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Full text of "Practical Spanish, a grammar of the Spanish language with exercises, materials for conversation and vocabularies"

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PRACTICAL 
PANISi 

ARTEAC 



PRACTICAL SPANISH 



T 

PRACTICAL SPANISH 

A GRAMMAR OF THE SPANISH 
LANGUAGE, WITH EXERCISES, 
MATERIALS FOR CONVERSA- 
TION, AND VOCABULARIES 

BY FERNANDO DE ARTEAGA Y PEREIRA, 
HON. M.A., OXON., TAYLORIAN TEACHER OF 
SPANISH IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 



PART II. VERBS, ETC., WITH COPIOUS 
VOCABULARIES 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1902 



PEEFACE. 



THE Second Part of Practical Spanish is carried out on lines 
similar to the First Part. It comprises the treatment of 

The VERB The CONJUNCTION 

The ADVERB The INTERJECTION 

The PREPOSITION 

with APPENDICES devoted to the special peculiarities of (A) 
the SUBSTANTIVE, (B) the ARTICLE, (C) the AUGMENTATIVES 
and DIMINUTIVES, and (D) the DEGREES OF COMPARISON with 
the VERB and the ADVERB respectively. The volume closes 
with a double VOCABULARY containing all the words em- 
ployed in the Exercises, the range of which is so wide that 
the VOCABULARY may almost claim to he an abridged 
Dictionary. 

Special attention has been paid to the Irregular Verbs, 
of which a complete list is given, with their meaning in 
English, and reference to their conjugation. The Parti- 
ciples also have been treated with a minuteness of detail 
which is unusual, but which is thoroughly warranted by 
their importance. 

As in the First Part, the examples that illustrate the rules 
have been selected to express the familiar ideas and episodes 
of daily life, and contain phrases often omitted from the 



VI PREFACE. 



regular dictionaries. Whenever it has been possible to 
render adequately a Spanish idiom, the English equivalent 
has been given without a slavish adherence to the literal 
translation. The exact meaning of the original is, however, 
indicated whenever it might otherwise be obscure. 



FERNANDO DE ARTEAGA Y PEREIRA. 



TAYLOR INSTITUTION, OXFORD, 
Sth March 1902. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

VI. VERBS, 1-147 

CONJUGATION OF Haber, TO HAVE, AS AUXILIARY, 1 

,, ,, ,, AS IMPERSONAL, 3 

USES OF Haber AND Tener, . . 4 
REGULAR CONJUGATION 

Active Voice ; 1st Conjug. hablar, . 8 

,, 2nd ,, aprender, 11 

,, 3rd ,, vivir, . 14 

REGULAR EUPHONIC CHANGES, . . 17 



CONJUGATION OF Ser, TO BE, . 

PASSIVE VERBS. PASSIVE FORMS, 
CONJUGATION OF Estar, TO BE, 

PROGRESSIVE FORM, 



20 
23 
27 
30 
31 



USES OF Ser AND Estar, TO BE, 

REFLEXIVE VERBS. REFLEXIVE FORMS, . . 36 

RECIPROCAL VERBS. RECIPROCAL FORMS, . . 39 

IMPERSONAL VERBS. IMPERSONAL FORMS, . . 41 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. DEFECTIVE FORMS, . . 47 

IRREGULAR VERBS, ..... 49-92 

I. Insertion of e, . . . . .49 

II. Diphthongization ue, ie ; u, i, kept in certain 

forms, . . . . .49 

III. Diphthongization -ay, -oy, -uy ; -ay, -oy, 

becoming -aig, oig, . . . .51 

IV. Change of -e into -i, in Present and Past 

Stems ; Disappearance of the i in the 
endings, in Past Stems, of verbs ending in 
-eir, -enir, ..... 52 

V. Change of -ec into -ig in Present Stems, . 54 

VI. Insertion of c, g ; change of c into g before 

endings in -o, -a, . . . .54 

VII. Verbs with irregularities not otherwise classi- 
fied, . . . . . .56 

IRREGULAR VERBS UNDER MORE THAN ONE RULE 

CONJUGATED IN FULL, . . . .60 

LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS REFERRED TO 

THEIR CONJUGATION, . . . .68 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

VI. VERBS (continued). PAGE 

USE OF THE TENSES, .... 93-107 

SIMPLE TENSES, .... 93-102 

(INDICATIVE), . . . 93-99 

Present Tense, . . . 93 

Future Imperfect, . . .94 

Future Conditional, ... 94 

Past Imperfect, ... 97 

Past Anterior, . . 98 

(SUBJUNCTIVE), . . . 99-102 

Present Tense, . . . .99 

Future Conditional, Past Imperfect, 

and Past Anterior, . . 100 

COMPOUND TENSES, . . . 102-107 

(INDICATIVE), . . . 102-105 

Past Perfect, . . . .102 

Future Perfect, 

Compound Conditional, . . 104 

Pluperfect, . . .105 

Past Anterior, . . . .105 

(SUBJUNCTIVE), . . . 105-107 

Past Perfect, . . . .105 

Future Perfect, . . .106 
Compound Conditional, Pluperfect, 

and Past Anterior, . .106 

USE OF THE MOODS, .... 107-147 

INFINITIVE, . . . 107-111 

1. The Infinitive as a Verbal Noun, . 107 

2. ,, ,, Mood, . 108 

3. Compound Infinitive. . .110 
INDICATIVE, . . . 111-112 

1. As an Independent Mood, . 

2. As a Dependent Mood, . . Ill 
IMPERATIVE, . . . .112 
SUBJUNCTIVE, . . . 113-116 

VERBS WITH EITHER THE INFINITIVE OR 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE, . .116 

GERUND, ..... 119 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE, . . . 124 

PAST PARTICIPLE, . . . 130-147 

REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES, . .133 

IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES, . 139 

VII. ADVERBS, .... 148-172 

ADVERBS OF PLACE, ..... 148 

TIME, . . . . .151 

,, ,, MANNER, .... 156 

,, AFFIRMATION, NEGATION AND DOUBT, 160 

,, ,, QUANTITY, .... 165 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



VIII. PREPOSITIONS, 
a, . 
de, 
en, 
con, 
por, 
para, 

OTHER PREPOSITIONS, . 
acerca de, 
bajo, 

contra, . 

entre, .... 
desde, .... 
hasta, .... 

desde and hasta compared, 
hacia, .... 
segun, 
sin, .... 

so > 

sobre, .... 

ante, .... 

tras, 

IX. CONJUNCTIONS, 

I. CONNECTIVE CONJUNCTIONS, 
II. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS, 

III. ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS, . 

IV. CAUSAL AND FINAL CONJUNCTIONS, 
V. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIONS, 

X. INTERJECTIONS, 



PAGE 

173-190 

. 173 

. 176 

. 178 

. 179 

. 181 

. 182 

183-190 

. 183 

. 183 

. 184 

. 184 

. 184 

. 185 

. 186 

. 187 

. 187 

. 188 

. 189 

. 189 

. 189 

. 190 

191-203 

191 

. 193 
. 194 
. 197 
. 200 

204 



APPENDICES, ... . 207-252 

A. THE SUBSTANTIVE, .... 207-224 

Gender of the Substantive, . . 207-215 

Formation of the Feminine, . . . 215-219 

Formation of the Plural, . . . 219-220 

Number of the Substantive, . 221-224 

B. USE OF THE ARTICLE, . . . 225-235 

Definite Article, .... 225-230 

The Neuter Article LO, ... 231 

Indefinite Article, .... 232-233 

The Article in connection with Idioms, . 234-235 

C. AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES, . . 236-248 

Augmentatives, .... 236-240 
Diminutives, .... 240-247 
Contrast between Augmentatives and Diminu- 
tives, . ... 247-248 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDICES (continual). PAGE 
D. DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH THE VERB 

AND THE ADVERB, . . 249-252 

Formulae of comparison with Verbs, . . 249-250 

Degrees of comparison with Adverbs, 250-251 

Formulae of comparison with Adverbs, . 252 

INDEX TO VOCABULARIES, . . 253-362 

I. SPANISH WORDS, .... 253-303 

II. ENGLISH WORDS, .... 304-362 



PRACTICAL SPANISH. 



PART II. 

THE VERB, ETC., WITH FULL VOCABULARIES. 



VI. VERBS [Verlos]. 

CONJUGATION OF THE ACTIVE AUXILIARY 
HABER, TO HAVE. 
SIMPLE TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 
Stem : hab [h, he, hay]. 



h-e, 
h-as, 
h-a, 
V. h-a, 


I have 
thou hast 
he (she) has 
you have 


h-emos, 
hab-<is, 
h-an, 
V.V. h-an, 


we have 
you have 
they have 
you have 



hay-a, 
hay-as, 
hay-a, 
V. hay-a, 


/ may have 
thou mayst have 
he (she) may have 
you may have 


hay-amos, 
hay-ais, 
hay-an, 
V.V. hay-an, 


we may have 
you may have 
they may have 
you may have 



FUTURE IMPERFECT. 
Stems : habr-, hub. 



habr-e, 
habr-as, 
habr-a, 
V. habr-a, 


7 shall have 
thou wilt have 
he (she) will have 
you will have 


hub-iere, 
hub-ieres, 
hub-iere, 
V. hub-iere, 


I should have 
thou shouldst have 
he(she) should have 
you should have 


habr-emos, 
habr-eis, 
habr- an, 
V.V. habr-an, 


we shall have 
you will have 
they will have 
you will have 


hub-ieremos, 
hub-iereis, 
hub-ieren, 
V.V.hub-ieren, 


we should have 
you should have 
they should have 
you should have 


PT. II. 






A 



VEKH. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 

hub-iera, or hub-iese, (if) I had 
hub-ieras, or hub-loses, (if) thou 

hadst 
hub-iera, or hub-iese, (if) he (she) 

had 
V. hub-iera, or hub-iese, (if) you 

had 
hub-i6ramos, or hub-iesemos, (if) 

we had 
hub-ierais, or hub-ieseis, (if) you 

had 
hub-ieran, or hub-iesen, (if) they 

had 
V.V. hub-ieran, orhubiesen, (if) 

you had 



habr-ia. 
habr-ias, 


/ should have 
thou wouldst have 


habr-fa, 


he(she) would have 


V. habr-ia, 


i/o a. 'mould have 


habr-iamos, 


we should have 


habr-iais, 


you would have 


habr-ian, 


they would have 



V.V. habr-fan, you would have 





PAST 


IMPERFECT. 






Stems 


: hab-, hub-. 




hab-ia, 
hab-ias, 
hab-ia, 
V. hab-ia, 


I had 
thou hadst 
he (she) had 
you had 


hub-iera, 
hub-ieras, 
hub-iera, 
V. hub-iera, 


I might have 
thou mightest have 
he(she) might hare 
you might have 


hab-iamos, 
hab-iais, 
hab-ian, 
V.V. hab-ian, 


we had 
you had 
they had 
you had 


hub-ieramos, we might have 
hub-ierais, you might have 
hub-ieran, they might have 
V.V. hub-ieran, you might have 




PAST 


ANTERIOR. 




hub-e, 
hub-iste, 
hub-o, 
V. hub-o, 


I had 
thou hadst 
he (she) had 
you had 


hub-iese, 
hub-ieses, 
hub-iese, 
V. hub-iese, 


I might have 
thou mightest hare 
he (she) might have 
you might have 


hub-iraos, 
hub-isteis, 
hub-ieron, 


we had 
you hail 
they had 


hub-iesemos, 
hub-ieseis, 
hub-iesen, 


we might have 
you might have 
they might have 



V.V. hub-ieron, you had 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



hay-a, 
hay-amos, 
hab-ed, 
hay-an, 



let him Jiave 
let us have 
let you (ye) have 
let them have 



SUBSTANTIVE-ADJECTIVE. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 



hab-ido, 



had 



VERB. C 

INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND. 

hab-er, to have hab-iendo, having 

CONJUGATION OF HABER, TO HAVE, 

AS IMPERSONAL. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 

hay, there is, there are haya, there may be 

ha, there is, it is 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

FUTURE IMPERFECT. 

habra, there will be hubiere, there should be 

FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 

habrfa, tJiere would be hubiera (or if there were 

hubiese), 

PAST IMPERFECT. 

habia, there was t there hubiera, there might be 

were 

PAST ANTERIOR. 
hubo, there was, there hubiese, there might be 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD. 

haya (or que let there be haber, there . . to be 

haya), 

ABSOLUTE PAST PARTICIPLE. 
habido , there having been 

GERUND. 
habiendo, there being 

INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND. 

haber habido, there. . to have habiendo habido, there having been 
been 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

PRESENT. 

ha habido, there has been, haya habido, there may have 

there have been been 



4 



VERB. 



FUTURE IMPERFECT. 

habra habido, there will have hubiere habido, there should have 
been been 

FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 

habria habido, there would have hubiera (or hu- (if) there had 
been biese) habido, been 

PAST IMPERFECT. 

habfa habido, there had been hubiera habido, there might have 

been 
PAST ANTERIOR. 

hubo habido, there had been hubiese habido there might have 

been 



USES OF HABER AND TENER. 

1. Haber is generally an auxiliary verb, it does not imply 
either possession or state ; hence it is not generally employed 
as an independent verb. Tener is a transitive verb, it 
implies either possession or state ; hence it is not generally 
employed as an auxiliary verb ; cf. : 

he leido un libro, / have read a book 

tengo un libro, / have a book 

he leido un libro que tengo, / have read a book that I have 

he lefdo un libro que habia IJiave read a book that I used to 



tenido, 

tengo un 

tenido, 



libro que ya habia 



have 

I have a 
before 



book that I had 



REMARKS. (a) Haber may be its own auxiliary, which 
tener may not : 

ha habido un incendio en casa, there has been a fire in tlie house 
hemos tenido un incendio en we have had a fire in the Iwuse 
casa, 

(b) Past participles used witli haber remain invariable, 
those with tener must agree in gender and number with 
their object : 

he leido un libro, / have read a book 

tengo leido ese libro, IJiave already read that book 

I ha escrito la carta ? has he ivritten the letter ? 

tiene escrita la carta, *' lie has written tJie letter 

se me han helado las manos, my hands had got frozen 

tengo las manos heladas, my hands are frozen 

se han puesto los guantes, they have put on their gloves 

tienen puestos los guantes, theyjiave their gloves on 



VERB. 



2. Haber is occasionally used as an independent verb, in 
the following instances : 

in the Indicative : 



no lo he menester, 

hay mucho carbon en Inglaterra, 



no ha lugar, 
mucho tiempo ha, 
muchos afios ha, 
habia muchas personas 

sala, 
habra guerra, 

in the Imperative : 
he aqui, 



/ do not need it 

there is a great quantity of coal in 

England 

the case dismissed, (nolle prosequi) 
a long time ago 
many years ago 
en la there were many people in tlie 

drawing-room 
there will be ivar 



he aqui el hombre, 

he aqui las consecuencias, 

he aqui que entro un caballero, 

heme aqui, 

he ahi, 



helo ahi, helos alii, 
in the Subjunctive : 

bien haya, 
mal haya, 
i haya paz ! 
que haya salud, 

alia se las haya (or el se las haya), 

alia te las hayas (or tu te las 

hayas), 
que Dios haya en gloria (Q. D. H. 

E. G., orq. D. h. e. g.), 
que santa gloria haya, 

hubiera habido una desgracia, 



behold, lo, here is . . . ; this is 
. . . , these are . . . , (referring 
to what follows) 

behold the man, liere is the man 

these are the consequences 

then a gentleman came in 

here I am 

behold, lo, there is . . . ; that is 
, those are . . . , (referring 



to what precedes) 
tliere he (she, it) is, there they 



are 



cursed be 

let there be peace .', be peaceable ! 

(in bidding farewell} I wish you 
good health 

let him get out of it the best way he 
can 

you must do the best you can your- 
self 

may God keep him (her, etc.) in 
glory 

may (his, her soul) enjoy the reward 
of the just 

tliere would have been a misfortune 



in the Infinitive and Participles : 

knowledge is better than wealth 
the children already born, and those 

to be born hereafter 
to need 
to have to deal with some one (irony] 



vale mas saber que haber, 
los hijos habidos y por haber, 



haber menester, 

haberlo (or haberselas) con al 

guno, 

los derecho habientes, 
habiendo guerra, 



the legal successors 
there being a war 



6 



VERB. 



in the simple tenses of haber de : 



yo lo he de saber, 
e"l lo habra de decir, 



/ will ascertain 
he must tell 



3. Tener is occasionally used as an auxiliary when, 
though possession be implied, state as the result of an 
action is really meant : 
lo ban visto, lo tienen visto, they have seen it, they Jiave already 

lo ha dicho, lo tiene dicho, 

he pensado hacer eso, tengo pen- 

sado hacerlo, 
I ha hecho V. eso ? No lo tengo 

hecho aim, 
I que" ha resuelto ? No tiene re- 

suelto lo que hard, 



he said so, he has already said so 
I thought of doing that, I 
already thought of doing it 
have you done that? / have not 



ivhat has he decided ? He has not 
yet decided what he will do 



REMARK. With verbs the meaning of which is incon- 
sistent with the idea of possession, tener cannot be em- 
ployed, except in colloquial language, and in an emphatic 
sense, in the present and in the future tenses : 

how that woman has cried in hf,- 



; cuanto tiene llorado esa mujer 

su vida ! 
j cuantos guantes tengo yo per- 

didos! 
tengo comidas muchas naranjas 



life ! 
Iww many many gloves have Host ! 

I have eaten a good many oraii'jcx 
yo, (in my life) 

Haber que is used impersonally to express an impersonal 
obligation or necessity. Tener que is used to express an 
almost immediate personal obligation or necessity : 



no hay que hablar mal de nadie, 

no tenemos que hablar mal de 
nadie, 

hay que ser muy prudente, 

tiene usted que ser muy pru- 
dente, 

hay que trabajar para vivir, 

la gente tiene que trabajar para 
vivir, 

ha habido que suspender la 
funcion, 

el empresario ha tenido que sus- 
pender la funcion, 

siempre habra que honrar la 
virtud, 

los hombres tendran que honrar 
siempre la virtud, 



one must not speak ill of anyone 
we must not speak ill of anyone 

one must be very cautious 
you must be very cautious 

one must work to live 
people must work to live 

tJie performance has had to be put off 

the manager has had to put off the 

performance 
virtue must always be honoured 

men must always give honour to 
virtue 



VERB. 7 

REMARK. By suppressing the subject, and introducing se, 
sentences with tener que are made impersonal ; i.e., hay que 
is equivalent to se tiene que : 

no hay que hablar mal de nadie, or no se tiene que hablar mal de 

nadie 

hay que ser muy prudente, or se tiene que ser muy prudente 
hay que trabajar para vivir, or se tiene que trabajar para vivir 

Haber de is used to express a duty or moral obligation not 
immediate, otherwise is almost equivalent to tener que. 
Tener de is used to denote an intention or resolution, not 
always immediate. 

el hombre ha de decir siempre man must always speak the truth 

la verdad, 

yo lo tengo de averiguar, / must ascertain it 

las cosas se han de hacer bien, things must be done //;// 

Or in an impersonal sense : 

se ha de decir siempre la verdad, 
se ha de hacer bien las cosas, 

At times haber de denotes probability, likelihood; at 
others, strong wish : 

ha de estar por ahi, it must be about there 

dice que lo ha de matar, he says he will kill him 

REMARKS. 1. Since haber de refers to an action in the 
future, it cannot be employed in the compound tenses, the 
signification of which refers always to a past. Tener que is 
used instead ; hence : 

el hombre ha tenido que decir the man has been obliged to tell the 

la verdad, truth 

las cosas se han tenido que hacer things liave had to be done well 

bien, or ha habido que hacer 

las cosas bien, 

2. The Past anterior assumes an idea of probability or 
necessity : 

alguien hubo de decirselo, someone must ha,ve told him 

61 hubo de creerlo, lie must have believed it 



VERB. 

REGULAR CONJUGATION. ACTIVE VOICE. 

FIRST CONJUGATION, ENDING AR ; 

HABLAR, TO SPEAK. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 



habl-o, 1 speak 
habl-as, thou speakest 
habl-a, he (she) speaks 
V. habl-a, you speak 


habl-e, / may ^ 

habl-es, thou mayst ^ 
habl-e, he (she) may j^ 
V. habl-e, you may 


habl-amos, we speak 
habl-ais, you speak 
habl-an, they speak 
V.V. habl-an, you speak 


habl-emos, we may 
habl-eis, you may 
habl-en, they may ^ 
V.V. habl-en, you may 




FUTURE 


IMPERFECT. 


hablar-e, 
hablar-as, 
hablar-a, 
V. hablar-a, 


I shall 
thou wilt ^ 
he (she) will ^ 
you will 


hablar-e, / should ^ 
hablar-es, thou shouldst ^ 
hablar-e, he (she) should ^ 
V. hablar-e, you should 


hablar-emos, 
hablar-eis, 
hablar-an, 
V.V. hablar-an, 


we shall ^ 
you will " 
they will ^ 
you will 


hablar-emos, we should & 
hablar-eis, you should 
hablar-en, they should 
V.V. hablar-en, you should 


FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 


hablar-ia, 


I should 


habl-ara, or (if) I spoke 
habl-ase, 


hablar-ias, 
hablar-ia, 


thou wouldst & 
he (she) would & 


habl-aras, or (if) thou spokest 
habl-ases, 
habl-ara, or (if) he (she) spoke 
habl-ase, 


V. hablar-ia, 


you would 


V. habl-ara, or (if) you spoke 
habl-ase, 


hablar-iamos, 
hablar-iais, 
hablar-ian 


we should 

you would > 
2 
they would *** 


habl-aramos, or (if) we spoke 
habl-asemos, 
habl-arais, or (if) you spoke 
habl-ase is, 
habl-aran, or (if) they spoke 
habl-asen, 


V.V. hablar-ian, 


you would 


V.V. habl-aran, (if) you spoke 
or habl-asen, 



VERB. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST IMPERFECT. 



habl-aba, 
habl-abas, 
habl-aba, 
V. habl-aba, 


I was 
thou wast 
he (she) was & 
you were 

SL 


habl-ara, 
habl-aras, 
habl-ara, 
V. habl-ara, 


I might 
thoumightest ^ 
he (she) might a 
you might 


habl-abamos, we were 
habl-abais, you were 
habl-aban, they were 
V.V. habl-aban, you were 


habl-aramos, 
habl-arais, 
habl-aran, 
V.V. habl-aran 


we might <* 
you might ^ 
they might ?? 
, you might 


PAST ANTERIOR. 


habl-e, 
habl-aste, 
habl-6, 
V. habl-6, 


/ spoke 
thou spokest 
he (she) spoke 
you spoke 


habl-ase, 
habl-ases, 
habl-ase, 
V. habl-ase, 


I might & 
thoumightest ^ 
he (she) might - 
you might 


habl-amos, we spoke 
habl-asteis, you spoke 
habl-aron, they spoke 
V.V. habl-aron, you spoke 


habl-asemos, 
habl-aseis, 
habl-asen, 
V.V. habl-asen 


we might o, 
you might g 
they might *? 
, you might 


IMPERATIVE MOOD. 


SUBSTANTIVE-ADJECTIVE. 


habl-a, 
habl-e, 
habl-e V., 

habl-emos, 
habl-ad, 
habl-en, 
habl-enV.V., 


speak (thou) 
let him (Jier) speak 
speak 

let us speak 
speak (ye) 
let them speak 
speak 


PAST 
habl-ado, 


TENSE. 
spoken 



habl-ar, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. -GERUND. 
to speak habl-ando, speaking 



COMPOUND TENSES. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST PERFECT. 



he hablado, 
has hablado, 
ha hablado, 
V. ha hablado, 

hemos hablado, 
babels hablado, 
han hablado, 
V.V. han hablado, 


/ 
thou f 
he (she) 
you g 

we ST 
ye (you) ~ a 
they f? 
you 


haya hablado, 
hayas hablado, 
haya hablado, 
V. haya hablado, 

hayamos hablado, 
hayais hablado, 
hayan hablado, 
V.V. hayan hablado, 


thou ^ 
he (she) g* 
you 

lw 

we ^ 
ye (you) 
they 
you ST 



10 



VERB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

FUTURE PERFECT. 



habr6 hablado, 
habras hablado, 
habra hablado, 
V. habra hablado, 



/ ^ hubiere hablado, 

thou |j hubieres hablado, 

he (she) &> hubiere hablado, 

you g 



1 \ 

thou 

he (she) * 
V. hubiere hablado, you 

Ct 



habremos hablado, we 
habreis hablado, ye (you,) 

habran hablado, they 

V.V. habran hablado, you 



hubieremos hablado, we 
hubiereis hablado, ye (you) | 
hubieren hablado, they "~ 
V.V. hubieren hablado, you 



habria hablado, 
habrias hablado, 
habria hablado, 
V. habria hablado, 



habriamos hablado, 
habriais hablado, 
habrian hablado, 
V.V. habrian hablado, you 



COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. 

/ hubiera (or hubiese) hablado, 

thou hubieras (or hubieses) hablado, 

he (she) |- hubiera (or hubiese) hablado, ^ 

you V. hubiera (or hubiese) ha- ^ 

blado, 

r * 

we hubie"ramos (or hubiesemos) " 

> hablado, 
ye (you) , hubierais (or hubieseis) ha- ^ 

blado, 

they " hubieran (or hubiesen) ha- 
% blado, 

V.V. hubieran (or hubiesen) 
hablado, 



PLUPERFECT. 



habia hablado, 
habias hablado, 
habia hablado, 
V. habia hablado, 

habiamos hablado, 
habiais hablado, 
habian hablado, 
V.V. habian hablado, 



/ hubiera hablado, / |- 

thou |" hubieras hablado, thou ^ 

he (she) ^ hubiera hablado, he (she) 

you ^s V. hubiera hablado, you 

we js hubi^ramos hablado, ice 

ye (you) "_ hubierais hablado, ye (you) |" 

they p" hubieran hablado, they 

you V.V. hubieran hablado, you 

PAST ANTERIOR. 



hube hablado, 


7 


hubiese hablado, 


' 1 


hubiste hablado, 


thou >* 


hubieses hablado 


thou, & 


hubo hablado, 


he (she) S, 


hubiese hablado 


he (she) & 


V. hubo hablado, 


you ^ 


hubiese hablado 


you | 



hubimos hablado, we 
hubisteis hablado , ye (you ) 
hubieron hablado, they 
V.V hubieron hablado, you 



hubiesemoB hablado, we 
hubieseis hablado, ye (you) 
hubiesen hablado, they 
V.V. hubiesen hablado, you 



VERB. 



11 



INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND, 
haber hablado, to have spoken habiendo hablado, having spoken 

SECOND CONJUGATION, ENDING BR ; 
APRBNDBR, TO LEARN. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



aprend-o, 
aprend-es, 
aprend-e, 
V. aprend-e, 



PRESENT. 



/ learn 
thou learned 
he (she) learns 
you learn 



aprend-emos, we learn 
aprend-eis, you learn 
aprend-en, they learn 

V.V.aprend-en, you learn 



apreud-a, 
aprend-as, 
aprend-a, 
V. aprend-a, 


I may 
thou mayst 
he (she) may 
you may 


1" 


aprend-amos, 
aprend-ais, 
aprend-an, 
V.V. aprend-an, 


we may 
you may 
they may 
you may 


l 
3 



FUTURE IMPERFECT. 



aprender-e, 
aprender-as, 
aprender-a, 
V. aprender-a, 



/ shall 
thou wilt 
he (she) will 
you 'will 



aprender-emos, we shall 
aprender-eis, you will 
aprender-an, they will 
V.V. aprender-an, you will 



aprend-iere, / should 

** aprend-ieres, thou shouldst 

aprend-iere, he(she) should 

V. aprend-iere, you should 

aprend-ieremos, we should 
|" aprend-iereis, you should 
3 aprend-ieren, they should 

V.V. aprend-ieren, you should 



FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 



aprender-ia, / should 

aprender-ias, thou wouldst 

aprender-ia, he (she) would 

V. aprender-ia, you would 

aprender-iamos, we should 

aprender-iais, you would 
aprender-fan, they would 
V.V. aprender-ian, you would 



aprend-iera, or aprend-iese, 
aprend-ieras, or aprend-ieses, ^ 
aprend-iera, or aprend-iese, 3 
V. aprend-iera, or aprend-iese, K< 


aprend-idramos, or apren- S| 

diesemos, 

aprend-ierais,oraprend-iesei8, - A 
aprend-ieran, or aprend-iesen, S- 
V.V. aprend-ieran, or apren- r 

diesen, 



12 



VERB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST IMPERFECT. 



aprend-ia, 
aprend-ias. 
aprend-ia, 
V. aprend-ia, 



/ was 

thou wast 

he (she) was ^ 

you were 



aprend-iamos, we were 
aprend-iais, you were 
aprend-ian, they were 
V.V. aprend-ian, you were 



aprend-iera, / might 
aprend-ieras, thou mightest 
aprend-iera, he (she) might 
V. aprend-iera, you, might 

aprend-ieramos, we might 
aprend-ierais, you might 
aprend-ieran, he might 
V.V. aprend-ieran, you might 



aprend-i, 
aprend-iste, 
aprend-io, 
V. aprend-io, 



PAST ANTERIOR. 
I learned aprend-iese, I might 



thou learnedst 
he (she) learned 
you learned 



aprend-imos, we learned 
aprend-isteis, you learned 
aprend-ieron, they learned 
V.V. aprend-ieron, you learned 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



aprend-e, 
aprend-a, 
aprend-a V., 

aprend-amos, 
aprend-ed, 
aprend-an, 


learn (thou) 
let him (her) learn 
learn 

let us learn 
learn (ye) 
let them learn 



aprend-ieses, thou mightest 
aprend-iese, he (she) might H 
V. aprend-iese, you might 

aprend-iesemos, we might 
aprend-ieseis, you might 
aprend-iesen, they might ^ 
V.V. aprend-iesen, you might 

SUBSTANTIVE-ADJECTIVE. 

PAST PARTICIPLE. 
aprend-ido, learned 



aprend-an V.V. , learn 



INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND, 
aprend-er, to learn aprend-iendo, learning 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST PERFECT. 

haya aprendido, 
thou hayas aprendido, 

he (she) haya aprendido, 
you g' V. haya aprendido, 

we |^ hayamos aprendido, we 

ye (you) - hayais aprendido, ye (you) 

they S- hayan aprendido, they 

you ' V.V. hayan aprendido, you 



he aprendido, 
has aprendido, 
ha aprendido, 
V. ha aprendido, 

hemos aprendido, 
habeie aprendido, 
han aprendido, 
V.V. han aprendido, 




VERB. 



13 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

habre aprendido, / I- hubiere aprendido, / 

habras aprendido, thou it hubieres aprendido, thou 
habra aprendido, he (she) J! hubiere aprendido, he (she) 
V. habra aprendido, you V. hubiere aprendido, you 



habremos aprendido, we 
habreis aprendido, ye (you) 
habran aprendido, they 
V.V. habran aprendido, you 



habria aprendido, / 

habrias aprendido, thou 

habria aprendido, he (she) 

V. habria aprendido, you 

habriamos aprendido, we 
habriais aprendido, 
habrian aprendido, they 



hubieremos aprendido, we 

hubiereis aprendido, ye (you) 
, hubieren aprendido, they 
'a> V.V. hubieren apren- you 
dido, 

COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. 
/ hubiera (or hubiese) apren- 

dido, 
hubieras (or hubieses) pren- 

dido, 

hubiera (or hubiese) apren- 
dido, 

V. hubiera (or hubiese) 
aprendido, 



V.V. habrian apren- you 
dido, 



habia aprendido, 
habias aprendido, 
habia aprendido, 
V. habia aprendido, 



hubieramos (or hubiesemos) 

aprendido, 
hubierais (or hubieseis) a- 

prendido, 
hubieran (or hubiesen) apren, 

dido, 
V.V. hubieran (or hubiesen) 

aprendido, 

PLUPERFECT. 

/ hubiera aprendido, / 

thou ^" hubieras aprendido, thou 
he (she) ^ hubiera aprendido, he (she) 
you g 4 V. hubiera aprendido, you 



habiamos aprendido, we 
habiais aprendido, ye (you] 
habian aprendido, they 
V.V.habian aprendido, you 

PAST 

hube aprendido, / 

hubiste aprendido, thou 
hubo aprendido, he (she) 

V. hubo aprendido, you 



3 

hubieramos aprendido, we 
hubierais aprendido, ye (you) 
hubieran aprendido, they 
V.V. hubieran apren- you 
dido, 

ANTERIOR. 
^ hubiese aprendido, / 

hubieses aprendido, thou 
^ hubiese aprendido, he (she) 
V. hubiese aprendido, you 



hubimos aprendido, we st, 
hubisteis aprendido, ye (you) ~o> 
hubieron aprendido, they p" 
V.V. hubieron apren- you 
dido, 



hubiesemos aprendido, we 
hubieseis aprendido, ye (you) ^ 
hubiesen aprendido, they ^ 
V.V. hubiesen apren- you 
dido, 



14 



VERB. 



INFINITIVE MOOD.-GERUND. 
haber aprendido, to have learned habiendo aprendido, having learned 



THIRD CONJUGATION, ENDING IR; 
VIVIR, TO LIVE. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 



viv-o, 


1 live 


viv-a, 


I may 


viv-es, 


thou livest 


viv-as, 


thou mayst 5! 


viv-e, 


he (she) lives 


viv-a, 


he (she) may w 


V. viv-e, 


you live 


V. viv-a, 


you may 


viv-imos, 


we live 


viv-amos, 


we may 


viv-is, 


you live 


viv-ais, 


you may 


viv-en, 


they live 


viv-an, 


they may <* 


V.V. viv-en, 


you live 


V.V. viv-an, 


you may 


FUTURE IMPERFECT. 


vivir-e, 


I shall 


viv-iere, 


I should 


vivir-as, 


thou wilt 


r viv-ieres, 


thou shouldst 5? 


vivir-a, 


he (she) will 


viv-iere, 


he(she)should ^ 


V. vivir-a, 


you will 


V. viv-iere, 


you should 


vivir-emos, 


we shall 


viv-ieremos, 


we should 


vivir-eis, 


you will 


5r viv-iereis, 


you should 5t 


vivir-an, 


they will 


viv-ieren, 


they should 


V.V. vivir-an, 


you will 


V.V. viv-ieren, 


you should 




FUTURE 


CONDITIONAL. 




vivir-ia, 


/ should 


viv-iera, or 


(if) I lived 






viv-iese, 




vivir-ias, 


thou wouldst 


viv-ieras, or 


(if) thou 






gi viv-ieses, 


livedst 


vivir-fa, 


he (she) would 


viv-iera, or 


(if) he (she) 






viv-iese, 


lived 


V. vivir-ia, 


you would 


V. viv-iera, or 


(if) you lived 






viv-iese, 




vivir-iamos, 


we should 


viv-ieramos, or 


(if) we lived 






viv-ie"semos, 




vivir-iais, 


you would 


viv-ierais, or 


(if) you lived 






Si viv-ieseis, 




vivir-fan, 


they would 


viv-ieran, or 


(if) they lived 






viv-iesen, 




V.V. vivir-fan, 


you would 


V.V. viv-ieran, 


(if) you lived 






or viv-iesen, 





VERB. 



15 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST IMPERFECT. 



viv-fa, 
viv-fas, 
viv-fa, 
V. viv-fa, 


I was 
thou wast |i 
he (she) was ^- 
you were 


viv-iera, 
viv-ieras, 
viv-iera, 
V. viv-iera, 


/ might 
thou mightest 
he (she) might 
you might 


viv-famos, 
viv-fais, 
viv-fan, 
V.V. viv-ian, 


we were ^ 
you were 
they were ' 
you were 


viv-ie"ramos, 
viv-ierais, 
viv-ieran, 
V.V. viv-ieran, 


we might 
you might 
they might 
you might 


PAST ANTERIOR. 


viv-i, 
viv-iste, 
viv-i6, 
V. viv-io, 


1 lived 
thou livedst 
he (she) lived 
you lived 


viv-iese, 
viv-ieses, 
viv-iese, 
V. viv-iese, 


I might 
thou mightest 
he (she) might 
you might 


viv-imos, 
viv-isteis, 
viv-ieron, 
V.V. viv-ieron, 


we lived 
you lived 
they lived 
you lived 


viv-ie"semos, 
viv-ieseis, 
viv-iesen, 
V.V. viv-iesen, 


we might 
you might 
they might 
you might 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



SUBSTANTIVE-ADJECTIVE. 
PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



viv-e, 
viv-a, 
viv-a V., 


live (thou) 
let him (her) li 
live 


viv-amos, 
viv-id, 
viv-an 
viv-anV.V., 


let us live 
live (ye) 
let them live 
live 



viv-iente, 



living 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 
viv-ido, lived 



viv-ir, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. -GERUND. 
to live viv-iendo, livitig 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PAST PERFECT. 

he vivido, / haya vivido, / 

has vivido, thou & hayas vivido, thou 

ha vivido, he (she) 1 haya vivido, he (she) 

V. ha vivido, you ^. V. haya vivido, you 

hemos vivido, we & hayamos vivido, we 

habeis vivido, ye (you) ^ haydis vivido, ye (you) 

han vivido, they P hayan vivido, they 

V.V. han vivido, you V.V. hayan vivido, you 



16 



VERB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Fun; RE PERFECT. 



habre vivido, 
habras vivido, 
habra vivido, 
V. habra vivido, 


thou g. 
he (she) 
you 

Cfe 


hubiere vivido, / . 
hubieres vivido, thou 
hubiere vivido, he (she) $ 
V. hubiere vivido, you 


habremos vivido, 
habreis vivido, 
habran vivido. 
V.V. habran vivido, 


we 
ye (you) & 
they *_ 
you S" 


hubieremos vivido, ice ^ 
hubiereis vivido, ye (you) J 
hubieren vivido, they ~a> 
V.V. hubieren vivido, you p 


COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. 


habria vivido, 
habrias vivido, 
habria vivido, 
V. habria vivido, 


thou | 
he (she) ^ 
you 


hubiera (or hubiese) vivido, 
hubieras (or hubieses) vivido, ^ 
hubiera (or hubiese) vivido, ^ 
V. hubiera (or hubiese) vivido, ^ 



habriamos vivido, 

habriais vivido, 
habrian vivido, 
V.V. habrian vivido, 



habia vivido, 
habias vivido, 
habia vivido, 
V. habia vivido, 

habiamos vivido, 
habiais vivido, 
habian vivido, 
V.V. habian vivido, 



hube vivido, 
hubiste vivido, 
hubo vivido, 
V. hubo vivido, 



we <| hubieramos (or hubiesemos) r* 

s: vivido, 

ye (you) hubierais( or hubieseis) vivido, jt 
they hubieran (or hubiesen) vivido, ~ 

you j+ V.V. hubieran (or hubiesen) <? 
vivido, 



PLUPERFECT. 

/ hubiera vivido, / 

thou ^ hubieras vivido, thou 

he (she) ^ hubiera vivido, he (she) 

you 5- V. hubiera vivido, you 

I 

we - hubieramos vivido, we 

ye (you) S- hubierais vivido, ye (you) 

they - hubieran vivido, they 

you V.V. hubieran vivido. you 

PAST ANTERIOR. 

/ hubiese vivido, 

thou > hubieses vivido, 







he (she) 



hubiese vivido, 



you V. hubiese vivido, 



/ | 

thou <ci" 

he (she) S. 
yvu 



hubimos vivido, we ^ 

hubisteis vivido, ye (you) %. 

hubieron vivido, they 

V.V. hubieron vivido, you 



hubiesemos vivido, ?/; ?^ 

hubieseis vivido, ye (you) |[ 

hubiesen vivido, they J 

V.V. hubiesen vivido. you 



haber vivido, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND. 
to have lived habiendo vivido, 



having lived 



VERB. 1? 



REGULAR EUPHONIC CHANGES. 

(1) g of endings in -ger, -gir remains before e, i, i, but 
changes into j before o, a : 

coger, to catch, to pick up, cogi dirigdr, to direct, dirigi 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 

COJO, CO/a, 

cq/as, 

cq/a, cq/a, 

cq/amos, cq/amos, 

cq/ais, 

cq/an, cq/an, 

diriyo, diri/a, 

din/as, 

diriya, diriy'a, 

diriyamos, diriyamos, 

diriydis, 
diriyan, diriyan, 

(2) z of endings in -zar remains before o, a, but changes 
into c before e, 6 ; whilst c of endings in -cer, -cir remains 
before i, i, e, but changes into z before o, a, co, ca, go, ga : 

resar, to pray, rezo 

PAST ANTERIOR. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 
rec, rece, 

reces, 

rece, rece, 

recemos, recemos, 

receis, 
recen, recen, 

(a) c preceded by a consonant : 
veneer, to conquer esparcir, to scatter 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. 
venco, esparso, 

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. 

venca, espar^i, 

ven^as, esparcas, 

vensa, espar^a, 

veiLsamos, espar^amos, 

vensais,] esparzais, 

vensan, esparaan, 

IMPERATIVE. 

veiLsa, esparza, 

ven^amos, esparcamos, 

veman, esparcan, 

PT. II. B 



18 



VERB. 



n&zco, 


cre^co, 


n&zca, 


cre^ca, 


naccas, 


creccas, 


narca, 


cresca, 


naccamos, 


cre^camos, 


nascais, 


crezcais, 


naccan, 


cre^can, 


na.-.ca, 


cre^ca, 


nascamos, 


crescamos, 


na-.can, 


cre^can, 



to knoiv yacer 


, to lie do 


to shine 




luzco, 


ya^go, 


lusca, 


ya2;ga, 


, hucas, 


ya^gas, 


lusca, 


yazga, 


los, hucamos, 


yasgamos, 


J, luzcais, 


yasgais, 


, lu^can, 


yasgan, 


liLsca, 


yasga, 


los, lu-.camos, 


yazgamos, 


, luscan, 


yaggan, 



(b) c preceded by a vowel : 
nacer, to be born conocer, 

crecer, to grow lucir, 

cono^co, 

conocca, 

conoscas, 

conozca, 

conoscamos, 

conozcais, 

conoscan, 

conozca, 

conozcamos, 

conoscan, 

(3) c of endings in -car remains before o, a, but changes 
into qu before e, e ; whilst qu of endings in -quir remains 
before i, i, e, but changes into c before o, a : 

tocar, to touch, to play (an instrument), toco 

PAST ANTERIOR. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 
toque, toque, 

toques, 

toque, toque, 

toquemos, toquemos, 

toqueis, 

toquen, toquen, 

deling/Mir, to transgress the law, delin^we 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 
delinco, delinca, 

delincas, 

delinca, delinca, 

delincamos, delincamos, 

delincais, 

delincan, delincan, 

(4) g of endings in -gar remains before o, a, but changes 
into gu before e, e ; whilst gu of endings in -guir remains 
before i, i, e, but changes into g before o, a : 

pagrar, to pay, pago 

PAST ANTERIOR. INDICATIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 



p&gue, 
p&guemoB, 

p&gtien. 



parses, 

p&gue, 

par/wemos, 

pa^weis, 

pa^uen, 



VERB. 



19 



to distinguish ; distingrwe 
INDICATIVE PRESENT. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 

distingro, distinrya, 

distinr/as, 

distinr/a. distin^/a, 

distiiif/amos, distin^amos, 

distinr/ais, 
distin^an, distingran, 

(5) u of endings in guar remains the same before o, a, 
assuming the diaeresis before e, e ; while ii of ending in giiir 
retains the diaeresis only before i with the stress, or i : 

averi^war, to investigate, to ascertain, averiguo 
PAST ANTERIOR, SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 



averigwe, 



averigiie, 

averigiies, 

averigiie, 

averigitemos, 

averigiieis, 

averig^en, 



averigiie, 
averigwemos, 



averigwen, 
to argue, to retort, argtii, arguiste, etc. 



INDICATIVE 
PRESENT. 


SUBJUNCTIVE 
PRESENT. 


IMPERATIVE. 


GERUND. 


argwyo, 


argitya, 




argi^yendo, 


argwyes, 


argwyas, 


argwye, 




argztye, 


argwya, 


argiiya, 






argityamos, 


argwyamos, 






argityais, 






argi^yen, 


argwyan, 


argz<yan, 




PAST 
ANTERIOR. 


CONDITIONAL. 


PAST 
ANTERIOR. 


PRESENT 
PARTICIPLE. 




argz^yera, 


argwyese, 


argztyente, 




arg^yeras, 


argz^yeses, 




arg^yo, 


arg^yera, 


argwyese, 






arg^yeramos, 


arg^yesemos, 






argwyerais, 


arg^yeseis, 




argztyeron, 


argwyeran, 


arg^^yesen, 





FUTURE IMPERFECT. 



argztyere, 

argwyeres, 

argwyere, 

argwy^remos, 

argwyereis, 

argwyeren, 



20 VERB. 

(6) o when diphthongised to ue, assumes the form hue in 
oler, as also in the compounds of ovar and osar (cf. hueso, 
huevo), and the form tie, if preceded by g : 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 

huelo, huela, 

hueles, huelas, huele, 

huele, huela, huela, 

huelen, huelan, huelan, 

deshueso, deshuese, 

deshuesas. deshueses, deshuesa, 

deshuesa, deshuese, deshuese, 

deshuesan, deshuesen, deshuesen, 

deshuevo, deshueve, 

deshuevas, deshueves, deshueva, 

deshueva, deshueve, deshueve, 

deshuevan, deshueven, deshueven. 

avergtienzo, avergtience, 

averguenzas, avergiiences, averguenza, 

avergiienza, avergtience, avergtience, 

avergtienzan, avergtiencen, avergtiencen, 

(7) i unaccented, between two vowels, changes into y (see 
page 19, arguir, also irregular verbs in -aer, -oer, -oir, -uir). 

(8) i unaccented initial, before a vowel, consonantises to y : 

errar, to make a mistake, to be mistaken. 

INDICATIVE PRESENT. SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. 
y/erro, ?/erre, 

v/erras, yerres, ?/erra, 

v/erra, 7/erre, 2/erre, 

y/erran, ?/erren, v/erren, 

CONJUGATION OF SER, TO BE. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 
Stems : s-, er, es. 

s-oy, 7 am s-ea, 7 may be 

er-es, thou art s-eas, thou mayst be 

es, he (she) is s-ea, he (she) may be 

V. es, you are V. s-ea, you may be 

8-omoB, we are s-eamos, we may be 

s-ois, you arc s-eais, you may be 

s-on, they are s-ean, they may le 

V.V. s-on, you art V.V. s-ean, you may be 



VEK13. 



21 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



FUTUKE IMPERFECT. 
Stems : ser, fu. 



ser-e, 
ser-as, 
ser-a, 
V. ser-a, 


I shall be 
thou wilt be 
he (she) will be 
you will be 


fu-ere, 
fu-eres, 
fu-ere, 
V. fu-ere, 


/ sliould be 
thou shouldst be 
he(she)shouldbc 
you should be 


ser-emos, 
ser-eis, 
ser-an, 
V.V. ser-an, 


we shall be 
you will be 
they will be 
you will be 


fu-e"remos, 
fu-ereis, 
fu-eren, 
V.V. fu-eren, 


ire should be 
you should be 
they should be 
you should be 


FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 


ser-ia, 
ser-fas, 
ser-ia, 
V. ser-ia, 


I should be 
thou wouldst be 
he (she) would be 
you would be 


fu-era, or fu-ese, (if) I were 
fu-eras, or fu-eses, (if) thou wen 
fu-era, or fu-ese, (if) he (she) were 
V. fu-era, or fu-ese, (if) you were 


ser-iamos, 


we should be 


fu-eramos, or 


fu-esemos, (if) we 






were 




ser-iais, 
ser-ian, 
V.V. ser-ian, 


you would be 
they would be 
you would be 


fu-erais, or fu-eseis, (if) you were 
fu-eran, or fu-esen, (if) they were 
V.V. fu-eran, or fu-esen. (if)yo-u 






were 




PAST IMPERFECT. 




Stems : 


er, fu. 




er-a, 
er-as, 
er-a, 
V. er-a, 


I was 
thou wast 
he (she) was 
you were 


fu-era, 
fu-eras, 
fu-era, 
V. fu-era, 


I might be 
thou mightest be 
he (she) might be 
you might be 


er-amos, 
er-ais, 
er-an, 
V.V. er-an, 


we were 
you were 
they were 
you were 


fu-eramos, 
fu-erais, 
fu-eran, 
V.V. fu-eran, 


we might be 
you might be 
they might be 
you might be 


PAST ANTERIOR. 




Stem 


: fu. 




fu-i, 
fu-iste, 
fu-6, 
V. fu-e, 


/ was 
thou wast 
he (she) was 
you were 


fu-ese, 
fu-eses, 
fu-ese, 
V. fu-ese, 


I might be 
thou mightest be 
he (she) might be 
you might be 


fu-imos, 
fu-isteis, 
fu-eron, 
V.V. fu-eron, 


we were 
you were 
they were 
you were 


fu-gsemos, 
fu-eseis, 
fu-esen, 
V.V. fu-esen, 


we might be 
you might be 
they might be 
you might be 



22 



VERB. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 


s-e, 
s-ea, 
s-ea V., 


be (thou) 
let him (her) be 
be 


s-eamos, 
s-ed, 
s-ean, 
s-eanV.V., 


let us be 
be (ye) 
let them be 
be 



SUBSTANTIVE-ADJECTIVE. 



s-ido, 



PAST TENSE. 
been 



INFINITIVE MOOD.-GERUND. 

to be s-iendo, being 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST PERFECT. 



he sido, 


/ 


haya sido, 


/ 


has sido, 


thou 1* 


hayas sido, 


thou <| 


ha sido, 


he (she) 


haya sido, 


he (she) & 


V. ha sido, 


you g" 


V. haya sido, 


you | 


hemos sido, 


we 


hayamos sido, 


we 


habeis sido, 


you (ye.) 


hayais sido, 


you (ye) -*" 


han sido, 


they 


hayan sido, 


they % 


V.V. han sido, 


you 


V.V. hayan sido, 


yon 



habre sido, 
habras sido, 
habra sido, 
V. habra sido, 

habremos sido, 
habreis sido, 
habran sido, 
V.V. habran sido. 



habria sido, 
habrlas sido, 
habria sido, 
V. habria sido, 

habriamos sido, 

habriais sido, 
habrlan sido, 
V.V. habrfan sido, 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

7 SB* hubiere sido, 

thou - hubieres sido, 

he (she) J hubiere sido, 

you | V. hubiere sido, 

> 

we ^ hubieremos sido, 

you (ye)^ hubiereis sido, 

they g. hubieren sido, 

you p V.V. hubieren sido, 



thou | 

h<' (she) 

you | 

we ^ 

you (ye) | 

you o> 

they P 



s 



COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. 

7 2^ hubiera (or hubiese) sido, 

thou I hubieras (or hubieses) sido, 
he (she) g hubiera (or hubiese) sido, 
you 5s- V. hubiera (or hubiese) sido, ^ 
S a 

we hubieramos (or hubiesemos) J 

sido, 

you (ye) .r hubierais (or hubieseis) sido, " 
they 8. hubieran (or hubiesen) sido, S- 
you - V.V. hubieran (or hubiesen) p 

sido, 



VERB. 



23 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



habia sido, 


/ 


habias sido, 


thou 


habia sido, 


he (she) 


V. habia sido, 


you 


habiamos sido, 


we 


habiais sido, 


ye (you) 


habian sido, 


they 


V.V. habian sido, 


you 



PLUPERFECT. 

hubiera sido, 
hubieras sido, 
hubiera sido, 
V. hubiera sido, 



hube sido, 
hubiste sido, 
hubo sido, 
V. hubo sido, 

hubimos sido, 
hubisteis sido, 
hubieron sido, 
V.V. hubieron sido, 



hubi(5ramos sido, 
hubierais sido, 
hubieran sido, 
V.V. hubieran sido, 

PAST ANTERIOR. 
I hubiese sido, 

thou >4 hubieses sido, 
he (she) |^ hubiese sido, 
!/ou ss* V. hubiese sido, 



we 

ye (you) g- 

they 

you 



hubiesemos sido, 
hubieseis sido, 
hubiesen sido, 
V.V. hubiesen sido. 



1 I 

thou ^ 

he (she) * 
you 



we 

ye (you) J 
they 
you 



thou 

he (she) 
you 

we 

ye (you) 

they 

you 



INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND, 
haber sido, to have been habiendo sido, having been 

PASSIVE VERBS. PASSIVE FORMS. 

( Verbos pasivos. Formas pasivas.) 

Passive Voice. Its Formation in Spanish. The passive 
voice is formed in Spanish by means of the verb ser, to be, 
and the past participle of any transitive verb. The participle, 
which is inflected like an adjective in -o, must agree in gender 
and number with the subject of the passive sentence : 
un hombre ha sido atropellado, a 'man has been run over 
es una persona muy conocida, he is a well known person 
IOB ac tores fueron muy aplaudi- the actors were much applauded 

dos, 

las actrices fueron llamaclas a la the actresses were called before the 
escena, curtain 

REMARKS. (1) The English l)y after passive verbs and 
past participles, is translated by por if the agent is a living 
being, or an object regarded as such, or when material actions 
caused by material objects are expressed ; and by de, with 
verbs of feeling or emotion, or used with a figurative meaning : 
un hombre ha sido atropellado a man IWLS been run over by a 

por un coche, carriage 

los actores fueron muy aplaudi- the actors were much applauded by 

dos por el publico, the audience 



24 VERB. 

tres amotinados han sido presos three rioters have been arrested I// 

por la guardia civil, the guards 

era muy respetado de BUS adver- lie was much respected by his adver- 

sarios, saries 

(2) With verbs of feeling, or emotion, por, or de may be 
used, the latter especially in poetry, or literary style : 
era una persona querida de todos lie was a person esteemed by all 

(or por todos), 
su muerte fu6 llorada de todo el his death was lamented by every- 

mundo (or por todo el mundo), body 

Cf.: 

fu6 vencido por los enemigos, Jie ivas conquered by his enemies 

fu6 vencido de sus pasiones, he was carried away by his passions 

habia sido compelido por otro, he had been compelled by another 

habia sido compelido de la lie had been compelled by necessity 

necesidad, 

uno puede ser agraviado por one can be offended by another 

otro, 

uno puede ser agraviado de las one can be ofiended by another's 

palabras de otro, words. 

Signification and Use of the Spanish Passive Voice. The 
Spanish passive voice signifies rather that an action has been 
completed or not, than that a grammatical subject either 
person or thing is acted upon : hence its scanty use, except 
in the following cases : 

1. Almost always in past tenses, in narrative and state- 
ments of what is considered as an accomplished fact : 

fue llamado por el Gobernador, he was called by the Prefect. 

ha sido educada por las monjas. she has been educated by nuns 

han sido embarcadas ya las the troops have been already em- 

tropas, barked 

ya habia sido advertido yo de I had already been warned about it 

ello, 

fu6 culpado sin razon, he was accused without reason 

KBMARK. The passive voice is however used in other 
tenses than the past, when action is spoken of, as an 
accomplished fact : 

es un hombre muy querido de lie is a man much esteemed by all 

todos, 
manana sera ejecutado el reo, the culprit will be executed to-morrow 

2. In the past participle used absolutely, at the beginning 
of sentences, in conjunction with substantives : 

acabada la comedia, cae el teldn, the play over, the curtain falls 
atropellado el hombre, fu6 the man being run over, was taken 
llevado al hospital, to the hospital 



VERB. 25 

presos los amotinados, fueron when the rioters had been arrested, 
llevados a la carcel, they were taken to prison 

N.B. comida hecha, companfa the end of a feast, is the parting of 
deshecha, company 

REMARK. The past participle may, in expressing relation 
of time, be preceded by the prepositional phrases despues de, 
luego de, after, as soon as : 

despues de acabada la comedia, luego de atropellado el hombre, 
cae el telon, fue llevado al hospital, 

Substitutes for ffie Passive Voice. The Spanish language 
having no proper passive voice except to express passive 
action considered as an accomplished fact, English passive 
forms are translated, e.g., 

1. By the active form : 

me robaron el dinero, I was robbed of my money 

le amenazaran si no lo hace, he will be threatened, if he does not 

do it 

2. By the reflexive se, in which case the agent is never 
expressed, se generally opening the sentence : 

with a third person singular, in impersonal reports or 
statements : 

se dice, it is said 

se dice eso, or eso se dice that is what is said 

(emphatic), 

se dice que habra crisis, they say that there will be a crisis 

se teme que haya guerra, it is feared that tJiere will be a inir 

se sabe de cierto, it is known for certain 

in general statements ; the recipient of the action if a 
living being is preceded by the preposition a : 

se odia la mentira, lying is hated 

se odia a los mentirosos, liars are hated 

se adula a los poderosos, the powerful are flattered 

se aborrece el pecado, pero se sin is hated, but evil-doers are pitied 

compadece al pecador, 

el mercurio se encuentra en mercury is found in Spain 



in notices, to translate the English to be (generally 

suppressed) : 

se habla ingles, English spoken /tere 

se componen paraguas, umbrellas re-covered 

no se permite fijar carteles, stick no bills 

no se dan salidas, no readmittances given 

se prohibe la entrada, no admittance 



26 



VERB. 



se alquilan carruajes, 

se plancka, 

se compran, venden y cambian 

libroB de lance, 
se necesita un aprendiz, 



carriages lent oil hire 

ironing done here 

second-hand looks bought, sold, and 

exchanged 
apprentice wanted 



REMARK. Similar ideas may be expressed (a) by se with 
a third person plural, followed by an impersonal object in 
the plural, never by que : 

many things are said 
many disasters are feared 

N.B. In order to avoid ambiguity, this means of ex- 
pressing a passive action is not used with a personal 
object, cf. : 

many men are killed, also many 
men kill themselves, or kill one 
another 

many men are killed 
many men kill themselves 



se dicen nmchas cosas, 

se temen muchos desastres, 



se matau muchos hombres, 



se mata a muchos hombres, 
muchos hombres se matan a si 

mismos, 
muchos hombres se matan unos 

a otros, 



many men kill one another 



(b) By a third person plural, in an impersonal sense : 

dicen eso, or eso dicen, they say so, that is what is said 

dicen que habra crisis, they say that there will le a crisis 

temen que haya guerra, it is feared that there will le war 

lo saben de cierto, it is known for certain 

3. By the reflexive se, in conjunction with a pronominal 
indirect object ; 

se le dijo, it was said to him, 

no se me hace caso, / am paid no attention to 

se nos contesto que no, we were answered " no " 

a mi no se me habla asi, / am not going to le spoken to like 

that 

Note the way in which the English passive is translated, 
when a dative is introduced in the sentence : 

/ Jiave leen told not to go 



me han dicho que no vaya, or se 

me ha dicho que no vaya, 
le buscan a usted, or se le busca 

a usted, 
le han ofrecido un regalo, or se 

le ha ofrecido un regalo, 
me lo han dado, or se me ha dado, 
no esperan que viva, or no se 

espera que viva, 
no me sorprenderia en lo mas 

mini mo, 



you are inquired for 

she has leen offered a present 

it lias leen given to me 
he is not expected to live 

I should not le surprised at all 



VERB. 27 

Note further how the following English passive forms are 
rendered in Spanish : 

debe hacerse (impersonal mean- it must be done 

ing), 

debe estar hecho maiiana, it must be done by to-morro//- 

es de esperar, it is to be hoped 

es de sentir, it is to be regretted 

es de temer, it is to be feared 

es de considerar, it is to be considered 

Passive State. When the verb to be, followed by a past 
participle, does not convey the idea of a passive action, but 
rather of a state, condition, or situation, estar and not ser 
is used : 
el herido estaba tendido en el the wounded person was lying on 

suelo, tJie ground 

las patatas estan ya fritas, the potatoes are already fried 

los cristales estan rotos, the window-panes are broken 

el guardia civil esta muerto, the (cimc) guard is dead 

esta muy malquisto, he is much disliked 

REMARK. Substitutes of estar, generally used to express 
more or less transitory or accidental states, are : andar, to go 
(about) ; ir, to go ; venir, to come (arrive) ; quedar, quedarse, 
to remain ; dejar, to leave ; encontrarse, hallarse, to find one's 
self -, verse, to see one's self: 
ando perdido, I am lost 

los libros andan por el suelo, the books are scattered about the floor 

voy asustado de lo que he visto, I am frightened at what I have seen 
vengo cansado del viaje, I am tired of tJie journey 

nos dejo parados a todos, we were all astonished 

todas se quedaron horrorizadas, all (the ladies} were horrified 
se ha quedado arruinada, she lias been left penniless 

me hallo muy disgustado, / am very much upset 

le encuentro muy preocupado, he seems to me very thoughtful 
se ve perdido, he sees he is lost 

N.B. As to the use of ser and estar with verbs having 
two past participles, or one that may be used with an active 
signification, see USE OP THE PAST PARTICIPLE. 

CONJUGATION OF ESTAR, TO BE. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 

Stem : eat-. 

est-oy, / am est-e, I may be 

est-as, thou art est-es, thou maystlbe 

est-a, he (she) in est-e, he (she) may be 

V. est-a, you are V. est-e, you may be 



VKKB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 




PRESENT continued. 


est-amos, 


we are est-emos we may be 


est-ais, 


you are est-eis, you may be 


est-an, 


they are est-en, they may be 


V.V. est-an, 


you are V.V. est-en, you may be 




FUTURE IMPERFECT. 




Stem : estar-, estuv. 


estar-e, 


/ shall be estuv-iere, / should be 


estar- as, 


thou wilt be estuv-ieres, thou shouldst be 


estar-a, 


he (she) will be estuv-iere, he (she) should be 


V. estar-a, 


you will be V. estuv-iere, you should be 


estar-emos, 


we shall be estuv -ie'remos, ivc should be 


estar-eis, 


you will be estuv-iereis, you should be 


estar-an, 


they will be estuv-ieren, they should "be 


V.V. estar-an, 


you will be V.V. estuv-ieren, you should be 




FUTURE CONDITIONAL. 


estar-ia, 


/ should be estuv-iera, or estuv-iese, (if) I 




had been 


estar-ias, 


ihou wouldst be estuv-ieras, or estuv-ieses, (if) 




thou hadst been 


estar-ia, 


he (she) would be estuv-iera, or estuv-iese, (if) he 




(she) had been 


V. estar-ia, 


you would be V. estuv-iera, or estuv-iese, (if) 




you had been 


estar-iamos, 


we should be estuv-ieramos, or estuv-iesemos, 




(if) we had been 


estar-iais, 


you would be estuv-ierais, or estuv-ieseis, (if) 




you had been 


estar-ian, 


they would be estuv-ieran, or estuv-iesen, (if) 




they had been 


V.V. estar-ian, 


you would be V.V. estuv-ieran, or estuv-iesen. 




(if) you had been 




PAST IMPERFECT. 




Stem : est-, estuv-. 


est-aba, 


/ was [being] estuv-iera, / might be 


est-abas, 


thou wast estuv-ieras, thou 'mightest 


est-aba, 


he (she) was estuv-iera, he (she) might 


V. est-aba, 


you were V. estuv-iera, you might be 


est-abamos, 


we were estuv-ieramos, we might be 


est-abais, 


you icere estuv-ierais, you might be 


est-aban, 
V.V. est-aban, 


they were estuv-ieran, they might be 
you were V.V. estuv-ieran, you might be 




PAST ANTERIOR. 


estuv-e, 


/ was estuv-iese, / might be 


estuv-iste, 


thou wast estuv-ieses, thou mightest br 


estuv-o, 


he (she) was estuv-iese, he (she) might 


V. estuv-o, 


you were V. estuv-iese, you might be 



VERB. 



29 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST ANTERIOR continued. 



estuv-imos, we were 

estuv-isteis, you were 
estuv-ieron, they were 
V.V. estuv-ieron, you were 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



estuv-ie"semos, we might be 
estuv-ieseis, you might be 
estuv-iesen, "they might be 

V.V. estuv-iesen, you migM be 

SUBSTANTIVE ADJECTIVE. 



est-a, 

est-e, 

est-e V. , 

est-emos, 

est-ad, 

est-en, 

est-en V.V. . 

est-ar, 



be (thou) 

let him (her] be 



let us be 

be (ye) est-ado, 

let them be 
be 

INFINITIVE MOOD. -GERUND. 
to be est-ando, 

COMPOUND TENSES. 



PAST TENSE. 
been 



being 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PAST PERFECT. 

he estado, / haya estado, / 

has estado, thou ^ hayas estado, thou 

ha estado, he (she) | haya estado, he (she) 

V. ha estado, you V. haya estado, you 



hemos estado, 
habeis estado, 
han estado, 
V.V. han estado, 

habre estado, 
habras estado, 
habra estado, 
V. habra estado, 

habremos estado, 
habreis estado, 
habran estado, 
V.V. habran estado, 

habria estado, 
habrias estado, 
habria estado, 
V. habria estado, 

habriamos estado, 

habriais estado, 
habrian estado, 
V.V. habrian estado, 



ye (you) $ 
they 
you 



we ? hayamos estado, 

ye (you) %. hayais estado, 

they 5 s hayan estado, 

you V.V. hayan estado, 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

/ s*, hubiere estado, 

thou a, hubieres estado, 

he (she) ^ hubiere estado, 

you V. hubiere estado, 



we < hubieremos estado, we 

ye (you) ~ hubiereis estado, ye (you) 

they g. hubieren estado, they " 

you P V.V. hubieren estado, you p" 
COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. 

/ hubiera (or hubiese) estado, 

thou ^ hubieras (or hubieses) estado, -^ 

he (she) | hubiera (or hubiese) estado, O 

you sL V. hubiera (or hubiese) estado, ^ 




ye (you) jl 
they n 
you ? 



hubieramos (or hubi^semos) ^ 
estado, ^ 

hubierais (or hubieseis) estado , s 

hubieran (or hubiesen) estado, . 

V.V. hubieran (or hubiesen) ? 
estado 



30 



VERB. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PLUPERFECT. 
habia estado, 
habias estado, 
habia estado, 
V. habia estado, 

habiamos estado, 
habiais estado, 
habian estado, 
V.V. habian estado, 

hube estado, 
hubiste estado, 
hubo estado, 
V. hubo estado, 

hubimos estado, we 

hubisteis' estado, ye(you) g- 

hubieron estado, they 

V.V. hubieron estado, you 



I 

thou 
he (she) 
you 

we 
ye (you) 
they 
you 
PAST 
/ 
thou 
he (she) 
you 


hubiera estado, 
^ hubieras estado, 
hubiera estado, 
J V. hubiera estado, 

^ hubieramos estado, 
g- hubierais estado, 
hubieran estado, 
V.V. hubieran estado, 
ANTERIOR. 
hubiese estado, 
hubieses estado, 
hubiese estado, 
^ V. hubiese estado, 


/ S 
thou ^ 
he (she) ^ 
you I 1 

we ^ 
ye(you)x 
they 
you p 

/ | 
thou ^ 
he (she) * 
you & 1 



hubiesemos estado, we ^ 

hubieseis estado, ye (you) 

hubiesen estado, they ~a> 

V.V. hubiesen estado, you 9 



haber estado, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. GERUND. 
to have been habiendo estado, 



having been 



PROGRESSIVE FORM. (Forma progresiva.} 

The progressive form may be expressed in Spanish by any 
tense of an active verb, or by the corresponding tense of 
estar, followed by the Gerund : 

I Que hace usted ?, or $, que esta wliat are you doing ? 

usted haciendo ?, 
Escribo, or estoy escribiendo, / am writing 

REMARKS. (1) The second of the two forms is to be 
employed to express a continuous action. 

(2) The progressive form may be also expressed in Spanish 
by a Gerund associated with the following verbs, in them- 
selves involving progress or continuity. 

dejar, lo deje escribiendo, 

encontrar, me encontro estu- 

diando, 

hallar, hallandome escri- 

biendo una carta, 
llegoel, 

quedar, se quedo com- 

prando unos 
guantes, 



/ left him writing 
he found me studying 

he arrived while I was in 
the act of writing a letter 

t s/u Clayed behind buying some 
gloves 



VERB. 



31 



andar, 



continuar, 

seguir, 

venir, 

volver. 



le andan buscando 

a usted, 
iba andando por la 

calle, 

continua lloviendo, 
siga listed leyendo, 
veniamos hablando 

de eso, 
volviamos diciendo 

eso mismo, 



tliey are looking for you 

I was walking along the street 

it is still raining 

go on reading 

we were (coming along] talk- 
ing about tliat 

we were (coming back) saying 
that very thing 



(3) Tener may be used as a substitute for estar, to express 
continuity : 



tiene un hijo, le tiene exami- 

nandose en Oxford ; 
tenia la cabeza colgando, 
tenia un brazo senalando alcielo, 

tengo al encuadernador encua- 

dernandome el libro, 
tenemos al papelista empape- 

landonos la casa, 



lie has a son who is passing his 

examination at Oxford 
his liead was hanging down 
he was with one hand pointing to 

the sky 
I have the bookbinder binding the 

book for me 
we have the papcrhanger papering 

the walls for us 



But if state, condition, or any action considered as 
accomplished, and not continuity are to be expressed, the 
Past Participle, not the Gerund, is employed : 



tiene ya examinado al hijo, 

tenia rota la cabeza, 

tenia un brazo levantado, 

el encuadernador me tiene el 

libro encuadernado, 
el papelista nos tiene empapelada 

la casa, 



his son has been already examined 

his head was broken open 

lie had one arm upraised 

the bookbinder lias already bound 

the book for me 
the paperhanger has papered the 

walls for us 



USES OF SEE AND ESTAR, TO BE. 

Ser is used Estar is used 

(a) WITH NOUNS ; in mentioning (a) WITH NOUNS ; in mentioning 
what things are, i.e., by their where things are, i.e., the 

the 



names, according to 
qualities we associate with 
them : 

soy un hombre, I am a man 
es un caballo, it is a horse 
66 un canario, it is a canary 



name of the place associated 
with their position : 

estoy en Ingla- / am in England 

terra, 
esta en el es- it is in the stable 

tablo, 
esta en una it is in a cage 

jaula, 



32 



VERB. 



es un pescado, it is a fish 
son unas flores, they are flowers 

es un mineral, it is a mineral 
es un libro, it is a book 



Hence, 

Professions, trade, business : 

es un profesor, he is a professor 

es medico, he is a doctor 

es coronel, he is a colonel 

es un tendero, IwisasJwpkecper, 
un poeta, etc. a poet, etc. 

Time: 

i que* hora es ? what is the time ? 



is to-day? 

Es lunes, Monday 
I que" mes es what month is 

<ste ? Es oc- this ? October 

tubre, 
file" en mil ocho- it was in 1890 

cientos no- 

venta 

Material out of ivhich things are 
tno,dc, provided the participle 
hecho, hecha, is not intro- 
duced : 

las puertas son doors are of wood 
de madera, 

son de lana, they are woollen 

ones 

esta compota es this is pear jam 
de pera, 



estuvoenelinar, it was in the sea 
estaban en un they were in a. 

jardin, garden 

estuvo en el in- it was in the earth 

terior de la 

tierra, 
esta encima de it is on the table 

la mesa, 

Topographic situation : 

estar al norte, to lie to the North 

estar al oeste, to lie westwards 



Cf.: 

esta de profe- Jie is (serving an} 
sor en Madrid, a professor at 
Madrid 

esta de medico he is (practising 
en un hos- as) a doctor in 
pital, a hospital 

esta de coronel he is (acting as) 
en un regi- colonel of a 
mien to, regiment 



i a cuantos esta- What is the date '( 

mos? 
Estamos a 3, It is the 3rd 

i en que mes es- What month in 
tamos ? En this ? October 
octubre, 

estamos en 1902, it is (we are in) 
1902 



Material out of which things arc. 
made, provided the participle 
hecho, hecha, is introduced : 

las puertas estan, doors are made 

hechas de ma- of wood 

dera, 
estan hechos de they are made of 

lana, wool 

esta compota this jam is made 

esta hecha de of pears 

pera, 



VERB. 



33 



(b) WITH ADJECTIVES ; in stating 
physical, moral, and intel- 
lectual qualities, as natural, 
absolute, or permanent : 

es ciego, he is blind 



es alto, 

es grueso, 
es bueno, 
es mala, 
es listo, 

Nationality , 



he is tall 

he is fat 
he is good 
she is wicked 
he is very clever 

he is a Spaniard 



Age (actual age) : 

es joven, 
es vieja, 



he is young 
she is old 



es un hombre de he is thirty 

treinta anos, 
i de que edad what is his age ? 

es? 

Dimensions, size : 
es ancho, it is wide 



es largo, 



it is long 



es profundo, it is deep 

Colour : 

la nieve es snow is white 

blanca, 
la pez es negra, pitch is black 

es nmy palida, she is very pale 

Price (customary) : 

es barato, it is cheap 

es caro, it is dear 

i cuanto es ? how much is it ? 

Hence (a and b) : 
ser de buena vista, 
ser de buenas piernas, 
ser de buena cabeza, 
ser de buen coraz6n, 
ser de poca estatura, 

PT. II. 



(&) WITH ADJECTIVES ; in stating 
physical, moral, and intel- 
lectual states, as accidental, 
relative, or temporary : 

esta ciego, he has become 

blind 

esta alto para he is tall for his 
su edad, age 

esta grueso, he has become fat 

esta bueno, heisin good health 

esta mala, she is ill 

esta listo, he is ready 

esta naturali- he has been 
zado en Ingla- naturalised in 
terra, England 

Apparent age, age reached, grown 
old: 

esta joven, he looks young 

esta vieja, she looks old, she 

has grown old 

estaenlostrein-^eis in his thir- 
ta, tieth year 

jen que edad what is his age 
esta ? now ? 

(in speaking of wearing apparel) : 

me esta ancho, it is too wide for 
me 

le esta largo, it is too long for 



esta ropa no esta this linen is not 
muy blanca, very white 

las paredes es- the walls were 
taban negras black with 
del humo, smoke 



(occasional) : 

estan baratos, they are cheap now 
esta caro, it is dear now 

i a cuanto esta ? how much does it 
run now ? 

to have a good sight 
to be a good walker 
to be very clever 
to be very good-hearted 
to be very short 



34 



VERB. 



ser de muchas carnes, 
ser de mediana edad, 
ser de un color claro, 
ser de un tamano regular, 
ser de dia, 
ser de poco comer, 
estar de pie, 
estar de rodillas, 

estar de centinela, 
estar de teatro, 
estar de viaje, 
estar de paseo, 
estar de luto, 
estar de mal humor, 
esta de enhorabuena, 
esta de cumpleanos, 
esta de santo, 

(c) WITH PAST PARTICIPLES to 
form the Spanish passive 
voice, to point out an action 
suffered by an indirect sub- 
ject : 

ha sido impreso, ithasbeen printed 
fu6 herido, he was wounded 



to be very fat 

to be of middle age 

to be a light colour 

to be of a medium size 

to be day time 

to be a poor eater 

to be standing up 

to be kneeling down, or on one's 

knees 

to be on sentry duty 
to be (going or) gone to the theatre 
to be on a journey 
to be out for a walk 
to be in mourning 
to be in a bad humour 
he is to be congratulated 
it is his birthday 
it is his saint's day 

(c) WITH PAST PARTICIPLES to 
point out the state in which 
an object has been placed or 
left: 



han sido embar- they have been 
cados, shipped 

la carta sera the letter will be 
certificada, registered 

Hence, 

Position : 

estar levantado, 
estar sentado, 
estar echado, 

NOTE. es claro or esta claro, 
es visto or esta visto, 

(d) WITH GERUNDS, in an imper- 
sonal sense, to explain the 
circumstances, or the reason 
of a fact : 



estudiando 

como se 

prende, 
llorando era she asked for 

comolopedia, crying 



es it is by studying 
a- that one learns 



esta impreso, it 
estuvo herido, he was (in a) 
wounded (con- 
dition) 
estan embar- they are on board 

cados, 

estara certifi- itwillbe (a)regis- 
cada, tered (letter} 



to be standing up 
to be sitting down 
to be lying down 

it is clear 
it is evident 

(d) WITH GERUNDS, in an ad- 
verbial sense, to point out 
progressive actions : 

estoy estudian- / am studying in 

do, para order to know 

saber, 
estaba llorando she was crying 

mientras ha- while she talked 

blaba, 



VERB. 35 

llamando es by calling youwill estan llaman- they are calling 
como respon- be answered dole a usted, you 

den, 

WITH GERUNDS, of verbs of motion, to express on what circumstances 
certain things occurred, or in which direction certain places are 
found : 

fue yendo de Londres a Paris, it happened in going from London 

to Paris 
es viniendo a mano derecha, on coming along it is on the right 

hand side 

(e) WITH ADVEKBS : 1. to be near, to be far, may be either translated 

by ser, or by estar, if referring to places. In speaking of either 
persons or things, only by estar : 

Cf.: 

es cerca de aqui, it is near here (the place} 

esta muy cerca, it is very near 

no es lejos, or no esta lejos, it is not far 

and 

esta muy lejos, he is far away 

la silla esta cerca de la mesa, the chair is close to the table 

2. here it is (in reference to things), and liere he is (in reference to 
persons), or on their appearing (here he comes], are translated by 
estar : 

aqui esta, here it is (the news- estaban alii, they were there (the 
paper, the hat] books) 

aqui esta, here he is, i.e., he is estaban alii, they were there (of 
here friends, etc.} 

aqui esta, here he is, i. e. , here 
he comes 

Ser is used in pointing out the place one wishes to find, or 
where a person lives, or where something has happened : 

aqui es (donde vive), here it is, it is here (where he lives) 

aqui es, this is it 

alii fue (donde sucedio), there it was (that it happened} 

(f) WITH OTHER PARTICLES, in (f) WITH OTHER, PAKTICLES, in 

an impersonal sense, when an impersonal sense, with the 

preceded by the prepositional phrase-equivalent adverbs 

phrases, por eso (aquello, aqui, ahi, to translate the 

etc. ) : English that is why, to ex- 

plain the reason of certain 
things : 

por eso es, that is why ahi esta, that is why 

no era por a- it was not on ac- aqui esta por lo that is why I ap- 
quello por lo count of that que le apre- predate him 
que lo dije, that I said it oio, % 



36 



VERB. 



Hence, 

in an impersonal sense, when 
followed by the causative que, 
to explain the reason of 
things : 

es que no lo but he does not 
know it 



era que tenian it was because they 
miedo, were frightened 

fue que se cayo, the reason was 
that he fell 



with a progressive meaning, when 
followed by the comparative 
que, to explain state or con- 
dition : 

esta que no sabe he is in such state 
lo que hace, that he does not 
know what he 
is doing 

estaban que they were trem- 
temblaban de bling with fear 
miedo, 

estamos que nos we are nearly 
caemos, falling 



REFLEXIVE VERBS. REFLEXIVE FORMS. 

( Verbos reflexivos. Formas reflexivas. ) 

REFLEXIVE VERBS. Reflexive verbs, properly speaking, 
are those conjugated with a pronoun-object, relating to the 
subject. The use of the pronoun-subject, and the position 
of the pronoun-object have been already treated. 

(1) VERBS IN THEMSELVES REFLEXIVE, and therefore 
never used in Spanish, but with a pronoun-object directly 
relating to the subject : 

(a) relating to persons, and used with any objective 



pronoun : 








abstenerse, 


to abstain 


desmemoriarse, 


to lose one's 


aletargarse, 


to fall into a 




memory 




state of leth- 


desperezarse, 


to stretch ones 




argy 




self 


apersonarse, 


to confront a 


desternillarsede 


to laugh heartily 




person 


risa, 




arrellanarse, 


to seat oneself at 


desvergonzarse, 


to speak im- 




ease 




pudently or 


arrepentirse, 


to repent 




insolently 


aspearse, 


to become footsore 


desvivirse, 


to be most 


atragantarse, 


to choke oneself 




anxious to (<!<> 


atreverse, 


to dare 




something) 


ausentarse, 


to absent oneself 


dignarse, 


to be (graciously) 


condolerse, 


to be sorry for 




pleased, to 


constiparse, 


to catch a cold 




deign 


chancearse, 


to joke 


dislocarse, 


to dislocate one- 


desayunarse, 


lo breakfast 




self 


desentenderse, 


to feign not to 


dolerse, 


to be sorry for, 


9 


understand 




to repent 



VERB. 



37 



jactarse de, 
obstinarse en, 



to boast of 

to be obstinate 



emperezarse, to get lazy 
encapricharse, to take a fancy to 
encasquetarsele to get something 

a uno una cosa 

en la cabeza, 
endeudarse, 
escabullirse, 
esmerarse, 
espontanearse, 
extasiarse, 
gloriarse, 
incautarse de, 



(b) relating to animals and things, and used only with 
the objective pronoun of the third person, i.e., se : 



into one's head 

to get into debt 
to disappear 
to try one's best 
to open one's heart 
to get into ecstasy 
to boast 
to take possession 
of 


personarse con, 

quejarse de, 
rebelarse, 

resentirse, 
suicidarse, 
transfigurarse, 

vanagloriarse, 


to confront (a 
person) 
to complain of 
to revolt, to 
mutiny 
to get offended 
to commit suicide 
to transfigure 
oneself 
to boast 



bifurcarse (el rio), 
desbocarse (un caballo), 
cangrenarse, 6 gangrenarse 

herida, 

encabritarse (un caballo), 
enranciarse una cosa, 
impregnarse de aceite, 
osificarse, 

ramificarse una cosa con otra, 
estilarse. 



la 



to branch off (the river) 

to bolt (a horse) 

to become gangrenous (the wound) 



to rise on its hind legs (a horSe) 

to get rank (anything) 

to impregnate ivith oil 

to ossify 

to intertwine 

to be in fashion 

(2) VERBS NOT IN THEMSELVES REFLEXIVE, but that are 
used in a reflexive way to emphasize an action falling upon 
their subject, as distinct from the same action falling upon 
a different object : 

Any transitive verb may be used reflexively, provided it 
takes a direct object : 
levantarlamano, to raise one's levantarse tern- to get up early 

hand prano, 

matar a uno, to kill someone matarse, to kill oneself 

alabar a otro, to praise someone alabarse uno to praise oneself 

mismo, 

vestir a un nino, to dress a child vestirse, to dress (oneself), 

to get dressed 

REFLEXIVE FORMS. Verbs that, strictly speaking, could 
not be reflexive, assume the reflexive form, i.e. : 

(a) Verbs taking, besides a direct object of things an 
indirect object of persons : 

comprarse un reloj, to buy oneself a watch 

cortarse una mano, to cut one's hand 

dejarse la barba, to grow a beard 

hacerse un traje, to make oneself a suit 

ponerse el sombrero, to put on one's hat 

romperse un brazo, to break one's arm 



38 VERB. 

N.B. The indirect object of person is used redundantly 
with the following verbs and their like : 

comerse una costilla, to eat (up] a chop 

tragarse un hueso, to swallow a bone 

beberse un vaso de vino, to drink a glass of wine 

fumarse un cigarro, to smoke a cigar 
aprenderse una cosa de memoria, to learn something by heart 

saberse la leccion, to know one's lesson 

leerse una novela, to read a novel 

jugarse la paga, to gamble away one's salary 

apostarse cualquier cosa, to bet anything 

andarse doce leguas, to walk twelve leagues 

(b) with certain intransitive verbs, to modify their mean- 
ing : 

ir, to go irse, to go off, to go 

away, to leave 
(a place) 

marchar, to march marcharse, to go aivay, to 

go off, to leave 
for 

salir, to go out salirse, to go out (or to 

leave a place) 

dormir, to sleep dormirse, to go to sleep, to 

fall asleep 

morir, to die morirse, to be dying 

correr, to run correrse, to be ashamed, to 

move further 

(c) with certain verbs of situation or state, to emphasize 
an almost continuous action : 

pasarse el dla sin hacer nada, to spend the whole day doing nothing 
pasarse la noche bailando, to pass the night dancing 

quedarse dormido, to fall asleep 

(d) to turn transitive verbs into intransitive ones, or to 
modify their meaning : 

ahogar a uno, to suffocate some- ahogarse, to get drowned 

one 
callar una cosa, to conceal a thing callarse, to shut up (one's 

(not to say it) mouth) 

perder una cosa, to lose a thing perderse, toget lost, to ruin 

oneself 

llamar a una to call a person llamarse, to be called, to 

persona, be one's name 

tener una cosa, to have a thing tenerse por hon- to consider one- 

rado, self an honest 

man 

dar una cosa a to give something darse dlabebida, to take to drink 
otro, to someone 



VERB. 39 

Note how reflexive verbs are rendered in English : 
(a) by the reflexive form : 

cortarse la mano, to cut one's hand 

comprarse una cosa, to buy oneself something 

(V) by to get : 

ponerse bueno, to get well or ill habituarse, to get used to 

ormalo, cansarse, to get tired 

endeudarse, to get in debt agravarse, to get worse 

enfadarse, to get cross arreglarse, to get ready 

(c) by to be, followed by a past participle or a present 
participle : 

alegrarse, to be glad morirse, to be dying 

avergonzarse, to be ashamed prestarse, to be willing 

equivocarse, to be mistaken 

(d) by an intransitive verb : 

abstenerse, to abstain chancearse, to joke 

arrepentirse, to repent recogerse, to retire 

apearse, to alight reirse, to laugh 

atreverse, to dare sonreirse, to smile 

(e) by means of a phrase : 

acercarse, to come near posesionarse, to take possession 

echarse, to lie down prevalerse, to take advantage 

equivocarse, tomakeamistake 

EEDUNDANT FORMS. Some verbs admit of a redundant 
reflexive form, i.e. : 

alabarse a si rnismo, to praise oneself; se alaba a si mismo 
conocerse a si mismo, to know oneself ; no se conoce a si misma 
reirse de uno mismo, to laugh at oneself; me rio de mi mismo 



RECIPROCAL VERBS. RECIPROCAL FORMS. 

(Verbos reciprocos. Formas reciprocas.) 

Their Use. Reciprocal verbs refer to mutual actions 
between two or more persons, hence they are generally 
employed in the plural. 

Ordinary Reciprocal Form. The English each other, one 
another, associated with these verbs, is generally translated 
by nos of the first person, by os of the second person, and 
by se in any other case. The pronoun-object is necessarily 



40 



VERB. 



subjoined to the verb in the Infinitive, the Imperative, and 
the Gerund : 



you and I agree with each other 
he and I will meet each other there 
you and I do not understand each 

other 

you and I know one another 
you and he will not agree together 
you and they ought to forgive one 

another 

she and he do not visit each other 
they understand one another 
men ought to love one another, and 

they hate one another 
we ought not to hate one another, 

but love one another 
get to know each other, and you 

will like each other 
love one another, by loving one 

another you will be happy 

Other Reciprocal Forms. (1) With most verbs, the formula 
uno a otro, uno con otro, etc., variable as to gender and 
number, and either accompanied or not by the definite article, 
is used, beside the ordinary form, to emphasize the reciprocity. 
In referring to third persons, entre si may be used : 

ya no se aman uno a otro (or ya they do not love each other now 

no se aman), 
siempre se odiaron unos a otros they always hated one another 

(siempre se odiaron), 
se abrazaron una a otra, y se 

besaron (se abrazaron, etc. ), 
se lo diran todo uno a otro (se lo 



tu y yo nos avenimos, 

el y yo nos encontraremos alii, 

usted y yo no nos entendemos, 

vosotros y yo nos conocemos, 

tu y el no os avendre"is, 

tu y ellos debere"is perdonaros, 

ella y 61 no se visitan, 

ellos y ellas se entienden, 

los hombres deberfan amarse, y 

se odian, 
no debemos odiarnos, sino 

amarnos, 
tratense ustedes, y se apreciaran, 

amaos ; amdndoos serais felices, 



and kissed one 



diran todo), 
se han peleado unos con otros (se 

han peleado), 
se confabularon el uno con el 

otro (BC confabularon), 
se confabularon entre si, 



they embraced 

another 
they will tell each other all 



they have quarrelled among them- 
selves 
they both secretly agreed 

they secretly agreed among themselves 



(2) With some verbs the above formula is necessary, in 
order to point out the reciprocal meaning of the action, as 
distinguished from any other meaning, cf. : 



burlarse de una cosa, 
burlarse uno de otro, 
reirse de algo, 
reirse unos de otros, 
abalanzarse a una cosa, 
abalanzarse uno contra otro, 



to make fun of a thing 
to make fun of each other 
to laugh at something 
to laugh at one another 
to rush at something 
to rush at each other 



VEEB. 41 

arrojarse it una cosa, to rush at something 

arrojarse unos contra otros, to rush at one another 

sacrificarse por uno, to sacrifice one's self for someone 

sacrificarse uno por otro, to sacrifice themselves for each other 

fijarse (las condiciones), to be established (the conditions) 

fijarse uno en otro, to look attentively at each other 

(3) Some verbs take the compound, not the ordinary 
form: 

depender uno de otro, to depend the one upon the other 

desconfiar uno de otro, to mistrust each other 

dudar uno de otro, to doubt each other 

pensar uno en otro, to think of each other 

(4) The following take neither form : 

amistar, to become friendly correr bien, to be on good terms 

intimar, to become (very) congeniar, to be congenial 



simpatizar, to take a fancy to (to fraternizar, to fraternize 
like) each other 

(5) Tener, in conjunction with the substantive, may be 
used to express reciprocity : 

se tienen envidia or se tienen they are envious of each other 

envidia uno a otro, 
se tenian mucho carino, or se they loved one another very much 

tenian mucho carino unos a 

otros 

(6) Reciprocamente or mutuamante are used to em- 
phasize reciprocity : 

se socorren miituamente, they help each other 

se odian reciprocamente, they hate ea/cli other 



IMPERSONAL VEEBS. IMPERSONAL FORMS. 

(Verbos impersonates. Formas impersonates.) 

Impersonal verbs are those used only in the third person 
singular, since they refer to actions or states that cannot 
relate to any other person ; such are : 

1. Verbs used in speaking of the weather, and only used 

in the third person singular, the Infinitive, the Gerund, and 
the Past Participle : 

abonanzar (el tiempo), to clear up (the weather) 

aborrascarse, to be stormy 

aclarar, to clear up 

apedrear, to hail (large hail-stones) 

arrebolarse (las nubes), to redden (the clouds) 



42 



VERB. 



clarear, 
chispear, 
deshelar, 

despejar(se) el tiempo, el dfa, 
viar, 



to dear up (the weather} 

to drizzle 

to thaw, to melt (the snow} 

to clear up 

to pour with rain 

to get cloudy or gloomy 

to cease raining 

to hail 



to rain 
to snow 
to get cloudy 
to grow dark 



dil 

encapotarse, 

escampar, 

granizar, 

helar, 

Hover, 

nevar, 

nublarse, 

obscurecer, or oscurecer, 

refrescar (el tiempo, la tempera- to get chilly 

tura), 

relampaguear, to lighten 

retumbar el trueno, to resound, to peal (tlie thunder}, 

to thunder 

serenar(se), to clear up, to grow fair 

tronar, to thunder, to fall out with anybody 

N.B. Similar ideas are expressed by 

Estar followed by the Gerund of any of the above verbs 
(to denote progressive action, or accidental state) : 



esta lloviendo, 
esta nevando. 



it is raining 
it is snowing 



Hacer followed by certain substantives : 

hace buen tiempo, hace mal it is good weather, it is bad weather 

tiempo, 

hace calor, hace frio, it is warm, it is cold 

hace polvo, hace barro, it is dusty, it is muddy 

hace sequia, hace humedad, there is a drought, it is damp 

hace sol, hace luna, it is sunny, it is moonlight 

In questioning : 

I que" tiempo hace ? or i que" what sort of weather is it ? 
especie de tiempo hace ? 

REMARK. A few of the above verbs may be used with a 
personal or metaphorical signification : 



me hielo de frio, 
llovian insultos sobre 61, 
relampagueaban de ira sus ojos, 
serenese listed, hombre, 
eran amigas, pero tronaron, 
yo trueno contra el que hable 
mal de mi pals, 



/ am as cold as ice 
they showered insults on him 
his eyes were blazing with anger 
calm yourself 

they were friends, but quarrelled 
I fall out with anybody who speaks 
ill of my country 



VERB. 43 

2. Verbs used in speaking of time, and only used in the 
third person singular, the Infinitive, the Gerund, and the 
Past Participle : 

alborear, to dawn 

amanecer, to damn, to be daylight 

anochecer, to grow dark, to fall in (the night), 

to be night 

clarear, to dawn, to grow light 

despuntar el dia, rayar el dia, to dawn, to be daylight 

N.B. A similar idea may be expressed by : 
Estar followed by the Gerund : 

esta alboreando, 
esta amaneciendo, 
esta anocheciendo, 
estd, clareando, 
esta rayando el dia, 
esta despuntando el dia, 

Ser, in adverbial phrases : 

es de dia, it is daylight es tarde, it is late 

es de noche, it is night es claro, it 

es temprano, it is early es oscuro, it is dark 

REMARK. A few of the above verbs may be used with a 
personal or metaphorical signification : 

anochecimos en Zaragoza, y it was night when we reached Zara- 
amanecimos en Barcelona, goza, and daylight when we ar- 

rived at Barcelona 
me acoste bueno, y amaneci en- I went to bed well, and /awoke ill 

fermo, 
amanecera Dios, y veremos, daylight will come, and we shall 

see then, i.e., we shall see 
no despunta mucho, he is not very brilliant 

Impersonal Forms. They are formed of verbs used in the 
third person singular, or plural, and an attribute that may be 
considered as their grammatical subject. 

1. Verbs of happening, occurring, used in the third person 
singular, and plural, the Infinitive, the Gerund, and the Past 
Participle : 

acaecer, acontecer, to happen 

ocurrir, to occur (happen), to be the matter 

pasar, to happen 

ser, to happen, to be the matter 

suceder, to happen, to be the matter 



44 VERB. 

I cuando acaecio eso ? it-hen did tJiat happen ? 

acontece muchas veces lo inismo, the same thing often happens 
ocurrio que pasase yo por alii, I happened to pass that way 
I que ocurre ? ivhat is the matter ?, what do you 

want ? 

I que ha pasado ahi ? what has happened there ? 

i cuando fue ? when did it happen ? 

I que es eso ? what is tlie matter ? 

sucedio que vino a verme, y me he happened to come and see me, 

lo dijo, and then he told me 

no se que le sucede, I do not know what is tlie matter 

with him 

N.B. To these may be compared the following, though 
only used in the third person singular : 

Haber, to translate there is, there are : 

I que hay ? what is the matter ?, wJiat is the 

news ? 
hay que conformarse, no hay one must take things as they come, 

remedio, there is no help for it 

habia mucha gente en el teatro, there were many people in the 

theatre 

N.B. In referring to any period of time, ha instead of 
hay is used : 

muchos anos ha, many years ago 

dias ha que no le he visto, it is some days since 1 saw him, 

Hacer in referring to a period of time : 

hace tiempo, some time ago 

hace mucho tiempo, hace poco a long time ago, a short time ago, 

tiempo, a little while ago 

hace un dia, hace un afio, a day ago, a year ago 

hace mucho, hace poco, long ago, a little time ago 

In questioning : 

t cuanto tiempo hace que . . . ? or how long since ? 
I que tiempo hace que . . . ? 

N.B. All the above verbs, except ser, may be used 
pronominally, with the same signification ; ocurrir, and 
pasar, may besides be used reflexively, though with a 
different signification : 

un dia le acaecera una desgracia, some day a misfortune will happen 

to him 
me acontecio eso estando en / was in London when that 

Londres, happened to me 

nos ocurren muchas cosas que no many things happen to us that we 

imaginamos, do not foresee 



VERB. 45 

I no le ha pasado a usted eso has it never happened to you ? 

nunca ? 

os sucedera todo lo que os he all that I have told you will happen 

dicho, to you 

se me paso de la memoria, it slipped my memory 

se me ocurren nrnchas cosas muy 'many funny things come into my 

extranas, mind 

2. Verbs denoting necessity, importance, convenience, 
sufficiency, probability : 

se necesita, it is necessary, it is wanted 

precisa hacerlo, it is urgent that it be done 

importa mucho ir bien vestido, it is important to dress well 

conviene tener amigos en todas it is convenient to have friends 

partes, everywhere 

basta, that is enough ; enough ! 

parece que llovera hoy, it seems likely to rain to-day 

N.B. All except necesitarse may be used pronominally : 

me precisa hacerlo, it is necessary for me to do it 

no le importa nada, he does not care a bit 

le importa mucho salir hoy, it is very important for him to leave 

to-day 

nos conviene tener paciencia, we must have patience 

con eso me basta, that is enough for me 

me parece que no vendra, / think he will not come 

REMARK. (a) Similar ideas may be expressed by ser in 
conjunction with tbe Present Participles of the above verbs, 
used as adjectives, or adjective equivalents : 

ser necesario, or precise, to be necessary, or urgent 

ser importance, to be important 

ser conveniente, to be convenient 

ser bastante, to be enough 

ser sufficiente, to be enough, or sufficient 

ser probable, to be probable, or 



N.B. All except probable may be used pronominally : 

me es necessario, it is necessary for me 

le es precise, it is urgent for him 

nos es conveniente, it is convenient for us 

(b) Ser used in conjunction with some adjectives, or nouns 
followed by que and the Infinitive; or by que with the 
Indicative or the Subjunctive ; or in the third person 
singular, followed by de and the Infinitive : 



46 



VERB. 



With the Indicative : 

cierto, seguro, 

ser verdad, 

es cierto que lo ha dicho, 



certain, sure 

to be true 

it is true tJiat he has said it 



With the Subjunctive, or the Infinitive : 



probable, probable 

dudoso, doubtful 

falso, false 

ser doloroso, or lastimoso, 
ser un dolor, una lastima, 

no es probable que suceda eso, 
es falso que haya sucedido eso, 
es bueno ensenar el bien, y 

mejor que se haga, 
es una lastima hacer eso, 
es de esperar, 
es de sentir, 
es de temer, 



ser mentira, to 

bueno, malo, good, bad 

mejor, peor, better, worse 

to be a pity 



it is not likely that this will happen 
it is not true that that has happened 
it is a good thing to teach the right, 

and better to follow it 
it is a pity to do that 
it is to be hoped 
it is to be regretted 
it is to be feared 



N.B. Also in the phrase mas vale que, it is better . 



mas vale mafia que fuerza, 
mas vale que no saiga usted, si 
no esta bien, 



skill is better than strength 
it is better for you not to go out, if 
you are not well 



3. Verbs used in conjunction with se, in the third person 
singular, or without se in the third person plural : 

no se les ha podido descubrir, 



jVa usted a casarse? Eso se 

dice, 
en Inglaterra no se trabaja los 

domingos, 

i se viaja muclio en Espana ? 
$ a que hora se come ? 
i a que hora se empieza la 

funcion ? 
no les han podido descubrir, eso 

dicen, 
en Inglaterra no trabajan los 

domingos, 

I viajan mucho en Espana ? 
I a que hora comen [en Espana, 

en aquella casa, etc.] ? 



they have been unable to discover 

them 
are you going to be married ? They 

say so 
people in England do not work on 

Sundays 

do people travel much in Spain ? 
what is the dinner hour ? 
at what time does the performance 

begin ? 



VERB. 47 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. DEFECTIVE FORMS. 

(Verbos defectivos. Formas defectivas.) 

Defective verbs are verbs that lack certain moods, tenses, 
or persons. They differ from the impersonal verbs, in that 
the latter are only used in the third person singular. 

1. Soler, to be accustomed, used-, it is only used in the 
following forms : 

INFINITIVE. INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

soler suelo, sueles, suele, solemos, soleis, suelen 

PAST PARTICIPLE. IMPERFECT. 

soliclo solia, solias, solia, soliamos, soliais, solian 

Acostumbrar, to use to, to be in the habit of, to accustom to ; 
used in all forms except the Past Anterior, the Imperative, 
and the Present Participle. 

Acostumbrarse, to get into the habit; used in all forms 
except the Past Imperfect, and the Present Participle. 

Antojarsele a uno, to be seized by the ivish, idea ; used in 
the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Past Participle, and the third 
persons singular and plural of the Indicative and the Sub- 
junctive. 

2. Obstar, to be an obstacle; used in the Infinitive, and 
the third persons singular and plural of the Indicative and 
the Subjunctive. 

N.B. No obstante, nevertheless. 

3. Salve, God bless you, and vale (keep in good health) 
farewell, are the remains of Latin forms, the former used 
only in prayers, and the latter in familiar correspondence. 

4. The following, all ending in -ir, are used only in those 
forms in which the i of the Infinitive-ending is kept : 

abolir, to abolish 

aguerrir, to train for war 

arrecirse (de frfo), to be benumbed, to grow stiff with 

cold 

embair, to impose upon, to deceive 

manir, to hang (meat), to make tender 

malherir, to wound seriously 

N.B. Descolorir, to discolour, and despavorir, to be 
terrified, aghast, are used only in the Past Participle, des- 
colorido, pale, and despavorido, frightened to death. 



48 VERB. 

ITsucapir, to acquire a right of property by lapse of time, 
is a legal word, used only in the Infinitive. 

REMARK. Some verbs, belonging to the above group, 
have a second form in -er, -ar, or -ear, not defective, to 
supplement the omitted forms of the defective : 

aterirse, aterecerse, to be benumbed, to groiv stiff with 

cold, 

balbucir, balbucear, to stutter, to lisp (as a child) 

blandir, blandear, to flourish, brandish 

desentumir, desentumecer, to be freed from numbness or torpor 

empedernir, empedernecer, to grow hard as stone, to harden 

(morally) 
entumir, entumecerse, to benumb, to become torpid 

N.B. Colorir, to colour, has only in use its Past Parti- 
ciple converted into a noun, i.e., el colorido, colouring, the 
remainder of the forms being supplied by colorar, or 
colorear. Garantir, to guarantee, used only in the Infini- 
tive, is likewise supplemented by garantizar. 

5. Other verbs having only one form with two significa- 
tions, are defective in the second only, i.e., the figurative 
one, and only used in the third persons singular and plural : 

conducir, to lead, guide ; to be the use 

seguir, to follow ; seguirse, to follow (as a consequence) 

constar, to be composed of, to consist in ; to figure ; constar (le a uno), 

to be clear, evident, certain 
doler, to ache ; dolerle a uno, to feel sorry 
pesar, to weigh ; pesarle a uno, to feel sorry, to repent 
parecer, to appear (put in an appearance) ; parecerle a uno, to think 

(seem) 

REMARK. Eeponer, to replace, and reponerse, to recover ; 
when meaning to retort, reponerle a uno, is only used in 
the Past Anterior ; le repuso, he retorted. 

6. The following are also used only in the third persons 
singular and plural, and the Past Participle : 

consistir, to be the reason cumplir, to suit, to be due 

provenir, to derive (as a acaecer, to happen 

consequence) acontecer, to happen 

ataner, to appertain ocurrir, to occur 

concernir, to concern suceder, to happen 

incumbir, to concern pasar, to happen 



VERB. 



49 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

(Verbos irregular es.) 

I. INSERTION OF e. Ver, to see, formerly veer, Latin 
videre, adds e to the stem (i.e., preserves the e of its old 
stem), in the following forms : 

[PAST 

PARTICIPLE, 
visto], 



PRESENT 
INDICATIVE. 

veo, 



IMPERFECT. IMPERATIVE. 

vefa, 

veias, 

vela, vea, 

veiamos, veamos, 

veiais, 

veian, vgan, 



PRESENT 
SUBJ. 

vea, 

veas, 

vea, 

veamos, 

veais, 

vean, 



II. DIPHTHONGIZATION ue, ie j u, i, kept in certain 
forms : 

1. One verb with stem in u formerly o, jugar, Lot. jocare, 
and many with stem in o, assume forms in ue (i.e., the one 
in u adds e, and those in o change o into ue), in tonic stems : 

jugar, to play contar, to mover, to move dormir, to 

count, relate 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 



juego, 


cwento, 


mwevo, 


dwgrnio, 


juegas, 


c^entas, 


m^eves, 


dwgrmes, 




cwenta, 


mweve, 


dwerme, 


jugan, 


cw^ntan, 


mweven, 


dwermen, 






IMPERATIVE. 




jugga, 


cuenta,, 


mweve, 


dwerme, 


juegu'e, 


cuenke, 


mwgva, 


dwerma, 


jueguen, 


cwenten, 


mw^van, 


dwerman, 


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 


juegue, 


cuente, 


mweva, 


dwerma, 


juegues, 


cwentes, 


mwevas, 


dwermas, 


juegue, 


c^nte, 


mweva, 


dwerma, 


jueguen, 


cwenten, 


mwevan, 


d^rman, 



N.B. For poder belonging to this group, see also VII. 1 
(a), and 3 (a). 

PT. II. D 



50 VERB. 

(a) Those in -ir keep the u in the following forms : 

P. ANT. IND. IMPERAT. PRES. SUBJ. PRES. PAR. GERUND. 
dwrmid, dwrmamos, dttrmamos, dwrmiente, dwrmiendo, 



eron, 


dwrmais, 




IMPERF. SUBJ. 


P. ANT. SUBJ. 


COND. SUBJ. 


dwrmiera, 
dwrmieras, 
dwnniera, 


dwrmieses, 
dwrmiese, 


dwrmiere, 
dwrmieres, 
dwrmiere, 


dwrmi^ramos, 
dwrmierais, 
dwrmieran, 


d^nnidsemos, 
dwrmieseis, 
dunxdeten, 


dwrmieremos, 
dwrmiereis, 
dwrmieren, 



2. Many verbs with stem in -e, and a few with stem in -i, 
assume forms in -ie (i.e., those in e add i, and those in i 
add e, in tonic stems, as follows : 

pensar, to entender, to sentir, to feel, adqm'rir, to 
think understand to be sorry acquire 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 

pienso, entz'endo, sz'ento, adquigro, 

piensas, enttendes, s^entes, adquieres, 

p^'en8a, ei^'ende, s^ente, adquiere, 

p/ensan, entienden, stenten, adquitren, 

IMPERATIVE. 

piensa, enttende, sz'ente, adquiere, 

piense, enttenda, szenta, adquiera, 

piensen, ent/endan, s/entan, adquicran, 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 

piense, enttenda, sienta, adquiera, 

pienses, entz'endas, sientas, adquieras, 

piense, entienda, st'enta, adquiera, 

piensen, entiendan st'entan, adquigran, 

EBMARK. Tener and venir and their compounds are 
irregular only in the following persons : 

ttenes, v^enes, 

tiene, viene, 

t^enen, vienen, 

N.B. For querer, tener and venir belonging to this 
class, see also VI., 2, and VII., 1, 2, 3. 



VERB. 



51 



(a.) All the verbs in -ir (first group) keep the i in the 
following forms : 
P. ANT. IND. IMPERAT. PRES. SUBJ. PRES. PART. GERUND. 

sintio, smtamos, sintamos, (sintiente), smtiendo, 

smtieron, sintais, 

IMP. SUBJ. P. ANT. 

sintiera, smtiese, 

stntieras, s^ntieses, 

si'ntiera, smtiese, 

szntieramos, stntiesemos, 

sz'ntierais, stntieseis, 

szntieran, smtiesen, 



COND. SUBJ. 
sintiere, 
sintieres, 
sintiere, 

smtieremos, 

smtiereis, 

si'ntieren, 



III. DIPHTHONGIZATION -ay, -oy, -uy ; -ay, -oy, becoming 
-aig, oig. 

1. Some verbs ending in -aer, -oer, -oir, -uir (also in -guir, 
but not in guir), add a connecting i (y) between the vowel 
of the stem and that of the ending ; four verbs (dar, estar, 
ser, ir) adopt endings in oy, instead of -o ; -haber and -ir 
add the y both as an ending and an intermediate vowel ; as 
follows : 

raer, to erase ; roer, to gnaw ; oir, to hear ; huir, to flee ; 
arguir, to argue ; dar, to give ; estar, to be, to stay ser, to 
be ; ir, to go ; haber, to have. 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 



rat/o rot/o 


hu7/o 


argu^o dot/ estoy SOT/ voy 




oyeB 


IniT/es 


arguyes 








oye 


hU7/e 


argute 




h&y 




oyen 


hu?/en 


argu^/en 






IMPERATIVE. 




oye 


hui/e 


argU7/e 










hu7/a 


argu?/a 


vaya 


hat/a 






liuy/amos 


argiiT/amos 


vayamos 


ha//amos 






hut/an 


argui/an 


vayan 


hayan 






PRESENT 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 






T&ya, 


ro7/a 


hut/a 


argriT/a 


vaya 


ha?/a 


ray/as 


roT/as 


hu?/aB 


argu^as 


vayas 


ha?yas 


ra?/a 


roi/a 


hui/a 


arguya 


vaya 


ha//a 


ra?/ainos 


royamos 


huT/amos 


arguyamos 


vayamos 


hayamos 


ratals 


ro?/ais 


Iniv/ais 


argUT/ais 


vayais 


ha?/ais 


rayan 


royan 


hu?/an 


argui/an 


vayan 


ha?/an 



52 



VERB. 



