caun [Diyanat Khan 2 ] had 
butt now Empty may be granted us. granted to y e new Comp? y e 

same priviledges that had been 
given to Other Europeans. 

8. That the Cheif, Councill, and other Servants In the 31st year according to 
whether men or Women, may have ffree Egress the Old Companys petition 

1 The thirty-first year of 'Alamglr, 1687-8. 

* Mr. Irvine says that Mir Abdul Qsdir KhwSfl, Diyanat Khan, was made divan of the 
Dakhin in the 34th year of 'Alamglr, 1101-2 H., or 1690-1A.D. He succeeded his elder brother, 
AmSnat Khun as governor of iho port of Surat in the 43rd year of « Alamglr, 1110-11 II., or 1698- 
99 A.D. He died about 1126-27 H., or 17I4-15A.D. See Mu'atiru-l-umara, II, 69. 


_, Remarks fbom y b 

Abticlbb in the Petition. Duanny. 

and regress Either to ye Gardens, Swally [Suwali], The phirmaund [farman] speci- 
or Even to their own Country, nott being molested fyd that they should nott be 
by y e officers, and that the Cheif &c» may not molested, and in y e 33 r . d Year 
be Examined by y e Meabar 1 or Other Chowkeys According to y e former phir- 
[chaukls], which is a groat derogation to their maund [farman], 

9. Whatsoever Goods are brought from City The Custom that is taken 
or port to Suratt, and Cambaya 2 or whatever is from ye English Company is 
Bought in other Subaships, & loaded on Ships 8^ per cent. Whatsoever was 
for Europe or sold, That according to y e Accounts formerly Excused, was again 
off buying and selling from ye Factorys-Gomas- taken by y e laying on Jidgea 
toes [gumashtahs] in Suratt Custom be calculated [jizyah], r 

att 2 per Cent After y e old Companys phirmaund Dellolly [dalall] 1 

[farman] in y e 6 l h year, & Farther— that the Other charges 8 

buying in Baroche [Bhardch] and other places may 1 8 

nott be a second time Charged. I n ye 29th ff Zilcaud [Zu- 

1-qa'dah] 3 in ye 46th Year A 
perwanna [parwana] went to 
Etbar Caun [I'tibar that 
for y e Europeans & Armenians 
he take according to ye law 2 
for 40(5 per 100) iff he ffinds itt 
nott troublesome to be done. To 
which he answer'd that accord- 
ing to order he took itt from 
ye Armenians, butt for y 3 
English he would referr itt till 
a proper opportunity. 

10. The Cloth or other Goods that is brought There was fformerly a Phir- 
from Europe to Suratt and Cambaya, after the maund [farman] given to ye 
officers have taken an account off itt, That itt Old English Company Copy off 
may be sent home to be sold, and in case there is which is nott to be found. In 
no sale, that with a Euanna [rawanah] (an account y e S3"* Year After they had 
off y° Custom given) signed by an Officer, itt be Deen pardoned The Old Eng- 
carried to other Subaships, and That when ye Hsh Companys Phirmaund 
year is Expired Custom is taken butt in one place, [farman] is Enrolled, wherein 
after ye manner off the Old English and Dutch Custom is to be paid After ye 
Company and y e Kuanna [rawanah] given. And year is Expired, 
iff we want to relade such Goods, That [there] be 
no molestation on Account off a Second Custom — 

1 The tna'bar, the ferry. 

2 Written Kanbayat by the Mubammadans, but said originally to be Khwnbarati. The ancient 
port of Gujarat. 

* Tuesday, 5th April, 1702. 



11. Whatsoever Goods are bought in Agra There is nott any Account in 
and other places, and brought to Suratt or y e Books. What is ordered ? 
Cambaya, having paid Custom, and are loaded on 

Board Ship, Iff the Ship is too deep and The 
Goods taken out and Laded on another, going 
away : That y e Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] doe 
nott dispute about Custom or other Charges. 

12. Whatever Ships arrive from Europe and A Copy off the phirmaund 
other places and the Commodities are nott [farmdn] wherein they had 
Adapted to this Country markett, Iff said Ships such a grant is nott to be 
repair and y e Goods are taken out att Swally, found- What is ordered ? 
after -which being again laden on those or any 

other ships. That y e Droga [darogkaJi] off 
Swally for taking out said Goods doe nott molest 
them on Account off Custom or any other Charges 
By reason this has been y s Custom off the Old 
English French and Dutch Company. 

13. Whatsoever Horses, Guns, Anchors, or There is a phirmaund [far. 
Lead are brought from Europe, Persia, or Other rna.n\ on this account enrolled 
places, The Kings Officers clap seals on y e * That horses and other Goods 
Horses necks, Whatsoever is ffitt for the Govern- tnat ar e ffitt for ye Service be 
ment that they buy them ff airly and pay ye bought according to y e Currant 
money without delay, and that what is nott fitt price, and that the money be 
for that service be nott hindered from being immediately paid, and for y e 
disposed off in other places And for ye sake off remainder to be permitted to 
buying rarities that they doe nott stand to pick, be disposed off any other way. 
butt take all with ye owners consent. 

14. Whatever Gold, Silver, or Copper is In ye 33[f* year ye old Eng- 
brought from England and other places, That ye lish Company petitioned That 
Companys Gomastoes {jgurnasldahs] stamp Siccas they could nott Creditt ye 
in ye mint, The Mut3uddys [mutasaddis] taking Bankers, on which they desired 
nothing nor molesting them. that their own people might 

make Siccas in y mint which 
was granted. 

15. Whatever Cloth or other Merchandize is Iny6 33 rd year a phirmaund 
carried between any part off the Country Or port Granted to y° English is En- 
That ye phowsdar [faujd*r\ off the road give a rolled- That whatever is Lost 
•afe conduct to ye end off his jurisdiction. Iff in this way That ye phowsdar 
there is any occasion for Carriage that they look [faujddr] answer for itt. Itt 
out for itt & Iff any Goods are Stole, That he ^ Granted that whatever is 
answer for itt. Granted to other people be 

allow'd them Likewise— Butt 
for y 6 Carriage no Copy to be 


_ Remarks feom ye 

Articles in the Petition. Dtjannt. 

16. Whatever provisions Clothes or plate Formerly in y e 33™* year 
Copper or Ornaments, belonging to ye people off according to ye petition off ye, 
the place or shipping, may be brought and carried Old Company itt was ordered 
away without any molestation from ye Meabar 1 That itt should be as Custom- 
or Customhouse Officers Account Custom, and mary — and for ye Account off 
That whatever packett goes to or Comes from papers ordered That Etmaud 
Europe be nott open'd. Caun [I'tmad Khan] Consider 


17. That ye Mutsuddys [mutasaddls] off the In ye 33rd Tear according to 
Port be ordered, In case any off y e Companys ye old English petition itt 
Servants run from their Factory or ships That W as ordered That iff they have 
they be apprehended and delivered to ye Chief' demands from any one, itt be 
That All contracters and Merchants Making any fulfill'd. In a phirmaund 
boggle in fulfilling their Agreement be punished [far man] in ye 5 fc h Year, ye 
and nott encouraged, and That what Ships goe to Dutch obtain'd That in ffreight- 
any port whether Persia Arabia &ca freighted ing Ships there be no hinder- 
with y e Persons or Goods off Merchants be nott ance. 


18. That whomsoever the New Companys In ye 5th year y e phirmaund 
Consull shall appoint as Brokers, and putt him [farmav~\ granted ye Dutch 
in buisness That no one offer to hinder itt. Iff contains this affair. 

the Mutsuddys [mutasaddis] have any thing to 
say that they apply to ye Consul, and without his 
Consent nott to meddle in ye Companys or any off 
their people's buisness. 

19. Iff any Quarrell should happen among ye Copy off a Phirmaund [far. 
Companys people, That ye Consul finish ye man] off y e 12* year Sha- 
dispute according to y e Instructions off the King Jehaun [Shah Jahan] under 
his Master, and That ye phowsdar [faujddr] & Cozzy Mahumud Syuds [Qazi 
Mutsuddys [mutasaddis'] acquiesce in itt and Muhammad Sayyad's] Seal 
Assist; That they only give Creditt to ye Consul, has been examined in ye Books, 
and nott any other people who may turn informers. Itt is wrote that whenever the 
Iff in Contracts or buying and selling there Dutch quarrel among them- 
happens Any dispute with ye Inhabitants off the selves, that they themelves 
place, that ye Consull make an End, and whereso- t a jj e care ff £tt. 

ever The ffault is that itt be punished, The 
Englishman being delivered up to ye Consul for 
that purpose and y e other to y e Governments 

20. The King for the sake off his {friendship to The above is humbly Offer'd 
ye King off India & for y e Good off tho inhabit- Whatever is ordered. 

1 Jfo'6»r, the ferry. 



ants off Both kingdoms has constituted a new 
Company, giving Sunnods [sanads~\ to three presi- 
dents under The Great Seal — Vizt In Suratt 
Bengali and Metchlepatam [Masulipatam] (call'd 
Generall Consuls &ca ). Iff itt happens they are 
displaced and others appointed in their Roonies, 
The posts be nott quite laid aside on account 
off such alterations. 

21. That the Generall and Consul hoist the According to y e Earnest 
Kings Flag on their Houses, and in their proces- petition off ye new Company 
sion use pallankeen, Coach, Horse, Flags and Dainot Caun [Diyiinat Khan] 
Trumpetts, As Also their other Servants as occa- settled that in their "going 
sion requires, and that no one besides the Cheifs abroad Flags & pallankeen s 
offer to use Flags. signify ed nothing. That when 

he sees a wnrrantable Sunnod 
[sanadl the Old Companys 
Flags shall be taken down. 

A perwanna [pancana] went 
to Dainot Caun [Diyanat Khan] 
in ye 44th Year 1 That what 
related to ye Trumpett Flags 
&\ be Executed. 

22. Iff the Consul or Companys people have in In y e 6 tb Year 2 ye Dutch obtained 
their Accounts any demands upon their Servants, a phirmaund [farm&n} which 
That they confine them untill they have made an is enrolled Viz* That in their 
End, and that no one Assist those on whom there demands from their Servants, 
is Such demands — none from the Duanny [diwdni] 

meddle in itt. 

23. In the 21st Year 3 according to y e Kings This Affair was never settled 
phirmaund [farmSn], A Husbul Hoocum [hasbu-l- in ye Court, & for ye above - 
huJctn] under y e Seal off Tajoomdatulmoolk mentioned ; itt is contained in 
Modarelmahaum, 4 & y e Nishaun [nishaii] off the y e Nishaun [nishdii] which they 
princes, The English obtain'd that all Custom is have gott. 

Excused, Suratt Excepted. Iff the English Gomas- 
toes [gumdLshtahs] carry goods to any port in 

1 t e. 1111-2 H. or 1700-1 A. D. 
1 i. e. of ShSh-'Alam, 1122-3 H, or 1711-12. 
» i. «. 1088-9 H., or 1677-8 A. D. 

« These words must Im> JamdatuUmulk, Madar-ul-muhim, part ol the watt's titlse, and the 
referenoe must be to him. They mean 'affirmed of the kingdom, pivot of difficult undertatm^,.' 



Articiks in thh Petition. Duakkt. 

Bengad or other Subaships that nothing be demand. 
ed, by reason they may buy and sell with satisfac- 
tion. Iff their Goods are stolen, that care be 
taken to hare them found, and the Theif punished, 
and that their Boates be nott molested account 
the Cutbarrah, [khat-bar&r] &c» We bope that 
y° New Company may obtain a phirmaund 
I far man] according to y e princes Nishaun 

[««to] . 

24. The New English Company is S operate According to y« Earneit 
from the Old one. Iff they bare any dealings with petition off y e new Company 
tbem on y« name off their being Englisb that they Dainet Caun [Diyanat Khan] 
come to an understanding among themselves, and Settled— That y 8 New Compf 
that no other people appear between. i fl Seperate from y e Old— And 

That no one interfer in theiv 
dealings with one another. 

25. That there may be a mint Settled near the In y e Chucklah [chaklah~] off 
Bengali Factory and Siccas Viz* Gold Silver and Eckbarnagur [Akbarnagarj 
Copper Stamp 'd there. In Eajamoll [Eajmahal] (called Eajamoll) [Eajmahal] 
there is a Mint, but whither we dare nott send our I n Jehaugeernagur [JahangLr- 
Gold Silver and Copper by reason off y e Distance nagar] (called Dacca) & in 
and y e ffear off Robbers. Saul-Gong [Satgaon] (called 

Hugly Bunder) [Hu'gli bandar} 
there are mints settled, which 
being a Great distance from y 8 
Factory they for that reason 
offer y e Above mentioned. 
"What is ordered — 

26. That itt be ordered for y 8 new Companys The Kings phirmaund 
people to goe A Come att pleasure to Metchle- [/ arw ,sn] in ye 31 s * year L . To 
patam, Bibelooty, Conara, Daroo-Jehaad, &c* y e Dutch does nott contain y* 
ports & Citys. According to the Kings phir- Abovementioned Butt a phir-. 
maund [farmaii] to y e Dutch and y e Sunnod maund \_farman] was obtained 
[sanad~\ off Abool-Hossen [Abu-1 Hasan] 2 to y e i n Suratt ye 31 s * year in which 
English. That y e new Company obtain a phir- they are nott to be molested, 
maund [farman], 

27. "Whatever Merchandize, provisions or On y e back ofi y° Kings 
apparell are brought from Europe, Metchlipatam phirmaund I farman} in y e 38' <J 
[Masulipatam] or other places, iff they are sold Year and 22<4 of Zilhedge 

1 i.e. 1098.9 H or 1687-8 A. D. 

» The Qutb Shahiking olGoikonda who came to the throne in 1672. 


Remakes feom t* 
Abtioles in the Petition. Duanny. 

or sent to Europe ; According to y 6 phirmaund [Zu-1-hrjjahj 1 was wrote — That 
[farmani] off y 6 Dutch or Abool Hoosens [Abu-1 what Merchandize provisions 
Hasan'fl] Sunnod [sanad'] to y e Old Company, That and apparell be brought for us© 
y e New Company obtain a phirmaund [farmcLn] be Excused Custom — 
likewise. That in Metchlepatam [Masulipatam] 
Hyderabad and other places they be nott molested 
account way Customes. 

28. Whatever goods are brought from Metchle- The Case stands thus in the 
patam [Masulipatam] to Hyderabad or are carried Dutch phirmaund \_farman\ off 
thence 1 pagoda is y e hire off an Ox. We hope y e 33"J Year 2 Vizt. 
that, According to y e Dutch Custom, we may not 2 Oxen-hire 4 r2 the Owner 
pay itt to y e Mutsuddy [mutasaddi], and for y e pagodas (.2 the Govt. 

Washermen that wash y e Companys Cloth That Butt as 5 were paid, 1 is 
they goe to any place where there is Sweet water Cutt out, & butt 4 paid 
According to y e Custom off the Dutch without any according to their petition as 
molestation. fformerly Ordered That y e 

Dutch Satisfy y e owners off y e 
Oxen, & that y e Mutsuddys 
[mutasaddis} doe nott melest 
them on that Account- 
In the Town Dom In 
Metchlepatam [Masulipatam] 
were 40 Washermen houses. 
The rent off Each house being 
paid Yearly by the Dutch, Butt 
as there are att present butt 
6 Houses that they be nott 
troubled, And that ye Washer- 
men going to Soory to wash in 
Sweet water, when there is none 
here, bo nott Molested — 
Ordered that itt bo granted. 

29. In ye S3"} Year 2 by ye Kings phirmaund In y e 33r<? Year ye Kings 
[farman\ Five Towns and places were given to phirmaund [farman] was 
y e Dutch for Coining. We hope that Maudoo- Granted to y e Dutch — which is 
baulum &c^ 6 Towns As per particulars may be enrolled as per particulars — 
given y e JNew Company and that they Coin there : Towns given 5 

and that in those towns as y e Dutch have Mints Whenever they coined Siccas 

in y e Mint, 3 pagodas were 

1 Friday, 27 th September, 1889. 
* ».». HOQ-1 H-, or 1889-80 A, D, 


Remarks vbok y* 


Apart, We may hare y e same, in which to Coin our paid por 100 half off which 
Gold and Silver that comes from England and went to y° King. 
Other places — 









- 120 

- 250 - 370 

6 Towns 720 



Commadore Joseph Kettler The Dutch Vakile [vakil'] made his 
humble petition, which upon Bibbee Julianas request to his Majesty was 
delivered into y 6 Eeoords VizJ That they hoped from his Majestys 
bounty, The articles hereafter mentioned besides their fformer Grants 
might be now inserted in a new phirmaund [farmon,] which would 
prove an honour and Creditt to Said Commadore and all their Settle- 

Thb Petition An Account bbom the Kings Kings Signing 


Concerning ye Suratt Mut- 
tuddys [mutasaddis]. 

1. Itt has been long Itt was Customary That whai 
customary that att what Merchandize the Dutch brought 
time we bring Goods from their own Country and other 

x Shah Alam 

» Jaha»dar Shah. The embassy reached Lahor in the reign of Shah 'Alam, but the businesi 
was not concluded until after Jahandar Shah's accession. There is a detailed diary of their stay at 
court in Valentijn'i Oud on Kiew Ost-Indun, 4 toIs., folio, Dordrecht, 1726, Vol. IV., pp. 282— 307. 



Thb Petition. Air Acootxnt *bom thb Kings Kings Sighino. 


from our own Country the parts, The Duty to be paid in 
King's Duty was paid in Goods according to 3£ per Cent. 
Goods. We now hope that In y e present reign 2\ is Settled, 
upon our Exporting Goods Itt is Entered in their phirmaund 
from Indostan, the Custom [farmari] off the 6'J? year [Janu- 
be paid After the Same ary 20, 1711-January 8, 1712] 
manner- Att y e Season off That what Goods they buy att 
bringing Goods from Agra to Agra are by Agreement Settled att 
Suratt The Custom is with- 12? for 10, and att Amadabad 
out Expence & way-charges, [A hmadabadj 10| for 10 when 
which will be both to his brought to Suratt i for which 
Majestys and our advantage- reason the Custom maybe taken 
Addition-The Dutch vakile att Suratt as formerly : and that 
[vakil] humbly petitions, what Goods are booght in Suratt 
That upon what goods we Burrodrah 1 Ac" 1 . The true Invoice 
know there is profitt to be be required and Custom paid 
gott & are scarce both in Accordingly, Viz* By y« Above- 
Suratt & Europe, Buying mentioned 2\ per cent is paid, 
att Agra & other places Wherefore y e taking and Selling 
& paying y e Carriage &c« goods in Suratt, seems to have 
ChargfB we carry them to neither Good nor bad Conse- 
Suratt. "Wherefore the tak- quences. 
ing off Agra Goods in Suratt 
is without Expence & off 
advantage to his Majesty. 

2. That what provisions We fEnd by former Custom, 
or apparell are brought Or That what victualls, Stocks off 
Carried away Either by Land provision, Apparell, Gold & Silver 
or water they be nott molest- vessells, & women s Ornaments 
ed account off Custom, came to the 3 Settlements on their 
Moreover that the Generall Ships were nott molested account 
sending 10 or 15 Horses for off Custom. That what horses 
kisGomastoes[<7K»id*^afo], came for Sale, The Mutsuddys 
they be nott molested. [mutasaddls] writing down their 

description, putt a Seal upon their 
Necks. Iff said horses are fitt for 
his Majesty, they are bought with 
y e Owners consent paying down y e 
money. As for ye remainder ye 
Owner may sell them where he 

1 i.e. B»ro-ah. still called locally Barodra. 



