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E. A. 


C. D 


A. J. A. . 


R. K. D. 



F. G. E.. . . 


W. A. . . 


C L F 


J. B. A. . 

. . J. B. ATLAY. 


. H. F. . . . 


R. B. . . 


F. W. G. . . 


T. B. 


B. G 


T. H. B. 


C. B. 


A. G 


H. B-E. . 


H. R. H. 


A. B-L. . 


A. H-N. . . . 


T. G. B.. 


C. A. H.. . . 


T. B. B. . 

. . T. B. BROWNING. 

T. F. H. 


E. I. C. . 


W. H 


J. L. C. . 

. . J. L. CAW. 

T. B. J. . . . 


E. C-E. 


L. W. K. . . 


A. M. C. 

. . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

J. K 


S. C. 


J. K. L. . . . 


E. T. C. 

. . E. T. COOK. 

W. J. L. . . 


J. C. 


I. S. L. . . . 




. L 

T. C. . 


S. L 


J. S. C. 

. . . J. S. COTTON. 

C. H. L.. . . 


W. P. C. 

. . W. P. COURTNEY. 

E. M. L. . . 


L. C. . 


S. J. L. . . . 


H. D 


J. H. L. . . . 


J. LL. D 


A.D. . 


R. L. . 





. C. H. FIRTH. 
. F. W. GAMBLE. 



. H. R. HALL. 






. L. W. KING. 



. I. S. LEADAM. 
. . C. H. LEES, D.Sc. 
. . SIDNEY J. Low. 



vi List of Writers to Volume III. Supplement. 

J. R. M. . . . J. R. MACDOHALD. 


J. W. M. . . J. W. MACKAIL. 




A. H. M. ..A.M. MILLAR. 


H. C. If. . . H. C. MOORE. 


F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DoNooHOE. 



A. F. P. ... A. F. POLLARD. 

D'A. P. ... D'Ancs POWER, F.R.C.S. 


F. R. .... FRABER RAE. 

W. P. R. . . THE HON. W. P. REEVES. 
J. M. R. . . . J. M. Rioo. 



C. S-H. . . . CECIL SMITH. 

C. F. S. . . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

L. T. S. . . . Miss LUCY TOULMIN SMITH. 


J. H. S. . . . J. H. STETEJJHON. 

B. N. S. . . . MRS. NAPIER STURT. 
H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 


H. L. T. . . THE RET. H. L. THOMPSON. 

E. B. T.. . . PROFESSOR E. B. TYLOR, F.R.S. 
R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E., 


A. W. W. . . DR. A. W. WARD, MASTER OF 



W. W. W. . MAJOR W. W. WEBB, M.D., 


B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 







1897), first bishop of Wakefield, born 
13 Dec. 1823 at College Hill, St. Chad's 

congress speaker. He was offered and de- 
clined the bishoprics of Natal (1867), New- 
Zealand (1868), Montreal (1869), Cape Town 

A full Index to the Dictionary, including the Supplement, is in 
preparation. The names of articles appearing both in the substantive 
work and in the Supplement will be set forth there in a single alphabet 
with precise references to volume and page. 

The following are some of the chief articles 


Weldon, F.R.S. 

Clarke, F.S.A. 

BENJAMIN JOWETT, by Dr. Evelyn Abbott. 
SIB AUSTEN LAYARD, by Mr. L. W. King, of 

the British Museum. 

LORD LEIGHTON, by Sir Walter Armstrong. 

Church, by the Kev. H. L. Thompson. 

JAMES MARTINEAU, by Rev. Alexander 




SIR CHARLES NEWTON, Archaeologist, by Mr. 

Cecil Smith. 
SIR JAMES PAGET, by Mr. D'Arcy Power. 

in this volume : 

SIB HENRY PARKES, Australian Statesman, 

by Mr. A. Patchett Martin. 

Garnett, C.B., LL.D. 
JAMBS PAYN, by Mr Leslie Stephen. 

by Mr. Paul Waterhouse. 
GENERAL PITT-RIVEBS, Anthropologist, by 

Professor E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 
SIMS REEVES, by Mr. F. G. Edwards. 

Mr. C. Alexander Harris, C.M.G. 
JOHN RUSKIN, by Mr. E. T. Cook. 



Marquis of Bute, by Mr. J. H. Stevenson. 

QUEEN VICTORIA, by Mr. Sidney Lee. 


vi List of Writers to Volume III. Supplement. 

J. R. M. . . . J. R. MACDONALD. 

A. A. M. . . . PBorsmoB A. A. MACDONELL. 

J. W. M. . . J. W. MACKAIL. 




A. 1 1 . M . . . A. if . MILLAR. 


H. C. M. . . H. C. MOORE. 


P. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DoNooHUE. 



A. P. P. ... A. F. POLLARD. 

D'A. P. . . D'ABCY POWER, F.R.C.S. 


C. S ii. . . . CECIL SMITH. 

C. F. S. . . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

L. T. S. . . , Miss LUCY TOULMIN SMITH. 


J. H. S. . . . J. H. STEVENSON. 

B. N. S. . . . MRS. NAPIER STUBT. 
H. R. T. . . H. R-. TEDDER, F.S.A. 


H. L. T. . . THE REV. H. L. THOMPSON. 

E. B. T.. . . PROFESSOR E. B. TYLOB, F.R.S. 
R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E., 


A. W. W. . . Dn. A. W. WAWTV MAHTPB nw 







1897), first bishop of Wakefield, bora 
13 Dec. 1823 at College Hill, St. Chad's 
parish, Shrewsbury, was eldest son of Wil- 
liam Wyberg How, who belonged to an old 
Cumberland family and practised at Shrews- 
bury as a solicitor. He was educated at 
Shrewsbury school, and on 19 Nov. 1840 
entered at Wadharn College, Oxford. He 
was Goodridge exhibitioner in 1842, Warner 
exhibitioner 1842-3, and graduated B.A. 
with third-class honours in lit. hum, on 
10 May 1845, and M.A. on 26 May 1847. 
He then passed through the theological 
course at Durham, was ordained deacon De- 
cember 1846, and became curate at St. 
George's, Kidderminster, under Thomas Legh 
Claughton, afterwards bishop of St. Albans 
[q. v. Suppl.], from whom he received an 
excellent training for his ministerial work. 
He was ordained priest in December 1847, 
and in 1848, for family reasons, returned to 
Shrewsbury, where he acted as curate in the 
parish of Holy Cross. In 1849 he married 
Frances Anne, daughter of Henry Douglas, 
rector of Salwarpe and residentiary canon 
of Durham. In 1851 he became rector of 
Whittington in Shropshire, and remained 
there, an exemplary parish priest, for twenty- 
eight years. In 1854 he was appointed 
rural dean of Oswestry, in 1860 honorary 
canon of St. Asaph, in 1868 proctor for the 
clergy in convocation, and in the same year 
select preacher at Oxford. 

How soon became known as a devotional 
writer, an efficient conductor of parochial 
missions, quiet days, and retreats, and a 


congress speaker. He was offered and de- 
clined the bishoprics of Natal (1867), New 
Zealand (1868), Montreal (1869), Cape Town 
(1873), and Jamaica (1878), besides a 
canonry, with superintendence of home 
mission work, at Winchester (1878), and 
the important livings of Brighton (1870), 
All Saints', Margaret Street (1873), and 
Windsor, with a readership to the queen 
(1878). The first offer he accepted was that 
of suffragan to the bishop of London, with 
episcopal supervision of East London. He 
had to assume the title of bishop of Bedford, 
because the only titles which could then be 
used by suffragan bishops were those specified 
in the Suffragan-bishop Act of Henry VIII. 
He was consecrated on St. James's day, 1879, 
and on the following day was instituted to 
the living of St. Andrew Undershaft, which 
supplied the income for the bishop, and a 
prebendal stall in St. Paul's Cathedral; 
in the same year he was created D.D. by the 
archbishop of Canterbury, and on 15 June 
1886 by Oxford University. He resided at 
Stainforth House, Upper Clapton, which 
was generously put at his disposal by the 
owner, and became, as a co-worker said, 
' the leader of an East London crusade.' 
He availed himself of the general feeling 
that the spiritual destitution of East Lon- 
don was appalling, and enlisted agencies 
for remedying the situation from all quarters. 
His first policy was ' to fill up the gaps 
in the ministry, both clerical and lay,' and 
for this purpose he founded an ' East London 
Church Fund,' which met with a ready 
response. The Princess Christian evinced 

How : 

the deepest sympathy with his work. He 
secured pulpits and drawing-room meetings 
in the nch west i-ml t<> h*-lp t lie poor east, 
and awakened an intnv.-t in tin* subject 
in rich watering-places liko Brighton, l'un- 
bridgo Wells, and Eastbourne, and also in 
the public schools and universities. Being 
recognised as a spiritual force, he attracted 
all spiritually minded people round him, and 
especially the clergy and laity in his own 
diocese. He received his clergy daily at 
Clapton, visited them at their own homes, 
and spent every available Sunday with one 
or other of them. But perhaps the work he 
loved best was that among children. There 
was no title that he valued more than that of 
1 The Children's Bishop,' which was popu- 
larly accorded him, ana no one of his com- 
positions which he wrote with greater zest 
than his volume of sermons to children. 

The bishop's wife, who had taken a large 
share in the London work, died on 28 Aug. 
1887, and the loss doubtless affected Walsham 
How's decision when in 1888 he accepted the 
nffer of the new bishopric of Wakefield. 
He soon became as great a power in the 
north as he had been in the south. He met, 
perhaps, with more troubles in his new 
sphere than in his old, but his earnestness, 
tact, and geniality soon enabled him to over- 
come them, and his death, which took place 
during his August holiday in the west of 
Ireland on 10 Aug. 1897, was as much re- 
gretted in Yorkshire as in London. He was 
buried at Whittington, and the enlargement 
of Wakefield Cathedral was decided upon 
as a fitting memorial to him. He left a 
family of five sons and one daughter. An 
excellent portrait of him was painted by 
Mr. II. L. Norris for Wadham College in 
1887, shortly before his death, and there is 
also one painted by Edward Taylor and 

5 resented to him by the clergy of St. Asaph 
iocese in 1879. 

How was a keen fisherman and an accom- 
plished botanist, and a most popular writer, 
both in prose and verse. His writings in- 
clude 'Plain Words,' four series of admirable 
short sermons, the first of which appeared 
in 1869, and is now in its forty-eighth edi- 
tion ; several other volumes of ' Sermons,' 
published at various times ; a ' Commentary 
on the Four Gospels ' for S.P.C.K., begun in 
1863 and finished in 1868, which has had a 
sale of 223,000 ; ' Pastor in Parochia ' (1868, 
5th ed. 1872) and ' Pastoral Work' (1883), 
which have also had a very large sale ; 
' Manual for the Holy Communion, 7 
8.P.C.K., 1868, of which 657,000 copies have 
been sold; 'Daily Family Prayers' (1852, 
4th ed. 1872), which are very widely used. 


In 1854 he published, in conjunction with the 
Rev. T. B. Morrell, a compilation of ' Psalms 
and Hymns;' he was one of the original 
compilers of ' Church Hymns, 1 brought out 
by S.P.C.K. in 1871, and Mrs. Carey Brock's 
' Children's Hymn Book ' (1881) was pub- 
lished under his revision. His own original 
hymns are very popular. His last was the 
hymn for Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee, 
written at the request of the Prince of Wales 
in 1897, not many weeks before his death. 
He also wrote some good sonnets and poems 
on miscellaneous subjects. 

[Memoir of Bishop Walsham How, by his 
son, V. D. How ; Bishop How's own writings ; 
Gardiner's Reg. Wadham Coll. ii. 400 ; Foster's 
Alumui Oxon. 1715-1886; Crockford's Clerical 
Directory; private information and personal 
knowledge.] J. H. 0. 

.1892), cardinal, born at Nottingham 011 
'13 Feb. 1829, was eldest son of Edward 
Gyles Howard (grandson of the twelfth 
Duke of Norfolk), by his marriage with 
Frances Anne, eldest daughter of George 
Robert Heneage of Hainton Hall, Lincoln- 
shire. He was educated at Oscott, and 
afterwards continued his studies at Edin- 
burgh. In his youth he served the queen as 
an officer in the 2nd life guards, but he 
afterwards studied theology, was ordained 
priest by Cardinal Wiseman in the English 
College at Rome on 8 Dec. 1854, and attached 
himself to the service of Pius IX. He 
learned Arabic, Coptic, Hindustani, and Rus- 
sian, and became an accomplished linguist. 
For about a year he was employed in India 
in connection with a mission to put an end 
to the Goa schism, and the rest of Uis eccle- 
siastical career was spent in Italy. His 
graceful and dignified bearing was familiar 
to frequenters of St. Peter's, in which basilica 
he held the office of archpriest's vicar. He 
was consecrated archbishop of Neocsesaria 
in partibus infidelium in 1872, and made co- 
adjutor bishop of Frascati, an office which 
he retained for only a few weeks. He was 
created a cardinal-priest by Pius IX on 
12 March 1877, the titular church assigned 
to him being that of St. John and St. Paul 
on the Coslian Hill. As protector of the 
English College in Rome to which he 
afterwards bequeathed his magnificent li- 
brary he took possession of that insti- 
tution on 24 March 1878. In December 
1881 he was nominated archpriest of the 
basilica of St. Peter, and in that capacity he 
also became prefect of the congregation 
which has the care of the edifice itself. In 
the spring of 1884 he was raised by Leo XIII 
to the dignity of cardinal bishop, and trans- 



lated to the suburbican see of Frascati. 
Having been seized with a serious illness in 
1887, he was brought to England in the 
Spring of the following year. He died on 
16 Sept. 1892 at Hatch Beauchamp, a villa 
on the London Road, in the extreme outskirts 
of Brighton, and was buried at Arundel on 
1 Oct. 

[Oscotian, 1888, p. 47, with portrait; Illus- 
trated London News, 24 Sept. 1892, p. 390; 
Times, 17 Nov. 1892; Men of the Time, llth 
edit. ; Tablet, 24 Sept. 1892, p. 481.] T. C. 

VISCOUNT HOWE (1725 P-1758), born in 1724 
or 1725, was the grandson of Scrope Howe, 
first viscount Howe [q. v.], and the second 
but eldest surviving son of Emanuel Scrope 
Howe, second viscount Howe (d. 29 March 
1735), by his wife, Mary Sophia Charlotte 
(d. 13 June 1782), said by Horace Wai pole 
to be an illegitimate daughter of George I, by 
Charlotte Sophia, countess of Darlington 
(d. 20 April 1725), wife of John Adolph, 
baron von Kielmansegge (d. 15 Nov. 1717). 
Kielmansegge was master of the horse to 
George I as elector of Hanover. Richard 
Howe, Earl Howe [q. v.], and William 
Howe, fifth viscount Howe [q. v.], were the 
third viscount's younger brothers. George 
succeeded his father as third viscount in the 
Irish peerage in 1735, and was returned to the 
English parliament for the town of Notting- 
ham on 30 June 1747. He was re-elected in 
April 1754, retaining the seat until his death. 

In January 1746-7 Howe was nominated 
one of the officers to take part in the cam- 
paign in Flanders as aide-de-camp to the 
Duke of Cumberland (Gent. Mag. 1747, pp. 
45, 103). On 1 May 1749 he was nominated 
lieutenant-colonel and captain in the first 
foot guards ; on 25 Feb. 1757 he attained the 
rank of colonel, and was placed in command 
of the 60th foot or Royal Americans. With 
this regiment he arrived in Halifax in July. 
On 28 Sept. he was appointed colonel of the 
55th foot, recently raised for service in the 
American war, and received the local rank 
of brigadier-general in North America on 
Dec. 29. Pitt nominated Howe second to Bri- 
gadier-general James Abercromby in com- 
mand of the force destined to capture Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point from the French, 
and thus open the route by Lake Champlain 
for the invasion of Canada. He trusted that 
Howe's vigour of mind would compensate 
for Abercromby's lethargic temperament, and 
knew that Abercromby placed implicit con- 
fidence in him. Howe introduced several re- 
forms into the English force, among others 
inducing the officers to dress like the men to 

avoid a repetition of Braddock's disaster, 
when the officers were picked off by the 
enemy's marksmen. On 5 July 1758 the 
English force proceeded down Lake George, 
and disembarked at nightfall at Sabbath Day 
Point. Thence Howe proceeded next morn- 
ing by land to find a practicable route to 
Fort Ticonderoga. On arriving at Trout 
Brook, two miles from the outlet of the lake, 
he was killed in a skirmish with a French 
detachment, possibly shot by his own men 
in the confusion. His fall paralysed Aber- 
cromby, who afterwards failed before Ticon- 
deroga. Howe was buried at Trout Brook 
in a dense forest, the spot being marked 
by a simple headstone bearing his name, 
which together with his remains was dis- 
covered in 1890 (Newcastle Weekly Chro- 
nicle, Suppl. 2 Jan. 1892). A monument 
was erected to his memory in West- 
minster Abbey by the colony of Massachu- 
setts, designed by James Stuart and sculp- 
tured by Peter Scheemakers. He was 
unmarried and was succeeded as fourth 
viscount by his brother Richard. An en- 
graved portrait of Lord Howe is contained 
in Entick's ' General History of the late 
War,' 1779, iii. 209. 

[G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage; Collins's Peerage, 
1812, viii. 144 ; Mante's History of the late War 
in America, 1772, pp. 146-7 ; Cutter's Life of 
Putnam, New York, 1847, pp. 88-9; Williams's 
Hist, of Vermont, Burlington, 1809, i. 406, 505 ; 
Pouchot's Memoirs upon the late War, ed. 
Hough, Roxbury, 1866, i. 109-12 ; Rogers's 
Journals, 1765, pp. 105-14; Reminiscences of the 
French War, Concord, 1831, pp. 179-80 ; Wat- 
son's History of Essex County, 1869, pp. 84-9 ; 
T. Hutchinson's Hist, of Massachusetts Bay, 
1749-74, ed. J. Hutchinson, 1828, pp. 70-1; 
Lossing's Life and Times of Schuyler, New York, 
1872, i. 145-52; Mrs. Grant's Memoirs of an 
American Lady, 1846, pp. 175-80; Stanley's 
Memorials of Westminster Abbey, 1882, p. 237 ; 
Official Return of Members of Parliament ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd series iv. 129-30, viii. 86, 
7th series ix. 87 ; Walpole's Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, 1857, vol. i. p. civ; Chesterfield 
Letters, ed. Bradshaw, 1892, iii. 1209 ; Chatham 
Correspondence, 1838, i. 339 ; Annual Register, 
1758, pp. 72-3, 17621.94; Gent. Mag. 1758, 
pp. 389-90.] E. I. C. 

HOWE, HENRY (1812-1896), actor, 
whose real name was HENBY HOWE HUTCH- 
INSOX, was born of quaker parents in Nor- 
wich on 31 March 1812. After some 
experiments as an amateur under the name 
Halsingham, he made his debut at the Vic- 
toria theatre in October 1834 as Rashleigh 
Osbaldistone. At east-end and suburban 
theatres he played Antonio in the ' Merchant 
of Venice,' and Tressel in ' Richard III ; ' 




and at the Strand, under J. W. Hammond 
in 1837, wan Winkle in a piece called 
' Pickwick.' Many years later he played 
M r. 1 'ickwick in Albery's play at the Lyceum. 
The same year he acted with Macready at 
Covent Garden, and he participated in tlu> 
original performance of the ' Lady of Lyons ' 
He also played Mark An- 
tony in 'Julius Caesar.' Joining the Hay- 
market under Webster, he remained there 
without a break in his engagement for the 
almost unprecedented term of forty years. 
Among innumerable original parts were: 
Brandon in Lovell's ' Look before you Leap ' 
on 29 Oet Klfl, Ernest de Fonblanche 
in the ' Housed Lion' on 15 Nov. 1847, 
Lord Arden in Lovell's ' Wife's Secret ' 
on 17 Jan. 1*4^. His characters included 
Fazio, Sir George Airy in the ' Busy Body,' 
Lord Townley in the ' Provoked Husband,' 
Archer in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' Benedick, 
Joseph Surface, Sir Anthony Absolute, Sir 
Peter Teazle, Malvolio, Jaques, MacdufF, 
Harry Dornton. He used to state that 
there were pieces (such as the ' Lady of 
Lyons') in which, during his gradual rise, he 
had played every male part from the lowest 
to the highest. On 16 Aug. 1879, at the 
Vaudeville, he was the first Rev. Otho 
Doxey in Richard Lee's ' Home for Home,' 
and played Farren's part of Clench in the 
Girls.' " Soon afterwards he took (Sir) Henry 
Irring's role of Digby Grant in a revival of 
Albery's ' Two Roses.' On 26 Dec. 1881 , as 
Mr. Furnival in same piece, he appeared at 
the Lyceum, with which his closing years 
were connected. Here he played characters 
such as Old Capulet, Antonio in ' Much Ado 
about Nothing ' and ' Twelfth Night,' Ger- 
meuil in ' Robert Macaire,' Farmer Flam- 
borough in ' Olivia,' Burgomaster in ' Faust,' 
and very many others. He accompanied 
Sir Henry Irving to America, where he died 
on 10 March 1896. He was a thoroughly 
conscientious actor, and an exceptionally 
worthy and amiable man, whose one delight 
was to cultivate his garden at Isleworth. 
His son. Henry A. Hutchinson Howe, musical 
and theatrical critic on the ' Morning Adver- 
tiser/ predeceased him, dying on 1 June 
1894, aged sixty-one. 

[Personal recollections; The Player, 12 May 
1860; Pacoe's Dramatic List; Scott and 
Howard's BUncbard ; Scott's From the Bells to 
King Arthur; Era Almanack, various years; 
Sunday Times, various years; Theatrical Notes, 


HUCHOWN (fi. 14th cent.), the author 
of several romances in the old alliterative 
vee, is described by Wyntoun as ' Huchown 
of the Awle Ryale' (in one MS. 'Auld Ryall '). 

Wyntouu eulogises him as ' cunnand in litera- 
ture,' and ascribes to him three romances, 
4 The Gret Gest of Arthure,' ' The A wntyre of 
Gawane,'and 'The Pvstyll of Swete Susan.' 
Of these ' The Pystyll of Swete Susan ' can 
be identified beyond dispute. It exists in five 
manuscripts (two in the British Museum, one 
in the Bodleian library, a fourth at Chelten- 
ham, and a fifth at Ripley), and was pub- 
lished in Laing's 'Select Remains,' 1822, 
and, besides several times by German editors, 
by the Scottish Text Society in ' Scottish- 
Alliterative Poems'from the five manuscripts 
ed. F. J. Amours, 1896-7. Further, by means 
of an exhaustive comparison with the 
'Pystyll,' Dr. Trauttnann (Der Dichter 
Huchoiim und seine Werke in Anylta, 1877) 
has established the identification of ' The 
Gest of Arthure ' with the non-rhyming 
alliterative poem ' Morte Arthure ' preserved 
in the Thornton MS. at Lincoln, and pub- 
lished, ed. Ilalliwell, 1847, and by the Larly 
English Text Society, ed. E. Brock, 1865. 
The identification of 'The Awn tyre of 
Gawaine ' is still, however, a matter of dis- 
pute. Mr. F. J. Amours (Scottish Allitera- 
tive Poems) argues with some plausibility 
for the rhyming alliterative poem, ' The 
Awntyres of Arthure at the Terne Wathe- 
lyne,' preserved in the Thornton MS., in the 
Douce MS. in the Bodleian Library, and in 
the Ireland MS. at Hale, Lancashire, and 
published by Pinkerton from the Douce MS. 
in 'Scottish Poems,' 1792, under the title 
' Sir Gawain and Sir Galaron of Galloway,' 
by David Laing in ' Select Remains,' 1822 
(2nd ed. 1885) ; by the Bannatyne Club, ed. 
Sir F. Madden, 1839 ; by the Camden So- 
ciety, ed. Robson, 1842 ; and by the Scottish 
Text Society in 'Scottish Alliterative Poems,* 
ed. F. J. Amours, 1896-7. This conclusion 
cannot, however, be regarded as more than 
probable; and there is even a possibility that 
it maybe the non-rhyming 'Sir Gawain and 
the Green Knight,' which is poetically of 
great merit. 

As to the identity of the poet himself, 
since his name was Huchown (French 
Huchon), it has generally been supposed 
that he was the ' gude Sir Hew of Eglyn- 
toun ' mentioned in Dunbar's ' Lament for 
the Makeris.' A Sir Hugh of Eglinton, who 
flourished between 1348 and 1375, was mar- 
ried to Egidia, half sister of Robert II, and 
was for some years auditor of accounts. The 
name of no other Sir Hew of Eglinton 
occurs in public documents in the fourteenth 
century, and notwithstanding some ingenious 
arguments to the contrary, there is absolutely 
no reason for refusing to accept this Sir Hew 
as the poet referred to by D unbar, and there- 


fore in all probability * Huchown of the Awle 
Ryale,' which two last words have, with at 
least plausibility, been interpreted as ' royal 

[Authorities mentioned in text ; Athenaeum, 
1900-1.] T. F. H. 

HUDSON, SIB JOHN (1833-1 893), lieu- 
tenant-general, born in 1833, was the eldest 
son of Captain John Hudson, R.N., by his 
first wife, Emily (d. 9 Oct. 1844), only child 
of Patrick Keith, rector of Ruckinge and 
Stalisfield in Kent. He was educated at the 
Royal Xaval School, New Cross. He ob- 
tained a commission in the 64th regiment 
on ~2'2 April 1853, and received his lieu- 
tenancy on 9 March 1855. He served as 
adjutant to his regiment throughout the 
Persian campaign of 1856-7. He was pre- 
sent at the storm and capture of Reshire, 
the surrender of Bushire, the night attack 
and battle of Kooshab, and the bombard- 
ment of Mohumrah, and received a medal 
with a clasp. At the time of the Indian 
mutiny he served as regimental adjutant 
in Bengal and the north-west provinces, 
and was present in 1857 with Havelock's 
column in the actions of Fatehpur (12 July), 
Aong (15 July), Pandu Nadi (15 July), 
Cawnpur (16 July), Unao (29 July), Bashi- 
ratganj (29 July), andBithiir (16 Aug.) He 
was deputy-assistant adjutant-general on 
Havelock's staff during the advance to Luck- | 
now, was mentioned in the despatches, and | 
received the thanks of the governor-general 
in council. He served as adjutant of the 
64th foot during the defence of Cawnpur, 
and at the defeat of the Gwalior mutineers, 
and was present in the action of Kali Nadi 
(2 Jan. 1858) and Kankar (17 April) as well 
as at the capture of Bareilly (May). He was 
attached to Brigadier Taylor's brigade as 
brigade-major in the actions at Burnai, 
Mohamdi, and Shahabad. For his services 
he was promoted to the rank of captain in 
the 43rd light infantry on 23 July 1858, 
received a medal with a clasp, and was 
allowed a year's service for Lucknow. On 
22 March 1864 he received the brevet rank 
of major. 

. In the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-8 he 
was second in command of the 21st Bengal 
native infantry. He was mentioned in the 
despatches and received a medal. On 
13 June 1870 he received the brevet rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and on 11 April 1873 at- 
tained the regimental rank of major. On 
1 Oct. 1877 he obtained the brevet rank of 

He commanded the 28th Bengal native 
infantry throughout the Afghan war of 
1878-80, was present during the operations 


in the Khost, including the affair at Matoon, 
and was twice mentioned in the despatches. 
On 22 April 1879 he attained the regimental 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was with 
Sir Frederick (afterwards Earl) Roberts's 
division in the advance on Kabul in 1879, 
and with Brigadier-general (Sir) Herbert 
Macpherson's brigade in the rear-guard at the 
engagement at Charasiah on 6 Oct. 1879. For 
his services at Charasiah he was mentioned in 
the despatches. During the operations round 
Kabul in December he commanded the out- 
post at Lataband, and was mentioned in the 
despatches for sallying out and dispersing a 
hostile force which threatened to invest the 
garrison. He received a medal with two 
clasps, and in 1881 was nominated C.B. 
He commanded the British troops occupying 
the Khaibar Pass from January 1881 until 
that force was withdrawn. 

In 1885 Hudson commanded the Indian 
contingent in the Soudan campaign, \vas 
mentioned in the despatches, received a 
medal with a clasp and the Khedive's star, 
and was nominated K.C.B. On his return 
to India he commanded a brigade of the 
Bengal army from 1886 to 1888. He at- 
tained the rank of major-general on 2 Aug. 
1887, and from 1888 to 1889 was in com- 
mand of the Quetta division of the Indian 
army. From 1889 to 1892 he commanded a 
first-class division of the Bengal army. On 
13 Jan. 1892 he became a lieutenant-general, 
and early in 1893 was appointed commander- 
in-chief in Bombay. He was killed at 
Poona on 9 June 1893 by a fall from his 
horse, and was buried there on the following 
day. On 7 April 1859 at Allahabad he 
married Isabel Muir, second daughter of 
Major-general Charles Frederick Havelock 
(d. 14 May 1868) of the imperial Ottoman 
army, and niece of Sir Henry Havelock 

[Hart's Army Lists ; Times, 10, 12 June 1893 ; 
Burke's Peerage; Gent. Mag. 1859, ii. 78; 
Roberts's Forty-one Years iu India, 1897, ii. 
1GO, 287, 299.J E. I. C. 

KXATCHBULL- (1829-1893), first BAKOH 

1900), electrician and inventor, was born in 
London on 16 May 1830. His father, David 
Hughes, was the son of Robert Hughes, boot- 
maker, of London and Bala, Merionethshire, 
In 1837 the family went out to Virginia, 
and David received his education at St. 
Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky. At 
an early age he displayed a talent for music, 
inherited probably from his father, and in 


1849 became professor of music at the col- 
lege. His great interest in experimental 
science led to his undertaking the teaching 
of natural philosophy, and during the tenure 
of his double oflice the idea of his type- 
printing t elegraph occurred to him. Although 
(Sir) Charles Wheatstone [q. v.] had ex- 
hibited a type-printer at the Royal Poly- 
technic Institution, London, in 1841, the 
first instrument available for practical use 
was that invented by House, of Vermont, 
and adopted by the American Telegraph 
Company in 1847. In it the motion of the 
wheel carrying the type at the receiving 
station was produced step by step, by the 
teeth of a wheel at the transmitting end 
making and breaking the electrical circuit 
as it was rotated. Hughes proposed to pro- 
duce these synchronous rotations mechani- 
cally, and only to use the electric current 
once for each letter printed. 

He resigned his position at Bardstown, 
and spent two years working out the details 
of his instrument, which he completed and 
patented in 1856. Next year it was adopted 
by the American Telegraph Company, and 
many of its features are present in the Phelps 
instruments now used by them. 

In 1857 Hughes brought the instrument 
to this country, and, on its not meeting with 
the reception he expected, proceeded to 
France, where it was purchased by the 
government in 1860 and installed on their 
lines. During the next ten years it was 
adopted by most of the continental govern- 
ments, and its inventor was the recipient of 
many decorations and honours. In 1872, 
while resident in Paris, he was elected a 
foreign member of the newly founded So- 
ciety of Telegraph Engineers, now the In- 
stitution of Electrical Engineers. In 1877 
he settled in London, and devoted much of 
his time to experimental electrical work, 
with apparatus constructed by himself. 

The telephone, invented by Reiss in 1861, 
had been rendered a practical instrument by 
Bell in 1876, but his transmitter was still 
unsatisfactory, even after the introduction of 
the carbon button into it in 1877. Further 
improvement was rendered possible by the 
invention of the 'microphone' in 1878, 
almost simultaneously by Liidtpe (' universal 
telephone,' German patent, 12 Jan. 1878), 
and by Hughes (Proc. Royal Soc. London, 
8 May 1878). It owes its action, as the 
latter explained, to the great variation of 
electrical resistance of aloose contact between 
two conductors, on the slightest relative 
motion of the two parts. 

In April 1878 D'Arsonval, in a communi- 
cation to the Academic des Sciences (Comptes 

Rendus, Ixxxvi. 832), called attention to the 
telephone as a sensitive detector of varying 
electric currents, and in May 1879 Hughes 
exhibited to the Royal Society of London 
(Proc, Royal Soc. xxix. 56) a new ' induction 
balance,' in which a telephone replaced the 
galvanometer and current rectifier of Felici 
(Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. xxxiv. 65, 68^ 
1852), and with it repeated and extended the 
results obtained by Dove with his original 
balance (Ann. der Physik, xlix. 77, 1840). 

In 1880 he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and in 1885 received the 
society's gold medal ' for experimental re- 
search in electricity and magnetism, and for 
the invention of the microphone and in- 
duction balance.' He had ceased to be a 
foreign and become an ordinary member 
of the Society of Telegraph Engineers in 
1879, and after being successively a member 
of the council (1880) and vice-president 
(1882), he was in 1886 elected president of 
the society. In his inaugural address he 
gave an account of his experiments on ' the 
self-induction of an electric current,' &c. 
(Journal Tel. Eng. xv. 6), and succeeded 
in arousing general interest in the laws of 
distribution of alternating electric currents 
in conductors, which had been investigated 
mathematically by Heaviside and others. 

During the interval 1879-86 Hughes 
appears from his letters to have convinced 
himself by experiment of the existence of 
electric waves in the air surrounding an 
electric spark, and to have discovered the 
efficacy of a microphone contact (coherer) 
in series with a telephone or galvanometer 
and a voltaic cell, as a detector of them. 
Unfortunately these early experiments on 
aerial telegraphy were not made public, and 
it was left for Hertz to demonstrate the ex- 
istence of electric waves in 1887, for Branly 
to re-invent the coherer as a detector in 
1891, and for Marconi to combine the two 
into a system of wireless telegraphy in 1896. 

He continued for the rest of his life to 
take an interest in electrical matters, and 
occasionally took part in the discussion of 
papers read before the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers. In 1889 he was elected a ma- 
nager, and in 1891 vice-president, of the 
Royal Institution. In 1898 the Society of 
Arts conferred the Albert medal on him for 
' his numerous inventions, especially the 
printing telegraph and the microphone.' 

About this time he began to be troubled 
with paralysis, and died at 40 Langham 
Street, W., on 22 Jan. 1900, after an attack 
of influenza. He was interred at Highgate 
cemetery. Leaving no issue, he bequeathed 
between 300,000/. and 400,000/. to four 


London hospitals, and 12,0001. to the Royal 
Society of London, the Academiedes Sciences 
of Paris, the Institution of Electrical En- 
gineers, and the Societ6 Internationale des 
Electriciens, for the foundation of scholar- 
ships and prizes to be awarded for work in 
physical science. 

He married Anna, daughter of Dr. Thomas 

In person he was fair, and rather below 
the middle height; he 'was simple in his 
tastes,' ' a most genial companion,' and pos- 
sessed ' an inexhaustible fund of informa- 
tion' (CooKE). Portraits appeared in ' Elec- 
trician,' xliv. 457, and the ' Electrical Re- 
view,' xlvi. 185, 186. 

[Royal Soc. Cat. of Scientific Papers ; Hughes's 
Papers in Comptes Rendus, Proc. Royal Soc. 
London, Telegr. Eng. Journ. &c. ; obituary no- 
tices by Cooke, Journ. Inst. Electr. Eng. xxix. 
951, and by Munro, Electr. Review, xlvi. 185; 
Rosenberger, Geschichte der Physik passim; 
Wiedemann, Elektricitat passim ; Prescott's 
Electricity and the Electric Telegraph, 7th edit, 
ii. 603 et seq. ; Preece and Sivewright's Tele- 
graphy passim ; Preece and Stubbs's Telephone 
passim; Gerard's Electricite, vol. ii. passim; 
Lodge's Signalling through Space, 3rd edit. p. 
88 et seq. ; Fahie's Hist, of Wireless Telegraphy, 
p. 289; Electrician, Electrical Review, and 
Electrical Engineer passim ; private informa- 
tion.] C. H. L. 

HUGHES, THOMAS (1822-1896), the 
author of ' Tom Brown's School Days,' was 
born at Uffington, a country parish near 
Faringdon in Berkshire, on 20 Oct. 1822. 
His father was John Hughes (1790-1857) 
[q. v.] His brother George Edward (1821- 
1872), who is the subject of Tom Hughes's 
'Memoir of a Brother,' was thirteen months 
Tom's senior ; he was educated at Rugby 
and Oriel College, Oxford, stroked the Oxford 
crew of 1843, entered Lincoln's Inn in 1848, 
and practised in the ecclesiastical courts ; 
he was a member of the Pen and Pencil 
Club, a skilful player on the violoncello, and 
died at Hoy lake, Cheshire, on 2 May 1872. 

Tom spent almost all his years up to early 
manhood in the closest companionship with 
this elder brother. They went together in 
the autumn of 1830 to a private school at 
Twyford, near Winchester, where they had 
Charles Blachford Mansfield [q. v.l as their 
schoolfellow. Tom Hughes describes this 
school as being before its time in the culti- 
vation of athletic exercises, for success in 
which prizes were regularly given. In Fe- 
bruary 1834 the two brothers were sent to 
Rugby, Tom being then eleven years old. 
Their father had been at Oriel with Dr. 
Arnold, and though he had no sympathy 

with his politics he admired his character 
and abilities, and he sent his sons to Rugby 
to be under Arnold. 

The Rugby of that time is described in 
'Tom Brown's School Days.' It has been 
almost inevitable that readers should see 
Hughes himself in Tom Brown. But in the 
preface to ' Tom Brown at Oxford ' he com- 
plains of this identification. ' I must take 
this my first and last chance of saying that 
he is not I, either as boy or man. . . . When 
I first resolved to write the book I tried to 
realise to myself what the commonest type 
of English boy of the upper middle class 
was, so far as my experience went ; and to 
that type I have throughout adhered, trying 
simply to give a good specimen of the genus. 
I certainly have placed him in the country 
scenes which I know best myself, for the 
simple reason that I knew them better than 
any others, and therefore was less likely to 
blunder in writing about them.' Readers 
are bound to respect this protest. But the 
sentiments and doings ascribed to Tom 
Brown were by Hughes's account those of 
the kind of boy that Hughes was. Tom 
Hughes did not become much of a scholar ; 
in academical attainments he was below his 
brother George, both at school and at college. 
But he rose high enough in the school to 
come into that close contact with Dr. Arnold 
which never failed to draw boys of any 
thoughtfulness into reverence for him. Tom 
stayed a year at Rugby behind his brother 
George, and in the middle of the year he 
played for Rugby at Lord's in the annual 
match against a Marylebone club eleven. 
Then in the spring of 1842, having matri- 
culated on 2 Dec. 1841, he followed his 
brother to Oxford and Oriel, carrying with 
him at least a great cricketing reputation, 
for he played in the June of his first year in 
the Oxford and Cambridge match at Lord's. 
The two brothers had rooms on the same 
staircase, and the genuine though unobtru- 
sive seriousness of Tom's character was no 
doubt fostered by his intimacy with George. 
But neither of them seems to have been at 
all affected by the religious movement of 
their Oxford days. They associated with 
their distinguished schoolfellows, Matthew 
Arnold, Clough, Walrond, and others. Tom 
Hughes records that in the year before he 
took his degree he made a tour with a pupil 
in the north of England and Scotland 
(Memoir of a Brother, p. 88). He did 
this by the special request of the pupil's 
father, who was a neighbour and friend of 
the Hughes family. Hughes says that he 
frequented commercial hotels, and heard the 
corn-law question vigorously discussed, and 



came back from the north ' an ardent free- 
trader.' In other respects, he adds, I was 
rapidly falling away from the political faith 
in which we had been brought up. . . . The 
noble side of democracy was carrying me 
away.' He was thus early showing himself 
to be the generous, teachable, and courageous 
Englishman that he was known to be in 
after life. 

Having graduated B.A. in 1845, he went 
up to London to read for the bar. He had 
been admitted at Lincoln's Inn on 21 Jan. 
1845, but migrated to the Inner Temple on 
18 Jan. 1848, and was called to the bar ten 
days later. He never became a great lawyer, 
but he studied diligently, and was able to 
acquit himself creditably in professional busi- 
ness. He became Q.C. in 1869, and bencher 
of his inn in 1870. It was through his resi- 
dence in Lincoln's Inn that he came under 
the great influence of his life. F. D. Maurice 
was then chaplain of the Inn, and, whilst his 
personal character won the reverence of the 
young student, his teaching came home to 
his needs and aspirations and deepest convic- 
tions, and completely mastered him. Maurice 
had no more devoted disciple than Toin 
Hughes. It was the work of his life to put 
in practice what he learnt from Maurice. 
In the latter part of 1848 he offered himself 
as a fellow-worker to the little band of 
Christian socialists who had gathered round 
Maurice, in which Mr. John M. Ludlow, for 
many years Hughes's closest friend and ally, 
and Charles Kingsley, and his old school- 
fellow Charles Mansfield, were already en- 
rolled. The practical part of Christian so- 
cialism was the co-operative movement, espe- 
cially in its ' productive ' form. This branch 
of it has been overshadowed by the vast 
store system ; but it was co-operative pro- 
duction that had the sympathy and advocacy 
of Hughes and the more enthusiastic pro- 
moters of co-operation. In his later years 
Hughes was accustomed to denounce with 
some vehemence what he regarded as a de- 
sertion of the true co-operative principle by 
those who cared only for the stores, and who 
gave no share in the business to the employes 
of the store and the factory. The early busi- 
nesses set up by the Christian socialists did 
not prosper, but Hughes never despaired of 
the cause. He was one of the most diligent 
and ardent of its promoters, attending con- 
ferences, giving legal advice, and going on 
missionary tours. He contributed to the 
' Christian Socialist ' and the ' Tracts on 
Christian Socialism,' and acted for some 
months as editor of the ' Journal of Associa- 
tion.' By giving evidence in 1850 before the 
House of Commons committee on the savings 


of the middle and working classes, and by 
other persevering efforts, he aided the passing 
of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act 
(56-7 Victoria, c. 39) in 1893. 

Hughes had married in 1848 Frances, 
daughter of the Rev. James Ford, and niece 
of Richard Ford [q. v.l, author of the famous 
' Handbook of Spain, and near the end of 
1849 his brother George became once more 
for a short time his companion, having joined 
the young couple in a small house in Upper 
Berkeley Street. Tom had chambers in 
common with Mr. J. M. Ludlow at No. 3 Old 
Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, and in 1853 the 
two friends agreed to build and occupy a joint 
house at Wimbledon. ' Our communistic 
experiment,' says Mr. Ludlow {Economic 
Review, July 1896, p. 305), ' was entirely suc- 
cessful while it lasted,' which was for four 
years. It was in this Wimbledon house that 
' Tom Brown's School Days ' was written. 
Mr. Ludlow records (ib. pp. 306, 307) how 
Hughes put into his hands one night a portion 
of his manuscript, and with what surprise he 
became aware, as he read, of the quality of 
the book. It was shown without delay to 
Alexander Macmillan [see under MACMILLAN, 
DANIEL], who promptly undertook to publish 
it. Its completion was delayed by a do- 
mestic grief, the death of Hughes's eldest 
daughter ; but it appeared anonymously in 
April 1857. Its success was rapid, five edi- 
tions being issued in nine months. 

This book is Hughes's chief title to dis- 
tinction. His object in writing it was to do 
good. He had had no literary ambition, and 
no friend of his had ever thought of him as 
an author. ' Tom Brown's School Days ' is a 
piece of life, simply and modestly presented, 
with a rare humour playing all over it, and 
penetrated by the best sort of English re- 
ligious feeling. And the life was that which 
is peculiarly delightful to the whole English* 
speaking race that of rural sport and the 
public school. The picture was none the less 
welcome, and is none the less interesting 
now, because there was a good deal that was 
beginning to pass away in the life that it 
depicts. The book was written expressly for 
boys, and it would be difficult to measure 
the good influence which it has exerted upon 
innumerable boys by its power to enter into 
their ways and prejudices, and to appeal to 
their better instincts; but it has commended 
I itself to readers of all ages, classes, and 
j characters. The author was naturally in- 
I duced to go on writing, and his subsequent 
books, such as ' The Scouring of the White 
Horse ' (1859) and ' Tom Brown at Oxford ' 
(1861) are not without the qualities of which 
the ' School Days ' had given evidence ; but 


it was the conjunction of the subject and 
the author's gifts that made the first book 

In January 18o4, at a meeting of the pro- 
moters of associations, it was resolved, on a 
motion made by Hughes, ' That it be re- 
ferred to the committee of teaching and 
publications to frame and, so far as they 
think fit, to carry out a plan for the esta- 
blishment of a people's college in connection 
with the metropolitan associations.' This 
was the beginning of the Working Men's 
College in Great Ormond Street, which con- 
tinued to be to the end of his life one of 
Hughes's chief interests. He was not able 
to do much in it as a teacher, but he took 
an active part in carrying on its social work, 
commanded its volunteer corps, and was 
principal of the college for ten years, from 
1872 to 1883. He delighted the students by 
his geniality, but he never concealed from 
them his earnest religious faith. One of his 
books, ' The Manliness of Christ ' (1879), 
grew out of what he taught in a bible-class 
at the college. In an earlier year, 1861, he 
had written the first of a series of ' Tracts 
for Priests and People,' issued by Maurice 
and his friends. His tract was entitled 
' Religio Laici,' or, in a subsequent edition 
of it, 'A Layman's Faith' (1868). His 
theology was Maurice's, transfused through 
his own Simple and devout mind. In all 
that he wrote or spoke or did, he was sincere, 
straightforward, intolerant of deceit or mean- 
ness. He interested himself ardently in 
church reform, and was a hearty member of 
a ' church reform union,' when it was origi- 
nated in 1870, and again when it had a brief 
resuscitation through Arnold Toynbee's 
efforts in 1886. His position was that of a 
liberal churchman, supporting a national 
church with enthusiasm, but desiring to make 
it as acceptable and inoffensive as possible to 
nonconformists. When he became known 
as a social reformer, it was natural that he 
should be urged to seek entrance to the 
House of Commons, and he was elected for 
Lambeth in 1865. In 1868 he was glad to 
exchange this unwieldy and unmanageable 
constituency for the borough of Frome, for 
which he was returned at the general elec- 
tion; he relinquished his candidature for 
Frome at the general election in February 
1874 (the seat was won for the conservatives 
by Henry Charles, afterwards Lord Lopes 

\. v.j), and was nominated for Marylebone, 
ut retired the day before the poll. In the 
House of Commons the line he took was defi- 
nitely that of a reformer, and especially of a 
friend of the working classes ; a trades union 
bill he introduced was read a second time 

on 7 July 1869, but made no further pro- 
gress. He was not a very successful speaker, 
and, though greatly liked and respected, he 
would not have been able to reach the front 
rank in politics. When Gladstone went 
over to home rule for Ireland, Hughes's 
opposition to that policy was touched with 
indignation, and he became a vehement 
liberal unionist. In 1869 he was chairman 
of the first co-operative congress, and spoke 
against the tendency to shelve ' productive ' 
co-operation, which he never ceased to de- 

The first of three visits to America was 
made by Hughes in 1870. One of his 
strongest ties to the United States was his 
admiration of Lowell's ' Poems,' which was 
most fervent. Mr. Ludlow describes (Eco- 
nomic Review, July 1896, p. 309) how, being 
asked by Triibner in 1859 to write an in- 
troduction to an edition of the 'Biglow 
Papers,' Hughes, in his self-distrustful way, 
begged help from him, and the introduction 
was a joint composition. Two separate 
essays on American history by the same 
authors were combined in a volume published 
in 1862. One of Hughes's objects in going 
to America was to make Lowell's personal 
acquaintance. He had been warmly on the 
side of the north in the civil war, and this, 
added to the fame of ' Tom Brown's School 
Days,' made him very popular in the States. 
In the course of this visit he gave two 
lectures one at Boston entitled ' John to 
Jonathan,' another at New York on the 
labour question. His subsequent visits to 
America were connected with a project, 
commenced in 1879, which at first awakened 
all his enthusiasm, and afterwards caused 
him much anxiety and considerable pecuniary 
loss. His sanguine, unsuspicious temper 
was not favourable to success in business. 
In conjunction with friends he bought a 
large estate in Tennessee, on which a model 
community was to be established. The place 
was named Rugby. The purchasers had 
been misled as to the productive value of 
the estate, and the early settlers underwent 
a rather bitter disappointment. Tom Hughes 
drew out of the enterprise, but his mother 
went to live at the new Rugby with her 
youngest son, Hastings Hughes, and after 
ten years' residence died there at a very 
advanced age. 

In July 1882 Hughes was appointed a 
county-court judge, and went to live at 
Chester. There he built himself a house, 
which he named after his birthplace, Uffing- 
ton, and he {pew old happily in the per- 
formance of his judicial duties. His health 
at last gave way to infirmities, and he died 




at Brighton on 22 March 1896. In accord- 
ance with his known wishes his funeral 
was strictly private, and he was buried in the 
Brighton cemetery. Besides his wife he 
left six surviving children, three sons and 
three daughters. Two died in childhood, 
and a son, who was a soldier, died some years 
before his father after military experience in 
South Africa. A fine statue of Tom Hughes 
by Brock has been erected in the school 
grounds at llugby. 

There are two original portraits, both by 
Lowes Dickinson one painted when he 
was a little over forty years of age, in the 
possession of his daughter, Mrs. Cornish; 
the other when he was seventy, in the | 
possession of Mrs. Hughes. An addition 
that is about to be made to the buildings of ! 
the Working Men's College is to be a 
memorial of his principalship and to bear 
his name. 

In addition to the books which have been 
mentioned ' Tom Brown's School Days,' 
' Tom Brown at Oxford,' ' The Scouring of 
the White Horse,' ' The Memoir of a Brother/ 
' The Manliness of Christ ' Hughes wrote 
Lives of Bishop Fraser (1887), of Daniel 
Macmillan (1882), of Livingstone (1889), 
and of Alfred the Great (1869), ' The Old 
Church' (1878), ' Rugby, Tennessee ' (1881), 
'Gone to Texas' (1884). Many of his 
addresses and shorter compositions were 
printed in pamphlet form. A series of his 
letters to the 'Spectator' were published 
in his lifetime by his daughter, Mrs. Cornish, 
under the title of ' Vacation Rambles ' (1895). 
A short fragment of autobiography, which 
has been privately printed, contains some 
memories of his early youth and manhood. 

[Personal knowledge and information given 
by friends ; Hughes's Memoir of a Brother ; an 
article by J. M. Ludlow, ' Thomas Hughes and 
Septimus Hansard,' in the Economic Review, 
July 1896 ; Life of F. D. Maurice; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Off. Ret. Members of Parl. ; Lincoln's 
Inn Records; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886, and Men at the Bar; Men of the Time, 
13th ed.] J. LL. D. 

HUISH, ROBERT (1777-1850), mis- 
cellaneous writer, son of Mark Huish of 
Nottingham, was born there in 1777. He 
appears to have begun his literary career by 
writing a readable little treatise on bee- 
culture, which was afterwards expanded and 
issued in various forms. This was the one sub- 
ject on which he may perhaps be termed an 
expert. His other works are nearly all poor 
examples of anecdotal, quasi-historical book- 
making. Thev occasionally embellish a 
blank space in biography with a great 
quantity of loose and fragmentary gossip, 

but the 'Quarterly Review' spoke of him 
with no great injustice as an obscure and 
unscrupulous scribbler. His fecundity was 
remarkable, as witnessed by his voluminous 
compilations during 1835-6. He executed 
a few translations from the German, and in 
his later years some novels of a very low 
type. He died in Camberwell in April 

His works comprise : 1. ' A Treatise on 
the Nature, Economy, and Practical 
Management of Bees,' London, 1815, 8vo. 

2. ' Memoirs of her late Royal Highness 
Princess Charlotte Augusta,' 1818, 8vo, with 
a separately issued supplement, 1818. 

3. ' The Public and Private Life of George 
III,' 1821, 4to. 4. 'An Authentic History 
of the Coronation of George IV,' 1821. 
5. * Memoirs of Caroline, Queen of Great 
Britain,' 1821, 2 vols. 12mo. 6. ' Authentic 
Memoir of ... Frederick, Duke of York 
and Albany,' 1827, 8vo. 7. ' Memoirs of 
George IV, r London, 1830, 2 vols. 8. ' The 
Historical Galleries of Celebrated Men' 
(authentic portraits), 1830 ; only one volume 
published. 9. ' The Wonders of the Animal 
Kingdom,' London, 1830. 10. 'The Last 
Voyage of Captain Sir John Ross ... to 
the Arctic Regions in 1829-33,' London, 
1835. 11. 'The Travels of Richard and 
John Lander . . . into the interior of 
Africa,' 1836 (with a resume of previous 
African travel). 12. 'A Narrative of the 
Voyages of ... Captain Beechey to the 
Pacific and Behring's Straits,' London, 1836. 
13. ' The History of the Private and Political 
Life of Henry Hunt, Esq., his Times and 
Co-temporaries,' 1836. 14. 'Memoirs of 
William Cobbett, Esq.,' 1836, 2 vols. 
15. ' The Memoirs, Private and Political, of 
Daniel O'Connell,' 1836. 16. ' The History 
of the Life and Reign of William IV, the 
Reform Monarch of England,' 1837. 17. ' The 
Natural History and General Management 
of Bees,' 1844. 18. ' The Progress of Crime ; 
or, Authentic Memoirs of Marie Manning,' 
1849, 8vo. Nearly all his books exhibit vio- 
lent anti-Tory prejudices. 

[Gent. Mag. 1850, i. 681 ; Quarterly Review, 
liv. 5; Athenaeum, 1842, p. 583; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] T. S. 

1895), surgeon, born on 6 Nov. 1830, was 
fourth son of William Hulke, surgeon, living 
at Deal in Kent. He was from 1843 to 1845 
educated at the Moravian College, Neuwied. 
Here he gained his intimate knowledge of 
the German language and the groundwork 
of his acquaintance with natural history; 
here, too, in the Eifel district, his interest 

Hulke i 

in geology was first awakened. Returning 
to England he attended King's College school 
during 1846-7, and in 1849 he entered the 
medical department of King's College, Lon- 
don. He served as a dresser to Sir William 
Bowman [q.v. Suppl.] at King's College Hos- 
pital, and he was admitted a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England on 
16 July 1852. He then returned to Deal, 
where he acted as assistant to his father dur- 
ing his attendance on the fatal illness of the 
Duke of Wellington in September 1852, and 
he afterwards served the office of house-sur- 
geon to Sir William Fergusson [q. v.] at 
King's College Hospital. 

In 1855 Hulke was attached to the medi- 
cal staff of the general hospital in the Crimea, 
and in March of that year he was doing 
duty in the English hospital at Smyrna. In 
September he left Smyrna for the camp be- 
fore Sebastopol, where he spent the winter 
of 1855-6. He then returned to England, 
and after examination was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal College of Surgeons on 
23 May 1857. He acted for a short time as 
tutor at King's College Hospital, where he 
was elected assistant surgeon in 1857 for a 
term of five years. In 1862 he was appointed 
assistant surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital, 
becoming full surgeon in 1870. In 1858 he 
was elected assistant surgeon at the Royal 
London Ophthalmic Hospital, Moorfields, 
where he became full surgeon in 1868 and 
consulting surgeon in 1890. 

At the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land Hulke filled in succession every office 
open to him, and died during his second year 
as president. Winning the Jacksonian prize 
in 1859 with an essay upon the morbid 
changes of the retina, he was appointed 
Arris and Gale lecturer upon anatomy and 
physiology (1868-71), an examiner on the 
board of anatomy and physiology (1876-80), 
on the court (1880-89)/and on the dental 
board (1883-9). He served as a member of 
the council from 1881 to 189o, a vice-president 
in 1^8 and 1891, Bradshaw lecturer in 1891, 
president from 1893 to 1895, and his Hunte- 
rian oration was read for him on 14 Feb. 1895, 
while he lay dying of pneumonia. 

He was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety in 1867, his claim being based exclu- 
sively on researches relating to the anatomy 
and physiology of the retina in man and the 
lower animals, particularly the reptiles. He 
served on the council of the Royal Society 
in 1879-80 and again in 1888-9. Elected a 
member of the Geological Society in 1868, 
he became president from 1882 to 1884, and in 
1887 he was presented with the Wollaston 
medal, the greatest honour it is in the power of 


the society to bestow. In 1891 he was ap- 
pointed foreign secretary, a position he held 
until he died. 

In February 1862 he was elected an 
honorary fellow of King's College, and in 
1878 he became a corresponding member of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, and in 1884 an honorary member of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society. He 
was president of the Pathological Society of 
London from 1883 to 1885, president of the 
Ophthalmological Society of the United 
Kingdom in 1886-7, and president of the 
Clinical Society in 1893-4. 

He died in London on 19 Feb. 1895, and 
is buried in the cemetery at Deal. He mar- 
ried, 1 Oct. 1858, Julia, daughter of Samuel 
Ridley, but they had no children. 

Hulke's name is not associated with any 
brilliant departure in surgery, but he was 
wise and quick to see what surgical move- 
ments would stand the test of time ; an early 
supporter of aseptic methods, and, to a cer- 
tain extent, a pioneer in cerebral surgery. 
He was highly skilled too in the special 
branch of ophthalmic surgery ; he was an 
excellent pathologist, and his Hunterian 
oration showed him to be a first-rate botanist. 
A natural talent, aided by opportunity, en- 
abled him to make important additions to 
palaeontology, more especially in connection 
with the great extinct land reptiles (Dino- 
sauria) of the secondary period. His investi- 
gations were made in the Kimmeridge clay 
of the Dorset cliffs and upon the Wealden 
reptiles of the cliffs of Brook and its neigh- 
bourhood in the Isle of Wight. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
British Medical Journal, 1895, ii. 451 ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Koyal Society, vol. Iviii. 1895.1 

D'A. P. 

(1820-1896), surgeon, born at Sudbury in 
j Suffolk on 18 July 1820, was third son of 
William Wood Humphry, barrister-at-law 
and distributor of stamps for Suffolk. He 
was educated at the grammar schools of Sud- 
bury and Dedham, and in 1836 he was ap- 
prenticed to J. G. Crosse, surgeon to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. In 1839 he 
left Norwich and entered as a student at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital in London, where 
he came under the influence of Peter Mere 
Latham [q.v.], William Lawrence [q. v.], and 
(Sir) James Paget [q.v. Suppl.] He passed 
the first M.B. examination at the London 
University in 1840, obtaining the gold medal 
in anatomy and physiology, but he never pre- 
sented himself for the final examination. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of England on 19 Nov. 1841, 


and on 12 May 1842 be became a licentiate 
of tbe Society of Apothecaries. In tbe same 
year tbree of the surgeons at Adden- 
brooke's Hospital, Cambridge, resigned their 
office, and on 31 Oct. 1842 'Mr. Humfrey' 
was placed third out of six candidates in a 
contested election for the vacant posts. This 
appointment made him the youngest hos- 
pital surgeon in England, and he at once 
began to give clinical lectures and systematic 
teaching in surgery. In 1847 he was invited 
to act as deputy to the professor of anatomy, 
and he gave the lectures and demonstrations 
upon human anatomy from 1847 to 1866. 
He entered himself a fellow-commoner at 
Downing College in 1847, graduating M.B. 
in 1852 and M.D. in 1859. On the death of 
the Rev. Dr. William Clark, the professor of 
human and comparative anatomy, in 1866, 
the duties of the chair were recast, and 
Humphry was elected professor of human 
anatomy in the university. He held this 
office until 1883, when he resigned it for the 
newly founded but unpaid professorship of 
surgery. In 1869 he succeeded Professor 
(afterwards Sir) George Edward Paget [q.v.], 
who was then elected president of the coun- 
jcil, as the representative of the university of 
Cambridge on the General Medical Council. 
In 1880 he delivered the Rede lecture before 
the university of Cambridge, taking ' Man, 
Past, Present, and Future' as the subject of 
his address. He served on the council of 
the senate of the university, he was an hono- 
rary fellow of Downing, and in 1884 he was 
elected a professorial fellow of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

At the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land Humphry filled all the offices which his 
physical strength and his devotion to the uni- 
versity of Cambridge would permit. Elected 
a fellow on 26 Aug. 1844, when he was still 
a year below the statutory age, he served as 
a member of the council from 1864 to 1884, 
was Arris and Gale lecturer on anatomy and 
physiology from 1871 to 1873, a member of the 
court of examiners from 1877 to 1887, and 
Hunterian orator in 1879. He declined to be 
nominated for the offices of vice-president 
and president. 

He was elected a F.R.S. in 1859, and he 
served on the council of this society 1870-1. 
He was long a member of the British Medi- 
cal Association, acting first as secretary and 
afterwards as president of the Cambridge 
and Huntingdon branch. He delivered the 
address in surgery at the general meeting 
held at Cambridge in 1856, presided in the 
section of anatomy and physiology at the 
"Worcester meeting in 1882, and was presi- 
dent of the whole association at the Cam- 

bridge meeting in 1881. In 1867 he presided : 
over the physiological section of the British i 
Association for the Advancement of Science, ; 
and in 1870 he gave six lectures on the ] 
architecture of the human body as a part 
of the Fullerian course at the Royal Insti- i 
tution of London. He took an active part 
in the formation of the Cambridge Medical 
Society, and for some time was president. 
He presided at the annual meetings of the 
Sanitary Society of Great Britain, held in ' 
London in 1882 and in Glasgow in 1883. 
In 1887 he was the first president of the ! 
Anatomical Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and he served as president of the 
Pathological Society of London during the 
years 1891-3. He was knighted in 1891. 

Humphry died at his residence, Grove) 
Lodge, on 24 Sept. 1896, and is buried at the] 
Mill Road cemetery, Cambridge. A bust by 
Wiles was presented to Addenbrooke's Hos- 
pital by the vice-chancellor of the university. 
A portrait by Mr. W. W. Ouless, R.A., hangs 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, and has been en- ' 
graved. A portrait by Miss K. M. Humphry, ! 
painted on the occasion of the enrolment of i 
Professor Humphry as a freeman of his native i 
town, is in the public hall at Sudbury, Suf- 

He married, in September 1849, Mary, 
daughter of Daniel Robert McXab, surgeon, 
of Epping, by whom he had a daughter and 
one son, Air. Alfred Paget Humphry, senior 
esquire bedell of the university of Cam- 

Beginning as a general practitioner with- 
out a practice, poor and without influence, 
Humphry became the most influential man 
in the university of Cambridge, and con- 
verted its insignificant medical school into 
one which is world-renowned. Before all 
things he was a scientific man and a col- ; 
lector. The Museum of Anatomy and Sur- 
gical Pathology engrossed much of his at- 
tention, and many of his holidays were! 
spent in journeys designed expressly to 
secure specimens to fill its shelves. As an 
anatomist he was one of the earliest workers 
who attempted to bring human anatomy 
into line with the growing science of mor- 
phology. He was a good and successful 
surgeon, though a great operation was a: 
severe trial to him. He was the first in 
England to remove successfully a tumour 
from the male bladder, and one of the first 
to advocate the advantages to be derived 
from the suprapubic method. He had no 
amusements and was sparing in all that con- 
cerned his own indulgence, but he was most 
hospitable and in large matters profusely 
generous. Having begun poor, he ended 

rich. He was full of research and resource, 
and generally succeeded in getting his own 
way, but his aims were unselfish and were 
always directed to the improvement of his 

Humphry's works were : 1. ' A Treatise 
on the Human Skeleton, including the 
Joints,' Cambridge, 1858, 8vo; an important 
work containing the results of original re- 
search in several directions. The excellent 
plates by which the book is illustrated were 
irawn by his wife. 2. 'On the Coagula- 
tion of the Blood in the Venous System 
during Life,' Cambridge, 1859, 8vo ; of this 
subject he had had painful experience dur- 
ing his own illnesses. 3. ' The Human Foot 
and the Human Hand,' Cambridge and 
London, 1861, 12mo. 4. 'Observations in 
Myology,' Cambridge and London, 1872, 
3vo. 5. ' Cambridge : the Town, University, 
and Colleges,' Cambridge, 1880, 12mo ; a 
very excellent little guide book. 7. ' Old 
Age : the Results of Information received 
respecting nearly Nine Hundred Persons 
who had attained the Age of Eighty Years, 
Including Seventy-four Centenarians,' Cam- 
bridge, 1889. Humphry was also founder 
and co-editor (with Sir William Turner, 
M.D.) of the ' Journal of Anatomy and 
Physiology,' Cambridge and London, 1866. 

[Personal knowledge ; private information ; 
Trans. Royal Med. and Chirurg. Soc. 1897, vol. 
Izxx. ; St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports, 
1896, vol. xxxii.] D'A. P. 

WOLFE (1855?-! 897), novelist, eldest 
daughter of Canon Fitzjohn Stannus Hamil- 
ton, vicar-choral of Ross Cathedral and rector 
of Ross, co. Cork, was born about 1855, and 
educated in Ireland. Her early home was at 
St. Brenda's, co. Cork. She married, first, 
Edward Argles, a Dublin solicitor, by whom 
she had three daughters; and, secondly, 
Mr. Thomas H. Hungerford, by whom she 
bad two sons and one daughter. She died 
of typhoid fever at Bandon on 24 Jan. 

Mrs. Hungerford wrote over thirty novels 
dealing with the more frivolous aspects of 
modern society. They had a great vogue in 
their day. The first, ' Phyllis,' appeared in 
1877 ; the most popular of all was perhaps 
' Molly Bawn ' (1878). Most of the books 
appeared anonymously, but a few bore the 
pseudonym ' The Duchess.' Her plots are 
poor and conventional, but she possessed the 
Faculty of reproducing faithfully the tone of 
contemporary society. 

[Allibone's Diet., Suppl. ii. 872; Times, 
25 Jan. 1897.] E. L. 

3 Hunt 

1896), landscape painter, born at Liverpool 
on 15 Nov. 1830, was the seventh child, and 
the only son who survived infancy, of the 
painter Andrew Hunt [q. v.J, by his marriage 
with Sarah Sanderson. He was educated 
at the Liverpool collegiate school, and gained 
a scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, in 1848. In 1851 he won the Newdi- 
gate prize for English verse, the subject being 
' Nineveh,' and he graduated B.A. in 1852. 
In 1853 he was elected to a fellowship at his 
college, which he resigned on his marriage in 
1861 . In 1882 the college paid him the com- 
pliment of electing him an honorary fellow. 
He had painted since the age of eight 
under his father's instruction, and had spent 
his vacations during his school and college 
days in sketching from nature in Scotland, 
Cumberland, Wales, and Devonshire, and 
in 1850 on the Rhine. He had exhibited 
drawings at a very early age at the Liver- 
pool Academy, of which he became a member 
in 1850, and later at the Portland Gallery 
in London. At Oxford he was deeply im- 
pressed by the writings of John Ruskin and 
by the art of Turner. James Wyatt, the 
well-known print-seller in the High Street, 
purchased his drawings, though not on a 
liberal scale of remuneration, and encouraged 
him to adopt painting as a profession. Hunt 
hesitated for a time between an academic 
and an artistic career. He was a good 
scholar, a clear and ready speaker, and took 
much interest in politics as well as litera- 
ture ; but he was first and foremost an artist, 
and Wyatt turned the scale in 1854 by 
giving him a commission to go to Wales and 
paint as much as he could. In that year he 
exhibited a picture, ' Wastdale Head from 
Styhead Pass, Cumberland,' at the Royal 

1 Academy, and two years later a small oil- 
painting by him, ' Llyn Idwal, Carnarvon- 
shire,' was hung on the line. It was much 
praised by Ruskin, and was followed by 

I other landscapes. These, however, were too 
much in the pre-Raphaelite manner to find 
favour with the hanging committee. In 

1857 his pictures were badly hung, and in 

1858 an elaborate work, ' The Track of an 
Old- World Glacier,' was refused. Ruskin 
protested vehemently in his notes on the 
Academy against the treatment of Hunt, but 
his combative championship did the painter 
little good in official circles. Hunt was at 
this time in close touch with the pre- 
Raphaelites, though not a member of the 
brotherhood, and he was one of the original 
members of the Hogarth Club. He exhibited 
at the Academy each year from 1859 to 1862, 
but his pictures were badly hung, and after 



that time persistently refused, till he ceased 
to send them in. This discouragement 
caused him almost to abandon oil-painting, 
though he was no less gifted in the use of 
oils than in that of water-colours. In 1862 
he was unanimously elected an associate of 
the Old Water-colour Society, to which he 
became a regular contributor. He was 
elected a full member in 1864. For about 
seven years he worked in water-colours only, 
but in 1870 he again exhibited an oil-painting 
at the Royal Academy, and continued to 
do so occasionally till within a few years of 
his death. His contributions amounted in 
all to thirty-seven. At the gallery in Pall 
Mall East he exhibited more than three 
hundred water-colours, and these represent 
only a small proportion of his life's work, 
for he was a rapid though a very careful 
worker. He devoted much time and energy 
to the service of the Royal Water-colour 
Society, as it has been called since 1881 ; 
this advance and the prosperity which the 
society has enjoyed in recent years were due 
in some measure to Hunt's exertions. He 
was a trustee of the society from 1879 on- 
wards, and acted as deputy-president in 1888. 
He was largely instrumental in organising 
the Art Club, for social meetings and tem- 
porary loan exhibitions, in connection with 
the society, which was formed in 1883. 

After his marriage in 1861 Hunt lived 
for a time at Durham, but in 1865 he came 
to London and took a house, 1 Tor Villas 
(afterwards called 10 Tor Gardens), Camp- 
den Hill, Kensington, which had been occu- 
pied previously by Mr. James Clarke Hook 
and Mr. Holman Hunt. This was his resi- 
dence during the remainder of his life, and 
he died there on 3 May 1896. A fine and 
representative loan collection of his works 
was exhibited in the following year at the 
private gallery of the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club. Exhibitions had been held in his 
lifetime at the Grosvenor Gallery and in 
the rooms of the Fine Art Society in New 
Bond Street (1884). 

On 16 Nov. 1861 Hunt married Margaret, 
second daughter of James Raine [q. v.] Mrs. 
Hunt, who, with three daughters, survives 
him, is the authoress of several novels. 

Hunt painted much at Durham, on the 
Tees, and at Whitby and other places on the 
north-east coast of England, but also on the 
Thames (Sonning, Pangbourne, Windsor, 
&c.), in Scotland and Wales, in Switzerland, 
on the Rhine and Moselle, and in Italy, Sicily, 
and Greece, during a tour of nine months 
in 1869-70. He visited America and painted 
the Falls of Niagara in a season of exceptional 
drought. He was a devoted disciple, but by 

no means a mere imitator, of Turner. Like 
Turner, he was a painter of the sky, of 
cloud, sunshine, and mist. He used water- 
colour with an exquisite purity and delicacy, 
and was no less diligent m the exact study 
of nature than in acquiring mastery over the 
technicalities of his art. He took a very 
high view of the function of the artist, and 
had a deep and reverent love for the beauty 
of the world as a manifestation of the divine. 
His sincere and modest work, inspired by 
an aim so spiritual, did not show to advan- 
tage in a mixed exhibition, and failed to 
attract the attention it deserved, especially 
at the Academy ; but his reputation witli 
collectors and good judges of art stands 
high, and is certain to increase. Most of 
his pictures are in private hands ; ' Windsor 
Castle' (1889) is in the Tate Gallery, and 
'Working Late' (exhibited in 1873) is in 
the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. 

[Times, 5 May 1896; Daily Graphic, 7 May 
1896; Illustrated London News, 16 May 1896, 
with portrait ; Athenaeum, 9 May 1896; Cata- 
logue of Exhibition at Burlington Fine Arts 
Club, with introduction by Cosmo Monkhouse ; 
other exhibition catalogues ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists ; private information.] C. D. 

HUNTER, ROBERT (1823-1897), lexi- 
cographer, theologian, and missionary, born 
at Newburgh, Fifeshire, on 3 Sept. 1823, was 
son of John M. Hunter, a native of Wig- 
townshire, and Agnes Strickland of Ulvers- 
ton, Lancashire. His father was a collector 
in her majesty's excise. Hunter attended at 
the university of Aberdeen, where he gra- 
duated in 1840. He received an appoint- 
ment in connection with education in Ber- 
muda and resided there for two years. On 
account of his work as a naturalist while 
in Bermuda he attracted the attention and 
elicited the warm commendation of Sir 
William Jackson Hooker [q . v.] of Kew, and 
of Sir Richard Owen [q. v.j, both of whom 
advised him to devote himself to branches 
of natural science. Hunter, however, pre- 
ferred to continue his studies for the mini- 
stry of the free church of Scotland, and, 
having attended the requisite theological 
classes in Edinburgh, he was licensed as a 
preacher of the free church. On 22 Oct. 
1846 he was ordained colleague of Stephen 
Hislop [q.v.] of the free church mission at 
Nagpore, Central India. He gave nine years 
of distinguished service to the educational 
and evangelistic advancement of that popu- 
lous district, and while doing so made several 
important discoveries in geological science. 
But failure of health compelled him in 1855 
to return home. He subsequently assisted 
Alexander Duff [q.v.] in forming missionary 


associations in the free church, and from 
1864 to 1866 he was resident tutor in the 
theological college of the presbyterian church 
of England in London. 

The remainder of Hunter's life was de- 
voted mainly to literary work. For seven- 
teen years he was engaged in editing the 
'Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' published in 
1889, and reissued in 1895 by the proprietor 
of the ' Daily Chronicle ' as ' Lloyd's Ency- 
clopaedic Dictionary.' Sir Richard Owen i 
called it ' a colossal work.' It is a monu- j 
nient of wide knowledge, clear arrangement, 
and judicious condensation. He also pub- I 
lished the ' Sunday School Teacher's Bible , 
Manual ' (1893), now known as Cassell's 
' Concise Bible Dictionary' (1894), and was 
a frequent contributor to the ' British and 
Foreign Evangelical Review ' and other reli- 
gious journals and periodicals of the day. 

AVhile engaged in literary work Hunter 
also continued to render good service in 
evangelistic work in London. He founded 
the Victoria Docks Sunday school and 
church in connection with the presbyterian 
church of England, and for over twenty 
years conducted religious services at Seward- 
stone, near Tottenham. 

The university of Aberdeen conferred the 
degree of LL.D. upon Hunter in 1883. He 
was also a fellow of the Geological Society, 
a member of the British Archaeological So- 
ciety, and was connected with other learned 
bodies. He was a man of vast learning, of 
extensive scientific attainments, and of great 
application a man, too, of a humble, gentle, 
and retiring disposition and of genuine piety. 
He died on 25 Feb. 1897 at his residence in 
Epping Forest. An earnest preacher of the 
gospel and a devoted missionary, he will 
be specially remembered as an experienced 
scientist and a skilful lexicographer. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Hunter published: 1. 'History of India,' 
1863. 2. ' History of the Missions of the 
Free Church of Scotland in India and Africa,' 

[Information chiefly from the Eev. "W. Hume 
Elliot, Ramsbottom, by whom a memoir of 
Hunter is to be published shortly ; in the Brit. 
Mus. Cat. Hunter's works are ascribed to two 
different persons.] T. B. J. 

(1844-1898), lawyer, born in Aberdeen on 
8 May 1844, was the eldest son of James 
Hunter, granite merchant, by his wife, Mar- 
garet Boddie of Aberdeen. He was edu- 
cated at the grammar school and university 
(King's College) of Aberdeen, entering 
college at the age of sixteen, with a high 
place in the bursary competition. In 1862- 

1863 he was first prizeman in logic, moral 
philosophy, Christian evidences, botany, 
and chemistry, and in 1864 graduated as 
M. A. with ' the highest honours ' in mental 
philosophy and in natural science. Be- 
sides several prizes he gained the Ferguson 
scholarship in mental philosophy, and the 
Murray scholarship awarded by the univer- 
sity after a competitive examination in all the 
subjects of the arts curriculum. With 
this successful record he was encouraged to 
read for the bar, and entered the Middle 
Temple in 1865. After taking numerous 
exhibitions awarded by the council of legal 
education, and passing his examinations 
with first-class honours, he was called to 
the English bar in 1867, and joined the 
south-eastern circuit. 

For some years Hunter's work was almost 
entirely educational. In 1868 he gained 
the ' proxime accessit Shaw fellowship ' 
in philosophy, which, like the Ferguson, 
is open to graduates of all Scottish univer- 
sities. Shortly afterwards he took the 
Blackwell prize for the best essay on the 
philosophy of Leibnitz, and on 7 Aug. 1869 
was appointed professor of Roman law at 
University College, London. His class was 
never large, but he devoted much time to 
the preparation of his lectures, and elabo- 
rated a logical arrangement of the subject, 
which afterwards appeared in his text- 
books. In 1878 he resigned the chair of 
Roman law, and on 2 Nov. was appointed 
professor of jurisprudence in the same 
college. His lectures on this subject during 
the four years he held the chair contained 
much valuable criticism of Austen and 
other writers, but the matter was not pub- 
lished except in a few magazine articles. 
L'nder the influence of John Stuart Mill he 
took an active part in the agitation for the 
political enfranchisement of women, and 
aided in obtaining for them opportunities of 
higher education. In 1875, following the 
example of Professor John Eliot Cairnes 
[q. v.], he admitted women to his class in 
Roman law, and extended to them the same 
privilege when he afterwards became pro- 
lessor of jurisprudence. In 1882 he resigned 
his chair of jurisprudence at University 
College, and in the same year received the 
degree of LL.D. from the university of 
Aberdeen. While professor at University 
College Hunter acted from time to time as 
examiner in Roman law and jurisprudence at 
the university of London, and he wrote on 
social and political subjects in the ' Ex- 
aminer ' and other newspapers. He was for 
five years editor of the ' Weekly Dispatch.' 
In 1875 he wrote a pamphlet on the ' Law of 




Master and Servant,' and gave much atten- 
tion to the interpretation of the law as it 
affected labour disputes. On retiring from 
his chair at University College in 1882 
Hunter gave whatever time was not occupied 
in professional pursuits to political contro- 
versy. In conjunction with his friend, 
James Barclay, M.P. for Forfarshire, he took 
part in the attempts then being made by 
English and Scottish tenant farmers to ob- 
tain compensation for improvements. He 
also took up in the same interest the question 
of railway rates, and succeeded in obtaining 
important improvements in restrictions on 
charges and in the classification of goods 
and rates. He collected some materials for 
a work on private bill legislation, but this 
was never completed. 

In 1885 Hunter was elected member of 
parliament for the north division of Aber- 
deen by a majority of 3,900 over the con- 
servative candidate. His friendship with 
Charles Bradlaugh [q. v. Suppl.] and his 
intimate acquaintance with natives from In- 
dia who had passed through his hands as law 
students had familiarised him with Indian 
questions, and on 21 Jan. 1886 he began his 
career in the House of Commons by moving 
an amendment to the address expressing re- 
gret that the revenues of India had been 
applied to defray the expenses of the military 
operations in Ava without the consent of 
parliament. This was withdrawn at Glad- 
stone's suggestion. 

At the general election in the same year 
Hunter declared himself in favour of home 
rule, and was returned for North Aberdeen 
unopposed. In 1888 he was appointed by 
thecouncil of legal education reader in Roman 
law, international law, and jurisprudence. 
Next year the government, when legislating 
on local government in Scotland, appro- 
priated probate duty to the payment of the 
fees of children taking the three lowest stan- 
dards in elementary schools. In 1 890 Hunter 
saw the chance of completely freeing ele- 
mentary education from the payment of fees, 
and urged that the increase in the duties, 
which the government then imposed on 
spirits, should pay the fees in elementary 
schools on the standards above the three 
lowest. This he succeeded in carrying, and 
thus secured wholly free elementary educa- 
tion for Scotland. For this service he re- 
ceived the freedom of his native city in 1890. 
On 27 Jan, 1891 Hunter moved that the 
resolution refusing permission to Bradlaugh 
to take the oath or make affirmation should 
be expunged from the records of the House 
of Commons, and this was carried without 
a division. He had always been interested 

in old age pensions, which he was the first 
to press upon the attention of parliament, 
and gave valuable assistance to those at- 
tempting to bring forward a feasible scheme. 
But his health was rapidly failing, and he 
seldom intervened in debate during his re- 
maining years in parliament. In 1895 he 
was re-elected as member for North Aber- 
deen by a majority of 3,548, but retired from 
parliament in the following year owing to 
the state of his health. On the recommen- 
dation of Mr. A. J. Balfour he was awarded 
a civil list pension of 200/. He died on 
21 July 1898 at Cults in Aberdeenshire. 

Hunter's most important work was 'A 
Systematic and Historical Exposition of 
Roman Law in the order of a Code embody- 
ing the Institutes of Gaius and of Justinian, 
translated into English by J. A. Cross,' Lon- 
don, 1876 ; 2nd edit, enlarged, 1885. The 
chief characteristic of this work was its 
order of arrangement, which was based on 
that recommended by Bentham for a civil 
code. Under the head of ' contracts ' some 
important criticisms of Maine's theory of the 
origin of Stipulatio are given, and under 
' ownership ' a new theory respecting bona 
fidePossessio is put forward entirely opposed 
to that of Savigny. The 'Introduction to 
Roman Law,' which appeared in 1880 (3rd 
ed. 1885), was a smaller work containing 
such parts of the subject as students required 
for pass examinations. 

Besides the above works Hunter pub- 
lished ' The Trial of Muluk Chand for the 
Murder of his own Child : a Romance of 
Criminal Administration in Bengal. With 
an Introduction by W. A. Hunter, LL.D., 
M.P.,' 1888. 

[Personal knowledge."] E. 0. 

(1840-1900), Indian civilian, historian, and 
publicist, was born on 15 July 1840. His 
father was Andrew Galloway Hunter, a 
Glasgow manufacturer, who came from Den- 
holm in Roxburghshire. His mother, Isa- 
bella, was a younger sister of James Wilson 
(1805-1860) [q. v.], and he was thus con- 
nected with Walter Bagehot [q. v.], who 
married a daughter of James Wilson. He 
was educated at Glasgow, first at the aca- 
demy and afterwards at the university, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1860. He then spent 
some months in study at Paris and Bonn, 
acquiring (among other things) a useful 
knowledge of Sanskrit. At the open com- 
petition for the Indian civil service in 1861, 
he came out at the head of the list. 

On arriving in India in November 1862 
Hunter was posted to the lower provinces of 


Bengal. His first appointment was that of 
assistant magistrate and collector in the re- 
mote district of Birbhum. Here, in addition 
to his official duties, he ransacked old records 
and collected local traditions, in order to "ob- 
tain materials for publication. It is charac- 
teristic alike of his industry and his ambition 
that his first literary venture took the form, 
not of a slight magazine article, but of a 
considerable historical work, intended to be 
the precursor of a series, entitled ' The Annals 
of Rural Bengal.' On its publication in 
1868, this was received with universal 
eulogy, for it was immediately recognised 
that India had now found a voice to make 
the dry details of administration not only 
intelligible but attractive. The book has 
since passed through six editions. In 1872 
followed a yet more important work, in two 
volumes, on ' Orissa,' a province which will 
always be interesting for its far-famed temple 
of Jagannath, and which at that time had 
drawn special notice as the scene of a disas- 
trous famine. Another publication of these 
early days was ' A Comparative Dictionary 
of the Non- Aryan Languages of India and 
High Asia' (1868), being a glossary of 139 
dialects based mainly upon the collections 
formed by Brian Houghton Hodgson [q. v. 
Suppl.], with a political dissertation on the 
relations of the Indian government with the 
aboriginal tribes. Of this work it should 
be observed that the author subsequently 
withdrew some of the linguistic inductions, 
and went so far as to describe it as one ' for 
which my opportunities and my knowledge 
were then inadequate.' 

Meanwhile, Hunter had been selected by 
Lord Mayo to organise perhaps the most 
gigantic literary enterprise that has ever 
been undertaken by any government a sta- 
tistical survey of the Indian empire, such 
as Sir John Sinclair [q. v.] attempted one 
hundred years ago for Scotland. At this 
distance of time it is difficult to realise the 
density of the ignorance that then prevailed 
with regard to the fundamental facts upon 
which good administration must be based. 
No general census had been taken, and the 
wildest estimates of population found ac- 
ceptance. Each of the provinces remained 
isolated in respect of its knowledge of the 
rest, and the supreme government possessed 
no information to enable it to exercise the 
duty of supervision or (if need should arise 
in case of famine) of assistance. So far back 
as 1867 the government had resolved that a 
gazetteer should be prepared for each of the 
twelve great provinces of India. But there 
was no guarantee for uniformity in the exe- 
cution of the work. In July 1869 Lord 


r Hunter 

Mayo placed Hunter on special duty ' to 
submit a comprehensive scheme for utilising 
the information already collected, for pre- 
scribing the principles according to which 
all local gazetteers are in future to be pre- 
pared, and for the consolidation into one 
work of the whole of the materials that 
may be available.' This task occupied the 
next twelve years of Hunter's life. His first 
duty was to travel over the whole of India, 
so as to put himself into communication 
with the local officials, and see things with 
his own eyes. These tours, often repeated, 
gave him an acquaintance with every corner 
of the peninsula such as few others could 
boast. As was to be expected, he encoun- 
tered some opposition and not a little per- 
sonal criticism, directed chiefly against the 
uniform system of spelling place-names which 
it was necessary to introduce. But his en- 
thusiasm and diplomacy finally triumphed 
over all obstacles. The Hunterian com- 
promise, based upon a transliteration of ver- 
nacular names, without any diacritical marks 
but with a concession to the old spelling of 
places that have become historical, has gra- 
dually won acceptance even in English news- 

In September 1871 the new post of 
director-general of statistics to the govern- 
ment of India was created for Hunter, who 
was further privileged to spend long periods 
in England for the greater convenience of 
the work. In addition to supervising the 
local editors and drawing up the scheme of 
the ' Imperial Gazetteer,' he took upon him- 
self Bengal, the largest and least known 
province in India, and also Assam, whicli 
then formed an integral part of Bengal. 
' The Statistical Account of Bengal ' was 
published in twenty volumes between 1875 
and 1877. The city of Calcutta is omitted, 
but the last volume contains a valuable 
appendix on fishes and plants. 'The Sta- 
tistical Account of Assam' followed, in two 
volumes, in 1879. The other local gazetteers 
compiled in India raise the total number of 
volumes to 128, aggregating 60,000 pages. 
Meanwhile the task of condensing this 
enormous mass of material into ' The Im- 
perial Gazetteer of India ' was going on apace. 
The first edition, in nine volumes, appeared 
in 1881 ; and a second edition, which was 
augmented to fourteen volumes, incorpo- 
rating the latest statistics and the results of 
the census of 1881, appeared in 1885-7. It 
is not too much to say that this will rank 
among the monumental works of reference 
which our generation has produced. Hunter, 
of course, did not accomplish all this single- 
handed. Among his many gifts was that 





of getting their best work out of his assis- 
tants, who were content to merge them- 
selves in his identity. But his was the 
mind that planned the whole, and his the 
energy that caused it to appear with such 
promptitude. The stamp of his own special 
handiwork may be found in the article on 
' India,' which was reissued in 1895 in a 
revised form under the title of ' The Indian 
Empire : its Peoples, History, and Pro- 
ducts,' forming a volume of 852 pages. 
Here he has given a summary of his opinions 
about many vexed questions in the ethnical 
and religious history of early India, which 
he had at one time hoped to treat at greater 
length. Specially valuable is the account 

Slven from original sources of the growth of 
hristianity in Southern India. A conden- 
sation of this important work for school 
use, entitled ' A Brief History of the Indian 
Peoples ' (1880), has sold to the number of 
nearly ninety thousand copies, and has been 
translated into five vernacular languages. 

In 1881, after the first edition of the 
' Imperial Gazetteer' had passed through 
the press, Hunter returned to India as an 
additional member of the governor-general's 
council. This appointment, which is equi- 
valent to a seat in the legislature, was twice 
renewed, making a term of six years. Dur- 
ing this period his most important duty was 
to preside over the commission on educa- 
tion, appointed in 1882 to regulate the diver- 
gent systems that had grown up in the 
several provinces. The report of the com- 
mission, drafted by Hunter's hand and almost 
wholly accepted by the government, marks 
a new departure in the increased attention 
paid to the elementary instruction of the 
masses, and in the recognition of private en- 
terprise, whether displayed by missionaries 
or by the people themselves. All subsequent 
improvement in education has been upon the 
lines of this report. Hunter was also a 
member of the commission on finance that 
sat in 1886, and he was sent to England 
in 1884 to give evidence before a committee 
of the House of Commons on Indian rail- 
ways. Another post that he filled was that 
of vice-chancellor of the university of Cal- 
cutta (1886). 

In 1887 Hunter finally retired from the 
service at the early age of forty-seven, to 
devote the remainder of his life to working 
up the materials he had accumulated for a 
great history of India. During his previous 
visits to Great Britain he had resided at 
Edinburgh, where he went so far as to build 
himself a house, which afterwards passed 
into the occupation of Professor John Stuart 
Blackie [q. v. Suppl.] He now resolved to 

settle at Oxford. After spending a few years 
in the city and being initiated into aca- 
demical life, he bought a plot of ground 
about three miles out on the Eynsham road, 
on the slope of the Witham Woods, com- 
manding a view over the Valley of the White 
Horse. Here he built a comfortable house, 
which he called Oaken Holt, with accom- 
modation for his library and also for his 
horses and his dogs. The superabundance 
of his energy found vent in many forms, 
especially in travel ; but he never allowed 
pleasure to interfere with work. In former 
times he had written much for the ' Calcutta 
Englishman.' He now became a regular 
contributor to the 'Times,' where his weekly 
articles on Indian affairs exercised great in- 
fluence. One of the first things that he did 
after settling at Oxford was to arrange with 
the delegates of the Clarendon Press for the 
publication of a series of little volumes called 
' The Rulers of India.' These were intended 
as historical retrospects rather than personal 
biographies, their object being to awaken 
popular interest in the spectacle afforded by 
the gradual growth of our eastern empire. 
He opened the series, which now consists of 
twenty-eight volumes, with a model memoir 
on the administration of Lord Dalhousie 
(1890), and followed it up with ' Lord Mayo,' 
condensed from a full-length biography which 
he had previously written in two volumes 
(1875). That biography of Lord Mayo is 
notable for containing an admirable analysis 
of the machinery of the supreme government 
in India which controls the local administra- 
tions. In a book entitled ' Bombay, 1885 to 
1890 ' (1892), Hunter supplemented this by 
a detailed examination of the administration 
of the Western Presidency, under the go- 
vernorship of Lord Reay. He had at one 
time hoped to write the life of Sir Bartle 
Frere [q.v.], the greatest of recent governors 
of Bombay ; but this project fell through. 
Instead, he took up the biography of Brian 
Houghton Hodgson, the veteran orientalist, 
who had first aroused his interest in the races 
and languages of India. Other publications 
of this period were ' The Old Missionary ' 
(1895), an idyll which makes one regret that 
he did not more often indulge his lighter 
vein ; and ' The Thackerays in India ' (1897), 
which is worthy of its subject. He also com- 
piled a bibliography of books about India, 
Avhich, out of the abundance of his own 
library, he contributed to James Samuelson's 
' India Past and Present ' (1890). 

All these books, and not a few others, 
might be called ' Chips from an Anglo- 
Indian Workshop.' They represent the 
overflow of his literary activity, while his 



,inind was none the less bent on executing 
the project of a history of India, which he 
had formed long ago during his first years 
of service in Birbhum. How thorough 
were his early researches may be seen from 
the three volumes of ' Bengal MS. Records,' 
which he calendared at that time, though 
he did not publish them till 1894, with a 
dissertation on the permanent settlement. 
He also compiled a catalogue of 380 historical 
manuscripts in the library of the India 
office. Hunter was not destined to carry 
his original design to completion. He was 
reluctantly compelled to realise that no 
individual, however laborious, could compass 
the entire field. He therefore abandoned 
the early period of Hindu and Muhammadan 
dynasties, and devoted himself to tracing 
the growth of British dominion. This 
limited design, on the scale sketched out by j 
the author, would have filled five volumes. 
Only one appeared in his lifetime (1899), 
which barely opens the subject, for it stops 
with the massacre of Amboyna in 1623, 
before the English company had founded its 
first settlements on the mainland of India. 
A second volume, continuing the narrative 
to the close of the seventeenth century, was 
published in November 1900. The sample j 
given is sufficient to enable us to realise i 
what the bulk would have been, and how 
great the loss caused by the author's prema- 
ture death. By his painstaking investigation 
of contemporary documents, often hidden in 
Portuguese and Dutch archives, Hunter 
satisfied the most austere standard of an 
historian's duty. By his wide generalisations 
and his recognition of the influence exercised 
by national character and sea power, he j 
shows himself a representative of the modern 
school of historical writing. The vigour 
and picturesqueness of his literary style are 
all his own. 

In the winter of 1898-9 Hunter was called 
upon to undertake the tedious railway 
journey across Europe to Baku on the Cas- 
pian, to sit by the sick-bed of a son. On his 
return influenza seized him, and ultimately i 
affected his heart. He died at Oaken Holt j 
on G Feb. 1900. He was buried in the 
churchyard of Cumnor, his funeral being 
attended by representatives of the university ' 
of Oxford, by many distinguished Anglo- j 
Indian friends, and by a crowd of villagers 
who mourned their benefactor. 

Hunterwasappointed C.I.E. in 1878, C.S.I, 
in 1884, and K. C.S.I, on his retirement from 
India in 1887. In 1869 his own university 
of Glasgow gave him the degree of LL.D. 
When he first settled at Oxford, in 1889, 
the university conferred upon him the ex- 

ceptional distinction of M.A. by decree of 
convocation, which carried with it full rights 
of suffrage. Cambridge made him an honorary 
LL.D. in 1887. He was a vice-president of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, and member of 
many learned bodies both in England and on 
the continent. He was also proud of being 
elected by his neighbours as county coun- 
cillor for the Cumnor division of Berkshire. 
On 4 Dec. 1863 Hunter married Jessie, 
daughter of Thomas Murray (1792-1872) 

Ec[. v.] She accompanied him in many of 
is journeys, and shared his literary toils. 
She survives him, together with two sons, 
of whom the elder is a captain in the army. 

[Private information. An authorised bio- 
graphy of Sir W. W. Hunter is being written by 
F. H. B. Skrine, formerly of the Bengal Civil 
Service.] J. S. C. 

1897), theologian, journalist, and man of 
letters, born at Leeds on 2 June 1826, was 
the grandson of Joseph Hutton (1765-1856), 
Unitarian minister of Eustace Street congre- 
gation, Dublin, and the third son of Joseph 
Hutton (1790-1860), Unitarian minister at 
Mill Hill chapel, Leeds. His mother was 
Susannah Grindal, eldest daughter of John 
Holt of Nottingham. In 1835 his father re- 
moved to London to become the minister of 
the congregation at Carter Lane. Richard 
was educated at University College School 
and at University College, under Augustus De 
Morgan [q. v.], graduating B.A. in 1845 and 
M.A. in 1849, and obtaining the gold medal 
for philosophy besides high distinction in 
mathematics. At University College he be- 
came intimate with Walter Bagehot [q. v.l, 
when neither was more then seventeen. 
They both delighted in discussing their sub- 
jects of study, and Hutton relates how on 
one occasion they ' wandered up and down 
Regent Street for something like two hours in 
the vain attempt to find Oxford Street,' so 
absorbed were they in debating ' whether the 
so-called logical principle of identity (A is 
A) was entitled to rank as a law of thought 
or only as a postulate of language.' 

After spending two semesters at German 
universities, first at Heidelberg in 1841 and 
then at Berlin, he entered Manchester New 
College in 1847 to prepare for the Unitarian 
ministry. There he studied under James 
Martineau [q. v. Suppl.] and John James 
Tayler Tq. v.J His intention of entering the 
ministry, however, came to nothing ; for 
though he preached occasionally, he received 
no call to a permanent charge, his intellec- 
tual discourses, adorned by no grace of de- 
livery, failing to secure appreciation. For a 
short time he filled the office of principal of 



University Hall in London, then an impor- 
tant centre of nonconformist education. In 
1851 he married, and accepted the post of 
editor of the Unitarian magazine, ' The In- 
quirer,' which was offered him by the pro- 
prietor, R. Kinder. John Langton Sanford 
[q. v.] was associated with him in the editor- 
ship in 1852, and among the contributors 
were his brother-in-law, William Caldwell 
Roscoe [q. v.], and Bagehot. At a time 
when the traditions of Priestley and Thomas 
Belsham were still dominant among the 
Unitarians, Hutton advocated many innova- 
tions, and in consequence aroused the disap- 
proval of the more conservative. He ' at- 
tempted to prove that the laity ought to 
have the protection of a litany against the 
arbitrary prayers of the minister, and that 
at least the great majority of the sermons 
ought to be suppressed, and the habit of de- 
livering them discontinued altogether.' These 
counsels of perfection were urged with so 
much ardour that Hutton himself playfully 
acknowledged, long after, that ' only a deno- 
mination of just men made all but "perfect" 
would have tolerated it at all.' In fact the 
measure of tolerance he received was not 
large, his views on doctrine alienating those 
who might have disregarded his innovations 
in practice. His theology was coloured by 
the opinions of John Hamilton Thorn fq. v.] 
and James Martineau, when Martineau's 
name was a word of fear in quiet households. 
Kinder was repeatedly requested to get rid 
of his young editors ; a formal vote of cen- 
sure on them was moved at the annual meet- 
ing of the London district society, and it 
was even proposed to start another paper on 
more orthodox lines. Under such conditions 
Hutton's tenure of office could hardly have 
been long continued, but in 1853 the com- 
plete breakdown of his health compelled him 
to relinquish both his editorship and his ap- 
pointment at University Hall. He found 
himself threatened with consumption, and 
was ordered to the West Indies. He re- 
turned from Barbados in better health but 
a widower, his wife having died there of 
yellow fever. 

Hutton, finding his theological course be- 
set with difficulties, turned to the study of 
the law, in which, however, he did not long 
persevere. He settled in chambers in Lin- 
coln's Inn, began to read for the bar, and 
wrote in the 'Prospective Review.' In 
1855 he and Bagehot became joint editors of 
a new magazine, 'The National Review,' 
which, it is said, was financed by Lady 
Byron. This journal they continued to 
direct until its cessation towards the close 
of 1864. During the first four years of its 



existence they were aided by Roscoe, who 
did some of his best critical work on this 
paper. On his death in 1859 Hutton under- 
took to edit his writings, which were pub- 
lished in 1860 with a memoir, under the 
title of Poems and Essays ' (London, 2 vols. 
8vo). Hutton was professor of mathematics 
from 1856 to 1865 at Bedford College, Lon- 
don, and from 1858 to 1860 he acted as 
assistant-editor of the 'Economist' [see 
WILSON, JAMES, 1805-1860]. 

During this time Hutton, though writing 
on many and various subjects, had never 
ceased to make theology his chief interest. 
He had definitely abandoned the Unitarian 
creed, and had accepted the main principles 
and beliefs of the English church. He was 
early drawn in this direction by his friend- 
ship with Frederick William Robertson 
[q. v.], whose acquaintance he made in 1846 
while Robertson was officiating at the Eng- 
lish church at Heidelberg. From Robertson 
he received a new conception of the doctrine 
of the incarnation, in which he was after- 
wards confirmed by his intercourse with 
Frederick Denison Maurice [q. v.] Bagehot 
took him to hear Maurice preach in Lincoln's 
Inn chapel, and he was permanently im- 
pressed by his voice and manner. In 1853 
Maurice was so pleased with a review of his 
' Theological Essays ' by Hutton in the ' Pro- 
spective Review ' that he sought an intro- 
duction to him through Mr. Henry Solly. 
The acquaintance rapidly ripened into friend- 
ship, and Hutton zealously assisted Maurice 
in his social work in London. The progress 
of Hutton's views on the subject of the in- 
carnation is marked by the publication, in 
1862, of his ' Incarnation and Principles of 
Evidence/ which formed No. 14 of ' Tracts 
for Priests and People.' A doubtful passage 
in this treatise on the doctrine of the divine 
birth was omitted on its republication in 
1871 in his ' Theological Essays.' 

In 1861 Hutton obtained a unique oppor- 
tunity for placing his theological and literary 
opinions before the public. Early in the 
year Mr. Meredith Townsend, who had just 
returned from India after giving up the 
' Friend of India,' purchased the ' Spectator,' 
the well-known weekly liberal paper which 
had been founded by Robert Stephen Rintoul 
[q. v.] in 1828. Hutton was offered a half- 
share in the concern, and in June he became 
joint editor and part proprietor. The pro- 
posal was made by Mr. Townsend at a first 
interview, by an afterthought, when Hutton 
had taken his leave and was on his way 
downstairs ; but the partnership remained 
unbroken until a few months before Hutton's 
death. It was arranged that while Towns- 




end attended to the politics, Hutton should 
take charge of the department of literature. 
The position of the journal was not satisfac- 
tory, and at the commencement of the part- 
nership Hutton and Mr. Meredith further im- 
paired its popularity by resolutely espousing 
the cause of the Northern States in the 
American civil war. Public feeling in Eng- 
land ran strongly in favour of the confede- 
rates, and it was not until the collapse of 
the south in 1865 that the courage of the 
editors obtained its reward. The change in 
public opinion towards the close of the war 
gained the journal a hearing, and the general 
worth of its contents insured it success. Its 
form and character were in many respects 
novel, the ' Saturday Review ' being the only 
similar journal in existence, for the ' Exami- 
ner,' under Albany Fonblanque [q. v.], which 
has been suggested as the source of Hutton's 
inspiration, was different in character. The 
editors consistently supported the liberal 
party until its division in 1886, when, though 
reluctant to withdraw their allegiance to 
Gladstone, they felt compelled to oppose 
home rule. To Hutton the breach with 
Gladstone was especially painful, for the 
two men had long been united by ties of 
personal friendship and by a remarkable 
similarity in their views of life and of the 
relative importance of things and causes. 

In the 'Spectator' Hutton found a pulpit 
from which he could speak on subjects nearest 
his heart, as well as on books and events of 
the day. In theological questions he first 
made his mark as the champion of Chris- 
tianity against agnostic and rationalistic 
teachers. For this task Hutton was qualified 
by the breadth of his mind, the accuracy of 
his understanding, and his profound know- 
ledge of current religious thought. Pre- 
eminently catholic in spirit he was removed 
from lesser party differences, and was able 
to comprehend and reconcile many posi- 
tions which to smaller men seemed hope- 
lessly antagonistic. While it would be 
idle to regard him as standing in the first 
rank of theologians, it may be questioned 
whether any of his contemporaries influenced 
public opinion more widely. This influence 
was exercised both through the 'Spectator' 
and by means of the vast correspondence he 
kept up with private persons on matters of 
religious controversy. As time advanced 
his sympathy with the high Anglican and 
Roman positions increased, and while never 
identifying himself with either party, his 
later friends, including William George 
Ward, Dean Church, and Canon Liddon, were 
drawn from both. For Cardinal Newman 
also he had a great admiration, regarding 

the spiritual character of his life as standing 
in strange contrast ' to the eager and agitated 
turmoil of confused passions, hesitating 
ideals, tentative virtues, and grasping philan- 
thropies amid which it has been lived.' He 
contributed a memoir of ' Cardinal New- 
man' in 1891 to the series entitled 'English 
Leaders of Religion/ 

Hutton's later literary labours were some- 
what overshadowed by his theological writ- 
ings, but they were not without importance. 
His literary interests were especially directed 
to the great writers of the close of the 
eighteenth and the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. Although in such a field 
he could reveal little hitherto unknown, his 
intense sympathy rendered his studies of 
such writers as Scott, Shelley, and Browning 
of much value. On the critical side his 
work is less satisfactory, his keen apprecia- 
tion of the merits of his favourites frequently 
rendering him incapable of considering their 
defects. In writers of the late nineteenth 
century he took less interest, and perhaps in 
the ' Spectator ' he underestimated the lite- 
rary value of their work. In 1865, on the 
foundation of the ' Pall Mall Gazette,' Hut- 
ton was recommended to the proprietor, Mr. 
George Smith, by Mr. Frederick Greenwood 
for the post of editor. Although Mr. Smith 
preferred to appoint Greenwood himself, 
Hutton became a contributor, and in 1866 
published ' Studies in Parliament ' (London, 
8vo), a series of sketches of leading poli- 
ticians, which had appeared in the 'Pall * 
Mall Gazette,' and which are among his 
happiest writings. In 1871 he issued his 
' Essays, Theological and Literary ' (London, 
2 vols. 8vo). They appeared again, largely 
recast, in 1877, and in the third edition of 
1888 the essays on Shelley and on Browning 
were further revised. In 1877 Hutton lost 
his early friend Bagehot, and undertook to 
edit his writings. This he accomplished in 
three series. In 1879 appeared ' Bagehot's 
Literary Studies,' with a prefatory memoir, 
in 1880 his 'Economic Studies,' and in 1881 
his 'Biographical Studies.' Each of these 
collections went through several editions, 
the latest appearing in 1895. To the second 
volume of this 'Dictionary' Hutton contri- 
buted a notice of his friend. 

Hutton was an original member of the 
Metaphysical Society, founded in April 1869, 
and in August 1885 published an article in 
which he gave a graphic sketch of the society 
and its chief members in the 'Nineteenth 
Century,' whose editor, Mr. James Knowles, 
was the founder of the society. Under the 
form of an imaginary debate on a paper by 
William George Ward, he reproduced the 




opinions and expressions of the leading mem- 
bers of the society with striking fidelity. 

Hutton was a strong opponent of vivisec- 
tion, and frequently attacked the practice in 
the ' Spectator.' In 1875 he served on a 
royal commission on the subject. The re- 
port was unfavourable to the practice, and 
in consequence in 1876 an act of parliament 
was passed by which persons experimenting 
on living animals were required to hold a 
license from the home secretary. 

From 1886 Button lived at Twickenham 
in much retirement, owing chiefly to his 
second wife's long illness, giving up all 
society, even that of his closest friends. 
His wife died early in 1897, and he did not 
long survive her. He died on 9 Sept. 1897 
at his residence, Crossdepe, and was buried 
in Twickenham parish cemetery on 14 Sept. 
' Round his grave were grouped Anglicans, 
Roman catholics, and Unitarians, in about 
equal numbers and in equal grief.' He was 
twice married : first, in 1851, to his cousin, 
Anne Mary (d. 1853), daughter of William 
Stanley Roscoe (1782-1843) ; and secondly, 
in 1858, to Eliza (d. 1897), daughter of 
Robert Roscoe. Both ladies were grand- 
daughters of William Roscoe [q. v.] the his- 
torian. He left no children. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Hutton Avas the author of : 1. 'The relative 
Value of Studies and Accomplishments in 
the Education of Women,' London, 1862, 
8vo. 2. ' Sir Walter Scott,' London, 1878, 
8vo (Morley's ' English Men of Letters'). 
3. ' Essays on some of the Modern Guides 
of English Thought in matters of Faith,' 
London, 1887, 8vo. 4. ' Criticisms on Con- 
temporary Thought and Thinkers,' London, 
1894, 8vo. He contributed ' The Political 
Character of the Working Class' to 'Essays 
on Reform' (London, 1867, 8vo), and 'Re- 
ciprocity ' to a volume of ' Lectures on 
Economic Science,' published by the Xa- 
tional Association for the Promotion of 
Social Science (London, 1870, 8vo). In 
1899 a volume of selections from Hutton's 
writings in the ' Spectator,' entitled ' Aspects 
of Religious and Scientific Thought,' was, 
published under the editorship of his niece, [ 
Miss Elizabeth Mary Roscoe. William 
Watson's ' Lachrymae Musarum and other 
Poems' (London, 1893, 8vo) was dedicated 
to Hutton and Townsend. 

[This article is based on a sketch of Hutton's 
career kindly supplied by Mr. D. C. Lathbury. 
See also Hog ben's Richard Holt Huttoa of the 
Spectator, 1900 ; Academy, 18 Sept. 1897, 
22 April 1899 ; Inquirer, 18 and 25 Sept., 2 and 
9 Oct. 1897: Watson's Excursions in Criticism, 
1893, pp. 113-20; Contemporary Review, Octo- 

ber 1 897 (by Miss Julia Wedgwood) ; Bookman, 
October 1897; Primitive Methodist Quarterly, 
January 1898 (by Robert Hind) ; Wilfrid 
Ward's W. G. Ward and the Catholic Revival, 
1893 ; L. Huxley's Life of Huxley, 1900, i. 439 ; 
Jackson's James Mart iiieau, 1900, pp. 80, 192-3.] 

1895), man of science, was born at Baling 
on 4 May 1825. His father, George Huxley, 
was senior assistant master in a school at 
Baling, which had at that time a considerable 
reputation under the head-mastership of 
Dr. Nicholas. Huxley was the seventh 
child of his parents, and the youngest of 
those who survived infancy. His mother's 
maiden name was Rachel Withers. He says 
of himself : ' Physically and mentally I am 
the son of my mother so completely even 
down to peculiar movements of the hands, 
which made their appearance in me as I 
reached the age she had when I noticed 
them that I can hardly find a trace of my 
father in myself, except an inborn faculty 
for drawing, which unfortunately, in my 
case, has never been cultivated, a hot temper, 
and that amount of tenacity of purpose 
which unfriendly observers sometimes call 

When Huxley was eight years old he was 
sent to the school in which hiis father worked; 
but the death of the head-master led to a 
change in the character of the school, and 
George Huxley left it, taking his family to 
his native town of Coventry. From this 
time Huxley received little or no systematic 
education, and his reading does not seem to 
have been guided by any definite plan. He 
did, however, earnestly and thoroughly read 
books on a great variety of subjects. At 
fourteen he had read Sir William Hamilton's 
' Logic,' and under the influence of Carlyle's 
writings he had begun to learn German. 

In 1839 his two sisters married, and each 
married a doctor. This circumstance seems 
to have determined the choice of a profession 
for Huxley himself, although he tells us 
that his own wish at the time was to become 
a mechanical engineer. One brother-in-law, 
Dr. Cooke of Coventry, strongly excited his 
interest in human anatomy, and in 1841 he 
went to London as apprentice to the other, 
Dr. J. G. Scott. At the first post-mortem 
examination he attended he was in some 
Avay poisoned ; a serious illness resulted, and 
after the immediate effects had passed away 
a form of chronic dyspepsia remained, which 
was a source of serious trouble throughout 
his after life. 

In 1842 he matriculated at London Uni- 
versity, attended Lindley's lectures on 
botany at Chelsea, and endeavoured, in spite 


of a still imperfect knowledge of German, to 
read the great work of Schleiden. In the 
autumn of the same year he and his elder 
brother James obtained scholarships at the 
Charing Cross hospital, where Huxley first 
felt the influence of daily intercourse with a 
really able teacher. He says : ' No doubt it 
was very largely my own fault, but the only 
instruction from which I ever obtained the 
proper effect of education was that which I 
received from Mr. Wharton Jones, who Avas 
the lecturer on physiology at the Charing 
Cross school of medicine. ... I do not know 
that I have ever felt so much respect for any- 
body as a teacher before or since.' During the 
next three years he must have accomplished 
an enormous amount of work. He distin- 
guished himself in the ordinary subjects of 
professional study, but in addition to this he 
acquired in some way or other a remarkably 
thorough knowledge of comparative anatomy, 
and a wide acquaintance with the writings 
of the great biologists. In 1845 he announced 
his discovery of that layer of cells in the 
root-sheath of hair which now bears his 
name. Any one who will try to demonstrate 
the existence of this layer by the methods at 
Huxley's command will appreciate the power 
of observation shown by the discovery. 

He graduated M.B. in London University 
in 1845, winning a gold medal for anatomy 
and physiology. In 1846, being qualified to 
practise his profession, he applied for an ap- 
pointment in the royal navy. An application 
to the director-general, suggested by a fellow- 
student, was successful, and he was sent to 
Haslar hospital on the books of Nelson's ship 
Victory. Sir John Richardson [q. v.], who 
was Huxley's chief at Haslar, quickly recog- 
nised his qualities, and resolved to find him 
an appointment which should enable him to 
prove his worth. Accordingly, when Cap- 
tain Owen Stanley asked for an assistant 
surgeon to be appointed to H.M.S. Rattle- 
snake, then about to start on a surveying 
cruise in the seas between Australia and 
the Great Barrier Eeef, Huxley was recom- 
mended and accepted. 

The Rattlesnake left England on 3 Dec. 
1846, and was paid off at Chatham, on her 
return, on 9 Nov. 1850. During the voyage 
Huxley devoted himself chiefly to the study 
of animals which could not be adequately 
preserved, for examination at home, by any 
methods then in use. Accordingly the first 
results of his work are described in a series 
of memoirs on those delicate hydrozoa, 
tunicates, and mollusca, which float near 
the surface of the sea, and can be caught in 
abundance from the deck of a sailing vessel 
in calm weather. The value of these me- 

3 Huxley 

moirs is due as much to the method of mor- 
phological analysis adopted as to the very 
large amount of new anatomical information 
they contain. The conception of a morpho- 
logical type, which was then supported in 
England by the great influence of (Sir) Richard 
Owen [q. v.], may be understood from his de- 
finition of homology, Avhich he interprets ' as 
signifying that essential character of a part 
which belongs to it in its relation to a pre- 
determined pattern, answering to the "idea" 
of the archetypal world in the Platonic 
cosmogony, which archetype or primal pat- 
tern is the basis supporting all the modifica.- 
tions of such part ... in all animals pos- 
sessing it ' (OwEN, On the Nature of Limbs, 
1849). The conception of morphological 
type as an ' archetypal idea,' which Owen 
had derived from Laurenz Oken( 1779-1 851), 
the German naturalist, and his followers, 
was clearly incapable of being tested by 
experiment, and Huxley from the first re- 
jected it. For him, as for Von Baer and 
Johannes M tiller, the only useful ' morpho- 
logical type ' was a general statement of 
those structural characters common to all 
members of a group of animals in the em- 
bryonic or the adult state. Such conceptions 
could be tested and corrected by observa- 
tion ; and, until the ' Origin of Species ' 
appeared, Huxley regarded any hypothesis 
concerning the nature of the bond between 
animals Avhich exhibit the same structural 
plan as altogether premature. 

When the Rattlesnake left 'England, the 
hydrozoa were commonly associated with 
starfishes, parasitic worms, and infusoria in 
Cuvier's group ' Radiata.' In 1847 Huxley 
sent two papers, dealing Avith the structure 
of a great division of the hydrozoa, to the 
Linnean Society ; in 1848 he sent to the 
Royal Society a memoir ' On the Affinities 
of the Family of the Medusae ' (Phil. Trans. 
1849), and he wrote a letter to Edward 
Forbes [q. v.], published in 1850 (Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist, vi.) In these memoirs the morpho- 
logical type common to all the hydrozoa is 
clearly explained, and in the letter to Ed- 
ward Forbes it is shown that the same 
structural plan may be recognised in sea- 
anemones, corals, and their allies. It is 
pointed out that the plan common to these 
animals is not exhibited by the other ' Ra- 
diata,' and it is proposed to remove both sets 
of animals from the Radiata, regarding them 
as subdivisions of a separate class, 'Nema- 
tophora.' The views embodied in this sug- 
gestion were speedily accepted, and Huxley's 
statement of the morphological plan common 
to the class is now held to embody a firmly 
established anatomical truth. 



In the memoir on the medusae a compari- 
son was made between the two cellular 
' foundation layers ' out of which the body 
wall and the various organs of a polyp or a 
medusa are formed, and the two primary 
layers recognised by Pander and Von Baer 
in the early embryos of vertebrates. Simi- 
larities between the adult condition of lower, 
and the embryonic condition of higher mem- 
bers of the same group of animals had been 
recognised by Meckel, and more fully by Von 
Baer ; but this comparison between the early 
embryo of the highest vertebrates and the 
adult condition of the simplest multicellular 
animals then known went far beyond any 
previous suggestion of the kind. This com- 
parison paved the way for the attempts in- 
augurated later by Haeckel and Dr. Ray 
Lankester, under the influence of Darwin, to 
interpret the embryonic histories of the 
higher animals as evidence of their common 
descent from a two-layered ancestor, essen- 
tially like a hydroid polyp. 

On his return to England in 1850 Huxley 
learnt that the value of his work on Medusas 
had been fully recognised. He was elected 
F.R.S. in 1851, was granted the society's 
medal in 185:?, and found the leading 
biologists in London, especially Edward 
Forbes, were anxious to help him. With 
their help, and that of Sir John Richardson, 
he obtained from the admiralty an appoint- 
ment as assistant surgeon to a ship then 
stationed at Woolwich, with leave of absence 
which enabled him to arrange the materials 
amassed during his voyage, and to prepare 
his notes for publication. Accordingly in 
1851 he published two memoirs on the As- 
cidians, in which several aberrant genera 
(especially appendicularia and doliolum) nre 
shown to be modifications of the same mor- 
phological type as that found in other asci- 
dians ; the relation between salpa and other 
ascidians is clearly explained, while the 
phenomenon of budding, alternating with 
sexual reproduction, which had been shown 
to occur by Chamisso and Eschscholtz, is 
fully described. In the paper ' On the 
Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca' 
(Phil. Trans. 1853) a great advance is made 
upon all previous efforts to recognise the 
structural plan common to the various modi- 
fications of the 'foot,' and the structure of 
the pelagic ' heteropods ' is described. These 
expositions of the morphology of three 
widely different groups of animals established 
Huxley's reputation as a scientific anatomist 
of the first rank; and the success which 
attended his use of simple inductive gene- 
ralisation as a statement of morphological 
type had great effect upon the methods of 

English biologists. While winning reputa- 
tion and the warm friendship of many among 
the ablest men in London, he was not earn- 

! ing money ; and without pecuniary help of 
some sort it was impossible even to publish 

! some of his results. The admiralty felt un- 
able to use funds, entrusted to it for other 

purposes, in assisting to publish anatomical 
works ; and not only so, but in January 
1854 Huxley's request for further leave of 
absence was met by an order to join a ship 
at once. Rather than obey this order he 
preferred to leave the service, and with it 
his only certain income, determined to main- 
tain himself somehow, by writing and lec- 
turing, until he could gain an assured income 
without giving up all hope of scientific work. 
Fortunately a chance of doing this soon 
appeared. In June 1854 his friend, Edward 
Forbes, who had just commenced his course 
of lectures at the Royal School of Mines in 
Jermyn Street, was appointed to the pro- 
fessorship of natural history in Edinburgh. 
Huxley undertook to finish the course in 
London ; in July he was appointed lecturer 
on natural history at the Royal School of 
Mines, and naturalist to the geological sur- 
vey in the following year. The salary 
attached to these posts was small, but with 
such additions as he could make to it in 
other ways he felt justified in taking an 
important step. During the visits of the 
Rattlesnake to Sydney, Huxley had met and 
won the affection of Miss H. A. Heathorn, 
and he felt that his position was now so 
secure that he might ask her to share it. 
Miss Heathorn and her parents set sail for 
England early in 1855, reaching London in 
May. The marriage took place in July of 
the same year. 

Before the end of 1855 Huxley had pub- 
lished more than thirty technical papers, and 
he had given a number of lectures to unpro- 
fessional audiences. One of these, ' On the 
Educational Value of the Natural History 
Sciences ' (1854, Collected Essays, vol. iii.), 
contains those statements concerning the 
fundamental unity of method in all sciences, 
the value of that method in the affairs of 

1 daily life, and its importance as a moral and 
intellectual discipline, which form the 
essence of his popular teaching in later 

1 years. 