(a) Caer, to fall, and traer, to bring (the only two others 
in -aer) and their compounds, together with oir (the only one 
in -oir), and its compounds, strengthen their diphthongization, 
respectively to -aig and -oig, before endings in -0, -a ; raer 
and roer may also follow this rule : 



ca^o, 



tr&igo, 



PRESENT INDICATIVE. 

oigo, T&igo, 

IMPERATIVE. 



ca^amos, 
caiman, 



tra^amos, 
trat'^an, 



o^amos, 



rattan, 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 



TOigo, 



roiga,, 

roigramos, 

roig&n, 



ca^a, 
ca^as, 

ca^amos, 
cabals, 
ca^an, 


trai^a, 
tra^as, 
trai^a, 
tra^amos, 
tra^ais, 
trai^an, 


oig&, 
oig&s, 

o^amos, 
o^ais, 
oig&n, 


r&iga,, 

rai'^as, 
r&iga,, 
raz'^amos, 
ratals, 
ra^an, 


xoiga, 
roig&B, 

TOig&moB, 
roi^ais, 
ro%an, 



N.B. For further particulars of dar, estar, ir, haber, 
and traer, see VII. 

IV. CHANGE of -e into -i, in PRESENT and PAST STEMS : 
DISAPPEARANCE of the i in the endings, in PAST STEMS, of 
verbs ending in -eir, enir. 

1. Some verbs with stem in -e, and infinitive ending -ir } 
change the -e of the stem into -i, as follows : 

pedir, to ask, 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 
pi'do, 
jndes, 
pide, 



piden, 



P. ANT. 



pidieron, 



PERATIVE. 


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 


p^de, 
pida, 


pzda, 
ptdas, 
pt'da, 


pzdamos, 
pidan, 


pidamos, 
ptdais, 
pidan, 




IMP. SUB. P. ANT. 




pidiera, pt'diese, 
pt'dieras, pidieses, 
pidiera, ptdiese, 




pidi^ramos, pidi^semoB, 
pidierais, ptdieseis, 
pidieran, pfdiesen, 



VERB. 



53 



CONDITIONAL. 
p?diere, 
ptdieres, 
pt'diere, 
pidieremos, 
pidiereis, 
pidieren, 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. GERUND. 

(pzdiente), pzdiendo, 

EBMABK. In decir, to say, and compounds, the above 
irregularity occurs only in the following forms. 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 

IMPERATIVE. 
PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

GERUND. 
PAST PARTICIPLE. 



dice, 
dtcen, 

di, 

dicente, 

dtciendo, 

ddcho, 



(a) Those in -eir, -enir further reject the i in the endings, 
in past stems, in the irregular forms : 

Cenir, to gird. 
P. ANT. INDICATIVE. 



cino, 

cineron, 

Eeir, to laugh. 
P. ANT. INDICATIVE. 



IMP. SUBJ. P. ANT. CONDIT. SUBJ. 


cinera, cinese, 
cineras, cineses, 
cinera, cinese, 


cinere, 
cineres, 
cinere, 


cineramos, cinesemos, 
cinerais, cineseis, 
cineran, cinesen, 


cin^remos, 
cinereis, 
cineren, 



IMP. SUBJ. P. ANT. 


CONDIT. SUBJ. 


rz'era, n'ese, 
n'eras, rieses, 
rz'era, r^'ese, 


rt'ere, 
rt'eres, 
ri'ere, 


r^ramos, riesemos, 
rterais, ri'eseis, 
ri'eran, rt'esen, 


ne"reme>8, 
riereis, 
rz,'eren, 



54 



VERB. 



V. CHANGE of -ec into -ig, in PRESENT STEMS : 

Decir and its compounds change -ec into -ig before ~o, -a : 



PRESENT INDICATIVE. 
digo, 



IMPERATIVE. 

diga, 
digamos, 

digan, 



PRESENT SUBJUNCT. 

diga, 

digas, 

diga, 

digamos, 

digdis, 

digan, 



.SQQ further VII. 1 (6) ; 2, N.B., and 3 (6). 

VI. INSERTION of c, g: change of c into g before 
endings in -o, -a. 

1. VERBS in -acer, -ecer, -ocer, -ucir, add c : 



nacer, 

to be born, 


crecer, conocer, 
to grow, to know, 


lucir, 

to shine, 




Stem: 




naz-, 


crez-, conoz-, 


luz-, 




PRESENT INDICATIVE. 




nazco, 


crezco, conozco, 


luzco, 




IMPERATIVE. 




nazca, 


crezca, conozca, 


luzca, 


nazcamos, 
n&zcan, 


ciezcamos, conozcamos, 
crezcan, conozcan, 


luzcavws, 
luzcan, 





PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 




nazca, 
nazcas, 
nazc, 


crezm, conozca, 
crezcas, conozcs, 
crezca, conozca, 


luzca, 
luzcas, 
luzca, 


nazcowios, 
nazctits, 
nazcaTt, 


cxezcainos t conozcamos, 
crezcdis, conozcdis, 
cxezcan, conozcan, 


luzca mos, 
luzcdis, 
iMzcan, 



EEMARK. Mecer (to rock), cocer (to boil), escocer (to 
smart), recocer (to cook again), make mezo, cuezo, e&euezo, 
recuezo ; meza, cueza, escueza, recueza, etc. For placer 
(to be pleased), see its conjugation, p. 63. 

N.B. For verbs in -ducir, see besides VII. 1 (b). 



VERB. 55 

2. A few others, as yacer, valer, tener, poner, salir, 
venir, asir, add g, as also their compounds : 

yacer, tener, to poner, to valer, salir, to venir, asir, to 

to lie have, to put, to to be go out to come seize 
down possess place worth 

Stem : 
yaz- ten- pon- val- sal- ven- as- 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 
yaz#o ten#o pongro valgo sal^o ven#o as^o 

IMPERATIVE. 
yazgra tengra pon#a valga, saiga, ven^a as#a 

yaz^amos ten^amos pon^amos valgamos sal#amos vengumos as#amos 
yaz^an ten^an pon^an vaL/an sal^an ven^an as</an 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 

yaz#a ten^a pon^a valga, saiga, vengra as,ga 
yaz^as tenr/as poiiyas valvas saL/as venr/as asr/as 
ten^a pon^a valga, saiga, venj/a as^a 



yaz^amos ten^amos pon^amos val^amos salg'amos ven^amos asgramos 
yazgrais ten^ais pong'ais val^ais sal^ais ven^ais ast/ais 
yaz^an tengan pon^an valg'an sal^an ven^an asr/an 

(a) Yacer, and hacer and its compounds, including those 
in facer, change the C of the stem into -g, before endings 
-o, -a. 

yago, hago, 

yaga, haga, 

yagamos, hagamos, 

yagan, hagan, 

yaga, haga, 

yagas, hagas, 

yaga, haga, 

yagamos, hagamos, 

yagais, hagais, 

yagan, hagan, 

N.B. For further irregularities of hacer, valer, tener, 
poner, salir and venir, see VII. 



56 



VERB. 



VII. VERBS WITH IRREGULARITIES NOT OTHERWISE 
CLASSIFIED. 

1. IN PAST STEMS. Verbs assuming unaccented forms -e, -o 
(instead of -i, -e) in the past and its derivations : 

1. haber habere habwi hwbai huhe bubo 

2. andar deambulare deambulawi and-^ve andwvo 

3. estar stare steti [stabzd, stwbai] estuvc estwvo 

4. tener tenere temd [tabzd, twbai] tuve tuvo 

5. Caber capere captd c//pai cupe cupo 

6. saber sapere sapid sv/pai supe aupo 

7. poder potere potid powti pwde pudo 

8. poner pon6re posui pousi pu&e pueo 

9. COnducir ducere duxi dwxi condwje -dujo 

10. traer trahere traai trai traje trajo 

11. decir dicgre dixi dici dije dijo 

12. hacer fScere feet f^ce hice hizo 

13. querer quaerere quaeszvi quaesi quz'se qui'so 

14. venir venire vem vine vine vino 



(a) Keep the i of the endings in the remainder of the 
forms : 



haber, 

andar, 

estar, 

tener, 

caber, 

saber, 

poder, 

poner, 

hacer, 

querer, 

venir. 



andwv- 

estwv- 

twv- 

cup- 



pud- 
pus- 
hic- 
quis- 



(e), 
iate, 
(o), 
z'mos, 

r'steis, 
zeron, 

z'era, 

ieras, 

tera, 

i'erainos, 

'i'erais, 

ieran, 



zese, 
/eses, 



tesemos, 
z'eseis, 



zere, 

teres, 
iere, 

i^remos, 

Nereis, 

ieren, 



REMARK. Satisfacer (to satisfy), makes also satisfaciera, 
satisfaciese, satisfaciere. 

(b) Reject the i of the endings in the remainder of the 
forms, except in those in -iste, -imos, -isteis : 



VERB. 



57 



conducir, conduj- 
traer, traj- 
decir, dij- 



ese, 



(mos), 
(iateiB), 
eron, 

era, 



era, 

eramos, 
erais, 
^ eran, 



esemos, 

eseis, 

esen, 

ere, 

eres, 

ere, 

eremos, 

ereis, 

eren, 



N.B. Verbs ending in -ner, -nir, -llir, not preceded by e, 
and otherwise regular, drop as well the i of the diphthongs 
ending in ie, io, of the third person singular and plural of 
the Perfect Indicative, in the whole form of the Imperfect, 
Past Anterior, and Conditional of Subjunctive, the Gerund, 
and the Present Participle : 

taner, to play (the guitar) ; grunir, to grunt bullir, to be 

thronged. 

PAST ANT. INDICATIVE. 

tano, gruno, bullo, 

taneron, gruneron, bulleron, 

IMPERFECT AND P. ANT. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

taiiera, taiiese, grunera, grunese, bullera, bullese, 

taneras, taneses, gruneras, gruneses, bulleras, bulleses, 

etc. etc. 



tanere, 
taneres, 



etc. 



etc. 



tanendo, 



CONDITIONAL SUBJ. 
grunere, buUere, 

gruneres, buUeres, 

etc. etc. 

GERUND. 
grunendo, bullendo, 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 
grunente, bullente, 



tanente, 

NOTE. Dar, though belonging to the first conjugation, 



58 VERB. 

assumes in the past and its derived forms the endings 
common to the second and third : whilst ir, belonging to the 
third, assumes in the Imperfect Indicative forms common to 
the first; 

PAST ANT. INDIC. IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. 

di, iba, 

diste, iba, 

dio, ibas, 

dimos, ibamos, 

disteis, ibais, 

dieron, iban, 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
IMPERF. PAST ANT. COND. 

diera, diese, diere, 

dieras, dieses, dieres, 

diera, diese, diere, 

dieramos, di^semos, dieremos, 

dierais, diereis, diereis, 

dieran, diesen, dieren, 

N.B. For dar and ir, see their conjugation, pp. 61, 63. 

2. IN PRESENT STEMS, (a) Verbs caber, to be contained in, 
to hold, and saber, to know : 

PRESENT INDICATIVE. 
quepo, s6 

IMPERATIVE. 
quepa, sepa, 

quepamos, sepamos, 

quepan, sepan, 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. 

quepa, sepa, 

quepas, sepas, 

quepa, sepa, 

quepamos, sepamos, 

quepais, sepais, 

quepan, sepan, 

(6) IMPERATIVES rejecting the e (2nd pers. sing.). 

hacer, tener, valer, poner, salir, venir, 
has, te?i, vaZ, pow, s&l, ven, 

REMARK. Satisfacer and yacer make satisface, or 

satisfaz, yace or yaz. 



VEKB. 



59 



N.B. Decir, makes di: but bendice, contradice, maldice, 
etc. 

3. IN FUTURE STEMS : 
(a) Reject the e : 



ca&er, 


ha&er, 


sa&er, 


poc?er, 


querer, 






FUTURE. 






ca&re, 
ca&ras, 
ca&ra, 


ha&r<, 
ha&ras, 
ha&ra, 


sa&re, 
sa&ras, 
sa&ra, 


pocr<, 
poc^ras, 
porfra, 


querre, 
querras, 
querra, 


ca&remos, 
ca&reis, 
ca&ran, 


ha&remos, 
ha&reis, 
ha&ran, 


sa&remos, 
sa&reis, 
sa&ran, 


poc?remos, 
porfreis, 
podran, 


querremos, 
querreis, 
querran, 



CONDITIONAL. 



ca&ria, 
ca&rias, 
ca&ria, 
caftriamos, 
ca&riais, 
ca&rian, 


ha&ria, 
haftrias, 
ha&?ia, 
ha&riamos, 
h&briais, 
ha&rian, 


sa&ria, 
saftrias, 
sa&ria, 
sa&riamos, 

sa/v/'iais, 
sa&?-ian, 


poc^rfa, 
poc^rias, 
po^ria, 
po^'iamos, 
poc^riais, 
po^rian, 


que?Tia, 
que?'rias, 
querria, 
que/'jaainos, 
querriais, 
querrian, 



(b) Eeject other letters 
hacer, decir, 

FUTUEE. 



CONDITIONAL. 



hare, 
har&s, 



dire, haria,, diria,, 

dir&a, Farias, diria,8, 

dira,, haria,, diria,, 

haremos, diremos, 7iariamos, diria,rao8, 

Jiareis, direiB, /tariais, dirisAs,, 

Jiaran, dir&n, 7irian, cfarfan, 

N.B. Rarefacer, liquefacer, satisfacer, make rarefar6, 
rarefaria, liquefare, etc. Bendecir, maldecir, make 
bendecir6, bendeciria, maldecir6, etc. 

(c) Change e into d : verbs in -ner, -nir ; -ler, -lir : 



FUTURE INDICATIVE, 


CONDITIONAL INDICATIVE. 


poner, 


tener, 


venir, 


valer, 


salir, 


ponrfr- 


tenc/r- 


ven^r- 


vaHr- 


aaldr- 






FUTURE. 






Tpondre, 


tendre, 


vendre, 


valf/?'e, 


ealdre, ' 


pondr&B, 


tendr&s, 


vendr&s, 


valdras, 


sakZras, 


pono^ra, 


iendra,, 


vendra,, 


valdra,, 


salr/ra, 


pondremos, 


tenc^remos, 


venr/remos, 


valrfremos, 


salrfremos, 


pondreia, 


ten^eis, 


vendreis, 


val(/reis, 


BaldreiB, 


ponr/ran, 


tencZran, 


vendr&n, 


valrfran, 


sal(/ran, 



60 



VERB. 



CONDITIONAL. 

pondria, tendrla, vendria, valdria, saldria, 

pondrias, tendrias, vendrias, valdrias, saldrias, 

pondria, tendria, vendria, valdria, saldria, 

pondriamos, tendriamos, vendriamos, valdriamos, saldriamos, 

pondriais, tendriais, vendriais, valdriais, saldriais, 

pondrian, tendrian, vendrian, valdrian, saldrian, 



IRREGULAR VERBS UNDER MORE THAN ONE 
RULE CONJUGATED IN FULL. 



Caber : 
PRES. IND. 
quepo. 



FUT. IMP. 

cabre", 

cabras, 

cabra, 

cabremos, 

cabr&s, 

cabran, 

PAST ANT. 

cupe, 

cupiste, 

cupo, 

cupimos, 
cupisteis, 
cupieron, 

Conducir 

PEES. IND. 
conduzco, 



IMPERATIVE. 
quepa, 



FUT. COND. 

cabria, 
cabrias 
cabria, 

cabriamos, 

cabriais, 

cabrian, 



PRES. SUBJ. 

quepa, 

quepas 
quepa, 

quepamos, 

quepais, 

quepan, 



P. IMP. 



P. ANT. 



COND. 



cupiera, 
cupieras, 
cupiera, 

cupieramos, 
cupierais, 
cupieran, 


cupiese, 
cupieses, 
cupiese, 

cupiesemos, 
cupieseis, 
cupiesen, 


cupiere, 
cupieres, 
cupiere, 

cupieremos, 
cupiereis, 
cupieren, 



IMPERAT. 

conduzca, 
conduzcamos, 

conduzcan, 



PRES. SUBJ. 

conduzca, 
conduzcas, 
conduzca, 

conduzcamos, 

conduzcais, 

conduzcan, 





VERB. 




PAST. ANT. 


P. IMP. P. ANT. 


COND. 


conduje, 
condujiste, 


condujera, condujese, 
condujeras, condujeses, 


condujere, 
condujeres, 


condujo, 


condujera, condujese, 


condujere, 


condujimos, 
condujisteis, 


condujeramos, condujesemos, 
condujerais, condujeseis, 


conduje"remos, 
condujereis, 


condujeron, 


condujeran, condujesen, 


condujeren, 


Bar: 






PEES. IND. 






doy 






PAST ANT. 


P. IMP. P. ANT. 


COND. 


dl, 


diera, diese, 


diere, 


diste, 


dieras, dieses, 


dieres, 


did, 


diera, diese, 


diere, 


dimos, 


dieramos, diesemos, 


dieremos, 


disteis, 


dierais, dieseis, 


diereis, 


dieron, 


dieran, diesen, 


dieren, 


Decir : 






PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. 


PRES. SUBJ. 


digo, 




diga, 


dices, 


di, 


digas, 


dice, 


diga, 


diga, 




digamos, 


digamos, 






digais, 


dicen, 


digan, 


digan, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 




dire", 


diria, 




diras, 


dirias, 




dira, 


diria, 




diremos, 


dirfamos, 




dir&s, 


diriais, 




diran, 


dirian, 




PAST ANT. 


P. IMP. P. ANT. 


COND. 


dije, 
dijiste, 
dijo, 


dijera, dijese, 
dijeras, dijeses, 
dijera, dijese, 


dijere, 
dijeres, 
dijere, 


dijimos, 
dijisteis, 
dijeron, 


dijeramos, dijesemos, 
dijerais, dijeseis, 
dijeran, dijesen, 


dij^remos, 
dijereis, 
dijeren, 



61 



62 



VERB. 



Erguir : 



PRES. IND. 



I M PER AT. 



PRES. SUBJ. 



yergo 6, 
yergues, 
yergue, 

yerguen, 


irgo, 
irgues, 
irgue, 

irguen, 


yergue, irgue, 
yerga, irga, 

yergamos, irgamos, 
yergan, irgan, 


yerga, irga, 
yergas, irgas, 
yerga, irga, 

yergamos, irgamos, 
yergais, irgais, 
yergan, irgan, 



PAST ANT. 


P. IMP. 


P. ANT. 


COND. 


irgui6, 


irguiera, 
irguieras, 
irguiera, 


irguiese, 
irguieses, 
irguiese, 


irguiere, 
irguieres 
irguiere 


irguieron, 


irguieramos, 
irguierais, 
irguieran, 


irguiesemos, 
irguieseis, 
irguiesen, 


irguieremos, 
irguiereis, 
irguieren, 






GERUND. 








irguiendo, 





Hacer 

PRES. IND. 
hago, 



Fur. IMP. 

hare", 

haras, 

hara, 

haremos, 
hareis, 

haran, 

PAST. ANT. 

hice, 

hiciste, 

hizo, 

hicimos, 
hicisteis, 
hicieron, 



IMPERAT. 

haz, 
haga, 

hagamos, 
hagan, 

FIIT. OOND. 

harfa, 

harias, 
haria, 

hariamos, 

hariais, 

harian, 



PRES. SUEJ. 

haga, 
hagas, 
haga, 

hagamos, 

hagais, 

hagan, 



P. IMP. 


P. ANT. 


COND. 


hiciera, 


hiciese, 


hiciere, 


hicieras, 


hicieses, 


hicieres, 


hiciera, 


hiciese, 


hiciere, 


hicie"ramos, 


hiciesemos, 


hici^remos, 


hicierais, 


hicieseis, 


hiciereis, 


hicieran, 


hiciesen, 


hicieren, 



VERB. 



63 



Ir: 

PRES. IND. 

voy, 
vas, 
va, 

vamos, 

vais, 

van, 

PAST IMP. 
iba, 
ibas, 
iba, 

ibamos, 

ibais, 

iban, 

PAST ANT. 

fui, 

fuiste, 

fu6, 

fuimos, 

fuisteis, 

fueron, 



IMPERAT. 

ve, 
vaya, 

vayamos 

id, 

vayan, 



PRES. SUBJ. 

vaya, 

vayas, 

vaya, 

vayamos, 

vayais, 

vayan, 



GERUND. 
yendo (regular}, 



PAST IMP. 

fuera, 

fueras, 

fuera, 

fue"ramos, 

fuerais, 

fueran, 



PAST ANT. 

fuese, 

fueses, 

fuese, 

fue'semos, 

fueseis, 

fuesen, 



COND. 

fuere, 

fueres, 

fuere, 

fueremos, 

fuereis, 

fueren, 



^ Placer. Besides its conjugation under VI., 1, the follow- 
ing forms are found : 

PRES. SUBJ. 
plegue, plega 

PAST ANT. PAST IMP. PAST ANT. COND. 

plugo (Srdpers.) pluguiera pluguiese, pluguiere, 

pluguieron, 

Poder : 

PRES. IND. IMPEEAT. PRES. SUBJ. 

puedo, pueda, 

puedes, puede, puedas, 

puede, pueda, pueda, 

pueden, puedan, puedan, 

FUT. IMP. FUT. COND. 

podr6, podria, 

podras, podrias, 

podra, podria, 

podremos, podriamos, 

podre"is, podriais, 

podran, podrian, 



64 



VEKB. 



PAST IMP. 


PAST ANT. 


COND. 


pudiera, 
pudieras, 
pudiera, 


pudiese, 
pudieses, 
pudiese, 


pudiere, 
pudieres, 
pudiere, 


pudieramos, 
pudierais, 
pudieran, 


pudiesemos, 
pudieseis, 
pudiesen, 


pudieremos, 
pudiereis, 
pudieren, 



PAST ANT. 

pude, 

pudiste, 

pudo, 

pudimos, 
pudisteis, 
pudieron, 



GERUND. 
pudiendo, 

PEES. PART. 
pudiente (now a substant. ) 

Podrir. It is only used with the o of the stem in the 
Infinitive, and in the Past Participle, podrido, otherwise 
being replaced by the verb pudrir. Present Participle 
wanting. 



Poner : 

PRES. IND. 
pongo, 



FUT. IMP. 

pondre", 

pondras, 

pondra, 

pondremos, 

pondr&s, 

pondran, 



IMPERAT. 



FUT. COND. 

pondrla, 
pondrias, 
pondria, 

pondriamoB, 

pondriais, 

pondrian, 



PRES. SUBJ. 



pon, 
ponga, 


ponga, 
pongas, 
ponga, 


pongamos, 
pongan, 


pongamos, 
pongais, 
pongan, 



PAST ANT. 



PAST IMP. 



PAST ANT. 



COND. 



puse, 
pusiste, 
puso, 


pusiera, 
pusieras, 
pusiera, 


pusiese, 
pusieses, 
pusiese, 


pusiere, 
pusieres, 
pusiere, 


pusimos, 
pusisteis, 

pusieron, 


pusieramos, 
pusierais, 
pusieran, 


pusi^semos, 
pusieseis, 
pusiesen. 


pusieremos, 
pusiereis, 
pusieren, 



VERB. 



65 



Querer : 






PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. 


PRES. SUBJ. 


quiero, 




quiera, 


quieres, 


quiere, 


quieras, 


quiere, 


quiera, 


quiera, 


quieren, 


quieran, 


quieran, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 




querrd, 


querria, 




querras, 


querrias, 




querra, 


querria, 




querremos, 


querriamos, 




querrels, 


querrfais, 




querran, 


querrian, 




PAST ANT. 


PAST IMP. 


PAST ANT. COND. 


quise, 


quisiera, 


quisiese, quisiere, 


quisiste, 
quiso, 


quisieras, 
quisiera, 


quisieses, quisieres, 
quisiese, quisiere, 


quisimos, 
quisisteis, 


quisieramos, 
quisierais, 


quisiesemos. quisieremos, 
quisieseis, quisiereis, 


quisieron, 


quisieran, 


quisiesen, quisieren, 


Saber : 






PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. 


PRES. SUBJ. 


se, 




sepa, 






sepas, 




sepa, 


sepa, 




sepamos, 


sepamos. 






sepals, 




sepan, 


sepan, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 




sabre, 


sabria, 




sabras, 


sabrias, 




sabra, 


sabria, 




sabremos, 


sabriamos, 




sabreis, 


sabriais, 




sabran, 


sabrian, 




PAST ANT. 


PAST IMP. 


PAST ANT. COND. 


supe, 


supiera, 


supiese, supiere, 


supiste, 


supieras, 


supieses, supieres, 


supo, 


supiera, 


supiese, supiere, 


supimos, 


supieramos, 


supiesemos, supieremos, 


supisteis, 


supiera is, 


supieseis, supiereis, 


supieron, 


supieran, 


supiesen, supieren, 




PRES. PART. 


wanting. 



PT. II. 



66 



VERB. 



Salir: 






PEES. IND. 


IMPERAT. 


PRES. SUBJ. 


salgo. 




saiga, 




sal, 


saigas, 




saiga, 


saiga, 




salgamos, 


salgamos, 






salgais, 




salgan, 


salgan 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 




saldre, 


saldria, 




saldras, 


saldrias, 




saldra, 


saldria, 




saldremos, 


saldriamos, 




saldreis, 


saldriais, 




saldran, 


saldrian, 




Tener : 






PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. 


PRES. SUBJ. 


tengo, 




tenga, 


tienes, 


ten, 


tengas, 


tiene, 


tenga, 


tenga, 




tengamos, 


tengamos, 






tengais, 


tienen, 


tengan, 


tengan, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 




tendr6, 


tendria, 




tendras, 


tendrias, 




tendra, 


tendria, 




tendremos, 


tendriamos, 




tendrils, 


tendriais, 




tendran, 


tendrian, 




PAST ANT. 


PAST IMP. 


PAST ANT. COND. 


tuve, 


tuviera, 


tuviese, tuviere, 


tuviste, 


tuvieras, 


tuvieses, tuvieres, 


tuvo, 


tuviera, 


tuviese, tuviere, 


tuvimos, 


tuvi^ramos, 


tuvi^semos, tuvieremos, 


tuvisteis, 


tuvierais, 


tuvieseis, tuviereis, 


tuvieron, 


tuvieran, 


tuviesen, tuvieren, 


Traer : 






PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. PRES. SUBJ. 


traigo, 




traiga, 






traigas, 




traiga, 


traiga, 




traigamos, 


traigamos, 






traigais, 




traigan, 


traigan, 



VERB. 



67 



PAST ANT. 


PAST IMP. PAST ANT. COND. 


traje, 


trajera, trajese, trajere, 


trajiste, 


trajeras, trajese, trajeres, 


trajo, 


trajera, trajeae, trajere, 


trajimos, 
trajisteis, 


traje'ramos, traje"semoB, traje"remos, 
trajerais, trajeseis, trajereis, 


trajeron, 


trajeran, trajesen, trajeren, 


Valer : 




PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. PRES. SUBJ. PRES. PART. 


valgo 


valga, valiente (n<nv an 




val, 6 vale, valgas, adj. ), 




valga, valga, 




valgamos, valgamos, 




valgais, 




valgan, valgan, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 


valdre, 


valdrfa, 


valdras, 


valdrias, 


valdra, 


voldria, 


valdremos, 


valdriamos, 


valdreis, 


valdriais, 


valdran, 


valdrian, 


Venir: 




PRES. IND. 


IMPERAT. PRES. SUBJ. 


vengo, 


venga, 


vienes, 


ven, vengas, 


viene, 


venga, venga, 




vengamos, vengamos, 




vengais, 


vienen, 


vengan, vengan, 


FUT. IMP. 


FUT. COND. 


vendre", 


vendria, 


vendras, 


vendrias, 


vendra, 


vendria, 


vendremos, 


vendriamos, 


vendre"is, 


vendriais, 


vendran, 


vendrian, 


PAST ANT. 


PAST IMP. PAST ANT. COND. 


vine, 


viniera, viniese, viniere, 


viniste, 


vinieras, vinieses, vinieres, 


vino, 


viniera, viniese, viniere, 


vinimos, 


vinieramos, vinie'semos, vini^remos, 


vinisteis, 


vinierais, vinieseis, viniereis, 


vinieron, 


vinieran, viniesen, vinieren, 




GERUND. 




viniendo, 



68 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS REFERRED 
TO THEIR CONJUGATION. 





Model. 


Class. 


abastecer, to supply 


. like crecer, 


VI. 1 


abnegar, to deny one's self . 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


abolir, to abolish . 


. defect., p. 47. 




aborrecer, to detest 


. like crecer, 


VI. 1 


absolver, to absolve ; p.p., absi 


lelto ,, mover, 


II. 1 


absonar, to be discordant, (obs. 


) . ,, contar, 


II. 1 


abstenerse, to abstain . 


, , tener, 


II. 2, Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


abstraer, to abstract 


. ,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


abunolar, to puff out 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


acaecer, to happen 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. l;def.pag. 48 


acertar, to guess . 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


aclocar, to brood . 


. ,, contar, 


II. 1 


acollar, to earth up 


> j 


J? 


acontecer, to happen 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


acordar, 1 to agree 


, , contar, 


II. 1 








acornar, to gore . 





" 






j} 


acrecentar, to increase . 


,, pensar, 


II.' 2 


acrecer, to increase 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


adestrar, to instruct 


. pensar, 


II. 2 


adherirse, to adhere; pres. p., 


ad- 




herente .... 


. sentir, 


II. 2, (a) 


adolecer, to fall ill 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 








adormir, to lull . 


,, dorinir, 


II.' 1 


adquirir, to acquire 
aducir, to adduce 


,, conducir, 


II. 2 
VI. 1. N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


advenir, to happen 


,, venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 


advertir, to warn 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 


afeblecerse, to become feeble . 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


aferrar, to grapple 


, , pensar, 


II. 2 


aflaquecerse, to get thin 
afluir, to run into 


. ,, crecer, 
. ,, huir, 


VI. 1 
III. 1 


afollar, to blow with bellows . 


. ,, contar, 


II. 1 



Meaning to tune an instrument, is regular. 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



69 





Model. 


Class. 


aforar, 1 to lease 


. like contar, 


II. 1 


afornecer, to provide (obs. ) . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


aforzarse, to endeavour (obs.) 


, , contar, 


II. 1 


agorar, to prophesy 


59 


5) 


agradecer, to be grateful 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


agravescer, to get worse 


9 


5 J 


aguerrir, to train in war 


. defect., p. 47. 




alborecer, to dawn 


. like crecer, 


VI. 1 ; def. 


alebrarse, to crouch 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


alentar, to breathe, encourage 






aliquebrar, to break a wing . 


,, ,, 


,, 


alraorzar, to lunch 


. ,, contar, 


II. 1 


alongar, to lengthen 


i > ? 


5) 


altivecer, to become haughty 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


amagrecer, to get thin . 




J J 


amanecer, to dawn 




; , def. 


amarillecer, to get yellow 







amoblar, to furnish 


,, contar, 


if.' i 


amolar, to grind . 


J J J J 


J J 


amollecer, to soften 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


amorecer, to caress (of sheep) 


9> 


,, 


amortecer, to benumb . 


? ) > 5 


,, 


amover, to remove, dismiss . 


,, mover, 


11. i 


andar, to walk 




VII. 1 (a) 


aneblar, to get foggy 


. pensar, 


II. 2 ; def. 


anochecer, to grow dark 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


antedecir, toforesay 


. ,, decir, 


IV. 1 Rem. 






V. N.B. 






VII. 1(6); 2KB.; 






3(6) 


anteponer, to prefer, place before 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 


antever, to foresee 


, ver, 


I. 


apacentar, to graze 


pensar, 


II. 2 


aparecer, to appear 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


apercollar, to seize by the collar 


contar, 


II. 1 


apernar, to seize by the leg . 


pensar, 


II. 2 


apetecer, to long for, like 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


apostar, 2 to bet . 


contar, 


II. 1 


apretar, to press . 


pensar, 


II. 2 


aprobar, to approve 


contar, 


II. 1 


argiiir, to argue . 


. .... 


III. 1 


arrecirse, to become numb 


. defect., p. 47. 




arrendar, to rent, lease . 


. like pensar, 


11.2 


arrepentirse, to repent . 


,, sentir, 


II. 2, (a) 


ascender, to ascend, be promoted 


,, entendei 1 ; 


II. 2 


asentar, to note down . 


. pensar, 


II. 2 



1 Meaning to gauge or to lease, is regular. 

- Meaning to post (place) men, horses, is regular. 



70 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Model, 

asentir, to assent .... like sentir, 

aserrar, to saw . . . ,, pensar, 

asir, to seize, catch hold . . .... 

asolar, to devastate, destroy . , , contar, 

asoldar, to hire . . . . ,, ,, 

asonar, to accord in sound . ,, contar, 

asosegar, to pacify . . ,, pensar, 

ataner, to appertain . . ,, taner, 

atender, to attend . . , , tener, 



atentar, 1 to grope 

aterecerse, aterirse, defect., p. 48, 
to grow stiff" with cold 

aterrar, 2 to fling on the ground 

atestar, 3 to stuff full . 

atraer, to attract .... 

atravesar, to cross 
atribuir, to attribute . 
atronar, to make a great noise 
avalentar, to encourage 
avanecerse, to get vain 



avenir, 
avenirse, 



to agree 



jiventar, to toss in the wind 
avergonzar, to put to shame 
azolar, to rough hew 



pensar, 

,, crecer, 

,, pensar, 

>' i> 

,, traer, 

,, pensar, 

huir, 

,, contar, 

pensar, 
crecer 



,, venr 



pensar, 
,, contar, 



Class. 
II. 2 (a) 
II. 2 
VI. 2 
II. 1 

IlVl 

II. 2 
VII. 1N.B. 

II. 2 Rem. 

VI. 2 
VII. 1 (a) ; 2, 3 (c) 

II. 2 

VI. 1 

4 Rem. 
II. 2 

III.' 1 (a) 
VII. 1 (c) 
II. 2 
III. 1 
II. 1 
II. 2 
VI. 1 

II. 2 Rem. 
VI. 2 
VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 

3(c) 
II. 2 
II. 1 



bendecir, to bless ; p.p., bendecido, 

bendito (adj.) . . . . ,, decir, 



bienquerer, to esteem ; p.p., bien- 
querido, bienquisto . 

blanquecer, to blanch coin 
bullir, to boil, bustle 
brunir, to polish . 



querer, 
crecer, 



IV. 1 Rem. 
V. 
VII. 1 (&) ; 2 (a) 



II. 2 N.B. 
VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 
VI. 1 
VII. 1 N.B. 



caber, to be contained, be room for .... VII. 1 (a) ; 2, 3 (a] 

(See its conjugation, p. 60.) 
caer, to fall III. 1 (a) 

* Meaning to attempt (to commit) a crime, is regular. 
2 Meaning to terrtfy, is regular. 
Meaning to testify, is regular. 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VEKBS. 



71 





Model. 


Class. 


calentar, to warm 


. like pensar, 


II. 2 


canecer, to grow grey . 


. ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


carecer, to lack 


j > i > 


> > 


cegar, to get blind 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


cefiir, to gird 


.... 


IV. 1 (a) 


cerner, to sift 


,, entender, 


II. 2 


cerrar, to shut 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


cimentar, to found 


59 


ii 


circuir, to surround 


. ,, huir, 


III. 1 


clareoer, to dawn 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 ; def. 


clocar, to cluck 


contar, 


II. 1 


cocer, to cook, boil 


. ,, mover, 


II. 1 




(See also 


VI. 1) Rem. 


coextender, to coextend . 


, , entender, 


II. 2 


colar, to strain, slip in . 


. ,, contar, 


II. 1 


colegir, to gather (infer] 


. ,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


colgar, to hang 


. contar, 


II. 1 


comedir, to refrain 


. ,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


coraenzar, to begin 


,, pensar, 


II. a 


compadecer, to pity 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


comparecer, to appear . 


> 


ii 


competir, to compete 


. pedir, 


IV. 1 


complacer, to please 


,, hacer, 


VI. 1 


complanir, to take pity 


. grunir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


componer, to mend, compose ; 


p.p., 








VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a 






8(c) 


comprobar, to verify, confirm 


. contar, 


II. 1 


concebir, to conceive 


. , , pedir, 


IV. 1 


concernir, to concern 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) def. 


concertar, to agree upon 
concluir, to finish 


pensar, 
,, huir, 


II. 2 
III. 1 


concordat 1 , to agree 


. contar, 


II. 1 


condescender, to condescend . 


, , entender, 


II. 2 


condolerse, to sympathise 


,, mover 


II. 1 


conducir, to lead . 


. 


VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (6) 


(See its conjugation, p. 60.) 


conferir, to bestow 


. like sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


confesar, to confess 


. ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


confluir, to meet (of rivers) . 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


conmover, to touch, stir 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


couocer, to know . 





VI. 1 


conseguir, to succeed 


, pedir, 


IV. 1 


consentir, to consent 


, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


consolar, to console 


, contar, 


II. 1 


consonar, to agree 


> 


M 


constituir, to constitute 


, huir, 


III. 1 


constrenir, to constrain 


. , cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


constrnir, to build 


, huir, 


III. 1 



72 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Model. 


Class. 


coiitar, to tell, count . . . .... 


II. 1 


contender, to fight . . . like entender, 


II. 2 


contener, to contain . . . ,, tener, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


contorcer, to distort . . . ,, mover, 


II. 1 


contracordar, to disagree, (obs.) . ,, contar, 


II. 1 


contradecir, to contradict, gainsay , , decir, 


IV. 1 Rem. 




V. 




VII. 1(6); 2N.B.; 




3(6) 


contraer, to contract, incur . ,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 




VII. 1 (6) 


contrahacer, to counterfeit . , , hacer, 


VI. 2 (a) 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(6) 


contraponer, to compare, oppose . ,, poner, 


VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


contra venir, to transgress, violate ,, venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


contribuir, to contribute . . Imir, 


III. 1 


controvertir, to controvert . ,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


convalecer, to be convalescent . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


convenir, to agree, be convenient . , , venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3 (c) 


convertir, to convert, turn into . ,, sentir, 


11. 2 (a) 


corregir, to correct . . ,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


corroer, to corrode . . . ,, roer, 


III. l;(a) 


costar, to cost . . . ,, contar, 


II. 1 


crecer, to grow . . . . .... 


VI. 1 




III. 1 N.B. 




VII. 1 Note and 




N.B. 


(See its conjugation, p. 61.) 




decaer, to decay .... like caer, 


III. 1 (a) 


deeentar, to get bed sores . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


decir, to say, tell .... 


IV. 1 Rem. 




V. 




VII. 1(6);2N.B.; 




3(6) 


(See its conjugation, p. 61.) 




decrecer, to diminish . . . like crecer, 


VI. 1 


deducir, to deduct, gather . ,, conducir 


VI. 1 N.B. 




VII. 1 (6) 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



73 





Model. 


Class. 


defender, to defend 


like en tender, 


II. 2 


defenecer, to close (an account} 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


deferir, to defer .... 


, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


degollar, to slaughter . 


, contar, 


II. 1 


demoler, to demolish 


, mover, 


> > 


demostrar, to prove 


, contar, 


II. 1 


denegar, to deny 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


deDegrecer, to blacken . 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


denostar, to insult 


, contar, 


II. 1 


dentar, to cut teeth 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


deponer, to depose 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 a); 2 (a); 






3(c) 


derrenegar, to detest 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


derrengar, to cripple 


J> J> 


it 


derretir, to melt 


, pedir, 


IV. 1 


derrocar, to pull down . 


, contar, 


II. 1 


derruir, to demolish 


, huir, 


III. 1 


desabastecer, not to supply (a place] 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desacertar, to mistake . 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


desacollar, to dig up the ground 






round the vines 


, contar, 


II. 1 


desacordar, to untune . 


> 


if 


desadormecer, to ivake 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desadvertir, to act inconsiderately 


, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


desaferrar, to unfurl, unfasten 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


desaforar, 1 to encroach upon (one's 






rights) 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


desagradecer, to be ungrateful 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desalentar, to discourage 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


desamoblar, to unfurnish 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


desandar, to go back the same road 


,, andar, 


VII. 1 (a) 


desaparecer, to disappear 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desapretar, to loosen 


pensar, 


II. 2 


desaprobar, to disapprove 


, contar, 


II. 1 


desarrendar, to unbridle 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


desasentar, to disagree with . 


9 5> 





desasir, to let go . 


, asir, 


VI. 2 


desasosegar, to disquiet 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


desatender, to disregard 


, , entender, 


?> 


desatentar, to perplex the mind 


,, pensar, 


)> 


desaterrar, to deposit scoriae 


5 J 


ii 


desatraer, to separate . 


,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


desatravesar, to cross back . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


desavenh'j to discompose, disagree 


venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


desaventar (obs. ). See desventar . 


pensar, 


II. 2 



Meaning to redeem a mortgage, etc. is regular. 



74 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


desbastecer, to plane, smooth 


like crecer, 


VI. 1 


desbravecer, to tame 




j j 


descabullirse, to sneak off 


bullir, 


vii. IN.B. 


descaecer, to decline, decay . 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 


descender, to descend, come down 


,, en tender, 


II. 2 


descenir, to ungird 


,, cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


descolgar, to unhang . 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


descollar, to surpass 


?> 


}j 


descomedirse, to act or speak un- 






mannerly .... 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


descomponer, to disarrange ; p.p., 






descompuesto .... 


poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 


desconcertar, to confuse 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


desconocer, to disown . 


,, conocer, 


VI. 1 


desconsentir, to dissent 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


desconsolar, to afflict . 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


descontar, to discount . 




j 3 


desconvenir, to disagree 


,, venir, 


II. 2Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a] ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


descordar, to uncord 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


descornar, to knock off the horns . 


5 > >5 


?) 


descrecer, to decrease, grow less 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 


desdar, to untwist a rope 


,, dar, 


III. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 Note and 






N.B. 


desdecir, to give the lie, gainsay ; 
p.p., desdicho .... 


decir, 


IV. 1 Reni. 






V. 






VII. 1(6);2N.B.; 






3(6) 


desdentar, to draw teeth 


pensar, 


II. 2 


desembebecerse, to come to one's 






self 




VI. 1 


desembellecer, to lose beauty 


33 33 




desembravecer, to tame 


5> J J 


9 3 


desembrutecer, to lose one's rough- 












desempedrar, to unpave 


1', pensar, 


II. 2 


desempobrecer, to free one's self 








crecer, 


VI. 1 


desencarecer, to become cheaper . 


; > 




desencerrar, to unlock . 


pensar, 


IL 2 


desencordar, to unstring 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


desencrudecer, to soften 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desencruelecer, to lessen cruelty . 


'> 


, } 


desenfurecer, to soften anger 


3> 





desengrosar, to thin 


, , contar, 


II. 1 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



75 



Model. 

desenmohecer, to free from rust . like crecer, 

desenmudecer, to break silence . ,, ,, 
desensoberbecer, to free from 

pride ,, ,, 

desentenderse, to feign ignorance, ,, entender, 

desenterrar, to unbury . . ,, pensar, 
desentorpecer, to recover from 

numbness ,, crecer, 

d esentristecer, to free from sadness ,, , , 
desentumecer, to recover from 

numbness ,, ,, 

desenvolver, to unroll ; p. p. 

desenvuelto ... ,, mover, 

deservir, to fail to oblige . ,, pedir, 

desfallecer, to faint . . ,, crecer, 

desfavorecer, to do a disfavour , , , , 

desferrar, to free from irons . ,, peusar, 

desflaquecer, to grow thin, loeak ,, crecer, 

desflocar, to unravel . . ,, contar, 

desflorecer, to lose the flower . ,, crecer, 

desfortalecer, to dismantle . ,, ,, 

desgobernar, to disturb . . ,, pensar, 
desguarnecer, to untrim clothes 

unharness ... ,, crecer, 

deshacer, to undo ; p.p., deshecho ,, hacer, 



deshelar, to thaw . . . ,, pensar, 

desherbar, to extirpate weeds . ,, pensar, 

desherrar, to cast a shoe . . ,, 
deshombrecerse, to shrug the 

shoulders , , crecer, 

deshumedecer, to desiccate . ,, ,, 
desimponer, to draw (from a 

savings bank] ; p.p., desim- 

puesto . . . . ,, poner, 



desinvernar, to leave winter 

quarters . . . . ., pensar, 

desleir, to dissolve . . ,, reir, 

deslendrar, to clear the hair of nits , , pensar, 

deslucir, to tarnish . . ,, lucir, 
desmajolar, to pull up vines by 

the roots ,, contar, 

desmedirse, to act or speak reck- 
lessly ,, pedir, 

desmelar, to take the honey from 

the hive . . . . , , pensar, 

desmembrar, to dismember . ,, ,, 

desmentir, to give the lie, deny . ,, sentir, 



Class. 
VI. 1 



II. 2 



VI. 1 



II. 1 
IV. 1 
VI. 1 

IL 2 
VI. 1 

II. 1 

VI. 1 ; def. 

IL2 

VI. 1 
VI. 2 (a) 
VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 

30) 
II. 2 
II. 2 



VI. 1 



VI. 2 

VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 
8(e) 

II. 2 

IV. 1 () 
II. 2 
VI. 1 

II. 1 
IV. 1 
II. 2 



76 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


desmerecer, to demerit . 


like crecer, 


VI. 1 


desmullir, to flatten 


,, mullir, 


VII. 1 KB. 


desnegar, to contradict, unsay 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


desnevar, to thaw 


j j j j 


def. 


desobedecer, to disobey 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desobstruir, to clear away 


, , huir, 


III. 1 


desoir, not to listen to (disobey} 


oir, 


III. 1 (a) 


desolar, to devastate 


,, con tar, 


II. 1 


desoldar, to unsolder . 






desollar, to strip off the skin . 


>> j 


j> 


desosar, 1 to take the bone out (of 






meat) 


J 5 5 ) 


(1) 


desovar, to spawn 


> 1 


(1) 


desparecer, to disappear 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


despedir, to dismiss 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


despedrar, to clear a place of 






stones 


,, pensar, 


IT. 2 


desperecer, to crave 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


despernar, to break off legs . 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


despertar, to awake 


> 


,, 


despezar, u to arrange stones . 


> > j 


ii 


desplacer, to displease . 


, nacer, 


VI. 1 Rein. 


desplegar, to unfold 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


despoblar, to depopulate 


, contar, 


II. 1 


destentar, to free from tempta- 






tion ..... 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


desteiiir, to discolour . 


,, cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


desterrar, to exile .... 


. pensar, 


II. 2 


destituir, to deprive, dismiss 


* J- 

, huir, 


III. 1 


destorcer, to untwist . 


, mover, 


II. 1 


destrocar, to change back again 


, contar, 


> 


destruir, to destroy 


, huir, 


III. 1 


desvanecer, to vanish . 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desventar, to let out the air . 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


desverdecer, to ivither . 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


desvergonzarse, to speak or act 






impudently .... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


desvolver, to unfold ; p.p., des- 






vuelto ..... 


,, mover, 


II. 1 




tener, 


II. 2 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






8(0) 


detraer, to detract 


,, traer, 


III. l.(a) 






VII. 1 (b) 


devolver, to return, give back ; 






p.p., devuelto .... 


, , mover, 


II. 1 


dezmar, to decimate 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


diferir, to postpone 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 



1 Meaning not to dare, is regular, though little used. 

a Meaning to thin at the end (applied to tubes, pipes), is regular. 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



77 





Model. 


Class. 


difluir, to spread .... 


like huir, 


III. 1 


digerir, to digest .... 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


diluir, to dissolve .... 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


discerner, to discern 


,, cntender, 


II. 2 


discernir, to discern 


sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


disconvenir, to disagree 


venir, 


II. 2 Bern. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) 2 (a) ; 


discordar, to be in disaccord . 


,, con tar, 


II. 1 


disentir, to dissent 


sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


disminuir, to diminish . 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


disolver, to dissolve ; p.p., disuelto 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


disonar, to be disharmonious, dis- 






crepant 


,; contar, 


II. 1 


dispertar, to awake 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


displacer, to displease . 


,, haeer, 


VI. 1 Rem. 


disponer, to dispose, order ; p.p., 
dispuesto .... 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


distender, to distend . 


. , entender, 


II. 2 


distraer, to distract, amuse . 


,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (&) 


distribuir, to distribute 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


divertir, to amuse 


sentir, 


II. 2 () 


doler, to ache .... 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


dormir, to sleep .... 


.... 


II. 1 (a) 


educir, to elicit .... 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


elegir, to choose .... 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


embarbecer, to have a beard ap- 






pearing ..... 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


embastecer, to become fat 


> 


}J 


embebecer, to astonish . 


> j 


n 


embellecer, to embellish 




? 


embermejecer, to dye red, blush . 
embestir, to assail, attack 


,' pedir, 


iv'i 


emblandecer, to soften . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


emblanquecer, to bleach, whiten . 




M 








embosquecer, to become woody 


> 


9$ 


embravecer, to become furious 


, 


)} 


embrutecer, to become brutal 


> > 


t 


emparentar,06e related by marriage 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


empedernir, to harden . 


def., p. 48, 


4 Rem. 


empedrar, to pave (ivith stones) 


like pensar, 


II. 2 


empellar, to push .... 


,, 


,, 


empequenecer, to lessen 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


empezar, to begin .... 


pensar, 


II. 2 



78 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



emplastecer, to level the surface 

(in painting) . 
emplumecer, to fledge . 
empobrecer, to become poor . 
empodrecer,to rot. 
empoltronecerse, to grow lazy 
emporcar, to soil 
enaltecer, to elevate, praise . 
enardecer, to inflame . 
encabellecerse, to grow hair 
encalvecer, to grow bald 
encallecer, to get corns (on the 

hands, feet) . 

encandecer, to heat to a white heat 
encanecer, to become grey 
encarecer, to get dear, praise 
encarnecer, to grow fleshy 
encender, to light 
encentar, to mutilate . 
encerrar, to shut in 
enclocar, to cluck 
encloquecer, to cluck . 
encomendar, to entrust 
encontrar, to find, meet 
encorar, to cover with leather 
encordar, to string 
encorecer, to heal the skin 
encornar, to grow horns 
encovar, to put in a cellar . 
encrudecer, to make raw 
encruelecer, to make cruel . 
encubertar, to cover with 

(horses) .... 
endentar, to join with a mortise 
endentecer, to cut the teeth . 
endurecer, to harden . 
enfierecerse, to get wild 
enflaquecer, to get thin 
enfranquecer, to make free . 
enfurecer, to enrage 
engorar, to addle 
engrandecer, to enlarge 
engreir, to make proud 
engrosar, to get fat 
engrumecerse, to clot . 
engullir, to gobble 
enhambrecer, to get hungry . 
enhambrentar, to get hungry 
enhestar, to set upright 
enlenzar, to stiffen with linen 
enloquecer, to madden . 



Model. 
like crecer, 



contar, 
,, crecer, 



cloth 



,, entender, 

,, pensar, 

V 

,, contar, 

., crecer, 

,, pensar, 

contar, 



,, crecer, 

,, contar, 



,, crecer, 



,, pensar, 
,, crecer, 



Class. 
VI. 1 



II. 1 
VI. 1 



li'2 



II. 1 

VI. 1 

II. 2 

II. 1 



VI. 1 
II. 1 

VL1 



II. 2 
VL 1 



,, contar, 


II.' 1 


crecer, 


VI. 1 




IV. 1 (a) 


, contar, 


II. 1 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


, bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


, crecer, 


VL 1 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



79 



enlucir, to whitewash . 
enllentecer, to soften 
enmagrecer, to grow lean 
enmalecer, to fall sick . 
enmarillecerse, to become yellow . 
enmelar, to spread honey 
enmendar, to mend, reform . 
enmohecer, to moulder . 
enmollecer, to soften 
enmudecer, to become dumb . 
ennegrecer, to blacken . 
ennoblecer, to make noble 
ennudecer, to become knotty . 
enorgullecer, to make proud . 
enrarecer, to rarefy 
enriquecer, to enrich, get rich 
enrobustecer, to grow stronger 
enrodar, to break on the wheel 
enrojecer, to redden 
enronquecer, to become hoarse 
enrohecer, to get covered with 

scurf 

enruinecerse, to become vile . 
ensalmorar, to brine (pickle) . 
ensandecer, to grow crazy 
ensangrentar, to make bloody 
ensoberbecer, to make proud 
ensonar, to dream 
ensordecer, to deafen, become deaf 
entallecer, to sprout 
entender, to understand 
entenebrecer, to grow dark 
enternecer, to soften 
enterrar, to bury .... 
entigrecerse, to be enraged (as a 

tiger) . . . . 
entontecer, to grow foolish . 
entorpecer, to benumb, stupefy, 

hinder 

entortar, to make crooked 
entredecir, to interdict, p.p., entre- 

dicho 



entregerir, to intermix . 
entrelucir, to glimmer . 
entremorir, to die away gradually 

p.p., entremuerto 
entreoir, to hear indistinctly 
entreparecerse, to be transparent 



Model. 
like lucir, 
,, crecer, 



,, pensar, 


, , crecer, 



, contar, 
, crecer, 



,, contar, 
,, decir, 



,, sentir, 

lucir, 

,, morir, 

oir, 

,, crecer, 



Class. 
VI. 1 



IL2 
VL1 



II. 1 
VI. 1 



,, contar, 


II. 1 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


, contar, 


II. 1 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


' " 


II.' 2 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


,, pensar, 


II'.' 2 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 



II. 1 

IV. IRem. 
V. 
VII. 1(6);2N.B. 

3(b) 
II. 2 (a) 
VI. 1 

II. 1 (a) 
III. 1 (a) 
VI. 1 



80 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VEKBS. 



Model. Class, 

entrepernar, to put one's legs be- 
tween some one's as in sitting . like pensar, II. 2 
entreponer, to interpose, p.p. 



entrepuesto . . . ,, poner, 


VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


entretener, to delay, amuse . . ,, tener, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 




3(c) 


entrevenir, to intervene . ,, venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


entrever, to have a glimpse, p. p., 




entrevisto ,, ver, 


I. 


entrevolver, to pack between, p.p., 




entrevuelto , mover, 


II. 1 


entristecer, to sadden , crecer, 


VI. 1 






entumecerse, to inflame , , 





envanecer, to make vain , , 




envejecer, to get old . . , , 





enverdecer, to grow green , , 




envestir, to invest (obs.) . . , pedir, 


IV? 1 


envilecer, to degrade, , crecer, 


VI. 1 


envolver, to wrap up, surround, 




p. p., envuelto , mover, 


II. 1 


enzurdecer, to become left-handed , crecer, 


VI. 1 


equivaler, to be equal to . . , valer, 


VI. 2 




VII. 2 (a) ; 3 (c) 


erguir, to raise up (haughtily) . ,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 




IV. 1 


(See its conjugation, p. 62.) 




errar, to wander, make a mistake like pensar, 


II. 2 


escabullirse, to disappear . . , bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


escandecer, to irritate . , crecer, 


VI. 1 


escarmentar, to take warning . , pensar, 


II. 2 


escarnecer, to scoff . , crecer, 


VI. 1 


esclarecer, to lighten . . . , ,, 


it 


escocer, to smart . . , mover, 


II. 1 


(See Remark VI. 1) 


escolar, to strain . . . . , , contar, 


II. 1 






establecer, to establish . . . ,, crecer, 


VI.' 1 


estar to be (in at) 


III. 1 




VII. 1 (a) 


(See its conjugation, p. 27.) 
estatuir, to establish (enact) . . like huir, 


III. 1 


estregar, to rub . . . . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


estremecer, to shake . . . crecer, 


VI. 1 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



81 





Model. 


Class. 


estrenir, to tie close, constipate 


like cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


excluir, to exclude 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


expedir, to dispatch 


pedir, 


IV. 1 


exponer, to expose, explain, p.p., 






expuesto ..... 


poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 






3 (c) 


extender, to stretch out . 


,, entender, 


II. 2 


extraer, to extract 


traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


extrenir, to constipate . 


cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


fallecer, to die . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


favorecer, to favour 


>j it 


>5 


fenecer, to be at an end 






ferrar, to shoe (obs. ) 


H pensar, 


II.' 2 


florecer, to flower, flourish . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


fluir, to flow .... 


huir, 


III. 1 


foliar, to blow with bellows . 


, , contar, 


II. 1 


fortalecer, to fortify 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 


forzar, to force .... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


fregar, to rub, wash up 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


freir, to fry .... 


,, reir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


ganir, to howl .... 


,, grunir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


gemecer, to sob 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 






IV. 1 


gobernar, to govern, rule 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


gruir, to crank .... 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


grunir, to grunt, grumble , . 




VII. 1 N.B. 


guanir, to grunt .... 


grunir, 





guarecer, to guard (shelter] . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


guarnecer, to garnish, trim . 


i ) ? 


u 


haber, to have .... 




III. 1 






VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 


(See its conjugation, p. 1.) 




hacendar, to purchase property to 






live in . . , . . 


like pensar, 


II. 2 


hacer, to make, do, p.p., hecho 




VI. 2 (a) 






VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 






3 (b) 


(See its conjugation, p. 62.) 


heder, to stink .... 


like entender, 


II. 2 


helar, to freeze .... 
hencnir, to fill up 


pensar, 
pedir, 


IV? 1 (a) 


bender, to split .... 


entender, 


II. 2 


henir, to knead dough . 


cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


herbar, to dress skins with herbs . 


pensar, 


II. 2 


herbecer, to begin to grow (grass) . 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


herir, to wound . 


sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


herrar, to shoe .... 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


PT. II. 




F 



82 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


hervir, to boil, be crowded . 


like sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


holgar, to rest .... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 








huir, to flee, run away . . . 




IIl'.'l 


humedecer, to moisten 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


imbuir, to imbue 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


impedir, to prevent 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


imponer, to impose, deposit, p.p., 










VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a} ; 2 (a) ; 






3 (c) 


improbar, to censure 


contar, 


II. 1 


incensar, to incense 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


incluir, to include, enclose . 


huir, 


III. 1 


indisponer, to make ill disposed, 






p.p., indispuesto 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3 (c) 


inducir, to induce 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


inferir, to infer .... 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


infernar, to vex . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


influir, to influence 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


ingerir, to inject, insert 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


inhestar, to set upright 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


injerir, to insert, inject 


, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


inquirir, to enquire 


, adquirir, 


II. 2 


inseguir, to follow 
instituir, to institute . 


, pedir, 
, huir, 


IV. 1 
III. 1 


instruir, to instruct, teach 


J 5 > 


> ? 


interdecir, to interdict . 


, decir, 


IV. IRem. 






V. 






VII. 1 (b) ; 2 N.B. 






3(6) 


inter poner, to interpose, p. p., 






interpuesto . . . . 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


intervenir, to intervene, mediate . 


,, venir, 


II. 2 Rein. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 


introducir, to introduce 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


invernar, to winter 


pensar, 


II. 2 


invertir, to invert 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a] 


investir, to invest .... 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


ir to oo be Qoiw/c/ 




III 1 






VII. 1 Note 



(See its conjugation, p. 63/ 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



83 





Model. 


Class. 


jimenzar, to ripple flax 


like pensar, 


II. 2 


jugar, to play t gamble . 




II. 1 


languidecer, to languish 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


liquefacer, to liquefy . 
lobreguecer, to grow or make dark 


,, hacer, 
,, crecer, 


VI. 2 (a) 
VI. 1 


lucir, to shine .... 






luir, to fret ..... 


,, huir, 


>5 

III. 1 


Hover, to rain .... 


,, mover, 


II. l;dcf. 


maldecir, to curse, p.p., nial- 






decido, maldito 


,, decir, 


IV. IRem. 






V. 






VII. 1 (ft); 2N.B., 






3N.B. 


malherir, to wound badly 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 ; (a) 


malquerer, to dislike, hate, p.p., 






malquerido, malquisto 


,, querer, 


II. 2N.B. 






VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 


raalsonar, to offend (ones ears] 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


maltraer, to treat ill (obs. ) . 


,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


mancornar, to tie by the horns 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


manif estar, to point out 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


rnantener, to maintain, keep 


, , tener, 


II. 2 Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a), 






3 (c) 


medir, to measure 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


melar, to make honey . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


mentar, to mention 






mentir, to lie .... 


, , sentir, 


II.' 2 (a) 


inerecer, to deserve 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


merendar, to picnic 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


moblar, to furnish 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


mohecer, to mould 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


moler, to grind, bother 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


morder, to bite . 





j > 


morir, to die, p.p., muerto . 


., dormir, 


II. 1 (a) 


mostrar, to show .... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


mover, to move . . . . 






muir, to milk . . . . 


,, huir, 


IIL'l 


mullir, to beat up, to soften . 


,, bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


muhir, to call to a meeting . 


,, gruhir, 


J J 5J 


nacer, to be born . 




VI 1 def 


negar, to deny . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


negrecer, to blacken 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


nevar, to snow . . . . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 ; def. 



obedecer, to obey, pr. p. , ubediente , , crecer, 



VI. 1 



84 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Model. 


Class. 


obscurecer, to grow dark, darken like crecer, 


VI. 1 


obstruir, to obstruct . . ,, huir, 


III. 1 


obtener, to obtain, get . . ,, tener, 


II. 2 Rem. 




VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 




3(c) 


ofrecer, to offer . . . . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


oir, to hear . 


III. 1 (a) 


oler, to smell . . . ,, mover, 


II. 1 (1) 


oponer, to oppose, p.p., opuesto . ,, poner, 


VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 




3(c) 


oscurecer, to grow dark, darken . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


pacer, to graze . . . . nacer, 


, def. 


padecer, to suffer , . . crecer, 


VI. 1 


palidecer, to become pale . . ,, ,, 


n 


parecer, to seem . . . ,, ,, 




pedir, to ask for . . . . 


IV.' 1 


pensar, to think . . . . .... 


II 2 


perder, to lose . . . ,, entender, 


II. 2 


perecer, to perish . . . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


permanecer, to remain, pr.p., per- 




manente . . . . . , ,, 




perniquebrar, to break (the) legs . , pensar, 


II. 2 


perquirir, to search for . . , adquirir, 
perseguir, to persecute, run after . , pedir, 


II. 2 
IV. 1 


pertenecer, to belong , crecer, 


VI. 1 


pervertir, to pervert . . . , sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


pimpollecer, to bud , crecer, 


VI. l;def. 


placer, to please , nacer, 


VI. 1 


(See its conjugation, p. 63.) 




planir, to lament .... like grunir, 


VII. 1N.B. 


plastecer, to size . . . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


plegar, to fold . . . ,, pensar, 


II. 1 


poblar, to people . . . . ,, con tar, 




poder, to be able, can . . ,, mover, 


i > 




VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 


(See its conjugation, p. 63.) 




podrecer, to rot . . . . like crecer, 


VI. 1 


podrir, to rot . . . . 


See p. 64. 


poner, to put, place, p.p., puesto ^ 
(See its conjugation, p. 64.) 
posponer, to postpone, p.p., pos- 


VI. 2 
VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 


puesto 


6 (c) 


preconocer, to foreknow . ,, conocer, 


VI. 1 


predecir, to foretell, p.p., pre- 




dicho . . . . ,, decir, 


IV. 1 Rem. 




V. 




VII. 1(J);2N.B.; 




3 () 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



85 



Model, 
predisponer, to predispose, p.p., 



Class. 



J. 

predispuesto .... 


like poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


preferir, to prefer . 
prelucir, to shine forth . 


,, sentir, 
,, lucir, 


II. 2 (a) 
VI. 1 


preinorir, to die before another, 






p.p., premuerto 


, , morir, 


II. 1 (a) 


preponer, to prefix, p.p., pre- 






puesto ..... 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 






3(c) 


presentir, to foresee 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


presuponer, to presuppose, p.p., 






presupuesto .... 


poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. l(a); 2 (a); 






3(c) 


prevaler, to prevail 


valer, 


VI. 2 






VII. 2 (a) ; 3 (c) 


prevalecer, to prevail . 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


prevenir, to warn, order 


, , venir, 


II. 2 Kern. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


prever, to foresee, p.p., previsto . 


,, ver, 


I. 


probar, to prove, try 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


producir, to produce 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 KB. 






VII. 1 (6) 


proferir, to utter .... 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


promover, to promote . 


mover, 


II. 1 


proponer, to propose, p.p., pro- 






puesto 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(e) 


proseguir, to go on 


pedir, 


IV. 1 


prostituir, to prostitute 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


provenir, to arise, come from 


,, venir, 


II. 2 Reni. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a); 2 (a); 






3(c) 


pudrir, to rot 
quebrar, to break .... 


(See podrir, p. 64. ) 
,, pensar, II. 2 


querer, to like, wish, want . 


,, entender, 


II. 2 N.B. 






VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 


(See its conjugation, p. 65.) 




raer, to scrape .... 





III. 1 (a) 


rarefacer, to rarify, p.p., rare- 






facto 


like satisfacer, 




readvertir, to warn again 


,, sentir, 


II. 1 (a) 


reagradecer, to be very grateful . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 



86 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


reaparecer, to reappear 


like crecer, 


VI. 1 


reapretar, to press again 


pensar, 


II. 2 


reaventar, to winnow corn a second 






time 






rebendecir, to bless again 


,, decir, 


IV.'lRem. 






V. 






VII. 1(Z>); 2N.B., 






3 N.B. 


reblandecer, to soften . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


rebullir, to stir .... 


, bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


recaer, to fall back, relapse . 


, caer, 


III. 1 (a) 


recaleutar, to warm again . 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


recentar, to leaven 


> 


j j 


recenir, to gird tight 


, cenir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


recluir, to seclude 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


recocer, to boil again . 


,, mover, 


II. 1 






VI. 1 Rem. 


recolar, to strain a second time 


,, con tar, 


II. 1 


recolegir, to gather (deduce) . 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


recomendar, to recommend . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


recomponer, to mend again, p.p., 






recompuesto 


poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 


reconducir, to renew a lease . 


,, conducir, 


3(c) 
VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


reconocer, to recognise . 


,, conocer, 


VII. 1 


reconstituir, to re-establish . 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


reconstruir, to rebuild . 






recontar, to count again, tell again 


,, con tar, 


II.' 1 


reconvalecer, to be convalescent 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


reconvenir, to recriminate . 


,, venir, 


II. 2 Rein. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 


recordar, to recollect, remind 


,, con tar, 


II. 1 


recostar, to recline 


> 


?J 


recrecer, to grow again 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


recrudecer, to increase severely (an 






illness, etc.) . . . . 


> j 


> > 


redargiiir, to retort 


,, argiiir, 


III. 1 


redoler, to cause great pain . 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


reducir, to reduce 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 N.B. 






VII. 1 (b) 


reelegir, to re-elect 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


reencomendar, to strongly re- 






commend . 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


reenmendar, to mend again, reform 




ii 


referir, to refer .... 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


reflorecer, to blossom again . 
refluir, to flow back 


crecer, 
huir, 


VI. 1 
III. 1 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



87 





Model. 


Class. 


reforzar, to strengthen . 


like contar, 


II. 1 


refregar, to rub hard . 
refreir, to fry a second time, fry 


pensar, 


II. 2 


well 


, reir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


reganir, to Iwwl again . . '. 


, grunir, 


VII. 1 KB. 


regar, to water .... 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


regimentar, to organise 


> >j 


5> 






IV. 1 


regoldar, to eruct .... 


, contar, 


II. 1 


regrunir, to grunt again 


, grunir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


rehacer, to do anew 


, hacer, 


VI. 2 (a) 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 


rehenchir, to fill up again . 


pedir, 


IV. 1 


reherir, to wound a second time . 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


reherrar, to shoe a second time 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


rehervir, to boil again . 


, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


rehollar, to tread upon . 


, contar, 


II. 1 


rehuir, to withdraw 


, huir, 


III. 1 


rehumedecer, to moisten again 


, crecer, 


VI. 1 


reir, to laugh .... 


.... 


IV. 1 (a) 


rejuvenecer, to grow young again . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


relentecer, to be softened 





11 


relucir, to glitter .... 


lucir, 


> j 


remendar , to mend, patch 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


rementir, to lie frequently 


, mentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


reinolar, to load dice 


, contar, 


II. 1 


remoler, to regrind 


, mover, 


}> 


remorder, to cause remorse . 


, ,, 


j , 


remover, to remove . . . 


? > 


>f 


remullir, to mollify 


, bullir, 


VII. 1KB. 


renacer, to spring up again . 


, nacer, 


VI. 1 


rendir, to subdue, surrender . 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


renegar, to abjure 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


renovar, to renew .... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


reiiir, to quarrel, scold . 


, ceriir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


reoir, to hear again 


, oir, 


III. 1 (a) 


repacer, to graze up 


, nacer, 


VI. l;def. 


repadecer, to suffer extremely 


, crecer 


VI. 1 


repedir, to ask repeatedly 
repensar, to think over . 


, pedir, 
, pensar, 


IV. 1 
II. 2 


repetir, to repeat .... 


, pedir, 


IV. 1 


replegar, to fold often, fall back . 


, pensar, 


II. 2 


repoblar, to repeople 


, contar, 


II. 1 


repodrir, to rot excessively 
reponer, to replace, recover (health), 


, podrir, 
, poner, 


VI*. 2 


p.p., repuesto . 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 


reprobar, to disapprove . 


,, contar, 


II. 1 


reproducir, to reproduce 


,, conducir, 


VI. 1 KB. 






VII. 1 (b) 



88 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


repudrir, to rot excessively . 


like pudrir, 


p. 


requebrar, to woo, court 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


requerer, to love intensely 


,, entender, 


II. 2; N.B. 






VII. 1 (a) ; 3 (a) 


requerir, to intimate, request 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


resaber, to know very well . 


, , saber, 


VII. 1 (a); 2: 






3 (a) 


resalir, to jut out 


, , salir, 


VI. 2 






VII. 2 (a) ; 3 (c) 


resegar, to reap again . 


, , pensar, 


II. 2 


resembrar, to resow 


?> > 


J} 


resentirse, to get offended 


, , sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


resolver, to resolve, decide, p.p., 






resuelto 


mover, 


II. 1 


resollar, to breathe, utter a word . 


,, contar, 




resonar, to resound 


3 J 99 


' 


resplandecer, to shine . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


resquebrar, to begin to break . 


pensar, 


II. 2 


restablecer, to re-establish 


, , crecer, 


VI. 1 


restituir, to restore 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


restregar, to rub, scrub. 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 


restrinir, to bind .... 




IV. 1 (a) 


retallecer, to sprout again 


., crecer, 


VI. 1 


retemblar, to tremble repeatedly . 


, . pensar, 


II. 2 


retener, to retain .... 


tener, 


II. 2 Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






8(c) 


retentar, to threaten with a relapse 


, , pensar, 


II. 2 


retenir, to dye over again 


, , ceuir, 


IV. 1 (a) 


retinir, to tingle .... 


,, grufiir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


retonecer, to shoot again 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


retorcer, to twist .... 


,, mover, 


II. 1 


retostar, to toast again, toast brown 


,, contar, 


M 


retraer, to retract . . . 


, , traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


retribuir, to retribute, pay back 


,, huir, 


III. 1 


retronar, to thunder again . 


contar, 


II. 1; def. 


retro traer, to bring back past words 






or facts ..... 


,, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 






VII. 1 (6) 


revejecer, to get prematurely old . 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


revenirse, to be consumed by degrees 


venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 






3(c) 


reventar, to burst .... 


pensar, 


II. 2 


rever, to look or examine again, see 






quite well, p.p., revisto . 


,, ver, 


I. 


reverdecer, to grow green again, 






regain vigour .... 


,, crecer, 


VI. 1 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



89 



reverter, to overflow 
revestir, to dress, pit 
revolar, to fly again 
revolcar, to wallow 
revolver, to Si 
revuelto . 
robustecer, tc 
rodar, to roll 
roer, to gnaw 
rogar, to request, pray . 



Model. 


Class. 


yw like entender, 


II. 2 


put on 


pedir, 


IV. 1 


tin 


contar, 


II. 1 


w 





, , 


disarrange, p.p., 






.... 


mover, 


II. 1 


ngorate 


crecer, 


VI. 1 




, contar. 


II. 1 




III. 1 ( 


pray . . ,, contar, 


II. 1 



saber, to know (things) . . . .... 


VII. 1 (a) 




2, 3 (a) 


(See its conjugation, p. 65.) 




salir, to go out, come out . . .... 


VI. 2 




VII. 2 (a) 3 (tf) 


(See its conjugation, p. 66.) 




salpimentar, to season ivith salt 




and pepper .... like pensar, 
salpullir, to break out in pimples . ,, bullir, 


II. 2 
VII. 1 N.B. 


sarmentar, to pick up vine-shoots . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


sarpullir, to break out in pimples . ,, bullir, 


VII. 1 KB. 


satisfacer, to satisfy, p.p., satis- 




fecho . . . . ,, hacer, 


VI. 2 (a)N.B. 




VII. 1 Rem. 2 (a) ; 




N.B. 3 (b) 


seducir, to seduce . . . , , conducir, 


VI. 1 N.B. 




VII. 1 (b) 


segar, to mow . . . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


seguir, to follow . . . ,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


sembrar, to soiv . . . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


sementar, to sow . . . ,, ,, 


,, 


sentar, to seat, fit . . . . ,, ,, 


f 


sentir, to feel, hear . . . .... 


II. 2 (a) 


ser, to be (exist) . . . . .... 


III. 1 


Its conjugation, p. 20. 




serrar, to saw .... like pensar, 


II. 2 


servir, to serve, be useful . . ,, pedir, 


IV. 1 


simenzar, to sow (obsol. ) . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


sobrecrecer, to out-grow . ,, crecer, 


VI. 1 


sobreentender, to understand some- 




thing not actually expressed . , , entender, 


II. 2 


sobreponer, to .exalt, p.p., sobre- ,, poner, 


VI. 2 


puesto ..... 


VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




8(e) 


sobresalir, to surpass, exceed . . ,, salir, 


VI. 2 




VII. 2 (a) ; 3 (c) 


sobresembrar, to sow over again . , , pensar, 


II. 2 


sobresolar, to pave anew . ,, contar, 


II. 1 



90 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 




sobrevenir, to happen . 


like venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 








VI. 2 








VII. 1 (a) ; 


I 


sobreventar, to gain the weather 








gauge of another ship 


,, pensar, 


II. 2 




sobreverterse, to overflow 


,, entender, 


II. 2 




sobrevestir, to put on . 


,, pedir, 


IV. 1 




sofreir, to fry slightly . 


,, reir, 


IV. 1 (a) 




solar, to floor, sole 


,, contar, 


II. 1 




soldar, to solder .... 




j j 




soler, to use (be wont) . 


,, mover, 


def. 




soltar, to let go, p.p., soltado ; 










contar, 






sollar, to blow (with bellows). 


,, contar, 


n 




somover, to remove (earth) . 


,, mover, 


it 




sonar, to sound .... 


contar, 


ii 




sonreir, to smile .... 


,, reir, 


IV. 1 (a) 




sonrodarse, to stick in the mud (a 








carriage) ..... 


,, contar, 


II. 1 












sorregar, to water in another 








course ..... 


pensar, 


II. 2 




sosegar, to pacify .... 








sostener, to hold, maintain, keep . 


, , tener, 


IL 2 Rem. 








VI. 2 








VII. 1 (a) ; 


2 






3(c) 








II. 2 




subarrendar, to sub-let . 








subentender, to understand what is 








tacitly meant .... 


, entender, 


M 




subseguir, to immediately follow . 
substituir, to substitute 


, pedir, 
, huir, 


IV. 1 
III. 1 




substraer, to subtract, steal . 


, traer, 


III. 1 (a) 








VII. 1 (b) 




subtender, to subtend . 


, entender, 


II. 2 




subvenir, to provide 


, venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 








VI. 2 








VII. 1 (a) ; 


2 






3(c) 




subvertir, to subvert 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 




sugerir, to suggest 


}> 


i 




superponer, to place one thing 








above another, p.p., superpuesto 


,, poner, 


VI. 2 








VII. 1 (a) ; 


2 


supervenir, to happen . 


,, venir, 


II. 2 Rem. 








VI. 2 








VII. 1 (a) ; 


2 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 



91 



Model. 
suponer, to suppose, p.p., supuesto like poner, 



substituir, to substitute. . ,, huir, 

sustraer, to subtract, steal . . ,, traer, 



tallecer, to shoot crecer, 

taner, to play (the guitar), ring (the 

bells) 

temblar, to tremble . . . ,, pensar, 
tender, to stretch, hang (the 

washing) ,, entender, 

tener, to have, possess . . . .... 



(See its con.junctiou, p. 6' 
tentar, to tempt, to grope . . like pensar, 

tenir, to dye cenir, 

torcer, to twist, turn round . , , mover, 

tostar, to toast . . . ,, contar, 

traducir, to translate . . . ,, conducir, 

traer, to bring, fetch . . . .... 

(See its conjugation, p. 66.) 



Class. 
VI. 2 
VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 

w 

III. 1 

III. 1 (a) 
VII. 1 (b) 

VI. 1 

VI. 1 N.B. 

II. 2 



II.' 2 Rem. 
VI. 2 

VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 
3(c) 

'a, 

IV. 1 (a) 
II. 1 

VL 1 N.B. 
VII. 1 (b) 
III. 1 (a) 

VII. (1) b 



transcender, to transcend, transpire, like entender, 





transferir, to transfer . . . ,, sentir, 


II. 2() 


transfregar, to rub . . ,, pensar, 


II. 2 


translucir, to be transparent, to con- 




jecture ,, lucir, 


VI. 1 


transponer, to transpose, set (of the 




sun), p. p., transpuesto . . ,, poner, 


VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) ; 




3(c) 


trascender, to transcend, transpire , entender, 


II. 2 


trascolar, to strain . . , 


contar, 


II. 1 


trascordarse, to forget . . , 








trasegar, to rack (urine) . . , 


pensar, 


II. 2 


trasferir, to transfer . , 


sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 




pensar, 


II. 2 


traslucirse, to shine through . . , 


lucir, 


VI. 1 


trasoir, to misunderstand . . , 


oir, 


III. 1 (a) 


trasonar, to dream . . . , 


contar, 


II. 1 


trasponer, to transpose, set (of the 




sun), p.p., traspuesto . ,, poner, 


VI. 2 




VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 




3(c) 



trastrocar, to invert the order of 

things ,, contar, 



II. 1 



92 



LIST OF SPANISH IRREGULAR VERBS. 





Model. 


Class. 


trasverter, to overflow . 


. like entender, 


II. 2 


trasvolar, to fly across . 


contar, 


II. 1 


travesar, to cross (obs. ) 


pensar, 


II. 2 


trocar, to exchange 


contar, 


II. 1 


tronar, to thunder 


99 


,, ; def. 


tropezar, to stumble 


pensar, 


II. 2 


tullir, to cripple . 


bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


tumefacerse, to swell . 


satisfacer 




valer, to be worth, cost, be useful . .... 


VI. 2 






VII. 2 (a) ; 3 (c) 


(See 


its conjugation, p. 67.) 




venir, to come, fit . 


. . . . 


II. 2 Hem. 






VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 






B(c) 


(See 


its conjugation, p. 67.) 




ventar, get wind of 


. like pensar, 


II. 2 


ver, see, look into . 


.... 


I. 


verdecer, to grow green 


crecer, 


VI. 1 


verter, to spill, shed . 


entender, 


II. 2 


vestir, to dress 


pedir, 


IV. 1 


volar, to fly . 


contar, 


II. 1 


volcar, to overset . 






volver, to come back, return, p.p., 


vuelto 




II. 1 


yacer, to lie down 




VI. 2 (a) 


yuxtaponer, to put close by 


. poner, 


VI. 2 






VII. 1 (a) ; 2 (a) 


zabullir, to plunge 


. . bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 


zaherir, to blame, mortify 


,, sentir, 


II. 2 (a) 


zambullir, to plunge 


. bullir, 


VII. 1 N.B. 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 93 

USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 
(INDICATIVE.) 

PRESENT TENSE. It is used in speaking of : 
Anything that at present occurs : 

j que hay ? what is the matter ? 

\ que desgraciado es ! how unfortunate he is ! 

esta contento con su suerte, he is satisfied with his lot 

no lo comprendo, / do not understand it 

Progressive actions, in a present more or less near : 

voy a ver a un amigo, / am going to see a friend 

leo el periodico (also, estoy le- / am reading the paper 

yendo el periodico), 
escribe una novela (also, esta es- he is uniting a novel 

cribiendo una novela), 

Characteristic attributes, or actions, as : 

(a) sex, age, physical qualities : 

el es viejo, ella es J6ven, he is old, she is young 

es rubia y tiene ojos azules, she is fair, and has blue eyes 

los dos son muy altos, both of them are very tall 

Cervantes es un genio, Cervantes is a genius 

la gracia del Don Quijote es in- the humour in Don Quixote is 
agotable, inexhaustible 

(b) professions, habits, ordinary actions, or daily life : 

el marido es empleado, y la the husband is a clerk, and his 

mujer institutriz, wife is a governess 

comen a la una. they lunch at one o'clock 

el va a la oficina, ella da lee- he goes to his office, she gives lessons 
ciones, 

suelen ir al teatro los domingos, they generally go to the theatre on 

Sundays 

(c) moral qualities, r/rinciples, opinions, ideas, likes, and dis- 

likes : 

es un hombre muy honrado, y he is a very honest man, and she 

ella es muy trabajadora, is very industrious 

es muy recto ; es muy religiosa, he is a very straightforward man ; 

she is very religious 

los ingleses son muy conserva- English people are very conserva- 

dores, tive 

les gusta mucho viajar, they are very fond of travelling 

me disgusta la gente egoista, I dislike selfish people 



94 USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 

The general use and qualities of things, also the ivay in which 
things are usually done : 

el hierro se usa en la f abricacion, iron is used for manufacturing 

el vidrio es transparente, pero glass is transparent, but is easily 

se rompe con iacilidad, broken 

eso no se hace asf , that is not done in that way 

Sentences of a general character : 

el temor de Dios es el principle the fear of the Lord is the begin- 

de la sabidurf a, ning of wisdom 

la virtud se recompensa a si Virtue is its own reward 
misma, 

FUTURE IMPERFECT. It is used to express : 
Absolute futurity, from the nearest to the most remote : 

ahora lo hare, / will do it now 

vendra luego, he will soon come 

llegaran esta tarde, they will arrive this afternoon 

el aiio que viene ir6 a Espana, next year I shall go to Spain 

nunca lo sabran, they will never know it 

Doubt, probability, possibility, admiration, and suggestion: 

&que hora sera ? what time may it be, now ? 

seran las diez, it may be ten o'clock 

i quien llamara a estas horas? / wonder who rings at this hour 
abra usted, que sera el cartero, open the door, it must be the post- 
man 

A strong conviction, by means of a question that does not 
admit a negation : 

I habra hombre mejor que el ? can there be a better man than he ? 
Sentences of a general character ; 

mientras haya que envidiar, no there will never fail to be envious 
faltaran envidiosos, people, while there is anything 

to envy 

FUTURE CONDITIONAL. It is used to express: 

What, under certain circumstances or conditions, would 
or should happen, or one would or should do, or the posi- 
tion in which one would be placed, or place himself. The 
circumstances or conditions may be either understood, or 
have been stated in a separate sentence, or actually ex- 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 95 

pressed ; they assume the form of a direct or of an indirect 
statement : 

Ivabria una revolucion, there would be a revolution 

se moriria de pena, the grief would kill her 

no lo toque usted porque se do not touch it or it would break 

romperia, 

si lloviera, refrescaria, if it rained, it would be cooler 

deberia usted darselo, you ought to give it to him 

pues no se lo daria, Well, I would not give it to him 

I y si el se lo pidiera a V. ? Se lo "but, if he were to ask you for it ? / 

negaria, would refuse it 

no haria usted bien si hiciese you would be wrong in doing so 

semejante cosa, 

pero haciendo eso me quedaria but by doing that, I should keep it 

con ello, for myself 

EBMARK. When the condition is stated, si precedes, and 
the verb assumes either of the two indefinite forms in -ra 
or -se. It is immaterial whether the Conditional sentence 
precedes or follows : 

si usted se lo dijera, lo haria, if you asked him, he would do it 

se lo pediria, si tuviese confianza / would ask him if I knew him 
con el, well enough 

The same is the case if aunque, luego que, mientras, 
or any other conditional conjunctions are employed. But 
if the statement is rather a causal than a conditional one, 
porque is used, and the sentence with the Conditional 
Future must follow, unless the causal conjunction is re- 
peated : 

aunque se lo pidiera no lo even if I were to ask him, he would 

haria, or not do it 
no lo haria aunque se lo pidiera, 

no se lo pedi porque no lo haria, I did not ask him, because he would 

not have done it 

porque no lo haria, por eso no the reason I did not ask him, was 

se lo pedi, because he would not have done it 

But if como is used instead of porque, then, on the contrary, 
the sentence with the Conditional precedes : 

como no lo haria, no se lo pedi, since lie probably would not do it, I 

did not ask him 

The strong inclination, either physical or moral, which one 
already feels to do immediately a certain thing, or place him- 
self in a certain position, irrespective both of one's disposition 
to realise it, or of the possibility of such realisation : 



96 USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 

ahora me pondria yo a saltar de / could jump now, with joy 

alegrfa, 

ese se beberfa el mar, he could drink the whole sea 

jqu6 nino tan mono, me lo what a beautiful child ! I could 

comeria! devour him with kisses 

Any mild request, question, or wish : 

I estaria en casa el senor ? desearia is Mr So and So at home ? I should 

verle, like to see him 

j tendria listed la boii clad de . . . ? ivould you kindly . . . ? 

REMARK. With the verb querer, the Indefinite in -ra 
rather than the Conditional is used : 

quisiera pedirleja listed un favor, / sJiould like to ask you a favour 
Possibility, doubt, suggestion, probability : 

i que le sucederia que no vino ? what can have happened to him 

that he did not come ? 

i ae encontraria con algun ami go ? perhaps he m et a friend 
i estarfa enfermo ? / wonder if he was ill 

lo sabrfamos por alguno, someone would have told us 

So too in statements supposed to be more or less certain : 

haria entonces dos meses, it must then have been about two 

months (since] 

cumpliria hoy dieciseis anos, she ivould have been sixteen to-day 

serian las cinco, cuando paso, it was nearly five o'clock when it 

happened 

lo verian unas veinte personas, about twenty people saw it 
perderia unos mil duros en Bolsa, he might have lost about a thousand 

dollars on the Stock Exchange 

The form in -ria, not as a CONDITIONAL, but as a substitute 
for the FUTURE IMPERFECT. After any Past Tense of the 
Indicative of verbs denoting (a) certitude and belief, (b) the 
general statements, either in writing or in speaking, and (c) any 
very strong assertion, the form in -ria is used as a substitute 
for the Future Imperfect in -r6, to express, from the point 
of view of the past, statements referring to future actions; cf., 

se que lo hard, / know he will do it 

cree que Iran, he thinks they will go 

dicen que vendra, they say he will come 

afirma que lo vera, he affirms he will see him 

and, 

sabia que lo haria, / kneiv he would do it 

creyo que irfan, he thought they would go 

decian que vendria, they said he would come 

aiirm6 que lo veria, he affirmed he would see him 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 97 

REMARK. Should the idea of futurity in the original 
sentence disappear, or the verb ruling it be altered in its 
signification, some other form should be employed ; cf., 

se" que lo hace, / know he does it 

cree que vayan, he thinks they may go 

dicen que venga, they say he is lo come 

and, 

sabia que lo kacia, / knew he was doing it 

creyo que fuesen, he thought they might go 

decian que viniese, they said he was to come 

In elliptical sentences, and exclamations, almost always to 
express a strong wish : 

\ le querrfa tanto ! I should love him so much ! 

i cuanto nos alegrarlamos ! how pleased we should be ! 

In comparisons, provided the verb be repeated, and the con- 
junction como be not followed by si (if) : 

lloraba como lloraria un nino, she was crying like a child 
lloraba como si tuviese una pena, she was crying as if she were in 

grief 

REMARK. The conjunction si precedes the Conditional 
of Indicative only in two cases, i.e., in elliptical sen- 
tences expressive of suggestion, and after verbs denoting 
inquiry : 

i si estaria enfermo ! / wonder if he is (or was) ill 

pregunte usted si habria carta ask if there is any letter for me 
para mi, 

PAST IMPERFECT. It is used in speaking of : 

Things that occur whilst another thing is already a fact, or 
in the course of execution : 

anoche cuando salimos helaba, last night ivhen we went out it 

was freezing 

cuando yo salia entraba el, as I was going out he was coming in 

me dijo que no lo sabia, he told me he did not know it 

entonces estabamos en el cafe, we were then at the cafe. 

Progressive actions in a past more or less recent ; 

iba muy pensativo, he was going along very preoccupied 

I qu6 hacian ustedes ? what were you doing ? 

hablabamos del tiempo, we were talking about the weather 
PT. II. G 



98 USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 

Characteristic attributes, or actions of a more or less fre- 
quent character, regarded as in the past, as : 

(a) sex, age, or physical qualities : 

61 era J6ven, ella vieja, he was young, she was old 

era rubia y tenla ojos azules, she was fair and had blue eyes 

los dos eran muy bajos, both of them were very short 

(b) professions, habits, ordinary actions, or daily life, regarded 
as in the past : 

el marido era empleado, la mujer the husband was a clerk, his wife 

institutriz, was a governess 

comian d la una, they used to lunch at one o'clock 

61 iba & la oficina, ella daba he u*>ed to go to his office, she used 

lecciones, to give lessons 

etc. (see Use of the PRESENT TENSE). 

(c) moral qualities, principles, opinions, ideas, likes, and dis- 
likes, regarded as in the past : 

les gustaba mucho viajar, they were very fond of travelling 

era un hombre muy honrado, ella he was a very honest man, she was 
era muy trabajadora, very industrious 

etc. (see Use of the PRESENT TENSE). 

General use, and qualities in the past, also the way in which 
things used to be made : 

al principio, las letras de im- type was at first made of wood 

prenta eran de madera, 

en mi tiempo las cosas no se things were not done like that in 

hacian asi, my time 

PAST ANTERIOR. It is employed in speaking of : 

Anything as quite past, either remote or recent, but discon- 
nected with any other time : 

eso paso hace muchos anos, that happened many years ago 

anoche salf , last night I went out 

ayer helo, yesterday it froze 

61 me lo dijo, he told me 

estuvimos en el caf6, we went to the caf6 

Non-progressive actions in the past : 

se fu6 muy pensativo, he left very preoccupied 

I qu6 hizo usted alii ? what did you do there ? 

hablamos del tiempo, we talked about the weather 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSER. 99 

Things done or that have happened but once (contrary to 
customary actions, or facts) : 

Cervantes naci6 en Alcala de Cervantes was born at Alcald de 

Henares, Henares 

Oalderon murid en Madrid, Calderon died in Madrid 
la bataUa de Waterloo fue" el 18 the battle of Waterloo was fought 

de Junio de 1815, on the 18th June 1815 

aunque sollan ir al teatro los though they used to go to the theatre 

domingos, aquel domingo no on Sundays, that Sunday they 

fueron, did not go 

Sentences expressive of general truths : 

el traidor siempre fue cobarde. traitors are always cowards 
el bueno nunca temio lamuerte, a good man never feared death 

REMARK. In speaking of professions, or of moral qualities, 
the Past Definite shows, either that the subject has passed 
out of existence or that that which is spoken of has ceased: 

fue* catedratico de la Universidad he was (once) a Professor at the 
Central, University of Madrid 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 
(SUBJUNCTIVE.) 

PRESENT TENSE. It is employed : 

In prohibitions; also in exhortations, commands, and re- 
quests, PROVIDED THEY ARE MADE IN A NEGATIVE FORM : 

no hagas mal a nadie, do not harm anyone 

nunca te gufes por el egoismo, do not let yourself be led by 

selfishness 

no toques eso, do not touch that 

no entren ustedes aqui. do not come in here 

no se moleste usted, seiiora. (please) do not trouble, madam 

no lo tomen ustedes a mal, do not take it ill 

no se vayan ustedes tan pronto, do not go so soon 

In exclamations, and irony : 
j bendita sea ! God bless her ! 

\ ojala suceda pronto ! Oh, that it may happen soon ! 

no creas, que a mf no me importa, believe me, I do not care 
no lo hagas, que ya te arrepen- do not do it, and you will repent 
tiras, 

In expressing possibility, contingency, or doubt : 
quiza venga manana, perhaps he may come to-morroic 

se lo dire cuando lo vea, / will tell him when I see him 

no se" si vaya, 6 no vaya, / do not know whether to go or not 



100 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 



In dependent sentences, after verbs of command, wish, fear, 
and sorroiv, with que in the Present, or Future of Indicative, 
or in the Imperative : 



deseo que se diviertan ustedes 

mucho, 

temo que no lleguemos a tiempo, 
siento mucho que no este usted 

bueno, 

sentire que ustedes se molesten, 
mande usted que me traigan un 

coche de punto, 



/ wish you may enjoy yourselves 



I am afraid we shall not be in time 
I am very sorry you are not well 

I shall be sorry if you trouble 
tell them to bring me a cab 



REMARK. Verbs of command or wish may be suppressed : 
que entre, ask him to come in 

que se divierta usted mucho, enjoy yourself 

FUTURE IMPERFECT. It is always subordinate to another 
sentence either expressed or understood and differs from 
the forms in -ra, -se, in that it is never used except to express 
future actions that cannot be foreseen. It does not necessarily 
require the conjunction si, and in accordance with its char- 
acter it never depends on any Past Tense, but on a Present, 
Future, or Imperative : 



yo puedo tratar a mi hijo como 

quisiere, 
sea lo que fuere, y venga lo que 

viniere, 
del que abatieres seras abor- 

recido, 
se hara cuanto usted ordenare, 

el hombre ha de dar cuenta de lo 

que hiciere, 
cuando pudieres hacer bien, 

hazlo, 
si alguien os pidiere consejo, 

dad el mejor, 
al que leyere, 



/ can treat my son as I may think 

fit 
be what may, and come what will 

you will be hated by anyone you 

may put down 
all that you may command will be 

done 
man must one day give an account 

of what he has done 
ivhen you can do good, do it 

if any ask advice, give your best 
to the one who may read 



FUTURE CONDITIONAL, PAST IMPERFECT, AND PAST 
ANTERIOR. The forms in -ara, -ase, -(i)era, -(i)ese, are but 
the apocopated Latin forms of the Pluperfects of the Indica- 
tive and of the Subjunctive (compare laudarunt, laudilsse, for 
laudaverunt, laudavisse ; delerunt, delesse, for deleverunt, 
delevisse ; and audisti, audisse, for audivisti, audivisse), in- 
troduced in the Spanish language. But as Spanish Plu- 
perfects were formed by means of the Imperfect of haber, 



USE OF THE TENSES. SIMPLE TENSES. 101 

and a Past Participle, the Latin ones were preserved to be 
used as depending Pluperfects and therefore as forms of the 
Subjunctive. Hence their double nature, as pasts and as 
futures, which accounts for their employment, i.e. : 

With the second of two connected sentences, ivhen the first, 
has a verb in any Past Tense followed by que. 

me escribio que le mandara unos he wrote to me to send him some 

libros, books 

a vise al librero qne se los en- / ordered the bookseller to send 

viase, them to him 

With either the second or first sentence, either in contrast 
with the Conditional of Indicative (in -ria) in which case 
they are used in the protasis, and are preceded by the 
conjunction si (if) or witli a sentence depending on such 
conditional. 

lo haria, si pudiese, / would do it, if I could 

si usted viniera, no saldria, if you were to come, I would not go 

out 

desearia que me lo dijese usted, / should like you to tell me 
podria ser que lo tuviese, it might be that he had it 

Thus, in simple, exclamatory sentences (especially pre- 
ceded by quien), or in elliptical sentences (preceded by con- 
junction) involving ideas of request, possibility, or suggestion : 

\ quien fuera rico ! oh ! that I were rich ! 

\ ojala pudiera verle ! oh ! that I could see him ! 

si supiera que no tardaba, if I knew that he would not le late 

I y si no estuviese en casa ? supposing he was not at home ? 

With either compound, or elliptical sentences, depending 
on the conjunctional comparative como si : 

parece como si se oyese ruido, it seems as if I heard a noise 
hablo como si fuese por usted, he spoke as if he meant you 
\ como si yo fuese tan necio ! as though I were so stupid ! 

REMARKS. 1 . Sometimes, especially in a series of sentences 
depending on a verb on any past time, or on the Conditional 
of the Indicative, both the form -ra and -se are found together, 
or either of them repeated : 

le dije que viniese hoy, y comiera / asked him to come to-day and 

con nosotros, dine with us 

como no fuera que no lo enten- unless the fact were he did not 

diese, understand it 



102 USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 

bien podria ser que estuviese it might be that he was ill, and 

enfermo, y no viniese por esa that was why he did not come 
razon, 

me escribio que le viera a usted, he wrote, to me to see you, and tell 

y se lo dijera, you 

2. Both the forms -ra and -se are employed in the place 
of their corresponding compound ones in elliptical sentences, 
either with or without que, as follows : 

que hiciera lo que se le mando, he should have done what he was 

told 
no tuviese tanto orgullo, he should not be so proud 

3. The form in -ra, but not that in -se, is used in some 
special cases instead of the Conditional of the Indicative, 
especially with ser, deber, poder, and querer : 

jurara yo que es verdad, I would swear that it is true 

eso fuera facil de saber, that would be an easy thing to know 

debiera decirlo el, he should have said it 

quisiera salir de dudas, / wish I could know the truth 

NOTE : quisiera is used more generally ; querria, in 
requests : 

quisiera que me hiciese usted un I should like you to do me a favour 

favor, 
j querrfa usted prestarme un Would you lend me a book ? 

libro ? 



USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 
(INDICATIVE.) 

PAST PERFECT. It being formed of a past and a present, 
expresses : 

A past which, by being only just past, is almost a present : 
ha sucedido ahi, que corre What has happened there, that 



la gente ? people are running so ? 

Ha pasado una desgracia, there has been an accident 

A past which is within a period of time considered an 
present : 

hoy he estado muy ocupado, / have been very busy to-day 

este mes ha hecho mucho calor, this month has been very warm 

en nuestro siglo ha habido there have been many inventions in 

grandes inventos, this century 



USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 103 

A past still present in its consequences : 

se ha puesto usted palido, you have turned pale 

lo sabla, pero lo he olvidado, / knew it, but I have forgotten it 

A progressive past : 

el mundo ha sido siempre lo the world has always been the same 

misnio, 

aim no he sabido de el, / have not heard from him yet 

toda mi vida he dicho lo mismo, / have always said the same 

I por donde ha venido usted ? which way did you come ? 

nunca he conocido a nadie como I never kneiv a woman like her 

ella, 

The fact of a present being turned into a past, the effects 
remaining. It answers to the English question, HAVE YOU 
EVER . . . ? which in Spanish is set forth by means of the 
Present of the Indicative of haber, and a past participle : 

I ha estado usted en Paris ? have you ever been to Paris ? 

I han leido ustedes a Shake- have you ever read Shakespeare ? 

speare ? 

he estado en Paris, / have been in Paris 

hemos leido a Shakespeare, we have read Shakespeare 

EEMARK. The Past Perfect implies, in one way or another, 
the existence or continuance of the subject of the sentence, 
as may be gathered from the comparison between the fol- 
lowing examples : 

el Quijote se ha escrito en una Don Quixote was written in a 

carcel, and, prison 

Cervantes estuvo en una carcel, Cervantes was in prison 

Cervantes ha escrito el Don Qui- Cervantes wrote Don Quixote 

jote, and, 

Cervantes escribio el Don Cervantes wrote Don Quixote in 

Quijote en una carcel, prison 

FUTURE PERFECT. In general expresses, either (1) that 
something that has not yet happened will be an accomplished 
fact before another thing may happen, or (2) that something 
that is not known for certain has been, or will be, probably 
realised at a certain time. In the first case, it is almost 
always found in compound sentences in connection with a 
Present of Subjunctive : 

Para cuando 61 venga ya habr6 / shall be back by the time he comes 

yo vuelto, 

hoy habrdn llegado a Madrid, they must have arrived in Madrid 

to-day 



104 USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 

REMARKS. 1. By introducing a NO before the Future 
Perfect, the action is made subsequent to either the other 
action, or the time : 

no habrd yo vuelto para cuando / shall not be back by the time he 

e"l venga, returns 

no habran llegado hoy a Madrid, they cannot have arrived in Madrid 

to-day 

2. On account of the hypothetical character which the 
Future Imperfect joining the Participle may assume, the 
Future Perfect is also employed to express either suggestion, 
or doubt : 

no lo habra entendido usted bien, you cannot have understood it well 
i si habran llegado ? / wonder whether they have arrived 

COMPOUND CONDITIONAL. It refers to the completion of 
future actions, and expresses : 

Tliat something might have been, provided certain circum- 
stances or conditions had offered themselves. The sentence 
containing the condition is then preceded by a conjunction, 
and may either precede or follow, and have its verb either 
in the Compound Conditional of the Subjunctive, the Plu- 
perfect, or the Past Anterior : 

le habrian ayudado si pudiesen, they would have helped him if they 

could 

si se lo hubieran dicho, lo habria he would have done it, had they 
hecho, told him to 

Intense wish or inclination : 

habria dado la vida por ella, he would have given his life for her 

de buena gana le habria pegado, he would have liked to beat him 

Doubt, probability, suggestion : 

tal vez habria sido inutil, perhaps it would have been useless 

habrian estado, y no lo querrian they must have been, but did not 

decir, like to say so 

i no lo habria dejado usted en casa ? are you sure you have not left it at 

home ? 

REMARK. This form is a substitute for the Future Perfect 
in -re, in the same way as the simple Conditional in -ria is 
for the Future Imperfect in -re. Compare, 

cree que habran ido, he thinks that they must have gone 

afirma que le habra visto he affirms that he will see him, by 
inanana, to-morrow 



USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 105 

and, 

crey6 que habrian ido, he thought that they had gone 

afirmaba que le habria visto, he affirmed that he would have seen 

him 

PLUPERFECT. Expresses that something was taking, or had 
taken place, when some other thing occurred, or at a past time 
of which one is speaking. 

mientras fui, el se habia mar- while I was going, he had left 

chado, 

cuando llegue, ya no habia nadie, when I arrived, everybody was gone 

habia comprado un libro, he had bought a book 

REMARKS. 1. By introducing a NO before the Pluperfect 
the action may be even subsequent to the other action : 

no habia comprado el libro he had not bought the book when I 
cuando le vi, saw him 

2. With certain Past Participles involving duration, 
especially if followed by a Gerund, the Pluperfect assumes 
a progressive meaning : 

habiamos estado hablando de eso, we had been talking about that 
habia llovido todo el dia, it had been raining the whole day 

PAST ANTERIOR. Expresses that something occurred im- 
mediately before (not at the same time, or after) something 
else, which is considered as completed, or past. Hence it 
cannot, like the Pluperfect, be found with simple sentences, 
and even then it requires to be preceded by a conjunction, 
such as apenas, no bien, asi que, luego que, ya que, cuando. 

apenas lo hubo dicho, se arre- no sooner had he said it, than he 

pintio, repented 

asi que le hube visto. me volvi, as soon as I had seen him, I re- 
turned 



USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 
(SUBJUNCTIVE.) 

PAST PERFECT. It refers to the completion of actions, 
viewing them from the point of certain circumstances or con- 
ditions connected with them. Hence it appears in sentences 
expressive of doubt, fear, possibility, probability, and sugges- 
tion, and is almost always preceded by a conjunction : 



106 USE OF THE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSES. 

tal vez no haya sucedido nada, perhaps nothing has Jiapponed 

puede que hoy haya estado muy it may be he has been very 

ooupado, to-day 

no s6 de quo" me haya puesto / do not know why I have turned 

pdlido, pale 

\ como no haya venido por otro unless he has come another way ! 

camino ! 



REMARKS. 1. In accordance* both with its formation and 
the Moocl it belongs "to, it follows sucb tenses as Presents, 
Futures, and Imperatives : 

lo dudo, aunque el lo haya dicho, / doubt it, although he says it 

no vuelva usted que no le haya do^not return without having seen 

visto, him 

han venido sin que lo hayamos they have come without our know- 

sabido, ing it 

quizas me haya visto, y se lo ha perhaps he has seen me, and has 

contado, told him 

hagalo usted asi que haya con- do it as soon as you have finished 

cluido, 

luego que lo haya comprado, lo when I have bought, it, you will 

verd usted, see it 

en cuanto lo haya leido usted, return it to me, as soon as you have 

devuelvamelo, read it 

2. It is also used in denying any statement made (or 
supposed to be made) in the Perfect Past Indicative : 

no se quien lo haya hecho, 1 do not know who did it 

no hemos dicho que hayan estado, we did not say that they had been 

no lo sabe porque yo se lo haya he does not know it through my 
dicho, telling him 

FUTURE PERFECT. It refers to the completion of an action 
under the circumstances which are peculiar to the Future 
Imperfect of the Subjunctive. It is little used. 

COMPOUND CONDITIONAL, PLUPERFECT, AND PAST AN- 
TERIOR. They refer to the completion of an action, and 
express : 

The circumstances that would have been necessary , in order 
that something might or might not have happened (in which 
case si opens the sentence of the Conditional or Pluperfect) : 

si hubiera venido, se lo hubiera had he come, I would have told 

dicho, him 

feliz serf a, si hubiese how happy might he have been, if 

querido ! only he had wished 



USE OF THE MOODS. INFINITIVE. 107 

REMARK. If the main sentence contains a verb in the 
Future Imperfect, or Imperative, the conditional sentence 
assumes an idea of futurity : 

mandeselo listed, si no hubiera if Jte does not come to-day, send it 

venido hoy, to him 

si manana no hubiesen escrito, if by to-morrow they have not 

les telegrafiare, written, I will telegraph to them 

What 'would have or would not have happened under cer- 
tain circumstances (in which case the condition is contained 
in the main sentence) : 

hubieramos hecho bien en traer it would have been better if we had 

paraguas, brought an umbrella 

no lo hubiera creido si no lo I would not have believed it if I 

viese, had not seen it 

Sometimes, as a Subjunctive, it expresses wish, suggestion, 
or assumes the character of an exclamation, : 

; nunca lo hubiera creido ! I would never have believed it 

\ cuanto lo hubiese deseado ! how much I should have wished it 

i y si hubiesen salido mientras supposing they have gone out while 

vamos ? we go 

hubiera podido decirlo antes, he might have said so before 



USE OF THE MOODS. INFINITIVE. 
1. THE INFINITIVE AS A VERBAL NOUN. 

The Infinitive is used as a verbal noun in the masculine 
singular : 

(a) By itself (either as a subject, or as an attribute-word) : 

hablar demasiado perjudica, too much talking is against one 

ensenar es aprender, to teach is to learn 

REMARK. The Infinitive, followed by the word es (it is), 
forms an elliptical idiom, which serves to strongly emphasise 
or to call in question a previous statement : 

habla diez lenguas. Hablar ee, he speaks ten languages. You can 

call that speaking ! 

perdi6 cien mil duros en la he lost a hundred thousand dollars 
Bolsa. Perder es, on the Stock Exchange. That is 

rather a big loss 



108 USE OF THE MOODS. INFINITIVE. 

(b) With some parts of speech : 

el saber no ocupa lugar, knowledge is no hindrance 

lo hizo en un abrir y oerrar de lie did it in a twinkling 

ojos, 

su andar es elegante, her walk is very graceful 

aquel llorar partia el corazon, her weeping was heart-rending 

; qu padecer el suyo ! how much she suffered ! 