Th» Petition. Aw Account fhom thb Kings Kings Signing. 


They now petition that what are 
for their own nse may nott be 
molested — Whatever is ordered P — 

S. Within y e City off We ffind by fformer Custom, that 
Suratt we hire a house bntt ye Dutch from their ffirst arrivall 
being quite rained, is neither In Suratt, hired a house with y e 
a proper receptacle for our owners Consent & paid the rent 
Selves nor Merchandize, & accordingly. Itt is Entered in 
through the populousness their phirmaund [farm an] off y e 
off the place, another Man- 2nd y ea r That there was an order 
sion is nott procurable ; to build a house in the town Ohund. 
The Capt. &c a living in a —Ordered that for y e Companys 
Garden without y e City. buisness, buying & Selling as ffor- 

We hope that a place within ; m erly ; & for y e Living off the 
or without ye City, where c^f &c a Either in City, Garden, 
our Ships come up near y e or near Gardens that they be nott 
ffrench Garden May be given mo l e ated. 

for y« keeping our Mer- T n ye mean time they humbly 
chandize and that according petition as abovementioned — 

to y e manner off other Citi- Whatever is ordered ? 

zens we may make a house 

& Garden. 
4. That what Dutchman We ffind by fformer Custom, Granted, 

running from them Lyes when any Servants, on whom they 

concealed & Does nott have demands, run from their 

appear ; That y 8 Mutsud- Cheif ; That y e Mutsuddys [muta- 

dys [mutasaddis] seize him saddts] deliver them up. 

& deliver him to y e Cheif. 

Concerning y* Mutsuddys 
[mutasaddis] In Bengali 
Behar cf* Orixa- 
1. The Custom on Goods According to an order In Zil- 
feought att Patna In Behar caude [Zu-1-qa'dah] & y« 619* 
is 2\ per Cent which is re- Year 1 ; The fformer Dutch petition, 
peated by ye Hugly Mut- sent by Sha Amud [Shah Ahmad] 
■uddys [mutasaddis] on their was introduced to his Majesty. 
Arrivall there; contrary " That the phowsdars [faujdars] 
to the tenour off the phir- & all other Governours In Agra, 
maund [farm an']. We hope Patna, Rajamoll [Eajmahal], 
for an order on y e Patna Muxadavad [Maqsudabad] &c a 
Mutsuddys nott to molest on j* banks on y e Ganges to 

* *Alamglr died on February 20, or 21, 1707, two days before the completion ol Zfi.l-qa'dah ol the 
illtj-flrst year. 


Thb Petition. An Accottnt fsom thb Zings Zings Signing. 


any Goods that are Carried Hugly be ordered for y e ffuture 
to Hugly Either by Land or nott to take double Custom from 
water. ye Dutch, butt only 2\ per Cent In 

Hugly" — Wherefore a phirmaund 
[farmdn] was Granted in y e 2 ad 
Year 1 Specifying to take 2\ per 
Cent Custom according to ye 
manner off Suratt. 

2. The towns Chintsoray An Account off the rent & Write to y* 
[Chinsurah] in y e Pergunna particulars off the towns and Duan [d7wa»] 
off Adsa, Barnagur in y 8 pergunnas in y e Subaship off that he Act ac- 
pergunna off Culcutta, & Bengali are nott in y e records, cording to Custom 
Mirzapoor in y e pergunna They petition tbat itt may be an d Sen d an acco^ 
off Bukshbunder have been according to y e Government & hither 
long rented by us for y e Custom off that Subaship. 
Sake off Carpenters, Smiths, On the back off a Sunnod 
hiring boates, loading our [sanad] which they obtained in 
Ships, Mullahs [mallahs] & Shabaun [Sha'ban], & y e 5* Year* 
other workmen. TJntill we under Murshed Cooly Cauns 
are in y e Entire possession [Murshid Quli Khan] Seal, whose 
our Merchandize cannott Copy they produce Under the 
pass Currant. We hope that Cozzys [qELzi't] Seal, & In a 
y e Mutsuddys [mutasaddis], Sunnod [sanad] under y e Seal off 
taking y e Stated rent, may Sherrufwoodeen [Sharfu-d-dln] 
act according to fformer the princes Duan {divan'} itt is 
Custom. wrote, "That ye Towns, Chintsoray 

[Chinsurah] in Adsa, Barnagur in 
Culcutta, & Mirzapoor in Bucksh- 
bunder [Bakhshi Bandar] have 
long since belonged to y e Dutch 
for their Ships necessarys; All 
Carpenters Smiths & Workmen 
living in those places. That the 
rent off those places be paid 
according to the Stated Jumma 
[jama], and that nothing more be 
required; The houses numbered, 3 
nor phirmaush [farmaish] made 
as fformerly." 
3. That, what Dutchman We find from Suratt, That for y e Granted. 
runs from ye Dutch Com-Elopement off any Servants, on 

1 ».«. 170S-9 a. D. 

• Further on, the day of the month is given, •»*, the 18th Sha'ban, or the 2lit August, 1711. 

1 [A translation of Kh&nah-tium&i », a liouie-tax. W. 1.1 



Thb petition. An account feom the Kings Kings sisnino. 


pany k does nott appear, whom they hare demands, from 
The Mutsuddys [mutasad- Either off the 3 Factorys ; That y« 
d'ts] deliver him to the Cheif. Mutsuddys [mutasaddu] Seize 

and return them. 

4. "Whatsoever Gold, The Custom on Siccas in y e Mint Whatever is 
Silver, and Copper is carried was pardoned in y e 19 th Year 1 delivered in, that 
from Hugly to Muxadavad of Allumgeer ['Alamglr] ; there their Siccas be 
[Maqsudabad], Rajamoll being a Great advantage reaped first Coined. 
[Eajmahal], Patna, Dacca, from y e Import off Gold and 

&c* in y e kingdom Account Silver. There was an order for 
ye Dutch Company, That no restraint in Coinage. Butt 
y e Droga \_darog]&K} off y e att what time plate was deliv- 
Mint be ordered to Coin ered in, the Mutsuddys 
their plate ffirst ; by default [mutasaddis] coin itt ; all which 
off which y e Ships loose was putt in Execution. The 
their Mussoon. Dutch Vakile [vakil] humbly peti- 

tions concerning y e Above written. 

5. Att the time off buying In y s Account off Customes for Following the 
petre, Ophium, Cloth, Silk, Cloth, Silk & Ophium, 3? per Cent Custom off Al- 
Sugar, Wax, Grain, &c*, was formerly taken. According to l um geer [' Ham- 
Merchandize Whether wove a phirmaund [farman] oft y e 2 nd g j r 1 That Extor- 
or off any other kind ; That Year 2\ per Cent was settled for tion & delay be 
2§ per Cent being taken in y e Dutch. nott practised in 
Hugly, There be no ffar- In ye 25th Year 2 the buying off their Cloth and 
ther delay given — petre. In Behar was prohibited — gjjfc. 

Upon which ye Dutch Vakile 
[vakil] wrote that y e buying off 
petre was permitted. 

They have gott a Copy under y« 

Cozzys [qazls] Seal off Murshid 

Cooly Cauns [Murshid Quli Khan] 

Sunnod [sanad] Duan Saba [diwan- 

i-mbah] off Bengali Behar &n* 

wrote y e 18*!? Shabaun [Sha'ban] 

& y e 5* 1 ? Year. 3 The tenour off a 

Sunnod [sanad] Under the Seal off 

Zeaudy Caun [Ziau-d-Din Khan]. 

In Ziloaud [Zu-1-qa'dah] & j* 

2nd Year 4 mentions "That Cloth, 

Silk, Petre, &c a bought in Bengali 
1 I, , 

1 i.e. 1675-6 A. D . 

* U. 1681-2 A. D. 

3 Thursday, 21«t August, 1711. 

* January, 1709. ( Jan, 2 to 31.) 


Thb petition. An account fbom the Kinos Kings aionimo. 


Behar & Orixa they bring to the 
port; & that y e Hackims & 
Chowkedars [chaukidars] doe nott 
molest their going backwards & 
forwards Account Carriage &cV 

The Dutch upon Account off 
Extortion & delays now humbly 

6. The Company s boates Formerly 8£ per Cent Custom Custom Accord- 
laden with Merchandize & ™*s Settled, In ye 2 a d Year 2\ per ing to the time 
their Gomastoes {gutnish- Cent. Forbidden dutys, Such as off Allumgeer 
tahs] to buy & Sell, pass Eawdarry [rahdari] are pardoned. ['Alamgir], 
fforward & Backward in y 6 

Country, with y® Captains 
Dustick [_dastak~] in Bengali. 
In the way the phowsdars 
Ifaujdars], Jaggeerdars \Ja- 
girdars], Jemidars {zamxn- 
d&rs], and Chowkedars 
[chaukidars'], att y e time Our 
Goods pass Molest us, and 
take something att Each 
place We hope they may be 
ordered nott to molest us, 
nott offering to take y e 
Minutest thing off what is 

7. Itt is Settled by a Phir- What is Customary for ye Dutch Granted, 
maund [farman]— That we is, That y e Cheif off y e Factory 

putt what Delolls [dalals] pitch upon what Deloll [dala.1] he 
we please into our buisness. pleases ; and that besides him, no 
Att present they fforce them- other interior in y e buisness. 
selves on us, raising ffalse For Justice on y e Mutsuddy's 
Storys on y e Companjs [mutasaddi s] names in all places 
"Vakiles [vakils] & Gomas- they petition as Abovewritten. 
toes [gumashtahs], bringing 
them from all parts to 
y e Subahs [subahdar't] 
Ketcherry [kachahrl], & 
plagning them so long ; till 
y e Ships Mussoon is gone, 
Sc y e Companys buisness 
Stoped. We hope there 


Thb Petition. An account from the Kings Zings signing. 


may be an order That All 
Hackims [hakim}, where 
y e Companys Gomastoes 
[gumashtahs] reside, weigh- 
inj y e matter, doe adminis- 
ter Justice. 

8. Our Masters Servants Itt is Settled In Suratt : That the 
for.a long time have lived m jj >utc | 1 ^^ ye Owners Consent 
Nuroola Cauns [Nurullah tire a house to ]ive in Continually; 
Khan's] house In Patna pay- payjng y6 ren t accordingly, & 
ing him 30 rupees per Month. nott turned out by ye 0wner ^ 
Att Nuroola Cauns They now petition upon ye Above- 

[Nurullah Khan's] death y e written _ What i s ordered? 
house was Seized for y e 
King, & y e Mutsuddys 

imutasaddis^ take y e rent, F rom the Consommany : khans- Q ra nted at 
sometimes Speaking to us to amaai]books we find That JN'uroolla 50 Ks. 
leave itt. We hope that the (jauns [Nurullah Khan's] houte 
house may be given us— Iff was Seized in y e time off y e 
this be nott granted — That Duan [Aplfe] Amud Ali-Caun 
an order be given on y e [Ahmad 'All Khan]. The Dutch 
present future Mutsuddys n0 w rent itt att 50 rupees per 
[mutasadilf] nott to turn month, 
us out butt to take y e 30 
Concerning Agra Mutsud- 
dys [mutasaddts]. 

1. That itt may be insert- From y? Manner off Suratt itt Granted 
ed in y e Agra phirmaund is manifest, That, Upon y? Elope- 
^farman ] That what ment off any one on whom they 
Dutchman runs from their have demands, The Mutsuddys 
Factory & lyes concealed [mutasaddts} send him to y e Cheif 
The Mutsuddys [mutasaddls] 
Seize him and deliver him 
to the Cheif. 

Concerning y s Mutsuddys 
[mutasaddls] of Furkvnda- 
booniaud 1 or Hyderabad to 
be Entered in that phir. 
maund [farman], 

I. Itt is Settled according Formerly in y e time off Allum- Granted, 
to a perwanna under Assid geer ['ilamgirj, There was a Hus- 

1 Farkhundah-bunyad, the auspicious foundation, an bonorifio appellation of Hadirabad. 



The Petition. Ax account feom the Kings Kings Signing. 


Cauns [Asad Khan] Seal, bul-Hoocum [hasbu-l-hukum ] 
wrote in ye 33 r . d Year wrote in Zilhedge [Zu-1-hijjah] 
[1689-1690] off Allumgeer and 33 r . d Yaar ; for ye Present and 
"'Alarngir] " That what debts ffuture Mutsuddys [mutasaddit^ 
are due from y e wearers, off Hyderabad [Haidrabad]. 
Dyers and others, The " That according to the petition off 
Gomastoes [gumctihtahs] be the Dutch Companys Vakile 
assisted in getting their [vakil] Mynheer Commadore 
money. That what Dutch- which was given to his Majesty; 
man withdraws and lyes The Mutsuddys "mutasaddisj assist 
concealed. The Mutsuddys their Masters Gomastoes r gumash- 
j/iutasaddis] Seize and tahs] in a just reimbursement 
deliver him to j e Cheif, from the Weavers Dyers & others, 
and That what Servants That iff their Countrymen or any 
shall be kept by them, be one disappear, The Mutsuddys 
nott hinder'd nor Afterwards 'mutasaddts] seize and deliver 
in any manner plunder'd." him to their Gomastoes [_gumdsh- 

tahs], and That they neither 
prohibitt nor plunder Servants 
that are kept for their trade." 
His Majesty consented to this 
Itt is settled accord- According to an Order off ye 
ing to a Husbulhoocum jgth Zilcaude [Zu-1-qa'dah] and 
Ihashu-l-^ukm] under Assid ye 33rd Year 1 of Allumgeer 
Cauns [Asad Khan's] Seal, [« Jlamgir] ; Jigea Ijizyahl was 
wrote in Zilhedge [Zu-1- pardoned y e Dutch and theirpeople 
hijjah] & y 8 33 r . d Year off in Hyderabad [Haidarabad]; 
Allumgeer ['ilamgir]. That Neither were the people numbered 
As Jigea \Jizyah~] was nott 
taken from Our Masters 
Servants In Hyderabad 
[Haidarabad] & Other places 
We have now by your 
Savour hopes in y e present 

1 ».«. Augiut 24, 166». 



A List off what given the Dutch att their dispatch from Mouzzedeen 
[ Mu'izzu-d-Din] (called Jehaun-Dor-Sha [Jahandar Shah]). 

To the Generall of Batavia — 

Jewells - 1 pudduck [padqkj 

1 dinger [khanjar] 


Otter [ '*>] off Eoses - 50 Tola 

Cloth Kimcabs [kamkhab] - 40 ps. 
White - - 60 ps. 

Shaul [Shall all sorts - 64 ps. 

164 ps. 

To the Envoy — 

Jewells - - 1 Toorah [turrah] in a Gold Sockett, sett with 
1 Cunger [khanjar] Sett with Stones, & a 


Horse 1 with Gold Furniture 

A Vest 

To the Second and third In Councill — 
Vests - 2 

Cungers [hhanjar\ - 2 

A List off what given y e Portuegueze Envoy By Furruckseer [Farrukhiiyar]— ■ 

In y« 3 rd Sc 4^ Year off his reign. 1 

■ - ■ ■ ■ — — t 

x According to Mr. Irvine the third year was from Ma: ch 16, 1714, to March 5, 1715, N. IS, and ttc 
fourth year, March 6,11715, to February 22, 1716, N. S. 


To the Envoy— 

On his arrivall - 1 Vest 

1 Horse 
Att Sundry times - 6,000 rupees in Cash 
Extraordinary far our - 1 Horse 

Att his dispatcb - - 4 Seerpaws \sar-o~pas] — For padree 

Joseph &c a who accompanyed him. 

To the Viceroy off Goa— 

Kimcabs [kamkhab"} - 40 ps. 
Shauls - 60 ps. 

Otter i'itr.] - - Tola 30 

The Con8omma 'khansaman] petitioned his Majesty y e 14th off Shabaun and 
ye 3rd Year [August 14, 1714]; That in ye time off Sha-Allum [Shah Alam] 

padree Jn? De the Portugueze Embassadour brought Goods, and a petition, to 

gire y e King Joy off his Kingdom; and that y e ffollowing particulars were 

given to His King and y e Viceroy off Goa — What is now ordered ? 


To the King off Portugall— 

1 pudduck [padakj — 10-000 Es. according toy e kings price. 

To the Viceroy off Goa — 

1 Toorah [turrah] ... Gold, sett with precious Stones, 

1 pudduck [padak] ... do. do. 

Otter I'itr] off Eoses ... 30 Tola. 

Do. Sandall [sandal] ... 9 do. 

R. S. Prot— J2f8J— 600—26. 3 -18C7- C. A. 


Aavannes, Khwajah, appointed vakil at 
the Mogul Court to treat for a far- 
man, 2i8 ; note on, 258w. 

•Abdullah Khan {see also Wazlr, Say- 
yads and Qutbu 1-mulk), viii, xvii ; 
appointed Wazlr, xviii; power and 
authority of, xxv; friendly to the 
English, xxv ; receives letter from 
Sarhad concerning the English 
present, 148. 

'Abdu-s-safa, 284. 

'Abdu s-samad Khan, xlii (2) ; note on, 
97n ; captures G-uru, 97. 

Abi Earn, 63 ; Divi Island in possession 
of, 119. 

.Xbnus. See Aavannes. 

Abu-1-Hasan {see also Golconda, King 
of), grants sanad for European 
settlements in Madras, 283, 289, 
290 ; note on, 283n, 289». 

Abii Muhammad, 42». 

Abunagar, note on, 42ra ; embassy arrive 
at, 42. 

Abtoab-i-mamnu'ah, 164, 166(2), 168, 169, 
171, 176; no'e on, I66/1, 171«. 

Achin, shipping goes to,;88. 

Addams, A., signs letter to the embassy, 
279, 282. 

Adsa, 294(2). 

Afrasyab Khan, note on, 69»; present 
for, 59». 

A"f tabah, 7 ; present for Farrukhsiyar, 
46, 47 ; present for I'timad Khan, 

A f tally, 28. 

Af?al Khan (see also Sadru-s-sudur), 
xviii ; farmans sent to, xlix ; note 
on, l?2rc. 

Agala wood, present for Farrukhsiyar, 

Aganaur, note on, 37w ; embassy arrive 
at, 37. 

Agharabad, 95n. 

Agra, 36, 41, 46, 205, 228, 287, 286, 
292^4), 293; embassy arrive at, xxx, 
liii, 44, 224; Mrs. Woodville's body 
sent to, 78-, Khan Jahan appointed 
Sibaddr of, 192 ; infested by Mewa- 
tis, 199; infested by Jats, 199, 216; 
embassy may be stopped at, 204 ; 

factory to be settled at, 267 ; Dutch 
at, 297. 

Ahmadabad, 167, 292; customs at, 82, 
120; farman for, 167, 190; factory 
to be settled at, 267. 

Ahmad 'AH Khao, 297. 

A jit Singh, Eaja of Jodhpur, xxii; 
attacked by Farrukhsiyar. xviii ; his 
daughter married to Farrukhsiyar. 
xxxv, 78 ; preparations for the 
marriage, 76; brought to Court by 
£>ahar Khan, ltj2; note on, 162n. 

Ajmor, xxxii, lb2». 

Akbar, x*ii; tomb of, xxx, 223m. 

Akbarabad, 205». 

Akbarnagar {see also Eajmahal), 289. 

Akhund, 275. 

Akram, seized for debt, 10. 

Akram_ Khan, 195, 202 {see also Ikram 

'Alam Chiind-ki-Sarae, embassy arrive at 
229 ; note on, 229». 

'Xlamganj, 21, 2!w. 

'Alamgir, vi, 144, 179, 18?, 186 ; purport 
of Sir William Norris's embassy to, 
283-291 ; Sir Nicolas Waite's petition 
to, with the remarks of the dhc&ni 
thereon, 283-291 ; present to the 
King of England, 283 ; death of, 293n. 

