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from th.e first Authorities and most select specimens 


/ / ,; 


M A M M A ]L I A 

londoalViiiledfor G. Re Jirslev, Fleet Street 









JjADGER, common 

, . .5 
P. 467 

Cat, Once - >J< i *- p. 




Jaguar f fr3 -(V J 



t ^ 




cinereous . 



. 47 

Puma . *f ' 

35 8 


. 45 

black tiger !H 'i ' 


.. American 

- 453 

Margay . ? . ' 


Polar .** 


Cape '. j-: j!li 4 ' 


Glutton ^ . 

. 460 




. 462 




. 464 



. 467 


. American do. 

. 469 

. Guigna &**** . 


Indian do. 



Servai . ll . ' 




American do 


T . 




34 a 

Bay lynx . 

o I 







. common Lynx 

O / ^ 

. lesser do. 

35 a 

hunting do. 

. 35 2 





Chinche . , p. 


Dog, Fennec 

p. 33* 

Chinge C^ i '/<i 






Coasse . * . 






Colorolo . 











2 73 

- common 



. 426 

.. Dingo 


i wolf . . 




if j 


. 542 

black do. 







. spotted do. 



Jackal W|V ., : 


... Cape do. 




- Barbary do. 

3 11 

. Ceylonese 


Jackal . ^ny 





- 3iP 

. cross do. . . 


Barbary . , f 


i black do. 


- brant do. 


Jaguar . ,., 


Corsac do. 


. Karagan do. . 

3 2 3 



i fulvous-necked do. 



. Virginian do. ,.. 




silvery do. 


- ^ , - ' 

Arctic do. 




Chili do. 


. Surinam 




. Bengal . . r . 


Leopard . , . j -. , 


... sooty 


lesser do. 




hunting do. 




Lynx .. r.vtn! ,ls 


Manul . . . 
Margay . . . 

< pine do. 


" common 'V* 


37 6 




39 2 



5 2 3 






Opossum, lemurine p. 










Brasilian so . 

. Pinr 


Panther . . r . 
Pekan . ?qh . 
Pilosello . . ifail. 
Puma . . . q . 

brown "' l . 
Ocelot . . !U$ J 
Once . . . 



Shrew, musk ;. T 



r- Canada . 

- 53* 

<. - perfuming 

- 533 

Serval, Indian 

~ < r- water . 


r- American 

. r- Brasilian 







< white-toothed 


Surikate .. 

.1 .. square-tailed 






- 53 

murine . 

539 : 


Persian . 


Tendrac . . 

minute . 

- 54 


pygmy . 




. 249 

URSUS GENU8 .,:tar.'j 

. common , ,. : 

. 250 

pied ?:,!. 

. 264 I 


" Mediterranean 



. 256 

Vison . . 

Falkland Isle 

. 256 


. 257 




ii leporine 

. *& 


rough >. j v , 

2 59 
2 59 


. 260 


. i yellow 

. 260 


, -t _. 



. 2O2 
. 262 


. 264 


ursine , . 

. 265 



/ -, ( 

-* leonine 

* ^UO 

. 270 

\^ attranan 
Zenic i>*& ~ 


. 27* 


p. 426 

. 526 

. 384 





. 470 

. 428 

, 448 






Weesel, Coati-mondi 

P. 385 

Weesel, Stoat , < ^ p. 



. 387 


striated . 

. 387 



/ *.i 



OU' V, 

. 390 



' Chinge " v " 



/ 7^^IHi 

39 1 



TV/T **. 

. 592 

43 ^ 

Grison . 

. 392 



c ^ -. 

. Quasje . , 












. 396 


v/ivet . ^ 


. 400 

woolly . 


f^ *>m>4- 

. 400 


' Fossane _^. . ,. . 402 

. slender-toed 



. 403 

. 404 

Wolf ... 


. J 


Malacca ^ : 

. 406 

Mexican . . 



tigrine . , 

. 408 






. 410 

Sable __ n _+ , 

. 411 



Fisher f . 

. 414 

Zerda . . 


Polecat . , 

4 J 5 




. 418 


39 1 


. 420 



Page 277, 1. i, for true genuine read true or genuine. 
308, 1. 20, for structures read structure. 
497, 1. 8, for floccy read flocky, 
471, 1. 14, for Viverrae read the Viverrae. 
408, for Tigerine Weesel read Tigrine. 

Directions for placing the Plates in vol. I. part IL 

The Vignette to part II. represents the Long-tailed and Squirrel 
Opossum of New Holland. 












to face page 250 

Plate 96 




I0 5 
1 08 




1 20 


to face page 402 

. _..n. inr* 


r ~rt8 







33 a 




47 u 




4 7 


49 $ 








5 5 

- 369 


l o 



J Q* 


- - 




F E R 


Generic Character. 

Denies Primores superiores 

sex, acuti, parallel!: exte- 

riores majores. 
Inferiores, quatuor, parallel!, 

distinct!, aequales, obtusius- 

Laniarii solitarii, robusti, 

acuti; superiores ab inciso- 

ribus, inferiores a molari- 

bus remoti. 

Molares quinque, v. sex, an- 
gusti, tricuspidati. 

Pedes postici coaliti. 

Fore-teeth in the upper jaw 
six; pointed, parallel: the 
exterior larger. 

In the lower jaw four; blunt- 
ish, parallel, distinct, equal. 

Canine-teeth one on each side 
in both jaws, large, point- 
ed: the upper ones distinct 
from the cutting-teeth; the 
lower from the grinders. 

Grinders five on each side 
above, six below: obtusely 


JL HIS genus, like the preceding, is marine. It 
is, however, so constituted as to require occasion- 
ally some intervals of repose, and even a consider- 
v. i. P. ii. 17 


able degree of continuance, on dry land ; forsak- 
ing, at particular periods, the water, and congre- 
gating in vast multitudes on the shores, on float- 
ing ice, or on insulated rocks; especially during 
the season in which the young are produced. 

The most common species, or that which seems 
to have been known from the times of the most 
remote antiquity, is the Phoca vitulina, or Sea- 
Calf, as it is generally termed. 


Phoca Vitulina. P. capite inauriculato et cervice Itsvi, corf ore fusco. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 63. 
Earless brown Seal, with smooth head and neck. 
Vitulus maris oceani. Rondel, pise. p. 458. 
Phoca seu vitulus marinus. Gesn. aquat. 702. Aldr. pise. 722. 
Le Phoque. Buff. 1 3 . /. 3 3 3 . //. 45 . 
Common Seal. Pennant S>uadr. 2. p. 270. 
The common Seal, or Sea-Calf. 

This animal is a native of the European seas, 
and is found about all the coasts of the northern 
hemisphere, and even extends as far as the oppo- 
site one, being seen in vast quantities about the 
southern polar regions. We are informed by 
Mr. Pennant, that it also inhabits some fresh wa- 
ter lakes, as that of Baikal, Oron, &c. and that 
in these lakes it is considerably smaller, but much 
fatter than when found in the sea. The Count 
de Buffon imagines the Mediterranean Seal, a dis- 
tinct species from this, to have been the Phoca 


of the ancients ; grounding his idea on the rougher 
and longer hair in that species, which he thinks 
must have been alluded to by Pliny, who speaks 
of a popular opinion that the hair of the Phoca, 
in the dried skin, always roughens or rises up at 
the time of the reflux of the sea, and which the 
Count de BufFon thinks could not have been ima- 
gined of the common or present species, on ac- 
count of its short and close hair. Mr. Pennant, 
however, with much greater probability, supposes 
the present to be the ancient Phoca, since it agrees 
exactly with the description given by Aristotle, 
and which cannot be applied to the Mediterra- 
nean Seal. 

The size of the Seal varies, but its general 
length seems to be from five to six feet. The 
head is large and round: the neck small and 
short : on each side the mouth are situated seve- 
ral strong vibrissas or whiskers ; each hair being 
marked throughout its whole length with nume- 
rous alternate contractions and dilatations. The 
parts about the shoulders and breast are very 
thick, and from thence the body tapers towards 
the tail. The eyes are large : there are no exter- 
nal ears : the tongue is bifid or cleft at the tip. 
The legs are so very short as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible ; and the hinder ones are so placed as to 
be only of use to the animal in swimming, or but 
very little to assist it in walking; being situated 
at the extremity of the body, and close to each 
other. All the feet are strongly webbed, but the 
hind ones much more widely and conspicuously 


than the fore. The toes on all the feet are five 
in number, and the claws are strong and sharp. 
The tail is very short. The whole animal is co- 
vered with short thick-set hair. In colour the 
Seal varies considerably, being sometimes grey, 
sometimes brown or blackish, and sometimes va- 
riously patched or spotted with white or yellow- 
ish. When these animals collect together in great 
numbers on the shore, they diffuse a very strong 
and disagreeable smell. This is a particularity 
observed by Homer, who represents Menelaus re- 
lating his adventure on the Isle of Pharos, where 
he was constrained to lie for a time among a flock 
of seals, disguised in the skin of one of these 

Seals may often be observed sleeping on the 
tops of rocks, near the coast ; but when approach- 
ed too near, they suddenly precipitate themselves 
into the water. Sometimes, however, their sleep 
is very profound, and it is even affirmed by some 
that the Seal sleeps more profoundly than most 
other quadrupeds. The structure of the Seal is 
so singular, that, as Buffon well observes, it was a 
kind of model, on which the imagination of the 
poets formed their Tritons, Sirens, and Sea-Gods, 
with a human head, the body of a quadruped, and 
the tail of a fish. The Seal is possessed of a con- 
siderable degree of intelligence, and may be 
tamed, so as to become perfectly familiar with 
those to whose care it is committed ; and even to 
exhibit several tricks and gesticulations. Of this 
we have numerous examples. The female Seals 


produce their young in the winter season, and 
seldom bring more than two at a birth. It is said 
that they suckle the young for about the space 
of a fortnight on the spot where they were born, 
after which they take them out to sea, and in- 
struct them in swimming and seeking for their 
food, which consists not only of fish, but of sea- 
weeds, &c. &c. When the young are fatigued, 
the parent is said to carry them on its back. The 
Seal is supposed to be a long-lived animal, and 
Buffon is even inclined to suppose that it may at- 
tain to the age of an hundred years. The voice 
of a full-grown Seal is a hoarse kind of sound, 
not unlike the barking of a dog: that of the 
young resembles the mewing of a kitten. They 
have, however, like most other quadrupeds, va- 
rious inflexions of voice, according to the passions 
with which they are inspired. They are said to 
delight in thunder-storms, and at such periods to 
sit on the rocks and contemplate with seeming 
delight the convulsions of the elements; in this 
respect differing widely from the terrestrial quad- 
rupeds, which are extremely terrified at such 
times. Seals are generally very fat, and are 
hunted in the northern regions for the sake of 
their oil, which forms a great article of com- 
merce : their skins also are much used for various 
^economical purposes. 



Phoca Bicolor. P. nigra inauriculata, albo varia, naso elongato, 

pedibus postertoribus lunatis. 
Earless black Seal, variegated with white, with elongated nose, 

and lunated hind feet. 

Le Phoque a ventre blanc. Buff, suppl. 6. p. 3 10. //. 44. 
Pied Seal. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 273. 

THIS species, according to Mr. Pennant, dif- 
fers from the former, in having the nose taper 
and lengthened ; the fore feet furnished with five 
toes inclosed in a membrane, but very distinct : 
the claws long and strait: the hind feet very 
broad : five distinct toes, with the claws just ex- 
tending to the margin of the membrane, which 
expands into the form of a crescent. 

In the first or folio edition of the British Zoo- 
logy, it is not considered as distinct from the com- 
mon Seal, of which it was regarded as a mere va- 
riety; but in the third edition of the History of 
Quadrupeds it is described and figured under the 
title of the Pied Seal. It is also figured by the 
Count de Buffon in his sixth supplemental volume, 
and is there considered as a distinct species. The 
Count de Buffon observes, that it frequents the 
coasts of the Adriatic, growing to the length of 
seven feet and a half. In colour it varies, like 
the common Seal ; Mr. Pennant's specimen being 
black, with white throat and neck; while that de- 
scribed by Buffon was black, with a white belly. 
It may be tamed like the common Seal, and is 


then of a mild disposition, though ferocious when 
first taken. Mr. Pennant's figure seems to differ 


considerably from BufFon's, which latter has a 
much thicker neck, larger head, and shorter snout 
in proportion. It was particularly fond of eels 
and carp, with which it was fed during the time 
of its captivity, and which were first rolled in 
salt, in order to render them more agreeable to 
the animal. 


Phoca Monachus. P. capite inauriculatoi dentibus incisoribus utrius- 
que maxilla quatuor, fa/mis incH-visit, plantii exungiuculatis . Lin. 
Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 64. 

Hermann act. nat. scrutat. Berol. ^ p. 456. /. 12, I 3. 

Earless Seal, with four cutting-teeth in each jaw, the fore feet 
undivided, the hinder pinniform and without claws. 

Mediterranean Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 273. 

THIS species has obtained the name of Mona- 
chus, or cowled Seal, from the looseness or width 
of the skin behind the neck, which, when the 
animal is placed on its back, folds like a monk's 
cowl. It inhabits the Mediterranean Sea, growing 
to the length of more than eight feet. The head is 
small: the neck longer than that of the common 
Seal; the orifices of the ears not larger than a 
pea: the hair short and rude: the colour dusky, 
spotted with ash-colour : the toes on the fore feet 
have nails, but the hind feet resemble fins, and 
have no nails. This species seems to have been 


first described with accuracy by Mr. Hermann, 
in the 4th volume of the Berlin Transactions. 


Phoca Longicoliis. P. inauriculata, collo elongate, pedibus anteriori- 

bus pinniformibus. 

Earless long-necked Seal, with the fore feet pinniform. 
Long-necked Seal. Pennant Quadr. 274. Grew mus. reg. soe. 


WITH a slender body: length from nose to the 
fore legs as great as from them to the tail : no 
claws on the fore feet, which resemble fins. This 
species is mentioned by Grew in his Museum of 
the Royal Society, and is figured in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions. Its native place is uncer- 


Phoca Falklandica. P. cinerea, capite auriculato, dentibiu inc'uori- 

bus sulcatis. 
Cinereous Seal, with small pointed ears, and the cutting-teeth 

marked with furrows. 
Falkland Isle Seal. Pennant >uadr. p. 375. 

THIS is found in the seas about Falkland isles, 
and is about four feet long, with short cinereous 
hair, tipped with dull white : the nose short, and 
beset with black bristles : ears short, narrow, and 
pointed : the upper cutting-teeth furrowed trans- 


versly: the lower in an opposite direction: on 
each side of the canine teeth a lesser or secondary 
one: the grinders are conoid, with a small pro- 
cess on each side, near the base : the fore feet 
have no claws, but the bones of the toes, which 
are five in number, may be all felt beneath the 
skin or web, which extends a good way beyond 
their ends: the toes of the hind feet are four, 
with long and strait claws; the skin stretching 
far beyond them. 


Phoca Testudinea. P. capite testudineo, collo gratiti. 
Seal with tortoise-shaped head, and slender neck. 
Tortoise-headed Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 276. 

WITH head shaped like that of a Tortoise : neck 
slender: feet resembling those of the common 
Seal. This is described by Dr. Parsons, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, who informs us that 
it is found on several of the European coasts. 


Phoca Fasciata. P. nigricans, fascia dorsali subquadrata flava. 
Blackish Seal, with a squarish dorsal yellow band. 
Ribbon Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 276. 

THIS species, which is at present only known 
from a part of its skin described by the celebrated 
Dr. Pallas, is a native of the seas about the Kurile 


islands. The hair is short, glossy, and bristly, 
and of an uniform blackish colour, but is marked 
on the upper part by a yellow ribbon-like band, 
so disposed as to represent, in some measure, the 
outline of a saddle, and leaving a large included 
space on the back. The head and legs were 
wanting in this skin ; the middle part only having 
been seen by Dr. Pallas, so that the size of the 
animal is unknown ; but it is concluded to be a 
very large species. 


Phoca Leporina. P. wlkre suberecto, molli, allido. 
Seal with white, soft, suberect fur. 
Leporine Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 277. 

THIS species exceeds the length of six feet, and 
is a native of the seas about Iceland ; being found 
from Spitsbergen to Tchutkinoss. In the sum- 
mer months it is found in the white sea, ascend- 
ing and descending rivers in quest of prey. Its 
fur is soft, like that of a hare, growing nearly 
upright, and is of a dull white-colour: the vi- 
brissae or whiskers are long and thick : there are 
four cutting-teeth above, and the same below, 
and nails both on the fore and hind feet. 



Phoca Barbata. P. capite l#vi inauriculato, corpore nigricante. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 65. 
Earless blackish Seal, with smooth head. 
Le grand Phoque. Buff. \^.p. 345. 
Great Seal. Pennant ^uadr. p. 277. 

THIS is similar to the common Seal, but grows 
to the length of twelve feet; having been shot in 
the north of Scotland of that size. When so 
young as to have scarce any teeth it is upwards 
of seven feet long; whereas the common Seal is 
at its full growth when it has arrived at the length 
of six feet. It is a native of the northern seas. 
The skin, which is thick and strong, is said to be 
used by the Greenlanders for thongs for their Seal 
fishery. Mr. Pennant supposes this species to be 
the same with the Great Kamtschatkan Seal, call- 
ed by the Russians Lachtach, which weighs eight 
hundred pounds, and whose young are of a black 


Phoca Hispida. P. capite la*vi stibauriculato, corpore pallide fusco 
pilis surrectis hispido. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 64. 

Pale-brown subauriculated Seal, with the head smooth, and the 
body covered with rising bristly hair. 

Rough Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 278. 

THIS is of a pale brown colour, with rough 
bristly hair, and is a native of the seas about 


Greenland, where the natives catch it for its skin, 
with which they make garments with the hairy 
side inwards. Mr. Pennant supposes this to be 
the species called the Square Phipper by the New- 
foundland Seal-hunters, and which they describe 
by saying that its coat resembles that of a water- 
spaniel, and that the animal sometimes weighs 
five hundred pounds. 


Phoca Porcina. P. capite auriculato, naso porcino, pedilus pentadac- 


Eared Seal, with hog-like snout, and five-toed feet. 
Porcine Seal. Pennant >uadr. p. 178. 

IN its general form this species resembles the 
Ursine Seal y but the nose is longer, and formed 
like that of a hog. It has also five distinct toes 
covered with a common membrane. It inhabits 
the coast of Chili, and is a rare species. 


Phoca Flavescens. P.flavescens, capite auriculato. 
Yellowish Seal, with pointed ears. 
Eared Seal. Pennant Qiuulr. p. 278. 

THE eared Seal appears to be a rare species, 
and is smaller than most of the genus, not much 
exceeding the length of two feet from the nose 
to the tail; and from the same place to the ex- 


tremity of the hind feet, about two feet and a 
half. Its colour is an uniform pale yellow, or 
deep cream-colour, without any variegation. The 
head is rather small, and the nose somewhat point- 
ed : the ears are about an inch long, and are very- 
narrow and pointed ; and are somewhat leaf-shap- 
ed : the vibrissae or whiskers long and whitish : the 
teeth are rather blunt than sharp, and the two 
middle incisores or front teeth of the lower jaw 
are slightly emarginated. The fore feet are pin- 
niform, and without any appearance of toes or 
claws, and in shape someAvhat resemble the fore 
fins of a turtle : the hind feet are strongly webbed, 
and have long and very distinct claws, of which 
the three intermediate are much larger than the 
exterior ones : the tail is about an inch in length. 
This Seal is in the Leverian Museum, and is a na- 
tive of the Magellanic Straits. It has never be- 
fore been figured, except in the plate of the 
Magellanic Vulture or Condor, in the first num- 
ber of the Museum Leverianum; but the figure 
there represented, being merely intended as an 
accompaniment to the scenery of the plate, is, of 
course, only calculated to convey a general re- 
semblance of the animal. 


Phoca Cristata. P. capite antice cristate, carport griseo. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. GmeL p. 64. 

Grey Seal, with a folding skinny crest on the forehead. 
Hooded Seal. Pennant ^uadr. p. 279. 

THIS is distinguished by a strong folded skin 
on the forehead, which it can, at pleasure, fling 
over the eyes and nose, to defend them against 
stones and sand in stormy weather. Its hair is 
white, with a thick coat of black woolly hair be- 
neath, which makes the animal appear of a fine 
grey. It inhabits only the south of Greenland 
and Newfoundland ; and in the latter is called the 
Hooded Seal. The hunters affirm that they can- 
not kill it till they remove the hooded skin or 
covering of the head. 


Phoca Groenlandica. P. capite Ia<vi inauriculato, corpore griseo, la- 
teribui luna nigra. Lin. Syst. Nat. GmeL p. 64. 

Earless grey Seal, with a black dorsal crescent, the horns point- 
ing downwards along the sides. 

Harp Seal. Pennant Quadr.p. 279. 

THE Harp Seal is of a clumsy and inelegant 
form ; the head seeming to join the body without 
the appearance of any neck ; the snout is rather 
pointed : the general colour of the animal is whit- 
ish or grey, with a very large and somewhat irre- 


Mlarsln Tiers, SOcfl 


gularly defined black arch or crescent commen- 
cing at the upper part of the back ; the two bows 
or horns proceeding obliquely downwards along 
each side towards the tail : the head also is black : 
it is said, however, that the black arch does not 
appear till the fifth year of the animal's age; and 
that the colour differs annually till that period, 
during which time the species is distinguished by 
the Greenlanders according to the respective va- 
riation of colour. There is also said to be a 
blackish variety. 

The English Seal-hunters term this species the 
Harp Seal, or Heart Seal, and the black arch is 
called the saddle. It is a native of the seas about 
Greenland, Newfoundland, Iceland, the White 
Sea, &c. and, according to Mr. Pennant, passes 
through the Asiatic Straits, as low as Kamt- 
schatka. It is reckoned the most valuable of all 
the Seals; the skin being the thickest and the 
best, and its produce of oil the greatest. It grows 
to the length of nine feet. In the Leverian Mu- 
seum is a fine specimen of this animal. 


Phoca Pusilla. P. capite Itgvt suiauriculato, corpore fusco. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 65. 

Subauriculated dusky Seal, with smooth head. 
Le petit Phoque. Buff. 13. /. 333. pi. 53. 
Little Seal. Pennant Quadr.p. 280. 

IN this species the hair is said to be soft, 
smooth, and longer than in the Common Seal : 
the colour on the head and back dusky: beneath 
brownish: the length two feet four inches: the 
four middle cutting-teeth of the upper jaw are bi- 
ficated : the two middle of the lower slightly tri- 
furcated: the ears very small: the webs of the 
feet extend very far beyond the toes and nails. 
This animal is figured in Buffon's Natural History, 
under the title of Le petit Phoque, and the speci- 
men is said to have been brought from India, but 
Mr. Pennant imagines this to be an erroneous 
idea, arising from some misinformation, since, 
from the authority of Dampier, as well as of mo- 
dern voyagers to the East Indies, it should seem 
that no seals are observed in that ocean. 




Phoca Ursina. P. nigrkans, naso jimo, capite auriculato, pedibut 

anteriorilus pinniformibus. 
Eared blackish Seal, with flattish nose, and fore feet shaped like 


Ursus marinus. Steller nw. act. Petrop. z. p. 331. /. 15* 
Ursine Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 281. 

THIS is one of the larger seals, growing to the 
length of eight feet, and weighing eight hundred 
pounds. The female falls far short of the size 
and weight of the male. The body of this spe- 
cies is of a very thick form, somewhat conical or 
decreasing towards the tail : the greatest circum- 
ference is about five feet, and near the tail about 
twenty inches : the nose projects like that of a 
pug dog, but the head rises suddenly : the nos- 
trils are oval, and divided by a septum : the lips 
thick : their inside red and serrated : the whiskers 
long and white: the teeth lock into each other 
when the mouth is closed : in the upper jaw are 
four cutting-teeth, each bifurcated : on both sides 
is a small sharp canine-tooth, bending inwards: 
near that another larger: the grinders resemble 
canine-teeth, and are six in number in each jaw: 
in the lower jaw are also four cutting-teeth and 
two canine, but only four grinders in each jaw : 
in all thirty-six teeth : tongue bifid : eyes large 
and prominent : iris black : pupil emerald-green. 
The eyes are furnished with a fleshy membrane 
with which they may occasionally be covered: 
the ears are small and sharp-pointed ; hairy with- 

v. I. P. IT. 18 


out, but smooth and polished within. The length 
of the fore legs is about twenty-four inches, and 
they are less immersed in the body than those of 
other Seals : the feet are formed with toes, but are 
covered with a naked skin, and have merely the 
rudiments of nails, so that their general shape ap- 
proaches to that of the fore feet of the small yel- 
low or eared Seal, before described, giving them 
the appearance of a turtle's fin : the hind legs are 
twenty-two inches long, and are fixed to the body 
behind, but are capable of being brought quite 
forwards occasionally, so that the animal can rub 
its head with them: these feet are divided into 
five toes, separated by a large web, and are a foot 
broad : the tail is only two inches long. The hair 
is long and rough, and beneath it is a soft down 
of a bay colour : on the neck of the male the hair 
is upright, and a little longer than the rest. The 
general colour of the animal is black, but the 
hair of the old ones is tipped with grey; and the 
females are cinereous. The flesh of the females 
and the young is said to resemble lamb, and the 
young are said to be as good as sucking pigs. 

The manners of this species are so well describ- 
ed by Mr. Pennant, from Steller and others who 
have had opportunities of contemplating them in 
their native regions, that it is impossible to wish 
for more ample information. They live in fami- 
lies ; each male has from eight to fifty females, 
whom he guards with the jealousy of an Eastern 
monarch. Though they lie by thousands on the 
shore, each family keeps itself separate from the 


rest, and is sometimes so numerous as to amount 
to above an hundred. The old animals which 
have been deserted by the females, are said to live 
apart, and are most excessively splenetic and 
quarrelsome. They are extremely fierce, and 
enormously fat. It sometimes happens that they 
approach or intrude upon each other's station, in 
which case a battle ensues between the two indi- 
viduals ; and they, in the conflict, disturb the re- 
pose of some of their neighbours, till in the end 
the discord becomes universal, and is in a manner 
spread through the whole shore. Exclusive of 
the contests between these solitary males, similar 
disagreements take place between those who live 
in a more social state ; either from invading each 
others seats, endeavouring to allure the females, 
or interfering in the disputes of their neighbours. 
These conflicts are very violent, and the wounds 
they receive are very deep, and resemble the cuts 
of a sabre. At the end of the fray they fling 
themselves into the sea to wash away the blood. 
They shew a great attachment to their young, 
and shew all the signs of the deepest concern on 
losing them. 

The Ursine Seal is an inhabitant of the islands 
in the neighbourhood of Kamstchatka. In these 
islands they are seen from June to September, 
during which time they breed and educate their 
young. In September they are said to quit their 
stations, and to return, some to the Asiatic, and 
some to the American shore; but are generally 
confined to a space in those seas between lat. 50 


and 56. a They swim very swiftly, at the rate of 
seven miles an hour, and are very fierce and 
strong. They are said to be very tenacious of 
life, and to live a fortnight after receiving such 
wounds as would immediately destroy almost any 
other animal. 


Phoca Leonina. P. capite antice cristate, corf ore fusco. Lin. Sjst, 
Nat. GmeL p. 63. 

Brown Seal, with the snout of the male furnished with a pro- 
jecting crest or inflated membrane. 

Sea-Lion. Ansorfs <voy. p. 122. 

Bottle-nosed Seal. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 286. 

THIS species (in the male) is distinguished by 
its projecting snout, which hangs several inches 
over the lower jaw; the upper part consisting of a 
loose wrinkled skin, which the animal, when an- 
gry, has a power of inflating, so as to give the 
nose an arched or hooked appearance. It is a 
very large species, the male measuring twenty, 
and the female about eighteen feet in length. 
The feet are short: the hinder ones webbed in 
such a manner as to resemble a kind of fins: the 
eyes are large: the vibrissse or whiskers are also 
large and long : the general colour of the animal 
is a deep cream or dun, or rather a rust-colour: 
in the female the nose is blunt and tuberous at 
the top: the nostrils wide: the mouth rather 
small: in the upper jaw are four cutting-teeth. 



the two exterior of which are much larger than 
the two middle ones : there are also two very large 
but rather blunt canine-teeth, remote from the 
cutting-teeth: and on each side are five small 
conical grinders or molares. In the lower jaw 
are only two very small cutting-teeth ; two large 
canini like them in the upper jaw, and five grind- 
ers on each side. The cutting-teeth themselves 
resemble the shape of the canini in miniature. In 
the British Museum is a tolerably well preserved 
skin of a female, which formerly belonged to the 
Museum of the Royal Society. This species in- 
habits the seas about New Zealand, the island of 
Juan Fernandez, and the Falkland islands. In 
Juan Fernandez, during the breeding season, viz. 
in June and July, they are seen in great numbers 
suckling their young on the shore: they bring 
two young at a birth : the females are observed to 
be excessively fierce during the time of rearing 
the young: towards evening both the male and 
female swim out a little way to sea, the female 
bearing the young on her back, which it is said the 
male frequently pushes off, in order to oblige 
them to exercise their swimming powers. On 
the arrival of these animals on the breeding- 
islands, they are said to be so excessively fat as 
to resemble skins of oil; the tremulous motion of 
the blubber being plainly perceivable beneath the 
skin. A single animal has been known to yield 
a butt of oil, and to be so full of blood that what 
has run out has filled two hogsheads. The flesh 
is eatable. Lord Anson's sailors eat it under the 


denomination of beef, to distinguish it from that 
of the Seal, which they termed lamb. 


Phoca Jubata. P. cervice (marls) jubata, Lin, Syst. Nat. Gmel. 

p. 63. 
Reddish-brown Seal, with a large mane round the neck of the 


Leo marinus. Steller nov. act. Petrop. z. p. 360. 
Sea-Lion. Cook t s e voy. z. 203. Forster's <vty. z. 513. 
Leonine Seal. Pennant Quadr. z, p. 288. 

THIS is so termed from the large and loose 
mane or floating hair with which the head and 
neck of the male is furnished. The nose is short 
and turns up a little: the eyes are large: the 
whiskers very large and strong: the hair on the 
whole body is smooth, short, and glossy : its co- 
lour is a deep brown ; but those of this species which 
are found on Kamtschatka are said to be reddish, 
and the females tawny. The males are far larger 
than females, and grow from the length of from ten 
to fourteen feet : the females are from six to eight 
feet, and of a more slender form than the males. 
The weight of a full-grown male is from twelve 
to fifteen hundred pounds. A still greater size 
has been ascribed to those of Falkland isles, viz. 
that of twenty-five feet in length, and nineteen or 
twenty feet round the shoulders. 

These animals, according to Mr. Pennant, in- 
habit, in vast numbers, the islands called Penguin 



and Seal islands, near Cape Desire, on the coast 
of Patagonia ; and are found within the Magel- 
lanic Straits, and on Falkland islands, but have 
not been discovered in any other part of the 
southern hemisphere, or in any other place nearer 
than the sea between Kamtschatka and America. 
They live in families distinct from the Ursine and 
other Seals ; their manners, however, are nearly 
the same : they are polygamous, each male being 
accompanied by from two to thirty females. The 
males utter a snorting sound, and occasionally 
roar like bulls : the voice of the females resembles 
that of calves, and the young bleat like lambs, 
the food of the Leonine Seal consists of the smaller 
kinds of penguins, fish, seals, &c. but during the 
breeding season they are said to fast for three or 
four months, during which time they swallow a 
number of large stones, in order to keep their sto- 
machs in a distended state. 


Phoca Lupina. P. (inauriculata?) capite canino, pedibus anterioribus 


Earless Seal with dog-like head, and fore feet shaped like fins. 
Urigne Seal. Pennant Quadr. p. 290. 

THIS is a smaller species than the former, be- 
ing found from about three to eight feet in length. 
The body is thick at the shoulders, and gradually 
lessens to the hind legs. The head resembles 
that of a dog, with close cut ears: the nose is 


short and blunt: in the mouth are six cutting- 
teeth above, and four below : the fore feet have 
four toes inclosed in a membranaceous sheath, so 
as to resemble fins; and the hind feet are hid in a 
continuation of the skin of the back, and have 
five toes of unequal length like the fingers of the 
human hand: the tail is three inches long: the 
skin is covered with two sorts of hair; one like 
that of an ox, the other harder : the colours are 
various. These animals are the Sea Wohes men- 
tioned by navigators off the island of Lobos, near 
the River Plata. They are said to appear there 
in vast multitudes, and to meet the ships, and 
even to hang at the ship's side by their paws, 
seeming to stare at and admire the crew: then 
drop off and return to their former haunts. The 
natives of Chili kill them for the sake of their 

In enumerating the species of Seals, we have 
chiefly followed Mr. Pennant; but it may perhaps 
be doubted whether some of these animals may 
not rather be considered as varieties than as truly 
distinct species. 


Generic Character. 

Denies Pritnores superiores 
sex ; laterales longiores, 
distantes ; intermedii lo- 

Inferiores sex; laterales lobati. 

Laniarii solitarii, incurvati. 

Molares sex vel septem (plu- 
resve quam in reliquis ). 

Cutting-teeth in the upper jaw 
six ; the laternal ones long- 
er, distant; the interme- 
diate ones lobated. 

In the lower jaw six; the la- 
teral ones lobated. 

.Canine-teeth solitary, incur - 

Grinders six or seven (or 
more than in other genera 
of this order). 


Canis Familiaris. C. cauda sinistrorsum recurvata. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. p. 56. 

Dog with recurved tail turned towards the left. 
Canis. Gem. Quadr. 91. Aldr.dig.Afiz. Johnst. Quadr, 122. 

Ray. Quadr. 176. 

J_ HE Dog, that most faithful and valuable do- 
mestic, is one of those animals which have so 
long been taken under the peculiar protection of 
mankind, that the real origin of the species re- 

274 DOG. 

mains in a state of uncertainty ; wild dogs appear to 
be found in great troops in Congo, lower ^Ethiopia, 
and towards the Cape of Good Hope. They are 
said to be red-haired,, with slender bodies and 
turned-up tails, like greyhounds. It is also added, 
that they vary in colour, have upright ears, and 
are of the general size of a large fox-hound. 
They destroy cattle, and hunt down antelopes, 
and many other animals, and commit great ra- 
vages among the sheep of the Hottentots. They 
are very seldom to be taken, being extremely 
swift as well as fierce. The young are said to be 
sometimes obtained, but grow so fierce as to be 
very difficultly rendered domestic. 

It is not, however, allowed by modern natu- 
ralists, that these wild dogs constitute the true or 
real species in a state of nature, but that they are 
rather the descendants of dogs once domesticated, 
and which have relapsed into a state resembling 
that of primitive wildness; and a theory has for 
some time prevailed, that the Wolf is in reality 
the stock or original from which the Dog has 
proceeded. The Count de Buffon, however, in 
the earlier part of his writings, maintains a con- 
trary opinion. 

" The Wolf and the Dog (says Buffon) have ne- 
ver been regarded as the same species but by the 
nomenclators of natural history, who, being ac- 
quainted with the surface of nature only, never 
extend their views beyond their own methods, 
which are always deceitful, and often erroneous 
even in the most obvious facts. The Wolf and 

DOG. 275 

Dog (adds this author) cannot breed together, 
and produce an intermediate race : their disposi- 
tions are opposite, and their constitutions differ- 
ent : the Wolf also lives longer than the Dog ; the 
former breeds but once a year, but the dog twice 
or thrice. These distinctions are more than suf- 
ficient to demonstrate the two animals to be of 
very different kinds. Besides, on a closer inspec- 
tion, we easily perceive that even externally the 
Wolf differs from the dog by essential and uni- 
form characters. The appearance of the head and 
the form of the bones are by no means the same. 
The cavity of the eye in the Wolf is placed ob- 
liquely; the orbits are inclined; the eyes sparkle 
and shine in the dark: instead of barking the 
Wolf howls; his movements, though quick and 
precipitate, are more uniform and equal: his body 
is stronger, but not so flexible : his limbs are firmer, 
his jaws and teeth larger, and his hair coarser 
and thicker." All this, however, was said long 
before the celebrated experiments had been made, 
which have clearly proved that a hybrid offspring 
may be obtained from the Dog and the Wolf, and 
that the breed may be continued between the hy- 
brids themselves, or with other Dogs. In his 
supplemental volumes the Count de Buffon him- 
self has amply detailed some experiments of this 
kind, and has given engravings of the descend- 
ants. But though the Wolf and the Dog may 
thus breed together, and their progeny may also 
prove fertile, yet this can hardly be allowed a 
sufficient proof of a real identity of species. The 

276 DOG. 

same circumstance has been known to take place 
between the Horse and the Ass; the Mules of 
which have sometimes proved fertile ; and the same 
may be said of the Goldfinch and the Canary- 
bird ; but surely we are not justified in supposing 
the species to be the same. We can only con- 
clude from such experiments, that animals of spe- 
cies extremely nearly allied to each other, though 
really different, may sometimes intermix, and 
produce a fertile progeny; but the genuine spe- 
cies still remains intemerated. If, however, the 
origin of the Dog must be traced to some other 
animal, the Jack all perhaps seems a more proba- 
ble origin than the Wolf. 

It is generally believed that the Dog was un- 
known in America on the arrival of the Euro- 
peans *. 

Dogs, indeed, in a wild state, are said to be 
frequently found in South America, but these are 
supposed to be the descendants of such as were 
introduced by the Europeans on the first disco- 
very of America. When taken young they are 
said to be readily tamed, and to acquire the ha- 
bits of the domestic Dog. They resemble Grey- 
hounds in appearance. Linnaeus, observes, that 
the American dog does not bark ; but this relates 
to the wild dogs of North America only; which, 
it is contended, derive their origin from the Wolf, 
and which, instead of barking, utter only a kind 

* Yet the Peruvians had, according to Acosta, a little animal 
like a dog, of which they were very fond, and kept by way of a 




itoaFetfiJ'utU/hZ ty 0J&aj-jty, Ftfft- Stntl . 

DOG. 277 

of howl ; and are greatly inferior to the true ge- 
nuine Deo-. 


In Australasia, or New Holland, the Dog is 
known by the name of Dingo, and is an animal 
of uncommon strength and fierceness. 

The dog is unquestionably subject to greater 
variety than any other animal, and it is no easy 
task to ascertain all the different breeds. 

That which is supposed by naturalists to ap- 
proach most nearly to the original animal is 
known by the name of the Shepherds' Dog. 
(Canis domesticus. Z/;?.) This is distinguished 
by its upright ears, and tail remarkably villose be- 
neath. In the Alpine regions, as well as in some 
other parts of Europe, this Dog is much larger 
and stronger than in England. Its principal use 
is as a guard to the flock, which it prevents from 
straggling, and defends from all attacks. In Mr. 
Bewick's work on Quadrupeds, the variety figured 
as the Shepherds' Dog is said to have always one, 
and sometimes two toes more than other Dogs ; 
these toes appear to be destitute of muscles, and 
hang dangling at the hind part of the leg like an 
apparently unnecessary excrescence. This parti- 
cularity, however, is not mentioned in Buffon's 
description of that animal, nor does it make any 
part of the Linnasan characteristic of this variety : 
the race described by Mr. Bewick is said to prevail 
most in the north of England, and in Scotland. 
In a pointer, it is well known, a similar particu- 
larity generally takes place. 

The Dingo, Australasian, or New Holland Dog, 

278 DOG. 

approaches in appearance to the largest kind of 
Shepherds' Dog. The ears are short and erect : 
the tail rather bushy: the hair, which is of a red- 
dish dun-colour, is long, thick, and strait. This 
Dog is capable of barking, though not so readily 
as the European Dogs : it is extremely fierce, and 
has the same sort of snarling and howling voice 
as the larger dogs in general. By some it has 
been erroneously said neither to bark nor growl. 
Those which have been brought over to Europe 
were of a savage and untractable disposition. 

The Pomeranian Dog (Canis Pomeranius. Lin. 
Gmel. ) is distinguished by upright ears, long hair 
on the head, and an extremely curved tail, so as 
to form almost a circle. This Dog is generally of 
a white colour. 

The Siberian Dog (Canis Sibiricus. Lin. Gmel.) 
is nearly allied to the preceding, and may be sub- 
divided into several races, differing as to strength 
and size. The Siberian Dogs are principally used 
in that country and in Kamtschatka for drawing 
sledges over the frozen snow in winter. Four, 
or six, or more, according to circumstances, are 
commonly yoked to the sledge, and will readily 
carry three persons with their baggage, and thus 
perform a journey of fifty or even sixty English 
miles in a day. Their fidelity, however, is not 
highly praised, and their malignity sometimes 
renders it necessary for the master to be on his 
guard against their stratagems. In Kamtschatka 
in particular, the treatment Avhich the dogs re- 
ceive is said to be such as seems but ill calculated 

> ..f. 



for securing their attachment. They are fed 
sparingly with putrid fish during 1 the winter, and 
in summer are turned loose to shift for them- 
selves, till the return of the severe season makes 
it necessary for their masters to take them 
again into custody, and remand them to their se- 
vere state of toil and slavery. Like the spirits of 
Prospero, they seem to obey their master with no 
good will, but to " hate him rootedly." When 
yoking to the sledge, they set up a dismal yell, 
which ceases on beginning the journey,, and then 
gives place to silent subtlety, and a perpetual en- 
deavour to weary out the patience of the driver 
by wayward tricks and contrivances. With all 
their faults, however, they are considered as con- 
stituting one of the great conveniences of life by 
the inhabitants of the frozen region of Kamts- 

Iceland Dog. (Cam's Islandicus. Lin. Gmel.) 
This seems to differ but slightly from the preced- 
ing kind. It has a shortish muzzle, upright 
ears, with flaccid tips, and is covered with long 
roughish hair. Its general colour is blackish : the 
breast, legs, and tip of the tail, often white. 

Water Dog. (Canis aquaticus. Lin. Gmel.} 
This is the Canis aquaticus aviarius of Gesner, 
and is distinguished by its curly hair, like wool, 
it is remarkable for its great attachment to the 
water, swims with great ease, and is used in hunt- 
ing ducks, and other aquatic birds. Its feet are 
commonly said to approach more to a webbed 
form than those of most other clogs. 

280 DOG. 

The Great Water Spaniel is also distinguished 
in a similar manner by its curled hair, and its 
propensity to the water. There is a smaller va- 
riety of the Water Dog, called the Little Barbet, 
which, in general appearance, extremely resem- 
bles the larger. 

Newfoundland Dog. This variety is of a very 
large size; and, from its strength and docility, is 
one of those which are best calculated for the se- 
curity of a house : the feet in this dog are more 
palmated than usual, and the animal is remark- 
ably fond of plunging into the water. 

King Charles's Dog. This is one of the most 
elegant varieties of the Dog, and it is recorded 
that King Charles the Second hardly ever walked 
out without being attended by some of this breed. 
It is in some degree allied to the small Water 
Spaniel, and is generally black, with the roof of 
the mouth of the same colour. It is the Gredin 
of BufFon, and the Cams brevipilis Lin. Gmd. 
The Dog called by BufFon the Pyrame is one of 
its varieties, and is distinguished by a patch of red 
on the legs and over each eye. 

Maltese Dog (Canis Melitaeus. Lin. Gmel.) 
This is a very small kind of spaniel, generally 
of a white colour, and is one of the most elegant 
of the lap-dog tribe. In some of its varieties 
the hair is extremely long, as in the Skock and 
the, Lion-Dog: 

Hound. (Canis Sagax. Lin. Gmel.) This ad- 
mits of some varieties. The old English Hound 
is distinguished by its great size and strength ; its 

DOG. 281 

body long; its chest deep; the ears long and 
sweeping; and the tone of its voice peculiarly 
deep and mellow. Its power of smelling is exqui- 
site, and it is said to be able to distinguish the scent 
an hour after the lighter beagles have given it up. 
These dogs are said to have been once very com- 
mon in every part of England ; and to have been 
much larger than at present; the breed having, as 
it should seem, been gradually suffered to decline, 
and its size to diminish by the mixture of other 
lighter kinds, in order to increase its speed, so 
that the race is supposed to be almost extinct. 
This (says Mr. Bewick) seems to have been the 
kind so accurately described by Shakspear. 

" My Hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, 
So flewed, so sanded, and their heads are hung 
With ears that sweep away the morning dew; 
Crook -knee'd and dewlap'd, like Thessalian bulls - } 
Slow in pursuit ; but matched in mouth like bells, 
Each under each." 

The Hound, like some other dogs, has com- 
monly a spurious toe on the hind feet. 

Blood Hound. This is a very large Dog, taller 
and more beautifully formed than the old English 
Hound, and superior to most others in speed, 
strength, and sagacity. The Blood-hound was in 
much esteem with our ancestors, for the pursuit 
of robbers, &c. It was mostly of a reddish or 
brown colour. " A person of quality (says Mr. 
Boyle), to make a trial whether a young Blood- 
hound was well instructed, caused one of his ser- 
vants to walk to a town four miles off, and then to 

v. i. P. ii. 19 

282 DOG. 

a market-town three miles from thence. The 
Dog, without seeing the man he was to pursue, 
followed him by the seent to the ahovementioned 
places, notwithstanding the multitude of market- 
people that went along the same way, and of tra- 
vellers that had occasion to cross it. And when 
the Blood-hound came to the chief market-town, 
he passed through the streets, without taking no- 
tice of any of the people there, and left not till 
he had gone to the house, where the man he 
sought rested himself, and found him in an upper 
room, to the wonder of those that followed him." 

Pointer. This Dog is employed principally in 
rinding partridges and other game. The Large 
Pointer, commonly termed the Spanish Pointer, 
is supposed to distinguish itself by a greater de- 
gree of docility than the English Pointer, but is 
not able to undergo the fatigues of the field so 

Dalmatian or Spotted Dog. This is an animal 
of great beauty. Its native country seems uncer- 
tain. It is frequently termed the Danish Dog, 
and the Count de Buffon calls it Le Eraqne de 
Bengal. ' Mr. Pennant, however, informs us that 
Dalmatia is the country of this elegant Dog. It 
is white, and beautifully marked on all parts with 
.numerous round black spots. 

Irish Greyhound. This is supposed to be the 
largest of all the Dog kind, as well as the most 
beautiful and majestic in its appearance. It is 
only to be found in Ireland, and even there is 
become extremely rare. It is said by Mr. Bewick 


DOG. 283 

to be kept rather for shew than use, being equally 
unserviceable for hunting either the stag, hare, or 
fox. Its ancient use was that of clearing the 
country from wolves. In the 3d volume of the 
Transactions of the Linnrean Society we find an 
account of a Dog of this kind, by A. B. Lam- 
bert, Esq. who informs us that the breed is now 
become nearly extinct in Ireland, those in the 
possession of the Earl of Altamont (eight in num- 
ber) being the only ones in the country. The 
specimen described by Mr. Lambert measured 
sixty one inches from the nose to the tip of the 
tail; but they were formerly of a much larger 
size, and in shape more resembling a Greyhound. 
Dr. Goldsmith assures us that the largest of those 
which he saw (and he adds that he had seen a 
dozen) was about four feet high, or as tall as a 
calf of a year old. 

Common Greyhound. (Canis Grajus. Lin. 
Gmd. ) This well-known Dog is remarkable for 
the slenderness of its shape, the length of its 
snout, and the extreme swiftness of its course. 
It was formerly held in high estimation in Eng- 
land, and Mr. Pennant informs us, that by the 
forest laws of King Canute it was enacted, that 
no one under the degree of a gentleman should 
presume to keep a Greyhound. The Greyhound 
wants the faculty of quick scent, and follows his 
prey merely by the eye. 

Italian Greyhound. This is a srnall and beauti- 
ful variety of the former. 

Naked Dog. This singular and unpleasing va- 

284- DOG. 

riety is naturally divested of hair, and is supposed 
to have originated in some very warm climate. 
It is called by Buffon Le Chien Turc. 