REMARK. The Infinitive, preceded by the contracted form 
of the article al, is used in Spanish to express circumstances 
of time, which are mostly rendered in English by the 
prepositions in, on, or the adverb ivhen, followed by the 
Gerund : 

al oirlo se asombro, he was astonished when he heard it 

se rompi6 el brazo al caer, in falling down, he broke his arm 

al salir le encontre, on coming out I met him 

2. THE INFINITIVE AS A MOOD : 

(a) Depending on certain substantives, adjectives, pronouns, 
and adverbs, in any case by means of a preposition : 

tuve el gusto de verle alii, I had the pleasure of seeing him 

there 

hagame usted el favor de salu- please remember me to him 

darle, 

es digno de verse, it is worth seeing- 

soy facil de contentar, / am easily pleased 

eso de comer siempre lo mismo, one gets tired of eating always the 

cansa, same thing 

vendre a ver & ustedes antes de / will come to say good-bye before 

marcharme, I go 

esta muy lejos de ser asi, it is far from being so 

(b) Depending on certain verbs ; i.e., with 

VERBS GOVERNING ONLY THE INFINITIVE : 

without any connecting word. With the following verbs, 
used either as active, impersonal, pronominal, or reflexive : 

deber, ought, must ; (also, ataner, corresponder, pertenecer, 

tocar, to be one's duty or turn) : 

eso es lo que debe usted hacer, that is what you must do (ought to 

do) 
lo hare porque me toca hacerlo, / will do it, because it is my duty 

to do it 



USE OF THE MOODS. INFINITIVE. 109 

poder, can, to be able ; (also osar, to dare) : 

no puedo ir, / cannot go 

os6 contestarme que no era ver- he dared to reply me that it was not 
dad, true 

acostumbrar, soler, to use (to be wont to) ; also estilarse (to 
be in fashion), and llamarse (to call) : 

suelo pasar los veranos en el ex- / generally spend my summers 

tranjero, abroad 

acostumbra volver tarde, he generally returns late 

eso se llama tener sentido comun, that is what I call having common 

sense 

dignarse and servirse (to be pleased), as reflexive only : 

se digna aceptar la invitacion, he is (graciously] pleased to accept 

the invitation 
sirvase usted tomar asiento, please take a chair 

by means of a preposition, a, de, en, por : generally after 
the following verbs, either as active, impersonal, pronominal, 
or reflexive : 

comenzar and empezar (to begin) echar, echarse, poner, 
ponerse (to put, to set oneself to, to begin) : 

comienza a llover, it begins to rain 

he empezado a aprender el es- / have begun to learn Spanish 

panol, 
empiezo por decir que tiene usted first of all I must say that you are 

razon, right 

nos pusimos a hablar, we began to talk 

ella se echd a llorar, she began to cry 

REMARK. dar (to give) and echar (to throiv) are followed 
by the preposition de when joining verbs of 'eating and 
drinking ' : 

da de comer a muchos pobres, she feeds many poor people 
echele usted de beber al perro, give the dog something to drink 

acabar, terminar, concluir (to finish, to have just . . .); dejar 
(to fail, leave off, discontinue) ; cesar (to cease) : 

acabo de saberlo, I have just heard of it 

concluyo por confesarlo, he ended by confessing it 

no dejd de llover en todo el dia, it kept on raining the whole day 

no cesa de entrar y salir, he keeps on coming in and out 



110 USE OF THE MOODS. INFINITIVE. 

ir (to go), and venir (to come), when used in a figurative sense 
not implying motion : 

no voy 6. poder salir este verano, / shall not be able to go away this 

summer 
todo viene & ser lo mlamo, it all comes to the same 

tardar (to be late), retrasarse (to be behindhand with) \ 

tardara en venir, he will be late in coming 

se retrasd en hacerlo, he ivas behindhand with it 

ser, to be, as impersonal, in phrases followed by the preposi- 
tion de : 

es de esperar, it is to be hoped 

era de temer, it was to be feared 

haber, to have (obligation, personal) : 

he de hacerlo, / must do it 

usted es quien ha de decirlo, you are the one that must say it 

by means of the relative conjunction que : 

haber, to have (obligation, impersonal) : 

hay que hacerlo, it must be done 

hubo que decirselo, he had to be told 

tener, to have (to be obliged to) : 

tengo que irme manana, I must go to-morrow 

tenia que pedirle a usted un I was going to ask you a favour 
favor, 

dar, to give, in idiomatic sentences : 

su conducta da que decir, his behaviour gives cause for 

censure 
eso me da que pensar, that makes me very anxious 

3. COMPOUND INFINITIVE. 

It expresses the completion of an action, irrespective of 
any time or person, and in general it is found : 



As a subject, preceded or not by the definite article : 

no era necessario haberlo dicho, it was not necessary to have s 
el haber insistido estuvo de mas, it was needless to have insiste 

le vali6 el haber tenido dinero, his having money saved him 



USE OF THE MOODS. INDICATIVE. Ill 

As an object, depending on a verb, either directly or by 
means of a preposition, or conjunction, or adverb : 

pueden haber llegado hoy, they may have arrived to-day 

declara no haber sido el, he declares that it was not he 

vendra despues de haber comido, he will come after dinner 

& no haber hablado, no le re- had he not spoken, I should not 

conozco, have recognised him 

no entro por haber pasado ya la he did not come in, as it was late 
hora, 

USE OF THE MOODS. INDICATIVE. 

1. As AN INDEPENDENT MOOD : 

In statements, questions, and exclamations : 

liace mucho frf o, it is very cold 

ayer le vi, / saw him yesterday 

vendran, they will come 

I que dia es hoy ? what is to-day ? (day of the week, 

etc.) 

I cuando file" eso ? when was that ? 

i Iran ? will they go ? 

\ que" bien canta ! how well she (he) sings ! 

\ cuanto frlo hara manana ! how cold it will be to-morrow ! 

2. As A DEPENDENT MOOD : 
In compound sentences, depending on : 

Verbs of certitude, belief, etc. : 

se que han llegado, I know that they have arrived 

creyo que usted se equivocaba, he thought you were mistaken 

comprenderemos que no quieren we shall understand that they do 
hacerlo, not care to do it 

Verbs denoting the general way of stating a fact, either in 
writing or in speaking : 

digo que han llegado, / say they have arrived 

manifesto que usted se equivo- he stated that you were mistaken 

caba, 

demostraremos que no quieren we will show that they do not care 

hacerlo, to do it 

Verbs implying a very strong assertion : 

aseguro que han llegado, / affirm that they have arrived 

sostuvo que usted se equivocaba, he maintained that you were 

mistaken 

afirmaremos que no quieren we will affirm that they do not care 
hacerlo, to do it 



USE OF THE MOODS. IMPERATIVE. 

Verbs generally in the Indicative, followed by porque to 
explain the actual reason of an action ; 

lo hice porque me lo dijeron, / did it because they told me to 

le adulan porque tiene dinero, they flatter him because he lias 

money 

GENERAL REMARK. If any one of the above ruling verbs 
is preceded by a negative, no, nunca, jamas, nada, the 
dependent verb is placed in the Subjunctive : 

no Be que hayan llegado, / do not know that they have 

arrived 
nunca manifesto que usted se he never stated that you were 

eqtiivocase, mistaken 

jamas afirmaremos que no quieran we shall never affirm that they do 

hacerlo, not care to do it 

nada hice porque me lomandaran, it was not because I was (old that 

I did it 



USE OF THE MOODS. IMPERATIVE. 

The Imperative is used : 
In exhortations, commands, and requests, PROVIDED THEY 

ARE NOT MADE IN A NEGATIVE FORM I 

ama a Dios sobre todas las cosas, love God above all things 

honrad a los ancianos, honour the old 

dejame solo, leave me alone 

traigame usted el periodico, bring me the paper 

salid de aqui, go out at once 

sfganme ustedes, follow me 

pienselo usted bien, think it over well 

quedese usted a comer con stay and dine with us 

nosotros, 

estoy muy ocupado, cre'anlo I am, believe me, very busy 

ustedes, 

In expressing intense passion, or irony : 

\ muere, traidor ! die, traitor ! 

caete al mar, y te ahogas, fall into the sea, and you will get 

drowned 

si, sf, burlense ustedes, yes, yes, make fun if you like 

eso es, Rename la culpa, that is it, blame me 

REDUNDANT IMPERATIVE : 

mira, a ml no me digas eso, look here, do not tell me that 

j anda, anda, y que mentiras esta Well ! what lies he is telling 
diciendo ! 



USE OF THE MOODS. SUBJUNCTIVE. 113 

IMPERATIVE SUPPRESSED : 
depending on verbs of command : 

ea, & lavaros, now then, go and wash yourselves 

Senores viajeros, al tren, Gentlemen, take your seats 



USE OF THE MOODS. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

to show indifference : 

(a) as to any person or thing (in conjunction with relative 
pronouns) : 

sea el que fuere, whoever it may be 

sea lo que sea, whatever it may be 

mande quien mande, command who may 

inande lo que mande, no matter what he commands 

digalo quien lo diga, whoever may say it 

digan lo que dijeren, say what they may 

suceda lo que suceda, whatever may happen 

N.B. Querer may be a substitute for the repeated verb : 

sea el que quiera, or sea el que quisiere, 
sea lo que quiera, or lo que quisiere, 
mande quien quiera, or quien quisiere, 
mande lo que quiera, or lo que quisiere, 
digalo quien quiera, or quien quisiere, 
digan lo que quieran, or lo que quisieren, 
suceda lo que quiera, 

(b) as to one of two contrary things (with the conjunction 
que or ya repeated, or with the disjunctive 6, followed by 
no) : 

que venga que no venga, } 

ya venga, ya no venga, > whether he comes or not 

venga 6 no venga, ) 

que lloviese que no lloviese, "J 

ya lloviese, ya no lloviese, [ whether it rained or not 

lloviese 6 no lloviese, 

N.B. The second verb may be suppressed : 

que venga que no, or ya venga, ya no, or venga 6 no, 
que lloviese que no, or ya lloviese, ya no, or lloviese 6 no, 

(c) as to a single fact (depending on a conditional sentence 
with si, and the Indicative) : 

si viene, que venga, if he comes, let him come 

si Uoviere, que llueva, if it rain, let it rain 

PT. II. H 



114 USE OF THE MOODS. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

in reproaching (preceded or not by que) : 

que sea bueno, y le querran, let him be good, then they will love 

him 
(que) no dijera lo que dijo, he should not have said what he. 

said 
(que) no sea tan confiado, why is he so confident ? 

after quien or que, either relative or conjunction (in sen- 
tences in which the relative or conjunction refers to an idea 
which is denied, doubted, or questioned) : 

no hay una persona a quien el there is not a single person he does 

no conozca. not know 

dudo que sea verdad, / doubt whether it is true 

I sabia usted que el lo hubiese did you know that he had said so ? 

dicho ? 

in general, in conjunction with que, whenever doubt, ignor- 
ance of a fact, contingency, or possibility are implied, 
especially if the dependent verb has a subject of its own : 

dudo que lo sepa, / doubt whether he knows it 

ignoraba que lo hubiese dicho, I was ignorant of his having said so 

puede que este enfermo, it tnay be that he is ill 

dependera del tiempo que haga, it will depend what weather it is 

in compound interrogator y sentences when the dependent 
one is an open question (in conjunction with que) : 

I hay alguno que sepa donde is there any one that knows where 

vive ? he lives ? 

I hay alguien que ponga eso en 'is there anybody who doubts it ? 

duda? 

in exclamatory sentences, either to express a wish, most 
often with ; ojala ! or to denote astonishment : 

\ ojala venga ! oh, that he would come ! 

; ojala fuese cierto ! oh, that it might be true ! 

tenga yo salud, lo demas no me as long as I am in health I do not 

importa, care 

supieralo yo, y no iria, if 1 knew it, 2 would not go 

i que se atreva a decir semejante the idea, to dare tosay such a thing! 

cosa ! 

in general, preceded by que, after verbs expressing (a) 
suggestion, advice, request, entreaty, or (b) permission^ 
conformity, tolerance, prohibition, opposition, blame, etc. :..* 

propongo que vayamos, / suggest that we go 

le aconsejo a usted que vea al I advise you to goandseetJSjfclocior 

medico, 

suplico a usted que me dispense, / beg you to excuse me 



USE OF THE MOODS. SUBJUNCTIVE. 



115 



le encargaron que no lo olvidase, 

i me permite usted que le haga 

una pregunta ? 
le consintieron que fuera, 
no le tolerare que lo haga, 
nos habfan prohibido que salie- 



they recommended Mm not to for- 
get it 
will you allow me to ask you a 

question ? 

they allowed him to go 
I will not allow him to do it 
they had forbidden vis to go out 



after impersonal expressions, provided they do not imply 
positive certainty, nor are used with the verb decir, unless used 
in a negative meaning : 



es lastima que tenga ese defecto, 
es probable que lo sepa, 
conviene que usted le vea, 

N.B.Cf.: 

se dice que esta enfermo, 
no se dice que este enfermo, 
es cierto que ha venido, 
no es cierto que haya venido, 

after sin que : 

lo hizo sin que nadie le viese, 
sin que eso se pruebe, no se le 
debe condenar, 

after any of the following conjunctions or phrases : 



it is a pity he has that fault 
it is probable that he knows it 
it is important that you should sec 
him 



they say he is ill 

they do not say he is ill 

it is true he has come 

it is not true that he has come 



lie did it without any body seeing 'him 
he cannot be condemned, unless that 
is 



a condicion de on condition that 

que, 
a fin de que, in order that, so 

that 
a menos que, unless 



como si, or cual as if 

si, 

con tal que, provided that 
cuando quiera whenever 

que, 



a no ser que, 

puede que, 
puede ser que, 
tal vez, 
antes que, 
caso que, 


unless 

y perhaps 

before 
assuming that, 
provided 


dado que, assuming thai, 
provided that 
en caso de que, in case that 
mas que, even if 
ni que, not even if 
no sea que, \ / / 
no fuese que, j Le 



se lo presto a usted a condicion 

que me lo devuelva, 
a fin de que usted lo vea, 
a fin de que llegue pronto, 
a me" nos que no lo haya recibido, 
a no ser que se haya perdido, 
antes que me vaya, vendre a 

despedirme, 



I lend it to you, on condition ///"/ 

you return it to me 
in order tJiat you may see it 
-so that he may arrive soon 
unless fie has not received it 
unless it has got lost 
before I go, Twill come to say good- 



116 



USE OF THE MOODS. SUBJUNCTIVE. 



con tal que no lo diga nsted, se 

lo contare, 
caso que lo pida, deselo usted, 

en caso de que no le viese, le 

escribire, 
mas que el lo asegure, no lo creo, 

ni que asi fuese, 

me voy no sea que llegue tarde, 

escribale usted, no fuese que 

estuviese enfermo, 
puede que fuese cierto, 
puede que no lo sepa, 
sin que el lo diga lo creere, 

antes que el venga, estareyoaqui, 
after any of the following 



I will tell you, provided you do not 

reveat it 
in case he should ask for it, give it 

to him 
in case I should not see him, I 

would write to him 
in spite of his affirming it, I do 

not believe it 

even if such were the case 
I am going, lest I should be late 
you write to him, lest he might be 

ill 

may be it was true 
perhaps he does not know it 
I will believe it, without his telling 

it 
I will be here before he comes 

conjunctions or phrases, when 



possibility, uncertainty, contingency, or indefinite futurity are 



as soon as 
as soon an 
although 
although 
as if, 



al punto que, 

apenas, 

aunque, 

bien que, 

como, 

como quiera que, as, since 

cuando, when 

al punto que den las doce, 
apenas venga, se lo dire, 
no lo creere aunque el me 

diga, 

como no este enfermo vendra, 
cuando venga, digale usted que 

entre, 

hasta que lo vea no lo creere, 
mientras haga este tiempo habra 

enfermedades, 
supuesto que le vea, se lo dire, 



hasta que, 
hasta donde, 
luego que, 
mientras, 
siempre que, 
supuesto que, 



until 
as far as 
as soon as 
so long as 
provided 
provided 



that, 



lo 



supposing thai 

on the stroke of twelve 

as soon as he comes I will tell him 

I will not believe it although he 

says so 

provided he is not ill, he will come 
when he arrives, ask him to come in 

I will not believe it, until 1 see it 
as long as this weather lasts, there 

will be illnesses 
I will tell him, provided that I see 

him 



REMARK. As to the use of certain prepositions and 
adverbs, either with indicative, or with the subjunctive, see 
CONJUNCTIONS and ADVERBS. 



VERBS WITH EITHER THE INFINITIVE OR 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

verbs denoting wish, hope, admiration, or their contraries, 
doubt, fear, surprise, or sorrow, are constructed with the 



VERBS WITH EITHER INFINITIVE OR SUBJUNCTIVE. 11' 



Infinitive when the subject of the sentence is practically the 
name ; otherwise, with que and the subjunctive : 



espero ir, 
quisiera verle, 



/ hope to go 

I wish to see him 



nos admiro ha- we were sur- 
llarle, prised to meet 

him 

me alegro de I am very happy 
verle a listed, to see you 



dudo 



tener / doubt whether 



tiempo, 

temiamos llegar 
tarde, 

sintio no verle, 



1 have time 
we were afraid 

we should be 

late 
he was sorry not 

to see him 



espero que vaya, 
quisiera que me 

viese, 
nos admiro que 

nos hallase, 

me alegro deque 

usted me lo 

diga, 
dudo que tengan 

tiempo, 
temiamos que 

llegarian tarde 

sintio que no le 
viesemos, 



/ hope he will go 
I wish he could 



we were sur- 
prised that he 
should meet us 

lam very pleased 
you tell me so 

I doubt whether 

they have timf 
we were afraid 
, that they would 

be late 
he was sorry Wf. 

did not see 

him 



REMARK. Verbs of " commanding " and " ordering" 
"offering" and "promising" are constructed either with the 
Infinitive or the Subjunctive, irrespective of any subject : 



le ordenaron ir, or que fuese, 
mando poner, or que le pusieran, 

el coche, 
me he mandado hacer, or he 

mandado que me hagan, un 

traje, 
nos encargaron hacerlo, or que 

lo hicieramos, 

ofrecio hacerlo, or que lo haria, he offered to do it 
prometf mandarselo, or que se lo 

mandaria, 
nos dio palabra de venir, or de 

que vendria, 



they ordered him to go 

he asked them, to get the carriage 

ready for him 
I have ordered a suit 



they asked us to do it 



I promised to send it to him 

he gave us his word that he would 
come 



N.B. With saber, to know, the meaning is totally 
different, according as the Infinitive or the Subjunctive w 
used, cf. : 

se hacerlo, I know how to do it 

se que lo hago, I know that I am doing it 

s6 que 61 lo hace (never se" hacerlo / kncno he is doing it 
el), 

impersonal verbs denoting convenience, importance, or 
necessity, as well as impersonal sentences with ser, and 
adjectives expressive of convenience, importance, or necessity, 



118 VERBS WITH EITHER INFINITIVE OR SUBJUNCTIVE. 



are constructed with the Infinitive when the dependent verb Iwx 
no subject of its own ; otherwise, with the Subjunctive, cf. : 

it is necessary to do it 

it is necessary that it be done, or 

that some one does it 
it is important to know it 
it is important that it be known, or 

that some one know it 
it must be bought 
some one must buy it 



que 



lo 



(a) conviene hacerlo, 
conviene que se haga, or que 

alguien lo haga, 
importa saberlo, 
importa que se sepa, 

alguien lo sepa, 
se necesita comprarlo, 
se necesita que alguien 

compre, 

(b) es conveniente hacerlo, 

es conveniente que se haga, or que alguien lo haga, 

es importante saberlo, 

es importante que se sepa, or que alguien lo sepa, 

es necesario comprarlo, 

es necesario que se compre, or que alguien lo compre, 

es menester comprenderlo, 

es menester que se comprenda, or que alguien lo comprenda, 

or pronominally : 

(a) me conviene hacerlo, que se haga, or que alguien lo haga, 
me importa saberlo, que se sepa, or que alguien lo sepa, 

etc. 

(b) me es conveniente hacerlo, que se haga, or que alguien lo haga, 
me es importante saberlo, que se sepa, or que alguien lo sepa, 

N.B. The same is the case with oth.er impersonal sentences 
ii'ith ser in conjunction with certain substantives or adjectives, 
provided they do not imply positive certainty, in which case 
they are used with the Indicative : 



es justo, es injusto, 

es un dolor, es doloroso, 
es un placer, es agradable, 
es posible, 
es lastima, 

es lastima perder el tiempo, 
es lastima que se pierda el 
tiempo, 

Of.: 

es cierto que esta enfermo, 
esseguroque estaraparamanana, 



es verdad queestuvoen el teatro, 

and 

no es cierto que este enfermo, 

no es seguro que este para manana, 

no es verdad_que estuviese en el teatro, 



it is just (right), it is unjust (uof 

right) 

it is pitiful, it is a pity 
it is a pleasure, it is plea* ml 
it is possible 
it is a pity 

it is a pity to waste time 
it is a pity that time should be 

wasted 



it is true that he is ill 
it is sure that it will be ready to- 
morrow 
it is true that he was at the theatre 



USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 119 

USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 

ITS FORMATION. Spanish Gerunds are generally formed 
by changing the Infinitive ending, *>., -ar into -ando, -er, -ir, 
into -iendo, uninflected : 

hablaudo, aprendiendo, viviendo 

N.B. i of the Gerund ending, between two sounding 
vowels, becomes y : 
cayendo, leyendo, oyendo, huyendo, arguyendo ; but siguiendo 

ITS NATURE. The Spanish Gerund is not as in English 
a verbal noun ; hence it cannot be used as a subject, or as 
an object, nor with a preposition. The Infinitive is used 
instead, mostly without the article, i.e. : 

(a) as a subject : 

(el) viajar es muy agradable, travelling is very pleasant 

(el) montar a caballo es un ejer- riding is a healthy exercise 
cicio saludable, 

(b) as an object : 

with verbs of "liking" and "disliking," "intending," 

"thinking," "insisting," and "objecting" : 

me gusta remar, I like reiving 

piensa ir, or tiene intencion de ir, he intends going 
insisto en hacerlo, / insist on doing it 

N.B. 

se opone a que yo lo haga, he objects to my doing if, 

with verbs of " seeing," "hearing," and " remembering" : 

la vi venir, / saw her coming 

I se lo oyo usted decir ? did you hear her saying so ? 

recuerdo haberlo leido, 1 remember reading it 

(c) depending on prepositions : 

lo hizo sin pensar, he did it ivithout thinking 

fue despedido por hacerlo, he was dismissed for doing it 

REMARK. The Spanish Gerund is constructed with the 
preposition en in a sequence of two co-ordinate sentences, 
when that of the Gerund expresses an accomplished fact 
immediately prior in time to the other : 

Relations of time, as well as those of cause and effect, are 
thus expressed, i.e, : 



120 USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 

en volviendo lo hare\ as soon as I return I will do it 

en acabando de comer fuma un on finishing dinner he smokes a 

cigarrillo, cigarette 

en vie"ndole se alegra, as soon as he sees him, he is pleased 

en perdiendo una ilusibn, se -when one loses an illusion, they all 

pierden todas, go 

en aborreciendo & alguien, ya no when one hates any person, one sees 

se le ven virtudes, no virtue in him 

N.B. en followed by the Gerund with the verb repeated 
serves to emphasize promptitude : 
en volviendo que vuelva lo hare", as soon as I return I will do it 

ITS SIGNIFICATION. The Gerund possesses both the 
governing power and the signification of the Infinitive. It 
often assumes an adverbial meaning : 

estdn llamandole a listed, they are calling you 

ibamos andando por la calle, we were going along the street 

estaba pensando en eso, / was thinking about it 

volviendo del teatro, los vi, on coming from the theatre, 1 saw 

them 

ayer estuve hablando con 61, / was speaking to him yesterday 

vuelva nsted volando, return at once 

REMARKS. (1) The Gerund of haber may be used both 
as auxiliary and transitive : 

habiendolo dicho, se fue, having said this, he left 

habiendo salud, hay alegria, where there is health, there is 



(2) No Gerund in Spanish may immediately follow its 
own verb, as happens with the English to be : 

se me dice, or estd diciendo, or I am being told 

me han dicho, 
le estan llamando, or se le estd he is being catted 

llamando, 

N.B. In a series : 

siendo esto asf, como lo es, this being the case 

no lo ae", y no sabie"ndolo no / do not know, and therefore cannot 

puedo decirlo, say 

listed lo ofrecid, y ofrecie'ndolo you promised, and having promised 

lo ha de hacer, you must do it 

(3) Two or three Gerunds may sometimes be used together, 
provided the first involves progression : 

estando dicie'ndole esto, while telling him this 

hallandome viendo el museo, while visiting the museun 

yendo andando por la calle, going along the street 

estando cantando, aprendiendo while singing and learning a song 
una romanza, 



USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 121 

NOTE. The Pronoun-objects me, te, se, le, nos, os, les, 
when used in conjunction with the Gerund, are always 
subjoined. (See " Position of the Pronoun-object.") 

ITS USE. (a) In simple sentences : The Spanish Gerund, 
denoting a progressive action, is never used with ser, to be ; 
but with estar, to be, and like verbs, as well as verbs of 
motion : 

with estar it implies continuity of an action, also dura- 
tion : 

he estadoescribiendounascartas, I have been writing some letters 
nos estan mirando, they are looking at us 

estan llamando a la puerta, they are knocking at the door 

I en que" esta listed pensando ? what are you thinking about ? 

N.B. Hence the Gerund cannot be used with estar in 
expressing instantaneous actions. 

with verbs similar to estar, such as tener, to have, to keep ; 
detenerse, to stop ; entretenerse, to amuse one's self, to 
loiter about ; hallarse, encontrarse, to find one's self; 
quedarse, to remain, to stop, the signification of the Gerund 
varies according to the ruling verb : 

me tuvo aguardandole media he kept me waiting for half-an-hour 

hora, 

le tienen estudiando en Oxford, they have him studying at Oxford 

nos detuvimos mirando unos we stopped to look at some books 

libros, 

se entretienen remando, they amuse themselves rowing 

se lialla viajando, he is travelling at present 

me quede" leyendo, / remained (there) reading 

with verbs of motion, such as andar, to walk about, to go ; 
ir, to go ; venir, to come ; seguir, proseguir , continuar, to 
go on, it denotes either progressive or simultaneous actions in 
certain idiomatic phrases : 

ando buscando a un amigo, lam looking for a friend 

andan buscando una cuestion, they are trying to pick a quarrel 
siempre anda hablando de he is always talking politics 

polftica, 

se va haciendo tarde, it is getting late 

ibamos diciendo lo mismo, we were (coming along) saying that 

very thing 
4 C6mo estd listed ? Vamos how are you ?well, middling (lit. 

pasando, we keep going on) 

venfamos hablando de usted, we were (coming along) talking 

about you 



122 USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 

viene hablandose de eso hace that thing has been spoken of for a 

mucho tiempo, long time 

siguid hablando, pero no le he went on talking, but nobody took 

hicieron caso, any notice of him 

I C6mo esta su mania de usted ? Hmo is your mother ? She is im- 

Sigue mejorando, mil gracias, proving, thank you 

Note how the following English forms are translated : 

to be going, ir to begin laughing, empezar a reir 

to be forgetting, olvidarse to start running, echarse a correr 

to be looking, parecer / cannot help no puedo menos 
to be wanting, faltar thinking, de pensar 

(b) In compound sentences : On account of its indefinite 
signification, the Gerund is always used in conjunction with 
a verb either expressed or understood in a finite mood, 
and denotes an action almost always previous to, or simul- 
taneous with, that of the principal verb : 

to denote cause, reason why (equivalent to since, for, 
because) : 

creyendo que estaria usted fuera, I did not go to your hpitse, as I 
no fui a su casa, thought you were away 

he venido ahora sabiendo que / have come now, because I knew 
estaba V. en casa, you were in 

to express means, manner (equivalent to the English l>y, 
thus, or some adverbial form) : 

usted me honra visitando mi you do me an honour, visiting my 

pobre casa, humble home 

intento saberlo ofreciendole he tried to get to know it by bribing 

dinero, him 

le mostrare a usted que no le 1 will show you that 1 do not forget 

olvido, escribiendole, you by writing to you 

to denote conditionality (if, provided) : 

sabie"ndolo el uno, lo sabe el otro, if one knows it, the other knows it 

prometiendo usted callarlo, se / will tell you, provided you 

lo dire", promise not to repeat it 

le vere a usted maiiaiia, no / will see you to-morrow, unless if, 

lloviendo, rains 

to express strong assertion (even if, in spite of) : 

no lo dira, pidie"ndoselo su mejor he will not say it, even if his best 

amigo, friend should ask him 

lo hare impidie"ndolo todos, / shall do it, even if all would 

prevent me 



USE OF THE MOODS. GERUND. 123 

to denote circumstances of time, or any lapse of time, in 
connection with the accomplishment of certain facts (equiva- 
lent to ivhen, while, etc.) : 

reinando los Reyes Catolicos, se America was discovered during the 

descubrio America, reign of the Catholic monarchs 

escribiendo yo una carta, entro he. came in while I was writing a 

el, letter 

entrando nosotros, salian ellos, when we went in, they were leaving 

REMARKS. (1) In a few cases, with verbs conveying the 
idea of posteriority, the Gerund may denote an action subse- 
quent to that of the principal verb : 

dijo que me recibiria, anadiendo he said he would receive me, 

que me escribiria el dia y la adding that he would ivrifc day 

hora, and hour 

y me despedi, acabando por and I bid him farewell, end-in y //// 

desearle un feliz viaje, wishing him a good jour /if >/ 

(2) At times the Gerund expresses consequence,' not 
cause, but unless this be apparent, an adverb or phrase must 
be introduced to avoid ambiguity : 

Colon descubrio America, exten- Columbus discovered America, thus 

diendo losdominios de Espana, enlarging the dominions of Spain 

vencio a los Portugueses en Toro, he defeated the Portuguese at Toro, 

vengando asi el desastre de thus avenging the disaster at 

Aljubarrota, Aljubarrota 

recibieron de el favores, olvi- they received many favours from 

dandole luego, him, then forgot him 

(c) In narratives, used absolutely, either to introduce a 
sentence, or to complete a previous one : 

la noche cayendo, los ruidos the night falling, all noises ceasing, 

cesando, todo parecia sombra everything appealed shadow and 

y misterio, mystery 

tal era el cuadro alii : el amena- such was the picture there : he 

zando, ella llorando, los threatening, she crying, and the 

chiquillos gritando, children screaming 

(d) A few Gerunds are used with an adverbial meaning, 
and may take the form of diminutives : 

hagalo usted corriendo, do it at once 

volver6 volando, / will return at once 

ese las mata callando, he does things on the quiet 

entro muy callandito, he came in very quietly 

vuelva usted corriendito, come back at once, please 



124 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



Note how the following English phrases are rendered : 



in drinking 'water, care should be 

taken that it be pure, 
in comparing Spain with England, 



al beber agua debe tenerso 
cuidado de que sea pura 

al comparar a Espana con Ingla 
terra 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

ITS FORMATION. Spanish present participles are formed 
by changing the Infinitive ending, i.e., -ar into -ante ; -er, -ir 
into -iente : 

amar, amante ; nacer, naciente ; vivir, viviente 
REMARKS. The following change -er, -ir into -ente : 



ceder, 
anteceder, 

exceder, 
preceder, 



to yield, to assign 
to precede, to 

forego 
to exceed 
to precede 



el cedente, 
antecedente, 

excedente, 
precedente, 



the assigner 
previous, ante 
cedent 



proceder, 


to proceed 


procedente, 


proceeding from, 








coming from, 


sobreexceder, 


to surpass 


sobreexcedente, 


surpassing 


expeler, 


to expel, to eject 


expelente, 


ejecting 


impeler, 


to impel 


impelente, 


impelling 


repeler, 


to repel 


repelente, 


repelling 


poner, 


to put, to place 


ponente, 


reporter (of a 








committee) 


componer, 


to mend 


componente, 


component 


exponer, 


to apply 


el exponente, 


the applicant 


imponer, 


to deposit 


el imponente, 


the depositor 


proponer, 


to propose 


el proponente, 


the proposer 


absolver, 


to absolve 


absolvente, 


absolving 


disolver, 


to dissolve- 


disolvente, 


dissolving 


envolver, 


to involve 


envoi vente, 


involving 


absterger, 


to cleanse 


abstergente, 


detergent 


converger, 


to converge- 


convergente, 


converging 


equivaler, 


to be equal to 


equivalente, 


equivalent 


incandescer, 


to be incandescent 


incandescente, 


incandescent 


transcender, 


to transcend 


transcendente, 


transcendent 


coincidir, 


to concur 


coincidente, 


concurrent 


reincidir, 


to reiterate 


reincidente, 


relapsed, old 








offender 


concurrir, 


to concur 


concurrente, 


concurrent, spec- 








tator, one of 








the audience 


ocurrir, 


to occur 


ocurrente, 


witty 


conducir, 


to lead 


conducente, 


leading 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



125 



preferir, 


to prefer 


preferente, 


preferring 


referir, 


to refer 


referente, 


referring 


adherir, 


to adhere, to hold 


adherente, 


adherent, fol- 




to 




lower 


fluir, 


to flow 


fluente, 


flowing, fluent 


afluir, 


to flow into 


afluente, 


branch of a river 


confluir, 


to join or meet, 


conflu eiite, 


confluent 




(of rivers) 






diluir, 


to dilute 


diluente, 


dilutant 


dimitir, 


to resign 


dimitente, 


resigning 


remitir, 


to remit 


remitente, 


the sender 


presidir, 


to preside 


presidente, 


president, chair- 








man 


residir, 


to reside 


residente, 


resident 


asistir, 


to assist 


asistente, 


one of the au- 








dience, orderly 


consistir, 


to consist 


consistente, 


consisting, con- 








sistent 


existir, 


to exist 


existente, 


existing 


persistir, 


to persist 


persistente, 


persistent 


resistir, 


to resist 


resistente, 


resistant 


subsistir, 


to subsist 


subsistente, 


subsistent 


astringir, 


to contract 


astringente, 


astringent 


restringir, 


to restrain 


restringente, 


restraining 


regir, 


to direct, to 


regente, 


regent 




govern 






suplir, 


to substitute 


suplente, 


substitute 


urgir, 


to urge 


urgente, 


urgent, im- 








mediate 


(2) The 


following are altogether irregular : 


decir, 


to say 


el dicente, 


witness 


maldecir, 


to curse 


maldiciente, 


cursing, the 








curser 


convencer, 


to convince 


convincente, 


convincing 


abstenerse, 


to abstain 


abstinente, 


abstaining 


contener, 


to contain 


continente, 


the continent 


reir, 


to laugh 


riente, 


laughing 


sonreir, 


to smile 


sonriente, 


smiling 


seguir, 


to follow 


siguiente, 


following, next 


padecer, 


to suffer 


paciente, 


patient 


servir, 


to serve 


sirviente, 


servant 


delinquir, 


to transgress 


delincuente, 


culprit 


donnir, 


to sleep 


durmiente, 


sleeper 


morir, 


to die 


muriente, 


dying 


poder, 


can, to be able, 


pudiente, 


well to do 




powerful 






decaer, 


to decay 


decadente, 


decaying 


entender, 


to understand 


inteligente, 


intelligent 


obedecer, 


to obey 


obediente, 


obedient 


permanecer, to remain 


permanente, 


permanent 



126 PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

(3) A few have two distinct participles with two significa- 
tions : 

poder, can, to be potente, powerful pudiente, well to do 

able 

pertenecer,fo belong pertene- belonging to pertmente,pertincnt 

ciente, 

acceder, to accede accedente,^e one ^vho accidente, accident, fit 

accedes 

ascender, to ascend ascendente, up (train, ascen- ancestor 

etc.} diente, 

descender, to descend descen- down(train, descen- descendant 

dente, etc. ) diente, 

poner, to put, set ponente, reporter (of poniente, tvest, setting 

a com- (sun) 
mittee) 

conseguir, to obtain consi- consequent, conse- consequent, 

guiente, natural cuente, consistent 

(4) The following, among others, have no verb : 

contrapro- producing con- insolvente, insolvent 

ducente, trary results transeunte, a passer-by 

diligente, diligent insignificante, insignificant 

incesante, continual intransigente, unyielding 

solvente, solvent vigente, existing 

ITS CHARACTEE. Present participles as such, i.e., with an 
active signification, and preserving the ruling power of the 
verb, do not now exist in the Spanish language. 

REMARK. The few remaining forms of the old Spanish 
present participle are still preserved in the following com- 
pound words : 

derechohabiente, legal successor lugarteniente, lieutenant- 

poderhabiente, attorney, proxy general 

poderdante, constituent, pr in- terrateniente, landowner 

cipal fehaciente, authentic 

ITS USE. Present participles in Spanish are therefore 
used : 

(a) as adjectives, i.e. : 

una comida abundante, a, plentiful dinner 

una circunstancia agravante, an aggravating circumstance 

un clima ardiente, a hot climate 

una luz brillante, a brilliant light 

una persona complaciente, an obliging person 

IOB pueblos confinantes, the bordering countries 

un amor constante, a constant affection, 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



127 



las Cortes Constituyentes, 

los precios corrientes, 

una cosa chocante, 

un nino desobediente, 

un lugar distante, 

un caracter dominante, 

el mes entrante, 

dos puntos equidistantes, 

las cosas existentes, 

un pais floreciente, 

el dique flotante, 

una proposicion humillante, 

una noticia importante, 

una persona influyente, 

una palabra insultante, 

una cosa interesante, 

una herida penetrante, 

una cosa perteneciente a, 

un hombre perseverante, 

el monarca reinante, 

la enfermedad reinante, 

una cosa repugnante, 

un calor sofocante, 

una persona tolerante, 

un telegrama urgente, 

un caracter vacilante, 

un hombre valiente, 



the Constituent Cortes 
the current prices 
a funny thing 



a distant place 

a masterful character 

next month 

two equidistant points 

existing things 

a prosperous country 

the floating dock 

(i humiliating proposal 

Important news 

an influential man 

an insulting word 

an interesting thing 

a deep ivound 

a thing belonging to 

a persevering man 



the prevailing illness 



a suffocating heat 
a tolerant person 
an immediate telegram 
a vacillating character 
a brave man 



(b) as nouns 


, i.e. : 






los creyentes, 


the believers 


el declarante, 


witness 


los protestantes, 


the protestants 


el delincuente, 


the culprit, offen- 


un asistente, 


an orderly 




der 


un contribuyente, tax payer 


un reincidente, 


an old offender 


los gobernantes, 


the rulers 


el demandante, 


the plaintiff 


el presidente, 


the president, 


el cedente, 


the transferred 




chairman 


el contra tante, 


contracting pa/ / // 


el pretendiente, 


the pretender, 


los contrayentes, the contracting 




candidate 




parties (tci'- 


el regente, 


the regent 




riage) 


el suplente, 


the substitute 


el otorgante, 


grantor 


un teniente, 


a, lieutenant 


el aceptante, 


acceptor 


el vigilante, 


the watchman 


el endosante, 


endorser 


un aspirante, 


a candidate 


el imponente, 


the depositor 


un ayudante, 


adjutant, assist- 


el depositante, 


the depositor 




ant 


el remitente, 


the sender 


un (una) can- 


a singer 


un calmante, 


a soothing mix- 


tante, 






ture 


un cesante, 


a dismissed civil 


un estimulante, 


a stimulant 




servant 


un purgante, 


a purge 


un comerciante, 


a merchant 


el volante, 


the fly-wheel 


un dependiente, 


a clerk, employee 


un andante, 


the andante 


un dibujante, 


a draughtsman 


un concertante, 


a part song 



128 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



un fabricante, a manufacturer 
un viajante, a commercial 

traveller 

un convales- a convalescent 
ciente. 



un ejecutante, 
un estante, 
el pendiente, 
la pendiente, 
el trinchante, 
la vacante, 



a performer 

a shelf 

earring 

slope 

the carving knife 

the vacancy 



(c) as particles, or in phrases, i.e. : 



en dinero contante, 

corriente, 

le conozco bastante, 

gracias, tengo bastante, 

eso es suficiente, 

no obstante, 

tocante a eso no se nada, 

mediante una cantidad, 

Dios mediante, 

en carta de 5 del corriente, 

por la presente, 

por consiguiente, 



ready money 

all right 

I know him very well, or well 

enough 

thank you, I have plenty 
that will do 
notwithstanding 
as to that I know nothing 
for the consideration of a sum 
if it please God 
by letter of the 5th instant 
by this letter 
therefore 



REMARK. Most of the Spanish verbs do not have a 
present participle, its place being taken by an equivalent 
word or phrase, i.e. : 

(a] by a past participle with an active signification : 



atrevido, 
bienvenido, 
caido, 
confiado, 

desconfiado. 
conjurado, 



daring 
welcome 
fallen 
unsuspicious 



considerado, 
divertido, 
los fallecidos, 
reconocido, 
sufrido, 



conspirator 



considerate 
amusing 
the deaths 
grateful 
suffering, hardy 



N.B. 

nacer, to be born naciente, rising 

entender, to under- inteli- intelligent, 

stand gente, 



(b) by a verbal adjective : 


charlatan, 


chatter -box 


espumoso, 


llordn, 


weeper 


jactancioso, 


saltarin, 


jumper 


obsequioso, 


aflictivo, 


afflicting 


auxiliar, 


atractivo, 


attractive 


lisonjero, 


fugitive, 


flying 


naufrago, 


productive, 


productive, pro- 


sabio, 




ducing 


ladrador, 


codicioso, 


covetous 


merecedor, 


cuidadoeo, 


careful 


mordedor, 
conservador, 



nacido, born 
entendido, experienced 



sparkling 

boasting 

obliging 

auxiliary 

flattering 

shipwrecked 

wise 

barking 

deserving 



conservative 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



129 



(c) by a verbal noun : 


un comprador, 


a buyer 


un lector, 


a reader 


un fumador, 


a smoker 


el contraventor, 


the defaulter 


un hablador, 


a chatterer 


un destructor, 


a destroyer 


un jugador, 


a gambler 


el defensor, 


defender 


el matador, 


the murderer 


el ofensor, 


offender 


un nadador, 


a swimmer 


el posesor, 


the possessor 


el testador, 


the testator 


el sucesor, 


the successor 


la testadora, 


the testatrix 


un copista, 


a copyist 


el examinador, 


the examiner 


un propagan- 


a propagandist 


un procurador, 


a solicitor 


dista, 




un vendedor, 


a seller 


un retratista, 


a photographer 


el Criador, 


the Creator 


un separatista, 


a separatist 


un bebedor, 


a drinker 


los fugitives, 


the fugitives 


un agitador, 


an agitator 


el llamador, 


the knocker 


el deudor, 


the debtor 


el despertador, 


the alarm clock 


el dador, 


the bearer 


el raspador, 


the eraser 


un favorecedor, 


a patron 


un imitador, 


an imitatcn- 


un pecador, 


a sinner 


un murmurador, 


a slanderer 


un elector, 


a voter 







Note how the English imperfect participle is rendered in 
Spanish, viz. : 

(a) by a relative clause, to specify a noun or pronoun : 



it is a child crying, 

that man wearing the top hat is 

my friend, 
those passing know him, 



es un nino que llora 

ese que lleva el sombrero de 

copa es mi amigo 
esos que pasan le conocen 



(b) by the Gerund, in progressive actions : 



he was laughing, 
they came running, 



estaba riendo 
vinieron corriendo 



N.JB. To be going, to be coming, to be leaving, ir, venir, 
salir : 

/ am going to the theatre, voy al teatro 

he is coming as well, el viene tambien 

we are leaving to-morrow, mafiana nos vamos 

(c) by the Infinitive depending on verbs of c seeing, ' 
* hearing. 5 



we saw them coming, 

they heard us calling them, 



les vimos venir 

nos oyeron llamarles 



PT. II. 



130 PAST PARTICIPLE. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

ITS FORMATION. Spanish past participles, if regular, are 
formed by changing the Infinitive ending, i.e., -ar into -ado ; 
-er, -ir into -ido : 

hablar, hablado aprender, aprendido vivir, vivido 

N.B. Spanish irregular past participles assume various 
endings, generally according to their Latin origin, but 
terminating always in -o. (See IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES.) 

GENERAL REMARK. Spanish past participles may be 
inflected ; when this is the case, they are treated like 
adjectives in -o ; the rules as to the position of the adjective, 
its comparison, etc., being also applied to the past participle. 

ITS USE IN GENERAL. (1) With the simple tenses, the 
Infinitive, and the Gerund of haber, to have, to form the 
compound tenses of any verb. In this case, the past parti- 
ciple is never inflected, but preserves the ruling power of its 
verb, and if active, may be used with an accusative : 

he sido yo, it is I who did it 

hemos estado en el teatro, we have been to the theatre 

no le he hablado de eso, 1 have not spoken to him about tliat 

han aprendido las lecciones, they have learned their lessons 

REMARK. Tener, to have (hold, possess), and llevar, to 
carry, may be used as substitutes of haber, but if the object 
is expressed, the past participle must be inflected : 



he escrito mucho, / have written 

he escrito muchas cartas, 7 have written many letters 

tengo escrito mucho, tengo 

escritas muchas cartas, 
llevo escrito mucho, lie vo escritas 

muchas cartas, 

(2) With ser, to be, to form the passive voice. In this 
case the participle is always inflected and does not preserve 
the ruling power of its verb, but is followed by the preposi- 
tions por or de. (See PASSIVE VOICE.) 

un hombre ha sido atropellado a man has been run over by a 

por un coche, carriage 

los autores fueron muy aplau- the actors were much applauded by 

didos por el publico, the audience 

era una persona querida de todos, he was a person esteemed by all 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 131 

N.B. With ser impersonally used, the participle is not 
inflected : 
es sabido, it is well known es escusado, it is useless 

(3) With estar, to be, to point out the state in which an 
object has been placed, or left. 

In this case the participle is always inflected : 

estoy constipado, / have a cold 

estabau muy alarmadas, they ivere much alarmed 

N,B. With estar impersonally used, the participle is not 
inflected : 

esta visto, it is evident 

esta averiguado, it has been ascertained 

esta dicho, it has been said 

(4) With certain verbs similar to haber, ser, and estar, 
the past participle being always inflected : 

anda muy ocupado, he is very busy 
andannmyfatigadascon el viaje, they are very fatigued with the 

journey 

se cree ofendida, she considers herself offended 

nos dejo asustados, he startled us 

me deja listed admirada, you astonish me 

voy muerto de sed, / am dying of thirst 

iban muertas de miedo, they were frightened to death 

parece preocupada, she seems pre-occupied 

se quedo dormido, he fell asleep 

nos quedamos admiradas, we were astonished 

sigue enfadada con usted, she is still angry with you 

siguen empleados alii, they are still employed there 

traigo heladas las manos, my hands are frozen 

vienen enteradas de todo, they are acquainted with everything 

me vi obligado a decirselo, / was obliged to tell him 
se ven muy afligidas, 



N.B. The past participles of ser and estar are never 
constructed with ser and estar, but with haber, as is also the 
case with the past participles of the following neuter verbs : 

nacer, to be born ir, to go 

morir, to die venir, to come 

suicidarse, tocommit suicide entrar, to come in 

fallecer, to die salir, to go out, to leave 

sucumbir, to die, to fall llegar, to arrive, to come 

suceder, to happen regresar to return 

poder, can, to be able to volver to come back 



132 PAST PARTICIPLE. 

N.B. The following are exceptions : 

esta ido, he is (gone) mad 

esta salido, he is excited 

esta muerto, he is dead 

cuando sea llegada la hora, when the time has arrived 

ya esta vuelto el vestido, the dress is already turned inside 

out 

(5) In the absolute construction, always inflected : 

(a) With the participle opening the sentence : 

educado en la desgracia, no fue as he had been brought up in mis- 

soberbio, fortune, he never was proud 

perdida su reputacion, lo perdio once he lost his reputation, he lost 

todo, all 

escritas las cartas, las cerro, the letters written, he closed them 

conocidos muchos hombres, se the more one knows some men, the 

les ama menos, less one likes them 

N.B. The past participles of the auxiliaries ser and estar 
cannot be used in the absolute construction ; that of haber 
may, and then it becomes active : 

habida la consulta, se decidio la a consultation being held, war was 

guerra, decided upon 

habidos los ladrones, fueron the thieves having been caught, they 

llevados a la carcel, were taken to prison 

(b) With the conjunction que and haber, ser, estar, or 
their like, in such phrases as : 

leido'que hubo la carta, la con- no sooner had he read the letter 

testo, than he answered it 

leido que haya la carta, la con- he will answer the letter as soon as 

testara, he reads it 

leida que fu la carta, se con- the letter was no sooner read, than 

testo, it was answered 

leida que sea la carta, se con- the letter will be answered as soon 

testara, as it is read 

(c) In relations of time, in conjunction with the preposi- 
tional phrases antes de, despues de, luego de : 

luego de lefda la carta, la con- as soon as he read the letter he 

test6, answered it 

despues de escrita la carta, se after the letter was written, he 

arrepintio, repented it 

(6) As adjectives, and therefore qualifying a substantive : 

un refran traido a proposito, a proverb to the point 

un personaje distinguido, a distinguished personage 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 133 

un traje usado, a worn-out suit 

cuentas no liquidadas, accounts not settled 

un pagare vencido, an overdue promissory note 

N.B. From certain, past participles in the feminine, in 
the same way as from adjectives, adverbs in -mente are 
formed : 

selo digo dusted reservadamente, / tell you privately 

debidamente recibi su carta de / duly received your letter 

usted, 

hablo autorizadamente, / am speaking on authority 

todos escuchaban atentamente, all were listening attentively 

se enainoro perdidamente, he fell desperately in love 

REMARK. Only a few among the contracted past parti- 
ciples form Adverbs in -mente. (See IRREGULAR PAST 
PARTICIPLES.) 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 

Note the following peculiarities of some regular past 
participles : 

(a) A few denoting state, or condition, cannot be used 
with estar, but are replaced by a suitable adjective, cf. : 

me he alegrado, / have been very estoy alegre, / am gay 

pleased 

me he calentado, I warmed my- estoy caliente, / am warm, I 

self am hot 

se ha enfla- he has got thin esta flaco, he is thin (now] 

quecido, 

se ha enfriado el the tea has got el t6 esta frio, the tea is cold 

te, cold 

ha engordado he has got very esta muy gordo, he is very fat 

mucho, fat 

ha enmudecido, he has lost his esta mudo, he has become 

tongue dumb 

ha enriquecido, he has got rich esta rico, he is rich (now) 

ha ensordecido, he has become esta sordo, he is deaf(noiv) 

deaf 

he ensuciado los / have soiled the los guantes estan the gloves are 

guantes, gloves sucios, soiled 

me he entriste- / have got very estoy triste, I am sad 

cido mucho, sad 

han enturbiado they have stirred el agua esta the water is 
el agua, up the water turbia, stirred up 

(muddy) 



134 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



ha enviudado, he (she) has become esta viudo, or he (she) -is a 

a widow(er) viuda, widow (er) 

ha humedecido the weather got el tiempo esta th-e weather is 

el tiempo, damp humedo, damp 

se ha librado, he has escaped esta libre, he is free (safe) 

(b) Some others, besides being used as adjectives, are 
frequently found with ser, with an active meaning : 

acomodado, comfortable un hombre acomo- a well-to-do man 

dado, 

agradecido, thanked una persona a thankful or 

agradecida, grateful per- 

son 
arreglado, arranged un hombre arre- a methodical 

glado, man 

un precio arre- a moderate price 

glado, 
avisado, advised un hombre avi- a cautious man 

sado, 
callado, silent un hombre ca- a reserved or 

llado, silent man 

cansado, tired un hombre can- a tiresome or 

sado (fig.) fatiguing 

man, a bore 

confiado, confided una persona con- a confident, un- 

fiada, suspicious or 

presumptuous 
person 
cumplido, fulfilled un hombre muy a polished or 

cumplido, civil man 

un cumplido a perfect gentle- un traje cum- an easy (rather 

caballero, man plido, large) suit 

decidido, decided, resolved un hombre de- a very deter- 

cidido, mined man 

desagradecido, unthankful, un- un hombre desa- an ungrateful 
grateful gradecido,orun man 

desagradecido, 

desarre glado, disarranged un hombre desa- an extravagant 

rreglado, or careless 

man 

desconfiado, mistrusted una persona des- a suspicious, 

confiada, mistrustful 

person 
descuidado, careless una persona des- a careless person 

cuidada, 
desocupado, ^inoccup^ed un hombre des- an idler 

ocupado, 

desordenado, disarranged un hombre des- a disorderly or 

ordenado, lawless person 

determinado, resolved un hombre muy a very resolute 

determinado, man 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 135 


disimulado, 


disguised 


una mujer a sly woman 






disimulada, 


distinguido, 


distinguished 


una persona dis- a distinguished 






tinguida, person 


entendido, 


understood 


un hombre en- a knowing or 






tendido, clever man 


esforzado, 


encouraged 


un hombre esfor- a courageous or 






zado, resolute man 


experimentado, 


experienced 


un hombre ex- an experienced 






perimentado, or expert man 


honrado, 


honoured 


un hombre hon- an honest mam 






rado, 


lefdo, 


read 


una persona muy a well-read per- 






leida, son 


necesitado, 


needed 


una persona a poor, indigent 






necesitada, person 


ocasionado, 


caused 


ocasionado a dis- the cause of 






gustos, quarrels 


ordenado, 


ordered 


una persona or- a methodical per - 






denada, son 


osado, 


dared 


un hombre osado, a bold or daring 






man 


parado, 


stopped 


un chico muy a very inactive 






parado, or idle fellow 


pesado, 


weighed 


una persona muy a tiresome or 






pesada, fatiguing per- 






son, a bore 


porfiado, 


insisted 


un hombre por- a pertinacious 






fiado, or obstinate 






man 


precavido, 


foreseen 


un hombre pre- a cautious man 






cavido, 


presumido, 


presumed 


una mujer pre- a presumptuous 






sumida, or arrogant 






woman 


reconocido, 


recognised 


una persona re- a grateful per- 






conocida, son 


reservado, 


reserved 


una persona re- a reserved or 






servada, silent person 


sabido, 


known 


un hombre muy a knowing, 



sentido, felt 

sufrido, suffered 

versado, versed 



sabido, learned or 

clever man 
una persona muy a very sensitive 



sentida, 



or touchy per- 



una persona ahardy, patient, 
sufrida, or forbearing 

person 

una persona muy a person very 
versada en conversant 
literatura, with litera- 

ture 



136 REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 

N.B. The following are derived from reflexive or recipro- 
cal verbs : 

se ha apasionado,&e has fallen in es unapasionado,^ is an admirer, 

love enthusiast 

se han aplicado, they have applied son muy apli- they are very 

themselves or cados, industrious 
been indus- 
trious 

se ha aprove- he took advan- es un aprove- a distinguished 

chado, tage, or has chado, (pupil) 

made progress 

sehaarrepentido,&g has repented es un arrepen- a repentant per - 

tido, son 

se ha arrojado, he has rushed es un arrojado, he is a daring 

into man 

se ha atolon- he has lost his es un atolon- he is a harum- 

drado, head drado, scarum 

nosehaatrevido, he has not dared es un atrevido, he is a bold, 

daring man 

se ha aturdido, he has lost his es un aturdido, he is hair- 
head brained 
se ha dado a la he has taken to es muy dado a la he is very fond 

bebida, drink bebida, of drinking 

se ha descarado, he has spoken es un descarado, he is an insolent 

insolently or impudent 

man 

se ha descome- he has over- es un descome- he is an un- 

dido, steppedbounds dido, mannerly per- 
son 

se ha deslen- he has let his es un deslen- he is a backbiter 

guado, tongue run guado, 

se ha despren- he has given es un despren- he is very liberal 

dido de todo, away (or got dido, 
rid of] every- 
thing 

se ha desenten- he has ignored se hace el desen- he appears to 

dido de la the question tendido, ignore 
cuestion, 

se ha desvergon- he has behaved esundesvergon- he is a shameless 

zado, insolently zado, person 

se ha distrafdo, he has forgotten esmuydistrafdo, he is very absent- 
minded 

se ha encogido, it has shrunk es muy encogido,7ie is very timid 

se ha entrome- he has interfered es un entrome- he is an intruder 

tido, tido, 

se ha obstinado, he has insisted esmuyobstinado,/^ is very ob- 
stinate 

se ha precipitado,^,e has acted esunprecipitado,Ae is a rash 

rashly fellow 

se ha retraido, he has retired es muy retraf do, he is very quiet 
from 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



137 



(c) The following are used both as participles and as 
substantives : 



relating to persons, mostly used in both genders : 


el agraviado, 


the offended per- 


los deportados, 


the exiled 




son 


un desconocido, 


unknown person 


el agregado, 


attache" 


un desenfrenado 


, a lawless person 


el ahijado, 


godchild 


el detenido, 


the arrested per- 


un ahogado, 


a drowned per- 




son 




son 


un diputado, 


an M.P., deputy 


unajusticiado, 


an executed per- 


un embozado, 


a muffled-upper- 




son 




son 


un albergado, 


an inmate 


el encargado, 


the caretaker 


los aliados, 


the allies 


un emigrado, 


an exile 


el aludido, 


the person al- 


un empleado, 


an employee, 




luded to 




clerk 


un allegado, 


a relative 


el girado, 


the drawee 


el amado, 


the beloved 


los gobernados, 


the subjects 


el apoderado, 


the attorney, 


el habilitado, 


the paymaster 




manager, 


un herido, 


a wounded per- 


el caido, 


the down-fallen 




son 




person 


un extraviado, 


missing (man] 


el calumniado, 


the slandered 


un impedido, 


a cripple 




person 


un jubilado, 


a pensioner 


los casados, 


married people, 


un licenciado, 


a licentiate 




married men 


los nacidos, 


births, people 


los confede- 


the confederates 




born 


rados, 




el procesado, 


the accused 


los conjurados, 


the conspirators 


el privado, 


the favourite 


un criado, 


a servant 


el querido, 


the lover 


un conocido, 


an acquaintance 


los recien casa 


newly -married, 


los contagiados, 


plague- stricken 


dos, -nacidos, 


-born, new- 


un corcovado (or 


a hunchback 


-llegados, etc. 


comers, etc. 


jorobado) 




los sitiados, 


the besieged 


el defendido, 


the defendant 


el valido, 


the favourite 


el delegado, 


the delegate 


los vencidos, 


the conquered 


el demandado, 


the defendant 







of reflexive or reciprocal verbs : 
amotinarse, los amotinados, the rioters 



sublevarse. los sublevados. 



the rebels 



relating to things, in the masculine : 



un altercado, a quarrel 

el alumbrado the public light- 



publico, 
el apartado 

correos, 
el asado, 
el barrido, 
el bordado, 



^ng 
de private box (at 

the post office] 
the roast 
the sioeeping 
the embroidery 



el calzado. 
el certificado, 
el cocido, 
el cosido, 
un comunicado, 
el consolidado, 
un constipado, 
el contenido, 



the shoes, loot* 
the certificate 
the pot-au-feu 
the sewing 
an open letter 
the consols 
a cold 
the contents 



138 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



el cuadrado, 


tlif, square 


un pedido, an order (comm.) 


el cuidado, 


the care 


el peinado, the coiffure, 


el curtido, 


tanned leather 


head-dress 


el dictado, 


the dictation 


el planchado, the ironing 


el duplicado, 


the duplicate 


un poblado, a hamlet 


el embutido, 


force-meat 


el reinado, the reign 


el empedrado, 


the paving 


un remitido, an open letter 


el entarimado, 


the boarding 


un resfriado, a cold 




(floor) 


el rugido, the roaring 


el estucado, 


the stucco 


el resultado, the result 


el gemido, 


the moaning 


el sembrado, sown ground 


el grabado, 


the engraving 


el significado, the meaning 


el grunido, 


the grunting 


el sonido, the sound 


el mugido, 
el guisado, 


the mooing 
the stew 


un sostenido, a sharp (music) 
el surtido, the stock (busi- 


un helado, 


an ice 


ness) 


los hilados, 


the spun (goods) 


el tafiido, the chimes 


el latido, 


the throbbing 


el tendido, uncovered row 


el lavado, 
su merecido, 


the washing 
his deserts 


of seats at the 
bull-ring 


el modelado, 


the modelling 




el negociado, 


the section (de- 


el tejido, the fabric (spun 




partment in a 


goods) 




pub. office) 


el tratado, the treaty, 


el nublado, 


the clouds 


treatise 


el oido, 


the hearing 


el vestido, the dress 


el partido, 


the party, match 


el zurcido, the darning 


el pecado, 


sin 




in the feminine : 


una entrada, 




way in, an entrance, admission, 






admission ticket 


la salida, 




the way out, the departure, re- 






admission ticket 


laida, 




the journey to . . . 


la venida, 




the arrival 


la comida, 




the meal, the dinner 


la bebida, 




beverage, drinking 


la madrugada, 




the (early) morning 


la herida, 




the wound 


una sacudida, 




a shock 


una nevada, 




a snowstorm 


la mirada, 




the sight, the look 


relating both to persons and 


things : 


una caida, 


a fall 


un caido, the down/alien 






person 


el legado, 
la llegada, 


the bequest 
the arrival 


el legado, the legate 
la recien llegada, the newcomer 


el parecido, 


the likeness 


el parecido, the one similar, 






the like 



REGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



139 



la partida, 
el partido, 
un quebrado, 



the departure 

the game 

a fractional 

number 
the coming 



la partida, 
el partido, 
el quebrado, 



a party 
the party 
the bankrupt 



la venida, the coming la recien venida, the newcomer 

(d) The meaning of a few differs from that of their verbs : 

precios arre- moderate prices 
glados, 

to muy contadas very few times, 

veces, on very few 

occasions 
una persona muy a very ignorant 

negada, person 

un chico muy a very steady 

sentado, fellow 

tiene la voz he (she) is hoarse 

tomada, 

estoy vendido, 1 am deceived 
estoy volada, / am ashamed 



arreglar, 


to arrange 


contar, 


to count, 
number 


negar, 


to deny 


sentar, 


to seat 


tomar, 


to take 


vender, 
volar, 


to sell 
to fly 



(e) the following are used adverbially : 

a la callada, silently en seguida, 

a escondidas, stealthily de madrugada, 
al contado, in cash 

a medida, to measure ; the entendido, 

more . . . the enterado, 

more aceptado, 

a mediados (de at the middle (of convenido, 

semana, 6 de the week, or bien venido, ivelcome 
mes), month) 
de corrido, without hesita- 
tion 



at once 
early in 
morning 
all right 
all right 



the 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 
(a) Verbs having an irregular past participle : 

abrir, to open ; abierto, opened, open 

entreabrir, to half -open entreabierto, half -opened 

cubrir, to cover ; cubierto, covered 



descubrir, 

encubrir, 
recubrir, 



to discover, to descubierto, 
disclose 



to conceal 

to cover again 



encubierto, 
recubierto. 



decir, to say, to tell ; dicho, said, told 



discovered, dis- 
closed 

concealed 

covered again, or 
anew 



140 IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 

antedecir, only used in the past participle, el antedicho, the 
aforesaid 

contradecir, to contradict contradicho, contradicted, 

gainsaid 
desdecirse, to retract one- desdicho, retracted, unsaid 

self, to unsay 
interdecir, to interdict, to el entredicho, prohibited 

prohibit 

predecir, to foretell predicho, foretold, afore- 

said 

N.B. As to the participles of bendecir, to bless, and 
maldecir, to curse, see pp. 143, 144. 

escribir, to write ; escrito, written 

adscribir, to ascribe, adscrito, ascribed 

circunscribir, to circumscribe, circunscrito, circumscribed 

inscribir, to inscribe, to inscrito, inscribed, regis- 

register tered 

prescribir, to prescribe prescrito, prescribed 

proscribir, to proscribe, to proscrito, proscribed, exiled 

exile, 

hacer, to make, to do ; hecho, made, done 

contrahacer, to falsify contrahecho, falsified, de- 

formed 

deshacer, to undo, to defeat deshecho, undone, defeated 

rehacer, to do again, to rehecho, done again, put 

put together together, ral- 

lied 

N.B. Compounds of the obsolete facer : 

satisfacer, to satisfy ; satisfecho, satisfied 

liquefacer, to liquefy liquefacto, liquefied 

rarefacer, to rarefy rarefacto, rarefied 

tumefacer, to swell tumefacto, swollen 

N. B. putrefacto (without the Infinitive), putrefied. 

imprimir, to impress (on the mind), to print/ impreso, 
impressed on the mind, printed 

N.B. Of the remainder of the verbs in -primir, some 
have two past participles, some are regular. (See below, 
" Verbs with two past participles.") 

morir, to die ; muerto, died, dead 

premorir, (law) to die be- prenmerto, died (or dead) be- 

fore another fore another 

poner, to put, to lay (of birds) ; puesto, put, laid 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



141 



anteponer, 


to prefer 


antepuesto, 


preferred 


componer, 


to compose 


compuesto, 


composed, written 




(music], to 




(poetry), 




mend 




mended 


contraponer, 


to oppose 


contrapuesto, 


opposed 


deponer, 


to lay down 


depuesto, 


laid down (the 




(the arms), to 

rl 0fftfi 00 




arms], deposed 


descomponer 


\Ai&fJ\Jb& 

to disarrange, to 


descompuesto, 


disarranged, out 




put (or be) out 




of order 




of order 






disponer, 


to dispose, com- 


dispuesto, 


disposed, com- 




mand 




manded, or- 








dered, adj., 








ready 


exponer, 


to set forth, to 


expuesto, 


set forth, exposed 




expose 






imponer, 


to deposit, to im- 


impuesto, 


deposited, im- 




pose (a fine] 




posed 


indisponer, 


to indispose 


indispuesto, 


indisposed 


interponer, 


to interpose, to 


interpuesto, 


interposed, 




place between 




placed between 


oponer, 


to oppose 


opuesto, 


opposed, adj., 








contrary 


posponer, 


to postpone, delay 


pospuesto, 


postponed, de- 








layed, left be- 








hind 


predisponer, 


to (be) inclined 


predispuesto, 


inclined in fa- 




in favour of 




vour of 


presuponer, 


to presuppose, to 


presupuesto, 


presupposed, 




take for granted 




taken for 








granted 


proponer, 


to propose (sug- 


propuesto, 


proposed (sug- 




gest) 




gested) 


recomponer, 


to mend again 


recompuesto, 


mended again 


reponer, 


to replace 


repuesto, 


replaced, got 








better 


reponerse, 


to get better 






sobreponerse, 


to make oneself 








superior to (in 








misfortunes, 








etc. ), made 








superior to 






euperponer, 


to place upon 


superpuesto, 


placed upon 


suponer, 


to suppose 


supuesto, 


supposed, so- 








called 


trasponer, or 


to transpose 


traspuesto, or 


transposed 


transponer, 




transpuesto, 




yuxtaponer, 


to put close 


yuxtapuesto, 


put close 


solver (obsolete), to solve (see 

L* * 1 _ _ M\ 1J_ T T I 


soltar, " Verbs 


with two past 



participles ") : suelto, solved, loose 



142 IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 

absolver, to absolve absuelto, absolved 

disolver, to dissolve disuelto, dissolved 

resolver, to resolve resuelto, 



romper, to break, to fall out ; roto, broken, fallen out 

N.B. As to its compounds see " Verbs with two past 
participles." 

ver, to see ; visto, seen 

entrever, to get a glimpse entrevisto, got a glimpse of 

of 
prever, to foresee previsto, foreseen 

N.B. The past participle of rever, to see and see again, 
is only used in the phrase lo he visto y revisto, or lo tengo 
visto y revisto, / have seen it many and jaany a, time 
(thousands of times). 

volver, to turn, to return, to come back ; vuelto, turned, re- 
turned, come back 

de volver, to return (give de vuelto, returned, given 

back) back 

envolver, to involve, to envuelto, involved, 

wrap up wrapped up 

revolver, to stir, to upset revuelto, stirred, upset 

Verbs having two past participles, have one of them 
always contracted : 

(b) Verbs having two past participles, one regular, and 
the other irregular, the irregular one being used in a 
different sense, generally as an adjective : 

aclarar, to make aclarado, made clear claro, clear 
clear, to elucidated 

elucidate, 
to rinse 

absorber, to absorb absorbido, absorbed absorto, astonished 
compagi- to arrange, compagi- arranged, compacto, compact 

nar, to page nado, paged 

confundir, to confound, confun- ' confounded confuso, confused 

to confuse dido, 
distinguir,fo distin- distin- distin- distinto, distinct 

guish guido, guished 

divergir, to differ divergido, differed diverse, different 
estrechar, to narrow estre- narrowed estrecho, narrow 

chado, 

expedir, to send expedido, sent expedite free, cleared 

(of a road) 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



143 



falsificar, to falsify, to f&lei&c&do, falsified, 



fijar, 



counterfeit, 
to forge 

to fix 



fijado, 



presumir, to presume presu- 
mido, 
quitar, to take away quitado, 



salvar, to save 
secar, to dry 



salvado, 
secado, 



surgir, to spring up surgido, sprung up 



suspender, to suspend suspen- suspended 

dido, 
tenir, to dye tenido, 



i, falsified, falso, 


false, forged 


counter- 


(document), 


feited 


counterfeit 




(coin) 


fixed, put fijo, 


fixed, im- 


up(posters, 


movable 


etc.) 




presumptu- presunto, 


the would-be 


ous 




taken away quito, 


free (from 




payment) 


saved salvo, 


safe 


dried seco, 


dry, dead 




(with the 




verbs de- 




jar, que- 




darse) 


sprung up surto, 


at anchor 




(in a Jiar- 




bour) 


suspended suspense, 


astonished 



tinto, 



red 



(c) Verbs having two past participles, the contracted one 
being an adjective, with estar : 



ahitar, 

bendecir, 

completar, 

contentar, 

descalzar, 



descon- 
tentar, 



to over -eat, 

to satiate 
to bless 

to complete 
to please 

to take off 
one's shoes 

disappoint 



ahitado, satiated 
bendecido,Wessed 



desertar, to desert 



desnudar, to undress 



despertar, to awake 

despro- deprive 
veer. 



lohancom- 
pletado, 

lehancon- 
tentado, 

se ha des- 
calzado, 

me ha des- 
conten- 
tado, 

ha deser- 
tado. 



^ has been 

completed 
they have 
pleasedhim 
he has taken 

off his 

shoes 
he has dis- 

appointed 

me 
he has de- 

serted 



se ha des- he has un- 
nudado, dressed 

se ha des- he awoke 

pertado, 
le han des- they have 

proveido, deprived 

him . . . 



esta ahito, he has over- 
eaten 
esta ben- it is blessed 

dito, 

esta com- it is com- 
pleto, plete 
esta con- he is happy 

tento, 

esta des-7^ is with- 

calzo, out shoes, 

barefooted 

estoy des- / am dis- 
contento, appointed 

el lugar the plac,e is 

esta de- deserted 

sierto, 
esta des- he is un- 

nudo, dressed, 

naked 
esta des- he is awake 

pierto, 
esta des- he is de- 

provisto, prived 



144 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



dispersar. 


, to disperse 


los han dis- they have 


estan dis- they r<: 






persado, 


dispersed 


persos 


! 


scattered 










them 










enjugar, 


to dry 


lo he en- 


I have dried 


esta 


en- 


it is dried 








jugado, 


it 


juto, 








espesar, 


to thicken 


lo han es- it has been 


esta 


es- 


it is thick 








pesado, 


thickened 


peso, 








eximir, 


to exempt 


se ha exi- 


he has been 


esta exen- 


he is exempt 


> 






mido, 


exempted 


to, 




free 




faltar, 


to be want- 


faltado, 


wanting 


falto, 




wanting 






ing, to fall 
















short 














freir, 


to fry 


han frei&o-they have 


estan 


fri- tJicy arc 



hartar, to satiate 

injertar, to graft 

juntar, to join 

limpiar, to clean 

Uenar, to fill, to ful- 
fil 

maldecir, to curse 

malquis- to incur 
tarse, hatred 



marchi- 
tarse, 
matar to 



ocultar, to hide, to 
conceal 



prender, to imprison, 
catch 

propender,fo be in- 
clined 

proveer, to fill (a 
vacancy] 

ranciarse, to get rank 



las pata- fried the tas, (already} 

tas, potatoes fried 

se ha har- he has over- estaharto, heis satiated 

tado, eaten 

lo han in- it has been esta in- it is grafted 

jertado, grafted jerto, 
sehan jun- they have estan jun- they are 

tado, joined tos, together 

lo he lim- / have esta lim- it is clean, 

piado, cleaned it pio, neat 

lo he lie- 1 have filled esta lleno, it is full 

nado, it 
lo ha mal- he has esta mal- he has been 

decide, cursed him dito, cursed 

se ha mal- he has in- malquisto, disliked 

quistado curred the 

contodos, hatred of 

all 
sehanmar-^t/ have estan mar- they are 

chitado, faded chitas, faded 
se ha ma- he has killed esta inner- he is dead 

tado, himself to, 

sehaocul-7te has hid- eat&ocnlto, he is hidden 

tado, den, con- 

cealed him- 
self 
lohan they have estapreso, he is in 

prendido, caught him prison 

ha propen- he has been est& he has been 



dido a, inclined to siempre always in- 
propenso, dined (to) 
se ha pro- the vacancy esta pro- 

veido ! la has been filled vista, is filled 

vacante, 
eljamonse the ham esta it is rank 

ha ran- has gone rancio, 

ciado, bad 



1 Or better, provisto. 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



145 



secar, to dry lo he se- 1 have dried esta seco, it is dried 

cado, it 

soltar, to let loose, lo he sol- 1 have let it estasuelto,^ is loose 

to let go tado, go 

sujetar, to holdfast lo he suje- / have held esta su- itisfastened, 

tado, it fast jeto, subject to 



N.B. The past participles 
only used as legal terms : 

concluir, to finish, to concluido, ended 
end 



in the following sentences are 



confesar, to confess confesado, 



convencer,fo convince 
inctirrir, to incur 



estoy con- 
vencido, 

ha incu- 
rrido en 
gastos, 



concluso case (plead- 
para sen- ings) 
tencia, finished 
el reo esta the criminal 
confeso, has con- 
fessed 

I am con- el reo esta the criminal 
vinced convicto, is convicted 

he has been los gastos the expenses 
put to some incursos, incurred 
expense 



(d) The contracted being an adjective, used without 
estar : 

abstraer, to abstract abstraido, abstracted, 

absorbed 

concretar, to concrete concre- concreted 

(in logic) tado, (not ab- 
stracted) 

contraer, to contract contrafdo, contracted 



dirigir, to direct, to dirigido, directed, led 
lead 

expresar, to manifest expresado, manifested 
extender, to prolong extendido, prolonged 
incluir, to include incluido, included 



invertir, to invest, to invertido, invested, 

spend ( time ) spent 

pervertir, to pervert perver- perverted 
tido. 



restringir, to limit 
PT. II. 



restrin- restricted 
gido, 



unnumerOffl?i abstract 
abstract, number 

un caso a special 
concrete, case 

contracto, contracted 

formas forms 

contrac- 

tas, 
una alu- a clear 

sion di- allusion, 

recta, hint 
el tren the express 

expreso, (train) 
la extensa the large 

llanura, plain 
la inclusa the accom- 

nota, panying 

note (here- 
with) 
el sentido tfttf opposite 

inverse, sense 
un carac-a bad tern- 

ter per- per, or 

verso, nature 
en sentido in a limited 

restricto, sense 
K 



146 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



(e) The contracted used as a substantive 
afijar, to affix un afijo, 

contundir, (very littleused), contuse, 

to bruise 
elegir, to elect el electo, 



extraer, 

favorecer, 

freir, 

impeler, 

injertar, 

intrusarse, 

llenar, 

maldecir, 
permitir, 

producir, 



profesar, 

recluir, 

recurrir, 

reducir, 
reflejar, 
salvar, 
soltar, 

sujetar, 
substituir, 

transcurrir, 

(/) The 
extinguir, 
tenir, 
ignorar, 

(3) Past 
convulso, 

devote, 



an enclitic 
bruised (slightly 
wounded) 
the neivly ap- 



to extract 
to favour 
to fry 
to impel 
to graft 
to intrude 
to fill up 

to curse 
to allow 

to produce 



to profess 



un extraeto, 
el favorite, 
un frito, 
el impulse, 
el injerto, 
un intruso, 
un lleno (en 
teatro, etc.), 
la maldita, 
el permiso, 

el producto, 



el profeso, 



an abstract 
the favourite 
a fried dish 
the impulse 
the graft 
an intruder 
el a full house 

the tongue 
the consent, the 
permit 
the product, the 

result, the 

amount 

(money) 
he who has taken 



to imprison 


el recluse, 


the prisoner, the 






inmate 


to resort, to apply 


el recurso, 


the application, 






resource 


to reduce 


el reducto, 


the redoubt 


to reflect 


el reflejo, 


the reflection 


to save 


el salvoconducto 




to let loose, or 


un suelto del 


an item, or para- 


free 


periodico, 


graph in the 






paper 


to submit, to hold 


un sujeto, 


an individual, a 


fast 




person 


to substitute (take 


el substitute, 


the deputy or 


somebody's 




assistant, sub- 


place) 




stitute 


to elapse 


el transcurso del the lapse (course) 




tiempo, 


of time 



contracted used only in poetry : 

extinguish extinto, extinct 

to stain tinto, stained 

not to know ignoto, unknown 

participles without verb, and used as adjectives : 
in a convulsion, estaba convulso, he was trembling 

trembling 

devoted, devout, es muy devota, she is very 

strongly at- religious 

tached 



IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. 



147 



indeciso, 


undecided, not 


estoy indeciso, / am undecided 




settled, ir- 






resolute 








la cuestion esta the case is not 






indecisa, yet settled 


indefenso, 


undefended 




intacto, 


untouched 




(4) Past 


participles used as 


particles, or adverbially : 


exceptuar, 


to except, ex- 


todos los dias, every day but 




clude, exempt, 


excepto los Mondays 




leave out 


lunes, 


excluir, 


to exclude 


todos, excluso el, all but he 


profesar, 


to prof ess 


lo ha hecho ex- he has done it on 






profeso, purpose 


hartar, 


to satiate 


harto lo se, / know it well 






enough 






hartas veces se I have told him 






lo he dicho, many and 






many a time 


improvisar, 


to improvise 


de improvise, extemporane- 






ously, sud- 


incluir, 


to include 


denly 
todos, incluso all, and you as 






usted, well 


invertir, 


to invert (change 


d la inversa, the contrary way 




the order] 




juntar, 


to join, meet 


junto a la ven- close to the win- 






tana, dow 






estabajuntoanii,A<2 was by my 






side 


pasar, 


to pass by 


de paso, or de by the way, on 






pasada, one's way, at 






the same time 


salvar, 


to save 


salvo los lunes, I am always at 






estoy siempre home except on 






en casa, Mondays 






salvo mejor pa- in default of a 






recer, better opinion 


seguir, 


to follow 


en seguida, at once 


poner, 


to put 


puesto que, since, as 






puesto que usted since you say so 






lo dice, 


suponer, 


to suppose 


supuesto, since 






por supuesto, of course, natur- 






ally 


ver, 


to see 


por lo visto, undoubtedly 



148 



ADVERBS. 



ADVERBS [AdverUos}. 
ADVERBS OF PLACE. 

Donde, where. As an interrogative, jddnde?, and as an 
admirative, ; donde!, it always carries the graphic accent, 
and is accompanied by the corresponding signs ; otherwise, 
it is a general demonstrative. In expressing rest, it is used 
either without any preposition, or with the preposition en ; 
in expressing motion, it is always preceded by any of the 
prepositions a, hacia, hasta, por, de, or desde, as follows : 



rest : 
I donde esta ? 

motion to : 
I a donde va ? 



where is it? esta donde estaba, it is where it 

was 



where is he no se a donde va, I do not know 
going ? where he is 

going 



hacia I do not know 
which way 



ira hasta donde he will go as far 
pueda, as he can 



motion towards, direction : 

I hacia donde va ? ivhich way is he no se 
going ? donde, 

terminus : 

-hastad6nde va,l how far is he 
going ? 

way through : 

I por donde pasa ? which way does por donde yo the way I went 
he pass pase, 

through ? 

motion from : 

I de donde viene? where does he 
come from? 

REMARK. Donde may be employed as a relative, equiva- 
lent to : 

en que, en el que, en la que, en el cual, etc. : 

la casa donde (or en donde) vivo the house in which I live 

(en que vivo), 

es una fonda donde se come it is an hotel in which meals are 

barato, cheap 



ADVERBS. 149 

el que, la que, lo que, el cual, etc. (after de or por) : 

no viene, de donde infiero que he does not come, from which I 

esta enfermo, gather that he is ill 

voy por un camino por donde I follow a path, which is followed 

pocos van, by very few 

as a noun : 
el donde y el cuando, where and when 

Notice the following idioms : 

I de donde bueno ? well, where do you come from ? 

por donde tengo que saberlo yo? how am I to know it ? how should 

I know it ? 

que lo confiese, donde no, no le he must confess it, otherwise I will 

perdono, not pardon him 

ahi donde usted lo ve, es un he is a poet, although you may not 

poeta, think so 

aqui donde V. me tiene, yo tarn- I am a bit of a painter, although 

bien soy pintor, you may not think so 

Adverbs of Place answer the question donde ?, where ? 

I. Place in connection with, the speaker and the person 
addressed : 

aqui, aca, here (where the speaker is) 

ahi, ahi, there (where the person addressed is) 

alii, alia, there (any other place more or less distant from both) 

EEMARKS ON THE FORMS : 

aqui, alii are used with verbs of rest ; aca, alia are used 
with verbs of motion ; ahi may be used with either. 

BEST MOTION 

aqui estoy, here I am venga V. aca, come here 

ahi quedo, it ivas (left) there ponlo ahi, put it there 

alii lo veremos, we shall see it alia voy, / am coming 

there 

Further, aca, ahi, alia, by reason of their indefiniteness, 
adapt themselves to the shades of thought of the speaker ; 
thus they are fitly employed in idioms and proverbs : 

IDIOMS PROVERBS 

aca no nos chupamos el dedo, viva el rey, daca la capa. 

ahi es donde le duele, ahi te duele, ahi te dare, 

alia lo veremos, alia van leyes do quieren reyes. 

Further Examples : 

me quedare aqui ocho dias, 1 shall remain here eight days 

I esta V. ahi ?, no le habia visto, are you there ? I did not sec you 



150 



ADVERBS. 



vive alii, en aquella casa, 
corrase V. un poco mas acd, 
debe estar por ahi encima, 
alia en el siglo XII. , 
aca, en Espana, tenemos otras 

costumbres, 
el hombre siempre busca un mas 

alia. 



he lives there, in that house 

come a little closer here 

it must be up there, somewhere 

about the Xllth century 

we have different habits over in 

Spain 
men are always in search of some- 

thing beyond 



Special signification of aqui, ahi, alii. On account of 
their being derived from the Latin demonstratives (hie, illic), 
they possess a demonstrative meaning besides : 

PLACE. aqui no hay gobierno, ahi no hay moralidad, alii todos 

naben leer y escribir 
TIME. de aqui en adelante 
NARRATIVE. alllegar aqui, lloro. Ahi diria yo que V. se engana. 

Le pregunte, y alii fue el mentir 

MOTIVE. aqui esta porque no viene, ahi tiene V. la razon. 
PERSON. aqui el senor nos lo dira, ahi la seiiora lo vio, alii mi 

amigo esta enterado 

OTHER FORMS: 

aculla, yonder aquende, this side allende, on the other side 

Tlw last two in speaking of great natural divisions by rivers, 

mountains, seas. 

II. Place in connection with any Person or Object : 



cerca, 
dentro, 

delante, 

adelante, 

encima, 

arriba, 



near, by lejos, 

within, in, inside fuera 

in front detras, 

forward, in front atras, 

above, upon, on debajo, 



up 



abajo, 



far 

without, out, out- 
side 

behind 

backward, behind 

below, under, 
underneath 

down 



III. Adverbial Phrases : 



al rededor, 


round, around 






por delante, 


in front 


por detras, 


behind 


por dentro, 


inside 


por fuera, 


outside 


de cerca, 


near 


de lejos, 


from afar 


en f rente, 


opposite 


a espaldas, 


at the back 


por encima, 


on the top 


por debajo, 


underneath 


a la derecha, 


on the right 


a la izquierda, 


on the left 


a la derecha, 


to the right 


a la izquierda, 


to the left 


a esta parte, 


on this side 


a aquella parte, 


on the other side 


en todas partes 


i, anywhere, every- 








where 







ADVERBS. 



151 



ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Cuando, tvhen. As an interrogative, cundo?, and as an 
admirative, jCU&ndo!, it always carries the graphic accent, 
and is accompanied by the corresponding signs. Otherwise 
it is a general demonstrative : 



I cuando ? 



when ? 



I cuando pas6 eso Iwhen did that 
happen ? 

I desde cuando ? (time past), how 
long, since 
when ? 

i hasta cuando ? hoiv long (time 
to come) ? 

I para cuando ? how soon ? 

i cu&ndo sere" yo rico ! 
j cuando volveran aquellos tiem- 
pos! 



no se cuando, 

no se cuando, 
paso, 

no se desde 
cuando, 

no se hasta 

cuando, 
para cuando 

usted quiera, 



/ do not know 

when 
I do not know 

when it 

happened 
1 do not know 

since when, or 

how long 
1 do not know 

how long 
as soon as you 

like 



I wonder when I shall be rich ! 
would that those times could come 
again ! 



KEMARKS I. Cuando is followed by the Indicative, in 
expressing customary actions or positive facts, and by the 
Subjunctive, if denoting futurity, possibility, contingency; c/., 

friohay que cui- 



cuando hace 

darse, 
cuando viajo, voy en primera, 

cuando uno es pobre, todos le 
desprecian, 

and, 

cuando haga frfo, habra que 

cuidarse, 

cuando viaje, ir6 en primera, 
cuando sea pobre, le despre- 

ciaran, 

II. Cuando cannot be employed as a relative, and there- 
fore is replaced by en que to translate when in sentences 
such as : 

llegara tiempo en que todo se a time will arrive, ivhen all will 

sabra, be known 

hay ocasiones en que pienso en there are times when I think of it 

ello, 



when it is cold, one must take care 

of oneself 
when I travel, I (always] go first 

class 
when one is poor, one is 

by everybody 



if it were cold, one would have to 

take care of oneself 
when I travel, I will go first class 
if at any time he becomes poor, he 

will 



152 



ADVERBS. 



N.B. On the contrary, the English relative is translated 
by cuando in sentences such as : 



entonces fue cuando le conoci, 
ayer fue cuando me lo dijo, 

as a conjunction : 

I como he de hacerlo cuando el 
me lo impide ? 

(See also in CONJUNCTIONS.) 
as a correlative : 
cuando rie, cuando llora, 



it was then that I knew him 
it was yesterday that he told me 



how can I do it, when he prevents 
my doing it 



one moment she is laughing, and 

the next crying 

cuando por pitos, cuando por sometimes for one reason, some- 
flautas, times for another 

as a noun : 
quiere saber el cuando y el como, he wants to know when and how 

Notice the following idiomatic meanings : 
cuando mas, at the utmost 



cuando menos, 
cuando quiera, 



at least 
at any time 



de cuando 

cuando, 
cuando no, 



en now and then, 

sometimes 
otherwise 



llegaria ayer, he might have 
cuando mas, arrived yester- 
day, at the 
worst 

prestemelo usted,^ least lend it to 
cuando menos, me 

me hallarausted you will find 
en casa cuando me at home at 
quiera, any time 

le veo de cuando I see him some- 
en cuando, times 

que telegrafie, 6 let him tcle- 
cuandono,que graph, or 
escriba, otherwise write 



Adverhs of time answer the question cuando ?, when 

I. Time in general : 

antes, before, formerly ; rather : 



vine antes (primero), 
antes era Espana poderosa, 
antes le creo a V. que a el, 



/ came before (first) 
formerly Spain was powerful 
I rather believe you than him 



ahora, now, nowadays ; just : 

ahora lo entiendo, now I understand it 

ahora se vive muy deprisa, nowadays one lives in a hurry 

ahora se lo dare a usted, / shall give it to you p/resently 

se ha ido ahora, he is just gone 



ADVERBS. 



153 



despues, after, later on ; afterwards, then, since : 

after dinner 

we -must leave that for later on 

where will you go afterwards ? 



despues de comer, 
eso lo dejaremos para despues, 
I a donde ira usted despues ? 
despiies dira usted que no, 
no he sabido de el despues, 



then you will say no 

I have not heard from him since 



luego, at once, soon, then, afterwards; therefore, after 
that : 



venga V. luego, que es tarde, 

vendre luego que le vea, 

le hable, y luego me fuf, 

I que haran ustedes luego ? 

yo llegue antes, el luego, 

es verdad, luego debo decirlo, 

; y luego te llamaras amigo mio ! 



come at once, for it is late 
I will come as soon as I see him 
I spoke to him, and then I left 
what will you do afterwards ? 
I arrived before, he afterwards 
it is true, therefore I must say it 
and after that you dare to call 
yourself my friend ! 



entonces, then (in all its English meanings) : 



antes le vi, y entonces me lo 

dijo, 
ahora dices eso, y entonces dijiste 

lo contrario, 
la vere despues, y se lo dire, 

entonces, por que me lo pre- 

guntas ? 
entonces, liasta mafiana, 



/ saw him before, and he then told 

me 
now you say that, but then you said 

quite the contrary 
I will see her afterwards and then 

I shall tell her 
why do you ask me, then ? 

well then, (good - bye) until to 
morrow 



translated by a demonstrative : 

; que tiempos los de entonces ! ivhat days those were ! 

Siempre, always, whenever, ever, surely, in any case : 

yo siempre he dicho lo mismo, / always have said the same thing 

siempre llegan tarde, they ahvays arrive late 

esta siempre en casa, she is always at home 

siempre que le veo, me habla de whenever I see him, he speaks of 

usted, you 

siempre que via jo, voy en whenever I travel, I go first class 

primera, 

adios para siempre, good-bye for ever 

hemos renido, y para siempre, we have quarrelled, and for ever 

siempre se lo habra dicho el, surely he has told him 

siempre se le perderia en el sorely he lost it in the road 

camino, 

si no lo consigo, siempre me in any case, if I do not succeed, I 

quedara lo que tengo, shall have what I have got 

siempre tendra sus sesenta aiios, he must be at least sixty 



154 ADVERBS. 

Of.: 

siempre que le veo se lo digo, / tell him whenever I see him 
siempre que le vea Be lo dire, ivhenever I see him, I will 

tell him (assertion) 
siempre que le vea se lo dire", I will tell him, provided I see him 

(condition) 

Nunca, never : 

nunca le he visto, / have never seen him 

no he estado alii nunca, / have never been there 

i nunca lo hubiera creido ! I should never have believed it 

Of.: 

\ nunca lo hubiera dicho ! / should never have thought it ! 

(astonishment] 

\ nunca lo hubiera dicho ! I wish I had never said it ! (re- 

pentance] 

Jama's, ever, never, sometimes retains its primary affirma- 
tive meaning, whilst at others it is used negatively : 

I le he visto yo jamas ? have I ever seen him ? 

que diga el si jamas le liable", let him say if ever I have spoken 

to him 

jamas le vi, I have never seen him 

le hable, pero no le hablare I spoke to him, but I will not speak 
jamas, to him again 

associated with siempre and nunca : 

j bendita sea por siempre jamas ! God bless her for ever and ever J 
nunca jamas lo hare", I will not do it any more 

N.B. Jama's de los jamases, absolutely never. 
ADVERBIAL PHRASES : 



cuanto antes, as soon as 

antes mismo, just before, just now 

ahora mismo, just now, at once, this very moment 



entonces mismo, then, just then 

II. Time of daily life : 
ayer, yesterday, any past time : 

ayer llegue, / arrived yesterday 

ayer era una nina, t/ie other day she was a child 



ADVERBS. 



155 



as a noun : 



we live 'between a past and a future 
hoy, to-day, any present time : 



vivimos entre un ayer y un 
manana, 



I se marchan ustedes hoy ? 
hoy todos quieren ser ricos, 

hoy son moda las faldas cortas, 

as a noun : 
i que poco va del hoy al ayer ! 



are you leaving to-day ? 
nowadays everybody wants to get 

rich 
short skirts are now in fashion 



how slwrt is the time between to-day 
and yesterday 



manana, to-morrow, any future time : 



buenas noches, hasta manana, 
ahorra, que tal vez manana te 
falte, 

as a noun : 
hay que pensar en el manana, 

ADVERBIAL PHRASES : 

de ayer aca, 
hoy por hoy, 
de hoy a manana, 

de manana en ocho, 

The day, its divisions : 
dia, day 

de dia, in the daytime, 

daylight 

por el dia, during the day 

al mediodia, at noon 
al dia siguiente, next day 
de dia en dia, daily (every day] 
un dia por otro, every other day 

tarde, afternoon 

por la tarde, in the afternoon 
ayer tarde, yesterday after- 
noon 
de tarde, en now and then 

tarde, (seldom} 

al caer de la at dusk 

tarde, 



good-nigJit, until to-morrow 
be thrifty, perhaps some day you 
ivill need 



we must think of to-morrow 



since yesterday, since then 

at present 

between to-day and to-morrow, 

within a day or two 
within a week 



manana, morning 

de manana, early in the morn- 
ing 

por la manana, in the morning 

ayer manana, yesterday morn- 
ing 

al amanecer, at the break of day 

noche, evening, night 

de noche, at night 

por la noche, in the evening 

ayer noche, last night 

a media noche, at midnight 

al anochecer, at night-fall 

de la noche a la all of a sudden 
manana 



156 



ADVERBS. 



OTHER 


ADVERBS OF TIME : 






temprano, 


early 


de repente, 


all at once 


tarde, 


late 


al instante, &lin a minute, in a 


no bien, 


as soon as, no sooner 


momento, 


moment, at once 




. . . (than); 


en seguida, 


at once 




scarcely 


en tanto, 


while, provided( that) 


aun, 


still, even 


entretanto, 


in the meantime 


todavia, 


yet, still, neverthe- 


mientras, 


while, provided that 




less, all the same 


durante, 


during 


ya, 


already, now, since, 


a menudo, 


very often 




at once, soon 


a veces, 


sometimes 


pronto, 


soon 


raras veces, 


very seldom 


de pronto, 


suddenly, uninten- 








tionally 







N.B. i hace mucho que esta V. aqui? No, hace poco. 
ADVERBS OF MANNER. 

Como, how. As an interrogative, ^cdrno?, and an 
admirative, \ como ! it always carries the graphic accent, and 
is accompanied by the corresponding signs. It has a great 
variety of uses, namely : 

inquiry, reason ivhy, motive : 

i como esta V ? 
I como se llama ? 
I como decia usted ? 



I a como estamos ? 

ha muerto fulano. Como ? 

I como no me espero usted ? 

I como ha hecho V. eso, si le dije 

que no lo hiciera ? 
como que ha perdido mil duros, 

emphasis : 

j como corre ! 
i como escribe ! 
j cdmo miente ! 



how do you do ? 

what is his name ? 

what were you saying? (i.e., I bey 

your pardon) 
what is the date to-day ? 
Mr so and so is dead. No ! really ? 
why did you not wait for me? 
why did you do that, if I told you 

not to do it ? 
why, he has lost a thousand dollars 



how it runs 

how wonderfully he writes 

what a liar he is ! 



strong assertion, also in swearing : 



como esta es luz, 

como Juan que me llamo, 

tan cierto como estamos aqui, 

as, like, the same : 

usted es conservador, como yo, 
este no es como ese, 



as true as this is a light 
as true as my name is John 
as true as we are here 



you are a Conservative, like myself 
this is not like that (the same as . . . ) 



ADVERBS. 



157 



price ; 

I a coino van las naranjas ? 
no se a como las venden, 



what is the price of the oranges ? 
I do not know at what price they 
sett them 



approximate number, or idea, thing, etc. : 

seriamos como unos treinta, we were about thirty of us 

senti como un ruido de faldas, / heard something like the rustling 

of a dress 
esta como preocupado, he looks somewhat thoughtful 

equivalent to que, after verbs of knowing, declaring : 

supe como habia estado en Paris, 1 knew he had been in Paris 
me dijo como al verla, palidecio, he told me that on seeing her, he 

turned pale 

as a substantive : 
quiso saber el como y el cuando, 

IDIOMS : 

I como no ? 

sin saber como ni como no, 



he wanted to know how and when 



hoiv could it be otherwise ? 
without knowing how or why 



Adverbs of manner answer the question como ? how ? 
I. bien, well, right, all right : 

canta nrny bien, she sings very well 

esta bien, that is right 

I esta listed bien ahi ? are you all right there ? 



very : 
quiero unas bien maduras, 

special meaning : 

bien lo sabia yo, 
bien te lo adverti, 
estoy enterado, y bien enterado, 
bien podia usted hacerme un 
favor, 

mal, ill, wrong : 

esta mal el pobre, 

eso esta mal, 

bizo usted mal en eso, 

body badly: 

no parece mal, 
iba mal vestida, 



/ want some quite ripe 



I was sure of it 

I warned you many a time 

J am well informed indeed 

you could really do me a kindness 



he is ill, poor fellow 

that is wrong 

you did wrong in that 



it does not look bad 
she was badly dressed 



158 



ADVERBS. 



special meaning : 
mal podre decirlo, si no lo se, 



/ cannot say it, since I do not know 



mejor, better: 

estoy mejor, mil gracias, 
mejor que mejor, 

peer, worse : 

no viste peor que otras, 
peor que peor, 

asi, so, like that : 

asi lo pensaba, 

no liable usted asi, 

bueno, pues quedamos asi, 

asi sea, 

asi lo consiga usted, 

asi i se marchan ustedes ? 

asi que lo dijo, todos nos reimos, 

asi me maten, no lo hare", 

eso no se hace asi, 

I como esta usted, sefiora ? Asi, 

asi, 
asi como asi, 

how? what?: 

I como lo ha sabido usted ? 

I como es que no ha venido V. ? 

I a como van las uvas ? 



I am better, thank you 
so much the better 



she does not dress worse than others 
so much the worse 



I thought so 

do not speak like that 

well then, that is settled 

let it be so 

I wish you may succeed 

so, then, you are leaving ? 

no sooner did he say it, we all 

laughed 
I will not do it if they kill me for 

it 

that is not done in that way 
how are you, madam? Not too 

well 
anyhow, in any case 



how did you know it ? 
why did you not come ? 
what is the price of grapes? 



despacio, sloivly, at leisure ; hold ! : 



los viejos andan despacio, 
hable usted despacio, 
quiero hablarle a usted despacio, 
despacio, que eso no es verdad, 



old people walk 

speak slowly 

I want to speak to you at leisure 

Hold / that is not true 



deprisa, quickly, in haste, in a hurry : 



no hable V. tan deprisa, 
voy deprisa, 
deprisa, cochero, 

alto, aloud: 
no hable usted tan alto, 

bajo, in a low voice : 
se lo dijo bajo, 



do not talk so quickly 
I am in a hurry 
be quick, driver 



do not speak so loud 

he told him in a Imv voice 



ADVERBS. 159 

II. Gerunds, on account of their expressing a pro- 
gressive action, are used as adverbs of manner: 

I como estaba ? Durmiendo, how was he ? Sleeping 

vino corriendo, he came running (instantly) 

III. Adverbs in -mente derived from adjectives (in 
positive or superlative form). 

Adjectives in -e, or a consonant, do not modify the root. 

dulce, dulcemente, sweetly 

leal, lealmente, loyally 

comun, comunmente, commonly 

cortes, cortesmente, courteously 

feliz, felizmente, happily 

All others adopt the feminine : * 

bueno, buenamente, willingly 

malisimo, malisimamente, very badly 

The same meaning may be expressed by means of the 
prepositions con, or de, and a suitable substantive, either 
followed or not by an adjective. 

con dulzura, or de un modo in a sweet manner 

(una manera) dulce, 
con lealtad, or de un modo in a loyal manner 

(una manera) leal, 

de un modo (una manera) comun, in a vulgar way 
con cortesia, or de un modo in a polite way 

(una manera) cortes, 
con felicidad, de un modo happily 

(una manera) feliz, 
con bondad, or de buen modo in a good way 

(buena manera), 
de muy mal modo (mala manera), roughly, in a rough manner 

REMARKS. Of the irregular comparatives (see p. 174, Part 
I.), mejor, and peor, and menor do not form adverbs, while 
the rest, on receiving the ending -mente, assume a significa- 
tion of place or time, in accordance with the original meaning 
of the positive : 

super iormente, on the upper part (also in a superior manner, de un 
modo superior) 

inferiormente, on the lower part 

anteriormente, previously, on the front part 

posteriormente, later on, at the back 

interiormente, inwardly, inside 

exteriormente, outwardly, outside 

ulteriormente, lastly 



160 



ADVERBS. 



NOTE. 

mayormente, 

maximo (greatest}, makes adverb 

IV. Adverbial Phrases. 
a preposition, and almost any 

al contrario, on the contrary 

al reves, upside down 

a caballo, on horseback 

a pie, on foot (walking} 

a gritos, vociferously 

a reganadientes, reluctantly 

a la espaiiola, in the Spanish 

fashion 
a la inglesa, in the English 

fashion 
a la moda, in a fashionable 

way 
a la cliita ca- without a whisper 

llando, 

a las claras, openly 
a mula, on mule-back 

a pata (coll.), on foot (walking) 
a gatas, on all fours 

a mujeriegas, side-saddle 
a ciegas, blindly 

a escondidas, secretly 
a hurtadillas, surreptitiously 
a oscuras, in the dark 

a buenas, a by fair means or 

malas, foul means 

a tientas, tentatively 



especially, the more so 
maxime, especially, the more so 

They are formed by means of 
part of speech. 

a lo militar, in a military 

manner 
a lo torero, in bull-fighter's 

fashion 

a lo hipocrita, hypocritically 
de rodillas, on one's knees, 

kneeling 

de pie, standing 

de oidas, by hearsay 

de vista, by sight 

de buena (mala) willingly (umml- 

gana, lingly) 

de voluntad, readily 
de intento, on purpose 

de frac, in evening dress 

de cualquier any way 

modo (manera), 
en cuclillas, squatting 
encuatro patas, on all fours 
en voz alta, aloud ' 
en voz baja, in a low voice 
en mangas de in shirt sleeves 

camisa, 

en zapatillas, in slippers 
por fuerza, necessarily, by 

violence 



ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION, NEGATION, 
AND DOUBT. 



I. ADVERBS OF AFFIRMA- 
TION : si, tambien. 

Si. It always carries the 
graphic accent ; its opposite is 
no. It may be used : 

(a) in general, in affirming, 
or consenting : 

I vendra listed maiiana ? Sf , 

will you come to-morrow ? Yes 
I lo sabia 61 ? Si, 

did he know it ? Yes 



II. ADVERBS OF NEGA- 
TION : no, tampoco. 

No. It never carries the 
graphic accent ; its opposite is 
si. It may be used : 

(a) in general, in denying, 
or refusing; also in prohibi- 
tions (with the subjunctive) : 
I vendra usted manana ? No 

i lo sabia el ? No 



ADVERBS. 



161 



i puede listed prestarmelo ? Si, 

can you lend it to me ? Yes 
I da usted el consentimiento ? Si , 

do you give your consent? Yes 



I puede usted prestarmelo ? No 
da usted el consentimiento ? No 

no lo haga usted, do not do it 
que no lo haga, let him not do it 



REMARK. For the sake of emphasis, contrast, etc., si and 
no are strengthened, either by their own position, or by 
means of certain words, such as tal, por cierto, a fe, senor, 
or que, as follows : 



si tal, ^ 

si por cierto, | 
si a fe, 
si, senor, 
que si, 

IDIOMS : 



yes, indeed; 
certainly 



no tal, ^| 

no por cierto, | no, indeed ; cer- 

no a fe*, J- tainly not ; not 

no, senor, at all 

que no, 



si que . 

Juan si 
sabe, 



que 



indeed . 

lo John is the one 
who knows it 



eso si que es I call that lying 

mentir, 
ahora si que me now I must go 

v y, 

es pobre, si, pero he is poor but he 
honrado, is honest 

liagalo V., si, do it, but do it 
pero hoy, to-day 

si no busca di- if he does not 
nero, y si gloria, seek money but 
glory 

(b) ironically, almost nega- 
tively : 

si, contento me tiene usted, 

yes, I am very pleased with you 
si, si, burlese usted, 

all right, you may make fun , if 
you like 



no que no . . . , indeed, certainly 

not 

Juan si que no John is the one 
lo sabe, who does not 

know it 
eso no que no es that is not a lie 

mentir, 
ahora no, que no now I will not 

voy, go there 

ricos no, pero they are not rich 
orgullosos si, but they are 
proud 



(b) ironically, almost affir- 
matively : 

j no ! pues para quien!, 

who should it be for ? 
\ no, que iba yo a darselo !, 

the idea ! as if I were going lo 

give it to him 
I ira usted ? No, que no, 

Will you go ? Most certainly 

REMARK. No also assumes an affirmative meaning when 
associated to certain words : 

PT. II. L 



162 



ADVERBS, 



tiene no pocos amigos, 
he has many friends 
no lo dice sin razon, 

he has a good reason for it 

(c) as a noun : 

ya tengo el si, 

I got the consent 

ayer pronuncio el si en la iglesia, 

she was married yesterday 



no es mal caballo, 

it is a very fine horse 
lo sabe, a no dudarlo, 

surely he knows it 



el no ya lo tengo, voy a buscar el si, 
/ am sure of denial, I will try 

for consent 
solto un no redondo, 

he gave a downright refusal 



(d) suggestively, without (d) suggestively, equivalent 
the graphic accent, equivalent to a conjunction, in interroga- 
te a conjunction, in interroga- tory sentences, with almost 
tory sentences, with either the any tense of the indicative or 



conditional of the subjunctive : 



future or the 
the indicative 



j si se habra perdido !, 

/ wonder if it is lost (or if he 

has lost his way] 
i si seria el ?, 

/ Wonder if it were he 



I no se habra perdido ?, 

you do not think it is lost, do 

you? 

no haya sido 1, 
unless it were he 



GENERAL REMARK. Si and no are found together in a 
few idiomatic phrases : 



I lo quiere usted, si, 6 no ?, 
es un si es no es caro, 
por si 6 por no, se lo dire, 
tantas letras tiene un si como 

un no, 

eso si que no, 
el no ya lo tengo, el si es lo que 

voy a buscar, 

Tambien. Its opposite is 
tampoco. It expresses : 

(a) adherence to a previous 
affirmation or consent, either 
expressed or understood : 

volvere" hoy y manana tambien, 

/ will come back to-day, and 

to-morrow as well 
I lo sabia 41 ? Y ella tambien, 

did he knoiv it ? A nd she too ? 



do you want it, or not ? 

it is a little dear 

anyhow I will tell him 

you might just as well say yes as no 

certainly not 

I am sure of denial, I will try for 
consent 

Tampoco. Its opposite is 
tambien. It expresses : 

(a) adherence to a previous 
negation or refusal, either ex- 
pressed or understood : 

no volvere hoy, ni manana 
tampoco. 



I no lo sabia el ? Ni ella tampoco, 



ADVERBS. 



163 



. prestaromelo ? Si, y i puede V. darmelo j No. 
darselo tambien, prestarmelo ? . Tampoco, 

can you lend it to me ? Yes, and 
give it to you as well 

tampoco haga V. eso, 
do not do that either 
que tampoco lo haga, 
let him not do that either 

(b) antithesis, contrast, correlativeness : 



si sufrio, tambien gozo, 

if he suffered he also enjoyed 



si sufrio, tampoco lo dijo, 

if he suffered, he kept it to him- 
self 

si trabaja, tambien se lo pagan, si trabaja, tampoco se lo pagan, 
if he works a great deal he is even if he icorks, they do not pay 

also well paid for it him 

si es bueno, tambien le quieren, si no es bueno, tampoco le 

querran, 

if he is good, they also love him if he is not good, they will not 

love him 

(c) expletive, almost with- (c) ironical, almost without 
out reference to a previous reference to a previous nega- 
affirmation : tion : 

j tambien tiene usted una calma !, tampoco miente ese hombre, 

you take it easily, indeed ! what a liar he is ! 

\ tambien podia usted haberlo tampoco hace Mo hoy, 
dicho !, 



well, you might have said it 



how awfully cold it is to-day ! 



OTHER ADVERBS OF AFFIR- OTHER ADVERBS OP NEGA- 
MATION : TION : 



cierto, 


certainly, it is 


jca!, 


| no ; nonsense, 




true 


; quia !, 


) impossible 


claro, 


naturally 


excepto, 


except, unless 


cabal, cabalito, " 


j . _ , 


imposible, 


impossible 


justo, justito, 


i just so , ^ usea 


j mentira !, 


(that is a) lie, 


justo y cabal, J 


| a so iromca y 




certainly not 






; nones !, 


no indeed, not at 








all, certainly 








not 



in -mente : 

ciertamente, 
formalmente, 
justamente, 



certainly, indeed perfectamente, just so, quite 
in earnest right 

just so positivamente, surely, for cer- 

tain 



164 



ADVERBS. 



ADVERBIAL 


AFFIRMATIVE 


ADVERBIAL 


NEGATIVE 


PHRASES : 




PHRASES : 




asi es, 


it is so 


casi nunca, 


scarcely ever 


casi siempre, 


almost always 


ni siquiera, 


not even 


claro esta, 


of course, natur- 


no ... jamas, ) 


never 




ally 


no ... nunca, \ 




con efecto, 


so it is, indeed 


nunca jamas, 


never, never 


de veras, 


truly 




again 


de seguro, 
de fijo, 


I surely 


en su vida, 
en toda mi vida, 


never in his life 
never in all my 


es cierto, 


it is true, just so, 




life 




indeed 


en ninguna 


in no way, not 


es verdad, 


just so, it is true 


manera, 


at all 


por cierto que, 


by the way 


nada, nada, 


by no means 


sin duda, 


undoubtedly 


nada de eso, 


not at all, nothing 


sin disputa, 


undoubtedly 




of the kind 






absolutamente 


nothing at all 






nada, 








no es eso, no, 


it is not so 



AT._Maldito si lo se 
(cursed be) indeed, I do not 
know. 



III. ADVERBS OF DOUBT : 



by chance, by talvez, \ 

accident, may quizas, 
be, perJiaps quiza, 



may be, perhaps 



with the subjunctive in general to express doubt, suggestion : 



acaso este enfermo, 
tal vez lo sepa, 
quiza no sea cierto, 



maybe he is ill 
perhaps he knows it 
perhaps it is not true 



with the indicative to express strong suggestion, belief: 
tal vez lo sabe y no lo dice, 
quizas lo ha perdido, 



perhaps he knows it, but does not tell 
(i.e., I think he knows it, etc.) 

perhaps he has lost it (i.e., I believe 
he has lost it) 



EEMARK. acaso, if preceded by si, may be used either 
with the indie., or with the imperf. or past ant. subj. 



si acaso lo hace, que lo 

pronto, .' let him do it soon if he is going to 

si acaso lo hiciese que lo haga f do it 

pronto, j 



ADVERBS. 165 

N.B. acaso, with the indicative, may be used as a nega- 
tive in questioning. 