'Alamgirt rupees, 105. 

•Alam-panah, 279; note on, 279w. 

Aleppo, i>7. 

Alidad-ki-sarae, embassy arrive at, 233. 

Alipur, 119; English wish to rent, 63. 

Allahabad, 23, 24, 38, 39, 2(5, 229, 
232(4) ; embassy arrive- at, liii, 39, 
229 ; Subadar of {see also (Jhhabilah 
Karri' meets the embassy, liii, 229, 
and entertains them, liii, 229(2); 
present to the Subadar of, liii, 229; 
condition of the country :rouud, 216. 

Alliban Sultan, 1?7. 

Almau, embassy arrive at, 231 ; note on, 

Aloff, John, money paid into the Com- 
pany's cash, 97. 

Amanat Khan {see also Mubariz Khan), 
8C, 284«. 

Amanat Kae, 142 : returns the petition to 
Uhog Chand, 120; fard sent to, 
1*1 ; sends fards to I'tisam Khan, 
142 ; payment to, 170. 



Amar Sing, to settle differences with the 
carriers and Kahars regarding 
demurrage, 82, 34, 35. 
Ambalah. See Sardhana. 
Ambergris, present for Farrukhsiyar, xxxi, 

46, 47 ; present for the Wazir, 48. 
Ambika, lv, 248 ; embassy arrive at, 

249 ; note on, 249», 
Amboa. See Ambika. 
Amln Khan, brings Guru to Delhi, 95». 
Amlnu-d-dln Khan, 186 ; note on, 186». 
Amirabad, 118,2-0(2), 281, 2b2(4); rent 

of, 87. 
Arairu-1-umara [tee also Husain 'All 
Khan), 3, 29, 73, 206; note on, 30n, 
206?; ; his good graces secured, 105 ; 
Wazlr gives the embassy a recom- 
mendatory letter to, 217, 225. 
Amjad Khan, appointed Sadru-s-siidur, 

Anantram-ki-sarae, embassy arrive at, 

43; note on, 43». 
Anchors, those required for the King's 

use to be properly purchased, 286. 
Anne, Queen, news of her death reaches 

the embassy, xxx. 
Anup Chand, appointed assistant to 
Sarhad, 3; to visit Grhwat Khan 
with a view to obtaining a safe 
conduct for the embassy, 3, 4; his 
appointment cancelled owing to in- 
firmity, 17. 
Anwaru-d-dln Khan, 176. 
j[qa Muqim, 265. 

Aracan, 262; shipping goes to, 92. 
'&ri£ chela, ordered, to Patna to accom- 
pany the embassy, 6 ; arrival at 
Patna with the Kiog's orders, 6; 
delivers the King's orders to Mulla 
Nasir, 6 ; to deliver the King's letter 
to Grhairat Khan, 9. 
Ariruli. 281. 
Arlan Khan, introduces Khan Jaban to 

Court, 102». 
Arma^on, 256, 266n ; factory dismantled, 

Armenians, 16, 148, 151, 153 ; concessions 
obtained through, viii ; Sarhad's 
connections with, xxii; embassy 
misdirected by, xxiv, xxxii ; their 
ideas of Mogul Government, xxv ; 
deceitfulness of, xlvii, lii. 
Arms, present for Farrukhsiyar. xiv.' 
Arraok, Sarhad's acoountfor, and the 
embassy's criticisms thereon, 211, 
214, 242. 
Arwal, fort of Sidisht Narayan, 37 ; 
embassy arrive at, 37 ; note on, &7n. 
'Arzddsht, 30; from Governor Robert 

Hedges to the King, 204. 
'Arzt, 195 ; for Bombay Mint, 122, 126; 
for the embassy's departure, 179; 

for the delivery of the farming, 
'Arz-i-nmkarrar, Salabat Khan appointed 

. ' to the office of, 107 ; note on, 107w. 
Asad Khan (see also Muhammad Ibra- 
him), iv, «3, 268(2), 259, 260; note 
on, 60«, 63«, 258» ; grants hasbu-l- 
hit km to the English, 60; towns 
granted by, 2«6; burns the records 
of the Kingdom, 274; parvodna 
granted by, 279; dastak granted by, 
279; grants para a. nu to the Dutch, 
'IvK ; grants hasbu l-hukm to the 
Butch, 298. 
Asaf Khan, 44».J 

Asghar Khan (see also Khan Zaman), 
195, 202; note on, 4m ,• rumoured 
appointment a* Governor of Patna, 
4 ; King's orders to, 6 ; in possession 
of fort of Patna, 35. 
Assam, 275ra. 
Atlas (satin), present from Farrukhsiyar 

to Governor Hedges, 251. 
Alma Earn, 187 ; pay of, 32. 
Aurangabad, 21, 26, 261 ; note on, 2 In, 

248n ,• embassy arrive at, 248. 
Aurangs, 122, 127, 145, 276; note on, 
65«; trade not to be interfered with, 
65 ; factors, etc. not to be molested, 
Aura ngzeb, Emperor, 165, 267 ; refuses to 
grant the English a far man for 
trade, v, 60, 274(2) ; yields to the 
pressure of the English and grants 
their demands, xlviii ; rebellion of 
the U jjainis, 12w ; his present! of 
certain towns to the English, 63 ; 
Surat customs fixed by, 168 ; pri- 
vileges granted by, 276. 
Aurengzehe, the, xiii. 
Avakues, Khwajah. See Aavannes. 
Ayytim-i-jahalat, 119«. 
A'zam Shah, nishdns granted by, 60 ; note 

on, 60». 
'Azlinu-sh-shan, vii, 149, 205?* ; note on, 
60n, lt>3ra ; concessions to the 
English, viii ; nishans granted bv, 60, 
81,86, 118(2), 123, 163,277. 
Azzimnagar, embassy arrive at, 44. 
A'zzu-d-daulah Khan 'Alam, 192». 


Babu-ki-sarae, note on, 39»; embassy 

arrive at, 39, 231. 
Bad Dakshini pandi. See Dakshiai 

Dandi, Bad. 
Badlah, presents from Farrukhsiyar to 

the East India Company and to 

Governor Pitt, 240(2;. 
Badli, 50». 



Badraqah, 236 ; note on, 236«, 

Bad Sun da. See Sunda, Bad. 

Baftaes, presents from Farrukhsiyar to 

the East India Company, 240. 
Baghaula, embassy arrive at, 45 ; note 
on, 45 n. 

Bagmari, 281. 

Bahadur Dil Khan, 80. 

Bahadur, Khan, 263, 264 ; note on, 263», ; parwanas granted by, 265 ; 
friendly to the English, 266; letter 
from Governor Pitt, 266 ; towns 
granted by, 266. 

Bahadur Shah, 149, 179, 182, 186 ; 
Dutch embassy to, xxxi, 46ra ; 
tomb of, xliii; interregnum between 
the death of, and accession of Far- 
rukhsiyar, 119» ; Surat customs 
fixed by, 168; ceremonies attending 
the presentation of a vest to Gover- 
nor Pitt, 251. 

Babadurpur, embassy arrive at, 39. 

Baidyanath, pilgrim route tt>. 38». 

Bairagl, complains to the Wazir that 
diamonds taken from him by Gover- 
nor Pitt have not beeen paid for, 
201 ; complains to Governor Hedges, 
20 ! ; approaches Sarhad in the matter, 
201 ; his complaint to be investi- 
gated, 205 ; taken by the Wazir's 
yasdwalas to the embassy, 206. 

Bakewar, embassy arrive at, 42, 226; note 
on, 42», 226«. 

Bakhshi, 29. 206; visit to, 15 ; office held 
by Khan Uauran, 206». 

Bakhshi Bandar, 294(2). 

Baksaris, 2?8; note on, 15» ; engaged, 
15 ; sent as a convoy, 35 ; wages of, 

Balasore, ground required at, 277. 

Balchand, money paid into the Com- 
pany's cash, 236. 

Balkh, 195». 

Balleau (Sarhad's, bill of 
exchange payable to, 130(2). 

Bamnikhera, embassy arrive at, 45; note 
on, 45?j. 

Bandah, seizes Sirhind, xli ; surrender 
of, xlii ; execution of, xliii. 

Bandizas, ? ; note on, 107« ; present tor 
Taqarrub Khan, 48 ; present from 
the Wazir to the King, 107. 

Banians, wages of, 275. 

Bans (rockets), 102, I 02m, 104, 104». 

Bans Bareli, 205 ; nole on, 206». 

Barapulah, 206, 210, 218. 219, 221, 230; 
note on, 45» ; embassy arrive at, 
lii, 45, 47. 

Bar-bardari (carriage), granted by 
Farrukhsiyar, 188. 

Barbeirs or Barbiers, 3 ; note on, 3». 

Barber, wages of, 275. 

Bareli, See Bans Bareli and Ilae Bareli. 

Barh, 245. 

Barker, Hugh, xi, xx, In, 27, 114, 
130, 148, 219, 220; his character 
and services, xiii, xiii» ; trans- 
lates a letter to Mons. Martin, 4; 
palanquin for, 11 ; allowance for 
clothes, 20; signs letters to the 
President and Council at Fort 
William, 54, 78, 80, 94, 98, 101, 106, 
117, 130, 138, 139, 147, 169, 161(2), 
179, 184, 190, 204, 209(2), 227; 
signs letters to the President and 
Council at Fort St. George, 68, 66, 
76, 134, 135 ; signs letter to the 
President and Council at Bombay, 
183 ; to question Sarhad regarding 
the return of the fards, 121 ; his 
interview with Sarhad, 123 ; money 
paid into the Company's cash, 130 ; 
present from Farrukhsiyar, 191 ; 
called to a consultation to consider 
Sarhad's device for obtaining a grant 
for the embassy's expenses, 188 ; 
Thos. Philips signs consultations 
during the indisposition of, 199ra; 
money required for the embassy's 
expenses, 224 ; sent by the embassy 
to wait upon Governor Hedges, 
2nl; his expenses, 252, 253; 
appointed a member of the em- 
bassy, 271 ; to become third 
member of the embassy in the 
event of Surman's death, 271 ; to 
sit in Council, take minutes and 
attest Sarhad's assent or dissent, 

Barker, Richard, xiii. 

Barnagar, xi ; rented by the Dutch, 
294 (2). 

Barodah, 292 ; note on, Iz67» ; factory 
to be settled at, 267, 

Baroli, embassy arrive at, 2123; note on, 

Barqandaz, engaged for the return jour- 
ney, 199. 

Batavia, 191 ; presents from Jahandar 
Shah to the general of, 299. 

Bazar JVJadho Sinha. See Madho Hatlya, 

Beard, John, iii. 

Beetle box and plate, present to Far- 
rukhsiyar, 49; present to the Wazir, 

Begam Sarae, embassy arrive at. 229 ; 
note on, 22Vn. 

Behar, 39, 232; Mir Jumlah appointed 
Governor of, xix; English request 
farmans for free trade, xxxviii, xl, 
92; granted, 162; customs at, 69, 
lis, 13S, 168, 263; faotory at, 
167, 169; Dutch in, 293. 

Beldars, 8. 



Belgachhiya, 280. 

Benares, 4, 12, 28, 87, 39; 

arrive at, xxix, liv, 231 ; descrip- 
tion of, xxix. 
Bengal, English factories proposed, ii, 
?83 ; factories in, 167, 169 ; Sir 
Edward Littleton appointed Presi- i 
dent, iii ; English forced to leave, 
iii ; letters to the embassy, I, 237, 
249 (2), 251 ; letters from the em- 
bassy, 1-2, 46, 73, 77, 79, 90, 96, 
99, 103, 106, 108, 114, 125, 133, 137, 
138, 141, 14*, 147, 1'iO, 175, 178, 
181 (21, 190, 202, 209 (2), 213, 22l, 
222, 224, 227, 228, 231, 232, 834. 
235 (2), 23'S 238, 244, 247, 248, 
249, 250 (2) ; letter from Madras, 
255, V68 ; farman for trade, xxxviii, 
xl, 38, 92, 118, 135, 137, M'», 143, 
145,160, 162, 176, 190, 276, 283; 
request for farman at first ignored, 
84 ; effect of the farman, lvii ; 
customs at, 69, 122, 126, 133, 263, 
278 ; grant of towns in, 81, £4, 91, 
88, 94 ; amount sanctioned by the 
President for customs at Surat, 89 ; 
pncca hossana rupees in, 105 ; 
troubles with Ja'far Khan, 106 ; 
I'tisam Khan, Governor of, I09w ; 
satisfaction of the embassy's wishes 
regarding, 117 ; mints of, 135 ; re- 
quest for a mint to be settled near 
the factory, 289 ; affairs in, 263 ; 
instructions concerning the negotia- 
tions of the embassy to Farrukh- 
siyar, 270; privileges required by, 
276 ; European settlements in, 283 ; 
sanad granted to the President to 
be permanent and not personal, 288; 
Dutch in, 293 
Bengal goods, sent to the embassy for 
sale on commission, 273-4 ; present 
for I'timad Khan, 68 ; present for 
I'tibar Khan, 70. 
Benvon, B., signs letter to the embassy, 

Betor, 280. 

Bha»alpur, 4 ; embassy arrive at, 247. 
Bharuamkera, 222k. 

Bhao Singh, money paid into the Com- 
pany's cash, 178. 
.naroch, 286. 
uhog Chand, 43*. 124(2), 142^3), 180, 
183, 240, 243; note on, \Wn, 116», 
180ra; embassy attempt to bribe, 
xlvi ; asks for copies of the petition, 
110; petiiion delivered to, 110, 111, 
113, 1)6, 120; declares that the 
petition requires consideration, 110; 
present and bribes for, 110(2), 116, 
153; promises to help the embarsy, 
118, 114(2), and complete their 

business, 116; to prepare a farman, 
114'; tot use his influence with 
I'tisaru Khan, 123 ; antagonistic to 
the embassy, 124. 
Bhognipur, note on, 43re ; embassy arrive 
at, 43, 226. 

Bhog Sagar, 43m. 

Jihojpur, I in. 

Bhopat Eae, bribed, 182. 

Bibelooty, 289. 

Bijapur, 265; conquest of, 257. 

Bikrani Sarae, lw ; note on, 37m; em- 
bassy arrive at, 37. 

Bilwarrynaltam. See Vilvarryanattatn. 

Eindraban, 223. 

Birji, 281. 

Black cases, Sarhad's account for, with 
the embassy's criticisms thereon, 
211, 2)4,212. 

Black Hole. lvii. 

Blunderbuss, present forlGhii rat' Khan ; 
18; present for Dnrbar Khan, 67; 
present for I'timad Khan, 68 ; pre- 
sent for .lawahir Khan, 71. 

Boats, embassy's expenditure on, 253. 

Bombay, 11 6; early history of the 
English factory, iii ; mint at, xl, 88, 
90, 98, 119, 12'.', 126, 13H, 137, 143, 
145,164,166 2), 168(2), 170, 176, 
268, 278(2) ; letters from the em- 
bassy, 89, 107, 182, 224; letters to 
the embassy. 97, 108. 2Z7; trade 
of, 116; farman for, 135, 276 ; 
Farrukhsiyar's present to the Presi- 
dent at, 19) ; instructions from, 
regarding the negotiations of the 
embassy to Farrukhriyar, 267; 
custom house at, 2os ; customs at, 
269; copies of grants to be sent 
to, 272; embassy to confirm with 
orders and requests from, 2? 2. 

Boone, Governor Charles, 132(2), 217, 
220 ; arrival at Bombay, 97 ; letters 
from the embassy, 107, 182, 224. 

Bordwan, 277. 

Borlace, Ensign George, 270. 

Borou, 280 (5) ; rent of, 87. 

Bottles, rose otter to be put in handsome 
bottles, 7. 

Brachmin, 68. 

Bramin, 18. 

Brandy, present for the Wazlr, 74. 

Bribes, indispensable for furthering the 
petition, 112. 

Broadcloth, 62, 65, 83, 149; sale of, 
121, 123, 129; present for Sidisht 
Narayau, 12; present for Ghairat 
Khan, 18, 41 ; present for Darbar 
Ehan, 66, 68; present for I'timad 
Khan, 68 ; present for I'tibar Khan, 
69 ; present for Jawahir Khan, 70 ; 
present for the mutasaddis of the 


JLh&nsilm&n, 79 ; present for Na'itn 
Khan, 86; present for qa%i, 170; 
present for the Subadar of Alla- 
habad, 229. 

Brocades, present for Farrukhsiyar. ix; 
present for Darbar Khan, 67 ; pre- 
sent for I'timad Khan, 68. 

Brodera. See Haroda. 

Brokers, 268, 287. 

Brown, Ensign John, 270. 

Brown. S., 253; letter to the embassy, 
279, 282. 

Bii ' All Qalandar, tomb of, xxxiii. 

Buckley, E., 259. 

Budgerows, 177, 216 ; not sent to Patna 
as requested 236 ; sent from 
Calcutta to Patna, 2.7- 

Bullion, 7. 

Burbanpur, it, xxxiii, 65,250; note on, 
65n; Daud Khan appointed Gov- 
ernor of, xix. 

Burkundass, dismissed for mutiny, 231. 

Uumell, Jchn, payment to, for preparing 
a map of the-world, xiv. 

Buttons, gold, the King's present to 
Dr. Hamilton, 76, 77. 

Buyutati, objects to the seal of Surman 
and to the number and size of 
wagons for the Kintj 's present, xxiii ; 
list of carriages prepared for, 6 ; 
Surman sends sealed lists of car- 
riages etc., to, 7; refuses to accept 
fards unless sealed by Sarhad, 8 ; 
agrees to the seals of Surman and 
Sarhad, 8; visited by Sarhad, 8; 
disputes regarding paying for 
carriages, U; duties of, 17» ; 
takes account of the carriages, 21 ; 
moneys paid to, 21 ; present for, 23 ; 
gives 2,000 siccas to Sarhad for 
kahar's pay, 33 ; his seal to be on 
.the dastaks, 198 (2); Ziyau-d-din 
Khan appointed to the office of, 


Cadell, A., 42m. 

Calcutta, >80 (4), 281(16), 282 v 51, 294(2) ; 
embassy desire to rent towns near, 
xxxviii (2), xl, 60, 94, 118, 122, 127, 
133, 137, 188, 139, 144, 145. 163, 
195, 202 ; certain towns refused, 183, 
177 ; parwana granted for towns 
at, 183 ; proposal that it be re-named 
Farrukhbandar, xxxviii, xxxix, 60 ; 
change of name abandoned, 74 ; rent 
of, 87 ; English desire the grant of, 
93 ; grant cf ground at, 115, 1,38, 
139, 277, 282 ; objection to grant of 
ground at, 100, 108 ; ground not 

granted at, 136, 138 ; faujddtr to deal 
with thieves at, 122, 12o, 133; 
parwanas for, 207 ; Ja'far Khan dis- 
allows the grant of towns at, con- 
trary to ttie King's orders. 232; 
mint at, 263 ; rented to the English, 

Callimancoes, present for Darbar Khan, 
67; present for I'timad Khan, 68; 
piesent for I'tibar Khan, 69; present 
for Janahir Khan. 71. 

Cambay {see also Gujarat), 167, 285(2), 
2*6 ; note on, 2S5n ; customs at, 82, 
120 ; factory to be settled at, 267. 

Camel-keepers, wages of, 275. 