Mastiff". The Mastiff is of a very strong and 
thick form, with a large head, a bold counte- 
nance, and large lips hanging down on each side. 
Dr. Caius, who lived in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and who described the several varieties of English 
Dogs, tells us, that three Mastiifs were reckoned 
a match for a Bear, and four for a Lion ; but from 
an experiment made in the Tower in the reign of 
James the First, a lion was found an unequal match 
to only three. Two of the Dogs were disabled 
by the combat, but the third forced the Lion to 
seek for safety by flight. 

Bull Dog. This is a kind of Mastiff on a 
smaller scale ; with a somewhat flatter snout, and 
a greater ferocity of aspect. The Bull Dog is re- 
markable for the undaunted and savage pertina- 
city with which it provokes and continues the 
fight, and, when it has fixed its bite, is with ex- 
treme difficulty disengaged from its antagonist. 
It is the Dog employed in the barbarous diver- 
sion of bull-baiting. 

Pug Dog. This is a small and innocent re- 
semblance of the former, and is in some coun- 
tries considered as a kind of lap-dog. This, ac- 
cord in sr to Mrs. Piozzi, is the case at Padua 


Terrier. The Terrier (says Mr. Bewick) is ge- 
nerally an attendant on every pack of hounds, 
and is very expert in forcing foxes or other game 
out of their coverts. It is the determined enemy 

DOG. 285 

o fall the vermin kind; such as weasels, foumarts, 
badgers, rats, mice, c. It is fierce, keen, and 
hardy, and, in its encounters with the badger, 
sometimes meets with very severe treatment, 
which it sustains with great courage and forti- 
tude; and a well-trained veteran dog frequently 
proves more than a match for that hard-bitten 
animal. The Terrier is generally of a reddish 
brown-colour, and sometimes black; and there 
are differeat races, some of which are rouo-her and 

7 O 

stronger than others. The Terrier is of a long 
form ; short legged, and strongly bristled, about 
the muzzle. 

Turnspit. This is a breed very much on the de- 
cline in England, though still used in some other 
countries. It is a long bodied, short legged dog, 
with crooked or bowed knees, and is commonly 
of a dusky grey, spotted with black. 

Alco. The Peruvians, it is said, on the arrival 
of the Spaniards, had some domestic animals of 
this name, which were of the size and disposi- 
tion of small dogs; and from their appearance, 
and because they were equally faithful to their 
masters, they were called by the Spaniards Peru- 
vian Dogs. The descriptions, however, of the 
animal are not quite so clear as might be wished. 
It had a very small head, an arched back, and a 
short, pendulous tail ; its general colour was white, 
patched or spotted with yellow. 

Besides the varieties of dogs above enumerated, 
there are many others arising from the mixture 
of breeds; but it would be tedious, as well as use- 

286 DOG. 

less, to particularize with scrupulous minuteness 
all the differences of this varying race. The 
principal varieties are well figured in the Count 
de Buffon's Natural History, and are copied into- 
Mr. Smellie's translation of that elegant work. 
In the present publication, solicitous to introduce 
figures of the rarer animals, rather than of such 
as are well known, we have admitted only the 
Shepherd's Dog, the Dingo or Australasian Dog, 
and the Irish Greyhound, as elucidations of the 

The Linnaean specific character of the Dog, 
viz. that the tail hangs or turns towards the left, 
has frequently excited the ridicule of those who 
wish to lessen the merit of the great and accu- 
rate Northern Naturalist. It is, indeed, undeni- 
able, that the character above mentioned is not 
always distinctly perceivable ; yet it seems to be a 
more predominating particularity than any other, 
when applied to the whole race or species in ge^ 

It would be unnecessary to dwell on the parti- 
cular uses and qualities of this animal. Every one 
knows that the Dog, when properly educated, is 
the most faithful of quadrupeds, and the most 
devoted to the service of mankind. " The 
Dog (says Buffon) , independent of the beauty of 
his form, his vivacity, force, and swiftness, is 
possessed of all those internal qualifications that 
can conciliate the affections of man, and make 
the tyrant a protector. A natural share of cou- 
rage, an angry and ferocious disposition, ren- 

DOG. 287 

der the Dog, in his savage state, a formidable 
enemy to all other animals : but these readily give 
way to very different qualities in the domestic dog, 
whose only ambition seems the defire to please. 
He is seen to come crouching along, to lay his 
force, his courage, and all his useful talents, at the 
feet of his master. He waits his orders, to which 
he pays implicit obedience: he consults his looks, 
and a single glance is sufficient to put him in 
motion': he is more faithful even than the most 
boasted among men : he is constant in his affec- 
tions, friendly without interest, and grateful for 
the slightest favours : much more mindful of be- 
nefits received than of injuries offered : he is not 
driven off by unkindness; he still continues hum- 
ble, submissive, and imploring : his only hope is 
to be serviceable ; his only terror to displease : he 
licks the hand that has been just lifted to strike 
him, and at last disarms resentment by submissive 
perseverance. More tractable than man, and 
more pliant than any other animal, the dog is not 
only soon instructed, but even conforms himself to 
the manners, movements, and habits of those who 
govern him. He assumes the very tone of the fa- 
mily in which he lives. Like other servants, he 
is haughty with the great, and rustic with the 
peasant. Always eager to obey and to please his 
master, or his friends, he pays no attention to 
strangers, and furiously repels beggars, whom he 
distinguishes by their dress, their voice, and their 
gestures. When the charge of a house or garden 
is committed to him during the night, his bold- 

288 DOG. 

ness increases, and he sometimes becomes perfectly 
ferocious. He watches, goes the rounds, smells 
strangers at a distance, and if they stop or at- 
tempt to leap any barrier, he instantly darts upon 
them, and by barking, and other marks of pas- 
sion, alarms the family and neighbourhood. 
Equally furious against thieves as against rapa- 
cious animals, he attacks and wounds them, and 
forces from them whatever they have been at- 
tempting to carry off; but, contented with vic- 
tory, he lies down upon the spoil, and will not 
touch it even to satisfy his appetite, exhibiting, 
at the same time, an example of courage, temper- 
ance and fidelity. 

' ' To conceive the importance of this species in 
the order of Nature, let us suppose that it never 
existed. Without the assistance of the Dog, how 
could men have conquered, tamed, and reduced 
the other animals into slavery? How could he 
still discover, hunt down, and destroy noxious 
and savage beasts ? For his own safety, and to 
render him master of the world, it was necessary 
to form a party among the animals themselves; 
to conciliate by caresses those which were capa- 
ble of attachment and obedience, in order to op- 
pose them to the other species. Hence the train- 
ing of the Dog seems to have been the first art 
invented by man ; and the result of this art was 
the conquest and peaceable possession of the 
earth. " 

The docility of the dog is such, that he may be 
taught to practise, with considerable dexterity, a 

DOG. 289 

variety of human actions. It is recorded of a 
Dog belonging to a nobleman of the Medici fa- 
mily, that it always attended at its master's table; 
changed the plates for him, and carried him his 
wine in a glass placed on a salver, without spill- 
ing the smallest drop. 

Plutarch relates, that, in the theatre of Mar- 
cellus, a dog was exhibited before the Emperor 
Vespasian, so well instructed as to excel in every 
kind of dance : he afterwards feigned illness in so 
exquisite a manner as to strike the spectators with 
astonishment; first shewing symptoms of pain, 
then falling down, as if dead, and suffering him- 
self to be carried about in that state; and after- 
wards, at the proper time, seeming to revive, as 
if waking from a profound sleep ; and then sport- 
ing about and shewing all the demonstrations of 

But of all the educational attainments by which 

the Dog has been distinguished, that of learning 
to speak seems the most extraordinary. The 
French academicians, however, make mention of 
a Dog in Germany, which could call, in an intel- 
ligible manner, for tea, coffee, chocolate, &c. 
Sec. The account is too curious to be omitted 
here, and is from no less a person than the cele- 
brated Leibnitz, who communicated it to the 
Royal Academy of France. This Dog was of a 
middling size, and was the property of a peasant 
in Saxony. A little boy, the peasant's son, ima- 
gined that he perceived in the Dog's voice an in- 
distinct resemblance to certain words, and, there- 

2.90 WOLF. 

fore, took it into his head to teach him to speak. 
For this purpose he spared neither time nor pains 
with his pupil, who was about three years old 
when this his learned education commenced ; and, 
at length he made such a progress in language as 
to be able to articulate no less than thirty words. 
It appears, however,, that he was somewhat of a 
truant, and did not very willingly exert his ta- 
lents, being rather pressed into the service of 
literature; and it was necessary that the words 
should be first pronounced to him each time, 
which he, as it were, echoed from his preceptor. 
Leibnitz, however, attests that he himself heard 
him speak; and the French academicians add, 
that, unless they had received the testimony of so 
great a man as Leibnitz, they should scarcely 
have dared to report the circumstance. This 
wonderful Dog was born near Zeitz in Misnia, in 


Canis Lupus. C. cauda incurcata. Lin. Si/st. Nat. p. 58. 

Dog with incurvated tail. 

Canis ex griseo flavescens Briss. Quadr.p. 170. 

Lupus. Gcsn. Qiiadr. 634. Aldr. dig. 144. 

Loup. Biff. 7. p. 39. pi. i. 

Wolf. Pennant Quadr. 4. p. 248. 

THE Wolf is distinguished from the Dog by his 
superior size, stronger limbs, more muscular body, 
and greater breadth of the upper part of the face, 

WOLF. . 291 

while the whole form of it is longer: 'the tail also, 
which in the Dog is pretty uniformly turned a 
little towards one side (generally the left), in the 
Wolf has an inward direction; it is rather long and 
bushy: the rictus or opening of the mouth seems 
somewhat shorter in proportion than that of the 
dog, yet the jaws are far stronger, and the teeth 
larger: the eyes are also more obliquely placed 
than in the Dog. 

The Wolf is a native of almost all the tempe- 
rate and cold regions of the globe. It is found 
in most countries of Europe, but has been totally 
extirpated from our own island, as well as from 
Ireland. How numerous these pernicious ani- 
mals must have once been in Britain, may be 
guessed from the celebrated laws of King Edgar, 
who attempted the extirpation of these animals 
by commuting the punishments for certain crimes 
into the acceptance of a number of Wolves* 
tongues from each criminal: in Wales by con- 
verting the tax of gold and silver into an annual 
tribute of three hundred Wolves' heads. In suc- 
ceeding reigns, their destruction was promoted 
by proper rewards; and -the lands of certain per- 
sons were held, according to our historian Camb- 
den, on condition of destroying the wolves which 
infested those parts of the kingdom. 

The general colour of the Wolf is a pale grey, 
with*a cast of yellowish, but it varies much as to 
the shades or gradations of colour in different 
parts of the world. Those of Africa are said to 
be larger than those of Europe; while, on the 

292 WOLF. 

contrary, the American ones are considerably 
smaller; and from these latter, it is pretended, 
the Dogs proceeded, which were observed in North 
America, on the first arrival of the Europeans. 
In the less inhabited parts of America the Wolves 
are said to go in great droves, and to hunt the 
deer and other animals in the manner of hounds, 
with hideous bowlings ; and it is affirmed that they 
will even attack the Buffalo himself. When reduced 
to extremity by hunger, they swallow great quanti- 
ties of mud, to allay the uneasy sensations of their 
stomachs. In the inhabited parts of America, 
however, Wolves are now become rare. In some 
parts of Europe the number of Wolves seems ra- 
ther to have increased than diminished; and this 
appears to be the case in Sweden, since, according 
to Linnams, the Wolf was very rare in that coun- 
try, till about the year 1720. The Swedes, besides 
other methods, have a way of destroying the 
Wolf, by leaving the carcase of a sheep or other 
animal, stuffed with a species of Lichen or tree- 
moss (Lichen vulpinus)j which is considered as a 
certain poison to the Wolf, and (if we may judge 
from the name) to the Fox also. This lichen is 
of a filamentous or stringy form, very much 
branched, and of a yellow-colour; and is found in 
great plenty on the bodies of various trees, as 
well as, occasionally, on old wooden roofs, walls, 
&c. It is said to be mixed with pounded glass 
when used for the purpose above mentioned, and 
the glass is probably the most efficacious destroyer 
of the animal. 

WOLF. 293 

The Wolf is sometimes affected with madness, 
attended with similar appearances to those exhi- 
bited in that state by the Dog, and productive of 
the same symptoms in consequence of its bite: 
this disease is said to happen to them in the depth 
of winter, and, therefore, as Mr. Pennant ob- 
serves, can never be attributed to the rage of the 
dog-days. Wolves, in the northern parts of the 
world, sometimes, during the spring, get on the 
ice of the sea, in order to prey on young seals, 
which they catch asleep; but this repast some- 
times proves fatal to them ; for the ice, detached 
from the shore, carries them to a great distance 
from the land, before they are sensible of it. It 
is said that in some years a large district is by 
this means delivered from these pernicious beasts, 
which are heard howling in a most dreadful man- 
ner far in the sea. 

" The Wolf (says Buffon) is one of those ani- 
mals whose carnivorous appetite is the strongest. 
Though he has received from Nature the means 
of gratifying his taste, though she has bestowed 
on him arms, craftiness, strength, agility, and 
every thing necessary for discovering, seizing, 
conquering, and devouring his prey, yet he often 
dies of hunger; because men have declared war 
against him, put a price on his head, and forced 
him to fly to the forests, where he finds only a 
few species of wild animals, who escape from him 
by the swiftness of their course, and whom he 
cannot surprise but by chance, or by a patient 
and often fruitless attendance at those places to 


which they generally resort. He is naturally 
clownish and dastardly; but want makes him in- 
genious, and necessity gives him courage. When 
pressed with famine, he braves danger; he at- 
tacks those animals which are under the protec- 
tion of man, especially such as he can transport 
with ease, as lambs, small dogs, and kids; and 
when successful in his bloody expeditions, he re- 
turns often to the charge, till, being wounded, 
chaced, and persecuted by men and dogs, he re- 
tires, during the day, to his den; but issues forth 
in the night, traverses the country, roams about 
the cottages, kills all the animals which have 
been left without, digs the earth under the doors, 
enters with a dreadful ferocity, and puts every 
living creature to death before he chooses to de- 
part and carry off his prey. When these inroads 
happen to be fruitless, he returns to the woods, 
searches about with avidity, follows the tract of 
wild beasts, and pursues them, in the hope that 
they may be stopped and pursued by some other 
Wolf, and that he may be a partaker in the spoil. 
In fine, when his hunger is extreme, he loses the 
idea of fear; he attacks women and children, and 
even sometimes darts upon men, till, becoming 
perfectly furious by excessive exertions, he gene- 
rally falls a sacrifice to pure rage and distrac- 

In the year 1764 an animal of this kind exert- 
ed peculiar ravages in some particular districts of 
Gevaudan in Languedoc, and became the terror 
of the whole country. If the accounts then given 

WOLF. 295 

in the Paris Qazette may be trusted, he was 
known to have destroyed at least twenty persons, 
chiefly women and children. With the usual ag- 
gravation of popular description, he Avas repre- 
sented by some who had seen him, as far surpass- 
ing in size the rest of his species, and striped 
somewhat in the manner of a tiger. Public 
prayers were said to have been offered up for his 

The time of gestation in the Wolf is (according 
to Buffon) about three months and a half; and the 
young whelps are found from the end of April to 
the beginning of July ; and this difference in the 
time of gestation, which in the Wolf is 100 days, 
and in the Dog only 60, he considers as a proof 
of the real difference between the two species. 

Notwithstanding the savage nature of the Wolf, 
he is still capable, when taken young, of being 
tamed. A remarkable instance of this is said to 
have been exhibited in a Wolf belonging to the 
late Sir Ashton Lever, which was, by proper edu- 
cation, entirely divested of the ferocious charac- 
ter of its species. 



Canis Mexicanus. C. cauda deftexa l&vi, corpore cinereo, fasciis 
fuscis maculisyuefulvis variegato. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmd, p*ji. 

Dog with deflected tail, and ash-coloured body, variegated with 
dusky bands and fulvous spots. 

Canis cinereus, maculis fulvis variegatus. Briss. Quadr. 237. 

Loup de Mexique Buff. i$.p. 49. 

Mexican Wolf. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 250. 

THIS species, which Buflfon is inclined to con- 
sider as a variety of the common Wolf, gradually 
altered by climate (having, as he supposes, mi- 
grated originally from the northern parts of the 
American continent to the southern), appears to 
have been first described by Hernandez, in his 
account of Mexico. In its general appearance it 
resembles the common Wolf; but has a head 
twice as large, a thicker neck, and a less bushy 
tail: the colour of the body is cinereous, marked 
with some yellow spots: the head is of the same 
colour with the body, and marked with transverse 
brownish lines, and the front is spotted with yel- 
low : above the mouth are situated several bristles, 
as large, but not so stiff, as those of a hedgehog : 
the ears are grey, like the head and body : there 
is a long yellow spot on the neck, another on the 
breast, and a third on the belly: on the flanks are 
transverse bands from the back to the belly: the 
tail is grey, with a yellow spot in the middle : the 
legs are barred with grey and brown. The de- 
scription, as given by Mr. Pennant, differs some- 
what from the former, and is thus delivered : 


" D, With a very large head; great jaws; vast 
teeth : on the upper lips strong bristles, reflected 
backwards, not unlike the softer spines of a por- 
cupine, and of a grey and white-colour : large, 
erect, cinereous ears ; the space between marked 
with broad tawny spots: the head ash-coloured, 
striped transversely with bending dusky lines : 
neck fat and thick, covered with a loose skin, 
marked with a long tawny stroke : on the breast is 
another of the same kind: body ash-coloured, 
spotted with black; and the sides striped, from 
the back downwards, with the same colour : belly 
cinereous: tail long, of the colour of the belly, 
tinged in the middle with tawny: legs and feet 
striped with black and ash-colour." Mr. Pen- 
nant adds, that Hermandez himself (its first de- 
scriber) considers it as a variety of the common 
species. It is sometimes found white. It is a 
native of the hotter parts of Mexico, and in its 
manners agrees with the common Wolf. 


Canis Lycaon. C. cauda recta, corpore toto migro. lin. Syst. 

Nat, Gmel. p. 73. 
Black Wolf with strait tail. 
Loup noir. Bitff". 9. p. 362. pi. 41. 

THIS animal, considered by Buffon and others 
as a variety only of the common Wolf, is at pre- 
sent regarded as a distinct species. Like the 
common Wolf, it is found both in Europe and 

v. i. P. II. 20 


America, as well as in some parts of Asia. It 
bears a great general resemblance to the common 
species, but is smaller, entirely black, with a 
somewhat thinner or less bushy tail, hanging 
nearly strait: the ears are larger in proportion 
than those of the common Wolf, and the eyes 
smaller, and situated at a greater distance from 
each other. In America the Black Wolf is chiefly 
found in Canada, and in Europe occurs only in 
the more northern regions. 

In the Gmelinian edition of the Systema Na- 
turas this animal seems to be confounded with 
the Black Fox (a variety of the Fox found in 
Siberia, Kamtschatka, Canada, &c. and so highly 
prized on account of its beautiful fur). The same 
mistake seems also to occur in Schreber. The 
skin of the Black Wolf, however, is considered 
but as a very coarse and indifferent fur. 


Canis Hyaena. C. cauda recta, pills cercicis erectis, auriculis nw- 
dis, pedibus tetradactylis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 7 1 . 

Pale-brown Hyaena, striped with black, with upright mane, na- 
ked ears, strait tail, and four-toed feet. 

L'Hyasna. Buff. 9. p. 25. andsuppl. 3. p. 234. pi. 46. 

Striped Hyaena. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 270. 

THE Hyaena is a native of many parts of Asia 
and Africa, being found in Syria, Persia, Barbary, 
Senegal, &c. &c. Its general size is that of a 
large Dog, but it is distinguished by great 


fublifhJ by KJCearr lev Flea Street. 

HYAENA* 299 

strength of limbs, and by a remarkable fulness or 
thickness of the snout. It colour is a pale grey- 
ish-brown accompanied by a tawny cast; and the 
whole body is marked by several distant blackish 
transverse bands running from the back down- 
wards : these bands are much more numerous as 
well as of a deeper colour on the legs : from the 
neck along the upper part of the back runs a 
strong bristly mane : the snout or nose is black : the 
ears are longish, sharp-pointed, and nearly naked : 
the tail is rather short than long, and is very full 
of hair. On all the feet are four toes. 

Hyaenas generally inhabit caverns and rocky 
places: they prowl about chiefly by night, and 
feed on the remains of dead animals as well as on 
living prey. They are even said to devour the 
bodies which they occasionally find in cemeteries. 
They attack cattle, and frequently commit great 
devastation among the flocks. Though not gre- 
garious from any social principle, they sometimes 
assemble in troops, and follow with dreadful assi- 
duity the movements of an army, through the 
hope of feasting on the slaughtered bodies. 

There is something in the aspect of the Hyasna 
which seems to indicate a peculiar gloominess 
and malignity of disposition, and its manners in a 
state of captivity seem in general to correspond 
with its appearance, being savage and untracta- 
ble. It has even been supposed that the Hyama 
cannot be tamed; but this opinion is proved to 
be erroneous from two instances at least; one of 
which is recorded by Mr. Pennant, who declares 

300 HYJEXA. 

that he saw a Hysena which had been rendered as 
tame as a dog ; the other by the Count de Buffon, 
who assures us, that in an exhibition of animals 
at Paris, in the year 1773, there was a Hyrena 
which had been tamed very early, and was appa- 
rently divested of all its natural malevolence of dis- 
position. A remarkable particularity in this ani- 
mal, but which is sometimes observed in dogs, 
&c. is, that when it is first dislodged from cover, 
or obliged to run, it always appears lame for a 
considerable space, and that sometimes to such a 
degree, according to Mr. Bruce, as to make the 
spectator suppose one of the hind legs to be brok- 
en; but after running some time, this affection 
goes off, and he runs swiftly away. The super- 
stitions of the ancients respecting this animal, its 
annual change of sex, &c. &c. are too absurd to 
be even mentioned in the present period of illu- 

The Hyasna about Mount Libanus, Syria, the 
north of Asia, and about Algiers, is known, ac- 
cording to Mr. Bruce, to live mostly upon large 
succulent bulbous roots, especially those of the 
Fritillaria, &c. and that author informs us that 
he has known large spaces of fields turned up to 
get at onions or roots of those plants ; and these 
were chosen with such care, that, after having 
been peeled, they \vere refused and left on the 
ground on account of a small rotten spot in them ; 
Mr. Bruce, therefore, imagines that his primitive 
manner of feeding was rather on vegetables than 
on flesh ; but in Abyssinia he seems long to have- 

HYAENA. . 301 

abandoned his primitive food of roots, if indeed it 
ever was such; and in that barbarous and ill-go- 
verned country he finds more frequent opportu- 
nities than perhaps any where else in the world 
to indulge his appetite for flesh. In Barbary, 
Mr. Bruce assures us he has seen the Moors, in 
the day-time, take this animal by the ears, and 
pull him along, without his offering any other 
resistance than that of drawing back; and the 
hunters, when his cave is large enough to give 
them admittance, will take a torch in their hand, 
and go strait to him; and pretending to fas- 
cinate him by a senseless jargon of words which 
they repeat, they throw a blanket over him, and 
hawl him out. Mr. Bruce locked up a goat, a 
kid, and a lamb, with a Barbary Hyaena all day, 
when he was fasting, and found them in the even- 
ing alive and unhurt; but repeating an experi- 
ment of this kind one night, he ate up a young 
ass, a goat, and a fox, all before morning, so as 
to leave nothing but some small fragments of the 
ass's bones. In Barbary, therefore, he has no 
courage by day, but flies from man, and hides 
himself from him; while in Abyssinia he is so 
bold as to prowl about in open day, and to attack 
with savage fury such animals as chance may of- 
fer to his view. 

" I do not think (says Mr. Bruce) there is any 
one that hath hitherto written of this animal who 
ever saw the thousandth part of them that I have. 
They were a plague in Abyssinia in every situa- 
tion, both in the city and in the field, and, I 
think, surpassed the sheep in number. Gondar 

302 HYAENA. 

was full of them from the time it turned dark till 
the dawn of day, seeking the different pieces of 
slaughtered carcases which this cruel and unclean 
people expose in the streets without burial, and 
who firmly believe that these animals are Falasha 
from the neighbouring mountains, transformed 
by magic, and come down to eat human flesh in 
the dark in safety. Many a time in the night, when 
the king had kept me late in the palace, and it 
was not my duty to lie there, in going across the 
square from the king's house, not many hundred 
yards distant, I have been apprehensive they 
would bite me in the leg. They grunted in great 
numbers about me, though I was surrounded with 
several armed men, who seldom passed a night 
without wounding or slaughtering some of them. 
" One night in Maitsha, being very intent on 
observation, I heard something pass behind me 
towards the bed, but upon looking round could 
perceive nothing. Having finished what I was 
then about, I went out of my tent, resolving di- 
rectly to return, which I immediately did, when I 
perceived large blue eyes glaring at me in the 
dark. I called upon my servant with a light, and 
there was the Hyrena standing nigh the head of 
the bed, with two or three large bunches of can- 
dles in his mouth. To have fired at him I was in 
danger of breaking my quadrant or other furni- 
ture, and he seemed, by keeping the candles 
steadily in his mouth, to wish for no other prey 
at that time. As his mouth was full, and he had 
no claws to tear with, I was not afraid of him, 
but with a pike struck him as near the heart as I 


could judge. It was not till then he shewed any 
sign of fierceness ; but, upon feeling his wound, 
he let drop the candles, and endeavoured to run 
up the shaft of the spear to arrive at me, so that, 
in self-defence, I was obliged to draw a pistol 
from my girdle and shoot him, and nearly at the 
same time my servant cleft his skull with a battle- 
ax. In a word, the Hyaena was the plague of our 
lives, the terror of our night- walks, the destruc- 
tion of our mules and asses, which above all others 
are his favourite food." 

Mr. Bruce seems inclined to believe the Abys- 
einian Hyaena distinct from the common species, 
having a snout somewhat less thick or hog-like, 
and more approaching to the form of a dog's 
nose. From his figure, however, there can be 
little doubt of its being a mere variety. The 
largest Hyaena ever seen by Mr. Bruce measured 
five feet nine inches from the nose to the base of 
the tail : its colour was a yellowish-brown, marked 
with distant blackish bands, most numerous on 
the legs. 


Canis Crocuta. C. caitda recta, corpore nigro maculato, pedilus 

tetradactyUs. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 72. 
Reddish-brown Hyaena spotted with black, with strait tail and 

four-toed feet. 
Spotted Hyaena. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 272. 

THIS animal much resembles the common or 
striped Hyaena in its general appearance, but is 

304 JACKAL. 

superior in size, and is readily distinguished by 
being marked all over the body and legs with nu- 
merous roundish black spots : along the neck is 
an upright black mane : the face and upper part 
of the head are black: the ears short, rather 
pointed, black on the outside, and grey within : 
the tail black, rather short, and full of hair. It 
it an African animal, and is found in Guinea, 
^Ethiopia, and about the Cape of Good Hope. 
In its manner of life resembles the former species, 
and exerts equal ravages amongst the cattle of 
the districts in which it resides. By some writers 
it has been erroneously termed a Jackal. 


Canis Aureusi C. cauda recta, corpore pallidefuko. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. Gmel.p. 72. 
Pale-fulvous Dog, with strait tail. 

Lupus aureus. Kaempfer amoen. exot. p. 413. t. 407. f. 3. 
Schakal. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 262. 

THE Jackal is a native of the warmer regions 
of Asia and Africa, and appears to be no where 
more common than in Barbary. It is. about the 
size of a middling Dog, and is of a pale or light 
orange-yellow, with darker or blackish shades 
about the back and legs : the tail hangs strait, is 
rather bushy, and is commonly black at the tip. 
The Jackal resides in rocky places, and in woods, 
and makes its principal excursions during the 
night; preying indiscriminately on all the weaker 
animals. It also occasionally devours various ve- 

ndon PubtifKd RKurfly flut Street. 

JACKAL. 305 

getables. The voice of the Jackal is described as 
peculiarly hideous, consisting of a kind of mix- 
ture of howling and indistinct barking. These 
animals frequently go in great troops, to hunt 
their prey, and by their dreadful yellings alarm 
and put to flight deer, antelopes, and other timid 
quadrupeds ; while the Lion,, instinctively attend- 
ing to the clamour, is said to follow till the Jack- 
als have hunted down the prey, and, having sa- 
tiated himself, leaves only the mangled remains 
to be devoured by the Jackals. 

It is for this reason that the Jackal is popularly 
termed the Lion's Provider. When pressed by 
hunger, Jackals have been frequently known to 
enter towns and devour indiscriminately whatever 
animal substance they can find. They coihmit 
ravages among the flocks, kill fowls, c. and have 
been known to attack mankind. 

There is great reason for supposing this animal 
to be the real origin of the Dog, since almost all 
its manners and propensities are the same. When 
taken young, it is easily tamed ; attaches itself to 
mankind, distinguishes its master, comes on being 
called by its name, shews an attachment to Dogs, 
instead of flying from them, and has all the other 
particularities of character by which the Dog is 
distinguished : amongst others, the important ob- 
servation of Professor GuLdenstedt, who has given 
an accurate description of the Jackal in the Pe- 
tersburgh Transactions, should by no means be 
omitted, viz. that the Jackal and Dog agree in 
the structure of the coecum or short intestine, and 

305 JACKAL. 

differ in that respect both from the Wolf and the 
Fox. According to Mr. Pennant, the Jackal in- 
habits " all the hot and temperate parts of Asia, 
India, Persia, Arabia, Great Tartary, the regions 
about Mount Caucasus, Syria, and the Holy-land, 
and occurs, in most parts of Africa, from Barbary 
to the Cape of Good Hope." 

The most authentic figure of the Jackal seems 
to be that published by Mr. Schreber, which, he 
informs us, is from a drawing communicated by 
Dr. Pallas, and which was taken from the living 
animal brought from the Levant, and figured un- 
der his own inspection : it also agreed perfectly 
with the skin of one brought from Persia, and 
preserved at Petersburg!!. This figure is, there- 
fore, copied in the present publication. The fol- 
lowing most accurate description by Dr. Pallas 
will, no doubt, be considered as an important ad- 
dition to the history of this animal. 

" In external figure the Jackal resembles the 
Wolf more than the Fox. It is also larger, and 
stands higher on its legs than the Fox. The head 
is of a fox-red above, mixed with ash-grey hairs, 
which have each a blackish ring and tip : the up- 
per lip is white on each side the nose, and the 
throat is of the same colour: the whiskers, the 
long hairs on the chin, and those above the eyes, 
which are five in number, are black : the ears are 
fox-red externally, and white internally : the neck 
and back are all over grey-yellow, and both, but 
especially the latter, are dashed with a shade of 
dusky, owing to the tips of the long hairs on 

JACKAL. 307 

those parts : the under parts of the body and the 
legs are of a light reddish-yellow, but the shoul- 
ders and thighs are externally of a fox-red : the 
claws are black; the thumb-claw stands higher 
than in the Dog, and is crooked : the tail is strait, 
somewhat longer and more hairy than in the 
Wolf, and is of a greyish-yellow, more inclining 
to fox-red towards the end; the long hairs have 
black tips, and consequently the tip of the tail 
appears black : the hair of the Jackal is coarser 
and stronger than that of the Wolf, and is longest 
on the shoulders and tail, where it measures four 
inches : on the neck and back it is shorter by an 
inch: between the hairs is situated a woolly fur of 
a grey colour : the four middle front teeth are of 
a truncated form, or, if cut off, flat, not percep- 
tibly notched or indented : the two exterior larger 
ones in the upper jaw are somewhat carinated, in 
the lower rounded : the side or canine-teeth in the 
upper jaw are somewhat larger than in the under: 
the grinders are six on each side, the first being 
the smallest, and of a conical shape; the next 
grinders, to the number of two in the upper N and 
three in the lower, are gradually larger, and di- 
vided into three points : the fourth of the upper 
jaw and the fifth of the under are the largest, and 
have two points: the remaining ones stand deeper 
in the jaw, or more inwards, and are smaller than 
the preceding: the tongue has on each side a 
border or row of small verruca? or warts. " 

According to Mr. Pennant, the usual length of 
the Jackal is about two feet and a half; the fe- 

308 JACKAL. 

male is somewhat smaller than the male, and has 
from six to eight paps. Dr. Pallas counted, in a 
young Jackal, three teats on one side, and four 
on the other, of which the foremost was situated 
near the sides of the breast. 

The more we consider the nature and manners 
of this animal, the more reason we shall find to 
coincide with Professor Guldenstadt in opinion, 
that the Jackal is the real origin of the Dog; 
(unless, indeed, we allow the wild dogs of Africa, 
mentioned under the history of that species, to be 
the Dog in a state of nature). Mr. Guldenstadt 
veiy properly observes, that the natale solum of the 
Wolf does not seem to fit it for being the supposed 
origin of the Dog, since it is generally confined 
to the frigid zone : its size is also against the sup- 
position; for the natural size of any species of 
animal appears to be between that of the large 
and small varieties. The Fox is still more unlike 
the Dog, as to some particulars in the structures 
of the intestines : the native country of the Jackal, 
which is properly Asia Minor, is the land where 
we should naturally suppose the primaeval domes- 
tic Dog to have originated. The Jackal, accord- 
ing to Mr. Guldenstadt, has a natural propensity 
to follow mankind, instead of flying from him, 
like the Wolf and the Fox. The whelp, he adds, 
is very readily tamed, and, when grown up, as- 
sumes all the habits of the domestic Dog : fawns 
on his master, rejoices, wags its tail, throws itself 
on its back, and murmurs gently, distinguishes 
its name, jumps on the table, &c. &c. &c. 

JACKAL. 309 

(t Catulus captus facile cicuratur, et in hospitio 
adultus blanditur; homines laste adspiciendo, 
caudam motitando, corpus prosternendo, vel in 
dorso se projiciendo, levi murmure ganniendo. 
Dominum distinguit a reliquis; ad nomen pro- 
prium ipsi impositum attendit; in mensam invita- 
tus insilit; contortuplicatus dormit; lambendo bi- 
bit; scybala dura cacat; ad latus mingit; in so- 
cietate canum pacificus anum eorum odorat. Odor, 
quern Schacala per glandulas anales spargit, nee 
teterrimus, ut Dumon voluit, nee moscho analo- 
gus, ut alii voluerunt, hunc eo vulpis mitiorem et 
illo canis foetore instante tempestate erumpente, 
vix deteriorem esse sentio." 

That the Jackal and Dog readily intermix or 
breed, appears from various testimonies, accord- 
ing to the Count de Buffon, in his chapter on the 
degeneration of animals. Mr. G. cannot consi- 
der the cauda recumata as an essential character 
of the Dog, but thinks it may have originated 
from cicuration. The Jackal, he thinks, with 
many other authors, may probably be the Thos of 

Mr. G. saw no Jackals of the exact measure 
given by Gmelin, but, in general, of twenty-six 
or twenty-seven Paris inches from the nose to the 
beginning of the tail. The general colour, he 
adds, is a dirty fulvous, rather blacker on the back, 
and yellowish-white beneath. On each knee is 
generally a black patch, and the tip of the tail is 
of the same colour. 



Canis Mesomelas. C. Cauda recta, corpore ferrugineo, fascia 

dorsali nigra. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 73. 
Ferruginous Dog, with strait tail, and black dorsal band. 
Der Capische Schakal. Schreber saength. i. p. 370. tab. 95. 
Cape Schakal. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 265. 

THIS animal is said to be not uncommon about 
the Cape of Good Hope, and is by some con- 
founded with the Jackal, to which, indeed, it 
seems to be very nearly allied. The head is yel- 
lowish-brown,, with a mixture of black and white 
hairs, especially on the hind part ; the nape of the 
neck and the whole length of the back black, 
with a mixture of white: the black band com- 
mences at the top of the neck, and widens over 
the shoulders, in an almost rhomboid form, from 
thence decreasing to the tail, along the upper 
part of which it is still continued in form of a 
stripe. This black dorsal band is clouded on each 
side in the broadest part with whitish or greyish 
undulations, and a similar mixture is visible on 
the middle of the band. The general colour of 
the animal is bright foxy or ferruginous, with the 
throat, breast, abdomen, and insides of the thighs 
whitish : the tail is not unlike that of a fox, but 
rather less bushy, and is of the same bright ferru- 
ginous as the upper parts of the body, with three 
transverse black bands towards the end, and a 
black tip. The length of this animal is two feet 
and three quarters, exclusive of the tail, which 


measures one foot. The description of this spe- 
cies was drawn up by Mr. Schreber, from a skin 
sent from the Cape : the figure also accompany- 
ing the description was from the same skin. It 
is here copied from the work of Mr. Schreber. 
Mr. Schreber observes, that the figure of the 
Jackal given by the Count de Buffon seems much 
more nearly allied to this animal than to the pre- 
ceding. Mr. Pennant informs us, that the figure 
in question was copied from a skin in but an in- 
different state of preservation, in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford, and was by himself commu- 
nicated to the Count de Buffon, who introduced 
it into his work. 


Canis Barbarus. C. siibfuscus, cauda recta, fascia subaurictdari 
descendentefurcata nigra, cauda fasciis tribusfuscis. 

Pale-brown Dog, with strait tail, a black descending forked 
band from behind each ear, and three dusky bands on the tail. 

Barbary Schakal. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 260. 

Le Chachal. Buff, suppl. 6, p. 16. 

THIS species has a long slender nose, sharp up- 
right ears, and a long bushy tail. Its colour is a 
very pale brown : from behind each ear runs a 
black line, which soon divides into two, running 
downwards along the neck : the tail is surrounded 
by three dusky rings or zones. It is of the size 
of the common Fox, but the limbs seemingly 


shorter, and the nose more slender. A drawing 
made from the skin of this animal in the Ashmo- 
lean Museum at Oxford was communicated, as 
before mentioned, by Mr. Pennant to the Count 
de Buffon, which he caused to be engraved in 
his third supplemental volume. 


Canis Ceilonicus. C. tinereo-flaoescens, naso elongato, cauda 

longa acuminata, ungnibus incunis. 
Yellowish-grey Dog, with lengthened snout, long sharp-pointed 

tail, and crooked claws. 
Chien sauvage de Ceylon. Vosmaer descr. 
Ceylonese Dog. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 266. 

THIS species is a native of Ceylon, but no par- 
ticulars relative to its manners or history are 
known. It was described by Mr. Vosmaer from 
a stuifed skin. He informs us that it was a little 
larger than a common domestic cat, measuring 
about twenty-two inches from nose to tail: the 
tail itself sixteen inches, gradually tapering to the 
point. The ground colour is a yellowish-grey, 
with a cast of brown on some parts, owing to the 
longer hairs which are of that colour: the feet are 
strongly tinged with brown ; and here and there 
alons: the back the brown cast seems to form a 


kind of stripes or rays: the belly is cinereous: 
the hair on the whole animal is closish, but soft 
to the touch: the head is long and pointed; the 


snout and part under the chin brown, but the top 
of the head of a yellowish ash-colour, which pass- 
ing beyond the ears, forms as it were a spot be- 
low them, and descends from thence to between 
the eyes, where it terminates in a point. Beneath 
the eyes, on the cheeks, are some oblong patches 
of a clearer or brighter colour than the rest of the 
skin: the nostrils open, in the form of crescents: 
on each side the front of the nose are seated 
long hairs or whiskers of a blackish brown-colour : 
two similar hairs are also situated at each corner 
of the eye ; and on each side the head, in a strait 
line from the nose, is a simple hair like the for- 
mer: the ears are small, pointed, and elevated; 
and of a brown-colour. There are six front-teeth 
in the upper mandible ; beyond which are two 
large canine-teeth; and farther back (so far as 
the dried state of the specimen permitted a view) 
four very pointed grinders ; but there are proba- 
bly more, which could not be seen. In the lower 
jaw are six small front- teeth, large canine ones, 
and six grinders on each side. The claws of this 
animal resemble those of a Cat more than of a 
Dog, though not so long and slight in proportion. 
Both fore, and hind feet have five toes. The ani- 
mal was received from Ceylcn, under the name 
of Wild or Wood Dog. 

v. z. P. ii. 



Canis Vulpes. C. cauda recta, ajn.ce albo. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Dog with strait tail tipped with white. 

Vulpes. Gcsn. Quadr. 966. AMr. dig. 195. Jonst. Quadr. 82. 
Renard. Bvf. j.p. 75. pi. 6. 

THE Fox, like the Wolf, appears to be pretty 
generally diffused throughout all the northern 
and temperate parts of the globe ; occurring with 
numerous varieties, as to shades of colour and 
gradations of size, in most parts of Europe, the 
north of Asia, and America. The general colour 
of the Fox is yellowish-brown, or ferruginous 
above and whitish beneath : the tip of the tail is 
also white ; and this circumstance forms the prin- 
cipal part of the Linnaean specific character of 
the animal, and though it appears rather too 
slight to be fixed upon as a criterion of the spe- 
cies, yet, perhaps, it would not be very easy to 
form one that would be more decisive. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Pennant (in his British Zoology), the 
variety called the Cur Fox, which is said to be 
somewhat smaller than the general run of Foxes 
in England, and more addicted to lurk about 
hedges, outhouses, &c. has the tip of the tail 
black instead of white ; if, however, this supposed 
variety be the Canis Alopex of Linnaeus, it is con- 
sidered in the Systema Natura? as a distinct spe- 
cies. Sometimes, though very rarely, the Fox 
has been found entirely white; an instance of 
which occurs in the works of Ridinger. 

FOX. 315 

" The Fox (says Buffon) is so extremely sub- 
ject to the influences of climate, that the varie- 
ties of this species are as numerous as those of 
the domestic animals. Most of our Foxes are 
reddish; but some are found of a silver-grey; in 
both the end of the tail is white : in Burgundy 
the latter are called Coal-Foxes (Charboniers), be- 
cause their feet are remarkably black. Their 
bodies have also the appearance of being shorter; 
because they are better clothed with hair. There 
are some which are really shorter than the other 
kinds, and of a dirty grey-colour, nearly the 
same with that of old Wolves; but it is uncertain 
whether this difference constitutes a real variety, 
or is produced by the age of the animal, which 
perhaps grows whiter as he advances in years. 
In the northern climates are Foxes of all colours; 
black, blue, grey, iron-colour, silver-grey, white, 
with yellow feet, white with black heads, white 
with the extremity of the tail black, reddish with 
the throat and belly entirely white, and, lastly, 
some have a black line along the back, and cross- 
ed with another over the shoulders: the latter 
are larger than the other kinds, and have black 

Some of the above, however, which the Count 
de Buffon considered at that time as varieties, are 
at present regarded as species perfectly distinct. 

The Fox has a broad head, a sharp snout, a 
flat forehead, obliquely-seated eyes, sharp erect 
ears, a body well covered with hair, and a strait 
bushy and somewhat pointed tail. 

316 rox. 

The general colour is a yellowish-red, or more 
properly yellow-brown, and on the forehead, 
shoulders, hind part of the hack as far as the be- 
ginning of the tail, and outside of the hind legs, 
it is a little mixed with white or ash-colour: the 
lips, cheeks, and throat, are white, and a stripe of 
the same colour runs along the under side of the 
legs : the breast and belly are ash-grey or whitish- 
grey : the tips of the ears and the feet are black : 
the tail extremely reddish-yellow, mixed with a 
tinge of blackish, and internally brownish yellow- 
white, with a blackish cast; the tip itself milk- 

The Fox prepares for himself a convenient den 
or receptacle in which he lies concealed during 
the greater part of the day. This den is some- 
times said to be obtained by dispossessing the 
Badger of its hole, and appropriating it to his 
own purposes. It is so contrived as to afford the 
best security to the inhabitant, by being situated 
under hard ground, the roots of trees, &c. and is 
besides furnished with proper outlets through 
which he may escape in case of necessity. 

This care and dexterity in constructing himself 
a domicil, is by the Count de Buffon considered 
as alone sufficient to rank the Fox among the 
higher order of quadrupeds, since it implies no 
small degree of intelligence. 

' <f The Fox knows how to ensure his safety, by 
providing himself with an asylum, to which he 
retires from pressing dangers, where he dwells, 
and where he brings up his young. He is not a 

*ox. 317 

vagabond, but lives in a settled domestic state. 
This difference, though it appears even among 
men, has greater effects, and supposes more 
powerful causes, among the inferior animals. The 
single idea of a habitation or settled place of abode, 
the art of making it commodious, and concealing 
the avenues to it, imply a superior degree of senti- 

In clear warm weather the Fox sometimes 
comes out to bask in the sunshine, lying stretched 
out on some dry place, the stump of a tree, &c. 
&c. At night he commences his depredations, 
prowling about after poultry, small birds, leverets, 
rabbits, &c. &c. He is supposed to make con- 
siderable destruction among field-mice, and it is 
said, that, like the Cat, he plays with them for some 
time before he quite destroys them. He also oc- 
casionally eats frogs, newts, snails, and insects. 
Several kinds of berries and fruit are also an ac- 
ceptable food, and he is particularly fond of 
grapes, and does considerable injury among vine- 
yards. Sometimes he attacks bee-hives, and de- 
vours the honey, in spite of the stings he receives 
from the disturbed swarm. When pressed by ne- 
cessity, he will readily devour carrion, but prefers 
flesh in a rare state. " I once (says Buffon) sus- 
pended on a tree, at the height of nine feet, some 
meat, bread, and bones. The Foxes had been at 
severe exercise during the night; for, next morn- 
ing, the earth all around was beaten, by their 
jumping, as smooth as a barn floor." 

The Fox attempts his prey by cunning rather 

518 FOX. 

than by force : his scent is exquisite, so that he 
can perceive either his prey or his enemies at the 
distance of 2 or 300 paces : he has the habit of 
killing more than he eats, and hiding the remain- 
der under grass, the roots of trees, &c. His 
voice i> a sharp, quick yell, often ending in a 
higher, stronger, and screaming kind of note, 
not unlike that of the Peacock. 

The smell of the Fox is proverbially offensive. 
This smell, as in many other quadrupeds, pro- 
ceeds, perhaps, from certain glands situated near 
the base of the tail ; but there is an observation in 
the System a Naturae of Linnaeus, which at first 
appears in the highest degree paradoxical, viz. 
that the Fox diffuses an ambrosial odor from the 
upper part of the base of the tail. (Ambrosiaco 
fragrat odore supra caudce, basin.) This observa- 
tion is also made by Mr. Schreber in his History 
of Quadrupeds. " The smell (says he) of the 
Fox is strong and unpleasant, but on the tail is a 
spot from which proceeds a violaceous scent." 
This strange particularity seems to have been first 
published by Doebel in his work on hunting. 
The offensive or general smell of the Fox is sup- 
posed exactly to resemble that of the root of 
crown-imperial (Fritillaria Imperialis Lin.) This 
is mentioned by Dr. Grew in his Anatomy of Ve- 
getables, where he assures us, that the root of this 
plant, " being rubbed a little, smells as like a 
Fox, as one Fox smelleth like another." 

The Fox produces five or six young at a time ; 
and if they are discovered or disturbed, the fe- 

FOX. 319 

male will carry them in her mouth, one at a time, 
to some more secret retreat ; in this respect imi- 
tating the conduct of the Cat and Dog, which 
are known to do the same. 

The Fox seems to be an extremely common 
animal in the Holy Land. It may be doubted, 
however, according to Mr. Pennant, whether the 
celebrated device of Sampson for destroying the 
corn of the Philistines was practised with these 
animals or with Jackals, which latter being much 
more easily attainable in the number specified, 
would have been the species most probably re- 
sorted to on that occasion. 

The skin of the Fox makes a wanii and soft 
fur, and is, therefore, used for muffs, linings, &c. 
At Lausanne (says Mr. Pennant) are furriers who 
are in possession of between two and three thou- 
sand Fox skins all taken in one winter. 