From 1855 until 1859 Huxley's time was 
largely occupied by the duties of his new post. 
In his teaching he quickly adopted a system 
afterwards developed until it became the 
model which teachers of biology throughout 
the country endeavoured to imitate. In his 
lectures he described a small series of 
animals, carefully chosen to illustrate im- 

H uxley 

portant types of structure ; and his aim was 
that every student should be enabled to test 
general statements concerning a group ol 
animals by reference to one member of the 
group which he had been made to know 
thoroughly. Huxley realised from the first 
that the thorough knowledge of representa- 
tive animals, which is the only proper 
foundation for a knowledge of morphology, 
ought to be acquired by direct observation 
in the laboratory ; this, however, was im- 
possible in Jermyn Street, and his ideal was 
not completely realised until later. In spite 
of a certain distaste for public speaking, 
which only time and practice enabled him to 
overcome, he devoted much of his most 
strenuous effort to the work of popular ex- 
position. In a letter dated 1855 he says, 
' I want the working classes to understand 
that science and her ways are great facts for 
them that physical virtue is the base of all 
other, and that they are to be clean and 
temperate and all the rest not because 
fellows in black with white ties tell them 
so, but because these are plain and patent 
laws of nature, which they must obey under 

His scientific work during this period was 
influenced by his official duties in a museum 
of palaeontology. The monograph of the 
oceanic hydrozoa, although published in 
1859, had been completed long before. Two 
papers, which continue work begun on the 
Rattlesnake, are the memoir on Pyrosoma 
(Trans. Linn. Soc. 1859), and that on 
Aphis (1857). Each of these describes an 
alternation of generation, and so continues 
the early work on salpa : but with these ex- 
ceptions the greater part of the work pub- 
lished between 1855 and 1859 deals either 
with fossil forms or with problems suggested 
by them. Among the more important of the 
descriptive memoirs (some twenty in num- 
ber) published before the end of 1859, we 
must mention that on cephalaspis and 
pteraspis (1858), in which the truth of the 
suggestion that pteraspis is a fish is finally 
demonstrated ; the accounts of the eury- 
pterina (1856-9) ; the descriptions of 
dicynodon, rhamphorhynchus, and other 
reptiles. These studies of fossils seem to 
have been earned on simultaneously with 
that of the living forms related to them; 
thus the work on fossil fishes (the main 
results of which were not published until 
1862) was accompanied by a study of the 
development of skull and vertebral column in 
recent fishes (Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 
1859), and by the histological work upon 
their exoskeleton published in Todd's ' En- 
cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology ' 

; Huxley 

(article 'Tegumentary Organs'). The de- 
scription of extinct crocodilia led to an 
investigation of the dermal skeleton in living 
genera (Journ. Linn. Soc. 1860). The 
most important problem, suggested by con- 
tinual work upon vertebrates, whether re- 
cent or fossil, is that presented by the com- 
position of the skull. The doctrine prevalent 
in England was that which Owen had 
learned from Goethe and Oken. According 
to Owen, the archetype skeleton of a verte- 
brate 'represents the idea of a series of 
essentially similar segments succeeding each 
other in the axis of the body ; such segments 
being composed of parts similar in number 
and arrangement.' Attempts were made, in 
accordance with this theory, to divide the 
skull into a series of rings, each of which 
was supposed to contain every element pre- 
sent in a post-cranial vertebra. The result 
was a method of description which obscured 
the actual anatomical relations of the parts 
described ; and the attempt to demonstrate 
an archetypal idea by anatomical methods 
reached its climax of absurdity. Huxley 
applied to the skull the same method of 
analysis as that he had so successfully 
applied to other structures. In his essay 
' On the Theory of the Vertebrate Skull,' 
read as the Croonian lecture before the Royal 
Society in 1858, he endeavours to formulate 
a morphological type of cranial structure in 
an inductive statement of those characters 
which are common to the skulls of a number 
of representative vertebrates in the adult 
and embryonic conditions. The lecture is 
based partly on the embryological work of 
Reichert, Rathke, and Remak, supplemented 
by observations of his own upon fishes and 
amphibia ; partly on a careful study of adult 
skulls. The result is a statement of cranial 
structure which has been justified in all 
essential points by the work of the last forty 
years. The lecture on the skull is admira- 
ble not only in substance but in form. The 
character of the audience justified the free 
use of such aid to concise statement as 
technical terms afford ; but when this is re- 
membered the lecture must be regarded as a 
masterpiece of concise and lucid exposition, 
worthy to rank with the most brilliantly 
successful efforts of Huxley's later years. 

For Huxley, as for many others, the most 
important event of 1859 was the publication 
of the ' Origin of Species.' He had main- 
tained a sceptical attitude towards all pre- 
vious hypotheses which involved the trans- 
mutation of species, and, in the chapter 
written for Mr. Francis Darwin's ' Life and 
Letters of Charles Darwin,' he says : ' I took 
my stand upon two grounds : firstly, that up 



to that time the evidence in favour of trans- 
mutation was wholly insufficient ; and, se- 
condly, that no suggestion respecting the 
causes of the transmutation assumed, which 
had been made, was in any way adequate to 
explain the phenomena.' 

l)ar\vin rendered a belief in the occurrence 
of transmutation far easier than it had been 
by his collection of facts illustrating the ex- 
tent of variation ; while the theory of 
natural selection provided a working hypo- 
thesis, adequate to explain the alleged j 
phenomena, and capable of being experi- 
mentally tested. The attempt to secure a ! 
fair trial for the new hypothesis, which 
Huxley felt it his duty to make, involved a 
great expenditure of time and strength. The 
account of the 'Origin of Species' written 
for the 'Times' in 1859, and a lecture 'On j 
Kaces, Species, and their Origin,' delivered 
in 1860, mark the beginning of a long effort, | 
which only ceased as the need for it became j 
gradually less. Many were the discussions ' 
of this doctrine in which he took part, and ! 
especially important and interesting was his ; 
share in the debate on the question during 
the meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science at Oxford in 

The consequence of Darwin's theory, 
which many persons found the greatest 
difficulty in accepting, was a belief in the 
gradual evolution of man from some lower 
form ; and evidence which seemed to esta- 
blish a broad gap between the structure of 
man and that of other animals was wel- 
comed. Great interest was therefore ex- 
cited by a paper which Owen had read in 
1857, and repeated with slight modification 
as the Kede lecture before the university of 
Cambridge in 1859. Owen declared that 
the human brain was distinguished from 
that of all other animals by the backward 
projection of the cerebral hemispheres, so as 
to cover the cerebellum, and by the back- \ 
ward prolongation of the cavity of each ! 
cerebral hemisphere into a ' posterior horn,' j 
with an associated ' hippocampus minor.' j 
It is difficult to understand how an ana- j 
tomist of Owen's experience can have made 
these statements; and his subsequent ex- 
planations are equally unintelligible (e.g. 
OWEN, Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrata, 
1866, vol. i. pp. xix-xx). In 1861 Huxley 
published two essays, one ' On the Brain of 
Ateles Paniscus,' and one ' On the Zoologi- 
cal Relations of Man with the Lower 
Animals,' in which it was clearly shown that 
Owen's statements were inaccurate and in- 
consistent with well-known facts. Between 
1859 and 1862 he gave a series of lectures 

' On the Comparative Anatomy of Man and the 
Higher Apes,' published in book form under 
the title ' Zoological Evidences as to Man's 
Place in Nature ' (1863, Collected Essays, 
vol. vii.) There is a sense in which the publi- 
cation of this book marks the beginning of 
a new period of his work ; because from the 
time of its appearance his writings attracted 
greater attention and affected a far greater 
number of people than before. This book 
and a series of lectures ' On the Causes of 
the Phenomena of Organic Xature,' addressed 
to working men and printed in 1863, were 
widely read and discussed, and from hence- 
forth Huxley devoted a continually in- 
creasing amount of energy to popular 
teaching and to the controversy arising in 
connection with it. His sense of the im- 
portance of such work, and the enjoyment 
he derived from it, may be gathered from 
words which seem, although he uses them 
of Priestley, to give an admirable picture of 
himself. He says : 

' It seems to have been Priestley's feeling 
that he was a man and a citizen before he 
was a philosopher, and that the duties of the 
two former positions are at least as impera- 
tive as those of the latter. However, there 
are men (and I think Priestley was one of 
them) to whom the satisfaction of throwing 
down a triumphant fallacy is at least as 
great as that which attends the discovery of 
a new truth, who feel better satisfied with 
the government of the world when they 
have been helping Providence by knocking 
an imposture on the head, and who care 
even more for freedom of thought than for 
mere advancement of knowledge. These 
men are the Carnots who organise victory 
for truth, and they are at least as important 
as the generals who visibly fight her battles 
in the field ' (1874, Collected Essays, vol. iii.) 

The freedom of thought for which Huxley 
contended was freedom to approach any pro- 
blem whatever in the manner advocated by 
Descartes; andheAvishes his more important 
essays to be regarded as setting forth ' the 
results which, in my judgment, are attained 
by an application of the " method " of Des- 
cartes to the investigation of problems of 
widely different kinds, in the right solution 
of which we are all deeply interested' (ib. 
vol. i. preface). In 1870, after describing 
Descartes's condition of assent to any pro- 
position, he says : ' The enunciation of this 
great first commandment of science conse- 
crated doubt. It removed doubt from the seat 
of penance among the grievous sins to which 
it had long been condemned, and enthroned 
it in that high place among the primary 
duties which is assigned to it by the scien- 


tific conscience of these latter days.' "While 
he held doubt to be a duty, he had no tole- 
rance for careless indifferentisrn ; and he was 
fond of quoting Goethe's description of a 
healthy active doubt: 'Eine thiitige Skepsis 
ist die, welche unablassig bemiiht ist, sich 
selbst zu iiberwinden.' 

The fearless application of Cartesian 
criticism aroused great indignation between 
1860 and 1870, but the essays and addresses 
published during this period did their work. 
They were certainly among the principal 
agents in winning a larger measure of tole- 
rance for the critical examination of funda- 
mental beliefs, and for the free expression of 
honest reverent doubt. The best evidence 
of the effect they have produced is the diffi- 
culty with which men of a younger genera- 
tion realise the outcry caused by ' Man's 
Place in Nature,' or by the lecture ' On the 
Physical Basis of Life \ib. vol. i. 1868). Two 
passages from the last-named lecture may 
be quoted as giving a summary of Huxley's 
philosophical position in his own words : 

' But if it is certain that we can have no 
knowledge of the nature of either matter or 
spirit, and that the notion of necessity is 
something illegitimately thrust into the per- 
fectly legitimate conception of law, the 
materialistic position that there is nothing 
in the world but matter, force, and necessity, 
is as utterly devoid of justification as the 
most baseless of theological dogmas. The 
fundamental doctrines of materialism, like 
those of spiritualism and most other "-isms," 
lie outside " the limits of philosophical en- 
quiry," and David Hume's great service to 
humanity is his irrefragable demonstration 
of what those limits are. . . . Why trouble 
ourselves about matters of which, however 
important they may be, we do know nothing 
and can know nothing ? We live in a world 
which is full of misery and ignorance, and 
the plain duty of each and all of us is to try 
to make the little corner he can influence 
somewhat less miserable and somewhat less 
ignorant than it was before he entered it. 
To do this effectually it is necessary to be 
fully possessed of only two beliefs the first, 
that the order of nature is ascertainable by 
our faculties to an extent which is prac- 
tically unlimited ; the second, that our 
volition counts for something as a condition 
of the course of events. Each of these beliefs 
can be verified experimentally as often as we 
like to try. Each, therefore, stands upon 
the strongest foundation upon which any 
belief can rest, and forms one of our highest 
truths. If we find that the ascertainment 
of the order of nature is facilitated by using 
one terminology, or one set of symbols, rather 

i Huxley 

than another, it is our clear duty to use the 
former ; and no harm can accrue so long as 
we bear in -mind that we are dealing merely 
with terms and symbols.' 

Those who ' care even more for freedom 
of thought than for mere advancement of 
knowledge' may well consider the effect 
produced by his lectures and essays upon 
the minds of English-speaking peoples to be 
the most important result of Huxley's work 
between 1860 and 1870. But they repre- 
sent only a small part of the work he 
actually did during this period. He was an 
active member of four royal commissions (on 
the acts relating to trawling for herrings on the 
coast of Scotland, 18G2 ; on the sea-fisheries 
of the United Kingdom, 18645; on the Royal 
College of Science for Ireland, 1866 ; on 
science and art instruction in Ireland, 1868). 
He was Hunterian professor at the Royal 
College of Surgeons from 1863 to 1869, and 
Fulleriaii professor at the Royal Institution 
from 1863 to 1867 ; he undertook an in- 
creasing amount of administrative work in 
connection with various learned societies, 
especially the Royal, the Zoological, and the 
Ethnological ; and he wrote frequently for 
the reviews, being himself for a short time 
an editor of the quarterly 'Natural History 
Review.' In spite of the increased demands 
upon his time and strength made by all these 
new duties, his purely scientific work rather 
increased than diminished in value and in 

The papers on fossil fishes, already referred 
to, were followed in 1861 by an ' Essay on 
the Classification of Devonian Fishes.' Apart 
from its great value as an addition to our 
knowledge of a difficult group of fishes, this 
essay is remarkable because in it Huxley 
drew attention to the type of fin which he 
called 'crossopterygian,' or fringed, because 
the fin-rays are borne on the sides of a longer 
or shorter central axis. The imperfect know- 
ledge attainable from the study of fossils did 
not permit him at this time to describe the 
structure of the crossoptervgium very fully ; 
but after the discovery of Ceratodus the con- 
ceptions foreshadowed in this essay acquired 
great importance in connection with at- 
tempts to find a common type of limb from 
which both the fin of an ordinary fish and 
the limb of an air-breathing vertebrate might 
conceivably have been derived. 

In 1862 he delivered an address to the 
Geological Society, in which he attacked a 
doctrine then widely held. The order in 
which the various forms of life appear, as we 
examine the fossiliferous rocks from the 
oldest to the most recent, is practically the 
same in all parts of the world. This fact 

Huxley 2 

had led many geologists to infer that any 
step in the successional series must have oc- 
curred simultaneously all over the earth, so 
that two series of rocks containing the same 
fossils were held to be of contemporaneous 
origin, however distant from one another 
they might be. Huxley gave a forcible sum- 
mary of the evidence against this view, and 
declared that ' neither physical geology nor 
palaeontology possesses any method by which 
the absolute synchronism of two strata can 
be demonstrated. All that geology can prove 
is local order of succession.' The justice of 
this statement has not been questioned ; and 
the limitation imposed by it is one of the 
many difficulties encountered when we at- 
tempt to learn the ancestral history of animals 
from the fossil records. 

In 1863 he delivered a course of lectures 
at the College of Surgeons ' On the Classifi- 
cation of Animals,' and another ' On the Verte- 
brate Skull.' These lectures were published 
together in 1864. Other courses 'On the 
Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates' fol- 
lowed, and a condensed summary of these 
was published as a ' Manual of the Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals' in 
1871. The scrupulous care with which he 
endeavoured to verify by actual observation 
every statement made in his lectures rendered 
the labour of preparation very great. Sir Wil- 
liam Flower [q. v. Suppl.j describes the way 
in which he would spend long evenings at 
the College of Surgeons, dissecting animals 
available among the stores, or making rapid 
notes and drawings, after a day's work in 
Jermyn Street. The consequences were 
twofold ; the vivid impression of his own 
recent experience was communicated to his 
hearers, and the work of preparation became 
at once an incentive to further research and 
a means of pursuing it. 

The lectures in 1867 dealt with birds, 
and Professor Newton writes of them : ' It 
is much to be regretted that his many 
engagements hindered him from publishing 
in its entirety his elucidation of the anatomy 
of the class, and the results which he drew 
from his investigations of it ; for never, 
assuredly, had the subject been attacked 
with greater skill and power, or, since the 
days of Buffon, had ornithology been set 
forth with greater eloquence ' (NEWTON, A 
Dictionary of Birds, p. 38). One great 
result of the work on birds, together with 
the study of fossil reptiles, was a recognition 
of the fundamental similarities between the 
two, which Huxley expressed by uniting 
birds and reptiles in one great group, the 
Sauropsida. Other results obtained were 
shortly summarised in an essay ' On the 


Classification of Birds' (Zool. Soc. Proc. 
1867), containing an elaborate account of 
the modifications exhibited by the bones of 
the palate. This essay exhibits in an entirely 
new light the problems which have to be 
solved before we can establish a natural 
classification of birds. The solution offered 
has not been accepted as final ; but there is no 
question about the great value of the essay 
as a contribution to cranial morphology. 

The lectures on birds must serve as ex- 
amples of others given at the College of 
Surgeons; they were probably the most 
strikingly novel of any except the first course 
' On the Classification of Animals : ' but the 
condensed summary, published in 1871, 
shows that every course of lectures must 
have marked important additions to our 
knowledge of the animals with which it 
dealt. One other important problem, that 
of the homologies of the bones which con- 
nect the tympanic membrane with the ear- 
capsule, must be mentioned as treated in 
these lectures, and more fully in a paper 
read before the Zoological Society (1869). 

Apart from the lectures, and from the 
books based on them, Huxley published 
about fifty technical papers between 1860 
and 1870. Among these are numerous 
descriptions of dinosauria, including that 
| of hypsilophodon, the results being sum- 
i marised in the essay on the classification of 
I the group (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1869), 
| and in the statements of the relation be- 
i tween reptiles and birds, already referred to. 
The account of hyperodapedon (1869) is 
of great importance in connection with 
another group of reptiles, and there are 
many valuable memoirs on fossil amphibia. 
Much of his work on systematic ethnology 
remains unpublished ; but in 1865 he pub- 
lished an essay ' On the Methods and Results 
of Ethnology,' containing a scheme of 
classification of the races of mankind, based 
on the characters of the hair, the colour of 
the skin, and the cranial index. He evi- 
dently contemplated a more complete study 
of physical anthropology ; for among the 
materials left in his laboratory are some 
hundreds of photographs of various races of 
men, which he had collected before 1870. 

The ' Elementary Lessons in Physiology,' 
published in 1866, is probably better known 
than any elementary text-book of its kind. 
It has been reprinted no less than thirty 
times since its first appearance. 

The years from 1870 to 1885 comprise a 

period of constant activity, ending in an 

almost complete withdrawal from public 

life, made necessary by increasing illness. 

In 1872 the removal of the School of 


Mines from Jermyn Street to South Ken- 
sington gave the long-desired opportunity 
of completing his plan of instruction, by 
enabling every student to examine for him- 
self, in the laboratory, the types described 
in the lectures. With the help of his four 
demonstrators, Thiselton Dyer, Michael 
Foster, Ray Lankester, and W. Rutherford, 
the course of laboratory work was perfected, 
and its main features are described in the 
well-known text-book of ' Elementary Bio- 
logy' (1875), written in conjunction with 
Mr. H. N. Martin. 

An important characteristic of Huxley's 
teaching, both in his lectures to students 
and in his technical memoirs, may here be 
noticed. Darwin had suggested an inter- 
pretation of the facts of embryology which 
led to the hope that a fuller knowledge of 
development might reveal the ancestral 
history of all the great groups of animals, 
at least in its main outlines. This hope 
was of service as a stimulus to research, 
but the attempt to interpret the phenomena 
observed led to speculations which were 
often fanciful and always incapable of verifi- 
cation. Huxley was keenly sensible of the 
danger attending the use of a hypothetical 
explanation, leading to conclusions which 
cannot be experimentally tested, and he 
carefully avoided it. This is well seen in 
the important essay on Ceratodus (1876), 
where a discussion of the way in which the 
iaws are suspended from the skull leads him 
to divide all fishes into three series. In one 
series the mode of suspension of the jaws is 
identical with that found in amphibia and 
the higher vertebrates ; and the hypothesis 
that these ' autostylic ' fishes resemble the 
ancestors of air-breathing forms suggests 
itself at once. Although this was clearly 
present in Huxley's mind, he is careful to 
confine himself to a statement of demonstrable 
structural resemblance, which must remain 
true, whatever hypothesis of its origin may 
ultimately be found most useful. Again, in 
the preface to the ' Manual of the Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals ' 
(1877) he says : ' I have abstained from dis- 
cussing questions of aetiology, not because I 
underestimate their importance, or am in- 
sensible to the interest of the great problem 
of Evolution, but because, to my mind, the 
growing tendency to mix up setiological 
speculations with morphological generalisa- 
tions will, if unchecked, throw Biology 
into confusion.' The only attempts to trace 
the ancestry of particular forms which 
Huxley ever made are based on palaeonto- 
logical evidence, in the few cases in which 
the evidence seemed to him sufficiently com- 



plete. Such are the essays on the horse 
(Presidential Address to the Geological So- 
ciety, 1870; American Addresses, 1876; 
Collected Essays, vols. iii. and viii.), and that 
on the ' Classification of the Mammalia' (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1880). The treatise on the cray- 
fish (1879) may be taken as a statement of 
his mature convictions ; and the discussion 
of the evolution of crayfishes, given in this 
work, relates solely to the evidence of their 
modification since liassic times, which is 
afforded by fossils. 

In 1870 the school board for London 
was instituted, and Huxley's interest in the 
problem of education led him to become 
one of its first members. In an essay on 
the first duties of the board (Contempo- 
rary Review, 1870 ; Collected Essays, vol. iii.) 
he lays stress on the primary importance of 
physical and moral culture. ' The engage- 
ment of the affections in favour of that 
particular line of conduct which we call 
good,' he says, ' seems to me to be some- 
thing quite beyond mere science. And I 
cannot but think that it, together with the 
awe and reverence which have no kinship 
with base fear, but arise whenever one tries 
to pierce below the surface of things, whether 
they be material or spiritual, constitutes all 
that has any unchangeable reality in religion.' 
This feeling can, in his judgment, be best 
cultivated by a study of the Bible ' with 
such grammatical, geographical, and his- 
torical explanations by a lay teacher as may 
be needful.' He held that the elements of 
physical science, with drawing, modelling, 
and singing, afforded the best means of 
intellectual training in such schools. Hux- 
ley's influence upon the scheme of education 
finally adopted was very great, although he 
left the board in 1872. 

In speaking of the later stages of educa- 
tion, he dwelt upon the great value of 
literary training as a means of intellectual 
culture, but he never tired of contending 
that a perfect culture, which should ' supply 
a complete theory of life, based upon a 
clear knowledge alike of its possibilities and 
of its limitations,' could not be acquired 
without a training in the methods of physi- 
cal science. At the same time he was care- 
ful to emphasise his horror of the prevalent 
idea that a mere acquaintance with the 
' useful ' results of scientific work has any 
educational value. He well knew that 
educational discipline can only be obtained 
by the pursuit of knowledge without regard 
to its practical applications ; and he saw the 
need for sharply separating such educational 
discipline from the preparation for a handi- 
craft or profession. Writing in 1893 to 



one of those engaged in the attempt to obtain 
an adequate university for London, he says : 
' I would cut away medicine, law, and theo- 
logy as technical specialities. . . . The uni- 
versity or universities should be learning and 
teaching bodies devoted to art (literary and 
other), history, philosophy, and science,where 
any one who wanted to learn all that is 
known about these matters should find 
people who could teach him and put him in 
the way of learning for himself That is 
what the world will want one day or other, 
as a supplement to all manner of high 
schools and technical institutions in which 
young people get decently educated and 
learn to earn their bread such as our 
present universities. It would be a place 
for men to get knowledge, and not for boys 
and adolescents to get degrees.' 

Between 1870 and 1885 he published a 
number of essays on philosophical subjects, 
the most important being his sketch of Hume 
(1879) in Mr. John Morley's ' English Men 
of Letters ' series. In the chapter on the ob- 
ject and scope of philosophy, Huxley adopts 
the view that the method of psychology is the 
same as that of the physical sciences, and 
he points to Descartes, Spinoza, and Kant as 
showing the advantage to a philosopher of a 
training in physical science. The chapter 
dealing with volition and necessity is an ex- 
pansion of the passage in the lecture ' On the 
Physical Basis of Life ' already quoted. The 
chapter on miracles begins by demonstrating 
the absurdity of a priori objections to belief 
in miracles because they are violations of 
the ' laws of nature ; ' but while it is absurd 
to believe that that which never has hap- 
pened never can happen without a violation 
of the laws of nature, he agrees with Hume 
in thinking that ' the more a statement of 
fact conflicts with previous experience, the 
more complete must be the evidence which 
is to justify us in believing it.' The applica- 
tion of this criterion to the history of the 
world as given in the Pentateuch and to 
the story of the gospels forms the subject of 
numerous controversial essays and ad- 
dresses, reprinted in the fourth and fifth 
volumes of the ' Collected Essays.' 

In 1871, on the retirement of William 
Sharpey [q. v.], Huxley was chosen as one of 
the two secretaries of the Royal Society. The 
duties of this office were even more severe 
than usual during the years through which 
he held it. The Royal Society was requested 
by the admiralty to plan the equipment and to 
nominate the scientific staff of the Challenger, 
in preparation for her voyage round the world. 
Later on, the task of distributing her col- 
lections, and arranging for the publication of 

the monographs in which they are described, 
was also entrusted to the society; and the 
chief burden of the organisation fell upon 
Huxley. Many other matters, especially 
the organisation of arrangements lor ad- 
ministering the annual grant of 4,000/. made 
by the treasury in aid of scientific research, 
made the duties of the secretary a serious ad- 
dition to other demands upon him. In 1881 
he was elected president of the society ; but 
in 1885 he was forced by ill-health to retire. 
He received the Copley medal in 1888, and 
the Darwin medal in 1894. From 1870 to 

1884 he served upon the following royal com- 
missions : upon the Administration and 
Operation of the Contagious Diseases Acts 
(1870-1) ; on Scientific Instruction and the 
Advancement of Science (1870-5) ; on the 
Practice of subjecting Live Animals to Ex- 
periments for Scientific Purposes (1876) ; 
to inquire into the Universities of Scot- 
land (1876-8) ; on the Medical Acts 
(1881-2) : on Trawl, Net, and Beam Trawl 
Fishing (1884). He also acted as an in- 
spector of fisheries from 1881 to 1885. 

In spite of the immense amount of work he 
contrived to perform, Huxley never enjoyed 
robust health after the accidental poisoning 
already mentioned. Fresh air and some daily 
exercise were necessary in order to ward off 
digestive difficulties, accompanied by lassi- 
tude and depression of a severe kind ; but 
fresh air and exercise are the most difficult 
of all things for a busy man in London to 
obtain. The evil effects of a sedentary life 
had shown themselves at the very beginning 
of his work in London, and they increased 
year by year. At the end of 1871 he was 
forced to take a long holiday ; but this pro- 
duced only a temporary improvement, and 
finally symptoms of cardiac mischief became 
too evident to be neglected. For this 
reason he gave up his public work in 1885, 
and in 1890 he finally left London, living 
thenceforward at Eastbourne. 

The years of comparative leisure after 

1885 were occupied in writing many of the 
essays on philosophy and theology reprinted 
in the fourth and fifth volumes of his ' Col- 
lected Essays.' An attack of pleurisy in 
1887 caused grave anxiety, and after its oc- 
currence he suffered severely from influenza, 
so that the work of helping those teachers 
in London in their efforts to obtain an 
adequate university, which he undertook in 
1892 and 1893, involved physical effort of a 
very severe kind, as did the delivery of his 
Romanes lecture on 'Evolution and Ethics ' 
before the university of Oxford in 1893. An 
attack of influenza in the winter of 1894 was 
followed by an affection of the kidneys, and 

he died at Eastbourne on 29 June 1895. He 
was buried at Finchley on 4 July. Several 
portraits of Huxley are given in his ' Life 
and Letters.' The best is that painted in i 
1883 by the lion. John Collier, now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. His 
widow, with two sons, Leonard and Henry, 
and two daughters (Mrs. Waller and the i 
Hon. Mrs. John Collier), survived him ; a i 
son Noel died in 1860. 

Huxley was rector of Aberdeen University 
from 1872 to 1874, was created hon. D.C.L. 
of Oxford on 17 June 1885, and also received 
honorary degrees from Edinburgh, Dublin, ! 
Breslau, Wiirzburg, Bologna, and Erlan- ( 
gen. He was elected member of countless i 
foreign societies, and in 1892 he accepted the i 
oflice of privy councillor, but he cared little j 
for such honours. The only reward for i 
which he cared is that freely given to him ! 
by earnest men of every kind, in every | 
country, who gratefully reverence his labours j 
in furthering the noble objects which he set j 
before himself, ' to promote the increase of j 
natural knowledge and to further the appli- 
cation of scientific methods of investigation | 

1 Ingelow 

to all the problems of life to the best of my 
ability, in the conviction which has grown 
with my growth and strengthened with my 
strength, that there is no alleviation for the 
sufferings of mankind except veracity of 
thought and action, and the resolute facing 
of the world as it is when the garment of 
make-believe, by which pious hands have 
hidden its uglier features, is stripped off.' 

Those of Huxley's essays which he wished 
to collect in a final edition are published in 
nine volumes of Collected Essays (Macmil- 
lan, 1893-4). An edition of his scientific 
memoirs, edited by Sir Michael Foster and 
Professor Lankester, is in course of publica- 
tion in four quarto volumes ; three have ap- 

[The Life and Letters of T. H. Huxley, by his 
son, Leonard Huxley, 2 vols. 1900, is the main 
authority ; it contains a full list of his published 
works. An account of his scientific work is given 
in Thomas Henry Huxley, a Sketch of his Life 
and Work, by P. Chalmers Mitchell, London and 
New York, 1900. See also article by Mr. Leslie 
Stephen in Nineteenth Century, December 1900.1 

W.F. E. W. 

INGELOW, JEAN (1820-1897), poetess, 
born on 17 March 1820 at Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, was the eldest child of William Inge- 
low, a banker, and his wife, Jean Kilgour, 
a member of an Aberdeenshire family. The 
early years of her life were spent in Lincoln- 
shire, and the effect of the fen scenery is 
apparent in her verse. She then lived at 
Ipswich, and before 1863 came to London, 
where she spent the rest of her life. She 
was educated at home. 

Her first volume, ' A Rhyming Chronicle 
of Incidents and Feelings,' published in 1850, 
attracted little attention, although Tennyson 
found some charming things in it (cf. Life 
of Tennyson, i. 286-7). It was not until the 
publication of the first series of 'Poems' in 
1863 that the public recognised in Miss 
Ingelow a poet of high merit. It contained 
the verses entitled ' High Tide on the Coast 
of Lincolnshire, 1571, 'which for earnestness 
and technical excellence is one of the finest 
of modern ballads. The volume reached a 
fourth edition in the year of publication. 
In 1867 an illustrated edition, with drawings 
by various artists, among them Poynter, 
Pinwell, A. B. Houghton, and J. W. North, 
was brought out. By 1879 it was in a 
twenty-third edition. A second series of 
poems appeared in 1876, and both series were 

reprinted in 1879. A third series was added 
in 1885. She wrote much under the in- 
fluence of Wordsworth and Tennyson. Her 
verse is mainly characterised by lyrical 
charm, graceful fancy, pathos, close and accu- 
rate observation of nature, and sympathy 
with the common interests of life. The 
language is invariably clear and simple. 
She is particularly successful in handling 
anapsestic measures. Her poetry is very 
popular in America, where some 200,000 
copies of her various works have been sold. 

As a novelist she does not rank so high. 
Her best long novel, ' Off the Skelligs,' ap- 
peared in 1872 in four volumes. The 'Studies 
for Stories,' published in 1864, are admirable 
short stories. She depicted child life with 
great effect, and her best work in that line 
will be found in 'Stories told to a Child,' 
published in 1865. Between that date and 
1871 she wrote numerous children's stories. 
Her books brought her comparatively large 
sums of money, but her fame rests on two 
or three poems in the volume of 1863. She 
was acquainted with Tennyson, Ruskin, 
Froude, Browning, Christina Rossetti, and 
with most of the poets, painters, and writers 

I of her time. She died at Kensington on 
20 July 1897, and was buried at Brompton 

I cemetery on the 24th. 



A portrait of her when a child is in the 
possession of her brother, Mr. B. Ingelow. 

Other works by Miss Ingelow are : 1 . ' Al- 
lerton and Dreux; or the War of Opinion,' 
2 vols. 1851. 2. 'Tales of Orris,' 1860. 
3. ' Mopsa, the Fairy,' 1869. 4. ' Fated to 
be Free,' 3 vols. 1875; new edit. 1876. 
6. 'Sarah de Berenger,' 3 vols. 1879; new 
edit. 1886. 6. ' Don John : a Story,' 3 vols. 
1881. 7. 'John Jerome,' 1886. 8. 'The 
little Wonder-box,' 1887. 9. ' Very Young 
and Quite another Story,' 1890. A volume 
of selections from her poems appeared in 
1886, and a complete edition in one volume 
in 1898. 

[Allibone's Diet. Suppl. ii. 885 ; Athenaeum, 
24 July 1897; Times, 21 and 26 July 1897; 
Miles's Poets and Poetry of the Century, vol. vii. ; 
private information.] E. L. 

GUSTUS (1820-1894), admiral, eldest son 
of Rear-admiral Samuel Hood Inglefield 
(1783-1848), who died when commander-in- 
chief in the East Indies and China, and 
grandson of Captain John Nicholson Ingle- 
field [q. v.], was born at Cheltenham on 
27 March 1820. He entered the Royal 
Naval College at Portsmouth in October 
1832, and, passing out in October 1834, was 
appointed to the Etna, and then to the 
Actaeon, from which early in 1835 he was 
moved to the Dublin, flagship of Sir Graham 
Eden Hamond, on the South American 
station. In her, and afterwards in the 
Imogene on the same station, he continued 
till 1839. Having passed his examination 
he was appointed in March 1840 to the 
Thunderer, in which he took part in the 
operations on the coast of Syria, the storm- 
ing of Sidon, and the reduction of Acre. 
He was afterwards for a short time in the 
West Indies and in the royal yacht, from 
which he was promoted to be lieutenant on 
21 Sept. 1842. From November 1842 to 
1845 he was in the Samarang with Sir 
Edward Belcher [q. v.] In March 1845 he 
joined the Eagle as flag-lieutenant to his 
father, then commander-in-chief on the 
South American station, and was shortly 
afterwards appointed to command the 
Comus, in which he took part in the opera- 
tions in the Parana and in forcing the passage 
at Obligado on 20 Nov. 1845. In recogni- 
tion of his services on this day his acting 
commission as commander was confirmed 
to 18 Nov. In 1852 he commanded Lady 
Franklin's private steamer, Isabella, in a 
summer expedition to the Arctic, and looked 
into Smith Sound for the first time since it 
had been named by William Baffin [q. v.] 
On his return he pxiblished 'A Summer 

Search for Sir John Franklin' (1853, 8vo) ; 
was elected a F.R.S. (2 June 1853), was 
awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and the silver medal of 
the Paris Geographical Society, and was pre- 
sented with a diamond snuff-box by the em- 
peror of the French. In 1853 he went again 
to the Arctic in the Phoenix with relief to 
Sir Edward Belcher, and in October brought 
home the news of the discovery of the 
north-west passage by (Sir) Robert John Le 
Mesurier McClure [q. v.], for which he was 
promoted to the rank of captain on 7 Oct. 
1853. In 1854, still in the Phoenix, he went 
for the third time to the Arctic, and brought 
back the crews of the Resolute and Investi- 

In July 1855 he was appointed to the 
Firebrand in the Black Sea, where he took 
part in the capture of Kinburn. In the fol- 
lowing March he was moved into the Sidon, 
which he brought home and paid oft'. From 
1861 to 1864 he commanded the Majestic, 
coastguard ship at Liverpool, and from 
1866 to 1868 the ironclad Prince Consort 
in the Channel and the Mediterranean. On 
26 May 1869 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral, and on 2 June he was nominated a 
C.B. From August 1872 to December 1875 
he was second in command in the Mediter- 
ranean and superintendent of Malta dock- 
yard, vacating the post on promotion to 
vice-admiral on 11 Dec. In 1877 he was 
knighted, and from April 1878 till his pro- 
motion to the rank of admiral on 27 Nov. 
1879 he was commander-in-chief on the North 
American station. On 27 March 1885 he 
was put on the retired list; but in 1891, on 
the occasion of the naval exhibition at 
Chelsea, he was chairman of the arts section, 
to the success of which he materially con- 
tributed. On 21 June 1887 (the queen's 
jubilee) he was nominated a K.C.B. He died 
at his house in Queen's Gate on 5 Sept. 1894. 
He was twice married; first, in 1857, to Eliza 
Fanny, daughter of Edward Johnston of 
Allerton Hall, near Liverpool, by whom he 
had issue ; secondly, in 1893, to Beatrice Mari- 
anne, daughter of Colonel Hodnett of the 
Dorsetshire regiment. 

Inglefield was a man of cultivated taste 
and mechanical ingenuity. In the course of 
his service abroad, and especially while at 
Malta, he formed a very considerable and 
interesting collection of old Venetian glass. 
He was himself a painter of exceptional 
merit as an amateur; some of his pictures 
among others ' The Last Cruise of the Last 
of the Three-deckers ' have been in the 
Royal Academy ; several were exhibited at 
Chelsea in the Naval Exhibition of 1891 ; 




among them 'H.M.S. Prince Consort in a 
Gale ' and ' H.M.S. Bellerophon and theWest 
Indian Squadron.' He turned the upper part 
of his house into a workshop, with lathes, 
benches, &c., with which he occupied much 
of his leisure to the last. He was also the 
inventor of the hydraulic steering gear, which 
was highly thought of in the navy till super- 
seded by steam, and of the Inglefield anchor. 
Besides the 'Summer Search' already men- 
tioned, he was the author of some pamphlets 
on naval subjects. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 
7, 10 Sept. 1894; Navy Lists; Eoyal Navy 
Lists; personal knowledge.] J. K. L. 

DER (1833-1900), public benefactor, born 
in Manchester on 14 May 1833, was the 
eldest son of Alexander Constantine lonides 
by Euterpe, daughter of Lucas Sgonta. He 
commenced a business career in Manchester 
in 1850, and, some five years later, went out 
to Bucharest in the wheat trade. Subse- 
quently he returned to England, and in 
1864 entered the London Stock Exchange, 
realising a considerable fortune, and accu- 
mulating many superb pictures and articles 
of vertu at his residence, 8 Holland Villas 
Road, Kensington. In 1882 he retired from 
active business, and nine years later he trans- 
ferred the whole of his collection to his house, 
23 Second Avenue, Brighton, which he had 
bought in 1884. He died at Brighton on 
29 June 1900, and was buried on 2 July at 
the Hove cemetery. He married in 1860 
Agathonike, daughter of Constantine Fenerli 
at Constantinople, and left issue three daugh- 
ters and five sons. There are two portraits 
of lonides as a boy in a group by Mr. G. F. 
Watts, a miniature by Ross dated 1853, a 
later portrait (1880) by Mr. Watts, and a 
bronze portrait medal designed in 1882 by 
A. Legros. 

lonides bequeathed his pictures, pastels, 
etchings, drawings, and engravings to the 
Victoria and Albert (South Kensington) 
Museum, on condition that they should be 
kept together and in no way concealed from 
the public view. The pictures include ex- 
amples of Botticelli, Poussin, Rembrandt, 
Ostade, Paul Potter, Ruysdael, Terborch, 
Le Nain, Delacroix, Millet, Corot, Degas, 
Lhermitte, Rossetti, and a number of por- 
traits by Mr. G. F. Watts. 

[Times, 23 July 1900; private information.] 

T. S. 

394), journalist and man of letters, was 
born at Edinburgh on 9 May 1810. His 
VOL. in. SUP. 

father was engaged in business, and Ireland 
for long followed pursuits unconnected with 
literature; but his literary interests and 
studies procured him as a young man many 
intellectual friends, among them the brothers 
Chambers and Dr. John Gairdner [q. v.] His 
friendship with Gairdner led to his acquaint- 
ance with Emerson, who in 1833 came to 
Edinburgh with an introduction to the phy- 
sician, whose extensive medical practice 
compelled him to request Ireland to act as 
cicerone in his stead. Ireland's zealous dis- 
charge of this office was the foundation of a 
lifelong friendship with the great American. 
In 1843 he removed to Manchester as re- 
presentative of a Huddersfield firm, and in 
the same year received a signal proof of the 
confidence of Robert Chambers, who not 
only entrusted him with the secret of the 
authorship of ' The Vestiges of Creation,' 
divulged to only three other persons, but 
employed him to avert suspicion while the 
book was going through the press. The 
sheets were sent by the London publisher, 
who was himself in complete ignorance, to 
Ireland at Manchester, and thence trans- 
mitted to Chambers. The secret was strictly 
kept until 1884, when, every other depository 
of it being dead, Ireland very properly re- 
vealed it in a preface to the twelfth edition, 
thus disposing of a host of groundless con- 
jectures. In 1846 Ireland succeeded Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Edward Watkin as pub- 
lisher and business manager of the 'Man- 
chester Examiner,' a paper founded the 
year before by Watkin, John Bright, and 
William McKerrow [q. v.] in opposition to 
the ' Guardian,' too haughtily independent 
of the anti-cornlaw league to please the 
' Manchester school.' The first editor was 
Thomas Ballantyne [q. v.] Ere long the 
' Examiner ' absorbed the other local expo- 
nent of advanced liberalism, the ' Manchester 
Times' [see PRENTICE, ARCHIBALD], and as 
the ' Manchester Examiner and Times' held 
the second place in the Manchester press 
for forty years. In 1847 and 1848 occurred 
the interesting episode of Emerson's second 
visit to England at the instigation of Ireland, 
who was, in Carlylean phrase, 'infinitely well 
affected towards the man Emerson.' All the 
arrangements for Emerson's lectures were 
made by him ; in his guest's words he ' ap- 
proved himself the king of all friends and 
helpful agents; the most active, unweari- 
able, imperturbable.' 

Ireland, after a while, found himself able 
to spare time from journalism for the lite- 
rary pursuits in which he delighted. In 
1851 he was a member of the committee 
that organised the Manchester Free Library, 



Is may 

where many books from his own library 
afterwards came to be deposited. He culti- 
vated the friendship of Carlyle and Leigh 
Hunt, for the latter of whom he entertained 
a warm aH'ection, and upon whom he wrote 
for this Dictionary. He also prepared a most 
useful bibliography of Hunt s writings, 
united in the same volume with a similar 
list of William Hazlitt's, and printed in a 
limited impression in 1868. In 1889 he 
edited a selection from Hazlitt's works, pre- 
faced by an excellent memoir. Upon Emer- 
son's death in 1882 he published a biography 
of him, necessarily incomplete, but possess- 
ing especial value from his own recollec- 
tions ; it was enlarged and reissued within 
the year as ' Ralph Waldo Emerson : his 
Life, Genius, and Writings.' In the same 
year he published at Manchester ' Recollec- 
tions of George Dawson and his Lectures in 
Manchester in 1846-7.' Perhaps, however, 
his best-known publication is 'The Book- 
Lover's Enchiridion,' a collection of passages 
in praise of books selected from a wide range 
of authors. It Avas published in 1882 under 
the pseudonym of ' Philobiblos,' and went 
through five edit ions. He himself possessed a 
fine library, especially rich in the works of 
early English authors, in which he was well 
versed. He especially admired Daniel and 
Burton, and possessed all the seventeenth- 
century editions of thelatter's 'Anatomy of 
Melancholy.' Unfortunately, this treasured 
collection had to be sold owing to the re- 
verse of fortune which overtook him in his 
latter days from the general transfer of 
liberal support from the ' Examiner ' to the 
'Guardian,' upon the latter journal's recon- 
ciliation with the more advanced section of 
the party on occasion of Gladstone's home- 
rule proposals in 1886. The 'Examiner,' now 
an unprofitable property, passed into other 
hands, and soon ceased to exist. Ireland bore 
his misfortunes with great dignity and forti- 
tude, and, although an octogenarian, re- 
mained active to the last as a writer in the 
press. He died on 7 Dec. 1894 at Mauldeth 
Road, Withington. 

Ireland was an excellent man, generous, 
hospitable, full of intellectual interests, and 
persevering in his aid of public causes and 
private friends. A medallion portrait is en- 
graved in ' Threads from the Life of John 
Mills,' 1899. A collection of Ireland's books, 
rich in editions of Lamb, Hazlitt, Leigh 
Hunt, and Carlyle, was presented in 1895 to 
the Manchester Free Reference Library by 
Thomas Read Wilkinson, and a special cata- 
logue was issued in 1898. 

Ireland was twice married first, in 
1839, to Eliza Mary, daughter of Frede- 

rick Blyth of Birmingham, who died in 

MBS. ANNIE IRELAND (d. 1893), Ireland's 
second wife, whom he married in 1866, 
was the sister of Henry Alleyne Nichol- 
son [q.v. Suppl.l, regius professor of natural 
history at Aberdeen, and was herself known 
as the biographer of Jane Welsh Carlyle 
(1891), and the editor of her correspon- 
dence with Miss Jewsbury (1892) ; her re- 
collections of James Anthony Froude [q. v. 
Suppl.] were published posthumously in the 
' Contemporary Review.' She died on 4 Oct. 

[Manchester Guardian, 8 Dec. 1894; Threads 
from the Life of John Mills; personal know- 
ledge.] E, G. 

1899), shipowner, eldest son of Joseph 
Ismay, shipbuilder, of Marypoint, Cumber- 
land, was born there on 7 Jan. 1837. At 
the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a 
firm of shipbrokers (Imrie & Tomlinson) in 
Liverpool, and on the expiration of his time 
made a voyage to South America, visiting 
the several ports on the west coast. Re- 
turning to Liverpool he started in business 
on his own account, and engaged especially 
in the Australian trade. In 1867 he ac- 
quired the White Star line of Australian 
clippers, and in the following year, in 
partnership with an old friend and fellow- 
apprentice, William Imrie, he formed the 
Oceanic Steamship Company. In 1870 they 
added the American trade to their other 
ventures, and in 1871 began running their 
steamers regularly between Liverpool and 
New York. In co-operation with Harland 
and W T olff of Belfast, the White Star liners 
earned a good reputation for safety, comfort, 
and speed; it is stated that between 1870 
and 1899 they paid to Harland and Wolff 
no less a sum than 7,000,OOOZ. In 1878 the 
White Star line placed their steamers at 
the disposal of the government as transports 
or cruisers an offer which led to the 
modern system of subsidising certain private 
companies. At the naval review at Spit- 
head in 1897, the Teutonic, one of the 
largest steamers then afloat, was sent by 
Ismay to take part in the national display. 
I In 1892 Ismay retired from the firm of 
| Ismay, Imrie, & Co., but retained the chair- 
manship of the White Star Company, 
! whose fleet then consisted of eighteen 
steamers, of an aggregate of 99,000 tons, 
which by 1899 was increased to 164,000. 
Ismay was also chairman of the Liverpool 
and London Steamship Protection Associa- 
tion, a director of the London and North- 




Western Railway Company, and of many 
other industrial enterprises. In 1884 he 
served on Lord Ravensworth's admiralty 
committee on contract versus dockyard 
systems of building ships ; in 1888 on Lord 
Hartington's royal commission on army and 
navy administration, and on several other 
important committees. He was a liberal 
supporter of the Liverpool Seamen's Orphan 
Institution ; and in 1887 he contributed 
20,000/. towards a pension fund for worn-out 
Liverpool sailors. He was for some years a 
J.P. and D.L. of Cheshire, and high sheriff 
in 1892. He died at Dawpool, near Birken- 

head, on 23 Nov. 1899, and was buried on 
the 27th in the churchyard of Thurstanton, 
after a semi-public memorial service in St. 
Nicholas's, Liverpool. Notwithstanding his 
liberal charities, his estate, as proved, was 
considerably over 1 .000,000 J. Ismay married 
in 1859 Margaret, daughter of Luke Bruce, 
and left issue three sons and four daughters. 
His portrait by Millais in 1885 was pre- 
sented to him by the shareholders of the 
White Star Company. 

[Times, 24 Nov. 1899; Who's Who, 1899; 
Whitaker's Almanack, 1901, p. 382.] 

J. K. L. 


JACKSON, BASIL (1795-1889), lieu- 
tenant-colonel, born at Glasgow on 27 June 
1795, was the son of Major Basil Jackson of 
the royal wagon train, who died on 10 Sept. 
1849 at the age of ninety-two. He entered 
the Royal Military College in 1808, obtained 
a commission in the royal staff corps on 
11 July 1811, and was promoted lieutenant 
on 6 May 1813. He was employed in the 
Netherlands in 1814-15, was present at 
Waterloo as deputy assistant quartermaster- 
general, and was afterwards sent to St. 
Helena, where he remained till 1819. He 
served in Canada and was employed in the 
construction of the Rideau canal. He was 
promoted captain on 17 Sept. 1825, and was 
given a half-pay majority on 7 Feb. 1834. 

In February 1835 he was made assistant 
professor of fortification at the East India 
Company's college at Addiscombe. He was 
transferred in December 1836 to the assistant 
professorship of military surveying, and held 
that post till 30 Dec. 1857, when he retired 
on a pension. He had become lieutenant- 
colonel on 9 Nov. 1840, and had sold out in 
1847. He afterwards lived at Glewston 
Court, near Ross, Herefordshire, till Sep- 
tember 1874, and at Hillsborough,co. Down, 
till his death on 23 Oct. 1889. He married, 
on 28 March 1828, the daughter of Colonel 
George Muttlebury, C.B. 

He published : 1. 'A Course of Military 
Surveying' (1838), which passed through 
several editions, and was the text-book at 
Addiscombe. 2. (in conjunction with Cap- 
tain C. R. Scott, also of the royal staff corps) 
' The Military Life of the Duke of Welling- 
ton ' (2 vols. 1840), furnished with unusually 
good plans. 

[Times, 24 Oct. 1889; Dalton's Waterloo 
Roll Call, 1890 ; Vibart's Addiscombe.] 

E. M. L. 

CHARLOTTE, LADY (d. 1891), authoress, 
was the daughter of Thomas Elliott of Wake- 
field. She became the second wife of Sir 
George Jackson [q. v.] in 1856, the marriage 
taking place at St. Helena. After her hus- 
band's death in 1861 she turned her attention 
to literature, and began by editing the diaries 
and letters of her husband's early life. In 
1872 appeared in two volumes ' The Diaries 
and Letters of Sir George Jackson, from the 
Peace of Amiens to the Battle of Talavera,' 
and in 1873, also in two volumes, ' The Bath 
Archives : a further Selection from the Diaries 
and Letters of Sir George Jackson, 1809-16.' 
On 19 June 1874 she was granted a pen- 
sion of 1001. a year from the civil list, in 
recognition of her husband's services. She 
now took to reading widely in French 
memoirs, and compiled from them several 
books on French society. One of the best 
of them, ' Old Paris : its Court and Literary 
Salons,' appeared in two volumes in 1878. 
Lady Jackson's works have an interest for 
the general reader, but their inaccuracies and 
lack of perspective render them useless to 
the historical student. Her English style 
cannot be commended. She died at Bath 
on 9 Dec. 1891. 

Other works are: I. 'Fair Lusitania,' 
1874. 2. ' The Old Regime : Court, Salons, 
and Theatres,' 2 vols. 1880. 3. ' The French 
Court and Society : Reign of Louis XVI 
and First Empire,' 2 vols. 1881. 4. 'The 
Court of the Tuileries from the Resto- 
ration to the Flight of Louis Philippe,' 
2 vols. 1883. 5. ' The Court of France in 
the Sixteenth Century, 151459,' 2 vols. 
1885. 6. 'The Last of the Valois and 
Accession of Henry of Navarre, 1559-89,' 
2 vols. 1888. 7. ' The First of the Bourbons,' 
2 vols. 1890. 




[Boase's Modern English Biogr. ii. 29 ; Times, 
11 Dec. 1891 ; Colles's Literature and the Pension 
List; Allibone's Diet. Suppl. ii. 891.] E. L. 

JAGO, JAMES (1815-1893), physician, 
second son of John Jago, was born on 
18 Dec. 1815 at the barton of Kigilliack, 
Budock, near Falmouth, once a seat of the 
bishops of Exeter. He was educated at the 
Falmouth classical and mathematical school 
until about 1833. After a short period of 
private tuition he entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, in Easter term 1835, and gra- 
duated B.A. in the mathematical tripos of 
1839 as thirty-second wrangler. He then 
determined to adopt the medical profession, 
and studied at various hospitals in London, 
Paris, and Dublin. On 16 Feb. 1843 he was 
incorporated at the university of Oxford 
from Wadham College (GABDINEK, Reg. 
Wadham, ii. 414). He graduated M.B. on 
22 June 1843, and the degree of doctor of 
medicine was conferred upon him by this 
university on 10 June 1859. He then began 
to practise in Truro, and in 1856 he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Royal Cornwall 
Infirmary, and he was also connected profes- 
sionally with the Truro dispensary. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
2 June 1870, and he served (1873-5) as 
president of the Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall at Truro, a society of which he had been 
the honorary secretary for many years. 

He died on 18 Jan. 1893. He married, in 
1864, Maria Jones, daughter of Richard Pearce 
of Penzance, by whom he had two daughters. 
Dr. Jago was a voluminous writer on 
various medical subjects, the most important 
of which were investigations upon certain 
physiological and pathological conditions of 
the eye, which his mathematical and medi- 
cal knowledge especially fitted him to dis- 
cuss. He was also interested in the history 
and progress of Cornish science and antiqui- 
ties. His works are: 1. 'Ocular Spectres 
and Structures as Mutual Exponents,' Lon- 
don, 1856, 8vo. This work deals with various 
optical defects of the human eye. 2. ' Ent- 
optics, with its Uses in Physiology and 
Medicine,' London, 1864, 8vo. He also con- 
tributed various papers to the ' London 
Medisal Gazette,' ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Society,' the ' British and Foreign Medical 
and Chirurgical Review,' and the ' Journal 
of the Royal Institution of Cornwall.' 

[Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1893, vol. 
liv. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886.] 

D'A. P. 

JAMES, DAVID (1839-1893), actor, 
whose real name was BELASCO, born in Lon- 
don in 1839, made his first appearance in a 

subordinate part at the Princess's theatre 
under Charles Kean. He is first recognisable 
at the Royalty, where on 28 Sept, 1863 he 
was the first Mercury in Mr. Burnand's bur- 
lesque of ' Ixion.' The foil owing year he was 
at the Strand, where he played in burlesque, 
and on 28 Oct. was the first Archibald Goode, 
a young lover in Craven's ' Milky White.' 
Tom Foxer in Craven's ' One Tree Hill ' fol- 
lowed. In Mr. Burnand's ' Windsor Castle ' 
he was Will Somers. Other parts of little 
importance succeeded, and on 15 June 1867 
he was the first Joseph in ' Our Domestics,' 
(' Nos Domestiques '). His reputation rose 
with his performance on 5 Feb. 1870 of 
Zekiel Homespun in a revival of the ' Heir 
at Law.' Two months later, in partnership 
with Henry James Montague [q. v.] and 
Thomas Thorne, he undertook the manage- 
ment of the Vaudeville, but was unable to 
appear in the opening performances. On 
4 June 1870, at the Vaudeville, he played 
Mr. Jenkins in Albery's ' Two Roses,' was 
the original John Tweedie in ' Tweedie's 
Rights ' on 27 May 1871, and Bob Prout in 
' Apple Blossoms ' on 9 Sept. He played 
Sir Benjamin Backbite in ' School for Scan- 
dal ' and Goldfinch in the ' Road to Ruin ' 
with brilliant success, Sheridan's master- 
piece being given over four hundred times. 
He was the original Sir Ball Brace in 
Albery's 'Pride' on 22 April 1874, and 
' the retired butterman,' Perkyn Middlewick, 
in ' Our Boys ' on 16 Jan. 1875. This was 
his greatest success, and the piece was 
played for over a thousand times; it was not 
removed from the playbills until 18 April 
1879, and was claimed as ' the largest run 
on record.' On 19 April 1879^ he was the 
first Plantagenet Potter in 'Our Girls,' on 
29 Jan. 1880 the first John Peddington in 
Mr. Burnand's ' Ourselves,' and on 8 March 
Smallrib in Charles Wills's ' Cobwebs.' James 
was the first Edward Irwin in Albery's 
' Jacks and Jills ' on 29 May, Macclesfield 
in E. G. Lankester's ' The Guv'nor ' on 23 June, 
and Professor Mistletoe in Byron's ' Punch ' 
on 26 May 1881. After, the partnership 
between James and Thorne had come to an 
end, James played at the Haymarket Lovi- 
bond in the ' Overland Route ' and Eccles 
in ' Caste.' In 1885 he undertook the 
management of the Opera Comique, playing 
Blueskin in 'Little Jack Sheppard,' and 
Aristides Cassegrain in the ' Excursion Train.' 
In 1886 he was at the Criterion playing 
John Dory in ' Wild Oats,' Simon Ingot in 
' David Garrick,' Matthew Pincher in ' Cyril's 
Success,' and his old part in 'Our Boys.' 
At the Criterion he was also the first Townely 
Snell in the ' Circassian ' on 19 Nov. 1887, 




and Rev. Dr. Jeremie Jackson in ' Miss 
Decima ' on 23 July 1891. He took part in 
1893 in revivals at the Vaudeville of ' Our 
Boys ' and ' The Guv'nor.' He was also seen 
as Moses in ' School for Scandal ' and Samuel 
Coddle in ' Married Life.' He died on 2 Oct. 

James was an admirable comedian in 
parts in which ripeness and humour were 
requisite. In John Dory, Perkyn Middle- 
wick, Macclesfield, and other characters in 
which cheeriness and unction were requisite, 
he had no equal, and scarcely a rival or a 
successor. His Tweedie in ' Tweedie's 
Rights ' was a marvellous piece of acting. 

[Personal recollections; Pascoe's Dramatic 
List ; The Theatre, various years ; Scott and 
Howard's Blanchard ; The Dramatic Peerage ; 
Era Almanack, various years ; Sunday Times, 
various years.] J. K. 

JENNER, SIR WILLIAM, first baronet 
(1815-1898), physician, born on 30 Jan. 1815 
at Chatham, was the fourth son of John Jen- 
ner, afterwards of St. Margaret's, Rochester, 
and of Elizabeth, his wife, the only daughter 
of George Terry. He received his medical 
education at University College, London, 
and was apprenticed to a surgeon living in 
Upper Baker Street, Regent's Park. He 
was admitted a licentiate of the Society of 
Apothecaries on 6 July 1837, and a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 
on 29 Aug. 1837. He then commenced gene- 
ral practice at 12 Albany Street, Regent's 
Park, and graduated M.D. at the university 
of London in 1844. 

At the beginning of 1847 Jenner began a 
detailed study of the cases of continued 
fever admitted to the London Fever Hos- 
pital, where he made notes of a thousand 
cases of acute disease. The result of the 
investigation of these cases was, in his own | 
words, ' to prove incontestably, so far as 
induction can prove the point, that the 
specific causes of typhus and typhoid fevers 
are absolutely different from each other, and 
to render in the highest degree probable 
that the specific cause of relapsing fever is 
different from that of either of the two 

In 1849 he was appointed professor of 
pathological anatomy at University College, 
London, and later in the same year he became 
an assistant physician to University College 
Hospital, succeeding to the office of full 
physician in 1854. This post he resigned 
in 1876, and he was elected a consulting 
physician in 1879. In 1856 he was nomi- 
nated physician in charge of the skin de- 
partment of University College Hospital. 
At University College he acted as substitute 

for Dr. Edmund Alexander Parkes [q. v.],the 
Holme professor of clinical medicine, during 
his absence at the Crimean war, 1855-6 ; and 
when Parkes was appointed professor of 
hygiene in the army medical school, esta- 
blished at Fort Pitt, Chatham, in 1860, 
Jenner was confirmed in the chair of Holme 
professor at University College. From 1863 
to 1872 he was professor of the principles 
and practice of medicine at University Col- 
lege. From 1853 to 1861 he held the office 
of physician to the London Fever Hospital, 
and from 1852 to 1862 he was physician to 
the Hospital for Sick Children in Great 
Ormoad Street. 

Jenner was elected a member of the Royal 
College of Physicians in 1848, and a fellow 
in 1852. He delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures in 1853, on' Acute Specific Diseases; ' 
he was a councillor in 1865-6-7, censor in 
1870-1 and in 1880, Harveian orator (for 
Dr. Parkes) in 1876, and president from March 
1881 to March 1888. He was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1864, and was created 
hon. D.C.L. Oxford on 22 June 1870, hon. 
LL.D. Cantab. 1880, and hon. LL.D. Edin. 
1884. He was president of the Epidemic- 
logical Society 1866-8, of the Pathological 
Society of London 1873-5, and of the 
Clinical Society in 1875. 

He was appointed physician extraordinary 
to Queen Victoria in 1861 upon the death of 
Dr. William Baly (1814-1861) [q. v.] In 
1862 Jenner became physician in ordinary to 
the queen, and in 1863 he was appointed 
physician in ordinary to the prince of Wales. 
He attended the prince consort during the at- 
tack of typhoid which caused his death in De- 
cember 1861, and the prince of Wales during 
an attack of the same fever ten years later. 
He was created a baronet on 25 Feb. 1868, a 
K.C.B. in 1872, and a G.C.B. (civil) on 
24 May 1889. He was also a commander 
of the order of Leopold of Belgium. 

Jenner retired from practice in 1890 owing 
to ill-health, and died at Greenwood, near 
Bishop's Waltham, Hants, on 11 Dec. 1898. 
He is buried at Durley, a village near his 
residence. A three-quarter-length oil por- 
trait of Sir William Jenner in his robes as pre- 
sident of the Royal College of Physicians, 
painted by Frank Holl, R.A., is in the pos- 
session of Lady Jenner. A copy by Val 
Prinsep, R.A., hangs in the common room ot 
the Royal College of Physicians in Pall Mall, 
London. He married in 1858 Adela Lucy 
Leman, second daughter of Stephen Adey, 
esq., by whom he had five sons and a daughter. 

Sir William Jenner's claim to recognition 
lies in the fact that by a rigid examination, 
clinical as well as post mortem, of thirty-six 



patients he was able to substantiate the 
suspicion of the great French physician Louis 
that under the name of continued fever the 
English physicians had long confounded two 
entirely different diseases, to one of which 
Louis gave the name of typhus, to the other 
typhoid. The credit of drawing this dis- 
tinction belongs, among others, to Dr. Ger- 
hard and Dr. Shatnaak in America, to Dr. 
Valleix in France, and to Dr. Alexander 
Patrick Stewart [q.v.] in Great Britain, but 
their work was contested, while, since the 
publication of Jenner's papers, the identity 
of the two conditions has never been seriously 

Jenner's robust common sense, his sound 
knowledge of his profession, his kindliness 
to patients, and his somewhat autocratic 
manner, made him acceptable to all classes, 
and enabled him to acquire so lucrative a 
practice that he left behind him a fortune 
of 375,000/. The failing health of Sir James 
Clark threw upon him the chief immediate 
care of the queen's health soon after his 
appointment as physician in ordinary, and 
for more than thirty years he proved himself 
not only a most able physician, but a true 
and devoted friend of Queen Victoria, who 
deeply mourned his loss. 

Jenner's papers on typhoid and typhus 
fevers were published in the * Monthly 
Journal of Medical Science ' (Edinburgh and 
London) for 1849, and in the ' Transactions 
of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society,' 
1850, vol. xxxiii. The latter paper was re- 
ceived on 20 Nov., and read on 11 Dec. 1849, 
the author being introduced by Dr. William 
Sharpey [q. v.] 

Jenner also published : 1. ' On the Iden- 
tity and Non-identity of Typhoid Fever,' 
London, 1850, 8vo ; translated into French, 
Brussels, in two parts, 1852-3. 2. ( Diph- 
theria, its Symptoms and Treatment,' Lon- 
don, 1861, 12mo. 3. ' Lectures and Essays 
on Fevers and Diphtheria, 1849-79,' London, 
1893, 8vo. 4. ' Clinical Lectures and Essays 
on Rickets, Tuberculosis, Abdominal Tu- 
mours, and other Subjects,' London, 1895, 

[British Medical Journal, 1898, ii. 1851 ; 
Transactions of the Boyal Medical and Ckirur- 
gical Society, 1899, vol. Ixxxii. ; Royal Society's 
Yearbook, 1900, p. 183; private information.] 

D'A. P. 

JENNINGS, LOUIS JOHN (1836-1893), 
journalist and politician, son of John Jen- 
nings, a member of an old Norfolk family, 
was born on 12 May 1836. Before he was 
twenty-five he became connected with the 
' Times,' for which journal he was sent to 
India as special correspondent in 1863. For 

some time he was editor of the ' Times of 
India.' After the civil war he was the repre- 
sentative of the ' Times ' in America, as suc- 
cessor to Dr. Charles Mackay [q. v.] In 1867 
he published ' Eighty Years of Republican 
Government in the United States,' London, 
1868, cr. Svo, and in the same year he married 
Madeline, daughter of David Henriques of 
New York. He settled in New York and 
became the editor of the ' New York Times.' 
The municipal government of the city had 
fallen into the hands of the Tammany Ring 
and ' Boss ' Tweed. Jennings, undeterred 
by threats of personal violence, and even of 
murder, during many months exposed the 
malpractices in his newspaper, and finally 
had the satisfaction of seeing the corrupt 
organisation broken up through his public- 
spirited and courageous efforts, and the ring- 
leaders, who had defrauded their fellow- 
citizens of millions of dollars, punished. 
This remarkable achievement was commemo- 
rated by a testimonial to Jennings, signed by 
representatives of the best classes in New 

Jennings returned to London in 1876 to 
devote himself to literature, founded and 
edited ' The Week,' a newspaper which did 
not meet with much success, and became a 
contributor to the ' Quarterly Review,' for 
the publisher of which, John Murray, he 
acted as reader. In 1877 he had charge of 
the city article in the ' World.' He was an 
active pedestrian, and published ' Field Paths 
and Green Lanes : being Country Walks, 
chiefly in Surrey and Sussex' (1877 &c. five 
editions), followed by ' Rambles among the 
Hills in the Peak of Derbyshire and the South 
Downs ' (1880), with some charming wood- 
cuts after sketches by Mr. A. H. Hallam 
Murray. These volumes have nothing of the 
formal character of guide-books, but are racy 
descriptions of secluded country paths inter- 
spersed with stories of quaint rural way- 
farers. In 1882-3 he wrote a novel, ' The 
Millionaire,' said to depict Jay Gould, the 
American, which appeared in ' Blackwood's 
Magazine,' and was afterwards published 
anonymously (1883, 3 vols.) 

His most important literary undertaking 
was to edit ' The Croker Papers : the Cor- 
respondence and Diaries of the late Rt. 
Hon. John Wilson Croker, Secretary to the 
Admiralty from 1809 to 1830' (London, 
1884, 3 vols. Svo ; 2nd edit, revised, 1885), 
a duty which he performed with much skill 
and judgment. In November 1885 and July 
1 886 he was elected M.P. for Stockport in 
the conservative interest, and became ab- 
j sorbed in politics. He was a follower of 
, Lord Randolph Churchill [q. v. Suppl.], but 




dissociated himself when Lord Randolph 
attacked the appointment of the Parnell 
commission in 1889. His last literary work 
was to edit Lord Randolph Churchill's : 
' Speeches, with Notes and Introduction ' ! 
(1889, 2 vols. 8vo). He acted as London ! 
correspondent of the ' Xew York Herald/ \ 
and published ' Mr. Gladstone : a Study ' i 
(1887, cr. 8vo, several editions), a severe 
party attack criticised by Mr. II. J. Leech 
in 'Mr. Gladstone and his Reviler,' 1888. j 
After two years' illness he died on 9 Feb. j 
1893, at Elm Park Gardens, London, aged 56, 
leaving a widow and children. 

[Athenaeum, 18 Feb. 1893, p. 221 ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1891, 13th edit. p. 500; 
Supplement to Allibone's Dictionary, 1891, ii. 
908; Times, 10 Feb. p. 5, and 11 Feb. 1893, 
p. 1.] H. K. T. 

(1831-1897), premier of Xew South Wales, 
was son of Francis Jennings of Xewry, a 
merchant, who came of a family long settled 
in that part of Ireland, and his wife, Mary 
O'Xeil. He was born at Xewry on 17 March 
1831, and educated in that town till he went 
to the high school at Exeter. Intended for 
the bar, he preferred engineering, but ulti- 
mately began life in a merchant's office ; he 
emigrated to the goldfields of Victoria in 
1852. Here he was fairly successful. In 
l^Oo he settled at St. Arnaud and erected 
quartz-crushing mills. 

Jennings soon made an impression in the 
young colony. He was asked to stand for 
the Wimmera in the first Victorian assembly 
(1856), but resolved to devote himself for 
the present to his own business. In 1857, 
however, he was made a magistrate, and 
then chairman of the road board, and after- 
wards of the first municipal council, of St. 

In 1863 Jennings acquired a large pastoral 
property on the Murrumbidgee in Xew South 
Wales, and, migrating to that colony, settled 
at Warbreccan in the Riverina district as a 
squatter. Shortly afterwards the agitation 
for the separation of the Riverina district 
and its erection into a separate colony 
reached its height. In 1865 Jennings was 
asked to go to England as a delegate to re- 
present the grievances of the separatists, 
but declined because he expected the local 
government to tackle the question effec- 
tively. In 1866 James Martin [q.v.], then 
premier of Xew South Wales, personally 
visited the district and nominated several 
leading residents to the legislative council. 
Jennings accepted his nomination and entered 
the council on 28 March 1867. He re- 
signed in 1869, and was elected to the 

assembly as member for the Murray district, 
for which he sat till 1872, when he decided 
to contest Mudgee and was beaten, thus 
losing his seat in parliament. In 1875 he 
represented the colony at the Melbourne 
exhibition, and in 1876 was commissioner 
for Xew South Wales, Queensland, and 
Tasmania at the United States centennial 
exhibition at Philadelphia. Here he re- 
ceived a special medal from the States and 
was also thanked by the British authorities. 
From America he travelled to the United 
Kingdom and Europe, and at Rome was 
presented to the pope (Pius IX) and de- 
corated with the order of St. Gregory the 
Great. In December 1878 Jennings was 
offered by Sir John Robertson (1816-1891) 
[q. v.] a seat in his projected cabinet as 
vice-president of the executive council and 
leader of the upper chamber, but the forma- 
tion of this ministry was not completed. In 
1879 he was executive commissioner for 
Xew South Wales at the international ex- 
hibition held at Sydney, and in connection 
with this service was made a C.M.G. and a 
year later K. C.M.G. In Xovember 1880 he 
once more entered the assembly as member 
for the Bogan. From 5 Jan. to 31 July 
1883 Jennings was vice-president of the exe- 
cutive council in Alexander Stuart's [q. v." 1 
ministry. From 10 Oct. to 21 Dec. 1885 
he was colonial treasurer under (Sir) George 
Dibbs. The period was a stormy one in 
colonial politics. Sir John Robertson came 
into power only to be defeated on a vote of 
censure ; Sir Henry Parkes [q.v. Suppl.] was 
condemning severely all parties without 
having strength to form a government. 
Jennings was called upon and attempted to 
form a coalition ministry with Robertson ; 
finally, on 26 Feb. 1886, he became premier, 
holding office as colonial treasurer. The 
questions with which he had to deal were 
those of retrenchment and fresh revenue, 
certain reforms in the civil service, and the 
amendment of the Land Act. His financial 
proposals evoked very determined opposi- 
tion ; Parkes condemns them as a protec- 
tionist effort put forth by a professed free- 
trader. They were only carried by extra- 
ordinary expedients and all-night sittings. 
His land tax bill was lost. His colonial se- 
cretary, Dibbs, quarrelled with him and left 
him. At the end of the session his position 
was greatly weakened, and as he was not 
wedded to politics, he resigned office on 19 Jan. 
1887, partly perhaps in order that be might 
visit England, where he represented the 
colony at the colonial conference in London 
in June and July 1887. After his return 
he practically eschewed local politics ; he 



was, indeed, appointed to the legislative 
council in 1890, and was delegate for New 
South Wales in the convention on federa- 
tion held at Sydney in March 1891, but that 
was practically the close of his public life. 
He died at Brisbane at a private hospital on 
11 July 1897, and was buried at Sydney. 

Jennings is described by a contemporary as 
' a clear-headed, cultured Irishman ' who 
' turned every honest opponent who came 
into contact with him into an admiring 
friend ' (Sydney Mail, 17 July 1897, p. 115). 
He did much to promote the cultivation of 
music in New South Wales, and gave large 
sums for the erection of the organ at Sydney 
University, of which he was a member of 
senate. He was also a trustee of the Na- 
tional Art Gallery. He was a fellow of St. 
John's (Roman catholic) College in Sydney, 
a knight grand cross of Pius IX in 1887, 
and was made LL.D. of Dublin in 1887. 

Jennings married, in 1864, Mary Anne, 
daughter of Martin Shanahan of Marnoo, 
Victoria; she died in 1887. He left two 
sons and a daughter. 

[Sydney Mail, 17 July 1897; Heaton's Aus- 
tralian Dictionary of Dates; Mennell's Diet, 
of Australasian Biogr. ; Parkes's Fifty Years in 
the making of Australian History, vol. ii. ; New 
South Wales Blue-books; New South Wales 
Parliamentary Debates.] 0. A. H. 

JENYNS, LEONARD (1799-1893), 
writer and benefactor of Bath. [See BLOME- 

mathematician, was the son of Major-general 
Joseph Jerrard (d. 23 Nov. 1858). He 
studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1827. He is chiefly known 
for his work in connection with the theory 
of equations. Between 1832 and 1835 he 
published his ' Mathematical Researches' 
(Bristol, 8vo), in which he made important 
contributions towards the solution of the 
general quintic equation. In 1858 he pub- 
lished a further treatise on the subject, en- 
titled ' An Essay on the Resolution of Equa- 
tions' (London, 8vo). The theory of equations 
has since undergone great development, 
Arthur Cayley [q. v. Suppl.] and Sir James 
Cockle [q. v. Suppl.] being among those who 
have devoted attention to it. 

Jerrard died on 23 Nov. 1863 at Long 
Stratton rectory in Norfolk, the residence of 
his brother, Frederick William Hill Jerrard 
(d. 18 Feb. 1884). 

[Boase's Modern English Biogr. ; Gent. Mag 
1859 i. 102, 1864 i. 130; Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica, 9th edit. viii. 509.] E. I. C. 

DRUMMOND (1821-1897), lieutenant- 
general, colonel-commandant royal engineers, 
son of General William Jervois, K.H., colonel 
of the 76th foot, and his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Maitland, was born at 
Cowes, Isle of Wight, on 10 Sept. 1821. 
Educated at Dr. Burney's academy at Gos- 
port and Mr. Barry's school at Woolwich, 
he entered the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich in February 1837, and obtained 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
royal engineers on 19 March 1839. His 
further commissions were dated: lieutenant 
8 Oct. 1841, captain 13 Dec. 1847, brevet 
major 29 Sept. 1854, brevet lieutenant- 
colonel 13 Feb. 1861, lieutenant-colonel 
1 April 1862, brevet colonel 1 April 1867, 
colonel 27 Jan. 1872, major-general 1 Oct. 
1877, lieutenant-general 7 April 1882, 
colonel-commandant of royal engineers 
28 June 1893. 

After the usual course of professional in- 
struction at Chatham, where his survey 
sheets were framed as a pattern for the sur- 
vey school, and after a few months' duty at 
Woolwich, Jervois embarked on 26 March 
1841 for the Cape of Good Hope. He was 
employed on the eastern frontier in the 
construction of defensive posts on the Fish 
river to keep the Kaffirs in check. Towards 
the end of 1842 he was appointed brigade 
major to a force of all arms, sent to Coles- 
berg on the Orange river, under Colonel 
Hare, the lieutenant-governor, to control tho 
Boers. He was afterwards employed in 
building a bridge over the Fish river at Fort 
Brown, and in making the main road to 
Fort Beaufort. In 1845 he was appointed 
adjutant of the royal sappers and miners. 
He accompanied Colonel Piper, the com- 
manding royal engineer, to Natal, and, on 
his return overland via Colesberg to Cape 
Town, made a rough survey of the little- 
known country through which he passed. 

At the beginning of 1847 he accompanied 
General Sir George Berkeley, commanding 
the troops, to Kaffirland, where he made a 
sketch survey of British Kaffraria, extend- 
ing from the Keiskama river to the Kei 
river, and from Fort Hare to the sea, some 
two thousand square miles, of which eleven 
liundred were surveyed during the war under 
the protection of military escorts. This 
survey proved of considerable value in sub- 
sequent wars, and thirty years later was the 
only map with any pretension to accuracy 
which Lord Chelmsford could find for his 
guidance in that part of the country. On 
lis way home in the Devastation, in 1848, 
Jervois connected the sketch sheets of the 

Jervois v 

survey, which was published by Arrowsmith. ' 
Sir Harry George Wakelyn Smith [q. v.j, 
the governor at the Cape of Good Hope, ' 
recommended Jervois to Lord Raglan, the j 
master-general of the ordnance, ' as one of ; 
the most able, energetic, and zealous officers i 
I have ever exacted more than his share of ! 
duty from.' For his services in the Kaffir j 
war Jervois received the war medal. 

From 1849 to 1852 Jervois commanded a 
company of royal sappers and miners at 
AVoolwich and Chatham, and in June 1852 j 
took it to Alderney for employment on the i 
fortifications for the defence of the new 
harbour in course of formation. In August 
1854 Alderney was visited by Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert, and, in accordance with j 
custom, Jervois received a brevet majority on j 
the occasion. In January 1855 he was ap- 
pointed commanding royal engineer of the 
London military district, and in the same 
year was a member of the committee on 
barracks. On 7 April 1856 he was appointed 
assistant inspector-general of fortifications 
at the war office, and commenced the work 
by which he is best known. 

In 1857, in addition to his other duties, 
Jervois was appointed secretary to the de- 
fence committee presided over by the Duke 
of Cambridge, commanding-in-chief. In the 
following year a violent French outburst 
against England on the occasion of the 
Orsini attempt on the life of Napoleon III 
created a war scare, and Jervois was spe- 
cially employed by General Jonathan Peel 
[q.v.], the war minister, in preparing plans 
for the defence of London in case of invasion. 
In 1859 he was appointed secretary to the 
royal commission on the defences of the 
United Kingdom, and displayed great energy 
and ability in guiding the commission. The 
report, which was mainly drafted by him and 
fully accepted by the members of the com- 
mission, was presented to parliament in 1860, 
and resulted in a loan of 7,000,000^. to buy 
laud and carry out the works recommended. 

The death of the prince consort, who took 
an intelligent interest in the fortifications, 
was the loss to Jervois of much kindness 
and support. The designs of the defences of 
the dockyards and naval bases at home and 
abroad were mostly made under the direct 
supervision of Jervois, who, in the transition 
state of artillery and small arms, had great 
difficulties to contend with. Rifling was 
beginning to be adopted for guns, but the 
68-pounder smoothbore and the rifled 110- 
pounderwere the heaviest guns then known, 
and the vital changes which were taking 
place in arms fundamentally affected the 
designs of defensive work. Iron plates were 


proposed both for ships and forts, and Jer- 
vois was a member of the special committee 
on the application of iron to defence. 

On 5 Sept. 1862 he was appointed director 
of works for fortifications, and as such was 
nominally in administrative charge of all 
defences under the inspector-general of for- 
tifications, but in reality he was the confi- 
dential adviser of successive secretaries of 
state for w T ar on all questions of defence. 
In September 1863 Jervois was sent to 
North America, and reported upon the de- 
fences of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, and Bermuda. He also visited the 
principal forts of the eastern seaboard of the 
United States during the war between north 
and south. On 27 Nov. 1863 he was made 
a companion of the order of the Bath, civil 
division. Both in 1864 and 1865 he visited 
Canada and discussed defence questions with 
the local authorities. His reports were laid 
before parliament. Canada voted over a mil- 
lion sterling to carry out the proposals, but 
the money was ultimately expended in 
making a railway to connect the various pro- 

The works in course of construction at 
home met with plenty of criticism, to which 
Jervois replied with his usual energy and 
success. In 1868 he delivered a lecture at 
the Royal United Service Institution on the 
'Application of Iron to Fortifications inspecial 
reference to the Plymouth Breakwater Fort.' 
In the same year the work of the engineers 
was attacked in the House of Commons and 
a committee appointed to examine the forti- 
fication works built under the defence loan. 
This committee approved both the designs 
and the execution of the works, and testified 
to the skill shown in adapting original 
designs to altered circumstances and the 
great advance in the power of rifled artillery. 

In 1869 Jervois visited Halifax, Bermuda, 
Gibraltar, and Malta, to inspect the works in 
progress. In 1871 and 1872, at the request 
of the government of India, he visited 
Aden, Perim, Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, 
and Moulmein, reporting his proposals for 
defending them. While engaged in this 
work he accompanied Lord Mayo, governor- 
general of India, to the Andaman Islands, 
and was close behind him when he was 
assassinated. On 28 May 1874 he was 
created a knight commander of the order of 
St. Michael and St. George in especial re- 
cognition of his services to Canada. On the 
winding up of the defence loans in the fol- 
lowing year the accounts showed a saving of 
40,000/. on the voted sum of 7,460,000/., a 
result highly creditable to Jervois. 

On 7 April 1875 Jervois was appointed 


governor of the Straits Settlements. On ar- 
rival at Singapore, he visited the treaty 
states and found Perak in a very unsettled 
condition he and his party were nearly 
massacred. He developed the able policy of 
his predecessor, Sir Andrew Clarke, and ap- 
pointed commissioners to administer the 
government in the name of the sultan. The 
murder of Mr. Birch in November, followed 
by the repulse of a small British force at 
Passir-Sala, led Jervois to take energetic 
measures. All available troops in the Straits 
Settlements and at Hongkong were hurried j 
to the spot, and, reinforced by troops from 
India, a successful campaign ensued and 
the sultan was apprehended. The home go- 
vernment expressed its approval of Jervois's 
energetic measures. He received the Indian 
war medal and clasp for his services in the 
Perak expedition. 

While at Singapore Jervois made a valu- 
able report upon the defences required there, 
which formed the basis of the scheme carried 
out some years later. In April 1877 he was 
appointed adviser to the various Australa- 
sian colonies as to the defence of their chief ' 
ports, and visited New South Wales, Vic- 
toria, Queensland, and South Australia. 
While engaged in this duty he was appointed 
on 6 July to the government of South 
Australia, retaining the duty of defence ad- 
viser to the other Australasian colonies, and, 
after taking over his government, visited 
Tasmania and New Zealand. On 25 May 
1878 he was promoted to be a knight grand 
cross of the order of St. Michael and St. 
George. His recommendations as to the 
defences of the Australasian colonies were 
accepted and eventually carried out, and his 
reports were of great assistance to the royal 
commission, of which Lord Carnarvon was 
president in 1882, on the defence of British 
possessions and commerce abroad. 

Jervois proved a good governor, and after 
five years in South Australia he was trans- 
ferred to the government of New Zealand in 
1882, retiring from the military service on 
7 April of the same year. He paid great 
attention to the defence of the principal 
ports of New Zealand, and roused public 
feeling in the colony by his lectures and 
writings. He was much aided in these en- 
deavours by the war scare in 1885, and had 
the satisfaction of seeing the scheme of de- 
fence completed before the termination of 
his term of office. His prompt action when 
the king of Samoa made overtures to the 
colony to place his dominions under British 
protection, and the New Zealand ministers 
proposed to send an armed vessel to Samoa, 
saved a serious complication. 


Jervois differed from the general opinion 
in Australasia on the question of Chinese 
immigration, believing that, as half the 
Australian continent lies within the tropics, 
it can only be fully developed by coloured 
labour, of which the Chinese is the most 
valuable. In 1888 Jervois attended the 
celebration at Sydney of the centenary of 
New South Wales, and delivered a remark- 
ably able speech. He left Wellington, New 
Zealand, on the completion of his term of 
government on 18 March 1889, ' the best and 
most popular governor that New Zealand has 
ever had.' 

In 1890 Jervois served on Edward Stan- 
hope's consultative committee on coast de- 
fence duties. He had strongly advocated, 
on his return home, both in the press and 
by lectures, that the defence of naval bases 
at home and abroad should be in the hands 
of the navy. The navy, however, consis- 
tently adhered to the fundamental principle 
that its duty is to fight the enemy's ships, 
and declined to be hampered by any such 
charge. This somewhat whimsical proposal, 
which owed any significance it possessed to 
its advocacy by Jervois, fell through. In 
1892 he revisited South Australia, and on 
his return to England lived at Virginia 
Water. He died on 16 Aug. 1897, from the 
effects of a carriage accident at Bitterne, 
Hampshire, and was buried at Virginia 
Water on 20 Aug. 

He was a fellow of the Royal Society 
(7 June 1888) and of other learned and sci- 
entific societies, and an associate of the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers. 

Jervois married, on 19 March 1850, in 
London, Lucy (d. 17 March 1895), daughter 
of William Norsworthy, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. Besides the 
papers already mentioned Jervois contributed 
to vol. ix. of the Royal Engineers' Profes- 
sional Papers, new series, ' Observations re- 
lating to Works for the Defence of Naval 
Ports,' and the following were separately 
published: ' The Defensive Policy of Great 
Britain,' 1871 ; ' Coast Defences of England,' 
1869; ' Coast Defences and the application 
of Iron to Fortification,' 1868 ; ' Report on 
the Defence of Canada,' 1 865, fol. ; ' The De- 
fence of New Zealand,' 1884, fol.; 'Anni- 
versary Address to the New Zealand Insti- 
tute,' 1883 ; ' Address to South Australian 
Institute,' 1879. 

Two portraits of Jervois in oil, by Fisher, 
both in uniform one as a young lieutenant 
and the other as a captain are in the posses- 
sion of the family. An engraving of Jervois 
was published about 1860 in the ' Drawing- 
room Portrait Gallery of Eminent Person- 




ages ' in connection with the ' Illustrated 
News of the World.' 

[War Office Records ; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords; Despatches ; Times, 18 Aug. 1897 ; Me- 
moir by Sir E. F. Du Cane in the Royal Engi- 
neers Journal ; Proceedings of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, vol. cxxx. ; private sources.] 

R. H. V. 

(1825-1893), general and colonel-com- 
mandant royal (late Bengal) artillery, fourth 
son of Sir Henry Allen Johnson, bart. 
(d. 27 June 1860), and of his wife Charlotte 
Elizabeth (d. 21 Feb. 1883), daughter of 
Frederick Philipse of Philipseburg, New 
York, was born at Bath on 4 July 1825. 
His father, a student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, was tutor there to the prince of 
Orange, and, having received a commission 
in the 81st regiment, accompanied him as 
aide-de-camp to the Peninsula, where he 
served under Wellington and was awarded 
the war medal with five clasps for Ciudad 
Rodrigo, Badajos, Salamanca, Vittoria, and 
the Pyrenees. 

Edwin Beaumont entered the military 
college of the East India Company at Addis- 
combe on 7 Aug. 1840, received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the Bengal 
artillery on 10 June 1842, and arrived in 
India on 12 Dec. of that year. His further 
commissions were dated : lieutenant 3 July 
1845, brevet captain 10 June 1857, captain 
25 June 1857, brevet major 5 July 1857, 
brevet lieutenant-colonel 19 Jan. 1858 ; 
brevet colonel 19 Jan. 1863, regimental 
lieutenant-colonel 24 March 1865, major- 
general 6 March 1868, lieutenant-general 
and general 1 Oct. 1877, colonel-commandant 
royal artillery 20 Dec. 1890. 

He served with the 5th troop of the 
1st brigade of the Bengal horse artillery in 
the Satlaj campaign of the first Sikh war, 
and took part in the battles of Firozshah on 
21 and 22 Dec. 1845, and of Sobraon on 
10 Feb. 1846, receiving the war medal and 
clasp. From 5 Aug. 1848 to 17 Nov. 1850 
he was deputy judge-advocate-general of the 
Bengal army. In the Punjab campaign of 
the second Sikh war in 1848-9 he served 
on the divisional staff of Major-general 
William Sampson Whish [q. v.], and was 
present at the action of the passage of the 
Chenab river at Ramnagar on 22 Nov. 1848, 
at the battle of Chilianwala on 13 Jan. 
1849, at the battle of Gujrat on 21 Feb., on 
Sir Walter Gilbert's staff, in the subsequent 
pursuit of the Sikhs and Afghans to Pesha- 
war, and at the surrender of the Sikh army 
on 14 March 1849. For his services he was 
mentioned in despatches (London Gazette, 

19 April 1849), received the war medal and 
two clasps, and was noted for a brevet 
majority on attaining the rank of captain. 

From 12 March 1855 he was aide-de-camp 
to the commander-in-chief in India, Sir 
William Maynard Gomrn [q. v.], and on 
21 Dec. of that year was appointed assistant 
adjutant-general of artillery in the Oude 
division. He was at Mirat when the mutiny 
broke out in May 1857, and accompanied 
the column of Brigadier-general Archdale 
Wilson [q. v.] on its march to join that of 
the commander-in-chief from Ambala. He 
took part in the actions on the Hindun river 
at Ghazi-ud-din-Nagar on 30 and 31 May, 
when he was slightly wounded, and in the 
action of Badli-ke-Serai on 8 June and the 
subsequent occupation of the ridge before 
Delhi. He served throughout the siege as 
assistant adj utant-general, and when the siege 
batteries were thrown up he did regimental 
duty on the left portion of No. 2 battery, 
consisting of nine 24-pounder guns, suc- 
ceeding to the command when Major Camp- 
bell was wounded. At the assault of 
14 Sept. he resumed his place on Wilson's 
staff'. For his services he was mentioned in 
despatches (ib. 15 Dec. 1857) and received a 
brevet lieutenant-colonelcy. 

He accompanied Wilson, who commanded 
the artillery, to the siege of Lucknow as 
assistant adjutant-general, and on its capture 
in March 1858 was honourably mentioned 
for his services (ib. 25 May 1858). He was 
made a companion of the order of the Bath, 
military division, on 26 July, and received 
the Indian mutiny medal with two clasps. 
After the mutiny was suppressed he re- 
sumed his duties as assistant adjutant- 
general of the Oude division, and held the 
appointment until January 1862, when, 
after officiating for a time as adjutant- 
general of the army, he went to England on 
turlough. On 10 July 1865 he was ap- 
pointed assistant military secretary for In- 
dian affairs at the headquarters of the army 
in London, and on 4 Aug. of the following 
year was nominated an extra aide-de-camp 
to the field-marshal commanding-in-chief, 
the Duke of Cambridge. He held both ap- 
pointments until 1 Augr. 1872, when he re- 
turned to India. On 8 July in the following 
year he became quartermaster-general in 
India, but had only filled the office eight 
months when he was summoned home to 
take his seat as a member of council of 
the secretary of state for India in October 
1874. He was promoted to be a K.C.B., 
military division, on 29 May 1875. He 
again returned to India in 1877, having been 
appointed military member of the council of 




the governor-general of India on 19 March, 
and held the office until 13 Sept. 1880. He 
was made a companion of the Indian Empire 
on 1 Jan. 1878. His last appointment was 
that of director-general of military education 
at the war office in London, which he held | 
from 10 Dec. 1884 to 31 Dec. 1886. He 
was decorated with the grand cross of the ; 
order of the Bath on the occasion of the j 
queen's jubilee on 21 June 1887. Johnson 
retired from the active list on 31 Jan. 1891, ! 
and died on 18 June 1893, being buried at 

[Despatches ; India Office Records ; Stubbs's 
Hist, of the Beugal Artillery ; Norman's Narra- | 
tive of the Campaign of the Delhi Army, 1857 ; ! 
Medley's A Year's Campaigning in India, 1857- 
1858; Kaye's Hist, of the Sepoy War; Malle- | 
son's Hist, of the Indian Mutiny: Holmes's ! 
Hist, of the Indian Mutiny ; Archer's Punjab | 
Campaign, 1848-9 ; Thackeray's Two Indian ! 
Campaigns ; Gough and Innes's The Sikhs and , 
Sikh Wars; Baronetage; Men of the Time, ; 
12th ed. ; Army Lists; Times, 21 June 1893.1 

E. H. V. 

JOHNSON, SIB GEORGE (1818-1896), 
physician, born on 29 Nov. 1818 at Goud- 
hurst in Kent, was the eldest son of George 
Johnson, yeoman, and Mercy, second daugh- 
ter of William Corke, timber merchant, of 
Edenbridge in the same county. In 1837 
he was apprenticed to his uncle, a general ! 
practitioner at Cranbrook in Kent, and in 
October 1839 he entered the medical school 
of King's College. While a student he was 
awarded many prizes and obtained the senior 
medical scholarship. At this early age he 
was commencing original work, and was 
awarded the prize of the King's College 
Medical Society for an essay ' On Auscul- 
tation and Percussion.' In 1841 he passed 
the first M.B. London, in the first class, and 
in 1842, at the M.B. examination, he received 
the scholarship and gold medal in physio- 
logy and comparative anatomy. In 1844 
he graduated M.D. He became a member 
of the Royal College of Physicians in 1846, a 
fellow in 1850 ; in 1872-3 he was an examiner 
in medicine, censor in 1865, 1886, and 1875, 
councillor in 1865, 1874, 1881, 1882, and 
1883, Gulstonian lecturer in 1852, materia 
medica lecturer in 1853, Lumleian lecturer 
in 1877, Harveian orator in 1882, and vice- 
president in 1887. 

At the end of his college course Johnson 
held in succession the offices of house phy- 
sician and house surgeon to King's College 
Hospital. He was an associate of King's Col- 
lege, and in 1843 became resident medical 
tutor : four years later he was appointed 
assistant physician to the hospital. In 1850 

he was made an honorary fellow of King's 
College. In 1856 he became physician to the 
hospital, and in 1857 he succeeded Dr. Royle 
as professor of materia medica and therapeu- 
tics, an office which he continued to hold until 
1863, when, on the resignation of Dr. George 
Budd, he succeeded to the chair of medicine, 
and also became senior physician to the 
hospital. He was professor of medicine at 
King's College for thirteen years. In 1876 
he was appointed professor of clinical medi- 
cine an office he resigned ten years later 
when he became emeritus professor of clinical 
medicine and consulting physician to King's 
College Hospital. 

In 1862 Johnson was nominated by con- 
vocation and elected a member of the senate 
of the university of London. In 1872 he was 
made a fellow of the Royal Society ; in 1884 
president of the Royal Medical and Chirur- 
gical Society, and in 1889 physician-extra- 
ordinary to the queen. In 1892 he was 
knighted. He was a member of the British 
Medical Association and a frequent contri- 
butor to the pages of the ' British Medical 
Journal.' In 1871, at the annual meeting 
of the association at Plymouth, he delivered 
the address in medicine, taking for its topic 
' Nature and Art in the Cure of Disease.' 

Johnson died from cerebral haemorrhage 
at his residence, 11 Savile Row, on Wednes- 
day, 3 June 1896, and was buried on 8 June 
at Addington. In 1897 an ophthalmological 
theatre at King's College Hospital was built 
and equipped in his memory. His portrait, 
by Frank Holl, subscribed for by the staff 
and students of King's College Hospital, 
was presented to Johnson in 1888 by Sir 
Joseph (now lord) Lister. 

In 1850 he married Charlotte Elizabeth, 
the youngest daughter of the late Lieutenant 
William White of Addington, Surrey, but 
ten years later was left a widower with five 

Johnson's contributions to medical litera- 
ture were extremely numerous, and dealt 
chiefly with the pathology and treatment of 
kidney disease. He was an ardent exponent 
of the views of Richard Bright [q. v.l, and 
extended Bright's observations in many di- 
rections. His discovery of the hypertrophy 
of the small arteries in Bright's disease, and 
his 'stop-cock' explanatory theory, led to 
what was known as the ' hyaline-fibroid 
degeneration ' controversy with Sir William 
Gull and Dr. Sutton : the practical outcome 
was that attention was directed to the high 
tension pulse of chronic kidney disease, 
together with its importance in connection 
with other symptoms, and this has opened 
up new fields of treatment. In 1852 he pub- 

Jones 45 


lished ' Diseases of the Kidney, their Patho- 
logy, Diagnosis, and Treatment,' and in 1873 
' Lectures on Bright's Disease,' 8vo. His 
last publication was ' The Pathology of the 
Contracted Granular Kidney,' 1896. 

Johnson's other works were : 1. ' Epidemic 
Diarrhoea and Cholera: their Pathology 
and Treatment,' London, 1855, post 8vo. 
2. ' The Laryngoscope : Directions for its 
Use and Practical Illustrations of its Value/ 
1865, 8vo. 3. ' Medical Lectures and Essays,' 
London, 1887, 8vo. 4. 'An Essay on 
Asphyxia,' 1889, in which he attacked the 
views advocated by many modern physio- 
logists. 5. ' History of the Cholera Contro- 
versy,' London, 1896, 8vo. He reintroduced 
the "picric acid test for albumen and the 
picric acid and potash test for sugar. He 
at once recognised the great use of the oph- 
thalmoscope in renal pathology, and assisted 
Sir Thomas Watson [q. v.] in revising the 
last edition of his famous ' Lectures on the 
Principles and Practice of Medicine.' 

[Lancet, 1896; Brit. Med. Journal, 1896; 
Brit. Mus. Libr. Catalogue ; Churchill's Med. 
Directory; Biograph v. 514 ; private informa- 
tion; King's College Hospital Keports, 1897.] 

w. w. w. 

JONES, HENRY (1831-1899), known as 
' Cavendish,' writer on whist, the eldest son 
of Henry Derviche Jones of 12 Norfolk 
Crescent, was born in London on 2 Nov. 
1831. His father was an ardent devotee of 
whist, and was in 1863 chosen to be chair- 
man of the Portland Club whist committee, 
which, in connection with James Clay [q.v.j 
and the Arlington Club committee, framed 
the ' Laws of Short Whist,' edited by John 
Loraine Baldwin in May 1864. Henry was 
educated at King's College school (1842-8), 
and proceeded as a student to St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, where he was a pupil of Sir 
William Lawrence. After qualifying in 
1852 as M.R.C.S. and L.S.A., he practised 
for some sixteen years in the neighbourhood 
of Soho Square. In 1869 he retired from 
practice, but retained a connection with his 
old profession as a member of the court of 
the Apothecaries' Company. 

In 1854, at Cambridge, Henry's younger 
brother, Daniel Jones, joined a knot of young 
men of considerable ability, who had at first 
* taken up whist for amusement, but who 
found it offer such a field for intellectual 
study that they continued its practice more 
systematically with a view to its more com- 
plete investigation, and to the solution of 
difficult problems connected with it.' In 
London, a few years later, Henry was intro- 
duced to his brother's set, of which he soon 
became the most advanced member. He 

began to make notes upon difficult points and 
to record interesting hands, and he joined 
the club known as the ' Cavendish,' situated 
at the back of the Polytechnic, in Cavendish 
Square. He subsequently became a member 
of the Portland- Club, where he met James 
Clay. His first written contribution on the 
subject of whist appeared in ' Bell's Life ' 
for March 1857. In January 1862, in an 
article in ' Macmillan's Magazine,' William 
Pole [q.v. Suppl.] suggested the utility of a 
handbook embodying a series of model games 
at whist. After correspondence with, and 
encouragement received from, Pole, Jones 
brought out in 1862 a small edition of such 
a manual entitled ' Principles of Whist stated 
and explained by Cavendish.' A fifth edition 
was called for in 1863, when the title was 
altered to ' The Laws and Principles of Whist.' 
The eighth edition of 1868 was recast, a 
ninth edition was dedicated to James Clay, 
the tenth contains new matter, while the 
eleventh, of 1886, introduces the subject of 
American leads, as promulgated by Nicholas 
Trist of New Orleans. ' Cavendish ' very soon 
came to be regarded as the standard autho- 
rity upon whist, and was (so the story runs) 
appealed to as such by, among other promi- 
nent players, Jones's own father, though the 
latter had no idea that the writer was his 
son Henry, of whose powers as a whist player 
he had formed a far from commensurate 
opinion. Its distinctive merit as a manual 
was not novelty of doctrine, but lucidity, 
literary skill, and above all theoretical cohe- 
rence. He was, however, the first to lay 
down clearly the true principles of the dis- 
card, and of the call for trumps. 

Two years after ' Cavendish ' came the 
slender and less exhaustive 'Treatise on Short 
Whist,' of J[ames] C[lay]. ' Cavendish ' was 
certainly a great advance upon anything that 
had gone before, on the book of ' Major A,' 
published in 1835, and on the book from 
which the latter was plagiarised, Matthews's 
' Advice to the Young Whist Player ' of 1804. 
Before this came Payne's 'Maxims,' 1770, 
which for the first time laid down the prin- 
ciple of leading from five trumps ; and before 
him was the ' immortal' Edmund Hoyle, who 
published his famous ' Short Treatise ' in 

Immediately upon the appearance of his 
' classic ' in 1862 ' Cavendish ' became whist 
editor of the ' Field,' and he soon afterwards 
became ' Pastime ' editor of ' The Queen,' 
producing at the same time numerous 
manuals on games. Upon the subject of 
which he was an undoubted master he pro- 
duced ' Card Essays,' 1879 (with a dedica- 
tion to Edward Tavener Foster and a sup- 



plement of ' Card Table Talk '), and ' Whist 
Developments,' 1885. He assisted Pole in 
his article on 'Modern Whist' for the 
' Quarterly Review,' January 1871, and he also 
contributed to ' The Whist Table,' edited by 
' Portland.' He naturally was a member of 
the leading whist clubs such as the West- 
minster, the Portland, the Arlington, and 
the Baldwin. At one time he played a 
great deal at the Union Club, Brighton. 
He visited America (May to October 1893), 
and a banquet was given to him by the whist 
players of Philadelphia at the Union League 
Club in June 1893. He played in several 
matches of the Chicago Whist Club. As a 
player he was surpassed by his father, and 
still more by Clay, whose occasional criti- 
cisms upon his own performances he records 
with candour. Jones's personality is de- 
scribed as decided, not without brusqueness. 
He died at 22 Albion Street, Hyde Park, on 
10 Feb. 1899, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. His will was proved on 7 April 1899 
by Harriet Louisa Jones, his widow, and 
Daniel Jones, his brother, the value of the 
estate being 11.916/. The testator gave his 
Indian whist-markers to his sister, Fanny 
Hale Jones, his books, writings, and manu- 
scripts to his brother Daniel. His whist 
library was sold by Sotheby on 22 May 1900. 

' Cavendish,' said the ' Times ' in a leading 
article upon his death, 'was not a law- 
maker, but he codified and commented on 
the laws which had been made, no one 
knows by whom, during many generations 
of card-playing. He was thus the humble 
brother of Justinian and Blackstone, taking 
for his material, not the vast material inte- 
rests of mankind, but one of their most 
cherished amusements.' In addition to his 
works on ' Whist ' Cavendish issued guides 
to croquet (1869), bezique (1870), 6cart6 
(1870), euchre (1870), calabrasella (1870), 
cribbage (1873), picquet (1873; 9th edit. 
1896), vingt-et-un (1874), go-bang (1876), 
lawn-tennis and badminton (1876), chess 
(1878), backgammon (1878), and patience 
games (1890). He was much interested in 
croquet, and helped to found the All Eng- 
land Croquet Club. He edited Joseph Ben- 
nett's ' Billiards ' in 1873, issued a limited 
edition of ' Second Sight for Amateurs,' a 
very scarce volume, in 1888, wrote articles 
upon whist and other games for the ninth 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
and collaborated with ' B. W. D.' in ' Whist, 
with and without Perception ' in 1889. 

[Times, 13, 16, and 17 Feb. 1899; Field, 
18 and 25 Feb. 1899; Illustrated London News, 
22 April 1899; Daily Telegraph, 21 Feb. 1899; 
Harper's Monthly, March 1891; Quarterly Ke- 

view, January 1871 ; Macmillan's Mag. January 
1863; The Whist Table, pp. 350 sqq. (with an 
admirable portrait of ' Cavendish ' as fronti- 
spiece); Baldwin and Clay's Short Whist, 1870; 
Courtney's English Whist and Whist Players, 
1894, passim; Hamilton's Modern Scientific 
Whist, New York, 1894; Pole's Philosophy of 
Whist, 1892, and Evolution of Whist, 1895; 
Horr's Bibliography of Card Games, Cleveland, 
1892; notes kindly supplied by W. P. Courtney, 
esq., and J. W. Allen, esq. The Milwaukee serial, 
' Whist,' contains numerous adecdotes of ' Ca- 
vendish,' and as many as seven portraits of him 
at various ages (see especially vols. ii. iii. vi. 
and xiii.)] T. S. 

, LEWIS TOBIAS (1797-1895), 
admiral, second son of L. T. Jones, captain 
in the royal artillery and author of a history 
of the campaign in Holland in 1793-4-5, 
was born on 24 Dec. 1797. He entered the 
navy in January 1808 on board the Thrasher 
brig, attached to the Walcheren expedition in 
1809, but whether Jones was actually serving 
i in her at the time is doubtful. In 1812 he 
| was in the Stirling Castle off Brest, in 1816 
was in the Granicus at Algiers, where he 
was wounded, and served continuously in the 
I Channel, and on the Cape of Good Hope or 
! West Indian stations till he was made lieu- 
tenant on 29 Aug. 1822. He was afterwards on 
the North American, the West Indies, home, 
and Mediterranean stations. On 28 June 
j 1838 he was promoted to be commander 
(second captain) of the Princess Charlotte, 
', flagship of Sir Robert Stopford [q. v.], and 
was in her during the operations on the coast 
of Syria in the summer and autumn of 1840, 
| for which service he was promoted to be 
captain by commission dated 4 Nov., the 
I day following the reduction of Acre. In 
| 1847 he was flag-captain to Commodore Sir 
i Charles Hotham [q.v.J in the Penelope, on the 
j west coast of Africa, where in February 1849 
he commanded the boats of the squadron at 
the destruction of the slave barracoons in 
the Gallinas river. The Penelope was paid 
off in the summer of 1849, and early in 1850 
Jones was appointed to the Sampson, again 
for the west coast, under the orders of Com- 
modore Bruce. On 26-7 Dec. 1851 he com- 
manded the expedition detached against the 
great slaving stronghold at Lagos, which 
was destroyed and the place made dependent 
on the English government. Bruce highly 
commended Jones's 'gallantry, firmness, judg- 
ment, and energy,' and sent him home with 
despatches. Still in the Sampson, he then 
went to the Mediterranean, and on 22 April 
1854 was senior officer at the bombardment 
of Odessa. On 26 May he was nominated a 
C.B. He continued actively employed in 




the Black Sea, and in November was moved 
into the 90-gun ship London, in which he 
continued till the end of the war. For his 
services at this time he received the cross of 
an officer of the legion of honour and the Med- 
jidie of the third class. On 17 June 1859 he 
was promoted to be rear-admiral, and in the 
following year was second in command on 
the China station, under Sir James Hope 
(1808-1881) [q. v.] On 28 June 1861 he was 
made a K.C.B. From 1862 to 1865 he was 
commander-in-chief at Queenstown, and be- 
came a vice-admiral on 2 Dec. 1865. On 
1 April 1870, under Childers's scheme of 
retirement for age, he was put on the retired 
list, on which he became an admiral on 
14 July 1871. On 24 May 1873 he was made 
a G.C.B. ; and on 25 March 1884 visitor and 
governor of Greenwich Hospital, a nominal 
and honorary appointment. He died at 
Southsea, after two days' indisposition with- 
out pain, on 11 Oct. 1895, within a few weeks 
of completing his ninety-eighth year. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet.; Times, 
H, 17 Oct. 1895; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

surname was originally TICKELL) (1822- 
1897), bishop of St. David's, born at Chelten- 
ham on 2 Jan. 1822, was the only son by 
his first wif e( Jane, daughter of Henry Tickell 
of Leytonstone, Essex) of William Tilsley 
Jones of Gwynfryn, Llangynfelyn, near 
Aberystwyth, high sheriff of Cardiganshire 
for 1838 (J. K. PHILLIPS, Sheri/s of Cardi- 
ganshire, pp. 37-8). He was educated at 
Shrewsbury School under Samuel Butler and 
Benjamin Hall Kennedy from 1834 to 1841, 
being head boy in his last year (G. W. 
FISHEK, Shrewsbury School, p. 335). He 
went up to Oxford in 1841, having matri- 
culated on 16 June 1840, was scholar of 
Trinity College 1840-5, and Ireland scholar 
in 1842, when Archbishop Temple was second 
in the competition (STEPHENS, Life of E. A. 
Freeman, i. 50) ; he was placed in the second 
class in the final school of litercs humaniores 
in 1844, graduated B.A. the same year, and 
M.A. in 1847. He was elected in 1845 to a 
Michel scholarship, and in 1848 to a Michel 
fellowship at Queen's College, but exchanged 
the latter in 1851 for a fellowship at Uni- 
versity College, which he held till 1857, be- 
coming assistant tutor and bursar in 1854, 
lecturer in modern history and classical lec- 
turer from 1858 to 1865, when he finally 
quitted Oxford. He also served the univer- 
sity as master of the schools in 1848, as exa- 
miner in classical moderations in 1856 and 
1860, in theology in 1870, as senior proctor 
in 1861-2, and as select preacher in 1860-2, 

1866-7, 1876-8, being also select preacher at 
Cambridge in 1881. 

Jones's closest friends during his under- 
graduate days included (Sir) George F. 
Bowen, H. J. Coleridge, E. A. Freeman, and 
W. Gifford Palgrave, all Trinity scholars, 
and his former schoolfellow, James Riddell, 
scholar of Balliol. They had a literary and 
philosophical society of their own called 
4 Hermes,' in which Jones took a prominent 
part ; he was also a member and for a time 
secretary of the Oxford Architectural So- 
ciety. At Queen's College commenced his 
close intimacy with William Thomson (after- 
wards archbishop of York), who like himself 
was an old Shrewsbury boy. Thomson, when 
appointed bishop of Gloucester in 1861, made 
Jones his examining chaplain, and, when 
translated to York in 1863, presented him 
to the Grindal prebend in York Minster 
and the perpetual curacy of Haxby, substi- 
tuting for the latter in 1865 the vicarage of 
Bishopthorpe, where the episcopal palace is 
situated. Jones soon came to be regarded 
as the archbishop's ' right-hand man,' and 
the series of archiepiscopal favours was con- 
tinued by his appointment as archdeacon of 
York in 1867, rural dean of Bishopthorpe in 
1869, chancellor of York and prebendary of 
Laughton (in lieu of Grindal) in 1871, and 
canon residentiary of York in 1873, all which 
preferments he held (along with his vicarage 
and examining chaplaincy) till his own eleva- 
tion to the episcopal bench. 

On the resignation of the see of St. David's 
by Connop Thirl wall [q. v.] in 1874, Dis- 
raeli chose Jones as Thirlwall's successor. 
Apart from his distinction as a scholar, and 
his exceptional experience of organisation and 
administration in church work, he had the 
special qualification of possessing intimate 
associations with the diocese, and of being 
a Welshman who spoke Welsh (though in a 
stiff, bookish manner), and who had made 
no mean contributions to Welsh antiquarian 
research. His interest in ecclesiastical ar- 
chitecture had led him, while still an under- 
graduate, repeatedly to visit St. David's 
remote cathedral, on which he also wrote 
some ' very pretty verses,' among the best 
of his few poetical effusions ; he had en- 
couraged Oxford men to go thither to read 
during the long vacations, and in 1846 one 
of these reading parties started the move- 
ment for th.e restoration of the cathedral by 
raising at Oxford a fund for restoring the 
rood-screen. His lifelong friend, Edward 
Augustus Freeman [q. v. Suppl.], fully shared 
his interest, and collaborated with him for 
several years in writing an elaborate history 
of St. David's (STEPHENS, i. 164, 205). Jones 


secured Freeman's active support for the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, which 
was started in 1846-7, Jones himself acting 
as one of its general secretaries in 1848-51, 
and joint editor in 1854 (Index to Arch. 
Camb.) He also interested himself during 
this period in Welsh education, advocating 
the reform of Christ's College, Brecon (in a 
booklet on Its Past History and Present 
Capabilities, 1853, 8vo), and, at the time of 
the schools inquiry commission, of Ystrad- 
meurig School. Thirlwall, who had a high 
opinion of him (cf. Letters to a Friend, p. 
255), had recognised these services by ap- 
pointing him in 1859 to one of the six cursal 
prebends of St. David's ; but this he vacated 
in 1865, on settling at Bishopthorpe. He was 
consecrated bishop of St. David's by Arch- 
bishop Tait at West minster Abbey on 24 Aug. 
1874 (being made D.D. by the archbishop's 
diploma on 27 Oct.), and enthroned at St. 
David's on 15 Sept. He did not obtain a 
seat in the House of Lordstill after the death 
of Bishop Selwyn in April 1878, but then as 
junior bishop he held the chaplaincy of the 
house for the unusually long period of four 
and a half years, till December 1882. After 
his release from the chaplaincy he rarely at- 
tended the house. 

' The progress of the diocese during Bishop 
Jones's episcopate was far greater than the pro- 
gress during any period of equal length since 
the Reformation' (quoted by his successor, Dr. 
Owen, in his primary ' Charge,' 1900, p. 26). 
This was partly due to the fact that in his time 
the diocese reaped the benefit of reforms initi- 
ated by Burgess and Thirlwall, the latter of 
whom had devoted himself to church build- 
ing and restoration, the augmentation of 
benefices (thereby greatly reducing non- 
residence), and the reform or establishment 
of educational institutions. All this work 
Bishop Jones continued and extended. 
While always encouraging judicious ' re- 
storation ' he also gave his support to the 
multiplication of new mission churches, and 
the number of churches annually conse- 
crated by him' was more than treble Thirl- 
wall's yearly average. His personal efforts 
for improving the number and status of the 
parochial clergy and his scrupulous care in 
the exercise of patronage and in the selec- 
tion of candidates for ordination (insisting 
on good testimonials and preferring well- 
educated to merely fluent men), resulted 
within a few years in the almost total dis- 
appearance of non-residence from the diocese, 
in a much-needed improvement in pastoral 
work, and in the progressive raising of the 
educational and spiritual standard of the 
ministry. He also applied his conspicuous 



business ability to effecting a very complete 
organisation of diocesan work. In the 
diocesan conference which he established in 
1881, administrative as distinct from de- 
liberative functions obtained prominence 
from the outset, so that by 1897 as many as 
twenty-one diocesan committees, boards, 
and societies submitted reports to the con- 

The proposed division of the diocese by 
far the largest in the kingdom did not, 
when first suggested, commend itself to the 
bishop, but he subsequently accepted the 
proposal, and was prepared to relinquish a 
part of the income of St. David's on condi- 
tion that the endowment left should not be 
less than that of the other Welsh dioceses. 
He ultimately contented himself, however, 
with the appointment in 1890 of a bishop 
suffragan to relieve him of confirmations, 
while himself retaining control of diocesan 
business to the end. 

As visitor of St. David's College, Lampe- 
ter, he was endowed, under the college 
charter, with exceptionally wide powers, 
which he exercised to its very marked im- 
provement, one of his first acts being to supply 
it with a complete code of statutes (1879, 8yo), 
instead of the few provisional rules which 
it previously had, while in his last year he 
assisted the college board in framing a more 
democratic charter. When the university of 
Wales was being established in 1893, he 
however missed the opportunity of securing 
the inclusion of Lampeter as a constituent 
college of the university, towards which he 
thereafter advised an attitude of friendly 
reserve. He took an active part in the 
government of Christ's College, Brecon, be- 
coming chairman of its board of governors in 
1880 (see his evidence before Lord Aberdare's 
committee on Welsh intermediate education, 
Minutes, pp. 433-43). As to elementary 
education, he was satisfied with the religious 
instruction which it was possible to provide at 
board schools. He also cheerfully accepted 
the Burials Act of 1880, which in his opinion 
was 'not unjust' to the church, for he ad- 
mited that the nonconformists of Wales 
had at least a theoretical grievance in the 
matter. But when the Welsh church es- 
tablishment was more directly attacked, he 
denied that Wales was either geographically 
or ecclesiastically distinct from England, 
embody ing his views in the dicta that Wales 
is 'merely a geographical expression,' is 
' nothing more than the highlands of Scotland,' 
and that it ' has never had a national unity.' 
He, however, took only a slight part in the 
work of church defence, which in its militant 
and aggressive forms was distasteful to 




him, and he was successful beyond most 
Welsh bishops (Thirlwall not excepted) in 
avoiding controversies, and in maintaining 
amicable relations with Welsh noncon- 

Like most of his friends at Trinity he had 
been deeply interested in the tractarian 
movement, the more so in his case perhaps, 
owing to his personal affection for Isaac 
"Williams [q. v.], who was a native of Llangyn- 
felyn parish, where Jones's Welsh home was 
situated. But a still earlier attachment to 
evangelicalism, corrected by his cultured 
historical sense, led him, after the secession 
of Newman, to develop his sympathies in 
the direction of the evangelical wing of the 
moderate school, but with a whole-hearted 
loyalty to the prayer-book. Among the 
benefits which he ascribed to the Oxford 
movement was the greater dignity and 
solemnity with which it had invested re- 
ligious functions, whence perhaps (and owing 
also to his fondness of music, cf. STEPHENS, 
Freeman, i. 90) his private admission that 
he liked a few ritualists ' to give colour ' to 
his diocese. 

Throughout his life Jones was always 
methodical and minutely accurate, though 
his range of knowledge was of the widest. 
A natural warmth of feeling was concealed 
under a somewhat precise manner. In pre- 
sence, his short stature was compensated by 
a quiet dignity. To the last he took a lively 
interest in archaeological research, and his pre- 
sidential addresses to the Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association at Carmarthen and Lam- 
peter in 1875 and 1878, and to the British 
Archaeological Association at Tenby in 1884, 
were models of their kind. 

He died at Abergwili Palace on 14 Jan. 
1897, and was buried on the 20th in the 
family vault at Llangynfelyn. The bishop 
was twice married : first, on 10 Sept. 1856 
(during his residence at Oxford), to Frances 
Charlotte, second daughter of the Rev. 
Samuel Hoi worthy, vicar of Croxall, Derby- 
shire, who died without issue on 21 Sept. 
: and secondly, on 2 Dec. 1886, to Anne, 
fifth daughter of Mr. G. H. Loxdale of Aig- 
burth, Liverpool, by whom he left issue a 
son and two daughters. 

The following were his published works : 
1. 'Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd,' Lon- 
don (Tenby printed), 1851, 8vo. 2. 'The 
History and Antiquities of St. David's,' 
written jointly with E. A. Freeman ; issued 
in four parts, 1852-7 (Tenby, 4to), with 
illustrations by Jewitt, engraved by Le 
Keux. 3. ' Notes on the GZdipus Tyrannus 
of Sophocles, adapted to the Text of Din- 
dorf,' Oxford, 1862, 16mo ; 2nd ed. 1869. 
VOL. in. SUP. 

4. 'The New Testament illustrated by a 
Plain Commentary for Private Reading,' 
2 vols. London, 1865, 4to ; the second volume 
only was by Basil Jones, the first being 
by Archdeacon Churton. 5. ' The CEdipus 
Rex of Sophocles with Notes,' Oxford, 1866. 
8vo. 6. ' The Peace of God : Sermons on 
the Reconciliation of God and Man ' (chiefly 
preached before the University of Oxford), 
London, 1869, 8vo. 