Camel keeping, Sarhad's allowance for, 
2 _ 6 

Camels, xxi, 7 ; purchase of, 14, 15, 21 ; 
purchased for the return journey, 
199 ; Sarhad's account for, with the 
embassy's criticisms therpon, 211, 
214 ; to be sold at Patna, 21 d; dis- 
posed of, 2S7, 238 ; casualties, 226, 
228, 232 ; embassy's expenditure on, 

Camoletts, present for Darbar Khan, 67 ; 
present for I'timad Khan. 6*; piesent 
for I'tibar Khan, 70. 

Canary wine, present for tho Wazlr, 74. 

Candlesticks, 7 ; present for Farrukhsiyar, 

Canisters, amber, 51. 

Cannons, present by Farrukhsiyar, xx. 

Cannore, 220. 

Carboy, present for Darbar Khan, 68; 
note on, 68». 

Carpattecarrearcoopam. See Karagara- 

Carpenters, 8. 

Carpets, present for I'timad Khan, 69 ; 
allowance for, xiv ; embassy's expen- 
diture on, 252. 

Carriages, 7, 8, 16, 19 ; number required 
for the present, xx», 13 ; required 
by the embassy, xxi, 5, 6; carry- 
ing private goods, 9, 13 ; scar- 
city of, 5 ; list prepared for the 
buyutTiti, 6, 21 ; departure of em- 
bassy hindered by the want of, 9 ; 
arrival for loading, 9 ; account of, to, 
11 ; charges for private good:*, 18; 
disputes re payment for, 14 ; to pro-, 
ceed, 14 ; those with the present to 
proceed alone, 22 ; goods damnged 
by rain, 22 ; attempted robbery of, 
22 ; hired for the return journey, 
199; rates and conditions of hire, 

Carriers, 34; note on, 42^; troubles 
with, 23, 25, 27, 31 ; detained in 
prison, 24 ; their quarrel adjusted, 
26; their grievances regarding 



demurrage, 32, 41; tbeir demands 
complied with, 41 ; Amar Sing's 
scheme for settling differences with, 
34. 36 ; turbans for, 35 ; paid an 
advance, 88; payment to, 42; demur- 
rage granted to, 208. 
Cassimbazar. See Cossimbazar. 
Casualties, caused by the heat, 224. 
Catteewaka. See Kattivakkam. 
Cemetery, ground required for, 284. 
Chatendish, 7 
Challa, present for Darbar Khan, 67; 

note on, 67». 
Chand. Khan, 24, 
Chandragiri, 256m. 
Changar»s. See Juncans. 
Chat arghatta, embassy arrive at, xxx. 
CharManah, note on, 67m; present for 
Darbar Khan, 67 ; present for 
I'tiuiad Khan, 68. 
Charnock, Job, advocates policy of forti- 
fied settlements, iii; his burial 
place, lvi. 
Chaube-ki-sarae, note on, 42« ; embassy 

arrive at, 42, 229. 
Chaudharls, sai'-o-pas for, 35. 
Chaukls, 260; their obstructions to trade 

by extorting customs, 263. 
Chaumuha, xxxi ; embassy arrive at, 44 ; 

note on, 44». 
Chaurangl, 281. 

Chela, 12, 28, 197(2), 223, 224, 938, 245; 
to accompany the embassy, xxii, 6 ; 
requested by the embassy for the 
return journey, 202. 
Chemmandalam, 266; note on, 266n. 
Chhabilah Earn (see also Allahabad, 
subadar of), xviii, 205, 22V ; note on, 
206» ; his reception of the embassy, 
280; entertains the embassy, 
Chhath, embassy arrive at, 223; note on, 

Chicacole, 61, 119, 166, 264; note on, 

61m, 264». 
Chilamchi, 7 ; present for Farrukhsiyar! 
46, 47 ; present for I'timSd Khan, 
Chilams, present for I timad Khan, 
69 ; present for Darbar Khan, 67 ; 
present for I'tibarJKban, 70; pre«ent 
for Tawahir Khan, 71. 
Child, Governor, 268. 
China, Sarhad submits to the King a 
list of rarities purchasable in, 
China garden, present for the W.azir, 66. 
China ware, 52. 

Chroapatam (see alto Madras), vi, 263; 
customs at, 165(2) ; mint at, 166, 
167; factory at, 167; grant of 
villages, 256. 

Chin Qillch Khan (see also ftizamu-l- 
mulk), to conduct Mir Jumlahout of 
Delhi, 96. 
Chinsurah, rented by the Dutch, 294 (2). 
Chitpur, 282. 
Chittagong, 62. 

Ch'jbdarg, 153, 193; note on, 154n; 
presents to, 56; wages of, 276, 277. 

ChobJar sticks, 7. 

Cbuckwars, 4. 

Chumundolum. See Chemmandalam. 

Churaman Jat, 183«. 

Clerke, Mr., 132(2). 

Clive, Lord, lvii. 

Clocks, xxxiii, 61 ; present for Farrukh- 
siyar, xiv, xxxi, 46, 47 ; sent back 
to Delhi, 66; sarbafts for, 71. 

Cloth, present for Farrukhsiyar, ix, xiv, 
xx; present for Sidisht Narayan, 
xxiii ; duties on, at Surat, 64; pre- 
seni from Farrukhsiyar to Governor 
Hedges, 2>j6; wasnermen not to be 
molested, 290; customs paid by the 
Dutch, 295 ; present from Jahandar 
Shah to the Dutch embassy, 299. 

Clothes, supplied to the soldiers, 13 ; 
supplied to the embassy, 271. 

Coach, permission to use, 288. 

Coffee pot, 7. 

Cogan, Andrew, 256re (2) ; arrives at 
Madras, 256» ; called to account by 
the Court of Directors for founding 
Fort St. George, 256». 

Cohars. See Kahars. 

Collett, Governor, 220; letter to, 226. 

Conara, 289. 

Conimeer. See Kunimedu. 

Consultations, references to, passim ; to 
be sent regularly to Bengal, 272 ; 
sent to Fort William, 47, 64, 73, 78, 
80, 94, 98, 106, 117, 180, 147, 161 (2) , 
177, 187, 196, 202, 216, 221, 245, 
248 ; signed by Thos. Philips during 
the indisposition of Hugh Barker, 

Coock, Mr., takes letter to Calcutta, 194. 

Cooke, T., letter to the embassy, 261. 

Cooks, wages of, 275, 276. 

Coorpur. See Kunwarpur. 

Coral, lost by Khwajah Fanus at Born* 
bay, and his complaint to the King 
regarding it, 196. 

Cororaandel coast, xxxix, 76, 260 ; the 
want of a port on, xl ; trade of, 91; 
shipping at, 92 ; farman for trade 
at, 144, 145, 225; privileges granted 
from time to time, 256-8. 

Cossaes, present for Darbar Khan, 67 ; 
present for I'timad Khan, 68 ; present 
for I'tibar Khan, 70. 

Cossid. See Qasid. 



Cossimbazar, 216, 220, 263 ; ground 
required at, 277. 

Crabb, Arthur, xiii. 

Crockery, present for Farrukhsiyar, xx. 

Cudalore. See Kiiclalur. 

Cuddecalcoopam. See Kudikkadukup- 

Cullases, 214 ; note on, 214» ; present for 
I'tibar Khan, 70 ; present for 
Jawahir Khan, 71. 

Cunna, 247 ; Dutch boats stopped at, 

Cuperah, embassy wish to rent, 63. 

Currahs, li9(2). 

Customer, not to open private packages, 

Custom House, inspection of goods, 82. 

Customs, 260, 265 ; lump sum paid 
annually at Hugli, 59, 118, T20, 163, 
168, 263, 276; Sarhad expects an 
order for the receipt of, at Hugli, 
156 ; ports free of, 62 ; payments at 
various places, 82; at Madras, 62, 

85, 116, 122, 127, 278 ; at Surat, 64, 

86, 86, 87, 89, 92, 93, 94,97,116, 
118, 120(2), 123, 127, 133, 135, 137, 
144, 145, 163, 167, 168, 263-4, 278(2), 
285 ; amount sanctioned by the 
President at Bengal for Surat, 89; 
at Ahmadabad, 82, 120; at Masuli- 
patam, 88 ; at Behar, 118, 133, 168 ; 
at Orissa, 118, 168; at Cambay, 120; 
paid by the Dutch, 120, 291-2, 
293-4, 296, 296 ; at Bengal, 122, 126, 
133, 278 ; abolished except at Surat, 
163, 288_; at Chinapatam, 165(2); 
none at Haidarabad, 165; extortions 
and delays of the Customer of Surat, 
263-4 ; extorted by the chaukls, 263 ; 
at Bombay, 267, 269 ; payable on 
indigo, 267 ; custom house at 
Bombay, 268 ; petition regarding, 
285-6; not to be levied a second 
time, 285 ; excused on merchandise, 
provisions and apparel brought for 
private use, 290 ; Dutch request that 
certain arficles be customs free, 292. 

Cutborrah, 163. 

Cutlery, 52; present for Darbar Khan, 

67 ; present for I'timad Khan, 68 ; 

present for I'tibar Khan, 70 ; present 

for Jawahir Khan, 71. 

Dacca {see also Jabangirnagar), 263 ; 

mint at, 61, 289; ground required 

at, 277 ; Dutch money coined at, 

Dacoits, attack the camp, 44. 
Dagger, present from Farrukhsiyar to 

E. StephensoD, 46n, 47. 

Dak, 220, 224. 

Dale chauJti, 272. 

Dakhini Kae {see also Murlldhar Bhae, 
Sen Dakhini Eae), 218, 220 ; bribed, 
217; peshkar of Sarhad, 217; urged 
to hasten the delivery of Hedges' 
farman, 218. 

Dakshinidandi, 280, 

Dakshinidandi, Bad, 282. 

Dakshini Paikpada, 280. 

Balali, 285, 296. 

Dalanda, 281, 

Dallibar, Capt. Henry, 270. 

Danes, 157. 

Daniel, Padre, viii, 5, 30, 148; his rela- 
tions and terms with Sarhad, xxii, 
239; letters from, xxiv, 29; letter 
misleads the embassy, xxy; ex- 
aggerates the value of the present 
for Farrukhsiyar, xxvi, 29, 149 ; 
rebuked for the exaggeration, 31 ; 
deceitfulness of, xxvi, xlvii ; the 
embassy's letter to, 4; letter to 
Sarhad, 5; requested not to give 
pre-eminence to Sarhad over Surman 
in all orders from Court, 8 ; to get 
an order from the King re seizure 
of debtors, 12 ; qasid from, 21 ; to 
prevent more bills of exchange, 24 ; 
receives letter from Sarhad, 30; 
contents of letter declared false, 31 
letter to Surman and Sarhad and the 
reply, 31 ; payments at Court queried, 
31; promises money to mutasaddls, 
63 ; swindles the Dutch, 148 ; his 
character and behaviour, lii, 148, 
150 ; receives orders from Sarhad, 
148, 151 ; his quarrel with Sarhad 
and accusations against him, 149 ; 
his expenditure and further de- 
mands, 150; pressed for an account 
of his expenditure, 150-1 ; his 
authority from Sarhad for expendi- 
ture of money, 151 ; Khwajah Fanus 
pleads on behalf of, 151 ; Sarhad's 
account of monies paid to, and the 
embassy's criticisms thereon, 211- 

Darbar Khan, present for, 66-8; note 
on, 6c>». 

Dariyapur, embassy arrive at, 246; 
note on, 246». 

Darocrftah, customary to bire houses 
from, 81. 

Daroo-Jehaud, 289. 

DastaJcs, 4, 24, 25, 27, 65, 122, 127, 
146, 170, 195, 198(2), 204, 213, 
217, 218 (2), 221, 222, 224, 226, 
238, 245(2), 247, 248, 258,276; note 
on, 206/i ; for carriages, 13 ; refused, 
177 ; to be sealed by the buyutati, 
198(2); signed by Zivau-d-it'D. 



Khan, 200 ; requested by the em- 
bassy for the return journey, 202, 
205 ; granted for the return journey, 
206; granted by Asad Khan, 279. 
Dastar-band, 107». 
Dastkhat, 114. 
Djsturi, 212. 

Daud Khan, 260, 263; note on, 37rc, 73», 
260/1 ; appointed Governor of JBur- 
hanpur, xix; quarrel 'with Husain 
'JQi Khan, xxxiii, 65 ; defeated 
and slain by Husain 'All Khan, 
xxxiv, 73, 75, 260n ; villages at 
Fort St. David granted by, 260, 266 ; 
his doings at St. Thome, 265w ; 
parw&na granted by, 274. . 
Daudnagar, embassy arrive at, 37, 233 ; 

note on, 37». 
Dauran,Khan(sce also Samsamu-d-daulah), 
xxhi, xxv, 13, 29 (2), 30(2), 105 
(5), 106, 108, 109, 112, 120, 135, 148, 
153, 155(2), 171, 179 (3), ISO. 191, 
193 (2), 194, 195, 197, 207, 210, 245; 
favourite of Farrukhsiyar, xvii, 
47; early career, xvii; acts as 
deputy to Husain 'AH Khan, xviii; 
induces Farrukhsiyar to grant the 
payment of travelling expenses of 
the embassy, xxii ; letter from Mir 
Jumlah,_ xxviii, 37» ; weakness 
prejudicial to the embassy, xxv ; his 
reputed power at Court, xxxii, 97,126, 
133 ; his character, 126; letter from, 
21 ; letter to, 32 ; arranges for recep- 
tion of the embassy, 45 ; receives the 
embassy, xxxi, 46 ; introduces the 
embassy to Farrukhsiyar, xxxj, 
56 ; embassy to visit him, 47 ; to 
receive the first call from the em- 
bassy, 48 ; visited by the embassy, 
xxxii, 49, 50, 192, 2(6 ; embassy 
negotiate with, 30; negotiations for 
the embassy, xxxiii, 53, 67 ; dila- 
toriness of, 79, 94, 97,99(2), 1(,'8, 113, 
134,138,152,183 ; reason of his dila- 
toriness, 109 ; asked by Salabat 
Khan to complete the embassy's 
business, 103,149 ; promises to settle 
the embassy's business, 100, 101, 102, 
104,105,107,108,125,129,131,133; to 
be approached through Kirpa jKani, 
125,129,154; Kirpa Kam's influence 
with, 129 ; presents for, 48,58 ; refu- 
ses present, 72 (2) ; receives present, 
72m; agree to get the petition 
signed by the King, xlv ; promises 
to forward the petition, 76 ; petition 
sent to, 77; urged to present the 
petition, 77; presents petitions to 
iarrukhsiyar, xxxix, xl, 79, 136; 
petition returned by Farrukhsiyar, 
79 ; denies knowledge of the second 

petition, 98,100 ; asked to prevent 
the fards being transferred to Qut- 
bu-1-uiulk, 99 (3); agrees that petition 
be transferred to Qutbu-l-muik as 
Wa&ir, 98 (2), 100 ; reason why he 
transferred to Qutjbu-1-mulk, 105 ; 
proposes to act conjointly with the 
Wazir in the matter of the petition, 
108'; orders the petition to be sent to 
the djwant, 112 ; reminded about 
the petition, 114 ; on being pressed 
to complete the embassy's business, 
appoints umpires, 116 ; petition 
taken to, 116 ; petition examined, 
117 ; will not commit himself, 
124 ; confers with Sarhad and 
Salabat Khan regarding the 
petition, 1S1 (2) ; returns the peti- 
tion signed by Farrukhsiyar, 136-7 ; 
interview with Sarhad and Salabat 
Khan regarding Surat house and Cal- 
cutta ground, 138 ; sends petition 
to the ditccLm, 152 ; I'tisam Khan 
reports that the petition need not 
go to, 162 ; to be frightened in»o 
compliance with the embassy's re- 
quests, 154 ; temporary withdrawal 
from Surat would cause Haidar 
Quli Khan to write to him respect- 
ing concessions, 107 ; informed by 
Haidar Quli Khan of the projected 
withdrawal of the English from 
Surat, xlviii, 129, 132 ; yields to 
pressure from Surat and tries to 
satisfy the embassy, 129, 132 ; 
quarrel with Muhammad Amin 
Khan, xlv, 102, 104 ; his digni- 
ties and privileges reduced by the 
King, and then restored, xlvi, 
J(>2 ; deprived of "the trumpet", 
104 ; his failure to obtain farmans, 
xliv ; English continue to press 
their demands through the media- 
tion of, xlvii ; ignored by the 
embassy, xlviii; hasbu-l-hukm from, 
to G-hairat Khan, 3 ; hasbu-lhukm 
from, sent to oarbuland Khan, 233 ; 
cause of delay to the embassy, 6 ; 
Surman receives tar-o-pa from, 6 ; 
displeased with the embassy for 
writing to Ziyau>d-din Khan and 
Mons. Martin, 30-31 ; list of the 
first present sent to, 45 ; assures 
the embassy of help, 47 ; rank of, 
47ra ; his advice on all matters 
to be taken by the embassy, 50 ; 
money promised him by Padre 
Daniel, 63 ; disputes between the 
King, the Wazir and, 54 ; calls 
Dr. Hamilton to the King's camp, 
55 ; title of, 72» ; recommends de- 
livery of remainder of present to 



Farrukhsiyar, 76, 77 j presents to his 
servants, 83 ; his servants harrass 
the embassy because they have not 
been bribed, 112; no farther de- 
mands to be made by his people, 84 ; 
refuses the demands of the 
Turanis, 93 ; asked to hasten the 
negotiations, 95 ; not the proper 
person to receive petitions, 88» ; ior- 
ge3 letter from Husain Ahmad, 106 ; 
vakils of, 111 ; his influence in the 
diiianl, 112 ; Salabat Khan's in- 
fluence with, 112; his directions 
followed by I'tisam Khan, 124; 
sends fruit to Surnian, 125, 129; 
belief of the embassy in the powers 
of, 126; embassy complain to him, 
128; informed of the proposed 
departure of the embassy. 129; 
attempted murder of, 130; his 
treatment of the Persian ambassador, 
134; promises further concessions, 
138; letter from Sarhad concerning 
the English present to Farrukhsiyar, 
148; anxious to ingratiate himself 
with the King, 149; wants a lakh 
of rupees, 152; Sarhad's device to 
obtain a grant to reimburse the 
embassy for their expenses, 188(2); 
appointed Subadar of Gujarat, 
192; his offices, 206 n ; his presents 
to the embassy, 209 ; letters fr:>m 
Haidar Qui! Khan, 210 ; enquiry by, 
regarding Farrukhsiyar' s presents 
for the embassy, i'S'S ; blamed for 
the mea^reness of the King's 
presents to the embassy, 1^2; 
Salabat Khan urges him to secure 
a larger present for Surman, 192; 
Sui man's presents not delivered, 
193; embassy appeal to him for 
Dr. Hamilton's release, li, 197-8; 
unable to persuade the Kirg to 
permit Dr. ilamilton to depart, 198 ; 
advises the embassy to approach the 
Wazxr with a view to obtaining Dr. 
Hamilton's release, 198. 200, 203 ; 
embassy petition for permission to 
depart, 176, 177 ; ur^ed to secure a 
speedy departure tor the embassy, 
178, 192; del&ys the embas-y's 
departure, li)0 (3) ; promises to 
arrange for the embassy's departure, 
190 ; arrangements for the embassy's 
departure, lu7; summons the embassy 
to' receive their dismissal, 202; 
embassy petition for gurzbardars, 
chelas, dastaks and hatbu-l hukms 
for the return journey, 202, 206 ; 
promises gurzbardars, 206; grants 
1f.asbu 1-b.ukms, 206 ; dismisses the 
embassy, 1, lii, 209 ; embassy take 

leave of him, 213 ; letter to Sanjar 
Khan regarding a safe conduct for 
the embassy, 222. 
Davenport, H., letter to the President and 

Council at Bengal, 259. 
Dawarumbaud, proposed mint at, 291 . 
Day, Francis, 25rJra(3) ; arrives at 

Madras, 256m. 
Dean, Mr., 252, 253 ; letter to the em- 
bassy, 279, 282. 
Debi Das, present for, 59n. 
Debtors, seizure of, 10, 11 ; their friends 
complain to the 2^abob, 11 ; handed 
over to Shaikh ' sa, 11 ; embassy's 
application to the King in the matter 
of their seizure. 12 ; to be handed 
over to the Company, 82, 85, 123, 
128, 144, 115, 164, 165, 166 (2), 168, 
195, 202, 277 ; artirle concerning, 
not included in the farn an, 177 ; to 
be compelled to pay, 268 ; to be 
confined, 288. 
Debts, Dutch to be assisted in recovery 

of, 298. 
Deccan, Husain 'All Khan appointed 
Governor of, xix, 67, 206» ; Ziyau- 
d-din Khan appointed dluan of, 
Delhi, 36 ; preparations for the embas- 
sy's entry, 45 ; arrival of the em- 
bassy. 43, 47, 56 ; guns mounted 
round, 95, and withdrawn, 95 ; de- 
parture of the embassy, lii, 212, 
213, 83*. 
Delinquent servants, 166, 168, 169. 
Demurrage, xxix, 15, 31, 208, 2V6, 
231,233(2/, 246, 247 (3), ?49 (2), 
251 (3) ; note on, 33», 42n ; disputes 
with carriers and hahars regarding, 
25, 27, 32, 33, 41 ; Amar Sink's 
scheme for settling differences with 
carriers and kahars, 34, 3d; dui an 
refuses payment, 32, 34 ; attempt 
to obtain allowance of, 24, 40 ; 
Sarhad requests a statement of, 
Dent, Serjeant Peter, 270. 
Deserters, to be handed over to the 

Company, S6SJ. 
Dhalaits, wages of, 275. 
Dhani Saha, seized for debt._10 ; his son 

handed over to Shaikh 'Isa, 11. 
Dhir, 12». 
Dhop, present from the Wazir to the 

King, 107 ; note on, 107n. 
Diamonds, taken by Governor Pitt 
from a bairagi who complains to 
the Wazlr that they have not been 
paid for, 201 ; present from 
Farrukhsiyar to the Company and 
Governor Pitt, 240. 
Dihi Kaiikata, 282. 