The three varieties, according to this author, 
which occur in Great Britain, are the Greyhound 
Fox, called in Wales Milgi, which is the largest, 
tallest, and boldest, and will attack a grown 
sheep : secondly, the Mastiff Fox, which is less, 
but more strongly built : and, lastly, the Cur Fox 
or Corgi, which is the kind before mentioned, 
with a black tip to the tail. This last is probably 
the Canis Alopex of Linnaeus. 


Var. ? 


This is described by Gesner in the appendix to 
his History of Viviparous Quadrupeds. In this 
variety a black line or stroke extends from the 
nose along the head and whole length of the 
back and tail, and is crossed by another band of 
the same colour over the shoulders, and along the 
outside of the fore legs, to the feet. Its throat is 
of a blackish tinge. It is a native, according to 
Gesner, of the northern parts of Europe, but is 
not found in Germany. He described it from a 
skin. Olaus Magnus affirms, that the skin of 
these crossed Foxes sells at a great price, and is 
considered as a valuable fur. Fid. Aldr. dig. 
p. 222. 

According to Mr. Pennant, it is a native not 
only of the northern parts of Europe, but of Asia 
and North America. Great number of the skins 
are imported from Canada, and are much esteemed 
for their thick and soft fur: the belly is black: 
and the skin varies, as to cast of colour, in differ- 
ent specimens, but in all is the blackness. 

Var.? , 


This variety occurs in the northern parts of 
Europe, Asia, and America. The Asiatic ones, 


however, are larger and blacker than the others, 
and afford a richer and more valuable fur than 
that of almost any other quadrupeds. In Ame- 
rica this animal is principally found in Canada. 
In Kamtschatka it is in its greatest perfection; 
but the creature is of so subtle and wild a nature 
as to be very rarely obtainable. A single skin 
has been valued at 400 rubles. The American 
black Foxes are often of a mixed colour, being 
dashed with a cinereous cast on the face, sides, 


Canis Alopex. C. cauda recta; apice nigro. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Gmel.p. 74. 
With strait tail, black at the tip. 

THIS is less than the common Fox, and has a 
thicker and dusker fur, though sometimes, on. 
the contrary, it is much brighter and redder than 
that species, as mentioned by Linnasus in his 
Fauna Suecica : the tail is tipped with black. A 
Pennsylvanian Brant Fox, described by Mr. Pen- 
nant, was scarcely half the size of the common 
Fox. It had the nose black, much sharper than 
in that animal; the space round the eyes ferru- 
ginous; the forehead and all the upper parts of 
the body black mixed with red, ash-colour, and 
black: the ash-colour predominated, which gave 
it a hoary look: the belly yellowish ; the tail black 
above, red beneath, and ash-coloured on the sides. 



Canis cinereo-argenteus. C. cauda recta, corpore tinerco, collo 

later jbusfuho. Lin. Syst, Nat. Gmel. p. 74. 
Ash-grey, with strait tail, and the sides of the neck fulvous. 
Der Grisfuchs. Schreb. saeugth. p. 360. .92. 

THIS Fox, according to Mr. Schreber, inhabits 
North America, and the skins are often sent over 
to Europe. The crown of the head,, neck, and 
back, are grey, mixed with black and white : the 
finer hairs being white-grey, the coarser varied 
with black and white like a porcupine's quill : the 
ears are externally yellow-brown, towards the 
tips mingled with black : about the ears and on 
the sides of the neck there is a fox-yellow patch : 
the throat, breast, and belly, are white : the legs 
externally yellow-brown : on the fore legs runs, 
from above inwards, a very small black and white 
mixed stripe, which terminates below in a broader 
black one : on the hinder legs a white stripe rims 
inwards, and underneath joins with a blackish 
one : the tail is brown, mixed with a little yellow- 
ish. In size this species is inferior to the common 
Fox. It is described by Schreber, who seems in 
some doubt whether it may not be a variety of the 
Canis Virginianus (Grey Fox of Catesby). 



Canis Virginianus. C. cauda recta, corpore ex cinereo albicantc. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 74. 
Whitish-grey, with strait tail. 
Grey Fox. Catesbys Carolina. 2. p. 78. pi. 78. 
Grey Fox. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 259. 

THE Virginian Fox seems to have been first de- 
scribed by Catesby. It -resembles the common 
Fox in shape : has a sharp nose, long, sharp, up- 
right ears, long legs, and a bushy tail : its colour 
is a whitish-grey, with a cast of red about the 
ears. It inhabits the warmer parts of North 
America, particularly Carolina and Virginia. It 
is said never to burrow under ground like the 
common Fox, but to inhabit hollow trees: it is 
destitute of the strong smell of the common Fox ; 
is easily tamed, and is said to prey chiefly on 
poultry, birds, &c. 


Canis Argentatus. C.fuscus,pilis longioribus argenteo-albis. 
Dog of a deep brown-colour, with the longer hairs of a silvery 


Silvery Dog. Pennant Quadr. I. p. 260. 
Le Renard argente. Charlevoir Nouv. Franc, i.p. 196. 

IN form this resembles the common Fox. It 
is of a deep brown-colour, with the longer or ex- 
terior hairs of a silvery white, giving a highly 



Canis cinereo-argenteus. C. cauda recta, corporc cinereo, colto 

lateribusfulvo. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 74. 
Ash-grey, with strait tail, and the sides of the neck fulvous. 
Der Grisfuchs. Schreb. saeugth.p. 360. t. 92. 

THIS Fox, according to Mr. Schreber, inhabits 
North America, and the skins are often sent over 
to Europe. The crown of the head, neck, and 
back, are grey, mixed with black and white : the 
finer hairs being white-grey, the coarser varied 
with black and white like a porcupine's quill : the 
ears are externally yellow-brown, towards the 
tips mingled with black : about the ears and on 
the sides of the neck there is a fox-yellow patch : 
the throat, breast, and belly, are white : the legs 
externally yellow-brown : on the fore legs runs, 
from above inwards, a very small black and white 
mixed stripe, which terminates below in a broader 
black one : on the hinder legs a white stripe runs 
inwards, and underneath joins with a blackish 
one : the tail is brown, mixed with a little yellow- 
ish. In size this species is inferior to the common 
Fox. It is described by Schreber, who seems in 
some doubt whether it may not be a variety of the 
Canis Virginianus (Grey Fox of Catesby). 



Canis Virginianus. C. cauda recta, corpore ex cinereo aUricantc. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 74. 
Whitish-grey, with strait tail. 
Grey Fox. Catesby's Carolina. 2. p. 78. pi. 78. 
Grey Fox. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 259. 

THE Virginian Fox seems to have been first de- 
scribed by Catesby. It -resembles the common 
Fox in shape : has a sharp nose, long, sharp, up- 
right ears, long legs, and a bushy tail : its colour 
is a whitish-grey, with a cast of red about the 
ears. It inhabits the warmer parts of North 
America, particularly Carolina and Virginia. It 
is said never to burrow under ground like the 
common Fox, but to inhabit hollow trees : it is 
destitute of the strong smell of the common Fox ; 
is easily tamed, and is said to prey chiefly on 
poultry, birds, &c. 


Canis Argentatus. C.fuscus,pilis longioribus argenteo-albis. 
Dog of a deep brown-colour, with the longer hairs of a silvery 


Silvery Dog. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 260. 
Le Renard argente. Charlevoix Nouv. Franc, i.p. 196. 

IN form this resembles the common Fox. It 
is of a deep brown-colour, with the longer or ex- 
terior hairs of a silvery white, giving a highly 


elegant appearance to the animal. It is an inhabit- 
ant of the forests of Louisiana, and preys on game. 


Canis Lagopus. C. cauda recta, palms plantisque pilostssimus. 

lAn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 75. 
With strait tail, thick furred feet. 
Isatis. Euff. 13. p. 272. 
Canis hyeme albus, aestate ex cinereo caerulescens. Bris. 

Quadr. p. 174. 

Valpes Caerulescens. Lin. Faun. Swc. 14. 
Arctic Fox. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 255. 

THIS species is inferior in size to the common 
Fox: its colour is a blueish-grey, which some- 
times changes to perfect white : when young it is 
said to be of a dusky colour : the hair is extremely 
thick, long, and soft : the nose is sharp ; the ears 
almost hid in the fur, and are short and rounded : 
the legs are short, and the toes are covered both 
above and below with a very thick soft fur: the 
tail is shorter than that of the common Fox, but 
more bushy. " These animals (says Mr. Pen- 
nant) are found only in the Arctic regions, a 
few degrees within and without the polar circle. 
They inhabit Spitsbergen, Greenland, and Ice- 
land: are only migratory in Hudson's Bay, once 
in four or five years : are found again in Bering's 
and Copper Isle, next to it, but none beyond : in 
Kamtschatka, and all the countries bordering on 
the frozen sea, which seems their great residence; 
comprehending a woodless track of heath land, 


generally from 70 to 65 degrees latitude. They 
abound in Nova Zembla: are found in Cherry 
island, midway between Finmark and Spitzbergen ; 
to which they must have been brought on islands 
of ice; for it lies above four degrees north of 
the first, and three south of the last : and, lastly, 
in the bare mountains between Lapland and Nor- 

" They are the hardiest of animals, and even in 
Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla prowl for prey dur- 
ing the severity of winter. They live on the young 
wild geese, and all kinds of water-fowl; on their 
eggs; on hares or any lesser animals; and in 
Greenland (through necessity) on berries, shell- 
fish, or whatsoever the sea throws up. But in 
the north of Asia, and in Lapland, their princi- 
pal food is the Leming (a species of mouse). The 
Arctic Foxes of those regions are as migratory 
as those little animals ; and when the last make 
their great migrations, the former pursue them in 
vast troops. But such removals are not only un- 
certain, but long: dependent on those of the 
Leming. The Foxes will, at times, desert their 
native countries for three or four years, probably 
as long as they can find any prey. The people 
of Jenisea imagine that the wanderers from their 
parts go to the banks of the Oby. Those found 
on Bering's and Copper isles were probably 
brought from the Asiatic side on floating ice: 
Steller having seen in the remoter islands only 
the black and brown Foxes : and the same only 
on the continent of America. They burrow in 


the earth, and form holes many feet in length ; 
strewing the bottom with moss. But in Spitz- 
bergen and Greenland, where the ground is eter- 
nally frozen, they live in the cliffs of rocks : two 
or three inhabit the same hole. They swim well, 
and often cross from island to island in search of 
prey. They bark like Dogs; for which reason 
the Russians call them PefztL They are tame 
and inoffensive animals; and so simple, that there 
are instances of their standing by when the trap 
was baiting, and instantly after putting their 
heads into it. They are killed for the sake of 
their skins, both in Asia and Hudson's Bay : the 
fur is light and warm, but not durable : Mr. Gra- 
ham informed me, that they have appeared in 
such numbers about the fort, that he has taken, 
in different ways, four hundred from Decem- 
ber to March. He likewise assured me, that the 
tips of their tails are always black ; those of the 
common Foxes are always white: and that he 
never could trace the breeding places of the for- 
mer. " 

" The Greenlanders take them either in pit- 
falls dug in the snow, and baited with the Capelin 
fish, or in springs made with whalebone laid over 
a hole made in the snow, strewed over at bottom 
with the same kind of fish; or in traps made like 
little huts, with flat stones, with a broad one by 
way, of door, which falls down (by means of a 
string baited on the inside with a piece of flesh) 
whenever the Fox enters and pulls at it. The 
Greenlanders preserve the skin for traffic; and, in 


cases of necessity, eat the flesh. They also make 
buttons of the skins : and split the tendons, and 
make use of them instead of thread. The blue 
furs are much more esteemed than the white." 

The above ample and excellent account is from 
Mr. Pennant's Arctic Zoology. Mr. Pennant 
thinks it probable that the Fox described by 
Molina, who observed it in Chili, was of this 
species, viz. 

Var. ? 


Canis Culpseus. C. cauda recta elongata, apke coticolore few. 

Molina Hist. Nat. Chil. 4. p. 2^9. 
Dog with strait elongated tail, with tip of a similar colour. 

THIS is supposed to be a variety of the Antarc- 
tic Fox. Its length from nose to tail is two feet 
and a half : its colour a deep brown: the tail is 
covered with short hair like that of a domestic 
dog : its voice is feeble, but has some resemblance 
to a bark. It inhabits the open countries of 
Chili, in which it forms its burrows. The Chilians 
call it Culpeu, from Culpem, signifying folly; it 
being considered as a silly animal. 

v. i. p. ii. 


Canis Thous. C. cauda deftexa lowi, cwport subgriseo, subtus 

albo. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Greyish Dog, white beneath, with deflected tail. 
Surinam Dog. Pennant Quadr. i.p. z6'/. 

THIS species is said by Linnaeus to inhabit Su- 
rinam. It seems to have been unknown to other 
naturalists. The very short description given by 
Linnaeus states only that the body is grey, en- 
tirely white beneath ; that it is of the size of a 
large Cat, and has upright ears of the same co- 
lour with the body ; a verruca or wart above the 
eyes, on each cheek, and beneath the throat; and 
that the tongue is ciliated at the edges. 


Canis Berigalengis. C. subfuscus fascia fadei fongitudinali nigra, 

ortitis albis, pedibusfuhis, cauda apice nigra. 
Dog of a light brown-colour, with a longitudinal black stripe 

down the face, white orbits, fulvous legs, and tail tipped with 

Bengal Dog. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 260. 

THIS species inhabits Bengal. It is scarcely 
half the size of the European Fox. The face is 
cinereous; the body pale- brown; the legs fulvous ; 
the tail tipped with black, and down the middle 
of the face runs a black stripe. The spaces round 
the eyes and the middle of the jaws are white. It 
is said to feed chiefly on roots and berries. 



Canis Fuliginosus. C. cauda recta, corporefuliginoso. 

Fuliginous D. with strait tail. 

Sooty Fox. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 257. 

THIS in size and habit resembles the Arctic 
Fox, but is a distinct species. It is said to be nu- 
merous in Iceland, and is mentioned only by Mr. 


Canis Antarcticus. C. dnereo-fuscus villosus cauda apice alba. 
Cinereous-brown villous Fox, with the tail tipped with white. 
Antarctic Fox. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 257. 

THIS, according to Mr. Pennant, is about a 
third part superior in size to the Arctic Fox, and 
has pretty much the habit of a Wolf in its ears, 
tail, and strength of limbs. The French, there- 
fore, call it Loup-Renard, or Wolf-Fox. The 
head and body are cinereous brown; the hair 
more woolly than that of the common Fox; the 
ears short and pointed; their insides lined with 
white hairs: the legs are dashed with rust-colour; 
the tail dusky, more bushy, and shorter than that 
of the common Fox, and tipped with white. It 
is a native of the Falkland isles, and is said to be 
almost the only land quadruped of those distant 
spots. It resides near the shores; kennels like a 
Fox, and forms regular paths from bay to bay, 

332 FENNEC. 

probably for the convenience of surprising water- 
fowl, on which it principally lives. It is a tame, 
fetid animal, and barks in the manner of a Dog. 


Canis? Zerda. C. albida, cauda recta, aiifibus amplissimis erect is 
intits roseis. 

Whitish Dog? with strait tail, and very large upright ears, in- 
ternally rose-coloured. 

Canis Cerdo. C. cauda recta, corpore pallido, auriculis roseis 
creeds prcelong is. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. *}$. 

The Fennec. Bruce trav. vol. 5. p. 128. 

Animal Anonyme. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 148. pi. 19. 

Zerda. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 267. 

THE Fennec or Zerda is a beautiful African and 
Asiatic animal, and is principally found in Arabia. 
Its general length is about ten inches, and its co- 
lour yellowish-white. The ears, which are un- 
commonly large, are internally of a bright rose- 
colour, edged with a broad margin of white hair, 
and the tip of the tail is black. An original 
drawing of the Fennec, in the possession of Mr. 
Bruce, was by him communicated to the Count de 
Buffon, and was inserted in the supplemental part 
of the Natural History of that celebrated author. It 
seems singular that an animal which is said to be 
by no means uncommon in many parts of the East, 
should be still unknown in European Museums. 
With respect to its real nature, and proper situa- 
tion in systematic arrangement, perhaps no true de- 
termination can yet be made. On this subject Mr. 


FENNEC. 333 

Bruce and M r. Pennant disagree in their opinions. 
Mr. Pennant ranks it under the genus Canis, and 
calls it Zerda, or " Dog with a pointed visage; 
long whiskers ; large bright black eyes; very large 
ears of a bright rose-colour, internally lined with 
long hairs : the orifice so small as not to be visi- 
ble ; probably covered with a valve or membrane : 
legs and feet like those of a dog : tail taper : co- 
lour between a straw and a pale brown : length 
from nose to tail ten inches: ears three and a 
half: tail six: height not five." It inhabits (says 
Mr. Pennant) the vast deserts of Saara, which 
extend beyond Mount Atlas, and is called by the 
Moors Zerda: burrows in sandy ground, which 
shews the use of valves to the ears. It is so ex- 
ceedingly swift that it is very rarely taken alive: 
feeds on insects, especially locusts: sits on its 
rump : is very vigilant, and barks like a Dog, but 
much shriller. Dr. Sparmann suspects that he 
saw it during his travels in Caffraria. Mr. Bruce, 
in the fifth or supplemental volume of his travels, 
assures us that the true name of the animal is not 
Zerda but Fenmc, and this latter name, he con- 
ceives, may have been derived from <poivi%, a palm, 
the principal residence of the creature being on 
the tops of palm-trees. Mr. Bruce, at different 
periods, kept two or three specimens of the Fen- 
nee, and the following is his account of the ani- 
mal's manners and appearance. 

" Though his favourite food seemed to be 
dates, or any sweet fruit, yet I observed he was 
very fond of eggs, and small bird's eggs were first 

334 FENNEC. 

brought him, which he devoured with great avi- 
dity; but he did not seem to know how to ma- 
nage that of a hen, but when broke for him 
he ate it with the same avidity as the others. 
When he was hungry, he would eat bread, espe- 
cially with honey or sugar. It was very observ- 
able, that a bird, whether confined in a cage near 
him, or flying across the room, engrossed his 
whole attention. He followed it with his eyes 
wherever it went, nor was he, at this time, to 
be diverted by placing biscuit before him ; and 
it was obvious, by the great interest he seemed 
to take in its motions, that he was accustomed 
to watch for victories over it, either for his 
pleasure or his food. He seemed very much 
alarmed at the approach of a Cat, and endea- 
voured to hide himself, but shewed no symptom 
of preparing for any defence. I never heard he 
had any voice ; he suffered himself, not without 
some difficulty, to be handled in the day, when he 
seemed rather inclined to sleep, but was exceed- 
ingly unquiet and restless so soon as night came, 
and always endeavouring his escape, and though 
he did not attempt the wire, yet with his sharp 
teeth he very soon mastered the wood of any 
common bird cage. From the snout to the anus 
he was about ten inches long, his tail five and a 
quarter, near an inch on the tip of it was black. 
From the point of his fore shoulder to the point 
of his fore toe, was two inches and seven eighths. 
He was two inches and a half from his occiput to 
the point of his nose, the length of his ears three 

JENNEC. 335 

inches and three eighths. These were doubled, 
or had a plait on the bottom on the outside ; the 
borders of his ears in the inside were thick covered 
with soft white hair, but the middle part was 
bare, and of a pink or rose colour They were 
about an inch and half broad, and the cavities 
within were very large. It was very difficult to 
measure these, for he was very impatient at hav- 
ing his ears touched, and always kept them erect, 
unless when terrified by a Cat. The pupil of the 
eye was large and black, surrounded by a deep 
blue iris. He had strong, thick mustaches; the 
tip of his nose very sharp, black, and polished. 
His upper jaw reached beyond the lower, and had 
four grinders on each side of the mouth. It had 
six fore-teeth in each jaw: those in the under jaw 
are smaller than the upper: the canine-teeth are 
long, large, and exceedingly pointed: his legs 
are small, and his feet very broad ; he has four 
toes armed with crooked, black sharp claws; 
those on his fore feet more crooked and sharp 
than behind. All his body is nearly of a dirty 
white, bordering on cream-colour; the hair of his 
belly rather whiter, softer, and longer than the 
rest, and on it a number of paps, but he was so 
impatient it was impossible to count them. He 
very seldom extended or stiffened his tail, the 
hair of which was harder. He had a very sly 
and wily appearance. But as he is a solitary 
animal, and not gregarious, as he has no par- 
ticular mark of feelings about him, no shift or 
particular cunning which might occasion Solo- 

336 FENNEC. 

mon to qualify him as wise, as he builds his nest 
upon trees, and not on the rock, he cannot be 
the Saphan of the scripture, as some, both Jews 
and Arabians, not sufficiently attentive to the 
qualities attributed to that animal, have neverthe- 
less erroneously imagined." 



Generic Character. 

Denies Primores intermedii 

Molares terni. 
Lingua retrorsum aculeata 
Ungues retractiles. 

Front-teeth six; the interme- 
diate ones equal. 
Grinders three on each side. 
Tongue aculeated backwards. 
Claws retractile. 


Felis Leo. F. cauda dongata, corpore helvolo. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

p. 60. 
Cat of a pale tawny or dun colour, with long tail, flocky at the 

F. cauda dongata Jloccosa, thoracejubato. Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 6. 

p. 4. 

Felis cauda in floccum desinente. Briss. Quadr. i. p. 194. 
Leo. Gesn. Quadr. 572. Aldr. dig. a. 
Lion. Buff. 9. p. i. pi. 2. 
Lion. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 27 4. 

A HE Lion is principally an inhabitant of Africa, 
but is also found, though far less plentifully, in 
the hotter regions of Asia. It is, however, in 
the interior of Africa that he exerts his greatest 
ravages, and reigns superior among the weaker 

338 LION. 

quadrupeds. A Lion of the largest size has been 
found to measure about eight feet from the nose 
to the tail ; and the tail itself about four feet : the 
general colour is a pale tawny, still paler or more 
inclining to white beneath : the head is very large, 
the ears rounded, the face covered with short or 
close hair, the upper part of the head, the neck, 
and shoulders coated with long shaggy hair, form- 
ing a pendent mane: on the body the hair is short 
and smooth : the tail is terminated by a tuft of 
blackish hair. The Lioness, which is smaller 
than the Lion, is destitute of the mane, and is of 
a whiter cast beneath. The Lion, like the Tiger, 
frequently conceals himself, in order to spring on 
his prey; bounding to the distance of a great 
many feet, and seizing it with his claws. His 
strength is prodigious ; it has even been affirmed, 
that a single stroke of his paw is sufficient to 
break the back of a horse ; and that he carries off 
with ease a middle-sized ox, or Buffalo. He does 
not often prey in open sunshine, but commences 
his depredations at the close of clay. The roar- 
ing of the Lion, when in quest of prey, resembles 
the sound of distant thunder; and, being re- 
echoed by the rocks and mountains, appals the 
whole race of animals, and puts them to sudden 
flight; but he frequently varies his voice into a 
hideous scream or yell : he is supposed to be de- 
stitute of a fine scent, and to hunt by the eye 
alone. The Lion is commonly said to devour as 
much as will serve him for two or three days ; and, 
when satiated with food, to remain in a state of 


340 LION. 

with them. He is gentle and caressing to his 
master, and if he sometimes resumes his natural 
ferocity, he seldom turns his rage against his be- 
nefactors, lie has also been known to disdain 
the insults and to pardon the offensive liberties of 
the weaker animals. When led into captivity, he 
discovers symptoms of uneasiness without anger 
or peevishness ; on the contrary, he assumes the 
habits of gentleness, obeys his master, caresses 
the hand that feeds him, and sometimes spares 
the animals that are thrown to him for prey. By 
this act of generosity he seems to consider him- 
self as for-ever bound to protect them ; he lives 
peaceably with them, allows them a part of his 
food; and will rather submit to the inconveni- 
ences of hunger than destroy the fruits of his own 

The Count de Buffon, reasoning from the size 
and constitution of the Lion, and the time re- 
quired for his arriving at full growth, concludes 
that he " ought to live about seven times three 
or four years, or nearly to the age of twenty-five. " 
He adds, that those which have been kept at 
Paris have lived sixteen or seventeen years. If, 
however, we might depend on the commonly re- 
ceived accounts of those which have been kept in 
the tower of London, we might mention the Lion 
known by the name of Pompey, which is said to 
have lived no less than seventy years in his state 
of captivity ; and another in the same receptacle, 
which is reported to have lived sixty-three years. 

LION. 341 

It must be acknowledged, however, that, from 
the general constitution of the Lion, one would 
not suppose him to be a very long-lived animal. 

Lions have sometimes constituted a part of the 
established pomp of royalty in the eastern world. 
The monarch of Persia, as we are informed by 
Mr. Bell in his travels, had, on days of audience, 
two large. Lions chained on each side the pas- 
sages of the hall of state ; being led there, by pro- 
per officers, in chains of gold. 

The Romans, struck with the magnificent ap- 
pearance of these animals, imported them in vast 
numbers from Africa, for their public spectacles. 
Quintus Scasvola, according to Pliny, was the 
first in Rome who exhibited a combat of Lions ; 
but Sylla the dictator, during his pratorship, ex- 
hibited a hundred Lions; and, after him, Pompey 
the Great exhibited no less than six hundred in 
the grand circus, viz. three hundred and fifteen 
males, and the rest females ; and Caesar the dicta- 
tor four hundred. Pliny also tells us, that the 
first person in Rome who caused them to be 
yoked, so as to draw a carriage, was Mark An- 
tony, who appeared in the streets of Rome in a 
chariot drawn by Lions, accompanied by his mis- 
tress Cytheris, an actress from the theatre. A 
sight, says Pliny, that surpassed in enormity even 
all the calamities of the times ! 

" Leonum simul plurium pugnam, Romre prin- 
ceps dedit Q. Sca3vola P. filius in curuli ,/Edili- 
tate. Centum autem jubatorum primus omnium 
L. Sylla, qui postea dictator fuit in Pnetura; 

LION. 339 

retirement in his den, which he seldom leaves, 
except for the purpose of prowling about for his 
prey : his teeth are so strong that he breaks the 
bones with perfect ease, and often swallows them 
together with the flesh : his tongue, as in other 
animals of this genus, is furnished with reversed 
prickles; but they are so large and strong in the 
Lion, as to be capable of lacerating the skin. The 
Lioness is said to bring forth in the spring, in the 
most sequestered places, and to produce but one 
brood in the year : the young are four or five in 
number, which the parent nurses with great assi- 
duity, and attends in their first excursions for 
prey. When brought into Europe, Lions have 
been known to breed even in a state of confine- 
ment ; instances of which are recorded by some of 
the older naturalists. In the tower of London also 
examples of a similar nature have occurred. The 
young animals are scarce so large as small pug 
dogs, and are said to continue at the teat about 
the space of a year, and to be five years in coming 
to maturity. If we may judge from some speci- 
mens of young Lions in the Leverian Museum, 
which are said to have been whelped in the tower, 
their size seems scarce to exceed that of a half- 
grown kitten : indeed, some of the ancient -writers 
have affirmed, that the young Lions are hardly 
larger than Weasels. 

(f The Lion (says BufFon), when taken young, 
and brought up among domestic animals, is easily 
accustomed to live, and even to sport innocently 

340 LION. 

with them. He is gentle and caressing to his 
master, and if he sometimes resumes his natural 
ferocity, he seldom turns his rage against his be- 
nefactors, lie has also been known to disdain 
the insults and to pardon the offensive liberties of 
the weaker animals. When led into captivity, he 
discovers symptoms of uneasiness without anger 
or peevishness ; on the contrary, he assumes the 
habits of gentleness, obeys his master, caresses 
the hand that feeds him, and sometimes spares 
the animals that are thrown to him for prey. By 
this act of generosity he seems to consider him- 
self as for-ever bound to protect them; he lives 
peaceably with them, allows them a part of his 
food; and will rather submit to the inconveni- 
ences of hunger than destroy the fruits of his own 

The Count de Buffon, reasoning from the size 
and constitution of the Lion, and the time re- 
quired for his arriving at full growth, concludes 
that he " ought to live about seven times three 
or four years, or nearly to the age of twenty-five. " 
He adds, that those which have been kept at 
Paris have lived sixteen or seventeen years. If, 
however, we might depend on the commonly re- 
ceived accounts of those which have been kept in 
the tower of London, we might mention the Lion 
known by the name of Pompey, which is said to 
have lived no less than seventy years in his state 
of captivity ; and another in the same receptacle, 
which is reported to have lived sixty- three years. 

LION*' 341 

It must be acknowledged, however, that, from 
the general constitution of the Lion, one would 
not suppose him to be a very long-lived animal. 

Lions have sometimes constituted a part of the 
established pomp of royalty in the eastern world. 
The monarch of Persia, as we are informed by 
Mr. Bell in his travels, had, on days of audience, 
two large. Lions chained on each side the pas- 
sages of the hall of state; being led there, by pro- 
per officers, in chains of gold. 

The Romans, struck with the magnificent ap- 
pearance of these animals, imported them in vast 
numbers from Africa, for their public spectacles. 
Quintus Scasvola, according to Pliny, was the 
first in Rome who exhibited a combat of Lions ; 
but Sylla the dictator, during his prajtorship, ex- 
hibited a hundred Lions; and, after him, Pompey 
the Great exhibited no less than six hundred in 
the grand circus, viz. three hundred and fifteen 
males, and the rest females ; and Caesar the dicta- 
tor four hundred. Pliny also tells us, that the 
first person in Rome who caused them to be 
yoked, so as to draw a carriage, was Mark An- 
tony, who appeared in the streets of Rome in a 
chariot drawn by Lions, accompanied by his mis- 
tress Cytheris, an actress from the theatre. A 
sight, says Pliny, that surpassed in enormity even 
all the calamities of the times ! 

" Leonum simul plurium pugnam, Rom<e prin- 
ceps dedit Q. Sctevola P. filius in curuli JEdili- 
tate. Centum autem jubatorum primus omnium 
L. Sylla, qui postea dictator fuit in Pnutura: 

342 TIGER. 

Post eum Pompeius Magnus in circo DC. in iis 
jubatorum cccxv. Caesar Dictator cccc. 

" Jugo subdidit eos, primusque Romas ad cur- 
rum junxit M. Antonius, et quidem civili bello 
cum dimicatum esset in Pharsalicis campis, non 
sine quodam ostentu temporum, generosos spiri- 
tus jugum subire illo prodigio significante ; nam 
quod ita vectus est cum mima Cytheride, supra 
monstra etiam illarum calamitatum fuit." 

In modern times the Lion is said to be often 
hunted with dogs, by the colonists about the Cape 
of Good Hope, and it is added that twelve or fif- 
teen dogs are sufficient for the purpose. The 
Lion, after being roused, runs for some time ; then 
stops and shakes his mane, as if in defiance of the 
dogs, who, rushing all at once upon him, soon 
destroy him ; two or three of the pack, however, 
generally falling victims to the first strokes of his 


Felis Tigris. F. cauda elongata, corpore maatlis omnibus rirgatis. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 61. 
C. with elongated tail, and body marked with long transvers 


Tigris. Gesn. Quadr. 936. Aldr. dig. 101. 
Felis flava, maculis longis nigris variegata. Bliss. Quadr. p. 195. 
Tigre. Buff. 9. p. 129. pi. 9. 
Tiger. Pennant Quadr. I. p. 277. 

THE Tiger, the most beautiful, but most de- 
structive of quadrupeds, is a native of the warmer 

TIGER. 343 

parts of Asia, and is principally found in India 
and the Indian islands. The species extends, 
however, as far as China, and Chinese Tartary, 
the lake Ural, and the Altaic Mountains. Its 
colour is a deep tawny, or orange-yellow; the 
face, throat, and under side of the belly, being 
nearly white: the whole is traversed by numerous 
long black stripes, forming a bold and striking 
contrast with the ground-colour. About the face 
and breast the stripes are proportionally smaller 
than on other parts: the tail is annulated with 
black, and is shorter than the body. There seems 
to be some variation in the proportion and num- 
ber of the stripes in different individuals ; and the 
ground-colour is more or less bright, according to 
various circumstances of age and health in the 
respective animals. Linnaeus calls the Tiger 
" pulcherrimus quadrupedum.'" We must not 
judge of the elegance of this animal's robe from 
the specimens which are sometimes seen in mu- 
seums, or even from such living ones as by long 
confinement, and an alteration of climate, have 
lost the native brilliancy of their colours. When 
seen in perfection, and before its health has been 
impaired by confinement, it is scarce possible to 
conceive a more elegantly variegated animal than 
the Tiger: the bright and intense orange-yellow 
which constitutes the ground colour; the deep 
and well-defined stripes of black, in some parts 
double, in others single, the pure white of the 
cheeks and lower part of the sides, over which a 
part of the black striping is continued, form, al- 

344 TIGER. 

together, an appearance far superior in beauty to 
the skin of the Zebra, or that of any other regu- 
larly-marked quadruped, not exceping even the 
Panther itself. In its general size the Tiger is 
inferior only to the Lion, and has been seen even 
larger, viz of the length of fifteen feet from the 
nose to the tip of the tail. The largest are those 
of India, and are termed Royal Tigers ; but this 
distinction is supposed to relate merely to the 
size of the animal; there being only one species 
of Tiger, though there may perhaps be some races 
larger than others. 

Of so fierce and sanguinary a disposition is the 
Tiger as to surpass in rapacity every other wild 
beast, and is, therefore, considered as the most 
dreadful scourge of the hotter regions of Asia. 
The Lion is commonly supposed to exhibit a cer- 
tain degree of generosity of disposition, and to 
prey in a less malignant and cruel manner. He 
is also, when taken into a state of confinement, 
capable of being tamed, and rendered mild and 
placid to his keepers ; but the Tiger is not to be 
divested of his natural ferocity of character, and in 
confinement he generally exhibits all the symptoms 
of malignity. His method of seizing his prey is by 
concealing himself from view, and springing with 
a horrible roar on his victim, which he carries off, 
and tears in pieces, after having first sucked out 
the blood. The voice of the Tiger, in the act of 
springing on his prey, is said to be hideous be- 
yond conception. Even a Buffalo has been thus 
seized by a Tiger, and carried off with such seem- 

TIGER. 345 

ing ease as to appear scarce an impediment to the 
animal's flight. It is affirmed, that if the Tiger 
happens to miss his aim, he does not pursue his 
prey, but, as if ashamed of his disappointment, 
runs off. In the beginning of the present cen- 
tury (says Mr. Pennant), a company, seated un- 
der the shade of some trees, near the banks of a 
river in Bengal, were surprised by the unexpected 
sight of a Tiger preparing for its fatal spring; 
when a lady, with almost unexampled presence 
of mind, furled a large umbrella in the animal's 
face, which instantly retired, and thus gave 
an opportunity of escaping from so terrible a 
neighbour. Another party had not the same 
good fortune, but in the height of their entertain- 
ment lost, in an instant, one of their companions,, 
who was seized and carried off by a Tiger. But 
the fatal accident which so lately occurred in the 
East Indies must be still fresh in the memory of 
all who read the dreadful description given by an 
eye-witness of the scene. " We went (says the 
narrator) on shore on San gar island, to shoot 
deer, of which we saw innumerable tracks, as well 
as of Tigers; notwithstanding which, we con- 
tinued our diversion till near three o'clock, when, 
sitting down by the side of a jungle to refresh our- 
selves, a roar like thunder was heard, and an im- 
mense Tiger seized on our unfortunate friend*, and 
rushed again into the jungle, dragging him through 

* Mr. Monro, son of Sir Hector Monro, bait. This fatal event 
took place in the year 1792. 

V. I. P. IT. 23 

346 TIGER. 

the thickest bushes and trees, every thing giving 
way to his monstrous strength ; a Tigress accom- 
panied his progress. The united agonies of horror, 
regret, and fear, rushed at once upon us. I fired 
on the Tiger : he seemed agitated : my companion 
jfired also, and, in a few moments after this, our 
unfortunate friend came up to us, bathed in blood. 
Every medical assistance was vain, and he expired 
in the space of twenty-four hours, having received 
such deep wounds from the teeth and claws of the 
animal as rendered his recovery hopeless. A large 
nre, consisting of ten or twelve whole trees, was 
blazing by us at the time this accident took place; 
and ten or more of the natives with us. The hu- 
man mind can scarce form any idea of this scene 
of horror. We had hardly pushed our boat from 
that accursed shore, when the Tigress made her 
appearance, almost raging mad, and remained on 
the sand all the while we continued in sight." 

The Tiger is described by Pliny as an animal of 
tremendous swiftness: " animal tremendce velocita- 
tis. " This, however, is said to be not so applicable 
to the pace of the animal in running, as to the ve- 
locity of his spring when darting on his prey. 
There can be little doubt, however, that the Ti- 
ger is in reality an animal of great swiftness, and 
Mr. Pennant adduces the authorities of two faith- 
ful travellers, viz. Pere Gerbillon and Mr. Bell, 
in confirmation of Pliny's account. 

The Tio'er has been known to attack even a 


Lion, and both animals have perished in the con- 
flict. The Tigress, like the Lioness, produces 

8 4 



four or five young at a litter : she is at all times 
furious, but her rage rises to the utmost extre- 
mity when robbed of her young. She then braves 
every danger, and pursues her plunderers, who 
are often- obliged to release one in order to retard 
her motion : she stops, takes it up, and carries it 
to the nearest cover, but instantly returns, and 
renews her pursuit, even to the very gates of 
buildings, or the edge of the sea, and when her 
hope of recovering them is lost, she expresses her 
agony by hideous howlings, which excite terror 
wherever they reach. 


Felis Pardus. F. cauda elongata, corpore maculis supcrioribus or- 
biculat'isjinferioribus virgatis. lAn. Syst. Nat. p.6i. 

C. with elongated tail, and yellow body marked with orbicular 
spots above, and lengthened ones below. 

Felis ex albo flavicans, maculis nigris in dorso orbiculatis, in 
ventre longis. Briss. Quadr, p. 194. 

Panthera, Pardus, Pardalis, Leopardus. Gesn. Quadr. p. 824. 

Panthere. Buff", 9. p. i$ n, 12. 

Panther. Pennant Quadr. i. 280. 

NEXT to the Tiger the Panther is the most 
conspicuous species in this genus; measuring 
about six feet and a half, and sometimes near 
seven feet from nose to tail, which is itself about 
three feet long. The colour of the Panther is a 
bright and beautiful tawny-yellow, thickly marked 
all over the upper parts of the body, shoulders, 
and thighs, with roundish black spots, disposed 


into circles, consisting of four or five separate 
spots; and there is commonly, but not always, a 
central spot in each circle ; in which particular, 
as well as in its superior size, and deeper colour, 
the Panther differs from the Leopard, which has 
very rarely any central spots in its circular mark- 
ings. On the face and legs the spots are single, 
and along the top of the back is a row of oblong 
spots, which are still longer as they approach the 
tail. The breast and belly are white; the former 
marked with transverse dusky stripes ; the latter 
and the tail with large irregular black spots. The 
Panther is principally found in Africa, and is to 
that country what the Tiger is to Asia, with this 
alleviating circumstance, that it is supposed to 
prefer the destruction of other animals to that of 
mankind. Its manner of seizing its prey resem- 
bles that of the Tiger; lurking near the sides 
of woods, &c. and darting forward with a sudden 
spring. It is of a highly ferocious nature, and 
scarce to be tamed. These animals and the Leo- 
pard were the Varil and Pardi of the ancients; 
and one would think (says Mr. Pennant) that the 
Romans would have exhausted the deserts of 
Africa by the numbers they drew from thence for 
their public spectacles. Scaurus exhibited at one 
time a hundred and fifty Panthers; Pompey the 
Great, four hundred and ten ; and Augustus, four 
hundred and twenty. It has been doubted whe- 
ther the Panther and the Leopard were natives 
of America as well as of the old continent; but 
this question seems now to be decided in the ne- 


gative. In the twelfth edition of the Systema 
Naturae the Panther and Leopard seem to be con- 
founded by Linnaeus himself, who appears to have 
considered them as the same species, under the 
name of Pardus; while, at the same time, his 
specific character, as the Count de Buffon ob- 
serves, is such as to agree properly with no animal 
of the whole genus, viz. F. cauda dongata, corpore 
maculis superioribus orbiculatis, inferioribus virga- 
tis. It may be contended, perhaps, that Lin- 
naeus meant by this expression to characterize the 
obscurely subtransverse streaks on the breast of 
the animal ; but it must be acknowledged that even 
then his descriptive character, though continued 
in the Gmelinian edition of the work, is by no 
means sufficiently expressive; and, like many 
others, seems to require alteration and improve- 
ment. It may, perhaps, have happened that the 
spots on the under part of the sides, in some 
specimens, may have appeared somewhat conflu- 
ent, so as to produce the appearance of an indis- 
tinct kind of streaks; and something approaching 
to this may be observed in the figure of Buftbn, 
which, on account of its general excellence, is 
represented in the present work. It is remark- 
able that the specific character of the Panther, 
as given by Brisson, turns upon the same circum- 

Thus much may be observed of short specific 
characters in general; that, though highly useful, 
they are not always to be depended upon, and are 
only 'to be received with a proper degree of allow- 


ance : it must also be added, that the major part 
of those composed by Linnaeus are remarkable 
for their truth and exactitude. 


Felis Leopardus F. cauda mediocri, corpore fuho, maculis sub- 

coadunatis nigris. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 77. 
C. with yellow body marked with subcontiguous black spots, 

disposed in circles. 
Leopard. Buff". 9. p. i$ 14. 
Leopard. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 282. 

THIS animal is best distinguished from the 
Panther by its paler yellow-colour, its smaller 
size, and the somewhat closer disposition of the 
spots which form its ocellated markings; but to a 
mere general observer, the two animals are so 
extremely alike as to be frequently mistaken for 
each other. A true distinctive mark between the 
Leopard and Panther is by no means easy to 
communicate, either by description, or even by 
figure. The principal difference is in size; the 
Leopard being considerably the smallest of the 
two; the colour of the Panther is richer or more 
fulvous than that of the Leopard; but this too is 
liable to a degree of uncertainty: the ocelli or 
rounded marks on the Panther are larger, and 
more distinctly formed ; but the character given 
by Mr. Pennant of the Panther, viz. a central 
spot in the middle of each, is by no means a 
permanent or truly distinctive mark; since the 




spots in some specimens (perhaps the males) are 
quite plain in the middle ; while, on the other 
hand, in some specimens of the Leopard one or 
more small central spots are visible. As to the 
suhtransverse marks about the neck or breast, 
they seem to be full as distinct in the Leopard 
as in the Panther; and, perhaps, upon the whole, 
we must be content with distinguishing the two 
species by the size, and by the fulvous-yellow of 
the Panther, and the clearer or paler yellow of 
the Leopard. The general length of this species, 
from nose to tail, is four feet; of the tail two and 
a half. It is a native of Senegal and Guinea, as 
well as of many other parts of Africa : it also oc- 
curs in several parts of Asia, viz. in Persia, India, 
China, &c. In its manners it resembles the 

VAR. f 

A variety of this species, of a dusky black, 
marked with spots of a deeper or more glossy 
black, and perfectly resembling in disposition 
those of the common Leopard, is found in Bengal. 
In one of this kind brought to England some 
years ago, the fur, when a little turned aside, ex- 
hibited a slight tinge of the natural or general 



THIS, according to Mr. Pennant, who seems 
its only describer, is not half the size of the com- 
mon Leopard. Its colour is a bright yellow, spot- 
ted in the manner of the common Leopard, in cir- 
cles : on each side the upper lip is a great black 
spot : the face is spotted with black : the chin is 
white; the breast marked with small spots; the 
belly white, spotted with black : the tail shorter in 
proportion than in the common Leopard, and ta- 
pering to a point. Supposed to be a native of In- 
dia. It was kept in the Tower, and seemed a good- 
natured animal. 


Fells Jubata ? F. cauda mediocri, corporefvlw, maculis nigris, 
collojubato. Lin. Si/st. Nat. Gmel. p. 79. 

C. of a pale fulvous colour, with round black spots, tail of mo- 
derate length, and slightly-maned neck. 

Le Jaguar ou le Leopard. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 38. 

Le Guepard. Buff". 13. p. 249, 

Felisjubata. Schreber. p.$. 

Hunting Leopard. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 284. 

THIS animal is about the size of a large grey- 
hound, and of a long make, with narrow chest, 
and long legs. It is a native of India, where it 
is said to be tamed, and used for the chase of An- 
telopes and other animals ; being carried into the 




field chained and hooded, and, at the proper time, 
is loosed, when it is said to steal along the ground 
at first, concealing itself, till it gains a proper ad- 
vantage, and then to dart on the animal it pur- 
sues, with several repeated springs. If it hap- 
pens to miss its prey, it returns to the call of its 
master. The specimen of this animal in the Le- 
verian Museum is of a pale fulvous-yellow, with 
the cheeks, neck, and breast, white: the body 
whitish beneath ; with few obscure dusky spots. 
All the upper parts are very thickly spotted with 
small and perfectly round spots, with still smaller 
ones intermixed : the spots are largest on the out- 
side of the thighs, where the smaller intermixed 
ones are scarce larger than peas, or proportionally 
less than on the other parts: the nose is black: 
from each eye is a blackish line, running down to 
the corners of the mouth: the tail is spotted like 
the body, but towards the tip are two or three ob- 
scure bands; and the tip itself is blackish: the in- 
sides of the legs are thickly spotted. There seems 
to be no distinct appearance of a mane in this 
specimen ; neither is there the slightest appearance 
of it in Buffon's plate, which is here represented ; 
but it should be observed, that the spots in this 
figure seem much less accurately rounded than 
those in the Leverian specimen, as well as less 
numerous in proportion. In Mr. Schreber's figure 
of this animal the mane seems extremely conspi- 



Fells Uncia. F. cauda elongata, corpore albido, maculis irregula- 

ribus nigris. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 77. 
C. with long tail and whitish body, with irregular black marks. 
L'Once. Buff". 9. p. i$ 13. 
Once. Pennant Quadr. L. p. 285. 

THIS species is scarce inferior in size to the 
Leopard. Its colour is dull white, with a slight 
yellowish or tawny cast, and the whole is scat- 
tered over with differently sized spots and mark- 
ings of black. About the head these spots are 
small, numerous, and roundish; along the back 
they form a kind of abrupt or irregularly inter- 
rupted stripes, while on the sides and limbs they 
are variously shaped, forming in some places an- 
gular and in others somewhat round or oval 
marks, with a central space included, and on the 
legs and tail they are black and scattered. In its 
general form the animal seems much allied to the 
Leopard. It seems not to have been distinctly 
described by any modern author till the time of 
Buffon ; but it is supposed to have been known to 
the ancients, and to have been the smaller Pan- 
ther of Oppian, and the Panthera of Pliny. It 
should be here observed, that the name Uncia, 
Once, or Ounce, has, by Gesner and some other 
naturalists, been applied to the Leopard; and this 
confusion of names among naturalists has greatly 
tended to obscure the real knowledge of this dif- 

8 7 


JAGUAR. 355 

ficult genus. It is a native of several parts of 
Africa and Asia. 


Felis Onca. F. cauda mediocri, corpore jlavescente, ocdlis nigris 

rotundato-angulatis media flaws . Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 61. 
C. with tail of moderate length, and yellowish body, with black 

ocellated roundish-cornered spots with yellow central spaces. 
Felis flavescens, maculis nigris orbiculatis, quibusdam rosam re- 

ferentibus variegata. Briss. Quadr.p. 196. 
Pardus aut Lynx brasiliensis, Jaguara dictus, Lusitanis Onza. 

Raii syn. p. 168. 

Brasilian Cat. Pennant Qitadr. i.p. 286. 
Le Jaguar. Buff. 9. p. 18. 

THE Jaguar, sometimes called the American 
Tiger, is a native of the hotter parts of South 
America, and is considered as a very fierce and 
destructive animal. Its manners are said to re- 
semble those of the Tiger, lying in ambush for 
its prey. It is about the size of a Wolf, or even 
larger. Its ground colour is a pale brownish-yel- 
low, variegated on the upper parts with streaks 
and open oblong spots or markings of black; the 
top of the back being marked with long inter- 
rupted stripes, and the sides with rows of regular 
open marks: the thighs and legs are also varie- 
gated with black spots but without central spaces : 
the breast and belly are whitish : the tail not so 
long as the body ; the upper part marked with 
large black spots in an irregular manner, the 
lower with smaller spots. 