I acaso lo s6 yo ?, how should I know ? 

I acaso dijo el eso ?, has he ever said that ? 

OTHER ADVERBS AND PHRASES OF DOUBT : 

dificilmente, scarcely quiensabesi...?,wAo knows if? 

escasamente, scarcely puede que, may be 

probablemente, probably por si acaso, in (any) case 

ADVERBS OF QUANTITY. 

Cuanto (interrogative, Tanto is used almost always 
^ cuanto ?, admirative, in a similar way to cuanto. 
; cuanto!.) 

great in quantity, price : 

I cuanto comprare ? Una libra, i tanto compro V. ?, 

how much shall I buy ? A pound did you buy as much as that ? 

I cuanto le costo a V. ?, i tanto le costo a V. ?, 

how much did it cost you ? did it cost you as much as that ? 

long in duration : 

i cuanto estuvo V. alii ?, $ tanto estuvo V. alii ?, 

how long were you there ? were you there as long as that ? 

admirative : 

\ cuanto lo siento !, j lo siento tanto !, 

how sorry I am ! I am so sorry for it ! 

; cuanto me alegro !, j me alegro tanto !, 

how glad 1 am ! I am so glad ! 

emphatic : 

V. sabe cuanto lo deseo, no sabia que lo desease V. tanto, 

you know how much I ii'ish it I did not know you wished it so 

much 

equivalent to " all" todo lo equivalent to i.e. "fast" : 
que: 

come cuanto quiere, or todo lo corria tanto ; llovia tanto, 
que quiere, 

he eats as much as he likes he was running so fast ; it rained 

so fast 



166 ADVERBS. 

IDIOMS : 

cuanto antes, as soon as pos- algun tanto, a little, rather, 

sible somewhat 

cuanto mas, the more so, ni tanto, ni tan not so much as 

especially poco, that ! 

cuanto mas que besides, moreover tanto mas que the more so since, 
. . . ., . . ., with more 

I a cuanto ?, how much ? reason 

en cuanto . . ., as soon as . . a tanto, so much, at so 

en cuanto a . . ., as to . . much 

en tanto (que), or in the meantime 
entretanto 



por lo tanto, therefore 

no lo decia yopor / did not say it 

tanto, for that 

estar al tanto to be acquainted 
(de), with some- 

thing 

le ofrecieron tanto y cuanto, they offered him this, that, and the 

other 

REMARK. Tanto and cuanto when immediately followed 
by an adjective, participle, or adverb, are respectively turned 
into tan, cuan; the latter, in familiar language especially, 
almost always to be replaced by que : 

cuan gran canti- what a large tan gran canti- such a large 

dad, quantity dad, quantity 

cuan caro, how dear tan caro, so dear 

cuan largo what a long time tan largo tiempo, such a long time 

tiempo, 

cuan triste, cuan how sorry, how tan triste, tan so sorry, so glad 

alegre, glad alegre, 

cuan d e s e o s o how I long for . . tan deseosoestoy, so anxious am 1 

estoy, 

cuan enfadado how angry tan enfadado, so angry 

cuandistinguido,Aow distin- tan distinguido, so distinguished 

gidshed 

cuan cerca, cuan how near, how tan cerca, tan so near, so far 

lejos, far lejos, 

cuan Men, cuan how well, how tan bien, tan mal, so well, so badly 

mal, badly, 

Also que gran cantidad, que caro, que enfadado, que 
cerca, etc. 

Que (followed by the singular) with tan is equivalent to 
" wliat a " : 
; qu6 hombre tan bueno ! what a good man ! 



ADVERBS. 167 

Que (followed by the plural) with tan is equivalent to 
"what": 

que tiendas tan bonitas, what beautiful shops 

EXCEPTION. Tanto and cuanto remain when used com- 
paratively, thus before m&s and menos, and words which are 
themselves comparatives : 

cuanto mas, cuanto menos, how much more, how much less 

tanto mas, tanto menos, so much more, so much less 

cuanto mejor, cuanto peor, how much better, how much ivorse 

cuantc mayor, cuanto menor, how much greater (or larger), how 

much smaller 

tanto mejor, tanto peor, so much better, so much worse 

tanto mayor, tanto menor, so much greater (larger), so much 

smaller 

N.B. As correlatives : 

cuanto mas . . , tanto mas . . , the more . . , the more . . 

cuanto menos . ., tanto menos . ., the less . ., the less . . 

cuanto mejor . ., tanto mejor . ., the better . ., the better . . 

cuanto mayor . ., tanto mayor . ., the larger . ., the larger . . 

See APPENDIX, " COMPARISON WITH VERBS, ADVERBS," ETC. 

Adverbs of quantity answer the question % cuanto ?, how 

much ? 

1. M&s, more, some more, Menos, less, a little less, 
a little more, else : fewer : 

I quiere usted mas, or un poco menos, dme usted menos, 
mas?, 

do you want some more ? (or a less ; give me a little less 

little more ?) 

deme usted algunos mas, ahora bebe menos, 

give me some more he drinks less now 

I quiere usted algo mas ?, hoy hay menos gente, 

do you want anything more? (or there are fewer people to-day 
anything else ?) 

the more, the more so, most : the less, the less so, least : 

lo hizo para ofenderle mas, la console para que lo sintiera 

menos, 

he did it to offend him the more he consoled her, that she might 

feel it the less 

lo har6, y mas por usted, no se lo diria, y menos hoy, 

I will do it, and the more so for I would not tell him, and the 

you less so to-day 

es el hombre mas instrufdo, es la menos orgullosa de todas, 

he is the most learned man she is the least proud of all 

es lo mas que puedo decir, es lo menos que deberia hacer, 

it is the most I can say it is the least he ought to do 



168 



ADVERBS. 



with negatives : 

I no quiere usted mas ?, 

do you not want any more? 
(anything more, or anything 
else .?) 
no volvere' nunca mds, 

/ will never come again 
no se detenga usted mas, 
do not stop any longer 

to translate the English 
"rather," "better," " I could 
not help," "past:" 

(with querer) . 

mas quiero salud que riqueza, 

/ would rather have health than 
wealth 

(with valer): 

mas vale tarde que nunca, 

better late than never 



no pude menos de hacerlo, 

I could not help doing it ( bid 
do it) 

no lo quiero menos por eso, 
/ like him none the less for that 



to translate the English 
" rather," " better," " I could 
not help," "not yet:" 



menos quiero riqueza que salud, 

/ would rather have health than 
wealth 



(with tener) : 

no tuve mas remedio que hacerlo, 

/ could not help doing it 
son mas de las diez, 
it is past ten 

IDIOMS : 
dar de mds, to give too much dar de menos, 



menos vale la riqueza que la salud, 

health is better than wealth 

(with poder) : 

no pude menos de decirselo, 
1 could not help telling him 
son menos de las once, 

it is not yet eleven 



estar de mas, not to be wanted 
venir a mas, to be in a better 

position 
a mas, or a mds besides, moreover 

que . ., 
y a mas a mas, and besides all 

that 
lo mas, ) 

' r, 

> at the utmost 



cuando mas, j 

sin mas ni mas, 

todo tiene sus mas y BUS menos, 

es cuestion de poco mas 6 menos, 



to give short 
change, not to 
give the right 
'money 

echar de menos, to miss 

venir a menos, to have been 
better off 

a menos que, unless (with the 
subj. ) 

ni mucho menos, far from it 

lo menos, 

a lo menos, 

todo lo menos, 

cuando menos. J 

without more ado, without warning 

everything has its pro and con 

it is a matter of little importance 



^ 



See COMPARISON WITH VERBS, ADVERBS, ETC. 



ADVERBS. 



169 



2. Mucho. It means great 
in quantity, price, long in 
duration, and is generally 
translated by much, very much, 
too much, a great deal, long, 
a long time. 

On account of their special 
tively used : 

(a) before mas and menos 
(more and less), either by 
themselves or when in con- 
junction with adjectives, par- 
ticiples and adverbs, to form 
comparatives of superiority 
and inferiority. 

mas, mucho mas ; menos, mucho 

menos, 

more, much more; less, much less 
mucho mas facil ; mucho mas 

dificil, 

much easier ; much more difficult 
mucho menos joven y bonita, 

not so young and pretty 
mucho mas hombre ; mucho mas 

amigo, 

more of a man ; a greater friend 

mucho mas amante ; mucho 

menos odiado, 

much more loving ; not so much 

hated 
mucho mas temprano ; mucho 

mas tarde, 

much earlier ; much later 
mucho menos cerca ; mucho 

menos lejos, 

not nearly so near; not nearly 
so far 



Muy. It is an abbreviated 
form of mucho, and means 
high degree ; it is generally 
translated by very or great. 



signification, they are respec- 

(a) before adjectives, ad- 
jective-nouns, participles and 
adverbs (antes, before, des- 
pues, after, excepted), in their 
positive degree, to express 
superlative degree. 



muy facil, muy dificil, 

very easy, very difficult 
muy joven y bonita, 

very young and pretty 
muy hombre, muy amigo, 

manly, man enough to . . . ; a 

great friend 
muy amante, muy odiado, 

very loving ; (very) much hated 
muy temprano, muy tarde, 

very early, very late 
muy cerca, muy lejos, 

very near, very far 



N.B. Thus with actual N.B. As an exception, 



comparatives : 

mucho mejor, mucho peor, 

much better, much worse 
mucho mayor, mucho menor, 
much greater, much smaller 



with the following compara- 
tives : 
muy anterior, muy posterior, 

much earlier, much later 
muy superior, muy inferior, 

superior by far, inferior by far 



170 



ADVERBS. 



(b) before the adverbs antes 
and despues, to emphasize 
ideas of order and time : 

mucho antes, long before, a 
mucho despues, long time afte / 

mucho antes que a long timebefore 
yo, me 

mucho despues long after one 
de la una, 

(c) with active verbs, there- 
fore with haber as active, also 
when haber is followed by 
past participles (those of ser, 
estar, or their equivalents 
excepted, unless preceded by 
mas or menos) : 

I pasea V. mucho ? No mucho, 

do you walk much ? Not much 
me gusta mucho, 

/ like it very 'much 
I habra mucho ?, 

how long? also how far? 
come mucho, 

he eats a great deal 
corre mucho ; llueve mucho, 

he runs very fast; it is raining 

very fast 
le conocen mucho, 

they know him well 
me sorprende mucho, 

it surprises me very much 

Of.: 



no parece muy satisfecho, 

no parece mucho mas satisfecho, 

IDIOMS : 

mucho, or mucho certainly, in- 

que si, deed 

ni con mucho, not . . . by far 
ni mucho menos, far from it 
por mucho que no matter how 

(and the subj.), much 
lo tengo en/ think a great 
mucho, deal of him 



(b) before almost 
verbial phrases, to 
superlativeness : 

muy al contrario, 
muy a menudo, 
muy de repente, 
muy por lo bajo, 



all ad- 
express 



muy raras veces, 



on the contrary 
very often 
very suddenly 
in a very low 

voice 
very seldom 



(c) with ser and estar and 
their equivalents, as a rule 
when used in conjunction with 
adjectives, provided mas, 
menos are not employed : 



no parece muy satisfecho, 

he does not seem very satisfied 
queda muy cansado ; viene muy 
mojado, 

he is very tired ; he is very wet 

es muy conocido, 

he is very well known 
estoy muy sorprendido, 

/ am very much surprised 

N.B.No este usted 
mucho, do not be long. 

no viene muy mojado, 

no viene mucho menos mojado, 



por muy . . . que, no matter 
(and the subj. ), how . . . 



ADVERBS. 171 

ge me da nmcho, it is very im- 
portant to me 

mucho sera que / should not 
no venga, wonder if he 

came 

el mucho andar too much walk- el muy necio del the stupid ser- 
cansa, ing tires one criado . . ., vant . . . 

GENERAL REMARK. Mucho can stand by itself, which 
muy cannot ; thus, in answering when the positive is omitted, 
muy is replaced by mucho : cf. : 

I come mucho ? Mucho, i esta usted muy sorprendido ? 

Mucho, 

N.B. Muchisimo, very much, follows mucho. 

3. Algo with adjectives, participles, verbs and adverbs : 

sabe algo de Trance's, he knows a little French 

me hablo algo resentido, he spoke to me as if rather wounded 

me parece algo caro, it seems to me rather dear 

somos algo parientes, we are distant relations 

ha heredado algo, he has inherited some money 

4. -Poco little, very little, scarcely any. It cannot be 
used with muy, but un poco, a little, something, can be 
used with muy. Cf. : 

sabe poco francos, sabe un poco de trance's, 

me hablo poco resentido, me hab!6 un poco resentido, 

me parece poco caro, me parece un poco caro, 

somos poco parientes, somos un poco parientes, 

ha heredado poco, ha heredado un poco, 

aguarde V. poco, do not wait aguarde V. un poco, wait a little 

long 

entr6 poco despues, he entered entr6 un poco despues, he entered 

soon after a little later 

Notice : 

; poco que se hablo de eso ! (iron. ), it was not much talk about it ! 

a poco lo matan, they nearly killed him 

a poco lo mataron, soon after they killed Mm 

por poco me caigo, I nearly fell down 

Some substitutes for algo in all its meanings are : 

5. -Apenas, scarcely : it -Casi, almost : it can be 
cannot be used with no : used with no : 

casi nunca, scarcely ever 

casi siempre, almost always 

apenasleveo, / scarcely see le veo casi / see him al- 
him siempre, most always 



172 ADVERBS. 

apenas p u e d e he can scarcely casi puede andar, he in almost 
andar, walk able to walk 

apenas es un he scarcely is casi es un nino, he is almost a 
hombre, a man boy 

apenas hay vino, there is scarcely casi no hay vino, the wine is al- 
any wine most finished 

ironically : 

; vaya, que apenas lloras tu por well, you cry enough for nothing 
nada !, 

Apenas is equivalent to casi no : 

no hay vino apenas, or apenas there is scarcely any wine (left) 

hay vino, or casi no hay vino, 
apenas viene por aqui, or casi he scarcely makes any appearance 

no viene por aqui, 

In correlative sentences : 

apenas me vio, cuando me saludo, the moment he saw me, he greeted 

me 
apenas viene, que no me hable the moment he comes, he speaks of 

de V., you to me 

apenas venido, se fue, he had hardly arrived, when he 

went away again 
N.B. casi, casi, very nearly 

For nada see INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



173 



PREPOSITIONS (Preposiciones). 
A. 



1. With certain verbs and 
a-, ab-, ac-, ad-, ante-, ar-, etc 

positions a, ab, ad, ante : 

abalanzarse a los peligros, 
absolver a alguien, 
acceder a algo, 
accessible a todos, 
adaptarse a todo, 
adelantarse a otros, 
admirar a alguien, 
anteponer una cosa a otra, 

anticiparse a otro, 
apelar a un amigo, 
apresurarse a hacer algo, 
arreglarse uno a lo que tiene, 

arrojarse al agua, 
asistir a los enfermos, 
asociarse a otro, 
atenerse a lo seguro, 
atribuir a otro, 



adjectives having the prefixes 
, derived from the Latin pre- 



to rush into dangers (headlong into) 

to acquit someone 

to accede to something 

accessible to all 

to adapt one's self to anything 

to be ahead of others, to take the lead 

to admire someone 

to put something before (Jwld it 

above) another 
to anticipate someone 
to appeal to a friend 
to make haste to do something 
to accommodate one's self to one's 

means 

to throw one's self into the water 
to assist the sick 

to associate one's self with another 
to keep to the safe side 
to attribute to another 



2. With certain verbs of motion, showing : 



(a) Readiness for action, or 

disponerse a hacer algo, 
inclinarse a perdonar, 
prepararse a salir, 
determinarse a, 
resol verse a, 
persuadirse a, 

convertirse a (otra religion), 
someterse a la voluntad de otro, 

(b) Beginning of an action : 

empezar a, \ 
comenzar a, j 
ponerse a, 
proceder a, 
probar a saltar, 
meterse a corregir, 



determination : 

to prepare one's self to do something 

to be inclined to pardon 

to prepare one's self to go out 

to resolve to 

to be resolved to 

to be persuaded to 

to be converted to (another religion) 

to submit one's self to another's will 



to begin to 

to set one's self to 

to proceed to 

to try to jump 

to put one's self forward to correct 



174 PREPOSITIONS. 

(c) Continuation of an action, habit (almost reflexive) : 

acostumbrarse a, to get used to 

aplicarse a los estudios, to devote one's self to study 

consagrarse a la familia, to devote one's self to ones family 

darse a las diversiones, to give one's self up to amusements 

dedicarse a la pintura, to apply ones self to painting 

entregarse a la devocion, to give one's self up to devotion 

habituarse a, to get into the habit of 

hacerse a, to get used to 

3. Any kind of motion to, or towards, or terminated at, as 
well as the object in view; hence, antecedent cause and 
purpose : 

acercarse a otro, to approach someone 

ir a Madrid, to go to Madrid 

llegar a una parte, to arrive at (in) a place 

subir a una casa, to go up (in) to a house 

ir a arreglar un asunto, to go to settle a business 

ir a sacar de un peligro, to go to extricate someone from 

danger 

ir d pasar el dia, to go to spend the day 

subir a ver unos cuadros, to go to someone's house to see some 

pictures 

a ruegos de alguien, at someone's request 

a causa del frio, on account of the cold 

a instancias de otro, at someone's request 

Further examples : 

postrarse a los pies de otro, to fall at someone's feet 

humillarse a otro, to humiliate one's self to another 

condescender a los ruegos, to yield to someone's request 

ceder a otro el sitio, to give up one's place to another 

ceder a las suplicas, to yield to supplications 

saltar a la cara, to be evident 

caer a la calle, to fall into the street, to overlook 

the street 

apartarse a un lado, to stand aside 

desviarse a la derecha, to take the right hand 

inclinarse a otro partido, to take another view 

separarse a una parte, to stand apart 

tomar a mano izquierda, to take the left hand 

REMARK. Sometimes the purpose is translated by para 
salir para Londres, para arreglar un asunto. 

4. With transitive verbs, to point out the direct object, if 
a person, an animal, or a personified thing : 



PREPOSITIONS. 175 

amar a Dios, to love God amar la virtud, to love virtue 

odiar a los ene- to hate ones odiar la men- to hate lies 

niigos, enemies tira, 

temer a los horn- to fear men temer a \& to fear death 

bres, nmerte, 

5. To distinguish the personal from the impersonal object : 

(a) With verbs involving ideas of offering, giving, send- 
ing, and permitting, also their contraries : 

e.g. : 

ofrecer una cosa to offer something permitir, to allow 

a uno, to someone ceder, to yield 

promoter, to promise conceder, to concede 

dar, to give consentir, to allow 

entregar, to deliver negar, to deny 

devolver, to return negarse, to refuse 

prestar, to lend quitar, to steal , deprive, 

enviar, \, , take from 

mandar, 1 robar, to steal 

remitir, to remit deber, to owe 

dejar, to lend, leave desposeer, to deprive 



confiar, 



to confide 



(b) With verbs conveying ideas of speaking, saying, com- 
municating, etc. 

confesar, to confess preguntar, to ask for 

decir, to say prevenir, to warn 

hablar, to speak recomendar, to recommend 

informal:, to inform rogar, to request 

participar, to tell sugerir, to suggest 

pedir, to ask suplicar, to beg, request 

6. To point out the way in which a thing is done ; thus, 
the instrument, and therefore in adverbial phrases : 

a mano, by hand 

a pie, on foot 

a caballo, on horseback 

al oleo, in oils 

a la aguada, in water colours 

a palos, by blows 

a patadas, by kicks 

a caiionazos, with cannon, by battering 

un duelo a pistola, a duel with pistols 

un ataque a la bayoneta, an attack with the bayonet 

un dibujo a la pluma, a pen and ink drawing 

un coro a voces solas, a chorus without instruments 

See ADVERBS of manner. 



176 PREPOSITIONS. 

Equivalent to other prepositions : 

(hacia) se fue a el y le pego, he went to him and hit Inm 

(hasta) estar con el agua al to be up to one's neck in tr<it<-r 

cuello, 

(junto) sentarse a la mesa, to sit at the table 

(para) a beneficio de los pobres, for the benefit of the poor 

Equivalent to the conjunction si, or to the adverb cuando, 
or the gerund : 

a saberlo, se lo hubiera dicho -if 1 had known it, I would have 

(i.e., si lo hubiera sabido), told him 

al saberlo, se lo dije (i.e., cuando on knowing it, I told him 

losupe . . .), 

DE. 

1. With certain verbs the prefix of which is de, des, dis 
(Lat. de t di, 



decaer de su posicion, to fall from one's position 

degenerar de BUS costumbres, to degenerate from one's good habits 

depender de las circumstancias, to depend upon (on) circumstances 

derivarse del latin, to be derived from Latin 

desayunarse de alguna cosa, to have the first intelligence of any - 



desconfiar de alguno, to mistrust anyone 

desdecirse de algo, to draw back from one's words 

desesperar de todo, to despair of everything 

desavenirse unos de otros (unos to disagree among themselves 

con otros), 

deshacerse de una cosa, to get rid of something 

dimanar de otra cuestion, to emanate from another cause 

disentir de otro, to dissent from another's opinion 

disgustarse de algo, to be disgusted with anything 

disponer de los bienes, to dispose of one's (belongings} pro- 

perty 

disputar de algo, to dispute (or quarrel) about some- 

thing 

distar de, to be distant from, or to be far from 

distraerse de algo, to take one's attention off anything, 

to for get 
disuadir a alguno de alguna to dissuade anyone from a thin;/ 



2. With certain verbs of finishing, ending, etc. : 

acabar de, "j 

concluir de, \tohavcjust .... 

terminar de, 

\ to leave off, to cease 



PREPOSITIONS. 



177 



3. With certain verbs indicating any motion from or ter- 
mination at, hence an accomplished object, antecedent cause, 
and origin : 



llegar de una parte, 
subir de la calle, 
llegar de pasar el dia, 
subir de ver una disputa, 

cansado de andar, 
muerto de miedo, 



to arrive from a place 

to come in from the street 

to come from spending a day at 

to have just come in from seeing 

quarrel 

tired of walking 
frightened to death 



REMARK. The idea involved may be even a moral one, cf. : 



pasar de una parte a otra, 
pasar de la alegria al dolor, 
partir de Londres, 

Sartir de una base falsa, 
evar de una parte a otra, 
llevar de ventaja, 
salir de casa, 
salir de apuros, 
venir de Madrid, 
venir de menos a mas, 

volver de Inglaterra, 
volverse de lo dicho, 
volar del arbol, 
volar de ilusion en ilusion, 

ascender del valle a la montana, 
ascender de teniente a capitan, 

caerse de la ventana, 
caerse de su peso, 
separarse de un lugar, 
separarse de la cuestion, 

4. In adverbial phrases : 



to go from one side to anotlier 

to pass from joy to sorrow 

to start from London 

to base on a false principle 

to carry from one side to another 

to have advantage 

to go out 

to get out of difficulties 

to come from Madrid 

to improve one's position (to get 

better off) 

to come from England 
to retract one's words 
to fly from the tree 
to be carried from one illusion to 

another 
to ascend from, the valley to the 

mountain 
to be promoted from lieutenant to 

captain 

to fall from the window 
to be a matter of course 
to depart from a place 
to wander off the point 



de sed, 
de hambre, 
de frio, 
de calor, 
de ira, 



of thirst 
of hunger 
of cold 
of heat 
of rage 



de rabia, 
de coraje, 
de miedo, 
de risa, 
de broma, 
de precio, 



[of anger 

of fear 
of laughter 
for fun 
in price 

5. With certain verbs (in the reflexive or passive form) 
and past participles, to point out the agent of a reflexive or 
passive action, or the object which is the cause of a certain 
state (almost always equivalent to por) by, with, at : 

PT. II. M 



178 PREPOSITIONS. 

sorprenderse de la noticia, to be surprised at the news 

asustarse de todo, to get frightened at everything 

guiarse de alguno, to be led (guided) by anyone 

lierirse de las palabras, to be hurt by words 

llevarse de una pasion, to be carried away by some passion 

aborrecido de todos, hated by all 

curtido del sol, tanned by the sun 

penetrado de dolor, stricken with grief 

perseguido de enemigos, pursued by enemies 

querido de los suyos, beloved by his own people 

temido de muchos, feared by many 

tocada de locura, touched by madness 

6. To indicate the way in which a thing is done; therefore 
the instrument : 



de pie, 

de puntillas, on tiptoes 

de rodillas, kneeling 

de garganta, with the throat 

de un palo, with a blow 

de una patada, with a kick 

de un caiionazo, with a gun-shot 

de un pistoletazo, with a pistol-shot 

de un bayonetazo, with a bayonet thrust 

de una plumada, in one scratch of the pen 

EBMAEK. De forms part of many adverbial phrases (see 
ADVERBS). 

EN. 

1. With some compounded verbs beginning by en-, em-, 
in-, im-, generally to be translated into English by in, into, 
over, on, with : 
embobarse en algo, to be (stupidly) absorbed by some- 



emboscarse en el monte, to lie in ambush in the Mils 

encastillarse uno en su opinidn, to stick to one's opinion 

imprimir en el animo, to imprint on tJie mind 

incluir en el numero, to include in the number 

influir en alguna cosa, to have an influence over something 

reincidir en culpa, to fall again into fault 

introducirse en una Labitacion, to come into a room 

entrometerse en una Question, to meddle in a quarrel 

2. Any kind of motion into : 

referring to place, to be translated into English by 

in, into, on, upon, at, 

ahogarse en el mar, to be drowned in the sea 

caber en la mano, to be contained in the hand 



PREPOSITIONS. 179 

permanecer en una parte, to remain in a place 

servir en palacio, to serve in the palace 

entrar en un cuarto, to go into a room 

meter dinero en el banco, to put money into tlie bank 

no caberle a uno en la cabeza, not to get into one's head 

cansarse en el camino, to get tired on the way 

reclinarse en el sofa, to lean upon the sofa 

quedarse en casa, to remain at home 

REMARK. The idea involved may be a moral one (stability, 
permanency, etc.). 

confirmarse en su opinion, to be confirmed in one's opinion 

creer en Dios, to believe in God 

medirse en las acciones, to be cautious in one's actions 

caer en error, to fall into error 

cambiar una cosa en otra, to change one thing into another 

confiar en alguno, to rely upon somebody 

pensar en algo, to think about (of) something 

entrometerse en cosas ajenas, to meddle with another's affairs 

ocuparse en leer, to be busy reading 

3. Also with some adjectives, meaning ability, superiority, 
and their contraries : 

habil en labores, skilful in needlework 

experto en negocios, experienced in business 

superior en ilustracion, superior in learning 

mayor en edad, older 

4. In adverbial phrases manner : 
en broma, in fun 
en dinero, in cash 

en tono amistoso, in a friendly tone 

en mangas de camisa, in shirt sleeves 

en pedazos, into pieces 

N.B.En. not translated into English : 

estar en animo de . . ., to have a mind to . . . 

barar en tierra, to run aground 

montar en mula, to mount a mule 

entrar en alguna parte, to enter a place 

dar en el bianco, to hit the mark 

CON. 

1. After verbs with the prefix con- (co-, com-, cor-, Latin 
cum) : 

colabprar con otros, to collaborate with others 

combinar una cosa con otra, to combine one thing with another 

compensar un dafio con dinero, to compensate a damage with money 

corroborar las palabras con los to corroborate words with deeds 
hechos, 



180 



PREPOSITIONS. 



hence accompaniment, 
tact, state : 

habitar con alguno, 
partir algo con otro, 
asociarse con otro, 
pactar con otro, 
consultar con alguien, 
interceder con alguno, 
tratar con alguno, 
rozar una cosa con otra, 
pegar una cosa con otra, 
confinar un pafs con otro, 



ir con alguno, 
venir con un amigo, 
estar con otro en el teatro, 
estar con una pulmonia, 
pasar el rio con agua a la cin- 
tura, 



co-operation, communication, con- 



to live with somebody 
to divide something with somebody 
to associate oneself with another 
to agree to something with somebody 



to intercede with anyone 

to treat with anyone 

to rub something against another 

to stick two things together 

to lie adjacent (one country to 

another) 

to go with someone 
to come with a friend 
to be with someone at the theatre 
to be ill with pneumonia 
to cross the river with water up to 

one's waist 



2. With some verbs and adjectives showing disposition 
towards : 



amoroso con los suyos, 
atento con sus inferiores, 
ingrato con los amlgos, 
portarse bien con otro, 



kind to one's relations 
polite to one's inferiors 
ungrateful to friends 
to behave well towards another 



REMARK. With the words in the last group, either the 
preposition para may replace con or be placed before it. 

amoroso para los suyos, or para 

con los suyos, 
portarse bien para con otro, 



3. To indicate 
manner : 

hablar con prudencia, 
sufrir con paciencia, 



to speak with caution 
to bear with patience 



instrument, means : 

tocar con las manos, 
dar con un palo, 
conmover con las lagrimas, 
pescar con red, 



to touch with the hands 
to hit with a stick 
to move with tears 
to fish with a net 



PREPOSITIONS. 181 

POR. 

1. Place with verbs of motion : 

pasar por la calle, to go along the street 

dividir por mitad, to divide into halves 

escapar por la ventana, to escape through the window 

tomar por la derecha, to take the right hand 

coger por la mano, to take by the hand 

volar por el aire, to fly through the air 

KEMARK. After the verbs ir (to go), salir (to go out), etc., 
por followed by a noun is used to express 'to fetch,' in 
English. 

ir por pan, to go for bread 

entrar por vino, to go in for wine 

2. Antecedent cause, or purpose : 

hacer algo por miedo, to do something from fear 

vivir por milagro, to live by a miracle 

enfadarse por algo, to get angry at (because) something 

desvivirse por algo, to be anxious for something 

morirse por . . . . , to long for .... 

perecerse por alguna cosa, to die for something 

3. Unaccomplished action (compare para, accomplished 
action) : 

estar por suceder, not to have yet happened 

quedar por decir, to remain untold 

4. In expressions of blaming : 

porunasolavezquemeequivoco, I only made one mistake, and yet 

ya se quejan, they complain 

por un dia que sale, dicen que if she is away a single day, they 

esta siempre fuera, say she is always out 

5. The subject of the passive action (by) : 

guiarse por alguno, to be guided by someone 

ser querido por todos, to be loved by all 

6. As an equivalent to in favour of, instead of, as 
(towards) : 

interceder por alguno, to intercede for someone 

estar por alguno, to be in favour of anyone 

votar por alguno, to vote for anyone 

tomarle a uno por otro, to take one for another 

venir por otro, to come instead of another 

trocar una cosa por otra. to change one thing for another 

quedar por cobarde, to be reputed a coward 

salir por fiador, to appear as a security 



182 PREPOSITIONS. 

7. Personal authorisation conformity : 

por mi, puede hacerlo, as far as I am concerned, he may 

doit 

dice que por el no importa, he says that as far as he is con- 

cerned, he does not care (or mind) 



PAEA. 

1. Destination : with the verbs salir and partir, to leave 
for: 

ha salido (or partido) para el he has left for abroad 
extranjero, 

2. Purpose : 

coiner para vivir, to eat in order to live 

leer para instruirse, to read to learn 

estudiar para militar, to study for the army 

la noche es para descansar, night is for rest 

pecheras para camisas, fronts for shirts 

REMARK. In this respect para is used to express that 
something is almost on the point of happening or of being 
done (in opposition to por, which expresses that something 
has not been done, and probably will not be done). 

esta para publicarse, it is ready for Press 

estamos para salir de un dia a we are likely to start from one day 

otro, to another 

estuvo todo el dia para Hover, it threatened rain the whole day 

3. Aptitude, disposition, readiness : 

apto para el empleo, fit for the employment 

propio para cualquier cosa, fit (suitable) for anything 

estoy para usted, I am ready for you 

casa para alquilar, house to let 

4. Conditionality or comparison, proportion, relationship, 
etc.: 

esta muy alto para su edad, he is very tall for his age 

para llegar tarde, mas vale no ir, better not to go than to arrive late 

no se queja para lo que padece, considering his suffering he does 

not complain 
para hecho por el, no esta mal, it is not bad for him, considering 

it is his work 
no lo hice para no renir con el, / did not do it, so as not to quarrel 

ivith him 



PREPOSITIONS. 183 

5. Utility, benefit, and their contraries : 

litil para todo, useful for everything 

provechoso para la salud, beneficial to the health 

perjudicial para el cuerpo, prejudicial to tJie body 

esto es para usted, this is for you 

me lo quedo para mi, I keep it for myself 

6. In phrases such as : 

para mi no tiene razon, in my opinion lie is wrong 

se guardo la noticia para si, he kept the news for himself 



OTHER PREPOSITIONS. 

ACERCA de, about, relating to, in reference to, concerning. 
It is only employed in referring to persons, subjects or 
matters, either expressed or understood ; and therefore 
mostly used with verbs of thinking, speaking, etc. : 

I que sabe listed acerca de eso ?, ivhat do you know about that ? 

ya hablaremos acerca de eso, we will talk about that later on 

acerca de las minas escribire in regard to the mines, I will 

aparte, write separately 

estuvimos discutiendo acerca de we were discussing business 

negocios, 

no se nada acerca de el, / know nothing about him 

BAJO, under, underneath, beneath, below, on. (1) Expresses 
situation under (more or less close), either physical or moral ; 
and therefore (2) subordination, dependence ; thus (3) con- 
dition, guarantee, protection : 

descansar bajo los arboles, to rest under the trees 

poner algo bajo la almohada, to put something under the pillow 

crecer bajo la tierra, to grow underneath the ground 

estar bajo una mala impresion, to be under a bad impression 

hallarse bajo la influencia de to be under the influence of some- 

algo, thing 

obrar bajo las ordenes de otro, to act under another's orders 

estar bajo tutela, to be under guardianship 

hacer una cosa bajo ciertas ins- to do something under certain in- 

trucciones, str actions 

asegurar bajo palabra de caba- to affirm anything on the word of 

llero, a gentleman 

declarar bajo juramento, to state upon oath 

encerrar bajo Have, to keep under lock and key 

prestar bajo fiaiiza, to lend money on security 

bajo pena de la vida, on pain of death 

bajo la multa de diez pesetas, under a fine of ten pesetas 



184 



PREPOSITIONS. 



CONTRA. It means either opposition, 
(against], and sometimes position (facing) : 



or 



contrariety 



eran dos contra 61, 

yo estoy contra toda hipocresia, 

se aprobo por cien votos contra 

veintidos, 

apuesto doble contra sencillo, 
la casa da contra el norte, 

N.B. : 

todos le van en contra, 
siempre le llevan la contra, 
tiene una contra, que es caro, 
hizo bien, y en contra, le olvi- 

daron, 



they were two against him 
I am against all hypocrisy 
it was carried by a hundred votes 

against twenty-two 
I will bet two to one 
the house faces the north 



all are against him 
they always contradict him 
it has a drawback, it is dear 
he did good, and in return they 
forgot him 



ENTRE means intermediate in space or time, in reference 
to places, objects, persons, actions, states, etc. ; and in some 
cases distribution, co-operation, excellency, and secrecy, 
doubt : 



los Pirineos estan entre Espana 

y Francia, 

lo puse entre unos papeles, 
se sento entre ella y el, 
la vida se pasa entre reir y 

llorar, 

entre la esperanza y el temor, 
entre ocho y nueve, 
lo repartio entre todos, 
entre ella y el le enganaron, 
bendita entre las mujeres, 
yo entre mi no lo creo, 
estoy entre si me voy 6 no me 



habra entre unosquince 6 veinte, 

DESDE, from, since, and in general : 

space, distance, place : 

vengo desde Paris sin dormir, 

paseando 



the Pyrenees lie between Spain and 

France 

I put it among some papers 
he sat between him and her 
life is passed between tears and 

laughter 

between hope and fear 
between eight and nine 
he divided it among all 
between them they deceived him 
blessed among women 
I my self do not believe it 
lam in doubt whether I shall go 

or not 
there may be about fifteen or twenty 



venimos paseando desde el 

puente. 

desde la pagina 15, 
desde aqui le veo, 

time, duration : 
le estuve esperando desde la 

una, 

estuvo alii desde las tres, 
desde entonces, 
desde la infancia, 



I have not slept since I left Paris 
we have walked all the way from 

the bridge 
from page 15 
I see him from here 



/ was waiting for him since one 

o'clock 

he was there since three 
since then, ever since 
from childhood 



PREPOSITIONS. 185 



strong impression : 



desde que la vi, la ame, Iloved her from the moment I saw 

her 
desde que llamaron,dijesonellos, the moment they rang, I said it is 

they 

IDIOMS : 

desde luego, (in asserting), of course, naturally 

desde luego (in commanding, executing), at 

once 

N.B.When. the object of desde is a verb, que with the 
Indicative is employed in referring to positive facts, and que 
with the Subjunctive in expressing futurity, contingency, 
etc. : 

no sale de casa desde que vuelve he does not go out, after having 

del despacho, gone home from his office 

no saldra desde que vuelva del he will not go out, after he has re- 

despaclio, turned from his office 

HASTA, as far as, until : 
place : 

voy hasta Paris, / am going as far as Paris 

fuimos paseando hasta el puente, we walked as far as the bridge. 
he leido hasta la pagina 32, / have read up to page 32 

time : 

le estuve esperando hasta las I was ivaiting for him until three 

tres, o'clock 

estuvo alii hasta las cinco, he was there until Jive o'clock 

REMARK. In conjunction with negatives the idea of 
time may be turned into the commencement of action : 

no heredara hasta que cumpla he will not inherit until he is 

veinticinco anos, twenty-Jive 

no lo hara hasta que se lo he will not do it, unless he is told 

manden, 

nunca sale hasta que tiene he never goes out unless he is obliged 

necesidad de ello, to do so 

in bidding farewell : 

hasta la noche, hasta manana, until the evening, until to-morrow 
hasta luego, hasta despues, good-bye for the present 

hasta la vista, hasta mas ver, till we meet again 

even, no less than (emphasis) : 



186 



PREPOSITIONS. 



not to be wanting in anything, he 

even has money 
he was even rude to me 
he drank no less than seven glasses 
I have had no less than two 

thousand books 



todo tiene su limite, hasta la all has a limit, even goodness 

bondad, 
por tenerlo todo, hasta dinero 

tiene, 

file" conmigo hasta grosero, 
se bebio hasta siete copas, 
yo he tenido hasta dos mil 

libros, 

IDIOMS : 

hasta la fecha, up to now 

hasta no mas, to the utmost limit 

estoy hasta aqui, / am sick of it 

For its use in conjunction with desde, see below. 

N. B. When the object of hasta is a verb, either the 
Infinitive alone or que with the Indicative or the Subjunctive 
is employed, provided there is only one subject in the 
sentence ; otherwise, que and the Indicative is used, in 
referring to positive facts, and que and the Subjunctive in 
expressing futurity, contingency, etc. ; cf. : 

I will say the same thing until I die 



dire" lo mismo hasta morir, or 

hasta que muera, 
le espere hasta cansarme, or 

hasta que me canse, 
le esperare hasta cansarme, or 

hasta que me canse, 

and : 

dire lo mismo hasta que el muera, 

(not hasta morir el), 
le espere hasta que vino (not 

hasta venir e~l), 
esperele usted hasta que venga wait for him until he comes 

(not hasta venir el), 



/ waited for him until I got tired 

I will wait for him until I get 
tired 



I will say the same until he dies 
I waited for him until he came 



DESDE AND HASTA COMPARED. 

Desde, from, since, refers to a starting point of time, 
place, or degree, closely connected with a terminal point, 
either understood or expressed by hasta. Hasta, as far as, 
until, refers to a terminal point of place, time, or degree, 
closely connected with a starting point, either understood or 
expressed by desde. When both desde and hasta are 
the whole space, time, etc., is embraced and 



PREPOSITIONS. 



187 



emphasised. Only then it may be replaced, though with 
less energy, by de . . . a . . . ; cf. : 



desde aqui hasta alii, 
desde ayer hasta hoy, 
desde el principio hasta el fin, 
desde el primero hasta el ultimo, 
todo lo tiene, desde talento hasta 
hermosura, 

In conjunction with verbs ; desde que . . . hasta que 



from here to there 

from yesterday to to-day 

from beginning to end 

from the first to the last 

she has everything from talent to 



desde que anochece hasta que 

amanece, 

desde el nacer hasta el morir, 
desde que nacio hasta que murio, 
desde que viene hasta que se va, 



desde que venga hasta que se 
vaya, 



HAGIA, towards, denotes : 

material direction : 

hacia adelante, 

hacia atras, 

hacia la derecha, 

hacia la izquierda, 

i hacia donde ?, 

me voy hacia casa, 

I hacia donde cae el teatro ?, 

se f'ue hacia el, cuchillo en mano, 

moral tendency : 

el respeto hacia los superiores, 
tiene un gran afecto hacia mi, 



from sunrise to sunset 

from birth to death 
from his birth to his death 
from the moment he comes till lie 
leaves (expressing an ordinary 
occurrence) 

from, the moment he will come, 
until he goes (expressing a con- 
tingency) 



forwards 
backwards 
to the right 
to the left 
where ? 

I am going home 
whereabouts is the theatre ? 
lie made for him knife in hand 



respect towards superiors 

he is very much attached to Die 



REMARK. In this meaning it may be replaced by para 
con : el respeto para con los superiores : 

time : 

hacia el amanecer, 

seria hacia el mes de marzo, 



towards the break of day 

it might have been about March 



SEG-tlN, as, according, while, on, no sooner than. It 
expresses (1) similarity ; (2) conformity ; (3) temporal 
coincidence : 



188 



PREPOSITIONS. 



dejar una cosa segun esta, 
devolver un libro segun se re- 

cibid, 

segun costumbre, 
segun factura, 
proceder segun uno es, 
sentenciar segun la ley, 
segun Macaulay, 
segun creo, 
segun veo, 

segun el dictaba yo escribia, 
segun bajaba resbalo, 
segun come, sale de casa, 



to leave something as it is 

to return a book as one received it 

as usual 

as per invoice 

to behave according to one's nature 

to give sentence according to the law 

according to Macaulay 

according to my belief 

by what I see 

while he dictated, J copied it down 

on going down he slipped 

he no sooner dines than he goes out 



SIN. It means negation or privation, and is often 
associated to casi and ni. Preceding a verb it expresses an 
unaccomplished action; in a few instances is found as a 
prefix to nouns. It is translated by without, the suffix -less, 
or the prefix un-, sometimes by besides, never by outside : 



he salido sin paraguas, 
estoy sin guantes, 

p61vora sin humo, 

un cielo sin nubes, 

un hombre sin vergiienza, 

tiene en 41 una confianza sin 

limites, 

lo hizo sin querer, 
se file* sin decir palabra, 
sin dirigirle ni una mirada, 
casi sin darse cuenta de ello, 
lo dijo sin que ella lo oyese, 
eso es una sinrazon, 
un sinnumero de personas lo 

vio, 

habia alii un sinfin de gente, 
es un sinvergiienza, 
ha tenido muchos sinsabores, 
tengo otros libros sin esos, 

era ya rico, sin lo que ha here- 

dado, 
sin embargo, 



/ came out without any umbrella 
I have not got any gloves (I want 

some gloves') 
smokeless powder 
a cloudless sky 
a shameless man 
he has an unlimited confidence in 

him 

he did it unwillingly 
he went out without saying a word 
without even looking at her 
almost without noticing it 
he said it without her hearing it 
that is an injustice 
a lot of people saw it 

there were no end of people there 

he is a shameless man 

he has had many griefs 

I have some other books, without 

those 
he was a rich man, besides what 

he has inherited 
however 



N.B.To translate English yet : 
es bonita sin ser orgullosa, 
es caro sin ser bueno, 



she is pretty, and yet she is not 

proud 
it is dear, and yet it is not good 



PREPOSITIONS. 



189 



SO. It is equivalent to under, though it is only used 
before a few words, such as capa, color, pena, pretexto, and 
may be replaced by bajo. Placed before an abusive word, it 
accentuates its meaning : 
so capa de amistad, or bajo capa under the cloak of friendship 

de amistad, 
so color de religion, 
so pretexto de verle, 



so cobarde, 
tunante, so tunante, 



under the cloak of religion 
under the pretext of seeing him 
oh, you great coward, the great 

coward 
oh, you great rascal, the great 

rascal 



SOBRE. It means location, more or less high or near ; 
also high degree or moral position ; subject (in speaking or 
arguing or pledging), and subject or object upon which 
actions are directed : 



el libro esta sobre la mesa, 

el sol derrama su luz sobre la 

tierra, 
la verdad prevalece sobre la 

mentira, 

Dios vela sobre las criaturas, 
hablamos sobre us ted, 
la disputa file" sobre una deuda, 
le prestaron dinero sobre unas 

casas, 

una letra sobre Londres, 
girar sobre una casa de comercio, 
el ejercito va sobre Paris, 

REMARK : 

sobre ser fea, es orgullosa, 
mentira sobre mentira, 
mano sobre mano, 



the book is on the table 

the sun sheds his light on the earth 

truth prevails over falsehood 

God watches over all 

we spoke about you 

the quarrel was about a debt 

they lent him money on some 

houses 

a draft upon London 
to draw upon a firm 
the army is directed against Paris 



she is proud besides being ugly 
lie after lie 
hands folded 



ANTE. It means (1) before, in front, in the presence of: 
(2) above, first : 



arrodillarse ante el altar, 
declarar ante el juez, 

ante Dios y ante los hombres, 
ante todo, 



to kneel down before the altar 
to make a statement before a magis- 
trate 

before God and men 
above all 



It is sometimes placed before a word or a sentence, so as 
to bring it forward as the reason of anything : 

I qui^n no se conmueve ante who is not moved by tears ? 

lagrimas ? 
ante aquel telegrama se march6, after that telegram, he started 



190 PREPOSITIONS. 

TEAS. It means order, succession, place behind, and may 
be translated by after, behind, also by besides, not only : 

la vi tras los cristales, / saw her behind the window 

tras la tempestad. la calma, after the storm comes the calm 

corra usted tras 61, run after him 

tras la juventud viene la vejez, after manhood, old age follows 

tras de ser (or tras ser) malo es it is dear, besides being bad 

caro, 

tras de no venir, no escribe, lie not only does not come, but does 

not write 

REMARK. When meaning behind it may be replaced by 
detras de, when succession, by despues de : 

la vi detras de los cristales, 
despues de la tempestad, la 
calma, 



CONJUNCTIONS. 191 



CONJUNCTIONS (Conjunciones). 
I. CONNECTIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 

Y, [*], and : 

They connect either words or sentences; e replaces y 
before words beginning by i, or hi ; cf. : 

Inglaterra y England and Francia e Ingla- France and En<j- 

Francia, France terra, land 

importan y ex- they import and exportan e im- they export and 

portan, export portan, import 

hijo y padre, son and father padre e hijo, father and son 

lo hicieron y they did it and lo dijeron e they said it and 

dijeron, said it hicieron, they did it 

REMARK. Before hie (also before y), y remains ; cf. : 

liabla y Mere, he speaks and he wounds 

el y yo, he and I 

USE OF THE CONJUNCTION y : 

In a series, between the two last : 

ayer, hoy y manana, yesterday, to-day, and to-morrow 

vaya usted, digaselo, y vuelva, go, tell him, and come back 

REMARK. In reading out numbers, or in writing them, 
y is inserted only when the last two are tens and units : 

1890, 1898, mil ochocientos noventa, mil ochocientos noventa y ocho 
1902, mil novecientos dos 

Between two or more words, or sentences, in groups of 
antagonistic ideas, for the sake of contrast : 

ricos y pobres, todos han de rich and poor all must die 

morir, 

enriquecid a otros, y murio en la he made others rich, and died in 

miseria, poverty himself 

Joining two words alike, as an equivalent to after in 
similar cases, or to many and many a . . . : 

dias y dias, day after day, many and many a day 



192 CONJUNCTIONS. 

At the beginning of sentences of any kind, and either re- 
ferring, or not, to something previously said : 

I y que" le contestd listed ? and what did you answer Mm ? 

y tuvo listed mucha raz6n, and you were quite right 

I y rineron ustedes ? did you fall out with him, then ? 

y para siempre, yes, for ever 

j y qu6 lastima, despues de tan- what a pity, after so many years of 

tos afios de amistad ! friendship 

j y quo" calor hace ! oh dear, how warm it is 

At times it assumes an affirmative, intensive character, at 
others an adversative one : 

I le vio usted ? Y le liable", Did you see him ? Yes, and spoke 

to Mm, too 
I y no dijo listed que nunca iria Did you not say you would never 

a verle ? go to see him ? 

lo dije, y no lo he hecho ; asi I said it, but I have not done it ; 

somos, such is the way of the world 

Y followed by no differs in meaning according to 
emphasis : 

le vf, y no le hable, / saw Mm, but (and) I did not 

speak to Mm 
le vi, y no le hable*, I did not speak to him, I only saw 

Mm 

GENERAL REMARK. In a series of words, or sentences, y, 
if repeatedly used, emphasises the meaning. It is sometimes 
suppressed for the sake of vivacity : 

llegue", vi, vend, I came, I saw, I conquered 

el, y tu, y yo, y todos pensarian he, or you, or I, or anyone would 
lo mismo, think the same 

Ni. It means y no, and not. It refers to a previous 
negation either expressed or understood and introduces a 
fresh one, more or less connected with the first. It may 
follow a sentence with no, y no, or ni, but cannot be 
followed by no. It may stand by itself at the beginning 
of a sentence, in which case it naturally refers to a negation 
understood. 

In this sequence of negations, no, y no, are reserved for 
verbs, whilst ni initial is used with all parts of speech : 

no le conozco, ni le he visto / neither know him, nor have 1 

nunca, ever seen him 

sali6, y no volvera a comer, ni a he went out, and will not return 

cenar, either^to dinner or supper 



CONJUNCTIONS. 193 

no he recibido ni carta, ni tele- I have not received either a telegram 

grama de el, or letter from him 

ni hace frio, ni calor, it is neither cold nor warm 

ni uno solo se salvd, not even one was saved 

REMARKS. 

(1) Ni used by itself expresses : 
Understood negation : 

I le conoce V. ? Ni de vista, do you know him ? Not even by 

sight 
I le he visto yo, ni le he hablado ? have I perchance seen him, or 

spoken to him ? 

Negation indirectly shown : 

es imposible verle, ni hablarle, it is impossible either to see or speak 

to him 
estoy sin libros ni peri6dicos, I have neither books nor papers 

Strong emphasis : 

ni 61 mismo se entiende, not even he himself knows ivhat he 

means 

In this respect it very often precedes siquiera (even) : 
ni siquiera le conozco, / do not even know him 

(2) Ni may be used to emphasise negatives such as nin- 
guno, ninguna, nadie, nada, nunca, jamas, and tampoco. 

N.B. Ni may follow another negative, no cannot. 

no le vi, ni nadie le vi6, I did not see him, nor did anybody 

else 

nunca le he dicho ni tampoco / have never spoken even a word to 
una palabra, him 

II. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 
0, or, either ... or, ".bout, I wonder . . . : 
It becomes u before o, ho : 

oro 6 plata, plata u oro, silver or gold 

honor 6 gloria, gloria u honor, glory or honour 

It generally stands before the last of two or more dis- 
junctive parts of a clause, or sentence, except when used 
distributively, or with verbs, when emphasis is desired. It 
may mean : 

FT. II. N 



194 CONJUNCTIONS. 

Disjunction (either of two) : 

le ver6 hoy 6 manana, / shall see him to-day or to-morrow 

I lo quiere V., si 6 no ? do you want it, yes or no? 

la bolsa, 6 la vida, your money, or your life 

6 callese V. , 6 marchese, either be quiet or go 

Equivalence : 

me lo dijo el criado, 6 cochero, 6 the servant, coachman, or whatever 
lo que sea, he is, told me 

Approximate number : 
Sramos diez 6 doce amigos, we were about ten or twelve friends 

Restriction : 

y lo hare", 6 no lo hare", and I shall do it, or I shall not 

(i.e., I shall not) 

la fatalidad, 6 su caracter le ban fatality or his character has 
perdido, ruined him 

Suggestion : 

demelo V., $ 6 no lo ha traido ? give it to me, or have you not 

brought it ? 
\ 6 me lo habr dejado en casa ! / wonder if I left it at home ! 

Distributive : 

6 pobre, 6 rico, tiene que morir, be he poor or rich, he must die 
6 le agrade, 6 no le agrade, lo whether it pleases him, or not, I 
hare, shall do it 

III. ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 

Sino. It is used to correct a wrong statement, and to 
turn a negative sentence into a corresponding affirmative. 
In this case, since this is accomplished by the sino destroy- 
ing the previous no, it becomes unnecessary to repeat the 
verb : 

(Fue V.) : (It was you} 

no fui yo, sino 61, it was not I, but he 

(Pas6 ayer) : (It happened yesterday) 

no pas6 ayer, sino anteayer, it did not happen yesterday, but 

the day before yesterday 

EEMARK. Should the verb be repeated, or the nature of 



CONJUNCTIONS. 195 

the affirmation altered in the second sentence, sino is 
followed by que : 

no fill yo, sino que fue 61, it was not I, it was lie 

no pas6 ayer, sino que pas6 an- it did not happen yesterday, it 
teayer, happened the day before yesterday 

no fui yo, sino que me quede, / did not go, on the contrary / 

remained 
no pas6, sino que lo dijeron, it never happened, they only said it 

Sino, sino que, may be either replaced by que or suppressed 
in all the above cases, without exception, provided the verb 
is repeated : 

no fui yo, que fue el ; no fui yo, fue el 

no paso ayer, que ha pasado hoy ; no paso ayer, ha pasado hoy 

no fui yo, que me quede ; no fui, me quede 

no paso, que lo dijeron ; no paso, lo dijeron 

OTHER SIGNIFICATIONS OF sino AND sino que : 

no dice sino la verdad, he speaks only the truth 

no dice sino la verdad, he is speaking the very truth 

no hace sino comer, he does nothing but eat 

nadie lo sabe, sino el, no one knows it but he 

\ sino que se me haya perdido ! unless I have lost it ! [or, / wonder 

if I have lost it] 

IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER PARTICLES I 

no se va, sino al contrario se he will not go ; on the contrary, he 

queda, will remain 

no solo lo dice, sino que lo hard, he not only says it, he will do it 

no solamente lo uno, sino tarn- not only one thing, but the other 

bien lo otro, also 

no solamente fuf , sino que tarn- I not only went, but also I remained 

bien me quede", there 

no solo saben tocar, que tambien not only can they play, but paint 

saben pintar, also 

Pero. It is not used as sino, to correct a wrong state- 
ment, but to introduce distinction, or any sort of observa- 
tion. It may be used after either an affirmative or a 
negative sentence, and may be followed by a negative or 
employed as the first word of a period, clause, or sentence, 
or even by itself, 

following an affirmative sentence : 

si, si, todo es verdad, pero . . ., yes, yes, all that may be true, 

but . . . 
si que lo se, pero no lo dire, / know it, but I will not tell 



196 CONJUNCTIONS. 

soy ingles, pero hablo espanol, / am an Englishman, but I speak 

Spanish 

estuvieron en el teatro, pero no they were at the theatre, but they 

nos vieron, did not see us 

los dos son ricos, pero el uno lo both are rich, but one is richer 

es mas que el otro, than the other 

el dinero hace ricos a los money makes men rich, not happy 

hombres, pero no felices, 

KEMARK. Pero following an affirmative sentence may be 
replaced by sino que : 

si que lo Be", sino que no lo dire", 
soy ingle's, sino que hablo 
espanol, 

following a negative sentence : 

no lo dijo, pero lo pens6, he did not say it, but h-e thought it 

no le he visto, pero le vere", / have not seen him, but I shall 

REMARK. Pero following a negative sentence cannot be 
replaced by sino que } lest the meaning be entirely altered, cf. : 
no lo dijo, pero lo penso, he did not say it, but he thought it 

and 

no lo dijo, sino que lo penso, he did not say it, he only thought it 

as the first word of a sentence, or by itself : 

Pero esto, i quo" significa ? But what does this mean ? 

i Pero que talento tiene ! But how clever he is ! 

\ Pero que frio hace ! How cold it is ! 

Vayase usted. Pero . Go away. But . . . Oo away, 
- Vayase usted, digo, / say 

REMARK. Pero is idiomatically used to express strong 
assertion : 

esta malo, pero malo, he is ill, very ill 

es un caballero, pero un caba- he is a gentleman, a perfect gentle- 
Hero, man 

Aunque, though, although, in spite of, with the INDICATIVE 
in categorical sentences : 

aunque le vi, no le liable", though 1 saw him, I did not speak 

to him 
aqunue joven, es muy reflexive, although he is young, he is very 

thoughtful 
aunque son dos, no les temo, although they are two, I do not 

fear them 



CONJUNCTIONS. 197 

Aunque, even, with the SUBJUNCTIVE in hypothetical or 
emphatic sentences : 

aunque le vea, no le hablare, even if I see him, I will not speak 

to him 

aunque me lo diga, no lo hare, / will not do it, even if he tells me 
; que vengan, aunque sean let them come, even if there are 
treinta ! thirty of them ! 

Cuando, since (or any explanatory phrase), with the 
INDICATIVE : 

cuando el lo dice, es que lo sabe, he must know it, since he says it 
debe saberlo, cuando es su he must know it, as he is his friend 
amigo, 

Cuando, provided, on condition, if, though, even, with the 
SUBJUNCTIVE : 

lo dirla cuando lo supiese, / should tell if I knew it 

cuando yo fuera su amigo, lo if I were his friend, perhaps I 

sabria, should know it 

y cuando lo diga, que importa ?, and even if he says it, what does it 

matter ? 

NOTE. Cuando no, if not, even if not, besides. 

IV. CAUSAL AND FINAL CONJUNCTIONS. 

Porque (reason why), because, as, since : 

It is used in answers or statements (in questions j por 
que ? is employed). 

Always with the INDICATIVE : 

lo tomo porque V. me lo da, 1 take it because you give it to me 

vengo porque le necesito a V., I come because I want you 

no sale de casa porque esta en- he does not leave the house because 
fermo, he is ill 

At the beginning of clauses in introductory statements, 
somewhat connected with a previous sentence ; or at the end 
of a clause, as a natural conclusion of what has been said : 

Porque todos los pueblos tienen for all countries have their histori- 

sus leyes histdricas, y si no se cal laws, and if they are not 

las respeta . . . , respected ... 

muri6 solo, como habfa vivido : he died alone, as he had lived ; for 

porque esa es la suerte de todo such is the destiny of whosoever 

lo que se aisla, isolates himself 



198 CONJUNCTIONS. 

With the SUBJUNCTIVE : 

Sometimes the reason why and the end in view are much 
the same, and then porque (or para que, the former prefer- 
ably) is used with the Subjunctive : 

lo tomo porque (or para que) V. I take it not to offend you 

no se ofenda, 
lo hace porque (or para que) le he does it to be rewarded 

premien, 

At times the reason why assumes the character of a 
mere wish, and therefore demands the Subjunctive : 

muero porque me escriba, I am longing to hear from him 

doy todo lo que tengo porque lo I would give all I have if he would 
haga, do it 

Para que (obtainable end), that, so that, in order to : 

It is used in questions and statements (in questions para 
que"? is employed), whenever both the governing and the 
governed verb have not the same subject ; otherwise para 
is used. 

Always with the SUBJUNCTIVE : 

se lo doy a V. para que se lo I give it to you to keep 

quede, 

venia para que me hiciera V. un / came to ask you a favour 

favor, 

ban llamado al medico para que they have called in the doctor to see 

lo vea, him 

han llamado al medico para con- they have called in the doctor to 

sultarle, consult him 

In warning, ironically : 

jAhora, para que vuelvas a que- that is to teach you to break the 

brantar la ley!, law 

Eso para que uno se aisle, that is a lesson for anyone not to 

isolate himself 

Para que may introduce the result as distinguished from 
the purpose : 

escribe para que no le lean, nothing he writes is read 

trabaja para que nunca le re- however much he works, he is never 
compensen, rewarded 

Compare : 

lo tomo porque V. no se ofenda, \ / take it, so that you may not be 
lo tomo para que V. no se ofenda, ) offended 

lo tomo porque V. no se ofende, Since you are not offended, I take 

it 



CONJUNCTIONS. 199 

Q,ue. As a causal conjunction it is used instead of porque, 
pues, and para que at the beginning of sentences following 
commands, prohibitions, or in general any statement, as an 
explanation of their reason ; also after ya and asi. 

Porque, pues : ya que : 

ande V. , que es tarde, come along, for it is late 

no se asusten W., que no es do not be frightened, it is nothing 



nunca las como, que me hacen / never eat them, for they do not 

dano, agree with me 

ya que no lo necesita V. , preste- since you do not want it, lend it 

melo, to me 

no lo necesito, asi que lie" veselo. I do not want it, so take it 

Para que : 

pongale V. una carta, que me lo write to him (and tell him] to send 
mande, it to me 

As a conjunction, in general, it has besides several other 
significations to be learned by practice : 

es pintor, que no escultor, he is a painter, not a sculptor 

sf que lo dijo, he did say so 

no que no lo saben, indeed, they do not know it 

no le veo, que no me hable de V. , / never see him, but he speaks about 

you 

Que depending on verbs, with the Indicative : 

After to be, impersonally used, to show the reason why, or 



es que no lo sabe, the fact is he does not know it 

era que estaba ocupado, the truth was I was very busy then 

\ es que miente ese hombre ! certainly that man tells lies ! 

\ es que era bonita de veras ! she was indeed a really beautiful 

woman ! 

NOTE. A negation introduced by no es, no era, etc., is 
followed by que with the Subjunctive : 
no es que no lo sepa, it is not because he does not know it 

Pues (consequence rather than the reason) as equivalent 
to since, for, as : 

debe estar enfermo, pues no ha he must be ill, for he has not come 

venido, 

pues quiere V. salir, salgamos, let us go out, since you wish it 

hagalo V. pronto, pues tiene que do it soon, since you must do it 

hacerlo, 



200 CONJUNCTIONS. 

REMARK. Pues que and puesto que are used in the same 
sense : 

deben estar de vuelta, pues que they must have returned, since they 

ayer les vieron, were seen yesterday 

verdad sera, puesto que 61 lo dice, it must be true, since he says it 
me voy, pues me esperan, / must go, as they are watting for 

me 

As equivalent to then : generally at the beginning of the 
clause, so as to connect what is about to be said with some- 
thing previously said, past, or well known : 

i pues por que no viene ? why does not he come, thm f 

I No quiere V. salir ? No. Pues do you not want to come out ?No. 

me quedo, Then I will remain, here 

pues hagalo V., then do it 

In this respect, pues is used as an introductory word 
in questions, answers, exclamations, commands, and pro- 
hibitions : 

I pues quie"n se lo ha dicho & V. ? who told you, then ? 

su amigo de V., $pues no se lo your friend, why, did I not tell you? 

dije a V. ? 

pues bien, sf , well then, yes 

\ pues no se estd burlando de mi ! why, I declare he is making fun of 

me! 

en que quedamos, pues, how are we to settle it, then ? 

REMARK. In commanding and prohibiting, if the com- 
mand or prohibition is directed to 61, ella, ellos, ellas, pues 
que is used : 

pues hazlo, do it, then pues que lo let him do it 
pues hagalo V., then do it haga, 

pues no lo then do not take it pues que lo let them take it, 
tomen W. , tomen, they must take it 

Pues possesses besides many shades of meaning to be 
learned in conversation : 

he renido con el. $ Pues ? we have fallen out. How ? 

venia a pedirle a V. un favor. I came to ask you a favour. Well, 

I Pues ? tell me, then ? 

\ Pues !, lo que yo dije, of course, the very thing I said 

V. CONDITIONAL CONJUNCTIONS. 

Si. It is almost always followed by the Indicative, 
seldom by the Subjunctive and the Infinitive : 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



201 



With the INDICATIVE it may express 
Condition. if : 



si le veo, se lo dire, 

no Iran al teatro, si llueve, 

Doubt whether : 
no me escribe si vendra 6 no, 

mire V. a ver si viene, 

quiere V. decirme si lo sabe 6 

no, 
esta si se va, si no se va, 



if I see him, I will tell him 
they will not go to the theatre if it 
rains 



he does not write to say whether he 

will come or not 
see whether he comes 
will you tell me whether you know 

it or not 
he does not know whether he will go 

or not 



Disjunction in compound sentences involving antagonism : 



si tenfa cualidades, no carecia 

de defectos, 
si sufrid, tambien gozo, 



though possessing qualities he was 
not wanting in faults 

though he suffered, he enjoyed him- 
self as well 



Emphatic declaration ; even, if (though) : 



no lo hare" si me lo pide de 

rodillas, 
tu sabes si yo la quiero ! 

The reason why : 
mal podre decirlo, si no lo se, 



I shall not do it even if he goes on 

his knees for it 
you know how much I love her 



I cannot tell it, since I do not 
know it 



I wonder if they have arrived ? 
I wonder if he will come to see us ? 



Suggestion : 

I si habran llegado ? 
I si vendra a vernos ? 

Gorrelativeness in compound sentences : 

si salgo, le vere, si no, no, if I come out, I shall see him, 

otherwise, not 

Several other meanings to be learned by practice : 

es generoso, si los hay, he is generous if there are any such 

pues escribele . Si le he escrito, write to him. I have already done it 

i For que se rie V. ? Si e"ste me Why do you laugh ? Why, this 

hace reir, fellow makes me laugh 

With the SUBJUNCTIVE, it precedes 
(a) Forms in -ra, -se, to express : 

Condition either in compound or in elliptical sentences. 
(See USE OF THE TENSES, page 101) : 



202 CONJUNCTIONS. 

vendrfa, si pudiera, / would come if I could 

no lo dirian si no lo supiesen, they would not tell unless they 

knew it 
si no fuera por . . ., were it not for . . . 

Wish, suggestion in exclamatory, incomplete sentences : 
i si yo fuera joven otra vez ! if I were young again 

I y si yo dijera que no ? supposing I were to say no ? 

Strong belief or remonstration after the comparative 
particle como : 

; como si lo viera !, no vendra, lie will not come, as sure as any- 
thing 

como si yo tuviera obligacion as if it was my duty to do it ! 
de hacerlo, 

(b) Forms in -re : 

Condition, contingency : 

si pudieres, hazlo, do it, if you can 

si alguna vez supiere yo . . ., if it ever were to come to my know- 
ledge . . . 

(c) The ^Present in such instances as : 

no se si vaya 6 no vaya, / doubt whether I shall go or not 

REMARK. Si, conjunction, may be followed by either of the 
Futures of the Indicative when inquiring or expressing a doubt- 
ful sentence, also when conveying astonishment or suggestion. 

I dice si iri ? does he say if he will go ? 

no dijo si iria 6 no, no, he did not say whether he 

would go or not 
I si lo perdiria en el camino ? / wonder if I lost it on the road 

Mientras, with the INDICATIVE : 
Contrast : 

ella es rica, mientras 41 es pobre, slie is rich, he is poor 

mientras mas tiene, mas quiere, the more she lias, the more she wants 

mientras mas dinero, menos the more money, the less charity 
caridad, 

Mientras, with the SUBJUNCTIVE : 

Condition : 

se lo dejo a V. , mientras me lo / will lend it to you, provided you 

devuelva, return it tome 

mientras ella me quiera, nada I do not care for any thing, provided 

me importa, she loves me 

mientras & uno no le falte el as long as one has bread to eat . . . 

pan . . ., 

no se lo contarS mientras no me I will not relate it to you, unless 

escuchen V. V. , you listen 



CONJUNCTIONS. 203 

Como, why ? how is it ? 

With the INDICATIVE, in interrogatory as well as in ex- 
planatory sentences : 

i como no ha venido V. ? how is it you did not come ? 

I como lo dijo, si se lo prohibi ? how is it he told, when I forbade 

him ? 

como he estado enfermo, no he as- / have been ill, I did not come 
venido, 

unless, if, I wonder : 

With the SUBJUNCTIVE, in disjunctive, conditional, or ex- 
clamatory sentences : 

no vengo como no me lo digan, / will not come, unless they ask me 

como se lo prohiban, no lo dira, if they forbid him, he will not tell 

; como no este enfermo, y por eso / wonder if he is ill, and that is 

no venga ! why he does not come ! 

Con que, so, then : 

With the INDICATIVE, in interrogatory as well as explana- 
tory sentences : 

i con que se casa V. ? so, then, you are going to be 

married ? 

I con que le conoce V. ? so you know him ? 

me lo pidio, con que lo hice, he asked ?ne, so I did it 

con que i se queda V. , 6 se viene ? well, now, are you going to stay, or 

are you coming ? 

if, provided, on condition, well, so : 

With the SUBJUNCTIVE : in conditional or optative sen- 
tences, also with the IMPERATIVE in warning, etc. : 

con que se casen, seran felices, provided they marry, they will be 

happy 
con que V. le conozca, le querra, as soon as you know him, you will 

like him 
i con que ffese V. de amigos !, well, that comes from trusting 

friends 

con que, lleven V.V. feliz viaje, well, we wish you a happy journey 
con que, adios y mandar, so, good-bye, and send me your 

orders 

lo hard, con que yo se lo pida, he will do it if I ask him 
con que cufdese V., so now take care of yourself 

NOTE. con tal que, is used in the same sense as provided, 
on condition : 
lo hara con tal que yo se lo pida, he will do it provided I ask him 



204 INTERJECTIONS. 

INTERJECTIONS (Interjecciones). 

Interjections as being sudden cries or exclamations to show 
intense emotion or wish, range from pure guttural sounds to 
complete sentences : 

I. Pure interjections or guttural sounds : 

|S! | (almostanykind of emotion), *< *^ , 

i bah ! (contempt), tut !, pooh ! 

jca! (incredulity), nonsense! 

jea! (encouragement), come/, come! 

j eh ! (surprise, warning, repre- what !, mind /, the idea /, / say ! 

hension, to call attention), 

i eh? (answering, courting appro- yes /, what do you think f, did I 

bation, prediction confirmed), not tell you? 

jhola! (agreeable recognition, hallo /, now then ! 

surprise, command to inferiors), 

j huy ! (sudden physical pain, dis- oh !, faugh ! 

dain), 

jja! jja! jja! (laughter), ha! ha! ha! 

i oh ! (almost any kind of emotion), ah !, oh ! 

i ole ! (applause), bravo !, well done ! 

jpuf! (disgust, displeasure), pooh!, faugh! 

juf! (weariness, suffocation on oh!, phew! 

account of heat), 

To these, \ Ojal, ! that . . . /, would that . . . / may 
be added. 

REMARK. ; ea ! and \ ole ! among others, by reason of 
their meaning are often repeated. 

II. Parts of Speech, used as Interjections or Exclamations : 

all denoting, like ; ca"spita ! and jcaramba!, either surprise 
or anger, and not having any real equivalent in English : 

NOUNS : 

i canario ! (canary!), 

jcanastos! (baskets!), 

; caracoles! (snails!), 

i cuidado ! (care !), mind /, behave ! 

i favor!, jfuego! help!, fire! 

\ silencio ! silence !, hush f 

i socorro !, j socorro ! help !, help ! 



INTERJECTIONS. 205 



ADJECTIVES : 



i bravo !, j bravo ! \ bravo ! 

i bravisimo ! j 

I qnleto ! be quiet f 

VERBS : 

I anda ! (go along), psh !, *'s it really ! 

j calle ! (be quiet !), Never ! ; you don't say so ! 

\ dale ! (give him), at him ! ; shut up 

I oiga ! (listen), hallo /, is that so ? 

I quita !, j quita ! get along ! 

jsopla! (blow!), no! 

i toma ! (take), what a wonder !, indeed ! 

i vamos ! (let us go), now then /, be quiet ! 

i vaya ! (let it go !), indeed !, now then ! 

i viva ! ; viva ! (long live /), hurrah ! hurrah ! 

Other parts of Speech : 

i otro ! j otro ! encore, encore ! 

jfuera! jfuera! out with him /(also disapprobation) 

jcomo! well, is it really? how do you 

dare . . . / 

j atras ! stand back ! 

i ya ! j ya ! oh, I see !, yes ! yes ! (doubtingly ) 

III. Phrases more or less complete : 

i al ladron ! stop thief ! 

i al asesino ! murder ! 

j a e"se ! j a e"se ! stop him ! 

;Ave Maria j or ;Ave Maria heavens! 
Purisima ! 

IV. Most common cries to horses, etc., are : 

i arre ! or j arre, arre ! gee up ! 

i jo ! or j so ! whoa ! 

GENERAL REMARK. The proper value as well as the 
employment of most of the interjections cannot be fully 
understood without perfect acquaintance with Spanish life. 

Syntax of the Interjections. On account of their nature 
most of the interjections have no grammatical connection 
with the sentences in which they are employed, and there- 
fore they may be used irrespective of any mood or tense. 
However, those expressing encouragement, command, con- 
tempt, warning, disgust, incredulity, are most frequently 
found connected with either the Infinitive, the Indicative, or 



206 



INTERJECTIONS. 



the Subjunctive, according to the rules given in the USE OB' 
THE MOODS. Thus, \ ojala ! as expressive of a wish, is always 
followed by the Subjunctive : 



i bah !, no lo crea listed, 

1 ca !, dile que no es verdad, 
;ea!. a comer, 

2 ea !, vengase listed conmigo, 
jen!, mozo, traigame usted un 

caf(, 

5 ole !, que se repita, 
; puf !, quftamelo de delante, 
jfuera!, que lo echen, 
i atras !, no se puede pasar, 
; a ese !, ; a ese !, detenedle, 
i ojala que se ponga buena 

pronto!, 



pooh ! do not believe it 

nonsense, tell him that it is not true 

now then, come to dinner 

now, come with me 

I say, ivaiter, bring me coffee 

bravo ! encore ! 

faugh I take it away 

out with him ! have him out ! 

stand back, no one can pass 

stop him ! stop him, ! 

would that she may soon be well ! 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



207 



APPENDIX A. 

THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

GENDER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

Spanish substantives have two genders masculine and 
feminine ; and two numbers singular and plural. 

The GENDER in Spanish may be ascertained by sex, mean- 
ing, or termination. 

GENDER BY SEX. 

GENERAL RULE. All nouns, whatever their ending be, 
denoting MALE BEINGS, or THEIR NAMES, DEGREE OP KINDRED, 
RANK, PROFESSIONS, etc., usually ascribed to male persons, 
ARE MASCULINE ; the contrary ARE FEMININE : 



hombre, 
leon, 
Juan, 
padre, 



maestro, schoolmaster 



man 
lion, 
John 
father 



mujer, 

leona, 

Juana, 

madre, 

reina, 

maestra, 



woman 

lioness 

Jane 

mother 

queen 

schoolmistress 



REMARK. Many nouns include male and female under one 
termination ; when this is the case : 

(a) sex in proper names and surnames is generally distin- 
guished by their prefix, or article : 

don Trinidad, (Mr] TrinMad dona Trinidad, (Mrs) Trinidad 
el senor de Hen- Mr Mendoza la senora de Men- Mrs Mendoza 
doza, doza, 



(b) sex in other nouns denoting persons 


is distinguished 


by means of the article (el, la ; un, una), as 


: 


iiidigena, native demente, 


lunatic 


londonense, Londoner modelo, 


(artist's) model 


oculista, oculist pianista, 


pianist 


paciente, patient novelista, 


novelist 


dentista, dentist periodista, 


journalist 


dependiente, clerk lingiiista, 


linguist 


cambista, money-changer interprete, 


interpreter 


accionista, shareholder anarquista, 


anarchist 


gerente, manager carlista, 


Carlist 


obligacionista, bondholder regionalista, 


home-ruler 


bolsista (m. ), stockbroker jesuita (m.), 


Jesuit 


artista, artist hereje, 


heretic 



208 THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

homicida, homicide peninsular, peninsular 

complice, accomplice auxiliar, assistant 

reo, accused (defendant) joven, young (man, woman 

culpable, guilty person impuber, infant 

testigo, witness menor, minor 

delincuente, offender martir, martyr 

(c) sex in names of certain animals is not grammatically 
distinguished : 

el ruisenor (m. the nightingale el tigre (m. andf. ), the tiger, or the 

andf.), tigress 

la perdiz (m. andf.), the partridge la hiena (m. andf. ), the hyena 

If distinction is desired, the words macho (male) or hembra 
(female) are added : 
el tigre hembra, the tigress la perdiz macho, the male partridge 

PECULIARITIES OP SOME NOUNS IN -o : Some nouns in 
-o, masculine by sex, assume in the feminine a double signi- 
fication : 

cafetero, coffee-house proprietor cafetera, coffee-house proprietress, 

coffee-pot 
carbonero, coalman carbonera, coalman's wife, coal 

cellar 

carretero, carter, carretera, carter's wife, main road 

cartero, postman cartera, postman's wife, pocket- 

book, portfolio 

musico, musician musica, musician (/. ), music 

nino, boy nina, girl, pupil of the eye 

NOTE : 
costurera, sevnng-woman costurero, work-box 

GENDER BY MEANING. 
Masculine. Names of : 

1. PROPER NAMES OF MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES (c/. el monte, 
el volc&n) : 

los Pirineos, the Pyrenees 

los montes de Toledo, Toledo Mountains 

Feminine. Names of : 

MOUNTAINS, RANGES, AND CHAINS (cf. la montana, la 
sierra, la cordillera) : 

las montanas de Santander, Santander Mountains 

la Sierra Nevada, Nevada Ridge (Spain) 

la cordillera Asturica, the Asturian Range 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



209 



NOTE. El Guadarrama, or la sierra de Guadarrama. 

Masculine. Names of : 
2. TREES (cf. el arbol) ; FRUIT-TREES (&rboles frutales) 



el olmo, 
el alamo, 



elm-tree 
poplar-tree 



el almendro, 
el manzano, 
el naranjo, 



FRUITS (cf. la 


fruta), the 


la ahnendra, 


almond 


el peral, 
el castano, 
el avellano, 
el nogal, 
el pino, 


pear-tree 
chestnut-tree 
hazelnut-tree 
walnut-tree 
pine-tree 


EXCEPTIONS : 





elalbaricoquero, 
el limonero, 
el melocotonero, 
la higuera, 
la palmera, 


apricot-tree 
lemon-tree 
peach-tree 
fig-tree 
palm-tree 



Feminine. Names of 



la manzana, 
la naranja, 
la pera, 
la castana. 
la avellana, 
la nuez, 
la pina, 



almond-tree 

apple-tree 

orange-tree' 



apple 

orange 

pear 

chestnut 

nut 

walnut 

pine-nut 



el albaricoque, apricot 

el limon, lemon 

el melocoton, peach 

el higo, fig 

el datil, date 



Masculine. Names of : 

3. SEAS (cf. el mar), as an element : its divisions. 
/., (its states) : 

el Atlantico, 

el Mediterraneo, 

el Cantabrico, 

el mar es im elemento, 

but, 

la mar esta picada, the sea is choppy 

hace mala mar, the sea is rough 



SEA, 



the Atlantic 
the Mediterranean 
the Bay of Biscay 
the sea is an element 



Masculine. Names of : 
RIVERS (cf. el rio) : 
el Duero, the Douro el Tajo, the Tagus 

EXCEPTION. El, or la Esgueva, the river Esgueva (in Valla- 
dolid, Spain). 

PT. II. 



210 THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

Feminine. Names of : 
The MOUTHS of rivers (cf. la boca del rio (la ria) ) : 

la rfa de Arosa, the estuary of Carril, Spain 

la rla de Bilbao, the estuary of Bilbao 

Masculine. Names of : 
LAKES (cf. el lago) : 
el Lomond, L. Lomond el Rannoch, L. Rannoch 

Feminine. Names of : 
MARSHES (cf. la laguna) : 
la Albufera, the great marsh near Valencia 

Masculine. Names of : 

4. WINDS (cf. el viento, el aire) : 

el cierzo, el norte, north wind los Monzones, the Monsoons 

EXCEPTION : 
la brisa, breeze la Tramontana, north wind 

CARDINAL POINTS (cf. el punto) : 
el norte (JV.); sud (); este (E.); oeste (0.); N., S., E., W. 

Masculine. Names of : 

5. YEARS, MONTHS, DAYS, MINUTES, SECONDS (cf. ano, mes, 
dia, minuto, segundo, all masculine) : 

el ano pasado, last year 

el ano que viene, next year 

el ano 1800 (mil ochocientos), the year 1800 

un ano bisiesto, a leap year 

enero es frio, January is cold 

los domingos son dias festivos, Sundays are Jwlidays 

el minuto tiene sesenta segundos, a minute has sixty seconds 

Feminine. Names of : 

SEASONS, WEEKS, HOURS (cf. estacitfn, semana, hora, 
all feminine) : 

las cuatro estaciones, the four seasons 

la primavera, Spring 

la semana que viene, next week 

son las dos, it is two o'clock 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 211 



EXCEPTIONS : 



el verano, Summer el invierno, Winter 

el otono, Autumn 

Masculine. Names of : 

6. MUSICAL AND ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS (cf. el signo). 
NUMBERS AND COLOURS (cf. el numero, el color). 
LANGUAGES (cf. el (lenguage) idioma) : 

el do, do (mus.) el re, (mus.) re 

el punto, full stop los dos puntos, colon 

el punto y coma, semicolon el interrogante, note of interroga- 

tion 
el 1 (uno), number 1 el 7 (siete), n. 7 

el bianco, el negro, el encarnado, white, black, red 

el espanol, el ingles, Spanish, English 

los idiomas modernos, or las (the) modern languages 
lenguas modernas, 

EXCEPTIONS : 
la coma, comma la admiracion, note of admiration 

Feminine. Names of : 
The LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET (cf. la letra). 
SCIENCES AND ARTS (cf. la ciencia) : 



la a, la b, la c, 

la gramatica, 
la aritmetica. 
but, 
el abece", 


a, b, c 
grammar 
arithmetic 

the alphabet 


la miisica, 
la pintura, 
las artes, 

el dibujo, 


music 
painting 
arts 

drawing 



GENDER BY TERMINATION. 

GENERAL RULE. Nouns ending in -a, -d, -z, and idn are 
feminine, all others masculine : 
casa, house ciudad, town luz, light voz, voice provisi6n, food 

Exceptions to the feminine in -a, -d, -z. 

1. Those that are masculine either by sex or meaning : 

slbacea, executor abad, abbot juez, judge 

dia, day sud, south 

2. Among those in a : 

mapa, map tranvfa, tramway 



212 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



3. The 


following in d, 


z : 




cesped, 


turf 


alud, 


avalanche 


ardid, 


trick 


ataud, 


coffin 


tepid, 


asp 






agraz, 


verjuice 


maiz, 


maize 


antifaz, 


mask 


tapiz, 


tapestry 


disfraz, 


disguise 


arroz, 


rice 


ajedrez, 


chess 


tornavoz, 


sounding-board 


fez, 


fez 


tragaluz, 


sky-light 


barniz, 


varnish 


trasluz, 


transverse light 


lapiz, 


pencil 






4. Those in -ma (from 


Greek, Arab., or 


Hebr.) : 


clima, 


climate 


drama, 


drama 


anagrama, 


anagram 


poema, 


poem 


dilema, 


dilemma 


sistema, 


system 


dogma, 


dogma 


telegrama, 


telegram 


enigma, 


riddle 







5. Those in -a (accented) : 
sofa, sofa mana, manna 

REMARKS. Some nouns in -a, -z, feminine by termination, 
admit also of a masculine article, i.e., 

(a) Assuming a personal signification : 
in -a: 



la alhaja, 


jewel 


el (la) alhaja, 


"jewel" (ironl.) 


la cabeza, 


head 


el cabeza, 


chief, the head 


la calavera, 


skull 


un calavera, 


a harum-scarum 








fellow 


la corneta, 


trumpet 


el corneta, 


trumpeter 


la cura, 


cure 


el cura, 


curate 


la guia, 


guidance 


el guia, 


guide (man) 


la mascara, 


mask 


el mascara, 


the masker 


la ordenanza, 


regulation 


el ordenanza, 


orderly 


una papa, 


a lie 


el papa, 


the pope 


la guardia, 


guard (body- 


el guardia, 


the guard (man) 




guard) 






NOTE. 








la gallina, 


hen 


un gallina, 


a chicken-hearted 



la canalla, the rabble un canalla, a rogue 

(b) Not assuming a personal signification : 



in -a: 



la colera, 
la cometa, 
la plane ta, 
la tema, 



anger 

kite 

horoscope 

hobby 



el colera, 
el cometa, 
el planeta, 
el tema, 



cholera 
comet 
planet 
theme, exercise 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



213 



in -z : 



la doblez, 
la haz (de 

tierra), 
la pez, 



duplicity 
la surface 

pitch 



el doblez, 
el haz, 

el pez, 



Item 
bundle 

fish (in the water] 



Exceptions to the masculine : 



(a) in -e : 



ave, bird 


intemperie, 


weather, exposure 


base, basis 


leche, 


milk 


calle, street 


Have, 


key 


carne, meat, flesh 


muerte, 


death 


catastrofe, catastrophe 


nieve, 


snow 


clase, class 


noche, 


night 


costumbre, habit 


nube, 


cloud 


efigie, effigy 


peste, 


pestilence, plague 


especie, kind, sort 
fase, phase 


plebe, 
sangre, 


populace 
blood 


fe, faith 


serpiente, 


serpent 


fiebre, fever 


simiente, 


seed 


frase, phrase 


suerte, 


fortune, luck 


fuente, fountain, dish 


superficie, 


surface 


gente, people 


tarde, 


afternoon 


hambre, hunger 


torre, 


tower 


helice, screw 


vacante, 


vacancy 


indole, character 






And nouns in 4cie, -oide, 


-umbre, derived 


from the Latin 


and Greek, as : 






planicie, plain esferoide 


, spJieroid pesadumbre, sorrow 



REMARK. Masculine or feminine, though with a different 
meaning : 



el breve, 


apostolic brief 


la breve, 


breve (music) 


el consonante, 


rhyme 


la consonante, 


letter 


el corriente 


current month 


la corriente, 


stream 


(mes), 


(inst.) 






el corte, 


cut, edge 


la corte, 


court 


el (la) dote, 


dowry 


las dotes, 


good qualities 


el frente, 


front (of a build- 


la frente, 


foi'ehead 




ing , army) 






el parte, 


telegram 


la parte, 


part 


el pendiente, 


earring 


la pendiente, 


slope 


el secante, 


wccative (chem. ) 


la secante, 


secant 


el (la tilde), 


the dash 


la tilde, 


spot (stain] 



diocesi (diocesis), diocese 



in -l: 

metropoli, 



metropolis 



214 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

(c) in -j : 
troj, granary 



cal, 
carcel, 
col, 
credencial, 
hiel, 


chalk 
jail 
cabbage 
credential 
gall 


miel, 
piel, 
sal, 
senal, 


honey 
leather, skin 
salt 
sign, mark 


REMARK. 








el canal, 
el capital, 

el moral, 
el vocal, 


canal 
capital (money) 

mulberry-tree 
voter (on a com- 
mittee) 


la canal, 
la capital, 

la moral, 
la vocal, 


gutter 
capital (chief 
town) 
moral 
vowel 




(c) in 


-n: 




imagen, 
sartn 
sien, 


image 
frying-pan 
temple (of the 
head) 


clin (crin), 
comez6n, 
desaz6n, 
raz6n, 


mane 
itching 
affliction 
reason 


REMARKS. 








el orden, 
el margen, 


order (regularity, 
archit. order) 
margin 


la orden, 
la margen, 


order (command, 
religious order) 
bank of a river 




00 fa 


i -0: 




mano, 


hand 


seo, 


cathedral 


flor, 
labor, 


flower 
labour, needlework 


segur, 


axe 


REMARK. 








el mar, 
el mar Eojo, 


the sea (element] 
the Red Sea 


la mar, 
en alta mar, 


the sea (in speak- 
ing of its state) 
on the high seas 


(Ji) in -s : 


bllis, 
crisis, 


bile 
crisis 


res, 
tos, 


head of cattle 
cough 



harvest 

And, in general, all nouns of scientific use, ending in -is, 
-sis, derived from the Greek, such as : 

hip6tesis, hypothesis te"sis, thesis conclusion 

parafrasis, paraphrase 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 215 

Exceptions : 
enfasis, (m. ) emphasis parentesis, (m. ) parenthesis 

(i) in -u: 
tribu, tribe 

(j) in -x : 
6nix, onyx 

(k) in -y : 
grey, flock ley, law 

GENDER OF COMPOUND N 



Compounds of verbs, or of verbs and plural nouns, or of 
which the last factor is an Infinitive or an invariable part 
of speech, are masculine : 

uncorreveidile, a go-between un paraguas, umbrella 

un azotacalles, idler elhazmerreir, the laughing-stock 

el besamanos, leve'e el quehacer, work, business 

el cumpleanos, birthday un matasiete, a bully 

Compounds of which the second factor is a noun, or 
adjective in the singular, come under the rule of gender by 
termination : 

una bocacalle, a turning, street corner 

el portaestandarte, standard-bearer 

una marisabidilla, blue-stocking 

Exceptions : 

el tranvia, the tramway 



SUBSTANTIVE. FORMATION OF THE FEMININE. 

1. COMMON NOUNS : 

VARIABLE. (a) Nouns ending in a consonant add a : 

hue"sped, hue^peda, guest, boarder 

colegial, colegiala, school-boy, -girl 

general, generala, general, -*s wife 

oticial, oficiala, officer, journey-man, -woman 

espanol, espanola, Spaniard, Spanish woman 

aleman, alemana, German, -woman 



216 THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

Catalan, catalana, Catalonian, -woman 

holgazan, holgazana, lazy-fellow, -woma/n 

mallorquin, mallorquina, native of Majorca 

autor, autora, author, authoress 

labrador, labradora, peasant, -woman 

aenor, senora, gentleman, Mr, master; lady, Mrs. 

mistress 
francos, francesa, Frenchman, French (language}; 

French woman 
ingles, inglesa, Englishman, English (language} ; 

English woman 
portugues, portuguesa, Portuguese, Portuguese (language} ; 

-woman 

andaluz, andahiza, Andalusian (man, woman} 

rapaz, rapaza, boy, girl 

REMARK. Some in -dor, -tor change those terminations 
into -triz : 

emperador, emperatriz, emperor, empress 

actor, actriz, actor, actress 

elector, electriz, Elector, Electress 

(b) Those in -o change o into a : 

nino, nina, boy, girl 

muchacho, muchacha, lad, young girl 

ruso, rusa, native of Russia 

italiano, italiana. Italian, -woman 

abuelo, abuela, grandfather, -mother 

esposo, esposa, husband, wife 

suegro, suegra, father-in-law, mother-in-law 

hijo, hija, son, daughter 

hermano, hermana, brother, sister 

amo, ama, owner, landlord, master ; owner, 

landlady, mistress 

casero, casera, landlord, landlady 

inquilino, inquilina, tenant, tenant (/. ) 

criado, criada, manservant, maidservant 

gato, gata, cat (m. andf.} 

perro, perra, dog (m. andf.) 

The same is the case with some ending in -e : 

elefante, elefanta, elephant, -(/.) 

gigante, giganta, giant, giantess 

infante, infanta, infant, Infant, Infanta 

monje, monja, monk, nun 

sastre, sastra, tailor, tailoress 

(c) A few form a feminine in -sa, -esa, -isa, -na, -ina : 

alcaide alcaidesa, warder, warderess 

alcalde, alcaidesa, mayor, mayoress 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 217 

archiduque, archiduquesa, Archduke, Archduchess 

duque, duquesa, duke, duchess 

conde, condesa, Count, Countess 

vizconde, vizcondesa, Viscount, Viscountesx 

abad, abadesa, abbot, abbess 

baron, baronesa, baronet, baroness 

diablo, diablesa, devil, she-devil 

diacono, diaconisa, deacon, deaconess 

profeta, profetisa, prophet, prophetess 

poeta, poetisa, poet, poetess 

sacerdote, sacerdotisa, priest, priestess 

Czar, Czarina, Czar, Czarina 

heroe, heroina, hero, heroine 

jabali, jabalina, wild boar, wild sow 

gallo, gallina, code, hen 

(d) A very few are partially irregular : 

don, dona, Mr, Mrs (before Christian names] 

doncel, doncella, page; maid, spinster 

principe, princesa, Prince, Princess 

rey, reina, King, Queen 

virrey, virreina, viceroy, viceroy's wife 

(e) A few nouns of pairs have a feminine derived from a 
separate root : 

varon (of persons), hembra, male, female 

hombre, mujer, man, woman, wife 

padre, madre, father, mother 

marido, mujer, husband, wife 

fray, sor, brother (friar], sister 

fraile, monja, friar, nun 

yerno, nuera, son-in-law, daughter-in-law 

caballero, sefiora, gentleman, lady, madam 

galan, dama, gallant, lady 

lord, milady, Lord, Lady 

macho (of creatures), hembra, male, female 

caballo, yegua, horse, mare 

carnero, oveja, ram, ewe 

INVARIABLE. In many nouns in -a, -e, -o, and in -1, -n, -r, 
denoting persons, sex is only distinguished by the article : 
as indigena, etc. (See GENDER BY SEX ; REMARK, b.) 

REMARK. Some nouns in -ante, -ente, -iente, have in 
colloquial language a feminine in -a : 

asistente, orderly, assistant asistenta, hand-maid, xirk- 

nurse 

ayudante, adjutant,assistant ayudanta, assistant-teacher 

comediante, actor comedian ta actress 



218 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



farsante, humbug 


farsanta, 


humbug 


figurante, ballet-dancer 


figuranta, 


ballet-girl 


pariente, relative (m.) 


parienta, 


relative (/.) 


presidente, president, chair- 


presidenta, 


lady -president 


man 






pretendiente, claimant, office- 


pretendienta, 


claimant (/.) 


hunter 






protestante, protestant 


protestanta, 


protestant (/.) 


airviente, servant 


sirvienta, 


maid 


tun ante, rascal 


tunanta, 


deceitful woman 


principiante, beginner 


principianta, 


beginner (/.) 


DEFECTIVES : 







(a) Some nouns, by the nature of their signification, have 
no feminine; others, for the same reason, have no masculine: 
eremita, hermit azafata, lady of honour 
espadachin, bully bacante, bacchante 
evangelista, Evangelist matrona, matron 
familiar, dependent nayade, naiad 
ganapan, drudge nereida, nereid 

ganan, day labourer nodriza, wet-nurse 

jesuita, Jesuit ninera, nurse 

negociante, business-man sirena, mermaid 

nigromante, wizard, necro- 
mancer 

(b) In some others, with a collective meaning, either the 
masculine includes the feminine, or the feminine the mas- 
culine : 

auditorio, 
concurso, 
gentfo, 



vulgo, 

populacho, 

canalla, 



audience 

concourse 

crowd 

common people 

populace 

rabble 



customers, clients 



clientela, 

gente, 

nrachedumbre, multitude, crowd 

plebe, mob, common 

people 
multitud, multitude 



Felipe, Felipa, Philip 
Vicente,Vicenta, Vincent 



2. PROPER NAMES AND SURNAMES. Proper names follow 
the rule for common nouns, with very few exceptions, thus : 

Enrique, Enri- Henry, Harriet 
queta, 

Clemente, Ole- 
mencia, Cle- 
mentina, 

Jose", Josefa, Joseph, Josephine 

Carmelo, m., Car- 
men, /. 

Guillermo, Gui- William 



Frank, Francis 



Francisco, 

Francisca, 
Eaimundo, Eai- Raymond 

munda, 



llennina, 
Pablo, Paula, Paul, Paulint 

Paulina, 
Pedro, JPetra, Peter 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



219 



Angel, Angela, Angel, Angelina 
Gabriel, Ga- Gabriel, Gabriela 

briela, 

Juan, Juana, John, Jane 
Martln,Martina, Martin 
Bam6n,Ramona, Raymond 

Baltasar, Bal- Balthasar 
tasara, 



Bias, Blasa, 
Jesus, Jesusa, 



Blaise 
Jesus 



Miguel,Micaela, Michael 



Berenguer, Be- 

renguela 
Victor, Victoria 

Andres, Andrea, Andrew 
Carlos, Carlota, Charles, Charlotte, 
Carolina, Caroline 



Felix, Felicia, Felix 

REMARK. Trinidad, Praxedes, and Cruz are applied both 
to men and women. Surnames are invariable, and only 
distinguished by their prefix : 

el Alvarez (coll.), (Mr) Alvarez; la or las de Alvarez, Mrs, Miss, or 
the Misses Alvarez 



SUBSTANTIVE. FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 

1. Nouns ending in an unaccented vowel add S : 

familia, family; familias pueblo, people, village ; pueblos 

gente, people; gentes paseo, promenade; paseos 

parque, park; parques tribu, tribe; tribus 
metropoli, metropolis ; metropolis 

2. Nouns ending in accented vowel e excepted or in y, 
or a consonant, add es ; final x or z change into c before 

receiving the termination : 



baja, pasha; bajaes 
aleli, ivall-flower ; alelies 

la a, the a, ; las aes 
la i, the i ; las i es 

But, exceptions : 

mama, mother; mamas 
papa, father; papas 

and those in -e, as : 



rondo, 
tisu, 

la o, 

la u, 



rondeau ; rondoes 
tissue; tisues 

the o ; las oes 



the 



las lies 



cafe*, 
pi6, 

but, 
ley, 



coffee; cafe's 
foot]; pi^s 



sofa, sofa; sofag 



tta; te 



la e, 



law; leyes 



the e ; las 6es 
rey, 



reye 



220 



THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



sefior, gentleman; senoree 

autor, author; autores 

Dios, God; dioses 

ingles, Englishman; ingleses 

onix. onyx; Unices 

rapaz, boy ; rapaces 

actriz, actress; actrices 

andaluz, Andalusian ; andalu- 



frac, evening-dress coat ; fracs 



ciudad. town, city ; ciudades 
hu^sped, guest, boarder; hue"s- 

pedes 

boj, box(wood); bojes 

reloj, watch, clock ; relojes 
colegial, school -boy ; colegiales 
espanol, Spaniard; espanoles 
holgazan, lazy; holgazanes 
aleman, German; alemanes 

Exceptions : 

lord, Lord; lores 

milord, my lord ; milores 

REMARK. Unaccented ending in -s, of words of more 
than one syllable, and any surnames in -S, -z are invariable : 

lunes, Monday ; los lunes Cortes, los Cortes 

Carlos, Charles ; los Carlos Perez Galdos, los Perez Galdos 

crisis, crisis; las crisis 

Any other proper names and surnames follow the general 
rule : 

Pedro, Pedros Guzman, Guzmanes 

3. Compound words form their plural as follows : 

(a) By attaching the termination to the first fad or 

cualquiera, anybody; cualesquiera, 

quienquiera, whoever; quienesquiera 

hijodalgo, gentleman ; hijosdalgo (but hidalgo, hidalgos) 

(b) By attaching the termination to the second factor 

bocacalle, street corner, turning ; bocacalles 
ferrocarril, railway; ferrocarriles 
tranvfa, tramway ; tranvias 
barbilampino, stripling ; barbilampinos 
manirroto, spendthrift ; manirrotos 

(c) By attaching it to both factors 

ricohombre, noble; ricoshombres 
ricahembra, noble lady ; ricashembras 

REMARK. The following remain invariable : 

el, los correveidile, eavesdroppers) 

el, los hazmereir, laughing-stocks') 

el, los ganapierde, a way of playing draughts 

un, unos matasiete, swaggerer(s) 

un, unos sabelotodo, braggart(s) 

el, los cumpleanos, birth-day(s) 

el, los mondadientes, tooth-pick(s) 

el, los pararrayos, lightning- conductor (s) 



NUMBER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



221 



NUMBER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

1. NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE SINGULAR. 



(a) Those that owing to their meaning can have no plural, 
e.g. : 

el caos, chaos la geograffa, geography 

la immortalidad , immortality la fisica, physics 

la nada, nothingness la pintura, painting 

la eternidad, eternity la musica, music 

(b) Proper names of persons, parts of the world, countries, 
towns, volcanoes, seas and rivers; also of months and 

seasons : 

Antonio, Antony el Tajo, Tagus 

Europa, Europe la primavera, Spring 

Espana, Spain el verano, Summer 

el Vesuvio, Mount Vesuvius enero, January 

el Mediterraneo, the Meditcr- mayo, May 
ranean 



moral 



(c) Abstract nouns, also 
qualities : 

la belleza, beauty 
el honor, honour 
la justicia, justice 


virtues, physical and 

la virtud, virtue 
la caridad, charity 
la salud, health 



(d) Collective nouns, thus nouns in -ismo : 



la plebe, 
el vulgo, 
la dentadura, 



la infanteria, infantry 



the mob 
common people 
the teeth (set of 



el anarquismo, anarchism 
el cristianismo, christianism 
el protestantismo, protestantis m 

el socialismo, socialism 



(e) Names of materials, substances, etc. 



el agua, 
el vino, 
el aceite, 
la manteca, 
la miel, 


water 
wine 
oil 
butter 
honey 


la madera, 
la cal, 
el hierro, 
el oro, 
la plata, 


wood 
chalk 
iron 
gold 
silver 



(/) Names of professions : 



la medicina, 
la diplomacia, 



medicine 
diplomacy ' 



la ebanisteria, 
la relojerfa, 



cabinetmaking 
watchmaking 



222 



NUMBER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



REMARK. When it is wished to describe classes of persons 
or things a plural form is employed, even for such nouns as 
these, thus : 

la religion es un consuelo, 
Blanca es un nombre de mujer, 



la caridad es una virtud, 



las religiones tienen culto 
casi todas las Blancas 

morenas 
hay caridades que no lo son 



son 



2. NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE PLURAL. 

(a) Those that owing to their meaning can have no 
singular : 



las afueras, 


the outskirts 


los modales, 


the manners 


las albricias, 


the reward 


las nupcias, 


the wedding 


los alicates, 


the pincers 


las parias, 


the tribute 


los alrededores, 


the surroundings 


las parrillas. 


the gridiron 


los ambages, 


circumlocution 


las patillas, 


the whiskers 


los anales, 


the annals 


los pediluvios, 


bathing of the 


las andas, 


the bier 




feet 


las angarillas, 


the panniers 


los pertrechos, 


implements of 


los calzoncillos, 


the pants 




war 


las cercanias, 


the neighbour- 


las pinzas, 


the pincers 




hood 


los postres, 


the dessert 


las cosquillas, 


tickling 


las preces, 


the prayers 


las d e s p a b i- 


the snuffers 


los puches, 


porridge 


laderas, 




los rails, 


the rails 


las dimisorias, 


letters of dis- 


las setenas, 


the fine ("seven- 




missal 




fold") 


las enaguas, 


the petticoat 


las sobras, 


the refuse 


los enseres, 


the utensils 


las tenazas, 


the tongs 


las entranas, 


the entrails 


las tinieblas, 


darkness 


las exequias, 


the funeral 


las trebedes, 


the trivet 


las fauces, 


the throat 


los utensilios, 


the utensils 


las gachas, 


porridge 


las visperas, 


vespers 


los gregiiescos, 


the Valentian 


las vituallas, 


the victuals 




breeches 


los viveres, 


the victuals 


los herpes, 


herpes (a disease) 


los zaragtielles, 


the Valentian 


los maitines, 


matins 




breeclies 



(b) A few verbal nouns : 

los dares y the dispute los dimes y the dispute, the 

tomares, diretes, ifs and ands 



(c) Some words scarcely used but in idioms or idiomatic 
phrases : 

hacerse anicos, 
pagar con creces, 



to be broken to pieces 
to repay with interest 



NUMBER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



223 



clar largas a un asunto, 
volver a las andadas, 
jugar a las cuatro esquinas, 
lo dijo para sus adentros, 
estar a sus anchas, 
caer de braces, 
reir a carcajadas, 
creer una cosa a ciegas, 
estar en cueros, 
estar en ayunas, 



hacer una cosa a escondidas, i 

hacer una cosa a hurtadillas, | 

quedarse a oscuras, 

andar a gatas, 

montar a horcajadas, 

ir a mujeriegas, 

saber una cosa de oidas, 

creer una cosa a pie juntillas, 

decir una cosa de mentirijillas, 

hacer algo a sabiendas, 

REMARK : 



to prolong an affair 

to return to one's old ways 

to play at puss in the corner 

he said to himself 

to be at ease 

to fall headforemost 

to roar with laughter 

to believe blindly 

to be stark naked 

not to have had any breakfast, not 

to know, to be ignorant of the 

fact 

to do a thing on the sly 

to be in the dark, not to understand 

to go on all fours 

to ride astride 

to ride astride 

to know a thing by 

to firmly believe a thing 

to say a thing only in fun 

to do a thing knowingly 



el bigote, 


the moustache 


los bigotes, 


large moustaches 


la tijera, 


the tailo r's 


las tijeras, 


the scissors 





scissors 






3. NOUNS WITH 


ONE MEANING IN THE SINGULAR AND WITH 


AN ADDITIONAL PECULIAR 


MEANING IN THE PLURAL. 


el acero, 


the iron 


los aceros, 


the swords 


el agua, 


the water 


las aguas, 


floods, medicinal 








waters 


el anteojo, 


the telescope 


los anteojos, 


the spectacles 


el bien, 


goodness 


los bienes, 


the property 


la cadena, 


the chain 


las cadenas, 


the oppression 


la calabaza, 


the pumpkin 


las calabazas, 


the refusal, re- 








jection 


la carta, 


the letter 


las cartas, 


the play ing cards 


el celo, 


the zeal 


los celos, 


jealousy 


la corte, 


the Court 


las Cortes, 


the Spanish Par- 








liament 


eldatil, 


the date (fruit) 


los datiles, 


the fingers 








(colloq.) 


eldla, 


the day 


los df as, 


the Saint's day 


la esposa, 


the wife 


las esposas, 


thefetters 


la expresidn, 


the expression 


las expresiones, 


the recollections 








("kind re- 








gards") 



224 



NUMBER OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 



el fondo, 


the bottom 


los fondos, 


the funds 


el garbanzo, 


the chickpea 


los garbanzos, 


the living 


la gracia, 


the grace, favour 


las gracias, 


the thanks 


la honra, 


the honour 


las honras (t'une - 


the funeral 






bras), 




el lente, 


the lens 


los lentes, 


the pincenez 


la memoria, 


the memory, 


las memorias, 


memoirs, "kind 




memoir 




regards " 


el trabajo, 


the work, pain 


los trabajos, 


the troubles 


el valor, 


the valour, value 


los valores, 


the securities, 








funds 


el zorro, 


the fox 


los zorros, 


fox skins, fox 








tails (used in 








dusting fur- 








niture) 


el oro, 


gold 


oros, 


diamonds 


la copa, 


the cup 


copas, 


hearts (at cards) 


la espada, 


the sword 


espadas, 


spades 


el basto, 


the club (at cards} 


bastes, 


clubs 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 



225 



APPENDIX B. 

USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

DEFINITE AETICLE. 