Dishes, 7. 

Divi Island, xi, 85, 205, 243 ; grant of, 
xxxix, xl, 67, 63, 92, 119, 122, 
126, 133, 135, 144, 170, 176(2), 217, 
225, 261, 262 ; embassy promise 
that a harbour will be made, xl ; 
farman and sanad for, 88, 137, 
241 ; rent of, 92 ; embassy doubt 
if it srill be granted, 93 ; objections 
to grant of, 100, 108, 238, 246 ; in 
possession of Abi Bam, 119; 
attempt to secure its mention in 
the farman, 147 ; attempts of the 
Dutch to obtain a grant, 261 ; use- 
ful for shipping, 261, 262. 

Ifhcan, to defray travelling expenses of 
embassy, xxii ; visited by Sarhad, 
8; demand for an account of the 
King's present refused, 8 ; disputes 
re payment for carriages, 14 ; grants 
a convoy, 33, 34, 35 ; refuses demur- 
rage, 34(2) ; to grant houses and 
ground, 122, 127, 145 

Diwani, 98, 110, 111 ; embassy's petition 
a matter for, 104 ; unsuccessful 
attempt of Sarhad to secure favour 
with the writers of, 111 ; vakil to go 
to, 111 ; petition sent to, 112,113, 137, 
162 ; Khan Dauran's influence in, 
112; officers to be bribed, 112, 143. 

Blicani-'am, 98, 193, 194, J9«, J 97- 

Diwan-i khdlisah {see also Bae-i-rayan), 
98m, 113," 116, ll8?z, 122, 124, 126, 
140, 141, 142, 183; the office held by 
Taqarrub Khan, 101 ; the office held 
by I'tisam Khan, 109 ; I'tisam 
Khan deprived of the post, 185; 
petition approved, 140, 141, 145, 
163 ; his instructions to divan-u 
subahs and faujddrs, regarding 
concessions to the English, 146 ; 
signs sanads, 161; refuses to sign 
certain articles of the farman, 177 ; 
'Inayatullah Khan appointed to the 
office, 179, 180(2), 181, 183; refuses 
to sicn certain parwdnas, 185, 241. 

DiLcan-i-khas, 74, 89, 1U2(2), 103,106; 
embassy brought to, 46m. 

Dlwan-i-tan li8n; the office held by 
Eaja Gujar Mai, 109, 109n. 

Dix, John, 169. 

Diyanat Khan, 284(2), 288, 288 ; note 
on, 284». 

Dolls, 15, 19. 

Dost 'All Khan, present for, 72n ; note 
on, 72». 

Dotana, embassy arrive at, 44 ; note on, 

Dram cases, present for G-hairat Khan, 

Drams, to be put in handsome bottles 
and cases, 7. 

Du'adar Khan, present for, 72». 

Duhai dena, 21 ; note on, 24». 

Dulluckpondy, proposed mint at, 291. 

Dumraon, 12n. 

Dundi Chaudhri, arrangements for hire 
of carriages and terms, 6. 

Dundipoor, 119 ; English wish to rent, 

Durgamal, not to be employed by the 
embassy on the Company's busi- 
ness, 273. 

Dutch, note on, 180n ; their embassy to 
the Mogul Court under Kettler, 
viii, xv, 291 ; obtain a farman from 
Jahandar Shah, 119n; their embassy 
to Bahadur Shah, xxxi, i6/i ; 
account of their embassy copied 
from the Kind's books, 79, 291-8 ; 
their house and garden at Surat, 
108, 116, 119, 140, 293, 297 ; cus- 
toms paid at Surat, 120; customs 
at Patna and Hugli, 280, 293-4 ; 
request that certain articles be 
customs free 292 ; customs paid on 
certain articles, 295 ; request that 
no impositions other than settled 
customs be imposed, *296 ; swindled 
by Padre i aniel and his friends, 
148 ; presents given to their ambas- 
sador, 178, 299; presents to and 
from the King, 180 ; present to, 
not to be taken as a precedent, 180 n\ 
their present compared with that 
received by the English embassy, 
191,195; come out from Patna to 
meet the English embassy, 234 ; 
visit the embassy at Patna, 234 ; 
their visit returned, 234 ; welcome 
the embassy on its return, 249 ; 
Sarbuiand Khan's extortions from, 
236 ; reports from Delhi regarding 
sale of saltpetre and Divi Island, 
238 ; *ale of saltpetre at Patna in 
t eir hands, 244 ; report that Ja'far 
Kh an has protested against the 
grants to the English, 245 ; their 
boats arrive at Sakrigali, 247 ; their 
boats stopped at Cunna, 247 ; at« 
tempts to obtain a grant of Divi 
Island, 261 ; settlements in Surat 
and Bengal, 283; towns given to 
them for coining, 290 ; farmdns 
granted to, 287 (2), 288, 289 (2), 
290 (4), 292, 293 (2), 294, 295, 296 ; 
farman requested by, 291 ; request 
permission to use mints, 295 ; delin- 
quent servants to be delivered over 
to, 293, i94-6, 297, 298 ; sanads 
granted to, 295 ; their house at 
Patna, 297 ; partcdna granted to, 
297 ; to be assisted in recovery of 
debts, f298 ; fyasbu-l-hukm granted 



to, 298 (2) ; jityah not imposed upon, 
Dutchess, the, xii. 

Eagle, the, 266». 

East India Company, policy of fortified 
settlements, vi, absconding servants 
to be delivered over to, xxxix, 62, 
82, 86, 91; authority to punish 
thieves, etc., 88; dealings between 
the Mew and Old Companies, 289. 

Elmore. See Erambur. 

Ekdil Khan, 43n. 

Elchi (ambassador), 29 (2), 30. 

Elephants, present from Farrukhsiyar 
to Dr. Hamilton, 76, 77; King's 
present to Sai'harl, 7^,77; piesent 
from Wazir to the King, J 07 ; 
present from Farrukhsiyar to 
Governor E. Hedges, 1.9], 200, 202, 
204, 205, 2137, 26] ; embassy's 
expenditure on furniture for, 253. 

Ellore, conquest of, 258. 

Embassy to Farrukhsiyar, references to, 
passim ; size of retinue, xxi ; 
provision of a safe conduct, xxi ; 
travelling expenses to be defrayed 
by the King, xxii. 

Ennore, 266n. 

Enom Cawn, 80. 

Erambur, 266 ; note on, 266m. 

Escritoires, 51; present for Fai rukhsiyar, 
xxxi, 46, 47, 49 ; present for Ghairat 
Khan. M ; embassy's expenditure on, 

Etwab, 119. 

Eunuchs, presents for, 66, 72». 

Europe, Sarhad submits to the King a 
list of rarities purchasable in, 214. 

Ewer and basin, present for Farrukhsi- 
yar, xxxi. 

Exchange, bills of, prevented, 24 ; pay- 
able to James Williamson, 73, 79, 
97, 100, 109, 130 (2), 147,^178, 
187,195, 223,224,227; payable to 
John Surman, 77 ; payable to 
E. Stephenson, 80 (2) ; payable to 
Thos. Falconer, 80, 97, 130; payable 
to John Pratt, 94, 97, 101 ; payable 
to Captain Harnet, 97 ; payable to 
Varanasi Seth, 109, 221 ; payable 
to Sarbad's gumdshtah, 130 (2), 
178; payable to Governor Eobert 
Hedges, 161 ; payable to H. 
Frankland, 161, 221 ; payable to 
Sahu beopdri, 178, 184, 187, 194, 
209 (2), 213, 223, 224, 227, 231, 236 ; 
payable to John Flemmingo, 195 ; 
payable to Udu Dat, 227 ; payable 

to Kisbori Gulalchand, 236 ; pay- 
able to Gowaldass Chevuldass, 
246 ; Gulalchand Sana complains 
about the discount on, 234. 


Factories, permission to build, 91 ; 
orders regarding robberies of, 9 J ; 
thieves to be properly punished 93; 
ground for, 146, 164, 187, 169, 171, 
176; rent for houses and ground 
required for, not to be raised, 283. 

Factors, n<>t to be molested, 85, 92 ; 
their comings and goings not to bo 
interfered with. 284-5; deserters 
to be handed over to the Company, 

Fiikhrabad, embassy arrive at, 38 ; note 
on, 38«. 

Falconer, Thomas, bill of exchange 
payable to, 80, 130. 

Fanus, 7. 

Fanus, Khwajah, note on, 161», 196« ; 
pleads ou behalf of Padre Daniel, 
151 ; appointed the King's painter, 
196; complaint against the English, 

Farah, embassy arrive at, 44 ; note on, 

Fardt, 111, 114, 115, 117, 120, 124, 125, 
131, 138, 142, 155, 174; note on, 
98» ; acceptance refused by buyutati 
unless sealed by Sarhad, 8 ; to be 
sealed by both Surmau and Sarhad, 
8 ; transferred to Qutbu-1-mulk, 
98(2), 99, 103; embassy" refuse to 
send them to the Wazir (Qutbu-l- 
mulk), 99 ; brought from the 
kachahri, 121 (2) ; signed by 
I'tisam Khan. 121 ; Sarhad conceals 
information regarding their progress, 
121, 123; consultation regarding, 
131 (2) ; list of, signed, 13 In ; signed 
by the ditcyn-i-khalisah, 140 ; sent to 
the Wazir, 140; sent toAmanatEae, 
141; sent by Amanat Eae to I'tisam 
Khan, 142 ; of no use to the embassy, 
J7 ! ; reported approval of tbe King, 
1 72 ; for the embassy's dismissal, 
191 ; presented to Khan Dauran, 

Faridabad, 1S3, 216, 218, 219, 230; note 
on, 45w; embassy arrive at, xxxi, 
liii, 45 (2), 46, 218. 

Farkhundah-bunyad (see also Haidara- 
bad), 297 ; note on, 297m. 

Farm dish, 84, 91, 122, 127 ; note on, 60ra, 
84n ; English factories to be exempt 
from, 60-1 ; abolished, 144 ; farmdn 
for abolition of, 145 ; not to be levied 
on the Dutch, 294. 



Fartr<L»8. 91, )16 (2). U6, 117, 120, I 28, 
13S 141, 142, 153, 154, 156, 157, 163, 
165,' 172 (3). 173, 175, 214, 241. 258 
(8) 259, 260, 262, 263 (2), 265 (2), 
267 277,278,283(2), 284 (2), 286 
(3),' 286, 287 (3>, 288 (2). 289 (3); 
requested by the English, vii, 
xxxviii, xl, 123 ; embassy will not be 
satisfied with anything less than, 
124 ; to bo so prepared as to admit 
of no disputes, 266; King's officers 
to act according to, 269 ; number 
undecided, 145 ; number to be three, 
347 ; to be obtained for the separate 
provinces if possible, 261, 276 ; text 
of petition fcr, 59 ; for purchase of 
towns, 87; for Bengal, 118. 135, 
ie0, 162, 276, 283 ; request regard- 
ing Bengal ignored, 84; for Madras, 
135, 140, 147, 160, 255, 259, 260; for 
Bombay, 135; for Burnt, ICO, 264, 
283; for Behar and Orissa, 162; for 
Masulipatam, 283; for ground at 
Calcutta, 282 ; for trade in Bengal, 
92, 137 ; for trade in Behnr and 
Orissa, 92; for Bengal and Behar 
customs, 133 ; for grant of towns in 
Bengal, 93, 118, 139; for grant of 
towns at Madras, 106, 135 ; for 
grant of towns at Vi/agapatam, 119, 
133, 137 ; for trade at Surat, 89 ; for 
customs at Surat, 92, 133, 137, 144; 
for renting Divi Island, 88; attempt 
to secure ment:"on of Divi Island in, 
147; for the Coro andel coast, 225; 
fr r restoration of plundered goods, 
144; the Wazlr the proper person 
to receive application for, xst, 
xxxii, xliv, xlvf; irregular applica- 
tion for, xiiv ; English continue to 
press iheir demands for, through the 
mediation of Khan Dauran xlvii ; re- 
quested in the rlace of hanbu I- 
liukmi, 123 ; refused, to the English, 
xl, xlvi, 124; Khan Dauran fads to 
secure them, xliv ; transferred to 
Qutbul-mulk or Wazir, 101 ; their 
grant menaced by the appointment 
of 'Iuavatullah Khan, 18 1 ; granted, 
xlix, 164, 166, 107, 169, 225; for- 
malities in connection with their 
grant, 146 ; sent to the sadru-s-sudur, 
174, 217, 2J8; bribery of sadru-s- 
gudur to secure delivery of, 173; 
reported approval by the King, 172 ; 
approved by the King, 14U, 174, 
176, 178, 182 ; preparation of, xlix, 
114, 141,142(3), 143, 145(2), 154; 
copies submitted to the embassy, 
147 ; fair copies made, 170 ; tugkra 
(imperial signature) affixed, 161, 171 ; 
Wazlr % seal required, 172, 176, 178, 

181; sealed, 175, 181,182-3, 185 ! 
titles of Wazlr inscribed on, 169 ; 
completed, 179 ; 'arzl for their 
delivery, 181 ; the embassy's fears 
of ever receiving them, 242; deli- 
vered to the embassy, 185, 194, 215; 
delivered to the gtuzbardar instead 
of to Sarhad, 242, 244 ; translations 
of, 162 ; ceremonies to bo observed 
at the presentation of, 251 ; effect 
in Bengal, lvii ; contents of, 145 ; 
sanads to be given for articles not 
entered in, 146 ; copies sent to 
Calcutta, 160, 161(2), 190, 194, 195, 
202(2), 216, 230; copies sent by 
Sarhad to Calcutta without tho 
knowledge of the embassy, 215; 
copies sent to Bombay, 160; copies 
sent home to England, 146, 182; 
signed copies to be accepted in 
place of the original, 61, 84, 91, 122, 
127, 145(2), 163, 166, 168(2), 171, 
176; for Governor B. Hedges, 1, lii, 
179, 180, 204, 206, 210, 217, 242, 
251 ; delay in delivery of Hedges' 
fat-man, 212, 213, 21», 219, 242 ; 
Hedges' farman almost ready for 
despatch, 217, 222(2) ; sent to Ikhlas 
Khan, 218, 219, 221 ; to be despatch! 
e a to the embassy, 223, 224; copies 
receiv.d, 210, 226, 22-, 230; copy 
sent to Calcutta, 204; delivered to 
Governor K. Hedges, 253 ; farmdns 
lost by the Portuguese ti rough want 
of bribes, 173, 175 ; Farrukhsiyar 
refuges Sarhad's request for, 240; 
unheeded by Sarbuiand Khan, 244 ; 
embassj^B expenses in obtaining, 
253 ; for European settlements in 
Madras, 283 ; requested by the 
Dutch, 291 ; granted to the Dutch, 
28:(2), 288, 2^9(2), 290(4), 292, 
291r2}, 294, z95. 296; granted by 
Aurangzeb, 69, 27±(2) ; granted by 
Shah Jahan, 274 ; granted by 
King of Golconda, 123, 279^2)"; 
that granted by King of Golconda 
of little value, 147, 

Farrash, wages of, 276, 276, 

■barrukhabad, xxxviii, 60, 74; note on, 

Farrukhbandar, note en, 60« ; proposed 
new name for Calcutta, xxxviii, 
60 ; change of name abandoned, 

Farrukh Beg Khan, 210, 218 ; note on, 
2i8n ; to proceed to Surat, 223. 