His translation into Greek anapaestic verse 
of Tennyson's ' Dying Swan ' in the Antho- 
logia Oxoniensis deserves to be mentioned 
as probably the most beautiful thing in that 
collection. Single sermons and the episcopal 
charges were also published separately shortly 
after their delivery. A selection of his ' Ordina- 
tion Addresses' was issued after his death 
(Oxford, 1900, 8vo), with a preface by Canon 
Gregory Smith, who, in his ' Holy Days' 
(1900, p. 67), has delineated the chief traits 
of the bishop's character. 

The restoration of the ruinous eastern 
chapels at St. David's Cathedral is being 
carried out as a memorial to Bishop Jones 
and of his two friends, Deans Allen and 
Phillips, who both died within a few months 
after the bishop. A portrait of the bishop 
i in his robes, painted by Eddis in 1882, is 
preserved at Gwynfryn. 

[Authorities cited ; Nicholas's County Families 

of Wales, 1st ed. p. 198 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 

1 sub nom. Jones of Gwynfryn ; Debrett's Peerage 

i (1896),p.661;Foster'sAlumniOxonienses(1715- 

i 1886), p. 775, ami Oxford Men and their Col- 

\ leges,p.32; Crockford's Clerical Directory (1896) 

! s.v. ' St. David's ; ' Canon F. Meyrick's Narrative 

of Undergraduate Life at Trinity College, Ox- 

: ford, 1844-7, in Hort's Memorials of Wharton 

B. Marriott (1873), pp. 41 et seq. ; Blakiston's 

Trinity College (1898), pp. 223-6; Dean Ste- 

phens's Life and Letters of E. A. Freeman, i. 43- 

i 51, 99, 393-4, ii. 8, 37, 131-4, 208-9, 372-3, 

i 443 ; Archseologia Cambrensis (January 1898), 

i 5th ser. xv. 88 (with portrait) ; Allibone's Diet. 

1 of English Literature, p. 995, and Suppl. p. 925 ; 

Brit. Mus. Cat. ; obituary notices in the Times, 

15 Jan. 1897; Guardian, 20 and 27 Jan.; Western 

Mail (Cardiff), 15 and 16 Jan. (cf. 1 April 1901) ; 

; Church Times, 22 Jan. ; Brecon Times, 26 Jan. ; 

! Bye-Gones, 27 Jan. 1897, and Annual Register for 

1897, pp. 137-8; private information. See also 

the Primary Charge of (his successor) Bishop 

i Owen of St. David's (Carmarthen, Nov. 1900), 

pp.25 et seq., William Hughes's Hist, of the 

Church of the Cymry (1900), and Archdeacon 

Bevan in the St'. David's Diocesan Gazette for 

| 1901.] D. Li-. T. 

JOWETT, BENJAMIN (1817-1893), 
master of Balliol College, and regius pro- 
fessor of Greek in the university of Oxford, 
was the eldest son and second child of Ben- 


Jowett 5 

jamin Jowett of London and Isabella Lang 
home. The family originally came from 
Manningham, near Bradford in Yorkshire, 
where at one time they owned land. Ben- 
jamin was born in the parish of Camberwell 
on 15 April 1817. He is said to have been a 
pale delicate-looking boy of unusual mental 
precocity, and when he learned Greek with 
the tutor of his cousins, the Langhornes, 
' they had no chance against him in their 
Greek lessons ' (Life and Letters, i. 30). His 
chief companion in these years was his elder 
sister Emily ; ' the two would shut them- 
selves up in a room with their books and 
study for hours.' 

On 16 June 1829 he was admitted to St. 
Paul's school. The high master at the time 
was Dr. John Sleath [q. v.] of Wadham 
College. Here he acquired two methods of 
study which he always impressed on his pupils 
at a later time ; he learned large quantities of 
Greek and Latin poetry by heart, and he 
constantly retranslated into Greek or Latin 
passages which he had previously translated 
into English. Among his contemporaries at i 
the school were [Baron] C. E. Pollock, [Lord] j 
Hannen, and A. S. Eddis of Trinity College, j 

In November 1835 he gained an open 
scholarship at Balliol College. About a j 
year afterwards (October 1836) he came into ! 
residence. Among the scholars of the time 
were [Dean] Stanley, [Vice-chancellor] \ 
Wickens, Stafford Northcote [Lord Iddes- 
leigh], J. G. Lonsdale, [Dean] Lake, and [Dean] 
Goulburn ; and among the fellows [Arch- 
bishop] Tait,[Dean] Scott, and W. G. Ward. 
In Dr. Sleath's opinion Jowett was ' the 
best Latin scholar whom he had ever sent 
to college,' and this opinion was confirmed 
when in the spring of 1837 he gained the 
Hertford (University) scholarship for Latin. 
In the next year he obtained a success even 
more brilliant, being elected a fellow of the 
college while still an undergraduate (Novem- 
ber 1838). In the following summer he 
obtained a first class in literce humaniores. 
Already he had begun to take private pupils, 
the first of whom were Thomas Henry (after- 
wards Lord) Farrer [q. v. Suppl.] and his 
brother Oliver. He graduated B.A. in 1839, 
and M.A. in 1842. In 1841 he obtained 
the chancellor's prize for the Latin essay, 
and in 1842 he was appointed by Dr. Jen- 
kyns, the master, to a tutorship in the col- 
lege, a post which he retained till his elec- 
tion to the mastership in 1870. He took 
deacon's orders in 1842, and priest's in 1845. 
Jowett had been brought up amid evan- 
gelical views, which were traditional in his 
tamily. He now found himself in the 


midst of the Oxford movement, and was 
greatly attracted by William George Ward 
fq. v.], with whom he was brought into 
daily contact. Years afterwards, when the 
two friends met after a long separation, 
Jowett said : ' Ward reminded me that I 
charged him with shallow logic, and that he 
retorted on me with misty metaphysics. 
That was perhaps not an unfair account of 
the state of the controversy between us.' 
In February 1841 Newman's tract on the 
articles the famous ' No. XC.' appeared. 
It was at once attacked and condemned, and 
the controversy had a peculiar interest for 
the Balliol common room. For Tait was 
one of the first to move in the attack, and 
W T ard, who supported the tract, was dis- 
missed from his lectureship at the college in 
the following June (CHURCH, Oxford Move- 
ment, c. xiv., esp. pp. 252 ff.) It appears 
that Jowett was somewhat bewildered by 
the shifting currents around him. ' But for 
the providence of God,' he said at a later 
time, ' I might have become a Roman 
Catholic.' In 1844 the crisis in the move- 
ment came. Newman had retired from St. 
Mary's to Littlemore, and Ward published 
his ' Ideal of a Christian Church.' Jowett, 
with A. P. Stanley to lead, fought on the 
side of toleration, and both were present at 
the scene of Ward's degradation on 13 Feb. 
1845, a day which Dean Church regards as 
the birthday of Oxford liberalism (/. c. p. 

Meanwhile Jowett was working earnestly 
with pupils in college, travelling on the 
continent in the long vacations. In 1844 
he made the acquaintance of some of the 
most distinguished German scholars of the 
time, G. Hermann, Bekker, Lachmann, and 
Ewald, and consulted Erdmann, the his- 
torian of philosophy, on the best method of 
approaching the philosophy of Hegel, by 
whose teaching he was now becoming 
fascinated. For some years he remained an 
eager student of Hegel's writings, and even 
translated a good deal of the logic in con- 
junction with [Archbishop] Temple {Life, i. 
120, 129, 142). He seems also to have been 
greatly stimulated by Hegel's ' History of 
Philosophy ' in the lectures which he was 
now giving as tutor, on the ' Fragments of 
the Early Greek Philosophers ' lectures in 
which he first gave proof of his peculiar 
powers. From 1846 onwards his position as 
tutor was assured; he was the centre of a 
number of pupils, who were devoted to him, 
and proved the value of his teaching by their 
success in the schools. In 1848 he began 
the practice, which he continued till near 
the end of his life, of taking pupils with him 


in the vacation to some quiet healthy place. 
Like William Sewell [q. v.] of Exeter, he 
became a student of Plato, and it was greatly 
due to him that Plato was included in the 
list of books which could be offered in the 
schools (Life, i. 132). This incursion into 
a new field of philosophy he balanced by 
lectures on political economy. His tours 
abroad became more rare as the years passed 
on, but in April 1848 he visited Paris in 
the days of the revolution with Stanley, 
Francis Turner Palgrave [q. v. Suppl.], and 
[Sir] Robert Burnett Morier [q. v.] (see 
STANLEY, Life, i. 390). 

Yet theology was the chief study of these 
days. For some years past Jowett had 
been on terms of intimate .friendship with 
Stanley, and finally the two 'friends planned 
an edition of St. Paul's epistles. Jowett 
undertook the Thessalonians, Galatians, and 
Romans ; Stanley the Corinthians. From 
these labours they were drawn away for a 
time by the movement for reform which now 
swept over Oxford. Stanley and Jowett had 
already begun a joint work on university 
reform, when in 1850 a commission was ap- 
pointed to take evidence on the subject. Of 
this commission Stanley was the secretary. 
From the evidence which Jowett gave be- 
fore it we see that he wished to retain the 
college system, but was in favour of increasing 
the number of professors. That he had in 
view at this time any extension of university 
privileges to non-collegiate students there is 
no proof. But he was clearly on the side of 
the poor student, and did not wish to see 
the university possessed by the ' gentleman 
heresy ' (Life, i. 183). He was a public ex- 
aminer in 1849, 1850, 1851, and 1853. 

Jowett was now known beyond Oxford. 
He was consulted by Sir C.Trevelyan in re- 
gard to examinations for the Indian civil 
service, and eventually became a member of 
Lord Macaulay's committee, which reported 
in 1854. To the end of his life he retained 
a lively interest in this subject, and indeed 
in everything connected with India (see 
letters to Lord Lansdowne in Letters, 1899). 

When Dr. Richard Jenkyns [q.v.] died in 
1854, Jowett was put forward is a candidate 
for the mastership, but the election fell on 
Robert Scott (1811-1887) [q. v.] This re- 
pulse made a deep impression on Jowett's 
sensitive nature ; it was, in fact, the beginning 
of a somewhat distressful period of his life, 
during which he felt himself in little sym- 
pathy with his college and Oxford. The first 
effect of it was to send him back with re- 
newed energy to his unfinished work on St. 
Paul. In the next summer, on the same day 
with Stanley's edition of the Corinthians, his 

i Jowett 

edition of the Thessalonians, Galatians, and 
Romans appeared. The publication of this 
book formed an epoch in Jowett's life. 

To the stricter school of philologists the 
commentary seemed to be vitiated by the 
view which Jowett took of St. Paul's use of 
language. His ablest critic, [Bishop] Light- 
foot, strongly protested against the charge of 
vagueness which Jowett brought against the 
Greek of the New Testament period ; and of 
St. Paul especially he maintained that his 
antecedents were such that he could hardly 
fail to speak or write Greek with accuracy, 
while Jowett was inclined to look on the 
apostle as one whose thoughts outran his 
power of expression, so that his meaning 
must be gathered from the context rather 
than by a strictly grammatical treatment of 
the words (see Journal of Sacred and Classical 
Philology, iii. p. 104, ff. 1856). The essays, 
which were generally acknowledged to be 
the most important part of the work, were 
partly condemned as heretical, especially 
the essay on the atonement, and were also 
thought to bewantingin definite conclusions, 
though no one could deny that deep and 
suggestive thoughts were contained in them. 
' Those who look only for positive results will 
be greatly disappointed with Mr. Jowett's 
essays. On the other hand, those who are 
satisfied with being made to think instead of 
being thought for, and are willing to follow 
out for themselves important lines of re- 
flexion, when suggested to them, will find 
no lack of interest or instruction in these 
volumes. The value of Mr. Jowett's labours 
is far from consisting solely in the definite 
results attained, which are poorer than 
might have been looked for. The recon- 
structive process bears no proportion to the 
destructive. But,- after every abatement 
which has to be made on this score, these 
volumes will still hold their position in the 
foremost ranks of recent literature for depth 
and range of thought ' (LIGHTFOOT, I. c.). 
The book could not fail to attract, attention, 
even beyond theological readers. Bagehot 
said that Jowett had shown by ' chance ex- 
pressions ' that he had exhausted impending 
controversies years before they arrived, and 
had perceived more or less the conclusion at 
which the disputantswouldarrivelong before 
the public issue was joined ' (Physics and 
Politics, 8th ed. pp. 116, 117). In 1859 a 
second edition was published, in which the 
essay on the atonement was rewritten, not 
with any view of retracting the views put 
forward' in the first, but to explain them 
more clearly and meet some of the miscon- 
ceptions which had arisen. 

In the same summer (1855) Jowett was 



appointed to the regius professorship of 
Greek, vacant by the death of Dean Gaisford 
[q. v.] Those who condemned his views 
were roused to action by this preferment. 
Under an almost forgotten statute Jowett 
was denounced by Dr. John David Macbride 
[q. v.] and the Rev. Charles Pourtales Go- 
lightly [q. v.] to the vice-chancellor (Dr. 
Cotton of Worcester) as having denied the 
catholic faith. Dr. Cotton summoned him 
to subscribe the articles anew in his pre- 
sence, and to this Jowett submitted. It 
was a mean attack, which might create a 
prejudice, but could lead to no definite result. 
Almost meaner still was the agitation, pro- 
longed over ten years, by which the Greek 
chair was deprived of any addition to the 
statutory emoluments which had been 
hitherto paid. Of the four chairs founded 
by Henry VIII at Oxford, and endowed by 
him with 40/. each, the chair of Greek was 
the only one which had never received in- 
creased emolument, and this continued to 
be the case in spite of repeated appeals to 
convocation till 1865, when Christ Church 
consented to raise the income to 500/. a year. 
It was, in fact, made clear that estates had 
been granted to that college for the purpose, 
and that the chair must be endowed from 
some source was rendered inevitable by the 
action of Jowett's friends, who subscribed 
2,0001. to wards the deficiency which Jowett 
refused to accept and by his own action 
as professor. 

For from his election Jowett had departed 
altogether from the traditional lines. To 
edit dictionaries and scholia was not to his 
taste at all ; he began a series of lectures on 
the ' Republic of Plato ' and the ' Fragments 
of the Early Greek Philosophers,' and at 
the same time allowed any undergraduate 
who wished, whether belonging to his own 
college or not, to bring him, for correction, 
translations into Greek prose or verse two 
or even three times a week. This was a 
very severe addition to his tutorial work. 
But his lectures were a success. Greek 
scholarship received a stimulus throughout 
the university, and outside Oxford his de- 
voted labour on his pupils could not but 
tell in his favour, whatever his theological 
opinions might be. 

In the ten years following the election to 
the professorship Jowett fell deeper still 
under suspicion of heresy. In the second 
edition of his 'Epistles of St. Paul' (1859) 
he had repeated his views, and in this he 
had intended to include an essay on the 
' Interpretation of Scripture.' This essay he 
finally kept back till the next year, when it 
appeared in ' Essays and Reviews,' a work 

2 Jowett 

which created a panic in the church. The 
volume was promoted by the Rev. Harry 
Bristow Wilson [q.v.], of St. John's College, 
Oxford, and among the contributors, besides 
Jowett and Wilson, were Archdeacon Row- 
land Williams [q.v.J, the present Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Mark Pattison [q. v.], and 
others. The book went through many edi- 
tions, ' for though we have now got to the 
stage of affecting astonishment at the sen- 
sation produced by the avowal of admitted 
truths in that work, nobody who remembers 
the time can doubt that it marked the ap- 
pearance of a very important development 
of religious and philosophical thought ' 
(LESLIE STEPHEN, Studies of a Biographer, 
11. 129). Wilson and Williams were brought 
before the court of arches and suspended for 
a year, but this judgment was subsequently 
reversed by Lord Westbury. After the ver- 
dict of the dean of arches an attack was 
made upon Jowett. The case was opened in 
the vice-chancellor's court at Oxford (20 Feb. 
1863), when Mountague Bernard [q. v.] ap- 
peared as the vice-chancellor's assessor. On 
Jowett's part it was protested that the court 
had no jurisdiction in the matter. Bernard, 
while rejecting the protest, refused to order 
Jowett to appear and to admit articles on the 
part of the promoters of the case. Counsel 
advised against an application to the court 
of queen's bench for a mandamus, and the 
prosecution was dropped. 

For a time Jowett ' held his tongue about 
theology, and was glad to have done so, 
because he began to see things more clearly ' 
(1866). But in 1870 he was planning in 
connection with Wilson a new volume of 
' Essays,' in which he intended to write on 
the great religions of the world. In Sep- 
tember of that year he was elected master 
of Balliol College, and the projected volume 
never appeared. Theology occupied a great 
deal of his thought and time ; he preached 
not only in the college chapel but in the 
university pulpit, in Westminster Abbey, 
and elsewhere. But nothing was published. 
He would not allow any of his sermons to 
be printed, or his ' St. Paul' to appear in a 
new edition. He wished to attain to greater 
clearness and certainty, and hoped that these 
would come with time ; but he took on him- 
self other labours which left no leisure for 
elaborating his views. Yet his theological 
work had not been in vain ; he had pointed 
out where changes must be made if theology 
is to retain a hold on thoughtful minds, and 
if some of his positive conceptions were re- 
garded as ' misty ' and ' vague,' he was clear 
enough in maintaining what he called ' the 
central light of all religion,' the divine jus- 




tice and truth. What he wrote ' was much 
read and pondered by the more intellectual 
sort of undergraduates' (PATER). 

From 1860 to 1870 his labours were such 
as would have overwhelmed any other man. 
At one time he writes that he is seeing every 
undergraduate in college once a week ! In 
the vacations his hours were given to Plato. 
He had begun with the idea of a commentary 
on the ' Republic/ a work which he never 
dropped, though he did not live to finish it. 
But he soon felt that a complete analysis of 
all Plato's writings was required if any one 
wished thoroughly to understand the ' Re- 
public,' and the analysis in time became an 
analysis and translation. To this must be 
added the work of the professorship. One 
who attended his lectures at the time spoke 
of them as being ' informal, unwritten, and 
seemingly unpremeditated, but with many 
a long-remembered gem of expression, or 
delightfully novel idea, which seemed to be 
lying in wait whenever, at a loss for a 
moment in his somewhat hesitating dis- 
course, he opened a book of loose notes' 
(Life, i. 330). 

About 1865 he became, with the support 
of fellows who had been his pupils, a pre- 
ponderating influence in the common room 
of Balliol College. Much time was devoted 
to the organisation of education in the 
college and the university. Arrangements 
were made for inter-collegiate lectures, and 
Scottish professors were invited to give lec- 
tures in the summer term, when their labours 
in the north were at an end. But his chief 
object was to lessen the expense of an Oxford 
career. For this purpose he persuaded the 
college to found more scholarships and ex- 
hibitions, and to establish a hall where, as 
he hoped, young men would be able to live 
for little, while enjoying the benefits of the 
college system. In the end the movement 
which he supported was carried on a larger 
scale by the university; the restriction was 
removed by which students were compelled 
to reside within the college walls, and non- 
collegiate students came into being. In the 
same years a considerable part of the college 
was rebuilt. Jowett was convinced that 
' not a twentieth part of the ability in the 
country ever comes to the university.' In 
order to attract men from new classes he 
persuaded the college to alter the subjects 
for examination in some of the exhibitions, 
adding physical science and mathematics to 

By his election to the mastership (7 Sept. 
1870) Jowett attained the position which 
he most coveted. He now enjoyed more 
leisure than hitherto, and he had as much 

power as the head of a house could have. 
For some years after his election he was 
much occupied with the enlargement of the 
college. A new hall was built (1877), and 
the old one transformed into a library for 
the use of the undergraduates. Later on a 
hope, formed many years before, was realised, 
and a field for cricket and football was 
secured for the college To this, as to every- 
thing connected with Balliol, Jowett gave 
liberally from his private purse, and finally 
he built at his own expense a house for a 
tutor adjacent to the field. 

Jowett's interests in education were not 
confined to Oxford. The University College 
at Bristol owed much to him, he strongly 
supported the claims of secondary education 
and university extension, and at the time of 
his death he was busy with a scheme for 
bringing the university and the secondary 
schools together. When it was arranged in 
1874-5 that the age of the candidates for 
the Indian civil service should be fixed at 
seventeen to nineteen, and that successful 
candidates should pass two years of proba- 
tion at a university, Jowett made arrange- 
ments to receive a number of candidates at 
Balliol College, and helped in establishing a 
school of oriental languages. In the uni- 
versity commission of 1877-81 he was of 
course greatly interested. He had not much 
sympathy with research, beyond certain 
limits, and on the other hand he urged 
strongly the claims of secondary education 
in the large towns, a movement in which 
he thought it would be wise for the uni- 
versity to take a part. The better organisa- 
tion of the teaching of the non-collegiate 
students was strongly pressed, and, above 
all, the retention to a large extent of prize 
fellowships, on which Jowett placed great 

In 1871 the translation of Plato appeared 
in four volumes. This was an event which 
determined to a great extent the literary 
work of the rest of Jowett's life not that 
he ' had done with theology and intended 
to lead a new life ' (PLATO, Euthyphro, end), 
for he was always hoping to return to theo- 
logy when he could escape from other labours 
but the translation of Plato had a rapid 
sale, and it was necessary to revise it for 
a second edition (5 vols. 1875). Many 
thoughts which might have appeared in an 
independent work on theology or morals 
were now embodied in the introductions to 
the dialogues. From Plato he was led on to 
a translation of Thucydides, with notes on 
the Greek text (2 vols. 1881). From 1882 to 
1886 he was vice-chancellor, and carried into 
the administration of the office the restless 




energy which was one of the most marked 
characteristics of his nature. He was able 
to do something for the non-collegiate stu- 
dents, and, in a different line, for the drainage 
of the Thames Valley, in conjunction with 
Dean Liddell though but a small part of 
their schemes was realised and a memorial 
of his work remains in the name ' Vice- 
chancellor's Cut,' which was given to a new 
outlet made for the Cherwell into the Isis. 
He also did much for the recognition and 
elevation of dramatic representations at Ox- 
ford. It was due to his support that the 
' Agamemnon' of ^Eschylus was acted in 
Balliol Hall, and he gave his direct sanc- 
tion and encouragement to the performances 
of the Oxford University Dramatic Society. 
The theatre at Oxford was rebuilt at this 
time, and Jowett was one of the first to 
enter it on the opening night. He also in- 
vited Sir Henry Irving to give a lecture at 
Oxford, and stay at the master's lodge on 
the occasion. In the same liberal spirit he 
encouraged music in his own college, inviting 
John Farmer from Harrow to superintend, 
and giving an organ for the hall. This was 
the beginning of the Sunday concerts at 
Balliol. Another subject to which he gave 
much thought and care was the university 
press. During these years his literary work 
flagged a little, yet in 1885 he published 
the translation of Aristotle's 'Politics,' with 
notes, but without the essays which would 
have given a special value to the book. 
These he did not live to finish. 

The strain of the vice-chancellorship was 
more than Jowett's health could bear. In 
1887 he fell ill, and though he recovered a 
considerable degree of health, he was quite 
unequal to the tasks which he laid upon 
himself. He was, however, able to carry on 
the revision of the ' Plato ' for a third edition, 
which appeared in 1892, and work upon the 
edition of the ' Republic ' on which he had 
now laboured for thirty years. This was 
published after his death by Professor Lewis 
Campbell. It is to this last edition of ' Plato ' 
that we naturally turn for Jowett's final 
views on philosophy. He does not give us 
any comprehensive account of Plato's phi- 
losophy, for he did not quite believe that 
such a comprehensive account was possible. 
Plato's view changes in different dialogues, 
and in some no definite conclusion is reached. 
It was therefore better to treat each dialogue 
separately. It was also characteristic of 
his own mind to be constantly changing his 
point of view. ' Mr. Jowett's forte is mental 
philosophy. How has this or that meta- 
physical question presented itself to different 
minds, or to the same mind at different 

times ? Under what contradictory aspects 
may a particular religious sentiment or moral 
truth be viewed? What phenomena does 
an individual mind exhibit at different stages 
in its growth ? What contrasts do we find 
in the ancient and modern world of thought ? 
This is the class of questions Mr. Jowett 
delights to ask and to answer.' So said Dr. 
Lightfoot when speaking of the work on 
' St. Paul,' and the remarks apply with equal 
force to the ' Plato.' If we ask ourselves 
what were Plato's views on ethics, or politics, 
or art, we shall indeed find many far-reach- 
ing observations in Jowett's introductions, 
but not a systematic statement , such as is 
given e. g. in Zeller's ' History of Greek Phi- 
losophy.' We shall also find much which, 
though it arises out of Plato's thoughts, is 
only indirectly connected with him cri- 
ticism of modern forms of old views, of 
ideal governments other than that of Plato, 
of recent utilitarianism, of Hegel, of the 
nature and origin of language. Few books 
cover so wide a field, or show keener powers 
of observation, or contain deeper thoughts. 
If the result often seems inadequate, it is 
because it was the author's aim to get at the 
truth, not to support any theory. And what 
is written is written with a finish and beauty 
rarely surpassed, just as the translation of 
the text of Plato and of Thucydides too 
has superseded all previous translations. 

In 1891 Jowett had a very serious illness, 
which returned upon him in 1893. Towards 
the end of September in this year he left 
Oxford on a visit to Professor Campbell in 
London. Thence he went to Headley Park, 
the home of an old pupil, Sir Robert S. 
Wright, judge of the high court, where 
he died on 1 Oct. He was buried in St. 
Sepulchre's cemetery, Oxford, on 6 Oct. 

After making bequests to his relatives, 
secretaries, servants, and others, Jowett left 
the remainder of his property of whatever 
kind, including the copyrights of his works, 
to Balliol College. The profits of the copy- 
rights were to be invested, and the fund 
thus formed was to be applied partly to re- 
publication of Jowett's own works, and 
partly ' to the making of new translations 
and editions of Greek authors, or in any way 
promoting and advancing the study of Greek 
literature or otherwise for the advancement 
of learning in such way that the college may 
have the benefit intended by 15 George III, 
ch. 53, 1.' 

After his death his friends subscribed a 
large sum of money, of which a small por- 
tion was expended on a memorial tablet in 
Balliol College chapel, and the remainder 
applied to the foundation of two 'Jowett 




lectureships ' in Greek philosophy and his- 
tory (or literature) at Balliol College. 

He received the honorary degree of doctor 
of theology at Levden, 1875, of LL.D. at 
Edinburgh, 1884, and of LL.D. at Cam- 
bridge, 1890. 

There are several portraits of Jowett : 
(1) In crayons, by George Richmond, R.A., 
about 1859, at Balliol College ; (2) in crayons, 
by Laugee, 1871, in the possession of Pro- 
fessor Dicey; (3) in oils, by Mr. G. F. Watts, 
R.A., in the hall of Balliol College ; (4) in 
pastels, by the Cavaliere C. M. Ross, at 
Balliol College ; (5) in water-colours, by the 
Lady Abercromby, 1892, in the hall of 
Balliol College ; the head was subsequently 
repainted by the same lady, and is at the 
master's lodge. 

Jowett : s energy and industry in literary 
work were more than equalled by his de- 
votion to his pupils and friends. ' He had 
the genius of friendship,' and was never so 
happy as when visiting and entertaining 
friends, or contributing in any way to their 
happiness. A long succession of pupils re- 
garded him with the greatest affection, and 
at the close of his life the friends of his youth 
were his friends still, for he never lost them. 
Among the earliest were Lord Farrer, Pro- 
fessor W. Y. Sellar, Sir A. Grant, T. C. 
Sandars, F. T. Palgrave, Theodore Walrond, 
Professor H. J. S. Smith. These were followed 
by Lord Bowen, W. L. Xewman, Justice 
Wright, Professor T. H. Green, Lyulph 
Stanley, Sir C. P. Ilbert, and later still by 
Sir W. R. Anson, Sir F. H. Jeune, Lord 
Lansdowne, Sir Arthur Godley, Andrew 
Lang, Professor W. Wallace, Professor Caird, 
Lord Milner, Sir G. Baden-Powell, and 
many others. It was his delight to have 
some of these pupil friends at the master's 
lodge for Sunday, where he also brought 
together, whenever he could, some of the 
most distinguished men of his time. Such 
were Lowell, W. W. Goodwin, O. AVendell 
Holmes, Huxley, M. Arnold, Turgenieff, 
Browning, Froude, H. M. Stanley, Dr. 
Martineau, G. Eliot, Renan, Ruskin. As a 
host he was most careful and solicitous of 
the comfort of his guests, but in his conver- 
sation he was often reserved. A competent 
judge wrote of him : ' A disciple of Socrates 
he valued speech more highly than any 
other gift, yet he was always hampered by 
a conscious imperfection and by a difficulty 
in sustaining and developing his thoughts in 
society. . . . He was seldom more than 
the third party intervening' (J. D. ROGERS, 
see Life, ii. 157). In a tete-a-tete conver- 
sation he was often perversely silent, and 
gaps were almost painful. But with one or 

two congenial friends he would talk unre- 
mittingly till midnight, and even in his 
serious illness he insisted on coming down to 
breakfast that he ' might have a little cheer- 
ful conversation.' He loved to tell stories 
and to have them told to him, or to discuss 
subjects in which he had an interest, in the 
hope of gaining clearer insight. He had 
a wonderful power of fixing a discussion in 
a phrase : ' Respectability is a great foe to 
religion,' he said at the close of a discussion 
on chapel and church ; ' The practice of 
divines has permanently lowered the standard 
of truth ' was his severe sentence on theo- 
logical criticism. In his letters to friends 
he felt able to pour himself out with less re- 
straint than in conversation, and here we 
often find him at his best, light-hearted, 
cheerful, amusing, and devoted to his friends, 
endeavouring to comfort them in distress 
or bereavement, and to help them in diffi- 

Jowett formed no school, and was not the 
leader of a party in religion or philosophy. 
A leader in the church he could not be after 
the publication of his 'St. Paul,' and he 
never wished to leave the church for any 
form of nonconformity. His critical in- 
stincts led him in one direction, his re- 
ligious feeling drew him in another. Thus 
his speculations led him to ' irreconcilable 
contrasts ' (LESLIE STEPHEN, op. cit. ii. 
141), but he did not ' pretend that such con- 
trasts did not exist ; ' it was because he 
pointed them out with unusual force and 
freedom that he was regarded as heretical. 
In philosophy he was content to be critical 
(see above) ; he saw that one philosophy 
had always been succeeded by another, and 
the leader of to-day was forgotten to- 
morrow ; each therefore, he concluded, had 
grasped part of the truth, but not the 
whole truth. His speculations ended in 
compromise, and thus, here also, he was 
unfitted to be a leader. For himself he 
had almost a horror of falling under one set 
of ideas to the exclusion of others. ' He 
stood at the parting of many ways,' and 
wrote ' No thoroughfare ' upon them all, says 
Mr. Stephen, severely but not unjustly (loc. 
cit. p. 143) ; and after all, in doing so, 
Jowett only went a step beyond the philo- 
sopher who condemns all systems but his 
own. Yet indirectly he left his mark even 
on philosophy. By him his pupil T. H. 
Green was stimulated to the study of Hegel, 
and no influence has been greater in Oxford 
for the last thirty years than Green's. But 
the chief traces of Jowett's influence will be 
found in other spheres. His essays and 
translations must secure him a high place 


among the writers of his time, and in every 
history of English education in the second 
half of the nineteenth century he will occupy 
a prominent place. 

The following is a list of Jowett's works : 
1. 'St. Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians, 
Galatians, and Romans,' 2 vols. 1855; 2nd 
edit. 1859. 2. ' Essay on the Interpretation 
of Scripture,' in ' Essays and Reviews,' 1860. 
3. ' The Dialogues of Plato,' translated into 
English, with Analyses and Introductions, 
4 vols. 1871; 2nd edit. 5 vols. 1875; 3rd 
edit. 5 vols. 1892. (The ' Republic,' published 
separately, 1888.) 4. ' Thucydides,' trans- 
lated into English, with Introduction, Notes, 
&c. 2 vols. 1881 ; 2nd edit. 1900. 5. Aris- 
totle's 'Politics,' translated into English, ! 

s Keeley 

with Introduction, Notes, &c. 2 vols. 1885. 
6. Plato's' Republic,' Text and Notes (Jowett 
and Campbell), 3 vols. 1894. 7. ' College 
Sermons,' 1895. 8. ' Sermons : Biographical, 
&c.,' 1899. 9. ' Sermons on Faith and Doc- 
trine,' 1901. 

[Jowett's Life and Letters by Dr. Evelyn 
Abbott and Dr. Lewis Campbell, 2 vols. 1897 ; 
Letters, 1899; Benjamin Jowett, Master of Bal- 
liol Coll., L. A. Tolleraache(1895) ; W. G. Ward 
and the Oxford Movement, by W. Ward, 1889 ; 
Life of Dean Stanley, by R. E. Prothero, 1893; 
Swinburne's Studies in Prose and Poetry, 1894; 
Leslie Stephen's Studies of a Biographer, 1898 ; 
article in the Jewish Quarterly, by Claude G. 
Montenore, January 1900 ; personal knowledge.] 

E. A. 


(1822-1897), judge, fourth son of Robert 
Kay of Brookshaw, Bury, Lancashire, by 
Hannah, daughter of James Phillips of 
Birmingham |~cf. KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, SIR 
JAMES; and KAY, JOSEPH], was born on 
2 July 1822. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1844, and proceeded M.A. in 1847. 
He was admitted on 22 April 1844 student 
at Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the 
bar on 8 June 1847, and elected bencher on 
11 Jan. 1867, and treasurer in 1888. Like 
Lord Blackburn and some other eminent 
judges, it was in the capacity of a reporter 
that Kay learned his law (see infra), and it 
was but slowly that by dint rather of in- 
dustry and perseverance than brilliance he 
acquired one of the largest practices ever 
possessed by a stuff-gownsman. He took 
silk in 1866, and after enjoying a prolonged 
lead in Vice-chancellor Bacon's court, con- 
fined his practice to the House of Lords and 
privy council (1878). On the retirement of 
Vice-chancellor Malins in 1881, Kay was 
appointed (30 March) justice of the high 
court (chancery division) and knighted 
(2 May). He proved a strong judge, a 
sworn foe to lucrative abuses and dilatory 
proceedings, and as competent on circuit as ' 
in chambers. On 10 Nov. 1890 he suc- 
ceeded Sir Henry Cotton [q.v. Suppl.J as lord- 
justice of appeal. His tenure of this office 
was abridged by a painful disorder which, 
after frequently laying him aside, compelled 
his retirement at the commencement of ; 
Hilary term 1897 not, however, before he 
had given proof of unusual independence . 
of mind. 

He died at his town house, 37 Hyde Park 
Gardens, on 16 March 1897. His remains 
were interred (23 March) in the churchyard 
at Brockdish, near Scole, Norfolk, in which 
parish his seat, Thorpe Abbotts, was situate. 
He married, on 2 April 1850, Mary Valence 
(d. 1889), youngest daughter of Dr. William 
French, master (1820-49) of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, by whom he left issue two daugh- 
ters. In her memory Kay founded several 
divinity scholarships at Jesus College. 

Kay was author of ' Reports of Cases ad- 
judged in the High Court of Chancery before 
Sir William Page Wood, Knight, Vice- 
chancellor, 1853-4,' London, 1854, 8vo, 
continued in conjunction with Henry P. 
Vaughan Johnson to the close of the year 
1858 ; in all 5 volumes, 8vo. 

[Grud. Cant. ; Foster's Men at the Bar ; Lin- 
coln's Inn Adm. Reg.; Law List, 1848, 1867, 
1868 ; Times, 1 7 March 1 897 ; Law Journ. 20 and ' 

27 March 1897; Ann. Reg. 1897, ii. 145; 
Vanity Fair, 28 Aug. 1886, 7 Jan. 1888 ; White- 
hall Rev. 27 March 1897 ; Men and Women of 
the Time, 1895; Burke's Peerage, 1896; Law 
Reports, Appeal Cases, 1891, Memoranda.] 

J. M. R. 

1899), actress, whose maiden name was 
Goward, was born in Orwell Street, Ipswich, 
on 22 Nov. 1805 or 1806. After acting in 
Norwich, York, and other country towns, she 
made her first appearance in London as Miss 
Goward, play ing at the Lyceum, 2 July 1825, 
Rosina in the opera of that name, and Little 
Pickle in the ' Spoiled Child.' Here and at 
Covent Garden she met Robert Keeley [q.v.], 
whom she married in the summerof 1829. On 

28 Oct. 1825 Miss Goward made, as Marga- 




retta in ' Xo Song, No S upper,' her first appear- 
ance at Covent Garden. Her name appears 
to Sophia in the ' Road to Ruin,' Norah in 
' Norah, or the Girl of Erin,' Matilda in 
' Three Deep,' Lucette in ' Shepherd's Boy,' 
and very many parts, original and other. 
In 1834 she was a comic support of the 
Adelphi, where in November 1838 she made 
a great success as Smike ; and in 1839 one 
still greater as Jack Sheppard. AVith Mac- 
ready at Drury Lane in 1842 she played Xe- 
rissa, Audrey, Mrs. Placid in Mrs. Inchbald's 
' Every one has his Fault,' and Polly Pall- 
mall in Jerrold's ' Prisoner of War.' (For 
her share in the management of various 
theatres, for many of her characters, and for 
her family, see art. ROBERT KEELEY). Mrs. 
Peerybingle, Clemency Newcome, Maud in 
the ' Wife's ^Secret,' Jane in 'Wild Oats,' 
Rosemary in the ' Catspa w, ? Maria in ' Twelfth 
Night,' in which she was seen at different 
theatres, were so many triumphs. Betty 
Martin in an adaptation so named of ' Le 
Chapeau de 1'Horloger' of Madame Emile de 
Girardin, in which she was seen at the 
Adelphi (8 March 1855 ), was a comic master- 
piece. As much may be said for her Mary 
Jane (February 1856) in Moore's ' That 
Blessed Baby,' and Frank Oatlands in 'A 
Cure for the Heartache.' Betsy Baker, Dame 
Quickly, Mrs. Page, and Miss Prue in ' Love 
for Love,' must also be mentioned. When, 
indeed, Mrs. Keeley in 18o9 followed her 
husband into retirement, it was with the 
reputation of the finest comedian in her line 
of modern days. Her last professional ap- 
pearance was at the Lyceum in 1859 as 
Hector in Brough's burlesque, ' The Siege 
of Troy.' She came frequently for benefits 
before the public in her old parts, and often 
delivered addresses by her friend, Mr. Joseph 
Ashby Sterry, and others. On 22 Nov. 1895 
her ninetieth birthday was celebrated at the 
Lyceum by a miscellaneous entertainment, 
in which many leading actors took part. She 
preserved to the last an unconquerable viva- 
city. Mrs. Keeley died on 12 March 1899 
at 10 Pelham Crescent, Brompton, the house 
in which thirty years previously her husband 
breathed his last. Her daughter, Louisa Mary, 
married Montagu Stephen Williams [q. v.J 
In her latest years she was feted and caressed 
beyond the wont of womanhood by almost all 
people from the queen downwards, and her 
funeral at Brompton cemetery on 16 March 
was almost a public ceremonial. 

[Personal knowledge ; Genest's Account of 
the English Stage ; Scott and Howard's Elan- 
chard ; Dramatic and Musical Review ; Pascoe's 
Dramatic List ; Hollingshead's Gaiety Chroni- 
cles ; Marston's Our Recent Actors ; Montagu 

Williams's Leaves of a Life. 1890; Planche's 
Recollections ; Men and Women of the Time, 
14th ed.; Era, 18 March 1899; Athenaeum, 
18 March 1899.J J. K. 

wards MRS. BUTLER, generally known as 
FANKY KEMBLE (1809-1893), actress and 
writer, the daughter of Charles Kemble [q.v.] 
and Marie Therese Kemble [q. v.], was born in 
Newman Street, London, on 27 Nov. 1809, 
and educated principally in France. AVhen 
her father's management of Covent Garden 
was in extremis she made her first appear- 
ance on the stage on o Oct. 1829 as Juliet 
to her father's Mercutioand the Lady Capu- 
let of her mother, who returned to the stage 
after a long absence. Fanny Kemble's suc- 
cess was overwhelming. She appeared on 
9 Dec. as Belvidera in ' Venice Preserved; ' 
on 18 Jan. 1830 as Euphasia in the ' Grecian 
Daughter ; ' on 25 Feb. as Mrs. Beverley in 
the ' Gamester ; ' on 28 April as Isabella in 
the piece so named ; and on 28 May as Lady 
Townley in the ' Provoked Husband.' So 
profitable were her appearances that 13,000/. 
of debt were wiped off the theatre. In the 
following season she was seen as Mrs. Hal- 
ler in the ' Stranger,' Calista in the ' Fair 
Penitent,' Juliana in the 'Honeymoon,' 
Lady Macbeth, Portia, Beatrice, and Con- 
stance. In 1833 she was the first Louise de 
Savoie in her own ' Francis the First,' which 
was not a success ; the first Duchess of 
Guise in an adaptation of the ' Henri III ' 
of Dumas, which was a failure ; and the 
first Julia in Knowles's ' Hunchback.' In 
the autumn she accompanied her father to 
America, appearing on 18 Sept. at the Park 
theatre, New York, as Bianca in ' Fazio,' a 
part she repeated in Philadelphia and Bos- 
ton. On 7 Jan. 1834 she married Pierce 
Butler, a southern planter, whom in 1848 
she divorced (he died in 1867). On 16 Feb. 
1847, at Manchester, she reappeared on the 
stage as Julia, which with Lady Teazle, 
Mariana, and Queen Katherine, she repeated 
at Liverpool. In May she reappeared in Lon- 
don, playing at the Princess's with William 
Creswick [q. v. Suppl.] After a short visit to 
America she began in April 1848 a series of 
Shakespearean readings at Willis's rooms. 
In October 1849 at Sansom Street hall, 
Philadelphia, she gave a reading from ' King 
John.' Resuming her maiden name she re- 
tired for twenty years to Lennox, Massa- 
chusetts, reappearing in 1868 as a reader 
at Steinway hall, New York. In 1873 she 
resided near Philadelphia, and in 1877-8 
returned to England, dying at 86 Gloucester 
Place, London, the residence of her son- 
in-law, the Rev. Canon Leigh, on 15 Jan. 

Kemble 5 

1893 ; she was buried on the 20th at Kensal 

Fanny Kemble had a sparkling, saucy, and 
rather boisterous individuality, and seems 
to have had a string of elderly admirers of 
distinction. Rogers, Macaulay, Sidney 
Smith, and other literary men of the epoch 
gave her incessant homage, and memoirs of 
the early part of the century are full of her. 
Eighty-five letters addressed to her by Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald between 1871 and 1883 were 
printed in ' Temple Bar,' and with the addi- 
tion of nineteen letters were issued separately 
in 1895. Wilson, in the ' Noctes,' credited 
her with genius, and assigned her, as did 
others, # place near her aunt, Mrs. Siddons. 
Scott and Moore placed her on a lower plane. 
Longfellow was completely under her spell. 
Judge Haliburton spoke of her ' cleverness 
and audacity, refinement and coarseness, 
modesty and bounce, pretty humility and 
prettier arrogance.' Leigh Hunt could not 
be won to faith in her. Macready said, with 
some justice, that she was ignorant of the 
very rudiments of her art, but made amends, 
declaring that ' she is one of the most re- 
markable women of the present day.' Lewes 
called her readings ' an intellectual delight.' 

Her chief literary productions were : 
'Francis the First,' 1832; 'The Star of 
Seville,' a drama, 1837; 'Poems,' Phila- 
delphia, 1844 ; ' A Year of Consolation ' 
(travels in Italy), 1847; 'Plays,' 1863, 
including ' An English Tragedy,' ' Mary 
Stuart,' translated from Schiller, and ' Made- 
moiselle de Belle-Isle,' translated from 
Dumas ; ' Christmas Tree and other Tales,' 
from the German, 1856 ; ' Notes on some 
of Shakespeare's Plays,' 1882 ; ' Far Away 
and Long Ago,' 1889. 

Her autobiographical works consist of: 
1. ' Journal of F. A. Butler,' 1835, reprinted 
apparently as ' Journal of a Residence in 
America.' 2. ' Journal of a Residence on a 
Georgian Plantation,' 1863. 3. ' Record of a 
Girlhood,' 1878. 4. ' Records of Later Life,' 
1882. 5. 'Further Records,' 1891. These 
works are bright and animated, but caused 
some offence in certain circles by the views 
they expressed as to the theatrical profession, 
which she joined with reluctance. One or 
two works bearing on slavery were extracted 
from her early journal, and published sepa- 

A charming portrait by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, showing her, as she said, ' like what 
those who love me have sometimes seen me,' 
has been often reproduced. Another beauti- 
ful portrait by Sully, now in the possession 
of the Hon. Mrs. Leigh, has been engraved 
by J. G. Stodart. 


[Books cited ; Geuest's Account of the Eng- 
lish Stage ; Clark Russell's Representative 
Actors ; White's Actors of the Century; Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. xi. 159 ; Pascoe's .Dra- 
matic List; Pollock's Macready; Mme. Craven's 
Jeunesse de F. Kemblo ; Letters of Edward 
Fitzgerald to Fanny Kemble, 1895; Theatrical 
Times, vol. ii. ; Dramatic and Musical Review, 
vol. vi. ; Theatre, vol. xxi. March 1893 ; Leigh 
Hunt's Dramatic Essays ; Lewes's Dramatic 
Essays.] J. K. 

KENNEDY, VANS (1784-1846), major- 
general, Sanskrit and Persian scholar, was 
born at Pinmore in the parish of Ayr, Scot- 
land. He belonged to an old Ayrshire 
family, and was connected with the houses 
of Cassilis and Eglintoun. His father was 
Robert Kennedy of Pinmore, and his mother 
Robina, daughter of John Vans of Barnbar- 
roch, Wigtownshire, who on marrying his 
cousin assumed the name of Agnew. Robert 
Kennedy was ruined by the failure of the 
Ayr bank, and had to sell Pinmore and re- 
tire to Edinburgh, where he died in 1790. 
The care of his numerous children then 
devolved on the widow, who was a woman 
of great worth and ability. Major-general 
Kennedy was her youngest son, and one of 
his sisters was Grace Kennedy [q. v.] 

Kennedy was educated at Edinburgh, 
at Berkhamsted, and finally at Monmouth, 
and was noted in youth for his studious 
habits. On the completion of his fourteenth 
year he returned to Edinburgh, and, having 
obtained a cadetship, he sailed for Bombay 
in 1800. Shortly after his arrival he was 
employed with his corps, the 1st battalion 
of the 2nd grenadiers, against the people 
of the Malabar district, and received a wound 
in his neck, from the effects of which he 
suffered all his life. In 1807 he became 
Persian interpreter to the Peshwa's sub- 
sidiary force at Sirur, then commanded by 
the Colonel W. Wallace (d. 1809) who, 
according to the ' Imperial Gazetteer of In- 
dia,' is still worshipped as a saint by the 
Hindus. While at Sirur Kennedy had fre- 
quent opportunities of meeting Sir Barry 
Close and Sir James Mackintosh, both of 
whom greatly admired him. In 1817 he 
was appointed judge-advocate-general to the 
Bombay army, and on 30 Sept. of the same 
year he contributed a paper on Persian 
literature to the Literary Society of Bombay. 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, who described 
Kennedy as the most learned man of his 
acquaintance, gave him the appointment of 
Maratha and Gujrati translator of the regu- 
lations of government, but the post was 
abolished a few months after Elphinstone's 
retirement. He held the office of judge- 




advocate-general till 1835, when he was 
removed by Sir John Keane. After that he 
was appointed oriental translator to the 
government, and he held this office till his 

Kennedy was throughout life a student, 
and he seems to have belonged to the type 
of the recluse and self-denying scholar. He 
is described as working sixteen hours a day, 
and as spending all his money on manu- 
scripts and munshies, and in relieving the 
wants of others. He contributed several 
papers to the Bombay branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, and in 1824 he published 
at Bombay a Marat ha dictionary. In 1828 
he published in London a quarto volume 
entitled ' Researches into the Origin and 
Affinity of the Principal Languages of Asia 
and Europe,' and in 1831 he followed this 
up by another quarto entitled ' Researches 
into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient 
and Hindu Mythology.' Both these works 
exhibit much learning and vigorous and 
independent thinking, but are now nearly 
obsolete. The first seems to be the more 
valuable of the two, and contains some in- 
teresting notes, e.g. that at p. 182 on the 
number of Arabic words in the Shahnama. 
Kennedy also wrote five letters on the 
Puranas, and had a controversy with Horace 
Hayman Wilson [q. v.] and Sir Graves 
Champney Haughton [q. v.] He published 
at Bombay in 1832 a work on military law, 
of which a second edition appeared in 1847. 
He died at Bombay on 29 Dec. 1846, and 
was buried at the old European cemetery at 

[Biographical Memoir by James Bird, Secre- 
tary Bombay branch K.A.S. ; Journal of 
B.B.R.A.S. ii. 430, Bombay, 1848, and N. V. 
Mandlik's edition of the Transactions of the 
Literary Society of Bombay, Bombay, 1877, 
vol. i. p. xv ; Preface to Grace Kennedy's Col- 
lected Works, Edinburgh, 1827.] H. B-E. 


(1799-1862), Manx poet, son of Thomas 
Kennish by his wife, Margaret (Radcliffe), 
was baptised at Kirk Maughold, Isle of Man, 
on 24 Feb. 1799. Of humble parentage, he 
was reared as a ploughboy, but in 1821 
entered the navy as a common seaman, 
learned English of his messmates, having 
previously known only his native dialect, 
and rose to be a warrant officer. He was 
ship's carpenter on the Hussar, bearing the 
flag of Sir Charles Ogle upon the North 
American station, 1829-30, and while sta- 
tioned at Halifax devised a plan for concen- 
trating a ship's broadside with greater effect 
than hitherto attempted upon a given mark. 
His plan, which met with encouragement 

from Captain Edward Boxer of the Hussar, 
was tried by Sir Charles Napier on board 
the Galatea in 1831, and was recommended 
to the admiralty, to which body Kennish 
also submitted a theodolite of his invention. 
In June 1832 he received the gold Isis medal 
from the Society of Arts. He published his 
essay, on concentrating a ship's broadside, in 
1837 in a handsome quarto, with nineteen 
plates, and subsequently he served upon the 
men-of-war Tribune and Donegal in the 
Mediterranean and in the Channel. But 
he felt that he had received no encourage- 
ment from the admiralty at all commen- 
surate with the labour and money that he 
had expended upon his essay, and he left 
the navy in or about 1841. Three years 
later he published in London ' Mona's Isle 
and other Poems ' (1844, 8vo, a scarce 
volume), with a long subscription list of 
naval men. Some of the local pieces, such 
as ' The Curraghs of Lezayre,' more espe- 
cially those in ballad metre, have merit, and 
the book is a mine of Manx folk-lore. Dis- 
appointed at the limited circulation of his 
fame, Kennish went over to America, became 
attached to the United States admiralty, for 
which body he made a survey of the Isthmus 
of Panama, and died at New York on 19 March 
1862, at the age of sixty-three. 

[Harrison's Bibliotheca Monensis (Manx Soc.), 
2nd edit. 1876, p. 165 ; Kennish's Works in 
Brit. Museum Library; note kindly furnished 
by Mr. K. Cortell Cowell.] T. S. 

(1832-1894), born in London on 15 April 
1832, was eldest son of George Thomas 
Keppel, sixth earl of Albemarle [q. v.], by 
his wife Susan, third daughter of Sir Coutts 
Trotter, bart. Throughout the greater part 
of his life he was known as Viscount Bury, 
his father's second title. He was educated 
at Eton, and in 1843, when eleven years 
old, was gazetted ensign and lieutenant in 
the forty-third regiment. In 1849 he became 
lieutenant in the Scots guards, and during 
1850-1 he was private secretary to Lord 
John Russell. In 1852 he went out to 
India as aide-de-camp to Lord Frederick 
Fitzclarence, commander-in-chief at Bom- 
bay. In the following year he came home 
on sick leave, retired from the army, and 
in December 1854 went out to Canada as 
superintendent of Indian affairs for Canada. 
He utilised the knowledge gained in Canada 
in his 'Exodus of the Western Nations' 
(London, 1865, 2 vols. 8vo). This is really 
a history of North America, with particular 
reference to Canada. Bury believed that 



the ultimate separation of England and 
Canada was inevitable, and was anxious 
that the separation, when it came, should 
be effected peaceably. 

After his return to England he was, on 
30 March 1857, elected to parliament for 
Norwich in the liberal interest. He was 
re-elected on 29 April 1859, and again on 
28 June following on his appointment by 
Lord Palmerston to the post of treasurer of 
the household. His election was, however, 
declared void, and on 1 Dec. 1860 he was 
returned for Wick burghs. He stood for 
Dover at the general election of 1865, but 
was defeated, and he ceased to be treasurer 
of the household in 1866, when the con- 
servatives came into power. On 17 Nov. 
1868 he was returned for Berwick. In 1874 
he was defeated for Berwick, and in 1875 
for Stroud. He now became a conservative, 
and on 6 Sept. 1876 was raised to the 
peerage during his father's lifetime as Baron 
Ashford. From March 1878 to April 1880 
he was under-secretary at war under Bea- 
consfield, and in 1885-6 he held the same 
office under Lord Salisbury. On Easter 
Sunday 1879 he was received into the 
Roman catholic church. He succeeded his 
father as seventh earl of Albemarle on 
21 Feb. 1891, and died on 28 Aug. 1894, 
being buried on the 31st at the family seat, 
Quiddenham, Norfolk. He married on 
15 Nov. 1855, at Dundwmr, Canada, Sophia 
Mary, second daughter of Sir Allan Napier 
MacNab [q. v.], premier of Canada. By her 
he had issue three sons and seven daughters. 
The eldest son, Arnold Allan Cecil, is eighth 
and present earl of Albemarle. 

Albemarle, who was created K.C.M.G. in 
1870, was an enthusiastic volunteer. He 
was made lieutenant-colonel of the civil 
service rifle volunteers in 1860, volunteer 
aide-de-camp to the queen in 1881, and 
published 'Suggestions for an Uniform Code 
of Standing Orders on the Organisation and 
Interior Economy of Volunteer Corps ' 
(London, 1860, 12mo). He was also author 
of ' The Rinderpest treated by Homoeopathy 
in South Holland,' 1865, 8vo, and with 
Mr. G. Lacy Hillier of ' Cycling,' in the 
'Badminton Library' (London, 1887, 8vo), 
which reached a fifth edition in 1895. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; G. E. C[okayne]'s 
Complete Peerage ; Burke's Peerage, 1900 ; 
Army Lists, 1843-54 ; Men of the Time, 1891, 
s.v. 'Bury;' Times, 29 Aug. 1894; Tablet, 
1 Sept. 1894; Official Return of Members of 
Parliament.] A. F. P. 

KER, JOHN (d. 1741), Latin poet, was 
born at Dunblane, Perthshire. He was for 
a time schoolmaster at Crieff, and about 

1710, after examination by ministers and 
professors, became a master in the Royal High 
School, Edinburgh. In 1717 he was ap- 
pointed professor of Greek in King's College, 
Aberdeen, being the first special teacher of 
the subject there (Stat. Account of Scotland, 
xxi. 82). It is significant that he should 
have secured this post when his political pro- 
clivities are remembered, as well as his ad- 
miration for the uncompromising Jacobite, 
Archibald Pitcairne [q. v.] On 2 Oct. 1734 
Ker succeeded Adam Watt in the Latin 
chair at Edinburgh University. Here he 
studied law, associating again with friends 
of high school days, and became exceed- 
ingly popular (CHALMERS, Life of Ruddi- 
man, p. 98). He had a distinct influence in 
reviving exact Latin scholarship in Scot- 
land. As a professor he commanded the 
respect of his students, although somewhat 
weakly deferential towards live lords when 
they happened to be members of his class. 
But, says Dr. Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk, 
who notes this foible, he ' was very much 
master of his business ' (Autobiography of 
the Rev. Dr. Alexander Carlyle, p. 31). He 
died at Edinburgh in November 1741. 

About 1725 Ker published his Latin 
poem, ' Donaides ' (those of the Don), cele- 
brating illustrious alumni of Aberdeen. 
In 1727 appeared his paraphrase of the Song 
of Solomon, ' Cantici Solomonis Paraphrasis 
Gemina.' He is also the author of memorial 
verses on Archibald Pitcairne, Sir William 
Scott (1674 P-1725) [q. v.], and others. He 
is represented, along with Arthur Johnston 
and other Latinists, in Lauder's ' Poetarum 
Scotorum Musae Sacrse,' 1739. The Latin 
ballad on the battle of Killiecrankie versified 
in English by Sir Walter Scott in ' Cham- 
bers's Journal,' 1st ser. No. 48, is most pro- 
bably Ker's (CHAMBERS. Scottish Songs before 
Burns, p. 43). 

[Bower's History of the University of Edin- 
burgh, ii. 296-314 ; Grant's Story of the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh during its first Three Hundred 
Years, ii. 318; appendix to Erskine's Sermon on 
the Death of Robertson the Historian, in Dis- 
courses on several Occasions, i. 271.] T. B. 

KERR, NORMAN (1834-1899), physi- 
cian, the eldest son of Alexander Kerr, a 
merchant, was born at Glasgow on 17 May 
1834, and was educated at the high school 
of that city. He supported himself as a 
journalist on the staff of the ' Glasgow Mail ' 
until he entered the university of Glasgow, 
where he graduated M.D. and C.M. in 1861. 
He then sailed for a time as surgeon in the 
Allan Canadian mail steamers, and in 1874 he 
settled at St. John's Wood in London, and 




was appointed a parochial medical officer of 
St. Marylebone, a post he retained for 
twenty-four years. He died at Hastings on 
30 May 1899, and is buried at Paddington 
cemetery, Willesden Lane. He was twice 
married : first, in 1671, to Eleanor Georgina, 
daughter of Mr. Edward Gibson of Ballin- 
derry, Ireland, who died in 1892, leaving 
issue four daughters and a son ; and, se- 
condly, in 1894, to Edith Jane, daughter of 
Mr. James Henderson of Belvidere Lodge, 

The advancement of temperance was the 
work of Kerr's life. He originated the 
Total Abstinence Society in connection with 
the university of Glasgow, was an early 
member of the United Kingdom Alliance, 
and was the founder and first president of 
the Society for the Study and Cure of In- 
ebriety. For many years he was chairman 
of the Inebriates Legislation Committee of 
the British Medical Association, and he was 
vice-president of the Homes for Inebriates 
Association. He was senior consulting phy- 
sician to the Dalrymple Home for Inebriates 
at Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire. The Ine- 
briates Act of 1898 was largely the outcome 
of his labours. 

He wrote: 1. 'On the Action of Alco- 
holic Liquors in Health,' London, 1876. 
2. ' Mortality from Intemperance,' London, 
1879. 3. ' Stimulants in Workhouses,' Lon- 
don, 1882. 4. 'The Truth about Alcohol,' 
London, 1885. 5. ' Inebriety, its ^Etiology, 
Pathology, Treatment, and Jurisprudence,' 
3rd edit. London, 1894. Among many 
ephemeral articles was his ' Alcoholism and 
Drug Habits ' in the ' Twentieth Century 
Practice of Medicine,' 1895. 

[British Medical Journal, 1899, i. 1442; 
additional information kindly given by Mrs. 
Norman Kerr.] D'A. P. 

MARQTTIS OF LOTHIAN (1833-1900), diplo- 
matist and secretary of state for Scotland, 
second son of John William Robert, seventh 
marquis of Lothian, by Lady Cecil Chetwynd 
Talbot, only daughter of Charles, second 
earl Talbot, was born at Newbottle Abbey, 
near Dalkeith, on 2 Dec. 1833. His elder 
brother, William Schomberg Robert Kerr, 
born on 12 Aug. 1832, succeeded as eighth 
marquis of Lothian on his father's death, 
14 Nov. 1841, but himself died without 
issue on 4 July 1870. He bequeathed to 
Oxford University a sum of money for the 
foundation of the Marquis of Lothian's 
prize, which is of the annual value of 40, 
and is awarded for an essay on some point 
in foreign history between the death of 

Romulus Augustulus and that of Frederick 
the Great. 

Schomberg Henry was educated at Glen- 
almond and Oxford, where he matriculated 
from New College on 20 Oct. 1861 . He left 
the university without a degree, entered the 
diplomatic service, and was appointed attache 
at Lisbon. He was transferred in 1854 to 
Teheran, and thence in 1855 to Bagdad. 
During the Persian war of 1857 he served 
as a volunteer on the staff of Sir J. Outram, 
by whom he was publicly thanked at the 
close of the campaign. He was afterwards 
attach^ at Athens, and in 1862 was ap- 
pointed second secretary at Frankfort. In 
the same capacity he was removed in 1865 
to Madrid, and thence in the same year to 
Vienna. He succeeded his elder brother, 
William Schomberg Robert, as ninth mar- 
quis of Lothian, and fourth baron Ker of 
Kersheugh, Roxburghshire, on 4 July 1870, 
and in right of the latter peerage took his 
seat in the House of Lords on 30 March 
1871. He moved, on 19 March 1874, the 
address in answer to the queen's speech, 
and on 5 Aug. following took the oaths for 
the subordinate office of lord privy seal of 
Scotland, which he retained until death. 
He was sworn of the privy council on 
6 Feb. 1886, and in Lord Salisbury's second 
administration succeeded Mr. Arthur Bal- 
four as secretary for Scotland, and, as such, 
ex-officio keeper of the great seal of Scot- 
land and vice-president of the committee 
of council for education in Scotland 
(11 March 1887). The sphere of his admi- 
nistrative duties was further enlarged by a 
statute of the same year (50 & 51 Viet. c. 
52). He held office until the fall of the 
administration in August 1892, during 
which period he had charge of the measures 
of 1889 for the reform and re-endow- 
ment of the Scottish universities and the 
reform of Scottish local government, and 
several other measures nearly affecting 
Scottish interests. He was a member of 
the historical manuscripts commission, 
was elected in 1877 president of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and re- 
ceived in 1882 the degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Edinburgh, of which he 
was lord rector in 1887-8. He was also 
vice-president of the Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society, and a member of the 
governing body of the Imperial Institute. 
He was elected K.T. in 1878, and a knight of 
grace of the order of St. John of Jerusalem 
in 1899; was colonel from 1878 to 1889, 
and afterwards honorary colonel, of the 
3rd battalion of the royal Scots regiment, 
and captain- general of the royal company 



of archers from 1884 until his death on 
17 Jan. 1900. 

He married, in 1865, Lady Victoria Alex- 
andrina Montagu Douglas Scott, second 
daughter of Walter Francis, fifth duke of 
Buccleugh, by whom he had three sons 
and five daughters. His third son, Robert 
Schomberg, lord Jedburgh, succeeded him as 
tenth marquis of Lothian. 

[Fosters Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Irving's 
Book of Scotsmen; Ann. Keg. 1857, ii. 448; 
Lords' Journ. ciii. 163 ; Hansard's Parl. Debates, 
3rd ser. ccxviii-ccclvi, 4th ser. i-lxxvi ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; Imperial Kalen- 
dar, 1877-92; Official Yearbook of the Learned 
Societies of Great Britain and Ireland ; Statuta 
Universitatis Oxon. ; Burke's Peerage, 1900.] 

J. M. K. 

(1817-1891), advocate of arbitration in trade 
disputes, born at Birmingham on 9 Jan. 
1817, was the fifth son of Thomas F. Kettle 
of Suffolk Street, Birmingham, a glass- 
stainer, fancy button and military ornament 
maker, and gilder. The family was de- 
scended from Henri Quitel, a Huguenot of 
Milhaud or Millau in Languedoc, who emi- 
grated to Birmingham on the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes, and practised there the 
trade of glass-stainer. Rupert left Birming- 
ham early in life and was articled to Richard 
Fryer, a Wolverhampton attorney. Resolv- 
ing to qualify as a barrister, he entered the 
Middle Temple on 2 June 1842, was called 
to the bar on 6 June 1845, and soon obtained 
a large practice on the Oxford circuit. In 
1859 he was appointed judge of the Worces- 
tershire county courts, and subsequently he 
acted as chairman of the standing committee 
for framing the rules for county courts. 
Kettle took the deepest interest in industrial 
matters, and was frequently called upon to 
arbitrate in disputes in the iron and coal 
trades. He was the first president of the 
Midland iron trade wages board, and used 
the influence which this office gave him to 
persuade masters and men to accept arbitra- 
tion in their disputes. In 1864, after a 
strike in the building trade at Wolverhamp- 
ton had lasted seventeen weeks, Kettle, on 
invitation from both sides, succeeded in 
arranging a settlement and ultimately in 
establishing at Wolverhampton a legally 
organised system of arbitration. The essen- 
tial principle of the new system was that if 
the delegates of the contending parties could 
not agree, an independent umpire should 
have power to make a final and legally 
binding award between them. The scheme 
proved so satisfactory that it was rapidly 
extended to other towns, eventually in- 

cluding a large part of the English building 
trade. Kettle formed similar boards in the 
coal trade, the potteries, the Nottingham 
lace trade, the handmade paper trade, the 
ironstone trade, and other staple trades of 
the country. He was commonly styled the 
' Prince of Arbitrators,' and on 1 Dec. 1880 
he was knighted ' for his public services in 
establishing a system of arbitration between 
employers and employed.' In 1890 the post- 
master-general, Heory Cecil Raikes [q. v.], 
consulted Kettle during the strike of the 
post-office employes. 

On 24 Nov. 1882 Kettle was elected a 
bencher of the Middle Temple. He was 
one of the senior magistrates and a deputy- 
lieutenant of Staffordshire, and he was assis- 
tant chairman of quarter sessions from 1866 
to 1891. He was an artist of some ability, 
and several of his pictures were publicly 
exhibited. In 1892 he resigned his office of 
county court judge, finding that his labours 
in connection with arbitration occupied the 
greater part of his time. He died at his 
residence, Merridale, Wolverhampton, on 
6 Oct. 1894, and was buried on 9 Oct. in 
the Wolverhampton cemetery. On 18 Dec. 
1851 he married Mary (d. 13 July 1884), 
only child and heiress of William Cooke of 
Merridale. By her he left issue. 

Kettle was the author of: 1. 'A Note on 
Rating to the Poor ... for Unproductive 
Land,' London, 1856, 8vo. 2. ' Strikes and 
Arbitrations,' London, 1866, 8vo. 3. ' School 
Board Powers and School Board Duties,' 
1871. 4. * Masters and Men,' London, 1871, 
8vo. 5. ' Boards of Conciliation and Arbi- 
tration between Employers and Employed,' 
1871. 6. ' Suggestions for diminishing the 
Number of Imprisonments,' 1875. 7. ' The 
Church in relation to Trades Unions,' 1877. 

[Wolverhampton Chronicle, 10 Oct. 1894; 
Burke's Landed Gentry. 1894; Simms's Biblio- 
theca Stafford. 1894; Poster's Men at the Bar, 
1885; Biograph, 1880, iv. 487-8; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1898 ; Jeans's Conciliation 
and Arbitration in Labour Disputes, 1894, p. 
93.] E. I. C. 

KETTLEWELL, SAMUEL (1822-1893), 
theological writer, born on 31 March 1822, 
was son of the Rev. William Kettlewell, 
rector of Kirkheaton, near Huddersfield, and 
his wife, Mary Midgeley. He was educated 
at Durham University, where he graduated 
as a licentiate of theology in 1848. He was 
ordained deacon in the same year, and priest 
in 1849 by the bishop of Ripon. He then 
became a curate at Leeds under Walter 
Farquhar Hook [q. v.], and in 1851 he was 
appointed vicar of St. Mark's, Leeds. This, 

Keux 6 3 


his only incumbency, he resigned in 1870 
to devote himself to literary work. He had 
already published a ' Catechism on Gospel 
History ' (London, 1851, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1878), 
and two works suggested by the Irish dis- 
establishment agitation, namely : ' A Short 
Account of the Reformation in Ireland,' 
and 'Rights and Liberties of the Church' 
(both London, 1869, 8vo). His energies 
were now mainly devoted to his work on 
Thomas a Kempis, and in 1877 he published 
' The Authorship of the " De Imitatione 
Christ!" ' (London, 8vo); this was followed 
in 1882 by 'Thomas a Kempis and the 
Brothers of Common Life ' (London, 2 vols. 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1884). These two books were 
the fruit of much research in England, Hol- 
land, and Belgium. Kettlewell maintains 
the usually accepted authorship of the ' De 
Imitatione,' and collects all that is known 
about the life of Thomas a Kempis. In 
1888 he published 'The Basis of True 
Christian Unity ' (London, 2 vols. 8vo), and 
in 1892 a translation of the ' De Imitatione.' 
He had received the Lambeth M.A. in 1860, 
and in 1892, in recognition of his work, he 
was granted the Lambeth D.D., the queen 
countersigning his diploma. He died at his 
residence, Kesselville, Eastbourne, whither 
he retired in 1870, on 2 Nov. 1893 ; he was 
twice married, and his widow survives him. 
[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Crockford's 
Clerical Directory, 1891 ; Eastbourne Chro- 
nicle, 5 Nov. 1893; Times, 21 Nov. 1893; 
Guardian, 8 Nov. 1893; private information.] 

A. F. P. 

KEUX, JOHN HENRY LE (1812-1896), 
engraver. [See LE KETJX.] 

1610-1620), economic writer, is said to have 
written as early as 1601 his ' Observations 
upon the Dutch Fishing,' which was first 
published by Sir Edward Ford in 1664 
(London, 4to). Keymer had no practical 
knowledge of the fisheries, being ' altogether 
unexperimented in such business' (GENTLE- 
MAN, Way to Win Wealth, 1614, p. 3) ; he 
collected his notes from conversation with 
fishermen like Tobias Gentleman [q.v. Suppl.] 
and others, with a view to stimulating Eng- 
lish fishery, then almost a monopoly of the 
Dutch. Histract was translated into German, 
and published in part xii. of the ' Diarium 
Europseum,' Frankfort, 1666, 4to; it was 
reissued in English in the 'Phenix' [sic] 
1707, vol. i., in 'A Collection of choice 
Tracts,' 1721, and in ' A small Collection of 
valuable Tracts relating to the Herring 
Fishery,' 1761. 

Another work by Keymer, addressed to 

James I, on the importance of encouraging 
manufactures in England and increasing 
commerce by reducing customs, is extant 
in the Record Office (State Papers, Dom. 
James I, cxviii. 114). The latter suggestion 
was much in advance of the age, but on 
20 Dec. 1622 Prince Charles, John Williams, 
bishop of Lincoln and Buckingham, were 
joined with others in a commission ' to hear 
the propositions of John Keymer, and con- 
sider whether they will tend to the good of 
the King and the Commonwealth, as is pre- 
tended' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-22, 
p. 469). Nothing further seems to have 
been done in the matter. 

[Editions of Keymer's book in Brit. Mus. 
Libr.; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-22; Gen- 
tleman's Way to Win Wealth, 1614 ; Palgrave's 
Diet, of Political Economy, s.v. ' Gentleman, 
Tobias.'] A. F. P. 

KING, THOMAS (1835-1888), prize- 
fighter, was born in Silver Street, Stepney, 
on 14 Aug. 1835, and as a youth served 
before the mast both in the navy and in 
a trading vessel. About 1858 he obtained 
a position as foreman of labourers at the 
Victoria Docks. His courage in disposing 
of a dock bully known as ' Brighton Bill ' 
commended him to the notice of the ex- 
champion, Jem Ward, who coached him 
with the gloves at the George in Ratcliffe 
Highway. On 27 Nov. 1860, on the Kentish 
marshes, he met Tommy Truckle of Ports- 
mouth for 50/. a side, and defeated him in 
forty-nine rounds (sixty-two minutes). He 
was now taken in hand and trained by Nat 
Langham at the Feathers, Wandsworth, for 
a contest with William Evans (' Young 
Broome '), to be followed, if successful, by a 
fight for the championship with Jem Mace, 
the finest boxer in England since the retire- 
ment of Sayers. The betting of two to one 
on King was justified by the event on 21 Oct. 
1861, after a long fight interrupted by the 
police at the seventeenth round, but resumed 
until the forty-third. The fight between 
the ' Young Sailor,' as King was called, and 
the ' scientific ' Jem Mace of Norwich had 
another issue, King being outclassed after 
displaying the utmost pluck in a contest of 
sixty-eight minutes (28 Jan. 1862). A return 
match, which excited much greater interest, 
took place at Aldershot (26 Nov. 1862). The 
betting was seven to four on Mace, who had 
the best of the fighting, but was knocked 
out by a single blow, a ' terrific cross-counter 
on the left cheek,' in the nineteenth round. 
In this battle of thirty-eight minutes King 
had shown himself a glutton for punishment, 
of a ' bottom ' and endurance worthy of the 


6 4 


best traditions of the ring. King now mar- 
ried and announced his intention of leaving 
the ring, thus acquiescing in the resumption 
of the belt by Mace. But he was yet to 
champion England against America in the 
great fight with the ' Benicia Boy,' John 
Camel Heenan, the adversary of Sayers. 
The ring was pitched at Wadhurst, below 
Tunbridge Wells, at an early hour on 10 Dec. 
1863. King weighed a little below thirteen, 
Heenan just over fourteen stone; both were 
over six feet in height. The former seemed 
mistrustful, Heenan full of confidence. Bets 
of 20 to 7 were freely offered on the Ameri- 
can, but there were few takers. Heenan's 
game throughout the early rounds was to 
close in and ' put the hug on ' so as to crush 
his antagonist by dashing him violently to 
the ground. King's consisted of dealing his 
adversary a series of sledge-hammer blows 
on his nose. Both were extremely success- 
ful in their respective tactics, and in the 
absence of the orthodox feinting, sparring, 
and ' science,' the result came to be mainly 
a question of sheer endurance. At the 
eighteenth round the tide of victory turned in 
King's favour. At the close of the twenty- 
fourth round, after nearly forty minutes' 
fighting, Heenan lay insensible, and his 
seconds threw up the sponge. Public anxiety 
as to his condition was allayed by a medical 
report in the 'Times' (12 Dec.) Both com- 
batants appeared in person at Wadhurst, in 
answer to a summons, on 22 Dec., when they 
were bound over to keep the peace, both 
King and Heenan engaging to fight no more 
in this country. King, having won about 
4,000. in stakes and presents, fulfilled his 
promise to the letter. After starring the 
country at 100/. a week, he set up as a book- 
maker and realised a handsome competence. 
He also invested in barge property. 

In 1867 he won a couple of sculling races 
on the Thames, but in later years was best 
known for his success in metropolitan flower 
shows. He died of bronchitis at Clarence 
House, Clarence Road, Clapham, on 4 Oct. 
1888. After 1863 the vigilance of the police 
confined pugilism in England more and more 
to the disreputable and dangerous classes, 
and Tom King is thus not incorrectly termed 
by the historian of the English prize-ring 
as ' Ultimus Romanorum.' 

[Miles's Pugilistica, vol. iii. ad fin. (portrait) ; 
Pendragon's Modern Boxing, 1879, pp. 43-50, 
57-78 : Bell's Life, October 1861 ; W. E. Hard- 
ing's Champions of the American Prize Ring, 
1888, pp. 54-9 (portrait); Times, 11-12 Dec. 
1863 ; Bird of Freedom, 10 Oct. 1888 ; Sporting 
Times, 13 March 1875; Biase's Modern Bio- 
graphy, ii. 229.] T. S. 

1893), actor, was born at Twyning, near 
Tewkesbury, on 24 April 1818. He adopted 
his wife's maiden name of Chiswell in addi- 
tion to his own name of Thomas King on 
his marriage, which took place shortly after 
he joined the theatrical profession. Appren- 
ticed in his youth to the painting and paper- 
hanging business at Cheltenham, he acquired 
a taste for the stage through acting with 
amateurs, and about 1840 joined the com- 
pany of Alexander Lee, the ballad composer, 
to support Mrs. Harriett Waylett [q. v.] in 
one-act dramas and operettas in Cheltenham, 
Worcester, Warwick, and Leamington. In 
1843 he became attached in a subordinate 
capacity to the Simpson-Munro company at 
Birmingham, playing on 24 Oct. Conrade in 
' Much Ado about Nothing,' and Sir Thomas 
Fairfax in the ' Field of the Forty Footsteps.' 
On 16 May 1844 he was seen as Young 
Scrooge in the ' Christmas Carol ' to the 
Fezziwig of his wife. 

King made rapid progress in his profession , 
and by August 1847 was playing leading 
business on the York circuit under J. L. 
Pritchard. Proceeding to Gourlay's Vic- 
toria Theatre, Edinburgh, in June 1848, he 
remained there four months, and in Novem- 
ber joined W. H. Murray's company at the 
Theatre Royal in the same city as .' heavy 
man,' appearing on the 13th as Sir Richard 
W T roughton in the 'Jacobite.' In April 

1850 he supported Charles Kean during his 
visit to Edinburgh, and was engaged by him 
to play secondary tragic parts during the 
opening season of his management in Lon- 
don. Making his d4but at the Princess's in 
October 1850 as Bassanio in the ' Merchant 
of Venice,' King subsequently played the 
king in ' Henry IV, Part I.,' and on 31 Jan. 

1851 was seen as the exiled duke when ' As 
you like it ' was performed before the queen 
at Windsor. Late in the year he was en- 
gaged by John Harris of Dublin as leading 
actor at the Theatre Royal there. He opened 
under the new management on 26 Dec. as 
Colonel Buckthorne in ' Love in a Maze,' 
and soon became an abiding favourite with 
Dublin playgoers. Remaining there five 
seasons, be appeared in no fewer than fifteen 
notable Shakespearean revivals, and as Mac- 
beth, Master Ford, Hotspur, and Leontes, 
met with much approbation. During 1855 
he -was in leading support to Helen Faucit, 
Samuel Phelps, and Miss Glyn during their 
visits to Dublin. In March 1856 he seceded 
abruptly from the Theatre Royal, and on 
14 April began a three weeks' engagement 
at the Queen's in the same city in ' Hamlet.' 
Opening at Birmingham on 20 Oct., in con- 



junction with Miss Glyn, King remained 
there after her departure, and on 18 Nov. 
played Colonna in ' Evadne.' On 3 Dec. he 
was seen as John Mildmay in ' Still Waters 
run deep,' and as Quasimodo in ' Esme- 
ralda.' On 6 July 1857 he made his first 
appearance in Manchester, in association 
with Miss Marriott and Robert Roxby 
[q.v.] Returning to Birmingham on 26 Sept. 
as Hamlet, he appeared there on the 27th 
as Mephistopheles in Boucicault's version of 
' Faust and Marguerite,' which was played 
for forty-eight nights at a profit of 2,0001. 

During 1859 King fulfilled several engage- 
ments at the Queen's Theatre, Dublin. On 
16 April he played there Serjeant Austerlitz 
in ' Theresa's Vow,' to the Theresa of his 
daughter Bessie. On 26 July he was seen 
as Martin Hey wood in the ' Rent Day,' and 
on 14 Dec. as Estevan in the 'Broken 
Sword.' On 30 April 1860 he began an 
important engagement at the City of Lon- 
don Theatre as Hamlet, returning thither in 
December. On 24 Sept. intervening he re- 
turned to the Queen's at Dublin as Ruthven 
in the ' Vampire.' 

From 1861 to 1868 King's record was one 
of splendid strolling. On 15 March 1869 he 
was given a trial engagement at Drury Lane 
by F. C. Chatterton, opening there as Riche- 
lieu to the Julie de Mortemar of his daugh- 
ter Bessie, who then made her London 
debut. He was favourably received, and 
subsequently played Hamlet, Julian St. 
Pierre, and William in ' Black-eyed Susan,' 
besides alternating Othello and lago with 
Charles Dillon. At the same house on 
24 Sept. 1870 King was the original Varney 
in the ' Amy Robsart ' of Andrew Halliday. 
In the Easter of 1871 his services were 
transferred to the Adelphi at a salary of 
30/. per week. There he originated the role 
of Quasimodo in Andrew Halliday's ver- 
sion of ' Notre Dame,' which ran uninter- 
ruptedly to November, and was revived at 

In June 1873 King fulfilled an engage- 
ment at the Marylebone, and on 11 Sept. 
made his American debut at the Lyceum 
Theatre, New York, as Quasimodo. The 
play did not repeat its Adelphi success, 
although it was performed for six weeks. 
On 27 Oct. King played Othello, after which 
the Lyceum closed abruptly. It reopened 
in November with Italian opera, and on the 
7th 'Notre Dame' was revived for four 
nights. Afterwards King made a successful 
tour of Canada, exclusively in Shakespearean 
plays, and returned to the Lyceum Theatre, 
New York, on 3 March 1874. 

From 1878 to 1880 King was lessee of 


the Worcester theatre, an unprofitable specu- 
lation. In 1883 he made a short provincial 
tour under Mr. J. Pitt Hardacre's manage- 
ment, but he had outlived his popularity 
and the vogue of his school. Later appear- 
1 ances were infrequent, but in July 1890 he 
performed for six nights to good houses at 
the Queen's Theatre, Manchester, and was 
much admired as Ingomar, one of his most 
characteristic impersonations. Retiring 
finally to King's Heath, he died there on 
21 Oct. 1893, and was buried at Claines, 
near Worcester. He had a son and two 
daughters, all of whom took to the stage. 
His elder daughter, Miss Bessie King, sur- 
vives him. 

A sound tragedian of the second order, 
T. C. King was the last exponent of a school 
which subordinated intelligence to precept 
and tradition. Physically he was well 
equipped, having a tall and shapely figure, 
with dark expressive features and well-set 
eyes ; and his rich bass voice was flexible 
and resonant. A temperate graceful actor, 
he had more individuality and fewer vices 
of style than most conventional tragedians. 
In London he never established his hold, 
but in one or two large provincial centres, 
notably Dublin and Birmingham, his follow- 
ing was large and affectionate. 

[Many errors of detail common to all the 
biographical accounts of T. C. King are here 
corrected, thanks to authentic information 
kindly placed at the writer's disposal by the 
actor's nephew, Mr. Henry King of St. Leonards- 
on-Sea. Data have also been derived from Dib- 
din's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage ; Pascoe's 
Dramatic List ; Levey and O'Rorke's Annals of 
the Theatre Royal, Dublin ; Cole's Life of 
Charles Kean ; Michael Williams's London 
Theatres, Past and Present ; Birmingham Faces 
and Places, vol. v. No. 12 ; local playbills in the 
Birmingham Free Library; Freeman's Journal.] 

W. J. L. 

KINGSFORD, WILLIAM (1819-1898), 
historian of Canada, born on 23 Dec. 1819 
in the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, Lon- 
don, was the son of William and Elizabeth 
Kingsford of Lad Lane. Educated at 
Wanostrocht's well-known school in Cam- 
berwell [see WANOSTBOCHT, NICHOLAS], he 
was articled at an early age to an architect, 
but, finding the office uncongenial, enlisted 
in the 1st dragoon guards in his seventeenth 
year. He went with his regiment to Canada 
in 1837, became sergeant, and in 1840, 
through the influence of his friends at home, 
obtained his discharge, much to the regret of 
the colonel, Sir George Cathcart [q.v.J, who 
offered to procure a commission for him. 
On the death of that officer in the Crimea, 




Kingsford wrote a touching tribute to his 
memory, which appears in Lady Cathcart's 
life of her husband. 

Entering the office of the city surveyor of 
Montreal in 1841, he qualified in due course 
as civil engineer, and obtained the position 
of deputy city surveyor, a post which he 
held for three years. He resigned this situa- 
tion to begin the publication of the Montreal 
' Times,' in company with Murdo Mclver. 
Two years later he returned to his profession, 
entered the public works department, and 
among other undertakings made a new sur- 
vey of the Lachine canal. In 1849 he was 
engaged in the construction of the Hudson 
River railroad in the state of New York, and 
in 1851 proceeded to Panama as assistant 
engineer to ,T. J. Campbell, who was then 
building the isthmus railway. Returning to 
Canada in 1853, he surveyed for the Grand 
Trunk the tracks from Montreal to Vaudreuil, 
from Montreal to Cornwall, from Brockville 
to Rideau, and, under A. M. Ross, who had 
the construction of the work in charge, laid 
down the lines of the present Victoria Bridge. 
He was chief engineer of the city of Toronto 
for a few months during 1855, but resigned 
to re-enter the service of the Grand Trunk, 
in whose employment he remained till 1 864. 
He acted at first as superintendent of the 
line east from Toronto, and afterwards as 
contractor to maintain the section that runs 
from that city westward to Stratford. He 
came to England in 1865, made one or two 
general surveys on the continent for English 
firms, and reported to Thomas Brassey [q. v.] 
on the railway possibilities of the island of 

In 1867, at the instance of English capi- 
talists who looked forward to the building 
of the Canadian intercolonial railway one 
of the conditions of the new federation 
Kingsford went once more to Canada, where 
he remained during the rest of his life. As 
the dominion resolved to build the line as 
a government work, he was disappointed in 
his immediate expectations, but soon ob- 
tained employment, which included the en- 
largement of the Grenville canal and the 
draining of the township of Russell in On- 
tario. The last-mentioned work caused him 
to fix his permanent residence in Ottawa. 
When the Mackenzie government came into 
power in 1872 Kingsford was appointed 
dominion engineer in charge of the harbours 
of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence. 
He continued in this post till 31 Dec. 1879, 
when he was cashiered by Sir Hector Lan- 
gevin, who had become minister of public 
works in the second Macdonald administra- 

The dismissal of so important a civil ser- 
vant in so summary a fashion gave rise to 
hostile comment at the time as an act of ex- 
treme partisanship, and was brought to the 
notice of the Canadian House of Commons. 
The minister defended himself by saying 
that, having made certain changes in the 
working of his department, the services of a 
special engineer in charge of harbours was no 
longer necessary. Kingsford published the 
correspondence and proceedings in a pam- 
phlet entitled ' Mr. Kingsford and Sir Hec- 
tor Langevin' (1882). There seems no doubt 
that Kingsford was unfairly treated. 

Thus rudely cast on the world at the age 
of sixty, Kingsford began the great work of 
his life, the history of his adopted country. 
He was well prepared for the task. Besides 
his own language he was master of French, 
German, Italian, and Spanish. He had 
already contributed largely to the press, and 
put forth a number of substantial pamphlets : 
The History, Structure, and Statistics of 
Plank-roads,' 1852 ; ' Impressions of the 
West and South,' 1858; 'The Canadian 
Canals : their History and Cost,' 1865, a 
work supplemented later by articles in the 
' Monetary Times,' Toronto ; and a mono- 
graph on Canadian history entitled ' A Po- 
litical Coin.' His professional engagements 
gave him a full knowledge of Canadian 
topography, while his early experience in the 
army, supplemented by assiduous reading, 
enabled him to comprehend a military situa- 
tion. Kingsford set himself in 1880 to the 
serious study of the archives of Canada, 
which were collected at Ottawa, and he con- 
tinued the work almost without intermission 
for the next seventeen years 

The firstfruits of his labour, ' Canadian 
Archaeology,' appeared in 1886, and was 
soon followed by the ' Early Bibliography 
of Ontario.' He published the first volume 
of the ' History of Canada ' in 1887. The 
tenth volume, which concludes his task and 
brings the narrative of events to the union 
of Upper and Lower Canada (1841), was 
printed in 1898, the preface being dated 
24 May. Taken as a whole, the work j ustifies 
Kingsford's anticipations and the warm re- 
ception it received in England and Canada. 
It is the fullest and fairest presentation of 
Canadian experience that has been given to 
the world. Queen's University at Kingston 
and Dalhousie in Nova Scotia signified their 
appreciation of his labours by conferring on 
him the degree of LL.D. McGill University 
gave his name to a recently endowed chair 
of history. 

Kingsford was a fellow of the Royal 
Society of Canada, to which he contributed 



several papers, and a member of the Cana- 
dian Society of Civil Engineers. He sur- 
vived the completion of his history only a 
few months, and died on 28 Sept. 1898. 

In 1848 he married Maria Margaret, 
daughter of William Burns Lindsay, clerk 
of the legislative assembly of the province 
of Canada. Queen Victoria bestowed on his 
widow a civil list pension of 100Z. in recog- 
nition of his services. 

[Morgan's Can. Men and Women of the Time, 
p. 539; Canadian Magazine, January 1899; 
Canadian Gazette, London, 6 July 1899 ; Cana- 
dian Sessional Papers, Supplementary Report on 
Public Works, 1890, p. 23; Wrongs Toronto 
Univ. .Studies, ;. 10, ii. 18; Bourinot's Biblio- 
graphy, Roy. Soc. Canada, p. 47 ; Toronto 
Globe, 29 Sept. 1898 ; Parish Register, St. Law- 
rence Jewrv. E.C. ; private information.] 

T. B. B. 

(1862-1900), traveller and writer, born in i 
Islington on 13 Oct. 1862, was the only 
daughter and eldest child of Dr. George ' 
Henry Kingsley [q. v.] by his wife, Mary : 
Bailey. Charles Kingsley [q. v.] and Henry ; 
Kingsley [q. v.] were her father's brothers, i 
Her parents removed to Highgate in 1863, 
soon after her birth, and there she passed 
her first sixteen years. She had a somewhat | 
irregular home-training, among books, quiet j 
domestic duties, the care of numerous pet | 
animals and a rambling garden, duties and 
interests which stayed by her through life. ' 
She was not sent to school or college, but 
read omnivorously, and in truth had a world 
of her own amid the old books of travel, 
natural history, or alchemy,works on science, 
country sport, and literature, which she 
found on her father's shelves. The family 
led a retired life, and Mary grew up a shy, 
rather silent girl, disliking social gatherings 
but eagerly benefiting by intercourse with a 
sympathetic friend or a scientific neighbour. 
Her father was an enthusiastic traveller 
with keen scientific interests. These his 
daughter fully shared. She was fond of 
natural history, especially of her father's 
favourite study of fishes and their ways. 
She learned German, but not French, which 
later she regretted. 

In 1879 the household removed to Bexley 
in Kent ; here she experimented in mechanics, 
studied chemistry, and, through friendship 
with Cromwell Fleetwood Varley [q. v.], 
dived into electricity. With an increasing 
zest for scientific studies she took up ethno- 
graphy and anthropology. In the spring of 
1886 another move was made to Cambridge, 
where her brother was j ust entered at Christ's 
College. This change had a great effect upon 

her, besides improving her health, which had 
been somewhat delicate. In the society of 
cultivated men and women, congenial to her 
father and herself, she gained confidence in 
her own powers, winning friends and appre- 
ciation for her own sake. About the spring 
of 1888 a friend took her to Paris for a week 
her first taste of foreign travel. During 
the four years that followed she devoted her- 
self with tender capability to nursing her 
mother, who had been attacked by serious 
illness, and during the latter part of the 
period she also had the care of her father, 
who had returned home broken in health 
after rheumatic fever. Dr. Kingsley died in 
February 1892, and his wife in April. The 
heavy sense of responsibility which had na- 
turaly weighed upon Mary Kingsley was 
lightened, and after a trip to the Canaries in 
the late spring she came back restored in 
health and tone, with a mind full of new 
possibilities awakened by the incidents of 
her voyage. Removing with her brother to 
Addison Road, London, filled by the heredi- 
tary passion for travel, she renounced an in- 
tention of studying medicine in order to 
pursue the study, which she had already 
begun with her father, of early religion and 
law. She was resolved personally to investi- 
; gate the subject in uncivilised countries ; she 
i had formerly thought of going to India for 
j the purpose, but instead she now prepared 
I for a voyage to tropical West Africa. Her 
friends, Dr. Guillemard of Cambridge and 
Dr. Giinther of the British Museum, en- 
i couraged her to collect beetles and fresh- 
, water fishes ; she read Monteiro and other 
i books on the West Coast ; and, with a few 
introductions to Portuguese colonists and 
others, she, happy in the sense of freedom, 
started alone in August 1893. She sailed 
down the coast to St. Paul de Loanda, made 
her way thence by land to Ambriz, across 
many parts hitherto untravelled by Euro- 
peans, through great difficulties of swamp, 
bush, and river while gathering her col- 
lections. She also visited duringthis journey 
Kabinda and Matadi on the Congo river; 
and, returning by way of Old Calabar, reached 
England in January 1894. On this first 
journey she gained some acquaintance with 
the customs and fetish (i.e. religion) of the 
Fjort tribes in the old kingdom of Congo, 
which she afterwards utilised in an intro- 
duction to Mr. R. Dennet's Folk Lore of 
the Fjort '(1898). 

The collections which she brought home 
were of value to naturalists ; and the voyage 
had been a foretaste of what she might do 
with more definite aims and a better know- 
ledge of how to attain them. During 1894 

p 2 




she made good use of her opportunities 
among her old friends and new, in preparing 
to start afresh. Having received a collec- 
tor's equipment from the British Museum, 
she sailed from Liverpool on 23 Dec. 1894 
for Old Calahar, touching on the way thither 
at Sierra Leone, Cape Coast Castle, and 
Accra. Mary Kingsley stayed nearly two 
months at Old Calabar, where she was most 
hospitably entertained by Sir Claude and 
Lady Macdonald, and made many excursions 
in the neighbourhood. She then went south 
to Congo Francais and ascended the Ogow6 
river, passing, at the risk of her life, through 
the dangerous rapids above N'Ojele ; and 
subsequently made a very adventurous and 
dangerous journey through a part of the Fan 
country which had never been explored 
before, from Lambarene on the Ogow6 river 
to Agonjo on the upper waters of the 
Rembwe river, passing on her way the 
beautiful and almost unknown Lake Ncovi. 
Afterwards she visited the island of Corisco, 
where she obtained some valuable zoological 
specimens ; and the last, but not the least, 
feat of this memorable journey was the 
ascent of Mungo Mah Lobeh, the great 
Cameroon, a mountain 13,760 feet high. 
During this expedition she won the affection 
and respect of natives all down the coast by 
the interest she took in their welfare and 
their affairs ; and German and French 
officials, and missionaries, traders, and sea- 
captains everywhere became her friends and 
admiring helpers. In order to pay her way 
(for which her slender resources did not 
suffice) she had learnt to trade with rubber 
and oil, and the knowledge thus acquired 
became of great importance to the West 
African merchants in this country. She 
brought home a collection, reported on by 
Dr. Giinther, consisting of insects, shells, 
and plants, eighteen species of reptiles, and 
sixty-five species of fishes, of which three 
were entirely new and were named after her. 
Careful notes and observations made on the 
spot were afterwards used as the foundation 
of her writings and lectures. 

She landed again in England on 30 Nov. 
1895, and work soon began to pour in upon 
her. She set herself resolutely to acquire a 
power of exposition, both as a writer and 
speaker, and in this endeavour met with great 
success. Duringl896 she was writing 'Travels 
in West Africa' (1897), which combined a 
narrative of both her journeys. Her fresh 
style bubbled over with humour. In February 
and March she read papers before the Scot- 
tish and Liverpool Geographical Societies, 
magazine articles followed, and on 19 Nov 
she gave her first lecture at the London 

School of Medicine for Women on 'African 
Therapeutics from a Witch Doctor's point 
of view.' During the next two years she 
lectured on West Africa all over the 
country, speaking to various audiences, 
associations of nurses, pupil-teachers, and 
working men, as well as to scientific so- 
cieties, academic gatherings, and to both 
the Liverpool and the Manchester chambers 
of commerce. She freely gave her services 
for charitable purposes. Her great desire 
was that Englishmen should know the con- 
ditions of life and government in their West 
African colonies, insisting that justice 
should be done to native and white man 
alike. One of her last public utterances was 
at the Imperial Institute on 12 Feb. 1900. 
Meanwhile she was still writing assiduously ; 
in February 1899 appeared ' West African 
Studies,' containing some matter already 
published and essays showing her matured 
views on several important subjects. A 
second edition of this book appeared in 1901, 
with an introduction by Mr. George Mac- 
millan. A small volume, 'The Story of West 
Africa' (H. Marshall's Empire Series), begun 
in 1897, came out in 1899 ; and her last book 
was a sympathetic memoir of her father pre- 
fixed to his ' Notes on Sport and Travel ' 
(January 1900). 

Her health suffered under the strain of 
work and London life, and she longed to get 
away. The war of 1899 with the Boer re- 
publics turned her thoughts to South Africa, 
whence she hoped she might return to her 
own west coast. She sailed on 11 March 1900, 
reaching Cape Town on the 28th. Offering 
her services to the authorities, she was sent 
to the Simon's Town Palace Hospital to 
nurse sick Boer prisoners ; but overwork, 
heroically and ably performed, brought on 
enteric fever, from which she died on 3 June 
1900. By her long-cherished desire she was 
buried at sea. The coffin was conveyed 
from Simon's Town harbour on a torpedo 
boat ; the honours of a combined naval and 
military funeral were accorded her. The 
feeling expressed at this sudden, and as it 
appeared to many unnecessary, loss of a 
valuable life was universal wherever she had 
been known, at Cape Town, on the West 
Coast, and in England. Memorials to her 
memory were immediately set on foot at 
Cape Town, at Liverpool, where a hospital 
bearing her name is to be erected; while 
other friends in England and West Africa 
hope to carry on her work, which has had 
an important influence for good on West 
African affairs, by the establishment of a 
Mary Kingsley West Africa Society, for in- 
quiry into native custom and law, and for 


69 Knatchbull-Hugessen 

the mutual enlightenment of the black and 
white man. 

Although of daring and masculine courage, 
loving the sea and outdoor life, Miss Kings- 
ley was full of womanly tenderness, sym- 
pathy, and modesty, entirely without false 
shame. Her genius was able, wise, and in- 
tellectually far-seeing ; and, though some- ' 
times wrong, she dealt with great issues 
from the insight of a sincere and generous 
mind. Her tine square brow was her chief i 
beauty, and she exercised remarkable per- 
sonal attraction, heightened by her brilliant i 
conversation and her keen sense of (ever ; 
kindly) humour. Portraits exist of her in 
photograph only ; one, a profile, taken at 
Cambridge in 1893, the other, nearly full 
face, taken in London about the middle of ; 

Mary Kingsley was elected a member of 
the Anthropological Society in June 1898. 
Among her principal lectures and writings 
besides those named above are ' The Fetish 
View of the Human Soul,' ' Folk Lore,' vol. 
viii. June 1897; 'African Religion and 
Law' (Hibbert lecture at Oxford), 'National 
Review,' September 1897 ; ' The Law and j 
Nature of Property among the Peoples of 
the true Negro Stock,' delivered at the Bri- 
tish Association (Bristol), September 1898 : 
' The Forms of Apparitions in West Africa,' j 
' Journal of the Psychical Research Society,' j 
July 1899 (vol. xiv.); 'Administration of 
our West African Colonies,' an important i 
address to the Manchester chamber of com- j 
merce, printed in their 'Monthly Record,' 
30 March 1899; 'West Africa from an 
Ethnological Point of View,' ' Imperial In- 
stitute Journal,' April 1900. ' The Develop- 
ment of Dodos,' ' National Review,' March 
1896, and ' Liquor Traffic with West Africa,' ; 
' Fortnightly,' April 1898, dealt with a con- | 
troversy on liquor and missionaries. Four i 
articles on ' West African Property ' ap- 
peared in the ' Morning Post' in July 1898, ! 
and three or four letters were published in j 
the 'Spectator' in 1897, 1898, and 1900. 
4 Gardening ' and ' Nursing ' in West Africa j 
are articles in ' Climate,' April, and ' Cham- j 
bers's Journal,' June 1900. 

[Personal knowledge and private letters ; Me- 
moir of Dr. Geo. Kingsley by his daughter, 1900 ; 
chapter of autobiography by Mary H. Kingsley 
in T. P. O'Connors M.A.P., 20 May 1899.] 

L. T. S. 

(1823-1864), physician, was born in 1823 at 
Holker in North Lancashire. After educa- 
tion at the grammar school of Cartmel he 
was, at the age of thirteen, apprenticed to a 
partnership of surgeons in Lancaster, and 

went thence to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London, in 1841. He was distinguished in 
the school examinations, and in 1846 gra- 
duated M.D. at Berlin. In 1855 he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of London, and delivered the 
Gulstonian lectures there in 1856. Sir James 
Paget [q. v. Suppl.] was then warden of the 
college of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and in 
1848 he and Kirkes published a ' Handbook 
of Physiology,' which soon became popular 
among students of medicine. A second 
edition appeared in 1851, and further editions 
by Kirkes alone in 1856, 1860, and 1863. 
In 1867, 1869, 1872,andl876 further editions 
by William Morrant Baker appeared. Vin- 
cent Dormer Harris was next joined with 
Baker in several editions, and then edited 
the book himself, with the assistance of 
Mr. D'Arcy Power. John Murray, the pub- 
lisher, to whom it was a valuable property, 
next employed William Dobbinson Halli- 
burton, under whose care no part of the 
original work of Kirkes, except his name on 
the outside cover, remained, and in this 
form the book goes through almost annual 
editions, and is still the most popular text- 
book of physiology for medical students. 
Kirkes was appointed demonstrator of mor- 
bid anatomy to St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
in 1848, and in 1854 defeated Dr. John 
William Hue in a contest for the office of 
assistant physician. He became lecturer on 
botany, and then on medicine, and in 1864, 
when Sir George Burrows [q. v. Suppl.] re- 
signed, he was elected physician to the hos- 
pital. He died at his house in Lower 
Seymour Street of double pneumonia with 
pericarditis after five days' illness on 8 Dec. 
1864 (Gent. Mag. 1865, i. 124). His most 
original work is a paper in the ' Transactions 
of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
of London ' (xxxv. 281 ) on ' Embolism, or the 
carrying of blood-clots from the heart to re- 
mote parts of the body,' a pathological pro- 
cess then just beginning to be recognised. 

[Memoir in British Medical Journal, 24 Dec. 
1864 ; MS. Records at St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital ; Works ; Boase's Modern English Biogr.] 

N. M. 

BOVENE (1829-1893), was eldest son, by the 
second wife, of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 
ninth baronet [q.v.], of Mersham Hatch, Kent, 
where he was born on 29 April 1829. His 
mother, a niece of Jane Austen, was a 
daughter of Edward Knight of Godmersham 
Park, Kent, and of Chawton House, Hamp- 
shire. Knatchbull went to Eton in 1844, 
and matriculated at Magdalen College, Ox- 

Knatchbull-Hugessen 7 


ford, on 9 July 1847. He graduated B.A. 
in 1851, and proceeded M.A. in 1854. His 
father died on 24 May 1849, and stated in 
his will his desire that his son should add to 
his surname the name Hugessen, after the 
testator's mother, Mary, daughter and co- 
heiress of William Western Hugessen of 
Provender, Kent. This was done by royal 

At the general election of 1857 Knatch- 
bull-Hugessen was elected a member for 
Sandwich, in the liberal interest, having 
Lord Clarence Paget for a colleague. His 
maiden speech in the House of Commons 
was made on 21 April 1858 in support of the 
abolition of church rates. When Palmer- 
ston, on 30 June 1859, formed his second ad- 
ministration he included Knatchbull-Huges- 
sen in it as a lord of the treasury. This 
office he filled till 1866, with the exception 
of two months in 1860, when he was under- 
secretary for the home office. In Glad- 
stone's first administration, formed on 9 Dec. 
1868, Knatchbull-Hugessen returned to the 
under-secretaryship for the home office. In 
1871 he became under-secretary for the 
colonies. On 24 March 1873 he was ap- 
pointed a privy councillor. He left office 
when Gladstone resigned on 13 Feb. 1874. 
He was not included in Gladstone's second 
administration, which was formed on 28 April 
1880, but on 24 March in that year he was 
gazetted a peer, with the title of Baron 
Brabourne of Brabourne in the county of 
Kent. After he entered the House of Lords 
his political views entirely changed, and he 
became a member of the Carlton Club. 

He filled the offices of chairman of the 
East Kent quarter sessions and deputy- 
chairman of the South-Eastern Railway. He 
died on 6 Feb. 1893 at Smeeth Paddocks, 
and was buried at Smeeth, Kent, three days 
later. He was twice married : first, on 
19 Oct. 1852, at St. Stephen's, Hertfordshire, 
to Anna Maria Elizabeth, younger daughter 
of the Rev. Marcus Richard Southwell, 
vicar of that church, by whom he had two 
sons and two daughters ; and, secondly, on 
3 June 1890, at Maxwelton chapel, Glen- 
cairn, to Ethel Mary, third daughter of 
Colonel Walker of Crawfordton, Dumfries- 
shire, by whom he had two daughters. 

Before and after his elevation to the 
peerage Brabourne was an industrious man 
of letters, being chiefly known as author of 
numerous stories for children, but in these 
capacities failed to distinguish himself. He 
was also a book collector. His library, 
which was sold by auction in May 1892, 
' abounded in topographical works, scarcely 
any English county being unrepresented,' 

and the sum realised was over 2,OOOZ. 
(Atheneeum, Nos. 3317 and 3353). After 
the death of his mother on 24 Dec. 1882, in 
her ninetieth year, Brabourne became pos- 
sessor of ninety-four letters written by his 
great-aunt, Jane Austen, to her elder sister, 
Cassandra. At the close of 1884 he published 
these letters in two volumes, with introduc- 
tory and critical remarks, which were mainly 
notable for their diffuse irrelevance. 

Brabourne's story books, which pleased 
the uncritical readers for whom they were 
produced, were entitled : 1. ' Stories for my 
Children,' 1869. 2. 'Crackers for Christ- 
mas : more Stories,' 1870. 3. ' Moonshine: 
Fairy Stories,' 1871. 4. ' Tales at Teatime: 
Fairy Stories,' 1872. 5. 'Queer Folk: 
Seven Stories,' 1873. 6. ' River Legends ; 
or, Father Thames and Father Rhine,' 1874. 
7. 'Whispers from Fairy-Land,' 1874. 
8. ' Higgledy-Piggledy ; or, Stories for Every- 
body and Everybody's Children,' 187-">. 
9. ' Uncle Joe's Stories,' 1878. 10. < Other 
Stories,' 1879. 11. 'The Mountain Sprite's 
Kingdom, and other Stories,' 1880. 12. ' Fer- 
dinand's Adventure, and other Stories.' 
13. ' Friends and Foes from Fairy-Land,' 
1885. He also published, in 1877, 'The 
Life, Times, and Character of Oliver Crom- 
well : a Lecture,' and, in 1886, ' Facts and 
Fictions in Irish History: a Reply to Mr. 

[Times and Annual Register for 1893; pre- 
face to Letters of Jane Austen.] F. R. 

KNIBB, WILLIAM (1803-1845), mis- 
sionary and abolitionist, third son of Thomas 
and Mary (born Dexter) Knibb, was born at 
Kettering on 7 Sept. 1803, one of twins. His 
father was a tradesman, his mother a mem- 
ber of the independent chapel whose Sunday 
school he joined at seven years old. After 
three years at the grammar school he entered 
some printing works in 1814, and in 1816 
removed with his elder brother Thomas 
(b. 11 Oct. 1799) to Bristol on the transfer of 
the business. He was baptised by Dr. John 
Ryland [q. v.] and admitted member of the 
Broadmead Chapel on 7 March 1822. 

Both brothers early conceived a desire for 
missionary enterprise. William's first im- 
pulse was felt while ' composing ' missionary 
accounts and letters. Thomas was accepted 
in 1822 by the Baptist Missionary Society 
as master of the free school in Kingston, 
Jamaica, while William commenced preach- 
ing in a village near Bristol, and in a low 
part of the town called the ' Beggars' Opera,' 
colloquially the ' Beggars' Uproar.' The 
death of his brother after three days' illness, 
on 25 April 1823, led to William sailing on 



5 Nov. 1824 for Jamaica to fill the post. 
He was just over twenty-one, and took with 
him his young wife, Mary AVatkins of Bris- 
tol, to whom he was married a month earlier. 
After four years Knibb resigned his school 
to undertake the small mission of Savannah 
la Mar, and in 1830 he settled at Falmouth, 
near Montego Bay. Local feeling against 
the missionaries was strong, and their evan- 
gelical labours greatly restricted by the 
island laws. Knibb protested against the 
unjust action of the magistrates, and became 
the subject of much misrepresentation. The 
introduction of Fowell Buxton's motion re- 
lating to colonial slavery in April 1831 was 
the signal for violent agitation among the 
planters and excitement among the slaves, 
which culminated in insurrection. Knibb 
was arrested on a charge of aiding, and his 
chapel, like many others in the island, Avas 
destroyed. But the case against him fell 
through, and on his release he was despatched 
by the missionaries to plead their cause in 

He arrived to find the reform bill passed, 
when his first exclamation was ' Now I'll 
have slavery down.' He threw himself ve- 
hemently into the struggle. At the Assembly 
Rooms at Bath, on 15 Dec. 1832, he defended 
the missionaries in a public discussion, and 
published with P. Borthwick a defence of 
the missionaries under the title of ' Colo- 
nial Slavery ' (London, 2nd edit. 1833). 
He was examined before select committees 
of both houses of parliament, and in his 
spare moments addressed some meetings of 
the Anti-Slavery Society. A handsome sum 
of money was raised to recoup the heavily 
taxed missionaries and rebuild their schools 
and chapels. In October 1834 Knibb re- 
turned to Jamaica, where he became the 
object of malicious attacks in the pro-slavery 
Jamaican press. These were copied by 
' John Bull,' an English paper, then edited 
by Thomas Hood. A Bristol solicitor and 
friend of Knibb (Mr. H. W. Hall) brought 
a libel action against the proprietor of the 
paper before Lord Denman in 1839 and ob- 
tained damages, amounting to 70/., for the 
missionary. The Baptist Missionary Society 
presented him with a testimonial to mark 
the vindication of his character. 

In 1840 Knibb, with his two daughters, 
proceeded to England to exhibit in public 
addresses the results of emancipation, and 
to appeal for the enlargement of the mission. 
At the same time he pressed home the sub- 
ject of African slavery. He was everywhere 
received with enthusiasm, as he was subse- 
quently upon his third and fourth visits in 
1842 and 1845. 

To Knibb's efforts in England and at 
home the increase of missionary activity in 
Jamaica was largely due. Addressing a 
meeting in Norwich in June 1845 he related 
that thirty-five chapels, sixteen schoolrooms, 
and twenty-four mission-houses had been 
built at a cost of Io7,000/. The conditions 
of life had already improved so much that, 
as he pointed out, the average limit of a 
missionary's life in the West Indies had in- 
creased from three to seven years. Knibb 
himself, a man of splendid constitution and 
immense energy, spent twenty-one years in 
Jamaica. He was stricken down with ma- 
lignant fever in the thick of his work, and 
died after four days' illness on 15 Nov. 1845 
at Kettering, one of his seven stations, where 
a house had been built and presented by his 
affectionate people to his wife and daughters. 
Mrs. Knibb survived until 1 April 1866. 
Five of their children predeceased him. Of 
the elder son, William, a remarkable boy of 
twelve, Dr. James Hoby Avrote a ' Memoir.' 
Knibb founded, in September 1839, the 
' Baptist Herald and Friend of Africa,' a 
weekly paper for the instruction of the 
emancipated population of Jamaica. Some 
of his speeches in England are printed in 
pamphlet form. His correspondence with 
Joseph Sturge [q. v.], Joseph John Gurney 
fq. v.], Dr. Hobj r , and many other aboli- 
tionists and missionaries, is included in 
Hinton's ' Life,' where also is a portrait. A 
! medallion was placed at the base of a figure 
of justice, erected in his chapel at Falmouth 
I to commemorate the birth of freedom on 
; 1 Aug. 1838. Figures of Sturge, Granville 
Sharp, and Wilberforce appear in bas-relief. 

[Life, by J. Howard Hinton, 1847; Memoir 
by Mrs. J. J. Smith, 1896 ; Dr. Cox's Hist, of 
ths Baptist Missionary Society, 1842, vol. ii. 
passim ; Jamaica Missionary, 1849 ; funeral ser- 
mons by J. Howard Hinton, Samuel Oughton, 
T. F. Newman, J. Aldis, and other baptist 
ministers, 1846; Bevan Braithwaite's Memoir 
of J. J. Gurney ; Gurney's Winter in the West 
Indies, p. 134 ; Sturge and Harvey's West Indies 
in 1837, pp. 199, 201, 204, 231 ; The Tourist, 
1833, p. l.j C. F. S. 

HAM HAMILTON (1852-1896), first bi- 
shop of Mashonaland. [See BETJCE.] 

KNOX, ROBERT BENT (1808-1893), 
j archbishop of A rmagh, was second son of Hon. 
j Charles Knox (d. 1825), archdeacon of Ar- 
' magh, by his wife Hannah (d. 1852), daugh- 
ter of Robert Bent, M.P., and widow of 
James Fletcher. He was born at Dungannon 
Park Mansion, the residence of his grand- 
father Thomas Knox, first viscount North- 



land (d. 1818), on 25 Sept. 1808. Though 
baptised Robert Bent, he early dropped the 
use of his middle name. He was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating B.A. 
in 1829, M.A. in 1834, B.D. and D.D. in 
1858 ; he was also LL.D. Cambridge in 
1888. In 1832 he was ordained deacon and 
priest by Beresford, bishop of Kilmore. On 
7 May 1834 he was collated chancellor of 
Ardfert,and on 16 Oct. 1841 he was collated 
to the prebend of St. Munchia, Limerick, by 
his uncle Edmund Knox (d. 7 May 1849), 
bishop of Limerick, who made him his do- 
mestic chaplain. In March 1849 he was 
nominated by Lord Clarendon to the see of 
Down, Connor, and Dromore, vacated by the 
death (2 Nov. 1848) of Richard Mant [q. v.] 
He was consecrated on 1 May, and enthroned 
on 8 May at Lisburn, on 5 May at Dro- 
more. Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.], who Avas 
in Ireland in 1861, details in his diary 
(26 Aug.) some ill-natured gossip about the 
appointment. James Henthorn Todd [q. v.] 
described Knox as 'very foolish, without 
learning, piety, judgment, conduct, sense, 
appointed by a job, that his uncle should 
resign Limerick.' The dean of Limerick, 
Anthony La Touche Kirwan (d. 1868), said 
of him, ' He used, when made to preach by 
his uncle, to get me to write his sermon, and 
could not deliver it. The bishop used to 
say, " Why do you always blow your nose 
in the pathetic part ? " ' (Life of Wilberforce, 
1882, iii. 25). 

Knox, as a whig, was not at the outset 
popular in his diocese. Like his predecessor, 
ne resided at Holywood, co. Down. He 
made no secret of his opinion that, in the 
absence of extensive reforms, disestablish- 
ment was inevitable, and did his best to 
prepare for it. At an early period of his 
episcopate he had entertained the project of 
a cathedral at Belfast (in addition to the 
three existing cathedrals of the diocese) ; 
this luxury he abandoned in favour of a plan 
for multiplication of churches. The 'Bel- 
fast Church Extension Society ' was founded 
by him in 1862 ; as the result of his efforts, 
forty-eight new or enlarged churches were 

consecrated in his diocese. Prior to disesta- 
blishment, he organised (1862) diocesan 
conferences, and founded a diocesan board 
of missions. In the House of Lords in 1867, 
and before the church commission in 1868, 
he proposed a reduction of the Irish hier- 
archy to one archbishop and five bishops. 
He was not a man of commanding power or 
of genial warmth, but his simplicity and 
modesty of manner, the plain good sense of 
his clear and frank utterances, his ready 
exertions in all works of charity, and his 
complete freedom from sectarian bias, won 
for him the respect and good feeling of every 
section in the community. 

On the death, 26 Dec. 1885, of Primate 
Marcus Gervais Beresford [q. v. Suppl.] he 
was chosen by the house of bishops as his 
successor, and, exchanging his diocese for 
that of Armagh, was enthroned at Armagh 
as archbishop on 1 June 1886. As president 
of the general synod of the Irish church, his 
characteristic qualities of fairness and mode- 
ration came effectively into play. He re- 
tained to the last his activity of body, 
presiding at the Armagh diocesan synod a 
fortnight before his death. He died at Ar- 
magh of heart disease on 23 Oct. 1893, and 
was buried on 27 Oct. in the old church (a 
disused ruin) at Holywood. Portraits of 
him are at Armagh Palace and at the see 
house of Down, lie married, on 5 Oct. 1842, 
Catherine Delia, daughter of Thomas Gibbon 
Fitzgibbon of Ballyseeda, co. Limerick, and 
by her (who predeceased him) had three 
sons and three daughters, of whom a son, 
Lieutenant-general Charles Edmond Knox, 
and two daughters survive him. Besides a 
sermon (1847), charges (1850 and 1858), and 
a brief address, ' Fruits of the Revival,' in 
Steane's 'Ulster Revival' (1859, 8vo), he 
published ' Ecclesiastical Index (of Ireland) ' 
(Dublin, 1839, 8vo), a valuable book of refe- 
rence, with appendix of forms and prece- 

[Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. ; Belfast News 
Letter, 24 and 30 Oct. 1893; Northern Whig, 
same dates ; Burke's Peerage, 1899, p. 1214.] 

A. G. 





(1813-1895), Italian scholar and politician, 
only son of Diego Lacaita of Manduria in 
the Terra d'Otranto, and of Agata Conti of 
Agnone in the Molise, was born at Man- 
duria, in the province of Lecce, Italy, on 
4 Oct. 1813. He took a law degree at the 
university of Naples, was admitted an advo- 
cate in 1836, and practised his profession. 
An acquaintance with Enos Throop, United 
States charg6 d'affaires at Naples, begun in 
December 1838, helped him in the study of 
English, and this knowledge gained him the 
post of legal adviser to the British legation at 
Naples, and the friendship of the minister, 
Sir William Temple, at whose table he 
met many English travellers of distinction. 
Lacaita's political opinions were liberal but 
moderate, and he never belonged to any 
secret society. He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the representation of the city 
of Naples in 1848, and on 7 April was ap- 
pointed secretary to the Neapolitan legation 
in London, but did not start for his post, 
which he resigned after the fall of the liberal 
Troya ministry in May. In November 1850 
he met Gladstone, who was in Naples in 
order to collect information about Bourbon 
misrule. This led to the arrest of Lacaita 
on 3 Jan. 1851, and he remained in custody 
for nine days. In a letter from Gladstone 
to Panizzi, in September, he is referred to 
as ' a most excellent man, hunted by the 
government' (FA.GAN, Life of Panizzi, ii. 
97, 205-6). 