1. DEFINITE ARTICLE EXPRESSED IN SPANISH AND 
SUPPRESSED IN ENGLISH. 



(a) before plural words in sentences which express general 
or universal characteristics : 



I como se llevan ahora los som- 
breros ? 

los cometas tienen cola, 

las golondrinas vuelven a sns 
nidos, 

los arboles tienen hojas, 

i le gustan a usted las nueces ? 

los pajaros vuelan, y los peces 
nadan, 

los abuelos miman a sus uietos, 

los ojos son para ver, 



how are hats worn now ? 

comets have tails 

swallows return to their nests 

trees have leaves 
do you like nuts ? 
birds fly, fishes swim 

grand-parents spoil their grand- 
children 
eyes are made to see with 



lying is hated 

I like hunting and fishing 

the dove is the emblem of innocence 



(b) before words in the singular, either referring to abstract 
things, or used in an abstract meaning : 

se odia la mentira, 

me gustan la caza y la pesca, 

la tortola es el emblema de la 

inocencia, 

la lena se saca de los arboles. 
el negocio esta muy malo, 
la astronomia es una ciencia, 
la fruta madura es sana, 
no temo a la muerte, 
el amarillo y el azul producen 



el verde, 
la linea va a abrirse al trafico, 



firewood is obtained from trees 

trade is very bad 

Astronomy is a science 

ripe fruit is wholesome 

I do not fear death 

yellow and blue produce green 



el tabaco es muy barato 
Espana, 
PT. II. 



en 



the line is going to be opened to 

traffic 
tobacco is very cheap in Spain 



226 USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

REMARK. When todos, todas is introduced, it precedes 
the article ; but todo, or toda takes the place of the article : 

todos los arboles tienen hojas, all trees have leaves 

todas las madres aman a sus all mothers love their children 

hijos, 

todo pescador vive de la pesca, all fishermen live by fishing 

toda fruta madura es sana, any ripe fruit is wholesome 

N.B.Cf. : 

no todo libro es instructive, it is not every , book that is in- 

structive 
todo el libro es una maravilla, the whole book is a wonder 

(c) before titles, dignities, etc., when speaking of the 
person, not to the person : 

el rey Alfonso XIII., King Alphonse XIII. 

el cardenal Cisneros, Cardinal Ximenez 

el Sr. D. Benito Pe"rez Galdos, Mr Benedict Perez Galdos 

Contrast : 

" rey Alfonso, rey Alfonso, nuevo " King Alphonse, King Alphonse, 
rey sois en las guerras," you are a king who knows little 

of war " 

(d) before the names of certain countries, continents, 
provinces, towns, and most of the volcanoes : 

el Brasil, Brazil la Republica the Argentine 

el Canada, Canada Argentina, 

el Peru, Peru la Florida, Florida 

el Jap6n, Japan la Habana, Havana 

el Ferrol, Ferrol la Coruna, Corunna 

el Vesuvio, Mount Vesuvius 

REMARK. The article may be used or omitted in : 

Asia, or el Asia, Asia Argelia, or la Algeria 

Africa, or el Africa Argelia, 

Africa, | Egipto, or el Egypt 

Egipto, 

N.B. The definite article may be used also with proper 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 227 

names of countries, towns, etc., when referred to in a re- 
stricted meaning : 

la Espana de ahora no es la Spain of the present day is not the 
Espana de antes, Spain of the past 

yo hablo del Paris de la Revolu- / am speaking of the Paris of 
cion, Revolution days 

el Antonio a que me refiero no it is not that Anthony that I am 
es ese, referring to 

(e) before the names of the days of the week and the 
hours of the day, except when stating date and time in a 
letter or telegram : 

le vere a listed el lunes, / shall see you on Monday 

hasta el domingo, until Sunday 

el ano que viene, next year 

el mes pasado, last month 

la semana proxima, next week 

son las dos, it is two o'clock 

el sol sale a las cinco ahora, the sun rises at Jive now 

but: 

lunes, 12 diciembre, Monday, December 12 

Paris, 4.30 tarde, Paris, 4.30^.m. 

EEMARK : 

entre ocho y nueve, or entre las between 8 and 9 o'clock 

ocho y las nueve, 

de dos a tres, or de las dos a las from two to three, or between two 

tres, and three 

(/) before the Infinitives when used as a verbal noun : 

el saber no ocupa lugar, knowledge is no hindrance 

el haber tenido dinero le valio, his having money saved him 

el viajar es muy agradable, travelling is very pleasant 

el nadar es util, swimming is useful 

al salir le encontre, on coming out I met him 

al oirlo, se asombro, he was astonished when he heard it 

se rompio un brazo al caer, in falling down he broke his arm 

REMARK. Sometimes, however, the article must be sup- 
pressed ; e.g., contrast : 

el saber no ocupa lugar, knowledge is no hindrance 

ensenar es aprender, to teach is to learn 



228 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 



(g) with certain words, phrases, or idioms : 



se prohibe la entrada, 

creer en el cielo, 

se ha proclamado la ley marcial, 

la lima brilla en el espacio, 

me voy al extranjero, 

los reclutas son llevados al 

cuartel, 

la Camara de los Lores, 
la Camara de los Comunes, 
asi lo dice la gente, 
la gente va a la iglesia, 
irse a la cama, 
el monopolio del tabaco, 
el ministro de la Guerra, 
compelido de la necesidad, 
todo el mundo, 
al parecer, 

al contado, a la entrega, 
al por mayor, al por menor, 
a la aguada, al oleo, 
al lapiz, a la pluma, 
es a la vez una ciencia y un arte, 
senores viajeros. al tren, 
dar la enhorabuena, 
pronunciar el si, 



no admittance 

to believe in heaven 

martial law has been proclaimed 

the moon shines in space 

I am going abroad 

recruits are taken to barracks 

the House of Lords 
the House of Commons 



people go to church 

to go to bed 

the monopoly of tobacco 

the minister of war 

compelled by necessity 

everybody 

apparently 

in cash, on delivery 

wholesale, retail 

in watercolours, in oils 

in pencil, in pen and ink 

it is at once an art and a science 

gentlemen, take your seats 

to congratulate 

to say " I will" 



2. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE MAT BE SUPPRESSED OR NOT IN 
SPANISH : 

(a) In enumerating or describing the parts of anything : 

las edades de la vida son, infancia, ninez, juventud, virilidad y 
vejez (or la infancia, la ninez, la juventud, la virilidad y la 
vejez) 

el cuerpo humano comprende cabeza, tronco y extremidades (or la 
cabeza, el tronco y las extremidades) 

but: 

las virtudes teologales son cuatro : fe, esperanza, caridad y buenas 

obras 
las postrimerias del hombre son muerte, juicio, infierno y gloria 



N.B. Sometimes the article is used with a word in 
certain phrases, while it is suppressed with the same word 
in others : 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 229 

dicen que habra guerra, se ha declarado la guerra, 

they say that there will be a war war has been declared 

liaya paz, se ha firmado la paz, 

let there be peace peace has been signed 

ha entrado en caballeria, la caballeria es un arma, 

he has joined the cavalry the cavalry is a branch of the mili- 
tary service 



3. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE is SUPPRESSED IN SPANISH AND 
EXPRESSED IN ENGLISH : 

(a) with the ordinals attached to the names of kings, 
popes, etc., both in writing and in speaking : 

Alfonso XIII. (trece, not el trece), Carlos V. (quinto) y Felipe II. 

(segundo) 
Clemente IV. (cuarto), Pio IX. (nono) 

(&) with titles of books : 

Vida de Cristobal Colon, the life of Christopher Columbus 

Vida del Principe de Conde, the life of Prince of Conde 

(c) with certain words, phrases or idioms : 

Fin, the end (in books) 

en primer lugar, en segundo in the first place, in the second 

lugar, place 

I qu6 noticias hay ? what is the news ? 

co mi da hecha, compania des- the end of a feast is the parting of 

hecha, company 

ojos que no ven, corazon que out of sight, out of mind 

no siente, 

un eclipse de sol, un eclipse de an eclipse of the sun, an eclipse of 

luna, the moon 



4. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE is FURTHER USED IN SPANISH 

TO TRANSLATE CERTAIN ENGLISH FORMS j SUCH AS : 

the possessive '5 : 

administra la herencia del hue"r- he administers the orphan's in- 

fano, heritance 

van a casa de los padres de la tliey go to the house of the bride's 

novia, father 



230 USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

the possessive my, thy, etc. : 

me he hecho dano en el dedo, / hurt my finger 

no puede trabajar con las manos, he cannot work with his hands 

I quiere usted lavarse las manos ?, do you want to wash your hands ? 

colgue el sombrero en la percha, / hung my hat on the hat-rack 

cepilleme usted la ropa, brush my clothes 

la cabeza se me va, my head is swimming 

the possessive mine, his, hers, etc. : 

aquellas casas son las suyas, those houses are his (or hers) 

mis amigos son los suyos, my friends are his 

ese sombrero es el mio, that hat is mine 

the correlatives he, who, whoever : 

el que lo haya hecho que lo diga, let him say it who did it 

la que lo sabe no lo dice, she who knows it does not speak 

sea el que sea, y vengan los que whoever it may be, and no matter 

vengan, liow many may come 

the demonstrative that, those : 

el necio de mi criado, that silly servant of mine 

las buenas de sus hermanas de those good sisters of yours 

usted, 

i vaya con el nino ese !, what a child (iron.} 



EEMARK. With demonstratives the article is only used 
when the demonstrative follows the noun, e.g. : 

no me gusta este libro, or el / do not like this book 

libro este no me gusta, 
este es aquel amigo de quien this is the friend I spoke to you 

hable a V. , or este es el amigo about 

aquel de quien hable a V., 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 231 



THE NEUTER ARTICLE LO. 

(a) Before adjectives in the masculine singular, to give 
the adjective the force of a substantive, or of a substantive- 
equivalent : 

lo bueno, lo bello y lo verdadero, good, beauty and truth 

todo lo barato es caro, cheap things are dear in the end 

lo prudente es decirselo en the wisest thing is to tell him at 

seguida, once 

(b) Before adjectives, irrespective of gender and number, 
in conjunction with ser (to be) or any of its equivalents, and 
que (either expressed or understood), to translate how, how 
much, when emphasising the attribute or quality : 

no sabe listed lo bueno que es, you do not know how good he is 

parece mentira lo alta que esta, you would not believe how tall she 

has grown 

no salieron por lo cansadas que they did not go out because they 

llegaron, were so tired 

esos nifios me gustan por lo I like those children, because they 

carinosos (que son), are so affectionate 

(c) Before comparatives, to form a kind of superlative : 

y lo peor no es eso, that is not the worst of it 

lo mejor es hacerlo pronto, the best thing is to do it soon 

tendra a lo mas cuarenta anos, he is not a day more than forty 

es lo menos orgullosa que he / have never seen a woman with so 
visto, little pride 

(d) Before adverbs, with almost the same force : 

j lo bien que escribe ese hombre !, how well that man writes ! 

j lo mal que canto anoche !, how badly she sang last night 

no sabe V. lo mucho que se lo you do not know how grateful I am 

agradezco, to you for it 

(e) In conjunction with que, almost always with the force 
of a pronoun : 

eso es lo que me admira, that is what astonishes me 

no es oro todo lo que reluce, all is not gold that glitters 

lo que es eso no lo consentire, as to that, I will not allow it 

j lo que miente ese hombre !, what a liar that man is ! 



232 USE OF THE ARTICLE. 



INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

1. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE SUPPRESSED IN SPANISH AND 
EXPRESSED IN ENGLISH. 

(a) Before nouns mostly used in conjunction with ser (to 
be) to denote class, profession, occupation, rank, etc., in a 
pure general sense ; also in personal descriptions : 

es viuda, she is a widow 

su padre era ingles, her father was an Englishman 

dijo que era contador, he said he was an accountant 

era hombre de mal genio, he was a bad tempered man 

REMARK. If the word is used with an emphatic meaning, 
or a limitation is introduced by an adjective or a qualifying 
sentence, the indefinite article cannot be omitted : 

I quien es esa senora? Es una who is that lady? She is a widow 

viuda, 

su padre era un ingles a quien her father was an Englishman 

conoci, whom I knew 

era un contador que se retird, he was a retired accountant 

(b) With titles of books : 

La vida es sueno, drama en tres life is a dream, a drama in three 

actos, acts 

Folletp sobre el socialism, a pamphlet on socialism 

Gramatica de la lengtia Caste- a grammar of the Spanish Ian- 

liana, guage 

(c) With words in apposition : 

don Fulano de tal, empleado en Mr So-and-so, a clerk at such a 

tal parte, place 

mi amigo, persona bien in- my friend, a well informed person, 

formada, lo sabe, knows it 

(d) With nouns of weights and measures, in stating price ; 
also with certain numerals in stating time : 

los venden a dos pesetas libra, they are sold at two pesetas a pound 
deme usted libra y media de give me a pound and a half grapes 
uvas. 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 233 

a cinco pesetas metro, at five pesetas metre 

uno y medio, one and a half 

media docena, half a dozen 

media hora, half an hour 

gana cuatro duros por semana, he earns four dollars a week 

(e) With certain words : 

fue aprobado por mayoria, it was approved by a majority 

estan en minoria, they are in a minority 

hace cien anos, a hundred years ago 

se lo he dicho mil veces, / told him times without number 

(a thousand times') 
date es bueno, this is a good one 

(f) In conjunction with tan, tal : 

nunca vi tal cosa, / never saw such a thing 

tal solution a nadie satisfizo, a solution of this kind satisfied 

nobody 
i es un nino tan bueno !, he is such a good boy ! 

(g) With the admirative j que . . . !, to translate what 
a . . . ! in elliptical sentences : 

; que bonita puesta de sol !, what a pretty sunset ! 

i quo" cuadro tan hermoso !, what a beautiful picture ! 



2. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE is EXPRESSED IN SPANISH, AND 
EITHER SUPPRESSED IN ENGLISH OR REPLACED BY THE 
INDEFINITE ARTICLE: 

(a) With a very few words : 

va usted a coger una insolation, you are going to get sunstroke 
tiene una pulmonia, he has pneumonia 

en un principio (or al principio), at the beginning 

GENERAL REMARK. With words in the singular in sen- 
tences of a general character, either the definite or the in- 
definite article may be used : 

un pobre no tiene amigos, or el a poor man has no friends 
pobre no tiene amigos, 



234 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 



THE ARTICLES IN CONNECTION WITH IDIOMS. 

One of the peculiar characteristics of the Spanish article 
is its power of being used in all its forms except the plural 
masculine of both the definite and the indefinite to form 
idiomatic expressions of an elliptical, pronominal nature : 



al contado, 
al contrario, 
al momento, 
de lo contrario, 
a la inglesa, 
a la moda. 



a la chita callando, 

obrar a la ligera, 

tenderse a la larga, 

al oleo, 

al punto, 

al reves, 

por lo comun, 

armarla, 

correrla, 

hacerla, 

pintarla, 

guardarsela a uno, 

freirsela a uno, 

jugarsela a uno de puno, 

pegarsela a uno, 

que me la claven en la frente, 

matarlas en el aire, 

apostarsclas con cualquiera, 
donde las dan, las toman, 
pagarlas con las setenas, 
se las cante, 

no tenerlas todas consigo, 
tomar las de villadiego, 
no se como se las compone, 

me la pagara, or me las pagara, 
echarla or echarselas de valiente, 
le ha jugado una, 
me han pasado a mi unas muy 
gordas, 



ready money 

on the contrary 

at once, immediately 

otherwise 

in the English fashion 

according to the fashion 

in water -colours 

without a whisper, on the sly 

to act thoughtlessly 

to stretch oneself at one's ease 

in oils 

at once, immediately 

upside down, quite tlie contrary 

generally 

to take up the cudgels 

to sow one's wild oats 

to put one's foot in it 

to get one's self up, to lay one's self 

out for 

to nurse a grudge 
to play a nasty trick on som.eone 
to play a nasty trick on someone 
to take one in 
let it be nailed on my forehead 

(expression of incredulity) 
to be a sharp fellow (to catch on 

the hop) 

to bet anyone that . . . 
tit for tat 

to requite sevenfold 
I gave him some very straight talk 
to feel uneasy 
to take to one's heels 
I do not know how he manages to 

doit 

I will make him pay for it 
to play the braggart 
he has played him a trick 
I have had my trials in this world 



USE OF THE ARTICLE. 235 

a lo militar, in a military way 

a lo torero, in bull fighter s fashion 

a lo hypocrita, hypocritically 

hablar a lo verdulera, to talk like a fishwife (market 

woman) 

coiner a lo principe, to feed like a prince 



236 AUGMENT ATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 

APPENDIX C. 

AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 
AUGMENTATIVES. 

1. THEIR ENDINGS. The general augmentative endings 
are : 

-6n, -azo, -ote, 

Occasional endings are : 

-anchon, -acho, 
-arron, -aracho, 

-eU6n, 
-erdn, 

-iU6n, -ina, 

-ucon, -udo, 

-ulento, 

KEMARK. Augmentatives are inflected as to gender and 
number. 

2. How THEY ARE SUBJOINED. These endings are added 
when the word ends in a consonant, and replace the vowel 
ending otherwise : In so doing, many feminine words not 
having a corresponding masculine, become masculine : 

zagal, shepherd zagalon, hombre, hombr6n 

ansar, goose ansaron, libro, librote 

nmjer, mujerona, palabra, palabrota 

casa, cas6n, or caserdn (m.) 

3. ALTERATIONS OP THE STEM BEFORE RECEIVING THE 
ENDINGS : 

(a) Sometimes with words the penultimate syllable of 
which contains a diphthong -ie, -ue, the original vowel -e, -o, 
is restored before adding the augmentative ending, especially 
when this ending is -6n, -azo, -achdn, -arrdn : 

viento, ventarr6n j bueno, " bonach6n 

encierro, encerrona buey, ' boyazo 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



237 



(b) Words in -iz turn -z into gu, before endings -6*n, -udo : 

narigudo 



nariz, 

raiz, 

perdiz, 



narig6n, 

raigdn, 

perdigon, 



N.B. From bobalias, silly, bobalictfn. 



4. AUGMENTATIVE ENDINGS WHICH ARE COMMONLY APPLIED 
TO CERTAIN WORDS, AND SIGNIFICATION GENERALLY ATTACHED 
TO THE SEVERAL ENDINGS : 



-6n (simply augmentative) 



(a) To persons. 

hombre, horn- big man 

bron, 

mujer/nmjerona, Trig woman 
senor, senoron, a big swell 
seiiora,senorona, big overdressed 
woman 

(b) To verbs, in order to ex- 
press either the agent, or 
the result of an action : 



-azo (augmentative conveying 
the idea of enormous size, 
disproportion, deformity) 

(a) To animals. 



perro, perrazo, 
gata, gataza, 
buey, boyazo, 
vaca. vacaza. 



large dog 
big she cat 
enormous bull 
a large cow 



(b) To nouns, in order to ex- 
press the action itself, or its 
effects : not real augmen- 
tatives : 



acuson, 


a tell-tale 


un golpazo, 


a bang 


adulon, 


flatterer 


un manotazo, 


a slap 


chilldn, 


a screaming boy 


un punetazo, 


a blow with the 


criticdn, 


fault-finder 




fist 


lloron, 


a cry baby 


un codazo, 


a shove with the 


empujon, 


a push 




elbow 


madrugon, 


early riser 


un aranazo, 


a scratch 


resbaldn, 


slip of the foot 


un sablazo, 


a swordcut, or 


sofocdn, 


a fit 




swordthrust 






un fusilazo, 


a gunshot, or 








gun report 






un pistoletazo, 


a pistol shot 






un canonazo, 


a cannon shot 



(c) To adjectives : 

bravo, bravuc6n, a bully, gascon 
triste, trist6n, depressed, down- 
spirited 



(c) To augmentatives in -on : 



bravuconazo 
tristonazo 



238 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 

dulce, dulzon, cloying, over- dulzonazo 

sweet 
picaro, picaron, out and out picaronazo 

rascal 
fanfarrdn, one who blows his fanfarronazo 

own trumpet 



. Sometimes -6n is employed with words expressing 
characteristics of a more or less moral kind, whilst -azo is 
reserved for material things : 

tuve un alegron, I had a great joy bocaza, a huge mouth 

tiene un for- he has a big bigotazos, an enormous 
tundn, fortune moustache 

orejazas, cuddy's ears 

ojazos, very large eyes 

-ote sometimes with a depreciatory meaning, at others 
with an idea of blunt good nature : 

un villanote, a rough peasant es muy llanote, he is a very 

un lugarote, an ugly, little simple fellow 

village es muy francota, she is very plain 

ha comprado he has bought spoken 

unos librotes, someugly,use- parece muy sen- he seems a very 

less books cillote, unpretentious 

person 

5. OTHER AUGMENTATIVE ENDINGS: 

-acho it denotes vulgarity : -achon : not always deprecia- 

tory : 

un terminacho, a vulgar ex- fortachon, very strong 

pression bonachon, good natured, 

un dicharacho, a low expression easy person 

un ricacho, a rich, rough ricachon, very rich, rough 

fellow fellow 

un hombracho, a big, ordinary hombrachon, a gigantic man 
fellow 

es muy viva- he is a frisky 
racho, fellow 

N.B. corpacho, corpachon, or corpanchtfn, a pot belly, 
and the following, the meaning of which may be seen by 
the examples : 

-alicon : bobo, silly bobalicon, simpleton 

-arron : hueso, bone huesarron, a large bone 

nube, cloud nubarron, a heavy cloud 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



239 



-ellon : 


diente, tooth 


dentellon, a snap of tJie 






teeth 


-eron : 


casa, house 


caseron, arambling house 


-ifl6n:\ 
-inflon : j 


gordo, fat 


gordiflon, or rolling in fat 
gordinflon, 


-illon : 


grande, large 


grandillon, very large, or tall 


-ucho : ^ 


flaco, thin 


nacucho, very thin (of 


[ 




flacuchon, living beings} 


-uchon : J 


largo, long 


larguirucho, very long, lanky 


-udo: 


un arbol copudo, 


a tree with a wide and thick 






top 


un hombre muy forzudo, a very muscular man 


una seiiora muy linajuda, a lady boasting of a high 






lineage 




narigudo, 


longnosed 


-ulento : 


cuerpo, body 


corpulento, corpulent 


-ullon : 


grande, grandullon, 


very large } or tall 


-urron : 


santo, saint 


santurron, a hypocrite 



REMARK. Endings -ada, -ina are used to form words 
somewhat of an augmentative character : 



una catalanada, 

una andaluzada, j 

tener una corazonada, 

hubo alii una cache tina (or una 
degollina, una sarracina, una 
tremolina), 



tlie sort of thing that either a Catalan 
or an Andalusian would do (as 
conceived by a Castilian, i.e., a 
rough action, a lie, gasconade) 

to have an inspiration 

there was there a brawl (a slaughter 
or a quarrel) 



6. AUGMENTATIVES IN THEIR STRUCTURE ONLY. Having 
an independent meaning : 

(a) Most of the words in -azo denoting blows, reports, as 
manotazo, bayonetazo, sablazo, etc. 



(b) The following, among others: 



espuela, 
leche, 
manto, 
oreja, 

batalla, 



spur 

milk 

cloak 

ear 

battle 



espolon, 

lechon, 

inanton, 

orejon, 

batallon, 



spur of the cock 
sucking-pig 
Paisley shawl 
dried peel 
battalion 



(c) A few having a diminutive, or even 'a privative 
meaning : 



240 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



falda, 


skirt 


faldon, 


tail (of a coat) 


monte, 


mountain 


monton, 


heap 


pina, 
pelo, 


pine-cone 
hair 


pin6n, 
pe!6n, 


pine-kernel 
hairless, of 








small intellect 


rabo, 


tait (of animals) 


rab6n, 


(an animal) 








without tail 


perdiz, 


partridge 


perdigon, 


the young of the 


ancla. 


anchor 


anclote, 


partn/agc 
small anchor 


isla, 


island 


islote, 


rocky islet 



7. AUGMENTATIVES WHICH HAVE NO SIMPLE FORM : 
gloton, glutton socarron, hypocrite 

8. AUGMENTATIVES BY CIRCUMLOCUTION: By placing the 
word senor, senora, before any noun, an augmentative is 
formed which is very much used colloquially : 

un senor perro, a big dog 

todo un senor Hbro, a large book 

es toda una senora gata, it is a big cat 

esta hecha toda una pollita, she has grown quite a young lady 



DIMINUTIVES. 

1. THEIR ENDINGS. The general diminutive endings are : 

-ito, -ico, -illo, -uelo 

-cito, -cico, -cillo, -zuelo 

-ecito, -ecico, -ecillo, -ezuelo 

-cecito, -cecico, -cecillo, -cezuelo 

Occasional endings are : 

-ejo, -ijo, -in, 

-ete, 

-ezno, -ucno 

REMARK. Diminutives are inflected as to the gender and 
number. 

2. How THEY ARE SUBJOINED. They are immediately 
subjoined to the word when this ends in a consonant or in 
-y ; otherwise, they replace the last vowel of the word : 

animal, animalito, casa, casita 

cajon, cajoncito, paseo, paseito 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 241 

flor, florecita, inaiio, manecita 

buey, bueyecito, cordera, corderuela 

voz, vocecita, rey, reyezuelo 

3. ALTERATIONS OF THE STEM BEFORE RECEIVING THE 
ENDINGS : 

(a) regular euphonic changes : final c, g, gu and z, 
before receiving the diminutive ending become respectively 
qu, gu, gii, and c : 

frac, fraquecito, dress coat agua, agiiita, water 
barca, barquita, little boat yegua, yegtiecita, little mare 
fuego, fueguecito, small fire voz, vocecita, small, soft 

voice 

N.B. : 

nariz, nariguilla, dear little nose 

(b) other changes : diphthongs -ie, -ue, become sometimes 
-e, -o ; endings -ia, -io drop the whole diphthong : 

bueno, bonito, pretty ; but buenito, very good 

diente, dentezuelo, little tooth 
bestia, bestezuela, small beast 

REMARK. Words ending in a single accented vowel 
retain this vowel ; those in the diphthong -io (not io) lose 
the diphthong : 

mama, mamaita armario, armarito tfo, tiito 
papa, papaito rosario, rosarito tia, tiita 

pie, piececito 

4. DIMINUTIVE ENDINGS WHICH ARE COMMONLY APPLIED 
TO CERTAIN WORDS : 

-cecito, -cecico, -cecillo, -cezuelo, to monosyllables ending 
in a vowel : 

pie", piececito, (dear) little foot 

-ecito, -ecico, -ecillo, -ezuelo, 

(a) to monosyllables ending in a consonant or in -y : 

red, redecita, (little) net cruz, crucecita, cross 

fiel, fielecito, very faithful luz, lucecita, tiny light 

sol, solecito, sun pez, pececillo, tiny fish 

pan, panecillo, small bread, roll voz, vocecita, sweet voice 

flor, florecilla, little flower buey, boyezuelo, young bull 
PT. II. Q 



242 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 

EXCEPTIONS : Juanito, Luisito. 

(b) to dissyllables (not ending in -e) with diphthongs -ie, 
-ue, in the penultimate, or with -ia, -io, -ua, in the last 
syllable. 

nieto, nietecito, grandson cuento, cuentecito, short tale 

pieza, piececita, little piece nuevo, nuevecito, quite new 

tienda, tiendecita, small shop puerta, puertecita, little door 

viejo, viejecito, dear little man sueno, suenecito, short nap 

viento, vientecito, soft wind vuelta, vneltecita, little walk 

bestia, bestiezuela,^V^ beast lengua, lenguecilla. little tongue 

genio, geniecito, little temper yegua, yeguecita, little mare 

indio, indezuelo, little Indian 

EXCEPTIONS : agua, agliita, rubio, rubito, red, Uond ; 
tia, tiita, aunty. 

-cito, -cico, cillo, zuelo, 

(a) to dissyllables in -e : 

coche, cochecito, little carriage madre, madrecita, dear mother 
dulce, dulcecito, sweet pobre, pobrecita, (dear, poor] little 

thing 

golpe, golpecito, gentle knock tarde, tardecita, afternoon 
Have, llavecita, small key traje, trajecito, 



(b) to dissyllables or polysyllables ending in -n; or in 
r when the final syllable is accented, but not otherwise : 

baston, bastoncito, little walking-stick 

cancion, cancioncita, little song 

corazon, corazoncito, heart 

escalon, escaloncito, low step 

Carmen, Carmencita, 

regimen, regimencito, diet 

dolor, dolorcito, slight pain 

lugar, lugarcito, small place 

tiene un andarcito muy airoso, she has a graceful walk 

con aquel mirarcito suyo, with that charming look of hers 

but ansar, ansarito, 

azucar, sugar azucarillo, sugar-wafer 

EEMARK. Those in -in add -ito : serafin, serafinito 

N.B. altar, and jardin, make altarito, or altarcito; 
jardinito, or jardincito. 

-ito, -ico, -illo, -uelo : 

To dissyllables or polysyllables in -1, -s, -z, and to any 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 243 

words whatever, which have not been included under the 
previous rules : 

animal, animalito, little animal 

tiene un capitalito, lie has a nice little fortune 

\ angelito !, dear little thing ! 

es muy docilito, he is very docile 

parece un inglesito, he looks like a little Englishman 

I tiene usted un lapicito ? have you got a pencil ? 

esta muy altito, he has grown very tall 

una cajita, a small box 

una casita, a (nice] little house 

un agujerito, a little hole 

daselo a tu hermanito, give it to your brother, dear 

un amiguito, a young friend 

EEMARK. With polysyllabic words the diphthongs -ie, -ue, 
are retained : 

aqui hay un asientito, here is a nice seat for you 

el alientito, the breath 

un anzuelito, a little fishing hook 

mi abuelito, my dear grandfather 

5. GENERAL SIGNIFICATION ATTACHED TO THE ENDINGS : 

-ito, -cito, -ecito, -cecito, with their feminines and plurals 
are the true Castilian forms of diminutives, consequently 
they are used with almost every part of speech, as the others 
cannot be. They are used to express smallness of any kind, 
and most commonly affection, tenderness, sympathy, mild 
irony, humble request, etc. : 

-ico, -ica, etc., are local diminutives characteristic of 
Aragon, and must never be used by a foreigner. 

-illo, -ilia, etc., (Latin, ullus), do not constitute genuine 
diminutives, thus : 

(a) most words in -illo, -cillo, etc., are merely words with 
an independent meaning, more or less connected with the 
original one ; as Castillo, castle, and from chico, chiquillo, 
boy, urchin. Of. : 

cama, bed camita, little bed; but Camilla, stretcher 
cola, tail colita, little tail colilla, cigarette 

bandera, flag banderita, little flag banderilla, dart (as used 

at bullfights) 

campana, bell campanita, little bell campanilla, street (or door] 

bell 



244 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 

(b) if applied as forms of diminutives to certain words, 
they acquire a depreciatory force : 

un autorcillo, a scribbler gentecilla ruin, miserable rabble 

un mediquillo, a sawbones un perrillo, a mongrel 

-uelo, -uela, etc., if applied to human beings, have almost 
always a depreciatory force ; while in any other connections 
they are used as endearments, with much the same meaning 
as -ito : 

una mozuela, a hoyden el piecezuelo, the pretty little 
un rapazuelo, an urchin, raga- foot 

muffin un arroyuelo, a brooklet 

un reyezuelo, a kinglet un riachuelo, a rivulet 

un tiranuelo, a petty tyrant una plazuela, a little square 
una corderuela, a pet lamb 

huela is added instead of uela, to words ending in the 
diphthong ea : 

correa, strap correhuela 

aldea, village aldehuela 

Among the lower classes, corregiiela, aldegliela. 



6. OTHER DIMINUTIVE ENDINGS: 
-ejo : to a very few words in -1, -n, -r : 

el pobre animalejo, the poor wretched animal 

venia atado con un cordelejo, it came tied up ivith a wretched 

piece of string 
hay una ermita con un alterejo, there is a hermit there with a 

humble altar 

-ete : almost always depreciatory ; it is added to a very 
limited number of words : 

es algo regordete, he is a funny, fat chap 

I ve usted aquel vejete, calvete ?, do you see that baldheaded old 

buffer? 
y le dijo : oiga usted, caballerete, and he said to him, look here, my 

lord', 

-ezno : to designate the young of certain animals : 

un lobezno un osezno y un a wolf cub, a bear cub, and a 
viborezno young viper 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 245 

-ijo : to a few words not designating living beings : 

I quien descifra este acertijo ?, who will guess this riddle ? 

ha comprado unas baratijas, he has bought some trifles 

las tiene metidas en un escon- lie keeps them concealed in a secret 

drijo, place 

hacer apartadijos, to divide a thing into (small) 

portions 

-in : to show affection, smallness ; with verbs it has some- 
thing of an augmentative meaning : 

i angelin !, dear little thing ! 

\ quo" monin esta !, how pretty he looks, dear little 

thing ! 

I como sigue el pequenin ?, how is the little one ? 

entraron en un cafetin, they entered into a pothouse (coffee- 

house) 

es un andarin, he is a champion walker 

esta hecho un bailarin, 6 un he has become a regular dancing 
cantarin, 'man, or singer 

7. DOUBLE FORMS OF DIMINUTIVES. The latter with an 
independent meaning : 

In -ita, -eta : 

ala, wing alita, small wing aleta, fin 

mesa, table mesita, small table meseta, table-land 

mula, mule mulita, little mule muletas, crutches 

pesa, weight pesita, small weight peseta, peseta (coin) 

In -ita, -ilia (-illo) : 

sombra, shadow, sombrita, little shadow sombrilla, sunshade 

shade 

boca, mouth boquita, little mouth boquilla, cigarette holder 

cabeza, head cabecita, little head cabecilla, (rebel) leader 

cama, bed camita, small bed Camilla, stretcher 

gato, cat gatito, little cat gatillo, trigger 

nudo, knot nudito, little knot nudillo, knuckle 

8. TRIPLE FORMS OP DIMINUTIVES. The two last with an 
independent meaning : 

In -ita, -eta, -ilia : 

cara, face carita, little face careta, mask carilla, sheet oj 

paper 

casa, house casita, small house caseta, box (sig- casilla, pigeon- 

nal,etc.) hole 



246 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



cola, tale colita, small tail coleta, pigtail 
coma, comma comita, little comma cometa, comet 



colilla, cigarette 
comillas, inverted 



9. DIMINUTIVES WHICH HAVE BECOME INDEPENDENT 
WORDS : 



la alcantarilla, 
un azucarillo, 
una cejetilla de 

cigarrillos, 
en calderilla, 
una cerilla, 
un corrillo, 

una cuartilla de 

papel, 

un chiquillo, 
la guerra de 

guerrilla, 
hablillas del 

vulgo, 



the gutter 
a sugar wafer 
a box of cigar- 
ettes 

in coppers 
a match, lucifer 
a (fathering, a 



group 
a sheet of paper 

a boy, an urchin 
the guerilla war- 
fare 
common gossip 



un traje 

lanilla, 
un organillo, 
unovillodelana, 
el pasillo, 
una pesadilla, 
un pitillo, 
puntilla, 
la rejilla, 
un tornillo, 
una tortilla, 
un mosquito, 
un senorito, una 

senorita, 
un paiiuelo, 



de a woollen suit 



a barrel-organ 
a ball of wool 
the corridor 
a nightmare 
a cigarette 
lace 

the grating 
a screw 
an omelette 



a young gent. , a 

young lady 
a handkerchief 



10. ANOMALOUS DIMINUTIVES : 



alveo, 
cuesta, 
chasco, 
chico, 



mentira, 

nariz, 

patio, 



channel 
uphill 


alveolo, 
costanilla, 


river bed 
a steep street 


disappointment 


chascarrillo, 


fine jest 


small 


chiquitin, chi- 


very tiny 




quirritin, chi- 






quirritito, 




lie 


mentirijilla, 


a white lie 


nose 


nariguilla, 


little nose 


courtyard 


patinillo, 


small courtyard 



11. DIMINUTIVES FORMED FROM VERBS, PARTICIPLES, 
GERUNDS AND ADVERBS : 



tiene un andarcito muy airoso, 
con aquel mirarcito, 
acabadito de comer, se va, 

es un nino tan ordenadito, 

entro muy callandito, 

vuelva usted corriendito, 

ahorita se fue, 

ahorita lo hare, 

se retira tempranito, 

llegara tardecito, 

se levanta de maiianita. 



her walk is very graceful 
with that charming look of hers 
no sootier has he finished his dinner, 

than he goes out 
he is such a tidy boy 
he came in very quietly 
come this moment, please 
he has just gone this moment 
I will do it at once 
he retires very early 
he will arrive rather late 
he gets up very early 



AUGMENTAT1VES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



247 



despacito, 

nadita se, 

lo vi todo, todito, 

I quiere listed un poquito mas ?, 

justo, justito, or cabal, cabalito, 

siempre se queda con lo mejor- 

cito, 

ya va siendo mayorcito, 
vive cerquita de aqui, 
esta algo lejitos, 



come in quietly, mind ! 
I know nothing whatsoever 
I saw it, every bit of it 
will you take a little more ? 
just so, exactly so 
he always keeps the tit bit for him- 
self 

he is getting quite a man 
he lives quite near 
it is a good step from here 



12. DIMINUTIVES USED WITH IDIOMS AND IDIOMATIC 
PHRASES : 



entrar de puntillas, 
hacer una cosa a Imrtadillas, 
decir una cosa de mentirijillas, 
creer algo a pie juntillas, 

saberse una cosa al dedillo, 
pelillos a la mar, y seamos 

amigos, 
hacer novillos, 



to come in on tip toe 

to do a thing by stealth 

to say something only in fun 

to believe a thing as if it were 



a thing at one's finger ends 
let us forget all, and make friends 

again 
to play the truant 



CONTRAST BETWEEN AUGMENTATIVES AND 
DIMINUTIVES. 

(a) Augmentatives tend to assume the masculine, diminu- 
tives to assume the feminine gender : 

casa, caseron lagarto, lagartija 

casucha, casuchon zapato, zapatilla 

carreta, carret6n libro, libreta 
espada, espadon 

(b) Augmentatives from augmentatives, and diminutives 
from diminutives : 

pfcaro, picaron, picaronazo, great rascal 

hombre, hombron, hombronazo, a Hercules 

calle, calleja, callejuela, an alley 

plaza, plazuela, plazoleta, small square 

(c) Augmentatives from diminutives, and diminutives from 
augmentatives : 

calle, calleja, callejon, narrow street 

carro, carreta, carretdn, a wheel barrow 

silla, silldn, silloncito, small armchair 



248 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



comodo, comodon, comodoncito, very fond of comfort 
almohada, almohadon, almo- small cushion 
hadoncito, 

(d) Diminutives from augmentatives already formed from 
diminutives : 

calle, calleja, callejon, callejon- short and very narrow street 

cito, 
carro, carreta, carreton, carre- small wheel barrow 

toncito, 
chaque", chaqueta, chaqueton, very short coat 

chaquetoncito, 

(e) Augmentatives are hardly ever formed of proper names, 
whilst diminutives very often are. 

Remark the following peculiar diminutives of certain 
proper names : 

From 

Antonio, Antonia, Antonito, Antonita 

Carlos, Carlitos 

Ooncepcion, Conchita (from Concha) 

Dolores, Dolorcitas, Lolita (from Lola) 
Francisco, Francisca, Frasquito, Frasquita, Frascuelo ; also 

Paquito, Paquita (from Paco, Paca) 

Gertrudis, Tulita (from Tula) 

Isabel, Belita (from Isabelita) 

Jose, Josefa, Pepito, Pepita (from Pepe, Pepa) 

Manuel, Manuela, Manolo, Manolito, Manolita 

Maria, Marica, Mariquita, Maruja 

Mercedes, Merceditas 

Pedro, Perico, Perucho 

Remedies, Eemeditos 

Soledad, Solita (from Sola) 



DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH VERB AND ADVERB. 249 

I 

APPENDIX D. 

DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH THE VERB 
AND THE ADVERB. 

FORMULAE OF COMPARISON WITH VERBS. 

For equality : 

como, as pinta como yo 

tanto como, as much as he madrugado tanto como ayer 

no sabe tanto como el 

tan bien como, as well as lo sabe tan bien como usted 

no menos que, not less than lo vi no menos que el lo vio 

REMARK. Tanto is followed by que, not by como, to 
point out the consequence, not a comparison : 

comio tanto que se puso enfermo 

trabaja tanto que no tiene tiempo de escribir a SUB amigos 

For superiority : 

mas que, 'more than he leido mas que leo 

la quiere mas que ella a 61 
habla mas que una cotorra 

mejor que, better than le conozco mejor que usted 

habla mejor el ingles que el frances 

REMARK. Mas de, with numbers; mas de lo, with 
adjectives; m&s de lo que, with sentences, unless in con- 
junction with no, in a restricted meaning : Cf. : 

habia mas de cien personas, no habia mas que cien personas 

esperamos mas de dos lioras, no esperamos mas que dos horas 

he visto esa opera mas de cuatro no he visto esa opera mas que 

veces, cuatro veces 

bebio mas de lo acostumbrado, no habla mas que lo necesario 

gasta mas de lo necesario, no gasta mas que lo necesario 

pidio mas de lo justo, no pidio mas que lo justo 

esperaron mas de lo que debfan, no esperaron mas que lo que 

debian 

yo he visto mds de lo que usted no he visto mas que lo que usted 

cree, cree 

gasta mas de lo que tiene, no gasta mas que lo que tiene 



250 DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH VERB AND ADVERB. 



For inferiority : 



menos que, 



less than 



no tanto como, not so as 



peor que, 



worse than 



no tan bien como, not so well as 



los espanoles viajan menos que 

los ingleses 

viste menos que su hermana 
no recibe tanto como antes 
no me costo tanto como a listed 
lo hace peor que yo 
pinta peor que antes 
no lo hace tan bien como yo 
no duermo tan bien como dormia 



REMARK. menos de, with numbers; menos de lo, with 
adjectives; menos de lo que, with sentences; irrespective 
of any negatives being introduced : 

liabia menos de cien personas, no habia menos de cien personas 

come menos de lo necesario para no come menos de lo necesario 

vivir, 

mucho menos de lo que no sabe mucho menos de lo que 

creen, creen 



DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH ADVERBS. 

1. Spanish adverbs such, at least, as express ideas which 
admit of comparison have the same degrees of comparison 
as the adjectives, and follow the same formation ; thus, from 
cerca, near, lejos, far, temprano, early, tarde, late, alto, in 
a loud voice, and bajo, in a low voice : 



tan cerca como, 

tan lejos como, 

tan temprano como, 

tan tarde como, 

tan alto como, 

tan bajo como, 

tan dulcemente como, 

muy cerca, 

muy lejos, 

muy temprano, 

muy tarde, 

muy alto, 

muy bajo, 

muy dulcemente, 



mas 6 menos cerca que, 

mas 6 menos lejos que, 

mas 6 menos temprano que, 

mas 6 menos tarde que, 

mas 6 menos alto que, 

mas 6 menos bajo que, 

mas 6 menos dulcemente que, 

cerquisimo 

lejisimo 

tempranfsimo 

tardisimo 

altisimo 

bajisimo 

dulcisimamente 



N.B. Adverbs in -mente form their superlative by ter- 
mination directly from the superlative of the adjective (in 
its feminine form) ; whilst the relative superlative is formed 



DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH VERB AND ADVERB. 251 

for all adverbs by prefixing the neuter definite article to 
their comparatives of superiority and inferiority. 

lo mas 6 menos cerca, lo mas 6 menos temprano 

lo mas d^menos alto, lo mas 6 menos dulcemente 

SPECIAL REMARKS: 

(1) Among the adverbs of time, tarde, temprano, pronto, 
and a menudo, have all the degrees except that the form in 
-isimo is not used with a menudo ; antes and despu6s have 
only the superlative form, which, however, is formed with 
mucho, not muy : 

tan pronto mas 6 menos pronto que, muy pronto, prontfsimo 

como, 

tan a menudo mas 6 menos a menudo muy a menudo, 
como, que, 

mucho antes, 
mucho despues, 

(2) Among the adverbs of place, cerca and lejos are the 
only ones which admit of all the degrees ; the other adverbs 
and adverbial expressions of place admit of all except the 
superlative in -isimo : 

tan abajo como, mas 6 menos abajo que, muy hacia atras 

tan hacia atras como, mas 6 menos hacia atras que, muy abajo 

N.B. In degrees of comparison aca and all& are used 
instead of aqui and alii : 

tan aca (ahl, alia) como, mas aca (ahf, alia) que, muy aca (ahi, alia) 

(3) Of the other adverbs four have comparatives and 
superlatives of their own : 

bien, tan bien como, mejor que, lo mejor, muy bien 

mal, tan mal como, peor que, lo peor, muy mal 

mucho, tanto como, mas, mucho mas, lo mas, muchisimo mas 
poco, tanto (tan menos, lo menos, poqufsimo, mu- 

poco) como, chisimo menos 

N.B. Two comparatives, anteriormente and posterior, 
mente, are formed with a not que : 

eso sucedid anteriormente a aquello occurrio posteriormente 
aquello, a esto 



252 DEGREES OF COMPARISON WITH VERB AND ADVERB. 



2. FORMULAE OP COMPARISON WITH ADVERBS: 
For equality : 

tan como, as as vive tan cerca como yo 

llegue tan pronto como el 
toca tan bien como canta 

no menos not less than vive no menos cerca que yo 



que, 

For superiority : 
mas que, mor 



For inferiority : 
menos que, less than 



no tan como, not so as 



llegue no menos pronto que el 
toca no menos bien que canta 



fui mas lejos que ayer 

se levanto mas temprano que de 

ordinario 
liabla mas dulcemente que su 

hermana 



me he levantado menos tem- 
prano que ayer 

le veo menos frecuentemente 
que le veia 

vive menos comodamente que 
antes 

no vive tan comodamente como 
antes 

no le veo tan frecuentemente 
como le veia 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



253 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES. 



I SPANISH WOEDS. 1 



A, at, to, for, in, on, by 

bordo, on board 

cada uno, each one, 
every one 

com pas, in time 

contar, reckoning, 
counting 

credito, on credit 

j cuanto esta (or 
va) ? IWMO much is ? 

i cuanto estan (or 
van) ? how much are ? 

escribir, writing 

fin de, so as to 

intervalos, at inter- 
vals 

la aceptacion, for 
acceptance 

aguada (in) water 

colours, water colour 

painting 
bayoneta, at the 

point of the bayonet 
entrega, on de- 
livery 
espanola, in the 

Spanish fashion 
francesa, in the 

French fashion 

par, at par 

pluma (in] pen 

and ink 
riistica, in 

boards 
una, at one 

o'clock 
valenciana, in 

the Valentian way 

vez, both 

vizcaina, in the 

Biscay an way 



A las doce y media, 

at 12.30 
5 (cinco), at jive 

o'clock 
6.30 (seis y 

treinta), at 6.30 
seis y media, at 

6.30 
7 (siete), at seven 

o'clock 

leer, reading 

lo lejos, in the dis- 
tance 

los pies de nsted 
(senora), at your feet 
(Madam} 

mano, by hand 

maquina, by machine 

media noche, at 
midniglit 

medida, made to 
measure 

menudo, often 

pesar de lo cual, in 
spite of which 

plazos, by instal- 
ments 

principles, to (or at} 
tlie beginning 

probar, to jit it on 

i que hora ? at ivhat 
time ? 

saber, i.e. (namely} 

tierra, ashore 

traves, across 

veces, sometimes 

vista de tierra, in 
sight of land^ 

\ votar ! a votar ! 

division, division 
abanico, m. , fan 



abanicarse, to fan one- 
self 

abeja, /., lee 
abertura, /., opening 
abierta, -to, adj. and 
p.p. irr. of abrir, 
open, opened 
abismo, m., abyss 
abogado, m., solicitor, 
lawyer, advocate, 
counsel 

abonado, m., subscriber 
abonar, to manure 
abono, m., manure 
abrevadero, m., drink- 
ing trough 
abrigo, m., cloak 
abril, m. t April 
abrir, to open; p.p., 
abierto (irr.) 

el surco, to make tlic 
furrow 

la madera, to carve 
the wood 

los cimientos, to dig 
up tlie foundation 

abrirse, to open 

abside, m., apse 

absolucion, /., ac- 
quittal, disc/iarge 

abuela,/., grandmother 

abuelo, m. , grand- 
father 

abuelos (collect. ), 

grandparents 

acabar, to end 

acabar en el mar, to 
run into the sea (a 
river} 

accidente ferroviario, 
m. , railway accident 



1 The equivalent of the Spanish words refers to the meaning given in the Exercises. 



254 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



accion, /., action ; 

(mil.), engagement ; 

(comp.), share 
accion ordinaria, 

ordinary share 

preferente, prefer- 
ence share 

preferente acumu- 
lada, cumulative 
preference share 

accionar, to act 

accionista, TO., share- 
"holder 

aceite, in., oil 

aceituna. /. , olive 

aceptacion, /., accept- 
ance. See a la 

aceptar, to accept 

acera, /. , pavement 

acero, m., steel 

acomodador, -ra, TO., 
/., attendant 

acomodo, m. , accom- 
modation 

acompanamiento, TO., 



acompanante, TO., /"., 

accompanist 
acompanar, to accom- 
pany 

acorazado, m. , ironclad 
actitud, /., attitude 
active, TO., sing., assets 
active, activa, active 

(adj.) 

acto, TO., act 
acto de servicio, TO., 

duty 
actor, TO. ; -es, pi., 

actor ; actors, actors 

and actresses 
actriz, /., actress 
actuar por, to act for 

(law) 
acuarela /., water 

colour 
acuarelista, TO. , /. , 

painter in water 

colours, water- 

colourist 
acudir, to come 
acuerdo, TO., resolution 



acusado (el), acusada 

(la), the accused 
adaptar (la nrdsica a la 
letra), to set (music to 
words) 

ademas, besides 
adicion, /., addition 
adjunto, m., fellow (of 

a college) 

adjunto, -ta, herewith 
administration, /. ad- 
ministration 
de correos, Post 



de diligencias, 
bureau of the stage- 
coach 

de Hacienda, Bureau 
of Finances 

administrador de cor- 
reos, TO. , postmaster 

General de correos, 
Postmaster General 

de Hacienda, local 
Director of Finances 

administrar, to ad- 
minister 

admirable, admirable 
admirablemente, ad- 
mirably 

admitir, to admit 
adormidera,/., poppy 
adornar, to adorn 
adorno, m., ornament 
aduana, /., custom 

house 

aerolito, m., aerolite 
afectado, -da, affected 
afeitarse, to shave one- 
self, to be shaved 
afinador. TO., tuner 
afinar, to tune 
afluente, TO., tributary 

stream 

afmo, afma, i.e. afec- 
tisimo, afectisima, 
, affectionately 
Africa (el),/., Africa 
agente de orden pu- 
blico, TO., policeman 
agentes maritimos, 
shipping agents 



agil, agile 
agilidad,/., agility 
agosto, m-, August 
agregado, m., attache 
agricultor, m., agri- 
culturist 

agricultura, /. agri- 
culture 

agrio, agria, sour 
agua(el),/. water 

bendita, /., holy 
water 

de Colonia, /., Eau 
de Cologne 

de espliego 6 de 
lavanda, /., lavender 
water 

de rosas, /., rose- 
water 

del mar, /., sea- 
water 

dulce, /. , fresh water 

estancada, /. , stand- 
ing water, stagnant 
water 

salada,/., saltwater 
aguacero, TO. , violent 

shower of rain 
aguila(el),/., emj/e 
a g u J a >/'> needle ;(railw.) 
point ; (church) steeple, 

spire 

agujero, TO., Iwle 
ah or a, now 
ahorrar, to save 
ahorro, m. , saving. 

See Caja de s 

aire, TO., air, draught 

ajo, TO., garlic 

ajuar de novia, m., 

wedding outfit 
al, contr. for a el, to 

the 

ano, by the year, 
yearly 

contado, ready 
money 

extranjero, abroad 

lado, by the side 

lapiz, in pencil, 
pencil sketch 

mediodia, at noon 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



255 



al mes, by the month, 
monthly 

oleo, in oils 

parecer, apparently 

por mayor, whole- 
sale 

por menor, retail 

rededor, around 
ala (el),/., wing 

ala (del sombrero), /., 

brim 
albahil, m. , mason, 

bricklayer ; los al- 

baniles, the workmen 
alcaide, m. , governor 

(of a prison) 
alcalde, m., mayor 
Alcaldia (la), the Town 

Hall office 
alcista, m. , bull (on the 

Stock Excliange) 
alcoba,/., bedroom 
aldea, /., village 
aldeano, -na, peasant, 

peasant woman 
aleli, m., wall/lower, 

gillyflower 
aleman, -na, m., /., 

German, German 

woman ; also adj. 

German 
aleman (el), German 

(lang.) 

Alemania, /., Germany 
alero, m., eave 
&leta.,f.,fin 
alfiler, in., pin 
alfiler (de corbata), m., 

scarf-pin 

alfombra, /. , carpet 
alfombrar, to lay tJie 

carpets, to carpet 
alfombrista, m., carpet 

maker 
Alfonso XIII. (trece), 

m., Alphonso XIII. 
algebra (el), /., algebra 
algo ; anything, some- 
thing 

algodon, m., cotton 
alguacil, m., bailiff, 

Town Hall porter 



i alguna vez . . . ? (in 

quest.}, ever . . . ? 
algunas, -os, some 
algunas voces, sometimes 
alguno que otro . . . 

an occasional . . . 
alianza, /., alliance 
la Triple Alianza, the 
Triple Alliance 
alimentarse de, to feed 

on 
alhaja, /. , jewel, (iron. ) 

gem f 

almacen, m., warehouse 
almacenarse, to be stored 
almendra,/., almond 
almendro, m., almond- 
tree 

almirantazgo, m. , ad- 
miralty 

almirante, m., admiral 
almorzar, to lunch ; irr. 
almuerzo, m., lunch 
alojarse en tieudas, to 

camp under canvas 
alondra,/., lark 
alpargatas, /.. pl. t 

hempen sandals 
alquilar, to hire 
alquiler, m., rent 
alrededor, around 
Alta Camara (la), the 

Upper House 
alta marea,/. , flood-tide 
altar, m., altar 

lateral, side altar 

mayor, high altar 
alto, alta ; high, too 

high 

altura,/., height 

alumbrar a, to burn be- 
fore, to show a light 

alumno, m., alumna, 
/. , pupil, student 

alza, (un), /., advance 
or rise (in prices) 

alzarse, to be raised 

alia, alii, there 

am a, /. , mistress, Mrs 
So and So 

Amadeo de Saboya, 
Amadeus of Savoy 



amapola, /., red poppy 

amar, to love 

amarillo, -lla, yellow 

America,/., America 

del norte,/., North 
America 

Sud, /., South 

America 

americana, /. , short- 
coat 

americano, -na, (m., 
/.,), a South Ameri- 
can ; also adj. South 
American 

amigo, amiga, m., /., 
friend, (lady) friend 

amigos, collect, friends 

amo, m., master, Mr 
So and So 

amoblar, (irr. ), to 
furnish 

amonestacion, /., bann 

amor de Dios, God's 
sake. (See por ) 

amparar, to protect 

ampliar, to enlarge 

amueblar, (reg. ), to 
furnish 

auaranjado, or color de 
naranja, orange 

ancho, -cha ; wide, too 
wide 

anchoa,/., ancJwvy 

anciana, /., (venerable) 
old woman 

ancianidad,/., old age 

anciano, m. , (venerable) 
old man 

ancla, /., anchor 

Andalucia, /., Anda- 
lusia 

andaluz, m., -za, /., 
Andalusian, Anda- 
lusian woman, adj. 
Andalusian 

andamiaje, m., scaffold- 
ing 

andamio, m., scaffold 

andante, m., andante 

andar, to walk, to be 
running, . . . irr. 

andeu, m., platform 



256 



INDEX TO VOCABULAKIES SPANISH WORDS. 



anfiteatro, m., amphi- 
theatre, dress-circle 
anguila,/., eel 
anillo, m., ring 

de boda, m., 
wedding-ring 

de novios, m., 
engagement-ring 

animal, m., animal 

feroz, wild beast 
aniversario, m., anni- 
versary 

anoche, last night 

ante, before 

antes de, before 

antes de Cristo, (a. de 
C.), B.C. 

antepasado, m. , an- 
cestor 

antiguo, -gua, old 

anuario, m., annuary 

anular, annular 

anunciar, to announce, 
to advertise, to pro- 
claim, to foretell 

anuncio, m., advertise- 
ment 

anzuelo, in., Jiook, 
(fishing-) 

anadir, to add 

ano, m., year. See 
al 

ano economico, m., 
Financial year 

apacentar, to pasture, 
irr. 

apagado, -da, put out 

apagar, to put out 

aparador, m. , sideboard 

aparato, m., apparatus 

astronomico, astrono- 
mical apparatus 

escenico, (the) stage 
requisites 

aparecer, to appear, irr. 
apartado de Correos, 

m., Post Office box 
aparte, separately 
apelacion,/., appeal 
apelar, to appeal 
apellido, m. , surname 
aperos de labranza, m. , 



pl. } farming imple- 
ments 
aplaudir, to clap, to 

applaud 

aplauso, m.. applause 
aplicar, to apply 
apreciable, esteemed 
apreciar, to appreciate, 

to esteem 

aprender, to learn 
apretar, to pinch, irr. 
aprobar, to approve, irr. 
apropiado, -da, appro- 
priate 
apuntador, m., 

prompter 

apuntes, m., pi., notes 
aquel, aquella, aquello, 

that 

aqui, here 

arabe, Arab, Arabian 
arabe, (el), Arabic 
arado, m. , plough 
Aragon, m., Aragon, 
aragones, m., -sa, /., 
Aragonese, Ara- 
gonese woman, adj. 
Aragonese 
araha,/., spider 
araiiar, to scratch 
aranazo, m., scratch 
arar, to plough 
arbitraje, /., arbitra- 
tion 
arbol, m., tree 

de Guernica, m., 
Cfuernica tree 

frutal m. , fruit-tree 

genealogico, m. , 
genealogical tree 

arbusto, m., shrub 
archivero, m. , archivist 
archive, m.,s., archives 
arco, m., arch 

iris, m. , rainbow 

ojival, pointed arch 

redondo, round arch 
arder, to burn 
ardilla, /., squirrel 
arena,/., sand 
arenque, m., herring 
argamasa, /. , mortar 



Argelia (la), Algeria 
argentine, -na, ( m. /.), 
also adj., Argentine. 

See Repiiblica 

argumento, m., plot 
aria,/., air, tune, 
aritmetica, /., arith- 
metic 

arma (el), /., arm 
(weapon), branch (of 
the military service) 
armador, m., ship- 
owner 

armamento, m., arma- 
ment, the arming 
armar, to arm 
armario de los libros, 

m., bookcase 
armisticio, m., armis- 
tice 
armonia, (or) harmouia, 

/., harmony 
aromatico, -ca, aro- 
matic 

arpa (el),/., harp 
arpista, (/., m.), harpist 
arquitecto, m. , architect 
arquitectura, /., archi- 
tecture 

arrastrarse, to crawl 
arreglar, to arrange 
arreglo, m., agreement, 
arrangement, settle- 
ment, understanding, 
(see con ) 

satisfactorio, satis- 
factory settlement 

arriano, -na, Arian 
arriar los botes, to 

lower the boats 
arriendo, m., lease 
arrogancia, /. , pride 
arrojar, to throw (up) 

un saldo, to show a 
balance 

arroyo, m., stream 

(de la calle), m., road 

(way) 
arroz con leche, m., 

rice milk 
arrullar, to coo 
arrullo, m., cooing 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



257 



arsenal, in. arsenal, j 

dockyard 
arte, (el) m., art 
artes, (las) arts. Sec 

Bellas 

industriales, indus- 
trial arts 

uiecauicas, mechani- 
cal arts 

articulo, m., article 

de fondo, leading- 
article 

artilleria, /., artillery, 
R.A. 

de a pie", foot artil- 
lery 

de montana, mount- 
ed artillery 

de sitio, siege artil- 
lery 

montada, field or 
horse artillery 

artillero, m., artillery- 
man, gunner 
artista, m., and /., 

artist 

arzobispado, m., arch- 
bishopric 

arzobispo, m. , arch- 
bishop 

asado, m., roast-meat 
asaltar, to storm 
asalto, m., assault 
aseguvar, to insure 
asentar (una partida), 
to enter (an item) ; 
irr. 
asesinar, to assassinate, 

to murder 

asesinato, m., murder 
asesino, m., murderer 
Asia, (el), /. Asia 
asiatico, -ca, Asiatic 
asiento, m. seat, room 

fijo, m., reserved 
seat 

asignatura, /. subject 
asistir, to assist 
asno, m., donkey, ass 
asociacion particular 
private association, 

PT. II. 



asociaciones beneficas, 
charitable institu- 
tions 

aspero, -ra, harsh 
asta, (de ciervo) (el) 

/., antler 

asteroide, m., asteroid 
astillero, m. , ship- 



astro, m., star 

astronomia, /., astron- 
omy 

astronomo, m., astron- 
omer 

asturiano, m. , (the) 
Asturian (dialect) 

asturiano, m., -na, /. 
Asturian, Asturi- 
an-woman ; adj. As- 
turian 

Astnrias, m., Asturias 
(a region in the N. 
of Spain) 

astuto,-ta ; astute 

asunto, m. , affair, 



asuntos, interiores, in- 
ternal business 

genera] es, general 
business or affairs 

atacar, to attack 
atado, -da, fastened 
atajo, m., short cut 
ataque, m., attack 

cerebral, m., cerebral 
haemorrhage 

atar, to tie (up) 

ataud, m., coffin 

Atlantico (el), m., the 
Atlantic 

atmosfera, /. , atmos- 
phere 

atravesar, to cross, to go 
through ; irr. 

atun, m., tunny fish 

Audiencia (la), /., 
second Court of Ap- 
peal (in Spain) 

aullar, to howl 

aullido, m., howling (of 
wolves, dogs) 

aumeiitar, to increase 



aumento, m., rise, in- 
crease 

aiin, still 

aurora boreal, /., 
aurora boi-ealis 

Australia, /., Aus- 
tralia 

australiano, -11:1, Aus- 
tralian 

Aiistria (el)/., Austria 

austriaco -ca, m., /., 
Austrian (m., /.), 
adj., Austrian 

autopsia, /., post-mor- 
tem examination 

autor, m., author 

dramatico, m., play- 
writer 

autora, /., authoress 
autoridades (las),/, pi., 

(the) authorities 
avance, in., advance 
avanzar, to advance 
avaricia, /. avaricious- 
ness 
ave (el),/., bird 

cantora, song-bird 

de paso, migratory 
bird 

de rapina, bird of 
prey 

nocturna, nocturnal, 
night bird 

avellana, /., Jiazel-nut 
(Barcelona nut) 

avellauo, m. , hazel-nut- 
tree 

avestruz, m., ostrich 

aviso, m., notice, in- 
telligence 

oficial, official in- 
telligence or notice 

ayer, yesterday 
ayo, m., tutor 
ayuda de camara, m., 

valet 
ayudante -ta, (m., /.,) 

assistant 
Ayuntanriento, m., 

Municipality, Town 

Council, Town] Hall, 
azadon, in., spade 
R 



258 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



azahar, m. , also de ; 

orange blossom 
azticar, m., sugar 
azul, blue 
azulejo, m., corn/tower, 

Dutch tile 



B. L. M. (un), (besala- 

mano, i.e, he kisses 

the hand), a formal 

note 

bacalao, m., cod 
bachiller (en Artes), 

m. , B. A . ( Bachelor 

of Arts] 
bahfa, /., bay 
bailables (los), m. pi., 

the ballet 
bailador, -ra, m., /., 

dancer 

bailar, to dance 
bailarin, m., dancer 
bailarina, /. , danseuse 
baile, m., ball, ballet, 

dance, dancing 

de espectaculo, 
ballet 

de mascaras, m., 
masked ball 

de trajes, m., fancy 
ball 

baja (una), /., fall of 

prices, decline 
Baja Camara (la), the 

Lower House 
baja marea, /., ebb-tide 
bajamar, /., low tide 
bajar, to alight (from), 

to decline 
bajar la cortinilla, to 

pull down the blind 
bajarse (el telon), to 

fall (the curtain) 
bajas,/, casualties 
bajista, m., bear (on the 

Stock Exchange} 
bajo, baja ; deep, low, 

short ; too low, short 
bajo, m., bass 
bajo, (prep. ), under, 

below 



bajo cero, below zero 

cubierta, below deck 

fianza, on bail 
bala,/., bullet 

de can6n, cannon- 
ball, shot 

balance, m., balance, 

balance-sheet 
balar, to bleat 
balazo, m., (gun) shot, 

bullet wound 
balc6n, m. , balcony 
balido, m., bleating 
ballena, /., whale, 

whale-bone 

banco, m., bench, bank 
Banco de Espana (El), 

m., The Sank of 

Spain 
Banco de Inglaterra 

(El), The, Batik of 

England 
bandera, /. , colours, 

ensign, flag 

de parlamento, /., 
flag of truce 

bando, m. , proclama- 
tion 

bandurria, /., bandore 
banquero, m., banker 
banar (las costas), to 

wash (the shores) 
banarse, to bath 
banero, m., banera, /. , 
bathing man, bath- 
ing woman 

banista, m.,/., bather 
bano, m., bath 
barato, -ta, cheap 
baratura, /. , cheapness 
barba, /., chin, beard 
Barbaros (los), the 

Barbarians 
barberia, /. , barber's 

shop 

barbero, m. , barber 
barca, /., boat, barge 

pescadora, flshing- 
boat 

Barcelona, /., Barce- 
lona 
barco, m., ship 



baritono, m., baritone 
barometro, m. , baro- 
meter 

bar6n, m., baronet 
baronesa,/., baroness 
barquero, m., boatman 
barro, m. , (thick) mud 

clay. See de 
base,/., base 
basilica,/., basilica 
bastar, to suffice 
bastidor(es), m., 

wing(s) 

bast6n, m. , (walking) 
stick 

de mando, truncheon 
bata, /., morning-gown 
batalla, /., battle 
batallon, m., battalion 

de cazadores, bat- 
talion of sharp- 
shooters 

bateria,/., battery 
baul, m., trunk 
bautismo, m., baptism 
bautizo, m. , christening 
bayoneta, /., bayonet. 

See a la 

bayonetazo, m., bay- 
onet-thrust or wound 
bebida, /. , beverage, 

drink 

bedel, m., bedel 
belga, (m. ,/. , ) Belgian, 
(m., /.,) also adj., 
Belgian 

Belgica,/., Belgium 
Bellas Artes (las), the 

Fine Arts 
belleza, /., beauty 
bello -lla, beautiful, 

handsome, fine 
bellota, /., acorn 
bemol, flat (mus. ) 
bendicion,/., blessing 
beneficio, m , benefit, 

profit 

beneficio(s), m., pro- 
fit^) 

berlina, /. ; brougham, 
front compartment of 
a railway carriage, 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



259 



central compartment 
of a Spanish stage- 
coach 
besalamano(un), a 

formal note 
beso a usted la mano, 

/ kiss your hand 
besugo, 77i. , sea-bream 
biblioteca, /. , library 
bibliotecario, TO., libra- 
rian 

bicicleta, /., bicycle 
biciclista, TO., /., bicy- 
clist 

bien, well 

bigote, m., mustache 
billete, m. , ticket, 
(bank} note 

de banco, TO., bank- 
note 

- de ida y vuelta, 
return ticket 

de primera, first class 
ticket 

de segunda, second 
class ticket 

de tercera, third 
class ticket 

sencillo, single ticket 
bizantino -na, Byzan- 
tine. See estilo 

bianco, -ca, white, 

blank 

bloquear, to blockade 
bloqueo, TO., blockade 
blusa, /., blouse, smock 
boca,/., mouth 
bock, TO., bock 
boda,/., wedding 
bodega,/., hold 
bohemio (el), Bohemian 

(lang.) 
Boletin Oficial, m. , 

Official Bulletin 
bolido, TO. ; bolide, 

fire-ball 
Bolsa (la), /., Bourse, 

the Stock Exchange 
bolsillo, m., pocket 
bolsista, m., Exchange 

broker, 'member of the 

Stock Exchange 



bomba, /. , pump 

de incendios,/. , fire- 
engine 

bombardear, to bombard 
bombardeo, m. , bom- 
bardment 

bombero, m., fireman 
bondad,/., genuineness 
boriito, -ta, pretty 
boquilla, TO., cigar- 
holder, cigarette- 
holder 

borrador(el), TO., waste- 
book 

bosque, m., wood, forest 
botas,/., boots 

de charol, /. , patent- 
leather boots 

de montar, /., pi., 



bote, TO., boat 
botella, /. , decanter, 

bottle 
de agua, bottle of 

drinking water 
botica,/., chemist shop 
boticario, TO., chemist 
boton, m. ; button, stud, 

bud 

boy a,/., buoy 
Brasil (el), TO., Brazil 
brasileno, -na, TO., /., 

Brazilian, also adj. 
brazalete, TO., bracelet 
brazo, TO., arm 
brazo, TO., branch (of a 

river) 

brigada, /., brigade 
brillante, m., diamond ; 

de brillante s, 

diamond . . . 
brillante, gorgeous 
brillantez, f. , brilliancy 
brillar, to shine 
brisa, /., breeze 
bronce, TO , bronze 
bronquitis, /., bron- 
chitis 

brotar, to spring out 
brujula, /., compass 

(mar.) . , .r"" 1 

buen, good ^Lt/f^j 



bueno, -na, good 
buey(es), TO., ox(en) 
buitre, TO., vulture 
bulbo, TO., bulb 
Bulgaria,/., Bulgaria 
biilgaro (el), Bulgarian 

(lang.) 

bulto, TO., package 
buque, TO., ship, vessel 

de combate, battle- 
ship 

de guerra, man-of- 
war 

de vapor, steamship 

de vela, sailing - 



mercante, merchant 
ship, trading vessel 

Burgos, Burgos (tlw 
capital of Old Castile) 

buril, TO., burin 

burro,/., donkey, ass 

buscar, to find, to look 
for, to be looking for, 
to seek 

butaca,/., stall 

buzon, TO., wall letter- 
box, pillar-box 



Caballeria(s),/.,i 

of burden (horse(s), 

mule(s) 
caballeria, /., cavalry, 

liorse 
ligera, light cavalry 



caballero, TO. , gentle- 
man 

caballete, TO., easel 

caballo, TO., horse 

cabana,/., hut 

cabellera (de un 
cometa), /., tail (of 
a comet) 

cabello, TO., hair 

cabeza,/., head 

cable, m., cable 

cablegrama, m. , cable 
(cablegram) 

cabo, TO., cape (geog.), 
corporal 



260 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH W011DS. 



cabra,/., goat 
cabrito, M., kid 
cacarear, to cackle 
cacareo, m., cackling 
cada, each, every 

una, each 
cadaver, m., corpse, 

dead body 
cadena de montaiias, 

/., chain of moun- 
tains 
cadena perpetua, /., 

penal servitude for 

life 

caer, to fall ; irr. 
- sobre, to be over 

(situation) 
cafe, m., coffee, cafe 

(coffee-house) 

solo, black coffee 
ca,ida,f.,fall 

caja, /., strong box, 
safe, coffin 

de ahorros, /., 
savings-bank 

de cerillas, de 
fosforos, 6 de 
mistos, /., box of 
matches 

de colores, colour 
box 

de pinturas, paint 
box 

del coche, /., body 
of a carriage 

cajero, m., cashier 

cajetilla(de cigarrillos), 
/., packet of cigar- 
ettes 

cajista, m., compositor 

cajon, m.. drawer 

cal,/., chalk 

caldera, /., boiler 

caldo, m. , soup (broth), 
bouillon 

c a 1 e n d a r i o, m. , 
calendar 

calentura, /. . fever 

calidad,/., quality 

calido, (of climates) hot 

caliente, hot 

caliz, m., calyx 



calor, m. , heat, warmth. 
See hace 

calorifero, m., foot- 
warmer 

calumnia, f. , calumny, 
slander, libel 

calumniador, 'in., 

calumniator 

calle. /. , street 

de Alcala, Alcald 
Street 

de arboles, avenue 
cama, /., bed 
Camara (la), the House. 

SeeAlt& , Baja 

de los Comunes (la), 
the House of Commons 

- de los Lores (la), 
tlie House of Lords 

camarote, m., cabin 

de popa, main cabin 

de proa, fore-cabin 
cambiar, to change 
cambio, m., change, 

exchange t rate of 
exchange 

- de monedas, money 
changer's 

de tren, change of 
carriage 

cambista, m. , money 

changer 

camello, m., camel 
Camilla,/., stretcher 
camino, m., road, way 
camisa,/., shirt 

para frac, evening 
dress shirt 

campamento, m. , camp 
campana, /., bell 
campanario, m., belfry 
campanero, m., bell- 
ringer 
campanilla,/., bell 

de alarma, /. , alarm 
bell 

campanillas aznles, /., 
blue-bells 

campana,/., campaign, 
warfare 

campesino, m. , country- 
man 



campo, m., field, 
country, (the) con n f .< 

de trigo, m., corn- 
field 

camposanto, //>., 

churchyard, cemetery 

Canada (el), Canada 

Canadiense, m., /., a 
Canadian ; also <nlj. 

canal, m., channel, 
strait, canal 

de la Mancha, m., 
English Channel 

de Suez, Suez Canal 
canario, m., canary 
canastillo de los 

cubiertos, m., plate- 
basket 

cancel, m., screen 
(theatre, church) 

cancion,/., song 

candelero, m., candle- 
Sec estar 



candidate, m., candi- 
date 

canela,/., cinnamon 

cangrejo, m., crab 

canilla, /., shin, shin 
bone 

canoa,/., canoe 

canonigo, m., canon 

can tan te, m.,f., singer 

can tar, to sing 

el gallo, to crow (the 
cock) 

cantero de flores, m., 
bed offimvers 

cantidad, /., amount, 
quantity 

cantina, /., canteen 

canto, m., singing, 
song 

canto (del gallo), m., 
crmving (of the cock) 

cafta (de pescar), (fish- 
ing) rod 

canon, m., gun (art.) 
- (de i'usil), (gun) 
barrel 

canonazo, m,. cannon, 
gun shot (art. ) 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



261 



capa,/., Spanish cloak 
(for men) 

de nieve, /. , coat of 
snow 

capacidad electoral , /. , 
electoral qualification 

capataz, m., foreman 

capellan, m., chaplain 

capilla, /., chapel, 
(singing) choir 

capital, ra., capital 
(money) 

capital, /., the metro- 
polis (Madrid) 

capitalist a. m., 
capitalist, financier 

capitan, m., captain 

de fragata, or de 
navio, m., captain 
(R.N.) 

general, captain 
general 

capitulo, m., diopter 

capota, /., bonnet 

capote, m. , cloak (mil.) 

capullo, m., bud (un- 
expanded blossom), 
cocoon 

ca,ra,f.,face 

carabina, /., carbine, 
rifle 

carabinero, in., custom- 
Iwuse officer (cara- 
bineer) 

caracol, m., snail 

caracter, m., character 

caracteristico, -ca, 

characteristic 

caravana, /. , caravan 

carbon de piedra, //?.. 
coal 

carboneras, /. , coal- 
bunkers 

carcel, /., prison (gaol}. 
See de 

carcelero, m. , gaoler, 
warder 

cardenal, m., Cardinal ; 
(collog. ) bruise 

carga, /., cargo, ship- 
ping, lading 

carganiento, m., cargo 



cargar, to cJiarge, to 

load 

cargo, ra., charge 
caridad, /., charity, 

alms 

carlista, Carlist 
Carlos, diaries 
Carlota, Charlotte 
carne, /. , flesh, meat 
muerta, /. , carrion 
carnero, ra., ram 
caro, -ra, dear, expen- 
sive, too dear (expen- 
sive) 

carpa, /., carp 
carpintero, ra., car- 



carrera, /., run, race, 
ride ; career, profes- 
sion. See por una 

carreta, /. , cart or 
waggon (drawn by 
oxen) 

carrete de hilo (or de 
algodon), ra., reel of 
cotton 

carretero, /., main 
road 

carretero, m., cartnan 

carro, m. , cart, 
waggon ; el (astr. ) 
the Pl< i a i ili, 

(or carruaje) de 
artilleria, artillery 
carriage 

carroniatero, m., dray- 
man 

carromato, m., dray 
carruaje, m., carriage 
carta,/., letter 

certificada, registered 
letter 

certificada perdida, 
lost registered letter 

de recomendacion, 
letter of introduction 

Cartagineses (los), the 

Carthag inians 
cartel(es), m., poster(s) 
cartera, /. , pocket-book 

de viaje, /. , courier's 
bag 



cartero, m., postman 
cartuchera, /., car- 
tridge-box 

cartucho, ra., cartridge 
casa, /. , house, (comm.) 
firm. See en 

de carapo, /., 
country -liouse, farm- 
house 

de comercio, ,/'., 
business house, flrm 

de empenos, /., 
pawnbroker's shop 

de huespedes, /., 
lodging-house, board- 
ing-lwuse 

de Austria (la), the 
House of A ustria 

de Borbon (la), the 
House of Bourbon 

casado, casada, married 
in nn, married 

woman ; married 

casamiento, m. , mar- 
riage 

cascada, /. , waterfall 

cascanueces, m., sing., 
nut-crackers 

cascar, to crack 

cascara,/., sliell 

casco, m., helmet 

de un buque, m., 
hull of a ship 

casero, -ra, m., /., 

landlord, landlady 
casi, almost, nearly 

nunca, scarcely ever 

siempre, almost 
always 

todo el mundo, 
nearly everybody 

todos (todas), almost 
all 

caso, m., case ; en , 
in case 

castana, /. , clicstnnf 

castaho, m., chestnut- 
tree 

castaiiuelas, /. , pi. , 
castanets 

castellano, -na, m. /., 
Castilian, Castilian 



262 



INDEX TO VOCABULAEIES SPANISH WORDS. 



woman, also adj. , 
Castili/y/t 

castellano (el), ///., 
Spanish, the Cas- 
tilian language ; 
(the) Spanish gram- 
mar 

castigo, m., pti/i/x/t- 
ment 

castigar, to punish 

Castilla, /. , Castile 

la Xueva, New 
Castile 

la Vieja, Old Castile 
castillo, m., castle 
Catalan, m., catalana ,/., 

Catalonian, Cata- 
loninn woman ; also 
adj., Catalonian, 
Catalan 
Catalan (el), m., (the] 

Catalan (language) 
catalogo, m. , catalogue 
Cataluna, /., Catalonia 
cataplasma, /., poultice 
catarata, m., a (big) 

fall (i.e., waterfall) 
catecismo, m. , cate- 
chism 

catedral, /. , cathedral 
catedratico, m., pro- 



catolico, -ca, catholic ; 
Roman Catholic 

apostolico romano, 
Roman Catholic 

Celtas (los), the Celts 
Celtiberos (los), the 

Celtiberians 
cauce, m., bed (of a 

river} 
causa, /. , cause, 

reason ; (law) suit, 

criminal suit, process 
causar, to cause, to 

produce 

cayado, m., crook 
caza,/., game, hunting, 

sport, shooting. See 

de 

de aves,/., shooting 

mayor, /., big game 



Caza menor, /., small 
game 

torpederos, m. , tor- 
pedo-catcher 

cazador, m., huntsman, 

hunter 
cazadores, chasseurs, 

sharp-shooters 
cazar, to shoot, to hunt ; 

shooting, hunting 
cebada, f. , barley 
cebolla, /. , onion 
ceja, /. , eyebrow 
celda, /., cell 
celebrar, to celebrate 

una entrevista. to 
have an interview 

una reunion, to hold 
a meeting 

celebrarse, to (be) 
enter(ed) into, to take 
place 

celoso, -sa, zealous 

cementerio, m., cemetery 

cena, /., supper 

centeno, m., ri/e 

centro, m., centre 

cepillarse, to brush one- 
self 

cepillo, m., brush 

cera, /., wax 

cerca, de, near 

cerdo, m.. pig 

cereza, /., chcn-i/ 

cerezo, m., cherry-tree 

cerilla, /., match 

cerrada, -do, shut, 
closed 

cerradura, /. , lock 

cerrajero, m., locksmith 

cerrar, irr., to shut, to 
close 

el bloqueo, to com- 
plete the blockade 

cerrarse (una suscrip- 
cion), to close (a sub- 
scription) 

certificado, m., certifi- 
cate ; (Post Office) 
registered letter, 

registered parcel, 
receipt of registration 



certificar, t<> 

(letters, parcels) 
cerveceria, /. , beer-shop 
cerveza, /., beer 
cestita de la labor, 
/., needlework-basket 
cesta,/., (small) basket 
cesto del pescado, m., 

jish-basket 
ciclon, m., cyclone 
ciega, /., blind woman 
ciego, m. , blind man 
cielo, m., heaven, sky 
cielo-raso, m. t ceiling 
ciencia, /., science 
cierre, m., closing 

de una carta, m., 
closing formula 

cierto, a certain 

numero de veces, a 
certain number of 
times 

ciervo, m., deer 
cigarrera,/., cigar m.sv, 

cigar factory girt 
cigarrillo, m., cigarrf/r 
cigarro, m., cigar 
cigiiena,/., stork 
cilindro, m., cylin<l<-,- 
cima, /., summit, top 

(of a mountain) 
cimientos, m., />/., 

foundations 
cincel, m., chisel 
cinta,/., ribbon 

del sombrero, /., 
hat-band, hat-ribbon, 
bonnet-ribbon, bonnct- 



cintura, /., waist, 
cinturon, m., belt 
circular, /. , circular 
circular, to circulate 
cfrculo, m., circle 

maximo, great circle 

menor, small circle 

polar, polar circle 

polar artico, arctic 
circle 

polar antartico, 
antarctic circle 

cirujano, m., surg>'<i 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



263 



cisne, TO., swan 
cistern a,/., tank 
citacion, /. , summons 
citar, to summon 
ciudad, f. , town, city 
civilizacion , /. , civilisa- 
tion 

clac, TO., opera hat 
claridad,/., distinctness 
claro, -ra, clear 
clase, /., class, kind, 
sort 

alta, higher class 

baja, lower class 

media, middle class 

superior, /. , 
advanced class 
clausula,/., clause 
clave, /., (teleg.) code 
clavel, m. , pink, carna- 
tion, or clove 
clavellina,/. , carnation 

(plant) 

clavo, TO., nail, clove 
clero (el), the clergy 
cliente, m.,/., client 
clima, m. , climate 
cobertizo, TO. , shed. 

barn 
cobranza, /. , collection 

(of money) 

cobrar, to charge, to 
collect 

un corretaje, to get 
a percentage 

cobre, TO., copper 
cobro, TO., collection (of 

money) 

cocear, to kick 
cocido, m. , boiled meat, 

pot-an-feu 
cocinera, /., cook 
cocinero, m. , man cook, 

chef 

cocodrilo, m., crocodile 
coche, TO. , coach, 

carriage, railway 

carriage 

de alquiler, TO., 
hired carriage, 
hackney coach, cab 

de plaza or de 



punto, hackney coach, 
cab 

coche cama, m., sleep- 
ing-car 

furmador, smoking- 
car 

mortuorio, in. , 
hearse 

particular, private 
carriage 

salon, m., saloon- 
carriage 

cochero, m., coachman, 
cabman, cab -driver, 
driver, stage driver 
codo, m., elbow 
codorniz, /., quail 
coger, to take, to catch, 
to pick up 

(or haber cogido) 
una turca, to be tipsy 

cojo, m., coja, /., lame 
man, lame woman ; 
lame (person) 

cok, TO., coke 

col, (or gener. ), coles, 
(pl.),f., cabbage 

cola,/., tail 

colaborador, m. , con- 
tributor 

colegial, TO., school-boy 

colegiala, /. , school-girl 

colegio, TO., school, 



de ninos, school for 
boys 

niiias, school for 

girls 

electoral, electoral 
college 

privado, private 
school 

colera, TO., cholera 
colgador, TO., hat-rack 
coliflor, /. , cauliflower 
colina, /., hill 
colmena,/., beehive 
colmillo, TO., tusk 
colocar, to place, to put, 

to lay 

colocarse, to be laid 
colon ia, /., 



Colonia del Cabo (la), 

Cape Colony 
colono, m., planter 
color, m., colour 

de lila, TO., lilac- 
colour 

de purpura, purple 

primario, primary 
colour 

secundario, second- 
ary colour 

colorido, m., colour- 
ing 

colorista, TO.,/., colour - 
ist 

columna, /. , pillar, 
column 

de vanguardia, /., 
leading column 

collar, w., necklace 

coma,/., comma 

coinandante, TO., (com- 
mandant), major, 
commander 

(de un buque de 
guerra), TO., com- 
mander, captain 

combate, m. , fight 

naval, naval or sea 
fight 

comedero, TO. , trough 
(for pigs, foivls and 
birds) 

comedia, /., comedy 

comedor, TO., dining- 
room 

comer, to eat 

comerse, to be eaten, to 
eat up 

comerciante, TO., mer- 
chant 

comercio, TO., com- 
merce, business, trade 

al por mayor, m., 
wholesale trade 

al por men or, retail 
business or trade 

cometa, TO., comet 
cometer, to commit 
comico, -ca, comic 
c6mico(s) (los), (the-) 
actors and actresses 



264 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



comida,/., meal, food ; 

dinner 
comision,/. , committee, 

commission 
como, as, the same as, 

like 

i como . . . ? how . . . ? 
l esta . . . ? hoio is 

(she, he)? 
j se llama . . . ?, 

what is . . . name ? 

Jww do you call 

(that] ? 
compadecer, to pity, 

irr. 
companero de colegio, 

m., school-fellow 
compania,/., company 

(Cia.),/., company, 
Company (Co.) 

anonima, /. , 
Limited Company, 
(Ld. Co.] 

de ferrocarriles (also 
compania ferrocarri- 
lera), /., compania 
del ferrocarril, /. , 
railway company 

de infanteria, com- 
pany of infantry 

de navegacion, /., 
navigation company 

de seguros, /., In- 
surance Company 

compartimento, m. , 
compartment 

com pas, m., (geom.) 
compass 

compas, m. , (mus. ) 
time, bar. 

compensacion, /., com- 
pensation 

cornpetencia, /.. com- 
petition 

completar, to complete 

complete -ta, complete 

complice, m. and /., 
accomplice 

componer, to compose, 
(print), to set up ; irr. 

composicion, /., com- 
position 



compositor, m. , com- 
poser (mus.) 

compra, /., purcJiase, 
market 

comprador, m. t buyer, 



comprar, to buy 

comprender, to com- 
prise, to understand 

compuesto, irr., p.p. 
of componer, to com- 
pose, to form 

Comunes (los), the 
Commons 

conmnicacion, /. com- 
munication 

comunicado, m., com- 
munication, (i.e. open 
letter) 

comunidad, /., com- 



comunion, /., holy 

communion 
comunmente, common- 

iy 

con, with 

arreglo a, according 

(to) 
el tiempo, in time 

(i.e., in the course of 



concejal, m., councillor 
concesion,/., concession 
concierto, m., concert 
conclave, m., conclave 
concha, /., shell, de 

tortoise shell 
del apuntador, /., 

pi'ompter's- box 
condado, m. county 
conde, m., (earl), count 
condesa,/., countess 
condena, /. , (attestation 
of the) sequence, pen- 
alty 

condicion (es), /., con- 
dition^), terms. 
conducir, to lead, to 

show ; irr. 

conductor, m., con- 
ductor, (raihvay) 
guard 



de bueyes, m., 

teamster 

conejo, m., rabbit 
confection, /. , the 



confeccionar, to prepare 
conferencia, /. con- 
ference 

conf erir, to confer ; irr. 
confesar, also confesar- 

se, to confess ; irr. 
confesar, to hear the 

confession ; irr. 
confesion, /., confes- 
sion 

confesonario, m., con- 
fessional box 
confesor, m., confessor 
confianza,/., confidence 
confuso, confusing 
Congreso de diputados 
(el), m., The Congress 
congrio, m. , conger eel 
conico, -ca, conical 
conmigo, with me 
conocerse, to be known ; 

irr. 

conocimiento de em- 
barque, m., bill of 
lading 

consagrarse, to be de- 
voted, to devote one 
self 

Consejero (de una com- 
pania), m., Director 
(member of the board) 
of a Company 
consejo, m., advice 

de administracioii, 
m., Board of Direct- 
ors. 

de guerra, m., court- 
martial 

deMinistros, Cabinet, 

Cabinet Council 
consentimiento, m., 



conservacion,/., main- 
tenance 

conservador, m., con- 
servative 

conservar, to keep 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



265 



considerable, consider- 
able 

consignador, m. , con- 
signer 

con sign ar, to consign 

consignatario, m., con- 
signee 

consistir en, to consist of 

Constantinople /. , 
Constantinople 

constelacion, /., con- 
stellation 

constipado (un), (a) 
cold 

constitucion, /. , con- 
stitution 

construccion, /. the 
building-up 

construir, irr. ; to con- 
struct, to erect, to 
build 

consul, m., consul 

consulado, m., consulate 

consulta, /., consulta- 
tion 

consumidor, m., con- 
sumer, customer 

contador(es) m., ac- 
countant^) 

contaduria, /. , box- 
office 

contar, to count, to 
reckon ; irr. 

contarse, to be reckoned ; 
irr. 

contener, to contain ; 
irr. 

contenido, m., contents 

contestacion, /., reply, 
answer 

pagada, reply paid 

contestar, to answer 

continente, m., contin- 
ent 

contra, against, (in 
legal phrase) versus 

contraalmirante, m. , 
rear admiral 

contrabajo, m., double- 
bass 

contrabandista, ///., 
smuggler 



contrabando, m. , smug- 
gling 

contralto, /. , contralto 

contramaestre, m., 
second officer, boat- 
sioain 

contraste, m., contrast 

contratista, m., con- 
tractor 

contrato, m., agree- 
ment 

contrayente, m. and/., 
contracting party 

contribution, /., sing., 
taxes 

territorial, land tax 

industrial, trade tax 
contribuyente, m., /., 

taxpayer 

contribuir a un delito, 
to participate in a 
crime 

contusion,/., bruise 
contuso(s), 77i., bruised, 
i. c. , slightly wounded 
convenio, m. , agree- 
ment, convention 
convento, m., convent 
convertirse en, to be- 
come ; irr. 
convoy, m., convoy 
copia de prensa, /., 

press copy 

copiador de cartas (el), 
w., the copying-book 
copiar, to copy 
copo (de nieve), m., 

(snow] flake, 
coral, m., coral 
corazon, m., heart 
corbata (de color), tie 

blanca, evening- 
dress tie 

corcho, m., cork 
cordero, m., lamb 
cordillera,/., range of 

mountains 
cordon de la botn, ///., 

shoe-lace 
cornada, /., a thrust 

with the horn 
cornisa, /., cornice 



coro (un), m., chorus, 

(choi'al) 
coro, m., choir. See 

coros 

corola, /. , corolla 
corona, /. , crown, 

wreath 

funebre,/., wreath 
coronel, m., colonel 
coros (los), m., pi., 

chorus, (collect.} 
corporation (munici- 
pal), /., (municipal) 
Corporation 
corral, m., poultry - 

yard 

correa, /., belt, strap 
correction, /., correc- 
tion, correctness 
corrector de pruebas, 

m., proof reader 
corrector, m., corridor, 
stockbroker 

maritime, m., ship- 
broker 

corregir, to correct ; irr. 

(pruebas), to revise 
(proofs) 

correo, m. , post, mail(s) 

del estranjero, 
foreign mail 

correr, to run 

(bajo . . . ), to run 
(under . . . ) 

correspondencia, /., 
mail(s), letters, letter 
(in a paper) 

corresponsal, m. , cor- 
respondent (news- 
paper) 

corretaje, m., brokerage 

corriente, /., stream, 
current, draught 

corriente (corr te . ), in- 
stant, (inst. ) Sec 
del 

cortador, m. , cortadora, 
/., cutter 

cortar, to cut, to cut 
out 

cortarse, to cut oneself 

cortadura,/., cut 



266 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



corte, m., cut 

Corte (la), /. , the Court 
(of a nation, in 
Spain) Madrid 

de vestido, m., 
dress-length 
- (del vestido), m., 
the cut of a, dress 

Cortes, las, /., pi., the 
Cortes, The (Spanish) 
Parliament 

cortina, f. , curtain 

cortinilla, /. , (railway) 
blind 

corto -ta, short 

cosa. /., thing 

cosecha, /., crop 

coser, to sew 

costa, /., coast, shore, 
seaside 

costado, m., side 

costas, /., pi., costs 

costilla, /., chop 

costumbre, /., habit 

costura, /., seam 

costurera, /. , seam- 
stress, dressmaker 

cotizacion, /. , quota- 
tion 

cotorra, /. , parrot 

coz, /. , kick (of a horse) 

craneo, m., skull 

crater, m., crater 

creacion , /. , creation 

crear, to create 

crecer, to grow ; irr. 

credenciales, /. , letters 
of introduction (am- 
bassador) 

credito, m., credit 

creer, to believe 

cresta,/., cock's-comb 

criada, f. , (maid) ser- 
vant, general servant 

criado, m. , man-servant. 
See criados 

Criador, m., Creator 

criados, m., pi., (coll.) 
servants (m. andf.) 

criatura,/., child, baby 

crimen,ra., crime, man- 
slaughter, murder 



criminal, m.,/., crim- 
inal (person) 

crin,/. , mane 

crisis,/., crisis 

cristal, m., glass, pane 
of glass, window- 
pane 

critica, /., criticism 

criticar, to criticise 

critico, m., critic 

crucero, m., transept, 
cruiser 

crucifijo, m., crucifix 

crustaceos, m. pi. , 
Crustacea 

cruz, /., cross, decora- 
tion 

cruzar, to cross 

cuadra, f., room (for 
soldiers in barracks) 

cuadrilla (or seccion) 
de trabajadores, /., 
gang 

cuadro, m. , picture, 
painting 

al 61 eo, oil painting 

de flores, m. , flower- 
bed 

de historia, histori- 
cal picture 

cuando, when 
i cuando ? when ? 
cuanta, how much 
j cuanta ? how much ? 
cuanto, hoiv long, how 
much 

antes, as soon as 
possible 

i cuanto ? haw long ? 

how much ? See 

U a-?) 
j es ? Iww much ? how 

much is it ? 
j son ? how much are 

they*, 
i cuantos ? j cuantas ? 

how many ? 
; cuantos . . . ! or 

j cuantas \. . . What 

alotof... ! 
cuarentena, /., quar- 
antine 



cuartel (cuarteles), m., 
barracks 

general, headquar- 
ters 

cuartelillo, 771., police 

station 

cuarteto, m., quartet 
cuarto, -ta, adj. fourth 
cuarto, m., room 

crecierite, m., first 
quarter 

de las maquinas, m., 
engine-room 

menguante, m., last 
quarter 

cuatro, four 
cubierta. /., deck. Sec 
bajo 

(de un libro), /., 
cover (of a book in 
boards) 

cubiertas de papel, 

paper covers 
cubrir, to cover, p.p., 

cubierto [irr. ] 
cubrirse, to get covered 
cuclillo, m., cuckoo 
cuchara, /., spoon 
cucharada, /. , spoon- 
ful 

cuchillo, m., knife 
cuello, m., neck, collar 
cuenta, f. , account, bill 

corriente (c ta c te ),/., 
current account 

cuerda,/., string, rope 
cuero, m., hide 
cuerpo, m. ; body, bodice 

de ejercito, army 
corps 

diplomatico (el), 
(the) diplomatic body 

humano, human 
body 

profesional, profes- 
sional body 

Cuerpos Colegisladores, 
m., Co-legislative 
Bodies 

cuervo, m. , crow, 
(raven) 

cuestion, /., question, 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



267 



quarrel^ dispute, 
(law) case 

cuestion civil, /., civil 
case 

criminal, criminal 
case 

cuestionario(s) de exa- 
menes, m., Exam- 
ination Papers 

cuidado, m., care 

con . . . , beware 
of, .. 

cuidar, to nurse 

(de), to care for, to 
look after 

de, to be entrusted 
with, to superintend 

culpa, /. , crime, (colloq. ) 
fault. See tener la 

culpabilidad, /. , culpa- 
bility, guiltiness 

culpable, m. ,f. , culprit, 
guilty person, guilty 

culto, m., cult 

cumpleaiios, m., sing, 
birth-day 

cuiiada, /., sister-in- 
law 

cunado, m., brother-in- 
law 

cupe, m., coupe, (front 
compartment of a 
diligence) 

cupola,/., cupola, dome 

cura, m., curate 

curena, /. , gun carriage 

cursillo, m., term 

curso, m., course 

curso or curso acade- 
mico, m. , academical 
year, term 

curva,/., curve 

custodia, /. , custody 

cnstodiar, to keep 
(guard) 



Danes, danesa. See 

dinamarques, etc. 
dano(s), m., damage(s) 
dahos y perjuicios, m., 
damages 



dar, to give, to give up, 
(theat. ) to perform ; 
irr. 

a conocer, to show 

el pesame, to condole 
ivith 

freno, to apply the 
brake 

fruta, to bear fruit 

un asalto, 6 asaltar, 
to storm 

un grado, to promote 

vuelta, to turn 
darse (la enseiianza), to 

be carried on (the 

tuition) 
datil, m., date (fruit) ; 

pi. , colloq. , fingers 
de, of, from, at, in, on, 

by, for, to 

azahar, orange 
blossom 

barro, clay (one) 

car eel, imprisonment 

caza, shooting, Mint- 
ing 

dia, daylight, in 
daytime 

edad, old, aged 

Galicia, Galician 

guarnicion, in 
garrison 

lance, second hand 

lu to, in mourning 

mad era, wooden 
(one), of wood 

memoria, by heart 

moda, in fashion, 
fashionable 

noche, night, at 
night 

old as, by hearsay 

pesca, fishing 

piedra, stone one(s), 
of stone 

presidio, penal- 
servitude 

primera, first class 

prueba, for fitting, 
to fit on 

- repente, suddenly, 
sharply 



de segnnda, second 
class 

venta, on sale 

vista, by sigJit 

viva voz, vivd voce 

derecha a izquierda, 
from right to left 

tres a siete, from 
three, to seven 

arbol en arbol, from 
tree to tree 

cuando en cuando, 
now and then 

flor en flor, from 
flower to flower 

rama en rama, from 
branch to branch 

dean, m., Dean 

debajo, underneath 

Debe (el), m. , Debtor 
(Dr.), Debit 

deber llegar, to be due 

debito, m., debit 

debitos, m., pi., lia- 
bilities 

decidir, to decide 

decir, to say, to tell, to 
call out ; irr. 

decision,/., decision 

declaracion, /., deposi- 
tion, statement 

declarar, to declare ; 
(law) to pronounce, to 



no ha lugar, to dis- 
miss the case 
declamar, to recite 
decoraciones (las), the 

scenery 

decorador, m. , decorator 
decorar, to decorate 
decreto, m., decree 
dedicarse, to devote one- 
self, to confine oneself 
dedicatoria, /. , dedica- 
tion 

dedo, m., finger, toe 
defender( a), to defend,, 

irr. 

defenderse de, to defend 
oneself against ; irr. 
defensa, /., defence 



268 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



defensor, m., defender 
dejar, to leave 

en paz, to leave 
alone 

del, contr.for de el, of 
the, from the 

actual, instant (i.e. 
inst. ) 

corriente (corr te .), 
instant (inst. ) 

cual, de la cual, 
from which 

natural, from nature 

pasado, ultimo 



proximo 
(pp d0 .), uU. 

delante, in front 
delegacion de policia 

(la), the police station 
delegado, m., delegate 
deliberation,/., deliber- 

ation, discussion 
delicioso, -sa, delicious 
delincuente, m., /., 

criminal, offender 
deli to, m., crime 
demanda, /., demand; 

(law) action 
demandado, -da, m. , 

/., defendant 
demandante, m., /., 

plaintiff 
demostrar, to show ; 

irr. 
dentro, inside 

de, inside, within 

de (cierto tiempo) 
within or in (a cer- 
tain time) 

depender de, to depend 

on 

dependiente, m., clerk 
depositante, m., /., 

depositor 

depositar, to deposit 
deposito, m., deposit 
derecho, derecha, adj. 

right,. See de 

derecha . . . 
derecho, m., law, right, 

fee, duty 



derecho de entrada, 
m., custom - house 
duty 

de examen, m., 
examination fee 

de matricula, 
// / a triculation fee 

- de propiedad, m., 
copyright 

hereditario, m. , 
hereditary right 

derechos arancelarios, 
customs duties 

civiles, civil rights 
derroche, m., waste 
derrota, /., defeat 
desaparecer, to dis- 
appear ; irr. 

"desayuno, m. } breakfast 
desbordamiento, m., 

(the) overflowing 
descansar, to rest 
descanso, m., rest 

(theat. ) interval ; 

(staircase) landing 
descarga,/., unlading 
descarrilamiento, m. , 

derailment 
descendiente, m., /., 

descendant 
descifrar, to decipher 
descontar, to discount, 

irr. 

descuento, m,, discount 
desde, from, since 

la cual, from which 

... hasta . . . , 
from . . . to . . . 

lejos, from the dis- 
tance 

los primeros, from 
tJie first few 

desembarco, m. , debark- 
ation, landing 

desembarque, m. , land' 
ing 

desembocadura, /., 
(mouth of a river) 

desenlace, m., (tlieat.) 
conclusion, ending 

desertor, m., deserter 

desgarrar, to tear 



desgracia, /., mis- 
fortune, accident 

desgracias personales, 
/., pi., injuries and 
loss of life 

deshelar, to thaw ; irr. 

deshiela, it tliaws 

desierto, m., desert 

desmayo, m. , fainf ///;/- 
fit 

desmonte, m. } excava- 
tion 

desnudo, -da, naked 

desordenes, m., dis- 
turbances 

despachar un asurito, 
to transact a business 

despacharse, to be 
obtained, or obtain- 
able 

despacho, m. , (office) 
library, study, ojftcc 

de billetes, m., 
booking-office, ticket- 
office 

de equipajes, m.. t 
luggage-office 

despedida, f., farewell 

despoblado, m. , un- 
inhabited place 

desposados, m., pi., 
newly-married pair 

despues, after, after- 
wards 

de, after 

deCristo (d. de C.), 
A.D. 

destinar, to assign 

destinarse, to be set 
apart 

destino, m. , destina- 
tion, (a) situation 

destreza, /. , dexterity 

destructor, m., adj., de- 
stroy : cr 

destructor, -tora, de- 
structive 

determinar, to declare 

detener, to detain ; irr. 

detras, behind 

deuda,/., debt 

dia, m. , day. Sec de 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WOKDS. 



269 



dia de ayuno, fast-day 

de correct, mail day 

de fiesta, feast, 
holiday, Sunday 

de la boda, wedding 
day 

de pescado, fish day 

de vigilia, fast day 

del santo, saint's day 

del cumpleanos, 
birthday 

dialecto, m., dialect 
diamante, m. , diamond ; 

de diamantes, 

diamond . . . 
diario, m., daily paper 

de la mafiana, 
morning paper 

de la tarde, evening 
paper 

de la nocbe, evening 
paper 

- oficial, m., official 
paper 

diario, m., the journal 

dibujante, m., 

delineator, sketcher, 



dibujar, to draw 
dibujo, m., drawing, 
design 

al lapiz, un, a pencil 
sketch 

a la pluma, un, a 
pen and ink sketch 

diccionario, m., dic- 
tionary 

diente, (pi, dientes), 
tooth 

diez, ten 

diferencia,/., difference 

diferir, to differ ; irr. 

difunto, w.,difunta,/., 
dead (person) 

dign idad , /. , dignitary, 
dignity, 

diligencia,/., diligence, 



dimision, /., resigna- 
tion 

Dinamarca, /., Den- 
mark 



dinamarques, dina- 
marquesa, m., /. , 
Dane, Danish 

woman ; adj. Danish 

dinastia, /., dynasty 

dinero, m., money 

Dios, m. t God 

diplomacia, /., diplo- 
macy 

diplomatico, m., diplo- 
matist 

Diputacion Provincial, 
/. , County Council, 
County Council office 

diputado (acortes), m., 
deputy (If. P.) 

provincial, member 
of the County Council 

dique, m., dyke, dock, 

embankment 
direcion, f., direction, 

address, addressing 
director, m., director 

(de Colegio, de 
Institute), m. , 
director, principal, 
head 

de orquesta, m., 
conductor 

(de un periodico), 
editor 

directora de colegio,/., 

headmistress 
dirigir, to control, to 

superintend 

la orquesta, to 
conduct the orchestra 

un banco, to conduct 
a bank 

un periodico, to edit 
a paper 

discurso, m., speech 

de la corona, speech 
from the throne 

discusion, /. , discussion 

disminucion de boras 
de trabajo,/., shorter 
Jwurs of labour 

disolucion, /., dissolu- 
tion 

disposicion,/., regula- 
tion 



disposicion oficial, /., 
official regulation 

disputa, /., dispute, 
quarrel 

disputado, -da, o//t- 



distancia, /., distance 
distinguirse. to be noted 
distribuir, to distribute ; 

irr. 
distrito, m., district 

mill tar, military 
district 

municipal, m., 
municipal district 

diversion, /., amuse- 
ment, sport 

dividendo, m. , divi- 
dend 

dividir, to divide 

dividirse en, to be 
divided into 

divinaiuente, beauti- 
fully 

division,/., division 

divorcio, in., divorce 

do, m., C (mus.) 

doce, twelve 

dock, m.. dock, wharf 

doctor, m., doctor 

en derecho, in., 
D.C.L. (Doctor of 
Civil Law) 

doctrina, /., doctrine 
documento, m., docu- 
ment 
dolor, m. , pain, sorrow 

de cabeza, headache 

de muelas, tooth- 
ache 

de oidos, earaclie 
domicilio social, m. , 

registered office 

doncella,/., housemaid 

i Donde ? Where ? 

dormir, to sleep ; irr. 

dormitorio, m., bed- 
room 

(don) Fulano de Tal, 
or (dona) Fulana de 
Tal; Fulano yZutano 
(Fulana y Zutana) 



270 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



(Mr, Mrs, Miss) So- 
and-so 

dos, two 

dos puntos, m., pi., 
colon (:) 

dotaci6n , /. , manning, 
crew 

dote, m.,f., dowry 

drama, in. , drama 

dramatico, -ca, 

dramatic 

dromedario, m., drome- 
dary 

ducado, m., dukedom, 
ducat 

duelo (el), m. t the 
mourners 

dueno, m., duena, /., 
owner 

de la fonda, m. t 
hotel proprietor 

dulce, m., (also adj.) 
sweet 

dulceria, f. , confec- 
tioner's shop 

duo, dueto, m., duct 

duque, m., duke 

duquesa, /. , duchess 

durante, during 

durar, to last 

durmientes, m., sleepers 

duro, dura, hard 



Eclipse, m., 
eclipsarse, to be eclipsed 
economia, /. , economy 

domestica, domestic 
economy 

politica, political 
economy 

Ecuador, m., Equator 
echar, to put into 

a pique, to sink 

al correo, to post 

anclas, to drop 
anchor 

hojas, to bear leaves 

la bendicion, to 
give the blessing 

las amonestaciones, 
to read the banns 



echar un pregon, to 
make a proclama- 
tion 

una funci6n, to give 
a performance, to 
perform, 

echarse (en), to be 

thrown (into) 
edad,/., age. See de 

media, /., Middle 
Ages 

ediciou,/., edition 

de la manana, 
morning edition 

de la tarde, evening 
edition, (afternoon) 

de la noche, evening 
(night) edition 

edicto, m., edict, publi- 
cation, public notice 

edificar, to build 

edificio, m., building, 
edifice 

editor, m. , publisher, 
editor 

educacion, /., educa- 
tion 

efecto, m., effect 

efectuar, to effect 

eficaz, effective 

Egipcio, -cia, m., /., 
Egyptian, (also adj.) 

Egipto (el), m., Egypt 

eje, m., axle 

ej ecucion , /. , execution 

ejecutar, to execute 

ejecutor de la justicia, 
m., executioner 

ejemplar, m., copy 

ejemplo, m., example, 
instance. See por 

ejercer el poder, to hold 
office 

ejercicio, m., exercise, 
drill, drilling 

ej6rcito, m., army 

el, m., the 

(la) mejor, los (las) 
mejores, the best 

men or detalle, the 
slightest detail 

que, he who 



el senor don Fulano de 

Tal, Mr So and So 
el, para el, he, for him 
elecci6n, /., election 
elective, -va, elective 
elector, m., voter 
electricidad, /., elec- 
tricity 

elefante, m., elephant 
elegir, to elect, to 

choose ; irr. 
elemental, elementary 
ella, para ella, she, for 

her 

embajada, /., embassy 
embajador, m., ambas- 
sador 

embarcadero, m. } land- 
ing-place, pier 
embarcarse, to embark 
embarque, m. , em- 
barkation, shipment 
emblema,/., emblem 
emision,/., issue 
ernitir, to emit, to issue 
empalme, m. , junction 
empapelar, to paper 
empenar, to pawn 
empezar, to begin ; irr. 
empleado, m. , official, 
clerk 

de correos, m., Post 
Office clerk 

de telegrafos, de 
telefonos, m. , Tele- 
graph, ( Telephone) 
clerk 

emplearse, to be em- 
ployed 

emprender un viaje, 
to start on a journey 

emprestito, m., loan 

en, in, inside, into, at, 
on, upon 

carton, in boards 

casa, at home, in- 
doors 

de, at So irnd 
So's, at the . . . 's 

clave, in cipher 

conjunto, in concert 

Cuaresma, in Lent 



INDEX TO VOCABULAKIES SPANISH WORDS. 