Felis Pardalls. F. cauda dvngata, corpore maadis superiaribus 
virgatis, inferioribus orbiculatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 78. 

Longish-tailed C. with long stripe-shaped spots on the upper 
parts, and round ones on the lower. 

Felis rufa, in ventre ex albo flavicans, maculis nigris, in dorso 
longis, in ventre orbiculatis variegata. Eriss. Quadr. p. 199. 

Catus Pardus, v. Catus ferus Americanorum. Rati Quadr. 169. 

Ocelot. Buf.i 3 .t. 35)3 6. 

Mexican C. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 387. 

THE Ocelot or Pardalis is certainly one of the 
most beautiful of the present genus. In size it is 
almost equal to the Jaguar. Mr. Pennant de- 
scribes it as about four times the size of a large 
Cat. The ground-colour of the male is a bright 
reddish tawny above, nearly white on the lower 
part of the sides, breast, limbs, and belly. Seve- 
ral large, long, and variously inflected broad 
stripes, of a deeper or richer tinge than the 
ground-colour, are disposed over the upper parts 
of the body; these stripes are edged with black, 
and have also several differently shaped black 
spots in the middle part The head is streaked 
and spotted with black ; and the upper as well as 
under parts of the limbs and the belly marked 
in a beautiful manner with small and nume- 
rous round spots : the tail is patched or spotted 
also. The colours of the female are less vivid, 
and more inclining to ash-colour. This is an ex- 
tremely ferocious animal, and inhabits the hotter 
parts ofSouth America, where it is said to com- 



6-Zearyly, Hctt StreeC. 


mit great ravages among cattle, &c. It is also 
said to be untameable in a state of captivity. It 
is well figured in Buffon. The present figure is 
from a beautiful specimen in the Leverian Mu- 


Cinereous Cat. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 289. 

THIS seems to be described only by Mr. Pen- 
nant, who informs us that it is about the size of 
the Ocelot, and is a native of Guinea. It is 
of a cinereous colour, palest on the legs and 
belly; the irides are hazel; the tip of the nose 
red ; ears sharp and rounded ; black on the out- 
side, grey within : from the nose to the eye on 
each side a black line; and above and beneath 
each eye a white one : sides of the mouth white, 
with four rows of small black spots: from the 
hind part of the head to the back ancf shoulders 
run some long, narrow, hollow stripes : along the 
top of the back two rows of oval black spots ; the 
marks of the sides long, hollow, and irregular, 
extending from the shoulders to the thighs: 
shoulders both barred and spotted: legs and belly 
only spotted : tail not so long as the body, with 
large spots above, and small beneath. This species 
according to Mr. Pennant's description as given 
above, seems to approach extremely near to the 
Ocelot, the female of which inclines much to 

358 PUMA. 

ash -colour; but being expressly said to be a na- 
tive of Guinea, we cannot suppose it the same 


FehVPuma. F. cauda elongata, corpore immaculato fufoo, sub- 

tus albido. 

C. with long tail, and reddish-brown body, whitish beneath. 
Felis concolor. F. cauda elongata, corpore immacalato fuho. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 79. 
Tigris fulvus. Barrere Fr. cequin.p. 166. 
Puma, v. Leo Americanus. Hernand. mexp. $iS. 
Cougouar. Bvff". g. p. 19. 
Puma. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 289. 

THE Puma is the largest of the American beasts 
of prey, measuring five feet or more from nose 
to tail; the tail itself measuring about two feet 
eight inches. It is a long-bodied animal, and 
stands high on its legs. Its colour is a pale 
brownish-red, with a slight dusky cast on some 
parts: the^hin is white; the breast and belly ash- 
colour; and the insides of the legs are of the 
same colour: the tail of a dusky-ferruginous tinge, 
with a black tip. It is a native of many parts of 
America, both North and Sftuth, occurring from 
Canada to Brasil. The Puma is an animal of 
great strength and fierceness, preying on cattle, 
deer, &c. Sometimes it is said to climb trees, 
and watch the opportunity of springing on such 
animals as happen to pass beneath. 



lioo.Ftfi.fubli/Kd ky pKerj ley. rite K So 



Felis Discolor. F. cauda elongata, corpore nigro, subtus albido. 

C. with long tail, and body black above, whitish below. 

Felis cauda elongata, corpore potissimum nigro. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Gmel. p. 79. 

Felis nigra. Erxleb. syst. mammal, p. $12. 
Le Cougouar noir. Buff, svppl. 3. p. 223. pi. 42. 
Jaguar or Black Tiger. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 290. pi. 58. 

THIS, like the former species, is a native of 
America, and is considered as a very destructive 
and ferocious animal. It is about the size of a 
heifer of a year old; and is entirely of a deep 
brownish-black colour on the upper parts, and 
pale grey or whitish beneath : the upper lip and 
the paws are also whitish : the tail is of the same 
dusky colour with the body. 


Felis Tigrina. F. cauda elongata, corpore fuko nigro striato 
maculatoqite, subtus albido. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 80. 

C. with long tail and fulvous body striped and spotted with 
black, whitish beneath. 

Felis ex griseo flavescens, maculis nigris variegata. Briss. 
Quadr. i. p. 193. 

Felis fera tigrina. Earr. Fr. equin. p. 152. 

Mergay. Buff. 13. p. 248. pi. 38. 

Cayenne Cat. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 292. 

THE Margay is a native of South America, and 
is about the size of a common Cat. The ground- 
colour is a bright tawny : the face striped down- 

360 CAPE CAT. 

wards, with black; the shoulders and body marked 
both with stripes and large oblong black spots ; on 
the legs the spots are small : the breast, belly, and 
insides of the limbs, are whitish : the tail is long, 
and marked with black, grey, and fulvous. It 
resides principally on trees, preying on birds : it 
is said to breed in the hollows of trees, and to 
bring but two young at a birth. It is very fierce 
and un tain cable. 


Fells Capensis. F. cauda subelongata fusca nigro maculata, cor- 
pore fvho supra maculis virgatis infra orbkularibus, auricuiis 
nudis macula Ivnata alba. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p.8i. 

Fulvous Cat, with subelongated tail annulated with black ; the 
body marked with black stripes above; with roundish and 
lunated black spots on the other parts, and a lunated white 
bar on the ears. 

Cape Cat. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 291. 

Felis Capensis. Cape Cat. Miller Cimclia, Physica. pi. 39. 

THIS elegant species inhabits the neighbour- 
hood of the Cape of Good Hope, and is described 
in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. 1\, by Dr. 
Forster. In its manners it seems extremely to 
resemble the common Cat; frequenting trees, and 
preying on the smaller animals. The specimen 
described by Dr. Forster was not more than nine 
months old, and had been taken quite young. It 
was perfectly tame and gentle, and had all the 
actions and manners of a domestic Cat. Dr. 
Forster imagines it to be the same species with 


the 'Nnussi described by Labat, who calls it a 
sort of wild Cat of the size of a Dog, with a coat 
striped and varied like that of a Tiger. The 
length of a skin measured by Mr. Pennant was 
near three feet from nose to tail ; but Dr. Forster's 
specimen seems to have been much smaller. The 
head, however, figured in Mr. Miller's plate seems 
to agree with the size mentioned by Mr. Pennant. 
Mr. Miller's figure represents this animal ex- 
tremely brilliant in colour, viz. of the brightest 
fulvous yellow, with jet-black stripes and spots : the 
chin, throat, and breast, pale ash-colour: along 
the back are black stripes : on the sides of the 
neck, and on the breast, numerous small crescent- 
shaped spots pointing upwards : on the legs nu- 
merous roundish spots ; and the tail very strongly 
and distinctly annulated with black and yellow. 

Bengal Cat. Pennant Quad/! i.p. 292. 

THIS, which is described by Mr. Pennant from 
a living specimen, is rather less than a common 
Cat, and more elegantly made. Colour of the 
head, upper jaw, and sides of the neck, back, and 
sides, a beautiful pale yellowish-brown : the head 
and face striped downwards with black: along 
the back three rows of short stripes of the same 
colour, pointing towards the tail: behind each 
shoulder, to the belly, is a black line : chin and 

v. i. P. ii. 24 

362 MANUL. 

throat white, surrounded with a semicircle of 
black: breast, belly, and inside of limbs, white: 
the spots on those parts, the legs, and rump, 
round : tail long, full of hair, brown and annu- 
lated with black. 

Native of Bengal. This animal produced a 
mixed breed with the common Cat; the offspring 
being marked in a nearly similar manner, but on 
a cinereous ground. This species has no dread 
of water, but will readily plunge into it and swim. 


Felis Manul. F. cauda elongata, nigro-annulata, capite punctis et 
fasciis duabus lateralibus nigris insignito. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Gmel. p. 8 1. Pall. itin. 3. p. 692. 
C. with elongated tail annulated with black, and the head 

marked with spots and two lateral bands of black. 
Manul. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 294. 

THIS species inhabits the middle part of north- 
ern Asia, and was first described by Dr. Pallas. 
It is of the size of a Fox, and is of a strong and 
robust make. Its colour is tawny, but the crown 
of the head is speckled with black, and the cheeks 
are marked by two dusky lines running obliquely 
from the eyes : the feet are striped obscurely with 
dark lines: the tail is longer than that of a do- 
mestic Cat, and is thickly beset with hair, and 
encircled with ten black rings, of which the three 
next to the tip are placed so near as almost to 
touch each other. 



Felis Catus. J*. cawrfa elongata fmco-annulata, corpore fasdis 

nigricantibus ; dorsalibus longitudinalibus tribus, lateralibus spi~ 

ralibus. Lan. Syst. Nat. p. 62. 
Yellowish-grey C. with dusky bands; three on the back longi- 

tudinal; the lateral ones spiral; the tail barred with dusky 


Felis vulgo Catus. Gesn. Quadr. 98. Aldr. dig. 564. 
Felis pilis ex fusco-flavicante et albido variegatis, cauda annulis 

alternatim nigris et ex sordide albo flavicantibus. Briss. 

Quadr. 192. 

Le Chat sauvage, &c. &rc. Buff". 6. p. i. pi. I, 2, #c. 
Common Cat. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 295. 

THE Cat, in a state of natural wildness, and 
from which are supposed to have proceeded all the 
varieties of the domestic Cat, is a native of the 
northern regions of Europe and Asia. In this its 
natural state it differs in some slight particulars 
from the domestic animal, having a somewhat 
shorter tail in proportion., a flatter and larger 
head, and stronger limbs; and, from an exact 
anatomical inspection of its interior parts, it ap- 
pears that the intestines are somewhat shorter 
than those of the domestic Cat. The colour of 
the wild Cat is commonly a pale yellowish-grey, 
with dusky stripes and variegations ; those on the 
back running lengthwise, those on the sides 
transversely and with a curved direction : the tail 
is annulated with several alternate circles of 
blackish-brown and dull white : the tip of the 
nose and the lips are black. Even wild Cats, 
however, appear to differ in their shades of 

36*4. COMMON CAT. 

colour in different parts of Europe. Mr. Schre- 
ber in his plate of quadrupeds, figures a specimen 
of a pretty deep tawny colour, varied with black 
or deep-brown streaks, so that the animal has very 
much the appearance of a Tiger in miniature; 
while on another plate he has exhibited one, com- 
municated by Dr. Pallas, of a pale grey with black 
or dark-brown variegations. 

The manners of the wild cat resemble those of 
the Lynx, and several others of this genus;' living 
in woods, and preying on young hares, on birds, 
and a variety of other animals, which it seizes by 
surprise. It breeds in the hollows of trees, and 
produces about four at a birth. <f The wild Cat 
(says Mr. Pennant) may be called the British 
Tiger; it is the fiercest and most destructive beast 
we have; making dreadful havock among our 
poultry, lambs, and kids. It inhabits the 'most 
mountainous and woody parts of these islands, liv- 
ing mostly in trees, and feeding only by night. It 
multiplies as fast as our common Cats ; and often 
the females of the latter will quit their domestic 
mates, and return home pregnant by the former." 

The varieties of this animal in a domestic state 
are very numerous; it is either entirely black; 
black and white; black, fulvous, and white (called 
the Tortoise-shell or Spanish Cat) ; white without 
any variegation ; fulvous and white ; dun-colour 
or tawny, either plain or with deeper stripes ; tab- 
by,, or of a similar colour to the wild Cat, but 
with much bolder or more vivid variegations; 
slate-coloured or blue-grey (called the Chartreux 


Cat) ; slate-coloured with very long fur, especially 
on the neck and tail (the Persian Cat) ; white, 
with hair of a similar length (called the Angora 
Cat); and, lastly, Math penciled or tufted ears, 
like a Lynx, which sometimes, though rarely, takes 
place. Of all the above varieties the Persian and 
the Angora are the most remarkable : the latter 
variety has sometimes one eye blue, the other yel- 
low; a particularity which takes place in some 
specimens of the common white Cat; it is also ob- 
servable that the white variety of the Cat is some- 
times perfectly deaf. 

To enlarge on the character and ^manners of 
this useful and agreeable domestic would be en- 
tirely superfluous. It may be sufficient to ob- 
serve, that, when well educated, the Cat possesses 
qualities which well entitle her to the regard and 
protection of mankind ; and if she does not ex- 
hibit the vivid and animated attachment of the 
Dog, she is still of an affectionate and gentle dis- 
position, and grateful to her benefactors. 

She has also the merit of perpetual cleanliness, 
and does not soil even the nicest furniture ; while 
her numerous and infinitely varying gesticulations 
have an elegance and levity almost unequalled by 
any other animal. 

A singular instance of attachment in the Cat, 
is recorded in Mr. Pennant's Account of London. 
Henry Wriothsly, Earl of Southampton, the friend 
and companion of the Earl of Essex in his fatal 
insurrection, having been confined some time in 


the Tower, was surprised by a visit from his fa- 
vourite Cat, which, says tradition, reached its 
master, by descending the chimney of his apart- 

No animal, whose habits and manners we have 
the opportunity of accurately observing, exhibits 
a greater degree of maternal tenderness than the 
Cat: the extreme assiduity with which she at- 
tends her young, and the fondness which she 
shews for them, afford the most pleasing entertain- 
ment to a philosophic observer. She even pos- 
sesses a propensity to nurse with tenderness the 
young of a different individual ; and it is a gene- 
ral observation, thc.t a domestic Cat will com- 
monly suckle and nurse any young kitten that is 
newly introduced to her. 

Nothing can be more beautiful than the expe- 
riment of setting a young Cat, for the first time, 
before a looking-glass. The animal appears sur- 
prised and pleased with the resemblance, and 
makes several attempts at touching its new ac- 
quaintance; and, at length, finding its efforts 
fruitless, it looks behind the glass, and appears 
highly surprised at the absence of the figure : it 
again views itself; tries .to touch with its foot; 
suddenly looking at intervals behind the glass: it 
then becomes more accurate in its observations, 
and begins, as it were, to make experiments, by 
stretching out its hand in different directions; 
and when it finds that these motions are answered 
in every respect by the figure in the glass, it 


seems, at length, to be convinced of the real na- 
ture of the image. The same is the case with the 
Dog at an early age. 

The Cat generally lives in habits of friendship 
with the other domestic animals ; the contrary in- 
stances arising entirely from neglect of early edu- 
cation *. 

The sleep of the Cat, which is generally veiy 
light, is sometimes so profound that the animal 
requires to be shaken pretty briskly before it can 
be awakened : this particularity takes place chiefly 
in the depth of winter, and especially on the ap- 
proach of snowy weather: at such periods also, as 
well as at some others, the animal diffuses a fra- 
grant smell, something like that of cloves. 

The fur of the Cat, being generally clean and 
dry, readily yields electric sparks when rub- 
bed; and if a clean and perfectly dry domestic 
Cat be placed, in frosty weather, on a stool with 
glass feet, or insulated by any other means, and 
rubbed for a certain space, in contact with the 
wire of a coated vial, it will be effectually charged 

by this method, 

* We might here mention the well-known anecdote of the 
French lady, who taught her Cat, Dog, Mouse, and Bird, to feed 
together from the same plate. 



Japan Cat. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 297. 
Chat sauvage Indien. Vosmaer. 

THIS is said to be of the size of a common Cat, 
and has a tail ten inches and a half long : the ears 
are upright and pointed : colour of the face and 
lower part of the neck whitish : breast and lower 
belly a clear grey: body part yellow and clear 
grey, mixed with black disposed in transverse 
rays. Along the back, quite to the tail, is a 
broad band of black, which also extends over the 
upper part of the tail : the lower part is semi-an- 
nulated with black and grey. Its cry is said to 
resemble the mewing of a great Cat. I cannot 
but observe, that this animal, described by Mr. 
Pennant from Vosmaer, seems to be very nearly 
allied to the grey variety of wild Cat figured by 
Mr. Schreber at plate 107. A. a. of his work on 


Fells Guigna. Molina Chili. 275. 
Guigna Cat. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 299. 

THIS, which is described by Molina, in his ac- 
count of Chili, is of the size of a common Cat, 
and inhabits forests. Its colour is tawny, marked 

SERVAL. 369 

with round black spots five lines in diameter, ex- 
tending along the back to the tail. 


Fells Corololo. Molina Chili, p. 2]$. 
Corololo. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 299. 

THIS also is described by Molina, Like the 
former species it inhabits the forests, and preys 
on birds and mice, and is said sometimes to in- 
fest poultry yards. Its colour is white, marked 
with irregular spots of black and yellow : the tail 
encircled with black quite to the point The 
head and tail in this and the preceding animal 
are larger in proportion than in the common Cat. 


Fells Serval. F. cauda subalbrcciata^ corpore suprafusco maculis 
nigris, orbitis ventreque albis. lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 82. 

Tawny-brown shortish-tailed C. whitish beneath, with the or- 
bits of the eyes white, and the body marked with roundish 
dusky spots. 

Chat-Pard. Mem. pour senir a I'hist. des anim. i. p. no. 

Le Serval. Buff. 13 . p. 233 . pi. 34. 

Serval. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 301. 

THE Serval is a native of India and Tibet, and 
is an extremely fierce and rapacious animal. It 
resides principally among trees ; leaping with great 
agility from one tree to another, and pursuing 


birds, &c. This species appears to have been 
first described by the French Academicians in 
their work entitled Memoir es pour seroir a VHis- 
toire des Animaux. The specimen there described 
measured two feet and a half from the nose to 
the tail, which was eight inches long. Its shape 
thick and strong : its general colour was fox-red 
or ferruginous, with the throat, abdomen, and in- 
sides of the legs, yellowish-white : it was spotted al- 
most all over with black ; the spots being of a long 
form on the back, and round on the sides, belly, 
and legs, where they were proportionally smaller 
and more numerous. The specimen described and 
figured in the Count cle Buffon's Natural History 
differed only in a very few particulars, so slight 
as to leave no doubt of the identity of the species. 
It was excessively fierce and untameable. 


Chat Sauvage dc la Caroline. Bujf. suppl. 3. p. 226. 
Mountain Lynx. Ptnnant Quadr. i.p. 300. 

IT is to this animal, and not to the preceding, 
that Mr. Pennant applies the synonym of Ckat- 
Pard, and supposes it to have been the species de- 
scribed by the French academicians of the last 
century. It has (says Mr. Pennant) upright 
pointed ears, marked with two brown transverse 
bars : colour of the head and whole upper part of 
the body reddish-brown, marked with long nar- 


row stripes on the back, and Math numerous round 
small spots on the legs and sides; the belly is 
whitish, and the chin of a pure white : the tail is 
barred with black : the length of the animal is two 
feet and a half. It inhabits North America. 
Mr. P. adds, that it grows very fat, and is consi- 
dered as a mild and gentle animal. The species 
mentioned by Buftbn, under the title of Chat 
sauvage de la Caroline, is supposed by Mr. Pen- 
nant to be the same animal ; it is described by 
Buffon from a coloured drawing communicated to 
him by Mr. Peter Collinson, and is said to be of 
the size of a common Cat, and of a clear brown 
colour mixed with grey, and striped on the back 
and sides with longitudinal marks of black along 
its whole length, from head to tail : tfte tail was 
annulated with black and white, and the abdo- 
men pale, and spotted with black : the legs were 
also spotted ; and on each side the nose beneath 
the eyes was a large black spot. 

Far. * 

In the same volume of his supplement, Mr. 
Buffon gives a figure of an animal of this tribe 
under the name of Chat sauvage de la Nouvelle 
Espagne. It is said to be four feet long from 
nose to tail : its eyes rather small, and its tail ra- 
ther short: its colour a blueish-grey, slightly 
speckled with blackish : its hair coarse, and suffi- 
ciently strong for painters' pencils with a firm 
point. According to Buffon's figure of this ani- 

372 CHAUS. 

mal, the tail seems rather longer than in the for- 
mer, and without the least appearance of bars. 
Mr. Pennant considers this as a distinct species, 
under the name of New Spain Cat. 


Felis Chaus. F. cauda mediocti, apicem versus annulata, apice 
ipso nigra, corpore reliquo ex fuscescente luteo, auriculis extus 
bmmtcis apice nigro barbatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 82. 
Guldenstedt not. camm. petrop. 1775. p. 483. t. 14, 15. 

Brownish-yellow C. with moderately short tail, annulated to- 
wards the tip, with the tip itself black, and the ears brown, 
bearded with black at the tips. 

Caspian Lynx. Pennant Quadr. \.p. 304. 

THIS species was first described by Professor 
Guldenstedt in the Petersburgh Transactions. It 
is an inhabitant of the woody and marshy tracts 
that border on the western side of the Caspian 
Sea, and in the Persian provinces of Ghilan and 
Masenderan, and is frequent about the mouth of 
the Kur, the ancient Cyrus. In manners, voice, 
and food, it agrees with the wild Cat. Its gene- 
ral length is about two feet six inches from the 
nose to the tail; but it has been known to mea- 
sure three feet : the tail reaches only to the flexure 
of the legs. The colour of this species is a dusky 
yellowish-brown; the breast and belly much 
brighter, or more inclining to orange-colour : the 
tail is tipped with black, and has three obscure 
black bars at some distance from the tip ; and on 

BAY LYNX. . 373 

the inside of the legs, near the bend of the knee, 
are two dusky bars : the ears are tufted with black 


Fells Rufa. F. cmida abbreciata, subtus et apice alba, corpore 
rufo fmco maculato, auricidis apice barbatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 
Gmel. p. 82. 

Short-tailed bay C. obscurely spotted with black; with the tail 
white beneath and at the tip, and the ears bearded at the tips. 

Bay Linx. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 303. 

THIS species is about twice the size of a large 
Cat, and is a native of North America. Its co- 
lour is a bright bay, obscurely marked with small 
dusky spots ; the upper and under lip, throat, and 
whole under sides of the body and limbs, are 
white. From beneath each eye three curved 
blackish stripes pass down the cheeks : the upper 
part of the inside of the fore legs is marked by 
two black bars: the upper part of the tail is 
marked with four or five dusky bars, and that 
next the tip is black : the ears are sharp-pointed 
and tufted with long black hairs. This animal 
was first described by Guldenstedt. The hair is 
shorter and smoother than that of the common 



Fells Caracal. F. cauda subabbreviata, et omni corporc unicohre 
ex fuscescente brumneo, auriculis extus nigris, apice barbatis. 
Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 82. 

Reddish-brown shortish-tailed C. with the ears externally black, 
and tipped with long black hairs. 

Siyah Gush. Charkton, ex. 21. 

Le Caracal. Buff". 9. p. 262. pi. 24. 

Persian Lynx. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 305. 

THE Caracal or Persian Lynx is a native both 
of Asia and Africa; and it is said that in some 
parts of Persia it is tamed and made use of in the 
chase. It is an animal of great strength and 
fierceness: Dr. Charleton mentions one which 
killed a hound and tore it in pieces in an instant, 
notwithstanding the vigorous defence made by 
the Dog. It is used not only in the chase of the 
smaller quadrupeds, but of the larger kinds of 
birds, such as herons, cranes, pelicans, &c. which 
it is said to surprise with great address. When it 
has seized its prey, it lies motionless for some 
time upon it ; holding it in its mouth. The Ca- 
racal is about the size of a Fox, but of a much 
stronger make : its colour is a pale reddish-brown ; 
whitish beneath : the head is small, the face Ipng- 
ish, the ears sharp and slender, of a blackish co- 
lour, and terminated by a tuft or pencil of long 
black hairs. 

In Barbary the Caracal is said to be of a paler 
colour, or less red than in India; and, according 
to an observation communicated by Mr. Bruce to 


ndon Xubliflul frv &Xearrlcy, TUtt Sti-eet 


the Count de Buffon, has the ears red on the 
outside, instead of black. This is considered by 
Mr. Pennant as a variety of the former, under 
the title of Lyblan Caracal. He describes it thus : 
" Cat with short black tufts to the ears, which 
are white within: of a lively red without: tail 
white at the tip, annulated with four black rings, 
with some black marks behind the four legs. It 
is .greatly inferior in size to the former; not larger 
than a common Cat. Inhabits both Lybia and 

In reality it is the species which Mr. Bruce 
names the Booted Lynx, and of which he has 
given an elegant figure in his appendix. It mea- 
sures, according to Mr. Bruce, 22 inches from the 
nose to the tail, which is 1 3 inches long. The gene- 
ral colour is a pale reddish-grey, whitish beneath : 
the back of the ears reddish-brown ; the insides 
lined with white hair : the tips penciled with long 
black hairs : on the back of all the feet runs a 
black band, which, on the fore feet, reaches two 
inches, and on the hind feet four inches up the 
leg : the tail is of the same colour as the back, at 
its origin, but towards the end grows whitish, 
and is marked with four black rings. He chiefly 
preys, according to Mr. Bruce, on Guinea-fowl, 
which are extremely plentiful in those parts. 
He has very much the appearance of a common 
cat ; often mounts trees, and is said to be exceed- 
ingly fierce. 

It is easy to perceive that this species must in 


reality be perfectly distinct from the common 


Fells Lynx. F. cauda abbreviata, obsolete annulata apice atra, 
capite et corpore ex albido rufo nigro maculato, auriculis apice 
barbatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. ^.83. 

Short-tailed rufous-grey C. slightly spotted with black, white 
beneath, with tip of the tail black, and ears terminated by- 
long black hairs. 

Lupus cervarius. Gem. Quadr. 677. 

Lynx. Aldr. dig. p. 90. 

Le Lynx. Buff. 9. p. 23 1. pi. 21. 

THE Lynx, with some slight varieties as to size 
and colour, appears to be found in all the colder 
regions of Europe, Asia, and America, residing 
in thick woods, and preying on hares, deer, birds, 
and almost every kind of animal inhabitant. The 
general size of the Lynx is that of a middling 
Dog: the measure given by Mr. Pennant of the 
skin of a Russian Lynx is four feet six inches 
from head to tail: the tail measuring six inches. 
But the generality of Lynxes seem to be some- 
what smaller than this. In colour the Lynx va- 
ries, but is generally of a pale-grey, with a very 
slight reddish tinge : the back and whole upper 
parts are obscurely spotted with small dusky or 
blackish marks. The throat, breast, and belly, 
are white: the tail white with a black tip: the 
ears tipped with pencils of long black hair. It is 


an animal of a short or thickish form, and co- 
vered with a very thick soft fur. The fur of the 
Lynx is held in considerable estimation, and such 
skins as approach to a pale or whitish colour, and 
on which the spots are most distinct, are the 
most valued. The best are found in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Lake Balkash, and are said to 
sell for one pound sterling on the spot. The 
female produces three or four young at a birth, 
which she deposits in the deepest recesses of the 
woods. The Lynx is said to howl almost in the 
manner of a Wolf. In a state of captivity it 
seems extremely ferocious, frequently expressing 
its malignity by a kind of snarling scream, and is 
not be tamed. 

v. i. P. ii. 25 



Generic Character. 

Denies Pr/wcra sex,subacuti. 
Laniarii longiores. 
Molares plures quam tres. 
Lingua in aliis Isevis, in aliis 

retrorsum aculeata. 
Corpus elongatum. 

Cutting-teeth six, sharpish. 
Canine-teeth longer. 
Tongue in some smooth, in 

Body of a lengthened form. 

JL HIS genus comprehends all the animals of the 
Weesel kind ; which seem to be somewhat unne- 
cessarily separated by Linnaeus into two distinct 
genera, under the titles of Vwerra and Mustela; 
in which latter genus the Otters are also included. 
In this particular Mr. Pennant seems to have 
acted more judiciously than Linnaeus. I shall, 
therefore, follow his example, and unite the two 
genera, preserving the Otters or Lutrae distinct 
from both. 

The general character of the Weesel tribe is a 
certain slenderness and length of body; with a 
sharpened visage, short legs, and, in most species, 
a longish tail (though in some few it is short). 
The disposition of the teeth may be seen in the 


generic character above given. It is proper to 
add, that in the Linnzean Mustelas, the lower 
front-teeth do not stand in a regular or even line, 
but two are placed interiorly, or within the line 
of the rest. In most of the Linneean Viverra the 
tongue is aculeated backwards ; but this is a cha- 
racter found likewise in some of the Mustelas. 


Viverra Ichneumon. V. cauda e basi incrassata sensim attenuata 

apice Jloccoso, potticibus remotiusculis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmet. 

P .S 4 . 
Grey I. with distant thumbs, and tail gradually tapering from a 

thick base, and tufted at the end. 
Mustela pilis ex albido et nigro variegatis vestita. Briss. Quadr. 

p. 181. 
Ichneumon que les Egyptiens nomment Rat de Pharaon. Belon. 

obs.p. 95. 
Ichneumon. Gem. Quadr. 566. Aldr. dig. p. 298. 

Far. ? 

Viverra Mungo. V. cauda e basi crassa sensim attenuata non. 
jloccosa, pollicibus remotiusculis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 84. 

Rufous-grey I. with distant thumbs, and untufted tail, gradu- 
ally tapering from a thick base. 

Viverra Ichneumon (3. Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 63. 

Mustela glauca. Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. $. Am. acad. 2. p. 109. 

Viverra ex griseo rubescens. Briss. Quadr. p. 177. 

Mustela seu Viverra Indis Mangutia. Kcempf. am. ex. 574. 

Indian Ichneumon. Ed-wards, pi. 199. 

Mangouste. Buff. 13. p. i$ 19. 

THE Ichneumon is a species of which there 
seem to be two distinct varieties, one of which is 


a native of India, and the other of Africa. Both 
agree in their general appearance, but the Egyp- 
tian variety is considerably larger than the In- 
dian; measuring more than forty inches from the 
nose to the end of the tail; whereas the Indian 
Ichneumon scarce exceeds two thirds of this 
length: exclusive of size alone, the ^Egyptian 
Ichneumon is distinguished by having the tail 
slightly tufted at the end, which the oth^r has 
not; and from this circumstance it is placed, 
in the Gmelinian edition of the Systema Naturae, 
as a distinct species. The Ichneumon is of a 
pale reddish-grey colour, each hair being mottled 
with brown or dusky, so that the whole appears 
speckled in the manner of the hair on some of the 
larger Baboons. The eyes are of a bright red or 
flame-colour: the ears rounded, and almost na- 
ked: the nose long and slender: the body rather 
thicker than in most others of this genus; and 
the tail is very thick at the base, and from thence 
gradually tapers almost to a point : the legs are 
short : the hair on the whole animal is hard and 
coarse, and it varies somewhat as to the depth 
and cast of its colours in different individuals. In 
India, but still more in jgypt, the Ichneumon 
has always been considered as one of the most 
useful and estimable of animals ; since it is an in- 
veterate enemy to serpents, rats, and other nox- 
ious creatures which infest those regions. In India 
it attacks, with the greatest eagerness and cou- 
rage, that most dreadful reptile, the Cobra de 
Capello, or hooded Snake, and easily destroys it. 


It also diligently seeks for the eggs of crocodiles; 
for which reason, as well as for its general useful- 
ness in destroying all manner of troublesome rep- 
tiles, it was held in such a high degree of vene- 
ration by the ancient ^Egpytians as to be regarded 
in the light of a minor deity, or one of those be- 
nevolent beings proceeding from the Parent of the 
universe. For the purposes above specified it is 
still domesticated by the Indians and ./Egyptians, 
in the same manner as the Cat in Europe; and it 
has also the merit of being easily tamed, and of 
performing all the services of the Cat with a still 
greater degree of vigor and alacrity. When in 
pursuit of prey, it sometimes springs suddenly upon 
it v/ith the greatest agility, and, at other times, 
will glide along the ground like a Serpent, with- 
out raising its body, till it arrives at a proper 
distance for its intended attack. Like many 
other animals of this tribe, it is a most dangerous 
enemy to several creatures larger than itself; 
over which it gains a ready victory, by fastening 
itself upon them, and sucking their blood. In a 
wild state it is said principally to frequent the 
banks of rivers, and, in times of flood, to approach 
the higher grounds, and inhabited places, in quest 
of prey. It is reported to swim and dive occa- 
sionally, in the manner of the Otter, and to con- 
tinue beneath the water for a great length of 

The Ichneumon is found not only in various 
parts ' of India, but in the Indian islands, as Cey- 
lon and others. It also occurs in many parts of 


Africa besides Jigypt, as in Barbary, and at the 
Cape of Good Hope, &c. As it is a native of 
warm countries, it is, of course, greatly injured 
by a removal to the colder regions of Europe, 
and generally falls a victim to - the alteration of 


Viverra Cafra. V. cauda e bast crassa scnsim attenuata apice 
atra. lAn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 85. Schrcbcr aaeugth. 3. 


Yellowish-brown W. with tail gradually tapering from a thick 
base, and black at the tip. 

THIS species, in its general form, resembles the 
Polecat, but is nearly of the length of an Otter. 
Its colour, on all parts, except the tip of the tail, 
which is black, is a mixture of yellow-brown and 
black, so as to resemble the colour of the Aguti \ 
but rather deeper, especially on the back : the 
hair is of a strong and glossy nature : the feet are 
blackish : the ears very short, and covered with 
woolly fur. This animal is described by Mr. 
Schreber from a dried skin which was sent to Dr. 
Pallas. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

* Long-nosed Cavy. Pennant. 


Viverra Zenic. V. tetradactyla, corpore griseo, fasriis decem 
transversis nigris, cauda ex afro spadicea, versus apiccm nigra. 
Un. Syst. Nat. Gmd. p. 85. 

Four-toed grey \V. with ten transverse black bands on the body, 
and deep chesnut-coloured tail, black towards the tip. 

Le Zenik des Hottentots. Sonnerat voy. 2. p. 145. pi. 92. 

THIS, which is described by Sonnerat, is a Caf- 
frarian species, and is about the size of a water- 
rat. The snout is long, and in each jaw are two 
incisive and six canine teeth * : the whole animal 
is of a reddish-grey colour, and is marked by ten 
transverse black bands over the back, and reach- 
ing downwards on each side, almost as in the 
Zebra : the tail, which is scarce the length of the 
body, is slender, and of a deep ferruginous-colour 
for three fourths of its length, the remainder be- 
ing black. Mr. Sonnerat says nothing of this 
animal's manners ; but we may conclude that it 
resembles, in this respect, the rest of its conge- 
ners. It has five toes on each foot; and the 
claws on the fore feet are very long and almost 
strait: those of the hind feet are small and 

* By canine-teeth Mr. Sonnerat must be supposed merely to 
mean teeth of a sharpened form. 



Viverra Surikatta. V. grisea, nasoproducto mobili, pedibus tetra- 
dactylis, caudaferruginea, apice nigro. 

Grey-brown W. with long moveable snout, four-toed feet, and 
ferruginous tail, black at the tip. 

Viverra tetradactyla. V. pedibus tetradactylis, naso producto mo- 
bili. Lin. Syst. Nat. GmeL p. 85. 

Suricate. Buff. 13. p. 8. 

Viverra tetradactyla. Miller, Cimel. Phys, t. ao. 

Four- toed Weesel. Pennant Quadr. ^. p. 57. 

THE Surikate is distinguished by a long sharp- 
pointed nose, depressed head, and inflated cheeks : 
the upper jaw is much longer than the lower, and 
on its upper part is black : the eyes are also sur- 
rounded by black : the ears are small and round- 
ed: the tongue is oblong, blunt, and aculeated 
backwards: the length of the animal, exclusive 
of the tail, is about a foot ; and of the tail about 
eight inches : the legs are short : the claws on the 
fore feet mu^h exceed in length those of the 
hind feet. The general colour of the Surikate is 
a deep grey; the tail is subferruginous, tipped 
with black. It is an inhabitant of the Cape of 
Good Hope, where it is called Meer-rat. It feeds 
on flesh, and preys on mice, and other small ani- 
mals. It commonly sits erect in the manner of a 
Squirrel, and, when pleased, makes a rattling 
noise with its tail, for which reason the Dutch 
inhabitants of the Cape call it Klapper-maus. It 
is also found in the island of Java, where it is 
named Surikatje by the Dutch, on account of a 



peculiarly acid scent, which it is said to emit. It 
is an animal of a capricious disposition when in a 
state of captivity. In having only four toes, it 
differs from most of this tribe. 


Viverra Nasua. V. cauda albo annulata, naso producfo mobili. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 86. 
Rufous W. with tail annulated with white, and lengthened 

moveable snout. 
Ursus naso producto et mobili, cauda annulatim variegata. 

Bliss. Quadr.p. 190. 
Coati. Marcgr. Bras. p. 228. 
Coati Mondi. Act. Paris, t. 3. P. 3. p 17. t. 37. 
Le Coati noiratre. Buff. 8. pi. 47. 
Brasilian Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 61. 

THE size of this animal is at least equal to that 
of a Cat. Its general colour is a cinereous brown, 
or ash-colour, with a cast of reddish: the tail, 
which is of very considerable length, is annulated 
with distinct circles of black: its most remark- 
able character is the long, flexible snout, some- 
what truncated at the end. By the assistance of 
this it turns up the earth, in the manner of a 
Hog, in quest of earth-worms, &c. Like the 
Polecat, it also preys on the smaller quadrupeds, 
birds, &c. It is a native of South America, 
and seems to have been first described by 
Marcgrave, in his History of Brasil. There is a 
particularity, sometimes observable in this ani- 
mal, which seems worthy of notice, viz. a kind 


of prolongation of the skin at the bacK of the 
heel into several horny processes of about a quar- 
ter of an inch in length : these in some specimens 
are scarce visible. The tongue is marked on the 
upper part with several furrows, so disposed as to 
resemble the fibres of a leaf. 

Far. ? 

Viverra Narica. V. subfvsca, cauda concolore, naso producto 

mobili. Lin. Syst. Nat. Ginel. p. 86. 
Brown W. with tail of the same colour, and with lengthened 

moveable snout. 

Le Coati brun. Eu/. 8. pi. 48. 
Dusky W. Brasilian W. var. #. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 62. 

THIS, in its general appearance, so much re- 
sembles the preceding, that it has been consi- 
dered by many naturalists as a variety only. It 
is, however, rather larger than the former, of a 
browner colour, and without any annuli, or, at 
least, without very distinct variegations on the tail. 
In its manners it agrees with the former : it burrows 
into the ground so expeditiously as soon to con- 
ceal its whole body ; feeds both on animal and ve- 
getable substances, and is said occasionally to go 
into the water. It also climbs trees. 




Viverra Vulpccula. V. tola castanea, naso producto. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. Gmel. p.Sj. 

Dark chesnut-coloured "W. with lengthened snout. 
Coasse. Buff. 13. p. 288. pi. 38. 

THIS animal is about the size of the Polecat; 
measuring eighteen inches from nose to tail : the 
tail is long and full of hair: the whole animal is 
of a deep or blackish chocolate-colour, but the 
tail is sometimes mixed with white. It is a na- 
tive of M exico and many other parts of America, 
and possesses the power of emitting, when at- 
tacked or irritated, such powerfully offensive ef- 
fluvia, as, in most instances, effectually to discom- 
fit and repel its pursuers. 


Viverra Striata. 

Viverra Putorius. V. nigricans, lineis qitlnque dorsalibus paral- 

klis albis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 87. 
Blackish W. with five parallel, white, dorsal stripes. , 

Mustela nigra, taeniis in dorso albis. Briss. Quadr.p. 181. 
Striated Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 64. 
Conepate. Buff. 83 . p. 288. pi. 40. 

IT has been imagined, and not without a de- 
gree of probability, that this animal is the female 
of the former. It is of the same size and general 
aspect, but is distinguished by five parallel longi- 


tudinal white stripes on the back : the tail very 
bushy or full of hair. In the different specimen^ 
of this animal there is some slight variation ob- 
servable in the proportion of the dorsal stripes, 
as well as in the colour of the tail, which is some- 
times marked with a pair of lateral white bands, 
and sometimes almost entirely white. It its man- 
ners and horrible vapour, when irritated, it per- 
fectly agrees with the preceding, as well as with 
the two succeeding species; and the same de- 
scription of this offensive quality may be applied 
to all the four. If the accounts given of this 
odious vapour are not aggravated by the abhor- 
rent recollection of those who have experienced 
its effects, every other ill smell which nature can 
produce, is surpassed by the overpowering fcetor of 
these extraordinary quadrupeds. In consequence 
of the dreadful emanation the dogs are said to re- 
linquish their pursuit, and the men to fly with 
precipitation from the tainted spot: but if unfor- 
tunately the least particle of the fluid which the 
animal commonly discharges at this juncture, 
should happen to light on the clothes of the 
hunter, he becomes a general nuisance wherever 
he appears, and is obliged to divest himself of his 
dress, and practise all the arts of ablution, in or- 
der to be restored to the society of mankind. 

To add to the history of these strange circum- 
stances, it is affirmed that the animal is sometimes 
tamed, and rendered domestic; in which state 
it is pretended that it never emits its pestilential 
vapour unless greatly displeased or irritated: if 


this be case, it ought surely to be treated, as an 
eminent zoologist has well observed, with the 
highest attention. 


Among some miscellaneous plates of animals, 
published a few years ago by Mr. Catton, is a re- 
presentation of what seems to be a variety of the 
above species; having only four white bands on 
the back, and the tail almost entirely white : a 
patch' of white appears below each ear, and a 
small triangular white spot on the forehead. In 
the description accompanying the plate the ani- 
mal is said to 'have measured twelve inches from 
nose to tail, and to have been brought from Ben- 


Viverra Conepatl. V. nigricans, lineis duabus albis dorsaltbus per 
caudam products. Lin. Syst, Nat. Gmel.p. 88. 

Blackish W. with two white dorsal lines extending along the 

Conepatl, seu vulpecula puerilis. Hemand max. p. 23 2. 

OF this species very little more than its mere 
name and descriptive character seems to be 
known. It is a native of New Spain, and, per- 
haps, may be nothing more than a variety of the 



Viverra Mephitica. V.fusca dorso albo, linca longitudinaH tugra. 
Brown W. with white back marked with a longitudinal black 


Viverra Mephitis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 88. 
Mephitic Weesel. Museum Leverianum, No. 4. p. 173. pi. 6. 
Le Chinche. Buff". 13. p. 294. pi. 39. 

THIS species is rather smaller than the former 
species. The head is small and flat, and the 
snout sharp and lengthened. The whole animal 
is of a blackish chocolate-brown, with a broad 
bed of white on the back, divided by a stripe of 
black, which sometimes passes along the whole 
length of the back, and sometimes not much 
more than half way from the tail, which is white 
at the tip and sides, with the remainder like the 
body; but it also varies with the tail all white or 
parti-coloured : along the forehead is a narrow 
white stripe reaching towards the neck. In man- 
ners and smell this resembles the two preceding 


Viverra Chinge. V. nigra, cceruleo nitens, vitta macularum alba- 
turn acapite ad caudam producta. 

Black W. with changeable cast of blue, with a row of white 
spots from head to tail. 

Chinge. Molina Chili. 269. 

THIS, according to Molina, its first describer, 
seems in shape and general form to resemble the 


Chinche, or V. Mephitica, but is of a black co- 
lour with a changeable cast of blue, and has along 
the back a row of round white spots, reaching 
from head to tail : the head is long, the ears large, 
well covered with hair, and pendulous : the hind 
legs longer than the fore. It is a native of Chili. 
It generally carries its head low, its back arched, 
and its tail, which is very bushy, spead over its 
back like that of a Squirrel. In its manners and 
vapour it is said to agree with those before de- 
scribed. Molina affirms that the smell proceeds 
from a certain greenish oil, ejected from a follicle 
or receptacle near the tail. The Indians are said 
to value the skin of this species on account of its 
beauty, and to use it for various purposes, quilts, 
&,(:. &c. 


Vivcrra Zorilla. V. albo nigroque varia. Lin. Syst. Nat t 

Gmel. p. 88. 

W. variegated with black and white. 
Zorilla, Bujf. 13. p. 289. pi. 41. 

THIS species is smaller than the three preced- 
ing, and is a native of Peru and other parts of 
South America. The ground-colour is black, 
upon which are three longitudinal white bands, 
extending from the head to the middle of the 
back, and other transverse white bands on the 
flanks, the rump, and the origin of the tail> which 
is black as far as the middle, and then white to 

392 GRISON. 

the extremity; it is as bushy and elegant as that 
of the Mephitic Weesel. The same faculty is as- 
cribed to this as to the three former species. 


Viverra Mapurito. V. nigra, fascia nivea a fronte ad dorsi me- 
dium producta, auriculis nuttis. Urn. Syst. Nat. Ginel. p. 88. 

Black W. with snow-white band from the forehead to the mid- 
dle of the back, and without any external ears. 

Viverra Putorius. Mutis. Act. Holm. 1769.^. 68. 

THIS is said to measure twenty inches to the 
tail, which is nine inches long, and whitish at 
the tip. It inhabits New Spain, and burrows 
under ground, feeding on worms and insects. 
Perhaps no other than a variety of the Mephitic 


Viverra Vittata. V. nigricans, vitta alba ab kwneris adfrontem 

producta. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 88. 
Blackish W. with a broad white band from the forehead to each 


Grison. Buffi* ed. Allamand. 15. p. 65. pi. 8. 
Mouffette du Chili? Buff, suppl. 7. p. 233. pi. 57.? 

THE length of the Grison from nose to tail is 
about seven inches, and the tail is rather more 
than half the length of the body. The upper 
part of the body is of a deep brown, each hair 

QUASJE. 395 

tipped with white, which gives a grey or hoary 
appearance ; the nose, throat, and whole under 
side of the animal, as well as the legs and thighs, 
black : the head is large, and the ears broad 
and short : across the forehead extends a broad 
white line, passing over the eyes and reaching 
as far as the shoulders. It is a native of Suri- 
nam. The specimen above described was sup- 
posed to have been young or half-grown, so that 
its proper measure seems not clearly understood. 
The animal figured in the 7th vol. of Buffon's 
supplement, pi. 57. appears so extremely nearly 
allied to the above, that I cannot but consider 
it as the same species. It was of a blackish- 
brown colour, Avith a white band from the fore- 
head on each side the back : the tail white, vil- 
lous, and shortish. 


Viverra Quasje. V. castanea, subtus Jlaxescens, naso producto 
cauda annulata. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 87. 

Chesnut-coloured W. yellowish beneath, with lengthened move- 
able snout, and annulated tail. 

THIS is said to be a native of Surinam, bur- 
rowing under ground, and living on worms, insects, 
fruits, &c. it is, perhaps, no other than some va- 
riety of the Coati-Mondi or Brasilian Weesel. 

v. i. P. ii. 



Viverra Zeylanica. V. cinerea fusco mista, infra albida. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 89. Schreber saeugth. p. 45 1 . 
Cinereous W. mixed with grey, whitish beneath. 