Farrukhsiyar, Emperor, 112, 192, 193 (2), 
ly4, 196, 198 ; ascends the throne, 
viii ; anniversary of his accession 
95«; interregnum between the death 
of Bahadur Shah and accession of, 



119» ; friendly to the English, viii ; 
condition of affairs at Court of, 
xvi ; his favourites, xvii ; suspi- 
cious of the .Sayyads, xviii ; embassy 
to, passim; instructions from Bengal 
regarding negotiations of embassy 
to. 9 70 ; instructions from Madras, 
255; instructions from Bombay, 
267 ; preparations of embassy to, xx ; 
receives the embassy, xxxi, 46, 
47, 56, 74, 79, 89, 98, 102(2), 117, 
131, 171; saluted by the embassy, 
68 (3) ; gives orders that the expenses 
of the embassy are to be defrayed, 
5 ; expenses of embassy to, 146, 159, 
253; difficulty of obtaining a grant 
for the embassy's expenses, 189; 
Sarhad's device for obtaining a grant 
from, for tiie embassy's expenses 
and then dividing it, 187-90; 
embassy prepare for their depar- 
ture, 173, 175, 177, 183,186,199; 
precedents for embassy's dismissal, 
182; embassy obtain permission 
to depart, 191, 199; departure of 
the embassy delayed, 193(2), 194; 
dismisses the embassy, I, 197, 202- 
3, 213, 225; his detention of Dr. 
Hamilton, 197, 198, 202-3; permits 
Dr. Hamilton to depart on con- 
dition that ho returns, 200-1, 203, 
205 ; reprimands Salabat Khan be- 
cause Dr. Hamilton could not be 
induced to stay, 208-9; enquiry as 
to the nature of tho present which 
would be acceptable to, 265 ; pre- 
sent to, viii, ix, xiv, xx, xxxi, 45, 
46, 47, 49, 65. 59, 66, 72, 76 (3), 77, 
95. 142 (2), 151, 270; present not 
given to, as Sarhad pretended, 110 ; 
Sarhad s vain promises suggest the 
idea of a present for, 148; Sarhad's 
letters to various persons at Court 
concerning the English preseat to, 
149; value of present for, xv; 
grants barbarddri (carriage), 29, 
149, 188 ; his presents to the em- 
bassy, I, 46, 56, J9i, 193, 197, 202, 
2^8 ; sends fruit to the embassy, 
49 ; presents to Surman, xxxi, 47, 
lb6; grants a larger present for 
Surman, 122, 195; larger present 
for Surman not to be taken as a 
precedent, 195 ; present to Sarhad, 
xxxi, xxxvi, xxxvii, 47; his presents 
to Dr. Hamilton, xxxvi, xxxvii, 103; 
orders the Wazlr to give Hamilton a 
present, 207 ; his gifts to the Com- 
pany and to Governor Pitt, 240 ; his 
presents to Governor K. Hedges, I, 
191, 195, 206, 213, 251 ; embassy 
petition for a price to be set upon the 

elephant for Governor R. Hedges, 
202 ; jewels intended for (he embassy 
submitted to, 207 ; bribes to his 
officers who have the matter of the 
presents in hand, 204, 205, 206 (3), 
207, 210 ; his presents to Mons- 
Martin, xxxvi, xxxvii; his presents 
to the Portuguese embassy, 299. 
300 ; indisposition of, xxxiv-xxxvi, 
65, 72, 107, 108 ; sends for Sarhad 
and Dr. Hamilton, on account of 
indisposition, 107 ; treated by 
Dr. Hamilton, xxxiv-xxxvi, 53, 72, 
73, 1U9 ; his death reported, xxxv ; 
Dr. Hamilton cures him, xxxv, 
xxxvi, 75 ; his convalescence, 74, 
75 ; restored to health, 76, 77, 117 ; 
medicine for, 72; his illness inter- 
rupts the negotiations, 73. 75 ; peti- 
tions to, xxxiii, xxxviii, xl, xlviii, 69, 
84, 86, 90, 92, 139, 265; first petition 
. returned, 84, 89, PI; criticisms on 
the first petition, 8i-3; text of the 
second petition to, 86 ; learns of 
the withdrawal of the English 
factory at Surat and favours grant 
of demands, xlviii, 132 ; promises 
favours, 74 ; reported unfavourable 
to grant of the petition, 109 ; to be 
recommended by 1'tisam Khan to 
grant the petition, 114; Khan 
Dauran sends petition to, IjJ9« 
approves the petition, 141, 145 (2) ; 
petition signed by, 136, 137 ; 
approves remaining articles of the 
petition, 171 ; translations of 
farmdaa granted by, 162; his 
approval of fannans and fard 
reported, 172 ; approves farmans, 
171,175, 178, 182, 195; difficulty 
of making use of privileges con- 
ceded by, lvi; his expeditions from 
Delhi, xxxii, 49, 60, 56, 98, 100, 104, 
159, 160; disputes with Wazir and 
Khan Dauran regarding expedition 
from Delhi 64; returns to Delhi, 
xxxiv, 58 ; rumour of his intended 
visit to Lahore, 54 (2) ; goes to Qutb 
minar, 50ra, 63» ; goes to Badii, 
50» ; goes to Panipat, xxxiii, 60ra, 
54 68, 65 ; goes to Shalihmar, 64 r 
102, 177 ; goes to Sonpat, 65, 
58, 172, 173; goes to Gmnore, 
68; goes to Mihrparwar ki-sarae, 
68 ; goes to Simbhalkaki-sarae, 58 • 
goes to Narelah, 101, 172 ; embassy 
follow him to camp, 162, 173, 174 
177 ; attacks rajah of Jodhpur, 
xviii ; his marriage to daugater 
of Ajit Singh, rajah of Jodhpur, 
and description of the festivities] 
xxxv-xxxvii, 78 ; preparations 



for his marriage, 76 ; hia wed- 
ding interrupts negotiations, 77; 
gets another wife from Kashmir, 
1 73 ; birth of a son, 246 ; troubles 
with Mir Jutnlah, xli ; orders Mir 
Jumlah to proceed to Lahore, 96; 
marches against the Sikh3, xli; 
and triumphant return to Delhi, 
xlii ; receives a forged letter from 
Husain Ahmad, 106; visits the 
Wazlr, 107 ; presents from the 
Wazlr, 107 ; coining at Madras 
prejudicial to, 115 ; rejoicings, 
95ra, 131, 142(2), 151, 174; forbids 
foreigners to use palanquins, 140; 
complaint of Sarhad against the 
Persians, 223; Ja'far Khan com- 
plains to him against the embassv, 
235 ; forbids sale of saltpetre, 238 ; 
protest of faujd&r of Masulipa'am 
against the granting of Divi Tsland, 
238 ; gift to the begum and eunuch 
for sealing Hedges' farman, 206 ; 
Sarhad's project of proceeding to 
England to buy rarities for, 240 ; 
refuses Sarhad a farman but grants 
a hasbu-l-hukm, Z40 ; orders Zu-1- 
fiqar Khan to be killed, 274». 

Fasahat Khan, present for, 72». 

FathChand Saha, 24. 

Path Khan, 171 

Fathpur. See Fattehpur. 

Fattehpur, 42», 227 n ; note on, 229?i ; 
em b spy arrive at, 229. 

Patuha, 238. 

Faujdarl, 91 ; note on, 61 n, 166« ; 
English fartories to be exempt 
from, 61 ; taken from Muhammad 
Amin Khan, 103 ; abolished, 161, 
166, 168. 

Faujdars, to give safe conducts for 
merchandise and to be held res- 
ponsible for its safety, 286. 

Faulkon, Thos., bill of exchange payable 
to, 97. 

Fazliabad, embassy arrive &•, 44 ; note 

on. 44re. 

Feake, S , letter to the embassy, 232, 
279, 232. 

Fenwick, Capt , his opinion of Surman 
and Barker, xiiin. 

Fil-McLrt, present from Farrukhsiyar 
to Governor B. Hedges, 191. 

Fire-arms, 52 ; present for Farrukh- 
siyar, ix, xx ; present for Sidisht 
Karayan, xxiii ; present for 
Darbar Khan, 67 ; present for 
I'timad "Khan, 6* ; present for 
Jawahir Khan, 71; present for 
l'tibar Khan, 70; present for Na'im 
Khan, Ho ; embassy's expenditure 
on, 253. 

Firozabad, embassy arrive at, 44 ; note 
on, 44/2. 

Flag-carriers, wages of, 275. 

Flags {See also Union Jack), note on, 8n ; 
demanded by Sarhad, 8; matter 
referred to the President, 8 ; allowed 
to Sarhad, 18; Sarhad ordered not 
to use them as showing his authority, 
2 19, 230; permission to use, 288. 

Flemmingo, Johu bill of exchange pay- 
able to, 195. 

Flint-ware, present for Farrukhsiyar, xx, 
and put in proper order under 
Sarhad's directions, 6 ; present for 
Sidisht Narayan, 12; present for 
I'timad Khan, 69 ; present for l'tibar 
Khan, 70 ; present for Jawahir 
Khau, 71. 

Flowers, 51. 

Fort St. David (See also Terana'yak- 
kam), 92, 122, 259; note on, 259» ; 
embassy request grant of, xxxix; 
concessions at, 127 ; grant of towns 
at, 144, 170, 171, 176 (2) ; granted 
by Bama Raja, 258 ; grant confirm- 
ed by Zu-1-fiqar Khan, 258; grant 
of, 269 ; villages granted by Daud 
Khanandre-as^umedby Sa'adatullah 
Khan, 260 ; towns granted by Bama 
Raja, 266. 

Fort St. George (See also Madras), 261 ; 
qdsid sent to, 224 ; account of early 
settlement and privileges granted 
from time to time, 256-8 ; founding 
of 256n ; Cogan called to account 
for founding, 256?». 

Fort WiUiara, qasid sent to, 224. 

Fountains, 61 ; present for Farrukhsiyar. 
xiv; present for Khaa. Dauran, 48. 

Frankland, Henry, bill of exchange pay- 
able to, 16i, 221; letters to the 
embassy, 279, 282. 

Frederick, J., letter to the Pie-ident and 
Council at Bengal, 259. 

French, their help against the Portu- 
guese t<> be asked for by the Wazlr, 
216 ; settlements at Surat and in 
Bengal, 283. 

Fusils, 62; note on, 12.* ; 
sidisht Na ayan, '12; 
Darbar Khan, 67 ; 
I'timad Khan, 68 
l'tibar Khan, 70; 
Jawahir Khan, 71. 


present for 
present for 





Gaibnath Siva, temple of, 246«. 

Gammon, Mr., 247, 248, 270. 

Gammon, Ensign, meets the embassy, lv, 

despatched to Fort Willliam, 249, 

260, 251. 



Ganganacoopam. See Ganganakkuppam. 

Gangannkkuppflm, 266; note on, 

Gangaprasad, note on, 247» ; embassy 
ar'ive at, It, 247, 248 ; boats from 
Calcutta arrive at, 248. 

Ganga rani, 210; payment to, 170, 171; 
delay of, 180; indisposition of, 181; 
to be bribed, 18 1. 

Ganges, river, 293 ; crossed by the 
embassy, xxix, 39, 40, 230(2), 231(2), 
232, 23- 'w. 

Ganjam, 62. 

Gaurisbankar, temple of, 246«. 

Gaya, xxi, 4'3?i. 

Gayer, Sir John, v. 

Gay wood, James, watchmaker, wages of, 

Gentues, 105(3), 149, 150, 154(2), 158, 
218, *46, '266, 259 ; note on, 256ra, 
259?*; go to worship at Bindraban, 

George I, proclaimed King, xxx, 

Ghairat Khan, note on, 3» ; replaced by 
Mir Jumlah in the government of 
Behar, xxiii; embassy attempt to 
gain protection of, xxviii ; instigates 
trouble between the embassy and its 
servants, xxix ; meets the embassy 
and is anxious to bring the present 
safe to Delhi, xxix ; hasbu'l-hukm 
for, 3, 4(2) ; rumour that he is to be 
succeeded as Nabob of Patna by 
'Ali Asghar Khan, and consequent 
departure of, 4 ; King's orders to, 6 ; 
to be asked to supply greater force 
for protection, 10 ; asks that debtors 
be handed ove* to bhaikh 'lsa, 11 ; 
present for, 18, 38, 40, 41 ; embassy 
petition for a safe conduct, 3, 4 ; 
grants a convoy, 2<J, 21, 23, 26 ; 
permits the embassy to depart from 
Patna, 23 ; his protection asked for 
as far as Benares, 37 ; angry with 
the embassy, 38 ; will not allow the 
embassy to advance in front of him, 
39; in mourning, 40; presents of 
watches to him and his brother, 41 ; 
eirbassy take leave of him, 41 ; 
his servants suspected of causing 
trouble with the carriers, 41 ; orders 
the embassy to wait for him, 42« ; 
request ignored, 42». 
Ghar'i (division oi time), 228 ; note on, 

GLatampur, 227« ; note on, 42» ; embassy 
arrive at, 42. 

Ghatauli, note on, 37w ; embassy arrive 
at, xxviii, 37, 233. 

Ghaziu-d-din Khan, letter to Sarhad, 
22 ; note on, 22/t, 

Ghulam Husain, 218; delivers the 
King's ordors to Mulla K asir, 6 ; 
informs Surman that Hedges' 
farman is ready for delivery, 217 ; 
follows the embassy with Hedges' 
far, ran, 223; overtakes the embassy 
and delivers Hedges' farman, 226. 

Qhusul-i-shifa (first bathing after sick- 
ness), 76w. 

Gifford, President, 257. 

Ginnore, 58. 

Girra-ke-rock (Royal Merchant), Sarhad 
petitions the king to have the title 
of, 214. 

Glass-ware, 7 ; present for Farrukhsiyar, 
ix, xx, 95 ; present for Sidisht 
Narayan, 12 ; preseut for Ghairat 
Khan, 18, 41 ; present for Uarbar 
Khan, 67 (2); present for I'timad 
Khan, 69 ; present for Ptibar Khan, 
70 ; present for Jawahir Khan, 71 ; 
present for Na'im Khan, 86. 

Goa, Viceroy of, presents from Farrukh. 
siyar, 300 (2), 

Gobra, 282. 

Gokal .Das Khushhal Bae, money paid 
into the Company's cish, 236. 

Golconda, 62, 262, *65; Mubariz Khan, 
the silbadar of, 196 ; conquest of, 
267 ; request for remission of amount 
paid at, 264. 

Golconda, King of (tee also Abu-1- 
Hasan), 256, >57 (2), 258, 259, 260; 
farman granted by, 123, 267 (3), 
279 (2) ; his farman of little value, 

Gondalpada, 282. 

Goods, sent to the King's Camp, 61 ; sale 
of, 117. 

Govindpur, 163,. 282(2); English wish 
to rent, xxxviii ; rented by the 
English, 277. 

Govind Bae Kirat Sen, money paid into 
the Company's cash, 209. 

Gnddilam, river, 266«. 

Gujarat (see also Cainbay), 285w ; Khan 
Dauran appointed silbaddr of, 1 92. 

Gujarat goods, present from Farrokh- 
siyar to Governor K. Hedges, 191. 

Gulal Chand Saha, 213, 216 (2), 227, 
238; his gumashtah complains about 
bills not paid, 73; complains about 
the discount on his bills of exchange, 
234 ; payments to, 263. 

Gulkandah. See Golconda. 

Gumashtah, arrival at camp to clear up 
the troubles with the carriers and 
Jcahars, 31 ; to be punished for 
thieving, 61, 84. 

Guns, 52; presents for Farrukhsiyar, 
xiv ; oxen for, xxi, 8 ; present for 
Ghairat Khan, 18 ; present for the 



subadar of Allahabad, 229; those 
required for the King's use to be 
properly purchased, 288. 

Guru Bandah (see also Sikhs), capture 
of, 78», 97 ; brought to Delhi, 95, 

Gurudaspur, xlii ; sacked, xlii. 

Guru Gobind Sing, xli. 

Gurzbardars, 6, 9, 19, 28 (2j, 32, 162a, 210, 
213, 216, (2), 218, 219 (2), 221, 222, 
224, 225, 228 (2), 2:53 (2), 235, 238, 
242 («), 243, 244, 245 (2), 247 (3), 
2*8, 249, 250 (2), 251 ; sent by the 
king to the embassy. 2 ; their pro- 
tection inadequate, 5 ; to be sent to 
Patna to accompany tbe embassy, 
5 (2) ; deliver the King's orders to 
Mulla Nasir, 6 ; deliver list of car- 
riages etc., to the buyutatl, 7 ; to 
deliver the Kind's letter to Ghurat 
Khan, 9 ; receive sar-o-pa*, 14; to be 
left behind for the. purpose of obtain- 
ing a convoy, 24 ; arrival at Naubat- 
pur, 29; attempt to obtain demur- 
rage and a convoy, 31, 34, 40; sum- 
moned from Patm, 36 ; sent to con- 
duct the present to Delhi, 149; 
requested by the embassy for the 
return journey, 202 ; refused by 
Khan Dauran, 208; promised by 
Khan Dauran, 206; to proceed to 
Surat, 210; payment to, 229; sent 
nhead of the embassy with hasbu-l- 
bukm, 229; sent to Patna with a 
hasbu-l-hukm for Sarbuland Khan, 
23J; presents to, 233. 


Hackeries, 7. 

Haidarabad (see also Farkhundah-bun- 
yad), 62, 165, 29j(2), 298(3); 
farman for, 165, 190; no customs 
at, 165; Mubariz Khan, Governor 
of, K5n; Dutch at, S>97. 

Haidar Quli Khan, Governor of Surat, 
137, 140, 155, 170, 176 (2), 240; note 
on, 127« ; temporary withdrawal of 
the English from Surat would cause 
him to write to Khan Dauran res- 
pecting concessions, 107; reports 
discontent of the English and then- 
threatened withdrawal from Surat, 
xlvii, 129, 132, 146, 154; desires the 
Knglish to remain at Surat, 107, 
129, 132; to submit an account of 
the customs at Surat, 122, 127 ; 
possibility of his objection to tne 
grant of farmans, 138; letters to 
Khan Dauran, 210; Rirpa Bam, his 
agent at Delhi, 240. 

Haji Ahmad, 31; delivers the King 's 
orders to Mulla Nasir, 6 ; to proteot 
the present, 20. 

Haji Salar, 246. 

Kalal-Kkor, wages of, 275. 

Hamidah Begam (mother of Akbar), 44n. 

Hamilton, Dr. William, xx, In, 109, 208; 
note on, 203"; appointed Surgeon 
to the embassy, 270; his character 
etc., xiv ; allowances to, xiv, 20; 
palanquin for, 11 ; summoned to 
attend Farrukhsiyar, xxxiv, 55, 
68, 107, 109 ; summoned by the 
King 's mother to discuss the King's 
health, 72; Mons. Martin sides 
with the King's doctor against, 7*; 
recommends the King to call the 
other physicians, but he ref-ses 
to do so, 108 ; cures Farrukh- 
siyar, xxxv, 75 ; attends Taqar- 
rub Khan, xxxiv, 64 ; lives with 
Taqarrub Khan, 59 ; dismissed by 
Taqirrub Khan, 72 ; expenditure 
on medicine tor Farrukhsiyar and 
Taqarrub Khan, 72 ; probable visit 
to the, 131 ; visits the Wazlr, 
135 ; visits Khan Jahan who is in- 
disposed, 183, 184; piesents from 
Farrukhsiyar, xxxvi, xxxvii. li, 
76, 77, 103, 191, 202, 203 ; 
presents from the King's mother, 
xxxvii, 74, 79 ; Wazlr ordered to 
give him a present, 207 ; presents 
from the Wazlr, 208; attack on, and 
the King's orders for his future 
protection, xxxv, 75 ; money paid 
into the Company's cash, 97, 130, 
187 ; detained by Farrukhsiyar, 
li, 197, 202-3 ; unwilling to stay at 
Delhi in obedience to the Kind's 
command, 199, 203 ; intervention of 
Surman for his release, 197, 198; 
plans for securing the Kind's 
consent to his departure, 199, 200 ; 
his petition for permission to 
depart, 200(3), 203; Munawar 
promises help to obtain release of, 
200 ; is allowed to depart on condi- 
tion that he returns, li, 200-1, 203, 
206 ; i;ives an undertaking to return 
to Delhi, lii, 207 ; the Wazlr is 
security for his return, 208 ; his 
refusal to stay at Delhi is the cause 
of Salabat Khan being reprimanded 
by the King, 209 ; his hypothetical 
wife and children, 203n ; Qutbu-1- 
mulk (Wazlr) asks him to bring his 
wife and children on his return, 
204 ; Sarliad requests his attendance 
which is refused, 221 ; his expenses, 
253 ; illness of, Iv ; his death, lvi. 
Hansi, 162». 



Haqiqat Khan, pirv)!tna granted by, 

Harnet, Capt., bill of exchange payable 
to. 97. 

Harrison, Governor E., 161 ; letters 
from the embassy, 56, 65, 75, 131, 
134 ; letter to the embassy, 26,1 ; 
letter to Salabat Khan, 134 ; letter 
to Ziyau-d-din Khan, 134; letter 
to the President and Council at 
Bengal, 259. 

gasbu-l-hukms, 1 16, 120, 26 J, 276; sent 
from Bengal to the embassy at 
Patna, 2; ?for Ghairat Khan, 3 (5?), 
4; undesirable, 128; granted by 
Asad Khan, 60; for Bengal customs, 
122, J26 ; granted in place of 
far mans, 123, 124 ; for Bombay mint, 
143 ; sent to Calcutta before the 
despatch of the embassy, 148, 149; 
for tho return j urney, 202, 206, 
206(2), 229; granted by Farrukh- 
siyar to Sarhad, 240; granted by 
the King of Golconda, 257 ; granted 
by the Wazlr, 283 ; granted to the 
Dutch, 298 (Ss). 