271 



direccion norte, in a 
northerly direction 

el extranjero, abroad 

efectivo,/or cash, in 
cash 

favor, in f avow 

folio, (fol.), in folio 

la, at the 

la oscuridad, in the 
dark 

lo alto, on the top 

madera, in wood 

media pasta, half 
bound, half calf 

metalico, for cash, 
in cash 

Nochebuena, on 
Christmas Eve 

octavo, (8 VO ), in 
8 vo 

papel, in banknotes 

pasta, full-bound 
(calf] 

paz, in peace, alone 

que fecha ? on what 
date ? 

pocos segundos, in a 
few seconds 

rtistioa, a la riistica, 
sewed 

seguida, at once 

tela, in cloth 

tierra, on shore 

un segundo, in a 
second 

union, in conjunc- 
tion 

vez de, instead of 
enarbolar, to hoist 
encabezamieu to, m., 

heading (of an 



encargado de negocios. 

m., charg^ d'affaires 
encargar, to entrust, to 

order (from) 
encargarse, to take 

charge 

encarnado -da,,red 
encender, to light ; irr. 
encendido -da, lit, 

lighted 



encerado, m. , block 
board 

encia,/., gum 

enciclica, f., encyclical 

eiicina, /., oak (holm 
oak] 

e n c uadernacion, /. , 
binding 

encuadernador, m. , 
book -binder 

encuadernar, to bind. 
See media pasta, 
pasta, rustica, tela, 
also, en riistica, a 
la 

encubridor -ra, m., con- 
cealer 

de hurtos, receiver of 
stolen goods 

encubrir, to conceal 
endosar, to endorse 
endoso, m. , endorse- 
ment 

enemigo, m., enemy 
enfermedad,/., il~ 
enfermera,/., nurse 
enfermo, m., enferma, 
/., ill person ; los 
enfermos, the sick 
enfermo -ina, adj., ill 
enhebrar, to thread 
enjambre, m., swarm 
enrnendar, to correct; 

irr. 

enmienda, /., amend- 
ment 

enredador,-dora, mis- 
chievous 

Enrique, Henry 
Enriqueta, Henrietta 
ensalada, /., salad 
ensayar, to rehearse 
ensayo, m., rehearsal 

general, dress re- 
hearsal 

ensenanza, /., tuition. 
See primera, se- 
gunda, 

domestica, home 
tuition 

libre, free tuition 

oficial, official tuition 



ensenar, to show, to 
teach 

(a), to teach (to show} to 
entablar una demands, 

to commence an 
action 

enteramente, entirely 

enterrar, to bury ; irr. 

entierro, m., interment, 
burial 

entonces, then 

entrada, /., entrance, 
entry, way in, admis- 
sion ticket, ticket 

entrar, to enter 

entrar(en), to come (in, 
within), to get into, 
to be used (in) 

entrarse, to be reached 

entre, between, among 

entre ellos (ellas), 
among them 

entre ocho y nueve, 
between 8 and 9 

once y doce, between 
11 and 12 

seis y media y siete, 
between 6.30 and 7 

una y dos, between 
1 and 2 

entregar, to give to, give 
up, to deliver 

entretanto, in the mean- 
time 

entrevista, /., inter- 
view 

envenenamiento, m. , 
death by poison 

enviar, to send 

epitafio, in,, epitaph, 
(funeral) inscription 

epoca,/., time 

de la labranza, 
ploughing time 

de la siembra, seed 
time 

de la siega, harvest 
time 

de la vendimia, 
vintage time 

equinoccio, m., equinox 
equipaje, m., luggage 



272 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



equipo, in., accoutre- 
ment, kit 

era,/., threshing floor 
ermita, /. , hermitage 
erupcion, /., eruption 
es, it is 

esa, esas. See ese, esos 
escala,/., scale (mus.) ; 

ladder 

escalera, /. , staircase 
de mano, /. , ladder 
escalera(s), stair(s), 



escalofrio, m. , shiver, 

shivering 

escalon(es), m., stcp(s) 
escama, /'., scale (of 

fish) 

Escandinavia, /., Scan- 
dinavia 

escaparate de (la) 
tienda, m. , shop- 
window 

escaramuza, /. , skir- 
mish 

escarcha, /. , hoar-frost 
escarola, /., endive 
escena, /., scene, stage 

de la despedida, 
farewell scene 

escenario, m., stage 
escoces, escocesa, m. , 
/. , Scotchman, Scotch- 
woman, adj., Scotch 
escoces (el), Scotch 

(lang.) 

Escocia, /., Scotland 
escombro, m., mackerel 
escopeta, /., gun 

de caza, /., (sport- 
ing) gun 

de dos canones, 
double barrelled gun 

escoplo, m., chisel 
escote, m., cut of a low 

necked bodice 
escotilla, /. , hatchway 
escribano, m., actuary 
escribir, to write, p.p. , 

escrito ; irr. 
escritor, m., writer 

dramatico, m. , 



dramatist, play- 
writer 

escritora, /., (lady) 
writer 

escritura,/., writing 

escuadra, /., square 
(inst., geom. ) ; squad- 
ron, (nav.) 

escuadron, (de caba- 
lleria), m., squadron 
(of cavalry) 

escucha, m., or /., 
scout 

escuchar, to hear, to 
listen 

escuela, /., school 

de parvulos, infants' 
school 

elemental, ele- 
mentary school 

normal, normal 
school 

privada, private 
school 

publica, national 
school 

superior, high school 
esculpir, to sculpture 
escultor, m., sculptor 
escultura, /., sculpture 
ese, esa, (neut. eso), 

that 

esencia de rosas, /., 
essence of roses 

esfera, /. , sphere 

esmeralda, /. , emerald ; 
de esmeraldas 

emerald .... 

eso, that 

esos, esas (pi.), those 

espacio, m., space 

espada, /., sword 

espadiri, m., rapier, 
dress-sword 

espalda, /., back 

espantajo, m., scare- 
crow 

Espana, /., Spain 

espanol, espahola, (m., 
/. ), Spaniard, Span- 
ish woman, also adj., 
Spanish. See a la 



espanol (el), Spanish 

(lang. ) 

esparadrapo, m., stick- 
ing plaster 
csparcir, to scatter 
especia, /., ,sy>/Vv, 
especial, special 
especialmente, 

especially 
espejo, m., looklmj- 

glass, mirror 
esperanza,/., hope 
esperar, to ivait, to 

wait for 

espeso, espesa, thick 
espiga, /., ear of 

corn 

espigador, m., gleaner 
espina, /. , thorn, (of a 

fish) bone 

espinacas, /. , spinach 
espinazo, m., back bone 
esplendida, -do, 

splendid 

espliego, m., lavender 
espolm(es), m., es- 

puela(s),/., spur(s) 
espolon, m., spur (of 

birds) 

esponja,/., sponge 
esposa,/., wife 
esposo, 77i., husband 
esqueje, m., cutting 
esquela,/., note, letter 

de casamiento, 
/. , wedding card 

de defuncion, notice 
of death 

mortuoria, notice of 
the death 

esquina, /. , corner, 
(i.e. , outside corner) 

esta [contenido, is con - 
tained 

deshelando, it is 



granizando, it is 
hailing 

helando, it is freez- 
ing 

lloviendo, it is rain- 
ing 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



273 



esta nevando, it is 

snowing 
relampagueando, it 

is lightening 

tronando, it is 

thundering 
estaba cubierto, (or 

cubierta) de, was 

covered with 
estaban cubiertos, (-as) 

de, were covered with 
establecimiento, m., 

establishment 
establo, m., stable 
estacion,'! /., station, 

season 

(del ferrocarril), 
(railway) station 

estado, m. , condition, 

state 
Estado (el), m., the 

State 

mayor (el), the staff 
Estados ilnidos, los, 

The United States 

estampilla de correos, 
/., postmark, stamp 
of the post- office 

estanco, m. , tobacconist- 
shop 

estanque, m., reservoir, 
pond 

esta, this 

noche, to-night 
estante, m. , shelf, book- 
shelf 

estar, to be, to be ready ; 
irr. 

de luto, to be in 
mourning 

en candelero, to be a 
big wig 

en oasa, to be at 
home, to be indoors 

encargado de, to be 
entrusted with 

sobre el ancla, to be 
at anchor 

estas. See estos 
estatura, /. , stature, 

height 
estatua,/., statue 

PT. II. 



este, esta (neut. esto), 

this 
Este, (E.), m~, East, 

(E.} 

estera, /., mat 
esterero, m., mat maker 
esterar, to lay down the 



estilo, m. , stile 

bizantino, Byzantine 
style 

gotico, Gothic style 
estipular, to stipulate 
estos, estas (pl.)> these 
estrecho, -cha, adj., 

narrow, (too) narroiv 
estrecho, m. , strait, 
channel 

de Gibraltar, the 
Straits of Gibraltar 

estrella, /., star 

fugaz, /., falling 
star, shooting star 

polar, /. , north star, 
polar star 

estribo, m., stirrup (of 

a saddle), step (of a 

coach) 

estucar, to plaster 
estuco, m. , (fine) 

plaster, stucco 
estudiante, m., student 
estudiar, to study 
estudio, m. , study ; 

(office), study, studio, 



nvrwry 

estudios de aplicacion, 

practical studies 
estufa, /., hot-house 
estuquista, m. ,plasterer 
examen, m., examina- 
tion 

de ingreso, m. , pre- 
liminary examina- 
tion 

general, general ex- 
amination 

examinador, m. , ex- 
aminer 

examinar, to examine 
exceso de peso, m., 
excess of luggage 



exclamacion, /. , ex- 
clamation 

Excuio Sr. , (Exceleu- 
tisimo Senor), His 
Excellency, Excel- 
lence 

exito, m., success 

expectador, m., specta- 
tor 

experimentos, m. , ex- 



explicacion, /., ex- 
planation, ( Univ. ) 
lecture 

explosion,/., explosion 

explotacion, /., the 
working 

exponer, to set forth; 
irr. 

exportacion,/., export 
exportation 

exportar, to export 

exposicion, /., exhibi- 
tion, show 

de Bellas Artes, 
Exhibition of Fine 
Arts 

exposicion de flores, /. , 

flower-show 

expositor, m., exhibitor 
expresion,/., expression 
expreso, el, the express 
expulsar, to expel 
extender, to extend, to 

spread, to stretch ; 

irr. 

un talon, to mak 
out, or draw a cheque ; 
irr. 

extension , /. , extension 

(de la voz), /., 
compass (of a voice) 

exterior, m. , the outside 

extinguir, to extinguish 

extranjero, -ra, (m., 

/.), a foreigner, adj., 

foreign 

, en el (or al), abroad 
extraordinario, -ria, 

extraordinary 
extraviado(s), m. , miss- 
ing 

S 



274 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



extrenridad, /., cx- 

tremity, limb 
Europa, /., Europe 
meridional (la), 

Southern Europe 
europeo, europea, 

European 
evidencia,/., evidence 



Fa, m., F (m,us.) 

fabrica, /. , factory 

de cigar ros,/., cigar- 
factory 

fabrication, /., (the) 
manufacturing 

fabricante, m., manu- 
facturer, maker 

fabricar, to manufac- 
ture, to make 

facciones, /., pi., 



facil, easy 

f acilidad, /. , facility 

factura, /. , invoice. 

bill 
simulada, pro forma, 

invoice 
facturar, to register, to 

have registered 
facultad, /. , faculty 

(also university 

studies) 

facultar, to enable 
fachada, /., face, front, 

frontage 

faisan, m., pheasant 
fajin, m., sash (milit.) 
falda, /. , skirt ; slope, 

brow 
faldon, m., tail (of a 

coat) 

falta, /. , small offence 
fallecimiento, m., 

death, decease 
familia, /., family 
fanatismo, m., fanati- 
cism 

farola, /., lighthouse 
fase(s) (de la luna)/., 

(moon's) change(s). 

See luna, cuarto 



fatalismo, m., fatalism 
favor, m., favour 
favorable, favourable 
tt,f., faith 

de bautismo,/., birth 
certificate 

de erratas, /., 
Errata 

fecha, /., date. See 
hasta la 

feligres(es), m., parish- 
ioner^) 

Fenicios, los, the 
PJicenicians 

feretro, m., bier 

Fernando, m. , Ferdi- 
nand 

ferrocarril, m., railway 

fertil, fertile 

fianza, /., a security, 
bail. See bajo 

fiebre, /. , fever 

intestinal, /., 
enteric fever 

fielato, m.., octroi house 

fiel, faithful 

fieles (los), m. pi., (the) 
faithful 

fiesta, f., feast, holiday. 
See dia de 

fiesta popular, /. , popu- 
lar feast 

figura, /., figure 
(aspect) 

figurar, there to be 

figurin, m., fashion 
plate 

fijar, to fix, to put up 

fila, /., row 

filosofia, /. , philosophy 

moral, /., moral 
philosophy 

y letras,/., Litter ue 
Humaniores 

fin, m. , the end 

financieros, los, the 
financiers 

fmeza de tono, /. , fine- 
ness of tone 

firma, /., signature 

firmar, to sign 

fiscal, m., public prose- 



cutor, Attorney 

General 

ffsica, /. , physics 
fisiologia, /., physi- 

ology 
flanco, m., flank 



flautista, m., flulc- 

player 

flete, m., freight 
Qot&,f.,fieet 
flotilla, f.,fiotilla 
flor, /. , flower 
florero, m., flower-pot 
florista, /. , florist 
fogonero, m., stoker 
folletin, m. , serial story 
folleto, m., pamphlet 
f omen tar, to increase 
fonda, /., hotel 
fondista, m., hotel-pro- 

prietor 
fondo, m., bottom, depth 

(metaph. , good or 

bad nature) 
fondos publicos, m. , 

pi. , stocks and shares 
forja,/., smithy 
formation , /. , the form- 

ing 
formado (-da) por, 

formed by 
formar, to form, to 

make, to constitute 
formarse, to be fanned 
formular, to set forth 
formulario, m. , form 
de suscripcion,/orm 

of application 
forro, m., lining 
fosforera, /. , match case 
fosforo, m., match 
fotografia, /., photo, 

photography 
fotografo, m., photog- 

rapher 
frac, m., evening-dress 

coat. See traje de 
f racaso, m. , failure 
fractura, /. , fracture 
fragancia, f., fragrance 
fragua,/.,/or<7e 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



275 



fraile, m. friar 

trances (el), French 
(lang. ) 

francos, -sa (m., /.), 
Frenchman, French- 
woman ; adj. French. 
Sec a la francesa 

Francia, /., France 

Francos (los), m., 
t.he Francs 

franela, /. , flannel 

franqueo, m., postage 

suplementario, 
additional 

frasco de la polvora, 

m., powder flask 
frase,/., phrase 
freno, m., brake 
frente, /. , foreJicad 
frente a, al, a la, 

opposite (the) 
fresas, /. , strawberries 
fresco, -ca., fresh, cool 
frio, m., cold, chill 
frio, fria, cold (adj. ) 
frontera, f., frontier 
i'ruta, /., fruit (from 
tlic tree, eatable) 

del tiempo, fruit 
in season 

i'rnto, m., fruit (pro- 
duct of vegetable 
growth, especially 
from the earth] ; 
result, consequence 

fuego, m.,Jire 

i'uente,/., dish 

fuentes (las), the source 
(head) of a river 

fuera, outside 

fueros (los), the muni- 
cipal rights or 
charter 

fuerte, m.,fort 

adj. strong 

multa, /. , lieavy fine 
fuerza, /., strength 

dramatiea, dramatic 
force 

fui, / went. See ir. 
fuimos, we went. See 
ir. 



fumar, to smoke 
funcion, /., perform- 
ance, play, piece 
funeral, m., funeral 



fusil, m. , rifle 

Mauser (el), or sim- 
ply el Mauser, 
Mauser rifle 

furgon (de equipajes), 
m., luggage-van 



Gabinete, m. , sitting- 
room, Cabinet 
(minist.) 

Gaceta de Madrid (la), 
Madrid Gazette 

gacetilla,/., item, para- 
graph, (newspaper) 

gacetillero, m., re- 
porter, news-writer 

gaita gallega (la), the 
Galician bagpipe 

galerada, /., galley of 
type 

galena, /., gallery 

de pinturas, /., 
picture gallery 

Nacional (la), /., 
the National Gallery 

Gales, m., Wales 

gales, galesa, (m. , f. ), 
Welsh, Welsh 

woman, adj., Welsh 

gales (el), Welsh 
(lang.) 

Galicia,/., Galicia 

gallardete, m. t streamer 

gallego, m., gallega, 
/., Galician, Galician 
woman, also adj. 
See gaita 

gallego (el), Galician 
(lang.} 

gallina, /., hen, fowl, 
chicken, (mctaph. ), 
a coward, m. 

gallinero, m., fowl- 
house 

, el, the gods, the 
upper gallery 



gallo, m., cock 
gamo, m., chamois 
ganado, m. , cattle, herd 
ganancia, /. , profit 
ganar, to earn, to gain 
ganso, (pi. gansos), 

m., goose 
garantia,/., guarantee, 

security 

garantizar, to guarantee 
garbanzos, m. , chick- 
peas 

gardenia,/., gardenia 
garganta, /., throat. 
garra,/., claw 
gas, m., gas 
gastar, to spend (money), 

to waste (time) 
gastos (los), m., pi., 
the expenditure, ex- 
penses 

de explotacion, 
working expenses 

gato, m., cat 
gemelo(s), m., link(s), 

cuff-stud(s), i>l. , 

opera glasses 
general, m., general 

de brigada, brigadier 

de division, general 
of division 

enJefe, Commander- 
in-chief 

generalmente, gener- 
ally 

generos, m. , pi. , goods 
genio, m., genius 
gente, /. , sing. , people 
geografia, /., geog- 
raphy 

geografo, m. , geogra- 
pher 
geornetria,/., geometry, 

Euclid 

geranio, m., geranium 
gerente, m., manager 
girar una letra, to draw 

a bill of exchange 
globo terrestre, m. , 

globe, (geogr.) 
glorieta, /., summer- 
house 



276 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



gobernador, m. , pre- 
fect, governor 

Civil, m., Civil 
Governor, (Prefect} 

del Banco, m., 
Governor of the Bank 

gobernar, to govern, irr. 

el timou, to steer 
gobierno, m. , govern- 
ment, guidance 

civil (el), the Pre- 
fect's Office 

local, local govern- 
ment 

Provisional, m. , 
Provisional Govern- 
ment 

golfo, m., gulf 

de Gascuna, the Bay 
of Biscay 

golondriua, /. , swallow 
golpe de estado, m., 

coup d'ttat 
goma, /., gum, india- 

nibber 
gorra,/., cap 

de viaje, travelling 
cap 

gorrion, m., sparrow 

gota, /., drop 

gotico, -ca, Gothic. 

See estilo 
gozar de derechos 

civiles, to be in pos- 
session of civil rights 
grabado, m. , engraving, 

etching 

un en acero, steel 

engraving 

un en madera, 

woodcut 

grabador, m., engraver 
grabar, to engrave 
gracia, /. , gracefulness, 

wittiness ; name 
gracias, or mil gracias, 

thanks, thank you, 

many thanks 
gracioso, -sa, graceful 
grada, /. , step, tier 
grado, m., degree, rank 
gramatica (elemental), 



/. , (elementary') 

grammar 

gran, large. See 
grande 

Gran Bretaha (la), 
Great Britain 

granada, /., pome- 
granate 

granado, m., pome- 
granate tree 

grande (gran before a 
subst. ), big, large, 
too big, too large, 
great 

grauero, m., granary 

graniza, it hails 

granizada,/. , hail-storm 

granizar, to hail 

granizo, m., hail 

granja, /. , farm, farm- 
house 

granjero, m., farmer 

grano, m., grain 

grato, grata, esteemed 

grave, serious, critical 

graznar, to croak 

graznido, m., croak 

Grecia, /. , Greece 

griego -ga (m., /.,) 
Greek, Greek woman, 
adj., Greek 

griego (el), m., Greek 
(lang. ) 

gritar, to cry, to cry 
out 

grito, m., cry 

grua,/., crane 

grunido, m., grunting 

gruriir, to grunt, irr. 

grupo, m., group 

guano, m., guano 

guantes (de color), m., 
gloves 

blancos, white gloves 

guarda - agujas, m., 
pointsman 

guardabosque, m. , 
forester 

guardacanton, m., 
guardarruedas, /. , 
sing., curb stone 

guardacostas, m., coast- 



guard ship, revenue 

cutter 
guarda de consumes, 

m. , octroi officer 
guardar, to guard, t<> 

take care, to put, to 

keep, to be kept 
guardarse, to keep, In 

be kept 
Guardia Civil, /., The 

Civil Guard (instit.) 

guardia civil (un), 

m., (a) civil Guard 
guardia marina, w., 

midshipman, naval 

cadet 
guarnieion,/., garrison. 

See de 
guerra, /. , war 
guia de ferro car riles, 

/., railway guide 
guiar, to drive 
guisado, m., stew 
guisantes, m. , pi. , peas 
guisar, to cook 
guitarra, /. , guitar 
gusano, m., worm 
de luz, glow worm 
de seda, silk worm 
gustarle (a uno) una 

cosa, to like a thing 
gusto, m. , taste, 

pleasicre 



Ha habido, (impers.), 

there has been 
ha heeho mucha hume- 

dad, it has been very 

damp 
i ha ido usted alguna 

vez . . . ? have you 

ever been . . . ? 
ha llovido, it has bcru 

raining 
habano, w., Havana 

cigar 
habas, f. pi., broad 

beans 

haber, to have ; irr. 
Haber, el, m., Creditor 

(Cr.) Credit 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



277 



habichuela(s), /., pi., 

French beans 
habitaci6n, /. , room 
habitar, to inhabit 
liablar, to speak, to talk 
hace barro, -it is muddy 

buen tiempo, it is 
good (fine) weather 

calor, it is warm 

fresco, it is cool 

frio, it is cold 

humedad, it is 
damp 

mal tiempo, it is 
bad weather 

mucho sol, it is 
sunny 

niebla, it is foggy 

(tiempo), (some- 
time) ago 

un tiempo lluvioso, 
it is rainy weather 

viento, it is 
windy 

hacer, to do, to be doing, 
to be, to make, (see 
hace . . .), irr. 

barro, calor, fresco, 
etc. ; see hace 

cumplir, to maintain 
in force 

el balance, to make 
up the balance 

la inscripcion, to 
enter the name 

la tirada, to print 
off 

un cobro, to collect 
an amount 

un pedido, to give 
an order 

un regalo, to make 
a present 

hacerse, to be made, to 
become. See me terse 

a la mar, to set sail, 
to steam off 

cura, monja, etc., to 
become a priest, nun, 
etc. 

el sueco, to pretend 
not to understand 



hallar, to find 
liallarse, to be foitnd, 

to find oneself 
harina, /. flour 
harinoso, -sa, floury 
hasta, till, until, up 

to, even 

la fecha, up to date, 
up to now 

las seis y cuarenta 
y cinco, (6.45), until 
6.45 

que, until 

hay, there is, there 

are, see haber ; irr. 
i hay ?, is there ?, are 

there 1, see haber ; 

irr. 

haya, el,/, beech 
haz, m., sheaf 
hebra, /., needleful of 

(silk, cotton, thread) 
hebreo, el, m., Hebrew 

(lang.} 
hecho, -cha, p.p. irr. 

of hacer, made, ready 

made 

hemisferio, m., hemi- 
sphere 

helar, to freeze ; irr. 
heno, m., hay 
herencia,/. , inheritance 
heredar, to inherit 
heredera, /., heiress 
heredero, m. , heir, 

(coll.) heirs 
hereditario, -ria, hered- 
itary 

herida, /., wound 
herido, m., herida, /., 

wounded (person) 
heridos (los), (tJie) 

wounded 
herir, to wound, to 

hurt, irr. 
hermana,/., sister 
de la caridad, sister 

of charity 

hermano, m., brother 
hermanos, m., pl. t 

brotJiers, or coll. 

br other (s) and sister (s) 



m., pi., brethren 
j herramienta, /. , tool 
hermosa, -so ; hand- 
some, beautiful, fine 
\ hermosnra/., beauty 
\ hervido (adj. and p.p. 

ofhervir), boiled 
i hervir, to boil ; irr. 
\ hiedra,/., ivy 
hiela, it freezes 
hielo, m., ice 
hiena,/., hyena 
hierba,/., grass, herb 
hierro, m., iron 
higado, m., liver 
higiene,/., hygiene 
higo, m., fig 
hignera,,f., fig-tree 
hija, /., hijo, m., 

daughter, son 
hijos, sons, (collect. ) 

children 
hilo, m. , thread, linen, 

metal wire 
hilos del telegrafo, in., 

telegraph wires 
hilados (los) m., pi., 

spun goods 
hilador, m., spinner 
hilar, to spin 
historia/., history 

natural, natural 
history 

sagrada, sacred 
history 

universal, universal 
history 

hoja,/., leaf 
Holanda,/., Holland 
holaudes, -sa m., /., 

Dutchman , Dutch - 

woman, adj., Dutch 
holandes, el, Dutch 

(lang.) 

hombre, m., man 
de negocios, m. , 

man of business 

del pueblo, m., 
workman 

ordinario, rough (or 
ordinary] man. See 
tio 



278 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



hombro, at., shoulder 
homicida m., f., 

homicide, murderer 
homioidio, m., man- 
slaughter 

hongo, 77i., round hat 
honradez,/., honesty 
hora, /., hour, time. 

See i a que ? and 

i que es ? 
horas de oficina or 

de despacho, /., pi., 

Iwurs of business 
horizonte, m,., horizon 
hormiga, /., ant 
horno, m., furnace 
horquilla, /. , hairpin 
hortalizas, /., pi., 

garden-stuff (fresh 

vegetable*} 
hortelano, m., market 

gardener 

hospital, m., hospital 
de sangre, m., field 
hospital 
Hotel Continental, m., 

Continental Hotel 
hoy, to-day 
hoz,/., scythe 
huelga, /. , strike 
huelguista, m. , f. , 

striker 
huerfano, -na, orphan 

(coll. huerfanos), 

orphans 
huevo, m., egg 
humedad, /., dampness 
humedo, hiimeda, 

damp 

humo, m.. smoke 
hungaro, -ra (m., /.,) 

Hungarian, also adj. 

(m.,f.,) Hungarian, 
Hungria,/., Hungary 
huracan, m., hurricane 
hurto, m., theft 
huerta, /. , vegetable 

garden, kitchen 

garden 

huerto, m., orchard 
hueso, bone, m., stone 

(offruit) 



huesped, m., lodger, 
boarder. See casa 
de 



Iberos (los), the Iberians 

ida y vuelta, return. 
(See billete de ) 

idi o m a, m., language 

iglesia,/., church 

ilustraciories, /., pi., 
illustrations 

imagen,/., image 

impedir, to avoid, to 
prevent; irr. 

imperdible, m., safety- 
pin 

imperial, m., outside, 
top (of an omnibus or 
tramcar) 

imperio, m., Empire 

britanico (el), m., 
The British Empire 

impermeable, in., mack- 
intosh 

impetuoso, -sa, impetu- 
ous 

imponente, m., f., de- 
positor 

imponer, to put into, 
to impose ; irr. 

una pena, to inflict 
a penalty ; irr. 

importacion,/., import, 
importation 

importancia,/. , import- 
ance 

importe, m., fee, fare, 
amount 

imprenta, /., printing 
office 

impresion, /., impres- 
sion 

impresor, m., printer 

impresos (por), (by) 
book-post 

impuesto, irr. , p.p. 
of imponer 

impuesto m., taxa- 
tion, duty 

de consumes, m., 
octroi duty 



impuesto sobre la renta, 
income tax 

incendio, m., fire 

incienso, m., incense 

inclinacion,/., inclina- 
tion 

inclinado,-da, sleep 

inconstancia, /., incon- 
stancy 

inculpabilidad (la), the 
innocence ; non-guilty 

incurable, incurable 

indemnizacion, /. ///- 
demnity 

India (la), India. /SVv 
indio 

indicacion, /., indica- 
tion 

indicar, to indicate, to 
show, to state 

indice. m. , index 

indigesto, -ta, i/idi- 
gestiblc 

indio, india, Indian, 
also adj. 

indisposicion, /., small 
ailment, indisposi- 
tion 

indulto, m., reprieve 

industria, /. , industry, 
industrial tsncss 

infancia, /., infancy, 
childhood 

infanteria /., infantry, 
the line 

inferior, lower, inferior 

influencia, /., influence 

in forme, m., report, in- 
formation 

in formes, m., pi., char- 
acter, references 

infractor, m., trans- 
gressor 

ingeniero, m., engineer 

, private of the 
engineers 

ingenieros, m. , pi. , 
engineers, R.E. 

Inglaterra, /. , Enulaiul 

ingles (el), English 
(lang.) 

ingles, inglesa, w.,/., 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



279 



E n y I i s h m a n , 

Englishwoman adj. , 

English 
ingresar (en un colegio) 

to enter (a school) 
ingresos, m., pi., 

returns, receipts 

(los), m., pi., the 
lievenue, the receipts, 
returns 

injuria,/., assault 
inmensa, immeasurable 
inmenso, -sa, immense 
inmediatemente, im- 
mediately 

inminente, imminent 
innumerables, number- 
less 

inocencia, /. , innocence 
inquilina, /., -no, m., 

tenant 

inscription,/., inscrip- 
tion 

insecto, m., insect 
insertar, to insert, to 

publish 

inspector, m. , inspector 
insolation (una), /., 

sunstroke 

institution, /., institu- 
tion 
institute, m. , public 

school 

institutriz,/., governess 
instruction,/., tuition, 
education 

primaria, primary 
education 

publica(la), (public] 
instruction, tuition 

instrumento, m., in- 
strument 

de cuerda, m. t 
stringed instrument 

de madera, wood 
instrument 

de metal, brass 
instrument 

de percusion, instru- 
ment of percussion 

de vierito, wind in- 
strument 



interes, m., interest 

interesante, interesting 

intereses comerciales 
m. , commercial in- 
terests 

interior, m. , the inside, 
interior 

intermedias, inter- 
mediate 

interprete, m., inter- 
preter 

intervention, /., inter- 
ference, intervention 

intestinal, intestinal, 
enteric 

introducir, to introduce; 
irr. 

introductor de embaja- 
dores, the Master of 
Ceremonies 

inundation, /. , (water) 
flood 

invernaculo, m., grcen- 



invernadero, m., hot- 
house, conservatory 
invierno, m., winter 
invisible, invisible 
invitados, m., pi., 
party, wedding party 
ir, to go ; irr. 

con retraso, or irre- 
trasado, -da, to be 
behind time 

fijo, to be fixed 

por, to go along, to 
go through ," to go 
for, to. See irie, 
irse, below 

Irlanda, /., Ireland 
irlandes, -sa (m. } /.,) 
Irishman, Irish- 
woman ; adj., Irish 

el irlandes, Irish 
(lang.) 

irle a uno bien (una 
cosa), to suit someone 
irse, to go, to be going 
ir (se) de caza, de pesca, 
to go (or be going) 
shooting, (hunting), 
fishing 



Isabel la Catolica, 
Isabel the Catholic 

isla, /. , island, isle (of) 

islas Britanicas (las), 
the British Isles 

istmo, m., isthmus 

Italia,/., Italy 

italiano, -na (m., /.), 
Italian Italian- 
woman ; adj. , 
Italian 

italiano (el), Italian 
(lang.) 

izquierdo, -da, left 



Jabali, m., wild boar 

jabon, m., soap 

jabonera, /., soap-dish 

jacinto, m., hyacinth 

jamon, m., ham 

Japoii, el, Japan 

japones, -nesa (m.,f.,) 
Japanese, Japanese- 
woman, adj., Japan- 
ese 

el japones, Japanese 
(lang.) 

jardin, m., garden 
jardinero, m., gardener 
jarro, m., jug 
jaula,/., cage 
jazmin, m., jessamine 
jefe, m. , chief, superior 
(officer), Commander 

de estacion, m., 
Station-master 

jerife (or Alguacil 

mayor), sheriff 
Jesucristo, m., Jesus 

Christ 
jesuita, m. , Jesuit (coll. 

hypocrite) 
jicara,/., cup 
jornal, m., (daily) 

wages 
jota aragonesa (la), the 

aragonese jota (dance 

and song) 
jo ven, m., /., young 

man, young 

(lady) ' 



280 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



joy*, f>, jewel 
joyeria, /., jeweller's 

shop, jeweller's 
joyero, m., jeweller 
Juan, John 
Juana, Jane 
juego de botones, m., 

set of studs 
juez, m., judge 

de primera ins tan - 
cia, judge of the 
primary court of 
claims 

(de VTribunal de 
Examenes), m., Ex- 
aminer 

municipal, Justice 
of the peace 

jugar, to play ; irr. 

al alza, to bull (Stock 
Back.) 

a la baja, to bear 
(Stock Exch.} 

juicio (el), the trial 
julio, m., July ; 
junio, m. , June 
junta, /., meeting, 
board 

directiva, p., Board 
of Directors 

general, general 
meeting 

ordinaria, ordinary 
meeting 

junto a, next to 
jurado (el) m., the jury 
, m., a juror 
j usticia, /. , justice 
juventud,/., youth 
juzgado, m., tribunal, 
(Court of justice) 

de primera iustancia 
(the) Primary court 
of claims 

municipal m., (the) 
Court of the peace 
(Police Court) 

juzgar, to try (law) 

Kilometro m. , kilo- 
metre 
kiosko, m., kiosk 



La, m., A. (mus.) 

la (sing. f.\ the 

mayor parte de, 



una, one o'clock 
labio, 77i., lip 

superior, upper Up 

inferior, lower lip 
labor,/., needlework 
labores, /. pi., needle- 
work, fancy work 

laboriosidad, /., in- 
dudtriousness 

labrador, m., husband- 
man, labourer, 
ploughman 

labranza,/. , husbandry, 
ploughing. See aperos 
de , epoca de la 

labrar, to plough, to 
make, to hero, to spin 

la miel, to make 
honey 

la piedra, to hew the 
stone 

la seda, to spin 
(silk) 

lacayo, m., footman 
lacre, m., sealing wax 
lado, m., side. See ail 
ladrar, to bark 
ladrido, m. } barking 
ladrillo, m., brick 
ladixSu m., ladrona /., 

thitf 
lagartija, /., small 

lizard 

lagarto, m., lizard 
lago, m., lake 
lagrima, /., tear 
laguna, /., small lake, 

pond 

laicos, laymen 
lamina, /., picture, 

(plate) 
lampara,/., lamp 

de aceite, oil lamp 
lamprea, /., lamprey 
lana, /., wool 
lancero, m., lancer 
lando, m., landau 
langosta, /., lobster 



langostin(es), m., 

prawn(s) 
' lanza, /. , lance, (of a 

carriage) pole 
lanzar, to throw 

torpedos, to launch 
torpedos 

lanzada,/., or lanzazo, 

m., lance-thrust 
lapida, /., tombstone, a 

slab or stone with 

the street name 
lapiz, m., pencil 
largo, larga, long. See 

lo 
las, pl.,f., the 

cuatro, 4 (o'clock) 

largas vacaciones, 
the long vacation 

ocho, 8 (o'clock) 

siete y media, 7.30 

tres, three o'clock 
latigo, m., whip 
latigazo, m., whip-lash, 

lash with the whip 
latin, m., Latin 

(lang.) 

latitud,/., latitude 
laton, m., brass 
laudano, m. , laudanum 
lava, f., lava 
lavabo, m., washstand 
lavadero, m., wash- 
house 

le (of persons), him 
lealtad,/., loyalty 
Iecci6n, /. , lesson, 
lecture 

diaria, daily lesson 

alter n a, alternate 
lesson 

leche,/., milk 
lecheria /. , dairy, 

milk shop 
lecho, m., bed 
lechuga, /. , lettuce 
lechuza, /. , owl 
lector, lectora, m., f., 

reader 

lectura,/., reading 
leer, to read 
legacion, /., legation 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



281 



legajo, m., bundle of 

papers 
legislatura parlamen- 

taria, /., parliament- 
ary legislature 
legua, /., league (i.e., 

3 miles) 
legumbres, /., pi., 

vegetables 
lejos, far, far away. 

See desde 
lengua, /. , tongue, 

language 

castellana (or es- 
panola), Spanish 
(lang.) 

eslavonica, Slavonic 
language 

greco-latina, Greco- 
Latin language 

indo-europea, Indo- 
European language 

moderns, modern 
language 

monosilabica, mono- 
syllabic language 

muerta, dead 
language 

romanica, Romance 
language 

teutonica, Teutonic 



viva, spoken language 
lenguado, in., sole 
lenguaje, m. , speech, 

words 

lente, m.,orf., lens 

lento, -ta, slow 

lena, /., fire-wood 

leon, m., lion 

Le6n, m., Leon (old 
Spanish kingdom} 

leona, /., lioness 

letra,/., (of the alpha- 
bet) letter, (print) 
type, (mus. ) words 

(de cambio)/., draft, 
bill (of exchange) 

mayiiscula, capital 
letter 

iniuusoula, small 
letter 



letra no aceptada, or no 
pagada, dishonoured 
bill 

letrero, m., inscription 

levantada, -do, stand- 
ing up 

levautar, to raise, to 
build up 

el sitio, to raise 
the siege 

trincheras, to throw 
up trenches 

levantarse, to get up, 

to stand up, to be 

raised 
levar anclas. to weigh 

the anchor 
leve, slight 
levita, /., frock-coat, 

(mil.} tunic 
ley,/., law 

electoral,/, electoral 
law 

marcial, la, martial 
law 

liberal, m., (a) liberal 

libertad, /, freedom, 

liberty, liberation, 



librero, m., bookseller 

de lance, or de 
viejo, second-hand 
bookseller 

libro, m., book 

de actas, record book 



de ensenanza,/.,/m: 
tuition 

libra, /., pound, sove- 
reign 

esterlina, /. , 
pound sterling, , 
sovereign 

libranza postal, /. , 

money order 
libre a bordo, free on 

board 

cambio, m., free 
trade 

cambista, m., free 
trader 

libreria, /., library 
(office), book-case, 
book-seller's shop 

de lance,/., second- 
hand bookseller's 

libreta, de la caja de 
ahorros, /., savings- 
bank book 



-aegunda 
mano, m., ) 

de caja (el), cash- 
book 

de texto, m., pre- 
scribed text-look 

licencia, /., licence 

de caza, /., game 
licence 

de pesca, /. , fishing 
licence 

licenciado, m., licenti- 
ate 

en Filosofia y Letras, 
m. , (M. A . ) Master of 
Arts 

liebre, /., hare 
lienzo, m., canvas, 

picture 
ligero,-ra, light, 

(metaph.) small, 

slight 

lila, /., lilac 
limon, m. , lemon 
liinonero, m., lemon- 

tree 

limosna, /., sing., alms 
limpieza, /., cleanli- 

ness 
limpio, - pia, clean, 

neat, 

linaje, m., lineage 
linea,/., line 

recta, straight 

curva, curved 



eq\im 
tial 

ondulada, undulat- 
ing 

lirio, m. , lily 
lista, /., list, bill of 
fare, roll-call 

de suscripcion, 
subscription list 



282 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



litera (de camarote),/., 

berth 

literate, m., litera ta, 
/., literary man, 

woman 
literatura,/., literature 

Llama, /. , flame 
Hamad or, m., knocker 
llamar(a), to call 
llamarse, to be called 
llano, m., or llanura, 

/., a plain 
llanto, m. , crying 

(tears) 

Have, /. , key 
llavero, m., warden, 

key-ring 

Hegada,/., arrival 
llegar(a) to, reach] to 

arrive 

a misas dichas, to 
come late 

a tiempo, to be in 
time 

llenar, to fill in, to fill 

up 
lleno, llena, full, 

packed. See un 
llevar, to take, to carry , 

to wear 

los libros, to keep the 
books 

una cuenta, to keep 

an account 
llevarse, to be used, to be 

worn 

Hover, to rain ; irr. 
11 neve, it rains 
lluvia, /. , rain 
lo (of things), it 

antes posible, as 
soon as possible 

largo, the length 

siguiente, the follow- 
ing 

lobo, m., wolf 

local, adj., local 

localidad, /., (theat.) 
seat ticket 

locomotora, /., loco- 
motive (i.e. engine) 



lodo, m.. mud 
logica,/., logic 
lomo, m., (of 

back 

longitud, /., longitude 
Londres, London 
Lord (pi., Lores) (a) 

Lord 
Lores espirituales, los, 

Lords spiritual 

temporales, los, the 
Lords temporal 

loro, m., parrot 
los (m.,pl.), the 

enfermos, the sick 

espanoles, Spanish 
people 

ingleses, English 
people 

pobres, poor people 

unicos, las unicas, 
the only 

lucero, m., morning 

(or evening} star 
luego, then, presently, 

afterwards 
lugar, m., place, room, 

seat 
luna, /., moon. See 

fases de la 

de mini/., honey- 
moon 

llena, /., full moon 

nueva, /., new- 
moon 

luto, m., mourning. See 

de 
luz, /., light 



Maceta, /., pot of 

flowers 
machetazo, m., stroke 

with a sivord-bayonet 
machete, in., cutlas, 

sword bayonet 
madera /. , wood, 

timber 
madera de construccion, 

timber 

madre, /., mother 
madriguera, /. , burroiv 



madrina, /., brides- 
maid, godmother 

madurar, to ripen, to get 
ripe 

maduro, -ra, ripe 

maestra /., (J'emalc) 
teacher, schoolmistress 

maestro, m. (male) 
teacher, schoolmaster 

maestro, m., composer 
(mus. ) 

de obras, m., 
builder 

magistrado, m., magis- 
trate 

de la audiencia, m., 
(magistrate) Justice 

magnifico, -ca, magnifi- 
cent, splendid 

maiz, m., maize 

majestuoso, -sa digni- 
fied 

mal, bad, (metaph. ) 
poor 

de garganta, /. , sore 
throat 

maleta,/. , portmanteau 
malicia, /., malice 
malo, mala (contr. 

mal) bad, wicked 
malos tratos, m. , 

cruelty 

Mallorca, /., Majorca 
mallorquin, Majorcan 

(dial.) 
mallorquin, -na (m., 

/.), Majorcan, Major - 

can woman 
manantial, m. , spring 

(of water) 
manco, m . , one-armed 

man 

de un brazo, m., 
one-armed man 

de una mano, one- 
handed man 

mancha, /., spot, stain, 

(of the sun, spot) 
mandar, to command , to 



manera, /. , manner 
manga,/., sleeve 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



283 



manga de riego, /. , hose 

manguito, m., muff 

maniobras navales, /., 
naval manoeuvres 

mano, /., hand. Sec 
a 

mantel, m., (table-} 
cloth 

mantcner, to maintain ; 
irr. 

manteo, in. , priest's 
cloak 

mantilla, /. , mantilla 

man ton, m., large 
shawl 

manubrio, m., (tarn- 
ing] handle 

manuscrito (ms.), m., 
manuscript (ms. ) 

manzana, /., apple 

manzano, m., apple- 
tree 

mahana, to-morrow 
See por la 

mapa, m., map 

maquina, /., machine, 
engine. See a 

de coser,/., sewing- 
machine 

de segar, mowing- 
machine 

de vapor, steam- 
engine 

maquinaria,/., machin- 
ery 

maquinista, m., engine- 
driver 

mar, m.,/., sea 

mar Cantabrico, Bay 
of Biscay 

marcar, to mark 

marco, m., frame 

marcha, /., march, 
marching 

marchar, to march, to 
go, to go along 

marea, /., tide. See 
alta , baja 

marfil, m., ivory 

margarita, /., daisy 

Margarita, (chr. name) 
Margaret 



margen, m., margin 
margen(es) /., bank(s) 

(of a river) 
Maria Cristina, /. , 

Maria Christina 
marica, /. , magpie 
marido, m., husband 
marina, /., sea picture 

or sea scene, or view, 

water-scape 
marina, /., marine, 

navy 

de guerra, navy 

mercante, mercantile 
marine, merchant 
service 

marinero, m., sailor 

seaman, blue-jacket 
marine, m., seaman 
mariposa, /., butterfly 
m a r i s c o (s), m. , 

mussel(s) 

marmol, in. , marble 
marques, m., Marquis 
marquesa,/. , Marchion- 
ess 
marquesado, m., Mar- 

quisate 

marroqui, (m. , f. ). 
native of Morocco ; 
also adj. , morocco 
Marruecos, m., Morocco 
martillo, m., hammer 
mas, more, most, best, 
better 

abajo, lower down 

arriba, higher upr 

que, better than 

... que, more . . . 
than 

mastin,^ w., mastiff 

matematicas, /., pi., 
mathematics 

material rod ante, m., 
rolling stock 

materiales de construc- 
cion, m., pi., build- 
ing materials 

matiz, m., shade (of 
colour) 

matricula, /. , matricu- 
lation 



matrimonio, m., mar- 
riage, matrimony, 
married pair 

civil, civil marriage 

religioso, religion* 
marriage 

matute, m., smuggling 

(on small scale) 
matutero, m. , smuggler 
maullar, to mew 
maullido, m., mewing 
mayo, m., May 
mayor (el), m., the 

Ledger 
mayor, (comp. o/grande 

m. and f.), greater, 

larger 

mayor de edad, of age 
mayoral, driver (of a 

stage-coach] 
mayordomo, m., 

steward 

mayoiia, f. , majority 
medalla de honor, /., 

medal of honour 
media, adj., middle 
media docena (de), 

half-a-dozen 
mediacion, /., media- 
tion 

mediante, by means of 
medicina,/., medicine 
medicinal, medicinal 
medico, m. , doctor, 

physician 
medida, /., measure, 

measurement, size. 

See a 

medio, -dia, half 
mediodia, m., noon. 
* Seed 

medir, to measure ; irr. 
Mediterraneo, el, m., 

the Mediterranean 
mejicano, -na (m., f.), 

Mexican, Mexican- 

ivoman ; also adj., 

Mexican 

Mejico, m., Mexico 
mejilla, f., cJieek 
melena,/., mane 
melocoton, m., peach 



284 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



melocotonero, m. , 

peach-tree 
raelodia,/., 'melody 
melodioso, -sa, melo- 
dious 

me!6n, m., melon 
memorandum, m. , 

memorandum 
mendigo, m., beggar 
menear la cola, to wag 

the tail 
menor, (comp. of 

pequeno, pequcna), 

smaller 
menor de edad, m., (a) 

minor 
men os, less 

... que, less . . . 
than, or, not as, (or 
as much) . . . as 

mercaderias, /., pi., 

goods, merchandise 
mercado, m., market 

monetario, m., 
money-market 

mercancias, /. , goods 

meridiano, m., meri- 
dian 

merienda, /., Spanish 
afternoon meal, pic- 
nic 

merluza, /., hake 

mes, m., month. See 
al 

mesa,/., table 

escritorio, /., writ- 
ing-table, writing- 
desk 

metalico, m. , cash. See 
en 

meter, to put (in) 

meterse (or haoerse) 
cura, (monja), to be- 
come a priest, (nun) 

metralla,/., shrapnel 

mezcla, /., mixture 

mezzo soprano, /., 
mezzo soprano 

mi, m., E. (mus.) 

mi, my 

mil, thousand 

gracias, many thanks 



militar, (adj. ) military. 
See vida 

mio, mia, of mine 

miel, /. , honey 

miembro, m., limb 

mientras, while 

milano, m., hawk 

milla, /., mile 

mina,/., mine 

ministerio, m., minis- 
try, ministerial 
office 

ministro, m., minister 

de Agricultura, In- 
dustria, Comrnercio 
y Obras Publicas, 
Minister of Agricul- 
ture, Industry, Com- 
merce and Public 
Works 

de Estado, Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, 
(Engl.) Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs 

de Gracia y Jnsticia, 
Minister of Justice 
and Cults 

de Hacienda, Minis- 
ter of Finance, 
(Engl.) Chancellor of 
the Exchequer 

de Instruccion Pti- 
blica y Bellas Artes, 
Minister of Public 
Education and Fine 
Arts 

de Marina, Minister 
of Marine, (Engl. ) 
First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty 

del Tribunal Supre- 
mo, Magistrate in 
the Supreme Court of 
Judicature 

de la Gobernacion, 
m., Minister of the 
Interior, (Engl. ) 
Home Secretary 

de la Guerra, Minis- 
ter of War 

minoria, /., minority 
mirada,/., look 



mirar (a), to look at 

(for, round) 
mirarse, to look at one's 

self 

mirlo, m., blackbird 
misa, or misa rezada, 

/., mass (low mass) 
misa mayor, /., high 

maw 
misal, m., mass-book, 

missal 

misto, m., match 
moco, m., wattles (of a 

turkey] 

mochila, /. , knap-sack 
moda, /. , fashion. Sec, 

de 

modelar, to model 
modelo, m.,/., model 

de proposicion, m., 
tender form 

moderno,-na, modern 
modestia, /., modesty 
modesto,-ta, modest 
modismo, m., idiom 
modista, /. , dressmaker 

de sombreros, /., 
milliner 

modo, m.,way, manner 

de andar, m., walk 
modus vivendi, m., 

modus vivendi 
mojar, to moisten, to 

wet 

moler, to grind ; irr. 
molinero, m., miller 
molino, m., mill 

de agua, water 

de viento, wind 
momia, f., mummy 
mona,/., monkey, adj., 

pretty 

monarquia, constitu- 
tional, /., (constitu- 
tional) monarchy 

monasterio, m. , monas- 
tery 

mondar, to peel 

monja,/., nun 

monje, m., monk 

monopolio, m., mono- 
poly 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



285 



monotono, -na, mono- 
tonous 

montana,/., mountain 
montar a caballo, to 
ride 

- canones, to mount 
(to carry) guns 

en bicicleta, to cycle 
raonte m., (ivood) 

mountain 

Monte de piedad, m., 
Government pawning 
(or loan) office 

Montenegro, m., Mon- 
tenegro 

Montes de Toledo (los), 
Mountains of Toledo 
(the) 

monton, m., heap 

oionumento, m. , monu- 
ment 

morado, or color de 
piirpura, purple 

in order, to bite ; irr. 

mordisco, m., bite 

moro, m., -a,/., Moor, 
Moorishwoman; adj., 
Moorish 

niorral de caza, m. 
game bag 

mortal, deadly, fatal 

mortero, m. , mortar 

mosca, f., fly 

mosquito, m., mosquito 

motin, m. , riot 

mover, to move; irr. 

movimiento, m., 

motion, movement 

combinado, com- 
bined movement 

envolvente, turning 
movement 

mozo, m., waiter 
mozo de estacion m., 
railway porter 

- de telegrafos, m., 
telegraph porter, 
telegraph boy 

much a, a great deal 
muchacha,/., girl, lass 
muchacho, m., youth, 
lad 



mucho, much, very 
much, a great deal, 
very fast (of running) 

muchos, -as, many 

mudar el tiro, to change 
horses 

mudar (la plum a), to 
moult 

mudo, m., dumb man 

muebles, m., furniture 

mueblista, m., furni- 
ture-maker, fur- 
nisher 

muela, /. , back-tooth 

muelle, m. , v-harf, 
quay, pier 

muerte, /., death 

muerto (el), m., dead 
person, dead man 

mue.rta (la) /., dead 
woman 

muerto (s), killed 

muestra, /., pattern, 
sample 

muestras sin valor, 
samples (without 
value) 

mugido, m., lowing 

nmgir, to bellow 

mujer, /., woman, wife 

del pueblo, /. , work- 
ing woman 

mula, /., -lo, m., mule 
(m.,f.) 

muletas, /. , crutches 

multa,/., a fine 

multar (a), to fine 

mundo, m. , world. See 
el otro ; el nuevo 
, the new world 

municiones,/. , pi. , am- 
munition, small shot 

municipal, m. , munici- 
pal guard (a con- 
stable) 

municipio, m., Muni- 
cipal body (Town 
Council) 

muneca, /. , wrist, doll 

muralla, /., wall 

murcielago, m., bat 

muro, m., wall 



\ musculo, m., muscle 
\ museo, m. 'museum 
j museo de pinturas, m., 

picture gallery 
: Museo del Prado (el), 
the Museum of the 
Prado, i.e., Madrid 
Picture Gallery 
musica, /. , music 
musico, m., musician, 

instrumentalist 
mustiarse, to fade 
mustio,-tia, faded 
muy, very 

bien, quite well 

bonito, very pretty 

cerca, close by 

considerable, very 
heavy (of losses) 

corto, very short 

entrada la tarde, 
late in the evening 

incomodo, very un- 
comfortable 

largo, very long 

poco, very little 

Sr. mio, Dear Sir 

Sra. mia, Dear 
Madam 

tarde, too late, very 
late 



Nacer, to be born ; irr. 
nacimieuto, m., birth ; 

source, head (of a 

river) 

nacion,/., nation 
nacional, national 
nada, nothing, nothing 

at all (preceded by 

negation) anything 
nadar, to swim 
naranja, /., orange 
naranjero, -ra, (m.,f.), 

orange-seller 



narano, 



orange- 



tree 
nariz,/. sing., narices, 

pl.,f., nose 
natilla, sing., f. , or 

natillas, pi. , custard 



286 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



natural (m., /.), () 
native, also adj. , 
natural 

naufragio, m., wreck 
navaja (de afeitar), /., 

razor 

naval, naval, sea . . . 
Navarra, /., Navarre 
navarro, -rra (m., f.), 
Navarrese, Navar- 
rese woman 
nave lateral, /., lateral 

aisle 
principal, middle 

aisle 

navegable, navigable 
naviero, in., shipowner 
necesidad, /. , necessity 
necesitar, to require, 

to be required 
necesitarse, to be re- 
quired 

negar, to deny ; irr. 
negociacion,/., negotia- 
tion, relation (dipl.) 
negociar, to negociate 
negocio, m., business 
negro, -gra, black 
nervio, m., nerve 
nevada, /., snowstorm 
nevar, to snow ; irr. 
ni . . . ni . . ., neither 

. . . nor 
nido, m., nest 
niebla, /. , fog 
iiieta, /., grand- 
daughter 

nieto, m. , grandson 
nietos (coll. ), m. , grand- 
children 
nieve, /. , snow 
ninguno, ninguua 

(contr. ningiin), any 
nina, child, daughter, 

girl, school-girl 
nina del ojo, /., apple 

of the eye 
niiiera, /., nurse 
ninez, /., childhood 
nino, ., child, son, boy, 

school-boy 
nifto, niiia, son, 



daughter, pi., coll., 
ninos, children 

no, not 

no ha lugar (el), m., 
the dismissal (of a 
case) 

no me olvides, forget- 
me-not 

no ... ni, neither 
. . . nor 

. . . mas, not any 
more 

( ) teneruno laculpa, 

(not) to be one's 

fault 
( ) tener razon, (not] to 

be right 
( ) valer la pena, (not] 

to be worth while 
noble, m., nobleman 
nobleza, /., nobility 
nocivo, -va, umohole- 

some 
noche, /., night. See 

anoche, de , esta , 

por la 

nogal, m., walnut-tree 
nombramiento, m., 

appointment 
nombrar, to appoint 
n ombre, m. , name, 

Christian name 

de pila, Christian 
name 

Noruega, /. , Norway 
Noruego, -ga (m., f.), 
Norwegian,--woman, 
also adj., Norioegian 

(el), Norwegian 
(lang.) 

uoroeste, northwest 
norte (N.), m., North 

(N.) 
norte arnericano, -na 

(m., f.), North 

American, woman, 

also adj. 
nosotros, m., nosotras 

/., (prep, case) us 
nota, /. , note, footnote, 

qualification (at 

exam. ) ; note (mus. ) 



nota reservada, secret, 
or confidential note 

notable por, noted (or 
remarkable) for 

notas taquigraficas, /. , 
pi., notes in short- 
hand, shorthand 
notes 

noticia(s), /., neios 

noticias del extranjero, 
foreign news 

del interior, home 
neivs 

tina,nciera.s, financial 
news 

politicas political 
news 

noticiero, m., reporter 

novela,/., novel 

novelista (m., f.), 
novelist 

no via,/., bride 

noviazgo, m., engage- 
ment 

novillo, m., bullock 

novio, m., bridegroom 

nube, /. , cloud 

nudo, m., knot 

nuera.,/., daugldcr-in- 
law 

nuestro, nuestra, our 

nuevo, nueva, new 

nuez, /. , walnut 

ntimero, m., number 

nunca, never 

nuncio (el), m., t.hc, 
nuncio 



6, or, either . . . or 
6 sea, or, i.e., namely 
oasis, m., oasis 
obispado, m., bishopric 
obispo, m., bishop 
objeto, m. , aim, object, 

purpose 
obligacion, /., dull/, 

debenture 
obligacionista, m., 

debenture holder 
obligatorio, -ria, com- 
pulsory 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



287 



obra, /., work, play, 
piece 

de arte,/., work of 
art 

maestra,/., master- 
piece 

obrero, m., workman, 

artisan 
observar, to watch, to 

observe 
observatorio, m. , 

observatory 

obstaculo, m. , hind- 
rance 
obtener, to obtain, to 

gain ; irr. 
obtenerse, to be obtained 

or obtainable 
Oceania,/., Oceania 
Ocean o (el), m., the 

Ocean 

octubre, m. t October 
odiar, to hate 
Oeste, (0.), m., West, 

(IF.) 
oficial, m. , officer, 



oficial, adj., official 
oficina,/., office 

de telefonos, /. , 
telephone office 

de telegrafos, /., 
telegraph office 

officio, m. , high mass 
of'recer, to offer, to pre- 
sent ; irr. 

oido, m., ear, (hear- 
ing) 
oir, to hear, to listen ; 

irr. 

ojal, m., button-hole 
ojiva, /. , pointed arch 
ojo, m., eye 
ola(s),/, ^wave(s) 
oler, to smell ; irr. 
olfato, m., smell 
olivo, m. , olive tree 
olor, m., smell, scent, 
odour, fragrance, 
perfume 
omnibus, m., omnibus, 



onda(s),/., wave(s) (of 
rivers) 

opera,/., opera 

operation,/., operation 

opio, m., opium 

oposicion,/., opposition 

oro, m., gold 

oration (es),/. ,prayer(s) 

oratorio, m., oratorio 

orden, in., order, 
(relative, order), se- 
quence, (public) order ; 
buen , good order 

publico (el), public 
order 

orden, /., order, (com- 
mand) 

postal, f., Postal 
Order, Post Office 
Order 

Ordenanzas (Munici- 

pales),/.,^., (Town 

Council) Regulations 

ordenar, to order, to 

command 
oreja, /. , ear 
organillero, m., organ- 
grinder 
organillo, m., (Italian) 

organ 
organista, (m. , f. ), 

organist 

organizar, to organize 
organ o, m., organ 
orgullo, m., pride 
orgulloso, -sa, proud 
original, m., original, 

copy (for press) 
orilla, /., shore, sea- 
shore, bank (of a 
river) 

orquesta, /. , orchestra 
ortografia, /. , ortho- 
graphy 
oso, m., bear 
ostra(s),/., oyster(s) 
otono, m., autumn 
otorgar, to grant 
otra, otro, another 
otras, otros, others 
otro mundo, el, the next 
world 



oveja, pi. ovejas, /., 
sheep 



Pabellon, m., officer's 
room.' in barracks 

paciente, (m., f.), 
patient 

padre (pi. padres), m., 
father 

Santo, m., Holy 
Father 

padres, pi. collect., 
(padre y madre), 
parents 

padrino, m., godfather 

de bod a, best man 

de un duelo, or de 
un desafio, second 
in a duel 

pagar, to pay 

pagare, m., promissory 

note, I. 0. U. 
pago, m., payment, 
paquete, m., parcel 

postal, parcel post. 
See por 

pagina,/., jw#c 
pais, m., country 

extranjero, foreign 
country 

paisaje, m., landscape 
paisajista, m.,/., land- 
scape painter 
Paises Bajos, Los, The 

Netherlands 
paja, /., chaff, straw. 

See sombrero de 
pajar, /., straw-yard 
pajaro, m., small bird. 

See ave 

pala,/., shovel 
palabra, /. , word, 

speech 

palacio, m., palace 
paladar, m., palate 
palangana,/., basin 
palco, m., box 

de platea, m., pit- 
box 

paleta, /., palette 



288 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



palillo, m. , (sculpt. ), 
modelling tool 

palma,/., palm (-leaf), 
palm-tree 

palmera, /. , palm-tree 

palo, m. , (ship)-mast, 
stick 

paloma,/., palomo, m., 
pigeon 

palomar, m., pigeon- 
house 

pan, m., bread 
un a loaf 

panaderia, /., baker's 
shop, baker's 

panal, m. , honeycomb 

pandereta, /. , tam- 
bourine 

panecillo, m. , small 
loaf, roll 

panico, m., panic 

panorama, m., scenery, 
panorama 

pantalon, (or pi. panta- 
lones), m., trousers 

pantano, m., marsh 

pano, m., cloth 

panol de la polvora, m. , 
magazine 

panuelo, m. , hand- 
kerchief 

de cabeza, m. , hand- 
kerchief for the head 

Papa, m., Pope 
papel, m. , paper 

de cartas, writing- 
paper 

de (las) paredes, 
wall paper 

tela, tracing-cloth 
papelero, m., stationer 
papeleria, /. , stationer's 
papeleta, /. , printed 

form, slip 

de ernpeno,/., pawn 
ticket 

papelista, m. , paper- 
hanger 

par, m., pair, couple, 
peer. See Pares 

de huevos fritos, un, 
two fried eggs 



para, for, to, so as to, 
in order that 

alquilar, to be let 

I cuando . . . ? hoio 
soon . . . ? 

el estranjero, for 
abroad 

parada, /., halt 

paraguas, m., sing., 
umbrella 

paraiso (el), m. , para- 
dise, the gods, upper 
gallery 

paralelo, m., paralelo, 
-la, (adj.), parallel 

paralizacion, /., stand- 
still 

parar, to halt, to stop 

pararrayos, m. , light- 
ning conductor 

parasol, m. , white- 
umbrella 

parcial, partial 

parecer, to appear, to 
look like, irr. 

parecido, -da, similar 

pared,/., wall 

pareja, /. , pair, couple ; 
(dancing), partner 

Pares escoceses, Scottish 
Peers 

irlandeses, Irish 
Peers 

pariente, -ta, (m., /.), 

relative 
parientes, m., (collect.}, 

relatives 

parihuela,/., stretcher 
Parlamento, el, (The) 

Parliament 
parpados, m., eyelids 
parroco, m., vicar 
parroquia, /., parish ; 

(in trade), custom, 

customers 
parroquiano, -na, (m., 

/.), customer 
parroquianos, m., pi., 

customers 
parte, /., part, la 

mayor (de), most 

(of) 



participar, to give out 
participe, m., f., party 
particular, m., indi- 
vidual 

, adj., private 
partida,/., entry, item ; 
certificate (of birth, 
marriage, death) 

de casamiento, /., 
marriage certificate 

de defuncion, /., 
certificate of death 

de nacimiento, /., 
certificate of birth 

partido, m., party, 
match 

judicial, judicial 
district 

politico political 
party 

parvulo, m., infant 
pasaje, m., passage 
pasajero, m., passenger 

de popa, cabin 

de primera, first- 



de proa, 

de segunda, second- 
class 

pasamanos, m., sing., 
banister 

pasaporte, m. , pass- 
port 

pasar, to pass, to go, to 
go through 

pase V. a . . . will yoi. 
go to . . . ? 

paseo, m., (exerc.) 
walk ; (place) prome- 
nade 

uu a caballo, a 
ride 

un a pie, a walk 
un en coche, a 
drive 

pasion, /. , passion 
illo central, m., 
middle passage 

pasivo, m. , sing. , 
liabilities 

paso, m., step, footstep 

pasta, /., (binding) 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



289 



calf. See en , en 
media 

pastar, to graze 

pastel, m., tart 

pasteleria, /., pastry- 
cook's shop 

pasto, m., pasture 

pastor, m., shepherd 

pastora, /. , shepherdess 

pata, /, paw, leg (of 
animals) 

patata, /. , potato 

patetico, -ca, pathetic 

patibulo, m., scaffold 

patillas,/., whiskers 

patio, m., yard 

pato, m., duck 

patron, m., shipmaster, 
santo St. patron 

patrona, /., boarding- 
house keeper, Santa 
Saint, patroness 

patrono(s), m. (comm.), 
master(s) 

patria, /., Fatherland, 
native land 

patriotismo, m., patrio- 
tism 

paz, /. , peace. See en 

pavo, m., turkey 

real, peacock 

peculiar, peculiar 

peculiaridad, /. , peculi- 
arity 

pechera,/., shirt-front 

pecho, m., breast, chest 

pedal, m. , pedal 

pedestal, m. , pedestal 

pedido, m. , order 
(comm. ) 

pedir, to ask, to ask for ; 
irr. 

pedrisco, m., violent 
hailstorm 

pegar, to stick, to stick 
on, to heat (beat) 

peinarse, to comb one's 
hair 

peine, m., comb 

pelar, to peel 

peligro, m., danger, 
peril 

PT. II. 



peligroso, -sa, danger- 
ous 

pelo, m., hair 

peluqueria, /. , hair- 
dresser's shop 

peluquero, m., hair- 



pens,, /., punishment, 

penalty ; sorrow 
capital, or de 

muerte, capital 

punishment 
pendiente, m., ear-ring 
, /., slope, gradient 
peninsula,/. , peninsula 

la Iberica, the 



penitente, m. , f. , 

penitent 
pensamentera, /., 

pansy-root 
pensamiento, m., 

pansy ; thought 
pentagrama, m., staff 

(mus. ) 
pepita, /., pip (of a 

fruit) 
pequeno, -na, small, 

(too) small 
pera,/., pear 
peral, m. , pear tree 
percibir, to perceive 
los dividendos, to 

receive the dividends 
percha,/., hat-rack 
perder, to lose ; irr. 
permitir, to permit, to 

allow 

permitirse, to be allowed 
perdida, /., loss, 

bereavement 
pe"rdidas y hallazgos, 

<( lost and found'' 
perdigones, m., pi., 

partridge shot 
perdiz, /. , partridge 
perdori, m., pardon 
perdonar, to pardon 
pereza, /. , idleness, 

laziness. See tener 
perezoso, -sa, adj., lazy 
perfume, m., perfume 



perilla, /. , imperial 
(moustache) 

periodico, m., news- 
paper 

diario, m., daily 
paper. See diario 

periodista, m., journal- 
ist 

per judicial, injurious 

perla, /. , pearl 
de s, pearl 

pero, but 

perro, m., dog 

de busca, terrier 
persa, m., /., adj., 

Persian 

perseguir, to pursue ; 
irr. 

Persia,/., Persia 

persona, /. , person 

perspectiva, /. , per- 
spective 

pertenecer, to belong ; 
irr. 

Peru, el, Peru 

peruano, -na (m., /.,) 
Peruvian, also adj. 

pesado, -da, heavy 

lez, /., heavi- 



pesame (el), m. , condol- 
ence. See dar el 

pesca, /. , fishing. See 
de 

pescaderia, /., fish- 
market 

pescadero, m., fish- 
monger, fishmonger's 

pescado, m. , fish (after 
being fisJied) 

de agua dulce, fresh 
water fish 

de mar, sea fish 
pescador, m. , fisherman 
pescante, m., box (of a 

carriage) 
pescar, to fish 
pesebre, m. , manger 

(for horses, cows) 
peseta, /., peseta (Span. 

silver coin about lOd. ) 
petaca, /. , cigar-case 



290 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



pez, m., flsh (in the 

water) 
pianista (m., /.), 

pianist 

piano, m., piano 
piar, to peep (chickens) 
picapedrero, m., stone 

cutter 
picar, to sting 

piedra, to cut (stones) 
picaresco,-ca, piquant 
pico, m. , (of mountains) 

peak ; (of birds), bill ; 

(instr. ) pick-axe 
piqueta, /., pick-axe 
pie, m., (pi., 

foot 

- de imprenta, m., 

the imprint 

piedra, /., stone, hail- 
stone. See la prim era 

, de , en 

de molino, /. , mill- 
stone 

kilometrica, /. , 

kilometre stone 
piel, /., skin, fur 
pienso, m. , fodder 
pierna, /. , leg 
pila (bautismal) /., 

font 
pila del agua bendita, 

/., stoup for holy 

water 

piloto, m., pilot 

pimenton, m., Spanish 
pepper 

pimienta, /., pepper 

pimiento, m. , capsi- 
cum 

pincel, in., brush 

pinchar, to prick 

pincharse, to prick one- 
self 

pino, m., pine-tree 

pintar, to paint 

a la aguada, to paint 
in water colours 

al oleo, to paint in 
oils 

pintor, m., painter 



pintor al oleo, painter 
in oils 

de brocha gorda, m. , 
dauber 

de historia, m. 
historical painter 

de paredes, house 
painter 

de retratos, m. , 
portrait painter 

pintora, /., lady artist 

(painter) 
pintura, /. , picture. 

See al oleo ; a la 

aguada 

la , (art) painting. 
pifia,/., pine cone 
pinon, m., pine kernel 



piso, m., ground, floor, 
storey, flat 

superior, top storey 
pitillo, m., (colloq.), 

cigarette 
pizarra,/., slate 
planeta, m., planet 
piano, m., plan (of a 

house) 
planta, /., plant 

baja, ground floor 
plantar, to plant 
plata,/., silver 
plataforina,/ 1 . , footboard 
platea, /. , pit 
plateria, /. , silver- 

smith's shop, silver- 

smith's 

platero, m., silversmith 
plato, m., plate, dish, 

course 

de dulce, sweet-dish 

fuerte, entree 

pi ay a /., beach, (the) 

sands 
plaza, /., square, mar- 

ket 

plazo, m., instalment 
pi earn ar, /. high-tide 
pleito, m. t civil suit, 

law suit 
pliego de condiciones, 

m., official tender 



pliego de papel, m. 
sheet of paper 

plomo, m., lead 

pluma, /., feather, 
(coll. ) feathers, plum- 
age ; pen (nib), writ- 
ing pen 

(del sombrero), /., 
feather 

plumaje, m., plumage 
pluvial, m., or capa 

pluvial, /. , pluvial 
poblacion, /. , place (i.c 

town in general) 
pobre, adj. , poor 

(un), a beggar, a poor 
man 

(una), a beggar, a 
poor woman 

(los pobres), beggars, 
the poor 

pocilga,/., sty 

pocion, /. , potion, mix- 
ture 

poco, little, very little 

podar, to prune 

poder, can, may, to be 
able to ; irr. 

poder. m. , power, office ; 
power of attorney 

ejecutivo, executive 
power 

- legislative, legisla- 
tive power 
poesia, /. , (a) poem ; 

la, poetry 
poeta, m. , poet 
poetisa, /., poetess 
Polaco (el), Polish 

(lang.) 

policia, (la)/., s., the 
police 

secreta, (la) the detec- 
tive^) 

politics,, f. , politics 
politico, m. , politician 
politico, -ca, adj., 

political 
poliza del seguro, /., 

insurance policy 
polo, m.,pole, el norte 

the North Pole 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



291 



polvo, m , dust. See 

polvos 
polvora, /. , powder, 



sin humo, smokeless 
powder 

polvos, m., pi., powder 
polio, m. , chicken, 
(colloq.) young cox- 
comb 

porno, m., handle, knob 

poner, to put, to put 

(in, on, up), to place, 

to lay, to set up ; irr. 

el trigo en haces, to 
make the corn into 
sJieaves 

en clave, to put in 
code 

en movimento, to 
set in motion 

sitio, or sitiar, to be- 
siege 

ponerse, to be put, to 
put on 

el sol, to set (the sun) 
popa,/., stern 
popular, popular 

por, by, per, for, in, 
on, on account of; 
adv. (-ly) 

accion, per share 

alii es por donde 
. . . , there is where 

amor de Dios, for 
God's sake 

calderilla, for cop- 
pers 

ciento,per cent. 

cierto tiempo, for a 
certain time 

consiguiente, accord- 
ingly 

j d6nde . . . ? where 
. . .1 

ejemplo,/or instance 

escrito, in writing 

horas, by time 

la manana, in the 
morning 

larnanana temprano 



early in the morn- 
ing 

por la noche, in the 
evening, at night, 
during the night 

la tarde, in the after- 
noon 

lo restante, for the 
rest 

medio de, by means 
of, through 

milagro, byamiracle 

occidente, in the 
west 

oriente, in the east 

paquete postal, by 
parcels post 

quince dias, for a 
fortnight 

razon, on account 

razon de su cargo 
(6 ministerio), ex 
officio 

temor, for fear 

trimestre, quarterly 

una carrera, by the 
ride 

una semana, for a 
week 

unos dias, for a 
few days 

i por que ?, why ?, what 

fort 

porcelana, /., porcelain 
porque, because, for, as 
portada, /., title-page 
portera, /. , porter's 

wife 
porteria, /., porter's 

lodge 

portero, m. , porter 
portezuela,/. (carriage) 

door 

Portugal, m., Portugal 
portugues, -guesa, (m., 
/.,) Portuguese, 
woman, also adj. 
Portuguese 

portugues (el), Portu- 
guese (lang. ) 
posada,/., inn 
posesion/., possession 



posicion, pi. posiciones, 

/. , position 
poste, m. , post, pole 

indicador, hand 
post 

kilometrico, kilo- 
metre stone 

telegrafico, m. , 
telegraph pole 

postigo, m., shutter 
postre, sing., or 

postres, pi., m. t 

dessert 
potencia,/., Power 

de primer orden, 
Great Power 

de segundo orden, 
small Power 

, las, (i.e., las 
Graudes Poteucias), 
the Great Powers 

potro, m., colt 

pozo, m., well 

practicante, m., chem- 
ist's clerk or assistant 

practicar, to practise, to 
perform 

pradera,/., prado m., 
meadow 

precio, m. , price, fare 

del pasaje, fare 
precioso, -sa beautiful, 

precious 

precipicio, m. , precipice 
precision, /. , precision 
predicador, in. preacher 
predicar, to preach 
prefacio, m., preface 
pregon m., proclama- 
tion 
pregonero, m., town 

crier 

pregunta, /., question 
preguntar, to ask (for) 
preliminar, prelimin- 
ary 
premio, m., premium, 

prize 
prensa, /., press, the 



de copiar,/., copy- 
ing press 



292 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



preparaci6n/. , prepara- 
tion, the making up 
preparar, to prepare 
presbiterio, m. , chancel 
presentar, to present, 
to bring before, to 
offer 

la dimision, to 
tender the resignation 

presidente, TO., presid- 
ent, chairman, pre- 
mier 

del ayuntamiento, 
m., president of the 
town council, mayor 

del Congreso, pre- 
sident of the Congress 
(Engl.}, the Speaker 

del consejo de 
ministros, premier 

del senado, presid- 
ent of the Senate ; 
(Engl.} the Lord 
Chancellor 

de la diputaci<5n, 
president of the 
county council 

presidio, TO. , prison, 
imprisonment. See 
de 

presidir, to preside over 
presiou , /. , pressure 
preso, -sa, TO., /., 
prisoner, (not at war}. 
See prisioriero 
prestamista, m., money- 
lender, pawnbroker 
prestar, to lend 

juramento a la ban- 
dera, to be sworn in 

presupuestos, los, m., 

pi., the budget, the 

estimates 
prestamo, TO. , loan, 

(public or private}. 

See emprestito 
pretendido, -da, alleged 
pretendiente TO. , suitor, 

pretender 

don Carlos (el), the 
Pretender Don Carlos 

previsi6n, /. , foresight 



prima, /., cousin. See 

primo 
primavera, /., spring, 

primrose 
primera, adj.,/., first 

clase, /., first class 

ensenanza elemen- 
tary tuition 

piedra, la, the 
foundation stone 

primero, TO., first, 
firstly 

primeros, los, theformer 

primo, TO., cousin ; 
(meta. colloq. }, simple- 
ton, one who is easily 
caught 

primos, (collect., TO.), 
cousins 

primula, /. , primrose 

principado, TO., princi- 
pality 

principal, TO., head (of 
a firm} 

principal, -les, adj., 
chief 

principalmente, chiefly 

Principe, TO., Prince 

de Asturias, the 
Prince of Asturias 

Princesa, /., Princess 

de Asturias, the 
Princess of Asturias 

principio, TO. , begin- 
ning, entr&e 
prision, /., imprison- 
ment, prison 
prisionero, TO., (war} 

prisoner 

privilegio, m., privilege 
proa, /. , bow (of a ship) 
problema, TO. , problem 
procedimiento, TO., 

pleadings, case 
procesado, -da, (pro- 
secuted person), the 
accused 

procesion,/., procession 
proceso, TO. , process 
proclamar, to proclaim 
procurador, TO., solici- 
tor, attorney 



producir, to cause, to 
produce, to bear 
(fruit) ; irr. 

producto(s), TO., pro- 
duct(s) 

productor, TO. , producer 

profesion, /. , profession 

profesor, in. , teacher, 
professor 

profesora, /., school- 
mistress, lady-teacher 

profundo, -da, deep 

profundidad, /. , depth 

programa, TO. , pro- 
gramme 

prologo, TO., preface 

promontorio, TO., pro- 
montory, headland 

promover una huelga, 
to begin a riot ; irr. 

pronto, pronta, prompt 

pronto, soon 

pronunciacion, /., pro- 
nunciation 

pronunciar, to pro- 
nounce 

el si, to say "7 
will" 

la sentencia, to pass 
sentence 

un discurso, to 
deliver a speech 

propiedad, /., property 
propietaria, /., owner' 



propietario, TO., owner, 
landlord 

propina, /. , gratuity, 
tip 

propios, -pias, of their 
own 

proporcion, /., propor- 
tion 

proposicion, /., pro- 
posal, proposition, 
motion, demand, 
tender 

prosa, /., prose 

proscenio, TO. , pro- 
scenium 

prosista, TO., /., (prose) 
writer 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



293 



prospecto, m. , pro- 



prosperidad, /., pro- 
sperity 

proteccion, /., protec- 
tion, cover 
, la,/., protection 
protectionista, m., pro- 
tectionist 

proteger, to protect 
protests, /. , protest 
protestante, protestant 
protestar, to protest 
protesto, m., protest (of 

a bill) 

provechoso, -sa, bene- 
ficial 

proveer, to provide 
proverbio, m., proverb 
provincia, /. , province 
Provincia Romana, 

Roman Province 
Provincias Vascongadas 
(las), the Basque 
Provinces 

provision,/., provision 
provisional, provision- 
al, temporary 
provocation, /., pro- 
vocation 
pr6xirao, next, next 

ensuing 

proyecto, m. , project, 
scheme 

economico, economi- 
cal bill 

de ley, bill 
prueba,/., proof, proof 

sheet. See de 

psicologia, /., psycho- 
logy 

publicar, to publish, to 
insert, to issue 

publico, -ca, public 
(adj.) 

publico (el), m., (the) 
public (in general), 
the audience, the 
gallery (theat.) 

pueblo, m. , village, 
town, (i.e., small 
town) 



pueblo (el), sing., (the) 

people 
puente, m. , bridge 

colgante, m., sus- 
pension bridge 

de ferrocarril, m., 
railway bridge 

puerta, /., door 
puerto, m. , harbour, 

seaport 

pues, well, for 
puesta de(l) sol, /., 

sunset 
puesto, m., post 

de flores, m. , flower 
stall 

pulmon, m. , lung 

pulmonia, /., pneu- 
monia 

pulpito, m., pulpit 

pulsera,/., bracelet 

pulso, m., pulse 

puntiagudo, -da,,pointed 

punto(s) cardinal(es), 
m., cardinal point(s) 

puno, m., cuff", fist 

pupila, /., pupil of the 
eye 

pureza, /. , purity 

puro, pura, pure 

puro, m., cigar 

purpurino, -na, adj., 
purple 



q.b.s.m., (i.e., que 
besa su mano), that 
kisses your hand, (in 
writing from one 
man to another, or 
from a lady to a man 
or lady} 

q.b.s.p., (i.e., que besa 
sus pies), that kisses 
your feet, (in writing 
from a gentleman to 
a lady) 

que, (rel.), who, which, 
that ; (conj. ) to, tJiat 

i que . . . ? , how . . . ? , 
what . . . ? 



j que anchura . . . ? , 
how wide . . . ? 

j que bonito (bonita) 
. . . ! , or, que . . . 
tan bonito (bonita) ! 
what a pretty . . . ! 

j que bonitos (bonitas) 
. . . ! , or, que . . . 
tan bonitos 

(bonitas) ! , what 
pretty . . . ! 

i que fondo, or, que 
profundidad ....?, 
how deep ? 

j quo" hora es ? , what 
is the time 1 

quedarse, to remain 

Quedo de usted, J re- 
main yours 

queja, /. claim, griev- 
ance 

querer, to want, to 
wish, to love ; irr. 

queso, m.. cheese 

quiebra, /. , failure, 
smash 

i quien ? , j quienes ? 
(pi. ), who ? 

quilla, /., keel 

quimica, / , chemistry 

quince y media, fif- 
teen and a half 

quin teto, m., quintet 

quinto,-ta, fifth 

quitar, to take 

quitar los andamios, 
to take down the 



Rabano, m., radish 
racimo, m., bunch 
radio, m., radius 
rail(s), m., rail(s), 

metal(s) 
raiz, /., root 
rama, /. , branch 
ramal, m., branch line 
ramillete, m., nosegay, 

bouquet 
ramo, m., bunch, 

bouquet 



294 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



rancho, m., mess, 

ration 

rapaz, rapacious 
rapidez, /. , swif 
raro, rara, rare 
rastro, m., trace 



ratero, m. , 
pickpocket, -ra, /., 
female 

raton, (pi. ratones), 
m., mouse 

rayo, m., lightning, 
thunderbolt 

raza, /. , race 

re, m., D. (mus.] 

real decreto, m., Royal 
decree 

real orden, /., (R.O.), 
Royal Order 

realidad, /. , reality 

reanudacion, f., re- 
sumption 

rebaja, /., reduction, 
decrease 

rebano, m. , herd, flock 

rebuzno, m., braying 

recaida,/., relapse 

recaudacion, /., collec- 
tion (of money] 

de contribuciones 
(la), tax collector's 



recaudador de con- 
tribuciones, m. , 
collector of taxes 
recaudar, to collect 
receptor, m., receiver 
receta, /. , prescrip- 
tion 

recibimiento, m., hall 
recibir, to receive 
recibo, m., receipt 
reciencasados, m., pi. 
newly married pair 
recitado, m., recitative 
reclamation, /., claim, 

complaint 

recluta, m., recruit 
reclutamiento, m., re- 
cruiting 



recoger, to gather 

la cosecha, to gather 
in the harvest 

recomendar, to re- 
commend ; irr. 

reconocer, to recognise ; 
irr. 

reconquista, /., recon- 
quest 

recordar, to remember ; 
irr. 

rector de la univer- 
sidad, rector, head, 
principal, warden, 
etc., of a university, 
college ; Vice Chan- 
cellor of an English 
University 

red,/., net' 

redaction, /., (of a 
document] draiving, 
wording 

redaction (de un 
periodico), /. , the 
office, the staff 

redactar, to write, to 
word 

redactor, m., sub- 
editor 

redondo,-da, round 

refran, m., proverb 

refuerzos, m., rein- 
forcements 

regadera. /., watering- 
can 

regalo, m., present 

regar, to water ; irr. 

region, /. , region 

industrial, indus- 
trial region 

regionalismo, m., 

Home Rule 
regionalista, m., Home 

Ruler 

registrar, to search 
registro, m., register 
registro civil, m., Civil 

Register 
registro de cabeza, 

head register 

de pecho, chest 
register 



regiraiento, m. , regi- 
ment 

regla, /., rule 

rein a,/., queen 

Reina regente, /., 
Queen Regent 

reino, m., kingdom 

rejilla,/., grating 

relaciones diplo- 

maticas, diplomatic 
relations 

relaciones (las buenas), 
(the friendly] rela- 
tions 

relampago, m.. light- 
ning 

relampaguea, it 

lightens 

religion,/., religion 

catolica, (Roman] 
catholic religion 

del Estado (la), the 
State Church 

protestante, pro- 
testant religion 

relinchar, to neigh 
relincho, m. , neighing 
reliquia, /. , relic 
reloj, m., clock, watch 
remar, to roio 
remedio, m., remedy 
reinero, m., oarsman 
remesa, /., remittance, 
delivery, despatch 
(of goods etc.] 
remitido, m., com- 
munication 
remo, m., oar 
rendition, /., surrender 
renta de aduanas, 
custom house revenue 
reo, m., /., criminal, 

offender 
repararse, to be re- 



repartidor de periodi- 
cos, m. , paper 
boy, ( man}, distri- 
butor) 

repartir, to distribute, 
to deliver, to take 
round 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



295 



reparto, m., delivery 

representation, /., 
performance, acting 

representante, m., 
representative 

representar, to repre- 
sent, to act 

representar (una fun- 
cion), to give (a per- 
formance) 

repiiblica, /., republic 

Repiibiica Argentina 
(la), the Argentine 
Republic 

Repiiblica espanola 
(la), the Spanish He- 
public 

republicano, m. , re- 



resfriado, m., cold, chill 
resina, /., resin 
respetar, to respect 
responder, to answer 
respuesta, /. , answer 
restablecer, to restore ; 

irr. 
restauran, m., res- 

taurant 

resto, m., remainder 
restos mortales, m., 

pi. , remains (mortal) 
restringir, to restrict 
retaguardia, /. , rear 
retirada, /., retreat 
retirarse, to retire 
retorica y poetica, /., 

rhetoric and poetics 
retratar, to take a 

portrait, or a photo. 

(pers.) 
retratista, m., photo., 

portrait painter, 

photographer 
retrato, m., portrait, 

photo. 
reunion, /., meeting, 

union 
revendedor,-ra (de 

periodicos, ), news- 
vendor, news-boy 
revisor de cuentas 3 m., 

auditor 



revista, /., review 

semanal, weekly 

quincenal, fort- 
nightly 

mensual, monthly 
Revolution de Sep- 

tiembre (la), (1868), 

The Revolution of 

September 
rey, m., king 
Reyes Catolicos (los), 

the Catholic Sove- 
reigns 
rezar (una oration), to 

say (a prayer) 
ria, m., mouth (of 

a river) 

riachuelo, m., rivulet 
riendas, /. , pi. , reins 
rincon, m., corner (i.e., 

inside corner) 
riiia, /. , quarrel, fight 
rio, m., river 
risa, /. , laughter, 

laughing 
roble, m., oak (gall 

oak) 

robo, m., robbery 
roca, /. , rock 
rocio, m., dew 
rodaballo, m., turbot 
rodear, to surround 
rodilla,/., knee 
rojo, roja, red 
romanza, /., romance 

(mus. ) 

romeria, /. , pilgrimage 
romper, to break, to 

break off, p.p., (irr.) 

roto 
ropa, /. , clothing, 

clothes 

exterior, clothes, 
dress, suit 

interior, under- 
clothing 

ros, m., head-cover* 
rosa,/., rose 

* takes its name from 
its inventor General 
Ros de Olano 



rosa musgosa, /., moss 

rose 

rosal, m., rose-tree 
roseta,/., roseton, m., 

rose-window 
rotonda, /. , dome, 

rotunda 

rotulo, m., inscription 
rubi, m., ruby 
rubrica, /. , flourish 
rueda,/., ivheel 

del timon, /., 
steering-wheel 

rugir, to roar 

ruido, m., noise 

ruisenor,, m., nightin- 
gale 

Rumania, /. , Roumania 

Rusia, /., Russia 

ruso, rusa, (TO., /.,) 
Russian, also adj. 

ruso (el), Russian 
(lang.) 

S. See sud 

saber, to know ; irr. 

de, to know (of) 
sabiduria, /. , wisdom 
sablazo, m. , sword- 

thrust, sabre-cut 
sable, m., sabre, (in- 
fantry-sword) 
sabor, m. , taste, flavour 
sacacorchos, m., cork- 
screw 
sacar, to take out, to get 

agua, topump (water) 

copia, to take a copy 

una fotografia, to 
take a photograph 

una nota, to obtain a 
qualification 

sacerdote, m., priest 
saco, m., sack 

de lana, m., wool- 
sack 

sacristan, m., sexton 
sacristia, /. , vestry, 

sacristy 

sacudir, to shake 
sagrado, -da, sacred 
sainete, m., farce 



296 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



sal, /. salt ; (metaph. ) 

wittiness 
sala de recibo,/. , draiv- 

ing-room 
sala de descanso, /., 

waiting-room 

de primera, first- 
class 

salario, m. , sing. , ivages, 

salary 

salazon,/., salting 
saldo, m., balance 

acreedor, Or. 

deudor, Dr. 
salida, /. , departure, 

11 way out," readmis- 
sion ticket 

del sol,/., sunrise 
salir, to go out, to come 

out, to be obtained, to 
be got 

(el sol), to rise (the 
sun} 

(un vapor), to sail 
(a steamer) 

salm6n, m. , salmon 
salmonete, m. , red 

mullet 
salon, m., room, saloon, 

hall 

de baile, dancing- 
room 

de conciertos, con- 
cert-hall 

de refrescos, m., 
refreshment-room 

salsa a la mayonesa,/., 

mayonnaise sauce 
saludo, m., salutation 
salud,/., health 

publica /. , public 
health 

salvavidas,/. s. , life-belt 
San, Santo, saint. See 

page 165, Part I. 
San Marcos, Saint 

Mark 
San Petersburgo, m., 

St. Petersburg 
sangre,/., blood 
sano, sana, wholesome 
sanscrito (el), Sanskrit 



santa,/., Saint 

Santa Barbara (la) the 
magazine 

Santo, m. , onomastic 
name, Saint's day. 
See Padre , also San 

sautuario, m., sanctu- 
ary 

sardina, /., sardine, 
pilchard 

sargento, m., sergeant, 
non - commissioned 
officer 

sastre, m., tailor 

sastreria, /. , tailor's 
shop 

satelite, m., satellite 

satisfactorio, -ria, satis- 
factory 

scherzo, m. , scherzo 

se, (subjoining infini- 
tives or preceding in- 
dicatives), to be (fol- 
lowed by past part.) 

(impersonal), one . . , 
it is (followed by past 
part. ) 

(reflexive), one's self, 
him, (her, it, your), 
self, them (your) 



(indirect obj. ), him, 
her, it, you, them, to 
him (her, it, you, 
them) 

admitenpropociones, 
tenders are invited 

encuentran, are 
found 

seccion de caballeiia, /. , 
sub - division of a 
squadron of cavalry 

seco, seca, dry 

secretario, m. , secre- 
tary, clerk 

del Ayuntamiento, 
m. t Town Clerk 

seda, /., silk. See 

gusano de 
segador, m., Jiarvester 
seguir, to follow ; irr. 
segun, according to 



segunda, second 

(clase), /., second 
(class) 

ensehanza, secondary 
tuition 

segundas (las), the latter 
segundo, -da, second 
seguro, m., insurance. 

See polizadel , com- 

pama de s 
seis, six ; las , 6 o'clock 
sellar, to seal 
sello, m., stamp. 

del extra njero, 
foreign stamp 

del interior, inland 
stamp 

semana,/., week 

santa, Holy week 
sembrador, m., sower 
semejante, adj. , similar 
semestralmente, half- 



semilla, /. seed 
senado (el), m., senate 
senador, m. , senator, 

(M.P.) 

sencilla, adj., single 
sencillo, sencilla, simple 
sencillez, /. , simplicity 
sendero, m., path 
sentada, -do, sitting 

down 
sentarse, to sit (on or 

upon) ; irr. 
sentencia, /. sentence, 

judgment 
sentido, in., sense, 

meaning 
comun, common 

sense, los cincos s, 

the Jive senses 
sentimiento, m., feel- 
ing, sorrow 
serial,/., signal 
senalar, to mark, to 

show, to signal 

(las), / pl. t the 

address, personal de- 



senor, m. , master, Mr. , 
Mr. So and so 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



297 



sehor, gentleman, sir. 
See Muy 

don, (Sr. D.), Esq., 
Mr. 

senora, /. , mistress, 
Mrs. so and so, lady, 
madam. See Muy 

dona, (Sra. Da.}, 
Mrs. 

de Tal (la), Mrs. so 
and so 

seiiores, Messrs., Gentle- 
men 

viajeros, al tren ; 
gentlemen, take your 



senorio, m., lordship 
senorita, /., miss 
separar, to divide 
septiembre, m. Septem- 
ber 

sepultura,/. grave 
ser, to be ; irr. 

aficionado, (-da) a, 
to be fond of 

de dia, to be day- 
light 

de noche, to be night 

la una, (las dos, 
las tres, etc.), to be 
one, (two, three, etc. ), 
o'clock 

tiempo de (fruta, 
caza, pesca), to be in 
season, (fruit, game, 
fish) 

un jesuita, (iron.) to 
be a, hypocrite 

un verdugo, to be a 
cruel man, (abutcher) 

una alhaja, (iron.), 
to be a gem 

sermon, m., sermon 
serpiente, /. , snake 

de cascabel, /. , 
rattle 

Servia,/., Servia. 
servidumbre, /. staff of 

servants 

servilleta, /. , serviette 
servio (el), Servian 

(lang.) 



servir, to serve, to be 
used as . . . ; irr. 

servirse de, to use ; irr. 

sesion, /., session, sit- 
ting 

sesos, m. pi. , brains 

Sevilla, Seville 

si, yes 

si, seiior, yes, sir 

(el), m., "I will" 
si, m., B. (mus.) 
siega, /., harvest 
siembra, /., seed-time, 

sowing 

siemprevivas, /., ever- 
lasting flowers 

sierra, /., ridge (of 
mountains) 

siete, seven, las , 7 
o'clock 

siglo, m., century 

siguieute, following 

despacho (el), the 
following despatch 

(lo), the following 
silaba,/., syllable 
silbar, to hiss 

silla, /., chair 

de montar,/. , saddle 
silleria, /., suite of 

furniture 
sillon, m., arm-chair, 

(theat. ) stall 
simbolo, m. t symbol 
simiente, /., seed 
sim6n, m., (Madrid) 

hackney carriage 
sin, without 
sinfonia, /., symphony, 

overture 
sino que, but 
sintoma, m., symptom 
situacion, /. , incident 

detenninada, a cer- 
tain station 

sitiadores(los), besiegers 
_ (the) 
sitiados (los), besieged 

(the) 

sitiar, to besiege 
sitio, m., seat, room, 
siege. See poner 



soberano, -na m., /., 
sovereign (monarch) 

soberano, m., sovereign 
(coin) 

sobre, m., envelope 

sobre, on, upon, above, 
about 

cero, above zero 

todo, above all, 
especially 

sobretodo, m., overcoat 
sobrina,/., niece 
sobrino, m.. nephew 
sobrinos, (collect. ) 

nephew(s)and niece(s) 
socialista, m., socialist 
socio, m. , partner 
sol, m., sun. See ponerse 

el , salirel , salida 

de , puesta de 
sol, m., Gr. (mus.) 
soldado, m. , soldier , 

private 

de artilleria, artil- 
lery man 

de caballeria, caval- 
ry man 

de infanteria, m., 
foot-soldier 

de ingenieros, pri- 
vate of the engineers 

de marina, m. , 
marine 

solicitud,/. , application 
solo, m., solo 
solo, only, alone 

en parte, only partly 
soltero, m., soltera, /., 

single, bachelor, spin- 
ster 

sombra, /. , shade, 
shadow 

sombrerera, /. , hat-box, 
bonnet-box 

sombrereria, /., hat 
shop, hatter's 

sombrerero, m., hatter 

sombrero, m., hat, 
bonnet 

de castor, beaver, 

de copa, top hat, silk 
hat 



298 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



sombrero de paja, 
straw-hat 

de teja, shovel hat. 
See teja 

hongo or bongo, 
round hat 

sombrilla, /., sunshade 
someter a discusion, to 

place for discussion 
sonar (el timbre), to 
ring (the bell, the 
electric bell) ; irr. 
sonata,/., sonata 
sonda, /., lead, (mar.} 
sonido, m., sound 
sonoro, -ra, sonorous 
sonrisa, /., smile 
sopa,/., soup 

de pan, bread soup 

de fideos, vermicelli 

de macarrones, ma- 
caroni 

de arroz, rice 
soprano,/., soprano 
sordo, m., deaf man 

adj. , (of noises) rum- 
bling 

sorpredente, surprising 

sortija,/, ring 

sostener, to keep, to sup- 
port, to maintain ; 
irr. 

sostenido, sharp (mus.) 

so tan a,/., cassock 

sotano, m., basement 

soy, I am. See ser 

Soy de listed, I am, 
Yours 

grita. D a ., (Senorita 
Dona) Miss 

S r . D., (Senor Don), 
Esq., Mr. 

S.S., (seguro ser vi dor 
orsegura servidora), 
obedient servant 

su, his, her, its, their 

su . . . de usted (de 
ustedes), your . . . 

suave, soft 

subasta, /. , public auc- 
tion - 

subdito, m., subject 



subdividir en, to sub- 
divide into 

subir, to go up, to come 
up, to rise 

al carruaje, to enter 
a carriage 

subsecretariOjWi., under 
secretary 

subterraneo -nea, sub- 
terranean 

subveucion,/., subven- 
tion 

sncursal, /., (trade] 
branch 

sud, or (sur) (S), m., 
south, (S) 

sudor, m. , perspiration 

Suecia, /., Sweden 

sueco, sueca, (m., /.,) 
Swede, Swedish- 
woman, adj. Swedish 

(el), Swedish (lang. ) 
See hacerse el 

suegra, /., mother-in- 
law 

suegro, m. s father-in- 
law 

suegros, (collect. ), father 
and mother-in-law 

suela, /., sole (of shoes, 
boots) 

suelo, ground, floor 

sufrir, to suffer 

(unexamen), to pass 
(an examination) 

Suiza,/. Switzerland 
suizo, -za, (m., /.,), 

Swiss, also adj. 
sujeta, -to, adj., and 

p.p. o/sujetar, subject 
sujetarse, to be fastened 
Sultan, m., Sultan 
sultanato, m. t sultan 

ate 

suma, /. , amount 
suministro, m., supply 
su penetrante mirada, 

their keenness of 

vision 

superar, to exceed 
super ficie, /., surface 
superior, upper 



Superior, el (Padre), 
Father Superior 

Superiora, la (Madre), 
Mother Superior 

suplementario, -ria, ad- 
ditional 

suplemento, m. t sup- 
plement 

supuesto,-ta ; (p.p. irr. 
ofsuponer), alleged 

surco, m., furrow 

supremo, -ma, highest 

suprimir, to suppress 

(unalinea), to scratch 
out (a line) 

sus, their 

suscripcion,/. , subscrip- 
tion, subscription list 

suscritor or suscriptor, 
m., subscriber 

suspender, to suspend 

suspiro, m., sigh 

sustituto, m., deputy 

sustraer, to steal ; irr. 



Tabaco, m., tobacco 
taberna, /., wine-shop 
tabique, m., partition- 
wall 
tablas (las), the boards, 

(the stage), behind 

the scene 

tablilla,/., board 
tacon m., heel of (shoes, 

boots) 

tacto, m., touch, tact 
tal como, tales como, 

such as 
talento, m. , talent, 

ability 
talon, m. , cheque ; heel 

(of the foot). See 

also cheque 

a la orden. cheque 
payable to order 

al portador, cheque 
payable to bearer 

de equipaje, m., 
luggage-ticket 

talonario de cheques, 
m. , cheque book 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



299 



taller, m., workshop 

de escultor, m., 
studio 

tallo, m., stem 
tambien, as ivell as, 

also, too 
Tamesis (el), the 

Thames 
tan, so 
tan .... como, as 

. ... as 
tanto (tanta) .... 

como, as (much} 

. ... as 
tapa (de un libro), /., 

cover (of a bound 

book) 

tapon, m., stopper, cork 
taquigrafo, m. , short- 
hand writer 
tardar, to be long in 
tarde, late. See porla 
tarifa,/., tariff 

de franqueo, postage 
rate 

de telegrafos, 
telegraph rate 

tarima, /. , platform 
tarjeta,/., card 

de visita, visiting 

postal, post 

con respuesta 
pagada, reply post- 
carol 

tartana, /. , tartana 
(two-wheeled cart 
with a tilt) 

tartanero, m. , driver 
(of a tartana) 

te, in., tea 

teatro, m., theatre 

de la Comedia (el), 
(coll. la Comedia), 
The Comedy Theatre 

de la Princesa (el), 
(coll. la Princesa), 
The Princess Theatre 

Espahol (el), (coll. el 
Espanol), The 
Spanish Theatre 

Real (el), (coll. el 
Real), The Royal 



Opera House (Mad- 
rid) 

tecla, /., key (of the 
piano) 

teclado, m. , finger- 
board 

techo, m. , ceiling, 
roof, 

techumbre, /., roof (in- 
cluding the roofing) 

teja, /.. tile, (colloq.) 
shovel hat. See 
sombrero de 

tejado, m.. tile-roof 

tejedor, m., weaver 

tejer, to weave, to 
spin 

tejidos (los), m., pi., 
fabrics 

tela, /., linen, canvas, 
cloth, web 

de arana, /. , spider- 
web 

telar, m., loom 

telefonista, m., /., tele- 
phone clerk 

telefono, m., telephone 
(apparat.), telephone 
office 

telegrafista, m.,/., tele- 
graph clerk 

telegrafo, m. , tele- 
graph office 

telegrama, m., tele- 
gram 

telon, m., curtain 

temperatura, /. , 

temperature 

tempestad, /. , storm 

templo, m., temple, 
church 

temprano, early 

tenacidad,/., stubborn- 
ness 

tender, m., tender 

tendera, /. , shopkeeper, 



tendero, m. , shop- 
keeper, shopman 

tenedor, m.,fork 

de libros, m., book- 
keeper 



tener, to have, to hold, 
to possess, to keep ; 
irr. 

buen 6 mal fondo, 
to be very good or 
bad natured 

ingleses to be over 
head and ears in 
debt 

lugar, to take place 

(mucha) edad, or 
(muchos) anos, to be 
(very) old 

(mucha) gracia, to 
be (very) graceful, to 
be (very) witty 

pereza, to be lazy 

razon, to be right 

uno la culpa, to be 
one's fault 

tengo, / have. See 

tener. 
teniente, m., lieutenant 

coronel, lieutenant 
colonel 

de alcalde, alder- 
man 

general, lieutenant 
general 

tenor, m., tenor 
teoria, /. , theory 
tercera class, /. , third 

class 

tercero,-ra, third 
tercerola, /. , carbine 
terceto, m., tercet 
terminar, to end, to 

finish 
termino, m., terminus 

municipal, m. , 
municipal district 

termometro, m., ther- 
mometer 

ternera, /. , calf 

terrado, m., fiat-roof, 
terrace 

terraplen, m., embank- 
ment 

terratenience, m., 

land-owner 

terremoto, m., earth- 
quake 



300 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



terreno, m., ground 
terrible, terrible 
territorio, m., terri- 
tory, circumscription 
terron de aziicar, m., 

(a) lump of sugar 
testigo, m.,/., witness 
texto, m., text. See 

libro de 
tia, /., aunt ; (colloq.) 

ordinary woman, 

old mother 
tiempo, m., time, 

weather ; movement 

(music] 
tienda,/., shop 

de campaiia, /., 
tent 

de flores, /. , flower- 
shop, florist's 

tiento, m., maulstick, 

care 

tierno, tierna, tender 
tierra, /., earth, land 
tiesto, m. , flower -pot 
tigre, m., /., tiger, 

tigress 

tijeras,/., pi., scissors 
timbales (los), m., pi., 

kettle-drums 
timbre, m., electric bell 
timido,-da, timid 
timon, m., rudder. 

See rueda del 
tiinonel, m. , steersman, 

helmsman 
tinta,/., ink 

china, /., indian 
ink 

tiutero, m., inkstand 

tio, m. } uncle; (colloq.) 
ordinary fellow, 
old father 

tios, uncles, (collect. ) 
uncle(s) and aunt(s) 

tintoreo, -rea, tinc- 
torial 

tiple, /. , soprano 

tipo (de letra), m., 
type (print) 

tirada, /., press work, 
edition 



tirador, m., shot 

(marksman) 
tiraliueas, /., drawing 

pen 

tirantes, m., pi., braces 
tirar, to shoot, to draw 

(towards), to print 

off" 

coces, to kick 
tiro, m., shot (of a 

gun), team (of ani- 
mals) 
tisis, /., consumption, 

phthisis 
titulo, m., title 
toalla, /., towel 
tobillo, m., ankle 
tocado, m., head dress, 

head covering (in 



tocar, to touch 

el organillo, to 
grind the organ 

(la campana), to 
ring (the bell) 

(un instrumento), 
to play (an instru- 
ment) 

(un vapor), to call 
(a ship) 

tocino, m., bacon 
toda, adj., /., all, 

every, the whole. 

See todo, todas 

clase, all kind(s) 

clase de felicidades, 
every happiness 

la . . . , the whole 
todas, /. , pi. , all 
todo, throughout, to- 
gether 

hervido, boiled to- 
gether 

todo, adj., m., all, 
every, the whole 

todo el . . . , the 
whole. . . . 

el mundo, every- 
body 

toldo, m., tUt (of a 

waggon, or tartana) 
toma, /., dose 



tomar, to have (i.e.,) 
to take 

el pulso, to feel the 
pulse 

tomarse, to be taken 
to mate, m. , tomato 
tomatera, /., tomato 

plant 

tomo, m., volume 
tono, m., tone 
topacio, m., topaz 
tormenta, /., storm 
toro, m., bull 
torpedero, m., torpedo 

boat. See caza s 
torpedo, m., torpedo 
torre, /. tower 
torreute, m., torrent, 

burn 

torticolis, m., stiffneck 
tortilla,/., omelet 
tortola, /., dove 
tortuga, /., tortoise 
tos,/., cough 

ferina, /., whooping- 
cough 

total, adj., total 

trabajador, m. , work- 
man, labourer 

trabajar, to work 

trabajo, m. , work, 
(literary) contribu- 
tion 

trabajos forzados, m., 
pi., hard labour 

traer, to bring ; irr. 

trafico, m., traffic 

traje, m., suit 

de boda, wedding- 
dress 

de diario, morning- 
dress 

de frac or de eti- 
queta, man's evening 
dress 

de gala, full uni- 
form 

de hombre, man's 
suit 

de levita, frock 
coat (suit) 

talar, robe 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



301 



tramontana, /., north 
wind 

transparente, adj., 
transparent 

transporte, m. , trans- 
port, transportation 

tranvia, m., tramway, 
tramcar, "tram" 

transmitir, to trans- 
mit 

tras, after 

trasatlantico, m., liner 

tratado, m., treaty 

comercial, com- 
mercial treaty 

tratamiento, m., 

(formal) address 

tratar, to have for . . 
object 

tregua,/., truce 

tremendo, -da, adj. , 
tremendous 

tren, m., train 

correo, a mail 
train 

de mercancias, a 



pasajeros, 



especial, special 

expreso, an express 
tren delante, train 

ahead 

trepar, to creep 
tres, three, las three 

o'clock 
- veces por seraaua, 

three times a week 
tribunal (de examenes), 

board of examiners 
Tribunal Supremo, m., 

Supreme Court of 

Judicature 
trigo, m., wheat, corn, 

(colloq.) money 
trigonometria, /., 

trigonometry 
trimestralmente, quar- 
terly 

trinchera, /., trench 
tripulacion, /., crew 
tripular, to man 



triste, adj., mournful 
trompa,/. , (instr. ) horn, 
trunk (of an ele- 
phant) 

tronada, /. , thunder- 
storm 
tronar, to thunder, 

irr. 

tronco, m. , trunk (of a 
tree), body (of a 
person) 

tropa(s),/., $roqpj>) 
tropico, m., tropic 
trozo de tierra, m., 

plot (of ground) 
trucha, /., trout 
truena, it thunders 
trueno, m., thunder 
tubo, m., pipe, tube 
tulipan, m. , tulip 
tumba, /., tomb, grave 
tun el, m. , tunnel 
turco, turca, (m., /.,) 
Turk, Turkish 

woman ; adj., 

Turkish 
turco (el), Turkish 

(lang.) 

Turquia,/., Turkey 
tutor, tutora, (m., /.,) 
guardian 



Ultima morada,/., last 
resting place (last 
home, grave) 

ultimatum, m., ulti- 
matum 

ultimo, -ma, last, 



ultimo (el), last, the 

last 
un. See uno, una 

entero, one (Stock 
Exch.) 

lleno complete, a 
house full 

par, a pair 
una vez, once 
unanimidad, /., un- 
animity 
uncir, to yoke 



uniforme, m., uniform 
uni6n, /., match, 

harmony 
unir, to join 
universal, universal 
universidad, /., Uni- 
versity 
Universidad Central 

(la), or la Central, 

the University of 

Madrid 

universo, m., universe 
uno, una (contr. un), a, 

an, one, a certain 
uno (una) de los (las) 

mas, one of the most 
uno de los (6 una de 

las) mejores, one of 

the best 
uno por ciento, one in 

a hundred 
una,/., nail 
urbanidad,/. , politeness 
urgir or (ser urgente), 

to be urgent 
urraca, /., magpie 
usar, to use, to wear 
usarse, to be used, to be 

worn 

uso, m., use 
usted, sing., you (polite 

form) 

usual, ordinary 
util, useful, valuable 
uva(s),/., grape(s) 



Va, he is going, it is 
going. See ir. , irr. 

va a haber, there is 
going to be 

vaca, /., cow 

vacaciones, /. , pi. , 
holidays, vacation, 
vacation time. See 
las largas 

vacia, vacio, empty 

vadeable , fordable 

vadear, to ford 

vado, m., ford 

vag6n, m., waggon 
(railway) carriage 



302 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



vahido, m., fainting- 
fit 

Valencia, /. Valencia 
(a town in Spain) 

valeneiano, -na, m. , /. , 
Valencian, Val- 

encian woman, adj., 
Valencian 

(el), Valendan 
(dialect} 

valer, to be worth, irr. 

la pena, to be worth 
while 

valerse de, to use ; irr. 
valor, m. , value, price, 

amount, valour, 

courage 
valores, ra., pi. , funds, 

assets 

del Estado, Govern- 
ment stocks 

valle, m., valley 
vamos, we are going. 