THIS species in its habit or general appearance, 
as well as in size, resembles the Martin : the ge- 
neral colour is grey, shaded with brown ; deepest 
on the back and tail, beneath lighter or whitish : 
the tail is as long as the body ; the vibrissa; or 
whiskers white; the lower lip indented; the feet 
five- toed, with rather retractile claws : the tongue 
warted. Mr. Schreber is not without some suspi- 
cion that this species may be the same with the 
Ceylonese Dog (Chien sauvage de Ceylon of Vos- 


Viverra Capensis. V. nigra, dorso griseo albo-marginato. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 89. 
Black W. with grey back edged with white. 
Mustela subfusca, linea longitudinal! alba per utrumque latus 

ducta. Brown jam. p. 486. n. i.f 
Stinkbinksen. Kolbe Vorgeb. I. 167. 
Blaireau puant. La Cattle voyag. p. 182. 
Ratel Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 66. 

THIS is one of the larger animals of the genus, 
measuring two feet from nose to tail, which is 
eight inches long. Its colour is a cinereous 
grey above, and brownish-black below; the two 


colours being separated along the whole length 
of the animal, from the base of the nose to the 
tail, by a stripe of black and white: the ears are 
scarce visible: the tail rather thick; the legs 
short, and the head large; the snout short and 
somewhat pointed : the body seems of a thicker 
form than is usual in this genus. 

This animal, when pursued, ejects a fetid liquid 
accompanied by a smell as insufferable as that of 
some of the American Weesels or Skunks, and 
productive of the same effects. 


Viverra Mellivora. V. dorso cinereo, fascia laterali nigra, abdo- 
mine nigro, unguibus longis subtus cavis, fossoriis. Lin. Syst. 
Nat. Gmel.p. 91. 

W. with cinereous back, with a black lateral band } the abdomen 
black ; the claws long and formed for burrowing. 

Ratel. Sparrm. act. Stockh. ifjj.t. ^.f. 3. 

THIS, according to Dr. Sparrman, feeds prin- 
cipally on the honey of wild bees about the Cape 
of Good Hope, which it finds in the holes of Jer- 
boas, Rabbits, and other animals, as well as in hol- 
low trees. To this, its most acceptable food, it 
is guided, as Dr. Sparrman tells us, by a bird 
called the Honey-Guide (Cuculus Indicator), 
which utters a shrill note whenever it discovers 
bees, on which it preys. This account of Sparr- 
man's is greatly ridiculed by Mr. Bruce in his 
Abyssinian travels. The Honey Weesel has a 

396 CIVET. 

remarkably tough and loose skin, with thick hair: 
this is supposed to be given it as a natural defence 
against the stings of the bees. Mr. Pennant seems 
to have confounded this animal with the V. Capen- 
sis, described in the preceding article. Both spe- 
cies, indeed, are said to feed on honey, but Sparr- 
man makes no mention of any offensive effluvia 
in his description. 


Viverra Civetta. V. cauda superius maculata, versus apktm 
fusca, juba castanea, dorso cinereo fuscoyue maculato. Lin. 

Syst.Nat. Gmel.p. 89. 
Ash-coloured W. spotted with black, with chesnut-coloured 

mane, and dusky tail spotted towards the base. 
Meles fasciis et maculis albis, nigris & rufescentibus variegata. 

Briss. Quadr. p, 186. 

Felis Zibethi. Gem. Quadr. p. 836. Aldr. dig. 341. 
Civette. Buff". 9. p. 299. pi. 34. 

THE Viverra Civetta, commonly known by the 
name of the Civet Cat, is a native of several 
parts of Africa and India. The general length of 
this animal, from nose to tail, is something more 
than two feet, and the tail measures fourteen 
inches. The ground-colour of the body is yel- 
lowish ash-grey, marked with large blackish or 
dusky spots, disposed in longitudinal rows on 
each side, and sometimes a tinge of ferruginous 
appears intermixed : the hair is coarse, and along 
the top of the back stands up, so as to form a 



S-JGarsler. TUef Stmf- 

fin** /'->. 

CIVET. 397 

sort of mane: the head is of a lengthened or 
sharpish form ; with short rounded ears : the eyes 
are of a bright sky-blue: the tip of the nose 
black : the sides of the face, chin, breast, legs, 
and feet, are black; the remainder of the face, 
and part of the sides of the neck, are of a yellow- 
ish-white , from each ear are three- black stripes, 
terminating at the throat and shoulders : the tail 
is generally black, but sometimes is marked with 
pale or whitish spots on each side the base. It 
is an animal of a wild disposition, and lives in the 
usual manner of others of this genus, preying 
on birds, the smaller quadrupeds, &c. It is re- 
markable for the production of the drug called 
civet (sometimes erroneously confounded with 
musk). This substance is a secretion formed in 
a large double glandular receptacle, situated at 
some little distance beneath the tail, and which 
the animal empties spontaneously. When the 
Civet Cats are kept in a 'state of confinement (as 
is usual with the perfumers at Amsterdam and 
other places), they are placed, from time to time, 
in strong wooden cages or receptacles, so con- 
structed as to prevent the creature from turning 
round and biting the person employed in col- 
lecting the secreted substance: this operation is 
said to be generally performed twice a week, and 
is done by scraping out the civet with a small 
spatula or spoon. This substance is of a yellow- 
ish colour, and of the consistence of an unguent; 
of an extremely strong and even unpleasant odour 
when fresh, so as sometimes to cause giddiness 

398 ZIBET. 

and headach; but becomes more agreeable by 
keeping * : the quantity obtained each time 
amounts to about a dram. 

Civet, though an article in the more ancient 
materia medica, and though still employed by the 
oriental physicians, is with us chiefly used in per- 
fumes. It has a very fragrant smell, and a sub- 
acrid taste : it unites readily with oils, both ex- 
pressed and distilled ; in watery or spirituous men- 
strua it does not dissolve, but impregnates the 
fluids strongly with its odour. It may, however, 
be made to unite with, or be soluble in water, 
by means of rubbing with mucilages. 


Viverra Zibetha. V. cauda annulata, dorso anereo nigroque - 

datim striato. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 89. 
Ash-grey W. with black undulations and annulated tail. 
Felis Zibethi. Gesti. Quadr. 837. 

Animal Zibethi, vel Hyaena veterum Bellonii. Aldr. dig. 343. 
Zibet. Buff. 9. p. 299. pi. 31. 

THIS, which was figured as a variety by Gesner, 
and more precisely discriminated by Buffon, seems 
to be considered by modern naturalists as a dis- 
tinct species ; Mr. Pennant, however, even in his 
last edition, still regards it as the same with the 

* This is denied by the French academicians of the last cen- 
tury, who say, that after keeping it a year it seemed to smell ex- 
actly as at first. 

ZIBET. 399 

preceding, from which, indeed, it seems to differ 
in so few particulars as still to leave the determina- 
tion difficult The Zibet is chiefly found in India 
and the Indian islands. Its general aspect is the 
same with the former species, but its snout is 
somewhat sharper; its tail longer, and, instead of 
being black or dusky, with merely a few whitish 
patches at the base, is strongly semi-annulated or 
banded with alternate black and white spaces: 
there is no perceptible mane on the back, nor 
any large brown or blackish patch under the eyes, 
as in the former animal: the hair also is shorter 
and softer than in the preceding kind, and the 
variegations are more disposed in the form of un- 
dulations than spots, especially on the limbs. In 
short, this species may be called the Indian, and 
the former the African, Civet Cat. In disposi- 
tion and manners they both seem to agree; as 
well as in the secretion of the perfume before de- 
scribed, which is collected from both animals in 
the same manner. 



Viverra Hermaphrodita. V. cavda elongata apice atra striis 
tribus dorsalibw nigris. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 90. 

Dark-grey W. with three black dorsal stripes, and long tail with 
black tip 

Viverra hermaphrodita Pallas. Schreb. Quadr. p. 426. 

THIS species is described by Mr. Schreber from 
Dr. Pallas. Its size is between that of the Civet 
and the Genet : its colour a dark ash-grey, with 
three black dorsal stripes: the snout, and face be- 
yond the eyes, the throat, and the feet, are black : 
the tip of the tail black also : beneath the eyes is 
a whitish spot, and the under side of the body is 
lighter than the upper. It is a native of Barbary. 


Viverra Genetta. V. cauda annulata corpore fuh'onigricantc 

maculato. Lin. Sysf. Nat. p. 65. 
Fulvous-grey W. with the body marked with rows of black 

spots, and annulated tail. 

Genette. Belon. obs. p. 73. Gesn. Quadr. ^49. 
Genette. Buf. 9. p. 343 . pi. 36. 

THE Genet is one of the most beautiful ani- 
mals of this genus. It is about the size of a very 
small Cat, but is of a longer form, with a sharp- 
pointed snout, upright ears, slightly pointed, and 
very long tail. The colour of the Genet is com- 
monly a pale reddish-grey, with a black or dusky 

GENET. 401 

line running along the back, where the hair is 
rather longer than on the other parts, and forms 
the appearance of a very slight mane : along the 
sides of the body run several rows of roundish 
black spots, which sometimes incline a little to 
a squarish form : the muzzle is dusky ; beneath 
each eye is a white spot : the cheeks, sides of the 
neck, and the limbs, are spotted jn a proportion- 
ally smaller pattern than the body, and the tail is 
annulated with black. 

The Genet is an animal of a mild disposition, 
and easily tamed. In various parts of the east, 
as well as at Constantinople, it is domesticated 
like the Cat, and is said to be equal, or superior, 
to that animal in clearing houses from rats and 
mice. It is a cleanly animal, and has a slight 
musky smell. It is a native of the western parts 
of Asia, but is said likewise to occur in Spain, and 
even occasionally in some parts of France. 

VAR. r 

The French variety, however, according to the 
description and figure of the Count de Buffon, is 
far less elegantly and distinctly spotted than the 
Oriental Genet, and, indeed, Mr. Pennant, in his 
History of Quadrupeds, considers it as a distinct 
species, under the name of Pilosello. According 
to Mr. Pennant, the Pilosello is smaller than a 
Ferret, and is found about the rock of Gibraltar, 
and some parts of Spain and France. Its prevail- 
ing tinge is rust-colour, with rather irregular 


black spots: the nose deep brown; the tail tawny, 
slightly annulated with black; the face, chin, and 
under side of the neck, cinereous, and a dark line 
runs up the forehead. 


Viverra Fossa. V. cauda annulata, corpore cincreo nigro macu- 

lato. lAn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 91. 

Ash-coloured W. spotted with black, and with annulated tail. 
Fossane. Buff. 13. p. 20. 
Fossane Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 75. 

THE Fossane appears to be so nearly allied to 
the Genet, that it might almost pass for a va- 
riety of that animal. Its colours, however, are 
somewhat bolder or more contrasted than in the 
Genet, and the rows of spots along the sides still 
more regularly disposed. Beneath and above 
each eye is commonly a M'hite patch ; and from 
the hind parts of the head towards the back and 
shoulders run four black lines. The whole under 
side of the body is of a dingy white : the tail is an- 
nulated with black and white. This animal is a 
native of Madagascar, Guinea, Bengal, Cochin- 
china, and the Philippine islands. It is said to 
be possessed of considerable fierceness, and to be 
difficultly tamed. In destroys poultry in the man- 
ner of the common Weesel. When young it is 
said to be good food. Its size is that of the Ge- 

Fet'.lJ.anJLan.fiibli^Ki: Ty G.KcarfTrr.TUa: Stntt. 



Viverra Caudivolvula. V-Jtava nigro-mixta, cauda unicolore pre- 

hensili. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 91 . 
Yellow W. shaded with dusky, with prehensile tail. 
Yellow Macauco. Pennant Synops. Quadr.p. 138. 
Yellow Wjeesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 59. 
Le Kinkajou Potot. Bttff". suppl. 3. p. 2$i. pi. $i. 

THIS animal was first described by Mr. Pen- 
nant in his Synopsis of Quadrupeds, under the 
name of the Yellow Macauco, a title which was 
afterwards changed to that of Yellow Weesel, in 
which genus it forms a kind of anomalous species, 
having a prehensile tail. It is nineteen inches in 
length from the nose to the tail, which is seven- 
teen inches long. The nose is short and dusky; 
the eyes small; the ears short, broad, and flap- 
ping, and placed at a great distance from each 
other : the head flat and broad ; the cheeks swell- 
ing out; the tongue very long: the legs and 
thighs short and thick; with five toes to each 
foot; claws large, slightly hooked, and flesh-co- 
loured. Its colour yellow, shaded with dusky. 
A blackish or dusky list runs down the back from 
head to tail, and a similar one half way down the 
belly. This animal is of gentle manners, active 
and playful, and hangs by its tail occasionally, in 
the manner of the prehensile-tailed Monkies. It 
is supposed to be a native of Jamaica. 

Var. ? 


Le Kinkajou. Bujf. suppl. 3. p. 245. pi. 50. 
Mexican Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 60. 

THIS, which is supposed by Buffon to be the 
same animal with the preceding, is by Mr. Pen- 
nant considered as a distinct species. It is, ac- 
cording to the measures given by Buffon, a larger 
animal than the preceding, but so great is the ge- 
neral agreement between the two, that it seems 
not very easy to conceive a specific difference. 
The general colour is the same in both ; the tail 
in both is prehensile : the tongue extremely long : 
the manners in both the same. This mentioned 
by Buffon would seize on birds, and suck the 
blood without tearing its prey. It was fond of 
fruits and vegetables of several kinds, and was 
delighted with sugar and various sweets. It slept 
much by da} r , and was lively during the night : 
had the actions of a Monkey : had a variety of 
cries, sometimes a kind of barking note, at other 
times hissing, or variously modified. It was 
brought from New Spain. 




T-JilyKI bj SIunln.FUa Saw. 

Stak t'culf 



Viverra Fasciata. V. caudce pilis longis nigris et rufesccntibus, 
corpore griseo fasciis sex nigris longitudinalibus vario, subtvs 
albo. Lin. Syst. Nat. Grnel. p. 92. 

Grey W. with six longitudinal black bands. 

Chat sauvage a bandes noires des Indes. Sonner. tjoy. 2. p. 143. 
pi. 90. 

THIS, says Mons. Sonnerat, measures two feet 
from head to tail, which is nine inches long: it 
has two cutting-teeth in each jaw ; those of the in- 
ferior being the strongest: sixteen canine-teeth in 
each jaw : fives toes on each foot, with strong crook- 
ed claws : body long, covered with even and close- 
set hair; legs short; tail slender, almost as long 
as the body, and ending in a point, like that of a 
Cat: it is marked with black and reddish hairs, 
which are longer than those of the body. This 
creature is of a grey-colour, tinged with reddish 
on the lower parts of the head, neck, legs, and 
feet: the belly is white. On the body are six 
bands of black, four of which are strait, begin- 
ning at the back of the head, and going along 
the body to the tail, where they terminate : the 
two others, which are on each side the belly, are 
waved as it were: they begin at the shoulders, 
and terminate by rounding off on the hind parts ; 
and beneath their termination is a smaller bifid 
one over the thigh. The eyes are lively, and of 
a yellow-colour, with a cast of red : the pupil, in 
some views, appearing oblong. This species is a- 


native of India, and was first described and figured 
by Mons. Sonnerat. 


Viverra Malaccensis. V. cauda nigro annulata elongata, corpore 
griseo supra nigro-guttato, maculis quatuor rotundis supra ocu- 
los, fasdis colli dorsique tribus nigris. Lin. Syst, Nat. Gmel. 
p. 92. 

Grey W. with longitudinal black stripes on the neck and rump, 
and round black spots on the sides. 

La Civette de Malacca. Swmer. voy. 2. p. 144. pi. 91. 

THIS, a native of Malacca, is one of those ani- 
mals which we owe to the assiduity of Mons. Son- 
nerat. He says it is of the size of a domestic Cat, 
and that it has the same character and manners. 
The whole animal is of a pearl-grey, deepest on 
the upper parts: the snout is longish; the ears 
small and round, and the limbs short; the claws 
five in number, weak, crooked, and retractile. 
The top of the head is black ; and it has four 
round black spots above each eye, situated longi- 
tudinally : the eyes are small and black ; the pu- 
pil, in some views, oblong. Over the neck run 
three longitudinal black bands, commencing be- 
hind the head, and terminating at the shoulders ; 
and three other bands commence over the loins 
and terminate at the tail: there is also another 
band running along the middle of the belly. On 
each side the body and thighs are thirty round black 


spots, symmetrically arranged in rows, viz. three 
rows on each side, and one over the back : the 
tail, which is longer than the body, is marked 
with a great many alternate black and grey cir- 
cles. From the above description, as well as from 
Sonnerat's figure, it appears that this animal is 
much allied to the Genet and the Fossane. Mr. 
Sonnerat tells us it lives by chase; and- is very 
nimble in mounting trees, &c. it is a fierce crea- 
ture, and if only wounded, when shot at, will 
turn back and attack the aggressor. It diffuses a 
powerful musky odour, which is owing to a pecu- 
liar receptacle like that of the Civet Cat and 
some others of this genus. The Malays collect 
the fluid thus secreted, and pretend that it is sti- 
mulant and stomachic. It is much esteemed for 
these qualities by the Chinese, who purchase it of 
the Malays. 

The animal described and figured in the 7th 
supplemental volume of Buffon, under the title of 
Gene ft e du Cap de Bonne Esperance, appears to me 
to be no other than a variety of the above spe- 
cies. It is said to have been communicated by 
Mons. Sonnerat by the name of Chat musque du 
Cap de Bonne Esperance. The figure represents 
it white, with black stripes and spots. 

The Ermined Weesel of Mr. Pennant, described 
and figured in the additions to the History of 
Quadrupeds, from a drawing communicated by 
General Davies, is, perhaps, another variety. It 
is white, with the neck and whole body spotted 
with ermine-like black spots disposed in rows ; 


The tail is annulated with black, and slightly 
tufted with black at the end: the ears short, 
rounded, and naked, and within of a fine pink- 
colour. It is said to be a native of Cochin-China. 


Viverra Tigrina. V. cauda annulata, apicefusca, curpore tinereo 
fusco-maculato, stria a capite ad caudam producta nigra. Ian. 
Syst. Nat. Gmd.p. 91. 

Yellowish-grey W. with brown variegations, annulated tail tip- 
ped with black, and a black stripe from head to tail. 

Chat-Bizaam. Vosmaer descr. Amst. 1771. 

Blotched Cat. Pennant Quadr. i.p. 298. 

THIS animal was described by Mr. Vosmaer, 
from a specimen shewn at Amsterdam. It is of 
the size of a Cat, and of mild manners. The 
body is of a cinereous brown-colour, with a black 
stripe from head to tail, and spotted on the sides 
with brown: the tail is annulated, and has a 
brown tip. Mr. Pennant, in the last edition of 
his History of Quadrupeds, refers this animal to 
the Genus Felis, and, indeed, from Mr. Vosmaer 's 
figure, it should seem to have, at least, equal af- 
finity to that genus as to the present. Mr. Schre- 
ber, however, makes it a Viverra. 


Viverra Foina. 

Mustela Foina. M. pedibus jissis*, corpore fuho nigricante, 

gula alba. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 95. 
Blackish-fulvous W. with white throat. 
Martes domestica. Gesn. Quadr. 765. Aldr. dig. p. 332. 
Fouine. Buff", j.p. 18. 
Martin. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 41. 

THE Martin is an animal of a highly elegant 
appearance. Its general length, from nose to tail, 
is about a foot and half, and the tail is ten inches 
long. The Martin is of a blackish tawny colour, 
with a white throat ; and the belly is of a dusky- 
brown ; the tail is bushy or full of hair, and of a 
darker colour than the other parts : the ears are 
moderately large and rounded, and the eyes 
lively. This animal is a native of most parts of 
Europe ; inhabiting woods and fields, and preying 
on birds and other small animals. If taken young, 
it may be easily tamed, and even rendered do- 
mestic. It breeds in the hollows of trees, and 
brings forth from three to five young. The skin 
is used as a fur. 

* The words pedibus Jissis, or with divided feet, in opposition to 
pedibus palmatis, or webbed feet, are, of course, unnecessary in the 
present arrangement, in which the Otters form a separate genus. 
They are, therefore, purposely omitted in all the following specific 
characters belonging to this genus. 

v. i. p. ii. 27 



Viverra Martes. 

Mustek Martes. M. corporefulvo.nigricante, gulajlac-a. Lin, 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 95. 
Blackish-fulvous W. with yellow throat, 
Martes, Aldr. dig. 331. 
Martes Abietum. Raj. Quadr. 200. 
Marte. Buff. 7 . p. 1 86. pi. 2 2 . 
Pine Martin. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 41. 

THIS animal so extremely resembles the pre- 
ceding as scarce to be distinguished from it by 
any other character than that of the yellow throat 
and breast : it is, however, generally said to have 
the head rather shorter than the common Martin. 
It frequents pine-woods in particular, and is ac- 
cordingly found in such countries as most abound 
in that species of timber. In England it is much 
less frequent than the former, but in some parts 
of Germany, Sweden, &c. as well as in North 
America, it is a very common animal. It is said 
not to be found in Siberia. It never frequents 
houses, as the common Martin occasionally does ; 
but confines itself altogether to the woods and 
fields. Its fur is considered as of a far superior qua- 
lity to that of the former species, and the skins 
form a great article of commerce: those which 
are found about the region of Mount Caucasus 
are esteemed finer than any others : in these the 
throat is of an orange-colour. Some naturalists 
have supposed the Pine and Common Martin to 
be no other than varieties of the same species ; 

SABLE. 411 

but the Count de Buffon considers them as per- 
fectly distinct, and observes that no variation is 
ever known to take place in the colours, or the 
manners of the two animals; but that the one con- 
fines itself entirely to the deep recesses of the 
forests, while the common Martin approaches 
our habitations, and takes up his abode in old 
buildings, hay-lofts, holes of walls, &c. Both 
species have an agreeable kind of musky smell. 
Buffon affirms that the Pine Martin frequently 
usurps the nest of the Squirrel, as well as of the 
Buzzard, &c. in order to breed in, and sometimes 
dislodges the Woodpeckers from their holes for 
the same purpose. It is said to produce seven or 
eight young at a birth. 


Viverra Zibellina. 

Mustek Zibellina. M. corpore obscure fulvo, frwite exalbida, 

guttvre cinereo. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 96. 
Blackish-fulvous W. with whitish front, and grey throat. 
Mustela Sobella. Gesn. Quadr.p. 768. 
Mustela Zibellina. Aldr. dig. p. 335. 
Zibeline. Evff. 13. p. 309. 
Sable Weesel. Pennant Quadr. z. p. 43. 

THE Sable is greatly allied to the Martin in its 
general appearance, but has a longer or sharper 
head, and more lengthened ears. Its general co- 
lour is a deep glossy brown; the hair being ash- 

412 SABLE. 

coloured at the roots and black at the tips : the 
chin is cinereous, and the edges of the ears yel- 
lowish. Its size is equal to that of the Martin; 
but, exclusive of other differences, a principal 
one consists in the tail, which is much shorter in 
proportion than in the Martin. The Sable is an 
inhabitant of the northern parts of Asia/ and is 
an extremely important article in the fur trade. 
It principally lives in holes under ground, especi- 
ally under the roots of trees, and sometimes, like 
the Martin, forms its nest in the hollows of trees. 
Jt is an active, lively animal, preying, in the man- 
ner of the Martin, on the smaller quadrupeds, 
birds, &c. Like the Martin it is also most lively 
during the night, and sleeps much by day. In 
autumn the Sable is said to eat cranberries, whor- 
tles, &c. It brings forth early in the spring, and 
has from three to five young at a time. The 
chase of the Sable, according to Mr. Pennant, 
was, during the more barbarous periods of the 
Russian empire, the principal task of the unhappy 
exiles who were sent into Siberia, and who, as well 
as the soldiers sent there, were obliged to furnish, 
within a given time, a certain quantity of furs; 
but, as Siberia is now become more populous, the 
Sables have in great measure quitted it, and have 
retired farther to the north and east, into the de- 
sert forests and mountains. 

Sables are numbered among the most valu- 
able of furs. From an abstract drawn up by 
the late Dr. Forster, from Muller's account of its 
commercial history, it appears that the price 

SABLE. 413 

varies from one to ten pounds sterling and above. 
The blackest and those which have the finest 
bloom or gloss are reputed the best. The very 
best are said to come from the environs of Neftch- 
isk and Yakutsk, and in this latter district, the 
country about the river Ud sometimes affords Sa- 
bles of which a single fur is sold at the rate of 
sixty or seventy rubles, or twelve or fourteen 
pounds sterling. Sometimes the furs of Sables are 
fraudulently dyed, and otherwise prepared, in or- 
der to give them a more intense colour, but these 
are very inferior to the fine natural ones, and are 
distinguishable by a kind of withered or dull ap- 
pearance of the hair itself when accurately in- 

The Sable occurs in North America, as Avell as 
in Asia ; the American Sables are said to be chiefly 
of a chesnut-colour, and more glossy, but coarser 
than the Siberian Sables. It is necessary to ob- 
serve, that the Sable varies in its cast of colour at 
different seasons and in different districts: in- 
stances have been known, though rarely, of its 
being found perfectly white. 



Viverra Piscator. V. dorso abdomme pedibus cauaaque nigris, la- 

teribusfuscis, fade subcinerea, ntfso nigro. 
W. with the back, belly, feet and tail black, the sides brown, the 

face subcinereous with black nose. 
Fisher Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 50. 

THIS seems described only by Mr. Pennant, 
who informs us that, notwithstanding its name, it 
is not an amphibious animal. It is a native of 
North America, where it is supposed, from the 
number of skins imported, to be by no means un- 
common; not less than 580 having been brought 
in one season from New York and Pensylvania. 
It varies in colour, and is sometimes nearly black : 
its length from nose to tail is twenty-eight inches; 
of the tail, which is very full and bushy, seven- 
teen : the ears are broad, round, and dusky, edged 
with white: the fore legs are shorter than the 
hind : there are five toes on the fore feet, and the 
same number, but sometimes only four, on the 
hind ; the claws large, white, and crooked. The 
general colours are described in the specific cha- 





Viverra Putorius. 

Mustek Putorius M, corpore flato nigricante, ore auriculisque 

albis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 96. 
Blackish-tawny W. with whitish muzzle and ears. 
Putorius. Gesn.Quadr.j6j. Aldr. dig. 3 29. Jonst. Quadr. 154. 
Putois. Buff. J. p. 199. pi. 23. 
Fitchet. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 37. 
The Polecat or Fitchet. 

THE Polecat is one of the most remarkable Eu- 
ropean species of the Weesel tribe. Its colour is 
an extremely deep blackish-brown, with a tawny 
cast slightly intermixed : the ears are edged with 
white, and the space round the muzzle is also 
whitish. The general length of this animal is 
seventeen inches, exclusive of the tail, which 
measures about six inches. The Polecat is found 
in most parts of Europe, as well as in some of the 
Asiatic regions, as in Siberia, where it is said to 
be generally found with the rump of a whitish or 
yellowish tinge, surrounded with black. 

The Polecat commonly forms itself a subter- 
raneous retreat, sometimes beneath the roots of 
large trees, and sometimes under hay-ricks, and 
in barns. It preys indiscriminately on the smaller 
animals, and is very destructive to poultry: it is 
also, like the Ferret, a cruel enemy to rabbets, 
which it destroys by sucking their blood, instead 
of tearing them immediately in pieces. It steals 
into barns, pigeon-houses, &c. where it occasion- 
ally makes great havock; biting off the heads of 
fowls and pigeons, and then carrying them away 


to its retreat; and sometimes it carries off the 
heads alone. During the summer, however, it 
principally frequents rabbet-warrens, or the hollow 
trunks of trees, &c. &c. and prowls about in quest 
of young birds, rats, field-mice, &c. According 
to the Count de Buffon, a single family of Pole- 
cats is sufficient to destroy a whole warren of rab- 
bets ; and he observes, that this would be a simple 
method of diminishing the number of rabbets 
where they are too abundant. In Spain the Fer- 
ret is said to have been formerly introduced for a 
similar purpose. The Polecat also preys occa- 
sionally on fish : of which a curious instance is re- 
corded in Mr. Bewick's History of Quadrupeds. 
During a severe storm, one of these animals was 
tracked in the snow from the side of a rivulet to 
its hole, at some distance from it : as it was ob- 
served to have made frequent trips, and as other 
marks were seen in the snow, which could not 
easily be accounted for, it was thought a matter 
worthy of more diligent enquiry; its hole was ac- 
cordingly examined; the animal taken; and 
eleven fine eels were discovered to be the fruits of 
its nocturnal excursions ; the unusual marks in the 
snow having been made by the motion of the eels 
while dragged along in the animal's mouth. That 
the Polecat, however, sometimes feeds in this 
manner, is, in reality, no new observation; since 
Aldrovandus assures us that it will occasionally 
take up its residence in the hollow banks of rivu- 
lets, in order to lie in wait for, and prey upon, 
fish. The Polecat is also delighted with milk, 


and will visit the dairy in order to indulge in this 
article : it has been known to attack bee-hives in 
the winter season, and to feed on the honey. 
The spring is the season in which it breeds ; the 
female producing three or four at a birth, which 
she is said to suckle but a short time, accustoming 
them early to suck the blood of the animals which 
she brings to them, as well as eggs, &c. 

The Polecat has been known to breed with the 
Ferret, and it is said to be a practice with war- 
reners, who keep these animals, to procure a mixed 
breed from time to time, which are of a colour 
between the Ferret and the Polecat, or of a dingy 

The Polecat is a strong and active creature, 
and will spring with great vigour and celerity 
when preparing to attack its prey, or to escape from 
pursuit; at Ayhich time it arches its back consi- 
derably, in order to assist its effort. It is of a 
smell proverbially fetid, being furnished, like se- 
veral others of the Wecsel tribe, with certain re- 
ceptacles which secrete a thickish fluid of a pecu- 
liarly strong and offensive odour. The fur, however, 
is beautiful, and the skin, when properly dressed, 
is numbered among the commercial furs, and 
used for tippets and other articles of dress. It is 
added by Aldrovandus, that the furriers endea- 
vour to obtain skins taken from such animals 
as have been killed during the winter, as being 
far less fetid than those killed in the spring and 



Viverra Furo. V.Jlava, oculis rubicundis. 

Yellow W. with red eyes. 

Mustela Furo. M. oculis rubicundis. Lin. Syst. Nat. GmtLp. 97. 

Furo. Gesn. Quadr. 762. 

Mustela Sylvestris. Aldr. dig. 327. 

Furet, & Furet-putois. Buff. J.p. 209. pi. 2$, 26. 

Ferret. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 40. 

OF similar manners to the Polecat is the Ferret, 
the natural history of which has been so well de- 
tailed by the Count de BufFon, that it is scarce 
possible to add any thing material to that ele- 
gant author's description. The Ferret in general 
form resembles the Polecat, but is a smaller ani- 
mal; its usual length being about fourteen inches, 
exclusive of the tail, which is about five. Lin- 
na3us, in the twelfth edition of the Systema Na- 
turse, seems to entertain a doubt whether it may 
be truly distinct from the Polecat : it is, however, 
a native of Africa, and not of Europe, and sup- 
ports with difficulty the cold of an European win- 
ter; whereas the Polecat is found not only in the 
temperate, but also in the colder parts of the Eu- 
ropean regions; to which may be added, that, ex- 
clusive of its smaller size, it is of a more slender 
shape, and the snout is sharper in proportion than 
in the former animal. The Ferret is used for 
rabbet-hunting in preference to the Polecat, be- 
cause it is more easily tamed; but it is necessary 
to keep it in a warm, box, with wool or some other 
substance in which it may imbed itself. It sleeps 

FERRET. 419 

almost continually, and when awake, immediately 
begins to search about for food : it is usually fed 
with bread and milk; but its favourite food is 
the blood of the smaller animals. It is by nature 
an enemy to the Rabbet; and it is affirmed by 
Buffon, that whenever a dead Rabbet is presented 
for the first time to a young Ferret, he flies upon 
it in an instant, and bites it with great fury; but 
if it be alive, he seizes it by the throat and sucks 
its blood. When let into the burrows of Rab- 
bets, the Ferret is always muzzled, that it may 
not kill the Rabbets in their holes, but only drive 
them out in order to be caught in the nets. If 
the Ferret be put in without a muzzle, or happens 
to disengage himself from it, he is often lost; for 
after sucking the blood of the Rabbet, he falls 
asleep, and cannot be regained, except sometimes 
by smoking the hole, in order to oblige him to 
come out ; but as this is a practice which does 
not always succeed, it continues to lead a rapa- 
cious and solitary life in the warren, as long as 
the summer continues, and perishes by the cold 
of the winter. 

We are told by Strabo that the Ferret was 
brought into Spain from Africa, and it is sup- 
posed that this was done in order to free that 
country from the vast number of Rabbets with 
which it was overrun; and from Spain it M'as gra- 
dually introduced into other European countries. 
The Ferret is an animal of irascible nature, and, 
when irritated, his odour, which is not at all times 
disagreeable, becomes far more so than usual. The 


general colour of the Ferret is a very pale yel- 
lowish-brown, or cream-colour; and the eyes are 
of a bright and lively red. 


Viverra Vulgaris. 

Mustella Vulgaris. M. corpore ex fusco-rvfo, subtus albo, cauda 
concolore. lin, Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 99. 

Pale reddish-brown W. white beneath) with tail similar in co- 
lour to the body. 

Mustela vulgaris. Aldr. dig. p. 307. 

Mustek. Gem. Quadr. J$z. 

Belette. Buff. 7. p. 225. pi. 29. f. I. 

. Mustela Nivalis. M . corpore albo, caudce apke, vix pilis vUits 

Common Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 33. 

THE Weesel is one of the smallest species in 
this numerous tribe of quadrupeds. Its general 
length is about seven inches, exclusive of the tail, 
which measures near two inches and a half. Its 
colour is a pale reddish or yellowish-brown, and 
beneath it is entirely white; but below the cor- 
ners of the mouth, on each side, is a brown spot : 
the ears are small and rounded, and the eyes are 
black. This little animal is possessed of a consi- 
derable degree of elegance in its aspect, and its 
motions are light and easy; but it has the same 
unpleasant smell with the Stoat, and some other 
species. It is an inhabitant of the cavities under 
the roots of trees, as well as of banks near rivu- 
lets, &c. from which it occasionally sallies out in 


quest of birds, field-mice, &c. It even attacks 
young Rabbets and other animals of far superior 
size to itself; but its chief prey, at least in this 
country, seems to be the field-mouse, of which it 
destroys great multitudes. From the extreme 
flexibility of its body, and its wonderful activity, 
it readily ascends the sides of walls, and by this 
means pursues its prey into the most distant re- 
tirements; and is a frequent inhabitant of barns 
and granaries. The Weesel produces four or five 
young at a time; preparing for them a bed of 
moss, grass, &c. An instance is given by the Count 
de Buffon of a Weesel's nest being found in the 
carcase of a Wolf, which had been hung up near 
a wood: the nest was made in the cavity of the 
thorax. The Count de Buffon, in his first de- 
scription of the Weesel, affirmed that it was a 
perfectly untameable animal; but he afterwards 
received very authentic accounts of Weesels which 
had been so completely tamed as to exhibit every 
mark of attachment to their benefactors, and to 
be as familiar as a cat or lap-dog. An account 
of this kind is given by one of his correspondents 
in the 7th supplemental volume of his Natural 
History, which amply confirms the truth of this ; 
and, among other curious particulars, it is ob- 
served, that, when asleep, the muscles of this 
little animal are in a state of extreme flaccidity, 
so that it may be taken up by the head, and 
swung backwards and forwards, in the manner of 
a pendulum, several times before it wakes. Ma- 
demoiselle de Laistre, in a letter on this subject 


gives a very pleasing account of the education 
and manners of a Weesel, which she took under 
her protection. She affirms, that, far from having 
any predilection for meat in a state of putrifac- 
tion, it, on the contrary, always delighted most in 
that which was perfectly fresh. For the two or three 
first days it was fed with warm milk; and after- 
wards with veal, beef, or mutton. It frequently 
eat from her hand, and seemed to be more de- 
lighted with this manner of feeding than any 
other. It was very fond of milk. " If I pour 
(says M. de Laistre) some milk into my hand, it 
will drink a good deal, but if I have not this com- 
plaisance, it will scarce drink a drop. When it is 
satisfied it generally goes to sleep : my chamber 
is the place of its residence, and I have found a 
method of dispelling its strong smell by perfumes : 
by day it sleeps in a quilt, into which it gets by 
an unsown place on the edge, which it has disco- 
vered. By night it is kept in a wired box or 
cage, which it always enters with reluctance, and 
leaves with pleasure. If it be set at liberty be- 
fore my time of rising, after a thousand little 
playful tricks, it gets into bed, and goes to sleep 
in my hand or on my bosom. If I am up first, it 
spends a full half hour in caressing me, playing 
with my fingers like a little dog, jumping on my 
head, on my neck, running round my arms and 
body, with a lightness and elegance which I ne- 
ver beheld in any other animal. If I present my 
hands, at the distance of three feet, it jumps into 
them without ever missing. It shews a great. 


deal of finesse and cunning in order to compass 
its ends, and seems to disobey certain prohibi- 
tions merely through frolic. During all its ac- 
tions it seems solicitous to divert and to be no- 
ticed; looking, at every jump, and at every turn, in 
order to see whether you observe it or no: and if 
no notice be taken of its gambols, it ceases them 
immediately, and betakes itself to sleep; and 
even when most asleep, if you wake it, it instantly 
resumes its gaiety, and frolics about in as sprightly 
a manner as before. It never shews any ill-hu- 
mour, unless when confined, or teized too much, 
in which case it expresses its displeasure by a sort 
of murmur, very different from that which it ut- 
ters when pleased. In the midst of twenty people 
this little animal distinguishes my voice, seeks 
me out, and springs over every body to come at 
me. His play with me is the most lively and ca- 
ressing; with his two little paws he pats me on the 
chin with an air and a manner expressive of de- 
light: this, and a thousand other preferences, 
shew that his attachment to me is real. When 
he sees me dressed for going out, he will not leave 
me, and it is not without some trouble that I can 
disengage myself from him; he then hides him- 
self behind a cabinet near the door, and jumps 
upon me, as I pass, with so much celerity that I 
frequently can scarce see him. 

" He seems to resemble a squirrel in vivacity, 
agility, voice, and manner of murmuring. Dur- 
ing the summer, he squeaks and runs about all 
night long; but, since the commencement of the 


cold weather, I have not observed this. Some- 
times, when the sun shines, while he is playing on 
the bed, he turns and tumbles about and murmurs 
for a while. 

" From his delight in drinking milk out of 
my hand, into which I pour a very little at a 
time, and his custom of sipping the little drops 
and edges of the fluid, it should seem that he 
drinks dew in the same manner. He very seldom 
drinks water, and that only with great caution, 
and in defect of milk ; and then seems only to 
refresh his tongue once or twice : he even seems 
to be afraid of water. During the hot weather it 
rained a good deal. I presented to him some 
rain-water in a dish, and endeavoured to make 
him go into it, but could not succeed. I then 
wetted a piece of linnen cloth in it, and put it 
near him, when he rolled upon it with extreme 

" One singularity in this charming s.nimal is 
his curiosity; it being impossible to open a drawer 
or a box, or even to look at a paper, but the 
little creature will examine it also. If he gets 
into any place M'here I am afraid of permitting 
him to stay, I take a paper or a book, and look 
attentively at it; when he immediately runs 
upon my hand and surveys with an air of curio- 
sity whatever I happen to hold. I must farther 
observe, that he plays with a young Cat and 
Dog, both of some size, getting about their necks, 
backs, and paws, without their doing him the 
least injury." 


But we have also the testimony of Aldrovandus 
in favour of the Weesel's being sometimes com- 
pletely tamed ; so that Buffon might have found 
an exception to his general character of the ani- 
mal, even if he had not received these modern 
attestations. Aldrovandus even expressly asserts, 
that Weesels are easily tamed, and that, when 
tame, they are remarkably playful; adding at the 
same time, from Cardan, that their teeth should 
be rubbed with garlick, after which they will not 
presume to bite. 

" Caeterum animadvertendum est inter ani- 
malia mustelas facile cicurari, & prascipue quando 
ad mentem Cardani, illarum dentes allio perfri- 
cantur, quia imposterum quempiam mordicus ap- 
prehendere non audent, et cicuratae collusionibus 
quotidie indulgent." 

Aldrovandus also quotes (from Strozza) part of 
an elegy on the death of a tame Weesel. 

Nil poterat puero te gralius esse, nee illi 

Morte tua quicquam tristius esse potest. 
Tu digitos molli tentabas improba morsu, 

Porrecto ludens semisupina pede, 
Et mollem e labiis noras sorbere salivam, 

Et quiddam exiguo murmure dulce queri. 

Loving and lov'd, thy master's grief ! 

Thou could'st th' uncounted hours beguile, 
And nibbling at his finger soft 

Watch anxious for th' approving smile : 
Or, stretching forth the playful foot, 

Around in wanton gambols rove, 
Or gently sip the rosy lip, 

And in light murmurs speak thy love. 
v. I. P. II. 28 

426 STOAT. 

Lastly, Aldrovandus affirms that the Weesel 
sometimes carries her young in her mouth from 
place to place several times in a day, when she 
suspects that they will be stolen from her. 


Viverra Erminea. 

Mustela Erminea. M. caudce apice afro. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. 

p. 98. 

W. with the tip of the tail black. 
Mustela hieme alba, aestate supra rutila, infra alba, caudae apice 

nigro. Briss. Quadr.p. if 6. 
Roselet. Bicff. 7. p. 240. pi. 31. f. i. 
L'Hermine. Buff". J.p. 240.^. 29. f. 2. 
Stoat and Ermine. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 35. 

THIS animal much resembles the Weesel in its 
general appearance, as well as in colour, but is 
considerably larger; the body, exclusive of the 
tail, measuring ten inches, and the tail five and a 
half: the tip of the tail is also constantly black, 
whatever may be the gradation or cast of colour 
on the body ; for the Stoat, in the northern re- 
gions, becomes milk-white during the winter, in 
which state it is commonly called the Ermine. It 
is sometimes found of this colour in our own 
country, and instances are not very uncommon 
in which it appears parti-coloured, or white in 
some parts, and brown in others, the change of 
colour having not been completed. Its smell is 
strong and unpleasant. The Stoat is similar in 

STOAT. 427 

its manners to the Weesel; living in hollows under 
the roots of trees, in banks near rivulets, &c. and 
preying on all manner of smaller animals, as well 
as on Rabbets, &c. It does not, however, like 
the Weesel, visit houses, but confines itself to the 
fields. It is an inhabitant both of the northern 
parts of Europe and of Asia. It occurs in Kamts- 
chatka and the Kurile isles. It is also said to be 
found in several parts of North America. 

In Norway and in Siberia the skins are a great 
article of commerce; most of the Ermines or 
white Stoat skins being brought from thence. In 
Siberia the Stoat is said to be found in the birch 
forests, but not in the pine forests ; and the skins 
are sold on the spot, according to Mr. Pennant, 
at from two to three pounds sterling per hundred. 
The animals are either taken in traps or shot with 
blunt arrows. 

The figure of the Ermine here engraved is from 
an elegant drawing in the British Museum, by 
the celebrated Edwards. 



Viverra Galera. 

Mustek Galera. M. Totafusca. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 95. 

W. entirely brown. 

Vansire. Bvf. 13. p. i6j. pi. 21. 

Tayra ou Galera. Buff. 15. p. i$$- 

Madagascar Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 51. 

Guinea Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 53. 

THE length of this species is about fourteen 
inches from nose to tail, and of the tail, which 
tapers to the end, about ten: the ears nearly 
naked, round, and lying flat to the head: the 
tongue rough : the shape of the body like that of 
a rat : the hair is rough. It is an inhabitant of 
Madagascar and of Guinea. 


Viverra Barbara. 

Mustela Barbara. M. atra, collo subtus macula alba triloba. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 94; 

Black W. with a trilobate white spot beneath the throat. 
Guiana Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. $3. 

IT is of the size of a Martin, and is black, with 
a small ash-coloured space between, the eyes, and 
a trilobated white spot beneath the throat. It is 
a native of Brasil and Guiana, and is said to have 
a musky smell. 



Viverra Quadricolor. V. cinereo flavescens, gida flaw, capitc, 
cntribus, caudaqve nigris, genis mentoque attns. 

Yellow-cinereous W. with black head, legs, and tail, bright-yel- 
low throat, and white cheeks and chin. 

White-cheeked Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 52. 

THIS animal measured from nose to tail eigh- 
teen inches, and the tail the same : the ears were 
rounded; the nose broad and blunt: the head flat; 
the irides dusky; the face, crown, legs,, rump, 
and tail, black : the back and belly pale yellow 
intimately mixed with cinereous ; the throat of a 
rich yellow, and the chin and cheeks white. 

It was described by Mr. Pennant from a living 
specimen in 1772. Its native place Avas unknown. 


Viverra Canadensis. 

Mustela Canadensis. M. corpore fuko nigrkante, pectore ma- 
cula alba. Um. Syst. Nat. p. 95. 
Blackish-fulvous W. with white pectoral spot. 
Le Pekan. Bujf. 13 p. 304. pi. 42. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 51. 

THIS species has the shape of a Martin, and is 
more than a foot and half in length from nose to 
tail ; the tail being near one foot long. Its gene- 
ral colour is black-fulvous, with a white patch be- 
tween the fore legs, and on the sides of the body 
is a tinge of grey : the ears are a little pointed : 


the fur is veiy soft and glossy : the toes covered 
with thick .hair both above and below. Native 
of North America. This species, as figured by 
Schreber, has extremely the appearance of one of 
the Otter tribe. 


Viverra Sarmatica. 

Mustela Sarmatica. M. corpore supra ex luteo fuscoque tana. 
Lin. Syst. GmeL p. 97. 

W. variegated on the upper parts with brown and yellow. 

M. peregusina, pedibus fissis, capite et corpore subtus aterrimis, 
corpore supra brunneo luteoque vario, ore fascia frontali auri- 
culisque albis. Guldenstedt nov. comm. petrop. 14. p. 441, 

445- * I0 - 
Mustela praecincta et Perewiaska. Rzaczynski hist. not. Pol. 

p. 328 and 222. 
Vormela (germanice Wormlein). Gesn. Quadr. p. 768. 

THE Sarmatian Weesel measures about four- 
teen inches to the tail, and the tail six inches. 
The head, feet, and under sides of the body, are 
black, the upper parts brown, variegated with ir- 
regular spots or patches of tawny yellow: the 
mouth is surrounded with white; the face is 
crossed by a white band beyond the eyes, passing 
beneath the ears on each side down to the throat : 
another white band crosses the back part of the 
head, and runs down on each side over the 
shoulders ; and the upper part of the neck is va- 
ried with yellow : the tail is black, but intermixed 
with white and fulvous hairs. This species inha- 


bits Poland and the southern provinces of Russia. 
It is said to be voracious, fierce, and untameabe : 
residing in holes, &c. and preying on the smaller 
quadrupeds, &c. 


Viverra Sibirica. 

Mustela Sibirica. M. ftdva, palmis plantisquc hirsutissimis. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 98. 
Fulvous W. with extremely hairy feet. 

THIS is about the size of the Sarmatian Weesel. 
The face is blackish, but white about the nos- 
trils, and spotted towards the eyes: the rest of 
the animal is of a deep fulvous or almost a fox- 
colour : the throat sometimes spotted with white : 
the tail very full of hair, and of a deeper colour 
than the rest of the body. The feet are very 
thickly furred : the body more slender than that 
of the Polecat, and resembling that of the Stoat 
in shape. 



Viverra Touan. V. ferruginea, subtus alba, cauda versus apt- 

cem mid a. 
Ferruginous W. white beneath, with the tail naked towards the 

Le Touan. Buff", svppl. 7. p. 252. pL 61. 

THIS is a very small species, less than the com- 
mon Weesel, and is a native of Cayenne, living 
in hollow trees, and feeding on worms and insects. 
The upper part of the snout, the head, and the 
whole body as far as the tail, is blackish ; the sides 
of the body and limbs bright ferruginous ; and the 
lower parts, from throat to tail, white : the tail 
towards the tip is bare. 


Viverra Quiqui. 