Haurah, 280. 

Hazurenavise, 141. 

Hedges, Governor Robert, 220 ; advo- 
cates policy of fortified settlements, 
iii; letter, to Farrukhsiyar. xxxi; 
order from Mir*Jumlah, 37ra ; bill of 
exchange payable to, 161 ; bair&gl's 
complaint that diamonds taken by 
Governor Pitt have not been paid 
for, 201 ; letters from the embassy. 
46, 60, 53, 73, 77, 79, 90, 96, 99, 103, 
108, 114, 125, 137, 138, 141, 143, 
147, 160i 175, 178, 184 (2), 190, 194, 
202, 209 (2), 213, 221, 222, 224, 227, 
228. 230, 2H2, 234, 236, 238, 244, 
247, 248, 250 (2); letters to the em- 
bassy, 279, 282 ; farmdn for, 7, Hi, 
179, 180, 204, 206, 210, 217, 242 ; his 
farman .-ent to Ikhlas Khan, 221; 
copy of his farman sent to Bengal, 
204 ; copies of his farman received, 
210; his farman almost ready for 
despatch, 222 (i) ; delay in the 
delivery of farman for, 212, 213, 
242 ; Ghulam Husain to follow the 
embassy with Hedges' farman, 223 ; 
his farm&n delivered to the em- 
bassy, 226, 228, 230; farman 
delivered to, 253 ; present from 
Farrukhsiyar, I, 191, 195, 200, 204, 
206, 2lu(2), 213, 237, 251 ; delay in 
the delivery of the present, and 
consequent bribes, 201 ; price to 
be <=*t on the elephant for, 202 ; 
Wceives tho embassy at Triveni, 


Hidayatullah Khan (*ee also Nusrat Yar 
Khan), l86]"execution of, 186m. 

Higgison, Mr., parwanas obtained by, 

Hocknuzzer, Khwajah, 154; pleads on 
behalf of Padre Daniel, 151. 

Hodal, 224 ; note on, 44m, 222n ; embassy 
arrive at, 44, 22^. 

Hogutkundia, 280. 

Horden. R., letter to the embassy, 26 1. 

Horse-keepers, wages of, 275, 276. 

Horse-keeping, Sarhad's allowance for, 

Horsemen, payment to, 23 ; double pay 
to, 25, 27. 

Horses, purchase of, 14, 21 ; loss of, 20 ; 
present from Farrukhsiyar to 
Surman. 192, 193 (3), 194, 196 (2), 
202, 308 ; present from Khan Dauran 
t& Surman, 209 ; present from 
Farrukhsiyar to Stephenson, 208; 
present from FarrukliNiyar to 
Sarhad, 208 ; present from 
Farrukhsiyar to Dr. Hamilton, 76. 
77, 208 ; present from the King's 
mother to Hamilton, 79 ; presents 
from the Wazlr to tho embassy, 
208 ; present from the Wazlr to tho 
King, 107 ; to be sold at Patna, 
216 ; no sale for them at Patna, 237 ; 
embassy's expenditure on, 262; for 
the King's use, 268 ; those required 
for the King's use to be properly 
paid for, 286, 292 ; permission to 
use, 288 ; present from rarrukhsivar 
to the Portuguese embassy, 300 ; 
present from Jahandar Shah to 
Dutch embissy, 299. 
Hossanna rupees, 105. 

House furniture, embassy's expenditure 
on, 262. 

House hold necessaries, embassy's expen- 
diture on, 253. 

Houses, required at Palna, 60 ; land 
requested fcr, 60. 

Hugli, 64, 246, 2y4 ; Zivau-d-din Khan 
appointed Govern _>r of, vii; Ziyan« 
d-din Khan removed, vii; English 
assist Ziyau-d diu Khan. 16b" ; 
permission to buy goods at, xxxvii', 
85 ; daroghah's permission to be 
sufficient to bring goods from the 
house to the factory, 61-2; conces- 
sions at, 122, 127, 145 ; customs at, 
69, 82, 118, 120, 163, 168, 263, 27« ; 
Sarhad expects an order for th» 
receipt of customs at, 156 ; customs 
paid by the Dutch, 293 ; sar-o-ps* 
to be presented at, 250; ground 
required at, 277. 
HugWbandar, mint at, 289. 
Humay un, tomb of, xxxi, 45». 



Hummums, present for I'timad Khan, 
68 ; note on, 68w. 

Hungary water, present for Farrukhsi- 
yar, 76. 

Hunt, 11., letter to President and 
Council at Bengal, 259. 

Huqqahs, present for the Wazir, 48 
present for Khau Dauran, 48 

present for Taqarrub Khan, 48 
present for Darbar Khan, 67 
present for I'timad Khan, 69 
present for I'tibar Khan, 7u 
present for Jawahir Khan, 71 
present for If a'im Khan, 86. 

Husain Ahmad, his ship taken by 
the Daues, 106 ; forges letters to 
the King, the Wazir and Khan 
Dauran to militate against the 
English, 106. 

Husain 'Ali Khan { see also Amiru-1- 
umara), viii, xvii, xviii, xxii, xxxv, 
81, 149; appointed Governor of 
Deecan, xix, 57 ; power and authority 
of, xxv, xxxiii; his position strength- 
ened after his defeat of Daud Khan, 
xxxiv ; his offices, 206w ; quarrel 
with Daud Khan, xxxiii, 65 ; de- 
feats and slays Daud Khan, xxxiv, 
73, 76, 26C« ; receives sar-o-pa from 
Farrukhsiyar, 73 ; disputes with 
Mir Jumlah, xxxiii, 57 ; plot against, 
xxxiv, 65 ; his friendship to be 
cultivated and good offices secured, 
57, 73, 75 ; embassy to secure a 
recommendatory letter from him 
to the Wazir in favour of the 
Coromandel factories, 75 ; embassy 
receive from the Wazir a recom- 
mendatory letter to, 205 ; receives 
letter from Sarhad concerning the 
English present, 148 ; his terms 
to A jit Singh, lo2n ; defeats Sahuji, 

Husain Amidan, 157. 

Husain Mirza, Sultan of Persia, 83n. 

Ibrahim Khan, granted by, 

Ibrahim Lodi, tomb of, 68n. 

' ldu-l~qurban (Abraham's sacrifice), 
76 ; note on, 76». 

• Idtt-z-zuhd, feast of, 142n. 

IkJilSsKhan, 178, 181(2); note on, 174* ; 
farmans sent to, 147, 174 ; delay 
of, 180 ; promises early delivery of 
Hedges' farman, 218, 219 ; Hedges' 
farman Bent to, 221. 

Ikram KJaan {tee also Necknam Khan)' 
17u, 176, 257 (2); qaul granted by, 
Images, wax, present for I'timad Khan, 
69 ; present for Farrukhsiyar, 72. 

In'am Khan, 181. 

'Inayatullah Khan, 241, 246 ; note on, 
179ra ; to be appointed ditoan-i- 
Ualisah, 179, 180 (2), 181 ; his 
character, services and capabilities, 
181, lfc6; appointed diican i-khalisah, 
&c, 183, 186 (2) ; »ppointed siiba- 
dar of Kashmir, 183, 186; appointed 
tan-ka-d'ncan, 185-6, 18b' ; condi- 
tions on which he accepted the 
posts, 186 ; his appointment a 
menace to the grant of farmans, 
181 ; reimposes the jizyah (poll 
tax), 204». 

Indigo, customs payable on, 267. 

Irshad Khan, delay of, 180. 

•I tali, 282. 

ltawah or Itayah, 28 ; embassy arrive 
at, 226 ; note on, 226ra. 

I'tibar Khan, 285 ; present for, 69 ; his 
house at Surat given to the Dutch, 
119, 140. 

I'timad Khan, 44n, 156, 287; note on, 
156* ; the reservoir constructed by 
him and the legend of the witch, 
xxx; present for, 68; petition to 
be delivered to, 152. 

I'tisam Kh an (see also Diwan-i-khali- 
aah). 110, 115, 116, 120, 122, 123, 
i24 (2), 128, 129 (2) ; note on, 109«, 
116»; English attempt to bribe, xlvi ; 
not to be bribed except with the 
utmost secrecy, 110, llOn, 113 ; 
bribery of, 113, 114, 116; his 
servants to be bribed, 110; present 
for, 110, 116 ; declares that the peti- 
tion requires consideration, 110; 
delivers the petition to Bhog Chand, 
110, 111, 113; favourable to the peti- 
tion, 114(2), 116 (2) ; objects to the 
English having separate mints, 115; 
appointed an umpire to settle the 
embassy's business, 109, 114, 116; 
petition sent to, 116, 142; signs 
the petition, 121, 123, 141, 143, 
145 ; refuses farmans, 124 ; infor- 
med that nothing short of Jarmant 
will satisfy the embassy, 124; to 
prepare a farman, 114; acts accord- 
ing to the directions of Khan Dauran, 
124; visited by Sarhad, 128 ; Sarhad 
reports his power to grant the embas- 
sy's wishes, 152; signs parwdnas, 
170, 241; refuses to sign certain 
parwdnas, 172, 185 ; deprived of post 
• of diwdn-i'lchalisah, 185 ; death at 
Jahangimagar, 109«. 



T'tisamu-d-din, 275n. 

Itmadpur, 226» ; note on, 44n ; embassy 

arrive at, xxx, 44. 
'Itr. See Otter. 
'Itrd&nis. See Otterdaneys. 
Ivy, Thomas, 256,256» (2) ; note on, 

256m ; obtains qaul from Sri Banga 

Kaya, 279. 
'Izzat Khan, partcana granted by, 81, 

118, 274 (2). 


Ja'far Khan {see also Murshid Quli 
Khan), 116, 157. 196, 205, 231 ; note 
on, 94n, 205n ; friendship towards the 
English, 94 ; troubles with, in Bengal, 
106; possibility of his objection to 
the grant o: farmans, 138 ; disallows 
the mint at Maqsudabad and grnnt 
of towns at Calcutta contrary to the 
King's orders, 232; complains to the 
King against the embassy, 235; 
English send a complaint against 
him to Dei tu, 245; protests against 
grants to the English, 245 (2). 

Jagadanand, money paid into the Com- 
pany's cash, 227 (2). 

Jagdis-ki-Sarae, note on, 232» ; embassy 
arrive at, 231, 232. 

Jagdispur, 12n. 

Jagirs, .Mir Jumlah deprived of, 95, 96. 

Jahanabad, note on, 232« ; embassy 
arrive at, 232. 

Jahandar Shah {see also Mu'izzu-d-din 
Jahandar Shah), succeeds Bahadur 
Shah, viii ; letter and present from 
the English, viii ; friend of the 
Dutch, viii ; Dutch embassy to, xv, 
291 ; Dutch obtain a farmaLn from, 
119n ; presents to the Dutch embassy, 
299 ; his treatment of foreign em- 
bassies not to be taken as a prece- 
dent, I; his reign ignored, li9». 

Jahangir, Emperor, xxxi, 140, 283. 

Jahangira, note on, 246» ; embassy 
arrive at, 246. 

Jahangirnagar (see also Dacca), 109n, 

Jahan Khan {see aho Muzaffar Khan), 
note on, 102», J62ra," 182m, 192m; 
arrives at Court, 102; sent against 
the Jats, 162, 184 ; indisposed and 
visited by Dr. Hamilton, 183 ; his 
wife indisposed, 184 ; sanad granted 
by, 274. 

Jai Singh, Kajah, 183». 

Jalal Khan, 156. 

Jalangi, embassy arrive at, 248 ; note on, 

Jama, ' 294 ; at Divi Island, 144. 

Jamdatu-l-mulk (see also Wazlr), 288 ; 
note on, 30n, 288». 

Japan, Sarhad submits to the King's 
list of rarities pnrohaseable in, 214. 

Japan-ware, 62 ; present for I'timad 
Khan, 69 ; present for I'tibar Khan 
70; present for Jawahir Khan, 71 , 

Jashan (rejoicings), of Farrukhsiyar, 
131, 142 (2), 16J, 174; note on, 131», 
174ra; amount expended at Court en 
occasion of, 21. 
Jafs, xxi, xxx, liii, 162, 199,223; their 
country traversed without h;tr«, 
46; Khan Jahan proceeds against, 
18*; Agra infested by, 216. 

Jawahir Khan, present for, 70 ; note on, 

Jemidarry. See Zemindari. 

Jenninns, W., letter to the President 
and Council at Bengal, 259 ; letter 
to the embassy, 261. 

Jewel-office, 206 (2), 207, 208 ; bribes to 
the officer, 204 (2). 

Jewels, present from Farrnkhsiyar to 
Governor R. Hedges, 191. 206, 210; 
their delivery delayed, 207 (2) ; 
those intended for the embassy 
submitted to Farrufchsiyar, 207 ; 
present from Jahandar 8hah to the 
Dutch embassy, 299 (2). 

Jinji, 64, 255, 258 ; note on, 63»; taken 
by Sa'adatullah Khan, 51,57;; Au- 
rangzeb's present to the English 
for assistance at the battle of, 63 ; 
towns granted at, lo"5 ; rajah of, 
257, 258, 259 ; siego of, 258w. 

Jizyah (poll tax)/, 2S5 ; note, on 204« ; 
reimposed by 'Inayatullah Khan, 
204 ; not imposed upon the Dutch, 

Jodhpur, xxxv ; rSjah of (see also 
A jit Singh), xviii. 

Jogarass, English wish to rent, 63. 

Joia Kalinga, 282. 

Joseph, Padre, accompanies the Portu- 
guese embassy, 300; receives sar*o~ 
pa from Farrukhsiyar, 300. 

Jugalprasad, money-lender, 54. 

Jugurtha. xxiv, 

Juliana, Bibi, 178, 196, 1317, 291; noto 
on, 17£». 

Jumna, river, xxx, liii, 223(2). 

Juncaneers, 256 ; note on, 256». 

Juncans, 260. 

Juwahir Khan. ' See Jawahir Khan. 

Kabul, Khan Jahan, SubadSr of, 102. 

Kachahri, 111, 116, 137, 200; closed, 96; 
fards brought from, 121 (2) ; peti- 
tion returned from, without the 
knowledge of Sarhad, 128. 



Kacmlris, compLin to the Nabob of Patna 

about the seizure of debtors, 11. 
Eahdr*> 7, '7, 34; note on, 40n, 50m ; 
with private goods, 9 ; to proceed, 
14 ; for Malik Chand, 17; troub'e 
with, 25, 27, 81, 33, 35, 86, 40, 49 ; 
their grievances regarding demur- 
rage, 32, 33 ; Amar Sing's scheme 
for settling differences with, 34, 35 ; 
their grievances settled, 26, 41, 50; 
loan to, 36 ; payment to, 40 ; sar-o- 
pas and turbans for, 36, 49 ; Sai had 
stoned by, 40 ; wages of, 275, 276. 
Kahlgaon, embassy arrive at, 24? ; note 

on, 247 n. 
Kaithora, 205m. 
Kajwah, 230; note on, 227 n ; embassy 

arrive at, 227. 
Ka Katr'ah, Wazir Khan, 223 ; note on, 

Kalanaur, 174n. 
Kaiantar, Khwajah Fanus, x. 
Kalas. See Cullases. 
KalgJkl (turban plume), note m, 66n, 
192m; present from Farrukhsiyar 
to Surman, 47, 56, 191, 192, 193, 197, 
202, 208 ; present from Farrukhsiyar 
to Dr. Hamilton, 76, 77; present 
from the Wazir to the King, 107 ; 
presents from the Wazir to Surman 
and Sarhad, 208(2) ; present from 
Khan Daman to Surman, 20y. 
Kalinga,2Si ; troubles with Nabobs of 258 
Kamal Nain, payments to, 170, 171; 
delay of, 180 ; money paid into the 
Company's cash, 227(2). 
Kamarpada, 280 

Kam Uakhsh, vi, 258, 260, 260»; note on, 
258» ; towns granted by, 26b' ; nishan 
granted by, 279. 
Kamkhab, present from Jahandar Shah 
to Dutch embassy, 299 ; present 
from Farrukhsiyar to embassy, 300. 
Kamru-d-dm, xlii. " 
Kamwar Khan (see also Sewly), 46», 

7_8m, 95w, 96n, 102n, 172n, 192n. 
Kanats (see also Qandts), 250; note on 

Kanbayat. See Cambay. 
Kankurgachhi, 280. 
Karagaravittakkuppam, 266; note on. 

RarJcaraq-Jchanah, 205n. 
Karmnaea, river, 3y ; embassy arrive 

at, xxviii, 232. 
Karnatak, 62, 257, 260n ; conquered by 
Mir Jumlah for King of Golconda. 
Kar lalab Khan, 4«. 

Kashmir, Farrukhsiyar gets another wife 
from 173 ; 'Inayatullah Kban ap. 
pointed Subadar of, 1*8, J8o7 

Kasundiyah, 280. 

Katarah, 130n. 

Ka'tarx (dagger), 130 ; note on, 1F0»^ 

Katka, 39». 

Kattivakkam, 266; note, 266m. 

Kettler, Joseph, Dutch embassy lc» 
Mogul Court under, viii, xv ;oltaios 
a farwan for the Dutch from Ja- 
handar Shah, IIWm. 

KhaB Khan, 183m. 

Khalisah, 116(2). 

Khalisah-i-sharifah, 90. 

.kbambavati. Sep Cambay. 

Khanah-shumari (house-tax), not to be 
levied on the Dutch, 2^4. 

Khanjar, note on, 6H» ; sent to the 
embassy by"the King, 2, 5 ; present 
from Farrukhsiyar to Surman, 192, 
193{3), 194, 196(2), 202 ; present 
from Farrukhsiyar to Governor R. 
Hedges, 191, 251 ; present from 
Farrukhsiyar to S>arhad, 47- 56 ; pre- 
sent from 'Alamgir to the King of 
England, 2fc3 ; present from Jahan- 
dar Shall to the Dutch embassy, 

Khanji, son of DhanI Saha, seized 
for debt, 11 ; handed over to Shaikh 

'Isa, 11. 

Khan Khanan, 26 ; title of Mir 

Jumlah, 96, 96n. 
Khansamgn (tee also Taqarrub Khan), 
48m, 115, 186, 1^6, Z00, 204, 2< 5m. 
2!4; to be approached for demur- 
rage, 49 ; present for, 79 ; particulars 
of hired houses, 81 ; otbee held by 
Taqarrub Khan, IOI. 
Khansamani, 149, 180, 182, 195, 198; 

note on, 149m. 
Kha rkhdnah, 205n. 
Kharud, 10. 

KMsbardgrs, wages of, 275. 
Khat-barar , 236, 289 ; note on, 236«. 
Khatri, 174m. 