The publication of Gladstone's letters to 
Lord Aberdeen, for which Lacaita supplied 
many striking facts, aroused the hostility of 
the court and clerical partisans in Italy, and 
Lacaita found it advisable to leave Naples 
for London, where he arrived on 8 Jan. 1852. 
He was at Edinburgh on 14 Feb., in May 
he was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of librarian of the London Library, 
and on 15 June married Maria Clavering 
(d. 1853), daughter of Sir Thomas Gibson 
Carmichael, seventh baronet. His means 
were small, but he made many powerful 
friends in the best political and literary 
circles in London and Edinburgh. From 
November 1853 until April 1856 he was pro- 
fessor of Italian at Queen's College, London, 
was naturalised in July 1855, and published 
' Selections from the best Italian Writers ' 
(1855, 2nd ed. 1863, sm. 8vo). In the 
winter of 1856-7 he accompanied Lord 

| Minto to Florence and Turin. From 1857 
f to 1863 he acted as private secretary to 
j Lord Lansdowne, and towards the close of 
| 1858 went with Gladstone to the Ionian 
j Islands as secretary to the mission, being 
madeK.C.M.G. for his services in March 1859. 
Lacaita was entrusted by Cavour with a 
j delicate diplomatic negotiation in 1860 con- 
nected with schemes to prevent Garibaldi from 
j crossing from Sicily to Calabria, and subse- 
| quently the Neapolitan government offered 
j him the post of minister in London with the 
, title of marquis, both of which he declined (ib. 
ii.208). In December 1860, after the expulsion 
of the Bourbons, he revisited Naples, caused 
! his name to be reinstated on the municipal 
registry, and in July 1861, while back in 
England, was returned as deputy to the 
first Italian legislature. He generally sup- 
ported the new Italian government. After 
j the dissolution of 1865 he did not seek re- 
. election, and was made a senator in 1876. 
Though speaking but seldom in the chamber, 
he exercised a considerable influence upon 
public affairs between 1861 and 1876 through 
his intimacy with Ricasoli, La Marmora, Min- 
ghetti, Visconti-Venosta, and other leading 
men. Florence became his headquarters in 
Italy after the removal of the government 
thence from Turin, and so it remained even 
after the transfer of the capital to Rome. He 
I spent a portion of each year in England, and 
during the last fifteen years of his life 
wintered at Leucaspide, near Taranto, where 
he had made large purchases of monastic 
lands in 1868. He was a director of the 
Italian company for the Southern Railways 
from its formation, and took a share in the 
management of several Anglo-Italian public 
companies. Besides his English title, he 
was a knight of the Brazilian order of the 
Rose, and knight commander of S. Maurizio 
e Lazzaro and of the Corona d' Italia. 

During his earlier years in England he 
frequently lectured on Italian subjects at the 
Royal Institution, the London Institution, 
and elsewhere. He wrote nearly all the 
Italian articles for the eighth edition of the 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and revised 
several editions of Murray's ' Handbook for 
South Italy.' In 1865 he edited the third 
or album volume of the great edition of the 
' Inferno di Dante,' after the death of Lord 
Vernon, having helped in the production of 
the former volumes (London, 1858-65, 3 
vols. folio). He compiled the 'Catalogue 




of the Library at Chatsworth ' (London, 
1879, 4 vols. large 8vo) for the seventh 
Duke of Devonshire, and edited the first 
complete publication of the famous Latin 
lectures on Dante of Benvenuto da Imola, 
delivered in 1375, ' Comentum super Dantis 
Aldigherij Comoediam nunc prim urn integre 
in lucem editum, sumptibus Guil. Warren 
Vernon,' Florence, 1887, 5 vols. large 8vo. 

He died at Posilipo, near Naples, on 
4 Jan. 1895, in his eighty-second year, 
leaving an only son, Charles Carmichael 
Lacaita (b. 1853), M.P. for Dundee, 1885-7. 

During forty-five years his life and in- 
terests were divided between this country 
and Italy ; in the one a polished English- 
man, in the other a vivacious Neapolitan 
and a conscientious landowner. He was a 
notable Dante scholar, an excellent, biblio- 
grapher, a man of wide reading and intel- 
lectual sympathy, of great social tact and 
goodness of heart. 

[Information kindly furnished by Mr. C. C. 
Lacaita; see also the Times, 8 Jan. p. 10, 
10 Jan. p. 1, 4, 1895; Lettere ad Antonio 
Panizzi, pubbl. da L. Pagan, 1880, p. 463, 
&c. ; Minghetti, Miei Ricordi, 1890, iii. 228; 
Burke's Peerage, 1894, p. 160".] H. R. T. 

LACY, EDMUND (1370 P-1455), bishop 
of Exeter, born probably about 1370, was 
son of Stephen Lacy and his wife Sibilla, 
who were buried in the conventual church 
of the Carmelites at Gloucester. Edmund 
was probably a native of that city, and was 
educated at Oxford, where he graduated D.D. 
In 1398 he was master of University College, 
and is said to have presided over that society 
for five years (Wooo, Hist, and Ant. ii. 59). 
On 4 Jan. 1400-1 he appears as canon of 
Windsor. He was installed prebendary of 
Hereford Cathedral on 25 Sept. 1412, and in 
1414 also held the prebend of Nassington 
in Lincoln Cathedral. On 12 May 1409 he 
was sent as envoy to France, and on 22 May 
1413 he was appointed agent to the papal 
court. In Henry Vs reign he was dean of 
the chapel royal, and accompanied the king 
to Agincourt in 1415 (NICOLAS, Ayincourt, 
p. 389). On 8 Feb. 1416-17 he was granted, 
custody of the temporalities of the bishopric 
of Hereford ; the pope assented to his election 
on 3 March, and Henry V was present at 
his consecration on 18 April. In 1420 he 
was translated to Exeter, the temporalities 
were restored on 31 Oct., and he was installed 
on 29 March 1421. In that year he preached 
before Henry V at Westminster (WALSIXG- 
HA.M, Hist. Anyl. ii. 337). He was one of 
Henry Vs executors, but seems to have taken 
little part in politics in the following reign, 

though he is mentioned in a political satire 
about 1450 (BENTIYEY, Excerpta Historica, 
p. 162). He was bishop of Exeter for thirty- 
five years. In 1434 he was excused attend- 
ance at parliament on account of his bodily 
infirmities, but twenty years later he was 
fined eighty marks for not being present. 
He died at Chudleigh on 18 Sept. 1455, and 
was buried on the north side of the choir in 
Exeter Cathedral. His tomb, which still 
remains, was long the resort of pilgrims. 
His will, proved on 8 Oct. 1455, is lost, but 
his register, covering more than seventeen 
hundred pages, remains. He gave various 
books to his chapter, and made other benefac- 
tions to the diocese. His ' Liber Pontificalis' 
was edited from an original fifteenth-century 
manuscript (the title-page says fourteenth 
century) by Ralph Barnes and published in 
1847 (Exeter, 8vo). 

[Preface to. Lacy's Liber Pontificalis ; Oliver's 
Bishops of Exeter; Rymer's Fcedera, ix. 404, 
422, 4oO; Beckington Corresp. (Rolls Ser.); 
Nicolas's Ordinances of the Privy Council; Rolls 
of Parliament ; Ramsay's Lancaster and York, 
ii. 193; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl., ed. Hardy, passim ; 
Godwin's De Prsesulibus Anglise; Stubbs's Reg. 
Sacrum.] A. F. P. 

LACY, WALTER (1809-1898), actor, 
whose real name was Williams, the son 
of a coach-builder in Bristol, born in 1809, 
was educated for the medical profession, 
went to Australia, and was first seen on the 
stage in Edinburgh, in 1829, as Montalban 
in the ' Honeymoon,' was playing there 
again in 1832, and acted also in Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and Manchester. His debut in 
London was at the Haymarket on 21 Aug. 
1838 as Charles Surface. At Govent Gar- 
den he appeared, about 1841, as Captain Ab- 
solute, and at Drury Lane as Wildrake in 
the ' Love Chase.' With Charles Kean 
[q. v.] at the Princess's he was, on 18 Sept. 
1852, the original Rouble in Boucicault's 
' Prima Donna,' and made a great success as 
Chateau Renaud in the ' Corsicaii Brothers.' 
With Kean he played John of Gaunt in 
' Richard II,' Edmund in ' Lear,' Gratiano 
and Lord Trinket in the 'Jealous W 
On 30 June 1860 he was, at the Lyceum, 
the Marquis of Saint Evremont in ' A Tale 
of Two Cities,' and at Drury Lane on 17 Oct. 
1864 was Cloten to Miss Faucit's Imogen. 
He was Flutter in the ' Belle's Stratagem ' 
on 8 Oct. 1866 at the St. James's, where he 
was on 5 Nov. the first John Leigh in 
' Hunted Down, or Two Lives of John 
Leigh.' In two Lyceum revivals of ' Romeo 
and Juliet ' he wasMercutio. Onl2 Aug. 1868 
he was, at the Princess's, the original Bel- 
lingham in Boucicault's ' After Dark.' Other 

it in 
rife. 1 





parts in which he was seen were Benedick. | 
Comus, Faulconbridge, Mai volio, Touchstone, 
Prospero, Roderigo, Henry VIII, Young 
Marlow, Sir Brilliant Fashion, Goldfinch, 
Tony Lumpkin, Bob Acres, Dazzle, Flutter, 
Dudley Smooth, Megrim in ' Blue Devils,' , 
Ghost in ' Hamlet,' My Lord Duke in ' High j 
Life below Stairs,' Jeremy Diddler, and 
Puff. After a long absence from the stage, 
occupied with teaching elocution at the 
Royal Academy of Music, he reappeared at 
the* Lyceum in April 1879 as Colonel Damas 
in Sir Henry Irving's revival of the ' Lady 
of Lyons.' He died on 13 Dec. 1898 at j 
1 3 Marine Square, Brighton, and was buried j 
at Brompton cemetery on the 17th. Lacy j 
was a respectable light comedian, but failed 
as an exponent of old men and was a 
wretched Sir Anthony Absolute. He was a 
familiar figure at the Garrick Club, which 
owns a portrait of him in oils, and was 
almost to the last a man of much vivacity, 
and of quaint, clever, unbridled, and cha- 
racteristic speech. He married Miss Taylor, 
an actress [see L,ACY, HARRIETTS DEBORAH]. 
[Personal knowledge ; Clark Russell's Repre- 
sentative Actors (supplement) ; Dibdin's Edin- 
burgh Stage ; Pascoe's Dramatic List ; Scott 
and Howard's Blanehard ; Hollingshead's Gaiety 
Chronicles; Era, 1? Dec. 1898; Coles Life of 
Charles Kean ; Era Almanack, and Sunday 
Times, various years; private information.] 

J. K. 

LITE, first baronet (1807-1864), Canadian 
statesman, born at Boucherville, in the 
county of Chambly, Lower Canada, in Oc- 
tober 1807, was the third son of Antoine ' 
Medard Lafontaine, a farmer of that neigh- 
bourhood, by his wife Marie J. Fontaine j 
Bienvenu, and the grandson of Antoine Me- 
dard Lafontaine, member of the legislative 
assembly of Lower Canada. He was edu- 
cated at Montreal, and after a course of five 
years proceeded to study law, entering the 
office of Denis Benjamin Viger [q. v.] His 
political reputation was considerable while 
he was yet a clerk, and after his call to the 
bar he quickly acquired a large practice 
among the French Canadians. He joined 
Viger in organising the national movement 
in the district of Montreal, and was returned 
to the legislative assembly of Lower Canada 
at the general election of 1830 for the county 
of Terrebonne, for which he continued to 
sit until 1837. He was at first a follower 
of Louis Joseph Papineau [q. v.], whom he 
vigorously urged on in his resistance to the 
home government. In a year or two, how- 
ever, he developed from the follower to the 
rival of Papineau, from whom eventually he 

became completely estranged. While Papi- 
neau was associated with the parti pretre, 
Lafontaine led that of la jeune France, and 
was regarded by the orthodox as little 
better than an infidel. Although he in- 
dulged in unmeasured opposition to govern- 
ment, he saw the outbreak of the rebellion 
of 1837 with feelings of consternation, being 
convinced that the resources of the insur- 
gents were quite inadequate. The govern- 
ment, however, mindful of his incendiary 
language on former occasions, issued a 
warrant against him for high treason. La- 
fontaine escaped to England and thence 
to France. He was able to establish his in- 
nocence, and returned to Canada in May 
1838. He was imprisoned on 7 Nov. 1838, 
during the hostile expeditions of Robert 
Nelson [see NELSON, WOLFRED] from the 
United States, but was released Irom lack of 

After the suppression of the rebellion La- 
fontaine found the leadership of the parti 
pretre vacant owing to Papineau's exile. He 
conciliated the priests and assumed the 
position. On Papineau's return in 1847 he 
found his place filled and was compelled to 
become the head of the more extreme party 
which Lafontaine had formerly directed. 
Lafontaine opposed the union of Upper and 
Lower Canada in 1840. On 21 Sept, 1841, 
after contesting Terrebonne unsuccessfully, 
he was returned to the parliament of the 
united provinces for the fourth riding of 
York, a county in Upper Canada, chiefly 
thro ugh the instrumentality of Robert Bald- 
win [q. v. Suppl.] He was at once recognised 
as the leader of the French Canadians in the 
new assembly, and early in 1842 declined 
an offer of the solicitor-generalship of Lower 
Canada from the governor-general, Charles 
Edward Poulett Thomson, Baron Syden- 
ham [q. v.], made to him on the condition 
that he should support the governor's policy. 
In September 1842, at the instance of 
Sydenham's successor, Sir Charles Bagot 
[q. v. Suppl.], he joined Baldwin in forming 
the first Baldwin-Lafontaine administration, 
in which he held the portfolio of attorney- 
general for the lower province. During his 
term of office he obtained a cessation of pro- 
ceedings against the political offenders of 
1837, including Papineau. The ministry 
resigned on 28 Nov. 1843 in consequence of 
a difference with Bagot's successor, Sir 
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe (afterwards 
Baron Metcalfe) [q. v.], with regard to the 
control of the nomination of government 
officials. In November 1844 Lafontaine was 
returned for Terrebonne, which he repre- 
sented during the whole period of his pppo- 

Lafontaine ; 

sition. In March 1848, after a stormy 
election in which several persons were killed, 
he was returned for the city of Montreal, 
which he represented during the remainder 
of his public life. 

In March 1848 the reform party triumphed 
at the general election, and Baldwin and La- 
fontaine again took office, Lafontaine as 
premier and attorney-general for Lower 
Canada. In January 1849 he passed an 
amnesty bill, and in February he introduced 
the famous rebellion losses bill, which was 
intended to compensate innocent sufferers in 
1837. This bill was bitterly resented both 
in Canada and England, because it was 
feared that it would benefit disloyal French 
Canadians, and it gave rise to the most 
extraordinary scenes of riot in Montreal 
[see BRUCE, JAMES, eighth EARL OF ELGIN]. 
Lafontaine's house was partly burnt down 
and he himself on more than one occasion 
exposed to imminent peril. In consequence 
of the disorder the seat of government was 
permanently removed from Montreal. In 
the meantime Lafontaine felt that he was 
growing out of sympathy with the younger 
reformers. The temper of his mind was 
naturally aristocratic and conservative. The 
movement which he had led had been na- 
tional, and when questions of class interest 
became of importance he found himself out 
of accord with his former supporters. He 
was opposed to the secularisation of the 
clergy reserves in Upper Canada and the 
abolition of the seigneural tenure in the 
lower province, both of them measures 
steadily demanded by a large section of the 
reform party. In consequence he retired 
from political life towards the close of 1851. 
On 13 Aug. 1853 he was nominated chief 
justice of Lower Canada in succession to Sir 
James Stuart [q. v.], and on 28 Aug. 1854 
he was created a baronet. He continued to 
hold the office of chief-justice until his death 
at Montreal on 26 Feb. 1864. He was twice 
married : first, on 9 July 1831, to Adele, 
daughter of Amable Berthelot, an advocate 
at Quebec. She died without issue on 
27 May 1859, and he married secondly, on 
30 Jan. 1861, Jane Morrison, a widow of 
Montreal. By her he had an only surviving 
son, Louis Hypolite, on whose death, in 1867, 
the baronetcy became extinct. 

[Burke's Peerage, 1900; Dent's Canadian 
Portrait Gallery, Toronto, 1881, iii. 104-8 
(with portrait) ; David's Biographies et Por- 
traits, Montreal. 1876, pp. 96-113 (with por- 
trait) ; David's Union cles deux Canadas, Mont- 
real, 1898; Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated 
Canadians, Quebfc, 1862. pp. 417-9; David's 
Patriotes de 1837-1838, Montreal, 1886, pp. 


269-76; Gerin-Lajoie's Dix Ans au Canada de 
1840 a 1850, Quebec, 1888; Turcotte's Canada 
sous I'Union, Quebec, 1871-2, pts. i. and ii. ; 
Dent's Last Forty Years, Toronto, 1881 ; Kaye's 
Life and Corresp. of Lord Metcalfe, 1858, ii. 
329-425 ; Hincks's Reminiscences, Montreal, 
1884 ; Hincks's Lecture on the Political History 
of Canada between 1840 and 1855, Montreal, 
1877 : Bibaud's Pantheon Canadien, Montreal, 
1891.] E. I. C. 

LAING, SAMUEL (1812-1897), poli- 
tician, author, and chairman of the Brighton 
Railway, was born in Edinburgh on 12 Dec. 
1812. He was the son of Samuel Laing 
[q. v.], the author of the well-known ' Tours' 
in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, who was 
the younger brother of Malcolm Laing [q. v.], 
the historian of Scotland. Laing was edu- 
cated at Houghton-le-Spring grammar school, 
and privately by Richard Wilson, a fellow 
of St. John's, Cambridge. He entered that 
college as a pensioner on 5 July 1827, gra- 
duated B.A. as second wrangler in 1831, and 
was also second Smith's prizeman. He was 
elected a fellow of St. John's on 17 March 
1834, and remained for a time in Cambridge 
as a mathematical coach. He was admitted 
a student of Lincoln's Inn on 10 Nov. 1832, 
and was called to the bar on 9 June 1837. 
Shortly after his call he was appointed private 
secretary to Henry Labouchere, afterwards 
Lord Taunton [q. v.], then president of the 
board of trade. Upon the formation of the rail- 
way department of that office in 1842 he was 
appointed secretary, and thenceforth distin- 
guished himself as an authority upon railways 
under successive presidents of the board of 
trade. In 1844 he published the results of 
his experience in ' A Report on British and 
Foreign Railways,' and gave much valuable 
evidence before a committee of the House 
of Commons on railways. To his suggestion 
the public are mainly indebted for the con- 
venience of ' parliamentary ' trains at the rate 
of one penny per mile. In 1845 Laing was 
appointed a member of the railway com- 
mission, presided over by Lord Dalhousie, 
and drew up the chief reports on the railway 
schemes of that period. Had his recom- 
mendations been followed, much of the com- 
mercial crisis of 1846 would, as he after- 
wards proved, have been averted. The report 
of the commission having been rejected by 
parliament, the commission was dissolved, 
and Laing, resigning his post at the board of 
trade, returned to his practice at the bar. 
In 1848 he accepted the post of chairman 
and managing director of the London, Brigh- 
ton, and South Coast Railway, and under his 
administration the passenger traffic of the 
line was in five years nearly doubled. In 




1852 he became chairman of the Crystal 
Palace Company, from which he retired in 
1855, as well as from the chairmanship of 
the Brighton line. In July 1852 he was 
returned to parliament in the liberal interest 
for the Wick district, which he represented 
until 1857 (when he lost his seat for op- 
posing British intervention in China). He 
was re-elected in April 1859, and was financial 
secretary to the treasury from the following 

Tune until October 1860. In that month 
he was appointed to the important post of 
financial minister in India, on the council of 
the governor-general, to replace James Wil- 
son (1805-1860) [q. v.],who had died within 
a year of taking up this newly created and 
lucrative office [see FEEKE, SIK BAKTLE]. 
When first asked to go to India, Laing said 
' Palmerston, ' You want me to go to India 
doctor a sick budget with a deficit of six 

lillions ; that is a question of military re- 
duction, and the possibility of military re- 
duction depends on peace. Tell me candidly 

fhat you think of the prospects of peace, 
that I rcay regulate my financial policy ac- 

ardingly.' Palmerston replied, ' I do not 

rust the man at the Tuilleries an inch 
farther than I can see him ; but for the next 
two or three years, which is enough for your 

urpose, I think we are fairly safe of peace ; 
therefore go in for reduction.' 

Having effected the objects of his mission 
upon the lines laid down with such con- 
spicuous abilitv by Wilson, Laing was again 
elected M.P. for Wick in July 1865. He 
was rejected for that constituency in 1868, 

)ut was returned for Orkney and Shetland 
1872, and sat without interruption until 

e retired from parliament in 1885. Though 
staunch liberal, he was opposed to what 
ie considered the anti-imperialist leanings 
af Gladstone ; he published in 1884 a careful 

id moderate indictment of what would now 
called Little Englandism in ' England's 

foreign Policy.' 

In 1867 Laing was reappointed chairman 
the London, Brighton, and South Coast 
Railway (a post which he held down to 1894), 
and his position as a railway magnate intro- 
duced him to the city. Laing's connections 
with the financial world were not unimpor- 
tant. During his tenure of the chair at the 
board of the London, Brighton, and South 
Coast Railway, that company gradually be- 
came highly prosperous, and he contributed 
to the result not only by his business ca- 
pacity, but by his skill in choosing and sup- 
porting good subordinates. Noting the 
constant growth of Brighton and other south- 
coast towns, he was one of the earliest to 
discern that the line had a great future before 

it. His confidence was more than shared by 
a number of London stockbrokers who lived 
down the line, and knew, or thought they 
knew, a great deal about it. Hence the 
enormous amount of speculation that took 
place for a long period in Brighton Deferred 
Stock ('Brighton AV). When speculative 
operations for the rise turned out well, their 
authors naturally regarded the management 
of the line with approval ; but when they 
did not, Laing came in for more than a fair 
share of abuse. He w*as connected with two 
other important companies in which his know- 
ledge of railways was useful. These were 
the Railway Share Trust and the Railway 
Debenture Trust, which, as chairman, he 
conducted with a much greater degree of 
prudence than became common as enterprises 
of this kind multiplied. 

It was not until he had turned seventy 
and retired from parliament that Laing came 
before the public prominently as an author. 
His ' Modern Science and Modern Thought ' 
appeared in 1885 and was very widely read, 
being in fact an admirable popular exposition 
of the speculations of Darwin, Huxley, and 
Spencer, and the incompatibility of the data 
of modern science and ' revealed religion.' 
A supplemental chapter to the third edition 
(1886) contained a fairly crushing reply to 
Gladstone's defence of the book of Genesis. 
It was followed by ' A Modern Zoroastrian,' 
1887, ' Problems of the Future, and other 
Essays,' 1889, ' The Antiquity of Man,' 1891, 
and ' Human Origins,' 1892, all written in a 
similar easy and interesting style. Without 
possessing in themselves any great scientific 
value, these works showed Laing's reading, 
especially in anthropology, to have been ex- 
tremely wide, and furnished people with 
general ideas onsubjectsof importance which, 
if discussed in a less attractive form, would 
probaby have passed unheeded. 

Laing died, aged 86, at Rockhills, Syden- 
ham Hill, on 6 Aug. 1897, and was buried 
on 10 Aug. in the extramural cemetery, 
Brighton. He married in 1841 Mary, daugh- 
ter of Captain Cowan, R.N., and left two 
sons and three daughters. His personalty 
was sworn at 94,643/. {Railway Times, 
18 Sept. 1897). 

Laing's writings are remarkable as the 
relaxations of a man who had spent over half 
a century almost exclusively immersed in 
affairs. He never attained to quite the same 
thoroughness and grip of his subject as his 
father, but he had much the same gift of 
lucid exposition, and the same freedom from 
self-consciousness or affectation. Besides the 
works already mentioned and some pamphlets 
'Samuel Laing the younger' published: 



1. 'India and China;' England's Mission in 
the East, 1863. A luminous forecast of pro- 
babilities in the Far East. 2. 'Prehistoric 
Remains of Caithness.' With notes on the 
human remains by T. H. Huxley, 1866. 
3. ' A Sporting Quixote,' 1886, an agreeable 
if somewhat amateurish fantasia in the form 
of a novel (cf. Atkenaum, 1886, i. 550). 

[The Eagle, December 1897; Times, 7 and 
11 Aug. 1897; Men of the Time, 13th edit.; 
Railway Review, 13 Aug. 1897 ; Railwa}? Times, J 
18 Sept. 1897; Guardian, 12 Aug. 1897; Alii- 
bone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Laing's Works.] 

T. S. 

1897), dean of Durham, born in London on 
9 Jan. 1817, was the eldest son of Captain 
Charles Lake of the Scots fusilier guards. 
Educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, he 
became the lifelong friend of his school- I 
fellow, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley [q. v.] 
From Rugby he went to Oxford as scholar of 
Balliol in November 1834, and was a fellow- 
pupil under Archibald Campbell (afterwards 
archbishop) Tait of Sir Benjamin Brodie, 
Edward 5leyrick Goulburn, and Benjamin 
Jowett. In 1838 Lake was elected fellow of 
his college at the same time as Jowett, and 
became tutor four years later. In 1852-3 he 
was senior proctor in the university. He 
acted with the moderate party who opposed 
the action taken against William George 
Ward [q. v.], and against the proposal that 
the vice-chancellor should have power to 
impose a - certain form which a member of the 
university should be required to use in sub- 
scribing the articles. He became very inti- 
mate with Tait, with whom he generally 
spent his long vacation travelling on the 
continent, and was one of the first who urged 
him to stand for the head-mastership of 
Rugby. Lake himself had been an unsuc- 
cessful candidate in 1849 when Goulburn 
was elected. He had taken orders in 1842, 
and in 1858 he left Oxford to become rector 
of Huntspill in Somerset. Two years later 
he was named prebendary of Wells. Mean- 
while Lake's linguistic abilities had led to 
his appointment by Lord Panmure as a mem- 
ber of the commission of 1856 to report on 
military education on the continent. He had 
won the prize at Oxford in 1840 for his Latin 
essay on the Roman army as an obstacle to 
civil liberty. He also served on the New- 
castle commission of 1858 to inquire into 
popular education, and on the royal commis- 
sion upon military education of 1868. On 
9 Aug. 1869 Lake was nominated by Glad- 
stone for the deanery of Durham. In 1881 
he was a member of the ecclesiastical court's 
commission. His theological position was 

that of a moderate high churchman, and in 
1880 he joined Dean Church and others in 
endeavouring to induce Gladstone and 
Archbishop Tait to bring forward legislation 
modifying the Public Worship Regulation 

During Lake's decanate Durham Cathedral 
was restored. He exercised an important in- 
fluence over Durham University of which he 
was warden, and education in the north of 
England generally owed much to his efforts. 
The foundation of the College of Science at 
Newcastle in 1871 was very largely his work. 
He resigned the deanery, owing to failing 
health, in 1894, and went to live at Torquay. 
There he died suddenly on 8 Dec. 1897. He 
married, in June 1881, Miss Katherine Glad- 
stone, a niece of the premier, who survived 

Lake published nothing separately but a 
few sermons and a pamphlet, ' The Inspira- 
tion of Scripture and Eternal Punishment, 
with a preface on the Oxford Declaration and 
on F. D. Maurice's Letter to the Bishop of Lon- 
don,' 1864. But he contributed to the 'Life' 
of his friend Tait some highly interesting 
recollections, and especially a valuable pic- 
ture of the independent position he held at 
Oxford, and an account from intimate know- 
ledge of his life as head of Rugby, bishop of 
j London, and primate. Lake also supplied to 
Mr. Wilfrid Ward's ' W. G. Ward and the 
I Oxford Movement '(1889) some reminiscences 
' of Ward, who was for some time his mathe- 
I matical tutor at Baliiol and exercised some 
influence over his tone of thought. 

[Men of the Time, 13th edit.; Times, 9-14 
Dec. 1897 ; Guardian, 15 Dec. 1897; HI. Lond. 
News, 18 Dec. 1897 (with portrait); Benham 
and Davidson's Life of Tait, i. 102-9, 111, 128, 
137-40, ii. 603-7; Prothero's Life of Dean 
Stanley, i. 47, 87, 197, 212 ; Life and Letters of 
Dean Church, pp. 255, 273, 283-4; Ward's 
W. G. Ward and the Oxford Movement, pp. 
100-2, 119, and appendix; Abbott and Camp- 
bell's Life of Jowett, i. 97 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
F. Arnold's Our Bishops and Deans, ii. 310. 
Letters from Dr. Arnold to Lake between 1835 
and 1840 are in Stanley's Life of Arnold.] 

G. LE G. N. 

LAMBERT, SIR JOHN (1772-1847), 
general, was the son of Captain Robert 
Alexander Lambert, R.N. (second son of 
Sir John Lambert, second baronet), by 
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Byndloss of 
Jamaica. He was commissioned as ensign 
in the 1st foot guards on 27 Jan. 1791, and 
promoted lieutenant and captain on 9 Oct. 
1793. He served at the sieges of Valen- 
ciennes and Dunkirk, and was in the action 
of Lincelles in 1793. He was adjutant of 




the third battalion in the campaign of 1794, 
served with it in Ireland during the rebellion 
of 1798, and in the expedition to Holland 
in 1799. He was promoted captain and 
lieutenant-colonel on 14 May 1801. He 
served in Portugal and Spain in 1808, and 
was present at Corunna, and he commanded 
the light companies of the guards in theAVal- 
cheren expedition of 1809. He became 
colonel in the army on 25 July 1810, and 
embarked for Cadiz in command of the third 
battalion on 30 May 1811. In January 1812 
he was sent to Carthagena with two bat- I 
talions. He remained there three months, i 
and in October he joined Wellington's army j 
at Salamanca. 

On 4 June 1813 he was promoted major- 
general, and was appointed to a brigade of j 
the sixth division. He commanded it at 
the battles of the Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and 
Toulouse, and was specially mentioned in 
despatches for the Nivelle and Toulouse : 
(13 Nov. 1813, 12 April 1814). He received 
the thanks of parliament and the gold cross, 
and was made K.C.B. on 2 Jan. 1815. 
Having been sent to America, he joined the 
army under Sir Edward Pakenham [q. v.] 
below New Orleans on 6 Jan. 1815, with 
the 7th and 43rd regiments. In the unsuc- 
cessful attack on the American intrench- 
ments, made two days afterwards, he com- 
manded the reserve. Pakenham being 
killed, and General Gibbs mortally wounded, 
the chief command devolved on Lambert. ] 
He decided not to renew the attack, with- 
drew the troops which had been sent across | 
the Mississippi, and retreating on the 18th, ' 
re-embarked his force on the 27th ( JAMES, ii. 
543-7 ; PORTER, i. 363). It proceeded to j 
the bay of Mobile, where Fort Bowyer was 
taken on 12 Feb., and next day news 
arrived that peace had been signed. 

Lambert returned to Europe in time to ; 
command the tenth brigade of British in- j 
fantry at Waterloo. The brigade joined the 
army from Ghent only on the morning of 
18 June, and was at first posted in reserve 
at Mont St. Jean. After 3 P.M. it was 
moved up to the front line to support the 
fifth (Picton's) division, and one of its regi- 
ments, the 27th, which had to be kept in 
square near La IT aye Sainte, lost two-thirds 
of its men, a heavier loss than that of any 
other regiment ( Wellington Despatches, 
Supplementary, x. 537; Waterloo Letters, 
pp. 391-402). Lambert was mentioned in 
Wellington's despatch, and received the 
thanks of parliament, the order of St. 
Vladimir of Russia (3rd class), and that 
of Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria (com- 
mander). He commanded the eighth in- 

fantry brigade in the army of occupation in 

He was promoted lieutenant-general on 

27 May 1825, and general on 23 Nov. 1841. 
He was given the colonelcy of the 10th re- 
giment on 18 Jan. 1824, and the G.C.B. on 
19 July 1838. He died at Weston House, 
Thames Ditton, on 14 Sept. 1847, aged 75. 
In 1816 he married a daughter of John 
Morant of Brocklehurst Park, New Forest. 

[Gent. Mag. 1847, ii. 539; Burke's Peerage; 
Hamilton's Grenadier Guards ; Eoyal Military 
Crtlendar, iii. 307; Wellington's "Despatches; 
Siborne's Waterloo Letters ; James's Military 
Occurrences of the War between Great Britain 
and America, ii. 370-94, 543-7; Porter's Eoyal 
Engineers.] E. M. L. 


baronet (1814-1900), agriculturist, was the 
only son of John Bennet Lawes (d. 1822), 
lord of the manor of Rothamsted, near St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire, and his wife Marianne, 
daughter of John Sherman of Drayton, co. 
Oxford. He was born at Rothamsted on 

28 Dec. 1814. He was educated at Eton and 
Brasenose College, Oxford, where he matri- 
culated on 14 March 1833 ; but, as he said in 
an autobiographical note contributed to the 
' Agricultural Gazette ' for 3 Jan. 1888 (p. 
13), ' in his days Eton and Oxford were not 
of much assistance to those whose tastes 
were scientific rather than classical, and 
consequently his early pursuits Avere of a 
most desultory character.' He left Oxford 
without a degree. From his earliest years, 
however, he ' had a taste for chemistry,' and 
he described how at the age of twenty he 
had ' one of the best bedrooms in the house 
fitted up with stoves, retorts, and all the 
apparatus necessary for chemical research.' 
At this period his attention was chiefly di- 
rected to ' the composition of drugs, and he 
almost knew the Pharmacopoeia by heart ; ' 
he also spent some time in the laboratory of 
Anthony Todd Thomson [q. v.] at University 
College, London. 

Lawes entered into possession of the 
family estate in 1834 on coming of age, and 
made experiments with growing plants (such 
as poppy, hemlock, colchicum, belladonna) 
which contained the active principles of drugs. 
He says, however, that ' for three or four 
years he does not remember any connection 
between agriculture and chemistry crossing 
his mind ; but the remark of a gentleman, 
Lord Dacre, who farmed near him, who 
pointed out that in one farm bones were 



invaluable for the turnip crop, and on 
another farm they were useless, attracted 
his attention a good deal.' The investigations 
which Lawes made to discover the reason 
for this may fairly be regarded as the germ 
of the Rothamsted experiments, which sub- 
sequently became world-famous. 

Observing the beneficial results upon his 
own turnip crops at Rothamsted by dressing 
them with bones dissolved in sulphuric acid, 
Lawes took out in 1842 a patent, in which 
he showed how apatite and coprolite and 
other mineral or fossil phosphates might be 
converted into a potent manure by treatment 
with sulphuric acid. He thus laid the 
foundation for what speedily became and 
still remains a very important industry, and he 
was indeed the pioneer of the now very 
large agricultural manure trade. The first 
factory for the manufacture of mineral 
superphosphate was started by Lawes at 
Deptford in 1843 ; he built a second and 
much larger factory at Barking Creek in 
1857 (see historical description by J. C. 
Morton in Agric. Gazette, 2 Jan. 1888, p. 8). 
He sold the manure business to a company 
in 1872 ; but he had at that time embarked 
in other branches of chemical manufacture 
(citric and tartaric acid), and remained 
actively engaged in business in London up to 
the time of his death. 

But ' all the time he was accumulating a 
fortune by business in London, he was at 
home spending a fortune in laborious scien- 
tific agricultural investigations ' (R. War- 
ington, F.R.S., in Agric. Gazette, 17 Sept. 
1900, p. 180). In 1843 he started on a 
regular basis the Rothamsted agricultural 
experiment station ; and in June of that 
year called to his aid, as coadjutor and 
technical adviser, Dr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph 
Henry Gilbert. Together Lawes and Dr. 
Gilbert instituted and carried out a vast 
number of experiments of enormous benefit 
to the agricultural community at large, 
the details of which were recorded in the 
* Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society,' the Journals of the Chemical Society 
and of the Royal Agricultural Society, and 
other publications. Two main lines of in- 
quiry were followed the one relating to 
plants, the other to animals. In the former 
case the method of procedure is described in 
the official 'Memoranda' in which it was 
shown how endeavours had been made ' to 
grow some of the most important crops of 
rotation, each separately, year after year, for 
many years in succession on the same land, 
without manure, with farmyard manure, and 
with a great variety of chemical manures, 
the same description of manure being as a 

rule applied year after year on the same 
plot. Experiments on an actual course 
of rotation without manure and with dif- 
ferent manures were also made : ' wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, clover and other legumi- 
nous plants, turnips, sugar beet, mangels, 
potatoes, and grass crops having been thus 
experimented on. The main object of the 
experiments on animals (commenced in 
1847) was to ascertain how they could be 
most economically fed for human consump- 
tion ; but incidentally information of great 
value was obtained towards the solution of 
such problems as the sources in the food 
consumed of the fat produced in the animal 
body, the characteristic demands of the 
animal body (for nitrogenous or non-nitro- 
genous constituents of food), in the exer- 
cise of muscular power, and the comparative 
characters of animal and vegetable food in 
human dietaries. 

In all 132 separate papers or reports on 
the Rothamsted experiments were published 
during Lawes's life, most of them in the 
joint names of himself and Dr. Gilbert. A 
full list of these is contained in the ' Memo- 
randa of the Origin, Plan, and Results of 
the Field and other Experiments ... at 
Rothamsted,' now issued annually by the 
Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee. The 
' Journal of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland' for 1895 contains a 
summary (354 pages), by Sir John Lawes 
and Sir Henry Gilbert themselves, of several 
series of the experiments, with photographic 
portraits of both authors, and a view of the 
manor house. 

This did not, however, exhaust Lawes's 
literary activity, for he was occasionally 
prevailed on to lecture in public to farmers' 
clubs, and a lengthy letter by him, estimating 
the produce of the wheat crop in the 
United Kingdom, was an annual feature of 
the ' Times ' newspaper in every autumn 
from 1863 to 1899. He would often more- 
over write short pithy practical papers for 
the agricultural press on various phases of 
the Rothamsted experiments, or expressing 
in terse and forcible language his own views 
on some agricultural question of the day. 

The unique feature of Rothamsted which 
is now the oldest experiment station in the 
world is the long unbroken continuity of 
the investigations. To provide for their 
permanent continuance, Lawes constituted 
by deed, dated 14 Feb. 1889, three trustees, 
to whom he leased the laboratory and certain 
lands at Rothamsted for ninety-nine years 
at a peppercorn rent, and conveyed to such 
trustees the sum of 100,000/. as an endow- 
ment fund. Under that deed a ' Lawes 




Agricultural Trust' was created, which is ! 
to be administered by a committee of nine 
persons, four nominated by the Royal Society, I 
two by the Royal Agricultural Society, and i 
one each by the Chemical and Linnean So- 
cieties, the ninth trustee being the owner of 
Rothamsted at the time (Journal Royal 
Agric. Soc. 1896, pp. 324-32). 

The experiments which he was conducting 
at Rothamsted early brought Lawes into 
prominence. He joined the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society in 1846, and became one of 
its governing body on 22 May 1848, retain- 
ing his seat on the council for the unpre- 
cedented period of over fifty- two years. He 
became a vice-president in 1878, and a trustee 
in 1891, and was offered the presidency in 
1893 (the year of the jubilee of the Rot- 
hamsted experiments), though he then felt 
unequal, through advancing years and in- 
creasing deafness, to accept the post. In 
1854 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Societv, and received the society's royal 
medar(with Dr. Gilbert) in 1867. " In 1894 j 
he also received (again with Dr. Gilbert) the 
Albert gold medal of the Society of Arts. 
In 1877 he became LL.D. of Edinburgh, in 
1892 D.C.L. of Oxford, and in 1894 Sc.D. 
of Cambridge, and on 19 May 1882 he was 
created a baronet. 

Lawes acted on a great variety of com- 
missions and committees, including the royal 
commission on the sewage of towns, and his 
advice was in constant demand on every 
variety of agricultural subjects. Rotham- 
sted was for many years before his death a 
place of pilgrimage for men of science from 
all countries, students, farmers, and all in- 
terested in agricultural research. The earliest 
laboratory (an old barn) was replaced in 
]s.")."> by a new structure still in use 
which was erected by subscribers as a testi- 
monial to Lawes's services in behalf of British 
agriculture ; it was presented to him with 
a silver candelabrum at a public meeting at 
Rothamsted on 19 July 1855 (Agric. Gazette, 
21 Julyl855,p.491 : for Lawes's speech on that 
occasion see Journal R.A.S.E. 1900, p. 519). 

In 1893, when the Rothamsted experi- 
ments had been conducted for a period of 
fifty years, Lawes was presented by public 
subscription with his portrait, by Mr.'Hubert 
Herkouier, R.A., a huge monolithic boulder 
being at the same time set up in front of the 
laboratory, with an inscription that it was 
' to commemorate the completion of fifty 
years of continuous experiments (the first of 
their kind) in agriculture conducted at 
Rothamsted by Sir John Bennet Lawes and 
Joseph Henry Gilbert, A.D. MDCCCXCIU.' 
Edward VII, then prince of Wales, placed 


himself at the head of the movement for com- 
memorating the Rothamsted jubilee, and 
signed the address presented by the sub- 
scribers, which spoke of Lawes 'as ' one of 
the most disinterested as well as the most 
scientific of our public benefactors.' The 
portrait, granite memorial, and addresses 
from learned societies, both British and 
foreign, with which Lawes was connected, 
were presented at a public ceremonial at 
Rothamsted on 29 July 1893, over which 
Mr. Herbert Gardner, M.P. (afterwards Lord 
Burghclere), then minister for agriculture, 

Lawes was below the middle stature, and 
was careless in matters of dress ; but his 
rugged and striking face at once commanded 
attention, and his exposition of his experi- 
ments to an appreciative listener was most 
telling and instructive. He was fond of 
deer-stalking and salmon-fishing, and until 
1895 went regularly to Scotland for pur- 
poses of sport, though his greatest enjoy- 
ment was in his farming experiments. He 
found time, however, to interest himself in 
a very practical manner in the welfare of 
the villagers and labourers at Harpenden, 
near Rothamsted, starting in 1852 allotment 
gardens for them, and increasing the num- 
ber from time to time, so that they now 
number 334 (see 'Allotments and Small 
Holdings' in Journal R.A.S.E. 1892, pp. 
451-2). From the beginning he gave prizes 
for the best gardens, and in 1857 he built for 
the allotment holders a clubhouse, managed 
entirely by themselves (ibid. 1877, pp. 387- 
393). Attempts at supplying the various 
wants of the labourers at wholesale prices, 
on a co-operative system, commenced in 
1859, and Charles Dickens wrote for the first 
number of ' All the Year Round ' (30 April 
1859) an article entitled ' A Poor Man and 
his Beer,' in which the relations of Lawes 
(who is called in the article ' Friar Bacon ') 
and his labourers are described. The Pig 
Club and the Flour Club, started by Lawes, 
and the Harpenden Labourers' Store Society 
(subsequently formed), failed after a time 
for want of support from the members, but 
the clubhouse still exists and is a perma- 
nent success. In 1856 Lawes started a sav- 
ings bank, giving five per cent, interest on 
deposits ; and as he found after a time that 
if the bank were to prosper he must receive 
the money himself, it became his custom to 
spend an hour every Saturday evening in 
this work, which continued until the general 
introduction of post-office savings banks. 

Lawes died on 31 Aug. 1900, and was 
buried at Harpenden in the presence of a 
large and representative assemblage of agri- 


Layard s 

culturists on 4 Sept. 1900. The portrait by 
Mr. Herkomer, painted by subscription in 
1893, hangs at Rothamsted. A reproduction 
of it appears in the ' Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society' for 30 Sept. 1900, 
with a memoir. Lawes married, on 28 Dec. 
1842, Caroline, daughter of Andrew Foun- 
taine of Warford Hall, Norfolk, and by her, 
who died in 1895, left issue one daughter 
and one son, Charles Bennett (b. 1843), who 
succeeded to the baronetcy. 

[Journal Royal Agric. Soc. 1900, pp. 511-24 
(memoir, with portrait), and earlier vols. quoted 
above ; Agricultural Gazette, 2 Jan. 1888, p. 13 
(autobiographical note of his earlier years); 
Transactions Highland and Agricultural Society, 
1895 (portrait, and summary of experiments) ; 
Reminiscences of Sir John Lawes (three articles 
in Agricultural Gazette for 17 and 24 Sept. and 
8 Oct. 1900, by R. Wariugton, F.R.S., a for- 
mer assistant in the Rothamsted laboratory). 
Lawes and his experiments are constantly re- 
ferred to in the agricultural literature of the 
second half of the nineteenth centurv.] 

E. C-E. 


(1817-1894), excavator of Nineveh and poli- 
tician, bom in Paris on 5 March 1817, of 
Huguenot descent, was son of Henry Peter 
John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, 
and of Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel 
Austen of Ramsgate. Daniel Peter Layard 
[q.v.] was his great-grandfather. His youth 
was mainly spent in Italy. When sixteen 
years old he entered the office of his uncle, 
Henry Austen, who was a solicitor in Lon- 
don. There he remained for six years, but 
law did not attract him, and in 1839 he de- 
cided to leave England for Ceylon, as a rela- 
tive living in the island held out to him a 
prospect of more congenial employment 
He had made the acquaintance of Edward 
Mitford, a young man about ten years older 
than himself, who was setting out for the 
same destination, and, as Mitford disliked 
the sea, they hit upon the plan of making 
the journey overland through Asia. Leav- 
ing England on 8 July 1839, Layard joined 
Mitford at Brussels, and they travelled to- 
gether through Roumelia to Constantinople. 
In August 1840 they reached Hamadan, 
where they parted company. Layard aban- 
doned the journey to Ceylon, and remained 
for a time in Persia. In the following year 
it became necessary for him to obtain fresh 
funds from home. Having written to his 
friends in London from Baghdad, he de- 
scended the Tigris to Basra, and paid a second 
visit to Khuzistan. His expenses were not 
heavy, as he adopted the Bakhtiyari dress 
and travelled alone or with one servant. On 


returning to Baghdad he found letters from 
his friends which necessitated his return to 
England, and in the summer of 1842 he set 
out for Constantinople on the return journey. 
On his way he spent several days at Mosul 
with Emil Botta, who had recently been ap- 
pointed French consul there, and who had 
already begun his excavations in the great 
mounds opposite the city which mark the 
site of the ruins of Nineveh. Botta had 
opened trenches in the largest of the mounds, 
known as Kuyunjik, and Layard visited and 
examined with him the spot where he him- 
self was subsequently to undertake excava- 
tions for the trustees of the British Museum. 

On his arrival at Constantinople, Layard 
called at the British embassy to deliver a 
letter entrusted to him by Colonel Taylor, 
the British resident at Baghdad. At this 
time the relations between Turkey and Persia 
were strained owing to disputes concerning 
the frontier, and Layard hoped that his recent 
travels in Khuzistan and his knowledge of 
the region in dispute would procure him 
employment in some form or other at the 
embassy. His first reception there was not 
encouraging ; but when his funds were ex- 
hausted, and he was about to leave for Eng- 
land, he received an offer from Stratford 
Canning (afterwards Viscount Stratford de 
Redcliffe) [q. v.], the British ambassador to 
Turkey, that he should travel unofficially 
through Western Turkey and report to him 
on the state of affairs. This offer, which he 
readily accepted, was the turning-point in 
Layard's fortunes. His financial difficulties 
ceased, and in Canning he obtained an influ- 
ential patron who put him in the way of 
his future discoveries. Continuing to em- 
ploy Layard privately, Canning, in the 
spring of 1844, sent him on a mission to 
Northern Albania. Meanwhile he had re- 
commended him for an appointment at the 
embassy, but, as the suggestion met with 
opposition at the foreign office, he found 
other employment for his protege. Canning 
took a keen interest in archaeology. He had 
read the memoir of Claudius James Rich 
[q. v.] on the site of Nineveh, and when 
Layard described to him the mounds which 
he had examined with Botta he decided to 
undertake the exploration of that site. He 
! used his influence with the Porte to obtain 
| the necessary firman; he paid Layard a 
salary of 200/. a year ; and he placed at his 
disposal an addicional sum for defraying the 
cost of excavation (see LANE-POOLE, The 
\ Life of Stratford Canning, ii. 137 f.) In 
| the early part of October 1845 Layard re- 
ceived his final instructions, and left Con- 
stantinople for Mosul. 



Tradition had always pointed to the 
mounds opposite the modern town of Mosul 
as marking the site of the ancient city of 
Nineveh (see YAKUT, ed. Wustenfeld, iv. 
683), and Layard was not the first to examine 
or explore them. In 1820 and 1821 Claudius 
James Rich had begun the investiga- 
tion, and had identified the mounds of 
Kuyunjik and Nebi-Yunus with Nineveh. 
Botta, however, was the first to undertake 
systematic excavations at Kuyunjik. Dur- 
ing three months in 1842 he opened trenches 
in the mound, but as he did not meet with 
encouraging results he transferred his opera- 
tions to Khorsabad, the site ofDurSharrukin, 
the city of Sargon II. The fine sculptures 
which he there dug up led him to form the 
erroneous belief that Khorsabad, and not 
Kuyunjik, was the site of Nineveh, and 
Layard fell into a similar error when he 
opened the mound at Nimrud and wrongly 
identified it with Nineveh. It was not until 
the inscriptions found later on at Kuyunjik 
had been deciphered by Sir Henry Creswicke 
Rawlinson [q. v.] and others that Rich's view 
was once again acknowledged to be correct. 
Nimrud was afterwards identified as the site 
of the Assyrian city of Calah. The large 
mound of Nimrud, to which Layard, influ- 
enced by Botta's want of success at Kuyun- 
jik, turned his attention, lies near the village 
of that name on the left bank of the Tigris, 
about twenty miles south-east of Mosul. 
He continued* to dig there until the summer 
of 1846, uncovering what were subsequently 
identified as parts of the palaces of Ashur- 
nasir-pal, Esarhaddon, and Shalmaneser II, 
which were situated respectively in the 
north-west and south-west corners and in 
the centre of the mound. Layard made 
periodical reports of his progress to Canning, 
who in May procured from the Turkish 
government a letter authorising the con- 
tinuation of the excavations and the removal 
of such objects as might be discovered. 
Layard therefore had the bas-reliefs sawn in 
half to lighten their weight, and the sculp- 
tured portions were floated down the Tigris 
to Basra for transport to England. Mean- 
while Canning perceived that his own 
means would not suffice to carry out the 
excavations with success, and it was in 
consequence of his representations to Sir 
Robert Peel, the prime minister (see Life of 
Canning, ii. 149 f.), that operations were 
continued by the trustees of the British Mu- 
seum. The sultan had made a personal gift 
to Canning of the antiquities which had 
hitherto been found ; these Canning gene- 
rously presented to the nation, and the 
trustees of the museum availed themselves 

of his advice with regard to the future con- 
duct of the excavations. 

At the beginning of November 1846 work 
was resumed at Nimrud on a more extensive 
scale for the British Museum, and Layard 
also superintended excavations at Kal'at 
Skerkat (the site of the city of Ashur), 
and for a few weeks in the following spring 
at Kuyunjik. In June 1847 Layard left 
Mosul for England, where he prepared an ac- 
count of the excavations with the assistance 
of Samuel Birch [q. v. Suppl.] of the British 
Museum. The work was entitled ' Nineveh 
and its Remains ' (1848-9), for Layard in- 
correctly believed that Nimrud was within 
the precincts of Nineveh. The book made 
a great sensation, and in recognition of his 
discoveries Layard received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of 
Oxford on 5 July 1848. It is a curious fact, 
however, that, like Botta's ' Monuments de 
Ninive,' the book had in reality little to do 
with Nineveh or its remains. 

On 5 April 1849 Layard was appointed 
an attache to the embassy at Constanti- 
nople, whither he returned ; and in October 
of that year he again superintended excava- 
tions for the trustees of the British Museum, 
a grant of 3,000/. having been placed at 
their disposal by the treasury for this pur- 
pose. For more than a year work was 
carried on, and palaces of Sennacherib and 
A shur-bani-pal at Kuyunjik and a palace of 
Sennacherib and Esarhaddon at Nebi- 
Yunus were partly uncovered. In the 
spring of 1851 Layard returned to Eng- 
land, and the excavations were continued 
by Rawlinson, then consul general, and 
the political agent of the East India Com- 
pany at Baghdad. Layard published an 
account of his second series of excavations 
in his work ' Nineveh and Babylon,' which 
appeared in 1853. Layard's discoveries 
brought him very wide reputation. He was 
presented with the freedom of the city of 
London in 1853, and in 1855 he was elected 
lord rector of Aberdeen University. 

He did not return to Mesopotamia after 
1851. Thenceforth he devoted himself to 
politics, in which his main interests were 
confined to the affairs of Eastern Europe. 
On 7 July 1852 he was returned as a liberal 
for Aylesbury, and from 12 Feb. to 18 Aug. 
held the post of under-secretary for foreign 
affairs under Lord Palmerston. He r^pre- 
sented Aylesbury until 1857, but while he 
held the seat he was absent from England 
for some time. In 1853 he visited at Con- 
stantinople Lord Stratford de RedclifFe (Sir 
Stratford Canning), his former patron, and, 
proceeding to the Black Sea in the follow- 

G 2 


8 4 


ing year on the outbreak of the Crimean 
war, witnessed the battle of the Alma from 
the maintop ot'H.M.S. Agamemnon. On his 
return to England he gave evidence before 
the committee of inquiry with regard to the 
condition of the British army at Sebasto- 
pol. After losing his seat for Aylesbury at 
the general election in March 1857, he made 
a tour in India during the latter part of 
that year and 1858, in order to study the 
causes and effects of the Indian mutiny. 
In April 1859 he unsuccessfully contested 
York, but in December 1860 was returned 
as one of the members for Southwark. In 
July 1861 he again became under-secretary 
for foreign affairs in Lord Palmerston's ad- 
ministration, in which Lord John (first 
earl) Russell was foreign secretary. On 
Palmerston's death in October 1865, Layard 
continued to hold the same office in Lord 
Russell's administration, in which Lord 
Clarendon was foreign secretary, and he re- 
signed with the ministry in July next year. 
In December 1868, when Gladstone had 
become prime minister for the first time, 
Layard was appointed to the post of chief 
commissioner of works, and was admitted to 
the privy council. In November of the fol- 
lowing year he resigned that office, and his 
career as a politician was brought to an end 
by his acceptance of the post of British mini- 
ster at Madrid. 

Layard was in agreement with Lord Bea- 
consfield's political opinions in regard to 
Eastern Europe. On 31 March 1877 he was 
accordingly transferred by Lord Beacons- 
field from Madrid to Constantinople, in suc- 
cession to Sir Henry George Elliot. Within 
a month of his arrival the Russo-Turkish 
war broke out, and his action soon became 
the theme of excited controversy among poli- 
ticians at home. His sympathies were un- 
doubtedly with Turkey, but in a despatch to 
the foreign minister, Lord Derby, of February 
1878, he solemnly denied reports that he had 
encouraged Turkey to commence or continue 
the war, or had led her to believe that Eng- 
land would give her material support. He 
declared he had always ' striven for peace,' 
and for ' the cause of religious and political 
liberty.' In June 1878 he negotiated the 
Anglo-Turkish convention for the British 
occupation of Cyprus. In June 1878 he re- 
ceived the order of the grand cross of the 
Bath as a mark of recognition of his advo- 
cacy of Lord Beaconsfield's imperial views. 
In April 1880 a general election took place 
in England, and it resulted in the resigna- 
tion of Lord Beaconsfield and his ministry, 
and in the formation of Gladstone's se- 
cond administration. Thereupon Layard 

received leave of absence from his post at 
Constantinople, and his official career came 
to an end. In May Mr. G. J. (now Viscount) 
Goschen was sent to Constantinople in his 
place as special ambassador and minister- 
plenipotentiary of Great Britain. In his 
later years Layard lived much in Italy, 
chiefly at Venice, where he was well known 
as a social figure and an authority on art, 
which had always been a subject of his close 
study. His interest in Italian art was very 
deep. In February 1806 he was appointed 
a trustee of the National Gallery, and he 
became honorary foreign secretary of the 
Royal Academy of Arts. He died in Lon- 
don on 5 July 1894. His remains were cre- 
mated and buried at Woking on 9 July. 
In 1869 he married Mary Evelyn, daughter 
of Sir John Guest ; she survived him. 

Two portraits of Layard in crayon were 
made by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., the one for 
Mr. John Murray in 1848, the other a few 
years later for Layard's own collection of 
pictures; the former portrait is reproduced 
in ' Early Adventures ' ( 2nd edit.) A coloured 
picture of Layard, taken in 1843, forms the 
frontispiece to ' Early Adventures ' (1st edit.) 

Layard made a greater reputation as an ex- 
cavator than as a politician or a diplomatist, 
but he was without the true archaeologist's 
feeling a fact which is sufficiently proved 
by ' his presenting to his friends neatly cut 
tablets containing fragments of cuneiform 
inscriptions, which, of course, left serious 
lacunae in priceless historical documents ' 
(Athenceum, 14 July 1894). His best- 
known works are those that deal with his 
excavations. The excavations at Nimrud 
were described in ' Nineveh and its Remains ' 
(1849, 2 vols.) ; and ' Discoveries in the Ruins 
of Nineveh and Babylon ' (1853) recounts 
his second series of excavations ; these were 
his principal works. Drawings of the exca- 
vated bas-reliefs were published in two series 
of plates entitled ' The Monuments of Nine- 
veh ' (1849) and 'A Second Series of Monu- 
ments of Nineveh ' (1853). In ' Inscriptions 
in the Cuneiform Character from Assyrian 
Monuments' (1851) he printed, with Sir 
H. C. Rawlinson's assistance, copies of a few 
of the monumental texts from his diggings, 
but he took no part in the decipherment of 
the inscriptions a work which was carried 
out by Rawlinson, Dr. Hinckes, M. Jules 
Oppert, and others. In 1851 an abridg- 
ment of ' Nineveh and its Remains ' was 
published for the railway bookstalls, under 
the title 'A Popular Account of Dis- 
coveries at Nineveh,' a second edition of 
which was produced in 1867 under the old 
title, ' Nineveh and its Remains,' together 


with a companion volume, ' Nineveh and 
Babylon,' containing a similar abridgment 
of his other work. In 1854 he wrote a small 
guide to the Nineveh Court in the Crystal 
Palace. In 1887 he published an account 
of his life between the years 1839 and 1845 
under the title ' Early Adventures in Persia, j 
Susiana, and Babylonia ' (abridged edition, j 

Layard also wrote much on art. In 1887 
he revised Kugler's ' Handbook of Painting;' 
in 1892 he wrote an introduction to a trans- 
lation of Morelli's ' Italian Painters,' and 
he edited a 'Handbook of Rome' (1894). 
He also contributed some papers to the 
' Proceedings ' of the Huguenot Society, of j 
which he was president, and some of his 
speeches in the House of Commons were 
issued in pamphlet form. In 1890 he was 
elected a foreign member of the Institut de 

[Fragments of autobiography in Layard's 
Eai'ly Adventures (1st ed.), Nineveh and its Re- 
mains (1st ed.), and Nineveh and Babylon (1st 
ed.) ; Stanley Lane-Poole's Lite of Stratford 
Canning, vol. ii. ; Lord Aberdare's Prefatory 
Notice to the abridged edition of Layard's Early 
Adventures; Men and Women of the Time. 13th 
edit. ; Celebrities of the Century (1890) ; Tinvs, 
6 July 1894, and Athenaeum, 14 July 1894.] 

L. W. K. 

LAYER, JOHN (1585 P-1641), Cam- 
bridge antiquary, born in 1585 or 1586, pro- 
bably at Lillings Ambo in the North Riding 
of Yorkshire, was the son of William Layer, 
a London merchant, by his wife Martha, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Wanton. 
He was educated as a lawyer, but possessed 
sufficient wealth to enable him to devote 
most of his time to antiquarian pursuits. 
He resided at Shepreth in Cambridgeshire. 
His parochial history of Cambridgeshire is 
one of the earliest of the kind written. It 
was never published, but parts of it are still 
preserved in the British Museum among 
the Harleian MSS. (No. 6768), which con- 
tains a transcript of the portion relating to 
the hundreds of Armingford, Long Stowe, 
Papworth, North Stowe, Chesterton, Wether- 
ley, Thriplowe, and among the Additional 
MSS. (Nos. 5819, 5823, 5849, 5954). Other 
portions of it are extant in the Bishop's 
Library at Ely, and at the library at Wim- 
pole Hall, Cambridge. His extracts from 
the registers of the Bishop of Ely are in the 
British Museum (Addit. MSS. 5824-5828), 
and his Cambridge pedigrees are in the same 
library (Addit. MS. 5812). An autograph 
manuscript volume by Layer, licensed for 
printing and entitled ' The Reformed Jus- 
tice, or an Alphabeticall Abstract of all 

; Leathes 

such Articles and Matters as are incident and 
enquirable at the generall quarter Sessions 
of the Peace or otherwise belonginge to the 
knowledge and practice of a Justice of the 
Peace,' is in the library of Caius College, 
Cambridge. It is a handbook for justices of 
the peace, and is dedicated to Sir John Cutts, 
' Gustos rotulorum for the county of Cam- 
bridge ' in 1633. In an epistle to the reader 
notice is taken of a book recently published, 
entitled ' The Compleat Justice,' of which 
Layer was the reputed author. This work 
is not extant, but a copy of a legal treatise 
by Layer entitled ' The Office and Duty of 
Churchwardens, Constables, and Overseers 
of the Poor ' (Cambridge, 1641, 8vo), is pre- 
served in the Bodleian Library. One of 
Layer's notebooks is among the Rawlinson 
MSS. in the Bodleian Library (B. 278), and 
another entitled ' Notes of the Foundation 
of several Religious Houses from the Col- 
lections of John Layer ' is in Dodsworth MS. 
90 (pp. 158-60). 

Layer died in 1641. He married in 
1611 Frances, daughter of Robert Sterne 
of Maltoii in Cambridgeshire. By her he 
had three sons and two daughters. He 
may be truly called the father of Cambridge 
archaeology, and William Cole (1714-1782) 
[q.v.] owed much to his industry. After 
his death his manuscripts eventually fell 
into the hands of his descendant, John Eyre, 
who sold his estate at Shepreth and came 
to London. Eyre was afterwards convicted 
of felony and transported, when the manu- 
scripts were dispersed. Several, however, 
fell into Cole's hands and were incorporated 
by him in his collections. An undated letter 
from W. Fairfax of Yorkshire to J. Layer is 
among the Bodleian MSS. (Rawlinson, B. 
450, f. 390). 

[Cole's Manuscript Collections for Cam- 
bridgeshire in the British Museum Library ; 
notes kimily furnished by Mr. W. M. Palmer of 
Royston ; Smith's Catalogue of Manuscripts in 
Caius College Library, 1849, p. 21 1 : Catalogues 
of Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library.] 

E I.C. 

LEATHES, STANLEY (1830-1900), 
hebraist, son of Chaloner Stanley Leathes, 
rector of Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire, 
was born at Ellesborough on 21 March 1830. 
He was educated privately and at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, in which university he 
graduated B.A. in 18-52, was elected first 
Tyrwhitt's Hebrew scholar in 1853, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1855. In 1885 he was 
elected honorary fellow of Jesus College. 
He was ordained deacon in 1856 and priest 
in 1857, and was curate successively of St. 
Martin's, Salisbury (1856-8), St. Luke's, 




Berwick Street, Westminster (1858), and 
St. James's, AVestminster ( 1 858-60), in which 
last parish he was appointed in 1860 to the 
freehold office of ' clerk in orders,' to that 
of priest and assistant in 1865, and to the 
perpetual curacy of St. Philip's, Regent 
Street, in 1869. lie was elected in 1863 
professor of Hebrew at King's College, Lon- 
don, and in 1870 member of the Old Testa- 
ment revision committee, in the labours of 
which he took an assiduous part until their 
conclusion in 1885. lie was Boyle lecturer 
1868-70, Hulsean lecturer 1873, Bampton 
lecturer 1874, and Warburton lecturer 1876- 
1880. He was installed prebendary of 
Addington Major in St. Paul's Cathedral in 
1876, and instituted in 1880 to the rectory 
of Clifte-at-Hoo, Kent, which he exchanged 
in 1889 for the more "valuable benefice of 
Much Had ham, Hertfordshire, where he 
died on 30 April 1900. 

Leathes'schurchmanship was of the mode- 
rate type, equally removed from ritualism 
and rationalism (see his Unity of the Church, 
a sermon, London, 1868, 8vo ; Future Pro- 
bation, London, 1876, 8vo ; and ' Life and 
Times of Irenseus ' in Lectures on Eccle- 
siastical History, ed. Dean Lefroy, London, 
1896, 8vo). He was a sound Hebrew scho- 
lar, a singularly cautious critic, and a sober 
but uncompromising apologist. The follow- 
ing are his principal works : 1. ' The Birth- 
day of Christ : its Preparation, Message, and 
Witness. Three Sermons preached before 
the University of Cambridge,' Cambridge, 
1866, 8vo. 2." ' A Short Practical Hebrew 
Grammar ; with an Appendix containing 
the Hebrew Text of Gen. i-vi. and Psalms 
i-vi.,' London, 1868, 8vo. 3. Boyle Lec- 
tures ' (three series ) : ' The Witness of the 
Old Testament to Christ,' London, 1868, 8vo ; 
' The Witness of St. Paul to Christ,' Lon- 
don, 1869, 8vo ; ' The Witness of St. John 
to Christ,' London, 1870, 8vo. 4. 'The 
Evidential Value of St. Paul's Epistles,' a 
lecture printed in 'Modern Scepticism,' 
London (C.E.S.), 1871, 8vo. 5. ' Truth and 
Life ; or, Short Sermons for the Day,' Lon- 
don, 1872, 8vo. 6. ' The Cities visited by 
St. Paul,' London (S.P.C.K.), 1873, 8vo. 
7. ' The Structure of the Old Testament : 
a series of Popular Essays,' London, 1883, 
8vo. 8. Hulsean Lectures : ' The Gospel 
its own Witness,' London, 1874, 8vo. 
9. Bampton Lectures: ' The Religion of the 
Christ: its Historic and Literary Develop- 
ment considered as an Evidence of its 
Origin,' London, 1874, 8vo. 10. 'The 
Christian Creed : its Theory and Practice,' 
London, 1877, 8vo. 11. ' Grounds of Chris- 
tian Hope : a Sketch of the Evidences of 

Christianity,' London (R.T.S.), 1877, 8vo. 
12. ' The Relation of the Jews to their own 
Scriptures,' in ' The Jews in relation to the 
Church and the World,' ed. Claughton, 
London, 1877, 8vo. 13. ' Studies in 
Genesis,' London, 1880, 8vo. 14. Warbur- 
ton Lectures : ' Old Testament Prophecy : 
its Witness as a Record of Divine Foreknow- 
ledge,' London, 1880, 8vo. 15. 'The Founda- 
tions of Morality : being Discourses on the 
Ten Commandments, with special reference 
to their Origin and Authority,' London, 
1882, 8vo. 16. 'Characteristics of Chris- 
tianity,' London, 1884, 8vo. 17. 'Christ 
and the Bible. Four Lectures,' London, 
1885, 8vo. 18. ' The Law in the Prophets,' 
London, 1891, 8vo. 19. 'The Testimony 
of the Earlier Prophetic Writers to the 
Primal Religion of Israel,' in ' Present Day 
Tracts,' vol. xiv., London, 1898, 8vo. 

[(irad. Cant. ; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 
1899; Men of the Time, 1895; Times, 1 May 
1900.] J. M. R. 

BEACH, THOMAS, 1841-1894.] 

actress, elder daughter of Charles Leclercq, 
actor and pantoraimist, was born in London 
about 1840. A brother Charles (d. 20 Sept. 
1 894) was a member of Daly's company, and 
well known both in London and New York. 
Other members of the family were connected 
with the stage. Her sister Rose is noticed 

Carlotta acted at the Princess's as a child. 
She was in 1853 Maddalina in 'Marco 
Spada,' and in the following years played 
Marguerite in ' Faust and Marguerite,' El- 
vira in the ' Muleteer of Toledo,' with other 
parts ; was Ariel in the ' Tempest,' Nerissa 
in the ' Merchant of Venice,' Mrs. Ford and 
Mrs. Page in the ' Merry Wives of Wind- 
sor,' Rosalind, &c. Her original parts in- 
cluded Diana in 'Don't Judge by Appear- 
ances,' and Mrs. Savage in Brougham's 
' Playing with Fire.' With Charles Albert 
Fechter [q. v.] at the Lyceum she played 
Zillah in the 'Duke's Motto,' Madame de 
Pompadour in the ' King's Butterfly,' Lucy 
Ashton in the 'Master of Ravenswood,' 
Ophelia and Pauline Deschappelles. With 
him at the Adelphi she was Mercedes in 
' Monte Cristo' and Emily Milburn in ' Black 
and White.' She accompanied Fechter to 
America, returned in 1877, and married 
John Nelson, an actor. She played with her 
husband principally in the country until his 
death on 25 July 1879. Thenceforward she 
was rarely seen in London. She died in 
August 1893. 

Le Despencer - 

Her younger sister, ROSE LECLERCQ 
(1845P-1899), was born in Liverpool about 
1845, and was on 28 Sept. 1861 at the Prin- 
cess's the first Mrs. Waverley in ' Playing 
with Fire.' She was at Drury Lane the ori- 
ginal Mary Vance in Mr. Burnand's ' Deal 
Boatman,' and played Astarte in ' Manfred ' 
(10 Oct. 1863). At the Princess's (August 
1868) she was Eliza in ' After Dark,' and at 
the Adelphi Kate Jessop in ' Lost at Sea.' 
She was Desdemona to the Othello of Phelps, 
was an admirable Mrs. Page, and was at 
Drury Lane the first Clara Ffolliott in the 
' Shaughraun.' At the Vaudeville she was 
Sophia in an adaptation of ' Tom Jones,' at 
the Haymarket was Marie Lezinski in the 
' Pompadour,' Lady Staunton in ' Captain 
Swift,' and Madame Fourcanard in 'Esther 
Sandray,' at the Garrick the Queen in ' La 
Tosca,' and at the Strand La Faneuse in 
the 'Illusion' of her brother Pierre. She 
was the original Evelina Foster in ' Beau 
Austin,' Lady Dawtry in the ' Dancing Girl,' 
Marchioness in the ' Amazons,' Lady Ring- 
steadin 'The Princess and theButterfly,'Mrs. 
Fretwell in ' Sowing the Wind,' and Lady 
Wargrave in the ' New Woman.' Her last 
original part was Mrs. Beechinor in Mr. 
H. A. Jones's ' Manoeuvres of Jane,' pro- 
duced at the Haymarket on 29 Oct. 1898. 
She played this character on 25 March 1899, 
and died on 2 April. Both the Leclercqs 
developed into good actresses. Rose Le- 
clercq in her later days had a matchless 
delivery, and was the best, and almost the 
only, representative of the grand style in 
comedy. By her husband, Mr. Fuller, she 
was the mother of the actor, Mr. Fuller Mel- 

[Personal recollections ; Pascoe's Dramatic 
List; Dramatic Peerage; Scott and Howard's 
Blanchard; Hollingshead's Gaiety Chronicles; 
Cook's Nights at the Play ; Athenaeum, Era, 
SundayTinies,andEraAlmanack, various years.] 

J. K. 

WOOD, SIR FRANCIS, 1708-1781.] 

LEE, HOLME, pseudonym. [See PARR, 
HARRIET, 1828-1900.] 

LEGGE, JAMES (1815-1897), professor 
of Chinese at the university of Oxford, son 
of Ebenezer Legge, was born at Huntly in 
Aberdeenshire in 1815. He was educated 
at the Aberdeen grammar school, and gra- 
duated M.A. at King's College, Aberdeen, in 
1835. From his earliest years he had de- 
sired to enter the missionary field, and for 
the furtherance of this object he, at the com- 
pletion of his course at Aberdeen, came to 
London and studied at the theological col- 

*7 Legge 

! lege at Highbury. In 1839 he was appointed 
by the London Missionary Society to the 
I Chinese mission at Malacca, where he re- 
mained until the treaty of 1842 enabled him 
and others to begin missionary work in China. 
In 1840 he was appointed principal of the 
Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, which 
Robert Morrison [q.v.] had founded in 1825, 
and in the following year the council of the 
university of New York conferred on him 
the degree of D.D. In 1843 he landed in 
the newly established colony of Hongkong, 
and took part in the negotiations which 
ended in the conversion of the Anglo-Chinese 
college into a theological seminary and its 
removal to Hongkong. There he resumed 
his position as principal. His health having 
broken down, he paid a visit to England in 
1845, and three years later returned to Hong- 
kong, where, in addition to his missionary 
work, he undertook the pastoral charge of 
an English congregation. In 1858 he paid 
another visit to England, and in 1873 he re- 
turned permanently to this country, resign- 
ing the principalship and other posts. In 
1870 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
him by the university of Aberdeen, and in 
1884 the same honour was granted him by 
the university of Edinburgh. In 1875 a 
| number of merchants interested in China, 
| and others, collected a fund for the endow- 
| jnent of a Chinese professorship at Oxford, 
on the understanding that Legge should be 
the first occupant of the chair. The uni- 
versity accepted the arrangement, appointed 
him professor, and the authorities of Corpus 
Christ! College elected him a fellow of their 
college. His inaugural lecture was published 
in 1876. At Oxford he remained until his 
death. He died at his residence in Keble 
I Road on 29 Nov. 1897. Legge was twice 
I married : first, on 30 April 1839, to Mary 
j Isabella, daughter of the Rev. John Morison ; 
and secondly, in 1859, to Hannah Mary, 
daughter of John Johnstone, esq., of Hull, 
and widow of the Rev. G. W T illetts of 
Salisbury. By both wives he left children. 

Legge was a voluminous writer both in 
Chinese and English, and did much to in- 
struct his fellow-countrymen and continental 
scholars in the literature and religious beliefs 
of China. He bore a leading part in the 
controversy as to the best translation into 
Chinese of the term ' God,' and published a 
volume called ' The Notions of the Chinese 
[ concerning God and Spirits '(Hongkong and 
[ London, 1852, 8vo). But the great work of 
his life was the edition of the Chinese classics 
the Chinese text, with translation, notes, 
and preface. This task he began in 1841, 
and finished shortly before his death. 



The publications of his labours commenced 
in 1861, when there appeared ' Confucian 
Analecta : Doctrine of the Mean and Great 
Learning,' and ' Works of Mencius.' There 
quickly followed ' The Shoo-king, or Book 
of Historical Documents,' 1865, 4th edit. 
1875 ; ' The Shi-king, or Book of Poetry,' 
London, 1871, 8vo ; and ' The Ch'un Ch'iu : 
with the Tso Chwan,' 1872. He received 
the Julien prize from the French Institut 
in 1875 for these works. In 1876 there 
appeared ' The Book of Ancient Chinese 
Poetry in English Verse.' The last volumes 
of Legge's edition of the Chinese classics 
appeared in the series called ' The Sacred 
Books of the East,' which Friedrich Max 
Miiller fq. v. Suppl.j edited for the Clarendon 
Press. To this series Legge contributed vols. 
iii. xvi. xxvii. xxviii.xxxix.xl., Oxford, 1879- 
1894, 8vo. Of these the first four volumes 
dealt with the ' Texts of Confucianism,' and 
the last two with the ' Texts of Taoism.' 
Legge's other writings on Chinese literature 
and religion were : 1. 'The Life and Teach- 
ing of Confucius,' London, 1867 ; 4th edit. 
1875. 2. ' The Life and Teaching of Men- 
cius,' London, 1875. 3. ' The Religions of 
China : Confucianism and Taoism, described 
and compared with Christianity,' London, 
1880, 8vo. 4. ' Record of Buddhistic King- 
doms : Travels of the Buddhist Pilgrim, 
Fa-hsien, in India,' London, 1886, 4to. 
5. ' The Xestorian Monument of Hsi-an-fu 
in Shen-Hsi, China, relating to the Diffu- 
sion of Christianity in China in the Seventh 
and Eighth Centuries, with a Sketch of 
subsequent Missions in China,' London, 
1888, 8vo. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Men of the Time. 1895.] 

R. K. D. 

TON OF STRETTON (1830-1896), president of 
the Royal Academy of Arts, was born at 
Scarborough on 3 Dec. 1830. His family 
came originally from Shropshire. His 
grandfather and father were both physicians. 
His grandfather James (afterwards Sir James) 
Boniface Leighton was invited to the Russian 
court, and was court physician under both 
Alexander I and Nicholas I. His son Fre- 
deric Septimus (1800-1892) was educated 
for the medical profession at Edinburgh, and 
practised successfully until about 1843, when 
increasing deafness compelled him to retire. 
He settled for a time at Bath, but afterwards 
returned to Scarborough, and finally to 
London, where he died on 24 Jan. 1892. In 
spite of the physical disability just mentioned, 
he was a man of great social talent and of 
most agreeable manners. His wife, Lord 

Leighton's mother, was Augusta Susan, 
daughter of George Augustus Xash of Ed- 

The young Frederic Leighton showed an 
early love for drawing and filled many 
books with his sketches, but these do not 
seem to have been of a kind to impress his 
family very profoundly, and his father, it 
must be said, disliked the idea of art as a 
profession. While the boy was still very 
young, his mother's delicate health gave him 
his first chance of seeing foreign countries. 
The family travelled abroad, and in the year 
1839, before Frederic was ten years old, he 
found himself one day in the studio of George 
Lance in Paris. From this visit his father's 
acceptance of the idea that possibly nature 
had made the boy an artist appears to date. 
Dr. Leighton determined, however, that his 
choice should not be limited by any one- 
sided education. In London, Rome, Dres- 
den, Berlin, Frankfort, and Florence, his 
education was pursued, with the result that, 
in one particular at least, it was vastly more 
thorough than usual with an English boy of 
his condition. He became an accomplished 
linguist, speaking the four chief modern lan- 
guages with almost equal facility. It was 
in Florence in 1844 that his profession was 
finally settled. Dr. Leighton consulted 
Hiram Power, the sculptor of 'The Greek 
Slave,' as to whether he should make his 
sou an artist. ' Sir,' said Power, ' Nature 
has done it for you,' adding that the boy 
could become ' as eminent as he pleased.' 

Work was begun in earnest in the Acca- 
demia delle Belle Arti, under Bezzuoli and 
Servolini, whose influence did little but harm. 
Leighton soon left Florence for Frankfort, 
where he resumed his general education. 
At the age of seventeen he finally left school, 
and worked at art for a year in the Staedel 
Institute. In 1848 he moved with his family 
to Brussels, where he painted one or two pic- 
tures, including a 'Cimabue finding Giotto.' 
In 1849 he was in Paris, copying pictures in 
the Louvre, and attending a so-called school 
of art in the Rue Richer. Leighton's indi- 
viduality was not robust enough for such 
constant change, and it is probable that he 
would have been a greater artist than he 
was, had his early training been more favour- 
able to concentration. His real and serious 
studentship began only after he left Paris, 
when he was already in his twentieth year. 
He returned to Frankfort, and there worked 
strenuously for three vears under Johann 
Eduard Steinle (1810-1886), of whom he 
ever afterwards spoke as his only real master. 
While under Steinle he painted several pic- 
tures, the most notable perhaps 'The Plague 

Leigh ton 

8 9 

Leigh ton 

of Florence,' a cartoon founded on Boccaccio's 

Late in 1852 he went to Rome, where his 
pleasant manners and varied accomplish- 
ments won him hosts of friends, among them 
Thackeray, George Sand, Lord Lyons, Gib- 
son, George Mason, Hebert, Mrs. Kemble, 
Gerome, Bouguereau, and others. It was 
after meeting him here that Thackeray wrote 
to Millais, who was Leighton's senior by 
rather more than a year, 'I have met in Rome 
a versatile young dog who will run you hard 
for the presidentship one day.' Soon after 
he arrived in Rome, Leighton hegan work 
on the picture with which he was to draw 
public attention to himself for the first time. 
This was ' Cimabue's " Madonna " carried in 
Procession through the Streets of Florence,' 
now in Buckingham Palace. It was at the 
academy in 1855, and was bought by Queen 
Victoria for 600/. After a happy and trium- 
phant season in London, Leighton went to 
Paris, where he came under the spell of 
yet another quasi genius in Robert Fleury. 
On his return to London in 1858, he became 
intimate with the members, then shaking 
apart, of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, 
an intimacy to which perhaps we owe the 
famous drawings of ' A Lemon Tree ' and 
' A Byzantine Well-head,' which drew such 
inevitable praise from John Ruskin [q. v. 
Suppl.] The 'Lemon Tree' drawing was made 
in Capri in 1859. In 1860 Leighton esta- 
blished himself at '2 Orme Square, Bays- 
water, which remained his home until he 
moved into his famous house in Holland 
Park Road. Between 1860 and 1866 he 
was a steady exhibitor at the Royal Aca- 
demy, his chief contributions being ' Paolo 
and Francesca,' ' The Odalisque,' ' Dante at 
Verona,' ' Orpheus and Eurydice,' ' Golden 
Hours,' and ' A Syracusan Bride leading 
Wild Beasts in Procession to the Temple of 
Diana.' In 1866 he was elected an A.R.A., 
and immediately justified his election by ex- 
hibiting his ' Venus disrobing for the Bath,' 
an essay in the nude which perhaps he never 
excelled. This year, 1866, was an eventful 
one in his career, for it saw his migration 
to the fine house in Holland Park Road, 
Kensington, which was built for him by 
Mr. George Aitchison, R.A., and also the 
completion of his fine wall-painting in Lynd- 
hurst church, ' The Parable of the Wise and 
Foolish Virgins.' 

In 1868 Leighton made the Nile tour in 
company with Lesseps, who was then near- 
ing the conclusion of his own great work. 
This journey led to a little dabbling in 
oriental subjects, which, however, took no 
great hold on his imagination. In 1869 

he was elected a royal academician, exhi- 
biting ' Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon ' 
and ' Daedalus and Icarus,' and painting a 
St. Jerome as his diploma picture. In 1870 
the winter exhibitions, which owed much to 
his advocacy, were started at Burlington 
House. The two succeeding summer exhi- 
bitions contained three of Leighton's best 
pictures, the ' Hercules wrestling with Death 
for the Body of Alcestis,' ' The Condottiere,' 
and ' The Summer Moon.' In 1873 he paid 
a second visit to the East, the outcome of 
which was a series of oriental pictures, ' The 
Egyptian Slinger ' and ' The Moorish Gar- 
den ' being perhaps the best. The creation 
by which, in some quarters, Leighton is best 
known had its origin in this eastern tour. 
He collected a number of fine Persian tiles, 
and was smitten with the desire to make 
appropriate use of them. Hence the famous 
Arab hall in his house at Kensington. To 
the next few years belong some of his best 
pictures, e.g. the ' Daphnephoria ' and the 
' Portrait of Sir Richard Burton '(1876), 'The 
Music Lesson' (1877), 'Winding the 
Skein,' and < Xausicaa ' (1878). In 1877 he 
burst on the world as a sculptor, exhibiting 
the ' Athlete struggling with a Python,' 
which is now in the gallery at Millbank. 

In 1878 Sir Francis Grant [q. v.] died, and 
Leighton succeeded him as president of the 
Royal Academy, the usual knighthood fol- 
lowing his election (25 Nov. 1878). As pre- 
sident he completely realised the hopes of 
his friends. Punctual almost to a fault, 
tactful, energetic, and equal to every social 
demand that could be made upon him, he 
filled the office with extraordinary distinc- 
tion in the eyes both of his fellow-country- 
men and of strangers. And yet the years 
which followed his election were among 
the most prolific of his artistic career. Be- 
tween 1878 and 1895, when his activity was 
abruptly closed by disease, he painted the 
two fine wall-pictures in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum ; he completed his second 
statue, ' The Sluggard,' which now stands 
at Millbank as a pendant to the ' Athlete 
with a Python,' as well as a charming 
statuette, ' Needless Alarms,' which he pre- 
sented to Sir John Millais ; and sent the 
following pictures, among others, to the 
exhibition of the Royal Academy : ' Bion- 
dina ' (1879), ' Portrait of Signor Costa ' and 
'Sister's Kiss' (1880), his own portrait for 
the Uffizi (1881); ' Wedded," Daydreams,' 
and ' Phryne at Eleusis ' (1882),' ' Cymon 
and Iphigenia ' (1884), ' Portrait of 'Lady 
Sybil Primrose ' (1885), ' The Last Watch 
of Hero' (1887), 'Captive Andromache' 
(1888), ' Greek Girls playing Ball ' (1889), 



The Bath of Psyche ' (1890 ; Millbank \ 
Gallery), ' Perseus and Andromeda' (1891), | 
The Garden of the Hesperides ' (1892), and [ 
' Rizpah' (1893). His last important works i 
were the wall decoration on canvas for the 
Royal Exchange, ' Phoenicians trading with 
the Britons,' finished in 1895, and an un- 
finished 'Clyde,' which was at the 1896 
academy. On 11 Feb. 1886 Leighton had 
been created a baronet. 

Early in 1895 his health had given dis- 
quieting signs of collapse. He was ordered 
to cease all work, and to take rest in a 
warm climate. Prompt obedience to his 
doctor gave him temporary relief from his 
most distressing symptoms. Sir John Mil- 
lais, who was himself beginning to suiter 
from the disease which was afterwards to 
prove fatal, took his place at the academy 
dinner, and did what he could to lighten 
his colleague's anxieties. It was hoped that 
these prompt measures had proved more or 
less effectual, and when Leighton returned 
to England late in 1895, the immediate 
danger was thought to have passed away. 
On 1 Jan. 1896 it was announced that he 
was to be raised to the peerage as Baron 
Leighton of Stretton. His patent bore date 
24 Jan., and on the following day Leighton 
died at his house in Holland Park Road; 
his peerage, which ' existed but a day, is 
unique' (G. E. C[OKAYNE], Complete Peerage, 
viii. 245). He was buried on 3 Feb. in St. 
Paul's, the coffin being inscribed with his | 
style as a peer. 

Lord Leighton was an honorary D.C.L. 
of Oxford, a LL.D. of Cambridge, and a 
LL.D. of Edinburgh, all of which degrees 
were conferred in 1879. He was a member 
of many foreign artistic societies. He was | 
president of the international jury of paint- ; 
ing for the Paris Exhibition of 1878. He j 
was a member of the Society of Painters in 
AVatercolours from 1888 onwards. He was 
for many years colonel of the artists' regi- 
ment of volunteers, but resigned the post in | 
1883. He was unmarried. His heirs were 
his two sisters, Mrs. Sutherland Orr and 
Mrs. Matthews. After his death a move- 
ment was set afoot to establish a memorial 
museum in his own house in Kensington, a 
project which, in spite of controversy, was 
realised. A large number of those drawings 
and studies on which his fame will rest 
perhaps most securely in the future have 
found a home in what was once his studio. 

It is recorded that Leighton used to assert 
of himself that he was not a great painter. 
' Thank goodness,' he also declared, ' I was 
never clever at anything ! ' The first of these 
assertions was truer than the second. He 

was not a great painter. He lacked both 
temperament and creative power, and had 
nothing particular to say with paint. On 
the other hand he saw beauty and could let 
us see that he saw it. He was clever in the 
best sense, and by dint of taking thought 
could clothe his intentions in a pleasant en- 
velope. Occasionally he failed disastrously 
through pure lack of humour, as, for in- 
stance, in his ' Andromeda ; ' on the other 
hand, the frankness of his objective admira- 
tions led him occasionally to success of a 
very unusual kind in such pictures as 
' Summer Moon,' ' The Music Lesson,' and 
'Wedded/ In spite of his training under 
various good draughtsmen, Leighton was not 
a great draughtsman himself. His forms were 
soft, the attaches especially wrists, ankles, 
&c. being nerveless and inefficient, a fault 
which was accentuated by the unreality of 
his textures. But in design, as distinguished 
from draughtsmanship, he is often as nearly 
great as a man without creative genius can 
be. His studies of drapery are exquisite, 
and nothing could well be more rhythmical 
than the organisation of line in such pictures 
as the three just mentioned. Leighton 
contributed designs to George Eliot's novel 
of ' Romola ' and to ' Dalziel's Bible,' which 
take a very high place among illustrations 
in black and white ; also one design each for 
Mrs. Browning's poem, ' The Great God Pan,' 
and Mrs. Sartoris's ' Week in a French Coun- 
try House,' both published in the ' Cornhill 

Lord Leighton delivered biennially eight 
discourses at the Royal Academy between 
1879 and 1893. They formed a series tracing 
the development of art in Europe, and deal- 
ing philosophically with the chief phases 
through which it passed ; they were pub- 
lished as ' Addresses delivered to Students 
of the Royal Academy,' London, 1896, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1897. 

The contents of Lord Leighton's studio 
were sold at Christie's in July 1896, when 
the studies, especially those of landscape in 
oil, were eagerly competed for. A catalogue 
of his principal works is appended to the 
short biography by Mr. Ernest Rhys, pub- 
lished in 1900. 

His portrait by himself is in the famous 
collection of artists' portraits in the Utfizi 
at Florence ; another, by Mr. G. F. Watts, 
R.A., is in the National Portrait Gallery, 

[Times, 26 Jan. 1896; Athenaeum, January 
1896 ; Life and Work of Sir Frederic Leighton, 
P.R.A., by Helen Zimmeru; Frederic, Lord 
Leighton, by Ernest Khys, 1895 ; private in- 
formation.] W. A. 

Le Keux 


1896), architectural engraver and draughts- 
man, son of John Le Keux [q. v.], was born 
in Argyll Street, Euston Road, London, on 
23 March, 1812. After studying under 
James Basire [see under BASIRE, ISAAC, 
1704-17681, he worked for a time as assis- 
tant to his father. He engraved the plates 
for many works of an architectural charac- 
ter, including Ruskin's ' Modern Painters' 
and ' Stones of Venice,' Weale's ' Studies 
and Examples of English Architecture' 
(Travellers' Club), 1839; C. II. Hartshorne's 
' Illustrations of Alnwick, Prudhoe, and 
Warkworth,' 1857 : and Parker's ' Mediaeval 
Architecture of Chester,' 1858. The Nor- 
wegian government employed him to exe- 
cute thirty-one large plates of Trondhjem 
cathedral. Between 1853 and 1865 Le 
Keux exhibited architectural drawings at 
the Royal Academy. He contributed papers 
on mediaeval arms and armour to the ' Jour- 
nal of the Archaeological Institute ' and 
similar publications. About 1864 he retired 
to Durham, where for many years he acted 
as manager to Messrs. Andrews, a firm of 
publishers with which his wife was con- 
nected. His latest work was the ' Oxford 
Almanack' for 1870. He died at Durham 
on 4 Feb. 1896, and was buried in St. 
Nicholas's Church in that city. 

[Athenaeum, 15 Feb. 1896.] F. M. O'D. 

LENIHAN, MAURICE (1811-1895), 
historian of Limerick, was born on 8 Feb. 
1811 at Waterford, where his father was a 
woollen merchant. He was one of a family 
of fifteen. His mother was a native of 
Carrick-on-Suir. His education began at 
AVaterford, but from twelve to twenty he 
was at Carlow College, where he was a 
pupil of Dr. Daniel AVilliam Cahill [q. v.], 
and was known as a skilful player on the 
violin. On the completion of his education 
he began his career as a journalist by a 
connection with the ' Tipperary Free Press,' 
of which his cousin was proprietor. He was 
next attached to the ' AA 7 aterford Chronicle,' 
for which he wrote some stirring articles 
in favour of the agitation against tithes. 
In 1841, when the 'Limerick Reporter' 
was established, he was appointed editor, but 
early in 1843 left it to join the staff of the 
' Cork Examiner,' the proprietor of which 
was John Francis Maguire [q. v.l During 
his short residence in Cork Lenihan made 
the acquaintance of Father Mathew, who 
induced him to take the temperance pledge, 
and became his lifelong friend. At the end 
of a year he was asked by O'Connell and 
Bishop Power of Killaloe to conduct a paper 

in the interests of the repeal movement at 
Nenagh ; and O'Connell in a monster meet- 
ing at Limerick announced the establish- 
ment of the 'Tipperary A'indicator' under 
Lenihan's editorship. In this paper Lenihan 
exposed a police plot known as ' The Shinron 
Conspiracy,' and obtained the dismissal of 
the detective Parker, who was its leader, 
and of eleven policemen who had assisted 
him. In 1849 he bought up the ' Limerick 
Reporter ' and incorporated it -with the 
' Tipperary Vindicator.' This paper, pub- 
lished at Nenagh and Limerick, he continued 
to conduct with great ability on moderate 
nationalist lines till the closing years of his 

Lenihan became much interested in the 
history of Limerick, and from time to time 
wrote for his paper articles dealing with the 
sieges. He gradually accumulated much 
material, and, encouraged by several well- 
known Irish antiquaries, among whom he 
was particularly intimate with Eugene 
O'Curry [q. v.], he in 1866 published at the 
suggestion of Patrick Leahy [q. v.l, arch- 
bishop of Cashel, ' Limerick ; its History 
and Antiquities.' This scholarly and well- 
written volume superseded the earlier works 
by Ferrar and Fitzgerald and John James 
Macgregor [q. v.] Two of his primary au- 
thorities, the papers of the Rev. James 
AVhite, and the Limerick manuscripts of 

j John D'Alton [q.v.] he had in his own posses- 
sion ; and he was one of the first who had 

j access to the manuscript works of Dr. Thomas 

i Arthur [q. v.], the friend of AVare. He also 
consulted the chartularyof Edmund Sexton, 
and obtained valuable matter from the Carew 
MSS. through Lord-Gort, and the papers in 
the possession of the Hon. John A'ereker. 
In addition to these a list of nearly 150 autho- 
rities utilised for the work is given in the 
preface. Good maps, copious appendices, and 
the index, so rare in Irish books, add much 
to its value. 

Lenihan, besides contributing to periodi- 

i cals, wrote an introduction to T. F. Arthur's 

I ' Some Leaves from the Fee- book of a Phy- 
sician,' 1874, 8vo. He had collected mate- 

} rials for histories of Tipperary and Clare, 
but they were never utilised. He took an 
active part in municipal affairs, was mayor 
of Limerick in 1884, and was named a jus- 
tice of the peace by Lord O'Hagan, whose 
friendship he enjoyed. He was a member 
of the Royal Irish Academy and intimate 
with many of its leading members. He died 
on 25 Dec. 1895 at 17 Catherine Street, 
Limerick. His son, James Lenihan, suc- 
ceeded him as editor and proprietor of his 

; paper. 



[Limerick Reporter, 31 Dec. 1895, with obi- 
tuary notice from Limerick Chronicle ; Times, 
26 Dec. 189 > ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. LE G. N. 

(1830-1897), general royal engineers, fourth 
son of Lord John George Lennox (1793- 
1873), second son of the fourth Duke of 
Richmond, was born on 4 May 1830 at 
Molecoinb House, Goodwood, Sussex. His 
mother was Louisa Frederica (d. 12 Jan. 
1863), daughter of Captain the Hon. John 
Rodney, M.P., third son of Admiral Lord 
Rodney. He was privately educated and, 
after passing through the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, received a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the royal engi- 
neers on 27 June 1848 His further com- 
missions were dated : lieutenant 7 Feb. 1854, 
second captain 25 Nov. 1857, brevet major 
24 March 1858, brevet lieutenant-colonel 
26 April 1859, first captain 1 April 1863, 
brevet colonel 26 April 1867, regimental 
major 5 July 1872, lieutenant-colonel 10 Dec. 
1873, major-general 13 Aug. 1881, lieute- 
nant-general 12 Feb. 1888, general 28 June 

Lennox went through the usual course of 
professional instruction at Chatham, served 
for a few months at Portsmouth, and em- 
barked for Ceylon on 20 Nov. 1850. In 
August 1854 he went direct from Ceylon 
to the Crimea, where he arrived on 30 Sept., 
and was employed under Major (afterwards 
General Sir) Frederick Chapman [q. v. 
Suppl.] in the trenches of the left attack on 
Sevastopol, and had also charge of the engi- 
neer park of the left attack. He was pre- 
sent at the battle of Inkerman on 5 Nov., 
having come oft' the sick list for the purpose. 
On 20 Nov. he won the Victoria Cross ' for 
cool and gallant conduct in establishing a 
lodgment in Tryon's rifle pits, and assisting 
to repel the assaults of the enemy. This 
brilliant operation drew forth a special order 
from General Canrobert.' On 9 Dec. he was 
appointed adjutant to the royal engineers of 
the left attack. He acted as aide-de-camp 
to Chapman with Eyre's brigade at the 
attack of the Redan on 18 June, and was 
present in September at the fall of Sebastopol, 
after which he was adjutant of all the royal 
engineer force in the Crimea until the army 
was broken up. He arrived home on 5 Aug. 
1856. For his services he was mentioned in 
despatches (London Gazette, 21 Dec. 1855), 
received the war medal with two clasps, the 
Sardinian and Turkish medals, the 5th class 
of the Turkish order of the Medjidie, and on 
24 Feb. 1857 the Victoria Cross. 

Lennox was adjutant of the royal en- 

gineers at Aldershot until he again left Eng- 
land on 25 April 1857 as senior subaltern of 
the 23rd company of royal engineers to take 
part in the China war. On arrival at Singa- 
pore the force for China was diverted to 
India for the suppression of the mutiny, and 
Lennox reached Calcutta on 10 Aug. On 
the march to Cawnpore he took part on 
2 Nov. in the action at Khajwa under 
Colonel Powell. The captain of his com- 
pany was severely wounded on this occasion, 
and, Colonel Goodwyn of the Bengal en- 
gineers having fallen sick on 14 Nov., 
Lennox became temporarily chief engineer 
on the staft' of Sir Colin Campbell. In this 
position he served at the second relief of 
Lucknow. He submitted a plan of attack 
which was adopted by Sir Colin. He took 
a conspicuous part in the operations, and 
the relief was accomplished on 17 Nov. He 
continued to act as chief engineer in the 
operations against the Gwalior contingent, 
and in the battle of Cawnpore on 6 Dec. 
He commanded a detachment of engineers 
at the action of Kali Naddi under Sir Colin 
Campbell on 2 Jan. 1858, and at the occu- 
pation of Fathghar. He was assistant to 
the commanding royal engineer, Colonel 
(afterwards Sir) Henry Drury Harness [q. v.], 
in the final siege of Luckuow from 2 to 
21 March. 

After the fall of Lucknow Lennox com- 
manded the engineers of the column under 
Brigadier-general (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Walpole [q. v.] for the subjugation of Rohil- 
khand, was present at the unsuccessful attack 
on Fort Ruiya on 15 April, its occupation on 
\ the following day, and the action of Alaganj 
on 22 April. Having rejoined Lord Clyde 
he commanded the engineers at the battle of 
Bareli on 5 May and the occupation of the 
town. In June Lennox took his company 
! to Rurki, and in September to Allahabad, 
where he was appointed commanding en- 
gineer to the column under Lord Clyde for 
the subjugation of Oude. He was present 
at the capture of Amethi on 10 Nov., and of 
Shankarpur on the 16th, and at the action 
of Dundia Khera or Buxar on 24 Nov. On 
30 Nov. he left Lucknow as commanding 
royal engineer of the column under Briga- 
; dier-general Eveleigh to settle the country 
I to the north-east, and was present at the 
[capture of Urnria on 2, Dec. He com- 
j manded the 23rd company royal engineers 
at the action on 26 Dec. under Lord Clyde 
at Barjadua or Chandu in the Trans-Gogra 
campaign, at the capture of Fort Majadua 
on the 27th, and at the action at Banki on 
the Rapti on 31 Dec. Lennox was included 
in the list of officers honourably mentioned 




for the siege of Lucknow by the commander- 
in-chief in general orders of 16 April 1858, 
and was repeatedly mentioned in despatches 
during the several campaigns (London 
Gazette, 5, 16, and 29 Jan., 25 May, and 

17 and 28 July 1858). He was rewarded 
with a brevet majority and a brevet lieu- j 
tenant-colonelcy, and received the Indian ( 
mutiny medal with two clasps. 

Lennox left India in March 1859, and on 
his arrival home was appointed to the i 
Brighton subdivision of the south-eastern 
military district. From 14 June 1862 until 
31 Oct. 1865 he was deputy-assistant \ 
quartermaster-general at Aldershot. On 
30 March 1867 he was made a companion 
of the Bath, military division, for his war 
services. From November 1866 lie held for \ 
five years the post of instructor in field ! 
fortification at the school of military engi- j 
neering at Chatham, where his energy and \ 
experience were of great value. He origi- 
nated a series of confidential professional j 
papers to keep his brother officers au coitrant 
with matters which could not be published, 
and also a series of translations of important 
foreign works on military engineering sub- 
jects. He also started the Royal Engineers' 
Charitable Fund, which has been of much 
benefit to the widows and children of soldiers 
of his corps. In 1868 he visited Coblenz 
and reported on the experimental siege 
operations carried on there. In the following 
year he was on a committee on spade-drill 
for infantry, and accompanied Lieutenant- 
general Sir William Coddrington to the 
Prussian army manoeuvres. In the summer 
of 1870 he visited Belgium to study the 
fortifications of Antwerp. 

From November 1870 to March 1871 he 
was attached officially to the German armies 
in France during the Franco-German war ; 
was present at the siege of Paris under the 
crown prince of Prussia from 11 to 15 Dec. 
1870 : at the siege of Mezieres from 24 Dec. 
1870 to its surrender on 2 Jan. 1871 ; at the 
siege of Paris under the German emperor 
from 10 Jan. to 4 Feb. ; and at the siege of 
Belfort from 7 Feb. to the entry of the 
German troops under von Treskow on 

18 Feb. 

On 13 Nov. 1871 Lennox was appointed 
assistant superintendent of military disci- 
pline at Chatham, and was on a committee 
on pontoon drill in December. In 1872 he 
again attended the military manoeuvres in 
Prussia. In December 1873 he went to 
Portsmouth as second in command of the 
royal engineers, and remained there until 
his appointment on 24 Oct. 1876 as military 
attache at Constantinople. He visited 

Montenegro in connection with the armi- 
stice on the frontier, and arrived in Con- 
stantinople in December. 

In April 1877 he joined the Turkish 
armies in Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish 
war, and was present during the bombard- 
ment of Nikopolis in June, at Sistova when 
the Russians crossed the Danube on 27 June, 
at the bombardment of Ruschuk, at the 
battles of Karahassankeui on 30 Aug., 
Katzelevo on 5 Sept., Bejin Verboka on 
21 Sept., and Pyrgos Metha on 12 Dec. 
1877. On 18 Dec. he accompanied Suleiman 
Pasha's force from Varna to Constantinople. 
He received the Turkish war medal. 

On his return home in March 1878 he 
went to the Curragh in Ireland as com- 
manding royal engineer until his promotion 
to major-general in August 1881. From 
2 Aug. 1884 he commanded the garrison of 
Alexandria, and during the Nile campaign 
of 1884-5 organised the landing and despatch 
to the front of the troops, the Nile boats, 
and all the military and other stores of the 
expedition. From Egypt he was transferred 
on 1 April 1887 to the command of the 
troops in Ceylon, but his promotion to lieu- 
tenant-general vacated the appointment in 
the following year, and he returned home 
via Australia and America. He was pro- 
moted to be K.C.B. on 30 May 1891. He 
was director-general of military education 
at the war office from 22 Jan. 1893 until 
his retirement from the active list on 8 May 
1895. Great energy, unbending resolution, 
and masterful decision fitted him for high 
command, while his kindness of heart and 
Christian character endeared him to many. 
He was engaged in writing a memoir of 
Sir Henry Harness's Indian career when he 
died in London on 7 Feb. 1897, and was 
buried in the family vault at Brighton 
cemetery on 15 Feb. 

Lennox married, first, at Denbigh, on 
16 July 1861, Mary Harriett (d. 22 July 
1863), daughter of Robert Harrison of Pla's 
Clough, Denbighshire, by whom he left a 
son, Gerald Wilbraham Stuart, formerly a 
lieutenant in the Black Watch. He mar- 
ried secondly, in London, on 12 June 1867, 
Susan Hay, who survived him, youngest 
daughter of Admiral Sir John Gordon Sin- 
clair, eighth baronet of Stevenson, by whom 
he had three sons. 

He contributed to the ' Professional Papers 
of the Royal Engineers ' papers on the 
' Demolition of the Fort of Tutteah,' ' The 
Engineering Operations at the Siege of Luck- 
now, 1858,' ' Description of the Passage of 
the Wet Ditch at the Siege of Strasburg, 
1870,' and others. He compiled ' The Engi- 




neers' Organisation in the Prussian Army 
for Operations in the Field, 1870-1,' pub- 
lished in London, 1878, 8vo. 

[War Office Records; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords ; Despatches ; private sources ; Times, 
8 Feb. 1897 ; Royal Engineers Journal, April 
and May 1898; Kinglake's Crimean War; Offi- 
cial Journal of the Engineers' Operations at the 
Siege of Sebastopol, 1859, 4to, vols. i. and ii.; 
Kayo's Hist, of the Sepoy War ; Malleson's Hist. 
of the Indian Mutiny ; Holmes's Hist, of the 
Indian Mutiny ; Medley's A Year's Campaigning 
in India, 1857-8 ; Thackeray's Two Indian Cam- 
paigns; Shadwell's Life of Lord Clyde ; Histo- 
rical Narrative of the Turco-Russian War, 1878, 
4to ; Official Hist, of the Soudan Campaign of 
1884-5 ; Army Lists ; Burke's Peerage.] 

R. H. V. 

LESLIE, FREDERICK, whose real 
name was FREDERICK HOBSON (1855-1892), 
actor, son of a military outfitter at Woolwich, 
was born on 1 April 1855, was educated at 
Woolwich, at Netting Hill, and in France, 
and under the name of Owen Hobbs acted 
as an amateur at Woolwich and elsewhere. 
His first appearance in London took place 
in 1878 at the Royalty as Colonel Hardy in 
' Paul Pry.' He then played at the Folly, 
the Alhambra,the Standard, and the Avenue 
as Faust in ' Mefistofele II,' Don Jose de 
Mantilla in ' Les Manteaux Noirs,' Le Mar- 
quis de PontsablS in ' Madame Favart,' the 
Duke in ' Olivette,' and other characters in 
light opera, and more than once visited the 
United States, playing at the Casino, New 
York. His Rip van Winkle in Planquette's 
opera at the Comedy on 14 Oct. 1882 raised 
his reputation to the highest point it reached, 
and sustained comparison with that.of Joseph 
Jefferson, whose greatest part it was. At 
the Alhambra he was seen in the ' Beggar 
Student,' at the Opera Comique in the ' Fay 
o' Fire,' and at the Comedy in the ' Great 
Mogul.' His first appearance at the Gaiety 
took place on 26 Dec. 1885 as Jonathan Wild 
in ' Little Jack Sheppard,' and resulted in 
his fine comic gifts being thenceforward 
confined to burlesque. In company with his 
eminently popular associate, Miss Ellen 
Farren, he became during many years a 
chief support of the house, appearing as 
Noirtier in ' Monte Cristo, Junr.,' Don Caesar 
de Bazan in ' Ruy Bias, or the Blase Roue,' 
the Monster in ' Frankenstein,' and many 
similar characters. In the composition of 
not a few of these burlesques he took part 
under the pseudonym of ' A. C. Torr.' With 
Miss Farren and the Gaiety company he 
visited, in 1888-9, America and Australia, 
reappearing at the Gaiety on 21 Sept. 1889. 
On 26 July 1890 he took part in 'Guy 

Fawkes, Esq.,' and on 24 Dec. 1891 in 
' Cinder-Ellen up too Late,' having a share 
in the authorship of both pieces. He was 
playing in the burlesque last named when 
he was taken ill, and on 7 Dec. 1892 he died ; 
he was buried on the 10th at the Charlton 
cemetery. Leslie was seen on occasions as 
Sir Peter Teazle, Sir Anthony Absolute, 
Dr. Ollapod, the Governor of Tilbury Fort 
in the ' Critic,' Barlow in ' 100,000/.,' and 
Sir John Vesey in ' Money.' He had high 
gifts in light comedy, and his burlesque per- 
formances often had more than a touch of 
comedy. His voice, his figure, and his me- 
thod alike qualified him for burlesque, in 
which in his line he has had no equal. A 
good portrait is in Hollingshead's ' Gaiety 

[Personal recollections ; Hollingshead's Gaiety 
Chronicles; Era, 10 Dec. 1892; Scott and 
Howard's Blnnchard ; Dramatic Peerage ; 
Theatre and Era Almanack, various years.] 

J. K. 

1898), dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and 
Greek lexicographer, born at Binchester, 
near Bishop Auckland, 6 Feb. 1811, was the 
eldest child of the Rev. Henry George Lid- 
| dell (1787-1872), brother of Sir Thomas 
Liddell, bart., who was created Baron 
Ravensworth at the coronation of George IV. 
His mother, Charlotte Lyon, was niece of 
the eighth Earl of Strathmore. His younger 
brother, Charles Liddell (1813-1894), en- 
gineer, was assistant to George and then to 
Robert Stephenson. During the Crimean 
war he laid a cable, between Varna and 
Balaclava, but most of his work was done 
on railway construction ; among the lines 
he built were the Taff Vale and Aber- 
gavenny line and the Metropolitan extension 
to Aylesbury. He died at 24 Abingdon 
Street, Westminster, on 10 Aug. 1894 
(Times, 18 Aug.) 

Liddell was educated at Charterhouse 
School under Dr. John Russell (1787-1863) 
[q. v.], and entered Christ Church as a com- 
moner at Easter 1830, being appointed by 
Dean Smith to a studentship in December 
of the same year. In June 1833 he gained a 
double first-class, among his companions in 
the class list being George Canning (go- 
vernor-general of India), R. Lowe (Viscount 
Sherbrooke), W. E. Jelf, Robert Scott, and 
Jackson (bishop of London). He graduated 
B.A. in 1833, M.A. in 1835, and B.D. and 
D.D. in 1855. He became in due course 
tutor (1836) and censor (1845) of Christ 
Church, and in the latter year was elected 
to White's professorship of moral philosophy, 
and appointed Whitehall preacher by Bishop 




Blomfield. In January 1846 he was made 
domestic chaplain to H.Tt.H. Prince Albert, 
and in the summer of the same year was 
nominated by Dean. Gaisford to the head- 
mastership of Westminster School, vacant 
by the retirement of Dr. "Williamson. 

It was during his residence as tutor at 
Oxford that Liddell published the ' Greek- 
English Lexicon' which will always be asso- 
ciated wich his name. This important work 
was undertaken in conjunction with his 
brother-student and contemporary, Robert 
Scott (1811-1887) [q. v.], and the first 
edition was published, after labours ex- 
tending over nine years, in the summer of 
1843. It was based upon the ' Greek- 
German Lexicon ' of F. Passow, professor at 
Breslau and pupil of Jacobs and Hermann. 
Passow's name appeared on the title-page of 
the first three editions, but was afterwards 
omitted, as the book increased in volume, and 
a vast amount of new matter was continually 
added. Passow himself had spent his first 
efforts on the Greek of Homer and Hesiod ; 
to this he had added the Ionic prose of 
Herodotus ; but his early death in 1833, at 
the age of forty-six, had left his work quite 
incomplete. Much remained to be done, 
not only in the arrangement and method of 
treatment and illustration of the different 
meanings of words, but also in adding com- 
plete references to the principal Greek au- 
thors of various ages. The ' Lexicon ' was 
the constant companion of Liddell in spare 
moments throughout his life, long after Scott 
had ceased to be his coadjutor. The dates 
of the several editions are : 1st 1843. 2nd 
1845, 3rd 1 849, 4th 1855, 5th 1861, 6th 1869, 
7th (revised by Liddell alone) 1883, 8th 1897. 
The last two editions were electrotyped, 
and the last, embodying much new matter, 
was published when Liddell was in his 
eighty-seventh year. An abridgment of 
the ' Lexicon ' for the use of schools, pub- 
lished immediately after the first edition, 
and an ' Intermediate Lexicon,' published in 
1889, have rendered the labours of Liddell 
and Scott accessible to the beginners of 
Greek, as well as to the most advanced 

AVestminster School had much fallen in 
numbers when Liddell undertook the duties 
of head-master. Many changes were needed 
to restore its ancient reputation. New assis- 
tant-masters had to be appointed, newschool- 
books introduced, the range of subjects of 
study enlarged, and many old abuses swept 
away. Under Liddell's wise guidance, and 
through his own unsparing efforts, much 
good was effected, and the number of boys 
soon rose from between eighty and ninety to 

about 140. He was in many respects a very 
remarkable ruler, and his appointment in 
1852 as a member of the first Oxford Uni- 
versity Commission showed the confidence 
reposed in him by the government of the 
day. But the labours of that commission 
formed a serious addition to his school work, 
and an outbreak of typhoid fever, an unfor- 
tunate result of Dean Buckland's sanitary 
reforms, led to grave anxieties, and to a 
serious diminution in the numbers of the 
boys. Unable to carry out his wish to move 
the school to a new home in the country, 
and despairing of its growth and expansion 
in London, Liddell was glad to accept Lord 
Palmerston's offer of the deanery of Christ 
Church in June 1855, on the death of his 
old chief, Dean Gaisford. 

He held the deanery from the summer of 
1855 till his retirement in December 1891 
a period of more than thirty-six years, a 
longer tenure of the office than any former 
dean had enjoyed. It covered also an event- 
ful epoch in the history of Christ Church. 
The recommendations of the commission of 
which he had been an influential member 
were embodied in an ordinance which be- 
came law in 1858, under which two of the 
eight canonries were suppressed, and the 
powers of the dean and chapter were largely 
curtailed, their ancient right of nominating 
to studentships being taken away, and a 
board of electors established, consisting of 
the dean, six canons, and the six senior 
members of the educational staff, who were 
to examine and select, after open competi- 
tion, all students except those who were 
drawn from Westminster School. Instead 
of the old number of 101 students, there 
were for the future to be twenty-eight senior 
students (answering in some respects to 
fellows of other colleges) and fifty-two 
junior studentships, twenty-one annexed to 
Westminster School, and the rest open to 

This ordinance remained in force till 1867. 
But it satisfied nobody ; the senior students 
especially demanding a place in the admini- 
stration of the property of their house, of 
which the dean and chapter had always en- 
joyed the sole management. After much 
controversy a private commission of five dis- 
tinguished men was appointed, who drew 
up a new scheme of government, which all 
parties agreed to abide by, and which was 
embodied in the Christ Church Oxford Act, 
1867. Under this act a new governing 
body was created, consisting of the dean, 
canons, and senior students, who were to be 
the owners and managers of the property. 
The rights of the chapter as a cathedral 


9 6 


body were at the same time carefully 
guarded. Liddell had taken a prominent 
part in both these reforms, and lived to see 
and to guide a third change, which came 
after the parliamentary commission of 1877, 
by which the studentships were divided into 
two classes, with different conditions of 
tenure and emoluments. 

Dean Liddell's time will always be asso- 
ciated with great alterations and additions 
to the buildings of Christ Church. The new 
block of buildings fronting the meadow was 
erected in 1862-5, the great quadrangle was 
brought to its present state, and the cathe- 
dral, chapter-house, and cloisters were care- 
fully restored. 

In all matters relating to the university 
Dean Liddell exercised considerable autho- 
rity during many years. The Clarendon 
Press owes very much to his enlightened 
and prudent guidance ; his refined artistic 
tastes, and lifelong friendship with Ruskin, 
led him to take a deep interest in the uni- 
versity galleries. He was vice-chancellor 
1870-4, and discharged with singular dignity 
and efficiency the duties of that important 
office, which had not been held by a dean 
of Christ Church since the days of Dean 
Aldrich (1692-4). As a ruler of his college 
he was somewhat stern and unsympathetic 
in demeanour, but he became more kindly 
as he advanced in years, and his rare and 
noble presence, high dignity, and unswerving 
justice gained the respect and gradually the 
affection of all members of his house. He 
was created hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in 1884, and hon. D.C.L. of Oxford 
in 1893. On Stanley's death he was offered 
but refused the deanery of Westminster. 

After his resignation of the deanery in 
December 1891 he lived in retirement at 
Ascot till his death there on 18 Jan. 1898. 
His body lies at Christ Church, outside the 
southern wall of the sanctuary of the cathe- 
dral, close by the grave of his daughter 
Edith, who died in 1876. 

Dean Liddell married, on 2 July 1846, 
Lorina, daughter of James Reeve, a member 
of a Norfolk family. Three sons and four 
daughters survived him. 

In addition to the ' Greek Lexicon,' 
Dean Liddell published in 1855 ' A History 
of Ancient Rome,' 2 vols. This work was 
subsequently (1871) abridged, and as ' The 
Student's History of Rome to the Establish- 
ment of the Empire ' has a permanent circu- 
lation. He rarely published sermons ; the 
best known of them, preached before the 
university of Oxford on 3 Nov. 1867, dealt 
with the philosophical basis of the real 

There are two portraits in oil of Dean 
! Liddell ; one, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., is in 
1 the hall of Christ Church. This was pre- 
sented to the dean, at the gaudy of 1876, 
in commemoration of the completion of his 
twentieth year of office. The other, by Mr. 
Hubert Herkomer, II. A., was painted in 1891, 
| and presented by the painter to the university 
galleries. There is also an exquisite crayon 
drawing by George Richmond, R.A. (1858), 
which has been engraved. These, together 
with a portrait of Liddell at the age of 
twenty-eight by George Cruikshank, are re- 
produced in the present writer's ' Memoir ' 

[Memoir of H. G. Liddell, D.D., 1899, by 
the present writer.] H. L. T. 

j MAS LITTLETON, 1833-1896.] 

LINDLEY, WILLIAM (1808-1900), 
civil engineer, son of Joseph Lindley of 
Heath, Yorkshire, was born in London on 
7 Sept. 1808. He was educated at Croydon 
and in Germany, in which country he was 
afterwards to make his name as an engineer. 
In 1827 he became a pupil of Francis Giles, 
and was chiefly engaged in railway work. 
! He was in 1838 appointed engineer-in-chief 
] to the Hamburg and Bergedorf railway, and 
it was in the city of Hamburg that the en- 
| gineering work by which he will be remem- 
bered was carried out for the next twenty- 
j two years. He designed and supervised the 
I construction of the Hamburg sewerage and 
water works, of the drainage and reclama- 
' tion of the low-lying ' Hamrnerbrook' dis- 
trict, much of which is now a valuable part 
of the city, and he drew out the plans for 
rebuilding the city after the disastrous fire 
of May 1842. He was in fact responsible 
for most of the engineering and other works 
which have changed the ancient Hanseatic 
city into one of the greatest modern seaports 
of Europe. His water supply for Hamburg 
was the first complete system of the kind, 
now usually adopted on the continent, and his 
sewerage arrangements contained many prin- 
ciples novel at that time, though since com- 
monly adopted. He left Hamburg in 1860, 
and in 1865 he was appointed consulting en- 
gineer to the city of Frankfort-on-Main. He 
designed and carried out complete sewerage 
works for that city. Here again many im- 
provements were for the first time adopted, 
and this system has become more or less 
typical for similar works on the continent. 
He retired from active work in 1879. He 
joined the Institution of Civil Engineers in 
1842, and was for many years a member of 




the Smeatonian Society of Engineers, be- 
coming president of it in 1864. He died at 
his residence, 74 Shooter's Hill Road, Black- 
heath, on 22 May 1900. 

[Obituary notices ; Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers, 
cxxxvi.] ' T. H. B. 

LINDSAY, COLIN (1819-1892), founder 
of the English Church Union, born at Mun- 
caster Castle on 6 Dec. 1819, was fourth 
son of James Lindsay, twenty-fourth earl of 
Crawford and seventh earl of Balcarres, by 
his wife Maria Margaret Frances, daughter 
of John Penington, first baron Muncaster. 
After some private tuition he was sent to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he came 
under the influence of the high-church 
movement. He did not graduate, and on 
29 July 1845 married Lady Frances, daughter 
and coheiress of William Howard, fourth 
earl of Wicklow. His early married life 
was passed on his father's estate near Wigan, 
and he took an active part in local affairs. 
As churchwarden of All Saints', Wigan, he 
was largely responsible for the careful 
restoration of that church. He was founder 
and president of the Manchester Church 
Society, which through his exertions amal- 
gamated with other similar associations and 
became in 1860 the English Church Union. 
Of this body Lindsay was president from 
1860 to 1867, and he devoted himself en- 
thusiastically to the work of the society. 
During these years he lived at Brighton, 
but in 1870 he removed to London. 