Mustela Quiqui. M. cor pore fusco, rostro cuneifortni. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 99. 
Brown W. with cuneiform snout. 
Quiqui. Molina hist. not. Chili. 4. p. 258. 

THIS species inhabits Chili, living under ground 
and feeding on mice, &c. It is principally dis- 
tinguished by its cuneiform or wedge-shaped 
snout: the ears are short and round, with a white 
spot in the middle : the legs and tail short : the 
feet like those of a Lizard: the length of the ani- 
mal from nose to tail thirteen inches. 



Viverra Cuja. V. nigra, rostro resimo. 
Black W. with turned-up snout. 
Cuja. Molina Chili. 272. 

THIS animal is said by Molina to have a great 
resemblance, in shape, manners, and teeth, to a 
Ferret; but has black hair and eyes, and a turned- 
up snout : the tail is as long as the body, and very 
full of hair. It is a native of Chili, and preys on 
mice. It breeds twice a year, and has three or 
four young at a time. 


Viverra Maculata. V.fusca, albo maculata. 

Dusky W. spotted with white. 

Spotted Martin. Phillips' s voy. p. 276. pi. 46. 

THIS, which is described in Governor Phillips's 
voyage to Botany Bay, is said to be of the size of 
a large Polecat, measuring eighteen inches from 
nose to tail, and the tail nearly as much: the 
visage is of a pointed shape, and the form of the 
whole animal such as not ill to resemble that of 
the Fossane. The colour is said to be black, 
marked all over, the tail not excepted, with ir- 
regular blotches of white : the tail is represented 
as thin, and gradually tapering to the end : the 
whiskers very long, and the general appearance 
of the animal such as to resemble the Vwerrine 


Opossum iii most particulars, except in the appear- 
ance of the tail. 

The following obscure and somewhat uncertain 
species of this numerous genus,, seem scarce suf- 
ficiently known to justify a decided specific cha- 
racter for each, I shall, therefore, merely men- 
tion them in as few words as possible. 


La Grande Marte de Guiane. Buff, suppl. 7. p. 250. pi. 60. 

THIS is black, with the head and sides of the 
neck greyish ; and the throat and under side of 
the neck white. It measures above two feet from 
nose to tail, which measures eighteen inches. It 
is a native of Guiana. 

La Fouine de la Guiane. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 23. 

THIS measures from nose to tail twenty-one 
inches and a half, and has a general resemblance 
to a Polecat, but the tail is rather shorter in pro- 
portion : the nose is long and sharp, and with the 
cheeks, throat, and sides of the neck, black : the 
forehead and sides of the head, to the ears, white : 
the ears short, round, and edged with white. 


From each ear a narrow white stripe extends 
along the sides of the neck: the 'general colour 
of the animal is dark grey; the legs and feet 
black, with a tinge of red ; the tail chesnut. 

La petite Fouine de la Guiane. Buff, sitppl. 3. p. 162. pi. 24. 

THIS is near sixteen inches long from nose to 
tail, and the tail near nine inches: the nose is 
long and slender, and the upper jaw longer than 
the lower: the tail is taper,, and, from the figure, 
seems to be bare at the point : colour not men- 
tioned : the hair is soft and woolly. It is a native 
of Guiana. 

Musky Weesel. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 

THIS has the upper part of the body cinereous, 
dashed with yellow, and: marked with some ob- 
scure dusky lines : the nose, part of the cheeks, 
the legs, and end of the tail, black : on the mid- 
die of the cheeks is a white spot. It is a native 
of Bengal, and is said to have a strong musky 
scent : size not mentioned : described by Mr. Pen- 
nant from a drawing. 



THIS is a small species, measuring from nose 
to tail seven inches, and the tail is of the same 
length: the ears short and rounded: the fur 
grizzled minutely with black and rufous : the toes 
five in number, and very long and slender; each 
lobated at the bottom of the first joint: claws 
small : the upper part of the toes and part of the 
legs covered with short velvet-like down : the tail 
is bushy, and covered with long rat-coloured hair. 
This species is described by Mr. Pennant from a 
drawing. It is said to be a native of Cochin- 




Generic Character. 

Denies 'lit in genere antece- 

Pedes palmati. 

Teeth as in the preceding ge- 


Feet webbed. 

X HE Otters or Lutrce. agree with the animals of 
the last genus, and particularly with those of the 
division entitled Mustelce, in their general cha- 
racter, but are furnished with webbed feet. 


Lutra Vulgaris. L, fusca plantis nudis, cauda corpore dimidio 


Brown O. with naked feet, and tail half the length of the body. 
Mustek Lutra. M, plantis palmatis nudis, cauda corpore dimidio 

breviore. Ian. Syst. Nat. p. 66. 
Lutra. Gem. Quadr.p. 775. Aldr. dig. p. 292. 
Loutre. Buff. "/.p. 134. pi. ii. 
Greater Otter. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 77. 

THE common Otter is found in almost every 
part of Europe, as well as in the colder regions of 
Asia; inhabiting the banks of rivers, and feeding 


principally on fish. It occurs also in the north- 
ern parts of Aril erica, and particularly in Canada, 
where it appears to arrive at a larger size than 
in Europe. In the river Euphrates, on the con- 
trary, it is said to be found no larger than a com- 
mon Cat; but it is probable, that this is in reality 
a different species, viz. the L. Lutreola, or smaller 
Otter, hereafter to be described. The usual 
length of the Otter is near two feet from nose to 
tail, and of the tail about sixteen inches. Its co- 
lour is a deep brown, with a small light-coloured 
patch on each side the nose, and another under 
the chin : the throat and breast are ash-coloured : 
the head is flat and broad : the mouth small ; the 
teeth strong; the lips very thick and muscular; 
the ears short and rounded; and the eyes small, 
and situated near the nose : the neck is very 
thick ; the legs short and thick, loosely joined to 
the body, and so placed as to be capable of being 
brought on a line with the body, and of perform- 
ing the ofiice of fins; the toes, which are five in 
number on all the feet, are connected by broad and 
strong webs, and the whole foot is naked or with- 
out hair. <f The Otter (says Mr. Pennant) shews 
great sagacity in forming its habitation : it bur- 
rows under ground in the banks of some river or 
lake; and always makes the entrance of its hole 
under water; working upwards to the surface of 
the earth, and, before it reaches the top, makes 
several holts or lodges, that in case of high floods 
it may have a retreat; for no animal affects lying 
drier ; and then makes a minute orifice for the 


admission of air: it is farther observed, that this 
animal, the more effectually to conceal its retreat, 
contrives to make even this little air-hole in the 
midst of some thick bush." Though the principal 
food of the Otter consists offish, yet it is said that 
in hard weather, when this its natural prey fails, 
it will attack the smaller quadrupeds, as well as 
poultry, &c. The Otter is naturally a very fierce 
animal, and when hunted with dogs, as is some- 
times the practice, will inflict very severe wounds 
on its antagonists. The female produces four or 
five young at a birth: this commonly happens 
early in the spring. The young Otters, if taken 
at a very early age, may be successfully tamed, 
and taught by degrees to hunt for fish, and bring 
them .to their master. This taming of Otters 
and employing them in fishing is mentioned 
by Aldrovandus (from Albertus Magnus) as a 
circumstance familiarly known, and more espe- 
cially, according to Albertus, in Sweden, where 
he tells us that, in the houses of the great, these 
animals were kept for that purpose, and would 
go out, at a signal from the cook, catch -fish, and 
bring it into the kitchen in order to be dressed 
for dinner! ! ! 

The Count de Buffon, in his description of the 
Otter, given in the 7th volume of his Natural 
History, seems inclined to doubt the reality of 
the Otter's having ever been properly tamed, so 
as to be rendered serviceable in fishing ; but later 
experience has proved this to be perfectly prac- 
ticable. An Otter thus tamed has followed its 


master like a dog*, and been found extremely useful. 
Instances of this kind are described in Mr. Bew- 
ick's work on Quadrupeds. A person near Inver- 
ness in Scotland had, according to this writer, 
a tame Otter, which would follow him wherever 
he chose, and, if called by its name, would imme- 
diately obey. When apprehensive of danger from 
dogs, it would seek protection from its master, 
and endeavour to fly into his arms for security. 
It was frequently employed in catching fish, and 
would sometimes take eight or ten salmon in a 
day : these it always made an attempt to break 
behind the small back fin, if not prevented: as 
soon as one was taken away, it immediately dived 
for another, and, when tired, refused to fish any 
longer; and, after having been rewarded with a 
part of the spoil, would compose itself to sleep, 
and in this state was carried home. It would fish 
in the sea as well as in fresh water. Another per- 
son, according to Mr. Bewick, who kept a tame 
Otter, suffered it to follow him with the dogs, 
and it was found a very useful assistant in fishing, 
by going into the water, and driving the trouts, 
&c. into the nets. It was farther remarkable, 
that the dogs, though accustomed to hunt Otters, 
were so far from giving it the smallest molesta- 
tion, that they would not even hunt an Otter 
while in its company. This method of fishing 
with a tame Otter is also mentioned by Vaniere, 
in. his truly Virgilian poem, the Pnedium Rusti- 


** Si nidum tenerosque ferae deprendere pullos 
Contigit; absent! sobolem furabere matri; 
Et dum mollis adhuc aetas facilisque doceri, 
Piscandi cicurem Lutram formabis ad artes : 
Namque ubi transverso steterint suspensa fluento 
Lina 5 cavernosos rimabitur ilia recessus, 
Ejectos specubus pisces in retia trudensj 
Ut canis excitos agit in venabula cervos, 
Et leporum presso sequitur vestigia rostro." 

" Should chance, within their dark recess, betray 
The tender young, bear quick the prize away. 
Tam'd by thy care, the useful brood shall join 
The wat'ry chace, and add their toils to thine $ 
From each close lurking-hole shall force away 
And drive within thy nets the silver prey : 
As the taught hound the timid stag subdues, 
Or o'er the dewy plain the panting hare pursues." 

Lastly, The Count de Buffon himself, in his 
sixth supplemental volume, retracts his scepticism 
on this subject, and has published a letter from 
the Marquis de Courtivron relative to a tame 
Otter kept in an abbey at Autun, in the year 
1775, &c. This Otter was a female, and had 
been taken extremely young, and reared with 
milk till it was two months old, when it was fed 
with soup, fruits, pulse, meat, fish, c. which 
latter, however, it would not eat unless perfectly 
fresh. It was as tame as a dog, and would come 
whenever it was called by its name. It would 
also play with a dog and cat with which it had 
been early acquainted, but shewed great animo- 
sity against other dogs and cats which happened 
to approach it. This Otter chiefly inhabited a 

v. j. p. ii. 29 


room, and would lie by night on a bed, and, dur- 
ing the day-time, on a heap of straw provided for 
it : it would occasionally plunge its head and fore 
feet into a vessel of water, which always stood 
near it; and, after shaking itself, would go 
out into the court yard for exercise, &c. and 
would often sleep in the sunshine. It seemed 
in a manner to have lost the natural habits of its 
kind; since, being carried one day to a pool of 
Avater, it seemed afraid, and would not go into it, 
but only wetted its head and feet, as in its cham- 
ber; and when thrown in, to the distance of some 
feet, it instantly made to the shore, as if in a kind 
of alarm, and followed readily to the Abbey. 

When the Otter, in its natural or uneducated 
state, has caught a fish, it immediately draws it 
ashore, and devours the head and upper parts, 
leaving the remainder; and when in a state of 
captivity, will eat no fish but what is perfectly 
fresh, but will prefer bread, milk, &c. The Ot T 
'ter, says Buffon, is as noxious in a fish-pond as 
the Polecat in a hen-roost; since he frequently 
kills many more fish than he can eat, and then 
carries oif one in his teeth. The Otter will some- 
times devour vegetables of different kinds, and 
will gnaw the bark and twigs of young trees. 
The flesh of the Otter is rank and fishy. The 
Romish church permits the use of it on maigre- 
days, and Mr. Pennant declares, that, in the 
kitchen of the Carthusian convent, near Dijon, 
he saw one preparing for the dinner of the reli- 


ous of that rigid order, who are prohibited, dur- 
ing their whole lives, the eating of flesh. 


Lutra Lutreola. L. fuko-nigricans, plantis hirsutis, digitis 

cequalzbus, ore albo. 
Blackish-tawny O. with hairy feet, toes equal in length, and 

white muzzle. 
Mustek Lutreola. M. plantis palmatis hirsutis, digitis ccquali-* 

bus, ore albo. Ijn. Syst. Nat. p. 66. 
Viverra Lutreola. Pall, spicil. zool. 14. p. 46. t. 3-/. i. 
Lesser Otter. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 80. 

THIS species very much resembles the common 
Otter, but is much smaller: the body is of a 
dusky-colour, but with a considerable cast of 
tawny; the chin and throat white; the ears 
roundish; the feet broad, webbed, and covered 
with hair, instead of being naked, as in the for- 
mer animal. In size it falls far short of the com- 
mon Otter, measuring about a foot in length. In 
North America this species is known by the name 
of Minx, and is said sometimes to leave the water, 
and prey on poultry, &c. in the manner of a Pole- 
cat, biting off the heads and sucking the blood. 
It is said also to have a fetid smell. In Europe 
the smaller Otter is chiefly found in Poland and 
Lithuania, living on fish, frogs, &c. Its fur is 
very valuable, and next in beauty to that of the 



Lutra Marina. L nigra, plantis pilosis, cauda corpore quadruple 

Black O. with hairy feet, and tail four times shorter than the 

Mustela Lutris. M. plantis palmatis pilosis, cauda corpore quad" 

ruplo brcviore. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 66. 
Lutra marina. Steller nov. comm. Petrop. 2. p. 367. t. 26. 
Sea Otter. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 83. 
"""" . 

THIS is the largest of the Otters, measuring 
about three feet from the nose to the tail, and 
the tail thirteen inches. The colour of this spe- 
cies is a deep, glossy, brownish-black ; the fur 
being extremely soft and very fine : on the fore- 
head is generally a cast of greyish or silver-co- 
lour: the ears are erect, sharpish, and small: the 
whiskers long and white: the fore legs thick and 
furnished with four toes, covered with hair, and 
webbed : the hind feet resemble those of a Seal ; 
the toes being connected by a strong granulated 
membrane, with a skin skirting the outward toe, 
as in some of the water-fowl: the tail is short, 
broad, depressed, and pointed at the end. The 
Sea Otter has been found of the weight of seventy 
or eighty pounds. It is sometimes seen of a sil- 
very or hoary tinge. According to Mr. Pen- 
nant, it is one of the most local animals we are 
acquainted with, being entirely confined between 
lat. 44. and 60. north; and between east long-. 


from London, 126. to 150.; inhabiting, in great 
abundance, Bering's islands, Kamtschatka, the 



Aleutian and Fox islands, between Asia and Ame- 
rica. They land also in the Kuril islands, but are 
never seen in the channel between the north-east 
of Siberia and America. It is supposed that they 
bring but one at a time. They are most ex- 
tremely harmless animals, and are singularly af- 
fectionate to their young. They bring forth on 
land, and often carry the young one between 
their teeth; fondle them, and frequently fling 
them up and catch them again in their paws ; 
and before they can swim, the parents take them 
in their fore feet, and swim about on their backs. 
The young continues with its parent till it takes 
a mate. 

This animal is killed for its skin, which is one 
of the most valuable of furs, being sold at the 
rate of from 14 to 25 pounds sterling each. They 
are said to be chiefly sold to the Chinese. 

The Sea Otter is sometimes taken with nets, 
but is more frequently destroyed with clubs and 

In the Philosophical Transactions for the year 
1 796, we meet with a description of the Sea Otter 
by Mr. A. Menzies, accompanied by some obser- 
vations by Mr. Home. From the description there 
given it appears that the hind feet were com- 
pletely covered with hair both above and below, 
except a small bare spot beneath each toe, so that 
in this particular the animal either varies, or the 
hair at some particular seasons may fall away 
from the webs of the feet, so as to leave the skin 
bare, as mentioned in Mr. Pennant's description ; 


the hind feet in the specimen now mentioned 
measured eight inches across: the tongue was 
four inches long, and rounded at the end, with a 
slight fissure, giving the tip a bifid appearance. 
In this respect, as well as in the structure of the 
hind feet, the Sea Otter makes an evident ap- 
proach to the Seal. 


Lutra Brasiliana. L. atra, gutturejlaw. 

Black Otter with yellow throat. 

Lutra nigricans, cauda depressa et plana. Barr. Fr. eyuin. p. i$$. 

Brasilian Otter. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 79. 

THIS species is said to be of the size of a mid- 
dling dog, and entirely of a black colour, except 
the head, which is brown, and the throat, which 
is yellow: the eyes are small and black; the 
whiskers large; the ears round; the feet like 
those of a Monkey, and with five toes, of which 
the interior is the shortest; the claws sharp; the 
tail flat and naked, and reaching no farther than 
the feet. It is a native of Brasil and Guiana, 
and about the borders of the Oronoko, and is said 
to live chiefly on fish and crabs. It is reckoned 
a good food, and without any fishy taste. In the 
Gmelinian edition of the Systema Naturae this 
species is considered as a variety of the Sea Otter. 



Lutra Saricovienna. L. grisea albo maculata. 

Grey O. spotted with black. 

La petite Loutre d'eau douce de Cayenne. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 159. 

pi. 22. 

Saricovienne. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 82. 

THIS is said to be of the size of a Cat, with a 
fur as fine as velvet, grey, patched with black : 
the flesh is said to be very delicate. It is a na- 
tive of South America, inhabiting rivers. 


Lutra gracilis. L.fusca, corpore longissimo. 
Brown O. with extremely slender body. 
Slender Otter. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 85. 

THE length of this species, from the nose to 
the tip of the tail, is four feet four inches ; of the 
tail about thirteen inches; the diameter of the 
body, so far as could be guessed from the dried 
skin, scarcely more than four inches and a half: 
the fore legs about three inches and a half long : 
the hind legs four inches: the head and eyes 
small; the ears extremely small, so as to be scarce 
visible : the hind feet more strongly webbed than 
the fore feet : the colour of the whole animal a 
rich and very deep chesnut or dark brown, ra- 
ther paler beneath : the cheeks and throat paler 

448 VISON. 

than the other parts. This species inhabits Sta- 

Lutra Vison. L. corpore saturate castaneo unicolore. 

^ Mustela Vison. M. pedibus palmatis, corpore saturate castaneo 

unicolore. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 94. 
Vison. Eu/. 13. p. 304. pi. 43. 
Minx. Lawson Car. p. 121.? 

THIS animal appears to approach so extremely 
near to the L. Lutreola, or Smaller Otter, before 
described, as scarce to differ in any other circum- 
stance but that of wanting the white throat, in- 
stead of which it is entirely of a fine brown, with 
a cast of chesnut: the fur is very fine and glossy. 
It is probable also that this is the real Minx of 
the Americans, and that what has been said by 
Mr. Pennant relative to the Minx, under the ar- 
ticle of the Lesser Otter, should, in reality, be 
applied to this variety. 


Lutra Felina. L. forma felina. 

O. with the shape and appearance of a Cat. 

Chinchimen. Molin. Chil. 26$. Pennant Qttadr. a. p. 8a. 

IN its general appearance this animal is said 
extremely to resemble a Cat, having similar head, 


whiskers, ears, eyes, shape, and length of tail : 
the feet have five webbed toes, with strong 
crooked claws: the length from nose to tail is 
twenty inches. It is said by Molina to inhabit 
the sea of Chili. It swims about in pairs, and 
loves to bask in the sun on the tops of rocks; 
and, when taken, has all the fierceness of a wild 



Generic Character. 

Denies Primores superiores 
sex, intus excavati, alterni. 
Inferiores sex ; laterales 
duo longiores, lobati; se- 
cundarii basi interiores. 

Laniarii solitarii. 
Mclares quinque seu sex, pri- 
mo laniariis approximate. 

Lingua bevis. 
Nasus prominens. 
Membrana nictitans. 

Front-teeth six both above and 
below: the two lateral ones 
of the lower jaw longer 
than the rest and lobed; 
with smaller or secondary 
teeth at their internal bases. 

Canine-teeth solitary. 

Grinders five or six on each 
side-, the first approximat- 
ed to the canine-teeth. 

Tongue smooth. 

Snout prominent. 

Eyes furnished with a nicti- 
tating membrane. 

Ursns Arctos. Ursusfuscomgrkans, cauda abrupta. IMI. Syst. 

Nat. Gmel.p. 100. 

Blackish-brown Bear with abrupt tail. 
Ursus. Gesn. Quadr. 14. Aldr. dig. 117. 
Ours. Buff. 8. p. 248. pi. 3 1, 32. 
Brown Bear. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. i. 


THE common Bear, with some variation as to 
size and colour, is a native of almost all the 
northern parts of Europe and Asia, and is even said 
to be found in some of the Indian islands, as Cey- 



Ion, &c.* It inhabits woods and unfrequented 
places, and feeds chiefly on roots, fruits, and 
other vegetable substances, but occasionally preys 
on animals. In the Alpine regions the Bear is 
brown ; in some other parts of Europe, black ; and 
in some parts of Norway has been seen of a grey- 
colour, and even perfectly white: this latter 
change of colour sometimes takes place, as is well 
known, in several other animals, and most fre- 
quently in such as are naturally black or of very 
dark colours. The brown, the black, the grey, 
and the white land Bears are, therefore, to be 
considered as of the same species : yet it is observed 
that the brown and the black variety differ some- 
what in their manner of life; the black confining 
itself almost entirely to vegetable food; the 
brown, on the contrary, frequently attacking and 
preying upon other animals, and destroying lambs, 
kids, and even sometimes cattle, and sucking the 
blood in the manner of the Cat and Weesel 
tribes. Linnaeus adds, that the Bear has a way 
of blowing up his prey, and of hiding or burying 
a part of it. Bears are reported to be particu- 
larly fond of honey, in search of which they will 
climb trees, in order to get at the nests of wild 
bees ; for the Bear, notwithstanding his awkward 
form, is expert in climbing, and sometimes takes 
up his residence in the hollow of a very large 

* The brown Bear is also said to be found in some of the north- 
ern parts of America, where it destroys cattle. The American 
Black Bear is a different species, and is not carnivorous. 


tree. The Bear will also catch and devour fish, 
occasionally frequenting the banks of rivers for 
that purpose. 

The Bear passes a considerable part of the winter 
in a state of repose and abstinence; emerging only 
at distant intervals from his den, and again con- 
cealing himself in his retreat till the approach of 
the vernal season. The females are said to con- 
tinue in this state much longer than the males, 
and it is during this period that they bring forth 
their young, which are commonly two in num- 
ber. These the ancients imagined to be nearly 
shapeless masses, gradually licked and fashioned 
into regular form by the parent; an opinion now 
sufficiently exploded. On this subject the learned 
Sir Thomas Brown has a chapter in his celebrated 
work, the Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or Vulgar Er- 
rors, and observes, that we have the testimony of 
" three authentic philosophers," in confutation 
of the notion, viz. first, of Matthiolus, who, in 
his Comment on Dioscorides, affirms, that, in a 
newly killed Bear which he saw opened, the young- 
were distinct in all their limbs; secondly, of 
Julius Scaliger, who affirms the same thing of one 
killed by some hunters in the Alps; and, lastly, 
of Aldrovandus, who informs us, that in the 
Museum at Bologna there was, in his time, the 
foetus of a Bear preserved in spirits, and which 
was as completely formed as that of other animals. 
The young, however, though not shapeless, have a 
different aspect from the grown animal; the snou,t 
being much sharper, and their colour yellowish : 


they are said to be blind for nearly the space of a 


Ursus Americanus. U. niger, gula genisque fcrrugincis. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 101. Pall. spic. zool. 14. p. 6. 26. 
Black Bear, with ferruginous cheeks and throat. 
Black Bear. Pennant Quadr. 2.^4. Arct. zool. ed. 2. No. 19. 

THIS, which is now considered as a distinct 
species, and not to be confounded with the Black 
Bear of Europe, has a long, pointed nose, and 
narrow forehead : the cheeks and throat of a yel- 
lowish brown colour; the hair on the whole body 
and limbs of a glossy black, smoother and shorter 
than that of the European kind. It is also said 
to be, in general, smaller than the European Bear, 
though instances have been known in which its 
size, at least, equalled the European, since Mr. 
Bartram assures us, that a Bear was killed in Flo- 
rida which weighed four hundred pounds. 

This animal inhabits all the northern parts of 
America, migrating occasionally from the north- 
ern to the more southerly parts in quest of food, 
which is said to be entirely vegetable ; and it is 
even affirmed, that, when pressed by extreme 
want, they will still neglect all animal food when- 
ever they can obtain a supply of roots and grain. 
They, however, sometimes destroy fish, and par- 
ticularly herrings, when these fish happen to come 
up into the creeks in shoals. They are said to 


continue in their winter retreats, either in dens 
beneath the snow under ground, or in the hollows 
of old trees, for the space of five or six weeks with- 
out food. 

Far. ? 


Among Mr. Catton's figures of quadrupeds a 
representation is given of a Yellow Bear, from the 
living animal then kept in the Tower. The fol- 
lowing is the description accompanying the plate 
referred to : 

"The Yellow Bear, from Carolina (as the Ame- 
rican Bears in general are), is rather smaller than 
the European Bears; it has also a more pleasant 
and agreeable countenance, is perfectly tame and 
sociable; the colour a lively bright orange, of 
a reddish cast. The hair thick, long, and silky. 
Its other properties are the same as of the species 
in general." 

Mr. Pennant, in his Arctic Zoology, has com- 
piled, from good authorities, a very curious and 
pleasing account of the ceremonials used among 
the North American Indians at the time of their 
periodical hunting of the Bear. 

" The chase of these animals (says he) is a mat- 
ter of the first importance, and never undertaken 
without abundance of ceremony. A principal 
warrior first gives a general invitation to all the 
hunters. This is followed by a most serious fast 


of eight days, a total abstinence from all kinds of 
food*; notwithstanding which, they pass the day 
in continual song. This they do to invoke the 
spirits of the woods to direct them to the places 
where there are abundance of Bears. They even 
cut the flesh in divers parts of their bodies, to 
render the spirits more propitious. They also ad- 
dress themselves to the manes of the beasts slain 
in preceding chases, as if it were to direct them 
in their dreams to plenty of game. One dreamer 
alone cannot determine the place of the chase, 
numbers must concur; but as they tell each other 
their dreams, they never fail to agree : whether 
that may arise from complaisance, or by a real 
agreement in the dreams/ from their thoughts 
being perpetually turned on the same thing. 

" The chief of the hunt now gives a great 
feast, at which no one dares to appear without 
first bathing. At this entertainment they eat with 
great moderation, contrary to their usual custom. 
The master of the feast alone touches nothing; 
but is employed in relating to the guests ancient 
tales of the wonderful feasts in former chases: 
and fresh invocations to the manes of the deceased 
Bears conclude the whole. They then sally forth 
amidst the acclamations of the village, equipped 
as if for war, and painted black. Every able 
hunter is on a level with a great warrior; but he 
must have killed his dozen great beasts before his 

* We must surely suppose that they nourish themselves by 
some kind of drink during this period. 


character is established ; after which his alliance 
is as much courted as that of the most valiant 

" They now proceed on their way in a direct 
line ; neither rivers, marshes, or any other impe- 
diments, stop their course; driving before them 
all the beasts which they find in their way. When 
they arrive in the hunting-ground, they surround 
as large a space as their company will admit, and 
then contract their circle, searching, as they con- 
tract, every hollow tree, and every place fit for 
the retreat of the Bear, and continue the same 
practice till the time of the chase is expired. 

te As soon as a Bear is killed, a hunter puts 
into its mouth a lighted pipe of tobacco, and, 
blowing into it, fills the throat with the smoke, 
conjuring the spirit of the animal not to resent 
what they are going to do to its body, nor to 
render their future chases unsuccessful. As the 
beast makes no reply, they cut out the string of 
the tongue, and throw it into the fire: if it 
crackles and runs in (which it is almost sure 
to do), they accept it as a good omen; if not, 
they consider that the spirit of the beast is not 
appeased, and that the chase of the next year will 
be unfortunate. 

" The hunters live well during the chase, on 
provisions which they bring with them. They 
return home with great pride and self-sufficiency ; 
for to kill a Bear forms the character of a com- 
plete man. They give a great entertainment, 
and now make a point to leave nothing. The 



feast is dedicated to a certain genius, perhaps that 
of gluttony, whose resentment they dread, if they 
do not eat every morsel, and even sup up the 
very melted grease in which the meat was dressed. 
They sometimes eat till they burst, or bring on 
themselves some violent disorders. The first 
course is the greatest Bear they have killed, with- 
out even taking out the entrails, or taking off 
the skin; contenting themselves with singeing the 
skin, as is practised with hogs." 


Ursus Maritimus. U. aJbus, cauda abrupta, capite collogue e/on- 

gutis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. />; 101. 
White Bear, with elongated neck and head, and abrupt tail. 
Ursus maritimus albus major arcticus. Martens Spitsberg. 73. 


Ours blanc. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 34. 
Polar Bear. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 5. 
Ursus Polaris. Polar Bear. Museum Lererianum, vol. I. p. 7. 

pi. 2. 

THIS is a far larger species than the common 
Bear, and is said to have been sometimes found 
of the length of twelve feet. The head and neck 
are of a more lengthened form than in the com- 
mon Bear, and the body itself is longer in pro- 
portion. The whole animal is white, except the 
tip of the nose and the claws, which are jet black: 
the ears are small and rounded; the eyes small; 
the teeth of extraordinary magnitude : the hair is 
of a great length, and the limbs are extremely 

v. i. p. n. 30 


large and strong. It seems confined to the very 
coldest parts of the globe ; being found within 80 
degrees of north latitude, as far as any navigators 
have yet penetrated. The shores of Hudson's 
Bay, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, are its princi- 
pal places of residence ; but it is said to have been 
accidentally carried on floating ice as far south as 
Newfoundland. This species seems to have been 
often confounded by authors with the white va- 
riety of the common Bear, which is occasionally 
found in the northern regions. 

The first tolerable figure of the Polar Bear 
seems to have been published by Mr. Pennant 
in his Synopsis of Quadrupeds, and is copied in 
the third supplemental volume of the Count 
de Buffon. A far superior representation, how- 
ever, occurs in the last voyage of Captain Cook. 

The Polar Bear is an animal of tremendous 
strength and fierceness. Barentz, in his voyage 
in search of a north-east passage to China, had 
proofs of the ferocity of these animals, in the 
island of Nova Zembla, where they attacked his 
seamen, seizing them in their mouths; carrying 
them off with the utmost ease, and devouring 
them in the sight of their comrades. It is said 
that they will attack and attempt to board armed 
vessels, at a -great distance from shore, and have 
sometimes been with much difficulty repelled. 
Their usual food consists of seals, fish, and the 
carcases of whales ; but, when on land, they prey 
on deer, and other animals, as hares, young birds, 
c. thev also eat various kinds of berries which 


they happen to find. They are said to be fre- 
quently seen in Greenland in great droves, allured 
by the scent of the flesh of Seals, and will some- 
times surround the habitations of the natives, and 
attempt to break in; and it is added, that the 
most successful method of repelling them is by 
the smell of burnt feathers. They grow extremely 
fat, a hundred pounds of fat having been taken 
from a single beast. The flesh is said to be coarse, 
but the skin is valued for coverings of various 
kinds, and the Greenlanders often wear it as a 
clothing. The split tendons are said to form an 
excellent thread. During the summer they re- 
side chiefly on the ice-islands, and pass frequently 
from one to another; being extremely expert 
swimmers. They have been seen on these ice- 
islands at the distance of more than eighty miles 
from land, preying and feeding as they float 
along. They lodge in dens, formed in the vast 
masses of ice, which are piled in a stupendous 
manner, leaving great caverns beneath : here they 
breed, and bring one or two young at a time, and 
sometimes, but very rarely, three. The affection 
between parent and young is so great, that they 
will sooner die than desert each other. They fol- 
low their dams a very long time, and grow to a 
large size before they quit them. 

During winter they retire, and bed themselves 
deep beneath the snow, or else beneath the fixed 
ice of some eminence, where they pass in a state 
of torpidity the long and dismal arctic night, ap- 
pearing only with the return of the sun. 



The skins of the Polar Bear, says Mr. Pennant, 
were formerly offered by the hunters in the arctic 
regions to the high altars of cathedrals and other 
churches, for the priest to stand on during the 
celebration of mass in winter. 


Ursus Gulo. U. cauda concolore, corpore rufo-fusco, media dorso 
nigro. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 104. 

Rufous-brown Bear, with tail of the same colour, and the mid- 
dle of the back black. 

Gulo. Gem. Quadr. p. 554. Aldr. dig. p. 178. 

Glouton. Biff, suppl. 3. p. 240. pi. 48. 

Mustek Gulo. Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 67. 

THIS animal is a native of the most northern 
parts of Europe and Asia, occurring in Sweden, 
Norway, Lapland, and Siberia, as well as in some 
of the Alpine regions, and in the forests of Po- 
land and Courland. It is also found in the north- 
ern parts of America, being not uncommon about 
Hudson's Bay. 

The Glutton is considerably larger than a 
Badger, measuring about a yard from nose to 
tail, and the tail about a foot ; but it seems to 
vary in size, and is often less than this. The 
muzzle, as far as beyond the eyes, is blackish 
brown, and covered with hard shining hair: over 
the forehead, down the sides of the head between 
the eyes and ears, runs a whitish or ash-coloured 
band or fillet: the top of the head and whole 



length of the back are black-brown, the colour 
widening somewhat over the sides as it passes on, 
and again lessening or contracting towards the 
tail; or the description might be given in other 
words, by saying, that the colour of the body is a 
fine glossy black-brown, with a ferruginous tinge 
along the sides, so as to form a broad lateral 
zone; but it is to be observed, that the animal va- 
ries considerably in colour; sometimes appearing 
black, with a subferruginous lateral band ; and at 
other times of a chesnut-colour : the feet are 
black. In the American variety, hereafter to be 
described, a whitish or ash-coloured band or bor- 
der runs along the body, in the same manner as 
the ferruginous one in the European kind. 

The Glutton, as its name imports, has the cha- 
racter of a very voracious animal, preying indiscri- 
minately both on fresh prey and carrion. One which 
was kept at Dresden would eat thirteen pounds of 
flesh in a day, without being satisfied. It attacks 
deer, birds, field-mice, &c. and even sometimes 
the larger cattle ; and is said to sit on the branches 
of trees, and suddenly to spring down on such ani- 
mals as happen to pass beneath; tearing them, 
and sucking the blood, till they fall down through 
faintness, when it begins to devour the spoil. In 
winter it seeks out and catches ptarmigans under 
the snow. What it cannot devour at once it is said 
to hide under ground, or in the cavity of some 
tree. It is said to be an animal of uncommon 
fierceness and strength ; and will sometimes dis- 
pute the prey both with the Wolf and Bear. It 


is also extremely fetid. It breeds once a year, 
and brings from two to four young at a litter. 
The fur is much used for muffs, linings, &c. 
Those skins are said to be preferred which have 
least of the ferruginous tinge, and for this reason 
the Siberian variety, which is blacker than the 
rest, is most esteemed. 

Far. ? 


Ursus Luscus. U. corporeferrugineo, rostro fusco, fronte plu- 
gaque laterali corporis albidis. 

Ferruginous B. with dusky snout, the forehead and lateral band 
of the body whitish, 

U. corporeferrugineo, rostro fusco, fronte plagaque laterali cor- 
poris ulbidis. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 71. 

The Quick-Hatch or Wolverene. Edw. pi. 103. 

Wolverene, Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 8. 

THIS appears to be no other than a variety of 
the former animal, differing in so few particulars 
as scarce to admit of any other elucidation than 
'what may be caught by the eye on contemplat- 
ing its figure, which is here given from Edwards, 
who drew it from a living specimen imported 
from Hudson's Bay, and presented to Sir Hans 
Sloane, in whose possession it continued for some 
years, being perfectly tame and harmless. It 
was about twice the size of a common Fox. Its 
description, as given by Edwards, is as follows: 

" All the snout, upper and under jaw, as far as 
the eyes, is of a black-colour : the forehead above 


ittc Fein P^fUfh tl f <rJC!*rflcf.nea- SatrC 


becomes gradually of a whitish colour; the eyes 
are of a dark colour ; the throat and lower side 
of the neck white, the first spotted with black, 
having some transverse bars of black on the un- 
der side of the neck: the ears are small and 
round, appearing but little longer than the hair 
that grows on the head : they are covered with 
short brown hair : the hind part of the head and 
neck, the whole body both above and beneath, 
the legs and tail, are all of a brown or chesnut- 
colour, clouded lighter and darker, viz. the up- 
per side of the neck and beginning of the back is 
dusky, or very dark brown, which gradually 
changes to a lighter or more pleasant brown in 
the middle of the back : this colour again grows 
by degrees darker, till it becomes almost black 
in the hind part of the back: the tail towards 
the tip becomes of a dusky-colour: it hath a broad 
bar of very light ash-coloured brown passing- 
round the body, beginning at each shoulder, pro- 
ceeding on the sides backwards, and meeting on 
the rump, just above the tail, where it is broad- 
est. The fur on the whole body is pretty long, 
and seems not to lie so flat to the skin as in 
some animals. All the feet, as far as the heel or 
first joint, are covered with short black hair, 
which gradually becomes brown above the knees: 
the claws are of a light horn-colour: it hath on 
each foot forwards four toes; the hind feet have 
five toes each." 

It should be added, that the above specimen 
described by Edwards, had lost one eye ; and it is 


probable that Linnasus carelessly applied the tri- 
vial name luscus to the animal on no other consi- 
deration than the above accidental circumstance. 
A specimen mentioned by Mr. Pennant, mea- 
sured from nose to tail about twenty-eight inches, 
and the tail about seven inches; but the hair 
reached six inches beyond the tail itself. 


Ursus Lotor. U. cauda annulata, fascia per oculos trans-cersali 

nigra. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 103. 
B. with annulated tail, and black transverse band across the 


Ursus cauda annulatim variegata. Briss. Quadr. p. 189. 
Mapach. Ternand. anim. 2. p. i. Nieremb, hist. not. p. 175. 
Le Raton. Bujf. 8. p. 43. 
Raccoon. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 12. 

The Raccoon is a native of the New World, and 
is principally an inhabitant of the northern parts 
of that continent. It is also found in some of 
the West-Indian islands. Its colour is grey; the 
face white; the eyes each imbedded in a large 
patch of black, which forms a kind bf band across 
the forehead, and is crossed by a dusky stripe 
running down the nose. The visage is shaped 
like that of a Fox, the forehead being broad and 
the snout sharp ; the eyes are large and greenish : 
the ears short and slightly rounded ; and the upper 
jaw is longer than the lower: the tail, which is 
covered with bushy hair, tapers to the end, and 


is annulated with several black bars : the body is 
broad, the back arched, the limbs rather short, 
and the fore legs shorter than the hinder; the 
animal is covered with thick and long hair, which 
has a somewhat upright growth : the feet are 
dusky, and have five toes with very sharp claws. 
The colour of the Raccoon, which is generally a 
dark grey, sometimes varies, and has a fulvous or 
tawny tinge, especially on the lower parts; and a 
variety entirely of a cream-colour is mentioned by 
Mr. Pennant. The length of the animal is two feet 
from nose to tail, and the tail about one foot. The 
food of the Raccoon, in its wild state, consists 
chiefly in maize, which it eats while the ears are 
tender, as well as sugar-canes, various sorts of 
fruit, as apples, chesnuts, &c. It is also supposed 
to devour birds and their eggs, and is, therefore, 
considered as an enemy to poultry. It chiefly 
feeds by night, and by day keeps in its hole, ex- 
cept in dull weather. In winter, and in very bad 
weather, it keeps altogether within, and is popu- 
larly believed to live like the Bear, by sucking its 
paws. The Raccoon, however, is an active and 
sprightly animal when taken into a state of do- 
mestication. It has a kind of oblique gait in 
walking; can leap and climb with great ease; and 
is very frequently seen on trees. It is easily tamed, 
and is frequently kept in houses by the Ameri- 
cans, and will live on bread, milk, fish, eggs, &c. 
It is particularly delighted with sweets of every 
kind, and has as great a dislike to acids. In eat- 
ing, it commonly sits on its hind legs, and uses 


its fore feet in the manner of hands. It has a 
way of dipping all manner of dry food that is 
given it into water before it eats it; as well as of 
rolling it between its paws for some time. When 
it kills birds, it proceeds exactly in the manner of 
a Polecat; first biting off the head, and then 
sucking out the blood. It drinks but little, and 
is a very cleanly animal. It is extremely expert 
in opening oysters, on which, as well as on crabs 
and various kinds of shell-fish, it frequently feeds 
in its wild state. It is, when tamed, extremely ac- 
tive and playful; but is of a capricious disposition, 
and not easily reconciled when offended. When 
angry, its voice is like a hoarse bark, and at 
other times soft and sharp. In its wild state it 
generally inhabits the hollows of trees; but in a 
domestic state shews no particular inclination for 
warmth ; nor is it observed to be desirous of lying 
on straw, or any other substance, in preference to 
the bare ground. It sleeps from about midnight 
till noon, at which time it comes out for food and 
exercise. According to Linnaeus, the Raccoon has 
a wonderful antipathy to hogs' bristles, and is 
much disturbed at the sight of a brush*. It 
produces from two to three young at a birth : this 
commonly takes place in the month of May. The 
fur of the Raccoon is used by the hatters, and is 

* This particularity relative to a Raccoon kept and described 
by Linnaeus, is, by some mistake, applied by the Count de Buftbn 
to the Coati Mondi or Viverra Nasuaj and is quoted in a note 
belonging to the history of that animal in his work on quadru- 


BADGER. 467 

considered as next in merit for this purpose to 
that of the Beaver. 


Ursus Meles. U. cauda concolore, corpore supra cinereo, subtus 

nigro, fascia longitudinali per oculos auresque nigra. Lin. 

Sy st. Nat. p. 70. 
B. with unmarked tail, body grey above, black below, and a 

longitudinal black band through the eyes and ears. 
Meles. Gesn. Quadr. 687. 
Taxus. Aldr. dig. 263. 
Meles pilis ex sordide albo et nigro variegatis vestita, capite 

taeniis alternatim albis et nigris variegata. Briss Quadr. p. 183, 
Blaireau. Luff. "j.p. 104. pi. 7. 
Common Badger. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 14. 

THE Badger is an inhabitant of all the tempe- 
rate parts of Europe and Asia. Its usual length 
is about two feet from the nose to the tail, which 
measures six inches. It is an animal of very 
clumsy make, being thick-necked and thick-bodied, 
with very short legs. It commonly resides in a 
hole or den underground, out of which it emerges 
by night in quest of food; feeding chiefly on 
roots and fruits; but it will also devour frogs, 
worms, &c. The Badger is of an uniform grey<- 
colour on the upper parts ; and the throat, breast, 
belly, and legs, are black : the face is white, and 
along each side of the head runs a long and 
somewhat triangular or pyramidal band of black, 
including the eyes and ears : the eyes are small, 
and the ears short and rounded : the claws on the 

468 BADGER. 

fore feet are very long and strait, and it is prin- 
cipally from this circumstance that Mr. Pennant 
ranks it under a separate genus, instead of in- 
cluding it under that of Ursus or Bear. Authors 
have sometimes made a distinction between what 
they have called the Sow Badger and the Dog 
Badger; hut this is supposed to be perfectly un- 
tenable, and if there be any perceptible varia- 
tion, is probably no other than a mere sexual dif- 
ference. The hair of the Badger, both on the 
body, limbs, and tail, is very thick ; and the teeth, 
legs, and claws, are very strong ; so that he makes 
a very vigorous defence when attacked. When 
taken young, the Badger' may be easily tamed, 
and generally prefers raw flesh to every other 
food in a state of captivity. It is a very cleanly 
animal, and is observed to keep its subterraneous 
mansion extremely neat. The female produces 
about three or four young : this happens in sum- 
mer*; and, according to the Count de Buffon, 
the parent seizes on young rabbets f, which she 
drags out of their burrows, birds, eggs, snakes, 
and many other animals, in order to feed her 
young. Like the Bear, this animal is also fond 
of honey, and will attack hives in order to obtain 
it. The Badger sleeps a great deal, especially 
during winter, when he imitates the practice of 

* Mr. Schreber says in February. 

f Mr. Pennant feems very much to doubt this, and can hardly 
admit the Bader to be a carnivorous animal. 


the Bear, confining himself to his den in a state 
of semi-torpidity. 

Ridinger figures a singular variety of the Bad- 
ger, of a white colour, with brown and reddish 


Ursvs ex griseojlavescens,gula pectore & abdomine albis, captie wz* 

gro lineato. 
Pale yellowish-grey B. with the throat and belly white, and the 

head striped with black. 
Ursus Labradorius. U. cauda apice inttosa ex luteo subfusca, 

gula, pectnre et abdomine albis, palmis tetradactytis. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. Gniel. p. 102. 

Carcajou. Buff, svppl. 3. p. 242. pi. 49. 
American Badger. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 15. 

IN its general appearance this extremely re- 
sembles the common Badger, and might almost 
pass for a variety only : it is, however, somewhat 
smaller, and the black bands on the face are 
much narrower and do not include the eyes, but 
commence behind them, and run along the top 
of the neck : the ears are surrounded with black : 
the upper parts of the body are nearly of the 
same colour as in the common Badger, but ra- 
ther paler, and with a slight yellowish cast ; and 
the breast and belly are of a light ash-colour, in- 
stead of black : the legs are of a dusky brown: 
the claws are at least as long and strong as in the 
European Badger, if not more so. In the speci- 
men described by the Count de Buifon there were 


only four claws on the fore feet; but this was sur- 
mised to have been rather owing to some acci- 
dental circumstance than truly natural; though 
it appears to have been considered by Dr. Gmelin 
as forming part of the genuine specific character 
of the animal. This species is rather scarce in 
America. It is found in the neighbourhood of 
Hudson's Bay, and in Terra di Labrador, and, 
as Mr. Pennant suspects, as low as Pensylvania, 
where it is called the Ground Hog. 

VAR. r 

A variety of this is found in some parts of Ame- 
rica, with the under parts slightly tinged with 
yellow. It is mentioned by Brisson under the title 
of Meles supra alba, infra ex albo jlavicans. 


Ursus Indicus. U supra albus, infra niger. 

B. white above, black beneath. 

Indian Badger. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 16. 

MR. PENNANT is the first and only describer 
of this species, which was brought from India, 
and was in the possession of the late Mr. John 
Hunter. Its length from nose to tail was about 
two feet, of the tail four inches. It had five 
toes on each foot; the inner small; the claws very 
long and strait. The head was small; the nose 
pointed ; there was scarce any appearance of ex- 


ternal ears, only a small prominent rim round the 
orifice, which was oval : the colour of the nose, 
and face a little beyond the eyes, black: the 
crown, upper part of the neck, back, and upper 
part of the tail, white, a little inclining to grey- 
ish : the legs, thighs, breast, belly, sides, and un- 
der part of the tail, black. It fed on flesh, and 
was of a lively and playful disposition. 

I cannot but observe, that the above species 
seems extremely nearly allied to one or two ani- 
mals of the genus Viverra; resembling them in 
size and colour, viz. the Ratel (Viverra Melli- 
vora) and the Cape Weesel (Viverra Capensis). 
It may even be doubted whether Viveme just 
mentioned may not in reality constitute one and 
the same species. 



Generic Character. 

Denies Primores minuti, ro 

Superiores decem, intermediis 

duobus longioribus. 
Inferiores octo, intermediis 

duobus latioribus brevissi- 


Laniarii longi. 
Molares denticulati. 
Lingua papillis ciliata. 
Folliculus (plerisque) abdomi- 

nalis mammarum. 

Front-teeth small, rounded. 

Superior ten, the two middle 
ones longer. 

Inferior eight, the two mid- 
dle ones broader and very 

Canine-teeth long. 

Grinders denticulated. 

Tongue ciliated with papillae. 