See ir. 

van, they go. See ir. 
vanguardia,/., advance 

guard 
vapor, m. , vapour, 

steam, steamer 
vara(s),/., shaft(s) 
variable, changeable 
variedad,/., variety 
varios, -rias, several 
vascongado, - da, 

Basque, Basque 

woman 
vascuence (el), Basque 

(lang. ) 

vaso, m., a glass 
veces, /., times. See 

vez 

veda, /., close time 
vehiculo, m., vehicle 
vejez, /., old age 
vela,/., candle, sail 

de cera, wax candle 
velar, to watch 
Velazquez, Velasquez 
velo, m., veil 
velocidad, /., velocity, 

speed. See a toda 
vena,/., vein 



veneer (una letra), to 
be due (a bill of 
exchange) 

vencido, -da, due (of 
promisory notes, 
bills) 

venda, /., bandage 
vendedor, m., seller 
vendedor, -ra, or re- 
vendedor, -ra (de 
periodicos), news- 
agent, news-vendor 
vendedora de flores, /., 

flower-girl 
vender, to sell 
venderse, to be sold 
vendimia, /. , vintage 
veneno, m. , poison 
venir, to come ; irr. 
venirse a un arreglo, to 
come to an under- 
standing 
venta, /., sale. See de 

ventana,/., window 

ventanilla, /., carriage 
window 

ver, to see ; irr. See 
verse 

verano, ra., summer 

verde, green, (of fruit) 
unripe 

verdugo, m., execu- 
tioner, hangman 
(colloq. , cruel man) 

verdura, /., cabbage, 
green stuff, pi. s, 
green stuff 

veredicto, ra., verdict 

verja,/., gate 

verse, to be seen 

verso, m., verse 

vestibule, ra. , vestibule, 
hall 

vestido, m., dress 

de cola, ra., court- 
dress 

de sehora, lady's 
dress 

escotado (lady's) 
evening or low-necked 
dress 



vestiduras,/., pl. t vest- 
ment 

Vesuvio (el), m. , 
Mount Vesuvius 

vez (pi. veces), time. See 
a la , en , de 

vi, I saw. See ver ; 
irr. 

via,/., line, gauge 

anclia, broad 

estrecha, narroio 

lactea, la, the galaxy 
(milky way) 

viaducto, ra., viaduct 
viaje, ra. , journey, 
travel 

de novios, ra., 
wedding-tour 

en ferrocarril, 
railway journey 

por mar, m., sea- 
voyage 

vinjero, m., traveller, 
passenger. See 

senores s 

vicario, m., vicar 

vicealmirante, m. , 

vice-admiral 

vice consul, m., vice- 
consul 

vicio, ra., vice 

victoria,/., victory 

vida,/., life 

del campo (la), 
country life 

militar, /., military 
life 

vidriero, m., glazier 
vidrio, m., glass 
vieja, /. , old woman 
vie jo, m., old man 
viejo, vieja, old, aged 
viento, m., wind 

norte, north wind 
viga, /., beam 

vigia, m. , lighthouse- 
man 

vigilaucia, /., super- 
vision 

vigoroso ataque, deter- 
mined attack 

vinagre, m., vinegar 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES SPANISH WORDS. 



303 



vinagreras, /., pi., 

vinegar-cruet 
vino, m., wine 

tinto, claret 

espumoso, spark- 
ling wine 

vina, /. , vineyard 

vifiador, m. , vine- 
dresser 

vinedo, m., vine-estate 

viiieta. /. , vignette, 
illustration 

viola,/., viola 

violeta, /. , violet 

violetas dobles, double 
violets 

violin, ra., violin, 



violinista, (m., /.,) 



violoncelista, m. , 

violoncellist 

violoncelo, m. , violon- 
cello 

virilidad,-m., manhood 

virtud,/., virtue 

visible, visible 

Visigodos, (los), the 
Visigoths 

vista. /., sight 

de la causa (la), the 
trial 

visto, irr. p.p. , of ver 

vitalicio,-cia, for life 



viuda, f.. widow 
viudo, m., widower 
vivero, m., fish-pond 
viveza, /., vivacity 
vivir, to live, to reside 
de, to live by (on} 
vivo, viva, quick, alive 
vizcaino, -na. 



woman 

Vizcaya, /., Biscay 
vizconde, m., viscount 
vizcondesa, /., vis 

countess 

vocacion,/., calling 
volante, m., flounce, 

fly-wheel 
volar, to fly ; irr. 
volateria, /., poultry 
volcan, m., volcano 
volumen m. , volume 

(part) 

volver, to return ; irr. 
votacion, /.. division 

(par I. phras.) 
votante, m. , voter 

parlamentario, par- 
liamentary voter 

voto, m., vote 

voy, / am going. See 

ir 
voz, /., (pi. voces), 

voice 
vuelo, in., flight 

del vestido, frill 



Y, and 

ya, already 
yegua,/., mare 
yerno, m., son-in-law 
yeso, m. , plaster, chalk 

yo, / 

yugo, m., yoke 
yunque, m., anvil 



Zapatena, /. , shoe- 
maker's shop, shoe- 
maker's 

zapatero, m., shoemaker 

zapatillas, /., pi., 
slippers 

zapato, m., shoe 

de charol, m., 
patent-leather shoe 

escotado, m., 
evening-shoe 

zapatos, m., pi., 
(milit.), boots, shoes 

zarzuela, f., comic 
opera 

zinc, m., zinc 

zona, /. , zone 

glacial, frigid zone 

templada, temperate 
zone 

torrida, torrid zone 
zorra. f.,fox 
zutano, zutana, so and 



304 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



INDEX TO VOCABULAKIES 



II. ENGLISH WOEDS. 1 



A (mus.), la, m. 
A.D., despues de Cristo 

(d. de Cristo) 
a, uno, una, contr. un 

certain, un, una, 
cierto, cierta 

number of times, 
cierto numero de 
veces 

great deal, mucho 

very dignified lan- 
guage, una lengua 
muy majestuosa 

ability, talento, m. , 

habilidad, f. 
above, sobre 

zero, sobre cero 
abroad, en el extrajero, 

al extranjero. See 

absolute, perfecto,-ta ; 
absolute, -ta 

distinctness, per- 
fecta claridad 

absorb, to, absorber ; 

irr. p.p. absorto 
abyss, abismo, m. 
academical year, curso 

or curso academico, 

m. 

accede, to, acceder 
accept, to, aceptar 
acceptance, aceptacidn, 

f. See for 

accident, desgracia, f. 

See railway 

accommodation, acomo- 

do,m. See good 

accompaniment (inns. ), 

acompanamiento, m. 



accompanist, acompa- 

nante, m., f. 
accompany, to, acom- 

pariar 
accomplice, c6mplice, 

m., f. 
according to, con 

arreglo d, segun 
accordingly, por con- 



account, cuenta, f. 
See on 

accountant(s), con- 
tador(es) } m., 

accoutrement, equipo 
m. 

accused (the), el 

acusado (la da), 

elprocesado (la da) 

acknowledge the re- 
ceipt, to, acusar 
recibo 

acorn, bellota, f. 

acquittal, dbsolucidn, f. 

across, d trav6s 

act, acto, m. 

act, to, representar, 
accionar 

acting (theat.) (la) 
representacidn 

action, accidn, f. (also 
mil., i.e., engage- 
ment) 

active, activo,-va 

actor, actor, m. pi., 
adores 

actors and actresses 
(the), los actores, los 
cdmicos, los actores y 
actrices 



actress, actriz, f. 
actuary, escribano, m. 
addition, adicidn, f. 
additional, suplemen- 
tario (-ria), adicional 

postage, franqueo 
suplementario, m. 

address (the), la direc- 
cidn, sing. ; las senas, 
pi. See formal 
address, to, dirigir 
addressing, direcddn, 

adjourn, to, levantar 

(la sesidri) 
administer, to, uil- 

ministrar 
administration, ad- 

ministracidn, f. 
admirable, admirable 
admirably, admirable- 

mente 
admiral, almirante, m. 

See rear , vice 

Admiralty, Almiran* 

tazgo, m. 

admit, to, admitir 
adopt, to, adoplar 
advance (in price), un 

alza, f. (mil. ), avance 

m. 

guard, vanguardia, 

advance, to, adelantar 
advanced class, clase 

superior, f. 

advertise, to, anunciar 
advertisement, anuncio, 



i The equivalent of the English words refers to the meaning given in the Exercises. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



305 



advice, consejo, m. 
advise, to, aconsejar 
advocate, abogado, m, 
aerolite, aerolite, m. 
atfair(s), asunto(s), m. 

See general 

foreign 

affected, afectado,-da 
affectionate(ly), afmo., 

afma. (i.e.), afectisi- 

mo,-ma 

Africa, Africa, f. 
after, despues de, trds 
age, edad, f. See 

of 

aged, de edad 

agile, dgil 

agility, agilidad, f. 

ago, hace 

agree, to, avenirse, irr. 

agree to, to, aprobar, 

irr. ; convenir en, irr. 
agreement, contrato, 

convenio, m. 
agriculture, agricul- 

tura, f. 
agriculturist, agri- 

cultor, m. 
aim, objeto, m. 
air, aire, m. 
aisle, nave lateral, f. 

See middle 

alarm bell, campanula 

de alarma, f. 
Alcala Street, Calle de 

Alcald 
alderman, teniente de 

alcalde, m. 
algebra, algebra, f. 
Algeria, (la} Argelia 
all, adj., todo, toda, 

todos, todas. See 

almost 

kinds toda close, 
todas clases 

of them, todos ellos 

the others, todos los 
demds 

all, adv., todo 
allege, to, alegar 
alleged, pretendido, -da; 
supuesto,-ta 

PT. II. 



alliance, alianza, f. 


ancestor(s), antepasa- 


See Triple (the) 


do(s), m. 


allow (discount), to, 


anchovy, anchoa, f. 


hacer (descuento), irr. 


anchor, (el) ancla, f. 


almond, almendra, f. 


See to be at 


tree, almendro, m. 


and, y (6 before i, hi) 


almost, casi 


Andalusia, Andahwia. 


all, casi todos (todas) 


f. 


always, casi siempre 


Andalusian (adj.), 


alms, caridad, limosna, 


andaluz, -luza 


f. sing. 


Andalusian (m.), (un) 


alone, enpaz 


andaluz 


Alphonso XIII. , Al- 


woman (f), andaluza 


fonso XIII. (trece), 


andante, andante, m. 


m. 


animal, animal, m. 


already, ya 


ankle, tobillo, m. 


also, tambien 


anniversary, aniver- 


altar, altar, m. See 


sario, m. 


high , side 


announce, to, anunciar 


alternate, alterno, al- 


annual, anuario, m. 


terna 


annul, to, anular 


lesson, leccidn al- 


another, otra, f. otro, 


terna 


m. 


always, siempre. See 


answer (in general), 


almost 


respuesta, f. ; (reply), 


Amadeus of Savoy, 


contestacidn, f. 


Amadeo de Saboya 


answer, to (in general), 


ambassador, embajador, 


responder ; (replying), 


m. 


contestar 


amendment, enmienda, 


ant, hormiga, f. 


f. 


antarctic circle, circulo 


America, America, f. 


polar antdrtico, m. 


See North , 


antler (el) asta (de 


South 


ciervo), f. 


ammunition, muni- 


anvil, yunque, m. 


ciones, f. pi. 


any. alguno, -na, contr. 


among, amongst, entre 


alg-An ; (prec. by a 


them, entre ellos, 


negative) ninguno, 


(ellas) 


ninguna, contr. nin- 


amount (quantity) 
cantidad, f. (added 
up), suma, f. (value) 


gtin 
anything, algo ; (prec. 
by a neg.) nada 


valor, m. (payable) 


apparatus, aparato, m. 


importe, m. 
amphitheatre, anfi- 


apparently, oil parecer 
appeal, apelacion, f. 


teatro, m. 


See second court 


amusement, diversidn, 


of 


f. 


appeal, to, apelar 


an, uno, una, contr., 


appear, to, apareccr, 


un 


irr. 


an occasional .... 


applause, aplauso, m. 


. . , alguno que otro 


apple, manzana, f. 


U 



306 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



apple of the eye, nina 



pe o t 
del ojo, f. 



tree, manzano t m. 
application, solicited, 

apply the brake, to, 

darfreno 

appoint, to, nombrar 
appointment, nom- 

bramiento, m. 
appreciate, to, apreciar 
apprehend, to, apre- 

hender 
approach, to, acercarse 

(d), aproximarse (d) 
appropriate, apropia- 

do,-da 

April, abril, m. 
apsis, dbside, m. 
Arab, drabe 
Arabian, drabe 
Arabic, el drabe 
Aragon, Aragdn, m. 
Aragonese, m., (un) 

aragones 

woman, (una) ara- 
gonesa, f. 

(adj.), aragone's, 
-nesa 

jota, the, (dance and 
song), la jota ara- 
gonesa, f. 

arbitration, arbitrage, 

m. 
arch, arco, m. See 

pointed - , round 

archbishop, arzobispo, 

m. 
archbishopric, arzobis- 

pado, m. 
architect, arquitecto, 

m. 
architecture, arquitec- 

tura, f. 

archives, archivo, m. 
archivist, archivero, m. 
arctic circle, circulo 

polar drtico, m. 
are found, se encuen- 

tran 
are there ? i hay ? 



Argentine, argentine t 
-na (m., f.), also 
adj. 

Republic, Repdblica 
Argentina, f. 

aria, aria, f. 

Arian, arriano, -ana 

arithmetic, aritmetica, 

f. 
arm, brazo, m., 

(weapon), el arma, f. 

chair, silUn, in. 
armament, armamento t 

m. 
arming, the, arma- 

mento, m. 
armistice, armisticio, 

m. 
army, eje"rcito, m. 

corps, cuerpo de 
ejfrcito, m. 

aromatic, aromdtico, -ca 

around, al rededor 

arrange, to, arreglar 

arrive, to, llegar 

arrival, llegada, f. 

arsenal, arsenal, m. 

art, arte, m. 

arts, the, las artes, f. 
See Fine , Indus- 
trial , Mechani- 
cal 

article, articulo, m. 
See leading 

artillery, R.A., arti- 
lleria, f. See field 
, foot , garri- 
son , mountain 

, siege 

carriage, carro (or 
carruaje) de artille- 
ria, m. 

man, artillero, sol- 
dado de artilleria, m. 

artisan, obrero, m. 
artist, artista, m. and f. 
as, como 

. . . as . ., tan . . . 
como . . . 

soon as possible, lo 
antes posible, cuanto 
antes 



as well, tambien 
as, tambien, asi 

como 

ascend, to, subir 
ascertain, to, averiguar 
ashore, d tierra 
Asia, (el) Asia, f. 
Asiatic, asidtico, -ca 
ask, to, (tell), decir, 

irr. 
(questions), pre- 

guntar (d) 

for, to, (inquire), 
preguntar por 

(to demand), 

pedir ; irr. 
ass, asno, burro, m. 
assassin ate, to, asesinar 

(d) 
assault (at war), asalto, 

m. ; (law), injuria, f. 
assent, to, asentir, irr. 
assets, valores, m, pi.; 

distinct from liabili- 
ties, el activo 
assistant, ayudante, -ta 

(m., f.), (in hospitals, 

at chemists'), practi- 

cante, m. 
association, asotiacitin. 

See private 

asteroid, asteroide, m. 
astronomer, astrdnomo, 

m. 
astronomical apparatus, 

aparato astrondmico, 

m. 
astronomy, astronomia, 

Asturian, m., (uri) as- 
turiano 

woman, (una) as- 
turiana 

adj., asturiano, -na 

(lang.), el asturiano 
Asturias (aregionin the 

N. of Spain), Astu- 
rias, m. 

astute, astuto, -ta 

at, d, en, sobre 

all, nada 

anchor, sobrc el 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



307 



ancla. See to be 

at five o'clock, d las 

cinco 

- full speed, d toda 
velocidad 

home, en casa 

intervals, d inter- 
valos 

midnight, d media 
noche 

noon, al mediodia 

once, en seguida 

par, d la par 

6.30, d las seis y 
media , (rail, time), 
d las seis y treinta 

seven o'clock, d las 
siete (7) 

the, en la 

the point of the 
bayonet, d la bayo- 
neta 

12.30, d las doce y 
media 

what time ? I d que 
Twra ? 

your feet (Madam), 
d los pits de usted 
(Seflora) 

Atlantic, the, el Atlan- 
tic 
atmosphere, atmdsfera, 

attache, agregado, m. 
attack, ataque, m. See 
determined 

to, atacar 

attend, to, atender, irr. ; 
asistir 

attendant (theat.), aco- 
modador, -dora, m., 
f. 

(attestation of the) sen- 
tence, condena, f. 

attitude, actitud, f. 

attorney, procurator, 
m. See power of 

General, Fiscal (de 
S.M., i.e. H.M.) 

attract, to, atraer, 
irr. 



attract the notice, to, 

llamar la atencidn 
audience, the, (el} pu- 

blico, m. 
auditor, revisor de cuen- 

tas, m. 

August, agosto, m. 
aunt, tia. See ordinary 

woman 
aurora borealis, aurora 

boreal, f. 
Australia, Australia, 

f. 
Australian, australia- 

no, -na (also adj.) 
Austria, (el) Austria, 
Austrian, austriaco, -ca 

(also adj.) 
author, autor, m. See 

play-writer 
authoress, autora, f. 
authorities, the, las 

autoridades, f. pi. 
authorize, to, autorizar 
autumn, otono, m. 
avaritiousness, avari- 

cia, f. 
avenue, calle de drboles, 

f. 

avoid, to, evitar 
await, to, esperar 
axle, eje, m. 



B. (mus.), si, m. 
B.A., bachiller (en 

artes), m. 
B.C., antes de Cristo 

(a. de C.) 
baby, criatura, f. 
bachelor, soltero 
back, cspalda, f. 
back (of persons), es- 

palda, f. (of animals, 

books), lomo, m. 

bone, espinazo, m. 

tooth, muela, f. 
bacon, tocino, m. 
bad, malo } mala, contr. 

mal 

nature (figurat. ), mal 
fondo, m. 



bail, fianza, f. See on 

bailiff, alguacil, m. 
baker's, panaderia, f. 

shop, panaderia, f. 
balance, saldo, m. See 

Or. , Dr. 

sheet, (el) balance,n~\. 
balcony, balcdn, m. 
ball, baile,m. See fancy 

, masked 

ballet, baile (i.e.) baile 
de espectdculo, m. 

(of an opera), the, 
los bailables, m., pi. 

bandage, venda, f. 

bandore, bandurria, f. 

banister, pasamanos, 
m., sing. 

bank (of a river) (edge) 
orilla, f.,(side), mar- 
gen, f. 

bank, banco, m. See 
banknote, or note 

of England, the, el 
Banco de Inglaterra 

of Spain, the, el 
Banco de JEspana 

banker, banquero, m. 
banknote, billete [de 

banco], m. 
banner, bandera, f. 
banns, amonestationes, 

f. 

baptism, bautismo, m. 
baptismal font, pila 

bautismal, f. 
baptize, to, bautizar 
bar (mus.), un compds, 

m. 
Barbarians (the), los 

Bdrbaros 

barber, barbero, m. 
's shop, barberia, f. 
Barcelona, Barcelona, 

f. 

nuts, avellanas, f. 
barge, barca, f. 
baritone, baritono, m. 
bark, to, ladrar 
barking, ladrido, m. 
barley, cebada, f. 



308 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



barn shed, cobertizo, m. 
barometer, bardmetro, 

m. 

baroness, baronesa, f. 
baronet, baron, m. 
barracks, cuartel, m. , 

sing. 

base, base, f. 
basement, sdtano, m. 
basilica, basilica, f. 
basin, palangana, f. 
basket, cesfo, m. See 

fish , small , 

plate 

Basque, m. (un vascon- 

gado 

adj. , vascongado, -da 
(mi, f.) 

(language), el vas- 
cuence 

Provinces, Las Pro- 
vincias vascongadas 

woman (una) vas- 
congada 

bass (mus.), bajo, m. 

See double 

bat, murcie'lago, m. 

bath, bano, m. 

bathe, to, bafiar, refl. 

banarse 

bather, banista, m., f. 
bathing man, banero, 

m. 
bathing woman , banera, 

battalion, batalldn, m. 

of sharpshooters, 
batalldn de cazadores, 
m. 

battery, bateria, f. 
battle, batalla, f. 

ship, buque de corn- 
bate 

bay, bahia, f. 

of Biscay, mar Can- 
tdbrico 6 Golfo de 
Gascuna, m. 

bayonet, bayoneta, f. 
See at the point of 
the 

thrust, bayonetazo, 



bayonet wound, bayo- 
netazo, m. 

be, to, ser, irr. ; estar, 
irr. (For their use 
see Part II. , p. 31) 

a big wig, to (col- 
loq.) estar en cande- 
lero 

cruel man, to, ser 

un vcrdugo 
good sailor, to, 

no marearse 
rumour (there to), 

correr el rumor 

applied, to, aplicarse 

at [a place], to, estar 
en 

anchor, to, estar 

sobre el ancla 

work, to, tra- 
bajar 

behind time, to, ir 
con retraso or re- 
trasado (retrasada) 

born, nacer, irr. 

called, to, llamarse 

careful of, to, tener 
cuidado con 

carried, to, hacerse 
on, to, darse 

caught, to, ser 
Jiabido (-da) 

cooked, to, guisarse 

covered (with), to, 
cubrirse (de) 

creeping up, to, tre- 
par por 

divided into, to, 
dividirse en 

doing, to, hacer or 
estar haciendo 

due, to, ser debido 
(debida, etc.); (a 
train, etc.), deber 
llegar', (a bill), veneer 

eaten, to, comer -se 

entitled, to, titularse 

felt, to, sentirse, irr. 

fond of, to, ser afi- 
cionado (-da) a 

forced, to, verse obli- 
gado (-da) d 



be gathering, to, re- 
coger or estar re- 
cogiendo 

getting cloudy, to, 
nublarse, or estarse 
nublando 

going, to, ir, irr. 

going bird-nesting, 
to, ir d coger nidos 

holding, to, tener 

in, to (to come, a 
train), llegar 

to (a person), 

estar en casa 

mourning, to, 
estar de Into 

receipt, to, haber 

recibido 
season, to, ser 

tiempo de 
time, to, llegar d 

tiempo 

just, to ... acabar 
de . . . 

out, to, acabar 

de salir ; (a book), 
acabar de publicarse 

killed, to, quedar 
muerto 

let, to, para al- 
quilar 

like, to, parecer, 
parecerse, irr. 

long, to, tardar 

making . . into, to, 
poner, or estar po- 
niendo . . en 

manuring, to, 
abonar, or estar 
abonando 

moving, to, mover, 
irr. 

named, to, desig- 
narse 

obtainable, to, 
obtenerse, irr. 

obtained, to, obte- 
nerse, irr. 

old, to, ser viejo 
[vieja], tener edad 

one's fault, to (or 
not to ), tener (6 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



309 



no tener) uno la 

culpa 

be out, to, salir, irr. 
out of print (a 

book), to, estar ago- 

tada la edition (de 

un libro) 

over, to, acabarse, 
concluirse (irr.) 

head and ears in 

debt, to, tener ingle- 
ses 

paid, to, pagarse 

placing, to, potter, 
or estar ponieiido, irr. 

ploughing, to, arar, 
or estar arando 

proceeding with, to, 
estar haciendo 

putting, to, poner 

ready, to, estar (listo) 

required to give, to, 
necesitar dar 

right, to, (or not to 

), tener (6 no 

tener) razon 

running ... an 
hour, to, andar . . . 
por hora 

scarce, to, escasear 

scattering, to, echar 
(esparcir), or estar 
echando (esparciendo) 

sea-sick, to, mare- 
arse 

seen, verse, irr. 

separating, to, 
separar, or estar 
separando 

sitting down, to, 
estar sentado (-da) 

sold out, to, haberlo 
vendido todo 

sowing, to, sembrar 
(irr.), or estar sem- 
brando 

standing up, to, ester 
levantado (-da), or de 
pie 

taken, to, tomarse 
to, to, ser llevado 

(llevada) a 



be taken into, to, 
llevarle (a uno), i.e., 
ser llevado 

taking, llevar, or 
estar llevando 

tipsy, to, coger (or 
haber cogido) una 
turca 

urgent, to, urgir or 
ser urgente 

used, to, usarse 

very good or bad 
natured, tener buen 6 
malfondo 

(very) graceful, tener 
(mucha) graeia 

(very) old, to, tener 
(muchos) anos 

tener 
(mucha) edad 

witty, tener 
(mucha) graeia 

vested, to, residir 

watching, to, ob- 
servar 

worn, to, llevarse 

worth while, to (or 

not to ), valer (6 

no valer) la pena 

wounded, to, quedar 
herido 

yoking, to, uncir, 
or estar unciendo 

beach, play a, f. 
beam, viga, f. 
bear, oso, m. ; (Stock 
Exch.), bajista, m. 

to, dar, producir, 
irr. 

beard, barba, f. 
beast. See wild 

of burden (horse or 
mule), caballeriet,, f. 

beautiful, precioso, 

preciosa 
beautifully, divina- 

mente 
beauty, hermosura, 

belleza, f. 
beaver, sombrero de 

castor, m. 
because, porque 



become, to, hacerse, 
volverse, convertirse 
en, irr. 

aware, to, darse 
cuenta 

a priest, nun, etc., 
to, hacerse (6 meter se) 
cura, monja, etc. 

bed, cama, f. (poet), 
lecho. See flower 
- , bedroom 

(of a river), lecho, 
cauce, m. 

(of flowers), cantero 
(de flores), m. 

bedel, bedel, m. 
bedroom, alcoba, f., 
dormitorio, m. 

bee, abeja, f. 

hive, colmena, f. 
beech, (el) haya, f. 
beer, cerveza, f. 

shop, cervcceria, f. 
before (i.e.), face to 

face), ante ; (time), 

antes, antes de 
beggar, mendigo, m. , 

mendiga, f., poire 

(m., f.) 
begin, to, empezar, 

comenzar, irr. 

a riot, to, promoter 
un desorden, irr. 



, m. 

behave, to, portarse 
behind, detrds 

the scene, las tablas, 
entre bastidores 

time. See be - 
(to) 

belfry, campanario, m. 
Belgian, belga, m., f. 

(also adj.) 
Belgium, Edgica, f. 
believe, to, creer 
bell (church - ), cam- 

pana, f. 

(hand or house - ), 
campanula, f. See 
alarm - 

ringer, campanero, 
m. 



310 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



bellow, to, mugir 
belong, to, pertenecer, 

irr. 
below, bajo 

deck, bajo cubierta, 

zero, bajo cero 

belt (waist), cintur6n, 

m. (strap), correct, f. 
bench, banco, m. 
benefit, beneficio, m. 
beneficial, provechoso, 

-sa 
bereavement, pfrdida, 

f. 
berth, litera de cama- 

rote, f. 

besides, ademds 
besiege, to, poner sitio 

or sitiar 

besieged, sitiado(s), m. 
besieger(s), sitiador(es), 

m. 

best, mds. See the 

best man, padrino de 

boda, m. 

better than, mds que 
between, entre 

8 and 9, entre ocho 
y nueve 

11 and 12, entre once 
y doce 

1 and 2, entre una 
y dos. 

6.30 and 7, entre seis 
y media y siete 

beverage, bebida f 
beware of, cuidado con 
bicycle, bicideta, f. 
bicyclist, biciclista m., 

f. 

'bier,fe'retro, m. 
big, grande (contract, 

gran). See to be a 

wig 

fall, catarata, f. 

game, caza mayor, 

bill (of birds), pico, in., 
(account), cuenta, f., 
(in voice), factura, f., 
(parliam.), proyecto 



de ley, m. See eco- 
nomical 

bill (of exchange) letra 
(de cambio), f. 

of fare, lista, f . 

of lading, conoci- 
miento de embarque, 
m. 

bind, to, encuadernar 
binding, encuaderna- 

ci6n, f. 
bird, (el] ave, f. See 

black , migratory 

, night , noc- 
turnal , song 

of prey, ave de 
rapina, f. 

birth, nacimiento, m. 

day, cumpleanos, m. 
Biscay, Vizcaya, f. 
Biscayan, m. , (un) 

vizcaino 

woman (una) viz- 
caina 

(adj.), Vizcaino, -na. 
See in the way 

bishop, obispo, m. 
bishopric, obispado, m. 
bite, mordisco, m. 
bite, to, morder, irr. ; 
or dar un mordisco 

one's . . . , to, 
morderse el (la, 
etc.) . . . 

black, negra, negro, (of 
coffee), solo 

bird, mirlo, m. 

board, encerado, m. 

coffee, cafe solo, in. 
blank, bianco 

bleat, to, balar 
bleating, balido, m. 
blessing, bendicidn, f. 
blind (carriage ), cor- 
tinilla, f. 

man, ciego, m. 

woman, ciega, f. 
blockade, bloqueo, m. 

to, bloquear 
blood, sang re, f. 
blossom, to, Jlorecer, 

irr. 



blouse, blusa, f. 
blow, to, soplar 
blue, azul 

bells, campanulas 
azules, f. 

jacket, (Engl. ),mari- 
nero (de guerra), m. 

board, (wood), tablilla, 
f. , (of directors), 
junta, f. See black 
; in s 

(mar.), bordo. See 

free on , on 

over , jump over 

(to) 

of Directors, el Con- 
sejo de administra- 
cion, m., la Junta 
Directiva 

of examiners, tri- 
bunal, m. sing. 

s, the, (the stage), 
las tablas, f. 

boarder, hue'sped, m. 

boarding-house, casa de 
hu&pedes, f. 

keeper, patrona, f . 

boards. See in 

boat, bote, m., (barge), 
barca, f. See fish- 
ing 

man, barquero, m. 

swain, contra- 
maestre, m. 

bock (of beer), bock (de 

eerveza), m. 
bodice, cuerpo, m. 
body, cuerpo, m. , (apart 

from limbs) tronco, 

m. 

(of a carriage), caja 



(del coche) f. 
ohe 



Bohemian (lang.), el 

bohemio 

boil, to, hervir, irr. 
boiled meat, cocido, in. 

See pot-au-feu 
boiler, caldera, f. 
bolt (a horse), to, des- 

bocarse (un caballo) 
bombardment, bom- 

bardeo, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



311 



bone, hueso, m., (fish 
), espina, f. 

bonnet, sombrero (de 
senora) m. , or capota, 

box, sombrerera, f. 

ribbon, cinta del 
sombrero, f. 

string, cinta del 
sombrero, f. 

book, libro, m. See 

cash , cheque , 

copying , pocket 

, prescribed , 

record , second- 
hand , text 

binder, encuader- 
nador, m. 

case, armario de los 
libros, m. , or libreria, 
f. 

keeper, tenedor de 
libros, m., 

post, impresos, m., 
pi. See by 

shelf, estante, m. 

seller, librero, m. 
See second hand 

seller's shop, libre- 
ria, f. See second- 
hand- 
booking-office, despacho 

de billetes, m. 
boot, lota, f. 

lace, cordon de la 
lota, m. 

boots (mil.), zapatos, 
m., (caval.), lotas, f. 
See riding 

both, ambos, ambas, 
(adverb), d la vez 

bottle, botella, f. 

of drinking water, 
botella de agua, f. 

bottom, fondo, m. 
bouquet, ramillete, m., 

(bunch) ramo 
Bourse, la Bolsa 
bow, proa, f. 
box, (theat. ), palco, m. 

See pit 

caja,L See cartridge 



, c o 1 o u r , 

confessional , 

paint , pillar 

, strong , 

wall letter 

box of a carriage, pes- 
cante, m. 

of matches, caja de 
mistos, de fdsforos, 6 
de cerillas, f. 

office, contaduria, f. 
boy, nino, m., (small), 

chico. See tele- 
graph 

bracelet, brazalete, m., 
pulsera, f. 

braces, tirantes, m. 

brains, sesos, m., pi. 

brake, freno, m. 

branch, rama, f. , (com- 
merc.), sucursal 

line, ramal, in. 

(of a river), brazo, 
m. 

(of mil. serv. ),arma, 

brass, latdn, m. 

instrument, instru- 
mento de metal 

bray, to, rebuznar 
braying, rebuzno, m. 
Brazil, El Brasil, ni. 
Brazilian, brasilefio, 

-na, (also adj.) 
bread, pan, m., (loaf), 

un pan 

soup, sopa de pan 
break, to, romper, refl., 

romperse ; p.p., roto 

out, to, estallar 
breakfast, 

m. 

breast, pecho, m. 
breeze, brisa, f. 
brethren, 

m., pi. 
brick, ladrillo, m. 

layer, albanil, m. 
bride, novia, f. 
bridegroom, novio, m. 
bridesmaid, madrina 

f. 



bridesman, padrino de 
boda, m. 

bridge, puente, m. See 
railway , suspen- 
sion 

brigade, brigada, f. 

brigadier, general de 
brigada, m. 

brilliancy, brillantez, 

brim, (el) ala (del 

sombrero), f. 
bring, to, traer, irr. 

an action, to, enta- 
blar una demanda 

before, to, presentar 
ante 

British Empire, (The), 
(ellmperio Britdnico) 

British Isles, (The), las 
Islas Britdnicas 

broad, ancJio, ancfia 

beans, habas, f., pi. 

gauge, via ancha, de 
via ancha 

broker, corredor, m. 

See Exchange , 

Stock 

brokerage, corretaje, m. 
bronchitis, bronquitis, 

bronze, bronce, m. 

broth, caldo, m. 

brother, hermano, (pi. 
hermanos). See 
brothers and sisters 

in-law, cunado, (po- 
litely), hermano 
politico 

brothers and sisters, 
hermanos, m., (col- 
lect, m. and f.) 

brougham, berlina, f. 

brow, falda, f. See 
eye -. 

bruise, contusion, (col- 
loq.), cardenal 

bruised, (slightly 
wounded), contuso(s) 

brush, cepillo, m., 
(painting ),pincel 

brush, to, cepillar 



312 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



bud (unexpanded blos- 
som), capullo, m. 

(uiiexpanded germ- 
stem), baton, m. 

Budget, (the) los Pre 

supuestos 
build, to, edificar ; cons- 

truir, irr. 

to, (a nest), hacer 
(nido] 

builder, maestro de 

obras, in. 
building (edifice), edi- 

ficio, m. 

materials, materiales 
de construccidn, m., 
pi. 

up, la construccidn 
bulb, bulbo, m. 
Bulgaria, Bulgaria, f. 
Bulgarian (larig. ) el 

bulgaro 
bull, toro, m., (Stock 

Exch.), alcista, m. 
bullet, bala, f. 

wound, balazo, m. 
bullock, novillo, m. 
bunch, (of grapes, etc.) 

racimo, m., (of 
flowers), ramOj m. 

bundle (of papers), 
legajo, m. 

buoy, boy a, f. 

bureau of the stage 
coach, administra- 
cidn de diligencias 

of Finances, admi- 
nistracitin de Hacien- 
da, L 

Burgos, (the capital of 
Old Castile), Burgos 
burial, entierro, m. 
burin, buril, m. 
burn, torrente, m. 

to, arder 

down, to, quemar 
burrow, madriguera, f. 
'bus, dmnibus, m. 
business, (commerce, 

trade), comercio, 
m. ; (transaction), 
negocio, m. See 



home , internal 

, retail 

business hours, horas de 
oficina ordedespacho, 
f., pi. 

house, casa de co- 
mertio, f. 

butterfly, mariposa, f. 
but, pero, sino, sino que 
button, botdn, m. 

hole, ojal, m. 
buy, to, comprar 
buyer, comprador, m. 
by, (in general), por 

(sometimes) a, de 

a miracle, por mi- 
lagro 

book post, por im- 
presos 

hand, d mano 

hearsay, de oidas 

heart, de memoria 

instalments, dplazos 

machine, d mdquina 

means of, mediante, 
por medio de 

paying, pagando 

sight, de vista, 

the month, almes 
ride, por una 

carrera 

side, oil lado 

year, al ano 

time, por horas 



C (mus.)cfo, m. 

Cr. (book-keeping), el 
Haber. See Credi- 
tor 

balance, saldo acree- 
dor 

cab (Engl.), cache de 
alquiler, de plaza, 6 
depunto, m. 

driver, cochero, m. 

man, cochero, m. 
cabbage, col., f. coles, 

pi. ; in general, la 
verdura 

cabin, camarote,rf\. See 
fore , main 



cabin passenger, pasa- 
jero de popa, m. 

Cabinet (minist. ), 
Gabinete, m. 

council, consejo de 
ministros, m. 

cable, cable, m. 

cablegram, cablegrama, 
m. 

cackle, to, cacarear 

cackling, cacareo, m. 

cafe, cafe, in. 

cage, jaula, f. 

calendar, calendario, 
m. 

calf, ternera, f. ; (bind- 
ing), en pasta. See 
half 

call, to, llamar ; (of 
literary works), titu- 
lar(se) 

(a steamer), to, 
tocar, hacer escala 

calm, to, calmar 
calumniator, calumnia- 

dor, m. 

calumny, calumnia, f. 
calyx, cdliz, m. 
camel, camello, m. 
camp (mil.), campa- 

mento, ra. 

campaign, campana, f. 
can, poder, irr. 
Canada, El Canada, m. 
Canadian, Canadiense 

(also adj.) 
canal, canal, m. 
canary, canario, m. 
candidate, candidate, 

m. 
candle, vela, f. See 

wax 

stick, candelero, m. 
See be a big wig (to) 

cannon-ball, bala de 
canon, f. 

shot, canonazo, m. ; 
bala de canon, f. 

canoe, canoa, f. 
canon, candnigo, m. 
canteen, cantina, f. 
canvas, lienzo, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



313 



canvas, tela, f. 

cap (man's cap) gorra 

f. See travelling 

cape (geog.), cabo, m. 
Cape Colony, la Colonia 

del Cabo 
capital (m o n e y), 

capital, m. 

(metropolis), la 

(in Sp., Madrid) 

capital letter (letra 
mayiiscula, f. 

punishment, vena 
capital, or pena de 
muerte, f. 

capitalist, capitalista, 

m. 

capsicum, pimiento m. 
captain, capildn, m. 

general, capitdn 
general 

of a man-of-war, 
comandante (de un 
buque degn/erra), m. 

( It. N. ), capitdn de 
fragata, or de navio 

capture, to (of con- 
voys, people), coger, 
capturar ; (of towns, 
fortresses), tomar ; 
(of ships), apresar 

carabineer (i.e., custom 
house officer), cara- 
binero, m. 

caravan, caravana, f. 

carbine, carabina, f. ; 
(caval.), tercerola, f. 

card (visit.), tarjeta, f. 

See visiting , 

wedding 

cardinal, cardenal, m. 

points, puntos car- 
dinales, in. 

care, cuidado, tiento, 

m. See take , 

(to) 

career, carrera, f. 
cargo (before or after 

shipment), carga, f. ; 

(otherwise) carga- 

mento, m. 
Carlist, carlista (m. f.) 



carman, carretero, m. 
carnation, clavel, m. 

(plant), clavellina, f. 
carp, carpa, f. 
carpenter, carpinlero, 

m. 
carpet, alfombra, f. 

maker, alfombrista, 
m. 

carriage, carruaje, 
coche, m. See box 

of a , hackney 

, hired 

private , rail- 
way 

blind, cortinilla, f. 

door, portezuela, f. 
carrion, carne muerta, 

carry out, to, hacer, 

realizar, llevar d 

cabo 
cart, carro, m. ; (drawn 

by oxen), carreta, f. 
Carthaginians (the), 

los Cartagineses 
cartridge, cartucho, m. 

box, cartuchera, f. 
case, caso, m. See 

book 

(law), cuestion, f. 
See civil , crimi- 
nal 

(pleadings), el pro- 
cedimiento 

cash, metdlico, efedivo, 
m. See in 

book, libro de 'caja 
m. 

cashier, cajero, m. 

cassock, sotana, f. 

castanets, las castanue- 
las, f. pi. 

Castile, Castilla, f. See 
New , Old 

Castilian, adj., caste- 
llano, -na (m. f.) 

Castilian woman, cas- 
tellana 

language (el caste- 
llano, or la lengua 
castellana 



castle, Castillo, m. 
casualties, bajas, f. 
cat, gato, m. (gata, f.) 
Catalan (lang.), el 
Catalan 

adj., Catalan, -lana 
catalogue, catdlogo, m. 
Catalonia, Cataluna, f. 
Cataloriian, woman, 

cataldn t catalana 

adj. Catalan, -lana 
catch, to, coger 
catechism, catecismo 

m. 

cathedral, catedral, f. 
Catholic, catdlico, -ca. 

See Roman 

Sovereigns (the), los 
Reyes Catolicos 

cattle, ganado, m . , sing, 
cauliflower, coliflor, f. 
cause, causa, f. 

to, causar ; pro- 
ducir, irr. 

. . . to . . . , to, hacer 
(and infinitive) 

cavalry, caballeria, f. 

See heavy , 

light 

man, soldado de 
caballeria, m. 

ceiling, techo, cielo- 
raso, in. 

cell, celda, f. 

Celtiberians (the), los 
Celtiberos 

Celts (the), los Cellos 

cemetery, cementerio 
camposanto, in. 

central compartment 
of a Spanish stage- 
coach, berlina, f. 

centre, centro, m. 

century, siglo, m. 

cerebral haemorrhage, 
ataque cerebral, m. 

certain station (;i), 
una situacidn deter- 
minada 

certificate, certificado, 
m. See marriage 

of birth (civil), par- 



314 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



tida de nacimiento ; 
(by the church),/^ de 
bautismo, 6 depila, f. 

certificate of death 
(civil), partida de 
defuncidn, f. ; (by 
the church), fe de 
dbito, L 

chaff, paja, f. 

chain of mountains, 
cadena de montanas, 

chair, silla, f. See 

arm 

chairman, presidente, 

m. 

of the County 
Council, Presidente 
de la Diputacidn, m. 

chalk, yeso, m. ; cat, f. 

chamois, gamo, m. 

chancel, presbiterio, m. 

Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer (the), (Eng.), 
'el Primer Lord de 
la Tesoreria, i.e., el 
Ministro de Hacienda 

change, cambio, m. 

of carriage (railw.), 
cambio de tren, m. 

to, cambiar 

horses, to (in driv- 
ing), mudar el tiro 

changeable, variable 
channel, canal, es- 

trecho, m. 
chapel, capilla, f. 
chaplain, capelldn, m. 
chapter, capitulo, m. 
character, cardcter, m. ; 

(servant's ), in- 

formes, m. pi. 
characteristic, carac- 

teristico, -ca 
charge, cargo, m. 

to (an interest), 
cobrar (or cargar) un 
interns 

charge d'affaires, encar- 
gado de negocios, m. 

charitable institutions, 
asocia^iones benejicas 



charity, caridad, f. 
Charles, Carlos 
Charlotte, Carlota 
chasseurs (mil.) caza- 

dores, m. ; de caza- 

dores 

chatter, to, charlar 
cheap, barata, barato 
cheapness, baratura, f. 
check, to, contrarrestar 
cheek, mejilla, f. 
cheers. See opposi- 

cion 

cheese, queso, m. 
chemist, boticario (or 

farmaceutico), m. 
chemist's shop, botica 

(or f armada}, f. 
chemistry, quimica, f. 
cheque, cheque, taldn, 

m. 

book, talonario de 
cheques, libro de 
cheques, m. 

payable to bearer, 
taldn al portador, 
m. 

order, taldn d 

la or den, m. 
cherry, cereza, f. 

tree, cerezo, m. 
chest, pecho, m. 

register, registro de 
pecho, m. 

chestnut, castana, f. 

tree, castano, m. 
chick-peas, garbanzos, 

m. 
chicken (young), polio, 

m. ; gallina, f. 
chief, jefe, m. 

adj. , principal, prin- 
cipales 

chiefly, principalmente 
child, criatura, f. ; 

nino, m. ; nina, f. 
childhood, infancia, 

ninez, ,f. 
children, ninos, m. 

(collect.); hijos, m. 

(collect, m. and f.) 
Chili, Chile, m. 



Chilian, chileno, -na 

(also adj.) 

chill, frio, resfriado, m. 
chimney, chimenea, f. 
chin, barba, f. 
China, (la) China 
Chinaman, chino, m. 
Chinese (adj.), chino, 

na 

(lang.), el chino, m. 

woman, china, f. 
chisel, escoplo] (sculpt.) 

cincel, m. 

chocolate, chocolate, m. 

choir, coro, m. ; (sing- 
ing ), capilla, f. 

cholera, cdlera, m. 

choose, to, elegir, irr. 

chop, costilla, f. 

choral (chorus) (un) 
coro, m. 

chorus (choral), coro, m. 

(collect. ) (los) coros, 
m., pi. 

christening, bautizo, m. 
Christian name, nombre, 

ra. 
nombre de pila, 

m. 
Christmas Eve, Noche- 

buena, f. See on 

church, iglesia, f. ; 

templo, m. See 

State 

spire, aguja de i- 
glesia, f. 

jsn:d,camposanto,Tn. 
cigar, cigarro, m. ; 

(colloq. ), puro, m. 

case, cigarrera, 
petaca, f. 

factory, fdbrica de 
cigarros, f. 

factory-girl, ciga- 
rrera, f. 

holder, boquilla, f. 
cigarette, cigarrillo ; 

(colloq.), pitillo, m. 
See packet of s 

case, petaca, f. 

holder, boquilla, f. ; 
las tenacillas 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 315 



cinnamon, canela, f. 
circle, circulo, m. See 

antarctic , arctic 

, great , 

polar , small 

circular, circular, f. 
circumscription, terri- 

torio, in. 
city, ciudad, f. 
civic, civil 

Guard (the) 

la Guardia Civil 

(man), un Guardia 
Civil, m. 

civil case, cuestidn 
civil, f. 

Governor, (Prefect), 
Gobernador Civil, m. 

marriage, matri- 
monio civil, m. 

Register, Registro 
Civil, m. 

rights, derechos 
civiles, m. 

suit, pleito, m. 
civilisation, civiliza- 
tion, f. 

claim, queja, reclama- 

cidn, f. 
Clarendon Press (the), 

la Imprenta de 

Clarendon 

claret, vino tinto, m. 
class, clase, f. See 

advanced , first 

, etc. 

clause, cldusula, f. 

claw, garra, f. 

clay, barro, m. ; (made 

of ), de barro 

cleanliness, limpieza, f. 
clear, claro, clara 

to, despejar 
clergy (the), el clero 
clerk, dependiente, m. 

See Town 

clever, brillante 
client, cliente, m., f. 
climate, clima, rn. 
cloak, abrigo ; (mil.), 

capote, m. See 

Spanish 



clock, reloj, m. 
close, to, cerrar, ccr- 
rarse, irr. 

by, muy cerca 

time, veda, f. 
closing, cierre, m. 

formula (of a letter), 
cierre (de una carta], 
m. 

cloth, tela, f.; (thick), 
pano, m. 

clothes, ropa, f., sing.; 
(distinct from under- 
clothing), ropa ex- 
terior 

clothing, ropa, f. See 
under 

cloud, nube, f. 

clove, clavo ; (carna- 
tion), clavel, m. 

coach, cache, m. See 

hackney , stage 

bureau 

coachman, cochero, m. 

coal, carbon de piedra, 
m. 

bunkers, carboneras, 
f. 

coast, costa, f. 

coat, chaque, m. ; levita, 
f. ; sobretodo, m. See 
frock , morning 

(of snow), capa (de 
nieve), f. 

cock, gallo, m. 

cock's comb, cresta, f. 

See young 

cocoon, capullo, m. 
cod, bacalao, m. 
code (teleg. ), clave, f. 
coffee, cafe", m. 

house, cafe, m. 
coffin, caja, f. ; ataud, 

m. 
Co-legislative Bodies, 

Cuerpos Colegisla- 

dores, m. 
coke, cok, m. 
cold, frio, resfriado, 

constipado, m. 
-(adj.), /Ho, /Ha 



collar, cuello, m. 

collection (of money) ; 
(small), cobro, m. ; 
(large, several), co- 
branza, f. ; (by collec- 
tor of taxes), recau- 
dacidn, f. 

collector of taxes, re- 
caudador de contri- 
buciones, m. 

college, colegio, m. See 
electoral 

collision, choque, m. 

colon (:), dos puntos, 
m., pi. 

colonel, coronel, m. See 
lieutenant 

colonize, to, colonizar 

colony, colonia, f. See 
Cape 

colour, color, m. See 
primary , second- 
ary , colours 

box, caja de color es, 

colouring, colorido, m. 
colourist, colorista, m., 

f. 
colours (the), la ban- 

dera 

colt, potro, m. 
column, columna, f. 

See leading 

comb, peine, m. See 

cock's 

comb, to, peinar(se) 
combined movement, 

movimiento com- 

binado 
come, to (where the 

speaker is), venir; (to 

go), ir, both irr. ; (to 

assist, or when 

called), acudir 

along, to, venir (or 
ir\ por, irr. ; pasar 

down, bajar 

in, entrar 

late llegar tarde, 
llegar d misas dichas 

out, salir, irr. 
comedy, comedia, f. 



316 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



comedy theatre, the, 
el Teatro de la Com- 
edia (col loq. ), la 
Comedia 

comet, cometa, in. 

comic, cdmico, cdmica 

opera, zarzuela, f. 
comma, coma, f. 
commandant, coman- 

dante, m. 

commander, coman- 
dante, jefe,m., (gene- 
ral officer), general, 
(of a man-of-war), 
comandante (de un 
buque de guerra), 
m. 

in chief, General en 
Jefe, m. 

(general officer), 
general, m. 

commence, to, empezar, 
comenzar, irr. 

an action, entablar 
una detnanda 

commerce, comercio, m. 
commercial, comer cial 

interests, inter eses 
comerciales, m. 

treaty, t rat ado 
comer cial, m. 

commit, to, cometer 
committee, comisidn, f, 
common sense, sentido 

comtin, m. 

commonly, comunmente 
Commons, the, los 

Comunes. See House 
communication, comu- 

nicacidn, f., (to a 

paper), comunicado, 

remitido, m. 
community, comuni- 

dad, f. 
Company (Co.), Com- 

pania (Cia. ), f. See 

Limited 

company (mil.), com- 

pania, f. 

of infantry, de 

infanteria 

compartment, com- 



partimento, m. See 

front 

compass (geom.), com- 
pos, m., (mariner's), 

brtijula, f., (of the 

voice), extension de 

la voz, f. 

compel, to, obligar 
compensation, compen- 

sacidn, f. 
competition, competen- 

cia, f. 

complain, to, quejarse 
complaint, reclama- 

ci6n, f. 

complete, completo,-ta 
compose, to, componer 

(to constitute, consist 

of), for mar 
composer (mus.), 

maestro, compositor, 

m. 
composition, composi- 

ci6n, f. 

compositor, cajista, m. 
compulsory, obliga- 

torio,-ria 
concealer, encubridor, 

-dor a 
concentrate, to, con- 

centrar 
concert, concierto, m. 

See in 

hall, saldn de con- 

ciertos, m. 

concession, concesidn, f. 
conclave, conclave, m. 
conclusion (of a play), 

desenlace, m. 
condemn, to, condenar 
condition, estado, m. 
conditions, condiciones, 

condole with, to, dar 

el pesame 

condolence, pesame, m. 
conductor (bus, tram), 

conductor ; (music), 

director de orquesta, 

m. 
confectioner's shop, 

dulceria, f. 



conference, conferencia, 

confess, to, confesar, 

(reflex.), confesarse 
confession, confesidn, f. 
confessional (box), con- 

fesonario, m. 
confessor, confesor, m. 
confidence, confianza, f. 
confidential note, nola 

reservada 

confirm, to, confirmar 
confuse, to, confundir 
confusing, confuso 
conger eel, congrio, m. 
Congress (The),(Spain), 

el Congreso (de los 

Diputados) 
conical, c6nico,-ca 
connect, to, comunicar 
conquer, to, (only of 

territories, cities, 

etc. ), conquistar (a) 
consent, consentimiento, 

m. 
conservative, conserva- 

dor, -dor a, (subst. and 

adj.) 
conservatory, inverna- 

dero, m. 

considerable, considera- 
ble 
consignee, consigna- 

tario, m. 
consigner, consignador, 

m. 
consist of, to, componer- 

se (de) irr. ; consistir 

(en} 
consisting of, compuesto 

(-ta) de 
constable, municipal, 

m. 
Constantinople, Cons- 

tantinopla 
constellation, constela- 

cidn, f. 
constitution, constitu- 

cidn, f. 
constitutional, consti- 

tucional 
Monarchy, Monar- 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WOEDS. 



317 



quia constitutional, 

consul, consul, m. See 

vice 

consulate, consulado,~m. 
consult, to, consultar 

(a) 
consultation, consulta, 

consumer, consumidor, 

m. 

consumption, tisis, f. 
contain, to, contener, 

irr. 
contained, contenido, 

da 

contemplate, to, eon- 
templar 

contents, contenido, m. 
contested, disputado, 

-da 
continent, continente, 

m. 
Continental Hotel, 

Hotel Continental, m. 
continue, to, continuar 
contracting party, el (or 

la) contrayente, pi., 

los contrayentes, 
contractor, contratista, 

m. 

contralto, contralto, f. 
contrast, contraste, m. 
contribution (liter. 

), trabajo, m. 

contributor, colabora- 

dor, m. 

convent, convento, m. 
convention , convenio, m . 
convey, to, conducir, 

irr. 

convoy, convoy, m. 
coo, to, arrullar 
cooing, arrullo, m. 
cook (f.), cocinera, 

(m. ), cocinero. See 

man 

cook, to, guisar 
copper, cobre, m. 
coppers, calderilla, f. 

See for 

copy (for press), el ori- 



ginal, m. , (vol. ) 
ejemplar, m. , (taken), 
copia, f. See press 

copyright, derccho de 

propiedad, in. 
copying - book (the), 

copiadorde cartas (el) 

press, prensa de 
copiar, f. 

coral, coral, m. 
cork, corcho, m., (stop- 
per), tap6n 

screw, sacacorchos, 
m. 

corn, trigo, m. 

field, campo de trigo, 
m. 

flower, azulejo, m. 
corner (inside ), 

rinc6n, m. 

(outside ), csqiii- 

na, f. 

cornice, cornisa, f. 
corolla, corola, f. 
corporation, corpora- 

cidn, f. 

corpse, cadaver, m. 
correction, correccion,L 
correctness, correccidn, 

f. 
correspondent (of a 

paper), corresponsal, 

m. 
corridor(s), corredor(es), 

m. 
Cortes (The), i.e., the 

Spanish Parliament, 

Las Cortes 
costs, costas, f., pi. 
cotton, algoddn, m. 
cough, os, f. 
Council. See Cabinet 

councillor, concejal, m. 

counsel, abogado, m. 

count, conde, m. 

countess, condesa, f. 

counting, a contar 

country (nation), pais, 

m., (the distinct 

from town), el 



campo, m. See 

foreign 

country house, casa de 
campo, f. 

life, vida del campo 
(la) 

countryman, campesino, 

m. 
county, condado, m. 

Council (Spain), Di- 
putacion provincial, 

f. 

Council offices, T)i- 
putacidn provincial, 
f. 

coup d'etat, golpe de 

estado, m. 
coupe (front comp. of a 

diligence), cupe, m. 
couple (a), (una) pareja 
courage, valor, m. 
courier's bag, cartera 

de viaje, f. 
course, curso, m:", (at 

dinner), plato, m. 
court (of a nation), la 

corte, (in Spain ) 

Madrid, (of justice) 

eljuzgado, f. 

dress, vestido de cola, 
m. 

martial, consejo de 
guerra, m. 

of appeal. See 
second 

of the peace, el juz- 
gado municipal 

cousin, primo, m., 

prima, f. 
cousins, primos, -mas, 

(collect., m., f.), 

primos 
cover, proteccidn, f. 

See covers 
cover, to, cubrir, p.p., 

cubierto (irr.) 
covered with, cubierto, 

(cubierta) de 
covers (of a book in 

boards), cubiertas 

(de un libro), f. See 

paper s 



318 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



covers (of a bound 
book), las tapas 

cow, vaca, f. 

coward (a.),(un)gallina, 
(colloq.), m. 

crab, cangrejo, m. 

crack, to, cascar 

crane, grua, f. 

crater, crdter, m. 

crawl, to, arrastrarse, 

create, to, crear, (ori- 
ginate), ocasionar 

creation, creation, f. 

Creator, Creador, m. 

credit, credito, m. , 
(book-keeping), el 
haber, el credito 

creditor (i.e., Or.), el 
haber. See Cr. 

creep, to, arrastrarse 

crew, tripulacidn, f. 

crime (colloq., fault), 
culpa, delito 

(sm. offence), delito, 
falta, (otherwise), 
crimen, homicidio, 
asesinato 

criminal (person), 
criminal, delin- 
cuente, reo, m. , f. 

criminal, &&]., criminal 

case, cuestidn crimi- 
nal, f. 

suit, causa crimi- 
nal, f. 

crisis, crisis, f. 
critic, critico, m. 
critical, grave 
criticism, critica, f. 
criticise, to, criticar 
croak, graznido, m. 
crocodile, cocodrilo, m. 
crook (shepherd's), 

cay ado, in. 
crop, cosecha, f. 
cross, cruz, f. See 

decoration 
cross, to, cruzar ; atra- 

vesar, irr. 
crow, cuervo, m. 

to, cantar (el gallo) 
crowing (of the cock), 



canto (del gallo), 

1 


cut, cortc, m., corta- 


m. 


dura, f. 


crown, corona, f. 


of a dress, the, el 


crucifix, crucifijo, m. 


corte del vestido, m. 


cruel man (colloq. ), 


(of a low - necked 


un verdugo 


bodice), escote, m. 


cruelty (crueldad, f.), 


cut, to, cortar 


malos tratos 


stone, to, picar la 


cruiser, crucero, m. 


piedra 


Crustacea, crustdceos, 


cutlass, machete, m. 


m., pi. 


See stroke with a 


crutches, muletas, f. 


cutlet, chuleta, f. 


cry, grito, m. 


cutter, cortadora, f. , 


crying, llanto, m. 


cortador, m. 


cuckoo, cuclillo, m. 


cutting (plant), esqueje, 


cuff, puno, m. 


m. 


studs, qemelos, m. , 


cycle, to, montar en 




bicicleta 


culprit (the), el culpa- 


cyclone, cicldn, m. 


ble, la culpable 


cylinder, cilindro, m. 


cult, culto, m. 




cumulative preference 




share, accidn prefe- 




rente acumulada, f. 


D (mus.), re, m. 


cup, jicara, f. 


Dr. (book-keeping), el 


cupola, ctipula, f. 


Debe. See Debtor 


curate, cura, m. 


balance, soldo deu- 


curbstone, guardacan- 


dor, m. 


tdn, m., guardarrue- 


D.C.L., Doctor en 


das, m., sing. 


derecho, m. 


current, corriente, f. 


daily, al dia ; diario, 


current account, cuenta 


-ria 


corriente (c ta , c te ), f. 


lesson, leccion diaria 


curtain, cortina, f., 


paper (periddico 


(theat.), telon 


diario), i.e., diario, 


curve, curva t f. 


m. 


curved line, linea 


wages, jornal, m. 


curva, f. 


dairy, lecheria, f. 


custard, natilla, f., or 


daisy, margarita, f. 


natillas, pi. 


damage(s), dano(s), m. ; 


custody, custodia, f. 


(law), danos y per- 


custom (in trade), pa- 


juicios 


rroquia, f. 


damp, hilmedo, htimcda 


house, aduana, f. 


dampness, humedad, f. 


officer, carabinero 


dance, baile, m. 


revenue, renta de 


to, bailar 


aduanas, f. 


dancer, bailador, -ra, 


customer, parroquiano, 


m., f. 


na (m., f.), consumi- 


(professional), bai- 


dor,-dora(m., f.) 


lar in, m. 


customer(s), parro- 


dancing (art), el baile, 


quiano(s), m. 


m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



319 



dancing-room, saUn de 

baile, m. 
Dane, dinamarque's or 

danes, m. 

danger, peligro, m. 
dangerous,^?e%r0s0, -sa 
Danish (adj.), dina- 

marques, -sa, or 

clangs, -so, 

woman, dinamar- 
quesa or danesa, f. 

danseuse, bailarina, f. 
dash against, to, dar 

contra, irr. 
date, fecha, f. ; (fruit), 

ddtil, m. 
dauber, pintor de brocha 

gorda, m. 
daughter, hija (distinct 

from boy), nina, f. 
in -law, nuera, f., 

(politely), hermana 

politica 
day, dia, m. See fish 

, saints , to 

, wedding 

light, de dia 
dead, adj., muerto, 

muerta 

language, lengua 
muerta, f. 

(person), el muerto, 
la muerta ; (late), el 
difunto, la difunta 

deadly, mortal 
deaf man, sordo 
dean, dedn, m. 
dear, caro, cara 

querido, querida 
Dear Madam, Muy Sra. 

mia 

Dear Sir, Muy Sr. mio 
death, muerte, f. ; 

(decease), falleci- 

miento, m., 

by poison, envene- 
namiento, m. 

debarkation, desem- 

barco, m. 
debenture, obligation, f . 

holder, obligacio- 
nista, m. 



debit, debito, m. 
, el Debe, el Debito 
debt, deuda, f. 
debtor (i.e., Dr.), el 

Debe. See Dr. 
decanter, botella, f. 
decease, fallecimiento, 

m. 

decide, to, declararse 
decipher, to, descifrar 
decision, decision, f. 
deck, cubierta, f. See 

below , on 

declaim, to, declamar 
declare, to, declarar ; 

(a dividend), acordar 

or dar (un dimdendo] 
decline (in price), una 

baja, f. 

(of prices) to, bajar, 
(refuse), rchusar 

decorate, to, decorar 
decoration (mil.), cruz, 

f. 
decorator, decorador, 

m. 

decrease, rebaja, f. 
decree, decreto, m. See 

royal 

dedication, dedicatoria, 

f. 
deep, pro/undo, pro- 

funda ; bajo, baja 
deer, ciervo, m. ; pi., 

ciervos 

defeat, derrota, f. 
defence, defensa, f. 
defend, to, defender, irr. 
defendant, el deman- 

dado, la demandada 
defender, defensor, m. 
degree, grado, m. 
delegate, delegado, m. 
deliberation, delibera- 

cidn, f. 
delineator, dibujante, 

m. 
delivery (post), reparto, 

m. 

demand, demanda, f. 
(s), proposicidn(es), f. 

to, pedir, irr. 



Denmark, Dinamarca, 

f. 

deny, to, negar, irr. 
departure, salida, f. 
deposit, deptisito, in. 
deposition, dedaracidn, 

depositor, depositante, 

m. or f. ; (savings 

bank), imponente, 

m., f. 
depth , profundidad, f . , 

fondo, m. 
deputy, sustituto, m. ; 

(M.P.), diputado, m. 
derailment, descarri- 

lamiento, m. 
descendant, descen- 

diente, m. 
description , descrip- 

ci6n. See personal 

desert, desierto, m. 
deserter, desertor, m. 
deserve, to, merecer, 

irr. 
design, dibujo, m. 

to, dibujar 
dessert, postre, m., or 

postres, pi. 

destination, destino, m. 
destroy, to, destruir, 

irr. 
destroyer, destructor, 

m. 
detectives, Za policia 

secreta 
determined attack, 

vigoroso ataque 
dew, rocto, m. 
dexterity, destreza, f. 
dialect, dialecto, m. 
diamond, diamante, 

brillante, m. ; (made 

of), ife diamantes, de 

brillantes 
dictate, to, dictar 
dictionary, diccionario, 

m. 
die, to, morir, irr. 

out, to, desaparecer, 
irr. 



320 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



differ, to, diferir, irr. 
difference, diferencia, f. 
dig out, to, excavar, 

abrir, p.p., abierto, 

irr. 
dignitary (of a church), 

dignidad, f. 
dignity, dignidad, f. 
diligence, diligencia, f. 
diminish, to, dis- 

minuir, irr. 
dine, to, comer 
dining-room, comedor, 

m. 

dinner, comida, f. 
diplomacy, diplomacies, 

diplomatic, adj., diplo- 
mdtico, -ca 

body (the), el cuerpo 
diplomdtico 

relations, relaciones 
diplomdticas 

diplomatist, diplomd- 
tico, m. 

direction, direccion, f. 
See in a northerly 

director, director, m. 
Director, director (de 

Golegio, de Institute), 

m. 
director (member of the 

board) of a Company, 

consejero de una com- 

pania, m. 
discharge (law), abso- 

lucidn, libertad, f. 

to, absolver, irr. 
discharged, absuelto, 

-ta ; p.p. irr. of ab- 
solver 
discount, descuento, m. 

to, descontar, irr. 
discover, to, descubrir ; 

p.p., descubierto 

(irr.) 
discussion, discusidn, 

deliberaci6n, f. 
disease, enfermedad, f. 
dish,fuente,f. ; (course), 

plato, m. 



dishonoured (of a bill), 
no aceptada 

bill, letra no acep- 
tada, or no pagada, 

dismiss, to, desechar 

the case, to, declarar 
no ha lugar 

dismissal (of a case), 

(el) no ha lugar, m. 
dissolution, disolucitin, 

f. 
dissolve, to, disolver, 

irr. ; p.p., disuelto 
dispatch, despacho, m. 

See prompt , 

following 

to, enviar, mandar 
dispute, disputa, cues- 

tidn, f. 
distance, distancia, f. 

See in the 

distinctness, claridad, 

f. See absolute 

disturbance, motin, m. 
(s), des6rden(es), m. 
distribute, to, distri- 

buir, irr. 
distributor (of papers), 

repartidor(deperiddi- 

cos), in. 
divide, to, dividir 

(in Parliam.), 
pasar a votacidn, 
poner d votacidn 

into, to, dividir en 
dividend, dividendo, m. 
division, division, f. 

(Parliam.), votacidn, 
f. 

division, division (Parl. 

phras. ), j d votar ! j d 

votar ! 

divorce, divorcio, m. 
do, to, hacer, irr. ; p.p., 

hecho 
dock, dock, m. ; (dyke), 

dique, m. 

yard, arsenal, m. 
doctor, doctor, m. ; 

medico, m. 
doctrine, doctrina, f. 



document, documento, 

m. 

dog, perro, m. 
doll, muiieca, f. 
dome, ciipula, rotonda, 

f. 
domestic economy, eco- 

nomia domestica, f. 
domicile, domicilio, m. 
dominate, to, dominar 
donkey, burro, m. ; as- 

no, m. 
door, puerta, L See 

carriage 

dose, toma, f. 
double, doble 

barrelled gun, esco- 
peta de dos canones, 
f. 

bass, contrabajo, m. 

violets, violetas 
dobles, f. 

dove, tdrtola, f. 
dowry, dote, m. or f. 
draft, letra de cambio, 

f. 

drama, drama, m. 
dramatic, dramdtico, 

-ca 

force, fuerza dramd- 
tica, f. 

dramatist, escritor dra- 
mdtico, m. 

draught, aire, m. ; 
(current of air), co- 
rriente 

draughtsman, dibu- 
jante, m. 

draw, to, sacar ; (to de- 
sign), dibujar 

drawer, cajdn, m. 

drawing, dibujo, m. 

of a document (the), 
la redaccidn 

pen, tiralineas, f. 

room, sala (de re- 
cibo), f. 

dray, carromato, m. 

man, carromatero, 
m. 

dress, vestido, m. ; (dis- 
tinct from under- 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 321 



clothing), ropa ex- 
terior, f. See even- 
ing , wedding 

dress-circle, anfiteatro, 
m. 

length, (un) corte de 
vestido, m. 

rehearsal, ensayo 
general, m. 

sword, espadin, m. 

(a wound), to, curar 
(una herida) 

maker, modista, f. ; 
(seamstress), costu- 
rera, f. 

drill, drilling, ejercicio, 

m. 
drink, bebida, L 

to, beber 

drin king-trough, abre- 

vadero, m. 
drive (a), un paseo en 

coche 

to, guiar (un coche) 
driver, cochero, m. ; (of 

a stage coach), ma- 
yoral, m. ; (of a tar- 
tana), tartanero, m. 

dromedary, drome- 
dario, m. 

drop, gota, f. 

(the sounding lead), 
to, echar (la sonda) 

dry, seco, seca 

one's . . . , to, secarse 
el (la, los, las) 

ducat, ducado, m. 
duchess, duquesa, f. 
duck, pato, m. 
due (of a bill), vencida 
duet, dueto, duo, m. 
duke, duque, m. 
dukedom, ducado, m. 
dumb man, mudo 
during, durante 
dust, polvo, m. 
Dutch (lang.), el ho- 
landte 

adj., holande's, -desa 

man, holandes 

woman, holandesa, f. 

PT. II. 



duties, derechos aran- 
celarios, m. pi. 

duty, obligacidn, f. ; 
(tax), impuesto, m. ; 

(custom ),derecho 

de entrada 6 de adu- 
ana, m. ; (mil.), acto 
de servicio, m. 

dyke, dique, m. 

dynasty, dinastia, f. 



E (mus.), mi, m. 
E. See East 
each, (adj.), cada 

one, cada uno (una} ; 
a cada uno (una) 

(pron. ), cada uno 
(una) 

eagle, (el) dguila, f. 
ear, oreja, f., (for 
music), oido, m. 

of corn, espiga, f. 

ring, pendiente, m. 
earache, dolor de oidos, 

m. 

Earl, conde, m. 
early, temprano 

in the morning, por 
la manana temprano 

earth, tierra, f., (the 
earth), la Tierra 

quake, terremoto, m. 
easel, caballete, m. 
East (E.), Este (E.\ 

m. 

eat, to, comer 

eau de Cologne, agua 
de Colonia, f. 

eave, alero, m. 

ebb-tide, bajamarea, f. 

eclipse, eclipse, m. 

economical bill, pro- 
yecto econdmico, m. 

economy, economia, f. 

edict, edicto, rn. 

edifice, edificio, m. 

edition, edicion, f., 
(presswork), la tira- 
da. See evening 
, morning 

editor, editor, in., (of 



a paper), director 
(de un peri6dico), m. 
educate, to, educar 
education, educaci6n, f. 

(tuition), instruc- 
cidn, f. See prim- 
ary 

eel, anguila, f. 
effect, efecto, m. 
effect, to, efectuar 
effective, eficaz 
egg, huevo, m. 
Egypt, Egipto, m. 
Egyptian, egipcio -da, 

also adj. 

eight o'clock, las ocho 
eject, to, arrojar 
elbow, codo, m. 
elect, to, elegir, irr. 
election, elecci6n, f. 
elective, electivo -va 
electoral, electoral 

college, colegio elec- 
toral, m. 

law, ley electoral 

qualification, capaci- 
dad electoral, f. 

electric bell, timbre 

el&trico, m. 
electricity, electricidad, 

elementary, elemental 

grammar, gramdtica 
elemental, f. 

school, escuela ele- 
mental, f. 

tuition, primer a 
ensenanza, f. 

elephant, elefantc, in. 
embankment, dique, 

m., (railw.), terra- 

pUn, m. 
embarcation, cmbarque, 

m. 

embassy, embajada, f. 
emblem, emblema, m. 
emerald, esmeralda, f., 

(made of), de esme- 

raldas 
Empire, imperio, m. 

See British (the) 

empty, vacio vacia 

X 



322 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



encyclical, enciclica, f. 
end, fin, m., "The 

End," Fin. 
end, to, acabar, aca- 

barse 
ending (of a play), el 

desenlace 

endive, escarola, L 
endorse, to, endosar 
endorsement, endoso, 

m. 

enemy, enemigo, m. 
engagement (mil.), 

accidn, f. 

(for marriage), 
noviazgo, m. 

rmg,anillodenovios, 
m. 

engine, mdquina, f. 
See fire 

(railw.), locomotora, 
mdquina, f. 

driver, maquinista, 
m. 

room, cuarto de las 

?, m. 



engineer, ^ngen^ero, m. 

Engineers, R. E. , In- 
genieros, m. , pi. See 
private of the 

England, Inglaterra, 

English, ingles, inglesa, 
(adj.) 

Channel, el canal de 
la Mancha 

people, los ingleses 

(lang.), el ingle's, 
m. 

Englishman, ingles, m. 
Englishwoman, inglesa, 

engrave, to, grabar 
engraver, grabador, m. 
engraving, grabado, 

m. 
enjoy, to, disfrutar ; 

divertirse, irr. 
ensign, bander u , f. 
enter, to, entrar 

an appeal, to, pre- 
sentar una apelacidn 



enter the name, to, 

hacer la inscripcidn 
enteric fever, fiebre in- 
testinal, f. 
entertain hopes, to, 

tener (or abrigar) 

esperanzas 
entirely, enteramente 
entrance, entrada, f. 
entrap, to, atrapar 
entree, principio, plato 

fuerte, m. 
entrench, to, atrinche- 

rarse 

entrust, to, encargar 
entry, entrada, f. , 

(book -keep.), par- 

tida, f. 

envelope, sobre, m. 
epitaph (funeral ), 

epitafio, m. 
Equator, Ecuador, m. 
equinoctial line, linea 

equinoctial, f. 
equinox, equinoccio, m. 
. . . er than, . . . 

mds , que . . . 

erect, to, levantar 
errata, fi de erratas, f. , 

sing. 

eruption, erupcidn, f. 
escape, to, escapar 
especially, especialmente 
Esq., Sr. D. (i.e.), 

Senor Don 
essence of roses, esencia 

de rosas, f. 
establish, to, establecer, 

irr. 
establishment, estableci- 

miento, m. 
esteemed, grato, grata ; 

apreciable 
Estimates(the), losPre- 

supuestos 

etching, grabado, m. 
Euclid (Euclides, i.e.), 

geometria, f. 
Europe, Europa, f. 
European, europeo -pea, 

also adj. 
even, hasta 



evening, noche, f. 

dress. See man's 

coat, frac, m. 

shirt, camisa de 

frac, f. 
tie, corbata blan- 

ca, f. 
waistcoat, chaleco 

abierto, m. 

edition, edicidndela 
noche, f. 

'.(afternoon) edition, 
edicidn de la tarde, 
f. 

paper, diario de la 
tarde, 6 de la noche 

shoe, zapato esco- 
tado, m. 

star, lucero (vesper- 
tino), m. 

ever. See scarcely 

ever . . . ? (in question), 

i alguna vez . . . ? 
everlasting flowers, 

siemprevivas, f. 
every, cada 

happiness, todo clase 
de felicidades 

one, d cada uno 
(una) 

everybody, todo el 

mundo 

evidence, evidencia, f. 
ex officio, por razdn de 

su cargo (or minis- 

terio) 
examination, exdmen, 

m. See general , 

preliminary 

fee, derecho de exd- 
men, m. 

papers, cuestiona- 
rio(s) de exdmenes, 
m. 

examiner, examinador, 
juez (de Tribunal de 
exdmenes), m. See 
board of s 

excavation, desmonte, 
m. 

exceed, to, exceder d 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



323 



Excellence, Excmo. Sr. 

(i. e. ), Excelentisimo 

Senor 
excess of luggage, exceso 

de peso, m. 
exchange, cambio, m. 

See rate of 

(rate of ), el 

cambio 

broker, bolsista, m. 
exclamation, exclama- 

ci6n, f. 

excursion, excursidn, f. 
execute, to, ejecutar 
execution, ejecucidn, f. 
executioner, el ejecutor 

de la justicia, (col- 

loq.), elverdugo 
executive power, poder 

ejecutivo, m. 
exhibition, exposicidn, 

of Fine Arts, Exposi- 
cidn de Bellas Artes 

exhibitor, expositor, m. 

expel, to, expulsar (a) 

expenditure (the), los 
gastos, m., pi. 

expenses (the), los 
gastos. See work- 
ing 

expensive, caro, car a 

experiments, experi- 
mentos 

explanation, explica- 
ci6n, f. 

explosion, explosion, f. 

export, exportacidn, f. 

exportation, exporta- 
cidn, f. 

express (the), el ex- 
preso, el tren expreso 

express the hope, to, 
manifestar esperan- 
zas 

expression, expresidn, f. 

extinguish, to, extin- 
guir 

extraordinary, extra- 
ordinario, -ria 

extremity, extremidad, 
f. 



eye, ojo, m. 

brow, ceja, f. 

lids, parpados, m. 



F (mus.),/a, m. 
fabric(s), los tejidos, m. 
face, cara, f. 

(of a building), fa- 
chada, f. 

facility, facilidad, f. 
factory, fdbrica, f. 
faculty, facultad, f. 
fade, to, mustiarse 
fail, to (in business), 

quebrar, irr. 
failure, fraeaso, m. 

(in business, or at 
the Stock Ex. ), quie- 
bra, f. 

fainting fit, desmayo, 
(slight), vahido, m. 

faith, fe, f. 

faithful (the), (los) 
fieles, m., pi. 

fall, caida, f. ; (in 
price), una baja 

to, caer, irr. 

to (the exchange), 
bajar (el cambio) 

down, to, caer, 
caerse, irr. 

falling star, estrella 

fugaz, f. 

family, familia, f. 
fan, abanico, m. 

(one's self), to, aba- 
nicar(se) 

fanaticism, fanatismo, 

m. 
fancy ball, baile de 

trajes, m. 

work, labores, f., pi. 
farce, sainete, m. 
fare, importe, m. ; 

(price), precio. See 

bill of 

, precio del pasaje, 

m. 
farewell scene, escena de 

la despedida 
farm, granja, f. 



farmer, granjero, m. ; 

(tenant), colono, m. 
farmhouse, granja, casa 

de campo, f. 
farming implements, 

aperos de labranza, 

m., pi. 
fast, to, ayunar 

day, dia de ayuno, 
dia de mgilia, m. 

fashion, moda, f. 

plates, figurin, m. 
fasten, to, abrochar, 

abrocharse 

fastened, atado, atada 

fatal, mortal 

fatalism, fa ta lismo, m. 

father, padre, m. 

in - law, suegro ; 

(politely), padre po- 
litico 

Superior, el Superior 
(el padre ) 

favourable influence, 
favorable influencia, 

fear, miedo, temor, m. 
See for 

to, temer 

feast, fiesta, f. See 
popular 

feather, pluma, f. 

, pluma (del som- 
brero), f. 

(s) (of a bird, collect.), 
la pluma 

features, faccioms, f., 
pi. 

fee (amount), importe, 
m. 

(profes., legal), de- 
rechos, m. See exa- 
mination , ma- 
triculation 

feed on, to, alimentarse 

de 

feel, to, sentir, irr. 
feeling, sentimiento, m. 
fellow (of a College), 

adjunto, m. 
Ferdinand, Fernando 
fertile, fertil 



324 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



fever, calentura, f. 

See enteric 

few, a, unos, unas. See 

fora 

fiddle, violin, m. 
field, campo, m. 

artillery, artilleria 
de campana, 6 ro- 
dada, f. 

hospital, hospital de 
sangre 

fifteen and a half, 

quince y medio 
fig, higo, m. 

tree, higuera, f. 
fight, rina, f. 

to, pelear 

figure (form), flgura, f. 
fill, to, llenar 
fin, aleta, f. 
financial year, ano eco- 

nomico, m. 
financier, financier o } 

m. 
find, to, hollar, encon- 

trar, irr. 
fine (of fruit), hermoso, 

sa 

Arts, las Bellas 
Artes, f., pi. 

, multa, f. See heavy 

to, multar 
fineness of tone, fimza 

de tono, f. 

finger, d&do, m. 

(s), ddtiles, (metaph., 
colloq.), m. 

finish, to, acabar 

fire, fuego, m. ; (con- 
flag.), incendio, m. 

ball, bdlido, m. 

engine, bomba de 
incendios, f. 

wood, Una, f. 

to, disparar, tirar, 
hacer fuego 

fireman, bombero, m. 
firm, casa, f., i.e., casa 

de coiner 'do , f. 
first, primera, f. ; pri- 

mero, m. 



first class, primera 
clase 

-...,. . . de 
primera 

passenger, pasa- 

jero de primera, m. 

- ticket, billete de 
primera, m. 

waiting-room, sala 

de descanso de pri- 
mera, f. 

few (the), los 
primeros 

(Ist)inst. (the), ell* 
del actual, 6 del co- 
rriente (corr te -) 

Lord of the Admir- 
alty (Engl.), minis- 
tro de Marina, m. 

quarter, cuarto cre- 
ciente, m. 

fish (in the water), pez, 
m. 

(out of the water), 
pescado, m. Sec 
fresh-water 

basket, cesto del pes- 
cado, m. 

day, dia de pescado, 
m. 

market, pescaderia, 

pond, vivero, m. 

to, pescar 
fisherman, pescador, m. 
fishing, pesca, f. 

, pescar, de pesca 

boat, barca pesca- 
dora, f. 

licence, licencia de 
pesca, f. 

rod, cana de pescar, 

fishmonger, pescadero, 

m. 

('s), pescadero, m. 
fit (anyone), to, estarle 

bien (d uno) 

it on, to, d probar 

on, to, probarse, irr. ; 
de prueba 

five, cinco 



five senses, the, los cinco 

sentidos 

fix, to, fijar poner, irr. 
flag, bandera, f. 

of truce, bandera de 
parlamento, f. 

flame, llama, f. 
flank, flanco, m. 
flannel, franela, f. 
flat (mus. ), bemol, m. 
, piso, m. 

roof, terrado, m. 
flavour, sabor, m. 
fleet, flota, f. 
flesh, carne, f. 
flight, vuelo, m. 
flock, rebano, m. 
flood-tide, alta marea, 

fi.oor,suelo,m. ; (storey), 

piso, m. 

florist, florista, f. 
('s), tienda de flores, 

flotilla, flotilla, f. 
flounce, volante, m. 
flour, harina, f. 
flourish, rtibrica, f. 
floury, harinoso, -sa 
flower, flor, f. See 

giiiy 

bed, cuadro deflores, 
m. 

girl, vendedora de 
flores, f. 

pot, florero, m. ; (of 
brick), tiesto 

shop, tienda deflores, 

show, exposici6n de 
flores, f. 

stall, puesto deflores, 
m. 

flute, flauta, f. 
flutist, flautista, m. 
fly, mo sea, f. 

to, fly away, wlar, 
irr. 

-wheel, volante, in. 
fodder, pienso, m. 
fog, niebla, f. 
follow, to, seguir, irr. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



325 



following, siguiente. 
See the 

dispatch (the), el 
siguiente despacho 

font, pila bautismal, f . 

food, comida, f. 

foot, pie, m. ; pi., pies 

artillery, artilleria 
dedpie, f. 

board, plataforma, 

man, lacayo, m. 

note, nota, f. 

soldier, soldado de 
infanteria, in. 

steps, paso, in. ; 
pasos(ipl.) 

warmer, calortfero, 
m. 

for, para, por, pues. 
See their use in Con- 
junctions. 

a certain time, por 
cierto twmpo 

a few days, por unos 
dias 

a fortnight, por 
quince dias 

a week, por una sc- 
mana 

abroad, para el ex- 
tranjero 

acceptance, d la 
aceptacion 

cash, en efcctivo, en 
metdlico 

coppers, por calde- 
rilla 

fear, por temor 

fitting, de prueba 

her, para ella 

him, para el 

instance, por ejemplo 

life, mtalicio, vita- 
licia 

the rest, por lo res- 
tante 

force, to, obligar 
, fuerza, f. See dra- 
matic 

ford, vctdo, m. 

to, 'Vadear 



fordable, vad cable 
fore cabin, camarote de 

proa, m. 

forehead, /rente, f. 
foreign, adj., 



country, pais ex- 
tranjero, m. 

affairs, negocios ex- 
tranjeros 

mail, correo del ex- 
tranjero, m. 

news, noticias del 
extranjero, f., pi. 

stamp, sello del ex- 
tranjero, m. 

foreigner, extranjero, 

-ra, m. , f. 

foreman, capataz, m. 
foresight, prevision, f. 
forester, guardabosqiie, 

m. 

forge, fragua, f. 
forget, to, olvidar, 

olvidarse de 
forget-me-not, no me 

olvides 

fork, tenedor, m. 
form (printed), formu- 

lario, m. 

of application, for- 
mulario de suscrip- 
ci6n, m. 

to, formar 
formal address, trata- 

miento, m. 

note (a), un besala- 
mano, (B.L.M., i.e., 
he kisses the hand) 

formed by, formado, 
-da por 

forming, the, (la) for- 
macio'n 

fort,fuertc, m. 

fortnight, a, quince dias. 
See for a 

fortnightly review, re- 
vista quincenal, f. 

found, to,fundar. See 
lost and 

foundation stone (the), 
la primera piedra, f. 



foundations, cimicntos, 

m. pi. 
four, cuatro 
4 o'clock, las cuatro 
fowl, gallina, f. 

house, gallinero, m. 
fox, zorra, f. 
fracture, fractura, f. 
fragrance, fragancia, 

f. ; (odour), olor, m. 
frame, marco, m. 
France, Francia, f. 
Francs (the), los Francos 
free, libre 

on board, libre d 
bordo 

trade, el libre cambio 
trader, libre cambista, 

m. 

tuition, libertad de 
ensenanza, f. 

, ensenanza libre, 

freedom, libertad, f. 
freeze, to, helar, irr. 
freight, fiele, m. 
French, (adj.), f ranees, 
francesa 

(lang.), elfrances 

beans, habichuclas, 
f. pi. 

Frenchman,/nmces, m. 

Frenchwoman, fran- 
cesa, f. 

fresh, fresco, -ca 

vegetables, horta- 
lizas, f. pi. 

water, agua dulce, 
f. 

fish, pescado de 

agua dulce, m. 
friar, fraile, in, . 
fried, frito, frita, irr. 

p.p. offreir 
friend, amigo, m. ; 

amiga, f. 
friendly relations (the), 

las buenas relaciones 
friends, (collect., m. 

and f.), amigos, m. 
frigid zone,zona glacial, 



326 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



frill, vuelo (del vestido), 

m. 

frock-coat, l&oita, f. 
suit, traje de 

levita, f. 
frog, rana, f. 
from, de, desde 

nature, del natural 

the first few . . ., 
desde los primeros, 
(-ras) . . . 

which, de la cual, del 
cual 

desde la cual 

... to, desde . . . 
hasta ; de . . . d ; de 
. . . en . . . 

branch to branch, de 
rama en rama 

right to left, de 
derecha A izquierda 

three to seven, de 
tres d siete 

front (of a building), 
fachada, f. 

compartment of a 
railway carriage, ber- 
lina, f. 

frontage, fachada, f. 

frontier, frontera, f. 

fruit (product of vege- 
table growth, especi- 
ally from the earth), 
fruto, m. 

fruit (from the tree, 
eatable), fruta, f. 

in season, fruta del 
tiempo, f. 

tree, drbolfrutal, m. 
full, lleno, -na 

bound, en pasta 

house, a, (theat.), 
un lleno complete 

moon, luna llena, f. 

uniform, traje de 
gala, m. 

funds, valor es, m. 
funeral, funeral, m. 
fur, piel, f. 
furnace, homo, m. 
furnish, to, amoblar, 
irr. , or amueblar, reg. 



furnisher, mueblista, m. 
furniture, muebles, m. 
furniture maker, mue- 
blista, m. 
furrow, surco, m. 



G. (mus.), sol, m. 
gain, to, ganar 

, la Via Idctea, f. 
licia, Galicia, f. 
Galician (un) gallego 

woman (una) gallega 

(lang.), el gallego 

(adj.), gallego, -ga 

pipe (the), la gaita 
gallega 

gallery, galeria, f. See 
picture , National 

(theat. ) el puUico 
galley of type, galerada, 

game, caza, f. See 
big , small 

bag, morral de caza, 
m. 

licence, licencia de 
caza, f. 

gang, cuadrilla (6 
seccion) de trabaja- 
dores, f. 

gaol, car eel, f. 

gaoler, carcelero, m. 

garden, jardin, m. See 
kitchen , vege- 
table 

gardener, jardinero, m. 
See market 

gardenia, gardenia, f. 

garlic, ajo, m. 

garrison, guarnici6n, f. 
See in 

artillery, artilleria 
de plaza, f. 

gas, gas, m. 
gate, verja, f. 
gather, to, recoger 
gauge, via, f. See 

broad , narrow 

gem (iron.), alhaja, f. 



genealogical tree, drbol 

genealogico, m. 
general, adj., general 

affairs, asuntos gene- 
rales, m. 

examination, exdmen 
general, m. 

business, asuntos 
generales, m. 

meeting, junta gene- 
ral, f. 

servant, criada 

, general, m. See 
Captain , Lieu- 
tenant 

of division, general 
de divisidn, m. 

generally, generalmente 
genius, genio, m. 
gentleman, caballero, 

m. ; pi., caballeros ; 

senor, pi., senores 
gentlemen, take your 

seats, senores via- 

jeros al tren 
genuineness, bondad, f. 
geographer, geografo, 

m. 

geography, geografia, f. 
geometry, geometria, f. 
geranium, geranio, m. 
German (adj.), alemdn, 

-na. 
, alemdn, m. 

woman, alemana, f. 

(lang.) (el) alemdn 
Germany, Alemania, f. 
get, to (obtain), obtener 

to (obtain, reach), 
alcanzar 

to (obtain, find), en- 
contrar, irr. ; pro- 
curar 

get to, to (arrive), llegar 
, to (have got), tener 

escoger (tomar) 

sacar 

into, to, entrar en 

up, to, levantarse 
(a book), to, pre- 

sentar (un libra) 
gilly-flower, aleli, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



327 



girl, nina ; (street 
child), chica ; (young 

), muchacha or 

(colloq. ), chica. See 
flower 

give, to, dar, irr. ; (to 
pass a thing), pasar 

an order, to (com- 
mer.), unpedido 

judgment, to, dar 
or dictar sentencia 

short change, to, 
dar de m^nos, dar el 
cambio falto 

too much, to, dar de 
mds 

the blessing, to 
echar la bendicion 

glass, vidrio ; (fine 
), cristal 

(tumbler), vaso, m. 
gleaner, espigador, m. 
globe, globo (terrestre), 

m. 

glove, guante, m. 
glow-worm, gusano de 

luz, m. 
go, to, ir, irr. 

along, to, ir por, 



for a ride (drive), to, 
ir d dar un paseo d 
caballo (en cache) 

in, to, enlrar 

into, to, entrar en 

off, to (of a shot), 
salir, irr. 

out, to, salir 

to bed, to, irse d la 
cama 

, through, to, ir por 

up, to, subir 
goat, cabra, f. 
God, Dios, m. 
godfather, padrino, m. 
godmother, madrina, 

God's sake (for), (por) 

amor de Dios 
gods, the, el gallinero, 

el paraiso 
gold, oro, m. 



good, bueno, buena ; 
contr., buen 

accommodation, buen 
acomodo, m. 

manners, urbani- 
dad, f. 

nature (fig.), buen 
fondo, m. 

order, buen orden, 
m. 

goods (general ),generos, 
m., pi. ; (market- 
able), mercaderias, 
f., pi. ; (dispatched), 
mercancias, f., pi. 

train, tren de mer- 
cancias, m. 

goose, ganso, m. (pi. 

gansos) 

gorgeous, brillante 
govern, to, 

irr. 

governess, institutriz,f. 
government, gobierno, 

m. 

(the), el Gobierno, 
m. 

pawning office, 
Monte de piedad, m. 

stocks, valores del 
Eslado, m. 

governor, gobernador, 

m. See Civil , 

Prefect 

of a gaol or prison, 
alcaide, m. 

(of the Bank), Gober- 
nador [del Banco], m. 

graceful, gracioso, -sa 
gracefulness, gracia, f. 
gradient, pendiente, f. 
Grseco- Latin language, 
lengua grcco-latina, 

grain, grano, m. 
grammar, gramdiica, f. 

See elementary 

granary, granero, m. 
grandchild, nieta, nieto 
grandchildren, nietos, 

m. (collect., m., f.) 
grandfather, abuelo 



grandmother, abuela 
grandparents, abuelos 

(m., collect., m., f.) 
grandson, nieto 
grant, to, otorgar 
grape, uva, f. 
grass, hierba, f. 
grating, rejilla, f. 
gratuity, propina, f. 
grave, tumba, f. ; sepul- 

tura, f . 
graze, to, apacentarse, 

irr. 
great, grande ; (before 

a substantive), gran. 

See a deal 

Great Britain, la Gran 

Bretana 

circle, circulo mdxi- 
mo, m. 

deal, a, mucho 
mucha 

power, potencia de 
primer orden, f. 

powers, the, las 
Grandes Potencias 

Greece, Grecia, f. 
Greek, adj., griego, -ga 
, griego, m. 

(lang.), el griego, m. 

woman, griega, f. 
green, verde. See un- 
ripe 

house, inverndculo, 
m. 

stuff, verdura, sing. ; 
verduras, f., pi. ; 
hortalizas, f., pi. 

grievance, queja, f. 
grind, to, moler, irr. 

the organ, to, tocar 
el organillo 

ground, suelo, m. 

floor, planta baja, 
L 

group, grupo, m. 
grow, to, crecer, irr. 
grunt, to, gruiiir, irr. 
grunting, grunido, m. 
guano, guano, m. 
guarantee, garantia, f. 

to, garantizar 



328 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



guard (railw. ), con- 
ductor, m. 

guard, guardia, f. See 
advance , civic 

to, guardar 
guardian, tutor, m. ; 

tutora, f. 
Guernica tree, el drbol 

de Guernica, m. 
guilty person, el (or la) 

culpable 

guitar, guitarra, f. 
gum, encia, f . ; (to 

stick), goma, f. 
gulf, golfo, m. 
gun, escopeta, f. See 

double barrelled 

barrel, canon de 
fusil, de escopeta, m. 

(art.), candn, m. 

boat, canonero, m. 

carriage, curena, f. 

powder, pdlvora, f. 

shot, balazo, m. 

shot (art. ), canonazo, 
m. 

gunner, artillero, m. 



Habit, costumbre, f. 

hackney carriage, coche 
de plaza, de punto 6 
de alquiler, (in 
Madrid), sim6n, in. 

hackney coach. See 
hackney carriage 

hail, granizo, m. 

stone, piedra, f. 

storm, granizada, f. 
See violent 

hail, to, granizar, def. 
hair, pelo, m. (politely), 
cabello, m. 

dresser, peluquero, 
m. 

hairdresser's, pelu- 
queria, f. 

pin, horquilla, f. 
hake, merluza, f. 
half, media, media 

- a - dozen, media 
docena (de} 



half bound calf, en 
media pasta 

calf, en media pasta 

yearly, semestral- 
mente, 6 porsemestres 

hall (of a house), recibi- 
miento, (theat. ), 
vestibulo, m. 

halt, parada, f. 

to, hacer alto 
ham, jamon, m. 
hammer, martillo, m. 
hand, mano, f. 

kerchief. panuelo,m. 

kerchief (ior the 
head), panuelo (de 

cabeza), m. 

post, poste indica- 
dor, m, 

handle (door), porno, m. 

(turning-, as of tele- 
phones, etc.), manu- 
brio, m. 

to, manejar 
handsome, hermosa, f., 

hermoso, m. 
hang on, to, colgar en, 

or de(iTi.) 
hangman (the), el ver- 

dugo, (law), el ejecu- 

tor de lajusticia 
harbour, puerto, m. 
hard, duro, dura 

labour, trabajos for- 
zados, m., pi. 

harder than, mas duro 

que 

hare, liebre, f. 
harmony, armonia or 

harmonia, f. 
harp, (el) arpa, f. 
harpist, arpista, f. , 

m. 

harsh, dspero, dspera 
harvest, siega, f. 

time, epoca de la 
siega, f. 

harvester, segador, m. 
hat, sombrero, m. 

band, cinta del som- 
brero, f. 

box, sombrerera t f. 



hat rack, colgador, m., 
percha, f. 

ribbon, cinta del 
sombrero, f. 

shop, sombrereria, f. 
hate, to, odiar 
hatter, sombrerero, m. 

J s, sombrereria, f. 
hatchway, escotilla, f. 
Havana cigar, habano, 

m. 

have, to, haber, irr., 
(active), tener, irr. 

got, to, tener, irr. 

no . . ., to, no 
tener . . . 

to (in choosing 
taking), tomar 

(interviews, meet- 
ings, etc.), to, cele- 
brar, (entrevistas, 
juntas, etc.) 

one's beard shaved, 
to, afeitarse 

one's hair cut, to, 
cortarse el cabello 

one's portrait taken, 
to, retratarse 

hawk, milano, m. 
hay, heno, in. 
hazel - nut, avellana, 
L 

tree, avellano, m. 
he, a 

he who, el que 
head, cabeza, f. 

(of a firm), princi- 
pal, m. 

(of a school, Public 
School), (el) director 

of a river, el naci- 
miento, m., las 
fuentes, f., pi. 

(of Univ. Coll.), 
Hector, m. 

headache, dolor dc 

cabeza, m. 
headcover, (mil.), ros 1 , 

m. 

1 Takes its name from 
its inventor, General 
Ros de Olano. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 329 



head covering (in 

general), tocado, m. 
headland, promontorio, 

m. 

head-dress, tocado, m. 
heading (of an address), 

encabezamiento, m. 
headmistress, directora 

(de colegio), f. 
headquarters, cuartel 

general, m., sing, 
head register, registro 

de cabeza, f. 
health, salud, f. 
heap, montdn, m. 
hear, to, oir, irr. 
hearing, oido, m. 
hearse, cache mortuorio, 

m. 

heart, corazdn, m. 
heat, calor, m. 
heaven, cielo, m. 
heavier than . . .,mds 



heaviness, pesadez, f. 
heavy, adj. , pesado,-da 

cavalry, caballeria 
pesada, f. 

fine, fucrte multa, f. 
Hebrew (lang. ), el 

hebreo 
heel (of shoes, boots), 

tacon, m. 
height, altura, f. 

(stature), estatura, f. 
heir, hercdero ; -ess, 

heredera 
heirs, herederos, m., 

(collect., m., f.) 
helmet, casco, m. 
helmsman, timonel, m. 
help, to, ayudar 
hemisphere, hemisferio, 

m. See Northern 

, Southern 

hempen sandals, alpar- 

gatas, f., pi. 
hen, gallina, f. 
Henrietta, Enriqueta 
Henry, Enrique 
herb, hierba, f. 
her, su 



herd, ganado, m., 
(flock), rebafio, m. 

hereditary, hereditario, 
ria 

right, der echo heredi- 
tario, m. 

herewith, adjunto,-ta 
hermitage, ermita, f. 
herring, arenquc, m. 
hide, cuero, m. 
high, aZfo, aZto 

altar, altar mayor, 
m. 

class, clase alta, f. 

Court, Tribunal 
Supremo, m. 

mass, misa mayor, 
f., oficio, m. 

school, escuela 
superior, f. 

tide, pleamar, f. 
higher up, mas arriba 
highest, supremo, -ma 
hill, colina, f. 

him, Ze, a e'Z 
hindrance, obstdculo, m. 
hire, to, alquilar 
hired carriage, cocfte f?c 

alquiler, m. 
his, sw 
His Excellency, (in 

addr.), Excmo Sr., 

(i.e.], Excelentisimo 

Senor 

hiss, to, silbar 
historical painter, jm- 

^or c?e historia, m. 

picture, cuadro de 
historia, m. 

history, historia, f. 

See natural , 

sacred , universal 

hoar-frost, cscarcha, f. 
hold, bodega, f. 
hold, to, coger ; tewr, 
irr. 

(meetings, etc.), to, 
celebrar 

hole, agujero, m. 
holidays, vacaciones, f. , 
pi. 



Holland, Holanda, L 
holy (sacred), sagrado, 
-<&z,(saint), santo,-ta, 
(blessed), bendito,-ta 

communion, I a 
(sagrada) comunidn, 

Father (the), el 
Padre Santo, m. 

water, (el) agua ben- 
dita, L 

week, (la) semana 
santa 

home. See at 

business, (pi.), 
asuntos interiores 

news, noticias del 
interior, f., pi. 

office, (Eng.), cl 
ministerio del interior 

Eule, el Regio - 
nalismo 

Ruler, regionalista, 
m.,f. 

Secretary, (Engl.), 
Ministro de la Gober- 
nacitin, m. 

tuition, ensenanza 
dome'stica, f . 

homicide, homicida, 

m.,f. 

honesty, honradez, f. 
honey, miel, f. 

comb, panal, m. 

moon, luna de miel, 
f. 

hook (fishing), anzuelo, 

m. 
hope, esperanza, f. See 

entertain hopes (to) 
hope, to, esperar 
horizon, horizonte, m. 
horn (of animals), 

cuerno, (mus. ), trom- 

pa, f. 

horse, caballo, m. 
hose, manga de ricgo, 

f. 
hospital, hospital, m. 

See field 

hot, caliente; (of cli- 
mates), cdlido 



330 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



hot-house, estufa, f., 
( conservatory), inver- 
nadero, m. 

hotel, fonda, f. 

proprietor, fondista, 
or dueno de la fonda, 
m. 

house, casa, f. See 

business , full 

, light , 

opera 

maid, doncella, f. 

painter, pintor de 



the House, la Cdmara. 

See Upper , 

Lower 

the of Commons, la 

de los Comunes 

the of Lords, la 

de los Lores 

the House of Austria, 

la Casa de Austria 
the of Bourbon, la 

Casa de Borbdn 
how . . . ? i cdmo . . . ? 

do you call (that), j 
c6mo se llama ? 

do you do ?, i cdmo 
estd usted ? 

is he ? i cdmo estd ? 
how . . . ? I que . . . ? 

deep ? j que fondo ? 
or i que prof undidad? 

wide ? i qut an- 
chura ? 

long ? (time) i cudnto ? 

much ? i cudnto, 
i cudnta ? 

many ? j cudnlos, 
i cudntas ? 

much ? i cudnto ? 
i cudnto es ? 

is it ? i cudnto ? 

i cudnto es ? 
are they ? I cuanto 

son? 
is ? how much 

are ? j d cudnto estd ? 

i d cudnto estdn ? 

soon . . . ? i para 
cudndo . . ? 



howl, to, aullar 
howling (of a wolf), 

aullido, m. 
hull (of a ship), casco 

(de un buque), m. 
human body, cuerpo 

humano, m. 
Hungarian, htingaro, 

-ra, (also adj.) 
Hungary, (ld)Hungria 
hunt, to, cazar 
hunter, cazador, m. 
hunting, caza, f. 
cazar, de caza 
huntsman, cazador, m. 
hurricane, huracdn, m. 
hurt one's ... to, 

hacerse dano en el (la, 

etc.) 
husband, esposo, m., 

(colloq.), marido 
husbandman, Labrador, 

m. 

husbandry, labranza, f. 
hut, cabana, f. 
hyacinth, jacinto, m. 
hyena, Mena, f. 
hygiene, Tiigiene, f. 
hypocrite, hypdcrita, 

(m. , f. ), colloq. , 

Jesuita 



i.e., 6 sea, d saber 
I.O.U., un pagare 
I am, Yours, Soy de V. 

(usted} 
I remain, Yours, Quedo 

de V. (usted} 
" I will" (at a wed- 
ding), el si 
Iberian peninsula, 

peninsula ibdrica (la) 
Iberians (the), los 

Iberos 

ice, hielo, m. 
idiom, modismo, m. 
idleness, pereza, f. 
ill, adj., enfermo, 

enferma 
person, enferma, f., 

enfermo, m. 



illness, enfermedad., f. 
illustrations, ilustra- 

ciones, vifetas, f. 
image, imagen, f. 
imitate, to, imitar 
immediately, inmedia- 

tamente 
immeasurable, inmen- 

so, -sa 

imminent, inminente 
imperial, perilla, f. 
impetuous, impetuoso, 

-sa, f. 
importance, importan- 

cia, f. 
importation, importa- 

cidn, f. 
impose, to (on), im- 

poner (d) 
impression, impresion, 

imprint, pie de im- 
prenta, m. 

imprisonment, prision, 
f. ; de cdrcel, de pre- 
sidio 

in (followed by a 
Gerund) = al (fol- 
lowed by an infini- 
tive) 

en, dentro, d, al, d 
la, de, por. See 
Prepositions, IN 

en casa. See in- 
doors 

a few seconds, en 
pocos segundos 

a northerly direc- 
tion, en direccion 
norte 

a second, en un 



banknotes, enpapel, 
en billetes 

boards, en cartdn 

cash, en efectivo, en 
metdlico 

choosing, al elegir 

cloth, en tela 

concert, en conjunto 

conjunction, en 
uni6n 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



331 



in cypher, en clave 

favour, en favor 

folio, en folio (fol.} 

front, delante 

garrison, de guarni- 
cidn 

Lent, en Cuaresma 

mourning, de luto 

8 VO , en octavo (8.} 

oils, al dleo 

peace, en paz 

pen and ink, d la 
pluma 

pencil, al Idpiz 

spite of which, d 
pesar de lo cual 

stone, en piedra 

the afternoon, por 
la tarde 

Biscayan way, d 
la vizeaina 

dark, enla oscuri- 
dad 

distance, d lo 

lejos 

east, por orients 

evening, por la 

noche 

French fashion, 

d lafrancesa 

meantime, entre- 

tanto 

morning, por la 

mafiana 

Spanish fashion, 

d la espanola 

ValeDcian way, 

d la valenciana 

west, por Occi- 
dents 

time (i.e., course of 
time), con el tiempo 

(i.e., proper 

hour), d tiempo 
(mus. ), d compds 

. . ; time, dentro 

de . . . 

water colours, d la 
aguada 

wood, en madera 

writing, por escrito 
incense, incienso, m. 



incident (of a play), 

situation, f. 
inclination, inclina- 

cidn, f. 
include, to, incluir ; 

irr. 
income, renta, f. 

tax, elimpuesto sobrc 
la renta 

inconstancy, incons- 

tancia, f. 
increase, aumento, m. 

to, aumentar ; (go 
up), subir 

incurable, incurable 
indemnity, indemniza- 

cion, f. 

index, indice, m. 
India, la India, f. 
india rubber, goma, f. 
Indian, mdio, -dia (also 

adj.) 

ink, tinta china, f. 
indicate, to, indicar, 

senalar 

indication, indication, 
f. 

indigestible, indigesto, 
-ta 

indisposition, indis- 
posicidn, f. 

individual, (un) par- 
ticular, m. 

Indo-European lan- 
guage, lengua indo- 
europea 

indoors, en casa 

industrial (adj. ), indus- 
trial 

arts, las artes in- 
dustriales 



region, 
trial, f. 

industriousness, in- 
dustria, f. (labour), 
laboriosidad, f. 

industry, industria, f. 

infancy, infantia, f. 

infant, pdrvulo, m. 

infants' school, escuela 
de pdrmdos, f. 

infantry, infanteria, f. 



inhabit, to, habitar 
inhabitant, habitants, 
m. , f. See qualified 

inheritance, herencia, 

f. 
injuries and loss of life, 

desgraciaspersonalcs, 

f. pi. 

injurious, perjudicial 
ink, tinta, f. 

stand, tinier o, m. 
inland stamp, sello del 

interior, m. 
inn, posada, f. 
innocence, inocencia, f. 
insect, insecto, m. 
inside, dentro 
, the, el interior, m. 
inscription (in general), 

inscription, f. 

(in handposts, etc. ), 
letrero, rotulo, m. 

(funeral), epitafio 
inspector, inspector, m. 
inst. See instant and 

first 

instalment, plazo, m. 

instant (inst. ), del cor- 
riente (corr te ), del 
actual 

instead of, en vez de 

institution, institu- 
cidn, f. 

instruction, instruc- 
ci6n, L See public 

instrument, instru- 
mento, m. See brass 

, stringed, , 

wind , wood 

instrument of percus- 
sion, instrumento de 
percusidn, m. 

instrumentalist, mu- 
sico, m. 

insurance, el seguro, 
m. 

company, compania 
de seguros, f. 

policy, pdliza del 
seguro, f. 

insure, to, asegurar 



332 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



intelligence (in a paper), 
aviso, m. See offi- 
cial 

interest, interes, m. 
See commercial s 

to, interesar 
interesting, interesante 
interference, interven- 

ci6n, f. 

interior (the), el in- 
terior, m. 
intermediate, inter- 

medio, -dia 
interment, entierro, m. 
internal business, asun- 

tos interiores, m., pi. 
interpreter, interprete, 

m. 
interrupt, to, interrum- 

pir 
interval (theat.), des- 

canso, m. See at 

intervention, interven- 

ci6n, f . 
interview, entrevista, f. ; 

confer encia, f. 
introduce, to, intro- 

dudr, irr. 
invade, to, invadir 
invisible, invisible 
invite, to (tenders), 

admitir (proposi- 

ciones) 
invoice, factura, f. 

See pro forma 

Ireland, Irlanda, f. 
Irish, adj., irlandts, 

-desa 

Peers (the), los 
Pares irlandeses 

Irish (laug. ), el irlandes 
Irishman, irlandes, m. 
Irishwoman, irlandesa, 

f. 

iron, hierro, rn. 
ironclad, acorazado, m. 
ironmonger, hojalatero, 

m. 

is there ! i hay ? 
Isabella the Catholic, 

Isabel la Catdlica 



island, isla, f. 

isle (of . . . ) isla (de), 

issue, emisidn, f. 

to, puUicar (a pro- 
spectus), emitir 
(shares) 

isthmus, istmo, m. 
it, lo 
it is, es 

Italian, italiano, -net 
(also adj.) 