Meanwhile his researches in ecclesiastical 
history convinced him of the untenability 
of the Anglican position. His wife had 
already joined the Roman catholic church 
on 13 Sept. 1866, and on 28 Nov. 1868 
Lindsay was himself received into that 
church by Cardinal Newman at the Bir- 
mingham Oratory. He gave an account of 
the reasons for his secession in the intro- 
ductory epistle to his ' Evidence for the 
Papacy' (London, 1870, 8vo). In that 
work Lindsay appeared as a staunch cham- 
pion of extreme papal claims, and he further 
expounded these views in his ' De Ecclesia 
et Cathedra, or the Empire Church of Jesus 
Christ' (London, 1877, 2 vols. 8vo). He 
also defended Mary Queen of Scots in 
' Mary Queen of Scots and her Marriage 
with BothwelT (London, 1883, 8vo; re- 
printed from the 'Tablet'), in which he 
declared that there remained ' not a single 
point in her moral character open to attack.' 
In 1877 Lindsay retired to Deer Park, 
Honiton, which his wife had inherited in 
1856. The pope granted him the rare privi- 
lege of having mass celebrated there or in 


whatever house he might be living. He died 
in London at 22 Elvaston Place, Queen's 
Gate, on 28 Jan. 1892. He and his wife, who 
died on 20 Aug. 1897, were buried at St. 
Thomas's Roman catholic church, Fulham. 
He left five sons and three daughters, of 
whom the eldest son, Mr. William Alexander 
Lindsay, K.C., is Windsor herald. 

Besides the writings mentioned above, 
Lindsay was author of various minor works, 
of which a full bibliography is given in Mr. 
Joseph Gillow's ' Dictionary of English 
Catholics.' The most important is 'The 
Royal Supremacy and Church Emancipa- 
tion ' (London, 1865, 8vo), in which Lindsay 
defined the view taken of the establishment 
by the English Church Union. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; English Church 
Union Calendar; Burke's Peerage ; Times, 
30 Jan. 1892- Manchester Guardian, 1 Feb. 
1892; Tablet, Ixxix. 233; Boase's Modern 
English Biography ; Gillow's Dictionary of 
English Catholics.] A. F. P. 

1862), electrician and philologist, was born 
at Carmyllie, Forfarshire, on 8 Sept. 1799. 
But for the delicacy of his constitution he 
would have been a farmer, like his father, 
who apprenticed him to a local hand-loom 
weaver. From an early age he displayed a 
taste for study, and matriculated at St. 
Andrews University in October 1822, work- 
ing at his trade duringthe recess, and earning 
some money by private tuition. Having 
finished his arts course he entered on the 
study of theology and completed his curri- 
culum, but was never licensed as a preacher. 
He had gained special honours in mathe- 
matics and physical science, and in 1829 he 
was appointed lecturer on these subjects at 
the Watt Institution, Dundee, and organised 
classes in electricity and magnetism. In a 
fragment of autobiography, preserved in the 
Dundee Museum, he states that on Oersted's 
discovery of the deflection of the magnetic 
needle by an electric current in 1820 he 
' had a clear view of the application of elec- 
tricity to telegraphic communication.' The 
electric light, which had been produced and 
described by Sir Humphry Davy [q. v.l in 
1812, attracted his attention, and he devised 
' many contrivances for augmenting it and 
rendering it constant.' In the local news- 
papers it is recorded, on 25 July 1835, that 
Lindsay delivered a lecture, at which he ex- 
hibited the electric light, and foretold that 
' the present generation may yet have it 
burning in their houses and enlightening 
their streets.' Unfortunately a philological 
craze diverted him from his experiments. 



9 8 


While at the university he had become in- 
terested in comparative philology, and in 
1828 he had begun to compile a Pente- 
contaglossal dictionary, from which he ex- 
pected to obtain a high reputation. For 
more than a quarter of a century he devoted 
all his spare time to it, but it was not com- 
pleted at his death, and the manuscript is 
now in the Dundee Museum, a gigantic 
monument of misapplied labour. To direct 
attention to his plan, Lindsay published in 
1846 his ' Pentecontaglossal Paternoster,' 
being versions of the Lord's Prayer in fifty 
different languages. In 1858 he published 
the ' Chrono-Astrolabe, a full set of Astro- 
nomical Tables,' intended to assist in calcu- 
lating chronological periods, and in 1861 'A 
Treatise on Baptism.' 

So early as 1832 he had demonstrated the 
possibility of an electric telegraph by ex- 
periments in his class-room. About the same 
time Schilling, and in 1833 Gauso and 
Weber, set up practical electric telegraphs. 
In the ' Dundee Advertiser ' for 6 May 1845 
Lindsay described a new method of tele- 
graphing messages, which he called the auto- 
graph electric telegraph. Instead of the 
twenty-four wires then used for telegraphing 
he suggested that two would be sufficient ; 
and he proposed that the return current, say 
from Arbroath to Dundee, could be carried 
by water if one plate was inserted in the 
sea at Arbroath and another in the Tay at 
Dundee. In a letter to the 'Northern 
Warder,' a Dundee newspaper, on 26 June 
1845, Lindsay proposed a transatlantic tele- 
graph, by means of uninsulated copper wire, 
and suggested that the wire joints might be 
welded by electricity. In 1853 he announced, 
in a lecture on telegraphy delivered in 
Dundee on 15 March, that by establishing a 
battery on one side of the Atlantic and a 
receiver on the other, a current could be 
passed through the ocean to America with- 
out wires. He patented this method of wire- 
less telegraphy on 5 June 1854, and during 
that year made experiments on this plan at 
Earl Grey dock, Dundee ; across the Tay, near 
Dundee; and at Portsmouth. The latter 
experiments are described in 'Chambers's 
Journal' for 1854. In September 1859 
Lindsay read a paper ' On Telegraphing 
without Wires ' before the British Associa- 
tion at Aberdeen, and conducted practical 
experiments at Aberdeen docks, which were 
highly commended by Lord Rosse, Professor 
Faraday, and Sir G. B. Airy. 

While Lindsay was thus experimenting 
he was living in extreme penury. In March 
1841 he was appointed teacher in Dundee 
prison at a salary of 50/. per annum, and 

I this post he retained till October 1858, 
j when the Earl of Derby, then prime mini- 
j ster, conferred upon him a pension of 1001. 
\ ' in recognition of his great learning and 
extraordinary attainments.' He thencefor- 
ward devoted himself to scientific pursuits. 
j For years before he had starved himself 
I that he might purchase books and scien- 
tific instruments, and when disease came 
upon him his emaciated frame could not 
throw it off. In 1862 he became seriously 
ill, and, after five days' extreme suffering, 
he died on 29 June, and was interred in the 
Western cemetery, Dundee. By a strange 
error his tombstone gives 1863 as the year 
of his death. Despite his straitened cir- 
cumstances, the library which he left was 
valued at 1,300 A An enlarged photograph 
of Lindsay is in the Dundee Museum, and 
a marble bust of him, by George Webster, 
was presented to Dundee by ex-Lord Provost 
McGrady in 1899, on the centenary of 
Lindsay's birth, and is in the Dundee Pic- 
ture Gallery. 

[Information kindlysuppliedbyDr.C. H. Lees; 
Rosenberger, Geschichte der Physik, vol. ii. 
passim; Nome's Dundee Celebrities, p. 112; 
Kerr's Wireless Telegraphy ; Fahie's Wireless 
Telegraphy, 1899 ; Dundee Advertiser. 31 July, 
30 Oct. 1835, 18 March 1853, 7 Sept. 1899; 
Spectator, January 1849; Report of the British 
Association, 1859, p. 13; Robertson's James 
Bowman Lindsay, 1896 ; Electrical Engineer, 
January 1899.] A. H. M. 

LINTON, ELIZA LYNN (1822-1898), 
novelist and miscellaneous writer, was the 
youngest daughter of the Rev. James Lynn, 
vicar of Crosthwaite, Cumberland, and Char- 
lotte, daughter of Samuel Goodenough [q. v.l, 
bishop of Carlisle, and was born at Keswick 
on 10 Feb. 1822. Her mother died when she 
was an infant, and Mrs. Lynn Linton's youth 
was spent uneasily from her inability to ac- 
commodate herself to the ideas of her family. 
In 1845 she departed for London, provided 
with a year's allowance from her father, and 
resolved to establish herself as a woman of 
letters. With little knowledge of the world, 
she had a large stock of antique learning de- 
rived from her father's library ; and her first 
attempts in fiction not unnaturally dealt with 
the past. Neither her scholarship nor her 
imagination was equal to recreating Egypt 
or Greece, but ' Azeth the Egyptian ' (1846) 
and ' Amymone, a Romance of the Days of 
Pericles' (3 vols. 1848), manifested vehement 
eloquence and brilliant colouring. These gifts 
were no adequate equipment for the delinea- 
tion of modern life ; and Miss Lynn's next 
novel, though entitled 'Realities' (1851), was 
universally censured for its glaring unreality. 




Discouraged, as would appear, she accepted 
an engagement as newspaper correspondent 
at Paris, where she remained till about 
1854, and almost abandoned fiction for 
several years ; her chief work of this period, 
' Witch Stories,' being founded, if not pre- 
cisely upon fact, yet upon superstitions 
accepted as facts in their day, and of the 
most dismal and repulsive nature. They 
originally appeared in 'All the Year Round,' 
and were reprinted in 1861 (new edit. 1883). 
In the interim she had gained the friendship 
of Landor, who treated her with paternal 
affection. She was bitterly dissatisfied with 
Forster's biography of him, and criticised it 
with extreme severity in the ' North British 
Review.' She was also brought into relation 
with Dickens by his purchase of the house 
at Gad's Hill which she had inherited. In 
1858 she married William James Linton 
[q. v. Suppl.], the engraver. Linton was a 
widower, and it has been said that her motive 
was a wish to test her theories of education 
upon his orphan children ; but it was more 
probably compliance with the wish of the 
deceased wife, whom she had nursed in her 
last illness. However this may be, the 
mutual incompatibility was soon apparent, 
and the parties amicably separated, although 
Mrs. Linton visited her husband from time 
to time until his departure for America in 
1867, and one of the orphans continued to 
reside with her stepmother for some time, 
and she never ceased to correspond with her 
husband. She also wrote a description of 
the Lake country (1864, 4to), where she re- 
sided during her domestication with her hus- 
band, by whom it was illustrated. Mrs. 
Linton, on her separation from her husband, 
returned to fiction, adopting a manner widely 
dissimilar to that of her early works. Hav- 
ing previously been romantic and imagina- 
tive, she now demonstrated that experience 
of the world had made her a very clear- 
headed and practical writer, excellent in 
construction, vigorous in style, entirely 
competent to meet the demands of the 
average novel-reader, but bereft of the 
glow of enthusiasm which had suffused her 
earlier works. There were nevertheless two 
notable exceptions to the generally mechani- 
cal manifestations of her talent. ' Joshua 
Davidson,' which was published in 1872, and 
went through six editions in two years, is a 
daring but in no respect irreverent adapta- 
tion of the gospel story to the circumstances 
of modern life, placing the antithesis be- 
tween humane sentiment and ' the survival 
of the fittest ' in a light which commanded 
attention, and with a force which irre- 
sistibly stimulated thought. Her other 

remarkable book, 'The Autobiography of 
Christopher Kirkland' (1885), is remarkable 
indeed as achieving what it is said that even 
an act of parliament cannot do turning a 
woman into a man. It is in a large mea- 
sure her own autobiography, curiously in- 
verted by her assumption of a masculine 
character, and, apart from the interest of 
the narrative itself, this strange metamor- 
phosis, once perceived, is a source of con- 
tinual entertainment. It gives her own 
version of her conjugal incompatibilities, and 
has striking portraits of Panizzi, Douglas 
Cook, and other remarkable persons with 
whom she had been brought into contact. 
Of her more ordinary novels, all popular in 
their day, the most remarkable were ' Grasp 
your Nettle' (1865), 'Patricia Kemball' 
(1874), ' The Atonement of Learn Dundas' 
(1877), and ' Under which Lord ? ' (1879). 
Mrs. Linton had a special talent for 
journalism ; she had contributed to the 
' Morning Chronicle ' as early as 1848, and 
continued a member of its staff until 1851. 
Writing for the press became more and more 
her vocation during her latter years. She 
became connected with the ' Saturday Re- 
view' in 1866, and for many years was a 
much-valued contributor of essays to the 
middle part of the paper. One of these, 
' The Girl of the Period '(14 March 1868), an 
onslaught on some modern developments of 
feminine manners and character, created a 
great sensation, and the number in which it 
had appeared continued to be inquired for for 
many years. It was certainly incisive, and 
was probably thought opportune ; but, like 
her kindred disquisitions unfriendly to the 
cause of ' women's rights,' it estranged and 
offended many of her own sex. These papers 
were reprinted as ' The Girl of the Period, 
and other Essays ' (1883, 2 vols.) A similar 
series of essays was entitled ' Ourselves ' 
(1870 ; new edit. 1884). She contributed to 
many other journals and reviews, and always 
with effect. In 1891 she published ' An 
Octave of Friends,' and in 1897 wrote a 
volume on George Eliot for a series entitled 
' Women Novelists of Queen Victoria's 
Reign.' This displayed a regrettable acerbity, 
which might easily be attributed to motives 
that probably did not influence her. She 
was kind-hearted and generous, and especially 
amiable to young people of intellectual pro- 
mise ; but her speech and pen were sharp, and 
she was prone to act upon impulse. She 
hated injustice, and was not always suffi- 
ciently careful to commit none herself. Her 
independent spirit and her appetite for work 
were highly to her honour. Her last book, 
' My Literary Life,' was published posthu- 





mously, with a prefatory note by Miss Bea- 
trice Harraden, in 1899. She usually lived 
in London, but about three years before her 
death retired to Brougham House, Malvern. 
She died at Queen Anne's Mansions, London, 
on 14 July 1898. A posthumous portrait 
was painted by the Hon. John Collier for 
presentation to the public library at Keswick, 
and a drawing by Samuel Laurence, taken 
when she was twenty, is in the possession of 
the Rev. Augustus Gedge, her brother-in-law. 
[The principal authority for Mrs. Linton's 
life is Eliza Lynn Linton, her Life, Letters, and 
Opinions, by George Somes Layard, 1901. See 
also My Literary Life, 1899 ; Men and Women 
of the Time; Athenaeum, 23 July 1898.] 

R. G. 

1898), engraver, poet, and political reformer, 
was born in Ireland's Row, Mile End 
Road, on 7 Dec. 1812. His father, whose 
calling is not recorded, was of Scottish ex- 
traction, the son of ' an Aberdeen ship 
carpenter with some pretensions to be 
called an architect.' His younger brother, 
Henry Duff Linton (1812-1899), who was 
also a wood-engraver, and was associated 
with W. J. Linton in many of his earlier 
productions, died at Norbiton, Surrey, in 
June 1899 (Times, 23 June 1899). 

Linton received his education at a school 
in Stratford, and in 1828 was apprenticed 
to the wood-engraver George WilmotBonner, 
with whom he continued for six years. He 
subsequently worked with Powis and with 
Thompson, and in 1836 became associated 
with John Orrin Smith [q. v.], then intro- 
ducing great improvements into English 
wood-engraving. About the same time he 
married the sister of Thomas Wade [q. v.] the 
poet, after whose death he wedded another 
sister. He now began to mingle in literary 
circles, and to make himself conspicuous as 
a political agitator. Under the influence of 
his enthusiasm for Shelley and Lamennais, 
whose ' Words of a Believer ' were among 
the gospels of the time, he had adopted 
advanced views in religion and extreme 
views in politics, and, while throwing him- 
self with ardour into the chartist move- 
ment, went beyond it in professing himself 
a republican. He was especially connected 
with Henry Hetherington [q. v.J and James 
Watson (1799-1874) [q. v.J, the publishers 
of unstamped newspapers, and in 1839 
himself established ' The National,' designed 
as a vehicle for the reprint of extracts from 
political and philosophical publications in- 
accessible to working men. It had no long 

In 1842 Linton became partner with his 

employer, Orrin Smith, but the partnership 
was dissolved by the latter's death in the fol- 
lowing year. During their connection Linton 
had done much important work, especially on 
' The Illustrated News,' established in 1842. 
He was also active in literature. Through 
his brother-in-law Wade he had become in- 
timate with the circle that gathered around 
W. J. Fox and R. H. Home in the latter 
days of ' The Monthly Repository,' and with 
their aid, after an unsuccessful experiment 
in ' The Illustrated Family Journal, he suc- 
ceeded (1845) Douglas Jerrold as editor of 
The Illuminated Magazine,' where he pub- 
lished many interesting contributions from 
writers of more merit than popularity. 
Among these were 'A Royal Progress,' a 
poem of considerable length by Sarah Flower 
Adams [q. v.], not hitherto printed else- 
where, and specimens of the ' Stories after 
Nature' of Charles Jeremiah Wells [q. v.], 
almost the only known copy of which Linton 
himself had picked off a bookstall. Their 
publication elicited a new story from Wells, 
which Linton subsequently dramatised 
under its own title of ' Claribel.' 

As a politician Linton was at this time 
chiefly interested in the patriotic designs 
of Mazzini, with whom he formed an in- 
timate friendship, and the violation of whose 
correspondence at the post office in 1844 he 
was instrumental in exposing. The chartist 
movement had passed under the direction 
of Feargus O'Connor [q. v.], whom Linton 
distrusted and despised, and he had little 
connection with it ; of the free-trade leaders, 
W. J. Fox excepted, he had a still worse 
opinion, and continued to denounce them 
with virulence throughout his life. An 
acquaintance with Charles (now Sir Charles) 
Gavan Duffy led him to contribute political 
verse to the Dublin ' Nation ' under the 
signature of ' Spartacus.' In 1847 he took a 
prominent part in founding the ' International 
League ' of patriots of all nations, for which 
the events of the following year seemed to 
provide ample scope, but which came to 
nothing. The more limited and practical 
movement of ' The Friends of Italy ' was 
supported by him. In 1850 he was con- 
cerned with Thornton Hunt and G. H. 
Lewes in the establishment of 'The 
Leader,' which he expected to make the 
organ of republicanism, but he soon dis- 
covered his associates' lukewarmness in 
political matters, and quitted ' The Leader ' 
to found ' The English Republic,' a monthly 
journal published and originally printed 
at Leeds. After a while Linton carried 
on the printing under his own superinten- 
dence at Brantwood, a house which he had 



acquired in the Lake country, since cele- 
brated as the residence of Ruskin. He had 
previously lived at Miteside in Northumber- 
land, which, as well as his intimate friendship 
with William Bell Scott [q. v.], had made 
him acquainted with a circle of zealous 
political reformers at Newcastle ; there 
he published anonymously in 1852 ' The 
Plaint of Freedom,' a series of poems in 
the metre of ' In Memoriam,' which gained 
him the friendship and the encomiums, for 
once not undeserved, of Walter Savage 
Landor. In 1855 ' The English Republic ' 
was discontinued, and Linton commenced an 
artistic periodical, ' Pen and Pencil,' which 
did not enjoy a long existence. In this year 
he lost his wife and returned to London, 
where, devoting himself anew to his profes- 
sion, he firmly established his reputation as 
the best wood-engraver of his day, and was 
in special request for book illustration. His 
engravings of the pre-Raphaelite artists' de- 
signs for Moxon's illustrated Tennyson were 
among his most successful productions; if 
iustice was not always done to the original 
drawing, the fault was not in the engraver, 
but in the imperfections of engraving pro- 
cesses upon wood before the introduction of 
photography. In 1858 Linton married Miss 
Eliza Lynn, the celebrated novelist, best 
known under her married name of Linton 
[q. v. Suppl.] The union did not prove for- 
tunate : the causes are probably not unfairly 
intimated in Mrs. Linton's autobiographical 
novel of ' Christopher Kirkland ' (1885). It 
terminated in an amicable separation, in- 
volving the disposal of the house at Brant- 
wood to Ruskin, 'pleasantly arranged,' says 
Linton, ' in a couple of letters.' He re- 
mained for some time in London, following 
his profession. The covers of the ' Cornhill' 
and ' Macmillan's ' magazines were engraved 
by him ; he brought out ' The Works of De- 
ceased British 'Artists,' and illustrated his 
wife's work on the Lake country. In 1865 
he published his drama of ' Claribel,' with 
other poems, including two early ones of re- 
markable merit, a powerful narrative in 
blank verse of Grenville's sea-fight celebrated 
in Tennyson's ' Revenge,' and an impressive 
meditation symbolising his own political 
aspirations, put into the mouth of Henry 
Marten [q.v.] imprisoned in Chepstow Castle. 
In November 1866 Linton went to the 
United States. He had intended only a 
short visit in connection with a project for 
aiding democracy in Italy, but he found a 
wider field for the exercise of his art opened 
to him than at home, and he mainly devoted 
the rest of his life to the regeneration of 
American wood-engraving. He established 

himself at Appledore, a farmhouse near 
New Haven in Connecticut, gathered dis- 
ciples around him, and by precept and 
example was accomplishing great things, 
when his career was checked by the intro- 
duction of cheap ' process ' methods, inevi- 
table when the art has become so largely 
popularised, but always regarded by him 
with the strongest objection. At first 
he sent his blocks to New York, but ulti- 
mately bought a press, and conducted both 
printing and engraving under his own roof. 
For the literary furtherance of his views on 
art he produced ' Practical Hints on Wood 
Engraving,' 1879 ; 'A History of Wood En- 
graving in America/ 1882, and ' Wood En- 
graving, a Manual of Instruction/ 1884. 
During a visit to England in 1883 and 1884 
he began his great work called 'The Masters 
of Wood Engraving.' This book was based 
upon two hundred photographs from the 
works of the great masters, which he began 
in 1884 in the print-room of the British 
Museum. Returning to New Haven he 
wrote his book, printed it in three copies, 
and mounted the photographs himself, and 
in 1887 returned to England, bringing one 
of the copies to be reproduced under his 
superintendence in London. The work ap- 
peared in folio in 1890. 

Meanwhile his private press at Appledore 
had been active in another department, pro- 
ducing charming little volumes of original 
verse, much prized by collectors, such as 
' Windfalls,' ' Love Lore/ and ' The Golden 
Apples of Hesperus/ the latter an anthology 
of little-known pieces, partly reproduced in 
another collection edited by him, 'Rare 
Poems of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries ' (New Haven, 1882, 8vo). In 1883 
he published an extensive anthology of Eng- 
lish poetry in conjunction with R. H. Stod- 
dard. In 1879 he wrote the life of his old 
friend, James Watson, the intrepid pub- 
lisher, and contributed his recollections to 
the republished poems of another old friend, 
Ebenezer Jones [q.v.] In 1889 ' Love Lore/ 
with selections from ' Claribel ' and other 
pieces, was published in London under the 
title of ' Poems and Translations.' A collec- 
tion of pamphlets and contributions by 
himself to periodical literature, comprising 
twenty volumes (1836-86), and entitled 
' Prose and Verse/ is in the British Museum 
Library. After his final return to America 
in 1892, though upwards of eighty, he 
produced a life of Whittier in the ' Great 
Writers ' series (1893), and his own 'Me- 
mories/ an autobiography full of spirit and 
buoyancy, which might with advantage 
have been more full, in 1895. He died at 




New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A., on 1 Jan. 

Linton's fame as an engraver is widely 
spread, but he has never received justice as 
a poet. His more ambitious attempts, 
though often true poetry, are of less account 
than the little snatches of song which came 
to him in his later years, bewitching in 
their artless grace, and perhaps nearer than 
the work of any other modern poet to the 
words written for music in the days of 
Elizabeth and James. Produced at so 
late a period of life, these lyrics evince 
an indomitable vitality. They were dedi- 
cated to a coeval, William Bell Scott [q.v.], 
who wrote : ' All his later poems are on love, I 
a fact that baffles me to understand.' His j 
translations of French lyrics are masterly, 
and his anthologies prove his acquaintance 
with early and little-known English poetry. 
As a man he was amiable and helpful, full 
of kind actions and generous enthusiasms. 
His indifference to order and impatience of 
restraint, though trying to those most nearly 
connected with him, were not incompatible 
with exemplary industry in undertakings j 
that interested him. His most serious de- 
fect, the 'carelessness of pecuniary obliga- 
tion,' which he himself imputes to Leigh 
Hunt, mainly sprang from the sanguine 
temperament which so long preserved the 
freshness of the author and the vigour of the 

Photographic portraits of Linton at ad- 
vanced periods of life are prefixed to his 
' Poems and Translations ' (1889), and to his 
' Memories,' 1895. 

[Linton's Memories, 1895; G. S. Layard's 
Life of Mrs. Lynn Linton, 1901 ; Mr. A. H. 
Bullen in Mi les's Poets of the Century; article 
on W. J. Linton by Mr. J. F. Kitto in English 
Illustrated Magazine, 1891 ; Times, 3 Jan. 
1898; Athenaeum, 8 and 15 Jan. 1898 ; personal 
knowledge.] R. Gr. 

1893), classical and Shakespearean scholar, 
the second son of David Lloyd of Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, was born at Homerton, Mid- 
dlesex, 11 March 1813. He was educated 
at the grammar school of Newcastle- under- 
Lyme, Staffordshire, and made so much 
progress that the master, the Rev. John An- j 
derton, offered to contribute towards the 
fees of a university course. At the age of 
fifteen, however, he was placed in the 
counting-house of his cousins, Messrs. John 
and Francis Lloyd, the tobacco manufac- 
turers of 77 Snow Hill, London, of which i 
firm he afterwards became a partner ; he 
retired from business in 1864. For a period 
of thirty-six vears his davs were devoted j 

to uncongenial duties and his nights to 
books. At one time he lived at Snow Hill, 
and for many years never left London. 
With an inborn love for learning he added 
to a solid basis of Greek and Latin a wide 
knowledge of modern languages and litera- 
tures, as well as of ancient art, history, and 
archaeology. To these pursuits every leisure 
hour, even to the close of his life, was 
applied. The firstfruit of his studies was 
an historical and mythological essay on the 
' Xanthian Marbles : the Nereid Monument ' 
(1845), followed by other contributions on 
subjects of Greek antiquities, some printed 
in the ' Classical Museum.' In 1854 he sup- 
plied certain ' Arguments ' to Owen Jones's 
' Apology for the Colouring of the Greek 
Court in the Crystal Palace.' In the same 
year he was elected a member of the Society 
of Dilettanti, chiefly through the friendly 
offices of Monckton Milnes (afterwards Lord 
Houghton). Until his death he ' was one of 
the principal guides and advisers of the Dilet- 
tanti in their archaeological undertakings,' 
and acted temporarily as secretary and trea- 
surer in 1888 and 1889 (CusT, History of 
the Soc. of Dilettanti, 1898, pp. 187, 206). 

As a labour of love he supplied essays on 
the life and plays of Shakespeare to S. W. 
Singer's edition of the poet published in 
1856 (2nd ed. 1875). The essays show acute 
criticism and thorough knowledge of Eliza- 
bethan literature, and were collected by the 
author in a private reprint (1858, and re- 
issued without the life in 1875 and 1888). 
A memoir on the system of proportion em- 
ployed in the design of ancient Greek temples 
was added by him to C. R. Cockerell's 
' Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius at ^Egina 
and of Apollo Epicurius,' published in 1860. 
The subject was also treated in ' A General 
Theory of Proportion in Architectural De- 
sign and its Exemplification in Detail in the 
Parthenon, with illustrative engravings ' 
(London, 1863, 4to ; lecture delivered before 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
13 June 1859), his most original work, of 
which the conclusions have since met with 
wide approval. His literary interests were 
now turned in a different direction, and he 
published ' The Moses of Michael Angelo : a 
Study of Art, History, and Legend' (1863, 
8vo), followed by ' Christianity in the Car- 
toons, referred to Artistic Treatment and 
Historic Fact ' (1865, 8vo), in which artistic 
criticism is coupled with a free treatment of 
religious matters, and ' Philosophy, Theo- 
logy, and Poetry in the Age and Art of 
Rafael ' (1866, large 8vo). In 1868 he mar- 
ried Ellen Brooker, second daughter of Lionel 
John Beale, and sister of Dr. Lionel S. Beale. 




Ancient Greek history and art were the sub- 
jects of his next two publications, perhaps 
the most generally interesting of his writings: 
' The History of Sicily to the Athenian War, 
with Elucidations of the Sicilian Odes of 
Pindar ' (1872, 8vo), and ' The Age of Peri- 
cles : a History of the Politics and Arts of 
Greece from the Persian to the Peloponne- 
sian War' (1875, 2 vols. 8vo), the last a 
complete conception of the social life and 
art of Greece at its highest point. In 1882 
he delivered four lectures on the ' Iliad ' and 
' Odyssey ' at the Royal Institution, of which 
body he acted as one of the managers from 
1879 to 1881. He was elected a member of 
the Athenaeum Club in 1875, and for many 
years was an active member of the com- 
mittee of the London Library. He was a 
correspondent of the archaeological societies 
of Rome and Palermo. 

Lloyd died at 43 Upper Gloucester Place, 
Regent's Park, on 22 Dec. 1893 in his eighty- 
first year, leaving a widow (d. 1900), a son, 
and a daughter. His portrait by Miss Bush 
was bequeathed to the Society of Dilettanti 
(CusT, History, p. 236). Another portrait 
by Sir William Richmond, R.A., is in the 
possession of the family. 

Watkiss Lloyd was a remarkable instance 
of a lifelong devotion to learning, stamped 
by disinterested self-denial. Without a 
university training, and never recognised 
by any academic body, he had the strong 
qualities and some of the weaknesses of the 
self-taught. His books manifest con- 
scientious industry, originality, and sound 
scholarship; but while his judgment was 
solid and his thought clear, he was not en- 
dowed with the faculty of expressing his 
ideas in attractive literary form. Power of 
condensation and artistic arrangement of 
materials were wanting. One half of his life 
was passed in solitude, but during the last 
half he mixed in the world, and the angu- 
larities of the student became softened. 
He was a charming talker, modest, unpe- 
dantic, and a staunch friend. In personal 
appearance he was tall and impressive ; even 
to the end he was strikingly upright in car- 
riage, and showed few outward signs of his 
advanced age. 

Besides the books above mentioned, he 
published: 1. 'Explanation of the Groups 
in the Western Pediment of the Parthenon,' 
London, 1847, 8vo (from ' Classical Mu- 
seum,' pt. 18) ; ' The Central Group of the 
Panathenaic Frieze ' (from ' Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Lit.' n.s. vol. v. 1854) ; ' The Eastern 
Pediment of the Parthenon' (from ib. n.s. 
vol. vii. 1862). 2. 'Artemis Elaphebolos: 
an Archaeological Essay,' London, 1847, 8vo 

(privately printed). 3. ' The Portland Vase,' 
London, 1848, 8vo. 4. 'Homer, his Art 
and Age,' London, 1848, 8vo (Nos. 3 and 
4 reprinted from the ' Classical Museum '). 
5. ' The Eleventh of Pindar's Pythian Odes,' 
London, 1849, 8vo. 6. ' On the Homeric 
Design of the Shield of Achilles,' London, 
1854, large 8vo. 7. ' Pindar and Themisto- 
cles,' London, 1862, 8vo (a prose translation 
of Pindar's eighth Nemean ode). 8. 'Panics 
and their Panaceas : the Theory of Money, 
Metallic or Paper, in relation to Healthy 
or Disturbed Interchange,' London, 1869, 
8vo. 9. ' Shakespeare's " Much Ado about 
Nothing," now first published in fully re- 
covered Metrical Form with a . Prefatory 
Essay,' London, 1884, 8vo (he contended 
that all the plays were written in blank 
verse). 10. 'Elijah Fen ton: his Poetry and 
Friends,' Lond. 1894, sm. 8vo (posthumous). 

Lloyd contributed many articles to the 
' Classical Museum,' the ' Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Literature,' the ' Architect,' 
the ' Athengeum,' and the ' Journal of Hel- 
lenic Studies,' and, although he published 
much, left behind a great quantity of un- 
printed manuscripts, among them being 
' The Battles of the Ancients ' military 
history always attracted him others, be- 
queathed to the British Museum, include 'A 
Further History of Greece,' treating of the 
later Athenian wars ; ' The Century of Mi- 
chael Angelo,' a treatise on ' The Nature of 
Man,' ' Shakespeare's Plays metrically ar- 
ranged,' ' Essays on the Plays of ^Eschylus 
and Sophocles,' and upon the Neopla- 
tonists, a translation of the Homeric poems 
in free hexameters, translations of Theo- 
critus, Bion, and the odes of Pindar, besides 
materials for the history of architecture, 
painting, and sculpture. 

[Information from Col. E. M. Lloyd ; see 
also Memoir by Sophia Beale, with list of works 
aiid photogravure portrait included in Lloyd's 
Elijah Fenton, 1894; Times, 27 Dec. 1893 and 
17 Jan. 1894; Athenaeum, 30 Dec. 1893, p.916; 
Architect, 23 Dec. 1893, p. 399; Publishers' 
Circular, 30 Dec., p. 752 ; Allibone's Diet, of 
English Literature, 1870, ii. 1111 ; Kirk's 
Suppl. to Allibone, 1891, ii. 1010.] H. K. T. 

BARON LOCH OF DRYLAW (1827-1900), born 
on 23 May 1827, was the son of James 
Loch, M.P., of Drylaw in the county of 
Midlothian, by his wife Ann, the daughter 
of Patrick Orr. He entered the royal navy 
in 1840, but left it as a midshipman in 1842 
and was gazetted to the 3rd Bengal cavalry 
in 1844. Though only seventeen years of 
age, he was chosen by Lord Gough as his 
aide-de-camp, and in that capacity served 




through the Sutlej campaign of 1845. In 
1860 he was appointed adjutant of the 
famous irregular corps, Skinner's Horse. On 
the outbreak of the Crimean war his gift of 
managing Asiatic soldier}- led to his being 
selected in 1854 to proceed to Bulgaria and 
assist in organising the Turkish horse. He 
served throughout the war, and at its close he 
was signalled out for the employment which 
was destined to close his military career. In 
1857 James Bruce, eighth earl of Elgin [q.v.] 
was despatched on a special embassy to China 
to arrange, as was supposed, the final terms 
of settlement of the war that was then raging, 
and Captain Loch was attached to his staff. 
He was present at the taking of Canton on 
28 Dec. and the seizure of Commissioner 
Yeh, and he subsequently proceeded with 
Lord Elgin on his mission to Japan, and in 
1868 he was sent back to England with the 
treaty of Yeddo, concluded by Great Britain 
with that country. In 1860 the failure to 
obtain the ratification of the treaty of Tien- 
tsin and the repulse of the English gunboats 
before the Taku forts had involved the Anglo- 
French expedition under Sir James Hope 
Grant [q. v.] and General Montauban, after- 
wards Count Palikao. Lord Elgin was 
again sent out as minister plenipotentiary, 
and mindful of Captain Loch's services he 
took him with him as private secretary. In 
conjunction with Mr. (afterwards Sir) Harry 
Smith Parkes [q. v.J, Loch conducted the 
negotiations which led to the surrender of 
the Taku forts, and he shared in the advance 
on Pekin. 

On 18 Sept. he formed one of the small 
party which was treacherously seized by the 
Chinese officials on returning from Tung- 
chau, whither they had been to arrange the 
preliminaries of peace. Loch had actually 
made his way through the enemy's lines to 
the English camp and had given warning of 
the intended treachery, but he chivalrously 
returned in order to try and save his com- 
rades. For three weeks he endured the 
most terrible imprisonment, loaded with 
chains, tortured by the gaolers, and herded 
with the worst felons in the common prison. 
So frightful was the state of his surround- 
ings that a single abrasion of the skin must 
have led to a terrible death from the poisonous 
insects that swarmed in his cell. His situa- 
tion was rendered more deplorable by his 
inability to speak the Chinese language with 
any fluency. Fortunately the loyalty and 
determination of his fellow-prisoner, Parkes, 
led first to the amelioration of his condition, 
and eventually to their joint release. They 
anticipated by only ten minutes the arrival 
of an order from the emperor imperatively 

commanding their execution. On 8 Oct. 
they rejoined the British camp, but, with 
the exception of a few Indian troopers, the 
rest of the party French, English, and 
native died in prison from horrible mal- 
treatment, and Loch himself never fully 
recovered his health. 

In 1860 he was sent home in charge of 
the treaty of Tientsin, and in the following 
year he finally quitted the army, and was 
appointed private secretary to Sir George 
Grey [q. v.J, who was then secretary of state 
at the home office. In 1863 he was made 
governor of the Isle of Man, a post which he 
occupied to the great satisfaction of the 
islanders until 1882. In 1880 he had received 
the distinction of a K.C.B. In 1882 he was 
transferred to a commissionership of woods 
and forests and land revenue, and his career 
outside the somewhat narrow bounds of the 
English civil service seemed at an end. In 
1884, however, he was sent to Australia by 
Gladstone as governor of Victoria. During 
his five years' tenure of that office his kind- 
ness and tact endeared him to all classes of 
the population, and he left the most affec- 
tionate remembrance behind him when in 
1889 the Marquis of Salisbury, the conser- 
vative prime minister, chose him to succeed 
Sir Hercules Robinson (afterwards Lord 
Rosmead) [q.v. Suppl.], who had just com- 
pleted his first term of office as governor of 
the Cape and high commissioner in South 

It was during Loch's residence at the 
Cape that the South African question first 
began to assume the threatening proportions 
which led to the war of 1899. In the Cape 
Colony itself matters were peaceful enough, 
owing to the temporary combination of Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes with the Afrikander party. 
There were few constitutional difficulties, 
and Sir Henry found himself generally in 
accord with his constitutional advisers, and 
able to work with them with but little fric- 
tion. Outside the borders, however, the 
elements of unrest were beginning to fer- 
ment, and Loch had scarcely the requisite 
knowledge of South African problems to 
enable him to adequately master the situa- 
tion. He was alive, however, to the great- 
ness of Mr. Rhodes's conceptions, and to the 
danger that would inevitably attend any 
expansion of the Transvaal Republic. He 
assisted the expeditions which led to the 
annexation of Mashonaland and Matabele- 
land, and he allowed the Bechuanaland 
police force to be sent up to threaten the 
Matabele from the west on the outbreak of 
the war of 1893. 

The most striking episode in his South 


105 Locker-Lampson 

African career was his mission to Pretoria, 
in 1894, to interfere on behalf of tbe British 
subjects who had been commandeered by 
the Boers in their operations against Mala- 
boch, the Matabele chieftain. He was suc- 
cessful in obtaining the abandonment of the 
claim of the Boer government ; but it was 
thought he had hardly pressed the English 
case with sufficient vigour. It was from 
the rough treatment accorded to President 
Kruger at Johannesburg on this occasion, in 
contrast with the enthusiastic reception ac- 
corded to the high commissioner, that much 
of the former's hostility to Great Britain 
and to the Johannesburgers is said to have 

Earlier in his term of office Sir Henry had 
succeeded in putting strong pressure on 
President Kruger to prevent the incursions 
to the north and west of roving Boer fili- 
busters. He had, however, made to the 
Transvaal government an offer of a way of 
access to the sea-coast on condition that the 
president should moderate his attitude of 
hostility and join the Cape customs union, 
which it was fortunate for the empire that 
Kruger refused. 

Loch's Transvaal policy failed locally to 
create the impression of any great strength 
or decision. Fortunately for his peace of 
mind his term of office expired at the be- 
ginning of 1895, and he left Africa before 
the disasters of the Jameson raid. 

On his return to England he was raised to 
the peerage, but he took small part in 
politics, voting with the liberal unionists. 
When, in December 1899, the reverses to 
the British arms in Natal and Cape Colony 
at the hands of the Boers gave rise to the 
call for volunteers from England, Loch threw 
himself heartily into the movement, and took 
aleading share in raising and equippinga body 
of mounted men who were called, after him, 
' Loch's Horse.' He lived to see the decisive 
vindication of British supremacy by the oc- 
cupation of Pretoria, but his health had been 
failing, and he died after a short illness in 
London, of heart disease, on 20 June 1900. 

Loch married, in 1862, Elizabeth Villiers, 
niece of the fourth earl of Clarendon, and 
had by her two daughters and a son. The 
latter, Edward Douglas, second baron, en- 
tered the grenadier guards and served with 
distinction in the Nile expedition of 1898 
and in the Boer war of 1899-1900, receiving 
a severe wound in the latter campaign. 

There is a painting of Loch by Plenry 
W. Phillips, an engraving of which is ap- 
pended to the third edition of his ' Personal 
Narrative of Occurrences during Lord Elgin's 
Second Embassy to China.' Originally pub- 

lished in 1869, this little book is a most ad- 
mirable account of the expedition, and, 
written in a simple and unaffected style, 
gives a highly pleasing impression of the 
courage, loyalty, and ability of the writer 
under circumstances of great danger and 
hardship. It is much to be regretted that 
by Lord Elgin's desire Loch abandoned his 
intention of publishing a detailed account of 
the proceedings of the embassy of 1860. 

[There is no memoir yet published of Loch. See 
the Personal Narrative above referred to ; Times, 
21 June 1900; Froude's Oceana ; Fitzpatrick's 
Transvaal from Within ; Speeches of Cecil J. 
Rhodes, ed. Vindex.] J. B. A. 

LOCKER, ARTHUR (1828-1893), 
novelist and journalist, second son of 
Edward Hawke Locker [q. v.], and brother 
of Frederick Locker-Lampson [q. v. Suppl.], 
was born at Greenwich on 2 July 1828. 
He was educated at Charterhouse School 
and Pembroke College, Oxford, where he 
matriculated on 6 May 1847, but, after 
graduating B.A. in 1851, he entered upon a 
mercantile life in an office at Liverpool. The 
next year, however, smitten by the preva- 
lent gold fever, he emigrated to Victoria. 
Not succeeding at the gold-fields, he took to 
journalism, and also produced some tales 
and plays which have not been reprinted in 
England. He returned in 1861, with the 
determination of devoting himself to litera- 
ture. He wrote extensively for newspapers 
and magazines, and in 1863 obtained a con- 
nection with the ' Times,' which he kept 
until 1870, when he was appointed editor of 
the ' Graphic ' illustrated newspaper, which 
had been established about six months 
previously [see THOMAS, WILLIAM LTTSON, 
Suppl.] He proved a most efficient editor, 
and was greatly beloved for his general 
urbanity, and his disposition to encourage 
young writers of promise. In December 
1891 the state of his health compelled him 
to retire, and after visiting Madeira and the 
Isle of Wight in the vain hope of recovery, he 
died at 79 West Hill, Highgate, on 23 June 
1893. He was twice married. After his 
return to England he published some works 
of fiction, chiefly based on his Australian ex- 
periences ; ' Sweet Seventeen,' 1866 ; ' On 
a Coral Reef,' a tale for boys, 1869; ' Stephen 
Scudamore the Younger,' 1871, and 'The 
Village Surgeon,' 1874. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Times, 26 June 1893 ; Graphic, 1 July 
1893.] R. G. 


(1821-1895), poet, more commonly known 
as FBEDEKICK LOCKER, was born on 29 May 

Locker-Lampson 106 Locker-Lampson 

1821 at Greenwich Hospital, where his father, 
Edward Hawke Locker [q. v.], held the office 
of civil commissioner. His mother, Eleanor 
Mary Elizabeth Boucher, was the daughter 
of the Rev. Jonathan Boucher [q. v.], vicar 
of Epsom, a book collector and a former friend 
of George Washington. Frederick Locker 
was the second son of his parents, a younger 
brother being Arthur Locker [q. v. Suppl.] 
After an education at various schools at 
Clapham, at Yateley in Hampshire, at Clap- 
ham again, and elsewhere he became, in 
September 1837, a junior clerk in a colonial 
broker's office in Mincing Lane. This uncon- 
genial calling he followed for little more than 
ayear. Then, in March 1841, heobtained from 
Lord Minto, first lord of the admiralty and son 
of the governor-general of India, a temporary 
clerkship in Somerset House, and in Novem- 
ber 1842 he was transferred to the admiralty, 
where he was placed as a junior in Lord 
Haddington's private office, and subsequently 
became deputy reader and precis writer. In 
his posthumous recollections (' My Confi- 
dences,' 1896, pp. 135-50) he gives an account 
of his official life, the tedium of which he 
had already begun to enliven, apparently 
with the approval of his chief, by the practice 
of poetry. A rhyming version of a petition 
from an importunate lieutenant seems to 
have sent Lord Haddington into ecstasies 
(ib. p. 136). Locker's experiences as an ad- 
miralty clerk were prolonged under Sir James 
Graham and Sir Charles Wood. In 1849 
his health, never good, broke down, and he 
obtained a long leave of absence. In July 
1850 he married Lady Charlotte Bruce, a 
daughter of Thomas Bruce, seventh earl of 
Elgin [q.v.], who brought the famous Elgin 
marbles to England. Not long afterwards he 
quitted the government service. In 1857 he 
published, with Chapman & Hall, his first 
collection of verse, ' London Lyrics,' a small 
volume of ninety pages, and the germ of all 
his subsequent work. Extended or rearranged 
in successive editions, the last of which is 
dated 1893, this constitutes his poetical 
legacy. In 1 867 he published the well-known 
anthology entitled 'Lyra Elegantiarum,' 
being ' some of the best specimens of vers de 
societe and vers d 'occasion in the English 
language,' and in 1879 ' Patchwork,' justly 
described by Mr. Augustine Birrell as ' a 
little book of extracts of unrivalled merit.' 
During all this time he was assiduously 
cultivating his tastes as a virtuoso and book 
lover, of which latter pursuit the ' Rowfant 
Library,' 1886, is the record. Chronic ill- 
health and dyspepsia made it impossible for 
him to follow any active calling. But he 
went much into society, was a member of 

several clubs, and enjoyed the friendship of 
many distinguished persons of all classes. 
He knew Lord Tennyson, Thackeray, Lord 
Houghton, Lord Lytton, George Eliot, 
Dickens, Trollope, Dean Stanley (his brother- 
in-law), Hayward, Kinglake, Cruikshank, 
Du Maurier, and others, and he had seen or 
spoken to almost every contemporary of any 
note in his own day. In April 1872 Lady 
Charlotte Locker died, and was buried at 
Kensal Green. Two years later (6 July 
1874) he married Hannah Jane Lampson, 
only daughter of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, 
bart. [q.v.], of Rowfant, Sussex, and in 1885 
took the name of Lampson. At Rowfant, 
subsequent to his second marriage, he mainly 
resided, and he died there on 30 May 1895. 
Locker's general characteristics are well 
summed up by his son-in-law, Mr. Augustine 
Birrell, in the Appendix to the Rowfant 
Library, 1900. He was ' essentially a man 
of the world ; he devoted his leisure hours 
to studying the various sides of human 
nature, and drawing the good that he could 
out of all sorts and conditions of men. His 
delicate health prevented him from taking 
any very active share in stirring events ; but 
he was content, unembittered, to look on, 
and his energies were continually directed 
towards gathering about him those friends 
and acquaintances who, with their intel- 
lectual acquirements, combined the charms 
of good manners, culture, and refinement.' 
As a poet he belonged to the school of 
Prior, Praed, and Hood, and he greatly ad- 
mired the metrical dexterity of Barham. 
His chief endeavour, he said, was to avoid 
flatness and tedium, to cultivate directness 
and simplicity both in language and idea, 
and to preserve individuality without oddity 
or affectation. In this he achieved success. 
His work is always neat and clear ; re- 
strained in its art, and refined in its tone ; 
while to a wit which rivals Praed's, and a 
j lightness worthy of Prior, he not unfre- 

quently joins a touch of pathos which recalls 
I the voice of Hood. His work mellowed 
j as he grew older, and departed further from 
| his first models those rhymes galamment 

composes which had been his youthful am- 
| bition ; but the majority of his pieces, at all 
j times, by their distinctive character and per- 
sonal note, rise far above the level of the 
i mere vers (f occasion or vers de societe with 

which it was once the practice to class them. 

Locker left children by both his wives. 

Eleanor, his daughter by Lady Charlotte, 

married, first, in 1878, Lord Tennyson's 

younger son, Lionel, and secondly, in 1888, 

; Mr. Augustine Birrell, K.C. By his second 

, wife Locker had four children, the eldest of 

Locker- Lampson 107 


whom, Mr. Godfrey Locker-Lampson, is an 
attach^ in the foreign office. 

'London Lyrics,' Locker's solitary volume 
of original verse, has appeared in many forms 
since its first issue in 1857. A second edi- 
tion followed in 1862, and in 1865 Messrs. 
Moxon included a selection from its pages 
in their ' Miniature Poets.' This was illus- 
trated by Richard Doyle [q. v.] A second 
impression followed in 1868, and the Doyle 
illustrations were subsequently employed in 
an issue of 1874 prepared for presentation to 
the members of the Cosmopolitan Club. In 
1868 an edition of ' London Lyrics' was pri- 
vately printed for John Wilson of Great 
Russell Street, with a frontispiece by George 
Cruikshank, illustrating the poem called 
' My Mistress's Boots.' To this succeeded 
editions in 1870, 1872, 1874, 1876, 1878, 
1885 ('Elzevir Series'), 1891 and 1893. 
Besides these Locker prepared a privately 
printed selection in 1881, entitled 'London 
Lyrics,' and in 1882 a supplemental volume, 
also privately printed, entitled ' London 
Rhymes.' Of the former of these volumes 
a few large-paper copies were struck off, 
which contained a frontispiece (' Bramble- 
Rise') by Randolph Caldecott (sometimes 
found in two 'states'), and a tail-piece 
(' Little Dinky ') by Kate Greenaway. In 
America ' London Lyrics ' was printed in 
1883 for the Book Fellows' Club of New 
York, with inter alia some fresh illustrations 
by Caldecott ; and in 1895 the Rowfant Club 
of Cleveland, Ohio, a body which had bor- 
rowed its name, by permission, from Mr. 
Locker's Sussex home, put forth a rare little 
volume of his verse, chosen by himself shortly 
before his death, and entitled ' Rowfant 
Rhymes.' It includes a preface by the pre- 
sent writer and a poem by Robert Louis Ste- 
venson. Most of these books contain the 
author's portrait, either from an etching by 
Sir John Millais, which first saw the light 
in the Moxon selection of 1865, or a pen- 
and-ink full-length by George Du Maurier. 
There are other American editions, some of 
which are pirated. 

' Lyra Elegantiarum,' as above stated, ap- 
peared in 1867. The first issue was almost 
immediately suppressed because it included 
certain poems by Landor which were found 
to be copyright, and a revised impression, 
which did not contain these pieces, speedily 
took its place. An American edition fol- 
lowed in 1884, and in 1891 an enlarged 
edition was added to Ward, Lock, & Co.'s 
' Minerva Library.' In preparing this last, 
of which there was a large-paper issue, 
Locker had the assistance of Mr. Coulson 
Kernahan. ' Patchwork' was first printed 

privately in quarto for the Philpbiblon So- 
ciety, and afterwards published in octavo in 
1879. No later edition has been published. 
In 1886 Locker compiled the catalogue of his 
books known to collectors as the ' Rowfant 
Library.' It comprises, besides its record of 
rare Elizabethan and other volumes, many 
interesting memoranda, personal and biblio- 
graphical. Since Locker's death an appendix 
to the 'Rowfant Library' has been issued, 
under the title of ' A Catalogue of the Printed 
Books &c. collected since the printing of the 
first Catalogue in 1886 by the late Frederick 
Locker-Lampson,' 1900. It is inscribed to 
the members of the Rowfant Club, has a pre- 
face by Mr. Birrell, and memorial verses by 
various hands. 

Locker's autobiographical reminiscences 
were published posthumously in 1896 under 
the title of ' My Confidences ; ' the volume 
was edited by Mr. Birrell. 

[Century Mag. 1883 (by Brander Matthews) ; 
Miles's Poets and Poetry of the Century; Slater's 
Early Editions, 1894; Eowfant Ehymes, 1895; 
Nineteenth Century, October 1895 (by Coulson 
Kernahan); Seribner's Mag. January 1896 (by 
Augustine Birrell); My Confidences, 1896.] 

A. D. 

(1846-1900), subject and portrait painter, 
was born on 18 Feb. 1846 at Eglesfield, 
Annan, Dumfriesshire. His father, a small 
farmer, managed to send him, at the age of 
fifteen, to study art in Edinburgh, where he 
worked with Mr. J. B. Macdonald, R.S.A., 
and for a short time in the life school ; 
but in 1863 his health gave way, and he 
was sent to Australia. Returning greatly 
benefited by the voyage, he settled in 
Edinburgh, and, in 1867, paid the first of 
several visits to Spain, where he found 
material for some of his finest works. In 
1871 he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, and in 1878 be- 
came academician, while he was also an 
associate (1878) of the Royal Society of 
Painters in Water-colours, and for some 
years a member of the Royal Scottish 
Water-colour Society. He had occupied a 
prominent position as a painter of subject 
pictures and portraits in Scotland for many 
years; but when in 1887 he was commis- 
sioned by the queen to paint ' The Jubilee 
Celebration in Westminster' he went to 
London, where he afterwards devoted him- 
self principally to portraiture. 

His pictures in both oil and water-colour 
are marked by considerable bravura of exe- 
cution and much brilliance of colour, but 
are rather wanting in refinement and subtlety. 
They are always effective and telling, how- 




ever, and the ' Jubilee ' picture, to which he 
devoted three years, is one of the ablest 
works of its kind. On the whole, Spanish 
and Majorca pictures, such as ' The Cid and 
the Five Moorish Kings,' ' A Church Lottery 
in Spain,' ' The Orange Harvest, Majorca,' 
and ' The Swine-herd ' are his best and most 
characteristic works ; of his portraits, those 
of Lord Peel (bronze medal at the Salon), 
Mr. A. J. Balfour, and Mr. John Poison 
may be mentioned. He also painted land- 
scape in water-colour with much success. 
His portrait of Mr. Balfour is in the Glasgow 
Corporation Galleries ; his ' Swineherd ' in 
the Dundee Gallery ; and his diploma a 
study for ' The Cid ' in Edinburgh, while 
the French government bought the sketch 
for ' The Jubilee.' The Kepplestone Collec- 
tion, Aberdeen Art Gallery, includes an 
autograph portrait of Lockhart. 

He married Mary Will, niece of his 
master, Mr. J. B. Macdonald, on 7 Feb. 
1868, and, dying in London on 9 Feb. 1900, 
after several years of rather indifferent 
health, was survived by her and five chil- 
dren one son and four daughters. 

[Private information from Mrs. Lockhart and 
Mr. J. B. Macdonald, U.S.A. ; The Scotsman, 
12 Feb. 1900 ; Athenaeum. 17 Feb. 1900 ; Scots 
Pictorial (by John Mac Whirter, R.A.), March 
1900; R.SA. Report, 1900; catalogues of 
galleries and exhibitions.] J. L. C. 

PHEN ALEXANDER (1841-1900), 
general, commander-in-chief in India, fourth 
son of the Rev. Lawrence Lockhart of 
Wicket-shaw and Milton Lockhart, Lanark- 
shire, by his first wife, Louisa, daughter of 
David Blair, an East India merchant, and 
nephew of John Gibson Lockhart [q. v.], 
was born on 2 Sept. 1841. His elder 
brothers were John Somerville Lockhart, 
Major-general David Blair Lockhart of 
Milton Lockhart, and Laurence William 
Maxwell Lockhart [q. v.], the novelist. 

Entering the Indian army as an ensign on 
4 Oct. 1858, he joined the 44th Bengal 
native infantry, and was promoted lieu- 
tenant on 19 June 1859. His further com- 
missions were dated : captain 16 Dec. 1868, 
major 9 June 1877, lieutenant-colonel 
6 April 1879, brevet colonel 6 April 1883, 
major-general 1 Sept. 1891, lieutenant- 

feneral 1 April 1894, and general 9 Nov. 

He served for a few months in the Indian 
mutiny with the 5th fusiliers in Oude in 
1858-9, and as adjutant of the 14th Bengal 
lancers in the Bhutan campaigns from 1864 
to 1866, when he especially distinguished 

himself in the reconnaissance to Chirung. 
In scouting and outpost duty he was very 
efficient, and had a keen eye for ground and 
was particularly useful in hill warfare. His 
services were acknowledged by the govern- 
ment of India, and he received the medal 
and clasp. 

In the Abyssinian expedition of 1867-8 
Lockhart was aide-de-camp to Brigadier- 
general Mere wether, commanding the cavalry 
brigade, and took part in the action of 
Arogee and the capture of Magdala. He 
was mentioned in despatches (London 
Gazette, 30 June 1868) and received the 

On his return to India he was appointed 
deputy-assistant quartermaster-general with 
the field force, under Brigadier-general 
(afterwards Sir) Alfred Thomas Wilde [q. v.], 
in the expedition to the Hazara Black 
Mountains in 1868, was mentioned in 
despatches (ib. 15 June 1869), and received 
a clasp to his frontier medal. 

He received the bronze medal of the 
Royal Humane Society for rescuing two 
women from drowning in the Morar Lake, 
Gwalior, on 26 Dec. 1869. 

For ten years, from October 1869, Lock- 
hart held the appointments successively of 
deputy-assistant and assistant quarter- 
master-general in Bengal, but was twice 
away in Achin between 1875 and 1877, the 
second time as military attache to the Dutch 
army, when he took part in the assault and 
capture of Lambadde, was mentioned in des- 
patches, offered the Netherlands order of 
William, which he was not allowed to ac- 
cept, and received the Dutch war medal and 
clasp. He was, however, struck down with 
malarial fever and put on board the steamer 
for Singapore in an almost moribund con- 

In the Afghan campaigns of 1878 to 
1880 Lockhart was first appointed road 
commandant in the Khaibar to hold the 
Afridi tribes in check, and, in November 
1879, assistant quartermaster-general at 
Kabul. He was present at the actions of 
Mir Karez and Takht-i-Shah and other 
operations under Sir Frederick (now Earl) 
Roberts round Kabul in December 1879, 
and was subsequently deputy adjutant and 
quartermaster-general to Sir Donald Martin 
Stewart [q. v. Suppl.], commanding in 
Northern Afghanistan, returning with him 
to India by the Khaibar pass in August 1880. 
He was mentioned in despatches (ib. May 
1880), received the medal and clasp, and was 
made a companion of the order of the Bath, 
military division. 

On his return to India Lockhart held the 




post of deputy quartermaster-general in the 
intelligence branch at headquarters from 
1880 to 1885. In 1884 he was sent to Achin 
to rescue the crew of the Nisero from the 
Malays, for which he received the thanks of 
government. In June 1885 he went on a 
mission to Chitral, where his firmness and 
tact had the best effect. He commanded a 
brigade as brigadier-general in the Burmese 
war from September 1886 to March 1887, 
was mentioned in despatches (ib. 2 Sept. 
1887), received the thanks of the govern- 
ment, a clasp to his medal, and was made a 
K.C.B. and a C.S.I. 

On his return to India he commanded a 
second-class district in Bengal, but a severe 
attack of malarial fever compelled him to 
return home. For six months he was em- 
ployed at the India office in the preparation 
of an account of his explorations in Central 
Asia, and in April 1889 he took up the ap- 
pointment of assistant military secretary for 
Indian affairs at the horse guards. But he 
did not remain long in England, for he re- 
turned to India in November 1890 to com- 
mand the Punjab frontier force, first as a 
brigadier-general and then as a major-general, 
until March 1895. The greater part of this 
time was occupied by warfare with the hill 
tribes in a succession of punitive expeditions. 
Lockhart commanded the Miranzai field force 
in January and February 1891, then the 3rd 
brigade of the Hazara field force in March 
and April, and the Miranzai field force again 
from April to June. He was mentioned in 
the governor-general's despatch (ib. 15 Sept. 
1891), received two clasps, and was pro- 
moted to be major-general for distinguished 
service. He commanded the Isazai field 
force in 1892, and the Waziristan expedition 
in 1894 5, was again mentioned in despatches 
by the government of India (ib. 2 July 1895), 
received another clasp, and was made a 
K.C.S.I. On his return he was given the 
Punjab command. 

In 1897, after Sir Bindon Blood had made 
a settlement with the fanatics of Swat, the 
Afridis rose and closed the Khaibar pass ; 
the revolt spread to the Mohmands and 
the other mountain tribes of the Tirah, and 
Lockhart was sent in command of 40,000 
men to quell the rising. He showed ex- 
ceptional skill in handling his force of 
regulars in an almost impracticable country, 
in a guerilla warfare, against native levies of 
sharpshooters, who were always trying to 
elude him, but he outmanoeuvred them and 
beat them at their own tactics. The cam- 
paign consisted of hard marching among the 
mountains and hard fighting, including the 
memorable action of Dargai, when the 

Gordon highlanders and the Ghurkhas 
greatly distinguished themselves. For his 
services he received the thanks of the 
government of India, was made a G.C.B., 
and succeeded Sir George White as com- 
mander-in-chief in India in 1898. He died 
in harness on 18 March 1900. 

A good portrait in oils of Lockhart, 
painted by a Scotsman, Mr. Hardie, in 1894, 
is in possession of Major-general D. B. Lock- 
hart of Milton Lockhart. 

He married first, in 1864, Caroline 
Amelia, daughter of Major-general E. Las- 
celles Dennys ; and secondly, in 1888, Mary 
Katharine, daughter of Captain William 
Eccles, Coldstream guards, who survived 

[Despatches ; Army Lists ; obituary notice 
in Times of 20 March 1900 ; Lord Roberta's 
Forty-one Years in India; Rennie's Story of 
the Bhotan War; Holland and Hozier's Ex- 
pedition to Abyssinia ; Anglo-Afghan War, 
1878-80, official account; Shadbolt's Afghan 
Campaigns, 1878-80; Hutchinson's Campaign 
in Tirah, with portrait.] R. H. V. 

1897), solicitor-general, second son of Charles 
Day Lockwood, stone-quarrier at Levitt 
Hagg, near Doncaster, was born at Don- 
caster in July 1846. In 1860 the family 
moved to Manchester, and in 1863 he en- 
tered the grammar school (having been 
previously at a private school at Edenbridge) 
under Mr. Walker, afterwards head-master 
of St. Paul's School. In October 1865 he 
proceeded to Caius College, Cambridge, 
where he took a ' pass ' degree in 1869, ' going 
out ' in political economy. In 1869, having 
abandoned the idea of holy orders, he entered 
Lincoln's Inn and was called to the bar in 
January 1872. He at once joined the old 
midland circuit, and attended sessions at 
Bradford, Leeds, and other places. A fair 
measure of success was speedily awarded him, 
and in 1875 he held fifteen briefs in one 
assize at Leeds. During his early days at 
the bar the habit of drawing he had learnt 
from his father grew upon him, and his rapid 
sketching in court of judges, witnesses, and 
litigants gave him occupation and secured 
him notice. For some of these early sketches 
he appears to have found a market ; but in 
later life, though he still continued to sketch, 
he tossed them from him with careless in- 
difference. In September 1874 he married 
Julia, daughter of Salis Schwabe of Glyn-y- 
garble, Anglesea. His practice steadily in- 
creased, and from 1879, when, at the request 
of the presiding judge, he defended the bur- 
glar and murderer, Charles Peace, his name 
was always much before that large section 




of the public who follow ' celebrated trials ' 
with an interest that never flags. He took 
silk in 1882. In politics he was a liberal. 
His first attempt to get into parliament 
was at King's Lynn, and was unsuccessful, 
as also was his first contest at York in No- 
vember 1883, when, however, he was beaten 
by twenty-one votes only. At that time 
he, like the majority of liberal candidates, 
refused to vote even for an inquiry into 
home rule for Ireland, but he pledged him- 
self to support household suffrage and elec- 
tive local government in that country, and 
for making those pledges he incurred the 
public censure of Lord Salisbury, who, how- 
ever, lived to make them both good. In 
October 1884 he became recorder of Sheffield, 
and in November 1885 he and his great 
friend, Mr. Alfred Pease, were returned to the 
House of Commons for York, which city he 
continued to represent till his death. From 
1885 to 1895 Lockwood led a very busy life 
both professionally and socially. ' His tall 
powerful frame, his fine head crowned with 
picturesque premature white hair, his hand- 
some healthy face, with its sunshine of 
genial, not vapid good nature, made him 
notable everywhere. So powerful was this 
personality that his entrance into a room 
seemed to change the whole complexion of 
the company, and I often fancied that he 
could dispel a London fog by his presence ' 
(see LOUD ROSEBERY'S letter in Mr. BirrelPs 
sketch, Sir Frank Lockwood, 1898). 

In the House of Commons Lockwood, 
though he took no active part in debate, was 
a great figure, and his sketches depicting 
the occasional humours of that assembly 
were in much demand. During the vacation 
of 1894 Lord Rosebery, the premier (to whom 
Lockwood was warmly attached), offered 
him the post of solicitor-general, which he 
accepted, in succession to Sir Robert Reid, 
who became attorney-general. The election 
of 1895 restored Lord Salisbury to power, 
but owing to a difficulty about the scale of 
his successor's remuneration, Lockwood 
nominally remained solicitor-general until 
August 1895, when Mr. (now Sir Robert) 
Finlay succeeded him. In the vacation of 
1896 he accompanied Charles Lord Russell 
of Killowen [q. v. Suppl.], the lord-chief- 
justice of England, to the United States of 
America. About May 1897 his health 
showed signs of failing, and it gradually 
declined until his death at his house in 
Lennox Gardens on Sunday, 19 Dec. 1897, in 
the fifty-second year of his age. His wife 
and two children, both daughters, survived 

Lockwood made no pretensions to be con- 

sidered a learned lawyer, nor was he ac- 
counted a consummate advocate ; but his 
sound sense, ready wit, good feeling, and 
sympathetic nature, set off as these qualities 
were by a commanding presence and good 
voice, placed him in the front ranks of the 
bar, and easily secured him a large business. 
Both outside and inside his profession he 
enjoyed a large and deserved popularity with 
all sorts and conditions of men. He had all 
the domestic virtues, and was nowhere more 
appreciated than in his own home. His 
death was unexpected and chilled many 
hearts. A collection from his sketches was 
publicly exhibited in London after his death 
for the benefit of the Barristers' Benevolent 
Association, and some of the sketches have 
been reproduced in an album, ' The Frank 
Lockwood Sketch Book,' London, 1898, obi. 
4to. His lecture on ' The Law and Lawyers 
of Pickwick,' published by the Roxburghe 
Press in 1894, went into a second edition in 
1896. There is a memorial window and 
tablet in York Cathedral. 

[Sir Frank Lockwood, a Sketch, 1898, by the 
present writer.] A. B-L. 

BARON LTJDLOW (1828-1899), judge, third 
son of Sir Ralph Lopes, bart. [see LOPES, SIB 
MANASSEH MASSEHJ, of Maristow, Devon, 
by Susan Gibbs, eldest daughter of A. Lud- 
low of Heywood House, Wiltshire, was born 
at Devonport on 3 Oct. 1828. He was edu- 
cated at Winchester School and the univer- 
sity of Oxford, where he matriculated from 
Balliol College on 12 Dec. 1845, and gra- 
duated B. A. in 1 849. He was admitted on 
5 June 1849 student at Lincoln's Inn, but 
on 26 May 1852 migrated to the Inner 
Temple, where he was called to the bar on 
7 June 1852, and elected bencher on 31 May 
1870, and treasurer in 1890. He practised 
first as a conveyancer and equity draftsman, 
afterwards as a pleader on the western cir- 
cuit and at Westminster. He was appointed 
recorder of Exeter in 1867, and was gazetted 
Q.C. on 22 June 1869. Returned to parlia- 
ment for Launceston in the conservative in- 
terest on 9 April 1868, he retained the seat 
until the general election of February 1874, 
when he rendered signal service to his party 
by wresting Frome from the liberals. In 
1876 he was appointed justice of the high 
court and knighted (28 Nov.) He sat suc- 
cessively in the common pleas and queen's 
bench divisions until his advancement in 
1885 to the court of appeal (1 Dec.), when 
he was sworn of the privy council (12 Dec.) 
He was raised to the peerage, on occasion of 
the queen's jubilee in 1897 (26 July), as 

Lothian i 

Baron Ludlow of Heywood, Wiltshire, and 
shortly afterwards retired from the bench. 
He died at his town house, 8 Cromwell 
Place, on Christmas day 1899, leaving by 
his wife Cordelia Lucy (m. 20 Sept. 1854), 
daughter of Erving Clark of Efford Manor, 
Devon, an heir, Henry Ludlow, who suc- 
ceeded as second Baron Ludlow. Place 
among the great lawyers of the nineteenth 
century cannot be claimed for Ludlow. He 
showed, however exceptional ability in nisi 
prius and divorce cases, and was an admi- 
rable chairman of quarter sessions. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar and Alumni Oxon. ; 
Lincoln's Inn Adm. Reg.; Law List, 1853; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; Lords' 
Journ. cxxix. 400; Men and Women of the 
Time (1895) ; Times, 26 Dec. 1899 ; Ann. Reg. 
1899, ii. 182 ; Law Times, 30 Dec. 1899 ; Law 
Jonrn. 30 Dec. 1899 ; Law Mag. and Rev. May 
1900 ; Burke : s Peerage (1900).] J. M. R. 

KERR, SCHOMBERG HENRY, 1833-1900.]" 

LOVELL, ROBERT (1770P-1796), poet 
and participator in the ' pantisocratic ' pro- 
ject of Southey and Coleridge, was born 
apparently at Bristol about 1770. He was 
the son of a wealthy quaker, and probably 
followed some business ; but the vehemence 
of his ' Bristoliad,' a satire in Churchill's 
style and not deficient in vigour, shows that 
he was ill at ease in the commercial atmo- 
sphere of Bristol. He still further estranged 
himself from his original circle by marrying, 
in 1794, Mary Fricker, a girl of much beauty 
and some talent, who had endeavoured to re- 
pair the fortunes of a bankrupt father by 
going on the stage. It does not precisely 
appear when he first made Southey's acquaint- 
ance, but early enough for Southey to have 
become engaged to his sister-in-law, Edith, 
before Coleridge's visit to Bristol in August 

1794. Lovell introduced the two poets to 
their Maecenas, Joseph Cottle [q. v.], and ere 
long Coleridge was betrothed to a third Miss 
Fricker, Sara, whom he married on 14 Nov. 

1795. In the same month of August 1794 
the three friends co-operated in the produc- 
tion of a wellnigh improvised three-act 
tragedy on the fall of Robespierre. Each 
wrote an act, but Lovell's was rejected as 
out of keeping with the others, and Southey 
filled the void. The tragedy was published 
as Coleridge's at Cambridge in September 
1794. Southey and Lovell nevertheless com- 
bined to publish a joint volume of poetry 
(Bristol, 1794; Bath, 1795) under the title 
of ' Poems by Bion and Moschus,' which has 
occasioned it to be mistaken for a transla- 
tion. The Bath edition bears the authors' 


names. Southey's mature opinion of his own 
pieces may be inferred from the fact that he 
reprinted none of them ; and Lovell's teem 
with such felicities as 'Our village curate 
graved the elegiac stone,' ' Have we no 
duties of a social kind ? ' They were, not- 
withstanding, reprinted in Park's ' British 
Poets ' (1808 sq. vol. xli.), with the addition 
of the ' Bristoliad,' which does not seem to 
have been published before. Next to their 
poetry, the young men were chiefly occupied 
with the project for their pantisocratic colony 
on the banks of the Susquehanna, to which 
Lovell was to have brought not only his wife 
but his brother and two sisters. The design 
had practically collapsed before Lovell's death 
in April 1796 from a fever contracted at 
Salisbury, and aggravated by his imprudence 
in travelling home without takingmedical ad- 
vice. Edith Southey, in Southey's absence, 
nursed him for three nights at the risk of her 
life. Lovell's father refused all aid to his 
daughter-in-law on the ground of her having 
been an actress, and she and her infant son 
were thrown upon the never-failing benefi- 
cence of Southey. She lived in his family 
during his life, and afterwards with his 
daughter Kate until her death at the age of 
ninety. The son, Robert Lovell the younger, 
settled in London as a printer in 1824. 
Some years afterwards he went to Italy and 
mysteriously disappeared. Henry Nelson 
Coleridge journeyed in quest of him, but no 
trace was ever discovered. 

[Cottle's Early Recollections, 1837 ; Southey's 
and Coleridge's letters ; private information.] 

R. G. 

GEORGE CHARLES, 1800-1888.] 

CHARLES, 1828-1899.] 

1895), author and divine, was the son of 
John Lumby of Stanningley, near Leeds, 
where he was born on 18 July 1831. He 
was admitted on 2 Aug. 1841 into the Leeds 
grammar school. In March 1848 he left to 
become master of a school at Meanwood, a 
village now absorbed in Leeds. Here his 
ability attracted the notice of friends, by 
whom he was encouraged to proceed to 
the university. In October 1854 he entered 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, where in the 
following year he was elected to a Milner 
close scholarship. In 1858 he graduated 
B.A., being bracketed ninth in the first 
class of the classical tripos. His subsequent 
degrees were M.A. 1861, B.D. 1873, D.D. 




Within a few months of graduation Lumby 
was made Dennis fellow of his college, and 
began to take pupils. In 1860 he gained 
the Crosse scholarship, and in the same year 
was ordained deacon and priest in the diocese 
of Ely. For clerical work he had the chap- 
laincy of Magdalene and the curacy of Gir- 
ton. In 1861 he won the Tyrwhitt Hebrew 
scholarship, and was appointed classical 
lecturer at Queens' College. In 1873 his 
name was added to the list of the Old Testa- 
ment Revision Company, and into this work 
and its sequel, the revision of the Apocrypha, 
he flung himself with much ardour. He 
just lived to see the appearance of the re- 
vised version of the Apocrypha. In 1874, 
being now a widower through the death of 
his first wife, he was chosen fellow and dean 
of St. Catharine's, and, having resigned his 
curacy at Girton, was made curate of St. 
Mark's, Newnham. The following year he 
was appointed, on the nomination of Trinity 
Hall, to the vicarage (non-stipendiary) of 
St. Edward's, Cambridge. His sermons 
here were much appreciated by under- 
graduates. In 1879 he was elected to the 
Norrisian professorship of divinity, and was 
also Lady Margaret preacher for that year. 
Having vacated his fellowship at St. Catha- 
rine's by a second marriage, he was ap- 
pointed to a professorial fellowship in that 
college in 1886. In 1887 he was made pre- 
bendary of Wetwang in the cathedral church 
of York, and acted as examining chaplain to 
the archbishop of York and the bishop of 
Carlisle. On the death of Fenton John 
Anthony Hort [q. v. Suppl.] in 1892 he was 
unanimously chosen to succeed him as Lady 
Margaret professor of divinity. But he did 
not long enjoy the honour, dying at Merton 
House, Grantchester, near Cambridge, on 
21 Nov. 1895. 

Lumby's literary career showed remark- 
able activity. He was one of the founders of 
the Early English Text Society, and edited 
for it ' King Horn ' (1866), ' Ratis Raving ' 
(1867), and other pieces. For the Rolls 
series, being requested by the master of the 
rolls to continue the work of Professor Ba- 
bington, he edited vols. iii-ix. of Higden's 
' Polychronicon ' (1871-86), and vol. i. of 
the ' Chronicon ' of Henry Knighton (1889). 
To the Pitt Press series he contributed edi- 
tions of Bacon's 'Henry VII' (1876), 
'Venerabilis Baedae Historiae. . . . Libri 
iii. iv.' (in conjunction with Professor John 
E. B. Mayor, 1878), More's ' Utopia,' in 
Robynson's English translation (1879), 
More's 'History of Richard III' (1883), 
and Cowley's ' Essays ' (1887). As co-editor 
of the 'Cambridge Bible for Schools,' he 

edited, with commentary, 'The Acts 
(chaps, i-xiv., 1879; completed 1884), 
'1 Kings' (1886), '2 Kings' (1887), 'The 
Acts ' in the ' Cambridge Greek Testament 
for Schools ' (1885), also in ' The Smaller 
Cambridge Bible for Schools' (1889), and 
for this last series '1 Kings' (1891). To 
the ' Sunday School Centenary Bible ' he 
contributed a ' Glossary of Bible Words ' 
(1880), republished in the same year in an 
altered form by the Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Knowledge. For the ' Speaker's 
Commentary' he edited '2 Peter' and ' Jude' 
(1881); for 'A Popular Commentary' the 
' Epistles to the Philippians ' and ' Philemon ' 
(1882) ; and for ' The Expositor's Bible ' the 
two ' Epistles of St. Peter ' (1893). 

Besides these works for various series 
Lumby wrote the chapter on ' The Ordinary 
Degree ' in Seeley's ' Guide ' (1866), ' Three 
Sermons on Early Dissent,' &c. (1870), ' A 
History of the Creeds ' (1873), ' A Sketch of 
a Course of English Reading' (1873), ' Hear 
the Church' (1877), ' Greek Learning in the 
Western Church ' (a pamphlet, 1878), pre- 
face to a ' Compendium of Church History ' 
(1883), ' A Popular Introduction to the New 
Testament ' (1883), and articles in the ' Cam- 
bridge Companion to the Bible ' (1893). He 
was also a contributor to the ninth edition 
of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 

[Private information ; Armley and Wortley 
News, 29 Nov. 1865 ; article signed W-. T. South- 
ward in the Cambridge Review, 28 Nov. 1895; 
personal knowledge.] J. H. L. 


(1821 - 1896), lieutenant-general, born 
12 Nov. on the East India Company's ship 
Rose, in the bay of Bengal, was eldest son of 
Colonel Thomas Lumsden, C.B., of the 
Bengal artillery, and of Belhelvie Lodge, 
Aberdeenshire, by Hay, daughter of John 
Burnett of Elrick in the same county. He 
was sent home from India in 1827, was edu- 
cated at the Belle vue academy, Aberdeen, 
and Mr. Dawes's School, Bromley, Kent, 
and returned to India as a cadet at the age 
of sixteen. He was commissioned as ensign 
in the 59th Bengal native infantry on 
1 March 1838. He had marked aptitude for 
languages, and in the spring of 1842 he was 
attached as interpreter and quartermaster to 
the 33rd Bengal native infantry, which 
formed part of the army that forced the 
Khyber under Sir George Pollock [q.v.] At 
Cabul Lumsden began a close friendship with 
John Nicholson [q.v.] He was promoted 
lieutenant in the 59th on 16 July 1842, and 
rejoined it at Loodiana early in 1843. He 
served with it in the Sutlej campaign of 

1845, and was severely wounded at So- 

When (Sir) Henry Montgomery Lawrence 
[q. v.] became resident at Lahore, Lumsden 
was chosen by him as one of his assistants, 
and was appointed on 15 April 1846. He 
accompanied Lawrence to Kashmir in Octo- 
ber, and in December he was sent with three 
thousand Sikhs and six guns through the 
Hazara country. His march was opposed 
by some seven thousand hillmen, but by 
skilful stratagems he forced the passage of 
two tributaries of the Jhilam, near Muzaffa- 
rabad, and brought the hillmen to submit 
after two sharp actions. He received the 
thanks of the government, and was charged 
with the formation of the corps of guides 
for frontier service. He was given a free 
hand in the recruiting, training, and equip- 
ment of this force, which was to consist 
of about a hundred horse and two hun- 
dred foot. He chose men from the most 
warlike tribes of the border, men notorious 
for desperate deeds, or, as he put it, ' accus- 
tomed to look after themselves, and not 
easily taken aback by any sudden emer- 
gency.' The equipment of the guides in- 
cluded the adoption of the khaki uniform, 
which Lumsden was the first to introduce 
into the Indian army. 

The guide cavalry distinguished itself 
under him during the siege of Multan in 
1848, and again on 3 Jan. 1849, when it 
surprised and destroyed a raiding force of 
Sikhs on the Kashmir border. Lumsden 
again received the thanks of government. 
He was present at the battle of Gujrat on 
21 Jan., was mentioned in despatches, and 
received the Punjab medal with two clasps. 
His corps had proved so useful that its 
strength was raised on 19 June to four hun- 
dred horse and six hundred foot. As 
assistant commissioner in Yusafzai, and for 
a time in charge of the Peshawar district, 
Lumsden was concerned in many affairs 
with the border tribes. Lord Dalhousie 
wrote : ' A braver or a better soldier never 
drew a sword. The governor-general places 
unbounded confidence in him and in the 
gallant body of men he commands,' and 
warmly praised his conduct as an admini- 
strator (20 Dec. 1851). 

In November 1852 he went home on leave, 
after fifteen years of continuous service in 
India. On 1 March 1853 he was promoted 
captain, and on 6 Feb. 1854 he was given a 
brevet majority for his services in the Sikh 
war. He returned to India at the end of 
1855, and was restored to the command of 
the guides. In January 1857 he was sent 
on a mission to Candahar, accompanied by 

TOL. m. STJP. 

3 Lumsden 

his brother, Lieutenant (now General Sir 
Peter Stark) Lumsden, and Dr. Henry 
Walter Bellew. Persia had seized Herat, 
and the object of the mission was to make 
sure that the British subsidy to the amir 
was duly applied to the payment of troops 
for the defence of Afghanistan against 
Persia. It was also to advise and assist the 
amir so far as it could without exciting 
Afghan jealousy. It reached Candahar on 
25 April. Its position, delicate from the 
first, became hazardous a month afterwards, 
when news arrived of the outbreak and 
spread of the sepoy mutiny in India. But 
it was important, both in the interest of the 
amir and for British prestige, that the mis- 
sion should not be recalled during the crisis ; 
and while his guides were fighting brilliantly 
before Delhi and elsewhere, Lumsden had 
to remain at Candahar. It is related that 
at this time Lumsden and his brother one 
night overheard some Afghans discussing 
the expediency of putting them to death. 
He left that city on 15 May 1858, and was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel from that date. 
' The clear sound judgment and admirable 
temper ' which he had shown was duly ac- 
knowledged (29 Dec. 1858), and he was 
made a civil C.B. on 5 Dec. 1859, but this 
was small compensation for the opportunities 
he had missed. 

He resumed command of the guides, and 
served under Brigadier (Sir) Neville Cham- 
berlain in the operations against the Waziris 
in April and May 1860, for which he re- 
ceived the medal with clasps. An attempt 
on his life was made on 2 Aug. by a fana- 
tical camp-follower, but he escaped with a 
severe wound in his left arm. In March 
1862 he was appointed to the command of 
the Hyderabad contingent, with the rank of 
brigadier-general, and this severed his con- 
nection with the guides. He became colonel 
in the army on 15 June. A good service 
pension was given to him in 1866. He went 
home for six months in that year, and on 

5 Sept. married Fanny, daughter of Charles 
John Myers of Dunningwell, Cumberland, 
vicar of Flintham, Nottinghamshire. Early 
in 1869 he gave up the command of the 
nizam's troops, which he had done much to 
improve ; and, after attending the Umballa 
durbar to meet the amir, Shere Ali, he left 
India in April. 

He had been promoted major-general on 

6 March 1868, and was made K.C.S.I. on 
24 May 1873. The offer of further employ- 
ment in India, long looked for, came too late ; 
and on 15 Sept. 1875 he retired from the 
army with the honorary rank of lieutenant- 
general. On his father's death in 1874 he 




had inherited Belhelvie Lodge, and there he 
spent the remainder of his life, occupying 
himself with sport (especially hawking), 
photography, and wood-carving. He died 
there on 12 Aug. 1896. Tall and powerful, 
a good rider, an excellent shot, and skilful 
with all weapons, he was an ideal frontier 
soldier, unequalled in his knowledge of 
Pathans and nis influence over them. He 
was, wrote Sir Richard Pollock, ' a singular 
mixture of shrewdness and simplicity, abso- 
lutely free from selfishness and self-seeking, 
with great originality, a perfect temper, and 
a keen sense of humour.' His military career 
suffered by his absence from India during 
the mutiny, and his intense dislike of official 
routine made him decline civil employment, 
for which he was well qualified. 

Three portraits are given in ' Lumsden of 
the Guides,' 1899, a biographical sktech, by 
General Sir Peter Lumsden and George R. 

[Lumsden and Elsmio's Lumsden of the Guides 
(1899); Lumsden's Memorials of the Families 
of Lumsdaine, Lumisden, or Lumsden ; Times, 
13 Aug. 1896; Journal of United Service Insti- 
tution, xxviii. 909 ; The Mission to Kandahar, 
his official report, published at Calcutta in 1 860.1 

E. M. L. 

(1811-1893), Greek professor at Glasgow, 
born on 10 Jan. 1811, was the son of Ed- 
mund Henry Lushington, chief commis- 
sioner of the colonial board of audit, and 
master of the crown office, and of his second 
wife, Sophia, daughter of Thomas Phillips of 
Sedgeley, near Manchester. He passed his 
childhood at Hanwell, Middlesex, and was 
educated at Charterhouse school, one of his 
contemporaries being Thackeray, who was 
also with him for a time at Cambridge. 
Lushington, becoming head of the school 
while still young and not very robust, found 
the exacting duties of captain somewhat irk- 
some. Entering Trinity College, Cambridge, 
he was two years the junior of Tennyson, 
with whom, and with Arthur Hallam, Trench, 
and others, he was associated in the select 
club of twelve, called ' The Apostles ' (com- 
memorated in ' In Memoriam, Ixxxvii.) 

In 1832 Lushington was senior classic 
and senior chancellor's medallist, and became 
fellow and tutor of Trinity College. The year 
was a specially brilliant one, Henry Alford 
[q. v.] f Richard Shilleto [q. v.] 'a second 
Porson ' and William Hepworth Thomp- 
son [q. v.], afterwards master of Trinity, also 
being in the list. In ' The Virginians ' (i. xli.) 
Thackeray makes a covert though sufficiently 
obvious allusion to the brilliant scholarship 
of Thompson and Lushington. 

In 1838 Lushington succeeded Sir Daniel 
Keyte Sandford [q. v.] as professor of Greek 
at Glasgow, gaining the appointment over 
Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), after Archi- 
bald Campbell Tait [q. v.], subsequently 
archbishop of Canterbury, had withdrawn 
his candidature. As a professor he won the 
admiration and the affection of his students, 
and while, as described in the epilogue to 
' In Memoriam,' 'wearing all that weight of 
learning lightly like a flower,' he invested 
his subject with a singular charm. In 'Prin- 
cipal Shairp and his Friends ' (p. 14) Pro- 
fessor Sellar, alluding to Lushington'a 
inaugural lecture of 1838-9, says: 'Shairp 
left the lecture, as he told me, repeating to 
himself the line 

That strain I heard was of a higher mood; 

and the impression thus produced was con- 
firmed by his attendance on the private 
Greek class.' This accords with the uni- 
versal testimony of Lushington's students. 
In 1875 he resigned his chair, the university 
conferring on him the honorary degree of 
LL.D. He settled at Park House, Maid- 
stone, the residence described in the pro- 
logue to ' The Princess,' which is dedicated 
to his brother Henry. In 1884 he was elected 
lord rector of Glasgow University, and the 
principal, John Caird [q. v. Suppl.], welcomed 
him with a fitting eulogy when he delivered 
the customary rectorial address. He died 
at Park House, Maidstone, on 13 July 1893. 
On 10 Oct. 1842 Lushington married 
Cecilia Tennyson, sister of Lord Tennyson, 
the marriage ceremony being performed by 
Charles Tennyson Turner [q. v.] (LoKD 
TEXXYSOX, A Memoir, i. 203). The epi- 
logue to Tennyson's ' In Memoriam ' is an 
epithalamium on Lushington's marriage with 
the poet's sister. He was survived by his 
wife and his daughter Cecilia. 

Although believed to have written anony- 
mously for some of the reviews, Lushington 
! made few acknowledged contributions to 
i literature. He translated into Greek Tenny- 
| son's 'CEnone' (ib. i. 180) and 'Crossing the 
Bar,' the version of the latter giving the 
poet especial satisfaction (ib. ii. 367). To 
volume i. (pp. 201-3) of the 'Memoir of 
Lord Tennyson' by his son he contributed 
interesting reminiscences. He collaborated 
with Sir Alexander Grant [q. v.] in edit- 
ing in 1866 (2nd edit. 1875) the ' Philoso- 
phical Works' of James Frederick Ferrier 
[q. v.], prefixing to the volume of 'Philo- 
sophical Remains ' an exquisitely delicate 
and thoughtful memoir and appreciation. 
He published the Glasgow rectorial address 
in 1885. 

Lysons i 

[Times and Glasgow Herald of 14 July; 
Athenaeum of 22 July 1893 ; Tennyson's Me- 
moir of Lord Tennyson ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry.] T. B. 

LYSONS, SIR DANIEL (1816-1898), 
general, born on 1 Aug. at Rodmarton, Glou- 
cestershire, was son of the Rev. Daniel 
Lysons [q. v.], the topographer, by his second 
wife. Josepha Catherine Susanna, daughter 
of John Gilbert Cooper of Thurgarton 
Priory, Nottinghamshire. He was educated 
at the Rev. Harvey Marryat's school at Bath, 
and at Shrewsbury school, where he twice 
saved boys from drowning. He spent two 
years (1832-3) with M. Frossard at Nimes 
to learn French. On 26 Dec. 1834 he ob- 
tained a commission as ensign in the 1st 
royals, joined the regiment at Athlone in 
February 1835, and went with it to Canada 
in the following year. 

He became lieutenant on 23 Aug. 1837, 
and, owing to his skill as a draughtsman, he 
was employed on the staff of the deputy 
quartermaster-general, Colonel Charles Gore 
[q. v.], during the Canadian insurrection. 
He was present at the action of St. Denis, 
and was mentioned in despatches (London 
Gazette, 26 Dec. 1837). He was also at the 
capture of St. Eustache. He was deputy 
assistant quartermaster-general from 1 Dec. 
1837 to 12 July 1841, and with the assis- 
tance of officers of the line he surveyed a 
good deal of the frontier. He was an inde- 
fatigable sportsman, and has left a vivid 
picture of his Canadian life, and especially 
of moose hunting, in his ' Early Reminis- 

On 29 Oct. 1843 the right wing of the 
royals left Quebec for the West Indies in 
the transport Premier, which was wrecked 
six days afterwards in Chatte Bay, on the 
right bank of the St. Lawrence. Lysons 
was very active in saving those on board, 
and being sent back to Quebec for help, he 
made in four and a half days what was 
reckoned an eight days' journey of three 
hundred miles. His exertions were praised 
in general orders, and he was rewarded by a 
company in the 3rd West India regiment on 
29 Dec., the Duke of Wellington directing 
that his promotion should be notified to him 
by return <-.f post. He went to the West 
Indies from England in the spring of 1844, 
and was given command of the troops in 
Tobago ; but on 24 May he was transferred 
to the 23rd Welsh fusiliers, then stationed 
in Barbados. He was brigade-major there 
from 3 Nov. 1845 to 15 March 1847, when 
he accompanied his regiment to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. 

He returned with it to England in the 

5 Lysons 

autumn of 1848. He was town-major at 
Portsmouth from 18 June to 21 Aug. in 
1849, and drew up a system of encamping 
and cooking there. Having obtained his 
majority on 3 Aug., he rejoined his regiment 
at Winchester, and served with it during 
the next five years at Plymouth, Liverpool, 
Chester, and Parkhurst. In April 1854 he 
embarked with it for Turkey, and was the 
first man to land in the Crimea in Septem- 
ber. The 23rd formed part of the first bri- 
gade of the light division. At the Alma it 
lost over two hundred officers, and men, in- 
cluding its commanding officer. Just before 
the battle Lysons joined the second division 
as assistant adjutant-general, but succeeding 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his regiment 
on 21 Sept., he returned to take command 
of it. He was present at Inkerman, though 
laid up with fever at the time. The excite- 
ment did him good, and the hurricane of 
16 Nov. seems to have completed his cure. 

Throughout the winter Lysons was inde- 
fatigable in his care of his men, reduced from 
eight hundred to about two hundred fit for 
duty. He put up, mainly with his own 
hands, a hospital hut for them. His officers 
were nearly all ' young boys, very nice lads, 
but as yet quite useless ; ' and in the summer, 
when the strength of the regiment had been 
raised by drafts to over five hundred, he 
described it as ' like a newly raised militia 
regiment officered from the higher classes in 
a public school.' In the assault of 18 June 
1855 Lysons commanded the supports of 
the column furnished by his brigade. He 
was wounded in the knee, but brought the 
brigade out of action, and had command of 
it for a time. In the second assault, on 
8 Sept., he led an attack on the right flank 
of the Redan, and was severely wounded in 
the thigh. On 25 Oct. he was given com- 
mand of the second brigade of the light 
division, and retained it till the end of the 
war. He had been three times mentioned 
in despatches (London Gazette, 10 Oct. 
1854, 4 July and 5 Oct. 1855), was made 
brevet-colonel on 17 July 1855, and C.B. 
(5 July), and received the medal with three 
clasps, the Sardinian and Turkish medals, 
the legion of honour (4th class), and 
Medjidie (3rd class). 

He returned to England in July 1856, and 
resumed command of the 23rd. On 16 Jan. 
1857 he exchanged to the 25th foot, and on 
24 Nov. went on half-pay, having been ap- 
pointed on 5 Nov. assistant adjutant-general 
at headquarters. In this office he was em- 
ployed on the revision of the infantry drill- 
book and its adaptation to the needs of the 
volunteers. He also prepared ' Instructions 





for Mounted Rifle Volunteers' (1860). On 
6 Dec. 1861 he was sent to Canada in con- 
nection with the ' Trent ' affair, and he was 
deputy quartermaster-general Irom 27 Aug. 
1862 till 30 Sept. 1867. This gave him an 
opportunity of extending the frontier surveys 
which he had been engaged upon as a 

He was promoted major-general on 27 Dec. 
1868. He commanded brigades at Malta 
and Aldershot from 1 July 1868 to 30 June 
1872, and then commanded in the northern 
district for two years. He drew up a sys- 
tem of ' Infantry Piquets,' which was issued 
by authority in 1875. On 1 April 1876 he 
was appointed quartermaster-general at 
headquarters. He became lieutenant- 
general and was made K.C.B. on 2 June 
1877, and on 14 July 1879 he became 
general. The colonelcy of the Derbyshire 
regiment was given to him on 25 Aug. 1878, 
and he accepted the honorary colonelcy of 
the first volunteer battalion of the royal 
fusiliers. From 1 July 1880 to 1 Aug. 1883 
he commanded the Aldershot division, and 

he was then placed on the retired list, 
having reached the age of sixty-seven. On' 
29 May 1886 he received the G.C.B., and 
on 4 March 1890 he was made constable of 
the Tower. 

Lysons died on 29 Jan. 1898, and was 
buried at Rodmarton. Vigorous to the- 
last, he had been writing on army reform 
a month before (Times, 17 Dec. 1897). In 
1856 he married Harriet Sophia, daughter of 
Charles Bridges of Court House, Overton. 
She died in 1864, and in 1865 he married 1 
Anna Sophia Biscoe, daughter of the Rev. 
Robert Tritton of Morden, Surrey. By his 
first wife he had four sons, of whom the 
second, Henry, obtained the Victoria cross 
in the Zulu war of 1879 as a lieutenant in 
the Scottish rifles. 

[Lysons's Early Eeminiscences (1896) and 1 
the Crimean War from First to Last (1895), 
the latter consisting of letters written by him 
in th Crimea; Times, 31 Jan. 1898 ; Brough- 
ton-Mainwaring's Historical Record of the* 
Koyal Welsh Fusiliers, pp. 159-216.] 

E. M. L. 


1896), painter, born at Kames, Argyllshire, 
on 22 May 1841, was the second son of John 
Macallum, J.P., of the Kames gunpowder 
works. While still a boy at school he 
showed a strong inclination towards art. 
This, however, was opposed by his father, 
who insisted on his entering a merchant's 
office in Glasgow, in preparation for an 
Indian commercial career. In 1864, when 
he was twenty-three years of age, he finally 
rebelled, and, winning a reluctant assent 
from his father, went to London to become 
a painter. He entered the Royal Academy 
schools the same year. From that time on- 
wards his time was divided between London 
and various painting grounds (the western 
highlands, among which he prowled in a 
small yacht of his own, Heligoland, Holland, 
Southern Italy, the south coast of Devon- 
shire), where his favourite subject, sunlight, 
could be fully studied. His original and 
thoroughly personal way of treating this 
subject soon attracted attention, and won 
him both detractors and admirers. He had 
studios successively at Hampstead (Haver- 
stock Elill), in Piccadilly, and at Beer, South 
Devon. His contributions to the chief Lon- 
don exhibitions extended over twenty years, 
from 1876, when 'Hoisting the Storm Jib' 
was at the Royal Academy, until 1896, when 

his last picture, the ' Crofter's Team,' hung- 
on the same walls. Macallum died verv sud- 
denly of heart disease at Beer on 23" June 
1896. He left a widow, Euphemia, daugh- 
ter of Mr. John Stewart of Glasgow, and one 
son. Mrs. Macallum subsequently (13 March 
1900) received a civil list pension of IQOL 
per annum in consideration of her husband's- 
merits as an artist. 

Macallum was one of the most original 
landscape painters of his time. He was 
single-minded, concentrating his attention 
on those aspects of nature by which his own 
sympathies were most closely touched. His 
pictures have great individuality. He saw 
colour in a way of his own, but his best 
works are likely to be prized long after- 
things conceived on more conventional lines- 
are forgotten. Three of them are in the 
Millbank Gallery, the ' Crofter's Team,' al- 
ready mentioned, and two drawings in water- 

[Private information.] 

W. A. 

MACARTNEY, JAMES (1770-1843), 
anatomist, son of Andrew Macartney, gentle- 
man farmer, of Ballyrea, co. Armagh, and 
Mary, his wife, was born at Armagh on 
8 March 1770. He began life as an Irish 
volunteer in 1780, and was afterwards edu- 
cated at the endowed classical school at 




Armagh, and then at a private school. He 
was associated for a time with Henry and 
John Sheares [q. v.] and Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald [q. v.], but, being dissatisfied with 
their programme, he cut himself adrift and 
began to study medicine. He apprenticed 
himself to William Hartigan (1756 P-1812) 
on 10 Feb. 1793, his master being president 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland 
in 1797. Macartney also entered as a pupil 
in the college school, Mercer Street, Dublin, 
where he made some dissections for the 
museum, and he attended the Lock hospital 
and the Dublin dispensary. In 1796 he came 
to London to attend the Hunterian or Great 
Windmill Street school of medicine, and he 
t>ecame an occasional pupil at St. Thomas's 
and Guy's hospitals. He also attended the 
lectures of John Abernethy [q. v.] at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and through his 
influence was appointed a demonstrator of 
anatomy in the medical school in 1798. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons of England on 6 Feb. 1800, began 
to practise in London as a surgeon, and was 
appointed lecturer on comparative anatomy 
and physiology at St. Bartholomew's Hospi- 
tal, a post he held from March 1800 to 1811. 
On 21 Feb. 1811 he was elected F.R.S., and 
from 1803 to 1812 he served as surgeon to 
the royal Radnor militia. In May 1813 he 
was admitted M.D. of St. Andrews Univer- 
sity, and on 21 June 1813 he was elected 
professor of anatomy and surgery in the uni- 
versity of Dublin, and physician to Sir Pat- 
rick Dun's hospital. These offices he resigned 
in 1837, after he had raised tKe medical 
school to a much better position than it had 
ever before occupied. During almost the 
whole of his residence in Dublin Macartney 
was subjected to a very singular exhibition 
of petty persecution and open insult at the 
handsof some members of the board of Trinity 
College. He was denied the privilege of 
election to the fellowship of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, though he was made an 
honorary fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Ireland in 1818. He also re- 
ceived an honorary M.D. from the university 
of Cambridge (31 Aug. 1833), to which he 
sold his museum in 1836, the university of 
Dublin having refused to purchase it. He 
died at 31 Upper Merrion Street, Dublin, on 
March 1843 (Gent. Mag. 1843, i. 554). 
He married on 10 Aug. 1795 a Miss Eken- 

An ill-used and greatly misunderstood 
man, ' he was,' says Professor Alexander 
Macalister, ' an expert anatomist and a philo- 
sophical biologist far in advance of his period. 
His description of the vascular system of 

birds has in many respects not been sur- 
passed, and his account of the anatomy of 
mammals may be read with more profit than 
many modern works. In his account of the 
brain of the chimpanzee compared with that 
of an idiot, as well as in many others of his 
papers, there are glimpses of a morphology 
far beyond Cuvier, whose works he edited. 
His book on inflammation may be placed 
side by side with any pathological work of 
the period, while his researches on animal 
luminosity form the basis of many subse- 
quent researches on the subject.' Macartney 
discovered the fibrous texture of the white 
substance in the brain, and the connection 
between the subcortical nerve fibres and the 
grey matter of the cerebral hemispheres. He 
gave, too, the first satisfactory account of 
rumination in the herbivora, and he dis- 
covered numerous glandular appendages in 
the digestive organs of mammals, especially 
of rodents. As one of Warburton's advisers 
and as a practical anatomist of great expe- 
rience in teaching, he had much to do in 
shaping the Anatomy Act of 1832. 

Macartney's works were : 1. 'Lectures on 
Comparative Anatomy ' (Cuvier's lectures 
translated by W. Ross under the inspection 
of J. Macartney), London, 1802, 2 vols. 8vo. 
2. ' Observations on Curvature of the Spine,' 
Dublin, 1817, 4to. 3. 'A Treatise on In- 
flammation,' London, 1838, 4to ; reissued in 
America, Philadelphia, 1840. He also wrote 
numerous papers in the 'Philosophical Trans- 
actions ; ' and his articles on comparative 
anatomy are published in Abraham Rees's 
' Cyclopaedia,' London, 1819, 45 vols. 4to. 

[James Macartney, a memoir by Professor 
Alexander Macalister, F.R.S., of Cambridge, 
London, 1900; Sir Charles A. Cameron's His- 
tory of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ire- 
land, pp. 371, 372 ; 'Erinensis's' account of the 
appearance and methods of Macartney in the 
Lancet, 1825, viii. 248-52.] D'A. P. 

McCOSH, JAMES (1811-1894), philo- 
sopher, only son of Andrew McCosh, farmer, 
of Carskoech, Ayrshire, by Jean, daughter 
of James Carson, farmer, of the same 
county, was born on 1 April 1811. Of 
covenanting ancestry, he was brought up 
religiously and was early devoted to the kirk. 
He was educated at the universities of Glas- 
gow and Edinburgh, and in 1834 gained the 
M.A. degree at Edinburgh by an essay on 
the Stoic philosophy, which was highly com- 
mended by Sir William Hamilton. He 
studied theology under Dr. Chalmers, and, 
having been licensed by the presbytery of 
Ayrshire, officiated successively at Arbroath, 
1835-8, and Brechin, 1838-50. While at 




the latter place he became a convert to 
'free kirk' principles, and took an active 
part in organising the secession. Meanwhile, 
however, he was busy with natural theology, 
and the publication in 1850 of his first impor- 
tant work, ' The Method of the Divine Go- 
vernment, Physical and Moral' (Edinburgh, 
8vo ; last edition, New York, 1874), proved 
the turning-point in his career. It was read 
and greatly admired by the Earl of Clarendon, 
then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and led to 
McCosh's appointment to the chair of logic 
and metaphysics in Queen's College, Belfast 
(1861). In 1860 appeared his 'Intuitions 
of the Mind inductively investigated,' Lon- 
don, 8vo (last edition, New York, 1872), in 
which he attempted to meet the prevalent 
empiricism by a careful survey of the entire 
domain of what he conceived to be axiomatic 
truth. It was followed by ' An Examina- 
tion of Mr. J. S. Mill's Philosophy : being a 
Defence of Fundamental Truth,' London, 
1860, 8vo (last edition, New York, 1880) a 
work called forth by Mill's ' Examination of 
Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy ' (1865). 
Mill honoured his critic with a few stric- 
tures in his third edition, to which McCosh 
rejoined in a volume entitled ' Philosophical 
Papers,' London, 1868 (New York, 1869), 
which also included an ' Examination of Sir 
William Hamilton's Logic ' and an essay on 
the ' Present State of Moral Philosophy in 

McCosh resigned his post at Belfast on 
being elected in 1868 to the presidency of 
Princeton College, New Jersey, with which 
office was associated the chair of philosophy 
in that seminary. He administered the 
affairs of the college with eminent success 
for twenty years, during which period he 
published many philosophical works. 

McCosh resigned the presidency of Prince- 
ton College in 1888, but retained the chair 
of philosophy until his death on 16 Nov. 
1894. He was LL.D. of the universities of 
Aberdeen (1850) and Harvard (1868), also 
D.Litt. of Queen's College, Belfast, and D.D. 
He married in 1 845 a daughter of Alexander 
Guthrie, M.D., brother of Dr. Thomas Guthrie 
[q.v.] Princeton College contains his statue, 
set there by his admirers in 1888. (For por- 
traits see his ' Life ' by Sloane, cited infra.) 

McCosh is said to have been an effective 
lecturer and preacher, and his simplicity 
and perspicuity of style render this extremely 
probable. His philosophy, however, had 
never an appreciable influence on English 
thought. To the defects of the Scottish 
school he was by no means blind, but his 
early training had included no systematic 
study of transcendentalism, and a visit to 

Germany in 1858 led to no result. It may 
even be doubted whether he had apprehended 
the earlier forms of idealism. At any rate 
his polemical works evince no adequate 
appreciation of the positions which he at- 
tacked, and his own ' intuitional ' theory is 
a mere ignoratio elenchi. 

McCosh was joint author with Dr. Dickie 
of 'Typical Forms and Special Ends in 
Creation,' Edinburgh, 1855 ; London, 1862 
(last edition, New York, 1880). He was 
also author of the following works : 1. ' The 
Supernatural in relation to the Natural,' 
Cambridge, Belfast, and New York, 1862, 
8vo. 2. ' Supplement ' to Dugald Stewart's 
'Outlines of Moral Philosophy,' 1865. 
3. ' The Laws of Discursive Thought/ Lon- 
don and New York, 1870, 12mo (last edi- 
tion, New York, 1890). 4. ' Christianity 
and Positivism,' London and New York, 
1871, 8vo (last edition, New York, 1875). 
5. ' The Scottish Philosophy : Biographical, 
Expository, Critical ; from Hutcheson to 
Hamilton,' London, 1874, 8vo (last edition, 
New York, 1880). 6. ' Ideas in Nature over- 
looked by Dr. Tyndall,' New York, 1875, 
12mo. 7. ' The Development Hypothesis : 
is it Sufficient ? ' New York, 1876, 12mo. 
8. ' The Emotions,' London and New York, 
1880, 12mo. 9. 'The Conflicts of the Age ' 
(from the ' North American Review '), New 
York, 1881, 8vo. 10. 'Psychology. The 
Cognitive Powers,' London and New York, 
1886, 8vo (last edition, New York, 1891). 
11. ' Psychology. The Motive Powers : Emo- 
tions, Conscience, Will,' London and New 
York, 1887, 8vo. 12. ' Realistic Philosophy 
defended in a Philosophic Series,' London 
and New York, 1887, 2 vols. 8vo (a collec- 
tive issue of several dissertations published 
between the years 1882 and 1885). 13. ' The 
Religious Aspect of Evolution. The Bedell 
Lectures for 1887,' New York, 1888, 12mo 
(enlarged edition, 1890). 14. 'First and 
Fundamental Truths,' London and New York, 
1889, 12mo. 15. 'The Tests of various 
Kinds of Truths ' (Merrick Lectures), New 
York and Cincinnati, 1889, 1891, 12mo. 
16. ' The Prevailing Types of Philosophy : 
Can they reach Reality logically ? ' New 
York, 1890, 12mo. 17. '" Our Moral Nature,' 
New York, 1892, 12mo (see also DULLES, 
McCosh Bibliography, which gives a com- 
plete catalogue of his multifarious contribu- 
tions to periodical literature, articles in the 
' Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious 
Knowledge,' pamphlets, and other fugitive 

[Sloane's Life of James McCosh, 1896 ; 
Irving's Book of Scotsmen ; Eclectic Magazine, 
July 1871; Appleton's Journ. 8 March 1873; 




Men and Women of the Time, 1891 ; Scotsman, 
19 Nov. 1894; Ann. Reg. 1894, ii. 209.] 

J. M. K. 

McCOY,SiRFREDERICK (1823-1899), 
naturalist and geologist, son of Simon McCoy, 
a Dublin physician, was born in that city 
in 1823. After passing through a course 
of medical study there and at Cambridge, 
and before reaching the age when he could 
begin to practise, he was diverted to natural 
science by undertaking the arrangement of 
the collections of the Geological Society of 
Ireland and of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Sir Richard John Griffith [q. v.] then en- 
gaged him to make the palaeontological in- 
vestigations required for the ' Geological 
Map of Ireland.' The results of these studies 
were published in two volumes, one en- 
titled ' Synopsis of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone Fossils in Ireland,' 1844, the other 
' Synopsis of the Silurian Fossils of Ireland,' 
1846, and during the later part of the time 
thus employed he was a member of the 
regular staft' of the Survey. In 1846, on the 
invitation of Adam Sedgwick [q. v.], he went 
to Cambridge to arrange the collection in 
the Woodwardian Museum. McCoy was 
continuously engaged in that university till 
1850, when he was appointed professor of 
mineralogy and geology at Queen's College, 
Belfast. But, as his Cambridge work was 
still unfinished, he returned thither for a 
few months in the spring and autumn of 
each year. During these intervals he aided 
Sedgwick in Cornwall in 1851, at May Hill 
in 1*52 and 1853. and in South Wales in 
1854. In that year he completed the de- 
scription of the fossils in the Woodwardian 
Museum, and was appointed to the chair of 
natural science in the new university of 
Melbourne, leaving England for this post in 
the autumn. The results of his studies at 
Cambridge were finally published in a volume 
entitled ' British Palaeozoic Rocks and Fos- 
sils,' 1 H54. This was restricted to the fossils ; 
for Sedgwick, who contributed an introduc- 
tion, had intended to write another volume 
describing the rocks. McCoy's new office 
was no sinecure, for he had to cover the 
whole field of natural history ; nevertheless 
he acted as paleontologist to the Geological 
Survey in its earlier stages, and was founder 
of the National Museum of Natural History 
and Geology at .Melbourne, of which he was 
director until his death, besides taking an 
active interest in municipal affairs and serv- 
ing as a justice of the peace. He was also 
chairman of the first royal commission for 
international and intercolonial exhibitions 
for the colony of Victoria. The later part 
of his life was spent at his house 'Maritima,' 

J Brighton Beach, about nine miles from Mel- 
| bourne, where he died on 13 May 1899. lie 
married Anna Maria, daughter of Thomas 
; Harrison, a solicitor, of Dublin. His wife 
i died in 1886, and in the following year he lost 
j his son Henry, a barrister practising in New 
I Zealand, who had married in 1870 and left 
' a family of seven children. His only daugh- 
I ter, Emily Mary McCoy, also died before 
j him. 

McCoy throughout his long life was the 
| most indefatigable of men. He lived very 
plainly, and did much of his work between 
ten at night and three in the morning, not 
requiring more than five hours' sleep. So, 
notwithstanding the official duties and the 
books already enumerated, he published two 
works for the government of Victoria, one 
entitled ' Prodromus of the Zoology of Vic- 
toria ' (1878 sqq.), the other ' Prodromus of 
the Palaeontology of Victoria,' each appear- 
ing in ' decades ' at intervals during thirty 
of the fifty-eight years covered by his publi- 
cations ; and he also wrote no less than 
sixty-nine papers, dealing, in addition to 
some zoological topics, with almost every 
branch of palaeontology. In fact, according 
to report, he was more engrossed in research 
than in the duties of his chair. He was 
conspicuous for his antagonism to the views 
of Charles Robert Darwin [q. v.] 

McCoy was elected F.G.S. in 1852, and 
received from that society its Murchison 
medal in 1879. In 1880 he was made a 
F.R.S. The honorary degree of doctor of 
science was conferred on him by Cambridge 
in 1886, where he was also an honorary 
1 member of the Philosophical Society, as 
I well as of the Royal Society of Australia, 
the Imperial Society of Naturalists of Mos- 
cow, and of many other British and foreign 
societies. He was awarded the Emperor of 
Austria's gold medal for arts and sciences, 
was a knight chevalier of the royal order 
of the crown of Italy, was created C.M.G. 
in 1886, and K.C.M.G. in 1891. 

[Obituary notices in the Geological Magazine, 
1899, p. 283; The Quarterly Journal of the Geo- 
logical Society, 56, lix ; the Year-book of the 
Royal Society, 1900, p. 196, by H[enryj W[ood- 
ward], and Nature, Ix. 83, by H[enry] B[oling- 
broke] W[oodward~l; frequent references in 
Sedgwick's Life and Letters, vol. ii., with in- 
formal ion from Frederick II. McCoy, esq. (grand- 
son), and others.] T. G. B. 


known as PICKLE THE SPY (1725P-17G1), 
thirteenth chief of Glengarry, born about 
1725, was eldest son of John, twelfth chief, 
by the only daughter of Colin Mackenzie of 
I Hilton. While yet a mere youth he was 




sent in 1738 to France, where in 1743 he 
joined Lord Drummond's regiment of royal 
Scots guards. In March 1744 he was with 
the Earl Marischal, and intended starting 
with the futile expedition of that year. 
Having in the following year been sent to 
Scotland to give information in connection 
with certain Jacobite disputes, he was in 
May despatched by the highland chiefs to 
France to testify to Charles their allegiance 
to his cause, but at the same time to warn 
him against an attempt to land in Scotland 
unless strongly backed by foreign assistance. 
His mission, however, was of no avail ; for 
Charles, before Macdonell's arrival in France, 
had already set sail on his rash adventure. 
Macdonell resolved to take part in it, but 
while returning to Scotland with a detach- 
ment of Drummond's guards he was cap- 
tured on 25 Nov. 1745 by H.M.S. Sheerness 
(London Gazette, 26-9 Nov., quoted in 
BLAlKiE's-fti'nerary of Prince Charles Edward, 
Scottish Historical Society, 1897, p. Ill), 
and sent to the Tower of London, where he 
was detained until July 1747. In December 
1749 he helped himself to the Jacobite 
treasure concealed at Loch Arkaig. Already 
or shortly afterwards he had further resolved 
on the betrayal of the Jacobite cause, and 
having introduced himself to Henry Pel- 
ham, he, as Mr. Lang has elaborately and 
beyond cavil demonstrated, became a hired 
spy on Prince Charles and the Jacobites, 
corresponding with the government under 
the pseudonym of ' Pickle.' 

Perhaps it has been insufficiently borne in 
mind that Macdonell may have all along 
cherished resentment against the prince on 
account of the clan's removal to the left wing 
at Culloden, where it practically deserted the 
prince's cause by refusing to strike a blow on 
his behalf. True the clan gave the prince 
shelter during his wanderings, but Mac- 
donell himself may on account of the treat- 
ment of the clan, or for some other reason, 
have cherished a personal grudge against the 
prince. In any case he was probably clever 
enough to recognise that the prince himself 
had become impossible ; and his interest cor- 
responding with his convictions, he may have 
persuaded himself that he was really saving 
his clan and the highlands generally from 
much needless suffering by frustrating the 
prince's madcap schemes. If, however, as 
is likely, his purpose was mainly selfish, it 
was unsuccessful, for the death of Pelham 
in 1754 blighted his main hopes of reward. 
On the death of his father in September of 
the same year, he became chief of the clan 
and succeeded to his father's impoverished 
fortunes. He died in 1761 in a hut adjoin- 

ing his ruined castle, and having no issue was 
succeeded in the chieftaincy by his nephew 
Duncan, son of his brother ^Eneas, who was 
slain at Falkirk. 

During the '45 the command of the Glen- 
garry clan was, on account of the imprison- 
ment of the chief, and of Alastair the chiefs 
eldest son, entrusted to the second son, 
/Eneas ; but in the absence of /Eneas in the 
highlands to procure reinforcements, the 
clan was, while on the march southwards to 
Derby, under the charge of Colonel Donald 
Macdonald of Lochgarry; and after the 
death of /Eneas at Falkirk, Lochgarry ac- 
companied the prince in his later wanderings 
and escaped with him to France, whence he 
wrote to his chief a ' memorial ' detailing 
the clan's achievements during the rebellion 
and its loyal conduct to the prince while a 
fugitive in its fastnesses (printed in BLAIKIE'S 
Itinerary of Prince Charles Edward, pp. 111- 

[Mackenzie's History of the Macdonalds ; 
Andrew Lang's Pickle the Spy, 1897, and Com- 
panions of Pickle, 1898, with the authorities 
therein mentioned; Blaikie's Itinerary of Prince 
Charles Edward.] T. F. H. 

1862), lieutenant-colonel of the 79th Came- 
ron highlanders, son of Patrick MacDougall 
of Soroba, Argyleshire, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Duncan M'Vicar, was born at 
Soroba in 1787. Educated at Edinburgh, he 
entered the army as ensign in 1804, served in 
the 53rd and 85th foot on the frontier, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and in the peninsu- 
lar war. He took part in the third siege 
and in the capture by storm of Badajos on 
6 April 1812, in the siege and in the cap- 
ture on 27 June of the forts of Salamanca. 
In the battle of Salamanca on 22 July, he 
gallantly saved the colours of his regiment 
and was severely wounded. He was present 
at the siege of Burgos in September and 
October and the retreat from it, at the siege 
and capture on 31 Aug. 1813 of St. Sebas- 
tian, at the passage of the Bidassoa in Octo- 
ber, at the battles of Nivelle (10 Nov.), the 
Nive (9 to 13 Dec.), and the investment of 
Bayonne. He received three medals for his 
peninsular services. He took part in the 
American war of 1814, was present at the 
battle of Bladensburg on 24 Aug., the cap- 
ture of Washington, and the attack on Bal- 
timore on 12 Sept., when he was aide-de- 
camp to Major-general Robert Ross [q. v.], 
who was killed. He also served in the opera- 
tions against New Orleans in December 1814 
and January 1815, was aide-de-camp to Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir Edward Pakenham [q. v.], 




when that officer was killed at the assault 
of 7 Jan., and took part in the siege of Fort 
Bowyer in Florida. In 1825, when in com- 
mand of the 79th foot at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, he was entrusted with the organisa- 
tion of the colonial militia. In 1835 he 
relinquished the command of his regiment 
and retired from the active list in order to 
join the British auxiliary legion of Spain 
as quartermaster-general and second in com- 
mand under his friend Sir De Lacy Evans 
[q. v.l For his services in Spain he re- 
ceived from Queen Isabella II the order of 
knighthood of St. Ferdinand. In later years 
he raised the Lancashire artillery militia. 
A prominent figure in the volunteer move- 
ment of 1859, he presided at the great 
meeting at St. Martin's Hall, London, at 
which it was inaugurated. He published 
a very useful pamphlet in 1860 entitled 
* Hints to Volunteers on various Subjects.' 
He died on 10 Dec. 1862, and was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, where 
there is a monument with a bust by Adams 
to his memory. He was twice married : first, 
in 1817, to Anne, daughter of Colonel 
Smelt, governor of the Isle of Man, by whom 
he left an only son, Patrick Leonard [q. v. 
Suppl.]; and, secondly, in 1844, to Hannah, 
widow of Colonel Nicholson of Springfield 
House, Liverpool. 

[War Office Records; Despatches; Army 
Lists ; private information.] R. H. V. 