Abdominal pouch (in most spe- 
cies) containing the teats. 

HE animals of this highly singular genus first 
became known to naturalists on the discovery of 
the Western Continent, and most justly excited 
the admiration of the philosophic world, by the 
strange, and, till then, unheard-of contrivance of 
Nature for the protection and preservation of the 
young; which, instead of being exposed, like 
other animals, during their state of helpless im- 
becility to the casualties incident to that period, 
were securely concealed in a pouch or receptacle 
situated under the body of the parent. 




The Opossums were long supposed to be pe- 
culiar to America; but later discoveries have 
evinced that several species, unknown to Ame- 
rica, exist in other parts of the globe. It is ne- 
cessary to observe, that a degree of confusion still 
prevails among authors, relative to the synonyms 
of the different species. 


Didelphis Virginiana. D. subcinereo-jlavescens, cauda unda, au+ 

riculis rotundatls nudis nigris, margine albis. 
Yellowish-grey naked- tailed Opossum, with black, naked, 

rounded ears edged with white. 
D. Marsupialis? Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 71. 
D. Opossum? Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 105. 
Opossum. Phil. Trans, abr. 2. p. 884. pi. 13. 
Virginian Opossum. Museum Leverianum, vol. I. p. 24. pi. 6. 

THIS, which seems to have been the species 
first discovered in America, is not much inferior 
in size to a Cat, but is of a thicker form, owing 
to the length and upright growth of the fur. 
The general measure seems to be about one foot 
four 'inches from the nose to the tail, which is 
commonly about a foot or thirteen inches long*, 
It is an animal of an inelegant aspect; having a 
long, sharpened face, and very wide mouth. 

* Mr. Pennant, in his last edition of the History of Quadrupeds, 
says, about twenty inches from the tip of the nose to the base of 
the tail : of the tail thirteen inches. 

V. I. P. II; 81 


armed with very numerous sharp teeth : the ears 
are thin, naked, blackish, round, and edged with 
a border of white : the legs are short : the feet 
armed with sharp claws, but the interior toes or 
thumbs of the hind feet are flat and rounded, and 
have nails like those of the Monkey tribe : the 
tail is blackish at its origin, and covered with 
longish hair, but from that part to the end is 
naked, and covered with a scaly skin, the divi- 
sions of which are marked in such a manner as 
to give the tail very much the appearance of a 
whitish snake : it is strongly prehensile, or pos- 
sessed of the power of coiling, like those of se- 
veral Monkies, round any object from which the 
animal pleases to suspend itself. Its general co- 
lour is a dingy yellowish white ; the legs black- 
ish; the tail, as before observed, blackish, and 
furred to some little distance from the base, 
and from thence to the tip naked: the belly 
is white; and its lower part, in the female, is 
furnished with a large cavity or receptacle, which 
can be opened and closed at pleasure : in this are 
situated the teats; and in it the young, imme- 
diately after birth, are either placed by the pa- 
rent animal, or introduce themselves; for this 
is one of those particulars in natural history 
which hitherto seems to have eluded investiga- 
tion: it is, however, more than probable, that 
the parent herself places them there ; since, even 
long after their residence in it, they are void of 
hair, and resemble foetuses or embryos, strongly 
adhering to the teats. When they have attain- 


ed sufficient growth and strength, they emerge, 
after which they occasionally take refuge in the 
same receptacle on the appearance of any dan- 
ger, and are earned about by the parent. This 
is the practice with most of the Opossum tribe ; 
but there are two species which have no ventral 
pouch for the reception of their young, but a kind 
of depression or furrow in its stead. 

When imported into Europe (at least into our 
own island), the Opossums have never been 
known to breed; the late Mr. John Hunter having 
frequently procured several for this purpose, but 
could by no means succeed in his endeavours to 
ascertain the particulars of their history in this 
respect. The Kanguroo, however, which is an 
example 0f a similar contrivance of Nature, has 
afforded opportunities of illustrating the subject 
more satisfactorily. 

The Virginian Opossum, like all the other Ame- 
rican species, is a carnivorous animal, and preys 
on poultry, small birds, &c. in the manner of the 
European Polecat: it is also frugivorous, eating- 
several kinds of roots, fruits, &c. It is of a gen- 
tle disposition, and may easily be tamed; but, like 
some other species, it has a disagreeable smell : 
its voice is a sort of grunting squeak : its pace in 
running is not swift, but it is very expert in 
climbing trees, and readily passes, by means of 
its clinging tail, from bough to bough, in the 
manner of a Monkey. The female produces 
four or five at a birth, and has the power of 


closing the pouch so strongly as to make it ex- 
tremely difficult to open it by the hand ; nor will 
any torture compel the animal to loosen it. This 
power of strongly closing the pouch is performed 
by certain bones and muscles which Nature has 
provided for that purpose. These were observed 
and described by the celebrated Cowper, in the last 
century, as also by Dr. Tyson. The female, when 
ready to produce her young, is said to make her- 
self a nest of dry grass, in some bush, near the 
root of a tree. 

A variety of this species is sometimes seen, in 
which the back is of a deep brown. This is the 
Ditklphis Molucca of Gmelin's edition of the Sys- 
tema Naturae of Linnaeus. 


Didelphis Marsupialis. D.fusca, cauda mida. 

Brown O. with naked tail. 

D. mammis octo intra abdomen. Ijn. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. iOj, 

Philander Amboinensis atro-spadiceus in dorso, in ventre ex al- 

bido cinereo-flavicans, maculis supra oculos obscure fuscis. 

Briss. Quadr. 201. 

Philander Orientalis foem. Seb. mus. i. ;;. 61. t. 38. f. i, 
Molucca Opossum. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 20. 
Sarigue, ou 1'Opossum. Buff. io.p. 279. pi. 45, 46. 

THIS, which is a larger species than the for- 
mer, seems to have been first described and figured 
by Seba, in his work intituled Thesaurus Rerum 
Naturalium. It is of a thinner or more slender 




liooJanHiXoncLcnfubli/hd, by .ZXtarsly Fleet Slrett 


GKJEAT ORIENTAL, OF o s s UM. from. 


habit than the Virginian Opossum, with the snout 
longer and the mouth wider in proportion. The 
Count de Buffon, however, considered it as the 
same species, and accuses Seba of negligence or 
ignorance in representing it as a native of the 
East Indies; contending that all the animals of 
this genus are natives of the New World. Sub- 
sequent discoveries, however, have amply justified 
Seba's account of its residence , specimens having 
been frequently imported from the Indian islands, 
&c. Its colour is a moderately deep brown, 
paler beneath; the ears moderately large, and 
somewhat longer in proportion than in the Vir- 
ginian Opossum, or not of so rounded a form : 
the tail nearly similar to that of the Virginian : but 
the superior size, and thinner form both of body 
and limbs, together with its much darker colour, 
sufficiently distinguish it, even at first sight, from 
the former species. It is found in great plenty 
in Aroe and Solor, and is known in some parts of 
the East Indies by the name of Pelander Aroe, or 
the Aroe Rabbet. It also occurs in the hotter 
parts of South America, and particularly at Suri- 
nam. It is reckoned a delicate food, and is said 
to be often seen at the tables of the great in In- 
dia, where it is reared with Rabbets. 


Philander maximus orientalis. Seba i. p. 64. t. 39. 

A supposed variety of the above, but, perhaps, 
a distinct species, is described and figured by 


Seba. It is still larger than the preceding ani- 
mal, and appears to have broader ears, and a 
longer and more slender tail. Its colour is darker, 
its fur harsher or coarser, and over each eye is 
a dusky spot. It feeds, according to Seba, on 
fruits, and is a native of Amboina. The indi- 
vidual represented by Seba was a female. 

Mr. Pennant very properly observes, that the 
Count de Buffon seems to have been unacquainted 
with the Virginian Opossum, and has figured the 
Indian Opossum or D. marsupialis, imagining it to 
have been the Virginian species ; to which his ac- 
count of its manners, and the synonyms which he 
has collected, refer. It may be proper to observe 
here that great ambiguity and confusion seems still 
to prevail among writers on natural history with 
respect to the different species of Opossums, 


Pidelphjs Cayopollin. D. cauda corpore longiore, marsupio nullu, 
orbitarum margine nigro, Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 106. 

Brown Opossum, with tail longer than the body, and the eyes 
surrounded with a blackish border. 

Mus Africanus Cayopollin dictus. Seb. mus. i . p. 49, t. 3 i.f. 3. <? 

Cayopollin. Buff. 10. p. 350. pi, 55. 

Mexican Opossum. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 24. 

THE Cayopollin or Mexican Opossum has large 
angular, naked, transparent ears, thickish snout, 
and large whiskers. Its colour above is a brown- 
ish or tawny ash-colour, pale grey or whitish be- 
neath : the face is also whitish, with a dark line 


down the middle, and a blackish or brown border 
round the eyes, as in some other species : the legs 
are dusky, and the claws white. The measure of 
the animal from nose to tail is nine inches, and of 
the tail the same, which is spotted with brown 
and white, and is coated with hair to the distance 
of about an inch from the base, the remainder 
being naked. The measures of this species, as 
given by Mr. Schreber, are somewhat different. 
He says the length of the animal is somewhat 
more than seven inches, and of the tail more than 
eleven. It is a native of the mountains of Mexico, 
where it lives among trees. 


Didelphis Brachyura. D. cauda pilosa et auricidis cahis breris- 
simis, marsupio nullo, corpore nifo. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmd 
p. 1 08. Schreb. saeughth. p. 548. t. 101. 

Mus sylvestris Americana foemina. Seb. mm. i. p. 50. t. 31. 

Short-tailed Opossum. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 26. 

THIS is one of the smaller species; and is said 
seldom to exceed the length of five inches from 
nose to tail; and in general to be somewhat 
smaller than this; and the tail scarce exceeds the 
length of two inches. Its colour is a reddish 
brown, on the upper parts, and whitish beneath ; 
it is destitute of an abdominal pouch ; the young 
fastening themselves to the teats. The fur of this 
animal is very soft and elegant ; the tail is very thick 


at the base, and gradually tapers to the. end. It 
is a native of South America. 


Didelphis Brunii. D. cauda brem calva, pedibus posticis longiori* 

bus tridactylis, Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p, 109. 
O. with short naked tail, and long tridactylous hind feet. 
Filander. Le Brun. voy. p. 347. f. 213. 
Javan Opossum. Pennant Quadr. 22. 

THIS species was first discovered by Le Bruyn 
the traveller, who had an opportunity of con- 
templating it in the island of Java. The head is 
narrow and fox-like : the ears upright : the gene- 
ral colour of the animal is a pale yellowish brown, 
with a brown stripe up the forehead : in the upper 
jaw are six cutting teeth : in the lower only two, 
which are formed like those of a Squirrel. Le 
Bruyn's figure represents it sitting up in a pos- 
ture similar to that of a Jerboa, or the Kanguroo; 
to which latter, indeed, it is allied in the remark- 
able particularity of the two exterior toes of the 
hind feet being inclosed under a common skin, 
as well as in its leaping pace, and the general form 
of the hind legs and feet; the fore feet have five 
toes: the abdominal pouch is large, and in it are 
preserved the young, which Le Bruyn observed 
peeping out at intervals. It is said to be about 
the size of a hare. 



Didelphis Orientalis. D. cauda ad medium fere jrilosa, corporis 
longitudine,folliculo abdommali, plantarum digitis duobus inter- 
mediis coadunatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 108. 

Ferruginous O. whitish beneath, with blackish dorsal line, tail 
of the length of the body, and hairy almost to the middle, 
and the two middle toes of the hind feet united. 

Phalanger. Buff. 

Phalanger. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. if. 

THE Phalanger is of the size of a very large 
rat, measuring about nine inches from nose to 
tail, and the tail measures ten inches. It is a na- 
tive of the Molucca islands, and is supposed to 
be unknown in America, though the Count de 
Buffon informs us, that the specimens which he 
examined were transmitted to him under the 
name of Rats of Surinam. The colour of the 
Phalanger is rufous grey on the upper part, and 
yellowish white beneath, and along the top of the 
head and the back runs a blackish line: the tail 
is hairy for about two inches and a half from the 
base, and the remainder is naked. Its voice is 
said to resemble that of a squirrel, and it often 
assumes the attitude of a squirrel when feeding. 
The muzzle is rather thick : the ears short, and 
covered with hair: in the upper jaw are eight 
cutting- teeth, and two in the lower. 



Didelphis Cancrivora. D. caitda squamosa fere calva corpus 
prope cequante, plantarum ungue pollicari piano. Lin. Syst, 
Nat. Gmelp. 108. 

O. with nearly naked scaly tail almost the length of the body, 
and the nail of the thumbs flat. 

Crabier. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 272. pi. 54. 

THIS species was first described by the Count 
de Buffon. It is a native of Cayenne, and is said 
to be a very active animal, living on trees by day, 
and by night descending into marshy places in 
order to prey on crabs, which it draws out of 
their holes by its feet, and sometimes by its tail. 
Its colour above is a reddish tawny, and below 
yellowish : the fur is somewhat woolly, but beset 
with much coarser or more bristly external hairs, 
especially along the back, where they almost form 
a kind of dusky mane : the fore feet have nails, 
the hind feet claws, except the thumbs or interior 
toes, which have nails : the face is long and slen- 
der; the ears upright, short, and pointed: the 
tail very long, taper, and naked. The length of 
that described by Buffon (which was but young) 
was seventeen inches, and of the tail fifteen. 


Didelphis Philander. D. cauda basi pilosa, mammis quaternis. 

O. with the tail hairy at the base, and with four teats in the ab- 
dominal pouch. 

D. cauda bisi pilosa, auriculis jxndulis, mammis quaternis. Lin. 
Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 72. 

Der Faras (D. Philander). Schreb. saeughth. I. p. 541. t. 147. 

Tlaquatzin. Seb. mus. I. p. 57. t. 36. f. 4. 

THE Philander is about the size of a large 
rat: the head is large, the snout thick, and the 
ears rounded and upright, though in Seba's figure, 
as well as in the Linnaean description, they are 
said to be pendulous: the abdominal pouch con- 
tains two large mammae, each furnished with two 
teats. Seba, in his figure., represents these parts 
distinctly, but without any appearance of the 
pouch, and expressly affirms in the description, 
that this species is not furnished with one; but 
Mr. Schreber seems perfectly convinced that this 
must have been merely owing to an error or over- 
sight in the conduct both of the figure and de- 
scription, and affirms that the pouch or receptacle 
really exists in this species. The tail is longer 
than the body, and is hairy for some little dis- 
tance from the base, the remainder being naked, 
and towards the end prehensile. The length of 
the body is nine inches, and of the tail thirteen. 
The Philander is of a reddish brown above, and 
whitish beneath : the eyes are surrounded with a 
brownish border; the mouth on each side is beset 
with very long vibrissae or whiskers; down the 


forehead runs a brownish stripe : the thumbs on 
the hind feet are rounded, as in most others of 
this genus. 

It has ten upper fore teeth, of which the mid- 
dle ones are rather longer than the rest; and 
eight lower fore teeth, the middle ones rather 
longest, and standing distant. It is a native of 
Surinam, and, in all probability, of several other 
parts of South America. 


Didelphis Murina. D. cauda semipilosa, mammis senis. Lin, 

Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 107. 
O. with tail half naked, and six teats. 
Marmose. Buff- 10. p. 335. pi. 52, 53. 
Murine Opossum. Pennant Quadr. i. p. 23. 

THIS is one of the smaller Opossums, measur- 
ing about six or eight inches from nose to tail, 
which is nearly of similar length. It is of a 
somewhat slender form, with a long and sharpish 
snout and a wide mouth : the ears are large and 
rounded, and the tail naked, or scaly its whole 
length, but coated with straggling hairs for about 
two inches from the base, or even much less. 
This species has no ventral pouch, but on each 
side the lower part of the abdomen is a longitu- 
dinal furrow or fold, in the cavity of which the 
teats are situated. The general colour of the 
Murine Opossum is a kind of tawny brown above, 
and whitish beneath : the eyes are encircled with 


black: in its general mode of life it resembles 
others of this genus: it produces ten or more 
young at a birth, which immediately afterwards 
affix themselves to the teats, and remain there till 
they attain their proper growth and strength. It 
is a native of South America, and particularly of 

The feet in this species are all furnished with 
sharp claws, except on the thumbs or great toes 
of the hind feet, which have rounded nails. It 
is in this particular that it seems chiefly to differ 
from the following species, or Merian Opossum. 


Didelphis Dorsigera. D. cauda basi pilosa, corpore langiore, 
digitis mamtum muticis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmd. p. 107. 

Pouchless O. with naked tail, hairy at the base, and the fore feet 
without claws. 

Genus gliris sylvestris. Merian Surin. p. 66, t. 66. 

Mus seu sorex sylvestris Americanus. Seb. i. p. 48. t.^i.f. i, a. 

Philandre de Surinam. Buff'. i$-p. 157. 

Merian Opossum. Pennant Qvadr. i. p. 27. 

THIS species is so named from the celebrated 
Madame Merian, who has introduced a figure of 
it into her splendid work on the Insects of Suri- 
nam. Madame Merian 's own account of the ani- 
mal is as follows: " By way of filling up a plate I 
have represented a kind of Wood-Rat, which al- 
ways carries her young ones (of which there are 
commonly five or six) upon her back: she is of a 


yellowish brown colour, and white beneath : when 
these rats come out of their hole, either to play 
or to seek their food, they run about with their 
mother, but when they are satisfied with food, or 
are apprehensive of danger, they climb up again 
on the back of the mother, and twist their tails 
round that of the parent, who runs with them 
into her hole again." 

It is necessary to observe, that in Madame 
Merian's figure the feet are not accurately repre- 
sented : this is observed by Seba, who assures us, 
that the toes on the fore feet are all furnished 
with small round nails, while those on the hind 
feet have sharp claws, except the thumb or inte- 
rior toe, which has a rounded nail, like those on 
the fore feet. In colour this species seems to 
vary a little, being either of a deep brown above, 
and white beneath ; or of a yellowish-brown above, 
and yellowish-white beneath. The eyes, as in the 
former species or Murine Opossum, are surrounded 
with a darker or blacker colour than on the rest 
of the animal, and indeed there seems to be some 
reason for supposing that this and the Murine 
Opossum may be one and the same species. The 
number of teats in the Didelphis Murina of Lin. 
is said to be only six; Mr. Pennant, on the con- 
trary, assures us that they sometimes amount to 
ten or fourteen. The teats of the Merian Opos- 
sum are not particularized by its describers, but 
the number of young is said to be generally five or 
six. In the Leverian Museum is an elegant spe- 
cimen of this animal. 




Didelphis Lemurina. D. cinerea, subtus fulvescens, cauda tcreti 

vUlosa prehensili nigra. 
Cinereous Opossum, tawny beneath, with cylindric, black, furry, 

prehensile tail. 
. Wha Tapoa Roo. Whites Journ. of a voyage to New South 

Wales, p. 278. 
Opossum from New South Wales. Bewick's Hist, of Quadr. 

p. 376. 
New Holland Bear. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 13. 

THIS is a large species, being equal in size to 
a Cat, but longer bodied in proportion. Its co- 
lour is a fine brownish or iron-grey above, and 
pale yellowish-brown beneath; in some specimens 
nearly white: the sides of the neck and the feet 
have also a tinge of this colour: the fur on the 
whole animal is extremely thick, rich, and soft, 
scarce yielding in elegance to that of the Petaurus 
or Great Flying Opossum: the muzzle is short and 
roundish; the whiskers large and black; the ears 
upright, large, and a little inclining to a pointed 
form at the tips : the eyes bright and reddish : the 
hind feet furnished with a rounded interior toe : 
the tail, which is thick, long, and very furry, is 
prehensile, and is of the same colour with the 
body for about a fourth of its length; the remain- 
der being black: it is naked beneath to a great 
distance from the tip. The general length of the 
body is about eighteen inches; of the tail about 
twelve. Living specimens of this beautiful ani- 
mal have been brought into England. In theif 


manner of life they resemble the rest of this ge- 
nus, feeding on small birds, vegetables, &c. In 
feeding they often sit in the manner of a squirrel, 
holding their food in their hands. 

In Mr. White's Journal of a Voyage to New 
South Wales we have a description of this species 
by the late Mr. John Hunter, containing some 
remarks relative to the appearance of the teeth, 
which cannot fail to be interesting to every ana- 

" This animal (says Mr. Hunter) is about the 
size of a Raccoon, is of a dark grey colour on the 
back, becoming lighter on the sides, which ter- 
minates in a rich brown on the belly. The hair 
is of two kinds, a long hair, and a kind of fur, 
and even the long hair, at the roots, is of the fur 

" The head is short; the eyes rather promi- 
nent; the ears broad, not peaked. 

" The teeth resemble those of all the animals 
from that country I have ever seen. 

" The incisors are not continued into the 
grinders by intermediate teeth, although there 
are two teeth in the intermediate space in the up- 
per jaw, and one in the lower. The incisors are 
similar to those of the Kangaroo, and six in num- 
ber in the upper jaw, opposed by two in the 
lower, which have an oblique surface extending 
some distance from their edge, so as to increase 
the surface of contact. 

f< There are two cuspidati on each side in the 
upper jaw, and only one in the lower; live grinders 


on each side of each jaw, the first rather pointed, 
the others appear nearly of the same size, and 
quadrangular in their shape, with a hollow running 
across their base from the outside to the inner, 
which is of some depth ; and another which crosses 
it, but not so deep, dividing the surface into four 

" On the fore foot there are five toes, the inner 
the shortest, resembling, in a slight degree, a 
thumb. The hind foot resembles a hand, or that 
of the Monkey and Opossum, the great toe hav- 
ing no nail, and opposing the whole sole of the 
foot, which is bare. The nails on the other toes, 
both of the fore and hind foot, resemble, in a small 
degree, those of the Cat, being broad and co- 
vered: and the last bone of the toe has a projec- 
tion on the under side, at the articulation. Each 
nail has, in some degree, a small sheath, covering 
its base when drawn up. The tail is long, co- 
vered with long hair, except on the under sur- 
face of that half towards the termination, of the 
breadth of half an inch, becoming broader near 
the tip or termination: this surface is covered 
with a strong cuticle, and is adapted for laying 
hold." White's Journal, p. 278. 

v. i. P. ii. 



Didelphis Obesula. D. subferruginea,' subtus albescens, cauda 
longiuscula, pedibus anticis pentadactylis, ungue exteriore utrin- 
que brevissimo, posticis tetradactylis, digitis interioribus unitis. 

Subferruginous Opossum, whitish beneath, with longish tail; 
the fore feet pentadactylous, with very small exterior claws : 
the hind feet tetradactylous, with the two interior toes united. 
Naturalist's Miscellany, No. 96. t. 298. 

A SPECIMEN of this is preserved in Mr. Hun- 
ter's Museum. It is about the size of a half- 
grown domestic rat, and is remarkable for a thicker 
or more corpulent habit than most others of the 
genus. The hind legs are considerably longer 
than the fore legs, and have in miniature the 
form of those of the Kangaroo and some other 
Australasian quadrupeds ; though the middle claws 
are far less in proportion : the interior ones are 
double, or both covered by a common skin. The 
colour of this species is a pale yellow-brown, paler 
and inclining- to whitish beneath : and its hair is 


of a coarser or more harsh appearance than in the 
rest of the small Opossums : the ears are round- 
ed: the tail rather long. When viewed in a cur- 
sory manner, the animal bears a distant resem- 
blance to a pig in miniature. 






Didelphis Viverrina. D. nigra, albo maculata, cauda villosa. 

Var. D.fusca, immaculata, cauda vUlosa. 

Black O. spotted with white, with villose tail. 

The Tapoa Tafa, or Tapha. White's Journ. p. 281, 285. 

Spotted Opossum ? Phillips voy. to Bot. Bay, p. 147. 

THIS animal is remarkable for its slender form, 
and this, together with its sharpened visage and 
long brushy tail, gives it, at first view, the appear- 
ance of one of the Weesel tribe rather than that 
of an Opossum. Its general size seems to be 
that of a Stoat, measuring about ten inches from 
nose to tail; and the tail itself about eight 
inches. It appears, however, to vary in size, 
since different describers differ greatly in their 
accounts. In the work of Governor Phillip 
(published by Mr. Stockdale in the year 1789), 
it is said to measure about fifteen inches from 
the nose to the tail ; the tail measuring about ten 
inches; but, in Mr. White's publication, the de- 
scription, by Mr. Hunter, states the animal to 
be about the size of a rat. The different age 
of the specimens examined may account for 
these discrepances. The colour of the whole 
animal is a deep glossy black, the whole body 
and outsides of the limbs being spotted with 
pretty numerous large and somewhat irregular 
patches of white. If, however, we admit Mr. 
Hunter's idea on this subject, the black and white 
animal just described is of the same species 


with a brown one of the same size, and differing 
only in colour. The brown variety is that which 
Mr. Hunter, in the publication before referred 
to, has very accurately described. 

" This animal (says Mr. H.) is of the size of 
a rat, and has very much the appearance of the 
Martin Cat, but hardly so long in the body in 
proportion to its size. 

" The head is flat forwards, and broad from 
side to side, especially between the eyes and ears ; 
the nose is peaked, and projecting beyond the 
teeth, which makes the upper jaw appear to be 
considerably longer than the lower : the eyes are 
pretty large; the ears broad, especially at their 
base, not becoming regularly narrower to a point, 
nor with a very smooth edge, and having a 
small process on the concave, or inner surface, 
near to the base. It has long whiskers from 
the sides of the cheeks, which begin forwards near 
the nose, by small and short hairs, and become 
longer and stronger as they approach the eyes. 
It has very much the air of a rat, to which it 
is similar in colour ; but near to the setting on of 
the tail it is of a lighter brown, forming a broad 
ring: round it. The fore feet are shorter than the 


hind, but much in the same proportion as those 
of the rat; the hind feet are more flexible. There 
are five toes on the fore feet, the middle the 
largest, falling off on each side nearly equally; 
but the fore or inner toe is rather shortest : they 
are thin from side to side, the nails are pretty 
broad laterally, and thin at their base; not very 


long, but sharp. The animal walks on its whole 
palm, on which there is no hair. The hind feet 
are pretty long, and have five toes; that which 
answers to our great toe is very short, and has no 
nail ; the next is the longest in the whole, falling 
gradually off to the outer toe ; the shape of the 
hind toes is the same as in the fore feet, as are 
likewise the nails : it walks nearly on the whole 
foot. The tail is covered with long hair, but not 
all of the same colour. 

" The teeth of this creature are different from 
any other animal yet known. The mouth is full 
of teeth. The lower jaw narrow in comparison 
to the upper, more especially backwards, which 
allows of much broader grinders in this jaw than 
in the lower, and which occasions the grinders in 
the upper jaw to project considerably over those 
in the lower. In the middle the cuspidati oppose 
one another, the upper piercers, or holders, go 
behind those of the lower; the second class of in- 
cisors in the lower jaw overtop those of the up- 
per, while the two first in the lower go within, or 
behind those of the upper. In the upper jaw, 
before the holders, there are four teeth on each 
side, three of which are pointed, the point stand- 
ing on the inner surface; and the two in front are 
longer, stand more obliquely forwards, and appear 
to be appropriated for a particular use. The 
holders are a little way behind the last fore teeth, 
to allow those of the lower jaw to come between. 
They are pretty long, the cuspidati on each side 


become longer and larger towards the grinders; 
they are points or cones placed on a broad base. 

" There are four grinders on each side, the 
middle two the laro-est, the last the least; their 

o * 

base is a triangle of the scalenus kind, or having 
one angle obtuse and two acute. Their base is 
composed of two surfaces, an inner and an outer, 
divided by processes or points : it is the inner that 
the grinders of the lower jaw oppose, when the 
mouth is regularly shut. The lower jaw has three 
fore teeth, or incisors, on each side; the first con- 
siderably the largest, projecting obliquely for- 
wards; the other two of the same kind, but 
smaller, the last the smallest. 

" The holder in this jaw is. not so large as in 
the upper jaw, and close to the incisors. There 
are three cuspidati, the middle one the largest, 
the last the least; these are cones standing on 
their base, but not on the middle, rather on the 
anterior side. There are four grinders, the two 
middle the largest, and rather quadrangular, each 
of which has a high point or cone on the outer 
edge, with a smaller, and three more diminutive 
on the inner edge. 

" It is impossible to say critically what the va- 
rious forms of these teeth are adapted for from 
the general principles of teeth. In the front we 
have what may divide and tear off; behind those 
there are holders or destroyers ; behind the latter 
such as will assist in mashing, as the grinders of 
the Lion, and other carnivorous animals ; and, 


last of all, grinders, to divide parts into smaller 
portions, as in the graminivorous tribe : the arti- 
culation of the jaw in some degree admits of all 
those motions." Whites Journ. p. 281. 

The spotted kind, first mentioned, Mr. Hun- 
ter considers as the lt same species, differing only 
in its extemal colour, and in being spotted." 

In wild animals, however, of the same species, 
so remarkable a difference in point of colour must 
surely be admitted to be no very common cir- 
cumstance. The general appearance in both is 
indeed nearly the same; yet they may still differ 
specifically. As this is a point, however, which 
nothing but accurate and repeated examination 
of the living animals can determine, I shall, in 
compliance with so great an authority, consider 
them at present as constituting one species. 

The plate, which is accurately copied from 
Mr. White's publication, represents both the spe- 


Didelphis Petaurus. D. hypochondriis prolixis wlitans, supra 
cinereo-nigricans ferruginco tincta, subtus albida, cauda longa 
subtereti villosissima. 

Blackish-grey Opossum, tinged with ferruginous ; whitish be- 
neath ; with lateral flying membrane, and long, subcylindric, 
very villose tail. 

Hepoona Roo. White's Journal, p. 288. 

The Southern Petaurus. Naturalist's Miscellany, pi. 60. 

THE size, colours, and form, of the Petaurine or 
great flying Opossum of New Holland, conspire 
to render it one of the most beautiful of quadru- 
peds. It measures about twenty-two inches from 
the tip of the nose to the beginning of the tail, 
which is twenty inches in length. The body is 
about the size of a half-grown cat or a small rab- 
bet, and the general appearance of the animal is 
similar to that of a flying squirrel; an expansile 
membrane, covered with fur, stretching frohi the 
fore legs to the hind on each side of the body, 
and thus enabling the animal to spring to a con- 
siderable distance at pleasure. 

The general colour of this species is a very fine 
sable, or deep grey-brown above, varied with a 
cast of ferruginous : beneath it is nearly white : a 
stripe of darker or blacker brown than the rest 
runs along the back from head to tail : the fur 
near the edge of the flying membrane on its up- 
per part has also a blacker or darker tinge than 
on the other parts, while the edge itself is white, 
thus forming a beautiful contrast of colour round 




the whole border of the membrane : a darker or 
blacker shade than on the rest of the fur prevails 
on the upper parts of the shoulders, extending over 
each side of the neck. The tail is at least equal 
to the whole length of the head and body, and is 
extremely full of long, soft fur, of a blacker cast 
than the rest, particularly towards the end, where 
it is longer or more floccy than towards the base: 
the whole is of a roundish or subcylindric form, 
but from the disposition of the long fur, has a 
slightly flattened appearance towards the ex- 
tremity. This species is most elegantly figured 
in Mr. White's Journal: and the representation 
here given is copied from the same plate, as was 
also the figure published some years past in the 
Naturalist's Miscellany, under the title of Petau- 
rus; it being then supposed that this animal had 
no abdominal pouch; for which reason I at that 
time considered it as belonging to the tribe of 
flying squirrels, and separated them from the rest 
under a distinct genus of the above denomina- 

The native name of this animal is Hepoona 



Didelphis Sciurea. D. hypochondriis prolixis volitans, supra 
can a, subtus nivea, cauda villosissima pre/iensili, apicem versus 
nigra. ZooL of New Holland, No. 4. p. 29. t. n. 

Pale-grey Opossum, snow-white beneath, with lateral flying 
membrane and very villose prehensile tail. 

THIS is perhaps the most beautiful quadruped, 
if we except the Petaurus or Great Flying Opos- 
sum, of all the Australasian species yet discovered. 
In its general aspect it has so much the appear- 
ance of a Squirrel, that, on a cursory view, it 
might readily pass for such. A more exact inr 
spection into its characters will, however, evince 
it to be a genuine Opossum. Its size is nearly 
that of a common Squirrel ; but, from the fullness 
and particular growth of the fur, which, like that 
of the Lemur, grows in a suberect manner, it ap- 
pears somewhat larger. Its general colour is ex- 
actly like that of the Sciurus cinereus, or Ameri- 
can Grey Squirrel. A black stripe passes over 
each eye along the top of the head : under each 
ear is a black patch surrounded with white; the 
hair on the white part having a more soft or floc- 
culent appearance than the black. The tail, 
which is prehensile, is of the same colour with 
the body for about half its length, the remainder 
being black. It is very full of hair, and tapers a 
little towards the extremity, but without any acute 
termination. The eyes are black, rounded, and 
full : the ears round, shortish, and very thin : the 


iS0o.fri?jJ.on<len.PiibtifhJ fy Kranfy, fleet ftrrtt. 


whole under side of the animal is milk-white: the 
upper parts of the feet are also white, and the 
edge of the lateral or flying membrane, which 
extends from the fore feet to the hind, is edged 
with a blackish border, as in the flying squirrels. 
The abdominal pouch is of considerable size, and 
is situated as in other Opossums, on the lower 
part of the abdomen : the hind feet are furnished 
with a rounded, unarmed, or mutic thumb. No- 
thing can exceed the softness and delicacy of this 
animal's fur, which is, if possible, still finer than 
that of the Petaurus, to which indeed, though 
very greatly inferior in size, as well as widely dif- 
ferent in colour, it yet bears a striking affinity. 
It is a nocturnal animal, and continues torpid 
the greatest part of the day, but during the 
night is full of activity. In this, as well as 
in other Australian Opossums, the two toes on 
the hind feet nearest the thumb or rounded one, 
are connate, or both conjoined under one com- 
mon skin. 

Some of this species were brought over a few 
years since, and lived a considerable time: the 
beautiful representation given in the third number 
of the work intituled Zoology of New Holland, was 
drawn from one in the possession of T. Wilson, Esq. 
to whom it was presented by Mr. White, chief sur 
geon to the English settlement in New Holland. 

Mr. Pennant, in the last edition of his History 
of Quadrupeds, appears, through some oversight, 
to have described it as a Squirrel, under the name 
of the Norfolk-Isle Squirrel. In all probability 


Mr. P. had not an opportunity of contemplating 
the living animal, but took his description from a 


VAR. ? 

Among some drawings in Mr. White's collec- 
tion, I observed a figure which in every respect 
seemed to agree with the above animal, except in 
having the tail of the same colour with the body 
except near the tip, where it was marked with a 
bar of black, the tip itself being white. This draw- 
ing was not more than half the size of the preced- 
ing species, but as no particular size was specified, 
and as there was reason for supposing it to relate 
to the former animal, I here place it as a variety 


Didelphis Macroura. D. hypochondriis proKxis volitans, supra 
cinerea, subtus albida cauda longissima attenuata nigra. New 
Holland Zoology, No. 3. p. 33. t. 12. 

Ash- coloured Opossum, whitish beneath with lateral flying 
membrane, and very long black tail. New Holl. Zool. p. 33. 

THIS species is about the size of a black rat, 
and is of a dark or brownish grey above, and 
Avhitish beneath : the head and neck are also whit- 
ish, but a dusky stripe runs along the top of the 
head almost to the nose: the ears are whitish, 
moderately large, and slightly rounded : the up- 




per parts of the fore feet are whitish ; and the 
lower half of the tail is of a deeper black than the 
beginning. In the structure of the feet it agrees 
with other Australian Opossums : the two interior 
toes of the hind feet being united under one com- 
mon skin. 

The dried skin of this species was sent over by 
Mr. White, and the specimen figured in the 
Zoology of New Holland was described from it. 


Didelphis Pygmaea. D. hypochondriis protixis tolitans, cauda 

piano-pi nttata lineari. 
Opossum with lateral flying membrane, and flatly.pinnated 

linear tail. New Holland Zoology, No. i. p. 5. 

THIS is by far the most minute of all the Opos- 
sums, and, from its diminutive size, not exceed- 
ing that of a common mouse, has been named the 
Pygmy Opossum. It has been most elegantly 
figured in the Zoology of New Holland, and the 
representation here given exhibits the animal in a 
similar posture. It is furnished on each side the 
body with an expansile membrane, exactly in 
the manner of the flying squirrel; by the assist- 
ance of which it is enabled to spring to a consi- 
derable distance. The fur on the whole animal 
is extremely fine : the colour is a soft or palish 
brown above, and almost white beneath: the 
edges of the flying membrane are also white : the 
nose, feet, and ears internally, are of a light pink 


or flesh-colour: the tail is of a flattened form, 
and is beautifully edged on each side with soft, 
silky hairs. The opening of the abdominal pouch 
in this species is of a semilunar form : on opening 
this receptacle in the specimen described in the 
New Holland Zoology, I discovered, on each 
side, a young one, large in proportion to the pa- 
rent animal, and totally destitute of hair: they 
had, therefore, not approached to the period of 
their second birth. In such specimens as were 
not in a pregnant state, the mammae or teats 
were extremely small, and only four in number. 
The tongue in this animal is remarkably large 
and long, and of a flattened form : the hind feet 
have rounded and unarmed thumbs, and the two 
interior toes are united under a common skin. I 
am inclined to think that this little species feeds on 
insects; and probably on young birds, eggs, &c. 


Didelphis Penicillata. JD. cinerea, subtm albida, caudic apice 

villoso nigro. 
Ash-coloured Opossum, whitish beneath, with the end of the 

tail villose and black. 

THIS species is about the size of the black rat, 
and of an elegant appearance. The general co- 
lour is cinereous or deep grey, somewhat darker 
on the back : the nose is rather sharp : the ears mo- 
derately large, and of a very slightly pointed form 
at the tips : the sides of the mouth are furnished 


with very long fine bristles or whiskers, and 
others somewhat shorter are situated above each 
eye : the feet are formed as in others of this tribe : 
the sides are dilated into a flying membrane; and 
the tail is thin and ash-coloured for nearly half 
its length, and from thence is jet black, with very 
long fine hairs, so disposed as to represent a brush 
or large camels' hair pencil. 


Didelphis Vulpina. D.ferruginea, cauda villosa nigra. 

Ferruginous O. with black villose tail. 

Vulpine Opossum. Phillip's voy. p. i^o. pi. 16. 

THIS, which is one of the larger Opossums, is 
said to measure twenty-six inches from the nose 
to the setting on of the tail, and the tail itself 
fifteen inches. The general colour of the animal 
is, on the upper parts, dusky grey, with a rufous 
tinge; all the under parts being of a tawny buff- 
colour, deepest on the throat: the tail is of the 
colour of the back for about a quarter of its length, 
and from thence to the end black : it appears from 
the representation in Mr. Phillip's voyage, to be 
well covered with fur to the very end. Upon the 
whole, I cannot help imagining that it is in re- 
ality no other than the species already described, 
under the name of the Lemur in e Opossum. 



New Holland O. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 2$. 
Opossum. Haiaskew. voy. $.p. 586. Cook's last voy. i.p. 108. 
pi. 4. 

THIS is described as about twice the size of a 
rat; and of a rusty brown colour above, whitish 
beneath : the hair soft and glossy ; the tail taper, 
and nearly the length of the body; it is covered 
with brown hair to within about four inches and 
a half at the end, where it is white, bare, and 
prehensile; the ears are short and rounded, and 
the face rather long. This species is a native of 
New Holland, and is described, but not very dis- 
tinctly, in the voyages above referred to. 


Didelphis Ursina. D.Jlavescens, labio superior? bifido. 
Yellowish O. with bifid upper lip. 

THE largest of all the Opossums : size of a Bad- 
ger: colour pale yellow: fur longish and sub- 
erect : nose strongly divided by a furrow. 

Native of New Holland : a species very lately 
discovered, and not yet fully or satisfactorily 
known or described. 




Generic Character. 

Denies Primores su.periores 

sex, emarginati. 
Inferiores duo, maximi, Ion- 

gissirai, acuminati, antror- 

sum porrecti. 
Mo/ares utrinque quinque, 


Pedes anticl brevissimi : postid 

Folliculus abdominalis fceminse. 

Front-teeth in the upper jaw 
six*, emarginated. 

In the lower jaw two, very 
large, long, sharp, and 
pointing forwards. 

Grinders five on each side, 
both in the upper and 
lower jaw, distant from 
the other teeth. 

Fore Legs very short : hind 
legs very long. 

Abdominal pouch in the fe- 


Macropus Major. M. sid)fuscus, auriculis subacuminatis, pcdibus 

anticis tetradactylis. 
Brownish Kanguroo, with sharpish ears and pentadactylous fore 

Macropus giganteus. Great Kanguroo. Naturalist's Miscellany. 

pl- 33- 

Didelphis gigantea. Lin. Syst.Nat.Gmd.p. 109. Schreb. 1. 154. 
Kanguroo. Cook's voy. (Hawkesw.) 3. p. 577. pl. 20. Phillips's 

wn/. p. 105. pl. 10. Whites voy. p. 372. pl. 54. 

VyF all the animals which the vast island, or, 
to speak more properly, continent of Australasia,, 

* In the young or half- grown animal, eight. 
v. I. P. ii. 33 


has yet presented to our view (the Platypus alone 
excepted), the Kanguroo must be considered as 
the most extraordinary: its size, general con- 
formation, teeth, and other particulars, conspir- 
ing to render it a most interesting object to every 

The first discovery of this remarkable quadru- 
ped, which had till then remained concealed in a 
distant corner of the globe, and .surveyed only by 
the eyes of savages, was in the year 1770, when 
our celebrated navigator Captain Cook was sta- 
tioned for a short time on that part of the coast 
of New Holland which is now called New South 

" On Friday, June the twenty-second (says 
Captain Cook), a party who were engaged in 
shooting pigeons for the use of the sick of the 
ship, saw an animal which they described to be 
' as large as a greyhound, of a slender make, of 
a mouse-colour, and extremely swift.'" The fol- 
lowing day the same kind of animal was again 
seen by a great many other people. On the 
twenty-fourth it was seen by Captain Cook him- 
self, who, walking at a little distance from the 
shore, observed a quadruped, which he thought 
bore some resemblance to a greyhound, and was 
of a light mouse-colour, with a long tail, and 
which he should have taken for a kind of wild 
dog, had not its extraordinary manner of leap- 
ing, instead of running, convinced him of the 
contrary. Mr. Banks also obtained a transient 


view of it, and immediately concluded it to be 
an animal perfectly new and undescribed. 

On the 1 7th of July, this gentleman, accom- 
panied by small party, went out at dawn of day 
in quest of discoveries in natural history ; and, in 
a walk of many miles, at length saw four of these 
animals, two of which were chased by his grey- 
hound, but readily outstripped their pursuer, and 
threw him out at a great distance, by leaping 
over the long grass, which prevented the dog 
from running to advantage*: all that could then 
be distinctly observed was, that the animal in 
some degree resembled the Jerboa in its manner 
of springing forwards on the hind legs, instead of 
running in the manner of other quadrupeds. 

The sight of a creature so extraordinary could 
not fail to excite, in the mind of a philosophic 
observer, the most ardent wishes for a complete 
examination. These were at length gratified; 
Mr. Gore, one of the associates in the expedition 
of Captain Cook, having been so fortunate as to 
shoot one in the course of a few days ; and it 
seems to have been from this specimen that the 
figure given in the voyage, was drawn, which 
may be considered as in reality the best hitherto 
published, except in the article of the hind feet, 
which, instead of their veiy remarkable natural 
structure, are represented something like those of 

* In such parts of the country where dogs can run with ease, 
or without being too much impeded by the long grass and shrubs, 
the Kanguroo is found unequal to the chace, and has several times 
been caught with greyhounds. 


a dog. In Mr. Schreber's work on Quadrupeds, 
as welt as in the first edition of Mr. Pennant's His- 
tory of Quadrupeds, this figure is copied with the 
fault just mentioned; but in Mr. Pennant's last 
edition it is properly corrected, and rendered a 
faithful representation : this figure, therefore, so 
far as regards the general attitude, has been se- 
lected for the present publication, accompanied 
by other sketches expressive of its different pos- 
tures*. It should seem that the first described spe- 
cimens of the Kanguroo were males ; so that one of 
its greatest singularities was still unobserved, viz. 
the large abdominal pouch or receptacle in which 
the young are preserved for many months after 
their first production ; and in which this animal is 
allied to the Opossums; while, on the contrary, it 
differs from those animals in the teeth, and is, 
at the same time, allied in habit or general form 
to the Jerboas : this, indeed, is the case also with 
one species of Opossum, viz. the Didelphis Brunii, 
which may be, therefore, considered as forming 
a kind of connecting link between the Kanguroo 
and the Opossums. 

The general size of the Kanguroo is, at least, 
equal to that of a full-grown sheep: the upper 
parts of the animal are small, while the lower are 
remarkably large in proportion ; yet such is the 
elegance of gradation in this respect, that the 
Kanguroo may justly be considered as one of the 

* These are taken from figures in Mr. Church's most elegant 
publication entitled A Cabinet of Quadrupeds. 


most picturesque of quadrupeds. The head bears 
some resemblance to that, of a deer, and the visage 
is mild and placid : the ears are moderately large, 
of a slightly sharpened form, and upright : the eyes 
large, and the mouth rather small : the neck thin 
and finely proportioned : the fore legs extremely 
short, with the feet divided into five toes, each 
furnished with a sharp and somewhat crooked 
claw. From the breast downwards the body gra- 
dually enlarges, and again decreases a little to- 
wards the tail : the thighs and hind legs are ex- 
tremely stout and long; and the feet are so con- 
structed as to appear, at first sight, to consist of 
but three toes, of which the middle is by far the 
largest, and is furnished with a claw of great 
size and strength: the exterior toe is also fur- 
nished with a very strong claw, but far smaller 
than that of the middle one ; and the interior con- 
sists of two small toes united under a common 
skin, with their respective claws placed so close to 
each other as to appear like a split or double 
claw: the whole appearance of the foot bears a 
distant resemblance to that of a bird. The Kan- 
guroo rests on the whole length of the foot, which 
is callous, blackish, and granulated beneath. The 
colour of the animal is an elegant pale brown, 
lighter or more inclining to whiteness on the ab- 
domen : the ventral pouch, or receptacle for the 
young, is situated in the same manner as in the 
Opossums, and is extremely large and deep. 

The dimensions of a full-grown Kanguroo are 
given as follows, in Governor Phillip's voyage 


to Botany Bay, viz. eight feet from the tip of the 
nose to that of the tail : length of the tail three 
feet one inch : of the head eleven inches : of the 
fore legs two feet : of the hind three feet seven 
inches : circumference of the fore part, of the ani- 
mal near the legs, three feet nine inches : of the 
lower part near the legs four feet five inches: 
round the thickest end of the tail one foot one 
inch. The weight of the largest specimens is 
said to have been about 150 pounds; but it is 
imagined that this animal attains a still larger 

Though the general position of the Kanguroo, 
when at rest, is standing on its hind feet, as re- 
presented in the figure, yet it frequently places its 
fore feet on the ground also, and thus feeds in 
the manner of other quadrupeds. It drinks by 
lapping. In its natural state it is extremely 
timid, and springs from the sight of mankind by 
vast bounds of many feet in height, and to a sur- 
prising distance. When in a state of captivity 
it has sometimes a way of springing forwards and 
kicking with its hind feet in a very forcible and 
violent manner ; during which action it rests or 
props itself on the base of the tail. In a natural 
state it sometimes uses its tail as a weapon of de- 
fence, and will give such severe blows with it to 
dogs as to oblige them to desist from their at- 
tack. The female Kanguroo has two mamma or 
breasts situated in the abdominal pouch, and on 
each are seated two teats; yet, so far as has hi- 
therto been observed, the animal produces but 


one young at a birth ; and so exceedingly dimi- 
nutive is the young, when first found in the 
pouch, as scarce to exceed an inch in length. 
The young continues in the pouch till it is grown 
to a large size, and takes occasional refuge in it 
long after it has been accustomed to come abroad. 
The Kanguroo feeds entirely on vegetable sub- 
stances, and chiefly on grass. In their native 
state these animals are said to feed in herds of 
thirty or forty together; and one is generally ob- 
served to be stationed, as if apparently on the 
watch, at a distance from the rest. 