(lang. ), (el) italiano 
Italy, Italia, f. 

item (invoice book- 
keep. ), partida, f. 

(in a paper), gace- 
tilla, f. 

its, su 

ivory, marfil, m. 

ivy, hiedra, f. 



Jacket, chaqueta, f. 
(ladies'), chaquetilla, 

Jane, Juana 
Japan, el Japon, m. 
Japanese, japones, 
-nesa, (also adj.) 

(lang.), (el) japonts 
jessamine, jazmin, m. 
Jesuit, jesuita, m. See 

hypocrite 
Jesus Christ, Jesucristo, 

m. 
jewel, joya, f. ; alhaja, 

f. See gem 
jeweller, joyero, m. 
jeweller's, joyeria, f. 

shop, joyeria, f. 
John, Juan 
join, to,juntar 
journal, the (book- 
keep. ), el diario, m. 

journalist, periodista, 

m. 
journey, viaje, m. See 

railway 

judge, juez, m. 

of the primary court 
of claims, (Spain), 



juez de primer a ins- 

tancia, m. 

judgment, sentencia, f. 
judicial district, par- 

tido judicial, m. 
jug, jarro, m. 
July, julio, m. 
jump (overboard), to, 

tirarse (al agua) 
junction, empalme, m. 
June, junio, m. 
juror, un (miembro del} 

jurado 

jury, the, el jurado, m. 
justice,/Ms^ci', f. 
(magistrate), magis- 

trado de la Audiencia 
Justice of the peace, 

juez municipal, m. 



Keel, quilla, f. 
keep, to, conservar 

up, to, celebrar 
kettle drums, (los) lim- 

bales, m., pi. 
key, Have, f. 

(of a piano), tecla, f . 

board (of a piano), 
teclado, m. 

ring, llavero, m. 
kick (of a horse), coz, m. 

to, cocear, tirar coces 
kid, cabrito, m. 
kilometer, kilometro,m. 

stone, piedra kilo- 
mttrica, f., or paste 
kilomttrico, m. 

kill, to, matar. See 

be killed (to) 
killed (at war), muer- 

to(s) 

kind, clase, f. 
king, rey, m. 
kingdom, reino, m. 
kiosk, kiosJco, m. 
kit, equipo, m. 
kitchen garden, huerta, 

knapsack, mochila, f. 
knee, rodilla, f. 
knife, cuchillo, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



333 



knob, porno, m. 
knock (against), to, 

chocar (contra) 
knock down, to, derri- 

bar 

knocker, llamador, m. 
knot, nudo, m. 
know (things), to, 

saber ; irr. 
to, (persons), cono- 

cer ; irr. 



Labourer, trabajador, 

m., (field ), la- 

brador 

lad, muchacho, m. 
ladder, escala, escalera 

de mano, f. 
lading, carga, f. See 

bill of , cargo 

lady, senora 

artist (painter), pin- 
tor a, f. 

teach er,profesora, f. 

writer, escritora, f. 
lady's dress, vestido de 

senora, m. 

evening or low- 
necked dress, vestido 
escotado, m. 

laid, puesto, puesta, 

irr. ; p.p. of poner 
lake, lago, m. 
lamb, cordero, m. 
lame, adj., cojo, coja 

man, m., un cojo 

person, un cojo, m., 
v/na coja, f. 

lamprey, lamprea, f. 
lamp, Idmpara, f. See 

oil 

lance, lanza, f. 

thrust, lanzazo, m., 
lanzada, f. 

lancer, lancero, m. 
land (earth), tierra, f. 

tax, contribucion 
territorial, f. 

landau, landd, m. 

landing (staircase ), 

descanso, m. 



landing (on shore), 
desembarco, desem- 
barque, m. 

place, embarcadero, 
m. 

landlady, casera, f. , 

propietaria, or duena 

(de la casa), f. 
landlord, casero, m., 

propietario, or dueno 

(de la casa) 
landowner, propietario, 

or terrateniente, m. 
landscape, paisaje, m. 

painter, paisajista, 
m.,f. 

language, idioma, (in 
general), lengua, f. 

See dead , Grseco- 

Latin , Indo- 
European ,mono- 

syllabic , Sla- 
vonic , spoken, 

Teutonic 

large, grande, contr. 
gran. See too 

shawl, mantdn, m. 
lark, alondra, f. 

lash with the whip, 

latigazo, m. 
lass, muchacha, f. 
last, el ultimo, la 

ultima 

ultimo, ultima. See 
the last 

night, anochc 

quarter, cuarto 
menguante, m. 

resting-place, ultima 
morada, f. 

last, to, durar 
late, tarde 

in the evening, 
muy entrada la 
tarde 

latest, ultimo, ultima 
Latin, el latin 
latitude, latitud, f. 
laudanum, Idudano, 

m. 

laugh, to, rcir, irr. 
laughing, risa, f. 



laughter, risa, f. See 
opposition cheers, 

and 

! lava, lava, f. 
lavender, espliego, m. 

water, agua de 
espliego 6 de lavanda, 

law, ley, f., (study), 
derecho, m. See 
electoral , mar- 
tial 

suit, pleito, m. 
lawyer, abogado, m. 
lay, to, poner, irr. ; 

(place), colocar 
laymen, laicos, m. 
laziness, pereza, f. 
lead, plomo, m. 

(mar.), sonda, f. 
leading article, articulo 

de fondo, m. 

column, columna de 
vanguardia 

leaf, hoja, f. 

league, (i.e., 3 miles), 

legua, f. 

learn, to, aprender 
lease (monopoly), a- 

rriendo, m. 
leave, to (go out, 

away), irse, irr. 

to (a place), dejar 

to (put, leave alone, 
not to touch), dejar 

lecture, leccion, f. 

(in class), explica- 
cion, L, (special), con- 
ferencia, f. 

ledger (the), el mayor, 
m. 

left , izquierda, izquier- 
do 

leg, pierna, f. (of ani- 
mals, when alive), 
pata 

legation, legacidn, f. 

legislative power, poder 
legislativo, m. 

legislature, legislatura 
f. 

lemon, Iim6n, m. 



334 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



lemon tree, limonero, 

m. 

lend, to, prestar 
length (the), (of a 

thing), lo largo 
lens, lente, m., f. 
Lent, Cuaresma, f. 
Leon, Le6n, m. 
lesson, Iecci6n, f. See 

alternate , daily 

let, to (allow, lend), 
dejar 

on lease, to, dar en 
arriendo 

letter, letra, f. See 
capital , small 

(written), carta, f. 
See registered 

(in a paper), corres- 
pondencia, f. 

of introduction, 
carta de recomenda- 
ci6n, f. 

letters, correspondencia, 
f., sing. 

of introduction (to 
ambassadors), cre- 
denciales, f., pi. 

lettuce, lechuga, f. 
liabilities, debitos, m., 

pi., (el)pasivo 
libel, calumnia, f. 
liberal, adj., liberal 
Liberal, liberal, m. 
liberate, to, poner en 

libertad 

liberation, libertad, f. 
liberty, libertad, f. 
librarian, bibliotecario, 

m. 
library (public or 

private), biblioteca, 

, libreria,(i.e., book- 
case), f. 

(room), despacho, 
estudio, m., libreria, 
f. 

hours, horas de 
biblioteca (las) 



licence, licencia, f. See 
fishing , game 

license, to, autorizar 

licenciate, licenciado, 

m. 

lieutenant, teniente, m. 

colonel, teniente 
coronel 

general, teniente 



life, vida, f. See for 

belt, salvavidas, f., 
sing. 

Life is a dream, La 

vida es sueno 
light, adj., ligero, -ra 

cavalry, caballeria 
ligera, f. 

, luz, f. See day 

house, farola, f. 

houseman, vigia, m. 

to, encender, irr. 
lighten, to, relampa- 

guear, defect, 
lightning, reldmpago, 

m. 
, rayo, m. 

conductor, para- 
rrayos, m., sing. 

like, to, gustarle a uno 
like, como 
lilac, lila, f. 

colour, color de lila, 
m. 

lily, lirio, m. 

limb (extremity), ex- 
tremidad,L ^iembro, 
m. 

Limited Company, com- 
pania andnima, f. 

line, lined. See equi- 
noctial , f. 

(railw. ), lined 

via, f. 

Line, the (mil.), in- 

fanteria, f. 
lineage, linaje, m. 
linen (as distinct from 

cotton), hilo, m. 
linen (stuff), tela, f. 



liner (a), un trasatlcin- 

tico, m. 

lining, forro, m. 
links, gemelos, in. 
lion, Ie6n, m. 
lioness, leona, f. 
lip, labio, m. 
list, lista, f. 
Literae Humaniores, 

filosofid y letras, f. 
literary man, literato, 

m. 

woman, literata, m. 
literature, literatura, f. 
live, to, vivir 

(on) to, (to earn 
one's living, to eat 
only . . . ) vivir (de) 

on, to (a floor), vivir 
en (un piso) 

liver, higado, ra. 

lizard, lagarto, f. See 
small 

loaf (a), un pan, m. 

loan (private or pub- 
lic), prestamo, m. 

(public ), em- 

prestito, in. 

lobster, langosta, f. 
local, adj., local 

director of Finances, 
administrador de Ha - 
cicnda 

government, gobier- 
no local, m. 

lock, cerradura, f. 
locksmith, cerrajero, 
locomotive, locomotora, 

f. 
lodging-house, casa de 

huespedes, f. 
keeper, la duena 

(6 patrona) de una 

casa de hue'spedes, f. 
logic, logica, f. 
London, Londres, m. 
long, largo, larga 

vacation, las largas 
vacaciones 

longitude, longitud, f. 
look, mirada, f. 

at, to, mirar (a) 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



335 



look at one's self, to, 
mirarse 

for, to, buscar 

round, mirar 

through, to, mirar 
por 

looking-glass, cspejo, 

m. 

loom(s), telar(es), m. 
Lord, Lord (m., pi. , 

Lores) ; the , el 

Senor 

Chancellor, The, 
(Eng.), El Presidente 
del Senado 

Lords, the, los Lores. 

See House 
spiritual, los 

espirituales 
temporal, Zos 

temporaries 
lordship, senorio, m. 
lose, to perder, irr. 
loss, pdrdida, f. See 

injuries and of 

life 
"lost and found," 

perdidas y hallazgos 
lost registered letter, 

carta certificada per- 

dida 
love, to, amar (d) ; 

(colloq.), querer (d), 

irr. 
low, bajo, baja, 

mass, misa rezada, 
or simply, misa, f. 

tide, bajamar, f. 
lower, to, bajar 

, inferior, m., f. 

House, the, la Cd- 
mara Baja 

class, clase baja, f. 

down, mds abajo 
lowing, mugido t m. 
loyalty, lealtad, f. 
luggage, equipage, m. 

See excess of 

office, despacho de 
equipajes, m. 

ticket, taldn de 
equipaje, m. 



luggage van, furgdn 
(de equipajes), m. 

lunch, almuerzo, m. 

lump of sugar, terrdn 
de azucar, m. 

lung, pulm6n, m. 



M.A., Licenciado en 

filosofia y letras, m. 
Mr, Sr. (i.e.), Seflor ; 

Sr. D. (i.e.), Se&or 

Don 
Mr So-and-So, senor, 

amo ; el senor [don 

Fulano] de Tal 
Mrs, Sra. (i.e.), senora; 

Sra. Da. (i. e. }, Senora 

Dona 
Mrs So-and-So, Senora, 

ama; lasenora[dona 

Fulana] de Tal 
MS., manuscrito (MS.), 

m. 
Mt. Vesuvius, el Vesu- 

vio 
macaroni, la sopa de 

macarrones, or los 

macarrones 
machine, mdquina, f. 
machinery, maquina- 

ria, f. 

mackerel, escombro, m. 
mackintosh, imperme- 
able, m. 

Madam, Senora (Sra) 
made to measure, d 

medida 
Madrid Gazette, La 

Gaceta de Madrid, 

Picture Gallery, el 
Museo del Prado 

magazine, panol de la 
pdlvora, m., la Santa 
Barbara 

magistrate, magistrado, 
m. See justice 

of the Supreme 
Court of Appeal, 
ministro del Tribunal 
Supremo, m. 



magnificent, mag- 

nifico, -ca 
m agpie, urraca, marica, 

f. 

maid-servant, criada, f. 
mail, correspondencia, f. 
mail(s), correo, m., sing. 

See foreign 

mail day. dia de correo, 

m. 

train, tren correo, m. 
main cabin, camarote 

depopa, m. 

road, carretera, f. 
maintain, to, man- 

tener, sostener ; both 

irr. 
maintenance, conserva- 

cidn, f. 

maize, maiz, m. 
Major, Comandante, m. 
Majorca, Mallorca, f. 
Majorcan (dialect), el 

mallorquin 

adj., mallorquin, -na 

m. , (un) mallorquin 

woman, (una) ma- 
llorquina 

majority, mayoria, f. 
make, to, hacer, irr. 

a present, to, hacer 
un regalo 

an attack, to, em- 



honey, to, labrar 
la miel 

... into, to, poner 
. . . en 

maker, fabricante, m. 
making, the, confec- 
cidn, f. 

up, preparacion, f. 
malice, malicia, f. 
man, hombre, m. See 

blind , cruel 

, dumb , 

married 

of business, hombre 
de negocios, m. 

of war, buque de 
guerra, m. 

cook, cocinero, m. 



336 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



manhood, virilidad, f. 

servant, criado, m. 
man's dress suit, traje 

de hombre, m. 

evening dress, traje 
defrac, or de etiqueta, 
m. 

man, to, tripular 
manager, gerente, m. 
mane (horse), crin, f. ; 

(lion), melena, f. 
manger (for horses and 

cows), pesebre, m. 
manner manera, f. 
manceuvres, manio- 

bras, f. See naval 

manslaughter, crimen, 

homicidio, m. 
mantilla, mantilla, f. 
manufacturer, fabri- 

cante, m. 
manufacturing (the), 

fabrication (la) 
manure, abono, m. 
, to, abonar 
manuscript, manu- 

scrito, m. 
many, muchos, muchas. 

See how ? 

map, mapa, m. 
marble, md,rmol, m. 
march, marcha, f. 
March, marzo, m. 
marching, marcha(s), 

marchioness, mar- 

quesa, f. 
mare, yegua, f. 
Margaret, Margarita 
margin, margen, m. 
Maria Christina, Maria 

Cristina, f. 
marine, marina, f. See 

mercantile 

,a, soldadodemarina, 

m. 
market (in general, 

large), mercado, m.; 

(for daily supply, 

small), plaza (col- 

loq.), compra, f. 



market-gardener, horte* 

lano, m. 

marksman, tirador, m. 
marquis, marques, m. 
marquisate, marquesa- 

do, m. 
marriage (matrimony), 

matrimonio, m. 
, casamiento, m. See 

religious 

certificate, partida 
de casamiento, f. 

married, casado, casada 

man, casado, hombre 
casado 

pair, matrimonio, 
m. 

woman, casada, 
mujer casada 

marry, to, casarse, 

casarse con 
marsh, pantano, m. 
martial law, la ley 

martial 
masked ball, baile de 

mdscaras, m. 
mason, albanil, m. 
mass, misa, also misa, 

rezada, f. See high 

, low 

book, misal, m. 
mast, palo, m. 
master, amo, senor, 

maestra. See school 

of the Ceremonies, 
introductor de em- 
baj adores, m. 

piece, obra maestra, 

masters (distinct from 
workmen), los patro- 
nos 

masticate, to, masticar 

mastiff, mastin, m. 

mat, ester a, f. 

maker, esterero, m. 
match (love, or play), 

partido, m. 

(love only), unidn, f. 

(to light), cerilla, f. ; 
fdsforo, misto, m. 



match - case, fosforera, 

mathematics, mate- 

mdticas, f., pi. 
matriculate, to, matri- 

cular(se) 
matriculation, tnatri- 

cula, f. 

fee, derecho de ma- 
tricula, m. 

matrimony, matri- 
monio, m. 

maulstick, tiento, m. 
mauve, morado, m. ; 

(adj.), morado, -da 
Mauser rifle, fusil 

Mauser, or el Mauser, 

m. 

May, mayo, m. 
may, poder, irr. 
mayonnaise sauce, salsa 

(a la) mayonesa, f. 
mayor alcalde, m. 
meadow, prado, m. ; 

pradera, f. 
meal, comida, f. 
meaning, sentido, m. 
measure, medida, f. 

See made to 

measurement, medida, 

meat, carne, f. See 

boiled 

mechanical arts, las 

artes mecdnicas 
medal of honour, meda- 

lla de honor, f. 
mediation, mediation, 

f. 

medicinal, medicinal 
medicine, medicina, f. 
Mediterranean, the, el 

Mediterrdneo 
meet, to, encontrar, 

irr. 
(by agreement, 

appointment), reu- 

nirse 
meeting, reunion, f. 

(sitting), sesi6n, f. 

(board ), junta, 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



337 



melodious, melodiosa, 

so 

melon, meldn, m. 
melting, to be, des- 

hacerse, irr. 
member of the County 

Council, diputado 

provincial, m. 
memorandum, memo- 
randum, m. 
mercantile marine, 

marina mercante, f. 
merchant, comerciante, 

m. 

service, marina 
mercante, f. 

ship, buque mer- 
cante, m. 

merchandise, merca- 

derias, f., pi. 
meridian, meridiano, 

m. 

metal, metal, m. 
metals, the (railw.), los 

rails 
metropolis, the, la 

capital (i.e. Madrid), 

mew, to, mayar or 

maullar 

mewing, maullido, m. 
Mexican, mejicano,-na 

(also adj.) 
Mexico, Mejico, m. 
mezzo soprano, mezzo 

soprano, f. 
middle, media 

Ages, the, (la) Edad 
Media 

aisle, nave princi- 
pal, f. 

class, clase media, f. 

passage (at theat.), 
el pasillo central, m. 

midnight, medianoche. 

See at 

midshipman, guardia 

marina, in. 
migrate, to, emigrar 
migratory bird, ave de 

paso, f. 
mile, milla, f. 

PT. II. 



military (adj.), militar 

district, distrito 
militar, m. 

life, vida militar, f. 
milk, leche, f. 

shop, lecheria, f. 
, to, ordenar 
milky way, via Idctea, 

mill, molino, m. See 
water , wind 

stone, piedra de 
molino, f. 

miller, molinero, m. 
milliner, modista de 

sombreros, f. 
mine (subst.), mina, f. 

(i.e.) of mine, mia, 
mio 

minister, ministro, m. 

of Agriculture, In- 
dustry, Commerce, 
and Public Works, 
Ministro de Agri- 
cultura, Industrie, , 
Comercio y Obras 
Ptiblicas, m. 

of Cults and Justice, 
Ministro de Gracia y 
Justicia, m. 

of Finance (Spain), 
Ministro de Hacien- 
da, m. 

of Foreign Affairs 
(Spain), Ministro de 



of Marine (Spain), 
Ministro de Marina, 
m. 

of Public Education 
and Fine Arts, 
Ministro de Instruc- 
cidn Ptiblica y Bellas 
Artes, m. 

of the Interior, 
Ministro de la Gober- 
nacidn, m. 

of War, Ministro de 
la Guerra, m. 

ministerial office, el 

ministerio 
ministry, el ministerio 



minor (a), menor de 

edad 

minority, minoria, f. 
miracle, milagro, m. 

See by a 

mirror, espejo, m. 
mischievous, enreda- 

dor,-dora 
Miss, Srita Da (i.e.) 

Senorita Dona, la 

senorita 

missal, misal, m. 
missing, extraviado(s), 

m. 

mistress, ama, setiora 
mixture, mezcla, f. 

(medic. ), pocidn, f. 
model, modelo, m., f. 
modelling tool, palillo, 

m. 
modern, moderno,-na 

language, lengua 
moderna, f. 

modest, modesto,-ta 
modesty, modestia, f. 
modus vivendi, modus 

vivendi, m. 
monarchy, monarquia, 

monastery, monasterio, 

m. 
money, dinero, m. See 

ready 

changer, cambista, 
m. 

changer's, un cambio 
de monedas, 6 una 
casa de cambio 

lender, prestamista, 
m., f. 

market, mercado 
monetario, m. 

order, libranza 
postal, f. 

monk, monje, m. 
monkey, mono, m., 

mona, f. See pretty 
monopoly, monopolio, 

m. 
monosyllabic language, 

lengua monosildbica, 

f. 

Y 



338 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



monotonous, mono- 
tona, -no 

Montenegro, el Monte- 
negro 

mouth, mes, m. See 
by the 

monthly, al mes 

review, revista mew- 



monument, monu- 

mcnto, m. 
moon, luna, f. See 

full , new 

moon's change(s),/oses 

de la luna, f. 
Moor, moro, m. 
Moorish, adj., moro, 

mora 

woman, mora, f. 
moral, adj., moral 

philosophy, filosofia 
moral, f. 

more, mds 

more . . . than . . ., 
mds . . . que . . .; 
(if expressing num- 
bers), mds . . . de . . . 

morning, the, la mafia- 
na. See in the 

coat, chaqiU, m. 

dress, Irajede diario, 
m. 

edition, edicio'n de 
la manana, f. 

gown, bata, f. 

paper, diario de la 
manana, m. 

star, lucero (matu- 
tino), m. 

Morocco, Marruecos, 
m., sing. 

(adj.), marroqui, 
m., f. 

mortar, aryamasa, f., 

mortero, m. 

mosquito, mosquito, m. 
moss rose, rosa mtis- 

gosa, f. 
most, la mayor parte 

de 
mother, madre, f. 

in-law, suegra; 



(politely), madre (or 
mama) politico, 
mother - in - law and 
father - in - law (col- 
lect.), suegros, m. 

Superior, la Supe- 
rior a (la Madre ) 

motion (movement), 
movimiento, m. (pro- 
position), proposi- 
cidn, f. 

moult, to, mudar (la 
pluma) 

mountain, montana, f. ; 
(wood), monte, m. 

artillery, artillerta 
de d lomo, or de mon- 
tana, f. 

Mountains of Toledo 
(the), Monies de 
Toledo (los) 

mourners, the, el duelo 

mournful, triste 

mourning, luto, m. 
See in , be in 

mouse, ratdn, m. 

moustache, bigote, m. 

mouth, boca, f. 

(of a river), ria, f. ; 
desembocadura, f. 

move, to, mover, irr, 
(parliam. lang. ), 

proponer, irr. 
movement, movimiento, 

m. See combined 

, turning 

(mus.), tiempo, m. 

mowing-machine, md- 

quina de segar, f. 
much, mucho 
mud, lodo t m. See 

thick 

muff, manguito, m. 
mule, mulo, in. , mula, 

mummy, momia, f. 
municipal, adj., muni- 
cipal 

body, municipio, m. 

corporation, (la)Cor- 
poracidn, municipal 

district, distrito (6 



te"rmino) municipal, 

m. 
municipial guard (n), 

un municipal 
privileges, privi- 



rights or charter 
(los}fueros 

municipality, ayunta- 
miento, m. 

murder, crimen (dis- 
tinct from man- 
slaughter), asesinato, 
m. 

murderer, el (or la) 
homicida, or asesino 

muscle, musculo, m. 

museum, museo, m. 

of the Prado, the, 
(i.e. Madrid Picture 
Gallery), el Musco 
del Prado 

music, musica, f. 
musician, miisico, m. 
mussel, marisco, m. 
must, deber 
my, mi 

H.,N. See North 
nail, una, f. 
naked, desnudo, -da 
name, nombre, m. See 

Christian , ono- 

mastic 

(politely), gracia, f. 

to enter the, haccr 
la inscripcion 

namely, d saber, 6 sea 
narrow, estrecho, es- 
trecha 

gauge, via estrecha, 
de via estrecha 

nation, naci6n, f. 
national, nacional 

Gallery, the, la 
Galeria nacional, f. 

school, escuelamuni- 
cipal, or pilblica, f . 

native (adj.), natural, 
m. and f. See 
natives, the 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



339 



native land, patria, f. 

of Morocco, ma- 
rroqui, m., f. 

natives, the, los natu- 

rales 
natural, natural 

history, historia 
natural, f. 

naval, naval 

cadet, guardia 
marina, m. 

fight, combate naval, 
m. 

manoeuvres, manio- 
bras navales, f. 

Navarre, Navarra, f. 
Navarrese, m., (un) 
navarro 

woman, (una) na- 
varra 

navigable, navegable 

navigation company, 
compania de navega- 
cion, f. 

navy, marina, de 

guerra, f. 

near, cerca, cerca de 

nearly everybody, casi 
todo el mundo 

neat, limpio, limpia 

necessity, necesidad, f. 

neck, cuello, m. 

necklace, collar, m. 

needle, aguja, f. 

needleful, (of silk, cot- 
ton, thread), hebra, f. 

needle work, labor, sing. ; 
labores, f., pi. 

basket, cestita de la 
labor, f. 

negotiate, to, negociar 
negotiation, negocia- 

eion, f. 

neigh, to, relinchar 
neighing, relincho, m. 
neither . . . nor ; no . . . 

ni, ni . . . ni 
nephew, sobrino, m. 
nephews and nieces, 

sobrinos, m. 
nerve, nervio, m. 
nest, nido, m. 



net, red, f. 
Netherlands, the, los 

Paises Bajos 
never, nunca 
new, nuevo, nueva 
New Castile, Castilla 

la Nueva, f. 
new moon, luna nueva, 

world, (el} nuevo 
mundo 

newly married pair, des- 
posados, recien casa- 
dos t m., pi. 

news, noticia, f. ; noti- 
cias, pi. See finan- 
cial , political 

agent, vendedor de 
periddicos, m. 

paper, peritidico ; 
(daily) diario, m. 

vendor, vendedor de 
periodicos, m. 

(in the street), 
revendedor or reven- 
dedora (de periodi- 
cos), m., f. 

writer, gacetillero, 
m. 

next, next to, junto, 
junto d 

ensuing, proximo 

world, el otro 
mundo 

niece, sobrina, f. 
night, noche, f. See 

(night time, at 
night), de noche 

bird, ave nocturna, 
L 

nightingale, ruisenor, 
m. 

nobleman, (un) noble 

nobility nobleza, f. 

nocturnal bird, ave 
nocturna, f. 

noise, ruido, m. 

non-commissioned offi- 
cer, sargento, m. 

normal school, escucla 
normal, f. 



North (N.),Norte(N.), 

m. 
North America, Am6ri- 

ca del Norte, f . 

American, norte- 
americano, -na (also 
adj.) 

Pole, the, el polo 
norte 

star, estrclla polar, 

west, noroeste 

wind, viento norte, 
m. ; tramontana, f. 

northerly. See in a 

direction 

northern hemisphere, 

hemisferio norte, m. 
Norwegian, noruego, 

-ga (also adj. ) 

(lang.), (el) noruego 
nose, nariz (sing. ), 

narices (pi.), f. 
nosegay, ramillete, m. 
not any more, wo ... 

mds 
not guilty, la inculpa- 

bilidad ; inocente 
not to be allowed, no 

permitirse 
note, nota, f. See 

formal 

notes (in class), los 

apuntes 
notes in shorthand , 

notas taquigraficas, 

f., pi. 

noted for, notable por 
notice, aviso, m. See 

official 

of the death, esqucla 
de defuncion or mor- 
tuoria, f. 

novel, novela, f. 
novelist, novelista, m., 

now, ahora 

and then, de cuando 
en cuando 

number, numero, m. 
numberless,' innumera- 
ble(s) 



340 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



nun, monja, f. 
Nuncio, the, el Nuncio, 

m. 
nurse (children's), 

ninera ; (sick ), 

enfermera, f. 
nut. See Barcelona 

, chest , 

hazel , wal 

crackers, casca- 

nueces, m. 



Oak (gall oak), rdble, m. 

(i.e., holm oak), 
encina, f. 

oar, remo, m. 

oarsman, remero, in. 

oasis, oasis, m. 

obedient servant, s. s. 
(seguro servidor, or 
segura servidor a) 

obey, to, obedecer, irr. 

object, objeto, m. 

obsequies, funeral, m. , 
sing. 

observatory, observa- 
torio, m. 

observe, to, observar 

occupy, to, ocupar 

occur, to, ocurrir, de- 
fect. 

Ocean, Oceano, m. 

Oceania, Oceania, f. 

octet, octeto, m. 

October, octubre, m. 

octroi-duty, impuesto 
de consumos, m. 

house, fielato, m. 

officer, guarda de 
consumos, m. 

odour, olor, m. 
of, de 

age, mayor de edad 

stone, de piedra 

their own, propios, 
propias 

wood, dc madera 
offender, delincuente, 

reo, both m. , f. 
offer, to, ofrecer, irr. 



office, despacho, m. ; 
oficina, f. See book- 
ing , Home , 

luggage , regis- 
tered , War 

(time in office), el 
poder, m. 

(of a paper), the, la 
redaccidn (de un 
periddico) 

officer, oficial, m. See 
non - commissioned 

(commissioned), 
oficial, m. 

's room(s) in bar- 
racks, pabelldn(es),m. 
official, oficial, m. 

empleado, m. 

adj., oficial 
Official Bulletin, Boletin 

Oficial, m. 

intelligence, aviso 
oficial, m. 

notice, aviso oficial, 
m. 

paper, diario oficial, 
m. 

regulation, disposi- 
ci6n oficial, f. 

tender, pliego de con- 
diciones, m. 

tuition, ensenanza 
oficial, f. 

officio. See ex 

oil, aceite, m. See in 

lamp, Idmpara de 
aceite, f. 

painting, cuadro al 
6leo, m. 

old, antiguo, antigua 

(in years), viejo, 
vieja 

age, vejez, f. (vener- 
able), ancianidad, f. 

Old Castile, Castillo, la 

Vieja, f. 
old man, viejo, m. See 

venerable 

mother, tia, f. 

father, tio, m. 



old woman, vieja, f. 

See venerable 

olive, aceituna, f. 

tree, olivo, m. 
omelet, tortilla, f. 
omnibus, omnibus, m. 
on, ew(upon), sobre, en- 

cima (dc) ; por, b<tjo, 
de, d 

account, por razdn 
of, a causa de, 

por causa de 

bail, bajo fianza 

board, d bordo 

Christmas Eve, en 
Nochebuena 

credit, d crtdito 

deck, sobre cubierta 

delivery, d la entrega 

sale, dc venta 

shore, en tierra 

the top, en lo alto 

what date ?, $ en que- 
fecha ? 

once, una, vez. See at 

one, uno, una ; contr. 
un. See each 

un enter o (Stock 
Exch.) 

armed man, manco 

(de un brazo) 
handed man, manco 

(de una mano) 

in a hundred, uno 
" por ciento 

o'clock, la una 

of the best, uno 
(una) de los (las) 
mejores 

of the most, uno 
(una) de los (las) mas 

onion, cebolla, f. 
only, solo 

partly, solo en ycirle 
onomastic name, el 

santo 

open, to, abrir, abrirse, 
irr. ;p.p.,aoierto,iTT* 

(adj.), abierta, -to 

letter, comunicado, 
m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULAEIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



341 



opening, abertura, f. 
opera, dpera, f. See 
comic 

glasses, (los) gemelos 

house, el teatro de la 
opera. See Royal 

hat, clac, m. 
operation ( transaction ), 

operation, f. 
opium, opio, m. 
oppose, to, impugnar 
opposite, frente d 

the, frente al (or d 
la) 

opposition, oposicidn, f. 

cheers and laughter, 
aplausos en la oposi- 
cidn y risas 

or (either . . . or), 6 

6 sea 

orange, naranja, f. 

blossom, (de) azahar 

(colour), anaran- 
jado, -da ; color de 
naranja 

seller, naranjero,-ra, 
m.,f. 

tree, naranjo t m. 
oratorio(mus.), oratorio, 

m. 

orchard, huerto, m. 
orchestra, orquesta, f. 
order (i.e., command), 

orden, f. See money 

, postal , 

Royal 

(comm.), pedido, m. 

(i.e., public ), 

orden, m. 

(relative order), 
orden, m. See good 

, to, ordenar 

from, to, encargar d 
ordinary, usual 

man (coll.), tio, m. 

meeting, junta or- 
dinaria, f. 

share, accidn ordina- 
ria, f. 

woman (coll.), tia, f. 



organ, drgano, m. 

grinder, organillero, 
m. 

(Italian), organillo, 
m. 

organist, oi'ganista, m. 
original, subst. also 

adj., original 
ornament, adorno, m. 
orphan, huerfano, m. ; 

hutrfana, f. 
s, huerfanos, m. ; 

collect, (m. and f.) 
orthography, orto- 

grafia, f. 

ostrich, avestruz, m. 
other, otro, otra 
s, otros, otras. See 

the 

our, nuestro, nuestra 
ou.t,fuera. See be 

(to), go (to) 

outside, fuera 

(of a 'bus, tram), el 
imperial, arriba 

, the, el exterior 
over, sobre, encima 

(one thousand), mds 
de (mil) 

overboard, al ayua. 

See jump (to) 

overcharge, to, cargar 

(or llevar) de mds 
overcoat, sobretodo, m. 
overflowing, desborda- 

miento, m. 
overthrow, to, derri- 

bar, destronar 
overture, sinfonia, f. 
owl, lechuza, f. 
owe, to, deber 
owner, dueno, m. ; 

duena,f. ;propietario, 

propietaria 

ox,buey,m.', (pl.bueyes) 
Oxford University 

Gazette (The), La 

Gaceta de la Univer- 

sidad de Oxford 
oyster, ostra, f. 



Package, bulto, m. 
packed (theatre, room, 

etc.), lleno 
packet of cigarettes, 

cajetilla (de ciga- 

rrillos), f. 
page, pdgina, f. See 

title - 
pain, dolor, m. 

, to, doler, irr. 
paint box, caja depin- 

turas, f. 

, to, pintar 

in oils, to, pintar al 
6leo 

in water colours, to, 
pintar d la aguada 

painter, pintor, m. See 
portrait - , histori- 
cal - , lady artist 

in oils, pintor al 
6leo 

in water colours, 
acuarelista, m. and f. 

painting, cuadro, m. 
See oil - 

(art), la pintura 
pair (equal things), par, 

m. 

(similar things), pa- 
reja, f. See partuer 
(dancing - ) 

palace, palacio, m. 
palate, paladar, m. 
palette, paleta, f. 
palm (leaf), palma, f. 

tree, palma, f. , pal- 
mera, f. 

pamphlet, folleto, m. 
pane of glass, cristal, 

m. 

panic, pdnico, m. 
panorama, panorama, 

m. 
pansy, pensamiento, m. 

root, pensamentcra, 

paper, papel, m. See 
writing - 



(daily - ), diario, 
m. See official - 



342 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



paper - boy, reparti- 
dor (de peri6dicos), 
m. 

covers, cubiertas de 
papel, f., pi. 

-hanger, papelista, 
m. 

-man (distributor), 
repartidor (de per 16- 
dicos), m. 

, to, empapelar 
paradise,the, elparaiso, 

m. 
paragraph (in a paper), 

gacetilla, f. 
parallel, paralelo, m. 
paralyzation, paraliza- 

cidn, f. 
parcel, paquete, m. 

post, paquete postal, 
m. 

pardon, perddn, m. 
parents, los padres 
parish, parroquia, f. 
parishioner(s), feligres- 

(es), m. 
Parliament (the), (el) 

Parlamento 
parliamentary, ad j . , 

parlamentario, -ria 

legislature, legisla- 
tura parlamentaria, 
f. 

voter, votante parla- 
mentario 

parrot, low, m. ; coto- 

rra, f. 

part, parte, f. 
partial, parcial 
partition-wall, tabique, 

m. 
partner, socio, m. 

(dancing ), pa- 

reja, f. 

partridge, perdiz, f. 

shot, perdigones, m. , 
pi. 

party, partido, m. See 

political 

, lapartida, los invi- 

tados See wedding 



party (in a crime), 

participe 
pass, to, pasar 

an examination, to, 
(pasar) sufrir un 
exdmen, examinarse 

(a) sentence, to, 
clictar senteiicia, 

passage, pasaje, m. 

passenger (on land or 
water), pasajero ; (on 
land only), viajero. 

See cabin , first 

class , second 

class , steerage 

train, tren de pasa- 
jeros, m. 

passion, pasidn, f. 
passports (ambass.), 

pasaporte(s), m. 
pastry-cook's, paste- 

leria, f. 

pasture, pasto, m. 
, to, apacentar, irr. 
patent leather boots, 

lotas de charol, f. 
shoes, zapatos de 

charol, m. 
path, sender o, m. 
pathetic, paUtico, -ca 
patient, paciente (rn. 

andf.) 
patriotism ,patriotismo, 

m. 
Patron Saint, (Santo) 

Patrdn, m. 
Patroness Saint, (Santa) 

Patrona, f. 
pattern, muestra, f. 
pavement, acera, f. 
paw, pata, f. 
pawnbroker, presta- 

mista, m., f. 
pawnbroker's shop, casa 

de empefios, f. 
pawn-ticket, papeleta 

de empeno, f. 
pay, to, pagar 
payable, pagadero, -ra 
payment, pago, m. 
peach, melocoton t m. 



peach tree, meloco- 

tonero, m. 
peak, pico, m. 
peace, paz, f. See in 

, alone 

peacock, pavo real, m. 
pear, pera, f. 

tree, peral, m. 
pearl, perla, f. ; (made 

of), . . . deperlas 
peas, guisantes, m., pi. 
peasant, aldeano, m. 

woman, aldeana, f. 
peculiar, peculiar 
peculiarity, peculiari- 

dad 

pedal, pedal, m. 
pedestal, pedestal, m. 
peel, to, pelar, or mon- 

dar 
peep, to, (chickens), 

piar 

peer, par, m. 
peers, pares. See Irish 

, Scottish 

perfume, perfume, olor, 

m. 
pen, pluma, f. See 

drawing 

and ink sketch, 
dibujo d la pluma 

penal servitude, de pre- 
sidio 

for life, cadena 

perpetua, f. 

penalty, pena, condena, 

pencil, Idpiz, m. See 
in 

sketch, dibujo al 
Idpiz, al lapiz 

peninsula, peninsula, f. 

See Iberian 

penitent, penitents, m., 

people (in general), 
gente, f., sing. 

(town , village 

), el pueblo, sing. 

pepper, pimienta, f. 
per cent. , por ciento 
per share, por accidn 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



343 



performance (at thea- 
tres), funci6n ; (ill 
general), representa- 
cidn, f. 

peril, peligro, m. 

Persia, (la) Persia, f. 

Persian, persa (m., f., 
also adj.) 

person, persona, f. 

personal description, 
las senas 

Tpersipective,perspectiva, 

perspiration, sudor, m. 
Peru, el Perti 
Peruvian, peruano, -na, 

also adj. 
peseta (Span, silver 

coin, about 10d.), 

peseta, f. 

pet, to, mimar (A) 
pheasant, faisdn, m. 
pneumonia, pulmonia, 

philosophy, jilosofia, f. 
See moral 

Phoenicians (the), los 
Fenicios 

photo (in general ),foto- 
grafia, f. ; (of per- 
sons), retrato, m. 

photographer/o&tyro/b, 
retratista, m. 

photography, fotogra- 
fia, f. 

phrase, frase, f. 

phthisis, tisis, f. 

physics, fisiea, f. , sing. 

physiology, fisiologia, 

physician, medico, m. 
piano, piano, m. 
pianist, pianista, m. , f. 
picnic, merienda, (i.e. 
merienda campestre), 

pick, to, coger 
up, to, recoger 
pick-axe, piqueta, f. ; 

pico, m. 
pickpocket, ratero, -ra, 

m., f. 



picture (painting), cua- 
dro, m. See his- 
torical 

(canvas), lienzo, m. 

(in books, etc.), 
lamina, f. 

, (a), una pintura, 

gallery, galeria de 
pinturas, f. ; museo 
depinturas, m. See 
Madrid 

piece (theat.), (la) fun- 

cidn, (la) obra 
pier, muelle, m. 
pig, cerdo, m. 
pigeon, palomo, m. ; 

paloma, f. 

house, palomar, m. 
pilchard, sardina, f. 
pilgrimage, romeria, f. 
pill, pildora, f. 
pillar, columna, f. 

box, buzon, m. 
pilot, piloto, m. 

pin, alfiler, m. See 
hair , scarf 

pinch, to, apretarle (d 
uno) 

pine-cone, pina, f. 

-kernel, pindn, m. 

tree, pino, m. 

pink, clavel, m. 

pip (of a fruit), pepita, 

pipe (tobacco ), 

pipa, f. 

(instrum. ), la gaita. 

See Galician 

(the) 

piquant, picaresco, -ca 
pit, platea, f. 

box, palco de platea, 
m. 

place (room, seat), 
lugar, m. 

(town), poblacion, 
f. 

, to, colocar ; poner, 
irr. 

under discussion, to, 
poner d discusidn 



plain, llano, m. ; llanu- 

ra, f. 
plaintiff, el (or la) de- 

mandante 
plan (of a house), 

piano, m. 
planet, planeta, m. 
plant, planta, f. 
, to, plantar 
plaster, yeso, m. 

(i.e., stucco), estuco, 
m. 

plaster, to, revocar, 

estucar 

plasterer, estuquista, m. 
plate, plato, m. 

basket, canastillo de 
los cubiertos, m. 

platform (small), ta- 
rima ; (large), plata- 
forma, f. 

(at railway station), 
anddn, m. 

play (theat.), (la) fun- 
ci6n ; (la) obra ; 
(either drama or 
comedia) 

writer, escritor (or 
autor) dramdtico 

, to, representar ; 

(colloq. ), echar, dar 
, to, (instrum.), tocar 
pleadings, el procedi- 

miento 

pleasure, gusto, m. 
plot (of ground), trow 

de tier r a, m. 
plough, arado, m. 
, the, el Carro, m. 
, to, arar 
ploughing, labvanza, f. 

time, e"poca de la 
labranza, f. 

ploughman, labrador, 

m. 
plumage (of birds), la 

pluma, el plumage 
pluvial, pluvial, m. , or 

capa pluvial, f. 
pocket, bolsillo, m. 

See pick 

-book, carter a, f. 



344 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



poem (a), (una) poesia 
poet, poeta, m. 
poetess, poetisa, f. 
poetry, (la) poesia 
point (raihv. ), aguja, f. 
pointed, puntiagudo, 
-da 

arch, ojiva, f. ; arco 
apuntado, m. 

pointsman, guarda- 

agujas, m. 
poison, veneno, in. 
polar star, estrella 

polar, f. 

circle, circulo polar, 
m. 

pole (of a coach, etc.), 
lanza, f. 

(telegraph ), paste, m. 

polo, m. See 
North 

police (the), la policia, 
f. sing. 

station (at the Town 
Hall), cuartelillo, m. 

(the), la Dele- 

gacidn de policia 

policeman, agente de 
orden publico, poli- 
zonte, m. 

Polish, polaco, m. 

political, politico, -ca 

Economy, Economia 
politica, f. 

party, partido poli- 
tico, m. 

politician (a), wn politi- 
co, m. 

politics, politica, f. , de 
politica 

pomegranate, granada, 

tree, granado, m. 
pond, laguna, f. 
pool, charco, in. 
poor, adj., (metaph.), 

mal 

, adj., poire 
, the, lospobres 

man or woman (a), 
unpobre, unapobre 

people, los pobres 



Pope, Papa, m. 
poppy, adormidera, f. 

See red 

popular, popular 

feast, fiesta popular, 

porcelain, porcelana, f. 
porter, (railw.), mow 

(de estacidn), m. 
, portero, m. 
porter's lodge, porter ia, 

wife, portera, f. 
portmanteau, maleta, 

portrait, retrato, in. 

painter, pintor de 
retratos, retratista, 
m. 

Portugal, Portugal, m. 
Portuguese, portugues, 

-guesa (also adj.) 
Portuguese (lang.), el 

portugues 
position, posicion, f., 

(mil. ) posici6n(es) 
possess, to, poseer, 

(have), tener, irr. ; 

(enjoy), gozar 
possession, posesidn, f. 
post, puesto, m. 

(i. e. the post), correo, 
m. 

post-rnortem examina- 
tion, autopsia, f. 

Post office, administra- 
ci6n de correos 

box, apartado de 

correos, m. 

clerk, empleado 

de correos, m. 

order, orden pos- 
tal, f. 

post, to, echar al correo 

postage, franqueo, m. 
See additional 

rate, tarifa de fran- 
queo, f. 

Postal Order, orden 

postal, f. 
postcard, tar j eta postal, 

f. See reply 



poster(s), cartel(es), m. 
postman, cartero, m. 
postmark, estampillade 

correos, f. 
Postmaster, Adminis- 

trador de Correos 

General, Adminis- 
trador General de 
Correos, m. 

pot of flowers, maceta, 

pot-au-feu, cocido, m. 
potato, patata, f. 
potion, poci6n, f. 
poultice, cataplasma, f. 
poultry, volateria, f. 

yard, corral, m. 
pound sterling, , 

(una) libra esterlina 
powder, polvos, m. pi. 

(gunpowder), p6l- 
vora, f. See gun 
, smokeless 

flask, frasco de la 
pdlvora, m. 

power, (nation), poten- 
cia, f. See Great 
s, Small , 

, poder, m. See exe- 
cutive , legisla- 
tive 

of attorney, poder 
(de procurador), m. 

practical studies, estu- 
dios de aplicacitin, 
m. 

prawn, langostin, m. 

pray, to, rezar 

prayer(s), oracion(es), f. 

preach, to, predicar 

preacher, predicador, 
m. 

precipice, precipicio, m. 

precision, precision, f. 

preface, prefacio, pr6- 
logo, m. 

prefect, gobernador, m. 

Prefect (Span.), Gober- 
nador Civil. See 
Civil Governor 

Prefect's office, el Go- 
bierno Civil, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



345 



preference share, accidn 

preferente, f. 
preliminary ,preliminar 

examination, exa- 
men de ingreso, 
m. 

Premier, Presidente del 
Consejo de ministros 

premium, premio, m. 

preparation, prepara- 
ci6n, f. 

prepare, to, preparar, 
confeccionar 

prescribed book, libra 
de texto, m. 

prescription, receta, f. 

present, regalo, m. 

present, to, (bring be- 
fore), presentar 

preserve, to, conservar 

preside, to, presidir 

president, presidente, 
m. 

of the Congress 
(Spain), Presidente 
del Congreso 

of the Senate 
(Spain), Presidente 
del Senado 

of the Town Hall 
(Mayor), Presidente 
del Ayuntamiento 

press, prensa. f. 

copy, copia de pren- 
sa, f. 

work, tirada, f. 

pressure, presi6n, f. 

pretend, to, pretender 

pretend not to under- 
stand, to, hacerse el 
sueco 

Pretender Don Carlos 

(the), el Pretendiente 

don Carlos 
pretty, bonito, -ta, (col- 

loq.), mono -na 
price, (value), valor, 

(in buying), precio, 

m. 
prick one's self, to, 

pincharse 
pride, orgullo, m., 



(arrogance), arro- 

gancia, f. 

priest, sacerdote, m. 
priest's cloak, manteo, 

m. 
primary education, ins- 

truccidn primaria, f. 

colour, color prima- 
rio 

Court of Justice, el 
juzgado de primera 
instancia, in. 

primrose, primavera 6 
primula, f. 

print, to, imprimir, 
p.p. impreso, irr. 

printed form, (at libra- 
ries), papeleta, f. 

printer, impresor, m. 

printing office, im- 
prenta, f. 

Prince, principe 

of Asturias, Principe 
de Asturias 

Princess, princesa 

of Asturias, Princesa 
de Asturias 

Princess's Theatre, the, 
el Teatro de la Prin- 
cesa, (colloq.), la 
Princesa 

principal, (head of 
College), (el) Director 

(of Univ. Coll.), 
Rector, m. 

principality, princi- 

pado, m. 
prison, (gaol), cdrcel, f. 

(imprisonment),jprz- 
sidn, f. 

(with penal servi- 
tude), presidio, m. 

prisoner (war), prisio- 
nero, m. 

(civil), preso, presa 
private, adj. , particular 

association, asocia- 
cidn particular 

carriage, cache (or 
carruaje) particular, 
m. 

school, escuela pri- 



vada, f., colegio pri- 
vado, m. 

private (soldier), un 
soldado 

of the Engineers, 
ingeniero, or sold ado 
de Ingenieros 

privilege, privilegio, 

m. 
privileges. See muni- 

cipal - 
prize, premio, m. 
pro forma invoice, fac- 

tura simulada, f. 
problem, problema, m. 
process, causa, i.,pro- 

ceso, m. 

procession, procesitin, f. 
proclaim, to, prodamar 
proclamation, (by the 

crier), pregon, (by 

Captains General, 

Prefects, etc. ),bando, 

m. 

produce, producto, m. 
producer, productor, m. 
product, producto, m. 
profession, profesidn, 

carrera, f. 
professional, adj., pro- 

fesional 

body, cuerpo pro- 
fesional, m. 

studies, facultad, f., 

sing- 
professor, profesor, (of 

Publ. Schools and 

Univ.), Catedrdtico 
profit, ganancia, f. , 

beneficio, m. 
programme, programa, 

m. 

project, proyecto, m. 
prologue, prdlogo, m. 
prolong, to, prolongar 
promissory note (a), un 



promontory, promon- 

torio, m. 
promote, to, dar un 

grado, ascender d 

uno, irr. 



346 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



prompt, pronto, pronto, 

dispatch, pronto des- 
pacho 

prompter, apuntador, 

m. 
prompter's box, concha 

del apuntador, f . 
pronunciation, pronun- 

ciacidn, f. 
proof, prueba, f. 

reader, corrector de 
pruebas, m. 

sheet, prueba (de im- 
prenta), f. 

propagate, to,propagar 
property, propiedad, f. 
proportion, proporcidn, 

proposal, proposicidn, 

proposition, proposi- 
cidn, f. 

proscenium, proscenio, 
m. 

prose, prosa, f. 

writer, prosista, m., 

prosecuted person, el 
procesado, laprocesa- 
da 

prospectus, prospecto, 
m. 

prosperity t prosperidad t 

protect, to, proteger 

protection, proteccidn, 
(Pol. Econ. ), la Pro- 
tection, f . 

protectionist, protec- 
cionista, m. 

protest, protesta, f. 

(of a bill), protesto, 
m. 

, to, protestar 
protestant, protestante 
proud, orgulloso, -sa 
prove, to, probar, irr. 
proverb, proverbio, re- 

frdn, m. 

province, provincia, f. 
provision, provision, f. 
Provisional Govern- 



ment, Gobierno Pro- 
visional 

provocation, provoca- 
cidn, f. 

prune, to,podar 

psychology, psicologia, 

public, SLdj.,piiblico, -ca 

auction, subasta, f. 

instruction, la ins- 
truction ptiblica 

health, salud pu- 
blica, f. 

notice, (edict), edic- 
to, m. 

order, (el) orden 
ptiblico 

prosecutor, fiscal, 
m. 

school, institute, m. 

tuition, la instruc- 
cidnptiblica 

, the, el ptiblico, m. 
publication, (edict), 

edicto, m. 

publish, to, publicar 
publisher, editor, m. 
pull down, (curtains, 

etc.), to, bajar 

in, to, tirar de 

out, to, sacar 

up, to, subir 
pulpit, ptilpito, m. 
pulse, pulso, m. 
pump, bomba, f. 

, to, sacar (agua) 
punishment, castigo, 

m., (law), pena, f. 

See capital 5- 
pupil, alumnOy -na, m. , 

(of the eye), pupila, 

purchase, compra, f. 
purchaser, comprador, 

m. 

pure, puro, pura 
purity, pureza, f. 
purple, purpurino, -na, 

color de ptirpura ; 

de color 

de ptirpura 



purpose, objeto, pro- 

pdsito, m. 

pursue, to, perseguir 
put, to, (also put down, 

in), poner, irr. 

in cypher, to, poner 
en clave 

into, to, echar en 

on, to, poner, colo- 
car 

, to, (clothes, etc.) 

ponerse 

up, to, (fix), fijar 
,to, levantar, colo- 

carponer 



Quail, codorniz, f. 
qualification, nota, f. 

capacidad, f. See 
electoral 

qualified inhabitants, 
habitantes que tienen 
derecho electoral 

quality, calidad, f. 

quarantine, cuarentena, 
f. 

quarrel, cuestion, dis- 
puta, f. ; (fight), rin a, 

quarter (moon's 

change), cuarto, m. 
See first , last 

(of the year), tri- 
mestre, m. 

quarterly, por trimes- 
tre, trimestralmente 
quartet, cuarteto, m. 
quay, muelle, m. 
Queen Regent, Reina 



question (matter), 
cuesti6n,i. ; (inquiry), 
pregunta, f. 
quick, adj., vivo 
quintet, quinteto, m. 
quite well, muy bien 
quotation (Stock Ex.), 
cotizacidn, f. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



347 



R. A. (Royal Artillery), 

Artilleria, f.,de 

R. E. (los} Ingenieros, 

rabbit, conejo, m. 
race (run), carrera, f. 
race (human), raza, f. 
radish, rdbano, m. 
radius, radio, m. 
rails (metals), rails, 

m. 
rail way, ferrocarril, m. 

accident, accidente 
ferroviario, m. 

bridge, puente del 
ferrocarril, m. 

carriage, vagdn, 
coche, m. 

company, compania 
deferrocarriles, com- 
pania ferrocarrilera, 
compania del ferro- 
carril, m. 

guide, guta deferro- 
carriles, f. 

journey, mage en 
ferrocarril, m. 

porter, mozo de esta- 
ci6n 

station, estacion del 
ferrocarril, f. 

rain, lluvia, f. 

bow, arco iris, m. 
, to, Hover, irr. 
raise, to, levantar, 

alzar 

(a protest), to, for- 
mular (una protesta} 

(one's self), ab- 
zarse 

the siege ,to, levantar 
el sitio 

ram, earner o, m. 
range of mountains, 

cordillera, f. 
rank, grado, m. 
rapacious, rapaz 
rapier, espadin, m. 
rare, raro, rara 
rat, rata, f. 
rate of exchange (Stock 

Exch.), cambio, m. 



ration (soldier's mess), 

rancho, m. 
rattle-snake, serpiente 

de cascabel, f. 
raven, cuervo, m. 
razor, navaja (de afei- 

tar}, f. 
reach, to (arrive), llegar 

d 

to, alcanzar, llegar 
d 

read, to, leer 

reader, lector, -ra, m., 

f. 
reading, d leer 

lectura, f. 
re-admission ticket, 

salida, f. 

ready made, hecho, 
hecha 

money, al contado 
reality, realidad, f. 
rear, retaguardia, f. 

admiral, contra 
almirante, m. 

reason, causa, f., razon, 

receipt, recibo, m. See 
Receipts (the) 

of registration, certi- 
ficado 

Receipts (the), los 

ingresos 

receive, to, recibir 
receiver (teleph. ap.), 

receptor, m. 

of stolen goods, 
encubridor de hurtos, 
m. 

recitative, recitado, m. 

recite, to, recitar 

reckon, to, contar, 
irr. 

reckoning, d contar 

reclamation, reclama- 
cidn, f. 

recognise, to, reconocer, 
irr. 

reconnoitre, to, recono- 
cer, irr. 

reconquest, reconquista, 



record book, libra de 

actas, m. 

recover, to, recobrar 
recruit, rechita, m. 
recruiting, rccluta- 

miento, m. 
rector, rector, m. 
red, encarnado, -da ; 

rojo, -ja 

mullet, salmonete, 
m. 

poppy, amapola, f. 
reduce, to, reducir, irr. 
reduction, rebaja, f. 
reel of cotton, carrefe 

de hilo (or de algo- 

d6n), m. 

references, informes, m. 
refreshment room, saldn 

de refrescos, m. 
refuse (a bill), to, no 

aceptar una letra 
regard, to, consider ur 
Regent, Regente (m. , f.) 

See Queen 

regiment, regimiento, 

m. 
region, region, f. See 

industrial 

register, registro, m. 

See chest , civil 

, head 

(letters), to, certifi- 
car 

(luggage) to, factu- 
rar (el equipage) 

registered letter, carta 
certificada, L, certifi- 
cado, m. 

office, domicilio 
social, m. 

parcel, paquete certi- 
ficado, certificado, m. 

regret, to, sentir, irr. 
regulation, disposition, 

f. See official s 

rehearsal, ensayo, m. 

See dress 

rehearse, to, ensayar 
reign, reinado, m. 
reinforcement(s), re- 

fuerzo(s), m. 



348 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



reins, riendas, f. 

relapse, recaida, f. 

relations (dipl.), nego- 
ciaciones, f. See 
friendly 

relative, pariente, m., 
parienta, f. 

s (m. and f.), parien- 
tes, m. 

relic, reliquia, f. 

religion, religidn, f. 

See Catholic , 

Protestant , Ro- 
man Catholic 

religious marriage, 
matrimonio religio- 
so, m. 

remain, to, quedar 

remainder (the), el 
resto, lo restante 

remains (mortal), restos 
mortales, m., pi. 

remarkable (for), nota- 
ble (por) 

remedy, remedio, m. 

remission, remesa, f. 

remittance, remesa, f. 

render, to, desempenar 

rent, alquiler, m. 

repair, to, reparar 

repeat, to, repetir, irr. 

reply, contestation, f. 

postcard, tarjeta 
postal con respuesta 
pagoda, f. 

report (written), in- 
forme, m. 

reporter, noticiero, 
gacetillero, m. 

represent, to, repre- 
sentar 

representative, repre- 
sentante, m. 

reprieve, indulto, m. 

Republic, (la)republica, 

republican, republi- 

cano, m. 

repulse, to, rechazar 
require, to, necesitar, 

necesitarse. See be 

required (to) 



resin, resina, f. 
reserved seat, asiento 

fijo, m. 

reservoir, estanque, m. 
resignation, dimisitin, 

f. See tender the 

, (to) 

resolution, acuerdo, m. 
rest, to, descansar 
restaurant, restaurdn, 

m. 

restrict, to, restringir 
result, fruto (metaph. ), 

m. 

, to, resultar 
resumption, reanuda- 

ci6n, f. 
retail, al por menor 

business or trade, 
comercio al por 
menor 

retire, to, retirarse 
retreat, retirada, f. 
return (at the booking 
office), ida y vuelta 

ticket, Ullete de ida 
y vuelta, m. 

, to, volver, irr. 
s, (los) ingresos 
Revenue (the), los 
ingresos 

cutter, guardacos- 
tas, m. 

review, revista, f. 

See fortnightly , 

monthly , weekly 

revise, to, corregir, irr. 

Revolution of Septem- 
ber (the), la Revolu- 
tion de Septiembre 
(1868) 

rhetoric and poetics, 
retdrica y poeiica, f . 

ribbon, cinta, f. See 
hat 

rice, la sopa de arroz, 
or el arroz 

milk, arroz con leche, 
m. 

ride, carrera. See for 



ride (a), un paseo tf 

caballo 

, to, montar d caballo 
ridge (of mountains), 

sierra, f 
riding boots, botas de 

montar, f. pi. 
rifle (carbine),/wsi7, m., 

carabina, f. 
right, derecJw, m. 

derecha, -derecho. 

See be (to), from 

to left 

ring (finger), sortija, 
f., anillo, m. See 

engagement , 

wedding 

ring, to, tocar 

for, to, tocar d 
ripe, maduro, -ra 
ripen, to, madurar 
rise, aumento, m. 

in price, un alza, f. 
, to, subir 

, to (the sun), salir 

(el sol), irr. 
river, rio, m. See 

head of a , mouth 

of a , 

rivulet, riachuelo, m. 
road, camino, m. See 

main 

way, arroyo de la 
calle, m. 

roast meat, el asado, m. 
robbery, robo, m. 
robe (of priests), traje 

talar, m. 
rock, roca, f. 
roll, panecillo, m. 
roll-call, lista, f. 
rolling stock, material 

rodante, m. 
Roman Catholic, cat6- 

lico, -ca(i.e., catolico 

apostdlico romano) 
Roman Province, pro- 

vincia romana 
romance (mus.), ro- 

manza, f. 
romance language, 

lengua romdnica, f. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 349 



roof, techo, m. 

(including the roof- 
ing), techumbre, f. 

room, cuarto, m., habi- 
tacidn, f. See re- 
freshment - , wait- 
ing - 

(seat), asiento ; 
(place) sitio, lugar 

(for soldiers in 
barracks), cuadra, f. 

root, raiz, f. 
rose, rosa, f. See 
moss - 

tree, rosal, m. 

water, aguade rosas, 

window, roseta, f., 
roseton, m. 

rotunda, rotonda, f. 
Roumania, Rumania, 

f. 
round, rcdondo, -da 

arch, arco redondo, 
m. 

hat, sombrero hongo 
or hongo, m. 

, to, dar la vuelta (a) 
row, Jila, f. 

, to, remar 
royal, real 

decree, real decreto, 
m. 

Opera House (the), 
(Madrid), el Teatro 
Real, (cQ\\o<.)el Real 

order, real orden 



ruby, rubi, m. 
rudder, timon, m. 
rule (instr. ), regla, f. 
rumbling, sordo, -da 
run, car r era, f. 

, to, correr 

into (the sea), correr 
(al mar) 

up, (to), subir 
Russia, Rusia, f. 
Russian, ruso, -sa (also 

adj.) 

(lang.), (el) ritso 
rye, centeno, in. 



S., S. See South 

sabre, sable, m. 

sack, saco, m. See 

knap , wool 

sacred history, historia 

sagrada, f. 
sacristy, sacristia, f. 
saddle, silla (de mon- 

tar), f. 
safe, caja, f. 
safety-pin, imperdible, 

m. 

sail, vela, f. 
, to, hacerse d la vela 
sailing-vessel, buque de 

vela, m. 

sailor, mariner o, m. 
saint, san> santo, m. 

See Part I., p. 165, 

and Patron (Pat- 
roness) 

Saint Mark, San 

Marcos 
Saint's day, santo, dia 

del santo, m. 
salad, ensalada, f. 
salary, salario, m. 
sale, venta, f. 
salmon, salmon, m. 
saloon carriage, cochc- 

salon, m. 
salt, sal, f. 
water, agua salada, 

salting, salazdn, f. 
salutation, saludo, m. 
same as, the, como 
samples, muestras, f. 
samples without any 

value, muestras sin 

valor, f. 
sanctuary, santuario, 

m. 

sand, arena, f. 
sands, the, la playa, f. 
Sanskrit, el sdnscrito 
sardine, sardina, f. 
sash (mil.), /a/m, m. 
satellite, satelite, m. 
satisfactory, satisfac- 

torio, -ria 



satisfactory settlement, 
arreglo satisfactorio 
save, to, salvar 
savings, ahorro(s), m. 

bank, caja de 
ahorros, f. 

book, libreta de 

la caja de ahorros, f. 
Savoy, Saloya, f. 
say, to, decir, irr. 

"I will," to, pro- 
nunciar el si 

scaffold (for execu- 
tions), patibulo, m. 

(build.), andamio, 
m. 

scaffolding, andamiaje, 

m. 
scale (mus.), escala, f. 

(fish), escama, f. 
Scandinavia, Escan- 

dinavia, f. 

scarcely ever, casi nunca 
scarecrow, espantajo, 

m. 
scarf-pin, alfiler (de 

corbata), in. 
scatter, to, echar, es- 

parcir 

scene, escena, f. 
scenery, panorama, m. 
scenery (theat. ), the, 

la(s) decoracion(es) 
scent, olor, m. 
scheme, proyecto, m. 
scherzo, scherzo, m. 
school, escuela, f. See 

elementary , high 

, infants' , 

national , normal 

, private , 

public 

(boarding), colegio, 
m. 

boy, colegial ; (col- 
loq.), nino, m. 

fellow, companero 
de colegio, m. 

for boys, colegio de 
ninos, m. 

for girls, colegio de 
ninas, m. 



350 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



schoolgirl, colegiala ; 

(colloq.), nitla, f. 
schoolmaster, maestro 

de escuela, m. 
schoolmistress, maestro, 

de escuela, f. 

(lady teacher), pro- 
fesora, f. 

science, ciencia, f. 
scissors, tijeras, f. 
scout (mil.), cseucha, 

m. or f. 
Scotch (adj.), cscoc6s, 

-sa 

(lang.), (el) escoce's, 
m. 

man, escoces, m. 

woman, escocesa, f. 
Scotland, Escocia, f. 
Scottish Peers, los 

Pares escoceses 
scratch, aranazo, m. 
scratch, to, aranar, or 

dar un aranazo 
screen (t h e a t. , 

churches), cancel, m. 
sculptor, escultor, m. 
sculpture, escultura, f. 
sculpture, to, esculpir 
scythe, Twz, f. 
sea, mar, m., f. See 

Appendix 

bream, besugo, m. 

fight, combate naval, 
m. 

fish, pescado de mar, 
m. 

man, marino ; mari- 
ner '0, m. 

picture, marina, f. 

port, puerto, m. 

scene, marina, f. 

shore, orilla del 
mar, f. 

side, costa, f. 

view, marina, f. 

voyage, viaje por 
mar, m. 

water, agua del 
mar, f. 

seal, to, se liar 
sealing-wax, lacre, m. 



seam, costura, f. 
seamstress, costurera, f. | 
search, to, registrar 
seat, asiento, m. See 
reserved 

(room), sitio, lugar, 
m. 

(reserved at theat.), 
localidad, L 

ticket, localidad, f. 
second, segunda, f. ; 

segundo, m. 
second (at the book. 

off,), segunda 
second ciass, segunda 

close, f . , de segunda 
passenger, pasa- 

jero de segunda 
ticket, billete de 

segunda, m. 
second Court of Appeal 

(in Spain), la Au- 

diencia 
second in a duel, pa- 

drino de un duelo 6 

de un desafio, m. 
second officer, contra- 

maestre, m. 
secondary colour, color 

secundario 
secondary education, 

segunda ensenanza, f. 
secondhand, de lance 

book, libro de lance, 
de viejo, de segunda 
mano, de ocasidn, m. 

bookseller, librero 
de viejo, or de lance, 
m. 

bookseller's shop, 
libreria de lance, f. 

second, to, apoyar 
secret note, nota reser- 

varda, f. 
secretary, secretario, in. 

See town clerk. 

for foreign affairs 
(Engl.), el ministro 
de Estado 

of State for War 
(Engl.), el ministro 
de la Guerra 



security, fianza, f. ; ga- 
rantia, seguridad, f. 

see, to, ver (a), irr. 

seed, simiente, semilla, 
f. 

time, la siembra, la 
epoca de la siembra, 

seem, to, parecer, irr. 
seen, visto, irr., p.p. of 

ver 
sell, to, vender 

well (a book), ven- 
derse mucho(un libro) 

seller, vendedor, m. 
Senate, the, el Senado, 

m. 
Senator (M.P.), sena- 

dor, m. 
send, to, enviar 

off, to, despachar 

up (rockets), to, dis- 
parar (cohetes) 

sense, sentido, m. See 
common , five 

sentence, sentencia, f. 

, to, sentenciar (d) 

separate, to, separar 

separately, aparte 

September, scptiembre, 
m. 

septet, scptimino, m. 

sequence, orden, m. 

sergeant (non - com- 
missioned officer), 
sargento, m. 

serial story, folletin, m. 

serious, grave 

sermon, sermon, m. 

servant, criado, m. ; 
criada, f. See maid 

, man , obedi- 
ent 

servants (coll., m. and 
f. ), criados 

serve a summons, to, 
Tiacer una citacion 

Servia, Servia, f. 

Servian (lang. ), (el) 
servio 

serviette, servilleta, f. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



351 



set of studs, juego de 

botones, m. 
set, to, poner, irr. 

(the sun), to, 

ponerse (el sol) 

forth, to,formular ; 
exponer, irr. 

in motion, to, poner 
en movimiento 

settle, to, arreglar 
settlement, arreglo, m. 

See satisfactory 

seven, siete 

thirty (7.30),'; las 
siete y media 

several, varias, varios 
Seville, Sevilla 
sew (up), to, coser 
sewed, en rtistica, or d 

la rustica 
sewing machine, md- 

quina de coser, f. 
sextet, sexteto, m. 
sexton, sacristi'm, m. 
shade, sombra, f. 

of colour, matiz, m. 
shadow, sombra, L 
shaft(s), i.e. cart- 

shaft.(s), vara(s), f. 
share, accitin, f. 
shareholder, accionista, 

m. 
sharp, (mus. ), soste- 

nido, m. 

sharply, de repente 
sharpshooters (mil.), 

cazadores, m., de 
shave, to, afeitar 
shawl, chal, in. See 

large 

she, ella 
sheaf, haz, m. 
shed, cobertizo, in. 
sheep, oveja, f. (pi. 

ovejas) 
sheet of paper, pliego 

de papel, m. 
shelf, estante, m. See 

book 

shell, cdscara, f. 

(fish), concha, f. 
shepherd, pastor, in. 



shepherdess, pastora, f. 
sheriff, jerife, or algua- 

cil tnayor, m. 
shilling, chelin, m. 
shin, canilla, f. 

bone, canilla, f. 
shine, to, brillar 
ship, buque, barco, m. 

See battle , mer- 
chant . steam 

, war 

broker, corredor 
maritimo, m. 

master, patron, m. 

owner, armador, 
naviero, m. 

yard, astillero, m. 
shipment, embarque, 

in. 

shipping, carga, f. See 
cargo 

agents, agentes mari- 
timos, m. 

shirt, camisa, f. 

front, pechera, f . 
shiver, escalofrio, m. 
shivering, escalofrio, m. 
shock, choque, m. 
shoe, zapato, m. 

lace, cordon del 
zapato, m. 

shoemaker, zapatero, 

m. 
's, zapateria, f. 

shop, zapateria, f. 
shoes (mil. ), zapatos 
shoot, to, tirar 

(hit), to, herir d, irr. 

(hunt), to, cazar 
shooting, caza de aves, 

cazar, de caza 

star, estrella fugaz, 
shop, tienda, f. 

keeper, tendero, m. ; 
tender a, f. 

man, tendero, m. 

window, escaparate 
de tienda, m. 

woman, tender a, f. 
shore, orilla, f. See 

on 



shore (coast), costa, f. 
short, corto, corta 

coat, americana, f. 

cut, atajo, m. 
shorter hours of labour, 

disminucion de horas 

de trabajo, f. 
shorthand writer, tra- 

quigrafo, m. 
shot (gun-), balazo, m. 

tiro, m. 

(marksman), tira- 
dor, m. 

shoulder, Jwmbro, m. 
shovel, ^?aa, f. 

hat (colloq. ), la teja 
(or el sombrero de 
teja) 

show, to, ensenar ; tnos- 

trar, irr. 
shower (of rain), 

chaparron, m. See 

violent 

shut, cerrado, -da 
shutter, postigo, m. 
shrapnel, metralla, f. 
shrub, arbusto, m. 
shrug, one's . . ., to, 

encoger la (las) 
shut, to, cerrar, irr. 
sick, the, fos enfermos 
side, /ado, costado, m. 

altar, a^tor lateral, 
m. 

sideboard, aparador, 

m. 
siege, s#w>, m. 

artillery, artilleria 
de sitio, f. 

sigh, suspiro, m. 
sight, risto, f. 
sight, to, divisar 
sign, to,ftrmar 
signal, seftal, f. 
, to, /tc<?r senal 
signature, firma, f. 
silk, seda, f. 

hat, sombrero de 
copa, m. 

worm, gmano de 
seda, m. 

silver, plata, f. 



352 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



silversmith, platero, m. 

's, plater ia, f. 

shop, plateria, f. 

similar, semejante, 
parecido, -da 

languages, lenguas 
parecidas 

simple, sencillo, sen- 
cilia 

simpleton, persona Can- 
dida, f. , primo, m. 

simplicity, sencillez, f. 

sing, to, cantar 

singer, cantante, m., f. 

singing, canto, m. 

single (not married), 
soltero, soltera 

, sencillo, -lla 

ticket, billete sen- 
cillo, m. 

sink, to, hundirsc, irse 

d pique, sumergirse 
Sir, Senor (Sr. ) 
sister, kermana 

in - law, cunada ; 
(politely), hermana 
politica 

of charity, hermana 
de la caridad, f. 

sit on, to, sentarse, irr. 

down on, to, sen- 
tarse en 

sitting, sesidn, f. 

down, sentada, -do 

room, gabinete, m. 
six, seis 

size, medida, f. 
sketch. See pen and 

ink 

sketcher, dibujante, m. 
skin, piel, f. 
skirmish, cscaramuza, 

f. 

skirt, falda, f. 
skull, crdneo, m. 
sky, cielo, m. 
slab with the street 

name, Idpida, f. 
slander, calumnia, f. 
slate, pizarra, f. 
Slavonic (lang. ), lengua 

eslavfaiica, f. 



sleepers, (los) durmien- 

tes 
sleeping car, coche- 

cama, m. 
sleeve, manga, f. 
slight, ligera, ligero ; 

leve 
slightly wounded, con- 

tuso(s) 

slip, papeleta, f. 
slippers, zapatillas, f. 
slope, falda, f. 
slow, lento 
small, pequeno, m. ; 

pequena, f. 

(not serious), ligero, 
ligera; leve 

ailment, indisposi- 
cidn, f. 

basket, cesta, f. 

bird, pdjaro, in. 

circle, circulo menor, 
m. 

game, caza menor, f. 

lake, laguna, f. 

letter, letra mimls- 
cula, f. 

lizard, lagartija, f. 

loaf, panecillo, m. 

offence, falta menor, 

power, potencia de 
segundo or den, f. 

shot, municiones, f. 
pi. 

smash, a, (in business), 

una quiebra, un 

batacazo 

smithy, forja, f. 
smell, olor, m. ; (sense), 

olfato, m. 
, to, oler, irr. 
smile, sonrisa, f. 
smock, blusa, f. 
smoke, humo, m. 
, to (tobacco), fumar 
smoked pork sausage, 

chorizo, m. ; also : 

Spanish sausage 
chorizo, m. 

smokeless powder, p6l- 
vora sin humo, f. 



smuggler, contraban- 
dista, m. ; (on a small 
scale), matutero, m. 

smuggling, contra- 
bando, m. ; (on a 
small scale), matute, 
m. 

snail, caracol, m. 

snake, serpiente, f. See 
rattle 

snow, nieve, f. 

flake, copo de nieve, 
m. 

ball, the, la bola de 
nieve 

storm, nevada, f. 

, to, nevar, irr. 

so, tan 

So-and-so (masc. ), Fu- 
lano de Tal, or don 
Fulano de Tal ; (if 
more than one), Fu- 
lano y Zutano 

(fem.),Fulana de 

Tal, or dona Fulana 
de Tal ; (if more 
than one), Fulana y 
Zutana 

as to, para ; djin de 
soap, jabon, m. 

dish, jabonera, f. 
socialist, socialista, m. , 

f. 

soft, suave 
soldier, soldado, m. 

See foot 

sole (fish), lenguado,m. 

(of shoes, boots), 
suela, f. 

solicit, to, solicitar 

solicitor, abogado, m. 

, (attorney), procu- 
rador, m. 

solo, solo 

some, algunas, -nos, (f., 
m.) 

times, d veces 

son, hijo ; (child), 
nino, m. 

in-law, yerno, m. ; 

(politely), hijo po- 
litico 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



353 



sons and daughters 
(children), hijos, m. 

sonata, sonata, f. 

song, cancidn, f. ; 
canto, m. 

bird, ave cantor a, f. 
sonorous, sonoro, -ra 
soon, pronto 
soprano, tiple, soprano, 

sore throat, mal de 

garganta, m. 
sort, clase, f. 
sound, sonido, m. 
, to, resonar, irr. 
soup, sopa, f. ; (broth), 

caldo, m. 
sour, dgrio, dgria 
source (of a river), el 

nacimiento, m. , or las 
fuentes, f. 
South (S.), SudoiSur 

OU m. 

America, America 
del Sud, f. 

American (adj.), 
americano, -na 

(a), un ameri- 
cano, una americana 

Southern Europe, 

Europa meridional 
(la} 

hemisphere, hemis- 
ferio sud, m. 

sovereign, soberano, m. ; 
sober ana, f. 

(coin), un soberano, 
una libra esterlina 

sow, to, sembrar, irr. 
sower, sembrador, m. 
sowing, siembra, f. 
space, espacio, m. 
spade, azaddn, m. 
Spain, Espana 
Spaniard, (un) espanol 
Spanish, adj., espanol, 
espanola 

afternoon meal, 
merienda, f. 

cloak (for men), 
capa, f. 

Grammar, (el} caste- 

PT. II. 



llano, la Gramdtica 


splendid, esplendido, 


Castellana 


da ; magnifico, -ca 


Spanish (lang.), (el] 


spoil, to, perjudicar 


castellano or la 


spoken language, len- 


lengua castellana ; 


gua viva, f. 


(el) espanol 


sponge, esponja, f. 


people, los espanoles 


spoon, cuchara, f. 


pepper, pimenttin, 


spoonful, cucharada, 


m. 


f. 


Republic (the), la 


sport, caza, f ; (amuse- 


Mepublica espanola 


ment), diversidn, f, 


Theatre, the, el 


sporting gun, escopeta 


Teatro Espanol, 


de caza, f. 


(colloq.), el Espanol 


spot, (stain), mancha, 


woman, (una] espa- 


f. 


nola 


(of the sun), mancha, 


sparkling wine, vino 


f. 


espumoso 


spread on, to, exten- 


sparrow, gorridn, m. 


dersepor, irr. 


speak, to, hablar 


spring, primavera, f. 


Speaker, The (EngL), 


(of water), manan- 


El Presidente del 


tial, m. 


Congreso 


spun goods, los hilados, 


spectator, expectador, 


m. 


m. 


spur (of birds), espoldn, 


speech (faculty), len- 


m. 


guaje, m. 


(s), (large, detach. ) 


(word), palabra, f. 


espuela(s),f.' } (small, 


(delivered), discurso, 


fixed), espolin(es), m. 


m. 


squadron (naval), es- 


from the throne, 


cuadra, f. 


discurso de la Corona, 


, (cavalry ) ; es- 


m. 


cuadrdn (de caba- 


special train, tren es- 


lleria), m. 


pecial, m. 


square, (in towns), 


speed, velocidad, f. 


plaza, f. 


See at full 


(instr.), escuadra, f. 


spend (money), to, 


squirrel, ardilla, f. 


gastar 


St. Petersburg, San 


sphere, esfera, f. 


Petersburgo 


spice, especia, f. 


stable, establo, m. 


spider, arana, f. 


staff, the, (mil.), el 


web, tela de arana, 


Estado Mayor 


f. 


(mus.), pentcigrama, 


spin, to,hilar; (weave), 


m. 


tejer 


- (of a paper), la 


(silk), to, labrar (la 


redaccion (de un 


seda) 


periddico) 


spinach , espinacas, f . 


of servants, la servi- 


pi. 


dumbre 


spinner, hilador, m. 


stage, escena, f. ; (place) 


spinster, soltera 


escenario, m. 



354 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



stage coach, diligencia, 
f. See bureau of 
the 

requisites (the), el 
aparato esc6nico 

stagnant water, agua 

estancada, f. 
stain, mancha, f. 
staircase, escalera, f. 
stairs, escaleras, f. pi. 
stall, silldn, m. ; buta- 

ca, f. 
stamp, sello, m. See 

foreign , inland 

of the P.O., estam- 
pilla de Correos, f. 

stand, to (stop), ponerse 
(irr.), pararse ; (be 
standing), estar en 
pi6\ (on a moving 
object), ir de pie 

standing water, agua 
estancada, f. 

up, levantctda, -do 
standstill, paraliza- 

cidn, f. 

star (in general), astro, 
m. 

, estrella, f. See 

falling' , morning 

, North , 

Polar , shooting 

start, to, salir, irr. 

for, to, salir para 
state, estado, m. 

, el Estado 

Church, the, la 
religion del Estado 

statement, declaracion, 

f. 
station, estacidn, 

master, jefe de 
estaci6n, m. 

stationer, papclero, m. 
's, papeleria, f. 
statue, estatua, f. 
stature, estatura, f. 
stay, to, estar, irr. 

at, to, quedarse en 
steal, to, robar, 



steam, vapor, m. 

engine, mdquina de 
vapor, f. 

ship, buque de vapor, 
m. 

steamer, vapor, m. 
steel, acero, m. 

engraving, grabado 
en acero, m. 

steep, inclinado, -da 
steeple, aguja, f. 
steerage passenger, 

pasajero de proa, m. 
steering wheel, rueda 

del tim6n, f. 
steersman, timonel, m. 
stem, tallo, m. 
step (of a staircase), 

escalon, m. See foot 

(of a coach), estribo, 
m. 

stern, popa, f. 
stew, guisado, m. 
steward, mayordomo, 

m. 
stick (walking-), bas- 

tdn, in. 
sticking-plaster, es- 

paradrapo, rn. 
stiff-neck, torticolis, m. 
still (adv.), atin 
stimulate, to, estimular 
stirrup, estribo, m. 
stock. See stocks ; 

also rolling 

broker, corredor, m. 

Exchange, Bolsa, f. 
s and shares, fondos 

publicos, m. pi. 
stoker, fogonero, m. 
stone, piedra, f. See 

curb , foundation 

, in 

(fruit), hueso, m. 
cutter, picapedrero, 

m. 

one(s), de piedra 

with the street 
name, Idpida, f. 

stop, to, parar, pa- 
rarse 



stop at, to, parar en, 
pararse en 

(laughing, etc. ), to, 
contener(la risa, etc. ), 
irr. 

(followed by gerund), 
to, cesar (or dejar de 
followed by infini- 
tive) 

stopper, tapdn, m. 

store, to, guardar 

storey, piso, m. 

stork, cigiiefia, f. 

storm (thunder-), tor- 
menta, f. ; tempestad, 

, to, dar un asalto(a)\ 
asaltar, atacar (a) 

stoup (for holy water), 
piladel aguabendita, 

strain one's . . ., to, 
dislocarsc el (la) . . . 

strap, correa, f. 

strait, estrecho, canal, 
m. 

s of Gibraltar, the, 
el estrecho de Gi- 
braltar 

straw, paja, f. 

hat, sombrero de 
paja, m. 

yard, pajar, m. 

berries, fresas, f. 
stream, arroyo, m. 
streamer, gallardete, 

m. 
street, calle, f. See 

Alcald 

strength, fuerza, f. 
stretcher, Camilla, 

parihuela, f. 
strike, huelga, f. 

(against), to, chocar 

with the horns (to 
gore), to, acorncar, 
or dar cornadas 

striker, huelguista, m. 

string (mus.), cuerda, 
stringed instrument, 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



355 



instrumento de cuer- 

da, m. 
stroke with a cutlass or 

sword-bayonet, ma- 

chetazo, m. 
strong, fuerte 

box (safe), caja, f. 
stubbornness, tenaci- 

dad, f. 

stucco, estuco, m. 
stud, boton, m. 
student, estudiante, m. ; 

alumno, -na, m. f. 
studio, estudio, in. 

(of a sculptor), taller, 
ra. 

study, estudio, m. See 
practical studies 

(room), estudio, in. ; 
libreria, f. ; des- 
pacho, m. 

, to, estudiar 

stuff. See green 

sty, pocilga, f. 
style, estilo, m. See By- 
zantine , gothic 

sub-editor (of a paper), 

redactor, m. 
division of a squad 

of cavalry, seccidn de 

caballeria, f. 
subdue, to, someter (d) 
subject (of a sovereign), 

subdito, m. 

(for exam.), asigna- 
tura, f. 

to, sujeto (sujeta) d 
submit, to, someter(d) 
subscribe, to, subs- 

cribir(se); p.p., subs- 
crito, irr. 

subscriber, suscriptor, 
abonado, m. 

(to loans, etc.), sus- 
criplor, m. 

subscription, suscrip- 
cidn, f. 

list, lista de subscrip- 
cidn, f. 

subsist (up to), to, sub- 
sistir (hasta) 



subterranean, subte- 

rrdneo, -nea 
subvention, subvcncidn, 

success, exito, in. 
such as, tal como, tales 

como 
suddenly, de repente, re- 

pentinamente 
Suez Canal, el canal de 

Suez 
sutler with, to, padecer 

de, irr. 

sugar, azucar, m. 
suit (law), pleito, m. ; 

causa, f. See civil 

, criminal 

(clothes), traje, m. 
, ropa exterior, f. 

of furniture, silleria, 
f. 

(someone), to, irle 
bien (d uno), irr. 

suitor, pretendiente, m. 
Sultan, (el) Sultan, m. 
Sultanate, Sultanato, 

m. 
summer, verano, ra. 

house, glorieta, f. 
summit, cima 
summon, to, convocar, 

s, citacidn, f. 
sun, sol, m. 
sunshade, sombrilla, f. 
sunrise, salida de(l) sol, 

sunset, puesta de(l) sol, 

sunstroke, (una) inso- 
lation 

superintend, to, dirigir 
superior, adj., superior. 

See father , 

mother 

officer, Jefe, m. 
supervision, vigilancia, 

supper, cena, f. 
supplement, suple- 

mento, m. 
supply, suministro, m. 



support, to (second, 

help), apoyar 
, to, sostener, irr. 
surface, super Jicie, f. 
surgeon, cirujano, m. 
surname, apdlido, m. 
surprising, sorprendente 
surrender, rendition, f. 
surround, to, rodear 
suspend, to, suspender 
suspension bridge, 

puente colgante, m. 
sustain (injuries), to, 

sufrir (dano) 
swallow, golondrina, f. 
, to, tragar 
swan, cisne, in. 
swarm, enjambre, m. 
Swede, sueco, m. 
Sweden, Suecia, f. 
Swedish (lang. ), (el) 

sueco 

woman, sueca, f. 
sweet, dulce 

dish, plato de dulc?, 
m. 

s, dulces, m. 
swiftness, rapidez, f. 
swim, to, nadar 
Swiss, suizo, -za, (also 

adj.) 

Switzerland, Suiza, f. 
sword, espada, f. 

(infantry-), sable 

bayonet, machete, m. 
See stroke with a 

thrust, sablazo, m. 
syllable, silaba, f. 
symbol, simbolo, m. 
symphony, sinfonia, f. 
symptom, sintoma, m. 



Table, mesa, f. 

cloth, mantel, m. 
tact, tacto, m. 

tail, cola, f. 

(of a coat), faldon, 
m. 

(of a comet), cabe- 



356 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



Hera (de un cometa), 

f. , also (colloq. ), cola 
tailor, sastre, m. 
tailor's shop, sastreria, 

f. 
take, to (pick up, hold). 

coger 

, to, carry, llevar 
, (to have), tomar 

(a nest), to, coger (un 
nido) 

a portrait, to, sacar 
el retrato, retratar 

a press copy, to, 
sacar copia de prensa 

care, to (to be care- 
ful), tener cuidado 

(to take 
charge), cuidar, tener 

cuidado. See 

charge (to) 

charge, to, encar- 



down, to, guitar 
(a deposition), 

to, recibir (declara- 
ci6ri) 

off, to, quitarse 

place, to, tener 
lugar, celebrarse, 
verificarse 

the part, to (theat. ), 
hacer el papel 

(some one), into (a 
room), to llevar (d 
uno) d (un cuarto) 

the chair, to (at 
meetings, etc.), ocu- 
par el silldn 

talk, to, hablar 
politics, to, hablar 

de politica 
tambourine, pandereta, 

tank, cisterna, f. 

tariff, tarifa, f. 

tart, pastel, m. 

tartana (two-wheeled 
cart with a tilt), tar- 
tana, f. 

taste, gusto, m. ; 
(flavour), sabor 



taste, to, probar, irr. 

tax (i.e., taxes), contri- 
bucidn. See income 
, land , trade 

collector's office, la 
Recaudacidn de Con- 
Iribuciones 

pa,yev,contribuyente t 
m., f. 

taxation, impuesto, m. 
taxes, contribucidn f. 

sing., also contribu- 

ciones, pi. 
tea, le, m. 
teach, to, ensenar 

(how), ensenar (d) 

teacher (schoolmaster, 

male ), maestro 

m. 

(professor), profesor 
m. 

(female ), maes- 

tra, f. 

(schoolmistress), 
maestra, f. 

team (of animals), el 

tiro, m. 
teamster, conductor de 

bueyes, m. 
tear, Idgrima, f. 
tears, Idgrimas, llanto, 

m. sing. 

telegram, telegrama, ni. 
telegraph, telegrafo, m. 

boy, chico (mozo) de 
teUgrafos, m. 

clerk, telegrafista 6 
empleado de tele- 
grafos, m. 

office, oficina de teU- 
grafos, f. (or el Tele- 
grafo) 

pole, poste telegrd- 
fico, in. 

porter, 'mozo de tele- 
grafos, m. 

rate, tarifa de teU- 
grafos, f. 

wire(s), hilo(s) del 
telegrafo, m,, kilo(s) 
telegrdjico(s) 



telegraph(ic), adj., tele- 

grdfico, -ca 
telephone (apparatus), 

ttlefono, m. 
- clerk, telefonista, 

m., f., empleado de 

telefonos, m. 

office, oficina de 
telefonos, f. (el tele- 
fono) 

telescope, telescopio, rn. 
temperate zone, zona 

templada, f. 
temperature, tempera- 

tura, f. 
temple (church), 

templo, m. 
ten, diez 
tenant, inquilino, -na, 

m., f. 
tender, adj., tierno, 

-na 

(railw.), tender, m. 

(invited), proposi- 
cidn, f. See official 

form, modelo de pro- 
posicio'n, m. 

s are invited for, se 
admiten proposiciones 
para 

the resignation, to, 
presentar la dimisidn 

tenor, tenor, m. 

tent, tienda de cam- 

pana, f. 

tercet, terceto t m. 
term (univ., schools, 

etc.), cursillo, curso, 

cur so acade'mico, m. 
terms (conditions), con- 

diciones, f. 
terrace, terrado, m. 
terrible, terrible 
terrier, perro de busca, 

m. 

territory, territorio, m. 
Teutonic language, 

lengua teutdnica, f. 
text, texto, m. 
text-book, librode texto, 

m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



357 



that, ese, esa (neut), 
eso ; aquel, aquella 
(neut.), aquello. For 
their use see Pito- 
NOUNS 

thank you, gracias, or 
mil gracias 

thanks, many thanks, 
gracias, muchas 
gracias (or mil 
gracias) 

the, el, m., la, f. sing. ; 
los, m., las, f. pi. ; 
lo (neutr.) before 
adjectives used as 
subst. 

best, el (la), mejor, 
los (las) mejores 

following, lo si- 
guiente 

former, losprimeros, 
las primer as 

long vacation, las 
largas vacaciones 

latter, las segundas, 
los segundos 

only, los tinicos, las 
tinicas 

others, losdemds,las 
demds 

slightest detail, el 
menor detalle 

Thames, el Tdmesis 
the whole . . ., todo el 

. . ., toda la . . . 
theatre, teatro, m. See 
Comedy , Prin- 
cess's , Spanish 

theft, hurto, m. 

their, su, sus. See 
Possess ives 

then (at the time), en- 
tonces ; (afterwards), 
luego. See Conjunc- 
tions 

theory, teoria, f. 

there, alii 

is, hay 



where . 



por 



alii espor doiide . . . 
are, hay 



there has been, ha 
habido 

was, habia 

were, habia 

will be, habrd 
thermometer, termd- 

metro, m. 
these, estos, estas 
thick, espeso, espesa 

mud, barro, m. 
thief, ladrdn, m., la- 

drona, f. 
thing, cosa, f. 
think(hold an opinion), 

to, creer 

(to seem), to, pare- 
cerle d uno, irr. 

third, tercero, tercera 

class, tercera class, 
f. 

ticket, billete de 

tercera, m. 

thirty-first (31) ult, 
treinta y uno del 
prdximo pasado . See 
ultimo 

this, este, esta, neutr. 
esto 

thorn, espina, f. 

thought, pensamiento, 
m. 

those, esos, esas ; aque- 
llos, aquellas. For 
their use see PRO- 
NOUNS 

thread, hilo, m. 

, to, enhebrar 

threaten, to, amenazar 

three, tres 

o'clock, las tres 

times a week, tres 



threshing-floor, era, f. 
throat, garganta, f. 
through, por medio de 
throughout, todo 
throw, to, arrojar, 
echar 

one's self, to, arro- 
jarse 

up, to, levantar. 
See below 



throw up trenches, to, 
levantar trincheras 

thrust (with the horn), 
cornada, f. See 

bayonet , lance 

, sword 

thunder, trueno, m. 

bolt, rayo, m. 

storm, tronada, f. 
, to, tronar, irr. 
thus, por eso 

ticket, billete, m. See 

first class , second 

class , third class 

, return , 

single 

(i.e., admission), en- 
trada, f. 

office, despacho de 
billetes, m. 

tide, marea, f, See ebb 

, flood , low 

, high 

tie, corbata, f. 

tier(s), grada(s), f. 

tiger, tigre, m. 

tigress, tigre, f. 

fcile, teja, f. 

roof, tejado, m. 

tilt (of a waggon, etc.), 

toldo, m. 
timber, madera, i.e., 

madera de construc- 

cidn 
time (successive ), 

tiempo, m. See be 

in (to) 

(o'clock), hora, f. 
See TIME; Part I., 191 

(period), epoca, f. 

(number of s), 

vez, f. 

(mus.) (el) compds, 
m. 

timid, timido, -da 
tinctorial, tint6reo, -rea 
tip, propina, f. 
title, titulo, m. 

page, portada, f. 
to, d, para 

toe, dedo, m., el dedo 
gordo 



358 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



tobacco, tabaco, m. 
tobacconist's shop, es- 

tanco, m. 
to-day, hoy 
together with, junta- 

mente con 
Toledo, Toledo 
tomato, tomate, m. 

plant, tomatera, f. 
tomb, tumba, f. 
tombstone, Idpida, f. 
to-morrow, manana 
tone, tono, m. 
to-night, esta noche 
tongue, lengua, f. 
too, tambien 

(before adj.), muy, 
demasiado 

late, muy tarde 
tool, herramienta, f. 
tooth, diente, m. ; pi., 

dientes 
toothache, dolor de 

muelas, m. 
top (of a mountain), 

cima, f. 

(of a bus, train), el 
imperial, arriba 

hat, sombrero de 
copa, m. 

storey, piso superior , 



topaz, topacio, m. 
torpedo, torpedo, m. 

boat, torpedero, m. 

catcher, cazator- 
pederos, m. 

torrent, torrente, m. 
torrid zone, zona t6- 

rrida, f. 
tortoise, tortuga, f. 

shell, de concha 
total, total 
touch, tacto, m. 
, to, tocar 
towel, toalla, f. 
tower, torre, L 

town, ciudad (small 

), pueblo ; (in 

general), poblacidn, f. 

Town Clerk, Secretario 
del Ayuntamiento^i. 



Town Council, Ayunta- 
miento, Municipio,m.. 

regulations, 
ordenanzas munici- 
pales, f. 

crier, pregonero, m. 

hall, ayuntamiento, 
m. 

office, alcaldia 

porter, alguacil, 

m. 

trace, rastio, m. 
tracing-cloth, papel- 

tela, m. 
trade, comercio, m. See 

retail 

tax, contribucidn in- 
dustrial, f. 

trading- vessel, buque 
mercante, m. 

traffic, trdfico, m. 

train (of a dress), cola, 
f. 

, tren, m. See goods 
, mail , pas- 
senger , special 

and express 

ahead, tren delante 
tram, tramcar, tram- 
way, tranvia, in. 

transfer, to, trasladar 

(d) 
transgressor, infractor, 

in. 
translate, to, traducir, 

irr. 

from . . . into . . . 
(to), traducir del . . , 
al . . . 

transmit, to,transmitir 

transparent, trans- 
parente 

transport, transporte, 
m. 

transportation, trans- 
porte, m. 

transept, crucero, m. 

travel, viaje, m. 

, to, viajar 

traveller, viajero, via- 
jera(m., f.) 



travelling cap, gorra de 

viaje, f. 
treaty (commercial, of 

alliance, etc. ), tra- 

tado, m. 
tree, drbol, m. 
tremendous, tre'niendo, 

-da 

trench, trinchera, f. 
trial (law), el juicio, la 

vista (de la causa, 

etc.) 
tribunal (law), el juz- 

gado 
tributary stream, 

aftuente, m. 
trigonometry, trigono- 

metria, f. 
Triple Alliance, la 

Triple Alianza 
tropic, tr6pico, m. 
trough (for pigs, fowls, 

birds), comedero, m. 
trousers,pa7iafo'w, sing. 

or generally panta- 

lones (pi.), m. 
trout, trucha, f. 
truce, tregua, f. See 

flag of 

truncheon (mil. ens.), 

basttin de mando, m. 
trunk, tronco, m. 

(for travelling), 
baul, m. 

(of an elephant), 
trompa, f. 

try, to, intentar (en- 
deavour), procurar 

tube, tubo, m. 

tuition, ensenanza, f. 

See elementary , 

free , home , 

official , secon- 
dary 

, instruccidn, f. See 
public 

tulip, tulipdn, m. 

tune, to, afinar 

tuner, afinador, m. 

tunic (mil. ), levita, f. 

tunnel, ttinel, m. 

tunnyfish, atun, m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULAEIES ENGLISH WOKDS. 359 



turbo t, rodaballo m. 
Turk, turco, m. 
turkey, pavo, m. 
Turkey, Turquia, f. 
Turkish (lang.) (el) 
turco, m. 

woman, turca, f. 
turn, to, volver, irr. 

, (handles, a 

corner),ear* vuelta (A) 

, to, (i.e., into), 
convert irse en, irr. 

turning movement, 
movimiento envolvente 

tusk, colmillo, m. 

tutor, ayo, m. 

twelve, doce 

twist one's . . ., to, tor- 
cerse el (la, etc. ), irr. 

two, dos 

fried eggs, unpar de 
huevosfritos (m.) 

type (print.), letra, f., 
tipo (de letra), m. 



ult. See ultimo 
ultimatum, ultima- 
tum, m. 
ultimo (ult. ), (del) pa- 

sado, 6 (del) prdximo 

pasado (ppdo) 
umbrella, paraguas, 

m., sing. 
unanimity, unanimi- 

dad, f. 
uncle, tio 
uncle and aunt, ttos, 

m. 
uncomfortable, incdmo- 

do, -da 
under, bajo, debajo 

secretary, subsecre- 
tario, m. 

clothing, ropa in- 
terior, f. 

underneath, debajo, de- 
bajo de 

understand, to, (com- 
prehend), compren- 
der 

, to, entender, irr. 



understanding, arreglo, 

m. 
uniform, uniforme, m. 

See full 

(adj.), uniforme 
uninhabited place, des- 

poblado, m. 

union, (harmony), re- 
union, f. 

unite, to, unir 

\J nited States, The, los 
Estados Unidos 

universal, universal 

history, historia uni- 
versal, f. 

universe, Universe 
university, universi- 
dad, f. 

of Madrid, the, la 
universidad central, 
or la Central 

unlading, descarga, f. 
unripe, verde 
until, hasta 

6.45, hasta las seis y 
cuarenta y cinco 

unwholesome, nocivo, 

-va 

up to, hasta 
date, hasta la 

fecha 
upper, superior 

gallery, el gallinero, 
el paraiso 

House, the, La Alia 
Cdmara 

urchin, chico de la calle, 

m. 

us, nosotros nosotras 
use, uso, m. 
use, to, usar 
useful, util 



v., (i.e., versus, in legal 

phras. ), contra 
vacation, vacaciones, f. 

pi. See the long 

Valencia, Valencia, f. 
Valeucian, woman, 



valenciano, -na. (m., 

f.) 

Valencian, adj., valen- 
ciano, -na 
Valencian (dialect), (el) 

valenciano 
valet, ayudade cdmara, 

m. 

valley, valle, m. 
valour, valor, m. 
valuable, titil 
value, valor, m. 
vapour, vapor, m. 
variable, variable 
variety, variedad, f. 
vegetable garden, huer- 

ta, f. 
vegetables, legumbres, 

f. pi. 

vehicle, vehiculo, m. 
veil, velo, m. 
vein, vena, f. 
Velasquez, Velazquez 
venerable, venerable 

old man, anciano, 
m. 

old woman, anciana, 

verdict, veredicto, m. 
vermicelli, la sopa de 

fideos, or losfideos 
verse, verso, m. 
very, muy 

clever, muy bri- 
llante 

fast, (of running), 
mucho 

heavy, muy consi- 
derable 

little, muypoco,poco 

much, mucho 
vessel, buque, m. 
vestibule, vestibulo, m. 
vestments, vestiduras, 

f. pi. 

vestry, sacristia, f. 
viaduct, viaducto, m. 
vicar, pdrroco, vicario, 

m. 
vice, vicio, m. 

admiral, vicealmi- 
rante, m. 



360 INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



Vice- Chancellor, (Engl. 
Univ.), Rector, m. 

consul, vice consul, 
m. 

victory, victoria, f. 

vignette, vineta, f. 

village, aldea, f., (lar- 
ger), pueblo, m. 

vine -dresser, viiiador, 
m. 

estate, vinedo, m. 
vinegar, vinagre, m. 

cruet, vinagreras, f. 
pi. 

vineyard, vina, f. 
vintage, vendimia, f. 

time, tpoca de la 
vendimia, f. 

viola, (instrument), 

viola, f. 
violent hailstorm, pe 

drisco, m. 

shower (of rain), 
aguacero, m. 

violet, violeta, f. 
violin, violin, m. 
violinist, violinista, m. 
violoncellist, violence- 

lista, m. 
violoncello, violoncelo, 

m. 

virtue, virtud, f. 
Viscount, vizconde, m. 
Viscountess , vizcondesa , 

f 

visible, visible 
Visigoths, (the), los 

Visigodos 
visiting card, tar j eta 

de visita, f. 
viva voce, de viva voz 
vivacity, viveza, f. 
voice, voz, f. 
volcano, volcdn, m. 
volume, volumen, tomo, 

m. 

vote, voto, m. 
, to, votar 
voter, elector, votante, 

m. See parliamen- 
tary 

vulture, buitre, m. 



W., 0. See West, 
wag the tail, to, me- 

near la cola 
wages, salario, sing., 

salarios, pi. m. 
wagon, carro, m. 

(drawn by oxen), 
carreta, f. 

(railway carriage), 
vagdn, in. 

waist, cintura, f. 

coat, chaleco, m. 
wait, to, esperar, a- 

guardar ; esperarse, 

aguardarse 
waiter, mozo, m. 
waiting room, sala de 

descanso, f. See 

first class 

Wales, Gales, m. 
walk, modo de andar, 

m. 

walk, to, andar, irr. 
wall, pared, f. 
, muro, m., muralla, 

flower, aleli, in. 

letter box, buzon, 
m. 

paper, papel de las 
paredes, m. 

walnut, nucz, f. 

tree, nogal, m. 
want, to, querer, irr. 
war, guerra, f. 

office, Ministerio de 
la guerra 

warden, llavero, m. 

(of Univ. Coll.), 
Rector, m. 

warder, carcelero, m. 
warehouse, almacen, 

m. 

warfare, campana, f. 
warmth, cafor, m. 
warship, buque de 

guerra, m. 
was there ?, j Aa&ta .? 
wash, to, lavar 

one's . . ., to, la 
varse el (la, los, las) 



wash, to, (of the sea), 
banar 

house, lavadero, m. 

stand, lavabo, m 
waste (of money), de- 

rroche, m. 

-book, the, (el) bo- 
rrador, m. 

watch, reloj, m. 

water, agua, f. See 

fresh , holy , 

rose , salt , 

standing (or stag- 
nant) 

colour, acuarela, f. 
painting, d la 

aguada 

colourist, acuare- 
lista, m. and f. 

fall, cascada, f. 

flood, inundad6n, f. 

mill, molino de 
agua, m. 

scape, marina, f. 
, to, regar, irr. 
watering-can, regadera, 

wattles (of a turkey), 

moco, m., sing, 
wave (of a river), onda, 

(of the sea), ola, f. 
wax, cera, f. See seal- 
ing 

candle, vela de cera, 

way, (road), camino, 
m. 

(manner), modo, m. 
" in," entrada, f. 

" out," salida, f. 
wear, to, llevar 
weather, tiempo, m. 
weave, to, tejer 
weaver, tejedor, in. 
web, tela, f. See 

spider 

wedding, boda, f. 

card, esquela de 
casamiento, f. 

day, dia de la boda, 
m. 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



361 



wedding dress, traje de 
boda, m. 

outfit, ajuar (de 
novia), m. 

party, invitados, m. 
pi. 

los invitados d 

la boda 

ring, anillo de boda, 
m. 

tour, viaje de novios, 
m. 

week, scmana, f. See 
for a , holy 

weekly review, revista 
semanal, f. 

well, pozo, m. 

(adv. ), bien 

(conj.), pues 
Welsh, gales, m. 

(adj.), gales, galesa 

woman, galesa, f. 
were there . . . ? 

j habia . . . ? 
West, (W.), Oeste,(0.), 

m. See North 

wharf (dock), muelle, m. 
What ?, i que ? 

a lot of . . . / 
j cudnto . . . / (i cuan- 
ta . . . .') 

a pretty . . ., j que 
. . . tan bonita 
(bonito) ! f. 

is ... name ? 
i como se llama . . . ? 

pretty . . . ! que 
. . . tan bonitas ! 
(bonitos) 

whale, ballena, f. 

bone, ballena, f. 
wheat, trigo, m. 
wheel, rueda, f. 
when ?, i cudndo ? 
where . . . ?, j ddwefe f 

. . . ? ipor ddnde 

which are . . . ? i cwciZes 

son . . . .? 
while, mientras (que) 

flying, volando 
whip, Idtigo, m. 

PT. II. 



whip lash, latigazo, m. 
whiskers, patillas, f. 
whistle, to, silbar 
white, bianco, -ca 

umbrella, parasol, 
m. 

who? iquitn? (sing.), 

iquienes? (pi.) 
wholesale, alpor mayor 

trade, comercio al 
par mayor 

wholesome, sana, sano 
whooping - cough, tos 

ferina, f. 

wide, ancho, ancha 
widow, viuda, f. 
widower, viudo, m, 
wife, mujer, f., (polite), 

esposa 
wild beast, animal 

feroz, m. 

boar, jaball, m. 
will, querer, irr. 
wind, viento, m. See 

north 

instrument, instru- 
mento de vicnto, m. 

mill, molino de men- 
to, m. 

window, ventana, f. 
See rose , shop 



(carr. ), venta- 

nilla, f. 

pane, cristal, m. 
wine, vino, m. 

shop, taberna, f. 
wing, (el) ala, f. 
wing(s), bastidor(es), 

m. 

winter, invierno, m. 
wire(s), hilo(s), m. 

See telegraph 

wisdom, sabiduria, f. 
wish, to, desear (<) 
with, con 

me, conmigo 
withdraw, withdraw, 

(parl. phras.), que 
retire esas palabras 
, to,retirar (las pala- 
bras) 



without, sin 

witness, testigo, (m. 

f ") 
wittiness, (colloq.), sal, 

wolf, lobo, m. 

woman, mujer, f. See 

married , old 

, ordinary , 

young 

wood, monte, m. 

(forest), bosque, m. 
, madera, f. See fire 

, in 

cut, (a), un grabado 
en madera 

instrument, instru- 
ments de madera, 
f. 

wool, lana, f. 

woolsack, saco de lana, 
m. 

word, palabra, f. See 
words 

wording, (of a docu- 
ment) la redaction 

words, lenguaje, m. , 
sing. 

(to mus. ), letra, 
f. 

work, trabajo, m. See 

fancy 

work(s), obra(s), f. 

of art, obra de arte, 
f. 

, to, trabajar 
working, (the), la ex- 
plotaccidn 

expenses, gastos de 
explotacidn, m. 

woman, mujer del 
pueblo, f. 

workman, trabajador, 

obrero, hombre del 

pueblo, m. 
workmen (the), los 

albaniles 

workshop, taller, m. 
world, mundo, m. 

new , othei 

worm, gusano, m. 

glow , silk- 

2 A 



362 



INDEX TO VOCABULARIES ENGLISH WORDS. 



wound, herida, f. 
, to, herir, irr. 
wounded person, la 

herida, f., el herido, 

m. 

(at war), herido(s) 
wreath, corona, f. . 

corona fnnebre 
wreck, naufragio, 

m. 

wrist, muncca, f. 
write, to, escribir, p.p. 

escrito, irr. 
writer, escritor, in. 

See lady 

writing, a escribir 
, escritura, f. 

deskjiMsaescritorio. 



writing paper, papel de 

cartas, in. 
t&ble,mesae8critorio, 



Yard, patio, m. 

year, ano, m. See by 

the 

yearly, al ano 

yellow, amarillo -lla 

yes, si 

yes, sir, 8i senor 

yesterday, ayer 

yoke, yugo, m. 

, to, uncir 

you, (polite form), 

usted, (pi.), ustedes, 

(V., W.) 



young, *aa.,joven,(m., 

coxcomb, polio, m. 

fellow, chico,m. (col- 
loq.) 

lady, joven, f. 

man, joven, m. 

woman, joven, f. 
your . . . , su . . . de 

usted 

youth, juventud, f . 
, muchacho, m. 



Zealous, celoso, celosa 

zinc, zinc, m. 

zone, zona, f. See 
frigid , temper- 
ate , torrid 



THE END. 



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