LEONARD (1819-1894), general, colonel of 
the Leinster regiment, and military author, 
born at Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, on 10 Aug. 
1819, was son, by his first wife, of Sir Dun- 
can MacDougall [q. v. Suppl.] Educated at 
the Military Academy at Edinburgh and at 
the Royal Slilitary College at Sandhurst, he 
received a commission as second lieutenant 
in the Ceylon rifle regiment on 13 Feb. 1836, 
in July exchanged into the 79th Cameron 
highlanders, and on 26 July 1839 into the 
36th foot. His further commissions were 
dated: lieutenant 11 May 1839, captain 
7 June 1844, major 9 Feb. 1849, brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel 17 July 1855, brevet colonel 
17 July 1858, major-general 6 March 1868, 
lieutenant-general 1 Oct. 1877, colonel of 
the 2nd battalion of the West India regi- 
ment 21 Dec. 1881, general 1 Oct. 1883, 
colonel of the Leinster regiment 26 Aug. 

In 1840 MacDougall entered the senior 
department of the Royal Military College at 
Sandhurst ; he left in 1842 with the highest 
class certificate and special commendation. 
Transferred on 25 June 1844 to the Royal 

Canadian rifle regiment, he joined it at 
Toronto, Canada, and for the next ten years 
served as a regimental officer there and at 
Kingston. On 3 March 1854 he was appointed 
superintendent of studies at Sandhurst, but 
the following year was sent on particular 
service to the Crimea, where he acted as 
assistant quartermaster-general on the staff 
of Brigadier-general D. A. Cameron in the 
expedition to Kertch in May 1855, and 
attended Lord Raglan in the trenches at the 
unsuccessful assaults on the Redan on 1 8 June. 
For his Crimean services he received the war 
medal and clasp, the Turkish medal, and a 
brevet lieutenant-colonelcy. On his return 
home he resumed his appointment at Sand- 
hurst, which he held until 1858. 

In 1856 his principal work, ' The Theory 
of War : illustrated by numerous Examples 
from Military History,' was published, and 
a second edition appeared in 1858. It soon 
became a text-book of military instruction, 
was translated into French and German, and 
gave its author a first place among English 
military writers. In 1857, in a pamphlet 
entitled ' The Senior Department of the Royal 
Military College,' MacDougall drew attention 
to the want of proper instruction for staff 
officers, and on the formation of the staff 
college on 5 Feb. following, he became 
its first commandant. He published in 1858 
a treatise written expressly for students of 
military history, entitled ' The Campaigns 
of Hannibal arranged and critically con- 

During his tenure of office at the staff 
college he was an industrious writer and 
lecturer, taking as some of his subjects 
'Napoleon's Campaign in Italy in 1796,' 
' The Military Character of the great Duke of 
Marlborough,' ' General Sir Charles James 
Napier as Conqueror and Governor of Sind.' 
He wrote the obituary notice of Napier which 
appeared in the ' Times ' of 13 Feb. 1860, and 
in 1862 published 'Forts versus Ships' and 
' Defence of the Canadian Lakes and its 
influence on the general Defence of Canada,' 
both written in crossing the Atlantic on a 
short visit to America. In 1864 his life of 
his father-in-law, the historian of the penin- 
sular war, Sir William Francis Patrick 
Napier [q. v.], edited by Lord Aberdare, was 
published in two octavo volumes, and in 
the same year ' Modern Warfare as in- 
fluenced by Modern Artillery.' Early in 
1865 he contributed articles on Sir William 
Napier both to the 'Edinburgh' and the 
'Quarterly' Reviews. 

MacDougall was appointed adjutant- 
general of Canadian militia in May 1865. 
His services in the Fenian raid of 1866 were 




brought to the especial notice of the authori- 
ties at home by Lord Monck, the governor- 
general (Detpatch No. 53, 14 June 1866), 
who was so impressed with the value of 
MacDougall's work in the organisation of 
the militia and volunteers that, on leaving 
Canada, he wrote officially to thank him for 
having ' laid the foundation of a military 
system inexpensive, unoppressive, and effi- 
cient/ and sent a copy to the home authori- 
ties. During MacDougall's service on the 
staff' in Canada he lectured on military sub- 
jects from time to time, and published a 
pamphlet on the ' Defence of Canada.' 

Returning to England in April 1869 he 
wrote ' The Army and its Reserves,' and was 
much occupied with the then burning ques- 
tion of army reform. In October 1871 he 
was appointed deputy inspector-general of 
the auxiliary forces at headquarters. He 
presided over Cardwell's ' Localisation Com- 
mittee ' in that year, one of the most impor- 
tant which have ever sat at the war office, 
whose report, generally adopted, proposed 
by the fusion of the regular, reserve, and 
auxiliary forces under the generals com- 
manding districts, to form one army for de- 
fence under the Commander-in-chief and by 
the institution of linked battalions, to have 
always one at home and one abroad, with 
depot centres for enlisting and training re- 

For five years from April 1873 MacDou- 
gall was head of the intelligence branch of 
the war office, at first as deputy adjutant- 
general, and afterwards as deputy quarter- 
master-general. Created a K.C.M.G. on 
30 May 1877, he was a year later appointed 
to the command in North America, just at 
a time when relations with Russia were 
strained after the Russo-Turkish war. He 
undertook to have ten thousand trained and 
disciplined Canadian volunteers available 
for service wherever required, in a few weeks 
after the offer of their service was accepted, 
thus instituting a valuable precedent which 
has since been followed, not only by Canada, 
but by most of the self-governing colonies 
notably in the recent South African troubles 
to the great advantage of the empire. 

MacDougall returned to England in May 
1883, and retired from the active list in 
July 1885. He died at his residence, Mel- 
bury Lodge, Kingston Hill. Surrey, on 
28 Nov. 1894, and was buried at East 
Putney cemetery, the sergeants of the King- 
ston depot carrying his body to the grave. 
He was twice married: first, in 1844, to 
Louisa Augusta (d. 1856), third daughter of 
Sir William Francis Patrick Napier ; and, 
secondly, in 1860, to Marianne Adelaide, 

who survived him, daughter of Philip John 
Miles of Leigh Court, Somerset. There was 
no issue of either marriage. A miniature of 
Sir Patrick MacDougall by Notman of Mont- 
real, Canada, is in Lady MacDougall's pos- 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, and many articles in the reviews 
and magazines, MacDougall was the author 
of the following: 'Emigration: its Advan- 
tages to Great Britain and her Colonies, 
together with a detailed Plan for the Pro- 
motion of the proposed Railway between 
Halifax and Quebec, by means of Coloniza- 
tion,' London, 1848, 8vo; 'Modern Infantry 
Tactics,' London, 1873, 8vo ; ' Short Service 
Enlistment and the Organisation of our 
Infantry as illustrated by Recent Events,' 
Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo. 

[War Office Records ; obituary notice in 
Times of 30 Nov. 1894; Despatches; Army 
Lists ; private information.] R. H. V. 

1893), free-trade advocate, son of John 
Macfie, sugar refiner, of Leith, by Alison, 
second daughter of William Thorburn, was 
born at Leith on 4 Oct. 1811. Educated at 
the high schools of Leith and Edinburgh, 
and at the university of Edinburgh, he en- 
tered, in 1827, his father's business, of which 
about ten years later he established a branch 
at Liverpool. There he co-operated with 
Leone Levi in founding the chamber of com- 
merce, and was elected trustee of the Ex- 
change. He retired from business about 
1863 and devoted the rest of his life to pub- 
lic objects. As member for Leith Burghs 
in the parliament of 1868-74, he made him- 
self conspicuous by his uncompromising ad- 
vocacy of free trade in inventions, proposing 
a system of ' national recompenses ' in lieu of 
patents. He also agitated for the abridg- 
ment of authors' copyrights. These extreme 
views he combined with an earnest solici- 
tude for the consolidation and defence of the 
empire, which rendered him a determined 
opponent of all tampering with the Union, 
and a pioneer of imperial federation. He 
died at his country seat, Dreghorn, near 
Edinburgh, on 16 Feb. 1893. He was 
F.R.C.I. and F.R.S.E., and a Knight Com- 
mander of the Hawaian Order of Kalakaua. 

Macfie married in 1840 Caroline Eliza, 
daughter of John Eastin of Conrance II ill, 

Macfie published : 1. ' The Patent Ques- 
tion : a solution of difficulties by abolishing 
or shortening the Inventor's monopoly and 
instituting National Recompenses,' London, 
1863, 8vo. 2. 'Recent Discussions on the 




Abolition of Patents for Inventions in the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the 
Netherlands,' London, 1869, 8vo. 3. ' Colo- 
nial Questions pressing for immediate solu- 
tion in the interest of the Nation and the 
Empire,' London, 1871, 8vo. 4. 'Copyright 
and Patents for Inventions. Pleas and plans 
for cheaper books and greater industrial 
freedom,' Edinburgh, 1871, 8vo. 5. 'A! 
Glance at the Position and Prospects of the , 
Empire,' London, 1872, 8vo. 6. ' The 
Patent Question in 1875 ; with a suggestion j 
as to Copyright,' London, 1875, 8vo. 7. 
' Cries in a Crisis for Statesmanship popular 
and patriotic to test and contest Free 
Trade in our Manufactures,' London, 1881, 
8vo. 8. ' The Patent Bills of 1883 : private 
aims and public claims,' Edinburgh, 1883, 
8vo. 9. ' The Questions put by the Royal 
Commissioners on the Depressed State of 
Trade dealt with in an independent but 
sympathetic spirit,' Edinburgh, 1885, 8vo. 
10. 'The Scotch Church Question. Letter 
of an Heritor in a country parish, and 
Notes on the Question how to adapt and 
improve the Ecclesiastical System of Scot- 
land without destroying it,' Edinburgh, 
1885, 8vo. 11. ' Offhand Notes on " Prayers 
for Social and Family Worship for the use 
of Soldiers, Sailors, Colonists, Sojourners in 
India, prepared by a Committee of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land : a revised edition, 1889,'" Edinburgh, 

[Scots Mag. 1810, p. 957 ; Men and Women 
of the Time, 1891; Scotsman, 18 Feb. 1893; 
Ann. Keg. 1893, ii. 151; List of Members of 
Parliament (official); Simmonds's British Koll 
of Honour ; Brit. Mus Cat.] J. M. R. 

1900), premier of Queensland, son of John 
Mcllwraith of Ayr, Scotland, and his wife 
Janet Hamilton, daughter of John Howat, 
was born at Ayr on 17 May 1835, and edu- 
cated at the academy in that town and at I 
Glasgow University for the profession of an 
engineer. In 1854 he followed an elder 
brother to Victoria and obtained employment 
on the Victorian railways, and afterwards I 
with the well-known contractors, Cornish X.- 
Bruce. In 1861, having gradually bought ! 
up a good deal of land in Queensland, he 
began to reside there in part and give much 
attention to pastoral pursuits ; in 1869 
he was elected to the legislative assembly 
of that colony as member for Maranoa, and 
in 1870 settled entirely in Queensland. 

In January 1874 Mcllwraith took office 
as minister for works and mines under Arthur 
Macalister [q. v.], but resigned in October, 
and for some time took no special part in 

politics. In 1878 he was returned for Mul- 
grave, and on 21 Jan. 1879, after the defeat 
of the ministry of the Hon. John Douglas, 
became premier and colonial treasurer. The 
programme of his first session embraced a 
large scheme of local government and a re- 
form of the immigration system. On 24 Dec. 
1881 he took the post of colonial secretary 
instead of treasurer. Probably the most im- 
portant event of his administration was his 
annexation of New Guinea to Queensland 
on 4 April 1883 ; it was a daring act for a 
colonial statesman, and, after rousing much 
criticism at home, was disallowed by Glad- 
stone's government. As an almost imme- 
diate result of the disallowance, and to the 
great indignation of the Australian colonies, 
Germany seized New Guinea and several 
places in the Western Pacific ; and the im- 
perial government, was shortly compelled to 
follow Mclhvraith's lead and take over a 
large part of New Guinea. On the question 
of a railway concession to an English com- 
pany on the land grant system he was left 
in a minority at the general election of this 
year, and resigned office in November 1883, 
after being twice beaten in the House of 
Assembly. Very soon after this defeat he 
left for Great Britain, where he spent some 
months, receiving the freedom of Ayr and 
an honorary LL.D. from Glasgow Univer- 

On his return to Queensland Mcllwraith 
professed to have retired from politics, but 
in 1888 he again stood for parliament, was 
elected for North Brisbane, and on a pro- 
gramme of a ' national party ' came into 
power at once on 13 June as premier, holding 
office both as colonial secretary and treasurer. 
He began by a difference with the governor, 
Sir Anthony Musgrave [q. v.], on the con- 
tention that the latter was bound to follow 
the advice of his ministers in exercising the 
crown's prerogative of mercy ; the point was 
decided in Mcllwraith's favour. In October 
he came into collision with the imperial 
government on the subject of the appoint- 
ment of a governor; but in this case his 
contention was not made good. On 30 Nov. 
Mcllwraith relinquished the position of pre- 
mier to Mr. Boyd Dunlop Morehead, though 
he remained in the cabinet without portfolio 
and proceeded on a voyage to China and 
Japan for his health. In September 1889, 
soon after his return, he split with his col- 
leagues on questions of finance, and in the 
new session joined with his former opponent, 
Sir Samuel Griffith, to defeat them. In 
August 1890 he became colonial treasurer 
in Griffith's ministry. At this time he re- 
ceived an invitation from Scotland to return 




thither and contest Ayr, his native city, but 
lie declined. In March 1891 he represented 
Queensland at the federation convention 
held at Sydney. In November 1892 he took 
another voyage for his health, this time to 
Northern India, returning in March 1893 to 
find that the premier had resigned and the 
ministry was in a manner in commission. 
On 27 March he was called upon to form a 
ministry. A general election soon followed, 
and he came in again with a larger working 
majority than any administration Queens- 
land had ever had before. The difficulty 
which faced him at that time was the atti- 
tude of the so-called labour party. On 
27 Oct. he resigned the position of premier 
owing to the failure of his health, but nomi- 
nally remained in the ministry ; on 15 Jan. 
1893 he came to England for medical ad- 
vice ; and in a short time his illness became 
so pronounced that he could not return to 
Queensland. For six years following he was 
in the hands of specialists and confined to 
the house. In 1895 he was ottered but de- 
clined the position of agent-general. He 
died on 17 July 1900 at 208 Cromwell Road, 
London, and was buried at Ayr. 

Mcllwraith's reputation was not confined 
to his own colony, where his influence was 
commanding. But his connection with the 
Queensland Investment and Land Mortgage 
Company involved him in a series of legal 
actions which came to an end in 1892. Sub- 
sequently he was severely criticised over the 
conduct of business by the Queensland Na- 
tional bank, of which he was a director. He 
was an associate of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers and was made K.C.M.G. in 1882. 

Mcllwraith married, on 14 June 1879, 
Harriette Ann, daughter of Hugh Mosman 
of Armidale, New South Wales, who with 
four daughters survived him. 

[InnesAddison's Graduates of Glasgow, p. 376 ; 
Mennell's Diet, of Australasian Biogr. ; British 
Australasian, 19 July 1900; The Queenslander, 
21 July 1900; Queensland Blue Books and 
Parliamentary Debates.] C. A. H. 

MACKAY, ALEXANDER (1815-1 895), 
educational writer, born in Thurso on 15 Nov. 
1815, was the youngest of the eight children 
of Murdoch Mackay, farmer, of Latheron, 
Caithness. On his father's second marriage 
young Mackay went to Aberdeen, where 
he studied at King's College, and graduated 
M.A. in 1840. In 1844 he became the first 
Free church minister of Rhynie in Aberdeen- 
shire, the established minister of which had 
been one of the seven clergymen of Strath- 
bogie deposed by the evangelical majority of 
the church of Scotland. Here his geological 

studies, chieflyin connection with rare fossils 
found in the old red sandstone in a quarry 
near Rhynie, brought him into communica- 
tion with Hugh Miller, Sir A. Ramsay, of 
the Geological Survey, Sir Roderick I. Mur- 
chison, and Dr. A. Keith Johnston, who re- 
commended him as a fellow of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1859. 

In 1861 Mackay published a ' Manual of 
Modern Geography, Mathematical, Physical, 
and Political,' which attracted much at- 
tention, and has since proved a mine of 
wealth to other writers on geography. In 
1866 the degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
him by King's College, Aberdeen. 

In 1867, finding the charge of a congrega- 
tion less congenial than literary work, he 
resigned his pastorate at Rhynie and went 
to Edinburgh, from which he removed to 
Ventnor in 1878. During this period he 
devoted himself entirely to works on geo- 
graphy and kindred subjects. He had just 
completed the rewriting and revision of 
proofs of his work on physiography and 
physical geography, when he died suddenly 
at Ventnor on 31 Jan. 1895. Mackay mar- 
ried in November 1846 Margaret Lillie, 
daughter of Alexander Lillie of Banff. By 
her he had five sons, all of whom he sur- 
vived. One of them was the well-known 
missionary of Uganda, Alexander Murdoch 
Mackay [q. v.] 

Mackay s works have had a very large 
circulation, and are characterised by the best 
qualities of the old school of geographical 
text-books, being full of facts systemati- 
cally arranged, scrupulously verified, and 
illustrated by brief notes of general interest. 
In one instance he made an attempt to fasten 
the elementary facts on the minds of young 
scholars by producing a ' Rhyming Geo- 
graphy ' (1873 ; new edit. 1876), some of the 
stanzas of which, once read, are difficult to 
forget. His most arduous piece of work was 
an ingenious mnemonic system for remem- 
bering numbers, which he developed in a 
book entitled ' Facts and Dates ' (1869 ; 3rd 
edit. 1879). 

Mackay was also the author of the follow- 
ing works: 1. 'Elements of Modern Geo- 
graphy,' 1864; 12th edit. 1872. 2. 'Out- 
lines of Modern Geography,' 1865. 3. First 
Steps in Geography,' 1869. 4. ' Geography 
of the British Empire,' 1869. 5. ' The In- 
termediate Geography,' 1874; 10th edit. 
1885. 6. 'Life and Times of the late 
Rev. George Davidson, Latheron,' 1875. 
7. ' Handbook to the Seat of War in Turkey,' 
1877. 8. ' Physiography and Physical Geo- 
graphy,' 1877. He also edited and revised 
Reid's ' Elements of Astronomy,' 1874. 




[The G-eographical Journal, v. 276-7 ; private 
information ; Mrs. J. W. Harrison's Story of 
Mackay of Uganda ; Brit. Museum Cat.] 

G. S-H. 

MACKENZIE, COLIN (1806-1881), 
lieutenant-general in the Indian army, born 
in London on 25 March 1806, and baptised 
at St. James's Church, Piccadilly, was 
youngest son but one of Kenneth Francis 
Mackenzie (d. 1831) and his wife, Anne 
Townsend. His father, who belonged to 
the Redcastle branch of Mackenzies, was 
attorney-general of Grenada, and lost much 
during the war with France, 1793-1815. 
Colin was educated successively at a school 
in Cumberland, at Dollar, and at Os- 
westry, and in 1825 he was appointed a 
cadet of infantry on the Madras establish- 
ment. He served as adjutant of the 48th 
Madras native infantry in the Coorg cam- 
paign in 1834, and was present in all the 
actions of that campaign, during a portion of 
which he held the appointment of deputy- 
assistant quartermaster-general. At the 
close of the campaign his services were 
favourably noticed by the brigadier-general 
commanding the force. In 1836 he ac- 
companied Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir 
Henry Ducie) Chads in an expedition to the 
Straits of Malacca, which had been organised 
for the purpose of extirpating piracy in those 
seas. Although Mackenzie was on board 
Captain Chads's ship only as a passenger, his 
services and his gallantry were such that they 
elicited warm acknowledgments from Captain 
Chads and afterwards from Lord Auckland, 
then governor-general of India, who selected 
him in 1840 for employment with the force 
then serving in Afghanistan. In this un- 
fortunate expedition, which, owing mainly to 
the incompetence of the general in command, 
ended in the complete destruction of a large 
1'ritishforce, Mackenzie greatly distinguished 
himself. He was employed at first as 
assistant political agent under Mr. (after- 
wards Sir George) Clerk at Peshawar. 
Thence he proceeded to Kabul, where he 
joined a corps of sappers which had been 
raised in Afghanistan by George Broadfoot, 
a shipmate of his on his voyage to India. 
Mackenzie led the advanced guard of Sir 
Robert Sale's force as far as Gundamack on 
its march to Jellalabad, and then, returning 
to Kabul, he commanded a so-called, but 
absolutely indefensible, fort, called the fort 
of Nishan Khan, in which the commissariat 
of Shah Soojah's troops was kept. He was 
in command of this fort when the insurrec- 
tion of the Afghans at Kabul broke out. 
Kaye, in his history of the first war in 
Afghanistan, thus describes Mackenzie's de- 

fence : ' On 3 Nov. it became certain that 
Mackenzie, with all his gallantry and all his 
laborious zeal, working day and night with- 
out food and without rest, conducting the 
defence with as much judgment as spirit, 
could not much longer hold his post. His 
men were wearied out, his ammunition was 
exhausted, his wounded were dying for want 
of medical aid. He had defended his position 
throughout two days of toil, suffering, and 
danger ; and no aid had come from canton- 
ments, none was likely to come. So, yield- 
ing at last to the importunity of others, he 
moved out of the fort and fought his way by 
night to cantonments. It was a difficult 
and hazardous march ; and almost by a 
miracle Mackenzie escaped to encounter new- 
dangers, to sustain new trials, and to live in 
habitual gratitude to God for his wonderful 

In the following month Mackenzie was 
present at the conference between the envoy, 
Sir William Kay Macnaghten [l-v.], and the 
Afghan chief, Akbar Khan. He and Eldred 
Pottinger [q.v.] had in vain endeavoured to 
dissuade Macnaghten from attending the 
conference, assuring him that there were 
strong grounds for suspecting treachery. 
But the conference took place and the envoy 
was treacherously seized and shot by Akbar 
Khan. At the same time Mackenzie and 
George Lawrence [q.v.] were made prisoners. 
Later on, duriug the unfortunate retreat 
from Kabul, Mackenzie, who had been set 
free, displayed the greatest courage and 
excellent judgment, and did all in his power 
to stimulate the efforts of the officers in supe- 
rior military command. Indeed it is not too 
much to say that, if Mackenzie had been the 
general in command, instead of being only a 
captain, the disasters which attended the first 
Afghan war might have been averted. In 
the course of the retreat, it having been 
arranged that hostages should be given up 
to Akbar Khan, Mackenzie was selected as 
one of them. His selection was approved 
by Akbar Khan as a man who was certain 
to keep his word. In consequence of his- 
deeply religious life the Afghans called him 
the ' English Moollah,' and had the greatest 
confidence in him. While in this position 
he was deputed by Eldred Pottinger, with 
the approval of Akbar Khan, to convey letters 
to the political agent at Jellalabad and to 
General Sir George Pollock [q. v.], who had 
reached that place. On both these missions 
he had more than one very narrow escape, 
and after ithe second he was attacked by a 
dangerous illness which nearly cost him his 
life. Mackenzie was subsequently carried off" 
by Akbar Khan with the rest of the hostages 




and prisoners, and with them was being re- 
moved over the Hindu Kiish, whence they 
were to be sent to Bokhara to be sold as 
slaves, when, owing to the arrival of Pol- 
lock's force in the vicinity of Kabul and the 
flight of Akbar Khan, the Afghan in charge 
of the prisoners was induced by a guaran- 
tee of a large sum of money to release them. 
Before returning to India Mackenzie took 
part with Henry Havelock [see HAVELOCK, 
SIK HENRY] on the assault upon the fort of 
Istaliff. He, like Eldred Pottinger and the 
others who had distinguished themselves 
during the insurrection and the retreat, was 
one of the victims of the unreasoning preju- 
dice which led Lord Ellenborough [see LAW, 
with studied neglect all who had been in 
any way connected with the recent disasters, 
except the garrison of Jellalabad. Macken- 
zie was refused the Kabul medal and the six 
months' pay which accompanied it, and it 
was not until 1853 that, owing to the inter- 
position of Lord Dalhousie, it was granted 
to him. He was also created a C.B. 

Mackenzie was subsequently employed on 
the north-west frontier to raise a Sikh regi- 
ment (the 4th), with which he kept the 
peace of the border during the last Sikh 
campaign. It was while thus employed 
that he made the acquaintance of Lord Dal- 
housie, who formed a high opinion of his 
character and of his talents. It is said to 
have been by his advice that Lord Dalhousie 
was induced to abandon an idea he had 
formed of making over to Afghanistan the 
country between the Indus and the Suleiman 
range. Mackenzie urged that Peshawar was 
the gate of India, and therefore should not 
be given up. He was still a regimental 
captain when, in 1850, he was appointed by 
Lord Dalhousie brigadier-general in com- 
mand of the Ellichpiir division of the Hy- 
derabad contingent. In nominating Mac- 
kenzie for this post the governor-general 
remarked that 'the gallantry, ability, and 
endurance displayed by him at the time of 
the rising at Kabul are amply recorded, and 
in connection with the subsequent events of 
that period entitle him to a higher reward 
at the hands of the government of India 
than the command of a local corps in the 
Sutlej provinces.' Mackenzie had held his 
new command for some years when a mutiny 
occurred in one of the cavalry regiments of 
the contingent which nearly cost him his 
life. In September 1855, on the occasion 
of the Muharram procession at Bolarum, the 
great day of which happened that year to be 
a Sunday, Mackenzie issued orders which in 
the first instance prohibited any procession 

being held on the Sunday, but were subse- 
quently so far modified as to permit of the 
processions taking place within the lines of 
I the regiments, but not in the barracks or 
, along the roads. This order was openly 
[ violated by the 3rd cavalry regiment of the 
| contingent, which marched past the bri- 
gadier's house and grounds, making a hideous 
din when the procession reached that spot. 
Mackenzie sent out orderlies to stop them, 
and, this interference proving ineffectual, 
went out himself unarmed and seized two 
small standards which the sepoys were 
carrying. The result was a tumult, in the 
course of which Mackenzie was dangerously 
wounded. The government, while paying a 
high tribute to Mackenzie ' as a good and 
distinguished soldier, and as honourable, 
conscientious, and gallant a gentleman as 
the ranks of the army can show,' condemned 
the course taken by him on this occasion as 
rash and ill-judged. 

Although this judgment was questioned 
by some very distinguished officers, there 
can be no doubt that it had an unfortunate 
influence upon Mackenzie's subsequent career. 
He was compelled by his wounds to return 
to England for a time. Afterwards he held 
the political appointment of agent to the 
governor-general with the Nawab Nazim of 
Bengal ; but there he appears not to have 
received the support which ought to have 
been afforded to him at headquarters, and he 
was transferred to one of the civil depart- 
ments of the army as superintendent of army 
clothing, a post ludicrously inappropriate to 
his previous services. Some years later, on 
his claiming a divisional command in his 
own presidency, it was withheld from him 
by the commander-in-chief on the ground of 
the censure which had been passed upon 
him in the Bolarum case. On that occasion 
the governor of Madras (Francis, lord Napier 
[q.v.Suppl.]) and one of the members of coun- 
cil expressed strong disapproval of the corn- 
mander-in-chief's decision, and referred the 
question to the secretary of state, who, how- 
ever, declined to interfere. Mackenzie finally 
left India in 1873, and died at Edinburgh on 
22 Oct. 1881. A photogravure portrait of 
Mackenzie, aged 74, is prefixed to Mrs. 
Mackenzie's ' Storms and Sunshine ' (Edin- 
burgh, 1884, 2 vols.) Mackenzie married 
first, in May 1832, Adeline, eldest daughter 
of James Pattle of the Bengal civil service, 
who died four years afterwards. He married 
secondly, in 1843, Helen, eldest daughter of 
Admiral John Erskine Douglas, who survives 
him, and has published several works re- 
lating to India, besides the life of her hus- 




[History of the War in Afghanistan, by J. W. 
Kaye, F.K.S. ; Storms ;md Sunshine of a Soldier's 
Life, by Mrs. Colin Mackenzie ; Twelve Indian 
Statesmen, by George Smith, C.I.E., LL. D. ; 
India Office Records ; Boase's Modern English 
Biojrr. ; Illustrated London News, Ixxix. 464 
(with portrait).] A. J. A. 

baronet (1823-1893), founder of the British 
East Africa Company, born at Campbeltown 
in Argyleshire on 31 March 1823, was the son 
of Duncan Mackinnon of Campbeltown, by 
his wife Isabella (d. 21 April 1861), daughter 
of John Currie of the same town. He was 
educated at Campbeltown, and was trained 
to the grocery trade there. Early in life, 
however, he came to Glasgow, and was em- 
ployed in a silk warehouse and afterwards in 
the office of a merchant engaged in the 
Eastern trade. In 1847 he went out to 
India and joined his old schoolfellow, Robert 
Mackenzie, who was engaged in the coasting 
trade in the Bay of Bengal. Together they 
founded the firm of Mackinnon, Mackenzie, & 
Co. On 29 Sept. 1856 the Calcutta and j 
Burmah Steam Navigation Company was ! 
founded mainly through Mackinnon's exer- 
tions. It was renamed the British India 
Steam Navigation Company on 8 Dec. 1862. 
The company began with a single steamer 
plying between Calcutta and Rangoon, but 
under Mackinnon's direction it became one 
of the greatest shipping companies in the 
world. Under his guidance it developed, and 
in many instances created, a vast trade around 
the coast of India and Burmah, the Persian 
Gulf, and the east coast of Africa, besides 
establishing subsidiary lines of connection 
with Great Britain, the Dutch East Indies, 
and Australia. He was careful to have his 
ships constructed in such a manner that they 
could be used for the transport of troops, 
thus relieving the Indian government from 
the necessity of maintaining a large trans- 
port fleet. His great business capacity did 
not impair the humanity of his disposition. 
On learning that his agents during a famine 
in Orissa had made a contract with govern- 
ment for the conveyance of rice from 
Burmah at enhanced rates, he at once 
cancelled the agreement, and ordered that 
the rice should be carried at less than the 
ordinary price. 

About 1873 the company established a 
mail service between Aden and Zanzibar. 
Mackinnon gained the confidence of the 
sultan, Seyyid Barghash, and in 1878 he 
opened negotiations with him for the lease 
of a territory extending 1,150 miles along 
the coast line from Tungi to Warsheik, and 
extending inland as far as the eastern pro- 

vince of the Congo Free State. The district 
comprised at least 590,000 square miles, and 
included Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika, and 
Victoria Nyanza. The British government, 
however, declined to sanction the conces- 
sion, which, if ratified, would have secured 
for England the whole of what is now 
German East Africa. In 1886 the foreign 
minister availed himself of Mackinnon's 
influence to secure the coast line from 
Wanga to Kipini. A charter was granted, 
and the Imperial British East Africa Com- 
pany was formally incorporated on 18 April 
1888, with Mackinnon as chairman. The 
company acquired a coast line of 150 miles, 
including the excellent harbour of Mombasa, 
and extending from the river Tana to the 
frontier of the German protectorate. The 
company, which included among its prin- 
ciples the abolition of the slave trade, the 
prohibition of trade monopoly, and the 
equal treatment of all nationalities, found 
itself seriously handicapped in its relations 
with foreign associations, such as the Ger- 
man East African Company, by the strenuous 
support which they received from their 
respective governments. The British go- 
vernment, on the other hand, was debarred 
by the principles of English colonial ad- 
ministration from affording similar assistance. 
The territory of the company was *finally 
taken over by the British government on 
1 July 1895 in return for a cash payment. 

Mackinnon had a great part in promoting 
Sir H. M. Stanley's expedition for the relief 
of Emin Pasha. In November 1886 he 
addressed a letter, urging immediate action, 
to Sir James Fergusson, under-secretary of 
state for foreign affairs, and followed this 
by submitting to Lord Iddesleigh, the foreign 
secretary, a memorandum suggesting the 
formation of a small committee to send out 
an expedition. He and his friends sub- 
scribed more than half the sum of 29,000/. 
provided for the venture, the rest being 
furnished by the Egyptian government (cf. 
In Darkest Africa, 1890, prefatory epistle). 

Mackinnon was for some time a director 
of the City of Glasgow Bank, and assisted 
to extricate the concern from its earlier 
difficulties. In 1870, finding that he could 
not approve the policy of the other directors, 
he resigned his seat on the board. On the 
failure of the bank in 1878 the liquidators 
brought a claim against him in the court of 
session for about 400,000/. After a pro- 
tracted litigation Mackinnon, who had 
peremptorily declined to listen to any sugges- 
tion of compromise, was completely exone- 
rated by the court from the charges brought 
against him, and it was demonstrated that 




the course taken by the directors was con- 
trary to his express advice. 

Mackinnon was one of the chief sup- 
porters of the Free Church of Scotland. 
Towards the end of his life, however, the 
passage of the Declaratory Act, of which 
he disapproved, led to some difference of 
opinion between him and the leaders of the 
church, and he materially assisted the 
seceding members in the Scottish highlands. 
In 1891 he founded the East African 
Scottish Mission. 

In 1882 Mackinnon was nominated C.I.E., 
and on 15 July 1889 he was created a 
baronet. He died in London, in the Bur- 
lington Hotel, on 22 June 1893, and was 
buried at Clachan in Argyleshire on 28 June. 
He was a highlander of the best type, a 
hospitable host, and a generous benefactor. 
He possessed great administrative ability. 
"When Sir Bartle Frere sent Sir Lewis Pelly 
to the Persian Gulf in 1862 he said, ' Look 
out for a little Scotsman called Mackinnon ; 
you will find him the mainspring of all the 
British enterprise there.' 

On 12 May 1856 Mackinnon married 
Janet Colquhoun (d. 1894), elder daughter 
of John Jameson of Woodside Crescent, 
Glasgow. He had no issue. 

[Scotsman, 23, 29 June 1893; Glasgow Herald, 
23 June 1893; D. D. Mackinnon's Memoirs of 
Clan Fingon, 1899, pp. 194-9 ; Times, 23 June 
1893.] E. I. C. 

MACKNIGHT, THOMAS (1829-1899), 
political writer, born at Gainsford, co. Dur- 
ham, on 15 Feb. 1829, was son of Thomas 
Macknight and his wife Elizabeth. After 
being educated at a school at Gainsford kept 
by Dr. Bowman, Macknight removed to 
London, and on 28 Sept. 1849 entered the 
medical faculty at King's College. In 1850 
he won the Stephen prize for an essay on 
' The Historical Plays of Shakespeare ' 
(London, 1850, 8vo), and in 1851 the 
Leathes prize for divinity ; he also obtained 
three special certificates for physiology, 
chemistry, and botany. He was president 
of the King's College Literary and Scientific 
Union, and published an ' Address on the 
Literature of the Age,' which he delivered 
on 12 March 1851. He left King's College 
in 1851, and took to writing for the press ; 
he was a whig of the Palmerstonian school, 
and his first book, published anonymously, 
was 'The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli: a 
Literary and Political Biography' (London, 
1854, 8vo), in which Disraeli's career and 
policy were vigorously attacked. The book 
was at the time attributed to (Sir) William 
Harcourt, and Lord Lyndhurst denounced 

it as 'a very blackguard publication and 
written in a very blackguard style ' (Croker 
Papers, 1885, iii. 310). Macknight's next 
book was 'Thirty Years of Foreign Policy : 
a History of the Secretaryships of the Earl 
of Aberdeen and Viscount Palmerston ' (Lon- 
don, 1855, 8vo) ; this is a defence of the 
policy leading up to the Crimean war, which 
Macknight declared to be ' inevitable.' From 
these party pamphlets Macknight turned to 
his most substantial work, his ' History of 
the Life and Times of Edmund Burke ' (Lon- 
don, 1858-60, 3 vols. 8vo), which remains 
the best detailed life of Burke ; it had occu- 
pied much of Macknight's time since he left 
King's College, and he had published two 
papers on Burke in ' Fraser's Magazine ' for 
November and December 1851. In 1863 
he published his ' Life of Henry St. John, 
Viscount Bolingbroke ' (London, 8vo). 

Early in 1866 Macknight was appointed 
to succeed Mr. Frank H. Hill as editor of 
the Belfast ' Northern Whig.' He crossed 
to Ireland on 31 Jan. 1866, and remained 
editor of the ' Whig ' for thirty-two years. 
He made his paper the mainstay of the 
liberal party in Ireland, and vigorously de- 
fended the Irish church disestablishment 
and the land acts of Gladstone's government 
from 1868 to 1874. The influence of the 
' Northern Whig ' under his editorship was- 
mainly responsible for the return of Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Thomas) McClure, a liberal, 
and Mr. William Johnston of Bally kilbeg, an 
independent, as members for Belfast in 1868. 
For his services on this occasion he was pre- 
sented with a testimonial by his friends on 
26 May 1869. Macknight also supported 
Gladstone's government from 1880 to 1885, 
but, like most liberals in Ulster, he differed 
from Gladstone on home rule, and remained 
a staunch unionist till his death ; he con- 
tinued, however, to advocate drastic measures- 
of land reform in Ireland. 

In 1891 Macknight was presented with 
another testimonial in recognition of his 
twenty-five years' service as editor of the 
' Northern Whig,' and in 1896 he published 
' Ulster as it was and as it is ; or, Twenty- 
eight Years' Experience as an Irish Editor r 
(London, 2 vols. 8vo). Macknight died at 
his residence, 28 Wellington Park, Belfast, 
on 19 Nov. 1899. 

[Macknight's works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; 
Belfast Northern Whig, 20 Nov. 1899 ; Who's 
Who, 1899 ; private information.] A. F. P. 


(1845-1897), landscape painter, the second 
son of Thomas McLachlan, banker, and his 
wife Jane Hope, was born at Carbury Hall, 




Darlington, on 16 March 1845. Educated 
at Merchiston Castle school, Edinburgh, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1868, and was bracketed 
first in the moral science tripos, he entered 
Lincoln's Inn on 27 Oct. 1865, and was 
called to the bar on 17 Nov. 1868. For some 
years he practised in the court of chancery, 
but he did not care for the work and had 
few briefs. His desire was to be a painter, 
and, encouraged by John Pettie [q. v.] and 
others who believed in his gifts, he, in 1878, 
gave up law and took to art. He had no 
academic training to begin with, and the 
short time he spent in the studio of Carolus 
Duran at a later date was of little account ; 
but he studied the early English landscape 
painters, and later was considerably in- 
fluenced by the work of the French roman- 
ticists and Cecil Gordon Lawson [q. v.] His 
work was always individual and interesting, 
for he had a poetic apprehension of nature, 
and was peculiarly sensitive to grave and im- 
pressive emotions which belong to twilight, 
night, and solitude. And while his technique 
was somewhat faulty, he designed with dignity 
and was a refined and powerful colourist. 

He exhibited at the Academy and the 
Grosvenor, and later at the New Gallery and 
the Institute of Painters in Oil-colours, of 
which he was a member ; but it was not 
until 1896, when he became associated with 
five other painters in the ' Landscape Ex- 
hibition ' at the Dudley Gallery, that the 
beauty of his work, there seen more in a 
mass and in more congenial surroundings, 
drew the attention it deserved. But he 
lived to share in only another exhibition, 
for on 1 April 1897 he died at Weybridge. 
In June of that year a collection of his pic- 
tures was brought together in the studios of 
his friends, Mr. Leslie Thomson and Mr. 
11. AV. Allan, and shortly afterwards some 
of his admirers presented a characteristic 
work, ' Ships that pass in the Night,' to the 
National Gallery. 

In 1870 he married Jean, youngest daugh- 
ter of William Stow Stowell of Faverdale, 
who with the son and daughter of the mar- 
riage survived him. A portrait drawn in 
red chalk by E. R. Hughes has been repro- 
duced, a small portrait is worked into a 
headpiece in the ' Magazine of Art' (1895), 
and in the ' Art Journal ' (1897) a photo- 
graph is reproduced. 

[Private information; Foster's Men at the 
Bar, 1885 ; Preface to Catalogue of Memorial 
Exhibition by Selwyn Image; Magazine of Art, 
895; Saturday Review, 12 June 1897; Art 
Journal, May 1897 ; Exhibition Catalogues ; Cat. 
National Gallery of British Art.] J. L. C. 

MACLEAN, SIR JOHN (1811-1895), 
archaeologist, son of Robert Lean of Tre- 
hudrethbarton, in Blisland, Cornwall, and 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Every of Bodmin, was born at Trehudretb, 
on 17 Sept. 1811. In 1845, as a descendant 
of the Dochgarroch branch of the clan Lean, 
he resumed the prefix of Mac. 

Maclean entered the ordnance department 
of the war office in 1837, was keeper of the 
ordnance records in the Tower of London 
from 1855 to 1861, and deputy chief auditor 
of army accounts from 1865 to 1871. In 
that year he retired on a pension, and on. 
14 Jan. 1871 was knighted at Osborne. 
While engaged in official life he dwelt at 
Pallingswick Lodge, Hammersmith, and as 
an active churchman took much interest in 
the ecclesiastical administration of the 
parish of St. John, Hammersmith. After 
his retirement he lived at Bicknor Court, 
near Coleford, Gloucestershire, and from, 
about 1887 at Glasbury House, Clifton, 
where he died on 6 March 1895. He 
married at Holland church, Cornwall, on 
5 Dec. 1835, Mary (b. 1813), elder daughter 
and coheiress of Thomas Billing, of Blisland 
and St. Breward. She survived her husband. 

Maclean's great undertaking was : 1. 
'Parochial and Family History of the 
Deanery of Trigg Minor,' 3 vols., a rural 
deanery of East Cornwall, comprising the 
topographical particulars of several important 
parishes, the principal of which was Bodmin, 
and containing elaborate pedigrees of many of 
the leading families in the county. It came 
out in parts between 1868 and 1879, and in it 
was embodied the labour of twenty years. 
His other works and editions included: 
2. ' The Life and Times of Peter Carew,' 1857. 
3. ' Letters from George, lord Carew, to Sir 
Thomas Roe, 1615-17,' Camden Society, 
1860. 4. ' Letters from Sir Robert Cecil 
to Sir George Carew,' Camden Society, 
1864. 5. ' The Life of Sir Thomas Seymour, 
knight, Baron Seymour of Sudeley,' 1869 
(one hundred copies only). After his 
withdrawal into Gloucestershire he edited 

6. 'The Berkeley Manuscripts: John Smyth's 
Lives of the Berkeleys,' 1883-5, 3 vols. 

7. ' Annals of Chepstow Castle. By John 
Fitchett Marsh,' 1883; and 8. 'Historical 
and Genealogical Memoir of the Family of 
Poyntz,'1886. With AV. C. Heane he edited 
9. 'The Visitation of Gloucester in 1623,' 
Harleian Society, 1885. AA r hile living in 
London Maclean shared with enthusiasm in 
the work of its chief antiquarian societies. 
He was elected F.S.A. on 15 Dec. 1855, and 
was long a member of the council. At the 
meetings of the Royal Archaeological In- 



stitute he was a frequent attendant, supplied 
articles to the journal, and completed the 
general index to its first twenty-five volumes. 
He was one of the founders of the Harleian 
Society, and co-operated with Dr. Drake and 
Colonel Vivian in editing and annotating 
' The Visitation of Cornwall in 1620.' 

Maclean joined in the foundation of the 
Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological So- 
ciety, contributed many papers to its * Trans- 
actions,' and edited vols. iii-xvi., a silver 
inkstand being presented to him for his ser- 
vices. Many articles by him appeared in 
the publications of the Royal Institution of 
Cornwall, the Clifton Antiquarian Club, and 
the Somerset Archaeological and Nat oral His- 
tory Society. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 333-4, 
ii. 973, 1273; Boase's Collectanea Cornub. pp. 
523-4; Maclean's Trigg Minor, i. 390; 
Academy, 16 March 1895, p. 237; Trans. 
Bristol and Gloucester Archseol. Soc. xix. 3, 
168-9 ; Bod's Peerage, 1894.] W. P. C. 

SON (1792-1881), Indian civilian, born at 
Ardarden in Dumbartonshire in 1792, was 
the eldest son of Donald Macleod of St. 
Kilda, colonel in the Madras army, by his 
wife, Diana, daughter of Donald Macdonald 
of Tormore in Inverness-shire. He was edu- 
cated at Haileybury and at the university of 
Edinburgh, and obtained a writership in the 
Madras civil service on 27 July 1811. On 
7 Jan. 1814 he was appointed second assis- 
tant to the secretary to government in the 
several civil departments, and on 8 July was 
promoted to be first assistant. In 1816 he 
was nominated secretary and member of the 
committee for revising the customs laws. 
After a three years' visit to England he was 
appointed acting secretary to government 
in the financial and general departments on 
27 June 1823, and on 6 July 1824 he was 
permanently confirmed as secretary. In 
1825 he became Tamil translator to govern- 
ment, and member of the college board, of 
the board of public instruction, and of the 
mint committee. On 14 April 1826 he was 
nominated Persian translator to government, 
and on 20 Feb. 1827 he became secretary in 
the revenue and judicial departments. On 
16 Jan. 1829 he was appointed a temporary 
member of the board of revenue, and he 
afterwards was permanently confirmed third 
member. On 22 June 1832 he received the 
post of commissioner for the government of 
Mysore, and in 1834 he was deputed to 
Hyderabad on special duty by the governor- 
general. Macleod's work in Mysore was of 
especial importance. The province had in 
the previous year been transferred from 

native rule to English superintendence. The 
task of organising the financial and political 
administration fell largely upon him and 
was carried out with ability and success. 
On 19 Feb. 1835 he became a member of 
the Indian law commission, and in 1836 
member of the committee for revising the 
system of prison discipline throughout India. 
He returned to England in July 1838 and 
retired from the service in 1841. In 1866 
he was nominated K. C.S.I., and in 1871 a 
privy councillor. He died on 1 March 1881 
at his London residence, 1 Stanhope Street, 
Hyde Park. In 1822 he married Catharine, 
daughter of William Greig of Thornhill in 
the county of Stirling. 

[Times, 31 March 1881 ; Dodwell and Miles's 
Madras Civil Servants, 1839 ; Prinsep's Record 
of Services of Civil Servants in the Madras Pre- 
sidency, 1885.] E. I. C. 

1900), scholar and divine, born at Dublin 
in 1829, was son of John Macmahon, a 
barrister. He was educated at Enniskillen, 
and on 1 July 1846 entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, as a pensioner; he graduated B.A. 
in 1852, being senior moderator and gold 
medallist in ethics and logic, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1856. He took holy orders in 1853, 
and held for some years a cure of souls under 
Dr. Alexander, the present primate of Ire- 
land, but retired from parochial work after 
the disestablishment of the Irish church in 
1869. He was subsequently chaplain to the 
lord-lieutenant, and from 1890 to the Mount- 
joy prison. He died at Dublin on 23 May 1900. 

MacMahon was deeply read in Aristotle, 
the Christian fathers, and the schoolmen, 
but was not an original thinker. He con- 
tributed to Bohn's ' Classical Library ' the 
'Metaphysics of Aristotle, literally trans- 
lated from the Greek, with Notes, Analysis, 
Questions, and Index,' London, 1857, 8vo ; 
and to Clarke's ' Ante-Nicene Library ' ' The 
Refutation of all Heresies by Hippolytus, 
translated,' Edinburgh, 1888, 8vo. He was 
also author of 'A Treatise on Metaphysics, 
chiefly in reference to Revealed Religion}' 
London, 1860, 8vo (an essay similar in scope 
to Mansel's celebrated ' Bampton Lectures' ), 
and of ' Church and State in England : its 
[sic] Origin and Use,' London, 1873, 8vo (an 
historico-juristic argument for the mainte- 
nance of the established church). 

[Cat. Dubl. Grrad. ; Times, 24 May 1900; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; information from the registrar 
of Trinity College, Dublin.] J. M. E. 

AGU SCOTT (1819-1894), general, born 
on 30 May 1819, was son of Lieutenant- 



colonel Archibald McMurdo of Lotus, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. After passing through Sand- 
hurst, he was commissioned as ensign in the 
8th foot on 1 July 1837, and obtained a lieu- 
tenancy in the 22nd foot on 5 Jan. 1841. 
The regiment went to India in that year, 
and was stationed at Karachi. It formed 
part of the force with which Sir Charles 
James Napier [q. v.] took the field against 
the amirs of Sind in December 1842, and 
McMurdo was placed in charge of the quar- 
termaster-general's department. At the 
battle of Meeanee on 17 Feb. 1843 he killed 
three men, fighting hand to hand, and three 
more in the battle of Hyderabad on 24 March, 
where he was himself severely wounded. 
Two days before, he had been sent with 250 
Poonah horse to reinforce Major Stack's 
column on its march to join Napier, and he 
saved the baggage of the column from cap 
ture. He was three times mentioned in 
despatches {London Gazette, 11 April, 9 May, 
and 6 June 1843), and received the medal 
with two clasps. 

He obtained a company in the 28th foot 
on 8 July 1843, and was transferred to the 
78th highlanders on 20 Oct.; but he re- 
mained at the head of the quartermaster- 
general's department in Sind till Decem- 
ber 1847, performing the duties ' with great 
ability and vast labour ' {Napier's Life, iv. 
394). He took part in the operations against 
the hillmen on the right bank of the Indus 
in 1844-5, where he again distinguished 
himself by his intrepidity (ib. iii. 238). 
Napier spoke of him as ' an ornament to 
Scotland' (ib. p. 81), and on 4 Sept. 1844 
he married Napier's daughter, Susan Sarah. 
He received a brevet majority on 18 Feb. 
1848. When Napier returned to India as 
commander-in-chief in 1849, McMurdo went 
with him as aide-de-camp. He acted as as- 
sistant adjutant-general from Novemberl849 
till November 1851, and took part in the 
operations against the Afridis, including 
the forcing of the Kohat pass, for which he 
received the medal and clasp. In 1850 he 
published a pamphlet, ' Sir Charles Napier's j 
Indian Baggage Corps,' in reply to Colonel 
Burlton's comments on Napier's letter to Sir 
John Hobhouse. 

. He became lieutenant-colonel in the army 
on 21 Oct. 1853, and was assistant adjutant- 
general at Dublin from May 1854 to January 
1855. On 2 Feb. he was appointed director- 
general of the new land transport corps, and 
was sent to the Crimea, with the local rank 
of colonel, to reorganise the transport ser- 
vice. This he did with great energy and 
success. On one of his demands the secre- 
tary to the treasury, Sir Charles Trevelyan, 

had written, ' Col. McMurdo must limit his 
expenditure.' McMurdo replied: 'When 
Sir Charles Trevelyan limits the war, I will 
limit my expenditure' (HAMLET, p. 208). 
Before the war ended, his corps numbered 
seventeen thousand men, with twenty-eight 
thousand horses, mules, &c. He also took 
over the working of the railway. He was 
made aide-de-camp to the queen and brevet- 
colonel on 11 Dec. 1855, and C.B. on 2 Jan. 
1857. He received the medal with one 
clasp, the Turkish medal, the legion of 
honour (4th class), and Medjidie (4th 

After the war the land transport corps 
was converted into the military train, and 
McMurdo was made colonel-commandant of 
it on 1 April 1857. In 1859 the volunteer 
movement began ; in February 1860 McMurdo 
was appointed -inspector, and in June in- 
spector-general, of volunteers. He held this 
office till January 1865, to the great advan- 
tage of the force. It was ' a post to which 
he seems to have had a peculiar call, and in 
which his zeal, faithfulness, and ability have 
been as conspicuous as his gallantry hereto-, 
fore in the field ' (Naval and Military 
Gazette, 28 Jan. 1865). On his retirement 
from it he received a testimonial from volun- 
teer officers. He became colonel of the 
Inns of Court volunteers on 23 Jan., and of 
the Engineer and Railway volunteer staff 
corps on 9 Feb. 1865. In 1869 he published 
' Rifle Volunteers for Field Service : their 
Arms, Equipment, and Administration,' a 
pamphlet of twenty-seven pages, giving his 
advice to the commanding officers of corps. 

He commanded a brigade in the Dublin 
district from October 1866 to February 1870, 
and a district in Bengal from May 1870 to 
March 1873. He was promoted major-gene- 
ral on 6 March 1868, lieutenant-general on 
10 Feb. 1876, and general on 20 May 1878. 
He was given the colonelcy of the 69th foot 
in July 1876, was transferred to the 15th 
foot in August 1877, and to the 22nd 
(Cheshire regiment) in June 1888. On 
24 May 1881 he was made K.C.B., and on 
1 July he was placed on the retired list. He 
died at Nice on 2 March 1894. His wife 
survived him. They had several children. 

[Times. 3 March 1894; Broad Arrow, 
10 March 1894; Napier's Life of Sir C. J. 
Napier; Napier's Conquest of Scinde ; King- 
lake's War in the Crimea ; Hamley's War in 
the Crimea.] E. M. L. 

MAITLAND, EDWARD (1824-1897), 
mystical writer, born at Ipswich on 27 Oct. 
1824, was the son of Charles David Mait- 
land, perpetual curate of St. James's Chapel, 
Brighton; he was the nephew of General 

K 2 




Sir Peregrine Maitland [q. v.], and brother 
of Brownlow Maitland and of Charles 
Maitland (1815-1866) [q. v.l His father 
was a noted preacher, and Edward Mait- 
land was brought up among strict evan- 
gelical ideas, and rigorous theories about 
original sin and atonement. After educa- 
tion at a large private school in Brighton, he 
was admitted as a pensioner at Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 19 April 1843, and graduated 
B.A. in 1847. He was destined by his 
family for the pulpit, but was diverted from 
taking orders by doubts as to faith and voca- 
tion, and by the feeling that the church was 
rather ' a tomb for the preservation of em- 
balmed doctrines ' than a living organism. 
In his perplexity he got leave of absence 
from his home for a year, and left England. 
He went in 1849 to California, became one 
of the band of ' forty-niners,' and remained 
abroad, on the shores of the Pacific, mainly 
in America and Australia, where he became 
a commissioner of crown lands, until the one 
year of absence had grown into nine. He 
married in Australia, but was left a widower 
with one son after a year of wedlock. 

Returning to England at the; end of 1857 
he devoted himself to literature, with the 
dominant aim of 'so developing the intui- 
tional faculty as to find the solution of all 
problems having their basis in man's spiri- 
tual nature, with a view to the formulation 
of a perfect system of thought and rule of 
life.' Many of the vicissitudes of his life, 
both physical and mental, were recorded 
with but little distortion in his romance 
called ' The Pilgrim and the Shrine. From 
the Life and Correspondence of Herbert 
Ainslie, B.A. Cantab.,' which was published 
in 1867, and warmly acclaimed by thought- 
ful critics. It was followed by a romance 
called ' The Higher Law ' (1869), which re- 
presents the escape of a youth from the 
trammels, no longer of orthodox religion, 
but of traditional morals. Maitland became 
a figure in society, and was appreciated 
highly by Lord Houghton and Sir Francis 
Hastings Doyle. He began to write in the 
' Spectator' and ' Examiner,' and did some 
reviewing for the ' Athenaeum ' from 1870 
onwards. His book ' By and By : an Histo- 
rical Romance of the Future ' (1873) led to 
his making the acquaintance of Anna Kings- 
ford [q. v.], whom he visited at her hus- 
band's vicarage of Atcham, in Shropshire, in 
February 1874. In conjunction with her 
he '. produced anonymously, in 1875, ' The 
Keys of the Creeds.' At the close of 1874 
his mother died at Brighton, and Maitland 
accompanied Mrs. Kingsford to Paris. He 
joined her crusade against materialism, ani- 

mal food, and vivisection, upon which sub- 
ject he wrote a forcible letter in the ' Exa- 
miner' (June 1876), which attracted the 
most widespread attention to the subject. 
In this same year he first saw the apparition 
of his father, who had then been ten years 
dead, and he soon afterwards recognised that 
he ' belonged to the order of the mystics.' 

In 1876 Maitland informs us that he ac- 
quired a new sense, that of ' a spiritual sen- 
sitiveness,' by means of which he opened re- 
lations with the church invisible of the 
spiritual world. He was able to see the 
spiritual condition of people. In a state of 
mind which must have approximated to that 
of William Blake, he tells us that he saw 
upon one occasion the soul of a tree. He 
could also, he asseverated, recall the memory 
of some of his past lives. He was told 
through a sensitive that these had been 
many, that he had lived in trees and ani- 
mals, and that he had been a prince. He 
' remembered ' a life lived in ancient Thebes ; 
he believed that he had been Marcus Aure- 
lius and St. John the Evangelist (hence the 
mention of boiling oil was inexpressibly pain- 
ful to him). St. John, he believed, was a re- 
incarnation of the prophet Daniel. 

In 1881, before a highly fashionable audi- 
ence, he gave a series of lectures upon his 
new or, as he affirmed, revived esoteric creed ; 
these lectures formed the groundwork of his 
' revelation,' in which Anna Kingsford col- 
laborated, ' The Perfect Way ; or, the Find- 
ing of Christ,' 1882 (revised 1887 and 1890). 
By publishing this in his own name he 
admits that he cut himself off from his old 
friendships and all his literary and social 
ambitions. A striking parallel is afforded 
by the later life of Laurence Oliphant [q.v.l, 
with whom Maitland had a good deal in 
common, though he was constrained to ex- 
press dissent from the spiritualistic theories 
embodied in ' Sympneumata.' 

Maitland joined the Theosophical Society 
about 1883, but the vagaries of Madame Bla- 
vatsky soon compelled him to secede from 
the ' London Lodge,' and in May 1884, in 
collaboration with Mrs. Kingsford, he founded 
the Hermetic Society, of mystic rather than 
occult character, claiming no abnormal 
powers, and ' depending for guidance upon 
no Mahatmas.' In 1885, with some help 
from ' Anna,' he rendered into English the 
' Minerva Mundi ' and other hermetic writings 
of Hermes Trismegistus. In 1886 he and 
Mrs. Kingsford visited Madame Blavatsky at 
Ostend, but refused to be inveigled back into 
the theosophical fold. After the death of 
Anna Kingsford, in February 1888, Maitland 
lived alone at 1 Thurloe Square Studios, Lon- 




don, where lie professed to receive continual 
' illumination ' from his former collaborator. 
Henceforth he devoted his main energies to 
an elaborate record of their singular partner- 
ship and co-operation, though he still found 
time to do a certain amount of journalistic 
work, and in November 1891, in response to 
astral intimations, he founded the Esoteric 
Christian Union. His later works were 
' Clothed with the Sun, being the Book of 
the Illuminations of Anna (Bonus) Kings- 
ford,' 1889 ; ' The New Gospel of Interpreta- 
tion,' 1892 ; and ' Anna Kingsford. Her Life, 
Letters, Diary, and Work. By her Collabo- 
rator . . . with a Supplement of Post-mor- 
tem Communications,' 2 vols. 1896. After 
the conclusion of this last, which he regarded 
as his magnum opus, Maitland's physical and 
mental decline was remarkably rapid. In 
1896 he went to reside with Colonel Currie 
at The Warders, Tonbridge, and he lost the 
power of speech some months before his 
death, on 2 Oct. 1897. He was buried in 
Tonbridge cemetery on 5 Oct. By his wife 
Esther, who died in Australia, he left a son, 
a surgeon-major in the Bombay medical ser- 

Physically, Maitland was a giant, and his 
moral and intellectual gifts were of a very 
high order. A pure and flexible prose style 
lends a charm to all his writings, of which 
it is sad to reflect that so little will survive. 
The motto of his later life was ' An honest 
god's the noblest work of man,' and in his 
strenuous endeavours to construct an honest 
deity (with some aid from the Bible, the 
sacred books of the East and Hermes Tris- 
megistus, and also from Emerson, Carlyle, 
Tucker's 'Light of Nature,' Elephas Levi, 
and Anna Kingsford, but mainly out of his 
own inner consciousness), he gradually be- I 
came to all appearance completely dis- 

Good portraits of Maitland are reproduced 
in 'Light,' 'Borderland,' and the 'Life of j 
Anna Kingsford.' He had a large domed 
head, with a somewhat massive cast of fea- 
tures, his face suggesting at the same time 
intellectuality and will-power. 

[Most of Maitland's works are rep'ete "with 
autobiographical detail, more particularly 'The 
Pilgrim and the Shrine' and 'Anna Kingsford,' 
which is an autobiography as much as it is a 
Life.' See also Venn's Biogr. History of Caius 
College, ii. 261; Graduati Ctntabr. ; Academy, 
16 Oct. 1897; Athenaeum, 16 Oct. 1897; Light, 
16 Oct. 1897 (portrait); Borderland, ii. 383 
(portrait).] T. S. 

calling himself later SOLOMON C^SAR MALAX 
(1812-1894), oriental linguist and biblical 

scholar, was descended from an old Walden- 
sian family originally settled at Merindol in 
Provence, but dispersed by religious persecu- 
tion in 1714. One branch fled to Geneva ; 
here Malan was born on 22 April 1812, his 
parents being Dr. Cesar Henri Abraham 
Malan, a noted protestant divine, and Salome 
Georgette Jeanne Schonberger, a Swiss. His 
early education was given by his father, 
under whom he gained a conversational 
knowledge, not only of German, Spanish, 
and Italian, but also, at an early age, of 
Latin. He had also begun English, Hebrew, 
Arabic, and Sanskrit. In 1830 he went to 
Scotland as tutor to the family of the Mar- 
quis of Tweeddale. In 1833 he matriculated 
at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, where he re- 
sided till 1837, having meantime (1834) 
married Mary, daughter of John Mortlock, 
whose acquaintance he had made in Geneva. 
In 1834 he gained the Boden (Sanskrit) 
scholarship, and in 1837 he won the Pusey 
and Ellerton (Hebrew) scholarship, and gra- 
duated (Class II) in literte humaniores. 

In the same year (1837) Malan accepted 
the post of classical lecturer at Bishop's Col- 
lege, Calcutta, which he reached in 1838. 
He took Anglican deacon's orders in the 
same year ; and in the following year, be- 
coming secretary to the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, gained the intimate friendship of 
the remarkable scholar Csoma Koru'si, from 
whom he learned Tibetan. Besides gaining 
a knowledge of several Indian vernaculars, 
he also advanced in Chinese. Leaving India 
on account of failing health in January 1840, 
he arrived in England in the following Sep- 
tember. In 1842, after further travels in 
Egypt and in Palestine, he accepted a curacy 
at Alverstoke, Hampshire, taking M.A. 
(and joining Balliol College) and also priest's 
orders in 1843. His first wife having died 
in 1840, Malan married in 1843 Caroline 
Selina, daughter of the Rev. C. M. Mount. 
After a year (1844-5) as perpetual curate of 
Crowcombe, Malan accepted the living of 
Broadwindsor, Dorset, which he held till 
1885. In 1849-50 he made a long tour in 
southern Europe, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, 
and Armenia, illustrating this, like all his 
travels, by excellent sketches, some of which 
have been published. In 1855-6 Malan's 
Chinese learning came into notice by his 
publication of two works on controversies of 
the time : (1) ' On the translation of the word 
" God " in Chinese ' ('Who is God in China?' 
London, 1855) ; (2) ' The Threefold San-tze 
King or Triliteral Classic . . . translated 
. . . with notes/London, 1856, with reference 
to the alleged Christianity of the rebel chief 
Tae-ping Wang. During the next twenty 




years Malan was much occupied with theo- 
logical controversy, but published meanwhile 
some of his most valuable work illustrative 
of the Christian East, especially translations 
from the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, 
and Georgian literatures. In 1872 he made 
a sudden and highly characteristic visit to 
the Crimea, Georgia (where he was the guest 
of Bishop Gabriel and preached in Georgian 
at the cathedral of Kutais), and Armenia. 

In 1881 Malan joined in the onslaught 
made by John William Burgon [q.v. Suppl.] 
on the revised version of the New Testament, 
contributing to his articles, and himself 
publishing a new version of Matthew i-vi, 
with an appendix giving the Lord's Prayer 
in seventy-one languages. This he followed 
up in 1882 by a work directed against the 
Greek text of Drs. Westcott and Hort, which, 
however, produced no lasting impression. 
Shortly before leaving Broad Windsor (1885) 
he presented his great library , some four thou- 
sand volumes, to various institutions,Csoma's 
books and manuscripts being appropriately 
given to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 
the patristic collections to Keble Library, 
and the rest to the Indian Institute, Oxford. 
After his retirement Malan lived at Bourne- 
mouth till his death, which happened there 
on 25 Nov. 1894 ; he was buried in Bourne- 
mouth cemetery. During his last years his 
chief literary employment was the com- 
pilation of his ' Notes on Proverbs ' (3 vols. 
published 1889, 1892-3), a huge work in 
which, taking the Salomonic text as a basis, 
he illustrated it by parallels from the vast 
range of his reading in non-Christian oriental 

In practical knowledge of oriental lan- 
guages Malan had certainly no equal in 
England, and probably none in the world ; 
yet he was scarcely perhaps an orientalist in 
the scientific sense of the term. His publi- 
cations were all (save one on drawing and 
two on ornithology) of an ecclesiastical 
nature, while even on biblical ground his 
ultra-conservatism is seen in his opposition 
to modern progressive Hebrew criticism, 
quite analogous to his position above de- 
scribed, regarding New Testament research. 
The biography published by his son illustrates 
both his ability in drawing and his great skill 
in oriental call igraphy . Against the latter we 
must set his hopeless and wholly unpractical 
aversion to oriental transliteration. In botany 
and ornithology he had advanced beyond the 
amateur stage, and in manual arts such as 
fly-fishing, bookbinding, and a performer's 
knowledge of the construction of musical 
instruments he was also proficient. Of his 
numerous publications (over fifty) the 

following, besides those already mentioned, 
are the chief: 1. ' The Gospel according to 
St. John, translated from the eleven oldest 
versions, except the Latin . . . with notes,' 
London, 1862. 2. ' Meditations on our 
Lord's Passion . . . from the Armenian,' Lon- 
don, 1863. 3. ' History of the Georgian 
Church,' translated from the Russian of 
Josselian, London, 1866. 4. ' Life ... of 
S. Gregory the Illuminator . . . from the 
Armenian,' 1868. 5. ' Liturgy of the Ortho- 
dox Armenian Church,' translated, London, 

1870. 6. ' Conflicts of the Holy Apostles . . . 
Epistle of S. Dionysius from Ethiopic MSS. ; 
and the Assumption of S. John from the 
Armenian,' London, 1871. 7. ' Misawo, the 
Japanese Girl, translated from the Japanese,' 

1871. 8. ' The Divine Liturgy of S. Mark 
. . . from a Coptic MS.,' London, 1872. 
9. ' The Coptic Calendar from an Arabic 
MS.,' London, 1873. 10. 'History of the 
Copts . . . from the Arabic of ... El Maq- 
rizi,' London, 1873. 11. ' The Divine Eu^"- 
\6yiov ... of S. Gregory . . . from a Coptic 
MS.,' London, 1875. 12. 'The Book of 
Adam and Eve . . . from the Ethiopic,' Lon- 
don, 1882. 

[Solomon Csesar Malan ... by his eldest sur- 
viving son, Rev. A. N. Malan, London, 1897; 
review in Athenaeum, 12 Feb. 1898 ; obituary 
notice by Prof. Macdonell in Journal R. Asiatic 
Soc. 1895.] C. B. 

MALCOLM, SIR GEORGE (1818-1897), 
general, born at Bombay on 10 Sept. 1818, 
was the only son of David Malcolm, a Bom- 
bay merchant, who was the brother of Ad- 
miral Sir Pulteney and General Sir John 
Malcolm [q. v.] He was commissioned as 
ensign in the E.I.C. service on 10 June 
1836, and was posted to the 1st Bombay 
native infantry on 18 July 1837. He served 
in the Afghan war of 1839 as deputy-assis- 
tant commissary-general and baggagemaster 
with the Bombay division, and was present 
at the capture of Ghazni and occupation of 
Kabul. In August 1840, at the head of a 
detachment of Sind horse, he joined the 
force sent under Major Clibborn to relieve 
Kahan in Baluchistan, took part in the at- 
tempt to force the Nafusk pass, and was 
mentioned in despatches for his gallantry. 
He was also engaged in the operations 
against Nusseer Khan and the Brahoes and 
the capture of their camp near Kanda on 
1 Dec. He received the medal. 

He became lieutenant on 31 Aug. 1840. 
He served under Colonel John Jacob [q. v.] 
during the subjugation of Sind, and was pre- 
sent at the battle of Shadadpur and the cap- 
ture of Shahpur. In the second Sikh war 
he commanded the 2nd Sind horse, and was 




present at the siege of Multan and the battle 
of Gujrat. He was mentioned in despatches 
(London Gazette, 19 April 1849), received 
the medal, and on becoming captain in his 
regiment (1st Bombay native infantry) he 
was given a brevet majority on 22 June 
1849. He became lieutenant-colonel on 
28 Nov. 1854. 

He served in the Persian war of 1856-7, 
and commanded a small field force during 
the Indian mutiny. On 29 Nov. 1857 he 
stormed the fortified village of Halgalli. 
He took possession of Shorapur on 9 Feb. 
1858, and on 2 June he captured the fort of 
Nargund, the strongest in the South Maratha 
country. He was mentioned in despatches, 
received the medal, and was made C.B. on 
21 March 1859. He became colonel in the 
army on 30 Aug. 1860, and major-general on 
15 Dec. 1867. In the expedition to Abys- 
sinia in 1868 he commanded the second divi- 
sion, which guarded the line of communica- 
tions. He was included in the vote of 
thanks of parliament, was made K.C.B. on 
14 Aug. 1868, and received the medal. He 
was promoted lieutenant-general on 29 May 
1875, and general on 1 Oct. 1877, and was 
placed on the unemployed supernumerary 
list on 1 July 1881. He received the G.C.B. 
on 29 May 1886. 

He died at Leamington on 6 April 1897. 
On 19 Oct. 1852 he married Wilhelrnina 
Charlotte, youngest daughter of the Rev. 
Henry Alright Hughes. She survived him. 
In 1868 he printed for private circulation at 
Karachi 'Remarks on the Indian Army' 
(eighteen pages), in which he dwelt on the 
danger of relying on European troops and of 
neglecting and discrediting the native army, 
as had been the tendency since the mutiny. 

[Times, 7 April 1897 ; Stocqueler's Memorials 
of Afghanistan, pp. 112-21 ; Malleson's Indian 
Mutiny, iii. 126, &c. ; Burke's Landed Grentry ; 
Official Record of the Expedition to Abyssinia.] 

E. M. L. 

1898), colonel and military writer, born in 
London on 8 May 1825, was second son of 
John Malleson of Wimbledon, by Lucy 
(Nesbitt), whose father was colonial secre- 
tary in the Bahamas. He was educated at 
Wimbledon and at Winchester College, 
where he became an ardent cricketer. 
Through Colonel Oliphant, a director of the 
East India Company, he was given a direct 
commission as ensign on 11 June 1842, 
and was posted to the C5th Bengal native 
infantry on 26 Sept. He obtained a lieu- 
tenancy in the 33rd B.N.I, on 28 Sept. 
1847. He was appointed to the commis- 
sariat department on 30 Nov. 1852, and 

served in the second Burmese war, which 
resulted in the annexation of the lower pro- 
vince in 1853. On 28 March 1856 he was 
appointed an assistant military auditor-gene- 
ral, and he was engaged with accounts at 
Calcutta during the mutiny. He wrote 
' The Mutiny of the Bengal Army,' which 
was published anonymously in 1857, and 
was known as ' the red pamphlet.' In this 
he pointed to Lord Dalhousie's administra- 
tion, and especially the annexation of Oudh, 
as mainly responsible for the revolt. 

He was promoted captain on 16 Aug. 
1861, major in the Bengal staft' corps on 
18 Feb. 1863, lieutenant-colonel on 11 June 
1868, and colonel in the army on 11 June 
1873. He was appointed a sanitary com- 
missioner for Bengal in 1866, and controller 
of the military finance department in 1868. 
In 1869 he was chosen by Lord Mayo to be 
the guardian of the young Maharajah of 
Mysore ; he held this post till 1 April 1877, 
when he retired on full pay. He had been 
made C.S.I. on 31 May 1872. 

He had been a frequent contributor to the 
' Calcutta Review ' since 1857, and was also 
a correspondent of the ' Times.' After his 
retirement he devoted himself to literature, 
dealing chiefly with military history, espe- 
cially Indian. He had a broad grasp, great 
industry, a vigorous and picturesque style, 
but was apt to be a strong partisan. He did 
much to draw attention to Russian progress 
in Central Asia, and its dangers to British 
rule in India. He died at 27 West Crom- 
well Road, London, on 1 March 1898. In 
1856 he married Marian Charlotte, only 
daughter of George Wynyard Battye of the 
Bengal civil service, and sister of three dis- 
tinguished soldiers, Quintin, Wigram, and 
Frederick Battye, all of the Guides, and all 
killed in action. She survived her husband, 
and on 14 June 1899 received a civil-list 
pension of 100/. in recognition of his emi- 
nence as an Indian and military historian. 

He was author of the following works : 
1. ' The Mutiny of the Bengal Army,' 1857, 
2 pts. 8vo. 2. ' History of the French in 
India,' 1868, 8vo. 3. ' Recreations of an 
Indian Official ' (biographical articles on 
Anglo-Indians, &c., reprinted from periodi- 
cals), 1872, 8vo. 4. ' Studies from Genoese 
History,' 1875, 8vo. 5. ' Historical Sketch 
of the Native States of India,' 1875, 8vo. 
6. ' Essays and Lectures on Indian Histori- 
cal Subjects,' 1876, 8vo. 7. ' Final French 
Struggles in India and in the Indian Seas,' 
1878, 8vo. 8. ' History of the Indian Mu- 
tiny ' (in continuation of vols. i. and ii. of 
Kaye's < Sepoy W r ar'), 1878-80, 3 vols. 8vo. 
9. 'History of Afghanistan,' 1879, 8vo. 



10. ' Herat, the Garden and Granary of 
Central Asia/ 1880, 8vo. 11. ' The Founders 
of the Indian Empire: Lord Olive,' 1882, 8vo. 
12. The Decisive Battles of India,' 1883, 
8vo. 13. ' Captain Musafir's Rambles in 
Alpine Lands,' 1883, 8vo. 14. ' The Battle- 
fields of Germany,' 1884, 8vo. 15. 'Lou- 
don' (series of military biographies), 1884, 
8vo. 16. 'Prince Eugene of Savoy ' (same 
ser.), 1888, 8vo. 17. 'The Ilusso-Afghan 
Question and the Invasion of India,' 1885, 
8vo. 18. 'Ambushes and Surprises,' 1885, 
8vo. 19. 'Prince Metternich' (Statesmen 
ser.), 1888, 8vo. 20. 'Wellesley' (same 
ser.), 1889, 8vo. 21-2. 'Akbar' and'Du- 
pleix' (Rulers of India ser.), 1890, 8vo. 
23. ' Refounding of the German Empire,' 
1893, 8vo. 24. 'Warren Hastings,' 1894, 
8vo. 25. ' The Lakes and Rivers of Austria, 
Bavaria, and Hungary,' 1897, 8vo. 

[Times, 2 March 1898 ; E. I. Kegisters ; Alli- 
bone's Dictionary, supplement; private infor- 
mation.] E. M. L. 

1877), chairman of the East India Com- 
pany, born in 1801, was the son of James 
Mangles (d. September 1838) of Woodbridge, 
near Guildford, by his wife Mary, youngest 
daughter of John Hughes of Guildford. He 
was named after Admiral Sir Ross Donnelly 
[q. v. Suppl.], on whose ship his relative, 
James Mangles [q. v.], first served. He was 
educated at Eton and the East India Com- 
pany's College at Haileybury. On 30 April 
1819 he entered the Bengal civil service as a 
writer. He arrived in India in the follow- 
ing year, and on 28 Sept. 1821 he was ap- 
pointed assistant to the secretary to the 
board of commissioners for the ceded and 
conquered provinces. In 1822 he was acting 
collector of government customs and town 
duties at Farukhabad, and on 12 June 1823 
he was nominated assistant to the secretary 
to the board of revenue for the Lower Pro- 
vinces and acting commissioner of the 
Sundarbans. On 26 Aug. 1825, during the 
first Burmese war, he became secretary to 
the commissioner of Pegu and Ava. On 

21 April 1826 he was appointed deputy- 
secretary in the judicial and territorial de- 
partments. After a visit to England ex- 
tending from April 1828 to November 1831, 
lie became on 6 Dec. officiating junior secre- 
tary to the sadr board of revenue. On 
3 April 1832 he was nominated deputy- 
secretary in the general department ; on 

22 Feb. 1833 magistrate and collector of 
Tipperah ; on 1 July magistrate and col- 
lector of customs and land revenue at 
Chittagong ; and on 4 Nov. magistrate and 

collector of Agra. On 13 May 1835 he was- 
placed in the important post of secretary to 
the government of Bengal in the judicial 
and revenue departments. This office he 
continued to hold until his final return to 
England early in 1839. It was one of es- 
pecial authority, because, during the absence 
of the governor-general, George Eden, earl 
of Auckland [q. v.], who was also, in ac- 
cordance with custom, lieutenant-governor 
of Bengal, the administration of affairs- 
of the province fell almost entirely into the 
hands of the secretary. So great was- 
Mangles's influence, that the natives used to- 
say that there were over them three English 
lords ' Lord Colvin [see JOHN RUSSELL 
COLVIN], Lord Auckland, and Lord Mangles. 7 " 
On 28 May 1838 he also filled the position 
of temporary member of the sadr board of 

On his return to England he turned his 
attention to politics, and at the general elec- 
tion of 1841 he was returned to parliament 
on 1 July in the liberal interest for Guild- 
ford, a borough which his father had repre- 
sented from 1831 till 1837. This seat he 
retained until 1858. He gained a high re- 
putation in parliament as an authority on 
India matters. He was elected a director 
of the East India Company on 14 April 
1847, and filled the post of chairman in 
1857-8, when he was succeeded by Sir Fre- 
derick Currie [q. v.], the last chairman of 
the company. Mangles retired from parlia- 
ment on his appointment, on 21 Sept. 1858, 
as a member of the council of India. This 
office he held until 1866, when he resigned 
his seat on account of advancing age. He 
died in London at 23 Montagu Street,, 
Montagu Square, on 16 Aug. 1877. On. 
16 Feb. 1830 he married Harriet, third 
daughter of George Newcome of Upper 
Wimpole Street. By her he had issue. His 
son, Ross Mangles, obtained the Victoria* 
Cross for gallant conduct near Arrah in 
1857 during the Indian mutiny. 

Mangles was the author of: 1. ' A Brief 
Vindication of the East India Company's 
Government of Bengal from the Attacks of 
Messrs. [Robert] Rickards and [John] Craw- 
furd ' [q. v.], London, 1830, 8vo. 2. ' Chris- 
tian Reasons of a Member of the Church of 
England for being a Reformer,' London, 
1840, 8vo. He contributed several articles 
on Indian affairs to the 'Edinburgh Re- 

[Illustrated London News, 9 Oct. 1858 (with 
portrait); Times, 21 Aug. 1877; Ann. Reg. 
1877, ii. 156 ; Dodwell and Miles's Bengal Civil 
Servants, 1839; Temple's Men and Events of 
my Time in India, 1882, p. 412.] E. I. C. 




MANNING, ANNE (1807-1879), mis- 
cellaneous writer, eldest child of William 
Oke Manning (1778-1859), insurance broker 
of Lloyd's, London, and granddaughter of 
James Manning, Unitarian minister of Exeter, 
was born in London on 17 Feb. 1807. Her 
mother was Joan Whatmore, daughter of 
Frederick Gibson, principal surveyor of the 
London Docks, cousin, ward, and heir-at-law 
of Charles Lamb's 'most consistent living 
model of modern politeness,' Joseph Paice 
(Essays of Elia : ' Modern Gallantry '). "Wil- 
liam Oke Manning [q. v.] was her brother ; 
James Manning, serjeant-at-law [q.v.], her 
uncle; Sir William Montague Manning 
(1811-1895), attorney-general, and judge of 
the supreme court of New South Wales, joint 
author of Neville and Manning's ' Reports in 
Court of Queen's Bench,' 3 vols., 1834, was 
her first cousin. 

Anne was educated by her mother, an 
accomplished scholar. The associations of 
Old Chelsea, whither the family removed 
from Brunswick Square when she was eight, 
aroused her interest in history. She acquired 
a knowledge of several foreign languages, had 
a taste for science, and obtained a gold medal 
of the Royal Academy of Arts for a copy 
of Murillo's ' Flower Girl.' The Mannings 
moved into John Gait's house when he left 

Her first book, ' A Sister's Gift : Conver- 
sations on Sacred Subjects,' London, 1826, 
12mo, written for the brothers and sisters 
whom she taught, and published on her own 
account, realised a profit of GQl. The next, 
' Stories from the History of Italy,' London, 
3831, 8vo, was the only one published under 
her own name. ' Village Belles,' her first 
story (3 vols., 1838, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1859), 
was written at Norbury Priory, near Mickle- 
ham, which was the Mannings' home for 
seven years. 

' The Maiden and Married Life of Mis- 
tress Mary Powell, afterwards Mistress Mil- 
ton,' told in diary form, first appeared in 
' Sharpe'a Magazine ' in 1849, and brought 
Miss Manning considerable notice. She was 
known thenceforward as ' the author of Mary 
Powell.' The tale was reprinted 1849, 1855 
(3rd edit,), 1866, 1874, and with a sequel, 
'Deborah's Diary,' 1859 and 1860. Even 
more successful was ' The Household of Sir 
Thomas More," which appeared in the same 
magazine, and was republished 1860, 1870, 
and 1887. Of both these stories (of which 
French and German translations also ap- 
peared), and of ' Cherry and Violet, a Tale of 
the Plague,' handsome editions, illustrated by 
Messrs. Jellicoe and Railton, and with intro- 
ductions by the Rev. W. H. Hutton, were 

issued 1897, 1895, and 1896 respectively. 
An attack was made (' Eraser's Magazine,' 
vol. lii., July 1855, p. 104) upon them as- 
' spurious antiques,' and the public was 
seriously warned not to accept them as au- 
thentic diaries. They were of course in- 
tended as fiction. Both Archbishop Tait 
and Cardinal Manning spoke in high terms of 
their historical accuracy. 

About 1850 Miss Manning settled at Rei- 
gate Hill, and remained there until near 
her death at her sisters' house at Tunbridge 
Wells on 14 Sept. 1879. She was buried 
with her parents in Mickleham churchyard, 
near Dorking. 

A most prolific writer, Miss Manning was 
at her best in her historical tales of the 
sixteenth century. All her books evince ex- 
tensive reading, and some of them perhaps a 
gentle pedantry. Her ' Family Pictures ' 
and ' Passages in an Authoress's Life ' con- 
tain interesting autobiographical reminis- 

Other works by her, all published at Lon- 
don, are : 1. ' Queen Philippa's Golden Rule,' 
1851, 8vo. 2. 'The Drawing-room Table 
Book,' 1852, 4to. 3. 'The Colloquies of 
Edward Osborne, Citizen and Clothworker,' 
1852, 1853, 1860 ; 4th ed. 1900, 8vo. 4. ' The 
Provocations of Madame Palissy,' 1853 ; 3rd 
ed. 1880, 8vo. 5. 'Cherry and Violet, a 
Tale of the Great Plague,' 1853, 8vo; 2nd 
ed. 1870. 6. 'Jack and the Tanner of 
Wymondham,' 1854, 8vo. 7. ' Chronicles 
of Merry England,' 1854, 8vo. 8. ' Claude 
the Colporteur,' 1854, 8vo. 9. 'The Hill 
Side : Illustrations of some of the simplest 
Terms used in Logic,' 1854, 8vo. 10. ' Some 
Account of Mrs. Clarinda Singlehart,' 1885, 
8vo. 11. ' Stories from the History of the 
Caliph Haroun Al Raschid,' 1855, 8vo. 12. 
' A Sabbath at Home,' 1855, 8vo. 13. ' The 
Old Chelsea Bun House,' 1855, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 
1860, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1899, 8vo. 14. 'The 
Week of Darkness : a short Manual for the 
Use and Comfort of Mourners,' 1856, 12mo. 
15. ' Tasso and Leonora : the Commentaries 
of Ser Pantaleone degli Gambacorti,' 1856, 
8vo. 16. ' The Good Old Times : a Tale of 
Auvergne,' 2nd ed. 1857, 8vo. 17. ' Lives 
of Good Servants,' 1857, 8vo. 18. 'Helen 
and Olga : a Russian Story,' 1857, 8vo. 19. 
' The Year Nine : a Tale of the Tyrol,' 1858, 
8vo. 20. 'The Ladies of Bever Hollow,' 

1858, 8vo. 21. 'Poplar House Academy,' 

1859, 8vo, 2 vols. 22. 'Autobiography of 
Valentine Duval,' translated, 1860, 12mo. 
23. 'The Day of Small Things,' 1860, 8vo. 
24. ' Town and Forest,' 1860, 8vo. 25. ' The 
Cottage History of England,' 1861, 12mo. 
26. ' Family Pictures,' 1861, 8vo. 27. ' Chro- 



nicle of Ethelfled,' 1861, 8vo. 28. A Noble 
Purpose Nobly Won ' (Joan of Arc), 1862, 
8vo ; 2nd ed. 1862 ; 3rd ed. 1870, 8vo. 29. 
' Meadowleigh,' 1 863, 8vo. 30. ' The Duchess 
of Trajetto,' 1863, 8vo. 31. ' An Interrupted 
Wedding,' 1864, 8vo. 32. ' Belforest,' 1865, 
8vo. 33. ' Selvaggio : a Tale of Italian 
Country Life,' Edinburgh, 1865, 8vo. 34. 
'Miss Biddy Frobisher,' 1866, 8vo. 35- 
' The Lincolnshire Tragedy : Passages in the 
Life of the Faire Gospeller, Mistress Anne 
Askewe, recounted by Nicholas Moldwarp,' 
1866, 8vo. 36. The Masque at Ludlow and 
other Romanesques,' 1866, 8vo. 37. 'Jacques 
Bonne val,' 1868, 16ino. 38. ' The Spanish 
Barber,' 1869, 8vo. 39. ' One Trip More,' 
1870, 8vo. 40. 'Compton Friars,' 1872, 
8vo. 41. 'The Lady of Limited Income,' 
1872, 8vo. 42. ' Monk's Norton,' 1874, 8vo. 
48. ' Heroes of the Desert : the Story of the 
Lives of Moffat and Livingstone,' 1875, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1885, 8vo. 44. ' An IdyU of the 
Alps,' 1876, 8vo. 

From 1868 to 1876 Miss Manning con- 
tributed regularly articles, verse, and stories 
to Dr. Whittemore's magazine, ' Golden 
Hours,' in which the following serials by her, 
apparently never republished, appeared : 
' Madame Prosni and Madame Bleay : a Story 
of the Siege of LaRochelle,' 1868; ' Rosita,' 
1869; 'On the Grand Tour,' 1870; 'Octa via 
Solara,' 1871 ; ' Illusions Dispelled,' 1871. 

[Passages in an Authoress's Life in Golden 
Hours, January to May 1872 ; Women Novelists 
of Queen Victoria's Reign, article by Charlotte 
Mary Yonge; Englishwoman's Review, February 
1880, notes by Mrs. Batty; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. viii. 16; Athenaeum, 30 Nov. 1878; 
private information.] C. F. S. 

(Jl. 1652), dramatist, of Italian origin, pro- 
bably belonged to the Florentine family of 
Mannucci, some members of which were in 
the service of the Medici (cf. CROLLAI.ANZA, 
Dizionario Storico-Blasonico, ii. 66 ; ADE- 
MOLLO, Marrietta de' Micci, ed. Passerini, ii. 
632-3). In 1587 one Giacopo Manucci was 
among the agents in Italy who were in cor- 
respondence with the English foreign office 
(Hatfield Papers, iii. 262). Cosmo was 
doubtless related to Francesco Manucci, who 
was at one time in the domestic service of 
Edward Wotton, first baron Wotton [q. v.], 
and from 1624 in that of Edward Conway, 
first viscount Conway (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1623-5, pp. 263, 288, 426, 434 ; 1628-9, 
p. 348). He seems to have himself joined 
the household of James Compton, third earl 
of Northampton, who encouraged his lite- 
rary tastes and ambitions. During the civil 
wars he joined the royalists and obtained 

commissions in the king's army as captain 
and major of foot. He commonly described 
himself as Major Cosmo Manuche. He served 
continuously to the end of the war in Eng- 
land, and then joined the royalists in Ire- 
land. Returning to England, he sought 
a livelihood by ' boarding scholars ' and 
writing plays, most of which he dedicated 
to Lord Northampton. His poverty was 
great. In his need he did not disdain the 
service of the Protector. On 4 June 1656 
he sent, through Secretary Thurloe, a petition 
to Cromwell begging for the payment of 
20/., which he claimed to be the balance of 
an account due to him for 'making dis- 
coveries of the disturbers of our present 
happy government ' {Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1655-6, p. 348). At the time of the Re- 
storation he represented to adherents of 
Charles II that he had often suffered im- 
prisonment during the Protectorate for his 
loyalty to the cause of the king. On 12 Dec. 
1661 Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, and Sir Lewis Dyve signed a certi- 
ficate attesting Manuche's military achieve- 
ments in Charles I's behalf, and the present 
ill-health and destitution not only of him- 
self but of his wife and two children (Eger- 
ton MS. 2623, f. 34). 

No less than twelve plays three in print 
and nine in manuscript have been assigned 
to Manuche. The two by which he is best 
known were published in 1652, with his 
name on the title-page. The titles run : 
' The Just General : a Tragi : Comedy, written 
by Major Cosmo : Manuche. London, Printed 
for M. M. T. C. and G. Bedell, and are to be 
sold at their Shop at the Middle Temple 
gate in Fleet Street, 1652;' and ' The Loyal 
Lovers : a Tragi Comedy Written by Major 
Cosmo Manuche. London, Printed for 
Thomas Eglesneld at the Brazen Serpent in 
St. Paul's Church-yard, 1652.' Each is de- 
scribed as a tragi-comedy. In neither does 
the language show any trace of its author's 
foreign origin. According to his own ac- 
count ' The Just General ' was his first lite- 
rary effort. Neither piece was acted. ' The 
Just General ' is dedicated to the Marquis of 
Northampton and his wife Isabella, and has, 
by way of prologue, a dialogue between cha- 
racters called ' Prologue ' and ' Critick.' ' The 
Loyal Lovers ' is defaced by much coarseness. 
Hugh Peters is furiously denounced under 
the name of ' Sodome.' Manuche's metrical 
methods are curious. In the ' Loyal Lovers ' 
there is some prose, but the rest of that play 
and the whole of the ' Just General ' are 
written in an eccentrically irregular form of 
; blank verse, which is rhythmical and not 
! metrical, and is barely distinguishable from 




prose. A third printed play, a tragedy, called 
' The Bastard,' which was published anony- 
mously also in 1652, has been assigned tra- 
ditionally to Manuche, and that theory of 
authorship is accepted by Charles Lamb, who 
gives a quotation from it in his ' Specimens 
of English Dramatic Poets.' Langbaine traces 
its plots to episodes in ' The English Lovers ' 
and in Cespedes's ' Gerardo, the unfortunate 
Spaniard ' (Engl. transl. by Leonard Digges, 
1622). In the prologue the author describes 
his work as translated from the Spanish. A 
small part of ' The Bastard ' is in prose, the 
rest is in blank verse, which is of a far more 
regular kind than is to be met with in 
Manuche's undoubted work. 

Bishop Percy found, about 1770, nine 
manuscript plays other than those already 
named in the Marquis of Northampton's 
library at Castle Ash by, the greater number 
of which he attributed on reasonable grounds 
to Manuche's pen. Eight, which are written 
on folio sheets, are all in the same hand- 
writing. Of these, two in blank verse, en- 
titled respectively ' The Banished Shep- 
herdess ' and ' The Feast : a comedy,' have 
dedications to the Marquis of Northampton, 
which are signed ' Cos : Manuche.' The third 
and fourth, ' The Mandrake ' (a comedy in 
prose) and ' Agamemnon : a tragedy,' are 
unfinished. The fifth, a blank-verse tragedy, 
is named by Percy ' Leontius, King of Ci- 
prus ; ' the sixth, ' The Captives,' seems to be 
an adaptation in prose from Plautus; the 
seventh, ' Mariamne,' a blank-verse tragedy, 
is ' very much torn ; ' and the eighth, a tra- 
gedy in blank verse without a title, opens 
with a scene between three characters named 
Macrinus, Papinianus, and Ardentius. A 
manuscript of a prose untitled comedy in 
quarto, in which the first character is called 
Hermengildus, is also at Castle Ashby, and 
was tentatively ascribed by Bishop Percy to 

[Authorities cited ; Langbaine's English Dra- 
matic Poets (with Bishop Percy's manuscript 
notes in British Museum Library, C 45, d. 15) ; 
Phillips'sTheiitrumPoetarum ; Fleay's Chron.of 
the English Drama; Lowndes's Bibliographer's 
Manual.] S. L. 

(1283-1290), queen of Scotland, born in 1283, 
was daughter of Eric II of Norway. Her 
mother, who died at or soon after her birth, 
was Margaret, daughter of Alexander III of 
Scotland [q. v.J, by his queen Margaret, 
daughter of Henry III [q. v.] Alexander, 
the onlv surviving son of Alexander III, 
having clied before the end of 1283, the nobles 
of Scotland met at Scone on 5 Feb. 1284 and 
bound themselves to acknowledge Margaret 

as heir of the kingdom, reserving the rights 
of any children who might thereafter be born 
to the king, and of any posthumous child who 
might be born to his son Alexander. On 
19 March 1286 Alexander III was killed, 
and on 11 April the estates appointed six 
regents to govern for the infant queen. 
Edward I obtained a bill of dispensation 
from Honorius IV in May 1287, that his sons 
and daughters might marry within the pro- 
hibited degrees, and in May 1289 sent am- 
bassadors to Nicolas IV to obtain the pope's 
consent to the marriage of his sonEdward and 
Margaret. Eric, who was largely indebted to 
the English king, sent three ambassadors to 
England in September, as from himself and 
Margaret, to request Edward to secure the 
rights of the queen. At Edward's instance 
four commissioners were sent by the regents 
of Scotland to meet them and three com- 
missioners appointed by himself at Salis- 
bury, where on 6 Nov. it was agreed that 
before 1 Nov. next following Eric should 
send Margaret either to England or Scot- 
land free from any matrimonial engagement ; 
Edward promised that if Scotland was in a 
settled state he would send her thither unen- 
gaged, on receiving a promise from the Scots 
that they would not give her in marriage 
except as he should ordain and with her 
father's consent. The bill of dispensation 
for the marriage of the young Edward and 
Margaret was obtained a few days later. 

Tidings of the proposed marriage having 
reached Scotland, the estates of that king- 
dom at a meeting at Brigham in March 
1290 wrote to Edward warmly approving 
his design, and to Eric urging him to send 
his daughter to England speedily. By the 
articles of Margaret's marriage treaty, 
arranged on 11 July, Edward promised that 
the kingdom of Scotland should remain 
separate and independent, saving his rights 
in the marches and elsewhere. He requisi- 
tioned a ship at Yarmouth to fetch Margaret, 
and caused it to be fitted out and victualled 
by Matthew de Columbers, his butler. The 
ship was manned by forty seamen, and as Eric 
seems to have been expected to accompany 
his daughter great provision was made for 
the voyage, thirty-one hogsheads and one 
pipe of wine, ten barrels of beer, fifteen salted 
oxen, four hundred dried fish and two hun- 
dred stock fish, five hundred walnuts, and two 
loaves of sugar being put on board. The 
ship arrived at Bergen, and took Margaret 
on board without her father. On 7 Oct. 
William Fraser (d. 1297) [q. v.], bishop of 
St. Andrews, wrote to Edward saying that 
be and the English proctors appointed for 
the marriage had heard that Margaret had been 




ill, and that it was then generally believed 
that she had died on her voyage at one of 
the Orkneys. The report was true. Nothing 
is known of the circumstances of her death 
or burial. About ten years later a young 
woman came to Norway from Germany de- 
claring herself to be Margaret, Eric's daugh- 
ter. She said that she had been kidnapped at 
the Orkneys by a woman of high rank, 
Ingebiorg, the wife of Thore Hakonsson, 
and had been sold by her. Many believed 
her story. The king, Hakon V, who had 
succeeded his brother Eric, caused her to be 
tried, and she was burnt alive at Bergen in 
1301. Her cruel death excited much com- 
passion ; she was believed by many to have 
been Eric's daughter, and was for a time 
reverenced at Bergen as a saint. 

[Docs, illustr. Scottish Hist. vol. i. ed. Steven- 
eon ; Rymer'sFcedera, vol. ii. (both Kecordpubl.); 
Ann. Dunst. ap. Ann. Monast. iii. 359 ; Cotton 
an. 1290 (both Bolls Ser.); Hemingburgh an. 
1291 ; Trivet an. 1289 (both Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Torfaeus's Hist. Nor. pt. iv. bk. 7, cc. 1, 5, bk, 
8, c. 1 ; Ann. Island. Keg. ap. SS. Kerum Dan. 
iii. 123, ed. Langebek ; Munch's Det Norske 
Folks Hist. iv. 192 sqq., 344 sqq. ; Burton's 
Hist, of Scotland, ii. 42 sqq., 112-13.] 

W. H. 

MARKS, HENRY STACY (1829-1898), 
artist, the youngest of four children, was 
born on 13 Sept. 1829 in Great Portland 
Street, "West, and baptised in All Souls', 
Langham Place. His father, Isaac Daniel 
Marks, after practising for a time as a solicitor 
in Bloomsbury, took to his father's business 
of a coach-builder in Langham Place. The 
artist's father was a devoted student of 
Shakespeare, which accounts for the subjects 
of some of his earliest paintings. The firm, 
Marks & Co., prospered at first, and it was 
understood that Henry should carry it on. 
His talent for drawing was shown very 
early, and when he left school he studied 
heraldry, so that he might be able to paint 
the crests and coats of arms on carriage doors 
and panels. Sufficient employment of this 
kind was quickly found for him in his father's 
business, but at the same time he attended 
evening classes at the well-known art school 
in Newman Street of James Mathews Leigh 
[q. v.] In 1851, having failed in the previous 
year, he obtained admission to the Academy 
schools, but continued his studies with 
Leigh. A picture called ' Hamlet, Horatio, 
Osric,' painted in 1851, was hung in the 
Portland Gallery with Rossetti's 'Annun- 
ciation.' (Hatherley, Leigh's successor, sat 
for the Hamlet.) The possessor of much 
dry humour, and a good comic actor, Marks 
was deservedly popular and never wanted 

friends among artists. The closest in those 
early days were Philip Hermogenes Calde- 
ron, Mr. Val Prinsep, Mr. W. W. Ouless, 
Mr. G. A. Storey, and Mr. Alfred Parsons. 

In January 1852 he stayed for five months 
in Paris with Calderon. He studied first 
with M. Picot, pupil of David, and after- 
wards in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In his 
absence his father's firm failed, and from 
that time forward he had to depend solely 
on his own exertions. 

In 1853 he exhibited for the first time at 
the Royal Academy. His work was a half- 
length of ' Dogberry.' ' With many other 
students,' Marks wrote, ' I was much influ- 
enced by the pre-Raphaelite school, and that 
influence was very evident in the picture.' 
It was placed next to Holman Hunt's 
' Strayed Sheep,' had the advantage of being 
very well hung, and found a purchaser. 
Henceforth Marks was a frequent exhibitor 
at the Royal Academy, and he soon found a 
generous admirer in Charles Edward Mudie 
q. v.], the founder of Mudie's Library. 

efore 1860 Mudie bought two of his most 
important paintings, ' Toothache in the Mid- 
dle Ages' (1856), and 'Dogberry's Charge 
to the Watch' (1859). To the same period 
belonged the ' Gravedigger's Riddle,' which 
he also sold. Next in point of interest 
came the ' Franciscan Sculptor's Model,' a 
very humorous subject : the matter in hand 
a gargoyle ; the model a country bumpkin, 
with features burlesqued to convey the idea 
of spouting. In 1860 Mudie invited Marks 
to accompany him to Belgium, and in 1863 
he repeated the visit with his friends Yeames 
and Hodgson. In the ' Jester's Text/ 
painted in 1862, there are traces of Flemish 

In order to supplement his resources Marks 
did much besides painting pictures. He prac- 
tised drawing on wood, contributed cuts to a 
paper called ' The Home Circle,' and illus- 
trated some books. He also taught drawing 
for a short time, was largely employed by 
the firm of Clayton & Bell, the makers of 
stained glass, and did decorative work of all 
sorts. He designed the proscenium both for 
the Gaiety Theatre, London, and the Prince's 
Theatre, Manchester. The merit of his 
varied work attracted Ruskin's attention, 
and letters from Ruskin show how sincere 
was his appreciation of Marks's work. The 
studies in natural history, in which Marks 
in course of time specialised, particularly- 
appealed to Ruskin, who saw in Marks s 
animals characteristics not unlike those 
which he discerned in Turner and Bewick. 
Marks all his life was a close observer of 
the ways of birds, and his excellent draw- 




ings of them came to be very popular. 
Though not altogether in sympathy with 
Marks's high spirits and humour, Ruskin 
would not have him repress it. ' Some very 
considerable part of the higher painter's 
gift in you,' he wrote to Marks, ' is handi- 
capped by that particular faculty (i.e. humour), 
which nevertheless, being manifestly an 
essential and inherent part of you, cannot it- 
self be too earnestly developed.' 

In 1874 an introduction to Hugh Lupus 
Grosvenor, first duke of Westminster [q. v. 
Suppl. 1 , resulted in commissions for the 
paintings in Eaton Hall, Cheshire. His first 
undertaking was a frieze representing the 
Canterbury Pilgrims, which occupies two 
walls of a large saloon. They are painted on 
lengths of canvas more than thirty-five feet 
in extent. The designs for the work, exe- 
cuted in water-colours, were exhibited at the 
Eoyal Academy in 1875. The paintings, 
commenced in 1876, were completed in 1878. 
There followed a further commission for 
paintings of birds for the walls of a smaller 

These birds (twelve panels in all) were 
exhibited at Agnew's Gallery in May 1880. 
Ruskin wrote of them : ' I must say how en- 
tirely glad I am to see the strength of a 
good painter set upon Natural History, and 
this intense fact and abstract of animal 
character used as a principal element in 
Decoration.' Marks executed similar deco- 
rative work for Stewart Hodgson's houses in 
South Audley Street, London, and Lythe 
Hill, Haslemere. 

In 1862 Marks removed from Camden 
Town to Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood. 
With Regent's Park close at hand, he pur- 
sued his studies of birds, and he and some 
friends who lived near founded the artists' 
club known as the ' Clique.' Among his 
most intimate friends were Frederick W T alker 
and Charles Keene. He had first met 
Walker at the Langham Society's Sketching 
Club, and Walker's twin-sister married 
Marks's younger brother. 

In January 1871 Marks was elected, 
together with Walker and Woolner, to the 
associateship of the Royal Academy. He 
had exhibited there in the previous year ' St. 
Francis preaching to the Birds.' He was 
admitted an associate of the Water-colour 
Society in the following March. After the 
appearance of ' Convocation ' in the summer 
of 1878 he was elected a full member of the 
Academy. His diploma work, ' Science is 
Measurement,' is one of his finest achieve- 
ments. In 1883 he was elected a full mem- 
ber of the Royal "Water-colour Society. The 
chief of his later works are ' The Ornitho- 

logist,' 1873; Jolly Post Boys,' 1875 ; The 
Apothecary,' 1876 :' The Gentle Craft,' 1883 : 
' The Professor,' 1883 ; ' A Good Story,' 1885 ; 
' The Hermit and Pelicans,' 1888 ; ' News in 
the Village,' 1889 ; ' An Odd Volume,' 1894. 
In 1889 and again in 1890 he delighted the 
art-loving world with exhibitions of birds at 
the rooms of the Fine Art Society in Bond 
Street ; but it is not only on these that his 
reputation depends. The best of the subject- 
pieces are equally good of their kind. All 
his oil paintings are in pure colour, and their 
freshness of hue shows at present no diminu- 
tion. His land and sea scapes in water- 
colours also have notable serenity and breadth. 
His favoured resort was the Suffolk coast, 
and he painted many scenes round South- 
wold and Walberswick. 

In 1896, on account of failing health, he 
joined the 'retired' Academicians. He died 
at St. Edmund's Terrace, Primrose Hill, on 
9 Jan. 1898, and was buried in Hampstead 
cemetery. He was twice married : first, 
in 1856, to Helen Drysdale ; and secondly, 
in 1893, to Mary Harriet Kempe. 

A some what rambling autobiography which 
Marks wrote in his latest years appeared 
after his death, under the title 'Pen and 
Pencil Sketches,' 2 vols. 1894. His portrait 
was frequently painted. A half-length show- 
ing the profile painted by Mr. Ouless may 
be considered the best. Another portrait 
was by Calderon. A water-colour drawing 
by Mr. Herkomer, done at one sitting, is 
exact as a likeness and splendidly drawn. 

[Marks's Pen and Pencil Sketches, 1894, 2 vols. ; 
Times, 11 and 14 Jan. 1898; Life and Letters 
of Frederick Walker, by Marks's nephew, John 
George Marks, 1896; private information.] 

"R T? 

sively MES. CHURCH and MRS. LEAN (1838- 
1899), novelist, born at Brighton on 9 July 
1838, was sixth daughter and tenth child of 
Captain Frederick Marryat [q. v.] and his 
wife Catherine, daughter or Sir Stephen 
Shairp of Houston, Linlithgowshire. She 
was educated at home, and was always a 
great reader. On 13 June 1854, at the age 
of sixteen, she married at Penang T. Ross 
Church, afterwards colonel in the Madras 
staff corps, with whom she travelled over 
nearly the whole of India. She had by him 
eight children. She outlived him, and in 
1890 married, as her second husband, Colonel 
Francis Lean of the royal marine light in- 

Her first novel, ' Love's Conflict,' written 
to distract her mind in the intervals of 
nursing her children with scarlet fever, ap- 
peared in 1865. Between that date and the 




year of her death she published some ninety 
novels, many of which, notwithstanding 
their mediocre character, were translated 
into German, French, Swedish, Flemish, and 
Russian, and became popular in America. 
From 1872 to 1876 she edited the monthly 
periodical called ' London Society.' 

In 1872 she published in two volumes the 
' Life and Letters of Captain Marryat ; ' it 
does not present a complete portrait of her 
father ; the scanty material is supplemented 
by too many trifling details. In the latter 
years of her life she was much attracted 
to spiritualism. Although a Roman ca- 
tholic, she received permission from her 
director, Father Dalgairn of the Brompton 
oratory, to pursue researches of the kind in the 
cause of science. ' There is no Death,' pub- 
lished in 1891, gives a detailed account of 
the various media with whom she came in 
contact, and of the stances she attended. 
Although it bears evident marks of the 
author's sincerity, it is difficult to believe 
that a large element of fiction does not enter 
into the volume. Other books dealing with 
the subject are 'The Risen Dead' 1893) and 
The Spirit World ' (1894). ' Tom Tiddler's 
Ground,' a book of travel (1886), is an irre- 
sponsible account of America. 

A woman of varied accomplishments, she 
added to the roles of author and novelist 
those of playwright, comedy actress, operatic 
singer, giver of lectures and entertainments, 
and manager of a school of journalism. She 
acted in a drama of her own, entitled ' Her 
World,' produced in London in 1881. She 
died at St. John's Wood, London, on 27 Oct. 

[Men and Women of the Time, 1899 ; Alli- 
bone's Diet., Suppl. ii. 983 ; Athenaeum, 4 .Nov. 
1899; Times, 28 Oct. 1899.] E. L. 

(1852-1893), naturalist, born at Birming- 
ham on 8 June 1852, was the third son of 
William P. Marshall, for many years secre- 
tary of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
and himself an enthusiastic naturalist. In 
1870, while still at school, he graduated B. A. 
in the London University, and in the fol- 
lowing year entered St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, to read for the natural science tripos. 
At that time the school of biology was just 
arising. Francis Balfour [q. v.] had given it 
a great impetus, and Marshall was one of the 
first to take advantage of this change. In 
1874 he came out senior in his tripos, and 
after graduating B.A. was appointed in the 
early part of 1875 by the Cambridge Uni- 
versity to their table at the new zoological 
station at Naples. In the summer of the 

same year Marshall returned to Cambridge, 
and during the October term he joined Bal- 
four in giving a course of lectures and labo- 
ratory work in zoology. 

Marshall's next step was to qualify him- 
self for a medical career. In 1877 he won 
an open science scholarship at St. Bartholo- 
mew s hospital, and in the same year he 
passed the M.B. examination at Cambridge, 
obtained the London degree of D.Sc., and 
was elected to a fellowship at St. John's Col- 
lege. These successes were followed by his 
appointment, in 1879, at the early- age of 
twenty-seven, to the newly established pro- 
fessorship of zoology at Owens College, 
Manchester, and Marshall soon became' 
known for his wonderful skill in teaching 
and his talent for organisation. His insight 
into what had to be done whether it were 
a research on some zoological problem or 
the reconstruction of a department of study 
was only equalled by the rapid and skil- 
ful way in which he accomplished the end 
in view. 

In zoological science. Marshall's name is 
intimately connected with important dis- 
covery in embryology. At the time of his 1 
appointment to the chair at Owens College 
he was already known as the author of im- 
portant memoirs on the origin and develop- 
ment of the nervous system in the higher 
animals ; and after his election Marshall 
continued, both by his own contributions 
and in conjunction with his pupils, to influ- 
ence the work and views of fellow-natural- 
ists. Between 1878 and 1882 Marshall pub- 
lished ' The Development of the Cranial Nerves 
in the Chick,' 1878 ; The Morphology of the 
Vertebrate Olfactory Organ,' 1879 ; ' Obser- 
vations on the Cranial Nerves of Scy Ilium,' 

1881 (in conjunction with W. Baldwin 
Spencer) ; ' On the Head-cavities and as- 
sociated Nerves of Elasmobranchs,' 1881. 
These papers appeared in the 'Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science,' and in 

1882 Marshall published a memoir on ' The 
Segmental Value of the Cranial Nerves ' in 
the ' Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.' 
The importance and originality of these solid 
contributions to knowledge were widely re- 
cognised, and, together with his later re- 
searches upon the anatomy of Pennatulid 
corals, they form Marshall's most important 
contributions to zoology. 

Marshall's lasting work, however, was his 
development of zoological teaching and his 
organisation of the courses of biological study 
at the Victoria University. As a teacher 
Marshall excelled. He was clear, accurate, 
enthusiastic, and keenly alive to the diffi- 
culties of those who approach zoological 




problems for the first time. By forcible and 
often picturesque language he would point 
out where the trouble lay and how to over- 
come it. The lucidity, thoroughness, and ac- 
cuvacy of Marshall's teaching may to some 
extent be estimated by a study of his three 
text-books, 'The Frog' (1882. 7th edit. 
1900), ' Practical Zoology ' (in conjunction 
with' Dr. C. Herbert Hurst) (1887, 6th edit. 
1899), and ' Vertebrate Embryology ' (1893). 
Some idea of his clear and logical style of 
delivery as a lecturer may be gained from his 
' Biological Essays and Addresses ' (1894), 
and ' The Darwinian Theory ' (1894). The 
wav in which' he embodied the point at 
issue in some happy phrase made an inefface- 
able impression upon his audience. Thus 
the theory that animals recapitulate in 
their own development the ancestry of the 
race will never be forgotten by those who 
heard it compressed into the pregnant 
phrase, 'They climb up their genealogical 

Perhaps Marshall's greatest distinction 
was his capacity for organisation. As secre- 
tary, and subsequently as chairman, of the 
board of studies, Marshall rendered most 
valuable services in the founding and ad- 
ministration of the Victoria University. The 
correlation of the different sciences in the 
Faculty of Science is largely due to his 
labours. He was also secretary of the ex- 
tension movement initiated by the university, 
and gained for it the success which invariably 
attended any organising work that he under- 

Marshall was a man of great and tireless 
energy, and his attractive personality ren- 
dered him very popular with his friends, col- 
leagues, and students. He was an excellent 
gymnast, and kept himself in training by 
constant practice. His chief recreation was 
mountain climbing. Though he was dissuaded 
by the untimely death of his friend Francis 
Balfour from beginning to cliinb till he was 
thirty, Marshall subsequently spent part of 
almost each long vacation in climbing in the 
Tyrol, Switzerland, or on the Mont Blanc 
chain ; and he frequently passed the Easter 
and Christmas vacations on the mountains of 
Wales and of the English lake district. He 
was always a careful climber, and had ac- 
quired considerable experience of rock- work. 
( hi 31 Dec. 1893, while he was engaged with 
a party of friends in photographing the rocks 
of Deep Ghyll on Scafell, a rock gave way 
beneath him, and falling backwards he was 
killed instantaneously. His death could not 
be attributed to rashness ; it was the result 
of one of those accidents which cannot be 
eliminated from the sport of mountaineering. 

A cross cut on the rocks below Lord's Rake 
marks the spot where his body fell. 

Marshall graduated M.A. in 1878 and 
M.D. in 1882. He was elected a fellow of 
the Eoyal Society in 188o ; and served on its 
council 1891-2. He was president of section 
D at the meeting of the British Association 
at Leeds in 1890, and gave one of the popular 
discourses before the British Association at 
the Edinburgh meeting in 1892. He was 
for many years president of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society. A list of his chief 
memoirs is given in 'The Owens College, 
Manchester,' 1900, pp. 210, 211. 

[Obituary notices in Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, 1894-5, vol. Ivii. pp. iii_v, and 
Nature, 11 Jan. 1894, p. 250 ; information kindly 
supplied by Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., and per- 
sonal knowledge.] F. W. G. 

1835), animal painter, born about 1767, ex- 
hibited thirteen pictures, chiefly portraits of 
racehorses and their owners, at the Eoyal 
Academy, 1801-12 and 1818-9. His por- 
traits of sporting characters included those 
of J. G. Shaddick, 1806, and Daniel Lambert, 
1807. Two pictures of fighting cocks, exhi- 
bited in 1812, were engraved in mezzotint by 
Charles Turner in the same year with the 
titles of 'The Cock in Feather' and 'The 
Trimm'd Cock.' Other engraved pictures are 
' Hap-hazard ' and ' Muly Moloch,' race* 
horses belonging to the Earl of Darlington, 
engraved as a pair by W. and G. Coeke, 1805, 
from pictures at Raby Castle ; 'The Earl of 
Darlington and his Foxhounds,' by T. Dean, 
1805, and the companion subject, ' Francis 
Dukinfield Astley and his Harriers,' by R, 
Woodman, 1809 ; < Sir Teddy,' mezzotint by 
Charles Turner, 1808; ' Sancho,' a - pointer 
belonging to Sir John Shelley, etched by 
Charles Turner in 1808 ; and ' Diamond,' a 
racehorse, engraved in mezzotint by W. 
Barnard in 1811. 

Sixty paintings of sportsmen, horses, and 
; dogs by Marshall were -engraved by John 
Scott for Wheble's ' Sporting Magazine,' 
vols. vii-lxxxi., and eight types of horses by 
Marshall, also engraved by Scott, appeared 
( in ' The Sportsman's Repository,' 1820. 
j Marshall's exhibited and engraved works 
represent but a small proportion of the com- 
missions which he carried out for patrons of 
the turf and masters of hounds throughout 
the country. A number of his pictures of 
horses are in the collection of Sir Walter 
Gilbey. About 1800-10 Marshall was living 
at 23 Beaumont Street, Marylebone. He 
had various later addresses in London, but 
was often described as ' Marshall of New- 
market,' where he chiefly lived. He died in 




the Hackney Road, at the age of sixty-eight, 
on 24 July 1835. 

[Royal Academy Catalogues; Gent. Mag. 
1835, li. 331 ; Banks's Index of Engravings in 
the Sporting Magazine, pp. 17, 109 ; Kedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists.] C. D. 

MARSHALL, EMMA (1830-1899), no- 
velist, youngest daughter of Simon Martin, 
a partner in Gurney's Norwich bank, who 
married, at St. Michael-at-Plea, Norwich, in 
1809, Hannah (Ransome), a quakeress, was 
born at Northrepps Hill House, near Cromer, 
in 1830. The family soon removed to Nor- 
wich. Miss Martin has depicted her early 
childhood verv faithfully in one of her first 
stories, ' The Dawn of Life' (1867). She was 
educated at a private school until the age of 
sixteen. The proximity of Norwich Cathedral 
and its precincts strongly influenced her sub- 
sequent line of thought. When as a girl she 
read Longfellow's ' Evangeline,' she was so 
much impressed with it that she wrote to the 
poet, and thus began a correspondence that 
fasted until her death. About 1849 she left 
Norwich with her mother to live at Clifton, 
Bristol,where acquaintance with Dr. Adding- 
ton Symonds gave them a passport to the 
society of the place. In 1854 she married Hugh 
Graham Marshall, who was in the service of 
the West of England bank. The early years 
of her married life were spent at Wells, Exeter, 
and Gloucester ; and Longfellow, in reference 
to the continual flitting from one cathedral 
town to another, called her ' Queen of 
Summer, temple-haunting Martlet.' There 
were three sons and four daughters of the 
marriage. She finally settled at Clifton, 
and began to write from a desire to amuse 
and instruct young people. Her first story, 
* Happy Days at Fernbank,' was pub- 
lished in 1861. Between that date and her 
death she wrote over two hundred stories. 
This enormous production was stimulated 
by heavy losses in 1878, when the failure of 
the West of England bank not only swept 
away her husband's income and position, but 
Involved him as a shareholder in certain 
liabilities. These Mrs. Marshall cleared off 
with indefatigable courage. Of 'Life's After- 
math ' (1876), perhaps the most popular of 
her novels, thirteen thousand copies have 
been issued. She had a special faculty for 
turning to account dim legend or historical 
incident, and her books generally have some 
celebrated historical character for the central 
figure round whom the story is woven; in 
' Under Salisbury Spire' (1890) it is George 
Herbert, in ' Penshurst Castle' (1894) it is Sir 
Philip Sidney. Her last book, 'The Parson's 
Daughter,' was finished by her daughter Bea- 
trice after her mother's death, and published 

in 1899. All her tales have a high moral and 
religious tone. Many have been translated ; 
several were included in the Tauchnitz 
Library. John Nichol and J. A. Symonds, 
among others, were warm in their praises of 
them. Canon Ainger, when advocating that 
a memorial, which ultimately took the form 
of a brass, with an inscription by him, should 
be placed in Bristol Cathedral, spoke of ' the 
high and pure quality of her literary work,' 
and declared that her stories ' have been the 
means of awakening and cultivating a taste 
for history and literature throughout the 
English-speaking world.' 

Mrs. Marshall died on 4 May 1899 at 
Clifton, and was buried on the 9th in the 
cemetery of Long Ashton. Two portraits are 
included in ' Emma Marshall, a Biographical 
Sketch,' by her daughter, Beatrice Marshall, 

[Memoir by Beatrice Marshall, 1900; Alli- 
bone's Diet. Suppl. ii. 1078-9; Western Daily 
Press, 5 and 10 May 1899; Bristol Times and 
Mirror, 5 May 1899.] E. L. 