Khidmatg&rs, 154; note on, 154n; pre- 
sents to. 55 ; wages of, 275, 276. 
Khojah, denotes a eunuch, 72» 
Eushhal Chand, 17> (2), 192,193,197. 
202, 210; note on, 179m, j92»; his 
description cf the wedding cere- 
monies, 78/». 
Kidderpur, xi. 
Kifayat Khan, 118; note, 118m, parrcSna 

granted by, 274». 
King'ji Dewhy, 24 

Kirpa Ham. 83, 160, 15fi, 189; the agent 
of Haidar Qui! Khan at Delhi, xlviii, 
129,240; expects present, 84 ; visit 
to Bae~i~raySn, 98 ; recommended 
by Sarhad, 164 ; negotiations with, 
126, 129 ; his promises and expected 
rewards, 130; his influence with 



Kjian Daur&n, 126, 129 ; to negotiate 
with Shan Dauran, 154 ; unsuccess- 
ful negotiations, 165; his successful 
mediation, 125; Sarhad gives him 
the credit of obtaining the conces- 
sions, 165; honorarium for, 2 ' ; 
Sarhad asks more money for, 21*2; 
payment to, 21-', 339; embassy fear 
that he miy do some disservice to 
the factory at Surat, 240. 
Kishori Gulal Chand, bill of exchange 

payable to, 236 . 
Kishori Krishan Chand, 227, 231 ; 
money paid into Company's cash, 
Kiob$nagar, embassy arrive at, 248; 

note on, 248». 
Kishu Kae Kisha Chand, 184> 187, 

Kisnganj. See Kisbtnagar. 
Kissen^unge. See Kishfnagar. 
Knives, 52; present for Darbar Khan, 67 ; 
present for i'timad Khan, 68 ; pre- 
sent for I'tibar Khan, 70 ; present 
tor Jawahir Khan. 7« $ present for 
Nairn Khan, 86. 
Kobkhiraj embassy arrive at, 42 ; note 

on, 42n. 
Korah Jahanabad, 40, fiff t 228, 230; 
note on, 42w ; embassy arrive at, 42; 
Ghairat Kh an orders the English to 
wait for him at, 42m ; request ignored, 
42« ; infested by Ja$s and Mewatis, 
Kortaliyar, river, 266». 
Krishandas Bali JNach, 220. 
Krishna, 249w. 
Krishnachandra Kaja, 249»; festivities 

in honour of his birth, 249«, 
Krishnagara. See lieui. 
Krishnajivan, pay of, 82; money paid 

into Company's cash, 227. 
Krorx, 162 ; note on, 162». 
Kudalur 267(2), 266; purchased by the 
English. 64. 86 ; granted by Kama 
Eaja, 258 ; grant confirmed by 
Zul-fi ar Khan, 268 ; note on, 266n. 
Kudikkadukuppam, 266 ; note on, 266n. 
Kulia, 281. 
Kunimedu, 257. 
Kunwarpur, embassy anive at, 42 ; note 

on, 42n. 
Kursenah, embassy arrive at, 226 ; note 
on, 226». 

La Bat, Mons., 196. 

Lacquered ware, present for Darbar 

Klian, 68. 
Lahore, xxxii. 64(2*. 104; Mir Jumlah 

ordered to pro.-eed to, 96. 

| Lala Murlidhar Kayath, 44n. 

Lalji, 94 

Lalvihari (money-lender), 54. 

Lamp, 7. 

Langorn, Sir William. 257(2)-; obtains 
farmdn and qaul from King of 
Golconda, 267, 279 ; obtains qaul 
from Ikram Khan, 279; obtains qattl 
from Musa Khan, 279. 

Lead, to be properly paid for if required 
for the King's service, 28H. 

Liquors, present for Darbar Khaa, 68 ; 
present for the Wazir, 74 ; an 
acceptable present at Court, 270. 

Littleton, Sir Edward, appointed Presi- 
dent in Bengal, iii. 

Lloyd, Mr., 11. 

Longumbanka. See Numgumbakkam. 

Looking Glasses, 51 ; present f>»r Darbar 
Khan, 68 ; present for I'timad Khan, 
69 ; present for I'tibar Khan, 70 ; 
present for Farruklmyar, 142 (i) ; 
cost of, 142 

Looking glass box, present for the 
Wazir, 66. 

Logarh, xli. 

Lntfullah Khan, appointed diwan, xviii. 


Maalcapour, rent paid for, 63. 

Ma'am Khan. See Na'im Khan. 

Ma'bar, 286. 

Maces, present for Farrukhsiyar, xx. 

Madam 1-muham (title of the Wazir), 
288 ; note on, 288/». 

Madho Hatiya, embassy arrive at, 39; 
note on, 39». 

Madras, {gee also Fort St. George and 
Cbinapatam), 116; early history of 
the English, iii; instructions from, 
concerning the negotiations of the 
embassy, 255; embassy to conform 
with orders anrt requests from, 272 ; 
grants and privileges required by, 
260-1,279; list of papers sent to 
the embassy, 279 ; copies of grants 
to be sent to, 272ifarman for, 136, 
140, 147, 160. 276; no previous 
sanadt for, 147; mint at, xxxviii, 
62(2), 82, 85, 88, 91, 94, 116, 122, 
127, 135, 144, 145, 163, 166, 168, 
176, 258, 278; grout of towns at, 
xxxix, 85, 92, 123, 128, 144, 145, 
170, 171, 176<2), 206, 222 ; furman 
for grant of towns, 106, 135; towng 
granted by Kam Bakhsh, Asa^ 
Khan, Khan Bahadur and Dau^ 
Khan. 266; customs at, 63, 85, lls t 
122, 127, 278; trade of, 115; farm Sn 
fyi- trade, 4 144 ; free trade at. \j\ t 



176(2); Farrukhsiyar's present to 
President at, 191,216, 225; letters 
from the embassy, 65, 75, 106, 181, 
134, 225 ; letter to" the embassy, 260 j 
letter to the President and Council 
at Fort William, 255, 268; letter 
from Bengal, 73 ; correspondence 
with, to be sent via Bengal; 215 ; 
President and Council informed of 
the end of the negotiations at Delhi, 
225(2), .European settlements in, 

MabdiKhan, 119. 

MahmudShah, 247». 

Makor.da, 280. 

Makrain, embassy arrive at, 38, 283; 
note on, 38n. 

Malik Chand, 124(2), 218; to assist 
Sarhiid, 17; terms of employment, 
17; to hasten Dakhini Bae in the 
matter of Hedges' farman, 218; 
promises delivery of Hedges' 
farman, 218. 

Mamodays, present from Farrukhsiyar 
to the Company, 240. 

Manauri, embassy arrive at, 42 j note 
on, 42n. 

Manavvar, Khwajah, 14S; letter from 
Sarhad concerning the English 
present, 143; has no hand in the 
embassy's business, 151 ; unpopular 
at Court, 152; posts held by, 162; 
promises help to obtain Dr. Hamil- 
ton's release, 2"0. 

Mangecoopam See Munjakkuppam. 

AlanikchaDd Saha,234. 

Manila work, present for Farrukhsiyar. 
46, 47. 

Manohar Datta, 81, 118. 

Manpcre, 280(2), 281 ; rent of, 87. 

Mansabdars (minor nobles), to be sent 
to meet the embassy, 45, 47. 

Mansabs, sent to meet the embassy, 47, 
56; taken from Mir Jumlah, 95, 
96(2) ; taken from Khan Dauran and 
Muhammad Amiri Khan and after- 
wards restored, 102-3, 104; rnles 
regarding ornaments on palanquins, 

Mansur Khan, KJpajah, present for, 
12n ; to obtain from the Wazxr 
permission for the embassy to 
depart, 207(2). 

Manucci, his name mentioned as a 
fitting person to conduct the em- 
bassy to Farrukhsiyar. x. 

Maps, 261 ; payment to John Burnell for 
preparing, xiv ; present for Farrukh- 
siyar, xiv, xxxi, 46. 47. 

Maraha, Uijah Sahu, 174*. See also 

Marathas, English struggles with, lvi. 

•M-iratha Sanibha J I, xlii. 
.vlartin, Mons., the King's Doctor, xxvi, 
30, 149, 150; note on, 4» ; jealous 
of Dr. Hamilton, xxxv ; presents 
from Farrukhsiyar, xxxvi, xxxvii, 
76, 77 ; presents from the King's 
mother, xxxvii, 79 ; embassy's letter 
to, 4 ; letter from, 9 ; letter from 
Surman to, 29; letter from Surman 
explained, 31 ; presents for the 
children of, 72; sides with the 
Kiig's Doctor against Dr. Hamilton, 

Martin, W., letter to President and 
Council at Bengal, 259. 

Marwar, invasion of, 162n. 

Mash'al, 7. 

Mash' ale his, for Malik Chand, 17 ; wages 
of, 275, 276. 

Masters, — , 257. 

Masulipatam, xi, xxxix, 62, 63(2), 119, 
256n(2), 257, 262, 289, 289-90, 290; 
customs at, 88; Governor of, 217 ; 
faujdar protests to the King against 
the grant of Divi Island, 238, 246; 
farman required for, 283 ; request 
for permission to settle a factory, 
283 ; sanad granted to the Presi- 
dent to be permanent and not 
personal, 288. 

Mathura, xxx, xxxi; note on, 223n; 
embassy arrive at, liii, 223; faujdar 
pays a visit to the embassy, 223. 

Maudoobaulum, proposed mint at, 291. 

Maulda, 263; ground required at, 277. 

Maunds, 7, 13, 18; equivalent of, xxn. 

Mauza 'Perwanua, rent paid for, 63. 

Mayilapur. 265; note on, 265n. 

Mecca, 186(2), 246. 

Mecca, Sharif of, his name forged by 
Husain Ahmad, 106. 

Medicine, for Farrukhsiyar and Taqarrub 
Khan, 72. 

Meurah, 22 ; note on, 222n. 

Mewati?, xxi, xxx, 119, 224; attack the 
embassy, liii, 2. : 6, 2z8; English 
prepare for possible attack by, 43 ; 
leave the camp, 44. 

Mihmdndar, 37. 

Mihrparwar-ki-sarae, 58. 

Mints, of Bengal, 135, 241 ; at Calcutta, 
263 ; request for a mint to be settled 
near the Bengal factory, 289; at 
hajmahal, 61, 2C3, 276. 277, 289; 
that at Bajmahal too far away from 
the Bengal factory, 289; at Madras, 
62, 71, 82, 86, 88. 94, 116, 122, 127, 
135 144, 145, 163, 166, 168, 176, 
258, 278; at Bombay, xl, 88, 90, 93, 
119, 122, 126, 133, 137, 143, 146, 
164, 166(2), 168(2), 170, 176, 263, 
278 ; at Surat, 62, 82, 85, 88, 91, 94, 



135, 144, 164, 167(2), 268; at Dacca, 
61,289; at Murshidabad (Maqsuda- 
bad), xxxviii, 61, 84, 123, 128, 144, 
170, 171, 176 (2), 276 ; Ja'far Khan 
disallows the mint at Murshidabad, 
232 ; request for use of the King's 
mint at Murshidabad, 277 ; at 
Qasim-bazar, 91 ; at Ohennapatam, 
166, 167; at BugW-bandar, 289; 
King's money coined first, 82 ; 
I'tisam Khan objects to the English 
having separate mints, 115 ; request 
for use of King's mint at Patna, 
277 ; request for permission to use, 
286 ; towns granted to the Dutch 
for, 290 ; request for towns in which 
to establish mints, 290 ; charges 
levied on, 291. 
Mir Bahhshl, 206m ; note on, 206m. 
Mirgi, embassy arrive at, 248 ; note on, 

Mir Jumlah, xviii, xxv, 3, 13, 24, 27(2), 
41, 83, 149 ; note on, 38m ; favourite 
of Farrukhsiyar, xvii ; early career, 
xvii ; appointed Governor of t'ehar, 
xix, xxiii ; letter to Khan Dauran, 
xxviii ; receives a visit from the 
English, xxviii, 38 ; quarrels with 
tlusain 'Ali Khan and removal to 
Patna, xxxiii, 67 ; returns to Delhi, 
xli, 79, 80, 90, 96; Farrukhsiyar 
orders him to proceed to Lahore, 
xli, 96 ; deprived of his titles, xli, 95, 
96 ; expelled from Delhi, 95 ; ruined, 
67 ; to suppress the Ujjainis, 20 ; ar- 
ru al at I^ayah, 28 ; gives Sarhad a 
letter to Kh an Dauran and an order 
for Governor Hedges, 37m; writes 
to the King on behalf of the 
English, 37m ; present for, 38 ; 
titles of, 38m, 96, 96m i letter from 
Sarhad concerning the English pre- 
sent, 148 ; Dutch soldier from his 
camp comes to the embassy at 
Palwal, 222 ; conquers the Karnatak 
for the King of Golconda, 256 ; 
grants a qaul for Fort St. George, 
256 ; account of his campaign in 
Assam, 275». 
Mir Muhammad Bafi'. See Sarbuland 

Mir Mvnshi, 174w ;*note on, 160m ; ap- 
proves the farmans, 160. 
Mir Murtaza, Persian ambassador to 

Farrukhsiyar, 83» ; note on, 83m, 
Mir tozalc, 158 ; note on, 168m. 
Mirza Ibrahim, payments to, for trans- 
lations, xiv. 
Mirza Ma'jiz, parwana granted by, 

Mirsa Muhammad, 60n, 78m, 79m, 96m, 

Mirzapnr, 281 ; rented by the Dutch, 

294 (2). 
Mitr Sen, 150, 201, 218; appointed 
Company's vakil at Delhi and terms 
of his appointment, Hi, 215, 218-9, 
220 ; embassy's instructions to, 
liii, 220 ; brings fards from the 
kachahri, 121; to arrange for the 
embassy's leave-taking of the 
Wazir, 207 (2) ; embassy recom- 
mend him to the favour of Salabat 
Khan, 212 ; Surat sar-o-pa sent to 
him, 218 ; reports that Hedges' 
farman is almost ready for despatch, 
222 ; letter from the embassy, 227 ; 
letter to, concerning Ja'far Khan, 
231,232 ; reports that Ja'far Khan 
tan complained to the King against 
the embassy, 235 ; his complaint at 
Court against Ja'far Khan, 245. 
Mittas, 265 ; note on, 265w. 
Mogul Government, system of, xxiv. 
Mohan-ki-saras, note on, 39m ; embassy 

arrive at, 39, 231. 
Mohibalipur, note on. 37m ; embassy 

arrive at, 37, 233. 
Mohiniya, embassy arrive at, 232 ; note 

on, 232m. 
Mohun, Mr., obtains farman from King 

of Golconda, 257. 
Mokrain. See Makrain. 
Money, to be flung among the crowd, 

46 ; embassy in need of, 53, 64. 
Money-lenders, 54. 
Munger, lv ; embassy arrive at, 246. 
Moore, Thomas, ] 59. 
Moors, 261 ; peace made with, 258. 
Mu'&ssam Khan Bahadur, title of Mir 
Jumlah, 96 and 96« ; parwana gran- 
ted by, 274. 
Mubariz Khan, Subaddr of Gulkanda 
(see also Amanat Kh an), 195 ; note 
on, 195m ; Governor of Haidarabad, 
Muckemahumudbaud, proposed mint 

at, 291. 
Muhammad Ahsan, Ijad, 1 96«. 
Muhammad Amin Khan, xlii ; note on, 
102m ; conflict with Kh an Dauran, 
xlv, 102, 104 ; deprived of his 
offices, 102 ; and afterwards restored 
to favour, 103. 
Muhammad ' Arif, arrives at the em- 
bassy's camp at Mathura, 223. 

Muhammad A'zam, nishan granted by, 

Muhammal Ibiahim, 60». See also 

Asad Khan. 
Muhammad Kam Bakhsh, 63 ; note on, 

63 ». 
Muhammad Mas'ud, 37(2). 



Muhammad Muzaffar, liv ; English, wish 

to acquire his house at Patna, 60. 
Muhammad Shah, 109». 
Muhammad Zahid, his house rented, 284. 
Muha$sals, 28 ; note on, 28w. 
Muhrs, present for Farrukhsiyar, 46, 
47 ; present from the Wazxr to the 
King, 107. 
Muhumdi, pay of, 32. 
Mu'izzu-d-din Jahandar Shah (see also 
Jahandar Shan), 149, 180n, 299; 
grant of land at Surat to the Dutch, 
108 ; his present to the Dutch embas. 
By, 191, 195; his present to the 
Dutch embassy not to be taken as a 
precedent, 193. 
Mukta Devi, temple of, 43». 
Mulla Nasir, King's orders delivered to, 

Munawar, Khwajah. See Manavvar, 

Mun-im Khan. 2fi3«, 264n. 
Munjakkuppam, 266 ; note on, 266n. 
Murad Shah, 246». 
Murcha, embassy arrive at, 248 ; note on, 

Murlidhar Bhao Sen Dakhini Hae (See 
also Dakhini Uae), 219,, 220,- money 
paid into the company's cash, 184, 
187, 194,209. 
Murlidhar-ki-sarae, cote on, 44m ; embas- 
sy arrive at, 44, 226. 
Murshidabad (Maqsudabad), 237, 293; 
mint at, xxxviti, 61, 84, 123, 128, 
144, 170, 171, 176(2), 276; Ja'far 
Khan disallows mint at, 232 ; request 
for use of King's mint at, 277; 
Dutch money coined at, 296. 
Murshid Quli Khan (See also Ja'far 
Khan), vii, din ; obstructs the 
English, viii; forbidden to inter- 
fere with English trade, iz ; sanad 
granted to the Dutch, 296. 
Musa Khan, 257 ; qaul granted by, 279. 
Musanagar, 22 In ; note on, 43n ; embassy 
urrive at, xxx, 43 ; halting place 
for pilgrims to Gaya, 43/*. 
Musjid Mochiyah, 162n. 
Mnsketoons, 62 ; present for the subadar 

of Allahabad, 229. x 
Mustaqim, Khwajah. See Hu^affar 

Mutasaddis, 61, 62(3), 82; increased 
pay, 32 ; money promised them by 
Padro Daniel, 63 ; presents for, 
72», 79, 83 ; bribery of, 86, 89, 93 ; 
laise objections to the petition, 105 ; 
to whom the name was applicable, 
Muthani, embassy arrive at, 33; cote on, 

Muttra. See Mathura. 

Mugiffar Jang, tiile of Mir Jfinilah, 

96, 96» 
Mugaffar Khan (Khwajah Mustaqim^ 

(see also Khan Jahan), marriage of, 

120; note on, 59 n, 120n; present 

for, 69», 121. 
Mugaffarnagar, 205/t. 
Myalpur. See Mayilapur. 


Nadiru-t'ZamSnt, 78n. 
Nadiya, 248; relations of the English 
with the Kajahs of, 249». 

Nahan, xli. 

Nahar Khan, brings Kajah A jit Singh to 
Court, 162; note on, 162». 

Nairn Khan, present for, 86; note on, 

Namads, embassy's expenditure on, 252. 

Nam oudbundee, 62. 

Narela, xli, 101, 102, 172, 177; note on, 
101 n. 

Nath Mai, xxxix, 111, 152; obstructs 
the embassy, 112. 

Naubatpur, 28; embassy arrive at, xxiv, 
24, 233 ; embassy leaves, xxviii ; 
troubles of the embassy at, xxvii. 

Nauranga, 2in. 

Nauwada, embassy arrive at, 246; note 
on, 246 n 

Necklace, present from the Wazxr to the 
King, 107. 

Necknam Khan (see also Ik ram Khan), 

Nihal-ki-sarae, embassy arrive at, 43, 
2.6; note on, 43n. 

Nith&n, i-68, 263, 2*8 (2), 289 ; granted 
by ' Ajjimu-sh-shau, 60, 81, £6, 
118 (>:>, 123, 162, 277; granted by 
A'jam Shah, 60; granted by Sultan 
8huja\ 60, 274; granted by Muham- 
mad A'sam, 274 (2); granted by 
Kam Bakhsh, 279. 

Nijamu-l-mulk (see also Chin Qilich 
Khan), xli, 96». 

Nobusta Mohun. See Sarae Mohan 

Nodiah, 280, 281. 

Norris, Sir William, xv; embassy of, 
iii, v ; his proceedings copied from 
the King's books, 79 ; purport of 
his emb