The flesh of the Kanguroo is said to be rather 
coarse, and such as to be eaten rather in defect 
of other food than as an article of luxury. 

I know not how it happens that Dr. Gmelin, 
in his observation on the Kanguroo (Didelphis 
gigantea. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmd. p. 109.)., af- 
firms, that the teeth are those of a Didelphis; 
since they differ most widely from those of that 
genus, as will readily appear on collating the ge- 
neric characters. It is, however, true that some 
of the Australasian Opossums have a greater af- 
finity to the Kanguroo in the disposition of their 
teeth than to the animals of the Linnaean genus 
Didelphis, with which, for convenience, we have 
associated them. How Linnaeus would have dis- 
posed of these anomalous species may, perhaps, 
be doubted; but the inquiry seems of no great 
importance, since they possess characters which 
will always sufficiently distinguish them without a 
particular examination of their teeth. 


One of the most remarkable particularities of 
the Kanguroo is the extraordinary faculty which 
it possesses of separating at pleasure, to a con- 
siderable distance, the two Ions: fore teeth in the 

* o 

lower jaw. This faculty, however, is not abso- 
lutely peculiar to the Kanguroo, but takes place 
in an animal of a very different and distant ge- 
nus, viz. the Mus maritimus. (Lin. Syst. Nat. 

It should seem that there are in reality either 
different species, or at least permanent varieties of 
the Kanguroo, which are hitherto not sufficiently 
known to be exactly described. Some of these 
appear to be of a darker colour than the common 
Kanguroo, and to have a coarser fur. 

The Kanguroo may now be considered as in a 
great degree naturalized in England ; several hav- 
ing been kept for some years in the royal domains 
at Richmond, which have, during their residence 
there, produced young, and seem to promise to 
render this most elegant animal a permanent ac- 
quisition to our country; though it must, no 
doubt, lose, by a degree of confinement and al- 
teration of food, a part of its natural habits, and 
exhibit somewhat less of that bounding vivacity 
which so much distinguishes it in its native wilds 
of Australasia. 




Macropus Minor. M. fuscus, subtus cinereus, auriculis rotunda- 

tis, palmis tetradactylis, 
Brown Kanguroo, ash-coloured beneath, with rounded ears and 

tetradactylous fore feet. 

Kanguroo Rat. Phillip's voyage to Bot. Bay, p. 277. pi. 47. 
The Poto Roo, or Kanguroo Rat. White's voy. to New South 

Wales, p. 60. 
Lesser Kanguroo. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 32. 

THIS species, which, from its colour and the 
general aspect of its upper parts, has obtained, the 
title of the Kanguroo Rat, is about the size of a 
rabbet : the head is rather flattened sideways, and 
bears some resemblance to that of a rat: the 
general shape of the animal resembles that of 
the Kanguroo, but is far less elegant, the pro- 
portions of the parts less pleasing, and the hair, 
which is a dusky cinereous brown, of a coarser 
nature. In its teeth it agrees with the great 
Kanguroo, except that it has eight instead of six 
front teeth in the upper jaw, the two middle 
ones being sharp-pointed : the for& teeth in the 
lower jaw are like those of the Kanguroo as to 
shape and position, but are smaller in propor-^ 
tion : the grinders are three in number on each, 
side both above and below, the foremost being 
fluted or channelled with several longitudinal 
ribs; the two remaining ones plain: the ears are 
rather large, and on each side of the upper lip are 
several long vibrissse or whiskers. The structure 
of the hind feet in this species perfectly resembles 


that of the Kanguroo, but the fore feet have only 
four toes. The female is furnished with an ab- 
dominal pouch for the reception of the young. 
Some of this species were imported in a living 
state from New Holland, and brought forth 
young. Its native name is Poto Roo. 






Generic Character. 

Denies Primores inaequales 

superiores sex. 
Inferiores octo. 
Laniarii unici, superiores 


Molares superiores septem. 
Inferiores sex. 

Front-teeth in the upper jaw 

six, unequal. 
In the lower jaw eight. 
Canine-teeth one on each side ; 

the upper ones largest. 
Grinders seven in the upper 

jawj six in the lower. 

JL HE. genus Talpa or Mole is readily distin- 
guished by its peculiar shape, habit, or general 
appearance, even without an examination of the 
teeth ; in which particular some species resemble 
the genus Sorex, and were placed in that genus 
by Linnaeus. 


Talpa Europaea. T. nigra, cauda brevi, pedibus pentadactylis. 

Black Mole, with short tail and pentadactylous feet. 

Talpa caudata, pedibus pentadactylis. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 73. 

Talpa. Gesn. Quadr. 931. Aldr. dig. 449. 

Taupe. Buff. 8. p. 81. pi. 12. and suppl. 3. p. 193. pi. 32. 

European Mole. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 229. 

THE whole form of the Mole is eminently cal- 
culated by Nature for its obscure and subterrane- 


ous life. The body is thick and cylindric : the 
snout slender, but very strong and tendinous : the 
head not distinguished from the body by any ap- 
pearance of neck; the legs so extremely short as 
scarce to project perceptibly from the body; the 
fore feet situated obliquely outwards, excessively 
strong and broad, and furnished with very large 
and stout claws, so as to give the animal the 
power of working under the surface with the ut- 
most ease and readiness : the hind feet are small 
in proportion to the fore feet, and are calculated 
for throwing back with ease the mould from behind 
the creature, during its subterraneous progress: 
the tail is short and small: the skin is much 
thicker and tougher in proportion than in other 
quadrupeds, and the fur with which it is covered 
equally surpasses that of other animals in fineness 
and softness. The muscular strength of the Mole 
is very great, and it is enabled to force itself 
into the ground with an extraordinary degree of 
celerity. The general length of the Mole is about 
five inches and three quarters, exclusive of the 
tail, which measures one inch. This animal is 
supposed to possess the power of hearing in an 
exquisite degree; and if at any time it emerges 
from its subterraneous retreat, instantly disap- 
pears on the approach of any danger. When 
first taken, either by digging it out or otherwise, 
it utters a shrill scream, and prepares for defence 
by exerting the strength of its claws and teeth. 
According to the Count de Buffou, so lively and 
reciprocal an attachment subsists between the male 


and female, that they seem to dread or disrelish 
all other society. " They enjoy (says he) the 
placid habits of repose and solitude ; the art of se- 
curing themselves from disquiet and injury; and 
of instantaneously forming an asylum, or habita- 
tion, of extending its dimensions, and of finding 
a plentiful subsistence without the necessity of 
going abroad. These are the manners and dispo- 
sitions of the Mole , and they are unquestionably 
preferable to talents more brilliant, and more in- 
compatible with happiness than the most profound 
obscurity. " 

The Mole is furnished with eyes so extremely 
small that it has been doubted whether they were 
intended by Nature for distinct vision, or rather 
merely for giving the creature such a degree of 
notice of the approach of light as might suffici- 
ently warn it of the danger of exposure. Galen, 
however, seems to have been of a diiferent opi- 
nion, since he ventures to affirm that the eyes of 
the Mole are furnished with the crystalline and 
vitreous humours, encompassed with their respec- 
tive tunics; so accurate an anatomist was that 
great man, even unassisted by glasses. The learn- 
ed Sir Thomas Brown, in his Pseudodoxia Epide- 
mica, or Vulgar Errors, affirms that this observa- 
tion of Galen " transcendeth his discovery;" for 
that separating these little orbs, and including 
them in magnifying glasses, he could discern no 
more than what Aristotle mentions, viz. a black 
humour. Mr. Derham, however, in his Physico- 
Theology, declares, that he has made " divers 


accurate dissections of the eyes of Moles with the 
help of microscopes, having a doubt whether what 
we take to be eyes were such or no ; and, upon 
strict scrutiny, could plainly distinguish the crys- 
talline and vitreous humours, and the ligamentum 
ciliare, with the atramentaceous mucus:" the pu- 
pil he manifestly discerned to be round, and the 
cornea copped or conical: the eye is at a great 
distance from the brain, and the optic nerve very 
long and slender. 

The Mole is reported to feed not only on worms, 
insects, c. but also on the roots of vegetables; 
but it is certainly more carnivorous than frugivo- 
rous. It is even a very fierce and voracious animal 
in particular circumstances ; and it is observed by 
Sir Thomas Brown, that whatever these animals 
be contented with under ground, yet, when above 
it, they will sometimes tear and eat one another; 
and in a large glass case, wherein a mole, a toad, 
and a viper were inclosed, we have known (says 
he) the Mole to dispatch them, and to devour a 
good part of them both. 

The Mole is with difficulty kept alive in a state 
of confinement, unless constantly -supplied with a 
provision of damp mould to reside in. 

Like other animals of a black colour, the Mole 
is sometimes found perfectly white, or cream-co- 
loured, and sometimes spotted. In a memoir re- 
lative to the Mole, published by M. de la Faille, it 
appears that four varieties may be reckoned, viz. 
the white Mole, the rufous or tawny Mole, the 
greenish-yellow or citron-coloured Mole (found 


in some parts of Languedoc), and, lastly, the 
spotted Mole, which is variegated either with 
white or tawny spots or patches. 

The Mole brings four or five young, for which 
she makes a very commodious nest, being, ac- 
cording to Buffon, guarded with a compages of 
the roots and fibres of plants, all around and above 
it, so as to prevent any water from penetrating; 
and around it, in a radiating direction, are seve- 
ral sloping holes, for the parent to go out at, in 
quest of food for herself and her offspring. These 
nests are to be found in the month of May, and 
are distinguished by a more elevated appearance 
above-ground than that of the hillocks formed by 
the usual exertions of the animal. Buffon adds, 
that in the nest are often found the remains of 
the root of colchicum or meadow-saffron, and 
which he, therefore, supposes to be the first food 
given to the young: this root is excessively acri- 
monious, insomuch that, when fresh, a slice held 
in the mouth will in a manner benumb the tongue, 
and render it rigid and void of sensation for some 
hours ; and less than the quantity of a grain ta- 
ken internally produces the most violent effects. 
This, however, forms no objection to the suppo- 
sition of Buffon, since it is well known that many 
animals will feed with the most perfect impunity 
on substances which would exert the most malig- 
nant effects on the human frame, as well as on 
that of most other creatures. 

The greatest misfortune that befals the Mole 
is, the sudden overflowing of rivers, when they 


are said to be seen swimming in great numbers, 
and using every effort to obtain a more elevated 
situation ; but a great many of them perish on 
such occasions, as well as the young, which re- 
main in their holes. 

A remarkable instance of the power which the 
Mole sometimes exerts in swimming, is given in 
the third volume of the Transactions of the Lin- 
naean Society, one having been seen swimming 
towards a small island in the middle of the Loch 
of Clunie, in Scotland, at the distance of 1 80 yards 
from land. 

Linnaeus, in the twelfth edition of the Systema 
Naturae, affirms that the Mole hybernates, or 
passes the winter in a state of torpidity; and the 
same observation is repeated in the Gmelinian 
edition of that work. This, however, is flatly 
contradicted by the Count de Buffon, who ob- 
serves, that the Mole sleeps so little in winter, 
that she raises the earth in the same manner as 
in summer; and that the country people remark 
that the thaw approaches, because the moles make 
their hills. They endeavour to get into warm 
grounds, gardens, &c. during this season more 
than at others. 

This animal is said to be unknown in Ireland. 
In Siberia it arrives at a larger size than in 
Europe. The fur is so soft and beautiful, that it 
would make the most elegant articles of dress, did 
not the difficulty of curing and dressing the skin 
deter from experiments of this nature. 



Talpa Purpurasccns. T. nigra, purpureo nitens, pedibus penta* 

dactylis, cauda alba. 
Black Mole, with a gloss of purple ; pentadactylous feet, and 

white tail. 
Talpa virginianus niger. Seb. i.p. ^i* t. 32. f. 3. 

THIS species so completely resembles the com- 
mon European Mole in almost every particular, that 
it might pass for a variety of that animal. Its co- 
lour is black, with a strong cast of changeable 
purple ; and the tail is white. It seems to have 
been first described by Seba, and is, according to 
that author, a native of Virginia. 


Talpa Capensis. T. viridi-aurea, cuprco nitens, palmis tridac- 

Gold-green Mole, glossed with copper-colour, with tridactylous 

fore feet. 
Talpa Asiatia. T. ecaudata, palmis tridactylis. JJn. Syst. Nat. 

P- 73- 

Siberian Mole. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 2.3$. 
-'jut &u .*; fc. 

THIS is rather smaller than the common Mole, 
and of the same general form, but has a short 
snout, and is destitute of a tail. The fore feet 
are formed like those of the red mole, having only 
three claws, of which the exterior is by far the 
largest; the hind feet have five weak claws; but 

v. i. P. ii. 34 

522 RED MOLE. 

what readily distinguishes this animal is the 
changeable colour of the hair, which is of a deep 
glossy green, with copper-coloured reflections : be- 
neath it is of a greyish-brown. Its length is four 
inches. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
according to Mr. Pennant, and not of Siberia, as 
Seba, who seems to have been its first describer, 


Talpa Rufa. T. rufa, cauda breci, palmis tridactylis, plmtis te- 

Rufous Mole, with short tail, tridactylous fore feet, and tctra- 

dactylous hind feet. 

Talpa rubra Americana. Seb. i.p. 51. t. 32. f. a. 
Red Mole. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 233. 

THIS, iii its general appearance, resembles the 
common Mole, but is of a pale red-brown colour, 
and has only three toes on the fore feet, the ex- 
terior claw being much larger than the other two : 
the hind feet have four claws : the proportion of 
the tail is the same as in the common Mole. 
This species, as well as the preceding, was first 
described by Seba, who says it is a native of Ame- 



Talpa Longicaudata. T. fusca, cauda mediocri, pedibiu pcnta- 

dactylis, postkis squamosis. 
Brown Mole, with tail of middling length, and pentadactylous 

feet, the hinder ones scaly. 
Long-tailed Mole. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 232. 

THIS is of the same general form with the com- 
mon Mole, but is of a rusty brown colour; the 
end of the nose is radiated by a circular series of 
longish papillse, and the tail is two inches long: 
the claws on the fore feet resemble those of the 
common Mole; but those of the hind feet are 
very long and slender: the hind feet are also 
scaly on their upper surface. This animal is a 
native of North America. Its length from nose 
to tail is four inches and six tenths. 


Talpa Radiata. T. atra, pedibus albis, naribus carunculatis. 
Black Mole, with white feet, and nose radiated with papillae. 
Radiated Mole. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 232. 
Sorex cristatus. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 73. 

THIS is somewhat smaller than the common 
Mole, and is of a dusky or blackish colour. In 
general form it resembles the preceding species, 
having broad fore legs with long claws; the hind 
legs scaly and with much weaker claws : the nose 
long, and beset at the end with a circular series of 


radiated tendrils : the length from nose to tail is 
three inches and three quarters. It is an inha- 
bitant of North America, forming subterraneous 
passages, in different directions, in uncultivated 
fields, and is said to feed on roots. This species 
is the Sorex cristatus of Linnaeus; being placed 
in that genus on account of its teeth, in despite 
of its appearance. It is, perhaps, in reality no 
other than a variety of the former species, or a 
sexual difference. 


Talpa Fusca. T.fusca, pedibus caudaque albis, palmis latissmis. 
Brown Mole, with white feet and tail, the fore feet very broad. 
Brown Mole. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 232. 
Sorex aquaticus ? Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 74. 

THIS species of Mole was also obliged to give 
way to the systematizing spirit of Linnreus, and 
to rank under the genus Sorex. It is about five 
inches and a half long, from head to tail ; the tail, 
which is very slender, being scarce an inch in 
length. The nose is slender : the upper jaw much 
longer than the lower: in the upper jaw are two 
cutting-teet, and four in the lower; the two mid- 
dle ones being very small ; and there are no ca- 
nine-teeth : the fore feet are very broad, and the 
nails long: the hind feet small, with five claws 
on each: the hair is soft, glossy brown at the 
ends, and deep grey at the bottom : the tail and 
feet are white. It is a native of North America. 


If this species be the same with the Sorex aqua- 
ticus of Linnaeus, it has, according to that au- 
thor, webbed fore feet, and, from its name, 
should seem to inhabit watery places ; but neither 
of these circumstances are mentioned by Mr. 



Generic Character. 

Denies Primores superiores 

duo, long}, bifidi. 
Inferiores duo vel quatuor; 

intermediis brevioribus. 
Laniarii utrinque plures. 

Molar es cuspidati. 

Front-teeth in the upper jaw 

two, long, bifid. 
In the lower two or four; the 

intermediate ones shorter. 
Canine-teeth several on each 

Grinders cuspidated. 


[E genus Sorex, in its general appearance, 
bears a great resemblance to the mouse tribe ; but 
the structure, number, and situation of the teeth 
prove it to constitute a very different set of ani- 
mals, which are evidently rather carnivorous than 
frugivorous. It is more closely allied to the ge- 
nus Talpa ; insomuch that these two genera may 
be considered as linked to each other by interme- 
diate species, which in habit resemble the one ge- 
nus, and in teeth the other. It is owing to this 
circumstance that Linnaeus, in the twelfth edi- 
tion of the Systema Naturae, has placed one or 
two genuine species of Talpa in the genus Sorex. 
The most common species of Sorex in this coun- 
try is the S. Araneus, commonly known by the 
name of the Shrew Mouse. 



iSfo-feb.i.Londai Fi&ti/ltfL ty frJSa^flevJUefSt 



Sorex Araneus. S. cauda mediocri, corpore subtus albido. Lin. 

Syst. Nat. p. 74. 
Ferruginous-brown Shrew, whitish beneath, with tail rather 

shorter than the body. 

Mus Araneus. Gesn. Quadr.p. 747. Aldr. dig. p. 441. 
Musaraigne. Ruff. %.j>. 57. t. lo.f. I. 
Foetid Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 224. 

THIS little animal, which is perhaps the smallest 
of the European quadrupeds, is a very common 
inhabitant of our fields and gardens, and measures 
about two inches and a half, and the tail one and 
a half. Its colour is nearly similar to that of a 
mouse, but of a somewhat more ferruginous 
tinge; and the animal is readily distinguished by 
its long and sharp snout: the eyes are small and 
almost hid in the fur. It feeds on roots, grain, 
insects, and almost any kind of neglected animal 
substance. It has a very strong and unpleasant 
smell ; and it is remarkable that cats will kill but 
not eat it. Mr. Pennant observes that there 
seems to be an annual mortality among these 
little animals every autumn ; numbers of them be- 
ing found dead at that season by paths and in the 
fields. It inhabits most parts of Europe, and is 
also said to be found in Siberia and Kamtschatka. 
It breeds in holes, under banks, among moss, &c. 
and is said to produce several young at a time. 



Sorex Moschatus. S. pedibus palmatis, cauda compressa lancco* 

lata. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 113. 
Web-footed Shrew, with naked compressed tail. 
Castor Moschatus. C. cauda longa compresso-lanceolata, pedibus 

palmatis. Ian. Syst. Nat. p. 79. 

Mus aquaticus. Clns exot. p. 375. Jonst. Quadr.p. 169. t. 73, 
Mus aquatilis. Aldr. dig. p. 447. 
Pallas, it. i. p. 156. Lepechin, it. i.p. 178. t. 13. Guldenstedt, 

BerL Naturf. Beschr. 3. p. loj.t. a. 
Desman. Buff". 10. p. T.JO/. 10. 
Musky Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. aai. 

THIS is a very singular species, which, though 
extremely common in some of the northern parts 
of Europe and Asia, does not seem to have been 
very distinctly understood by modern naturalists, 
till Dr. Pallas, Lepechin, and Guldenstedt gave 
accurate descriptions of its form and manners. It 
was, indeed, long ago described in a general man- 
ner by Clusius, who has also given a figure, which 
is repeated by Aldrovandus, Jonston, and others; 
nor is it to be denied that both figure and de- 
scription are so far just as to discriminate the ani- 
mal from every other at that time known. 

According to Dr. Pallas it chiefly inhabits the 
river Volga and the adjacent lakes, from Novo- 
gorod to Saratof ; and is not found in Russia, nor 
does its existence in Lapland seem well ascer- 
tained. It is said to be very seldom seen on 
land; confining itself to lakes and rivers, in the 
banks of which it occasionally burrows to a great 



distance. The general length of the animal is 
about seven inches from nose to tail, and of the 
tail eight inches; but it is sometimes found of a 
larger size. Its colour is a cinereous brown, 
paler beneath; the body is moderately thick, 
and rather of a depressed or flattened form ; the 
head rather small ; formed as in the rest of this 
genus, and terminating in a remarkably long and 
flattened snout, running far beyond the lower 
jaw: this part of the snout is nearly bare on the 
upper part, but edged along the sides with a row 
of vibrissas or whiskers ; and a furrow or line of 
division runs along its upper part : it is of a seem- 
ingly cartilaginous substance, and, in the living 
animal, very flexible : in the lower jaw are four 
front-teeth, and on each side six canine : the grind- 
ers are four on each side in the upper jaw, and 
three in the lower: the eyes are extremely small, 
and there are no external ears, but merely the 
appearance of a pair of small holes at some dis- 
tance beyond the eyes : the legs are very short, 
with five toes on all the feet, connected by a na- 
ked web or membrane, which is much wider on 
the hind than on the fore feet: the feet are nearly 
naked, and of a brown colour: the tail, except at 
its base, is perfectly naked, marked out into scaly 
divisions, and is of a brown colour : it is also of a 
laterally compressed form, and gradually tapers 
to the extremity: near the base of the tail are 
situated several small follicles or glandular re- 
ceptacles, in which is secreted a yellowish fluid, 
resembling in smell the strongest civet: of this 


substance about the quantity of a scruple may, it 
is said, be obtained from each animal.. 

These creatures are said sometimes to be seen 
swimming about in considerable numbers on the 
surface of lakes and rivers, and may often be 
heard to snap their mouths with a sound not un- 
like that of a duck ; feeding on worms, leeches, 
water insects, &c. as well as occasionally on vege- 
table substances. 

In some particulars this animal makes a dis- 
tant approach to that most singular of quadru- 
peds, the Platypus. It may also be added, that 
the Platypus, if considered merely with regard to 
external habit, and without reference to its gene- 
ric character, might, perhaps, with almost equal 
propriety be placed in the present order as in that 
of B?*uta, did not its want of teeth lead us to 
place it with the rest of the edentulous or tooth- 
less quadrupeds, viz. the Ant-Eaters and the Pan- 

The Musk Shrew is a slow-paced animal, and 
easily taken, if accidentally found on land. The 
skins are said to be sold in Russia to put into 
chests in order to drive away moths, and so com- 
mon is the animal in the neighbourhood of Nizney 
Novogorod, that the peasants are said bring five 
hundred apiece to market, where they are sold 
for a ruble per hundred. 

In the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturae 
this animal is placed in the genus Castor or Bea- 
ver, und er the title of Castor moschatus. 



Sorex Radiatus. 5". nigricans, rostro producto, apice tentaculis 

Blackish Shrew, with lengthened snout, radiated at the tip with 


La Taupe de Canada. Buff, suppl. 6. p. 254. pi. 37. 
De la Faille mem. 1769. 

THIS animal may with great propriety be term- 
ed Sorex radiatus, since the snout, which is long 
and slender, has a dilated cartilaginous extremity, 
furnished with a circular series of sharp-pointed 
processes or soft tendrils, disposed in the manner 
of the rays in a spur. The whole animal is of a 
long form, and its habit immediately pronounces 
it to belong to the genus Sorex, and not to that 
of Talpa. It seems to have been first described 
and figured by Mons. de la Faille, in his Memoir 
on Moles. It is a native of Canada, and resembles 
the Mole only in some particular parts ; while in 
others it approaches to the mouse tribe; having 
the same shape and agility. Its tail, which is three 
inches long, is knotty, and almost naked, as well as 
the feet, which have five toes on each, and are co- 
vered with small brown and white scales on the 
upper part This animal, according to M. de la 
Faille (who considers it, in a general view, as a 
species of Mole), is more above ground, or less 
addicted to burrowing, than the common Mole. 
Its body is longish, and covered with black. 


coarsish hair: the feet far less than those of a 
Mole: the eyes hid under the skin; the snout 
edged on each side with upright vibrissae : the ra- 
diated tentacula at the end of the nose are of a 
bright rose-colour, and moveable at the pleasure 
of the animal, so as either to be brought toge- 
ther into a tubular form, or expanded in the form 
of a star. 

It is said to inhabit Canada, but not to be very 
common there. It occasionally burrows somewhat 
in the manner of a Mole, but far less strongly, or 
more slowly, and is said to pass a considerable 
portion of its life beneath the surface of the snow. 
One would be inclined to think that the remark- 
able moniliform appearance of the tail in this ani- 
mal, as exhibited in M. de la Faille's figure, may 
be partly owing to the contraction of the inter- 
stices of the joints in drying. 

It is evidently allied to the radiated Mole, but 
if the figure given by M. de la Faille be accurate, 
must surely be a very distinct species. 



Sorex Caerulescens. S. cwereo-ccerulescens, subtus pattidior, ros- 

tro can da pedibusyue carneis. 

Blue-grey S. with flesh-coloured snout, feet, and tail. 
Sorex Pilorides. Museum Leverianum, vol. i. No. i. p. 31. t. 8. 
Perfuming Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 222. 
Musaraigne musquee de 1'Inde. Buff", suppl. 'j.p. 7. 

THIS measures from nose to tail near eight 
inches : and the tail is about three inches and a 
half long: the snout is very long and slender; 
the upper jaw extending far beyond the lower : 
the upper fore teeth are short; the lower long, 
slender, and incurvated: the eyes small, the ears 
semitransparent, short and round: the fur soft 
and fine, and the whole animal is of an elegant blue 
grey colour, paler beneath : the end of the nose and 
the feet are naked and rose-coloured. This animal 
diffuses a musky small, so extremely powerful as to 
penetrate almost every substance which it touches. 
Mr. Pennant informs us, that he has been as- 
sured, from good authority, that it has been 
known to make wine in a well-corked bottle un- 
drinkable, merely by passing over it. This seems 
to be the same animal with that described and 
figured in the 7th supplemental volume of the 
Count de Buffon's Natural History, under the 
title of Musaraigne musquee de Vlndt, which is 
said to have been brought by Mons. Sonnerat from 
Bengal: the tail, however, in this specimen seems 
shorter than in that before described, though 


there can scarce remain a doubt as to the identity 
of the species. It inhabits fields, but is said some- 
times to come into houses. It is found in the 
East-Indian islands, as well as in India, occurring 
in Java, &c. &c. and is said to feed chiefly on 


Sorex Fodiens. S. supra niger, subtus albus. 

Black Shrew, white beneath. 

S. cauda mediocri subnuda, corpore nigricante subtvs tinereo, digit'u* 

ciliatis. Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 113. 

Musaraneus dorso nigro ventreque albo. p. 167. 
Sorex Bicolor. Water Shrew. Naturalist's Miscellany, pi. 55. 
Water Shrew. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 225. 
Musaraigne d'eau. Buff. 8. p. 64. pi. ii.Jig. I. 

THIS species is considerably larger than the 
common Shrew, measuring three inches and three 
quarters in length, from nose to tail, and the tail 
two inches. Its colour is black on the upper 
parts, and white or of a very pale ash- colour on 
the throat, breast, and belly : the feet are white, 
and beneath the tail is a triangular dusky spot : 
the nose is long and slender, and the ears very 
small. It inhabits various parts of Europe and 
Asia, and is chiefly found near the banks of ri- 
vers, in which it burrows, and is instantly distin- 
guishable from the common Shrew by its colour 
as well as size. It is said to have a kind of 
chirping note, like that of a grasshopper. It 
breeds in spring, and produces eight or nine at 


a birth. This little animal seems to have been 
scarce known in France till it was observed and 
described by Daubenton in the year 1756, but it 
had long before that time been known as a native 
of England, though considered as a rare animal. 
It is well figured in the Natural History of the 
Count de Buffon. In some parts of Germany it 
is said to be known by the name of Graeber, or 
the Digger. 


Sorex Brasiliensis. S.fosats, dorso striis tribus nigns. 
Brown Shrew, with three black stripes on the back. 
Sorex Brasiliensis. Un. Syst. Nat. Gmel.p. 115. 
Musaraneus figura muris. Marcgr. bras. p. 229. 
Brasilian Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 223. 

THIS, which is only known from Marcgrave's 
description, is said to have sharp nose and teeth, 
and to be about five inches long, with a tail of 
the length of two inches: the back is marked 
with three broad black streaks. It is a native of 
Brasil, and Marcgrave pretends that it is a bold 
animal, and does not fear even the cat : neither 
does that animal pursue it. 



Sorex Surinamensis. S. badius, subtus cwereo-Jlavescens, cauda 

corpore breviore. 
Bay Shrew, yellowish ash-coloured beneath, with tail shorter 

than the body. 
Surinam Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 226. 

THIS is said to be about the size of the Water 
Shrew, which it much resembles, but is of a bay 
colour above, and of a pale yellowish ash beneath : 
the tail, which is about half the length of the 
body, is ash-coloured above and white below : the 
muzzle is white : the ears short and rounded, like 
those of the common Shrew. It is a native of 


Sorex Proboscideus. S.fuscus, naso cylindraceo longissimo. 
Brown Shrew, with very long cylindric snout. 
Elephant Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 226. 

THIS species is of a deep brown colour, and 
of a thickish form, with a slender tail about the 
length of the body, and a cylindric, long, and 
slender snout or upper jaw, stretching very far 
beyond the lower: the ears are very large and 
slightly pointed. It is very indifferently repre- 
sented in Petiver's Gazophylacium, and is said to 
be a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 



Sorex Leucodon. S.fuscus subtus albus, cauda mediocri. 
Dusky Shrew, white beneath, with tail of middling length. 
Sorex Leucodon. Schreb. suppl. t 159. D. 
White-toothed Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 228. 

THIS seems, from Schreber's figure, to be 
about the size of the common Shrew, and is of a 
dusky or blackish brown above, and white be- 
neath ; the two colours pretty distinctly separated 
from each other, even along the tail itself, which 
is rather short : the teeth, as the name seems to 
import, remarkably white : this, however, appears 
rather too slight a foundation for a permanent 
trivial name. 


Sorex Tetragonurus. S. cauda subquadrangula. 
Shrew with subquadrangular tail. 
Sorex tetragonurus. Schreb. suppl. t 1^9. B. 
Square-tailed Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 228. 

THIS seems a rather larger species than the 
preceding: its colour is olive-brown above, and 
pale cinereous beneath : the tail but slightly hairy, 
and inclining to a quadrangular form. This spe- 
cies has no fetid smell. 

v. i. P. ii. 35 



Sorex Leueurus. &. subfuscus, subtus albidus, cauda bred api- 
cem versus albida. 

Brownish Shrew, whitish beneath, with short tail whitish to- 
wards the tip. 

Sorex constrictus? Schreb. suppl, t. 159. C. 

THIS appears, from Schreber's figure,, to be 
of the size and colour of the common Shrew, and 
is whitish beneath : the tail is short, brown at the 
base, and whitish or much lighter as it proceeds 
to the tip. 


Sorex Unicolor. S.fusco cinereus, cauda basi angustata. 
Dusky-cinereous Shrew, with tail narrowed at the base. 
Unicolore Shrew. Pennant Quadr. %. p. 228. 

THIS is of an uniform dusky-cinereous colour; 
with the base of the tail narrow or compressed. 
It inhabits, like the three preceding species, the 
neighbourhood of Strasburgh, where it was disco- 
vered by Professor Hermann. 

This species, which is quoted by Mr. Pennant 
from Dr. Hermann, seems allied to the preced- 



Sorer Murnrus. S. cauda mediocri, corporefusco, pedibvs cauda- 
que cinereis. Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 74. 

Brown Shrew, with ash-coloured feet and tail, the latter of mid- 
dling length. 

Murine Shrew. Pennant Quadr. a. p. 424. 

THIS is about the size of a common Mouse, 
and is of a brown colour, with pale ash-coloured 
feet and tail, which latter is rather shorter than 
the body, and but slightly hairy: the ears are 
rounded and almost naked : the snout elongated, 
and channelled underneath, and is also beset with 
long vibrissae. It is a native of Java. 


Sorex Pusillus. S. auriculis rotwdatis, cauda breci subdistkha. 

Lin, Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 115. 

Shrew with rounded ears, and short subdistichous tail. 
Persian Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 227. 

THIS is said to be rather larger than the Suri- 
nam Shrew, measuring about three inches and a 
half: it is of a dusky-grey above, and pale ash- 
coloured beneath : in the form of its teeth it is 
nearly allied to the common Shrew, and is a na- 
tive of the northern parts of Persia. 



Sorcx Minutus. S. rostra longissimo, cauda nulla. IM, Sy&t, 

Nat. Gmel.p. 112. 
Tailless Shrew, with very long snout. 
Minute Shrew. Pennant Qvadr. 2. p. 227. 

THIS is an extremely small animal, which in- 
habits moist places in Siberia, and makes its nest 
of lichens and mosses under the roots of trees, 
living on grains and seeds, &c. It is of a subfer- 
ruginous brown colour above, and whitish below : 
the head is large ; the snout very long and slen- 
der, and beset with a row of long whiskers on 
each side, reaching as far as the eyes. It has no 
tail : the eyes are small, and the ears short and 
naked. It is said to run swiftly, and to have a 
a voice like that of a bat. It weighs about a 


Sorex Exilis. S. minimus, cauda crassissima tereti. 
Extremely small Shrew, with very thick cylindric tail. 
Pygmy Shrew. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 227. 

THIS is the least of all quadrupeds, weighing 
not more than half a dram. In shape and colour 
it resembles the common Shrew: the nose is very 
long and slender, and the tail is slender at the 



il,Ftl>>ir.i,nAan.lW,lilia br Cfimly.Pb* Slrttt. 


base, and grows very thick towards the middle, 
and again gradually tapers to the tip. It is a na- 
tive of Siberia, and is said to be common about 
the neighbourhood of the rivers Jenesei and 


71 -nil .-?;{javoj ; 

A tl 


J >tSV 

Generic Character. 

Denies Primores superiores 
duo, distantes; inferiores 
duo, approximate 

Lanarii superiores utrinque 
quinque, inferiores utrin- 
que tres. 

Molares utrinque supra et in- 
fra quatuor. 

Dorsum spinis tectum. 

Front-teeth two both above 
and below; those of the 
upper jaw distant, of the 
lower approximated. 

Canine-teeth on each side, in 
the upper jaw five, in the 
lower three. 

Grinders on each side both 
above and below four. 

Body covered on the upper 
parts with spines. 


Erinaceus Europaeus. E. auriculis rotundatis, naribus cristatis. 

Uin. Syst. Nat. p. 75. 

Hedgehog with rounded ears and crested nostrils. 
Erinaceus auriculis erectis. Briss. Quadr. p. 128. 
Echinus terrestis. Gesn. Quadr. p. 368. Aldr. dig. p. 450. 
Common Hedgehog. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 2,3$. 
Herisson. Buff". 8. p. 6. 

F external appearance alone were regarded, the 
Hedgehog might be arranged in the same genus 
with the Porcupine, from which it chiefly appears 


to differ in the shortness of its quills or spines. 
The structure of the teeth, however, shews it to 
belong to a different tribe. Indeed, if we thus 
arranged animals from external appearance alone, 
we might also place in the same tribe with the 
Hedgehog an animal entirely different in the 
structure of its mouth, and in no other particular 
allied to the Hedgehog and Porcupine, except in 
its quilly covering, viz. the aculeated Ant-Eater, 
already described under its proper genus. 

The Hedgehog is found in most of the tem- 
perate parts of Europe and Asia, and, accord- 
ing to Mr. Pennant, is also seen in Madagascar. 
It commonly measures about eleven inches from 
the nose to the tip of the tail, which is about an 
inch long. Its colour is generally grey-brown, 
but it sometimes is found totally white, or of a 
yellowish-white; instances of which may be seen 
in the Leverian Museum: similar specimens are 
also found in the works of Seba and other authors. 
It feeds principally on the roots of vegetables ; 
but it also eats worms, as well as beetles, and 
other insects. It wanders about chiefly by night, 
and during the day conceals itself in its hole, under 
the roots of some tree, or mossy bank. It produces 
four or five young at a birth, which are soon co- 
vered with prickles like those of the parent animal, 
but shorter and weaker. The nest is large, and 
is composed of moss. 

The Hedgehog, when disturbed, rolls itself up 
into a globular form, and thus presents to its ad- 
versary an invulnerable ball of prickles. From 


this state of security it is not easily forced; 
scarcely any thing but cold water obliging it to 
unfold itself. It swims perfectly well when thrown 
into water. 

The Hedgehog is one of those animals which, 
during the winter, are supposed to continue in a 
state of torpidity. In that season it lies con- 
cealed in its hole, surrounded with a bed of moss, 
secure from the rigours of the most piercing frost, 
and at the return of spring recommences its wan- 
derings. It is commonly said that the Hedge- 
hog, in order to transport apples and other fruit to 
its place of retirement, rolls itself upon them, and 
thus conveys them on its spines. Whether this 
be accurately true I will not take upon myself to 
determine : the circumstance is related by Aldro- 
vandus, who tells us that it practises this method 
of transporting grapes during the vintage. 

The Hedgehog may be rendered in a consider- 
able degree domestic, and has frequently been in- 
troduced into houses for the purpose of expelling 
those troublesome insects the Blattse or Cock- 
roaches, which it pursues with avidity, and is 
fond of feeding on. It is itself an occasional ar- 
ticle of food in some places, and is said to be best 
in the month of August: they are usually roast- 
ed ; and Gesner advises that they be first steeped 
(after skinning) in warm wine and vinegar, and 
then larded with bacon, and stuck with cloves : 
but Castor Durantes seems to approve rather of 
their being made into a pye with plenty of spice 
and seasoning, in order to obviate the bad qua- 


lity of the flesh, which, it seems, is cold in the 
first degree ! ! ! 

The Hedgehog is generally considered as a 
harmless inoffensive animal, but has been fre- 
quently supposed (and to this day the notion pre- 
vails in many places) to suck the teats of cows 
by night, and thus cause by its prickles those ex- 
ulcerations which are sometimes seen on cattle. 
From this accusation, however, it is completely 
absolved by Mr. Pennant, who observes, that its 
mouth is by far too small to admit of this prac- 
tice. The Count de Buffon considers it as a crea- 
ture of a malignant disposition, and observes, that 
one which he kept in a state of confinement in. 
a tub, devoured its young ones, though sup- 
plied with proper food : this, however, is a pheno- 
menon in natural histoiy which occasionally takes 
place with several other animals. 

The cruel practice of vivisection, so common 
among the more ancient anatomists, and too fre- 
quent even among modern ones, shews, in a strik- 
ing manner, the patience of this creature under 
the most excruciating torture, since it has been 
known to undergo this severe operation without 
uttering any voice of distress. 

{l Clavis terebrari sibi pedes, & discindi viscera 
patientissime ferebat; omnes cultri ictus sine 
gemitu, plusquam Spartana nobilitate concoquens." 
Borrichius in Bias, de Echino. 

As a curious example of the absurdities which 
sometimes occur in the works of the older writers, 
we may observe, that, according to Albertus 


Magnus, the right eye of a Hedgehog, fried in 
oil, and kept in a brass vessel, imparts all its vir- 
tues to the oil, which, used as a collyrium or 
ointment for the eyes, produces such a clearness 
of vision as to enable a person to see as well by 
night as by day ! ! ! and Pliny affirms, that its gall, 
mixed with the brain of a bat, is a good depila- 
tory, or application for removing superfluous 

But, whatever virtues, either real or imaginary, 
may be supposed exist in other parts of the ani- 
mal, it is certain that its skin may be successfully 
used as a succedaneum for a clothes-brush, and 
was, in fact, applied to this purpose by the an- 

We are also informed by the Count de BufFon, 
that it is usual in some countries to muzzle calves, 
when it becomes necessary to wean them, with 
the skin of the Hedgehog. 


Erinaceus Inauris. E. auriculis nuOis. lAn. Syst. Nat. p. 75. 

Briss. Quadr. 184. 
Hedgehog without external ears. 

Erinaceus Americanus albus. Seb. mus. I. p. 78. t. 49. 
Guiana Hedgehog. Pennant Qwdr. 2. p. 237. 

THIS, on a general view, seems to be nothing 
more than a variety of the common Hedgehog; 
differing chiefly, according to Seba, in having 
the spines on the upper parts of the body shorter, 


thicker, and stronger: the head, however, is 
somewhat shorter and the snout blunter than in 
the common Hedgehog, and there is no appear- 
ance of external ears : the whole animal is also of 
a white or very pale colour. It is figured by 
Seba, who tells us he received it from Surinam. 
Its length from nose to tail is about eight inches ; 
the tail scarce an inch long; the claws long and 


Erinaceus Auritus. E. aurkulis ovalibus longis, naribus cristatis. 

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 116. 
Hedgehog with long oval ears, and crested nostrils. 

THIS species resembles the common Hedge- 
hog in form, and is found about the river Volga, 
and in the eastern parts beyond lake Baikal. 
In size it is said to vary, being in some places 
smaller, and in others larger than the commoiv 
species, but may be immediately distinguished by 
its ears, which are large, oval, open, and naked, 
with soft whitish hair on the inside, and edged 
with brown: the legs and feet are longer and 
thinner than those of the common Hedgehog; 
and the tail shorter and almost naked: the upper 
part of the animal is covered with slender brown 
spines, with a whitish ring near the base, and 
another towards the tip : the legs and belly are 
covered with soft, white fur. In its general man- 
ner of life this species is said to resemble the com- 


mon Hedgehog-; the female produces six or seven 
young at a time, and is said sometimes to breed 
twice a-year. 


Erinaceus Madagascariensis. E. spinoso-setosus, fasciis longitu- 

dinalibiis albis nigrisque, rostra longo acuto. 
Hedgehog with spines and long bristles j the body longitudinally 

banded with black and white ; with long, sharp-pointed snout. 
E. Ecaudatus E. cauda nulla, rostro langissimo acuto. Lin. Syst. 

Nat. Gmel.p. 117. 

Le Tanrec & Le Tendrac. Buff. 12. p. 438. 
Le jeune Tanrec. Buff, suppl. 3. p. 214. pi. 37. and 7. p. 301. 

pi. 76. 

Le petit Tandrek de Madagascar. Sonner. voy. i.y. 146. pi. 93. 
Asiatic Hedgehog. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 236. 

THIS animal, which is a native of Madagascar, 
was first described by the Count de Buffon, under 
the name of Le Tanrec; it should seem, however, 
that the specimen described had not attained its 
full growth, and consequently did not exhibit 
with sufficient clearness, all the characters of 
the animal. It is described and figured by Mr. 
Sonnerat in his voyage to Madagascar. Mr. 
Sonnerat calls it Le petit Tandreck, and says, that, 
at its full growth, it measures seven inches in 
length : it has two incisores in each jaw, and five 
toes, with claws, on each foot; the claws on the 
fore feet are much longer than those of the hind. 
The limbs are short, and the snout long, and ter- 
minating in a point; and it has no tail. It is of 

TANREC. 549 

a black colour, with five longitudinal bands on 
the body: all the black parts are covered with 
hard hair; the white bands with small prickles, 
analogous to those of a porcupine. From the 
black bands on the back spring long scattered 
hairs which reach to the ground : the head is co- 
vered with short black hairs or prickles : the snout 
is white; the eye surrounded by a white circle, 
and the feet are reddish. The Tandreks move 
slowly, and grunt like pigs; for which reason they 
are called Ground-Hogs, or Pig-Porcupine, by 
the Europeans. They burrow under ground, and 
remain torpid three months in the year: they 
hide themselves in the day-time, and only appear 
after sun-set, in order to seek their food: they 
live chiefly on fruits and herbs : their body is a 
mere lump of fat : the natives of Madagascar eat 
them, but consider them as but an indifferent 
food. Madagascar is the only country in which 
the Tandreks are found. 

Tar. ? 


Tanrec. Buf. 1 2. p. 44. pi. 56. 

THIS is larger than the former, and is covered 
with spines only on the top and hind parts of the 
head, the top and sides of the neck, and the 
shoulders : in that described by Buffon, the long- 
est were on the upper part of the neck, and 
stood erect: the rest of the body wa^ covered 


with yellowish bristles, among which were inter- 
mixed some that were black, and much longer 
than the others. 

Both the above animals are considered by Mr. 
Pennant as the same species, which he names the 
Asiatic Hedgehog. It is, according to Mr. Pen- 
nant, as large as a Rabbet when full-grown ; and 
not only burrows on land, but frequents shallow 
waters. Mr. Pennant also adds, that, during the 
time of its lying torpid, its hair falls off. In Dr. 
Gmelin's edition of the Systema Naturae, the Ten- 
drac and the Tanrec are kept distinct, under the 
names of Erinaceus setosus and E. ecaudatus. But 
Mr. Pennant's idea seems most probable, viz. that 
both constitute but one species, and that those de- 
scribed by the Count de BurFon had not arrived at 
their full growth. It is remarkable, however, that 
Sonnerat, in his description of the Tendrak, says it 
measures but seven inches when full-grown. 


Erinaceus Malaccensis. E. auriculis pendulis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 

Hedgehog with long spines and pendulous ears. 

Porcus aculeatus, seu Hystrix Malaccensis. Seb. I. p. 81. t. 51. 

Hystrix brachyura. Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. X. p. 57. 
Malacca Porcupine. Pennant Quadr. 2. p. 123. 

THIS species, which seems to have been first 
described and figured by Seba, has so completely 


the appearance of a Porcupine, that nothing but 
a severe adherence to systematic arrangement 
from the teeth, could justify its being placed in 
the present genus : yet even this particular seems 
not yet distinctly known, the animal being rarely 
imported into Europe. Mr. Pennant supposes 
that Linnaeus might have been induced to con- 
sider it as belonging to the present genus, on ac- 
count of the number of its toes, which are said 
to be five on the fore feet, instead of four, as in 
the Porcupine. The accurate Brisson, however, 
considered it as a species of Hedgehog, and Lin- 
nasus, in compliance with his opinion, transferred 
it from the genus Hystrix to that of Erinaceus. 
The particular size is nQt mentioned by Seba, but it 
appears to be a large species, since the length of 
its quills is said to be from an inch to a foot and 
half, on different parts of the animal. It is there- 
fore probably about the size of the common Por- 
cupine, and they are variegated in a similar 
manner: the ears are large and pendulous, and 
there is no crest or ruff of longer bristles than the 
rest on the back of the head, as in the common 

This is said to be the animal from which is ta- 
ken the particular Bezoar, called Piedra del Porco, 
the Lapis Hystricis, Bezoar Hystricis and Lapis 
Porcinus, of the old Materia Medica, so long and 
so highly extolled on account of its supposed vir- 
tues, which were such, according to some authors, 
as to produce the most wonderful and salutary ef- 


fects in fevers and various other disorders of a 
malignant nature. 

In order to experience the effect of this wonder- 
ful concrete, which is commonly about the size of 
a small walnut, round, smooth, and of a reddish 
brown colour, nothing more was necessary than 
to infuse it for some minutes in a glass of wine, 
water, or other liquor, which was by this method 
impregnated with all its virtues, and administered 
to the patient. The truth is, that, being a biliary 
concretion, found in the gall-bladder, it is in- 
tensely bitter, and being soluble in water, im- 
pregnates the fluid with its bitterness and with 
supposed aperient, stomachic, and alexipharmic 

These concretions, which have now lost their 
consequence, and are regarded merely as curious 
specimens of the old materia medica, were once 
so esteemed as to have been sold, when large and 
perfect, for the sum of five hundred crowns. 

'io ; 


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