(1813-1894), sculptor, born at Gilmour 
Place, Edinburgh, on 18 March 1813, was 
eldest son of William Marshall, goldsmith, 
and Annie Calder, his wife. Educated at 
the high school and university, he com- 
menced his art studies at the Trustees' Aca- 
demy in 1830, and four years later went to 
London, where he worked under Sir Francis 
Legatt Chantrey [q. v.] and Edward Hodges 
Baily [q. v.], and in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, where he gained a silver medal in 
1835. He then spent two years (1836-8) in 
Rome, and in 1839 he settled permanently 
in London. In 1835, two years after he had 
exhibited first in the Royal Scottish Academy, 
he exhibited in London, and in 1844 he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy, 
and in 1852 an academician. He had been 
elected A.R.S. A. in 1840, but resigning when 
he received the London honour, he was made 
an honorary member at a later date. In 
recognition of his services as a British com- 
missioner at the Paris Exposition of 1878 he 
was appointed chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour. He retired from the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1890, exhibited there for the last 
time in the following year, and, having com- 
pleted his last work in 1893, died in London 
on 16 June 1894. 

He was a hard worker, and during his 
long career produced a great number of 
works. These were principally poetic and 
ideal in intention, and were very popular. 
He executed a number of commissions for 
the Art Union of London, and engravings 
of many of his sculptures are to be found in 




the ' Art Journal.' Classic and mythological 
subjects, such as ' Thetis and Achilles,' or 
' Ajax praying for Light,' and ' Zephyr and 
Aurora ' or ' Hebe,' and motives derived 
from the Bible or Shakespeare, were 
favourites with him. These often took the 
form of groups, and one of his best-known 
pieces is the group symbolic of ' Agriculture ' 
on the Albert Memorial in Hyde Park. In 
1857 he was awarded the first premium 
(700/.) in the competition for the Wellington 
Memorial, but fortunately the design of 
Alfred Stevens [q.v.] was afterwards adopted. 
He also produced a number of memorial 
statues, of which the marbles of Lords Cla- 
rendon and Somers, in the houses of parlia- 
ment at Westminster, and of Sir George 
Grey, in Cape Town, and the bronze of Sir 
Robert Peel, in Manchester, may be named. 

His style was of its time, and pseudo- 
classicism in his hands was informed by no 
richness of fancy or real power of technique. 
A certain elegance of design and type and 
conscientiousness of execution are the greatest 
merits his art possesses. An exhibition of 
his works was held in his studio in Ebury 
Street, London, after his death ; and his 
executors presented the original models of 
his more important pieces to museums and 
galleries throughout the kingdom. 

He was twice married : first, in 1842, to 
Marianne, daughter of Dr. Lawrie, Edin- 
burgh, who died the same year; and secondly, 
in 1845, to Margaret, daughter of Joseph 
Calder of Burnhouse, Mid-Calder, by whom 
he had four sons and two daughters. 

[Private information ; Times and Scotsman, 
19 June 1894; Reports of the R.S.A. 1894; 
Catalogues of exhibitions and galleries.] 

J. L. C. 

MARTIN, LADY (1810-1898), actress. 

SHAWE, fourth baronet (1801-1895), ad- 
miral, son of Sir Thomas Byam Martin [q.v.], 
was born on 5 Dec. 1801. He entered the 
navy in June 1813, served under his father's 
flag oiF the Scheldt, and in January 1816 
was appointed to the Alceste, then going to 
China with Lord Amherst [see MAXWELL, 
return he was in the Prince Regent yacht 
with Sir Edward Hamilton [q.v.], and in the 
Glasgow frigate in the Mediterranean with 
Captain Anthony Maitland. On 15 Dec. 1820 
he was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Forte, and a few months later was moved into 
the Aurora, going out to the South American 
station, where, on 8 Feb. 1823, he was pro- 
moted to be commander of the Fly sloop. 


In her he rendered valuable assistance to the 
British merchants at Callao in a time of civil 
war, and was ever afterwards best known in 
the navy as ' Fly ' Martin. He attained post 
rank on 5 June 1824 ; from 1826 to 1831 he 
commanded the Samarang, a 28-gun frigate, 
in the Mediterranean; in 1844 and 1845 he 
was flag-captain at Sheerness, and from 1849 
to 1852 was commodore in command of the 
Lisbon squadron. On 28 May 1853 he was 
promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. From 
1853 till his promotion to be vice-admiral 
on 13 Feb. 1858, he was superintendent of 
Portsmouth dockyard, and in 1859 he was 
one of the lords of the admiralty. In 1860 
he was appointed to the command of the 
Mediterranean station, with his flag in the 
Marlborough. He held this for three years, 
and in that time effected a reform almost 
amounting to a revolution in the methods 
of naval discipline. Many of the ships were 
manned by ' bounty ' men and were in a 
state bordering on mutiny. Even the flag- 
ship's crew was far from being a good one. 
But by tact, by care, by unremitting atten- 
tion, and by judicious severity he brought 
the fleet into that admirable order which is 
still referred to in the navy as one of the 
glories of the past. When the commander- 
in-chief gave an order, he not only meant it 
to be obeyed but saw that it was obeyed, 
and the insistence was not always agreeable 
to the respective captains and commanders. 
He was thus by no means generally loved 
by officers of the higher ranks ; but if not 
loved, he was feared, and the work was 
done. On 14 Nov. 1863 Martin was made 
an admiral ; on the death of his cousin, 
Sir Henry Martin, third baronet, he suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy on 4 Dec. 1863; 
and from 1866 to 1869 was commander-in- 
chief at Plymouth. In April 1870 he was 
put on the retired list in accordance with 
the scheme brought out by Hugh Culling 
Eardley Chiiders [q. v. Suppl.] On 24 May 
1873 he was made a G.C.B.,and in September 
1878 he was appointed rear-admiral of the 
United Kingdom. During his later years he 
resided principally at Upton Grey, near 
Winchfield, and there he died on 24 March 

Martin was twice married : first, in 1826, 
to Anne Best, daughter of the first Lord 
Wynford ; she died in 1836, having had two 
sons who died young, and two daughters. 
Secondly, to Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of 
Robert Hurt of Wirksworth, by whom he 
had issue, besides five daughters, one son, 
Richard Byam Martin, who succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1879 Martin published a small 
pamphlet, ' Cyprus as a Naval Station and 





& Place of Arms,' which, as an exposition of 
Mediterranean strategy from one of the great 
masters of the art, is deserving of very close 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Army and 
Navy Gazette, 30 March 1895 ; Burke's Baro- 
netage ; Navy Lists; private information.] 

MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900), 
Unitarian divine, youngest son and seventh 
child of Thomas Martineau (d. 21 June 
1826), camlet and bombazine manufacturer, 
by his wife Elizabeth (d. 26 Aug. 1848, 
aged 78), eldest daughter of Robert Rankin, 
sugar refiner, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, was 
born in Magdalen Street, Norwich, on 
21 April 1805. His father, of Huguenot 
lineage, had a maternal descent from John 
Meadows or Meadowe [q. v.], the ejected 
puritan, which connected him with the 
family of John Taylor (1694-1761) [q. v.], 
the hebraist (TAYLOR, Suffolk Bartholo- 
means, 1840). His mother was a woman of 
great force of character and ' quickness of 
feeling ' (Martineau's letter in Daily News, 
30 Dec. 1884). His eldest brother, Thomas 
Martineau, M.D. (d. 3 June 1824, aged 29), 
was at the time of his early death reckoned 
the ablest of the family ; but the personal 
charm of James was marked in boyhood. In 
1815 he entered the Norwich grammar 
school, of which Edward Valpy [q. v.] be- 
came high master in that year. Among his 
schoolfellows were (Sir) James Brooke [q. v.], 
raja of Sarawak, and George (Henry) Bor- 
row [q. v.] In after life Borrow would not 
meet Martineau, having been hoisted on his 
back to receive a well-earned birching (Life 
ofF. P. Cobbe, 1894, ii. 117). Martineau, 
whose taste was for mathematics, did not 
proceed to the highest form, but was well 
grounded in classics, and on his eightieth 
birthday wrote some very good Latin verses 
in reply to his old friend Thomas Horn- 
blower Gill, the hymn-writer (Inquirer, 
20 Jan. 1900, p. 12). He was not ' physi- 
cally robust,' and ' the tyranny of a large 
public school ' did not suit him (letter in 
Daily News, ut sup.) At the suggestion of 
his sister, Harriet Martineau [q. v.], he was 
sent (1819) to the boarding-school of Lant 
Carpenter [q. v.] at Bristol; to Carpenter's 
influence in the discipline of character he 
pays the highest tributes (Memoirs of Lant 
Carpenter, 1842, p. 342 ; Life of Mary Car- 
penter, 1879, p. 9 ; cf. Unitarian Magazine, 
1834, p. 185). Leaving school in 1821, he 
was apprenticed to Samuel Fox at Derby, 
with a view to becoming a civil engineer ; 
he boarded with Edward Higginson [see 
under HIGGINSON, EDWARD], Unitarian mini- 

ster at Derby, whose eldest daughter he 
afterwards married. The purely mechanical 
work of the machine-room did not satisfy 
him. The premature death (31 Jan. 1822, 
aged 29) of Henry Turner, Unitarian mini- 
ster at Nottingham [son of William Turner, 
1761-1859 ; see under TURNER, WILLIAM, 
1714-1794], who had married (1819) Mar- 
tineau's cousin, Catharine Rankin (d. 1 May 
1894, aged 97), produced his ' conversion ' 
(Proceedings in connection with his retire- 
ment, 1885, p. 28), and decided him for the 

In September 1822 he entered Manchester 
College, York, as a divinity student under 
Charles Wellbeloved [q. v.] Classics and 
history were taught by John Kenrick [q. v.], 
a scholar of distinction. Philosophy fell to 
William Turner (1788-1853) [see under 
TURNER, WILLIAM, 17 14-1794], who taught 
the Hartleyan determinism, then in vogue 
with Unitarians, but. felt its difficulties 
(Christian Reformer, 1854, p. 136). The 
first York student to adopt the libertarian 
view was William Mountford (1816-1885), 
author of ' Euthanasy ' (1850), who broke 
with the Hartleyan philosophy while at 
York (1833-8). Martineau gained at York 
the highest honours ( Christian Life, 23 June 
1900, p. 302); his successful oration in 1825 
bore the characteristic title ' The Necessity 
of cultivating the Imagination as a Regu- 
lator of the Devotional Feelings.' His 
father's death (1826) left on the family a 
burden of undischarged liabilities, all of 
which were paid in full. His mother's 
anxiety for his health, injured by ' intempe- 
rate study' (KENRICK), led her to propose 
his removal to Gottingen ; Kenrick thought 
the Gottingen system of lecturing for a ses- 
sion on ' one evangelist, one prophet,' inferior 
to Wellbeloved's plan of going through the 
Old or New Testament in a year (unpub- 
lished letter of Kenrick, 16 April 1826). 
Leaving York in 1827 he preached (4 July) 
one of the annual sermons of the Eastern 
Unitarian Association at Halesworth, Suf- 
folk, the other preacher being Michael 
Maurice, father of (John) Frederick Denison 
Maurice [q. v.] 

In 1827 he became, for a year, assistant 
and virtually locum tenens in Lant Carpen- 
ter's school at Bristol. Next year he was 
called to Dublin as co-pastor (assistant and 
successor) to his aged kinsman, Philip Tay- 
lor [see under TAYLOR, JOHN, 1694-1761], 
and colleague with Joseph Hutton (d. 1 Feb. 
1856, aged 90), grandfather of Richard Holt 
Hutton [q. v. Suppl.], in the congregation 
of Eustace Street, founded by Samuel Win- 
ter, D.D. [q. v.], on independent principles, 




but latterly known as presbyterian. It was 
connected with the ' southern association,' 
known (from 1809) as the ' synod of 
Munster' (Facts in Reply to . . . George 
Mathews, 1842, p. 4). By ministers of this 
body Martineau was ordained on 26 Oct. 
1828 ; the ordination service, first used at 
Waterford on 2 Aug. 1826 (Christian Mode- 
rator, September 1826, p. 184) at the ordi- 
nation of William M'Cance (d. 26 June 
1882), was published (1829) with a valuable 
historical appendix [see ARMSTRONG, JAMES, 
D.D.] Martineau's confession of faith re- 
flects the theology of Carpenter rather than 
that of Wellbeloved, and on the person of 
Christ carefully selects what was common 
ground with Arianism, but is remarkable at 
that date for its silence on the inerrancy and 
inspiration of scripture and the wholequestion 
of miracles. He bought a house, married, 
and took pupils. He was a chief promoter 
and the first secretary of the ' Irish Uni- 
tarian Christian Society,' founded 17 March 
1830, and still in being. For his congrega- 
tion he compiled a hymn-book (Dublin, 
1831, 12mo) ; it was only in local and tem- 
porary use. 

His Dublin ministry was highly appre- 
ciated, though ' an expression implying the 
simple humanity of Christ ' lost him ' the 
most attached friend ' among his hearers 
(memorial preface to THOM'S A Spiritual 
Faith, 1895, p. viii). By the death of 
Philip Taylor (27 Sept. 1831) he succeeded 
to a share of regium donum, but resigned 
(October 1831) rather than benefit by a ' re- 
ligious monopoly,' though willing to retain 
office without this increase of income. 
Among his reasons (letter in Monthly Re- 
pository, 1831, p. 832) he specifies the 
opinion that the donum, by endowing pres- 
byterianism, ' stifles our predilection for 
Avhat many of us believe to be the better 
system, that of the independents.' His 
congregation accepted the resignation 
(13 Nov.) by a majority of one, and made 
him a handsome presentation. He was in- 
vited to be colleague with John Grundy 
[q. v.] at Paradise Street chapel, Liverpool, 
and entered on his duties there on 1 July 
His salary was 2001., and he con- 
tinued to take pupils. One of them, his 
colleague's son, describes him at that period 
as ' benevolently ugly, if ugly at all, with 
his rough-cast features, wild upstanding 
black hair, low broad forehead, and swarthy 
complexion' (F. H. GRTTNDY, Pictures of the 
I'tr-'f. 1*7'.>. p. 45). In addition to private 
pupils, he had public classes on scientific 
s'il>j>ots, e.g. a course of ten lectures 
\pril-18 June 1833) on chemistry at 

the Mechanics' Institution, Slater Street. 
By Grundy's resignation (1835) he became 
sole pastor. He never administered bap* 
tism, substituting a service of dedication. 
In 1836 he took a leading part in founding 
the Liverpool domestic mission. An indi- 
cation of his local influence is afforded bv 
the circumstance that in 1837 the Wesleyan 
conference was urged to make special ap- 
pointments at Liverpool, a reason assigned 
being the presence there of 'the brilliant 
Martineau' (GREGORY, Side Lights on the 
Conflicts of Methodism, 1899, p. 247). 

His 'Rationale of Religious Enquiry' 
(1836, 12mo) had made him widely known 
as a writer of exceptional power; in this 
volume of lectures he denied the Christian 
name to unbelievers in the recorded mira- 
cles of Christ, a judgment defended in the 
second edition (same year), and recalled in 
the third (1845), under the influence of 
Joseph Blanco White [q. v.] The impres- 
sion of his force and originality was deepened 
by the part he took (1839) in the Liverpool 
Unitarian controversy, and not least by the 
preliminary correspondence with thirteen 
local Anglican divines, headed by Fielding 
Ould ( Unitarianism Defended, 1839, 8vo ; 
Theological Review, January 1877, p. 85). 
Channing wrote of his lectures as ' among 
the noblest efforts of our times ' (letter of 
22 June 1840 in Memoir, .1848, ii. 399). 
Martineau's own reference (Memorial Pre- 
face, ut sup. p. xiii) to his attitude in this 
controversy as contrasted with that of John 
Hamilton Thorn [q. v.] seems due to defec- 
tive memory. In 1840 he published a 
hymn-book ('Hymns for the Christian 
Church and Home ') which rapidly took the 
place of that associated with the name of 
Andrew Kippis, D.D. [q. v.] It is still in 
use, being but partially superseded by Mar- 
tineau's later collection, ' Hymns of Praise 
and Prayer ' (1873). 

Retaining his congregational charge, ho 
became (October 1840) professor of mental 
and moral philosophy and political economy 
in his alma mater, removed back from York 
to Manchester, and known as Manchester 
New College (M.N. C. Introductory Lectures, 
1841 ; Essays, Reviews, and Addresses, 1891, 
iv. 3). In the syllabus of his lectures John 
Stuart Mill [q. v.] ' noticed the change ' 
which was beginning to affect his philo- 
sophical views (Types of Ethical Theory, 
1889, p. xii). Channing had noted it earlier 
(letter of 29 Nov. 1839, in Memoir, ut sup. 
p. 433). 

The fruit of his Paradise Street ministry 
was published in two volumes of sermons, 
'Endeavours after the Christian Life' 





(1st ser. 1843, 12mo; 2nd ser. 1847, 12mo; 
often reprinted), unsurpassed for beauty and 
charin by his later writings, and realising 
his ideal that a sermon should be a ' lyric ' 
utterance. In a remarkable sermon, 'The 
Bible and the Child ' (July 1845, reprinted, 
Essays, ut sup. iv. 389), he first distinctly 
broke with the biblical conservatism of his 
denomination. Pending the removal of his 
congregation to a more modern structure, 
he was set free from 16 July 1848 till the 
opening (18 Oct. 1849) of the new church in 
Hope Street, his pastoral duties being un- 
dertaken by Joseph' Henry Hutton (1822- 
1899), elder brother of R. H. Hutton; one 
of the few occasions on which the latter 
occupied a pulpit was at Paradise Street 
during this interval. 

Martineau spent the fifteen months with 
his family in Germany, taking a winter's 
study at Berlin. 11. H. Hutton, who had 
been his pupil in Manchester, read Plato 
and Hegel with him (Proceedings, ut snp. 
p. 38). His studies were mainly directed 
by Trendelenburg. He regarded this break 
as a ' second education,' and ' a new intel- 
lectual birth,' involving the complete ' sur- 
render of determinism ' ( Types, ut sup. 
p. xiii). His earlier standpoint had been 
determinist and utilitarian (cf. his five arti- 
cles on Bentham's ' Deontology,' Christian 
Reformer, March-December, 1835, p. 185 
sq.) He wrote for the 'London Review' 
(1835) and for the ' London and Westmin- 
ster Review ' from the amalgamation (1836) 
till January 1851. From 1838 he wrote for 
the ' Christian Teacher,' then edited by J. H. 
Thorn, whom he joined, with John James 
Tayler [q.v.] and Charles Wicksteed (1810- 
1885), in editing the ' Prospective Review ' 
(1845-54), of which John Kentish [q. v.] said 
that its title must have been suggested by 
' the Irish member of the firm,' while John 
Gooch Robberds [q. v.], alluding to its motto 
'Respice, Aspice, Prospice,' described it as 
* a magazine of allspice.' To this quarterly, 
and to its successor the ' National Review ' 
(1855-1864), edited by Martineau, R, H. 
llutton, and Walter Bagehot, he contri- 
buted some of his best critical work; later 
he wrote occasionally for the 'Theological 
Review,' edited by Charles Beard [q.v. SuppL] 
His drastic treatment (' Mesmeric Atheism ' 
in Prospective, March 1851) of ' Letters on 
the Laws of Man's Nature and Develop- 
ment' (January 1851), by Henry George 
Atkinson and Harriet Martineau (who edited 
the volume), was never forgiven by the latter. 
This masterpiece of satire, coming after a 
coolness of some years' standing, due to a 
refusal to destroy his sister's letters to him- 

self, produced an alienation which Marti- 
neau made fruitless efforts to remove (cf. his 
letters in Daily News, 30 Dec. 1884, 2 and' 
6 Jan. 1886). 

For five years after the removal (1853) of 
Manchester New College to University Hall, 
Gordon Square, London, Martineau tra- 
velled up to town every week in the session 
to deliver his lectures, till in 1857 he left 
Liverpool to share with Tayler the theolo- 
gical teaching of the college, as professor of 
mental, moral, and religious philosophy. 
This arrangement was not effected without 
strenuous protest (led by Robert Brook 
Aspland [q. v.], who resigned the secretary- 
ship, and joined by Martineau's brothers-in- 
law, Samuel Bache [q. v.] and Edward 
Higginson [q. v.]) against confining the 
teaching to one school of thought. He re- 
turned to the pulpit in 1859, becoming col- 
league (20 Feb.) with Tayler in the charge 
of Little Portland Street chapel, left vacant 
by the death of Edward Tagart [q v.] ; from 
1860 he was in sole charge. Of his London 
ministry there are sketches by Frances 
Power Cobbe (Life, 1894, ii. 145 ; Inquirer, 
20 Jan. 1900, p. 11). From 1858 to 1868 he 
was a trustee of Dr. Williams's founda- 
tions. In his letter (6 Aug. 1859) to Simon 
Frederick Macdonald (1822-1862) on 'the 
Unitarian position,' followed by a second 
letter ' Church-Life ? or Sect-Life ? ' (14 Oct. 
1859), ' in reply to the critics of the first T 
(both reprinted in Essays, ut sup. ii. 371), he 
pleaded for restricting Unitarian profession 
to individuals and societies, leaving congre- 
gations unpledged to distinctive doctrine. 

At midsummer 1866 John Hoppus [q. v.] 
vacated the chair of mental philosophy and 
logic in University College, London. Mar- 
tineau's candidature was unsuccessful,, 
mainly through the opposition of George 
Grote [q. v.], who raised the anti-clerical 
cry. In protest against this limitation, 
Augustus de Morgan [q. v.] resigned the 
mathematical chair, and William Ballantyne 
Hodgson [q. v.] resigned his seat on the 
college council. Meanwhile Martineau was- 
busy with denominational controversies,, 
issuing in the formation of a 'Free Christian 
union,' which celebrated its first anniversary 
(1 June 1869) with sermons by Athanase 
Coquerel fils and Charles Kegan Paul, and 
lasted a couple of years. He was a member 
of the ' Metaphysical Society ' (2 June 1869- 
12 May 1880), which owed its inception to 
Tennyson. In 1869 he became principal of 
Manchester New College, and in 1872, under 
medical advice, he gave up preaching ; his 
friends presented him with inscribed plate 
and 5,800/. In the same year he received 




the LL.D. diploma from Harvard. The 
most striking sermons of his London minis- 
try were published in ' Hours of Thought 
on Sacred Things' (1st ser. 1876, 8vo ; 2nd 
er. 1879, 8vo). 

His college address (6 Oct. 1874), criti- 
cising the address (19 Aug.) of John Tyn- 
dall [q. v.] to the British Association at 
Belfast, led to a controversy (1875-6) with 
Tyndall, who wrote in the ' Fortnightly Re- 
view,' Martineau replying in the ' Contem- 
porary.' The brilliance of his papers (re- 
printed, Essays, ut sup. iv. 163) culminating 
in his 'Ideal Substitutes for God' (1879), 
won him wide repute as a champion of 
theism. He received the diplomas of S.Th.D. 
Leydeu (1875), D.D. Edinburgh (1884), 
D.C.L. Oxon. (20 June 1888), Litt.D. Dub- 
lin (1892). In 1882 appeared his ' Study of 
Spinoza' (2nd ed. 1883, 8vo), in which he 
maintained that Spinoza's philosophy does 
not reach the point of theism. His college 
work had been lightened by the appointment 
(1875) of Charles Barnes Upton as joint 
professor of philosophy ; at Michaelmas 1885 
he resigned the principalship, having passed 
the age of eighty. In 1 886-7 he was presi- 
dent of the college. On his eighty-third 
birthday an address was presented to him 
bearing names of the stamp of Tennyson, 
Browning, Kenan, Kuenen, Jowett, and 
Sanday (the text, with 649 signatures, is in 
Knight's ' Inter Amicos,' 1901, pp. 89 sq.) 

Much of Martineau's college work was in- 
corporated in his later publications, on which 
his reputation as a philosophic thinker will 
mainly rest. His ' Types of Ethical Theory ' 
(Oxford, 1885, 2 vols. 8vo; 3rd ed. 1889, 8vo) 
has been used as a text-book at Oxford and 
Calcutta ; portions of an analysis, based on 
lectures by Henry Stephens, were published 
at Calcutta in 1890 (see also The Law of 
Duty : a Suggested Moral Text-book, based 
on the Ethical and Religious Writings of 
Dr. J. Martineau, Madras, 1889, 8vo, by 
T. E. SLATOR). His ' Way out of the Trini- 
tarian Controversy ' (a sermon of earlier date, 
first printed, Christian Reformer, 1886 ; re- 
printed, Essays, ut sup. ii. 525) is based on 
the theory that the real object of worship, 
in both creeds, is the ' Second Person ' under 
different names. Of his ' Study of Religion ' 
(Oxford, 1888, 2 vols. 8vo; 1889, 8vo) there 
is an 'Analysis' (1900) by Richard Acland 
Armstrong. The brilliant elaboration of the 
* design argument' marks the recurrence of 
his thought to a position which he had long 
disparaged, if not discarded ; it was resumed 
with modifications made necessary by the 
Darwinian doctrine of evolution. To save 
free-will, Martineau (after Socinus) excludes 

the divine foreknowledge of contingencies ; 
but as in his view all the lines of action, 
between which choice lies, lead to the same 
goal, free-will ' only varying the track ' (ii. 
279), the result seems indistinguishable from 
fatalism. In 1888 he introduced at Leeds a 
comprehensive plan of organisation and sus- 
tentation for the Unitarian body, under the 
character of ' English presbyterians.' The 
scheme, somewhat resembling that of James 
Yates (1789-1871) [q.v.], was not adopted, 
though certain of its suggestions have borne 
fruit. On the formation (14 May 1889) of 
a ' provincial assembly ' by London uni- 
tarians, Martineau resisted the proposal of 
Robert Spears [q. v. Suppl.] to make the 
term ' Christian ' a part of its title. The 
latest phases of his theological teaching 
must be sought in ' The Seat of Authority 
in Religion ' ( 1890, 8vo ; 1892, 8vo), in which, 
more space is given to the polemic than to 
the reconstructive side of his subject ; hence 
it has been described as ' the unseating of 
authorities.' Of his New Testament criti- 
cism it has been remarked as ' strange, that 
whenever our Lord's language is at issue 
with Dr. Martineau's philosophy, the evan- 
gelists have been bad reporters.' He lec- 
tured at University Hall, Gordon Square 
(January-March 1891), on the ' Gospel of 
Luke; ' and (1893) on the newly discovered 
' Gospel according to Peter.' He had op- 
posed the removal (1889) of Manchester New 
College to Oxford, but took part in the 
opening of the new buildings, conducting 
the communion service (19 Oct. 1893) in the 
chapel of Manchester College. 

Till a few months before the close of his 
long life he showed no symptom of failing 
faculty, unless a slight deafness be reckoned 
and some defects of memory. Within a 
year of his death an old friend calling to see 
him found that ' the venerable youth had 
gone to a popular concert.' Always abs- 
temious and never using tobacco, he disused 
alcohol in the period 1842-9, and gave it up 
in the sixties (READE, Study and Stimulants^ 
1883, p. 97) ; he had previously been troubled 
with hereditary gout, Till 1898 he spent 
the summer and autumn at his highland 
residence, The Polchar, Aviemore, Inver- 
ness-shire, where he proved himself an ex- 
perienced mountaineer. His strenuous cha- 
racter and aesthetic sense marked every de- 
tail of his work ; he was an excellent man 
of business, and his most ordinary correspon- 
dence had distinction and a high finish. Old 
age gave grandeur to his countenance, and 
a refined gentleness to his demeanour. In 
his conversation as in his letters there was 
a rare combination of dignified modesty and 




courtly grace. His spoken addresses were 
simpler in style than most of his literary 
works, which, when richly wrought, re- 
minded his critics of a kaleidoscope (It. B. 
Aspland's phrase ; see also Life of F. P. Cobbe, 
ut sup. p. 146). The delivery of his sermons 
was vivid and even dramatic, though with- 
out action ; his lectures were mechanically 
dictated. Both sermons and lectures were 
written in Doddridge's shorthand. His poli- 
tics were of the old whig school ; he was 
against disestablishment, desiring a compre- 
hensive national church; he took the side 
of the southern states in the American war ; 
in Irish politics he was strongly averse to 
home rule ; he was opposed to free educa- 
tion and advocated a common religious teach- 
ing in board schools. An outside estimate 
of his services to speculative theology, by 
P. T. Forsyth, D.D., is in the ' London Quar- 
terly,' April 1900, p. 214 (cf. R. H. HUTTON 
in Proceedings, ut sup. pp. 36-40). To fix 
the ultimate value of his contributions to 
philosophy no attempt can be made here ; as 
an intellectual and moral force, he impressed 
himself on his generation both by his 
writings and by his personality. 

He died at 35 Gordon Square on 11 Jan. 
1900 in his ninety-fifth year, and was buried 
at Highgate cemetery on 16 Jan. He mar- 
ried (18 Dec. 1828) Helen (d. 9 Nov. 1877, 
aged 73), eldest daughter of Edward Higgin- 
son, and had issue three sons and five 
daughters, of whom one son and three 
daughters survived him. His portrait was 
painted by C. Agar (1846, engraved 1847) ; 
by Mr. G. F. Watts (1874, engraved 1874), 
not a very successful likeness (cf. Life of 
F. P. Cobbe, 1894, ii. 94); by Mr. Alfred 
Emslie (1888, reproduced in photogravure). 
A seated statue by Mr. H. R. Hope Pinker 
(1898) is in the library of Manchester College, 
Oxford ; and there are at least two earlier 
busts executed during his Liverpool minis- 
try, and a terra-cotta bust (1877) by James 

His chief publications are enumerated 
above. To these may be added, besides 
many single sermons and addresses : 
1. ' Home Prayers, with Two Services for 
Public Worship,' 1891, 12mo (the services 
first published 1862). 2. Faith . . . Self- 
Surrender,' 1897, 12mo (four sermons). 
Three collections of his papers were pub- 
lished in America : ' Miscellanies,' Boston, 
U.S.A., 1852, 8vo (edited by Thomas Starr 
King) ; ' Studies of Christianity,' 1858, 12mo 
(edited by William Rounseville Alger ; in- 
cludes his first printed sermon, 1830) ; ' Es- 
says, Philosophical and Theological,' Boston, 
Mass., 1866 (includes, in error, an article on 

Revelation' by R. H. Hutton, New York, 
1879, 8vo.) His own selection was published 
as ' Essays, Reviews, and Addresses,' 1890-1, 
4 vols. 8vo. He prefixed a valuable intro- 
duction to E. P. Hall's translation of Bonet- 
Maury's ' Early Sources of Unitarian Chris- 
tianity,' 1884, and edited, with introduction, 
second editions of works by J. J. Tayler, and 
posthumous sermons by J. H. Thorn. Two 
original hymns are in his collection of 1840, 
another is in his collection of 1873. His 
' Religion as affected by modern Materialism ' 
(1874) was translated into German by Dr. 
Adolf Sydow in 1878 ; four of his sermons 
were translated into Dutch, ' Gedachten,' 
Leyden, 1893, 8vo. 

RCSSELL MARTINEATT (1831-1898), orien- 
talist, eldest son of the above, was born in 
Dublin on 18 Jan. 1831. Educated at Heidel- 
berg, University College, London, and Ber- 
lin, he graduated B.A. London, 1850, M.A. 
(classics) London, 1854. Having acted as 
domestic tutor, he was appointed (1857) on 
the staff of the British Museum library, and 
rose by successive promotions to the post of 
assistant-keeper (1884), which he held till 
superannuated in 1896. His department 
(though oriental studies were his forte) was 
early printing ; he improved the collection 
of Luther's works (first editions), catalogued 
that section, and also the article 'Bible.' 
In 1857 he also became, on Ewald's recom- 
mendation, lecturer on Hebrew language 
and literature in Manchester New College, 
London, was promoted to be professor in 
1866, and resigned in 1874. His all-round 
scholarship was of exceptional thoroughness, 
and he excelled as a painstaking teacher. He 
was a Hibbert trustee, and a trustee of Dr. 
Williams's foundations. His health suffered 
from an epileptic tendency. He died at 
5 Eldon Road, Hampstead, on 14 Dec. 1898. 
He married (1861) Frances Bailey, but had 
no issue. He published: 1. 'A Short Dis- 
sertation on the True Pronunciation of the 
Divine Name,' 1869, 8vo. 2. ' The Roots of 
Christianity in Mosaism,' 1869, 8vo (address 
at Manchester New College). 3. ' Notes on 
the Pronunciation of English Vowels in the 
Seventeenth Century,' 1892, 8vo (Philological 
Society). 4. 'The Song of Songs,' 1892, 
8vo ; ' The Song of Songs again,' 1896, 
8vo (reprinted from 'American Journal of 
Philology '). He translated Gregorovius's 
' Corsica,' 1855, 8vo, and Goldziher's 
' Mythology among the Hebrews,' 1877, 8vo; 
and edited the translation of a section of 
Ewald's ' History of Israel,' 1867,2 vols. 8vo; 
last edition, 1883, 8vo. With his brother, 
Basil Martineau, and James Thornely 
Whitehead (1834-1898) he edited the mu-. 


Max Miiller 

sical edition (1876) of his father's ' Hymns 
of Praise and Prayer ; ' he published also 
some tunes and an anthem separately. He 
wrote for the ' Theological Review ' and the 
' Spectator,' and contributed to ' Biblio- 
graphica ' (1895) and to Murray's ' Oxford 
Dictionary ' {Inquirer, 24 Dec. 1898 ; Chris- 
tian Life, 24 Dec. 1898). 

[A biography of Martineau by Principal 
Drummond and Professor Upton is expected 
shortly. Dublin University Magazine, April 
1877, p. 43-t (with an excellent portrait) ; Gas- 
sell's National Portrait Gallery, No. 78 (7 Nov. 
1877, with memoir by Rev. Charles Wicksteed, 
on the basis of Martineau's autobiographical me- 
moranda) ; Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 
1892, p. 715; Inquirer, 20 Jan. 1900 (special 
number ; portrait) ; The Bookman, February 
1900 (excellent portrait); Jackson's James Mar- 
tineau, 1900 (two portraits); authorities cited 
above ; personal recollection.] A. G. 

1898), admiral, was horn at Coddington 
Hall, Cheshire, on 20 Oct. 1802. He entered 
the navy in October 1818 on board the 
Rochefort, flagship in the Mediterranean of 
Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle [q. v.l and 
later on of Sir Graham Moore [q. v.J In 
different ships he continued serving in the 
Mediterranean : was wrecked in the Colum- 
bine brig on the coast of the Morea, 25 Jan. 
1824 ; was in the Martin at the demonstra- 
tion against Algiers [see NEALE, SIB HAEEY 
BUEEAED] ; was frequently engaged in boat 
affairs with Greek pirates, and was in the 
Asia at Navarino on 20 Oct. 1827. For this 
he was rewarded with promotion to lieu- 
tenant on a death vacancy, 11 Nov. 1827. 
As a lieutenant he served mostly in the 
Channel, North Sea, and Lisbon station; 
was for three vears on the South American 
station with Captain Robert Smart in the 
Satellite, and for two years in the Medi- 
terranean as first lieutenant of the Carysfort 
with Henry Byam Martin. On 28 June 
1838 the queen's coronation he was made 
commander ; and in 1839 was, with some 
others, sent out to Constantinople to assist in 
organising the Turkish navy. They were, 
however, recalled after about six months ; 
and in March 1840 Massie was appointed 
(as second captain) to the Thunderer with 
Maurice Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley, 
afterwards Lord Fitzhardinge [q. v.] In the 
Thunderer he took part in the operations on 
the coast of Syria in the summer and autumn 
of 1840, culminating in the capture of Acre, 
for which he was promoted to be captain on 
17 March 1841. In April 1849 he was ap- 
pointed to the Cleopatra, which he com- 
manded in the East Indies and China and 

during the Burmese war. In September 
1854 he commissioned the Powerful, which 
during the latter part of 1855 and 1856 was 
on the North American station. He had no 
further service, but became rear-admiral on 
7 Nov. 1860, vice-admiral on 2 April 1866, 
and admiral on 20 Oct. 1872. He died at 
Chester on 20 July 1898. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 21 July 
1898 ; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

1900), orientalist and philologist, was the ( 
only son of the distinguished poet Wilhelm 
Miiller (1794-1827), and of Adelheid, 
eldest daughter of President von Basedow, 
prime minister of the small duchy of Anhalt- 
Dessau. Born at Dessau on 6 Dec. 1823, 
and losing his father when scarcely four 
years old, he lived with his mother and at- 
tended the grammar school of his native 
town till 1836. He early showed a talent 
for music and came into contact with 
several distinguished composers, such as 
Felix Mendelssohn and Carl Maria von 
Weber. He was the godson of the latter, 
and received his name Max from the leading 
character in the ' Freischiitz,' which had 
been finished just before his birth. For a 
time he seriously contemplated taking up 
music as a profession, but was dissuaded 
! from doing so by Mendelssohn. The last 
I five years of his school life he spent at 
! Leipzig, living in the family of Dr. Carus, 
! an old friend of his father, and continuing 
his education at the 'Nicolai-Schule' tbere. 
He had decided to adhere to the study of 
! the classical languages ; but in order to 
qualify for a small bursary from Anhalt- 
Dessau he found he would have to pass his 
examination of maturity (' Abiturienten- 
examen '), not at Leipzig, but at Zerbst, a 
small town in that state. For this purpose 
he was obliged to acquire a considerable 
knowledge of mathematics and other non- 
classical subjects in an incredibly short 
time; nevertheless he succeeded in passing his 
examination with distinction. He accor- 
dingly entered the university of Leipzig in 
the spring of 1841. There he attended no 
fewer than ten courses of lectures, on the 
average, during each term on the most varied 
subjects, including the classical lectures of 
Professors Haupt, Hermann, Becker, besides 
others on old German, Hebrew, Arabic, 
psychology, and anthropology. He was, 
however, soon persuaded by Professor Her- 
mann Brockhaus, the first occupant of the 
chair of Sanskrit, founded in 1841, to devote 
himself chiefly to learning the classical 
language of ancient India. The first result 

Max Miiller 


Max Muller 

of these studies was his translation of the 
now well-known collection of Sanskrit 
fables, the ' Hitopadesa,' which he published 
when only twenty years of age (Leipzig, 1844) . 

He graduated Ph.D. on 1 Sept. 1843, 
when not yet twenty, but continued his 
studies at Leipzig for another term. Then, 
in the spring of 1844, he went to Berlin. 
Here he attended, among others, the lectures 
of Franz Bopp, the celebrated founder of the 
science of comparative philology, and those 
of Schelling, the eminent philosopher. To 
the early influence of the former may be 
traced his studies in the subject which he 
represented in the university of Oxford for 
thirty-two years ; to the teachings of the 
latter was doubtless largely due that interest 
in philosophy which he maintained to the 
end of his life. 

In March 1845 he migrated to Paris, where 
he came under the influence of Eugene Bur- 
nouf, eminent not only as a Sanskritist, but 
also as the first Zend scholar of his day. One 
of his fellow-students at Paris was the great 
German orientalist, Rudolf Eoth, the founder 
of Vedic philology ; another was the distin- 
guished classical Sanskrit scholar, Dr. Theo- 
dore Goldstiicker. At Burnouf s suggestion 
young Max Miiller set about collecting mate- 
rials for an editio princeps of the ' Rigveda,' 
the most important of the sacred books of the 
Brahmans, and the oldest literary monument 
of the Aryan race. He accordingly began 
copying and collating manuscripts of the text 
of that work, as well as the commentary of 
Sayana, the great fourteenth-century Vedic 
scholar. All this time he was entirely de- 
pendent on his own exertions for a living, 
having a hard struggle to maintain himself 
by copying manuscripts and assisting scho- 
lars in other ways. 

In pursuance of his enterprise he came 
over to England in June 1846, provided 
with an introduction to the Prussian 
minister in London, Baron Bunsen, who 
subsequently became his intimate friend. 
Receiving a recommendation to the East 
India Company from him and from Horace 
Hayman Wilson [q. v.],he was commissioned 
by the board of directors to bring out at their 
expense a complete edition of the ' Rigveda ' 
with Sayana's commentary. Having, in 
company with Bunsen, visited Oxford in 
June 1847 for the meeting of the British 
Association, at which he delivered an ad- 
dress on Bengali and its relation to the 
Aryan languages, he returned to London. 
Early in 1848 he went back to Paris for the 
purpose of collating manuscripts. Suddenly 
the revolution broke out, when the young 
orientalist, fearing for the safety of the 

precious manuscripts in his keeping, hur- 
riedly returned to London, where he, ac- 
companied by Bunsen, was the first to re- 
port to Lord Palmerston the news that 
Louis Philippe had fled from the French 

As the first volume (published in 1849) 
of his edition of the ' Rigveda ' was being 
printed at the university press, he found it 
necessary to migrate to Oxford. There he 
settled in May 1848 and spent the rest of his 
life. In 1850 he was appointed deputy Tay- 
lorian professor of modern European lan- 
guages, and in the following year was, at the 
s uggestion of Dean G ais ford , made an honorary 
M.A. and a member of Christ Church. On 
succeeding to the full professorship in 1854 
he received the full degree of M.A. by decree 
of convocation. As Taylorian professor he 
lectured chiefly on German and French, in- 
cluding courses on middle high German and 
on the structure of the Romance languages. 
He was made a curator of the Bodleian 
library in 1856, holding that office till 1863 ; 
re-elected in 1881, he retired in 1894. In 
1858 he was elected to a life fellowship at 
All Souls' College. 

In 1859 he married Georgiana Adelaide, 
daughter of Mr. Riversdale Grenfell, who 
already included among his brothers-in-law 
J. A. Froude, Charles Kingsley, and Lord 
Wolverton. In the same year he published 
his important ' History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature,' which, dealing with the Vedic 
period only, contained much valuable re- 
search in literary chronology, based on an 
extensive knowledge of works at that time 
accessible in manuscript only. 

In May 1860 Horace Hayman Wilson, 
professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, died. Max 
Muller, whose claims were very strong on 
the score of both ability and achievement, 
became a candidate for the vacant chair. 
He was opposed by (Sir) Monier Monier- 
Williams [q. v. Suppl.], an old member of 
Balliol and University colleges, who had 
been professor of Sanskrit at the East India 
College at Haileybury till it was closed in 
1858. The election being in the hands of 
convocation a body consisting of all masters 
of arts who keep their names on the books 
of the university came to turn on the po- 
litical and religious opinions of the candi- 
dates rather than on their merits as Sanskrit 
scholars. Party feeling ran high. His broad 
theological views, as well as the fact of his 
being a foreigner, told against Max Muller, 
especially in the eyes of the country clergy, 
who came up to Oxford in large numbers to 
record their votes. The election took place 
on 7 Dec. 1860, when Monier- Williams won 

Max Muller 


Max Muller 

the day with a majority of 223, the votes in 
his favour being 833 against 610 for Max 

There can be little doubt that this defeat 
was a bitter disappointment to Max Muller, 
and exercised a very decided influence on 
his subsequent career as a scholar. Sanskrit 
studies had formed the main interest of his 
intellectual life for almost twenty years. Had 
he been successful in the contest, his acti- 
vity would probably have been almost en- 
tirely limited to his favourite subject, and, 
though he would in that case have been less 
famous, he would doubtless have produced, 
during the latter half of his life, works of 
more permanent value in the domain of 

His marvellous industry was now largely 
deflected into other channels. He began to 
pay considerable attention to comparative 
philology, delivering two series of lectures 
on the science of language at the Royal In- 
stitution in 1861 and 1863. These lectures 
soon raised him to the rank of the standard 
authority on philology in the estimation of 
the English public. Though much of what 
is contained in them is now out of date, 
there can be no doubt that they not only 
for the first time aroused general interest in 
the subject of comparative philology in Eng- 
land, but also exercised in their day a 
valuable stimulating influence on the work of 
scholars. Here he first displayed that power 
of lucid popular exposition and of investing 
a dry subject with abundant interest, which 
has more than anything else contributed to 
make his name at least as famous as that of 
any other scholar of the nineteenth century. 
Another of his works, in spite of its title, 
The Science of Thought ' (1887), is largely 
concerned with the subject of language, its 
main thesis being the inseparability of 
thought and language. In 1865 he was ap- 
pointed oriental sub-librarian at the Bod- 
leian, but, finding the work uncongenial, 
resigned the post after holding it for two 
years. In 1868 Max Muller, vacating the 
Taylorian chair, was nominated to the new 
professorship of comparative philology, 
founded on his behalf. This chair he held 
down to the time of his death, retiring, how- 
ever, from its active duties in 1875. Four 
years after his election he was invited to ac- 
cept, a professorship of Sanskrit in the newly 
founded university of Strasburg. Though 
he declined this appointment, he consented 
to deliver a course of lectures at Strasburg 
during the summer term of 1872. The 
honorarium which he received for the work 
he handed over to the university authorities, 
who founded with it a triennial prize, called 

the ' Max Muller Stipendium,' for the en- 
couragement of Sanskrit scholarship. 

Max Muller was not only the introducer 
of comparative philology into England ; he 
also became a pioneer in this country of the 
science of comparative mythology founded 
by Adalbert Kuhn with his epoch-making 
work, ' Die Herabkunft des Feuers,' pub- 
lished in 1849. Beginning with his essay 
on ' Comparative Mythology,' which ap- 
peared in 1856, he wrote a number of other 
papers on mythological subjects, concluding 
his labours in this domain with a large 
work in 1897. His mythological method, 
based on linguistic equations, has hardly 
any adherents at the present day. For most 
of his identifications, as of the Greek Erinyus 
with the Sanskrit Saranyus, have been re- 
jected owing to the more stringent applica- 
tion of phonetic laws which now prevails in 
comparative philology. Nor does his theory 
of mythology being a ' disease of lan- 
guage ' any longer find support among 
scholars. Nevertheless his writings have 
proved valuable in this field also by stimu- 
lating mythological investigations even be- 
yond the range of the Aryan family of lan- 

Allied to his mythological researches was 
his work on the comparative study of reli- 
gions, which was far more important and 
enduring. Here, too, he was a pioneer ; 
and the literary activity of the last thirty 
years of his life was largely devoted to this 
subject. He began with four lectures on the 
' Science of Religion ' at the Royal Institu- 
tion in 1870. These were followed by a 
lecture on ' Missions,' which dealt with the 
religions of the world, and was delivered 
in Westminster Abbey at the invitation 
of Dean Stanley in December 1873. He 
further led off the annual series of Hibbert 
lectures with a course on ' The Origin and 
Growth of Religion,' delivered in the chapter- 
house of Westminster Abbey in 1878. Sub- 
sequently he discussed four different aspects 
of religion as Gifford lecturer before the 
university of Glasgow during the years 1888 
to 1892. 

Of even more far-reaching influence than 
all these lectures on religion was the great 
enterprise which Max Muller initiated in 
1875, when he relinquished the active duties 
of the chair of comparative philology. This 
was the publication by the Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, under his editorship, of the 
' Sacred Books of the East,' a series of Eng- 
lish translations, by leading scholars, of im- 
portant non-Christian oriental works of a 
religious character. This undertaking has 
done more than anything else to place the 

Max Muller 


Max Muller 

historical and comparative study of religions 
on a sound basis. Among the ' Sacred Books ' 
are several of the earliest Indian legal works 
and texts on domestic ritual. The series is 
thus also a valuable source for the compara- 
tive study of law and custom. By its pub- 
lication Max Muller therefore rendered an 
inestimable service to the science of an- 
thropology. Of the fifty-one volumes of the 
series, all but one and the two concluding 
index- volumes had appeared before the death 
of the editor. Over thirty volumes represent 
the Indian religions of Brahmanism, Bud- 
dhism, and Jainism, being translations from 
Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit ; but the series 
also includes versions of Chinese, Arabic, 
Zend, and Pahlavi works. Max Muller him- 
self contributed three complete volumes and 
part of two others to the series. 

Though debarred by his defeat in 1860 
from officially representing Sanskrit in the 
university, Max Muller continued to promote 
Sanskrit studies in many ways. In the first 
place he finished in 1873 his 'Rigveda,' a 
second revised edition of which was com- 
pleted in 1892. This was his magnum opus, 
which will secure him a lasting name in the 
history of Sanskrit scholarship. He also 
published several important Sanskrit texts. 
Thus he initiated the Aryan series in the 
'Anecdota Oxoniensia' with four publica- 
tions of his own, partly in collaboration with 
pupils ; and the three other contributions 
which had appeared down to the end of 
1900 were all undertaken at his instigation. 
He also brought out some Sanskrit books of 
an educational character, besides publishing 
several translations -of Sanskrit works. In 
1883 he further printed a series of lectures 
on the value of Sanskrit literature, which he 
had delivered at Cambridge, under the title 
of ' India, what can it teach us ? ' The main 
importance of this book lies in the ' Renais- 
sance theory ' which it propounds. He en- 
deavours to prove that for several hundred 
years there was a cessation of literary acti- 
vity in India, owing to the incursions of 
foreigners, but that there was a great revival 
in the sixth century A.D. This theory, though 
now disproved by the evidence of inscrip- 
tions, exercised a decidedly stimulating in- 
fluence on Indian chronological research. 

Max Muller was, moreover, always ready, 
in spite of his dislike of regular teaching, to 
help students of Sanskrit informally. Thus 
he gave up much of his valuable time to 
directing the studies of three young Japanese 
who came to Oxford on purpose to learn 
Sanskrit, and all of whom published valuable 
work connected with ancient India under 
his guidance. One of them, Bunyiu Nanjio, 

translated, at his instance, in 1882, the 
Chinese catalogue of the many hundreds of 
Buddhist Sanskrit books which were rendered 
into Chinese from the first century A.D. on- 
wards. Another, Kenyiu Kasawara, com- 
piled a list of Sanskrit Buddhistic technical 
terms, which was edited by him in the 
' Anecdota Oxoniensia ' series ; while the 
third, Takakusu, at his instigation, translated 
from the Chinese, ir 1896, the travels of the 
pilgrim I-tsing, who visited India during the 
years 671-690 A.D. Again, the first three 
Sanskrit books published by Monier-Wil- 
liams's successor in the Boden chair were 
undertaken under Max Miiller's influence. 
It was through him also that most of the 
European Sanskrit scholars who went out to 
India in the sixties and seventies received 
their appointments. As one of the delegates 
of the Clarendon Press he acted as literary 
adviser to the university on Indian subjects 
for more than twenty years (1877-98). He 
constantly stirred up scholars to search for 
rare and important Sanskrit manuscripts. 
This insistence led, for example, to the dis- 
covery in Japan of a Sanskrit manuscript 
dating from the sixth century, the oldest 
known at that time (1880). He himself 
acquired, in connection with his edition of 
the ' Rigveda,' a valuable collection of Vedic 
manuscripts from India, to the number of 
nearly eighty. 

Max Muller had a great literary gift, 
doubtless inherited from his father. A 
foreigner by birth and education, he attained 
command of an English style excelled by few 
native writers. This he displayed in nume- 
rous contributions to English journals, espe- 
cially the ' Edinburgh ' and ' Contemporary ' 
reviews, in the ' Fortnightly ' and the ' Nine- 
teenth Century.' Most of these were subse- 
quently republished in a collected form in his 
' Chips from a German Workshop ' (4 vols.) 
Some of the most attractive of his articles, 
consisting of reminiscences, appeared only a 
year or two before his death in book form, 
under the title of ' Auld Lang Syne ' (vol. i. 
1898, vol. ii. 1899). The poetical colouring 
of his temperament was perhaps most clearly 
exhibited in ' Deutsche Liebe ' (1857), one 
of his early works, which, in its original 
German, has passed through thirteen editions, 
and has been translated into French, Italian, 
and Russian, as well as English. This ro- 
mance describes, in the form of recollections, 
the love of a young student for an invalid 
princess ; and though the scene is laid in 
the old castle of Dessau, the story is purely 

Max Muller also now and then discussed 
important public questions, such as the 

Max Muller 


Max Muller 

linguistic training of British officers at the 
time of the Crimean war, and the necessity 
of founding an oriental institute for the 
practical teaching of eastern languages in 
the interests of British trade. He also 
championed the German cause during the 
Franco-Prussian war in letters to the 
' Times.' 

It was only by a remarkably methodical 
arrangement of his work and disposition of 
his time that he managed not only to get 
through an enormous amount of literary 
work, but to deal punctually with a vast 
correspondence. Though he fell dangerously 
ill during a visit to Germany in June 1899, 
and after a remarkable recovery had a relapse 
a year later, his literary activity continued 
to within ten days of his death, which took 
place at Oxford on 28 Oct. 1900; he was 
buried in Holywell cemetery, Oxford, on 
1 Nov. In the last year of his life he de- 
fended the justice of the British cause in the 
Transvaal war against Professor Mommsen 
in German journals, and contributed three 
articles on the religions of China to the 
' Nineteenth Century' in September, October, 
and November. 1900. On his deathbed he 
dictated to his son alterations and correc- 
tions in his autobiography, which unfortu- 
nately brings the story of his life only down 
to his early days at Oxford. 

Max Muller's family consisted of three 
daughters and a son. His eldest daughter 
died at Dresden in 1876 ; the second, mar- 
ried to Mr. F. C. Conybeare, fellow of Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, died in 1886 ; the 
third married, in 1890, Mr. Colyer Fergus- 
son, eldest son of Sir James Ranken Fer- 
gusson, Bart. His son entered the diplomatic 
service, and in 1900 was second secretary 
to the British embassy at Washington. 

Max Muller's world-wide fame was largely 
due to his literary gifts and the extensive 
range of his writings, as well as to his great 
ability, industry, and ambition. But it was 
undoubtedly enhanced by a combination of 
opportunities such as can rarely fall to the 
lot of any scholar. When he began his 
career Vedic studies were in their infancy, 
and he had the good fortune to become the 
first editor of the ' Rigveda,' the most im- 
portant product of ancient Indian literature. 
Again, nothing was known about compara- 
tive philology in England when he came 
over to this country ; being the first in the 
field, he introduced and popularised the new 
science, and was soon regarded as its chief 
exponent. He was, moreover, the first to 
inaugurate the study of comparative mytho- 
logy in this country. Lastly, it was not till 
the latter half of the nineteenth century 

that the necessary conditions were at hand 
for founding a science of religion. At this 
precise period Max Muller was there to 
supply the needful stimulus by means of his 
Hibbert lectures, and to collect the requisite 
materials in the ' Sacred Books of the East.' 
Thus there was a great opening in four 
highly important branches of learning ; but 
no one could have taken adequate advantage 
of them all unless he had been, like Max 
Muller, one of the most talented and versa- 
tile scholars of - the nineteenth century. 
Though much in his works and methods 
may already be superseded, the great stimu- 
lating influence his writings have exercised 
in many fields will give him a strong claim 
to the gratitude of posterity. 

Scholar and voluminous writer though he 
was, Max Muller was at the same time quite 
a man of the world. Familiar from his 
earliest days with court life on a small scale 
at Dessau, he was, when quite a young man, 
a frequent visitor at the Prussian embassy in 
London. By Baron Bunsen he was intro- 
duced to the late prince consort, and so 
came to be well known to Queen Victoria 
and the royal family. He was also personally 
acquainted with several of the crowned 
heads of Europe, such as the Emperor Fre- 
derick, the present German Emperor, the 
King of Sweden, the King of Roumania, and 
the Sultan of Turkey. He knew most of 
the leading men of the day, foreigners as 
well as Englishmen, and entertained many 
of them at Oxford. His house was a place 
of pilgrimage to all Indians visiting Eng- 
land ; for, owing to his ' Rigveda ' and his 
writings on Indian philosophy and religion, 
he was far better known in India, though he 
never visited that country, than any other 
European scholar has ever been. 

On account of his social qualities Max 
Muller was much in request as president of 
societies and congresses. Thus he was the 
first president of the English Goethe Society, 
and in that capacity delivered his inaugural 
address on ' Carlyle and Goethe ' in 1886. 
He was also president of the International 
Congress of Orientalists, held in London in 
189^, and took a prominent part in most of 
the series of oriental congresses which began 
in 1874. 

Probably no other scholar ever obtained 
more of the honours which are bestowed on 
learning. He was one of the knights of the 
Prussian order ' Pour le merite,' a knight of 
the Corona d' Italia, and a privy councillor 
in this country. He received the Northern 
Star (first class) from the King of Sweden, 
and subsequently the grand cordon, and 
was decorated with the orders of the French . 

Max Miiller 


Max Miiller 

legion of honour, the Bavarian Maximilian, 
the German Albert the Bear, and the Tur- 
kish Medjidieh. He was an honorary doc- 
tor of Berlin, Bologna, Buda-Pesth, Cam- 
bridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Princeton. 
He was a foreign associate of the Institute of 
France, of the Reale Accademia dei Lincei 
at Rome, of the Royal Berlin, Sardinian, 
Bavarian, Hungarian, and Irish academies, 
of the Imperial Academy of Vienna, of the 
Royal Society of Upsala, and of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society ; a corresponding 
member of the Royal Academy of Lisbon, 
and of the Royal Society of Gb'ttingen ; an 
honorary member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland, of the 
German Oriental Society, and of more than 
twenty other important learned societies. 

A portrait of Max Miiller, by Mr. G. F. 
Watts, R.A., has been presented by the 
painter to the National Portrait Gallery, 
London ; there is another by Herkomer, 
and a bust by Mr. Bruce-Joy, both in the 
possession of his widow. 

After Max Miiller's death a fund was 
opened at Oxford to commemorate his ser- 
vices to learning and letters. Among the 
contributors have been King Edward VII 
and several Indian princes, while the German 
emperor gave the munificent donation of 
500/. It is intended, after supplying some 
personal memorial at Oxford, to turn the 
sum collected into a ' Max Miiller Memorial 
Fund,' to be held by the university in trust 
' for the promotion of learning and research 
in all matters relating to the history and 
archaeology, the languages, literatures, and 
religions of ancient India.' A Japanese 
' Society for Oriental Research ' has also 
been founded at Tokyo in commemoration of 
Max Miiller. His library was acquired by 
the university of Tokyo in July 1901. 

As Max Miiller's writings were so nume- 
rous and ranged over so many fields, a classi- 
fication of them under different heads will 
afford the best survey of his works. 

SANSKKTT. ' Hitopadesa,' translated into 
German, Leipzig, 1844 ; ' Meghaduta,' trans- 
lated into German, Konigsberg, 1847. l Rig 
Veda Sanhita, the Sacred Hymns of the 
Brahmans translated and explained ' (twelve 
hymns to the Maruts), London, Triibner, 
1869 ; the same, with thirty-six additional 
hymns, under the title of ' Vedic Hymns,' in 
' Sacred Books of the East,' vol. xxxii. 1891. 
' Rigveda,' with Sayana's ' Commentary,' 
6 vols. London, 1849-73 ; 2nd edit. 4 vols. 
London, 1890-2; text only, 2 vols. 1873; 
2nd edit. 1877. ' Hitopadeia,' text, with in- 
terlinear translation, 2 parts, London, 1864- 
1865. ' Rigveda-Pratisakhya,' text, with 

German translation, Leipzig, 1856-69. 
' Vajrachhedika ' (' Anecdota Oxoniensia/ 
Aryan Series, pt. i.), 1881 ; ' Sukhava- 
tivyuha,' in collaboration with Nanjio, ib. 
1883 ; ' Prajna-paramita-hrdaya-sutra,' in 
collaboration with Nanjio, ib. 1884; Dharma- 
samgraha,' prepared by K. Kasawara, and 
edited by Max Miiller and H. Wenzel, ib. 
1885. ' The Upanishads,' pt. i., ' Sacred 
Books of the East,' vol. i. 1879, pt. ii. vol. xv. 
' The Larger and Smaller Prajna-paramita- 
hrdaya-Sutra,' ib. vol. xlix. 1894. ' A His- 
tory of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, as far 
as it illustrates the Primitive Religion of the 
Brahmans,' London, 1859 ; 2nd edit. 1860. 
' A Sanskrit Grammar,' London, 1866 ; 2nd 
edit. 1870 ; new and abridged edition by A. A. 
Macdonell, 1886. ' India, what can it teach 
us?' London, 1883; new edit. 1892; re- 
printed 1895; in collected edition, 1899. In- 
troduction to Takakusu's Translation of 
I-tsing, Oxford, 1896. 

PALI. ' The Dhammapada,' translated 
from Pali, in Rogers's Burmese translation, 
London, 1870 ; reprinted in the ' Sacred 
Books of the East,' vol. x. ; 2nd edit, 1898. 

(lecture delivered in Westminster Abbey), 
London, 1873. ' Introduction to the Science 
of Religion/ London, 1873; new edit. 1882; 
reissue, 1899. 'The Origin and Growth of 
Religion, as illustrated by the Religions of 
India,' London, 1878 ; 2nd edit. 1878 ; new 
edit. 1882, 1891 ; re-issue, 1898. ' Natural 
Religion,' London, 1889; 2nd edit. 1892. 
'Physical Religion,' London, 1891; new 
edit. 1 898. ' Anthropological Religion,' Lon- 
don, 1892 ; new issue, 1898. ' Theosophy, 
or Psychological Religion,' London, 1893; 
new edit. 1895 ; new impression, 1899. 

Comparative Mythology,' part i. of Oxford 
Essays, 1856. ' Essays on Mythology and 
Folklore ' (' Chips,' vol. iv.) ; new impression, 
1900. ' Contributions to the Science of 
Mythology,' 2 vols. London, 1897. 

Stratification of Language' (Rede Lecture), 
London, 1868. ' The Science of Language,' 
2 vols. London, 1861 and 1863; 14th edit. 
1885; new edit. 1890; last edition, 1899. 
' On the Results of the Science of Language ' 
(inaugural lecture in German), Strasburg, 
1872. ' Essays on Language and Literature' 
(' Chips,' vol. iii.) ; last edit. 1899. ' Bio- 
graphies of Words and the Home of the 
Aryas,' London, 1888 ; new edit. 1898. 

PHILOSOPHY. 'Kant's Critique of Pure 
Reason,' translated, London, 1881 ; new 
edit. 1896. 'The Science of Thought,' 
London, 1887. ' Three Lectures on the 




Vedanta Philosophy,' London, 1894. The 
Six Systems of Indian Philosophy,' London, 

BIOGRAPHY. ' Biographical Essays ' 
(' Chips,' vol. ii.), London, 1884 ; new im- I 
pression, 1898. ' Ramakrsna, his Life and | 
Sayings,' London, 1898 ; twice reprinted, j 
1899; in collected edition, 1900. ' Auld 
Lang Syne,' vol. i. London, 1898 (3 editions), 
vol. ii., ' My Indian Friends,' London, 1899 ; 
' My Autobiography. A Fragment,' London, 

GERMAN. 'The German Classics from 
the Fourth to the Nineteenth Century,' Lon- 
don, 1858 : new and enlarged edit. 2 vols. 
London, 1886. 'Deutsche Liebe,' 1st edit. 
Leipzig, 1857 ; 13th edit. 1898 (altogether 
18,000 copies) ; a pirated translation, under 
the title of ' Memories,' has had an enor- 
mous sale in America ; French transl. 1873 ; 
a new transl. 1900; English transl. (by 
Mrs. Max Miiller) London, 1873; 4th edit, 
1898. ' Wilhelm Miiller's Poems,' edited 
with introduction and notes, Leipzig, 1868. I 
' Schiller's Correspondence with Duke Fried- 
rich Christian of Schleswig Holstein,' edited 
with introduction and notes, Leipzig, 1875 ; 
' Scherer's History of German Literature,' 
translated by Mrs. Conybeare and edited by 
F. Max Miiller, Oxford, 1885; new edit. 

A collected edition of Max Miiller's essays, 
entitled ' Chips from a German Workshop,' 
was published in four volumes between 1867 
and 1875; a new edition came out in 1880. 
A full collected edition of his works began 
to appear in 1898, and fifteen volumes had 
been published in it down to the end of 1900. 

[This memoir is based on Max Miiller's Leip- 
zig Lecture-book (Collegienbuch) ; on Oxford 
University Notices from 1850 onwards; on 'Auld 
Lang Syne,' vol. i. ; on ' My Autobiography ; ' 
on bibliographical notes furnished by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. ; on details supplied 
by Mrs. Max Miiller ; and largely on personal 
knowledge (1876-1900).] A. A. M. 

(1833-1900), admiral and political writer, 
second son of James Maxse (d. 1864) of 
Arnos Vale, Bristol, by Lady Caroline Fitz- 
hardinge (1803-1886), daughter of Frederick 
Augustus, fifth earl of Berkeley, was born 
in 1833. Sir Henry Berkeley Fitzhardinge 
Maxse [q. v.] was his elder brother. He en- 
tered the navy, obtained his lieutenancy in 
1852, and as naval aide-de-camp to Lord 
Raglan after the battle of the Alma, dis- 
played a conspicuous gallantry in carrying 
despatches, which caused his promotion to 
the rank of commander in December 1855. 
He retired from the service with the rank 

of admiral in 1867, and unsuccessfully con- 
tested the borough of Southampton in the 
radical interest at the general election of 
November 1868. He was also beaten in a 
subsequent contest for Middlesex in Fe- 
bruary 1874; nor did he ever succeed in 
entering parliament. Indeed the curious 
idiosyncrasies which made his character an 
interesting study to his friend Mr. George 
Meredith (see Beauchamp's Career} unfitted 
him for modern political life. His liberalism 
was of no school, and on certain questions, 
e.g. woman's suffrage and home rule, he was 
as tenaciously conservative as the highest of 
tories. He was an occasional contributor to 
periodical literature, and his articles on the 
conduct of certain of the operations in the 
Crimea, which appeared in the ' National Re- 
view ' under the titles ' Admiral Lord Lyons/ 
' My Two Chiefs in the Crimea,' ' Lord Rag- 
lan's Traducers,' and 'The War Corre- 
spondent at Bay,' during the first quarter 
of 1899, constitute a valuable accession to 
the materials at the disposal of the future 

Maxse died on 25 June 1900. He married, 
in 1862, Cecilia, daughter of Colonel Steele, 
by whom he left issue two sons Major 
Frederick Ivor Maxse of the Coldstream 
guards, and Mr. L. J. Maxse, editor of the 
' National Review ' and two daughters, the 
younger of whom, Violet, is married to Lord 
Edward Cecil. 

His separate publications are the follow- 
ing : 1. ' The Education of the Agricultural 
Poor, being an Address at a Meeting of the 
Botley and South Hants Farmers' Club/ 
London, 1868, 8vo. 2. ' Our Political Duty : 
a Lecture/ London, 1870, 8vo. 3. ' A Plea 
for Intervention/ London, 1871, 8vo. 4. 'The 
Causes of Social Revolt : a Lecture/ Lon- 
don, 1872, 8vo. 5. 'Objections to Woman 
Suffrage : a Speech ... at the Electoral 
Reform Conference held at the Freemasons' 
Tavern, 17 Nov. 1874.' 6. 'Whether the 
Minority of Electors should be represented 
by a Majority in the House of Commons ? A 
Lecture upon Electoral Reform/ London,. 
1875, 8vo. 7. ' Woman Suffrage : the Coun- 
terfeit and the True. Reasons for opposing 
both/ London, 1877, 8vo ; new edit. 1884. 
8. ' National Education and its Opponents : 
a Lecture/ London, 1877, 8vo. 9. 'The 
French Press and Ireland: two Letters on 
the Irish Question addressed to "La Jus- 
tice," ' London, 1888, 8vo. 10. ' Home Rule : 
an Expostulation/ London, 1889, 8vo. 11. 
' Judas ! a Political Tract, dedicated to the 
Intelligent Parliamentary Elector/ London, 
1894, 8vo. For uncollected articles see 
' National Review/ August 1895, Septem- 



ber 1896, May 1897, January, February, 
March, April, July 1899, June 1900. 

[Walford's County Families ; Gent. Mag. 
1854 ii. 497, 1869 i. 671 ; Ann. Reg. 1855, ii. 
356; Times, 27 June 1900; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea, 6th edit. iv. 
23.] J. M. R. 

WARD (1846-1897), governor of the Gold 
Coast, was born in 1846. 

(1817-1893), chief justice of the Straits 
Settlements, born at Cheltenham in January 
1817, was the fourth son of Peter Benson 
Maxwell of Birdstown, co. Donegal. He 
was educated at Paris and at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he graduated B. A. in 1 839. 
He entered the Inner Temple on 14 Nov. 
1838, removed to the Middle Temple on 
16 Nov. 1840, and was called to the bar on 
19 Nov. 1841. He was recorder of Penang 
from February 1856 to 1866, and recorder 
of Singapore from 27 July 1866 to 1871. 
From 1867 to 1871 he was chief justice of 
the Straits Settlements, and in 1883 and 
1884 he was employed in reorganising the 
judicial tribunals of Egypt. He was 
knighted at Buckingham Palace on 30 Jan. 
1856, and died in France at Grasse, in the 
department of Alpes-Maritimes, on 14 Jan. 
1893. He married, in July 1842, Frances 
Dorothea, only daughter of Francis Synge 
of Glanmore Castle, co. Wicklow. He 
was the author of two legal works of some 
importance : 1. ' An Introduction to the 
Duties of Police Magistrates in the Settle- 
ment of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, 
and Malacca,' Penang, 1866, 8vo. 2. On 
the Interpretation of Statutes/ London, 
1875, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1883 ( Times, 18 Jan. 
1893 ; BOASE, Modern Biogr. 1897 ; FOSTER, 
Men at the Bar, 1885 ; FOSTER, Baronetage 
and Knightage). 

His younger son, William Edward, en- 
tered Repton in 1860, and was employed 
from 1865 to 1869 in the supreme court at 
Penang and Singapore. In 1867 he quali- 
fied as an advocate at the local bar, and in 
September 1869 he was appointed a police 
magistrate and commissioner of the court 
of requests at Penang. In February 1870 
he was placed in the same offices in Malacca, 
in August 1871 at Singapore, and in 1872 
in Province Wellesley. In May 1874 he 
was nominated a temporary judge of the 
supremB court of Penang. In September 
he was appointed assistant government 
agent for Province Wellesley, and in No- 
vember 1875 he accompanied, as deputy 
commissioner^ the Larut field force, which 
punished, the murderers of James Wheeler 

Woodford Birch, the British resident at 
Perak. For his services he was mentioned 
in the despatches and received a medal. 
In February 1878 he became assistant 
resident in Perak and a member of the 
state council. In 1881 he was called to the 
bar by the Society of the Inner Temple, and 
in the following year he was commissioned to 
visit the Australian colonies and report on 
the Torrens land registration system [see 
turning to the Straits Settlements he became 
commissioner of land titles, and in 1883 
was gazetted a member of the executive and 
legislative councils. In 1884 he was em- 
ployed by the foreign office on a mission to 
the west coast of Atchin to obtain the 
release of the survivors of the British ship 
Nisero, who had been in captivity for ten 
months. He was successful in his task, 
received the thanks of government, and was 
created C.M.G. From 1884 to 1889 he was 
acting resident councillor at Penang, and in 
1889 British resident at Selangor. In 1892 
he was nominated colonial secretary of the 
Straits Settlements, and from September 
1893 till January 1895 he was acting 
governor. In March 1895 he was nominated 
governor of the Gold Coast. He found the 
colony on the brink of a war with the 
Ashantis, who made frequent slave raids, 
and refused to pay the balance of the war 
indemnity due to the British government. 
On 17 Jan. 1898 an expedition under Sir 
Francis Scott entered Kumassi without 
resistance, and made prisoner the Ashanti 
king, Prempeh. Maxwell, who was nomi- 
nated K.C.M.G. in 1896, visited England in 
the summer, and addressed large meetings 
at Liverpool and Manchester on the future 
of the Gold Coast and Ashanti, returning 
to the Gold Coast in October. He died at 
sea off Grand Canary on 10 Dec. 1897. In 
1870 he married Lilias, daughter of James 
Aberigh-Mackay, chaplain in the Indian 

[Times, 16 Dec. 1896; Pall Mall Gazette, 
8 Jan. 1901 ; Colonial Office Lists ; Burke's 
Peerage ; Baden-Powell's Downfall of Prempeh, 
1896.] E. I. C. 

MAYNARD, WALTER, pseudonym. 
[See BEALE, THOMAS WILLERT, 1828-1894.] 

1898), civil servant, second son of Richard 
Meade, third earl of Clanwilliam, and of his 
wife, Lady Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Herbert, eleventh earl of Pembroke, was 
born on 16 Dec. 1835, and educated at Eton 
and Exeter College, Oxford, where he matri- 
culated on 7 Dec. 1854 and graduated B.. 




in 1859 and M.A. in 1860. On 1 June 1859 
he entered the foreign office. He was des- 
patched to Syria with Lord Dufferin's 
special mission on 31 July 1860, and re- 
turning in September 1861 was selected to 
accompany the prince of Wales in his tour 
through Palestine and Eastern Europe in 
1861-2. In the autumn of 1862 he accom- 
panied Earl Russell to Germany in atten- 
dance upon the queen. On 27 Nov. 1862 
he was appointed a groom of the bedchamber 
to the prince of Wales. In 1863 he accom- 
panied Earl Granville abroad with the queen. 
In June 1864 Meade became private 
secretary to Earl Granville as president of 
the council, and was with him till July 
1866; he then resumed his work in the 
foreign office. When Lord Granville became, 
on 10 Dec. 1868, secretary of state for the 
colonies, Meade accompanied him as private 
secretary to the colonial office. On 21 May 
1871 Meade was appointed to an assistant 
under-secretaryship of state in the colonial 
office ; thenceforward he devoted himself to 
the ordinary and responsible duties of that 
post. He was appointed a royal commis- 
sioner for the Paris exhibition on 22 Jan. 
1877, and a British delegate to the con- 
ference on African questions at Berlin on 
24 Oct. 1884 (see Par/. Papers, C. 4290, 
of 1885, for his conversations with Prince 
Bismarck). In February 1892 he became 
permanent under-secretary for the colonies 
under Lord Knutsford, and subsequently 
served under Lord Ripon and Mr. Cham- 
berlain. Latterly his health became indif- 
ferent ; he was anxious to retire in 1895, but 
stayed on at the request of the secretary of 
state for a year longer. However, to- 
wards the end of 1896 he fell and broke his 
leg one evening in entering an omnibus upon 
leaving the office. He never returned to 
his work. Ill-health and the sudden death 
of his daughter broke him down completely, 
:incl he died on 8 Jan. 1898 at an hotel in 
fast. He was buried at Taplow, near 
Maidenhead. He became C.B. on 21 March 
1886, K.C.B. in 1894, and G.C.B. in 1897. 

Meade had considerable practical common 
sense and much tact, and he was be- 
sides a man of peculiar charm, greatly liked 
by all who knew him. He was one of a 
knot of official liberals who formed a little 
coterie in the service of the crown from 
about 1870 to 1890. 

Meade married, first, on 19 April 1865, 
Lady Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 
Lascelles, third earl of Harewood ; she died 
on 7 Feb. 1866, leaving one daughter, who 
predeceased her father in 1897. Meade 
married, secondly, on 13 April 1880, Caro- 

line Georgiana, daughter of Charles William 
Grenfell of Taplow Court, Maidenhead ; she 
died on 6 March 1881, leaving a son, Charles 
Francis, who survived him. 

[Foreign Office List, 1895; Colonial Office 
List, 1895; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Times, 10 Jan. 1898 ; Burke's Peerage, s.v. 
' Clanwilliam ; ' personal knowledge.] C. A. H. 

1861), last secretary of the East India Com- 
pany, born at Guernsey in 1792, was the 
third son of Philip Melvill (1762-1811), 
afterwards lieutenant-governor of Pendennis 
Castle in Cornwall, by his wife, Elizabeth 
Carey (d. 1844), youngest daughter of Peter 
Dobree of Beauregarde, Guernsey. Henry 
Melvill [q. v.] was his elder brother. James 
entered the home service of the East India 
Company in February 1808. He soon dis- 
played unusual abilities, and rose by rapid 
steps to the highest permanent position at 
the East India House. In 1824 he was 
appointed auditor of Indian accounts. 
While in this position he gave important 
evidence in 1830 before a parliamentary 
committee vindicating the company's con- 
duct of its China trade from the attack 
of William Huskisson [q. v.], and again in 
1832 before another committee on Indian 
affairs in regard to the accounts of the 
company (THOENTON, Hist, of British Em- 
pire in India, 1858, pp. 501, 503). In 
1834 he became financial secretary, and in 
1836 chief secretary, an office which he held 
until the termination of the company's 
existence as a governing body in 1858. 
After his retirement from the service of the 
company he was appointed government 
director of Indian railways, and it is said 
that he was offered appointments of high 
rank in the Indian government, but declined 
them. Melvill was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 14 Jan. 1841, and was 
created K.C.B. on 5 Sept. 1853. He died 
at Tandridge Court, near Godstone in Sur- 
rey, on 23 July 1861. In March 1815 he 
married Hester Jean Frances (d. 10 April 
1864), youngest daughter of William Mar- 
maduke Sellon of Harlesden in Middlesex. 
By her he had numerous issue. 

[Memoirs of Philip Melvill, 1812 ; Ann. Reg. 
1861, ii. 469 ; Gent. Mag. 1861, ii. 334; Boase's 
Collect. t)ornub. 1890; London Review, 27 July 
1861 ; Bell's British Folks and British India 
Fifty Years Ago, 1891.] E. I. C. 

(1812-1897), admiral, eldest son of Admiral 
William Bowen Mends (1781-1864), and 
nephew of Sir Robert Mends [q. vj, was 
born at Plymouth on 27 Feb. 1812. In May 




1825 he entered the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth, and on passing out in Decem- 
ber 1826 was shortly afterwards appointed 
to the Thetis, a 46-gun frigate, going out to 
the South American station. He was still in 
the Thetis when she was wrecked on Cape 
Frio on 5 Dec. 1830. It was Mends's watch 
at the time the ship struck, but as the night 
was dark and thick and it was raining 
heavily, he was held guiltless, the blame 
falling entirely on the captain and master. 
Mends wad considered to have behaved very 
well in a position extremely difficult for one 
so young and inexperienced, and several of 
the" members of the court offered to take 
him with them. After passing his exami- 
nation he joined the Actaeon in the Medi- 
terranean, which in 1832 was at Constanti- 
nople when a Russian army of upwards of 
twenty thousand men was there, consequent 
on the terrible defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim 
Pasha at Konieh. The intervention of the 
western powers demanded the withdrawal ot 
this force, and Mends was deeply interested 
in watching its embarkation, making careful 
notes of their manner and methods of em- 
barking the cavalry and guns. Men, horses, 
and guns, with all their stores and baggage, 
were got on board within twelve hours, and 
Mends treasured up the experience for future 
use. In the summer of 1834 the Actaeon 
returned to England and was paid off; and 
in January 1835 Mends was appointed to the 
Pique with Captain Henry John Rous [q. v.] 
In July the ship was sent out to Canada, 
and on the homeward voyage, on 22 Sept., 
struck heavily on a reef off the coast of 
Labrador. After several anxious hours she 
was got off, and, though she was much 
damaged and was leaking badly, and her 
main and mizen masts were badly sprung, 
Rous determined to proceed. Five days 
later her rudder, which had also been in- 
jured, was carried away, and the ship left 
helpless in a heavy westerly gale. With 
admirable seamanship she was steered for 
several days by means of a weighted hemp 
cable towed astern and controlled by a spar 
lashed across the ship's stern: it was not till 
6 Oct. that they were able to ship a jury 
rudder ; and on the 13th they anchored at 
St. Helen's after a voyage that has no parallel 
in the annals of the nineteenth century. 
Mends then learnt that he had been pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant on 11 Aug. 
In December he was sent out to join the 
Vernon at Malta. A year later he was 
moved into the Caledonia and then to the 
Rodney, from which, in July 1838, he went 
to be flag-lieutenant of Sir John Louis, the 
second in command on the station and super- 

intendent of Malta dockyard. He continued 
with Louis, sometimes afloat, but mostly at 
Malta, till July 1843 ; afterwards, from No- 
vember 1843 he was in the Fox frigate with 
Sir Henry Blackwood on the coast of Ire- 
land and in the East Indies till, on 2 Jan. 
1847, he received the news of his promotion, 
on 9 Nov. 1846, to be commander. In January 
1848 he was appointed to the Vanguard, 
in which, a couple of months later, he had 
the misfortune to lose some of the fingers of 
his left hand, which was carried into a block 
and badly crushed. It was this, more than 
the loss of the fingers, which caused trouble; 
and for years afterwards he suffered from 
severe attacks of neuralgia. The Vanguard 
went home and was paid off in March 1849 ; 
and in July 1850 Mends was appointed to 
the Vengeance, again with Black wood, who, 
however, died after a short illness at Ports- 
mouth on 7 Jan. 1851, and was succeeded 
by Lord Edward Russell [q. v.] Towards 
the end of the summer the Vengeance went 
to the Mediterranean, but came home in 
December 1862, when, on 10 Dec., Mends 
was advanced to post rank in acknowledg- 
ment of the excellent order the ship was in. 
In October 1853 he was selected by Sir 
Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons [q. v.] to 
be his flag-captain in the. Mediterranean, if 
Captain Symonds, then in the Arethusa,, 
should prefer to remain in the frigate. If 
Symonds should prefer to join Lyons, it 
was understood that Mends should have the 
THEW CHARLES], Mends accordingly took the 
Agamemnon out and joined the fleet in the 
Sea of Marmora on Christmas Eve, when, as- 
previously arranged, he took command of the 
Arethusa. In her he took a particularly 
brilliant part in the bombardment of Odessa 
on 22 April 1854 ; ' we stood in twice,' Mends, 
wrote, ' tacked close off the Mole and en- 
gaged the works on it in reverse . . . pouring 
in a destructive fire as we went about.' He 
was promptly recalled by the commander-in- 
chief, who seems to have considered that he- 
was needlessly risking the ship. ' I expected 
a reprimand when I went on board the ad- 
miral to report, but the enthusiasm of the 
fleet and the cheers given to us as we passed 
along the lines mollified the chief, and I was 
simply told not to go in again.' The French 
officers who had witnessed the manoeuvre 
called on Mends to compliment him on it ; 
and many years afterwards a French writer 
in the 'Revue des Deux Mondes' referred 
to it as a brilliant tour de force. In June 
Lyons and Symonds had found that they did 
not get on well together, and it was proposed 
to Mends to re-exchange into the Agamem- 




non, which he did. From that time his 
individuality is lost in that of the admiral, 
except that, as chief of Lyons's staff, he had 
the direction of many points of detail on 
which much depended. By far the most im- 
portant of these were the embarkation of the 
troops at Varna and the subsequent landing 
of them in the Crimea on 14 Sept. The 
whole thing was admirably done without a 
hitch and without loss ; and though, to the 
world at large, it appeared to be done by 
Lyons, Lyons himself and the navy fully re- 
cognised that the credit belonged to Mends. 

In February 1855 Lyons moved his flag j 
to the Royal Albert, Mends accompanying 
him. In all the operations of the year he | 
had his full share; he was nominated a C.B. 
on 5 July ; and in December was ordered to 
take the ship to Malta, the admiral remain- 
ing in the Black Sea with his flag in the 
Caradoc. While crossing the Sea of Mar- 
mora the stern-gland the metal bearing of 
the screw-shaft as it passes through the 
stern-post gave way, and an alarming rush 
of water followed. During the next day the 
ship pursued her voyage, the engines pump- 
ing the water out ; but on 28 Dec. Mends 
decided that it was necessary to beach the 
ship, which was cleverly done in Port 
Nicolo, in the island of Zea. There a coffer- 
dam was builtj inside round the hole, and, the 
ship's safety being thus secured, she pro- 
ceeded to Malta under sail, and arrived 
there on 7 Jan. 1856. Mends continued in 
command of the Royal Albert till March 
1857, when he was appointed to the Hast- 
ings, guardship in the Mersey, from which, 
four years later, he was appointed deputy- 
controller-general of the coast-guard at the 
admiralty. He held this office for about a 
year, and in May 1862 was appointed director 
of transports, with the duty of organising 
and administering the transport department 
of the admiralty. Here he remained for 
more than twenty years, during which period 
there were several exceptional calls on his 
office, which were answered in a manner that 
testified to the thorough working order in 
which things were kept. On 1 Jan. 1869 he 
became a rear-admiral, on 20 May 1871 a 
K.C.B., vice-admiral on 1 Jan. 1874, admiral 
on 15 June 1879, and on 24 Nov. 1882 was 
nominated a G.C.B., with especial reference 
to his work in connection with the expedi- 
tion to Egypt. 

In February 1883 he retired and settled 
down at Alverstoke, within easy distance of 
his many old friends at Portsmouth. Here 
he lived peacefully for the next twelve years. 
In July 1894 his wife died after an illness of 
days, and the blow ' practically killed him,' 


though he survived for three years. He died 
on 26 June 1897, the day of the great naval 
review in commemoration of the queen's 
diamond jubilee. Mends married, at Malta 
in December 1837, Melita, daughter of Dr. 
Stilon, a Neapolitan by birth, who had served 
as a medical officer in the French army at 
Maida, and been sent as a prisoner to Eng- 
land, where he married, entered the navy, 
and some years later settled in private 
practice at Malta. The ' Life ' of Mends 
(1899) which was written by his son, Bowen 
Stilon Mends, formerly a surgeon in the 
navy, is largely made up of extracts from 
Mends's letters and journals. It has thus a 
considerable historical value, especially as 
to the Russian war, being the strictly syn- 
chronous opinions of a man who, from his 
official position and his personal relations 
with Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons, 
had very good opportunities of knowing what 
was being done or not done ; at the same 
time the factor of Lyons's personality is to 
be allowed for. 

[The Life by his son, just mentioned (with 
portraits); Eardley Wilmot's Life of Lord 
Lyons.] J. K. L. 

MERCIER, IIOXORE (1840-1894), 
premier of Quebec, was born on 15 Oct. 
1840 at Ste.-Athanase in Lower Canada, 
where his father had been an early settler. 
Educated at the Jesuit College, Montreal, 
he entered the office of Messrs. Laframboise 
& Papineau and began the study of law in 
1860. In 1862 he abandoned law for a time 
and undertook the editorship of ' Le Courier' 
to support the Macdonald-Sicotte ministry. 
He took an active part in founding the parti 
national of that time, and vigorously op- 
posed confederation. When it seemed in- 
evitable he finished his course in law and 
was called to the Montreal bar in 1867. 
Practising first at Ste.-Hyacinthe, and later 
in Montreal, he attained a fair standing in 
his profession. 

Mercier was elected to the House of Com- 
mons in 1872 as opposition member for 
Rouville in the province of Quebec. He 
was not a candidate at the following elec- 
tions, and, being unsuccessful in the cam- 
paign of 1878, retired from dominion politics. 
Thereupon (Sir) Henry Gustave Joly, premier 
of Quebec, offered the post of solicitor-gene- 
ral to Mercier, who accepted the office and 
held it till the cabinet resigned in October 
1879. Mr. Joly retired from the leadership 
in 1883, whereupon Mercier became liberal 
leader in the local house, his constituency 
being Ste.-Hyacinthe. Seeing that his party 
could not make head against the ecclesiastical 





and conservative power, he formed an alli- 
ance with the ultramontanes who were then 
rising into power. He recurred also to his 

S reject of a so-called parti national, a party 
Yench-Canadian in race and catholic in reli- 
gion, but open equally to liberals and con- 
servatives. The year 1885 gave him his op- 
portunity, because the north-west rebellion 
then broke out and the execution of Louis 
Riel [q. v.] followed. Mercier turned to 
political account the French-Canadian racial 
sympathies for the half-breed leader and, 
forming a combination with (Sir) Charles 
Alphonse Pelletier, a well-known conserva- 
tive, swept the constituencies in the elections 
of 1886, and became premier of the province 
on 29 Jan. 1887. He continued in that office 
for five years. Among his useful measures 
may be ranked the consolidation of the local 
statutes and the establishment of an agri- 
cultural department. 

On 21 Oct. 1887 he called a conference of 
the premiers of the several provinces at 
Quebec to discuss amendments to the con- 
stitution. His endeavours to extend the 
boundaries of the province to Hudson's Bay 
were carried to a successful issue after his 
death in 1896. 

His financial measures took a wide range. 
He failed to convert part of the local debt, 
which then amounted to the gross sum of 
19,500,000, by substituting four in the 
place of the subscription rate of five per 
cent, interest. He laid increased taxation 
on commercial transactions, persons, and 
corporations, and his measures for the purpose 
were confirmed. In 1888 he launched in 
Paris a loan for $3,500,000 at four per cent., 
and another in 1891 for 4,000,000 at the 
same rate. He was enthusiastically received 
in France in April 1891, and was decorated 
with the legion of honour. Passing thence 
to Rome, the grand cross of Gregory the 
Great was bestowed on him for his services 
to the church. The king of the Belgians 
made him commander of the order of Leo- 
pold I. 

While he increased taxation and accumu- 
lated debt, his distributions to railways, 
colonisation purposes, public buildings, and 
improvements were liberal. But after the 
elections of 1890, when Mercier was again 
returned to power by a large majority, a 
spending fever seems to have taken hold of 
Mercier and many of his party. Then began 
what is called ' la danse des millions.' It 
proceeded apace till the crash came at the 
end of 1891. 

Mercier never enjoyed the confidence 
of the episcopate and secular clergy. But, 
overbearing all opposition in the provincial 

contest, he resolved to attack the conserva- 
tive party of the dominion, and, entering 
warmly into the election to the dominion 
parliament of 1891, made a serious change 
in the Quebec delegation to Ottawa. In 
this he necessarily alienated many of his 
conservative allies. Further, investigations 
begun in the senate resulted in tracing to 
Mercier or his agents the sum of $100,000, 
part of 260,000 which the local house had 
voted to the Baie des Chaleurs railway. 
The money, it was alleged, was spent in the 
late elections. Thereupon the lieutenant- 
governor issued a royal commission to in- 
quire into the matter (21 Sept. 1891), and 
evidence was taken which was confirmatory. 
Mercier sought to ignore the commission 
and its proceedings, taking his stand on con- 
stitutional grounds : that the proper body to 
investigate the charges was the legislature, 
not the commission, and that while he pos- 
sessed the confidence of the house he was 
entitled to the confidence of the lieutenant- 
governor. His opponents had used a simi- 
lar argument, when the lieutenant-gover- 
nor, Letellier de St. Just, dismissed the con- 
servative administration in 1878. In this 
instance it was of no avail. The ministry 
was dismissed, the De Boucherville cabinet 
was gazetted (December 1891), the house dis- 
solved, and on appeal to the electors Mercier 
and his following were hopelessly defeated. 

In 1892 an indictment was laid against 
him for conspiring to defraud the province, 
but the prosecution failed. The result was 
on the whole beneficial to Mercier, and the 
trial helped to re-establish him in public 
credit. He began to take an active part in 
politics once more, and on 3 April 1893 
delivered what is considered to be his best 
speech, before an immense audience at 
Sohmer Park, Montreal. It is published 
under the title of ' L'Avenir du Canada.' 
Mercier died on 30 Oct. 1894. On 29 May 
1866 he married Leopoldine Boivin of Ste.- 
Hyacinthe, and, after her death, Virginie 
St.-Denis of the same place on 9 May 1871. 

[David's Mes Contemporains, 1878, p. 269 ; 
Voyer's Biographies, pp. 3-13; Gemmill's 
Parlt. Companion, 1883, pp. 241-2; Bibaud's 
Le Pantheon Canadien, pp. 192-3 ; Annual Reg. 
for 1894, ii. 201 ; Lareau's Hist, du Droit Can. 
ii. 346-51; Hodgins's Corr. of Min. of Justice, 
p. 376 ; Le Gouvt. Mercier, Les Elect. Prov. 
1890, pp. 12-20; Todd's Parl. Govt. in the Brit. 
Col. pp. 666-79 ; Tarte's Le Proces Mercier, pp. 
3-28, 180-94; McCord's Handbook of Can. 
Dates, p. 50 ; N. 0. Cote's Political Appoint- 
ments, p. 198 ; La Prov. de Quebec, 1900, p. 36 ; 
L'Hon. Honore Mercier, sa vie, ses reuvres, sa fin, 
1895 ; Pellaud's Biographic, Discours, &c. ; 
Times, 3 April 1891.] T. B. B. 




MERIVALE, CHARLES (1808-1893), 
historian and dean of Ely, second son of 
John Herman Merivale [q. v.] by Louisa 
Heath, daughter of Henry Joseph Thomas 
Drury [q. v.J, was born at No. 14 East 
Street, Red Lion Square, London, on 8 March 
1808. His father being a Unitarian and his 
mother a churchwoman, he was brought up 
without any very definite dogmatic instruc- 
tion, but in an atmosphere of sober practical 
piety. He was carefully taught by his 
mother, and took kindly to learning, espe- 
cially to Roman history, which, with his 
brother Herman, he converted into a sort 
of game which they played with their hoops 
in Queen Square. He also attended for a 
short time a private day school kept by one 
Dr. Lloyd, at No. 1 Keppel Street, Blooms- 
bury, and was afterwards grounded in Greek 
by his father. In January 1818 he was 
entered at Harrow, where he was contempo- 
rary with Charles Wordsworth [q. v.] (after- 
wards Bishop of St. Andrews), Richard 
Chenevix Trench [q. v.] (afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Dublin), and Henry Edward 
(afterwards Cardinal) Manning [q. v.] There 
he wrote an immense quantity of Latin 
verse, committed to memory the Eclogues 
and Georgics of Virgil, the whole of Ca- 
tullus and Juvenal, and the greater part of 
Lucan. For relaxation he read Southey's 
' History of Brazil,' an achievement which 
gave him courage to attack Mill's ' History 
of British India,' when it afterwards became 
his duty to do so. He also passed muster 
in the cricket field, and in 1824 played in 
the match against Eton. An Indian writer- 
ship being offered, he was removed in that 
year to Haileybury College, where he took 
prixes in classics and Persian, and was first 
in the class list when a casual perusal of 
Gibbon's ' Autobiography ' awakened con- 
flicting interests. His bent was at once 
fixed for the life of a student, the prospect 
of an Indian career became manifestly odious 
to him, and his father consented to transfer 
him to Cambridge. The writership which 
be should have taken was given to John 
Laird Muir Lawrence [q. v.] 

At Cambridge, accordingly, in the autumn 
of 1826, Merivale matriculated, being entered 
at St. John's College. He graduated B.A. 
(senior optime and fourth classic) in 1830, 
having in the preceding year gained the 
Browne medals for Latin verse, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1833 and B.D. in 1840. He 
also rowed for the university in the first 
contest with Oxford at Henley in 1829, and 
in the following summer accomplished the 
feat of walking from Cambridge to London 
in one day. In his early graduate days he 

belonged to the coterie of so-called 'Apostles,' 
whose symposia are celebrated by Tennyson 
in 'In Memoriam' (Ixxxvi), and to a 
smaller society called the ' HermathenEe.' 
Among his especial friends were Henry 
Alford [q. v.] (afterwards Dean of Canter- 
bury), William Hepworth Thompson [q. v.] 
(afterwards Master of Trinity), Joseph Wil- 
liams Blakesley [q. v.] (afterwards Dean of 
Lincoln), James Spedding [q. v.], and John 
Mitchell Kemble [q. v.], the son of the actor. 
He was at this time a liberal in politics, and 
interest in the impending Belgian revolution 
drew him to the Netherlands in the summer 
of 1831. On his return to England he tri- 
fled with Anglo-Saxon, Saint-Simonianism, 
and Freemasonry, but on his election to a 
fellowship in 1833 took holy orders and 
settled down to historical work. In the 
reaction which followed the Parliamentary 
Reform Act of 1832 he went over to the 
conservative party, to which he thereafter 
steadfastly adhered ; but the high toryism 
of St. John's College proved uncongenial, 
and he was reconciled to continued resi- 
dence there only by his failure in 1835 to 
obtain the chair of classics at King's College, 
London, and subsequent disappointments. 
Meanwhile he studied German, travelled in 
Bavaria and Austria (1836), and felt a 
growing interest in Roman history. Though 
by no means an enthusiastic, he was a con- 
scientious and efficient, tutor, and in 1836 
and the following year was one of the 
examiners for the classical tripos. His 
ecclesiastical views were of the moderate 
type, and the four sermons which he de- 
livered as select preacher to the university 
in November 1838 were warmly commended 
by Whewell, and led to his appointment in 
the following year as select preacher at 
Whitehall. As a scholar he was more of a 
Latinist than a Grecian, and little short of 
a devotee to Latin verse composition. He 
had no speculative interests, and though he 
had studied political economy under Malthus 
at Haileybury, he entertained no respect 
for that science, and remained throughout 
life a convinced protectionist. Nevertheless, 
in matters academic he was a moderate 
reformer, and helped to establish the law, 
moral science, and physics triposes, which, 
however, he afterwards characterised as 
' sickly growths.' He was naturally inclined 
to a recluse life, and, even when fairly 
absorbed in the study of Roman history, 
was satisfied with a single brief visit to 
Rome in the autumn of 1845. The leisure 
necessary for his historical work he secured 
by accepting in 1848 the rectory of Lawford, 
Essex, with which he united the chaplaincy 




to the speaker (John Evelyn Denison) of 
the House of Commons from February 1863 
until his preferment in November 1869 to 
the deanery of Ely. He was Hulsean 
lecturer in 1862, was reappointed select 
preacher at Whitehall in 1864, and in that 
and the following year delivered the Boyle 
lectures. In 1862 and 1871 he examined 
for the Indian civil service. In 1806 he 
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from 
the university of Oxford. 

Merivale made no figure in convocation, 
and after allowing himself to be added to 
the committee for the revision of the autho- 
rised version of the New Testament in 
February 1871, withdrew from it in the fol- 
lowing October. He identified himself with 
no ecclesiastical party, abhorred polemics, 
and as a preacher was solid and judicious 
rather than eloquent. Though inclined to 
comprehension as the only means of avert- 
ing the disruption of the church, he approved 
the Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874. 
His later years were spent in almost entire 
seclusion at Ely, where he enlarged the school 
and partially restored the cathedral. He 
also organised the commemoration in 1873 
of the foundation of Ely Minster, of which 
he published an account, entitled ' St. Ethel- 
dreda Festival: Summary of Proceedings, 
with Sermons and Addresses at the Bissex- 
tenary Festival of St. Etheldreda at Ely, 
October 1873,' Ely, 1874, 4to. On 17 Feb. 
1892 he had a slight attack of paralysis ; a 
second, towards the close of November 1893, 
was followed by his death on 27 Dec. His 
remains were interred in Ely cemetery, his 
monument with epitaph by Dr. Butler, mas- 
ter of Trinity, was placed in Ely Cathedral. 
He married, on 2 July 1850, Judith Mary 
Sophia, youngest daughter of George Frere 
of Lincoln's Inn and Twy ford House, Bishop's 
Stortford, by whom he left issue. 

Merivale contributed the version of ' Der 
Kampf mit dem Drachen' to his father's 
translation of the minor poems of Schiller 
(1844) ; but thenceforth his German studies 
were subordinate to his historical work. He 
was collaborating on a ' History of Rome,' 
projected by the Society for the Diffusion 
of Useful Knowledge, when the fortunate 
failure of the enterprise set him free to re- 
cast and continue the work independently 
and with other publishers. Such was the 
origin of his ' History of the Romans under 
the Empire,' London, 1850-64, 7 vols. 8vo ; 
new edit. 1865, 8 vols. The sterling merits 
of this work, which embraces the period 
from the rise of the Gracchi to the death of 
Marcus Aurelius, thus forming a prelude to 
Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall,' are uncontested, 

while its recognised blemish, neglect of epi- 
graphical sources, was hardly to be avoided 
in the circumstances in which it was written. 
The vogue of the first three volumes was 
such as to induce him to issue a popular 
epitome of them in one volume, entitled 
' The Fall of the Roman Republic : a short 
History of the last Century of the Common- 
wealth,' London, 1853, 8vo; 5th edit. 1863. 
He also edited as parerga ' C. Sallustii Crispi 
Catilina et Jugurtha,' London, 1852, 8vo, 
and 'An Account of the Life and Letters 
of Cicero, translated from the German of 
Bernhard Rudolf Abeken,' London, 1854, 
12mo, and in 1857 contributed the article on 
Niebuhr to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
About the same time he formed a connection 
with the ' Saturday Review,' which lasted for 
some years. His ' Boyle Lectures' 1. ' The 
Conversion of the Roman Empire,' and 
2. ' The Conversion of the Northern Nations ' 
appeared in 1864 and 1866 respectively 
(London, 8vo). More definitely apologetic 
was his lecture for the Christian Evidence So- 
ciety, entitled ' The Contrast between Pagan 
and Christian Society,' London, 1872, 8vo. 
His ' General History of Rome from the 
Foundation of the City to the Fall of 
Augustulus,' London, 1875, 8vo, is a con- 
venient epitome of a vast subject : an abridg- 
ment by C. Puller appeared in 1877. * The 
Roman Triumvirates (Epochs of Ancient 
History Ser.), London, 1876, 8vo ; ' St. Paul 
at Rome' (S.P.C.K.), London, 1877, 8vo; 
' The Conversion of the Continental Teutons' 
(S. P. C. K.), London, 1878, 8vo ; and ' Four 
Lectures on some Epochs of Early Church 
History delivered in Ely Cathedral,' London, 
1879, 8vo, complete the tale of his historical 
and apologetic writings. 

Merivale's prize poems are printed in ' Pro- 
lusiones Academic*,' Cambridge, 1828, iii. 
27, 35. His ' Keatsii Hyperionis Libri Tres. 
Latine reddidit C. Merivale/ London, 1863, 
8vo; 2nd edit., with a collection of minor 
pieces from 'Arundines Cami' in 1882, 
evinces the assiduity with which in after life 
he cultivated his unusual gift for Latin verse. 
His ' Homer's Iliad in English Rhymed 
Verse,' London, 1869, 8vo, did not add to 
his reputation. His university sermons, ' The 
Church of England a faithful Witness of 
Christ, not destroying the Law, but fulfill- 
ing it,' appeared at Cambridge in 1839, 8vo, 
and were followed by ' Sermons preached in 
the Chapel Royal at Whitehall,' Cambridge, 
1841, 8vo. He also published three separate 
discourses, besides a pamphlet entitled ' Open 
Fellowships ; a Plea for submitting College 
Fellowships to University Competition ; ' and 
a memoir of his brother, Herman Merivale, 




C.B., reprinted from the ' Transactions ' of 
the Devonshire Association for the advance- 
ment of Science, Literature, and Art, 1884, 
8vo. His ' Autobiography,' a fragment reach- 
ing no further than his ordination, was edited 
with his epistolary remains by his daughter, 
Judith Anne Merivale, for private circulation, 
in 1898 and published in 1899, London, 8vo. 
[Autobiography and Letters above mentioned ; 
Tennyson's Life, i. 47; Charles Wordsworth's 
Annals of my Early Life, p. 56 ; Uoulburn's 
Life of Dean Burgon, ii. 139; Life and Letters 
of Dean Alford; Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 423 ; Ann. 
Keg. 1863 ii. 358, 1869 ii. 276; Times, 28 Dec. 
1893; Guardian, 10 Jan. 1894, 22 Nov. 1899; 
Athenseum, 30 DPC. 1893, 17 Sept. 1898; Aca- 
demy, 21 Oct. 1899.] J. M. K. 

1899), inventor, born on 4 Oct. 1824, was 
the elder son of William Metford, a physi- 
cian, of Flook House, Taunton, by his wife, 
M. E. Anderdon. He was educated at 
Sherborne school between 1838 and 1841, 
and was apprenticed to W. M. Peniston, 
resident engineer under Isambard Kingdom 
Brunei [q. v.], on the Bristol and Exeter 
railway. From 1846 to 1850 he was em- 
ployed on the Wilts, Somerset, and Wey- 
mouth railway. After 1850 he worked for 
Thomas Evans Blackwell in connection 
with schemes for developing the traffic of 
Bristol, and subsequently acted for a short 
time under Peniston as engineer on the 
Wycombe railway, residing at Bourne End. 
During this period he designed an improved 
theodolite with a travelling stage and a 
curved arm upholding the transit axis, and 
also invented a very good form of level (cf. 
Journal of Institution of Civil Engineers, 
February 1856). 

In March 1856 Metford was elected an 
associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
and early in 1857 he obtained an important 
appointment on the East India Railway 
under (Sir) Alexander Rendel. He arrived 
at Monghyr on 18 May to find that the 
mutiny had just broken out. With the aid 
of the railway staff he took a leading part 
in organising the defence of the town. His 
ceaseless exertions largely contributed to the 
safety of the garrison, but they permanently 
impaired his health, and within a year he 
found himself obliged to abandon his engage- 
ment and return to England. 

Metford's interest in rifle shooting began 
in boyhood, his father having established a 
rifle club with a range in the fields near 
Flook House, and he gave constant atten- 
tion to it in the intervals of his engineering 
studies. Late in 1852 or early in 1853 he 
suggested a hollow-based bullet for the En- 

field rifle, expanding without a plug. It 
was brought out with the assistance of 
Pritchett, who was awarded 1,OOOJ. by 
government for the invention on its adop- 
tion by the small-arms committee. In 1854 
Metford investigated the disturbance of the 
barrel by the shock of the explosion, which 
affects the line of flight of the bullet, a diffi- 
culty which had led to much misunder- 
standing. In 1857 the select committee found 
his form of explosive rifle bullet the best 
of those submitted to them, and in 1863 it 
was adopted by government. In March 
1869, however, it was declared obsolete in 
accordance with the resolution of the St. 
Petersburg convention against the employ- 
ment of such missiles in warfare. Metford's 
chief distinction in rifle progress, however, 
is that he was the pioneer of the substitution 
of very shallow grooving and a hardened 
cylindrical bullet expanding into it, for deep 
grooving and bullets of soft lead. In 1865 
his first match rifle appeared, having five 
shallow grooves and shooting a hardened 
bullet of special design (Patent No. 2488). 
In 1870 he embarked seriously on the pro- 
duction of a breechloading rifle, paying the 
closest attention to every detail of the 
barrel and cartridge. Before long his first 
experimental breechloading rifles appeared, 
and at Wimbledon in 1871 two of them were 
used, with one of which the principal prize 
for military breechloading rifles was won by 
Sir Henry St. John Halford [q. v. Suppl.J, 
whose acquaintance he had made in 1862 at 
the Wimbledon meeting, and who hence- 
forth was his friend and assistant in his 
experiments. From 1877 the record of the 
Metford rifle was an unbroken succession of 
triumphs. Between that date and 1894 it 
failed only four times to win the Duke of 
Cambridge's prize, while it took a prepon- 
derating share of other prizes. 

The advance in military small arms 
abroad, and especially the increased rapidity 
of loading, caused the appointment of a 
committee in February 1883 to deal with 
the question. Metford designed for them 
the detail of the '42 bore for the rifle pro- 
visionally issued for trial early in 1887, and 
on the adoption of the '303 magazine rifle, 
known as the Lee-Enfield, he gave much 
assistance in designing the barrel, chamber, 
and cartridge. 

In 1888 the war-office committee on small 
arms selected as the pattern for British use 
a rifle which combined the Metford bore 
with the bolt-action and detachable magazine 
invented by the American, James P. Lee. 
This arm, known as the Lee-Metford rifle, 
is still in use. 




In 1892 Metford's health finally broke 
down, and henceforth he was precluded from 
active work. He died at his house at Redland, 
Bristol, on 14 Oct. 1899. About 1856 he 
married a daughter of Dr. Wallis of Bristol. 

[Privately printed memoir of W. E. Metford 
(with portrait). This memoir appeared in an 
abbreviated form in the Proceedings of the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers, 1900, vol. cxl.l 

E I C 

1896), archaeologist, architect, professor of 
fine art, and museum director, born at York 
on 6 Oct. 1846, was the only surviving child 
of John Middleton, architect, of York, and 
Maria Margaret, his wife, daughter of James 
Pigott Pritchett [q. v.], architect, of York, 
and his first wife, Peggy Maria Terry. As 
a child he was taken by his parents to Italy, 
where he acquired a love of that country 
and its language, which lasted throughout 
his life. On their return his parents settled 
at Cheltenham, where his father practised as 
an architect, and where Middleton himself 
was educated, first at the juvenile proprietary 
school, and afterwards at Cheltenham Col- 
lege. In 1865 he was matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford. Middleton, though 
far from being an eccentric recluse, or of as 
weakly a constitution as his appearance 
seemed to denote, displayed from his youth 
an acutely nervous and fastidious tempera- 
ment, liable to strong emotions and to deep 
depression. This was accentuated in 1866 
by the shock caused by the sudden death of 
a close friend at Oxford, which brought on 
a severe and painful illness, which confined 
him to his room for five or six years ; hence 
he did not graduate in the ordinary course. 
During this period, however, by assiduous 
reading and study he laid the foundations of 
that remarkable, painstaking, and accurate 
knowledge of art and archaeology, for which 
he was afterwards so highly distinguished. 
On his recovery he started off on a series of 
travels of an arduous and adventurous 
nature. He visited America, crossing it to 
Salt Lake City and the Rocky Mountains, 
and descending into Mexico. He travelled 
in Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and North 
Africa. He undertook a special journey to 
Fez in Morocco to study the philosophy of 
Plato as taught there, and in the disguise 
of a pilgrim effected admission into the 
Great Mosque, which no unbeliever had 
previously succeeded in doing, and also 
was presented to the sultan as one of the 
faithful. On his return he adopted the 
profession of an architect, studied for a 
time in the office of Sir George Gilbert Scott 
[q. v.], and became a partner in his father's 

business at Storey's Gate, Westminster. 
The profession was, however, never congenial 
to him, and after his father's sudden death 
in February 1885 he placed the business in 
thorough working order, and disposed of it 
to others. 

Middleton had never ceased to pursue his 
favourite studies of art and archaeology, and 
even went through a course in the schools 
of the Royal Academy. His extensive and 
accurate knowledge became well known, 
and brought him many friends, among others 
William Morris [q. v. Suppl.], with whom 
Middleton travelled in Iceland. In June 
1879 he was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and was a frequent contributor 
to their ' Proceedings ' and their publications ; 
he was elected a vice-president of the society 
in 1894. He was also a considerable contribu- 
tor to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (9th 
edition), as well as to many weekly and other 
periodicals. He made a special study of 
the antiquities of Rome, and in 1885 pub- 
lished these as ' Ancient Rome,' a revised 
edition of which appeared in 1888. In 
1892 he followed this with another work, 
' Remains of Ancient Rome.' In these 
works Middleton was the pioneer of the 
serious and scientific study of Roman anti- 
quities, and his work, if it has been to a 
great extent supplemented, has not as yet 
been superseded. In 1886 he was elected 
Slade professor of fine art at Cambridge, 
and given the honorary degree of M.A. at 
Cambridge in 1886, and at Oxford in 1887, 
followed by those of Litt.D. at Cambridge 
in 1892, and D.C.L. at Oxford in 1894 ; he 
was also honoured with a doctor's degree 
at the university of Bologna. He was 
twice re-elected to the professorship. In 
1888 he was elected a fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge. In 1889 he was ap- 
pointed to be director of the Fitzwilliam 
Museum at Cambridge, a post which offered 
him opportunities for a further display of 
his knowledge in ' Engraved Gems of Classical 
Times ' (1891), ' Illuminated MSS. of Clas- 
sical and Mediaeval Times' (1892), and a 
catalogue of ' The Lewis Collection of 
Gems ' (1892). Middleton was also ap- 
pointed a lecturer at the Royal Academy in 
London. In 1892 he was selected to fill the 
important post of art director of the South 
Kensington Museum, a department then 
sadly in need of reform and reorganisation. 
Several reforms of great importance were at 
once initiated and carried out by Middleton 
at South Kensington. Unfortunately the 
strain of difficult and uncongenial depart- 
mental work brought on threatenings of the 
disease from which he had suffered in his 




early youth, and for which he had frequently I 
to have recourse to opiates. An accidental 
overdose of morphia cut short his life at 
the Residences, South Kensington Museum, 
on 10 June 1896. His body was cremated 
at Woking, and the remains interred at 
Brookwood cemetery. Middleton married, 
in December 1892, Bella, second daughter 
of William J. Stillman, American corre- 
spondent of the ' Times ' at Rome, by whom 
he left one child. 

[Private information.] 

L. C. 


(1829-1896), painter of history, genre, 
landscape, and portraits, and president of 
the Royal Academy, born at Southampton 
on 8 June 1829, was the youngest son of 
John William Millais, who belonged to an 
old Norman family settled in Jersey for many 
generations, and Emily Mary, daughter of 
John Evamy, and the widow of Enoch 
Hodgkinson, by whom she had two sons. 
The father (who died in 1870) was noted 
in the island of Jersey for his good looks 
and charming manners. He was also a good 
musician and a fair artist, and held a com- 
mission in the Jersey militia. He arrested ; 
Oxford who shot at the queen in 1840. The 
Millaises lived at LeQuaihouse, just outside 
St. Hellers, before they removed to Southamp- 
ton, where Sir John and his elder brother 
William Henry (also an artist, and the 
author of ' The Game Birds of England ') 
were born. The family returned to Jersey 
soon after Millais's birth, and there he de- 
veloped a taste for natural history and 
sketching. A frame containing drawings 
done when only seven years old was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in the winter 
of 1898. He drew a portrait of his ma- 
ternal grandfather, John Evamy, fishing, 
when he was eight years old, and another 
of his father when he was eleven. He 
was sent to school, but showed no inclination 
for study, and was expelled for biting his 
master's hand. Among the friends of the 
Millaises at Jersey were the family of the i 
Lemprieres,one of whom (afterwards General ; 
Lempriere), the grandson of Philip Raoul 
Lempriere, Seigneur of Roselle Manor, was | 
the model for the Huguenot in Millais's : 
famous picture of that name. In 1835 the | 
family removed to Dinan in Brittany, where 
the child delighted the French military 
officers by his sketches. One of the colonel 
smoking a cigar, and another of the ' tambour 
major' are specially mentioned in his bio- 
graphy by his son. In 1837 the family once 
more returned to Jersey, where John received 
his first instruction in art from a Mr. Bessel, 

the best drawing-master in the island, who 
soon confessed that he could not teach his 
pupil anything more, and in 1838 he came to 
London with an introduction to Sir Martin 
Archer Shee [q, v.l, the president of the 
Royal Academy. On the way he sketched 
Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Paxton [q. v.l 
asleep in the coach. Sir Martin told his 
parents that it was their plain duty to fit 
their son for the vocation for which nature 
had evidently intended him, and in the 
winter of 1838-9 he was sent to the well- 
known school of Henry Sass [q. v.] in 
Bloomsbury. In the same year he obtained 
a silver medal from the Society of Arts, 
and in 1840 became a student at the Royal 
Academy. Here he carried off every prize. 
His first picture in oils wa"s ' Cupid crowned 
with Flowers,' painted in 1841. In 1843 
he gained the first silver medal for drawing 
from the antique, and when seventeen the 
gold medal for an oil painting, ' The Young 
Men of Benjamin seizing their Brides.' 

Millais still retained his disinclination for 
ordinary studies, and received all his educa- 
tion (except in art) from his mother, who 
read to him continually. He wore his 
boyish costume of gouffred tunic and wide 
falling collar till long past the usual age, 
and for this reason was called ' the child ' 
by his fellow-students at the academy a 
name which stuck to him long afterwards. 
He was tall and slim, high-spirited and 
independent, though very delicate. He was 
fond of cricket and of fishing, and made 
many friends. As early as 1840 he was 
asked to breakfast by Samuel Rogers, and 
met Wordsworth, and in 1846 he stayed 
with his half-brother, Henry Hodgkinson, 
at Oxford, and was introduced to Wyatt, 
the dealer in art, at whose house he fre- 
quently stayed as a guest during the next 
three years. On a window in the room he 
occupied he painted in oils ' The Queen 
of Beauty ' and ' The Victorious Knight.' 
W r yatt bought his picture of 'Cymon and 
Iphigenia ' (now belonging to Mr. Standen), 
painted in 1847 for the Royal Academy, 
but not exhibited. To 1849 belongs a por- 
trait by Millais (exhibited in 1850) of Wyatt 
and his grandchild. Other acquaintances 
made at Oxford were Mr. and Mrs. Combe 
of the Clarendon Press, with whom he be- 
came intimate, and Mr. Drury of Shotover 
Park. He earned money also, and from the 
age of sixteen defrayed the greater part of 
the household expenses in Gower Street, 
where he lived with his family. In 184-"i he 
was engaged to paint small pictures and back- 
grounds for a dealer named Ralph Thomas 
for 100/. a year. He recorded his delight 


1 68 


at receiving his first cheque (still preserved) 
by endorsing it with a drawing of himself. 
They fell out, and Millais threw his palette 
at Thomas, and so ended the connection for 
a while, but it was afterwards renewed 
(though not for long) at an increased salary 
of 150/. a year. 

In 1846 Millais exhibited at the Royal 
Academy for the first time. The subject of 
his picture was ' Pizarro seizing the Inca of 
Peru.' This was followed in 1847 by 
' Elgiva seized by the Soldiers of Odo.' 
John (known as Lester) Wallack, the actor 
[see under WALLACK, JAMES WILLIAM, ad 
/?.], who married Millais's sister, sat for 
Pizarro. In 1847 also he entered unsuccess- 
fully into the competition at Westminster 
Hall for the decoration of the houses of 
parliament, sending an oil picture of ' The 
Widow's Mite' (ten feet seven inches by 
fourteen feet three inches), since cut up. 
He did not exhibit at the academy in 1848. 

Down to this time his career had differed 
from those of other academy students only 
by its distinguished success, and his pictures 
had shown little if any divergence from the 
ordinary ideals and methods taught in the 
schools; but about the beginning of 1848 he 
and Mr. Holman Hunt, deeply conscious of 
the lifeless condition into which British art 
had fallen, determined to adopt a style of 
absolute independence as to art dogma and 
convention, which they called ' Pre-Raphael- 
itism.' The next to join the movement was 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti [q.v.], who at this 
time was struggling with the technical diffi- 
culties of painting under the instruction of 
Holman Hunt, but was unknown to Millais. 
The three met together at the Millaises' house 
in Gower Street, where Millais showed them 
engravings from the frescoes in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa, and all agreed to 'follow' them. 
The result was the formation of the'celebrated 
' Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,' consisting of 
seven members. There has been much dis- 
pute as to what were the precise principles of 
the brotherhood ; but, according to Millais, 
'the Pre-Raphaelites had but one idea, to 
present on canvas what they saw in 
nature,' and to this idea he adhered from 
first to last. Another disputed point is the 
influence of Rossetti on Millais's earlier 
work. This was entirely denied by Millais 
himself; but it was probably greater than he 
knew, for Rossetti's picture of ' The Girl- 
hood of Mary Virgin ' was clearly the fore- 
runner of Millais's ' Christ in the House of 
his Parents,' and there was a spirit of poetical 
romance in Millais's work while their closest 
intercourse lasted (1848-52) which slowly 
faded away afterwards. The intense intel- 

lectual and spiritual influence of Rossetti ore 
the brotherhood generally cannot be denied. 
He was the ruling spirit of their short-lived 
organ, ' The Germ ' (2 parts, 1850), for which 
Millais made one or two sketches and an etch- 
ing and wrote a story, though none of them ap- 
peared. (A copy of the etching will be found in 
' British Contemporary Artists.') On the 
other hand Millais was very independent 
and impatient of control, and would not 
read the first volume of ' Modern Painters* 
(1841), in which principles like those prac- 
tically followed by the Pre-Raphaelites 
were first recommended to young artists. 
It is also to be remembered that Rossetti 
was at this time a mere tyro in painting, 
whereas Millais was a trained artist, and 
that of love of nature and skill in expressing 
it Millais could learn nothing from Rossetti. 

At all events it is quite certain that Mr. 
Holman Hunt and Millais were most inti- 
mately associated in all their views and in 
their practice. They had worked together in 
complete sympathy from the days of their 
studentship, and they together started the 
new movement. The depth of the gulf 
between it and the old is clearly seen if we 
compare the ' Pizarro ' of 1846 with the 
' Isabella ' of 1 849 a banquet scene from 
Keats's poem of 'Isabella and the Pot of 
Basil ' founded on a story by Boccaccio. In 
this nearly all the characters were painted 
from his relatives and friends. Among 
them were three at least of the brotherhood, 
the two Rossettis, Dante and William, and 
Mr. F. G. Stephens, and it contains all the 
characteristics of ' Pre-Raphaelite ' work 
most minute imitation of nature down to the 
smallest detail, all persons and objects studied 
directly from the originals, and disregard of 
composition, generalisation, and all conven- 
tion. The tale was told with dramatic power, 
and the expression of the heads, with the ex- 
ception of the lovesick Lorenzo, was excellent. 
Millais never again painted a composition of 
so many figures, or of greater patience and 
success in execution. The picture was boughfc 
by Mr. Windus, was for a time in the posses- 
sion of Thomas Woolner [q.v.], the sculptor 
(and one of the brethren), and is now in the- 
gallery of the corporation of Liverpool. It 
was exhibited in 1849. 

Millais's next important picture was a sup- 
posed scene in Christ's childhood, treated as an- 
incident in the ordinary life of a carpenter's 
family. It is usually known as ' The Car- 
penter's Shop,' or ' Christ in the House of 
his Parents;' but in the catalogue of the 
Royal Academy it had, in place of a title, a 
quotation from Zechariah xiii. 6. The boy 
has wounded the palm of his hand with a 




nail. His mother kneels by him and kisses 
him. St. Joseph, St. Anne, and St. John, un- 
distinguishable from ordinary human beings, 
play different parts in the little drama of 
sympathy, just as a carpenter's family might 
do any day in any country. They are all 
English in type. Such a treatment of a 
scene in the life of the Holy Family aroused 
great hostility. The 'Times' stigmatised it 
as ' revolting,' and its minute finish of detail 
as ' loathsome.' Violent attacks came from 
nearly all quarters, including ' Blackwood,' 
and even from Charles Dickens in ' House- 
hold Words,' who afterwards owned his 
mistake. Another picture of this year, 1850, 
' Ferdinand lured by Ariel,' met with scarcely 
better reception from the critics, and was 
refused by the dealer for whom it was 
painted. Nevertheless, ' The Carpenter's 
Shop' was bought for 15(W. by a dealer 
named Farrer, and 'Ferdinand' by Mr. Elli- 
son of Sudbrooke Holme, Lincolnshire, for 
the same sum. About this time Millais began 
to feel that the excessively minute handling 
which was one of the characteristics of the 
Pre-Raphaelites was a mistake (see WIL- 
LIAM BELL SCOTT'S Autobiographical Notes, i. 
278), but little difference in this respect is 
to be noted in his work of the next few years. 
The most notable of these were : ' The Re- 
turn of the Dove to the Ark,' and ' The Wood- 
man's Daughter,' from a poem by Patmore, 
and ' Mariana of the Moated Grange ' (all 
exhibited in 1851); 'The Huguenot' and 
' Ophelia' (1852) ; The Proscribed Royalist' 
and ' The Order of Release' (1853). ' The 
Return of the Dove,' though the girls who 
are receiving the bird were very plain, was 
exquisitely painted, and Ruskin wished to 
buy it ; but it was purchased by Mr. Combe 
for 150 guineas, who bequeathed it to the 
university of Oxford. The background of 
' The Woodman's Daughter' was a wood near 
Oxford, and the strawberries which the 
squire's boy is offering to the labourer's 
daughter were purchased in Covent Garden 
four for 5s. Qd. ' Mariana* was purchased 
by Mr. AVindus, and now belongs to Mr. 
H. F. Makins. ' The Huguenot,' the figures 
of which were painted from Mr. Arthur 
(afterwards General) Lempriere and Miss 
Ryan, was bought by a dealer named White 
for 300/. 'Ophelia' was a portrait of Miss 
Siddall (Mrs. D. G. Rossetti), and the scene 
was painted by the side of the Ewell at 
Kingston. For 'The Proscribed Royalist' 
Mr. Arthur Hughes, the well-known painter, 
sat, Miss Ryan again appearing in'the female 
figure. The scene was a little wood near 
Hayes in Kent. In ' The Order of Release' 
the female figure was painted from Mrs. 

Ruskin, who was afterwards to become his 
wife. During these years Millais was wont 
to spend much time in the country to paint 
his backgrounds, lodging at farmhouses and 
cottages, in company with his brother, Mr. 
Holman Hunt, and Charles Allston Collins. 
Having settled upon the piece of landscape 
he meant to introduce, he would paint it 
day by day with exact fidelity and almost 
microscopic minuteness. Such backgrounds, 
not only in his pictures, but those of Holman 
Hunt and their followers, form a very dis- 
tinct feature of the strict ' Pre-Raphaelite ' 
period. For literal truth to nature's own 
colours and rendering of intricate detail, 
those by Millais stand almost alone, espe- 
cially the river scene in ' Ophelia.' 

All this time Millais was fighting hard for 
his new principles of art, and suffered much 
from the antagonism of critics, dealers, and 
others, including many artists of the older 
school ; but he managed to sell his pictures 
in spite of all, and gradually achieved popu- 
larity also. With the exhibition of ' The 
Huguenot ' the fight may be said to have been 
won, as far at least as the public were con- 
cerned. Its sentiment, its refinement of ex- 
pression, and thorough execution appealed to 
nearly all who saw it. But Millais and the 
Pre-Raphaelite cause had many supporters 
and sympathisers, the most important of whom 
was John Ruskin [q.v.Suppl.], who expressed 
his enthusiasm in letters to the ' Times ' and 
in his pamphlet called ' Pre-Raphaelitism ' 
(1851). Millais first met Ruskin in this year, 
and two years afterwards he was joined by 
Ruskin and his wife. at Wellington, the Tre- 
velyans' house in Northumberland, and went 
to Scotland with them. He made several 
architectural designs for Ruskin, and in 
1854 painted a portrait of him standing by 
the river Finlass, which was bought by Sir 
Thomas Dyke Acland [q. v. Suppl.] In the 
autumn of 1853 he took to hunting with 
John Leech [q. v.], and in November of the 
same year he was elected an associate of the 
Royal Academy. By this time the brother- 
hood, whose meetings had always been few 
and far between, had died a natural death, 
and Millais had soon to lose the companion- 
ship of Mr. Holman Hunt, who went to 
Syria in February 1854. In this year Mil- 
lais did not exhibit at the Royal Academy, 
but in 1855 he sent three pictures, including 
' The Rescue,' a scene from a fire in a modern 
town house, with a frantic mother seizing 
her two children from the arms of a fireman. 
This was painted in honour of brave firemen, 
and was a new departure, for the scene was 
completely modern, and the conception was 
entirely his own. The mother was painted 




from Mrs. Nassau Senior, the sister of Tom 
HughesTq. v. Suppl.lauthor of ' TomBrown's 
School Days.' Ruskin, in his notes on the 
principal pictures in the academy, declared it 
to be ' the only great picture exhibited,' add- 
ing that it was ' very great,' and that ' the 
immortal element is in it to the full.' In the 
great Paris Exhibition of 1855 Millais was 
represented by ' The Order of Release/ 
Ophelia,' and ' The Return of the Dove.' 
This was the year of Leighton's ' Cimabue,' 
and the two painters met for the first time. 
In July of this year (1855) Millais married 
Euphemia Chalmers, the eldest daughter 
of George Gray of Bowerswell, Perth, who 
had obtained a decree of the 'nullity' of 
her marriage with John Ruskin. They went 
to live at Annat Lodge, near Bowerswell. 
In the garden of this residence was painted 
the celebrated picture of 'Autumn Leaves,' 
which was exhibited in 1856 with 'Peace 
Concluded, 1856," The Blind Girl,' 'L'En- 
fant du Regiment,' and a ' Portrait of a Gen- 
tleman.' 'Autumn Leaves' represents four 
girls heaping up dead leaves in a warm 
twilight or afterglow ; ' Peace Concluded,' a 
wounded officer and his wife, with their 
children playing with animals out of a 
Noah's ark a cock, a bear, a lion, and a 
turkey, symbolical of the nations engaged in 
the late war in the Crimea. In his ' Notes' 
Ruskin strongly praised 'Autumn Leaves' 
and ' Peace Concluded;' indeed, his praise of 
the latter was extravagant. Of 'Autumn 
Leaves' he said it 'is by much the most 
poetical work the painter has yet conceived, 
and also, as far as I know, the first instance 
existing of a perfectly painted twilight,' and 
of both he prophesied that they would ' rank 
in future among the world's best master- 
pieces.' 'The Blind Girl' contained two 
figures the blind girl and her com- 
panion, a younger girl, resting on a bank 
beside a common. The blind girl, with red 
hair and a concertina, is not beautiful, but 
the group is pathetic from its very truth and 
simplicity. The background one of the 
best the artist ever painted represents the 
common and village of Icklesham, near Win- j 
chelsea. ' L'Enfant du Regiment,' now called 
' The Random Shot,' is supposed to be an j 
incident in the French Revolution, and re- | 
presents a wounded child lying on a soldier's 
cloak in a church. The tomb on which the 
cloak is spread was painted from one in Ickles- 
ham church. 

In the spring of 1857 Millais took lodgings 
in Savile Row. His studio in Langham 
Chambers was shared with his friend, J. D. 
Luard, from 1853 to 1860, when Luard died. 
The principal pictures exhibited in 1857 were 

' Sir Isumbras at the Ford ' and ' The Escape 
of a Heretic.' The knight is old, in golden 
armour, mounted on a black horse, and is 
bearing with him two poor children across 
the river. In front of him a girl is seated, 
and a boy clings to him from behind. Behind, 
under a brilliant evening sky, is a landscape 
composed from the Bridge of Eden and the 
range of the Ochills, with a tower painted 
from old Elcho Castle. On the further bank 
are two nuns. 

The comparative freedom with which he 
was now painting offended Ruskin, who de- 
voted to ' Sir Isumbras ' several pages of stern 
reproof, declaring, in his ' Notes ' for 1857, 
that the change in the artist's manner from 
the years of ' Ophelia ' and ' Mariana ' ' is not 
only Fall it is Catastrophe.' This picture 
was very cleverly caricatured in a lithograph 
by Mr. F. Sandys, in which the horse is turned 
to a donkey branded J. R., the knight into 
Millais, while Dante Rossetti and Holman 
Hunt take the places of the girl and the 
boy. ' Sir Isumbras ' was bought by Charles 
Reade, the novelist, and is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. R. V. Benson, at whose request 
the artist repainted the horse and its trappings. 
Ruskin was equally severe on ' The Escape 
of the Heretic' on account of its subject 
and the violence of its expression. Millais's 
next important pictures were ' Apple Blos- 
soms ' or ' Spring,' and ' The Vale of Rest,' 
which were exhibited in 1859 (he sent no 
picture to the academy in 1858). The subject 
of ' The Vale of Rest ' (two nuns in a con- 
vent garden, one digging a grave) had oc- 
curred to him during his honeymoon, and 
' Apple Blossoms ' was commenced in 1856. 
The first was distinguished by its impressive 
sentiment and the background of oaks and 
poplars seen against an evening sky. The 
face of one of the nuns was of repellent 
ugliness, and was repainted in 1862 from a 
Miss Lane. ' The Vale of Rest ' is now in the 
Tate Gallery. Both pictures were painted 
at Bowerswell. In ' Apple Blossoms ' some 
beautiful girls are sporting in an orchard 
under boughs of brilliant apple blossom, 
painted with great force and freedom. The 
central figure is Miss Georgiana Moncrieff 
(Lady Dudley) ; Lady Forbes, two sisters-in- 
law, and a model sat for the others. Ruskin 
extolled the power with which these pictures 
were painted, and called ' The Vale of Rest ' 
a ' great picture,' but still insisted on the 
deterioration of the artist. At this time 
Millais still seems to have suffered much 
from the animosity of critics and others, and 
to have felt anxiety about the future ; but he 
sold all his pictures at good prices, and in 
1860 took a house in Bryanston Square, 




from which he moved to 7 Cromwell Place, 
South Kensington, in 1862. In 1860 he ex- 
hibited ' The Black Brunswicker,' a parting 
scene between an officer and his fiancee 
before the battle of Waterloo. The officer 
was painted from a private in the life guards, 
and the lady from Miss Kate Dickens (Mrs. 
Perugini), the daughter of Charles Dickens. 
The picture was less refined in conception 
than his other historic love scenes, ' The 
Huguenot' and 'Proscribed Royalist,' but it 
was painted with great skill, and may be 
said to terminate the period of transition 
from his first or Pre-Raphaelite manner, and 
that of complete breadth and freedom. 
Other changes besides that of style begin to 
be more marked. He became less sedulous 
in his search for subjects, less romantic in 
his feeling, more content to paint the life 
about him, without drawing much upon his 
imagination, or even his faculty for refined 
selection. The portrait element, always 
strong in his work, became stronger, and his 
family furnished ready subjects for many 
pictures. At the same time his invention 
was much employed in illustration, es- 
pecially of Trollope's novels, ' Orley Farm,' 
' Framley Parsonage,' ' The Small House at 
Allington,' ' Rachel Ray,' and ' Phineas Finn,' 
for which he made eighty-seven drawings, 
beginning with ' Framley Parsonage ' in the 
' Cornhill Magazine.' Trollope was one of 
his friends at this time with Thackeray, 
Wilkie Collins, and John Leech. From 
1860 to 1869 he was continually employed 
in designs to be cut upon wood for Bradbury 
& Evans, Macmillan, Hurst & Blackett, 
Chapman & Hall, Smith, Elder, & Co., Dalziel 
Bros., Mr. Gambart, Moxon (the illustrated 
edition of Tennyson). He was one of the 
most prolific and the cleverest of all the 
book illustrators of this period, so celebrated 
for its revival of woodcutting, and one or 
more cuts from his designs are to be found 
in ' Once a Week,' ' The Cornhill,' ' Punch,' 
' The Illustrated London News,' ' Good 
Words,' ' London Society,' and many books. 
Later in life (1879) he illustrated 'Barry 
Lyndon ' for the edition de luxe of Thackeray's 
works. He also made many water-colour 
replicas of his pictures. He was elected a 
Royal Academician in 1863. Among the 
most celebrated historical and poetical pic- 
tures of this period (1860-70) were 'The 
Eve of St. Agnes ' (1863), ' Romans leaving 
Britain ' and ' The Evil One sowing Tares ' 
(1865), ' Jephthah ' (1867), ' Rosalind and 
Celia' (1868), 'A Flood,' ' The Boyhood of 
Raleigh,' and ' The Knight Errant ' (1870). 
The subject of 'The Eve of St. Agnes' is 
taken from Keats's poem. The heroine is 

his wife, and the moonlit room in which 
' her rich attire creeps rustling to her knees ' 
is at Knole House, Kent. It was painted 
in five days and a half, in December 1862, 
and is one of the finest of his works. It now 
belongs to Mr. Val Prinsep, R.A. 'The 
Knight Errant ' is remarkable from the fine 
execution of a full-length life-size female 
figure, the only one to be found in the 
artist's works. Of the others the most suc- 
cessful, perhaps, were ' The Evil One sowing 
Tares,' a version in oils of one of a fine 
series of designs for ' The Parables of Our 
Lord,' published by Bradbury & Evans, ' A 
Flood ' (a child carried in its wooden cradle 
down the swollen stream), and ' The Boy- 
hood of Raleigh,' in which two boys (his 
own sons Everett and George) are listening 
to the strange tales of a sailor returned from 
the Spanish main. The newest element in 
his worl of this period was supplied from his 
own nursery, which afforded subjects for 
many very popular pictures, like ' My First 
Sermon,' ' My Second Sermon,' ' Sleeping,' 
' Waking,' ' Sisters,' ' The First Minuet,' and 
' The Wolfs Den.' 

Portraits of other children were also 
among his greatest successes, like ' Leisure 
Hours,' the daughters of Sir John Pender 
with a bowl of goldfish, and 'Miss Nina 
Lehmann' (Lady Campbell). Most of his 
pictures were now single figures, with more 
or less sentiment, like ' Stella ' and ' Vanessa,' 
' The Gambler's Wife,' ' The Widow's Mite,' 
and ' Swallow, Swallow.' A more important 
composition, ' Pilgrims to St. Paul's ' (Green- 
wich pensioners before Nelson's tomb), ap- 
pealed to national feeling. Technically he 
had reached full maturity, evidently exulting 
in his command over his materials and in- 
dulging occasionally in a rivalry with the 
broadest style of Velazquez, as in ' Vanessa,' 
and ' A Souvenir of Velazquez,' his diploma 
picture. Belonging to this period, though 
not exhibited till 1871, was the grandest of 
his biblical pictures called ' Victory, 
Lord,' representing Aaron and Hur holding 
up the hands of Moses on the top of the hill 
(Exodus xvii. 12). 

While at work no one worked harder 
than Millais, but no one enjoyed his holi- 
days more, or was more convinced of the 
importance of long and thorough ones. 
Every year he spent some months in the 
country, usually in Scotland, where he could 
indulge his love of shooting and salmon 
fishing. Most, if not all, of his pure land- 
scapes were also painted there. In 1856 he 
took the manse of Brig-o'-Turk in Glenfinlas, 
and in 1860 the shooting of Kincraig, In- 
verness-shire, with Colonel Aitkin. In 1865 




he was shooting with Sir William Harcourt 
near Inverary, and afterwards visited Flo- 
rence and Italy in company with Sir Wil- 
liam and his wife, and in 1868 he was 
shooting again with Sir William and with 
Sir Edwin Landseer, and went with Mr. 
Frith to Paris, where they made the ac- 
quaintance of Rosa Bonheur. 

' Chill October,' his first exhibited pure 
landscape, afterwards bought by Lord 
Armstrong, was at the academy in 1871, 
and was painted in the open air from a 
backwater of the Tay just below Kin- 
fauns, near Perth. It was followed by 
'Scotch Firs' and 'Winter Fuel,' painted 
in 1874, 'The Fringe of the Moor' (1875), 
' Over the Hills and Far Away ' and ' The 
Sound of many Waters' (1876), all of 
which were equally remarkable for their 
truth to nature and fine execution, but they 
were without the pathetic sentiment of 
' Chill October.' It was to portrait and 
landscape that he devoted himself mainly 
after 1870, and to single figures of children 
and pretty girls under fancy titles like 
Cherry Ripe,' ' Little Miss Muffet,' < Cuc- 
koo,' ' Pomona,' ' Olivia,' and many more 
which were very popular in engravings 
and in coloured prints for the illustrated 
newspapers. None of these paintings were 
perhaps more beautiful or popular than 
' Sweetest eyes were ever seen,' ' Caller 
Herrin',' and ' Cinderella,' for which Miss 
Beatrice Buxton sat. Inspired by a stronger 
sentiment were ' The North- West Passage ' 
(1874), 'The Princes in the Tower' (1878), 
The Princess Elizabeth ' (1879), and two 
illustrations of Scott, ' Effie Deans ' and 
' The Master of Ravenswood,' painted for 
Messrs. Agnew in 1877 and 1878. 'The 
North- West Passage' represents a deter- 
mined old mariner (a portrait of Edward 
John Trelawny [q.v.]) in a room overlooking 
the sea and strewn with charts. He 
listens to a young woman who is reading 
some tale of Arctic exploration. The artist 
never painted a finer head than that of the 
sailor, and the execution throughout is so 
fine that the picture is regarded by some as 
his masterpiece. ' A Yeoman of the Guard ' 
(1877), with his age-worn face and uniform 
of scarlet and gold, is as strong in character, 
and perhaps the artist's most splendid effort 
as a colourist. It was, however, as a por- 
trait painter that he added most to his great 
reputation during the last twenty-five 
years of his life. Among his most cele- 
brated sitters were the Marquises of Salis- 
bury, Hartington (Duke of Devonshire), 
and Lome (Duke of Argyll), the Earls of 
Shaftesbury, Beaconsfield, and Rosebery, 

Lord Tennyson, W. E. Gladstone, John 
Bright, Sir Charles Russell (Lord Russell 
of Killowen), Cardinal Newman, George 
Grote, Sir William Sterndale Bennett, Sir 
James Paget, Sir Henry Thompson, Thomas 
Carlyle, Wilkie Collins, Sir Henry Irving, 
J. C. Hook, R.A., and Du Maurier, one of 
the most intimate of all his friends. All 
these portraits aro lifelike and powerful, 
giving the very presence of the originals, 
and inspiring even their clothes with indi- 
viduality. He was never more successful 
than in realising the grand head and keen 
expression of W. E. Gladstone, whom he 
painted in 1879, 1885, and 1890. He drew 
Charles Dickens after his death. He was on 
very friendly terms with Gladstone, Lord 
Beaconsfield, Lord Rosebery, and indeed with 
nearly all his sitters. 

Among his best portraits of ladies may be 
mentioned ' Hearts are Trumps ' (the three 
Misses Armstrong), Mrs. Coventry Patmore, 
Mrs. Bischoffsheim, Mrs. F. H. Myers, Mrs. 
Stibbard (his wife's sister), Mrs. Jopling, 
the Duchess of Westminster, and Lady 
Campbell. To his portraits of children 
already mentioned may be added Miss Do- 
rothy Thorpe, Lady Peggy Primrose (after- 
wards Countess of Crewe), and the Princess 
Marie of Edinburgh, which belonged to Queen 

In 1875 Millais took a trip to Holland 
with some of his wife's family, and was 
greatly impressed by the masterpieces of 
Rembrandt, Franz Hals, and Van der Heist. 
In 1878 Millais was represented at the Paris 
Exhibition by 'Chill October,' 'A Yeoman 
of the Guard,' ' Madam Bischoffsheim,' 
' Hearts are Trumps,' and ' The Bride of 
Lammermoor,' which greatly increased his 
reputation in France, and he was made an 
officer of the legion of honour. In this 
year came the greatest sorrow of his life in 
the loss of his second son, George, who had 
nearly completed his twenty-first year. In 
1879 he left Cromwell Place for a house 
built for him at Palace Gate from the de- 
signs of Philip Charles Hardwick, where he 
remained till he died. In 1880 he painted 
his own portrait for the Uffizi Gallery at 
Florence. He still paid his annual visit to 
Scotland, and in 1881 took a house at 
Murthly, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire, with 
good fishing and shooting. At Murthly or 
its neighbourhood all his other landscapes 
were painted : ' Murthly Moss,' ' Murthly 
Water,' ' Dew-drenched Furze,' ' Lingering 
Autumn,' and others. In 1881 a small ex- 
hibition of his pictures was held by the Fine 
Art Society. On 16 July 1885, at Glad- 
stone's suggestion, he was created a baronet, 




and among his other honours were honorary 
degrees at the universities of Oxford (9 June 
1880) and Durham. He was an associate of 
the Institute of France, an honorary member 
of the Royal Scottish and Royal Hibernian 
academies, a member of the academies of 
Vienna, Belgium, Antwerp, and of St. Luke, 
Rome, and San Fernando, Madrid ; was an 
officer of the order of Leopold, of the order 
of St. Maurice, and of the Prussian order, 
' Pour le Merite.' In 1886 a large collec- 
tion of his works was exhibited at the 
Grosvenor Gallery. 

In 1891 his tenancy of Murthly expired, 
and he took a shooting with residence at 
Newmill, which was burnt down in January 
1892. About this time his health began to 
fail. After a bad attack of influenza he 
was troubled with a swelling in his throat, 
and suffered much from depression. He 
still, however, worked whenever he could, 
and executed with enjoyment several pic- 
tures, including ' St. Stephen,' ' A Disci- 
ple,' and ' Speak ! Speak ! ' which was pur- 
chased out of the Chantrey bequest. The 
admirable portraits of Mr. John Hare the 
actor and Sir Richard Quain also belong to 
his last years. The last subject picture exhi- 
bited by him was ' The Forerunner ' (St. 
John Baptist), which was painted as well as 
ever, though somewhat trivial in motive. 

In 1895, in consequence of the illness of 
the president, Sir Frederic (afterwards 
Lord) Leigh ton [q. v. Suppl.~|, he was called 
upon to preside at the Royal Academy ban- 
quet, a task he accomplished with great 
difficulty, owing to the weakness of his 
voice. On the death of Lord Leighton, on 
25 Jan. 1896, he was unanimously elected to 
succeed him in the presidential chair, but 
he did not live long to enjoy the honour. 
He gradually failed, and died of cancer in 
the throat on 13 Aug. 1896, and was buried 
in St. Paul's Cathedral on the 20th. He left 
a widow and six children ; Lady Millais 
died on 23 Dec. 1897 of the same disease ; 
a pencil drawing by herself of Millais's 
portrait of her is given in Millais's ' Life,' i. 
218, and another portrait of her drawn by 
Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., is the frontispiece of 
the second volume. Millais's eldest son 
Everett, who had succeeded to the baronetcy, 
died on 7 Sept. 1897. The present baronet 
is Sir John Everett Millais, son of the second 

Notwithstanding the opposition he had to 
conquer as a Pre-Raphaelite, Millais's career 
was one of almost continuous success and 
prosperity, and perhaps there is no greater 
proof of his popularity than the number 
(over a hundred) of his pictures which were 

separately engraved on steel. The winter 
exhibition of the Royal Academy 1898 was 
entirely devoted to his works. 

It is too early to fix precisely the position 
of Millais as an artist, but there is no doubt 
that he was one of the greatest painters of 
the nineteenth century, and that he did 
more than any other of his generation to 
infuse a new and healthy life into British 
art. There was nothing of the idealist or 
visionary in his designs, and he had not a 
great imagination ; but he could paint what 
he saw with a force and a truth which have 
seldom been excelled, and his intense love 
of nature and of his kind tilled his work 
with life and poetry. 

As a man Millais was frank, manly, and 
genial, not over-refined, but devoid of affec- 
tation. Though of no great intellectual 
power, he had a strong fund of common 
sense, and, if not a great reader, was fond of 
poetry (especially Tennyson and Keats), of 
the best fiction, and of books of travel, and 
he could write graceful and humorous 
verses. In manner and appearance he re- 
sembled a country gentleman rather than 
an artist. He was devoted to his art, but 
not blind to the advantages of success and 
prosperity. He was the life of his own 
family, and regarded with affection by a 
very large and distinguished circle of ac- 
quaintance ; but he did not care for ordinary 
social gatherings, and preferred to spend his 
evenings at the Garrick Club, where he was 
sure to meet a number of congenial friends. 
In person he was very handsome, his face 
(which in his youth Rossetti described as 
that ot an angel) retained great beauty 
throughout life, and his figure grew well- 
knit and strong. His fine presence and 
cheery voice made themselves felt wherever 
he went, and there were few who knew him 
well who would not echo the words of Sir 
George Reid, P.R.S.A., who wrote of him as 
' one of the kindest, noblest, most beautiful 
and lovable men I ever knew or ever hope to 

Besides the portrait of Millais which was 
painted by himself for the Uffizi Gallery, 
there are portraits of him by John Philip 
in 1841, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., in 
1871, and by Sir Henry Thompson, bart., in 
1881. These, with sketches of him by his 
brother, W. H. Millais, John Leech, and 
others, are reproduced in J. G. Millais's ' Life 
and Letters ' (1899). 

The following works of Millais are to be 
found in public galleries. National Gal- 
lery, Trafalgar Square : ' Portrait of W. E. 
Gladstone ' (1879) and ' A Yeoman of the 
Guard.' National Gallery of British Art : 




' Ophelia,' ' The Vale of Rest,' ' The Knight 
Errant,' 'The North- West Passage,' ' Mercy,' 
' St. Bartholomew's Day, 1572,' ' Saint Ste- 
phen,' ' A Disciple,' ' Speak ! Speak,' ' The 
Order of Release, 1746,' and ' The Boyhood 
of Raleigh.' Victoria and Albert Museum : 
' Pizarro seizing the Inca of Peru ' and ' Lord 
Lytton.' The National Portrait Gallery: 
' Lord Beaconsfield,' ' Thomas Carlyle,' ' Wil- 
kie Collins,' and ' Leech.' Oxford University 
Gallery : ' The Return of the Dove ' and ' Por- 
trait of Thomas Combe.' Manchester Cor- 
poration Gallery : ' Autumn Leaves,' ' A 
Flood,' 'Victory, Lord,' 'Winter Fuel,' 
and ' Bishop Fraser.' Birmingham Art Gal- 
lery : ' The Huguenot ' (1856), ' The Widow's 
Mite,' and ' The Blind Girl.' Holloway Col- 
lege : ' Princes in the Tower ' and ' Princess 
Elizabeth.' Liverpool Art Gallery : ' Isa- 
bella,' ' The First Minuet,' and ' The Martyr 
of the Solway.' St. Bartholomew's Hospital : 
' Sir James Paget ' and ' Luther Holden.' 
University of London : ' George Grote.' 
British and Foreign Bible Society: 'Lord 
Shaftesbury.' University of Glasgow : ' Dr. 
Caird.' Corporation of Oldham : T. 0. Bar- 
low, R.A.' 

[Life &c. by J. G. Millais, 1899 ; Art Annual, 
1886 (memoir by Sir Walter Armstrong) ; Cat. 
of Grosvenor Gallery, Summer Exhibition, 1886 
(F. G. Stephens); Chambers's Encyclopaedia (art. 
' Pre-Raphaelitism', by W.'Holman Hunt) ; Royal 
Academy Cat., Winter, 1898; Cat. of Fine Art 
Society, 1881 (A. Lang); British. Contemporary 
Artists ; Pre-Raphaelite Diaries and Letters, ed. 
W. M. Rossetti ; Cat. National Galleryof British 
Art ; Spielman's Millais and his Works; SirW. B. 
Richmond's Leighton, Millais, &c. ; J. B. Payne's 
The Lineage and Pedigree of the Family of 
Millais ; Ruskin's Notes on Royal Academy 
Exhibitions, Pre-Raphaelitism, and Modern 
Painters ; Autobiographical Notes of William 
Bell Scott ; Memoirs of Coventry Patmore ; 
Frith's Reminiscences.] C. M. 

MILLIGAN, WILLIAM (1821-1893), 
Scottish divine, was born at Edinburgh on 
15 March 1821, the eldest of seven children 
of the Rev. George Milligan and his wife, 
Janet Fraser. His father, a licentiate of 
the church of Scotland, was then engaged 
in teaching at Edinburgh, and Milligan 
was sent to the high school, where he was 
dux of his class. In 1832, when his father 
became minister of the Fifeshire parish of 
Elie, he was transferred to the neighbouring 
parish school of Kilconquhar, and thence 
proceeded in 1835 to the university of St. 
Andrews. Though only fourteen years of 
age, he earned from that day, by private 
teaching, as much as paid his class-fees, much 
to his parents' relief, for Elie was a ' small 

living.' Graduating M.A. in 1839, and de- 
voting himself to the ministry, he took his 
divinity course partly at St. Andrews and 
partly at Edinburgh, and for a time he was 
tutor to the sons of Sir George Suttie of 
Prestongrange. During the disruption con- 
troversy of 1843 Milligan adhered to the 
church of Scotland. He wrote to his father 
that he was resolved to ' remain in ... and 
lend any aid he could to those who are ready 
to unite in building up, on principles agree- 
able to the word of God, the old church of 
Scotland.' He was at this time assistant 
to Robert Swan, minister at Abercrombie ; 
next year he was presented to the Fifeshire 
parish of Cameron and ordained. 

In 1845 his health gave cause for anxiety, 
and he obtained a leave of absence for a 
year, which he spent in Germany, studying 
at Halle. He made the acquaintance, among 
others, of Neander, in whom he found a 
kindred spirit. Promoted in 1850 to the 
more important parish of Kilconquhar, he 
married, in 1859, Annie Mary, the daughter 
of David Macbeth Moir [q. v.] ; and in 1860 
he was appointed first professor of biblical 
criticism in the university of Aberdeen. He 
worked hard ; but his liberal politics and 
mild broad-church views were not congenial 
to many of his colleagues, and his amiability 
concealed from his students the real strength 
of his character. Nevertheless his power and 
influence grew, and in 1870 he joined the 
company formed for the revision of the Eng- 
lish New Testament. From that time on- 
ward he was a prolific writer. His style, 
prolix at first, became pure and graceful, and 
in such works as those on the resurrection 
and ascension of Jesus Christ and on the 
Revelation of St. John he took a foremost 
place among British theologians. In the 
church courts, too, his rise was steady. In 
1872 he was sent, together with the Rev. J. 
Marshall Lang (now Principal Lang) as a 
representative from the general assembly of 
the church of Scotland to the assembly of 
the presbyterian church in the United 
States ; in 1875 he was elected depute-clerk 
of the general assembly ; and in 1886 he suc- 
ceeded Principal John Tulloch [q. v.] as 
principal clerk. 

Already in 1882, partly in recognition of 
his work as a New Testament reviser, he 
had been elevated to the moderator's chair. 
His address on the occasion was notable 
for its declaration that, in any scheme for 
church reunion in Scotland, the Scottish 
episcopalians must be considered ; while its 
enunciation of doctrine concerning the 
church called forth the warm approval of 
Canon Liddon [q. v.], who wrote and 




thanked him for it. Although in his earlier 
days his humanitarian feelings, and his en- 
thusiasm for liberty and progress, had allied 
him with those who were then called broad 
churchmen, Milligan did not have at any 
period of his career the slightest sympathy 
with the disregard for doctrine which has 
sometimes marked the members of that school. 
Ultimately he ranged himself with high 
churchmen, being, he declared, impelled to 
join them by increased study of the New 
Testament. His doctrine of the church he 
gathered for himself from the Epistle to the 
Ephesians, on which he had contributed an 
important article to the ninth edition of the 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica.' His views on 
the importance of dogma and on the sacra- 
ments he learned, as he believed, from St. 
John, of whose writings he was a lifelong 
student and diligent expositor. This develop- 
ment of his opinions in no way limited his 
width of sympathy, nor did it interfere with 
the friendly intercourse, ecclesiastical as well 
as social, that he had been wont to hold 
with nonconformists with Wesleyans like 
Dr. W. F. Moulton [q. v. Suppl.], or with 
independents like Principal Fairbairn. He 
had been a member for years of the Church 
Service Society. In 1892, when the Scottish 
Church Society was constituted ' to defend 
and advance catholic doctrine as set forth 
in the ancient creeds, and embodied in the 
standards of the church of Scotland, &c.,' 
he took an important part in its formation, 
and accepted office as its first president. 
The last letter he wrote from his death-bed 
was to the first conference of this society, 
then being held in Glasgow. A few days 
previously he had said that the greatest need 
of the church of Scotland was the restoration 
of a weekly celebration of the eucharist. 

Milligan was keenly interested in social 
and especially in educational questions. In 
1888 he went to Germany to inquire about 
technical education and continuation schools 
in that country ; and the next year he 
visited Sweden to see the working of the 
Gottenburg licensing system. In Aberdeen 
he was an active philanthropist ; and all 
over Scotland his services as a preacher 
were in much request. 

When on the eve of retiring from his 
chair at Aberdeen owing mainly to failing 
eyesight, Milligan was suddenly seized with 
illness which soon proved fatal. He died 
at Edinburgh on 11 Dec. 1893. His wife, by 
whom he left issue, survived him. He left 
unfinished a work on the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, and forbade the publication of the 
parts he had written ; some of his notes, 
however, have been used in a work on the 

same subject, since published by his eldest 
son, the Rev. George Milligan. 

There is a portrait of Milligan by Sir 
George Reid, P.R.S.A., at King's College, 
Old Aberdeen (one of the artist's happiest 
likenesses). In 1898 an altar-table, bearing 
an inscription from the pen of his friend 
and colleague, Principal Sir William Geddes 
[q. v. Suppl.], was erected to his memory in 
the College Chapel, Old Aberdeen. 

Milligan's literary productiveness began 
in 1855, when he contributed the first of a 
series of papers to Kitto's ' Journal of 
Sacred Literature.' In 1857 he addressed a 
' Letter to the Duke of Argyll on the Edu- 
cation Question.' ' The Decalogue and the 
Lord's Day ' (1866) was evoked by the con- 
troversy stirred in Scotland by a speech of 
Dr. Norman MacLeod's (1812-1872) [q. v.], 
as his 'Words of the New Testament' (1873) 
written in conjunction with Dr. Roberts 
belonged to the literature of New Testa- 
ment revision. In 1878 appeared a volume on 
the ' Higher Education of Women ; ' and the 
next year he contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ' his important article on the 
' Epistle to the Ephesians.' ' The Resur- 
rection of our Lord ' and his ' Commentary 
on St. John ' (in conjunction with Dr. Moul- 
ton) (1882), his' Commentary on the Revela- 
tion' (1883), his 'Discussions on the Apo- 
calypse ' (1883), his ' Baird Lectures on the 
Revelation of St. John' (1886), 'Elijah' 
(1887), 'The Resurrection of the Dead' 
(1890), 'The Ascension and Heavenly 
Priesthood of our Lord,' and his presidential 
address on the 'Aims of the Scottish Church 
Society ' (1892), were all productions of his 
ripened powers. Besides these he contri- 
buted many articles to periodicals. His last 
article was a notice ' In Memoriam ' of Dr. 
Hort, which appeared in the ' Expository 
Times ' (1893). 

[In Memoriam, a memoir drawn up for his 
family by his Wife, Aberdeen, 1894; Aurorae 
Boreales, Aberdeen, 1899 ; private information ; 
personal recollections.] J. C. 

MILLS, SIB CHARLES (1825-1895), 
first agent-general for the Cape Colony, was 
born in 1825 at Ischl, Hungary, and edu- 
cated chiefly at Bonn. On 1 Feb. 1843 he 
enlisted as a private in the 98th regiment, 
and went to China, where he very soon at- 
tracted some notice, was made staff" clerk in 
the adjutant-general's office, and excused or- 
dinary duty. He seems to have readily mixed 
and become well known in the general so- 
ciety of the station, though nominally only 
' Corporal Mills.' When his regiment was 
ordered to India in 1848, he was offered a 
clerkship in the consular service, but pre- 




ferred to go into active military service. He 
was accordingly with his regiment through 
the Punjab campaign, and was present in 1849 
at Chillianwallah, where he was wounded. 
He received the medal. On 6 June 1851 he 
received a commission as ensign in the 98th 
regiment, became adjutant on 17 June 1851, 
and on 22 Nov. 1854 was promoted lieutenant 
in the 50th foot. 

Mills, having returned home with his regi- 
ment, became, in 1855, brigade-major under 
General Woolridge, who was charged with 
the formation of a camp of instruction for the 
German legion at the Crimea, and went to 
the seat of war with the legion under Sir 
Henry Storks [q. v.] During this war he 
gained special credit for his share in sup- 
pressing an attempt at mutiny among some 
of the Turkish troops. He received the order 
of the Medjidie. 

At the close of the Crimean war, when 
the German legion was disbanded, it was 
proposed to make a military settlement of 
Germans on the eastern border of British 
Kaffraria. Mills, who now left the army, was 
selected as officer in charge of the settle- 
ment ; he arrived at ,Cape Town in January 
1858, and became successively sheriff of King- 
williamstown and secretaryto the government 
of Kaffraria. He had brought out three thou- 
sand men, who prospered almost without 
exception ; he has himself stated that for 
seven years he was their ' guide, philosopher, 
and friend,' and looked upon this as the most 
successful work of his life. He had intended 
writing an account of the settlement, but 
never did so. 

In 1865, when Kaffraria was incorporated 
with the Cape Colony, Mills retired on a pen- 
sion. Subsequently, in 1866, he was elected 
to represent Kingwilliamstown in the parlia- 
ment of the Cape, where he supported the 
government, opposing the party which at 
that time demanded responsible government. 
Sir Philip Wodehouse [q. v. Suppl.], who 
was then governor, eventually persuaded 
him to resign political life and enter the 
colonial service, and in 1867 appointed him 
chief clerk for finance in the colonial secre- 
tary's office. In 1872 he became permanent 
under-secretary in the same office when self- 
government was conferred on the colony ; 
in this capacity he rendered considerable 
service in organising the Cape civil service. 
In 1880 he was sent to London to arrange 
as to the adjustment of expenditure on the 
Zulu war. When in 1882 the Cape govern- 
ment decided to have an agent-general of 
their own in London, Mills was at once 
selected for the position, which he took up 
in October 1882. 

As agent-general Mills was a familiar 
and popular figure at all functions in which 
the colonies were interested. In 1886 he 
was executive commissioner for the Cape at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. In 1887 
he was delegate for the Cape at the colonial 
conference. In 1894 he was one of the dele- 
gates of the Cape at the intercolonial con- 
ference at Ottawa, and this was his last 
special service. He died at 110 Victoria 
Street, London, on 31 March 1895, and was 
buried at Highgate cemetery. He had been 
made C.M.G. in 1878, K.C.M.G. in 1885, 
and C.B. in 1886. He was a governor of the 
Imperial Institute. 

Mills was in later years stoud and florid, 
very cheery in manner, and fond of society. 
He was always reckoned businesslike and 
capable ; at times working exceedingly hard, 
as when he stayed almost continuously in 
the colonial secretary's office for over three 
months in 1872. There are portraits of him 
in the colonial secretary's office, and in the 
Civil Service Club, at Cape Town. 

[Times, 1 April 1895; Capo Times, 2 April 
1 895 ; Cape (weekly) Argus, 3 April 1 895, p. 5 ; 
Cape Illustrated Magazine, April 1895; Army 
Libts, 1850-8.] C. A. H. 

MILNE, SIR ALEXANDER, first baro- 
net (1806-1896), admiral of the fleet, second 
son of Sir David Milne [q.v.], was born on 
10 Nov. 1806. In February 1817 he en- 
tered the Royal Naval College, and in 1819 
first went afloat in the Leander, his father's 
flagship on the North American station. He 
afterwards served in the Conway with Cap- 
tain Basil Hall [q. v.], in the Albion with 
Sir William Hoste [q. v.], and in the 
Ganges, flagship of Sir Robert Waller 
Otway [q. v.], on the South American 
station. In June 1827 he was appointed 
acting- lieutenant of the Cadmus brig on the 
Brazilian station, his commission being con- 
firmed on 8 Sept. In 1830 the brig returned 
to England, and Milne was promoted to the 
rank of commander, 25 Nov. In December 
1836 he commissioned the Snake sloop for 
service in the West Indies, where, in No- 
vember and December 1837, he captured two 
slavers, having on board an aggregate of 665 
slaves. He was promoted, 30 Jan. 1839, 
to be captain of the Crocodile, in which, 
and later on in the Cleopatra, he continued 
in the West Indies or on the coast of North 
America, and in charge of the Newfound- 
land fisheries, till November) 1841. From 
April 1842 to April 1845 he was his 
father's flag captain at Devonport ; and from 
October 1846 to December 1847 flag captain 
to Sir Charles Ogle at Portsmouth. For 




the next twelve years to June 1859 he was 
a junior lord of the admiralty, and in ac- 
knowledgment of his long administrative 
service during a time of war and reorganisa- 
tion he was made a civil K.C.B. on 20 Dec. 
1858 ; he had previously been made a rear- 
admiral, 2 Jan. 1858. 

In 1860 Milne was appointed to the com- 
mand of the West Indies and North Ameri- 
can station, which, during the American 
civil war, he exercised with great judgment 
and tact, at a time when the tension of 
public feeling on both sides of the Atlantic 
especially called for the exercise of these 
qualities. The duration of his command 
was extended by a year, and on 25 Feb. 
1864 he was nominated a military K.C.B., 
with authority to wear both orders. From 
June 1866 to December 1868 he was senior 
naval lord of the admiralty, and from April 
1869 to September 1870 was commander-in- 
chief in the Mediterranean. During the last 
two months of the time the Channel fleet 
joined the Mediterranean on the coast of 
Portugal, and the two were exercised to- 
gether under the command of Milne, who 
Avas also desired to report on the behaviour 
of the Captain [see BURGOYNE, HUGH TALBOT; 
inspected the ship, and commented on the 
very unusual state of things the water 
washing freely over the lee side of the deck. 
In the very exceptional circumstances he 
did not think it necessary to do more than 
express his dislike of this to Coles ; and 
indeed, in view of the strong feeling that 
had been excited in favour of the invention, 
it is almost certain that the outcry would 
have been very great if Milne had ordered 
the ship's sails to be furled, and the ship 
had in consequence weathered the gale in 
safety. It would have been said that he 
was prejudiced against the ship, and had 
refused to give her a fair trial. On the early 
morning of 7 Sept. the Captain turned over 
bodily and went to the bottom. 

On 24 May 1871 Milne was made a G.C.B., 
and from 1872 to 1876 was again first naval | 
lord of the admiralty. On 1 Nov. 1876 he i 
was created a baronet. During his long j 
career he was a member of many commis- 
sions and committees. He was a commis- 
sioner for the exhibition of 1851 in London, ' 
and again for that of 1867 in Paris ; in 1879 I 
he was chairman of Lord Carnarvon's com- 
mittee to inquire into the state of defences 
of our colonies, and in 1881 of a commission 
on the defence of British possessions and 
commerce. In 1887 he was chairman of a 
committee of officers of the navy and marines 
for the presentation of a 'jubilee offering' 

VOL. in. STTP. 

to the queen. The presentation, of silver 
models of the Britannia, a first-rate ship of 
war in 1837, and of the Victoria, a first- 
class battleship of 1887, was actually made at 
Windsor on 22 Nov. 1888. During his later 
years he resided principally at Inveresk 
House, Musselburgh, and there he died, in 
consequence of a chill followed by pneu- 
monia, on 29 Dec. 1896. He married in 
1850, Euphemia, daughter of Archibald 
Cochran of Ashkirk, Roxburghshire, and by 
her (who died on 1 Oct. 1889) left issue, be- 
sides two daughters, one son, Archibald 
Berkeley Milne, a captain in the navy, who 
succeeded to the baronetcy. 

[O'Bj'rne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Men and 
Women of the Time (1895) ; Times, 30 Dec. 
1896 ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; Navy 
List..] J. K. L. 

(1822-1899), Scottish ecclesiastical historian, 
born at Brechin on 10 Sept. 1822, was son of 
David Mitchell, convener of local guilds, and 
i his wife Elizabeth, daughter of James Ferrier 
of Broadmyre. After being educated at 
Brechin grammar school, he proceeded in 
1837 to St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, 
winning an entrance bursary in classics. 
He graduated M.A. in 1841, and in 1844 was 
licensed to preach. After acting as assistant 
to the ministers at Meigle and Dundee, he 
was in 1847 ordained by Meigle presbytery 
to the charge of Dunnichen. Adhering to 
the established church during the secession 
movement, he became in 1848 a member of 
the general assembly. In the same year, 
when only twenty-six, he was appointed 
professor of Hebrew in St. Mary's College, 
and was one of the first to introduce into 
Scotland a scientific method of teaching 
Hebrew. As convener from 1856 to 1875 
of the committee of the mission to the Jews, 
Mitchell did much to develop missions in 
the Levant, which he visited himself in 1857. 
His main interests lay, however, in Scottish 
ecclesiastical history, and in 1868 he suc- 
ceeded John Cook as professor of divinity 
and ecclesiastical history in St. Mary's 

Mitchell held his chair for twenty-six 
years, and during that period published a 
number of valuable works on Scottish 
ecclesiastical history. He was an active 
member of the Scottish Historical and Text 
Societies, and took a prominent part in the 
general councils of the Presbyterian Alliance, 
attending the meeting at Philadelphia in 
1880. In 1885 he was elected moderator of 
the church of Scotland, and the address he 
delivered at the close of the session was 
separately published (Edinburgh and Lon- 




don, 1885, 4to). In 1894 he retired from 
liis professorship, and in 1895 was presented 
with his portrait, painted by Sir George 
Reid. He was made D.D. of St. Andrews 
in 1862, and honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in 
1892. He divided his later years between 
his house at Gowan Park, near Brechin, and 
56 South Street, St Andrews. He died at 
St. Andrews on 22 March 1899, and was 
buried in Brechin cathedral churchyard. 
He married, in 1852, the eldest daughter of 
Michael Johnstone of Archbank, near Moffat, 
and was survived by three sons and four 

Mitchell published : 1. ' The Westminster 
Confession of Faith,' 1866, 8vo ; 3rd ed. 1867. 
2. 'The Wedderburns and their Work,' 
1867, 4to. 3. ' Minutes of the Westminster 
Assembly ' (with Dr. John Struthers), 1874, 
8vo. 4. ' The Westminster Assembly ' 
(Baird Lectures), London, 1883, 8vo ; new 
edit. Philadelphia, 1895. 5. 'Catechisms of 
the Church of Scotland,' Edinburgh, 1886, 
8vo. 6. 'The Scottish Reformation,' ed. 
D. Hay Fleming, with biographical sketch 
by Dr. James Christie, London, 1900, 8vo. 
Mitchell also edited for the Scottish Text 
Society the ' Richt Vey to Heuine,' by John 
Gau [q. v. Suppl.], in 1888, and the ' Gude 
and Godlie Ballatis ' from the 1567 version 
in 1897. For the Scottish Historical Society 
he edited in 1892 and 1896 two volumes of 
' The Records of the Commissions of the 
General Assembly,' 1646-50. He also pub- 
lished an edition of Archbishop Hamilton's 
* Catechism ' (1882), and three lectures at 
St. Giles's, Edinburgh (St. Giles's Lectures, 
1st ser. No. 4, 4th ser. No. 1, and 6th ser. 
No. 8). Of his numerous contributions to 
periodical literature and encyclopaedias a list 
of the most important is given in Dr. Christie's 
memoir (pp. xxvi-xxvii). 

[Mitchell's Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Dr. 
Christie's biogr. sketch prefixed to the Scottish 
Reformation, 1900 ; A. K. H. Boyd's Twenty- 
five Years of St. Andrews, i. 22, ii. 221 ; Mrs. 
Oliphant's Memoir of Principal Tulloch, p. 7 ; 
Knight's Principal Shairp and his Friends ; 
Who's Who, 1899; Times, 23 March 1899; 
English Hist. Review, January 1901.] 

A. F. P. 

MITCHELL, PETER (1824-1 899), Cana- 
dian politician, was born of Scottish parents 
at Newcastle in the county of Northumber- 
land, New Brunswick, on 24 Jan. 1824. Edu- 
cated at the county grammar school, he 
studied law and was called to the bar of the 
province of New Brunswick in 1848. He 
practised his profession for four years, and 
then entered into partnership with a Mr. 
Hawe in the business of lumbering and 

shipbuilding. In 1858 he was elected to the 
assembly as member for his native county, 
and, two years later, became minister in the 
cabinet of Samuel Leonard Tilley [q. v.] 
He was called to the New Brunswick legis- 
lative council in 1860. 

Mitchell too^ no P ar t m the Charlotte- 
town conference of 1864, whose object was 
a union of the maritime provinces only. But 
when in the same year the larger scheme of 
uniting British America arose, he attended 
the meeting at Quebec (10 Oct.) as delegate 
of his province, and assisted in drawing up 
the basis of confederation known as the 
Quebec resolutions. On the delegates' return 
the government of (Sir) Samuel Leonard 
Tilley [q. v.] submitted the plan to the 
popular vote, and was defeated by a large 
majority (1865). Albert Smith then formed 
a cabinet whose element of cohesion was 
opposition to confederation. Shortly after- 
wards Lieutenant-governor Gordon, who 
had himself opposed the measure, received 
instructions to forward the movement. For 
this purpose he called Mitchell to his assis- 
tance, and a line of action was taken which, 
however necessary in the circumstances, can 
scarcely be considered constitutional to-day. 
On 8 March 1866 Gordon addressed the 
houses and declared in favour of union. 
During the negotiations and debates that 
ensued, so many supporters deserted the 
ministers that they resigned in a body 
(13 April). Mitchell was thereupon asked 
to form a cabinet on the basis of confedera- 
tion. He became himself premier and pre- 
sident of the council, while Tilley took office 
as provincial secretary. Dissolving the as- 
sembly, he forthwith appealed to the people. 
The moment was well chosen, for the fenian 
invasion of the frontier had demonstrated the 
need of consolidating British America. The 
real issue at the polls thus became confedera- 
tion or annexation to the United States. 
Mitchell triumphed by a vote of nearly four 
to one. 

A short session followed, the house sitting 
from 26 June till 7 July. The legislature 
was content to vote confidence in the mini- 
stry and leave their course of action ' un- 
fettered by any expression of opinion other 
than what had been given by the people 
and their representatives.' In the final con- 
federation conference which took place at 
Westminster on 4 Dec. 1866, the New Bruns- 
wick delegates had, therefore, a free hand. 
They made use of it to obtain concessions 
that gratified the province : a representation 
of twelve members in the dominion senate 
and fifteen in the dominion House of Com- 
mons ; a reservation of export duties in 




saw logs, since commuted for 150,000 a 
year; a guarantee for the intercolonial rail- 
way. Mitchell was very active in obtaining 
these. It is observable also that he favoured 
the federal principle with Sir George Etienne 
Cartier [q. v.], as against Sir John Alexander 
Macdonald's avowed leaning towards legis- 
lative union. The British North America Act 
received the royal assent on 29 March 1867. 
On the proclamation of the dominion 
(1 July 1867) Mitchell was sworn of the 
privy council of Canada, and became a mem- 
ber of the cabinet with the portfolio of 
marine and fisheries. Thereupon he took 
up his residence in Ottawa. On 25 Oct. 
following he was raised to the senate by 
proclamation. He sat in that body till 
13 July 1872, when he resigned in order to 
assist the administration in the commons. 
Elected by his old constituency, he continued 
to represent it in the second, third, fifth, and 
sixth parliaments. After the Macdonald 
government fell (6 Nov. 1873), he removed 
to Montreal and assumed the editorship of 
the ' Herald ' newspaper. From that date 
he owned no party ties, though he advocated 
liberal principles both in the house and in 
his organ. He suffered defeat in the elec- 
tions of 1891 and 1896. On 1 March 1897 
he received an inspectorship of fisheries for 
the Atlantic provinces. 

Mitchell's six years of ministerial life as 
inspector of fisheries were of permanent bene- 
fit to the dominion. To the guardianship of 
two thousand miles of coast on the Atlantic 
was immediately added the care of the great 
lakes and rivers, and, after 1871, the Pacific 
coast from the straits of Fuca to Alaska. 
His legislation regulating such subjects as 
navigation, pilotage, lighthouses, quarantine, 
fisheries, and the like, proceeds broadly on 
the assumption, since disputed, that the do- 
minion is vested as well with proprietary 
right in as with legislative power over them. 
His department soon became one of the most 
important in Canada. The annual yield of the 
Atlantic fisheries alone rose from 4, 186,000 
in 1849 to 10,250,000 in 1873. 

Mitchell's reputation rests mainly on his 
conduct of the fisheries negotiations with the 
United States. The presence of American 
fishermen on the British North American 
coasts and bays caused international com- 
plications in his department. ' The shortest 
way,' he says, ' to avoid fishery troubles is 
for the United States to cease trespassing . . . 
or make a fair bargain.' Otherwise, he re- 
commended the strict enforcement of the 
Canadian rights. After trying other means 
with small success, he in 1869 commissioned 
six provincial cruisers to protect the fisheries. 

The English government, however, did not 
acquiesce except under conditions which 
Mitchell declined to accept. When in 1871 
the Washington treaty was under discussion 
bet ween the United States and Great Britain, 
Mitchell's influence led to the insertion of 
articles whereby the Canadian fisheries were 
thrown open to the United States for twelve 
years in consideration of a sum to be ascer- 
tained by an arbitration board (arts, xviii- 
xxv.) In 1876 Canada was awarded 
4,500,000. The Canadian right was there- 
by clearly established, and its value placed 
beyond question. 

In July 1899, as he was leaving the parlia- 
mentary buildings, Ottawa, he was stricken 
by paralysis. He seemed to recover, but on 

25 Oct. following he was found dead in his 
rooms in the Windsor Hotel, Montreal. In 
1853 he married Mrs. Gough, a widow 
of St. John. New Brunswick; she died in 

Mitchell was the author of several pam- 
phlets, including : 1. ' A Review of President 
Grant's Message,' Montreal, 1870, which 
concerns the fisheries ; and 2. ' Notes of a 
Holiday Trip,' Montreal, 1880, a reprint of 
letters to the ' Montreal Herald ' on Manitoba 
and the north-west territories. 

[Canadian Gazette, London, 2 Nor. 1899; 
Montreal Star, 25 Oct. 1899; Toronto Globe, 

26 Oct. 1899; Morgan's Canadian Men and 
Women, pp. 639-40 ; N. 0. Cote's Political 
Appointments, p. 101 ; Gemmill's Canadian 
Parliamentary Companion, 1883, p. 142 ; Gray's 
Confederation, pp. 30, 50 ; Dent's Last Forty 
Years, ii. 445 et seq. ; Hannay's Life of S. L. 
Tilley, pp. 233-349 : Stewart's Canada under ' 
Dufferin, pp. 179, 240-1 ; Pope's Mem. of J. A. 
Macdonald, i. 329-30, ii. 14, 105-16; Pope's 
Confederation Doc. pp. 3, 94, 121; Can. Sess. 
Pap. 1868 No. 39, 1869 No. 12, 1870 No. 11, 
1871 Nos. 5 and 12; Hertslet's Coll. of Treaties, 
xiii. 970-86, 1257 ; Hind's Fishery Commission, 
Halifax, i. 43-4, ii. 55-6; U.S.A. Doc. and 
Proc. Halifax Com. i. 82-7, ii. 106-7, 206-17; 
Law Reports, 1898, A. C. p. 700.] T. B. B. 

(1827-1900), biologist, third son of James 
Edward Mivart (d. 1856), hotel proprietor, 
of Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, London, 
was born on 30 Nov. 1827. He received his 
early education at the grammar school, 
Clapham, under Charles Pritchard [q. v.], 
and at Harrow. He subsequently studied 
at King's College, London, with the view 
of graduating at Oxford, but, having joined 
in 1844 the Roman catholic church, he pro- 
ceeded to St. Mary's College, Oscott. His 
change of faith is said to have been 
prompted by a taste for Gothic architecture, 
and finally determined by a study of Milner's 





' End of Religious Controversy.' Admitted 
on 15 Jan. 1846 student at Lincoln's Inn, he 
was there called to the bar on 30 Jan. 1851, 
but preferred a scientific to a forensic career. 
He was member from 1849 of the Royal 
Institution, and fellow from 1858 of the 
Zoological Society, to whose ' Proceedings ' he 
was for more than thirty years a frequent 
contributor. In 1862 he was appointed lec- 
turer on comparative anatomy in St. Mary's 
Hospital, London, and elected (20 March) 
fellow of the Linnean Society, of which he 
was secretary from 1874 to 1880, and was 
elected vice-president in 1892. In 1869 he 
was elected F.R.S. in recognition of the un- 
usual merits of his memoir ' On the Appen- 
dicular Skeleton of the Primates,' communi- 
cated through Professor Huxley in 1867 
('Phil. Trans.' clvii. 299-430). Among 
others of his earlier scientific papers may be 
mentioned 'Notes on the Osteology of the 
Insectivora ' (' Journal of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology,' Cambridge and London, 1867-8, i. 
280-312, ii. 117-54 ; translated in ' Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles,' Sieme serie, 'Zoo- 
logie,'tom.viii. 221-84, ix. 311-72); ' Appen- 
dicular Skeleton of Simia' ('Trans. Zool. 
Soc.' vol. vi., 1866) ; ' Notes on the Myology 
of Iguana Tuberculata ' (' Proc. Zool. Soc.' 
1867, pp. 766-97) ; ' Notes on the Myology 
of Menobranchus Lateralis' (ib. 1869, pp. 
450-66) ; ' On some Points in the Anatomy 
of Echidna Hystrix ' (' Trans. Linn. Soc.' vol. 
xxv. pt. iii. [1866], pp. 379-403) ; and ' On the 
Vertebrate Skeleton' (ib. vol. xxvii. pt. iii. 
[1871], pp. 369-92). Though greatly stimu- 
lated by Darwin, Mivart never became a 
Darwinian; and in 1871 freely criticised the 
great naturalist's hypothesis both in the 
' Quarterly Review ' (vol. cxxxi. p. 47) and 
in a substantive essay ' On the Genesis of 
Species ' (London, 8vo) ; an assertion of the 
right of private judgment which led to an 
estrangement from both Darwin and Huxley. 
Three subsequent works : 1. ' Lessons in 
Elementary Anatomy,' London, 1873, 8vo. 

2. ' Man and Apes,' London, 1873, 8vo. 

3. ' The Common Frog,' London, 1874, 8vo, 
established his reputation as a specialist. 
He was already known as an attractive lec- 
turer at the Zoological Gardens and the 
London Institution, and in 1874 he was ap- 
pointed professor of biology at the short- 
lived Roman catholic University College, 
Kensington. During the decade 1870-80 
he enriched the ' Transactions ' of the 
Zoological Society (vols. viii. and x.) with 
several important papers, viz. : 1. ' On the 
Axial Skeleton of the Ostrich ; ' 2. ' On the 
Axial Skeleton of the Struthionidse ; ' 3. ' On 
the Axial Skeleton of the Pelecanidae ; ' 

4. ' Notes on the Fins of Elasmobranchs ; with 
Considerations on the Nature and Homo- 
logues of Vertebrate Limbs.' To the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica ' (9th edit.) he con- 
tributed the articles ' Ape ' (reproduced in 
substance in Flower and Lydekker's ' Intro- 
duction to the Study of Mammals,' 1891), 
' Reptiles ' (anatomy), and ' Skeleton.' In 
1879 he was president of the biological sec- 
tion of the British Association at Sheffield, 
and delivered an address on Buffbn, which 
was included in his ' Essays and Criticisms,' 
London, 1892, ii. 193. In 1881 appeared his 
elaborate monograph, ' The Cat : an Intro- 
duction to the Study of Back-boned Ani- 
mals, especially Mammals' (London, 8vo), 
which for fulness and accuracy of detail 
and lucidity of exposition is worthy to rank 
with Huxley's ' Crayfish.' Subsequent 
studies in the anatomy of the ^Eluroid, 
Arctoid, and Cynoid carnivora appeared in 
the ' Proceedings' of the Zoological Society 
1882, 1885, and 1890. His researches on 
the last group bore fruit in ' Dogs, Jackals, 
Wolves, and Foxes ; a monograph of the 
Canidse/ London, 1890, 4to. Other papers 
in the ' Proceedings ' of the same society 
(1895) laid the basis of his 'Monograph of 
the Lories, or Brush-tongued Parrots com- 
posing the Family Loridse,' London, 1896, 
4to. Mivart received in 1876 the degree of 
Ph.D. from the pope, and in 1884 that of 
M.D. from the university of Louvain, in 
which he was professor of ' the philosophy 
of natural history ' from 1890 to 1893. 

Despite his rejection of Darwinism, Mivart 
always professed himself an evolutionist. As 
such, however, he can be ranked with no 
school. He never wavered in maintaining an 
essential disparity between organic and inor- 
ganic matter, and between human reason and 
the highest faculties of the brutes. Natural 
selection he relegated to an extremely sub- 
ordinate place, and attributed the formation 
of specific characters to a principle of indi- 
viduation, which he postulated as the essence 
of life (see Essays and Criticisms, ii. 377-9, and 
I The Origin of Human Reason, London, 1889, 
pp. 298-303). Evolution thus understood he 
attempted by a theory of derivative creation 
to reconcile with the catholic faith, between 
which and modern thought he aspired to 
play the part of interpreter (see his paper, 
' One Point in Controversy with the Agnos- 
tics,' in Essays on Religion and Literature, 
ed. Manning, 3rd ser. London, 1874, 8vo). 
In November 1874 he joined the Meta- 
physical Society, in which, as in the wider 
arena of the monthly reviews, he opposed a 
neo-scholastic realism to the prevalent ag- 
nosticism. In 1876 he collected his philo- 




sophical articles under the title ' Lessons 
from Nature as manifested in Mind and 
Matter,' London, 8vo. ' Nature and Thought,' 
an attempt to refute Berkeley in Berkeley's 
own method of dialogue, appeared in 1882 
and other works (all London,8vo) in the fol- 
lowing order : ' A Philosophical Catechism ' 
(1884), ' On Truth : a Systematic Inquiry ' 
(1889), 'The Helpful Science' (1895), and 
* The Groundwork of Science : a Study of 
Epistemology ' (1898). In these treatises 
he laboured to re-establish philosophy upon 
a pre-Cartesian basis, with only such modi- 
fications of form as were imperatively de- 
manded by the problems of the age. But 
this attempt to refurbish the scholastic 
armoury of his church was combined with a 
theological liberalism which eventually 
brought him into collision with her. His 
neo-catholicism was adumbrated in ' Con- 
temporary Evolution,' London, 1876 (a re- 
print of articles in the ' Contemporary Re- 
view ' ), and more explicitly formulated in a 
series of papers in the ' Nineteenth Century,' 
viz. : 1. ' Modern Catholics and Scientific 
Freedom' (July 1885); 2. 'The Catholic 
Church and Biblical Criticism ' (July 1887) ; 
3. ' Catholicity and Reason ' (December 
1887); 4. 'Sins of Belief and Disbelief 
(October 1888); 5. 'Happiness in Hell' 
(December 1892), which, with two explana- 
tory papers (February and April 1893), was 
placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 
21 July 1893 ; and 6. ' The Continuity of Ca- 
tholicism ' (January 1900). The last article, 
with another entitled ' Some Recent Apolo- 
gists,' which appeared contemporaneously in 
the ' Fortnightly Review,' brought his ortho- 
doxy formally into question and led to his 
excommunication by Cardinal Vaughan 
(18 Jan.) An article, ' Scripture and Roman 
Catholicism,' which appeared in the ' Nine- 
teenth Century' in the following March, 
completed his repudiation of ecclesiastical 
authority. He died of diabetes at his resi- 
dence, 77 Inverness Terrace, London, W., on 
1 April following. He was married. His 
son, Dr. F. St. George Mivart, is a medical 
inspector of the local government board. 

It is to be regretted that Mivart did not 
confine himself strictly to scientific work, in 
which his real strength lay. In mastery of 
anatomical detail he had few rivals, and per- 
haps no superior, among his contemporaries; 
but his eminence in this department was not 
gained without a degree of preoccupation 
which left him scanty leisure for the study 
of the delicate and controversial questions 
on which he attempted to arbitrate. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Mivart 
was the author of: 1. ' Introduction Generate 

a 1'Etude de la Nature. Cours profess^ a 
1'Universite de Lou vain,' Louvain, Paris, 
1891. 2. 'Birds: the Elements of Orni- 
thology,' London, 1892, 8vo. 3. 'Types of 
Animal Life,' Londo 1893, 8vo. 4. ' An 
Introduction to the Elements of Science,' 
London, 1894, 8vo. 5. ' Castle and Manor : 
a Tale of our Time,' London, 1900, 8vo. 
For his uncollected papers not specified 
above see the Zoological Society's ' Trans- 
actions ' and ' Proceedings ' from 1864 (with 
which compare ' Zoological Record ' and 
' Zoologist,' 3rd ser. viii. 281) ; ' Transactions 
of the Linnean Society,' 2nd ser. (Zool.), 
i. 513 : ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' 
1888, No. 263 ; ' Popular Science Review,' 
viii. Ill, ix. 366, xiv. 372, xv. 225; ' Con- 
temporary Review,' April 1875, May, July, 
September, October 1879, January, February, 
April 1880, May 1887 ; ' Fortnightly Review,' 
January, April 1886, September 1895, May 
1896 ; ' Nineteenth Century,' August, De- 
cember 1893, August 1895, January, Decem- 
ber 1897, August 1899 ; ' Dublin Review,' 
October 1876, October 1891. 

[Royal Society Year Book, 1901, pp. 227- 
233 ; Lincoln's Inn Adm. Reg. ; Gent. Mag. 1856, 
i. 213; Law List, 1852; Owen's Life of Pro- 
fessor Owen ; Darwin's Life of Darwin ; Huxley's 
Life of Huxley ; Button's ' The Metaphysical 
Society' in Nineteenth Century, August 1885; 
Mivart's 'Reminiscences of Professor Huxley' 
in Nineteenth Century, December 1897; Minerva 
Jahrbuch, 1891 ; Men and Women of the Time, 
1895; Times, 12, 13, 15, 22, 27, 29 Jan., 2, 3, 
4 April 1900; Tablet, 7 April 1900 ; Nature, 
12 April 1900.] J. M. E. 


(1814-1886), South African statesman, the 
son of John Molteno, deputy controller of 
the legacy office, Somerset House, and of 
Caroline Bower, his wife, was born on 5 June 
1814 in his father's house in London. The 
family was of Milanese extraction, but had 
long been domiciled in England. Losing 
his father at an early age, he was educated 
at Ewell, and after a short experience in the 
office of a city shipbrokerhe sailed for South 
Africa in 1831 to take up duties in the public 
library at Cape Town. In 1837, when twenty- 
three years of age, he started a commercial 
business of his own, and was for the next ten 
years engaged in a spirited endeavour to open 
up new markets for colonial produce ; but a 
succession of adverse circumstances proved 
fatal, and in 1841 he abandoned his Cape 
Town business and devoted himself to de- 
veloping the wool trade on a property which 
he had acquired in Beaufort West. From 
this date till 1852 he lived an isolated life in 
the great Karoo, forming an intimate ac- 




quaintance with the life and characteristics 
of the frontier colonists, especially those of 
Dutch blood. 

He took part as a burgher and com- 
mandant in the Kaffir war of 1846, and 
formed a strong opinion of the unsuitability 
of British troops and British regular officers 
for such warfare. The dictatorial tone 
adopted towards the colonists, together with 
the incapacity displayed by the queen's 
officers, was a strong factor in determining 
his future attitude towards the intervention 
of the home government in military matters. 

In 1852 he returned to mercantile pur- 
suits, and founded the firm of Alport & Co., 
which he combined with a large banking 
business, and he 1'apidly grew to be one of 
the wealthiest and most influential citizens 
in the Beaufort district. In 1854 repre- 
sentative institutions were introduced in the 
Cape Colony, and Molteno became the first 
member for Beaufort in the legislative 
assembly, and by his skill in debate and 
profound knowledge of the needs of the 
country soon raised himself to the front rank. 
During the governorship of Sir George Grey 
[q. v. Suppl.] he was generally found in sym- 
pathy and support with him, but on the ap- 
pointment of Sir Philip Wodehouse [q. v. 
Suppl.] in 1862 he was driven into a strong 
policy of opposition. The leading cry among 
Cape politicians was for responsible govern- 
ment, and for many years Molteno took the 
foremost place in the battle. When, with the 
approval of the secretary of the colonies, 
Lord Kimberley, it was conceded in 1872 by 
Sir Henry Barkly [q. v. Suppl.], the new 
governor, Molteno was by common consent 
designated as the first Cape premier. 

The first years of his administration were 
marked by great prosperity, by a vast in- 
crease in railroad communication, and by 
the rehabilitation of the colonial finances. 
The acquisition of the diamond fields had a 
considerable share in this, but the main 
credit may fairly be attributed to the ad- 
ministrative and financial capacity of Mol- 
teno, and to the confidence that he inspired. 

This peaceful epoch was not of long dura- 
tion. Lord Carnarvon was resolved to force 
on his policy of South African confederation. 
Molteno was not opposed to confederation in 
itself, but insisted that it must come gra- 
dually from within and not from without, 
and that at the present time it would impose 
unduly onerous burdens on the Cape Colony. 
Lord Carnarvon was unfortunate in his 
choice of James Anthony Froude[q. v. Suppl.] 
the historian, whom he sent out as an un- 
official representative of the home govern- 
ment in 1875. Failing to obtain Molteno's 

assistance, Froude started an unconstitu- 
tional agitation throughout South Africa 
which, by stirring up the race antagonism 
between English and Dutch, sowed the seeds 
of future calamities. Molteno and his col- 
leagues procured the rejection of a scheme for 
a conference on the subject of confederation, 
and the Cape parliament refused to allow him 
even to discuss the subject with the home 
government when he was in England during 
the following year. 

In April 1877 Sir Henry Bartle Edward 
Frere [q. v.] succeeded Sir Henry Barkly at 
the Cape. He came out as the special exponent 
of Lord Carnarvon's views, and it was not 
long before he came into conflict with Molteno. 
The latter was a thorough-going exponent 
of colonial rights, and prepared to insist on 
them to their fullest extent. Sir Bartle had 
no experience of self-governing colonies. It 
would have been difficult under any cir- 
cumstances for the two to work in har- 
mony ; Frere's preconceived notions on con- 
federation and native policy rendered it 
impossible. The war with the Galekas in 
1877-8 brought matters to a crisis. The 
governor contended that the commander-in- 
chief at the Cape was the only person who 
could command the colonial troops; Molteno 
insisted that, though the governor, as such, 
had power over the colonial forces, it could 
only be exercised with and by the advice of 
his responsible ministers. The ministers 
were unyielding, and on 6 Feb. 1878 Frere 
took the strong step of dismissing them, 
under circumstances which showed little 
consideration for Molteno's long services. 

Molteno had reckoned on the support of 
his parliamentary majority, which had never 
failed him hitherto, but in the debate which 
followed his dismissal the legislative assem- 
bly supported his successor, (Sir) Gordon 
Sprigg. Deeply chagrined, and feeling 
helpless before Sir Bartle Frere's policy, to 
which he was opposed in every respect, he 
retired from public life. In 1881, after 
Frere's recall, Molteno entered for a short 
time Mr. Scanlen's administration as colonial 
secretary, but in August 1882 he finally 
withdrew from politics, receiving the decora- 
tion of a K.C.M.G., and followed by widely 
expressed appreciations of his past services. 
After a short sojourn in England he re- 
turned to the Cape and died at Claremont 
on 1 Sept. 1886. 

Sir John Molteno was a man of com- 
manding presence and of great physical 
strength. In private life he was of most 
simple and unostentatious habits. He was 
thoroughly representative of the early Eng- 
lish settlers at the Cape, and enjoyed the 




full confidence of the Dutch. His ideas 
were formed before the days of imperialism, 
and the interests of the Cape ranked first 
with him, but in his efforts to secure the 
annexation of Damaraland he showed better 
statesmanship than Lord Carnarvon. 

There is a bust photograph of Molteno, 
about life size, in the houses of parliament, 
Cape Town. 

He was three times married: first, to 
Maria Hewitson ; secondly, in 1841, to 
Elizabeth Maria, a daughter of Hercules 
Crosse Jarvis, by whom he left issue ; 
thirdly, to Sobella Maria, the daughter of 
Major Blenkins, C.B., who survived him, 
and by whom he left issue. 

[Life and Times of Sir John Molteno by his 
son, Percy A. Molteno (1899). and the authorities 
there quoted; Martineau's Life of Sir Bartle 
Frera.] J. B. A. 

(1848-1900), divine, born in London on 
22 March 1848, was the only child of Isaac 
Vale Mummery (1812-1892), a well-known 
congregational minister, by his wife, a 
daughter of Thomas George Williams of 
Hackney. He was descended from a French 
family of Huguenot refugees, and early in 
life resumed the original form of its surname 
Momerie. He was educated at the City 
of London School and at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, where he won the Horsliehill and 
Miller scholarship with the medal and Bruce 
prize for metaphysics, and graduated M.A. 
in 1875 and D.Sc.' in 1876. From Edinburgh 
he proceeded to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted on 17 March 
1875 and was senior in the moral science 
tripos in 1877, graduating B.A. in 1878 and 
M.A. in 1881. He was ordained deacon in 
1878, and priest in 1879, as curate of Leigh 
in Lancashire. On 5 Nov. 1879 he was 
elected fellow of St. John's College, and in 
1880 he was appointed professor of logic and 
mental philosophy at King's College, London. 
In 1883 be was chosen morning preacher at 
the Foundling Hospital. 

Between 1881 and 1890 he published 
numerous books and collections of sermons 
on the philosophy of Christianity, which at- 
tained considerable vogue. Their style was 
brilliant, their views latitudinarian. Like 
his predecessor, Frederick Denison Maurice, 
Momerie found himself obliged to sever his 
connection with King's College in 1891, and 
in the same year he resigned the Foundling 
preachership also. With the permission of 
the bishop of London he subsequently 
preached on Sundays at the Portman rooms. 
He died in London on 6 Dec. 1900, at 
14 Chilworth Street. In 1896 he married 

Ada Louisa, the widow of Charles E. Herne. 
In 1887 he received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from Edinburgh University. 

Momerie's chief works are : 1. ' Per r 
sonality the Beginning and End of Meta- 
physics,' London, 1879, 8vo ; 4th edit. 1889. 
2. ' The Origin of Evil, and other Sermons,' 
London, 1881, 8vo; 6th edit. Edinburgh, 
1890, 8vo. 3. ' Defects of Modern Chris- 
tianity, and other Sermons,' Edinburgh, 
1882, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1885. 4. The Basis of 
Religion.' Edinburgh, 1883, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1886. This work was a criticism of (Sir) 
John Robert Seeley's ' Natural Religion.' 
5. 'Agnosticism and other Sermons,' Edin- 
burgh, 1884, 8vo; 2nd edit, 1887. 6. 
' Preaching and Hearing, and other Ser- 
mons,' Edinburgh, 1886, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1890. 
7. ' Inspiration and other Sermons,' Edin- 
burgh, 1889, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1890. 8. ' Church 
and Creed : Sermons preached in the Chapel 
of the Foundling Hospital,' London, 1890, 
8vo. 9. ' The Religion of the Future, and 
other Essays,' Edinburgh, 1893, 8vo. 10. 'The 
English Church and the Romish Schism,' 
2nd edit. Edinburgh, 1896, 8vo. 

[Times, 8 Dec. 1900 ; Who's Who, 1901 ; The 
Eagle, xxii. 244-6 ; Crockford's Clerical Direc- 
tory; Alliboue's Diet, of English Lit.] E.I. C. 

j fourth VISCOUNT MONCK in the Irish peer- 
age, and first BARON MONCK in the peerage 
of the United Kingdom (1819-1894), first 
governor-general of the dominion of Canada, 
was born at Templemore, in the county of 
Tipperary, on 10 Oct. 1819, being the eldest 
son of Charles Joseph Kelly Monck, third 
Viscount Monck of Ballytrammon, by Brid- 
get, youngest daughter of John Willington 
of Killoskehane in the county of Tipperary. 
Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he gra- 
duated B.A. at the summer commencements 
of 1841, and was called to the Irish bar at 
King's Inn in June of the same year. On 
20 April 1849 he succeeded as fourth vis- 
count in the Irish peerage. 

In 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the 
county of Wicklow in the liberal interest, 
but four years later entered the House of 
Commons as member for Portsmouth (July 
1852); On the resignation or Lord Aber- 
deen's ministry in 1855 he became a lord of 
the treasury in Lord Palmerston's govern- 
ment (7 March 1855). His term of office 
lasted three years, until March 1858, when 
the Earl of Derby formed a ministry. Monck 
was defeated at Portsmouth in the general 
election of 1859. 

On 28 Oct. 1861 he was appointed by 
Lord Palmerston captain-general and gover- 




nor-in-chief of Canada, and governor-general 
of British North America. Scarcely had he 
entered on his duties in the month following 
when there came the news of the ' Trent 
atfair,' which for a time threatened to em- 
broil England and the United States in a 
war. Diplomacy, however, dispelled the 
cloud, and the local irritation was calmed by 
Monck's patience and firmness. A more 
serious trouble arose in 1864, when certain 
confederates, having found refuge in Canada 
during the American civil war, plotted to 
turn their asylum into a basis for petty 
attacks on the United States, e.g. seizing 
vessels on the lakes, attacking defenceless 
ports, breaking open prisons as at Detroit, 
robbing banks as at St. Albans. By patrol- 
ling his frontier from point to point, and 
setting small armed craft on the lakes, Monck 
diligently guarded his long boundary line of 
two thousand miles, kept the peace between 
the nations, and received the approbation of 
the imperial authorities (1864). But his 
exertions were not so highly appreciated in 
the United States. Immediately after the 
' St. Albans affair,' General Dix put forth a 
proclamation threatening reprisals (4 Dec. 
1864). Next year the Republic denounced 
the reciprocity treaty of 1854 for other than 
commercial reasons, and suffered, if she did 
not encourage, the attempts of the Fenians 
against British North America. Once more 
the militia were called forth and the frontier 
patrolled. At the Niagara peninsula some 
nine hundred Fenian marauders made an in- 
road into Canadian territory and were re- 
pulsed with considerable loss by the militia 
on 2 June 1866. Difficulties with the United 
States continued during the greater part of 
Monck's term of office, but his government 
also synchronised with the formation of the 
federated dominion of Canada. 

In 1864 Monck had welcomed a propo- 
sition emanating from George Brown [q. v. 
Sup pi.], for the introduction into Canada of a 
federal constitution (memorandum of Lord 
Monck, 15 June 1864). The governor took 
an active interest in the conferences on the 
subject held at Charlottetown and Quebec 
(1864), and in the conduct of the Quebec 
resolutions, which embodied the federal con- 
stitution, through the local houses of par- 
liament (1865). He likewise brought his 
influence to bear in favour of union on the 
lieutenant-governors of Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick. In the autumn of 1866 he 
came to England, as well to assist at the 
Westminster conference as to advise the 
imperial authorities, Sir John Michel admi- 
nistering affairs in his absence. On 4 June 
following his appointment was renewed 

1 under 30 Viet. cap. 3, and his title declared 

'. to be Governor-general of the Dominion of 

Canada. In accordance with the terms of 

Queen Victoria's proclamation he took the 

oath of office and constituted the privy 

council of Canada on 1 July 1867. Having 

! thus inaugurated the federation successfully, 

j the governor-general resigned office on 13 

i Nov. 1868. He left Canada the next day. 

On 12 July 1866 he was created a peer of 

the United Kingdom as Baron Monck of 

I Bally trammon in the county of Wexford. 

[ He received the honour of the grand cross 

i of St. Michael and St. George on 23 June, 

and was called to the privy council on 7 Aug. 

1869. Trinity College, Dublin, bestowed on 

him the degree of LL.D. in 1870. 

After his return to Ireland, where he had 
been a commissioner of charitable donations 
and bequests in 1851, he was appointed a 
member of the Church Temporalities and 
National Education commissions (187 1). He 
continued to administer the former till 1881. 
In the following year he was chosen, with 
Mr. Justice O'Hagan and Mr. Litton, to 
carry out the provisions of the new Irish 
Land Acts, and sat on the commission until 
1884. From 1874 to 1892 he held the office 
of lord-lieutenant and custos rotulorum in 
and for the county of Dublin. He died 
on 29 Nov. 1894. On 22 July 1844 Monck 
married his cousin, Elizabeth Louisa Mary 
(d. 16 June 1892), fourth daughter of Henry 
Stanley Monck, earl of Rathdowne. By her 
he had issue two sons, of whom the elder, 
i Henry Power, succeeded to the peerage, and 
I two daughters. 

[Taylor's Port, of Brit. Arner. i. 1-14; Dent's 
Can. Port. Gall. iv. 162-3; Foster's Peerage, 
p. 470: Burke's Peerage, p. 1025 ; Cat. of 
Grad. Dublin Univ.; Hansard, vols. cxxxvii. 
cxlviii. ; J. E. Cote"s Pol Appoint, i. 30-4 ; Johns 
Hopkins Univ. Stud. Neur. of the Likes, 16th 
j ser. Nos. 1-4, 137-65 ; Miss Frances Monck's 
j My Canadinn Leaves, 1891, p. 225; Somer- 
vi lie's Fenian Invasion of Can. pp. 103-4 ; 
Denison's Fenian Raid at Fort Erie (pamph.) 
1866; Le Caron's Twenty-five Years in the 
Secret. Service, pp. 30-5 : Consolidated Statutes 
of Canada, Upper Canada, Lower Canada, 1859 ; 
N. 0. Cote's Political Appointments, p. 5 ; Pope's 
Mem. of Sir J. A. Macdonald, i. 299-303, 319, 
ii. 416; Ann. Reg. 1894, pt. ii. p. 207; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890 ; Hopkins's 
Canada; Appleton's Annual Encvcl. i. 358-9, ii. 
52.] T. B. B. 


MOSTCREIFF OF TFLLIBOLE (1811-1895), lord 

justice-clerk of Scotland, son of Sir James 
Well wood Moncreiff [q. v.], baronet, and Ann, 
daughter of George Robertson, R . N . , was born 
at Edinburgh on 29 Nov. 1811 . He was edu- 




cated at the high school and university of 
Edinburgh. Naturally quick and intelligent, 
he carried off the principal honours at both 
institutions, including the medal in ' Chris- 
topher North's class of moral philosophy in I 
1828. He was called to the Scottish bar in 
1833, where in a few years he gathered a large 
practice. But, partly from natural bent and 
early training, he pursued politics with a 
keener activity even than that with which he 
followed law. In the forensic arena he was 
in the thick of the church disruption fight, as 
he was engaged as counsel in the leading con- 
flicts of that exciting time the Lethendy, 
the Marnoch, the Auchterarder, and the Cul- j 
salmond cases. With his father and his elder 
brother, Sir Henry Wellwood Moncreiff 
[q. v.], he came out with the seceders. At 
this period he became one of the first con- 
tributors to the ' North British Review,' 
which was started in the interest of the dis- 
senters in 1844. 

Moncreiff first entered the House of Com- 
mons as M.P. for the Leith Burghs, which he 
represented from April 1851 to April 1859, 
when he retired because he was averse to 
dividing the liberal party in the constituency. 
In April 1859, with Adam Black [q. v.], 
he was elected one of the members for the 
city of Edinburgh, and re-elected in 1865. 
In 1868 he resigned his seat, and was elected 
for the representation of Glasgow and Aber- 
deen universities. In February 1850 Mon- 
creiff was appointed solicitor-general for Scot- 
land in Lord John Russell's administration, 
and in April 1851 he succeeded Andrew l\u- 
therfurd [q. v.] as lord advocate. In February j 
1852 he went out of office on the resignation 
of the Russell ministry on their defeat over 
the militia bill, but came in again with Lord 
Aberdeen's coalition government in Decem- 
ber 1852. Among the measures introduced 
and carried by the lord advocate were an act 
to abolish religious tests in the Scottish uni- j 
versities, acts to amend the law of entail, to 
amend the bankruptcy laws, to diminish the 
number of sheriffs, and to amend the law of 
evidence. In February 1854 he introduced 
a bill to establish a uniform system of 
valuation and rating in Scotland, and an 
education bill for Scotland, which was re- 
jected. On this occasion Spencer Horatio 
Walpole [q. v.] said his speech was ' as 
beautiful in language as it was clear and 
perspicuous in its statements.' When the 
coalition ministry was defeated in February 
1855, and Lord Palmerston succeeded, 
Moncreiff was retained as lord advocate, 
and on 23 March he reintroduced his edu- 
cation bill, which was passed, but thrown 
out by the Lords, as it was the following 

year. Moncreiff was also responsible for 
the important bankers' act in 1856. On 
the fall of Kars, the lord advocate was put 
up to reply on behalf of the government to 
the attack of Lord John Manners [q. v.], 
and in 1859 he was selected by the 
government to compliment Mr. Speaker 
Denison on his re-election to the chair in 
the House of Commons. Excepting the 
year of the Derby-Disraeli administration 
(February 1858-June 1859), Moncreiff was 
lord-advocate till July 1866. His only other 
year of office was from December 1868 to 
October 1869, when he succeeded James 
Patten [q. v.] as lord justice-clerk. From 
1858 to" 1869 he was dean of the faculty 
of advocates the premier position at the 
Scottish bar. 

During his long career in parliament Mon- 
creiff guided the passing of over a hundred 
acts of parliament, and his name will ever be 
associated with the reform of legal procedure 
and mercantile law. As lord advocate he 
was engaged as public prosecutor in many im- 
portant cases, notably the trials of Madeline 
Smith, Wielobycki, and the directors of the 
Western bank. In 1856 he defended the 
' Scotsman ' in the libel action raised by Mr. 
Duncan McLaren [q. v.], one of the members 
for the city of Edinburgh. In January 1857 
he was presented with the freedom of his 
native city for the part he took in regard to 
the Municipal Extension Act. In 1859 he 
became lieutenant-colonel of the first rifle 
volunteer corps in Scotland that of the city 
of Edinburgh. In 1860 he benefited Edin- 
burgh by passing the annuity tax bill a 
subject in which, as a free churchman, he 
took the keenest interest and in the follow- 
ing year he benefited Scotland by carrying 
the important bill relating to burgh and paro- 
chial schools. In 1861 he was engaged as 
leading counsel in the defence of Sir William 
Johnston, one of the directors of the Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow bank, and in 18631 he 
was counsel in the famous Yelverton case. 

For nineteen years Lord Moncreiff occu- 
pied the judicial bench, presiding over the 
trials in the justiciary court of Chantrellf 
(1878), the Citv of Glasgow bank directors 
(1878), the dynamitards (1883), and the 
crofters (1886). Extra-judicially he was oc- 
cupied in many other matters. Asa lecturer 
he was in great request, and delivered nu- 
merous orations in Edinburgh and Glasgow 
on subjects of literary, scientific, and politi- 
cal interest to the Philosophical Institution, 
Royal Society, Juridical Society, Scots Law 
Society, and other bodies. Moncreiff also pul>- 
lished anonymously in 1871 a novel entitled 
' A Visit to my Discontented Cousin,' which 

Monier-Williams 186 Monier-Williams 

was reprinted, with additions, from ' Eraser's 
Magazine.' He was also a frequent contri- 
butor to the ' Edinburgh Review.' In 1858 
he received the degree of LL.D. from Edin- 
burgh University : from 1868 to 1871 he was 
rector of Glasgow University, from which he 
received the degree of LL.D. in 1879, and in 
1869 he was appointed a member of the privy 
council. On 17 May 1871 he was created a 
baronet ; on 1 Jan. 1874 he was made a baron 
of the United Kingdom ; in 1878 he was ap- 
pointed a royal commissioner under the En- 
dowed Institutions (Scotland) Act, and in 
1883 he succeeded his brother as eleventh 
baronet of Tullibole. In September 1888 he 
resigned the position of lord justice-clerk, and 
took up the preparation of his ' Memorials,' 
which are yet to be published. On these he 
was engaged till his death on 27 April 1895. 
There is a portrait of Moncreiff, painted by 
Sir George Reid, P.R.S.A., on the wall of 
the parliament house in Edinburgh. 

Lord Moncreiff married, on 12 Sept. 1834, 
Isabella, only daughter of Robert Bell, pro- 
curator of the church of Scotland, and 
sheriff of Berwickshire and Haddingtonshire, 
and by her (who died on 19 Dec. 1881) he 
had five sons and two daughters. His eldest 
son, Henry James, now Baron Moncreiff, sat 
since 1888, under the title of Lord Well wood, 
as a lord of session, an office which, as Lord 
Moncreiff, he still retains. 

[Scotsman, 29 April 1 89o ; Addison's Glasgow 
Graduates ; Scottish Law Review, June 1895 
(with portrait) ; Burke's Peerage ; Men of the 
Time.] G. S-H. 

(1819-1899), orientalist, was the third of 
the four sons of Colonel Monier Williams, 
R.E., surveyor-general, Bombay presidency, 
and of his wife, Hannah Sophia, daughter of 
Thomas Brown of the East India Company's 
civil service, reporter-general of external 
commerce in Bengal. Born at Bombay in 
1819, he came to England in 1822, where he 
was educated at private schools at Chelsea 
and Brighton, and afterwards at King's Col- 
lege School, London. He matriculated at 
Oxford in March 1837, but did not go into 
residence at Balliol College till Michaelmas 
1838. In the following year he rowed in 
his college eight at the head of the river. 
Having received a nomination to a writer- 
ship in the East India Company's civil ser- 
vice in November 1839, he passed his exami- 
nation at the East India House in December. 
He then left Oxford and went into residence 
at the East India Company's college, Hail ey- 
bury, in January 1840, whence he passed out 
head of his year. He was about to proceed 
to the east when the news arrived that his 

youngest brother had been killed in the 
unsuccessful attempt to relieve the be- 
leaguered fort of Kahun in Sindh. This 
entirely changed the course of his career ; 
for, yielding to the urgent desire of his 
widowed mother that he should now not 
leave the country, he decided to relinquish 
his appointment and remain in England. 
He therefore returned to Oxford in May 
1841 ; but as Balliol was full, and no pro- 
vision existed in those days for out-college 
residence, he joined University College. He 
now entered upon the study of Sanskrit 
under Professor Horace Hayman Wilson 
[q. v.], and gained the Boden scholarship in 
1843. Graduating B.A. in the following 
year, he was appointed to the professorship 
of Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindustani, at 
Haileybury. This office he held for about 
fifteen years, till the college was closed 
after the Indian mutiny in 1858, and the 
teaching staff was pensioned off. After 
spending two or three years at Cheltenham, 
where he held an appointment at the college, 
he was elected Boden professor of Sanskrit 
in the university of Oxford by convocation 
in December 1860, when Professor Max 
Miiller [q. v. Suppl.] was his opponent. 

In the early seventies Monier Williams 
conceived the plan of founding at Oxford an 
institution which should be a focus for the 
concentration and dissemination of correct 
information about Indian literature and cul- 
j ture. This project he first brought before 
i congregation at Oxford in May 1875. With 
a view to enlisting the sympathies of the 
; leading native princes in his scheme, he un- 
dertook three journeys to India in 1875, 
1876, and 1883 ; and his persevering efforts 
were so far crowned with success that he 
collected a fund which finally amounted 
j to nearly 34,000/. By rare tenacity of pur- 
j pose he succeeded in overcoming all the 
| great difficulties in his way, and the Indian 
| Institute at last became an accomplished 
I fact. The foundation-stone was laid by the 
! Prince of Wales in 1883. The building was 
j erected in three instalments, the first being 
: finished in 1884, and the last in 1896, when 
] the institute was formally opened by Lord 
I George Hamilton, the secretary of state for 
I India. Monier Williams subsequently pre- 
sented to the library of the institute a valua- 
ble collection of oriental manuscripts and 
books to the number of about three thousand. 
By his sister's desire, and at her own expense, 
an excellent portrait of him was painted in 
| oils by Mr. W. W. Ouless, R.A., in 1880, 
i and was presented by her to the institute. 

Monier Williams was a fellow of Balliol 
College from 1882 to 1888; was elected 

Monier-Williams 187 


an honorary fellow of University College 
in 1892, and was keeper and perpetual 
curator of the Indian Institute. He received 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. from Oxford 
in 1875, of LL.D. from Calcutta, and of 
Ph.D. from Gottingen. He was created a 
K.C.I. E. in 1887, when he assumed the 
additional surname of Monier. 

Failing health obliged Sir Monier to re- 
linquish in 1887 his active professorial 
duties, which had become very onerous 
owing to the institution of the honour 
school of oriental studies at Oxford in 1886. 
He ceased to reside in the university, spend- 
ing the winter months of every year in the 
south of France. The last years of his life 
he devoted chiefly to the completion of the 
second edition of his ' Sanskrit-English Dic- 
tionary.' He gave the final touches to the 
last proof-sheet of this work only a few 
days before his death. He died at Cannes 
on 11 April 1899. His remains were brought 
back to England and interred in the village 
churchyard at Chessington, Surrey. In 1848 
Monier Williams married Julia, daughter of 
the Rev. F. J. Faithful], rector of Hatfield, 
and had by her a family of six sons and one* 

Monier-Williams's activity as a scholar 
was directed mainly towards the practical 
side of Sanskrit studies, and to the diffusion 
in England of a knowledge of Indian re- 
ligions. Taking little interest in the oldest 
phase of Indian literature, represented by 
the Vedas, he devoted himself almost ex- I 
clusively to the study of the later period, or j 
that of classical Sanskrit. The three texts 
of which he published editions are Kali- 
dasa's plays ' Vikramorvasi' (1849) and 
'Sakuntala'(1853; 2nd ed. 1876), besides 
the ' Nalopakhyana, or Episode of Nala ' 
(2nd ed. 1879), from the ' Malmbharata.' 
He further wrote several works relating to 
the language of ancient India, a ' Sanskrit 
Grammar ' (1846), which reached a fourth 
edition in 1876, an ' English-Sanskrit Dic- 
tionary ' (1851), a 'Sanskrit Manual for 
Composition ' (1862), and a large ' Sanskrit- 
English Dictionary ' (1872 ; 2nd ed. 1899). 
Monier-Williams was also a successful 
translator of Sanskrit. His rendering of 
' Sakuntala ' in prose and verse (1853) 
reached a sixth edition in 1894, and his 
' Indian Wisdom ' (1875), which consists 
chiefly of translated specimens of Sanskrit 
literature, appeared in a fourth and enlarged 
edition in 1893. Shortly before and after 
the beginning of his career as Boden pro- 
fessor, he wrote some Hindustani manuals. 
One of these was ' An Easy Introduction to 
the Study of Hindustani' (1858), and an- 

other his 'Practical Hindustani Grammar ' 

Ever since his inaugural lecture at Oxford 
on ' The Study of Sanskrit in relation to 
Missionary Work in India' (1861), Monier- 
Williams was a frequent advocate of the 
claims of missionary enterprise in India. 
This interest led him to devote much of his 
time to writing books meant to diffuse a 
knowledge of Indian religions in England. 
Most of them have enjoyed a considerable 
popularity. These works are entitled ' Hin- 
duism ' (1877), 'Modern India and the 
Indians '(1878), 'Religious Life and Thought 
in India' (1883), 'Buddhism' (1889), and 

[Personal knowledge and information sup- 
plied by members of the family, especially Mr. 
C. Williams, an elder brother of Sir M. Monier- 
Williams.] A. A. M. 

SON, JOHN GEORGE, 1825-1897.] 

(1812-1894), politician, born on 21 Sept. 
1812, was the only son of William Monsell 
(d. 1822) of Tervoe, co. Limerick, who 
married in 1810 Olivia, second daughter of 
Sir John Allen Johnson W T alsh of Bally- 
kilcavan, Queen's county. He was educated 
at Winchester College from 1826 to 1830, 
and among his schoolfellows were Roundell 
Palmer (afterwards Earl of Selborne) and 
W. G. Ward (SELBORNE, Memorials, n. ii. 
411). On 10 March 1831 he matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, but left the 
university without taking a degree. 

At the general election in August 1847 
Monsell was returned to parliament for the 
county of Limerick, and represented it, as a 
moderate liberal, without a break until 
1874. He joined the Roman catholic church 
in 1850, and throughout his parliamentary 
career spoke as the leading representative of 
its hierarchy. As a resident and concilia- 
tory landlord he was popular with his 
tenantry, and in the House of Commons he 
promoted the cause of agricultural reform. 
His prominence in parliament is shown by 
his selection to propose the re-election of 
Speaker Denison (Hansard, February 1866, 
pp. 4-7 ; DENISON, Diary, pp. 184-5). 

Monsell filled many offices. He was 
clerk of the ordnance from 1852 until the 
office was abolished in February 1857, and 
from that date to September 1857 he was 
president of the board of health. On 
13 Aug. 1855 he was created a privy coun- 
cillor. For a few months (March to July 
1866) he was vice-president of the board of 
trade, and from 1866 to 1868 he acted as 




paymaster-general. He served as under- 
secretary for the colonies from February 
1868 to the close of 1870, and as postmaster- 
general from January 1871 to November 
1873. On 12 Jan. 1874 he was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Emly. His name is 
identified with the abortive scheme for the 
' establishment of an Irish national uni- 
versity upon a federal basis,' which Glad- 
stone brought forward in 1873. The pam- 
phlets published by Gladstone in 1874-5 
against Vaticanism met with his disapproval 
(PimcELL, A. P. de Lisle, ii. 54-65). 

With the rise of the land league Monsell 
lost his popularity. He opposed the move- 
ment for home rule, and he was accordingly 
removed from the chairmanship of the 
board of poor-law guardians. He had 
been high sheriff of Limerick in 1835, and 
he was made lord-lieutenant of the county 
in 1871. He was also vice-chancellor of 
the royal university of Ireland. 

Lord Emly died at Tervoe on 20 April 
1894, and was buried in the family vault at 
Kilkeedy. He married, on 11 Aug. 1836, 
Anna Maria Charlotte Wyndham Quin, 
only daughter of the second earl of Dun- 
raven. She died at St. Leonard's, Sussex, 
on 7 Jan. 1855 without leaving issue. In 
1857 he married Bertha, youngest daughter 
of the Comte de Montigny. She died on 
4 Nov. 1890, leaving one son, who succeeded 
to the peerage, and one daughter. 

Monsell contributed to the ' Home and 
Foreign Review.' He was an intimate 
friend of Cardinal Newman (PTTRCELL, 
Manning, ii. 312-20), was closely associated 
with Montalembert and his party, and was 
' an enthusiastic advocate of liberal Catholi- 
cism and political reform.' He published 
in 1860 ' A Lecture on the Roman ques- 

[Burke's Peerage; Men of the Time, 13th 
edit. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Baines's Forty 
Years at the Post Office, i. 218; Gent. Mag. 
1855, i. 329; Times, 21 April 1894, p. 7; Ann. 
Reg. 1894. p. 159; Tablet, 28 April 1894, pp. 
661-2 ; Ward's W. G. Ward and the Catholic 
Revival, pp. 143-4, 185-6, 205, 224-8, 243, 
268-70; Ward's W. G. Ward and the Oxford 
Movement, p. 5.] W. P. C. 

MONTAGU, JOHN (1797-1853), colo- 
nial official, born on 21 Aug. 1797, was the 
youngest son of Lieutenant-colonel Edward 
Montagu (1755-1799) [q.v.] He was edu- 
cated at Cheam in Surrey and at Parson's 
Green, near Knight sbridge. On 10 Feb. 
1814 he was appointed, without purchase, to 
an ensigncy in the 52nd foot. He was pre- 
sent at Waterloo, and on 9 Nov. 1815 was pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy by purchase ; he also 

bought his company in the 64th foot in No- 
vember 1822, exchanging into the 40th foot 
on 7 Aug. 1823. In the same year he pro- 
ceeded to Van Diemen's Land (now Tas- 
mania) with the lieutenant-governor, (Sir) 
George Arthur [q. v.], and on his arrival in 
May 1824 was nominated his private secre- 
tary. This post he retained until 1827, 
holding his captaincy on half-pay. In 1826 
Van Diemen's Land, which had hitherto 
been attached to New South Wales, was 
constituted a separate colony, and Montagu 
became clerk of the executive and legisla- 
tive councils. This office he held until 1829, 
when his military duties recalled him to 
England. In 1830 Sir George Murray 
(1772-1846) [q.v.], secretary of state for 
the colonies, offered to reappoint him on 
condition of his quitting the army. He ac- 
cordingly sold out on 10 Sept. and returned 
to Van Diemen's Land. In 1832 he took 
charge for a year of the colonial treasury, 
and in 1834 he was nominated colonial secre- 
tary. In October 1836 Arthur relinquished 
the government to Sir John Franklin [q. v.], 
under whom Montagu retained his office. 
From February 1839 to March 1841 he 
was absent on a visit to England, and 
on his return he found himself involved in 
differences with the governor. He behaved 
to Franklin in a somewhat arbitrary man- 
ner, insisting on the dismissal of several 
government officials, although the governor 
was not convinced of their culpability. 
Finally Franklin reinstated one of these 
officers, and Montagu in consequence ceased 
to co-operate cordially in the work of ad- 
ministration, openly charged him with suffer- 
ing his wife to influence his judgment, and 
finally declared himself unable to rely upon 
the accuracy of the governor's statements. 
On 25 Jan. 1842 Montagu was suspended 
from office. He sought a reconciliation, and 
Franklin, in his despatch to Lord Stanley 
SMITH, fourteenth EARL OF DERBY], with 
great generosity, spoke highly of his ability, 
and recommended him for other employment. 
Colonial sympathy was largely on Montagu's 
side, and Stanley, after investigation, came 
to the conclusion that Franklin was not 
justified in his action, and that Montagu's 
dismissal was unmerited. 

In 1843 Montagu was nominated colonial 
secretary at the Cape of Good Hope, a post 
which he retained until death. He arrived 
at the Cape and entered on office on 23 April. 
Shortly after his arrival he submitted to the 
governor, Sir George Thomas Napier [q. v.l, 
a project for improving the financial condi- 
tion of the colony. Napier recognised its 




merits, and it was carried into effect under [ governor-general's bodyguard during a part 
Montagu's superintendence. The condition ! of the time when Richard Colley (Marquis 
of the colony showed immediate improve- , Wellesley) [q. v.] was governor-general ; he 
ment, and the passage of time showed the was created a baronet on 3 Oct. 1808, and 
amelioration to be permanent. He also ! married Sarah Mercer (d. 185-4), daughter of 
realised the importance of encouraging im- Leslie Grove of Grove Hall, co. Donegal, 
migration, and by a system of bounties The Montgomery family were a branch of 
nearly seventeen hundred settlers were the Scottish Montgomeries, of whom the 
brought into the colony in three years, j Earl of Eglintoun is the head, and had 
During the government of Sir Peregrine settled in Ireland in co. Donegal. 
Maitland [q. v.], Montagu distinguished him- The subject of this article was educated at 
<elf by his able conduct of the financial , Eton and at the East India College, Hailey- 
arrangements necessitated by the Kaffir ! bury, to which institution he was nominated 
war. He also rendered the colony signal ! as a student on 1 Aug. 1821. He did not, 
service by promoting the construction of however, go out to India until 1825, having 
good roads across the mountain passes into been permitted to leave Haileybury early in 
the interior. They were chiefly made by 1822 for the purpose of serving as assistant 
convict labour, and Montagu was successful private secretary on thestaffof Lord Welles- 
in introducing a new system, by which the i ley, who was at that time lord-lieutenant of 
condition of the criminals was much im- \ Ireland. There seems at one time to have been 

proved. The road carried over Cradock's 
Kloof was named Montagu Pass, and is now 
part of the great trunk line between the 
western and eastern districts. The scene of 

an intention that the young student should 
give up his Indian writership and remain on 
Lord Wellesley's staff, on the chance of the 
latter being able to provide for him in the 

another great engineering feat at Bain's | public service in England ; but on the ad- 
Kloof, in the mountain range which separates vice of Sir John Malcolm [q. v.], a friend of 
Worcester and the districts beyond from j his father, who went over to Dublin for the 
the Cape division, was designated Montagu purpose of combating the idea, the intention 
Rocks. was abandoned, and early in 1824 Mont- 

On the outbreak of the Kaffir war in De- j gomery returned to Haileybury, passing 
cember 1850 the governor, Sir Harry George through college at the end of that year. 
Wakelyn Smith [q. v.l, was besieged in Fort j In 1825 he proceeded to India, reaching 
Cox. Montagu exerted himself to the utmost : Madras on 3 Nov. In those days it was the 
to raise levies, and rendered the governor \ custom for the young civil servants to re- 
assistance of the greatest importance. On main for two years at the presidency town, 
'1 May 1851 he was compelled to leave Cape prosecuting their studies in the native Ian- 
Colony owing to ill-health brought on by i guages. Montgomery was therefore not ap- 
overwork. He died in London on 4 Nov. pointed to the public service until 16 Jan. 
1853, and was buried in Brompton cemetery 1827, when he was gazetted assistant to the 
on 8 Nov. In April 1823 he married Jessy, principal collector and magistrate of Nel- 
daughter of Major-general Edward Vaughan lore. On 31 Jan. 1830 he succeeded his father 
Worseley. Montagu's transfer from Tas- as second baronet. He subsequently served 
mania to the Cape seriously injured his in various grades of the revenue department 
private fortune. He left his family im- : in the districts of Tanjore, Salem, Tinne- 
poverished, and on 23 Oct. 1854 his wife velly, and Bellary, completing his revenue 

received a civil-list pension of 300/. 

service in the provinces as collector of Tan- 

[Newman's Biogr. Memoir of John Montagu jore. In all these districts he had made his 
(with portrait), 1855 ; Fenton's Hist, of Tas- j mark as an able and careful administrator, 
mania, 1884. pp. 134, 139-40, 142, 158-9 ; and the result was that in 1843 he was sent 
Franklin's Narrative of some Passages in the on a special commission to the Rajahmundry 

(now called the Godavery) district to inquire 
into the causes of its impoverished condition 

History of Van Dieman's Land during the Last 
Three Years of Sir John Franklin's Administra- 

tion, privately printed, 1845; West's Hist, of and to 8UgRe st a remedy. It was upon his re- 

roD*ioMrt T mm/ismt^n IQ^O i OO 7 . T'Vi^oTo -i i i. * 

commendation, based upon his experience in 
Tanjore, that Captain (afterwards Sir Ar- 
thur) Cotton [q. v. Suppl.] was deputed to 
Rajahmundry to investigate the question of 

Tasmania, Launeeston, 1852, i. 225-7; Theal's 
Hist, of South Africa.] E. I. C. 

YMiUAM, second baronet (1803-1878), 

Madras civil servant, was the eldest son of utilising the waters of the Godavery for the 
Sir Henry Conyngham Montgomery (d. purpose of irrigating the delta of that river, as 
1830). The father served in India for many had been done in Tanjore ami Trichinopolyin 
years as a cavalry officer, commanding the ; the case of the Cavery and Coleroon rivers. 




Montgomery's report and recommenda- 
tions on the condition of the Rajahmundry 
district elicited high commendation from 
the government of Madras, and two years 
later he was selected by the Marquis of 
Tweeddale [see GEORGE HAY, eighth MAR- 
QUIS OF TWEEDDALE] to fill a vacancy in the 
government secretariat. He served as secre- 
tary to government in the revenue and 
public works departments until 1850, when 
he was promoted to the chief secretaryship. 
In 1855 he was appointed by the court of 
directors a member of the governor's council, 
which post he held until 1857, when, his 
health failing, he returned to England, and 
in the course of that year resigned his 
appointment and retired from the Indian 
civil service. In the following year, on 
the establishment of the council of India 
in London, Montgomery was appointed to 
be one of the first members of the new coun- 
cil, and this position he retained until 1876, 
when he finally retired from official life. 
On the occasion of his retirement he was 
appointed, at the recommendation of the 
Marquis of Salisbury, then secretary of state 
for India, to be a member of the privy coun- 
cil, an honour which is very rarely conferred 
upon Indian civil servants. 

Montgomery's official career was eminently 
successful. He was not a brilliant man, 
but he was an extremely useful public 
servant. As a very young man he was 
remarked for the carefulness and accuracy 
of his \vork. When he became the head of a 
district, he was regarded as one of the ablest 
district officers in the presidency to which he 
belonged. He certainly had the advantage 
of possessing influential friends. Lord Wel- 
lesley had formed a high opinion of him 
when he worked in Dublin in the lord- 
lieutenant's private office, and did not fail 
to exert his influence on his behalf. Sir 
John Malcolm twas also akind friend to him. 
But he fully justified their recommendations. 
By his report upon the Rajahmundry dis- 
trict, and by the recommendations which he 
made for improving its condition, he ren- 
dered a service to the state, the benefits of 
which still remain. In the higher posts 
which he subsequently filled in Madras, as 
secretary and chief secretary to government 
and member of council, he fully maintained 
his previous reputation. By the successive 
governors under whom he served in the 
secretariat and in council, the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, Sir Henry Pottinger, and Lord 
Harris, he was trusted as a wise and con- 
scientious adviser. During his long service 
in the Indian council, extending over 
eighteen years, he was highly esteemed 

both by successive secretaries of state and by 
his colleagues in the council. His minutes, 
when lie found himself called upon to dis- 
sent from the decisions of the secretary of 
state or of a majority of the council, were 
models of independent but courteous 
criticism. He retained to the last a keen 
interest in the presidency in which the 
whole of his Indian service had been 
passed. Indeed, it has been sometimes 
thought that he carried beyond due limits 
his advocacy of the claims of his old presi- 
dency, as in the case of the Madras harbour 
project, which was sanctioned by the 
India office, mainly at his instance, but has 
been a heavy burden upon the Indian 
revenues without compensating results. On 
political questions concerning the south of 
India he was a high authority. When the na- 
wab of the Carnatic died in 1858, Montgomery 
supported Lord Harris in advocating the ex- 
tinction of the titular nawabship as a mis- 
chievous remnant of a state of things which, 
for political reasons, it was inexpedient to 
maintain. But he was not opposed in prin- 
ciple to the maintenance of native dynasties. 
In 1863 he wrote a cogent minute dissenting 
from the refusal of the secretary of state in 
council to restore to the rajah of Mysore the 
administrations of the territories of that 
state. The policy which on this occasion 
Montgomery opposed had been supported 
by two successive governors-general, the 
Marquis of Dalhousie and Earl Canning, 
but was subsequently reversed. 

Montgomery died suddenly in London on 
24 June 1878. In appearance he was sin- 
gularly handsome, although small in stature. 
In manner he was invariably courteous, 
and his courtesy was the outcome of a kindly 
nature. He possessed in a conspicuous 
degree the rare virtue of readiness to admit 
error when he found that he had misjudged 
another. He married, on 3 March 1827, 
Leonora, daughter of General Richard Pigot, 
who survived him, dying on 16 June 1889. 
He left no children, and was succeeded as 
third baronet by his brother, Admiral Sir 
Alexander Leslie Montgomery (1807-1888) 

[Personal knowledge, from 1846 to Sir Henry's 
death in 1878 ; private papers, lent by the pre- 
sent baronet, Sir Hugh Montgomery, including 
letters from the Marquis Wellesley, from the 
eighth Marquis of Tweeddale, from the first 
Sir Henry Pottinger, and from the late Lord 
Harris ; official papers and parliamentary re- 
turns at the India Office.] A. J. A. 

MOON, WILLIAM (1818-1894), in- 
ventor of the embossed type known as 
Moon's type for the blind, was descended 
from an old Sussex family seated at Rother- 



field ; but he was born at Horsemonden, 
Kent, on 18 Dec. 1818. He was the son of 
James Moon of Horsemonden, by his wife, 
Mary Funnell Moon. During his child- 
hood his parents removed to Brighton, but 
William remained for some time at Horse- 
monden. At the age of four he lost the 
sight of one eye through scarlet fever, and 
the other eye was seriously affected. He 
was educated in London, and when about 
eighteen years old he settled at Brighton 
with his widowed mother. He was study- j 
ing with the intention of taking holy orders ; 
but the sight of the remaining eye gra- 
dually failed, in spite of several surgical 
operations. In 1840 he became totally blind. 
He had previously made himself acquainted 
with various systems of embossed type, and 
now began to teach several blind children, 
who were formed with some deaf mutes into 
a day school in Egremont Place, Brighton. 
In Frere's system [see FKEEE, JAMES 
HATLEY], and the others previously used 
for teaching the blind, contractions are 
very extensively used ; Moon, after some 
years' teaching, judged this system to be too 
complicated for the vast majority of blind 
persons, especially the aged, and accordingly 
constructed a system of his own in 1845. 
He employed simplified forms of the Roman 
capitals, almost entirely discarding contrac- 
tions: and after he had constructed his 
alphabet he found that all the twenty-six 
letters are only nine placed in varying posi- 
tions. By the help of friends interested in 
the blind, type was procured, and Moon 
began a monthly magazine. His first pub- 
lication, ' The Last Days of Polycarp,' ap- 
peared on 1 June 1847 ; ' The Last Hours of 
Cranmer ' and devotional works followed. 
Next he began to prepare the entire Bible, 
discontinuing the monthly issues for a time. 
As his supply of type was insufficient for so 
extensive an undertaking, he tried stereo- 
typing, and after much experimenting suc- 
ceeded in the invention of a process by which 
he could produce a satisfactory plate at less 
than one-sixth of the ordinary price. He 
put his process into use in September 1848, 
and the stereotyper then engaged was em- 
ployed on the work till Moon's death, and 
is still (1901). The publications have always 
been sold under cost price, the deficiency 
being made up by contributions from the 
charitable public. In 1852, when the greater 
part of the Bible was still unprinted, a formal 
report was published, with a defence of 
Moon's system against objectors, who had 
sneered at the cost and bulk of his publica- 
tions ; he argued that the Frere and other 
systems depending upon contractions com- 

plicated the notation so far that the books 
were useless to the majority of the blind. 
He soon extended his system to foreign lan- 
guages, beginning with Irish and Chinese ; 
the principal languages of Europe were next 
employed, and before his death the Lord's 
Prayer or some other portion of Scripture 
was embossed in 476 languages and dialects, 
for all of which the original nine characters 
are found sufficient. The 'ox-ploughing' 
succession of lines is adopted. The works 
printed in foreign languages are almost en- 
tirely portions of the Bible; in English a 
large selection is available, including very 
many devotional works, some scientific trea- 
tises, and selections from Shakespeare, Mil- 
ton, Burns, Scott, Longfellow, and other 
standard authors. 

Moon met with a girl born blind, who 
supposed that horses stood upright and 
walked with two legs : this suggested to 
him embossed ' Pictures for the Blind,' teach- 
ing them by the touch to realise the forms 
of common objects. He also issued em- 
bossed diagrams for Euclid, music, and 
maps, both geographical and astronomical. 
He was made a fellow of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society in 1852, a fellow of the Society 
of Arts in 1859, and in 1871 the university 
of Philadelphia created him LL.D. He 
warmly advocated home teaching societies 
for the blind, which by his efforts were 
founded in many places ; and lending libra- 
ries of Moon's books exist in eighty towns of 
the United Kingdom, in Paris, Turin, and 
various cities of the United States and 
the British colonies. In furtherance of these 
objects he often travelled through Scotland, 
Ireland, and the continent ; in 1882 he visited 
the United States. He received great help, 
especially in the matter of lending libraries, 
from Sir Charles Lowther, with whom he 
became intimate in 1855, and who remained 
his closest friend, dying only a few days 
after him. On 4 Sept. 1856 Sir Charles laid 
the foundation-stone of a new building at 
104 Queen's Road, near the Brighton rail- 
way station ; in these premises, since con- 
siderably enlarged, the entire production of 
the embossed books is still carried on. 

In 1885 Moon spent several months in 
Sweden. As the jubilee of his work ap- 
proached, a movement for a testimonial to 
him was originated in Scotland ; and on 
16 April 1890 he was presented with a 
chiming clock, purse of 260/., and an illu- 
minated address. His devotion to evange- 
listic work, of which the publishing was only 
a portion, brought on a slight paralytic stroke 
in the autumn of 1892, after which his ac- 
tivity was necessarily lessened. He died sud- 




denly on 10 Oct. 1894, and was buried on 
the 16th in the extramural cemetery at 
Brighton, many of his blind pupils attending 
the funeral and singing over the grave. 
Some years before his death he had made 
over the freehold site of his premises to 
trustees for the continuance of his work in 
publishing embossed books for the blind. 

Moon was twice married in 1843 to Mary 
Ann Caudle, daughter of a Brighton sur- 
geon, who died in 1864; and in 1866 to 
Anna Maria Elsdale, a granddaughter of 
William Leeves [q. v.], the composer of 
' Auld Robin Gray.' By the first marriage 
he had a son, who was of great assistance to 
him in arranging his type to foreign lan- 
guages, and is now a physician in Phila- 
delphia; and a daughter, who now super- 
intends the undertaking that Moon inaugu- 

Moon wrote : 1. ' A Memoir of Harriet 
Pollard, Blind Vocalist,' 1860. 2. Blind- 
ness, its Consequences and A